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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). in language of the present day. and mully or mully cow is the . which are naturally produced by the opening lips. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. persons of different tongues at the present day.NURSERY IMITATIONS. the present day. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. or Mollein. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. with an initial m or I. The syllables moo (mu. name of the cow. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. mind of the of the animal. to the syllables which are significant to the child. or. when we is represent to our children of the cow. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. and where we are seeking. the baaing of the sheep. but nothing she herself knows the animals. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. muK) and mae (rfie. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. Molli. and. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. is given to a cow or calf. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. by whom the be understood. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. the closer we shall approach to the . rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. when neither name for the object to be designated. come Moolls. in other words. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow.

there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself.. analogous to Magyar mammogni. We have. Heinicke. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. partly from sounds which the child caught. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. A member of my own new sfop. for everything fit to eat. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. became more perfect. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal.' In ordinary speech mump. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. in children's language. . I had watched the growth of this word. schipp. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. &c. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. when hungry. repulsive to eat. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. and nim came to signify everything edible. fiafifi&v (Hesych. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. nim. family. On one occasion he said^e nim. He would now say good. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. First. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. he called to to drink. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. Gradually. as well as the mind of the utterer. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. Gr. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation.' he says. to work over with the mouth. and some were very clear and distinct. for things. hm. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. p. to eat. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. and which we might express thus. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. by the natural humming sound. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. 72). had nim. mumm. nineteen years old. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. . then.). Finally an n was placed before it. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. his nurse adopting the word with him. to For instance. for bad.

to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. (in chil- dren's language).minis. to smack in eat. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). crab nam buckra man. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing.' — Lersch. sweet (Koelle). nobis vix permittitur. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). iii. ' Motherwell. aptantes adfectibus vocem. on. to move the lips in continued chewing. Wolof nahenahe. jamsa (yamsa). to mump. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. snatched (Whitby Gl. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. jammla. Galla djam djeda.' says Quintilian. jumla. and thence to be tasteful. yamming. Gothic niman. lita. nam. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. . agreeing with Ein. and the fizzing (and Series. delicacies.' says the author of Modern Slang. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. 1 86). to eat mampfen. ut tinnitus aeris. savory. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. Primitive Culture. mujnpa. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Vei (W. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. stolen. oves lalare. Swedish dialect gamsa. Nimm'd up. palatable. i. nyam nyam. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. mumpfeln. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . to be pleamind . Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. dial. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). to Sw. memmexen. and the crab — p. the Scotch poet. to fill the mouth. or word-making. mumble. to taste . Africa) nimnim. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. j ing . as well as the Sw. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. voracious. namnam. to eat.' And Diomedes.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. at hiamske i sig. Africa) nimi. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). 130-1. i8o. buckra man's language the white man. taken up hastily on the sly. A negro proOr. aves tinnire. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. and some of them . greedy . Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. eating. as to . to chew laboriously. ' id est. South Jutland hiamsk. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . mumpfen. clangorqae tubarum. food (Tylor. tidbits nama . we can call them so. make djamdjam). the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. p. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. nvrnma. to take.ONOMATOPCEIA. Soosoo (W. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature.).

bellowing of bulls. before the in other words. bumping of bitterns. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. not of a moo of Lect. We . As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. neighing or whinnying of horses. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. for the purpose of bringing the animal. ^6^. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . dove and cooing. p. when circumstances required. snarling. sparrow and chirping. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. 'I doubt. twittering of swallows. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. between dog and harking. might be used as the designation of it. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. cooing or crooing of doves. yelping. a lamb. chattering of pies or monkeys. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. yelping.' — We speak of a cow. snarling of dogs. cackling or gaggling of geese. that there is When Man. Yet we ing. bleating of sheep. hooting of owls. whether it deserves the name of language. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. howling. gobbling of a turkey-cock. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. baaing or maeing of lambs. Indeed.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. anything connected with it. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. croaking of frogs or ravens. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. 89) with less hesitation. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. or. barking. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. but of a dog. lowing of oxen. do not speak of a bowwow. intended in the instance to represent the cry.' And elsevs^here (p. grunting or squealing of hogs. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. might be used. or thoughts of our hearer. purring or mewing of cats. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. chirping of sparrows or crickets.' he says. und growling. not of a baa.

and Bavaria respectively. Bav. Malay gdgak. Hungary. caller. crow. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. layitavya . 349. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. in is Gr. a daw. kae. We imitate the sound with a modulated. In Basque. kdka. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco.). kauwe. Sometimes the hoarse i . But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Picard cau. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. according to Durga). gackem. KOKKvi. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. Origines Indo-Europeennes). 4th century before Christ is earliest times. and the sound of that direction. Columbia kahkah. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. coccolare. fi-om apakd- i. 380. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. is kuM) for the cuckoo. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. Sauscr. ist ed. 4th ed.' kd). it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). Manchu The kaha. caw kuhii-rava (rava. a a crier (p. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. sound).. birds. whose sound (Pictet. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Barabra koka.' common sense. In Lat. and means a shouter. lion. e. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. a crow (Pictet). crow. and gaggele or gagkelein. Georgian quaki. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Kdrava. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. or quawk. a bird that is be driven away. 'Kdka. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i.). In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. ghak.IMITATIVE NAMES. Arabic kdk. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. kuho. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. having a general predicative power. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. in g. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. it announces (Salaberry). a crow. Aoo-Aoo. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. He to is therefore derives kdka.

are represented. to crow. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . and sometimes both together.Gr. libufs. to croak. Sp. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. k. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Mod. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. It. Arabic tdtwit. Da. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. to croak. the name of an animal will gen- . with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. tortbla. girre. Walachian coucouveike. Dutch kievit. while crouk. krahe. tuquheit. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . "Welsh hwan from hwa. to hoot. kurre. or Gr. reduplicate form. Hindi. German and Eng- krahen. wood-pigeon. kukko. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. Swedish kowipa. Malay kukuk. teewhoop. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. name. tbrtola. lilits. a crow. Lettish kiekuts. kraukti. cock. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. French dishuit. Esthonian kikkas. coccovaec. synonymous forms of similar structure). lUyrian kukurekati. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. 6. coqueri- Languedoc. giving turtur (and thence It. Zulu kuku.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. kraeye. koeren. kuku. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. xi. tor. great variety of oKokv^uv. hibou. 219.. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. Du. kraeyen. to howl or Lat. a crow . t. gugu. either in the same or in related dialects. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. gufo. The crowing of cot in Fr. tur. turtle) as the Lat. lulo. kukhuta. Scotch peeweip. and e. the name for a crow. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. another. krauklys.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. The consonants p. ghughu. coucouva. as well as of Sanscr. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. a crow lish Lith. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Ibo akoka. Du. to cry loudly. in the North of England. Fr. Albacuculi a dove. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. kruk.. German luhu. Magy. Yoruba koklo. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. and e. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. Pers. name of its is the bird. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. p. So we have Polish krukac. to crow. uhu. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. korren. German kielitz. by the verbs gurren or girren. yell. Heb. kirren. tbrtora.

bambhara. common. 'The natives call it tanand. representing a short sharp sound. hollow noise. i. g. succeeding each other — with noise. bee. from schrick. North of England. from the humming. ta-na-nd. German hummel. little intermission. — Catafogo.IMITATIVE NAMES. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. swirplys with 6. and he kong-ko-rong. The Arabic sarsor. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. gives rise to chwymores. 337. Arabic tantanat. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. skryle. give a faint sound. of England it is to the b 2 . Corean sirsor. grillen. a drone. glass cracking (Schmeller). pip-pi-ta. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E.' — i. (Jieuschrecke) . oE. We may cite Gr. a small as hawk is . Albanian tsentsir. shrill. buzzing. schirke. din. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. Naturalist on the tocano. The Welsh chwyrnu.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba.or bumble-bee. ' Sanscr.' Amazons. growling. The name of the cricket indeed. to hum. to chirp J may be compared with . droning is . there are infinite varieties. Danish gnaddre. which they make in their flight very . n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). bamba. Lat. and not from E. or a gnat fly. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. thunder. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. chirk. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. In the N. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. dhran. Sc. Gaelic dranndan. as . Speaking of a cricket he says. German dronen. ' — Pictet . skirl. PofijivXwg. skril with n. cricket is from crick. a sharp sound as of a 6. the drone or non-working bee . zirken. Fin. to shrill sound sharp. flight its sting considered as a horn. Danish dron. sirkka. knetta. ajo. Lith. g. to grumble. sound. schrecke. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. resounding of musical instruments. grille. The drone peal. a fly (Tylor) . to sound. resound. a beetle druna. loud rumour. with or Fr. in allusion to its music. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. a hornet. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. grylhis. g. to chirp . e.vf3. Lithuanian tranas. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. Sanscr. and yelping cry. schwirren. kong-kong. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . buzzing. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. to creak Bret. the humble. words imitative of humming . name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. to rustle. Australian bumberoo. horniss and from the buzzing The. humming. a bee.' —Tennyson. booming. to be compared with Sanscr. schrickel. Northern Farmer. whirr). German drohne. and probably indicates that g.

k or g. Thus from miau.XX called booing. 167. or with on. w. agreeing exactly with Lith. fivKaofiai. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. bo. bubati. btibleti. mugire. representing the mew of a cat. Fr. has bilbilgoda. a bull. His analysis leads cow. Da. mae. bugle. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to bellow like a bull. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. (iove. to shout. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. make to it laugh. bu. The Piedm. muJiati. Piedmontese fi bau. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. to bow- own bawl. verbal form given to the say. the Fr. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. Hottentot bou (Dapper). to make a noise. representmake bow. bugler. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. a heifer. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. in same way. buculus. bae. to bump as a bittern Illyr. to the uses goda. make poo. to or bark. to make. to sound. Manx booa. shoot . a buffalo. From the same lioao). to boohoo. w. cattle. mamoo-heeheek. bauli. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. forms a. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. a Geiger. to make. bos. bae. Cult. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. miau-l-er. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. the animal. mugler. — ^Tylor. Galla boa. bovis. verb is evidently identical with our shout. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. grumble as distant thunder . On the same principle. and in Hottentot baa was the . to ba-L-are. to low . Zulu lulula. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. bullus and e. biibnas. to make a loud deep sound. to from bau. as that of the cow by boo. Gael. a cow. from the imitative moo instead of boo. say. Fr. is inadmissible. or moo. as the Illyr. From baa. maukati. are (with a subsidiary k). The Galla lilbil. bwla. to beat hard. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. and from to ring. to low. and djeda. It. ox. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. that the imitative syllable are Lith. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. OFr. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. a bullock. Illyr. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. to mew. boo. or bau-l-i. amuse. to . bolt. and thence Lat. bubenti. bucula. bukati. in a imitation of a ringing sound. bullock. to low or bellow. to shout. whence baula. p. Norse bu. Lat. Lat. bue. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. Lat. or formed Lat. be-l-er. With these analogies. lulauti (to hoo-loo). baula. loge. to weep. or a z to the imitative syllable. a drum . bull.

a sheep (Lowe). meugler. to growl. name of a sheep. a grunt. ^. this obstinate race. Manx meilee. and with the subsidiary k or g. purr). mutter. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. he would hardly. hadg- Magy. / The same Gr. grunlike a pig in eating. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. groin. Fr. With gen. with the root ypaipm. /xj/caScj. undoubtedly imitative. a. cry). Magy. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. the designations of a dog the term cur. a sheep. does not produce a e. nire. hunt (gen. in Wolof bae.). sheep or goat. a sow. grumpf. a (Hesych. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. a goat. to grunt. a sow. Kurren und murren.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. from hundama. grumble. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. goats. Gael. . The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. a pig Fin. Gr. ' In driving. rumbling. sound. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. curmurring. It is probable also that e. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. sus-sus. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. /xijeao/iat. or in any ! way ! persuading. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. leg-et-ni. knurfisk. leknuti. Illyr. smack and naski. The g. From the imitative mae. — . to bleat. grugno. the snout of a pig. by which the shingle gives rise to It. a sheep or a goat. a wolf. And it is true there between hog and grunt. meigeal. kurren. meckern. meketati. growl.' Moor's Suffolk words. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. Hence Breton hoc ha. to howl. hundi). a sheep or ewe. 6. as the proper name of a tame sheep. Fr. Among dog. kurre. hund. Illyr. may be identical with Esthon. naskia. and of (maelon). hunon. hound. a goat firixal^ta. G. Moreover. grunny. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. mekegni. name of the animal itself. to bleat. karra. signifying a snarling. It. grogner. houch. to grunt. from knurre. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. as lou of an ox. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. a pig. a hog. Gr. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. to themselves. lambs. lekavica. in v. we have Sanscr. guttural tone. a goat. Idgge (Rietz). oe. cite as by grunt. for the voice of the ox). Africa laa. grumbhng. . In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. and snorke. Illyr. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). although the imitation embodied in Lat. Da. name. meil. and hoc'h. (iriKov of forms like Sw. . it and e. and thence groin. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. grumble. and grumphie. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. menAda (ndda. and Circassian maylley. to bleat . grunt. Welsh and Breton). mecati. hwch. lecco. may with to snarl. lek-eg-ni. corresponding to ohg. to rumble. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. Gr. a dog.

cockade. turn a horse to the is In Finland. like artificial flowers. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. If onomatopoeias can . coquette. when he found peculiarity. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. M). The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. from the cry animal. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. p. So Sanscr. Sc. to whine.. animal. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. p. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. Thus we are led to the Fr. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. 91. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. to the left.' ticular bird. to go backwards. of the character in question. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.' 2nd Series. g. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. Esthonian hoibo. e. hoppe. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. hobin. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. hiine. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. hottihuh. a horse. ^6<. hobben. (Craven Gloss. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. without a — we root. a mare. the cry to stop or back a horse. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. .' — ist Series. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). a little am- bling horse. . such as cuckoo. There are of course some names.). to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall.). In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. hobby. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. as in Yorkshire highly right. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. houpy in Craven. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. But words of this kind are. coquelicot. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. humma.root..

D. woodpecker. rinchar. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. Du. wrenska. Bohem. e. to neigh. hresh. redpole. titter. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. groan. but whether there kind between them and other words. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. hross. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. animals or certain kinds of sound. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. frenschen. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. runniken. . g. swift. ance or habits of the animal. creeper. horse. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. as sigh. Sw. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. than to the sounds represented. moan. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. wagtail. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. xxiii ginal object. giggle. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. form corresponding hresh. Sanscr. signified It. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. nitrire. Fr. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. nounced with a guttural). sol. hukkup. to Sanscr. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. wiehern. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. hennir. cough. Lettish sweegt. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. hikkd. goatsucker. Pl. lapwing. little speak for themselves. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . ginniken. wrena. fehtati. diver. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. Irieschen. whitename in in- throat. command of language was attained. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. hresh. Sp. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility.

on the chops is represented also by pratx. banga. knarr. atchini. tlirob. pump. ping came the bullets about their ears. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. tisio (tisho). and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. aritischane. Of a like forma- drum . root kshu. Da. Mei gbengben.' So imac. for that of breaking. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted.' it both sides went. oren : Klapp. an attempt would be made to by the voice. are familiar in ' to every one. banke. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my .' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. for a small one. snukkup). hoo ping ping. shriek. Wtb. beat of a clock child . &c. —Brem. hang. pit-a-pat. for the sound of milking. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley.' ! ! ! ! — dong. to throw violently down. in a nail Let. heaven). a more expressive than the e.' 'Haw. . for blows with a rod. the God of thunder . To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. lumm. Zulu bongo. for the creaking of a wheel. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. DingBang. thunder (Tylor) . To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. to hammer . snort. for in such sound of blows. to knock. a kind of drum. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. Vei gbangba. ding. beat.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. knack. debhes-lungotais (deifies. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. dong Read. hoo. wheeze. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. heart tick-tack. a large bell. mer. to sneeze. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . atchian. klatsch. bang ' ! trenches. for the sound of a fall. or the w.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. went the cannon. It is represented in e. fitsche-falsche. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. haw. scream. bangas. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. clap ! A smack Puff. for the sound of a blow. haitshu. to beat. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. strippstrapp-stroll. or tliat is accomit. to drive on. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . 1865. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. Australian bungbung ween. &c. — Sanders. to ham. snore. ting-ting. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. plitsch-platsch. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. White Lies. the dashing of the sea . for the for the sound of . bang.

young child . pippione. Florio. pipelni. pule.' instead. doubtless.) a chick. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. Lat. cry. De Brosses. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. peep. peep. It seems to him that the teeth t. as k. piou. pigiolare. a (young) pigeon. piccione. e. to peep It. pigolare. is of expression. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. to cheep like a bird or a young It. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. . and so forth. pipe. a fowler's bird call is lost. far pipi. pu. Mantuan pipiare. or a piailler. as the simplest implement for proFr. pipare. and whimper. pipe. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. of a word will appear supposed to represent. pipio. young bird. calls S. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. to cry like imrli^u).FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. as in other subjects of study. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. used as a call to . a chicken or gosling. — . to squeak. G. has been un- employed to designate fixity. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. ducing the sound. The pi. scream. chickens (Tylor). piou. mobility excavation and hollow ^. piauler. child. the voice of chickens (Cot. Gr. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. a whelp. bleat. —Lyndsay. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. pipilo.sc. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. Fr. is pfeife. cry of young birds . to cry pi. Magyar pip. to designate cavity and hollow. Lat. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. part of the What consciousness has the child. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. laugh. a or cheep. pipio. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. and their relations. pigione. had been used laugh ? two. or the uneducated different consonants are man. He Yet asks. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. pipegni. a fife or musical pipe. In cases such as these. which he added to intensify the expression. not- . pi.

The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. Hindoo tomtom. the side of g. girren. Zulu raraza. Pefuxela. to cluck. to creak knirren. Pacific aka-aka. sound of dry breaking. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. loud laughter. to pant bejii- zela. to gurgle. as the click of a latch or a trigger. preserved by Kilian. kniks. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. knurren. to hawhaw or laugh loud. of something fine and thin. u.. creak. bubble. rumble. &c.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. to gorgogHare rattle. rumble (Fl. or springing back. lachen. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. Manchu kaka-kiki. kniks. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. make wood a clinking noise. pi . to growl. . cluck. ioriogliare (to make borbor). It. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. laqfF. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). like the noise of a glass breaking . to crackle like in boiling . a short sharp sound. karkarana.) Mod. murren. tonare. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. knaks. to grumble). lachachen. is very common. Hindustani karak is rendered. rumble. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. knuks. to ring pipio. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . along with Du. to bubble. sound). like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. where the variation. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to grumble.. Poppopvi^to. . in German. to pant violently (Colenso). kuruk. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to grate the teeth . or kaka-faka. a prolonged sharp sound. coo. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. of a loud strong sound. a sharp short one. gurren. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. cricli. to jar. be cate to go on laughing loud . to thunder. tontonare. a. as representing the sound made when something breaks. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. to rattle. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. thunder oil . murmur (by . to gargle . turtur. some small vowel or consonantal sound. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . kirkirdnd. {to It. garren. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. Indian chack-chack. and lugh. to be compared with Sc. vaake gorgor) . a closed or obscure sound. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. crash. to cry pi. grumble. to laugh. i.Gr. to fizz like fat in frying. to clack. along with tinnio. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. a drum W. borrelen. the clucking of a j hen . chack. when it force than biscuit. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. crack. tintino.

The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . 1871. to the purling of a brook. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. is based on the same imitation as the e. The whispering of the wind I. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. bad. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. 368). make djamdjam). e. to ring or jingle. to knock. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. hala-hald-faMa (falda. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. while cacd / used in e. noise. quarren. Tiie Galla gigiteka. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. for the sound of privy whispering. Turk. the tingling Ming-Hang. bent her head. borrelen. Magyar csamm-ogni.and e. Scotch sough or sooch. for the ringing of illustrate bells. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. kiling-kalang. simmer. agrees with g. koXiw. at an accelerated note. to giggle. awater* ' The Mme P. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. for the clinking Lat. Manchu kaka. as Fr. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. a nightingale. is Manchu tang-tang. are applied to the is excrements of children. Newman). bubble up. spring of water in the a bell. fumtu. tumwata. to say chut. a boy's whistle. indicating the origin of Gr. a drum . and Gr. and her heart went thump.* the heart. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). chut. a workman. disturbance (F. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. . csam-csogni. Maori pata. or to Du. uproar. 192). call. to strike. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. the gingling of glasses. to beat. Galla tuma. . or the bubbling up of to a spring. Fr. compared with Gr. or of bells ringing. Sanscr. kl'mg-kling. klirren. ding-dong. to whisper.' Member for Paris. djeda (to say tub). brings us to Fr. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. rvir (in tvittio. and the imitative nature of tivgle. jingle. croaking of frogs. rain (Tylor. tup. halaidlac'h. champ. chuchoter. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. muro and e. correspond to e. clango.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. for a tTviror). Calt. jangle. clank. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. a nightingale. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. tubh. The syllables lil-bil. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. wail. especially one who beats. for chut-chiit-er. E. word. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. sound). clash of arms. sound. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . of keys or tinkling of bells. Prim. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. bulbiil. rifiirayov. box on the ear imitation of the . and e. the sound of a stringed instrument. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. clink. caca and Finnish adkkd. drops of i. shout. corresponding in e. identical with g. as of Tamil muromurmur. a smith. and bilhila. KaKog. cry. and Gr. thump. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. coughing or clearing the throat. chinking of coin. tumult. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. to be compared with g.

bubble. crunch. according to the strictest phonetic rules. or v^hether jectional. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. bang. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. rap. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. boom. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. 'pat. slash. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. at a door tarapatan. tinkle. jingle. flap. sputter. whine. clatter. to fall. while e. smack. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. twang. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. the Germans puff. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. plump. chatter. tingle. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. tymmesll. creak.. chink. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun.' — Nohden. rattle. tumbian (to beat the ground). thwack. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. ' Der puff. The use of g. patter. Nevertheless. clash. tum-ultus.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. din. blubber. thump. and Grimm. report of a gun. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. clack. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. crash. we have buffet or cuff. parapatapan. clink. hum. craunch. rataplan or rantanplan. clank. Fr. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. gargle. paddle. ring. whizz. and Fr. pop. gurgle. brumberum. splutter. squeal. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. squall. rumble. lash. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. splash. puff. tap. for (Sanders). it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. without the intervention of orthodox roots. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. it is fallj AS. It. murmur. clap. dash. souse. a applied as well to the force of the bang. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. Humboldt. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. whack. mutter. to dance. crack. tomber. thump. But although and also found in Lat. w. blow. thump. snap. clang. swash. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. fizz. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. and the French pouf. and soufflet. by rubadub. answering to g. guggle. in e. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. smash. disturbance. squeak. So in Fr. hiss. The beating of drum is represented in e. flop. whirr. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. dabble. to is blow. douse. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types.

are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. and thus they become signs of despair. by the nature of the cry.' . in the case of the animal or of the infant. p. knows them. hay. an imitation of a sigh .' If chaos. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. formerly cited. and uttering plaintive sounds. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. At the first beginning of life. ugh . If. and found in the building of be burnt up. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. the kind of action that is desired of them. Crying. or of any if wood. xxix on the contrary. every little pain. are made known by an instinctive cry. Grimm or Bopp. but if we must not complain on the beach. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. without a thought of symbolising to them. or stubble is meaner name. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. that he has taken the step in rational speech. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. of horror. grief. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. the interj. because they are spontaneous. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. little who has time to want of her nurseling. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. 94. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it.'. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. stractions. wringing the hands. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. or any unsatisfied want. is Thus ah!. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation .INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. the inteij. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. in the rushing waters. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire.

groaning. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. interjections. which are frequently so toned down cance. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. shrieking. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. the lowing of a cow. ^6g And to the same effect 371.' p. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. they are involuntary interjections. p.. be more powerful. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. he cites from Home Tooke. 344. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. to solve the I shall call first. Language begins where interjections end. He says. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. more to the point. of all the mouth. as who them spontaneous utterances. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. p. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. coughing. should be remem- .XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. And again. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. 32. One short interjec- tion may fact. more eloquent than a long speech. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze.' — ist Series. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. may become traditional. and the eye. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. sneezing. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. or which is of me as suffering pain. If I wish to make a person of an . and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. them to exercise it. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. and some of them the composition of words.

which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. hahota. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. loud laughter. in Fin. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. then speech begins. Koxafw. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. in Magy. it them. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. hahottaa. interjections. demolishing here. some kind of language might have been formed. when I arp humming and hawing. Kayxa^u). is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. cachinno. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. and others from interjections. Tooke in truth. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. for example. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. I am not hearer. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. and thus. speaking. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . Gr. Lat. he says. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. and more or less limited . nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. kahkahah. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. hohottaa. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. bered. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. but the less am at a loss what to say.

' he says. like peewit and cuckoo. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. But here nature soon conies to his help. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. What strikes him . The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. And so in the case of language. Though. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. of the world. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. a Picture-language. and not. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. words receiving the meanings they now bear. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. if taken as a whole. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. The following account is given by Kruse. and go where we now say stand. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. the critical question should be. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. . signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. a deaf-mute himself.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. makes them stand and walk upon the table. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. dumb is the language of signs. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. It as has ing their most striking features. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. of the nature of this great movement.

and with his thought. that signifies great . most striking outline of an object. xxxiii him between one thing and another. he. for single objects. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . such objects. he. the whole secret. becomes roast meat. walker. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. that. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. and gestures. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. but if I depress it instead. thou. The of sign for left hand. And is. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. particular sense in properly so called. that air. or To pull and flap with the arms. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. walked. for child. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. signs are taught for yet. the lan- guage cultivates itself. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and we have roast goose. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. and it is flesh or meat. letter To hold the two fingers apart. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. it seems. called Gesture-language. many when or but these. his action. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. such as than the educated man. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. among themselves. the sorecalling them to his memory. and to taste. and forms further and further. for the agent. and fully serves to j . and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. walkest. what more. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. as it now opens out. like a V. thought is already broken. The same sign stands and the act itself. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. push it towards the person addressed for thou. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. for walk. or the verb to be. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself.GESTURE most.' In the Institutions. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and And thus he makes himself a language. to name. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. can do better and more easily abstract terms. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. it means little. nay.

bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. or something of the kind. or action. and thus performs the part of an adjective. when I say. When a verb. it called an interjection. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. He gave door a bang. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive.' dener's knife. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. in other instances sentence. You beaten . a colour red. When I say. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. in fact. Do not bang the it is a verb. depend entirely upon the use. a number of alternatives are suggested. as when Bang ! went the gun. qualifies the against the wall. would be simply beginning of speech. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. or a passive scene of existence. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. might be the knife. and so is an adverb. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. The same word . I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. to indicate the action of a certain person. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. or an act. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. as But when it is meant door.xxxiv asking. according to the circumstances of the case. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. the ture of white term pink is and red. and the as. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. Who is has beaten you ? would be. or a quality. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. putting it into his pocket. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. as in die it is a noun. . gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. I say. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. substantive or adjective. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. whether by additions or otherwise. the garden.

ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. inquiry. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. but often self-evident. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. . whereto. middle. a groan. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. that is. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. as cung. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. commencement of speech. grie^ horror. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. or with elements expressing relations of time. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes.. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. and may be used language. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. pain. inside. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. which is an old y ting (use stick). It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. coalesces with the personal pronouns.^ — Miiller I. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. in the is indicated by the syllable y. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. and to be great. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. or some relation between it and another object. Latin. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. as kuo cung. whereof. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. the man is great. with a stick. contempt. wherewith. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. greatness. in the sense of great. a noun. &c. wonder. some outward display of the affection. wherehy. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. Jii ta. or nei. 255. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. wherefore. a sigh of oppression and . verb nor noun has yet been developed. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. Thus tafu signifies a great man. that admits itself in of audible representation. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost.

as. Gael. to hurt Let. vei-a. al. grief. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. Thus from springs otjucifw. gwae. grief. ohg. wai. e. pain. to lament. . (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. and cacak djeda (to say crack. gwe-l-a. headache. and to bark . ui. n. to cry at. Illyr. . och. woe. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. to injure. to cause pain. ochan. lament from oimi. is w. has to cry laa the Piedmontese.-l-are. ohi. ! ! Goth. oh. to ache. g. hei. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. to sound yapyap. oi. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. has more kopfweh. Gr. grief] affliction. Fr. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. lau-l-e. ochan. to lament. Lat. wai. wehthun. w^wa. ache. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. to do woe. djamdjam goda (goda. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. 6. Lat. g. vaj. It. axofiai. weh. on. to make). gwae. . to chirp. ocAJ. die wehen. la. to gargle. wai-l. ah. Jar lau-lau. to ache. The form corresponding to Lat. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. representing a cry of pain. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. guaj-ire. w. ahi. Such are g. to bewail oneself. at the close of the radical syllable. cece. guaj- or cry out pitifully. wd. weh schreien. In this way from the root guai. first person. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. is Ay di me I Gr. ach. w. I oi[iot. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. in Gr. howl.. to weep. misery. achen. woe. found in g. e. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. Let. It.'). to groan. ach. jaoh. to wail or cry alas . A widespread It. ochain. aiai^to. o'i. . xxxvi grief. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. to . on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. to wail. ach. ace. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. e. och. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . dchzen. are ol-ire. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. Gr. vce. Gr. as. waiidt. form. mew.ez. ah. jao. It. representing Illyr. however. to rriourn. pain. a groan or lamentation vir. to weep. ing action I. It. Bret. j. oval. ai. &. the pangs of childbirth. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. to cry n. miau-l-is. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). wAwa. guajo. misfortune. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. on. oimare. 6. oh. to make bow-wow. pain. tirr-djeda. mostly a ! %. or r. weinen. Illyrian vaj. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. to yell formed e. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. vce. och. suffering. miau-n-is. seen in Gr. wehen (Schmeller). miau-l-er. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. guai. lament. probably a deeper groan. .


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

to here . his trowsers' pocket. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. ' sees an object. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. Dr Lottner observes. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. Phil. thata (ta-ta). Thank you. Sie. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. nurseries. this here. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. for instance. more emphatically roSj)j that. as it Dieser da (as Lat. well as Goth. Bav. we may translate this by there (it is). give. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. da. The Fr.' then points to his wife. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. Diet. saying : there the ad- Trans. implying the direction of its good will towards them.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. when he wants something. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. that is it. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. 'nay. In the expression Da. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. indeed. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Please. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. When we pointing. child indicates or asks for an object of desire.' all is is — their consent. and may be rendered. . but the truth is. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. Sanders (Germ. or give me it. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. as to express.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. the nursery da-da.' person. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. according to Menage. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. or that it is.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. as. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. when 1859.' this. ToSe (or in Attic E. or carry me thither. I add) . He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. der da-ige. give me that cheese. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. da.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. But. a specified were by pointing him out. a word of many applications in g. says da-da-da. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. case. or wants to name something. that. is-te). that gratifies me. child. and by a variety of expressions besides. • The child. is we I believe. and so on.

or dalliance. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence.^ its ' utters : a cry. which thus exertion. childish toying. .' • liv ANALOGY. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. standing. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. to move step by step. reality. moving. Thus Gr. of which any one may. The da is dodem. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. to beat. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. meanings. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. to walk. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. thinking.' says Lottner interior. the original is that which he places first. sounds. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. and shapes it into an . to tion to another. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. tasting. to say to oneself. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. pay. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. stutter. beat. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. p. and one in particular must. in every mode of expressing the idea. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen.' says Muller. speech. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. strike. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. make dadada). sinking. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. or metaphor. its desire. to chatter. takes it — as When the soul. dadee. tattle. to knock. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. then instinctively interest. — Cot.

(parallel bilbila. rattle. . ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. wilahtaa. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. firom the Gael. bilbilgoda (to make . to flash. and thence e. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to crackle. Du. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. unlella. schmecken. to resound. to sniff. tinkling. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. magnificence. to glitter. sprageti. to sound clear In Galla. and schmecker. splendour. brilliancy. is used in the origin. to glitter. pracht. So firom Lat. esclat). for example. to snilF. in the domain of movement. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. search . to quiver. to sniff out. may be quoted gUt. to tinkle. also wise. man of nice taste. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to glitter. wamara. spraka. snutrs. to sparkle. Lith. Again. The 6. snot. we have and the and beorht. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. and. from the . knittre. may be it explained . to shriek with laughter . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. snuff the sniiten. noise. then to sparkle. iclat (in Old Fr. smell. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. suspect Bav. to crackle gnistre. scTiateren. a rustling sound Gr. tintelen. chime). bright. smell. In the case of sparkle. sapere (which signifies the nose. properly a clap or explosion. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. beam. wilistd. beorhtian. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. the equivalent of g. clang. outcry. snudra. savour. to glisten Dan. while sapere itself. to smack or taste. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . bilbil). to 5 ghtter. to ring as a glass willata. which in ohg. wise. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. splendour. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. Finnish. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. air. kiimottaa. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. knistre. . a brilliant light kilid. think. to shine. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. prudent. to glitter e. taste. to ring. to be wise. sound. gnittre. — 1. to shine. a ringing . fiapfiaipw. &c. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. 1654. In the same way the Goth. Heo Du. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. in popular language.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. a with kimmaltaa. to have Sapiens. discreet. as kilind. Fr. tumult. ghsten. as. Bavarian bracht. It is The word bright had a similar In as. and figuratively. signified a clear sound. kimistd. on. scheteren. snotor. same imitative root with Sw. to . schiteren. sense of brightness. a dis- cernment. judicious. make a loud noise.

1. \nrap6e. the cross. break. inside. in truth. in of his works. which The Stoics. Kep^arl'ieiv. 6\tadaveii'. the neighing of horses. as soft by the ear. &c. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. of dressing loud. flow and flux. is felt Lana. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. the bleating of sheep. or . — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. rough to the ear. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. soft. pleasure soft to the ear . he says. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. then in rpd/xoe. extremely loose. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. rough both ways. crux. smooth. rough. oily. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. gluey. Much of the same has been often quoted. and vepres. kvTOQ. roughness. he framed the words ivSov. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. discusses the tone of a picture. Kpovtiv. tremour. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps.' he says. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. whirl. itself letters are felt as sofl. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. rend. Tpa)(yg. wool. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. briars. pvfi^Civ. power of the letter-sounds. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. eo ut res vol. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. The BpavEiv. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. shatter. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. KoWiiSije. ipuKuv. accordance with the way in which by touch. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. And observing that n kept the voice within. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. v. sharp. strike. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. mel. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. the clank (stridorem) of chains. fitting the letters to the sense. rough. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). within. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. . we hear of screaming colours. Acre. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. to slide.

or checks as they are called by Muller. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. jag. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. d. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. t. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. corresponding to the ineor.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. jig. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. joli. g. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. to signify varieties of movement. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . for exis ample. rug. Fr. k. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. stab. to jogj sac-cade. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. tug.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. degree of roughness sound. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. sag-oter. a rough and sudden . cular effort Again. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. A greater felt. 138). shag. and in the utterance of a high or or low. the case of the voice. jih. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. dag. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. stag (in stagger. as when. ii. p. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. shog. dig. p. jog. 'and consequently form. to reel abruptly from side to side).

being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. Welsh cicio. a little bit. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Fr. micare. S-panish miga. and It. a piece or bit of anything. mik. to say a word . schuckeln. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. to utter a slight kick. Fr. a good piece of road . to ring a bell. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. a jog. motion. The syllable suk is jerk. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. g. or check. to tickle. mie. chicoter. mica. to incite by light touches. sound barely audible. Then.. is made to signify movement.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. it produces Dutch micken. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. to winkj micati is Lat. Thus we have B. to have it ticked or marked on the score . a small bodily object. a quid of tobacco. to touch. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. a stroke with a French toucher. as Italian tocco. &c. to beat or play on a musical instrument. chique. then. a . in cases like the foregoing. to take a thing on tick. to On the same principle j we have g. to mutter. to mark it with a touch of the pen . tech-tech. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . to strike It. is lanese toch. a playiug-marble. to stir. kuk. that we never can be sure. cica. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. as tot. an infant . an old worthless horse or carriage. passing to the signification of motion. (mitsati). The analogy then carried a step further. Sukkeln. mot. schockeln. Illyrian migati. so to Italian toccare. figuratively. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. To tick a thing off. zack. properly a small lump'of . e. Hence Lat. Dutch kicken. Accordingly the g. used interjectionally to represent a . is so frequent a consequence of movement. chiquet. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. also to stir. sound Fr. a cracker. for the sound of knocking at a door. to move rapidly to and fro. kik. and analogous movements. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. The production of sound. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. tock. The train of . tack. and e. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. like English tick. foot. zigzag. Bolognese tocc. not to utter a syllable. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. to pulses being knock. tecche-tocche. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. a crum. Brescian toch. lead to Spanish tocar. The Mipen or pencil. rough horse. Ene olde suksuk. Mucken. chic. then. movement. It. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. toch-toch. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. however. to glitter. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick.

a small lump or pat.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. we have e. In a similar the relations of place. . motte. and toddle like a child titter. tottle. to touch. mote. fait. lump of earth. eo. Du. seesaw. a light quick blow. a lad citta. a morsel. motta. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. to whisper (Pr. syllable mot. to movement of the pen . bunch or flock of wool. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. chico. citto. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. and a small lump of something. But the same is language has re Javan. the same organ touched with the man. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. small of kind. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. further off. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. . not because the pendulum makes a different left. The following table from Tylor (Prim. 48) cites from the African Tumale. you. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . not an atom . To jot. . a small bird. gnu. tot. here. not to utter a syllable. gno. this.- a jot or little It. anything small flax. jot. corresponding to the personal pronouns. that. e. to jog. or o toi. Halliwell. Fr. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. the vowel sound. gni. 0. a whisper. tiny. a sparrow). a e. is shown in murmur. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. zitio. here (close hand). zitella. This kind. a small horse. a small quantity. and he. for the beating of a clock. as in e. tot. a girl. a tot . tot. of movement in totter. tozzo.n. there (further of!) ao. ticktack. to e. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. tit. mutter. lix Sp. (Halliwell) Da. a morsel girl . where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. there '(at a short distance). a small kind of lark. a certain conception. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. or the like its It. tittle. totle. a bit. a little titty. n. move slightly to . small titlark. to dot. titilh. anything . mut. mossche. tit. ika. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. often entirely arbitrary. to tremble. at where the order is inverted. or the converse. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . . titter. the least visible insect. tot. i. and out there. Malagasy to. . . The vowel changes from to tick-tack. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. this . there. that iku. ri that. to touch lightly with a pen. and dot. clay . titmouse (Du. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. taut. to make a slight mark. little. mutter j dust. iki. Pm. neither moit nor an atom. and mite. mot. a bit. Then. . to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). a. subdued manner. to jot down or note with a fro. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. e. for the three personal pronouns. 199). little j to that of a small bodily object. . So. fragments It. I. Cult.) .

Carib ne. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. minution further. usho. here . Chilian tva. . I . child. It seems to (fen. Abchasian aSn. ukko. that.. femina ama. here j ka. mother. as in Italian Fin. Sahaptin (America) kina. km. biii. ofj. for the male. Then. . owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). this . there. Mm. small (Pott. ni. that in the distance. Zulu ajoa. mother. ta to ka. father.. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. ndi. Magyar ez. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. . thou ni. Mutsun ne. that (intermediate) j wana. there. /mya. there. /e«. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. that. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. little. j Canarese ivanu. . which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. there. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. this . it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. ni. mother. that. me probable that • Vei also little. an old woman chacha. thou . Tarahumara ibe. Japan ko. tiiio. that. an old . olo. as the act of pointing was ta. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. that. that. you. there.) pronunciation of i or e.. father k . here j abe. Dhimas isho. Gr. (tt).e^. child. ^. . loo). probably initial of distinction that the k. no constant rule is observed. qu. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand.. w. bi. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. he. here feraa. ulri. as Mr Tylor remarks. that. Lat. . that. this . is Here. Botocudo ati. Ossetic am. he. . there. thou. /wo. is father. Fernandian az. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. Guarani nde. there. this . and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. to. . young one. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. ojOo. It Carib lala. Tamul i. here 5 Yoruba na. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. that. mas cheche. man erne. respectively. and origin. ne. this ole.araM. 6. akha. here this .) nna. here . uta. this <t. ita. nne. and a for the female. this fi.

to begin to appear . nab. whence Fr. or chink. And perhaps the E. is to express simple continuance of action. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. to feet. for instance.' — Merrv Wives. — Douglas Virgil. pepin. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. Top. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. just beginning to appear. Clank represents the sound of something large. trappen. nil. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. From cases like the foregoing. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. for a succession of light blows low-wow.) .' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. a little yellow beard. analogous to winy-piny. trap. Da. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. keeh. at pippe frem is to spring forth.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. the principle of reduplication. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. fretful. to tread. Thus we have Wolof sopa. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. the simplest mode by the g. don-don. the nursery few j Sc. A little weeny thing. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. of smaller things. wenig. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. to leap. as ding-dong. The sound trapp . to peep through.' making the voice as small as possible. 401. trippen. wean. trSpigner. knob. &c. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. to make its way through the bursting envelope. or even. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. barking of a dog. trappa. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. the idea is called. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. sound of bells . for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. titta. the pip or pippin. has tittafrem. stairs. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. for the . in old e. The Sw. dance (Kil. tion. A little wee face with little. Fr. a child. repetition It. . of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. as j money. little. a step. i Sw. nipple. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. looking through between obstacles. to peep. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. din-din. to teet. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. little To sup up. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. murmur. lift 8. trippelen. and in the Pacific dialects.

properly speaking. or in Fr. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- .. kendagenda. are echoed by the rudimentary et. tache. mpolu is uttered. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. to treat with contempt. little child (p. very great. didi. mawhitiwhiti. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. or imitative syllables. rack click. or a little tee--ny thing. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. So from clamo. &c. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. to to call. rack. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. and the words express a continued sound of rack. amusement. smallness. or rdtchi. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. a clattering noise. serves to show and in this way. kenda. loloa. click. tach-et-er. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. And generally. to rock. Thus in the Pacific loa. if very young. to pant. lololoa. the comparative degrees of greatness. to talk at to walk. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. racket. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. in familiar use with ourselves. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. The same principle of 196. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. and Fr. to vi^alk about for flax. mawhiti. could readily be conceived. Cult. 99). Susa di. Mandingo ding. calling. from Maori muka. to call frequently from Fr. keep spots. a cradle. or very very great. to skip. . be used as far an echo to hard sounds. 97). rapidity and strength. bad .Ixii REPETITION. i. puka. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. the and clique. hardness. cliqu-et-is. a spot. to say pooh It is ! to. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. kamha-gamla. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. ratsi-ratsi. instead of being actually repeated. to or rub. very long (Pott. or el. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha.' expression is — ^Tylor. sopasopa. puka- puka. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. is language. Malay ayun. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. child . (to use a to speak. to cover e. a grasshopper. repetition or continsignify long. clash of weapons. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. ding-ding. child . the agent in panting . er. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. random . clamito. to love. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. Again. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. . ayunayunan. very bad. the lungs. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. Thus in E.

to puff. itself. a from ayun. joggle. The contrivance with any particular noise. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . The Fr. jogging. by the side of wanken. g. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. wavering. to hand-le. the lungs (the puffers of the body). Piedmontese bau-l-S. he who rubs. fickle. it. where all direct connection with sound is lost. as to handle. which. mew and baa . to wail woe . is In e. or in e. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. bubble. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. in some applications. as mAS. to make a succession of grabs . to make a succession of shoves. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. wancol. without the intervention of the frequentative element. to hand. to rock. in Fr. draggle. smack. syllable clat . or fi bau. from puka. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. or omitted. miauler and beler correspond to E. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. the knie-en to E. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. to bark like a dog. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. wankeln. to continue dragging. guggle. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. miauler andpiauler. dabble. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . wagas ging. waggle. dab. a succession of cracks to rattle. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. others. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. or Maori puka-puka. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . In cases like these. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple.Jicol. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. Ihre remarks under gncella. shuffle. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. are to cry mew and pew . bub.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. kneel. and in as. crack. to crackle. compared with g. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. to make gug. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. Jickfacken. or by association. to make bau-bau. to move to and fro. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. such asjlap. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. rubber. rynel. to rock or wag. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. wankel.

Polish. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. which. There is. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. A gull or a dupe same sense. moreover. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. the breach.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. Dupe comes to us from the French. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. although it is not difficult. known in Italian. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. or how generally. Breton. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. or in aptness to combine with other elements. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. and comparatively few easily deceived. by a hard body breaking. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. to cry ugh at. to the separation between the broken parts. on a moment's reflection. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. deceit. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. at was more familiarly known. or in mode of use. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. will continue to be felt in daily speech. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. which is the origin of the word. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile.

it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. Hitl^erto. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. founded in manifest blunder. nor any limited of ideas. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. life. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. and the word is used in a secondary sense. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. is. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. . ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. however. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. language is . I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration.

and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . change. guages in South America. circle perpetrates a new slang term. I think it very probable. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. compared with the duration of man. therefore. and vescovo. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. unintelligible to other hordes. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. episcopus. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. of material things.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. Naturalist on the Amazons. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). i. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. and 'Russian.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. hearing. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. Welsh. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. evique. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. 330. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. French. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. in the course of many years' isolation. If English. out. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained.

COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. Cijlt. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. . tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. 9. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. Nor is there one of the letters. 6. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. 8. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. as shown in the subjoined illustration. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. ao8). or whatever the proportion may be. and . a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. it will leave figures 3 and 4. A key must unlock more doors than this. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. 7. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. is MN. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. The combination of the symbols I and 2. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . which are idenr Figures 5. ancient Greek M . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. i. to be taken (Prim. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. the actual it which would to represent.

but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. or. in the shape either of direct inspiration. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. had its origin in imitation of sound. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech.' should be discovered. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. what comes to the same thing. his fellows." the use of a change of vowel in as. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. which either by direct resemblance of sound. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. for instance. We must either suppose that in a civilised state.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. leading him to utterances. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. known to us as yet. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. and the only safe beneficent Creator. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us.

attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. and rose towards a higher state of being. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. of using imitative conduct . by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. or of their own reflected thoughts . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. by animal without a trace name of Man. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . race were speaking men or not. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. that he started from the lowest grade. or not. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . in the course of generations. and sooner or later. or else. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. the conduct of Ixix life. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. for instance. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and when we look back as far as history will reach. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man .COMPLETION OF MAN. until the progeny. or beavers. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. as elephants.

. Bavarian. English. B.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Bohemian or Czech. Cotgrave. AS. Biglotton seu Diet. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Esth. Carp. Cimbr.Nieder. Provincial dialect. Da. Romano - Cas- traise. Diet. Carpentier. Castr. dial. Fin. Anglo-Saxon. Due. Finnish. Gr. Dief. Fr. Bremisch. Couzinid.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Dueange. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Supplement to Bret. Gothischen 1851. Dutch. Bigl. Infimse Latini- D. 1654. Wtb. ^Ifr. 1768. Bav. Diet. or Dan. Grammar Boh. de la langue Cat. Douglas' Virgil. Teutonico-Lat. Baile/sEngl. 1766. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Cot. Elfric's Fl. Supplement to Dueange. Brem. Dief. 1737. 1850. dialect of the Sette Commune. Cimbrisch.. Diefeiibach. Diet.-Eng. Diefenbaeh. E. Dn. at the end of Somner's Diet. Esthonian. 1857. Sup.V. Danish. Catalan. Dueange.



Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.percurrunt kimista^x. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. willekom Blab r.5 ERRATA. buque 118 brodiquin r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. Blob plowied r. alUger ahaverie r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. woman r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. katowai perairrantr. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. puHti r.nokkutama willekem. kilistaa bugiie r. r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. r. baltresca nokkutomax. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. yjnaifia r. word allagerr.>.. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. cruccio deyrie. Askance woud r. r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. (/ijtf r. cti. haverie crtOT r. ^i?^i2! r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . plowied budowaer. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. sveritet Asknace r.


bandon in French. said. —Bruce. as. to sauff the king or spill. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. abaft. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. Ab-. Immediately from Fr. downwards. a. 244. vs. into the Romance ftrseg . To abuse is to use iway. AS. behind. onis aback. and — Chaucer. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. OHG. Thus ip N3S. from. power : Than Wallace thing. baftan. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. as. in. o/j of or . ar. but now )bsolete). in a manner other than it should be ablution. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. dominion. on-bsec . "rom a height. orders. in the same sense. a washing off to abstain. 843. compounds. ibandonner. Again. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. Abs-. Jvery man shewid baft. ir. dominion. on. his. announcement. be-ceftan. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. on. erwachen. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. Parson's Tale. K . have entire dominion over. to subdue. and secondarily in that of command. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. to hold .DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. off. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. us. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. . Hence on-bceftan. Lat. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. A. among. er. Thou spelds of mychty iction. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. abs. particular 1 . ur. plesyt him. In Lat. to arise. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to .he Goth. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. The word Ban is common orders. sion of 'an abandoned character. rule. away. on-lic. AS. iway from. literally. implying a completion of J. from a is to wake to abide. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. to awake. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. until the event jlace . ab. ifter. the er. alike. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. an edict or proclamation. this word beand Spanish. whatever he be. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. a/tan. Passing tongues. Abaft. of-dune. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. away from. Dent posture. command.t G. Abandon. state of sleep . out of.

lish to abaisse orabaish. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator.Prov. 364s. as ravish. astony. where custom (Grandg. uncontroUedly. And he thereof was all abashed. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. I was abawid for merveille. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. See .' the surrender of a ' K. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. abbatere dal prezzo. esbahir. Bate. Wall. down. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. and sets them all agape. to strike Froiss. to beat furnish. at his own the lips. Fr. 1 1 8.polir. baba. See Abide. baer. bandon. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. to overthrow. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. with or without a final sh. to excite admiration. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. Abbey. adverbial expressions at abandon. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. In or. vol.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. Hence the OE. It. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. confound. R. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. from ravir. c. Hart in Jamieson. to ruin. abaundunem-ent. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. of fear. so common in the found in the OFr. More correctly written abbat. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. terminedly.esbawi. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. to take possession of an estate.On princes.— R.fournir. to The . to hit.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. A. and it that that it — . his mouth. effect of shame. to make lower. Abbot. beer. R. from Lat. burny was formerly burnish . an abbey. impulse. Abbess. abbattre. to gape. to strike sail . Cotgr. of wonder. abbatere. — Neccham. ne more vermeille. ais. and the verb was written in Eng. impetuously. abbatis. Castrais. to astonish. to abaw or astonish. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come .) . to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. Originally. de. esbahissant. to diminish the force of any. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. burny. to light upon. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. to put to con. betrash. may be explained. et prirent terre. Milton. 1520. to bate something of the price abbatersi. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. of the Fr. abbas. .which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. overthrow. abandonly. his eyen shene. depress. Hence Lat. iv. person. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. law term abatement.down. in the active form. thing abbatere le vela.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. abbatia. d. Beat. or admiration. and that from Syrian abba. other. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. weaken. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. shame. polish. — — . To Abate. merely the terminations ons. by Wall. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. esba. castle. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. Custom. or society of abbots or monks. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. esbahissais. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. father. . astonish. to happen. abate. bawi. ant. R. Baba ! Mod. faire tomber.— — . On the other in use as well as hand. drink. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. and grooms besmeared with gold. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. son bandon.

beter. deceit. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. with badia. to deanimer. and alluring to his own destruction. take care. OFr. bie compared with Dan. abaier. suffer b. abeyance. beidan. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. Du. Fabl. to expect. verbeijen Sw. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. Abele. to abide . Thus we have It. John. Quant voit le serpent. Ni engigner ni abiter. and in E. to deceive. Q. . (Vocab. wait. F. a right in suspense . house. to look. open the mouth. baer. aspire to. warten. to expect gabeidan. ne wist what way to chuse. Pol. in Dan. 366. 1 • . white. to stay. pense. were called Brothers. bide of the d endure. Thus G. listen. to In great amaze. bder. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. to be intent upon. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. to ance.was formerly used in the sense of look. E.. wait To Abide. intent observation. a bay or opening in the coast. The white poplar. exciter. is idenwait. says. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. suspense. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. abeter. literally white tree. also to OFr. to It. songer. guardare. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. take notice. aspirer. we sceolon ON. expectfamily.) abayer. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. or do we AS. Boethius.to wait. usbeisnei. the verb of abeyance. From abahier. bana. expectation. K. or in Fr. delay. speaking of the Holy places. ^couter avec dtonnement. bada.— Roquef. — signifies to suspend action.— ^richer. de Champ. bocca badata. Abie. Ducange. look for another. bida. The verb atwaiting. bialodrze-w. ne chastised them. . to attend on . incite . tempting. badare. Prov. bouche bdante. Goth. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. . Norm. from Halo. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It.' is in AS. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. attendre See Bait. bhr. abet. abbadare. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. — II. badar. or absorption watching. Cat. endurance. abie. othres abidan' The effacement expect. abetter. to remain or endure. to yawn. attendre avec en^pressement. endurArt thou he that should come. Guernsey beth. to suffer death in Du. bidan. baier. gridare. Corant sens lui. with open mouth . expectation. syllable ba. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to wait. delay. forms with the d effaced are OFr. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. To Abet. abiiance. to open the mouth. us. which is certainly related to It. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. while the monks under his control ing. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape.Fr. desirer (Roquef. to hook. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. tenere a bada. In We . lingering. . abidan. covet. beijden. beijen. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. to gape . to desire. which the mind to an object. and E. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . Gloss. delay. have seen abide. bouche b^ante. tarrying . Cat. to attend to. and Prov. to wait. abSiance. in Fr. signifies the direction of tend. beguiling on the other. deceiving. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). bie. —Raynouard. beguile. — . See Abide. inciter. waiting. regarder. gola badada. m Abeyance. ceive. badigliare. desire. Norm.— Chaucer. ' ' . on the one hand. listening. to stay. beijen. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. to tarry. beidan. . trick abetar. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. tical with It. de Berri) Prov. to be intent upon. bida. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. to wait. Gloss. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. abet. badare. forbearance. Corresponding to keep in suspense. inciting. qui iaaille. abayer. badare. to open bader. to desire earnestly. to mind. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. — ABELE Epiphanius. watch. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. b^er. baier. tity of E. baier compared with It. abie. compared with (Bosworth).

2nd Tale. at kasta fyri bord. or bie. —Bacon in R. to .— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. For on board. when compared with Aboard. It.^and to make his power knowne. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. abeye. strong. while in later examples As I . F. In this to erase or annul. bide. to dress hemp. abie to Goth. Tr. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. though sometimes confounded with it. God. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. Q. fault being simply clothing. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. abicgan. the Fr. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. the side of a ship. abidge. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. in for any special purpose. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. to redeem. Dr. as E. convenient. must suffer for it. beidan. use. abie. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. to pay the purchasemoney. suffer the Jul. habilis (from habeo. O If tion. to perish. She shall abie that trespass dere. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. abolir. . How dearly I abide that boast so vain. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. at hand). de la volatile. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. to pay the penalty. Mids. AS. bord. fit. Wickliff in Richardson. within the ship. al- be found so some will dear abide it. N. adapted . power. and Cr. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. Innan bords. The —Boucher. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. able. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. the Pardoner In the original. Prol. powerful. habile. P. a board. purpose. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. from Lat. Spenser. to draw fowls. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. R. abilej Prov. Lat. Boucher. R. ON. — e. i. habilis is closely preserved. 2. abycgan. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. L. Abie. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. and death for handsel pay. atling hem to her proper offices. properly abuy. within the walls of a ship. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. consequences of anything . For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted.ynes. on board . God — dear. &c. sufficient. willing to schewe his wrathe. without special reference to the notion of retribution. If it badare. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. to wear away. to have . the Sir Tristrem. abide. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. was often used in the same sense. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. forbid for mother's children should abye. from AS. bidan.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. aboleo. — P. P. abigg. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. him with che. expert. and the simple buy. is the verb abie. ! ! Cotgr. as habiller du chanvre. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. have-like. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. Merch. Milton. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . abilh. durance in both applications. Chaucer. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. Fr. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. — Able. Fr. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. being disabled in the highest degree. Cassar.

to beget or give birth to children. or cut short. . af-oleii. breaking out in language. gravity. Abray. levis to the Romance languages. Prov. the form a&^^. agreujar. which passed into English under Abominate. as the duty of nourdisposition. To Abound. to turn. alUger. for ligeth butan. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. around on the out. See -und-. to aggravate. sec seftre — Chaucer. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. greu. by the to bring up. AS. gravis. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. which may God avert. of any kind . and also to abridge. as withotityn and without. and in-d-oles. ol. — .' Parson's rence. OE. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). and bidden him abregge. Then. Virg. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. Tale. butan. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. abowen. that greatly agredge their sin. ufan.ger. Above. abrdger. — ' — — preceding verb.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. while the sense of beget. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. agredge. and also. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. to progress. as AS.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. For on broach. . way Sw. vital PI. the identity of which with ting. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. s —Casdmon. awaking. motion. abbreviare. or young forth.— Abbreviate. to light a fire the Abraid. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. to let sleep. abbrechen. to start. be-utan. brood. Severe the threatened evil. nurse. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. Lat. Thence to regard greugetat. to fatten. to feed. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. draw out. Of these synonymous adolescere. Gael alaich. OSw. So in Lat. AS. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. alere capillos. from . explains soboles Lat. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. to main. Du. Goth. AS. to feed.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. parent. natural ed direct from the latter language. abredan. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. giving birth to. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to.aboon. side. to bring up. bufan. Melibaeus. Kiittner. to snatch. common in Chaucer and Abominable. is a ively. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. to break off. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. abracan. onbutan. the man dwindles away. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. to nourish. en. to grow up. In the same brevis .ymbutan. kindling. abominor (from ab and omen. abrcBgdan. boven. but from Lat. OE. Sc. seems aras. See To Bray. d. without. above. abutan. while the verb alleThe root el. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. snatch In English we speak of away. currence. his contemporaries. be-ufan. ala is made to signify to rear. pedigree from brevis.) . to grow together. ala. adolere. alan. Abrdger itself.the older form. Abundant.1. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. to rear.foda signifies to beget. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. Thonne Abroach. The radical idea is to feed the flame. Quod abominor. nurse Lat. abufan. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. below. Fr. a portent). Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. the OSw. af-oolden.' Ymb hancred utan. literally. to cut short. hard. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. the hair grow. the idea of breaking about . titan. to rear. heavy. outward. To abray or abraid. becomes leu in Prov. on high. to produce. is not from G. break out. al is growth. D. the vital spark. about cockcrow. to AS. ABOMINABLE adolesco. abbrechen. and to do something to avert abbreviate. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. leading immediately to Fr. Finnish stock. full ofte his words for to Fr. oil. coalesco.. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. and alere flammain. disastrous portent in some passing oc. progeny. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. nourish.. from Fr. to awake. life. alan. The primitive idea seems that of beget. whence the Fr.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


before. to nourish. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. In like manner. on. Antick. Lat. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. from. as from as. three antike pillers. Fr.th centuries the recognised models of antic. bread. Prov. whence anthem. anapoz. set aside. antifena. to go in strange disguises. ab. a small quantity. avri^ava. af. left as the . what Roman civilisation. Fr. from ante. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Antique. to sound in answer. Pezron fiUist. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. or antique single chamber. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. finally applied to a whether grotesca. something ler in R. from.made out. Apart. and ig. inAgain from the same author cudis. strangle. anxi. to strike. a preventative . to have. i. Thus from gabe. To ape. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. of. to imitate gestures. G. eigs. Gr. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. or in a ridiculous dress. from Stephanus. from avTiipoiuia). The Fr: form antienne stcfn. white. press.— . and devils. younger child. as posticus. See Cover. ReApe. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. So Lat. a definite . burnished. stem. d<popi(xnbs. all of gold. gabeigs. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. from an and — - . — — — . Aphorism. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. anxius. As the browcalled antiques. : . post. one having wealth. Gr. Lat. panar. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. —Spencer. rich. AS. to display pario. E. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. AS. Antidote. Jorioc. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. but the expresent day. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. work. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. swaged. Fr. to bring forth.. plenteously with red. Apartment.D. from the imitative habits of monkeys. apanage. Hall's Chron.—Aperture. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. to strike G. incus. anfilts Pl. separate purpose. some one. as we call it. to support. Anxious. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. one at the least. a block to hammer on. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. should be received. as the Italians. Aperient. a termination equivalent to Goth. trouble. were chiefly of the former class. Hence the applica. Percutere.is to be given. from eigan. Ilvtwotov. Gr. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. in Shakespear. wealth. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. from an. AS. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. aside. from ango. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. andouillers. separate. the anticks — behind. antefn.legacy of given against. to open. apertum. and claret wine. Mannequin. part. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. To go antiquely. one. villan Gloss. a few. a gift. vex. ambeld. Antler. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. Anvil. transferred to the grotesque characters. verberas. Lat. like a jack-pudding. apatiar. d. surimitation of the ancient models. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. Ful- Apanage. fauns. Apartment. a puppet or an anti^hona. were andouiller the second. such as savages. from in and cudere. cenig. Any. choke. amboltj Du. Lat. which by anvild. aperio. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. whence Prov. . anticus. panis. to strain. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. before. Otfried.

mine. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Mod. to deem good. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. Apo- good time. near. plight. to store or put Appal. agreeing with "LtA. to send to. to assign or grant over unto. equal. set a price on. aptly. APRICOT off. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. a price. Formerly apricock. apprendre. trim. to mark to define a bound. laven is used both as E. from paix. — Approve. in Chaucer. From Gr. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. and also as appraise. prize. —Diez. apropchar. to Lat. allow. to take away or lose the vital powers. fit- — ness.his giving evidence against his principal. diminutive pariculus. pronounce fitting). array. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. or the like. To Appraise. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. to approve.pareil. taking. 'L-zX.parejo. Fr. proper time came. to deaden. obolys. They were considered To Appoint. praise. Approach. Cotgr. Gr. Parson's Tale. to be open to view.—Apprentice. habilUr. apin R. A — . one is in. to announce. pragigua or prixcoda. to seize. ON. approcdare. a learner. ai. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. oVooroXof. to lose one's senses. En peach. — Appurtenance. to finish a controversy.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. Apoplexy. Fr. — dirondtfiu. 5w. a'^opi'Jw. properly to join like to like. rise to \t. I prise ware. . to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. to dress in this fashion. order. apal. Gr. case. Apostle. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. The Fr. to strike down. Lith. H. to make a thing Apparel. to — . to call for judgment. poind. one for his defence. Fr. approcher. And whanne sum men Lat. appareo. prover. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. in good season prendre son d. corresp. : — — speak 'Lz. probare. apparecchiare. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Friar's Tale. peace. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. seiden of the stones. to call. word was specially applied to clothing. lAfiaam. To praise. 'LaX. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. xv. apal.prix. To cause to pall (see Pall). like. Cotgr.— . Hence appoind. par. from aTroorlXXu. Epistle. to accord. irpaiKOKiaov. pretium. to learn. appareiller. Lat. From Lat. ar. cepl. horror. Gr. Fabian in R. when the . appris. OFr. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. pronounce good. Fr. Fr. to rate. Apotliecary. diroBrjKr}. N. esteem. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. to commend. habiliments. in fact. Gr. ciously than nede is. appellare. Fr. w. Cotgr. Appareil. Walach. Pliny. an epistle or letter. landmark. and appoinder (to find fitting. apar.t. —^Apparent. An old appalled wight. prohts. . Prov. apprentis. d-n-o. (cited by Diez from a late author). make a composition between parties. in commendation. — Apprise. known. opportunity. one the MLat. preparation.propius). dress. prope (comp. to understand. or E. aparelhar. to suit. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. to which it is often referred. despatch on some service. to — — . away. AS. value apprdder. Sp. i. find Then like Fr. after his mind . avail. Hence It. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. were formed appropiare ejar. to send off. e. They werin his approvirs privily. jabloko. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. diroTrXriaatii. whence the e. good. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. decree. to set a price on. Cent Nouv. The PI. to approach. that it outfit. approver. to catch hold of. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Fr. kind of action. — prehendere. pertain or belong to. consent unto. to come near. to deter- to strike. quoth the frere. from. and metaphorically to take the meaning. to learn. D. iwKjToKri. the good. It.probare. apprehendere. appartenir. purpose. like. Yr. Ir. apprise. 23 . Appease. ap. . off. Fr. Palsgr. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. manner. Nouv. ^wss. whether through age or sudden teiTor.parecchio. apropid. a crime. a thing for one's purpose. become dizzy . To Appear. in data. Prov. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. poind. agree. peler. Apple. Yr. one sent out. to fit. And among other of his famous deeds. and in the sense of condition. S^. Apprehend. of. to disable oftat. APO sentence opoQ. 11. piteux poind. From Lat. appaiser.

a pleasure-ground. or eft. naperon. Marsh. 331. {mies ^=ia3. Hall. Arbour. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought.. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. however. aptus. a lot. and the one who gives oracles. and with turfis new Goth. and a protection of the clothes. From OE. arpa. auguror. nawl and awl. aha. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. a river. symbol. a lot. shortdr. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. OE. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. the spelland umpire. short. words derived from arpa. She made. suitable. sortium ductor. con. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. — . answers queswas introduced from Armenia. rofe and all. It is certain that the apricot oracle. to preserve it from stains. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. and sortilegus ation. intensitive of nape. wata. OHG. As is a pretty parlour. P. conjectura conjec^ra. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery.o. fastened close. most conspicuous situation in the garden . as an eye-witness. to plough. nected. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. From OFr. quod he. garden.shrubs {arbor). ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. This path Aqueous. tion under trial. doubtless is the origin of E. ughe. of of divination arpa-mies. . 31. a lot. arwelo. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. la nappe. . an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer.meaning at Shrewsbury. C. derived. Maan initial . Alban. opinio. A. as ihe diminutive. aestimo. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. ap. Arbitrate.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. arbitrium. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. properly the arwella. Naprun. found in Fin. P. sorcerer. Aquatic. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. arbiter. be That it inne groweth. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. conjicio. Gr.) E. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. however. scr. arbitror arwaaja. herbere. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . is taken in is a soothsayer. Pm. Pr. man.sors. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer.] in the N. Freshly turnid Arable. divining rod. hariolus arpelen.' —About. proper. and taken away before dessert. Thus we have natiger and auger. The loss or addition of n very common. ear. pracoqua was not an adapt. aa. Now one of the points — — — . to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. delon. Albanian. Now we find in Fin. — napkin is Naperon. a cloth. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. Lat. aqua. J. and thence fit. . or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. account for either of these significations. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. aro. Roquefort. Prol. to decide by lot. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . water Which that benchid was. a soothsayer. arbiter in re censendS. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. Beryn. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. 2. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. Flower and Leaf. Lat. . It may be doubted. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. ahva. or barm-cloth. grande nappe. sestimatio arbitraria. Lat. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. arwaus.

— Wtb. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. et vulgari verbo. to demonstrate. to rule. earm. exercise lordship). man. arson. signifies chief or principal. and Kpurka. From apxeiov was formed Lat. arm. Arm. the most arrant trash. by Russ. weapon. are formed the participial nouns. arch-bishop. gwyrek. to dry. Lat. TiKToiv. as the arch of a bridge. to arm. adjective. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. And thou as arwe coward. Gr. Cot. contemptible.4 rir/. an arch boy. it signifies roguish. ancient. Gr. arcus. Aristocracy. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. and not with apx. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb.. det arrigste snavs. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. an arrant rogue.aioj. an extent of flat surface. Fr. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. vescovo. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. Du. Arduous. and must be identified with Dan. Lat. argvitugr. It. troublesome. a bow. which is derived from it. 2. apxri. Perhaps erz-wticherer. ardeo. vocaveris. to burn . raineno. Gr. receptacle where the public acts were kept. . as in E. while the Fr. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. wretched OE. There can be no doubt that E. malicious. AS. 3340.is the natural weapon of offence. Arcadia in R. Langobard. bad. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Sp. a. . an arrant usurer. arm. the terminaGael. the best. apx^iv. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. a burning or setting on fire. aj-f. archangel. a bare plot of ground. a noble. arrant Arms. lofty. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. arwe. ramo (pi. bad of its kind. armada. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. area. timid. aridus. patus). . sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. — Architect. ardor. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves.In E. Dan. burning heat. een erg kind. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. especially shoulder-joint. taxed with cowardice. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. mischievous. ein arger knabe. to Arch. arguo. armata. arduus. G. armee. make clear or prove. is essentially the same word. from nixa. apxtipfve. Area. a rule (princiruler. ^Argument. an arch-deceiver . As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. Ardour. arm'ee. sluggish. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. whence the body of the nobles collectively. W. Lat. bravest.' Paul Warnefrid. Lat. which has been referred to W. ill-tempered. arma. rame. ON. mischievous.' the Gr. . to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. Uo^a^. Sax. G. ars. From the verb armare. arg. sly. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. D. branch. the a brute. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. Fr. Ardent. kpxi- beginning. first.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. arsum. gwyro to bend. Gr. apxtlov. un malin enfant. i. Arson. wanton. a chief builder. shoulder. apxh. to be on fire. ers-betriiger. a branch. Du. Lat. Alisaunder. ' — Argue. curved line. Lat. to be in comp. arrig. bad. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. shoulder Boh. Brem. ramend). Fr. a threshing-floor. erg. argr. * ArchjAiTaxit. erz-bischof. A construct. a court yard. difficult to reach.' Lex.— Army. forearm . high. fainthearted. ardre. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . Arid. ardIn G.. The . Lat. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Applied in modern E. earg. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. curved. faint-hearted. government. Arch in composition. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. in Due. arga. weapon may be simply an application of annus. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. morally bad. fabricate). sly. worker. earh. from areo. . and our army. ruling by the nobles. erz in G. stuff. un petit rusd. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Lat. arcA in e. Arcliives. the court of a magistrate.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

beaten road. bolker. to see-saw. a clapping or flapping of wings. to rock. to plough for a boundary between lands. Gael. It. with the perhaps from balg. Boll. balken. on. cka. ' is a piece or confused talking. Du. sick. to speak an un. boleii. bacgtteter. ing. palcare. Q. separaison. Sw. Russ. pallikka. roof. ballan. * Balk. balja. ban. bolawy. from the more general notion of moving up and down. I. the beam of a ship. bal. Perhaps on. a ball or pack. bal-daed. i. afbalka. on. To Bale out water. the breadth from side to side . baler. bollr. balge. torment. Fr. to dance. ballet. mass. a clod of earth water. It. palla. to be balker. weak liquor. . ON. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. 2. bold. to ache. a separate portion. sickness. Sp. Goth. balare. may exhibit the original development of the signification. ball. a ball.—Ballad. a pill. boll. a great ball. N. Grief. taich. a globe. Hence. palloilla. wickedness ness . stage or scaffold. pallukka.— Ballet. bol. Fr. OSw. (Hesych. bdlkr.). Ball. floor. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . heap up. to by beams. and evil in general. a washing-tub. The primary sense seems as in G. ball. vacillare. shouting. to Not sparing wight. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. Dan. maan pallikka. w. globule. pallo. balk. bolyaf. plague. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. to plank. balle. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages.ing. OHG. a ball. a wooden partition . TtaKKa a pail or tub . similar connection is seen in Sp. a dance. pallo. are applied to a From the same analogy. Bohem. balloon. bjdlki. ball. a But making way for death at large to walke. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!.Lat. to signify washy drink. Bret. . ballotta. Ballot. It. Sw. Fr. bbllr bulla J. Sw. F. balk. To baulke the Sir H. balva-vesei. a partition. . hue et illuc inclinare. malefacGower in R. a ball balla. a ball. a division of the old laws. at giore en balk. dial. on. Rouchi ban. bal. ballone. Baulke of land. wickedtorment ON. G. e. bal. Ball. Gr. It. blister.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. grieve . balle. balka bunge. tum. . to be ill. balla (with the augm. bol. misery Du. bielke. calamity. ache. hooting. Venet. gen.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . bala. a beam. dial. Ballata.Fr. to ail. to avoid it. ballar). ill. Mid. balk. bolyatchka. E. maleficium. a ballot). a bubble. balveins. ballo. vcdra bdlkr. In like manner Fr. bealwes. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). to on Holmedon's plain. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. ballare. lealo. trouble. Bowl. balken. a continued noise of waves gently beating .of men . a water-skin dim. to move. the ballet of the theatres. a ballad. on the shore. chapurrar. to pack Da. destruction. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. G. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. pain. dial. a pestilence. to wave. balle. a clump . other while. . a beam. Da. Pol. to partition off . balka hopar. We have then separate dial. a boil. Hence Dan. from bacquet. to grieve . a balk of foul weather. a pail. dial. to stir.' speak gibberish champurrar. to paddle in water . to roll. a scene acted in dancmg. uveirs bolk. Sw. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. a skin. Balloon. as we say. ballare. pila. Bale. Sw. 3. ball. package of goods. — A — — . to shake or jog. . It. See Gall. baloier. AS. A balk. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. Sw. whether of wood or stone. bola. a together in the form of a ball. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. probably Lat. Sw. Da. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. says Ray. sorrow. Fin. balle. as in a barn or cow-house. balk. . balkr. baalie. Du. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Ugutio in Due. ballare. pilula. and the dim. balka. to bale out. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. a dance. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. the object of his expectation. a ball. OFr. Sw. baalien. a. to cause another to miss pustule. ne leaving any balke. to dance. Wotton.

Said to be from balaustia. endormir par des contes. explains ballast. curse. terraces. Cotgr. it is forced to take in stones or sand. astonished. baUa. It. inutile onus. Bret. like Fr. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. to enchant. . baltresac. fonts. balustrade barandilla. little round and short pillars. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. to walk. Baltic. &c. back of the ship. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. command. R. inutilis sarcina. bamein. the flower of the pomegranate. To Ban. a battlement . a useless load. 43 — Cot. ^Arbuthnot in R. ranked on the outside of cloisters. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. To make fun of a person. Report Pennsylv. It is explained back by Adelung. called Bait. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. of balusters. by met. &c. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. lastre. a fragrant gum. paid for the right of carriage. ^a\Ba\iov. more serious objection is . To Bam. balsamum. objects to the foregoing derivation. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. dial. A — — . 1854. ballustre) is a corruption. baume. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. from bara or vara. The Baltic sea. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. sorcerer. seems the original form of the word. Venet. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. as he says.). a duty on goods last.. baU. railing around altars. Bret. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. lestage. deceiver. bag-lest. Mr Marsh whether the a load. lastagium signified not only ballast. more frequently than outward-bound. a small balustrade. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon.' And Kil. or movement of one who walks.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. deceive. In OSw. a young babe. Balm. Balluster. for want of other freight. age. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. because. bambocciolo. Bamour. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. ballast. a nettle. Ballast. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. bag-las. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. bamboccio. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. 1. But Fr. Gr. It. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. To deceive. bambolo. barauste. If bambocciolare were child of one. for a load or goods (Roquef. an Old dotard or imbambolare. make fun of a person. forbid. bumbazed.that the going vessels. is in Sweden and Norway. denounce. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. Sc. a false tale or jeer. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. Fr. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. barandado. the act of walking. or ballast of a ship. ballustres. This is the backload.000 tons. puzzled. Lest. bertesca. from Lat. mare Balticun. enchanter. Du. lest. a rod. lastra. in the first place. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. . baranda. When a ship discharges. Sept. small railing. to preserve equilibrium. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. — — oltriga. Balsam. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. Dan. Sp.Lat. The Sp. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. bam. galleries. and Mid. analogous to what is seen in It. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Lat. To Bamboozle. urtica. balconies. also with flatteries and . and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. last. To proclaim. but loadage. Fr. the backload. i860.

in Fr. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. whether by way of injunction or for- command. From the verb to banda. to form parties. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. . 2. band. bandon somewhat party. band. from at the Lord's courts. Spebifid. then the signification w. he assembled his host. a coast. Wyntoun. —R. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Les saiges avait et les fols d.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Mag. the ensign or banner. margin. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. to ctide. he bannede his ferde. To Bandy. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius.—John Villani in Due. Goth. curse. Car. &c. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. It seems this signification has arisen. ex. R- He Translated by Chaucer. E. eiiseigne. ba?idare. i. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. at his own discretion.. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. D. 15. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . populum. — To partito d'alcuno. and in E. bando. border. faction. Ripuar. to . 'A son bandon. Leg. theodscipe ut abannan. Band. A. says Muratori. . It. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. bannire exercitum. hoc est vexillo. side. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. we constantly find the expression. etc. and thence to any proclamation. banns pany of footmen serve. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Commun^ment son bandon. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. Sp. &c. also the band or of marriage. Cot. 813. tener da alcuno. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. fahne. to reprove. in hostem convocare. Goth. bande.e. bound. Se il — Romance languages. Capitul. bannum or bandum. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Fr. Sw. R.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Sp. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. banner marked the place of assembly. Diss. G. ligue Taboada). a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Bandus. bandera ground at his mill. and It.^ bandy. There is some doubt how Fr. bannire in exercitum. v. 26. sostener Torriano. In a special sense the term company itself. to bring corn to be fahne. It. It. 1. banda. In Fr. a company. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. See Abandon. to excommunicate {lysa. is That with which anything AS. power. summoning to serve So in Swiss. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. bann. passing on from proclamation to command. bande. authority. region. OE. to unite with a band. acquired the sense of proclamation. Assises de Jerusalem. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. to side or to bandy (Florio). bandon was used in the same sense. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. to ban.is further developed. Fr. bindan. bundun. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. Bandear. those who side together (bande. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. The to . bandi. flag. to follow a faction. change to the feminine gender in banda. banda. Baud. to publish) banna. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays.Lat. bande. banda the colour or material. parti. side. to take one to task. biddal. 19. — excommunication bann-lysa. admolendinum. Thus the word is also used in both senses. — R. permission.

It. b'ang. seat . Ripuar. Bacon in R. broken. a rising bank. Goth. Bane. the slope of a hill. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Bantze. Brewer. Milton in R. banca his creditors. at canis peciiarius. of bandying words. in the same way that E. Fr. bana-sott. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. for shame. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. a bankrupt merchant. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets.HG. AS. se reunir. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Benchi. standard. — — whence E. a bench. to bend a. a bench. to work in wood. bana-sdr. Roquefort. bana. to slay.z. Lingua. many a bang. g. A Shipman's Tale. bander. Tibalt. 45 — — Bandit. AS. — Paulus drive in a nail. forbear this outrage. has bang-bang. bow. to make a stir banke. band-dog. eminence. tumult bangas. whence the mod. distinguishes bekkr. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. to hammer in a nail. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. banja. The child cries bang! fire. — . Sw. hammering. to foment factions. Dan. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. banco. murderer. Fr. bannire. banca fallita. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. . banditti acquired the like signification. death-sickness. Banner. the back. From a desk . band-hond. When a man fails Lat. bana. benk. as of an explosion or a blow. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. It is in this sense nounce. a long raised seat. death-blow . clouds. N. Banister. ON. in R. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. bent as a bow. a blow. and bakki. shoal. bank. stir. and OFr. hricg. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. ON. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. a wound OHG. a de Vaud. Bandy legs are crooked legs. bank of river. bander tin arc. The ing. was formed the OFr. bandear. But natheless wife at I bank. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. s'associer. that the word is used by Romeo. home — Bandog. — Kil. pastoralis. bane. disturbance banga. to knock. E. to publicly order one out of the realm. Fl. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. counter. in the sense of a pirate. bank of Dan. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. destruction . ruptus. beating. banish. Bang. language of W. eminence. bank of a river. Hudibras. roupt.: . a table. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. a i. bance. 2. bench. Diez. —^Vocab. bana. outlam came to signify a robber. — Fr. among rotta. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. in the sense of place of business. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. bank. &c. Draw. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. a sand-bank. Banditti. banke. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . desk. To Bandy. Your stool. . a bank. beat. banc. Bandy. bandi. to proclaim. With many a stiff thwack. See Banish. The word is in E. a counter. to cabal. back of a knife. The ridge of a hill is AS. a bench. Lat. It. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. from banc. Bankrupt. Diaconus in Due. bandire. and poise Their lighter wings. dorsum was applied to ject. Du. banc G.^ knock. rap hatike et som The Susu. Africa. bench. se joindre. Bank. ON. &c. Mercutio. death-wound. large dog kept for a guatd. de sable. . canis vinculis assuetus. . bander. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Fr. de- party. follow a party. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. and therefore tied up. the former Fr. It. Mid. Benvoglio. . From Mid. See Band. bakke. banka. and hence. the same verb the It. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). to beat. See Balluster. panca. put under the ban of the law. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. banqueroute. bang. bankruptcy. to knock.

men. wrapped. and he would seem to derive Goth. and even of calling it banter. and it was accord. dim. then branches. Leduchat. uncivilised. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. privileged to raise Barbarous. sparro. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. A It. Fr. ingly very generally known by a name branches. branches of a tree {gwezen. barbarus. a war-beacon or war-signal. banchetto. — We A . that the noise of voices Bantling. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. ON. chan. &c. Thus Ovid. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. is to virtue of the number of their retinue.the analogous syllable viur. to dip. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. Hence Fr. bannereti. E. the word came to signify rude. Barbe. senhal. The origin is in all probability Goth. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. Fr. rarii. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. It may be thing. banneret. It. It. bandiera. barbed or trapped as a great horse. a bearded or Cot. Lat. a bantling. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. banneret was a higher class of knights. token. milites bannarii. of banco. banda. &c. ^oTrriKio. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. sbarra. then fell among the foot. in Gr. a barrier or stoppage. bandva.cruel. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. as they call it. Fr. 3. ON. merki.aTa Kul nest.. and with an initial s. of a sign in general. inferior to a baron. indeed. barriire. barre. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. Banneret. manu anto make signs nuere. to having that signification. brushwood. Banquet. OHG. banda hendi.46 BANNERET . Barb. sparre. barrack. banner. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. Hence ner. nestling. a sign. BARBAROUS reiflingr. to bend. banne. a.hinder. a bench or table . an animal a year old. ing term appears in other languages. jSdirTO). by a repetition of the syllable bar. banniire. The barb of an arrow is the sign . The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. jSa'pjSapoc. Celtic bar. heri-pau. top. Lat. According to Diez the It. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. Barbar. 2. barreau. or of this bantering. barbe. Gael. benda. a tree). bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. To mock or jeer one. E. knight Bardd. senhal. summit. to beckon . to wrap. a which the barrister addresses the court.8ap6^o)voe. OHG. Flesche barbeUe. OFr. from reifa. To Banter. barra. and from ensign or banner Prov. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. G. Bap. . Lat. It. Gr. i. —Cot.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. barrer. Barb. Fr. inur. rod of any rigid substance. E.— Swift in R. period vexillarii. senheira. branch. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Gr. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. bar. iandvo. would rupted from Fr. Fr. ban- Baptise. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. barrou-gwez. senh. The original import of their own banner in the field. probably corSymbol. arineXov. Fr. which is surely in barbed arrow. signuin. barba. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. from the same source. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. hence a repast. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. sign. a ban. of wind. out of a wound. barde. speaking of battle. either in the Gr. The spar. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. to wash. remarked. says. Duo. such as the Roman Eagle.. Bret. himself in Pontus. and the work is done. In a similar manner are formed yearling. a beam or long pole of wood. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. Sw.

— — — men. Sp. Bargain. berj G. boil.— BARBEL merit of water. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. Port. It. Lex. barguigner. is lb. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. the beard. berries. barda. bare baskojis. barbarkama. formerly used in the sense of tattle. bdla-khaneh. /3£pjSepi^w. gibberish. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. barbulla. Barbican. — Cot. in poetic language Bard for poet. — . Bare. . speak confusedly. twattle. barS. to stammer. as well as the modern twaddle. barbel. to stammer. bardes. a tumultuous assembly. It. to boil or bubble up . albarda'ah. Barder. Cotgr. brim. Gr. Arab. Bardeau. powdered all over. barz. Russ. Barberry. borbulhar. — . barbacane. Fr. guazzolare. horse armour covering the front. and flanks. jargon. Pr. Gr. barbugliare. which was of talking. grumble (Lowndes. Etym. also to wallow like a seething pot. border of a garden bed. Sp. and in Flanders to vociferate. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. to wash. Lucan. albarda. baar. Cot. barbeter. Etym. w. a rumbling. Mod. to chafbargain. or more properly (says fer. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. The Pers. skirmish. bdsiis. a long saddle for an ass or mule.— — Pm. to It. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Fr. also to bind or tie across. muttering. upper chamber. barefooted Sanscr. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. — — Hence. G. /3opj3opwJu. barboter. to plash or dabble. to barbe or trap horses. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. bardd. waschen. barbeau. Hall in R. saddle-cloth. Applied in E. a jetty or outnook in a building. borboglio. OFr. to grunt.) to wrangle. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. Fr. scouthouse. border. Fr. tattle. Hatt-bard. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. murmur . In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. to mumble or mutter words. Festus in Diet. barbar. bhasad. barda. used 2. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. to bubble or boil. as well as thwcEtta. to bubble or spring up. Hindost. i. Cotgr. skirt.) . the edge of a shield hval-barct. haggle. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. fortia —Strabo. borbollar. guaszare. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. ready money. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. on. small pack-saddle. skola. skialldar-bard. to prattle. the flap of a hat. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling.' Cot. Lith. barbaris. borbotar. borborinha. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. albardilla. Bret. the nakedness of a woman. and Sc. uncovered. the quilted with. Mod. bdsas. Sp. unqualified. such as houses are covered Bardelle. a bardelle. But Sp. name Fr. to make an outcry . Barde. open. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. barbelin. Thus the on. mutter. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. dial. An outwork for the defence of a gate. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. to rumble. and foolishly. in the sense of fight. a pack-saddle. barbier. barbeum. Barber. A7 to the and warlike. ala. Barbel. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. uproar. in Fr. Bard. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. baragouin. g. Port. to gurgle.— Fl. axilla. a shingle or small board. A shrub bearing acid Diet. baares geld. bar. Exposed to view. Fl. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. stutter. back. bds. brabble in the making of a bargain. coping. and the word was used in OE. twcEtta. quarrel . lb. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. . Diez. tree. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON.

Barbour in Jam. bosom . Camus. Bret. barretor. a. barn. Sp. prasepe . have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. . which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. dial. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Swab. but the woman for the man. baarm. 2. hemlock. skuta. berma. Barn. squabble. varen. the A — Ihre. * Barnacles. barone. louzou. beorcan. and the word. Sp. disorder. beer. To Bark. W. charlock. Uzen. the slimy substance brewing of beer. a barn. to rout. barley. also a boat . Cornub. barajar. and hence probably (by a metaphor. See Barm. bern. in the Brim. to shufSe. plants). borkr. barja. berm hoys. to scold. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. a heap. as. dregs of oil. quarrel. —Bark. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. So ON. quant a perdu sa barja. the or prow of a ship. bere. fray. barnis. border. berem. kani. Gael. and 1. bread. Antiq. Alam. the G. barge. tumult. See formed Yeast. barley. i. confusion. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. altercation. So also ON. a receptacle for barley or corn. Spectacles. beornt. spectacles. quarrel Port. berm. baralha. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. as baces-ern. baaren. — de Berri. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. barii. am. a lap. to strive. houbartij fsnile. limpet. and ern. contest. barki. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. a boat. AS. w. hay-loft. bamagh. dispute.. then honoured man. to chop. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Leg. put to confusion. a beak. baron)^ Fr. . Garlick. limpets. also to exchange. as well as Scandinavian tongues. bread-corn. The older form in e. Sp. Ibid. one who stirs up strife. Lith. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barlys {bara. to skin over barkandi. From Fr. limpets . baarn. as. ON. baragouin. struggle. ThS man was not created for the woman. Romance barsie. — battle. dispute barattare. at barka. — Barnacle. Manx bayrn. Port. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Rayn. trouble. in Nat. 2. barahunda. ON. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. baimeach. Sw. was barlic. and llysiaw. to wrangle. barley. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. from an imita- Barley. prominent part of a thing. baniffa. Vocab. OFr. v. herbs. Isidore in Rayn.' bardagi. entangle. chaffer. is simply the Bret. as in the case of Lat. berm. Baron. a stack. lap. baralhar. Leg. OSw. edge. strife. a place. bark . and may therefore be an Eastern word. The origin may be throat. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. a load. hlaSa. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. On the other hand. tion of the sound. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . barn. barlich. Port. baaring. corn-shed. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. aheap. barmr. bard). strife. dispute .) lihtes-ern. the fore or after end of a boat . It. OFr.^Voc^. ber (ace. barn. then the bows pectus navis. hladi. . dispute. barms.. giving rise to It. mhg. Originally man. contest. As Goth. . so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. to all the barca.Barum vel feminam. — Zeuss. bernac. meta foeni. barlys. adj. Acervus. AS. brenig. Bailey. to cheat. dispute . bcern. barafustar. husband. baratta. a heap . Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. baratta. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. a lantern. barnacles. ON. The Goth. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. wine. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. Dan. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. Provj bar (ace. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. bosom. Bark. (Ihre. barafunda. bargain. bern. commonly explained from bere. Prov. Ripuar. and is probably a true bartig. Du. name being given to spectacles. Bemiques. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Dan. a cap . ON. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. baron. Du. the rack or manger. skutr. astringent. a baking place or oven. Barge. Kil. baerm. E. strife. Gl. It. bcerme.

fortification. bark&n. bahre. alongside of barrow. Bern. implement for carryAS. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Barrel. in the first instance. Gael. signifying. iver. rolls of Parliament. squabble. w. vel pretiosos burellos. staves. bouracan. G. a castrated hog . barchent. OFr. a. baraignej Picard. calico. facture. to * Barragan. in Nat. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. barrique. an obstruction. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. a hiU. a bar. nobles. barrier. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. Barrister. todtenbahre. barile. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart.root signifying confused noise.— Gibbon. hut. garment still used in Morocco. bara. a bier. gwr. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Antiq. baragan. AS. mound. from a tree to which a man is hanged. barre. Bret. man. — — 15th Cent. beorh. It should be observed that. bearg . a horse. S. E. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. Formed from Fr. cover. Joshua vii. ^Vocab. ^Barrator. See Barter. bredhan. fear. especially those killed in battle. seem to be radically the same with Lat. Sp. as cavalcade. baronuU. barri. fallow. OE. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. litter. gravis et authenticus vir. semen non accipiens landiEL. baracca. also termed bannerets. braeck. Barratry. to carry.' Op. Barricade. which would barragdn. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. vair. borov'. perhaps through Prov. Gael. It. then traffick4 Barrow. Bohem. whenever Barrow-hog. became bidre. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. Goth. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. from beran. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. baronculi.parchanttuech. over him. The feudal tenants next Fr. beorgan. Fr. bera. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. Fr. bier. whence Barrow. heap.. It. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. On chet — We — — their resemblance. a man. as.. boar. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. AS. strife. bara. baronetti. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. tomb. berewe. change of goods seems. barague. by early examples. sterilis. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. barrila.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. composed of dry branches ofer. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. Barren. This word introduced into Fr. — A . the two names. a word is always used in the plural number. like bargain. It was not until the time of James I.have been named from the haggling and gant. StiU he shows conclusively. sepulchre. habeant. Barrack. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. baroncelli. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. 26. dispute. a. barrack. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. breinej Du. Bargus or moreland. were sometimes confounded. barril. ibid. and not from Fr. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. Sp. 1. A. barBombicinus. booth.' that Barrier. Baron andfemme. barraca. 2. a barrel. The Sp. Russ. a barrow. to shelter. Sp. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. G. a hut or booth. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. D. and in several instances. It. (Schmeller). qui have not much light on the pre. uncultivated. or simply bahre. a kind of coarse camlet. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. — Kil.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. Nominale of the from braeckland. from cavallo. MHG. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. vir. An ing. brushwood. man and wife. branches. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. See Bar. Bamnculus a baronet. beorg. the braw. shed. barrique. berwen. cise formation of the word. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw.

bast-reb. would be. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. back. HaUiweU. commonly A joined with the word binda. bas. bast. A fabulous serpent.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. Bast. inclosure. of the same sense. Sp. shallow. basta. bast. low. a bastard. from bere. a deceiver. but born in baste. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. Sw. and tun. See Bath.). thick. baste. truck. Pl. to stitch . him. a king. MHG. low part of the Hickes in Rich. Sicamb. Newman. fornication. cog. said Base. chasa. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. from /3aR. the thin skin Dan. to baste. Isidore. cheating. oe. baratear. corn-farm. on a. lust. The like property hath the iasilisk. /«r<fSp. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt.D. rope for — . To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. scale in music. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. Sp. There is not one that. beguile. the — — to kill those that look upon it. imbastire. bdtir.looketh upon his eyes. also to Cotgr. flat. he. a basket masg. the a wide open vessel. tierer. to bind hand and foot. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. OFr. ing for profit. . also the demesne lands of a manor. to baste piece of cloth. come near. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). which covers the grain Ger. Fris. G. Fr. berewic. Lend me your hands. BassuS. ' He was begetin o bast. Sp. Bassus. AS. bareter. Dan. Swed. God it wot. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. Basilisk. preparatory stitching. pressed down. PaaiKhms. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . bestan. fornication. mavult dicere Roma suam. basso. bran. Halliwell. basg. foist in bargaining. Bastard. basso. OFr. baos. bass-matting. Gr. to cheat. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. piiiguis. ' Bosworth. leviter consuere. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. peel. to bargain. Kil. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. at basta og binda. It. to truck. barley. a court-yard. low. . exchange. It. It. Dan. discourse Nay. a bass rope. ibid. 516. lift me above Parnassus. beretun. Sw. basta. to Diez. Al is dai. Apparently of Celtic origin. husk bast van koren. besst-u-b£nd&t. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. mean . to bind. bassin. besst. Barton. Du. To stitch. or wic. unrighteous gain. HaU in HaUiwell. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . lattice-work. bastear. over-reaching. ohg. HoUinshed. netting. It. to cheat. barter. It. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. fhe outhouses and yards. Du. crassus.' Gl. basgod. more noble in blood than notable in learning. which sets up its hood when angry. Sylvester's Dubartas. The original meaning. To Bask. It. a halter. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. barter. MHG. — in Rich. MS. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. then cheating. But according And Dan. bast-maatte. Bass. Bartizan.' Papias. See Brattice. Lap. fraud. i. descended of an honorable lineage. Fr. fits de bas. To Baste. chasa ogli a bastard. baxoj w. binding. submovet omne Lucan. mock not. — hanging. Bass. baraand especially teria. low note. as the diadem of the basilisk. humilis. pdrdt. imbastire. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. according from Gael. as It. court-yard. ^Is de bast. stitch. baste. the manorhousfe itself. w. Arthur and Merlini.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. plaiting of splinters basged. It is mentioned as . embastir. a ftiesh. Fr. to deceive. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). aiKcig. hoops of a cask. and Bret. Basket. beortun. — Bassoon. . With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. bestcn. F. a ipgli So Turk. dwelling. bast. but he dreth presently. to long — a British word by Martial. or running away with the ship. a tying. baste. baraet (from Fr. bds. partieren. n' is n' is bacino. to bind. baratar. curtus. Barbara de pictis veni patch. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. exchange. found in Turkish . bark. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone.

a pad. to rub gently. and Cot. raise. to lay the Sp. blakka. Supp. bak. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft.. to beat. a sconce. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. disposer. It. Fr. Florio. 'iJipistreUo. I. vespertilio. . to devise or begin. badger. and ditches bastion. cudgelling. For the origin of baston see Baste. vespertilio. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. a barSp. It. which in the E. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Fr. flyinge best. provisions. Bastinado. bastir. a packsaddle. bastilde. Derived by Diez from iasi. frame. also to cudgel. translation to a bat. a bastion.stick.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. Sw. a bird which. p. basto. a things prepared for future use. beating. the E. ari instruineht for beating. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. Sc. bakie-bird . the night-jar or goat-sticker. a with a stick. a. the bat .— . set up. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. to build. blatta. quelqu'un son roulet. has bastine. boste. bastille. ment. R. to whip. but this is hardly satisfactory. bastear. packsaddle. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. to pack a saddle i. to spread bread and butter. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. to quilt or stitch wool into it. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. blaka. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . club.stitching in general. baston. the original has corneille. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. Fr. pre. batta lucifuga. from Fr. Sw. 2.fortress or castle furnished with towers. To baste one's hide . to stroke. liiake. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. like the owl and the bat. a stick. to set on foot a war Bastion. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. explains Sp. Prov. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. to thrash . : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. put it together. contrive. devise.Lat. — — — . blacta. Pm. Sw. aftonbakke. bastonFr. Rayn. R.-^ Chaucer. bastione. to build. in the use of the E. bastine. also the ricado. basa. basta. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. dial. Pr. frotter. niammal. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. to belabour. erect. iinbastire. whence ledrblaka. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. back. passage Imbasto. vledermus. and Arabs. bastonnir. worth (Nat. To donjon. E. . compared with blakka. a blockhouse. bladier. 164). A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . the winged . Perhaps baska. in the Romance languages. to rub. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. * Bat. blows. 11864. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. night-bat.'CaB. bastida. Sp. To beat or bang soundly. stryk. For the loss of the / in back. to Due. is explained by Cot. 2. to drub. Fr. to give him a sound bastingi 3. nade. BAT neither. — Bakke. to flap. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. bdion. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. Dan. Sp. 2. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. comp. bastir. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. bastonada. ON. as weU as besteau. military term of a bat-horse).baste or knock soundly. blakta. e. — — Fl. bastia. Dieiif. blatta. a blow cloth for dinner. settiilg up. staff. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. beysta. bast. Cot. a pad or packsaddle. the clapper of a bell. business (Altieri). guerra bastir. That yche blak y dar wel telle. bat. Dan. baston. Mid. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. or implement for 4 * A . Sw. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. blakra. It. natt-blakka. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. victuals. Cot. bastimento. iastir. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . to beat. to teach one before. dial. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. which to rest the load. set up. stryka. Antiq. All from bastir. contriving.— Bailey. to cudgel.

quell. to thrive. to beath wood Battledoor. oneself at the A into faggots. Pm. Sw. to foment with hot applica. bdt. In OE. solbase.— . fortress or castle. to betake oneself. in the sun.Hence in the augmentative form It. From OFr. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. Bate. — — — ' — . also a sun badfish.— To Bask. pak. batador. bdda vidjor. to heat. Plkkis. or make debate. a staff. as wood-en. and as a verb. allay . gabatnan. or a dry stick. a from ON. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . Barbour in Jam. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. from battre. baka. abate. signifying to give repeated blows. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. bastille. adapted for defence. a Baiffi. dial. Holz bdhen. tagUone. term in falconry . — To . in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. remit. then to warm by the application of hot water. Hal.' Palsgr. solen baddar. a battle. whence the sun burns . bake.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. . Gael. and with staffslyng. a beating. busk. to warm. bada. gebdcke. and about an inch thick. baeddu. See Better. dial. Pr. battre las ailes. bludgeon. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. to foment. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. gebdck. better. bdhen. Batyn. To Batten. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. as signifying warm baths. — Cot. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. A batch as wood. I. To thrive. abattre. strife. cudgel. beat. A Bath. I bathe in water viz. 2. fashes basking in the sun squadron. dispute. dial. Du. bet. to become fat. Ayenst the sunne. a stirrer-up of strife. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. battaglia. It. a blow. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to beat. is in falling. made of — A made by one Batcii. to feed. Baka sik vid elld. betten. battions. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . Battalion. heat. Bret. batir. It. a battalion. baquetazo. to refresh oneself in language. to bathe oneself. Fr. to foment. a main battle. to heat . Chaucer. Sp. a blow with a light instrument. a washing beetle. an arrangement for giving blows. more. baden. water whether warm or cold. . Flem. to fell. batna. to get better. to fight. battere. was formed bastilU. The bat with which a brot bdhen. badask. tradire. to beat. Goth. for biia sik. Strife. as E. ON. Battery. bat. In some parts of England it is striking. to become convalescent. bataille. Slav. bdda. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. sich bakern. Mgy. wet linen in washing.Bathe. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. dial. G. beat. in the case of a wall. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. buask made like a fortress. Jurgor. a great seems related to baden as Fr. battle was used beath wood. Battlement. makebate. to flutter with the wings. basa. lessen. to toast bread. squadron. flour. Bat. Sw. Battery. PLD. hot. of bread is so much baked zX one time. and milk beaten up together. is a simple adoption of Fr. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. certain bend. made of bats. Fr. w. G. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. by projections or in any licoure. Pm. I baske. Sp. E. badda. as E. battre. to beat se battre. to be profited. Fr. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. to warm oneself at the fire. Florio. Batten. batte sig. Battle. to dial. debat. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. battere. baz. beat down. to bathe. a band of armed men arranged basa. on the fire. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. perhaps first used adjectivally. Batter. a stick. Fr. bat-en. from on. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. Fr. howis. or break down. G. To Bate. the root of e. battre. e. Eggs. Hence pro. to cudgel. . to warm oneself. From bat in the sense of rod . batacazo. quhar he suld assaill. on. Bailey. to fire or in the sun. batterie. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. trahtr to It. also. the heat of the It. to beat. Fr. Jeddris and covering. altercation. Pr. badda. to beak. to for fighting.

whimwham. brush faggot. balGael.' ' Pegma. filth. Ball-seirc. babsmall toy to play withal. Hal.guage). tille. sword-belt. a horse marked with a procession. Swiss Rom. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. fagot. or Cot. whence the E. baue. instead oi s. i. The word may perhaps be sticks. E. to make the noise Baudrick. fields. Pr. fe bau.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. librillo. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Cot. Bagdad. an embattled wall. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. bau. bal. scarf. bouaila.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. sorry. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. b \% bouala. a plot of Chaucer.. collar. or the animal so marked. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. a zan. ! Bauble. c. pie- . P. dirt. Beaus^ent. Ball. excrement. an — — — A — g — — — . mew. to vociferate. baban. lewd . speckled. exactly corresponds Fr. BAWSON Swiss. bobbin or cluster of thread. baffe. Bavin. Cotgr. to cry. Formed from baw. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. It. rotten. in OE. s. Irel. Prov. a white mark Bawdy. a horse with white legs. filth. to talk Lacombe. Fr. balderich. to me-wl. from Fr. to void the bowels. a gavel. from Baldacca. javelle. and authorities in note. baula. is Bagdad stuff. Fl. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. the face. a tassel or hanging bunch . 8. dacchino. A name of the badger. dirty. Piedm. In like manner Grisons filthy. and to-tore also. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). ballach. bobine. baugant. Baw — . a tassel. Baldrick. cluster. —R. dung. P. Zalli. E. Descript. Cot. E. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. Bawson. — — ' Lydgate. to low or bellow as corn. From Bret. bauU. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. E. toys. R. pegma. represented by the syllable miau. It is all bawdy. expressive of disgust. to play the babby. Batylment of a wall. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. horse. to 53 manure the To baw. a spot. bal. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. or toys. tab. Sc. whence pouacre. trifle. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face.— P. Lat. is used for a sented by bau. The It. spotted. — Pm. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. to the same origin. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. baudrdj OHG. bad. Fr. balbob. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. an object. a lump. or sheaf of Bridel. was simply a field gold. bablyn or waveryn. a belt. Pr. ball. faisceau. guigaw. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. s. and Sp. bausan.. miauler.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. propugnaculum. spot. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. vacillo. on the face of animals. Cloth of gold. child. obstrepere. to bark. also more Bawdekin. Jam. to bark . form with an initial seen in Fr. as Fr. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. From ! an interjection of disgust. baw.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. the Swiss baben. P. bow-wow. 2. a lump or cluster babhaid. OFr. to trifle away ment. ground. Gael. It. Filthy. disgusting. because made of cloth of white. dial. trifles.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. An analogous noisily. babbole. Fr. babiole. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. having a white streak down Bagdad. OFr. bow (as in our nursery Diez. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Pm. ON. fooleries or fond To Bawl. baubare. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . the white of his leg or foot. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. a dog). ish baubles. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. zano. divided between black and white. It. W. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. bauch. also the canopy carried part of his body. baudrat. dente. nastiness.

Fr. gate. to be Bohem. husk. badius. in order to keep the enemy in check. Serv. BAY marked with bjly. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. . Mod. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth.' — — 54 bald. Abide. white. at his last gasp. to gape. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. watching intently. bde. when.. Sp. 1859. large window in a handsome . living Ir. Gael. stood watching him stoop. is perhaps not directly from Lat. dividere. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. Gr. a dagger. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. to mark. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. — A At Bay. Fr. dehiscere . Lat. Drayton in R. waiting . * To Be. BauSfi)/. It. a beast. a cluster of bacon. AS. . tradire to Fr. to betray. hddhe-dhonn. baer. life. Earth — By Nature made to till. —F. bagaid. put to his last shifts. Catalan hadia. buidhe. Sp. baie. See Bawl. and keeps them in check for a while. baier. Vielp. 25. . Arts. bay. baga. badarc. house . In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. To Bay. he turns and faces his pursuers. a hole. life. F. baionette. —Diez. S. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. It has been shown under Abie. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. or window ' (in Fortification). berry. Swab.—Journal Soc. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. to amuse stare a bada. bahia. corrupted into Bow-window. Fr. From Cat. &c. baja. It. The — Fr. which however.. bilyega. or berries. baher. —Bay-windo'W. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. barn of two bays. beo. It. siege of Bayonne in 1665. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. baya. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. Fr. baye. bilyejiti. Sp. Fr. expresr sion tenere a bada. BE Probably conRuss. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. Fr. See At Bay. like a pie. bijel. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. weary of running. badia to Sp. berries. Feb. batibari. the cod or husk of beans or the like. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. from an imitation of the sound. alive. |8i'os. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. the step is the same as from It. to keep at a bay. bahia. to stand watching one. OSp. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. Swiss beie. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. baca. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. Bay. laurel of the ancients. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste.' Bailey. abbabayer. or at bay. as if to signify a window of curved outline. bayo. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. so called from its bearing bays. the cod of peas. living thing . bacca. Bay-tree. to on anything. Lat. to keep one waiting. desiring. It. open the mouth. Bayonet. buidhe- The ruadh. to open. Q. aux dehniers abois.c. from badar. w. Bay. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. bay. 1. ing-floor. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. overture. The word bay. to iiitent nected PoL white. Piedm. arose two forms of the verb. bayen-stein. beothach. Prov. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. Cot. by the term rendre les abpis. A stag is said to stand at bay. a berry. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. window . window-sill. or to have been first used at the Cot. bai. ist. Holland's Pliny in R. or recess in an apartment in modern times. bate. Q. to open as a blossom. bajo. to split. as gazing. and zndly. bialo. stare. beonj Gael. yellow . It. bioth. baiare. and the To bark as a dog. baccello. trahir. — Schmid. From the former verb is the It. bdcr. &c. Such Antaeus seemed to me. See Bald. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. especially beans. the world Gr. the laurel-bay. . one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. Gael. a mark./^ bau. A hollow in the 'line of coast. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. a'uno. baca. grapes or nuts. that from ba.— Stalder. badarse. &.

ON. pig. to beckon. or any action done with a pointed thing. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. post. to nod . origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. and Lat. which is. . a nod OHG. into France. Be. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. The nutu significare. —F. Beach. bohnej ON. Goth. Thus the final en. Fr. beans. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. bakke. See To Bid. Beak. bank. bob. bM. W. bead. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G.fuis5e. bokan. a curtsey. — bedeau. bean. The origin seems preserved in E. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. or beic. faba is Kvavoq. salve his hurts. a prayer. It forms a.. Bret. fromthe danger. bidan. «va\ioQ. The immediate shore of the Menage. Farrar. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. to produce young.' Suetonius in Diez. a hill. bee. beugler. bagms. G. beacen. an attendant. Trans. -phxr. a beak. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular.ad. be. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. Bean. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. OSax. Gael. — : Beam. E.from AS. to wait-. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. a presage. signifying a point. bohne. backe. however. bairan. bar. as. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem.' adheres to the root. Goth. atUndre. Beckon. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. Bear. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. according to of Sanscr. g. signifying individuality. Chapters on Lang. ohg. to nod the head. 54. The wild beast. fora-bauhan. Moreover the name. baum. beic.fer-re j Gr. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. * Beagle. beic. He says. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. fero. into a snjall river. rising ground. It. badmr. bedm. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. prodigy bauhnjan. — to bow or nod . stock. gebed. a tree. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Sw. on. Gael. like most nautical terms. Lat. the part overflowed by the tide. to carry. tale of prayers or doxologies. N. vii. A two-year old nephew of mine p. . To Bear. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. baun. bidello. not applied to the yelping of dogs. would say. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. l^ax. becco. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. nokkima. A Esthon.fui. Du. fd or faVf beans. beacnian. Q wait upon him. Beck. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. bydel. Gr. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. was introduced from England sea. a sign. AS. It. vol. as well as f& or fav. a tree. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. bdkna. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Slavon. ffaen. as. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. Beadle. beck. AS. bearti. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. support. Fr. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. bek. Bret. W. pierced for hanging on a string.to have a French origin. — Bellenden in Jam. to bellow.' Hall's Chron. or however. ffci. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. Boom. bakkje. ON. . a single bean. Catalan becar. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. G. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. Beacon. boom. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. faba. a single bean. bauhan. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. Netherlands or North Germany. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Gael. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Hackluyt in R. It is BEAR SI court. Pardoner's Tale. to wait. or breathing. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum.

To load with ornament. Lith. agreeable. to happen. befit. produce. when up. baba. beatanj It. den. an notion of being convenient. suitable. a brook. the latter are derived It. byrcti. a bank. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. to arrive at. border. as the babble of the child. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to be fulfilled. 2. venient. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. bestiaj Gael.fit. Fr. obtain. to fall mode of being. happening as it ought. to fall. — . Dan. tidy. brook . ON. a bank. suitable. from the same in the sense of bear2. bcek. It. bach. burdr is used in the sense of a car. the beard.of being very angry. now confined To Become. ting. to get. to hem. Diez. baurthei. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. Beauty. bib or slobbering cloth. becuman. to assume a certain form or Turk. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. bett. Perhaps from Pol. gelimplic. Now the Beast. Beck. to carry. blast. Lat. 1. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. Secondarily applied to a hat. bart. Bo. to please. babrad. to be incumbent upon him. dress with unbecoming richness . E. The quadruped. to happen. o. the ece thurhwuniath. slobber. dushmak. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. The OFr. to G. OSw. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. bekommen.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. comely. judgment. rying. tidig.we call the arrangement becoming. to come to or upon. fallinn. On the same principle. from baver. limplice. Sp. Boeth. bellus. and Fr. bave i. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. R. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. to dabble .AS. baviire.' every way suited to a prince. biber. bring forth. to sleep on. covered the face. Chaucer. limpian. if sound of a sharp blow. G. barba.— Kiittner. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. brada. Do no To It fallith favour. because made of the fur of the beaver. to those goods which endure for ever. G. to wade through the water like a beaver. becuman. bave. Thus OY. i. It. place to lie down. i. to happen.to clothe to slobber. AS. or special purpose. bur. Lat. Beck. beauts. opportune.getiman. gefallen. . to attain to the lot of any one. See becymth anfeald yvel. Beckon. Fr. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. Beat. e. Bedizen. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. dize or dtzen. brook. and also in that of birth. seemly. while from Shep. whence baveux. timan. to the brook itself. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. get J ' He got very angry. con. bello. Beaver. duty. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. battere. bobr. barf. receive. Fr. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. bebrus. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Fr. I do thee pray. e. talkative. fiber. bava. which. edge. taste. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. Bosworth. agreeable. bequem. handsome. connected with ripa. Lat. riviire. G. See Bat. gabaurths. badi. AS.S6 fero. pens unmixed evU. or river. perhaps a living thing. to live. bekkr. Thcem. proper. Goth. G. biivre. limpan. See Bank. and to acquire. Cal. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. R. fitanimal. See Beacon. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. convenient. E. ON. ziemen. The moveable part of a helmet. or a feeling to be gratified. from beau. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. That thou mayest attain Goth. The fitting or suitable. decent. godum with ON. G. pleasing. bard.' are equivalent expressions. Russ. befall.' ' He became very angry. but now a river only. behkr. Fr. Slav. Prick of Conscience. chin. iida. pretty. In like manner condition. a. to happen. to be a part of his to. proper . to appertain. boroda. and on. gebank. fitly . to the good hapHalbard. decorous. — A — A — . name applied originally to the bank then proper . fit. byw. riviera. ON. a lip. bedr. Prov. to fall in with our bavard. He becom on sceathan. to bear children. E. beo. to shore. formerly a happen. to happen. as. nothing to thy name make. bel. ON. bobrowai. birth. W. As rivus. living. nod or sign. g. our taste. bavec. it is probable that here also the to become. bearing. Lat.

cozen. buche. a pillow-case. woman that is newly delivered. Rom. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. I put the flax upon it to spin. as in It. to parget or rough-cast . Gael. curded or beesty. bytl. bably named from the destructive quali| T. to coagulate. garden-herb. to change . Cot. bletumj Gr. to twist poorma.cz//aj. ^. translation beOj. AS. Lat. may be shpped on and off. a wasp. cousin. on. biest-milch. speach. bedawi. to flatten In OE. which also 2. a cup or implement for AS. and lebermer in G. boeuf. a clapper. a drink potus. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. Dan. fagus. buk. The honey-producing insect. 'La Gl. from blood. Grimm. clog for a dog b'oteln. . AS. a paviour's beetle batail. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr.— JI14. in Nat. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. kiissen-biere. de Fierabras in Diez. Bee. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. It.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. an ox. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. a cover. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. ris. from the hos. sang vermeilh betatz. madhouse. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. and in driving piles. Slav. doubtless. whence familiar.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. bet. as. * Beestings. to rough- cast. Fr.. qui de lecto surgere non potest . beta.D. stakes. red curdled Arab . . Fr. biiren. a wandering Prov.' So Gr. taglio. KXlvoTTiT^e. also bienst. of beatmg. extant in Bohem.D. to curdle or lopper. ProBeer. &c. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. bbtel. bette or blettej Lat. E. . which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. beyki._t from the root pi. In a passage of an Old Fr. a malsense of drink. Bedouia. Let. Pett. mars betada. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. waarin. a horse-fly . Fin. also the bite or sting of a bees. thick. wedges. Arab. from Lat. drink. bovis. Fr. bossen.(paddi. imperative pi. cushion-cover . . prisons Venet. cited by Diez. pettiriso. The meanpainting. the meat of spinach. the loppered sea. The first milk after a dizen. a mallet. to colour with lime-wash. turn. Horn. Lat. ' MordiThe Lat. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. piwo. beost. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. Fr. D. a bee. thick. cogionare. PI. G. 1156. cow has calved. whose face is clotty. boytle. Beetle. Beef. Bav. to knock.possible. tree.'— GL ^Ifr. prigione. desert. to and ale. For that was law of lend. batAfter mete in sale. byst. betel. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. Originally. sela que environna la terra. Fr. door. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. Bed-ridden. knock. blow or thrust. bitela.^ drink. Esthon. a pillow case. a agulatum in the original Latin. a Properly a cover that biiren. beetle also signified the impiti. GaeL bior. to beat bossel. fall.' the last word corresponds to cofly . crespir. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. E. . Cot. badigeonner. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. Pl. may be from K. buka. Bernese. in Schmeller. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. trees in a forest . kivih. turn (a garment). from jtst-. paralyticus. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. to drink. bove. comb. Fr. to become Beech. bukva. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. bedskiissen-bUren. AS. drink. the biter. It.ing of the word is curdled. beest. pude-vaar. bibere is a re. . from leberen. a bed-tick. 1.ON. I A pillow-beer. I dysyn a dystaffe. to poordma. beach. Ant. calleBedlam. Gr. beutel. a stinging bieUe. biene. /SXirov. as the milk of a that purpose in London. water. The beer al for te shenche bate. from risan. an Beetle. beach-each. to fall. poculum. duplicated form of the root. a pad or cushion).). a wasp. But possibly bedizen 2. beer. case. ir'm. It. briest. vaar. briesch-milch. 1. used for boull. 1 to drink. Bethlehem. bitel. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. by-flugaj G. by the analogy of bedaivb. to turn. cugino. P1.— B. i. Confined to bed. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. G. bedde-redirj ohg. erroneously modified in form. bos. pital of St Mary. the ox. g. G. 57 — Palsgr. Beet. an inhabitant of the desert.

duginnan. It. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. P.pose. Bruce. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . kind. a scrip. V. a scrip euXaiciJoi. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. appears improbable at first. Schm. referred gan this Erie alight. word. Cold-begone. Mundart. Of brede full ycrammed. 1430. in Lat. Barbour. a bag .n. vir mendi. Du. 'ex quo. on the bag.bag full of the G. to take.— . as alighting is a momentary operation.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Si'Xa/coc. Gr. affected. and Lat. tale. ornamented phoc. P. lapidicinus. To Begin. not began to alight. Beghardus. beis- plement driven by blows. ykvog. sel. steinbosil. a beggar. gen. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. yiyvo/uat. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. one after that other. covered with gold D. bag {baigean. Goth. begging. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . signifying to conceive. a little bag). to bear young. — Stillingfleet. to beg. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. Lollards. woe-begone. a — wedge. a wallet. also called Bigots. image is cleft out of the trunk. Du. a beggar-boy. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. OHG. capere.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. to be able. gigno. but in the same language from poc. begger. It will . V. Lith. Political Songs. yivtrri. on further examination. 168. P. literally. taking up.' for ye shall lament and weep. cans. oppressed with woe. P. a bag or poke. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. beitel. Mod. 'Dz. viii.D.' A. P. seizing. pose-pilte. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. P. giving in Gr. on the tramp. From w. &c. Nov. chisel. the fundamental notion of attaining to. is formed pocair. to be born. ' . air a . and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. ip AS. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. In Luc vi. be^nnan. baigeir. to know. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. To Beg. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. a beggar . in D. in E. When Q. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. at geta talad. to begin. 25. chap. is com. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. P. Fr. hags. to be acquire.' about undern he got down. ' Begone. Into the are D. 142. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. ysgrepan. ysgrepanu. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. 1867. P. origin. beitel. whence the E. fangen and Lat. two betels —a grete oke. a chisel. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. 'Aboutin undern monly. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. to go a begging. from whete G. 2. or Of a pure poor man. a bag. onginnan. to cleve. beriolare. but probably erroneously. ken. touched with emotion — . 58 BEG BEGONE G. The tother seand the dint cum. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. — yivsaiQ. a stone-cutter's chisel. V. gan. su with gold. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. bertola. Ancren Riwle. Du. &c. beissel. Creed. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar.quently used in OE. 40. aginnan. ken. To produce children is to acquire. anfangen. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. of Gr. He did alight. a wedge for cleaving wood. krapszas. to get children . ' ' . Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. yivwajcw. can. P. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Florio. although it ' the future. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a.3. incipere. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. to reduce him to beggary. beginning. beutel. P. Deutsch. to arise. Vocab. to begaan. ytyvwfT'Kw.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Skinner's derivation from bag. yivofiai. y/yvo/iat. iv. & go a begging. AS. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. So from Gael. genus. it is both to acquire and to beget. above quoted to get beaten ON. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. can.

fixed upon any object). as in the case of E. OE. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. a follower. hatan. to turn one out . ufhaban. to lift. To place are most naturally ex. But. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. what he wishes another to do . AS. and the E. habere. behind. to have. hcef tig bort. han- — js Kil. betragen. to call. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. to raise. AS. obliged. to carry. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. by the compound observare. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. garder. —Hest. to lift. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to take away. 17. behete. to fit. gehouden. to hold. hafwa bort. keeping. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to command. se porter) to fare well or ill.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. Command. to be obliged to do a thing. heave. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. to R. solicitum esse. R. to gehouden. Paladino. Plautus. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to the equivalent of Du. to bring forwards. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. take heed of. behaviour. gehat. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. The It. G. zijn. to be fit. behces. to be be named. Sw. bound. Goth. — Behest. behefe. promise or a command. premi curi alicujus rei. It. to bers of the body. injunccommand. commonly expressed. G. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. heita.the figure of throwing at a mark. to feed. have the sense of calling or naming. and their senses intermingle. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to hold. invoke. furtherance. behat. heeten willekem. seeing to. us-hafjan. to vow. The seyn. gecall.). hove. take yourself off. to be suitable or becoming . hafwa ram. And so from hania. behold. hantyri. healdan. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. according as the * To Behove. Kiittn. or the hence advantage. To Behold.— . at the tail of. to regard. guardare. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. The Lat. ge' hatan. At the back of The re. to be named. portarsi. to be well pleased out. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. is supported by many analogies. AS. to tend. or necessary. advantage. to keen or hold. G. ifl fact. to behave. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. G. beperson addressed. to cast or throw. adjust. when the verb will hoof. behoof. to keep. nittaa. tion. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. G. from tragen. to be obliged to one. vow. to hit the mark. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. gehalten seyn. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to vow. name of the head is used to express what hbva. right. to promise. holding is originally derived from that of looking. AS. heeten. G. to halten. exhort. is also found in the sense of looking. to name. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . vow. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. behatan. hofwa. to look upon it as true . to carry. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to command. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. hafjan. gehaben. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. the equivalent of E. the name adapt. To Behave. promise . or purpose. hafwa. Robert in Warton. K. to look. AS. is on the top of or opposite to. keeping. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to heave. To be expedient. ward. to carry corn into the barn . laborare. use. the distance of anything. to meet. promise. hafwa. hcefwa in seed.for throwing it. on. hevja.' Richardson. to carry. and (as Fr. To look steadily upon. N. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. Aan iemand bid one welcome. hovast. Thus in Finnish the heave. habban. to keep. Sw. Sw. tail. to lead. the two verbs seem radically the same. to follow.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to call. servare. observe. what is so required.to vow. hces. hevja. beholden to him.

bealcettanj OE. to give leave. or house. battefredum. fitness. — Diicange.Lat. on. to be required for a certain purpose. to extol the worth of anything. loben. bell. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. to promise or engage. to believe. a watch tower. locus securitatis Schilter. . ley/a. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. To Belay. portion. cela est audessus de votre portde. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. to der swaren lave. honoured. and. Du. gelyfan. glauben. to resound. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. bialla. tain a certain end. Hence to simple approbation. bertefredum. G. loven. to hit hafi. peal. a tower for defence .alyfan. resonare. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. appearing in Mid. Fr. a tower. if a promise. fringe. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to ... galaubs. to cry out bell. b'ola. a. in nautical language. were civil terms of address. and E. lofa. AS. on. to give leave Dan. 6o BELAY BELL loven. measure. precious. to make it fast. and bergan. It. to lay be- around. to praise. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr.Lat. ornament. Du. to fix a price upon one's wares. or a sconce. bolken. under the forms belfredum. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . to to make A Templorum campana boant. Du. with the consent of the heirs. Bell. verloben. P1. Another application of the same word is in Pl. — . bealcan. range. loven. Du. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. frid. consent. praising. leave . Pl. reputation. esteemed . and Du. to give leave. Det er ofwer er hofwa.D. to praise. See Gain. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. bellan. bulken. filu-galaubs. to praise. to lay the cable round the bits. From AS. then. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. satisfaction. promising. beffroi. an implement for making a loud noise. In Mid. beset. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. met.D. permission. to express approval. ON. . to sanction an arrangement. boare. then. is an easy progress. ungalaub kas. Fair sir and Fair lady. allow. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. galaubjan. Northamptonshire. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to boke. OFr. Sw. pro3. to believe. or high estimation. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. belja. to promise. giving leave or permission. true. to a loud noise. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to permit. laubjan. certain rate. Fr. erlauben. esteeming good and valid. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. To Belch. beau sire and bel dame. behove. to estimate them at a To believe. — mankind. OHG. permitting or giving leave. lov. laven. In the middle voice hofwas. a vessel made for dishonour. ON. orloven. —F. promiser. is (Sternberg). bylja. Then. properly belonging to the church tower. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. bercvrit. Pl. moderation. we have Goth. to put a high price or value on. bellow.D. for purposes of low estimation .. Goth. bounds. AS. laven. distance to which a piece will carry. if a narration. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. to bellow. To Believe. The word be- Belfry. border. leaf geleafa. bettifredo. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. bervrit. beffroit. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to roar. stand. mark ON. hesfa.D. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . aim. to believe. To praise is essentially Xo prise. from mhG. praise. . to bolk. to befit. to protect. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. overspread. reach. to belay. garnish. legsel. to sound loudly . which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. beleggen. a little shed. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. is used in the sense of approving. Q. turris. are innate . lyfan. berfroi. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. are other modifications of the same imitative root. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. belief . and E.

belly. . one who does good. se bander.Fr. bilbil-goda. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. binsen. bellows. benjoim. belch. from benedictio. or sometimes louban. bell. ' I beraye. From OFr. to bend a bow . Fr. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. bendan. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. bienfait. bendaj as. Sw. or simply djawt. bellows. gelangen. belt. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Gum benjamin. — Ducange. or a It is times the to signify services. To Belong'. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. means seeds of plants. benjoin. Fr. Kil. bag. kind. to touch. by itself. To Bequeath. is The word balg. bandoir. attingere. est matris in lucem editus. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. See I . to hold to one. blast-bcelg. . an inflated Lat. In E. Benefice. skin. to make bilbil.— Belly. — ray. pino3. ON. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. Benzoin. to attain belangen. Dozy. Benign. bene/actum. Gael. gwaldas. a water-bubble builge. incense of Java. cod or husk of pulse. to. ray. benir. belliJ Lat. skin. J'emboue. bilbila. To Bend. benignus (opposed to malignus). the womb.' The term had been previously planation. a blow. a speaking well of one. a border. Ptg. to bless. generous. a kindness. Javanese perfume. leather sack. I soyle it or araye it. vulgarly the belly. has assumed a plural form. Benignant. on. rushes. Quoth. pertinere. to stretch it on a frame. the skin of those animals that factor. G. Was das belanget. bimpsen. to arrive at. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. Bret. . balg. belly. Du. The ing-skin. vulva. to concern.videtur. hem. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. w. benaigon. blister balgan-snamha.. Lat. a benefit. — See Numb. attinere. Lat. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. Bav. attinere. bolch. becwathan. a round or bubble-shaped root. OFr. beneison. disposed to oblige. pouch. Gael. Bent. well. Belt. to exert force. to come to the crown belangen. was in Mid. dirt. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). a spring. are stripped off whole blase-balg. hence with ashes. to do good to one . belgr. poX^ri. Lat. because bcelg. rise against external force . benedictio {bene^ and dico. to use words of good omen. To Benum. ON. bcelg.' Palsgr. pervenire. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. Benedico.polch. I say). Fr. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. a bellows. welt of a shoe. G. bolg. benefacere. Lat. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. Lat. Benediction. needs no ex. wallet Benefit. . bless. fyle To dirty. to belong. wallet. loubdn djawt. as concerning that. balteus . Bench. from Arab. See Nether. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. balg. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . To belong is thus to reach up to. bellows. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. welt of a shoe gwald. Eenison. bimaissen. I marre a thyng.pinuz. to ring. to attain to. langen. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. — root consisting of concentric skins. ' . to touch one. ball. from which is also bulbus. benedicere. from cwcsthan. to concern. ^To Beray. a accusative. benejicium. bander un arc. Benefactor. . bolg. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. to become one's property ." — — . pod. I araye. See Bind. G. . or fyle with myre. is a kindred form. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. G. bags or bellows. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. a good deed. a bellows . to hallow. benehusk.' — Hie fimus. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. border. a blessing. fens et hie liraus. the word. to reach. binssen. Lat. as. a leather bag. OUG. volva. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. to say. taken absolutely. . pertinere. from another modification of the word for bubble. Beneath. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. See Bank.

.• 62 Antiq. profit. — . put forth. The origin is AS. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. as. stow. making better. an incendiary. as bouter selle. reparation. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. of ffeed a fire. To help. Berry. het vuur The serise of Boeten. burrow. it seems hard to separate as. reparation. Zeitschr. think more probable. to thrust. G.bhaksh. but it is specially applied mister. as in growth.iooA. bat. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It.— VixHsm. a horse collar. besein. Beet. the origin of which is to be found in ON. beseech. brem-bessen. The proper meaning of the bale. jnore. — Chaucer. — Biglotton. to defend. basya. boeten. solicit. berry. besje^ Sanscr. to make it. boutefeu. fyrbotare. as conversely a besom is called broom. stede. berwe. hva mannan. is to perform a serviceable office to him. to to deprive of. from grow. bacca. arwe. sweepings.t. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. reafian. Bestead. bal oppbota. rods. peto. earh. to exercise on a definite object. earg. betan. position. as. compared with bargham. to mend. or to bestead one. To seek something from a person. besen. R. Devon. advantage. E. ^•n. to light the fire . bereafian. dirt. So too Yorkshire arf. So Lat. Grose.— Hal. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. Tusser. a fire. basjaj Du. person to lie in. To bete his Jam. from AS. * To Bete. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. See Reave. Beit. baete. betan. lewth. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. protect . to make better. sets fire to. buttare.D. Du. make better . To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . bet. to stand one in good stead. better. the guardian . p. 3. Hfence backing. to fire a funeral pile of . to thrust. a place . On the other hand. might have been . Esthon. AS. dial. repair. Besom. Fr. place. To Beseech. one who shelter. buttafuoco. botesward. bdt. BETE dirty'. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. to the place boarded off in a. encouraging. to entreat. vol. stealth from steal. Tha het he micel fyr betan. p. a berry. ropahtaa. houseless. amendment. Rob. — bota. to To Bereave. sheltered from the wind. besIn sen. boeten. Fr. and on which the wager is laid. To Bet. to fall with roisto. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. roju. scopse spartis. to amend. ^akka. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. and Du. roju. dirt . G. — amendment. Du. eld up- On is to be placed A — . boteith Goth. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. to supply a want. Ihre. as. put. in the sense ctf beria. small eatable fruit. See Better. * Berth. dung . or. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. and also to entreat. improve. as. to word is shelter. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Kil. Best. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. fearful. From abet. mud. preferably. or the space kept clear betan. to be-place. Du. supporting on the one side Lat. beorgan. to cast. bdt. vi. same word with the provincial barth. To Bestow. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. Fin. rubbish. ariierf to 113. noise. To Gl. Sw. AS. to strip. E. barthless. seems twigs or rods. BEREAVE Wall. bouter. When men of mekeness him baet. fall with sound. because used for making besoms. the side bhakshya. bota. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. I from lew.fish the other hand. OE. boeten. besnij Pl. but in practice. to give a place to. besmas. It is the restore fyr betan. Du. AS. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. bestow. to on the other Goth. baete. to put on the saddle. bur-we. as Du. supply. dust rojahtaa. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. what does it boot.ot-i. an incendiary.irova. what does it better a man. lay out. Sw. berwham. Beere. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. Goth. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. from It. The dry. to kindle the fire. barth may be for barf.—^fake. barfham. broom twigs. ship for a make amend. advantage. . R. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. So roto rattle down.X. roe. to seek.

— that schickiich. Sw. Car son umbre si le trahit. his mouth. vrohjan. Dit tungomal rendered in E. regen. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. — Betwixt. Bav. Now the stirring of an object. to deliver tip. and thence twegen. batista. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. for measuring angles. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. by two. not to have the heart to give up a thing. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. R. /alia. to cheat. &c. or with again. To Bewray. betwuh. tradere. Slant. awry. roebucks. beverage. It. proficere. what does It is forward him. Between. i. baet. E. Bevy. gesiemen. evidence of life. ON. Fr. an instrument opening like a a thing. which may be compared as to form with amid. tweoh. — See To Bete. AS. R. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. against. Fr. in the same way Lat. in the middle of twain. Dii. to make forwards. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. roja. Du. To Betray. i. betera. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. bat. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. from. beuvrage. to accuse.D. riigen. twain. From the former of these are AS. to stir. bibere. Fr. are commonly to one's lot. AS. Pl. abash j from polir. to Hence It. to happen. G. ruogia. Lat. be fitting or suitable. become. The inflections of Fr. is used for the — R. as tlock. bevde. R. Mich self a good glass of wine. betweoh. as from obdir. a bevy. bedriegen. more. suitable. ziemen. betray. trakir. *Ah. from Lat. gatiman. tima. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. afford. -to appoint. trahir. G. zemen. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. better. kein leben mehrin no signs . betriigen. Best. order. obeish. in the middle of two. bouter davantaige. G. BETEfiM translated. of quails. two. . e. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. traditor. suitable. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. of pheasants. trahison. A — drink. ON. To Beteem. taemen. E. To vouchsafe. amidst. trahissais. his eyen sheen. by a final sh. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. thy speech bewrayeth thee. said he. to fall Some call it a bevel. G. as one would have it fall. It. to fall. Goth. e. progress. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. To boot in coursing (i. Fr. batizo. a different form of twa. to deliver up in breach of trust. dispose (whence schicksal. deign. taemen. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. From It. Pl. Chaucer. beva. the being pushed to the frbnt. springs from ON. bet. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. better. advance. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. gezimet eines dinges. Fl. from invadere. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. 88. make manifest. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. best. In the water anon was seen His nose. lot). to happen. to deceive. wreia. from Fr. has — In a like sense tanie>i. as envahir. are there Regt R. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. Ik tame mi dat nig. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. some attention. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. x. sloped off. polish. Cot. Buveau. In like manner folissais.— . find it good: Goth. e. a brood. fate. Tinia eigi at lata eit. larks. Golding's Ovid in R. pair of compasses. obdissais. dir. a drinking . a traitor. In like manner from twain is fothied between.D. Goth. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. r'ojer dig. — of the authorities. bet. Thus from dbahir. betwuxt. amiddes. E. Percy Soc. is treason. wrogia. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. better. fallinn. Ober D. deem suitable. fitting. bevere. as trahissons.' Dialogue on Witches. Det sig sjelft. tradire. Friar's Prol. The as. verbs in ir with a double ss. find in one's heart. moveable and compass branches. to discover. it bewrays itself. betweox. treachery. to Teem. Sahissais. spritigs from schicken. betweohs. whence beveraggio Fr. to drink . betst. betest. tima. Hence last G. OE. zimet. Fris. Better. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. I approve of beveau. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. traitre. betaemen. On the same principle ON.

OE.a. sbias. Ant. biais.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. sbiesso. Gr. sbieco. baverole. Sp. To bicker in NE. to Jam. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Diet. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. to shake. To Bib. besanca. Mantuan. Lat. him. winding or crawling in and out. Jamieson. specially in a bottle. b&zahr. Misc. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. rogge. bias-wise. snout. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. reveal. Dan. to dispute. (according to the Fr.D. Fr. biascia. bickel-sieenken. or by any rapid motion. . s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. bickel. sbrisciare. twice. kwijllap. expelling or preserving against. to move. roggle. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. to give signs of life. Pl. used in precisely stone . Bib. to sip. stock still. to well up with Cot. a bezle. metaphor). dial. a stone-hewer . bark of which paper was first made. biascio. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. though such a change of form would be very unusual. Cat. bihais. 78). biax. pible. sbiescio. — crooked. a slabbering-bib. convicts thee of being drink. like guzzle. inferiority. crooked. Du. pddzahr. Ci^. Fr. To Bezzle. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Bias. the papyrus. to it evident to sense. to glide or slip as upon. kwijlen. by throwing of stones. to make tongue Du. bring under ' Thy accuse. Bibelsworth in Nat.two. Cat. bebble. asure-bice (Early E. rogt un bogt sik nig. ber-laita (for bes-laita). bickelen. It. biberon. biaiser. bibo. slanting .to drink much. sik beregen. a fragment bieco. misFr. tailU en biseau. An inferior blue. /3i/3Xof a book originally.s bellum for duellum.or from obliquus. bavon. Prov. bestemps. bickai. dial. Schiitze. to purl. An excellent Basil.{ioin dua.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. lips. I Wallon. beslei. 172. sbiagio. In comp. to stir. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. in Fr. love first begins to life signs of him. sbiscio. edge of a plate of looking-glass. . bes-azur. liwell. Hzzle f Deldkar in R.as in Biped. in two ways for duis. to be a paring. . bescompte. —Bickering'. aslope sbisciare. to stir up . has a singular stone-picker.D. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. bickeler. Sardin. and zahr. Biseau. of the sliced off. to slaver . formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. whence Du. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. it were the mouth. the basil Sc. To Bibble. bibaculus. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. shows the P1. Probably. as an eel or a snake. to cut in two. bible. to stir. The It. Bice. to tipple. . sliding. . Fr. whey count . When the edge of a joiner's trickle. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. poison. Fr. from pdd-. Fr. It is especially applied in Sc. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. which good bibbeler. in him. Hal- — do something aslant. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. Hal. a Galilean.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. — Bi-. to the stirring of their conscience. Bezel. notice. Yes. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). a sloping edge. to creep or crawl sideling. —Dozy. In Arab. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. See Wriggle. bending. Bezoar. makes ble. one who drinks in excess. petit-lait. bisdare. is explained to clatter. sbriscio. or in and out. Fris. Sard. he is Wtb. ice . Fr. to tipple. it becomes (Jz-. bezling or skueing. to a fight with stones. Bible. sbrissare. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. To drink hard. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). biberer. oblique. Piedm. baviere. to slaver or drivel. slippery. bis. beregen. per\'erted belief. sbiasciai. sbrisso. biberen. Bisect. bisel. discover. or kwijl-slab. babbefore the eyes. Piedm. foul weather. evident. babbi. The train of thought is then. to stir. kwijl-bab. wrogen. a bibber. wrangle. sloped. It. wraggeln. two- footed. its clothes. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. To skirmish. E. Lat.' bibble. Pers. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. Uprogen. aslope. the word became bddizahr. presence. To Bicker. Oh when shall I bizzle. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows.

of More ' in Richardson. bit- bidja. from seek. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. pressing on one's notice. Big. consisting both of men and women. to build. to bulge. bead.Leta). For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. and yajiBui. to bend. cultivate. faurbjudan. to E. bidill. or bad. bend. 1. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. G. an entire skin. swoln. bulge. to build G. beodan. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. bieten. Bigamy. byggia. Du. bolginn. — To Bid. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. — prepare. inhabit Du. besides the professedmonks and nuns.t. to offer one the wish of a good day. To Big. Hence Sc. to look for. bugne (answering to ON. swelling. anleta. and Gael. bulk. Einem einen guten tag bieten. The 'La. ON. AS. bi-. to solicit. Two verbs are here confounded. bced. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. to bicker. bis and in comp. called the tertiary order. ten. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. to pray one to dinner. From Gr. ON. abidan. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. to inflate E. to swell. bolgna). bat . explaining the Sc. bidan. bauen to cultivate. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bog.' Addison. form. bua. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bidel. to ask. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. qucero. as G. — — — Halliwell. to bend. spelling seems to used in the N. A bjudan in anabjudan. bo. Kil. becoming in Lat. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. beidast. to ask. to move quickly. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. G. bilge or bulge.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bieden. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. from bidan. 2. Big-swol- . bulky. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. bend of a shore or of a rope. Palsgrave in Halliwell. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. . bugan. to arrange. to presimpler pare. verbieten. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. or. rising up. may plausibly be derived from Goth. a swelling. the meaning of bid. to have one called before him. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. AS. praebere. forwards. ' Bug as a Lord. It must be observed that the word bidja. inhabit. Wallace in Jam. The ON. to forbid . to cultivate. to inhabit. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. ON. bigan. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. AS. BIGOT beidan. as. porrigere. BID of stone. to belly. beadle. as tears from the eyes. offerre. bedun. build. biddan. bath. byggan. A pose to one to come to dinner. Jam. buga. related to big or bug. gebeden j G. The ON. to pro- command. Bigot. ON. bugt. With respect to logical pedigree. by seek and beseech. bidan. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. a flexure. to bid one good day. to dwell. has leta. praestare. The . athird class. the belly of a ship. to abide or wait on. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. The loss of the / gives Dan. to build. biegen.' Pope in R. twice. Bickelen. bygga. bolga. who. bow. . (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. to offer. and consequently ordering or reGoth. Analogous expressions are G. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bag. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you." buque with E. to forbid . belly. To bid the banns. boa. bouwen. are also used in the sense of asking for. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. The original Swollen. to marry. or third order of penitence. in the sense of ask for. bug. England for swollen. bulge. balg. R. to curve. iiQ. swaggering. OSw.uddered len heart. Bight or Bought. Compare also Sp. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. pray. a suitor.peto. repair. belly. and the Sw. bidjan. ewes. which is stiU. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. be bug. from belgia. gebodenj G. To Bid ' Big . W. einen vor Gericht bieten. a chip. OSw. to offer it to public notice. G. P. to start out. to look for. quiring something to be done.. proud.

nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. both men and women. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate.. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur.' Chart. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep.' says an Venet. In a similar manner from bigello.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. Bizoccki. and hence the variations bigutta. borel. They wore a similar dress.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. Flor. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. ix. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. vol. dark-coloured cloth. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. Bizocco. bigio. all apparently derived from Ital. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. xx. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh.' Matthew Paris. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.D. alii Apostolici. coarse woollen cloth. Bighini. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. 560. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. homespun cloth. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. 1499. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati.a. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. probably from biso. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. aliqui Begardi. was formed bigello.D. author quoted in N. Bighiotti). face VIII. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. and also unlearned common men. D. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name.D. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. A. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. natural grey or sheep's russet. sed maxim^ in muliebri. signifying bagmen or beggars. perch^ i Terziari di S.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. says. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. honesti plebeii amictus. In the same way Fr. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Beguttce. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. 15 18. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. bighiotto. a blockhead.— BIGOT bigardo. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. with reference to A. as well as bizocco. the nobles to Rienzi. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. G. rustical. which must not be confounded with begardo. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. alii de paupere viti. A. A. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. begutta. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. beghino. corruption would easily creep in. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. ac labores manuum detestantes. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. grey. bighellone. bigotta. to adopt a similar course of life. From bigio. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. absque votorum religionis emissione. Francisci communiter appellabant.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. clownish.— Ducange. and Q. grey. 1243. Augustini dotarint. the other form Per te Tribune. vocati Fraticelli.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. beghart. a dunce. &c. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur.' translated by Muratori. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . Hence the OE.' says one of of bigio. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. S. biso.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis.

now A Bilboa blade. the bill of a bird. Ludwig. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. A lorum tam in — Diez. OFr. — Cot. is properly a sealed instrument. as craneberry. The proper meaning bylgia. b'olja. In English the meaning has received a further development. 'tumidi fluctus. fetters. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. 2. a seal. bigardo. a floating log to mark the place of some. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. buail. used in legal proceedings. Lat. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. symbolum. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. See Bull. beil. bisoch. of E. Bohem. false pretender to reUgious feeling. billard or billart. horn of an animal. Tartuffe. ferrese quam ligneae.' in Richardson. of boja. billet is the diminutive of this. the swelling G. Gael. obsolete. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. to be angry (i. bigot. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. Bilberry. loi. abelthe fetter itself. that of swell. a negro. A slang term for a sword.— — — . gan. an adze . Roquef. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. and in Lat. belgan. inscriptum. In the same way are related Pol. blaa. from Mid. dziobad. Dan. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. bill. from OSw. gleischner (Frisch). bolghe. Prov. — — ' .The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. Du. buoy [i. bigotto. Aurelles. NFris.. person of religion leading a loose life. Bilbo. Kil. bille. blamand. bile. e. Bill. to pick a millstone. a beak. boia. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. to strike. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. an ingot of gold or silver. Mundart. bulla. a hatchet. bil. procella Kil. Lat. to strike. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). To defraud one of expected sinking. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. beghart. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. 3. belghen. biilge. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. G. Billow. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. plog-bill. a of the sea. and a billard. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Sp. Dan. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. in the same sense. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. boja. a shackle. weapon . Piedmontese bigot. to job. Bille. Fr. the beak of a bird. An instrument for hewing. Johansen. BILBERRY nated. — bigardia. a sword. Fr. So in Gr. To Bilk. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry.' bilio. bizocco. The Du. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. and dziobas. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . from the dark colour. bulgja. topor. a bigot or hypocrite. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Billette. Thus we find in It. . tepati. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. bui. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. the trunk of a tree. however. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. AS. . an ingot. blue . Bilge. Bill. a hypocrite. p. Bigin. bill in parliament. Du. bila. w. billard also signified at billyards. buie. clog to a fetter. Billet. a devotee. e. axe. genus vincu- Bilboes. as a bill of indictment. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . bulghe. to swell with rage). 2. Fr.' mariners. billot. bwyell. ^Billiard. 5 * . Langued. a seal. a man who rests on a stick in walking. I. Kil. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Du. bull-berries. bullet. irons or set in a kind of stocks. on. Gascoigne in R. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. an axe. an axe . while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. names bill-berries. Sw. crowberry. bill of exchange. AS. a short note. at sea Billet. top. an axe. might be taken to express a hypocrite. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bla-berry. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. Deutsch. billet. Sw. boeye. Sw. deceit. . AS. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. seems to be rather the unda. the o changing to an i to express diminution. See Bulk. fluctus maris. a name given to a. to peck. dissimulation . in the sense of a writing. The origin of the term is probably from bole. bigot. an axe. whortle-berries. dziob. Bojce.

to twine. Goth. beorth. bindan. bundle.' and the like. Fr. and of Fr. Lat. pin-ti. Habitacle. . i. Fr. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. It. Birch. e. a bitch. j). Du. — Kil. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. piccione. is in Scotland applied to ivy. Then added division in a granary. admota non Bit. G. a female dog hindinn. biscotto. truss. from \t3\.68 BIN Bio-. to bring Biscuit. a weight. poultry. v. biscuit. bundle. See To Bear. qui nisi propius Blind. bita. Sanscr. a bear. ON. E. Bisom. EpisETTiTOOTToe. to form a knotted structure. — — . to wreathe. episcopus. Bisson. IV. Bine. bitacora. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. AS. the young of birds . bircej Sw. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. i. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. bikkia. binda nat. . overlooker. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. to net. pundas. to bind at . bundt. pinnii. bhurja. to bear. vescovo. To — — —D. to fasten it together. pullus. by binda. doubtless a stone. to plait. The bitol. videt. the young of an animal. . Bindweed. in Swabia. AS. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. a bunch. beitan. bund. bunki. or ben-wood. habitacle. twice cooked. a little dog. band. to be derived from Ibfiaq. BITTACLE /Siof. Sw. a heap. from Lat. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. to bulge. a gallinaceous bird. a brood or hatch of young.. &c. The term ON. also a stone weight. Lap. bunt. I would derive the verb to knit. expressed by Sw. See Belly. brid. fowl. are commonplaces. berkas (z=:Fr. Bin. and especially to a small poor horse. beize. bund. or baked. ON. a habit- Binnacle.. a female stag. is rendered in ON. or bin. to bind together. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. a hind or female stag. ge- from AS. hiindiiin. beisseii. Fr. Bisen. pippione. Sw. a pig petz.. — Surrey in R. . and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. beitsl. AS. an eagle's young G. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. Bizened. a bitch applied also to other animals. to swell. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. Lat. lusciosus et myops. biclie. an overseer. a truss. Lat. Sp. bundt. bunch. bundun. a bitch. AS. a weight of 48 pounds. brut. bindan. viz. — properly near-sighted. See Breed. The proper meaning is a heap. to cook). Lith. a corn. while bind-wood. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. than vice versi. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. earnes brid. terial. Fr. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. a bump or knob. When compared with Fr. bjork. isfiw. propius videre bij sicndc. bord. pittjo. evesgue. Bittacle or Binnacle. We — A Birth. life. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. AS. . bij sienigh. properly a young pigeon. a heap. Goth. piiiti. a knob. bunga. to hang. binge. where the compass stands. beran. betsel. pinnu. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. Bitch. Dan. poule. by the verb knit or net. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. hith. In like manner from knot. copus. forth. Bing. G. — See Bittacle. from pondus. Lat. biccej ON. G. to knot nets for fish. V. bigne. 'tumens sequor. wine. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. Bind. a house. Gr. H. bin-wood. evegue. Thus I suppose the Gr. which is expressed in E. Bailey. bij sien. evigue. burt. nodus. to build. To Bite. G. Fr. Bird. It. from Gr. . or petze. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. bitill. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. sc. AS. Lith./«idere. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow.

pale. is placed. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. blabhdach. unintelligible talk plabair. blank. a large lip. Nagt huis. pale brown . Percy Soc. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. round which the cable is made fast. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte.. blabaran. or water beating gently on the beach . blob. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. in contempt. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. things —Palsgr. Hald. baitrs.' G. babbe. Cot. Cotgr. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. blakk. ^aj'/^r. whitish. a childe dothe gasouille. fallow . 'fuscus. ON. Je N. cut. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. blunt we say it will not bite.. Deutsch. blubber-lipped. shining. AS. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. dusky. pins of the capstern. mona mid Dan. ^chops. Why presumest And laam's asse. to let out whai should have been concealed.plab is used to . blob. Wit hung her mourn. a large coarse lip . Mund. iroxafealo. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. to To blabber blabber with the lips. blobach. It. to watch. AS. blesmer. to the sharpness of a weapon. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. bittore. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. to loll it out. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. Du. white lead. . butorj OE. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. chatter babbler . his blacan light. on. a tati. Se bleek. thoughtlessly . night guard. — cheeked maid. to chops.' by Haldorsen. to bivouac. Sp. beitr. apparently from its biting the tongue. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. Sw. whiteness (candor sine It. shine. blepLith. ' Biovac. yellowish. blakki. blabbre. to wax pale or bleaked. white. In like manner E. blake. bittour. faded. bitor. bites. Mantuan babbi. on the one side. Bittern. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. —Neumann. corrupted in Fr. In Legrand's Fr. as of a body falling into water. 156. Goth. bleikr. Bivouac. leohte . a shelter for the steersman. The Gz. a flapping. Mag. a beam in a house or ship. buft". NE. pale yellow . So Fr. Fieldfare. plabartaich. Fr. babbling. from wachen. out the tongue. ON.D. faded. ON. bitr. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. obscurus. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. to babble. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. as is seen in sputter and splutter. first.' It would thus acle. G. Sp. Again. a stammerer. . bitter. beiwache. bitones. indistinctly. is apprehension of danger. I blaber. stutterer. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. 332. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. to speak Dan. even humour seemed and beuin.— Blabber-lip. small guard-house. To or he can speake. dark. pale. as of water gently beating the shore. biti. blab. baboyer. G. mouth. Bleak. . pale. ' plabraich. blob. an additional watch. Black. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. confusedly. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . garrulous. In a similar manner Gael. Hist. blabbern. Hal.. an edge is sharpest sword. blac-hleor ides. blanc. To Blab the anchor. Ai-mstrong. synonymous with baber-lip. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter.€i. The bitas. gabble. viz. Applied in Hin ON. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. "uivac. 't kompas huis. as of wings . x. Sp.' by Gudmund. a continued soft sound. to talk much. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). term. a* mast . Blabber-lip. bleich. quick. Sp. bihovac. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. bleg. whitish. gulblakk. beuni. 't huisje. bitts of Bitts. biacca. discoloured . brunblakk. Alex. Fr. plappem. blebberis. /ealo-/or. light-coloured. A a rail. the palebleff. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. quoted by Ihre. Pl. Fr. — Hollyband. Bohem. maculS. to babble. from whence we have adopted the. v. white. as in that of pale and white on the other. Lydgate. Gael.). Gael. ON. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. fallow fawn-coloured. Fr. a fluttering noise. black. bird of the heron tribe. — Collins in Hal. Bav. yellow . pale yellow. a babbler. mouth.

to blow. name originally given Blackguard. Eadmer. Blanket. and wandering men and women. to shine. blasphemare. blein. with all other loose idle masterless men. a leaf. Torriano. Sw. D. most complete example of leafy structure. blanchir. blahen. Du. It. p. or of an oar G. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. blaere. as. blanc. Fr. Fr. to omit.. Cot. Blank. blatt. revile. or blafich. rogues and wanderers. piatto. Blade. —We Bladder. Sw. vagrants. Hist. pimple. is identical with Flanders borlen. smore. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. To blank. sheet of paper. Jan. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. gabble. polished. But perhaps a more Gr. The present forms then should be classed with blether. to glow. Bacon in R. the origin of . bladder . biastner. borrelen.—Blatant. pladdern. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. roar. candidus. bladdra. blank. e. or a mass of bubbles. foolish talk. blister. blena. to disappoint. blather. tattle. To Blare. a. pass over. blatter.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. speak impiously. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. as Lat. and Q. or as E. to Hence Ital. to dabble in water. — — — to jabber. Gr. Blancli. bladder.—Blatter. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. defame. 86. — . to bleak in the sun. a bubble. to glitter. Fr. blame. black. G. his meat burnt. blinken. G. pluddre. coat. mus-blackt. as blader. and he shall be sure to have O. also white woollen cloth . —^Webster. bladder. Lat. commonly called the Black-guard. Besides the examples of this connection given above. blaeren.— ^o thehotsun. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. Reliqu. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. pallido. cited in N. also jabber. a blanket a bed. plat. G. slush. whitish. &c. 7. probably ate. white. a bubble. the leaf of a tree. and others engaged in dirty work. mud. Sir. smother. 1854. Bav. on..— Kil. a bladder or pustule. a buible. variable than the signification of words designating colour. blanchet. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Dan. a pustule . The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. biasimare. . in R. PI. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. the ON. Du. branches . a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Blank "verse. waschen. mire. Wott. to To bellow. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. dripping-pans. Sc. flap of a Du. and the agitation of liquids. leafy. Now. blether. also tanned by the sun. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. irXariQ. board. from candere. blactra. I am degraded from a cook. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. tree. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. broad. to make or become white blanc. Du. dial. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. blegen. livido . to blanch. Play in Nares. bladra. plate. leaves. leaf of a. as. The radical bubble. Du. and thence to babble. — rura. shining. mud. Blain. vagabonds. — Sw. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. blister. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. blanchet. skola and thwatta. boys. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. Fr. to bubble. blather. blad. to —Blaspheme. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. a boil. . Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. reproach. and G. and E. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. chatter. contracted from bladeren. blegne. bladder. bladeren. Du. Blame. to shine. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. a white or unwritten ticket. Perhaps from blegen. blad. whitish. to purl. which we . chatter. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. moere. plat. a blank ticket. blister. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. blatter. Dan. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. pXaatpiiiiHv. See Blubber. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. blister. as scullions. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. white. 5/^a/^ of colour. to vocifer- — Cot. imbrunire. madder. bladre. . blanqne. linkboys. leaf. Dan. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. on. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid.

abroad. blesse. might And sain. a flame. to spread news. Dan. gloriosus. blcEsan. loud . a shining spot. Prov. Sw. Cot. brasa. Du. blcese. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. — Elazen. blcest. blorach. blase. in that of praise. Blanches illuminies. She roade at peace through his heraldry. on whose behalf the herald appeared. Blast. a lamp blasere. As Kilian. live coal . blaser vid. Fr. abroad. to trumpet forth. coloured prints. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. blaeteren. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. it is manifest. blcesett. beast. visui patet. blcEsan.). blast. — — ' : bless. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. The origin of this exSp. AS. somewhat different train of thought. quus. bliEsan. OE. Golden Book in R. to blow . blasoen. to extol. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. Blatant. . which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. among other . — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. e. oured. 'op een trompet blaazen. blaodh. G. Du. The other derivation. to de. laudes (Kil. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. Troilus and Cressida. pale. Lye. the noisy.' to fastum . to blow.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. noisy blor. used. bldsse. boasting. and which. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. to blow. also blazon or the blazSpenser. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. A blaze is so intimately Then. a whisperer. senses. blazen. — ^Jam. A gust of wind. To blow AS. blus. . also only pains and excellent endurance. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. bleis. blason. Kil. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. embraser. blason. Sc. Du. kept up. blatero.' painted or figured . blysa. a torch . proflare tues. ON. by stripping off a portion of the bark. how. ventosus. blaodhrach. a funeral oration . stultd loqui. and. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blasa. much plausibility. blaze. I. Gael. besides blesse. blaterare.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. to blaze Sp. might spring from the same origin by a . to proclaim. Sw. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. to cut off prematurely. — ' — stroy. also praeblczse. oron-blasare. declaratio. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. If armour. . blis. a MS. blaesen. fire. a voice Jr. Du.whence the Fr. a shout. blose. magniloquus. a flame. is the imme. of an animal. Du.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. a flame . ill-speaMng their proper colours . to bellow. a shield. g. blass. blasonner. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. blesse. friend Cornelius. clamorous. ing of arms. Cot. magnilo. an conium. a torch. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. To Blaze. shield or surcoat. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. is from AS. blase. thraso. like the in English. commendation blason funebre. or blazening. to publish. blossi. the matter incendiary . an empty and two theories are proposed. as a verb. proclaim the virtues of. or to the sound which it produces. baladrar. G. The AS. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. light-coli.sound a trumpet. ON. i. Du. First from the E. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. ther it was erst not knowe. Gudmund. to set on fire. biter. To blast. indeed. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. and to make him word blaze. has also blencke. Blaze. in the same way as we 2. Fr. each of boaster. A strong flame. Dan. bles. blys. But now. 2. blezo. is used in the sense of manifestatio. a loud noise. whence Blazonry. With inversion of the liquid. See Blare. to publish the praises. braise. baladron.— . a coat of arms. Fr. brasa. AS. a blast. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. redness . bawling. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. splendour. blateroon. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings .

D. to spot. Blear-eyed j having sore i.'he cried till the tears ran down. geplerr. a spot. bloken. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . to start away from. Palsgr. spla7nU sie. while the agent ac- From . novice. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. darkness of vices. to cry or weep. or to low as oxen. whitish. exposed. blac includes the notion of pale and dark.' to deceive one. Richardson. ' He blarrede or roar. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. 242. . sinen langen tranen. Manuel de Pecch&. G. From the OFr. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. a blot or smear blanking one. blister. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. Fr. blur before their eyes. Blemisli. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. Bleb. a spot. color plumbeus bldma. . a blemish in one's 2. blema. as of dust or mist . the formal equivalent of English wink. — blink the question is to shrink from it.' God in his wordes. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. Blancher. blarren. in the expression reputation. See Blood. BLENCH obfusco. 419. Gr. (faith or creaunce) Be war. To totally different from the foregoing. a been distinct. wan. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. Bailey. pale Du. a blotch plerr.filerren. is Blench. to cast a mist before the eyes. Mac. pale . start vor den augen. to bleat as sheep. wheal. The term blear. — — R. sugillatio. 115. A stain in a man's reputation. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. a spot.' the devil makes a vain back. . ^Xiixaoftai. AS. Sir J. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. ' — — ' : — — . plama. paleness. dead-coloured Cotgr. pimple . The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. splamii!. Ancren Riwle. to spot . and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. B. tutnan is a cloud. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. Blear. c. pier vor den augen eyes. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. Pol. a stain. goda nainn. to stain one's honour or reputation. See Black. blesmir. to disgrace one's name. ' . livid. and thence to a bruise. which are blurred with the have shewed you. blench came to be used for a trick. . to concealing something that had originally discomfit. souiller. what blenched him therwith. Sw.P. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. Gower in R. Bejaune. to become livid. Bleed. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. bldmi. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. the livid colour of a bruise. I chaunge colour.v. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. See Black. And now are these but mansbond (i. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. blcecan. blot. To salir. a fault. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. a red watery eye. Schmel.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. to make him feel blank. blemissemeiit. blakna. bleikr. inflamed eyes. So in Sw. or blemish. to soil. or blemysshen — blaken. blot. to blare been weeping. to humbug. blink. to bleach. spSt. on. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. like one that has long P1. bleakness. p. to wink the eye. to wink at it. from the than schal I go. livor. To Bleat. flack. . ^Blencher. A Blab. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. Bleak. from on. light-coloured. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. a disgrace. confound him. tacher. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. boggle at something. a boil. guenchir. ' — — eye. avoid looking it in the face. to blear one's eye. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. N. drop of water. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. And By a similar metaphor Pol. wanness. tumanid. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. As AS. a spot. blesmissure.

plotzen. joy . G. to bless . Du. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. to shine. (=bene dicere). ^Jam. a look. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. blinde fenster. and joys of Paradise bliden. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. weaklaveny. Kiittner. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. Sw. to fall into water with a sudden noise. — . as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. . blicken. joy. glitter. good. to bluiter up with water. glitter. wink of sleep . blidu.blunda. readily passes into a /. . trix. AS. to rejoice. Blind. to plunge. be glad flash. A . F. to glitter . a dead nettle. Owl and Nightingale. ON. Needle. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. csecubrandish. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. the verb to bless is some. to dilute too much . lovely Bohem. to shine. bluiter. glad.blinze. as taschen. glimpse. riches blajennii blicksem. as a vatn i vin. OHG. money. happily. blahos. as in the case of blaze.not sting thiiren. sweet. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. or nettle which does form. pale. Pol. Du. blind- ON. . happy . blicksem. Blight. tative source of the word is wholly lost. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. glitter. to glance. bleg. in potters' language. . to flash. is I shall Gurt. a. to make a rumbling noise. blithe. to dazzle . blessed. to rejoice. window-blind. blissian. joy. . to make happy. to glitter. The sound of k before an s. . to blithsian. AS. joyful. De Sonne ' verblekken. gives blinzen. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. 375. well blahy blick and blink. blende.D. tire. blind. to churn. a blessing. blinzeln. burn up. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. blend.. fortunately. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blanssen.wink . graceful. AS. Deprived of sight. sung. blazeny. blink. giving (Fr. Blazena Bea. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. moment. shine. blich-fiur. pearance of the blighted . blinzler. AS. From the action of the hand making Sw. with or without the nasal.eyed. blund. . plonsen. Tany. to shine. blincken. blide. blitz. a. blink-eyed. a gleam. . cascultare. a flash. lightning sweet blago. Du. blicken. G. . lightning. Blink. seems the simple netel. vious one in the order of formation. to merry. — when he — Bailey. blogi. riches . happy . a glance Swiss blenden. a wink With the bletsian. . to glitter ful . blessed. To Blend. blindselen. . bliss look . glance. Dan. to twinkle. — A A — . —Brera. to act like a — . dazzle . blago. as in Du. flash of light . to shut the eyes G. as a blind entry. thou knave. Russ. The inblissful. . but by no means therefore a pre. blinzdugig. OHG. to bluiter. a blick-ooghen. to het dat Koorn is verblekket.nasal. an entry which leads to nothing . bludder. although in the in the next article. Du.Q. to shut the eyes. blaziti. sertion of the nasal. Swab. a nounce happy. to — make it thick and muddy. a glance. to pro. the Slavonic languages. tless —Gamm. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. blahoslaviti to twinkle. happy . to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. to dabble in water. Swiss (obsolete). to lighten. blitzen. III. lighten. j). livid. Bliss. G. blac. mix from blekken. blent. pockets. a wink.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids.corn. blican.' To — blunge clay.blinken. goods. To blunder water. to dash wine with water. Paradises blidnissu. wink. blet. blithe blis. Wtb. — Goth. to consecrate . G. Biglotton. blag. to mix. also to wink. Thence apblinds. The term then self or others. ' Pl. Sc. Sc. false windows. blindr. blendian.blinkard . To Bless. blotzen. to bless. make these hands 3. blatida. Serv. mixing in general. Nares. I hold thee a grote thee. blick.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. to be blind. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . to stir or puddle. liquid filth to bluther. the G. doors. Du. gladness. lightning. well blagaya.

as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. and bouclette. a . to cure by smoke. is formed squad. To a smoking or drying by the fire. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. viscid. orbicular. whence blast. blithe. . blot. The roots /. to soak. blindsehn. a blister.—Bloater. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. expressed by cognate roots. It may be formed Blithe. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. gentle OHG. . and easily changes its place. Du. Kil. Lat. as in E. blot. bluster. pods.—Bloated. to steep. to block up the way. Du. as if soaked in water. blidr. And so from squatter. in gusts. Gael. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. blaustem.— Hal. Block. husks. Ibid. — . soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. blesme. A solid blouquette blisters. B. blaud. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. bloc. a bubble. strawclod. In Fin. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. — Blob. the unhewn bole of a tree. Bleb. blod. to blow. weak. bloc. bleiths. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Dan. is also used in the sense of swelling . a blister . bubble and blubber. shells. an unformed mass. plub. Boyd in Jam. cooking. a block or log en bloc. a bubble. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. Hence E. round. or the like. any lump or mass of things. as blinzeln. Egillson. Svt. pausten. Mod. also to set See Bless. To Bloat. joyful. W. to dash liquid. blautr. to to puff and be noisy. blister blasan. separate portion. Sc. mild. blad. . Fr. in the lump or mass of wood. B. and F. frequentative. blubber. —Bailey. it is must be observed. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. blotfisk. a ram. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. a drop of water. blab. must be referred to AS. — — — — — From blabber. biota. For this. to blissom. blcesma. blobber. a lumpish head plubach. ON. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Sw. formed spot. The stem or trunk of a tree. to desire the male. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. mass. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. a small lump of anything thick. like manner the coloured. like clot. Thus we have blab and babble. G. and inarticulately. stone. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. buckle. A under this name was imported into England. or the mark which it makes. bausen. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. to swell. . a blot or spot. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. Jonson. to close it with a solid mass. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. mild. fiustula. Blob. Dan.pusta. kostia. swell. ^vaaa. busten. blond. light yellow. merciful ON. — Sw. buclde. having an unsound swollen look. Langued. a blain. soft. pustula. to breathe hard. pimple. a dirty blister. in Nares. blijde. Bav. in bulk. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. or is inserted or omitted. to blow. Blister. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. signifying in the first instance to soak. Blond. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. must be classed with forms like Gr. repre- pusula. blindman's-buff. a little blisg. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. bluyster. taken altogether. Blob. Goth. blide. blouca and Fr. soak in water cured fish. speaking rapidly any . Fr. blinzel-maus. fish blind person. blot.. to bubble. soaked. Hence. Of sheep. blister. bloated. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. kostua. blote. Gael. I believe. while Lat. lagga i blot. to blow. boucler. The blow E. blobbes or droppes of water. See Blot. pusula. a See Blot.plisg. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. soft. puff. or blinde-kiih. soft. from blcsr. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. inde humiditate tumidus.— Bailey. ON. and pisg. G. as a blab of ink. sloppy dirt. senting the dashing of water. in the sense of a soft tint. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. N. ^Jam. or bleb. To Blissom. a bubble. Sw. Cotgr.

blue. It. See Blow.blauschlagen. lump of anything soft to blad. plotterwis. ON. gfyssa. blust.D. a drop of water or colour. ^Bleed. Ir. blose. E. to strike . a flower. brilliancy. a lump. to dash down. bloto.— . ON. Du. E. couleur livide. OFr. ' — . Dan. a blaze. to flame. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Du. splashing full. proto shine with bright colours . lustre. — Cot. parallel form with ON. . — gush. biado (of which the evidence plattern. Sw. to glow. Fris. dirty spot on the cheek. blus. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. cow-dung. Fr. Florio). Fris. It should be of filth blak-blatte. blowen. Du. blondheid. spot pletter i solen. leme. blosa. AS. of a blow with something lios. a water ploutsche. Blot. to squander. blauwel. Blossom. a spot or blot. to dabble in water. platt-voll. Lat. the bright colour of the cheeks . a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to blot the land was in a leme. Erploten. bletister. gleam. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. to blaze . redness. to scribble. bloemen. blaeuwen. See Blow. en blau ach. bloetnsel. a Schmid. Ein platsch milch. to grow pale).^ Kil. Schwenck. to be red with blot. probably connected with Pol. blady. bloi. fall down . to squat or lie close. blosma. bleistern. PI. a black eye Du. bliihen. Prov. gammon. dial. a torch blusse. Blood. bleustern. Schilter. blaeuw. fair in en blat vand. to shine . Schmid. glose. to patter. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. plet. a beater. — Stalder . bloi. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. wan. platschern. blotte. gloss. pladdern. bloeme. blois. fall to overflowing. Russ. to strike with something soft or flat. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. platz-regen. shine . straw. to dirty. blotter. flower. pale biavo. —Barbour. Pl. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. . lump flower.' the rain is driving and blue . S-wiss pladern. from the bright colour which 7'vci. a deli. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. . Jios. . to sparkle. in v. Dan. bit by bit. Stalder. blut. a The form platschefz.platter. The G. colour of the cheeks. to blush . glus. as the skin or hair. Plots. E. blond. to dash down Du. E. bloutre. . bliithe. blou. a flower. glasi. clod. . Sw. blad. a pelting shower). to slap. blatte. Hatch. . livid marks. skam. blomstr. blosem. Sc. blodelsa and blawelsa. 2. soft or flat.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. sbiadare. plot of land is a spot or small rage. lidmr. to From . white blatte. to blaze. from G. a flower. ])erly Du. blawels. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. G. kobladde. on. blue. a Usaae. (of cattle) to dung. mud. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. plants which prepares the seed. to spot or blot. a Halm a. a nature. whence plader. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. blue . plottra. blysa. light. a blot or spot. blaeuwe ooghe. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. pale. j^ blottir. bloed. to splash. a. — — . plattata. blooth. Blotcli. to strike with such these objects exhibit. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. blostma. spots in the sun. — Blotch-paper. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). a gush of milk . blue. D. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. to glisten . . AS. dial. bloedsd. blistaf. the bright to blot paper morsels. ^lys. Du. to exists in biadetto. ON. bldmi. Blad. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. pale tint. Dan. blat. to dabble in water . splendour . pladern. a blow. E. platz-voll. Sw. glister . bliise. blosen. bluish. to be red. blotting-paper. bfys. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. or the sound of it . blue. blond en blaauw slaan. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. to slap. a cow-dung. Sc. bldts. glossi. blond is used in blatt. blase.properly to scatter liquid . great leaf of cabbage. platsch-voll. E. Blow. G. yellow. Harmar in R. livid . Wflz<^«. yellowish It's G. coloured (Diaz. bloi. Bloom. kuh-plader. Wendish blodo.

to guggle. The radical sense is shown in Gael. and thence. bledniai. to make bubbles in drinking. /idXavoc. pale OFr. to blow. Blowze. 1. bloes. OHG. — To blubber. bludder. bl. sound like water. Prov. To Blow. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. AS. to breathe bouteiUis. The aUied forms. Her sweet bloderit face. blue . blazir. E. gloeden. d in Sc. Tumbled. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. flower OHG. like manner Lat. a blow. to glow. Blue. may cite for example G. Raynouard. blau. to show flower. to fade. to make blue. grow pale. G. bloemen.— . blduen. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. pale. in rapid or indistinct utterance. MHG. a bruise. . to exhibit bright colours. especially with respect to the hair. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blust. blosen. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. a blast. to flap like loose clothes. plubair. withered. to fade. To Blow. 51. disordered in head-dress. pale. Kil. A. blady. Deutsch. bruk. to'disorder. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. blodyn. little apparent resemblance. heath. blow. to flourish. blawan. a. — . the red fluid of the body . to fade.nify bubble. a fat. Pl. These are — Bludder. to puff up. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. blue. y\r)yi»v. The primary sense is to shine. disordered. gloeyen. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. to gush. plustrig. to hard. in E. Danneil.xo'»'. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. — To Blubber. blebber. fied vowel. green.' — Palsgr. grug. blahen. blazi. And. .to blossom. jabber. OFr.D. Lat. Pl. fqded. ^Jam. meurtrissure Roquefort. . a Blossom. Langued.' Hamburgh Archives. coup. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. -ii. G. to beat with a mallet. is very frequent. to blow. 2. closely difference in of blabber. is confined to the — . puff. Jla-re. 92. sponds with Sw. plubraich. E. blezir. blubbern. OHG. dirty. bloeyen. B. Wtb. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. gliihen. tache. to breathe G. a continued noise of agitated water. Blowzy. |8A)'. a gurgling . a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. We . to with Bohem. . blao. blava. ' BLUE or guggling. Mund. corre. to shine with bright From colours. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. cheeks bedabbled with tears. Chaucer. blau. into flower.D. Notwithstanding the We . to glow. glede. glas. bldt. Bav. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. wan. boasting. pale . to inflate. to bruise Roquef. and closely allied with Du. glansj Ir. bloeden. marking some application from that bladder. It is howbliuwen. fem. to Plodern. bliihen. florere. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. ler. bruised Prov. bloi. glowing coal . blubbern. gliihen. red-faced bloted wench. . blodelsa. to bubble up. to gabble. Du. to blow. plubartaich. The interchange of an initial gl. —SchmelIt. P1. gUd. v. blut. blodern. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. a paddling in wate r. .. where the word may be compared bliggman. blaw j biavo. plodern. — — Mundart. Gael. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. fiubbem. to spot. Gr. grey. sense. plusig. bluh. to blurt out. glow. — Bluther. glas. w. blois. boil. 1292. bloom. bliihen. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. vi^ound. bluod. bliuwan. to beat. a herb Gr. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. Du. glaodh and blaodh. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. — . a flower. bluther. G. In agitation of water.Jlasa. Deutsch. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. or gr. toused. foam. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). blubonciti. and the forms mentioned under Swab. piusen. wan. blass.D. pludern. Pludern. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. Chaucer. chatter. flower w. G. Bret. br. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. bliithe. It. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped.D. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . Sik upplustem. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern.

//aay. — — — . glundra. find accordingly It. Flor. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. mistake. blavus.in mud or water. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. je perturbe. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. Dief. pale straw-coloured. Blaffart. blave is moreover. in plur. blunder. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . sense of yeUow. - reddish yellow. Kil. a fore. verdoyer. discoloured {plowiee. Bodge. ploffen. G. tradire to Fr. blunt. herbe. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. blac. Analogous forms are Du. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. non rotunda. falb. to become pale or livid. Supp. Pl. has donder-bus. pale yellow. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. to plump into the water. like the Celtic glas. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. applied to green as well as blue. planus. blue. bUich. a flounder. blake (identical with AS. blahir. It is remarkable however that the E. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. and bustle . a boisterous violent man. bloi. bleu et blanc. The Du. 't — —Hal. to lose colour. as well as biado. herauspoltem or sloping shore. jaune. polter-hans. Ditton in R. to work To blunder out a fronto. flav-us. from the brilliant green of the young E. and biavo (Diez). to confound. biada. earth and water mixed together. in water dobbelen. poltern. To blunder is then. Bohem. blond. . — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. blutter. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. and metaphorically. to blunge clay. without image or superscription. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. — Pr. Bladum. blaf. trahir. Kil. to become pale or wan. and Du. flodderen (Weiland). The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. corn. to become pale. Dryden in R. mix It. originally growing up turf and water. blunder. to agitation of liquids. Hence a Slcelton in R. in the same way as from It'. yellow. liebefactor. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble.. Blunderer or blunt worker. A bluff manner. from an imitation of the sound.D. Then with the nasal. used for the work of an unskilful performer. We Blunder. sloppy drink. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. The word is here synonymous with amplus. Pol. yellowish red. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. pludder. to mix it up with water. G.— . to fall suddenly on the ground. biavo. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. See Blurt. fawn-coloured. biava. Altieri. his business with much noise. segetes virentes. Du. abrupt. bluish. pale. glundr. Roquefort. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. . and then generally idle talk. something. And blunders on and staggers every pace. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. Blavoyer. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. The Du. Roquefort. to fade). Hence we pass to Prov. From G. I blonder. E. It then signifies something done at once. to puddle. Lat. Du. Hal. plo-wy. confusion. pale) is provincially used in the. blue. blandum. tutte le semente ancora in erba. polterer. buller-bak. as well as sbiadafe. bawling. a shore abruptly rising. from the Lat. verdure. superficie plani. Kiittner. having a bluff forehead. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. all representing the — . corn. G. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. bulmanner. which is rendered by Florio. puddle. blunderhead. Sw. Dan. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. speech. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. blanssen. blue. plomp. See Blunt. or an abrupt manner. is. fallow.make a noise. dial. — . The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up.• BLUFF biado. and sbiadare. a blunderbuss. sbiavare. to blunder water. G.' trouble. Halma. Blunt. Palsgr. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. bullern. OFr. disturb. contrasted with the dle. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. rustic. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. an ill-done job. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. a plain coin herausplatzeu. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. to dabble in the mud. devenir vert blavoie. buller-bas. Biada. Bluff. Romance bluiter. like Du. to dabble Biglotton E. Pm.

—D. to plump into the water. a thick and will person. The blait body. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. the absence of sharpness. bare or blunt. plotz. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Sc. Molof something wet. Kiittner. V. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. blunder. ang. clownish. seems to be derived. bleak. to handle a thing bluntly. Now the Swiss bluntsch. thick. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. blatte. blunsch. blat. pressions.plompen. is The word dull. naked. Dan. without horns. with or without the nasal. Kiittner. Q. clumsy. fling down . united in Gael. plump. Chaucer. unfledged Sw. blunt. Du. to blunt a thing out. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. to plump down. inactive Swiss bluntschi. blutten. a blot. biotto. dull. that the sense of bare. down. viz. to make foliage. exactly corresponding to the G. insensible. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. plumbeus. nature. bare. blait. Plump mit etwas umgehen. unceremonious manner. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. Blaitie-bum. A modification of the same root. to blurt. plotsen. bald. Plump. awkward. bluntschen. azure. Sir T. naked. figuratively. nis. viz. pointless. to bring it suddenly out. fooUsh. raw. massive. that it not easy to discover the connection. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. rude. Won by degrees. Woddis. duU. without preparation. naked. Stalder. — blunt. V.pludse. without the nasal. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. A light blue colour. it will be well to point out a sense. or heraus plumpen. awkwardly. identical with E. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. blunt. Bluntet. is thrown. absence of preparation. G. — Kil. stupid fellow. platz-regen. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. hebes. as cow-dung. rough. bloss. bare. Sc. a portion To inquire for slaves. homo stolidus. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. The syllables blot. without Maolaich. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. and. blotta sanningen. it will be observed. unwrought. edgeless. blunt. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. and in the same sense. Dan. obtusus. to make a noise of such a Stalder. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Then cometh indevotion. heavy. blout. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. plump. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Plontp. unpolished. It is from this notion of suddenness. maol. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . poor Sc. rudely. dial. —D. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Swab. G. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. of a knife which not cut. —D. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. . used in both senses. blunt. V. and an unintelligent. a bluntie. mit etwas heraus-platzen. pale. Blunt. sheepish. plutz T)\i. — — pidus. wan. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . More in Richardson. blue. blockish. from the loud report a fire-arm. heavy. plump. blait. . it is taken as the type of everything inactive. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are.— — — . Bare and blunt. plump. void. silly. but of something soft thrown on the ground. It. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. It will be seen that the G. Halma. dull. platzen. and hath swiche languor in his soul. Pol. a simpleton. Ford in R. through which a man is so blont. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. and the like. naked. obtusus. biosso. good plump person. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. bus. F. plump J to plump out with it. inaKil. Probably radically hlekit. plonsen. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. plains The large bech. forestis. ineffectual reason. as in E. like a thing thrown down with a noise. as Sw. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Sw. in Richardson. heavy.to fall into the water. blott.

Du. blubber. an ear of corn. plump.plodem. bustuous. gabble. or blurt with one's mouth. See Blossom. To move quickly up and down.D. bar. splurt and spirt. blusse i ansigtet. sudden. bludder. and when applied to vaunting language. P. then applied to indistinct vision . AS. . to make a noise with the mouth. to dangle. short pieces of any filthy mud. eafor. eber. the sound of a blow poffen. puddle. an edge. borrar. a bladder . Fl. boot. planks or boards. strong. table. 156. brett. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. bord. Bot zeggen. blurra. Sc. crack made by bursting open. mire. to jabber. dial. chicchere. Fr. to blaze. . — To Bob. burra. to say bluntly. . cheeks glow. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. Bav. to be out of temper. Du. lindwurm. on. Gael. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. an end or stump.the syllable bot. a. Related to blutter. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. AS. to blush. pludern. to threaten. bit. G. Boa. to crying. bot. to make mouths. Du. Pl. E. a tassel. Du.— . margin. to dabble. Supp. beer. OE. Wallace. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. acre. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. blot. stupid. Hal. blarra. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. ever-swin. As the as. to talk quick and indistinctly . pfludern. AS. Dan. to brag grande loqui. to spurt out. w.plerr. bobbin. ON. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. a torch blusse. stellio. It. to bark. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. blaste?i. margin. To blow in puffs. a dangling object. large. pausten. Board. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. bur. and boisterous. to smear. a mistiness. to render indisbhir. edge. bateau. fringe. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. 29. be a crack or loud sound. — ' Dief. to blubber. skin. A large snake. coarse. Du. to puff. bora. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. To brag and to crack. imitated by has also In like . botte. bluter. Wright's ed. to puff. V. and E. to sound like water boiling. G. as in Du. rude. whence bordvidr. a club foot . boord. or backwards and forwards. Schmeller. the Brem. primarily signify loud noise. lacerta. Lat. of the word seems . 'Ba. will fly up. It. Halma. dull. to chatter. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Du. blunt. my dear. a board or plank. cocodrUlus. batello. blaustem. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. a blow . to guggle. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. 1. to roar. The to radical meaning D. To Blurt.—Bobbin. &c. blotch and botch. Blush. c. Comp. like the parapets (viggyrdil. blasen and See Burr. — From mouth. blast. to dirty. Boa. a border. Kil. margin. a small lump. baiag. a mist before the eyes plerren. to breke. swagger. puffen. berd. to rumble. to bounce. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. to puff. i. 9396. to endeavour to terrify. gabble Sw. — — . Wtb. boistous. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. bobine. blirt of greeting. cluster. blur. a short thick body. to blore. it implies that it is empty sound. to disfigure with E. is formed Du. Hal. common. 274. table. e. Du. beacon fire. bord. . bliise. Boost is used for the boast. bleuster. G. violent. to blow. a flurt with one's fingers. Fr. bot-voet. bladdra.v. a grows to a great bigness. ader. both used in the sense of boasting. bdta. pustern. Slur. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. blodern. Pull the bobbin. a baU of thread the mud. edge. to make a noise in boiling. It. BLUR Boar. this root are formed Sc. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. The elision of the d is very to chatter. blose. See Boisterous. hot. and swimmeth very well. as splurt to splutter.pusten.y. geplerr. a smear. to blurt out. a burst of tears. bludder. outward edge. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. — a blaze. and the latch . bakke bleustern. E. flat. . pof. Explained by Jam. rude. Sc. Fl. blot. bluther. or bog also thread. bdd. blosken. boccheggiare. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. to blur. to snuff. Swiss blodern. pluddre. Gael. a blot. bord. whence bob. voce intonare. literally edge-wood. boa. violent G. dial. Sverris Saga. — — — * Boast. To tinct. and Du. to glow . properly noisy. border. BOB 79 — To Blur. blader. a Jam. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. to give a crack. De Boat. planks raised up outside the roofs. Bluster. ground. blaere. bhis. bdtr. aper. baban. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. a tassel. a blotch. board.' — Red Riding-hood. To splirt. bausen. blaffen and baffen.

where bogs form Gael. or stem of a tree. the stem of a tree . '£. to make a mow at. Shakespear has badged with blood. a puddle. wavering. anything soft. mud. . as in stammering or staggering. unsteady nature of a soft substance. In like manner E. quagmire). bodies. to fail. to bodge. With With this we charged again We bodged again. to push with the horns. Wall.gmh:t. bayonet . and the word is well explained by Bailey. bo tich. a spur. palleg. bodat. body and G. shaking . message boda. Lith. To mock. bodhag. bagges. bogach. by the syllable patsch. Bog. to be uncertain what to do. the trunk of the animal body. gog in gog-mire. as a horn. e. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. to stir. stutter gogmire. to blurt a thing out. . an awl. Banff. the body of a shift gaguejar. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. to commit a blunder. strike with the horns.\\i\c\iset.hollow. barrique. expression hogglin an bogglin. to roll. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. gag. bodi. bod. from fitting close to the body. precept. pall. — 2. belly. move. VI. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . a dagger. gagoula. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. bogan. potig. shake. gog. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Supp. potahha. bob. a round body both. Bret. barriga. swelling. bodi. moving backwards and forwards. Gl. patsche. . bogle. bog. gogach. body of a shirt bol. Cot. biodag. boftich. Now unskilful action is conmire. whence paUchen. To Bode. 43. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. — H. unsteady. bodene. We .' Bogglie. cask bottich. to make. bolr. Miracle-plays. a cask. To portend good or bad. corset from corps. as signifying anything spherical or round. nodding. quakmg. a quagsoft.. W. waving. bottich are derivatives. fickle . to be unsteady tich. To make bad work. stuttering. gebod. Ptg. bodig. to bob. and E. to stammer. bole. gagei. bodetz. a prick. bog. Gael. bodak. daubed or dabbled with blood. to start start and back as from a bugbear. arise E. stumpy. corset. bogadaich. bottig. ON. nave of a wheel. to prick. or bag. a messenger . Ptg. agitate. anything protuberant. exhibit another modification of the root. bogadh. . rounded. is identical with Fr. to waver. is a lump. — as well as the body of an animal. badyti. toss. BOGGLE trunk and G. To Bodge. Body. Gael. The Sp. See Bid. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. . then from the yielding.' A — Sherwood's Diet. baboyer. gago. to scruple. Bodkin. to smack. the body. Reliq Antiq. ^Jam. biodeachan. bot. bodilo. bodnu. bog (equivalent to E. the thick part of anything. to deliver a message. calf of the leg. Commonly explained as if from Sc. AS. a body. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. goggle. speak of the barrel of a horse. needle. whence Fr. And waves. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. . . an announcement. woman's stays. potacha. potacha. So BOB To Bob. a sting . AS. * To Boggle. French bouter. bayonet. bothog. the belly. the boss of a buckler. of which the E. . busti. boll. Bodice. See Baber-lipped. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. See To Botch. Gael. bodian. thrust with something pointed. butt. Thy i. or a pair of bodies. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. stitch. to fail. bod. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. The signification of the root bot. so large a feature in the country. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. unsteady. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. corpses pot. .rabodi. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. to stick. Ir. Bohem. to dabble or paddle. point. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. a bog or morass. to butt. meaning the round part of his body. Schmel. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. a command. to thrust. Russ. 3. a prickle.! . — Grandg. Crist. a ghost . dies. It introduced from Ireland. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. corpset. round. Lap. moist mire.a (i\ia. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. formerly bodies. a . a cask.

Fr. bolle. bealder. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). to swell. Gael. used. Sc. a swelling in ice. bula. bolt. pusten. stud. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. boggle. cows the people from speaking. flax-boU. shake. biiilen. A. Wall. a head . blow. It. bolt upright. i. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. fiausten. bul. bold. bolzen. bold. intrepid. The term applies in — — impressed . tartle. — 6 . buile. bola. hakogni. a bubble. G. to puff. rough. warlike. tartalear. bolr. furfures. pall. 374. Sp. bol. strong. bog. gluma. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. capiing into a cavity. bollen (Kil. bolleken. courageous. to boil. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. bulr. Sw. tartajear. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Bustuous. bulla. but that Bolt. notes. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. which are not used for a similar purpose. bulla. ON. 45. to hesitate from doubt. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bol. Bret. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. V. Bole. a bakazikni. bochken (titubare. Pm. Boil. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. bouil. as. Westerwald bollern. a bubble. may be identified with It. E. haughty. OG. baud. stramenta. as E. cheerful. chaff of corn siliqua. the lir. bolla. — ' — tagliare. 304). folliculus grani. Kil. ON. E. bog. The round stem of a tree. bolster. Du. Mund. scruple. Swab. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . — — which the cushion is stuffed. ohg. Love. bald. boil . bola. as baltha. glass phial. G. * Boisterous. Lat. . See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. In the same way Sc. Du. a quaking mire. ON. tar. Da. is probably a modification of boll. hero. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . treated under Bowl. balder. . Lap. b^gayer.w. in speaking. also a blister. bSlstr. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. to stagger.. pimple ON. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bolster. a bubble. Me doth awate. See Bulk. and then applied to other husks. quick. beule.— — . This iv. up of bubbles. caput scapulse. The bob. proud. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. OHG. bagaji. bhster. ballr. G. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. pustule. boly. buller. Goth. the body of a man or of ter. ON. bok. from the branches. trunk of a tree . chatter. . In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise.palleg. whence bulla. bul. boss. G.). To Bolter. roydeur. to tattle. the body . courageous. merry. balldr.Du. he will speak out. Pr. a bump. tomentum.' Mrs Baker. poppy (Bailey). by which it is moved to and fro. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. Du. globular bod)'. see Boast. Chaucer seems Dan. boll. brave. wag. polc'h. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. to be at a loss a shirt. as. properly represent belly. and manace for to de. to give a hoUow sound. Fr. Properly noisy. To Boil. in the sense of handsome . obex. bold.rounded part of the body. the husk of nuts. Boll. stameln vel bochken. a cushion. bolstar. capitellum. Du. bald. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. pillow. Lat. swelling. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. confident. puile. prince. a fastening for a door. strong. as those of nuts. bag or bog are derived Piedm. the. from Du. excellent. perpendicular. hollow. Stalder. strong. puilen. w. to stumble. free. boystousnesse. bol. bolzBold. round the first instance to the materials with . coarse. Kit. tulum. Daring. . Boystous. boutpijl. sels of flax. gerade signifies straight to the mark. bolc'h. insolent baude. bald. noise. to stammer. to waver or hesitate. bal. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. to the belly as the or dislike. bout. huge. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. Chaucer. dint in a metal vessel. the gurgling sound of water rush. swelling. then violent. bout is explained by Kil. Fr. belc'hj. repagulum. 1430 in Deutsch. or the like. (of Mons) b^guer. Test. a boil or swelling Du. bullire. to be prominent. impetuosity. ^Boistous.— D. to stammer. stutSw. Cot. styffe or rude .D. * Bolster. Magy. ^Vocab.

holier poller. one after the other.noise {brattle of thunner. to knock. .thump or blow. blotttre. zare. as above explained. to bolt meal barutel. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. ex•wagen. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. buUire. or the like. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. Pl. Brem. a clod. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. rugged. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. or ill. to shake.by forms like G. we see that the one consists of a words. clump. a round glass ending — bultig. poll. Pm. to E. as of a trumpet. to start out. bolzen. cruddle. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. we der Brocket). polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. bulk. barutela. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. Pl. . a rattle. bolt. I boulte meale in a boulter. to clack.clack.).On the same principle. OFr. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil.) E. The ulti. a crashing or racketing noise. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. Supp. baruta. agitari (Kil. tantara. by the representation of a racketing sound. as a rabbit from its baritel. btilt. the sense of right on end. a . ' Holler poller / bulter. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl.. fied bot. bulstrig. sestuare. croler. and to crash. buretter{CQ\. representing a rat. — — — . properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. And as the agitation of cream in . and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Prov. buletel. Hence. have Lat. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. It. crotlar. bultig. Pr. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. Wtb. barutare. bortelen. a clump of turf. Bav. curdle. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. die treppe pressed. beliitea. . Hence Palsgr. the wheels groaned. pattern. with E. taraabout. protuberance. abolter. to spring forth E. small heap. to start with palpitate. bullern. to make a knocking. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. then to knock. bolzauget) Sp. beluter. ler. projections.u. taratantarum.— .D. staff which sounds tar. . to come rattling downstairs. hammer. Mid. to form lumps. pultare. tling or crashing noise.protuberance.). Here the radical image is the violent O. tumultuari. a small portion. bolzaugen. vessel with narrow opening. on the one hand. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. P1. barutela. or a racer from the course. projecting eyes pul. tuft. OFr.fe/2?. bolt head is a retort. rugged. a clap of thunnences. we have Du. we pass to Du. bultred. poltern. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. hulch. bulio. zen. brattle. jolting. je bulte. hole. buideln. tar. buletare. cro. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. as snow balling on a horse's foot. mole-hill. MHG. Sanders. boss. crod. to bolter. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. kloteren. and the Thus from So. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. Dan. Schiitze. hammer. G. Du. a rattling carriage. racket gepolter. taratarrum. a clod cloth. uneven. hulter de bulter. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. from G. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. to bolt flour burato. swelling. bulla.D. OFr. in S'W plotter.D. loud and fast. Dauphiny a sudden movement. bluter. pull. as Fr. . burclct. to coagulate. . a bolter Prov.Lat.agitation of the meal in the bolter. : ' — — .. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. Du. 2. lumpy. to talk pulzen. a sod (Schiitze). Lat. Bulte-pook or bulstar. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. to agitate. uneven. a bolter or implement for bolting. . a bunch. to significance of the term was overlooked. gebolder. Sw. hump. bulk or quantity . crash. a club-foot. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. to bolt meal barutel. poltern. The ment and the operation. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Lang.D. a millpoltzet augen. Fr. knob. bolting to that of form.through a cloth of loose texture. to become lumpy. budeln daz mele . bolt-foot. / is transposed in Fr. So also we pass from Lat. In the next place. ' — — ! ! : — . . grasbulten.i5a//^«. also to curdle. Champagne burtcau. On this account Mid.as the essential element signifying the talum.nature of the operation.

which requires stuff of a thin open tex. Near 6 * . a string. Castrais barato. G. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Du. gossipium. to shake (as to shake the head. to shake down fruit from a tree. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. . bande. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. a boulter of meal. Du. barate. crook-shanked bondew. . band. bras. and Mod. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. the murmuring of the sea. an implement of binding. PoUitriduare. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. iuttern. . bambagioj whence It. HoUybandin R. bauniwolle. Bibelesworth in Nat. the shank the shoulder-bone. a word of which we have traces in several English names. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. also thick-shanked. whence bomme. bombasin.) . to thunder.^Altieri. Dan. Moreover. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. It. From builen. bombase. has repeatedly varied. ties. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. tiffany. tree. cotton stuff. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. thick-legged. to bolt meal. &c. beuteln. brust-bein. raw silk. borel. bonog.).Lat. . to boult meal. bombdra. a thundering noise bomre. bambacium. bonds. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. When ture. and in fact we find the and Du. biire. to which the leg. rimbombare. gunpowder. bommen. from teu. Bonfire. are applied to BONFIRE Bom.Su?. thick from shaking. bwmbwry mar. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. bon. Gascoi^e in R. from boom. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . and that from Fr. a baker. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. bongam.bast. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . must be explained Fr. a beacon. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. we speak of a gun to resound. bone of the . been. stuff. band pi. OE. thick. and Du. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. banitola (Fl. term is appropriated in G. It. silk. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. Banstead. the silk-worm. 83 Gr. It. Dan. a drum bombammen. as in . Fr. e. Kil. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. bombice. Fl. bolting-cloth. to thump W. ODu. derivation. q. or trunk word in W. bomba. sijde. and called in Mid. It. beil'n. beuteln. Antiq. bureau. Mid. to shake. 155. bunden. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. a bone in general. It. It. bombasine. bommer. . coarse. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. achsel bein. — bombast came guage. — Bombard. to beat a drum. buidelen.D. produced the Pl. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. to resound. bindan. again. band. bein. boulenger. and Bond. a —Bombasine. As cotton was used for padding clothes.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. sericum arboreum. — AS. Schm. i. a stem or base. as Banbury. . the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. d. bambagino. a stock. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. buttel trueb (of liquids). a hollow sound. butteln. Du. breast-bone. tie. . tie. Fr. bopin. buidelen. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. stump. burato. the contracted form of Du. G. a ligature. a churn for butter. — having a stem or stalk. Need you any ink and bonibase. butteln. In E. G. basin. to bind G. agreement. cotton. Bomb. the Fr. bombicina. bombe. bureau. In legal language. bombarda. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. bonfras. assuming the of leg : special signification W. to ring bells. is supported by the analogy of G. silk-worm. bwmbwr. Butterglas. builen. The material called by this name. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. sije. E. bombast. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. lana lignea. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. sye. baun. booming over the water. to cast to and fro. Bone. bond. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. however. and also the leg. ^o/j. the leg. bulter from It. baum-bast.

boutig. . Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. wondering signifies not only straw. Binau Brychyniog. in Phil. the name of the letter b. But bosg. blockhead. to gape. house. Sp. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . tall. OW. one who dwells nigh. simpleton. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. Hal. bid). b^er. Hal. ass. clown. badaud. pole. Fr. . prayer. ben. Thus from the syllable ba. are formed Fr. petition. dial. See Bown. been. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. baier. Perhaps. build. biikui. netis stall. See Butt. beam. till. Swab. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. a lofty blaze. a stall. botte. remedy of evil. N. boutig. writing bokos. from gape. and from AS. G. a bag of skin or leather. dolt. Boor. lofty. boom. a good turn or re- meaning. ON. bota. AS. however. Bonnefyre. stabulum.—Bootless. boten-shoen. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. bobo. G. a. a simpleton. a scribe G. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. babb^o. bonad. Wall. a dry stalk. feu de behourdis. the mouth. a letter . bauer. .— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. inhabit. is Du. without ad- . the cultivator. set in order. In nautical language. nachbar. Goth. but stall. buch-stab. dress. bos. boa. and fig. busu. Du. bossen. short boots. boia. G. Pm. high. buandi. quest. tigh. Fr. babin. to dress. Du. ON. 13. Booby. Bonnet. Build. hu?idbusa. Trans. * Boose. the alphabet. a silly fellow. bowwen. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. gaby. to set in order. gawney. bua. boo. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. prayer. A stall for cattle. Schm. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. to aid. and Ban in w. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. bonaid. Ox. Book. a letter Russ. . booby. the possessor of the farm. Du. bommen. bolt. inhabit. Thin ben Luke i. bds. beiSne. a. bdn. the scriptures bokareis. Jr. ON. 232. often cut for burning and lighting fires. of wonder On the same principle Sp. and thence Rouchi baia. bosih. a head-dress. Hufwud-bonad. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. swinbusa. by arbitours sholde bote the P. to strew with straw. The origin of the word is probably the W. Boom. to ask. . relief from sorrow. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. Basa. The i. bua. signifying beech. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. bonnet. head-dress wai^g. litter. Palsgr. to prepare. a tree. boer. and Gael. where a cross (or a gun. to cultivate. Boon. E. till. bene. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. whence ban-ffagl. or Vanns. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. A peasant. The latter is the original AS. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. Bun. Mrs Baker. bose. Boot. Boot of bale. Gl. Prov. AS. pig-sty. to gape. From bo. b'ukvdry. the first consonant of the alphabet. — From the participle present. countryman. bosig. fool. dial. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. betere thing werse. . help. w.n. dress. gehyred. to cultivate. from badare. a hollow skin. . It. a bonfire. in w. build. — . . which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. tapestry. Kil. comes bondi. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. foolish. Fr. bobo ! interj. master of the house. bonad. Busk. bauen. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. boubi^. p. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. chaff.. Mrs Baker explains bun. babau. . remnants of hay or straw. gaping hoyden — Cot. wall hangings. bd. from beida (E. bAkva. petition. from Du. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. OSlav. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. b&ber. It is commonly explained as identical with It. boubair. . Bootless. — e. at everything. To Boot. Kil. letter. Fr. A favour. by itself for head-dress. bas. ON. a lying-place for dogs or swine. pero. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. desire. to yawn. — To boot. literally cow-house. dog-kennel. — — . boandi.^ —P. the stubble of beans. — Bailey. \ais-band. botta. also called Brecknock Beacons. to litter bosu. succour Bailey. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. bote. The character of folly is i860. Pr. ty Gael. E.Boos. ganian. which one gaping and staring about. botte. although in the OG. as a lying-place for cattle. as the Brecknockshire Banns. a vessel for holding liquids. Gael. reparation. See Bomb.

In the Fin. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. bud. . to repair. on. kvit-bara. welt. pi. and thence to eat build. scsdes-bod. to swell. to The Sw. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. a borer. borino. See Burgeon. bora. Magy. Mag. bothan. recovery bata. and E. purra. and hence to fine. Booth. are derived from G. botjan. from bord. bauen. It. a leather bag or bottle for wine. a granary . borracha. to stick unto as a bur. to bite. cottage. N. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. Esthon. amendment. to bete the properly to mend the fire. to hut. in Ihre. chewed food for infants. wine-skin. G. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. bothag. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . to foam. beute. Fin. dust. to profit. or anything pointed. pu purro (saha =: saw . Fr. baete. a booth or shed..par. bardure. . . to bore. to to . the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. to pierce. to . a bothy. repair. a shed. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. hut. exchange or divide. margin. from deila and skipta. Booty. a bladder. bdt. . . limbus. lappalare. comminuted by either kind of action. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. Compare Manx birrag. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. make . fire. admovere titiones. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). 266. purro. The Fin.— Return from Parnassus I inR. nor E. a borer. BoracMo. Gael. borracha. Du. a shelter of branches. boede. purra. fimbria. scalpo. from borra. differs only in termination. a shop. struere ignem. 3. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. as afford a satisfactory explanation. A phorically a drunkard. sharp. amendment boeten. rof.. terebra sculptoria purastoa. cure Sw. budowai. cup- awl. lappolone. burin.por. . a hut or tent. . 1. to importune. urboro. a responding forms . are parret. or the gradual working a hole in anything. the . AS. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. Fl. to build. boete. which are probably from the same root. to bite. biorag. See Bower. batr. sawroot.—Burin. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. Pol. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. Bete. yfirbdt. aid. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. a hut. boeten het vier. It. to profit Goth. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. mat-bod. butin is explained by Flor. to divide. Gael. BOOTH vantage. To Bore. Kil. a cupboard. — ON. p. swell bara. a borer . to expiate boeten den dorst. budka. Bohem. bdra. Alexand. dens mordens vel caninus. extremitas Bore. But probably the E. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. boeye. both. remedy. making good again . betan fyr. and meta- Fr. byte points to the verb byta. and parrets. Burke in R. a word. tent. to build buda. edge. to patch. to quench one's thirst . piercer. &c. Lat. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. Fin. ON. puras. wave. a wave. bata. a great bur. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. in Lap. furd. baara. ora. Sp. drillen. • — To Bore. bohren. Fr. forare. bauda. a tusk. bord. Gael. better. . puru. sculpo 05\xiik. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. Du. The cor. to surge. is purin. a sharp-pointed tooth. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. uzboro. Border.. pointed. Fin. bower. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. to restore. to anything Neither G. a. to boot. Another derivation from Fin. And so in ON. puru. OHG. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. hem or gard of a garment. cellar. bottino. boards. It is admitted that Fr. terebro. an engraver's chisel. reparation. Esthon. barn. bolino. a border. limbus. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. puras. to mend. abode. a chisel. OSw. . a shop budowati. chisel. ON. furni. The as G. See To We speak in E. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. ON. bordi. bite. The ON. butin. Palsgr. of an edge that will not bite.

Bunch. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. burh. In like manner It. bttssel. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. Jam. secure. whence the burg. bosseu. boss of the side. Lat. bundle. a city . Gr.' every man be under bail. . Newbury. ' pledge. Borrow. storm.' if thou give money on loan. &c. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. bosh. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. borg. the Sc. was origin of the term is the OFr. knocking. and borough in the sense of a town. to keep. . the ordinary a swelling. by which of or belonging to plants. vain. or perhaps also To Borrow. Russ. pegou. bom. the sun sets. is used in the sense of bussare. undyed wool of brown sheep. a surety. to strike . a bouncing baby . Altieri. a pushing or striking out. ' — — . which now signifies a knob. boss or knob of a buckler . Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. cormpted. cnag signifies both a clergy. borei. a giving rise to It. clownish. borgo. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . bergen. beorgan. busse. useCanterbury. bosse.bucklers. D. unpolished. borel. borealis. AS. or head-borough. burgess. whether from the fact preserve G. boss sound. Fr. and thus could not shake off the old burr. primarily signifying coarse sound . G. Goth. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. Bailey. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. AS. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. an eminence. Bos a surety. viipyoc. Fr. botch. pitch. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. — — — A — . Du. Botany. to save Sw. or perhaps it may be See Bury. a knob. borgese. of bail throughout the country. brown cloth. formerly used in the sense of knocking. a. northern. So Du. i. a blow. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. knur. bourgeois. Hence knot. to save. See found in Bav. to pick or cull plants. is probably radically Boss. I. . knob. bail biirgen. or because a blow berga. borough or chief constable. gesylle. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. Du. empty. (Bridel). The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. from their grey clothing. boussi. boschen. huschen.vr\. to protect. ON. hollow. Swiss Rom. nonsense. bussi. one who sticks to you like a bore. Cot. the N.' or system of bail. beorgan. a citizen. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. bossen. /3oraMK6f. plant. butsen. The primi. Hal. byrig. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. while Gael. ^o^^flj. Borough. The origin seems to be the Goth. to strike so as to Bureau. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. bierge.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. It. the must have arisen burgensis. in instead of without. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. a tower. to contain. that which biirge. rustic. tempest. botch. projection. as if from the verb to hold. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. surety.' Vegetius in Diez. plain rude fellow. grey). gum vocant. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. to knock or strike. And that unsittynge is to here degre. without. to give a hollow bizo. Bosh. tuft. bourg. hollow bucklers. to take in. bump. It. burel. when that system was forgotten. boss. Hence borhes ealdor. coarse cloth made of the Du. bussa coarse. in the body struck. Lang. head. E. basse. Boreal. cob. bos. empty. boss. to give bail or answer for an. to become is emitted by a hollow body. connected. bos. bump is used in lump or piece. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. cnap. Fr. to protect.any round sweUing. bunch. Jam. as we speak of a thumping potato.. empty. a herb. Borowholder. (1867). destitute. knock and a knob . blow on a hollow object. The other. a boor. a citizen. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. 106. to conceal. — ' wind burya. Sc. cnoc. botsen. borg. borh. the North Wind. poor. baurgs. V.mass. rude. a bunch or hump. less. AS. a little blow. into borsholder. Turk. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. loan. a wen. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. poor. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. borough-holder. a boss. pego. tive idea seems to bring under cover.ribs and the side. . from AS. butse. the hollow between the Borsholder.' the chief of the ' borh. striking. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. ^ma. f graauw. agrees with E. to save. botse.

— — . Lith. to make better. Bouds. a boil or swelling Halma. See Butt. AS. knock. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. of botta. disturbance to . Diez. botus. dabble). a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. bots. Judwi. repara- — — See To Bete. &c. bdt. from the dashing of water. baiothsj Sanscr.— Hal. to strike . bottle is provincially used in the same sense. puddle. bottigUa. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . bulderen. G. — Bottom. botte. bativa. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. mutter. botm. butsen. pother. disturbance. Podge. Prov. &c. bot. I. mend. a pit. bozza. Fr. A — oba-dwaj Lat. thing soft batsch. however. to stir and mix together. botola. ing out. a maggot. signify a in OE. a root. oba. especially in Gael. ON. Bouteille. a bottle. boiteal. Butu. a bottle. we two. pozzanghera. they two. to work without order or know. To confuse with noise. Stalder. Bret. to we have OHG. a botcher of shoes. Hal. G. — — A 2. buddeln. Parmesan poccia. a bubble. * To Bother. to from the root bot. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. a slop. botel. . a pock. Boa two. bun. AS. It. mess. Hal. ^kvBoQ. Again. the first rough draught 2. gipuozan. Lith. boiteag. to give a sounding blow. — duj Lett. a pit.ments of the same root. Fyre to botme. i. — Fl. to botch or patch. — — belly-worm. Danneil. bulder. Gael. boil. biissen. or plague sore . fire-bote. noise. nets. buideal. an imperfect and bunbutt end. Mudu. is boteau. bethia. bdsser. . See To Bodge. to simmer. we have Swiss batscken. bund. Fl. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. a vessel for holding liquids. corresponding to . dim. A horses. to stir and mix together . any round ball or bowl to play withal. E. On the other hand. to put on a patch. bozza. bodem. ledge It.) . you two. to dip in liquid (to Gael. See Boss. stock. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. butse. boccia. The Gr. a plague-boil Kil.foundation. pozzo. both. whisper. in the sense of mend the fire. a humpback. pocciar. Lat. Here the radical image seems a bubble. a cask. and ajSvamg. an abyss or bottoniless pit. buts. and E. was called a push. abbu. • Bott. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. noise.— . to mend. what pushes outwards. It. bundle. And so we speak of an eruption.D. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. kessel-biisser. j3i/9os. Ancren Riwle. N. batschen. stump. bouteille. to froth as beer . boss. tumour. bAdtr. a bunch. abyss. boden . Leg. Pl. by met. poltern. to smack. to knock. the bud of a flower . Decorde. OSax. See Bound. any plain round viol glass bozzo. gen.— Swift in R. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. a waterfall. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. Both. patch. bSn. bossu. butwo. Wedu. round lump. — Dief. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. e. Bailey. Du. a wisp. to mend (kettles. as a push or windgaU. — . House-bote. From the dim. bosser. gling piece of work. blister. fundus. scuohbuzere. a slop. a bottle of hay. mess. a cobbler. ON. ' G. Kil. putra. bottom. buddl. to bcBta. for a bud. It. . shoes. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. .' to the fiery Csedm. abbution. the science or knowledge of plants. stroke. botn. hurly-burly. beggtaj Goth. a cess. burgi vel pontis refectionem. On — Du. botsen. buazen. bile. Fr. bide. blow. to rage. dial. empty or hollow. a bott . schuhbosser. boute. to fall : with a sound batsch. a bundle of straw or hay. whence the name ol pool to podge. stem or base. turmoil. . Bottle. Fl. Jtidu. bluster. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. a cesspool pass. abbi. a bump or swelling. w. Botcli. botel foenn. To Botch. pimple. . 212. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. Canut. Dan. stock. boitean.of a ball of thread. Gael. ubhau. . It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. abbi-diwij Slavon. ixorapudder. ba. — Jidwi. a patch patschen.^Dec. — . botte. A bottom depth. to podge. BOTCH understood). to dash about . ambo. a. Bochu. a tinker schuhbiisser. potra. a knock. contusion . a depth. podge. botte. botch. botse. AS. the lowest part. blain. to make a make a noise. H^cart. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. btitse. Du. maggots in barley. the other hand. ON. a lump of somebatschen. is also a bubble. bunch. as Fr.

a bound. Bodinare.D. pothel. to hum. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . buUersten. boh. its kind. Bonny. turn. strapping. bottom. Primarily to strike. butina. from volgere. Q. volta. 2. carpet. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. Halma. bondir. ing. p. whence buj7isen. a boss. bugt. ni motz brugir.'— Charter of K. nor horn sound.— F. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. I assure you. bay. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. to spring. — strike. A Langued. See To Bolt. bonna. thumping. Fr. Boulderstone. mcn-bomi. To Boult. to turn. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. . signifying in nautical coil of rope. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. or Bow-pot. Mid. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. E. baby. a large stone rounded by the action of water. a blow. and F. an occasion. from bugan. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. bun. mere.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting.' B. And the new stools set out. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Fr. 3. gulf. a large pebble. a bouncing apple. 136. limit. bunda. geration. bonndn. to thunder. to knock at the door. The W. The Bight of Benin. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. To Bounce. an de dor bunsen.' round and round in similar circles. jungen. contusi. to set out by metes and bounds. — No i ausiratz parlar. the larger kind of pebbles. boundina. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. the hollow of a bay. jump. Bough. to thundering big one hum. has hot. Pm. boriie. as that of E. Bough-pot. boujtce. Bought. iv. came home with his face all to-bounced. the bay of Benin. Bunche. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Brem. Wtb. see Boss. To Bound. bamsen. winding. Ducange. ni frestelar. bugan. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. Alpine Re- — gions. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. bullra. From Sw. bumper.— Boundary. to resound. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Du. Raynouard.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. a button. Bout. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. to fix limits. Nor a centinel whistle. a turn or time. debodinare. a stock. Probably from the Celtic root bon. boss of a buckler. a blister. Dan. Bound. So It. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. . nave of a wheel bothel. bons. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. — Take care my house be handsome. The branch of a tree. Fr. .— Cot. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Coxcomb. Bowlder. tnndo. till The dat et bunsede. and Prov. to make a loud noise. of thread. bog. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. as a bout of fair or foul weather. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bend. — — leap. language a * Boulder. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . he fell so that it sounded. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. round. dial. to spring. bouton. in the absence of actual e. by Bujns or Buns.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. — — Bight. a bud. bone. knock it sounds again. a round body both. root (see Bottom). to set bounds. to bow. march. bounbounejha. as a nosegay. bodina. a boundary stone (men stone). Pr. Ni gacha cor bondir. to knock. bolder. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. Webster. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Bret. bend.>a bout. bunsen. dial. See Bunch. AS. signifies a sliort thick mass. from AS. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together.. botwm. like bobbin." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. the smaller ones. the verb bondir in OFr. Sw. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. bonzen. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. in contrast to klappersten.— — — - 88 BOUGH . pimple Richards bothog.

G. Dan. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. . the burden of a song. a drone or dor-bee. a jibe Shaw bururus. Gael. buyse. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. bunaiteach. to take deep draughts. jest. bordo. sausen. Bret. drone of a bagpipe. to hum. fun of one . drunken. whence buysen. bogr. a well. . the fixed. game. i. prepared for. bugan. pared. And there in mourning spend Sw. buga. to trick. analogous to Fr. the Bourdon. drink deep. to take breath. to drink deep. has also buirleadh. pausen. brausen. sport. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. Dan. Borden. bending of a joint knie-bug. Bound. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. tinton. burdan. to draw a deep breath. bausen. steady. Sw. bugne. Comp. When used alone it . a humming noise. to hum as a bee. in Fr. The meaning of bound. to take one in. Gael. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Gael. It is remarkable that we find vary. different modification gives ON. . — — . on the whole. Du. on. a humming noise Macleod. schulter-bug.which see. Cot. . Gael. bog. bordone. kroes. is. Du. A water. cheat. as was for. G. Du. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. to bulge. bourde in the same sense. to bow or incline the . buzz. Fr. when we speak of. bov. potio. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. bue. to swell. G. Bourdon. of the ON. a sing-song. bogen. lance. language of folly or ridicule. bugna. bugna. bourd. to bow. address. beogan. pre. Bourd. to tope W. the shoulder of the vessel. burreti. bending. limit. and that probably from a Celtic root. a from Du. addressed to. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. mockery. Lat. It is the participle past buinn.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse.. Spenser in R. ready. like quaff. hence musical accompaniment. ready to pike or spear . are applied to the bow of a ship. saufen. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. The foregoing derivation seems. to banter or laugh at. buys. bagna. Goth. explaining Sw. their time -With "wailful tunes. puff out. bend. the ting of a bell. As the Gael. Bounty. grumble Sw. So Sc. It. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. a pot. burd. bdgi. from spring. to tipple. crutch. fresh* water. a go to. bogha. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. a cup kroesen. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. bogna. set out. bonitas. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. Dan. pot. buigen. a corToward the garden. curvature. spelling the word iox bound. purlBav. to mutter. epaule du vaisseau. Gael. Prov. Sc. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. bwa. btiga. bourdon. biugan. shoulder-blade. bourdon. ing. or of an Gael. bending. a. trick. ruption of bonne. and not in the sense of curvature in general. to drink deep. Burgeon. to our bous. an arch. to draw a deep breath. whether by sound or gesticulation. pusta. brunna. bonus. purra. Sp. Immediately from Fr. a for New York. firm. Swiss bausen. . head Fr. . cudgel. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. hous^ Man in the Moon. identical with E. warbling. Bourdon. a. a jibe. a mill-post. Chaucer in R. burt. Sw.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. flagon. Bow. It is bov. patesten. beygja. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . a — — . spring. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. that ON. it is probable that the It. Burden. springbiirn. Sw. taunt. — — — A pare. buzzing of bees. ^<7r«i?. also the humming or ON. good. a prop. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. Cot. joke. sotich. must be referred to the same root. sense durd. Fr. burdan. burlare. bage. the big end of a club. bend Sw. bound. bordon. bommen. G.bass of a stringed instrument. deceit. a drone of a bagpipe. — probably through this latter signification. to tope. bug. A —Cot. burn. bog. Fr. g. gurgling. way ba7n. borne. bovne. Eown. brummen. biegen. a brook. souf. repartee. a bow. verb bua. Dan. buizen. Du. belly out. to pre2. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. schenkelbug. bontS. AS. staff. to indulge in his cups . ridicule buirte. to — Hal. w. bow to shoot with. .

It is more probably from the G. passing on stud. bulcken. . a box Lat. crown of a hat.D. ku^o. without the and grits. . trestle. Thus we have Esthon. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. a stud. biiske. kuppelo. . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. buis. bolla. G. hollow place Fr. bugyola. iri'iaQ. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . a the other by the loss of the / into ON. to bubble up. or. to bulge. Sp. intrenchment. a iDubble.). to bow buck. bugy. boxtree. make obeisance. bolne. Sw. bugna. w. buckelig gehen.. Bret. a bowl. swell. the box-tree and articles made of it G. tumour. bubble. PLD. . Fr. a thing of liquid. lump . bouge. and to a coachbox in particular. bending. Bret. the box-tree. (in pass . kupula. kupukka. and on swollen. an inclosure. ^o«/«. is applied to a coach-box. boudin. buchsbaum. a bubble bolli. Bowl. Du. bolle. Du. buigen. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. bowel Box. bollen. globular. to yield to one. . a ball. bock. . a hump on the back rossbollen. Boll. ON. E. bug. bol. buello. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. bhuj. boxtree pusska. a hen-coop . guestchamber . ^o/a. Cable. bulk compared with Sw. convex. bur. kupu. . painter's easel. hill. a wine-can . See Boil. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. folliculus . similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. bwra.) to incline oneself . bow. . of a wooden ball to play with and — . ask. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. boss. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. in both senses. budello. a. . a sack. Lat. bukke. blister. Hal. to bend. bow. . a bud. inclinare se (Kil. . the crop of a bird. bulka. Dan. Bav. bent. . In like manner the Pol. a swelling or rising up. the bogna. acsian. . See MHO. Gr. OFr. a parlour.flask It. a box. Fr. the head. ne. an outhouse AS. a sleeping-room . Bohem. as in E. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. bosso. boor. crooked. to bend down. a round glass or bolg. cumena-bur. utibur. a buck.). to puff up. peated in Magy. belly. dial. honse-bur. to raise the back boll OHG. Du. buga. . a croft by a house. bolgna. ken. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bossola. . boucle. . * Bowels. bog. bowl . round glass phial. to swell. the box-tree It. to guggle. a pot. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. the head. budel. belly of a cask. bubble. bola. with inversion of the round. a chamber swefnbur. a wardrobe . bulla. as well as the name of a. anything globular. box. prominence. boil. biichse. globe or spherical body.a. boel. bugyani. polla. a ball. . a ball . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. beutel. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. boss. fata-bur. A . a bubble Fin.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. biisse. botulus. bulne. Dan. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. bulla in aqua. gut. as in AS. OE. bol. koziel. knob From the former modification we have bolla. Hence. similar shape. W. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. Sanscr. bur. . Fr. sausage. to stoop biickling. tumour . bulb of an onion bolleyield. fyn. bolla. a box. hollow. then by the loss of the /. bouellou. The / a bow. Bower. G. pusspan. See Crab. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. spring as water bugya. a boil. Sw. in walking appears in a .. busse.cup Du. Buckle. a protuberance. swoUei) Lat. puffy. AS. a little box . a drop of pullistaa. or in e. . water pulli. AS. zich onder jemand under to him. . busskai. W. a bubble. a box. buxus. bugyni. convexity. From the other form are G. the barrel of a gun. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. signified by forms like Gael. compared with Fr. to stoop. bhugna. to make crooked . give in to. bucka. bulge. bogla. belly. &c. round bead. pocket. a polla. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. hiidel. beuz. spherical Dan. a bubble. globular body. ON. the skull or brainpan . at the e. a knot. bocka. bowels. a separate apartment . a black pudding. A Bulk. heafod bolla. bwr. a box. a bundle. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. to puff up pullakka. purse. Sw. hollow wooden case. pullo. biicken. ON. . buckel. stream forth bugyogni. Pol. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. mausbollelein. bouzellou. . The word may probably be identical with Fris. head of a cabbage. wisp of straw . ttuJic. bog.\s. to buckle G. box in both senses. different position in ODu. . . buk.

a comworld Rayn. filth . &c. — . foul. is a rope holding G. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . Prov. to stammer. brago. a braceOFr. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . variation of babble. On the same principle from the buksteht. unmarried man . mud.nated by dirt. See Brake. con. rakke. Lett. by the same inversion of J and k. buah. In like manner the It. .D. let. by an overflow of sea water. braco. bube. Kil. dog in general. Du. compressing. Bracket. a grown youth Cimbr. A — — . brec. damaged board a ship. ' — A — — — . murmur. — . breuque. — . baukscheht. bou^ba. which sigof straining. wrack. flaw. defect Du. a box. mud. whelp as. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. 91 the Dan. braic. ratch. pus. to smack the hand batschen. OFr. to give a sounding blow defect. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. to box the ears. the first instancebya physical tie. wnzC/J. See Broker. rakka. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. It. pupus. odorinsecus. a sounding blow. brae. dog Sw. want. . to burst. MHG. as noticed under Box. cramp-iron holding things together . bresta. . Du. Rouchi Then as an adj. fuse. merely in our mode of considering them. Swiss bub. boussole. fault. bue. s. . Sp. brageuses. pube. Fr. . breptati. brechen. to fall. in R.. bracil. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. brae. brasselet. Brach. parallel with OK. salsus. moral or physical. One girl. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. Fr. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. OE. to give a blow with the fists. confining. defect. boiste. a boy pupa. then from break. brack. strike. and F. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. The different meanings of the brageux. brek. G. bracer. Prov. a bubbling dura del mun. Fr. defect. OFr.with a noise. Sp. which has many representatives in the other Europe. braco. . To brace is to draw together. baske. Lat. suppuration. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. boy bouba. A to halt between two derivations. fault . turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. La ville ou y avait Brace. clay. brack. breach. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. Kil. break. V. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. It is B. flap. corruptse. briche. disturb. Water rendered boubo. and string of his bow. acidus. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. jabber. ing from a mixture of salt. brek. It. ON. bracha. Cot. need. bask. an languages. Boy. brassard. wristband. brace on and Du. boy. brakke Bracelet. root). beagle. bruxula. a girl. brae. land batsken. BOX To Box. G. armour for the arm. babble. Pl. bouibo. . race.. a bog or pass Fr. youth.D. breach. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. ON. — . refuse. brechen ihm. to want. s. Swiss Rom. the arm. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. thwack. . to is derived brestr. — . rakki. Prov. .— D. brabbelen. land spoilt Kil. salo sive aqua marinS. brostia. braecke. lalear-eyed Prov. isolated part of the text. It. Gael. quarrel Bohem. Kil. a crack. Brak-goed. braquet. A brace probis. or bracer Cot. his eyes are failing him). Heligoneed. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach.puddle. want. bracket. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. Pr. taneous talking. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. posh." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. Ptg. Thus brack. To Brabble. To fight with the fists. mud. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack.. and then Pl. matter. bragos. Brackish. Hdcart. flaw. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. AS. Sp. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. to Swiss batschen. braque. loud smack. Swab. dirty. to give a gebrechen. bitch Du.. Brack. Pm. in R. priated to the original sense. to stutter. a guard to torf. bray. to slap. brakke grund. a pair of braces. from a root brak. bracon. brague. ghebreck. I sal slyng. Brack. to crack. or defect. to be wanting. spaniel. — — . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. want. Prov. brae. dog that hunts by scent. rack. braca. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. Fr. Bracelet. bracco. bracke. the word passed on to signify salt water in general.

be noisy . fine. subduing. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. brao. or from braie itself. See Bray. binding anything together. braegenj Du. gayly dressed. braga. Brail. . to boast or brag. gorgeous. splendid. stout. brav. brake in the sense of constraining. to stand upon terms. handsome. to strut. Hecart. brachittm. power. — . to crack. hectoring. a noisy talkboasting. se pavaner. bragging of his own valour. confining. vaunting. brave. brave. braske. brabhdair.breeches. braver. i. bragaireachd. Dan. would be to brace. Cot. gallant. — A — . brabhdadh. Brain. brag. —Spenser in R. To Braid. or by gaudy dress and show.Shepherd's Cal. BRAG Piedm. finery. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. bragd. courageous. drawers. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. AS. Chaucer.explosion. &c. Sp. crack. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. vanter une chose. in numerous dialects. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. beautiful. brag. torture . To Brag. used in the sense of force. Thus we are brought to the OE.i5nz^. to rattle. Cot. braka. strength. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. fine. braguer. spot. braga. Brake. de Vaud. crash. bullying. breagh. Fr. bra!. 2. Bret. braggard also valiant. Thus Bret. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. called by our braggard. The plant y^r«. swaggerer. also derived Fr. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. affront. w. Dan. From sprouted corn. smart. riches. subigere. It. boasting. . to swagger. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . braicli. is Cot. Fr. to shout. bravo. . fine. breyne. to unbrace or let down the breeches. brazo. Primarily to crack. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). A — Hal. breghen. braka. to boast of his own worth. brave. cry. Lith. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. the opposite of which.hy which this idea is con\eyed. bravache. brave. also tion of this was brayeul. Walloon bress. breach. Haldorsen Gael. Bret. fine. is identical with Gael.. about the hawk's fundament. . to Rouchi brMer. se parer de beaux habits. Turk bazu are used in both senses.. and it is very likely that the root brak. bully . From brayel. also insolenter se gerere . Faire le brave. Sc. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . blusterer. It is certain that the word for arm is. — Chaucer. flaunting. proud. ^Brave. gallant (in apparel) also proud. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes.aburst. h-avare and Fr. 92 Cot. compressing. dhbrailler. See Brace. Fris. Brag was then used brisk. — Equivalent forms are Gael. flaunt in fine clothes . expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . braw. bushy . in order to prevent its catching the wind. swagger. . braga. make a noise . to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. Rom. to make a noise. Wallachian bratsou. noisy ostentation. braies. empty pride. to flaunt. boast. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. to brail up a sail. expensive. idle talk. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. brag or jet it braguard. Hence E. bravacherie. crash ON. From Fr. Lat. Brake.^Vocab. . brake is. bragio. slight modificajoining the two legs. an iron for holding Zalli. be found. bragging.^ Sp. that will carry no coals. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. an inclosure for cattle . in the sense of the Lat. showy bravery. — From W. to cord a bale of tie up. bravado j Fr. stately. the feathers ON.—— . sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. a carriage for breaking in horses . goods. vain glory. The meanings of brake are very numerous. The meanings included under — Bragget.%. breghe. ative fellow. Langued. braske. to sprout malt. . gay. well-dressed. brayete. valiant The head are sumptuous. To Brail. brae. braszketi. brave. a roisterer. excellent. brails. as the type of exertion and strength. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . Bray. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . was formed brayele. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. and that from e. the arm. gay. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. se donner trop de licence. . Cot.

bracan. low wet land bruch. to bend or direct a cannon. as in the case of horse-breaking. cover G. Biglotton. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. a marsh. gebrUche. briser. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. 3. bregille. any thicket of brakes. To the same bend a bow. Dan. game. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. brage. thing is brought under control. bush. to knead or mix up in a mortar. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. broil. Fr. brego. brake. where from Esthon. a stream. bregar brake. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. Voc. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. brook. Prov. to subdue. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. have thus Du. and Lat. P&. riguus. Dan. Sp. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). to bend a bow. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. to break. Fr. broeck. to exert force in different ways. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. marsh or swamp. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. Brake. de Vaud. is formed murd. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow.' It. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. a spinning-wheel. braka. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. breaking in the operation. —Bracken. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. The Fr. tnurdma.D. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood.D. brushwood. gilum. Pl. brook. brcekke. broken fratta. copse-wood. Corrfeze bredgea. in usus braca. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. brog. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. marsh. murran. brake. gebroge. quarry from Fin. —Ovid. signifying to sweep. to The ON. watered. G. murtaa. brambles. to distinct. break flax PLD. breuil.. braquer un canon. to brush. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. to head must be bit. a horse's a horse's twitch. In ON. the original meaning of G. thicket. bregar. word. a harrow. for — Due. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. is braukti. ^raca. as in Du. to break. to harrow (Lat. Lat. It may be sus- . conSo in G. frangere linum. to pound. to rub. and G.— . fratto. In the case of the ne. Dan. to stiffen against Taboada). brega. gebiisch. e. bushes. break of such a kind. the lever by which the string was drawn up. broilium. nemus. Gael. a brace on board a ship. properly braking or subduing them. or a wood in a marshy place . el arco. gebroge. and when once thrown down. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. to break or fracture. brook. brage. t° moisten. — — . a thicket. brogille. or A A ' . for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brog or brake. tris). a fen. to row. as well as in the case of the e. In the sense of a thicket. brolium. Swiss Rom. to fracture. flachs brechen. cetur. or overthrow of trees by the wind. glebas subigere. gebrUche. broyer. casser le \va. bush. braken. OFr. might come to signify a swamp. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. Fr. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. Gr. pasture. dial. brambles. Brake. a swampy Mid. brog above mentioned. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. iSpsx". as in Sp. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. gebroge. broillet. — Fl. We — . BRAKE to external force. braca. It. it is not surprising that the word has here. brak is a frame in which strip. farinam in mortario subigere. In like manner Lat. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. been confounded with the verb break. It. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. broor bushy place Hal. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . braeken. in northern climates. referred brake. murrokko. briers. . ing of flax or hemp. to bray in a mortar. bruch. subigere. braecken het vlasch. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. bredza. 2.

E. Fr. . excrement. G. brand. Thus in Lat. breanan. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. from brug." The bmno a • on . . Bret. from Servian pnit. . a bud. brein. brok. brin (as It brano). — . Grisons bruch. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. brem. young twig {brom-beisser. brenna. &c. also a marshy low ground or fen . the branch of a tree. bren. a bud. broem. brenn. sprouts. brug. It will be found that shrubs. a roA. heath (Bret. heath. brank. —Ducange. bruk. Bramble. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. bruk. pected that brake. bretnel. to burn. may be so called in analogy with Bret. Gael. chaff. clutch. sweet broom. also pfriemkraut. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose.. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. iii. Gael. a shrub . Russ. brandiiialil. to gripe. that is to say. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. Dan. Branch. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. braeme. in the sense oi fern. bruskoad. compress. bracken or fern . brosst. bruch. Fr. a halter. brarn. brenn hesken. Brancare. Thus we have w.D. dirt . Serv. branchia. a heath. constrain. and waste growths. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. branco. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. brughera. stink . w. But we find It. AS. Sir Topaz. piecemeal brindelles. bruch. sedge burkni. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. a single plant of heath. braam. — branca. to bridle. as. That beareth the red hepe. Bret. breun. piece of anything. Fr. bren.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a briery plot. Bran. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. or ling. bro7n. So Swiss gaggi. broccoli. . And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. to or iron. brwnt. bran. brushwood. is the draff or excrement of the com. a bridle or bit . berneux. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. i. broust. bruk. from Lat. gebroge. from gaggi. hallier. a shoot or twig. a firebrand. brandello. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. gebriiche. Rouchi bren d'orMe. what is cast out as worthless. brin d. broussaille. titio. bran. thicket of brambles Cot. brandr. Pl. . cabbage sprouts Fl. Thornas and bremelas. bronbo. brous. apiece orbitbrandone. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. brouskoad. snotty . as AS. heath ON. nasty.). all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. broom. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. breme j Sw. G. brom. . brenda. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. a rod or twig. to brank. Then by comparison with claws or arms. bushes. Bret. brugek. branche. in the same sense. a dunghill. brano. See Brush. It. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. Diez. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. a thick bush. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . . bramble Du.G. from brand.D. A mark made by burning. 2. or other plants of a like nature. the bull-finch. Brand. briars. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. brandmurk. ground full of briers. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. brass. a shoot. a burning fragment of wood. Fr. brin. sawdust. a shrub from Bret. Bav. heath. and thence a shoot. and E. Pl. a bud It. restrain. As ON. to -brugen. brake. from virga. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. the thorn apple or stramonium. it glitters — — . brambles. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . brog. cack. heath. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. a vine twig Bav. It. thorns and Gen. Piedm. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . bit by bit. bromboli. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. Brank. prufye. wood composed of twigs. a small deri\'ation . is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. pfriemen. . Port. brejo. ear-wax mud. Broom. virgultum. pfriem in the sense of an awl. or with It. w. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. broom. young buisson fort epais. G. The naof strain. pfropf. brang. burning brennen. . &c. brank. In like hrst. G. brug). broembel-CBppel. brancas. ordure . 1 8. Bret. The same form becomes in It. heath.

With top trimbling. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. So. to shog. brazeiro. Thus the bound up again. to braze or lute. branla. the spelling to kindle. embraser. brascct. Manx bransey. to murmur. conbillet. Du. It. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. given to the country. De Goes. and bruir. bra?ier. a pan of hot coals. not. E. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. branler. make an outcry. WaUon. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. bransle. a brusler. bracea. aqua ardens. crackle. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to French brawl or brangle. brin. to rustle. noise. braise or hot coals. brasca. plained by Florio. To brand. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. The tre brangillis. — ting to confusion. a roaring fire. urens. — . to totter. bresil. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. Bailey. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. Chron. make a — . also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. live coals. The name Brandy. hot Fr. to shake The word brisil. to brandle or The It. Bret. prasseln. brangle or brawl in E. Diez. glowing embers . brazil. as Fr. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. Kil. to make shine with shaking. It. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brandiller. to quarrel. apparently very distinct from each other. bransella. — . Port. shake. forms brasil. is bntan. to roar. to blaze. or in stick. Ija. bragale\ wood. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. billet. flagrans. firewood. to shake. brasca. Hume in brand in ON. ish. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. Lye. E. comes from thence. Guill. briiler. to make display . to brustle. V. braser. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. to solder iron. a To Brandish. n. To brase AS. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. a round dance.^Brandle. brandiller. Braser. Sw.pan of coals. Sw. to crackle . to burn. then brandr. braise. and branchis shaiand D. braza. became ashes Pied. to sound of the Fr. perplex. and scold. In the same way the set on fire . all. bracia. brandigh. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. AS. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. before the discovery of America in the brandir. — . as a nasalised form of the Piedm. Chron. bryne. G. branler. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. Fr. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. distilled wine. Fl. 59.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. to bicker 2nd. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. brus^. Milan. hoisting to the fall. ist. totter. put. to hurl with great force. du Roi et laine. brouir. bruciare. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. morsel.. spirit distilled from wine. to dash. brasa. was in use Fr. the colour than hitherto known. faire fracas. to burn. brandende wijn. to and fro in the hand. d'Angl. bruire. to distil . gebrannter wein. to make sense of a bright red dye. e. bum. The corresponding form in Gael. from used in dyeing cloths. Fr. to brandle. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. weinbrenner. Brasil. brandolare is exbrandish. brastlian. brasa. Brase. as again by well as the blade of a sword. bruzi. brush. to confuse. bragia. Brangle. to Bailey. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Gris. in Marsh. Fr. crackle. so. brane-wood. set on fire. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Formerly brandy-wine. splinter. bruan. braise. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Jam. to burn. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. to glisten or flash. incendium. De Barros considers vinum ardens. a stick. to brangle. firebrand. brennen. brustle. brasil. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. to shake. stake. fire-wood. Fr.well. as Jamieson explains it. brausen. a fragment. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. eldibrandr. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. brand. G. Fr. N. It. from to vociferate.

contignatio. Brattice. bronzacchiare. Fr. Westphal. Paris. OFr.96 Roquefort. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. —-Jam. braiio. bratach. Fris. frequentative of braire.— Fl. ferruminare. braser Fargent. and bronzo. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. braeye. See Bray. equivalent to the Du. lat'te. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. Cologne broden. baltresca. Wall. apron.D. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. a contemptuous name for a young child. esbraotier. brettys. as criailler of crier. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. brat. bradlete. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. from Fr. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. luncheon. noise. It. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. burning coals. The verb is probably derived from the brase. — . Many gambes. bras. Fr. bronze. slibro {neita. Hist. a battle-girdle. boutures. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. a slabbering-bib. OHG. saillies. a lath. then a parapet. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. Fr. Pisana in Mur. a mantle. 368. deblaterare. Gael. breyon d'chaur. Certainly a little girl. Cot. bratid calf of the leg. strepitus 2. from Sc. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. KiL Prov. to shake. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. bronzare. Circumeunt cibertesca. a plank or board. breyon de kinds of . AS. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. Math. Mundart. cloth. braon. or on the top of a wall. Sp. ^Altieri. solder. Brawl. breyon.— Remade. ' A vraale. bretesche. See Brandish. OFr. brandillo. Swiss bradle. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. as lattice. bred. A land of dance. brett. — Deutsch. Sup. a lump of flesh.brettysing. especially that used in the working of iron . trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). bartising. brailler. slibro. is The word — uous name for a woman. Brangle. I. bralle. any piece. as rashers upon quick burning coals. Brat. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. pan- — Rayn. bas morceau de viande brawhng. A. Dan. Brawn. to carbonado. the buttocks. to tear piecemeal. bransle. It . bartisan. bradon.' BRASS BRAY et AS. a. berd. Jam. to Gael. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. &c. discord. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a fortification. brazen. whether contracted from brabble. brces. brass. tasce.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. a loud noise. le repasser un peu sur la braise. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. or whether it be from Fr. as a brawling brook. Du. braoilich.D. braede. a — A from the confused noise. muscular parts of the body. to scold . Bartizan. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. brat. squall. Florio. a rag . 1224. calf of the leg. —^Bronze. rag. bratidone. boarding being sbranare. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. Lorraine bravon.walle — Pr. bruir. Kil. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis.D. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. branle. Bailey. from branler. ship. to cry. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. The same correspondence is seen between It. Brave. a clout. coassatio. slut. Brass. For the application to a^child compare Bret.' Hal. pil. a rag. a lump. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. bmhon for brado7i. slakker-bortchen. Pm. The muscular part of the body. A dispute or squabble. a Lap. at brasa. neita girl). Sc. in the first instance of boards. ni autres choses sur Due. brdto (ace. bran. bratdn). bribe de viande.propugnaculum. So also See Brag. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . breteque. the calf of the leg. to braze. braion. W. a rag . buttock Sc. 2. A.— Diez. fraiche. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. as scrawl from scrabble. to talk at bralle op. 1156.— Braid. to solder. brat. a cloak. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. to copper. calf of the leg. cob. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Cot. borderinge. bretays).^ — Sverris Saga. P1. bretesque. It. G. a wooden tower. a contempt- banner. roar. Betrax of a —^Jam. trul. ON. flesh of a leg of pork. braodhlach. a parapet. a patch of cloth. . frame of laths. a lump of flesh.

. a brack. to break. to break. father. rangere. paxog. And at a braid he gun it bende. to bray like an ass. or wound. the sound — of arms. to bellow. Fr. the clash of ai-ms Dan. ON. as OE. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. brak. V. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. Lat. imitate or resemble one. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to smack or the eye. to braid the hair. Goth. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. mos. to N. Fr.ear rog. at a braid. to t. brame. to knead. iU-favouredly — in Jam. V. bragr. riAprjyvvfu. to sound very loud and very harshly. to cry out. crash. brage. is . fish. to rumble. augnabragd. and fracasously. Wal. bruire. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. to the seijauntes. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. to crash. Gr. and to signify the fracture itself. in Jam. braid. explaining a very obscure application of the E. &c. e. Fin. — — — explained motus loud noise. braidir. Bailey. to resemble. a . rustle. yell. to cry Port. verb to break. Q. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to braid acquires the sense of bend. bratsche. resound .' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. turn. — koa. ^p&xia. brice. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. breuan. to The cup was uncoverid. bregar. braire. and frangere. the miller's dog. at braga eftir euium. Swiss bratschig. kind. G.g. a crash. and make a hideous noise. plait. a mill. to pretend. AS. broyer. as the voice of the ass. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. to have the lineaments of one's ON. The ON. which has given much trouble to commentators. Then is simply. to cry out. brand. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. or cry out loudly . &c. Prov. soft . braea. F. to resemble. Breach. a breach Cot. V. to braid. To Break. &c. twist. bru. to braid. cyprinus latus. And with a traid I tumyt me about. fractus j Gr. abraid. relation is seen between Lat. D. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. Bret. to rub Fr. regi. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. the sword was out break. fragor. braidar. vapna-brak. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. k. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. roar. braa. to roar as the sea.ch. a wink. Chaucer. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. to scold. weave The ON. starts crackling up. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. to bray in a mortar. will. to start. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. The same He might don us both a villany. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit.^ Fr. a rag f . ON. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another.. bray. R. ybrayid. Beryn. bruzir. make a disturbance. See Brake. E. I'll live and die a maid. brechen. noise . to rush. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. as the notion of turning crack. i. to roar or bellow. broad. 7 .y. bragd — ON. breche. baiyl. roar. to resemble him.' To Bray. Dunbar braessem. ing. to crash. From the or brack in a wall. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. upbraid. crepo and E. to break Fr. Bread. crackle . to tear Bret. bregar. OE. — . gestus. D. Bread. father. on. brugier. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. 2. W.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. yell. The Lat. breach.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. . ser. D. brikan. G. instantane.fracas. a rent. disturbance. bragd is also applied nets. to work up in a mortar. Then. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. crash. with or without a final d. to snatch. Prov. &c. Du. brot. R. brak. braa. Ppvxia. bregda. paste or dough. . appearance Hal. To rub or grind down Sp. to break. to bawl. to roar. rogi. Cat. 145. at once. a brake for hemp or flax. bradar. rattle. Cot. Chaucer.

brustia. It. brist. grill. murmur—Vocab. to bray. a girdle. as by the Sc. broden. peitschen. brasiuiii.vare. brossi!. The Breech (Prov. &c. from brace. simmering. brezzare. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Breeze. QNtsterviald) pritschen. as the G. bruise.98 borst. Bracha. Bruise. Biglotton. malt. de bridse geveii. Piedm. braca. brimme. to resound. the dry spines of furze broken off. properly to crackle. brisciare. bark Fr. We bragezj on. bandage or truss for a rupture. breson. braciarc. chillness or shivering. briosa. brinisa. Briss and buttons. . switch. bruzir. representing the sound of a blow. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. forms. rubbish. chilly. braia J OFr. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. singing bone. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. brew. breinse. break. brok. to roast. brcekur j It. to hum. Sw. Brize. Breath. brire. brache. breath. Originally probably the word signified steam. the breech or buttocks. Prov. malt. — — strument for smacking. briste. and other rubbish dibris. bruc. Du. polenta. the bust. coaldust. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . braucn. then to broil. met de bridse slaan. simmer. an odour. brezling. Bret. a box. See Brick. bridsen. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. broza. a smack. .D. bre- I'os qui bresole. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. to shiver for cold. — Halma. E. trembling. as commonly explained. Du. fitzen. braies. brodem. — . to buzz. — . brezza. orts. brciz. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. corresponding to G. briig. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. sheep's droppings bruss. . the soler. Piedm. to breech. . Breast. may be from the wurh fesser. — And blood. Du. scent. briosa. breost. point to G. Prov. a crum. fail. as in the case of twitter.t. are related to Prov. de Vaud. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Goth. PI. . brison. bris de charbon. to rattle (as hail). from ligare. to whip. Gael. Fr. bruzun. G. brijsen. Fr. G. Bret. bris. Russ. little bits of wood Berri briser. applied to shivering. of straining. Dtyden. remains of leaves. bragues. sprouted corn. braich. as. brasiare. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. to crackle. a cold and windy mist or frost . twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. . also to chill and shiver with cold. brcEth. OFr. a cramp-iron for holding things together. burst. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. braies. G^nev. xyligogio castigare. from AS. Gael. einem de britze geven. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. to burst. Du. Compare OE. to brew. forms analogous to E. b}-as. — See Broth. Breeze. G. windy withal. britze. Hence the Lat. a crum Du. of trees. bremse. bryi^ga.'— Gl. siibligar. crush. Breeches. in Schilter. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. cloven. Gl. griller. breme. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. bris. as. G. but more probably the E. —Briss. a horse's twitch. braux. trusts. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. breeze. The Teutonic verbs. briosat'. brosame. broil. a gadfly. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. to be misty and cold. fastening . are in like manner ' . to crush to break. bracecs . to murmur. G. braguier. to bind. Fr. Gl. AS. to brew. brasser. brissle. brisd. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. — Brist. bretilles. a twitch for a horse. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. noise. brise. /esses. Lat. subligaculum. so AS. a cool wind.britschen. an into shiver. i5r(Z^. braga. AS. w. Dev. braca. of E. to simmer. to feize or feaze./ssus. Hume in Jam. Dan. brdtschen. To Brew. to fry . grillen. bresilles. brodel. and brought beneath between the legs. instead of being derived from 'La. brut. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. braie. to fry Then from a Gl. drawers. body brostia. So ON. to smack. and E. brusc. rubbish. Swiss AS. brumtnen. Breeze. Isidore and Tatian. clout for a child. bratscher. Rom. briiz. E. with It. their stings draw . grillare. Swiss Rom. Fris. broiiwen. brijselen. morsel. bra. brimsa. zare. brisoler. or the blow itself. to break. dial. braga. murmur. Lat. Swiss brdtsch. a to lay fly-flap. binding. brugga.). vapour.

Ihre. Ducange. Gl. bricou. briw. served (Patois de Bray). married. malt. the equivalent of to the dial. Applied ous words derived from break. E. twopares Lat. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. brigata. Pol.pritil . . two-masted vessel. Thom. bruarium. bridge. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. brieden.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. a bride. brA. httle bit. broosekens. to tlie brico. a heath. briiths. . to press in. brughiera. consort with. to boil. E. betonica. piece of burnt clay. It. Brier. AS. or brizo. Mid. bruith. arf-ol. buckler J ON. ment of anything broken. fit. jipaaaiii. G^n^v. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth.bergantino. ap. Fr. a lump of bread. buskins. Bribe. son. which however is undoubtedly from brace. a brig or priodor. E. heath. broken bread. to boil. the newly. bro. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. remarkable that the Gr. . barren land priodas. bably contracted from brigantine. bribour. Walach. a crum. AS. but to a paved road.. Fl. Sp. nurus G. fraoch. it is applied to the letter to OE. briwo. fervere. fragment. brau. a briole. one's ovin. Fr. company. berwi. If the foregoing were not so clear. bruk. a rogue . the marriage si in brigata. to break. from the Normans. Gael. a quoit of stone. brutg. a fragment. owned also propriate. bulicame. . Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. Brief. bygga. to circulate. W. a married man guma. brasser. AS. . bitill. bryd-gutna. a heath brughera. peculiar. Flor.rough with brambles and bushes. Due. Bridal. a rogue. bride. from Bret. privus. bo. a lump of bread briber. division of an army. birbante. a wedding priod-fab. Brique. to meet together. bruskr and buskr. but probably Bricoteau. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. . brique de pain. Dan. E. Brick. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . AS. So in The Prov. ON. frayer. a beggar. especially to a letter or command. Pro(merch=:maid). bidsel. brittil. brere. Brigade. pavement. the Fr. breve or brevis. and berweddu. bro. gf2o. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. a bit.groom. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. broken. corresponding or letter. So It. grug. Gael. ' — . Brewis. . Priodi. bridelj OHG. funeral. The origin of the word is the w. The Sw. to rub. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. feast. bruyere. bread. AS. thick appropriated. brug. BRIGADE dead. OSw. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . It. to stamp. brocaly. graf-ol. Hence OE. ter-in-law. In the G. to pave. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. a bush. Diez. brukkas. brar. brygga. troop. a bride Brig. A — A — . brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. priod-ferch. broken victuals. It — is Kil. a Bride. w. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. to Isrew. OHG. brilt. bro is applied not only to a bridge. bribe de pain. in the sense of OSw. braut. Bridge. a man. to press. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. to break to pieces bricalio. Grisons bruch. brigantine. Lang. lipdZu}. a cheat. A bribe is A — — arval. Goth. is still used in this sense. from the last 99 of which. Diefenbach com. bara briw. Hdcart. In the patois of briccia. priod. — . pavement Lith. a lump of bread. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. bruk. pier. a sow. beaten way Dan. — . to pave brukkti. hlafes brice. bryd-eale. brood. brice.Fr. crew. AS. with transposition of the r. — — — — — — . boiling up brocoliere. brahi. masted vessel. feast of espousals. guma. to prepare. and that from It. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. as so. from bit. sponsa. as. a little king's writs. appropriate. jetty. bricge j G. betony brulicame. Lat. any jot or crum. to boil. a boiling. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. then the marriage itself. collect bits of food. from Bridegroom. sugga.privatus. a fragment. ' . a proprietor. See Broth. of burial. a married man or woman Lat. briicke. has briguer. ibrukkti.gfiugga. In E. daughheath. malt. Rouchi brife. imprint.It. groom (mab=:son). a crum. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Bridle. Trovarfor bride-ale. brakes of high-grown ferns. Cot. berwedd. and ODu. . whence berw. to brew. Bridal. conjux. pavement brolegge. . to beg one's bread. fastningar-ol. Fr. Neumann. Du. brigade. to appropriate. bride. birbone. bretonica.

— Due. hell. rixa. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to make a loud noise. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. to piracy. a pirate.clare ^tinniens. to contend with another. Du. tuilahtaa. the gleeman's song. malandrini. sound. to strive for. It. brak. From ON. rover either by sea or land. Gr. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. 312. tion. labour. In the same way to strive is.shine. brebrigare. seems to be to exert force gar el area. Bright. a small light pinnace pro. It. wilella. Mid. beorht. glitter. 1654. in the first instance. praht. squamma . that of Fr. to reservavit. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. clare lucens. Beorktode bene sweg. brigant. They or brigantini. a sound. \oice. Lat. to cry. willata. loo BRIGAND lor. splcnornd de brigandine. is easily understood. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. then. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . briga. to sound. bryhtm. clear.glampa. In Fin. also called briganders. kii:'a. to rove. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. braid. on his — own account. Bav.D. dine. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. representing a sudden noise. Owl and beorhtian. tinnitum clarum movco. a brigantine. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . to rob. Xa/iTTii). bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. . shriek with laughter. twinkling. — Brigantine. clangour. show the origin of Lat. to shine. and. moment. — Briganbriga. Wilista. bracht. pugna. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . Heo — song That AS. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. clear. and.pracht. . manifest ON. lay was sung. kilistua. brawl.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. Goth. tinkle. clarus. A strepere. — brigante. secondarily. bray. glir. briga. Due.' The sense of strife or combat express. It. clear. and ner me hit iherde. transparent. Flor. schiteren. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. bragen. briegen. —Capgrave. a glittering.' The passage from the sense of a light. Florio. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. noise. The E. brcEhtin. See Brake. clear sound. dine. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. jurgia.' torum. tumult. Brilliant. there are many armour. — A A . to resound. The primary meaning of Sp. AS. strife. OHG.' in Due. glamra. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. bregar. from hall. a noise. splendour. combat. himself to serve men of merit. glamm. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. necessary business. Schmeller. Brigand. with respect either to sound or colour. bairhts. speech. Gall.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. the bench-notes resounded. to glamr. XafXTTpoQ.dorem clarum reflecto. brdgen. 1351. the grew high. and hence be explained glampi. brigare. at a later period. and diligence. clang. The Ir. glbram. etincelle. in the sense of a robber. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. to cry 'Schmid OE. to ring. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. — Probably then to strive. riis ' — Chron. outcry. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. — brigante. splendour. brigare. to shine.Lat. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. schateren.— . Swab. brigandare. — — . tinnitus. in later times a robber or highway-man. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. Brigata. splendens . to glitter. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. So G. — Beowulf. biartr. inde squammatus. A. and led it away. and the E. brigan. to bend a bow It. Adelung. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. a spark. to shift for with care. It. bright bearhtm. may play the pirate or thief at sea. cange has 'Veles. and secondly. and to associate with them.

brummen. brommen. briller. to parch. have then in Fr. Rugere. Brem. In the same way Sw. fringe (Lat. the meaning is transL' amour. barm. which seems identical with rim.ioTiviS acutus. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. bryn. It. barm-cloth or barmskin. the heat of animals. brinfire. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. the sow is brimming. bramar. the edge. breziller. ON. grullo. fringe . the heat of animals. lap. to make a crackling noise. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. ling noise and a sparkling light. vattubryn. AS. a long. brastlian. to shake. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. sonitum edere bremen. burning. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. Dief. brillare. to wish or covet. FJ. greDiet. coloured in stripes. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. brummen : de soge brummet. brama. 754. border. to burn. bar. brim Magy. Hence with an initial s. barmr. the eye-brow. gresiller. tience. Thus Lat. In Fr. The identity of ON. Lith. vigorHal. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. also to reflect. glit. a streak. komista. to sound deep or hollow. E. border. to fret . Prov. kimista. ous. perent. striped or streaked. fierce. to utter cries. Brimstone. A . AS. Closely connected is OE. glisten. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. lap of a garment . to roar. kajata. griller d'impatience. with an initial br instead of gr. brand-krossottr. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. ON. parched. fire. brandr and Fr. fimbria) .its vent in cries and roaring. broil . Tresiller.' d'etre marie . as of meat in broiling . bresoler (Gloss. or violent action. to long for a thing. bry7ie. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. to glitter. brumft. hence the bosom. brame. crackle . appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. brdnnsten. Swiss Rom. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. surface of the ocean. brisoler. the lap or bosom. a rod. Langtoft. kimmaltaa. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. to glitter . breziller. and 1. — — — . brmdottr. bramire. briller (related to each other as OFr. grisser. Dan. G. der. brant. rugire (cervorum. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. ring. brezil. brimmen. sprainged. To Brim. to shimmer. greedily to covet Cot. identical with passion.preni. It. to shine. a border. margin. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. originally the lap folding over the breast. to make bilbil). as in ing or earnest desire bramare. rut. (poet. from bringe. Fl. griller). post. Sw. griller. the singing of Sodom — — . bremmen. to creak. of the eye. a borDu. bremmen. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. brunft. burning stone. Streaked. Sc. Fr. edge Pol. The expression is now confined to the sow. 154. Wtb. brame. . to storm. The meaning of the Fr. voux. noise made by meat in broiling. spraing. on. Kil.— BRIM . to roar. bramar. to crackle. The E. Du. the verbs Flor. breme. 1 1 64. an apron. brow of a hill. briller. brim. cross-barred in colour. brissle. earnestly . ardere desiderio.) brimi. that the original meaning of the Sc. komottaa. reecho. pMiller. whence bilbil-goda (literally. whether of desire or anger. to shine. Subo. to twinkle. frequently interchange. finds the Fr.).D. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. brennistein. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. — Rim. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. and corresponding to these. excited. bramer. to glitter distance . is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). . Rayn. s. bremas. Brindled. — . kommata. ON. sparkle. os qui bresole. border. to shine. 1. : ' — bone). kiimottaa. to resound. to quaver with the voice. as is the case also with Pl. Sc. from brandr. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. kimina. ter. to broil. — — So Fr. to sparkle. leonum). It. Said of swine when in heat. breme. Brim. chime). clangor tinniens. dial. s. furious. beam. as in Langued. lip of a vessel. — g. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. as well as bl and gl. brullo. crackle. to .' Elyot in Way. Supp. small gravel. broiled. to creak. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. to crackle. grisler. . rym^.— Brinded. gresiller. shine. a stick. is used of raging. grdzil. Tutschek. bray as an ass bramire. rugire.

a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. britchet. as unripe fruits. Abroacli. or — . Compare also E. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. It. setting the hair on end compare It. 'V^. a belly. Du. borzen. p. brytan. saulmeure. and. brich.Lat. spricka. birssy. Commonly explained as from Fr. sprout. Da. the twigs of a besom. quick. Fr. Brickie. a stitch brocher. Then as the effect of shivering. braidsj ON. briota. to roar. the surf. brimme. Sp. aculeus. wine of a sharp. lively. The Pl. a cold and windy mist or frost. Bret. brocher. Fr. a skewer. to stab Gael. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. sour. brocar. brezza. as a noun. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. brust. brissle. Bristle. to break. angry. brittle. bros. brocciare. . Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. broccare. bresk. a fragment. from AS. G. Antiq. ribrezzoso. bronchus. . Breeze been connected with the Sc. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). brimhliod. i. and hence. bricho (with the diminutives. birstle. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. brog. of astonishment. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. Russ. rebrousser. setting the hair on end. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. and forms on. breast. to break. against the grain . broca. brddj Goth. a bud. to spur. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. is called a birssy day. — in Due. brim. Bret. briser. a rod or twig. a clasp. e. Alfr. See To Brim. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. a button broche. from break. startling. . brin. hot-tempered. humorous. brittle. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. of E. brisk in taste. a stormy brimsea . and Sc. bringe. Sw. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. flame. Port. bruskett. to broil.. to put one in a rage . to begin upon it. — . britar. to break. Ptg. Sc. expression. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. Lat. It. NE. Bohem. rude. to set it a going. Pectusculum. Formerly written brotil. sprouts. spur. trembling. brioshko. Prov. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. to burn. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. an awl. Brooch. harsh vin brusque. brote. brocco. as. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. a bit . emotions which produce it. to birstle. Brocade. craw of a bird. Swiss to stand out . Cot.rcendij'i. brim. ' . to bud. Gr. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. — A . bros. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling.). a projecting tooth It. brickie. as. to shiver for Sold or for fear. metaphorically. Dan. Brine. suddenly angry. brichet. /3pE^m. sprocco. to stitch. a brad or tack. rebursiis. b. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. brocco. to thrust. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. sharp. form bris. breaking of the waves brim sior. a rebours. ON. . borst. smart taste. Palsgr. a slip or sprig of an herb . coli. prick with Sw. brusk. roar of the sea saltr. brim (poet. thick — A elastic hair. brodden. fiscbryne. chest. grim.. to spit. Brittle. like the Broad. Mid. reburrus. as. to crack. or the full • . brisciare. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. It. bryde. brindelles de balai. are used in the sense of brittle. a brooch. Brym. birse. Berri. crabbed. strong itself. Walach. fierce. ' breast. Brisk. flames. bringue. birsle. broche. borstel. Zeuss. In the N. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. man's throat. the brisket or . bringe traced through the brano. cK) the . to turn up the point of anything. byrst. bryne. rash. brusco.D. to scorch. Fr. whence may be explained the Sc. ruffling. Liquamen vel garum. birs. . See Spread.'— Vita'abbatum S. briota. — — . bruched (Fr. from brande. brockle. brime. the surf. a peg sbrocco. broca. a morsel . — bryme. Fr.procio. brot. to goad. brandello. borzos (struppig). to stick. brezzare. See Brand. stitch. bristly . to set up one's birse. brusque. Prov. Boh. britar. a morsel. brijn (Kil. brcit. breidr. Gl. a crum. Sc. broccata. to spur. sticking up . Brisket. Fris. brissko). i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. fragile. It. is to erect the hair. Fr. very salt brimi. eager. briocho. bruckle. shoot. breaking out into growth. to broach a business. Prov. .). Fr. fantas'* tical. Russ. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. Salte sand is called brimsand. apt to break. a deluge. Hal. a shoot or sprig. 222. a spit. to shoot.' Nat. Du. Hence ribrezzare.g. a bud. broc. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. has under It. brocchus.

Hal. atoms . It. the shoot of corn. prod. embroidery. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. rustle. knobby . brocach. bordar. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. to burn. brod. It of br the Fr. brouFr. speckled. brocco. a prick. frecSee Brawl. a fallingThe sense has been out. bustling. the line of development has been something different. badger . broiled. a brim. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. spotted. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. to crackle. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. Ptg. a border ornamented with gold. dar seems derived from borde.— B. broil. broder. brooked.tumultuous. to broil. Icnotty. brasiller. broukit. brucach. Gael. A fried or boiled steaks). v. froco. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. — Gower in It. trouble. a point. — The proper sense is that of Fr.sound. a brouhaha. confound. to instigate. whence broccare. — — . capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. margin. Compare G. to embroider. To roast upon hot coals. sparks E. a freckle. — Fl. piebald . to darn. scorch. creak. a b?-ustolare.. Ihre has guU-bord. bramowanie. Compare also AS.. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. from the white. brizen. precisely analogous to the Sc. breard. a quarrel. broice. parti-coloured. hurly-burlies. a mole. brodio. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. broil. a peg. tori shows that. embroidering. to boss. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. to crackle. speckled. — brissle. or glowing coals broged. bawling. a confused streaked face of the animal. ornamented with a raised pile. briefh. Sc. tumult broighleach. borprick. E. border ornamented with silk. gold and silver. hart of two years old. and bord or bred. carbonado. birsle. motes. initial . somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. a brecJi. shuffle. to crackle as a shell in the fire. broud. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. parch. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. freckled. B. Contracted from Fr. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. age was termed a pricket. to burn. brucilare. brychau. brasbrasciuolare. brerd. or roast on the braise. bmsciare. brusuole. ToBroider. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. Brocket. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. Grisons brascla. trouble. Fr. has grisser. brusler. parched. a flake of snow sion. Surrey in R. of pointing out their latent defects. brasiller. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. R. It. agree in being the extremity of a thing. a badger. Sc. gresiller. broccuto. to streaked or speckled in the face. kled breac. here. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). Thus brod. Fr. W. onbryrdan. q. brastlian. blusters. . a To Broil. to embroider. or snag. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. noise. brasolare. Gael. to spur. Sp. to prick. bram. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. silkes-borda. to parch or broil. . So from Pol. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . noisy. broccato was used to signify stuff . to crackle. broc. rinj'. Florio. streaked. b?-od. briz. 103 embroidered. Cot. bordo. broglio. brasuole. brocart. point to an origin in Bret. forming to jumble. or It. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. storms. Broker. broighlich. AS. sting. brindled. thread. brych. grislement. with Sc. to crackle. parti-coloured. border. to knots or loops. From direct imitation of Brock. frocadura. bruler. tufted ornaments. The Bret. fundamental origin. brustle. a flock or Gael. prasseln. houx. Fr. grullo. A badger. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. brouda. and w. broc. stump. The ON. a border. Bret. Here to ornament with needle-work. to On the other hand the Sp. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. a freckle. to scorch. or salted fish on coals. bj'oil. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. brullare. Cot. braird. to stud broccoso. — . ciare. Dan. an edge. and AS. spots. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner.

Adelung. faulty. brackefi. brasa. spittle. See Brackish. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. — Fl. bronze. in the sense of rejection. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. to nourish. a makeln. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. brack. See Broth. a fault. brwd. brokoti. to throw blame upon. to be wanting. Fr. with. broiid. tussis. Prov. brumo. to criticise. hraki. a breach or flaw. It may be compared with It. Abbronzare. brasa. find fault with. merchandises de rebut G. wrack-good. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. racher. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. correctarius. hot. embers to brund. raquer. braken. . bring eggs and spawn into active life. cracker. brack-gut (Sanders). bracker. to hatch. to roast on the embers. from makel. cast Lith. brakyne. on. blur. wraken. brieden. Sc. to garble. refuse brakowad. pan metal. matter of blame weak place. rejected. Pl. The Langued. warm. has exactly the force of G. wreak. Du. 38.D. brunds. OFr. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. Bronzare. to hatch G. corrector. brokas. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. Pl. Fl. To correct an exercise is to Lib. vrage. refuse. filth. in which sense the OHG. find fault with. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. a cough Hal. Bret. phlegm. G. ON. hrak. raca. refuse wares. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. fault censure. refuse.D. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. — point out the faults. bronce. to reject. spittle . to copper.D. broen. If to vomit . is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. fermenting. brechen. embers. et A. Pro v. to pick and choose. brokers' goods. Du. to . to scorch. wrak. inspect. ODu. analogous to Bohem. to be hot. brack-gut. to blame. mud. . . brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. keep warm. ordure. nounce unsound. rejection Pol. The use sunburn. screatio Junfus . designation is indkler. refuse goods. burning. Grisons brinzla. hot. Lat. bronze. and fishes . and as an adj. brands. vile. fish-spawn broden. brid. G.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. : ' . to sparkle. and to reject the damaged and unsound. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. but from the primary sense of the It. brak. On • tliis principle the G. Bronze. bredan. G. refuse Fr. brass does to Sp. It. a chicken. brod. brod.— Lib. try . For the same reason the Kiittner. a brood .D. Alb. the spawn of fishes. brut. from break. to pro- to reject . bronzo. to sit on eggs. Russ. See Wreak. In the . lack. . with which much of our early commerce was carried on. make out. bridde. to pick. S. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. Brood. brydio. Jam. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. glowing coals. Alb. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. to sort goods . an operation performed over hot coals. w. stain. bric-a-brac. tan. e. Kil. vile. damaged. abbronzanchiare. Pl. 396. to sort brakovanie. • . Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. . i. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. briiten. a broker. Per manus et old worthless horse. braeck goed. sunburnt. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. couratier. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. brae. slaae vrag paa. — a spark. trumpery. whnake. insects. abject. try out. goods damaged by sea-water. as. selection. Dan. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. brak. dirty. to braze. to hatch. sbrinzlar. dial. . mediationem quorundam J. the young of any animal . an outcast or rejected sheep. racaille. — broeden. brot. criticise (makeln). damaged. term was correcfo^ir. whence the modern courtier. In those countries the term braker. Teutonic class : Du. to — garble. want. Sp. which E. inspection. — . or brascla.— Breed. bronze. buy and sell by commission. This word shows the same relation to It. Tooke's Catherine. cherish. to emit sparks. embers.— — . refuse brakovat. to spit . To blame mens ware. reject.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. to brew. progeny of birds. an . find fault — — — fuse matter. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. sort.

— exiit et heath. brodem. boiled . ceales briw. sproc. and Sc. brosst. Prov. See Bramble. has briw. verge. Roquef. eminence . pfriemkraut.D. a derived from the boards. plants composed of twigs. eye-lid. bruscosd quam de arabili. broca. cabbage soup . (for brodem). brow of a hill. wood . brushbrothas) gives the OE. Bohem. Du. brouet. dialects is very different. bruithim. BROOK brook w. of which the variety of forms. brotar. to spring . to bear patiently. fur Broom. frater. Russ. or broken up . sprot. broud. heath. bruc. house of ill fame. . sense the Sc. buds.brons. . sprouts . bruno. brlgh.brink. Browse. to shoot. Mid. OHG. brewis.spross. Manx broie. briihe. noise. brabruach. . brotar. a spring. edge. brus. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. thicket. heath. brouic. steam from heated bodies. w. bhratrj Zend. broi. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. brouser. Fr. in which brinnan. G. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. brous.. Tam de terrS. eye-brow. to use. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. signifying low wet land (Brem. a bud. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. Bret. brawdj Slavon. a little house or cottage of timber. brstiti. But the Walach. broth. Pol. braussa. shrubs. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. spuma. mettle. Sp. . simmer from the murmuring AS. useful G. It. strength Ir. eye-brow. brov. and Slavonic families. frucius. signifying twigs. perhaps burnt coloilr. Bohem. vigour. on. a caldron. G. Gael. a hill. brst. and It. vigour. brue . braces." Serv. a hut or cottage It. iVlanx broogh. from Goth. brost. properly boiling water briihen. . a river. heat. brosses. eye-brow. as small-pox. w. surface of Broth. juice of briars. Pl. t— Cot. G. brennen. Sanscr. Bav. It is Brother. broit. bruich. briu. to burn. brouches. brudi. to boil. Brothel. surDu. . Ppim. brdtaj Gael. To digest. bros. bratrj Lat. Du. OFr. Cot. Fr. bruddeln. brogues. Gael. brost. brusmalt. a . pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. sordes seu strigmata young branch. bree. sprout. OHG. to Pl. G. a sprig. hut. kail brose. broo. cabbage water.' Due. eat. The softening down of the consonant bud. . riviera. Dan. bordel. pith. laissent Domunculum. bank. augen-braune. a bud brous-koad. rage. &c. fabric consists. Sp. Commonly Teutonic. was originally used in the innocent sense of . . riviere. — . shoot. The origin is a re. chen. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel.D. infusion. sodden. bruith.) . brothas. brushbroccoli. strength. dumetum. . breg. forms appear related to the Ir. bruich. Bohem. low The AS. circuindedit cum familia. 'Lzt. brpuster. Kil. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. The AS. Here we find throughout the Romance. to boil bruithe. Catalan brossa. to browse. sprocco. Bret. sprout. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . Due. bruceti. meal. a shore. eye-brow. enjoy Goth. bryii. &c. the colour of things burnt. Limousin broudi. brink. Gris. bushes. to boil. bryn. &c. broth the ocean Sw. to browse. border. bor. brow. on. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. Gr. juniper. brozia. a shrub broust. AS. briar. and also border. brouskaol. broccola. thick bush brousta. bryn. bruth. brass. Serv. browys. braun. bank. a little . brucan. to use. broieii. brio. pottage. brocco. to use bruks. face. Ger. brd. may be connected with Russ. AS. breg. brodo. broem bark. . a confused noise of winds. Gael. to border. . shore . Wtb. — . as rhododendrons. bros. Celtic. broc. broza. brmi. ale . protecting the eye. a hill. broth Brown. Gael. . spirit. to sprout. to bubble up with noise. brwd. a source Gael. margin. waves. bud. G. hot. brew . bruach. who is steaming with sweat. — ' . hovel. breg. to boil. Prov.braubiti. brukjan. braew. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. sap. warmth ch'an. from ripa. broth brothaire. . Fr. brosses. 105 Brook. edge. branches. eye-lid. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. juice of meat. as Fr. broeye. to murmur. brauwe. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. shoots. borda. thairj w. or shoot. broth. . Fr. brau. Russ. Brow. grow brossa. It. grow into a bush. bank. the bubbling or springing up of water. rerum decoctarum. bank. pour boiling water over. A — . heat explaining the Prov. infusion the barley bree. Sc. frui. to roar. bordeau. shrub with leafless pointed edging. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. broden. brouter. awl-plant. eye-lash .— Overyssel Almanack. bntdien. &c. Fr. brun. breh. seethe. brad. b7-un. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. broth is sometimes used . of plants broust. a sprout. bruitheati. Lat. to scald. a bruth. bregh. . break out brewet. . borde. or bushes and scrubby growths. shore. It. cia.

brustid. A. brushwood. brosse. The Bav. bris. brist. Bruise. desbrisar.). shoot brouskoad. a blow. . bruire. wood composed OE. Brush. heath. bross. a brush . burs. Pr. B?-usske. a bud. Poems. The same relation holds good between G. Sw. . The Lat. broustia. a brush . to crush. Pr. britar. Pm. borste. Pm. to brush. a mote. Castr. briiis (in the pi. bris. brustia. Fr. flax-comb brossettes. Pr. shock. brossa. to butt. E. detergere . appearin Goth. brysan. G. Brunt of a daunger. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. a shrub composed of small twigs .). Pr. to break. quasi twigs. borste. bris. borste. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. dust. remnants of hay or fodder. brusco. Fr. bruscolo. wool-card. . brusc (Diet. to cleanse. into a multitude of points. a bud or sprout Bret. and . a bristle. Lang. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. brosse. . Lang. Prov. to make brusshes on. broza. and actually come in collision. Sp. In E. to strike the foot against an obstacle. Cot. brusca. Diez. Hall in R. Fr. p. brust. and also Brush. broza. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. — OE. of twigs. Prov. effort. borste. crush. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. bruzir. tuft of grass or hay. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. brist. a bristle. bushy ground. —Fabyan. brik. bruyere. bruc. or sodenly comyn' dust. Allit. escousse. Piedm. Gael. as It. burt. E. an enmy. Fr. to break to bits . irruo. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. seems named from burst(on. brousso. brustia. rods. Gael. a brush. ON. Piedm. brunt. OE. brMt. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Text Soc. brottcher. broust. brous. abroncar. — a bush. a little brizal. borste. And that best is.— Palsgr. rubbish. brise. Fr. crum bit . bud. It. dust. brisar. brusg. broken. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. See next article. wool-card. . brista) or breaking out . G. shivers. Gael. a noise. biirste. rubbish. bruito. Gael. Prov. brit. twig. coal See Breeze. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. brossar. Palsgr.— — i. bush. splinters. insilio. twig. a — — (Agea) said. a tuft of heath . tremely. — those signifying a sprig. blow burcar. mg Cat. bruscia. a briser. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brosst. a flax comb. Port. bruscolo. E. quisquilise. brusco. borst. wool-card. AS. brikan. Bav. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. brugir. britar. Sw. On the other hand. biirste. Broach. briketo. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. Wicliff. modification of the same root which gives the E. a brush . but on whom it schall to brisen him. Beryn. fragments. also a head-brush. orts. fasx . a bush of hair. That in all haste he wouli. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. Cot. briser. a horse-brush. to break or burst. OFr. dust. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Bret. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. K. bruit. a brush. bricalio. and Piedm. bris. — Fr. 174. brizeto. a brush Swiss bruske. insultus. .). dust. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Prov. or shoot. Alexander. field. 201. Brunt. brist. brosst. a rumbling. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. To brush then would be to dust. bruis (sing. 134. to stumble. and sighid therewithal. break. brisd. chips. it schall be al Sw. to break. brusca. brico or brizo. brus. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. brist j Port. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. and It. NE. * Brunt. and in the second place a besoiB. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. brossa. It. —Chaucer.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. . fescue . a brush . Bruit. brous. rubbish. bruskr. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. It. bruise exOFr. to make a rumbling. a brush. ca7-bo>i. a crum. bross. bruiser. Fl. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . ling or heath for brushes. sordes.

soft It.byka. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. bubbola. a to the male deer. to bubble. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. Fr. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. The natives of Florida. . The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. bokni. wood. to Gael. to a place used for the mouillir. Etym. a hole. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. soft. bube. Fin. to butt. The cipally on the Spaniards.' Palsgr. at a door. to bump as a bittern. Pol.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. lye. a bubble. bugd. also applied Una. mokry. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. set of pirates in the spread. The term bocan is still ap. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing.— .D. The place of such a 2. different form. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe.steep or soak. News. watery bud. buck-ashes. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. says Laudon. to soften . buquer. bucking. bog-aske. a. and exercised their cruelties prin. It. bubseti.lessiver. hog dressed whole). supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. In G. It. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. a bubble. buerj It. who resorted to the islands beichen. hump. . bukke. because bucare does not in Marsh). to strain. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. This bubette. Fr. when soap was tion is commonly taken. not so plentiful a commodity. the lower soak in lye. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. But see Bristle. boh. to wet Pol. does not hold. bucata. to buck. molle. A . to butt. the upper for coifee. Bret. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. colada. tender. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. a steep for flax. moczyd. buchen. Magy. moist. boil animals. Pol. tap . from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. boucaner. hump. bubiti. Diet. to soften. buborek. March 28. boc. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun.buchen. caned' Hence those who established them. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. bouc. to soak. . Illust. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. to soften. Bohem. bubauti. bouk. blast or strike with the forehead. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. in which the flesh dish. knock. 17th century. . smokipg meat were called buccaniers. ac. bub. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. w. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee.-wtt miekki. — . it is beuchen. BUBBLE bruschetta. blister. bwch. Pref A. Cot. and then to other wild tumour Lith. 1586. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting.derivation has been much discussed. Bret.tare. drying of produce. Formerly. Dan. Esthon. Sp. or mok. and as a verb. mollire. mieknad. as G. It. — — ' A : ' ' . tender. to soak. and Fr. was called in Fr. very generally designated by the same puk. from colar. The name. thunder gently . to soak foul linen before washing. pup. bugada.biiken j Svi. tuft. a. designation of a knob. a fescue. lye. of wind. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr.to allow a free current of air. buquer. to murmur. I. maban and baban. top. the linen at buck. Bubble. bifbel.boukaat. boc. to stick. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. faire la lessive. Sc. rap. Bohem. is 1. Gael. to filter. a push. buck-ashes. w. — . Magy. and the bunch. soft. soft. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw.wet Lat. bucaIndies. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). bduclien. The male goat. bucquer. open lath-work. . plied in the W. . ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. byge. to butt or jurr Dan. was called bucking the linen. Fr. a ashes. See Dupe. the first wheal. a bubble . pokka7na. de la Floride. as a buck rabbit. . bub. soft . 1857. mote. a knock word. or projecTo Buck. to which in their language they call bou. erweichen. . bublati. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. Sp. From an imita. The word was very generally Buccanier. pukkata. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. from weich. bubBuck.

built. . Lat. bouter. Dan. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. bulb. . from Gr. Gael. OFr. bog and G. Budge. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. agreeing with Gael. to swell. a curl. Fr. The knob or projection formN. bug. The dressed fur of lambs. to thrust. a short thick man. boss. Port. Hence quel. potz. call. Fr. — — . bucket Fl. It termination is lost. cattle. no business to do that. butz. to move. to line with fur. Cot. Pied. push forwards. case of leather . Prov. bod. to budge. a . Mid. bo. bucherare. Du. a budget. convexity.r//'. bulga. a servant. Sw. Pol. great pouch. . Mid. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. whom it is still much in use. Wtb. bollire. and the reference to It. to boss or swell out G. to boil. noise . The Fr. Fr. bocla. thrust. ble.). Sp. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. to word. a budget. mani.stuff. II I'a feru desor I'escu. as in Fr. bouclier. Bucolic. * Buckle. Prov. bougette. a fold ceilio. gjeit-klauv. boaLat. bullion. butzen. bloca. from bo. wallet. with a central boss. bub. above mentioned. Buck-bean. a boy. bucherame. soft.) . boucaran. botzen. . Bav. bouge. bouger. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. bougette.Lat. Bret. of bac. with let. bump. — — . .n. knob dwfr yn boglynu. prick in a target. belonging to the calling of the chen. probably from the notion of bubbling. a boss. ON. a buclder or shield budge. Bav. Russ. K. — . call.' Schm. buckel. is doubtless fallacious. a bud. from bugr. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. to graft or bud trees. loud Cot. bedde. butt . bul. Budget. botzen. * Bud. pulga. lump. is to shrivel up. boucle. need. bunch. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. Du.' And this sacrament bus have dial. motus creber. rump of fowls . bugnir.. stir. In Lat.— . weichen. butze. butzen K. scion. swelling. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. with which it was ornamented.' Boccaccio. stud. A water-plant with leaves and gille. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. boucler. or male of to boil . dim.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. bunch . a shield. boglyn. pulga.. . dint . become bochen. the word w ' — . weich. bloca. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. w. a buckle or protuberance. bode. protuberance.poot. The word is a ddyn. boach. crack. ' . bouk is a pail and with the dim. bud butzen. It. Bus. a cowherd. boiling. clump. to poke. pwtio. See Bulk. Behoves. and weichen. seen in Hesse botz. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. goat's hoof. stroke. ein. of a surface. weich. to butt. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence.anything short of its kind. butzen (Du. explaining Fr. blow. hump. a pail or flowers. ' . So on. boucle. bulka. knock. skins pushit'.goa. bulais daqui. a wallet. in the beginning of to pierce holes. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. child. It. It. bulla. a boss. rabodS. OHG. Fr. a bubble three thyngis. a leathern sack. having a boss. boucle. a small shallow and open tub. to stir. turgere buczendig. dinted. Fr. a bump. * Bucket. to bud or bocla. butzen. bolgetta. a little coffer or turgidus.may probably be explained by N. bouljein. — . inboachen. trunk of wood covered with leather.chissima. a ring. the radical image seems to be a set plants. set of a plant in bulk. boccula. knob . W. It. G. a stump buckle up. boqueranmis. Fr. Hardly identical with Fr. This expression boglire. bukke-blad.pode. bod.' Hal. bloquier. male or botzen. also a leather tuft . a shoot. imbuere. a pustule bout. bucolicus. bolgia. brobrocchiere. to 'soak. w. Fr. pote. Prov. A buckle or fastening for botch. Swab. the root of the Slavonic words gran. macero./a. The entire train of thought is bucket. and of the Lat. put. don't stir from hence. sboge. boss of a shield. like a bean. words is converted into b. Buckler.) as to soak. budge. boulj. clasp of a book. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. bdden. . bogla. NE. a trough). were To Budge. swelling. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Bret. . to un bout d'homme.t-le!L{ * Bud. water message. don't a baby). bouprobably identical with inok.. fur. of bouge. no wheel bogeilio. To thrusting part of a long body. excrescence. ornamental stud. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. Dan. . jSouKoXiKog. a tuft. a navel. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. where the G. pwt o Fr. ' . call bo. a dumpy gin.stumpy man. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. . buachazlle. bouton. to pen cattle.

also a G. Pl.— Buflae. — Bogle. to bellow . ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. a hobgoblin. dull sound. bw! It. E. bufogni. leathern bucket. G. colour. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. bau ! children. to marre often tasting it . a side-board. buffeteur. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. yar^aa. 265. bufHe. buffalo. — — — Buffet. buivol. From buff! of terror. and in Fr. It. a skin. buffet. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. human. — La Crusca. a buffle or a bugle. Mid. It. Lat. bubus.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Esthon. bubiti. as Diez remarks. een duffen toon. God's boast seemed feare children.' La Crusca. — Z. wauwau. Gael. From bulga. A blow. wine may The verb in taverns. to blow . Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. bauwi. a puff. a In . W. a budget. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. Hence the E. word other cases. buffle. to excite terror in Macleod. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. made by a person. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. while in Sp. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. often covering his E. buff leather. thus be translated to tap. Fr. —Boggart. to puff. Buff. bubaRuss. dausinti. bumann. sounds. to puff. baubau. The cry made to excite terror is then used. for this purpose is very widely spread. tabernarius. puff. buffet. or hath been Cot. Buffeter. The children were playing in an oppocomer. bolgia. Fr. a dull BUG From 109 — A . site The two — — iii. a block-headed noddy. bouffer. Cot. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. to blow. ' They rether puffed at him. buffare. confused. — thence it has been transferred in E. bwg.D. Lith. A — Bug. bolgetta. scarecrow . soufflet. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. Bufetarium. Thus buffet would a tapster. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. him but Boyd iugges. dausa. also the skin or heck of a buffe. buffet. Swiss baui. a jester. botffon. buffets. as from Lith. a goblin). pulse . made to —Bugbear. buffer. bugle. Limousin bobal. to beat. btifetarius. to rePl. sense of buffeter seems to Fr./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Lillo covering his head with his skirt. of colours. buMagy. bw. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . often blown upon. to signify an indefinite object of terror. to frighten . buffen. the buffe. It. to give a as of a blow. Sc. duff^ dull. senses. Fr. The use of the exclamation children. things in Jam. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. . to jest or sport. cuff . rebuff. bufogni. the place whence the wine was drawn. a clap. bouffer. w. to blow souffleU. bugs. boman. to give benti. smells . &c. bukow Ikow. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. to a representation of his voice. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. Buffoon. buffare. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet.D. breath. Romola. buffa. tastes. bugbear. Fr. from It. a cuff or buffet.—Buffet. A puff with — Fl. Cot. mumming. buffetto. Teet-bo. either alone or with various terminations. as emblematically making light of an object. or wild ox. Sc. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. stupid. boo. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. deadened. bubach. bobaow. It. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. Buffalo. buffle-headed. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. by metaphor. Pl. blurt or puff with one's mouth. as wine that hath taken wind. le reste emplissant d'eau. popo. a bugbear. mingled with water. Fl. Che scaccia 1' Ombre.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback.D.' perfield. a hollow sound. dial. Lith. to strike face to represent the unknown. Fr. Buff. caupo. Lat. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. from souffler. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. bo ! an interj. air. — retailing buffeter buffetier. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Magy.

protuberant. also a bug-bear. beugler. a bugbear for children. a. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. high-sounding words. pugaf. Lap. coco. earwig bau da grascha. bauginti. and is Deutsch. tumble-bug. Mid. baco. bok. Russ. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. bukati. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. i. insect. Bug as a lord. of pipes sewn on. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. Swiss booggen. also a baco-baco. used in the same sense. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. is very common. The final guttural of W. Bug. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. (Spurrell). Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. language any kind of insect. biignt. shepe and gootes. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. with more or less modification represents bau. buculus. rose-bug. Bogge. worm. paws the ground . and in Lat. a bug-bear. Hence bugle-horn. 1551. banian boube. and bugle. Grisons bau. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. then a horn for drinking. 3. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . Illyr. of bugabo was given. bogk. Schmidt. well as the terrific object. Magy. BUGLE Tentennino. Fl. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. buffle.3uhtii&:. Stalder bog. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. the word is lin) bbgge. bukashka. to take bug. The w. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. great or bug words. — boogg. W. to creeping things. according to Coles. Bugle. as Buffalo. gad. il brutto Demonio. bug-bear. blustering. The name of bug is — . Mundart. Sw.Fr. bug-bear. Bible. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. mask ' . a buffalo. bugar. w. superbire. to roar Aasen. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. dial. Magy. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. It. — . the black a maggot. bau (Pureiglia. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. a beetle. forSc. the buggaboo w. poggl. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. a boogg. given in Chaucer. to bellow. See The name terror). any disgusting animal. and a boggarty ing. * 2. bwgar. Serv. . fear. quos what produces dread or disgust.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. affright. Lith. larva (a bug-bear. Swelling. to take fright. — — terror.— . thus connected with bug. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. xiv. bogle.. proud..Lat. oxen. . and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. buggabod). a rabme. Chaucer. an insect. vermin. 493. Deut.loud noise. pujalo. saucy. bobal. bugbear. bug dung-beetle. a goblin. boo. bugle. roo. iv. the Devil. disgust. a proud overbearing man pujat'. high. Grose. pugalo. 2. ghost. swollen. hert. Sp. scarecrow . : no BUG . to take fright. fierce. big. long. bug-bear. monster. Fl. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. bucula. bbgni. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. Lett. to bellow. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. . bogk. bwgwl. is the dim. an object of terror. boeuf sauvage. roarHal. to origin in the expression bugs words. also a bug-bear. Manx boa. E. fette. threatening. provincially an insect. Big. Same as buffle. I. booggen. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. to frighten scarecrow. Swiss ing. terrifying ward. bwg and E. boa-peep. bug. bogil bo (e. Cheval de trombugti. troll. tion of the beetle tribe. Hal. Lesachthal. Parolone. An ornament of female dress condread. It. buba. A similar applica. bugler. a misshapen person. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. and in child's Magy. as an object of dread. bogil. a silk-worm. b'dgni. Bdronie. — — . bold. insect. — — ' . a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. a bug-bear. especially to beetles or winged insects. . threatening.

G. bulwis. bale. . to break bulk. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. bulbe. Lett. bolle. buc. belgr. bulka. a. were a habitation. a leathern sack or portmanteau. and N. Bolke or hepe. I. bolg. balco. Boss^. bolle. The Walach. unevenness Sw. the carcase. skin of an animal. — — . Here stand behind this bulk. it again. Pr. to gather. blister Manx bolg. The addition of a dim. the womb. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. bouge. . . or cargo of a ship. The radical sense is shown in Russ. cultivate. 1388. Bulk. boss. swollen OE. With these must probably be classed ON. bulge or bilge. a round bulky body bwlgan. body. Dan. on. He found a country fellow dead drunk. belly van de kerche. a leather sack or budget Fr. bulcke. crowd. herd^ swarm pulkd. to swell. bunch or projection. head . a lump or mass. . we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. bulle. balg. Bourser. See Bulk. skin flayed whole. villa. bulbe. balcone. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. bol. projection. bolso. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. belly. Kil. ball. bug. globule bolg-lhuingey. Pm. husk. — Bulb. to belly out. tumeo. knob. boss of shield. See bollekeii next article. knot in thread. jnake bulch. to bubble up Pol. — . boss of a buckler. bulgen. Muratori. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. hold or bilge of a ship. knobby. Lat. acervus. belly. or bear out as a full purse. the potato G. OSw. boa. bulgen. balgs. ne. bubbling up. or feminine termination gives Bav. inhabit.'— Cot. a globe. a protuberance. principal portion. ' . mass. bladder. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. a bubble. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. blister. the capacity or burden of a ship.' Festus. lump. turgeo bolnyd. swell. See how this tode bolneth. — — . to undo the cargo. boulge. bubble {palgan tiisge. to raise a habitation. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. cumulus. OSw. buhe. pouch builgeadh. van loock. and bulbukd. to spring. the head of an onion. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. domicilium. Melancholy. has bulbuk. to blow. as it was merly written in English to bylle. bukr. ' . a. ' . bauch. body of a ship . . bwlg. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bulg. Pr. bol. Pm. beuck. nave or body of the church van 't schip. Ptg. byli. swell. stuffed bag. bolnyn. buk. wallet. a bulb Du. blow. be protuberant. to build. G. A — ' — Bulk. Bulge. For the latter sense ' — My . bole. balg. mass. skin bag. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. trunk of the body. puff. bauen. chest. blister. bellows builgean. bubble. boss. bulked or bumped out. bulk is a partition of boards. dial. a water-bubble). bed of a river. — . Mister. Lith. bolgia. belgja. whence bylja. belly. pulkas. bilge. belly Cat.' Fl. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. Othello. Hal.d. Gr. leather sack. bag. a bubble Gael. bua. bulge or convex part of a cask. to bol. Bav.pulks. bulk. bol. belly. a bunch. G. pocket. in vessel. Mandeville. body of an animal. in Sc. biilken. the contents of the hold. compare Da. . a dint in a metal . the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. MHG. a tuberous or bulbous root . PoXj3a. Lat.' Palsgr. . swell. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. in bulk. womb. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). To Build. . or of what is shaped like a bubble. and put it home. — — . .— . the position of liquids in the word In English. trunk. as well as is very variable. habitaculum. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. (3oX|8oc. . . ^ — . of an inflated skin. hollow. knob. a straw corn-vessel. or. bulkaf. . bulk or capacity of anything. to bubble up. lump. w. formed a farm.' Anat. Hence e. gebolgen. . tumidus. Gr. . thorax buick. hull of a ship. as water beginning to boil bolg. Palco. bulbus. . In the representation of natural sounds. to swell. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. to puff up bolginn. bubble. . bo. swollen. the belly. bullka. to throw out a convexity. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bolgna. It. sedes. Jno. a heap. ON. ON. bugue. Dan. m um Placentiae. straight will he 2. Lith. belly. bouk. snorting on a bulk. at riufa bulkann. bulki. of E. vulva. Sp. belly Sw. a stage or scaffold. trunk. a prominence. pod ON. From till. the body Du. bulne. bolgetta. bubble. anything prominent. pimple. bolgan. .' Cot.). Bulch.

poltern.D. whence bullire. also a parFl. to tical with Sw.. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. bulle. sloes. G. the matrix or die . The male W. as It. A lace tree. Terriculamentum. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bollar. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. Du. W. bulla. pwl. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. BuUiou. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. as the ornanails. from Fr. It. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. the seal affixed to the document.'— ' Palsgr. signifying roaring. coarse. 2. Du. bouillon. G. is called a ball. eth and frighteth. bolla.D. it is boulet de canon. It. is of a class with Pl. a hornet. child by the represents the hobgoblin. boss. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. i. a cow. Scot's Deso. stud. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. Du. leraures nocturni nigri. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. N. urchens. biitzibau. a bowl. a bulox polos. of boule. from Lat. in the sense of base metal. to bubble. Bullbeggar.Gr. pollach. a bul-begger. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. The bullfrog. scarecrow. of Witchcr. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. a hobgoblin. Sp. This word is used in several senses. large. b2iggaboo. from the noise. to boil.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. Bullet. a hobgoblin. 3. Gold or silver uncoined. elves. whence Mod. Cot. lumpheaded . bollos de relieve. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. boulct. in N. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. a stud. penbwl. to emboss .' do not go by the dangerous water. a scare-bug. blister. as in E. w. a wasp. A papal rescript. The wild plum. to bellow. See Bowl. /SouWivu. however. bietebau. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. poli-cheannan. See Billet. pimple. bellocier. bole or trunk of a tree. Pm. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. round glass phial. billon. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. bullus. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. also of the tadpole or young frog. which may probably be the origin of the name. Bullace. bullebak. w. bal. bulderen. — A tition in a ship. Du. from the Lat.. bouillon. boillon. lumpish. a framework of balks. bwlas. stamp. bulk of a thing. bwla. hhint. bullocks. . Bully. balgeting. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. but is more probably iden- palchetto. embossed work. And The word bullerbak. bollon. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. bulk. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. dim. stamped money. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. Pl. tition of deals instead of a wall. assito. blunt. a blockhead. on the contrary. Lith. bulla. &c. G. bugbear. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. bullos. witches. — — Bull. bolos Fr. ON. a tadpole. brass-headed nail .. bwbach. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. as a mill-dam or the like. dial. ba. from the use of the equivalent terms. I.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. The final element tergeist. poll-cheannach. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. many to protuberant objects. — Fl. of the ox kind. polten. a bull Swiss bullen.Fris. a bull. G. bullern. BulUiead. and vellon in Sp. bulke. bulloi. any embossed work. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. any great-headed or studded nail. a beam or rafter. bolli. from baula. a tadpole . it may be observed that a bullet in E.D. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. to seal. Fr. and thence terror. Eullrusli. large of its kind. stupid .lle de fusil. Bret. boss or stud. billoti in Fr. beams or boards. spirits. as geting. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Fr. a seal. a seal. bauli. stud. 2. bubble. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. Bullfrog. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. Gael. Dan. thick. bellow.. a noisy violent fellow. a little fish nearly all head. baula. bolli.

14. sound. clamour. bolderen. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook.D. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. biihne. The Sw. and porter au billon. vallum. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of .' ' mettre au billon. A. buller-brook. 2. To bully is to bluster.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. 2. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. c. Kiittner. Du. Hal. is bullion — A — buller. 9 E. Hence bom and ban. hum. Bully-rock. — — plate d'argent. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . beat a — Hal. bol-werck. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. 1687). to behave tyrannically or imperiously. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. Kil. violent. blaterare.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. bomtnen. Etym. The decried coin.' reals of standard currency. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. honunele. a stage. boisterous fellow. From the notion of a humming. blunder-buss. G. scaffold. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. noise. St. Fris. up was termed monnaie de billon. bombilare. boulevard. a floor. botm. 4 Hen.d. argentum and silver. is called bumping or bells. boene. ierd-beame.' Stat. Du. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. Miege in Hal. a boisterous. to . From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. blunder-buss. a hectoring.' agger. — bombam?nen. buller-bak. or a humblebee. un faux brave. debacchari. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. Thus ' ble. The cry of the bittern. The Stat. but now is the central part of the town. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. intonare. Fr. For bottom. legaggio di metallo. To bum. ^Bully-rook.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Du.' for the purpose of exchange. 'lega. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. on the other hand. resonare. buller-bas. droning. or work of defence. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. bastion. to make a droning Du. To Bum. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. bulderen. Philip le Bel in Due. to terrify by noise and clamour. to dun. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. Bully. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. agrees with e. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin.. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. bottom. — Boom. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. a blunderhead. buller-jaan (bully. the soil. John).' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. Bum-bailiff. &c. c. perturbare saevis dictis. 10. Bum. furious man. Kil. minari verbulderen. It. 1305. block-werck. a noisy blustering fellow. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. to make a noise . G. — Bump. propugnaculum. a.D. provides. IV. 2. Fris. Bailey. ground. Sw. provides. buller-bas. ierd-boeyme. polterer. BULLY with which coins were stamped. violent overbearing person.' Again.. — Bumto . AS. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. G. c. bommele. then in general a rampart. poltem. by corruption boulevart. baluarte. IIL st.the ramparts. ON. ^i^/«. D. The 27 Ed. bustle. from boden. a bumble-. III. bottn. primarily the ramparts of a town. bodem. To bum. to drum Lat. buene. Hence — .

Probably for bun-boot. while bulch was traced through Gris. — — Bun.' Bun. clown. Kyx or bunne. Suffolk bonnka. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a hump. should probably be a short tail. a bump. pumpa. to strike so as to give a dull sound. bungersome. a knob. a knotty stick) Sw. a bud. lungeous. hdk passing and E. Bunk. Thus e. pwmpl. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Dan. lenten loaves. Probably from bump. especially girls. so the form btmk. bongie. Pm. bun eich.' Palsgr. noise. a boss Lith. It. H. — — Bun. . &c. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a into Dan. Li cake. bunnion. bump. Bunch. a button. to beat. abrupt manbuns-wise. a heap OSw. Holland and Flanders. Gael. any round knob or bunch. a person employed to dun one for a debt. to bang down. clumsy. hay stubble . a swelling from a blow. bugno. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. bugnone. a dried hemp-stalk. . bun.P.pummel. a rabbit. — Marine Diet. Hal. a pocket Sw. Pr. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a dry No . bun with ON. bottom bun feoir. Bumboat. bulscha.. throw down with a bang. bunke. Bony. Bun. inconsiderately. 1. bmidt. to swell out E. Bang sen. . . — stalk .). .— Bunnion. lump. Bumpkin. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. a lump on the foot bunny. E. to thump.S. . or grete knobbe. a boil or blain. protuberance. Sc. w. Pl. and signifies consequently a mass. a. Fr. to bang ON. poumpi. any round knob or bunch. gibbus. cluster. Hal. bmike. a boil (punkos bot. bung. bunka. . Manx bonkan. bunt. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Fl. Sc. one ever saw the word in that shape. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. pwmpio. See Boss. are dim. bon.^Cot. foundation w. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. stubble Manx bun. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. ner. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. callus. bans. banga. pompette.-^Fl. bunki. . bunny. Dunchyn or bunchyn. a heap or cluster. bignet. as we have seen E. bugno. A Du. poumpido. bune or boon. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . a bunch Magy. bund. See Bounce. pompon. knochen. bonge. to bang. seems to unite Gael. bunkc.D. See Bunch. a knock. Then. Dan. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bunken. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. il me pousse.D. bunan. Pm. a wallet. a bowl P1. bonnock. to . a purse . mto Sp. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bunsen. OSw. passes Sw. bonuach. strapping. Hence E. a bunch. bunga. bulto. stubble of beans. trunk. . bolsa. — — de dor bunsen. stump. bundle. boi7ieog. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. to ' . bamgetroffen. Ir. pumpurras. root.D. stalk. . To bam. pwmp. Du. a hemp-stalk. bumtel. round mass of anything.— Pr. BUNCH bum-bailiff. Bums it's hit. bottom. Hal. and related with ON. blain.' he fell with a bang. knob or heap. He buncheth me and beateth me. a bag or sack. butt end. Again. root. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. Moor. buns. Radically identical with Dan. Pm. bumsen. He fult dat et bunsede. banke. bull. a knob . Roding. gibber. to beat. a pumpion or gourd. knuckles. from knock) It. the tail of a hare. stock. large. a swelling. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). A clumsy. the Pr. . explaining E. E. a large . —Bunny. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. — round fruit. dial. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. stem or base. to . from bunsen. Daal bu7iseti. a heap. Bunewand. S. stump. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. bu<rnone. awkward. applied to young persons. — — — — ' — knock. botn. Lang. bugnet. awkward clown. Related on the one side to Pl. w. ! — knocking. Bunch. bum-boot. Forby. a round mass . as in other cases. Pl. bunga. Gael. a heap Wall. forms. a. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Fr. signifying one who does things in a thumping. stock. a rabbit. dial. nor would it concern the public if he did. bannock. to knock .! . binge. calamus. Bump. a Sp. Hal.D. strike E. bunch— Hal.. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. a knob. bulse. tundo. E. Mrs Baker. . truss E. a heap. bottom. an old stump of a horse. . Bung^. Bumsen. . a tail (Macleod). or to the mass by which it is given.

stilmpern. working in wood (especially with an axe). the float of an bundle. tapp (whence tceppa. knocking. stocks or such OSw. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. To do anything awk- wardly. a boye. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. — Bureau. buret. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb.D. to botch. to resound. The Magy. is originally a wisp or bunch . a bungler. to hum. fascis. to push ghebondte. The word is flags are made. to bear. to Somerset is to sift. buie. and van t' vat. byrthen. a water bubble made by rain. bourion. ho-tapp. bou^e. la Borgonota. Du. tap. Bunting. Rietz. . banghagr. are from bouscfie. on. Biu'geon. See Barbarous. colligatio. burboloti. to strum on an instrument. contignatio. a botch. the young cloth used for sifting flour. Banff. Bunny. Burden. to float. however. a drum . racket . dark. to stnmi on an instrument. bunsen. bon. OFr. bote. bummle. guggle as water. in is Fr. Sp. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. from beran. buove. the bung of a barrel Lim. ' — work . Johansen. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. To bunt. Cat. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bury. boya. bond. tinkle. dial. a bunch Burbulas. . to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. generally known as the material of which bud. G. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. with the head. Burden. that the primitive meaning of shackle . coassatio et Du. The belly or hollow of a sail. bongani. byndel. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. bourjon. bourgeon. bindini. on. reddish brown. fetters. to pype. bove. or putting forth of a vine. to stop. to bud forth. a sort of helmet. to gingle. Sw. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. Sp. bag to catch the wind. boil or bubble up. Lat. Bret. something bound together (Mrs Baker).— . of a song. AS. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. the noise of drums. To burgeon. bounta. would be the earliest float for an anchor. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. bundel. A bubble. G. klempern. See Bourdon. Bung.Fris. stiimpeln. Fr. bang. See Borel. the middle part of it. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. modem bummle. 202. Cot. So Du. Fr. dial. bouche. bondir. do a thing bunglingly. AS. and E. p. russet. bourguignote. Fr. properly a Burgundian helmet. or used as a receptacle for papers. shove . bunta. bondeau. — — To Bungle. the loose open grow big about or gross. buret. bolting-cloth. The Fr. bangla. bang. dark grey bura. especially in wood. halm-tapp. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. sprig. rumble as the bowels. . B. to push with the head del. B. was formerly pronounced buro. Compare G. Hal. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. Sp. bongun. to in to stop the hole. shackles. The Italian buio. — . biirde. So in Pol. bundle. OFr. Bundle. also a piinple in the face. dicimus rufum. bundt. Muratori.punt. gyves. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. to bolt meal. an anchor buoy. the stopper of a cask). It. and bomme. a cork. bonde. Pl. racket. to knock. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. borgonota. tinker . the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. Kil. bondon. and Du. * Buoy. boucher. — — . to push. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. to hum. and the Sw. borboUar. to shove. bonde. loosed from bonds. to knock. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. a wisp of hay or straw. boei. A load. N. knocking. bondelj bundell. Burly. bungande. Bunt. . a bung. clumsy performance. Sw. to work ineffectually. Prov. bangla. to work at carpentry bangan. E. a bunch. Sw. ghebundte. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. Burble. to kick. bimge. anchor or of a net boyar. whence in bure. to gingle. noise. Sp. knock. to hum. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. bommen. boj. Fl. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . to cobble. — btiruii. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bondel-loos. To Bunt. unskilful working. See Bun. burion. to bungle.' Festus in Diez. klimpem. bouchon. Burganet. A Dan. driving in the bung. The stopper for the hole in a boia. Fr. banga. Palsgr. and now more Bailey. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. whence bunting. OG. or tuft. Prov. . to stop. Russ. punishments for prisoners. Bung of a tonne or Lith. clogs. bui.

a bubble to spring as water. Probably. burgensis. burgen. thence. Burgess. a purling hiwe brennen. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. is termed burling. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. A — — . he rustle. . — — .— . brunnr. to grind on a whetstone. borr. burgi latro. toast. brim or edge of anything. Sw. to roar. Pm.j'own. flocks. tahkoa. a whetstone. Prov. schleiffen. an edge. tumentum. mockery. occupying much space. grancelli. as Diefenbach bud. See Burr. to have acquired the sense of polishing. to effervesce. sicut sound. ON. In the manu. Swiss Rom. to give an edge to. a bubble. singe or scorch with fire. Cot. It is probable indeed that Fr. . to fiy. dial. A burl. bears. brunnen.— Pr. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to sharpen on a whetstone. brimmen. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. It. ridicule. and OG. Swiss Rom.. has also borr. broil. briis^.bryna. to rub. i5«r4 biiirte. ample of polishing metal. warbling. bruzir. like straw or small . Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. ends of thread. burren. brAler. Fr. become big and proud. language of folly or ridicule. Lang. Pr. . tion of the root which gave the OE. Bav. brynsten. ' rugiens. purling. Bret. brinna. as of suggests. brunna. the flocks. bunch. Dief. BURNISH i5«r/. Burryn. a spring a robber.' Cot. a margin. roguing beggars. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. . leo Fin. the J in OFr. ^ttsa. to puff. to polish helmets. bruse. 122. and Dan. jest of. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp.. a blaze. and the Burnish. tahko. brun. Fl. N. to To Bum. surge or dashing of the sea . an &c.sharpen. purra. brinnen or Also ein roar. Supp. Todd. taunt. It. Burly. brusler being a faulty spelling. Schm. bourglairs. purrata. born. Bav. burly.. Goth. bururus. Bouffer. fire. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. &c. to Gael. Burlesque. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. a bladder. and the Burin. brook. borrelen. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. Fl. The Gael. bud or sprout forth. Compare also Piedm. which has given much trouble to etymologists. is an Thus G. compared with G. Burglar. a fountain.' a jibe. the word seems Pm. See Burgeon. the roaring surge of the — — — . from bryii. it of the knots. knob. must be explained on the same principle from G. watery. with little iron nippers called burling irons. OE. to bud . E. — . to surge. barrel. with Dan. Fr. sidiary element. a gurgling ^. to set on fire. like. swell up or strout out. the er is a dresser of cloth. Burler. brase. bururus. from Lat. bourd. Sw. a prominent eye borracka. OFr. — — . borni. burle of cloth. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to tell lies. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. Bestiary. angular . explaining the E. to roar. j. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. to swell. boiirre. burlare. joking. to bourda. boura. The primary origin of the word. protuberance. explaining Sp. pressa puret. ^Notk. a wine skin.). — . G. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. brinii. to burn. buirleadh.). — Han to bruser op. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. Walach. to make a So from Fin. to burn. brandung. spring-water bumach. burgeois. to murmur. lerre. In the same way ON.. a jest. swelling borr-shuil. A legal term from the Lat. to ridicule. bouril. a jest. Burgher. borracka. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. de Vaud. Sp. to roar (as lions. See under Bore. blow. laer. pur (see Burgeon).latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. G. as in cousteau. burn. bremmen. to burgen or wax big. to polish. bourou. a knob. condemnentur morti. From Fr. to sharpen. brausen. sea. water. a well. brasa. 56. Burgh.. Lang. lorra. abourioner. boure. fires up. robber. Fr. to polish. See Berough. from the roaring sound of flame. brustle. OFr. to hum. to roar. brustolare. It. in Schm. brunir. to ridicule.ireui£r:e. Probably a modifica. Limousin bourdo.Ps. embraser. borujon. Burn. to swell oneself out as birds borras. Gael. crackle wood in burning Hal.or bubbling up. big. to roar. From the same root E. ends of thread. Castrais bourril. Antiq. to swell with pride. Pren7ien. So also Sw. de Vaud. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Hence Bridel. ii6 BURGESS Gael. OE. a lie. — — . as the / in purl.). to roar 5. to puff up borr^ . repartee . brima. like the wind in trees. sbornoi. a bud. The in. to bouronna. is connected with brim. Nat. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar.

g. brit. brown. leather. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. hair.. barza. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. beurs. to bury . purr. Sexy.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. an exchange. With a slightly different ghen. ON. Burse. husks. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. AS. straw. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . bourre. and spelling. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. bolsa to It. OHG. its own protection. byrstan. to buzz. a purse. whirr and burr.' The same word with burgh. Burser. when they spring So in W. . Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. &c. foretell great storms at 3. berstan. the officer who bears the purse. and met. See Bulge. any rapid whirling biarga. brittle. dial. explained E. prsnuti. byrigels. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. break . Fris. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. but it is more probably a development of It. G. save. Dan. a morsel. dial. britar. perruque. preserve. See Burgeon. a sepulchre. borra. impetus. brist. to break. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . birr. bur. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. to stuff. Sw. -burse. tomb. brizeto.Lat. the — — castle or fortress. Beowulf. peluca to Fr. to mutter Sw. skin. borre. Compare also OE. Swiss burren. In OE. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. to burst. brist. chips or anything else Fl. ' ' — — burren. some people in pronouncing the letter r. a. and thence flocks 'of wool. and. G. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. verbergen. Gael. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. of England. from AS. swell. cover. byrgels. byrgan. shuffling. also ' any such trash as chaff. It. any kind of quilting or stuffing. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. Hence Fr. Bursar. briso. Du. pipaa. -Grisons bulscha. briser. Brun on bane. brisd. borrow. mentioned under Burgeon. fortify. Hal. i5(7&a. shearing of cloth. blurra. brisdeach. Fr. A rabbit burmotion. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. To Bury. shales.' Harris in Todd. burra. To Burst. . Shelter. whence Kil. talk fast and indistinctly. a pad. bristen. bres- — tan. bristeach.— . Burrow. of a body hurled through the air. an annular swelling. stuffing. brista. E. Du. Jam. ptcrren. byrsa. Fr. 2. a rabbit burrow. birgan. iii. beorgan. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. AS. It. moss. casting bullets. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. &c. buscha. a wallet or scrip. a place of defence. borsia. brittle. Burr is related to buzz as protect. burre. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. as from Sp. 225. coo. bris. bersten. The root forms brik. from Fr. brokil and brotil. from whence we pass through Sp. cwning-gaer. 5150. brickie. to save. borsa. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. idiom if 4. brast. borsa. Mid. birigean. borra. bourlet. a barn or cupboard. as in Northumberland. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. In a met. makes the disbursements of the college. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. keep. to P'air. as for the protection of a child's head. bergen. S w. ultimately resting on the Gael. . bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. byrgen. karborre. appears under the Lang. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. I. Burr. shelter. also all such stuff as hay. Cot. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. ' BURR AS. briketo.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. Sw. brjota. preserve. burgisli. bris. ON. signifying protrude. a port. Fr. bourrer. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. to hide . be more in accordance with AS. Burse. borre. Burial. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. ber•whirr to whizz. — Clare. OHG. burial place. as it is still pronounced in N. that birds make their nests with. bourse. force.' edge grew weak. This word seems safety. brest. bourrelet. root borr. to hide. whirr. bourse. a purse. — Translated by Kemble. Port. brico. bur. a harness or collar maker) . bolgia. caer is a — — — ' ' : . whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out.

or the like. Prov. induere vestes . Brunne. Layamon. fiast. a tuft. bousIn the other copy ser. bussare. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. bousche. bussellus.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a been written buasc. AS. a bush. and he cites wisp bauschen. bausen. in the For Skirnis . then a tuft Sp. ' . a grove bosch van haer. It. barst.' sheath. . foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. the idea of knocking. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. borseof trees. diminutives. a hump. ch). aheap of stones. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. truasc. verb. box wood to bush. a tuft.P. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. il fut couch6 l^jkema).) to hide in the ground. bua. as synonymous with to inake one boun. The primary sense of hair . to swell. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. boissa. basse. protect . by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. hjul-bosse. sur une litifere. bossen. roquies. a box. Thus Froister . abdere. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. —Busk. to stop. bustellus. and thence Mid. bouche. buxida. to forest of Eyda. projection. to bury. bos. tuft. bosta. bunch. a bundle. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock.' The word is explained by — — . Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. bundle. Du. a corpse). burial mound. bramble. Du. basse. ieorh. Mid. biichse. Brunne. to prepare. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. a tuft of hair.Lat. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. van wijnbesien. we have Fr. bussel. bustula. busse. AS. wisp. mount. in OE. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. to dress. 2. 'at bua sik. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. Du. whence bouchon. OFr. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. ' . boxta. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. apparently a secondary verb. a gun biichse. . to direct one's course towards. Bush. is thus accounted for. occultare K. dead. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. a bunch. See Bust. The radical idea is seen in Goth. berghen. bundle * Buskin. bousse. that the lend had lorn thorn. oneself.boisteau. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. a bunch of twigs. lump. a clot of phlegm sart. Bush. It. The bone in a woman's stays. They busked and malced them boun. Thence byrigean. Bouchet. at bua sig. condere. gave Lat. bulk. Gr. ' —P. make ready. besom).' The buskin is said Bret.gur bidst austur um EySascog. a rampart. buysschen. and from the Fr. buskr. boucher. Sibriht that I of told. a -tavern bush. . Sir Tristram. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . BUSH hreaw. boistel. qualster-boscken. The word frequency with which to busk is used. and we actually find bushel. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. . ' . bosch (a diminutive ?). brodequin tout noir. brodiquin. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. a box for measuring corn. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. Le roy Richard mort. to bow. barsc in Heimskringla. a little box Dan. a wisp. tow. And her ful sone tuft. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. to keep. which would later have truast. bairgan. Ptg. to sepulchre. a bush. brake. a tuft guini. busk. To Busk. G. at buast. bosc. thicket of thorns .fiasc. or — Busk. preserve. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. iriCtf -ifoe. . ' . bossida. Sc. the land. borcegui. busken. R. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. the Moors and of Morocco. as boun is simply buinn. : — . borghen. OFr. cluster. Sw. Fr. . 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. a box. bo7ich (Fr. thicket {buski. from the ON. clusprobably Morocco leather. Fris. whence at bua sik. a troop. Malberg. the past participle of the same verb bua. whente beorg. signifying to entomb. To prepare. beorgan. bulge. and not directly (as Du. boisseau. rad. for at buasc. to bend one's steps. In to Brutaine. -idis. So from Fr.— ' ii8 {chreo.' a box. knot. buxula. to dress. buxta. boiste. to enclose in a case or box.Lat. Harold G. to turn. bush.-^Bushel. defence. See Box. hunch Du. bush. 410. grapes.

See Boss. inde discurro et operosus sum. Prov. Lindenbr. outarde. crack . an ostrich. mosequin. of a doublet. a busk. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. lip. a fishing vessel. geidha. A A busquer (Sigart). outard. and then with avis again prefixed. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. The form brust. knock. bus. sunt quas Hispania aves . bussen. as in ON. Gael.> Also written buskle. mouth. bisegung. a ship of some size. Buss. to make use of.d. Sp. occupation.bezig. trunk of Cot. bruskras well as buskr. employment bisgan. Fr. Fr. of the human body (Grandg. I go strepo) . knock. tuft. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). a tree. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. bus and Pol. Bust. I. body. Walach. Swiss butschen. ON. btcc. made stiff. Prov. putschen. stem. Fr.' Plin. bisgung. To Bustle. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Prov. To hurry or make a great B. body of garment. representing a blow. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Business. a sleeveless truss or doublet. kiss. but. bnist. the body without arms busque. forest. body of a man. stump. a large cljest or particular applibox. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Busy. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. from jnund. a backstock. or Cherqui. Hal. body without arms and legs. ViM. Edrtst. the breast. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . 1555. ottarda. AS. to Swab. bysgje. Lang. and supposes that the common Arab. statue of the upper part of Fr. 7o\. arbor ramis trunGloss.pjik. a great billet Cot. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. Cat. ' bistardej It. — clattering about. beezig. a bush. windbutsch. a bunch of flowers . tarda. Comp. body . With respect to bust. fe^a. Du. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. Pol. would explain the G. also a busk. A great sluggish fowl. Sw. also a flagon. lips. kupata.— . So Wes- terwald munds. mons. I bustle. buc. otarda. especially of a woman's dress. to bustle. bust. box. morsequi. — hardly be distinct from Fr. Fl. Cot. lump. the trunk. a kiss. a log. a. brostia as well as bostia. utarda. a boat or small vessel . brut. and by transposition morchequi. plated body or other quilted thing. besongne. to occupy. a stroke of wind. Xerqui. Lat. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. . Bav.Lat. trunk of a tree. busch. says. work. log . busch.' ON. a bulk or trunk without a head. . to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. pussa. love gestures. B. — Thus we should have mocherqui. The proceedings of Parliament. busy. trunk. brusc. thick end. 2l box. worn to make the body straight . mogangas from gonj. ' BUSY 2.D. also a It. buyse. BUSS Dozy from Arab. mouth. 10. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. A wisp. 2. 119 bi{tr.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. abotarda. besoigAe. Busitiess :c3iVi . — — — — It is like the smouldering. biseg. a kiss. body. or chest in which the vitals are contained. a projection. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. and also a sounding blow. bysgian. Fris. a mouth. busc. cata — . These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. Bulch. vessel employed in the herring fishery. So in Fin. to make a splash in the water. buc. betarda. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. a blow. bisg. abutarda. Sp. — . bist. chest. a Mid. putta. buquer. — — difications of the same word. bucha. ship Sp. bus. snout. busche. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. sera. buta. the long. Nained from Proximse iis zia. Box. signifying trunk of a the body. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. beso. On the other hand. trunk. a kiss of reverence. I. avuDiez. business. buz. stump. butz. Namur — Champagne Fr. a bust. smack. austarda. kiss. bustla. Fr. bukr. busto. to knock . Bustard. bu. as in moharra from harbe. ON. bacio. an affair. baiser. forms morseqiiill. lip. body of a woman's dress It. borcegui. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. a blow. Bust. bussa. Hence probably au-tarda. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. small. mohedairova. Rouchi. a kiss. buc. The Prov. biist. occupied bezigen. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. its slowness of flight. ^A. 1372. the point of a lance. Busk. bulk. basiuin. 22. in Diaz Gris.). prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. stir. busta. Port. Sp. or avutarda. bust. hipista. busq.

' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh.The Sp. bisgung. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. ways. Prov. beyond the Piedm. the principal apartment. equivalent of AS. trunk. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. properly a butan wite. Sp. a budget. we find ben. without care. from as. bol. Du. bountifully. boquier. those in beccaio. boccino. Butt. Sp. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. beccaria. bute. sup- meat and drink. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. Coutume d'Alost in Diet.jamin. boteria. gives at least two pounds sterling. . Lang. beta. It. able. moreover. a goat. or what in in charge of the pantry. by the mode in which he is treated. Wall. bole of a tree. a butchery. a butcher . viz. a baiTel . Buttery. and the real origin of the and within . calf. bouteillier. the mouth). the precise correlative of but. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . bout. the servant in charge of the original object.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. beccaro. are.' Thus Chaucer says. my is called the adversative use of but. Fr. AS. Lang.streets. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . Here the but implies the existence of an. the present day we should say.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. (children) boc. bitten dai. calf of the ' say. the body of an animal. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. Fr. also a hollow vessel . Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. being wholly unten. "PLT) . A A . in addition. belly. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . of the wine and drink. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. from boc. is well explained by Tooke. ' There is leathern bottle. belly. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. Butcher. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson.' there is really a negation to be supplied. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. bolgia. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. the body of a tree or of a man. mais. Fr. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. butan ce. Sp. the jug and in E.' — — ' . earthen which the debtor has adverted. barriga. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. skin-bag. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. ont jhi^ton. a leathern bag. a bottle. except. add. bhcciero. but one thing. Tooke's dis. botija. But It. body of a shirt w. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. besides that . The E. the belly. and bot. hull of a ship. a wooden cask. slaughter-house. wooden receptthing to be done. .' ' write. tinction between but. then hoUow trunk. bouz. a butcher. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. similar train of thought is seen in ON. If that where now we should compiler.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. an outlaw from bouche. But In Sc. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. bounds of. G. young mais. as Pantler. to-boot. large barrel. the name must have arisen before the within. botte. a barrel. without law. rumpf. buta. butan. and with It. bolr. — we acle for liquors.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. is put in a class by himself. Butler. original sense of without. without buiten-man. Whatever is in addition to Butler. So in Italian from becco. bola. the Perhaps besogne — . a cask. the full expres. the trunk or body of an animal. bag. But when will you pay it ? the belly. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. outside that moreover. bochier. viz. the bottles. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. — . bitlga. As a conjunction but is in every portion. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. bous. that which would be translated by Fr. without punishment . ox. ' Besides all that._ bitten j biiten door. Where at an earthen jar . boucher. the store of ten. botilla. be out. bodifie. without. without the house kept in bottles. hollow case.in which his brethren are included. OFr. belly. biitait slaughterer of goats . as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. a goat (and not besides .' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. rotundity of the body. Ben-house. collection of casks. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. a small winebag. binnan. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. which the word corresponds to the Fr. bocin.

W. bot. bud. A — — — . the edge forwards. Du. pied. pwt. short thick thing pimple. large head. to so close to the Fr. hillock . Du. bot blijven staan. courtaud. a scope. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . a mound of turf in a field to sup. &c. Butter-glass. tress. a wall butor butt on. butt. are the strips at the edges of the field. clunis. to throw .' thick from shaking. — A . Bav. Du. Grandg. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. bata. from bugan. end . butte. but. bottig. of the present day. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . what is kept in a blow. So in English pimples were fora clod. a buttrice. from notirrir. clumsy . lams-bout. to butt. bouton. a flying buttress. gigot. suddenly . a button. a heap of merly called pushes. — — — — . butz. rabodd. as if from Povg. Fr. the store of while bottich. to bow. bouter. a. any small projection. buttals. Buttock. Du. a bolt. Kil. botta. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. as in G. obedient. to heap up earth or ihrust. boil. Gris. a corner horses' hoofs. boter-schijte. Fr. from bouter. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. a stroke di animal. both. ment being supposed to resemble butter. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. caput scapula bout van f been. the prick in the middle of a target. botte. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. the rosebud.putan. waste ground. Btetter-schmalz. Buttel-triib. thrust forwards. bouter. to push earth . to thrust. an etwas anstossen. nourrisson. a tub. thrust. from stossen. then the thigh or leg of an to push . tout seat or breech. coxa. fowl. bodi. but this is probably from Fr. Fr. oir spike with a k coup . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. a bot. at. to thrust Fr. : . to cast. on. signify a cask or tub. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. Cot. to thrust . . the trunk. butter un. Bout van het schouderIt. a button. to thrust. give way. a boss. bouton. Hal. to strike. stump of a tree Fr. butt of a person. See Butler. pwtiaw.. buter.arbre. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. . to blad. Kil. a thrust the thigh-bone. boter-vogel. To strike with the head bags.rejected thing. Fr. botto. e. put. From Du. Halma. buttare. humble. butyrum. Fr. to abut on.— BUTT leg . fle>(ible. G. botta. so as to make a sounding blow. The word body itself seems identical with G. strike. Boutant. butt. to femur. Buttress. a. Lang.thum and not button. boding. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. botten. It. an ox. bout. To Butt.against another which needs support . a but in the W. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. butter. bot. bodi'. the Butter-fly. to be con. boiUer. nourrissons. bothog. From the noise of drinkables in a house. boutis. a buttress Cot. From Grisons biitt. botwm. Sp. dripping. i. — . Du. Fris. buttern. Butter. * Buxom. — A . in the R. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . a dle . by boE. aim whence to make a support to a wall. grease that sets by merely standing. leg of lamb. to boult flour. The Bavarian potig. a blow. potacha. R. a button. Boutje. bocgsuin. . s'arrgter tout ^ coup. bocsam. a mound. AS. Kil. boter-vliege. Buttery.to push. to thrust. thick. from the large knobbed head of botto. — . a blow. a boss. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. a stump or club foot. Schmell. butteln. a leg of mutton. of E. boutoir. the thick end. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. a barrel. striking end. Gr. from rejeter. bottich. a cask. An erection built up as a Fr. or person Schmeller . trapu. w. Button. buttock of beef is called butr. submit shaking up salad sauce. a hill. stump. the thigh of a goose. butte. poke. bott. To come full butt against a butts. &c. Gael. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. nursling. butt. to abut a stone roof. to touch at the end. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. or or shore post. a little push . as rejeton. Buttrice. able that Chaucer. and the true derivation boar. Perhaps corrupted Lat.. W. a bun. Fr. bout. geboogsaem. Bav. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Fr. a large belly. buhsom. Mur-buttant. Hal. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. povrvpov. is formed the augmentative buttatich. a ribbed glass for dient. -ez. Schmell. butter. obeto shake backwards and forwards. any short thick thing. having a rotundity . boteria.

CABAL Goth. bees. iii. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. Verstegan in R. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. A ful benygne buirde. a meke thynge with — alle. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. as heedless as a cock-chafer. byar-log. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. Lat. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . good-humoured one. to whisper. bozzago. bar. Goth. G. from by. & Q. to purchase for money. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. To Buy. bycgan. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. Byre. . and boxome of speche xviii. bauhta. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. to wit. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Sw. favourably to a petition. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). The sense of buxom. favourable. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. bugjan. Cabal. gracious. It. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. buzarg. See Abie. Pecock Repressor. bi. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. to pass by. as Fr. —gracious of speech. A by. — 122 BUY P. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Too used a Foxes Martyrs.P. buzac. to swear with him by . from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. to jan. The ON. Du. frabttg- To Buzz. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative.. also say. confusedly. byr. blessing me with their of side. Etynj. big. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. OE. p. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. AS. It. to buzz. a borough. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness.in N. bylove. 21. 3. Then applied to speaking low. 519. buteoj Fr. son. . farm. village. bohte. Sw. ii. Mercy hight that mayde. lete. bij. A A We — — — days' wonder. a town. Originally the law of a particular town. cow-house. By-law. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. bygge. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Dan. and it is of good will. train of thought which has become obso. as in Da. called Cabala or Tradition. ON. Many good mological explanation. abozzago. town having separate jurisdiction. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. from whom it was addressed. leges urbanse ON. buso. bei. bi. who makes abigg.— P. buzzicare. P. a beetle. byar-rettr. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. stall. depends upon a esteem in falconry. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. harty prayers and God speedes.. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. tions by one. 200. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. to stand at his side . before his departure for Newbury with a homed By.busardj Prov. 116. a by-path is a side path . Buzzard. indistinctly. jus municipii. \s\xy. and would have been lost in E. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. to sell.— Diet. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. a buzzard or puttock. . Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. AS. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. bylag. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. lb.

agge.Gr. Mid. cabre. head. capo. agga. lactuca capitata. . cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. agge machen (in nurses' language). Du. to hurl in Nat. laitue cabusse. aak! tandi like Fr. name of the projectile engine. Du. disgusting such an engine was exerted. gabardme. deponat a store closet. kabaSsen. manticuKil. Very generally used. stercus. gaggele. a cloak of felt or Cack. Tugurium. cabarino. . Capstan. (ca/coe. covering. Coticesserint Swiss aa. kakla. cabasser. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. ceach / exclamation of guages.. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. gatsch. cabo. Lith. dirty. Lang. Mid. vincially used in E. caable (in legal language). maim. dirty. It is remarkable that the Esthon. cacare . signifies down. Ptg. in which sense are explained The the OFr. gaggi. — Kil. Cabin. Kil. 'habl. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. w. a rope. dirt and the Fr. —Diet. E. Gaggle. cadabulum.. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. cabbage. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. cab. Finn.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. It. Cot. . kabane. . to keep or Du. cadabula. originally an Gael. and as we find stones Mid. Antiq. — Tarbe. Fr. cadabulum. The Sp. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. nasty. chaable. cabane. Fr. band. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. especially shepherd's frock. calabre. cadabola. — . Lat. the bowels. to hurl down. Castr. Common to Lat. capanna. capuccio. Cablisb. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends.Lat. overwhelm. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. a car- We convasare. come the Fr. and Or. properly windfalls. prostratio ad terram. has kabbel. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . OSp. cabus. for the origin of which see Carabine. it would seem fundain children's language. Cabinet. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. aakkat'a.Lat.). a rope. a covering. a rope. aeggi. Didot. Item habeat vocant. as it must have stood in French. Due. cacare. cabulus. filth. a booth or hut. or rush basket. — Ibid. hovel. To steal or pocket. Neckam — by the wind.' Due. traboccare. kakaloH. It. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. Due. Cabbage. OFr. — . precisely in the sense of the lari E. whence Lang. — the ON. cabacho. cabuyskoole. It. to chatter. brassica — capitata. Cot. an engine for casting stones. cabre. chabla. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. giiare. . headed or cabbage lettuce. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty.. Fr. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. case. Brushwood — — B. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. caable. serious injury — In like manner It. signifying properly a rope's end. hoard together. to crush. Sp. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . overwhelm (Diet. . ! — . sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . and Finnish lanLat. and the Arab. Sw. main. whence Fr. Etym. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. havyar to caviare.ticula. as an expression of Gr. Sp. gaban.. caqueter. round or great headed. cable . su/Furari. manganare. Imitative of the cry of hens. The double a in the OFr. surripere. disgust cac.Lat. from trabocco. to strain in such a manner . accablcr. Mid. forms indi. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. origin is the OFr. Celtic. cab lis. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. Katr-iT-aKt. as Turk. mdhaigner. It. chaable. disgust. a head (whence cabochard. the Prov. Du. a headed cole or cabbage . &c. the Slavonian. to put or pack up in a frail. OFr. Cappa in OSp. E. as Diez supposes). but it would seem to explain To Cackle. &c. OFr. chadabula. would correspond to cable. is probably unconnected. caables. ckaable. a cabbage . vile. cabuccio. cabaii. a rope or cable. bad. and Ptg. To Cabbage. or as an interjection of disMod. cables. dung. a shed. a jacket Fr. kabas. caboche. a frail. string. cadabalum. cdble. headed. The name of the engine. caable. from manganum. cabas. akista. Fr. hut. wilful). — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. kabat. geese. : — from violence without blood. cabo. or cadable. Fr. heady. form kactal. Choux cabus. a tunic. From It.

kolesnitza. to heat. for green fields. calendarium. a counter used in casting accounts. marrow. limestone. It. kalem. its mother. kolasa. loss. gavia.uv. Turk. koeck. G. Calocli. Calc-. Fr. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. the calf of the leg. to — Fr. ben- kalf. caliche. Calf of the Leg. a small stone. pet lamb. &c. calf of leg. pen Mod. the younger son of a family said to be from . CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Cot. Fr. calcis. Lat. to cackle . to gabble. from calculus. calessa. rattaat (wheels). cage. G. Cot. It is another form of the E. a wheel . a wretch. incolumis. a calesh. A hooded carriage. without loss. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. naXaiidpi. or colpa na coise. calpa. To Cajole. Caldron. calibre. cuttle-fish. Gael. hence musical rhythm. Lat. kauwe. whence calash. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. caioler. Fr. chaudron. calx. It. colibro. signifies a waggon. hot. the bore of a cannon. kolo. In the same way Fin. Lat. a loaf of bread. a corpse. Cadet. cage. Gascon capdet. gabble. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. B. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. a hollow place. a wheel . Lat. chattering. Lat. calentar. to . kail. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. kalb. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. a caFr. Cadge*. Cauldron. a dence. Lat. ON. Due. Lat. calidus. Du. kdfich. calentura. Fr.— Cot. Calamary. javioler. a waggon . a vessel for heating water. kaad. just falling. an inkstand . kat. 124 prattle . It is more likely a word formed like cackle. kalfvan hout. calamus. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It.— . (in the augm. a wheel . cageoler. It. loss. cadere. —Atkinson. babbhng. to sleek hence a den. a lump or large piece. KaKKat. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. lime whence calcareous. cattivo (from Lat. a falling. The young G. A — fall. A . Cake. N. Sp. Perhaps from w. Cadaverous. kolo. Cot. Fr. collop. It. calendrer. Fr. calba. . when they are said to poor. and troublesomely attached to. prate. a cylinder. Du. . Russ. Fr. a reed. reed-pen. Roman reckoning. caldaria. a car. capitetum. Cadence. ratas. kolyasochka. gaggle. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. The Calf. cabdillo. capCalenture. gabbia. a fever. frisky. The Lat. — — — Dan. Lat. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. to compute. lindrus. an ugly waggon kolaska. calculo. joyous . Tea-caddy. on. Calp is riadh. a calash . dead body. Calendar. Cage. See Kiddier. a wheel. cake. wretched. Calcialate. jabber. Lat. from the ink-bag which it contains. kolo. Sw.warmth .Gr. KxiKivh^o^. Calash. From lerie. little chief. unruly . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. caldarius.— Calliper. — in a kiln. kdtr. kaeckelenj Gr. As Du. Fr. lord. Serv. Lat. so gabble corresponds with Fr. frolicsome kaad mund. calidus. It. kolesb. * Calibre. master. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. chetif. Turk. cadence. gabberen is identical with E. kuchen. a cake or loaf. calibre. bad . chaudiere. To Calender. En kaka br'od. the lump and the increase. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Du. Lat. Calandre. kaka. boy. calamitas. of oxen and similar animals. Sp. a mischievous dial. cavea. especially of something soft. Arab. a roller. or prattle. cadet. gabbia. . gaggia. cha'cmie cadence. misfortune. * Cade. Dan. Caddy. to cage. Flo. cadaver. a low note. a circle. is probably delusive. cykevie. a tea-chest. ever and anon. calesa. It. Calamity. wanton. to throw themselves into the sea. one unduly indulged by. or smooth Hnen cloth. Dan. taking it Sp. disease of sailors from tivus). kola. pith. a common cart. kalfi. the pi. Pol. Mrs B. kolyaska. . cauldron. hot . Sw. Caitiff. from the Chinese catty. cadenza. desire of land. of the nature of lime to calcine. A cuttle-fish. Sp. Sw. pi. from calendcE. to prate much to little purpose. the pith or soft part of wood. An open travelling chariot. dial. kage. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. of which. . from Gr. captive. safe. kakulla. principal and interest. coop. ' . coll. kukje. Du. Cajol. whence Lat. form) calderone. to treat like lime. Originally from a Slavonic source. roller.

but is only a jda-kallo. them &c. bombarda Cauma incendium. and dragon. to abuse . calcaich. however. sestus. B. Ptg. Turk. coluber also. klover. to rail or scold . calme. calicot. kahcwe.meaning of the word. callus. colubraria canna. the scalp or skull. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal.piicede Lat. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. to hear. Mahn derives it from Lat. to callet. CALM to press or stuff. NE. done with heat Alt. brawny. heat. Diet. chatter kallen. Derived by some from Arab. oldire from audire. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . a successor. calc. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. of a column. Calico. nautique). Fin. Bi. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. or languishing drought is . . sound. Dief. a soldier who the It. To Calk. a round of abuse. Ca. fistula. kol. Among these were the turn. the day. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). kal. prattle. seems to donrebusse vel be heat.position is much less common than the geschut. quality. try.' Winter's Tale. of the bore of a firearm met. and heat. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Diez. scold. i. harden by pressure. glotton. So It. to affirm. Calm. To drive tow or oakham. cauque. kind heat of the sun. and E. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. depreciatory term for a woman. caliver. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is .(jaa= ice). voice. or mould. piece of bigger circuite. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. cauma. to tread. a.. to proclaim. calca. people's remarks. overscalmaccio. to calk. KaXka. The reference to heat is preserved in. on. heat. coluber. vulgo Coluvrine. couleuvre. Kavfia. Fr. — — — — — . having a thick skin. calvus. to say. Gael. Fr. tittle-tattle. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. to call. calo. callum. saucy. It. whence couleuv. 125 Prov. which has its memory preserved in Du. Unfledged. Sup. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. longior. kallo. from Calicut in the E. u to an I in such a colubrum. E. form. coulevrine. gossiping.' Whitby Gl. can be distinct from ODu. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where.— . which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. AS. qAlab. — — — — — . donderbuchs Sp. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. calleting. diameter of a ball. dragoon. faint. to cram. Heb. caluw. Mil. ' rine. moso. Sp. Mid. — Fl. ' pert. scalmato. hallottaa. to prattle. trull. calk. a good calling. kal. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Indies. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. or caliever. the latter of chamber. Callow. calcare.en~ kinds of firearms. Sir John Smith in Grose. whereas in troth it is not. word of mouth . and sometimes a handgun. push violently. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Gr. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. calat of leude demeaning. Lang. kil-u-kal. calclover. Du. Sp. faint. calare. quiet. which is as much as to say. kael. To call. Kil. * Callet. given. serpentina. abto suppose that E. Caliph. cahna. tapulta. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. Fr. in which dangerous to place implicit faith.' Slange. chatter. Due. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. to call. drive. form in the kalib. licht stuk The change from a. a drab. caillette. alta voce ploro. hollaing. calibre. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. quA librd. skin hardened by labour. dragonder. the hard surface of the ground. dial. Lat. 'A callet of boundless tongue. To century was Squalibre. the heat of Now these Du. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. koluvre. water-tight. Ibid. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. an adder.' Chaucer. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. According to Jal (Gl. calma. calma. Kil. The word was also written cawme in OE. whehce it was first brought. culverin. a last. hot. to burn. overheated.Lat. to be of a good or bad quality. femme frivole et babillarde. the Fr. Call. Fr. Antiq. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). calor. cotton cloth. bald.from Ka'tm. sclopus. Sc. . kalla. the Fr.' But it is hard Du. a feathers. Hard. calgua. Lat. ululo Turk. calibre. serpens. harquebus or handgun. khalif. The origin is Gr. by many that the weapon Callous. ram. * Caliver. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Fin. colubrina. moist. sence of wind.

From fluting or furrow in a column . or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Pers. Fr. E. to break. Kakoycpos. samon.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. icaSoytipoe. Cambric. cAouma. chamold man. to bend. Caloyer. an eating.Gr. w. camisa. to bend. the spersed with white flakes like curd. cambrer. It.—Cambrel. the space of false imputation. a basket. a may have acquired that signification from plain. camp. cainahelus. ckaouma. salmon. white. cambr^. KafitjUe. or Caribs. sugar. camelus. is Candle. Campaign. properly good country. Lat. chandelle. co7nbar. crooked. the salmondis faillis thair loup. Camp. is Cambering. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. good. camahutus. open and level ground. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. canna.— Hackluyt in R. Lat. callour.' Forme of Cury in Way. Bret. Fr. aspirant. to glow. campren. It was distinfrom work. — Cancel. Sp. Cameo. the bed of a stream. crooked-stick. — — — A — — escume de saumon. canis. se cameloter. a. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. canalis. Cancer. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. kanna. Camlet. Fr. camber-nosed. ation. See Canker. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. monk. camelot. Palsgr. cup. E. to bow. a. when its substance appears inter. or hollow of a flower. frank and sincandidatus. Calyx. brought from Fr. also an eatmg sore. A — the Cannibals. mg Canister. bis.— Chandelier. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon.—Jam. lattice. to jut. Lat. at the ends. having an aquiline nose. Mid. nia. Camel. Canal Channel. a large drinking . to avoid enemy in their shirts. It. whence the noun signifying an applicant. fair. catmneo.— B. whence Fr. a caught. Fr. camiscia. The Grisons cauina. calutmiia. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. It. whence the Fr. Lat._ kamm. clothed in white. candela. died in 1526. Lat. Camisade. water chamlet . had no r in de bric— Cot. to warp. Properly calver in the field during a war. It. In a different application It. candidus. cancer. E. Gr. camisade. cere : Lat. would plenier. India Islands. a piece. higher in the middle than Fr. Fr. lie level. unwater chamelot . campagna. Cambrav—Cam. Fr. chaitcre. Canine. Cambray. a field Greek monk. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. From campus was formed Lat. field . camafeo. campagne. to the force of the wind. Fr. slander. campo. cam^e. champagne. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. a' Sc. Fr. Calumny. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. crook. B. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. across — Bellenden in Jam. a goblet bud. Gr. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. B. spot for cattle. Lat.—Candidate. cup. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. camaien. canistrum. ko/utuXoc. and yspiuv. An eater of human flesh. sore. crooked. camiscieia. Lat. campo. Ptg. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. crooked. Sp. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. toile some of whom. . Or the word Lat. arched.. Arab. the calix. Mod. campaign. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes.conduit-pipe. aged. different sections of the like the Chinese. — B. chommer. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. cancello. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Cot. Cann. campus. cambre.Lat. KafivTu. from candere. callar.' ' Quhen a lattice. It. Canker. Calver of cane. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. a crab. Sp. Cambrel. calj'x. hooked. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. the type of a hollow pipe. campagna. Candy. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. paign. Turk. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. . Sanson khanda. champ. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. — Lat.who their language. cambren. Peter Martyr. a dog. from xaXbg. lame. It. the heat. arch. on. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. arched. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Candid. Canibal. fresh.

Canon. edge. he discourseth of dissection. capace. A . Capable. KCLvva. canto. pipe. a cane. Mod. Goldast — in in Schmid. Fin. a cantle of bread. the part easiest broken off. It. coarse hempen cloth Fr. signifying cover. and hence a gobbet. kq. Gugel. If the word had been from cantherius. A slow gallop. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. chanteau. Jonson. It. a hunch of bread. carcase . canvas. as a cantle of bread. a small boat. a horn of the moon . ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. rumme. from canna. to contain. Canton. cane. can. a reed. or hold. and the sex- &c. kyndel. canteau. hemp. a boat. Capari. quarter . was formed Kavtiiv. part. See Chape. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. tain. Wtb. it would have been found in the continental languages. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. from . The word seems to be taken from Gael. capello Italis. OFr. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. a Fr. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Cantle. from Dan. measure for cloth. region. The meserseum and the mesentericum. Kil. Cope. cainnt. regular. Cannoii. Canteen. kantr. hemp. . cannevaccia. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. a ship canot. margo panis diffracta. From Lat. cope. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders.. . Canopy. To Canonise. cantle then is a corner of a thing. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. cane. canevas. like a torch or candle. a door . See Capt-. side. A piece of anything. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. ON. a corner. to con- rummer. from a Canter. Palsgr. also a measure. . a straight rod. Gael. cape. It. Germanis kdppen. to sing. gnat. and tref. cantone. root cap. kwvwxIi. shut. Canvas. territorial hundred. a pipe. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. to shut. It. covered. Cape. speech. Fr. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Fr. Prov. being a yard or thereabouts . canonicus. a cap. kynnel. to put upon sacred writers. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. a division of a country. a reed. Hence Lat. canon. cannevo. &c. canoa.CANNEL vessel. N. . as. hamlet. Esthon. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. is found languages of very different stocks.n. Capacious. from cant. a — A — Cannel Coal. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. the heel. a gelding. Alamannis. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. say. Canoe. able to receive. the quartile. has kahn.Gr. haitt. To his judicial And trowl the tile. cantred. cannabis. canton. Cot. trine. cheese. the heel. Lat. cannu. corner. a scull- — here. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. To canvas — . a cloak. Cant. astrology. But it may be different source. kapamak. Of vena cava and of vena porta. border.Gr. that the G. cappa. capevole. Probably only the augmentative of canto. leiwan kanta. border Dan. a hundred. It. clqse. Kavt\. cover kapi. B. Diez. cantref. schlapp. schlappen. Mod. or cantell of bread. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. the tried list of saints. kand. Du. a wine-cellar or vault. capa. a rule or standard of excellence. a ruler. a cloak kapali. Again we have Lat. properly a large Prov. a side. Schwab. cover . caparazon. chantel. It. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. Coal burning with bright flame. Sp. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. kanta. cane. which is not the case. hood. and met. kaput. The — . The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. coat.^on. Sp. a torch. From Gr. a tube. cappe. It. cantina. cannone. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. quarter. a drinking glass. KaTTiram. Sp. coarse hemp. quito curtain. lump. canapaccia. name. capax. call. canonici. Picard. cane. contain. a cover Turk. cappe. hirnschlapple. Fr. kandt-broodts. Swab. W. &c.— Cot. language. chape. canapa.

75. also the capriole. a caper in dancing. CAPRICE twittering.). w. a goat. I have shivered with love. belonging to From caput. of a fowl. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . upon terms Sp. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . Capital. Torriano. Fr. horror. caj)o. fansuddenly angry. It. Mod. It. The true derivation lies in a different direction. for which he cites the Comask nucia. hair. To treat Capitulate. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject.'— Trev. to twitter as birds. castrated cock. knis. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. frizzle. to parch. Hence capitalis the sum lent. birsle. shrub. Capillary. or goat's leap (done by a horse). h^risser. as Fr. Genevese bresoler. ticchio. a capriol. It. brisciare. castrated. a yearning through sudden fear. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. gives rise to brezza. and his body bristled We to castrate. the head. to ruffle the surface of water. greziller. It. Hal. Hair-like. Fr. a young kid met. a separate division of a matter. to fry. hi. then to shiver or shudder. toy. It.— Fl. to shiver. Lat. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. or Lat. capitalis. cApre. Arab. aggricciare. capriol or caper in dancing. to shudder. wriggle. Fr. curl. Lat. Capers. alcaparra. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. humorous. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. capitulare. as Fr. arricciarsi. cappriccio. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. then find the symptoms of shivering. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. heath. It. The same imitation of Capon. a kid. eruca compared with It. to from capitulum. of a tremtdoiis sound. with joy' Vikram. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. shivering. to broil. a buck. caprice. riccio. algabr. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. rissoler. prickly husk of chestnut. the hair to stand on end. the principal part of the debt. gives rise to Sc. sault. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. ericius. erica. curling. A headland. Fl. crackling sound Cape. capar. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. grillcr. grisser. the initial mute of forms like Gr. p. brisciare. bristling. brug.' — (Supp. then to be in a state of vibration. See Chief. curly. to crackle. Sp. And similarly to yearn.— 128 CAPE a rustling. cut off. frort^Lat. frissoner. kid. s'hdrisser. the head. rihrczzoso. It. they longed extremely to see it. caper j caprio. a . a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. Cot. cut. roughening of the skin. of a coach. to broil. abridge amKoTroq. frisser {frissement d'un trait. bristling. Fr. explained by Diez from capra. G^' Many words — ' ndv. knis-hujwud . capillus. <I>pi'?oe. and OHG. hedge-hog. where Burton adds in a note. A . cover of a saddle. and with an initial gr instead of br. brisoler. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. as in Lat. is either wholly lost. — — A a hair. horripilation. grisser. grug. a caterpillar. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. a ch illness. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. brissle. the singing'bone). or other things. to crackle. gricciare. as the means of earning profit. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. according to the Hindoos. and 7tucc. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner .standing on end. compared with Bret. II bresole (Gl. capparis. Caper. So from Sw. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. to . ^piKos. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. arricciarsi. capriola. end. gricciare. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. ziki. chief. — to yearne. as Fr. brezilia. frisson- ner . The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. Acad. a chevret. to shiver for cold. Lat. Caprice.impressions on the ear. capro. herissonnement. shivering. chattering of the teeth. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds.) grezille marid. principal. It. a hedge-hog. Unexpected pleasure.) d'etre The It. the hair to stand on end. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. It is probable that Gr. Lat. a little head.' Cot. brisciare. caprice It. Lang.Gr. ribrezzo. to desire earnestly. Griller d'im' patience. capriole. greziller. . airoKOTrrw. or. a head. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. bruco. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. or represented by the syllable e.

recevoir. strideo. Capuchin. 129 — receive. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E.or -cib-. of capsa. to carry . to take to. Capriole. Sp. -ceive. bock. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. a sudden will. Kiittner. Fin. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. di cappa. oisr. Cot. crepo. Nordfoss. Sp. conceit. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. &c. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. as in OFr. a fantastical humour. fancy. a taking back. was a kind of horse soldier. however. a head man. It. It.). carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. recepte. of the Sp. It. deception. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. the -cevofthe Fr. Derivatives are Fr. one odd. charret. conception. at least. The It. Caseneuve in Diet. trestle. to receive receptio. Cart. accept. concevoir.). karra. calabrin. a coffer. seize. Fr. OSp. calabrino. Thus the musket. Lat. recipio. verbs gives rise to the element . perceive. Du. concept. to load . also tresFl. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. Cot. cabrestante (whence e. and tropically. captivate. caThe hrestante. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. capuccio. a hood (dim. to this is It. conceive. In the S. Captain.s. capio. captus. and has thus descended unaltered to English. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. capp%tccio. was converted into -ceb. Fl. Neumann. contain. Fr. Passing on into E. an engine for throwing stones. to take. intercept. a creaking waggon. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. to creak. to accept. concipere. It. box. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. fantastic. decepte. de- price. Fr. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. Carry. crab s. deceit. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. tnoschetta. chirriar. and of captus to an e. from head. Du. It. It. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. carro. Capt-. desire. -cept. -cept. Carabine. cabestrantej Fr. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . carretta. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. a sudden fear apprehended. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. carabin. as the dragoons (Du. capsula. caput. a. was originally a missile . except. cams. Lat. &c. recibir. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. See Caper. Fr. — — Capstan. where it forms a very large class of compounds. a capuchin. to take baclc. Fr. receptus. whence capture. to creak. Lat. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. G. Crab. charrier. Fr. Etym. caricare. It is a standing crab. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. dim. or the (capo-riccio). Carabin. capra. charger. kerren.. sels. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. and has accordingly been lost in E. It. &c. karista. Capstern. precept. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. karren. — —Diet.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). a she-goat. a hooded friar. a reception. . dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon.. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. acceptus. also to carry on a car . a kind of torture. cabreia. latterly. capitis. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Carbine. commander. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. concebir. a windlass. Capsule. hold. as in accipio. Fr. caprice. a cart. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. capitano. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. krul. cabra.of these compound verbs. a. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. case. captive. i The meaning Car. a cloke) capuccino. chevre. a sawing-block or trestles. chirrion. karrende waegen. Castr. to please. recipere. also a kind of rack. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. cabestan. char. Lat. In cases. shivering fit (Altieri). where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull.

seed of carob. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. to card wool. carcanada. tcapKaai. a quiver . a thistle. I. Comp. It. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. Mod. cassa. cdrlag. of the same Caravan. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. ON. Lat. the carcase of a fowl. Pers. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. skeleton toise. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. karszti. From the battering-ram. carcasa. Cot. OHG. Sp. W. carate. to turn. a kind of ship. Gael. a thistle. boch. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a twist. avSpaS. krciti. a small weight. card. quilato. It. a wool card. constraining . to comb wool . ' Vasa vitrea. KtpaTwv. Caraool. carbh. mural attack. an ulcer. Fr. a he-goat. cardo. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . silique. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a quiver . a goat. curry-comb. a lock of wool . — seems to be something holding together. caracal. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. to curry horses karsztuwas. bend. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. Sp. carquan. a skeleton. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. a snail. casso.Gr. to comb. Carat. a quiver. fire . Fr. caravela. carquois. wine- bottle. for a gun. quse vocant karabd. AS. case. . cabreia. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . It. a case or chest . carduus. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. Carrob. cramp. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. matter. military engines made for hurling stones. the carob bean. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . bock and Fr. kirat. the name might naturally Mod. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. carabe. word is only an adoption of the Turk. contract. &c. Fr. Lith. to creak. Ptg. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. a prison. a machine for casting large darts. alia sunt majora. also a small weight. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. cerran. Cot. carcanet. The radical meaning . a dead carcase. Sp. . kerwan. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. Carbonaceous. decanter. Exot. coming to four grains. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. chevre by the name of the goat. &c. carbo. is the chine. skeleton. carabba. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. the trunk or chest of the body .' From the same source are SicU. carquasse. an engine for hurling stones. Gr. a battering-ram). karra. skeleton. eit. the husk or cod of beans. Sp. a gem resembling a live coal. Gael. of carbo). The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. the core of fruit .. Gael. carta. confining. a collar or chain for the neck. eitar.charcoal . Card. Cat. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. restraint . car. is the word used in modern Lat.applied to a battering-ram (G. . Lat. black dye. ancient springald. «capa'|8i. burning coal. Carbuncle. carcaij. or framework. carbunculus (dim. It. the . copperas. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. the shell of a torcarcasso. karri. a winding staircase. carmiiiarc. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Parmesan cassiron. shell.. designated in the case of G. carere. Derived in the first edition from Mod. a firelock. Sp.— — — . in the same way that the Sp. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. poison eiz. a ripple for flax. Venet. ..Gr. Carcase. to card wool. a coffer. a quiver. Bohem. the dead body of any creature. Carcax.. It. turning. See Carpenter. Carboy. winding carach. also (as Gr. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata.. vitriol. Fr. cabra. a ship. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. carcame. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a crane. properly a siege machine. to draw in. cabrita. espi7igarda. caraffa. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. The Trjg xeXwwac. kard boyd. &c.z. the case of the flesh. p. to ripple flax. turn of a horse. winding. Gael. . and catapulta. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. Gr. wool card. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Caravel. a card or comb . teasel for dressing woollen cloth. carch. to hiss (as gee^e). garafa. Arab. An implement for dressing wool. caraffe.

stingy. charie. strideo. the old theory of humours. cura intenta. OHG. carrefourg. Bret. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. quadrifurcum from quameet. carminare. carnalis. chartre. voce strepo stridente. the load of a ship. winding. A place where four roads Mid. croller. karg. stridere. the flesh of animals . to love.— Charter. Properly. Carnage. and murhet. to load. asper. charnel. Fl. or street. like connection may be seen between Fin. morosus sum. kurista. . combing them out like the knots in wool. from caricare.. w. Farewell flesh. cearig. . from the keel to the water . — — — Caress. 1S66. the several meanings of the words above Rom. a deed. to card wool. It. one of those ac- 9 * . to comb wool. to distress growl.' Slceat. fleshy . — — — : Cardinal. graller. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. or grumbling —Due. to scratch. dear. carezza. astutus. Champ. Coll. AS. intrasset caro. is This however Shrove tide. karout. A quirito ut infans. essere in carena. to fry. niggardly . A medical term from line —Boerio. — — Diez. x'»P'"^s)) paper. Lat. quaver a lazar's clack. ON. kroU-erbser. Cark. cargo. Translated in MS. cearian. Dan. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Sept. kummer. kumra. Sp. It. a turn. murista. murren. immediately before the long fast of Lent. de Parthenay. AS. Chart. the hull of a ship. meet at a head.Lat. carFrom carrus. Bois crolant d'un ladre. W. to take Goth. sorrow. ress. G. morosus. Probably the origin of the word is the . caritia. It. Carenare. — Carfax. . Mur. Cartel. compared with Fin. &c. ceorl. as carminare. 273. a card. also a career on horseback. E. from Lat. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. that on wliich the matter hinges. karrig. clown or churl. Bret. to comb flax or hemp. parched or carled. to scrape . charta (Gr. scharren. caMid. carriera. Properly a car-road. bottom. care on. grief. Fr. record. regar. . Fr. . principal. in St Jerome. love. Fr. sensual. piger. W. solicitous. act of moaning. Peas steeped and fried. carina. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. to clean the bottom of the ship. . tremble.. to rumble. Caricature. kara. rixosus. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. and G. beans. carnavale. to load. at murmuring. see Garble. Fr. the time during which to Rom. gakaran. Cargo. an overloaded representation of anything. to shake. Carled peas. mutter. caru. carriire. — — . tenax. and thin. cardinis. From. to fry or broil. Groler. in N. and sum. kribina. grolU. Carminative. soUicitus OSax. Care. 2. carch. cargar. carener. place for exercise on horseback. Carl. zanken . affection. carena. sorrow. giierlir. is to say. AS. ON. charger. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. Fin. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. the keel. road. to whirr (schnurren). CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. For the root of carminare. Carlings. — To Careen. be anxious. Fr. & Q. charnage. from carrus. karl. crowl. moeThe Lat. caricatura. car. It. No ' place there had. carnal. charneux. W. It. Ptg. tuorfurcm (Burguy). Charnel. Trin. to growl. ignarus. care. caricare. Gael. male person. murahtaa. carnasciale. wool cards. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Cath. OFr. charag. careless take care of. Cot. Card. to lie on its side. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. carnis. carian. Fr. Venet. charg. camovale.Lat. It. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. to parch. to eat flesh. Sp. . caresse. fundamental. A mod-carag. Fr. a hinge. carena. cardo. in Carp. carcus. Fin. 8. to load. four. crawl. weyes. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. cdrle. msstus. carcare. G. karista. It. karry. kargr. that Fl. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. p. quarreG. a highway. an endearment. cura may be ror. as peas. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. sgritudo animi. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Carnal. what is felt as grievous. and compare Bret. Fr. the keel of a vessel. whence carricare. from carus. Roquef. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. Cot. Cot. crosier.— CARD karr-kambar. surrata. a man. appertaining to the flesh. . to care unkarja. karantez. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. Lat. hoed.

krapati. tattle. a wheelwright. and Carnem laxare (It. of Guiana. zimmerspan.D. pluck. cardos.' Raleigh. 2. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. to find fault with. krapanj. carnelascid). a plank. quoted by Carpentier. chatter. charpie. Nomin. Carpenter. A. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. I quaught. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin.' Ordo Eccles. differing To Carp. a car carpentarius. charpentier. i. . applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. koroll. a drinking cup. The karole of the stones behelde. tymmer.Lat. . or a carouse fully drunk up. vel coopertorio carebit. carpia. Carpitam habeat in lecto. So gone they forthe. 216. cited by Marsh. qui sacco. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. pluck at. Sup. e. Lat. Fr.Lat. as the Lat. carpetam (a quilt?). 760. The custom. Pref. to pluck. ship. skraf. worker in timber Fr. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. was formed Mid. is erroneous. querole. ' ' — . on that. carpenter only in the latter sense. carpetrix. 2. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. cxciv. or loose as a couch without further preparation.Lat.Why give's some wine then. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Sp. to dance. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. In Dominica d'autant. whence the form carnasciale. a wheelwright. biheld without. culcitra. balade from It. to rustle. fabulor. carduz. and F. chariot carbad. in Nat. Carpyn or talkyn. chirp. 1 1 30. garrulo. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. garrire. a carder. The tippling sots. Carnevale. as carnaval from carnelevamen. Pm. as E. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Other names of the sea. From Lat. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Biheld within. chatter skra/a. carpere. carpenticre. to chatter coroli. in Carp. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Gael. ballare. Bohem. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. maker of waggons It. The ' ' a chariot. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. carpenta. a song accompanying a dance then. Mid. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. I drink all out. Shrove Tuesday. Lat.: . Bret.]e bois Carnelevale. gar aus / all out is correct. Chanson de carole. carpende fast Carol. carpentum.gonnella. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. Gower in Way.' says Motley (United Neth. Fr. Palsgr. carpita. as Fr.— R. lint.— Neum. ! Carouse. to pull asunder. course. all aus).— Patriarchi. — . litter. Dief.— Drant in R. to gather. Discov. in Due. The word seems of Celtic origin. carbh. In a MS. On this. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. To pledge them thou refuse. Teut. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. to reel. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. carpat (Stokes). a dance. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. Alluz (G. i. sense. Carole. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. . On the other hand bumper to one's health. zimmer. Pr. to dance. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. Properly a round dance. Carnelevale. Carpet. act of drinking a full Eq. ON. linteamen. Here's to you still my captains friend. peta. yede tham about. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. CarTo quaff carouse do use.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim.' Reg. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Olr. Mediol. Templariorum — ' — Due. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. W. carpo. Ant. to talk. Analogous R. used for stuffing mattresses. gonna. Beggars Bush.'— Stat. bier. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. 94). properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Mid. Lat. All out B. Cot. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G.

Preparatory drawing of a It.. break to pieces. as we . Carriage. a hut. cartouche. turn out of service. caisse. to hold.' — Hdcart. ceorfan. quash. It. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Walach. Rouchi carone. The carrying of anything. cancel. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. tion from Sp. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. carretto. helmet. a chance or accident. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. crown of a hat. To Carry. casag. a car. from It. from the sound it makes when Alban. void cassare. See Card. empty. shell or carcase of a house. Fr. to slay. G. Sp. and matar. case-maiej Sp. cassa.— Fl. crush. Fr. a merchant's cash or counter. charrette. Lat. carroc- carrozza . The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. des rideaux A'carp^ie. slaughter-house. augmentatives of carro. hull of a ship. augm. Cask. It. AS. As defence from shells became more important. dim.' Cot. to shear. Rouchi carpHe. to dash. cascade. It. kerben. made void. ' Casa-matta. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. abrogate. charrier. Fr. something that actually occurs. to — — also casse. cascare. Casual. kirpti. mata. kerven. a paper case. Fl. Lat. corresponding to the G. It. casus. — Cartridge. Fr. To quash an indictment. discharge It. also the carriage. from It. Probably. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. to break. mord-keller. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. caroche. cassette. caro. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Flor. — Cartoose. capsa (Diez). carroccio. casa-maita. an augmentative from Lat. Cot. mord-grube. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. cut with scissors. carretta. the money chest. Casuist. Cartoon. blotted out. carriaggio. coffer. where Fr. It.' Fl. casualis. cancelled. fortuitous. Case. Du. See Case. cartone. an act of falling. to convey in a cart. Lat. It. Rouchi carter. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. Case. cascata. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Du. a of water. pasteboard. to bear or carry. the charge of — — Fr. charogne. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. gristle. — — . AS. a coffer or small case for jewels. Cart. Ready money. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. kerpu. casuelj Fr. — — nul the proceeding. carogna. Fr. hollow. a fall. Fr. casser. To duash. from casa. It. Fr. and that apparently from capio. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. cascar. to fall. case. cartoccio. paper. Sp. vault hole in a fortified wall. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. bag and baggage of a camp. casco signifies a skull. Fl. annul. discharge. caroach. caxa. fall It. casacca. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Cassock. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. cartella. The Sp. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Rouchi caroche. Case-mate. to an- — Kil. of carta. Fr. one who reasons on cases put. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. a canonry or slaughterhouse. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. afterwards any written challenge. ignominiously exposed. krat. like all the names of tendon. Hence casket. Lat. house. casaque. a loopscale the wall. caisse. a chest. Casket. of carro. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. not reaching to the height of the ditch. packing ' cloth. Lith. It. subject for a picture. bitten. hung up in some place and to be removed. To Carve. carota. long man's gown with a close body. caisse. cassus.to annul. properly to convey in a car. to cut or carve . casso. Casque. casitiste. from Lat. CartOTicli. luggage.' Bailey. Carrot. a long coat. OE. Cartel. Fr. Fr. to notch. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. Cascade. coffin of paper for groceries. cassere. To Cashier. cassa. a car. Gael. It. carreaggio. carrosse. See Gristle. — FI. cartilage. cia. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Carrion. for the security of the defenders. quasser. kasseren. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. gristle. to crack. and the OE. Cash. casa. Fr. to fire on the enemy. Cot. card. cashiered. Fr.

to look at. however. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. Lat. So also from It. cast. by the loss of with several pitched cords. shaft of a 1 push. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. first made ordinary Fr. race. a Cataract. cat. fer toTa. speak of dashing a thing down. Castle. under chi caleur. Fr. lance. the ground . . a fortified place. follow after. V Lith. sue. accastiare. and from the castus. chaleur. Others explain it from Kara. Fr. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. Fr. being Fin. Roukind. cassa / cry for the same purpose. In the dialect of Picardy. castellum. a vault. coming to us through different dialects of French. KarapaKrr]g.'— Pr. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. V. perhaps from which we have E. image accasciare. It. in the fire. force j Rouchi equerviche. kotas. to break. chasuble. cash. cacciare fuora. _G. heat . chasser. Hal. to bring to an crack given by the joints. dashing it out of the window. Pic. To It. of sarabands does Gr. . Cot. or comba. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. to scourge. crush . Fr. and KviilSog. B. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Hence castaneta. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. bot-kotis. Cat. casulla. catar. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. down. casule. Yz. or bruise together. Chase. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. Gr. a garment for performing the mass in. 134 CAST Catacomb. an enumerlist. Etym.. execu. Fr. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. 'Vaaaw. 120. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Sp. Fr. Pol. stilts. Thus we have Caste. castro. kaJoivad. chasser. a cat . This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. a thump. cascar. Fr. . kic' kicil are used chasser. to turn overturn. kissa. Brunne. ' Catchyn away abigo. to clack. Lang. to hurl See Awgrim. while kiss / Pol. It.Rouchi Scaches. KaraXoyog. from water Karappaaaiii.to drive out. probably from an imita. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. casupola. the earlier sense of catch. a little house or hut. Sp. kottr. kat. to Fl. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . ecrevisse. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. the stalk of plants. away. punch. koshka. Mid. drive away. klakka. Lat. castello. to end. to drive away. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched.Lat. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. chat..the / or c respectively. n. kotas. cacciarc. like that of It. rack. name. to close. dim. and tomba. to lash. was introduced. cacciuolo. R. squash. mino. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. Isidore — in Diez. dashing it to pieces. to torture. Castanets. is not satisfactory. It. Gael. Pm.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. from the first of Castrate. casser. The Diet. to crack. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. or Rouchi cat. The E. kakka. ating. kasta. second chase. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . katze. represented by the syllable quash. casipola. cojz^/a. to cast or beat to tioner . KaTaarpifm. kasi. OFr. . fall. a cat koshki. Cast. torture. castanetazo. Gr. which has been retained in E. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. the castanets for or implement .out cacciare . squash. burst cascare. on. which. to dash. catch. down. to drive Cat o' nine tails. handle of an axe. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. . Catalogue. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. cat-o'-nine. Fr. ON. signifying breed. castana. puss / for calling them. ichasses. To Catch. — We a cavity. same word with break. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. to is Essentially the Sp. to make clean or chaste.— Fl. tails. &c. a chesnut . to crackle. KaTappaKTrjQ. arpi^m. a whip on the other into latch. dash. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. to hunt. to fall as over a precipice. Catastrophe. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. puras E. Fr. of castrum (castra).

resound. flap klatsche.. ictus resonans. dainty vic- a form lash. called in Fr. predicament. OFr. happe-chair. Ptg. Swiss Lombard G. KaTtix'so. 'Horxa. Tutschek. clap. to snap. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Kartiyopta (/cari. . chase. catc?u. head. to crack GATES cache. ecachoire. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. children's name for cat . latch of. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Grandg.j. Cot. an officer of taxes. apprehend a person. Fr. from Gr. — tinman. to catch strength. ' Fr. chassoire. millecaterpillars. worm. the distance to which the ball is struck.V. * Caterpillar. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . icarrix'Ki^. E. to the crack. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. catch. — with a whip. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. snatching it with a any one. wild-beast. ' ' word catch.yopl(. the OE. is said that he got a claucht of it. compare G. called dog or Galla catchamza. clap with the hand. pedes. claquer. Du. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Guernsey chafer. Chate peleuse. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. from shutting with a click. and answer. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Gael. caker. klatsch. . P. — Catcli-poll. a whip Rouchi cachoire. chink. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. to snatch (said of dogs). companaige.' ^Jam. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. clatter. e. Guernsey pilleure. chenille {canicula. bicho. weevils. gattola. with and without an / after the c. catch-flesh. a whip or Kuttner. a smack. seize. to A bailiff.) . obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. Claucht. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. E. devouring mite or weevil. klatscherei. klatschen. bichano (pussy). glcu. In the XV'e. Wal. a pill. a little dog). dainties. Sp. — explained. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. snatching. instruction in forms. de Bray. chachara. Kil. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. Cates. chacepol. G. a cornIn the s.from Bard and ayopsw. to kythe D. whip. the elements of a science. cat is not apparent. to harangue. — Kiittner. a clap. . Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. . a — gatta. kletsen. chatter . with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. verberare kUts. insect. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Gael. — B. klinke. e. ketsoore. Diez. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. an accusing. On Catechism.s. cache. a whip. a carter's Pat. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . . a. sound. Fr. the the same principle he was Fr. fragor kletsoore. blow. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. Rouchi clincailleux. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. E. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. to chatter with the teeth cake. Fr. caucht. as of the latch of a As ! — . 'Bxn. catch. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . which all . speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. chasse. kletse. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound.P. Gr. — . chatter. a. Kil. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. gliong. smack. to take. c or ^. cagnon (a dog). to chat. Du. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. kaetse. has both or of charming by sound. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. a caterpillar Milanese can.' CATCH Fr. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. snatched. woodlice. 135 — Aasen. Cot. Du. to teach by oral instruction. in order). Sc. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). or any kind of relishing food tuals. formerly called cliket. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. ArbaUte de courte chasse. quincailler. latch. Metivier. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. * Cates.V. gingle. to clap hands. i. Caterer. GaUa catchiza. silkworm. klatsche and Norm. a whip. s. resono ictu lash. door when it is shut.

catkin mitz. fur in general. a receptacle for small things. cautis. Wyatt in R. chair. Lat. cale. Lat. a kind of skull-cap. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. kautsije. cavus. Catkin. Fin. Cattle. chaussJe. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. chauderon. KaPaWrii. Cathartic. Caustic. to buy. catkin Magy. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. . specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. from KaSaipio. to ac- — Fr. Jonson in R. mutz.. w. kocianki. to sound like a blow . G. also to pave . katte. . make clean. It. Boethius. deyntie meates. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. Causeway. — Cauterise. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. lamb. quire. accapitare Rouchi acater. a mare. Palsgr. and hence a skull-cap. Russ. Cavern. kin. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Delycates. reticella. Gael. A warm comforting drink. Diez). adcaptare. &c. Fr. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. .willow. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. 4.—— — 136 correct. 2. Du. Fr. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. a road calceata. kaussijde. the. dumpf tonen.p. calceta. what . Pr. Mid.Lat. Fr. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. chevalier. Fr. Kavrijp. Gr. kocie. apt to burn iron. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. cauHs. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. accattare. Cavalcade. Dryden in R rete. kdtzchen. Pol.' Elyot in Way. calotte. Provider. . hot. net or caul-work. chaudroii. The word — . achepter. puss. . Lat. minon. to burn. klopfend knallen. caple. catkins . Sx. is Prologue. and at the rich man's cost By sea. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. to beware. from caveo (p. shaled or picked Fr. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. katteken. calqada. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. CATHARTIC sense. challe was ther of a temple. caudex . — . kitten kotki. kopista. hot. Cathedral. Du. Fr. cat maczoka. a branding from koiio.Lat. .' B. to shale or peel. macska. to shoe .^ acheter (Lat. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. a The peel. from chaud. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. little cat. Rete. Thus Bav. Fr. Gr. kassije. and spareth for no perell. catons. hollow. a horse . catnever sells — — Cauliflower. whence cathedralis. Lat. Kavrfipiov. Port. KiwariKog. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. from delf^gato. Chaud. ce^l. a paved road. cavaliere. Caution. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . mudet. Lat. On the other hand. It. Cave. It. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Manciple's Tale. Cavalry. Kil. any Fl. flue. Richly she feeds. puss. Palsgr. OE. CAVE Caul. It. cabbage. chatideau. a seat. a pavement. Fr. It. walnut with the husk on challer.. cheval. calceata.^Hal. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. the caul of the liver. the stones of a street. Caballus. chausser. Gr. . a kettle for heating water. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Cauldron. acater. fur. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Lat. Jaubert. Fr. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying].Y\\Xea. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. cautus). acaptar. little cap is . a stalk. causa. flock. choufleur {choii. ' Gr. kobuiV. caballus. cabbage). Fr. primitive is meaning a shale or off. otherwise written kell. cabbage-stalk. That he was ay before in his estate. Cause. Bessie of Bednall. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. hazel. Mid. by land. calidus. catkin Pol. to purge. Cavalier. via strata. to shoe. cale. puss. kopano. Ka^afriKOQ. chaudiire. Fr. • — — See Chattel. Caudle. is used in the sense of cat-skin. capull. B. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. rete A — Prov. a horse . — — cavallo. a horseman. koparet. despencier. having the property of cleansing. Cavity. green husk of a calon. KaHSpa. cal^ar. kobyla. but the acates that are sent him. a horse. caldo. a pulpit.

yield.' — Gawan . — komo tain). 7. dil. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. as. See -cede. and then to gape. wuoren komo. Cam. Sir 137 pit . as if from happen. little house. . to seele or close with boards plancher. caveqon. ceiling. H. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. plank. -ceed. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day.. to argue capto tiously. succeed. CAVESON kopera or kowera.' Rutland papers. Cede. augm. . kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. komista. Wore. Ceiling. a log. lambris. cabega. or of a bed. a canopy. del into English without ' translation gave cele. Boyd in Jam.' Ordinances and Reg. Fr. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. . hollow. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. cellar. step away. canopied. beam. a log. B. syl. cedo. crooked kopio. cavezzone. Sp. a beam. coffer. to cut. — . The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. exceed. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. thiling. kommata. to plank ON. lambrisser une chambre seeling. Lat. a hut. . 43. dille. cesso. thelu. tester of a bed. hollow ice . p. It. deal. a log. is applied to a canopy. sill. . departure from this life. — . selar. . to canopy siled. proceed. the roof of a coach. decessus. in Hal. cabegon. in Jam. cease. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting.' Marriage of James IV. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. 32. give place. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. seele. cyling (W. a planking or boarding tkilian. thil. a fir-plank. dScis. semely on syll. sill in window-sill. to go forth. . a halter. The sense of roofing. to panel or wainscot MHG. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. And seik — Cessation. The importation of Fr. Lat. IV. quibble. kapp-zaum.' del. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. curved. Hal. the deck of a ship at thilja. . but hang around at the sides. -cess. A — A false accommodation produced G. empty. a boarded floor. also a seeling of boards. Cavil. the inner roof of a room of state. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. an aquiline nose. pp. and that from Sp. &c. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. applied to a canopy. of E . bridle. ceiling. heaven. hivtmel. a board. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. So from Fin. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. wainscot thiljar (in pi. rafter. were met. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. — — — toyour soverane. Cot. selure. to plank or floor with planks. a canopy. 5. Gawaine & Sir Gol. post. koppeli. -cede. Hence concede. Fr. ciel de lit. in Jam. The line of descent from Fr. &c. of cavezza. ciel is so unbroken. flooring E. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. thel. with their substantives concession. Fr. and zaum. dayntily diglit. death. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . plank. a severe bridle. . hung. syle. heaven. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling..). nailes will begin to cling. E. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. thilja. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. &c. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. wall. cessum. board .' Hall. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. sus-lambris. departure. Plancher. -cease. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. —Decease. excess. Soc. hollow. a plank. . Lat. and Gol. Lat. cielo. cavillor. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. jaa.'— Z. sybire.).j have come from this source. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. menuiserie. door-sill J Sc. . that. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. . To seele a room. &c. Fr. thil. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. VIII. In the N. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. . sky. the testern of a bed. a head. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. p.' Cot. In the same way G. komo. recede. Cease. thili. column E. Sherwood. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. The It. a cavern in a mountain {wuora.

Gr. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. empty. Lat. — . zens according to their property. cerealis. Lat. Celerity. eyelid. Chafe. cigliare. — . celeber certus. -oept. Centurion. Fr. Sherwood. to bury). quarters for slaves. to heat. To chafe is for wine. -cipio. sacred show. to incense. sting. It. cot. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. -civer {conciver— Roquef. abundance. is the opposite of disora virum. Incensum. -cebre ifoncebre. Lat. ciller. Gr. Century. incense. cencer. what to set in a chafe. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Assess. eschattffer. Celebrity. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. Fr. -ciper. observe. judge Lat. -cern. to prick. -ceive. a shaft horse. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Lat. Cot. rubble. centum.j 138 thill. censura. and thence censer. judge.). renown be embodied with. the officer appointed to take such returns . caber. to set on fire. to rub for the purpose a hut. chauffer. criticism. a numerous con. /ctj/rsw. solemn (of per. Coehim. riscaldarsi. the place where the de. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. conceipt. in accordance with the Fr. — . assess. a religious observance. -cevoir. cretum. encens. age. to glow. See Celibacy. or expression of Ennius. Censor.' Book of St Albans. It. the talk of men. for building. pick out. contend. to twinkle darkness. cceremonia. (and thence also) to hoodwink. cilibat. Fr. irot\oe. OFr. and thence to conceal. a storehouse Chafe. to rate. Lat. Certain. confounded ist from It. sift. -cense. candeo. hollow. family. calefacere. Fr. estimate. See Cede. but was gradually lost in conceit. decide. stones to the production of heat. {cori)cipere. and — — — possessions.— Cellar.cern. become heated with anger. concerner. to warm. blind. to celebrate. Cot. cillier.. -i^oivre. a solemnity. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. to be regarded as one celebro. of heating. -CEIVE a shaft. camentum. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Lat. Centre. — — Cenotapli.). KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. then to rub without reference Cement. we have a modified form of (of a place). thence belonging to or connected with corn. a hundred of what- — . a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. Lat. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. In Celebrate.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. to blindfold. from Saa-rw. capturn. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. sile. to burn incendo. capio. goad. Lat. 1. The term cilium. with the eyes. or any bird's. K^'ivut. — . to sleep).— Chafing-dish. with transposition hence (of a day). tax. Fr. Accelerate. guish. cenio. KsvTpov. keep in It. census. Lat. Sc. dchauffer. heaven. sure. Censer. a Cemetery. . a prick. Fr. a solemnity. an eyelash. mortar. as entering largely into the derivative certo. and put it through the over eyelydde. Gr.ing a room where there is not fire. Lat. as in some places burnt. judge. census. ceremonia. siller les yeux. thronged the participle cretus.. ' . Ta^oe. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. To seel or close the eyes. and so of that other. concernor. parted sleep. to separate. to sepap rate. syll. ciglio. cella. -cepere. the hollow the Lat. to seal a pigeon's eye. a valuation of every man's estate. Cij(fe5j. make angry. to take. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. festive. a hundred centuria. to concern. deceipt. a tomb. in Marsh. to contend. — . concetto. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. -cess. and met. rough from the quarry. Fr. Prov.of the r. Assize. deceit.unmarried. Gr. Fr. For sess from assess. to visit in numbers. the point round which a circle is drawn. a registration of one's self. in comp. chaufferette. tax. oil. &c. Lat.' Celebritas. point. to distinguish. Cell. single or unwedded life. Ceremony. celer. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. materials It. Lat. Cereal. also grave opinion. crevi. being taken from Fr. S. to attend on object with. receipt. Fl. Lat. see. Cess. &c. his office. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. from censeo. decebre) . and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. oil. distinIt. much frequented. value. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. Take the nedyll and threde. to -sum. — . -cepire. to take. -ceit. calefare. — A . -ceptjun. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. in comp. to course of people. . to think. to chafe. Censure. swift. to seele or sew up the eyelids . To Incense. Census Censor. appertain.

thick and short. chatter. to sit. de Brai. kiaftr. leviter crepo Then. difficulty . in a cana. far lima-lima. G. Due. chafeter. — — ' — — — A . p. taubes korn oder hafer. 11. fa sagramen de calompnia. to babble. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Du. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Bav. cam. grief. muzzle. G. Prov. ple^. any insect of the beetle kind. kahista. Fr. Halma. Bouffard. limare. signal by drum or P. a prattling woaction. crooked. sagri. care. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Gr. idle words. chamar. and signifies to consume with anger. quisquilise offence. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender).. baras of ants. De Ir4. ing rapidly repeated cries. kuhina. care. cadera. kuhista. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. matter by combat.— — . Chair. chawe. a chough.. Chalice. much blowing. Fr.sure carriage. Chayire. avena vilior. to institute anforensic action. kdfelen. to gnaw. — — — — — — . swelling with anger. a goba rustling . from of the G. sborfare. cauvette. to a seat. a jackdaw. Fr. fume. kedja. to chatter or talk lightly. P. Hal. chaulx. Wall. calice. kever. to call. as. a double operation * Chafer. kdfer. Lat. khah. kiamta. puff. E. snort. haggle. ceaf. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. that leneth e per I'autra. chambre. Kuttn. in a monstrous fume. Lat. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. a rustling noise. tronfio. fern-chafer. lime. call in question for an ley). clamare. to pant. false accusation. hiss. ckapfare. havOFr. ^Altieri. to action arose. chayire. calumnia. kaff. great chafe. as a carriage is a moveable seat. Fr. a chain. calonjar. Lat. with a:n arched roof.nium. OFr. Fr. Chain. Du. Lat. chaps Chamber. Fr. to bark. to caw chawer. Camera. to dispute. now a chair. to Latin calumniare. kuhuja. ON. puffed or ruffled with ly. refuse barley . as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. a vault or arched roof. on. catena. Chagrin. Pat. The jaw chafty. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. To buy and sell. talkative. and as this was the beginning of man. chagrin. ceafer. keffen. calix. cadena gives chain. Fr. Fin. chicane. cathedra. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. . chaise. jaw. or puff with snorting. cadena. charge with. to move the jaws. cadieira. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. From Port. Cot. Adelung. to calumpnjamen. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. In like manto huff. From the To Chaff. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. . chaine. bargain. hght Chalk. to puff and blow. . Cheffern. calx. lime . Fr. Cot. tattle. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry .' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. sagrindse. chaire. to tattle. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. (ca'e'ra) to chair. rustling motion challenge. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. often puffing. a pulpit. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. chalanger. dispute. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. ing a hard case to their wings. gewolb. to file. shaIt. rustling corn. Lat. camera. to buzz. yap. vis. place See Cheek. kaff. cathedra. . Fl. — — — . to gnaw. kuhata. green sagrin. tattle cheep. kauchen. snuff. Ayenbite. Pers. So from dominio. of. kahu. From to go to law. Prov. — — — . vel susurro. dongio. kiqfta. to ner It. Came. Probably from According to Diez. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. In vulgar language. also to prattle. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. — . Pr. . have a mind to parley. B. without chap/are makiinde. keuchen. much more Genoese sagrind. kahuja. to claim. grief. KoBiSpa. refuse. Perhaps Pm. rustle Challenge. Fr. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. contestation. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. rally one. Gr. 35. preise. songe. Piedm. chaene.' Rayn. Fr. hordeum vel let. chafing. Lat. a pulpit Cot. from the shark-skin. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. calonja. from Swiss kafeln. chaffare. &c. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. Prov. breathe hard. cup. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Lat. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. to fret inwardtronfo. Kaiiapa.

ing. wood. from chaud. Du. broil. To Chamfer. a field of battle. . a hook . Dief. schmatzen s. campus partitus . contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Fr. chance. a court of justice. Fr. or player at football. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. kampeln. athlete. to hollow out. to quarrel (comp. pedilusor. cample). Prov. hamper. s. kempen. The word is preserved in E. to hang. Sp. champ. champ. Ptg. — masterly Sp. To hollow out in chanPtg. cancelli. to groove bevel off a right angle. to wrestle. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. e. certare. chamfrain. is explained by serrarsi. kiinp. calidameya. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. When the to quarrel. Lat. the chafldn. The E. . Sp. fray. received the petitions of the suitors. to tread The sound heavily. dricka i kapp. champ parti. chaude mesUe.Lat. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. move the jaws. To cope or contend with. Chance-n3. Lat. to wrestle. — ^Tusser. to cample. camp.edley. Champion. Partnership. chajnbellan . to strive at games .140 CHAMBERLAIN . cahir. to be eminent. See Camp. The happening of things Chance. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. contention kappi. zs jeopardy. pinch. kabinti. kampen. to talk. kippo. cameratus. dial. game campio. to — — champ. G. tsamtsogni. to slope out the . kappd). to excel. a game at football. dispute Hal. chanfrein. to chew. to flute as a column. kimpUma. Chancel. champ. The G. a scufSe. chanfrein. Sup. termediaries between them and the judge. Commonly derived from campus. to fasten on. M. surpassing. kampa. hng. . jeu parti. E. ciambellano. Champarty. camp. ON. kampeln. fight. Chamfron. a horse-race. ON. to stick to. . bickering. Fr. kablys. Meleare. camp. from cheoir. — KiL . hot. kimppu (Lap. prize-fighter. i. boys speak of capping verses. reusement — fight in single combat. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. giving rise to the as. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. to smack the lips in eating. Fr. chain. slope of a bevelled angle. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. Gall. or less ignorant.' SherI'altro ' ' . at the railings. gewolbt. combat. Chancery. kimbu. chdance. to Hal. a jaw kianisa. escazenza. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. Carpentier. kriimmen gebogen. contest. Get campers a ball To camf . champ. Lat. as swine. an athlete. to paw the ground E. jocus partitus.—Charfron E. a warrior. chanfrar. to debate. to fasten oneself on to another . Pm. head armour. sukibti. cadere. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . camerlengo. compound. to hold . tsammogni. Fr. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages.—Tutschek. accident. a hollow chanfreiner. contend or argue G. . The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. to bevel. campus. kabintis. from Fr. luctare. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. accidere. dial. mesleiare. difficulty .be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. chance. to . hero Sw. kiammi. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. kempa. to slope. keiiipe. cazer. dial. . kanip. kimpustella. act of falling. to to chew champ. Lith. to fall). CHANCEL It. Campar. as in It. therewithal.' melleia. rare. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . fight. Champaign. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. E. nels. ciamberlano. It will. divided game. ON. Chancellor. excellent. to fall.' ' Pr. top of a borehole. kabe. champion Du. Fin. a feat. Prov. . to move the jaws kiamt. zampettare. dial. Magy. — Hal. —Chamfrain. Lat. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. cempa. caer. campar. kibti. kabMe. — Ch-amberlain. campear. gekrUmmt. to happen {ad and cadere. kinipen. bundle. dial. Champ. and acted as inofficers of . which seems another form of the root. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . to fasten oneself to another . chamble. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). kapp. chanfreindre. a bundle. So in e. and mesUe. calida et sans aguet. who stood ad cancellos. fighting place. Hence (with the nasal) w. . Fr.

and the modern canal. the clappers of the scupper holes. canalis. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. skipta. See Chop. exchange schimbatoriu. gab. cheek. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. . jaw. or the cracking of one. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. and also to chap or crack. kemma. prune. may be compared with ON. chanter. to plate. chapear. cobio. from clap. muzzle. a pipe. And N. throat of an animal. 140. Fr. cambiar. to peck. to creak. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. to paw like a horse . — : Lat. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. to — cut. Lat. I. chapeletas de imbornales. properly in a hard body. exchange. camjar. chapilla. Hence chantry. to sing. Cheek. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. to cut. to deal. kapoti. as corn-chandChandry. to change. W. exchange. debeant conjurare. ON. Bret.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. a chap is a crack or fissure. cangiare. a strip of metal plate. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. to truck. Molbech. clapet. a money-changer. In like manner Walach. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. a small metal plate Port. lips of an animal. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. schimbd. cambium. also a clap. as skin chapped hands. kaupa. to strike. to break . chaps. chapelete de una bomba. changer. to cut off . Aasen. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. See Chant. chandelier. chop. flat . chap. shift. — . and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . Da. Chaps or chops. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. chancery. . and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Chap. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. ^Jam. Sp. kennel. to plate. esclapo. Chip. as those on a trunk. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. chop. like the knocking of hard things together. ceaflas. chapeta. Commonly derived from capella. Probably from chap. E. Fr. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. . to hack. a dealer in candles then. chiappa. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. the gutter that runs along a street. are kept. to strike. leather. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . Lang. Hence It. to spht a chip. any hollow for conveying water. That wide were sentin their spicery. Da. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. Channel. Fr. jaw. as It. Man of Law's Tale. a jaw. as to chap hands. Russ. . the mouth. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. To Change. to cut up into small pieces. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Fr. 2. —Chantry. Hal. to swap. to strike with a sharp edge. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. surfaces striking together. Lith. A fellow. schimbu. chap.^. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. to apply one flat thing to another. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. Chape. hack . from canna. to chap at a door. Hal. — — —Marculfus in Due. Sc. a small plate of flat metal. cantare. extended to other trades. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. chancellerie. Walach. Prov. Chap. . Compare chark. Sp. Du. not a soul. It is also used in the sense of the E. hard bodies. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. to coat. kappen. is used in the same sense . and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. chapa. or the like chapar. kjaakaa. Chandler. cambiare. a reed. waterconduit. Chapel. kiceft. while the broader vowels a. to put on fresh clothes. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Chop. kiceft as well as kjakje. the place where candles ler. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. the chaps . klepan. as chancery . Chap. kvar kjceften. —Ordericus Vitalis. wood. from chandler. AS. esclapa. ceaplas. to peck. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies.

cam. gaggle . cabildo. —— . czurliwoti. from gadai. It. czirbti. twitter. charger. a rhyme. from cape or cope. clack. wreath for the head. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. To Char. Character. siarad (pronounced — sharad). capellare. corona. to creak. called kedlock. Ptg. eapitulo. grave or make incised marks on an ob. cluck kirklys. charade. Lat. Fr. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. cher um cher. AS. a merchant. capital. Prov. bler. capitolo. the turtle pitre.' Boccaccio in Diez. as Pol. and in It. to chirp as sparrows. — — — turned to coal. — spell. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . condo il volgar francese. Gr. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello.Lat. babbling. Fr. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. cha. for the same reason rosario. a charm. charitas. tattler. creak. Mid. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. cerran. to tattle. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. Du. chirriar. dim. hadka. . chapitre. In that work the verb is written caire. Charade. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. to chirp. caricare. carus. from carrus. From Norm. Cot. to prattle. cedeleac. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. See Cheap. A weed among com AS. to load . And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. chatter. surris seu Lat. chirk. charlatan. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. chat. Lat. be- e. czurksti. which was incantation. eyre. ceap-man. charge an enemy is to lay on. go. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Deutsch. to turn. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. w. See Charlatan. kirkti. it is my turn. char. Sp.czirksti. burning without consuming the substance. from Charade. to prattle. a mark of a mountebank. to love. car. w. wood to coal. a head or division of a book. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. Chapter. chapelet. gnash. . a hood. caritas. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. used in the sense of magic Fl. . Yx. kurkelis. Charlatan. It. ject). talking. gadka. a The OFr. cearcian. An enchantment. as a beetle. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. Boh. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. carmen. * Charcoal. jabber. charer. . Sup. chara. Macduff. Lith.). Fr. Justin..charme. keeren. pohadka. Charlock. to turn Gael. Swiss. occasional turn. Fr. &c. canne. kurkti. carmo. affection. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. that turned decken . Mundart. turn. Chapman. a mark made on a thing. to talk . chatter. Lang. chapel. OE. capella. Fr. a dispute . AS. from capa. creak. to charcoal. to . chirlar. hiss Lith. to sing or chirp as birds. And damned be he who first cries Hold. to dove . a riddle. carregar. the nature of a thing. return. babdistinction. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. karout. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. schreien. to chirp. Bret. Sp. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. in To ness Charity. charcoal burners. Lat. (eucharistie. to of the governing body. 2. krachzen). prattling quacksalver. a turn cerran. as. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. tegere. twist. It. properly to place — . Charge. cluck. colliers that charred coal. 370. a verse. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. charlar. Hence carminare. . a riddle. dear(in both senses). turn about. called in Sp. The crash. dear. seems to be derived charade.whirr. Inst. a cricket karkti (schnarren. es ist mi cheer. Chark. ghirlanda seor garland. from capitulum. Chirk. enough. Lay on. beloved. Chaplet. Sp. decken. It. to converse. — a car. carricare. Charcoal was ciarlare. The G. Chare. ciarlatore. of chapel. to croak as a frog . a garland of roses. in turns.

Fl. castus. Fr. To work plate as silversmiths do. from xoAn. csacsogni. —Charter. the calix of a rose. kastaa. chykkyn (Pr. a churchyard or charnel-house. csaterdzni. It. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. fragments or leavings of food. chatter. from pure. %aafi. So in Gael. caro. to crack. See Catch. talk. whistle.— Chatter. It t. tenax. Chasm. clean. chaste. to care). used to represent a sharp note. gadu-gadu. V. Lat. chaste. converse. a plate of metal. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. prattle. It. karigh. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. gaddc. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. s. to chirp. parcus. flesh. the young shoots . pure. . a shrine for a relic. Russ. To talk. pure. as. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. to wet. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. OE. From carinen was formed It. It. to enchase it . la chasse d'une rose. — Palsgrave. knatiern. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. cassa s. i. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. Fr. clap. chip. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Fl. Kil. a young man . from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. — Hal. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. shout OE. cyrm. to burst open. gazzettare. To chitter or chipper. czysty. a yawning. or a bird out of the egg. as purgare Fr. B. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. the bird is iiown. Parallel with E. a crack or a flaw . a flock of those birds. . chisf. To Chase. to baptize. kata. Chat-wood. also a youth. an enchantress. to gape. charmer. chick. to make a noise. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. scraps of for fuel. — Fr. be wide open. warble. Pm. —Jam. snap. a twig Suffolk chaits. ferire. to crack. See Card. cs E. to clap. carnisj bones kept. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. It. knacken. shivers. gallan or ogan. castus. chary. gazzolare. cearig (from cearian. csatora (Magy.ppen. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. To Chase. The egg is chipped. chair. Chat. a chatter-box. splinters. Chaste. is to represent the chamier. D. or pop. as from nomen It. — = Chats. to cry as a chicken . talk much . Hal. charm. as turnip-chaits. Magy. Du. as in the E. to set a jewel. — Yorkshire chat. kata-kata. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. Chamel. to chirp as a bird to cheep. — — . An imitative word. gazeuiller. speak . or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. discourse. Cot. from purus. to chirp. a branch. jackdaw . kna. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. —Bailey. noise. G. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. to separate in morsels. enchasser. as we speak of olive branches. whence a charm of goldfinches. clean. also to hatch. germinate . Lat castigare. niggardly. gazzerare. root of the Lat. to cut and faggoted. schioppare. carme and Fr. — The . also to germinate or spring forth. or equivalent forms. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. clear. blackthorn-chats. to talk. careful. clatter. a word. chit-chat. Diez. racket . chit. clack. Cot. limpid. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. xi'i-'^vui. or suckers on rough borders. ch). chit in the latter sense Du. nommer. Pol. clean. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds.a.. the noise of birds. Fr.). chits. to which it bears the same relation as chape. Kil. gazzogliare. To Chasten. Pol. To chit. chip. sordidus. —Chastise. — sharp sound of a crack. kippen. tittle-tattle. ch&tier. CHATS fit 143 to name. chat. occasionally Forby. Fr. in Jam. letters p. Chart. the handle of a razor . chick. a branch and a young female. make a noise as birds do. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . nome and . a gap. magpie. To chip is then to crack. little sticks cudere. g.). incassare. to chatter or prattle . chasse (another form of caissej see Case). chip. noise. Malay. carmen is presented in AS. In like manner Russ.house. csacsogany. eclats. the cry of the bat. or the cry of a bird or the like. crackle. prate. Chary. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. See Cistern. pure. karg. Gr. fragments. warble.— Chit. chikat'. geug.

CHEEK zitella. . Cot. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. sale. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. stuttering. chavylbone or chawlbone. to coff—Yisi. to coup s. giving or taking in exchange. whence captale. and hence the E. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. retching. kak. Fin. a cheater. gig. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. while it Bret. It. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. Bav. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. Check. frown. chiere. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. society. kichen.' to exchange to gasp. e. keck. stuttering. Cam. choule. and. . kauf. 'li^'opa jord i jord. The gutGoth. look. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Faire bonne chire. chear in the sense of victuals. price. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . ceafl. — To check an account. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. a tavern-keeper. the principal ' colloquial E. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. Hal. See Cheek. to deal ON.of the throat in coughing. .— Chole. to fetch the breath with difficulty. with Dief..counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. favour. Chew. Chear.. . chire. cozener. kaupiti. are represented piti. to clear the throat . the face. horse-couper. farm for farm. a young boy or girl. to chop and change. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. entertainment. It. to negotiate. the tongue. kaupa. to stutter gigken. to cluck like a hen. Pr. KaviiXog. lower. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. gagkezen. Ingulphus. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. chapman. prattlingchete. entertain kindly. ceap. caupo. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. chop. to . a frequent change of the initial k into ch. ceahhetan.— Chaps. thers. to vomit. to nauseate (to retch). Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. visage. cattle.' kezen. Fr. to buy. to laugh. jaws. chuckle. capitale. teeth . to make inarticulate sounds in . a repulse. Cheat. cera. cattle. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. tradesman.-^. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. giggling. the countenance Fr. a dealer in horses. G. chatel. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. Cheek. cheeks. Slav. Then. Hence to cheat. a canting knave. Sp. chatal. jaw. Lat. CHATTELS has ciio. ku.— Cattle. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. See Chess. sense of bargaining. 144 the It. kik. a willing look and unwilling heart. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. gagkern. to — . a rogue or person who used the canting language. countenance. Chattels. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. which is the word in ceap. . hawkmann. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. kaupon. Pm. Bohem. any cheating. kikottaa. cara. agreeing upon. to buy. kaufen. mandibula. exAS. Modern Slang.—Choke. NE. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. equiva. welcome heartily. bon marche. a dealer. the Confessor. cachinnari. dchec. chaptel. upon a checked cloth. from AS. goods. to act as a rogue. with the exception of land. to cough and hence either buying or selling. lead to OE. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. laughing. goods. us. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. OFr. changing. OFr. to swap goods . force of the word. catalliim. in Fr. sum in a loan. s. in widely separated languages by the Lat. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. aspect of a man. citello. koopen. kakaista. kek. Sc. kakkaset. — — —Chowl. syllables ^ag-. It — Brompton in Due.kakot. — We ' . is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. Pro v.. cattle. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Fr. Gr. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. kok.ing. Du. truffa. which is used in the to stutter. ceaflas. Ek dry and hard. Soc. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. from Lat. snout. sob E. Fl. &c. the Lat. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. cita. a piece of moveable property. et juxta catalla sua.— .

giffle. kikna of dorum coacervatio. . Du. the hke. kopen. jaw. to year. kaecke. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. achever. takes place in the formation of cheese. incaseatus. kasiiUPr.EP CHEVRON 145 on. Fr. /Ji2^/(W. gapen. From them the plish. by laying up in a covered heap. rattle in the throat. to love. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Sc. kok. to make a noise different word. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. rafters in heraldry. N. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. a heap. cherir. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Lith. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. to kasa.G. king). jaw. cabrio. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. cabiron. OHG. then end. Jam. AS. e. geagl. chiffe. E. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. dersen . Fr. to gape gab. cireggia. See Case. Chevaux de frise. chests in OE. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. squeak as a mouse. In these latter forms we see the transIt. — 10 . as meat and butter. kces. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Sw. to choke.. Prov. w. make an end. Sp. It would Cheese. Pl.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Fin. to belch. . the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. kapen. like a young chicken. gabe. cams. ca' — . kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. whence kasa-leipa. kirsche.' to w. for cheese itself. czypti. mouth kek. cegio. — — . caws. E. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. Sc. hasten. Fris. Chemistry. . Thus "we are brought din. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. kastanie. Sp. to accomThis they call hdrsk. kdke. treat with affection. CHE. kjcebe. cheek. the mouth. E. cisty G. w. Lat. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. Lat. frame by which the exertion is made. the The use of the word kcesir. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. ceaplas. throat. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. to heap up such things for the purchoke. whence czypulas. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. jaw . xaque. cheek. geafl. cerise j G.). to geahl. E. clear the throat. cheek. the neck. Chekenyd or querkenyd. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. ceg. Chevisance. Hence kikna is identical with OE. as. food. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours.peep in the same sense. cheken. Sw. mollium congeries. condition of being taken. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Fr. Cherish. Kil. As the board to gasp i. w. Lat. The name of creak as shoes. to swallow. rennet.perly head. Da. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. the throat. AS. to hold dear. gill of fish AS. Cher. chops. — — . Fr. jowl. Chef. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. acquisition. chasi. a rafter . to prevent the attack of cavalry. kdkel. Pm. See Alchemy. gaghel. rupted into chess. castaneusj Fr. kistej Lat. The Sw. to kep. Hence chesten-nut. ichec.D. subjected to this process with that which the throat . kesten. Lat. throat. quoka.. X'C&s.Xo belch. (Kil. ceaflas. schach. the final guttural is retained in writing. a chicken. Lith. practice seems to have been communiChevron. carnium. . The Lapps prepare much of their compass. Prothroat of an animal . acquiring a flavour of old cheese. to choke with laughter. chevron. chevir. cough. To make a shrill noise Chest. ceac. Cherry. cista. skratt. nish source. to bring to an end. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. suffo. caseus. the palate Chequer. things Da.D. chops. kikna. jaws Sw. kastr. gullet. equal squares of opposite colours. chaps. schach. cheeks. dear. It. to gasp. made rancid koka. by laying it in come to an agreement with.koppen. cerasus. kasa. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. Chess. cufd. a cricket. gap. — — . An imitative word. subacidus. to boken. See Chess. G. Tutschek. cese. kjceve. kjakje.their struggle for independence. . AS. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. &c. the loose the game of checks. chAtaigne. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. chesten. veluti piscium. prevail with. quok.cirieggia. To Cheep. Fr. cyse. ost. ceocian. caru. jouffle. old bread. ation. ON. gous forms are G. Du. Achievement. accomplishment cayed. jaws. Analo. G. F*-. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. scacco.

The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. Child. chill. tiuk. kimista^ . The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. choule. and not vice versd. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. term is ssaru fu.^ Hal. into a continuous shriU sound. cebr. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. tyuk. crepo. . . Imitative of a loud clear sound. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Fin. grelot). killen. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. Pl. are formed Du. to crackle. klagend tonen. Du. greloter is to shiver for cold. to titter is Du. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. to chirp or peep like a chicken. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. then as G. Fin. a cup. Gael. Magy. kind.' my finger tingles with cold. E. knit the brow cib-led. to smart. Du. To chitter. by driblets. cica cica. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. Chime. chavel. chikat'. Brezza. caput. the throat. the head. tiukkata. chaps. from the second Lat. s. the Ptg. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. cidan. to use the jaws. ]). kibr. G. Da. cabar beinne. cabriones. or qf people talking rapidly. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. twitter. to the brim. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. pipio. Fin. kimme. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam.). De finger killet mi for kalte. zitterti. kopf Du. chimb. Probably from Fr. The Pl. CHJME the radical form is unusual. sonorous. creak. to go. to scold. kaw. Russ. Gattel. when the vibrations become very rapid. Swiss kiden. rafter . deer's horn. kimia.D. chavel. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. kauchen. acute. De chic en chic. w. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. — . Kil. chicken. while didder is to shiver or citteren. to contest about trifles. Fr. has probably the same origin. tintelen van koude. kinderen. chillness or shivering. Pm. to chew. a cup. caprioru.D. kidata. tiukkua. kuwe. cabarach. pipio.. kitista. chawbone.. the same principle I regard On birds. chew or chaw. CHEW . the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. Pr. Chill. kime. chef. 'Among these the G. a head. kop. kauen. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. a quid of tobacco. kindeken. — Du. to twitter. the young of animals in general. or chick. machouere. a young bird. chieftain. capo. a small cask OFr. Chimb. horn wood. Payer chiguet A chiguet. a chicken.— Cot. a jaw.— Gattel. to Du. : — a lump. capete. rafter. See Chimmer. Now gan some courage unto him to take. gosling. keichen. horns of the house. strideo. while the Magy. — Fin. chicoter. Chief. Pm. branchy. to pettifog. Tintillo. Pr. tiukka. as. chillar. alter. ultimate origin of the Mite. to contest. It. also the horizon. E. To Chide. — It. from little to little. cap. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. And hence. and from the third E. Chitter. cild. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. to raise the rim. a chicken.— .peep. head.. cib. capu. cheek. Chick. W. chic. caferu. Chigue. mountain top . to gasp for breath (Hal. Fr. knirschen. Fr. chol. chin. pipe. the cry of young . Sp. then cold. the jole. kieken. aner. tremble.. chillrar. in Walach. cabar. czypulas. kouwe. pole. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. from the first of which is Lith. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. pip. rafter . quivering sound which passes. E. a little bit. kaau•wen. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Fl.^ to resound as a bell. the least imaginable jot. mouth. k'imm s. — — Mother Hubbard. Palsgr. killen. kippa. or as E.-ill. to chime. AS. 146 brial. Lat. kilderkin. ' . lead through the synonymous E. jaw. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. a finch. signifying properly shivering. jaws . as pointing out the origin of the E. chicaner. kauwe. knarren. captain. Chaw. Bret. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . For the see word Doit. a hen. jaw. Fl. stake. chiquei. Walach. beam. A To Chew. the rim or edge of a vase. pi. antler. . a cup cibaw. or the broken noise of birds. Prov. gills of a fish. The loss of the syllable it in Du. ach. G. queror. Halm. tremble with cold. chiler. a chicken. pululo. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. doubtless originally a chicken Lap.

x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. to chirp. then to any narrow crack or AS. companied. verynge or dyderinge.er. Fr. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. tremulous motion. twitter caminus. sparkle. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. quavering of the voice. backe. zirken. rustle. In the same sense. Hindost. stridere. komista. caminsects. a thorn. Chin-coug^h. chirp. It. as the/ is preserved tering. eschiner. Fr. to chirp . chatter . do. to simmer. See Chats. as birds the mouth. sound. Gower in Hal. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . to sizel. Bret. to gape. zirpen. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. Gloss. applied to tremulous motion. kumista. esquena. dial. Diez de. and light. a chink or fissure. sonus the backbone Lat. To chink with laughter. klincken. and from a similar sound to boil gently. cisello. to creak. It. Lat. as the chink of money. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. ciarlare. the whooping cough. twinkling light. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. chhint. eschin^e (de pore). also vibrans. epine. The change from the sound ter \s. KinneGr. cisaille. Bav. crepare. all these imitative terms being minata. to chine. flaw Hal. . Sw. the jaw. the chine. a crowing sound in recovering breath. part lion. kinne. as a large bell . vincially used in the sense of a crack. a thorn. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. which differ from each other only as Chirk. bone . Chink. to chink. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk.' Phaer's Virg. schiena. ciseau (for cisel). E. the cheek. to tremble. tsongeni. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. schetteren. Chymerynge. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Pr. to creak. from Lat. up and down. disCot. Chine. and chim-mer. spina. gen. Sp. representing connected together. pork) . Chisel. j^lf. to chirre.. gena. G. ykvvQ. a chap. i. squittire. Chitter. clipping of coin. Sp. Cot. E. To Chitter. chits. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. a surkik hosta. and bodily movement in shimm. Chintz. — . to sound deep or the Gr. have been used to designate the spine. chick. Gascoigne in Todd.). hiss chirlar. resonance . tschirpen. sonants. skina. Chat. It. in Hal. Fr. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. bx-eak the back of schena. esquina. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. To Chimmer. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. are In like manner E. to squeak in It. cinan. See Chark. Caminatum. from the geon's lancet. Ptg. Chip. et garrire . Chit. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. clangor tinniens kummata. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. plodere. chin . clashing of weapons. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. Primarily a shrill sound.iron. . then of a fabulous monster part goat. name Then. sound on beginning to boil. fyr. Chimney. hus. tinnire. . kink hoest. genou (pi. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. from 10 * ' Chia. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. sounding deep. simmer. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. Pm. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. It. AS. czirszkti. to prattle . Lith. to open chirriar. See Bright. komia. but or cry as a parrot. caperd. schina. 147 kimina. Sp.sharp. The small entrails of a hog. the chin . kieck hoest.Lat. to sound. Fr. A . shiver and the chyver of Pr. kumina. caminata. — . quivering or shakyng for colde. fissure. tsengeni. — . Chitterling. Chyrme or chur. hiss Pm. schrick. Fr. Chimera. a szemrcU. Chink-cough.to divide or Du. or chyFrigutus. cleft. a Kuttn. cincel.to chirp. the cheek (jaw) . and the Du. Du. to chink with laugh2. Du.schricken. hollow. It. as a bell kommata. schetteringe. pare also Walach. See Chap. Huloet. — . . to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. cinne. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. eschine. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. chink. to murmur. genawi. a hall Mid. cheek. killed by Bellerophon. G. Kil. The desig. cheminde. Sp. Prov. spina. yivtiov.czirbti. keich husten. to prattle czirpti. the jaw. in the same crack. to tattle. Magy. ter. — — — — — . ..Huloet in Hal. the mouth (jaws) . backBut she withal no worde may soune. a fire-place. To chirp or twitter.

' Verie coinme Cot. a small slice or slip of anything . try. full. . kusid. wrath. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. to ing is doubtless to taste. gekrose. coup.ffrill. schiefer. by the vibrations of sound or motion. okusyti. taste. to choose. or original meaning is preserved in G. whence Lat. disposition. the small parts of the roots of plants. a ruff.D. by which they are Fr. Chivalry.V)^x. ruffs. a chive. lead us on to Lat. kiusan. shiver. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. kbhren. &c. shoot . kushati. Choice. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr.vonic languages are Pol. chorus. kausjan. as green as leeks. . prove. kiezen. Body and Soul. specially with an application to theatrical performances. Jam. to try. keypa. of an angry — — — ' ' — . from chevalier. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. Walach. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. CHOP kros. chceur. to chap. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. try. wkusit' prikushat. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. G. also calPs. Enn Sigridur sem ' . select. kiesen. a calf's pluck or chaldron .— B jag E. . coro. to prove. — See Cheek. a knight. called cMtters in the N. chap hands.' who shall not taste death. —Chorus. OHG. then to shiver. arkiusan. The I go to prove them. to stop geschoppt voll. kustigen. gdnse gekrose. kruszki. to experience. to taste . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. — Chock-full. of E. schoch. Boh. to exchange horses. to taste. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. chawdron. chibble. Luc. to hack. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . as with a blow. Fr. Chuck-full.gust. Goth. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. crammed Choir. wein didder for cold. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. chaup. to try . to try. to turn. friller. a scale or fragment P1. The Sc. ^euw. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. ent quarter. fine threads of flowers. G. from %u\i). chatter. koren. &c. kaup.' At last he dwelt . g'schochet voll. in the same language. to palpitate . fresure. signify to kiss. ^S. Cavalry. from kraus. schevel-steen. Choleric. . of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. to clap up Hal. I. To Chop. caperd. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. a company of singers or dancers. Chives. cape. to Compare also Pol. full to overflowing. curly . 19. ON. to taste. Swab. kor6n. choix.freze. Prov. causir. taste. developments of the same radical image. ON. — — — . •- Russ. bile. pluck. Chives are also a kind of small onion. to shiver. G. * To Choose. — Cholera. choppe. chock full. gustare. . approve. a blow. chimp. skifa. Gr.. a young . greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. The manners and senti. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. to taste. x^poc. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. it is probable that the root kus. chippe. all seem slate .yEuffM. are used in the same sense. anger. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. . xiv. Gr. a heap. and in kosten. to taste. Choice is probably direct from Fr. the inwards of an animal. whence choleric. cive. to ^cleave . To Choke. Yr. and It. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. then to try. pieces . to wrinkle. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. i. cepa. and Vf. to taste. a wine taster.ceosan. the ridges prove. to strike hands . %o\ifa. Lat. propagated. to tempt. As kushnuti. Fr. kushevati. and in this sense the * small pieces. chattering. kiusan. chives. cke. chife. krussyi. Fr. a calf's chaldern of E. haslets. experience valerie. ments of the knightly class. to chap at a door . See try. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. keuren. Gr.. Warwickshire coff. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. Chap. to break off in small shive. civette. chiffe. Serv. a twittering. Schmid. rare. scheve. a fragment. word is more likely to be from Lat. a rag. kalbs gekrose. cut up into — See Chats. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. kieser. seallion or unset leek. a ruff or frill. Equivalents in the SlaFr. heaped measure. an onion. . to try. The . 2. and N. a goose's giblets. gusten. Swiss kust.

as in Fr. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. a The What dhy ^. quappe. In the Alchemist. chapineria. The Turk was here As one should say. Fr. a lump or piece chump.. 49. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. Wall. A fish with a thick snout and head. a thick piece. chack. Madam. kubbr. caqueter. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. a stump.povucd. What do you think of me.• — . ceo. Marin. E. cavena. Nominale in Nat. and we actually find champman for chapman. Chopino. bearand aits. for to defraud. That Face. Sw. chatter . we find the following passage Dap. Lat. kaej Lith. chroniques. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. to clack. Borgoens happen. ' ' What's that? Dap. See Chaff. whence e. Chrysalis. Sp. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. xop5>}. capitone. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. From the Turkish Chiaus.— Landnamabok. Peace. . noble Doctor. cambiare. ley in Giiford. Chough. kaw. klopper. i.(. kubb. Alchemist. Fr. applied to an owl in that language. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. chapma?i. chuet. cheviniau. plump. E. e. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. kowej Sax. the intestine of an animal. cheap. whence apparently the Sup.\^s. p. Ant. capita. Fr. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino.' Jam. high clog. ON. Picard. from kloppen. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. xpi'^lia. cresmeau. Chuck. connected with G. chrisme.). . I bring you the Cloughs. an offence against the fitness of times. the same word with the It. — — — . cauc. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. capito. which was written 27. syllables chat. e.X. yiSA. G. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. —Shakespeare. in i6io. chop. Anachronism. chevane.' They are forebuyers of quheit. kaufen. caphatenus. kauwe. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. AS. cob. civetta. Cot. 4. dial. &c. of which such strings are made. klompe. chronicles. choucas. Confounded with the bullhead. See Change. overset.— Chevin. a small fish with a large head. chevin. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. claquer. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. gull. chouquette. Chub. A jackdaw. E. dial. Du. — Dief. gold. chub. who took in the Turk- clack. whence the Fr. — Quabbe. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. a trafficker in souls. To Chouse. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. chapin. to speak thieves' slang. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. as Du. koppe. cangiare. Kil. because she would not endure this husband chopping. a bullhead. short piece kubbug. chrysalis (Plin. — . the string of a musical instrument originally. thick-set. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. to cant. Gr. Fr. capitanus. Du. monedula.. one who buys and sells horses or cows. chouette. Chord. Fr. Come. kolbe (club).' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Gr. To coup. that will thank chiaus — you richly. to chatter. kaulhaupt (club-head. Gr. or miller's kaycke . traffic. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. OE. In Sc. by the Robert Shirley. cauvette j Fr. to turn over. P.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup.—Chuokstone. -chron-. a messenger or envoy. dealing. slipper . To Chop logick. fat.). If I discover. thumb Fl. peace. sent before him a Chiaus. prattle . clat. forms are Chrism. equivalent to the E. Chronicle. gobio capitatus. the teeth to chatter . gull. kobe. to strike in the hand. to overturn. soul-couper. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. xftovoq. kowe. Gr. Jam. whence — E. clogs. to knock. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. XpvaaXic. in Chaucer. time ra . caker. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. E. cow-couper. — Chrisom. chevane.sohola. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. merchant.

analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. gffe. Lat. to fall. The derivation from Kvpiasov. a resounding object. countryman. to fall at or on. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. as Epkema explains it. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. ON. ashes. a rustic . kjami. cinders used disjunctively. dial. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. cheek. lamak. the kernel. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. i.^. Sicerawry face ceffata. klakka. ON. The origin ation. kakka. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. pp. dust. Lat. Sw. KvptaKolg. Ka-^aiva. Cob. a man. or choice part of a thing . kerl. chack-stone. &c. jaws. Diss. ciuffo. a girding on.. e. incido. e. tie about). but by way of explan. a miser. . -cido. as in E. joufflu. pith. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. to make a aiKipa. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. log of wood. Churn. Hence -cid-. Wall. AS. we have to chack. to churn. chack or stane-chacker. ON. so as to make the happen . has been impugned which it has really no connection. chakil. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. x^^i?. ccedo. In Sc. sicera. Cleland in Jam. cut off. i.rendered by Kil. — of the two words. chaps. kiorne. calx. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. Fr. -eris. chife. a cutting an old chuff. to cause the milk to grain. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. cado. as Fr. a man.V//a'6'?. to strike clatter. scoria. to jaw chack or snap. whence ON. chops. to him a sudden blow. Wall. -cide-. ceaplas. kernjen. blow on the I io6 in Mur. set kerti. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. marrow. whence church. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . -cis-. comp. Probably from It. as water running over rocks or stones. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). a man. then the on oh StX iv roXt. Gr. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). To chuck in the fall from. See Cheek. ceorl. sinter. Chunk. flower. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. . cinctus. ChurL husbandman. whence deciduous (of trees).D. Da. to determine incision. . The spelling of chider has Chump. sintel. AS. however. spuma metalli. Lat. in the face. -cisuiri). a douse on the tores. to cut decide. cendre. Chuff. . to gird. chuffy.— . a cutting round. * Cinder. to turn from blossom to fruit. an old man. . Sc. Aasen.' And cold. G. to sparkle. a husband. with It the Lord's house. that the word is an adoption of Fr. thence a belt. chofe (Grandgagnage). ladre from Lazare. from Lat. sindra. the snout of an animal. Cider. cinctura {cingo. ceaflas. Fr. 24. calculus. cinis. KaxXij?.for the residue of stone coal. . surly. casum (in comp. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. sindel. accido. or. have given rise.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. sindr. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. Jennings. See Ceiling. domhnach. kirna. to throw out sparks. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. As AS. Du. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . Church. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. to fall upon decide. a lump. residue of burnt coals. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. swollen or puffed up Cot. in circumcision. to Newsp. — . chofu. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. cheeks Cincture. sive piratiam facere sciant. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. Lat. Ir. from Lat. G. &c. ceffo. -cise. kaerle. Gothic nations. joffu. — — A — ' ' — . fat-cheeked. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. See Cheek. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. Fris. as a board. OFr.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. It is certain. Cieling. kern. male person. tindra. to separate the kernel of the milk. to To Chuckle.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. in Sc. ceffore.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. to make a rippling noise. to form grains of butter.— Chu%. Du. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Du.' he adds. karl. geaflas. giffle. C^z^j^ churHsh. Gr. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. a fellow. a pebble . cidre. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. a pebble.

stimulate. Fr.to suck. compared with It. cion. with an initial s instead of c. a hiding-place. to make to go. Du. cry out . bunch. cito. clack-dish. KipKog. to set in motion by means of the voice. Gr. Hal. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. twig. sifr. clamp. lump. slam. or split with noise. cittadella. about. excite. as caverna from cavus. klap. cieo.' sione. Du. dob. empty Golius. city. cisterna. klappen. crack. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Cot. claquer crash. lump. sound- — hands figures. —Civil. . to clatter. a lump Du. Excite. belonging to cities or social life . sprig. sphere gleba. Mack. area. sound. Cite. to appeal. and Sp. ON. claquer. kringr. clack. or clap-dish. chupon. and clash.. klacke-busse. chupon. lucerna. ring. klemte. klateren. clamras. a shoot. Gael. ern. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. klompe. The notion of a lump. ruin. to clack. clap. circ2tlus. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. a knob. Sw. lump. to call. G. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . a lemon tree. a block. It. It. log. civis. clack. See Circle. whence cistiti. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. cista. cittade. City. glam. chatter . smack. wasserkasten (water chest). scion. ON. We . a mass. Citadel. Dan. . vociferation. clap. Lat. a cleansing place. Gael. . * Ciplier. clamare. to summon or call on. lump . circa. klabb. a Lat. clack-box. . Clam. to clap at a theatre. a. castus). prattle. tinnitus . Lat. clambar. Clamp. clog. as. Gr. to be empty. is traced by Gr. klekotati. Fr. kringla. and E. a kind of pipe. to cry out. to cleanse.— . a'upiav. civitas. cluster. clapping of klacke. a whirlwind. the tongue. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. to chatter. See -cid-. klater-busse. clat. klambr. in the frequentative form. globus. Hence Incite. babble . clamp. a for water. scion or sucker. Du. See Crankle. . either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. Fr. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . From Arab. kluV. cifra. chest. Citron. To Claim. Dan. Recite. klammer. to knock. glambar. a young and tender plant. bunch . . a lump Lat. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. E. rattle . suck). also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). klak. To Clack. to go. a ball. uproar. claquer. parallel root is slam. claim. a ball. to strike. . to toll . for Cion. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. * Cistern. accordingly find the roots dab. klappe. a whip. creak les dents. fall. outcry. . . klacken. Bohem. klqb. clump. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. a ring. forms — — — parent plant. Lat. sound of blow. CION See Tinder. a clod. glamm. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. ciste. cisterna. Sw. klepati. Circum-. Lat. a block. or quill to draw waier through Fl. chijfre. -cis-. dim. citujn. noise. a rattle . to call. We . around. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. . claquet de moulin. klamp. clapper. the place of . a city. to call by name. lash . cit^. to chatter . cion. clot ON. cry. the door was slammed J slamem. Scion. a judgment cern. sindri. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. a place See place hiddern. circum. klopati. trunk. mass . and. W. noise — — a cistern. a citizen . ter. In Fr. a circle. clamer. circum. biw. to cluck. gutter. Circle. a city. clobyn. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. a kind of rattle. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. lump of wood or with the nasal. to chatter. domern. a split. a reservoir Probably from Lat. The syllables clap. a Pol. ball kloben. sip. So a light. Fr. Clump. a circle. around. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. prattle. Alt. to mention. G. hringr. klump. citrus. radical identity of the Fr. a rattle Fr. E. klubb. clangor avium . circle. Arab. civilis. -cite. ON. Lap. rattle. —Circuit. . a pop-gun. &c. clasp. of citta. clatCot. It. 'mass. a loud uksa slamketi. sajira. klumbr. Sp. cittd. a cistern. Lat. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Lat. a clod Russ. crack. as in Sp. crack. KpiKoe. The Gr. to bawl. Comp. lump. from chupar. klimp. — (Dozy) ing blow. a circle. Chaste. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. to gnash the teeth. Lat. may cite w. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. a boss .

klopfen. klippe. A i. dem. to stick conceal. klemmen. klynge. Clank. kloben. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. Gael. dank. contraction. clann. Russ. klammern.. dapier. hands or claws to grasp. kleppen. a burr. . of money Gael. from birdlime. strain . chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. a hawk. as the Lat. — Climb. whence sala. dren. to. klatten. to do anything with a clap.p correspond- ' without order. Lang. cling. clibby. klepel. to climb. with cramp-irons. from the w. . a whip. tremble . adopted Lat. salafa. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. yf. E. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. These are imitations of a loud. sound . tone. dang. klammer. klappre. gliong. OE. Sw. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. See Clam. to hide. tenacious. clink. stick. — with hunger. The E.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. To Clamber. to pinch. grimper. E. klampen. conceal. cramp-iron. The Fr. . take hold of. apprehend . kleppe. klappen. klank. dam. kleben. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. klamme. offspring. where- A — unto they retire themselves. a sound made by a lighter clink. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. holdfast. klubber. B. tattle. clang. clandestine. as the clapping of hands. diver. dam. beating. to cleave or stick. klappen. ancestor. clap.er. to glue. tinkle. klemmen. hook.1. the in many languages. a claw . is used in the sense of secretly. children. to knock. kluppel. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. rattle. klobber-saen. knocking. narrow. klam7n. Lat. AS. dial. dam. clapper of conies. for tame conies. klette. a craCmp. daver. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. klynge sig op. bond. to claw oneself up. to knock. dia. chatter. cream Manx doan. Halma. to starve. uproar. klibber. chatter. substances of a stickydam. clamber. who occuG. viscosity . damras. dambar. hold. Dan. cleave. — Cot. Clapper. &c. klavre. a sound. rumour. a sound made by a still . klimmeii. Clink. Dan. prison. G. a noose . dam immediate modifications — . also to clog up. to glue. clear sound. clap. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . ney. klebern. Clap.' to take coals to Newcastle. a rattle . viscous. dienklebber. buckle klamp. a heap of stones. dapier. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. klamm. a loud tingle. in a hidSen place. of the children. sound. klem-vogel. to climb. Swiss kletten. seize. to Hal. beat. and hence moist. G. clangor. celo produces Fin. Bohem. Du. or klamp-vogel. ring as metal. Dan. G. nature . Dan. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. crowd . Du. The root which gives rise to klibb. a place underground where rabbits breed. dapi^. to hold to pinch. kleppe. coagulated cream. but perhaps not directly from it. . To sticky. damor. Swiss kldbem. anything hidden. clajnmy. Clamp. B. klam. Fr. Clan. to seize. to clamp. children. to dame. to climb. Salainen. tight. grasp. chief. a heap of stones or other things piled up . a stick. cramp. E. to climb. These words To are closely connected with damp. klettern. compress. In like manner Du. G. dap up. dandestinus. pinching. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. klepanie. Du. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. massy. sound object . to daub pinch. — . a bird of prey. — Lat. Bav. G. sticky Hal. salaan. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. originally a heap of large stones. privately. dink Du. a claw. clasp. clav\f. strait. clammy brace. compression. to patronus. G. . Mampe. a trap. sound of the trumpet . to hold fast with the . klang. clapas. gum. glambar. to hook things together. to beat.' klibba. dientes. descendants . to clap on. dial. Clamour. of which the locative case. The equivalent of Lat. brawl. klemmen. — — . to climb. a stone See Claim. scendants. solid. run to lumps Clandestine. and that from celo. pressed close or hard together. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . To clap in E. cluster. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. to gingle. c). klamre. is a nasalised form of gripper. E. . and hence to pinch . resonance klingen. club . tingle. to Sw^. klepati. Clang. accent. to climb . dee. G. closely analogous to that of the fast. to cling. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. bandage. Du. Hence the Fr. to stick or glue. gripe. to clap. sound. to clutch or cling oneself up. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things.

to draw it up into a bunch. &c.Z. flap. ivy. Du. a sphere . Lat. thwack . a key origmally a crooked nail. Wyutoun in Jam. as it is written by Chaucer. ansa. a lump. is preserved in Lang. Du. chiarino. clew. sauna de classes. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Serv . vinum helvolum. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. which signifies a ball in E. Gr. kluczka. . schnalle. a clod. a bird with powerful talons. Kil. row aii/iaTos. teren.ck a whip. to do anything with a . clarinado. seizes) . chasguear. locket of a door. assembly. to shut. climp. the cracking of a whip. Prov. a club or massy stick. Sw. — Kiittner. Claret. .oi. K\a. applied in their harness. a bunch. ghespe. Claw. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. KXeiSi. a. klampe.to cra. klaeret. klampvoghel. the primary origin clapa. klamme. to knock. klatschen. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. To clew. klouwe. klouwe (Kil. biichse. forms are the Du. 269. clausum. Commonly made. Du. klc^i. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. or as G. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. So Pol. Klatsch- a pop-gun . a ball. pellet . chiarello. Mask ! plask ! thwick. klatschen. kletse. clair. Originally clasis. in the sense of a mass or lump. a lash. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. a distribution of things into groups. sound of the foregoing description. as G. clas. subrubidum. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. somewhat clear. &c. to animals Sp. clavus. with a reddish tint. diver. klatscha pop-gun. buckle.It. from clinging to the tree which supports it. insularum nexus . Clew. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Owl and that by which cleave to. a buckle. clopa. globus. Lat. sphaera. klot. Rayn. kleeven. and old red rose-water. fragor . straight-mouthed. — tells us. vin claret. clausula. blab. under three modifications dava. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. Lang. and clavis. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. cinnamon. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Fr.— CLARET clamp. to cleave. Lat. clamp. also a knell for the dead. a kind of small. to rattle . noise. to ring in such a manner for the dead. vin clairet. klos. chiaro clear. globus. a. from the resemblance to a key.w or u on the other.). Class. Russ. whence kleuer. Fr. pet. clatter. it is called clamming. a key. klaterbusse. we pass to the E. in the sense of a claw. e. The collar-bone. from its use in fastening things together. From clairet. Clasp. crying. Eya-klasi. bawling. klauw. Du. from scknallen.. as Mod. Clatter. mass. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. clarin. G. Clavicle. In the same way is formed the OE. compression. a heap. chiizjj-o. to fasten together . a complete sentence. fracas. clavis. hawk. Eau clairette. — Clarinet. clump. an on the one hand. a nail. to snap. Thus from Lat. klase. glcis.Gr. claret win e. Identical with ON. nawith stanis. a key KKtitid. stop of an organ. rion. From claudo. Clause. and shrill-sounding trumpet. klauwe. The b readily passes into gleba. fibula. —Kil. chatter. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. syrtium junctura. Du. It. biichse. uproar. Nightingale. is used in Sc. cluster. kleuen. kiosk bicza. Analogous Jam. to clash as arms. In E. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. he of white and red grapes mingled together. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. rubellum. puUs. Thus from clamp. Fr. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. to fasten. Nawith stavis. a water made of aquavitse. klaequivalent to clack or clap. same class with w. nail. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . gaspe. dap. klucz. hook. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. klatsche. cloi. a lump . contraction. E. to patter. It. classis. Sp. and through v into a. a claFr. Du. Clash. claw (what fastens together. klaskad. waU. a clasp. mass. The form clew. Pol. i. klijven. — Clarion. clew or fasten upon a thing. an ending. skeria-klasi. Lat. to clap . Dan. ictus resonans. clairon. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. clairon of a trumpet— It. the collar-bone. Cot. But clasp or elapse. to end. a little hook .\x\xvn. a claw.

ON. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . glbr. Du. to stick to. polished. sticky. together . give a shrill sound Jr. a cleft or fissure. A — A Clement. to stick or adhere . klinke. of iron worn on shoes by country people. pure. kleevig. an object is simply cleft. to be composed. glent. B. vissticky . Lat. a cleft. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. clear. Du. dial. viz. kloben. klinke. a — — . smooth. This is probably one of the clean. diquetcr. as ON. split. daggy. kldnkelein. Du. vice. kleg. opposite senses. or of a tree. Du. a flash. klieben. a bunch of When flax). kleben. The Dan. clink. rivet. E. dams. clear. klouen. nitidus. glan. dut. Axletree clouts. river. Lat. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. The word may be — . loam. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. a claw or talon. Clear. bend in a stream. Mar. pure . uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. gleit. G. glan. a key. to sound or make a noise . as the Du. kluftholz. the latch of a door. mud. that was Torriano. the To Cleave. . clibby. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. Clay. Wilbraham. and Dan. Cleft. Clinch. pellet. tongs. doggy. found in other cases. glor-mhor. klieuen. AS. Da. to shine . viz. Kil. as explained under G. . to fasten. rive. in two ways. G. glatt. shine. cliquet. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. sticky earth. clout. gaklankjan. W. clemens. a in that of sphtting. glorious. merciful. Sw. To call. to 2. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. seem formed dial. dench. dags. danche. dinquet kleeven. it cleave together. calm. Sc. words applicable sight. Cleat. is fast and sure. klceg. to cleave. either by the coherence To Clepe. to dag ox dog. Da. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. gentle. the two parts of Du. that was a striking proof. kloue. to glitter. klinken. Clean. explained from the klinken. a noose. kleverig. holding together. sleek. to separate into parts. polish . 154 CLAY dutch. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. rift. to clink or sound. to fasten. a latch. radiant. klinken. Clemency. doff. i. This word is used in two business is finished off. bogs cous. voice. to chink. geklonken. clash. Sw. klor. . as Fr. The proper meaning of the word is shining. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . to clinch a nail. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. Halma. From dob. . The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. date is AS. . provinciaUy termed dout. Dan. klinken. klincke. gingle. and Celtic glan. and E. G. glitnir. — : A rivet.— . glan. klink. famous. deot. Bav. klove The Dan. a lump. From clap. to fasten E. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. (Cot. kloben. See Clog. clear. kluft. the fork of the body. The word is . sticky . Du. Sc. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . Da. and. splendid pohshed. conserere antklankjan. door-latch. kluit. clay . a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. a fissure. kluyte. clean. a noise. clean. klag. a fissure or division See Cleave. ON. Du. Probably a modification of the word doitt. E. 2.Q. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. cleave. as Lat. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. glance . kloben. to clench. glbram. See Clam. glitta. hook. klank. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. a one end. to tear or cleave asunder. lump. or from being divided into two parts. to clinch GB. Die zaak is zS. Fr. E.— Clag. celebrated . bears nearly the same relation to both senses. a mass. to shine. a plate. klijveii. chaps in the skin. dedgy. ON. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. a clincher. pretty.' was nailed to a rock. klafwa. neat. glint. klov. G. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du.). from diquer. Thus from G. speech . . klutsch. glindse. pure. klinka. klouen. Omklinken. from the clinking of the latch. klirren. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. a cleft. klirre. clean. To Clench.— Claggy. from nitere. klyft. kla:g. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. Gael. a mass. clean. dag. neat. a lump. Sw. the original . shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. cloven wood. bright. kleg. glandse. klinke. to Brilliant. G.

But the Dan. d See Clan. IS5 Du. — have the notion of a short quick in E. In I Peter v. to confess . clif- stanas. call. to cry. Du. as Lat. ized . which is used in Scotch and N. See AS. G. klinge. on. as Sc. Da. cautes. the clergy clericus. Cliff. dever. one of the clergy. or an object character- Clerical. dicher. deuck. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. Climax. to catch. 3. kliket. dial. rock. chatter. a precipice. /cXi'fia. to prate. a cleft in a rock . dob. to clack. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). what so men clappe or crie. frap- per rudement une personne. click. a hook. cligner. klippe. precipice. littus. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. cleft in a rock. say. a figure mentioned. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. OE. crepare. dook (identical with E. chatter. klinket. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. Clam. Rouchi cliche. Client. derecia. to bend.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. a sphere. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. chat. a baU of yarn. -Toe (from KXivm. klinke. . e. it must be observed. Commonly derived from deliver. one admitted to the tonsure. a clew. highest is attained. Somner. prattle. has also deik. a tumbril. klika. climate. name. dergi. crack. Clerk.— Clicket. Clergy. Now the OE. duke. cave .Lat. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. duik. Claw. expeditious. dough. quick of perception. to catch. cliquer. to stir. clever. as a click with the tongue. clap. globus. . crackle. Boh. hamraklif. to tattle. clack. Sw. exactly Gr. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. to tattle. corresponding to Fr. corresponding to the Sc. klev. . Dunbar in Jam. the clergy. rugged ascent. CLERK sound of a blow. klippe.dergie! Wiclif in R. a cliff. a ladder. klikker. We movement catch. declivity. clima. sink. glomus. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. Du. click. to teU tales. diquette. Det er en Mover kerl. a lazar's clicket or clapper. a mill-clack . Hence Lat. Climate.) Brai. lively. cleopian. clatter. klaiv. clep. cliff. deik. speak. klever. Clever. derjon. to seize. a latch. as from derido. Lat. rock. Bav. The origin is the Gr. CLINCH De . Jam. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . 3. nimble. klif. kleppe. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. derigo. a trigger. rapidus from rapio. click it.— Clue.). clyf. . ravine. the knocker of a door. See Clench. derigon. Cot. has kl'dver. Sc. which in Mid. or Sc. Happen. AS. to cleave. Gr. a hold. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. region not observe it. pen. cleft of a hill. The Sc. cart that tilts over. Lat. score7i clif. would have been derida. pulsare. Klover i munden. KkrifoQ. clerus. Du. clif. clever. precipices.. on. chatter. sonare. deik. dutch). a child's or clack . See Clamber. in precisely the same sense as the E. is NE. and (with the nasal) — clincher. kliv. snatch. a claw or clutch. light-fingered. clypian. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. dichet. cleft. klaffen. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. babble. Fr. click. Click.' ii. a lump. to snatch. icXi/ja?. a ball of twine. kleppen. call. dink. to move. deuch. a clerk . G. whence Fr. the dick of a latch or a trigger. agile. to wink. abrupta rupes . de ripa. catching. cliof. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. dial. to sound an alarm to clap. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. had a form. temperature. a hump. in rhetoric. to rattle. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. cleugh. to talk as a parrot. claw or talon to dek or deik. above the pole. Sp. and hence climate. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. ready of speech. diofian. kloof. diver. Clew. syn. and hence deik. scar. that is a clever feUow. dek. seize (Hal. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. cleke. Norm. klok klep- crepitare. neither as having lordship in the. &c. a clicket or clapper. dial. cliquet. with hamarskard. from Gael glac. an inclination. skard. Chaucer. slope . —Vocab. — — A . a latch . Lat. gleg. ginally from dob (extant in W. verge). klouwe. quick in motion. Climb. dexterous. in the sense of active. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . klikklakken. from clifian. deudi. rupes . from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. a lot. a latch. stein- kluppen.

or bagging clothes. G. dial. OHG. Du. Serv. kliks. -cliv-. dag. cloak. to pinch klupe. hooded . knot klynge. G. to wither. a rising ground. four of the bell. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. klocke. knippchen. Fr. a lump of butter. to lean backwards. knippe. 156 -cline. a clog or fetter for a beast . quincailler. a beU. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Ang. clique. klippa. to AS. kima. See Cowl. Sw. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. sloping forwards. a separate portion. to crowd or squeeze chingy. tuft.— Clot. to shrink up. E. to form one mass with. Bohem. recline. ' . Gr. clingan. Bi klik uti klak. I. cochl. compress . — a mantle. &c. to snap kneipen. acclivis. dial. klupen. slant. . G. to bend downwards . kleppe. w. verklungeln. a tinman. to sound sharp. To Cling. dial. kukla. pinch. Clock. Du. a cluster. speaks of a ' clung bat. gUong.ginglej Fr. g. clinke. clato make a noise. klepalo. to slope or bend . sloping upwards procUvis. Cloak. to clip. to beat on the board. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. as we now say three or four o'clock. 'Till famine cling thee. The E. a hood. at first probably on a wooden board. clog. Du. sloping downwards . toga. Flem.— KSS. Lat. Hal. glocke. disposed to a thing. Swiss klungele. Pl. a bell. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. a lump G. claw. G. The notion of a loose moveable substance. . pallium. . clutch. to crowd together klynge sig ved. kluppe. cloche. pinch. parva ruptura. To stick to. klicke. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. klipa. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. a ball of thread . to pinch. to cluster. klunker. met. . a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. klinka. rima. klocka. iissura. klik. klungeln. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. klinken.'— Shaks. Sw. klingen. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. Sussex peasant AS. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. to knock. declivis. clangere. klak. To cut with shears. and 'E. ON. klunge. to clunge. kluben. Lat. club).und zuk-lippen. Fr. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. clivus. from klepati. glungelin. klaka. to shrink up. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. hlinen.. Gael. outcry. -atum. klippur. Swiss klokken. to clink auf.' From Pl. Kil. — clot. ten. as to snip in the same sense from snap. clinker. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. klippen. klincke. to . kolbe to E. in Schmeller) klunk. a faction. . straits. as thick or curdled liquids. kldpp. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. a snare. fetter. Sw. to snap tongs. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. kXiVu. E. to clap or clack. brett-glocke. clino. knippen. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. 2. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. also to wink . a lump. Clink. Esthon. noise. clips. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. also to form a compact mass. Du. to resound. a woman's mantle . incline.D. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. clock is a variation of clack. Sw. ring clag. . sticky. klungelin. kolki-laud. ON.. to snap or fillip schnippen. difficulty. toga muliebris. klynge. incline. by bits. S w. dial. -CLINE make pinch. a clock. * Clod. Decline. Een kliks bolter. . gang. hluccti. klippa. Sw. To Clip. chcng. especially of something soft or clammy. Walach. and a similar syllable without the /. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. and so' to contract. Da. as G.D. to ring. klippe. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. N orman clincailler. globulus' (Gl. nip.. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. difficulty . Bohem. to beat. hill . . In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. to cling to a thing. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . to strike. whence E. klocke. G. schnippen. Cliofue. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. G. klo^gen. related to clock. klok. to make a loud noise.' for a dry stick. kol- The word . ON. bow. to lean. See Clang. a bell. like cling. hluk. Ir. . to wither. shears.. to snip. hlinian.

wabbling from Du. klot. to shut. cloth. a babbler. chiudere. finish . to flounder in the wet. is a blot on one's character. kleck. in accordance with It. claudo. loose mud. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. The origin of clod and clot is to . to lobberig. lobberen. Swiss schlott. schlotter. lump of mud on the clothes . splash. G. fors. to sup up liquid food. zoccoli. then liquid or loose substance. schlattern. Hence inclose. claggy. . E. kl'dnken. lopin. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. to claggock. schlottern. watery. lunch. mud. tJokok. like G. kloteispaen. Du. figer. The game called ninepins. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. bowl . CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. Pm. chiuso. -close. blot. a clod Swab. lobbig. rattle. miry laggerit. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. clot. Russ. klateren. Clog. . m&se noch stain.dial. klakken. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. clorre. log. analogous plan to clod or club. slabberen. klos. clausum. dirt. dial. klotz. schlettern. kloden. spatter. clogs. . slops). or Sc. a blot. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. a portion of something soft and adhesive. we pass to Schlatter. dangle. a blot. clogs for the feet klakk. motzen. klottern. . thick spoon . a trowelful of mortar. Pr. pattens G. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. and thus seem endowed . dag. is connected with pludder. kloteren. we pass to E. klod. paludosus. clos. slobberen. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. shaky. AS. I clodde. terminate. closed. to wabble. and E. Sc.' end. to a. lag. from Du. klos-bane. a lump from Du. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. lopperig. and Du. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. aspersion. close. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. to rattle. Closhe. g. . lob. . to play at bowls. je amoncele. clatk.rge lump. bemired. Fr. mire. Pl. 3. klakk. kleck or lack. He was a man without a dag. truncus. to flap as loose clothes. bespotted with mire E. enOE. G. A — — A Thus from Bav. loose trowsers. a log. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. Gr. forbidden by 17 Ed. It. to bedaub. loppered (of milk). clammy loam. doitre. meat from Du. slops slodderen. loblolly. a clod. be found rattle. slop. Close. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. to dabble. to spill liquids. the radical sylla. da- . gelatinous. loose. thick sour milk. Bav. inclose. a Christmas log. dirt. klunkern. . lump of something soft . zocco. with Fr. to shut. foreclose. beklakken. paddle or dabble in the wet. Idppern. . or E. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr.1a.D. dab. a spot. claque. daustrum. schlott. I clodde. curdled. a monastery. MHG. in forms like Du. Klak also. an imputation. separate part. motte. or loppern. kloster. geschlotter (as E. Pr. . slobbe. klotzschuh. to rattle. Mat. -clus-. a block. laggyn. a skittle-ground klos- sen. of something clammy or heavy. or drablyn with separate existence. lump of butter. fat. bloutre. lumps of butter. klac. shut up. I doda clod. compared with clump. clotted locks Dan. mud klcEg. and Gael. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. lobberen. . daggerey. . without. a clog or wooden shoe Mod.). His heart was franlc without a flaw. Cloister. kloten. Du. a clog. slobber. to close against one. unctuous.'^ Palsgr. shut up. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). . dunch). slob. Klottermelck. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. Fr. a bal!. Yule-clog. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. be&c. hanging loose and full. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. to shut in. IV. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. to cling locks. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. to rattle or shake to and fro.. to dabble. whence klack. of a body of any kind. wide bagging clothes. . TZoxapov.. plod. klokotat. To Clog. to paddle in the wet. congeler. a dirty wench claggy. kladde. klag. a field inclosed clos. in comp. loppe. Lat. Fr. a log. A . neither spot nor hang loose. in accordance with Pl. Lat. tramp in wet or mire. Fr. clausum. spot of dirt.D. from Fr. clotted milk klotte. laggery. to bubble. tuditare. to slop or spill liquids. paddle. E. -cludo. Dan. slab. -clusum. to dash like heavy rain. boil. In the same way Dan. . clog or overshoe. to bodies.— Clothe. . from claudo. pludre. clos. ! . • lump. to shut up.

to strike . (kruyd =. clotted milk or cream. . This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. hebes (Kil. rustic. kloete. from W. Du. Club. to a lump. klotsen. sticky. a bunch. knob. Clover. lump of earth aria. to cloy. dillad bumkin. w.D. lunch). the air. In the same way E. a sticky. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. dabosser. clue. and of a rustic unpolished person. puddle. cobio. N. AS. unpolished. lumps of curd. kldverj P1. klobbersaen. with lout. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . to stop. to cover Bret. Clown. w. a clown. kloven. log. klubb. dirt. Sw. to cherish. to cleave or the splashing of water. kUid. dial. cluster. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. clumhar. mary sense is a blow. spice) G. lump. Das volk hat sich in splitten. Gael. — . — — — . Kiittner. Gael. a ball. davus. strike.158 . a bunch. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. warm clothes {dillad. a cover or coverture . formed lump or thick mass. in the same sense. ball of thread Russ. also homo obtusus. a bousche. a breach. Sp. Cld. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. a bobbin. piece Cot. clump. to curdle. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. a log. are also used in the sense of a stopper. coarse. E. dial. klotzig. klotz. The radical sense seems to be an unE. CLOUD an awkward clod . knob. zolla dell' . Properly that which covers and Du. of sloppy materials. cludadh. Move. klonte. dump. warm. warm place . aglio. of nagel. . CLUCK rustic. It. E. dash (Cot. but confounded with cailler.D. when something has got into the touch-hole. E. Du. klove.ft. klubb. Du. clyd. loggish. naegel. clunch. A division of a root of garlick. a ball of twine . Cloud. Pl. caillebottes. mire. tered . a blabber. clod. clavo di especias. zolla. clod is used in both senses . clot. chiodo di girofano. clobyn. from Du. the terms expresssplit. The priClout. a clubfoot klabb. a ball. a clove of garlick. a clot or keeps one warm. duthaich. klumpfot. clydion. as Fr. klebek. klumba. Rouchi dapoter. klever. sheltered . dob. to beFr. I. G.). G. More in R. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. The significations of a clod or lump. indispalte knoblauch.D. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. clods. clothes ment. Met. and clout d eudaich. klump. lump. probably from daboter. clothe. matte. a ball. nelke (dim. a sky Cot. a boss. a thick mass. daggy. esdaboter (Roquef. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. lump. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. a nail. a bunch. clog. Ir. mud (Pat. klu77ip. . dys. a knot of people. little nails. a.bar. klcBdi. kl'dnne. and tapp. nourish . The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. cob. a garthas. Clump. to splash. are often connected. mass. nagelein. Coventry Mysteries in Hal.' Sanders. From dog. AS. warm. Fr. clammy earth. dial. lie clyd. dut.). kluV. a patch. choke or stop up. a lump. klieven. To Cluck. cloud Delfortrie. . . Dan. bunch. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. clump of a clout on the head. of thumping clumsy action. block. botch. a fissure. stock.Fris. from kloven. ON. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. een klaven kruflook. Sw. kluppe. and closely do conspire. botsen. G. cludaim. klubbe. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. to lump mend clumsily. blockish. sheltered up warm. of a lump of earth and that figure. a clod or clot. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . eine to slop. to tramp in the kluyve. cobble.clod. ON. a . So Fr. a log. de Champ. diboter. a lump. motte. tuft. ser. dote. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. . klqb. a nail) Fr. klubba. shel- kloen. klaven. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. and clay. A kind of spice resembling Du. Du. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Du. milk run to lumps. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. to cleave. Imitative of the note of a society. clothes). from OFr. G.). wisp. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. clot. clunch. a curdled sky. and -the word Clove. dabaire. clot . klunds. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). 2. del mattond. cluth mhor. to strike. a clod. Du. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. clou de girofle. boucher. make warm. To Cloy. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. Clumpered in balls of clouds.). group of people Sw. eene ODu. Then applied to a lump of mate. Mabousfrom Lat.

kichlemmit. klummklummshandt. Hindust.mene tied. OE. — sen.forklomme (Outzen). clausum. —To Clumsyd. algidus. klumpig. dial. inclusive. dial. having the Pl. a block. klemma. pladdern. as from seken. -cludo. klister. a claw. exclude. klump. viscous material. Fr. Coal. kol. clumsy. Riwle. and koetse. ether comelia P. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. ON. Du. from ON. a bunch. -olus-. klcise. a lump or compact mass. obstructum. G. to rinse. klocken. klamp. -close. Gr.D. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. beklummen. a ball . Sw. paste.' Benecke. verkommelen. -CLUDE hen Du. cliboter. Sc. havi. Pl. through the senses of lumpish. MHG. log. G. hooknosed. Compare Swiss klupe. Clump. — Hence include. Com. or from Sw. Clutter. and klonteren. with E. dial. Teulazy. properly to do anything Fr. koetsie. dystere. Fris. See reclusion. dek. conclusion. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. in comp. klompen. a coach. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. Sp. wagen. to benumb with cold. as Fr. Variation of clatter. Du. . ' Uorte (for clogs. Lat. klisse. klonte. eviratus. hands stiff with cold. crooked inwards . duke. might be reached from clump. an instrument for nasal form e. may recline. dumpse. to wash. limp. hondis. * Clumsy. claws. Graff in Klamjan. klikonosy. to stick together . to syllable click. dussomed (Wilbrabam). coucher became in unhandy. a noise. Cluster. E. -elude. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . to tramp.D. E. klonte. eviratus. acomelydfor could Pr. cluntClyster. Isaiah. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. splash. a clot klissen. dial. a clove Sw. kluntfrom KKvKdi.— — . cluster. from klupen. a lump. OHG.Ancr. doquear. to to snatch. &c. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. to collect in lumps. clabosser. Hesse. clutch. klunsen. cleik. a lump. clointer. klods. differing only in the absence of the duik.D. fingers (familiar).P. Du. klomen. * Clump. claudo. to grip. cleche. Beklummen van kelde. klemmen. lump of soft mate. ' Clumper. gelidus. smart motion. n. to klotz. as clumper.D. dumpers. Clutch. a ball. —More. to curdle. Boh. ball as snow. the word is more probably connected with OE. dumps. to pinch. ' Thou clontsest for cold. of Du. MHG. a clod or lump. clump. glocire. a couch.pare P1.' Wycliff. 159 E.D. Fr. Pl. to wash. to tramp or tread heavily. — Cot. to curdle. unhandy.' Comfort ye dumsid. awkward. clutch. a clod or lump. .e. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. a pinching time. Du. to gingle. pinched. klomje. clip or pinch. esclaboter. to shut. carriage in which you klodset.. tight — — . G. ball of snow on horse's foot . beklommen. klimpern. coccolare. G. Ang. a clod or The noclot. calling her chickens. COAL dumpish. a litter. dek. Lat. or aclommyde. in v. a clod clunter. Hence snatching. idle. clopiner. ill-made . But clunchy. 130. — . koetsDa. unwieldy Hal. Hence cleik. and make ye strong feeble knees.' Vegecius in Way. ' . Muster. and klotteren. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. klontet. unfashioned. from laver. Cath. thick and clumsy. Ray. eene beklum. with a quick. The sense of awkward. klunt. Analogous forms with a tongs.E. klobber in klobbersaen. are the nasalised forms of klotte. ment. to curdle. In the same way Du. cleuk. -clus-. finish. verklomen. koetsen. a nasalised form of club. bunch. heavily. . to lie. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. wooden shoes. awkward. klont. seize.'— animal. Pm. hand to cleuk. . to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. enervatus. strum on an instrument. klumpern. -clusum. klikaty. klamen. Fr. lavesen. glousser. whence koetse. — ' — — tonista. also a cluster. Sw. Champ. klos. The Fr. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. klette. wooden sole. clotted cream. Du. Cheshire. close. A group. See -elude. to tramp. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. of garlick. lay hold of. From the notion of sticking together. klampa. Coach. claw. to paddle or dabble. Lincolns. conclude. It. kohle. xXvariip. er. clook. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. rial. unhandy. benumbed with cold. to squeeze. klummerhdndt. plad or plod. koetblockish.

caleo. staggering or halting. properly to daub. Lat. — Pr. Cocasse. * To Cobble. hakkelen. large coals. coalesce. long standing.' And colo. Colina' the place where a fire is made. cofasse. glow. cock or nescock. a thumper. to kindle or cause to burn . of E. and E. to stutter. and imperfect or unskilful action. coste. costa. a great falsehood. to pdt with We may cite Fr. kylla. flame. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. A spider's web. broddelen. nursery lang. cobble. tuft. bredouiller. . from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . and the spider as collectors. viz. or upper . i6o COALESCE on in lumps. in Du. glowing embers. Coalition. unfledged bird. Coat.(pi. to knock. Sp. to burn. a tuft. In the E.inflated with air or liquid. dial. or E. to hobble . a bunch. .. pryf-coppyn. acomelyd or aclommyd. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. — Cobbler. throw a blow. pustule. to form an union with another coalitus. kop. a firesteel Lat. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. kolna. a spider.). kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. Fr. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. niais. Coalesce. a woodlouse. — — . to . only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. and jval. meaning that she is plain and coarse. Coarse. cob is a dumpy horse. a sow. Trevoux. to stutter. pock. an egg.' Nares. glow jvalaya. a bungler.the water boils. is one of thump. a bubble. ON. . according to the ordinary run of events. gull. and thence a lump cobnut. Coast. to kindle jvAla. plaisant. that is. . blaze. to cob. Fin. Pm. cokes was a simpleton. The dirt. cule cocosse. dim. dial. e.a spider.—Atkinson. E. koppe. probably from the Fr. to worship. e. gull. of E. cobcoals. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. tempered clay for building. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. s. to bungle Sc. a coat or frock. bijamie.). or cobble. woman is said to be very ordinary. to speak or act confusedly. to grow together. v. Lat. klabba. haggle. pustule. to beCoax. of poison. — Cleveland Gl. as shown in dob and cob. a knock. cob. small pox (pocks) . — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. pockbecility and liability to imposition. Fr. the one of thump. imbecille. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. to stammer.' — Thus from (Hal. are often connected. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. says Varro. top cobio. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. are round stones or round coals of small size. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. Dan. quele. to be hot. from some fancied resemblance. a nest. to be inflamed . while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. inflammation. boil. Formerly written course. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. ordinary as in the expression of course. verklomen. side . The Fris. Pm. frock. and fig. cluster. walk clumsily. koljarn. Outzen. itself is Nescock . cotte. See Cot. used in — . large stones . It. atter-kop. T' waerkopet. The contrast between the bee • Cob. to Lett. quilet. give the full meaning of the word. to glow . burning. cochinilla. a cobweb. verkommelen. Cobbles in the N. klabbare. a kitchen. H^cart.)...