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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. persons of different tongues at the present day. when neither name for the object to be designated. when we is represent to our children of the cow. or Mollein. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. the present day. muK) and mae (rfie. or. come Moolls. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. and where we are seeking. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. is given to a cow or calf. by whom the be understood. in other words.NURSERY IMITATIONS. name of the cow. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). and in imitates the cry are used withitself. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. The syllables moo (mu. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. and. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. with an initial m or I. mind of the of the animal. but nothing she herself knows the animals. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. and mully or mully cow is the . the closer we shall approach to the . to the syllables which are significant to the child. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. the baaing of the sheep. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. in language of the present day. Molli. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow.

by the natural humming sound. . here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. for everything fit to eat. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. he called to to drink. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. A member of my own new sfop. became more perfect. On one occasion he said^e nim. repulsive to eat. &c. his nurse adopting the word with him. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. Finally an n was placed before it. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. hm. for things. had nim. as well as the mind of the utterer. schipp. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. to eat..' he says. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. family. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. fiafifi&v (Hesych. and nim came to signify everything edible. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. in children's language. then. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. p. 72). nim. for bad. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. I had watched the growth of this word. to work over with the mouth. . He would now say good. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. nineteen years old. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. We have. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. analogous to Magyar mammogni. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. mumm. when hungry. and which we might express thus. to For instance. First. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason.).' In ordinary speech mump. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. Gradually. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. Heinicke. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. and some were very clear and distinct. partly from sounds which the child caught. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. Gr.

(in chil- dren's language). ' Motherwell. make djamdjam). snatched (Whitby Gl. i8o. Gothic niman. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. to be pleamind . And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). mujnpa. to eat. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. nvrnma. namnam. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln.minis. and the fizzing (and Series. delicacies.' And Diomedes. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. we can call them so. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. to move the lips in continued chewing. Nimm'd up. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. ' id est. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. nobis vix permittitur. to chew laboriously. at hiamske i sig. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes.' says the author of Modern Slang. to take. as to .). South Jutland hiamsk. to eat mampfen. Primitive Culture. palatable. crab nam buckra man. eating. jumla. the Scotch poet. stolen. memmexen. to fill the mouth.ONOMATOPCEIA. A negro proOr. to mump. food (Tylor. nam. mumble. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . nyam nyam.' — Lersch. 130-1. aves tinnire. jamsa (yamsa). The Chinese child uses nam for eat. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. oves lalare. 1 86). on. dial. and thence to be tasteful. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Africa) nimnim. Swedish dialect gamsa. to smack in eat. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. lita. Soosoo (W. as well as the Sw. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. ut tinnitus aeris. j ing . to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. to Sw. and the crab — p. Wolof nahenahe. tidbits nama . voracious. mumpfeln. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. p. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). or word-making. aptantes adfectibus vocem. and some of them . Vei (W. yamming. . to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). clangorqae tubarum. Africa) nimi. agreeing with Ein. mumpfen. buckra man's language the white man. i. to taste . savory. sweet (Koelle). taken up hastily on the sly. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. Galla djam djeda.' says Quintilian. greedy . iii. jammla. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa.

dove and cooing. We . While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. bumping of bitterns. cooing or crooing of doves. ^6^. anything connected with it. or thoughts of our hearer. 'I doubt. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. yelping. gobbling of a turkey-cock. grunting or squealing of hogs. cackling or gaggling of geese. or. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . whether it deserves the name of language.' he says. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. baaing or maeing of lambs. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. barking.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. Indeed. between dog and harking. 89) with less hesitation. for the purpose of bringing the animal. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. snarling of dogs. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. bleating of sheep. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. sparrow and chirping. bellowing of bulls. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. snarling. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. croaking of frogs or ravens. und growling. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. do not speak of a bowwow. p.' — We speak of a cow. yelping. howling. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. when circumstances required. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. chirping of sparrows or crickets. purring or mewing of cats. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. that there is When Man. might be used as the designation of it. Yet we ing. but of a dog. might be used. chattering of pies or monkeys. twittering of swallows. before the in other words. lowing of oxen.' And elsevs^here (p. intended in the instance to represent the cry. hooting of owls. a lamb. neighing or whinnying of horses. not of a moo of Lect. not of a baa.

). 'Kdka. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. Manchu The kaha. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. it announces (Salaberry). a daw. kae. He to is therefore derives kdka. and the sound of that direction. kdka. a bird that is be driven away. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. ghak. In Basque. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. whose sound (Pictet. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Georgian quaki. Origines Indo-Europeennes). according to Durga). and Bavaria respectively. caller. having a general predicative power. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. a a crier (p. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. a crow (Pictet). Picard cau. e. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo.. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. fi-om apakd- i. and gaggele or gagkelein. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. Malay gdgak. 4th ed. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. Arabic kdk. crow. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. caw kuhii-rava (rava. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. We imitate the sound with a modulated. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Hungary. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. sound). in is Gr. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. is kuM) for the cuckoo. crow. Kdrava. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. and means a shouter. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. ist ed. layitavya .' kd).IMITATIVE NAMES. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among.' common sense. 380. kauwe. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. Bav. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. lion. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. kuho. Barabra koka. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. KOKKvi.). coccolare. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. or quawk. Columbia kahkah. a crow. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). In Lat. Sometimes the hoarse i . to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. in g. 349. birds. Sauscr. Aoo-Aoo. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. gackem. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages.

names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. to howl or Lat. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. kruk. Scotch peeweip. 6. Pers. "Welsh hwan from hwa. Lettish kiekuts. Magy. the name for a crow. to hoot. teewhoop. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. krauklys. to crow. Yoruba koklo. a crow . as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller.Gr. uhu. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. libufs. kraeye. Mod. French dishuit. by the verbs gurren or girren. krahe. Dutch kievit. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. reduplicate form. hibou. kukhuta. to cry loudly. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . kuku. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. korren. while crouk. lUyrian kukurekati. gufo. Zulu kuku. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. Malay kukuk. and sometimes both together. tur.. Heb. and e. Fr. tbrtora. The consonants p. name of its is the bird.. German luhu. Walachian coucouveike. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we .' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. or Gr.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. either in the same or in related dialects. kurre. in the North of England. tor. koeren. to croak. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. wood-pigeon. yell. are represented. turtle) as the Lat. Da. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. the name of an animal will gen- . Arabic tdtwit. p. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. coucouva. tortbla. Swedish kowipa. kraeyen. Hindi. Esthonian kikkas. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. great variety of oKokv^uv. name. So we have Polish krukac. gugu. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. kukko. and e. lulo. to crow. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. 219. to croak. a crow. It. Ibo akoka. kraukti. Du. tuquheit. lilits. k. Sp. German kielitz. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. cock. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. a crow lish Lith. coqueri- Languedoc. Albacuculi a dove. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. xi.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. kirren. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. tbrtola. Du. ghughu. giving turtur (and thence It. another. girre. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. synonymous forms of similar structure). The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. coccovaec. German and Eng- krahen. as well as of Sanscr. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. The crowing of cot in Fr. t.

little intermission. skirl. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . oE. We may cite Gr. which they make in their flight very . ' Sanscr. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. i. cricket is from crick. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. North of England. Gaelic dranndan. there are infinite varieties.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. glass cracking (Schmeller). pip-pi-ta.' — i. 337. to creak Bret. The Arabic sarsor.or bumble-bee. grillen. and not from E. the drone or non-working bee . We may compare the Parmesan tananai. booming. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. common. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. Fin. loud rumour. gives rise to chwymores. Northern Farmer. and probably indicates that g. Danish gnaddre. German hummel. droning is . shrill. Albanian tsentsir. a drone. horniss and from the buzzing The. schwirren. to chirp . words imitative of humming . a small as hawk is . a beetle druna. Lithuanian tranas. Lith. the humble. Sc. to hum.IMITATIVE NAMES. skryle. a fly (Tylor) . The Welsh chwyrnu. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. succeeding each other — with noise. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. to shrill sound sharp. knetta. g. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). e. with or Fr. ta-na-nd. skril with n. schrecke. 'The natives call it tanand. swirplys with 6. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. a hornet.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. ' — Pictet . zirken. Speaking of a cricket he says. German dronen. sirkka. (Jieuschrecke) . of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. — Catafogo. sound. ajo. growling. resounding of musical instruments. In the N. Danish dron. whirr). representing a short sharp sound. dhran. Naturalist on the tocano. Lat. of England it is to the b 2 . as . hollow noise. to be compared with Sanscr. and he kong-ko-rong. grille. g. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. chirk. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. buzzing. Corean sirsor. Sanscr. kong-kong. or a gnat fly. Arabic tantanat. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. thunder. to grumble. to sound. from schrick. in allusion to its music. flight its sting considered as a horn. Australian bumberoo. The drone peal. resound. from the humming. schirke. give a faint sound. to rustle. g. German drohne. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano.' —Tennyson.' Amazons.vf3. buzzing. to chirp J may be compared with . The name of the cricket indeed. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. bambhara. bamba. schrickel. and yelping cry. din. PofijivXwg. a sharp sound as of a 6. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. humming. grylhis. bee. a bee.

and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. loge. a buffalo. to make. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. to or bark. and from to ring. a Geiger. or with on. the Fr. whence baula. to boohoo. shoot . verb is evidently identical with our shout. a drum . or moo. bucula. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. make to it laugh. Gael. representing the mew of a cat. mugire. to shout. bauli. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. From baa. Da. biibnas. as the Illyr. a bull. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. bubenti. the animal. With these analogies. to weep. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. from the imitative moo instead of boo. bo. 167. w. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). to beat hard. Manx booa. Lat. bwla. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. bullock. and in Hottentot baa was the . to make a noise. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. in a imitation of a ringing sound. Cult. bu. or a z to the imitative syllable. Zulu lulula. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. — ^Tylor. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. bubati. Thus from miau. k or g. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. be-l-er. buculus. lulauti (to hoo-loo). has bilbilgoda. a bullock. as that of the cow by boo. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. bugler. btibleti. It. grumble as distant thunder . cattle. bull. or bau-l-i. miau-l-er. are (with a subsidiary k). bovis. to low. bullus and e. bae. and thence Lat. muJiati. ox. to from bau. bolt.XX called booing. a heifer. that the imitative syllable are Lith. to low or bellow. bugle. Lat. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. Galla boa. to bump as a bittern Illyr. say. w. to ba-L-are. boo. a cow. to . The Galla lilbil. Fr. to the uses goda. bos. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. agreeing exactly with Lith. fivKaofiai. p. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. or formed Lat. to low . representmake bow. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. bae. Lat. to bow- own bawl. OFr. to shout. mugler. verbal form given to the say. The Piedm. mae. mamoo-heeheek. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. Piedmontese fi bau. Fr. Hottentot bou (Dapper). and djeda. is inadmissible. in same way. Norse bu. forms a. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. make poo. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. (iove. His analysis leads cow. to mew. bukati. From the same lioao). the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. baula. amuse. bue. maukati. to bellow like a bull. to make. to sound. On the same principle. Illyr. to make a loud deep sound.

knurfisk. Illyr. a grunt. Gr. it and e. to bleat . If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. grunlike a pig in eating. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. lekavica. grugno. Moreover. goats. to howl. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. meil. menAda (ndda. Fr. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. karra. meckern. signifying a snarling. the snout of a pig. in Wolof bae. . Gael. mutter. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. . and Circassian maylley. ' In driving. Among dog. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. smack and naski. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. hadg- Magy. as the proper name of a tame sheep. Africa laa. or in any ! way ! persuading. name of a sheep. and hoc'h. this obstinate race. a pig Fin. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. hundi). sheep or goat. grunny. in v. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. and grumphie. grumbhng. may be identical with Esthon. a (Hesych. to rumble. hound. Idgge (Rietz). leknuti. leg-et-ni. groin. a goat firixal^ta. with the root ypaipm. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. It. cry). naskia. Illyr. to bleat. It is probable also that e. sus-sus. lambs. to grunt. mekegni. Illyr. growl. curmurring. hwch. to growl. undoubtedly imitative. the designations of a dog the term cur. a pig. kurren. lecco. does not produce a e. to bleat. a hog. although the imitation embodied in Lat. and thence groin. From the imitative mae. oe. meugler. Manx meilee. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. meketati. a dog. — . corresponding to ohg. purr).have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae.' Moor's Suffolk words. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. a goat. for the voice of the ox). With gen. meigeal. a sheep (Lowe). guttural tone.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. houch. ^. from knurre. Hence Breton hoc ha. / The same Gr. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. to themselves. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. hund. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. name of the animal itself. rumbling. a sow. a goat. and snorke. name. a wolf. grumble. nire. and of (maelon). lek-eg-ni. by which the shingle gives rise to It. he would hardly. we have Sanscr. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. from hundama. grunt. hunon. to grunt. /xj/caScj. And it is true there between hog and grunt. Welsh and Breton). Gr. a sheep or ewe. (iriKov of forms like Sw. grogner. may with to snarl. Da. as lou of an ox. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. sound. mecati. a sow. Gr. a sheep or a goat. Fr. grumpf. hunt (gen. Kurren und murren. a sheep.). /xijeao/iat. 6. G. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). The g. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. . grumble. cite as by grunt. a. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. and with the subsidiary k or g. Magy. kurre.

. hiine. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. humma. hottihuh. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. like artificial flowers. ^6<. Sc. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. houpy in Craven. cockade.root.' — ist Series.' ticular bird. p. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. e. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names.. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. coquelicot. hoppe. If onomatopoeias can . . p. when he found peculiarity. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. But words of this kind are. to go backwards. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. from the cry animal. So Sanscr. of the character in question.). to the left. turn a horse to the is In Finland. hobby. the cry to stop or back a horse. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. g. M). as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. coquette. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. to whine. without a — we root. hobben. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). a horse. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. There are of course some names. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho.. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. animal. Thus we are led to the Fr. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. as in Yorkshire highly right. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. hobin. (Craven Gloss. a little am- bling horse. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. such as cuckoo. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. Esthonian hoibo. 91. a mare. and it is behind that wall that language really begins.).' 2nd Series. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named.

fehtati. form corresponding hresh. redpole. horse. as sigh. xxiii ginal object. lapwing. hresh. groan. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. runniken. giggle. . When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. wagtail. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. diver. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. Pl. Lettish sweegt. than to the sounds represented. to Sanscr. Du. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. to neigh. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. Sw. e. frenschen. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. Irieschen. hross. titter. creeper. signified It. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. nounced with a guttural). against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. Sanscr. goatsucker. command of language was attained. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. g. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. ginniken. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. hukkup. wiehern. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. whitename in in- throat. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. little speak for themselves. nitrire. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. hikkd. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. cough.D. sol. animals or certain kinds of sound. wrenska. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. Fr. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. Sp. hresh. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. rinchar. but whether there kind between them and other words. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. swift. woodpecker. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. wrena. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . ance or habits of the animal. Bohem. moan. hennir. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so.

pump. banke. Australian bungbung ween. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. tisio (tisho). Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. bang. a more expressive than the e. heart tick-tack. to ham. 1865. knack. atchian. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. lumm. for blows with a rod. on the chops is represented also by pratx. in a nail Let. oren : Klapp. or the w. went the cannon. ting-ting.' it both sides went. plitsch-platsch. ping came the bullets about their ears. snore.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. for the sound of a blow.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. for a small one. . pit-a-pat. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. Zulu bongo. Mei gbengben. snort. mer. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. —Brem. hoo. the dashing of the sea . White Lies. ding. atchini.' So imac. clap ! A smack Puff. snukkup). to drive on. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . are familiar in ' to every one. bangas. to throw violently down. banga. Vei gbangba. the God of thunder . scream. to beat. a kind of drum. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . to knock.' 'Haw. or tliat is accomit. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described.' ! ! ! ! — dong. Wtb. haitshu. root kshu. for the for the sound of . for the sound of a fall. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. klatsch. beat. to hammer . beat of a clock child . To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. for that of breaking. DingBang. for in such sound of blows. a large bell. haw. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. aritischane. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. to sneeze. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. heaven). &c. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. It is represented in e. dong Read. hang. bang ' ! trenches. debhes-lungotais (deifies. wheeze. Da. for the sound of milking. for the creaking of a wheel. thunder (Tylor) . &c. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . knarr.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. Of a like forma- drum . haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. — Sanders. an attempt would be made to by the voice. tlirob. hoo ping ping. shriek. strippstrapp-stroll. fitsche-falsche.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow.

Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. scream. is pfeife. used as a call to . had been used laugh ? two. and so forth. peep. He Yet asks. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. has been un- employed to designate fixity. of a word will appear supposed to represent. to designate cavity and hollow. far pipi. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. is of expression. pipio. —Lyndsay. Mantuan pipiare. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. which he added to intensify the expression. pule. bleat. e. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. cry of young birds . we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. as in other subjects of study. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. Gr. and their relations. the voice of chickens (Cot. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. piou. pippione. piou. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. to cry like imrli^u). pigiolare. or the uneducated different consonants are man. a fowler's bird call is lost. . The pi. Magyar pip. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. calls S.) a chick. De Brosses. Lat. young bird. It seems to him that the teeth t. Fr. to squeak.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. young child . mobility excavation and hollow ^. or a piailler. pipe. piauler. Florio. to cheep like a bird or a young It. pigione. as the simplest implement for proFr. doubtless. G. pipio. cry. and whimper.' instead. to cry pi. a whelp. a fife or musical pipe. Lat. chickens (Tylor). and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. — . part of the What consciousness has the child. peep. pipegni. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. child. pu. ducing the sound. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. a (young) pigeon. pipe. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. as k. pipare. not- . pi. to peep It. pipilo. pigolare. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. a chicken or gosling. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. laugh. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. piccione. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. In cases such as these. a or cheep.sc. pipelni.

{to It. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. borrelen. some small vowel or consonantal sound. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. rumble. when it force than biscuit.Gr.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. a closed or obscure sound. a drum W. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. make wood a clinking noise. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. vaake gorgor) . Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. tontonare. murren. karkarana. along with tinnio. to pant violently (Colenso). gurren. creak. coo. as the click of a latch or a trigger. preserved by Kilian. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). Hindoo tomtom. to grumble). Zulu raraza. kniks. a prolonged sharp sound. to hawhaw or laugh loud. to clack. to growl. to rattle. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. to crackle like in boiling . or kaka-faka. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to gurgle. and lugh. cluck. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. or springing back. crack. tonare.. lachen. rumble. the clucking of a j hen . to cluck. to jar. Pefuxela. turtur. to thunder. as representing the sound made when something breaks.) Mod. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. along with Du. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. loud laughter. thunder oil . Indian chack-chack. is very common. Poppopvi^to. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. . to pant bejii- zela. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. cricli. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. to gargle . It. a. bubble.. to gorgogHare rattle. to grate the teeth . a sharp short one. to cry pi. sound). Manchu kaka-kiki. kniks. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. like the noise of a glass breaking . ioriogliare (to make borbor). garren. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. knaks. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). murmur (by . kirkirdnd. kuruk. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. chack. the side of g. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. Pacific aka-aka. &c. of something fine and thin. to be compared with Sc. laqfF. be cate to go on laughing loud . grumble. knuks. to creak knirren. a short sharp sound. i. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. in German. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . knurren. to fizz like fat in frying. to grumble. girren. to bubble. lachachen. sound of dry breaking. crash. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. rumble (Fl. of a loud strong sound. . tintino. u. Hindustani karak is rendered. to laugh. where the variation. pi . to ring pipio.

and the same may be said of Zulu kala. correspond to e. the sound of a stringed instrument. make djamdjam).' Member for Paris. for a tTviror). ding-dong. 1871. kl'mg-kling. wail. to knock. Manchu kaka. a nightingale. tup. to be compared with g. croaking of frogs. bulbiil. 368). a smith. for the ringing of illustrate bells.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. compared with Gr. fumtu. for chut-chiit-er. tumult. shout. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. Fr. coughing or clearing the throat. jingle. to the purling of a brook. or the bubbling up of to a spring. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. are applied to the is excrements of children. to say chut. clango. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. thump. clink. Tiie Galla gigiteka. and Gr. and bilhila. tumwata. bubble up. the tingling Ming-Hang. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. quarren.and e. Newman). indicating the origin of Gr. call. E. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. the gingling of glasses. disturbance (F. simmer. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. especially one who beats. e. as Fr. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . is based on the same imitation as the e. chut. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. Galla tuma. chuchoter. uproar. KaKog. a workman. 192). box on the ear imitation of the . while cacd / used in e. cry. Turk. and the imitative nature of tivgle. csam-csogni. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. brings us to Fr. for the clinking Lat. as of Tamil muromurmur. clank. sound). same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. chinking of coin. bad. kiling-kalang. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. tubh. jangle. at an accelerated note. Maori pata. rain (Tylor. clash of arms. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. spring of water in the a bell. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. is Manchu tang-tang. and Gr. to beat. awater* ' The Mme P. a nightingale. of keys or tinkling of bells. a drum . witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. noise. agrees with g. Sanscr. Magyar csamm-ogni. . Scotch sough or sooch. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. . caca and Finnish adkkd. sound. to whisper. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . Calt.* the heart. rifiirayov. halaidlac'h. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. word. or of bells ringing. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. for the sound of privy whispering. corresponding in e. to giggle. Prim. klirren. The syllables lil-bil. muro and e. identical with g. to strike. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. borrelen. to ring or jingle. champ. and her heart went thump. djeda (to say tub). bent her head. rvir (in tvittio. drops of i. koXiw. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. hala-hald-faMa (falda. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). and e. a boy's whistle. or to Du. The whispering of the wind I.

dash. patter. by rubadub. 'pat. and soufflet. souse. splash. report of a gun. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. tomber. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. flop. tingle. clash. tymmesll. tap. according to the strictest phonetic rules. snap. flap. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. mutter. rataplan or rantanplan. squall. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. douse. it is fallj AS. Fr. to fall. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. gargle. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. But although and also found in Lat. squeal. rumble. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. at a door tarapatan. the Germans puff.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. in e. So in Fr. answering to g. jingle. plump. murmur. hum. smash. thump. swash. rattle. boom. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . thump. tumbian (to beat the ground). clang. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. a applied as well to the force of the bang. crunch. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. ring. lash. to is blow. thwack.' — Nohden. w. tum-ultus. smack. and Grimm. tinkle. without the intervention of orthodox roots. sputter. whirr. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. chatter. hiss. parapatapan. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. thump. bubble. puff. pop. dabble. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. and Fr. paddle. chink. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. Humboldt. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. bang. craunch. clack. or v^hether jectional. and the French pouf. to dance. The use of g. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. blow. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. disturbance. clink. fizz. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. brumberum. guggle. clap. while e. clank. splutter. for (Sanders). blubber. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. rap.. twang. whack. din. we have buffet or cuff. creak. It. gurgle. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. Nevertheless. squeak. ' Der puff. The beating of drum is represented in e. whine. crash. slash. clatter. crack. whizz.

—2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. wringing the hands. every little pain. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. knows them. little who has time to want of her nurseling. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. 94. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. Grimm or Bopp. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. xxix on the contrary. or of any if wood. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. is Thus ah!. If. because they are spontaneous.' . ugh . In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. are made known by an instinctive cry. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. the kind of action that is desired of them. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry.' If chaos. or stubble is meaner name. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. Crying. the inteij. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . that he has taken the step in rational speech. stractions. and uttering plaintive sounds. or any unsatisfied want. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. At the first beginning of life. an imitation of a sigh .'. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . in the rushing waters. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. and thus they become signs of despair. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. grief. and found in the building of be burnt up. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. the interj. hay. in the case of the animal or of the infant. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. p. formerly cited. without a thought of symbolising to them. by the nature of the cry. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. of horror. but if we must not complain on the beach. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct.

The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. One short interjec- tion may fact. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. p. as who them spontaneous utterances. them to exercise it. and the eye. which are frequently so toned down cance. 344. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. be more powerful. 32. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. they are involuntary interjections. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots].. He says. coughing. shrieking. groaning. may become traditional. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. more eloquent than a long speech.' p. of all the mouth. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. Language begins where interjections end. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh.' — ist Series. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. interjections. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. ^6g And to the same effect 371. p. should be remem- . ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. or which is of me as suffering pain. more to the point.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. sneezing. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. If I wish to make a person of an . and some of them the composition of words. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. to solve the I shall call first. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. the lowing of a cow. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. he cites from Home Tooke. And again. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections.

kahkahah. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. he says. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. in Magy. then speech begins. bered. demolishing here. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. Lat. some kind of language might have been formed. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. Kayxa^u). but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. hohottaa. and thus. Koxafw. and others from interjections. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. it them. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. interjections. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. and more or less limited . in Fin. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. when I arp humming and hawing. cachinno. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. I am not hearer. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Gr. hahota. Tooke in truth. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. for example. loud laughter. but the less am at a loss what to say. hahottaa. speaking. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly.

. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. of the world. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and not. words receiving the meanings they now bear. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. And so in the case of language. a deaf-mute himself. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. makes them stand and walk upon the table. But here nature soon conies to his help. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. a Picture-language. and go where we now say stand.' he says. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. the critical question should be. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. of the nature of this great movement. if taken as a whole. What strikes him . have understand them studying as claim to consideration. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. Though. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. It as has ing their most striking features. The following account is given by Kruse. dumb is the language of signs.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. like peewit and cuckoo. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident.

The of sign for left hand. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and with his thought. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. that signifies great .' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . what more. for walk. and to taste. and forms further and further. for single objects. many when or but these. for the agent. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. it means little. becomes roast meat. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. most striking outline of an object. he. can do better and more easily abstract terms. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. and gestures. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and fully serves to j . signs are taught for yet. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. and we have roast goose. and And thus he makes himself a language. walked. walker. or To pull and flap with the arms. letter To hold the two fingers apart. that. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. among themselves. such objects. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. for child. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. but if I depress it instead. and it is flesh or meat. push it towards the person addressed for thou. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. called Gesture-language. that air. such as than the educated man. And is. as it now opens out. thought is already broken. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. or the verb to be. to name. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. the sorecalling them to his memory. like a V.GESTURE most. The same sign stands and the act itself. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. walkest. particular sense in properly so called.' In the Institutions. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. nay. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. thou. he. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. it seems. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. his action. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. the whole secret. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind.

When a verb. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. whether by additions or otherwise. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. and the as. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound.xxxiv asking. or action. qualifies the against the wall. might be the knife. in other instances sentence. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. the garden. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound.' dener's knife. substantive or adjective. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. in fact. He gave door a bang. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. or a passive scene of existence. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. and so is an adverb. and thus performs the part of an adjective. or an act. or something of the kind. a number of alternatives are suggested. . to indicate the action of a certain person. as But when it is meant door. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. You beaten . He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. depend entirely upon the use. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. according to the circumstances of the case. would be simply beginning of speech. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. when I say. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. as in die it is a noun. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. Do not bang the it is a verb. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. I say. a colour red. it called an interjection. or a quality. the ture of white term pink is and red. When I say. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. putting it into his pocket. as when Bang ! went the gun. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. The same word . VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. Who is has beaten you ? would be. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language.

&c. the man is great. middle. that is. that admits itself in of audible representation. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. Jii ta. 255. and to be great. in the sense of great. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. as cung. commencement of speech. and may be used language. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. as kuo cung. a noun. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. coalesces with the personal pronouns. or nei. or some relation between it and another object. wherehy.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. or with elements expressing relations of time. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. a groan. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. wherewith. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. wherefore. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . wonder. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. whereto. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. but often self-evident. grie^ horror. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. . or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. in the is indicated by the syllable y. with a stick. some outward display of the affection. inside. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. inquiry. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain.^ — Miiller I. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. contempt.. Latin. greatness. pain. Thus tafu signifies a great man. whereof. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. which is an old y ting (use stick). a sigh of oppression and . verb nor noun has yet been developed.

ace. representing Illyr. is Ay di me I Gr. hei. weh. n. representing a cry of pain. . is w. j. vei-a. wd. mew. miau-n-is. ohi. A widespread It. ui. to injure. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. . oimare. wai. the pangs of childbirth. headache. Lat. to cry at. to do woe. wai. w. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. gwae. gwe-l-a. on. grief] affliction. wai-l. to wail. It. It. dchzen. die wehen. howl. misfortune. Gael. ach. vce. ach. axofiai. Fr. as. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. guaj- or cry out pitifully. ochan. to sound yapyap. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to ache. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. at the close of the radical syllable. g. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. form. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. to weep. Illyr. In this way from the root guai. Such are g. miau-l-er. och. och. w. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. ache. ach. probably a deeper groan. lau-l-e. Gr. ochan. ai. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. weh schreien. jao. seen in Gr. The form corresponding to Lat. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. oi. gwae. wehen (Schmeller). to bewail oneself.'). wehthun. in Gr. to . however. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. to make). ah. Gr. mostly a ! %. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). aiai^to. 6. found in g. weinen. achen. and cacak djeda (to say crack. oh. to wail or cry alas . pain. . e.-l-are. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. g. or r. wAwa. &. lament. oh. to groan. oval. grief. pain. Illyrian vaj. to cause pain. are ol-ire. to rriourn. tirr-djeda. to cry n. e. ocAJ. miau-l-is. a groan or lamentation vir. guai. ohg. lament from oimi. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. 6. e. I oi[iot. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . to ache. ochain. Jar lau-lau. och. to gargle. to lament. has more kopfweh. Bret. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. w^wa. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. grief. to weep. ! ! Goth. al. to make bow-wow. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. cece. misery. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj.. waiidt. djamdjam goda (goda. Lat. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. vce. pain. as. on. vaj. o'i. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. Gr. suffering. to chirp. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. ing action I. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. Let. to hurt Let. jaoh. to yell formed e. It. It. first person. ahi. guajo. guaj-ire. woe. . xxxvi grief. woe. Thus from springs otjucifw. and to bark . . la. to lament.ez. ah.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

or wants to name something. when he wants something.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. give. In the expression Da. indeed. to here . that. and may be rendered.' person. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. Thank you. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. der da-ige. I add) . when 1859. implying the direction of its good will towards them. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. and by a variety of expressions besides. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. When we pointing. says da-da-da. But. ToSe (or in Attic E. or that it is. is-te). nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. well as Goth. the nursery da-da. or carry me thither. we may translate this by there (it is).* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong.' all is is — their consent. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. Dr Lottner observes. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. that gratifies me. his trowsers' pocket. that is it. a word of many applications in g. according to Menage. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. as it Dieser da (as Lat. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. child. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. give me that cheese. and so on. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. is we I believe. or give me it. • The child. a specified were by pointing him out. . for instance. Please. Bav. more emphatically roSj)j that. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. da. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. as. but the truth is.' then points to his wife. The Fr. saying : there the ad- Trans. as to express. nurseries. Sie. thata (ta-ta). the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. Diet. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. ' sees an object. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. Phil. da. this here. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). 'nay. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. Sanders (Germ. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. case.' this.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze.

meanings. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. sinking. or metaphor.' • liv ANALOGY. sounds. then instinctively interest. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. p. strike. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. childish toying. stutter. Thus Gr. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. to walk. in every mode of expressing the idea. standing. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add.' says Lottner interior. make dadada). and shapes it into an . the original is that which he places first. speech. to beat. its desire. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai.^ its ' utters : a cry. moving. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. to knock. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. to move step by step. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. of which any one may. to say to oneself. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. reality. pay. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. or dalliance. — Cot. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. to chatter. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. thinking. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. tattle. to tion to another. takes it — as When the soul.' says Muller. beat. which thus exertion. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. . The da is dodem. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. dadee. tasting. and one in particular must. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da.

— 1. Bavarian bracht. and. as. to shriek with laughter . to quiver. snuff the sniiten. in the domain of movement. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. sense of brightness. a brilliant light kilid. to resound. Heo Du. to shine. to ring as a glass willata. kiimottaa. to glitter. on. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. bilbil). —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. a with kimmaltaa. schmecken. search . wilahtaa. a ringing . to crackle gnistre. which in ohg. spraka. to be wise. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. Lith. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. scheteren. splendour. brilliancy. Again. tintelen. as kilind. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. think. may be it explained . to flash. taste. In the case of sparkle. to tinkle. to smack or taste. and schmecker. to glisten Dan. unlella. prudent. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. is used in the origin. snotor. savour. splendour.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. chime). outcry. ghsten. to crackle. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. . make a loud noise. snudra. to shine. &c. signified a clear sound. smell. to sniff out. man of nice taste. judicious. schiteren. for example. then to sparkle. the equivalent of g. beam. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. wilistd. wamara. to sparkle. . So firom Lat. It is The word bright had a similar In as. clang. to glitter e. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. 1654. tumult. sprageti. discreet. to glitter. knittre. to snilF. in popular language. rattle. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. extended to the exercise of the understanding. Fr. and figuratively. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. Finnish. gnittre. wise. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. In the same way the Goth. air. to sound clear In Galla. bright. to 5 ghtter. magnificence. scTiateren. a dis- cernment. suspect Bav. we have and the and beorht. to ring. and thence e. from the . to have Sapiens. bilbilgoda (to make . is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. while sapere itself. same imitative root with Sw. The 6. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to glitter. kimistd. fiapfiaipw. to sniff. knistre. beorhtian. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. a rustling sound Gr. snutrs. noise. iclat (in Old Fr. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . (parallel bilbila. may be quoted gUt. tinkling. firom the Gael. pracht. also wise. Du. to . smell. snot. esclat). sound. sapere (which signifies the nose. properly a clap or explosion.

rough to the ear. extremely loose.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. rough. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. rend. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. within. then in rpd/xoe. whirl. kvTOQ. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. the cross. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. wool. to slide. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. Kpovtiv. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. fitting the letters to the sense. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. 6\tadaveii'. gluey. v. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. Much of the same has been often quoted. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. as soft by the ear. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. . pleasure soft to the ear . from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. or . he says. accordance with the way in which by touch. the clank (stridorem) of chains. And observing that n kept the voice within. is felt Lana. discusses the tone of a picture. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. of dressing loud. power of the letter-sounds. \nrap6e. soft. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. rough. sharp. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. The BpavEiv. shatter. strike. inside. tremour. rough both ways. 1. which The Stoics. in truth. break. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. we hear of screaming colours. the bleating of sheep. the neighing of horses. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. Acre. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. briars. mel. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. KoWiiSije. oily. Kep^arl'ieiv. flow and flux. and vepres. &c. in of his works. pvfi^Civ. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. smooth. he framed the words ivSov. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. ipuKuv. crux. roughness. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch.' he says. eo ut res vol. Tpa)(yg. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. itself letters are felt as sofl.

while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. dig. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. 138). smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. jig. jih. for exis ample. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . the case of the voice. stag (in stagger. d. dag. ii. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. k. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. shog. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. as when. g. rug. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. or checks as they are called by Muller. joli. jag. corresponding to the ineor.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. a rough and sudden . in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. shag. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. and in the utterance of a high or or low. to jogj sac-cade. Fr. tug. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. t. 'and consequently form. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. stab. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. p. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. to signify varieties of movement. p. cular effort Again. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. to reel abruptly from side to side). sag-oter. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. jog. degree of roughness sound. A greater felt.

an old worthless horse or carriage. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. to winkj micati is Lat. to utter a slight kick. is so frequent a consequence of movement. to ring a bell. then. it produces Dutch micken. to mutter. Welsh cicio. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. a . sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. a quid of tobacco. mie. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. movement. a small bodily object. to beat or play on a musical instrument. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. tecche-tocche. schuckeln. that we never can be sure. to strike It. toch-toch. however. The analogy then carried a step further. then. Then. kik. lead to Spanish tocar. chiquet. as tot. kuk. so to Italian toccare. and It. mik. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . &c. Sukkeln. motion. a jog. tock. or check. The syllable suk is jerk. and e. to incite by light touches. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to mark it with a touch of the pen . to take a thing on tick. to say a word . marked by the change of vowel from i to a. to have it ticked or marked on the score . To tick a thing off. a crum. used interjectionally to represent a . Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. zigzag. an infant . much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. in cases like the foregoing. tech-tech. The train of . to stir. a piece or bit of anything. Accordingly the g. a cracker. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. Illyrian migati. Fr. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. The Mipen or pencil. a little bit. chicoter. properly a small lump'of . It. to glitter. as Italian tocco. Bolognese tocc. not to utter a syllable. e. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. sound Fr. cica. Dutch kicken. rough horse. The production of sound. chique. micare. to move rapidly to and fro. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. to On the same principle j we have g. chic. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. sound barely audible. zack. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. mot. also to stir. mica. tack. passing to the signification of motion. a stroke with a French toucher. S-panish miga. Mucken.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. is made to signify movement. Brescian toch. (mitsati). a good piece of road . with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. is lanese toch. to touch. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. a playiug-marble. foot. to tickle. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. for the sound of knocking at a door. figuratively. Hence Lat. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. like English tick. Thus we have B. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. and analogous movements. Ene olde suksuk. schockeln. to pulses being knock..Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. Fr. g.

a morsel girl . a small lump or pat. Fr. tottle. mutter j dust. the vowel sound. jot. i. a certain conception. a girl. a bit. a small quantity. small titlark. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. (Halliwell) Da. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. fait. n. bunch or flock of wool. ticktack. a whisper.n. Pm. to movement of the pen . Malagasy to. gno. . we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. gnu. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. we have e. chico. and a small lump of something. eo. to jog. a sparrow). or the converse. the least visible insect. small of kind. and mite. you. But the same is language has re Javan. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. that. clay . . to whisper (Pr. The following table from Tylor (Prim. . taut. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. titmouse (Du. In a similar the relations of place. a lad citta.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. ri that. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. mossche. I. there. seesaw. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . e. So. further off. not because the pendulum makes a different left. ika. there (further of!) ao. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. mut. corresponding to the personal pronouns.- a jot or little It. syllable mot. at where the order is inverted. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. tot. here (close hand). . mutter. to e. a bit. anything small flax. and out there. for the beating of a clock. 0. a small kind of lark. tozzo. or o toi. zitio. tot. a tot . motta. Halliwell. little. not an atom . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. This kind. Then. . to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. to dot. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. for the three personal pronouns. zitella. to touch. To jot. tiny. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. a little titty. of movement in totter. there '(at a short distance). a e. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. . and toddle like a child titter. titter. to tremble. tittle. tit. tot. lump of earth. this . often entirely arbitrary. this. titilh. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. a small bird. iki. . not to utter a syllable. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a morsel. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. Cult. that iku. citto. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. totle. a. a light quick blow. mote. 48) cites from the African Tumale. anything . tot. gni. is shown in murmur. little j to that of a small bodily object. Du. and he. tit. 199). here. move slightly to . motte. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . . as in e. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. lix Sp. e. neither moit nor an atom. the same organ touched with the man. mot. subdued manner. to make a slight mark. to jot down or note with a fro. to touch lightly with a pen. or the like its It. fragments It.) . and dot. a small horse. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle).

that. mother. young one. ta to ka. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. olo. he. Fernandian az. here feraa. father k . Then. here this . and origin. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. mother. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. that. that (intermediate) j wana. It seems to (fen. this fi. that. ulri. there. there. this . bi. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. loo). /mya. here j ka. mas cheche. small (Pott. Abchasian aSn. 6. this <t. here . . Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. nne. you. there. that. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. probably initial of distinction that the k. this . /e«. tiiio. Mutsun ne. there. /wo.. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. this . mother. (tt). is father. that. that. ndi. Carib ne. thou ni. there. Zulu ajoa. an old woman chacha. akha. he. Ossetic am. Magyar ez. for the male. I . and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. there.. . The vowels a and o sound of the voice. that in the distance. ^. as the act of pointing was ta. femina ama. child. ukko. minution further. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. ita.. Gr. as in Italian Fin. respectively. this . owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). father. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. there. that. Mm. Tamul i. thou. to. here . km. j Canarese ivanu. me probable that • Vei also little. . Guarani nde. Lat. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. little. It Carib lala. Chilian tva. here j abe. man erne. that. Botocudo ati. Dhimas isho. that. Sahaptin (America) kina.. . w. . ni. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. ne. and a for the female. qu. thou .* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. Tarahumara ibe. as Mr Tylor remarks. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr.e^. Japan ko. uta. . child. here 5 Yoruba na. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. ojOo. is Here. ofj.) nna. usho. .) pronunciation of i or e. an old . this ole. biii. ni.araM. no constant rule is observed.

is to express simple continuance of action. murmur. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. knob. — Douglas Virgil. the pip or pippin. in old e. a step. trippelen. From cases like the foregoing. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. trippen. trap. of smaller things. &c. has tittafrem.' making the voice as small as possible. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. trappa.) . pepin. Thus we have Wolof sopa. repetition It. the simplest mode by the g. whence Fr. wenig. or chink. as j money. to tread. to leap. The Sw. din-din. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. barking of a dog. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. for instance. Top. 401. And perhaps the E. titta. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. nil. stairs.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat.' — Merrv Wives. looking through between obstacles. to peep. trSpigner. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. the nursery few j Sc. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. dance (Kil. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. the principle of reduplication. The sound trapp . by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. keeh. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. trappen. just beginning to appear. don-don. to make its way through the bursting envelope. fretful. A little wee face with little. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. wean. Clank represents the sound of something large. for a succession of light blows low-wow.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. little To sup up. for the . at pippe frem is to spring forth. analogous to winy-piny. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. i Sw. to begin to appear . a little yellow beard. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. the idea is called. to peep through. Fr. . tion. nipple. as ding-dong. and in the Pacific dialects. to teet. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. Da. A little weeny thing. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. a child. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. nab. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. or even. lift 8. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. to feet. sound of bells . little. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du.

the lungs. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. mawhitiwhiti. serves to show and in this way. the and clique. if very young. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. in familiar use with ourselves. racket. i. or el. very bad. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. ayunayunan. to vi^alk about for flax. to treat with contempt. keep spots. instead of being actually repeated. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. lololoa. tache. to to call. So from clamo. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. is language. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. to cover e. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. kamha-gamla. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. clamito. to rock. a clattering noise. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar.. very great. little child (p.Ixii REPETITION. kenda. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. or imitative syllables. to pant. are echoed by the rudimentary et. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. or rdtchi. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. clash of weapons. er. repetition or continsignify long. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. . The same principle of 196. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. could readily be conceived. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. a spot. a cradle. kendagenda. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. a grasshopper. 97). very long (Pott. to say pooh It is ! to. 99). It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. to call frequently from Fr. or a little tee--ny thing. from Maori muka. (to use a to speak. rack click. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. child . Again. to or rub. ding-ding. mawhiti. Mandingo ding. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. didi. hardness. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. Susa di. or very very great. .' expression is — ^Tylor. the comparative degrees of greatness. puka. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to talk at to walk. child . to skip. loloa. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). and Fr. cliqu-et-is. rapidity and strength. or in Fr. to love. the agent in panting . And generally. ratsi-ratsi. Thus in the Pacific loa. amusement. Cult. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. and the words express a continued sound of rack. bad . acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. &c. smallness. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. click. sopasopa. calling. Thus in E. puka- puka. Malay ayun. mpolu is uttered. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. properly speaking. rack. random . tach-et-er.

to crackle. wankel. where all direct connection with sound is lost. In cases like these. to rock. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. guggle. or Maori puka-puka. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. bub. rynel. to bark like a dog. to hand. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. by the side of wanken. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. to wail woe . and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to make a succession of grabs . or fi bau. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . as to handle. syllable clat . compared with g. and in as. g. as mAS. crack. wavering. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. to puff. the knie-en to E. it. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. bubble. a succession of cracks to rattle. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. is In e. Ihre remarks under gncella. rubber. Piedmontese bau-l-S. or omitted. to continue dragging. to make gug. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. or by association. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. others. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. are to cry mew and pew . we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. dab. which. wankeln. shuffle. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the .FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. in Fr. to move to and fro. in some applications. jogging. itself. to make a succession of shoves. smack. to make bau-bau. such asjlap. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. wancol. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. fickle. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. he who rubs. to rock or wag. to hand-le. mew and baa . way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. draggle. without the intervention of the frequentative element. Jickfacken. wagas ging. joggle. dabble. from puka. miauler andpiauler. miauler and beler correspond to E. The contrivance with any particular noise. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. kneel. or in e. waggle.Jicol. The Fr. the lungs (the puffers of the body). a from ayun.

and it is only the where the verb is written houge. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. and comparatively few easily deceived. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. by a hard body breaking. or how generally. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. known in Italian. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. or in aptness to combine with other elements. deceit. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . which is the origin of the word. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. which. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. Breton. at was more familiarly known.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. or in mode of use. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. to the separation between the broken parts. to cry ugh at. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. although it is not difficult. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. will continue to be felt in daily speech. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. on a moment's reflection. There is. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. moreover. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Polish. the breach. Dupe comes to us from the French. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). A gull or a dupe same sense. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. it is obviously a mere chance how long. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird.

We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. and the word is used in a secondary sense. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. language is . and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. is.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. founded in manifest blunder. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. however. Hitl^erto. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. nor any limited of ideas. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. life. . it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach.

compared with the duration of man. change. episcopus. guages in South America. and vescovo. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. 330. I think it very probable. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. unintelligible to other hordes. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. Welsh. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used .' — But even tendency to in civilised life. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. hearing. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. evique. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. therefore. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. and 'Russian. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. out. i. French. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. Naturalist on the Amazons. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. of material things. circle perpetrates a new slang term. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. If English. in the course of many years' isolation. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated.

but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. Cijlt. it will leave figures 3 and 4. 8. and . as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. 6. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. A key must unlock more doors than this. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. to be taken (Prim. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. ancient Greek M . i. 7. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. the actual it which would to represent. ao8). or whatever the proportion may be. which are idenr Figures 5.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. is MN. as shown in the subjoined illustration. The combination of the symbols I and 2. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. . Nor is there one of the letters. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. 9.

and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. known to us as yet. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. had its origin in imitation of sound. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. for instance. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. what comes to the same thing. and the only safe beneficent Creator. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture." the use of a change of vowel in as. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. which either by direct resemblance of sound. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. his fellows. or. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. leading him to utterances. in the shape either of direct inspiration.' should be discovered. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense.

attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . by animal without a trace name of Man. race were speaking men or not. or beavers. and rose towards a higher state of being. for instance. of using imitative conduct . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or not. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. in the course of generations. as elephants. until the progeny. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. the conduct of Ixix life. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and sooner or later. or else. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation.COMPLETION OF MAN. that he started from the lowest grade. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. or of their own reflected thoughts . and when we look back as far as history will reach. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life.

Dutch. 1766. Gr. Fr. Anglo-Saxon. Bavarian. Dief. Catalan. Baile/sEngl. Provincial dialect.Nieder. English. Bav. Finnish. Dueange. Castr. Diet. Brem. Esthonian. Sup.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS.Saehsiches Worterbueh. 1654. 1857. Cot. B. dial. 1850. Elfric's Fl. Couzinid. Romano - Cas- traise. .V. Carp. Bigl. Teutonico-Lat. AS. or Dan. Due. Diet. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Danish. Diet. Gothischen 1851. Cimbr. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Infimse Latini- D. Esth. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dn. Grammar Boh. Diefenbaeh. Wtb. Carpentier. Diefeiibach.-Eng. Fin. ^Ifr. Cotgrave. Bremisch. 1768. Bohemian or Czech. E. dialect of the Sette Commune. Dief. at the end of Somner's Diet.. de la langue Cat. Supplement to Bret. Cimbrisch. 1737. Da. Supplement to Dueange. Douglas' Virgil. Dueange. Biglotton seu Diet.



5 ERRATA.>. r. cti. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. katowai perairrantr. plowied budowaer. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r.. willekom Blab r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. ^i?^i2! r. kilistaa bugiie r. yjnaifia r. woman r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. Askance woud r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . r.percurrunt kimista^x. baltresca nokkutomax. buque 118 brodiquin r. Blob plowied r. haverie crtOT r.nokkutama willekem. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. sveritet Asknace r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. word allagerr. puHti r. r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. cruccio deyrie. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . alUger ahaverie r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. (/ijtf r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r.


Hence on-bceftan. as. The word Ban is common orders. power : Than Wallace thing. away from. of-dune. sion of 'an abandoned character. In Lat. on. but now )bsolete). announcement. this word beand Spanish. bandon in French. dominion. from. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. ab. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. to arise. Parson's Tale. ur. —Bruce. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. ibandonner. as. us. implying a completion of J. rule. Again. and secondarily in that of command. To abuse is to use iway. among. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. off. state of sleep . AS. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. erwachen. in the same sense. Lat. on-bsec . compounds. a/tan. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. vs. OHG. 244. Jvery man shewid baft. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. A.he Goth.t G. literally. said. abaft. abs. onis aback. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. Thus ip N3S. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. Passing tongues. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. Immediately from Fr. to awake. away. er. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. Thou spelds of mychty iction. alike. from a is to wake to abide. o/j of or . . out of. "rom a height. baftan. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. in. behind. and — Chaucer. to sauff the king or spill. Abandon. Ab-. downwards. to hold . his. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. an edict or proclamation. until the event jlace . As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. Abs-. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. plesyt him.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. 843. whatever he be. dominion. be-ceftan. a. to subdue. in a manner other than it should be ablution. iway from. a washing off to abstain. particular 1 . the er. on. command. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. ir. on-lic. ifter. AS. ar. Dent posture. have entire dominion over. into the Romance ftrseg . Abaft. K . The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. orders.

vol. ne more vermeille. baba. to make lower. law term abatement. weaken. c. In or. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. to take possession of an estate. astonish. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise.' the surrender of a ' K. abandonly. and the verb was written in Eng. . to abaw or astonish. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. to ruin. and that from Syrian abba. to gape. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. Beat. .) . iv. It. bandon. to bate something of the price abbatersi. esba. of the Fr. More correctly written abbat. ant. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. with or without a final sh. abbattre. Hart in Jamieson.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. Abbot. to The . castle. to astonish. impetuously. abbatis. terminedly. abate. Fr. shame. merely the terminations ons. Hence Lat. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. his mouth. person. Wall. from ravir. Abbess. down. Originally. Bate. Custom. burny. uncontroUedly. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. R. to strike sail . of fear. abbatia. R. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete.On princes. to overthrow. of wonder.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. R. at his own the lips. See Abide. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to hit. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. overthrow. esbahissant.— R. Milton. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. polish.down. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. an abbey. 364s. to put to con. impulse. thing abbatere le vela. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. See . and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. as ravish. son bandon. On the other in use as well as hand. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. confound. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. betrash. beer. or admiration.fournir. his eyen shene. to diminish the force of any. et prirent terre. esbahissais.polir. so common in the found in the OFr. where custom (Grandg. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. abbatere dal prezzo. — — . depress. effect of shame. to happen. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. esbahir. father. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. de. 1520. and it that that it — . lish to abaisse orabaish. and sets them all agape.— — . faire tomber. And he thereof was all abashed. I was abawid for merveille. to strike Froiss. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. bawi. abaundunem-ent.esbawi. Cotgr. drink. to light upon. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . d. To Abate. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. A. to beat furnish. other. abbatere. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. in the active form. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. Abbey.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. Hence the OE. ais. adverbial expressions at abandon. by Wall. 1 1 8. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. Castrais. and grooms besmeared with gold. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. — Neccham.Prov. or society of abbots or monks. to excite admiration. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. may be explained. burny was formerly burnish . Baba ! Mod. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. baer. abbas. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. astony. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. from Lat.

ne chastised them. OFr. Pol. forms with the d effaced are OFr.Fr. abbadare. tempting. and E. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. badar. with badia. The verb atwaiting. gola badada. usbeisnei. bida. gridare. look for another. abetter. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. desirer (Roquef. bana. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. which is certainly related to It. F. bocca badata. . beguiling on the other. trick abetar. delay. bada. tity of E. inciting. bialodrze-w. from Halo. forbearance. or in Fr. tical with It. — signifies to suspend action. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. to be intent upon. To Abet. listen. badare. badare. a right in suspense . covet. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. . abSiance. bie compared with Dan. take notice. have seen abide. b^er. Prov. bhr. bouche bdante. badigliare. — ABELE Epiphanius. abet. m Abeyance. to wait. to desire. Gloss. and in E. Goth. . the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. wait. bida. inciter. beijen. to gape . beidan. to abide . is idenwait.— ^richer. — . attendre avec en^pressement. baier. Ducange.. literally white tree. were called Brothers. to ance. or absorption watching. syllable ba. .to wait. Norm. expectation. to open bader. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. abie. Quant voit le serpent. regarder. delay. Fabl. 1 • .— Chaucer. Boethius. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. waiting. white. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare.— Roquef. also to OFr. In We . endurance. . deceiving.' is in AS. bouche b^ante. tarrying . and alluring to his own destruction. while the monks under his control ing. to tarry. speaking of the Holy places. to expect. baier. the verb of abeyance. attendre See Bait. verbeijen Sw. which the mind to an object. ceive. deceit. incite . listening. bder. The white poplar. abie. aspire to. to stay. beidan. or do we AS. Cat. pense. to mind. watch. warten. abeyance. open the mouth. de Champ. wait To Abide. abayer. Du. E. compared with (Bosworth). 366. to open the mouth. songer. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. to stay. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. (Vocab. badare. desire. suffer b. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. abet. —Raynouard. with open mouth . crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. beguile. to yawn. says. ^couter avec dtonnement. abaier. and Prov. to attend on . bie. bidan. abiiance. house. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to hook. de Berri) Prov. From abahier. tenere a bada. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. Abie. to deanimer. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . in Dan. Q. to attend to.was formerly used in the sense of look. to be intent upon. Abele. abeter. lingering. beijen. to remain or endure. in Fr. to In great amaze. intent observation. See Abide. Corresponding to keep in suspense. on the one hand. to It. baer. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. Corant sens lui. signifies the direction of tend. bide of the d endure. Cat. ne wist what way to chuse. expectfamily. to expect gabeidan. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. Guernsey beth. we sceolon ON. ' ' . exciter. Gloss. us. guardare. — II. endurArt thou he that should come. baier compared with It. to wait. abidan. othres abidan' The effacement expect. Ni engigner ni abiter. K. Norm. suspense. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. Thus we have It. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. Thus G. to wait. to deceive. expectation. to look. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. John. aspirer. qui iaaille. a bay or opening in the coast.) abayer. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. delay. to suffer death in Du. beter. beijden. take care. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. to desire earnestly.

Fr. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Q. If it badare.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. For on board. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. purpose. to . powerful. abolir. the Pardoner In the original. abie. P. without special reference to the notion of retribution. aboleo. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. habilis (from habeo. fit. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. to pay the purchasemoney. on board . Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. i. the Sir Tristrem. and death for handsel pay. ! ! Cotgr. consequences of anything .^and to make his power knowne. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. use. bord. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. 2. Innan bords. able. R. within the walls of a ship. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. — e. and Cr. God — dear. durance in both applications. Boucher. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. was often used in the same sense. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. P. — Able. the Fr. Dr. Merch. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. Milton. and the simple buy. have-like. abide. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. F.ynes. while in later examples As I .— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. Abie. suffer the Jul. In this to erase or annul. the side of a ship. willing to schewe his wrathe. must suffer for it. de la volatile. power. to draw fowls. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. abigg. &c. L. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. bidan. fault being simply clothing. R. habile. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. Wickliff in Richardson. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. bide. sufficient. to redeem. strong. abidge. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. The —Boucher. from AS. atling hem to her proper offices. abeye. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. though sometimes confounded with it. to perish. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. — P. abycgan. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. Chaucer. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. as habiller du chanvre. as E. Cassar. or bie. abicgan. a board. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. It. Prol. at kasta fyri bord. Lat. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. at hand). —Bacon in R. abilh. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. O If tion. from Lat. Tr. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. N. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. convenient. to wear away. habilis is closely preserved. when compared with Aboard. . She shall abie that trespass dere. Spenser. al- be found so some will dear abide it. is the verb abie. in for any special purpose. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . properly abuy. God. expert. him with che. beidan. ON. AS. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. abilej Prov. adapted . Mids. to have . forbid for mother's children should abye. abie to Goth. Fr. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. being disabled in the highest degree. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. within the ship. to dress hemp. 2nd Tale. to pay the penalty.

' Parson's rence. OE. becomes leu in Prov. Virg. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). whence the Fr. abbrechen. outward. Sc. natural ed direct from the latter language. which passed into English under Abominate. which may God avert.the older form. life. while the sense of beget. ala. af-oolden. to snatch. . ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. Finnish stock. — . The primitive idea seems that of beget. Of these synonymous adolescere. explains soboles Lat. to rear. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. currence. as withotityn and without. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. OSw. abrdger. heavy. abominor (from ab and omen. on high. by the to bring up. agreujar. So in Lat. Quod abominor. to feed. D. to bring up. Above.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. the form a&^^. progeny. Du. butan. to let sleep. the man dwindles away. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. as AS. to light a fire the Abraid. s —Casdmon.foda signifies to beget. and in-d-oles. abredan. abracan. that greatly agredge their sin.1. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. to feed. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. to produce. abbrechen. ol. en. and also to abridge. giving birth to. brood. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. the vital spark. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. leading immediately to Fr. Goth. while the verb alleThe root el. Fr. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. to nourish. be-utan. pedigree from brevis. vital PI. common in Chaucer and Abominable. be-ufan. sec seftre — Chaucer. to main. or cut short. abutan. to progress.. ala is made to signify to rear. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. of any kind . onbutan. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. Melibaeus. to awake. To abray or abraid. The radical idea is to feed the flame. to start. AS. for ligeth butan.' Ymb hancred utan. without.ymbutan. literally. levis to the Romance languages.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. Severe the threatened evil. To Abound. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. way Sw. Tale. nurse Lat. the OSw. coalesco. Prov. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. the hair grow. In the same brevis . a portent). OE. Thence to regard greugetat. — ' — — preceding verb. side. the idea of breaking about . to grow together.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. kindling. to break off. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age.) . Thonne Abroach.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. and bidden him abregge. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. to AS. ABOMINABLE adolesco. motion. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. ufan. disastrous portent in some passing oc. alan. alere capillos. Then. and alere flammain. bufan. AS. above. from . greu. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. to turn. gravity. alUger. oil.aboon. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. See -und-.. to cut short. d.ger. parent. alan. the identity of which with ting. abowen. to beget or give birth to children. Abray. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. boven. nurse. titan. Gael alaich. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. Kiittner. to rear. hard. from Fr. abufan. draw out.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to aggravate. seems aras. agredge. below. about cockcrow. around on the out. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. . snatch In English we speak of away. to fatten. and also.— Abbreviate. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. al is growth. nourish. Lat. af-oleii. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. Abrdger itself. as the duty of nourdisposition. See To Bray. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. to grow up. is not from G. is a ively. AS. break out. his contemporaries. abbreviare. awaking. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. and to do something to avert abbreviate. but from Lat. or young forth. For on broach. abrcBgdan. gravis. full ofte his words for to Fr. Abundant. adolere. breaking out in language.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


. one. G. aside. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. Thus from gabe. apanage. As the browcalled antiques. to nourish. from. transferred to the grotesque characters. what Roman civilisation. So Lat. Lat. part. fauns. ab. verberas. trouble. d. Apart. the anticks — behind. like a jack-pudding. AS. anfilts Pl. and claret wine. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. post. Jorioc. choke. from. aperio. Antidote. Ilvtwotov. were andouiller the second. something ler in R. a puppet or an anti^hona. AS. separate. cenig. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. In like manner. to strike G. a small quantity.D. Pezron fiUist. as we call it. a termination equivalent to Goth. burnished. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. See Cover. work. or in a ridiculous dress. Ful- Apanage. set aside. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. to support. on. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Anvil. white. Any. inAgain from the same author cudis. apatiar. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. from the imitative habits of monkeys. anxius. Hence the applica. Gr. Aphorism. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. from an. Gr.. a gift. anxi. in Shakespear. of. strangle. Anxious.made out. as posticus. bread. such as savages. from eigan. to imitate gestures. vex. gabeigs. from ante. a few. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Lat. ambeld. younger child. antefn. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Gr. Fr. panar.is to be given. were chiefly of the former class. E. anapoz. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. a block to hammer on. from in and cudere. To go antiquely. all of gold. to strike. Prov. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. one having wealth. avri^ava. swaged. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Lat. incus. from Stephanus. and devils. anticus. Hall's Chron. Mannequin. Fr. AS. andouillers. whence anthem. Apartment. to sound in answer. rich. to strain.— . before. antifena. separate purpose. as from as. before. from ango. which by anvild. : . Percutere. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels.—Aperture. Antique.th centuries the recognised models of antic. villan Gloss. whence Prov. — — — . plenteously with red. press. Antick. Otfried. to go in strange disguises. af. panis. to display pario. surimitation of the ancient models. ReApe. a preventative . amboltj Du. to have. —Spencer. to bring forth. and ig. some one. Aperient. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. should be received. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. three antike pillers.legacy of given against. from an and — - . or antique single chamber. stem. finally applied to a whether grotesca. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. i. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. a definite . But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Lat. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. to open. To ape. Fr. left as the . as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Antler. from avTiipoiuia). something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. but the expresent day. Apartment. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. wealth. d<popi(xnbs. one at the least. apertum. eigs. as the Italians.

Formerly apricock. to dress in this fashion. Prov. They were considered To Appoint. to lose one's senses. Gr.prix. Appease.t. approver. and appoinder (to find fitting. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. diminutive pariculus. to set a price on. prize. To praise. opportunity. to send to. Fr. 23 . And whanne sum men Lat. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. aparelhar.— . Fr. to commend. to announce. . Cotgr. The PI. Approach. habilUr. to be open to view. Fr. Gr. known. Epistle. — Appurtenance. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. Apple.—Apprentice. in good season prendre son d. and in the sense of condition. ai. Cent Nouv. 11. laven is used both as E. corresp. esteem. Fr. praise. Pliny. prohts. To cause to pall (see Pall). to Lat.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. to learn. From Lat. to deter- to strike. become dizzy . apprendre. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. to approach. to which it is often referred. Hence It. pretium.parecchio. N. set a price on. — Apprise. like. to — — . A — . landmark. Gr. ciously than nede is. APRICOT off. Cotgr. manner. Fr. away. dress. seiden of the stones. to disable oftat. apparecchiare. from. xv. Friar's Tale. Apostle. a crime. Cotgr. one sent out. to fit. . mine. apar. Prov. a learner. Ir. value apprdder. to — . prover. APO sentence opoQ. consent unto. taking. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. and also as appraise. aptly. D. OFr. Yr.his giving evidence against his principal. in commendation. and metaphorically to take the meaning. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. appaiser. I prise ware. of. S^. Apprehend. approcher. a price. despatch on some service. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. to mark to define a bound. pronounce good. to make a thing Apparel. For their acquaintance was not come of new . is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. apprise. jabloko. appartenir. to rate. kind of action. a'^opi'Jw. purpose. to call for judgment. To Appear. Palsgr. habiliments. diroBrjKr}. apal. e. Parson's Tale. Apoplexy. approcdare. To Appraise. d-n-o. apal. Yr. prope (comp. array. Appareil. when the . to suit.propius). whence the e. peace. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. to approve. Walach. It. the good. diroTrXriaatii. irpaiKOKiaov. — dirondtfiu. appareo.parejo. From Lat. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. properly to join like to like. ON. appris. From Gr. in data. peler. to seize. They werin his approvirs privily. Apotliecary. An old appalled wight. in Chaucer. 'LaX. to understand. in fact. to accord. : — — speak 'Lz. to send off. ar. cepl. or the like. apprentis. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. obolys. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. The Fr. agree. Fr. to deem good. apropid. Mod. . equal. rise to \t. appareiller. — prehendere. w. —Diez. 5w. pragigua or prixcoda. preparation. Lith. decree. apin R. piteux poind. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. avail. fit- — ness. to call. that it outfit. En peach. allow. 'L-zX. one is in. one the MLat. par. to take away or lose the vital powers. find Then like Fr. to learn. oVooroXof. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. appellare. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. Fr. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. to finish a controversy. poind. word was specially applied to clothing. horror. to come near. plight. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. H. make a composition between parties. Lat. an epistle or letter. apprehendere. quoth the frere. Fabian in R. a thing for one's purpose. case. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. (cited by Diez from a late author). from aTroorlXXu.probare. poind. near. Sp. good. iwKjToKri. to catch hold of. were formed appropiare ejar. Fr. AS. ^wss. to assign or grant over unto. one for his defence. Nouv. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. like. whether through age or sudden teiTor. agreeing with "LtA. to store or put Appal. off. after his mind . apropchar. proper time came. And among other of his famous deeds. pertain or belong to. to strike down. to deaden. Hence appoind. from paix. — Approve. or E. Apo- good time. ap. probare. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw.pareil. trim. lAfiaam. order. Gr. —^Apparent. i. pronounce fitting). I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise.

sortium ductor. Aquatic.o. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. herbere. fastened close. and with turfis new Goth. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. — napkin is Naperon. Hall. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. Now we find in Fin. She made. Gr. J. Roquefort. sorcerer. to plough. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. . and a protection of the clothes. ap. Arbour. Thus we have natiger and auger. From OFr.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. OE. properly the arwella. la nappe. Arbitrate. It is certain that the apricot oracle. divining rod. As is a pretty parlour. however. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. sestimatio arbitraria. and thence fit. water Which that benchid was. ear. Flower and Leaf. conjectura conjec^ra. . or eft. The loss or addition of n very common. This path Aqueous.shrubs {arbor). newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. a river. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. aro. derived. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. scr. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . a lot. It may be doubted. C. arwaus. arbiter in re censendS. doubtless is the origin of E.' —About. shortdr. as ihe diminutive. Freshly turnid Arable. quod he. a soothsayer. most conspicuous situation in the garden . 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. nawl and awl. 331. OHG. Pr. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. Albanian. auguror. the spelland umpire. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. and sortilegus ation. Naprun. — . arpa. as an eye-witness. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. Alban.) E.meaning at Shrewsbury. ughe. naperon. be That it inne groweth. 2. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. tion under trial. account for either of these significations. rofe and all. Pm. Marsh. nected. {mies ^=ia3. hariolus arpelen. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. arbitrium. Lat. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. garden. however. 31. delon. a pleasure-ground. Beryn. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. con. suitable. grande nappe. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Prol. . and taken away before dessert. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. P. to decide by lot. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. symbol. arbitror arwaaja. aestimo. Now one of the points — — — . . pracoqua was not an adapt. From OE. aptus. conjicio. aha. found in Fin. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Maan initial . or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. words derived from arpa. or barm-cloth. A. arwelo.. of of divination arpa-mies. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. man.] in the N. a lot. and the one who gives oracles. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. aa. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt.sors. short. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. is taken in is a soothsayer. to preserve it from stains. a lot. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. arbiter. proper. P. Lat. a cloth. intensitive of nape. opinio. aqua. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. Lat. ahva. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. wata.

arsum. Ardent. patus). weapon may be simply an application of annus. There can be no doubt that E. an arch-deceiver . G. signifies chief or principal. Dan. argvitugr. the court of a magistrate. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. a threshing-floor. arguo. a burning or setting on fire. arg. arm. Arduous. especially shoulder-joint. high. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. a rule (princiruler. ardIn G. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. A construct. aridus. . . Gr. From the verb armare. ill-tempered. vescovo. Lat. arson. Langobard. government. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. lofty. whence the body of the nobles collectively. to be in comp. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. bad of its kind. ardeo. an arch boy. man. by Russ. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. Sp. the a brute. Applied in modern E. Arch in composition. which has been referred to W.. a court yard. Lat. forearm . archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). and our army. Arcadia in R. area. Sax. Gr. arcA in e. is essentially the same word. ancient. Du. . sly. earm. apx^iv. And thou as arwe coward. an extent of flat surface. troublesome. the best. wanton. burning heat. erg. det arrigste snavs. shoulder. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. TiKToiv. difficult to reach. 2. Lat. 3340. Arson. Du. apxtipfve. to burn . to demonstrate. ramend).is the natural weapon of offence. mischievous. arch-bishop. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. Fr. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. . arcus. bad. kpxi- beginning. to Arch. an arrant rogue. weapon. apxtlov. Lat. Lat. i. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. morally bad. a chief builder. AS. erz-bischof. a branch. Perhaps erz-wticherer. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. gwyrek. Fr. D. branch. W. in Due. curved line. ramo (pi. G. are formed the participial nouns. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. arwe. . to rule. ON. as the arch of a bridge. apxh. aj-f. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. adjective. un petit rusd. Lat. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. From apxeiov was formed Lat. ein arger knabe.. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. et vulgari verbo. it signifies roguish. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. Cot. arga. a. the most arrant trash. vocaveris. Uo^a^. bad. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. argr.In E. un malin enfant. archangel. ers-betriiger. from areo. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. a noble. and Kpurka. the terminaGael. Arcliives. Fr. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. sly. Gr. apxri. ' — Argue. gwyro to bend. and not with apx. Arid. sluggish. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. erz in G.' Lex. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . — Architect. a bow. ardor. Brem. ruling by the nobles. worker. arm'ee. ardre. first. Alisaunder. armee. arrant Arms. receptacle where the public acts were kept. from nixa. * ArchjAiTaxit. The . shoulder Boh. arm. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. timid. een erg kind. taxed with cowardice. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. rame. make clear or prove. wretched OE. mischievous. Lat.' Paul Warnefrid. which is derived from it. arrig. and must be identified with Dan. raineno. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. to dry. Area. to arm. fainthearted.4 rir/. curved. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. contemptible. faint-hearted. an arrant usurer. — Wtb. fabricate). arduus. a bare plot of ground. armada. ars. Ardour. exercise lordship). Aristocracy.aioj. It. malicious. stuff. as in E. bravest. earh. earg. Arm. arma. ^Argument. armata.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town.— Army.' the Gr. Gr. Lat. while the Fr. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. to be on fire.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

Fr. as in a barn or cow-house. Fr. balk. roof. to avoid it. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. Bohem. It. It. destruction. a washing-tub. pallo. on. to Not sparing wight. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. trouble. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. to shake or jog. the ballet of the theatres. to bale out. balka. Wotton. calamity. to by beams. Ugutio in Due. To Bale out water. probably Lat. dial. ne leaving any balke. afbalka. Mid. bal. blister. balla (with the augm. to roll. ballare. gen. balkr. Ball. on. to dance. Pol. It. bal-daed. from the more general notion of moving up and down. E. 3. a balk of foul weather. are applied to a From the same analogy. mass. Sw. i. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. a dance. dial. bal. The primary sense seems as in G. bielke. bealwes.of men . to be ill. Sw. palcare. the breadth from side to side . tum. Hence. . bbllr bulla J. pallo. from bacquet. sorrow. balloon. other while. Ball. pila. ballan. bolawy. ballare. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. G. a scene acted in dancmg. Bale. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. a. Venet. globule. as we say. I. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. a ballot). bjdlki. a But making way for death at large to walke. to rock. Ballata.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. torment. baler. malefacGower in R. Fr. a pill. bolyaf. ' is a piece or confused talking. balken. dial. balka hopar. a clod of earth water. balle. Sw. cka. * Balk. AS. to move. to on Holmedon's plain. a ball. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. pallukka. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. ballet. package of goods. . lealo. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. Russ. a ballad. similar connection is seen in Sp. ballone. a skin. pilula. a partition. Sp. maleficium. a pestilence. a continued noise of waves gently beating . ban. beaten road. 2. ballare.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . a together in the form of a ball. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. maan pallikka. to cause another to miss pustule. (Hesych. In like manner Fr. palla. bala. Sw. Fin. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. ball. N. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. a bubble. ing. balveins.Fr. a beam. bold. TtaKKa a pail or tub . goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. Balloon.—Ballad. to speak an un. misery Du. Sw. a water-skin dim. Bret. . heap up. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . ball. a ball. to wave. ballar). Q. to see-saw. ballo. balk. Da. a ball or pack. Sw. stage or scaffold. to be balker. a division of the old laws. vacillare. bollr. A balk. ballotta. a wooden partition . . Da. balge. baalien. balva-vesei. ball. boll. a pail. to ache. OFr. a globe. Dan. plague. balle. to pack Da. pallikka. It. hooting. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. a dance. bacgtteter. on the shore. To baulke the Sir H. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). OSw. baalie. Boll. a ball. — A — — . . Sw. Hence Dan. hue et illuc inclinare. Rouchi ban. wickedtorment ON. vcdra bdlkr. Perhaps on.Lat. a separate portion. Du. sickness. . Goth. a ball. F. to dance. Gael. to plough for a boundary between lands. balk. baloier. balle. G. ill. to stir. separaison. boleii. Ballot. bol. on. weak liquor. We have then separate dial. Grief. bdlkr. Sw. to grieve . bal.ing. to paddle in water . pain. uveirs bolk. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. with the perhaps from balg. See Gall. balken. palloilla. ball. balare. says Ray.' speak gibberish champurrar. ON. to plank. bola. a clump . bol. a ball balla. Bowl. and evil in general. OHG. to partition off . a beam. a great ball. bolker. floor. balle. the object of his expectation. a boil. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. e. shouting. It. balja. whether of wood or stone. balka bunge. balk. Du. w. bolyatchka. dial. to signify washy drink.— Ballet. ache. sick. to ail. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. Gr. at giore en balk. grieve . taich.). wickedness ness . the beam of a ship. a clapping or flapping of wings. may exhibit the original development of the signification. chapurrar. Baulke of land. and the dim. .

The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. A — — . Said to be from balaustia. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. galleries. for want of other freight. but loadage. ^Arbuthnot in R. — — oltriga. lest. ranked on the outside of cloisters. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. paid for the right of carriage. to walk. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. baU. is in Sweden and Norway. it is forced to take in stones or sand. Bret. an Old dotard or imbambolare. If bambocciolare were child of one. Sp. called Bait. But Fr. from Lat. bertesca. lastagium signified not only ballast. sorcerer. To Bam. Bamour. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. a young babe. the flower of the pomegranate. Dan. barauste. lastre. i860. 1. Bret. &c. small railing. This is the backload. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. dial. Lat. balconies. or movement of one who walks.000 tons. bag-las. When a ship discharges. Report Pennsylv. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. Du. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. Lest. a fragrant gum. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. by met. to preserve equilibrium. It is explained back by Adelung. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. the act of walking. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. last. puzzled. a duty on goods last. Fr. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. back of the ship. objects to the foregoing derivation. curse. a battlement . bumbazed. To deceive. more serious objection is . terraces. railing around altars. astonished. barandado. Gr. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. ballustres. Ballast. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. explains ballast.that the going vessels. lestage. enchanter. Mr Marsh whether the a load. In OSw. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. also with flatteries and . The Sp. ballast. ^a\Ba\iov. make fun of a person. bam. It. baume. Sept. and Mid. lastra. baltresac. the backload. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. a small balustrade. forbid. R. of balusters. To Bamboozle. like Fr. Baltic. To proclaim.' And Kil. inutilis sarcina. analogous to what is seen in It. for a load or goods (Roquef. in the first place. to enchant. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. bamein. denounce. 1854. because. inutile onus. deceiver. . baranda. urtica. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. bambocciolo. It. deceive. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Venet. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. or ballast of a ship. The Baltic sea.). &c. 43 — Cot. balustrade barandilla. mare Balticun. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. fonts. Balsam. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. Balm. bamboccio. little round and short pillars. Cotgr. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. endormir par des contes. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. a rod. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. from bara or vara. . more frequently than outward-bound. balsamum. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. seems the original form of the word. a nettle. Fr. age.Lat. bambolo. To Ban. a useless load. Balluster. a false tale or jeer.. Sc. ballustre) is a corruption. baUa. command. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. as he says. bag-lest. To make fun of a person.

Fr. he assembled his host. biddal. and It. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. and thence to any proclamation. change to the feminine gender in banda. 813. bandon somewhat party. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. border. 'A son bandon. power. Ripuar.e. in hostem convocare.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. banner marked the place of assembly. to form parties. Sw. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy.. populum. bundun. side. &c. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Assises de Jerusalem. i. It. Goth. bound. faction. OE. he bannede his ferde. to excommunicate {lysa. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. From the verb to banda. It. Car.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. authority. R. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. E. — excommunication bann-lysa. to publish) banna. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Sp. bande. Leg. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. 1. In Fr. Sp. 19. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Thus the word is also used in both senses. to . to bring corn to be fahne. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. those who side together (bande. Spebifid. Mag. bande. ligue Taboada). Band. then the signification w. acquired the sense of proclamation.^ bandy. curse. summoning to serve So in Swiss. to ban. v. Wyntoun. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. It seems this signification has arisen. says Muratori. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. banda. passing on from proclamation to command. we constantly find the expression. Se il — Romance languages. flag. and in E.is further developed. to follow a faction. Les saiges avait et les fols d. It. to unite with a band.—John Villani in Due. 26. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. bande. Bandus. to ctide. Goth. theodscipe ut abannan. Diss. — To partito d'alcuno. in Fr. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. whether by way of injunction or for- command. band. The to . Baud. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. Cot. margin. eiiseigne. bando. ex. etc. side. band. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. banda the colour or material. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. . admolendinum. also the band or of marriage. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. bannire in exercitum. parti. is That with which anything AS. bann. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. R- He Translated by Chaucer. banda. tener da alcuno. bandon was used in the same sense.Lat. a coast. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). the ensign or banner. A. bandera ground at his mill. G. permission. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. from at the Lord's courts. ba?idare. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. —R. 2. to take one to task. Capitul. region. See Abandon. a company. — R. sostener Torriano. To Bandy. D. hoc est vexillo. Fr. bannire exercitum. banns pany of footmen serve. Bandear. . to reprove. There is some doubt how Fr. to side or to bandy (Florio). fahne. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. bindan. 15. bandi. bannum or bandum. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. at his own discretion. Commun^ment son bandon. &c. In a special sense the term company itself.

The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. ON. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Forbannitus is used in the Leg. canis vinculis assuetus. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. E.HG. the back. in R. Diez. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. distinguishes bekkr. to beat. and bakki. seat . as of an explosion or a blow. desk. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. . a bench. ruptus. Benchi. bance. among rotta. was formed the OFr. Bantze. to knock. See Banish. and OFr. a wound OHG. From Mid. the former Fr. bannire.z. bana. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. banc. in the same way that E. Bandy legs are crooked legs. benk. — . g. Africa. Lingua. banditti acquired the like signification. rap hatike et som The Susu.^ knock. The ing. ON. AS. But natheless wife at I bank. a sand-bank. Hudibras. death-blow . —^Vocab. and hence. Ripuar. that the word is used by Romeo. to work in wood. It. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. Bacon in R. When a man fails Lat. forbear this outrage. It. bandear. The ridge of a hill is AS. band-dog. ON. A Shipman's Tale. banc G. eminence. beating. b'ang. shoal. Fr. 2. With many a stiff thwack. bank. It. a de Vaud. Goth. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Bang. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. bana-sdr. tumult bangas. a long raised seat. — Kil. Banister. bang. Bank. &c. from banc. death-sickness. whence the mod. a bankrupt merchant. — — whence E. to make a stir banke. to foment factions. roupt. to slay. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. banish. the same verb the It. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. Tibalt. banqueroute. language of W. banca his creditors. has bang-bang. bander. to proclaim. bank of Dan. N. banca fallita. Mid. broken. . prince had forbidden faction fightSp. hammering. Fr. eminence. se reunir. disturbance banga. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. to publicly order one out of the realm. counter. banja. banke. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. Dan. bana. Du. bana-sott. See Balluster. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. for shame. standard. Banner. many a bang. bench. in the sense of a pirate. Roquefort. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. beat. Mercutio. Sw. bank. bank of river. bandi. AS. de sable. . Bandy. bander tin arc. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. — Paulus drive in a nail. banco. a table. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. de- party. at canis peciiarius. To Bandy. Diaconus in Due. &c. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. bent as a bow. death-wound. bow. bank of a river. home — Bandog. in the sense of place of business. a counter. Benvoglio. follow a party. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. bandire. a rising bank. banka. From a desk . a bank. to join in league with others against Cotgn. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . Hard crabtree and old iron rang. bana. and poise Their lighter wings. hricg. to knock. . Milton in R. bakke. — Fr. The child cries bang! fire. to cabal. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Lat. outlam came to signify a robber.: . destruction . See Band. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. a blow. the slope of a hill. Banditti. a bench. murderer. Fr. stir. a bench. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. The word is in E. pastoralis. panca. Bankrupt. Fl. clouds. Bane. to hammer in a nail. bankruptcy. It is in this sense nounce. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. bench. put under the ban of the law. large dog kept for a guatd. . a i. to bend a. 45 — — Bandit. dorsum was applied to ject. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. se joindre. of bandying words. Brewer. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. bane. Your stool. bander. and therefore tied up. back of a knife. s'associer. Draw. band-hond.

benda. Gr. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. banda hendi. barra. privileged to raise Barbarous. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. Celtic bar. Barb. summit. and from ensign or banner Prov. as they call it. probably corSymbol. The spar. of wind. Duo. senheira. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. E. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. Fr. barrer. It. Flesche barbeUe. a bench or table . Fr. The origin is in all probability Goth. a war-beacon or war-signal. period vexillarii. Bret. The barb of an arrow is the sign . either in the Gr. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. to wash. Gael. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. dim. or of this bantering. rod of any rigid substance. to beckon .. then fell among the foot. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. and even of calling it banter.. a. Fr. ON. token. and he would seem to derive Goth. branches of a tree {gwezen. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. barreau. &c. i. barbe. and it was accord. wrapped. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand.— Swift in R. E. banneret was a higher class of knights. branch. to bend. 2. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. ing term appears in other languages. — We A . The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. —Cot. BARBAROUS reiflingr.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. which is surely in barbed arrow. The original import of their own banner in the field. uncivilised.8ap6^o)voe. banda. a bearded or Cot. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. a barrier or stoppage. such as the Roman Eagle. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. out of a wound. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. jSdirTO). says. of banco. speaking of battle. the word came to signify rude. a sign. bar. sparro. bannereti. hence a repast. Lat. ^oTrriKio. brushwood. a bantling. barrou-gwez. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. barbed or trapped as a great horse. senhal.the analogous syllable viur. from the same source. Fr. inur. sign. Sw. remarked. G. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. ban- Baptise. barrack. of a sign in general. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. to dip. barriire. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. top. a which the barrister addresses the court. rarii. a beam or long pole of wood. nestling. OHG. men. It. himself in Pontus. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. jSa'pjSapoc. banner. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. Lat. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. that the noise of voices Bantling. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. banniire.hinder. According to Diez the It. barba. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. bandva. Leduchat. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. an animal a year old. merki. Thus Ovid. Hence Fr. to wrap. bandiera. barbarus. Fr. OFr. Lat. manu anto make signs nuere. banchetto. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. signuin. then branches. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. a tree). heri-pau. senh. barde. would rupted from Fr. . a ban. barre. Bap. To Banter. Banneret. sparre. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. In a similar manner are formed yearling. to having that signification. banneret. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. knight Bardd. ON.cruel. Barbe. Fr. It. Barbar. sbarra. senhal.46 BANNERET . chan. A It. arineXov. indeed. in Gr. inferior to a baron. milites bannarii. and the work is done.aTa Kul nest. Gr. banne. To mock or jeer one. OHG. Banquet. from reifa. iandvo. Hence ner. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Barb. 3. and with an initial s. It may be thing. &c. E.

border. — . skialldar-bard. Bare.— — Pm. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. borbollar. waschen. Bargain. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Barde. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. barbulla. in Fr. to stammer. But Sp. a shingle or small board. — Cot. to stammer. barbaris. bds. border of a garden bed. or more properly (says fer. to wash. bdsiis. to rumble. Mod. Hall in R. name Fr. Gr. axilla. to make an outcry . In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. /3£pjSepi^w. also to bind or tie across. Etym. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. Gr. to gurgle. borborinha. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Port. bardd. baragouin. barbar. to barbe or trap horses. barbacane. tree. such as houses are covered Bardelle. bdsas. a bardelle. barbeum.) to wrangle. barbier. Fl. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. barbeter. barbarkama.) . tattle. skola. as well as thwcEtta. the edge of a shield hval-barct. the flap of a hat. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. baar. barda. to It. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Arab. ala. bar. to grunt. A7 to the and warlike. a jetty or outnook in a building. Sp. which was of talking. unqualified. skirmish. Bardeau. stutter. It. borboglio. barbel. gibberish. the quilted with. a pack-saddle. Mod. jargon. Bret. It. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . to bubble or spring up. Sp. skirt. barz. to boil or bubble up . barguigner. An outwork for the defence of a gate. borbotar. /3opj3opwJu. small pack-saddle. — — — men. grumble (Lowndes. .— BARBEL merit of water. Fr. brim. bhasad. ready money. and Sc. barda. A shrub bearing acid Diet. OFr. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. G. a tumultuous assembly. Port. Barbican. Sp. berries. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Barder. Lucan. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. boil. and flanks.— Fl. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. to bubble or boil. in poetic language Bard for poet. barefooted Sanscr. barS. speak confusedly. uncovered. Barberry. The Pers. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. Barbel. barbeau. Diez. baares geld. bardes. used 2. twattle. the beard. muttering. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. fortia —Strabo. barbugliare. Pr. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. coping. on. to prattle. open. is lb. Bard. Cotgr. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. and the word was used in OE. bdla-khaneh. the nakedness of a woman. berj G. Cot. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. and foolishly. lb. . and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. borbulhar. Thus the on. and in Flanders to vociferate. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. twcEtta. Fr. guaszare. — . upper chamber. murmur . haggle. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. — — Hence. saddle-cloth. w. Etym. Applied in E. albardilla. g. as well as the modern twaddle. scouthouse. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. to mumble or mutter words. quarrel . Exposed to view. horse armour covering the front. Barber. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. mutter. Fr. bare baskojis. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. brabble in the making of a bargain. i. a rumbling. albarda. Hatt-bard. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. barbelin. also to wallow like a seething pot. back. barboter. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Festus in Diet. to plash or dabble. Lith. Lex.' Cot. Fr. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. to chafbargain. albarda'ah. powdered all over. guazzolare. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. dial. Russ. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. Hindost. formerly used in the sense of tattle. in the sense of fight. Cotgr. a long saddle for an ass or mule. uproar.

a beak. barn. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood.Barum vel feminam. Barge. to scold. berm. Cornub. baratta. berma. corn-shed. See Barm. . quant a perdu sa barja. trouble. bere. barafunda. berm hoys. Tarn baronem quam feminam. was barlic. and the word.) lihtes-ern. adj. It. is simply the Bret. wine. hay-loft. baarm. baratta. Lith.' bardagi. a lap. we pass to the vert) barguigner. name being given to spectacles. bread-corn. but the woman for the man. aheap. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. Ibid. It. giving rise to It. Bark. * Barnacles. herbs. baaring. Sp. . Bemiques. and hence probably (by a metaphor. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. 2.^Voc^. a stack. border. Sp. also to exchange. — battle. barmr. and is probably a true bartig. baaren. —Bark. louzou. confusion. bard). Originally man. dispute . Camus. On the other hand. Isidore in Rayn. hladi. See formed Yeast. Manx bayrn. tion of the sound. barone. Sw. to wrangle. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. v. baralha. houbartij fsnile. a barn. barley. ON. spectacles. barretor. barajar. bosom. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. brenig. Acervus. barja. as well as Scandinavian tongues. The Goth. kani. Spectacles. ber (ace. Swab. a cap . Kil. the A — Ihre. a heap. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. Gl. prominent part of a thing. bernac. Dan. baralhar. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. quarrel. barn. . barahunda. berem. a heap . edge. — Zeuss. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Port. chaffer. hlaSa. E. barley. OSw. hemlock. Port. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. ON. beer. the G. W. varen. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. barms. Vocab. 2. a lantern. in the Brim. to chop. bosom . barafustar. a boat. the slimy substance brewing of beer. to shufSe. altercation. dispute . borkr. then the bows pectus navis. dregs of oil. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. at barka. lap. . strife. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. Provj bar (ace. beornt. baragouin. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. baron. As Goth. as. a baking place or oven. barnacles. in Nat. Gael. Garlick. to skin over barkandi. Dan. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. dispute. the fore or after end of a boat . to cheat. bcern. Antiq. baimeach. to all the barca. baron)^ Fr. am. barlys {bara. entangle. squabble. bern. and llysiaw. To Bark. mhg. barge. i. Bailey. Du. charlock. and 1. barlys. dial. bcerme. prasepe . Barn. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. bargain. barley. OFr. a. disorder. put to confusion. as baces-ern. OFr. Sp. to strive. bamagh. Ripuar. From Fr. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. bern. the rack or manger. berm. skuta. skutr. AS. Bret. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick.. and ern. to rout. the which is equivalent of the lys in w.. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. meta foeni. quarrel Port. astringent. Du. — Barnacle. Barbour in Jam. plants). strife. a load. barn. baniffa. and may therefore be an Eastern word. ThS man was not created for the woman. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. AS. contest. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. tumult. dispute. baarn. (Ihre. The older form in e. Alam. Leg. Rayn. The origin may be throat. beorcan. Uzen. limpets. husband. as. limpet. w. one who stirs up strife. ON. barnis. — de Berri. then honoured man. a place. fray. from an imita- Barley. strife. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Leg. also a boat . a receptacle for barley or corn. Baron. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. as in the case of Lat. barii. barki. bark . contest. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . So also ON. ON. Prov. struggle. the or prow of a ship. So ON. baerm. limpets . Romance barsie. bread. commonly explained from bere. barlich. dispute barattare.

also termed bannerets. gwr. ^Vocab. a barrow. An ing. to carry. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. whence Barrow. cise formation of the word. Sp. over him. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. a hut or booth. StiU he shows conclusively. tomb. as cavalcade. or simply bahre. qui have not much light on the pre. bouracan. from cavallo. a kind of coarse camlet. It was not until the time of James I. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. gravis et authenticus vir. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Sp. then traffick4 Barrow. barril. sterilis. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. Barrack. berewe. D. baracca. w. seem to be radically the same with Lat. change of goods seems. barrique. — — 15th Cent. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. bara. OE. a barrel. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. heap. a bar. It should be observed that. in Nat. barrier. rolls of Parliament. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. Bohem. baragan. to * Barragan. became bidre. implement for carryAS. garment still used in Morocco.parchanttuech. Bamnculus a baronet. as. cover. Barricade.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. whenever Barrow-hog. Joshua vii. a castrated hog . 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. litter. G. 26. vir. barrique. barBombicinus. fallow. Fr. and in several instances. beorgan. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. strife. bera. brushwood. barchent. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. bara. alongside of barrow. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. The feudal tenants next Fr. a horse. semen non accipiens landiEL.— Gibbon. booth.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. baronculi. berwen. staves. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. bearg . 2. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. were sometimes confounded. man and wife. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. facture. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. Gael. like bargain. from beran. branches. (Schmeller). bier. a word is always used in the plural number. — A . vair. baraignej Picard.. barrack. Barrister. mound. E. squabble. barre.root signifying confused noise. barri. MHG. sepulchre. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. boar. Baron andfemme. an obstruction. Goth. a bier. habeant. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. Nominale of the from braeckland. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. in the first instance. fear. It. from a tree to which a man is hanged. Barratry. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. Barrel. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. Gael. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. braeck. beorh. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. to shelter. Barren. Antiq. S. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. calico. nobles. A. barague. breinej Du. composed of dry branches ofer. bark&n. G. This word introduced into Fr. Russ. perhaps through Prov. dispute. a. a man. shed. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Fr. ibid. — Kil. which would barragdn. ^Barrator. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. baroncelli. a hiU.' Op. Bargus or moreland. barrila. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare.have been named from the haggling and gant. Sp. Bret. beorg. the two names. 1. man. See Bar. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. See Barter. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. It. baronuU. barraca. baronetti. Bern. iver. OFr. AS.' that Barrier. fortification. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. and not from Fr. uncultivated. bahre. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. a. bredhan. hut. AS.. Formed from Fr. especially those killed in battle. todtenbahre. signifying. barile. borov'. The Sp. vel pretiosos burellos. the braw. It. by early examples.

Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. to truck. peel. or wic. Pl. MS. Sp. Fr. bast. Al is dai. binding. said Base. a ipgli So Turk. ing for profit. crassus. beortun. humilis. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. or running away with the ship. baste. beretun. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. bdtir. bast. Isidore. . Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Du. OFr. It. HoUinshed. It. Basilisk. baste. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. a basket masg.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. PaaiKhms. hoops of a cask. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. ibid. which covers the grain Ger. MHG. Barbara de pictis veni patch. tierer. Bartizan. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. MHG. bareter. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. bast-reb. pressed down. a king. But according And Dan. To stitch. husk bast van koren. baos. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. low part of the Hickes in Rich. basgod. Fr. imbastire. See Brattice. stitch. mavult dicere Roma suam. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . the thin skin Dan. w. Icegge eeii i baand og bast.D. Lap. basta. to deceive.' Gl. It is mentioned as . bark. bassin. a court-yard. partieren. Sp. Kil. to cheat. Lend me your hands. to cheat. Dan. Sw. basso. discourse Nay. It. bastear. embastir. also the demesne lands of a manor. exchange. ' He was begetin o bast. descended of an honorable lineage. also to Cotgr. more noble in blood than notable in learning. Arthur and Merlini. Dan. beguile. Bast. basg. then cheating. a bastard. baratear. bast. Sicamb.). OFr. F. baxoj w. a ftiesh. ohg. mean . according from Gael. Sp. scale in music. The like property hath the iasilisk. aiKcig. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). chasa. fits de bas. lift me above Parnassus. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. found in Turkish . thick. basso. and Bret. shallow. as It. bass-matting. exchange. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. 516. besst. to bargain. truck. barter. besst-u-b£nd&t. — in Rich. baratar. court-yard.looketh upon his eyes. at basta og binda. There is not one that. to bind. fhe outhouses and yards. foist in bargaining. Swed. HaUiweU. dwelling. ' Bosworth. — Bassoon. Du. lust. It. inclosure. corn-farm. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. from bere.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. the a wide open vessel. netting. a tying. rope for — . would be. as the diadem of the basilisk. To Baste. a deceiver. a halter. A fabulous serpent. barley. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. cheating. God it wot. bast-maatte. from /3aR. . leviter consuere. him. Barton. bran. submovet omne Lucan. bestan. chasa ogli a bastard. cog. to Diez. bds. to baste. Fr. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. low. Bass. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. low note. Apparently of Celtic origin. the — — to kill those that look upon it. mock not. preparatory stitching. piiiguis. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. and tun. unrighteous gain. to baste piece of cloth. come near. to bind hand and foot. to bind. baraand especially teria. It. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Gr. bestcn. fornication. pdrdt. but he dreth presently. AS. low. Bass. ^Is de bast. to stitch . Bastard. See Bath. basta. plaiting of splinters basged. fornication.' Papias. /«r<fSp. The original meaning. It. — hanging. HaU in HaUiwell. baraet (from Fr. of the same sense. . oe. i. berewic. To Bask. BassuS. flat. bas. barter. imbastire. but born in baste. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. a bass rope. Basket. Fris. lattice-work. he. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . which sets up its hood when angry. baste. to long — a British word by Martial. Sw. on a. fraud. Bassus. over-reaching. G. back. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). the manorhousfe itself. Sylvester's Dubartas. commonly A joined with the word binda. curtus. Halliwell. n' is n' is bacino. Newman.

to whip. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. has bastine. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up.— . a stick. victuals. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. For the origin of baston see Baste. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. 2. E. iastir. a packsaddle. Bastinado. nade. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking.. blatta. I. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. set up. guerra bastir. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. blows. ment. disposer. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. the winged . To beat or bang soundly. Antiq.'CaB. basto. to beat. bdion. frame. to drub. a sconce. bastir. batta lucifuga. from Fr. Sp. whence ledrblaka. vespertilio. vledermus. explains Sp. and ditches bastion. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. bastilde. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. dial. For the loss of the / in back. which to rest the load. a blow cloth for dinner. basta. the E. Sp. packsaddle. beysta. BAT neither. It. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. bastille. niammal. bast. Fr. compared with blakka. the night-jar or goat-sticker. night-bat. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. Fr. Dieiif. to build. 11864. bak. devise. ON. e.baste or knock soundly. It. a pad. To donjon. Sw. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. That yche blak y dar wel telle.— Bailey. a bird which. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. the bat . — — — . Sc. to thrash . to set on foot a war Bastion. in the use of the E. bastonFr. contriving. a bastion. stryka. as weU as besteau. baston. to devise or begin. Derived by Diez from iasi. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. translation to a bat. to lay the Sp. a barSp. R. baston. aftonbakke. bat. to flap. blakra. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. . bastonada. bastine. set up. bastonnir. bastida. raise. 2. club. erect. bastir. to give him a sound bastingi 3. to rub gently. to pack a saddle i. frotter. flyinge best. put it together. Dan. — — Fl. to quilt or stitch wool into it. worth (Nat. contrive. or implement for 4 * A .stitching in general. blacta. to teach one before. boste. but this is hardly satisfactory. bastione. * Bat. to beat. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. Florio. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. settiilg up. bastimento. blatta. blakka. Dan. Cot. Pr. and Cot. blakta. 164). also to cudgel. 'iJipistreUo. — Bakke. Sw. ari instruineht for beating. to Due. to cudgel. and Arabs. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. like the owl and the bat. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. comp. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. to spread bread and butter. bastear. bakie-bird . Cot. stryk. R. quelqu'un son roulet. a with a stick.Lat. p. Perhaps baska. military term of a bat-horse). A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . to belabour. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. Sw. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. a pad or packsaddle. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. a. a things prepared for future use. which in the E. Sw. Rayn. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. the original has corneille. back. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. bastia. beating. . Fr.-^ Chaucer.fortress or castle furnished with towers. provisions. liiake. cudgelling. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. To baste one's hide . passage Imbasto. natt-blakka. pre. staff. also the ricado. All from bastir. in the Romance languages. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. basa. badger. the clapper of a bell. a blockhouse. Supp. to stroke. to rub. is explained by Cot. blaka. Fr. iinbastire. to build. It.stick. Pm. 2. Mid. dial. Prov. business (Altieri). bladier. vespertilio.

2. Pm. batacazo. bada. to feed. a beating. baz. dial. a stirrer-up of strife.— To Bask. signifying to give repeated blows. quell. dial. term in falconry . badda. howis. cudgel. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. bat. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Fr. as E. quhar he suld assaill. a Baiffi. pak. solen baddar. a battle. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . busk. Baka sik vid elld. wet linen in washing. bake. as signifying warm baths. betten. remit. To Batten. to bathe oneself. Fr. to heat. squadron. G. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. as wood-en. battere. to become convalescent. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . bdda. by projections or in any licoure. ON. on the fire. Gael. allay . Sw. of bread is so much baked zX one time. as E. trahtr to It. on. to beath wood Battledoor.Hence in the augmentative form It. a from ON. It. A batch as wood. I bathe in water viz. is in falling.Bathe. PLD. To Bate. or make debate. tradire. Battalion. to cudgel. solbase. Ayenst the sunne. a battalion. to beak. debat. Batter. hot. batador. It. fashes basking in the sun squadron. A Bath. bdhen. a staff. Mgy. a band of armed men arranged basa. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. a great seems related to baden as Fr. or a dry stick. bat-en. then to warm by the application of hot water. w. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. beat. batte sig. to beat. to foment. lessen. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. E. bludgeon. Fr. gebdck. a washing beetle. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. to foment with hot applica. buask made like a fortress. baka. oneself at the A into faggots. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. made of — A made by one Batcii. the heat of the It. See Better. — To . Plkkis. Eggs. Hal. to heat . flour. tagUone. also a sun badfish. From bat in the sense of rod . Pm. to flutter with the wings. to dial. abate. Sp. to fight. Hence pro. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. better. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Bate. and with staffslyng. heat. Battery. Batten. bdda vidjor. made of bats. a blow. Strife. dial. to beat. Barbour in Jam. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. battre. Du. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. to refresh oneself in language. Fr. to be profited. In some parts of England it is striking. for biia sik. to beat. to fell. an arrangement for giving blows. to foment. I. dial. baden. From OFr. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. dispute. . battre las ailes. badda. Goth.' Palsgr. to beat se battre. sich bakern. and milk beaten up together. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Florio. to betake oneself. batir. basa. To thrive. Batyn. to become fat. Fr. gebdcke. Flem. beat. Jeddris and covering. fortress or castle. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. to bathe. in the sun. to fire or in the sun. battions. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. abattre. badask. perhaps first used adjectivally.— .shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. to thrive. Battle. Slav. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Pr. In OE. bataille. bdt. was formed bastilU. also. batna. Jurgor. battere. a blow with a light instrument. whence the sun burns . and as a verb. Bat. . more. water whether warm or cold. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. in the case of a wall. — — — ' — . . a main battle. to for fighting. the root of e. or break down. Fr. I baske. Pr. G. battre. The bat with which a brot bdhen. Bret. strife. to warm. a stick. to warm oneself. gabatnan. to warm oneself at the fire. Chaucer. battaglia. bet. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. beat down. Battlement. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. battle was used beath wood. is a simple adoption of Fr. G. to get better. adapted for defence. certain bend. from on. from battre. to toast bread. — Cot. Holz bdhen. Bailey. makebate. altercation. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Battery. Sp. bastille. and about an inch thick. baquetazo. batterie. Sw. e. baeddu.

icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. bauch. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. —R. bobine. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). Zalli. Fr. to me-wl. Irel. Formed from baw. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. a dog). bouaila. P. a lump or cluster babhaid. sorry. ground. because made of cloth of white. bausan.' ' Pegma. expressive of disgust. a tassel or hanging bunch . dirt. a spot. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. Beaus^ent. baugant. From ! an interjection of disgust. a plot of Chaucer. E. an embattled wall. dente. In like manner Grisons filthy. It. zano. Prov. Fr. to play the babby. to make the noise Baudrick. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Ball. Bavin. disgusting. to void the bowels. a tassel. OFr. pegma. excrement. Jam. or Cot. ish baubles. Pm. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. Ball-seirc. The It.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. guigaw. to bark. bow-wow. R. fagot. dirty. baula. Cotgr. Baldrick. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Cloth of gold. instead oi s. A name of the badger. From Bret. i. or toys. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. spot. and to-tore also. miauler. also the canopy carried part of his body. c. Pr. on the face of animals. bau. bow (as in our nursery Diez. cluster. baubare. sword-belt. to 53 manure the To baw. Baw — . and Sp. was simply a field gold.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. rotten. Cot. baue. dial. pie- . — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. speckled. obstrepere. Bawson. a belt. propugnaculum. — Pm. It. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. fooleries or fond To Bawl. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. — — ' Lydgate. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. a zan. whimwham. or sheaf of Bridel. Fr. collar. filth. toys. s. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. W. a horse marked with a procession. vacillo. or the animal so marked. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. exactly corresponds Fr. bal. whence pouacre. bal. ball. s. whence the E. E. nastiness. is Bagdad stuff.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. the Swiss baben. It. dacchino. tab. Descript. fe bau..— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Hal. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. bad. form with an initial seen in Fr. tille. child. Fl. E. also more Bawdekin. an — — — A — g — — — . baban. baudrdj OHG. to the same origin. Gael.. is used for a sented by bau. ! Bauble. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. the face. divided between black and white. balbob. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. brush faggot. babiole. in OE. Pr. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. dung. 2. the white of his leg or foot.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. P. from Baldacca. 8. OFr. trifle. trifles. baw. to talk Lacombe. baffe. from Fr. Sc. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. to low or bellow as corn. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. Lat. P. b \% bouala. babbole. scarf. Bagdad. a horse with white legs. a lump. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. Cot. An analogous noisily. lewd . to bark . ON. The word may perhaps be sticks. and authorities in note. babsmall toy to play withal. bauU. balderich. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle.— P. bablyn or waveryn. to cry. E. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. ballach. mew. spotted. to vociferate. bobbin or cluster of thread. a gavel. faisceau. an object. filth. It is all bawdy.guage). Piedm. baudrat. librillo. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. BAWSON Swiss. fields. Batylment of a wall. Swiss Rom. horse. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . as Fr. to trifle away ment. represented by the syllable miau. Filthy. balGael. javelle. having a white streak down Bagdad. a white mark Bawdy.

and zndly. Abide. baccello. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. badia to Sp. To Bay. See Bawl. is perhaps not directly from Lat. It. to keep one waiting. Fr. that from ba. Sp. badarse. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Such Antaeus seemed to me. Swiss beie. baca. a hole. See At Bay. bay. arose two forms of the verb. from badar. laurel of the ancients. alive. living thing . Gael. bde.. baier. overture. hddhe-dhonn. Lat. a cluster of bacon. berry. A hollow in the 'line of coast. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. aux dehniers abois. put to his last shifts. The — Fr. yellow . Drayton in R. &c. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. — Schmid. baie.c. baya. to be Bohem. —F. Bay-tree. Bayonet. a'uno. trahir. open the mouth. a beast. living Ir. . as gazing. window-sill. From the former verb is the It. OSp. expresr sion tenere a bada. bai. window . weary of running. which however. large window in a handsome . . the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. Piedm. house . Cot. desiring. the cod or husk of beans or the like. in order to keep the enemy in check. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Fr. bdcr. It. he turns and faces his pursuers. from an imitation of the sound. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. the cod of peas. bialo. white. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. &c. or recess in an apartment in modern times. Sp. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. abbabayer. &. Earth — By Nature made to till. bilyega. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. * To Be. . Catalan hadia. baye. Q. bate. baja. Gael. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. and keeps them in check for a while. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. or berries. Fr. 1. or to have been first used at the Cot. or at bay. or window ' (in Fortification). dehiscere . to split. A stag is said to stand at bay. |8i'os. to open. baga. Gr. beothach. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. ist. BE Probably conRuss. Fr. baiare. Bay. a berry. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. It. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. It. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. husk. BauSfi)/. — A At Bay. to stand watching one. life. beo. batibari. especially beans. bajo. to gape./^ bau. Lat. bay. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. to betray. Serv. S. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. AS. The word bay. so called from its bearing bays. waiting . F. baca. badius. Q. baionette. 1859. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. watching intently. Mod. . See Bald. Fr. corrupted into Bow-window. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. and the To bark as a dog. Vielp. —Bay-windo'W. dividere. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. the world Gr. gate. bahia.—Journal Soc. baher. a dagger.. badarc. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. a mark. beonj Gael. bijel. bagaid. ing-floor. bilyejiti. stood watching him stoop. the step is the same as from It. at his last gasp. baer. tradire to Fr. like a pie. It. Prov. Swab. by the term rendre les abpis. bioth. 25. bayo. w.— Stalder. buidhe- The ruadh. bacca. when. bayen-stein. buidhe. Arts. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. berries. Holland's Pliny in R. From Cat. stare. to on anything. barn of two bays. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. to keep at a bay. siege of Bayonne in 1665. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. Bay. BAY marked with bjly. It has been shown under Abie. bahia. to mark. Sp. Fr. the laurel-bay. to open as a blossom.' Bailey. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. Feb.' — — 54 bald. as if to signify a window of curved outline. —Diez. to amuse stare a bada. to iiitent nected PoL white. life. grapes or nuts.

ffaen. bagms. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. to nod . beans. The nutu significare. bakkje. . Where it live ? where is it ^ e. fromthe danger. bob. or any action done with a pointed thing. «va\ioQ. the part overflowed by the tide. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. faba is Kvavoq. bdkna. -phxr. ffci. to produce young. Goth. or beic. a tree. badmr. See To Bid. Gael. a beak. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. bee. a sign. bauhan. G. pierced for hanging on a string. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. however. — to bow or nod . like most nautical terms. would say. Moreover the name. The wild beast. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. bidello. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. 54. and Lat.' adheres to the root. was introduced from England sea.ad. . It is BEAR SI court. ohg. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. Farrar. Fr. beic. a curtsey. Gr. baun. Bret.. beacen. beugler. Miss Gurney in Philolog. to wait. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. to beckon. Goth. backe. bohne. Thus the final en. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. bohnej ON.fui. bM. a single bean. . A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. The immediate shore of the Menage. becco.' Suetonius in Diez. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. not applied to the yelping of dogs. on. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. It forms a. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. beacnian. salve his hurts. Beadle. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. bek. Bret. Slavon. as well as f& or fav. It. A Esthon. bidan. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which.from AS. baum. atUndre. g. or however. be. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. Beckon. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. an attendant. It. vii. Beck. To Bear. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. a tree. Be. signifying individuality. Beach. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. beic. or breathing. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Boom. bedm. fd or faVf beans. gebed. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Du. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. support.fer-re j Gr. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. bar. bairan. bearti. W. nokkima. fora-bauhan. Chapters on Lang. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. ON. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. rising ground. which is. The origin seems preserved in E. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. He says. post. Bear. Pardoner's Tale. Bean. bokan. a presage. tale of prayers or doxologies.fuis5e. OSax. into a snjall river. E. A two-year old nephew of mine p. into France. Beak. Catalan becar. Sw. as. bead. to carry. fero. Fr. signifying a point. a prayer. vol. — bedeau. W. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. —F. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. l^ax. bakke. to nod the head.' Hall's Chron. Gael. Gael. N. a single bean. AS. * Beagle. to wait-. — Bellenden in Jam. G. faba. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. Netherlands or North Germany. AS. pig. prodigy bauhnjan. Trans. Hackluyt in R. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. a hill. Lat. stock. to bellow. Q wait upon him. beck. according to of Sanscr. ON. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched.to have a French origin. boom. as. Beacon. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. a nod OHG. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. — : Beam. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. bydel. bank. bean.

E.to clothe to slobber. agreeable. bave. Now the Beast. happening as it ought. to arrive at. covered the face. Beat. brook . bib or slobbering cloth. W. when up.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. while from Shep. or river. pleasing. to dabble . From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. befit. Beck.getiman. convenient. pretty. battere. bequem. to the brook itself. The OFr. Secondarily applied to a hat. R. if sound of a sharp blow. bcek. to fall in with our bavard. gefallen. a. to appertain. ON. border. He becom on sceathan. Lith. AS. decorous. decent. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. badi. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. living. becuman. Fr. G. as. rying. bello. place to lie down. babrad. to assume a certain form or Turk. a brook. Thus OY. duty. or a feeling to be gratified. dushmak. biivre. R. the ece thurhwuniath. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. limpian. To load with ornament. judgment. dize or dtzen. baurthei. g. pens unmixed evU. to happen. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. to those goods which endure for ever. Boeth. Prick of Conscience. and to acquire. Prov.' are equivalent expressions. Thcem. tidig. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. our taste. E. the beard. comely. bobr. — A — A — . suitable. to carry. . bava. to attain to the lot of any one. obtain. Goth. G. bring forth. i. Diez. beatanj It. Chaucer. 1. receive. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. as the babble of the child. bur. agreeable. fitanimal. name applied originally to the bank then proper . bavec. — .we call the arrangement becoming. to sleep on. Lat. a bank. Sp. opportune. In like manner condition. Perhaps from Pol. to happen. Bedizen. gebank. See Bank. Lat. e. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. fiber. to shore. and Fr. limplice. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. fallinn. e. baviire. bedr. fit.S6 fero. G. to please.of being very angry. Beauty. to get. taste. now confined To Become. to the good hapHalbard. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. to fall mode of being. Beck. chin. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. proper. As rivus. Slav. barf. See Beacon. G. the latter are derived It. barba. because made of the fur of the beaver. Beckon. It. con. The fitting or suitable. E. boroda. from the same in the sense of bear2. godum with ON. but now a river only. ON. OSw. befall. to wade through the water like a beaver. Cal. produce. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. whence baveux.— Kiittner. gelimplic. biber. byw. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. Fr. It. handsome. and also in that of birth.' ' He became very angry. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. and on. to happen. Dan. Fr. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. bestiaj Gael. 2. Fr. The moveable part of a helmet. seemly.fit. edge. beauts. ting. baba. an notion of being convenient. bearing. to happen. Lat. a bank. bellus. to fall. becuman. Beaver. riviire. to hem. bart. to bear children. den. bebrus. perhaps a living thing. behkr. Bo. o. from baver. See becymth anfeald yvel. tidy. byrcti. Fr. That thou mayest attain Goth. bekkr. a lip. birth. Bosworth. venient. get J ' He got very angry. blast. limpan. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. bel.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. fitly . is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best.AS. riviera. to come to or upon. from beau. Russ. to G. nothing to thy name make. brook. AS. i. nod or sign. to happen. The quadruped. talkative. bett. bach. beo. bard. Do no To It fallith favour. proper . to be a part of his to. Lat. ziemen. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. bobrowai. On the same principle. to be fulfilled. slobber. timan. which. brada. ON. burdr is used in the sense of a car. See Bat. dress with unbecoming richness . formerly a happen. I do thee pray. G. or special purpose. bekommen. ON. connected with ripa. bave i. suitable. to be incumbent upon him. iida. to live. it is probable that here also the to become.' every way suited to a prince. gabaurths. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed.

paralyticus. byst. 1.). a pillow case. kiissen-biere. erroneously modified in form. beost. the biter. to change . de Fierabras in Diez. g. whence familiar.ON. knock. by the analogy of bedaivb. cozen. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. buk. translation beOj. cushion-cover . Cot. The meanpainting. turn. badigeonner. ir'm. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. a paviour's beetle batail. on. E. kivih. Fr. bove. Esthon. also the bite or sting of a bees. boeuf. I A pillow-beer.D.D. an Beetle. Slav. Let. pital of St Mary.' So Gr.— JI14. beetle also signified the impiti.BEDLAM a distaff with flax.ing of the word is curdled. to rough- cast. bukva. bbtel. drink. a bee.' the last word corresponds to cofly . and in driving piles. prisons Venet. a Properly a cover that biiren. Bav. bitela. AS. to twist poorma. . to turn. buche. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. Lat. Ant. whose face is clotty. Gael. Grimm. cogionare. AS. thick.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. vaar. beer. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. in Nat. ris. Originally. Beetle. mars betada. as in It. thick. 57 — Palsgr. cow has calved. bedde-redirj ohg. 'La Gl. . to curdle or lopper. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. tree. 1 to drink. to drink. PI. Bed-ridden. in Schmeller. and lebermer in G. red curdled Arab . an inhabitant of the desert. G. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. batAfter mete in sale. poculum. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. calleBedlam. briesch-milch. /SXirov. to flatten In OE. Dan. i. Fin. Rom. Confined to bed. from the hos. to poordma. water. bibere is a re. to knock. bedawi. a mallet. biene. Arab. a wandering Prov. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. . turn (a garment). bos. as the milk of a that purpose in London. beach-each. bedskiissen-bUren. to beat bossel. trees in a forest . Beet. Lat. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. cousin. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. an ox. In a passage of an Old Fr. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. madhouse. Fr. duplicated form of the root. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. &c. from leberen. KXlvoTTiT^e. a clapper. ^. Fr. It. . Horn. piwo. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. a cover.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox.'— GL ^Ifr. used for boull. which also 2. a pillow-case. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. taglio. waarin. to become Beech. to parget or rough-cast . beer seems to have had the sods with a beater.— B.(paddi. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. It. clog for a dog b'oteln. bet. from Lat. bletumj Gr. a cup or implement for AS. a wasp. AS. I put the flax upon it to spin. D. The honey-producing insect. ProBeer. from blood. The beer al for te shenche bate. as. It. the loppered sea. . Bee. briest.. 1156. from risan. ._t from the root pi. a wasp. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. * Beestings. stakes. to fall. Bernese. to coagulate. curded or beesty. door. beach. the meat of spinach. case. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. Bedouia. G. Fr. G. a drink potus. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. ' MordiThe Lat. bably named from the destructive quali| T. Cot. a agulatum in the original Latin. Pett. desert. drink. wedges. The first milk after a dizen. woman that is newly delivered. speach. sela que environna la terra. Beef. bytl.^ drink. to and ale. Fr.possible. 1. E. doubtless. also bienst. pude-vaar. I dysyn a dystaffe. Fr. may be from K. a pad or cushion). buka. fagus. Gr. garden-herb. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. imperative pi. qui de lecto surgere non potest . a malsense of drink. bovis. crespir. beutel. bossen. boytle. by-flugaj G. the ox. may be shpped on and off. extant in Bohem. of beatmg. a bed-tick. beyki. GaeL bior. prigione. beest. a horse-fly . P1. beta. pettiriso. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. For that was law of lend. blow or thrust. biest-milch. fall. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. sang vermeilh betatz. biiren. cited by Diez. a stinging bieUe. betel. cugino. Pl. to colour with lime-wash.cz//aj. Bethlehem. from jtst-. bitel. But possibly bedizen 2. comb. bette or blettej Lat.

Bruce. iv. or Of a pure poor man. a wedge for cleaving wood. Du. OHG. 58 BEG BEGONE G.3. a chisel. Skinner's derivation from bag. — yivsaiQ. Nov. Creed. V. not began to alight. oppressed with woe. When Q. to cleve. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. vir mendi. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . a scrip euXaiciJoi. to be acquire. Ancren Riwle. capere. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. appears improbable at first. To Beg. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. anfangen. from whete G. beitel. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. krapszas. a — wedge. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. Si'Xa/coc. gen. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. referred gan this Erie alight. onginnan. 1430. Goth. &c. beis- plement driven by blows. Barbour.quently used in OE. 'Dz. The tother seand the dint cum. begging. genus. yivofiai. on further examination. bertola. to reduce him to beggary. can. Mundart. to go a begging. in Lat. a wallet. yivwajcw. is com. beitel. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. Political Songs. fangen and Lat. &c. a beggar . two betels —a grete oke. y/yvo/iat. on the tramp. ' ' . He did alight. lapidicinus. Lollards. be^nnan. ip AS. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. gan provyde To eschew The Flem.bag full of the G. to be able. Du. beissel. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . AS. 142. Lith. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. of Gr. P. Of brede full ycrammed. whence the E. Gr. Cold-begone. P.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. It. word. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. to arise. literally. hags. it is both to acquire and to beget. From w.n. woe-begone. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. begger. P.— . 168. air a .' about undern he got down. bag {baigean. 1867. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. viii. ornamented phoc. Into the are D. a little bag).D. baigeir. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. So from Gael. image is cleft out of the trunk. to beg. 40. It will . touched with emotion — . Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. beutel.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. ken. ' . can. incipere. Beghardus. gigno. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. aginnan. taking up. Vocab. Fr.' A. V. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. a beggar-boy. beriolare.pose. at geta talad. ysgrepan. P. V. ken. Florio. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. Deutsch. beginning. chisel. giving in Gr. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Schm. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. kind. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. ytyvwfT'Kw. P. but probably erroneously. origin. 2. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals.' for ye shall lament and weep. cans. ysgrepanu. steinbosil. gan. P. & go a begging. above quoted to get beaten ON. in E. P. pose-pilte. 'ex quo. ' Begone. a bag . to be born. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. To Begin. the fundamental notion of attaining to. on the bag. Du. 25. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. To produce children is to acquire. signifying to conceive. to take. seizing. to bear young. a stone-cutter's chisel. yiyvo/uat. but in the same language from poc. duginnan. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. a beggar. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. although it ' the future. P. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . sel. one after that other. P. chap. — Stillingfleet. 'Aboutin undern monly. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. yivtrri. also called Bigots. affected. in D. covered with gold D. ykvog. Mod. su with gold. a bag. to begin. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. In Luc vi. and Lat. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. P. as alighting is a momentary operation. a bag or poke. is formed pocair. to begaan. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. a scrip. to know. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. to get children . tale.

according as the * To Behove. obliged. gehaben. a follower. or purpose. to command. take heed of. habere. G. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. hevja. hafwa bort. us-hafjan. Thus in Finnish the heave. to lift. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to name. to R. AS. to vow. solicitum esse. by the compound observare. seeing to. observe. the name adapt. the two verbs seem radically the same. is on the top of or opposite to. ward. AS. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to be obliged to one. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to keep. G. to raise. portarsi. promise. betragen. to feed. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. what is so required. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to heave. Paladino. heeten. keeping. to regard. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to turn one out . to carry. the equivalent of E. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. laborare. G. AS. fixed upon any object). behoof. At the back of The re. and the E. beperson addressed. is supported by many analogies. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to promise. vow. to call. healdan. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. AS. gehouden. on. hevja. vow. to be suitable or becoming . gecall. to follow. at the tail of. to carry. G. behces. to tend. to hit the mark. hovast. Aan iemand bid one welcome.to vow.). to hold. To be expedient. gehalten seyn. heave. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to have. heita. K. behatan. keeping. advantage. servare. Goth. nittaa. to be obliged to do a thing. to the equivalent of Du.— . hcef tig bort. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to fit.the figure of throwing at a mark. hces. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. injunccommand.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. hatan. furtherance. To look steadily upon. to carry. gehat. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. what he wishes another to do .heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. hcefwa in seed. premi curi alicujus rei. to lift. Kiittn. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. to hold. behefe. N. ge' hatan. right. To Behave. to be well pleased out. guardare. to halten. tail. But. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. hove. hofwa. name of the head is used to express what hbva. behete. Sw. —Hest. adjust. behaviour. bound. AS. han- — js Kil. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to lead. It.for throwing it. to cast or throw. to be fit. to bring forwards. to be be named. Command. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to keen or hold. hafwa. to gehouden. as in the case of E. heeten willekem.' Richardson. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. Robert in Warton. tion. to behave. The seyn. behat. hafwa. to meet. or the hence advantage. to command. to look upon it as true . habban. se porter) to fare well or ill. exhort. to take away. OE. hafwa ram. The Lat. to be named. is also found in the sense of looking. have the sense of calling or naming. R. behind. G. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. — Behest. the distance of anything. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. And so from hania. and their senses intermingle. take yourself off. to keep. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . beholden to him. from tragen. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. hantyri. Sw. 17. promise or a command. or necessary. zijn. to vow. Plautus. zu etwas gehalten haitan. behold. to bers of the body. ifl fact. G. invoke. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to carry corn into the barn . use. to call. garder. To place are most naturally ex. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. commonly expressed. Sw. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. and (as Fr. promise . ufhaban. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. hafjan. when the verb will hoof. to look. The It. To Behold.

to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. and Du. garnish. beau sire and bel dame. Du. AS. to belay. is an easy progress. loven. behove. loben. to befit. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. bialla. bettifredo. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . border. belja. certain rate. and bergan. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. OFr. bylja. then. to give leave.. which has been shown to be derived from laudare.D. verloben. consent. reputation. Goth. beset. measure. to promise or engage. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. praise. a vessel made for dishonour. portion. true. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. if a narration. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. were civil terms of address. orloven. promising. belief . to der swaren lave. lofa. to bellow. range. to express approval. to believe. to believe. or high estimation. Northamptonshire. . distance to which a piece will carry. From AS. fitness. — mankind. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. reach. . moderation. to give leave. bounds. — Diicange. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. bulken. honoured. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. is used in the sense of approving. 6o BELAY BELL loven. Q. appearing in Mid.D. a. leaf geleafa. a tower. esteeming good and valid. to a loud noise. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. is (Sternberg). to make it fast. under the forms belfredum. to lay be- around. to hit hafi. to extol the worth of anything. tain a certain end. esteemed . and E. to cry out bell. promiser. and. allow. satisfaction. Pl. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. . To praise is essentially Xo prise. galaubs. In the middle voice hofwas. permitting or giving leave. leave . turris. laubjan. on. Du. locus securitatis Schilter. to give leave Dan. met. we have Goth. Hence to simple approbation. from mhG. To Believe. then. a little shed. The word be- Belfry. precious. bertefredum. b'ola. cela est audessus de votre portde. to praise. To Belch.D. to be required for a certain purpose. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . —F. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. on. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. P1. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . filu-galaubs. pro3. to sound loudly . of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. bellan. and E. ON. loven. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. a watch tower. a tower for defence . to praise. ungalaub kas. praising. to resound. bercvrit.D. Bell. battefredum. to believe. stand. permission. hesfa. an implement for making a loud noise. In Mid. gelyfan. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness.. for purposes of low estimation . All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. Det er ofwer er hofwa. with the consent of the heirs. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to fix a price upon one's wares. bellow. AS. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. See Gain. ley/a. Du. to promise. lov. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. in nautical language. Du. Fr. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. resonare. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. peal. Fr. to put a high price or value on. Then. bervrit. to lay the cable round the bits. to boke. G. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. bolken. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. if a promise. legsel. — . ornament. bealcan. bealcettanj OE. to praise. to protect. frid. Sw. are innate . Pl. glauben.Lat. Another application of the same word is in Pl. bell. OHG. to estimate them at a To believe. to bolk. lyfan. beffroi. Fair sir and Fair lady. beleggen. beffroit. aim. are other modifications of the same imitative root. to roar. overspread. properly belonging to the church tower.Lat. to sanction an arrangement. ON. or house. to permit. fringe. to to make A Templorum campana boant.. giving leave or permission.alyfan. mark ON. galaubjan. boare. laven. or a sconce. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. To Belay. It. erlauben. berfroi. laven.

G. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. pertinere. Was das belanget. to bend a bow . benedicere. Lat. bolch. bellows. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. a round or bubble-shaped root. G. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. or fyle with myre. ray. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. bilbila. balg. to hallow. To belong is thus to reach up to. See Bind. a accusative. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Bav. — Ducange. Fr. Eenison." — — . to touch. a kindness. Kil. Bret. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. pino3.' The term had been previously planation. to. benir. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. . bandoir. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. to touch one. to concern. belly. skin. from which is also bulbus. bellows. is The word balg. welt of a shoe gwald. on. From OFr. w. or simply djawt. To Bequeath. See Bank. to say. to become one's property . Benignant. Fr. or sometimes louban. To Benum. skin. Lat. bag. . — See Numb. disposed to oblige. to ring. Benefice. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. the skin of those animals that factor. is a kindred form. blast-bcelg. Lat. beneison. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. Fr. OFr. Benign. Dozy. Belt. J'emboue. wallet. by itself. bless. ' I beraye. to do good to one . Benzoin. a good deed. I araye. volva. a speaking well of one. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. to hold to one. Du. To Bend. Lat. to reach. to arrive at. cod or husk of pulse. ball. or a It is times the to signify services. from another modification of the word for bubble.' — Hie fimus. fyle To dirty. bienfait. pod. attinere. an inflated Lat. pertinere. loubdn djawt. bilbil-goda. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. vulva. OUG. a bellows. because bcelg. benignus (opposed to malignus). as concerning that. — root consisting of concentric skins. the word. one who does good. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. a leather bag. a blessing. ' . Gael. attingere. gelangen. well. benehusk. Gum benjamin. leather sack. bene/actum.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. a benefit. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. to exert force. vulgarly the belly. to use words of good omen. bimaissen. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. pervenire. fens et hie liraus. kind. welt of a shoe. binssen. bellows. to stretch it on a frame. Bench. — ray. needs no ex. has assumed a plural form. To Belong'. bell. langen. G. hem. means seeds of plants. to attain belangen. gwaldas. the womb. bendaj as. a blow. . I say). rise against external force . Beneath. Ptg. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. hence with ashes. border. from benedictio. becwathan. Benediction. . was in Mid. poX^ri. balteus . benjoim. rushes. belch.. dirt. Lat.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. incense of Java. bander un arc.polch. Sw. bimpsen. attinere. a water-bubble builge. a border. I marre a thyng. to belong. Benefactor. I soyle it or araye it. ON. to attain to. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). G. . benjoin.Fr. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. pouch. balg. ON. to make bilbil. to come to the crown belangen. as.' Palsgr. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Bent. from Arab. bendan. Quoth. . est matris in lucem editus. benefacere. binsen. wallet Benefit. belliJ Lat. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. In E. Lat. from cwcsthan. belgr. are stripped off whole blase-balg.videtur. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. See Nether. to concern. Benedico. benaigon. bcelg. Javanese perfume. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. belly. bags or bellows. to bless. benejicium. ^To Beray.pinuz. belt. taken absolutely. blister balgan-snamha. Gael. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. a bellows . . benedictio {bene^ and dico. se bander. generous. bolg. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. a spring. bolg.— Belly. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. See I . The ing-skin.

to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet.t. improve.ot-i. earg. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. See Better. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. berwe. reparation. Grose. earh. bat. baete. Kil. stow. Rob. same word with the provincial barth.—^fake. to strip. as. arwe. supply. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. from It. Fin. peto. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. Du. bestow. noise. basya. preferably. scopse spartis. better. bal oppbota. a horse collar. to fall with roisto. On the other hand. reafian. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. think more probable. Du. BETE dirty'. boeten. from AS. OE.iooA. Devon. and also to entreat. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . I from lew. G. supporting on the one side Lat. put. G. Zeitschr. what does it boot. ariierf to 113. botesward. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. an incendiary. BEREAVE Wall. vol. to cast. rubbish. ropahtaa. baete. Besom. R. roju. to mend. to word is shelter. fyrbotare. Du. and Du. basjaj Du. as conversely a besom is called broom. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. is to perform a serviceable office to him. compared with bargham. E. houseless. besIn sen. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. making better. to light the fire . It is the restore fyr betan. boutefeu. to fire a funeral pile of . Tha het he micel fyr betan. E.D. ^akka. beseech. Hfence backing. * To Bete. sweepings. amendment. seems twigs or rods. repair. betan. vi. the origin of which is to be found in ON. When men of mekeness him baet. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. as Du. AS. The proper meaning of the bale. an incendiary. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. To seek something from a person. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. to seek. . properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. the guardian . sets fire to. as. it seems hard to separate as. to exercise on a definite object. to on the other Goth. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. To Beseech. stealth from steal. place. bdt. Beere. to defend. to to deprive of.• 62 Antiq. stede. barth may be for barf.— VixHsm. from grow. burrow. Du. Fr. berwham. So Lat. as. to the place boarded off in a. berry. Esthon. a place . solicit. Fr. jnore. ship for a make amend. dial. buttafuoco. what does it better a man. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. make better . to make better. dirt . advantage. the side bhakshya. besnij Pl. boeten. to give a place to. — Chaucer. — Biglotton. dirt. dung . eld up- On is to be placed A — . a fire. bota. hva mannan. but it is specially applied mister. might have been . barfham. profit. buttare. sheltered from the wind. besmas. bur-we. roe. as. fearful. a berry. one who shelter. From abet.— Hal. besein. R. or. position. betan. person to lie in. Berry. as bouter selle. Tusser. Best. to thrust. het vuur The serise of Boeten. to kindle the fire. but in practice. because used for making besoms. of ffeed a fire. to stand one in good stead. To Bestow. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. as in growth. Beit. — amendment. or the space kept clear betan. — . To Gl. bouter. p. encouraging. So too Yorkshire arf. lay out. bdt. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. rods. Goth. to thrust. besen. Bestead. Beet. besje^ Sanscr. The dry. dust rojahtaa. put forth. To Bet. to entreat. beorgan. reparation. * Berth.irova. See Reave. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. boteith Goth.bhaksh. bet. barthless. Ihre. advantage.fish the other hand. brem-bessen. . to To Bereave. mud. to amend. Sw.X. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. to put on the saddle. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. bereafian. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. bacca. protect . to be-place. in the sense ctf beria. roju. or to bestead one. broom twigs. ^•n. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. Sw. To help. and on which the wager is laid. To bete his Jam. AS. small eatable fruit. lewth. boeten. fall with sound. p. 3. The origin is AS. AS. to make it. to supply a want. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. — bota. So roto rattle down.

abash j from polir. are commonly to one's lot. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. some attention. zimet. From the former of these are AS. betweoh. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. To Bewray. Lat. betst. E. dispose (whence schicksal. 88. Hence last G. Car son umbre si le trahit. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. beva. amiddes. Tinia eigi at lata eit. amidst. afford. wrogia. r'ojer dig. Best. find in one's heart. to fall. bet. Now the stirring of an object. Det sig sjelft. better. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. betest. Fr. *Ah. betriigen. — of the authorities. in the middle of two. Cot. trakir. In the water anon was seen His nose. betweohs. ON. obeish. -to appoint. which may be compared as to form with amid. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces.D. Dit tungomal rendered in E. is treason. taemen. progress. kein leben mehrin no signs . to deliver up in breach of trust. thy speech bewrayeth thee. two. order. batista. from Lat. betaemen. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. what does It is forward him. of quails. roebucks. beverage. to discover. wreia. Thus from dbahir. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. ON. verbs in ir with a double ss. i. spritigs from schicken. make manifest. a different form of twa. suitable. as trahissons. Fr. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. to happen. ruogia. &c. gezimet eines dinges. beuvrage. From It. It. to deceive. Bevy. better. trahissais. become. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. traitre. to Hence It. as from obdir. to happen. Bav. his eyen sheen.D. Percy Soc. it bewrays itself. lot). batizo. advance. To vouchsafe. G. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance.— . Fr. On the same principle ON. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. a brood. treachery. Slant. bat. Sw. traditor. has — In a like sense tanie>i. for measuring angles. Dii. — Betwixt. a bevy. and thence twegen. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. Pl. from invadere. betweox. awry. to deliver tip. best. It. Fr. regen. an instrument opening like a a thing. R. sloped off. gatiman. bevere. or with again. baet. against. R. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. bouter davantaige. tradire. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Golding's Ovid in R. are there Regt R. Fl. betwuxt. — that schickiich. . trahison. fitting. tweoh. E. Fris. R. find it good: Goth. AS. twain. as envahir. larks. Ober D. evidence of life. ziemen. To boot in coursing (i. AS. Pl. whence beveraggio Fr. Ik tame mi dat nig. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. i. OE. his mouth. the being pushed to the frbnt. be fitting or suitable. BETEfiM translated. e. a traitor. deem suitable. trahir. The inflections of Fr. vrohjan. Sahissais. in the middle of twain. dir. a drinking . Mich self a good glass of wine. proficere.' Dialogue on Witches. In like manner folissais. E. Buveau. deign. by a final sh. said he. to accuse. to make forwards. from Fr. To Betray. polish. bedriegen. Goth. tima. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. suitable. Goth. betera. — See To Bete. of pheasants. To Beteem. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. A — drink. Friar's Prol. Between. obdissais. springs from ON. betray. pair of compasses. bibere. fate. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Better. from. is used for the — R. Chaucer. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. e. gesiemen. G. to fall Some call it a bevel. betwuh. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. G. taemen. riigen. better. e. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. roja. bevde. bet. tradere. to drink . /alia. The as. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. to Teem. zemen. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. tima. fallinn. Du. by two. as tlock. to cheat. as one would have it fall. to stir. moveable and compass branches. in the same way Lat. x. more. G. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. I approve of beveau.

to sip. . makes ble. foul weather. Misc. Piedm. Schiitze. to well up with Cot. wrogen.to drink much. Mantuan. stock still. whey count . It. dial. convicts thee of being drink. per\'erted belief. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to tipple. sbiesso. bickeler. bescompte. discover. Cat. bickel. to Jam. /3i/3Xof a book originally. a bibber. baviere. to the stirring of their conscience. Piedm. sbiscio. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. two- footed. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. To bicker in NE. Cat. to stir. roggle. sloped. Fr. biais. ber-laita (for bes-laita). it becomes (Jz-. Bible. wraggeln. — Bi-. Probably. bes-azur. Bisect. To drink hard. pible. pddzahr. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. slanting . Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. biberer. bezling or skueing. poison. An excellent Basil. Dan. (according to the Fr. the basil Sc. in two ways for duis. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Bias. Fr. a Galilean. bis. from pdd-. the word became bddizahr. beslei. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. winding or crawling in and out. oblique. Fr.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne.D. It. used in precisely stone . sliding. b&zahr. sbrisso. Bice. Du. notice. to creep or crawl sideling.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. to dispute. Sp. Ant. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. It is especially applied in Sc. specially in a bottle. to tipple. sbias. To Bibble. sbrissare. Oh when shall I bizzle. of the sliced off.two. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). like guzzle. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. to move. rogt un bogt sik nig. in him. bibo. to glide or slip as upon.{ioin dua. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. dial. I Wallon.or from obliquus. . bisel. ice .D. Yes. it were the mouth. . to purl. evident. sbiescio. Bibelsworth in Nat. shows the P1. in Fr. biascio. bibaculus. sbieco. In Arab. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. to stir. bihais. asure-bice (Early E. to a fight with stones. love first begins to life signs of him. Gr. sbriscio. reveal. biascia. Bezoar. to shake. besanca. Fr. a stone-hewer . to stir. Pl. by throwing of stones. Lat. or in and out. to slaver or drivel. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. crooked. To Bezzle. to make tongue Du. inferiority. is explained to clatter. . To Bib. slippery. kwijlen. edge of a plate of looking-glass. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. aslope. sbiagio. snout. An inferior blue. Bib. bestemps. Sard. Hal. to cut in two. The It. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. sik beregen. bark of which paper was first made. kwijllap. The train of thought is then. twice. wrangle. or by any rapid motion. Ci^. though such a change of form would be very unusual. to slaver . biax. bring under ' Thy accuse. lips. rogge. Biseau.a. OE.' bibble. one who drinks in excess. E. Diet. him. Fr. Hal- — do something aslant. sbiasciai. biaiser. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. Prov. to stir up . to be a paring. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. tailU en biseau. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. bible. presence. biberon. babbefore the eyes. metaphor). barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. baverole. Lat. Sardin. its clothes. a bezle. beregen. kwijl-bab. babbi. — crooked. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . bisdare. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. aslope sbisciare. he is Wtb.s bellum for duellum. Jamieson. has a singular stone-picker. expelling or preserving against. Pers. to give signs of life. —Bickering'. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. bebble. a sloping edge. to it evident to sense. which good bibbeler. liwell. petit-lait. the papyrus. To skirmish.as in Biped. bending. In comp. sbrisciare. 78). See Wriggle. biberen. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. —Dozy. Fris. Uprogen. bias-wise. as an eel or a snake. bickelen. bickel-sieenken. bavon. and zahr. a fragment bieco. or kwijl-slab. whence Du. . Fr. To Bicker. 172. a slabbering-bib. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Bezel. misFr. bickai.

pressing on one's notice. Bigot. R. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. inhabit Du. belly. swelling. Jam. AS. build. bced.' Addison. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to build. to ask. boa. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. twice. has leta. 2. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. to cultivate. beodan. or bad. abidan. bog. to build G.' Pope in R. who. Analogous expressions are G. spelling seems to used in the N. — — — Halliwell. as. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. Compare also Sp. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. an entire skin. athird class. to arrange. gebodenj G. to forbid . praebere. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bow. bulge. A bjudan in anabjudan. bugan. Wallace in Jam. buga. to pro- command. bis and in comp. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. cultivate. It must be observed that the word bidja. bulky. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. bulge. or. Bight or Bought. bolgna). although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. repair. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. to bid one good day. to forbid . bidan. or third order of penitence. bilge or bulge. anleta. a chip. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. porrigere. bidill. to pray one to dinner. from belgia. and yajiBui. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. swaggering. bolginn.. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to belly. Kil. to offer one the wish of a good day. verbieten. called the tertiary order. a suitor. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. W. ON. and Gael. to offer. bo. to bend. to abide or wait on. besides the professedmonks and nuns. bedun. to bend. gebeden j G. bidel. to solicit. From Gr. The ON.peto. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. . becoming in Lat. to marry. to E. bend. bidjan. bit- bidja. bigan. from bidan. to build. to bulge. bygga. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. G. a swelling. AS. iiQ. The original Swollen. in the sense of ask for. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bidan. to presimpler pare. byggia. — To Bid. The . BIGOT beidan. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. Einem einen guten tag bieten. of More ' in Richardson. belly. to swell. 1. swoln. bi-. pray. ON. biegen. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bath. bauen to cultivate. praestare.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. With respect to logical pedigree. explaining the Sc. the meaning of bid. bugt. ewes. are also used in the sense of asking for. to have one called before him. bead. ON. England for swollen. as G. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. OSw. the belly of a ship.t. AS. may plausibly be derived from Goth. The loss of the / gives Dan. BID of stone. Hence Sc. from seek. To bid the banns. balg. beadle. faurbjudan. byggan. to move quickly.Leta). beidast. Big-swol- . Bigamy. bieten. bolga. Two verbs are here confounded. bua. to inflate E. Du. inhabit. to offer it to public notice. ' Bug as a Lord. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. qucero. einen vor Gericht bieten. Bickelen. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. offerre. The ON. bag. bieden. to dwell. to start out. which is stiU. form. bug. to inhabit. consisting both of men and women. and the Sw.uddered len heart. forwards. Big. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bulk. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. To Big. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. proud. A pose to one to come to dinner. quiring something to be done. to curve. P. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. as tears from the eyes. biddan. to look for. be bug. OSw. to bicker. ON. G. To Bid ' Big . to look for. by seek and beseech. bouwen. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. ten. G. to ask." buque with E. a flexure. related to big or bug. rising up. . bat . The 'La. bend of a shore or of a rope. — prepare. bugne (answering to ON.

such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. ac labores manuum detestantes. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. and also unlearned common men. both men and women. clownish. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. coarse woollen cloth.D. bigio. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.. rustical. xx. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. borel. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. ix. and hence the variations bigutta. sed maxim^ in muliebri. Beguttce. homespun cloth. grey. alii Apostolici. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. In the same way Fr. as well as bizocco. Bighiotti). E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. S. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. &c. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. honesti plebeii amictus. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. all apparently derived from Ital.— Ducange.a. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. dark-coloured cloth. grey. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. signifying bagmen or beggars. bigotta. absque votorum religionis emissione.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. 1499. 560.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. corruption would easily creep in. bighellone. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. a blockhead. a dunce. biso. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. They wore a similar dress. A. bighiotto. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. alii de paupere viti. Bizoccki. 1243. D. and Q.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. says. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. vocati Fraticelli.— BIGOT bigardo. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. face VIII. Bizocco. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati.' says an Venet.' Matthew Paris.D.' translated by Muratori. A. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. probably from biso. the nobles to Rienzi. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. Flor.' says one of of bigio. natural grey or sheep's russet. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. beghino. In a similar manner from bigello. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. 15 18. A. Hence the OE. From bigio. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. Francisci communiter appellabant. which must not be confounded with begardo. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum.D. begutta. with reference to A. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. to adopt a similar course of life. vol. Augustini dotarint.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. was formed bigello.' Chart. perch^ i Terziari di S. the other form Per te Tribune. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. Bighini.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. aliqui Begardi. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. author quoted in N. G. beghart. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi.

and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. buoy [i. Lat. G. bila. weapon . Bille. names bill-berries. an axe. belgan. the swelling G. a hypocrite. abelthe fetter itself. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Billow. a name given to a. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. blaa. Dan. bolghe. bigardo. p. Bigin. person of religion leading a loose life. I. Johansen. In the same way are related Pol. . 5 * . Sw. — bigardia. a negro. genus vincu- Bilboes.' bilio. . BILBERRY nated. belghen. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. e. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. billet. at sea Billet. tepati. from OSw. ferrese quam ligneae. a beak. crowberry. b'olja. a short note. an axe . in the same sense. bulla. 'tumidi fluctus. now A Bilboa blade. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. In English the meaning has received a further development. Deutsch. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . bille. Dan. The proper meaning bylgia. See Bull. e. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. beil. To Bilk. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. axe. obsolete. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Kil. to pick a millstone. an ingot of gold or silver. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. bill in parliament. blue . from Mid. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. the trunk of a tree. a of the sea. top. an axe. Tartuffe. dziob. bigotto. OFr. bulgja. an ingot. . false pretender to reUgious feeling. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. Bohem. to job. w. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. bil. and a billard. AS. on. symbolum. dziobad. procella Kil. a shackle. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Kil. however. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. gleischner (Frisch). the o changing to an i to express diminution. biilge. Du. NFris. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. to swell with rage). Bilbo. billet is the diminutive of this. inscriptum. Gascoigne in R. 2.' mariners. of boja. might be taken to express a hypocrite. Fr. bizocco. and in Lat. topor. Aurelles. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Mundart. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Bill. as craneberry. billot. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla.' in Richardson. bill. 3. boeye. beghart. to strike. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. Du. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Sw. used in legal proceedings. A slang term for a sword. To defraud one of expected sinking. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). Bill. bullet. a sword. boia. a devotee. Gael. fluctus maris. an adze . ^Billiard. AS. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. the bill of a bird. an axe. An instrument for hewing. a floating log to mark the place of some. from the dark colour. loi. Lat. blamand. to be angry (i. bile. See Bulk. of E. bull-berries. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. to peck. Du. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. buail. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. billard or billart. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. — — ' . Sw. plog-bill. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. a seal. bisoch. a hatchet. Bilberry. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. 2. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. horn of an animal. bulghe. is properly a sealed instrument. Thus we find in It. that of swell. clog to a fetter. The Du. seems to be rather the unda. deceit. Billet. billard also signified at billyards. in the sense of a writing. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. buie. Piedmontese bigot. dissimulation . — Cot. bigot. bill of exchange. Ludwig. a seal. whortle-berries. A lorum tam in — Diez. a man who rests on a stick in walking. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Fr. gan. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. boja. the beak of a bird. to strike. Langued. as a bill of indictment. and dziobas. Bojce. bla-berry. Roquef. Sp. bigot.— — — . Billette. Prov. bui. The origin of the term is probably from bole. a bigot or hypocrite. So in Gr. Fr. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten.. AS. fetters. Bilge. bwyell.

The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop.68 BIN Bio-. Dan. binge. to net. To — — —D. — properly near-sighted. to be derived from Ibfiaq. pin-ti. a little dog. 'tumens sequor. from Gr. AS. a hind or female stag. life. a truss. bundt. than vice versi. bord. ON. poule. Bind. brut. Bindweed. — Kil. Bitch. bigne. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. an eagle's young G. videt. bindan. to fasten it together. a habit- Binnacle. Bing. to bulge. a heap. Fr. poultry. a bitch. ON. See Breed. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. berkas (z=:Fr. .' and the like. bunga. sc. Bisom. Bizened. Sp. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. pittjo. properly a young pigeon. See To Bear. hith. which is expressed in E. isfiw. . . band.. bita. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. Fr. Lat. G. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. Bisen. G. Sanscr. The bitol. bund. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. the young of an animal. twice cooked. Fr. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. and especially to a small poor horse. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. nodus. habitacle. pinnii. Lith. v. fowl. . to bear. beisseii. AS. Thus I suppose the Gr. admota non Bit. wine. bunch. burt. also a stone weight. expressed by Sw. to cook). Bittacle or Binnacle. lusciosus et myops. terial. to plait. evigue. viz. Fr. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. biscuit. ge- from AS. EpisETTiTOOTToe. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Then added division in a granary. biccej ON. pundas. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. to bring Biscuit. to form a knotted structure. G. AS. bikkia. is rendered in ON. evegue. We — A Birth. Lat. The proper meaning is a heap. beorth. hiindiiin. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. evesgue. the young of birds . j). to hang. bundun. Fr. The term ON. Goth. to bind together. Lap. To Bite. to build. bundle. . — Surrey in R. doubtless a stone. is in Scotland applied to ivy. a female stag. biclie. E.. Birch. I would derive the verb to knit. a gallinaceous bird. Lat. episcopus. truss. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. bundle. a weight of 48 pounds. qui nisi propius Blind. bund. i./«idere. Bisson. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. brid. a bump or knob. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. where the compass stands. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification.. — See Bittacle. and of Fr. a corn. or petze. bij sienigh. by the verb knit or net. When compared with Fr. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. betsel. or bin. a bitch. bircej Sw. Bird. beize. Goth. overlooker. binda nat. Habitacle. a knob. Lith. a brood or hatch of young. earnes brid. BITTACLE /Siof. from \t3\. a pig petz. bundt. to wreathe. Sw. pippione. See Belly. a heap. H. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. V. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. to twine. or baked. by binda. propius videre bij sicndc. to swell. It. a bear. from Lat. bij sien. an overseer. Lat. pinnu. &c. pullus. a bunch. piiiti. a bitch applied also to other animals. in Swabia. — — . a weight. bunki. beitsl. biscotto. bhurja. . bindan. forth. Bailey. piccione. AS. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. Sw. Bine. IV. are commonplaces. It. i. to bind at . In like manner from knot. beran. bunt. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Du. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. while bind-wood. Bin. vescovo. G. bitill. AS. a house. from pondus. e. Gr. bitacora. or ben-wood. beitan. a female dog hindinn. bjork. copus. bin-wood. AS. to knot nets for fish.

pale. pale brown . faded. or water beating gently on the beach . Sp. To Blab the anchor. to speak Dan. 't huisje. So Fr. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. The bitas. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. fallow fawn-coloured. pale. whiteness (candor sine It. to babble. buft". bleg. In Legrand's Fr. Blabber-lip. from wachen. whitish. Wit hung her mourn. as of a body falling into water.. A a rail. 'fuscus. first. ON. babbe. ON. Again. is apprehension of danger.— Blabber-lip. — Collins in Hal. Lydgate. — Hollyband. Deutsch. pins of the capstern. white. blesmer.plab is used to . . — cheeked maid. ' plabraich. dusky. blank. bleich. fallow . pale. mouth. —Neumann. brunblakk. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. whitish. discoloured . . to babble. Mag. Ai-mstrong. thoughtlessly . But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. term. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell.' G. biacca. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. obscurus. a shelter for the steersman. to bivouac. Mantuan babbi. butorj OE.. blake. bites. things —Palsgr. baboyer. Bleak. Sp. synonymous with baber-lip.€i. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. maculS. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. blabaran. Percy Soc. bittour. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. bitts of Bitts. Why presumest And laam's asse. an edge is sharpest sword. gabble. Pl. Mund. Bohem. blab. mona mid Dan. to talk much. blubber-lipped. baitrs. Gael. white. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. unintelligible talk plabair. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. faded. Goth. mouth. To or he can speake. as in that of pale and white on the other. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. round which the cable is made fast. blakki. in contempt. yellow . a large coarse lip . Fieldfare. blakk. Sp. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. . In a similar manner Gael. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. bihovac. ON. to To blabber blabber with the lips. even humour seemed and beuin. Hal. AS. Gael. beuni. Hist. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Hald. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . gulblakk. blob. Fr. x. a stammerer. shining. Fr. The Gz. bleikr.D. pale yellow . is placed.' It would thus acle. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. to wax pale or bleaked. blanc. a large lip. a babbler. 332. Du. apparently from its biting the tongue. shine. blabhdach. a fluttering noise. to loll it out. Cotgr. blebberis. on. bittore. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. pale yellow. /ealo-/or. blob. ^aj'/^r.. Fr. stutterer. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. as of wings . confusedly. Se bleek. Je N. as of water gently beating the shore. v. "uivac. bitter. Black. bitones.). blepLith. a* mast . as is seen in sputter and splutter. blabbre. ^chops. It. a flapping. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. garrulous. quick. Fr. light-coloured. to watch. small guard-house. to the sharpness of a weapon. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip).' by Gudmund. black. iroxafealo. his blacan light. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. Bittern. Nagt huis. an additional watch. 156. Applied in Hin ON. 't kompas huis. yellowish. a beam in a house or ship. Alex. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. dark. NE. viz. Sw.' by Haldorsen. biti. blac-hleor ides. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Cot. plappem. chatter babbler . to let out whai should have been concealed. from whence we have adopted the. AS. plabartaich. ON. blunt we say it will not bite. G. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. quoted by Ihre. blobach. blob. Bivouac. the palebleff. babbling. white lead. In like manner E. on the one side. a continued soft sound. indistinctly. corrupted in Fr. I blaber. beitr. night guard. Bav. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. ' Biovac. bitor. to chops. out the tongue. cut. blabbern. bitr. G. bird of the heron tribe. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. a tati. beiwache. a childe dothe gasouille. leohte . Sp.

a blanket a bed. on. from candere. and others engaged in dirty work. name originally given Blackguard. tattle. to Hence Ital. Hist. piatto. smother. Reliqu. madder. Du. Sw. his meat burnt. cited in N. to glow. To blank. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Perhaps from blegen. blister. blein. Sir. blather. plat. white. or as E. rogues and wanderers. leaf of a. which we . to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. chatter. Blame. plat. blahen. on. skola and thwatta. blatt. Blank "verse. bladdra. Gr. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. a bubble. D. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Wott. 86. The present forms then should be classed with blether. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Besides the examples of this connection given above. dial. to disappoint. blasphemare. Play in Nares. the leaf of a tree. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. defame. G. probably ate. Now. to To bellow. also tanned by the sun. chatter. roar. contracted from bladeren. livido . mire. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. —^Webster. pimple. Fr. gabble. also white woollen cloth . blether. blather. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. The radical bubble. blanchet. variable than the signification of words designating colour. biasimare. broad. to glitter. to —Blaspheme. a buible.— ^o thehotsun. vagrants. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. with all other loose idle masterless men. Bav. leaf. a boil. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. and he shall be sure to have O. blatter. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. is identical with Flanders borlen. in R. G. e. slush. Lat. sheet of paper. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. polished. tree. mus-blackt. also jabber. blister. Dan. G. a white or unwritten ticket. most complete example of leafy structure. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Fr. irXariQ. Dan. blad. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. — . the origin of . blegen. Du. the ON. flap of a Du. blinken. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. pallido. blegne. pass over. or of an oar G. . moere. dripping-pans. bladeren. boys. coat. Blancli. vagabonds. pladdern. a leaf. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. to dabble in water. as. mud. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. blanc. Blain. borrelen. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. as blader. leaves. It. to make or become white blanc. Eadmer. black. or a mass of bubbles. blaere. — Sw. linkboys. smore. bladder. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. pXaatpiiiiHv. whitish. 1854. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. blanchir. a blank ticket. a. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. biastner. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. to purl. or blafich.— Kil. bladra. Cot. blister. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. and Q. Fr. blad. imbrunire. and G. whitish.—Blatant. . Sw. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. blame. commonly called the Black-guard. to blow. a pustule . from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. Blanket. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Fr. to bleak in the sun. waschen.. mud. I am degraded from a cook. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. branches . blena. Blank. Torriano. to shine. To Blare. See Blubber. speak impiously. bladre. Sc. 7. bladder . blanqne. candidus. blactra. . Bacon in R. blister. PI. to omit. a bubble. Jan. &c. Du. and the agitation of liquids. Du. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. to vocifer- — Cot. as scullions. bladder. as Lat.—Blatter. plate. blatter. Dan. blanchet. Blade. foolish talk. —We Bladder. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. p. 5/^a/^ of colour. blank. leafy. and thence to babble.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. to bubble. revile. to blanch. — — — to jabber. reproach. and E. blaeren. But perhaps a more Gr. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness.. pluddre. as. white. and wandering men and women. board. Du. shining. — rura. a bladder or pustule. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. bladder. to shine.

to publish the praises. First from the E. blus. Blatant. The AS. ON. blis. baladrar. oron-blasare. thraso. blasonner. blast. fire. among other . senses. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. a shield. blaeteren. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. A strong flame. blcEsan. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. baladron. Blast. to set on fire. much plausibility. the noisy. also only pains and excellent endurance. blase. Sw. a lamp blasere. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. ing of arms. by stripping off a portion of the bark. Du. to de. blasa. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. kept up. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. beast. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Sc. blcest. in that of praise. used. magnilo. noisy blor. Dan. gloriosus.whence the Fr. blazen. bldsse. Sw. The other derivation. blaterare. Cot. to extol. ON. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw.). Du. and. blossi.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. Du. — ^Jam.' to fastum . 'op een trompet blaazen. stultd loqui. blaser vid. to bellow. the matter incendiary . a loud noise. each of boaster. a torch. on whose behalf the herald appeared. Golden Book in R. a shining spot. ther it was erst not knowe. a torch . — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. blason. an empty and two theories are proposed. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. braise. to cut off prematurely. embraser. OE. Cot. g. blys. As Kilian. . clamorous. Troilus and Cressida.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. blysa. blezo. to spread news.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. brasa. also praeblczse. a coat of arms. laudes (Kil. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. But now. a flame. like the in English. also blazon or the blazSpenser. She roade at peace through his heraldry. blatero. blaesen. If armour. a shout. pale. redness . a blast. blass. might And sain. magniloquus. . somewhat different train of thought. coloured prints. commendation blason funebre. Fr. I. AS. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . blesse. and which. boasting. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. is used in the sense of manifestatio. to publish. bawling. Gael. is from AS. blaodh. G. how. Kil. abroad. blaze. With inversion of the liquid. ill-speaMng their proper colours . to blaze Sp. blesse. live coal . to trumpet forth. Du.sound a trumpet. as a verb. splendour. proclaim the virtues of. AS. light-coli. a funeral oration . Prov. indeed. blose.— . it is manifest. Du. biter. G. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. of an animal. friend Cornelius. abroad. a flame . trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. i. Dan. blcese. to blow. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. blason. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. visui patet. — Elazen. Fr. Du. e. blase. to blow. to blow . blorach. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. besides blesse. or blazening. an conium. in the same way as we 2. Blaze. a voice Jr. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. or to the sound which it produces. ventosus. a MS. loud . Lye. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. a flame. — — ' : bless. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. A gust of wind. blcEsan. 2. brasa. proflare tues. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. The origin of this exSp. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. — ' — stroy. declaratio. blasoen. blateroon. has also blencke. shield or surcoat. Gudmund. . might spring from the same origin by a . and to make him word blaze. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. Fr.' painted or figured . See Blare. To blast. blaodhrach. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. whence Blazonry. To Blaze. bliEsan. To blow AS. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. bleis. Blanches illuminies. is the imme. blcesett. to proclaim. quus. a whisperer. A blaze is so intimately Then. bles. oured.

color plumbeus bldma. Gr. p. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. novice. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. wanness. pale Du. bleakness.P. sinen langen tranen. while the agent ac- From . is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. to bleach. To salir. pale . More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. from the than schal I go. Blancher. livor. the livid colour of a bruise. darkness of vices. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. blister. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. So in Sw. drop of water. livid. blink. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. Bailey. to blear one's eye. or blemish. Palsgr. exposed. from on. a red watery eye. The term blear. B. boggle at something. blcecan. Blemisli. dead-coloured Cotgr. . to spot. to make him feel blank. tumanid. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. blemissemeiit. blesmissure. to cast a mist before the eyes. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. ' He blarrede or roar. ' — — ' : — — . blakna. (faith or creaunce) Be war. . See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. to blare been weeping. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. light-coloured. ^Blencher. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light.' the devil makes a vain back. to spot . what blenched him therwith. Blear-eyed j having sore i. a spot. confound him. blesmir. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. is Blench. Pol. bldmi. ^Xiixaoftai. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. . to disgrace one's name. And By a similar metaphor Pol. ' — — eye. a blemish in one's 2. BLENCH obfusco. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. a blotch plerr. or to low as oxen. a been distinct. Blear. splamii!. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. a stain. to soil. Schmel. c. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. To Bleat.' God in his wordes. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Mac. guenchir. blot. Fr. See Blood. a spot. goda nainn. N. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. to wink the eye. to bleat as sheep.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. plama. not only pale but livid or dark of hue.v.'he cried till the tears ran down. 419. a blot or smear blanking one. a fault. See Black. the formal equivalent of English wink.filerren. — blink the question is to shrink from it. Ancren Riwle. sugillatio. pier vor den augen eyes. Bleed. — — R. tacher. which are blurred with the have shewed you. Sir J. A Blab. bleikr. blench came to be used for a trick. spSt. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. AS. wheal. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. whitish. on. like one that has long P1. G. ' . tutnan is a cloud. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . wan. spla7nU sie. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. geplerr. inflamed eyes. Sw. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. . And now are these but mansbond (i. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. to start away from. to wink at it. as of dust or mist . So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. flack. to cry or weep. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. A stain in a man's reputation.' to deceive one. to become livid. to stain one's honour or reputation. Manuel de Pecch&. blot. Gower in R. souiller. a disgrace. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. avoid looking it in the face. 242. Richardson. to humbug. a spot. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. Bejaune. a boil. blema. pimple .D. blur before their eyes. in the expression reputation. . Bleb. bloken. start vor den augen. See Black. 115. From the OFr. a spot. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. As AS. Bleak. or blemysshen — blaken. I chaunge colour. To totally different from the foregoing. paleness. and thence to a bruise. blarren.

blide. riches blajennii blicksem. — . Nares. —Brera. an entry which leads to nothing . to — make it thick and muddy. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blogi. to shine. the G. AS. blotzen. to make happy. OHG. Blink. 375. plonsen. doors. blinde fenster. a glance Swiss blenden. sertion of the nasal. Deprived of sight.eyed. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. (=bene dicere).blinkard . blend. blich-fiur. sweet. blind. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. to rejoice. a. plotzen. glance. fortunately. blatida. blago. in potters' language. flash of light . From the action of the hand making Sw. bluiter. Du. to rejoice. . tative source of the word is wholly lost. blessed. blanssen. Swiss (obsolete). To Blend. ^Jam. to bless . blazeny. blac. I hold thee a grote thee. glimpse. glad. blicken. Dan. goods. the verb to bless is some.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. make these hands 3. blendian. blessed. The sound of k before an s.blinze. well blahy blick and blink. Du. wink. lovely Bohem. weaklaveny. lighten. blick. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS.wink . Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. Sw. as taschen. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. a dead nettle.nasal. . glitter. blicken. happily. to glitter . joy. Kiittner. dazzle . Russ. Blight. . thou knave. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. to shine. a blick-ooghen. . to mix. blithe. blinzler. OHG. Bliss. to bluiter up with water. joy. mix from blekken. shine. blindselen. as in the case of blaze. Sc. blent. The term then self or others. A . blund. glitter. . also to wink. pale. mixing in general. to merry. a glance. gives blinzen. Thence apblinds. bleg. lightning. G. blink. to blithsian. to shine. to lighten. is I shall Gurt. as a blind entry. blithe blis.D. blinzeln. to flash. .. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. Swab. bliss look . burn up. to dazzle . Needle. Wtb. graceful. be glad flash. G. to churn. money. Paradises blidnissu. To Bless. blind- ON. livid. to stir or puddle. but by no means therefore a pre. glitter. vious one in the order of formation.' To — blunge clay. as a vatn i vin. blinzdugig. window-blind. moment.corn. false windows. blaziti. AS. a look. seems the simple netel. lightning sweet blago. Du. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blitz. although in the in the next article. j). blahoslaviti to twinkle. — A A — . blissian. AS. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. readily passes into a /. tire. to glance. — Goth. trix. to dilute too much . gladness. . Pol. The inblissful. III. blidu. to be blind. Blazena Bea. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. cascultare. the Slavonic languages.blunda. or nettle which does form. To blunder water. a gleam. to dash wine with water. wink of sleep . BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. lightning. a. a wink. . Du. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. blahos.not sting thiiren. blincken. to glitter ful . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . joyful. to bluiter. liquid filth to bluther. to fall into water with a sudden noise. to act like a — . joy . and joys of Paradise bliden. well blagaya. a flash. G. Owl and Nightingale. blet. a blessing. Du. to shut the eyes. . AS. to glitter. blindr. bludder. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. . Tany. G. a nounce happy. a wink With the bletsian. — when he — Bailey. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. to make a rumbling noise. to consecrate . pockets. blican.Q. as in Du. blende. Blind. to shut the eyes G. Biglotton. tless —Gamm. the sign of the cross while blessing one. De Sonne ' verblekken. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blink-eyed. Sc. ON. riches . blicksem. to pro. to dabble in water. F. blag. giving (Fr. to twinkle. sung. happy . latter case the consciousness of the imiwink.blinken. pearance of the blighted . Serv. to plunge. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. ' Pl. happy . happy . with or without the nasal. to bless. csecubrandish. . blitzen. . good.

to breathe hard. frequentative. blotfisk. mild. must be referred to AS. Cotgr. joyful. boucler. pusula. the unhewn bole of a tree. and inarticulately. blod. And so from squatter. —Bailey. B. It may be formed Blithe. and pisg. bluyster. is also used in the sense of swelling . fish blind person. . To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. lagga i blot. a bubble. N. a blot or spot. signifying in the first instance to soak. bloc. . a block or log en bloc. or is inserted or omitted. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. a small lump of anything thick. and easily changes its place. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. Du. — — — — — From blabber. like manner the coloured. pimple. Dan. a bubble. in bulk. — Blob. Fr. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. . in gusts. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. a drop of water. speaking rapidly any . having an unsound swollen look. to bubble. To a smoking or drying by the fire. weak. Sc. bloc. Du. blond. as a blab of ink. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. soaked. shells. mild. a . buckle. Langued. — . separate portion. Egillson. Sw. busten. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. gentle OHG. to close it with a solid mass. Blister. To Blissom. as in E. expressed by cognate roots. round. In Fin. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. sloppy dirt. to desire the male.— Hal. blindman's-buff. a blister. from blcsr. ^Jam. any lump or mass of things. G. blidr. ON. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. a lumpish head plubach. Of sheep. blab. Block. B. blobbes or droppes of water. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. a See Blot. to blow. repre- pusula. blouca and Fr. a blain. to cure by smoke. Ibid. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. blautr. to blow. bubble and blubber. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. Blond. to blow. whence blast. a ram. also to set See Bless. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. pustula. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. or blinde-kiih. Blob. to block up the way. blobber. Lat. Hence. blijde. . must be classed with forms like Gr. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blubber. to soak.. Goth. in the sense of a soft tint. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Thus we have blab and babble. a bubble. The roots /. Bav. orbicular. Svt. ON. is formed squad. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. W. mass. soft. blcesma. kostua. husks. or the like. soft. formed spot. Sw. blister blasan. an unformed mass. Dan. and bouclette. I believe. — Sw. to dash liquid. taken altogether. blesme. A under this name was imported into England. Blob. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. The blow E. cooking. soft. a dirty blister. blister. puff. biota. it is must be observed. blithe. ^vaaa. kostia. bausen. swell. strawclod. blot. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. as if soaked in water. Jonson. merciful ON. and F. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. Gael. For this. Mod. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. blote. to to puff and be noisy. blide. bleiths. blot. while Lat. fiustula. blaud. light yellow. like clot. blaustem. pausten. blinzel-maus. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. bluster. in the lump or mass of wood. to blissom. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured.plisg. plub. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. pods. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. senting the dashing of water. Fr. in Nares. Boyd in Jam. Bleb. Kil. Gael. To Bloat. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. inde humiditate tumidus. a blister . bloated. soak in water cured fish. as blinzeln. blot. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. blindsehn.— Bailey. to swell. buclde. The stem or trunk of a tree. See Blot.—Bloater. blad.pusta. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. a little blisg.—Bloated. or bleb. viscid. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. A solid blouquette blisters. or the mark which it makes. G. Hence E. to steep. stone.

bldmi. as the skin or hair. leme. yellowish It's G. kobladde. splashing full. bliithe. lump flower. blut. blady. Sw. E. Russ. — Stalder . platschern. blatte. a flower. blosen. j^ blottir. blauwel. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). wan. cow-dung. Blot. dial. It should be of filth blak-blatte. E. bloed. Harmar in R. bloetnsel. glus. It. AS. blaeuwe ooghe. blust. Florio). redness. to squat or lie close. to blaze . bliise. . PI. Fris. a lump. Schwenck. ])erly Du. or the sound of it . to slap. Stalder. on. E. Pl. Du. sbiadare. a gush of milk . to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. soft or flat. blosem. platt-voll. Du. in v. E. fall to overflowing.^ Kil. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. ON. fall down . glasi. to strike with something soft or flat. to be red. D. blooth. See Blow. 2. platsch-voll. fair in en blat vand. probably connected with Pol. bldts. Blood. ^lys. bluish. plottra. Lat. to strike with such these objects exhibit. spot pletter i solen. blose. to splash. Schilter. . yellow. glossi. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. a nature. shine . . . platz-regen. Erploten. blue. a cow-dung. AS. Blotcli. to dabble in water. to glisten . Fris. the bright colour of the cheeks . plot of land is a spot or small rage. to squander. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. Wendish blodo. to blush . ^Bleed. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. ON. Dan. bliihen. a pelting shower). E. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. Fr. to dabble in water . Blossom. from the bright colour which 7'vci. a The form platschefz. bletister. bloto. straw. The G. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. livid marks. Sc. bloutre. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. blotter.' the rain is driving and blue . splendour . bloeme. blond is used in blatt. bloi. Blad. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. S-wiss pladern. a water ploutsche. to dirty. .platter. blysa. — gush. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. from G. bloedsd. Sw.D. pale biavo. blodelsa and blawelsa. gloss. glister . Sc. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. gfyssa. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. to blot the land was in a leme. brilliancy. OFr. pladdern. blotting-paper. Wflz<^«. dirty spot on the cheek. to strike . lump of anything soft to blad. blat. blawels. whence plader. blase. blois. biado (of which the evidence plattern. . to flame. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. glose.properly to scatter liquid . a flower. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . pladern. blond. — — . to blaze. Ein platsch milch. Du. to shine . lustre. gammon.blauschlagen. blue . —Barbour. flower. bit by bit. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. blue. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. Dan. blaeuw. a. pale tint. bleustern. platz-voll. G. great leaf of cabbage. a beater. blond en blaauw slaan. the bright to blot paper morsels. a blow. blostma. to dash down. to scribble. a Usaae. blowen. Sw. blistaf. to be red with blot. couleur livide. a Schmid. . plattata. plet. a drop of water or colour. plotterwis. Blow. E. coloured (Diaz. bleistern. gleam. Prov. a deli. bloi. mud. spots in the sun. to slap. See Blow. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. a black eye Du. Jios. blondheid. a blot or spot. lidmr. to spot or blot. — Cot. to grow pale). dial. pale. livid . of a blow with something lios. blomstr. (of cattle) to dung. Hatch. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a torch blusse. to sparkle. a spot or blot. en blau ach. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. colour of the cheeks. blue. Dan. to glow. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. to patter. blaeuwen. blotte. clod. blou. Plots.— . ON. blus. kuh-plader. to From . blue. a Halm a. blosa. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. to dash down Du. parallel form with ON. plants which prepares the seed. white blatte. a blaze. a flower. to exists in biadetto. skam.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. ' — . blosma. . proto shine with bright colours . bloemen. Bloom. blad. bfys. bloi. Ir. Schmid. — Blotch-paper. light. Du. G.

to beat with a mallet. E. a blow. to bruise Roquef. vi^ound. plusig. Pludern. to spot. ^Jam. disordered. Wtb. jabber. a continued noise of agitated water. fied vowel. blodyn. To Blow. ' BLUE or guggling. . to make blue. grow pale. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. flower w. fqded. bluod. bruk. in rapid or indistinct utterance. blau. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. marking some application from that bladder. gliihen. Blue. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water.. blao. dirty. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. glas. pale. blaw j biavo. y\r)yi»v. to show flower. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. d in Sc. to beat. to fade. blass. little apparent resemblance. plustrig. -ii. E. Her sweet bloderit face. bliuwan. toused. G. AS. plubraich. glas. to flap like loose clothes. . Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. glow. B. a Blossom. We . blava. gUd. It. a bruise. Du. or gr. Gr. Lat. to fade. sound like water. bloes. — To Blubber. gloeyen. It is howbliuwen. to hard. bruised Prov. wan. bliihen. Langued. is very frequent. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. . pale OFr.D. v. Gael. green. Raynouard. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. blazir. blawan. 1292.' Hamburgh Archives. Kil. .' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. boasting.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. red-faced bloted wench. —SchmelIt. blue. 2. Danneil. disordered in head-dress. In agitation of water. to exhibit bright colours.Jlasa. To Blow. blois. blow. bloeyen. grug. — — Mundart. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. G. blau. a gurgling .D. to bubble up. especially with respect to the hair. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). and closely allied with Du. a paddling in wate r. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. G. a fat. wan. and thence. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. br. gloeden. ler. Bav. to'disorder. and the forms mentioned under Swab. to glow. to guggle. into flower. G. to blow. Pl. Deutsch. And. bliihen. — To blubber. closely difference in of blabber. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. a. Sik upplustem. Tumbled. plodern. bl. blodelsa. MHG. like manner Lat. Prov. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. blebber.— . florere. plubartaich. boil. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. Jla-re. tache. Blowze. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. to Plodern. pludern. blady. blut.D. sponds with Sw. pale. OHG. bloemen. gliihen. bludder. withered. Du. The radical sense is shown in Gael. puff. blodern. blezir. in E. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. corre. to breathe bouteiUis. bldt. 92. — . Blowzy. 1. to blow. w. blubbern. a blast. where the word may be compared bliggman. foam. blubonciti. The interchange of an initial gl. meurtrissure Roquefort. the red fluid of the body . fem. A. bloeden. coup. bloom. to shine with bright From colours. These are — Bludder. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. cheeks bedabbled with tears.xo'»'. to blurt out. glaodh and blaodh. bloi. plubair. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. . as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. to flourish. piusen. bliithe. fiubbem. Deutsch. flower OHG. 51. may cite for example G. blazi. glowing coal . to gush. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. a herb Gr. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . to fade. Pl. OFr. /idXavoc. is confined to the — . P1. The aUied forms. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. pale .to blossom. Bret. to breathe G. . chatter.D. Mund. glansj Ir. grey. to glow. Chaucer. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. blubbern. — . — Bluther. to blow. blduen. a flower. Notwithstanding the We . blust. OHG.' — Palsgr.nify bubble. to puff up. blahen. to gabble. blue . glede. bluther. Chaucer. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. bledniai. |8A)'. bluh. to inflate. sense. heath. blosen. to with Bohem. to make bubbles in drinking. The primary sense is to shine.

to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. blave is moreover.— . sense of yeUow. blond. to fade). Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Bladum. blunderhead. The Du. to plump into the water. in the same way as from It'. Pm. sloppy drink. and Du. blutter. and sbiadare. discoloured {plowiee. poltern. Hence a Slcelton in R. bUich. G. Blaffart. biada. a blunderbuss. The Du. E. a fore. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . - reddish yellow. and metaphorically. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Analogous forms are Du. originally growing up turf and water. planus. blue. See Blunt. superficie plani. bluish. contrasted with the dle. 't — —Hal. liebefactor. to become pale.• BLUFF biado. or an abrupt manner. blake (identical with AS. — Pr. Dan. having a bluff forehead. pale) is provincially used in the. blunder. from an imitation of the sound. yellowish red. an ill-done job. Hence we pass to Prov. confusion. blue. used for the work of an unskilful performer. And blunders on and staggers every pace. Biada. and then generally idle talk. as well as sbiadafe. Hal. plo-wy. is. to dabble Biglotton E. blahir. as well as biado. pludder. Dryden in R. applied to green as well as blue. Dief. Pl. Blunderer or blunt worker. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. — . dial. biavo. Du. Blunt. earth and water mixed together. Altieri. Then with the nasal. glundra. blue. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. verdoyer. to become pale or livid.D. Bohem. blunder. in water dobbelen. a shore abruptly rising. It is remarkable however that the E. Kil. pale yellow. polter-hans. Bluff. je perturbe. to work To blunder out a fronto.. buller-bas. Sw. A bluff manner. . for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. all representing the — . Supp. G. and biavo (Diez). mistake. mix It. blaf. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. — — — . G. to blunge clay. bullern. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. I blonder. It then signifies something done at once. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. to mix it up with water. to agitation of liquids. tradire to Fr. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. rustic. to become pale or wan. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. Roquefort. blavus. to blunder water. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. speech. blac. glundr. tutte le semente ancora in erba. yellow. herbe. segetes virentes. fallow. to fall suddenly on the ground. plomp. pale. without image or superscription. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. buller-bak. Flor. Bodge. bawling. which is rendered by Florio. find accordingly It.make a noise. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. something. bleu et blanc. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. The word is here synonymous with amplus. to confound. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. We Blunder. From G. G. . a flounder. blandum. a plain coin herausplatzeu. abrupt. devenir vert blavoie. falb. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. flodderen (Weiland). corn. a boisterous violent man. To blunder is then. Lat. to puddle. his business with much noise. has donder-bus. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. pale straw-coloured. Roquefort. Blavoyer. Palsgr. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. and bustle .in mud or water. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. in plur. OFr. to dabble in the mud. Ditton in R. non rotunda. Du. biava. disturb. like Du. puddle. verdure. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. corn. blanssen. trahir. fawn-coloured. from the Lat. like the Celtic glas. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. polterer. ploffen. sbiavare. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. to lose colour.//aay. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. blunt. from the brilliant green of the young E.' trouble. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. bloi. Romance bluiter. Kil. Pol. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . Halma. bulmanner. Kiittner. See Blurt. flav-us. jaune.

platzen. blunt. from the loud report a fire-arm. naked. and. blue. G. inactive Swiss bluntschi. unfledged Sw. good plump person. used in both senses. blatte. bare or blunt. Then cometh indevotion. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. —D. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. Ford in R. edgeless. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used.—D. raw. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. A modification of the same root. pressions. — Kil. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. azure. obtusus. absence of preparation. silly. awkward. plump. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. without Maolaich. clownish. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. nis. rude. thick. Blaitie-bum. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Dan. homo stolidus. as in E. duU. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. unpolished. blait. It will be seen that the G. or heraus plumpen. clumsy. plains The large bech. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. . It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . obtusus. plumbeus. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. massive. unceremonious manner. The blait body. Plump. bare. A light blue colour. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. blat. Sc. fling down . mit etwas heraus-platzen. and in the same sense. unwrought. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. More in Richardson. plutz T)\i. Pol. G. and hath swiche languor in his soul. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. blunt. Bluntet. bare. to blurt. in Richardson. Halma. as cow-dung. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. naked. heavy. — blunt. biotto. the absence of sharpness. It. Now the Swiss bluntsch. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. a thick and will person. that the sense of bare. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. that it not easy to discover the connection. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. It is from this notion of suddenness.plompen. blunt. Plump mit etwas umgehen. — — pidus. Sc. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. seems to be derived. viz. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Molof something wet. a bluntie. sheepish. rough.pludse. blout. ang. Bare and blunt. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. without preparation. bus. maol. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. . Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. Sir T. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. F. Won by degrees. naked. dull. Kiittner. bloss. blutten. bleak. inaKil. hebes. insensible. to plump down. to make a noise of such a Stalder. bluntschen. viz. it will be well to point out a sense. Plontp. blockish. to handle a thing bluntly. heavy. forestis. V. platz-regen. blait. a simpleton. and an unintelligent. down. V. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. plonsen. poor Sc. blunder. wan. blott. without horns. heavy. blunt. Sw. Dan. bald. pointless. to plump into the water. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Du. identical with E. is The word dull. plump. ineffectual reason. V.— — — . void. to make foliage. plump J to plump out with it. Probably radically hlekit. Q. of a knife which not cut. to bring it suddenly out. awkwardly. united in Gael. exactly corresponding to the G.to fall into the water. is thrown. dial. a blot. plotz. The syllables blot. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. naked. figuratively. stupid fellow. Woddis. Kiittner. plotsen. and the like. it will be observed. plump. Chaucer. pale. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. Swab. a portion To inquire for slaves. as Sw. Stalder. dull. nature. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . a pelting have then the exshower of rain. or blab out a thing Kiittner . like a thing thrown down with a noise. without the nasal. biosso. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. fooUsh. to blunt a thing out. through which a man is so blont. Blunt. —D. blotta sanningen. blunsch. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. rudely. with or without the nasal. plump.

short pieces of any filthy mud. The to radical meaning D. Boost is used for the boast. and swimmeth very well. blaffen and baffen. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. and the latch . bit. bausen. blader. Dan. then applied to indistinct vision . blaste?i. Boa. and Du. aper. to rumble.— . bot-voet. to endeavour to terrify. To splirt. ground. outward edge. Du. to bark. a small lump. to dangle. boord. V. blarra. bustuous. to blow. a torch blusse. Du. 156. crack made by bursting open. bleuster. bar. Sc. AS. berd. both used in the sense of boasting. Wallace. 274. lindwurm. strong. a mistiness. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bateau. to spurt out. G. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. bliise. w. a flurt with one's fingers. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. To tinct. Explained by Jam. bludder. — To Bob. Du. bakke bleustern. to smear. The elision of the d is very to chatter. imitated by has also In like . rude. plump. chicchere.D. blusse i ansigtet. ader. bord. to talk quick and indistinctly . Boa.—Bobbin. . G. e. to puff. It. to be out of temper. Fr. — — — * Boast. beacon fire. Pl. coarse. to disfigure with E. bdta. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. blot. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. flat. bludder. BLUR Boar. edge. it implies that it is empty sound.plodem. See Boisterous. brett. Gael. to blaze. blodern. A large snake. Hal. 'Ba. my dear. to give a crack. fringe. to snuff. Swiss blodern. or blurt with one's mouth. properly noisy. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. a baU of thread the mud. blasen and See Burr. a dangling object. E. bdtr. a club foot . As the as. sudden. to say bluntly. pfludern. c. to blore. beer. puddle. bobbin. to dabble. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. a border. to breke. or backwards and forwards. blast. and E. rude. — From mouth. bdd.y. or bog also thread. this root are formed Sc. eafor. an ear of corn. To move quickly up and down. geplerr. mire. bladdra. and boisterous. swagger. to puff. to brag grande loqui. to render indisbhir. Wright's ed. dial. Fl. Lat. margin. a bladder . on. . a burst of tears. blirt of greeting. blose. planks raised up outside the roofs. board. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. boa. blunt. bora. a tassel. To blow in puffs. blubber. the sound of a blow poffen. whence bordvidr. will fly up. To brag and to crack. blot. pludern. Hal. to glow . to blurt out. to threaten. common. i. a smear. to bounce. OE. Pull the bobbin. bot. splurt and spirt. cheeks glow. a board or plank. Bot zeggen. E. boistous. table. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. to chatter. To Blurt. a blow . gabble. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. border. bobine. 9396. Du. a tassel. eber. pausten. violent G. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. — a blaze. a grows to a great bigness. to crying. bluter. bluther. a Jam. voce intonare. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. Sverris Saga. as in Du. It. See Blossom. Wtb. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. margin. . hot. edge. be a crack or loud sound. to blush. — — . borrar. large. as splurt to splutter. margin. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. &c. boccheggiare. violent. ever-swin. bhis. to roar. to make a noise in boiling. to dirty. primarily signify loud noise. blur. gabble Sw. and when applied to vaunting language. cocodrUlus. dial. — ' Dief. Kil.pusten.v. G. table. De Boat. blotch and botch. baban. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. whence bob. to make a noise with the mouth. P. is formed Du. blaere. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. Bluster. an end or stump. pustern. burra. the Brem. BOB 79 — To Blur. Sc. skin. . cluster. to puff. Slur. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. a mist before the eyes plerren.plerr. to guggle. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. AS. a short thick body. Fl. Comp. blaustem. Board. to sound like water boiling. Bav. batello. planks or boards. stupid. Schmeller. literally edge-wood. baiag. boot. like the parapets (viggyrdil. of the word seems . blosken. to blur. pof. bord. Gael. 29.the syllable bot. botte. bord. Fr. lacerta. blurra. Du. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. a blot. ON. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. a blotch. dull. to make mouths. Du. . It. to blubber. Supp. Related to blutter.' — Red Riding-hood. puffen. Du. 1. pluddre. acre. to jabber. Blush. bur. Halma. a. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. stellio. AS. an edge.

the body of a shift gaguejar. Ptg. baboyer. agitate. of which the E. as signifying anything spherical or round. VI. Ptg. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. a prickle. to stammer. .rabodi. ON. AS. waving. to deliver a message. is a lump. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. from fitting close to the body. dies. fickle . gebod. gogach. Bodice. bodi. stuttering. a messenger . daubed or dabbled with blood. then from the yielding. to stick. corset. a cask. Russ. We . Gl. . precept. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. With With this we charged again We bodged again. meaning the round part of his body. Bog. Schmel. To Bode. calf of the leg. bog (equivalent to E. to start start and back as from a bugbear. to waver. point. where bogs form Gael. Ir. badyti. formerly bodies. corpses pot. boftich. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. a puddle. See Baber-lipped. stitch. W. * To Boggle. to thrust.\\i\c\iset. speak of the barrel of a horse. anything protuberant. bodhag. belly. gog in gog-mire. '£. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. to make a mow at. . as I bootless labour swim against the tide. expression hogglin an bogglin. e. the stem of a tree . bayonet .a (i\ia. strike with the horns. To make bad work. to dabble or paddle. a round body both. to blurt a thing out. bogadaich. Gael. the boss of a buckler. bodnu. Gael. bagges. bodi. gag. bodat. bodian. so large a feature in the country. shaking . to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Cot. mud. to be unsteady tich. as in stammering or staggering. bodig. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. the body. a dagger. Lap. nodding. — 2. a ghost . palleg.gmh:t. the trunk of the animal body. arise E. toss. to scruple. French bouter. gagoula. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. to make. 3. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. gago. bodetz. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. Crist. nave of a wheel. And waves. Lith. . as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated.hollow. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. Banff. In like manner E. unsteady. an awl. quagmire). Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. to butt. is identical with Fr. bogan. bogach. patsche. to bob. a spur.' A — Sherwood's Diet. unsteady. unsteady nature of a soft substance. or bag. wavering. AS. — as well as the body of an animal. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. a cask. Bret. a body. the belly. swelling. thrust with something pointed. See To Botch. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. . a bog or morass. . ^Jam. bo tich. anything soft. body and G. barrique. Bohem. bodak. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. bole. bottich are derivatives. whence Fr.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. a prick. cask bottich. . It introduced from Ireland. bodene. to fail. potig. to be uncertain what to do. — H. as a horn. To Bodge. to stir. whence paUchen. bod. goggle. See Bid. — Grandg. Wall. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bayonet. to commit a blunder. The signification of the root bot. BOGGLE trunk and G. biodeachan. bothog. To mock.. butt. the thick part of anything. bogadh. bob. potacha. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. to smack. Commonly explained as if from Sc. move. round. an announcement. bot. bod. and E. to roll. quakmg. barriga. corpset. moving backwards and forwards.! . shake. Gael. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. Supp. bog. . corset from corps. Thy i. a sting . bodies. 43. gog. Now unskilful action is conmire. rounded. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. stutter gogmire. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. pall. to push with the horns. So BOB To Bob. bodilo. Reliq Antiq. Shakespear has badged with blood. Bodkin.' Bogglie. gagei. The Sp. biodag. Body. or a pair of bodies. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . or stem of a tree. woman's stays. to fail. by the syllable patsch. boll. bog. needle. stumpy. body of a shirt bol. bottig. a . to bodge. potacha. busti. potahha. a quagsoft. Miracle-plays. bolr. bogle. moist mire. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. exhibit another modification of the root. message boda. to prick. To portend good or bad. and the word is well explained by Bailey. . a command.

* Bolster. and then applied to other husks. excellent. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. to hesitate from doubt. tartalear.palleg. ON. bolr. bealder. cheerful. 1430 in Deutsch. a bubble. prince. bolt upright. in the sense of handsome . In the same way Sc. strong. ohg. Pr. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. a bakazikni. stud. styffe or rude . pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — .— — . to stammer. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. or the like. a bubble. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. swelling. V. G. Bustuous. boutpijl. baud. bold. he will speak out. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bolster. pusten. bulla. animal as distinguished from the limbs. puile. from Du. ON. bold. folliculus grani. bog. Fr. cows the people from speaking. Stalder. Fr. bolleken. bola. bolzBold. obex. Du. w. bollen (Kil. pustule. — ' — tagliare. Me doth awate. the body of a man or of ter.). to be prominent. a head . Love. the husk of nuts. bul. properly represent belly. Sp. coarse. Goth.. The bob. To Bolter. puilen. Du. capiing into a cavity. to give a hoUow sound. merry. The round stem of a tree. Mund. This iv. It. — — which the cushion is stuffed. pimple ON. Boll. scruple. bout is explained by Kil. bog. bola. Sw. bolzen. hakogni. Kil. bolstar. boly. to boil. ON. i. also a blister. a fastening for a door. rough. Du. Lap. to stammer. see Boast. globular bod)'. gluma. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. furfures. pall. Boystous. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. insolent baude. as. courageous. Sc. The term applies in — — impressed . the gurgling sound of water rush. by which it is moved to and fro. as E. capitellum. as baltha. used. to puff. buller. Fr. bal. as. boil . bula.' Mrs Baker. Bole. (of Mons) b^guer. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. strong. as those of nuts. proud. haughty. polc'h.rounded part of the body. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. shake. a boil or swelling Du. trunk of a tree . If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. ON. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. Cot. bul. which are not used for a similar purpose. Lat. the lir. To Boil. sels of flax. . ^Boistous. to tattle. to be at a loss a shirt. a bump. 45. balder. bok. the body . puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. dint in a metal vessel. Du. warlike. Gael. courageous. bochken (titubare. intrepid. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. bolc'h. in speaking. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. ^Vocab. Chaucer seems Dan. stramenta. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. blow. See Bulk. hollow. Boil. Kit. up of bubbles. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. biiilen. bulr. gerade signifies straight to the mark. bSlstr. a bubble. A. whence bulla.D. OG. repagulum. notes. Magy. glass phial. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. then violent. wag. . . tartle. bolster. Test. to stagger. belc'hj.— D. confident. Daring. brave. caput scapulse. bagaji. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. but that Bolt.Du. from the branches. buile. Lat. Westerwald bollern. beule. * Boisterous. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. treated under Bowl. swelling. bolla. to swell. boggle. chatter. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bolt. boss. perpendicular. G. bol. bouil. balldr. bhster. tomentum. bald. fiausten. huge. Da. tulum. OHG. b^gayer. noise. poppy (Bailey). to the belly as the or dislike. a cushion. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). G. Chaucer. impetuosity. bold. pillow. bol. bald. Swab. to stumble. boll. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . may be identified with It. hero. G. bald. tartajear. quick. ballr. is probably a modification of boll. a quaking mire. E. . free.w. bullire. Bret. roydeur. stameln vel bochken. Pm. bolle. round the first instance to the materials with . flax-boU. strong. bout. to waver or hesitate. bol. tar. 304). 374. bulla. E. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. stutSw. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. — 6 . the. Properly noisy. boystousnesse. Wall. and manace for to de. chaff of corn siliqua. a swelling in ice.

Brem. to coagulate. the sense of right on end.D. On this account Mid. bulio. by the representation of a racketing sound. Dauphiny a sudden movement. rugged. MHG. to E. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. bolt. a clod cloth. grasbulten. . the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. mole-hill. to bolt meal barutel. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. Du. The ment and the operation. 2. bulstrig. jolting. Champagne burtcau. sestuare. clump. zen. . a small portion. Dan. a bolter or implement for bolting. projecting eyes pul. tumultuari. . to start out. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. taratantarum. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. ' Holler poller / bulter. to significance of the term was overlooked. lumpy. Schiitze. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. holier poller. die treppe pressed. knob. .). projections. buletel. we have Du. taraabout.agitation of the meal in the bolter. Sanders. In the next place.u. bolzen.noise {brattle of thunner. protuberance. poltern. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. bolt-foot. Pl. to talk pulzen.. a clump of turf.Lat. ex•wagen. hole. bulla. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. a round glass ending — bultig. agitari (Kil.as the essential element signifying the talum. croler. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. uneven. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. zare. as of a trumpet. Pm. Fr. bolzauget) Sp. to bolt flour burato. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. also to curdle. or ill. staff which sounds tar. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. a crashing or racketing noise. or a racer from the course. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. a rattle. ler. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. barutare. beliitea. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. P1.thump or blow. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. buideln. . pultare. one after the other. have Lat. Pr. to bolter. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. buletare. or the like. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. vessel with narrow opening. representing a rat. bulk. — — — . cruddle. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. a clod. to make a knocking. to form lumps. . to bolt meal barutel. tantara. je bulte. crod.protuberance. to come rattling downstairs. we pass to Du. burclct. Bav. crotlar. to knock. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. budeln daz mele . Hence. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . Hence Palsgr. taratarrum. / is transposed in Fr. a millpoltzet augen. and the Thus from So. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. OFr. btilt. a bolter Prov. Here the radical image is the violent O.clack. Du. I boulte meale in a boulter. bolzaugen. Pl. as Fr. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. with E. baruta.nature of the operation. OFr.D. crash.). polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. tar. blotttre. buUire. we der Brocket). on the one hand. fied bot. : ' — — . hammer. the wheels groaned. ' — — ! ! : — . . Prov.by forms like G. cro. to agitate. to become lumpy.D. tling or crashing noise. curdle. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. hump. abolter. bulk or quantity . Supp. bolting to that of form. The ulti.i5a//^«. tuft. It. racket gepolter. Wtb. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. a clap of thunnences. in S'W plotter. and to crash. to start with palpitate. hammer. brattle. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. So also we pass from Lat. as snow balling on a horse's foot.— .D. buretter{CQ\. pattern. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. bultig. Lang. bolt head is a retort. to spring forth E. Mid. G. pull. small heap. barutela. Sw. . boss. a rattling carriage.fe/2?. a sod (Schiitze). swelling. from G. bortelen. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. rugged. bluter. Bulte-pook or bulstar.. a . And as the agitation of cream in . OFr. a club-foot. kloteren. a bunch. uneven. hulch. as above explained. Lat. as a rabbit from its baritel. then to knock. to clack.On the same principle.) E. poll. gebolder. bultred. to shake. barutela. bullern.through a cloth of loose texture. beluter. loud and fast. hulter de bulter. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. we see that the one consists of a words. poltern.

as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. bombe. Need you any ink and bonibase. Banstead. a baker. In E. sye. bongam.) . to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. a stem or base. as in . cotton stuff. a thundering noise bomre. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. from teu. sijde. Bone. and called in Mid. bombasin. gunpowder. and also the leg. It. buidelen. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. bunden. As cotton was used for padding clothes. baum-bast. ODu. and Du. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. the leg. Dan. whence bomme. and that from Fr. q. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. to shake. bomba. beuteln. Antiq. to cast to and fro. bommer. bambacium. a bone in general. borel. or trunk word in W. and in fact we find the and Du.bast. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . a —Bombasine. iuttern. lana lignea. stump. It. bambagino. bopin. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. booming over the water. Fr. OE. however. the shank the shoulder-bone. term is appropriated in G. E. Dan. derivation. an implement of binding. bauniwolle. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. to thump W. bwmbwry mar. brust-bein. HoUybandin R. Fl. butteln. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. . agreement. bommen. tree. to resound. sericum arboreum. a hollow sound. baun. to boult meal. bombasine. bone of the .Su?. Bonfire. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. bon. ties. sije. When ture. It. Gascoi^e in R. achsel bein. crook-shanked bondew. is supported by the analogy of G. bande. bonds. assuming the of leg : special signification W. to beat a drum. butteln. It. banitola (Fl. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. . bombase. stuff. bombast. tiffany. bolting-cloth. From builen. boulenger. i. . Castrais barato. . to ring bells. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce .^Altieri. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. the murmuring of the sea. buidelen. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. bond. . also thick-shanked. bombdra. 155. Du. as Banbury. bombicina. thick from shaking. a churn for butter. a boulter of meal. .D. bonfras. a string. biire. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Moreover. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. bambagioj whence It. the silk-worm. ^o/j. band.). — AS. bulter from It. cotton. . bureau. e. thick-legged. silk. band pi. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. we speak of a gun to resound. builen. a stock. Schm. tie. tie. to bind G. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. a beacon. thick. bombice. It. the contracted form of Du. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. G. G. — Bombard. Kil. a drum bombammen. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. bureau. the Fr. coarse. The material called by this name.Lat. been. a ligature. raw silk. from boom. bonog. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. a word of which we have traces in several English names. d. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. It. band. bein. bombarda. — bombast came guage. bwmbwr. again. rimbombare. produced the Pl. Mid. basin. Butterglas. bindan. has repeatedly varied. G. gossipium. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. — having a stem or stalk. barate. to shake down fruit from a tree. beil'n. to shake (as to shake the head. Du. to thunder. silk-worm. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. and Mod. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. Bomb. Fr. &c. must be explained Fr. 83 Gr. Near 6 * . to which the leg. beuteln. Du. Bibelesworth in Nat. breast-bone. burato. buttel trueb (of liquids). and Bond. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. bras. to bolt meal. In legal language. PoUitriduare. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep.

Ox. Busk. petition. It. . . Bonnefyre. bAkva. ganian. signifying beech. been. to yawn. from gape. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. by arbitours sholde bote the P. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. See Bown. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. to cultivate. countryman. Kil. lofty. Boom. prayer. to litter bosu. To Boot. Perhaps. badaud. bommen. the possessor of the farm. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. Gl. short boots. bonad. but stall. bobo ! interj. a dry stalk. hu?idbusa. as a lying-place for cattle. See Bomb. Build. a. Bonnet. chaff. bos. The character of folly is i860. simpleton. b^er. ON. . gaping hoyden — Cot. to aid. ON. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. literally cow-house. Wall. although in the OG. p. boutig. gaby. to ask. or Vanns. Mrs Baker. pole. often cut for burning and lighting fires. Gael. A favour. bonaid. help. from badare. litter. beam. Swab. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. \ais-band. . tapestry.. Fr. buch-stab. a lofty blaze. to set in order. however. where a cross (or a gun. Fr. G. bolt. remnants of hay or straw. gawney. whence ban-ffagl. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. a vessel for holding liquids. In nautical language. build. boa. beiSne. ON. a simpleton. boubi^. quest. . should contribute something to make the bargain equal.n. . which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. dial. from Du. bonnet. inhabit. — To boot. netis stall. The origin of the word is probably the W. 13. to gape. bose. without ad- . from beida (E. the mouth. clown. The i. Hufwud-bonad. bd. Sp. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. boia. But bosg. a scribe G. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. and Gael. a good turn or re- meaning. babb^o. bonad. boom. N. OW. dolt. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. bds. high. dial. a hollow skin. a letter Russ. blockhead. nachbar. gehyred. Thus from the syllable ba. AS. Boot of bale. baier. bauen. Prov. relief from sorrow. to gape. . Fr.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. . house. Binau Brychyniog. in w. bosih. comes bondi. till. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. of wonder On the same principle Sp. desire. tall. bua. bossen. the name of the letter b. stabulum. bauer. Schm. set in order. babau. one who dwells nigh. Booby. boo. to prepare. Goth. bowwen. boer.—Bootless. tigh. ass. Kil. remedy of evil. prayer. bua. petition. foolish. . also called Brecknock Beacons. and Ban in w. — . in Phil. a tree. Bootless. Book. Pr. inhabit.Boos. which one gaping and staring about. a lying-place for dogs or swine. Boot. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. G. boandi. a head-dress. master of the house. a letter . by itself for head-dress. build. are formed Fr. botte. — Bailey. feu de behourdis. a stall. and fig. and thence Rouchi baia. to cultivate. Boon. and from AS. botta. buandi. dog-kennel. wondering signifies not only straw. Bun. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. the first consonant of the alphabet. bas.^ —P. E. the scriptures bokareis. bosig. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. Jr. the stubble of beans. bene. boten-shoen. bobo. swinbusa. to dress. OSlav. . betere thing werse. succour Bailey. ty Gael. wall hangings. From bo. See Butt. bid). bota. the cultivator. The latter is the original AS. boutig. AS. till. 232. A peasant. ben. It is commonly explained as identical with It. dress. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. is Du. writing bokos. the alphabet. E. dress. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. bote. busu. * Boose. bdn. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. b&ber. a. Trans. a bag of skin or leather. babin. pero. reparation. Fr. — e. to strew with straw. as the Brecknockshire Banns. botte. a bonfire. fool. Palsgr. Hal. Du. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. b'ukvdry. Basa. w. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Thin ben Luke i. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . booby. A stall for cattle. Mrs Baker explains bun. boubair. — — . letter. head-dress wai^g. Du. a silly fellow. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. Hal. ON. biikui. Boor. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. Du. — From the participle present. pig-sty. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. G. Pm. at everything.

The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. uzboro. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. rof. bothag. is purin. a hut. pu purro (saha =: saw . a word. lappolone. Bete. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. and parrets. an engraver's chisel. to profit. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Fr. boeten het vier. better. to swell. Gael. cure Sw. chewed food for infants. chisel. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. . biorag. to The Sw. lappalare. to to . 266. amendment boeten. kvit-bara. bower. to surge. Lat. boete. Palsgr. sawroot. Du. dust. scalpo. a responding forms . drillen. It is admitted that Fr. bora. See Bower. budka. to restore. beute. — ON. from bord. Border. 1. to hut. bothan. limbus. &c. bauda. pointed. . to patch. . struere ignem. . To Bore. and E. in Ihre. to . exchange or divide. Du. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. a tusk. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. a bothy. See Burgeon. of an edge that will not bite. a chisel. a borer. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. abode. ON. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. Mag. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). barn. yfirbdt. . This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. to anything Neither G. sharp. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. a sharp-pointed tooth. to divide. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. dens mordens vel caninus. Esthon. bottino. BOOTH vantage. Fl. butin. BoracMo. wine-skin. a cupboard.par. or the gradual working a hole in anything. borracha. to bite. burin. terebra sculptoria purastoa. baara. making good again . purra. Sp. ora. Fin. The Fin. . recovery bata. as afford a satisfactory explanation. or anything pointed. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. budowai. Gael. remedy. differs only in termination. puras. byte points to the verb byta. OHG. p. amendment. to bite. are derived from G. purra.—Burin. The ON. hut. It. bardure. welt. And so in ON. hem or gard of a garment. Bohem. Fin. a shed. swell bara. Magy. sculpo 05\xiik. are parret. to bete the properly to mend the fire. bite. puras. comminuted by either kind of action. a. to expiate boeten den dorst. and meta- Fr. . which are probably from the same root. from borra. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. borracha. to boot. bord. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. Gael. . mat-bod. • — To Bore. fire. in Lap. bolino. a borer. puru. Pol. Another derivation from Fin. botjan. margin. boards. a border. ON. OSw. Burke in R. and hence to fine. betan fyr. from deila and skipta. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. forare. AS. repair. bordi. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. The cor. pi. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. . a shop.— Return from Parnassus I inR. bdt. See To We speak in E. a great bur. reparation. to pierce. Kil. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. to stick unto as a bur. wave. ON. a leather bag or bottle for wine. piercer. Booty. a borer . admovere titiones. Fin. extremitas Bore. boede.. limbus. and thence to eat build. urboro.. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. Esthon. N. In the Fin. borino. to foam. cellar. purro. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. a bladder. make .por. boeye. to mend. to repair. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. both. The as G. a shelter of branches. the . cup- awl. bdra. bud. It. to build buda. nor E. a wave. to quench one's thirst . a granary . Fr. But probably the E. 3. furni. to importune. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. a shop budowati. to profit Goth. bata. G. terebro.. scsdes-bod. batr. puru. bauen. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. a hut or tent. a booth or shed. tent. cottage. fimbria. baete. to bore. bohren. furd. Compare Manx birrag. Alexand. Booth. to build. on. A phorically a drunkard. edge. butin is explained by Flor. aid.

' — — . loan. a bunch or hump. boss or knob of a buckler . the sun sets. bergen. Sc. cnag signifies both a clergy. clownish. botse. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. AS. burgess. by which of or belonging to plants. i. bourg. to contain. a giving rise to It. or because a blow berga. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. D. boschen. a pushing or striking out. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. to conceal. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. nonsense. bourgeois. bussi. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. cormpted. a blow. busse. Altieri. knock and a knob . tempest. cob. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. one who sticks to you like a bore. the Sc. Bosh. . less. baurgs. of bail throughout the country. borg. a tower. pego. Fr. to strike .ribs and the side. Hence borhes ealdor. or head-borough. Du. as we speak of a thumping potato. to pick or cull plants. tuft. I.mass. to strike so as to Bureau. . hollow bucklers. which now signifies a knob. gum vocant. gesylle. burel. Turk. boss sound. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . head. poor. ^ma. knur. storm. bierge. to save. ON. a boor. 106. bom. boss. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. ^o^^flj. without. the N. (Bridel). northern. a city . formerly used in the sense of knocking. in instead of without. Swiss Rom. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. Bailey. to give a hollow bizo. to protect. plant. Boreal. a herb. burh. was origin of the term is the OFr. or perhaps it may be See Bury. borough or chief constable. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East.' Vegetius in Diez. and thus could not shake off the old burr. empty. a surety. from AS. while Gael. empty. the ordinary a swelling. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. AS. Cot. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. a citizen.' the chief of the ' borh. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. a little blow. The origin seems to be the Goth. Lang. knob. destitute. botch. botch.' if thou give money on loan. bunch. boss of the side. to save. undyed wool of brown sheep. to give bail or answer for an. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. whence the burg. to knock or strike. Bunch. beorgan.. to protect. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. borel. and borough in the sense of a town. /3oraMK6f. The primi. hollow. Borowholder. bttssel. ' pledge. So Du. surety.' every man be under bail. Gr. or perhaps also To Borrow. AS. basse. bundle. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. bos. Borrow. Hal. empty. tive idea seems to bring under cover. a wen. borg. borgese. borei. V. See found in Bav. the North Wind.vr\. . a bouncing baby . And that unsittynge is to here degre. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. bosh. bosseu. a boss. in the body struck. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Jam. butse. . useCanterbury. G. bump. bump is used in lump or piece. into borsholder. brown cloth. connected. agrees with E. — ' wind burya. whether from the fact preserve G. Fr. projection. Fr. beorgan. Hence knot. (1867). to take in.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. plain rude fellow. when that system was forgotten. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. The other. boss. viipyoc. to keep. as if from the verb to hold. rude. secure. It. striking. Goth. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. Bos a surety. pegou. borh. rustic. from their grey clothing. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. &c. is probably radically Boss. a citizen. In like manner It. Du. an eminence. poor. — — — A — . that which biirge. It. vain. f graauw. E.bucklers. cnoc. borealis. botsen. is used in the sense of bussare. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. huschen. Botany. to save Sw. pitch. blow on a hollow object. bossen. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. bos.any round sweUing. Jam. borough-holder. bail biirgen. a. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. the must have arisen burgensis. the hollow between the Borsholder. byrig. Lat. coarse cloth made of the Du.' or system of bail. knocking. cnap. boussi. butsen. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. primarily signifying coarse sound . unpolished. Newbury. Russ. borgo. bussa coarse. Borough. bosse. a knob. grey).

Bochu. empty or hollow. BOTCH understood). Jtidu. bund. bozza. to knock. See Butt. to podge. to froth as beer . a lump of somebatschen. abbi-diwij Slavon. a patch patschen. to we have OHG. a bump or swelling. botus. On the other hand. See To Bodge. bottigUa. abbution. buddl. disturbance. A bottom depth. fire-bote. AS. — duj Lett. bAdtr. AS. ubhau. bdt.— . w. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. ba. bozza. It. oba. See Boss. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. boss. ambo. Leg. to fall : with a sound batsch. tumour. And so we speak of an eruption. mess. a vessel for holding liquids. From the dim. bulder. Fr. they two. stump. abbu. any round ball or bowl to play withal. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. of botta. stroke. a cess. botte. hurly-burly. is boteau. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. maggots in barley. Kil. G. we have Swiss batscken. Here the radical image seems a bubble. pozzo. bundle. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. * To Bother. — Fl. A — oba-dwaj Lat.' to the fiery Csedm. corresponding to .ments of the same root. stock.) .^Dec. ON. turmoil. however. putra. e. patch. a plague-boil Kil. j3i/9os. dabble). podge. botel foenn. whence the name ol pool to podge. bluster. and ajSvamg. N. contusion . a bubble. botm. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a knock. Boa two. to smack.foundation. bSn. pocciar. abyss. in the sense of mend the fire. Bouds. — — . Butu. batschen. Stalder. to dip in liquid (to Gael. a maggot. A horses. Lith. Lith. Bret. to mend. ' G. as Fr. kessel-biisser. OSax. . buddeln. is also a bubble. a waterfall. gling piece of work. blister. buideal. the lowest part. to make better. ON. a. Fr. House-bote. boiteal. The Gr. a depth. botn. both. mend. and E. bot. bunch. — . a bundle of straw or hay. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. botte. Dan. burgi vel pontis refectionem. gipuozan. Parmesan poccia. stem or base. the bud of a flower . bodem. a humpback. Diez. bide. Danneil. to mend (kettles. to stir and mix together . . &c. by met. especially in Gael. Canut. I. bots. whisper. repara- — — See To Bete. to work without order or know. as a push or windgaU. ON. a bott . round lump. bottom. blow. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. a wisp. Du. mess. a bottle. a bottle of hay. to give a sounding blow. we two. a cask. Lat. to simmer. ixorapudder. — — A 2. botch. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a pit. the first rough draught 2. buazen. to rage. Du. thing soft batsch. bouteille. you two. Gael. gen. . to botch or patch. butse. or plague sore . Gael. buts. i. baiothsj Sanscr. Fyre to botme. 212. to bcBta.D. a bunch. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. To confuse with noise. btitse. boil. to dash about . boccia. botse. a root. Judwi.of a ball of thread. a slop. Wedu. to make a make a noise. . from the dashing of water. schuhbosser. bulderen. &c. Both. AS. See Bound. — Jidwi. Hal. bdsser. disturbance to . poltern. scuohbuzere. Podge. Mudu. • Bott. bativa. Botcli. botola. — Dief. . dial. Fl. — Bottom. Fl. Again. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. boiteag. beggtaj Goth. a pit. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. fundus. to stir and mix together. botel. Hal. knock. puddle. a bottle. shoes. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. bun. for a bud. a cesspool pass. the science or knowledge of plants. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. to strike . an abyss or bottoniless pit. It. bethia. pother. H^cart. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. abbi. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. what pushes outwards. nets. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. On — Du. a botcher of shoes. dim. boitean. noise. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. Bouteille. potra. a boil or swelling Halma. the other hand. Bottle. G. noise. ledge It. ing out. Pl. — .— Hal. Prov. Bailey. mutter. Ancren Riwle. butsen. bossu. an imperfect and bunbutt end. botte. botsen. a cobbler. a tinker schuhbiisser. It. pozzanghera. E. a slop.— Swift in R. butwo. blain. signify a in OE. bile. stock. a pock. was called a push. biissen. to put on a patch. Decorde. . — — belly-worm. bosser. To Botch. boden . any plain round viol glass bozzo. boute. to from the root bot. ^kvBoQ. . pimple.

Bought. Alpine Re- — gions. the verb bondir in OFr. to bow. — — Bight. Halma. jump. a round body both. mere. bend. — No i ausiratz parlar. as a nosegay.— Cot. to set bounds. baby. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. mcn-bomi. Bound. debodinare. by Bujns or Buns.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. Bowlder. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. The branch of a tree. To Bound. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. bugt. a boundary stone (men stone). E. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. from AS. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Bough. of thread. and Prov. knock it sounds again. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. a large pebble. p. dial. bonna. To Bounce. strapping. volta. like bobbin. The W. limit. — Take care my house be handsome. to hum. Nor a centinel whistle. came home with his face all to-bounced. iv. Boulderstone. 3. bounbounejha. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. bone. To Boult. winding. So It. a bound. Bough-pot. to knock. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. see Boss. the larger kind of pebbles. Bret. from bugan. pimple Richards bothog. Brem. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. bons.— F. Coxcomb. in the absence of actual e. to fix limits. nor horn sound.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. AS. Bodinare. as a bout of fair or foul weather. . Pr. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. bend. I assure you. a button. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. as that of E. the hollow of a bay. the smaller ones. Probably from the Celtic root bon. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. bay. a stock. bamsen. Wtb. a turn or time.— Boundary. to make a loud noise. From Sw. 136. Ni gacha cor bondir.'— Charter of K. Dan. botwm. nave of a wheel bothel. an occasion. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. to knock at the door.D. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar.' B. butina. thumping. Primarily to strike. pothel. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. And the new stools set out. . boujtce. 2. to thundering big one hum. frequently used in the same sense with bound. root (see Bottom). from volgere. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. bonzen. whence buj7isen.>a bout. bunsen. round. Fr. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. ing. bolder. bog.— — — - 88 BOUGH . he fell so that it sounded.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Bout. march. bunda. language a * Boulder. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . boh. Fr. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . contusi. dial. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. geration. bun. its kind. bondir. a large stone rounded by the action of water. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. to spring. bonndn. — — leap. to set out by metes and bounds. gulf. an de dor bunsen. Sw. to resound. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. See To Bolt. or Bow-pot. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. a boss. Bunche. tnndo. bottom. bullra. in contrast to klappersten. Pm.. Q. boundina. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. buUersten. has hot. a bud. — strike. a bouncing apple. bugan. turn. to spring. and F. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Du. a blister. See Bunch. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. A Langued. ni frestelar. Fr. bouton. bumper. Webster. carpet. to turn. Ducange. to thunder. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. till The dat et bunsede. . ni motz brugir. signifies a sliort thick mass. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. Bonny. The Bight of Benin. jungen. Raynouard. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. boriie. signifying in nautical coil of rope. the bay of Benin. bodina.' round and round in similar circles. Mid. a blow. boss of a buckler.

spelling the word iox bound. Burden. bug. their time -With "wailful tunes. Borden. bending. a sing-song. brausen. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. Sp. taunt. jest. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. fresh* water. — — — A pare. to indulge in his cups . Cot. pot. address. buga. to drink deep. trick. the fixed. a brook. like quaff. biegen. bourdon. The meaning of bound. It. repartee. to bow or incline the . a jibe. Eown. steady. G. springbiirn. Bret. Bourd. a well. buizen. i. grumble Sw. bourdon. a. As the Gael. is. hous^ Man in the Moon. Bourdon. or of an Gael. The foregoing derivation seems. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. bugna. bausen. to draw a deep breath. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. addressed to. spring. in Fr. bonitas. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. a humming noise.. . Sw. explaining Sw. Spenser in R. patesten. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. firm. and that probably from a Celtic root. to pre2. to bulge. — probably through this latter signification. It is the participle past buinn. sense durd. a prop. a bow. purlBav. bog. Sw. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. bugan. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. AS.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. the big end of a club. . flagon. identical with E. bogr. sausen. an arch. Immediately from Fr. set out.which see. Burgeon. . warbling. A water. bordone. to tipple. crutch. bourd. pared. must be referred to the same root. the ting of a bell. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Dan. language of folly or ridicule. buys. belly out. ruption of bonne. whence buysen. bontS. bage. puff out. bend. staff. burdan. a mill-post. Goth. burd. pre. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. fun of one . ing. bugna. curvature. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. bovne. whether by sound or gesticulation. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. on the whole. burn. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bonus. a cup kroesen. bagna. to bow. . Sw. Gael. beygja. cudgel. Lat. a from Du. bov. buzz. on. bending. drunken. Dan. to swell. head Fr. to draw a deep breath. Gael. It is bov. beogan. the burden of a song. Du. Cot. a jibe Shaw bururus. drink deep. different modification gives ON.bass of a stringed instrument. It is remarkable that we find vary. sotich. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. saufen. schulter-bug. buyse. tinton. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. a corToward the garden. Gael. to take deep draughts. verb bua. a pot. bound. to trick. bugne. . ^<7r«i?. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. mockery. a humming noise Macleod. g. analogous to Fr. btiga. cheat. buigen. Fr. joke. Comp. bunaiteach. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. a. of the ON. A —Cot. ridicule buirte. to tope. purra. prepared for. brunna. to tope W. sport. Bow. bogen. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. gurgling. bow to shoot with.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Gael. G. way ba7n. the shoulder of the vessel. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. from spring. bwa. a drone of a bagpipe. borne. bordo. bommen. Prov. bogna. are applied to the bow of a ship. Fr. it is probable that the It. So Sc. G. Sc. bogha. buzzing of bees. when we speak of. limit. lance. When used alone it . pausen. game. . as was for. that ON. bordon. . bourde in the same sense. good. epaule du vaisseau. biugan. ready to pike or spear . And there in mourning spend Sw. Bourdon. burt. burlare. to mutter. shoulder-blade. Gael. the Bourdon. w. Dan. brummen. Fr. to hum. deceit. Bounty. souf. to take one in. a drone or dor-bee. Du. burdan. schenkelbug. — — . ready. hence musical accompaniment. to banter or laugh at. to — Hal. bending of a joint knie-bug. a go to. kroes. to drink deep. a — — . pusta. bog. Bound. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Chaucer in R. to our bous. a for New York. Du. potio. Swiss bausen. G. bue. Du. bdgi. Dan. to take breath. burreti. also the humming or ON. has also buirleadh. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . bend Sw. to hum as a bee. drone of a bagpipe.

inclinare se (Kil. biiske. buxus. a bundle. a drop of pullistaa. to bend. bock. . bugy. acsian. budello.). bwra. hiidel. bowel Box. buckel. ku^o. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. AS. buckelig gehen. . . stream forth bugyogni. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. G. to bulge. bulge. bubble. a bubble bolli. biichse. G. bulcken. w.flask It. See Crab. bouzellou. convexity. as in AS. a ball. knob From the former modification we have bolla. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bulla. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bog. Hence.a. bogla. a chamber swefnbur. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. bugyola. . Gr. cumena-bur. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. Fr. intrenchment. pusspan. give in to. kupu. . guestchamber . (in pass . passing on stud. puffy. A .. globular body. Du. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . koziel. bow. OFr. ask. Buckle. Sw. . botulus. buis. buga. painter's easel. to raise the back boll OHG. Fr. spherical Dan.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. buk. . . bulk compared with Sw. anything globular. belly of a cask. to buckle G. round bead. the head. . See MHO. utibur. dial. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bola. a ball. of a wooden ball to play with and — . ttuJic. a separate apartment . bulne.cup Du. bugyani. The word may probably be identical with Fris. bhugna. . bolne. as in E. convex. bucka. bolla. bubble. lump . box in both senses. Sp. wisp of straw . a. a wine-can . — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. mausbollelein. bouellou. a bubble. as well as the name of a. a bubble. The / a bow. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. &c. See Boil. trestle. . busse. bugna. a box. to bow buck. to bend down. a polla. hollow place Fr. different position in ODu. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. compared with Fr. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. peated in Magy. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. A Bulk. Du. globular. and on swollen. folliculus . boor. a box. ken. a black pudding. crown of a hat. an outhouse AS. Pol. Thus we have Esthon. boss. ^o/a. a iDubble. water pulli. bol. kuppelo. bug. In like manner the Pol. . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. bulla in aqua. OE. . crooked. bouge. honse-bur. a box Lat. bossola. without the and grits. bog. kupula. boss. globe or spherical body. bur. or. a hen-coop . belly. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. gut. a sleeping-room . bollen. the barrel of a gun. with inversion of the round. the crop of a bird.. fata-bur. hill.D. kupukka. similar shape. a round glass or bolg. make obeisance. pocket. a little box . tumour . bhuj. busskai.). budel. Hal. hollow wooden case. a protuberance. the box-tree. From the other form are G. box. the head. an inclosure. buello. bugyni. bowels. . a ball . . Lat. blister. zich onder jemand under to him. . and to a coachbox in particular. Sw. bol. a wardrobe . . a boil. Cable. . ne. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. W. boxtree. to stoop biickling. belly. Boll. biicken. biisse. to bubble up. bulb of an onion bolleyield. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. head of a cabbage. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. round glass phial. the bogna. Bret. fyn. . signified by forms like Gael. boucle. a box. to stoop. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. bukke. . buchsbaum. prominence. It is more probably from the G. boxtree pusska. pullo.\s. swell. a stud. bwr. bolle. Dan. spring as water bugya. Bower. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases.) to incline oneself . Fr. in both senses. bosso. a sack. a parlour. polla. a thing of liquid. buigen. a croft by a house. to yield to one. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. or in e. . to puff up. bocka. Sanscr. bolgna. a knot. . a swelling or rising up. AS. the box-tree and articles made of it G. ^o«/«. hollow. purse. is applied to a coach-box. boudin. beuz. boel. the skull or brainpan . . to guggle. then by the loss of the /. to puff up pullakka. bulka. PLD. a buck. Bohem. . sausage. Dan. E. tumour. ON. a bubble Fin. heafod bolla. to swell. swoUei) Lat. ON. Bret. bowl . a bowl. bending. at the e. Sw. Bowl. to make crooked . a hump on the back rossbollen. in walking appears in a . a bud. boil. W. a box. Du. bow. Bav. ON. a pot. the box-tree It. iri'iaQ. * Bowels. beutel. bolla. bent. bur.

as die Augen plainly an imitative word. which sigof straining. a sounding blow. to stutter. Swiss Rom. — . brageuses. moral or physical. brack. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. bracke. to want. by the same inversion of J and k. Fr. a guard to torf. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. boy. brague.. To fight with the fists. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . Pl. a braceOFr. brae. Brackish. a boy pupa. is a rope holding G. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. boiste. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. spaniel. rack.— D. acidus. . break. brechen ihm. OFr. wrack. It. to is derived brestr. Thus brack. loud smack. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. AS. mud. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. brae. which has many representatives in the other Europe. A — — . bracer. Kil. a pair of braces. . . land spoilt Kil. in R. bube. Prov. braca. quarrel Bohem. flaw. Pr. parallel with OK. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Gael. Du. — . Fr. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. defect. mud. . brechen. bou^ba. confining. salo sive aqua marinS. OE." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. bracha. It is B. a grown youth Cimbr. fault. Brach. Prov. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . salsus. A to halt between two derivations. wnzC/J. . Sp. In like manner the It. want. in R. to be wanting. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. beagle. armour for the arm. To brace is to draw together. and then Pl. — . rakka. clay. filth . to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. breach. to Swiss batschen. Prov. defect Du. a crack.with a noise. defect. Kil. ' — A — — — . jabber. con. let. or defect. boussole. Fr. an languages. Cot. posh. brae. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. boy bouba. disturb. ratch. compressing. root). the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. Fr. Brak-goed. See Brake. . unmarried man . — — . — . Brack. his eyes are failing him). a comworld Rayn. dog that hunts by scent.D. variation of babble. Bracket. dog in general. or bracer Cot. the first instancebya physical tie. dirty. bracon. Lett. refuse. Brack. braquet. to give a sounding blow defect. mud. Pm. Heligoneed. a girl. as noticed under Box. pus. bragos. — . to box the ears. pube. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. See Broker. A brace probis. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. ghebreck. damaged board a ship.. land batsken. Sp. a box. Lat. The different meanings of the brageux. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Boy. from a root brak. to give a blow with the fists. brasselet. the arm. isolated part of the text. On the same principle from the buksteht. braque.puddle. bitch Du. want. ing from a mixture of salt. want. brassard. One girl. by an overflow of sea water. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. odorinsecus. suppuration. rakki. foul. to give a gebrechen. briche. corruptse. bracil. then from break. Sp. and F. bresta. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. fuse. To Brabble. . breach. matter. Bracelet. bask. brae. babble. brack. brakke Bracelet. braco. bray. It. brabbelen. whelp as. Rouchi Then as an adj. 91 the Dan. . G. rakke. dog Sw. need. bracket. wristband.. Du. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . to slap. bruxula. G. Ptg. fault . flap. ON. to burst.D. s. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. strike. race. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. BOX To Box. braecke. Kil. to fall. Prov. baukscheht. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. . I sal slyng. It. V. ON. OFr. brace on and Du. pupus. murmur. thwack. breptati. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. braic. taneous talking. a bog or pass Fr.nated by dirt. bracco. a bubbling dura del mun. braco. cramp-iron holding things together . Swab. bouibo. flaw. lalear-eyed Prov. and string of his bow. &c.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. MHG. youth. brec. Swiss bub. s.. to crack. brek. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. brek. breuque. to smack the hand batschen. merely in our mode of considering them. bue. baske. brago. Water rendered boubo. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. to stammer. priated to the original sense. La ville ou y avait Brace. brostia. Hdcart. buah. brakke grund.

riches. Langued. — From W. bragging of his own valour. brave. affront. braga. or by gaudy dress and show. To Brail. breach. idle talk. Brake. . braske. Fris. confining. Bret. — A — . to unbrace or let down the breeches. Fr. brave. torture . se parer de beaux habits. was formed brayele. to shout. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. Faire le brave. make a noise . in order to prevent its catching the wind. &c. goods. brabhdair. To Brag. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. in the sense of the Lat. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. Hecart. or from braie itself. Haldorsen Gael. braka. .^Vocab. ative fellow. a noisy talkboasting. Chaucer. i. brave. to cord a bale of tie up.—— . boast. bully . crash ON. crash. valiant The head are sumptuous. bragio. excellent. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. brayete.aburst. vain glory. Hence E. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. finery. 92 Cot. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . braicli. . braszketi. See Bray. brag. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . vanter une chose. gayly dressed. Thus Bret. de Vaud. . Thus we are brought to the OE. the feathers ON. From sprouted corn. be noisy . braies. h-avare and Fr. braver. gorgeous. ^Brave. about the hawk's fundament. breagh. bragd. . gay. braske. vaunting. From Fr. brails. gay. as the type of exertion and strength.explosion. bravado j Fr. the opposite of which. spot. brake is. to flaunt. gallant (in apparel) also proud. proud. used in the sense of force. From brayel. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3.breeches. and that from e. to sprout malt. showy bravery. Brain. bravacherie. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . in numerous dialects. bullying. The meanings included under — Bragget. courageous. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. braegenj Du. 2. breghe. Cot.%. bragaireachd. brave. hectoring. fine. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Lith. stout. strength. splendid. slight modificajoining the two legs. that will carry no coals. and it is very likely that the root brak. also derived Fr. —Spenser in R. braga. is identical with Gael. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. brag or jet it braguard. braga. to boast or brag. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). brae. Bret. . bravo. blusterer. crack. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . braggard also valiant. — Chaucer. dhbrailler. drawers. power. AS. well-dressed. subigere. braw. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. to make a noise. brag. an iron for holding Zalli. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. A — Hal. fine. would be to brace. noisy ostentation. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael.Shepherd's Cal. Fr. be found. See Brace. empty pride. the arm. Primarily to crack. w. to swagger. Dan. breghen. bravache. boasting. braguer. brav. Lat.. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . It is certain that the word for arm is. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. swagger. Cot. bushy . flaunting.hy which this idea is con\eyed. a roisterer. brachittm. Sc.. Wallachian bratsou. . Sp. swaggerer. to Rouchi brMer. binding anything together. smart. — Equivalent forms are Gael. To Braid. brazo. Brake. called by our braggard. brabhdadh. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth.^ Sp. brave. compressing. Walloon bress. bragging. to strut. also insolenter se gerere . gallant. flaunt in fine clothes .i5nz^. a carriage for breaking in horses . and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. an inclosure for cattle . to crack. to brail up a sail. It. . se pavaner. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. expensive. The meanings of brake are very numerous. The plant y^r«. braka. Rom. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. brake in the sense of constraining. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. subduing. breyne. Brag was then used brisk. brao. cry. Brail. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. BRAG Piedm. Dan. stately. Cot. is Cot. — . to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. Bray. beautiful. se donner trop de licence. to rattle. fine. fine. to boast of his own worth. also tion of this was brayeul. to stand upon terms. handsome. bra!.

t° moisten. is braukti. low wet land bruch. a horse's a horse's twitch. brook. word. To the same bend a bow. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. Voc. glebas subigere. ^raca. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. fratto. subigere. to brush. brake. broilium. broil. Lat. marsh or swamp. Fr. as in Du. Prov. a brace on board a ship. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. brage. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. to fracture. as in Sp. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Brake. cover G. murrokko. tris). which originally designated a broken mass of wood. to bray in a mortar. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. or A A ' . 2. e. gebroge. in northern climates. or a wood in a marshy place . brolium. for — Due. gilum. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. and G. been confounded with the verb break. Swiss Rom. Dan. The Fr. . to head must be bit. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. is formed murd. bregar brake. In ON. Fr. it is not surprising that the word has here. watered. bushes. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl.bracan. brushwood.— . difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. to rub. thing is brought under control. the original meaning of G. the lever by which the string was drawn up. Dan. briser. Sp. a harrow. a marsh. in usus braca. nemus. a stream. any thicket of brakes. a swampy Mid. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. to pound. as well as in the case of the e. briers. BRAKE to external force. Gr. tnurdma. bregar. brcekke. brega. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. marsh. el arco. flachs brechen. gebrUche. bredza. might come to signify a swamp. brook. — — . where from Esthon. It. G. Fr. or overthrow of trees by the wind. and when once thrown down. copse-wood. brog or brake. pasture.. quarry from Fin. breaking in the operation. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. — Fl. and Lat. as in the case of horse-breaking. have thus Du. riguus. a thicket. to The ON. signifying to sweep. brego. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. game. a fen. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. bruch. —Ovid. de Vaud. dial. braquer un canon. brambles. It. frangere linum. to harrow (Lat. referred brake. to distinct. broor bushy place Hal. to break or fracture.D. to exert force in different ways. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. murtaa. braken. —Bracken. Corrfeze bredgea. We — . brambles. iSpsx". brog. brage. In like manner Lat. to stiffen against Taboada). to bend or direct a cannon. farinam in mortario subigere. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. Brake. P&. brake. Pl. braeken. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. to row. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. gebroge.D. bregille. to break. It may be sus- . brak is a frame in which strip. cetur. braka. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. brog above mentioned. to bend a bow. broeck. broken fratta. thicket. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. properly braking or subduing them. a spinning-wheel. murran. to subdue.' It. casser le \va. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. Biglotton. Dan. breuil. In the sense of a thicket. ing of flax or hemp. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. gebiisch. braecken het vlasch. to break. break flax PLD. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. bush. OFr. broyer. gebroge. Gael. conSo in G. break of such a kind. gebrUche. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. brook. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). 3. brogille. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. In the case of the ne. broillet. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. bush. braca.

thicket of brambles Cot. A mark made by burning. a halter. a shrub from Bret. See Brush. to bridle. a heath. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. So Swiss gaggi. a burning fragment of wood. &c. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. Branch. brang. piecemeal brindelles. as. briars. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. or with It. broust. thorns and Gen. it glitters — — . brug). and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. the branch of a tree. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. a shrub . also a marshy low ground or fen . bren. a single plant of heath. compress. from gaggi. a bud. heath. Piedm. stink . and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. It will be found that shrubs. — . brouskoad. brandmurk. pfriemen. cack. As ON. . the thorn apple or stramonium. the bull-finch. brano. . Gael." The bmno a • on . brin.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth.. Bret. Grisons bruch. as AS. brass. Bramble. ground full of briers. also pfriemkraut. Pl. apiece orbitbrandone. bronbo. brog. . berneux. Russ. sedge burkni. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. branco.). .D. piece of anything. 2. Serv. from virga. Bret. brom. — branca. brugek. Bav. G. Broom. But we find It. brancas. w. breun. That beareth the red hepe. —Ducange. broussaille. brous. . It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. from brug. to gripe. G. bran. bromboli. Fr. Brancare. a vine twig Bav. Sir Topaz. to burn. . Bret. brein. and thence a shoot. Brand. from Lat. a dunghill. Bran. In like hrst. breanan. Pl. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . brenn hesken. pfriem in the sense of an awl. gebriiche. a shoot or twig. brin (as It brano). Thus we have w. a roA. The same form becomes in It. ordure . heath. brandello. excrement. sprouts. AS. brenda. sweet broom. The naof strain. Fr. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. brank. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. virgultum. snotty . branchia. w. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brand. clutch. restrain. branche. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . Port. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor.D.G. brank. broembel-CBppel. brosst. brarn. a small deri\'ation . constrain. braeme. breme j Sw. bro7n. brok. young twig {brom-beisser. bit by bit. brughera. Diez. &c. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. and waste growths. wood composed of twigs. that is to say. in the sense oi fern. titio. G. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. to -brugen. . what is cast out as worthless. Thus in Lat. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. ear-wax mud. may be so called in analogy with Bret. It. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. brin d. Gael. brem. brandr. prufye. pfropf. Rouchi bren d'orMe. to or iron. or other plants of a like nature. bruk. broom. bren. burning brennen. bretnel. i. bruk. It. gebroge. heath (Bret. brenn. Fr. brwnt. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. heath. bracken or fern . braam. a bud. a rod or twig. dirt . The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. Bret. from Servian pnit. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. bruskoad. brenna. is the draff or excrement of the com. a briery plot. Thornas and bremelas. in the same sense. a shoot. Fr. broem. or ling. brandiiialil. chaff. hallier. Dan. brake. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . bushes. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. broccoli. . 1 8. G. bramble Du. E. bruk. . cabbage sprouts Fl. brug. bran. young buisson fort epais. a firebrand. a bud It. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. broom. bruch. heath. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. from brand. brejo. and E. a bridle or bit . pected that brake. heath ON. a thick bush. nasty. bruch. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. iii. to brank. brambles. sawdust. Brank. brushwood.

To brase AS. n. Chron. Chron. to French brawl or brangle. ist. E. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. Fr. to burn. the colour than hitherto known. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. braise. faire fracas. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. firewood. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. conbillet. Kil. To brand. bracia. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. Guill. With top trimbling. bruciare. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. brin. brennen. Brasil. braise. Brangle. was in use Fr. — . a roaring fire. brasa. weinbrenner. a To Brandish. a pan of hot coals. embraser. brane-wood. brangle or brawl in E. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. urens. to brandle. to murmur.well. brus^. put. WaUon. Fr. Lye. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. all. brandiller. d'Angl. gebrannter wein. to crackle . arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . plained by Florio. 59. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Fr. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. branler. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. Fl. De Barros considers vinum ardens. firebrand. Bailey. to glisten or flash. a fragment. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. flagrans. It. and scold. forms brasil. glowing embers . fire-wood. make a — . briiler. so. in Marsh. to brustle. bruan. du Roi et laine. bransle. to confuse. to make display . apparently very distinct from each other. Ija. to blaze. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. or in stick. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. distilled wine. comes from thence. noise. set on fire. to braze or lute. bragia. The corresponding form in Gael. and bruir. Diez. It. to and fro in the hand. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. G. bra?ier. ish. a brusler. morsel. perplex. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. crackle. is bntan. branla. stake. splinter. as Fr. to burn. braise or hot coals. brandende wijn. brastlian. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. make an outcry. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. bresil. Hume in brand in ON. bransella. brausen. to hurl with great force. to solder iron. brasca. incendium. De Goes. to make shine with shaking. became ashes Pied. bragale\ wood. to dash. Braser. braza. N. prasseln. brandiller.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. Fr. Sw. hoisting to the fall. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. brasil. live coals. brascct. The tre brangillis. spirit distilled from wine. to Bailey. Manx bransey. E. as Jamieson explains it. e. aqua ardens. billet. Port. brush. bum. branler. from to vociferate. shake. The name Brandy. as again by well as the blade of a sword. to sound of the Fr. Milan. to shake. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. then brandr. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. Fr. hot Fr. to brangle. crackle. to rustle. brazeiro. the spelling to kindle. to quarrel. bryne. given to the country. brouir. to shog. — . to burn. not. In the same way the set on fire . Jam. bracea.pan of coals. a stick.. to brandle or The It. It. to make sense of a bright red dye. brandigh. brasa. braser. brasca. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. — ting to confusion. — . Sw. to distil . brandolare is exbrandish. to totter. G. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. AS. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Formerly brandy-wine. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. bruire. V. So. Thus the bound up again. before the discovery of America in the brandir. Gris.^Brandle. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. Bret. bruzi. to roar. eldibrandr. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. and branchis shaiand D. brustle. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. to shake. brazil. from used in dyeing cloths. totter. brand. a round dance. to bicker 2nd. Du. to shake The word brisil. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. Brase.

reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Westphal. luncheon.— Fl. a clout. Sp. frequentative of braire. tasce. bas morceau de viande brawhng. brazen. and bronzo. Brattice. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. 1156. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). boutures. So also See Brag. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Brangle. ship. to talk at bralle op. . braser Fargent.D. It. bruir. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. Brawn. Brave. Lorraine bravon.D. bartising. brdto (ace. KiL Prov. Fris. Mundart. —-Jam. a lump. to carbonado. squall. any piece. brettys. a slabbering-bib. A. brat. — . as criailler of crier. OHG. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . bretesche. bratdn). The verb is probably derived from the brase. to scold . pan- — Rayn. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. braeye.walle — Pr. then a parapet. brailler. to solder. contignatio. bralle. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. strepitus 2. Kil. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. bronzacchiare. a lath. bradlete. Wall. bretays). bras. bred. Sup. See Brandish. a rag . ON. bronze. bratach. It. Paris. lat'te. a plank or board. ' A vraale.— Diez. rag. —^Bronze. OFr. a cloak. Certainly a little girl. &c. a loud noise. discord. ni autres choses sur Due. breyon. A. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E.^ — Sverris Saga. OFr. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. as a brawling brook. I. slakker-bortchen. braion. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. breyon d'chaur. brett. bransle. bribe de viande. noise. brat. Sc. le repasser un peu sur la braise. Swiss bradle. Math. frame of laths. Fr. Pm. to tear piecemeal. bratid calf of the leg. apron. braede. burning coals. breyon de kinds of . testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. coassatio. cob. is The word — uous name for a woman. as lattice. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. or whether it be from Fr. a contempt- banner. cloth. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. a. AS.' Hal. a patch of cloth. slibro. from Sc. neita girl). fraiche. a lump of flesh. a rag. saillies. Cologne broden. roar.96 Roquefort. bretesque. a Lap. A land of dance. 2. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. Gael. to braze. Cot. G. as rashers upon quick burning coals. a lump of flesh. as scrawl from scrabble. a fortification. Fr. pil. It . Dan. bartisan. a wooden tower. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a rag . branle. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. Bartizan. See Bray. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. from Fr. esbraotier. a mantle.brettysing. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. brandillo. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. Du. to copper. solder. Brat. braodhlach. braiio. flesh of a leg of pork. from branler. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. slut. Betrax of a —^Jam. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. baltresca. slibro {neita. boarding being sbranare. Brass. bran. bratidone. trul. Circumeunt cibertesca. 1224. Hist. or on the top of a wall. especially that used in the working of iron .D. Pisana in Mur. Cot. bronzare. ferruminare. brces. borderinge. bmhon for brado7i. Florio. 368. braon.propugnaculum.— Remade. Jam. at brasa. to cry. W. a battle-girdle. Many gambes. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. a contemptuous name for a young child. equivalent to the Du. calf of the leg. whether contracted from brabble. muscular parts of the body. bradon. — Deutsch.— Braid. ^Altieri.' BRASS BRAY et AS. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. deblaterare. to Gael. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. Bailey. brass. Fr. braoilich. The muscular part of the body. brat. breteque. calf of the leg. The same correspondence is seen between It. berd. A dispute or squabble. to shake. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. buttock Sc. P1. a parapet. a — A from the confused noise. the calf of the leg. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. Brawl. the buttocks. in the first instance of boards.

brage. to resemble. or cry out loudly . R. to bawl. braire. to knead. The ON. bruzir. brak. a wink. or wound. to sound very loud and very harshly. bregar. bratsche.' To Bray. To Break. the sound — of arms. iU-favouredly — in Jam. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. paxog. and make a hideous noise. Cot. D. to crash. to resemble him. roar. 145. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to pretend. Wal. baiyl. braidar. to start. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to cry out. regi.g. brikan. braid. Du. breach. father. Fr. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. is . ON. bregda. bradar. 7 . V. vapna-brak. appearance Hal. on. brechen. k. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. starts crackling up. crackle . And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. relation is seen between Lat. Q. and fracasously. &c. to have the lineaments of one's ON. gestus. Bailey. to rub Fr. D. Ppvxia. ing.. R. ON. and frangere. brand. a rent. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. a breach Cot. augnabragd. fragor. bruire. to break Fr. to bray like an ass. brugier. &c. to break. Prov. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. plait. braidir. breche. Beryn. Fin. Breach. bray. ^p&xia. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. imitate or resemble one. to cry out. To rub or grind down Sp. E. Gr. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. — — — explained motus loud noise. Then is simply. kind. will. &c. verb to break. to rush. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. to braid. mos. cyprinus latus. brice. resound .fracas. to scold. with or without a final d. Goth. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. to snatch. . to roar. bregar.^ Fr. I'll live and die a maid. at once. the sword was out break. Bret. Fr. .y. Prov.ear rog. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. and to signify the fracture itself. crash. the miller's dog. From the or brack in a wall. a rag f . bragr. to smack or the eye. G. as the voice of the ass. soft . to bellow. which has given much trouble to commentators. Bread. fractus j Gr. turn. make a disturbance.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. &c. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. brame. to braid. at a braid. . a brack. F. to break. Then. to bray in a mortar. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. AS. V.ch. to braid the hair. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to the seijauntes. weave The ON. D. to rumble. braa. yell. See Brake. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. yell. i. braea.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. to break. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. explaining a very obscure application of the E. breuan. instantane. braa. W. OE. ybrayid. bragd is also applied nets. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. rogi. as OE. And with a traid I tumyt me about. crash. rattle. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. The same He might don us both a villany. a crash. as the notion of turning crack. Chaucer. broad. Chaucer. — . twist. paste or dough. Cat. bragd — ON.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. e. rustle. in Jam. to work up in a mortar. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. fish. to roar or bellow. V. to braid acquires the sense of bend. G. roar. brot. to N. Swiss bratschig. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. a brake for hemp or flax. And at a braid he gun it bende. — koa. to t. broyer. bru. to resemble. the clash of ai-ms Dan. noise . Lat. abraid. 2. a . Bread. The Lat. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. to crash. riAprjyvvfu. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. disturbance. father. ser. to cry Port. rangere. to tear Bret. at braga eftir euium. a mill. upbraid. to The cup was uncoverid. brak. to roar as the sea. crepo and E. Dunbar braessem.

to be misty and cold. braca. Dtyden. G. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. applied to shivering. their stings draw . — See Broth. to resound. Gl. to murmur. Swiss Rom. Goth. an into shiver. brok. crush. bragues. brist. brossi!. met de bridse slaan. braucn. brinisa. — . and other rubbish dibris. a crum. Swiss brdtsch. bretilles. Gael. Breeze. a smack. breeze. Prov. to bind. G^nev. peitschen. to crush to break. to hum. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. windy withal. braux. QNtsterviald) pritschen. instead of being derived from 'La. bremse. Hume in Jam. braga. Lat. brugga. Fr. braie.). as. de Vaud. switch. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. a crum Du. Breath. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. To Brew. remains of leaves. brosame. brisciare. zare.vare. of straining. brcekur j It. braies. G. Rom. Breeze. of trees. We bragezj on. are related to Prov. The Teutonic verbs. Briss and buttons. to brew. Gl. See Brick. chilly. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. Breeze. of E. braich. Du. from brace. Breast. . morsel. Prov. with It. brache. /esses. fitzen. bruzun. may be from the wurh fesser. to simmer. a cold and windy mist or frost . malt. brciz. breson. E.britschen. trembling. — And blood. drawers. brezza. dial. as commonly explained. one on the breech so that (klatschet). chillness or shivering. a box. malt. grillare. to fry Then from a Gl. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. brezzare. Biglotton. as by the Sc. forms analogous to E. brusc. brdtschen. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. braca. broza. Fr. . einem de britze geven. forms. —Briss. an odour. to feize or feaze. breost. Fris. to crackle. to break. brasser. Piedm. to burst.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. rubbish. braguier. PI. — Brist. Du. the dry spines of furze broken off. braga. from ligare. binding. G. brut. broden. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. orts. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. AS. brimme. murmur. brasiuiii. Dev. and E. sheep's droppings bruss. brustia. clout for a child. brasiare. simmer. Dan. brijselen. the soler. siibligar. Gael. to bray.98 borst. briiz. a gadfly. bris de charbon. b}-as. brodel. little bits of wood Berri briser. sprouted corn.D. properly to crackle. the bust. a to lay fly-flap. to shiver for cold. also to chill and shiver with cold. G. i5r(Z^. from AS. briosa. trusts. brew. to rattle (as hail). break. representing the sound of a blow. Breeches. brisd. to buzz. brcEth. polenta. bris. Bret. brise. Bruise. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. . It. So ON. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Originally probably the word signified steam. are in like manner ' . bryi^ga. to brew. then to broil. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. Fr. de bridse geveii. fail. brimsa. and brought beneath between the legs. braciarc. The Breech (Prov. Russ. as in the case of twitter. . it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. bracecs . Compare OE. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. . a horse's twitch. Brize. corresponding to G. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. briste. braia J OFr. bresilles. brissle. briosat'. to fry . griller. to smack. w. briig. brire. broil. Sw. a cramp-iron for holding things together. a cool wind. in Schilter. noise. breinse. breath. braies. bark Fr. brodem. &c. cloven. Du. Isidore and Tatian. simmering. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. — . bratscher.'— Gl. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . bruise. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. as. G. bruc. body brostia. Piedm. singing bone. — — strument for smacking. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. AS. . burst. subligaculum. bandage or truss for a rupture. fastening . E. vapour. brijsen. but more probably the E. point to G. Bracha. — Halma. briosa. brezling. Du. to breech. as the G. broiiwen. OFr. so AS. murmur—Vocab. or the blow itself. a twitch for a horse. the breech or buttocks. coaldust. bridsen. Bret. rubbish. Swiss AS. to roast. brisoler. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. brison. grillen.t. brumtnen. grill. xyligogio castigare. Hence the Lat. bris. britze. bre- I'os qui bresole. bra. Lat./ssus. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. breme. to whip. a girdle. scent. bruzir.

a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. BRIGADE dead. w. bryd-gutna. fraoch. AS. Brigade. Neumann. pier. . bread. a bride. Sp. braut. twopares Lat. Ihre. corresponding or letter. a crum. Walach. jipaaaiii. jetty. Lat. brere. to prepare. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bro is applied not only to a bridge. broosekens. A bribe is A — — arval. peculiar. bryd-eale. a bush. In E. feast. bruk. to tlie brico. division of an army. brahi. the newly. bro. a lump of bread briber. . from the last 99 of which. brA. gf2o. to rub. Ducange. two-masted vessel. to pave brukkti. to meet together. the Fr. a proprietor. bricou. brau. a brig or priodor. malt. funeral. . grug. Gl. Due. consort with. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. bably contracted from brigantine. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. Fr. So in The Prov. — . bretonica. Pro(merch=:maid). brutg. daughheath. whence berw. fervere. Gael. pavement brolegge. remarkable that the Gr. Dan. fastningar-ol. troop. a bit. Flor. broken. . hlafes brice. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. ibrukkti. married. bruskr and buskr. In the G. from Bret. Cot. beaten way Dan. bruarium. Bridge. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. Hence OE. and berweddu. Grisons bruch. . to Isrew. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. brigantine. bo. Brief. pavement Lith. fragment. a bride Brig. Priodi. bride. sponsa. a beggar. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. brocaly.rough with brambles and bushes. So It. bruith. one's ovin.gfiugga. bridelj OHG. appropriate. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. brukkas. owned also propriate. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. . nurus G. . G^n^v. collect bits of food. to circulate. Hdcart. brug. buskins. from bit. Diefenbach com. — . Trovarfor bride-ale. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. a married man or woman Lat. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. frayer. Gael.Fr. Fr. thick appropriated. it is applied to the letter to OE. of burial. buckler J ON. to press in. AS. the equivalent of to the dial. a quoit of stone. to press. a heath. and ODu. has briguer. berwedd. breve or brevis. brar. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. It — is Kil. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. brood. brique de pain. barren land priodas. betonica. A — A — . Diez. E.bergantino. AS. to boil. It. imprint. a little king's writs. W. with transposition of the r. OHG. If the foregoing were not so clear.groom. but probably Bricoteau. briiths. brice. to break to pieces bricalio. a wedding priod-fab. a lump of bread. The Sw. or brizo. sugga. in the sense of OSw. and that from It. betony brulicame. piece of burnt clay. bruyere. crew. See Broth. brigata. Bridle. privus. briicke. httle bit. as. guma. brieden. Fl. feast of espousals. as so. company. from Bridegroom. any jot or crum. a crum. . briw. Brewis. a briole. AS. Brier. ter-in-law. graf-ol. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. AS. to stamp. to brew. The origin of the word is the w. . bridge. brittil. a fragment. bribour. a lump of bread. E. bro. bricge j G. conjux. Lang. bride. brasser. then the marriage itself. priod-ferch. to pave. which however is undoubtedly from brace. malt. broken victuals. boiling up brocoliere. bruk. to boil. Bridal. to beg one's bread. groom (mab=:son). AS. ' — . Goth. a married man guma. brygga. a cheat. a fragment. It. to appropriate.It. a sow. masted vessel.. bitill. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. brilt. birbone. from the Normans. to break. — — — — — — . stone-bridge bnikkoti.pritil . Applied ous words derived from break. Mid. ment of anything broken. brakes of high-grown ferns. broken bread. bidsel. birbante. Du. brughiera. briwo. is still used in this sense. Pol. In the patois of briccia. served (Patois de Bray). ON. priod. especially to a letter or command. fit. a man. ' . a Bride. arf-ol. E. a rogue . Fr.privatus. Brique. pavement. the marriage si in brigata. bygga. brigade. a rogue. to boil. bara briw. Brick. son. ap. OSw. heath. a heath brughera. Bribe. but to a paved road. Bridal. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . fragDictante legationis suae brevem. Thom.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. a boiling. bulicame. berwi. Rouchi brife. lipdZu}. bribe de pain. E.

The E. 312. Florio. Brilliant. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. clangour. Xa/iTTii). —Capgrave. — — . secondarily. strife. kilistua. Heo — song That AS. to reservavit. AS. twinkling. willata. It. In Fin. to piracy. . Brigata. show the origin of Lat.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. malandrini. A. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . clear. pugna. to cry. to resound. bright bearhtm. outcry. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set .glampa. a sound. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. to rove. jurgia. splendour. The primary meaning of Sp. etincelle. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. It. to shine. himself to serve men of merit. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. dine. necessary business. combat. tinnitum clarum movco. Bav. tumult. may play the pirate or thief at sea. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. to glitter. praht. Beorktode bene sweg.shine. clear. from hall. and. in later times a robber or highway-man. beorht. the grew high. there are many armour. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It.Lat. on his — own account. transparent. glir. It. rixa. brigan. also called briganders. Brigand. briga. manifest ON. splcnornd de brigandine. to ring. at a later period. clang. a brigantine. squamma . and ner me hit iherde. to make a loud noise. bragen.D. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. dine. Owl and beorhtian. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. and led it away. a small light pinnace pro. with respect either to sound or colour. The Ir. clear sound. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. to contend with another. labour. — Briganbriga. Goth. brigare. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. schiteren. So G. bryhtm. to cry 'Schmid OE. inde squammatus. A strepere. clear. that of Fr. — Due. schateren. cange has 'Veles. glitter. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. to sound. brdgen. glamra. clarus. a spark. XafXTTpoQ. in the first instance. — brigante. biartr. — brigante. a pirate. brigare. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. and to associate with them. to shift for with care. tinkle. brigant. Gr. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. — Probably then to strive. OHG. hell. and diligence. 1654. In the same way to strive is. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. speech. Lat. — Beowulf. . Swab. glbram. It. shriek with laughter. is easily understood. the gleeman's song. — Brigantine.— . Due. brawl. to rob. Mid. a noise. Wilista. and secondly.' in Due. \oice. to shine. briga. 1351. kii:'a. brebrigare. — A A .prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. Bright. splendens . tinnitus. a glittering. to glamr. Du.' The passage from the sense of a light. to bend a bow It. briegen. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . They or brigantini. rover either by sea or land. tuilahtaa. bairhts. and the E. brak. brcEhtin. representing a sudden noise. Gall. From ON. wilella. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. riis ' — Chron. clare lucens. See Brake. bray.' The sense of strife or combat express. sound. moment. tion. Schmeller. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd.clare ^tinniens. lay was sung. and.pracht. in the sense of a robber. seems to be to exert force gar el area. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. glamm. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. bracht. Flor. loo BRIGAND lor.dorem clarum reflecto. Adelung.' torum. then. noise. to strive for. brigandare. bregar. braid. splendour. the bench-notes resounded. and hence be explained glampi. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds.

The meaning of the Fr. . frequently interchange. the singing of Sodom — — . bryn.ioTiviS acutus. the eye-brow. grisser. Brem. as of meat in broiling . rugire (cervorum. from bringe. Tresiller. to glitter . crackle . voux. brunft. Dief. margin. kiimottaa. to creak. to roar. a stick. ON. from brandr. ter. to sparkle. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. leonum). os qui bresole. ardere desiderio. It. sparkle. brim. and corresponding to these. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. Dan.) brimi. s. brimmen. the edge. reecho. finds the Fr. Subo. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. Fl. excited. fringe (Lat. 754. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. Streaked. a streak. post.its vent in cries and roaring. — — So Fr. noise made by meat in broiling. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. It. small gravel. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). E. brummen.— Brinded. brim Magy. breziller. barm. Sc. Rayn. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. a border. to glitter. Closely connected is OE. In the same way Sw. — . brezil. Hence with an initial s. greDiet. coloured in stripes. griller. grullo. to shimmer. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. Thus Lat. kimina. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. bry7ie. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. furious. brmdottr. chime). a long. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. pMiller. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. with an initial br instead of gr. to broil. sonitum edere bremen. FJ. . burning. Supp. Du. border. hence the bosom. Swiss Rom. fringe . fierce. brummen : de soge brummet. which seems identical with rim. bramar. to glitter distance . briller. (poet. originally the lap folding over the breast. grisler. brumft. brisoler. striped or streaked. — Rim. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. to parch. to crackle. to make bilbil). the heat of animals. brommen. brullo. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. G. border. AS. Prov. vigorHal. to storm. to shake. bramer. briller. have then in Fr. griller d'impatience. lap of a garment . The E. identical with passion. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. brastlian. to quaver with the voice. bremas. the verbs Flor. ring. brdnnsten.' d'etre marie . In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. fimbria) . as in Langued. Tutschek. gresiller. to shine. to wish or covet. tience. to burn. . as is the case also with Pl. to twinkle. sprainged. Wtb. a borDu. the heat of animals. To Brim. a rod. breziller. brandr and Fr. cross-barred in colour. komottaa. brennistein. s. and 1. to long for a thing. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. perent. kajata. bremmen. Kil. rut. Langtoft. kimmaltaa. komista. bramire. bremmen.D. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. barm-cloth or barmskin. shine. Brindled. AS. vattubryn.). A . bramar. burning stone. brama. brame. — g. Said of swine when in heat. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. rym^. 154. glit. greedily to covet Cot. : ' — bone). Brimstone. brant. to utter cries. ON. to . glisten. to resound. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. is used of raging. to fret . grdzil.— BRIM . brissle. ON. Brim. on. to sound deep or hollow. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. as well as bl and gl. griller). brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. of the eye. der. Sc. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. an apron. to shine. that the original meaning of the Sc. bar. edge Pol. gresiller.' Elyot in Way. broiled. fire. brame. brow of a hill. to creak. The identity of ON. ous. In Fr. bresoler (Gloss. Fr. the lap or bosom. 1. brand-krossottr. dial. The expression is now confined to the sow. 1 1 64. brillare. border. barmr. lip of a vessel. rugire. to shine. spraing. breme. breme. lap. kommata. whence bilbil-goda (literally. clangor tinniens. — — — . bray as an ass bramire.preni. crackle. briller (related to each other as OFr. surface of the ocean. whether of desire or anger. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. parched. the meaning is transL' amour. earnestly . or violent action. ling noise and a sparkling light. kimista. Lith. broil . to make a crackling noise. brinfire. the sow is brimming. beam. Rugere. to crackle. to roar. It. also to reflect. Sw. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash.

to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. quick. bringe. bruched (Fr. flames. Abroacli. Bret. Gl. Port. aculeus. broche. strong itself. to set it a going. brim. britar. e. brisciare. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. like the Broad. broca. brezza.rcendij'i. broccata. to shoot. wine of a sharp. — — . See Spread. Du. to stitch. is called a birssy day. Lat. birssy. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. brodden. breidr. rebrousser. roar of the sea saltr. Da. Then as the effect of shivering. to shiver for Sold or for fear. against the grain . to set up one's birse. brezzare. Fr. Zeuss. to broach a business. Swiss to stand out . a bit . brichet. Sp. to scorch.. from break. Sc. angry. as a noun. brockle. brocco. brocher. or the full • .g. to stick. bringe traced through the brano. 'V^. brocciare. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. Ptg. Brisk. a crum. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. birsle. i. reburrus. bryde. p. from AS. as. briocho. to thrust. of astonishment. G.'— Vita'abbatum S. See To Brim. brioshko. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. lively. Hal. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. Brisket. a peg sbrocco. Prov.' Nat. to turn up the point of anything. to spur. . the surf. Compare also E. Brickie. bruckle. It. emotions which produce it.). bronchus. Alfr. to break. Brym. of E. It. Brocade. and forms on. See Brand. brddj Goth. brog. brim (poet. chest.Lat. grim. b. Fr. Boh. sharp. brot. sour. a shoot or sprig. to birstle. Pectusculum. In the N. brocco. as. the surf. harsh vin brusque. to begin upon it. a skewer. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. brusque. braidsj ON. . brissle. sprout. 222. Commonly explained as from Fr. to goad. Palsgr. Breeze been connected with the Sc. a stormy brimsea . saulmeure. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. Gr. brytan. breast. Brittle. fiscbryne. briser. eager. Bret. Liquamen vel garum. . It. bringue. a brooch. craw of a bird. a stitch brocher. Sw. Salte sand is called brimsand. a cold and windy mist or frost. bresk. . startling. the brisket or . a bud. breaking out into growth. Fr. a projecting tooth It. Fris. a brad or tack. are used in the sense of brittle. brich. a fragment. as unripe fruits. a clasp. thick — A elastic hair. brin. sticking up . borst. Berri. Fr. spricka. brissko). to burn. brijn (Kil. whence may be explained the Sc. fragile. spur. to spur. fantas'* tical. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. breaking of the waves brim sior. and hence. . to break. a bud. to broil. bros. to spit. Sc. birse. crabbed. flame. ruffling. bruskett. brindelles de balai. sprocco. or — . as. brimme. brocchus. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. rude. a morsel . bristly . Cot. smart taste. ' . stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Walach. suddenly angry. a morsel. — . i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. Brine.D. setting the hair on end compare It. brittle. Fr. briota. brisk in taste. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. metaphorically. broc. — in Due. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. hot-tempered. very salt brimi.. to stab Gael. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. The Pl. Antiq. brittle. shoot. a belly. It.). Prov. trembling. from brande. ' breast. birstle. — A . apt to break. brime. brandello. britchet. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. birs. Russ. prick with Sw. Mid. brocar. brusco. brote. brickie. broca. Formerly written brotil. brimhliod. rash. britar. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. coli. Hence ribrezzare. fierce. Russ. bricho (with the diminutives. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. brust. a slip or sprig of an herb . an awl. briota. to bud. ON. humorous. broccare. stitch. is to erect the hair. a button broche. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. bryne. . brim. to break. brusk. bros. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Bristle.procio. form bris. ribrezzoso. /3pE^m. rebursiis. to put one in a rage . a rod or twig. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. Du. Brooch. — bryme. and Sc. cK) the . borzen. Fr. a deluge. brcit. has under It. to roar. Bohem. the twigs of a besom. byrst. man's throat. borstel. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. sprouts. NE. a spit. and. expression. Prov. borzos (struppig). to crack. Dan. setting the hair on end. a rebours.

The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. prod. Dan. W. to On the other hand the Sp. forming to jumble. broc. bramowanie. to prick. Fr. to parch or broil. shuffle. sting. fundamental origin. broglio. bmsciare. briefh. noisy. Ihre has guU-bord. AS. Thus brod. Sc. briz. to embroider. blusters. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. or snag. a fallingThe sense has been out. brychau. a confused streaked face of the animal. to burn. — . rinj'. the line of development has been something different. to crackle. — brissle. parti-coloured. knobby . bordo. So from Pol. a badger. speckled. broder. broil. silkes-borda. or glowing coals broged. Brocket. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. a border ornamented with gold. houx. brusuole. Gael. a freckle. birsle. margin. Ptg. grislement. a b?-ustolare. . Compare also AS. a prick. to scorch. a peg. b?-od. brasbrasciuolare. The Bret. Icnotty. brooked. 103 embroidered. brasiller. Gael. The ON. brych. Contracted from Fr. brastlian. prasseln. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. a quarrel. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brodio. to crackle. and w. to knots or loops. to crackle as a shell in the fire. noise. trouble. a brim. Fr. agree in being the extremity of a thing. precisely analogous to the Sc. an edge. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. brizen. brocart. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. with Sc. froco. Sp. Compare G. freckled. a freckle. speckled. has grisser. E. Bret. a border. a brecJi.sound. B. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. brucilare. a flake of snow sion.tumultuous. — Fl. It of br the Fr. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. dar seems derived from borde. q. to boss. Broker. brerd. R. thread. parti-coloured. — The proper sense is that of Fr. Hal. spots. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. brusler. brasiller. Florio. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. the shoot of corn. braird. to spur. gold and silver. a point. stump. brouFr. streaked. A badger. Grisons brascla. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. broccuto. frecSee Brawl. embroidery. Cot. brindled. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . a To Broil. broc. carbonado. to instigate. broighlich. ToBroider. hart of two years old. parched. brucach. to stud broccoso. whence broccare. confound. brasolare. piebald . From direct imitation of Brock. border. bj'oil. Sc. broil. creak. a flock or Gael. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. or roast on the braise. point to an origin in Bret. badger . border ornamented with silk. tori shows that. a brouhaha. brocco.. broice. to embroider. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Here to ornament with needle-work. tumult broighleach. hurly-burlies. grullo. It. bram. initial . to crackle. kled breac. broiled. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. and bord or bred. brustle. broud. bawling. onbryrdan. or salted fish on coals. to crackle. bruler. storms. to darn. brod. trouble. broukit. borprick. gresiller. broccato was used to signify stuff . ciare. parch. To roast upon hot coals. breard. bustling. ornamented with a raised pile. spotted. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. scorch. to streaked or speckled in the face. . brouda. from the white. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. embroidering. brullare. Fr. sparks E. tufted ornaments. — — . atoms . to burn. brocach. Surrey in R. age was termed a pricket. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. frocadura. A fried or boiled steaks). of pointing out their latent defects.. rustle. — Gower in It. a mole. or It. here. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. and AS. brasuole. motes. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance.— B. bordar. to broil. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. It. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. v. Cot.

hrak. to pick and choose. to brew. It. raquer. embers. Pro v. wrak. vile. to nourish. rejection Pol. brands. Grisons brinzla. a broker. from break. It may be compared with It. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. Fl. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. abbronzanchiare. damaged. an operation performed over hot coals. brasa. to hatch. bring eggs and spawn into active life. brack-gut.D. . an . Alb. to copper. in the sense of rejection. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. Kil. G. e. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. To blame mens ware. brod. stain.D. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. a brood . faulty. . hot. dirty. brid.— Breed. . and to reject the damaged and unsound. glowing coals. brokers' goods. Sp. In those countries the term braker. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. term was correcfo^ir. progeny of birds. a chicken. couratier. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. Sc. find fault with. spittle . spittle. vile. Dan.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. To correct an exercise is to Lib. Pl. bronze. rejected. to pick. dial. to — garble. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. brechen. See Broth. to throw blame upon. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. a breach or flaw. fault censure. Bronzare. trumpery. to braze. a fault. cherish. — a spark. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. — point out the faults. S. whnake. i. fermenting. reject. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. to sparkle. ordure. The use sunburn. fish-spawn broden. • . phlegm. mud.— — . Pl. refuse. hraki. in which sense the OHG. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. . wreak. On • tliis principle the G. In the . bronzo. : ' . the spawn of fishes. If to vomit . et A. — Fl. brak. See Wreak. make out. correctarius. nounce unsound. and as an adj. brod. Per manus et old worthless horse. The Langued. brwd. — . criticise (makeln). or brascla. to sit on eggs. to sort goods . the young of any animal . but from the primary sense of the It. goods damaged by sea-water. to be hot. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. to roast on the embers. find fault — — — fuse matter. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. refuse goods. broiid. a makeln. to spit . brumo. 38. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. ON. bronce. sunburnt. which E. inspection. refuse wares. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. broen. bronze. briiten. slaae vrag paa. Teutonic class : Du. ODu. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brunds. a cough Hal. corrector. brackefi. braeck goed. buy and sell by commission. braken. merchandises de rebut G. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. pan metal. want. refuse Fr. For the same reason the Kiittner. bronze. mediationem quorundam J. raca. Lat. embers to brund. abject. try out. filth. whence the modern courtier. w. brasa. Adelung. tussis. Du.D. has exactly the force of G. Bronze. brokoti. insects. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. Pl. analogous to Bohem. bridde. bric-a-brac. Jam. sort. hot. refuse brakovat. Prov. Tooke's Catherine. to garble. matter of blame weak place. wraken. and fishes . Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. vrage. burning. selection. brack-gut (Sanders). lack. with.— Lib. Brood. . bracker. to . warm. Russ. 396. to sort brakovanie. to reject. brieden. an outcast or rejected sheep. designation is indkler. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. inspect. G. try . from makel. embers. brydio. brae. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. racher. screatio Junfus . keep warm. wrack-good. brot. refuse. G. to scorch. . Alb. — broeden. to criticise.D. to emit sparks. tan. blur. brack. OFr. brak. brakyne. on. to be wanting. Bret. cast Lith. Du. brut. racaille. brass does to Sp. to pro- to reject . to hatch. damaged. This word shows the same relation to It. See Brackish. sbrinzlar. Abbronzare. refuse brakowad. brokas. as. find fault with. cracker. Fr.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. bredan. to blame. to hatch G.

from Goth. brio. brauwe. bank. eye-lash . to browse. sprouts . a hill. strength. to murmur. a bud brous-koad. edge.) . a shrub broust. bruth. The AS. spuma. broth the ocean Sw. brothas. Manx broie. . Catalan brossa. bordeau. bank. G. brotar. to scald. a bud. brennen. Mid. . a hill. brucan. Gael. Pl. &c. sproc. enjoy Goth. face. bruc. bryn. cia. Prov. Pol. brocco. verge. perhaps burnt coloilr. brouet. breg. frucius. ceales briw. brozia. brlgh. kail brose. sordes seu strigmata young branch. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. brink. Fr. to roar. strength Ir. useful G. dialects is very different. mettle. OHG. . braun. a river. frui. brstiti. OHG. and It. Fr. shoots. shrub with leafless pointed edging. cabbage soup . brov. meal. brun. brouter. brow. bruceti. who is steaming with sweat. to boil bruithe. broccola. pfriemkraut. &c. eye-lid. juice of meat. briar. Gael. bruitheati. Dan. AS. It. signifying low wet land (Brem. A — .— Overyssel Almanack. Russ. It is Brother. brusmalt. heat explaining the Prov. The softening down of the consonant bud. brosst. brushbroccoli. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. bros. margin. a confused noise of winds. sprout. Serv. broth is sometimes used .' Due. a spring. hot. bruno. briihe. simmer from the murmuring AS. eye-brow. seethe. of plants broust. a sprout. bruich. . . borda. of which the variety of forms. as rhododendrons. frater. . eye-brow.braubiti. Roquef. broud. Limousin broudi. Sanscr. shrubs. &c. eye-lid. brodem. G. brosses. Prov. a hut or cottage It. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. house of ill fame. broi. sense the Sc. brost. brmi. bryn. brosses. broem bark. a little house or cottage of timber. . brawdj Slavon.D. shore." Serv. a little . noise. Russ. G. grow brossa. broza. a derived from the boards. juice of briars. to Pl. Browse. 'Lzt. to browse. eminence . . a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. grow into a bush. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. to bubble up with noise. hut. Kil. on. brow of a hill. pottage. hovel. bushes. bordel. Bret. . thicket. cabbage water. Gris. bruach. brdtaj Gael. brabruach. dumetum. sprocco. as small-pox. to use. brotar. Sp. . rage. brad. w. spirit. Bret. braussa. surface of Broth. (for brodem). has briw. in which brinnan. to boil. G. or shoot. braew. from ripa. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. to sprout. Bohem. and Slavonic families. rerum decoctarum.spross. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. to use bruks. brouches. break out brewet. Gael. bree. — . Gael. But the Walach. bruithim. broeye. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. Commonly Teutonic. low The AS. brwd. Bohem. Gr. surDu. broth brothaire. on. broc. . Sc. was originally used in the innocent sense of . eat. bank. properly boiling water briihen. Bohem. bor. w. to use. a sprig. broieii. breg. and also border. brouic. borde. buds. brouser. bryii. shore . chen. Brow. to bear patiently. bud. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. bros. thairj w. edge. broit. — .brons. broth. Fr. sprout. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. to border. Celtic. broo. vigour. bruscosd quam de arabili. . — ' . signifying twigs. brogues. 105 Brook. bank. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. braces. brew . bntdien. border. Lat. wood . a . to boil. circuindedit cum familia. Sp. to shoot. heat. a shore. breh. the colour of things burnt.. It. brushbrothas) gives the OE. eye-brow. broth.brink. brewis. Brothel. iVlanx broogh. brd. riviera. — exiit et heath. brst. brue . AS. branches. Cot. brudi. broca. brau. a bruth. plants composed of twigs. brass. See Bramble. warmth ch'an. heath. sap. brukjan. the bubbling or springing up of water. OFr. riviere. fabric consists. Bav. boiled . Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. bratrj Lat. laissent Domunculum. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . . brouskaol. Wtb. b7-un. bruich. heath. brost. to spring . brodo. broth Brown. pour boiling water over. shoot. Ppim. Fr. bruith. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. . a caldron. fur Broom. Fr.D. steam from heated bodies. brous. sodden. brus. brpuster. &c. To digest. briu. . It. awl-plant. t— Cot. vigour. augen-braune. protecting the eye. bhratrj Zend. ale . thick bush brousta. breg. broden. a source Gael. browys. to burn. Due. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. may be connected with Russ. eye-brow. Du. to boil. Here we find throughout the Romance. bregh. or bushes and scrubby growths. bruddeln. infusion the barley bree. infusion. Ger. as Fr. . BROOK brook w. forms appear related to the Ir. pith. The origin is a re. G. Du. or broken up . waves. Tam de terrS. and Sc. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. sprot. juniper.

It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. It. burs. Brunt of a daunger. Prov. brusco. bruyere. See next article. a bush of hair. a tuft of heath . tuft of grass or hay. . . briiis (in the pi. brisd. a brush . modification of the same root which gives the E. a brush Swiss bruske. brikan. Sw. seems named from burst(on. chips. a brush . to break to bits .— — i. Alexander. into a multitude of points. brista) or breaking out . a bristle. brus. On the other hand. a bud. —Fabyan. A. brosse. biirste. fragments.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. detergere . broustia. sordes. brunt. escousse. Beryn. ON. a blow. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Gael. brist. — those signifying a sprig. desbrisar. Bret. Allit. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. Fr. bruzir. Gael. Wicliff. a noise. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. borste. a crum. and actually come in collision. a bud or sprout Bret. splinters. broza. 134. mg Cat. bris. rods. brushwood. bruise exOFr. brugir. K. quisquilise. a — — (Agea) said. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. brusco. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. Pm. a little brizal. burt. ca7-bo>i. a flax comb. brik. britar. Pr. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. and Piedm. Pr. wool-card. — a bush. but on whom it schall to brisen him. rubbish.). Fr. wood composed OE. a brush . to brush. to strike the foot against an obstacle. of twigs. brousso. to butt. brottcher. briketo. as It. brMt. Prov. Bruise. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. insilio. Lang. brous. Bav. Prov. to cleanse. brossa. a brush. heath. bruito. OE. coal See Breeze. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. borste. Diez. Hall in R. Broach. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. It. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. to break or burst. bruscia. wool-card. insultus. abroncar. OFr. Sp. rubbish. brusc (Diet. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. bruiser. and also Brush. a shrub composed of small twigs . to break. or sodenly comyn' dust. rubbish. bross. B?-usske. remnants of hay or fodder. dust. ling or heath for brushes. Gael. . bricalio. bruc. Fr. bruscolo. dust. tremely. Poems. brosst. shivers. brusg. . And that best is. broza. brous. brisar. a bristle. brosse. bris.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. effort. and sighid therewithal. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. Pm. bruire. E. bud. a brush . biirste. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. and in the second place a besoiB. Fr. bushy ground. * Brunt. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. brusca. It. bris. a mote. E. brust. .). and It. To brush then would be to dust. 174. to make a rumbling. brico or brizo. brise. —Chaucer. Cot. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. NE. The Bav. brustia. dust. — OE. bris.— Palsgr. In E. bruis (sing. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brist. E. — Fr. Fl. twig. fasx . brizeto. AS. a brush. field. to break. bush. borst. Piedm. Prov. to make brusshes on. irruo. G. shock. Port. brossa. bruskr. borste. p. Bruit. broken. Piedm. Castr. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Brunt. . break. orts. a rumbling. crush. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. bruit. Pr. to stumble. appearin Goth. and . also a head-brush. brist j Port. Lang. The same relation holds good between G. . Text Soc. flax-comb brossettes. quasi twigs. bross. brist. Palsgr. borste. britar. crum bit . a brush. brit. That in all haste he wouli. brosst. an enmy. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . or shoot. dust. a briser. briser. Sw. brusca. fescue . brustid. The Lat. it schall be al Sw. brossar. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. Brush. blow burcar. wool-card. broust. Pr. brysan. Cot. borste. Fr. twig. brustia. a horse-brush. bruscolo. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. Gael. to crush. G. shoot brouskoad. 201.).

pokka7na. bubBuck. buborek. byge. moczyd. Diet. Esthon. bucquer. because bucare does not in Marsh). lye. was called bucking the linen. hump. Sp. as a buck rabbit.wet Lat. . a bubble. This bubette. bucaIndies. blast or strike with the forehead. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. bub.biiken j Svi. bugada. The word was very generally Buccanier. Cot. Bret. buerj It. . drying of produce. to bubble. Formerly. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. — — ' A : ' ' . Pol. buck-ashes. a bubble . soft. The place of such a 2. a knock word. bwch. Etym. to soften .tare. bube. soft. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. not so plentiful a commodity. as G. the linen at buck. does not hold. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. I. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. a. to butt. mieknad. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. Bubble. lye. and as a verb. tender. the lower soak in lye. bubauti. hog dressed whole). little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. boc. Bret. pup. bukke. moist. faire la lessive. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. was called in Fr. different form. News. and the bunch. de la Floride. Fr. boc. to soften. a push. thunder gently . bduclien. and then to other wild tumour Lith. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. watery bud. The cipally on the Spaniards. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. of wind. Fin. w. pukkata. bouk. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. rap. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. blister. to buck. buquer. ac. to Gael. boil animals. Magy. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. maban and baban.-wtt miekki. bubiti. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. also applied Una. to butt or jurr Dan. to bump as a bittern. It. Sp. knock. a hole. to stick. in which the flesh dish. In G. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. bub. to strain. tender.byka. top.boukaat. bog-aske. tap .' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. Illust.' Palsgr. a ashes. Pol. to soak foul linen before washing. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. bifbel. . Dan. — . a fescue. a steep for flax. Sc. bublati. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. buck-ashes. from colar. caned' Hence those who established them. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. and uninhabited places in the West Dan.lessiver. who resorted to the islands beichen. w. or projecTo Buck. a to the male deer. is 1. when soap was tion is commonly taken. A . because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself).D. to soak. mollire. mote. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. But see Bristle. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe.to allow a free current of air. buquer. buchen. hump. It. a bubble. . Magy. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. It. The name. molle. at a door. BUBBLE bruschetta. soft .derivation has been much discussed. to butt. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. Pref A. — . a. to a place used for the mouillir. bucata.buchen. open lath-work.steep or soak. boh. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. says Laudon. soft It. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. to soak. bubbola. the upper for coifee. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. to murmur. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. See Dupe. set of pirates in the spread. the first wheal. Gael. and exercised their cruelties prin. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. designation of a knob. Fr. March 28. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. The natives of Florida. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. to which in their language they call bou. soft. to filter.— . Bohem. plied in the W. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. . erweichen. to wet Pol. very generally designated by the same puk. or mok. bucking. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. . bugd. to soften. . The term bocan is still ap. 17th century. Bohem. tuft. and Fr. Fr. . colada. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. mokry. bokni. bubseti. bouc. from weich. boucaner. 1586. From an imita. wood. 1857. The male goat. it is beuchen.

were To Budge. So on. See Bulk. bouprobably identical with inok. inboachen. bolgia. . stir. a navel. bog and G. cattle. The Fr. a boss. ' . buckel. bulka. bod. Budget. in the beginning of to pierce holes. a budget. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. a fold ceilio. Pol.' Boccaccio. The knob or projection formN. ON. call bo. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. don't a baby). to budge. a tuft.Lat. a stump buckle up. bouter. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. of bac. Sp.stuff. noise . Bav. K. Prov.' Hal. is doubtless fallacious. pulga. to bud or bocla. Bret. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. * Buckle. butze. wallet. The dressed fur of lambs. The word is a ddyn. bougette. bulais daqui. built. G. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. macero. butzen K. ' .stumpy man. bode. Fr. potz. bub. from bo. water message. need. dinted. butzen (Du. boulj. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need.r//'. whom it is still much in use. skins pushit'. Buck-bean. goat's hoof. to boil. Fr. Budge. don't stir from hence. Mid. bouk is a pail and with the dim. a curl. Prov. protuberance. a buclder or shield budge. bunch . ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. — — . — — . to un bout d'homme. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. botzen. Swab. knock. a bud. bunch. butt . thrust. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. the root of the Slavonic words gran. .poot. bolgetta. to butt. W. Behoves. above mentioned. bulb. butzen. a leathern sack. weich. bul. to move. Sw. trunk of wood covered with leather.. Russ. boccula. buachazlle.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. with which it was ornamented. dim. a boss. boach. It. boaLat. scion. a wallet. ein. sboge.anything short of its kind. bukke-blad. a bubble three thyngis. is to shrivel up. knob . crack. bloca. It. to poke.chissima. . bloca. It termination is lost. loud Cot. turgere buczendig. a ring. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. and the reference to It. pulga. . bucherare./a.— . In Lat. become bochen. jSouKoXiKog. Prov. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. rabodS. agreeing with Gael. as in Fr. a small shallow and open tub. swelling. a servant. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. seen in Hesse botz. butz. Lat. with a central boss. to word. It. bud butzen. boucaran. ' . no business to do that. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. a boy. Wtb. Gael. — . clump. lump. bollire. set of a plant in bulk. dint . push forwards. a buckle or protuberance. bdden. II I'a feru desor I'escu. imbuere. pote. w. bouljein. a little coffer or turgidus. NE.' And this sacrament bus have dial. bogla. weich. from Gr. w. ornamental stud. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. clasp of a book. Fr. A buckle or fastening for botch. Fr. bump. boglyn. a pustule bout. mani. having a boss. also a leather tuft ..goa. a cowherd. bloquier. bucket Fl. brobrocchiere. and weichen. . to 'soak. boucle. weichen. boucler. * Bud. * Bucket. Bret. . — . a pail or flowers. Bus. case of leather . convexity.). It. from bugr. stud.' Schm. bouger. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. soft. a budget. a short thick man. bouton. the radical image seems to be a set plants. bug. a trough). Bav. bullion. and of the Lat. motus creber. ble. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. The entire train of thought is bucket. a . words is converted into b. This expression boglire. boss. probably from the notion of bubbling. To thrusting part of a long body. stroke. boqueranmis. bod. to stir. of bouge. . Port. Pied. Fr. bo. . Dan. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. Mid. no wheel bogeilio. Cot. bulla.pode. Du. . OFr.) as to soak. Fr. like a bean.n. explaining Fr. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. of a surface. butzen. with let. pwtio. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. prick in a target. call. child. a shoot. boucle. bougette. to pen cattle. . bocla. to boss or swell out G. Fr. a dumpy gin. bucolicus. where the G. call. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. boss of a shield. boucle. Hence quel. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. hump. gjeit-klauv. swelling. bulga. pwt o Fr. to graft or bud trees. budge. fur. Dan. excrescence. knob dwfr yn boglynu.. to line with fur. bucherame.) . bugnir.may probably be explained by N. Du. rump of fowls . bouclier. to thrust. the word w ' — . blow. great pouch. Bucolic. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram.t-le!L{ * Bud. boiling. male or botzen. or male of to boil . bouge. A water-plant with leaves and gille. a shield. Hardly identical with Fr. a bump. put. to swell. botzen. OHG. belonging to the calling of the chen. Buckler. bedde.

the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. &c. the place whence the wine was drawn. ' They rether puffed at him. Gael. bubiti. Hence the E. often covering his E. to strike face to represent the unknown. bwg. as from Lith. deadened. made by a person. bugle. Fr. leathern bucket.' La Crusca. mingled with water. senses. —Boggart. The cry made to excite terror is then used. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. 265. The children were playing in an oppocomer. human. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. Fr. bubaRuss. From bulga. God's boast seemed feare children. bo ! an interj. blurt or puff with one's mouth. also the skin or heck of a buffe. breath. een duffen toon. Buff. from souffler. bobaow. a budget. duff^ dull. Limousin bobal. to give benti. — retailing buffeter buffetier. — Bogle. cuff . Bufetarium. buffeteur. bw. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. puff. buffet. a cuff or buffet. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. buffer. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. buivol. The use of the exclamation children. bouffer. baubau. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bw! It. bufogni. to jest or sport. sounds. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. to puff. often blown upon. buffets. yar^aa. things in Jam. or wild ox. soufflet. Pl. — Z. buffalo. Swiss baui. site The two — — iii. buffare. as wine that hath taken wind. botffon. boo. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. btifetarius. Magy. Thus buffet would a tapster. word other cases. to blow souffleU. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. Lat. to beat. Sc. bau ! children. — thence it has been transferred in E. buffetto. le reste emplissant d'eau. a skin. bubach. made to —Bugbear.' perfield. Buffeter. It. colour. stupid. buffet. a goblin). bufHe. a block-headed noddy. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. It. A blow. a puff./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . bufogni. Fr. It. as emblematically making light of an object. Lith. Fr. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. wauwau. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. to give a as of a blow. a side-board. of colours. popo. rebuff. either alone or with various terminations. G. or hath been Cot. while in Sp.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. dausa. thus be translated to tap. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. tastes. also a G. to puff. to marre often tasting it . bumann. E. buffen. a In . it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. . pulse . scarecrow . bolgia. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. dial. buffare. a hollow sound. by metaphor. the buffe.D.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. for this purpose is very widely spread. a bugbear. as Diez remarks. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. to blow. From buff! of terror. A puff with — Fl. wine may The verb in taverns.— Buflae. Sc. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. w. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. to rePl. It. dausinti. Buffalo. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. bauwi. Cot. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . a jester. buff leather. Mid.D. to excite terror in Macleod. A — Bug. a clap. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet.D. bubus. Fl. smells . Lith. bugbear. Buff. Buffoon. buMagy. bukow Ikow. buffa. boman. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. Teet-bo. a dull BUG From 109 — A . a hobgoblin. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. bugs. confused. air. caupo. and in Fr. buffle. W. bolgetta. a buffle or a bugle. — — — Buffet. Esthon. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. him but Boyd iugges. bouffer. buffet. tabernarius. to frighten . — La Crusca. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. Lat. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. to blow . from It. mumming. buffle-headed. dull sound. Cot. Pl. Romola. to a representation of his voice. Fr. to bellow . to signify an indefinite object of terror.—Buffet.

Swiss ing. vermin. Fl. to creeping things. troll. paws the ground . b'dgni. bauginti. an insect. Stalder bog. a goblin. E. oxen. a misshapen person. — boogg. * 2. buggabod). a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. Bogge. bogil. a bugbear for children. — — ' . . bug-bear. the Devil. to take bug. . In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. fierce. a. a silk-worm. a proud overbearing man pujat'. threatening. quos what produces dread or disgust. booggen. shepe and gootes. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. saucy. language any kind of insect. coco. Magy. Grose. boo. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. — . sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. a boogg. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. It. Swiss booggen. a buffalo. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. monster. a bug-bear. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting.3uhtii&:. to take fright. Grisons bau. to frighten scarecrow. a bug-bear. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . i. the word is lin) bbgge. bug dung-beetle. high. bogle. and bugle. Deut. the buggaboo w. to roar Aasen. to bellow. Same as buffle. terrifying ward. with more or less modification represents bau. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. affright. 2. larva (a bug-bear. bogil bo (e. as an object of dread. bugler. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. biignt. boa-peep. long. bucula. to take fright. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. to origin in the expression bugs words. Russ. disgust. Bugle. Lap. an object of terror. beugler. big. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Sp. and a boggarty ing. Mundart. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. bobal.— . forSc. the black a maggot. bogk. bugar. bbgni. is the dim. provincially an insect. — — . hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. fear. bok. earwig bau da grascha. Chaucer. Bug as a lord. insect. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. pujalo. Lett. and is Deutsch. banian boube. mask ' . bold. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. I. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. poggl. Lesachthal. protuberant. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. buffle. given in Chaucer. is very common. Hence bugle-horn. bwgar. Schmidt. a beetle. proud. also a bug-bear. threatening. 1551. also a bug-bear. bug-bear. BUGLE Tentennino. 493. See The name terror). (Spurrell). rose-bug. ghost. bugle. bwg and E. used in the same sense. as Buffalo. boeuf sauvage. Lith. superbire. . roo. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. especially to beetles or winged insects. then a horn for drinking. W. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. well as the terrific object. Hal. of pipes sewn on. swollen. Big. il brutto Demonio. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. The final guttural of W.. according to Coles. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. Serv. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Parolone. bwgwl. insect. buba. buculus. w. and in Lat. A similar applica. Bug. Fl. bogk. bukashka. fette. Mid. Sw. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. to bellow. roarHal. iv. The name of bug is — . An ornament of female dress condread.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. 3. of bugabo was given. Bible. Cheval de trombugti. bug. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. pugalo. scarecrow .Fr. bug-bear. Magy. gad. bukati. thus connected with bug. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited.Lat. dial. also a baco-baco. Illyr. great or bug words. any disgusting animal. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus.. Bdronie. It. pugaf. bugbear. xiv. . The w. Swelling. a rabme. worm. — — terror. Manx boa. : no BUG . modern English is appropriated to the OFr. high-sounding words. tion of the beetle tribe. baco. tumble-bug. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. hert. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. bau (Pureiglia. and in child's Magy.loud noise. blustering.

a bulb Du. bubble. — Bulb. pocket. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. With these must probably be classed ON. a leather sack or budget Fr. bulne.pulks. OSw. To Build. ' . womb. the carcase. as it was merly written in English to bylle. bolgia. head . bunch or projection. a stage or scaffold. boss. globule bolg-lhuingey. Pm. bulked or bumped out. bubbling up. knob. . habitaculum. to bol. bukr. He found a country fellow dead drunk. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. belly van de kerche. . in Sc. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. bauch. Pr. wallet. . (3oX|8oc. sedes. bol. belgja. a leathern sack or portmanteau. the womb. and N. Melancholy. bubble. blow. buc. a heap. I. straight will he 2. herd^ swarm pulkd. balg. be protuberant. or cargo of a ship. a dint in a metal . has bulbuk. trunk. a bubble Gael. Sp. bulle. bua. as well as is very variable. body of a ship .— . a lump or mass.). Dan. to break bulk. bladder. villa. on. or bear out as a full purse. boss. bol. the belly.' Palsgr. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. projection. bolle. trunk of the body. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. belly Sw. bulge or bilge. to bubble up. in bulk. the contents of the hold. . bulbe. bug. w. bol. bulgen. were a habitation. bolgetta. The radical sense is shown in Russ. lump. ^ — . at riufa bulkann. bwlg. See bollekeii next article. skin flayed whole. principal portion. bilge. mass. husk. . the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bolnyn. hollow. bulkaf. — — . to puff up bolginn. or feminine termination gives Bav. bulk. Jno. leather sack. tumeo. blister. bale. bag. the potato G. blister. Bolke or hepe. From till. . belly Cat. belly. G. ne. Gr. ' . ball. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. boa. bed of a river. bulcke. belly. belly. Lat. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. the head of an onion. pimple. cultivate. bellows builgean. ' . to build. bulg. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. knot in thread. a protuberance. boss of shield. and put it home. tumidus. a globe. It. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. Muratori. blister Manx bolg. vulva. . snorting on a bulk. bulge or convex part of a cask. balgs. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. or of what is shaped like a bubble. The Walach. body of an animal. balco. of an inflated skin. nave or body of the church van 't schip. as water beginning to boil bolg. the position of liquids in the word In English. gebolgen. cumulus. van loock. to swell. Lith. Lat. bolso. Lith. Mister. swell. swell. . bauen. to raise a habitation. a round bulky body bwlgan. . pod ON. turgeo bolnyd. buhe. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. anything prominent. pouch builgeadh.'— Cot. . bulki. bolg. belgr. In the representation of natural sounds. to gather. Pr. Mandeville. swollen. to belly out. . formed a farm. Here stand behind this bulk. . bubble. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. it again. A — ' — Bulk. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. Bulge. skin of an animal. swollen OE. bullka. boulge. Palco. bouk. — . bole. — — . acervus. stuffed bag. Othello. to bubble up Pol. jnake bulch. ON. byli. — . Gr. G. The addition of a dim. — — . belly. a bubble.' Cot.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli.d. Bulch. . ON. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. Dan. knobby. skin bag. whence bylja. MHG. hold or bilge of a ship. PoXj3a. the capacity or burden of a ship. a tuberous or bulbous root . puff. bubble {palgan tiisge. to spring. Bulk. domicilium. . chest. biilken. compare Da. or. hull of a ship. a water-bubble). bulk or capacity of anything. bulk is a partition of boards. bo. a. 1388. .' Fl. lump. in vessel. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). a straw corn-vessel. bolgan. Hence e. bolle. bugue. Pm. OSw. a prominence. See how this tode bolneth.' Anat. mass. For the latter sense ' — My . balcone. buk. thorax buick. pulkas. the body Du. bulbus. inhabit. G. and bulbukd. bulbe. bolgna. Lett. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. a. Ptg. beuck. bouge. Bourser. to throw out a convexity. crowd. balg. to undo the cargo. Boss^.' Festus. of E. Hal. to swell. Kil. See Bulk. trunk. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. to blow. bulgen. dial. unevenness Sw. body. belly. m um Placentiae. Bav. bulka. bulwis. a bunch. swell. . boss of a buckler. knob. .

leraures nocturni nigri. It. boss. the seal affixed to the document. poltern. round glass phial. ON. eth and frighteth. large. on the contrary. bulderen. Du. in N. ba. lumpheaded . /SouWivu. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. boillon. elves. stud. bulloi. a beam or rafter. billon. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. to tical with Sw. bal.'— ' Palsgr. G. bullus. in the sense of base metal. a seal. embossed work. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows.. Du. brass-headed nail . a hornet. is called a ball. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. Eullrusli. bulle.D.. — Fl. to seal. pimple. bauli. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. Sp. bugbear. bollar. poll-cheannach. it is boulet de canon. bollon. It. The wild plum. child by the represents the hobgoblin. bullos. thick. stupid . A papal rescript. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. 2. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. Scot's Deso. blunt. a hobgoblin. a hobgoblin. bulk. large of its kind. as the ornanails. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. stamped money. b2iggaboo. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. bwbach. Bullbeggar. from Fr. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/.' do not go by the dangerous water. any great-headed or studded nail. to boil. of boule.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. 2. bullocks. BulUiead. a tadpole. — — Bull. urchens. a framework of balks. a scare-bug. boulct. bolli. beams or boards. bwlas. blister. i. Gold or silver uncoined. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. of Witchcr. the matrix or die . bole or trunk of a tree. to bellow. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. Pl. bollos de relieve. a bull Swiss bullen. a tadpole . from the noise. and vellon in Sp. a bull. BuUiou. signifying roaring. billoti in Fr. bietebau. . Bullet. a cow. Bullfrog. bolli. The male W. bullebak. stamp. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. baula. to emboss . sloes. Du. which may probably be the origin of the name. poli-cheannan. This word is used in several senses. I. Du. spirits. w. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. to bubble. from the Lat. coarse. as in E. polten.lle de fusil. bubble. bulla. bolos Fr. bulk of a thing. also of the tadpole or young frog.D. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. dim. &c. from baula. bullern. a bowl. as geting. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. a bul-begger. whence Mod. Bullace. witches. any embossed work. Pm. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. from Lat.D. The bullfrog. See Bowl. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. N. balgeting. a stud. G. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. as a mill-dam or the like. Fr. G. bulke. — A tition in a ship. a bulox polos. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. And The word bullerbak. G.Fris. a wasp. w. Gael. a blockhead. and thence terror. Cot. scarecrow. many to protuberant objects. pollach. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. it may be observed that a bullet in E. Fr. See Billet. The final element tergeist. bouillon. Terriculamentum. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. bulla.Gr. boss or stud. a seal. Bully. tition of deals instead of a wall. 3. W. penbwl. whence bullire. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. bouillon. bwla. also a parFl. pwl. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. lumpish. bellow. assito. from the use of the equivalent terms. bolla. is of a class with Pl. Bret. Lith. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. of the ox kind. bellocier. A lace tree. a little fish nearly all head. stud. a noisy violent fellow. however. dial. biitzibau.. hhint. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the .. as It. but is more probably iden- palchetto. Dan.

vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. up was termed monnaie de billon. a blunderhead. Du. St. buller-bas. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. Fris. a hectoring. — Boom. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage.' Stat. provides. bol-werck. beat a — Hal. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. minari verbulderen. primarily the ramparts of a town. c. AS. bottn. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. 'lega. buller-brook. G. Hal. to terrify by noise and clamour. To bum. buene. furious man. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. to drum Lat. bombilare. droning.d. botm. intonare. c. blaterare. polterer.' reals of standard currency. debacchari. argentum and silver. — bombam?nen. ON. poltem. Fr. Hence — . Hence bom and ban. the soil. 2. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . 4 Hen. a stage. The Stat. — Bump. boulevard. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. agrees with e. 1687). 2. Fris. The cry of the bittern.' agger. a floor. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. propugnaculum. Bum. Bully-rock. bomtnen. biihne. buller-jaan (bully. D.D. noise. 1305. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. ground. 2. bommele. BULLY with which coins were stamped. hum. Sw. III. — Bumto . BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. — — plate d'argent.' for the purpose of exchange. ierd-boeyme. The 27 Ed. block-werck. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. bottom. or work of defence. &c. to . or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. to make a droning Du. To bum. Bum-bailiff. bulderen. bodem. from boden. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. buller-bak.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. G.' Again. To bully is to bluster. then in general a rampart. boisterous fellow. a bumble-. un faux brave. The Sw. provides. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. a noisy blustering fellow. Philip le Bel in Due. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. legaggio di metallo. c. sound.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. Bully. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . clamour.. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. To Bum. ^Bully-rook. Thus ' ble.the ramparts. bustle. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. resonare. but now is the central part of the town. is bullion — A — buller. to make a noise . and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. or a humblebee. buller-bas. is called bumping or bells. Kiittner. 14. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. The decried coin. to dun. violent overbearing person. IIL st. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. bolderen. John). G. vallum.D.. ^i^/«.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. a boisterous. scaffold. baluarte. perturbare saevis dictis. It. 9 E. blunder-buss. a. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Miege in Hal. bastion. Du. Bailey. by corruption boulevart. Du. 10. blunder-buss. Etym.' ' mettre au billon. Kil. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. For bottom. From the notion of a humming. ierd-beame. IV. violent. on the other hand. honunele. and porter au billon. A. boene. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. Kil.

bunken. pwmpl. bonge. — — Bun. . The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. — — — — ' — knock. bmike. a lump on the foot bunny..— Pr. w.! . bulto. pwmp. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a hemp-stalk. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Hence E. so the form btmk. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Fr. bunsen. truss E.S. Pl.). from bunsen. Bump. — — Bun. the Pr. To bam. a swelling. stock. to swell out E. from knock) It. Hal. calamus. to . a knob . oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. as in other cases. noise. Roding. hdk passing and E. trunk. bignet. any round knob or bunch. knuckles. a bud. Hal.. also for taking a pilot to a ship. stock. pumpurras. Bumboat. bon. bun. . an old stump of a horse. a heap OSw. bottom. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. See Bunch. strapping. Moor. a rabbit. blain. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff.' Bun. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. He fult dat et bunsede. botn. gibber. il me pousse. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. &c. one ever saw the word in that shape. callus. bottom bun feoir. — stalk . seems to unite Gael. . a heap. Fr. Bumpkin. — Marine Diet. to .' Palsgr. a bunch. knob or heap. a pumpion or gourd. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a knob. explaining E. bungersome. to thump. a boil or blain. S. a large . bugnet. bunke. are dim. to bang ON. and signifies consequently a mass. Again. bamgetroffen. lump.pummel. . a button. H. bugnone. . Bunewand. bunki. Sc. bugno.^Cot. bunkc. clown. bans. signifying one who does things in a thumping. a. . w. a swelling from a blow. Gael. foundation w. and related with ON. stump. poumpido. Bony. Probably from bump. BUNCH bum-bailiff.D. bump. a knotty stick) Sw. bumsen. lenten loaves. Bung^. stubble Manx bun. to bang down. Radically identical with Dan. — round fruit. Suffolk bonnka. bund. bunga. pompette. mto Sp. bum-boot. bundle. strike E. Daal bu7iseti. boi7ieog. pompon. hay stubble . banke.— Bunnion. poumpi. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. root. bannock. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. should probably be a short tail. a dry No . banga. E. or to the mass by which it is given. . Pl. —Bunny. . Bunk. bunka. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. a wallet. bunny. applied to young persons. a boss Lith.-^Fl. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. binge. Dan. Pm. E. pumpa. to beat. Sc. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. abrupt manbuns-wise. Bang sen. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. bunt. a heap Wall. bu<rnone. a rabbit. a knob. especially girls. to strike so as to give a dull sound. bulse. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). passes Sw. a purse . nor would it concern the public if he did. Gael. See Bounce. Bunch. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . awkward clown. Hal. Ir. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a bowl P1. a person employed to dun one for a debt. to beat. Related on the one side to Pl. a boil (punkos bot. dial. bulscha. Then. bumtel. or grete knobbe.' he fell with a bang. ner. . bmidt. bunga. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. — — de dor bunsen. a round mass . Mrs Baker.D. a bump. to knock . stalk. Bumsen. Lang. Dan. a knock. a into Dan. ! — knocking. bugno. bolsa. bune or boon. the tail of a hare. Kyx or bunne. bunch— Hal. while bulch was traced through Gris. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. large. bull. a pocket Sw. E. bongie. bun with ON. dial. It. a hump. butt end. He buncheth me and beateth me. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. OSw. . clumsy. Pm. a dried hemp-stalk. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. Holland and Flanders. pwmpio. stem or base. Bun. protuberance. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. a heap. . A clumsy. Bunch. as we have seen E.D. buns. bung. See Boss. awkward. stump. cluster. lungeous. Fl. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Probably for bun-boot. to bang. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Hal. Thus e. bottom. . stubble of beans. a bag or sack. to ' . a bunch Magy. a. . bonuach.D. bonnock. bunnion.P. Bums it's hit. Du. a Sp. bunan. Pr. 1. root. tundo. throw down with a bang. round mass of anything. a heap or cluster. forms. Forby. any round knob or bunch. knochen. bun eich. Li cake. . gibbus. a tail (Macleod). Pm. inconsiderately. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. A Du. Manx bonkan.

to bear. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. . that the primitive meaning of shackle . clogs. to shove. Lat. AS. generally known as the material of which bud. bangla. bommen. 202. fascis. to gingle. The Magy. To Bunt. — btiruii. bongani. to stop. the bung of a barrel Lim. anchor or of a net boyar. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. to push with the head del. and Du. shove .D. It. to push. See Bun. klempern. was formerly pronounced buro. bouche. fetters. a sort of helmet. in is Fr. Burly. E. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. Cot. to strum on an instrument. shackles. Burble. boj. stocks or such OSw. Compare G. bourjon. Sw. rumble as the bowels. boei. whence in bure. a drum . bummle. and the Sw. Palsgr. Pl. reddish brown. Cat. knocking. — . a cork. * Buoy. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bourguignote. bonde.— . dicimus rufum. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. bui. Bundle. bote. Fr. OFr. especially in wood. The belly or hollow of a sail.Fris. Sw. to work ineffectually. to hum. G. bondeau. a bung. bove. . So Du. Sp. dark grey bura. bungande. is originally a wisp or bunch . a water bubble made by rain. ho-tapp. to work at carpentry bangan. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. driving in the bung. klimpem. banghagr. to gingle. working in wood (especially with an axe). coassatio et Du. bouchon. bindini. Russ. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. stilmpern. tapp (whence tceppa.' Festus in Diez. See Borel. Bung. and E. bury. Bunting. borgonota. do a thing bunglingly. Bunt. the noise of drums. buie. bimge. To bunt. byrthen. Sp.punt. byndel. . ghebundte. to botch. The Fr. something bound together (Mrs Baker). modem bummle. Rietz. and bomme. tinker . Prov. to hum. to push ghebondte. also a piinple in the face. Banff. Hal. bonde. — — To Bungle. . to kick. to pype. of a song. bondon. Johansen. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. OG. Du. clumsy performance. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. See Bourdon. B. AS. tap. to knock. the loose open grow big about or gross. bondir. from beran. bon. Bunny. sprig. are from bouscfie. boya. a bunch Burbulas. to float. Bung of a tonne or Lith. Biu'geon. dial. or tuft. A load. guggle as water. So in Pol. The Italian buio. a boye. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. the stopper of a cask). Burganet. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. bag to catch the wind. bongun. burboloti. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . with the head. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. bunsen. burion. . See Barbarous. and van t' vat. however. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. bang. A Dan. gyves. on. to in to stop the hole. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. borboUar. — Bureau. bang. bondelj bundell. loosed from bonds. bounta. bourion. russet. Kil. or putting forth of a vine. buret. dark. OFr. Burden. to stnmi on an instrument. boil or bubble up. boucher. to hum. noise. racket. Prov. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. to resound. N. bou^e. To burgeon. knocking. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. bolting-cloth. whence bunting. halm-tapp. The stopper for the hole in a boia. to cobble. Burden. or used as a receptacle for papers. to Somerset is to sift. would be the earliest float for an anchor. bond. to bud forth. racket . Fr. Fl. the young cloth used for sifting flour. Muratori. unskilful working. on. A bubble. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. bunta. a bunch. a wisp of hay or straw. a bungler. Fr. p. buove. The word is flags are made. banga. knock. an anchor buoy. bundel. Sw. bourgeon. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. a botch. bangla. the float of an bundle. la Borgonota. stiimpeln. to stop. biirde. and now more Bailey. to knock. properly a Burgundian helmet. bondel-loos. punishments for prisoners. colligatio. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. to bolt meal. B. Sp. Bret. tinkle. bundt. G. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. to bungle. — — . ' — work . hence the name would seem to have been boundica. Fr. dial. buret. contignatio. bundle. the middle part of it. Sp. To do anything awk- wardly.

to Gael. embraser. G.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. brynsten. pur (see Burgeon). .. — . and Dan. Burglar.j'own. Hence Bridel. watery. — — . — . robber. water. toast. to swell with pride. It. G. 122. sidiary element. to bourda. brase.— Pr. crackle wood in burning Hal. 56. bourd.). from Lat. It. . broil. bruse. to fiy.). to burn. bourou. OE. lerre. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. a purling hiwe brennen. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. de Vaud. Bestiary. Castrais bourril. burlare. ends of thread.. Fr. to make a So from Fin. ' rugiens. It. boiirre. to polish. to roar. it of the knots. brima. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. From the same root E. laer. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. like the wind in trees. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. the word seems Pm. fire. burly. brim or edge of anything. to roar 5. Bouffer. purling. he rustle. OFr. has also borr. Burgess. bururus. schleiffen. a well.Ps. Compare also Piedm. In the same way ON. bourglairs. to grind on a whetstone.or bubbling up. i5«r4 biiirte.. dial. Pr.sharpen. a blaze. a spring a robber. Burly. to puff. swell up or strout out. Probably a modifica. to sharpen on a whetstone. born. to give an edge to. from the roaring sound of flame. brausen. the flocks. Supp. thence. the er is a dresser of cloth. occupying much space. from bryii. So also Sw. brustle. a bubble. which has given much trouble to etymologists. burren. is termed burling. Pm. bururus. bremmen. In the manu. knob. and OG. repartee . de Vaud. borracka. Walach. as the / in purl. an &c. to polish. lorra. It is probable indeed that Fr. OE. brunir. A — — . bears. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. Lang. mockery. to swell. brook. to roar. Cot. brustolare. borni. an edge. a jest. to bouronna. to tell lies. singe or scorch with fire. to sharpen. Bret. BURNISH i5«r/. brun.. pressa puret. briis^. a jest. Schm. Burn. warbling. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. burgen. in Schm. Fl. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. to roar (as lions. brunnen. Fl. Antiq. Pren7ien. to swell oneself out as birds borras. Goth. to roar. purra. ample of polishing metal. like straw or small . burgensis. ^ttsa. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. burgeois. Burgh. brinnen or Also ein roar. a wine skin. compared with G. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. blow. Gael. The in. protuberance. boure. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. Nat. Bav. is an Thus G. See under Bore. explaining Sp. a bud. bruzir.— . Todd.' Cot. to burn. tion of the root which gave the OE. as in cousteau. brAler. Sp.' a jibe. taunt. to ridicule. boura. explaining the E. a fountain. barrel. to rub. See Berough. a bubble to spring as water. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. condemnentur morti. — — . a knob. burgi latro. bud or sprout forth. Burgher. a prominent eye borracka. surge or dashing of the sea . the J in OFr. tahko. brasa. buirleadh. as of suggests. bunch. and the Burnish. The primary origin of the word. to effervesce. Probably. The Gael. with little iron nippers called burling irons. ^Notk. OFr. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. borujon. tumentum. — — . jest of. Burlesque. Limousin bourdo. a whetstone. brinii. j. Burler. Burryn. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. as Diefenbach bud.). See Burr. and the Burin. ridicule. language of folly or ridicule. to murmur. Swiss Rom. to polish helmets. Lang. — Han to bruser op. a margin. to puff up borr^ .ireui£r:e. to burgen or wax big. ON. brimmen. to set on fire. Fr. Prov. brandung. to hum. borrelen. the roaring surge of the — — — . . Swiss Rom. a gurgling ^. Sw. E. sea. become big and proud. is connected with brim. to have acquired the sense of polishing. purrata. sbornoi. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. to bud . to roar. Fr. From Fr. abourioner. fires up. borr. Dief. burle of cloth. . brinna. big. spring-water bumach. to To Bum. Sw. leo Fin. grancelli. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. brunnr. N. a bladder. &c. See Burgeon. roguing beggars. Bav. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. brusler being a faulty spelling. to ridicule. like. ends of thread. brunna. angular . a lie. flocks. A legal term from the Lat. with Dan. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew.. sicut sound. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. must be explained on the same principle from G. burn. ii6 BURGESS Gael. tahkoa. bouril. A burl. to surge.bryna. joking. swelling borr-shuil.

caer is a — — — ' ' : . It. also all such stuff as hay. &c. barza. brittle. brisdeach. its own protection.. hair. and spelling. bur. &c. keep. Beowulf. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. briso. bourse. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. briser. bolsa to It. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. dial. bersten. borsia. straw. Burial. Du. 225. Fr. bourse. appears under the Lang. bris. to P'air. Sw. beurs. AS. Mid. a rabbit burrow. burgisli. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. a morsel. G. brist. a purse. preserve. byrstan. brown. shearing of cloth. Hal. to bury . of England. makes the disbursements of the college. Burrow. to to buzz like a beetle chatter.Lat. a purse. briketo. whence Kil. brit. G. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. Swiss burren. break . husks. borra. It. berstan. as from Sp. as it is still pronounced in N. to buzz. as in Northumberland. bourrer. to break. -burse. Fris. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. Fr. bourlet. explained E. g. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. burre. a sepulchre. idiom if 4. byrgen. as for the protection of a child's head. Sexy. pipaa. borre. to burst. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. the — — castle or fortress. preserve.' edge grew weak. i5(7&a. E. bres- — tan. tomb. . S w. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. and. burra. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. foretell great storms at 3. dial. ' ' — — burren. a barn or cupboard. a pad. 2. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. root borr. beorgan. save. To Burst. byrigels. A rabbit burmotion. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. from AS. Bursar.' Harris in Todd. Cot. shelter. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . the officer who bears the purse. bur. brickie. to mutter Sw. impetus. In a met. purr. that birds make their nests with. when they spring So in W. Fr. bris. leather. ON. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Shelter. OHG. any kind of quilting or stuffing. brisd. See Bulge. brokil and brotil. brizeto. to hide. byrsa. Burse. Compare also OE. an exchange. a port. peluca to Fr. AS. mentioned under Burgeon. Du. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. a place of defence. Hence Fr. iii. some people in pronouncing the letter r. britar. to save. Dan. a wallet or scrip. borsa. borre. ' BURR AS. birr. To Bury. chips or anything else Fl. force. Sw. perruque. ultimately resting on the Gael. swell. bristeach. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. . a.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. brittle. . bergen. bolgia. also ' any such trash as chaff. ptcrren. verbergen. cover. Jam. In OE. ON. brest. burial place. brico. from Fr. a harness or collar maker) . whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. brista. shuffling. borrow. brist. talk fast and indistinctly. brjota. See Burgeon. Port. OHG. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. Burr. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. moss. whirr. byrgels.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. karborre. an annular swelling. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. 5150. byrgan.' The same word with burgh. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. — Clare. Burr is related to buzz as protect. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. bourre. stuffing. of a body hurled through the air. borra. Brun on bane. With a slightly different ghen. to stuff. blurra. birgan. prsnuti. The root forms brik. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. -Grisons bulscha. and thence flocks 'of wool. bristen. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. brast. any rapid whirling biarga. — Translated by Kemble. I. skin. signifying protrude. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . cwning-gaer. shales. This word seems safety.— . as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. and met. from whence we pass through Sp. ber•whirr to whizz. but it is more probably a development of It. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. Gael. coo. Burse. to hide . Burser. fortify. birigean. bourrelet. borsa. buscha. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. casting bullets. be more in accordance with AS. whirr and burr.

barsc in Heimskringla. abdere. Du. wisp. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. a little box Dan. Malberg. whence at bua sik. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. biichse. barst.P. Le roy Richard mort. a corpse). apparently a secondary verb. R. to swell. Sibriht that I of told. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. bush. the idea of knocking. . Harold G. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. and from the Fr. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. buxida. bossen. to forest of Eyda. OFr. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. at buast. borcegui. the past participle of the same verb bua. a gun biichse. the Moors and of Morocco. bossida. and thence Mid. tow. bundle. and he cites wisp bauschen. rad. . To Busk. as boun is simply buinn. Fris. The radical idea is seen in Goth. ch). to betake ' Haralldur kona box. The primary sense of hair . van wijnbesien. gave Lat. to prepare. truasc. box wood to bush. as synonymous with to inake one boun. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. Layamon. borseof trees. from the ON. clusprobably Morocco leather. make ready. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. signifying to entomb. a bundle. to dress. a box for measuring corn. Bush. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. buskr. hunch Du. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. Brunne. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. tuft. bussellus. burial mound. To prepare. to turn. ' —P. bosta. buxula. In to Brutaine.' The buskin is said Bret. protect . oneself. So from Fr. bush. brodequin tout noir. AS. hjul-bosse. or the like. bausen. iriCtf -ifoe. . are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a bunch. in OE. boiste. They busked and malced them boun. projection. verb. It. Prov. and we actually find bushel. Sw. 410. OFr. a bush. ' . —Busk. boucher. beorgan. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on.— ' ii8 {chreo. ' . G. a bush. condere. bosc. knot. a tuft.Lat. a bunch of twigs. ieorh. at bua sig. boxta.' sheath. boisseau.-^Bushel. bussare. Mid. bustellus. bairgan. bousIn the other copy ser. induere vestes . we have Fr. dead. to bend one's steps. for at buasc.) to hide in the ground. Du. . to stop. Gr. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. ' . is thus accounted for. besom). grapes. to keep. bunch.' a box. a tuft. lump. diminutives. berghen. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. . aheap of stones. bua. 'at bua sik. in the For Skirnis . contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. Ptg. thicket of thorns . to enclose in a case or box. to sepulchre.gur bidst austur um EySascog. that the lend had lorn thorn. Brunne. -idis. Sc. And her ful sone tuft. buxta. qualster-boscken. bulge. a hump. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. then a tuft Sp. a box. to direct one's course towards. a grove bosch van haer. mount. bos. Bouchet. a tuft of hair. to bow. to bury. bousche. bulk.fiasc. sur une litifere. Thus Froister . bussel. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. bosch (a diminutive ?). thicket {buski. BUSH hreaw. Sir Tristram. Du. brake. buysschen. occultare K. ' . busse. a troop. preserve. brodiquin.' The word is explained by — — . Thence byrigean. : — . Fr. See Bust. basse. to dress. bousse. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. borghen. cluster. defence. bustula. a been written buasc. AS. bouche. bundle * Buskin. 2. . busken. Bush. boistel. or — Busk. roquies. which would later have truast. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. boissa. See Box. the land. The word frequency with which to busk is used. a rampart. basse.Lat. a box. a tuft guini. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. fiast. il fut couch6 l^jkema). a wisp. a clot of phlegm sart. busk.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. The bone in a woman's stays. a -tavern bush. and not directly (as Du. It. whence bouchon. whente beorg.boisteau. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bramble. bo7ich (Fr.

also a It. also a flagon. a. buc. Pol. So Wes- terwald munds. crack . These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. box. a busk. brut. Sp. the trunk. Gael. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. . baiser. 1555. Lindenbr. On the other hand. — — difications of the same word. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. Nained from Proximse iis zia. a kiss. as in moharra from harbe.d. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. especially of a woman's dress. kiss.pjik.Lat. betarda. mouth. pussa. employment bisgan. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. its slowness of flight. buyse. lip. I bustle. kiss. a kiss. 1372. and also a sounding blow. to bustle. So in Fin. hipista. Prov. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). bucha. a bunch of flowers . he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. arbor ramis trunGloss. inde discurro et operosus sum. forms morseqiiill. Bulch. trunk. ViM. or avutarda. biseg. ' BUSY 2. See Boss. a kiss of reverence. mons. kupata. outarde. Bust. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. ship Sp. I go strepo) . occupation. statue of the upper part of Fr. an affair. To hurry or make a great B. bisg. beezig. thick end. to make use of. besongne. small. stump. to make a splash in the water. stump. bus. plated body or other quilted thing. sera. bysgian. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. trunk of Cot. representing a blow. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Bustard. Port. body. 22. lip. geidha. — hardly be distinct from Fr. a blow. busch. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. or chest in which the vitals are contained. Fr. windbutsch. vessel employed in the herring fishery. Sp. worn to make the body straight . knock. Comp. a bush. body of a man. a backstock. bysgje. borcegui. to occupy. bukr. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. says. utarda. buquer. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. mouth. Prov. buc. ON. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. busc. Walach. occupied bezigen. 119 bi{tr. buc. a tree. With respect to bust. bist. a projection. putschen. — Thus we should have mocherqui. to Swab. butz. Hence probably au-tarda. cata — . A A busquer (Sigart). body. — — — — It is like the smouldering. a boat or small vessel . in Diaz Gris. Prov. Fr. as in ON. and supposes that the common Arab. 2. lips. of the human body (Grandg. — clattering about. Lang. I. Edrtst. busq. Sp. otarda. Buss. bruskras well as buskr.). A great sluggish fowl. abotarda. Cat. A wisp. a large cljest or particular applibox. bust. or Cherqui. also a busk. brostia as well as bostia. body of a woman's dress It. snout. Namur — Champagne Fr. the body without arms busque.> Also written buskle. basiuin. to knock .' ON. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . Fr. a great billet Cot. bulk. love gestures. a bulk or trunk without a head. mogangas from gonj. a ship of some size. ottarda. bus. buta. bnist. knock. putta. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. The Prov. Xerqui. Lat.D. bacio. a mouth. The form brust. of a doublet. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. but.— . busche. Busk. Fl. Cot. bisegung. work. Fr. 10. To Bustle. a kiss. chest. bus and Pol. 2l box. the long. Hal. the point of a lance. abutarda. Busy. avuDiez. busto. a log. bu. Sw. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. tuft.bezig. sunt quas Hispania aves . a stroke of wind. bisgung. Swiss butschen. forest. bust. ^A. austarda. signifying trunk of a the body. and then with avis again prefixed. a blow. the breast. bustla. busy. busta. business. buz. made stiff. Fris. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. brusc. body . lump. I. fe^a. besoigAe.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. beso. ' bistardej It. stir. smack. would explain the G. ON. a Mid.' Plin. Bav. BUSS Dozy from Arab. Du. bussen. Rouchi. — . biist. tarda. Bust. Business. trunk. AS. stem. a sleeveless truss or doublet. morsequi. and by transposition morchequi. body without arms and legs. 7o\. bussa. from jnund. outard. B. The proceedings of Parliament. Box. an ostrich. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. busch. a fishing vessel. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. log . btcc. mohedairova. mosequin. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. . Busitiess :c3iVi . a bust. trunk of a tree. body of garment.

bole of a tree. The E. bhcciero. binnan. . be out. equivalent of AS. but one thing. G. "PLT) . beccaro. then hoUow trunk. large barrel. bout.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. the jug and in E. viz. wooden receptthing to be done. Prov. a butchery. boccino. — . from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. As a conjunction but is in every portion. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. Whatever is in addition to Butler. from boc. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. the Perhaps besogne — . rumpf. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. besides that . without punishment . that which would be translated by Fr. body of a shirt w. Where at an earthen jar . original sense of without. bodifie. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. Sp. the mouth). boquier. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. biitait slaughterer of goats . . without care. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. viz. Lang. beyond the Piedm. A A . ont jhi^ton. ' Besides all that. bochier. without law. of the wine and drink. properly a butan wite. a leathern bag. Tooke's dis. botilla. a baiTel . a small winebag. which the word corresponds to the Fr. a budget. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. (children) boc. a cask. AS. Buttery. bitten dai. bag. Fr. But when will you pay it ? the belly. a goat. collection of casks.The Sp. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. my is called the adversative use of but. bous.' there is really a negation to be supplied. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. Butt. Butcher. bounds of. belly. from as. So in Italian from becco. — we acle for liquors. the principal apartment.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. bountifully. bolr. butan ce. young mais. the name must have arisen before the within. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. calf of the ' say. or what in in charge of the pantry. ' There is leathern bottle. by the mode in which he is treated. bola. If that where now we should compiler. we find ben. Sp. moreover. without buiten-man. trunk. boucher. belly. ox. But It. beccaria. beta. Butler. as Pantler. to-boot. ways. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. Wall. It. sup- meat and drink. also a hollow vessel . add. calf.in which his brethren are included. Lang. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. the servant in charge of the original object. without. skin-bag. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . botte.' — — ' . ' 1 am that I may have but a but . bute. the belly. the present day we should say. Ben-house.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. bolgia. and the real origin of the and within . belly. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. a goat (and not besides . a butcher . the body of a tree or of a man. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. hollow case. bitlga. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. being wholly unten. rotundity of the body. bouz. barriga. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. bocin.jamin. a wooden cask. except. gives at least two pounds sterling. tinction between but._ bitten j biiten door. a barrel. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. Here the but implies the existence of an. the body of an animal. a butcher. an outlaw from bouche. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. mais. outside that moreover. bol. boteria. the trunk or body of an animal. bouteillier. similar train of thought is seen in ON. Sp. the bottles. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. the full expres. are. botija. is well explained by Tooke. Fr.streets. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. a bottle. those in beccaio. the store of ten. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. slaughter-house. the precise correlative of but. Du. and with It. Fr.' ' write.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being.' Thus Chaucer says. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. able. But In Sc. butan. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. and bot. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . earthen which the debtor has adverted. hull of a ship. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. buta. in addition. bisgung. OFr. is put in a class by himself. without the house kept in bottles.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G.

from notirrir. a buttrice. Fris. a hill. w. Fr. to abut on. Du. a large belly. a bun. but this is probably from Fr. Fr. Bav. a boss. Boutant. as in G. boding. obeto shake backwards and forwards. a mound of turf in a field to sup. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . a button. Du. To come full butt against a butts. It. butt. is formed the augmentative buttatich. geboogsaem. Fr. Kil. thick. caput scapula bout van f been. bodi'. AS. a scope. to bow. thrust.arbre. or or shore post. . bot. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Buttock. Grandg. a button. * Buxom. to blad. boteria. a dle . striking end. an ox. — . bot. clumsy . from stossen. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. or person Schmeller . to thrust. to push earth . a flying buttress. botta. waste ground.— BUTT leg . the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. a boss. from the large knobbed head of botto. from bouter. to femur. of the present day. Perhaps corrupted Lat. bata. Du. a barrel. buttare. a mound. obedient. rabodd. W. See Butler. a ribbed glass for dient. leg of lamb. boutoir. bocsam. boutis. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. — A . a tub. botto. buttern. Gr. signify a cask or tub. R. give way. Butter-glass. bout. — A . The Bavarian potig. to cast. butter. to butt. to boult flour. humble. grease that sets by merely standing. An erection built up as a Fr. bot blijven staan. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. Du. Btetter-schmalz. To Butt. in the R. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . boter-schijte. G. Schmell. Button. e. tout seat or breech. bout. To strike with the head bags. tress. both. the Butter-fly. a bolt. Fr. buter. to thrust. fle>(ible. butteln. so as to make a sounding blow. a blow. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. what is kept in a blow. and the true derivation boar. submit shaking up salad sauce. a corner horses' hoofs. Schmell. bouton. Buttery. So in English pimples were fora clod. bouter. to heap up earth or ihrust. bud. botta. of E. . . buhsom. bottig. to thrust. any short thick thing. hillock .putan. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. botte. from rejeter. butt. lams-bout. bouter. a thrust the thigh-bone. bottich. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. : . pwtiaw. large head. a bot. a buttress Cot. able that Chaucer. end . a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . bouton. fowl. nourrissons. Boutje. Halma.rejected thing. a leg of mutton. to strike. Kil. ment being supposed to resemble butter. to thrust . stump of a tree Fr. Fr. Lang. trapu. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. pwt. Fr. to abut a stone roof. the store of while bottich. bothog. — . &c. butter. the thick end. aim whence to make a support to a wall. Mur-buttant. nourrisson. on. Cot. to thrust Fr. clunis. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Hal. to throw . a wall butor butt on. bocgsuin. a heap of merly called pushes. Kil. then the thigh or leg of an to push . are the strips at the edges of the field. to be con. boil. The word body itself seems identical with G. by boE. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. botten. the edge forwards. as rejeton. poke. oir spike with a k coup . boter-vliege. courtaud. Fr. Buttress. boiUer. a. butyrum. Gael. From Du. bott. butte. at. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. A — — — .' thick from shaking. stump. from bugan. thrust forwards. a but in the W. botwm. strike. to so close to the Fr.. bodi. boter-vogel. dripping. the prick in the middle of a target.against another which needs support . suddenly . a. put. Buttrice. i. the rosebud. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. a button. Buttel-triib. butte. a blow. povrvpov. Sp. Du. having a rotundity . From the noise of drinkables in a house.thum and not button. Bav.. coxa. a stroke di animal. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. the thigh of a goose. buttals. the trunk. Hal. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. but. to touch at the end. nursling. buttock of beef is called butr. an etwas anstossen. any small projection. a little push . Butter. gigot. — — — — . butt. butter un. short thick thing pimple. pied. butt of a person. as if from Povg. a stump or club foot. From Grisons biitt. butz. a cask. Gris. W. &c. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout.to push. potacha. -ez. Bout van het schouderIt.

buteoj Fr. to jan. bi. See Abie. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Mercy hight that mayde. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Originally the law of a particular town. 116. Dan. . to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. Lat. It. \s\xy. to wit. — 122 BUY P. from by. bei. . cow-house. bi. to purchase for money. AS. a town. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. Etynj. & Q. By-law. ii. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. abozzago. stall. A by. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. bees. byr. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. jus municipii. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. P. a by-path is a side path . bar. byar-log. as heedless as a cock-chafer. Sw. Buzzard. also say. a borough. bylag. train of thought which has become obso. bugjan. bij. village. Verstegan in R. It. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. p. iii. 519. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight.. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. lete. and boxome of speche xviii. who makes abigg. 200.P. farm.busardj Prov. gracious.— Diet. confusedly. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. as in Da. 3. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. to buzz. called Cabala or Tradition. depends upon a esteem in falconry..in N. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. tions by one. and would have been lost in E. to stand at his side . bygge. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). . Sw. big. CABAL Goth. son. as Fr. Du. frabttg- To Buzz. buzzicare. A ful benygne buirde. favourably to a petition. blessing me with their of side. Then applied to speaking low. a beetle. 21. The sense of buxom. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . from whom it was addressed. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. Cabal. byar-rettr. G. good-humoured one. to whisper. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. AS. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. a buzzard or puttock. Goth. ON. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Many good mological explanation. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. buzarg. buzac. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. —gracious of speech. Byre. to sell. bozzago.— P. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. to swear with him by . harty prayers and God speedes. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. buso. a meke thynge with — alle. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. and it is of good will. To Buy. to pass by. bycgan. OE. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. favourable. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. A A We — — — days' wonder. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. bohte. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. lb. Pecock Repressor. town having separate jurisdiction. bylove. The ON. indistinctly. leges urbanse ON. bauhta.

band. wilful). a booth or hut. head. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. to keep or Du. cadabula. cabulus.. a tunic.Lat. Fr. a rope. cabre. dirty. lactuca capitata. caboche. Etym. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. &c. Cappa in OSp. precisely in the sense of the lari E. a rope or cable. . cabbage. surripere. disgusting such an engine was exerted. a covering. headed or cabbage lettuce. Due. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. calabre. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys.ticula. chaable. From It. cab lis. origin is the OFr. dirt and the Fr. overwhelm (Diet. mdhaigner. kakla. Ptg. cabacho. Common to Lat. ceach / exclamation of guages. cabuccio. brassica — capitata. kabat. . It. or cadable. Cot. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. vile. whence Lang. name of the projectile engine. Brushwood — — B. cabus.' Due. form kactal. kakaloH. is probably unconnected. OSp. filth. has kabbel. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. gabardme. cab. Cabinet. capuccio. Kil. cacare . Due. cabane. OFr. Coticesserint Swiss aa. a frail. serious injury — In like manner It. manticuKil. Cot. OFr. 'habl. as Turk. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. capanna. Du. dirty. Finn. Cabin. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. capo. cdble. chadabula. case. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . and Finnish lanLat. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. The double a in the OFr. to crush. especially shepherd's frock. cabre. —Diet. aak! tandi like Fr. chaable. Katr-iT-aKt. Item habeat vocant. caable (in legal language). The name of the engine. string. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Lith. for the origin of which see Carabine. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Fr. Fr. The Sp. a cabbage . kabaSsen. from trabocco. . disgust. Cablisb. . deponat a store closet. cacare. come the Fr. caqueter. and Or. w. agge machen (in nurses' language). hovel. an engine for casting stones. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. kabas. aeggi. signifying properly a rope's end. gaggele. a cloak of felt or Cack. Mid. stercus. Gaggle. E. traboccare. cables. prostratio ad terram. to strain in such a manner . chabla. or as an interjection of disMod. and the Arab. round or great headed. cabasser. from manganum. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. cadabalum. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. accablcr. geese. Antiq. cadabola.. main. as it must have stood in French. Du. cabo. It. nasty. Capstan. laitue cabusse. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . Mid. — . It. a jacket Fr. in which sense are explained The the OFr. aakkat'a. — Tarbe. Fr.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. bad. . a rope. To Cabbage. akista.Lat. Choux cabus. disgust cac. hoard together.). The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. kabane. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. su/Furari. the Prov. Du. Tugurium. Imitative of the cry of hens. the bowels. &c. — . gaggi. a rope. — Ibid. — Kil.. vincially used in E. gatsch. to hurl down. E. Celtic. and as we find stones Mid. : — from violence without blood. to hurl in Nat.Lat. gaban. Sp. heady. Lat. the Slavonian. Didot. giiare. havyar to caviare. and Ptg. To steal or pocket. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. cadabulum. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. caable. headed. whence Fr. Fr. . it would seem fundain children's language. cabaii. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. forms indi. a shed. cabas. ! — . dung.. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. signifies down. to chatter. cabuyskoole. agga. (ca/coe. to put or pack up in a frail. a head (whence cabochard. cabarino. OFr. maim. It. cadabulum. would correspond to cable. a headed cole or cabbage . Mid. — the ON. Sp. caable. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . It is remarkable that the Esthon. hut.Gr. manganare. covering. properly windfalls. Castr. Cabbage. originally an Gael. ckaable. or rush basket. cable . agge. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. as Diez supposes). cabo. overwhelm. caables. as an expression of Gr. Sw. Lang. Very generally used. Neckam — by the wind. a car- We convasare.

a caFr. to — Fr. kolyaska. of oxen and similar animals. gabble. — in a kiln. reed-pen. safe. cadaver. kolesnitza. gabbia. cadence. master. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. calendarium. kolasa. Lat. Calendar. cykevie. wanton. especially of something soft. Due. Lat. Fr. misfortune. calpa.— . pen Mod. En kaka br'od. Tea-caddy. bad . As Du. See Kiddier. or prattle. N. Lat. . Caitiff. caldaria. Originally from a Slavonic source. a lump or large piece. It. little chief. . Serv. chetif. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Lat. gabberen is identical with E. desire of land. In the same way Fin. Cadence. Du. its mother. lindrus. principal and interest. a car. Calc-. Calf of the Leg. Lat. a calash . roller. prate. Du. hot. Perhaps from w. It. a wheel . kola. capCalenture. calessa. A — fall. to heat. calibre. to prate much to little purpose. It. naXaiidpi. . marrow. a counter used in casting accounts. a dence. calcis. a common cart. B. Gascon capdet. It is another form of the E. dial. limestone. Calcialate. a wheel . pi. unruly . a loaf of bread. A hooded carriage. The Calf. Lat. pith. or smooth Hnen cloth. lord. loss. kakulla. Fr. to throw themselves into the sea. Calamity. a vessel for heating water. to . calx. To Calender. of the nature of lime to calcine. Pol. from the ink-bag which it contains. Cot. Russ. Du. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. An open travelling chariot. incolumis. calibre. * Cade. from calendcE. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Cot. or colpa na coise. the lump and the increase. gabbia. —Atkinson. a fever. &c. cadere. Fr. hot . a wretch. KaKKat. a mischievous dial. From lerie. to sleek hence a den. one unduly indulged by. Cot. kolo. ON. coop. to cage. on. a wheel. dead body. a roller. cage. The Lat. G. the pith or soft part of wood. It. joyous . kolesb. Cadet. (in the augm. Lat. cattivo (from Lat. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. kukje. Sp. Sp. KxiKivh^o^. is probably delusive. cha'cmie cadence. the calf of the leg. Sp. cauldron. Cauldron. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. ' . when they are said to poor. kuchen. a reed. Fr. Lat. Caddy. signifies a waggon. calba. to gabble. to treat like lime. pet lamb. kat. rattaat (wheels). kaad. Fr. kalem. so gabble corresponds with Fr. kage. kalfvan hout. whence calash. cadet. kdfich. kaka. a hollow place. a waggon . and troublesomely attached to. a tea-chest. Fr. calculo. frolicsome kaad mund. Turk. calentar. for green fields. ever and anon. Du. Arab. form) calderone. the younger son of a family said to be from . Roman reckoning. javioler. a corpse. capitetum. Calash. Cake. .— Calliper. cavea. from Gr. from calculus. chaudiere. kauwe. calamus. It. gaggia. cage. chaudron.warmth . a small stone. lime whence calcareous. to compute. A . Lat. Calandre. frisky. chattering. Caldron. to cackle . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. a circle. jabber. cabdillo. caliche. calendrer. a low note. a cylinder. kdtr. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Gael. ben- kalf. kaeckelenj Gr. coll. a wheel .Gr. wretched. Calocli. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. captive. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage).— Cot. 124 prattle . calesa.uv. Cajol. calentura. To Cajole. Mrs B. Cadaverous. babbhng. the pi. a falling. — — — Dan. a cake or loaf. cadenza. gaggle. hence musical rhythm. colibro. taking it Sp. caldarius. kalb. calf of leg. disease of sailors from tivus). cageoler. Dan. without loss. whence Lat. Sw. calidus. kail. calidus. the bore of a cannon. a calesh. boy. The young G. gavia. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. . Calp is riadh. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. Cage. cake. G. cuttle-fish. collop. ratas. loss. Cadge*. kolo. Fr. Lat. Fr. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. kolo. of which. Sw. * Calibre. Turk. an ugly waggon kolaska. from the Chinese catty. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. It. Lat. kalfi. Flo. caioler. Sw. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. calamitas. an inkstand . A cuttle-fish. koeck. Dan. just falling. kolyasochka. Calamary.

Fr. gossiping. harden by pressure. Mahn derives it from Lat. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). by many that the weapon Callous. whence couleuv. callus. people's remarks. calma. the day. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. hot. them &c. try. a drab. can be distinct from ODu. to burn. tapulta. quality. push violently. The origin is Gr. caillette. nautique). kallo. kind heat of the sun. Mid. calcaich. calk. Kil. dial. a feathers. . overheated. Heb. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. a soldier who the It. or caliever. kal. According to Jal (Gl. calme. calleting. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. Kavfia. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. calicot. to call. calcare. to hear.' Whitby Gl. chatter. the heat of Now these Du. kil-u-kal. couleuvre. to prattle. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. from Calicut in the E. donderbuchs Sp. fistula. Bi.(jaa= ice). to say. piece of bigger circuite. Sc. caliver. calo. licht stuk The change from a. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. Among these were the turn. the Fr. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . the latter of chamber. Kil. cotton cloth.piicede Lat. chatter kallen. colubraria canna. Calm. So It. Ca. Call. calibre. done with heat Alt. cahna. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. to cram. Ptg. 125 Prov. NE. voice. to callet. and sometimes a handgun. whereas in troth it is not. Mil. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. ram. to proclaim. calor. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Diez. u to an I in such a colubrum. sound. The reference to heat is preserved in. culverin. hallottaa.from Ka'tm.— . a good calling. * Callet.' Winter's Tale. Lat. Turk. Calico. ' rine. calgua. hollaing. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. depreciatory term for a woman. alta voce ploro. The word was also written cawme in OE. calclover. . caluw. whehce it was first brought. calat of leude demeaning. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. koluvre. coluber. calma. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm.en~ kinds of firearms. ululo Turk. of the bore of a firearm met. form. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. having a thick skin. CALM to press or stuff. a round of abuse.position is much less common than the geschut. Sir John Smith in Grose. and heat. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Sp. Due. — — — — — . Ibid. a. faint. or mould. bombarda Cauma incendium. 'A callet of boundless tongue. klover. To drive tow or oakham. quiet. tittle-tattle. colubrina. ' pert. to calk. khalif. Fr. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. Callow. on. Derived by some from Arab. kol. skin hardened by labour. kael. E. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. Fin. Du. a successor. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. or languishing drought is . Dief. which has its memory preserved in Du. longior. vulgo Coluvrine.Lat. — Fl.' Chaucer. to abuse . qAlab. cauma. KaXka. cauque. Hard. dragoon. kal. AS. to tread. calc. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Sup. calvus. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. — — — — — .' Slange. glotton. an adder. Lang. to rail or scold .. calca. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. moso. form in the kalib. to affirm. To Calk. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. calibre. moist. calare. word of mouth . faint. kahcwe. the Fr. femme frivole et babillarde. which is as much as to say. however. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. * Caliver. serpentina. brawny. To century was Squalibre. the hard surface of the ground. saucy. and dragon. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . the scalp or skull. kalla. given. Caliph. Sp. It. serpens. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Fr. trull. CALICO Calliper-compasses. sestus. to call. scold. Antiq. abto suppose that E. To call. and E. of a column.' But it is hard Du. i. callum. oldire from audire. Gael. Diet. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. bald. scalmato. drive. B. to be of a good or bad quality. diameter of a ball. dragonder. harquebus or handgun. but is only a jda-kallo. a last. Gr. sclopus. Unfledged. Lat. heat. heat. water-tight. overscalmaccio. coulevrine. Indies. quA librd.meaning of the word. Fin. coluber also. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. prattle. Fr. sence of wind.

the bed of a stream. ckaouma. a caught. the heat. is Cambering. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. unwater chamelot . a may have acquired that signification from plain. Lat. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. B. a piece. Cot. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. Palsgr.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. . time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. lame. In a different application It. Sp. Fr. A — the Cannibals. callour. cainahelus. Sp. Lat. aspirant. monk. Camisade. Bret. . cere : Lat. cancello. across — Bellenden in Jam. Cameo. open and level ground. at the ends. camahutus. Camlet.Lat. cup. cambrer. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. candela. Turk. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. to glow. higher in the middle than Fr.—Candidate. an eating. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. slander. Fr. Fr. sore. arched.who their language. Calumny. B._ kamm. Sanson khanda. Candy. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. campus. India Islands. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens.Gr. whence the Fr.conduit-pipe. — — — A — — escume de saumon. the calix. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. whence Fr. to the force of the wind. a goblet bud. camelot. a large drinking . Arab. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab.— B. water chamlet . to avoid enemy in their shirts. lie level. chamold man. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. from xaXbg. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Canal Channel. canistrum. hooked. It. to bend. Canibal. candidus. It. campo. cam^e. KafivTu. mg Canister. cambren. Fr. It was distinfrom work. It. Kakoycpos. the type of a hollow pipe. Cambray. See Canker. clothed in white. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. canalis. samon. Cancer. Camp. catmneo.—Cambrel. ko/utuXoc. E. to jut. to break. Lat. from candere. fresh. se cameloter. crook. canna. icaSoytipoe. Cann. arched.' ' Quhen a lattice. — Lat. frank and sincandidatus. to warp. good. chandelle. also an eatmg sore. fair.— Chandelier. Cambric. having an aquiline nose. camelus. Pers. when its substance appears inter. crooked. nia. a dog. Cambrav—Cam. bis. campagne. the space of false imputation. From campus was formed Lat. campagna. Cambrel. Mid. lattice. spot for cattle. crooked. or hollow of a flower. camp.' Forme of Cury in Way. Or the word Lat. died in 1526. Properly calver in the field during a war. cambre. Lat. paign.— Hackluyt in R. — B. calj'x. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. Sp. cancer. and yspiuv. camaien. Camel. E. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. salmon. field .. a crab. Ptg. chommer. had no r in de bric— Cot. camafeo. or Caribs. would plenier. Canker. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. white. camiscieia. camber-nosed. to bow. Canine. brought from Fr. Peter Martyr. calutmiia. Fr. Calver of cane. Campaign. toile some of whom. the salmondis faillis thair loup. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. KafitjUe. An eater of human flesh. — Cancel. w. Gr. Lat. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. From fluting or furrow in a column . and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. co7nbar. Caloyer. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Candid. a. arch. chaitcre. a. kanna. is Candle. champ. cAouma. Mod. sugar. the spersed with white flakes like curd. E. cup. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. campaign. on. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Fr. campren. champagne. a field Greek monk. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. campo. camisa. Gr. crooked-stick. It.—Jam. different sections of the like the Chinese. It. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. ation. campagna. camisade. The Grisons cauina. cambr^. Fr. callar. Lat. Lat. It. a basket. aged. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. a' Sc. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. canis. Fr. camiscia. crooked. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Calyx. properly good country. to bend.

being a yard or thereabouts . a cane. clqse. which is not the case. quarter . a hunch of bread. hemp. a straight rod. from Dan. The word seems to be taken from Gael. capevole. cappa. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. KaTTiram. Of vena cava and of vena porta. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. Fr. From Gr. regular. Germanis kdppen. a Fr. Sp. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. kand. Lat. It. Picard. from . a cap. a pipe. signifying cover. Fr. But it may be different source. Canon. or hold. quito curtain. has kahn. pipe. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. a cover Turk. N. cannevaccia. a cantle of bread. carcase . also a measure. cape. hemp. cannu. It. he discourseth of dissection. cantle then is a corner of a thing. and hence a gobbet. capax. a boat. It. cappe. Hence Lat. . to sing. was formed Kavtiiv. a scull- — here. rumme. astrology. covered. Cape. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. It. as. &c. speech. To Canonise. Again we have Lat. canoa. cover kapi. . Canopy.Gr. that the G. Kil. kapamak. the heel. the tried list of saints. haitt. cainnt. Cannoii. W. language. . See Capt-. cannabis. Gael. quarter. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. territorial hundred. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. a ship canot. It. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. root cap. Goldast — in in Schmid. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. Coal burning with bright flame. a gelding. canteau. measure for cloth. the quartile. capace. cantred. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. schlapp. to put upon sacred writers. Jonson.CANNEL vessel. a division of a country. capello Italis. Sp. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. and the sex- &c. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. Schwab. caparazon. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Wtb. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. gnat. The — . able to receive. canapa. and met. Fin. kaput. a cloak kapali. Canteen. a drinking glass. cane. &c. name. Canoe. B. kynnel. Fr. From Lat. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. hirnschlapple. capa. a small boat. cannone. properly a large Prov. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Cope. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. hood. can. cannevo. canvas. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. Esthon. and tref. kandt-broodts. border. The meserseum and the mesentericum.— Cot. kyndel. Capable. say. Capari. part.n. To canvas — . thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. Gugel. cane. Kavt\. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds.^on. . kanta. coat. a reed. from canna. chantel. a corner. a horn of the moon . Mod. To his judicial And trowl the tile. canto. a ruler. canonici. chape. is found languages of very different stocks. Canton. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. schlappen. or cantell of bread. Probably only the augmentative of canto. Mod. cover . A slow gallop. from cant. coarse hemp. from a Canter. It. canon. A . Cantle. it would have been found in the continental languages. Canvas. a — A — Cannel Coal. a reed. a tube. Palsgr. Alamannis. cappe. the heel. ON. as a cantle of bread. Prov. to con- rummer.Gr. KCLvva. border Dan. kq. a torch. leiwan kanta. cantina. Swab. Sp. a wine-cellar or vault. Capacious. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. A piece of anything.. OFr. cheese. See Chape. a cloak. If the word had been from cantherius. cope. region. canonicus. coarse hempen cloth Fr. canevas. a door . Cant. lump. corner. kwvwxIi. trine. It. to contain. edge. canapaccia. to shut. hamlet. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. a rule or standard of excellence. Diez. cantref. contain. Cot. a side. call. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. kantr. side. tain. Du. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. the part easiest broken off. cantone. cane. shut. a hundred. margo panis diffracta. cane. like a torch or candle. chanteau. canton.

curl.— 128 CAPE a rustling. sault. It. gricciare. to broil. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. Capital. Fr. Lat. crackling sound Cape. or represented by the syllable e. It. arricciarsi. ziki. Fr. See Chief. Caper. It is probable that Gr. explained by Diez from capra. of a tremtdoiis sound. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. s'hdrisser. as Fr. to crackle. with joy' Vikram. shivering. capillus. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. frisser {frissement d'un trait. p. Hair-like. then to be in a state of vibration. rissoler. capriol or caper in dancing. frizzle. bruco. as in Lat. hedge-hog. kid. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. belonging to From caput. castrated. to . brisciare. the initial mute of forms like Gr. The same imitation of Capon. a head. knis. So from Sw. as Fr. erica. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . Arab. bristling. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . shivering. Fr. prickly husk of chestnut. It. greziller. cappriccio. I have shivered with love. the principal part of the debt. Capillary. capitalis. a little head. a goat. Fl. Mod. aggricciare. is either wholly lost. as the means of earning profit. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. compared with Bret. brisciare. Capers. riccio. where Burton adds in a note. frisson- ner . ticchio. toy. Lat. algabr. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. a young kid met. upon terms Sp. or Lat. Lat. capriole. to parch. cut. ericius. greziller. gricciare. to shiver. as Fr. capparis. shrub.) grezille marid. h^risser. It. Genevese bresoler. Lat.'— Trev. ribrezzo. birsle. horripilation. To treat Capitulate. for which he cites the Comask nucia. cApre. The true derivation lies in a different direction. It. gives rise to brezza. a capriol. of a coach. It. to fry. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. the head. hi.' — (Supp. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. 75. arricciarsi.). Hence capitalis the sum lent. bristling. abridge amKoTroq. a . eruca compared with It. a yearning through sudden fear. airoKOTrrw. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. cover of a saddle. to desire earnestly. Lang. rihrczzoso. Fr. horror. to twitter as birds. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. capar. to from capitulum. alcaparra. gives rise to Sc. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. and OHG. principal. w. A headland. Caprice. or. It. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. grisser. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. CAPRICE twittering. the head. a kid. It. humorous. chattering of the teeth. brisoler. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. then find the symptoms of shivering. frort^Lat. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. A .Gr. brisciare. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. caj)o. cut off.standing on end. grisser. caprice It. to shiver for cold. Cot. caprice. castrated cock. Griller d'im' patience. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. chief. caper j caprio. G^' Many words — ' ndv. or other things. according to the Hindoos. a caterpillar. brug. ^piKos. the hair to stand on end. brezilia.— Fl. and his body bristled We to castrate.) d'etre The It. curly. end. And similarly to yearn. — — A a hair.' Cot. the singing'bone). a buck. wriggle. and with an initial gr instead of br. and 7tucc. grug. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. a ch illness. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. Unexpected pleasure. to broil. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. a hedge-hog. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. knis-hujwud . hair. . then to shiver or shudder. or goat's leap (done by a horse). brissle. roughening of the skin.impressions on the ear. heath. of a fowl. Sp. II bresole (Gl. to shudder. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. herissonnement. to ruffle the surface of water. the hair to stand on end. <I>pi'?oe. grillcr. Torriano. they longed extremely to see it. capriola. capro. to crackle. Hal. fansuddenly angry. Acad. — to yearne. curling. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. a separate division of a matter. frissoner. capitulare. a caper in dancing. a chevret. also the capriole.

a sudden will. of capsa. contain. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Carry. It. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. of the Sp. krul. Sp. karra. to take. Capsule. however. de- price. Du. Cot. also to carry on a car . a windlass.. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end.or -cib-. karrende waegen. as in OFr.). Capriole. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. It. to carry . a fantastical humour. to receive receptio. to load .of these compound verbs. a hood (dim. Carbine. Fr. It. Carabine. caricare. Thus the musket. to this is It. a. Captain. It. case. Carabin. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. capio. charger. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. crab s. capp%tccio. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. calabrin. capsula. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. acceptus. a coffer. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. charret. a hooded friar. Crab. receptus. as the dragoons (Du. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. cabestrantej Fr. See Caper. was originally a missile . was converted into -ceb. fancy. carro. intercept. carabin.. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. to creak. conceive. Castr. a cart. chirrion. a sawing-block or trestles. to creak. deceit. — —Diet. cabreia. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. Sp. trestle. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. a cloke) capuccino. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. capitis. precept. oisr. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. seize. a sudden fear apprehended. accept. recipere. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Fr. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. one odd. commander. Cart. also a kind of rack. and has accordingly been lost in E. Capuchin. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . the -cevofthe Fr. OSp. G. to take to. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. Fr. char. Kiittner. cabestan. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. hold. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. a capuchin. Lat. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. &c. was a kind of horse soldier. Fr. a reception. and of captus to an e. cams. recibir. box. It. kerren. Fl. cabrestante (whence e. Cot.s. as in accipio. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. recepte. -ceive. Neumann.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). 129 — receive. di cappa. . verbs gives rise to the element . at least. dim. perceive. The It. Du. a. bock. a creaking waggon. capuccio. except. — — Capstan. caprice. strideo. Fin. concept. conception.). chevre. cabra. chirriar. Fr. Passing on into E. decepte. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. latterly. charrier. &c. recevoir. It. It is a standing crab. Derivatives are Fr. In the S. carretta. In cases. to please. concevoir. caThe hrestante. Lat. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. to accept. a kind of torture. Lat. concebir. fantastic. Capt-. It. where it forms a very large class of compounds. calabrino. caput. a taking back. tnoschetta. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. karista. -cept. captive. whence capture. to take baclc. and has thus descended unaltered to English. conceit. deception. Fr. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. desire. captus. captivate. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. karren. Lat. crepo. capra. Caseneuve in Diet. or the (capo-riccio). capitano. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. an engine for throwing stones. shivering fit (Altieri). also tresFl. a she-goat. Nordfoss. Etym. -cept. &c. Fr. i The meaning Car. recipio. a head man. from head. concipere. sels. and tropically. Capstern.

card. a case or chest . an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Derived in the first edition from Mod. a gem resembling a live coal. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . to card wool. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. OHG. a quiver . to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. winding. a snail. a crane. a twist. vitriol. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . Sp. Carrob. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. «capa'|8i. tcapKaai. Lith. See Carpenter. ON. cardo. Fr. Exot. or framework. skeleton toise. designated in the case of G. is the chine. Bohem. carquois.applied to a battering-ram (G. a thistle. the carcase of a fowl. black dye. military engines made for hurling stones. caravela. cabrita. kirat. Lat. of carbo). in the same way that the Sp. avSpaS. a he-goat. the trunk or chest of the body . to comb wool . Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. carcanada. to hiss (as gee^e). to creak. It. Fr. also (as Gr. a battering-ram). whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. seed of carob.charcoal . Pers. a quiver. carabba. Parmesan cassiron. cdrlag.Gr. a wool card. Gael. It. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. contract. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. carbunculus (dim. espi7igarda. also a small weight. Fr. alia sunt majora. the husk or cod of beans. restraint . and catapulta. Venet. a goat. caraffe. Card. to comb. to turn. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. carbh. winding carach. boch. Caraool. casso. a collar or chain for the neck. carere. It. Carbonaceous. carduus. Carbuncle. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. a skeleton. The radical meaning . carch. skeleton. kerwan. AS. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. the . cramp. car. turning. to card wool. a small weight. burning coal. fire . karra. cabra. carta. a thistle. Ptg. carabe. word is only an adoption of the Turk. karri. a winding staircase. carcame. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. Gael. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. caracal. p. &c. krciti. Comp. the core of fruit . ancient springald. . to draw in. for a gun. kard boyd. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. bock and Fr. a firelock. decanter. carquasse. a quiver. &c. the case of the flesh. &c. carquan. shell. the name might naturally Mod. caraffa. . cabreia.. An implement for dressing wool. Carboy. cerran.z. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Carat. a coffer. Carcax. a ship. Sp. mural attack. Gael. to curry horses karsztuwas. Cat. properly a siege machine. a lock of wool . an engine for hurling stones. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Gael. eit. coming to four grains. poison eiz. . wine- bottle.Gr. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. matter. a quiver . ' Vasa vitrea. . the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a prison. Carcase. case.. quse vocant karabd. Lat. a dead carcase. Arab. a kind of ship. the carob bean. Sp. carbo. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. a ripple for flax. Gr. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. Caravel. Sp. bend.— — — . curry-comb. copperas. carate.' From the same source are SicU. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. It. Cot. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. chevre by the name of the goat.. a card or comb . Fr. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. carcanet. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. confining. quilato. carcasa. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . the shell of a torcarcasso. . cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. to ripple flax. of the same Caravan. Sp. an ulcer.. turn of a horse. carmiiiarc. garafa. KtpaTwv. wool card. eitar. silique. Gr. Mod. cassa. carcaij. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. I.. From the battering-ram. is the word used in modern Lat. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. The Trjg xeXwwac. karszti. W. skeleton. constraining . — seems to be something holding together. Cot. It. the dead body of any creature. a machine for casting large darts. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol.

to clean the bottom of the ship. crowl. — — Diez. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. msstus.— Charter. to love. Fr. Trin. carminare. A mod-carag. de Parthenay. It. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. and thin. to fry. the load of a ship. Carnage. charie. tuorfurcm (Burguy). fundamental. road. croller. care on. karl. carena. Carl. ress. carrefourg. Gael. A quirito ut infans. cura may be ror. in St Jerome. to whirr (schnurren). clown or churl. 8. immediately before the long fast of Lent. W. record. dear. kummer. Cath. Fr. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. astutus. whence carricare. carian. Cot. compared with Fin. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. OFr. to card wool. the old theory of humours. &c.' Slceat. carener. Groler. karg. caresse. carnis. to scratch.— CARD karr-kambar. a hinge. . care. a man. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. Carlings. sorrow. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. Probably the origin of the word is the . Carled peas. asper. intrasset caro. Care. principal. appertaining to the flesh. the several meanings of the words above Rom. Cargo. parched or carled. Card. an endearment. one of those ac- 9 * . Fr. to rumble. cargo. meet at a head. act of moaning. It. Properly. and sum. murren. and murhet. Caricature. caru. p. Cartel. Cot. ON. — Carfax. OHG. love. charag. from carrus. to load. charta (Gr. morosus. AS. fleshy . Sept. cearig. Coll. ignarus. caricare. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. From. that Fl. For the root of carminare. — To Careen. Fr. quaver a lazar's clack. Fin. to parch. carezza. strideo. car. Bois crolant d'un ladre. carFrom carrus. Fr. to shake. It. cardinis. Roquef. murista. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. stingy. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Charnel. It. It. the keel. chartre. giierlir. weyes. at murmuring. Cot. kurista. the hull of a ship. Lat. stridere. 273. to distress growl. .Lat. karry. kumra. to care unkarja. Bret. solicitous. cura intenta. zanken . cardo. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. to lie on its side. karrig. Chart. . karista. to load. cdrle. what is felt as grievous. quarreG. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. in Carp. carch. charger. regar. that on wliich the matter hinges. also a career on horseback. morosus sum. a card. AS. Cark. grief. . to load. No ' place there had. to take Goth. like connection may be seen between Fin. the flesh of animals .Lat. the time during which to Rom. caMid. carcare. E. be anxious. or grumbling —Due. as quadrivium from Carnaval. from the keel to the water . tenax. place for exercise on horseback. It. caricatura. in N. carnasciale. Sp. scharren. sgritudo animi. . moeThe Lat. kroU-erbser. as carminare. . carcus. & Q. It. Fr. G. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. w. — — — : Cardinal. Mur. from Lat. rixosus. Farewell flesh. grolU. sorrow. careless take care of. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. Fr. Fin. — — — Caress. 1S66. or street. mutter. charneux. hoed. carriera. graller. to eat flesh. carriire. charg. kribina. carina. carnalis. Translated in MS. Lat. to comb wool. a turn. x'»P'"^s)) paper. essere in carena. Peas steeped and fried. is This however Shrove tide. male person. Fr. from carus. murahtaa. tremble. piger. camovale. Dan. W.. crawl. karout. . and compare Bret. carnavale. Sp. cargar. Champ. carnal. Carnal. Ptg. and G. as peas. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. W. caritia. ceorl. ON. winding. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. cearian. voce strepo stridente. an overloaded representation of anything. to comb flax or hemp. charnel. soUicitus OSax. A place where four roads Mid. affection. to scrape . Venet. bottom. AS. to growl. surrata. A medical term from line —Boerio. a deed. see Garble. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises.. crosier. quadrifurcum from quameet. gakaran. combing them out like the knots in wool. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. kara. from caricare. G. to fry or broil. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. karantez. 2. Properly a car-road. charnage. — — . Carminative. sensual. kargr. . Fl. wool cards. beans. carena. niggardly . is to say. a highway. Carenare. the keel of a vessel. four. Bret.

Beggars Bush. ' ' — . zimmer. Cot. chatter. a song accompanying a dance then. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Carpet. 2. cxciv. chariot carbad. 1 1 30. . Sup. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. Analogous R. carpita. in Nat. Bohem. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. peta. charpentier. ON. charpie. 94). about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. course. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. bier.'— Stat. Carole.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. litter. i. biheld without. used for stuffing mattresses. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. or loose as a couch without further preparation. carpende fast Carol. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. I quaught. Pm. ! Carouse.' Reg. Teut. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. of Guiana. Fr. to pull asunder. To pledge them thou refuse. ballare. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. The custom. carnelascid). this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. vel coopertorio carebit. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Sp. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Carpyn or talkyn. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. garrire. in Due.' Ordo Eccles. fabulor. Mid. to find fault with. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. Discov. . Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Carnevale. carpentum. a plank.Lat. at midnight which derivation from kroes.' says Motley (United Neth. Gael. carduz. In a MS. 216. krapati. Pr. carpo. carpat (Stokes). was formed Mid. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. I drink all out. a wheelwright. differing To Carp. as carnaval from carnelevamen. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour.Why give's some wine then. tymmer. . to talk. Shrove Tuesday. cited by Marsh. On this.— Patriarchi.]e bois Carnelevale. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. maker of waggons It. and F. ship. Chanson de carole. Carpenter. is erroneous. whence the form carnasciale. and Carnem laxare (It. as the Lat. worker in timber Fr. a wheelwright. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. All out B. yede tham about. to gather. or a carouse fully drunk up. Properly a round dance. Mid. W.D. sense. tattle. carpere. chirp. carpetrix. as Fr. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Olr. krapanj. e.' Raleigh. 760.Lat. a car carpentarius. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. Palsgr. to rustle. linteamen. skraf. Templariorum — ' — Due. The tippling sots.gonnella. qui sacco.Lat. as E. A. Nomin. pluck. lint. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. From Lat. to dance. The ' ' a chariot. Biheld within. garrulo. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Pref. a dance. Dief. in Carp. Bret.— Neum.: . gar aus / all out is correct. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. querole. to pluck. Fr. Other names of the sea. i. quoted by Carpentier. 2. In Dominica d'autant. carpetam (a quilt?). chatter skra/a. Lat. balade from It. The word seems of Celtic origin. carbh. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Alluz (G. Ant.— Drant in R. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. on that. zimmerspan. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. to dance. koroll. Gower in Way. CarTo quaff carouse do use. So gone they forthe. — — ' ' — — — I — — . — . all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Carnelevale. Mediol. culcitra. Lat. a carder. to chatter coroli. gonna. carpia. a drinking cup. cardos. On the other hand bumper to one's health. Carpitam habeat in lecto. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. to reel. The karole of the stones behelde. all aus).' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. carpenticre. pluck at. Here's to you still my captains friend.— R. carpenta. Lat. carpenter only in the latter sense. act of drinking a full Eq.

Flor. Fr. as we . casacca. caisse. to dash. void cassare. casus. carriaggio. Rouchi carone. cia. from Lat. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. house. a paper case. Rouchi carter. The carrying of anything. Fr. Fr. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. cartone. to bear or carry. Lat. Rouchi carpHe. cartilage. Cassock. — Cartoose. charrier. quasser. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. casa-maita. caxa. Lat. kerven. Fl. casag. not reaching to the height of the ditch. the money chest. cassus. cascar. To Cashier. properly to convey in a car. tion from Sp. Du. mord-keller.— Fl. paper. casa. also the carriage. To duash. bag and baggage of a camp. casuelj Fr. a canonry or slaughterhouse. fall It. des rideaux A'carp^ie. cartouche. a long coat. caro. CartOTicli. Casque. afterwards any written challenge. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. an augmentative from Lat.. a car. augmentatives of carro. luggage. kerben. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. a coffer or small case for jewels. bitten. shell or carcase of a house.' Cot. carreaggio. hull of a ship. Casual. kasseren. to hold. break to pieces. Carrion. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. carogna. from the sound it makes when Alban. discharge. — FI. to fall. carroccio. Cash. Cartoon. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. pasteboard. hung up in some place and to be removed. Lat. dim. and the OE. helmet. To quash an indictment. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. vault hole in a fortified wall. a chance or accident. casaque. coffin of paper for groceries. made void. cancel. It. cartella. to crack. turn out of service. Sp. cassa. cashiered. See Case. Cot. krat. long man's gown with a close body. Probably. It. cassere.' Fl. Rouchi caroche. carroc- carrozza . Hence casket. kerpu. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. carrosse. packing ' cloth. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. an act of falling. cassette. quash. to notch. Fr. AS. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. Cask. mata. — — . to shear. capsa (Diez). Cartel. Fr. charogne. abrogate. To Carve. Fr. It. cassa. It. ' Casa-matta. cancelled. of carro. It. gristle. and matar. charrette. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. augm. empty. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. a of water. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . of carta. caisse. to break. a hut. blotted out. a loopscale the wall. Gael. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. cascata. casser. slaughter-house. a merchant's cash or counter. Cascade. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. cascade.' Bailey. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. to convey in a cart. To Carry. — Cartridge. AS. casco signifies a skull. Fr. case. cut with scissors. The Sp. Casuist. one who reasons on cases put. to fire on the enemy. Fr. See Gristle. casitiste. ceorfan. It. for the security of the defenders. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. annul. a fall. where Fr. It. a car. casso. Hence a challenge openly hung up. like all the names of tendon. Case. Lat. Cart. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. corresponding to the G. case-maiej Sp. Sp. Fr. hollow. cascare. from casa. caroach. — — nul the proceeding. Lith. and that apparently from capio. caroche. coffer. carretta. Case-mate. carota. casualis. something that actually occurs. kirpti. to — — also casse. Fr. discharge It. It. crush. gristle. Cot.' — Hdcart. a chest. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. crown of a hat. caisse. to cut or carve . to an- — Kil. Du. It. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Walach. from It. cartoccio. Case. G. the charge of — — Fr. See Card. subject for a picture. Ready money. Fl. from It. OE. Casket. mord-grube.to annul. Preparatory drawing of a It. Carriage. to slay. Fr. fortuitous. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. Carrot. As defence from shells became more important. carretto. Fr. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. card. ignominiously exposed.

134 CAST Catacomb. kasta. dim. to scourge. dashing it out of the window.. name. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. of sarabands does Gr. Fr. Roukind. Lat. castello. or comba. KarapaKrr]g. n. a chesnut . heat . and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. Castanets. to end. cash. tails. to fall as over a precipice. — We a cavity. kissa. or Rouchi cat. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. cojz^/a. Catastrophe. to bring to an crack given by the joints. Fr. a whip on the other into latch. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. mino. down.Lat. a little house or hut.'— Pr. Hal. Gr. chat. It. a fortified place. Fr. by the loss of with several pitched cords. on. like that of It. . castanetazo. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. kotas. The E. sue. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. cat-o'-nine. squash. Cat. casser. to Fl. It. shaft of a 1 push. down. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. being Fin. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. away. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. arpi^m. is not satisfactory. cacciare fuora. a Cataract. Brunne. cascar. _G. V. a thump. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Gr. Isidore — in Diez. burst cascare. The Diet. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. kat. catch. Hence castaneta. to drive away.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. casipola. torture. castellum. cat. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. of castrum (castra). Lat. an enumerlist. Others explain it from Kara. to drive Cat o' nine tails. and from the castus. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. under chi caleur. puras E. KaTappaKTrjQ. Fr. Sp. the ground . accastiare. to lash. Thus we have Caste. punch. image accasciare. coming to us through different dialects of French. In the dialect of Picardy. Cot. chasuble. kotas. cacciuolo. Chase. to hunt. to look at. Yz. Pic. fer toTa. chaleur. . which has been retained in E.to drive out. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. to crack. execu. Etym. a garment for performing the mass in. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. the castanets for or implement . to hurl See Awgrim. to cast or beat to tioner . dash. bot-kotis. to torture. To Catch. Fr. represented by the syllable quash. to close. was introduced. and KviilSog. Fr. casule. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . a cat koshki. ecrevisse. To It.the / or c respectively. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. follow after. kic' kicil are used chasser. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Mid. to make clean or chaste. castro. Fr. B. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. fall. speak of dashing a thing down. same word with break. Fr. klakka. while kiss / Pol. second chase. or bruise together. force j Rouchi equerviche. dashing it to pieces. a cat . Pm. chasser. ' Catchyn away abigo. lance. perhaps from which we have E. Cast. . to dash. casupola. Catalogue. drive away. 120. handle of an axe. and tomba. kasi. So also from It. to is Essentially the Sp. probably from an imita. ating. katze. crush . kaJoivad. kottr. from the first of Castrate. cacciarc. puss / for calling them. from water Karappaaaiii. Fr. cast. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. KaTaarpifm. Gael. catar. rack. &c. R. . however. ichasses. Pol. to clack. race.Rouchi Scaches. kakka. stilts. 'Vaaaw. to turn overturn. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. castana. OFr. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba).. a vault. V Lith. signifying breed. cassa / cry for the same purpose. ON. chasser. . to break. Lang. the stalk of plants. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. It. Castle. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . squash. in the fire. casulla. KaraXoyog.— Fl. to crackle.out cacciare . the earlier sense of catch. which. koshka. first made ordinary Fr. Sp.

cross-bow that carries but a From poll. snatching. devouring mite or weevil. Fr. weevils. Claucht. is said that he got a claucht of it. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. smack. from Gr. glcu. called in Fr. to chatter with the teeth cake. chatter. — Kiittner. a. worm. E. cat is not apparent. Cot. in order). with and without an / after the c. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). chassoire. flap klatsche. happe-chair. Tutschek. . catch-flesh. catch. — explained. chacepol. latch of. the the same principle he was Fr. klatschen. e. instruction in forms. kletsen. a cornIn the s. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. gingle. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. from shutting with a click. to the crack.) . On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Du. resound.j. insect. Metivier. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. has both or of charming by sound. . obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. Kil. Gr. verberare kUts. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. woodlice. clap with the hand. the OE. pedes. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. icarrix'Ki^. to catch strength. a smack. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. catch. Fr.. Guernsey chafer. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. a clap. Ptg. compare G. — with a whip. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. Kil. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s.' CATCH Fr. sound. an accusing. ' Fr. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene.from Bard and ayopsw. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. de Bray. On Catechism. companaige. chasse.' ^Jam. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. — Catcli-poll. and answer. door when it is shut. . G. chase. i. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. a caterpillar Milanese can. clatter. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. bicho. a carter's Pat. latch. children's name for cat . as of the latch of a As ! — . silkworm. to chat. Caterer. dainty vic- a form lash. Kartiyopta (/cari. bichano (pussy). called dog or Galla catchamza. to clap hands. E. klinke. a — gatta. 'Horxa. chatter . cache. . a whip. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. fragor kletsoore. to crack GATES cache. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. 135 — Aasen. snatching it with a any one. Cot. chenille {canicula. E. chachara. blow. c or ^. Swiss Lombard G. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. kaetse. wild-beast. KaTtix'so. clap. GaUa catchiza. snatched. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . klatscherei. predicament. the distance to which the ball is struck. a whip or Kuttner. Du. klatsch. which all . to take. Cates. In the XV'e. seize. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. Grandg. Gael. Fr. Rouchi clincailleux. an officer of taxes. to harangue. Wal. a whip. formerly called cliket. ictus resonans. — B. Sp. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound.V. chink. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. a. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . a whip Rouchi cachoire. to kythe D. gliong. apprehend a person. OFr. ' ' word catch. 'Bxn. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. a little dog).s.yopl(. millecaterpillars.V. Du. e. to A bailiff.P. caker. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. to snatch (said of dogs). Chate peleuse. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. resono ictu lash. claquer. Diez. to snap. klatsche and Norm. the elements of a science. caucht. . whip. * Caterpillar. s. P. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. ketsoore. — . catc?u. quincailler. ecachoire. head. cagnon (a dog). a pill. — tinman. ArbaUte de courte chasse. * Cates. Sc. dainties. gattola. kletse. to teach by oral instruction. Guernsey pilleure. Gael.

Fr. Mid. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. It. Ka^afriKOQ. Provider.Lat. macska. walnut with the husk on challer. Mid. chaudiire. to purge. Cavity. Cavalier. a kind of skull-cap.^ acheter (Lat. a horse . puss. from KaSaipio. a seat. cheval. Lat. It. and spareth for no perell. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. cavaliere. hot. to buy. Cauldron. via strata. CATHARTIC sense. Cathedral. It. is used in the sense of cat-skin. — — cavallo. Richly she feeds. It. KaPaWrii. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. cavus. otherwise written kell. by land. cabbage. katteken. chevalier. Cavern. Pr. Rete. catkins . kitten kotki. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. G. Fr.Lat. Cathartic. caple. ce^l. Cave. the stones of a street. . kdtzchen. catkin Pol. B. hollow. what . catkin Magy. kobyla. • — — See Chattel. Thus Bav. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. cal^ar. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. KaHSpa. a paved road. Fr. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. also to pave . On the other hand. Fr. Kavrijp. from chaud. having the property of cleansing. Gr. katte. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. . w. causa. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. CAVE Caul. to shoe. fur in general.Y\\Xea. choufleur {choii. Dryden in R rete. Lat. chausser. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. That he was ay before in his estate. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. The word — . puss. a horse . — Cauterise. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. a road calceata. KiwariKog. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. It. calotte. . to shale or peel. any Fl. acater. kocianki. a The peel. net or caul-work. Fin. accattare. . cabbage-stalk. adcaptare. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Palsgr. Du.—— — 136 correct. but the acates that are sent him. Fr. a branding from koiio. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . cabbage). Gr.' Elyot in Way. from caveo (p. Lat. flock. . calidus. to beware. calqada. 4. little cat. calceata. cautis. a pulpit. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. catons. hazel. to ac- — Fr. from delf^gato. Diez). The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. reticella. Cavalry. Port.^Hal. Russ. Chaud.. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. shaled or picked Fr. Gr. Palsgr.' B. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. catkin mitz. cat maczoka. little cap is . chauderon. a pavement. OE.p. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Boethius. — . chatideau. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. a mare. accapitare Rouchi acater. minon. Lat. cautus). kaussijde. kin. is Prologue. kassije. and at the rich man's cost By sea. caballus. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. despencier. mudet. Sx. Bessie of Bednall. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Cause. puss. Kavrfipiov. to sound like a blow . Caustic. Hence achates or acates signified purchases.. A warm comforting drink. hot. Gael. &c. cale. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Fr. kautsije. . apt to burn iron. lamb. acaptar. a stalk. Catkin. Fr. rete A — Prov. Du. dumpf tonen. chaudroii. kopista. kocie. Jonson in R. Lat. kopano. Wyatt in R. a kettle for heating water. Manciple's Tale. a horseman. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. to burn. to shoe . cale. kobuiV. and hence a skull-cap.willow. green husk of a calon. koparet. primitive is meaning a shale or off. calceta. deyntie meates. chaussJe. Cattle. make clean. . a receptacle for small things. Lat. quire. klopfend knallen. Pol. Causeway. ' Gr. Caudle. Fr. flue. Jaubert. the caul of the liver. Cavalcade. 2. capull. mutz. fur. caldo. Caballus. Fr. achepter. the. challe was ther of a temple. caudex . Delycates. cauHs. whence cathedralis. chair. Fr. a horse. Caution. Kil.

an aquiline nose. and then to gape. cease. cielo. IV. -ceed. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. crooked kopio. in Hal. exceed. a severe bridle. pp. Sherwood. In the same way G. — . hollow. thel. H. Fr. seele. Cede. sill. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. a log. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. kommata. 43. thelu. Fr. p. heaven. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. the deck of a ship at thilja. to plank or floor with planks. column E. The It. — . The line of descent from Fr. departure from this life. cavezzone. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. give place. or of a bed. . . as if from happen. recede. cellar. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. to plank ON. wuoren komo. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. cabegon. thili.. kapp-zaum. in Jam. hivtmel. deal. B. heaven. The importation of Fr. Soc. p. nailes will begin to cling. augm. It. sybire. Cavil.' Ordinances and Reg. Hal. a plank. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. rafter. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. — — — toyour soverane. wainscot thiljar (in pi. &c. Cease. dayntily diglit. yield. a head. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. of E . canopied. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. caveqon. cessum. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. komista. proceed. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. the roof of a coach. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. a halter. -cess. 32. ciel de lit. door-sill J Sc. So from Fin. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. . beam. ceiling. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings.' — Gawan . were met. sill in window-sill. hollow ice . applied to a canopy. Cam. step away. a log. selure. sky. a board. And seik — Cessation. succeed. . koppeli. &c. 7. &c.' del. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. lambris. Lat. flooring E.. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. coffer. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. VIII. E. hollow. in Jam. del into English without ' translation gave cele. . -cease. jaa. Fr. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. departure. selar. but hang around at the sides. plank. a boarded floor. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts.'— Z. to seele or close with boards plancher. . dil. Gawaine & Sir Gol. tester of a bed. a log. a planking or boarding tkilian.j have come from this source. cesso. cabega. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. curved. Cot. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. post. a fir-plank. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. also a seeling of boards. . Boyd in Jam. to canopy siled. CAVESON kopera or kowera. bridle.). menuiserie. See -cede. cyling (W. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling.' Hall. cedo.). with their substantives concession. In the N. a canopy. lambrisser une chambre seeling. Ceiling. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. . — komo tain). sus-lambris. little house. a hut. . empty. dille. . decessus. thilja. Wore. and that from Sp. thiling.' Cot. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. is applied to a canopy. ceiling. and Gol. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Fr. quibble. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. as. The sense of roofing. that. komo. Sir 137 pit . wall.' Marriage of James IV. to go forth. syle. dScis. thil. ciel is so unbroken. A — A false accommodation produced G. . syl. &c. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . . To seele a room. hung. semely on syll. plank. cavillor. a canopy. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. -cede. Lat. excess. thil. Hence concede. Plancher. death. to panel or wainscot MHG. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. —Decease. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. Lat. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. Sp. of cavezza. and zaum. 5. to argue capto tiously. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. the inner roof of a room of state.' Rutland papers. to cut. board . Lat. the testern of a bed. . a beam.

abundance. Censure. Centurion. conceipt. cencer. to contend.). Fl. oil. to glow. sacred show. Fr. . See Celibacy. as in some places burnt. celer. ' . quarters for slaves. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. cilibat. a Cemetery. also grave opinion. chaufferette. with the eyes. Take the nedyll and threde.— Cellar. S. celeber certus. -CEIVE a shaft. to seal a pigeon's eye. incense. and thence censer. eschattffer. a tomb. cceremonia. make angry. 1. Cot. in Marsh. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned.' Celebritas. to prick. -cepere..of the r. Lat. sile. to distinguish. Gr. Fr. — . is the opposite of disora virum. It. for building. sting. -cern. siller les yeux. Gr. Lat. Chafe. Century. — . Gr. rough from the quarry. Lat. Sherwood. Fr. confounded ist from It. in comp. concetto. his office. and met. Certain. a storehouse Chafe. Cot. assess. festive. Fr. centum. family. camentum. candeo. Celebrity. to take. and thence to conceal. to be regarded as one celebro. blind. to incense. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. a numerous con. value. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. -oept. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. To seel or close the eyes. For sess from assess. Cell. Lat. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. to heat. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. Centre. Lat. being taken from Fr. to attend on object with. dchauffer. in comp. to visit in numbers. to burn incendo. to bury). cretum. to -sum. estimate. -cebre ifoncebre. a valuation of every man's estate. calefacere.j 138 thill. keep in It. census. -ciper. an eyelash. and put it through the over eyelydde. Gr.cern. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. {cori)cipere. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. -cense. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. become heated with anger. . &c. tax. a registration of one's self. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. mortar. to blindfold. Censor. guish. irot\oe. — — Cenotapli. -cipio. Lat.unmarried.ing a room where there is not fire. Coehim.). thence belonging to or connected with corn. -i^oivre. to rate. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. Sc. a hundred centuria. point. zens according to their property. to take. OFr. Fr. Celerity. To Incense. -ceptjun. contend. cigliare. &c. Cereal. cot. in accordance with the Fr. rubble. -ceit. Fr. Assess. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. capio. to think. cella. eyelid. concerner. cenio. from Saa-rw. empty. chauffer. Fr. or any bird's.' Book of St Albans. — . -civer {conciver— Roquef.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Assize. syll. to separate. -cess. To chafe is for wine. Lat. ciglio. judge Lat. hollow. or expression of Ennius. as entering largely into the derivative certo. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. pick out. to warm. Ta^oe. the officer appointed to take such returns . ceremonia. (and thence also) to hoodwink. census. decebre) . and make them faste und the becke that she se not. — A . swift. Lat. Cij(fe5j. a hundred of what- — . — . what to set in a chafe. oil. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. sift. Ceremony. to concern. and so of that other. K^'ivut. calefare. deceipt. distinIt. — . In Celebrate. and — — — possessions. observe.— Chafing-dish. tax. Fr. deceit. heaven. we have a modified form of (of a place). Censer. appertain. riscaldarsi. to sepap rate. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. but was gradually lost in conceit. criticism. Lat. Incensum. then to rub without reference Cement. Census Censor. /ctj/rsw. judge. Lat. to celebrate. to sleep). the point round which a circle is drawn. the talk of men. to chafe. See Cede. renown be embodied with. age. judge. to rub for the purpose a hut. decide. parted sleep. from censeo. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. cerealis. a prick. stones to the production of heat. Lat. Lat. a solemnity. thronged the participle cretus. is totally distinct from the foregoing. a shaft horse. caber. concernor. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Lat. -cepire. cillier. crevi. with transposition hence (of a day). Accelerate. -ceive. The term cilium. to twinkle darkness. capturn. sure. to set on fire. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. receipt. ciller. much frequented. censura. KsvTpov. the hollow the Lat. solemn (of per. Prov. goad. the place where the de.. — . to course of people. to seele or sew up the eyelids . see. a solemnity. encens. single or unwedded life. It. -cevoir. Cess. materials It. a religious observance. of heating.

chafeter. From to go to law. cathedra. 35. kahu. The jaw chafty. shaIt. preise. clamare. chaulx. a chain. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. from the shark-skin. thick and short. 11. chaene. Cot. muzzle.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. any insect of the beetle kind. chambre. and signifies to consume with anger. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). ^Altieri. rustling corn. songe. taubes korn oder hafer. to claim. signal by drum or P. . as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. calix. hght Chalk. also to prattle. often puffing. swelling with anger. chaise. cathedra. puffed or ruffled with ly. kiaftr. tattle. Prov. to a seat. a double operation * Chafer. without chap/are makiinde. as a carriage is a moveable seat. to institute anforensic action. to gnaw. chalanger. chicane. Du. breathe hard. calx. camera. — — — — — — . chaffare. kuhuja. calice. Bav. Kuttn. to Latin calumniare. false accusation. ckapfare. havOFr. kdfelen. much more Genoese sagrind. Gr. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. talkative. to tattle. kaff. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. Piedm. sagri. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. to calumpnjamen. Fr. Du. Lat. and as this was the beginning of man. sagrindse. avena vilior. difficulty . far lima-lima. kahista. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. to buzz. calumnia. to fret inwardtronfo. Cot. kuhina. cam. to action arose. Probably from According to Diez. in a monstrous fume.nium. dispute. Lat. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Pers. to caw chawer. Chagrin. Hal. a prattling woaction. de Brai. to puff and blow. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . KoBiSpa. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Fl. haggle. leviter crepo Then. kiqfta. gewolb. green sagrin. Perhaps Pm. calonjar. Fr. have a mind to parley. a chough. grief. vel susurro. place See Cheek. Came. much blowing. kaff. OFr. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this.' Rayn. tronfio. khah. or puff with snorting. keffen. Pat. Fr.sure carriage. kuhista. Fr. Bouffard. Lat. P. cadena gives chain. From the To Chaff. a rustling noise. p. In like manto huff. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. ing a hard case to their wings. cauvette. refuse. a pulpit Cot. in a cana. rally one. kiamta. to move the jaws. Chayire. limare. rustle Challenge. lime . that leneth e per I'autra. to gnaw. ing rapidly repeated cries. sborfare. kuhata. Fr. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. catena. to bark. — . dongio. Adelung. Halma. fume. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. chawe. ple^. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. chaps Chamber. hiss. Chair. De Ir4. yap. to dispute. now a chair. from Swiss kafeln. puff. refuse barley . which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. kauchen. baras of ants. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. to file. snort. From Port. matter by combat. ceafer. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. kahuja. tattle cheep. fa sagramen de calompnia. . a jackdaw. G. chagrin. rustling motion challenge. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. ON. kever. cup. hordeum vel let. chatter. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Pr. bargain. — — — . to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr.. In vulgar language. kdfer. chaine. great chafe. Cheffern. — — — . G. a goba rustling . . Chain. grief. as. Lat. Fr. jaw. with a:n arched roof. keuchen. . idle words. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Ayenbite. (ca'e'ra) to chair. To buy and sell. Prov. cadena. Lat. Fr. fern-chafer. quisquilise offence. chayire. Wall. call in question for an ley). B. calonja. snuff. to chatter or talk lightly. to babble. chaire. a pulpit. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. Camera. to pant. to ner It. Gr. to call. Lat. a vault or arched roof. Fin.. charge with. chafing. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. contestation. Fr. — — ' — — — A . Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. Fr. Due. . &c. cadieira. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Prov. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. to sit. kedja. Chalice. care. Kaiiapa. chamar. on. from of the G. vis. care. E. of. ceaf. Fr. In this application it is the correlative Chaise.— — . Lat. cadera. crooked. lime. So from dominio. breathe KaOa^oiiat.

To hollow out in chanPtg. chamfrain. a jaw kianisa. who stood ad cancellos. kampeln. Commonly derived from campus. a court of justice. to . difficulty . an athlete. a hook . is explained by serrarsi. calida et sans aguet. It will. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. See Camp. mesleiare. caer. kabMe. to be eminent.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. accidere. kiinp. a scufSe. kimpUma.—Tutschek. tsamtsogni. cazer. to hold . escazenza. To cope or contend with. to slope. fight. to slope out the . dial. champion Du. act of falling. champ. Fr. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . chain. dricka i kapp. to — — champ. Chancery. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. as in It. keiiipe. kimppu (Lap. . chajnbellan . kapp. E. game campio. kabinti. Fr. cample). kriimmen gebogen. tsammogni. kampa. s. G. bundle. —Chamfrain. and acted as inofficers of . Fr. camp. Sp. slope of a bevelled angle. Fr. — KiL . Chancellor. therewithal. campar. chdance. to hang. Fr. chance. contention kappi. the chafldn. When the to quarrel. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. to move the jaws kiamt. pinch. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. cempa. To Chamfer. to debate. jeu parti. kiammi. Gall. to groove bevel off a right angle. dial. Sup. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. to wrestle. certare.Lat. a game at football. Carpentier. to paw the ground E. to wrestle. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . kablys. Get campers a ball To camf . hot. a bundle. ON. sukibti. received the petitions of the suitors. kinipen. kampen. differs only in the transposition of the letter m.' SherI'altro ' ' . M. CHANCEL It. fight. to fall. — ^Tusser. . luctare. which seems another form of the root. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. or less ignorant. kempen. Prov. . So in e. hamper. fray. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. to happen {ad and cadere.edley. to hollow out.140 CHAMBERLAIN . to fasten oneself to another . Champion. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). combat. to fasten oneself on to another . e. to to chew champ. Champarty. Lith. Chancel. boys speak of capping verses. ON. a warrior. wood. to Hal. hero Sw.' melleia. . cameratus. champ. camp. chanfrar. Campar. kempa. — Hal.' ' Pr. to talk. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. . Chamfron. a feat. bickering. to bevel. kippo. contest. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. Magy. rare. zampettare. from cheoir. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. Du. The word is preserved in E. kimpustella. to chew. dial. ciambellano. prize-fighter. to stick to. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. excellent. kanip. The E. a hollow chanfreiner. contend or argue G. to tread The sound heavily. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Pm. head armour. kabe. cahir. to flute as a column. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. gewolbt. chaude mesUe. to excel. move the jaws. Lat. broil. E. at the railings. a horse-race. cadere. Lat. Fr. Meleare. chanfreindre. cancelli. Champ. Champaign. kampeln. i.—Charfron E. to smack the lips in eating. . divided game. camerlengo. gekrUmmt. and mesUe. Chance-n3. Ptg. to quarrel (comp. Prov. a field of battle. champ. reusement — fight in single combat. surpassing. kibti. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . The happening of things Chance. jocus partitus. champ parti. pedilusor. campus partitus . — masterly Sp. . campear. Lat. as swine. Sp. hng. ON. Fin. Hence (with the nasal) w. chanfrein. The G. kabintis. Partnership. kimbu. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. to fall). from chaud. to fasten on. Dief. ciamberlano. . dial. top of a borehole. fighting place. ing. Lat. dispute Hal. giving rise to the as. from Fr. campus. termediaries between them and the judge. nels. or player at football. camp. to cample. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. chance. dial. chanfrein. calidameya. zs jeopardy. compound. athlete. accident. chamble. to strive at games . champ. kappd). — Ch-amberlain. schmatzen s.

Chandler. to peck. ^Jam. Hence It. to change. Chap. the loose flesh of the cheeks. . . Fr. Da. hack . flat . as corn-chandChandry. to strike with a sharp edge. See Chant. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. I. Chop. camjar. chiappa. ceaflas. to peck. cobio. klepan. to chap at a door. In like manner Walach. the clappers of the scupper holes. as chancery . exchange schimbatoriu. chap. canalis. changer. or the like chapar. to cut. the chaps . jaw. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. chandelier. Chapel. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. to truck. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. to break . . kennel. Fr. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. to cut up into small pieces. Probably from chap. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Aasen. clapet. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. Commonly derived from capella. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. muzzle. as skin chapped hands. Molbech. chapeta. the gutter that runs along a street. extended to other trades. leather. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. esclapo. Lat. may be compared with ON. kappen. skipta. while the broader vowels a. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. chancellerie. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. Channel. And N. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. exchange. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Walach. jaw. properly in a hard body. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. cambiar. surfaces striking together. kapoti. throat of an animal. a small metal plate Port. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. Fr. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. lips of an animal.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. — : Lat. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. debeant conjurare. from chandler. ON. W. Du. to strike. A fellow. as It. E. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. 140. Lang. Prov. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. . to swap. chapelete de una bomba. chop. and also to chap or crack. hard bodies. chapa. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. are kept. also a clap. to apply one flat thing to another. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. kemma. esclapa. to deal. from canna. is used in the same sense . —Ordericus Vitalis. to spht a chip. cangiare. kjaakaa. Da. like the knocking of hard things together. It is also used in the sense of the E. —Chantry. Chape. not a soul. Sp. ceaplas. Chaps or chops. a dealer in candles then. See Chop. chap. cantare. a small plate of flat metal. Russ. to put on fresh clothes. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. gab. to coat. Compare chark. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Sp. any hollow for conveying water. to — cut. cheek. chapear. cambiare. schimbu. a money-changer. a jaw. kvar kjceften. a strip of metal plate. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. prune. shift. chaps. schimbd. AS. Hence chantry. a pipe. Chap.^. as to chap hands. Hal. to hack. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. wood. from clap. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. — . Man of Law's Tale. chancery. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . Hal. the mouth. — — —Marculfus in Due. the place where candles ler. cambium. a reed. waterconduit. kaupa. a chap is a crack or fissure. Sc. and the modern canal. as those on a trunk. to creak. to plate. chanter. to plate. Lith. exchange. To Change. That wide were sentin their spicery. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. chop. chapilla. Bret. chapeletas de imbornales. Chap. Cheek. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. or the cracking of one. to strike. to cut off . Chip. to paw like a horse . 2. to sing. . Fr. kiceft as well as kjakje. kiceft.

wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. charade. gaggle . caricare. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . cluck kirklys. carmo. chapitre. Ptg. Character. to turn. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. the turtle pitre. kurkelis. creak. Gr. chatter. OE. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. occasional turn. dear. Lat. char. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Sp.Lat. to load . It. chat. The G. Chapman. prattling quacksalver. to tattle. from cape or cope. surris seu Lat. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. —— . czurksti. ghirlanda seor garland. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation.whirr. eapitulo. charlar. Justin. a garland of roses. Chark. Prov. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. Mundart. a mark made on a thing. car.czirksti. babbling. to of the governing body. 2. cluck. See Charlatan. capitolo. jabber. Charge. cha. to sing or chirp as birds. Chare. chirlar. From Norm. ceap-man. to . tattler. chapelet. that turned decken . Macduff. 370. pohadka. from gadai. An enchantment. charge an enemy is to lay on. for the same reason rosario. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. carricare. to chirp. a riddle. carus. which was incantation. charitas. return. To Char. corona. twitter. turn about. &c. wreath for the head. charger. as. to chirp. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. Lat. w. a merchant. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Swiss. capellare. decken. Lith. from capa. cearcian. It. to chirp as sparrows. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . keeren. in turns. cher um cher. karout. eyre. Chirk. capella. as a beetle. condo il volgar francese. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. bler. a turn cerran. and in It. Sup. be- e. AS. chirriar. Charcoal was ciarlare. to talk . gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. Cot. to prattle. charlatan. burning without consuming the substance. talking. Chapter. twist. to converse. of chapel. And damned be he who first cries Hold. A weed among com AS. cerran. it is my turn. . gadka. dear(in both senses). Deutsch. siarad (pronounced — sharad). from carrus. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. canne. to turn Gael. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. charer. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Sp. to love. used in the sense of magic Fl. kurkti. affection. kirkti. — spell. to dove . It. chatter. chapel. clack.' Boccaccio in Diez. AS. Charade. Bret. chara. to prattle. Mid. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. called kedlock. go. cabildo. gnash. In that work the verb is written caire. a head or division of a book. carregar. colliers that charred coal. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head.. See Cheap. w. Lay on. to charcoal. caritas. czirbti. — — — turned to coal. beloved. Chaplet. called in Sp. from capitulum. . carmen. to creak. ject). The crash. seems to be derived charade. Sp. Fr. ciarlatore. babdistinction. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Yx.charme. a charm. a hood. hiss Lith. Hence carminare. cam. in To ness Charity. . czurliwoti. properly to place — . enough. * Charcoal. wood to coal. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. a The OFr. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. Lat. hadka. es ist mi cheer. schreien. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. krachzen). and at line 2520 it runs Charm. a dispute . . Fr. Charlock. creak. as Pol. a mark of a mountebank.). chirk. Charlatan. a rhyme. tegere. Lang. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Fr. capital. . Fr. from Charade. turn. cedeleac. — a car. dim. to croak as a frog . Du. It. a cricket karkti (schnarren. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. the nature of a thing. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Boh. a riddle. (eucharistie. a verse. Fr. charcoal burners. Inst.

In like manner Russ. chaste. a twig Suffolk chaits. a young man . chat. chit-chat. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. talk much . castus. csacsogni. a crack or a flaw . germinate . knatiern. a word. V. knacken. warble. See Card. Fr. to chirp as a bird to cheep. as purgare Fr. the calix of a rose. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. It. Malay. whistle. To Chase. . to make a noise. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. karigh. — We ornamental work the to signify E. eclats. clean. the cry of the bat. careful. splinters. Pm. —Charter. a branch and a young female. See Catch. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. magpie. It. D. OE. racket . also a youth. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. ch&tier. ferire. chykkyn (Pr. Chamel. cs E. To chitter or chipper. Pol. letters p. speak . a flock of those birds. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. to chatter or prattle . B. g. caro. incassare. the noise of birds. gaddc. enchasser. jackdaw . chary.— Chatter. make a noise as birds do. pure. kastaa.). to separate in morsels. — — . a plate of metal. csatora (Magy. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. — Fr. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. kippen. Lat castigare. chip. a chatter-box. as. kata-kata. from xoAn. flesh. the handle of a razor . to crack. chaste. schioppare. carmen is presented in AS. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. crackle. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. as we speak of olive branches. to care). an enchantress. tittle-tattle. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay.. as from nomen It. parcus. Chary. Pol. gadu-gadu. So in Gael. little sticks cudere. cyrm. Russ. cearig (from cearian. pure. — sharp sound of a crack. converse. whence a charm of goldfinches. to chirp.— Chit. gazeuiller. to baptize. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. or pop. chikat'. to set a jewel. warble. clean. s. clatter. chatter. To Chasten. — = Chats. also to hatch. la chasse d'une rose. An imitative word. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. a gap. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr.house. Chaste. chick. %aafi. nome and . snap. chit. chisf. to cut and faggoted. It. noise. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. clack. gazzolare. noise. From carinen was formed It. to burst open. xi'i-'^vui. . To talk. Parallel with E. CHATS fit 143 to name. or the cry of a bird or the like. chip. prate. Chat-wood. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). clear. to enchase it . used to represent a sharp note. the bird is iiown. To work plate as silversmiths do. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. a branch. Fr. kna. — The . csacsogany. Lat. niggardly. a churchyard or charnel-house. chits. clean. occasionally Forby. from purus. It. also to germinate or spring forth. talk. —Jam. to gape. — Palsgrave. as turnip-chaits. to clap. —Chastise. castus. the young shoots . Hal. as in the E. to wet. geug. karg. —Bailey. gazzettare. Chart. gazzogliare. or suckers on rough borders. Fl. chip. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . to chirp. To chip is then to crack. limpid. sordidus. csaterdzni. nommer. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. prattle. in Jam. i. fragments or leavings of food. kata. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. Fl. cassa s. Diez. Cot. — Yorkshire chat. Kil.a. Cot. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. Chasm. To chit. is to represent the chamier. charm. Fr.ppen. carme and Fr.). gallan or ogan. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. Kil. tenax. to talk. a shrine for a relic. carnisj bones kept. pure. clap. from pure. czysty. chit in the latter sense Du. or equivalent forms. The egg is chipped. a yawning. To Chase. Fr. G. shivers. Du. shout OE. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. chick. scraps of for fuel. Chat. — Hal. be wide open. or a bird out of the egg. Magy. chair. ch). fragments. blackthorn-chats. root of the Lat. to which it bears the same relation as chape. charmer. See Cistern. to cry as a chicken . It t. to crack. Gr. gazzerare. discourse.

It.of the throat in coughing. See Cheek. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general.— Cattle. Sc. favour. cattle. 144 the It. caupo. welcome heartily. chiere. — We ' . CHEEK zitella. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. kaupon. horse-couper. Hal. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. to cluck like a hen. aspect of a man. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. ku. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. OFr. lower. ceap. frown. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. See Chess. in widely separated languages by the Lat. to laugh. which is the word in ceap.. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. to vomit. NE. kakaista. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Slav. chatel. to fetch the breath with difficulty. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. chaptel. to act as a rogue. hawkmann. cozener.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. a rogue or person who used the canting language. countenance. Fl. dchec. Chew. exAS. goods. G. a willing look and unwilling heart. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. catalliim. to chop and change. citello. . kaupa. cattle.—Choke. Ek dry and hard. the countenance Fr. Ingulphus. kaufen. which is used in the to stutter. agreeing upon. Soc. Cot. equiva. kek. from AS. with Dief. CHATTELS has ciio. any cheating. teeth . goods. &c. Gr. entertain kindly. gig. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. prattlingchete. It — Brompton in Due. kikottaa. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. Chattels. to .— . look. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. kauf. retching. Lat. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. in Fr. mandibula. giving or taking in exchange. . to swap goods . where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. sale. keck. Cheat. capitale. Then. Check. — — —Chowl. ceaflas. cera. to buy. choule. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. chavylbone or chawlbone. a cheater. while it Bret. kakkaset. chuckle. snout. kaupiti. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. s. chatal. jaws.ing. to — . e. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. koopen. ceafl. sense of bargaining. kak.' kezen. . where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. to make inarticulate sounds in . gagkezen. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Modern Slang. the principal ' colloquial E. Cam. the Lat. to deal ON. and hence the E. the tongue. 'li^'opa jord i jord. OFr. Pm. The gutGoth. a canting knave. to clear the throat . to nauseate (to retch). from Lat. chire. to cough and hence either buying or selling. a piece of moveable property. a tavern-keeper. Bav. Fin. Chear. chear in the sense of victuals. Fr. cattle.-^. stuttering. et juxta catalla sua. kok. Hence to cheat. society. Sp. cachinnari.kakot. truffa. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. to coff—Yisi. sum in a loan. gagkern. tradesman. thers. . to negotiate. Bohem. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. the Confessor. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. farm for farm. entertainment. a young boy or girl. changing. and. are represented piti. laughing. stuttering. ceahhetan. syllables ^ag-. us. a metaphor taken from the game of chess.. cheeks. kichen. a dealer in horses. Faire bonne chire. the face. whence captale. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. sob E. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. KaviiXog. Du.— Chaps. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. jaw. to coup s. Fr. . Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. force of the word. to buy. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. visage. upon a checked cloth. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. giggling. Pro v. kik. price.' to exchange to gasp.— Chole. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. chapman. with the exception of land. cara. cita.. a repulse. It. to stutter gigken. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. a dealer. Cheek. — To check an account. Pr. bon marche. chop. lead to OE.

kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Du. caws. cheeks. make an end. the neck. Kil. ceg. cerasus. cireggia. the loose the game of checks. w.D. Analo. whence kasa-leipa. Sc. E. cough. Sp. as meat and butter. It would Cheese. prevail with. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut.).pose of acidifying them kasadr. As the board to gasp i. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. subacidus. chevir. made rancid koka. ca' — . gabe. — — . which in the case of cough has Chesnut. clear the throat. for cheese itself. gapen. E. Lith. a rafter . The Lapps prepare much of their compass. rafters in heraldry. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. Fin. like a young chicken. cheek. F*-.. the final guttural is retained in writing. Chekenyd or querkenyd. ceaflas. gous forms are G. ceac. gill of fish AS. a chicken. gap. gaghel. ost. caru. chaps. to gape gab. kistej Lat. It.Xo belch. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Sw. jaw.G. Sc. From them the plish. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. schach. accomplishment cayed. to heap up such things for the purchoke. to love. The name of creak as shoes. as. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. . xaque. kopen. to swallow. old bread. e. schach. to hold dear. to kep. suffo. king). takes place in the formation of cheese. throat. the palate Chequer. Jam. Tutschek. castaneusj Fr. veteris casei sapore Ancatus.koppen. Prothroat of an animal . See Alchemy. — — . the The use of the word kcesir. treat with affection. chesten. to boken. chops. to kasa. Fr. throat. rupted into chess. Chemistry. kok. Cherry. X'C&s. cista. jaws.cirieggia. ichec.' to w. jaws Sw. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. the hke. hasten. to choke. Fr. ceaplas. to year. cabrio. Du. to bring to an end.. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Chess. mouth kek. cheken.perly head. Da. to accomThis they call hdrsk. dear. — — . To make a shrill noise Chest. Lith. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. rattle in the throat. Hence chesten-nut. E. kces. Cherish. squeak as a mouse. rennet. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. things Da. jowl. AS. a heap. acquisition. cherir. quoka. Prov. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Fris. chests in OE. frame by which the exertion is made. czypti. kdke. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Lat. &c. the throat. chiffe. dersen . the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. kjceve. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. Pl. cegio. food. . kaecke. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. equal squares of opposite colours. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. carnium. AS. giffle. chasi. to belch. kasa. G. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. jouffle. Chef. geafl. jaw . a cricket. cese. Fr. ON. E. cabiron. kjakje. w. incaseatus. mollium congeries. In these latter forms we see the transIt. CHE.D. Lat. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. Hence kikna is identical with OE. (Kil. kastr. kesten. kapen. kirsche. Thus "we are brought din. by laying up in a covered heap. cams. whence czypulas. The Sw.EP CHEVRON 145 on. . cheek. Chevaux de frise. the mouth. gullet. Fr. kikna of dorum coacervatio. then end. Sw. An imitative word. skratt. kdkel. ation. nish source. cufd. G. AS. cyse. cheek. To Cheep. OHG. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Pm. scacco. jaw. to make a noise different word. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. w. chAtaigne. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. . chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. /Ji2^/(W. achever. cerise j G. Lat. ceocian. veluti piscium. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. Sp. See Case. kikna. . N. Lat. — 10 . Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. condition of being taken. Chevisance. to geahl.their struggle for independence. Achievement. cisty G. by laying it in come to an agreement with. quok. to choke with laughter.peep in the same sense. chops. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . chevron. kasiiUPr. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. caseus. Fr. See Chess. kastanie. Cher. kjcebe. to gasp. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. geagl.

tintelen van koude. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. chieftain. Da. caferu. pi. Imitative of a loud clear sound. jaws . also the horizon.-ill. tiukkata. Sp.D. cap. then cold. to chirp or peep like a chicken. Fr. or as E. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. tremble with cold. chiler. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. while the Magy. Magy. jaw. then as G. from the second Lat. Chime. antler. chimb. Chief. rafter. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. kauchen. Du. when the vibrations become very rapid. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. caput. ]). to contest about trifles. to gasp for breath (Hal. — — Mother Hubbard. or qf people talking rapidly. pipio. capu.. Russ. the cry of young . to the brim. Chitter. to contest. Kil. branchy. cidan. by driblets. cabar beinne. capete. Child. or chick. AS. to crackle. Payer chiguet A chiguet. chaps. to use the jaws. a cup cibaw. To chitter. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. tiukkua. from little to little. rafter . tremble. ultimate origin of the Mite. : — a lump. mouth. G. s. kidata. kibr. ach. chill. . The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. Now gan some courage unto him to take. chol.^ to resound as a bell.peep. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. CHJME the radical form is unusual.D. deer's horn. — Du. lead through the synonymous E. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. chicken. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. a finch. in Walach. ' . From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. chillrar.).' my finger tingles with cold. chicoter. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. Chigue. killen. aner. to titter is Du. kopf Du. kop. E. kitista.. grelot). Brezza.. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Pr. a cup. to chime. Fl. a jaw. to smart. — Fin. queror. See Chimmer. the jole. keichen. tiukka. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. a chicken. chew or chaw. — . The loss of the syllable it in Du. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. crepo. pipio. czypulas. chavel. Fin. A To Chew. the chirping of a sparrow Magy.. chawbone. The Pl. from the first of which is Lith. the young of animals in general. chicaner. the least imaginable jot. the throat. kinderen. E. kaw. . gosling. to go. kilderkin. cabriones. or the broken noise of birds. Swiss kiden. Bret. while didder is to shiver or citteren. a little bit. term is ssaru fu. kimme. cabarach. De chic en chic. Pm. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. greloter is to shiver for cold. machouere. Chill. chiquei. a hen. quivering sound which passes. Chaw. choule. to twitter. Gael. to chew. gills of a fish. captain. pululo. Gattel. a quid of tobacco. Pr. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. Du. creak. . and from the third E. and not vice versd. the rim or edge of a vase. kuwe. twitter. to pettifog. — It. tyuk. Prov. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Fin. tiuk. the Ptg. to scold.— . Pl. as pointing out the origin of the E. E. kind. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. to Du. a cup. strideo. the head.— Cot. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. acute. caprioru. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. k'imm s. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. De finger killet mi for kalte. knit the brow cib-led. are formed Du. chikat'. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . chef. knirschen. jaw. zitterti. It. chillar. head. alter. G. a young bird. chic. Chimb. kieken. stake. chin. kippa. pip. Pm. a head. cabar. Fr. Walach. cib. has probably the same origin. cheek. the same principle I regard On birds. a chicken. to raise the rim. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. capo. kimista^ . kauen.— Gattel. Lat. mountain top . chillness or shivering. rafter . cild. sonorous. signifying properly shivering. For the see word Doit. w. pipe. To Chide. klagend tonen. hiss as meat on the gridiron. CHEW . killen. cica cica. horns of the house. 146 brial. kimia.^ Hal. beam. Fl. And hence. Probably from Fr. as. kindeken. Fr. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. horn wood. Fin. chavel. kouwe. cebr. kime. a small cask OFr. kauwe. Palsgr. kaau•wen. knarren. Tintillo. pole. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. into a continuous shriU sound. Halm. Chick. a chicken. W. 'Among these the G.

bone . i. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt.schricken. Chin-coug^h. klincken. genou (pi. to creak. from 10 * ' Chia. chits. schetteringe. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Chine. See Chats. squittire. sound. Gloss. Chintz. a thorn. shiver and the chyver of Pr. as the/ is preserved tering.czirbti. Chink-cough. ter. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. to chirp . Chimney. cisello. spina. See Chap. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. fyr. a crowing sound in recovering breath. Fr. crepare. Pm. the whooping cough. See Chark. caminata. et garrire .). tsengeni. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . the cheek. as a large bell . gena. chhint. cinan. part lion. schiena. in- — by the syllable clink or chink.iron. to open chirriar. Prov. gen. clashing of weapons. rustle. It. G. tsongeni. skina. sound on beginning to boil. esquina. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. keich husten. The desig. hiss Pm. czirszkti. chatter . backBut she withal no worde may soune. A . then to any narrow crack or AS.er. To Chitter. Chitterling. cheminde. E. . and chim-mer. kumina. tinnire. yivtiov. eschine. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. sonus the backbone Lat. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. chin . twinkling light. and bodily movement in shimm. to chine. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. cisaille. chirp. killed by Bellerophon. kieck hoest.to chirp. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. to murmur. from the geon's lancet. schrick. Fr. 147 kimina. To chink with laughter. — . Magy. a fire-place. Fr. have been used to designate the spine. to simmer. a surkik hosta. cleft. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. quavering of the voice. Hindost. Lat. ykvvQ. chick. vincially used in the sense of a crack. Cot. the chin . a Kuttn. Du. to sound deep or the Gr. zirken. verynge or dyderinge. pork) . Lith. — . ciseau (for cisel). a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. zirpen. sparkle. — . in Hal.' Phaer's Virg. the chine. Kil. Caminatum. eschin^e (de pore). ciarlare. Sp. To chirp or twitter. KinneGr. Chip. are In like manner E. also vibrans. as birds the mouth. flaw Hal. tremulous motion. . to chirre. hus. E. backe. companied. It. komia. eschiner. Diez de. AS. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. epine. to prattle . genawi.Huloet in Hal. chink. and light. Pr. a thorn. — . do. Gascoigne in Todd. the jaw. cinne. Primarily a shrill sound. disCot. to tremble. sonants. all these imitative terms being minata.Lat. and the Du. schina. tschirpen. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. name Then.to divide or Du. To Chimmer. from Lat. kumista. stridere. quivering or shakyng for colde. plodere. hiss chirlar. It. Sp. clipping of coin. It. Chitter. simmer. Sp. Bav. spina. It. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. dial. to sound. We make of a French niff an English chitterling.. the cheek (jaw) . way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Chink. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. to chink with laugh2. to chink. Sw. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Chymerynge. then of a fabulous monster part goat. Du. fissure. pare also Walach. Chimera. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. to gape. as a bell kommata. or chyFrigutus. in the same crack. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. G. up and down. . kinne. Ptg.. representing connected together. hollow. Chat. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. cheek. a chink or fissure. as the chink of money. a hall Mid. Chisel. Sp. kink hoest. cincel. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Fr. resonance . applied to tremulous motion.sharp. Huloet. Chit. to tattle. a szemrcU. caperd. . In the same sense. Bret. Gower in Hal. to sizel. caminsects. Fr. to creak. komista. . schetteren. to prattle czirpti. sounding deep. — — — — — . the mouth (jaws) . Chyrme or chur. a chap. bx-eak the back of schena. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. but or cry as a parrot. and from a similar sound to boil gently. j^lf. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. clangor tinniens kummata. twitter caminus. The small entrails of a hog. esquena. See Bright. The change from the sound ter \s. to squeak in It. the jaw. to chirp.

gekrose. Choice. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. 19. gustare. ON.. schiefer. wrath. from kraus. —Chorus. kruszki. to taste. &c. a blow. to try. ruffs. crammed Choir. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. as with a blow. g'schochet voll. chawdron. Chives are also a kind of small onion. schevel-steen. to prove. •- Russ. cut up into — See Chats. an onion. to taste. kausjan. to taste. krussyi. Goth. chimp. Gr. ON. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. a ruff or frill. . to taste. coro. Jam.' Verie coinme Cot. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Gr. full to overflowing.D. cepa. . ^S. okusyti. to stop geschoppt voll. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. Fr. shoot . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance.' who shall not taste death. to chap at a door . kaup. signify to kiss. kalbs gekrose.— B jag E. cape. chattering. to chap. Schmid. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. a fragment. a twittering. Choice is probably direct from Fr. try. propagated. all seem slate . the inwards of an animal.yEuffM. chap hands. G. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. &c. . to exchange horses. kbhren. chiffe. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. and in kosten. try. — Cholera. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. specially with an application to theatrical performances. a small slice or slip of anything . chock full. experience valerie. Lat. lead us on to Lat. . bile. and N. to taste . seallion or unset leek. called cMtters in the N. civette. or original meaning is preserved in G. Luc. . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. keuren. chorus. — Chock-full. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. full. to try. G. fresure. and in this sense the * small pieces. . a young . keypa. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. Chivalry. Fr. The I go to prove them. a company of singers or dancers. a knight. gusten. xiv. cke. kiezen. a ruff. . the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . Enn Sigridur sem ' . — See Cheek. skifa. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . ent quarter. word is more likely to be from Lat. rare. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. scheve. See try. approve. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. of E. taste. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. and It. by the vibrations of sound or motion. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. Boh.gust.vonic languages are Pol. I. of an angry — — — ' ' — . In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. Chap. Prov. causir. then to try. cive. a scale or fragment P1. Cavalry. to tempt. kustigen. x^poc. chibble. a heap. it is probable that the root kus. to clap up Hal. Chuck-full. to experience. haslets. kieser. to shiver. chaup. caperd. whence Lat.ceosan. The manners and senti. To Chop. a rag. to turn. Serv. pluck. as green as leeks. ments of the knightly class. chippe. To Choke. to wrinkle. Warwickshire coff. chatter. Swab. the small parts of the roots of plants. Gr. to ing is doubtless to taste. Body and Soul. and Vf. also calPs.' At last he dwelt . arkiusan. wkusit' prikushat. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. to strike hands . The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. choix. prove. kiusan. to break off in small shive. then to shiver. Chives. are used in the same sense. gdnse gekrose. whence choleric. a goose's giblets. kushevati. koren. coup. a wine taster. to try . chives. developments of the same radical image. * To Choose. to hack. to choose. to palpitate . fine threads of flowers. pieces . — — — . chife. wein didder for cold. to taste. taste. a chive. by which they are Fr. kiusan. to Compare also Pol.freze. disposition. OHG. anger. curly . a calf's pluck or chaldron . As kushnuti. schoch. The . Walach. kusid. shiver. kor6n. a calf's chaldern of E. Yr. the ridges prove. G. CHOP kros. ^euw. i. The Sc.V)^x. Equivalents in the SlaFr. choppe. %o\ifa. to try. 2. select. in the same language. Choleric. friller. to ^cleave . from chevalier.ffrill. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. heaped measure. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. Fr. kushati. kiesen. chceur. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste.. Swiss kust. from %u\i). the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves.

to knock. quappe. In Sc. gull. connected with G. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. chevane. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. chuet. a stump. as Du. Confounded with the bullhead. overset. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. gull. —Shakespeare. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. cavena. yiSA. chack. which was written 27. thumb Fl. kobe. an offence against the fitness of times. capitone. and we actually find champman for chapman. Chrysalis. From the Turkish Chiaus. &c. A jackdaw. cambiare. Gr. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. Nominale in Nat. Alchemist. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. a trafficker in souls. gold. chop. XpvaaXic. 4. Chopino. dial. or miller's kaycke . fat. who took in the Turk- clack. xpi'^lia. . G. chrysalis (Plin. applied to an owl in that language. cheap. — Dief. to cant. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Peace. plump. klompe. peace. — . a thick piece. from kloppen. that will thank chiaus — you richly. OE. ley in Giiford. monedula. See Chaff. Chronicle. kowej Sax. klopper. Chord. kubbr. to overturn. dial. cow-couper. p.povucd. short piece kubbug. koppe. kaw. AS. the same word with the It. soul-couper. in Chaucer. a small fish with a large head. slipper . one who buys and sells horses or cows. caqueter. Kil. thick-set. kubb. Lat. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. E. clogs. Fr. chub. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. That Face. merchant. Chuck. Anachronism. chapineria. cob. high clog. the teeth to chatter . journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. gobio capitatus. chrisme. Du. — Chrisom. for to defraud. Fr. Gr. kaulhaupt (club-head. noble Doctor.\^s. E. cauvette j Fr. ' ' What's that? Dap.sohola. capita. a The What dhy ^. i. 49. a messenger or envoy. Borgoens happen. kaufen. cresmeau. In the Alchemist. chatter . See Change. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. kowe. The Turk was here As one should say. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. ceo. dealing. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . clat. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. caker. Cot. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird.— Landnamabok. Gr. claquer. chapin. capito. a lump or piece chump. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. cangiare. because she would not endure this husband chopping. whence the Fr. xftovoq. caphatenus. I bring you the Cloughs. E. -chron-. a bullhead. Jam. capitanus.. bearand aits. in i6io. kauwe. to strike in the hand. cauc. To Chouse. the string of a musical instrument originally. equivalent to the E. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. prattle . syllables chat.• — . To coup. Fr. to clack. as in Fr. to speak thieves' slang. we find the following passage Dap. Sp.—Chuokstone. Sw. kaej Lith. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. A fish with a thick snout and head. Ant. If I discover. the intestine of an animal.). . cheviniau. as in the examples mentioned under Chape.' They are forebuyers of quheit. to chatter.' Jam. Du.X.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. sent before him a Chiaus. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. ON. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. E. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. Madam. time ra .(.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. to turn over. — — — . whence apparently the Sup. Gr. whence e. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. Come. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. chevin. e. xop5>}. Fr.).. Fr.— Chevin. e. chapma?i. To Chop logick. chouquette. Chough. Picard. — Quabbe. choucas. kolbe (club). copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. chroniques. Wall. by the Robert Shirley. P. of which such strings are made. chevane. What do you think of me. traffic. chouette. Marin. forms are Chrism. civetta. chronicles. Chub. whence — E.

a resounding object. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. a man. i. Du. OFr. to throw out sparks. to cause the milk to grain. kiorne. * Cinder. as in E. Gr. ceaflas. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Lat. -cise. male person. kaerle. to turn from blossom to fruit. log of wood. cinctura {cingo. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . Gr. Cob. blow on the I io6 in Mur. scoria. the kernel. marrow. Lat. Jennings. incido.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. whence church. a girding on. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. ON. in the face. chakil. Ir. AS. to him a sudden blow.rendered by Kil. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. . and thence an ugly face far ceffo. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. cinders used disjunctively. to jaw chack or snap. — — A — ' ' — . chack or stane-chacker. . geaflas. to strike clatter. -cisuiri). &c. or. e. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. chuffy. tie about). The derivation from Kvpiasov. that the word is an adoption of Fr. See Cheek. to Newsp. Ka-^aiva. kernjen. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. The origin ation. to form grains of butter. a man. pith. whence ON. lamak. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. cheek. sindra. Fr. cheeks Cincture. Lat. but by way of explan. gffe. Lat. in circumcision. with It the Lord's house. sintel. G. then the on oh StX iv roXt. residue of burnt coals. . Churn. to fall at or on. in Sc. ChurL husbandman. a rustic . sindel. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . cut off.^. to make a rippling noise. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. or choice part of a thing . joufflu. See Ceiling. chife. ciuffo. Da. casum (in comp. cendre. sinter. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone.D. i. ceffo. have given rise. kern. a pebble . Du. fat-cheeked. to separate the kernel of the milk. a miser. Cider. kakka.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). sive piratiam facere sciant. chofe (Grandgagnage). Cieling. cidre. calculus. sicera. klakka. Sicerawry face ceffata.' And cold. tindra. as Fr. whence deciduous (of trees). See Cheek. As AS. pp. from Lat. kjami.— . &c. to gird. -cis-. an old man. x^^i?. cinis. a man. joffu. chofu. Sc. ashes.for the residue of stone coal. as a board. Wall. ceffore. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. a cutting round. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. to fall upon decide. G. countryman. AS. chack-stone. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. -cide-. to cut decide. a husband. as Epkema explains it. ceaplas. swollen or puffed up Cot. 24. dust. calx. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. to churn. Wall. a pebble. comp. flower. has been impugned which it has really no connection. surly. Hence -cid-. jaws. . a lump.' he adds. as water running over rocks or stones. KaxXij?.— Chu%. Gothic nations. Probably from It. thence a belt. to make a aiKipa. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. kerl. Church. a douse on the tores. spuma metalli. cinctus. ceorl. to To Chuckle. domhnach. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. Chunk. Du. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. In Sc. from Lat. to sparkle. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. the snout of an animal. C^z^j^ churHsh. . Chuff. dial. ON. accido. ON. a cutting an old chuff. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything.. cado. we have to chack. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. chops. . so as to make the happen . and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. — . Aasen. ccedo. kirna.V//a'6'?. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). however. sindr. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. -cido. a fellow. It is certain. to determine incision. Cleland in Jam. to fall.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. giffle. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. e. chaps. KvptaKolg. The spelling of chider has Chump. Fris. Fr. Sw. set kerti. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. -eris. ladre from Lazare. To chuck in the fall from. Diss.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. karl. — of the two words.

mass . See Circle. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. Circle. gutter. sound of blow. a hiding-place. . . stimulate. clack. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. chupon. . klak. citrus. ON. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. to call. clot ON. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. civilis. klump.— . ciste. cluster. around. claquer. excite. sajira. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). to cleanse. radical identity of the Fr. a mass. klekotati. cit^. or clap-dish. W. kluV. * Cistern. and E. of citta. rattle . ruin. cry out . tinnitus . Dan. to mention. We . to clatter. hringr. whence cistiti. kringr. ter. klater-busse. &c. twig. parallel root is slam. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. cion. domern. a ring. clat. —Circuit. log. scion or sucker. circum. Clump. G. a rattle . clambar. klambr. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. Recite. Excite. clog. or quill to draw waier through Fl. clangor avium . klabb. claim. Sp. ring. Clamp. a'upiav. chupon. prattle. sphere gleba. to call by name. klacke-busse. Du. In Fr. — (Dozy) ing blow. a Pol. cista. Alt. empty Golius. globus. klammer. klap. lump. Lat. Hal. cifra. clatCot. to toll . a shoot. clapper. a city. To Clack. to clack. the door was slammed J slamem. circum. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. sifr. or split with noise. ON. cion. -cis-. a clod. See -cid-. lump of wood or with the nasal. a block. a whip. Lat. a lump Du. lump. klopati. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. a young and tender plant. Fr. The notion of a lump. It. a circle. sound- — hands figures. noise — — a cistern. cittd. klemte. a cistern. suck). Lat. scion. the tongue. crack. to chatter . klompe. clap. rattle. a circle. cittadella. to go. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. . belonging to cities or social life .to suck. E. castus). . Gael. a ball. a kind of rattle. Gael. civitas. It. Lat. Comp. chest. kringla. fall. uproar. circa. cisterna. a judgment cern. babble . civis. CION See Tinder. . formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . ern. a. From Arab. a rattle Fr. clapping of klacke. To Claim. sprig. to chatter. Fr. crack. The Gr. dob. cry. clack. . the place of . clap. klumbr. We . KipKog. to clap at a theatre. a reservoir Probably from Lat. lucerna. Gr. a split. Du. a clod Russ. clamare. claquer. a knob. wasserkasten (water chest). smack. klepati. Lap. Citadel. lump . from chupar. to strike. forms — — — parent plant. a block. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. So a light. G. chijfre. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. klappen. Arab. Chaste. klimp. with an initial s instead of c. clamp. a circle. to cluck. as in Sp. klateren. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. claquet de moulin. as caverna from cavus. a city. area. clamer. See Crankle. to gnash the teeth. The syllables clap. Cite. . a cleansing place. and clash. to summon or call on. a lemon tree. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. to set in motion by means of the voice. lash . The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . Clam. to call. bunch . clamp. a whirlwind. ball kloben. citujn. slam. klacken. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. . clamras. chatter . It. a lump Lat. 'mass. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. klappe. Du. Circum-. Sw. bunch. cito. glamm. circ2tlus. clump. a boss . KpiKoe. prattle. * Ciplier. clasp. a for water. to bawl. Bohem. Mack. and. to knock. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. creak les dents. circle. may cite w. clobyn. a ball. to cry out. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. sound. E. to make to go. Scion. Gr. -cite. klubb. to be empty. dim. Dan. lump. as. in the frequentative form. lump. sindri. city. to appeal. . Lat. City. outcry. crack. Sw.' sione. a loud uksa slamketi. glambar. a pop-gun. clack-box. vociferation.. around. klqb. compared with It. claquer crash. Lat. cieo. for Cion. cittade. . trunk. Lat. biw. clack-dish. —Civil. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. Citron. glam. a citizen . a Lat. a kind of pipe. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. Cot. accordingly find the roots dab. sip. to chatter. Hence Incite. klamp. cisterna. ON. Fr. Fr. a place See place hiddern. is traced by Gr. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. noise. and Sp. about.

klemmen. to hold fast with the . The equivalent of Lat. dren. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. closely analogous to that of the fast. is a nasalised form of gripper. compress. Mampe. clajnmy. gripe. to patronus. Hence the Fr. massy. to daub pinch. OE. rumour. Clan. seize. rattle. clapper of conies. chatter. clibby. a craCmp. dia. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. contraction. beat. clangor. to climb. and hence to pinch . compression. . Clamour. kloben. pinching. Clank. klettern. to claw oneself up. Sw. salafa. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. a rattle . as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. sticky Hal. Clang. to.' klibba. to hook things together. Fr. dam immediate modifications — . diver. buckle klamp. to knock. dam. tight. accent. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. Bohem. privately. Clap. dial. klippe. to clap on. gliong. dandestinus. to do anything with a clap. sound . klynge sig op. klibber. Dan.. clink. the in many languages. ancestor. substances of a stickydam. dambar. dienklebber. clap. . Dan. G. adopted Lat. descendants . klepanie. to pinch. a sound made by a still . klavre. to hide. brawl. yf. To sticky. nature . children. To Clamber. klynge. . The Fr. to climb. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. dapier. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. hook. grasp. or klamp-vogel. gum. who occuG. knocking. anything hidden. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . klampen. a burr. but perhaps not directly from it. — . coagulated cream. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. Dan. as the clapping of hands. to glue. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. damras. dink Du. — with hunger. klem-vogel. clammy brace. as the Lat. Du. to stick conceal. to clamp. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. of which the locative case. clamber. E. narrow. klobber-saen. hold. to climb. These words To are closely connected with damp. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. to hold to pinch. cream Manx doan. — Climb. cramp-iron. of money Gael. Gael. klatten. clear sound. stick. pressed close or hard together. for tame conies. a bird of prey. tattle. a loud tingle. to beat. The E. B. . E. cramp. strain . dang. klette. uproar. &c. — Lat. AS. dap up. prison. E. sound of the trumpet . ney. celo produces Fin. Dan. sound object . — Cot. to climb. dank. ring as metal. klappen. klammern. — — . a sound made by a lighter clink. whence sala. Russ. also to clog up. kleppen. B. . Swiss kletten. hands or claws to grasp. offspring. klank. a heap of stones or other things piled up . klammer. klimmeii. to climb . Halma.er. clasp.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. a sound. salaan. is used in the sense of secretly. sound. To clap in E. G. chief.p correspond- ' without order. to climb. to glue. dee. klang. to Sw^. to knock. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. Swiss kldbem. E. klamre. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. club .' to take coals to Newcastle. kluppel. Clamp. The root which gives rise to klibb. cleave. and hence moist. clap. a claw. Salainen. Bav. to gingle. See Clam. resonance klingen. glambar. G. klepati. clang. In like manner Du. These are imitations of a loud. a claw . to stick or glue. to Hal. Du. conceal. beating. a place underground where rabbits breed. clandestine. bond. G. clav\f. . a stone See Claim. to clutch or cling oneself up. klamm. dial. klam7n. tinkle. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. tone. take hold of.1. viscosity . daver. tremble . klebern. where- A — unto they retire themselves. children. a noose . crowd . klopfen. dapi^. klepel. damor. klappen. Clink. kleben. klam. Clapper. klemmen. a hawk. run to lumps Clandestine. Lat. cling. dem. Du. with cramp-irons. klubber. dam. chatter. a whip. klamme. kleppe. dientes. of the children. a stick. bandage. viscous. dapier. holdfast. A i. sound. Lang. G. strait. Du. to dame. scendants. tenacious. grimper. a heap of stones. and that from celo. clann. to seize. from birdlime. to cleave or stick. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. tingle. G. in a hidSen place. originally a heap of large stones. klappre. kleppe. clapas. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . solid. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. a trap. dam. cluster. c). klemmen. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. to clap. from the w. to starve. to cling. apprehend . G.

269. Nightingale. noise. klc^i. it is called clamming. It. From claudo. clarin. chiarino. klampe. klouwe (Kil. KXeiSi. a claFr. flap. cloi.It. klauwe. row aii/iaTos. to draw it up into a bunch. ictus resonans. It. Serv . as G.ck a whip. i. stop of an organ. klaterbusse. to end. e. to fasten. a. But clasp or elapse. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. same class with w. clopa. So Pol. a club or massy stick. straight-mouthed. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together.to cra. pellet . Originally clasis. blab. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. klot. From clairet. claret win e. Lat. a kind of small. In E. Du. klauw. gaspe. clairon. globus. klouwe. to knock. compression. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. vin claret. to shut. clausula. kiosk bicza. mass. kletse. the collar-bone. a complete sentence. kleuen. Claw. to clap . klatschen. Pol. Cot. The form clew. forms are the Du. klatsche. klaeret. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. a claw. skeria-klasi. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. glcis. Lat. cinnamon. sauna de classes. a distribution of things into groups. kleeven. pet. from scknallen. or as G. E. a little hook . Du. ansa. clarinado. a clasp. a clod. — Clarinet. Sp. Clasp. to rattle . to animals Sp. Claret. Clash. a heap. a sphere . rion. is used in Sc. a key KKtitid. to snap. nail. locket of a door. mass. schnalle. Du. Rayn. and clavis. clair. to ring in such a manner for the dead. contraction. Mask ! plask ! thwick. ghespe. To clew. he of white and red grapes mingled together. clump. clamp. to clash as arms. insularum nexus . Fr. Russ. hawk. chiaro clear. a water made of aquavitse. a nail. teren. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. in the sense of a mass or lump. fracas. subrubidum. a bird with powerful talons. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Identical with ON. a lump. thwack . clavus. Clew. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. buckle. clew or fasten upon a thing. Thus from Lat. Fr. as it is written by Chaucer.— CLARET clamp. biichse. and through v into a. from the resemblance to a key. diver. Gr.Gr. The collar-bone. the cracking of a whip. Sw.oi. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. clairon of a trumpet— It. clausum. crying. a buckle. clas. klijven. in the sense of a claw. klos. vinum helvolum. a. Commonly made. sphaera. a lump . a key origmally a crooked nail. which signifies a ball in E. we pass to the E.. puUs. a ball. and shrill-sounding trumpet. In the same way is formed the OE. clatter. clavis.Z. as Mod. klampvoghel. from clinging to the tree which supports it. to fasten together . to patter. fibula. kluczka. — Kiittner. waU. Wyutoun in Jam. an on the one hand. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. ivy. G.w or u on the other. clew. Du. applied in their harness. Eya-klasi. under three modifications dava. Clatter. is preserved in Lang. whence kleuer. an ending. Prov. vin clairet. claw (what fastens together. nawith stanis. dap. classis. also a knell for the dead. globus. with a reddish tint. chasguear. klatscha pop-gun. biichse. hook. fragor . a bunch. &c. — tells us. Lat. Du.). as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. The b readily passes into gleba. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. klase. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Class. sound of the foregoing description. klamme. chiizjj-o. .\x\xvn. Fr. Thus from clamp. assembly. Eau clairette. Dan. Nawith stavis. klaskad. chatter. a key. Lat. bawling. klaequivalent to clack or clap. Owl and that by which cleave to. syrtium junctura. Du. Kil. thence a definite head of an edict or law. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. the primary origin clapa. and old red rose-water. —Kil. Analogous Jam. a lash. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. uproar. Lang. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . seizes) . climp. to cleave. klatschen. . to do anything with a . Clavicle. Klatsch- a pop-gun . &c. — Clarion. somewhat clear. from its use in fastening things together. cluster. rubellum. K\a. klucz. chiarello. Clause.

seem formed dial. cleave. kleg. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. that was Torriano. holding together. a fissure. dams. klinke. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. diquetcr. W. klijveii. to chink. glitnir. glan. chaps in the skin. a in that of sphtting. a lump. clink. a clincher. glatt. B. clean. dut. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. doff. a lump. to stick or adhere . as explained under G. clean. Omklinken. provinciaUy termed dout. famous. Lat. to 2. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. klirre. Gael. This is probably one of the clean. kloben. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. klceg. date is AS.' was nailed to a rock. i. the latch of a door. klyft. kldnkelein. ON. a key. the fork of the body. and Celtic glan. to Brilliant. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. pure. split. From dob. opposite senses. conserere antklankjan. door-latch. sticky earth. shine. and. pure . to separate into parts. kluit. glint. kluft. sticky. klinken. glent. splendid pohshed. pretty. sleek. is fast and sure. . klove The Dan. klank. This word is used in two business is finished off. dench. kluyte. Thus from G. loam. Sc. from nitere. an object is simply cleft. of iron worn on shoes by country people. vice. klinke. clay . the original . And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. klouen. a plate. dags. bend in a stream. or from being divided into two parts. celebrated . sticky . to fasten E. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. daggy. a noise. .— Claggy. from the clinking of the latch. Cleat. klouen. dinquet kleeven. G. and E. vissticky . mud. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. E.— Clag. klov. Du. cloven wood. AS. Probably a modification of the word doitt. to fasten. radiant. From clap. clibby. klinken. neat. kleverig. a cleft. rift. A — A Clement. a bunch of When flax). klutsch. clean. the two parts of Du. Sw. glbram. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. a — — . a mass. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . glan. Sw. Clear. deot. nitidus. or of a tree. ON. The word may be — . . clear. Clemency. Clinch. clear.). explained from the klinken. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. The word is . rivet. Da. and Dan. merciful. clear. Bav. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. as ON. glitta. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. The proper meaning of the word is shining. to be composed. kleben. bright. a one end. viz. klinka. to fasten. kleevig. G. clean. give a shrill sound Jr. to cleave. kloben. Die zaak is zS.Q. See Clam. klirren. to clinch a nail. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. klieben. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. Du. as Fr. Du. ON. glbr. . klinken. together . Sw. to clinch GB. G. klieuen. to shine . a mass. gaklankjan. doggy. to clink or sound. Fr. to tear or cleave asunder. . clemens. dag. to stick to. Du. from diquer. bogs cous. . 2. See Clog. danche. dedgy. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. river. to shine. Da. pure. smooth. a claw or talon. clout. found in other cases. pellet. glor-mhor. (Cot. calm. rive. klafwa. kloben. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. glan. gingle. The Dan. it cleave together. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. voice.— . kluftholz. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . the To Cleave. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. Wilbraham. a cleft or fissure. in two ways. gentle. clash. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. cliquet. Kil. as the Du. To Clench. speech . To call. to clench. tongs. to sound or make a noise . klor. — : A rivet. lump. Cleft. klink. polish . Lat. a cleft. klag. glorious. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. as Lat. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . E. Axletree clouts. Dan. a fissure or division See Cleave. klinke. Du. kleg. Da. words applicable sight. G. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. kla:g. either by the coherence To Clepe. Clay. klincke. 154 CLAY dutch. Clean. E. kloue. geklonken. to dag ox dog. polished. a flash. Sc. that was a striking proof. neat. to glitter. Halma. G. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. a latch. viz. glance . gleit. hook. dial. Du. Mar. glandse. glindse. a noose.

deuck. a hump. rapidus from rapio. klif. light-fingered. click. -Toe (from KXivm.Lat. cliquer. chatter. Sc. ginally from dob (extant in W. The Sc. in the sense of active. ready of speech. a hook. diofian. stein- kluppen. a clicket or clapper. one of the clergy. klika. sonare. klaiv. klikker. But the Dan. a baU of yarn. dever. deik. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. . a lump. to cleave. corresponding to Fr.. as from derido. Sw. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. click. has kl'dver. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. a clerk . Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. Cot. to talk as a parrot. duik. Bav. . kleppen. AS. to move.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. Hence Lat. clif- stanas. ravine.). e. click it. a ladder. Somner. klaffen.' ii. Det er en Mover kerl. pulsare. Lat. Dunbar in Jam. to seize. hamraklif. d See Clan. G. dichet. clatter. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. to wink. on. a hold. Gr. verge). a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. with hamarskard. say. pen. 3. Sp. nimble. de ripa. Happen. glomus. CLINCH De . Climax. a trigger. In I Peter v. See Clamber. rock. Climb. has also deik. cart that tilts over. a figure mentioned. exactly Gr. a latch. clever. precipices. to tattle. . quick of perception. to catch.— Clue. dob. a lot. a clew. derjon. chat. expeditious. as a click with the tongue. See Clench. would have been derida. Now the OE. —Vocab. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. clap. syn. clep. derecia. Clergy. which in Mid.— Clicket. derigo. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. temperature. crackle. an inclination. Cliff. Clew. clack. cligner. to catch. declivity. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. &c. babble. to bend. to confess . 3. and hence climate. skard. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. cleugh. in precisely the same sense as the E. had a form. klippe. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. neither as having lordship in the. klev. score7i clif. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan).) Brai. klok klep- crepitare. highest is attained. dutch). dergi. The origin is the Gr. a tumbril. to snatch. cleke. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. deudi. crepare. OE. — — A . above the pole. cleopian. and (with the nasal) — clincher. Rouchi cliche. quick in motion. derigon. deuch. kleppe. catching. cliof. cave . klouwe. abrupta rupes . is NE. Commonly derived from deliver. and hence deik. a cleft in a rock . to stir. which is used in Scotch and N. a claw or clutch. as Lat. . to teU tales. cleft. cliff. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. klever. rupes . klinket. corresponding to the Sc. dexterous. Du. dial. /cXi'fia. kliket. dial. it must be observed. littus. on. gleg. as Sc. G. See AS. Chaucer. cleft in a rock. a sphere. to rattle. Client. cliquet. from clifian. a precipice. a latch . globus. cleft of a hill. dink. what so men clappe or crie. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. Climate. Boh. clypian. climate. crack. claw or talon to dek or deik. chatter. rugged ascent. to prate. a latch. lively. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. dook (identical with E. the clergy. We movement catch. klikklakken. Claw. click. speak. clima. name. klinge. a lazar's clicket or clapper. Norm. dough. diver. clyf. Clam. one admitted to the tonsure. the knocker of a door. to sound an alarm to clap. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . KkrifoQ. clever. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. seize (Hal. Lat. klippe. dek. Jam. icXi/ja?. Lat. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. — have the notion of a short quick in E. Da. call. call. in rhetoric. slope . ized . snatch. or Sc. to clack. Clever. kliv. duke. a child's or clack . diquette. a ball of twine. chatter. clif. dicher. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. scar. that is a clever feUow. dial. rock. IS5 Du. Clerk. or an object character- Clerical. precipice. clerus. to tattle. a mill-clack . deik. whence Fr. Fr. Du. a cliff. the dick of a latch or a trigger. the clergy clericus. to cry. from Gael glac. region not observe it. CLERK sound of a blow. prattle. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . kloof. agile. sink. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. frap- per rudement une personne. klinke. Click. cautes.dergie! Wiclif in R. Du. Klover i munden.

ON. to slope or bend . klaka. -CLINE make pinch. See Clang. . G. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. klungelin. to lean. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. clips. E. G. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. klepalo.' From Pl. N orman clincailler. straits. To cut with shears. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. dag. to pinch klupe. Clock. G. Du. . hooded . to shrink up. by bits. related to clock. to knock. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. a rising ground. in Schmeller) klunk.. sloping upwards procUvis. to clap or clack. and so' to contract. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. To Cling. g. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. a bell. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. Flem. knot klynge. klocka.' for a dry stick. a clock. to form one mass with. Gael. bow. also to wink . The E. fetter. at first probably on a wooden board. brett-glocke. E. I. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. Esthon. glungelin. a woman's mantle . met. klocke. kolki-laud. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. a hood. to . klak. klungeln. shears. pallium. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. clino. The notion of a loose moveable substance. klunker.ginglej Fr. hill . Hal. knippe. ON. to snap kneipen. a cluster. kliks. klo^gen. clique. a separate portion. to clip. Bohem. a clog or fetter for a beast . Gr. klippa. . to snip. knippen. Decline. Sussex peasant AS. — clot. Sw. kluben. Walach. clangere. kima. a tinman. and a similar syllable without the /. Sw. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. tuft. rima. to snap tongs. Sw. club). Serv. Du. as thick or curdled liquids. glocke. &c. Cliofue. acclivis. dial. to clunge. gUong. sloping downwards . cloche. kluppe. to clink auf. nip. klipa. Een kliks bolter. ' . globulus' (Gl. four of the bell. klunge.— Clot. hlinian. kol- The word . hluk. G. to crowd or squeeze chingy. klippe. Du. a faction. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. incline. also to form a compact mass. noise. and 'E. claw. — a mantle. 156 -cline. klocke. knippchen. toga muliebris. cochl. incline. Kil. Lat. kukla. a lump of butter. to wither. S w. to bend downwards . klok.und zuk-lippen. ten. compress . G. Lat. clivus. Bohem. a snare. Cloak. to AS. klicke. * Clod. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. iissura. klippen. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. . especially of something soft or clammy. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds .— KSS. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. to sound sharp. Ir. Ang. .D. klik. kXiVu. or bagging clothes. to beat. to cling to a thing. klincke.D. to beat on the board. Fr. to crowd together klynge sig ved. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. klinka. klippur. kleppe. See Cowl. quincailler. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. clutch. to shrink up. difficulty. as to snip in the same sense from snap. -cliv-. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. parva ruptura. kldpp. schnippen. Du. declivis. a lump. Clink. -atum. to snap or fillip schnippen. . whence E. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. klippa. from klepati. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. disposed to a thing. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. a lump G. Sw. Sw. gang. to ring. dial. sloping forwards. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. dial. sticky. pinch. clinker. to strike. verklungeln. to resound. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. klinken. slant. . a beU. To stick to. Swiss klokken. Swiss klungele. Pl.'— Shaks. a ball of thread . like cling. G. klynge. a bell. as we now say three or four o'clock. to make a loud noise. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. w. kolbe to E. to lean backwards. clock is a variation of clack. to cluster.. as G. clato make a noise. to pinch. clinke.. clingan. difficulty . recline. ON. Bi klik uti klak. ring clag. klingen. toga. Fr. chcng. 2. Da. . OHG. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. hluccti. . outcry. to wither. pinch. klupen. 'Till famine cling thee. cloak.. dial. clog. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. To Clip. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. speaks of a ' clung bat. hlinen.

klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). paludosus. pattens G. to shut. log. in comp. miry laggerit. klot. clotted milk klotte. kloteren. G. clog or overshoe. Hence inclose. klakk. compared with clump. . Fr. loose trowsers. lopperig. klakken. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. then liquid or loose substance. Sc. an imputation. inclose. clos. clos. lag. I clodde. klokotat. and thus seem endowed . separate part. slobberen. da- . spot of dirt. lunch. close. Mat. from Du. lumps of butter. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. I clodde.'^ Palsgr. slab. of a body of any kind. wabbling from Du. with Fr. loose mud. zocco. lump of mud on the clothes . a Christmas log. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. dab. we pass to Schlatter. wide bagging clothes. watery.). spatter. splash. to cling locks. thick spoon . to shut in. is a blot on one's character. Klottermelck.D. . and thence to clot or curdle as milk. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. klos. . or E. from claudo. unctuous. klag. to dash like heavy rain. slob. boil. g. Idppern. I doda clod.D. blot. lobberen. Pm. a babbler. His heart was franlc without a flaw. . or loppern. -clusum. kloster. fors. klotz. chiudere. Klak also. Swiss schlott.. hanging loose and full. Lat. dirt. schlott. neither spot nor hang loose. motzen. AS. loppe. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. E. ! . klunkern. congeler. a monastery. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general.. klac. from Fr. to slop or spill liquids. dag. foreclose. schlettern. . Russ. Cloister. A — — A Thus from Bav. enOE. clammy loam. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. a field inclosed clos. . and Du. The origin of clod and clot is to . clogs for the feet klakk. in accordance with Pl. . to flounder in the wet. clot. To Clog. kleck or lack. . fat. in forms like Du. clausum. finish . tramp in wet or mire. kloten. kloden. . to spill liquids. dirt. He was a man without a dag. or Sc. Yule-clog. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. Fr. Lat. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. kloteispaen. E. a clog. Du. loblolly. to rattle or shake to and fro. clogs. m&se noch stain. a lump from Du. a skittle-ground klos- sen. claudo. cloth. dunch). geschlotter (as E. je amoncele. thick sour milk. zoccoli. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. klateren. to sup up liquid food. A . gelatinous. Pr. be&c. a log. to bodies. and E. whence klack. lobberen. bemired. slobbe. G. lump of butter. paddle. of something clammy or heavy. • lump. Du. mire. figer. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. terminate. a trowelful of mortar. shaky. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. meat from Du. a dirty wench claggy. to dabble. -close. tJokok. forbidden by 17 Ed. a blot. to rattle. lopin. to dabble. tuditare. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. to shut up. mud. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm.1a. dangle. to a. -cludo. lob. plod.— Clothe. . slobber.dial. the radical sylla. klottern. chiuso. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. a log. It. to close against one. Pl. . shut up. claggy.' end. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. Close. to bedaub. to claggock. to paddle in the wet. to bubble. a portion of something soft and adhesive. pludre. klod. clausum. loose. bespotted with mire E. clatk. MHG. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. schlattern. without. beklakken. clorre. . in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. rattle. . indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. Clog. kl'dnken. In the same way Dan. . bowl . klotzschuh. Fr. slabberen. TZoxapov. mud klcEg. Dan. slops slodderen. Pr. to rattle.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. slop. to wabble. be found rattle. to play at bowls. 3. motte. schlotter. to lobberig. a block. aspersion. and Gael. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. laggyn.rge lump. like G. a blot. kladde. doitre. kleck. we pass to E. shut up. The game called ninepins. a spot. Fr. Bav. IV. is connected with pludder. or drablyn with separate existence. truncus. . to flap as loose clothes. slops). paddle or dabble in the wet. laggery. in accordance with It. curdled. claque. a bal!. lump of something soft . clotted locks Dan. klos-bane. Closhe. analogous plan to clod or club. closed. Gr. -clus-. a clod. schlottern. daggerey. loppered (of milk). a clod Swab. dial. bloutre. lobbig. to shut. daustrum.

a garthas.clod. matte. cobble. Du. Met. knob. a . dial. More in R. a bousche. ON. to lump mend clumsily. to a lump. nelke (dim. Club. klunds. little nails. Ir. Sw. knob. a clubfoot klabb.Fris. mary sense is a blow. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. tuft. G. a boss. klumba. from OFr. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI.bar. a clot or keeps one warm. The priClout. klove. clot. botsen. Clown. warm place . kloete. a bunch. clothes). kUid. dote. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. a clod. clunch. eene ODu. a lump. warm clothes {dillad. ball of thread Russ. spice) G. kluppe. clods. clog. a clod or clot. Du. a lump. make warm. dob. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. and clay. a breach. clotted milk or cream. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. lunch). to cloy. to cherish. ser. lump. G. a. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. ON. clot. from W. clobyn. Du. dial. een klaven kruflook. a bobbin. sheltered up warm. dabosser. dump. a blabber. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . duthaich. esdaboter (Roquef. Dan. clump of a clout on the head. nourish . klaven. Clover. Sp. davus. wisp. Cld. zolla. . clot . to cleave or the splashing of water. lump. of thumping clumsy action. boucher. a patch.158 . a clove of garlick. I. piece Cot. Then applied to a lump of mate. clue. Kiittner. Du.D. Das volk hat sich in splitten. N. to tramp in the kluyve. Gael. motte. clammy earth. klotsen. a sticky. nagelein. formed lump or thick mass. a bunch. klcBdi. a knot of people. Du. tered . are also used in the sense of a stopper.). block. kldverj P1. kl'dnne. The radical sense seems to be an unE. So Fr. also homo obtusus.). mass. klubb. klonte. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — .ft. a log. klubbe. Rouchi dapoter. clunch. CLUCK rustic. klu77ip. lie clyd. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. clump. a thick mass. a cover or coverture . klever. cluster. to cleave. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. Mabousfrom Lat. botch. to beFr. bunch. AS. (kruyd =. sheltered . Clumpered in balls of clouds. and -the word Clove. daggy. eine to slop. warm. Sw. To Cloy. clyd. puddle. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. when something has got into the touch-hole. To Cluck. to stop. cloud Delfortrie. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). klebek. to cover Bret. w. of sloppy materials. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. blockish. lump. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. . G. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. Imitative of the note of a society. log. probably from daboter. clothe. cluth mhor. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. a nail. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. CLOUD an awkward clod . Gael. stock. with lout. to splash. clod. chiodo di girofano. klieven. w. Pl. . cludadh. Fr. a nail) Fr. naegel. In the same way E.' Sanders. . rustic. hebes (Kil. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. a clown. to curdle. coarse. shel- kloen. clavo di especias. a curdled sky. and closely do conspire. from Du. a ball. kluV. and clout d eudaich. milk run to lumps. de Champ. but confounded with cailler. Clump. and tapp. From dog. Cloud. . mud (Pat. kloven. a log. sticky. group of people Sw. lump of earth aria.D. a bunch. dirt. E. the terms expresssplit. cob. in the same sense. cludaim. klqb. G. a ball. aglio. of a lump of earth and that figure. caillebottes. clou de girofle. loggish. klotz. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. AS. The significations of a clod or lump. mire. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. E. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. klubba. and of a rustic unpolished person. klobbersaen. dial. cobio. a ball. — . A kind of spice resembling Du. dabaire. a ball of twine .). of nagel. It. clydion. unpolished. as Fr.D. Move. — — — . from kloven. Du. clumhar. del mattond. clothes ment. warm. klotzig. indispalte knoblauch. E. dys. dut. to strike . klumpfot. the air. . are often connected. diboter. zolla dell' . choke or stop up.). clod is used in both senses . dash (Cot. klump. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. dillad bumkin. klubb. a sky Cot. A division of a root of garlick. 2. Properly that which covers and Du. a fissure. to strike. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. strike. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. lumps of curd.

Cheshire. Du. dial. splash. klister. -clusum. might be reached from clump. a claw. a clod clunter. to paddle or dabble. -olus-. 130.. doquear. a ball. from ON. to stick together . It. to tramp. Teulazy. klummklummshandt. klummerhdndt. log. klisse. to curdle. dial. to wash. to wash. to pinch. Analogous forms with a tongs. xXvariip. Graff in Klamjan. Coal. plad or plod. to tramp or tread heavily. ON. duke.forklomme (Outzen). idle. klompen. . unwieldy Hal. klemma. of garlick. to rinse. Muster. a couch.e. klikonosy. Coach. from klupen. Beklummen van kelde. of Du. wooden shoes. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. cluntClyster. Du. klont. E. and make ye strong feeble knees. klontet.D. glocire. MHG.— — . are the nasalised forms of klotte. in v. a clot klissen. MHG. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. klunsen. clip or pinch. ether comelia P. to gingle. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. lavesen. Clutter. * Clumsy.' Wycliff. a coach. glousser. clopiner. Hence snatching. a lump or compact mass. differing only in the absence of the duik. coucher became in unhandy. cleuk. ' Clumper. ball of snow on horse's foot . Du. The Fr. Hindust. dial.D. awkward. a clod or lump. klomen. koetsen. n. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. kohle. as clumper. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. thick and clumsy. whence koetse. to klotz. finish.pare P1. close. Ray.D. Pm. cliboter. . or aclommyde.' Comfort ye dumsid. Sw. klonte. dystere. tight — — . crooked inwards . to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. to benumb with cold. kichlemmit. — Hence include. clotted cream. smart motion. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. clutch. klimpern. * Clump. klumpern. or from Sw. kol. Riwle. dumps. koetsDa. enervatus. cleik. bunch.P. limp. paste. klump. dial. a ball . not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. having the Pl. clumsy. also a cluster. -close. a litter. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. lump of soft mate. hondis. clausum. Du. koetsie. -elude. — . Lat. E. benumbed with cold. to squeeze. klomje. Ang. unhandy.E. as Fr. Pl. conclude. ' Thou clontsest for cold. cleche. havi. klcise. may recline. cluster. klocken. klamp. unhandy. — ' — — tonista. to shut. conclusion.D. Pl. eviratus. wagen. Sw. klampa. klamen. kluntfrom KKvKdi. a pinching time. the word is more probably connected with OE. carriage in which you klodset. a lump. a clove Sw. clointer. and klonteren. lay hold of. dumpse. klonte. dumpers. claws. rial. Hence cleik. Cath. as from seken. &c. G. obstructum. clutch. verkommelen. -clus-. hooknosed. beklummen. ' . -cludo. 159 E. Du. to curdle. klumpig. gelidus. to collect in lumps. clabosser. to tramp. Clutch. properly to do anything Fr. G. hand to cleuk. a block. hands stiff with cold. Variation of clatter. In the same way Du. unfashioned. a nasalised form of club. . to lie. a bunch. Fr. — sen. klemmen. Compare Swiss klupe. a clod or lump. an instrument for nasal form e. seize. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. Sc.' Vegecius in Way. dek. esclaboter. algidus. Gr. strum on an instrument. Cluster. Com. ment. to syllable click. See reclusion. a lump. heavily. But clunchy. pladdern. calling her chickens. fingers (familiar). The sense of awkward. G. with E. eene beklum. viscous material. klos. with a quick. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . and klotteren. verklomen.mene tied. er. acomelydfor could Pr. Fr. —To Clumsyd. Champ. clump. clook. and koetse. Clump. klunt. to to snatch. ill-made . koetblockish. Sp. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. klobber in klobbersaen. eviratus. in comp. Fris. claw. COAL dumpish. —More. Lat. ' Uorte (for clogs.Ancr.'— animal. G. wooden sole. Isaiah. From the notion of sticking together. pinched.D. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. klette. ball as snow. dussomed (Wilbrabam). from laver. claudo. awkward. inclusive. klikaty.' Benecke. coccolare. beklommen. . and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. See -elude. a clod or The noclot. — Cot. Hesse. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. to curdle. Boh. OHG. -CLUDE hen Du. Fr. dek. Lincolns. a noise. A group. OE. exclude. to grip. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. through the senses of lumpish. klods.

kylla. one Pr. to . large stones . as shown in dob and cob. H^cart. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . to stutter. a sow. viz. ignem. — Pr. a rib. to kindle jvAla.— Cobble. — Cleveland Gl. ailina or colina. dial. kop. rivation are found in Sw. Lat. quele.. Trevoux. Sp. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. costa. atter-kop. The contrast between the bee • Cob. OE. side . to pdt with We may cite Fr. Cocasse. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. Outzen. acomelyd or aclommyd. v. a spider. meaning that she is plain and coarse. to peck as a hen cobyn. to beCoax. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. Coat. used in — . give the full meaning of the word. petrilla. E. Fr. cobble. in Du. Colina' the place where a fire is made. Du. pryf-coppyn. a cobweb. to bungle Sc. ridi. top cobio. and jval. a bunch. grown together. properly to daub. Cobbles in the N. to strike. of poison. a firesteel Lat. bredouiller. says Varro. to bungle . from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . a thumper. cochinilla. or cobble. are round stones or round coals of small size.). cob. It. In the E. s. niais. cotta. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco.' And colo. cokes was a simpleton. coste. imbecille. kolna. blaze. Coalition. a darling. ordinary as in the expression of course. Fin. a knock. A spider's web. an old idiot. and imperfect or unskilful action. a tuft. an egg. Coast. kop-ar. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. is one of thump.(pi. dial. verkommelen. Pm. according to the ordinary run of events. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. the one of thump. and E. cob is a dumpy horse. probably left his home. spinne-ivebbe. pock. a bungler. A plausible origin. are often connected. to worship. Du.inflated with air or liquid. The dirt. . e.' — Thus from (Hal. to stutter. of cochina. tempered clay for building. cofasse. to speak or act confusedly.. and hobble. long standing. w. Coarse. a woodlouse. caleo. throw a blow. inflammation. . pustule. — Cobbler.).—Atkinson. frock. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. probably from the Fr. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw.. flame. . CooMneal. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. — — — E. a bubble. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. to cobble shoes. and the spider as collectors. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. tuft.' Nares. cob. burning. cule cocosse. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. broddelen. cokes or fool of him. hakkelen. ON. numb. in Essex Jow*2c^. haggle. cotte.. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. koppen-gespin. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. large coals. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. Fr. woman is said to be very ordinary. * To Cobble. The Fris. klabbare. bijamie. dial. a pock mark. e. klabbsmed. Flem. a nest. The OE. small pox (pocks) . glow jvalaya. coalesce. of E. COCHINEAL Cobber. pustule. It. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. to cob. See Cot. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . a crea. kuppa. to burn. a spider (/r)^=grub. as in arr. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. united. unfledged b