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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. The syllables moo (mu. and where we are seeking. name of the cow. muK) and mae (rfie. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. the closer we shall approach to the . Molli. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. mind of the of the animal. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters.NURSERY IMITATIONS. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. or. and. persons of different tongues at the present day. but nothing she herself knows the animals. or Mollein. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. in other words. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). in language of the present day. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. the baaing of the sheep. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. and mully or mully cow is the . when neither name for the object to be designated. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. to the syllables which are significant to the child. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. the present day. when we is represent to our children of the cow. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. with an initial m or I. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. is given to a cow or calf. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. by whom the be understood. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. come Moolls.

interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. A member of my own new sfop. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. had nim. repulsive to eat. partly from sounds which the child caught. He would now say good. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. &c. analogous to Magyar mammogni. by the natural humming sound. when hungry. for bad. became more perfect. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. to work over with the mouth. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. family. in children's language. . he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed.. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. for everything fit to eat. and nim came to signify everything edible. for things.' he says. Finally an n was placed before it. his nurse adopting the word with him. On one occasion he said^e nim. he called to to drink.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. fiafifi&v (Hesych. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. Gr. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. We have. schipp. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. as well as the mind of the utterer. Heinicke. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. Gradually. to eat.). First. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. and some were very clear and distinct. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. nineteen years old. I had watched the growth of this word. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. p. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. hm. mumm. and which we might express thus. 72). then. .' In ordinary speech mump. to For instance. nim.

' says the author of Modern Slang. stolen. to take. taken up hastily on the sly. and thence to be tasteful.' says Quintilian. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . dial. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. clangorqae tubarum. aves tinnire. ' Motherwell. to eat. nam. as to . in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. to taste . Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia.' And Diomedes. agreeing with Ein. aptantes adfectibus vocem. ut tinnitus aeris. (in chil- dren's language). to fill the mouth. mumpfen.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. as well as the Sw.ONOMATOPCEIA. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. at hiamske i sig. yamming. or word-making. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. snatched (Whitby Gl. namnam. jumla. nvrnma. to be pleamind . Africa) nimi. Gothic niman. . Africa) nimnim. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. ' id est. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. j ing . sweet (Koelle). Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos).minis. iii.' — Lersch. savory. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. mujnpa. A negro proOr. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. to Sw. 1 86). Nimm'd up. Wolof nahenahe. and the crab — p. 130-1.). Sprach-philosophie der Alten. oves lalare. buckra man's language the white man. we can call them so. to mump. mumble. nyam nyam. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. memmexen. make djamdjam). to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . eating. palatable. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). nobis vix permittitur. crab nam buckra man. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. to smack in eat. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. i. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. to move the lips in continued chewing. Vei (W. Swedish dialect gamsa. to eat mampfen. Primitive Culture. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. p. greedy . and the fizzing (and Series. Soosoo (W. South Jutland hiamsk. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). jammla. on. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. mumpfeln. voracious. food (Tylor. Galla djam djeda. lita. jamsa (yamsa). to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). tidbits nama . the Scotch poet. and some of them . to chew laboriously. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. delicacies. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. i8o. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem.

the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . when circumstances required. do not speak of a bowwow.' And elsevs^here (p. or. snarling of dogs. yelping. baaing or maeing of lambs. a lamb. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. We . As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. bellowing of bulls. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. howling. sparrow and chirping. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. snarling. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. for the purpose of bringing the animal. 'I doubt. yelping. ^6^. chirping of sparrows or crickets. before the in other words. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. or thoughts of our hearer. neighing or whinnying of horses. cooing or crooing of doves. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. croaking of frogs or ravens.' he says. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. lowing of oxen.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. bumping of bitterns. purring or mewing of cats. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. chattering of pies or monkeys. not of a baa. but of a dog. anything connected with it. bleating of sheep. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. twittering of swallows. whether it deserves the name of language.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. grunting or squealing of hogs. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. gobbling of a turkey-cock. might be used as the designation of it. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. p. intended in the instance to represent the cry.' — We speak of a cow. Yet we ing. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. not of a moo of Lect. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. hooting of owls. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. 89) with less hesitation. cackling or gaggling of geese. Indeed. might be used. barking. dove and cooing. und growling. between dog and harking. that there is When Man.

whose sound (Pictet. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. 380. kae. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. ghak. KOKKvi. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. a bird that is be driven away. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Columbia kahkah. Sometimes the hoarse i . Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Hungary. caw kuhii-rava (rava. a daw. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. crow. a a crier (p.. a crow. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Picard cau. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. and means a shouter. Barabra koka. and Bavaria respectively. and gaggele or gagkelein. is kuM) for the cuckoo. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Bav. kuho. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. Origines Indo-Europeennes). when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. or quawk. in is Gr. He to is therefore derives kdka. and the sound of that direction. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. layitavya . In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. a crow (Pictet). The gestures with which terror is in the thicket.). crow. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place.' common sense. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen.IMITATIVE NAMES. caller. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. 'Kdka. according to Durga). it announces (Salaberry). Malay gdgak. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. Arabic kdk. kauwe. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. gackem. coccolare. lion. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. birds. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Sauscr. Manchu The kaha. sound). obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. kdka. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. e. Kdrava. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. 349. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. fi-om apakd- i. in g. Georgian quaki. 4th ed. having a general predicative power. In Lat. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. ist ed.' kd). In Basque.). and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. Aoo-Aoo.

giving turtur (and thence It. tor. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . kraukti. The crowing of cot in Fr. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. name of its is the bird. Du. to crow. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. reduplicate form. Heb. German and Eng- krahen. kukhuta. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. the name for a crow. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. Malay kukuk. the name of an animal will gen- . Fr. k. wood-pigeon. korren. as well as of Sanscr. lilits. coccovaec. gugu. Magy. and sometimes both together. Zulu kuku. by the verbs gurren or girren. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. Swedish kowipa.. a crow . and e. Da. Ibo akoka. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. ghughu. Yoruba koklo. to crow. uhu. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. Du. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. kirren. name. "Welsh hwan from hwa. 219. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . and e. kraeye. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. 6.Gr. kuku. lulo. teewhoop. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur.. krauklys. koeren. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. gufo. or Gr. to cry loudly. German luhu. kukko. to croak. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. Lettish kiekuts. Scotch peeweip. xi. either in the same or in related dialects.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. another. Sp. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. in the North of England. hibou. Mod. tuquheit. lUyrian kukurekati. to howl or Lat. libufs. Pers. tbrtora. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. tur. German kielitz. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. to hoot. So we have Polish krukac. Walachian coucouveike. a crow. yell. synonymous forms of similar structure). tortbla. are represented. It. coqueri- Languedoc. tbrtola. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. kurre. Dutch kievit. The consonants p. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. to croak. a crow lish Lith. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. great variety of oKokv^uv. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. while crouk. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. Esthonian kikkas. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. Albacuculi a dove. kruk. Hindi. p. girre.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. krahe. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. French dishuit.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. cock. turtle) as the Lat. Arabic tdtwit. t. coucouva. kraeyen.

Sc. schrecke. ' — Pictet . the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . to creak Bret. North of England. grillen. schrickel. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. a beetle druna. humming. The Arabic sarsor. Northern Farmer. succeeding each other — with noise. German drohne. Naturalist on the tocano. thunder. German dronen. in allusion to its music. and he kong-ko-rong. and not from E. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. a sharp sound as of a 6. Australian bumberoo. words imitative of humming . a drone. cricket is from crick. g. grylhis.' —Tennyson. e. to chirp J may be compared with . gives rise to chwymores. glass cracking (Schmeller). swirplys with 6. German hummel. skryle. (Jieuschrecke) . to shrill sound sharp. zirken. little intermission. knetta.' — i. which they make in their flight very . growling. to hum. — Catafogo. Lithuanian tranas. a hornet. ajo. g. as . of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. horniss and from the buzzing The.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. Fin.IMITATIVE NAMES. Arabic tantanat. schirke. Sanscr. sirkka. Lat. The name of the cricket indeed. resound. Speaking of a cricket he says. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. dhran. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. pip-pi-ta. to sound. skirl. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. The drone peal. of England it is to the b 2 . i.' Amazons. a fly (Tylor) . resounding of musical instruments. and probably indicates that g. Albanian tsentsir. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. din. We may cite Gr. from the humming. flight its sting considered as a horn. ' Sanscr. In the N. Danish dron. PofijivXwg. to be compared with Sanscr. the drone or non-working bee . to grumble. hollow noise. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. give a faint sound. droning is . to rustle. Danish gnaddre. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. whirr). chirk. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. loud rumour. shrill. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. buzzing. a bee. grille. and yelping cry. 337. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. with or Fr. common. bamba. Corean sirsor. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. skril with n. booming. buzzing.vf3. Lith. The Welsh chwyrnu. sound.or bumble-bee. the humble. bambhara. to chirp . 'The natives call it tanand. a small as hawk is . bee. or a gnat fly. from schrick. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. g. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. schwirren. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. Gaelic dranndan. oE. representing a short sharp sound. kong-kong. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. ta-na-nd. there are infinite varieties.

agreeing exactly with Lith. amuse. bubati. representmake bow. Gael. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. — ^Tylor. ox. be-l-er. w. verb is evidently identical with our shout. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. On the same principle. bolt. Fr. a buffalo. mugler. miau-l-er. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. bo. or with on. OFr. bull. whence baula. to low. as the Illyr. or a z to the imitative syllable. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. and djeda. btibleti. to mew. It. and in Hottentot baa was the . has bilbilgoda. to weep. or bau-l-i. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. Fr. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. Da. make poo. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. bugler. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Galla boa. to low or bellow. as that of the cow by boo. or formed Lat. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. fivKaofiai. Hottentot bou (Dapper). the animal. bovis. (iove. bos. a Geiger. Lat. is inadmissible. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. bubenti. to bow- own bawl. biibnas. The Galla lilbil. to make a noise. Thus from miau. the Fr. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to or bark. to shout. Piedmontese fi bau. bukati. With these analogies. Norse bu. to boohoo. maukati. grumble as distant thunder . bae.XX called booing. loge. bue. From the same lioao). to make. a cow. a bull. are (with a subsidiary k). make to it laugh. Lat. bullus and e. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to bump as a bittern Illyr. to beat hard. bu. to shout. baula. Lat. or moo. to bellow like a bull. a heifer. verbal form given to the say. from the imitative moo instead of boo. Zulu lulula. to low . to ba-L-are. From baa. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. that the imitative syllable are Lith. The Piedm. say. bae. bucula. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. 167. boo. p. His analysis leads cow. in a imitation of a ringing sound. cattle. muJiati. bullock. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. lulauti (to hoo-loo). to from bau. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. to make a loud deep sound. Manx booa. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. representing the mew of a cat. forms a. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. to sound. mae. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. bugle. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. bwla. a drum . mamoo-heeheek. buculus. k or g. a bullock. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. bauli. to . w. in same way. to the uses goda. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. and from to ring. Illyr. and thence Lat. Cult. shoot . to make. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). mugire.

kurren. karra. Gr. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. menAda (ndda. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). lek-eg-ni. signifying a snarling. smack and naski. lambs. it and e. grunt. a pig Fin.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. and Circassian maylley. and hoc'h. a hog. kurre. mutter. The g. the snout of a pig. mecati. hundi). by which the shingle gives rise to It. And it is true there between hog and grunt. grunny. Gael. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. naskia. meigeal. does not produce a e. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. nire. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. a pig. . Welsh and Breton). a wolf. grumble. he would hardly. name of a sheep. this obstinate race. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. in Wolof bae. knurfisk. From the imitative mae. a sheep or a goat. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. /xijeao/iat. Africa laa. mekegni. a dog. cry). hadg- Magy. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. and of (maelon). lecco. for the voice of the ox). cite as by grunt. to themselves. although the imitation embodied in Lat. curmurring. to grunt. Manx meilee. the designations of a dog the term cur. a goat. as the proper name of a tame sheep. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. sheep or goat.' Moor's Suffolk words. rumbling. to bleat . name. a sheep (Lowe). hunon. hwch. goats. to rumble. Kurren und murren. to grunt. corresponding to ohg. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. hunt (gen. to growl. lekavica. a goat. ^. leg-et-ni. and snorke. Gr. It. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. sound. and thence groin. a sow. a grunt. meugler. Illyr. With gen. grogner. meketati. G. /xj/caScj. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. in v. from hundama. Idgge (Rietz). . Hence Breton hoc ha. Illyr. from knurre. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. oe. Fr. may with to snarl. hund. grunlike a pig in eating. meckern. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. grugno. as lou of an ox. we have Sanscr. groin. a (Hesych. / The same Gr. ' In driving. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. Among dog.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. to howl. and grumphie. Magy. and with the subsidiary k or g. grumbhng. houch. Gr. with the root ypaipm. growl. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. to bleat. a. Fr. name of the animal itself. Illyr. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. guttural tone. a sheep. a sow. may be identical with Esthon. It is probable also that e. hound. — . Moreover. 6. purr). ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. sus-sus. undoubtedly imitative. grumpf. or in any ! way ! persuading.). leknuti. to bleat. a goat firixal^ta. a sheep or ewe. . meil. Da. grumble. (iriKov of forms like Sw. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen.

as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. hiine. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. like artificial flowers.' — ist Series. turn a horse to the is In Finland.' 2nd Series. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. to go backwards. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee.). There are of course some names. cockade. If onomatopoeias can . a little am- bling horse. coquette. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen).. ^6<. a mare. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. Thus we are led to the Fr. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. to whine. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. hottihuh. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. to the left. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. of the character in question. the cry to stop or back a horse. humma. a horse. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. houpy in Craven. M). huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. p..' ticular bird. without a — we root. hoppe. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee.). as in Yorkshire highly right. But words of this kind are. p. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. . when he found peculiarity. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. from the cry animal. such as cuckoo. 91. (Craven Gloss. animal. So Sanscr. xxii MULLER ANSWERED.root. Esthonian hoibo. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. hobben. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. Sc. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. hobby. coquelicot. g. e. hobin. .

hukkup. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. runniken.D. Pl. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. Fr. wiehern. animals or certain kinds of sound. command of language was attained. hresh. form corresponding hresh. Sanscr. hresh. rinchar. fehtati. than to the sounds represented. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. nounced with a guttural). . wrenska. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. Irieschen. wrena. wagtail. Bohem. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. redpole. ance or habits of the animal. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. nitrire. woodpecker. Du. swift. moan. goatsucker. e. creeper. but whether there kind between them and other words. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. xxiii ginal object. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. ginniken. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. sol. lapwing. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. g. groan. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. frenschen. to neigh. titter. Sw. whitename in in- throat. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. to Sanscr. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. signified It. giggle. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. hikkd. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. diver. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. cough. as sigh. Lettish sweegt. little speak for themselves. horse. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. Sp. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. hennir. hross. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying.

debhes-lungotais (deifies. to ham. snore.' So imac. to sneeze. or tliat is accomit. for in such sound of blows. clap ! A smack Puff. the dashing of the sea . mer. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. strippstrapp-stroll. 1865. for the sound of a blow. snukkup). knack. beat of a clock child . aritischane. to beat. &c. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. fitsche-falsche. in a nail Let. for that of breaking. ding. ping came the bullets about their ears. Vei gbangba. for the sound of a fall.' it both sides went. are familiar in ' to every one. for the sound of milking. knarr. klatsch.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. —Brem. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted.' 'Haw.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. on the chops is represented also by pratx. atchini. oren : Klapp. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. or the w. haw. went the cannon. Australian bungbung ween. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Mei gbengben. thunder (Tylor) . for a small one. pit-a-pat. to throw violently down. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. a large bell. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . tisio (tisho). The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. &c. shriek. atchian. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . dong Read. snort. Of a like forma- drum . When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. plitsch-platsch. to hammer . Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. tlirob. banga.' ! ! ! ! — dong. White Lies. an attempt would be made to by the voice. ting-ting. to knock. bang. for the for the sound of . root kshu. — Sanders. heaven). banke. hoo. a kind of drum. bang ' ! trenches. for blows with a rod. hang. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. Da. hoo ping ping. scream. haitshu. for the creaking of a wheel. beat. . familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. It is represented in e.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. Zulu bongo. bangas. a more expressive than the e. to drive on. wheeze. lumm. heart tick-tack. pump. Wtb. the God of thunder . DingBang. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo.

cry.' instead. —Lyndsay. pipegni. pipe. far pipi. young bird. a or cheep. young child . had been used laugh ? two. e. is pfeife. pigiolare. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. cry of young birds . calls S. or a piailler. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. Gr. which he added to intensify the expression. a (young) pigeon. pipio.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. pigolare. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. De Brosses. to cheep like a bird or a young It. is of expression. pipio. and so forth. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. — . bleat.) a chick. not- . pule. He Yet asks. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. used as a call to . Lat. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. G. Mantuan pipiare. piccione. or the uneducated different consonants are man. mobility excavation and hollow ^. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. as k. and their relations. piauler. a whelp.sc. part of the What consciousness has the child. The pi. Magyar pip. to cry pi. a fife or musical pipe. pigione. pipelni. Fr. chickens (Tylor). to cry like imrli^u). doubtless. as in other subjects of study. piou. scream. pu. laugh. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. pipe. Lat. has been un- employed to designate fixity. It seems to him that the teeth t. to squeak. Florio. pippione. of a word will appear supposed to represent. . pipare. and whimper. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. pipilo. a fowler's bird call is lost. pi. as the simplest implement for proFr. peep. peep. child. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. the voice of chickens (Cot. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. to designate cavity and hollow. In cases such as these. to peep It. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. piou. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. a chicken or gosling. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. ducing the sound. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe.

. as representing the sound made when something breaks. to pant violently (Colenso). Hindoo tomtom. rumble (Fl. girren. ioriogliare (to make borbor). laqfF. &c. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. crack. Pefuxela. thunder oil . to grumble. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . to gargle . p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). turtur. to fizz like fat in frying. to cluck. to creak knirren.. rumble. kuruk. to crackle like in boiling . where the variation. be cate to go on laughing loud . or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to grate the teeth . or springing back. in German.Gr. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. coo. murmur (by . The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. the clucking of a j hen . a drum W. a. make wood a clinking noise.) Mod. like the noise of a glass breaking . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. a sharp short one. rumble. knaks. to thunder. Manchu kaka-kiki. and lugh. {to It. the side of g. Zulu raraza. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to ring pipio. or kaka-faka. to bubble. garren. a short sharp sound. to gurgle. to grumble). Hindustani karak is rendered. murren. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. to gorgogHare rattle. It. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. cluck. a closed or obscure sound. pi . Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. kniks. gurren. to be compared with Sc. creak. as the click of a latch or a trigger. along with tinnio. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . grumble. cricli. Indian chack-chack. Pacific aka-aka. tontonare. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. lachachen. sound). vaake gorgor) . to laugh. of a loud strong sound. chack. to cry pi. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. Poppopvi^to. knurren. crash. to hawhaw or laugh loud. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to growl. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. tintino. along with Du. bubble. karkarana. to jar. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. borrelen. to pant bejii- zela. when it force than biscuit. i.. lachen. of something fine and thin. tonare. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to clack. sound of dry breaking. is very common. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. preserved by Kilian. . to rattle. a prolonged sharp sound. kniks. kirkirdnd. some small vowel or consonantal sound. loud laughter. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. knuks. u.

at an accelerated note. for the clinking Lat. brings us to Fr. tup. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. muro and e. KaKog. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. ding-dong. word. clango. box on the ear imitation of the . is based on the same imitation as the e. 1871. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. for a tTviror). sound). Newman).and e. Scotch sough or sooch. correspond to e. make djamdjam). for chut-chiit-er. E. fumtu. The whispering of the wind I. e. and bilhila. a smith. noise.* the heart. champ. croaking of frogs. of keys or tinkling of bells. csam-csogni. to say chut. kiling-kalang. to ring or jingle. a nightingale. tumwata. a boy's whistle. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. Magyar csamm-ogni. jingle. for the sound of privy whispering. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. cry. or of bells ringing. the gingling of glasses. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . rain (Tylor. bulbiil. and her heart went thump. Fr. or to Du. indicating the origin of Gr. chinking of coin. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. Calt. call. to beat. the sound of a stringed instrument. thump. wail. to be compared with g. the tingling Ming-Hang. is Manchu tang-tang. and Gr. for the ringing of illustrate bells. caca and Finnish adkkd. borrelen. hala-hald-faMa (falda. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. clink. quarren. to whisper. are applied to the is excrements of children. identical with g. uproar. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. . bubble up. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. 192). hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. jangle. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. a drum . kl'mg-kling. or the bubbling up of to a spring. tumult. Tiie Galla gigiteka. chuchoter. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. . to the purling of a brook. drops of i. Turk. agrees with g. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling.' Member for Paris. while cacd / used in e. chut. disturbance (F. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. awater* ' The Mme P. Maori pata. simmer. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. to giggle. especially one who beats. tubh. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). bent her head. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. rifiirayov. bad. sound.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . clank. corresponding in e. as of Tamil muromurmur. shout. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. to knock. compared with Gr. 368). rvir (in tvittio. klirren. koXiw. clash of arms. a nightingale. spring of water in the a bell. as Fr. and Gr. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. djeda (to say tub). Prim. a workman. to strike. and e. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. coughing or clearing the throat. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. The syllables lil-bil. Manchu kaka. Sanscr. and the imitative nature of tivgle. halaidlac'h. Galla tuma.

We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. hum. clink. ' Der puff. blubber. sputter. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. to is blow. flop. smack. clash. clack. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy.. answering to g. gurgle. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. whine. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. din. tingle. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. dabble. crack. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. mutter. rattle. tymmesll. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. tumbian (to beat the ground). souse.' — Nohden. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. swash. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. in e. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . But although and also found in Lat. clatter. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. gargle. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. flap. crunch. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. report of a gun.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. Nevertheless. rap. whirr. rumble. blow. clap. jingle. whizz. splutter. pop. chink. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. thump. by rubadub. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. without the intervention of orthodox roots. bang. it is fallj AS. the Germans puff. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. disturbance. squeal. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. crash. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. The use of g. thwack. plump. rataplan or rantanplan. 'pat. guggle. whack. It. and Fr. we have buffet or cuff. to fall. puff. according to the strictest phonetic rules. thump. hiss. slash. smash. paddle. bubble. fizz. to dance. boom. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. squall. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. and soufflet. patter. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. clank. tomber. Fr. douse. squeak. ring. lash. parapatapan. thump. at a door tarapatan. So in Fr. brumberum. w. Humboldt. and the French pouf. tum-ultus. chatter. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. craunch. or v^hether jectional. snap. tinkle. while e. creak. clang. murmur. dash. The beating of drum is represented in e. and Grimm. twang. a applied as well to the force of the bang. tap. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. for (Sanders). splash.

At the first beginning of life. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. the kind of action that is desired of them. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . because they are spontaneous. without a thought of symbolising to them. in the case of the animal or of the infant. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. knows them. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. but if we must not complain on the beach. 94. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind.'. xxix on the contrary. If. wringing the hands. or any unsatisfied want. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. an imitation of a sigh . it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections.' . that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. little who has time to want of her nurseling. stractions. by the nature of the cry. Crying. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. and thus they become signs of despair. hay. Grimm or Bopp. ugh . and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. and found in the building of be burnt up. is Thus ah!.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. the interj. and uttering plaintive sounds. that he has taken the step in rational speech. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. the inteij. or of any if wood. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. are made known by an instinctive cry. in the rushing waters. every little pain. or stubble is meaner name. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it.' If chaos. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. grief. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. of horror. formerly cited. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. p. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother.

and some of them the composition of words. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. the lowing of a cow. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. which are frequently so toned down cance. ^6g And to the same effect 371. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. more to the point. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. them to exercise it.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia.' — ist Series. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. groaning. of all the mouth. p. And again. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. He says. to solve the I shall call first. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections.. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. or which is of me as suffering pain. sneezing. interjections. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. shrieking. be more powerful. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. 344. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. If I wish to make a person of an . The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. coughing. may become traditional. should be remem- . have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. 32. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. One short interjec- tion may fact. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. as who them spontaneous utterances. they are involuntary interjections.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. p. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. more eloquent than a long speech. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . Language begins where interjections end. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. and the eye.' p. he cites from Home Tooke.

by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . in Magy. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. in Fin. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. bered. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. it them. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. when I arp humming and hawing. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. hohottaa. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. and more or less limited .PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. Gr. hahottaa. but the less am at a loss what to say. interjections. demolishing here. he says. hahota. some kind of language might have been formed. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. and others from interjections. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. kahkahah. loud laughter. then speech begins. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. Kayxa^u). speaking. Koxafw. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. and thus. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. I am not hearer. Lat. Tooke in truth. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. cachinno. for example.

Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. makes them stand and walk upon the table. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. a deaf-mute himself. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. a Picture-language. like peewit and cuckoo.' he says. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. dumb is the language of signs. What strikes him . for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. and go where we now say stand. if taken as a whole. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. But here nature soon conies to his help. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. words receiving the meanings they now bear. the critical question should be. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. of the world. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. and not. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. The following account is given by Kruse. . which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. of the nature of this great movement. Though. And so in the case of language. It as has ing their most striking features.

and forms further and further. becomes roast meat.' In the Institutions. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. And is. his action. such as than the educated man. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. many when or but these. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. called Gesture-language. he. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. as it now opens out. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. that signifies great . and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. for child. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. to name. walker. signs are taught for yet. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. but if I depress it instead. and with his thought. particular sense in properly so called. that air. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. it seems. for the agent. such objects. walked. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. that. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. most striking outline of an object. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and we have roast goose. the lan- guage cultivates itself.GESTURE most. nay.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. push it towards the person addressed for thou. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. the sorecalling them to his memory. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. The of sign for left hand. can do better and more easily abstract terms. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. for walk. like a V. and gestures. The same sign stands and the act itself. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . or the verb to be. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and it is flesh or meat. for single objects. it means little. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and fully serves to j . thou. walkest. or To pull and flap with the arms. among themselves. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. thought is already broken. and And thus he makes himself a language. the whole secret. he. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. letter To hold the two fingers apart. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. what more. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. and to taste.

or sometimes interjection or adverb also. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. according to the circumstances of the case. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. in other instances sentence. The same word . You beaten . who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. or a passive scene of existence. or action. or a quality. I say. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. and so is an adverb. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. would be simply beginning of speech. a number of alternatives are suggested. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. as when Bang ! went the gun. the ture of white term pink is and red. in fact. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. as in die it is a noun. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. putting it into his pocket. and thus performs the part of an adjective. . it called an interjection.' dener's knife. a colour red. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. Who is has beaten you ? would be. When a verb. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. Do not bang the it is a verb. When I say. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. to indicate the action of a certain person. the garden. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. qualifies the against the wall. depend entirely upon the use. or an act. and the as. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. or something of the kind. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. when I say. might be the knife. He gave door a bang. as But when it is meant door. substantive or adjective. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. whether by additions or otherwise. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent.xxxiv asking. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages.

The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. which is an old y ting (use stick). or with elements expressing relations of time. whereto. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. whereof. but often self-evident. Thus tafu signifies a great man. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. a sigh of oppression and . verb nor noun has yet been developed. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. or some relation between it and another object. or nei. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. coalesces with the personal pronouns. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. greatness. as cung. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. a groan. middle. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. pain. Jii ta. wonder. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. grie^ horror. wherehy. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. wherewith. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. inside. in the is indicated by the syllable y. a noun. with a stick. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. contempt. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. . and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation .. that admits itself in of audible representation. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. and to be great. Latin. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. and may be used language. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. inquiry. 255. some outward display of the affection.^ — Miiller I. the man is great. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. as kuo cung. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. wherefore. that is. in the sense of great. commencement of speech. &c.

to groan. dchzen. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. It. to hurt Let. achen. wd. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. oimare. 6. ochan. ohi. wehthun. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. Illyr. ahi. axofiai. on. gwae. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. ai. &. ui. is w. and cacak djeda (to say crack. ochain. or r. oh. . to ache. to cry n. weinen. to yell formed e. misery. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. howl. guaj-ire. are ol-ire. w^wa. lament from oimi. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. ach. die wehen. guaj- or cry out pitifully. mew. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. la. ochan. djamdjam goda (goda. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. to sound yapyap.ez. oval. probably a deeper groan. 6. It. the pangs of childbirth. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. Let. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). to chirp. to rriourn. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. miau-l-is. to weep. representing Illyr. to bewail oneself. gwe-l-a. . e. xxxvi grief. to gargle. woe. ach. ! ! Goth. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. Gael. I oi[iot. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. It. grief. found in g. to make bow-wow. lau-l-e. wai. lament. ing action I. is Ay di me I Gr. j. grief. seen in Gr. w. vaj. misfortune. to do woe. och. form. A widespread It. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. gwae. grief] affliction. Bret. ohg. to wail or cry alas . has more kopfweh. Lat. g. vce. ah. wai. wai-l. Illyrian vaj. waiidt. pain. to injure. The form corresponding to Lat. to . jao. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. Gr. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. at the close of the radical syllable. to weep. pain. woe. pain.'). Jar lau-lau. a groan or lamentation vir. weh. miau-l-er. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. It. to lament. to wail. ace. to make). mostly a ! %. to ache. g. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. e. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. guajo. suffering. och. In this way from the root guai. al.-l-are. Such are g. Lat. to cause pain. jaoh. ache. n. cece. as. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . oh. Fr.. in Gr. och. headache. first person. however. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. . wAwa. hei. to cry at. and to bark . oi. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. e. o'i. aiai^to. to lament. Thus from springs otjucifw. tirr-djeda. . guai. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. on. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. ach. miau-n-is. vei-a. w. representing a cry of pain. wehen (Schmeller). ocAJ. ah. vce. . Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. Gr. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. weh schreien. as. Gr.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

for instance. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. give me that cheese.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. ToSe (or in Attic E. or carry me thither. When we pointing. • The child. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. and so on.' person. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. 'nay. Please. give. we may translate this by there (it is). der da-ige. is-te). I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. In the expression Da. or wants to name something. as it Dieser da (as Lat. Diet. his trowsers' pocket. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. or give me it. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. that is it. da. as. as to express. the nursery da-da. to here . A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. saying : there the ad- Trans. Phil. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. well as Goth. this here. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. according to Menage. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. child. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). ' sees an object. But. Sanders (Germ. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes.' all is is — their consent. when 1859. but the truth is. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. is we I believe.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. that. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. Dr Lottner observes. thata (ta-ta). case. . when he wants something. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. Thank you. I add) . Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. da. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. indeed. and may be rendered. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. or that it is. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. a specified were by pointing him out.' then points to his wife. that gratifies me. and by a variety of expressions besides. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. Bav. a word of many applications in g. Sie. says da-da-da. implying the direction of its good will towards them. more emphatically roSj)j that.' this. The Fr. nurseries. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether.

The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. and shapes it into an . Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. moving. of which any one may. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. to knock. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. standing. to tion to another. sounds. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. sinking. takes it — as When the soul. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. or dalliance. speech. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. to walk. in every mode of expressing the idea.' • liv ANALOGY. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. stutter.^ its ' utters : a cry. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing.' says Muller. tattle. then instinctively interest. meanings. The da is dodem. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. to beat. Thus Gr. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. make dadada). pay. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. p. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. — Cot. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. tasting. to say to oneself. thinking. to chatter. and one in particular must. strike. beat. the original is that which he places first. which thus exertion. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. to move step by step. dadee. childish toying. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. reality. . used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. its desire.' says Lottner interior. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. or metaphor.

clang. make a loud noise. smell. In the same way the Goth. to sparkle. 1654. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. and thence e. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. judicious. in the domain of movement. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to have Sapiens. to 5 ghtter. to smack or taste. air. and. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. wilistd. also wise. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to tinkle. man of nice taste. from the . for example. Bavarian bracht. to quiver. think. a dis- cernment. sprageti. taste. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. kimistd. ghsten. fiapfiaipw. to . So firom Lat. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to sound clear In Galla. wise. to crackle. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. to glitter. a ringing . schiteren. splendour. snotor. may be it explained . which in ohg. to sniff. sense of brightness. while sapere itself. sapere (which signifies the nose. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. The 6. noise. wilahtaa. to be wise. scheteren. to snilF. in popular language. wamara. a rustling sound Gr. to glitter. brilliancy. splendour. to ring as a glass willata. bilbil). to sniff out. rattle. on. chime). which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. beam. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. Fr. to glitter. &c. to shine. tintelen. iclat (in Old Fr. properly a clap or explosion. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. to flash. tumult. we have and the and beorht. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. bright. beorhtian. unlella. knittre. Du. to shriek with laughter . . suspect Bav. to glitter e. (parallel bilbila. snutrs. smell. to shine. is used in the origin. to resound. to crackle gnistre. may be quoted gUt. prudent. search .TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. magnificence. signified a clear sound. In the case of sparkle. to ring. esclat). firom the Gael. the equivalent of g. discreet. same imitative root with Sw. . and figuratively. pracht. tinkling. snot. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. gnittre. to glisten Dan. a brilliant light kilid. as. snudra. schmecken. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. snuff the sniiten. scTiateren. then to sparkle. bilbilgoda (to make . knistre. — 1. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. outcry. savour. Finnish. and schmecker. kiimottaa. Lith. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. a with kimmaltaa. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. spraka. It is The word bright had a similar In as. as kilind. Heo Du. Again. sound.

roughness. rough both ways. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. or . power of the letter-sounds. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. fitting the letters to the sense. The BpavEiv. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. \nrap6e. in truth. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. smooth. the clank (stridorem) of chains. sharp. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. mel. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). he framed the words ivSov. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. 1. 6\tadaveii'. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. inside. as soft by the ear. the bleating of sheep. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. Kep^arl'ieiv. crux. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. wool. Kpovtiv. itself letters are felt as sofl. is felt Lana. briars. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. pleasure soft to the ear . which The Stoics. flow and flux. strike. KoWiiSije. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. the cross. rend. oily. he says. the neighing of horses. &c. we hear of screaming colours. ipuKuv. gluey. then in rpd/xoe.' he says. rough. Acre. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. And observing that n kept the voice within. accordance with the way in which by touch. tremour. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. eo ut res vol. of dressing loud. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. in of his works. . whirl. rough. within. Much of the same has been often quoted. soft. to slide. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. Tpa)(yg. and vepres. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. extremely loose. break. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. v. kvTOQ. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. rough to the ear. discusses the tone of a picture. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. pvfi^Civ. shatter. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words.

The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. as when. the case of the voice. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. 138). that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. and in the utterance of a high or or low. rug. to jogj sac-cade. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. degree of roughness sound. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. Fr. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. jig. p. jag. or checks as they are called by Muller. A greater felt. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. dig. jog. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. stag (in stagger. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. for exis ample. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. to signify varieties of movement. k. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . sag-oter. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. a rough and sudden . while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. to reel abruptly from side to side). together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. p. shog. d. shag. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. joli. cular effort Again. t. corresponding to the ineor. dag. tug. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. stab. g. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. jih. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. ii. 'and consequently form. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement.

however. Ene olde suksuk. sound barely audible. Welsh cicio. to stir. e. to On the same principle j we have g. to move rapidly to and fro. Bolognese tocc. not to utter a syllable. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. and e. The analogy then carried a step further. mik. then. also to stir. Then. micare. it produces Dutch micken. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. sound Fr. movement. to winkj micati is Lat. The train of . chiquet. in cases like the foregoing. a stroke with a French toucher. to pulses being knock. properly a small lump'of . The syllable suk is jerk. to say a word . to mutter. used interjectionally to represent a . which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. zack. to touch. to beat or play on a musical instrument. and analogous movements. tack. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. a cracker. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. or check. toch-toch. schockeln. an old worthless horse or carriage. Sukkeln. passing to the signification of motion. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. then. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . Dutch kicken. a piece or bit of anything. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. mot. to glitter.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. chique. Accordingly the g. a quid of tobacco. foot. Mucken. Illyrian migati. like English tick. It. a small bodily object. a good piece of road . and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. is made to signify movement. is lanese toch. and It. tecche-tocche. is so frequent a consequence of movement. Thus we have B. Brescian toch. an infant . as tot. a little bit. to strike It. The Mipen or pencil. The production of sound. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. to mark it with a touch of the pen . a playiug-marble. tock. to incite by light touches. to take a thing on tick. to utter a slight kick. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. a jog. so to Italian toccare. Fr. mica. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. kik. lead to Spanish tocar. as Italian tocco. that we never can be sure. chicoter. to ring a bell. zigzag. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. kuk. To tick a thing off.. schuckeln. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. Fr. S-panish miga. cica. (mitsati). Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. figuratively. to have it ticked or marked on the score . a . to tickle. for the sound of knocking at a door. rough horse. mie. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . Hence Lat. g. a crum. &c. tech-tech. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. chic. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. motion.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE.

(Halliwell) Da. a light quick blow. corresponding to the personal pronouns. a certain conception. . i. a girl. The following table from Tylor (Prim. this . and he. mut. tozzo. fragments It. I. a small bird. tiny. subdued manner. we have e. Fr. as in e. a small lump or pat. and toddle like a child titter. 48) cites from the African Tumale. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. tottle. not to utter a syllable. So. to whisper (Pr.) . The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. to movement of the pen . for the three personal pronouns. little j to that of a small bodily object. to dot. and a small lump of something. anything small flax. gni. citto. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. Cult. the least visible insect. ri that. tot. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. a e. Then. mot. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. small titlark. titilh. a. zitella. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. a bit. tittle. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. zitio. and mite. to jog. to make a slight mark. at where the order is inverted. a morsel. taut. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. tot. for the beating of a clock. . a small kind of lark. to tremble. clay . n. 199). a little titty. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. there (further of!) ao. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. . eo. mote. fait.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. further off. anything . not an atom . titter. ika. a morsel girl . motta. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . and dot. jot. to touch lightly with a pen. gno. motte. of movement in totter. or the like its It. or the converse. to e. a lad citta. a whisper. a sparrow). a tot . chico. Malagasy to. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. little. lump of earth. there. a small horse. that.- a jot or little It. . To jot. This kind. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. there '(at a short distance). you. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . totle. move slightly to . a small quantity. this. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. gnu. .n. is shown in murmur. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. seesaw. ticktack. often entirely arbitrary. iki. tot. and out there. Halliwell. But the same is language has re Javan. mutter j dust. small of kind. not because the pendulum makes a different left. tot. to touch. that iku. mossche. Du. In a similar the relations of place. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. . . to jot down or note with a fro. titmouse (Du. neither moit nor an atom. e. bunch or flock of wool. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). a bit. the vowel sound. mutter. 0. or o toi. Pm. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. tit. here (close hand). lix Sp. the same organ touched with the man. here. syllable mot. . The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. e. tit.

ndi. Lat.e^. . ojOo. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. this ole. that. there. as Mr Tylor remarks. ni. akha. you. small (Pott. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Tamul i. and a for the female. qu. that (intermediate) j wana. Tarahumara ibe.) nna. as in Italian Fin. man erne. Ossetic am. uta. nne. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. little. for the male. child. Magyar ez. tiiio. Chilian tva. minution further. that. an old . usho. ^. /mya. as the act of pointing was ta. and origin. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. here 5 Yoruba na. (tt). by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. ofj. here this . mother. there. Fernandian az. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. Dhimas isho. km. Carib ne. that. Japan ko. there.. w. olo. It Carib lala. ne. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. biii.. . that. that. ni. . ulri. loo). he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. father k . this fi. Sahaptin (America) kina. here feraa. this . child. that in the distance. here . he. Mm. probably initial of distinction that the k. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. /e«. there. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. . /wo.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. an old woman chacha. Abchasian aSn. Botocudo ati. he. this <t. that. ita. bi. Zulu ajoa. mas cheche. thou ni. . young one. . respectively. to. . I . mother. Then. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. mother. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). thou. this . Mutsun ne. ta to ka. Gr. here . 6. this . that. femina ama. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. here j abe. father. me probable that • Vei also little.. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. is father. this . that. no constant rule is observed. j Canarese ivanu. ukko. there.araM. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. is Here. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. thou . there.) pronunciation of i or e. It seems to (fen. that. Guarani nde.. . here j ka. there.

It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. to make its way through the bursting envelope. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. The Sw. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. Clank represents the sound of something large. lift 8. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. trSpigner. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. From cases like the foregoing. dance (Kil. nab. to peep. the idea is called. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. a step. whence Fr. the nursery few j Sc. wenig. has tittafrem. din-din. wean. fretful. knob. nipple. to feet. to teet. the principle of reduplication. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. at pippe frem is to spring forth. analogous to winy-piny. the simplest mode by the g. as j money. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. And perhaps the E. The sound trapp . for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. little. just beginning to appear. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. pepin. stairs. keeh. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. a little yellow beard. i Sw.' making the voice as small as possible. for the . of smaller things. nil. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. is to express simple continuance of action. in old e. don-don. A little wee face with little. to begin to appear . trappen. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. Thus we have Wolof sopa. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. Fr. 401. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. to peep through. for a succession of light blows low-wow. or even. A little weeny thing. &c. titta. trippelen. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to leap. repetition It. to tread. the pip or pippin. as ding-dong.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. trap. for instance. sound of bells . for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. speaking in a pipy tone of voice.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. trappa. trippen. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. little To sup up.' — Merrv Wives. or chink. looking through between obstacles. Da. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. Top. a child. barking of a dog.) . The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. . and in the Pacific dialects. — Douglas Virgil. murmur. tion.

ratsi-ratsi. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. little child (p. didi. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. a spot. and the words express a continued sound of rack. child . to love. repetition or continsignify long.Ixii REPETITION. or el. amusement. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. the comparative degrees of greatness. ayunayunan. or very very great. to talk at to walk. to vi^alk about for flax. (to use a to speak. to or rub. and Fr. i. smallness. are echoed by the rudimentary et. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. Susa di. click. the agent in panting . kamha-gamla. er. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. to cover e. rack click. bad . 99). may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. Cult.. ding-ding. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. child . . Again. loloa. a clattering noise. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. puka. keep spots. The same principle of 196. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. is language. racket. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . or a little tee--ny thing. in familiar use with ourselves. random . from Maori muka. mawhitiwhiti. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. kenda. mawhiti. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). could readily be conceived. instead of being actually repeated. Mandingo ding. to to call. So from clamo. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. mpolu is uttered. Thus in the Pacific loa. calling. And generally. &c. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. tach-et-er. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages.' expression is — ^Tylor. or in Fr. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. 97). a grasshopper. very great. to say pooh It is ! to. to pant. to skip. sopasopa. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. lololoa. . a cradle. rack. the lungs. clamito. puka- puka. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. the and clique. cliqu-et-is. Thus in E. or imitative syllables. kendagenda. if very young. clash of weapons. tache. to call frequently from Fr. to treat with contempt. hardness. rapidity and strength. or rdtchi. to rock. Malay ayun. very bad. very long (Pott. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. properly speaking. serves to show and in this way.

by the side of wanken. Ihre remarks under gncella. or Maori puka-puka. rynel. the knie-en to E. are to cry mew and pew . either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. joggle. to move to and fro. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. kneel. to wail woe . such asjlap. itself. wagas ging. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. to rock. jogging. fickle. where all direct connection with sound is lost. without the intervention of the frequentative element. and in as. bub. a from ayun. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. to rock or wag. others. Jickfacken. syllable clat . the part that moves on a hinge up and down. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to puff. in Fr. or omitted. to make bau-bau. smack. it. wankel. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. the lungs (the puffers of the body). The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. to make a succession of shoves. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. dab. he who rubs. In cases like these. rubber. mew and baa . wancol. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. as mAS. The contrivance with any particular noise. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. or fi bau. or by association. which. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . in some applications. as to handle. guggle. Piedmontese bau-l-S. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . to make gug. The Fr. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. from puka. a succession of cracks to rattle. bubble. wavering. wankeln. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. draggle. is In e. to hand.Jicol. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. to continue dragging. miauler and beler correspond to E. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. to make a succession of grabs . cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the .FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. g. to bark like a dog. to hand-le. waggle. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. miauler andpiauler. to crackle. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. dabble. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. or in e. shuffle. compared with g. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. crack.

we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. by a hard body breaking. at was more familiarly known. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. A gull or a dupe same sense. Dupe comes to us from the French. or how generally. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. There is. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. deceit. which is the origin of the word. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. known in Italian. moreover. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. or in mode of use. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. will continue to be felt in daily speech. Polish. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. to cry ugh at. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. and comparatively few easily deceived. the breach. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. it is obviously a mere chance how long. which. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. on a moment's reflection. although it is not difficult. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. to the separation between the broken parts. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. or in aptness to combine with other elements.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Breton. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges.

or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. . life. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. however. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. founded in manifest blunder. and the grounds of lie shortcomings.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. Hitl^erto. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. language is . No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. and the word is used in a secondary sense. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. nor any limited of ideas. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. is. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue.

When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. and vescovo. compared with the duration of man. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. circle perpetrates a new slang term. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. i. unintelligible to other hordes. out. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. evique. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. therefore. hearing. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. of material things. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. I think it very probable. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. Naturalist on the Amazons. If English. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). change. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. Welsh. in the course of many years' isolation. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. 330. guages in South America. French. episcopus. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and 'Russian. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained.

as shown in the subjoined illustration. The combination of the symbols I and 2. the actual it which would to represent. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 6. and . Cijlt. 8. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. Nor is there one of the letters. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. A key must unlock more doors than this. to be taken (Prim.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. ao8). . as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. is MN. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. 7. or whatever the proportion may be. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. which are idenr Figures 5. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. i. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. it will leave figures 3 and 4. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. 9. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. ancient Greek M .

and the only safe beneficent Creator. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. his fellows. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. which either by direct resemblance of sound. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. If new 'modes of phonetic expression.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. had its origin in imitation of sound. or. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech." the use of a change of vowel in as. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. for instance. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. known to us as yet. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. in the shape either of direct inspiration. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. leading him to utterances. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought.' should be discovered. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. what comes to the same thing.

race were speaking men or not. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . until the progeny.COMPLETION OF MAN. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. and rose towards a higher state of being. or of their own reflected thoughts . attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . of using imitative conduct . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. and when we look back as far as history will reach. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . as elephants. that he started from the lowest grade. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. and sooner or later. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. in the course of generations. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . or else. the conduct of Ixix life. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or beavers. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. for instance. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. by animal without a trace name of Man. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or not. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man.

Provincial dialect.-Eng. 1857. Diefenbaeh. Wtb. Diet.V. Bohemian or Czech. Dueange.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Dief. Diet. Bigl. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Carpentier. Elfric's Fl. Da. Fr. Esth. Grammar Boh. 1654.Nieder. dial. Bav. Finnish. 1768. AS. or Dan. Romano - Cas- traise. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dief. Diefeiibach. B. Supplement to Dueange.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Biglotton seu Diet. Danish. Bremisch. Gr. 1766. Gothischen 1851.. . dialect of the Sette Commune. Dueange. Bavarian. Teutonico-Lat. Sup. 1737. Supplement to Bret. Cimbrisch. ^Ifr. Cotgrave. de la langue Cat. Couzinid. E. Due. Infimse Latini- D. Baile/sEngl. Douglas' Virgil. at the end of Somner's Diet. Cot. Castr. English. Dn. Anglo-Saxon. Diet. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Cimbr. 1850. Brem. Dutch. Fin. Esthonian. Catalan. Carp.



7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r.5 ERRATA. r.. katowai perairrantr. alUger ahaverie r. plowied budowaer. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. cruccio deyrie. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. yjnaifia r. r. willekom Blab r. kilistaa bugiie r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. haverie crtOT r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. baltresca nokkutomax. word allagerr. buque 118 brodiquin r. (/ijtf r. ^i?^i2! r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. Blob plowied r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r.>. puHti r. sveritet Asknace r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. Askance woud r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. cti. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?.nokkutama willekem.percurrunt kimista^x. woman r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r.


A. ibandonner. command. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. 843. the er. on. to sauff the king or spill. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. of-dune. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. Again. abaft. AS.he Goth. Abandon. whatever he be. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. —Bruce. Hence on-bceftan. abs. compounds. on-bsec . The word Ban is common orders. out of. away.t G. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. in the same sense. onis aback. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. iway from. this word beand Spanish. 244. us. Jvery man shewid baft. OHG. dominion. vs. . In Lat. in. announcement. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. have entire dominion over. Abaft. alike. be-ceftan. from a is to wake to abide. o/j of or . and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. er. into the Romance ftrseg . K . Thou spelds of mychty iction. ur. dominion. away from. but now )bsolete). and — Chaucer. a washing off to abstain. and secondarily in that of command. Abs-. on. off. a.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. in a manner other than it should be ablution. ifter. erwachen. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. to subdue. to awake. as. as. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. ab. plesyt him. Immediately from Fr. to arise. an edict or proclamation. downwards. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. a/tan. Dent posture. behind. from. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. orders. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. among. Lat. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. power : Than Wallace thing. is commonly :he remnant of the AS.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. baftan. To abuse is to use iway. Thus ip N3S. rule. Parson's Tale. to hold . might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. said. his. particular 1 . state of sleep . Ab-. sion of 'an abandoned character. bandon in French. until the event jlace . implying a completion of J. literally. on-lic. ar. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. ir. Passing tongues. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. AS. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . "rom a height.

cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. iv. — Neccham. c. or society of abbots or monks. vol. to light upon. polish. to diminish the force of any. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. his eyen shene. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. faire tomber.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. to make lower. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray.On princes. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. . esba. Beat. where custom (Grandg. uncontroUedly. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise.Prov.fournir. Bate. to beat furnish. or admiration. terminedly. may be explained. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. ais. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. Hart in Jamieson. drink. Baba ! Mod. ant. 364s. to strike sail . Abbess.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. See . abbatere. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. Cotgr. bawi. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. et prirent terre. in the active form. esbahissant. astonish. abbattre. It. See Abide. to happen. from ravir. depress. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. thing abbatere le vela. R. betrash. down. . Hence Lat. person. to take possession of an estate. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. impulse. and the verb was written in Eng. weaken. — — . law term abatement. lish to abaisse orabaish. as ravish.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. to abaw or astonish. to ruin. R. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg.down. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Castrais. to strike Froiss. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. merely the terminations ons. so common in the found in the OFr.) . baer. R. burny was formerly burnish . abbas. To Abate. overthrow. I was abawid for merveille. castle. with or without a final sh. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. abaundunem-ent. 1 1 8. abate. esbahir. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . and that from Syrian abba. at his own the lips. of wonder. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. Abbot. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. to bate something of the price abbatersi. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. d. to overthrow.polir. to The .' the surrender of a ' K. to hit. And he thereof was all abashed. father. of the Fr. Fr. to excite admiration. Abbey. an abbey. shame. from Lat. On the other in use as well as hand. Wall. beer.esbawi. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. Custom.— R. effect of shame. by Wall. and sets them all agape. confound. adverbial expressions at abandon. of fear. A. Milton. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. 1520. impetuously. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. abbatere dal prezzo. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. to gape.— — . must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. astony. de. burny. and grooms besmeared with gold. his mouth. bandon. Originally. to put to con. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. More correctly written abbat. abbatis. other. esbahissais. son bandon. In or. Hence the OE. ne more vermeille. abandonly. baba. and it that that it — . and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. abbatia. to astonish.

to desire. expectation. wait. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. Corresponding to keep in suspense. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. . to open bader. songer. white. . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. to expect gabeidan. beidan. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. Thus G. a bay or opening in the coast. open the mouth. inciter. desire. bouche b^ante. guardare. covet. to desire earnestly. beijden. The verb atwaiting. Abie. ne chastised them. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. beguile. with open mouth .— ^richer. tempting. in Dan. from Halo. bocca badata. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. house. abiiance. to look. a right in suspense . — signifies to suspend action. tarrying . bida. to wait. Gloss. to suffer death in Du. abet. See Abide. abayer. to In great amaze. to open the mouth. gola badada. bana. bder. exciter. aspirer. forms with the d effaced are OFr. take notice. 366. abSiance. Q. bidan. —Raynouard. abie. baier. or in Fr. Gloss. regarder.was formerly used in the sense of look. beijen. to gape . forbearance.Fr. . Abele. endurArt thou he that should come. to wait. de Champ. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. and Prov. Norm. with badia. to yawn. and alluring to his own destruction. usbeisnei. tity of E. syllable ba. abet. The white poplar. badigliare. bie.— Chaucer. delay. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. m Abeyance. bida. baier. listen. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. ' ' . signifies the direction of tend. to ance. Fabl. attendre See Bait. delay. de Berri) Prov. abie. to be intent upon. deceiving. tenere a bada. beidan. badare. lingering. Thus we have It. trick abetar. or absorption watching. we sceolon ON. . E. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. badare. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. to tarry. bie compared with Dan. bhr. suffer b.— Roquef. ceive. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. which the mind to an object. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. compared with (Bosworth). attendre avec en^pressement. othres abidan' The effacement expect. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. to hook. to remain or endure. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. beijen. listening. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. OFr. to abide . bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. bialodrze-w. K. Ducange. abidan. baier compared with It. incite . abeyance. intent observation. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. abbadare. (Vocab. Goth. b^er. Cat. have seen abide. says. to be intent upon. watch. badar. From abahier. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. which is certainly related to It. ne wist what way to chuse. or do we AS. ^couter avec dtonnement.. in Fr. Cat. pense. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. In We . aspire to. to attend to. Guernsey beth.) abayer. to stay.' is in AS. Norm. wait To Abide. — . Corant sens lui. . to mind. abetter.to wait. and in E. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. also to OFr. — II. Ni engigner ni abiter. badare. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. the verb of abeyance. look for another. take care. 1 • . beter. endurance. verbeijen Sw. beguiling on the other. abaier. and E. were called Brothers. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. while the monks under his control ing. bouche bdante. us. warten. to deanimer. on the one hand. John. Du. to expect. deceit. To Abet. to deceive. bada. expectfamily. desirer (Roquef. — ABELE Epiphanius. bide of the d endure. expectation. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. baer. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to wait. to It. Pol. suspense. delay. gridare. Boethius. Prov. qui iaaille. Quant voit le serpent. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. abeter. literally white tree. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . tical with It. waiting. is idenwait. to stay. inciting. speaking of the Holy places. to attend on . F.

the Sir Tristrem. N. sufficient. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. properly abuy. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. R. to redeem. though sometimes confounded with it. at hand). She shall abie that trespass dere. i. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. abidge. forbid for mother's children should abye. to pay the purchasemoney.ynes. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. use.^and to make his power knowne. de la volatile. habilis is closely preserved. Prol. . The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. Tr. Milton. bidan. aboleo. F. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. as habiller du chanvre. Dr. Cassar. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . Abie. Fr. 2. to have . and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. abeye. have-like. fit. O If tion. abie to Goth. the side of a ship. being disabled in the highest degree. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. abolir. and the simple buy. at kasta fyri bord. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. suffer the Jul. abilej Prov. strong. to wear away. beidan. to dress hemp. to pay the penalty. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. to draw fowls. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. fault being simply clothing. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. able. Innan bords. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. bide. atling hem to her proper offices. a board. to . habile. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Mids. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. when compared with Aboard. and death for handsel pay. must suffer for it. habilis (from habeo. For on board. consequences of anything . willing to schewe his wrathe. P. The —Boucher. P. It. to perish. Lat. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. abilh. from Lat. abicgan. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. If it badare. powerful. power. abigg. and Cr. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. convenient. abide. — P. the Fr. from AS. adapted . God — dear. Boucher. purpose. abie. al- be found so some will dear abide it. him with che. or bie. 2nd Tale. is the verb abie. Merch. — Able. Wickliff in Richardson. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. in for any special purpose. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. —Bacon in R. without special reference to the notion of retribution. AS. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. L. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. abycgan. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. God. Fr. on board . swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. while in later examples As I . Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. Spenser. within the walls of a ship. In this to erase or annul. within the ship. R. bord. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. expert. ! ! Cotgr. was often used in the same sense. as E. Chaucer. durance in both applications. ON. &c. the Pardoner In the original. — e. Q.

the vital spark. to grow up. Then. around on the out. Melibaeus. the identity of which with ting. draw out. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. . The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. literally. life. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. below. For on broach.) . OE.ymbutan. abbrechen. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. is a ively. explains soboles Lat. abrdger. To Abound. Of these synonymous adolescere. which passed into English under Abominate. abracan. parent. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to let sleep. oil. Sc. al is growth. en. the hair grow. leading immediately to Fr. be-utan. abominor (from ab and omen. a portent). ABOMINABLE adolesco. Fr. to produce. and also.. Severe the threatened evil. So in Lat. Virg. snatch In English we speak of away. as withotityn and without. to rear. to awake.ger. by the to bring up. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. adolere. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. abredan. without. coalesco. to aggravate. d.' Parson's rence. motion.aboon. the idea of breaking about . sec seftre — Chaucer. D. Prov. hard. to AS. alere capillos. butan. Thonne Abroach. s —Casdmon.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. progeny. OE. while the verb alleThe root el. boven. The primitive idea seems that of beget. to light a fire the Abraid.. to feed. as the duty of nourdisposition. for ligeth butan. full ofte his words for to Fr. to cut short. alan. Abundant. break out. AS.foda signifies to beget. agredge. seems aras. to rear. outward. Lat. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). to progress. about cockcrow. and bidden him abregge. is not from G. titan. Quod abominor. ala. levis to the Romance languages. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. be-ufan. Thence to regard greugetat. but from Lat. The radical idea is to feed the flame. nurse Lat. pedigree from brevis. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. Abray. Tale. abowen. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. or cut short. abrcBgdan. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. In the same brevis . to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. natural ed direct from the latter language. the man dwindles away. kindling. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. agreujar. which may God avert. the OSw. way Sw. to beget or give birth to children. To abray or abraid. See -und-. abufan. to turn. Finnish stock. to start. common in Chaucer and Abominable.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. Goth.' Ymb hancred utan. abbrechen. whence the Fr. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. above. af-oleii. ufan. giving birth to. alan. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. ol. currence. ala is made to signify to rear. AS. Du. and in-d-oles. as AS. and alere flammain. vital PI. while the sense of beget. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. nurse. abbreviare. the form a&^^. to break off. to main. Gael alaich. and also to abridge. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. breaking out in language. onbutan. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. — .1. to grow together. from . See To Bray. to fatten. greu. bufan. abutan. to snatch. awaking. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. to feed. nourish. Kiittner. gravis.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. gravity. Abrdger itself. af-oolden. to nourish. from Fr. brood. AS.— Abbreviate. Above. on high. becomes leu in Prov. of any kind . his contemporaries. .the older form. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. alUger. heavy. OSw. that greatly agredge their sin. side. or young forth. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. to bring up. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. and to do something to avert abbreviate. — ' — — preceding verb.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


Gr. as the Italians. Fr. Percutere.th centuries the recognised models of antic. whence Prov. and claret wine. G. Apartment. from an. Ful- Apanage. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. i. some one. to strain. a termination equivalent to Goth. and devils. to go in strange disguises. a definite . anapoz. from avTiipoiuia). Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. as posticus. one. a puppet or an anti^hona. cenig. from ango. panar.legacy of given against. Fr. AS. finally applied to a whether grotesca. wealth. avri^ava. aside. amboltj Du.. and ig. one having wealth. —Spencer. Mannequin. Hall's Chron. choke. from ante. before. Fr. Hence the applica. aperio. As the browcalled antiques. to bring forth. incus. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. from eigan. apertum. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. rich. apatiar. To ape. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. See Cover. Antler. apanage. stem. ambeld. work. as from as. swaged. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. post. So Lat. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. antefn. something ler in R. such as savages. before. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. to support. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Anxious. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. a few. E. a preventative . Lat. vex. d<popi(xnbs. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. whence anthem. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. to strike G. Prov. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. ab. surimitation of the ancient models. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. Gr. a gift.—Aperture. Ilvtwotov. andouillers. on. Otfried. Aphorism. gabeigs. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. fauns. from an and — - . to have. from. a small quantity. . but the expresent day. to open. inAgain from the same author cudis. strangle. antifena. a block to hammer on. d. all of gold. Gr. In like manner. to imitate gestures. anxius. Pezron fiUist. to nourish. anfilts Pl. ReApe. of. to strike. were chiefly of the former class. from. should be received. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. in Shakespear. plenteously with red. were andouiller the second. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. younger child. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. — — — . Any. Antique. from Stephanus. press. part. the anticks — behind. white. Lat. Aperient. eigs. anxi. panis. Lat. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. verberas. as we call it. AS. to sound in answer. which by anvild. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. from in and cudere. Lat. or in a ridiculous dress.D. anticus. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. burnished. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Apart. transferred to the grotesque characters. Apartment. separate. what Roman civilisation.— . or antique single chamber. left as the . to display pario. Antick. Jorioc.is to be given. AS. one at the least. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. Antidote. three antike pillers. villan Gloss. from the imitative habits of monkeys. like a jack-pudding. bread. : .made out. separate purpose. af. Anvil. set aside. trouble. To go antiquely. Thus from gabe.

order. appartenir. Fr. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. quoth the frere. Apotliecary. to understand. apprendre. praise. To praise. — dirondtfiu. An old appalled wight. Mod. peace. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. apal. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. ^wss. to learn. ai. proper time came. Prov. peler. Cotgr. to suit. and in the sense of condition. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. after his mind . to accord. irpaiKOKiaov. to store or put Appal. case. from. agree. APRICOT off. one is in. It. a'^opi'Jw.— . array. agreeing with "LtA. 23 . to learn. Lat. ar. from aTroorlXXu. to fit. Cotgr. allow. 11. apin R. to disable oftat. a learner.parejo. d-n-o. Cent Nouv. To Appear. to Lat. To cause to pall (see Pall). . plight. to call. to send off. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. to call for judgment. They werin his approvirs privily. to deem good. —^Apparent. : — — speak 'Lz. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. Walach. in commendation.prix. Apple. apprise. The Fr. N. OFr. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. to strike down. obolys. Apprehend. trim. like. in data. approcher. Cotgr. And whanne sum men Lat. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to approach. to come near. xv. pertain or belong to. kind of action. apprentis. whence the e. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Hence It. poind. Apo- good time. to set a price on. oVooroXof. To Appraise. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Approach. to make a thing Apparel. and metaphorically to take the meaning. pronounce fitting). horror. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. when the . or the like. Gr. to deter- to strike. iwKjToKri. Friar's Tale. diminutive pariculus. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. were formed appropiare ejar. apparecchiare. esteem. jabloko. ap. pronounce good. a thing for one's purpose. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. consent unto. one the MLat. taking. ciously than nede is. from paix. off. prover. laven is used both as E. corresp. one sent out. H. a crime. Lith. mine. to seize. in Chaucer. From Gr. i. to assign or grant over unto. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. that it outfit. A — . — Apprise. 'LaX. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. fit- — ness. 5w. Nouv. to be open to view. Fr. seiden of the stones. par. to deaden. Fr. rise to \t. piteux poind. For their acquaintance was not come of new . landmark. 'L-zX. Gr. pragigua or prixcoda. (cited by Diez from a late author). and also as appraise. known. I prise ware. Apoplexy. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. word was specially applied to clothing. Appease. opportunity. Apostle. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. in good season prendre son d. diroTrXriaatii. ON. Yr. habiliments. And among other of his famous deeds. w. Prov. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. to rate. — Appurtenance. —Diez. to — — . Fr.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. apal. aptly. make a composition between parties. approcdare. to which it is often referred. diroBrjKr}. like. despatch on some service. Epistle.probare. to mark to define a bound. apprehendere. appaiser. Sp. Appareil. to send to. the good. — Approve. apar.—Apprentice. to — .his giving evidence against his principal. near. Ir. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. — prehendere. prize. Fr.pareil. lAfiaam. an epistle or letter. value apprdder. Fabian in R. of. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. Pliny. habilUr. one for his defence. probare.propius). appris. prope (comp. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. Gr. away. AS. or E. manner. appellare. a price. purpose. decree. En peach. . From Lat. Parson's Tale.t. good. and appoinder (to find fitting. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Gr. From Lat. to announce. equal. cepl. appareiller. . S^. aparelhar. Formerly apricock. Fr. set a price on.parecchio. D. to commend. They were considered To Appoint. The PI. preparation. become dizzy . dress. approver. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. apropid. to dress in this fashion. apropchar. to finish a controversy. e. Fr. to catch hold of. Fr. poind. prohts. pretium. Yr. to approve. Hence appoind. avail. APO sentence opoQ. to take away or lose the vital powers. properly to join like to like. to lose one's senses. find Then like Fr. in fact. appareo. Palsgr.

shortdr. 331. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. la nappe. Pr.) E. — napkin is Naperon. She made. — . . aro.sors. Arbour. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. Freshly turnid Arable. Roquefort. Hall. the spelland umpire. . arbitror arwaaja. Maan initial . quod he. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. 31. J. con. Gr. Beryn.o.shrubs {arbor). ughe. auguror. short. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. or eft. intensitive of nape. fastened close. This path Aqueous. Pm. found in Fin. sorcerer. . ear. {mies ^=ia3. Aquatic. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland.' —About. a river. As is a pretty parlour. as an eye-witness. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . man. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. sestimatio arbitraria. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. Prol. and with turfis new Goth. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. account for either of these significations. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. From OE. hariolus arpelen. and taken away before dessert. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron.] in the N. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. C. opinio. aqua. a cloth. to decide by lot. It is certain that the apricot oracle. is taken in is a soothsayer. Now we find in Fin. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. tion under trial. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. Lat. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. arbiter. to plough. a pleasure-ground. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. Arbitrate. OHG. of of divination arpa-mies. Now one of the points — — — . nompire herbs being no longer apparent. and sortilegus ation. Albanian. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. P. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. grande nappe. wata. Marsh. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. A. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. ahva. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. P. Thus we have natiger and auger. aha. arpa. arwaus. OE. From OFr. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. arbiter in re censendS. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. a lot. nawl and awl. derived. proper. arwelo. water Which that benchid was. herbere. however. 2. aa. and the one who gives oracles. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. naperon. be That it inne groweth. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. symbol. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. delon. Flower and Leaf. The loss or addition of n very common. and thence fit. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. arbitrium. doubtless is the origin of E. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . conjicio. garden. Lat. most conspicuous situation in the garden . SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. rofe and all. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. a lot. to preserve it from stains. however. divining rod.meaning at Shrewsbury. It may be doubted. Lat. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. scr. as ihe diminutive. a soothsayer. Alban. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. or barm-cloth. aptus. nected.. and a protection of the clothes. sortium ductor. properly the arwella. a lot. conjectura conjec^ra. Naprun. ap. aestimo. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. suitable. pracoqua was not an adapt. words derived from arpa. .

. Langobard. wanton. Perhaps erz-wticherer. shoulder. a. Gr. ancient. Lat. arga.is the natural weapon of offence. high. gwyro to bend. ers-betriiger. Lat. arg. fabricate). are formed the participial nouns. earh. an arch boy. difficult to reach. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. an arch-deceiver . arrig. Arduous. which is derived from it. Aristocracy. Fr. fainthearted. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour.. first. Arson. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. erz in G. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. and not with apx. Area. especially shoulder-joint. arm. while the Fr. 2. receptacle where the public acts were kept. arwe. un malin enfant. apxri. ardor. ramo (pi. from nixa.' Paul Warnefrid. un petit rusd. A construct. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. to be on fire. an extent of flat surface. to burn . armata. Lat. vescovo. Brem. * ArchjAiTaxit. Sp. ' — Argue. apx^iv. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. mischievous. mischievous. et vulgari verbo. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. as the arch of a bridge. D. the terminaGael. Sax. worker. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. W. argvitugr. and Kpurka. Gr. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. Arid. Cot. . Lat. taxed with cowardice. Arch in composition. exercise lordship). From the verb armare. signifies chief or principal. curved. G. shoulder Boh. to be in comp. Applied in modern E. It. From apxeiov was formed Lat. by Russ. ardeo. vocaveris. sluggish. to Arch. arguo. archangel. an arrant rogue.— Army. earm. 3340. arm. morally bad. patus). a chief builder. it signifies roguish. een erg kind. AS. to arm. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. in Due. burning heat. Arm. Dan. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. arcus. — Wtb. bad. Arcadia in R. ON. . arma. argr. stuff. — Architect. earg. Lat.4 rir/. lofty. arcA in e. bad. apxh. raineno. arm'ee.' the Gr. G. ramend). the most arrant trash. ardIn G. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. arduus. arch-bishop. bad of its kind.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. armada. Alisaunder. i. as in E. Lat. Fr. armee. weapon may be simply an application of annus. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents.. man. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. contemptible. arson. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . ein arger knabe. . forearm . erg. ardre. weapon. wretched OE. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. troublesome. Uo^a^. rame. timid. faint-hearted. is essentially the same word. apxtipfve. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). a court yard. Ardent.' Lex. branch. det arrigste snavs. and must be identified with Dan. aj-f. aridus. Fr. And thou as arwe coward. sly. Ardour. Gr. a bare plot of ground. curved line. arrant Arms. sly. ruling by the nobles. the best. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. . ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. erz-bischof. to rule. make clear or prove. Arcliives. government. apxtlov. malicious. a bow. to dry. the court of a magistrate. a threshing-floor. the a brute. The . kpxi- beginning. which has been referred to W. an arrant usurer. a rule (princiruler. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. area. gwyrek. Du.In E. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. arsum. and our army. TiKToiv.aioj. a burning or setting on fire. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. ^Argument. bravest. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. whence the body of the nobles collectively. There can be no doubt that E. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. ars. adjective. a branch. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. Du. Gr. to demonstrate. a noble. Lat. ill-tempered. from areo. Lat. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

to ail. to paddle in water . balken. dial. calamity. baalie. to rock. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. Fr. . the beam of a ship. In like manner Fr. pallo. a ball. to be ill. to wave. may exhibit the original development of the signification. i. ballar). pila. the breadth from side to side . ballet. a ball or pack. balk. to Not sparing wight. w. Baulke of land. Ball. bjdlki. sorrow. balka bunge. Sw. probably Lat. a together in the form of a ball. ' is a piece or confused talking. . to move. a clapping or flapping of wings. a partition. OFr. OSw. baloier. to plank. balka hopar. OHG. similar connection is seen in Sp. a wooden partition . to speak an un. pallukka. a water-skin dim. I. E. to ache. . to bale out. Venet. vcdra bdlkr. Sw. on the shore. balk. Mid. Du. torment. a great ball. The primary sense seems as in G. It. It. a ballad. bal-daed. baalien. pain. boleii. Perhaps on. vacillare. balare. a boil. a pestilence. balveins. on. to cause another to miss pustule. other while. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen.of men . G. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. and evil in general. ball. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. afbalka. Sw. trouble. . Rouchi ban. the ballet of the theatres. a pill. gen. ache. bdlkr. See Gall. ball. a beam. Sw. bolawy.— Ballet. globule. sick.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . F. a ball balla. Sw.—Ballad. Hence. ball. shouting. To baulke the Sir H. bbllr bulla J. ballare. Fin. Boll. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Fr. Pol. bal. Gael. balle. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. bolyatchka. ON. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. a globe. bala. boll. heap up. palcare. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. Dan. Q. balk. ballare. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. a ball.Fr. hooting. weak liquor. pilula. wickedness ness . 3. TtaKKa a pail or tub . Ballata. bolyaf. from bacquet. a. bol. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. on. a beam. balva-vesei. whether of wood or stone. AS. e. cka. Bohem. a clump . ballotta. bealwes. Da. plague. to stir. bol. Ugutio in Due. maleficium. ill. 2. ballare. package of goods. to on Holmedon's plain. dial. balle. floor. to avoid it. roof. — A — — . ball. with the perhaps from balg. misery Du. mass. a dance. Goth. . Ballot. bielke. to be balker. A balk. It. malefacGower in R. balka. a clod of earth water. Hence Dan. to partition off . to plough for a boundary between lands. pallikka. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. a pail. to roll. to pack Da. to signify washy drink. ban. bold. bacgtteter. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). wickedtorment ON. to see-saw. . on. bal. a But making way for death at large to walke. dial. to by beams. N. uveirs bolk. separaison. palloilla. hue et illuc inclinare. balle. a skin. balja. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. chapurrar.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. It. a separate portion. G. as we say. Da. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!.Lat. to grieve . a washing-tub. ballan. a dance. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. at giore en balk.ing. ne leaving any balke. balloon. grieve . balge. dial. a scene acted in dancmg. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. balkr. Fr. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. to dance. ing. taich.). Gr. Bret. Sp. Grief. (Hesych. Russ. balle. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. a balk of foul weather. Ball. beaten road. Sw. destruction.' speak gibberish champurrar. ballone. a ball. bollr. the object of his expectation. stage or scaffold. lealo. pallo. says Ray. To Bale out water. balla (with the augm. It. are applied to a From the same analogy. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . and the dim. Bale. bolker. ballo. Du. maan pallikka. a bubble. a ball. Sw. balk. a ballot). Wotton. bola. as in a barn or cow-house. palla. to dance. Balloon. bal. a continued noise of waves gently beating . a division of the old laws. Sw. . baler. blister. balken. * Balk. Bowl. to shake or jog. tum. sickness. We have then separate dial.

to preserve equilibrium. To deceive. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. The Sp. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. Cotgr. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. Ballast. a small balustrade. When a ship discharges. Sp. To Bam. in the first place. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight.. &c. To Bamboozle. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. deceiver. Fr. Venet. dial. and Mid. puzzled. ranked on the outside of cloisters. back of the ship.000 tons. Balluster. curse. baranda. 1. baUa. urtica. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. Bamour. it is forced to take in stones or sand. deceive. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. Said to be from balaustia. The Baltic sea. by met. ballustres. astonished. but loadage. called Bait. more serious objection is . R. bambolo. lastra. endormir par des contes. ballast. ^Arbuthnot in R. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. a false tale or jeer. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. baltresac. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. But Fr. lest. fonts. denounce. &c. Gr. bumbazed. a rod. last. It is explained back by Adelung. barandado. bamein. Bret. command. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. objects to the foregoing derivation. balustrade barandilla. for want of other freight. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. make fun of a person. Mr Marsh whether the a load. like Fr. ^a\Ba\iov. to walk. a battlement . This is the backload.' And Kil. sorcerer. analogous to what is seen in It. or ballast of a ship. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. a young babe. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. bertesca. bag-las. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. Sept. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. i860. age. To proclaim. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. In OSw. more frequently than outward-bound. lestage. 1854. mare Balticun. .Lat. as he says. or movement of one who walks. A — — . for a load or goods (Roquef.). also with flatteries and . Report Pennsylv. small railing. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. bam. the act of walking. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. If bambocciolare were child of one. to enchant. a duty on goods last. balsamum. ballustre) is a corruption. from bara or vara. . Baltic. It. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. bag-lest. a fragrant gum. railing around altars. balconies. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. seems the original form of the word. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. barauste. explains ballast. inutilis sarcina. To Ban. the flower of the pomegranate. It. terraces. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. inutile onus. galleries. baume. forbid. because. Bret. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. Du. an Old dotard or imbambolare. bamboccio. — — oltriga. bambocciolo. lastagium signified not only ballast.that the going vessels. the backload. from Lat. paid for the right of carriage. 43 — Cot. Lat. Dan. Fr. enchanter. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. Lest. is in Sweden and Norway. To make fun of a person. baU. Balsam. Balm. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. Sc. little round and short pillars. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. lastre. of balusters. a useless load. a nettle. even calls in question last syllable is the Du.

A. populum. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Cot. 19. Bandus. In a special sense the term company itself. ba?idare. — To partito d'alcuno. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. a coast. 'A son bandon. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. from at the Lord's courts. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. summoning to serve So in Swiss. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. whether by way of injunction or for- command. It. and It. banda. fahne. Sw. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. in Fr. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. permission. parti. Goth. 2. Les saiges avait et les fols d. banns pany of footmen serve. acquired the sense of proclamation. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. . For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. those who side together (bande. to bring corn to be fahne. band. and thence to any proclamation. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have.Lat. theodscipe ut abannan. banner marked the place of assembly. Diss. E. Bandear. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. It. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. authority. bando. then the signification w. bande. passing on from proclamation to command. 813. Car. See Abandon. OE. to follow a faction. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. — excommunication bann-lysa. From the verb to banda. curse. flag. bannire exercitum.^ bandy. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. i. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. power. he bannede his ferde. to side or to bandy (Florio). Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. at his own discretion. tener da alcuno. . There is some doubt how Fr. is That with which anything AS. to reprove. &c. 1. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. v. Band. border. Capitul. — R.is further developed. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Spebifid. says Muratori. we constantly find the expression.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. region. R- He Translated by Chaucer. Ripuar. biddal. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. bannire in exercitum. R. Se il — Romance languages. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. and in E. side. To Bandy. ex. bandon was used in the same sense. band. to ban. admolendinum. to publish) banna. to take one to task. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. sostener Torriano. Thus the word is also used in both senses. —R. G. to unite with a band.—John Villani in Due. faction. D. Fr. a company. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. bann. to ctide.e. change to the feminine gender in banda. bindan. to . feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. Sp. bandi. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Sp. bande. Commun^ment son bandon. banda the colour or material. The to . Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). It seems this signification has arisen. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Fr. Mag. banda. margin. 26. In Fr. in hostem convocare. hoc est vexillo. etc. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. to form parties. also the band or of marriage. he assembled his host. Goth. bannum or bandum. bande. It. Baud. bound. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Wyntoun. side. bandera ground at his mill. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. &c.. bandon somewhat party. eiiseigne. the ensign or banner. 15. Leg. bundun. Assises de Jerusalem. to excommunicate {lysa. ligue Taboada).

banditti acquired the like signification. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. se joindre. Fr. bannire. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). a de Vaud. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. to proclaim. bance. de- party. bander tin arc. AS. rap hatike et som The Susu. Bank. bench. . to bend a. in the same way that E. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. See Banish. a table.HG. murderer. to work in wood. b'ang. to make a stir banke. banqueroute. Roquefort. to publicly order one out of the realm. broken. a i. has bang-bang. the same verb the It. bank. a blow. s'associer. &c. Banner. clouds. banca his creditors. the back. destruction . she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. and hence. in the sense of place of business. bana-sdr. in R. Bandy legs are crooked legs. bandire. bander.^ knock. bana. bakke. desk. of bandying words. Banditti. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Bang. large dog kept for a guatd. ON. Mid. at canis peciiarius. a bank. Hudibras. Fl. hammering. Du. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . band-dog. . &c. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. and poise Their lighter wings. Fr. banc G. It. standard. It is in this sense nounce. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. bane. a sand-bank. From a desk . ON. the former Fr. Draw. a bench. Banister. When a man fails Lat. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. But natheless wife at I bank. was formed the OFr. shoal. dorsum was applied to ject. E. Bantze. death-sickness. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. to join in league with others against Cotgn. from banc. to slay. banca fallita. many a bang. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. Benchi. Ripuar. 2. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. bench. ON. back of a knife. benk. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. language of W. banish. AS. bent as a bow. bandear. — Fr. g. a long raised seat. Africa. to knock. Mercutio. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. tumult bangas. bana-sott. a counter. N. It. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. put under the ban of the law. See Balluster. de sable. band-hond. banco. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Milton in R. in the sense of a pirate. Bane. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. From Mid. bankruptcy. . banka. eminence. . bank of Dan. a bench. the slope of a hill. home — Bandog. stir. Your stool. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. The ridge of a hill is AS. bow. Bacon in R. With many a stiff thwack. — — whence E. a wound OHG. seat . To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. pastoralis. To Bandy. Lat. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. bandi. Lingua. bank. Diez. bang. for shame. Fr. bana. Benvoglio. counter. distinguishes bekkr. a rising bank. panca. banke. bana. It. Sw. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. banc. outlam came to signify a robber. See Band. Dan. death-blow . Goth. forbear this outrage. disturbance banga. The ing. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. and bakki. . a bench. a bankrupt merchant. as of an explosion or a blow. Diaconus in Due. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. and OFr. Bandy. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. canis vinculis assuetus. Brewer. bank of a river. se reunir. — . for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. Bankrupt. follow a party. roupt. and therefore tied up. among rotta. death-wound. to cabal. beat. hricg. to hammer in a nail. ruptus. to knock. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. to beat.: .z. banja. beating. to foment factions. bander. eminence. that the word is used by Romeo. —^Vocab. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Tibalt. The word is in E. bank of river. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. 45 — — Bandit. The child cries bang! fire. — Kil. — Paulus drive in a nail. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. whence the mod. A Shipman's Tale.

E. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. to dip. jSa'pjSapoc. Barb. of a sign in general. sparre. jSdirTO). A It. Barbe. To Banter. top. ON. It may be thing. 3. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. dim. iandvo. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. to having that signification. Lat. privileged to raise Barbarous. . says. ^oTrriKio. benda. summit. to wash. as they call it. banneret. Flesche barbeUe. senheira. BARBAROUS reiflingr. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. senhal. barbe. heri-pau. bandva. of wind. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Barbar. ON. 2. barde. sign. i. barra. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. Sw. The original import of their own banner in the field. Fr. a bantling. OFr. speaking of battle. Lat. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. such as the Roman Eagle. or of this bantering. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. banneret was a higher class of knights. Celtic bar. signuin. The origin is in all probability Goth. Duo. bandiera. from the same source. manu anto make signs nuere. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. — We A . indeed. barre. a which the barrister addresses the court. and he would seem to derive Goth. uncivilised. inferior to a baron. nestling. and even of calling it banter. men. banchetto. which is surely in barbed arrow. Fr. to bend. Gr. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. a. banne. branches of a tree {gwezen. bar. The barb of an arrow is the sign . and with an initial s. OHG. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. from reifa. ban- Baptise.. barreau. a beam or long pole of wood. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. and from ensign or banner Prov. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. barrack. wrapped. banniire. a bearded or Cot. G. rod of any rigid substance. Fr. brushwood.the analogous syllable viur. To mock or jeer one. Hence ner. barrou-gwez. E. banda. In a similar manner are formed yearling. It. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round.hinder. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Barb. Fr. hence a repast. Thus Ovid. and it was accord. a war-beacon or war-signal. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. It. barbarus. ingly very generally known by a name branches. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. Banquet. The spar. that the noise of voices Bantling. barba. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. sbarra. banda hendi. Bap. E. Banneret. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. sparro. senhal. to beckon . a bench or table . Lat. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. of ensign would be a flag or streamer.8ap6^o)voe. himself in Pontus. a tree). OHG. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. It. a barrier or stoppage. Leduchat. then branches. token. ing term appears in other languages. Bret. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. inur. banner. branch. would rupted from Fr. of banco.— Swift in R. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. probably corSymbol. bannereti. barrer.. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. barriire. barbed or trapped as a great horse. the word came to signify rude. milites bannarii. then fell among the foot. a sign. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. Hence Fr. remarked.46 BANNERET . period vexillarii. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. chan. &c. merki. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. &c. According to Diez the It. either in the Gr. and the work is done. —Cot. Fr. Gael. a ban. an animal a year old. to wrap. Gr. knight Bardd. Fr. senh.cruel. rarii.aTa Kul nest. arineXov. out of a wound. in Gr.

Sp. a shingle or small board. Applied in E. berj G. stutter. borboglio. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. Bare. baragouin. also to bind or tie across. to rumble. to gurgle. to prattle. barbeum.) to wrangle. — — Hence. bar. skirmish. borborinha. barbel. Hindost. waschen. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. skialldar-bard. Pr. muttering. /3£pjSepi^w. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. to mumble or mutter words. G. and foolishly. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai.— BARBEL merit of water. borbulhar. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. Barde. guazzolare. the nakedness of a woman. Hatt-bard. albarda'ah. barbier. Etym. speak confusedly. to stammer. . bhasad. horse armour covering the front. Port. grumble (Lowndes.— — Pm. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Bargain.— Fl. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. which was of talking. barbacane. to chafbargain. Cotgr. in the sense of fight. Sp. small pack-saddle. used 2. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. murmur . barbeau. gibberish. twattle. A shrub bearing acid Diet. barbar. fortia —Strabo. albardilla. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. on. barguigner. upper chamber. ready money. bare baskojis. Bret. and Sc. to plash or dabble. g. guaszare. i. — . Gr. to It. ala. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. barbugliare. Russ. quarrel . to barbe or trap horses. barbarkama. It. Arab. a pack-saddle. lb. to bubble or boil. A7 to the and warlike. — . a rumbling. saddle-cloth. — Cot. jargon. Diez. to bubble or spring up. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. The Pers. brabble in the making of a bargain. Cotgr. w. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. bardd. But Sp. border. berries. in Fr. uproar. Lex. Lucan. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. barz. a long saddle for an ass or mule. skirt. Fr. such as houses are covered Bardelle. haggle. Mod. tree. Barbel. barbulla. back. a bardelle. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. bdla-khaneh. and flanks.' Cot. Festus in Diet. Cot. Barber. baares geld. — — — men. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Bardeau. Fr. Thus the on. bds. axilla. albarda. name Fr. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. Mod. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. barda. Fl. Exposed to view. to make an outcry . whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. barbaris. Etym. OFr. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Fr. powdered all over. Barder. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. and in Flanders to vociferate. barefooted Sanscr. as well as the modern twaddle. bdsas. is lb. Sp. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. open. twcEtta. borbollar. as well as thwcEtta. Gr. to boil or bubble up . the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. . the flap of a hat. formerly used in the sense of tattle. Lith. to grunt. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. baar. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. uncovered. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. An outwork for the defence of a gate. barbelin. in poetic language Bard for poet.) . Bard. Port. borbotar. border of a garden bed. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. to stammer. Barberry. and the word was used in OE. skola. a jetty or outnook in a building. barbeter. bardes. barda. mutter. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . scouthouse. unqualified. Fr. coping. tattle. brim. Hall in R. to wash. bdsiis. It. boil. barS. the quilted with. the beard. a tumultuous assembly. or more properly (says fer. /3opj3opwJu. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. also to wallow like a seething pot. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. Barbican. dial. barboter.

hemlock. — Zeuss. Du. Bret. contest. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. skuta. barlich. limpet.) lihtes-ern. . — battle.^Voc^. bern. bread-corn. aheap. to wrangle. baaring. As Goth. and may therefore be an Eastern word. dispute . brenig. plants). and is probably a true bartig. bere. barafustar. baron. to strive. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. the fore or after end of a boat . From Fr. Bark. Bailey. adj. Originally man. a heap. bcern. bernac. Antiq. barley. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. baimeach. and llysiaw. and ern. baarm. strife. kani. houbartij fsnile. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. to rout. Lith. barge. ON. the G. i.' bardagi. Sp. strife. fray. bosom. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. beornt. dispute. Dan. a lantern. to scold. It. baratta. Prov. Port. Cornub. also to exchange. AS. berem. . * Barnacles. See Barm. Ibid. as well as Scandinavian tongues. baaren. a receptacle for barley or corn. baralha. Dan. ber (ace. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. — de Berri. a load. Bemiques. . strife. a baking place or oven. barmr. baron)^ Fr. quant a perdu sa barja. barone. W. altercation. a lap. barnis. am. one who stirs up strife. bern. confusion. to all the barca. borkr. Uzen. See formed Yeast. as in the case of Lat. bark . berm. barnacles. a heap . barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. dial. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. Spectacles. Swab. dispute barattare. Kil. prominent part of a thing. barii. Provj bar (ace. spectacles. hay-loft. Sp. The Goth. barley. Camus. Barn. also a boat . but the woman for the man. to cheat. hlaSa. To Bark. Port. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. louzou. dispute. and 1. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Leg. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. Alam. in the Brim. ON. 2. as. giving rise to It. bamagh. bcerme. barn. baralhar. Vocab. (Ihre. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. tumult. edge. 2. Rayn. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. Isidore in Rayn. as. barafunda. bread. varen. Romance barsie. squabble. Manx bayrn. barms. Leg. was barlic. bargain. a boat. Baron. struggle. entangle. barki. husband. On the other hand. —Bark. OSw. It. wine. is simply the Bret. Tarn baronem quam feminam. commonly explained from bere. barlys {bara. OFr. Acervus. barizeins indicates a noun baris. ON. the A — Ihre. So also ON. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. hladi. quarrel Port.. ThS man was not created for the woman. — Barnacle. to skin over barkandi. OFr. from an imita- Barley. bosom . the rack or manger. Sp. a stack. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. contest. The older form in e. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. lap. in Nat.. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. baratta. baerm. herbs. v. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. berm hoys. prasepe . name being given to spectacles. limpets . baniffa. limpets. quarrel. berm. AS. as baces-ern. barretor. Barbour in Jam.Barum vel feminam. a place. baarn. and hence probably (by a metaphor. barley. baragouin. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. beer. to shufSe. E. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. bard). barahunda. berma. Sw. at barka. a beak. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. meta foeni. dregs of oil. Gael. then the bows pectus navis. Garlick. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Ripuar. the or prow of a ship. barlys. tion of the sound. a barn. charlock. The origin may be throat. a cap . ON. Du. barn. put to confusion. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. astringent. the slimy substance brewing of beer. Barge. disorder. barn. mhg. beorcan. a. trouble. barja. Gl. . to chop. then honoured man. and the word. w. chaffer. dispute . border. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barajar. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. So ON. skutr. corn-shed. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide.

hut.' that Barrier. — Kil. Nominale of the from braeckland. barchent. habeant. Bamnculus a baronet. barrique. Joshua vii.. seem to be radically the same with Lat. beorgan. It. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. a kind of coarse camlet. implement for carryAS. whenever Barrow-hog. baronculi. Sp. barile. to carry. change of goods seems. a hiU. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. bark&n. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. booth. whence Barrow. Gael. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. barrila. It. G. S. OE. vir. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. — — 15th Cent. Bret. cise formation of the word. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. a man. Barren. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. perhaps through Prov. barrack. barrique. baragan. bearg . vel pretiosos burellos. On chet — We — — their resemblance. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. iver. shed. like bargain. or simply bahre. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. AS. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. baronuU. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. by early examples. alongside of barrow. especially those killed in battle. baronetti. uncultivated. boar. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Bohem. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. berewe. a.' Op. Bern. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. mound.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. bara. E. breinej Du. See Bar. squabble. ibid. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. to shelter. borov'. bouracan. and not from Fr. Fr. beorg. dispute. barril.— Gibbon. which would barragdn. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. bera. composed of dry branches ofer. (Schmeller). In our own law it was used for married parchanus. from a tree to which a man is hanged. Fr. a bier. Formed from Fr. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. strife. became bidre. rolls of Parliament. fortification. bara. The feudal tenants next Fr.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. in the first instance. as. It was not until the time of James I. MHG. beorh. ^Vocab. G. a horse. An ing. tomb. to * Barragan. staves. 2. a barrow.have been named from the haggling and gant. semen non accipiens landiEL. It. Sp. OFr. a barrel. facture. man and wife. AS. 26. calico. fear. barague. in Nat. gwr.parchanttuech. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. baroncelli. were sometimes confounded. signifying. braeck. branches. sterilis. See Barter. — A . fallow. then traffick4 Barrow. sepulchre. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. This word introduced into Fr. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. brushwood. a. Barrel. berwen. nobles. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. Barrack. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Goth. also termed bannerets. Baron andfemme. as cavalcade. Gael. over him. man. bredhan. Barrister. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful.. Barratry. A. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro.root signifying confused noise. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. The Sp. D. Bargus or moreland. from cavallo. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. 1. heap. It should be observed that. litter. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. baracca. gravis et authenticus vir. todtenbahre. Barricade. a bar. barri. a hut or booth. StiU he shows conclusively. Sp. the two names. the braw. w. a castrated hog . Antiq. and in several instances. bahre. barrier. cover. an obstruction. vair. ^Barrator. Russ. a word is always used in the plural number. from beran. barraca. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. bier. qui have not much light on the pre. barre. barBombicinus. garment still used in Morocco. baraignej Picard. soldiers' barracks are mentioned.

plaiting of splinters basged. partieren. fraud. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. berewic. PaaiKhms. chasa ogli a bastard. court-yard. from /3aR. to truck. descended of an honorable lineage. Basket. to bargain. he. the manorhousfe itself. curtus. AS.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Newman. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. scale in music. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. baste. G. would be.' Gl. Isidore. MHG. the thin skin Dan. . basso. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. which covers the grain Ger. Lend me your hands. and tun. barter. a basket masg. bareter. It. God it wot. Bassus. beretun. To Baste. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Sw. flat. HaU in HaUiwell. There is not one that. bds. a tying. imbastire. to bind. stitch. pdrdt. fornication. a ftiesh. Al is dai. baste. on a. bdtir. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. to baste. But according And Dan. — in Rich. BassuS. Fris. bast. Lap. as It. to stitch . MS. besst-u-b£nd&t. husk bast van koren. beguile. It. lust. baratar. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). from bere. Sp. Du. It.). bestcn. back. It. Bartizan. foist in bargaining.D. leviter consuere. thick. corn-farm. fornication. baste. lattice-work. netting. but he dreth presently. See Brattice. to cheat. dwelling. aiKcig. bark. Swed. to cheat. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. unrighteous gain. To stitch. ^Is de bast. barter. lift me above Parnassus. or wic. . the — — to kill those that look upon it. a king. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. The like property hath the iasilisk. imbastire. baraet (from Fr. hoops of a cask. a bass rope. Bast. bas. See Bath. come near. a court-yard. Fr. Halliwell.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. bass-matting.looketh upon his eyes. or running away with the ship. Dan. The original meaning. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. mavult dicere Roma suam. It is mentioned as . baos. to baste piece of cloth. crassus. basso. Basilisk. beortun. the a wide open vessel. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. ing for profit. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. bast. rope for — . exchange. also the demesne lands of a manor. 516. cog. to long — a British word by Martial. oe. OFr. Pl. /«r<fSp. as the diadem of the basilisk. bran. pressed down. and Bret. fhe outhouses and yards. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. piiiguis. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. him. a ipgli So Turk. low. a deceiver. commonly A joined with the word binda. basg. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. bastear. — hanging. besst. then cheating. ' Bosworth. found in Turkish . HaUiweU. Bass. Fr. Arthur and Merlini. more noble in blood than notable in learning. fits de bas. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. discourse Nay. at basta og binda. bast-maatte. ibid. Barbara de pictis veni patch. binding. — Bassoon. a bastard. of the same sense. but born in baste. A fabulous serpent. humilis. Sp. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Bass. tierer. . which sets up its hood when angry. i. basgod. bestan. chasa. low note. exchange. truck. It. It. Kil. low part of the Hickes in Rich. To Bask. embastir. baratear. baxoj w. basta. baraand especially teria. n' is n' is bacino. Sw. low. Apparently of Celtic origin. F. over-reaching. to deceive. basta. MHG. OFr. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . to bind. Sicamb. to bind hand and foot. bast. said Base. also to Cotgr. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. Du. Gr. HoUinshed. mean . Fr. ohg. ' He was begetin o bast. preparatory stitching. according from Gael. bassin. Sp. mock not. peel. shallow. a halter.' Papias. Sylvester's Dubartas. bast-reb. cheating. to Diez. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. barley. Bastard. submovet omne Lucan. inclosure. Barton. w. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Dan.

set up. liiake. p. Sw. to flap. Rayn. and ditches bastion. . guerra bastir. ment. to rub. a things prepared for future use.fortress or castle furnished with towers. 'iJipistreUo. to teach one before. Perhaps baska. blakta. bat. a blow cloth for dinner. a pad or packsaddle.— Bailey. ari instruineht for beating. to whip. To baste one's hide . natt-blakka. Sp. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. pre. Fr. bastine. to stroke. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. contrive. provisions.stitching in general. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. a pad. flyinge best. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. the night-jar or goat-sticker. nade. packsaddle. to pack a saddle i. to lay the Sp. It. raise. bastir. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. in the use of the E. a. blatta. cudgelling. It. the E. frame. passage Imbasto. Prov. but this is hardly satisfactory. bakie-bird . bastimento. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. basta. to build.— . Sw. to give him a sound bastingi 3. Cot. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. from Fr. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. To beat or bang soundly. a bastion. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . a sconce.baste or knock soundly. stryka. e. 2. iastir. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. dial. Dan. contriving. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . blakka. to set on foot a war Bastion. a bird which. Mid. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. Florio. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat.stick. bastonFr. — — — . For the loss of the / in back. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. and Cot. in the Romance languages.'CaB. It. the winged . This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. to Due. Antiq. Dieiif. translation to a bat. worth (Nat. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. BAT neither. baston. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. to devise or begin. batta lucifuga. To donjon. to spread bread and butter. bdion. 2. bastear. R. Cot. vespertilio. devise. also to cudgel. military term of a bat-horse). whence ledrblaka. to belabour. blatta.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. victuals. bladier. 2. — — Fl. Sw. Fr. baston. Fr. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. also the ricado. disposer. Sc. night-bat. a with a stick. which to rest the load. R. iinbastire. beysta. the bat . club. the original has corneille. blaka. to quilt or stitch wool into it. basa. to build. vespertilio. For the origin of baston see Baste. bak. Supp. beating. Pm. blacta. Derived by Diez from iasi. and Arabs. basto. All from bastir. to beat. set up. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. a packsaddle. bastonnir. like the owl and the bat. to drub.-^ Chaucer. Fr. bastia. Sw. bastonada. * Bat. staff. stryk. to thrash . compared with blakka. or implement for 4 * A . A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. a blockhouse. frotter. Pr. E. bastille. the clapper of a bell. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. to rub gently. bast. which in the E. a stick. to cudgel. back. Bastinado. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. Sp. as weU as besteau. aftonbakke. 11864. settiilg up. . dial.. vledermus. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. bastilde. quelqu'un son roulet. business (Altieri). put it together. blakra.Lat. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. ON. to beat. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. niammal. is explained by Cot. — Bakke. bastione. erect. has bastine. boste. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. I. badger. blows. comp. bastida. explains Sp. bastir. 164). Dan. That yche blak y dar wel telle. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. a barSp.

a battalion. fashes basking in the sun squadron. A Bath. Slav. to feed. a washing beetle. Jurgor. as signifying warm baths. to beath wood Battledoor. Flem. sich bakern. badask. to for fighting. baquetazo. made of bats. solbase. Goth. solen baddar. Bat. altercation. baka. dial. wet linen in washing. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. to warm. tagUone. is in falling. to bathe. abate. then to warm by the application of hot water. — — — ' — . a main battle. bat. G. whence the sun burns . abattre. to toast bread. I. to fire or in the sun. more. made of — A made by one Batcii. In some parts of England it is striking. a staff. a blow. to dial. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. The bat with which a brot bdhen. Chaucer. remit. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. Battlement.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. batador. signifying to give repeated blows. baden. bdda vidjor. to fell.— To Bask. flour. bdda. to foment with hot applica. battions. Fr. an arrangement for giving blows. strife. bludgeon. fortress or castle. e. — Cot. to thrive. perhaps first used adjectivally. a band of armed men arranged basa. 2. bake. Fr.Hence in the augmentative form It. from battre. to cudgel. to flutter with the wings. bataille. Ayenst the sunne. To Batten. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. to become convalescent. water whether warm or cold. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . to warm oneself at the fire. Fr.Bathe. to beak. heat. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. It. a Baiffi. a great seems related to baden as Fr. . To thrive. badda. and with staffslyng. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. dial. basa. to beat. to foment. Mgy. gebdcke. was formed bastilU. batacazo. Fr. pak. makebate. bada. I baske. cudgel. batna. a from ON. battere. bat-en. to become fat. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. buask made like a fortress. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . to beat. as E. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. Bate. on. Barbour in Jam. Jeddris and covering. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. and as a verb. on the fire. a beating. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. debat. for biia sik. to be profited. to warm oneself. or a dry stick. to beat. E. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Batten. Gael. beat down. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. Hence pro. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. allay . in the case of a wall. from on. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. a blow with a light instrument. to foment. Batter. battaglia. is a simple adoption of Fr. and milk beaten up together. battre. A batch as wood. bdhen. or make debate. to refresh oneself in language. to fight. gebdck. a battle. Bret. baeddu. gabatnan. busk. From OFr. w. — To . lessen. Pm. also. better. Battery. a stick. by projections or in any licoure. dial. beat. to betake oneself. Battalion. of bread is so much baked zX one time.— . bdt. howis. as E. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Baka sik vid elld. I bathe in water viz. PLD. to heat. battere. From bat in the sense of rod . G. to get better. hot. term in falconry . dial. to heat . In OE. Pr. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. To Bate. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Hal. Strife. to beat se battre. Fr. Plkkis. See Better. betten. battre las ailes. trahtr to It. certain bend. battle was used beath wood. . Fr. squadron. Sp. batterie. Sw. Pr. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. baz. Pm. Sp. quell. Florio.' Palsgr. beat. ON. . Batyn. and about an inch thick. oneself at the A into faggots. bastille. Holz bdhen. batir. batte sig. quhar he suld assaill. Battery. G. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Du. bet. a stirrer-up of strife. the root of e. It. Bailey. as wood-en. adapted for defence. badda. or break down. to bathe oneself. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. tradire. the heat of the It. Sw. dispute. Battle. in the sun. Eggs. also a sun badfish. battre.

dung. bow-wow. fe bau. baw. It. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . Ball. and authorities in note. whence the E. ballach. to low or bellow as corn. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. dirty. rotten. Pr. Pr. Lat. mew. Cloth of gold. Beaus^ent.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. an object. an — — — A — g — — — .' The origin of the word is tab or bob. from Fr. Pm. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. babsmall toy to play withal. also more Bawdekin. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. expressive of disgust. Ball-seirc. baugant. P. E. bauU.. balbob. or toys. instead oi s. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. bauch. s. —R. and to-tore also. a plot of Chaucer. Fr. baudrat. horse. to the same origin. balGael. Fr. It. nastiness. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. From ! an interjection of disgust. a horse with white legs. E. bau. The It. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. a white mark Bawdy. spot. 2. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. a lump or cluster babhaid. was simply a field gold. E. Formed from baw. filth. baue.. the face. baffe. E. disgusting. guigaw. bal. bablyn or waveryn. dial. to void the bowels. Filthy. on the face of animals. Descript. Batylment of a wall. P. whence pouacre. balderich. a tassel. Zalli. toys. dirt. a gavel. to bark . a horse that hath a white leg or foot. a horse marked with a procession. fooleries or fond To Bawl. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. pegma. Cot. filth. trifle. divided between black and white. dente. It is all bawdy. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. In like manner Grisons filthy. zano. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. Cot. or Cot. s. c. spotted. librillo. represented by the syllable miau. Bavin. or the animal so marked. or sheaf of Bridel. to me-wl.— P. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. is Bagdad stuff. as Fr. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. bobbin or cluster of thread. The word may perhaps be sticks. a spot. Sc. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. scarf. obstrepere. a dog). fagot. brush faggot. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. ground. to trifle away ment. Gael. whimwham. to play the babby. P. trifles. ON. a belt. fields. a zan. because made of cloth of white. — — ' Lydgate. Swiss Rom. sword-belt. baban. Jam. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. Prov. faisceau. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. ! Bauble. Bagdad. Baldrick. From Bret. Fr. ball. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Fl. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. to talk Lacombe. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. cluster. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. to cry. sorry. bausan. having a white streak down Bagdad. lewd . to 53 manure the To baw. bouaila.guage). pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri).generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. OFr. excrement. bobine. baudrdj OHG. bal. the white of his leg or foot. to bark. Cotgr. ish baubles. pie- . — Pm. is used for a sented by bau. bad. bow (as in our nursery Diez. Bawson. b \% bouala. Baw — . form with an initial seen in Fr. propugnaculum. speckled. tab. An analogous noisily. dacchino. baubare. exactly corresponds Fr. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. BAWSON Swiss. It. Irel.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. also the canopy carried part of his body. Hal. 8. javelle. Piedm. W. in OE. miauler. A name of the badger. baula. babbole. tille. collar. babiole. the Swiss baben.' ' Pegma. an embattled wall.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. to vociferate. to make the noise Baudrick. R. i. OFr. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. and Sp. vacillo. a lump. from Baldacca. a tassel or hanging bunch . child.

watching intently. waiting . bioth. BE Probably conRuss. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. From the former verb is the It. yellow . is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. dividere. trahir. . See Bald. he turns and faces his pursuers. barn of two bays. Fr. and the To bark as a dog. beo. buidhe- The ruadh. Fr. baja. to keep at a bay. —F. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. Bay. white. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. . weary of running. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. To Bay. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. at his last gasp.— Stalder. Catalan hadia. a mark. AS. the cod or husk of beans or the like. from badar. to amuse stare a bada. bai. Bayonet. gate. Gr. badius. baie. bay. batibari. as gazing. |8i'os. to be Bohem. stare. or to have been first used at the Cot. to gape. — Schmid.' Bailey. The word bay. like a pie. bayo. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. bilyega. Lat. a cluster of bacon. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. is perhaps not directly from Lat. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. Sp.' — — 54 bald. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Q. which however. bate. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. See At Bay. F. the world Gr.. so called from its bearing bays. to open. or recess in an apartment in modern times. Vielp. Fr. alive. ist. It. BauSfi)/. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Abide. 25. —Bay-windo'W. that from ba. the step is the same as from It. &c. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. bdcr. desiring.. Cot. baga. from an imitation of the sound. buidhe. window . life. the cod of peas. baya. a hole. beonj Gael. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. bagaid. S. —Diez. to iiitent nected PoL white. bay. baca. berry. Holland's Pliny in R./^ bau. Earth — By Nature made to till. by the term rendre les abpis. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. the laurel-bay. baionette. a berry. berries. Such Antaeus seemed to me. abbabayer. Feb. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. baier. BAY marked with bjly. open the mouth. arose two forms of the verb. grapes or nuts. baccello. to betray. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. husk. tradire to Fr. Q. ing-floor. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. bilyejiti. expresr sion tenere a bada. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. — A At Bay. bahia. It. beothach. badarc. Swab. Sp. Fr. overture. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. to stand watching one. The — Fr. living thing . living Ir. Mod. OSp. bahia. Sp. especially beans. badia to Sp. Arts. Swiss beie. * To Be. a beast. to split. Prov. From Cat. laurel of the ancients. and zndly. bajo. &. large window in a handsome . to open as a blossom. baca. bijel. Fr. a'uno. window-sill. bacca. bayen-stein. baye. Bay. hddhe-dhonn. Gael. corrupted into Bow-window. badarse. baher. stood watching him stoop. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. A hollow in the 'line of coast. and keeps them in check for a while. Drayton in R. put to his last shifts. or at bay. aux dehniers abois. See Bawl. when. in order to keep the enemy in check. w. 1. Bay-tree. It. to on anything. It has been shown under Abie. siege of Bayonne in 1665. baiare. It. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. Piedm. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. or window ' (in Fortification).—Journal Soc. &c. or berries. Gael. a dagger. Lat. baer. dehiscere . With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. bialo. Serv. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. bde. . to mark. A stag is said to stand at bay. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. 1859. . Fr. to keep one waiting. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill.c. It. as if to signify a window of curved outline. life. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. house .

Bear. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Goth. gebed. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. support. Beadle. Fr. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. bead. baun. ON. a single bean.fui. to bellow. a curtsey. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. He says. Gael. nokkima. N. Goth. It. bek. — bedeau. to carry. a tree. . ffaen. into France. pierced for hanging on a string. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. Be. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. or any action done with a pointed thing. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. according to of Sanscr.ad. Chapters on Lang. atUndre. Farrar. Q wait upon him. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us.from AS. baum. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Gael. bdkna. bagms. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. — Bellenden in Jam. The nutu significare. Hackluyt in R. beans. bearti. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. bohne. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. becco. to nod . — : Beam. It is BEAR SI court. as well as f& or fav. Miss Gurney in Philolog. A two-year old nephew of mine p.' Hall's Chron. bedm. bean. would say. . beic. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. boom. bohnej ON. bidan. backe. or breathing. stock. faba.. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. g.' adheres to the root. Fr. a beak. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. a prayer. Sw. The immediate shore of the Menage. fromthe danger. on. or beic. fd or faVf beans. which is. -phxr. Trans. prodigy bauhnjan. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. l^ax. bM. Thus the final en. Pardoner's Tale. AS. «va\ioQ. Boom. bairan.to have a French origin. bokan. Bret. Beak. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. a single bean. ON. and Lat. to produce young. be. the part overflowed by the tide. ohg. 54. bar. signifying a point. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. AS. Netherlands or North Germany. Bean. Beacon. to nod the head. a nod OHG. to wait-. Du. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. ffci. Catalan becar. Beach. It. post.fuis5e. bakkje. beic. as. signifying individuality. G. a tree. Gr. bidello. vol. Moreover the name. however. Beckon. rising ground. Lat. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan.' Suetonius in Diez. an attendant. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. A Esthon. bee. beugler. beacnian. tale of prayers or doxologies. Slavon. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. G. OSax. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane.fer-re j Gr. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. fora-bauhan. . W. — to bow or nod . See To Bid. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. not applied to the yelping of dogs. salve his hurts. It forms a. to wait. to beckon. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. bydel. W. fero. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. Beck. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. vii. badmr. beacen. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. beck. a sign. bakke. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. To Bear. was introduced from England sea. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. or however. bauhan. Bret. like most nautical terms. * Beagle. into a snjall river. bank. —F. pig. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. faba is Kvavoq. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Gael. as. a presage. a hill. E. The wild beast. bob. The origin seems preserved in E.

blast. to bear children. bobrowai. He becom on sceathan. boroda. bellus. perhaps a living thing. formerly a happen. The moveable part of a helmet. — . barba. suitable. Boeth. pretty. seemly. baurthei. See Bat. babrad. a. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE.getiman. badi. tidig. fitly . godum with ON. to be fulfilled. but now a river only. Goth. bekommen. to sleep on. dushmak. connected with ripa. AS. bib or slobbering cloth. bart. G. nothing to thy name make. and on. to happen. Beck. brook . bcek. talkative. bello. agreeable. G. befall. E. to shore. 1. from the same in the sense of bear2. and Fr. It. Cal. produce. behkr. bedr. becuman. to come to or upon. 2. Chaucer. obtain. as the babble of the child. That thou mayest attain Goth. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. to arrive at. to live. Lat. Lith. bequem. E. Fr. to carry. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. Lat. On the same principle. to appertain. G. and to acquire.' every way suited to a prince. biber. W.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. judgment. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. bave i. R. riviire. birth. gabaurths. dize or dtzen. byw. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to happen. den. Bo. Perhaps from Pol. living. fallinn. to the brook itself. to be a part of his to. chin. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. a bank. o. Bedizen.S6 fero. the latter are derived It. The quadruped. decent. to assume a certain form or Turk. gebank. name applied originally to the bank then proper . comely. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. proper . Fr. Slav. bett. I do thee pray. — A — A — . Beaver. decorous. to fall. Beat. beatanj It. gefallen. nod or sign. agreeable. In like manner condition. to those goods which endure for ever. bel. bebrus. bobr. limpian. beauts. brook.to clothe to slobber. to happen. Dan. Prov. edge. fitanimal. i. Prick of Conscience. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. taste. iida. As rivus. the ece thurhwuniath. which. pleasing. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. befit. bave. gelimplic. timan. AS. The fitting or suitable. because made of the fur of the beaver. It.fit. from beau. e. Now the Beast. G. or special purpose.' ' He became very angry. Beckon. or a feeling to be gratified. Russ. Beauty.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. covered the face. to wade through the water like a beaver. opportune. proper. The OFr. a brook. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. to please. bur. border. con. baviire. to attain to the lot of any one. happening as it ought. Fr. biivre. a bank. bearing. riviera. place to lie down. Lat. battere. See becymth anfeald yvel. e. .of being very angry. or river. ON. barf. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. Lat. OSw. limpan. brada. Fr. to G. Sp. See Beacon. to hem. fiber. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. to get. bestiaj Gael. becuman. ON. Bosworth.— Kiittner. baba. venient. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. if sound of a sharp blow. beo. a lip. ON. ziemen.AS. whence baveux. to fall mode of being. to happen. bard. receive. See Bank. now confined To Become. to be incumbent upon him. Thus OY. to fall in with our bavard. burdr is used in the sense of a car. E. dress with unbecoming richness . when up. bring forth. to happen. Secondarily applied to a hat. R. suitable. bekkr. g. our taste. bava. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. convenient. Diez. pens unmixed evU. handsome. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. duty. an notion of being convenient. ting. Fr. bach.we call the arrangement becoming. tidy. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. ON. get J ' He got very angry. to dabble . imitative of the case happen as we would have them. the beard. as. to the good hapHalbard. limplice. Beck. G. and also in that of birth. rying.' are equivalent expressions. from baver. fit. it is probable that here also the to become. Thcem. slobber. byrcti. bavec. Do no To It fallith favour. i. To load with ornament. while from Shep.

by the analogy of bedaivb. as. qui de lecto surgere non potest . on. a bee. also bienst. Let. Arab. to fall. and in driving piles. D. speach. bbtel. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. drink. &c. bitel. pude-vaar. a paviour's beetle batail. beta. byst. fall. AS. close together as teeth in a venomous creature.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. a horse-fly . to curdle or lopper. beyki. whence familiar. Horn. Bav. bovis. waarin. E. of beatmg. beach. 1. stakes. G. buche. biene. vaar. comb. Bed-ridden. 1156. bedde-redirj ohg. blow or thrust. . the meat of spinach. a pillow case.ing of the word is curdled. The honey-producing insect. Cot. boytle. a wandering Prov. in Nat. duplicated form of the root. madhouse. ris. doubtless. an ox. trees in a forest . Cot.ON. a wasp. It. thick.. bette or blettej Lat. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. wedges. paralyticus. to beat bossel. bitela. a clapper. P1. Beet. It. I dysyn a dystaffe. extant in Bohem.). /SXirov. . bedskiissen-bUren. beer. In a passage of an Old Fr. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. pettiriso.' the last word corresponds to cofly . Gr. turn. Gael. kivih. a wasp. curded or beesty. * Beestings. beetle also signified the impiti._t from the root pi. to rough- cast. used for boull. garden-herb. buk. an inhabitant of the desert. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. a mallet. to change . Rom. may be from K. to coagulate. beach-each.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. to twist poorma. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. erroneously modified in form. crespir. . E.D. beest. Fr. cushion-cover . bukva. The first milk after a dizen. bibere is a re. a Properly a cover that biiren. knock. ^.^ drink. fagus. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. bove. to parget or rough-cast . bos. betel. But possibly bedizen 2. turn (a garment). bossen. to colour with lime-wash. Bedouia. bytl. a stinging bieUe. AS. Ant. to become Beech. I A pillow-beer. the ox. as the milk of a that purpose in London. Lat. in Schmeller. a malsense of drink. a agulatum in the original Latin. a cup or implement for AS. boeuf. ' MordiThe Lat. to and ale. Fr. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. Pl. Fr. Fin. red curdled Arab . The meanpainting. 'La Gl. a pad or cushion). may be shpped on and off.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. Slav. drink. to poordma. 1. GaeL bior. briest. badigeonner. a bed-tick. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji.— B. It. prigione. calleBedlam. sela que environna la terra. Grimm. by-flugaj G. whose face is clotty. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. bably named from the destructive quali| T. cozen.' So Gr. Beetle. thick.— JI14. tree. to drink. an Beetle. from leberen. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds.(paddi. buka. from jtst-. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. G. biest-milch. sang vermeilh betatz. cousin. bletumj Gr.D. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. Bernese. to flatten In OE. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. . the loppered sea. For that was law of lend. beost. bet. G. from the hos. door. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. also the bite or sting of a bees. beutel. Dan.possible. cogionare. clog for a dog b'oteln. from risan. cited by Diez. a drink potus. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. Originally. The beer al for te shenche bate. I put the flax upon it to spin. and lebermer in G.'— GL ^Ifr. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. woman that is newly delivered. g. from Lat. batAfter mete in sale. cugino. briesch-milch. AS. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Fr. desert. the biter. mars betada. translation beOj. Bethlehem. Pett. ir'm. bedawi.cz//aj. a pillow-case. ProBeer. from blood. Beef. to turn. as in It. de Fierabras in Diez. taglio. . . i. a cover. Confined to bed. Lat. cow has calved. KXlvoTTiT^e. Fr. water. case. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. kiissen-biere. 1 to drink. piwo. 57 — Palsgr. prisons Venet. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. to knock. Esthon. biiren. which also 2. Bee. imperative pi. pital of St Mary. poculum. Fr. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. PI.

' ' . the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . incipere. to know. in D. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. Lollards. origin. P. P. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. a bag. of Gr. capere. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. on further examination. baigeir. P. covered with gold D. — Stillingfleet. So from Gael. It. Ancren Riwle. on the tramp. 'Aboutin undern monly. a wallet. tale. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. beutel. &c. ' Begone. a — wedge. 'Dz.— . 142. 25. touched with emotion — . Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. vir mendi.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. to be able. air a . image is cleft out of the trunk. to arise. not began to alight. ornamented phoc. beitel. gen. affected. is formed pocair. beitel.' about undern he got down. onginnan. a wedge for cleaving wood. su with gold. Of brede full ycrammed. P. to cleve. In Luc vi. 1867. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. duginnan. as alighting is a momentary operation. a scrip euXaiciJoi. bag {baigean. can. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. above quoted to get beaten ON.3. To Beg. taking up. seizing. krapszas. ' . at geta talad.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. pose-pilte. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. although it ' the future. Cold-begone. signifying to conceive. ken. ykvog. beriolare. two betels —a grete oke. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. and Lat. The tother seand the dint cum. P. to get children . bertola. Skinner's derivation from bag. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. yivofiai. sel. Creed. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. AS. a bag . Political Songs.quently used in OE. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Into the are D. V.n. Gr. to begaan. to begin. be^nnan. Mod. chisel. to beg.bag full of the G. begger. When Q. Lith. to be born. to bear young. giving in Gr. P. to be acquire. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open.D. aginnan. a beggar . by the help of wedges and beetles an N. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. anfangen. a scrip. steinbosil. ytyvwfT'Kw. gan. to go a begging. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. ip AS. Deutsch. Mundart. Nov. P. word. P. He did alight.pose. chap. 2. but probably erroneously. 1430.' for ye shall lament and weep. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. to reduce him to beggary. 40. gan provyde To eschew The Flem.' A. beginning. gigno. Vocab. P. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. To Begin. lapidicinus. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. yivtrri. 58 BEG BEGONE G. Du. iv. the fundamental notion of attaining to. From w. in E. To produce children is to acquire. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. Beghardus. a little bag). Bruce. Florio. one after that other. hags. beissel. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. whence the E. viii. OHG. P. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Barbour. ysgrepan. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . V. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. V. Fr. Si'Xa/coc. in Lat. Schm. kind. genus. oppressed with woe. a bag or poke. referred gan this Erie alight. 'ex quo. also called Bigots. It will . Du. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. appears improbable at first. it is both to acquire and to beget. a stone-cutter's chisel. fangen and Lat. &c. or Of a pure poor man. a beggar-boy. ysgrepanu. beis- plement driven by blows. literally. yiyvo/uat. to take. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. y/yvo/iat. ken. yivwajcw. begging. a beggar. Goth.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. is com. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. 168. a chisel. & go a begging. but in the same language from poc. cans. — yivsaiQ. on the bag. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. from whete G. Du. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. can. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. woe-begone.

behoof. nittaa. or necessary. to be fit. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. The It. to bring forwards. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. or the hence advantage. behaviour. the name adapt. G.— . Sw. hcef tig bort. hcefwa in seed. from tragen. to command. observe. is supported by many analogies. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. take heed of. to hold. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. gehalten seyn. to take away. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. injunccommand. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. keeping. hevja. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . name of the head is used to express what hbva. to fit. behat. guardare. to command. gehat. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to lift. hatan. according as the * To Behove. heeten. To look steadily upon. as in the case of E. OE. solicitum esse. heeten willekem. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe.to vow. to carry. To be expedient. to keep. and (as Fr. to vow. to R. hove. holding is originally derived from that of looking. G. furtherance.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to carry. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. To place are most naturally ex. hovast. us-hafjan. Kiittn. servare. heave. take yourself off. —Hest. to lead. AS. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. seeing to. the equivalent of E. tion. healdan. to be suitable or becoming . AS. gehouden. and their senses intermingle. bound. to call. behatan. to bers of the body. to the equivalent of Du. advantage. Goth. 17. at the tail of. Paladino. heita. to look upon it as true . obliged. to look. keeping. to be named. to feed. to follow. taking notice or care of (Gloss. and the E. is on the top of or opposite to. to raise. Thus in Finnish the heave. The Lat. hofwa. to gehouden. hafwa. Aan iemand bid one welcome. use. right. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. G. garder. to turn one out . to keep. or purpose. K. adjust. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . portarsi. is also found in the sense of looking. At the back of The re. the distance of anything. to hold. tail. hafwa ram. hafwa bort.). zijn. Command. hevja. invoke. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. to name. hces. on. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to meet. to be well pleased out. to cast or throw.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. fixed upon any object). G. hafjan. se porter) to fare well or ill. behces. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. To Behold. But. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. laborare. AS. promise . premi curi alicujus rei. Plautus. zu etwas gehalten haitan. a follower. Sw.for throwing it. what he wishes another to do . vow. — Behest. To Behave. commonly expressed. Robert in Warton. It.' Richardson. to lift. to halten. beperson addressed. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. hantyri. to tend. promise. betragen. to hit the mark. AS. to be obliged to do a thing. promise or a command. ward. the two verbs seem radically the same. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. have the sense of calling or naming. exhort. vow. to be obliged to one. G. ufhaban. R. behefe. to heave. behind. gecall. Sw. to carry corn into the barn . Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to have. by the compound observare. behold. when the verb will hoof. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. behete. gehaben. hafwa. The seyn. what is so required. to call. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du.the figure of throwing at a mark. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. ge' hatan. to promise. han- — js Kil. N. to behave. to carry. to be be named. habban. to keen or hold. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. AS. to regard. G. ifl fact. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. beholden to him. habere. And so from hania. to vow.

to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. distance to which a piece will carry. loben. Fr.D. are other modifications of the same imitative root. Bell. Then. filu-galaubs. were civil terms of address. to express approval. permission. or a sconce. See Gain. with the consent of the heirs. bettifredo. It. bealcettanj OE. To Belay. beffroi.D. precious. to estimate them at a To believe. then. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. allow. portion. behove. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. hesfa. ornament. to to make A Templorum campana boant. beffroit. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. from mhG. In Mid. To praise is essentially Xo prise. to roar. a watch tower. bealcan. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. giving leave or permission. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. garnish. to resound. galaubs. measure. to put a high price or value on. to be required for a certain purpose. on. laubjan. loven. galaubjan. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. erlauben. bellow.. reputation. gelyfan. border. met. ungalaub kas. to promise or engage.Lat. Fr. to promise. honoured.Lat. a little shed. In the middle voice hofwas. resonare. a tower for defence . bolken. OHG. bylja. ON. to give leave. AS. to boke. pro3. fitness. beleggen. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to extol the worth of anything. a tower. to permit. To Belch. Northamptonshire. praise. and E.. OFr. esteemed . boare. battefredum. beset. Det er ofwer er hofwa. Pl. a vessel made for dishonour. is (Sternberg). is an easy progress. stand. to belay. fringe. berfroi. and bergan. Hence to simple approbation.. legsel. in nautical language. to cry out bell. to believe. belief . bialla. to give leave Dan. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. ON. tain a certain end. ley/a. a. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. turris. to lay be- around. or high estimation. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to der swaren lave. on. bertefredum. Du. an implement for making a loud noise. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. appearing in Mid. belja. Fair sir and Fair lady. to fix a price upon one's wares. are innate . bellan. . laven. properly belonging to the church tower. esteeming good and valid. to befit. range. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. —F. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung.D. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. true. praising. — mankind.alyfan. bercvrit. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. b'ola. leaf geleafa. promiser. Sw. 6o BELAY BELL loven. consent. From AS. loven. Du. to hit hafi. to sound loudly . lyfan. to sanction an arrangement. certain rate. frid. mark ON. bounds. G. to believe. Goth. bervrit. . cela est audessus de votre portde. to believe. to a loud noise. orloven. and. satisfaction. to give leave. if a promise. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . bulken. to praise. Du. to bolk. locus securitatis Schilter. for purposes of low estimation . reach. Du. if a narration. is used in the sense of approving. and Du. . to bellow. Another application of the same word is in Pl. and E. Q. leave . To Believe. lov. to praise. overspread. peal. bell. then. to protect. — Diicange. glauben. permitting or giving leave. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to lay the cable round the bits. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. or house. we have Goth. — . lofa. Pl. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. The word be- Belfry. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . verloben. to make it fast. beau sire and bel dame. promising. aim. laven. moderation. AS. to praise.D. P1. under the forms belfredum.

the womb. a accusative. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. a spring. benedicere. The ing-skin. w. — ray. benignus (opposed to malignus). a bellows. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. to attain belangen. border. ON. a good deed. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. a blessing. To Belong'. See Bank. taken absolutely. a blow. from benedictio. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. from cwcsthan. a benefit. se bander. a border. Fr. to touch. ball. balg. See Nether. est matris in lucem editus. pertinere. Gael. bandoir. Benefactor. rushes. Lat. Lat. bilbila.videtur. dirt. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. to. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. bolch.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. bellows. bags or bellows. a round or bubble-shaped root. skin. needs no ex. to concern. Bench. Eenison. pervenire. Bent. bolg. benjoim. Gael. belly. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. In E. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. bilbil-goda. bcelg. by itself. . to attain to. a water-bubble builge. benejicium. to hold to one. to belong. I say). benedictio {bene^ and dico. to come to the crown belangen. Dozy. bander un arc.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to bend a bow . ' . attingere. gwaldas. belt. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. to use words of good omen. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. means seeds of plants. a leather bag. cod or husk of pulse. See Bind. loubdn djawt. G. to become one's property . are stripped off whole blase-balg. is a kindred form. Fr. Du. pino3. balteus . Belt. Quoth. Benefice. bellows. to make bilbil. beneison. to bless. poX^ri. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. was in Mid. to say. bag. Bav. ' I beraye. Benedico. from Arab. blister balgan-snamha. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. Bret. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. leather sack. benjoin.. . bienfait. Lat. to do good to one . the ipsi Caddono concessimus. benefacere. or simply djawt. rise against external force . to arrive at. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. I soyle it or araye it. Benign. J'emboue. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. G. hem. ON. Beneath. Gum benjamin. volva. Fr. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. or fyle with myre.— Belly. bimpsen. pod. See I . benehusk. Lat. attinere. Benzoin. . binssen. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. To belong is thus to reach up to. belly. to touch one. — root consisting of concentric skins. . To Bequeath. wallet. gelangen.' The term had been previously planation. bolg. one who does good. welt of a shoe. generous. disposed to oblige. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. or sometimes louban. becwathan. wallet Benefit. from which is also bulbus. From OFr. binsen. pouch.pinuz. Benediction. — See Numb. Benignant. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Lat. I marre a thyng." — — . ray. or a It is times the to signify services. G. To Benum. belgr. Lat. to stretch it on a frame. . balg. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Javanese perfume. Was das belanget. hence with ashes. the word. langen. kind. fens et hie liraus. an inflated Lat. bendan. OUG. blast-bcelg. pertinere. To Bend. bimaissen. welt of a shoe gwald. incense of Java. the skin of those animals that factor. a speaking well of one. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. from another modification of the word for bubble. vulgarly the belly. to reach. attinere. belch. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. G. Ptg. Kil. skin. bless. well. to exert force. yards of the vessel to bend cloth.polch. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). — Ducange.' Palsgr. OFr. a bellows . on. benir. to concern. benaigon. belliJ Lat. because bcelg. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. has assumed a plural form. .Fr. to hallow. bellows. Sw. I araye. . to ring. ^To Beray. a kindness. bendaj as. bell. bene/actum.' — Hie fimus. vulva. fyle To dirty. as concerning that. as. is The word balg.

it seems hard to separate as. of ffeed a fire. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. but in practice. G. Best. roe. When men of mekeness him baet. the guardian . to kindle the fire. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. make better . — . small eatable fruit. Du. stealth from steal. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. . — Chaucer. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . to entreat. BEREAVE Wall. reafian. to strip. sheltered from the wind. fyrbotare. betan. put forth.ot-i. lay out. — bota. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. reparation. brem-bessen. besein. from grow. Beit. Zeitschr. See Better. earh.— Hal. advantage. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. The origin is AS. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. or to bestead one. or the space kept clear betan. what does it better a man. barthless. vi. p. as. stow. bdt. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. to the place boarded off in a. buttafuoco. to amend. Hfence backing. besje^ Sanscr. in the sense ctf beria. Esthon. to light the fire . Beet. to cast. rubbish. Tusser. the origin of which is to be found in ON. bdt. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. to be-place. E. peto. preferably. G. a fire. AS. as Du. burrow. Du. as in growth. Sw. dung . to fall with roisto. berry.X. Ihre. amendment. to To Bereave. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. person to lie in. protect . basya. The proper meaning of the bale. hva mannan. Bestead. to seek. the side bhakshya. ^•n. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. what does it boot. The dry. to thrust. baete. boeten. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. might have been . bet. So too Yorkshire arf.D. beseech. dirt . 3. one who shelter. to put on the saddle. het vuur The serise of Boeten. as. bal oppbota. put. arwe. improve. R.irova. besen. AS. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. baete. Kil. Rob. basjaj Du. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. jnore. dust rojahtaa. berwe. Fr.bhaksh. from It. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. To Bestow.t. fall with sound. bur-we. botesward.— VixHsm. but it is specially applied mister. reparation. an incendiary. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire.• 62 Antiq. profit. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. Grose. and also to entreat. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. dirt. ^akka. So roto rattle down. See Reave. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. encouraging. On the other hand. R. eld up- On is to be placed A — . Besom. a horse collar. sets fire to. bacca. . scopse spartis. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. supporting on the one side Lat. stede. vol. to fire a funeral pile of . besnij Pl. beorgan. To seek something from a person.fish the other hand. broom twigs. So Lat. as bouter selle. a berry. To bete his Jam. bota. Beere. Berry. Tha het he micel fyr betan. to to deprive of. or. OE. ship for a make amend. Goth. seems twigs or rods. * To Bete. Du. fearful. to make it. E. to defend. boteith Goth. and Du. berwham. Fr. to give a place to. boutefeu. p. I from lew. To help. solicit. to word is shelter. Fin. bat. To Bet. to stand one in good stead.iooA. * Berth. lewth. To Gl. roju. supply. Sw. besIn sen. boeten. — amendment. betan. barfham. better. It is the restore fyr betan. From abet. advantage. rods. Devon. ariierf to 113. because used for making besoms.—^fake. to supply a want. To Beseech. same word with the provincial barth. — Biglotton. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. roju. earg. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. is to perform a serviceable office to him. mud. to mend. as. compared with bargham. position. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. ropahtaa. bouter. barth may be for barf. besmas. AS. making better. houseless. place. bestow. to make better. repair. bereafian. Du. BETE dirty'. an incendiary. sweepings. from AS. to exercise on a definite object. boeten. and on which the wager is laid. noise. to thrust. dial. a place . as. as conversely a besom is called broom. to on the other Goth. think more probable. buttare.

a traitor. advance. Slant. better. Bav. abash j from polir. zimet. G. Between. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. In like manner from twain is fothied between. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. beuvrage. Sahissais. x. a different form of twa. Goth. lot). order. moveable and compass branches. is used for the — R. or with again. thy speech bewrayeth thee. BETEfiM translated. as tlock. to make forwards. e. afford. to discover. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. Chaucer. taemen. it bewrays itself. E. Car son umbre si le trahit. r'ojer dig. A — drink. and thence twegen. suitable. to accuse.D. To Bewray. zemen. To boot in coursing (i. trahison. From It. Fr. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. in the same way Lat. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. batizo. better. Det sig sjelft. Golding's Ovid in R. Thus from dbahir. bouter davantaige. It. i. fate. to fall Some call it a bevel. Lat. In the water anon was seen His nose. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. springs from ON.' Dialogue on Witches. are there Regt R. find in one's heart. obdissais. The as. Pl. more. Hence last G. regen. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. ruogia. Pl. Fris. from Lat. bibere. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. batista. progress. betest. On the same principle ON. deign. -to appoint. ON. roja. against. — Betwixt. better. Buveau. taemen. fallinn. Fr. awry. as trahissons. of pheasants. tweoh. i. R. polish. R. trahir. in the middle of twain. dispose (whence schicksal. tima. evidence of life. gezimet eines dinges. e. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. e. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. make manifest. said he. betweoh. E. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. are commonly to one's lot. betray. obeish.D. betaemen. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. proficere. a bevy. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. bedriegen. In like manner folissais. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. betwuxt. R. wrogia. twain. Sw. gesiemen. bevere. ziemen. wreia. from. Mich self a good glass of wine. his mouth. treachery. Friar's Prol. E. dir. to deliver tip. tradere. as envahir. as from obdir. Dit tungomal rendered in E. a drinking . whence beveraggio Fr. bevde. as one would have it fall. Fl. To Betray. trahissais. G. to Teem. sloped off. Percy Soc. I approve of beveau. an instrument opening like a a thing. some attention. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. his eyen sheen. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. betriigen. Fr. to cheat. riigen. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. betweox. to drink . traditor. which may be compared as to form with amid. fitting. AS. Ik tame mi dat nig. AS. traitre. *Ah. To Beteem. betst. Bevy. spritigs from schicken. Now the stirring of an object. ON. verbs in ir with a double ss. beverage. . by two. of quails. find it good: Goth. Cot. G. best. for measuring angles. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. vrohjan. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Best. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. by a final sh. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. has — In a like sense tanie>i. in the middle of two. — that schickiich. bet. a brood. to stir. be fitting or suitable. — See To Bete. from invadere. G. OE. Fr. deem suitable. 88. become. to deliver up in breach of trust. To vouchsafe. to happen. betweohs. The inflections of Fr. to happen. Goth. tradire. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. what does It is forward him. larks. is treason. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all.— . bet. Ober D. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. amidst. amiddes. not to have the heart to give up a thing. /alia. kein leben mehrin no signs . bat. from Fr. pair of compasses. Better. gatiman. beva. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. suitable. Du. to deceive. betwuh. betera. to Hence It. From the former of these are AS. &c. Dii. It. — of the authorities. trakir. baet. the being pushed to the frbnt. tima. roebucks. two. to fall.

wrangle. winding or crawling in and out. bebble. babbi. It. sik beregen. bezling or skueing. sbrisciare. used in precisely stone . In comp. evident. petit-lait. Fr. An excellent Basil. sbrisso. —Bickering'. bickeler. beslei. Schiitze. asure-bice (Early E. twice. and zahr. bible.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. It. of the sliced off. or in and out. sloped. in Fr. Hal. Piedm. bavon. Dan. 78). a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. dial. in him. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. . or by any rapid motion. specially in a bottle. discover. biascia. Hal- — do something aslant. is explained to clatter.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. OE. Biseau. bickel. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. to purl. Bisect. reveal. foul weather. /3i/3Xof a book originally. the basil Sc. a bibber. it were the mouth. which good bibbeler. To Bibble.' bibble. biax. two- footed. Bezoar. liwell. 172. baviere. Gr.{ioin dua. biberen. per\'erted belief. The train of thought is then. sbiasciai. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. bickel-sieenken. To skirmish. metaphor). sbiscio. shows the P1. to sip. Piedm. Probably. to it evident to sense. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. crooked. the word became bddizahr. to tipple. Cat. the papyrus. Fr. beregen.D. to slaver . Ant. he is Wtb. sbieco.to drink much. To drink hard. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Ci^. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. kwijl-bab. Du. biaiser. as an eel or a snake. to Jam. Bib. from pdd-. to give signs of life. sbriscio. bisel. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to be a paring. whey count . bisdare. Sp. Bibelsworth in Nat. bending. To Bib. to stir up . to stir. to dispute. to creep or crawl sideling. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). Bias. pible. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Fr. a Galilean. sbias. bibo. aslope sbisciare. like guzzle. oblique. to move. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. to make tongue Du.or from obliquus. slippery. expelling or preserving against. it becomes (Jz-. or kwijl-slab. rogge.two. to glide or slip as upon. a fragment bieco. Misc. to stir. I Wallon. Diet. kwijllap. a slabbering-bib. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. has a singular stone-picker.a. In Arab. Sardin. bestemps. ber-laita (for bes-laita). and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. one who drinks in excess. though such a change of form would be very unusual.as in Biped. Sard. It is especially applied in Sc. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. to a fight with stones. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. biais. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. a sloping edge. sbiescio. Pl. To Bezzle. bickai. . misFr. Prov. sbiagio. Bezel. convicts thee of being drink. — crooked. (according to the Fr. him. bis. besanca. to tipple. to cut in two. to well up with Cot. E. to the stirring of their conscience. poison. a bezle. — Bi-. To bicker in NE. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Fr. rogt un bogt sik nig. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. bescompte. sbrissare. Fr. biascio. bibaculus. a stone-hewer . Fr. sbiesso. dial. to slaver or drivel.D. stock still. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. bark of which paper was first made. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. baverole. An inferior blue. presence. —Dozy. . inferiority. babbefore the eyes. its clothes. biberer. snout. . Bible. bihais. notice. sliding. by throwing of stones. in two ways for duis. Bice. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. See Wriggle. Mantuan. kwijlen. The It. wraggeln. bring under ' Thy accuse. To Bicker. makes ble. Yes. bes-azur. slanting . biberon. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. whence Du. to stir. aslope. pddzahr. . Cat. Pers. bias-wise. Lat. Lat. tailU en biseau. love first begins to life signs of him. ice . oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). bickelen. lips. Jamieson. to shake. Oh when shall I bizzle.s bellum for duellum. Fris. b&zahr. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. Uprogen. wrogen. roggle.

are also used in the sense of asking for. G. Einem einen guten tag bieten. belly. to inhabit. bua. called the tertiary order. to have one called before him. einen vor Gericht bieten. which is stiU. bugt. bidan. beadle. to abide or wait on. . a suitor. bugan. to bend. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. the meaning of bid. swaggering. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bugne (answering to ON. or bad. bi-. R. offerre. verbieten. ON.' Addison. related to big or bug. to start out. an entire skin. OSw. bis and in comp. from bidan. 2. The ON. It must be observed that the word bidja. to offer one the wish of a good day. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. qucero. bow. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. from seek. bend of a shore or of a rope. ' Bug as a Lord. to look for. bit- bidja. To Big. becoming in Lat. or third order of penitence. P. proud. bolga.peto. From Gr. ON. A pose to one to come to dinner. ON. Wallace in Jam. OSw. bulk. consisting both of men and women. . boa. The ON. quiring something to be done. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. a chip. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bag. The . pressing on one's notice. or. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. Kil. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to swell. porrigere. — To Bid. bouwen. 1. buga. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity." buque with E. swelling. in the sense of ask for.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. byggia. to ask. to pray one to dinner. the belly of a ship. to bend. to inflate E. inhabit. cultivate. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS.Leta). Compare also Sp. bieden. Bight or Bought. bigan. bulky. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. Bigamy. faurbjudan. anleta. ON. by seek and beseech. biegen. Bickelen. form. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. balg. to bid one good day. bieten. to offer. Jam. to build. twice. to ask. a swelling. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bedun. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. as tears from the eyes. athird class. ewes. The loss of the / gives Dan. and consequently ordering or reGoth. repair. to arrange. bulge. bygga. AS. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. bidan. biddan. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. to bulge. to pro- command. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. bat . and yajiBui. to solicit. The 'La. a flexure. to forbid .. be bug. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bilge or bulge. as G. to curve. has leta. iiQ. bidjan. inhabit Du. as. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bath. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. BIGOT beidan. bidill. bauen to cultivate. bend. AS. and the Sw. BID of stone. abidan. to forbid . swoln. Bigot. Du. bolgna). bidel. beidast. England for swollen. A bjudan in anabjudan. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. bead. and Gael. from belgia. Big-swol- . Analogous expressions are G. praebere. praestare. — — — Halliwell. bulge. bo. AS. to build. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. G. to cultivate. who. bced. Hence Sc. to dwell. to presimpler pare.' Pope in R. W. beodan. to move quickly. bug. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. to marry. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. — prepare. G. to build G. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. To Bid ' Big . gebodenj G. byggan. to bicker. of More ' in Richardson. build. To bid the banns. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to E. bog. to look for. bolginn.uddered len heart. Big. may plausibly be derived from Goth. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. belly. spelling seems to used in the N. pray. besides the professedmonks and nuns. gebeden j G. ten. With respect to logical pedigree. forwards. The original Swollen. to offer it to public notice. Two verbs are here confounded. explaining the Sc. rising up. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick.t. to belly.

Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. homespun cloth. absque votorum religionis emissione. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza.' says one of of bigio. as well as bizocco. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. ac labores manuum detestantes. Beguttce. Bizoccki. Bighiotti). rustical. xx. begutta. grey. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. In a similar manner from bigello. bighellone.D.' Chart. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. bighiotto. G. probably from biso. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. Francisci communiter appellabant. sed maxim^ in muliebri. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. perch^ i Terziari di S. a dunce. with reference to A. face VIII. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. A. was formed bigello. aliqui Begardi.D. signifying bagmen or beggars.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. 1499. vocati Fraticelli.D. S. a blockhead. honesti plebeii amictus. ix. Flor. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. alii de paupere viti. 1243. all apparently derived from Ital. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. and also unlearned common men. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. biso. the other form Per te Tribune. and Q. A.— BIGOT bigardo. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.' translated by Muratori. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. Hence the OE. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.a. beghino.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. both men and women. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. author quoted in N. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. D. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. &c.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. Bighini.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. alii Apostolici. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. and hence the variations bigutta. vol. which must not be confounded with begardo. A. 15 18. grey. coarse woollen cloth. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini.' Matthew Paris. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. Bizocco. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. says.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. to adopt a similar course of life. bigotta. natural grey or sheep's russet. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. In the same way Fr.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. clownish. borel. dark-coloured cloth. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati.— Ducange. the nobles to Rienzi. From bigio.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due.' says an Venet.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. beghart. Augustini dotarint. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. corruption would easily creep in. bigio. They wore a similar dress. 560. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool.

the bill of a bird. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Langued. bull-berries. The origin of the term is probably from bole. might be taken to express a hypocrite. a of the sea. a seal. symbolum.' in Richardson. Aurelles. — Cot. dziobad.' mariners. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. G. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. billet is the diminutive of this. Sw. . hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Thus we find in It. e. bigot. a shackle. names bill-berries. — bigardia. a beak. billet. Lat. to swell with rage). ^Billiard. to job. — — ' . Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. A slang term for a sword. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. blaa. from Mid. e. 'tumidi fluctus. is properly a sealed instrument. See Bulk. and a billard. Du. Billow. I. false pretender to reUgious feeling. a hypocrite. . Bilbo. to strike. an ingot. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. bill of exchange. Tartuffe. OFr. dziob. at sea Billet. Johansen.. bigotto.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. Bille. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. bill in parliament. an ingot of gold or silver. A lorum tam in — Diez. boia. bla-berry. that of swell. tepati. a bigot or hypocrite. Kil. a name given to a. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. an axe. buie. Dan. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. now A Bilboa blade. bil. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. on. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Du. of E. 2. a negro. person of religion leading a loose life. ferrese quam ligneae. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. bile. The proper meaning bylgia. p. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. to peck. however. bigot. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. bulghe. 5 * . beil. inscriptum. 3. BILBERRY nated. blamand. seems to be rather the unda. belghen. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. gleischner (Frisch). horn of an animal. Kil. boja. genus vincu- Bilboes. bizocco. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. to pick a millstone. Bojce. whortle-berries. Bohem. Ludwig. bille. the trunk of a tree. gan. Bill. an axe. an axe. an axe . Deutsch. bui. a sword. bila. b'olja. blue . in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. So in Gr. Gael. Fr. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. from OSw. . and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Bilberry. in the sense of a writing. weapon . the beak of a bird. top. to strike. Prov. a short note. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . topor. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. bulgja. abelthe fetter itself. To Bilk. boeye. used in legal proceedings. Bill. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. a hatchet. in the same sense. Dan. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Bigin. bill. obsolete. bullet. Gascoigne in R. bigardo. beghart. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. and in Lat. as craneberry. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. AS. AS. crowberry. In the same way are related Pol. AS. Sw. axe. dissimulation . plog-bill. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. To defraud one of expected sinking. procella Kil. Sw. a devotee. buail. from the dark colour. billard also signified at billyards. biilge. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. fetters. Fr. In English the meaning has received a further development. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. a floating log to mark the place of some. The Du. of boja.' bilio. a man who rests on a stick in walking. bulla. Roquef.— — — . loi. bwyell. Piedmontese bigot. Mundart. bolghe. Fr. deceit. a seal. bisoch. Du. as a bill of indictment. and dziobas. the o changing to an i to express diminution. billot. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. An instrument for hewing. the swelling G. fluctus maris. clog to a fetter. billard or billart. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. NFris. belgan. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. buoy [i. See Bull. to be angry (i. Billet. 2. w. an adze . Bilge. Sp. Billette. Lat. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije.

from pondus. to bind together. isfiw. properly a young pigeon. a knob. to net. habitacle. an overseer. while bind-wood. To — — —D. EpisETTiTOOTToe. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. to knot nets for fish. a corn. or baked. See Breed. pundas. copus. Bind.68 BIN Bio-. See To Bear. bjork. Lith. The term ON. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Bisen. life. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. bunch. Goth. a heap. i. bundt. In like manner from knot. truss. a weight. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. ON. BITTACLE /Siof. a truss. — — . and of Fr. Fr. Gr. to twine. a bunch. where the compass stands. hiindiiin. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. an eagle's young G. AS. a heap. evegue. pinnii. forth. is in Scotland applied to ivy.' and the like. Sanscr. The bitol.. beitan. which is expressed in E. to hang. to bind at . Goth. binda nat. Dan. pippione. Du. overlooker. piccione. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. than vice versi. a weight of 48 pounds. G. are commonplaces. Sp. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. viz. to swell. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. — properly near-sighted. or petze. to bulge. bircej Sw. Fr. pullus. Bisom. a bump or knob. bij sienigh. hith. Sw. Fr. bin-wood. a gallinaceous bird. beisseii. a pig petz. G. berkas (z=:Fr. bund. bhurja. lusciosus et myops. bindan. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. qui nisi propius Blind. v. ON. Sw. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. 'tumens sequor. earnes brid. bund. Bindweed. bitacora. or bin. bunga. bunt. to plait. a female stag. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. a little dog. betsel. to be derived from Ibfiaq. AS. — Kil. G. . Lat. bunki. a bitch applied also to other animals. Then added division in a granary. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. bikkia./«idere. biccej ON.. propius videre bij sicndc. bita. Bittacle or Binnacle. piiiti. ge- from AS. beran. H. also a stone weight. terial. AS. poultry. a hind or female stag. Bine. a bear. a bitch. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. It. expressed by Sw. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Lat. G. e. pin-ti. from Gr. E. j). Bisson. doubtless a stone. twice cooked. Bin. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. burt. to bring Biscuit. from \t3\. Lat. IV. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. sc. . pinnu. to form a knotted structure. bundt. bundun. Fr. bundle. brut. See Belly. . beize. bord. a bitch. Habitacle. Bird. bitill. pittjo. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. the young of an animal. the young of birds . is rendered in ON. evesgue. nodus. Bailey. — See Bittacle. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. a house. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. to wreathe. bigne. brid. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. a habit- Binnacle. Bitch. . The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry.. to bear. Lap. To Bite. poule. We — A Birth. — Surrey in R. fowl. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. V. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. I would derive the verb to knit. videt. band. biscuit. wine. i. episcopus. The proper meaning is a heap. &c. to fasten it together. beorth. bij sien. vescovo. beitsl. AS. biclie. biscotto. binge. Thus I suppose the Gr. admota non Bit. a female dog hindinn. Lat. evigue. in Swabia. a brood or hatch of young. Fr. from Lat. Bing. by the verb knit or net. bundle. . When compared with Fr. AS. Bizened. and especially to a small poor horse. or ben-wood. AS. It. . to cook). by binda. Lith. to build. Birch. bindan. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use.

bittour. unintelligible talk plabair. ON. blanc. blesmer. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly.€i.). black. bitr. ^chops. G. Fr. night guard. Se bleek. Fr. blac-hleor ides. yellow . to babble. fallow . beiwache. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. bitor. brunblakk. to loll it out. bitts of Bitts. synonymous with baber-lip. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. to let out whai should have been concealed. bites. ^aj'/^r. obscurus.. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. thoughtlessly . iroxafealo. Hald. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . to babble. plappem. .' by Gudmund. bitter. to chops. pale. The Gz. a stammerer. baitrs. mouth. Je N. blob. Sp. pale yellow . light-coloured. Sp. biti. as of wings . small guard-house. The bitas.' It would thus acle. chatter babbler . So Fr. to bivouac. Du. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. gabble. as in that of pale and white on the other. Black. bleg. shining. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). ON. shine. Mund. mouth. 'fuscus. whitish. AS. pale. In Legrand's Fr. apparently from its biting the tongue. to talk much. a* mast . Hal. bleich. in contempt. faded. or water beating gently on the beach . "uivac. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. biacca. Fr. maculS. an edge is sharpest sword. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. blunt we say it will not bite. the palebleff. — Collins in Hal. It. 156. ON. Deutsch.' G. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. Gael. to watch. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. blabbern. blakki.. his blacan light. beitr. is apprehension of danger. Bohem. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise.— Blabber-lip. confusedly. G. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. ' plabraich. a fluttering noise.. a tati. a large coarse lip . a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. Fieldfare. I blaber. to the sharpness of a weapon. beuni. babbe. Bleak. an additional watch. Mag. blank. Again. a childe dothe gasouille. To Blab the anchor. Nagt huis. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. A a rail. 't huisje. blob. white. —Neumann. Pl. v. Goth. NE. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. Sp. garrulous. a shelter for the steersman. a beam in a house or ship. bihovac. first. gulblakk. out the tongue. babbling. from whence we have adopted the. Hist. Mantuan babbi. discoloured . pale yellow. pale. white. blabhdach. — Hollyband. Alex. Sw. to To blabber blabber with the lips. ' Biovac. from wachen. leohte . as of water gently beating the shore. blake. mona mid Dan. Sp. — cheeked maid. corrupted in Fr. dark. as of a body falling into water.D. AS. blab. whiteness (candor sine It. to wax pale or bleaked. Bivouac. yellowish. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. on. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. /ealo-/or. blubber-lipped. viz.' by Haldorsen. 't kompas huis. Gael. butorj OE. a babbler. plabartaich. things —Palsgr. blepLith. x. fallow fawn-coloured. to speak Dan. Bav. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. pale brown . baboyer.plab is used to . In a similar manner Gael. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. Cot. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. 332. quick. cut. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. blebberis. buft". blob. bittore. is placed. bleikr. blakk. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. bird of the heron tribe. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. dusky. whitish. . white lead. Percy Soc. round which the cable is made fast. even humour seemed and beuin. Fr. a large lip. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Applied in Hin ON. Blabber-lip. Cotgr. Why presumest And laam's asse. ON. quoted by Ihre. on the one side. bitones. term. stutterer. pins of the capstern. Bittern. blabbre. indistinctly. a continued soft sound. Ai-mstrong. blobach. Lydgate. faded. In like manner E. Wit hung her mourn. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. a flapping. blabaran. . as is seen in sputter and splutter. To or he can speake.

on. branches . boys. Blank. bladder . leaf of a. plate. Du. Torriano. blinken. a blanket a bed. in R. a bubble. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. rogues and wanderers. a white or unwritten ticket. To Blare. But perhaps a more Gr. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. revile. See Blubber. blaere. and Q. as blader. — Sw. name originally given Blackguard. Blancli. as scullions. skola and thwatta. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. to glitter. or of an oar G. chatter. Sir. and E. tree. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. and wandering men and women. blanchet. Cot. irXariQ. blahen. Fr. variable than the signification of words designating colour. smore. PI. Lat. livido . mire. the leaf of a tree.— ^o thehotsun. blegne. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. speak impiously. G. board. blanchir. blad. p. Fr. bladder. also tanned by the sun.. to vocifer- — Cot. blather. leaf. or as E. to bleak in the sun. blister. Sw. bladdra. to dabble in water. blaeren. shining. Blade. Dan. blank. leafy. Fr. tattle. candidus. blather. Perhaps from blegen. a. to —Blaspheme.TaaVi%^-&\xxi.. plat. is identical with Flanders borlen. linkboys. black. bladre. G. biastner. and thence to babble. e.—Blatter. — rura. and he shall be sure to have O. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. Du. to make or become white blanc. which we . blegen. The present forms then should be classed with blether. a blank ticket. to blanch. Blank "verse. blatter. Bav. his meat burnt. To blank.—Blatant. a buible. pimple. vagabonds. to purl. and the agitation of liquids. biasimare. blatter. bladeren. —We Bladder. 86. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. a leaf. to Hence Ital. blister. probably ate. I am degraded from a cook. a bladder or pustule. Gr. pladdern. plat. — . smother. mus-blackt. or blafich. blanchet. &c. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. Reliqu. 5/^a/^ of colour. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. also white woollen cloth . . defame. to glow.— Kil. polished. contracted from bladeren. to bubble. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. G. Du. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. Sc. It. Now. slush. blein. blister. the origin of . pXaatpiiiiHv. bladder. Du. blad. blame. to disappoint. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. mud. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. blena. a pustule . to shine. The radical bubble. piatto. white. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. sheet of paper. flap of a Du. pluddre. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. moere. and others engaged in dirty work. Blanket. Dan. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. mud. Hist. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. commonly called the Black-guard. . Sw. D. leaves. to omit. Jan. roar. with all other loose idle masterless men. as Lat. a boil. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. Wott. pallido. a bubble. reproach. blether. blatt. Eadmer. Du. blister. from candere. bladder. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. most complete example of leafy structure. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blanc. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. pass over. and G. as. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. whitish. broad. Fr. 1854. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. dripping-pans. the ON. . The old Dutch form of the word is blader. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. — — — to jabber. blanqne. Play in Nares. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. 7. Besides the examples of this connection given above. chatter. bladra. gabble. waschen. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. white. dial. on. —^Webster. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. or a mass of bubbles. also jabber. coat. cited in N. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. to To bellow. Dan. foolish talk. whitish. vagrants. borrelen. to blow. Blain. blactra. imbrunire. madder. as. Bacon in R. Blame. blasphemare. to shine.

Prov. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. — — ' : bless. oron-blasare. blasonner. A blaze is so intimately Then. — ^Jam. to cut off prematurely. To Blaze. A strong flame. and to make him word blaze. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. blossi. She roade at peace through his heraldry. somewhat different train of thought. Du. blatero. AS. to spread news. See Blare. Sw. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. a flame. bliEsan. used. in that of praise. Du. how. blateroon. kept up. Du. to trumpet forth. blose. a funeral oration . thraso. also only pains and excellent endurance. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. Blast. I. Blaze. ill-speaMng their proper colours . proclaim the virtues of. bles. Fr. blaodh. a shout. OE. blast. is used in the sense of manifestatio. blcEsan. boasting. The origin of this exSp. — Elazen. blaesen. noisy blor. Lye. to proclaim. Blatant. a torch . brasa. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. to bellow. redness . . fire. as a verb. blase. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. blys. To blow AS. Golden Book in R. Troilus and Cressida. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. loud . senses.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound.). 2. blesse. bleis. the matter incendiary . Fr.whence the Fr. Du. ther it was erst not knowe. If armour. a whisperer. on whose behalf the herald appeared. to blaze Sp. a MS. it is manifest. blorach. besides blesse. also praeblczse. blason. With inversion of the liquid. proflare tues. A gust of wind. a blast. oured. Blanches illuminies. blaeteren. to blow. baladrar. backPerhaps the expression of blazing.' painted or figured . blysa. a torch. . ON. to blow. a shield. G. brasa. blass. live coal . Du. quus. g. to publish the praises. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. embraser. like the in English. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. e. laudes (Kil. declaratio. abroad. to set on fire. Gudmund. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. But now. Fr. blis. magniloquus. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. bldsse. blasa. indeed. a flame. is the imme. The AS. also blazon or the blazSpenser. blezo. much plausibility. bawling. 'op een trompet blaazen. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. blazen. and. clamorous. to blow . of an animal. stultd loqui. blcest. To blast. blcEsan. a coat of arms. whence Blazonry. to publish. a voice Jr. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. by stripping off a portion of the bark. the noisy. to extol. ing of arms. beast. Du. ventosus. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. and which. pale. blason. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. Cot. Cot. to de. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. blasoen. ON. an conium. a flame . each of boaster. light-coli. has also blencke. might spring from the same origin by a . — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. Kil. a loud noise. baladron. As Kilian.' to fastum . braise. Gael. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blaze. or to the sound which it produces. AS. is from AS. blcesett. might And sain. G. The other derivation. Dan. Sc. magnilo. or blazening. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. commendation blason funebre.— . as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. First from the E. biter. coloured prints. an empty and two theories are proposed. i. Sw. blaser vid. Dan. a shining spot.sound a trumpet. blus. blesse. blaodhrach. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . blase. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. in the same way as we 2. a lamp blasere. gloriosus. among other . . blcese. — ' — stroy. visui patet. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. shield or surcoat. blaterare. splendour. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. abroad. friend Cornelius. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour.

Mac. blot. a spot. (faith or creaunce) Be war. livor. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. a spot. confound him. See Blood. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. The term blear. to bleat as sheep. Gr. Bejaune. geplerr. blister.P. boggle at something. To Bleat. dead-coloured Cotgr. See Black. to spot. N. A stain in a man's reputation. See Black. . from on.' God in his wordes. darkness of vices. blesmir. and thence to a bruise. novice. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. tutnan is a cloud. Palsgr. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. a blotch plerr. blcecan. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. pale Du. To salir. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. like one that has long P1. to wink at it. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. light-coloured. Bailey. to start away from. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. while the agent ac- From . tacher. whitish. BLENCH obfusco. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. . to cry or weep.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. spla7nU sie. A Blab. to spot . stain flack pa ens a crying eye. blakna. bldmi. paleness. ^Blencher. To totally different from the foregoing. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge.'he cried till the tears ran down. to stain one's honour or reputation. 242. a blemish in one's 2. blink. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. blarren. Blancher. sugillatio. pier vor den augen eyes. a fault. blench came to be used for a trick. tumanid. avoid looking it in the face. So in Sw. what blenched him therwith. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. exposed. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. start vor den augen. Manuel de Pecch&. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. as of dust or mist . inflamed eyes. bloken. Ancren Riwle. pale . in the expression reputation. guenchir. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. And now are these but mansbond (i. which are blurred with the have shewed you. plama. wheal. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. blot. to blear one's eye. a spot. is Blench. I chaunge colour. c. Schmel. Gower in R. 419. Pol. 115. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention.filerren. . wanness. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. Blear. pimple . Bleed. bleakness.' the devil makes a vain back. blesmissure. spSt. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. Sw. flack. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. a been distinct. a stain. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. ' . drop of water. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. AS. blur before their eyes. a disgrace. ' — — eye. — blink the question is to shrink from it. color plumbeus bldma. a spot. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. to cast a mist before the eyes. or to low as oxen. to whiten by exposure to sun and air .' to deceive one. Richardson.v. As AS. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. p. sinen langen tranen. to bleach. the formal equivalent of English wink. ' — — ' : — — . or blemish. to make him feel blank. goda nainn. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. B. Bleb. or blemysshen — blaken. a boil. splamii!. to become livid. — — R. Bleak. to disgrace one's name.D. a red watery eye. Sir J. . a blot or smear blanking one. to soil. on. Blear-eyed j having sore i. blema. to wink the eye. bleikr. to blare been weeping. from the than schal I go. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. the livid colour of a bruise. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. Fr. ^Xiixaoftai. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. From the OFr. Blemisli. ' He blarrede or roar. to humbug. livid. And By a similar metaphor Pol. souiller. G. blemissemeiit. wan. .

The inblissful. joy. the G. Tany. tire. to act like a — . AS. Swab. . a look. bluiter. blatida. blithe. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. Kiittner. blac. readily passes into a /.wink . to shine. to shut the eyes G.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. III. livid. blendian. Biglotton. the Slavonic languages. happily. blidu. pearance of the blighted . F. to glitter. blund. From the action of the hand making Sw. I hold thee a grote thee. ON. as in Du. to flash. G. good. G. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. G. OHG. gives blinzen. blinzler. trix.not sting thiiren. as a vatn i vin. ^Jam. To Blend. to merry. to twinkle. to dilute too much . . ' Pl. Wtb. glad. blaziti. glitter. The term then self or others. —Brera. to make a rumbling noise. a gleam. To blunder water. a glance. is I shall Gurt. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. to lighten. gladness. AS. blazeny. to be blind. a dead nettle. liquid filth to bluther. glance. cascultare. happy . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . sung. to bluiter. Russ. blithe blis. . blinzdugig. blincken. wink. . as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. blahoslaviti to twinkle. a blick-ooghen. Swiss (obsolete). to bless . graceful. blicksem. Du. mix from blekken. to bluiter up with water. Bliss. happy . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless.eyed. make these hands 3. Blink.Q. to blithsian. as a blind entry. j).. a. A . blitz.blinken. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. pale. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. shine. vious one in the order of formation. blican. lovely Bohem. to glitter .corn. a nounce happy. as in the case of blaze. a flash. to churn. to — make it thick and muddy. seems the simple netel. joy. wink of sleep . blanda one or prevent one from seeing. lighten. dazzle . riches blajennii blicksem. — . or nettle which does form. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. giving (Fr. also to wink. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. . blissian. — Goth. Blind. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. bliss look . to stir or puddle. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. riches . false windows. blinzeln. blick. blich-fiur. blago. The sound of k before an s. To Bless.D. to make happy. . Serv. . — A A — . blindselen. and joys of Paradise bliden. De Sonne ' verblekken. to bless. although in the in the next article. . to pro. but by no means therefore a pre.' To — blunge clay. — when he — Bailey. Du. plotzen. blink. blicken. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Du. fortunately. a wink. be glad flash. blitzen. Owl and Nightingale. with or without the nasal. to dabble in water. blent. . to mix. happy . to plunge. blink-eyed. Deprived of sight. to dash wine with water. Du. money. Du. tless —Gamm. Needle. to consecrate . goods. blind- ON. to shine. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. to dazzle . lightning.nasal. weaklaveny. well blagaya. to shut the eyes. blet. lightning sweet blago. flash of light . a glance Swiss blenden. blicken. to glitter ful . doors. . Blazena Bea. blende. well blahy blick and blink. (=bene dicere). lightning. mixing in general. sertion of the nasal.blinkard . thou knave. a wink With the bletsian. to fall into water with a sudden noise. . AS. in potters' language. blessed. Nares. plonsen. glitter. blend. joyful. Pol. to rejoice. blanssen. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. an entry which leads to nothing . bludder. moment. OHG. AS. to glance. blide. blahos. burn up. pockets. Sw. Dan. a blessing. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. glimpse. Paradises blidnissu.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. Sc. tative source of the word is wholly lost. blind. blinde fenster. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. joy . blindr.blinze. Thence apblinds. bleg. . blotzen. csecubrandish. blessed. Blight. to shine. G.blunda. 375. glitter. the verb to bless is some. as taschen. to rejoice. sweet. a. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blag. window-blind. blogi. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. Sc.

the unhewn bole of a tree. blad. to steep. Lat. joyful. a bubble. Blob. Hence. Blob. blot. — Sw. stone. . bloc. bluyster. bloc. as in E. kostua. Blister. or is inserted or omitted. taken altogether. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. blesme. bloated. ON. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. To Blissom. pimple. blond. and easily changes its place. in the sense of a soft tint. a blister . round. a small lump of anything thick. a . swell. blister. in bulk. Sw. Block. Sw. blister blasan. blindman's-buff. also to set See Bless. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. blindsehn. as if soaked in water. Kil. Boyd in Jam. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. to blow. to bubble. Goth. blithe. soft. to to puff and be noisy. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. Langued. The roots /. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. to soak. N. or the mark which it makes. Hence E. from blcsr. Jonson. plub. husks. soaked. as a blab of ink. blubber. a lumpish head plubach. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. and bouclette. a blot or spot. to swell. biota.. And so from squatter. a little blisg. blide. cooking. bausen. blobbes or droppes of water. Du. — . to cure by smoke. shells. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blinzel-maus. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. blote. senting the dashing of water. in Nares. See Blot. to blissom. bleiths. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. G. mass. Cotgr. Mod. is formed squad. bubble and blubber. pausten. soft. blouca and Fr. viscid. pustula. a dirty blister. . strawclod. W. mild. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. a ram. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b.—Bloater. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. frequentative. merciful ON. B. Du. blautr. to block up the way. signifying in the first instance to soak. it is must be observed. busten. Egillson. gentle OHG. to close it with a solid mass. a blain. blotfisk. It may be formed Blithe. Blond. pusula. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. in the lump or mass of wood. blijde. to dash liquid. or blinde-kiih. inde humiditate tumidus. puff. Ibid. For this. to blow. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. blaustem. blot. a bubble. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. and inarticulately. soak in water cured fish. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. speaking rapidly any .—Bloated. Dan. ^vaaa. blidr. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. any lump or mass of things. a drop of water. Svt. repre- pusula. an unformed mass. to blow. To a smoking or drying by the fire. blaud. and F. boucler. a See Blot. to desire the male. ^Jam. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. is also used in the sense of swelling . must be referred to AS. blcesma. In Fin. must be classed with forms like Gr. in gusts.— Hal.plisg. formed spot. a block or log en bloc. Fr. B. having an unsound swollen look. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing.— Bailey. G. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. mild. weak. blot. To Bloat. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. or the like. A solid blouquette blisters. as blinzeln. buckle. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blod. Thus we have blab and babble. bluster. like clot.pusta. Gael. The stem or trunk of a tree. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. light yellow. expressed by cognate roots. Sc. Dan. I believe. while Lat. or bleb. — — — — — From blabber. a bubble. ON. Bleb. kostia. fish blind person. Of sheep. buclde. . orbicular. and pisg. —Bailey. soft. fiustula. to breathe hard. The blow E. separate portion. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. a blister. A under this name was imported into England. . whence blast. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. lagga i blot. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. blobber. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Gael. — Blob. sloppy dirt. Bav. Fr. blab. like manner the coloured. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. pods.

ON. shine . pladdern. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. blondheid. (of cattle) to dung. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Jios. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. a blot or spot. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. ])erly Du. blus. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. — gush. blue. a cow-dung.blauschlagen.— . Dan. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. in v. Sw. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. AS. platz-voll. pladern. E. bletister. plants which prepares the seed. proto shine with bright colours . yellow. to grow pale). bit by bit. . glasi. to splash. blodelsa and blawelsa. Blotcli. blond en blaauw slaan. probably connected with Pol. dirty spot on the cheek. plotterwis.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. to shine . lump flower. Blow. ^lys. glossi. ^Bleed. mud. Lat. blaeuwe ooghe. blatte. blosem. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. Du. plattata. bloeme. a blow. . blase. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. as the skin or hair. Wflz<^«. bloedsd. blistaf. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. . brilliancy. blose. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). — — . dial. blond is used in blatt. straw. to dabble in water. blosma. to strike . Dan. fall to overflowing. the bright to blot paper morsels. bleistern. See Blow. bloto. whence plader. to dabble in water . to slap. platschern. Schmid. to blaze . from the bright colour which 7'vci. a spot or blot. Prov.^ Kil. OFr. or the sound of it . G. Stalder. See Blow. blue. to strike with such these objects exhibit. to patter. Fris. white blatte. to squander. to flame. wan. to slap. dial. to strike with something soft or flat. a The form platschefz.properly to scatter liquid .platter. D. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. . Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. glus. E. a beater. . flower. yellowish It's G. light. blad. a flower. parallel form with ON. couleur livide. redness. E. bloetnsel. kobladde. Sw. plet. to scribble. gammon. bliithe. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. to exists in biadetto. Bloom. Sc. blostma. E. on. of a blow with something lios. platz-regen. bfys. Blad. gfyssa. a Halm a. to glisten . Ein platsch milch. kuh-plader. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. bleustern. bloi. a black eye Du. to dash down. a gush of milk . from G. —Barbour. bloi. Ir. to From . a flower. blowen. S-wiss pladern. great leaf of cabbage. splashing full. bloutre. Sc. lidmr. to dirty. pale biavo. ON. a flower. Pl. a torch blusse. E. AS. Erploten. leme. 2. colour of the cheeks. blut. blawels. bldmi. Du. a drop of water or colour. coloured (Diaz. blou. lustre. glister . fall down . blomstr. blosa. a Usaae. bluish. Harmar in R. fair in en blat vand. Fr. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. en blau ach. Plots. blue . Fris. blaeuw. blosen. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . clod. the bright colour of the cheeks . blaeuwen. gleam. G. to blush . livid marks. to glow. lump of anything soft to blad. Schilter.D. blady. blois. a lump. bliihen. — Blotch-paper. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. blotter. a pelting shower). to spot or blot. blauwel. bldts. soft or flat. It. glose. blue. a deli. — Cot. ON. bliise. pale. spot pletter i solen. blue. It should be of filth blak-blatte. to dash down Du. blust. platsch-voll. bloed. Russ. gloss. Du. j^ blottir. livid . a nature. blooth. to be red with blot. E. splendour . plot of land is a spot or small rage. Du. Schwenck. ' — . a water ploutsche. biado (of which the evidence plattern. — Stalder . blysa. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. blond. blotting-paper. PI. a. bloi. blotte. Blossom. The G. to sparkle. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. a blaze. . to fall (of liquids) in abundance. . Blood. Sw. Florio). to blot the land was in a leme. spots in the sun. Blot. cow-dung. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. to squat or lie close. . blat. skam. to be red. to blaze. sbiadare. Dan. platt-voll. pale tint. a Schmid. Wendish blodo. plottra. Hatch. bloemen.' the rain is driving and blue .

(of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. to flap like loose clothes. glansj Ir. — — Mundart. Wtb. ^Jam. flower OHG. Danneil.to blossom. blubonciti. blubbern. cheeks bedabbled with tears. . Du. Lat.Jlasa. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. P1. bruised Prov. Gael. 1292. fem. —SchmelIt. a bruise. bluh. grow pale. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. AS. The aUied forms. blebber. a. bluther. to make blue. and the forms mentioned under Swab. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. blubbern. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. grey. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. bliuwan. — .D. blahen. a blow. glaodh and blaodh. bloemen. to breathe G. OHG. bloeyen. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. Chaucer. plusig. jabber. marking some application from that bladder. bludder. G. w. Bav. ' BLUE or guggling. to puff up. boasting. . a continued noise of agitated water. blut. toused. vi^ound. blady. to bubble up. bliithe. br. in rapid or indistinct utterance. bloi. glowing coal . to show flower. wan. fied vowel. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. to blow. G. blazi. blava. Raynouard. blaw j biavo. flower w. to blow. to hard. to exhibit bright colours. fqded. coup. blosen. Blowze. blawan. in E. dirty. bldt. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. . — To blubber. d in Sc. blazir. blass. blodelsa. is confined to the — . blodyn. gloeyen. bruk. glow. G. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. The primary sense is to shine. a herb Gr. Pl. The radical sense is shown in Gael. especially with respect to the hair. corre. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. plubartaich. boil. Tumbled. to with Bohem. to gabble. Chaucer. 51. to gush. OFr. E.xo'»'. |8A)'. These are — Bludder. to beat. blois. pale .. may cite for example G. y\r)yi»v. to guggle.— . to glow. disordered in head-dress. blau. MHG. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. 2. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blao. bluod. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. blduen. pale OFr. a blast. OHG. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to blow. Deutsch. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. little apparent resemblance. a flower. Pludern. In agitation of water. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. to shine with bright From colours.' — Palsgr. The interchange of an initial gl. to inflate. sound like water. thus identify the Celtic glas with G.D. florere. v. meurtrissure Roquefort. a gurgling . pale. -ii.D. — To Blubber. red-faced bloted wench. to blurt out. — Bluther. plustrig. It. like manner Lat. bloes. blue. A. a paddling in wate r. Du. We . ler. blau. pludern. where the word may be compared bliggman. blust. tache. to flourish.nify bubble. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. closely difference in of blabber. to breathe bouteiUis. To Blow.' Hamburgh Archives. blodern. gUd. Notwithstanding the We . Mund. Pl. to'disorder. blue . disordered. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. 1.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. to fade. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. blow. and closely allied with Du. gliihen. glas. to beat with a mallet. to make bubbles in drinking. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . bledniai. a Blossom. plubraich. plodern. Jla-re. glede. into flower. G. To Blow. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. gliihen. Langued. And. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. . bliihen. green. Kil. glas. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. a fat. and thence. 92. Her sweet bloderit face. to spot. gloeden. grug. fiubbem. puff. Bret. to Plodern. bloeden. is very frequent. foam. chatter. B. plubair. — . to fade. the red fluid of the body . to glow. withered. . Blue. bliihen. heath. pale. to bruise Roquef. . Deutsch. Sik upplustem. Gr. sponds with Sw. bloom. wan. Blowzy. sense. to fade. piusen. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. E. Prov. /idXavoc. or gr. blezir.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem.D. It is howbliuwen. bl.

a flounder. See Blurt. a plain coin herausplatzeu. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country.' trouble. or an abrupt manner. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. to plump into the water. to work To blunder out a fronto. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. Halma. . and Du. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. buller-bas. Lat.make a noise. poltern. yellow. pale. discoloured {plowiee. has donder-bus. disturb. which is rendered by Florio. corn. dial. to dabble in the mud. puddle. I blonder. Dan. Romance bluiter. to dabble Biglotton E. and then generally idle talk. to become pale or wan. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. G. blue. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. bulmanner. Then with the nasal. blunder. Sw. Roquefort. something.//aay. blandum. a fore. OFr. like the Celtic glas. blave is moreover. all representing the — . plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. and bustle . find accordingly It. devenir vert blavoie. blunder. biava. a blunderbuss. — Pr. . to and not introduced by degrees or cere. pale) is provincially used in the. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. bleu et blanc. to fall suddenly on the ground. to mix it up with water. is. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It.— . idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. 't — —Hal. Pl. confusion. glundra. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. Roquefort. A bluff manner. Blavoyer. Ditton in R. and sbiadare.• BLUFF biado. je perturbe. blue. Flor. Kil. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . plomp. yellowish red. falb. Bohem. jaune. from an imitation of the sound. abrupt. The Du. in water dobbelen. sloppy drink. Biada. Hal. herbe. and biavo (Diez). blake (identical with AS. blue. Blunt. From G. to confound. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. Blunderer or blunt worker. verdoyer. pale straw-coloured. rustic. verdure. originally growing up turf and water. to become pale or livid. blutter. tutte le semente ancora in erba. blanssen. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. Kiittner. Pol. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. tradire to Fr. blac. Dief. flodderen (Weiland). Blaffart. Kil. blahir. bullern. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. to blunge clay. bawling. to fade). It then signifies something done at once. Bluff. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. to lose colour. The Du. To blunder is then. bluish. flav-us. applied to green as well as blue. It is remarkable however that the E. blaf. as well as sbiadafe. segetes virentes. G.. from the brilliant green of the young E. — — — . Supp. to puddle. in plur. Bladum. pludder. trahir. And blunders on and staggers every pace. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. planus. plo-wy. We Blunder. sbiavare. Dryden in R. ploffen. mix It. fawn-coloured. to become pale. - reddish yellow. and metaphorically. blavus. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. earth and water mixed together. bUich. — . to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. in the same way as from It'. non rotunda. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. See Blunt. G. blunt. sense of yeUow. speech. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. pale yellow.in mud or water. Hence a Slcelton in R. polterer. used for the work of an unskilful performer. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . corn. from the Lat. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. superficie plani. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. blond. Hence we pass to Prov. an ill-done job. fallow. Bodge. blunderhead. herauspoltem or sloping shore. mistake. as well as biado. to blunder water. The word is here synonymous with amplus. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. contrasted with the dle. biavo. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. a boisterous violent man. liebefactor. bloi. buller-bak. Du. E. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. biada. his business with much noise. Palsgr. glundr. a shore abruptly rising. polter-hans. without image or superscription. Analogous forms are Du. Altieri.D. Pm. having a bluff forehead. G. Du. to agitation of liquids. like Du.

plotsen. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. dial. Ford in R. plump. viz. bloss. figuratively. blat. inaKil. It. blatte. in Richardson. blockish. Q.—D. plains The large bech. unwrought. to make foliage. G. plump. azure. without the nasal.— — — . plump. . blunder. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. unpolished. bare. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. of a knife which not cut. as in E. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. pale. It will be seen that the G. nature. clownish. from the loud report a fire-arm. but of something soft thrown on the ground. and. The blait body. pressions. bald. fooUsh. used in both senses. platz-regen. rudely. platzen. bare or blunt. it will be well to point out a sense. A light blue colour. ang. heavy. ineffectual reason. bus. blotta sanningen. good plump person. the absence of sharpness. biotto. dull.to fall into the water. plutz T)\i. Stalder. massive. Blaitie-bum. F. duU. united in Gael. A modification of the same root. through which a man is so blont. thick. maol. plonsen. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. bluntschen. hebes. — — pidus. Kiittner. biosso. stupid fellow. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. pointless. plump. and the like. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. wan. with or without the nasal. void. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Halma. blunsch. plump J to plump out with it. is thrown. and an unintelligent. awkwardly. Sc. identical with E. Swab. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. —D. a blot. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. awkward. homo stolidus. obtusus. insensible. is The word dull. V. naked. like a thing thrown down with a noise. naked. blunt. Dan. Bare and blunt. as Sw. bare. G. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. naked. blout. Du. rough. plumbeus. blue. Sc. to handle a thing bluntly. without preparation. that the sense of bare. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly.pludse. rude. exactly corresponding to the G. a simpleton. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. Sir T. plotz. raw. Kiittner. nis. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blutten. Pol. V. a bluntie. Probably radically hlekit. to bring it suddenly out. mit etwas heraus-platzen. to make a noise of such a Stalder. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. blait. as cow-dung. it will be observed. to blurt. The syllables blot. Molof something wet. to blunt a thing out. bleak. blunt. absence of preparation. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. blunt. edgeless. and hath swiche languor in his soul. forestis. Won by degrees. obtusus. clumsy. without Maolaich. a thick and will person. sheepish. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson.plompen. dull. or blab out a thing Kiittner . — Kil. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Plump. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. silly. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. Dan. unceremonious manner. — blunt. —D. Then cometh indevotion. or heraus plumpen. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. poor Sc. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. to plump down. unfledged Sw. . similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. blait. viz. a portion To inquire for slaves. More in Richardson. Bluntet. V. fling down . Woddis. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. It is from this notion of suddenness. Blunt. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . heavy. naked. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. blott. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. down. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. heavy. to plump into the water. without horns. Chaucer. Now the Swiss bluntsch. Plump mit etwas umgehen. Plontp. seems to be derived. that it not easy to discover the connection. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. and in the same sense. blunt. Sw. inactive Swiss bluntschi.

Bav. a burst of tears. and when applied to vaunting language. the Brem. to puff. bord. blaste?i. BLUR Boar. AS. E. planks or boards. to rumble. To brag and to crack. A large snake. blaustem. a blotch. blot. eafor. to blush. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. baban. blodern. blusse i ansigtet. c. Dan. planks raised up outside the roofs. De Boat. a club foot . to puff. — — — * Boast. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. bur. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. e. — To Bob. bora. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. AS. and boisterous.' — Red Riding-hood. to give a crack. ground. Comp. blur. table. lacerta. bot. an end or stump. Schmeller. to endeavour to terrify. a board or plank. V. bludder. Boa. blast. plump. pludern. bord. or bog also thread. whence bordvidr. Pull the bobbin. batello. to blur. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Kil. on. and swimmeth very well. The elision of the d is very to chatter. bausen. Sc. pof. be a crack or loud sound. a tassel. to talk quick and indistinctly . brett. cluster. stellio. a border. G. beer. to dirty. . boistous. bustuous. a blot. . To splirt. to blow. To blow in puffs. blotch and botch. a tassel. literally edge-wood. primarily signify loud noise. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. dial. bit. 156. as in Du. imitated by has also In like . mire. Wright's ed. then applied to indistinct vision . Wtb. to brag grande loqui. Boa. to blaze. Bot zeggen. AS. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. crack made by bursting open. w. borrar. 'Ba. 29. burra. to spurt out. will fly up. Gael. boot. botte. Sc. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. pluddre. to roar.v. short pieces of any filthy mud. to dangle. a smear. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. to be out of temper. &c. bdd. bord. edge. BOB 79 — To Blur.plodem. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. Related to blutter. Blush. . puddle. Boost is used for the boast. boccheggiare. It. See Boisterous. Wallace. Du. It. as splurt to splutter. bar. As the as. baiag. gabble. rude. Du.— . to smear. Fl. blurra. pausten. to glow . Hal. P. blarra. flat. 9396. an edge. to crying. pustern. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. like the parapets (viggyrdil. a short thick body. or backwards and forwards. an ear of corn. Swiss blodern. table. a Jam. to bark. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. to chatter. blaere. Lat. ever-swin. Fr. to breke. dull. — From mouth. To tinct. bludder. to blore. — a blaze. bobbin. sudden. Gael. of the word seems . fringe. margin. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. to make a noise in boiling. a flurt with one's fingers. cheeks glow. . is formed Du. skin. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to threaten. To Blurt. strong.the syllable bot. board. boa. E. coarse. bleuster. ader. a mistiness. — — . to dabble. a. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. Halma. to snuff. or blurt with one's mouth. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. bdtr. bateau. G. the sound of a blow poffen. bluther. Pl. pfludern. a blow . . i. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. Supp. to make mouths. a dangling object. this root are formed Sc. See Blossom. bakke bleustern. OE.plerr. and E. aper. my dear. To move quickly up and down. — ' Dief. Fr. to say bluntly.—Bobbin. violent. Slur. blunt. margin. beacon fire. border. Fl. rude. blader. bhis. splurt and spirt. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. whence bob. blot. gabble Sw. to disfigure with E. hot. large. margin. lindwurm. to blurt out. and the latch . Bluster. Du. Du. Hal. Du. puffen. blosken. cocodrUlus.y. properly noisy. bdta. blasen and See Burr. to puff. voce intonare. to bounce. to jabber. bobine. and Du. bot-voet. stupid. common.pusten. outward edge. 274. bliise. blaffen and baffen. ON. a small lump. berd. to sound like water boiling. Explained by Jam. boord. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. Du. blirt of greeting. to make a noise with the mouth. both used in the sense of boasting. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. a mist before the eyes plerren. to guggle. Du. Sverris Saga. 1. G. dial. acre. a torch blusse. bladdra. The to radical meaning D. chicchere. it implies that it is empty sound. swagger. a grows to a great bigness. a bladder . violent G. eber. a baU of thread the mud. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Board. bluter. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. edge. blose. to blubber. It. to render indisbhir.D. geplerr. blubber.

bog (equivalent to E. a bog or morass. Supp. pall. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. Schmel. bod. barriga. AS. . as signifying anything spherical or round. . stuttering. Lap. Body. gagei. thrust with something pointed. is identical with Fr. to butt. — Grandg. bogadaich. to fail. strike with the horns. In like manner E. a command. move. * To Boggle. shake. barrique. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. then from the yielding. or a pair of bodies.hollow. So BOB To Bob. busti. the body of a shift gaguejar. a . toss. — as well as the body of an animal.' A — Sherwood's Diet. bole. corpset. a cask. — H. bodene. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Now unskilful action is conmire. calf of the leg.gmh:t. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. an awl. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. agitate. the body. goggle. waving. quagmire). or stem of a tree. bogan. . speak of the barrel of a horse. woman's stays. See To Botch. Reliq Antiq. bodi. to scruple. an announcement. body of a shirt bol. bod. baboyer.rabodi. to smack. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. To Bodge. Bret. of which the E. is a lump. formerly bodies. potig.! . unsteady. 3. biodag. . to prick. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. . to bodge. Gael. It introduced from Ireland. bodilo. stitch. butt. a sting . a prickle. Thy i. as a horn. 43. potacha. Ptg. ^Jam. corpses pot. to make a mow at. to start start and back as from a bugbear. To Bode. unsteady. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. — 2. See Baber-lipped. daubed or dabbled with blood. The signification of the root bot. VI. . gog in gog-mire. and the word is well explained by Bailey. rounded. to waver. exhibit another modification of the root. Lith. to deliver a message. to be unsteady tich. whence Fr. corset. a puddle. to stir. bogadh. a messenger . to fail. dies. gagoula. bottig. moving backwards and forwards. a quagsoft. To mock. bothog. the boss of a buckler. Ir. arise E. Miracle-plays. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. message boda. ON. by the syllable patsch. gago. to blurt a thing out. bagges. Russ. . bayonet . of broken efforts or brokeii movements. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. to commit a blunder. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. patsche. bot. a body. bog. a spur. a ghost . Bog. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. palleg. BOGGLE trunk and G. . needle. stutter gogmire. Bodice. To portend good or bad. as in stammering or staggering. gogach. bog. from fitting close to the body. body and G. Bodkin. wavering. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. to be uncertain what to do. potacha.\\i\c\iset. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. cask bottich. boftich. moist mire. whence paUchen. point. potahha. round. Ptg. stumpy. to roll. Cot. . corset from corps. bodnu. the stem of a tree . to bob. Banff. gog.a (i\ia. anything soft. French bouter. a cask. to push with the horns. Gael. to make. bodhag. swelling..' Bogglie. We . the belly. Bohem. gebod. quakmg. the trunk of the animal body. where bogs form Gael. precept. biodeachan. And waves. Gl. Shakespear has badged with blood. bodies. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. AS. anything protuberant. meaning the round part of his body. or bag. bodetz.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. to stammer. bayonet. The Sp. expression hogglin an bogglin. belly. mud. To make bad work. a round body both. e. Wall. gag. shaking . With With this we charged again We bodged again. See Bid. Crist. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. bob. bolr. to dabble or paddle. bodat. bogach. Gael. bodak. to stick. and E. bodig. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. a dagger. bodian. nodding. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . fickle . unsteady nature of a soft substance. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. bogle. badyti. to thrust. nave of a wheel. boll. bottich are derivatives. bodi. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. '£. Commonly explained as if from Sc. bo tich. so large a feature in the country. a prick. the thick part of anything. W.

poppy (Bailey). Pr. boll. bolle. . i. a fastening for a door. bul. used. notes. then violent. bol. shake. the gurgling sound of water rush. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. quick. Sp. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. Love. gerade signifies straight to the mark. buile. 45. to be at a loss a shirt. perpendicular. See Bulk. stutSw. in the sense of handsome . 374. bold. Bustuous. . See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. and then applied to other husks.palleg. bollen (Kil. Chaucer seems Dan. a bump. fiausten. confident. bag or bog are derived Piedm. furfures. bout. bolster. merry. Boll. to waver or hesitate. tartle. Lat. belc'hj. G. bolster. The round stem of a tree. bhster. Boystous. w. brave. to stumble. bola. rough. bola. to the belly as the or dislike. G. tulum. warlike. to stammer. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. strong. haughty. Magy. by which it is moved to and fro. styffe or rude . in speaking. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. glass phial. sels of flax. bol. bolc'h.. Wall. V. Du. free. insolent baude. Fr. pimple ON. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. Fr. Pm. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. capitellum. bouil. bold.rounded part of the body. the. excellent. tar. bula. caput scapulse.' Mrs Baker. OG. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. or the like. ON. bolla. pillow. bout is explained by Kil. tartalear. The bob. 1430 in Deutsch. Kit. to stammer. chaff of corn siliqua. Lap. ohg. bal. swelling. ballr. cows the people from speaking. but that Bolt. trunk of a tree . which are not used for a similar purpose. a bubble. courageous. hollow. bulla. is probably a modification of boll. Boil. bealder. beule. ^Boistous. G. prince. blow. the body of a man or of ter. Bole. roydeur. (of Mons) b^guer. pustule. pusten. * Bolster. the body . the husk of nuts.Du. proud. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. boggle. a bakazikni. stramenta. bolzBold. bSlstr. intrepid. coarse. Du. bulr. swelling. noise. chatter. The term applies in — — impressed . In the same way Sc. This iv. . strong. Mund. stud. buller. cheerful. ^Vocab. flax-boU. boly. a cushion. — 6 . tartajear. as those of nuts. scruple. bol. ON. Du. bolleken. bolt upright. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Fr. to stagger. Gael. as. bog. bolstar. up of bubbles. baud. pall.). hero. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). obex. the lir. huge. round the first instance to the materials with . Test. from Du. to swell. a bubble. dint in a metal vessel. see Boast. capiing into a cavity. Sc. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. to tattle. 304). G. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . puile. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. Kil. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. to give a hoUow sound. whence bulla. — — which the cushion is stuffed. — ' — tagliare. as E. bald. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G.— D. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. a swelling in ice. and manace for to de. boystousnesse. Da. folliculus grani. bald. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. ON. properly represent belly. a quaking mire. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. * Boisterous. bulla. boutpijl. animal as distinguished from the limbs. treated under Bowl. b^gayer. also a blister. Swab. Daring. polc'h. gluma. Properly noisy. tomentum. bold. may be identified with It. bolt. bolr. he will speak out. Lat. Stalder. repagulum. Goth. bog. biiilen. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . to hesitate from doubt. to be prominent. to puff. as baltha. To Bolter. boss. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. Sw. a bubble. E.D.— — . . OHG. A. a head . to boil. puilen. as. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. Du. hakogni. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. balder. bul. wag. Bret. Chaucer. boil .w. ON. bochken (titubare. It. bolzen. strong. balldr. Westerwald bollern. globular bod)'. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. stameln vel bochken. impetuosity. courageous. To Boil. bagaji. E. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. bald. Cot. Me doth awate. a boil or swelling Du. bok. from the branches. bullire. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion.

hump-backed (to be compared A ' . swelling. bolt-foot. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Wtb. bolt.D.fe/2?. Brem.nature of the operation. bulk or quantity .— . budeln daz mele . or the like. we der Brocket). hammer. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. barutela. to bolt meal barutel. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. brattle. tantara. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. rugged. with E. a clump of turf. taratantarum. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. taratarrum.thump or blow. a bunch. a crashing or racketing noise. The ulti. Bav. rugged. Champagne burtcau. Sw. The ment and the operation. die treppe pressed. Lat. bolzauget) Sp. tumultuari. a millpoltzet augen. hammer. poltern. cro. je bulte. In the next place. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. Here the radical image is the violent O. beliitea. a clod. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. . bortelen. sestuare. burclct. hulter de bulter. and the Thus from So. bolzaugen. to bolt flour burato. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. to spring forth E. or a racer from the course. hump. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. as a rabbit from its baritel.. to start with palpitate. : ' — — . to talk pulzen.) E. bolzen. pull.i5a//^«. G. bolting to that of form. OFr. on the one hand. hole. .clack.Lat. kloteren. then to knock. . a clap of thunnences. . to bolter. protuberance. to clack. buideln. a clod cloth. uneven. ' — — ! ! : — . mole-hill. to bolt meal barutel. bolt head is a retort. to start out. Hence. zen. cruddle. buretter{CQ\. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. barutela. as Fr. staff which sounds tar. to become lumpy. the sense of right on end. a rattle. a bolter or implement for bolting. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. lumpy. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. by the representation of a racketing sound. also to curdle. fied bot. pultare. representing a rat. have Lat. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. It. a . .). Prov. 2. bulstrig. tling or crashing noise. Sanders. projecting eyes pul. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. tuft. blotttre. pattern. barutare. small heap. bultred. crotlar. ' Holler poller / bulter. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. OFr. ler. zare. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. poltern. gebolder. grasbulten. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. On this account Mid. the wheels groaned. MHG. ex•wagen. crod. we see that the one consists of a words. .agitation of the meal in the bolter. buletare. Schiitze. Pr. hulch. a rattling carriage. — — — . racket gepolter. knob. boss. Du. I boulte meale in a boulter. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. baruta. a club-foot..noise {brattle of thunner. one after the other. Pl. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. to significance of the term was overlooked. bulla. to agitate. to form lumps.D. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Du. bultig. Dan. a sod (Schiitze). loud and fast. Dauphiny a sudden movement. as of a trumpet. from G. croler.protuberance. to knock. to E. projections.D. abolter.On the same principle. So also we pass from Lat. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. bulk. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. beluter. a small portion. .u. Lang. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. jolting. bullern. OFr. Supp. btilt. crash. bulio. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. Hence Palsgr.). as above explained. holier poller. taraabout. Pl. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. a round glass ending — bultig. tar. Fr. buletel.D. to come rattling downstairs.as the essential element signifying the talum. Mid.through a cloth of loose texture. in S'W plotter. clump. we pass to Du. P1. And as the agitation of cream in . ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. or ill. agitari (Kil. Pm. curdle. . we have Du. bluter. Bulte-pook or bulstar. / is transposed in Fr.by forms like G. to shake. vessel with narrow opening. a bolter Prov. buUire. poll. to coagulate. uneven. and to crash. to make a knocking.

sijde. sije. bombasin. Fr. band. — bombast came guage. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. . bureau. booming over the water. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. G. the murmuring of the sea. also thick-shanked. must be explained Fr. coarse. Gascoi^e in R. a churn for butter. bunden. and Bond. boulenger. tie. bureau. to shake (as to shake the head.) . . &c. a baker. iuttern. bulter from It. Du. band. a thundering noise bomre. is supported by the analogy of G. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. to thump W. been. brust-bein. e. Butterglas. q. bwmbwr. to beat a drum. bombice. crook-shanked bondew. bombarda. band pi. barate. beil'n. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. bombase. — AS. bond. Near 6 * . breast-bone. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. the silk-worm. Moreover. achsel bein. thick from shaking. raw silk. From builen. G. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. cotton. Banstead. again. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. to thunder. tie.bast. a bone in general. stuff. bombe. Schm. Bomb. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . biire. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. buttel trueb (of liquids). sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. bongam. basin. to bind G. a boulter of meal. Bibelesworth in Nat. butteln. In E. butteln. It. to boult meal. an implement of binding. Bonfire. tree. lana lignea.^Altieri. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. agreement. It. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . which requires stuff of a thin open tex. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. bein. . In legal language. 155. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. Mid. bone of the . cotton stuff. thick-legged.). When ture. bommer. to resound. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. bombasine. a stock. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bras. Kil. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. to shake down fruit from a tree. bombdra. Du. the leg. ties. assuming the of leg : special signification W. bambagioj whence It. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. gunpowder. The material called by this name. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. from teu. Fr. It. . beuteln.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. baum-bast. silk-worm. and Mod. e le furfre (of bren) demor^.Lat. ODu. — having a stem or stalk. sye. gossipium. a —Bombasine. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. It. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. to bolt meal. to shake.Su?. bonds. bande. i. buidelen. or trunk word in W. borel. bolting-cloth. . and in fact we find the and Du. rimbombare. however. whence bomme. Bone. from boom. It. . sericum arboreum. Fl. produced the Pl. bon. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. beuteln. bwmbwry mar. banitola (Fl. and Du. bindan. buidelen. as in . and that from Fr. silk. we speak of a gun to resound. Antiq. bambagino. Need you any ink and bonibase. to which the leg. baun. a hollow sound. bauniwolle. to cast to and fro. As cotton was used for padding clothes. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bombicina. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. derivation. a stem or base. bonfras. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. Castrais barato. a string. Dan. a beacon. It. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. burato. to ring bells. term is appropriated in G. the contracted form of Du. tiffany. d. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. G. bambacium. bonog. bomba. the Fr. HoUybandin R. a drum bombammen. Du. — Bombard. ^o/j. E. bombast. OE. . has repeatedly varied. Dan. bopin. and called in Mid. and also the leg. 83 Gr. builen. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. as Banbury. the shank the shoulder-bone. stump. PoUitriduare.D. a ligature. bommen. thick.

a vessel for holding liquids. — — . been. Du. 232. bonad. Fr. the possessor of the farm. of wonder On the same principle Sp. also called Brecknock Beacons. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. countryman.n. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. dial. * Boose. blockhead. E. short boots. Prov. set in order.. quest. Bun. bonnet. help. — To boot. bose. But bosg. Goth. From bo. The latter is the original AS. house. Book. netis stall. botte. from Du. remnants of hay or straw. Build. stabulum. Kil. . . by itself for head-dress. by arbitours sholde bote the P. to aid. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. boutig. p. to set in order. head-dress wai^g. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. boom. babin. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. See Bown. G. dial. Boot of bale. one who dwells nigh. G. to litter bosu. Boom. Bonnefyre. a letter . bote. botta. the cultivator. to cultivate. AS. to gape. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. a tree. are formed Fr. foolish. a silly fellow. often cut for burning and lighting fires. bosig. Boor. Du. ben. comes bondi. from beida (E. To Boot. a bonfire. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. Booby. although in the OG. the name of the letter b. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. nachbar. bene. wall hangings. boia. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. bonaid. b'ukvdry. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. boer. boandi. bossen. botte. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. ass. bid). biikui. betere thing werse. swinbusa. a hollow skin. Boon. tapestry. a lying-place for dogs or swine. and Ban in w. Boot. to prepare. bowwen. badaud. gehyred. — . bolt. petition. ON. Fr.Boos. Thin ben Luke i. . bobo. Thus from the syllable ba. Ox. Palsgr. . . Pm. and from AS. busu. a bag of skin or leather. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. from badare. boten-shoen. AS. A peasant. a head-dress. gawney. prayer. Jr. b^er. pero. at everything. signifying beech. ty Gael. bosih. ON. high. A stall for cattle. prayer. simpleton. a good turn or re- meaning. ON. bauen. . bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. boa. master of the house. bommen. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. and thence Rouchi baia. the mouth. baier. See Butt. the first consonant of the alphabet. succour Bailey. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. Swab. as the Brecknockshire Banns. bota. till. Basa. a lofty blaze. to gape. Busk. . is Du. bua. G. bobo ! interj. bua. Hufwud-bonad. OSlav. dress. It. inhabit. buch-stab. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. buandi. as a lying-place for cattle. Binau Brychyniog. Gl. b&ber. . however. Hal. dress. the scriptures bokareis. dolt. Bootless. to ask. desire. a. Perhaps. Hal. tall. boo. booby. tigh. — From the participle present. The i. \ais-band. Sp. Schm. w. pig-sty. Kil. where a cross (or a gun. whence ban-ffagl. fool. wondering signifies not only straw. petition. babau. from gape. In nautical language. beiSne. bdn. and Gael. It is commonly explained as identical with It. hu?idbusa. E. — Bailey. Wall. Bonnet. bonad.—Bootless. Fr. pole. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. chaff. bauer. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. babb^o. bos. the alphabet. without ad- . Gael. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . bd. boubi^. and fig. 13. to yawn. dog-kennel. A favour. ganian. till.^ —P. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. OW. beam. build. lofty. in Phil. The origin of the word is probably the W. — e. bds. which one gaping and staring about. bas. boutig. Trans. . remedy of evil. . hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. letter. writing bokos. a scribe G. in w. a letter Russ. Mrs Baker explains bun. N. Mrs Baker. relief from sorrow. Du. build. bAkva. the stubble of beans. ON. a. to strew with straw. inhabit. a stall. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. to dress. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. boubair. but stall. Pr. reparation. a simpleton. to cultivate. See Bomb. gaby. litter. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. gaping hoyden — Cot. The character of folly is i860. or Vanns. Fr. literally cow-house. clown. feu de behourdis. a dry stalk.

Fl. remedy. to pierce. is purin. puras. to mend. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. as afford a satisfactory explanation. budowai. It. a borer. borracha. of an edge that will not bite. — ON. a border. dens mordens vel caninus. to boot. extremitas Bore. making good again . in Lap. Booty.. differs only in termination. baara. Mag. uzboro. urboro. a hut. abode. tent. Esthon. Compare Manx birrag. comminuted by either kind of action. forare. See Burgeon. bothag. The cor. to foam. boede. fimbria. Kil. budka. make . Fin. edge. . a responding forms . • — To Bore. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. bite. Burke in R. a leather bag or bottle for wine. to hut. bothan. pu purro (saha =: saw . Fin. OHG.por. 1. to stick unto as a bur. better. Alexand. bottino. to The Sw. Gael. biorag. a bothy. ON. sawroot. ON. to bore. rof. Magy. . to patch. exchange or divide. . to to . a word. . the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. yfirbdt. hut.— Return from Parnassus I inR.par. See To We speak in E. aid. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. from borra. bud. terebro. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. to build buda. Bohem. to importune. are derived from G. a tusk. Palsgr. Fr. Lat. a hut or tent. bauen. Du. terebra sculptoria purastoa. to profit. in Ihre.. to bete the properly to mend the fire. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. which are probably from the same root. from deila and skipta. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. purro. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. boards. 3. a borer . Fr. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. to quench one's thirst . on. to anything Neither G. batr. amendment boeten. puru. a shed. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. recovery bata. BoracMo. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. wave. boeye. cup- awl. and hence to fine. dust. ON. lappolone. to swell. . to divide. BOOTH vantage. pointed. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. kvit-bara. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. purra. The ON. Bete. Fin. a shop budowati. But probably the E. are parret. bardure. bord. bdt. bolino. Gael. bdra. burin. bower. to build. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. Sp. The as G. a bladder. sculpo 05\xiik. . both. Another derivation from Fin. bordi. limbus. 266. margin. scalpo. welt. betan fyr. to . p. cottage. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. Esthon. . See Bower. fire. cure Sw. drillen. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . a. and thence to eat build. to bite. swell bara. the . G. furni. chisel. boete. ora. barn. mat-bod. a chisel. a wave. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. puru. bata. sharp. Booth. pi. amendment. or the gradual working a hole in anything. And so in ON. a sharp-pointed tooth. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. bohren. struere ignem. lappalare. Pol. furd. &c. reparation. hem or gard of a garment. . sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. butin is explained by Flor. a granary . phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. a cupboard. a shelter of branches. admovere titiones. It. to repair. botjan. Border. butin. a great bur. A phorically a drunkard. boeten het vier. a borer. purra. scsdes-bod. bauda. or anything pointed. limbus. Du. a booth or shed. from bord. . a shop. and parrets. borino. borracha. OSw. bora. to surge. to bite. The Fin. In the Fin. puras. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. beute. to expiate boeten den dorst.. to profit Goth. It is admitted that Fr.—Burin. chewed food for infants. piercer. Gael. repair. N. nor E. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). baete. AS. byte points to the verb byta. wine-skin. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. to restore. and meta- Fr. an engraver's chisel. To Bore. cellar. and E.

Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. poor. to become is emitted by a hollow body. botch. empty. Swiss Rom. whence the burg. The primi. into borsholder. in the body struck. &c. Sc. cnoc. head. .any round sweUing. ^o^^flj. . bos. Cot. pego. tive idea seems to bring under cover. beorgan. to give a hollow bizo. a pushing or striking out. the N. primarily signifying coarse sound . or because a blow berga. a wen. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel.vr\. The origin seems to be the Goth. as we speak of a thumping potato. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. rude. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. bump is used in lump or piece. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. Hal. ^ma. to strike . boss sound. plain rude fellow. a boss. See found in Bav. is used in the sense of bussare. to save. agrees with E. viipyoc. a citizen. Fr. a herb. knocking. gum vocant. AS. an eminence. beorgan. from their grey clothing. to save Sw. In like manner It.mass. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. rustic. bos. i. bail biirgen. Jam.' if thou give money on loan. Hence borhes ealdor. plant. to give bail or answer for an. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. bump. G. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. byrig. to save. Bos a surety. to strike so as to Bureau. and borough in the sense of a town. bussi. burgess. And that unsittynge is to here degre. the North Wind.ribs and the side. basse. or perhaps also To Borrow. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . botse. ' pledge. empty. burh. the hollow between the Borsholder.. busse. striking. while Gael. Newbury. Gr. — — — A — . that which biirge. huschen. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. secure. . tempest. boss or knob of a buckler . Bunch. a citizen. pegou. to keep. bttssel. butse. borg. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. a tower. The other. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. a giving rise to It. storm. Borrow. the Sc. 106. brown cloth. vain. grey). by which of or belonging to plants. Boreal. without. a. to conceal. gesylle. Goth. cnag signifies both a clergy. pitch. clownish. Jam. in instead of without. of bail throughout the country. to protect. a bouncing baby . So Du. Bailey. Du. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. borough-holder. projection. or perhaps it may be See Bury. unpolished. /3oraMK6f. ON. Lang. Lat. borgo. baurgs. nonsense. cormpted. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. bussa coarse. to contain. Fr. borh.' every man be under bail. Russ. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. bierge. ' — — . hollow bucklers. butsen. a surety.' the chief of the ' borh. borough or chief constable. bossen. as if from the verb to hold. a boor. borealis. I. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. northern. Fr. destitute. hollow. the sun sets. borel. boss. bom. cob. empty. tuft. whether from the fact preserve G. to protect. loan. which now signifies a knob.bucklers. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. boss. bergen. bosh. a knob. knob. bunch. and thus could not shake off the old burr. It. AS. Altieri. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. Borowholder. cnap. to knock or strike.' Vegetius in Diez. is probably radically Boss. E. one who sticks to you like a bore. connected. borg. bourg. to take in.' or system of bail. Hence knot. boss of the side. burel. blow on a hollow object. botsen. botch. useCanterbury. was origin of the term is the OFr. the ordinary a swelling. less. to pick or cull plants. from AS. a little blow. formerly used in the sense of knocking. AS. borei. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. V. knur. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. boschen. — ' wind burya. Bosh. bosse. surety. Turk. D. when that system was forgotten. a bunch or hump. f graauw. bourgeois. or head-borough. Du. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. bosseu. Botany. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. borgese. knock and a knob . — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. poor. (1867). boussi.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. the must have arisen burgensis. undyed wool of brown sheep. bundle. Borough. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. a blow. (Bridel). It. . By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. coarse cloth made of the Du. a city . Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security.

and E. Fr. Fl. Lith. See Boss. Hal. Here the radical image seems a bubble. Prov. the first rough draught 2. boute. bdt. a cesspool pass. maggots in barley. Boa two. — — belly-worm. burgi vel pontis refectionem. btitse. * To Bother. a bottle. the lowest part. Dan. to smack. a bunch. we two.D. Hal. empty or hollow. to dash about . Bochu. turmoil. to work without order or know. baiothsj Sanscr. boden . a waterfall. ba. bSn. kessel-biisser. ON. a pit. bativa. bund. Podge. whisper. a cobbler. to botch or patch. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. buddl. is boteau. a bundle of straw or hay. a slop. Bouteille. nets. to podge. blow. Canut. botel foenn. Parmesan poccia. E. — Fl. Fr. Stalder. a boil or swelling Halma. Decorde. bodem. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. to strike . . ^kvBoQ. bAdtr. Kil. To Botch. blister. Bouds. a wisp. to rage. tumour. — . oba. repara- — — See To Bete. whence the name ol pool to podge. the science or knowledge of plants. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. bile. Wedu. boccia. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. knock. by met. noise. bot. contusion . gen. Both. ' G. to fall : with a sound batsch. botse. an imperfect and bunbutt end. AS. . a bubble. Danneil.— . a vessel for holding liquids. disturbance. Gael. Botcli. i. botm. dabble). Bret. &c. . N. is also a bubble. — duj Lett. It. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. a maggot. pozzanghera. ing out. boiteag. butsen. Again. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a tinker schuhbiisser. any plain round viol glass bozzo. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. On — Du. to simmer. schuhbosser. as a push or windgaU. to make better. to mend. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. we have Swiss batscken. to put on a patch. G. j3i/9os. both. botn. Judwi. See Butt. a bott . putra. botte. the bud of a flower . — Dief. fire-bote. abyss. pozzo. BOTCH understood). pother. butwo. — — . bottom. mutter. Diez. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. disturbance to . thing soft batsch. and ajSvamg. or plague sore . poltern. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. a botcher of shoes. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. abbi. mess. ledge It. to froth as beer . bozza. bide. boil. they two. corresponding to .) . bouteille. botte. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. buazen. from the dashing of water. podge. Ancren Riwle. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. batschen. scuohbuzere. . ixorapudder. to give a sounding blow. See Bound. bozza. a root. stock. • Bott. to stir and mix together . . stock. Fl. in the sense of mend the fire. a bump or swelling. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. dial. hurly-burly. abbution. what pushes outwards.ments of the same root. a pock. round lump. botola. an abyss or bottoniless pit. 212. especially in Gael. ubhau. a cask. a bottle of hay. buddeln. beggtaj Goth. bundle. a knock. . — Bottom. The Gr. fundus. you two. any round ball or bowl to play withal. I. buts. Pl. Jtidu. abbi-diwij Slavon. boitean. potra. stem or base. a plague-boil Kil. buideal. botch. as Fr. OSax. Gael. Bottle. AS. To confuse with noise. bun. bluster. H^cart. On the other hand.foundation. A — oba-dwaj Lat. . From the dim. gipuozan. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. bethia. A bottom depth. botel. a depth. biissen. a humpback.— Swift in R. bots. bulderen. to we have OHG. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. a bottle. to mend (kettles. Lith. G. abbu. Leg. AS. bottigUa. pocciar. boss. And so we speak of an eruption. It. noise. patch. Fyre to botme. mend. stroke. Du. Butu. A horses. shoes. See To Bodge. bulder. botte. &c. a patch patschen. to dip in liquid (to Gael. to from the root bot. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. Lat. however. ambo.' to the fiery Csedm. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. Bailey. Mudu. a cess. bunch. ON.— Hal. a. boiteal. — . — — A 2. — Jidwi. pimple. the other hand. of botta. bosser. botus. bdsser. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. gling piece of work. a slop. stump. a lump of somebatschen. blain. a pit.^Dec. mess. ON. w. for a bud. signify a in OE. butse. bossu. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. It. Du. to knock. to stir and mix together. dim. House-bote. botsen. puddle. e.of a ball of thread. to bcBta. was called a push. to make a make a noise.

Mid. and Prov. an de dor bunsen. The branch of a tree. 136. a blow. pothel. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. bonna. Primarily to strike. And the new stools set out. pimple Richards bothog. iv. the larger kind of pebbles. — strike. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. the smaller ones. Halma. boss of a buckler. a boss. nave of a wheel bothel. round.— Boundary. a stock. a bound. Fr. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . to thunder. signifying in nautical coil of rope. contusi. bolder. Q. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. to bow. to knock at the door. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. to fix limits. jungen. I assure you. bullra. p. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Bough-pot. winding. Webster. Sw. a button. bumper. a large pebble. bons. to set bounds. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. . Brem. a bud. geration. Wtb. Raynouard. an occasion. root (see Bottom). to knock. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Probably from the Celtic root bon. From Sw. bone. — — leap.' round and round in similar circles. gulf. The Bight of Benin.D. volta. knock it sounds again. from volgere. So It. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. dial. and F.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. bottom. See Bunch. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. a round body both.>a bout. turn. bun. Ni gacha cor bondir. or Bow-pot. the verb bondir in OFr. till The dat et bunsede. by Bujns or Buns. — Take care my house be handsome. to set out by metes and bounds. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. E. bay. ni motz brugir. nor horn sound. as that of E. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. bonndn. boundina. bugt. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. strapping. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. bunda. 2. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. its kind. Dan. frequently used in the same sense with bound. in the absence of actual e. to spring. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. ni frestelar. whence buj7isen. to resound. Pr. came home with his face all to-bounced. bondir. tnndo. a boundary stone (men stone).. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat.'— Charter of K. bounbounejha. boriie. Bodinare. To Bounce. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. Boulderstone. limit. baby. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. bunsen. AS. bend. Fr. To Boult.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. has hot. bog. A Langued. — No i ausiratz parlar. Bound. he fell so that it sounded. bamsen. The W. bonzen. to thundering big one hum. Du. mcn-bomi. the hollow of a bay.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. buUersten. a large stone rounded by the action of water.— — — - 88 BOUGH . suorum recognoverunt agrorum. in contrast to klappersten. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. march. of thread. Coxcomb. bugan. from bugan. ing. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. Fr. See To Bolt. Bonny. To Bound. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. Bough. language a * Boulder. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream.' B. Pm. to turn. like bobbin. dial. carpet. to spring. — — Bight. to make a loud noise. to hum. as a nosegay. the bay of Benin. jump. bodina. mere. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. see Boss. Bowlder. ." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. from AS.— F. . thumping. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. boh. botwm. Ducange. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Bret. Nor a centinel whistle. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Bought. butina. 3. boujtce. Alpine Re- — gions. a turn or time. bouton. a blister. signifies a sliort thick mass.— Cot. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. bend. debodinare. a bouncing apple. Bunche. Bout.

explaining Sw. Dan. i. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. the fixed. Bounty. biugan. buizen. brummen. bound. Fr. epaule du vaisseau. are applied to the bow of a ship. G. to bow or incline the . game. g. from spring. crutch. Eown. bonitas. flagon. bogha. spelling the word iox bound. . bourde in the same sense. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. a from Du. their time -With "wailful tunes. to pre2.. an arch. a well. bdgi. saufen. bunaiteach. a. Cot. to — Hal. Prov. . in Fr.which see. puff out. fresh* water. Swiss bausen. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. limit. patesten. A water. Dan. bug. buigen. to hum as a bee. pot. Bourdon. Gael. has also buirleadh. bordone. the burden of a song. . which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. bwa. ready to pike or spear . to take deep draughts. the big end of a club. burdan. to hum. to tope W. Goth. as was for. different modification gives ON. Fr. buyse. ready. to draw a deep breath.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Fr. and not in the sense of curvature in general. buga. bontS. to trick. ing. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. When used alone it . bage. mockery. addressed to. a sing-song. sense durd. a corToward the garden. brausen. bending. is. drink deep. to mutter. of the ON. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. verb bua. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. a for New York. belly out. to tope. the Bourdon. on. buys. sausen. firm. Gael. Sw. Bret. Lat. schulter-bug. Bourdon. buzzing of bees. Gael. bourdon. As the Gael. Chaucer in R. hous^ Man in the Moon. it is probable that the It. bourd. joke. repartee. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. ridicule buirte. Du. a prop. The foregoing derivation seems. burlare. Borden. tinton. head Fr. biegen. purra. The meaning of bound. schenkelbug. bogr. Gael. gurgling. bog. fun of one . the ting of a bell. sport. AS.bass of a stringed instrument. a jibe Shaw bururus. Burgeon. a drone of a bagpipe. cheat. to tipple. beygja. ruption of bonne. analogous to Fr. taunt. bogen. bending. to banter or laugh at. bonus. shoulder-blade. Cot. when we speak of. bue. burt. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. beogan. . He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. prepared for. like quaff. buzz. brunna. It is bov. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. to take one in. bordon. burd. Burden. springbiirn. — — — A pare. burn. Dan. a drone or dor-bee. bourdon. way ba7n. grumble Sw. address. Du. It is the participle past buinn. to take breath. Bound. bugna. on the whole. a humming noise. btiga. a pot. to swell. kroes. souf. bordo. a bow. to our bous. bending of a joint knie-bug. It is remarkable that we find vary. staff. whence buysen. and that probably from a Celtic root. to indulge in his cups . language of folly or ridicule. drunken. steady. Du. a. trick. jest. or of an Gael. burreti. bagna. to drink deep. also the humming or ON. bausen. a cup kroesen. G. Sw. . bugan. cudgel. bend Sw. a humming noise Macleod. to bow. to draw a deep breath. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. Gael. bogna. . . — — . w. ^<7r«i?. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. deceit. a — — . bow to shoot with. to bulge. borne. Sp. good. potio. Sc. pre. purlBav. drone of a bagpipe. — probably through this latter signification. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. whether by sound or gesticulation. a brook. set out.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. It. G. spring. hence musical accompaniment. a go to. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. Immediately from Fr. the shoulder of the vessel. G. pausen. Spenser in R. bov. bugne. Bow. curvature. a jibe. Bourd. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. And there in mourning spend Sw. bend. bommen. Dan. to drink deep. bugna. sotich. Sw. warbling. pared. pusta. bovne. So Sc. a mill-post. burdan. Comp. identical with E. must be referred to the same root. A —Cot. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. Du. bog. lance. that ON.

buckelig gehen. painter's easel. polla. Hence. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. budel. a protuberance. a swelling or rising up. bugyni. W. ^o«/«. G. compared with Fr. &c. . bugna. or in e. Thus we have Esthon. PLD. A . bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. ON. . to bulge. an outhouse AS. bugyola. . bosso. Bav. (in pass . bulge. OFr. crown of a hat. a box Lat. . a wine-can . . buxus. globular. as in E. to guggle. From the other form are G. Boll. swoUei) Lat. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. AS. hollow. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. a iDubble. without the and grits. buis. a sack. a box. the bogna. to stoop. to buckle G. to bow buck. . guestchamber . a. bugy. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bollen. a separate apartment . beuz. bolla. inclinare se (Kil. ON. Du. different position in ODu. bow. the barrel of a gun. Bohem. a little box . to bend down. bukke. a bubble. a ball . In like manner the Pol. It is more probably from the G. Sp. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. ask. an inclosure. intrenchment. bock. similar shape. bolle. Dan. a bubble. w. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. a hen-coop . the box-tree It. fyn. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. bola. Bret. . bog. The / a bow.) to incline oneself . botulus. of a wooden ball to play with and — . a ball. buga. spherical Dan. biicken. bulla in aqua. kupukka. honse-bur. belly. with inversion of the round. . Sanscr.ige\y illustrated under Bulk.cup Du. bocka. . bolne. boss. Lat. bulka. boudin. boss. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. bubble. The word may probably be identical with Fris. to puff up pullakka. iri'iaQ. wisp of straw . Pol. convex. bur. a parlour. bossola. Cable. bugyani. pullo. bulk compared with Sw. Fr. a croft by a house. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. to bubble up. a thing of liquid. spring as water bugya. . .. to bend. to raise the back boll OHG. W. in both senses. . water pulli. in walking appears in a . heafod bolla. bol. the skull or brainpan . boxtree pusska. convexity.. budello. a bubble bolli. to make crooked . busse.). bucka. pusspan. hiidel. utibur. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. Bowl. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. the crop of a bird. bulcken. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. Dan. Hal. lump . bow. buk. busskai. sausage. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. knob From the former modification we have bolla. a box. bowl . a knot. . Fr. boor. boel. a wardrobe . as in AS. zich onder jemand under to him. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . a drop of pullistaa. bouellou. bouge. bhugna. a stud. the box-tree. give in to. the head. tumour. bowel Box. buello. a ball. cumena-bur. ku^o. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. swell. bogla. . the head. boil. See Boil. Bret. box. bouzellou. hollow wooden case. bog. buchsbaum. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. fata-bur. bulla. globular body. biichse. Sw. passing on stud. crooked. a polla. a buck. peated in Magy. to puff up. bwra. make obeisance. and to a coachbox in particular. See Crab. Fr. koziel. bulne. . biisse. boucle. bowels. belly. trestle. . a hump on the back rossbollen. . and on swollen. dial. tumour . Buckle. prominence. Sw. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. a box. G. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm.a. to yield to one. a chamber swefnbur. ^o/a. bolgna. signified by forms like Gael. E. buckel. is applied to a coach-box. bur. See MHO. a sleeping-room . gut. box in both senses. a bud. buigen. bulb of an onion bolleyield. to stoop biickling. OE. kupu. blister. . bending. globe or spherical body. a bowl. bwr.).flask It. * Bowels. beutel. kuppelo. a bundle. acsian. a boil. A Bulk. anything globular. Bower. bubble. mausbollelein.\s. bent. bol. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. belly of a cask. Du. folliculus . . a black pudding. ne. biiske. a bubble Fin. . AS. hollow place Fr. a box. at the e. . bug. ttuJic. Gr. purse. Sw. as well as the name of a. hill. boxtree. stream forth bugyogni. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. round glass phial. Du. a pot.D. to swell. the box-tree and articles made of it G. or. round bead. ken. head of a cabbage. puffy. a round glass or bolg. . bhuj. then by the loss of the /. bolla. ON. kupula. . . pocket.

merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. brack. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. an languages. to slap. flaw. Swiss bub. Bracket. braquet. damaged board a ship. Prov. I sal slyng. It. bouibo. . brago... brabbelen. It is B. or defect. suppuration. OFr. variation of babble. Kil. s. ' — A — — — . Boy. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. brechen. ing from a mixture of salt. let. fault. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. to stammer. — — . brae. pupus. Du. Bracelet. breptati. A — — . the arm. in R. a crack. rakke. bask. a comworld Rayn. a sounding blow. bracket. Du. confining. to crack. posh. Prov. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . ON. corruptse. youth. rack. It. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. s.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. . boiste. . &c. flap. In like manner the It. La ville ou y avait Brace. ON. brague. brakke grund. bracco.D. moral or physical. Prov. — . want. lalear-eyed Prov. Sp. jabber. One girl. isolated part of the text. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. priated to the original sense.— D. brostia. to burst. To fight with the fists. briche. race. con. armour for the arm. BOX To Box. his eyes are failing him). fuse. want. MHG. bue. murmur. Swab. Swiss Rom. Brackish. bracha. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. whelp as. to give a sounding blow defect. quarrel Bohem. Heligoneed. braco. baukscheht. . . to be wanting. break. To Brabble.. boy bouba. bou^ba. to stutter. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. brec. bube. a pair of braces. Brack. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. by an overflow of sea water. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. which has many representatives in the other Europe. — . salo sive aqua marinS. and then Pl. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. ratch. boussole. bray. V. disturb. Sp. brageuses. brassard. breach. Pm. from a root brak. in R. cramp-iron holding things together . It. breach. defect. brek. brechen ihm.nated by dirt. Lett. to fall. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. pus. brek. . wnzC/J. parallel with OK. taneous talking. Fr.. G. Water rendered boubo. Fr. odorinsecus. Gael. strike. to Swiss batschen. land spoilt Kil. to give a gebrechen. See Brake. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. Thus brack.puddle. a bog or pass Fr." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. Sp. braque. to want. Kil. 91 the Dan. boy. acidus. to box the ears. spaniel. a girl. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. bruxula. rakka. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. — . The different meanings of the brageux. Kil. Cot. brakke Bracelet. mud. Pr. See Broker. bracil. — . braco. is a rope holding G. G. beagle. . flaw. brae. Fr. OFr. wrack. breuque. a braceOFr. by the same inversion of J and k. matter. loud smack. a grown youth Cimbr. dirty. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. brace on and Du. To brace is to draw together. to give a blow with the fists.with a noise. Brak-goed. ghebreck. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. Ptg. Brack. brae. defect. mud. the first instancebya physical tie. fault . or bracer Cot. bracke. mud. need. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. A to halt between two derivations. to is derived brestr. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. and F. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. to smack the hand batschen.D. Hdcart. clay. land batsken. . then from break. Fr. babble. pube. . Lat. Pl. bragos. Rouchi Then as an adj. Prov. bracon. and string of his bow. bresta. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. braca. baske. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . brasselet. root). unmarried man . bauksch represents the sound of a blow . wristband. foul. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. a boy pupa. compressing. salsus. thwack. a bubbling dura del mun. dog that hunts by scent. want. defect Du. rakki. braic. bitch Du. Brach. merely in our mode of considering them. braecke. buah. A brace probis. AS. which sigof straining. — . On the same principle from the buksteht. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. as noticed under Box. dog in general. bracer. a guard to torf. filth . brack. brae. OE. refuse. dog Sw. a box.

to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. well-dressed. gorgeous. to swagger. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. or from braie itself. brave. Lat. fine. would be to brace. braszketi. fine. compressing. braga. brave. to boast of his own worth. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. to strut. Cot. is identical with Gael. brake in the sense of constraining. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. . See Brace. brave. breach. Fr. in the sense of the Lat. gay. hectoring. &c. Lith. strength. power. breghen. brake is. — .i5nz^. used in the sense of force. Fr. torture . Rom. Bret. idle talk. AS. and that from e. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. drawers. brav. braegenj Du. braies. to sprout malt. to stand upon terms. The plant y^r«. Wallachian bratsou. a noisy talkboasting. vanter une chose.hy which this idea is con\eyed. brayete. Faire le brave. fine. to crack. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . courageous. Cot. the opposite of which. Dan. an iron for holding Zalli. breghe. confining. be found. subigere. braka. Hence E. to flaunt. swagger. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. Cot. bravacherie. called by our braggard. Sp. to Rouchi brMer. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. gay.—— . Dan.breeches. brazo. . bully .Shepherd's Cal. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. . excellent. to make a noise. subduing. The meanings included under — Bragget. From Fr. braver. expensive. Hecart. . 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . empty pride. to rattle. . It is certain that the word for arm is. braka. as the type of exertion and strength. Langued. brag. braicli. w. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. slight modificajoining the two legs.^ Sp. Thus we are brought to the OE. make a noise . brails. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). . in order to prevent its catching the wind. boast. binding anything together. flaunt in fine clothes . bragging. Brag was then used brisk. noisy ostentation. The meanings of brake are very numerous. bushy . se parer de beaux habits. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. and it is very likely that the root brak. gayly dressed. Thus Bret. the arm. goods. to cord a bale of tie up.. From sprouted corn. vaunting. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. brag or jet it braguard. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. riches. splendid. braske. smart. finery. h-avare and Fr. brave. also derived Fr. the feathers ON. be noisy . A — Hal. Brake. Brail. an inclosure for cattle . crash ON. See Bray. Brain. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. Primarily to crack. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. swaggerer. bragaireachd. brae. handsome. cry. fine. Bray. affront. to shout. to brail up a sail. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Chaucer. also insolenter se gerere . Fris. ^Brave. valiant The head are sumptuous. To Brail. . a carriage for breaking in horses . brag. Walloon bress. se pavaner. crack. — A — . bravache. vain glory. about the hawk's fundament. braggard also valiant. blusterer. also tion of this was brayeul. gallant. Sc. spot. flaunting. that will carry no coals. — Equivalent forms are Gael. BRAG Piedm. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed.^Vocab. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . To Braid. Haldorsen Gael. beautiful. From brayel. braga. crash. de Vaud. to unbrace or let down the breeches. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. Bret. bragging of his own valour. breagh.aburst. To Brag.. —Spenser in R. gallant (in apparel) also proud. brave. It. bullying. bragd. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. brabhdair. to boast or brag. — Chaucer. — From W. stout. 2. ative fellow. 92 Cot.explosion. a roisterer. brachittm. breyne. i. dhbrailler. or by gaudy dress and show. boasting. Brake. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. braske. bravo. braga. was formed brayele. bravado j Fr. braw. se donner trop de licence. bragio. proud. stately. braguer.%. . in numerous dialects. is Cot. brabhdadh. showy bravery. bra!. brao.

brushwood. Brake. to brush. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brake. to pound. riguus.bracan. braquer un canon. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. is braukti. in northern climates. Fr. and when once thrown down. braken. brog above mentioned. to bend or direct a cannon. murrokko. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. broor bushy place Hal. a stream. flachs brechen. any thicket of brakes. briser. Sp. and G. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). broken fratta. broillet.' It. braca. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. In like manner Lat. gebroge. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. Pl. iSpsx". the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. bush. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. brog. gebroge. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. watered. braecken het vlasch. gilum. conSo in G. the lever by which the string was drawn up. farinam in mortario subigere. break flax PLD. game. Lat. might come to signify a swamp. brambles. murran. bruch. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. Biglotton. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. ing of flax or hemp. to fracture. to bend a bow. pasture. In the case of the ne. as in the case of horse-breaking. have thus Du. Voc. to break or fracture. as in Sp. marsh. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith.D. Gr. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. cetur. bush. t° moisten. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brega. OFr. subigere. P&. ^raca. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. word. Dan. . to knead or mix up in a mortar. gebrUche. to rub. cover G. marsh or swamp. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. or A A ' . been confounded with the verb break. Gael. quarry from Fin. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. where from Esthon. bushes. is formed murd. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. low wet land bruch. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. bregar brake. or overthrow of trees by the wind. gebroge. murtaa. referred brake. Prov. — — . there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. thing is brought under control. gebrUche. a swampy Mid.— . break of such a kind. a brace on board a ship. thicket. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. broyer.. —Ovid. to subdue. gebiisch. a fen. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. It. — Fl. el arco.D. Dan. to The ON. e. or a wood in a marshy place . brego. G. 2. breaking in the operation. We — . bregar. briers. It may be sus- . to exert force in different ways. fratto. a thicket. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. as well as in the case of the e. brambles. Dan. braeken. to row. brook. it is not surprising that the word has here. for — Due. bregille. Corrfeze bredgea. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. Fr. broeck. In ON. 3. To the same bend a bow. copse-wood. a horse's a horse's twitch. brook. BRAKE to external force. signifying to sweep. dial. brolium. to stiffen against Taboada). a marsh. braka. It. to head must be bit. brage. to break. bredza. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. as in Du. —Bracken. brcekke. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. casser le \va. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. broilium. In the sense of a thicket. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. tnurdma. broil. nemus. brage. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. Fr. a spinning-wheel. in usus braca. Swiss Rom. brog or brake. breuil. the original meaning of G. frangere linum. to distinct. and Lat. a harrow. to break. The Fr. brook. tris). properly braking or subduing them. brake. to bray in a mortar. de Vaud. brak is a frame in which strip. brogille. glebas subigere. Brake. to harrow (Lat. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du.

or other plants of a like nature. brog. . A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brin d. So Swiss gaggi. apiece orbitbrandone. Rouchi bren d'orMe. a dunghill. a shrub from Bret. snotty . from brug. That beareth the red hepe." The bmno a • on . cabbage sprouts Fl. Dan. brenn hesken. bren. Bret. braeme. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . chaff. breme j Sw. bran. . . and thence a shoot. Thus we have w. Bret. thicket of brambles Cot. that is to say. a small deri\'ation . a rod or twig. brake. a heath. . broust. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. heath.. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. G. bruk. Bret. brang. brambles. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. brushwood. a shrub . i. a single plant of heath. wood composed of twigs. hallier. brancas. Sir Topaz. briars. to bridle. young twig {brom-beisser. from virga. bracken or fern .D. It. bramble Du. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. bruch. pfriem in the sense of an awl. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. a bud It. in the same sense. Fr. heath (Bret. 1 8. also pfriemkraut. — . broussaille. broom. The naof strain. a roA. the bull-finch. from gaggi.D. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . or with It. from Lat. Piedm.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. Bramble. branchia. Thornas and bremelas. clutch. brenn.G. bren. broom. it glitters — — . the leafless plant of which besoms are made. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. stink . Brand. It will be found that shrubs. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. —Ducange. piecemeal brindelles. heath. a shoot or twig. Fr. constrain. It. brenda. Fr. Bav. and E. brughera. But we find It. G. branco. thorns and Gen. prufye. . young buisson fort epais. a briery plot. Pl. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. broem. brok. in the sense oi fern. brin (as It brano). . Pl. pfropf. to brank. to gripe. gebriiche. Grisons bruch. &c. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. brug. to or iron. bromboli. to burn. gebroge. brandiiialil. brom. from Servian pnit. bran. Fr. is the draff or excrement of the com. a halter. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. sedge burkni. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. bruk. restrain. brugek. brass. heath ON.). heath. also a marshy low ground or fen . as. iii. Broom. bruch. 2. ordure . that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. brand. — branca. from brand. nasty. brem. or ling. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brano. brosst. bushes. bruskoad. ground full of briers. G. brarn. a bridle or bit . branche. Bran. sawdust. brin. w. Brancare. sprouts. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. brank. a firebrand. burning brennen. broembel-CBppel. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. brein. virgultum. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. bit by bit. the branch of a tree. as AS. broccoli. brwnt. brandmurk. E. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. a shoot. excrement. bruk. See Brush. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. a thick bush. a bud. a burning fragment of wood. cack. Diez. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. heath. bronbo. w. brug). brandr. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brenna. breanan. Russ. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. Thus in Lat. Brank. G. Gael. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. A mark made by burning. &c. may be so called in analogy with Bret. As ON. The same form becomes in It. Branch. In like hrst. the thorn apple or stramonium. Port. to -brugen. a bud. piece of anything. what is cast out as worthless. . pfriemen. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. bretnel. sweet broom. brank. brouskoad. titio. bro7n. dirt . . brandello. Bret. braam. compress. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. breun. a vine twig Bav. berneux. . Serv. pected that brake. AS. ear-wax mud. brejo. brous. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. and waste growths. Then by comparison with claws or arms. Gael.

to brandle. Brangle. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. It. The name Brandy. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du.well. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. E. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. spirit distilled from wine. brasa. bum. eldibrandr. du Roi et laine. to sound of the Fr. to shog. bruzi. brastlian. Fr. from to vociferate. the colour than hitherto known. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. shake. and bruir. brascct. plained by Florio. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brandende wijn. so. to shake The word brisil. to blaze. brane-wood. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. Gris. put. prasseln. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. to rustle. aqua ardens. was in use Fr. to and fro in the hand. and branchis shaiand D. Du. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. firebrand. stake.pan of coals. bracea. braza. — ting to confusion. Sw. Fl. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. n. — . Brasil. to hurl with great force. ist. crackle. Chron. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. brasil. Ija. Fr. to bicker 2nd. a stick. V. to dash. bruciare.^Brandle. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. faire fracas. totter. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. a fragment. To brase AS. In the same way the set on fire . a brusler. bryne. e. bracia. to burn. to crackle . Lye. Jam. branla. not. brustle. Fr. bresil. urens. to burn. make a — . or in stick. perplex. distilled wine. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. Brase. to brangle. brus^. a pan of hot coals. to quarrel. a To Brandish. morsel. bruan. as Jamieson explains it. brandiller. branler. brausen. brazil. comes from thence. E. to distil . the spelling to kindle. weinbrenner. given to the country. brangle or brawl in E. — . brazeiro. to make sense of a bright red dye. Bailey. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. set on fire. Port. incendium. all. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. bragale\ wood. — . to confuse. to braze or lute. De Goes. is bntan. became ashes Pied. The corresponding form in Gael. make an outcry. Kil. to solder iron. WaUon. brandiller. before the discovery of America in the brandir. G. brasca.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling.. So. to shake. d'Angl. a round dance. It. AS. flagrans. braser. billet. brouir. Diez. G. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Bret. branler. ish. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. to brandle or The It. to brustle. crackle. brin. conbillet. Formerly brandy-wine. 59. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. to roar. bransle. brush. De Barros considers vinum ardens. With top trimbling. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. to totter. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. braise. Hume in brand in ON. N. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. to Bailey. splinter. to burn. gebrannter wein. brasa. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. to make display . bruire. bragia. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. Milan. Thus the bound up again. glowing embers . Chron. Manx bransey. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. brandigh. bransella. brasca. braise. brennen. a roaring fire. embraser. braise or hot coals. live coals. as Fr. Fr. as again by well as the blade of a sword. briiler. bra?ier. in Marsh. Guill. to shake. forms brasil. to glisten or flash. hot Fr. firewood. Fr. Sw. then brandr. from used in dyeing cloths. brand. noise. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . apparently very distinct from each other. and scold. Braser. fire-wood. To brand. It. to French brawl or brangle. The tre brangillis. brandolare is exbrandish. hoisting to the fall. to murmur. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. to make shine with shaking.

breteque. Du. 2. to cry. It. slakker-bortchen. bretesque.brettysing. as criailler of crier. muscular parts of the body. a loud noise. Florio. a rag.walle — Pr. burning coals. Brass. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Hist. Sc. Brawn. I. especially that used in the working of iron . ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. OFr. Swiss bradle. a clout. 368.^ — Sverris Saga. breyon de kinds of . —-Jam. Paris. Math. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. a Lap. breyon. Brawl. le repasser un peu sur la braise. a fortification.propugnaculum. Sp. flesh of a leg of pork. brdto (ace. bran. tasce. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. brat. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building.— Remade. to Gael. ni autres choses sur Due. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. a — A from the confused noise. Gael. Betrax of a —^Jam. bronze. Brangle. noise. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . from Fr. saillies. discord. Sup. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. 1156. Fr. Mundart. trul. braiio. ship. bred. to shake. boarding being sbranare. esbraotier. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. OHG. braeye. slibro {neita. So also See Brag. bruir. a rag . bradon. W. a patch of cloth. A. 1224. slibro. Pisana in Mur. rag. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. bralle. Jam. pan- — Rayn. buttock Sc.' Hal. a parapet. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. breyon d'chaur. The same correspondence is seen between It.D. as a brawling brook. bmhon for brado7i. Cologne broden. ON. bartisan. bransle. Cot. Wall. solder. For the application to a^child compare Bret. brat. coassatio. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. Many gambes. calf of the leg. luncheon. as lattice.D. braser Fargent. as scrawl from scrabble. brett. frame of laths. Circumeunt cibertesca. bratid calf of the leg. braoilich. — Deutsch. the calf of the leg. &c. A dispute or squabble. is The word — uous name for a woman. Cot. G. strepitus 2. brettys. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. a lump. ' A vraale. contignatio. fraiche. bas morceau de viande brawhng. at brasa.96 Roquefort. Brat. brandillo. deblaterare. roar. and bronzo. Certainly a little girl. boutures. baltresca. a plank or board. to talk at bralle op. the buttocks. bribe de viande. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. brat. bretesche. or whether it be from Fr. lat'te. braon. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. ferruminare. whether contracted from brabble. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). Brave. a contemptuous name for a young child. berd. The muscular part of the body. — . Fris. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. KiL Prov. Fr. bras.— Fl.— Braid. A land of dance.D. as rashers upon quick burning coals. bronzare. or on the top of a wall. to scold . frequentative of braire. neita girl). a contempt- banner. a rag . brass. bratidone. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship.' BRASS BRAY et AS. to carbonado. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Dan. Fr. AS. slut. —^Bronze. cob. bartising. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. ^Altieri. any piece. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. from Sc. a battle-girdle. It. a mantle. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. braede. Bailey. bradlete. to braze. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. It . Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. OFr. Lorraine bravon. a lump of flesh. bronzacchiare. brailler. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. then a parapet. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. a. pil. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. a slabbering-bib. See Brandish. P1. braion. squall. A. to tear piecemeal. bratach. a cloak. Kil. bratdn). braodhlach. calf of the leg. Pm. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. a wooden tower. cloth. a lump of flesh.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. equivalent to the Du. to copper. brces. apron. See Bray. a lath. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. Bartizan.— Diez. in the first instance of boards. The verb is probably derived from the brase. brazen. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. . Brattice. Westphal. bretays). from branler. borderinge. branle. to solder.

braea. to cry out. Chaucer. to bawl. Bread. . brot. to braid. fish. which has given much trouble to commentators. rattle. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. Goth. to resemble. a brack. bruire. to braid. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to rumble. &c. as the voice of the ass. Lat. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. upbraid. Breach. Prov. the sound — of arms. brechen.' To Bray. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. at once. brikan. to bellow. Prov. to break. plait. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. E. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to start. roar. ON. to have the lineaments of one's ON. is . — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov.. The ON. regi. to rub Fr. with or without a final d. bradar. ser. AS. — — — explained motus loud noise. Fin. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. braid. R. a crash. to resemble him. and frangere. V. to roar. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. &c. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. appearance Hal. Bailey. and fracasously. Bret. bragr. &c. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. bru.y. vapna-brak. to rush. V. explaining a very obscure application of the E. G. Cat. k.^ Fr. and to signify the fracture itself. to break. — . turn. brice. And with a traid I tumyt me about. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. From the or brack in a wall. Beryn. to crash. to break Fr. verb to break. to The cup was uncoverid. bregar. a wink. V. 145. baiyl. to break. ^p&xia. to bray in a mortar. bregar. yell. brand. as the notion of turning crack. to tear Bret. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. G. paxog. and make a hideous noise. ybrayid.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. Gr. — koa.g. See Brake. fragor. to cry Port. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. rustle. i. riAprjyvvfu. And at a braid he gun it bende. bragd — ON. cyprinus latus. To rub or grind down Sp. to bray like an ass. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. braa. ing. braidir. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. as OE. W. to crash. breach. iU-favouredly — in Jam. soft . crash. brak. bregda. imitate or resemble one. R. crackle . rangere. abraid. crepo and E. father. Ppvxia. noise . to scold. brugier. The same He might don us both a villany. Bread. brak. breche. breuan. bratsche. mos. roar. ON. kind. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it.ch. Wal. augnabragd. the clash of ai-ms Dan. a mill. 7 . or wound. D.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. To Break. on. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. brage. a breach Cot. to N. in Jam. to smack or the eye. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. rogi. Fr. to snatch.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. instantane. to braid acquires the sense of bend. braa. the sword was out break. fractus j Gr. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. make a disturbance. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. a rent. weave The ON. to braid the hair. braire.ear rog. disturbance. to roar or bellow. Swiss bratschig. D. Then is simply. twist. to resemble. braidar. will. Then. e. a rag f . Q. to pretend. to cry out. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. 2. broyer. Cot. brame.fracas. Dunbar braessem. F. to knead. Fr. bragd is also applied nets. bruzir. at a braid. a brake for hemp or flax. yell. Chaucer. bray. to the seijauntes. OE. &c. to t. broad. paste or dough. relation is seen between Lat. Du. to sound very loud and very harshly. to work up in a mortar. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. gestus. The Lat. the miller's dog. . or cry out loudly . starts crackling up. resound . crash. D. to roar as the sea. I'll live and die a maid. father. . a . at braga eftir euium.

fastening . bruise. — — strument for smacking. corresponding to G. to feize or feaze. bre- I'os qui bresole. grillen. simmering.britschen. Prov. crush. brcEth. brew. bark Fr. brimme. so AS. polenta. breme. Breast. braia J OFr. grill. and other rubbish dibris. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. braguier. OFr. brezling. of trees. a cold and windy mist or frost . brodem. rubbish. broil. Breeze. morsel. PI. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. noise. to brew. bratscher. chillness or shivering. vapour. dial.vare. Originally probably the word signified steam. . to bind. Fr. an into shiver. breeze. briste. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. a crum Du. braich. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. G. brire. or the blow itself. Dtyden. — . AS. de Vaud. to break. bra. E. braciarc. the dry spines of furze broken off. one on the breech so that (klatschet). briosat'. point to G. G. bryi^ga. braie. to rattle (as hail). einem de britze geven. Rom. fitzen. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. bandage or truss for a rupture. to breech. bracecs . Fr. as the G. chilly. with It. murmur—Vocab. bris. brdtschen. Bruise. brut. malt. braies. to brew. a box. Breeze. malt. Piedm. To Brew.). braca. G. AS. briosa. Lat. briosa. w. breson. /esses. Breeze. drawers. to buzz. brciz. properly to crackle. coaldust. The Teutonic verbs. brasiare. Breeches. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. brasser. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. griller. but more probably the E. to roast. Piedm. Breath. singing bone. brosame. representing the sound of a blow. Dev. to be misty and cold. Russ. —Briss. Goth. trembling. brisciare.D.t. as commonly explained. Hume in Jam. and brought beneath between the legs. — . cloven. in Schilter. to crush to break. Hence the Lat. QNtsterviald) pritschen. Du. braucn. Fris. breinse. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. Brize. brezzare. peitschen. as. then to broil. — And blood. Biglotton. may be from the wurh fesser. G. . braux. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. to resound. G^nev. to crackle. a smack. to hum. breath. sprouted corn. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. subligaculum. The Breech (Prov. brezza. to simmer.'— Gl. Du. of straining. burst. Fr. switch. to smack. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. Sw. forms analogous to E. from AS. the breech or buttocks. Gael. Swiss AS. — Halma. Prov./ssus. from brace. a to lay fly-flap. bresilles. brok. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. bretilles. brijsen. Swiss Rom. Compare OE. We bragezj on. Gl. to fry . applied to shivering. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. of E. . bris de charbon. scent. brodel. are in like manner ' . met de bridse slaan. brumtnen. a cool wind. broiiwen. braies. See Brick. . instead of being derived from 'La. briiz. brise. brisd. brison. trusts. — See Broth. bremse. Swiss brdtsch. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. remains of leaves. Du. broza. orts. brasiuiii. E. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. brissle. and E. britze. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. grillare. a girdle. to shiver for cold. bruc. bragues. braga. G. Gael. Lat. are related to Prov. . &c. as in the case of twitter. their stings draw . brinisa. Bret. brugga. a cramp-iron for holding things together. the soler. braca. breost. brusc. little bits of wood Berri briser. broden. bridsen. from ligare. to whip. binding. de bridse geveii. also to chill and shiver with cold. fail. brache. rubbish. to bray. clout for a child. bruzun. a gadfly. as. murmur. brijselen. a horse's twitch. windy withal. Du. brossi!. It.98 borst. a crum. i5r(Z^. Bracha. brimsa. So ON. . Gl. xyligogio castigare. Bret.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. zare. as by the Sc. siibligar. b}-as. forms. briig. to burst. a twitch for a horse. an odour. sheep's droppings bruss. to fry Then from a Gl. bris. simmer. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. brisoler. the bust. break. Isidore and Tatian. brist. brustia. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. braga. Briss and buttons. brcekur j It. — Brist. to murmur. Dan. bruzir. body brostia.

imprint. bricge j G. a man. Du. AS. to boil. Gael. a Bride. braut. . berwi. Gael. Brique. Mid. stone-bridge bnikkoti. briicke. a bit. priod. a little king's writs. Bribe. to break. In E. brique de pain. owned also propriate. briwo. Bridge. son. masted vessel. from Bridegroom. boiling up brocoliere. So It. ment of anything broken. a fragment.pritil . berwedd. Bridle. barren land priodas.It. ON. Pro(merch=:maid). a lump of bread briber. appropriate. bably contracted from brigantine. Flor. Sp. a rogue . bryd-eale. brutg. nurus G. brug. bruk. Goth. a lump of bread. BRIGADE dead. to press in. brigantine. from bit. a cheat. bro. fragment. a bride.rough with brambles and bushes.bergantino. which however is undoubtedly from brace. as. a sow. ' — . bryd-gutna. briw. frayer. Rouchi brife. groom (mab=:son). a beggar. hlafes brice. brukkas. Ducange. graf-ol. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. httle bit. Applied ous words derived from break. privus. If the foregoing were not so clear. It. bygga. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. a rogue. birbone. ' . brau. the equivalent of to the dial. E. collect bits of food. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. brice. brittil. piece of burnt clay. brakes of high-grown ferns. AS.Fr. the newly. . E. sponsa. bro is applied not only to a bridge. bruskr and buskr. has briguer. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. jipaaaiii. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. Diefenbach com. Fl. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. — . of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . crew. AS. W. bruyere. Pol. heath. Priodi. as so. thick appropriated. a heath brughera. is still used in this sense. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. . . Ihre. bridelj OHG. corresponding or letter. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. a quoit of stone. to press. guma. bride. Brief. buckler J ON. bread. See Broth. ter-in-law. The original sense thus seems to be to ram.privatus. brughiera. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. fervere. and berweddu. with transposition of the r. A — A — . to Isrew. lipdZu}. any jot or crum. to boil. bretonica. a proprietor.gfiugga. brasser. ap. conjux. The origin of the word is the w. bidsel. briiths. AS. malt. especially to a letter or command. and ODu. brA. served (Patois de Bray). brood. a brig or priodor. broken. Brewis. grug. E. bricou. priod-ferch. brygga. . brocaly. to break to pieces bricalio. to brew. brere. consort with. pier. In the patois of briccia. feast. pavement Lith. but to a paved road. brieden. broken victuals. AS. married. Thom. E. to appropriate. It. brilt. one's ovin. to pave. Brigade. pavement. OHG. brahi. betony brulicame. It — is Kil. breve or brevis. Lat. peculiar. whence berw. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. bruith.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. Fr. betonica. a wedding priod-fab. Due. Dan. — — — — — — . brigade. buskins. in the sense of OSw. w. remarkable that the Gr. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. ibrukkti. company. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . to beg one's bread. a heath. broken bread. fraoch. bo. from Bret. . bara briw. bride. bribour. bridge. OSw. and that from It. to stamp. to tlie brico. . feast of espousals. broosekens. from the last 99 of which. a bush. to meet together. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. A bribe is A — — arval. brar. arf-ol. Gl. Brick. to circulate. beaten way Dan. a crum. bruk. Bridal. but probably Bricoteau. funeral. In the G. of burial. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. gf2o. a boiling. or brizo. a bride Brig. daughheath. to pave brukkti. a lump of bread. Trovarfor bride-ale. . to prepare. Lang. . Fr. sugga. to boil. fit. G^n^v. Bridal. So in The Prov. a married man or woman Lat. bro. bribe de pain. Fr. a briole. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. Cot. Walach. twopares Lat.. Brier.groom. AS. division of an army. pavement brolegge. bruarium. from the Normans. birbante. jetty. a crum. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. bitill. two-masted vessel. fastningar-ol. Neumann. brigata. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. Diez. the marriage si in brigata. then the marriage itself. to rub. Hence OE. the Fr. Grisons bruch. The Sw. it is applied to the letter to OE. bulicame. troop. a fragment. a married man guma. — . malt. Hdcart.

ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . briga. biartr. a noise. on his — own account. Du. to shine. to rove. Schmeller. — A A . and. combat. to reservavit.D. \oice. Flor. to make a loud noise. necessary business. It. It. and led it away. glamm. to resound. to shift for with care. labour. Bav. The primary meaning of Sp. and ner me hit iherde. Beorktode bene sweg. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. glitter. tion. to ring. Brilliant. dine. dine. bregar. brigandare. show the origin of Lat. etincelle. Xa/iTTii). to contend with another. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. at a later period. a spark. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. Swab. Florio. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. noise. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. clang. It. Bright. XafXTTpoQ. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale.' torum. Adelung. — brigante. willata. clarus. From ON. moment. A. glbram. Mid. in the first instance. a brigantine.— . brigant. strife.dorem clarum reflecto. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. tinkle. then. — Brigantine. the grew high. with respect either to sound or colour. bairhts. Owl and beorhtian. lay was sung. wilella. briga. twinkling. brdgen. In Fin. a small light pinnace pro.Lat. to glamr. clare lucens. to shine. outcry. transparent. 312. to cry 'Schmid OE.' in Due. tinnitus. malandrini. — Beowulf. squamma . also called briganders.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. beorht. to glitter. bracht. to cry. kilistua. a sound. seems to be to exert force gar el area. from hall. jurgia. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . schateren. Wilista. brigan. there are many armour. brigare. The E. splendour. glir. to strive for. AS. the bench-notes resounded.' The passage from the sense of a light. and. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. 1654. bright bearhtm. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. brak. and hence be explained glampi. splcnornd de brigandine. to sound. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. loo BRIGAND lor.shine. It. sound. Brigand. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . clear. Brigata. splendour. brigare. 1351. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. . schiteren. hell. praht. glamra. bryhtm. clangour. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. is easily understood.' The sense of strife or combat express. brcEhtin. brebrigare. Goth. briegen. So G.pracht. See Brake. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Due. secondarily. riis ' — Chron. — Probably then to strive. . and secondly. bray. kii:'a. that of Fr.clare ^tinniens. — brigante. the gleeman's song. — — . to rob. manifest ON. to piracy. speech. tuilahtaa. in later times a robber or highway-man. and the E. bragen.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. rixa. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. Lat.glampa. —Capgrave. cange has 'Veles. rover either by sea or land. himself to serve men of merit. and to associate with them. tinnitum clarum movco. clear. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. tumult. representing a sudden noise. OHG. inde squammatus. — Due. to bend a bow It. Gr. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. shriek with laughter. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. In the same way to strive is. a glittering. Heo — song That AS. braid. pugna. in the sense of a robber. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. — Briganbriga. The Ir. A strepere. clear sound. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. splendens . and diligence. may play the pirate or thief at sea. They or brigantini. brawl. Gall. clear. a pirate.

Dan. — Rim. komista. brillare. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. The expression is now confined to the sow. grdzil. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. fimbria) . to sound deep or hollow. In Fr. the sow is brimming. Streaked. to shine. ON. fringe (Lat. the heat of animals. brinfire. as of meat in broiling . G. — . breme. Fl. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. to utter cries. greedily to covet Cot. sparkle. or violent action. Supp. Dief. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. Hence with an initial s. bramar. kimmaltaa. It. chime). brastlian. a streak. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. a border. griller. broiled. bry7ie. Brem. reecho. bramar. It. to resound.— BRIM . In the same way Sw. to roar. as well as bl and gl. barm-cloth or barmskin. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. kimista.D. ON. Swiss Rom. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. brummen. rut. The E. kiimottaa. a rod. Rugere. to burn. from bringe. burning stone. post. ON. is used of raging. identical with passion. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. bresoler (Gloss.) brimi. striped or streaked. Du. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. coloured in stripes. Said of swine when in heat. sonitum edere bremen. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. brezil. To Brim. der. dial. It. Brim. brim Magy.). to glitter . to broil. brissle. to long for a thing. brant. Brimstone. barmr. barm. . a borDu. griller d'impatience. brisoler. bar. of the eye. bremmen. crackle . to shake.preni. Sc. have then in Fr. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. margin. Tutschek. the verbs Flor. griller). bremas. clangor tinniens. border. 1 1 64. brimmen. spraing. to . — — — . brame. excited. FJ. Sc. brummen : de soge brummet. bremmen. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. Thus Lat. glisten. ter. burning. . finds the Fr. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. — — So Fr. to shine. the singing of Sodom — — . to roar. ling noise and a sparkling light. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. to shimmer. beam. rugire (cervorum. glit. on. fierce. The meaning of the Fr. rugire. . brdnnsten. to twinkle. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). s. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. 154. ardere desiderio. brommen. to make a crackling noise. hence the bosom.' d'etre marie . ous. the meaning is transL' amour. bray as an ass bramire. Prov. briller. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. an apron. Subo. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. (poet. lip of a vessel. perent. parched. 1. brama. border. to creak. AS. Tresiller. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. Langtoft. grisser. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. to make bilbil). a long. ring. brame. 754. sprainged. broil . Rayn. brim. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. lap of a garment . to creak. the eye-brow. shine. — g. grisler. brow of a hill. brullo. whence bilbil-goda (literally. Wtb. brumft. cross-barred in colour. bramire. to shine. kommata. vigorHal. to wish or covet. and corresponding to these. frequently interchange. Brindled. greDiet. to quaver with the voice. border. pMiller. also to reflect.its vent in cries and roaring. that the original meaning of the Sc. gresiller. brand-krossottr. brennistein. os qui bresole. brmdottr. Closely connected is OE. briller (related to each other as OFr. E. from brandr. leonum). briller. the edge. the heat of animals. s. kimina. earnestly . kajata. originally the lap folding over the breast. fringe . a stick. noise made by meat in broiling. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. to glitter distance . properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. with an initial br instead of gr. surface of the ocean. Sw. which seems identical with rim. Lith. tience. to sparkle. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. Fr. breme. small gravel. breziller. fire. rym^. to crackle. AS. brandr and Fr. lap. breziller. and 1. as in Langued. voux. bramer. gresiller.ioTiviS acutus. : ' — bone). grullo. komottaa. The identity of ON. to crackle. furious. A . duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. bryn. crackle. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. to parch. vattubryn. to fret . Kil. edge Pol. to storm. brunft. whether of desire or anger. to glitter.' Elyot in Way. the lap or bosom.— Brinded. as is the case also with Pl.

rebursiis. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. the surf. a fragment. Fr. are used in the sense of brittle. Abroacli. Then as the effect of shivering. bringe traced through the brano. breaking of the waves brim sior. brindelles de balai. Commonly explained as from Fr. Mid. Fr. eager. to scorch. Formerly written brotil. Fris. britar. or the full • . from break. like the Broad. Russ. form bris. 'V^. briser. to break. to roar. brddj Goth. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. Bret. emotions which produce it. rude. a bud. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. brijn (Kil. Boh. to stab Gael. brog. britar. brezza. broccata. a belly. brim. — A . Brym. Hence ribrezzare. broca. Dan. Prov. rash. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. sour. In the N. Bohem. birssy. a morsel . brittle.Lat. brisk in taste. a shoot or sprig. suddenly angry. brocher. a stormy brimsea . or — . to bud. briota. to spit. a stitch brocher. bruckle.). Gl. whence may be explained the Sc. from brande. Brisket. bronchus. a rebours. to stick. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. to stitch. bros. a bud. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. to broil. ruffling. It. brote. . broccare. fierce. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. smart taste. thick — A elastic hair. brusk. Compare also E. Lat. Breeze been connected with the Sc. Sc. Salte sand is called brimsand. See Brand. Russ. See Spread. startling. See To Brim. — . brocco. brocco. britchet. roar of the sea saltr. brime. stitch. Antiq. The Pl. to crack. a morsel. a skewer. quick. brimme. Fr. an awl. Pectusculum. . The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. bringe. a slip or sprig of an herb . borst. craw of a bird. broca. to thrust. metaphorically. Du. brusque. Port. fragile. to birstle. brcit. the brisket or . G. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. coli. breast. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Brittle. brocar. — in Due. Hal. /3pE^m. birse. spur. saulmeure. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. to break. to shiver for Sold or for fear. of E. brodden. to spur. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. bryne. a clasp. spricka. brich. bros. as unripe fruits. very salt brimi. Brooch. It. Brocade. bruched (Fr. Brine. trembling. borzen. brichet. flame. as a noun. a brad or tack. a button broche. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. Fr. Zeuss. a projecting tooth It. brust. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. brezzare. breidr. It. ribrezzoso. sprocco. brioshko. setting the hair on end. bruskett. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. humorous.D.' Nat. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. sticking up . brin.). is called a birssy day. and Sc. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. birs. brissko). is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. brytan. from AS. Palsgr. Bristle. NE. aculeus. Brisk. . to set up one's birse. cK) the . byrst. sprout.'— Vita'abbatum S. harsh vin brusque. Brickie. lively. brot. a brooch. wine of a sharp. brandello. brocchus. Da.. birstle. bricho (with the diminutives. brimhliod. i. briota.rcendij'i. Du. a spit. broche. Berri. strong itself. Bret. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. a deluge. 222. apt to break. is to erect the hair. bryde. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). a crum. Fr. Sc. grim. borstel. Cot. to shoot. to broach a business. to put one in a rage . i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. brusco. expression. a bit . Alfr. Fr. a peg sbrocco. and hence. Prov. to turn up the point of anything. Swiss to stand out . crabbed.procio. Ptg. a cold and windy mist or frost. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. Sw. to begin upon it. hot-tempered. the surf. braidsj ON. Liquamen vel garum.g. Prov. shoot. rebrousser. reburrus. to set it a going. ' breast. man's throat.. flames. ' . broc. as. chest. breaking out into growth. . Gr. fantas'* tical. b. against the grain . Walach. borzos (struppig). Sp. a rod or twig. . to burn. sharp. bringue. of astonishment. sprouts. bristly . to goad. brisciare. brim (poet. . to spur. briocho. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. brockle. as. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. setting the hair on end compare It. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. as. prick with Sw. brim. fiscbryne. has under It. the twigs of a besom. ON. brittle. to break. — — . bresk. brickie. brocciare. p. and forms on. e. and. brissle. angry. — bryme. birsle. It.

or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. sparks E. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. brocco. — The proper sense is that of Fr. parti-coloured. broice. broccato was used to signify stuff . Contracted from Fr. noisy. point to an origin in Bret. prod. brocart. broc. brodio. brizen. Cot. rustle. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. brasiller. shuffle. here. q. broglio. and AS. houx. To roast upon hot coals. Ptg. Fr. and w. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . — . Sc. broighlich. brasiller. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. a mole. broccuto. breard. brasolare. streaked. forming to jumble.— B. a brouhaha. Compare G. border. or snag. atoms . parched. frocadura. — — . knobby . with Sc. brusler. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. to On the other hand the Sp. Sc. brucach. creak. a border ornamented with gold. a prick. Sp.. confound. v. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. motes. to broil. Gael. or It. borprick. Bret. hurly-burlies. to embroider. broukit. fundamental origin. to crackle. A fried or boiled steaks). bordo. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. blusters. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. bramowanie. whence broccare. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl.tumultuous. dar seems derived from borde. Compare also AS. to crackle. grislement. braird. a freckle. noise. Ihre has guU-bord. gold and silver. froco. a point. a brecJi. Here to ornament with needle-work. brocach. ToBroider. briz. Grisons brascla. hart of two years old. brullare. silkes-borda. brych. to parch or broil. a freckle. agree in being the extremity of a thing. initial . to stud broccoso. frecSee Brawl. speckled.sound. grullo. Surrey in R. the line of development has been something different. to prick. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. Fr. tufted ornaments. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. broil. border ornamented with silk. a border. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. a brim. W. carbonado. broder. From direct imitation of Brock. to instigate. Gael. and bord or bred. sting. Brocket. birsle. margin. has grisser. to spur. onbryrdan. freckled. It. parti-coloured. Cot. or roast on the braise. . b?-od. It of br the Fr. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. brindled. brusuole. spotted. to boss. bram. kled breac.. The ON. tori shows that. piebald . But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. a flake of snow sion. parch. It. to crackle. trouble. Dan. precisely analogous to the Sc. bmsciare. to burn. B. brod. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. the shoot of corn. brasbrasciuolare. ornamented with a raised pile. an edge. bj'oil. brasuole. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. — Gower in It. broiled. bustling. Fr. bruler. broud. or glowing coals broged. a peg. badger . brerd. a b?-ustolare. R. . Florio. to streaked or speckled in the face. to scorch. brucilare. to burn. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. brouFr. ciare. E. a confused streaked face of the animal. brooked. age was termed a pricket. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. rinj'. The Bret. brychau. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. to crackle. a To Broil. — brissle. So from Pol. spots. to crackle as a shell in the fire. or salted fish on coals. to embroider. a flock or Gael. broil. 103 embroidered. A badger. to knots or loops. storms. — Fl. Thus brod. embroidery. bordar. brouda. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brustle. Icnotty. trouble. tumult broighleach. speckled. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. embroidering. of pointing out their latent defects. bawling. Hal. broc. to darn. briefh. prasseln. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. Broker. AS. stump. scorch. gresiller. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. from the white. thread. brastlian. a badger. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. a fallingThe sense has been out. a quarrel.

reject. brackefi. warm. . or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. brechen. bronze. If to vomit . find fault with. brasa. to blame. refuse goods. Bronze. . hot. stain. burning. a broker. fault censure. slaae vrag paa. rejection Pol. It may be compared with It. to braze. racaille. Abbronzare. Adelung. Sp. on. To correct an exercise is to Lib. brack-gut. try . : ' . correctarius. progeny of birds. refuse brakowad. i. et A. brokas. — . to . sunburnt. brydio. Pl. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. For the same reason the Kiittner. to — garble. refuse wares. goods damaged by sea-water.— — . — a spark. braeck goed. brwd. with. brut. vrage. pan metal. a chicken. It. or brascla. broen. Prov. to hatch. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. cracker. to hatch. — broeden. to be wanting. vile. sort. couratier. mud. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Per manus et old worthless horse. blur. matter of blame weak place. to reject. See Brackish. faulty. selection. ON. Pro v. refuse brakovat. mediationem quorundam J. embers to brund. and fishes . the young of any animal . to pick and choose.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. glowing coals. screatio Junfus . refuse. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. and as an adj. G. wrak. rejected. hot. See Broth. brak. has exactly the force of G. phlegm. inspect. Bronzare. from break. bronzo. tussis. S. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. Tooke's Catherine. fermenting. — Fl. OFr. Dan. braken. want. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. to nourish. dirty. in the sense of rejection. bronze. to throw blame upon. Bret. make out. damaged. to sort goods . brod.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. to be hot. Du. • . to garble. G. raquer. brot. briiten. Teutonic class : Du. In the . a brood . a cough Hal. brokers' goods. to criticise. racher. 38. to sit on eggs. abject. fish-spawn broden. On • tliis principle the G. to copper. In those countries the term braker. refuse Fr. To blame mens ware. bridde. an outcast or rejected sheep. the spawn of fishes. to hatch G. wreak. .— Lib. wraken. trumpery. whnake. brack. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. Alb. to sort brakovanie. as. dial. brae. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. brokoti. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet.D. bronze. vile. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. brod. . lack. Russ. a fault. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. in which sense the OHG.— Breed. brands. which E. Grisons brinzla. The Langued. damaged. . cherish. corrector. Pl. raca. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. e. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. sbrinzlar. bring eggs and spawn into active life. try out. brak. brid. ODu. to spit . giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. buy and sell by commission. a makeln. filth. . w. to pick. bracker. G. ordure. designation is indkler. bredan. Jam.D. hrak. This word shows the same relation to It. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. wrack-good. bronce. The use sunburn. refuse. embers. term was correcfo^ir. cast Lith. Fl. to pro- to reject . Brood. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. Kil. to brew. merchandises de rebut G. abbronzanchiare. bric-a-brac. to sparkle. Sc.D. spittle. brunds. 396. — point out the faults. an . Pl. find fault — — — fuse matter. inspection. from makel. Alb. brakyne. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze.D. to scorch. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. brass does to Sp. See Wreak. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. tan. an operation performed over hot coals. Du. hraki. a breach or flaw. embers. whence the modern courtier. but from the primary sense of the It. keep warm. Fr. to emit sparks. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. insects. spittle . brasa. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. Lat. nounce unsound. criticise (makeln). brack-gut (Sanders). brieden. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. and to reject the damaged and unsound. to roast on the embers. broiid. brumo. analogous to Bohem. find fault with.

on. . to browse. broth is sometimes used . a hill. sprocco. braun. OFr. brosst. to boil. from ripa. cabbage water. buds. to border. dumetum. bruddeln. infusion the barley bree. . eat. the bubbling or springing up of water. brost. bud. Tam de terrS. to use. Gael. Gael. vigour. brdtaj Gael. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. breh. rerum decoctarum. broca. waves. juniper. broem bark. cia. 105 Brook. and It. . chen. Sp. bank. as rhododendrons. enjoy Goth. Bret. riviere. 'Lzt. sproc. protecting the eye. a sprig. pottage. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. eye-brow. a confused noise of winds. broth the ocean Sw. It is Brother. . awl-plant. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. in which brinnan. bruno. to scald. But the Walach. thairj w. The softening down of the consonant bud. sprot. OHG. breg. Fr. to boil bruithe. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. brau. brouser. Catalan brossa. brus. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. as Fr. brad. AS. Bohem. plants composed of twigs. AS. to burn. G. rage. hot. Fr. a little . brew . was originally used in the innocent sense of . bryii. brouches. strength Ir. sprouts . on. brouet. eye-lash . Du. OHG. shore. grow brossa. steam from heated bodies. bree. bruithim. — exiit et heath. Here we find throughout the Romance. broc. hut. &c. bruitheati. thick bush brousta. signifying twigs. has briw. Bohem. brd. Sp. Gris. bank. brozia. shoot. bntdien. brudi. augen-braune. bushes. brosses. broza. braussa. Due. Sanscr. breg. seethe. brio. . brous. b7-un. broth. surDu. simmer from the murmuring AS. brodem. . . properly boiling water briihen. brusmalt. sordes seu strigmata young branch. — . pith.spross. See Bramble. bratrj Lat. Bohem. borda. brawdj Slavon. eye-brow. brue . It. heat. brouter.brons. to boil. a hill. mettle. shoots. sodden. brotar. spuma. heat explaining the Prov. browys. a spring. brost. bank. — . (which is barely pronounced in Gael. bruich. ale . broth brothaire.' Due. who is steaming with sweat. Cot. &c. shrub with leafless pointed edging. to use. a hut or cottage It. Pol. thicket. Wtb. bryn. heath. brotar. Brothel. t— Cot. riviera. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. A — . wood . Bret. Bav. bros. the colour of things burnt. G. strength. brabruach. low The AS. and also border. bruith. Serv. to murmur. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. a source Gael. hovel. a shrub broust. shore . to Pl. sap. broth Brown. brogues. Browse. . bruc. braew. . G. broden. to roar. border. laissent Domunculum. a river. brauwe. Fr. a . useful G. infusion. &c. Prov. Limousin broudi. bros. brun. to use bruks. eye-lid. kail brose. briar. Commonly Teutonic. surface of Broth. broccola.braubiti. verge. bryn. Du. brass. bruth. brmi. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. and Sc. to spring . fur Broom. bank. frui. Gael. Celtic. bordeau. brucan. or bushes and scrubby growths. a sprout. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. fabric consists. bor. broo. sense the Sc. brow of a hill. . sprout. brpuster. Ppim. brow. borde. to boil. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. ceales briw. cabbage soup . a little house or cottage of timber. (for brodem). as small-pox. eminence . broit. edge. pour boiling water over. . briihe. of which the variety of forms. G.D. brlgh. . to bear patiently. house of ill fame. or broken up . Fr. frater. brewis. to shoot. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. pfriemkraut.D. braces. brosses. brushbroccoli. brodo. Roquef. Manx broie. G. BROOK brook w. To digest. noise. forms appear related to the Ir. or shoot. Ger. brennen. bruceti. signifying low wet land (Brem. The origin is a re. Gael. brushbrothas) gives the OE. edge. a bud brous-koad. perhaps burnt coloilr. brov. of plants broust. a derived from the boards. broeye.) . sprout. circuindedit cum familia.brink. . a bud. break out brewet. a bruth. brocco. brothas. brstiti. Kil. breg. juice of briars. The AS. a caldron. may be connected with Russ. bruich. bregh. Prov. Lat. eye-lid. Brow. juice of meat. heath. &c. brst. broth. from Goth. to bubble up with noise. It. broieii. w. brouic. It. Russ. briu. brink. face. . broud. branches. bordel.— Overyssel Almanack. a shore. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. grow into a bush. . Fr. eye-brow. bruach. margin." Serv. broi. brwd. shrubs. boiled . iVlanx broogh. w. — ' . spirit. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. brukjan. meal. Pl. and Slavonic families. frucius. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . . Russ.. vigour. warmth ch'an. bhratrj Zend. Sc. bruscosd quam de arabili. brouskaol. to sprout. dialects is very different. Gr. eye-brow. Mid. Dan. to browse.

a bush of hair. Allit. broustia. chips. Fr. to cleanse. borste. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. brossa. a rumbling. brottcher. Brunt of a daunger. borst. Fr. NE. desbrisar. dust. a shrub composed of small twigs . brusc (Diet. Text Soc. The Lat. dust. brust. an enmy. it schall be al Sw. Hall in R. bruscolo. quisquilise. to break. Lang. borste. Sp. borste. The Bav. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. detergere . ON. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. biirste. to butt. On the other hand. a little brizal. briketo. brik. It. bruito. See next article. brist j Port. shoot brouskoad. . brusca. bruzir. tuft of grass or hay. wool-card. Lang.— Palsgr. burs. and . brysan. a brush . also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. break. twig. crum bit . bris. insultus. of twigs. —Chaucer. bruit.). E. Bruit. a mote. In E. K. brusco. Diez. brist. modification of the same root which gives the E. Gael. Prov. Prov. G. Piedm. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. brunt. — OE. brusco. and Piedm. and also Brush. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. a brush .). brosst. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. AS. brizeto. fescue . Cot. That in all haste he wouli. OFr. —Fabyan. It. brista) or breaking out . The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. a — — (Agea) said. to break to bits . a bud or sprout Bret. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Fr. Gael.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. G. a brush . brous. borste.— — i. Broach. . a bristle. ling or heath for brushes. orts. brosse. into a multitude of points. bruire. Castr. Brunt. brousso. bricalio. brossa. . du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Fl. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. but on whom it schall to brisen him. brisd. . shivers. a brush . 174. rubbish. bushy ground. brugir. insilio. Pr. fragments. And that best is. Bruise. B?-usske. britar. a brush. blow burcar. Bav. bruis (sing. Gael. broza. a bristle. — Fr. Pm. a noise. appearin Goth. bris. to break. mg Cat. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. borste. Piedm. Pr. britar. brisar. brushwood. A. and It. a brush. Alexander. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. effort. irruo. brosst. Prov. also a head-brush. brosse. flax-comb brossettes. brus. Brush. a brush. a briser. Fr. abroncar. Bret. . bruscia. brico or brizo. Palsgr. coal See Breeze. sordes. Prov. brist. The same relation holds good between G. bross. p. a crum. Pr. E.). to break or burst. bush. To brush then would be to dust. a blow. Sw. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. and sighid therewithal. Pm. Port. dust. Sw. seems named from burst(on. * Brunt. to stumble. briser. bruskr. shock. quasi twigs. bris. It. dust. . ca7-bo>i. broken. as It. remnants of hay or fodder. brustia. heath. twig. — those signifying a sprig. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. Poems. burt. to make a rumbling. brusg. brossar. or sodenly comyn' dust. to crush. to make brusshes on. a horse-brush. crush. broza. E. bruise exOFr. bruscolo. a bud. bruc. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. and actually come in collision. biirste. brustid. bross. bruyere. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. splinters. brMt. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . 201. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brusca. and in the second place a besoiB. briiis (in the pi. to strike the foot against an obstacle. brise. brit. a flax comb. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Pr. Gael. to brush. brist. — a bush. rubbish. bris. broust. wool-card. a brush Swiss bruske. Beryn. tremely. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. escousse. brous. OE. Wicliff.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. bud. a tuft of heath . fasx . rubbish. wool-card. brustia. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. bruiser. 134. rods. or shoot. . small heath whereof head-brushes are made. wood composed OE. field. Fr. Cot. brikan.

bugada. Bohem. blister. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). buquer. This bubette. boil animals. bifbel. buchen. bubiti. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. bublati. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. Sp. does not hold. it is beuchen. a ashes. tender. a bubble. the upper for coifee. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. It. is 1. maban and baban. a knock word. bub. soft. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. a bubble . lye. — . See Dupe.biiken j Svi. Magy. colada.-wtt miekki. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. The natives of Florida. top. moczyd. Diet. a fescue. Formerly. Pol. de la Floride. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. bucata. soft. and Fr. wood. bukke. caned' Hence those who established them. blast or strike with the forehead. boc. buck-ashes. and exercised their cruelties prin. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. the first wheal. boc. and as a verb.' Palsgr. designation of a knob. hump. — .boukaat. The word was very generally Buccanier. bduclien. set of pirates in the spread. . smokipg meat were called buccaniers. to murmur. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. or projecTo Buck. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. tender. Bret. the lower soak in lye. bubbola. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. . soft. Etym. mote. boucaner. was called in Fr. I. Pol. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. thunder gently . Cot. says Laudon. drying of produce. when soap was tion is commonly taken. to butt.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. The place of such a 2. to a place used for the mouillir. to bubble. also applied Una. and then to other wild tumour Lith. March 28. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. was called bucking the linen. . and as in and b so often infor cocoa. very generally designated by the same puk. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. buborek. 1857. ac. Gael. a bubble. hog dressed whole). 1586. bokni. The cipally on the Spaniards. . to soak. pokka7na. Sp.wet Lat. boh. because bucare does not in Marsh). The term bocan is still ap. 17th century. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . to soften. to soak foul linen before washing. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. faire la lessive. w. bouk. as a buck rabbit. bubBuck. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. BUBBLE bruschetta. knock.derivation has been much discussed. buerj It.buchen. From an imita. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. erweichen. a to the male deer. .steep or soak.— . bub. or mok. molle. buquer. Magy. bugd. bouc. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. a hole. a. mokry.byka. mieknad. as G. It. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. to Gael. w. Fr. hump. tap . to buck. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. open lath-work. to strain. in which the flesh dish. bubseti. at a door. . which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. It. the linen at buck. lye. Illust. bube. Sc. bucking. pup. Dan. plied in the W. bucquer. to soften. a steep for flax. . from which the ing the bleating of a goat. Bret. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. — — ' A : ' ' . moist. Esthon. from weich. The name. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. In G. watery bud. Bohem. soft . hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump.D. . mollire. not so plentiful a commodity. But see Bristle. to butt or jurr Dan.to allow a free current of air. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. bubauti. Fr.tare. of wind. bucaIndies. to filter. Fr. to soak. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. rap. The male goat. to stick. Bubble. soft It. to butt. a. a push. News. A .lessiver. bwch. Fin. to which in their language they call bou. who resorted to the islands beichen. Pref A. to bump as a bittern. different form. buck-ashes. to soften . from colar. to wet Pol. tuft. byge. pukkata. bog-aske. and the bunch.

of a surface. bloca. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. — — . Hence quel.anything short of its kind. butzen.stumpy man. Pied. swelling. boulj. bucherame. ' . Mid. boucle. brobrocchiere. don't stir from hence. bod. . a wallet. * Buckle. become bochen. a boss. water message.' And this sacrament bus have dial. ein. call. . with which it was ornamented. sboge. Port. bouter. excrescence. boccula. stud. a servant. G. to pen cattle. boucler. Prov. Bret. Buck-bean. a boss. It. were To Budge. Bret. a dumpy gin. bouger.stuff. boglyn. bunch . bucherare. Wtb. a buckle or protuberance. boucaran. Du. Mid. bucolicus. boach. goat's hoof. gjeit-klauv. a cowherd. from bugr. So on. pulga. Fr. Dan.chissima. a ring. of bouge. bougette. pwtio. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. boucle. belonging to the calling of the chen. a little coffer or turgidus. The knob or projection formN. The Fr. jSouKoXiKog. a bud. a boy. Behoves. bucket Fl. a bubble three thyngis. don't a baby). from Gr. Bucolic. trunk of wood covered with leather.' Schm. a bump. mani. Swab. bloquier.) .. W. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. clump. rump of fowls . and of the Lat. agreeing with Gael. bukke-blad. a tuft. as in Fr. — — . to un bout d'homme. a pail or flowers. to move. Budge. imbuere. to graft or bud trees. stroke. a budget. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. bouk is a pail and with the dim. butze. weich. probably from the notion of bubbling. convexity. bullion. the root of the Slavonic words gran. Fr. of bac. II I'a feru desor I'escu. a short thick man. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. butzen. boss.goa. set of a plant in bulk. Fr. built. protuberance. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. a stump buckle up.Lat. . stir. explaining Fr. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. ' . ble. knock. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. bouclier.pode. a navel. bolgia. — . Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. OHG. Gael. where the G. call bo. Sw. potz. knob dwfr yn boglynu. weichen. a leathern sack. A buckle or fastening for botch. buckel. w. . seen in Hesse botz. Lat. Fr. . botzen. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need.. rabodS. bug. macero. to bud or bocla. and weichen. a buclder or shield budge. — . It. . * Bud. whom it is still much in use. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. noise . and the reference to It. bollire. Bav. Prov.. Buckler. bump. Cot. child. the radical image seems to be a set plants. hump. pote. * Bucket./a. to swell. a trough). bedde. fur. to 'soak. bouprobably identical with inok. K. having a boss. crack. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. bub. a shield. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. to stir. buachazlle. inboachen. the word w ' — .t-le!L{ * Bud. scion. skins pushit'.n. with let. prick in a target. . The dressed fur of lambs. dinted.may probably be explained by N.poot. wallet. also a leather tuft . a curl. a pustule bout. ON. It. Dan.' Boccaccio. above mentioned. a budget. blow.r//'. It. bog and G. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bdden. bugnir. to boss or swell out G. great pouch. bo. is doubtless fallacious. Hardly identical with Fr. boiling. boaLat. See Bulk. bouljein. w. no business to do that. to line with fur. male or botzen. in the beginning of to pierce holes. ornamental stud. Fr. clasp of a book. a fold ceilio. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. weich. pulga. butz. or male of to boil . Fr. The word is a ddyn. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot.) as to soak.' Hal. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. bud butzen. bul. dint . bocla. bunch. butzen (Du.— . bouton. soft. OFr. thrust. is to shrivel up. a shoot. loud Cot. a . . It termination is lost. bougette. A water-plant with leaves and gille. NE. bogla. case of leather . like a bean. Russ. to thrust. boucle. to butt. bod. to budge. This expression boglire. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. swelling. bulla. butzen K. The entire train of thought is bucket. Bav. Fr. bode. turgere buczendig. bulga. call. push forwards. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. no wheel bogeilio. to word. knob . In Lat. Prov. motus creber. lump. from bo. Sp. bloca. budge. bulb. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. Du. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. boqueranmis. to boil. Pol. Bus. bulka. with a central boss. . a small shallow and open tub. cattle. ' . put.). need. pwt o Fr. botzen. bouge. bolgetta. Budget. words is converted into b. butt . boss of a shield. . bulais daqui. to poke. dim. To thrusting part of a long body.

Pl. to give a as of a blow. Cot. baubau. buffle. bouffer. Mid. a jester.' La Crusca. bolgia.—Buffet. Buff. E. buffle-headed. bufHe. a In . buffets. buffalo. to frighten . bauwi. a block-headed noddy. Swiss baui. senses. — La Crusca. also a G. to marre often tasting it . to bellow . or wild ox. Buffoon. word other cases. Lat. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. site The two — — iii. Teet-bo. buffen. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. as wine that hath taken wind. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. bw! It.D. a cuff or buffet. pulse . — Z. wine may The verb in taverns. often covering his E. Esthon. a buffle or a bugle. wauwau. . btifetarius. Magy. dausinti. to excite terror in Macleod. to a representation of his voice. &c. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bobaow. buffeteur. Cot. rebuff. to rePl. Limousin bobal. le reste emplissant d'eau. botffon. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. God's boast seemed feare children. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Buffalo. stupid.D. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. mumming. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Fr. Pl. A blow. to puff. Lith. to strike face to represent the unknown. human. bubach. as emblematically making light of an object.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. him but Boyd iugges. bolgetta. — — — Buffet. Gael. to blow . boo. as Diez remarks. Fr. to signify an indefinite object of terror. From buff! of terror. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. bugbear. buffetto. Bufetarium. sounds. — retailing buffeter buffetier. for this purpose is very widely spread. dial. bukow Ikow. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. Buffeter. to give benti. Sc. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Lillo covering his head with his skirt. G. a hobgoblin. bubaRuss. a clap. bubus. A — Bug. a side-board. Fr. Thus buffet would a tapster. bw. een duffen toon. also the skin or heck of a buffe.' perfield. It. buffet. deadened.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. It. bau ! children. smells . often blown upon. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. dull sound. a goblin). a skin. leathern bucket. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. The children were playing in an oppocomer. yar^aa. duff^ dull. by metaphor. Fr. tabernarius. the place whence the wine was drawn. — thence it has been transferred in E. It. buffare. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. boman. — Bogle./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . —Boggart. buivol. puff. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Lith. dausa. a puff. from It. The cry made to excite terror is then used. blurt or puff with one's mouth. a budget. of colours. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. A puff with — Fl. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. tastes. things in Jam. Sc. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. made by a person. as from Lith. From bulga. to blow. to puff. Fl. bwg. made to —Bugbear. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Buff. popo. It. 265. soufflet. The use of the exclamation children. caupo. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. w. bufogni. buff leather. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. ' They rether puffed at him. Lat.— Buflae. scarecrow . bugle. buMagy. bouffer. Hence the E.D. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . Fr. to jest or sport. buffet. mingled with water. thus be translated to tap. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. buffa. Romola. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. and in Fr. to blow souffleU. bugs. or hath been Cot. while in Sp. cuff . bubiti. a hollow sound. from souffler. W. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. bo ! an interj. breath. a dull BUG From 109 — A . buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. bumann. bufogni. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. colour. buffer. buffare. the buffe. either alone or with various terminations. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. air. a bugbear. confused. to beat. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. buffet.

ghost. bogle. bug. Swiss booggen. bugler. Bogge. beugler.Fr. Bdronie. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. especially to beetles or winged insects. biignt. bukashka. . The name of bug is — . Hence bugle-horn. given in Chaucer. used in the same sense. bbgni. worm. It. a proud overbearing man pujat'. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. to origin in the expression bugs words. 2. . a rabme. bugar. Swelling. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. E. il brutto Demonio. and a boggarty ing.. Serv. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. Cheval de trombugti. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. superbire. an object of terror. a. coco. BUGLE Tentennino. any disgusting animal. a misshapen person. a boogg. Parolone. and bugle. An ornament of female dress condread. bwgwl. roo. bug dung-beetle. Bug. A similar applica. with more or less modification represents bau. Magy. — — . properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. pugalo. is very common. thus connected with bug. the word is lin) bbgge. booggen. 493. fette. and is Deutsch. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. then a horn for drinking. high-sounding words. b'dgni. bau (Pureiglia. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. bogil. Magy. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. also a baco-baco. xiv. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Lap. boo. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. also a bug-bear. as an object of dread. gad. big. rose-bug. tion of the beetle tribe. vermin. a bug-bear.loud noise. Manx boa. The final guttural of W. a bugbear for children. bug-bear. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. fear. Russ. to bellow. iv. bogk. : no BUG . Swiss ing. — — ' . Hal. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. threatening. Grisons bau. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. Chaucer. tumble-bug. See The name terror). bugle. bwgar. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. and in Lat. It. to take bug. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. troll. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. quos what produces dread or disgust. roarHal. Schmidt. * 2. high. is the dim. the black a maggot. Bible. bug-bear. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. poggl. Fl. pugaf. — — terror. to bellow.Lat. the Devil. long. bogk. a beetle.3uhtii&:. Lett. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. protuberant. swollen. also a bug-bear. blustering. buba. 1551. forSc. to take fright. paws the ground . to roar Aasen. Big. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. of bugabo was given. a bug-bear. boa-peep. the buggaboo w. — boogg. bukati. Sp. Fl.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. pujalo. Deut. shepe and gootes. Lesachthal. bwg and E. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. to frighten scarecrow. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. The w. provincially an insect. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. W. affright. — . bucula. bobal. to take fright. i. buffle. great or bug words. bauginti. scarecrow . 3. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. of pipes sewn on. oxen. language any kind of insect. buculus. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Bug as a lord. bok. a silk-worm. as Buffalo. Grose. bold. terrifying ward. disgust. dial. to creeping things. Stalder bog. baco. Illyr. Sw. Mid. insect. a goblin. monster. buggabod). boeuf sauvage. larva (a bug-bear. bogil bo (e.. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. saucy. . (Spurrell). mask ' . . according to Coles. proud. a buffalo. I. earwig bau da grascha. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. and in child's Magy. bug-bear. well as the terrific object. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou.— . insect. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . banian boube. bugbear. Lith. threatening. Mundart. an insect. w. Bugle. hert. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. Same as buffle. fierce.

— — . m um Placentiae. inhabit. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. jnake bulch. pulkas. bukr. . a protuberance.' Fl. Gr. G. The addition of a dim. globule bolg-lhuingey.' Festus. bulne. as it was merly written in English to bylle. ^ — . pouch builgeadh. bole. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bullka. sedes. to raise a habitation. to puff up bolginn. Bolke or hepe. Lat. tumidus. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. The radical sense is shown in Russ. balgs. Melancholy. bulgen. Jno. in vessel. trunk. bulka.). the position of liquids in the word In English. bua. bulbus. or. blister. boss of shield. to bol. acervus. bulki. knob. bug. and bulbukd. boss of a buckler. Sp. lump. boss. Mandeville. belly Sw. projection. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. the belly. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. principal portion. . Lat. Pm. swell. bo. bellows builgean. ON. bag. bunch or projection. buc. bulcke. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. mass. cultivate. OSw. bol. nave or body of the church van 't schip. to throw out a convexity. as well as is very variable. crowd. . at riufa bulkann. . bulwis. vulva. . a leather sack or budget Fr. trunk of the body. bulkaf. Boss^. whence bylja. in bulk. on. For the latter sense ' — My . bolgia. bilge. a bubble. swell.'— Cot. thorax buick. bouge. . a stage or scaffold. trunk. bauch. blister. PoXj3a. cumulus. bol. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bolle. skin bag. Bourser. anything prominent. G. bolgan. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. ' . consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. mass. chest. the body Du. bugue. to blow. . biilken. . bolgna. Lith. bulk. the capacity or burden of a ship. boss. to belly out. a globe. a bubble Gael. a leathern sack or portmanteau. Lett. Lith. boulge. habitaculum. to swell. Here stand behind this bulk. as water beginning to boil bolg. bulgen. bolso. bauen.' Palsgr. Bulch. MHG. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. the potato G. belly van de kerche. See bollekeii next article. a straw corn-vessel. Pr. the head of an onion. a lump or mass. belly Cat. . Othello. bouk. tumeo. and put it home. See how this tode bolneth. body of a ship . van loock. bubble. bolnyn. belly. dial. Mister. 1388. w. Palco. turgeo bolnyd.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. bwlg. a dint in a metal .d. buhe. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. . stuffed bag. or bear out as a full purse. Ptg. A — ' — Bulk. bol. to undo the cargo. bubble. bed of a river. bulbe. ' . it again. — — . blow. swell. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. knob. G. — . Pr. ball. balcone. See Bulk. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. straight will he 2. . gebolgen. a heap. Hence e. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. ON. The Walach. a bunch. bulge or bilge. compare Da. the carcase. leather sack. has bulbuk. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). swollen OE. body. OSw. belly. a prominence. balg.pulks. husk. of E. bulbe. in Sc. bubble. or of what is shaped like a bubble. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. head . bulked or bumped out. — Bulb. ne. bale. belgja. belly. swollen. bubbling up. womb. Gr. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. a. belly. to break bulk. or feminine termination gives Bav. bolle. skin flayed whole. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. byli. wallet. or cargo of a ship. of an inflated skin. Dan. and N. bulle. . He found a country fellow dead drunk. formed a farm. knobby. I. a bulb Du. buk. Dan. hold or bilge of a ship. From till. to build. Muratori. to spring. knot in thread. ' . snorting on a bulk. Bav. . to bubble up. a tuberous or bulbous root . to swell. lump. bubble {palgan tiisge. pimple. . were a habitation. . bulk is a partition of boards. In the representation of natural sounds. belly. balco. a water-bubble). boa. to bubble up Pol. puff. unevenness Sw. bolg. (3oX|8oc. Bulk. pocket.— . bulge or convex part of a cask.' Cot. Hal. to gather. bladder. . Pm. . blister Manx bolg. belgr. pod ON. herd^ swarm pulkd. domicilium. balg. body of an animal. villa. a round bulky body bwlgan. bulg. To Build. a. With these must probably be classed ON. It. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth.' Anat. bulk or capacity of anything. skin of an animal. bolgetta. — — . be protuberant. the womb. — . BUILD supra dictos bugolos. hollow. the contents of the hold. Kil. hull of a ship. Bulge. beuck.

Sp. to emboss . many to protuberant objects. it is boulet de canon.D. from the Lat.. to bellow. Fr. leraures nocturni nigri. bauli. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. of the ox kind. a stud. as a mill-dam or the like. G. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. blister. 2. a sight that frayHigins in Pr.. G. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. is called a ball. whence bullire. . thick. i. stupid . a cow. a bowl. a seal. large.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. — A tition in a ship. baula. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. as the ornanails. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. penbwl. also a parFl. spirits. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. bollon. bugbear.' do not go by the dangerous water. bulk of a thing. It. bal. Pm. bulla. bollar. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. bolos Fr. bollos de relieve. bouillon. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. Bullfrog.D. See Billet. on the contrary. Eullrusli. Du. 2. stud. a hornet. witches. bolla. bubble. Bret. poltern. dim. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . which may probably be the origin of the name. a seal. of Witchcr. bullos.. dial. &c. Bullace. bullocks. it may be observed that a bullet in E. w. 3. bolli. — Fl. also of the tadpole or young frog. A papal rescript. and vellon in Sp. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. pwl. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. from the use of the equivalent terms. child by the represents the hobgoblin. the matrix or die . Cot. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. a framework of balks. elves. as in E. biitzibau. bellow. boss or stud.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. but is more probably iden- palchetto. as It. is of a class with Pl. bouillon. N. blunt. And The word bullerbak. billoti in Fr. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. the seal affixed to the document. a hobgoblin.Fris. Du. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. a scare-bug. bwlas. boss. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. scarecrow. G. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. G. Bullbeggar. sloes. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. Gael. a tadpole . Dan. lumpheaded . to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. billon. Fr. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. poli-cheannan. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. polten. w. bolli. a bull. b2iggaboo. lumpish. balgeting. The bullfrog. whence Mod. a beam or rafter. — — Bull. embossed work. large of its kind.lle de fusil. a bul-begger. See Bowl. any great-headed or studded nail. a bulox polos. a tadpole. boulct. bwla. urchens. in the sense of base metal. and thence terror. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. bullebak. W. Terriculamentum. bulla. from the noise. Gold or silver uncoined. bellocier. I. assito. a little fish nearly all head. bole or trunk of a tree. stamped money. coarse. from Fr. /SouWivu. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. stamp. a wasp. This word is used in several senses. Du. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. A lace tree.D. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. pollach. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. round glass phial. tition of deals instead of a wall. ba. The final element tergeist. The wild plum. from Lat. bulk. to boil. boillon.. The male W. Bully. brass-headed nail . Lith. bietebau. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. BuUiou. a hobgoblin. as geting.'— ' Palsgr. BulUiead. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. stud. to bubble. a noisy violent fellow. hhint. pimple. bullern. ON. bulderen. bulloi. a bull Swiss bullen. from baula. bulle. a blockhead. of boule. Pl. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. signifying roaring. beams or boards. Bullet. Scot's Deso. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug.Gr. in N. any embossed work. poll-cheannach. to tical with Sw. eth and frighteth. bulke. to seal. bullus. It. Du. bwbach. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. however.

boisterous fellow. AS.. Hal. bastion. c. Bailey. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. bulderen. ON. bustle.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. bol-werck. Fris. Bully. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. block-werck. primarily the ramparts of a town. but now is the central part of the town. a stage. Etym. to terrify by noise and clamour. Kil. a bumble-. a floor. polterer. The Stat. provides.' reals of standard currency. The Sw. John). Hence — . Hence bom and ban. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook.' for the purpose of exchange. 1305. blunder-buss. boulevard. 14. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. or work of defence. botm. ground.the ramparts. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. a hectoring. bottn. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. on the other hand. Du. furious man. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. noise. honunele. IIL st. then in general a rampart. baluarte.' agger. violent. a. 2. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. violent overbearing person. bodem. from boden. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes.d. ^i^/«. The cry of the bittern. scaffold. and porter au billon. to drum Lat. D. un faux brave. by corruption boulevart.D. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. hum. St. To bum. buller-jaan (bully. sound.D. minari verbulderen. — bombam?nen. From the notion of a humming. G. — — plate d'argent. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. debacchari. vallum. buller-bak. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Miege in Hal. — Bumto . ierd-beame. droning. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. buene. a boisterous. ierd-boeyme. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. To Bum. legaggio di metallo. beat a — Hal. Bully-rock. IV. bomtnen. 9 E.' Again. 10. agrees with e. bolderen. a noisy blustering fellow. biihne. 'lega. ^Bully-rook. is bullion — A — buller. Kil. to dun. Bum-bailiff. and similar restrictions were enforced in France.. It. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . a blunderhead. c. Philip le Bel in Due. Sw. Kiittner. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. The 27 Ed. buller-bas. A. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. propugnaculum. To bum.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. 4 Hen. poltem. boene. c. or a humblebee. clamour. the soil. blunder-buss. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . — Boom. &c. Fris. 1687). blaterare. is called bumping or bells. intonare. argentum and silver. bommele. up was termed monnaie de billon.' ' mettre au billon. III. 2. Du. BULLY with which coins were stamped. buller-bas. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. Du. to make a droning Du. G.' Stat. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. The decried coin. to make a noise . bombilare. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. For bottom. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. 2. bottom. provides. Thus ' ble. Bum. buller-brook. to .' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. perturbare saevis dictis. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. To bully is to bluster. G. — Bump. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. resonare. Fr. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl.

stock. Pm. Dan. A Du. &c. . Gael. a person employed to dun one for a debt. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a tail (Macleod). boi7ieog. Pl. hay stubble . ner. a knob . stump. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. . a pocket Sw. Fr.— Pr. bans. strapping. the Pr. Bunch. Probably for bun-boot. Hence E. a bud. signifying one who does things in a thumping. pumpurras. any round knob or bunch. Bums it's hit. Mrs Baker. Bony. Bunewand. bund. trunk. tundo. Forby. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bugno. Pm. a knob. He buncheth me and beateth me. Related on the one side to Pl. Dan. bum-boot. bundle. to thump. or to the mass by which it is given. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. a pumpion or gourd.). a. . a knob. a knock. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. pompette. Roding. banke. Bunk. bongie. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G.D. and signifies consequently a mass. See Bounce. Probably from bump. OSw. a bowl P1. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. Sc. calamus. poumpi. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. w. . bunke. bon. ! — knocking.' Bun. clown. or grete knobbe. noise. lump. See Bunch. — stalk . il me pousse. E. especially girls. a wallet. forms.! . pompon. so the form btmk. 1. — — Bun. — — de dor bunsen. a dry No . applied to young persons. also for taking a pilot to a ship. bonnock. — Marine Diet. a heap OSw. bottom.pummel. large. pumpa.D. bulscha. gibbus. and related with ON.P. to ' . a. a dried hemp-stalk. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. pwmpl. bmidt. bamgetroffen. any round knob or bunch. binge. Manx bonkan. Pr. protuberance. bonge. . banga. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. to beat. Moor. seems to unite Gael. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. . to swell out E. bun. hdk passing and E. pwmpio.— Bunnion. bottom. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. bugnone. a button. a boil or blain. a purse . botn. . stalk. a bump. Bumpkin. . bunga. Ir. nor would it concern the public if he did. are dim. Du. Daal bu7iseti. bump. Hal. truss E. bunki. to strike so as to give a dull sound. cluster. Radically identical with Dan. bugno. a Sp. round mass of anything. a knotty stick) Sw. as we have seen E. — — — — ' — knock. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. a rabbit. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Li cake. while bulch was traced through Gris. bonuach. a swelling from a blow. Then. awkward clown. stubble Manx bun. bull. a bag or sack. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Thus e. — round fruit.. bunga. a heap or cluster. bignet. to bang ON. —Bunny. strike E. passes Sw. . Fr. Hal. callus. a large . Holland and Flanders. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Bump. bun with ON. gibber. H..^Cot. E. the tail of a hare. stem or base. bunt. to bang down. . a rabbit. blain. a round mass . to bang. Suffolk bonnka. a into Dan. a heap Wall. stock. bugnet. — — Bun. an old stump of a horse. bun eich. a bunch Magy. a boss Lith. as in other cases. Dunchyn or bunchyn. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. Pm. inconsiderately. Gael. throw down with a bang. stubble of beans. a lump on the foot bunny.' Palsgr. S. knochen. Again. to beat. bune or boon. Bunch. w. bungersome. pwmp. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Bung^. a bunch. bunkc. . Sc. abrupt manbuns-wise. Bang sen. from bunsen. poumpido. BUNCH bum-bailiff. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. bunny.S. root. dial. bumtel. Hal. clumsy. one ever saw the word in that shape.D. . stump. E. bolsa. lenten loaves. a boil (punkos bot. a heap. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. bunken. Pl. a heap. bulse. buns. to . bung.' he fell with a bang. dial. bmike. See Boss. bulto. He fult dat et bunsede. lungeous. from knock) It. bumsen. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. foundation w. a very wide boat used by fishers in S.D. a hemp-stalk. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. explaining E. mto Sp. bunnion. Bumsen. A clumsy. bu<rnone. butt end. . root. Fl. bunka. a hump. knob or heap. Kyx or bunne. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bunsen. to knock . bunch— Hal. Bun. Bumboat. Hal. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. . a swelling. should probably be a short tail. It. Lang. knuckles. To bam. bunan. bottom bun feoir. awkward. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bannock.-^Fl. to .

Fl. bommen. the noise of drums. a botch. boya. Burble. Fr. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. Bunny. the bung of a barrel Lim. 202. ' — work . Rietz. modem bummle. bolting-cloth. Fr. bang. Sp. ghebundte. borboUar. Pl. borgonota. * Buoy. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. Lat. bimge. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. bourjon. also a piinple in the face. Fr. bongun. bang. OG. to shove. to knock. bury. G. to kick. to hum. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. contignatio. burion. generally known as the material of which bud. bindini. racket. — — To Bungle. — . — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. with the head. punishments for prisoners. bouchon. B. Bung. something bound together (Mrs Baker). fascis. la Borgonota. stiimpeln. Sp. bounta.punt. bote. an anchor buoy. to hum. bondir. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. buie. a bunch.Fris. to gingle. to hum. bond. was formerly pronounced buro. bummle. a drum . would be the earliest float for an anchor. stocks or such OSw. and Du. bangla. klimpem. bundt. Banff. buret. to in to stop the hole. bourgeon. a boye. Prov. Du. to push with the head del. OFr. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. the float of an bundle. fetters. to float. to push. to strum on an instrument. whence bunting. bundel. Russ. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. gyves. Burly. dark. tapp (whence tceppa. . bourion. the middle part of it. See Barbarous. So Du. Bret. bouche. Muratori. to work at carpentry bangan. tinkle. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. bui. So in Pol. The Italian buio. loosed from bonds. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. bondeau. shackles. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. or putting forth of a vine. a wisp of hay or straw. the young cloth used for sifting flour. The belly or hollow of a sail. The word is flags are made. bunsen. — — . to knock. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. tinker . bonde. Johansen. bag to catch the wind. AS. A load. Burden. . A bubble. a sort of helmet. E. driving in the bung. on. noise. The stopper for the hole in a boia. or tuft. Fr. clogs. to bud forth. dial. To do anything awk- wardly. bou^e. bungande. OFr. coassatio et Du. to bungle. boucher. bongani. are from bouscfie. See Bun. AS. to gingle. whence in bure. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. It. a bung. knocking. dark grey bura. shove . — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. Cot. bondelj bundell. . stilmpern. to stnmi on an instrument. Cat. bove. reddish brown. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. halm-tapp. especially in wood. The Fr. Sw. Bundle. bourguignote. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. B. Bunt. to pype. Bunting. A Dan. russet. the loose open grow big about or gross. to botch.D. on. byrthen. biirde. Bung of a tonne or Lith. See Bourdon. N. buove. to push ghebondte. To burgeon. Sp. bundle. guggle as water. . in is Fr. is originally a wisp or bunch . banga. p. to Somerset is to sift. — btiruii. Sw. Kil. to resound. the stopper of a cask). racket . a cork. The Magy. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. G. Burden. from beran. Biu'geon. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. boj. do a thing bunglingly. to bear. and van t' vat. to bolt meal. to stop. To Bunt. sprig. Sw.' Festus in Diez. and now more Bailey. and the Sw. anchor or of a net boyar. of a song. bondon. however. bondel-loos. or used as a receptacle for papers. See Borel. working in wood (especially with an axe). it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Sp. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . . and E. bon. boei. clumsy performance. Hal.— . a water bubble made by rain. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. Prov. To bunt. bonde. Burganet. Compare G. to cobble. — Bureau. byndel. to work ineffectually. buret. to stop. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. a bunch Burbulas. knocking. colligatio. klempern. bunta. banghagr. that the primitive meaning of shackle . a bungler. bangla. dicimus rufum. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. properly a Burgundian helmet. rumble as the bowels. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. burboloti. and bomme. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. dial. tap. ho-tapp. Palsgr. knock. unskilful working. boil or bubble up.

jest of. lorra. briis^. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. Swiss Rom. E. mockery. borrelen. burgeois. an &c. purrata. a gurgling ^. burgen. OE. dial. Antiq. Dief. de Vaud. sbornoi. A burl. singe or scorch with fire. Bouffer. to swell oneself out as birds borras. bremmen. sea. like straw or small . from the roaring sound of flame. sicut sound. pressa puret. . brimmen. Burly. Pm. Cot. a jest. Prov. to grind on a whetstone. Burglar. knob. a margin. and the Burin. So also Sw. to burn. burgi latro. to puff up borr^ . imitation of the sound of bubbling water. tion of the root which gave the OE. to puff. to surge. — — .bryna. to roar. embraser. explaining the E. Burgess. to fiy. the roaring surge of the — — — . brunna. leo Fin. as the / in purl. to ridicule. Pren7ien. a bladder. Lang. fire. a whetstone. ample of polishing metal. bourglairs.Ps. borujon. to polish helmets. Fr. as in cousteau. burn. to polish. &c. brase. Walach. — — . bruzir. Pr. pur (see Burgeon). compared with G. Bret. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. G. to polish.j'own. Lang. to sharpen on a whetstone. See Berough. bururus. — . A legal term from the Lat. ^ttsa. to swell with pride. brook. as Diefenbach bud. schleiffen. The primary origin of the word. watery. bururus. ends of thread. purra. the flocks. is an Thus G. It. to ridicule. borni.— Pr. brunir. See Burr. to Gael. to make a So from Fin. Schm. de Vaud.or bubbling up. to roar 5. the er is a dresser of cloth. to burn. water. a blaze. Burryn. a wine skin. like.' Cot. has also borr. to roar (as lions. Burn. language of folly or ridicule. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. to tell lies. Burlesque. swell up or strout out. broil. to have acquired the sense of polishing. Compare also Piedm. and the Burnish. See Burgeon.sharpen. brinii. ' rugiens. Probably a modifica. a well. bourd. 122. Fr. bears. From the same root E. condemnentur morti. brun. burly. . See under Bore.. boure. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. Fl. burlare. explaining Sp. blow. bourou. borr. — — . from Lat. to burgen or wax big. to effervesce. a knob. brunnr. N. fires up. brustolare. a bubble to spring as water. crackle wood in burning Hal. to give an edge to. thence. bud or sprout forth. Bav. brustle. a bud. is connected with brim. and OG. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael.. Burler. brynsten. brunnen. ends of thread. From Fr. borracka. Burgh. roguing beggars. bunch. repartee . to murmur. robber. BURNISH i5«r/. a jest. to sharpen.. ridicule. . spring-water bumach. It. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. OE. from bryii. protuberance. to roar. brinnen or Also ein roar. to bud . surge or dashing of the sea . i5«r4 biiirte. The Gael. a bubble. a lie. brinna. Todd. Gael.ireui£r:e. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. In the same way ON. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. the J in OFr. to bourda. brandung. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. laer. taunt..). which has given much trouble to etymologists.. brim or edge of anything. . Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. sidiary element. with little iron nippers called burling irons. 56. joking. to swell. to hum. tumentum. burle of cloth. Burgher. OFr. Goth. — Han to bruser op. as of suggests. like the wind in trees. burren. Sw. burgensis. brasa. abourioner. Supp. is termed burling. j. a prominent eye borracka. toast. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. In the manu. It. G. The in. born.). to set on fire. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. brusler being a faulty spelling. must be explained on the same principle from G. tahkoa. and Dan. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. a spring a robber. to roar. become big and proud. in Schm. buirleadh.— . grancelli.' a jibe. to bouronna. lerre.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Swiss Rom. a fountain. brAler. swelling borr-shuil. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis.). strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. Sw. a purling hiwe brennen. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. A — — . Bav. the word seems Pm. angular . Fr. Probably. boiirre. Hence Bridel. — . ii6 BURGESS Gael. to To Bum. occupying much space. big. with Dan. Limousin bourdo. Fl. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. ^Notk. he rustle. an edge. Castrais bourril. Nat. bouril. to rub. It is probable indeed that Fr. OFr. boura. brima. to roar. brausen. tahko. it of the knots. Sp. ON. barrel. Bestiary. bruse. purling. flocks. warbling.

and. bolgia. OHG. tomb. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. a wallet or scrip. as it is still pronounced in N. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Fr. any rapid whirling biarga. bourse. ultimately resting on the Gael. brista. as in Northumberland. bres- — tan. brast. Sexy. from Fr. brickie. and spelling. Fr. to bury . a purse. . Shelter. a pad. an exchange. borrow. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. barza. briso. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. bris. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. a place of defence. &c. borra. byrgan. Swiss burren. preserve. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. appears under the Lang. a. In OE. to mutter Sw. S w. a purse. . Fr. to hide. but it is more probably a development of It. brittle. shearing of cloth. whirr and burr.— . moss. buscha. bourse. skin. some people in pronouncing the letter r. borsia. The root forms brik. 225. from whence we pass through Sp. birigean. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. brittle. G. It. brist. hair. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. ON. borre. to hide . Cot. any kind of quilting or stuffing. break . brokenharpstringed-like cattle. brokil and brotil. when they spring So in W. cwning-gaer. britar. ' ' — — burren. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. burra. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. a sepulchre. It. Beowulf. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . be more in accordance with AS. borra. makes the disbursements of the college. Burr is related to buzz as protect. shuffling. beurs. Hence Fr. mentioned under Burgeon. OHG. preserve. to burst. bolsa to It. Du. and thence flocks 'of wool. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. save. a morsel. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. Fris. brisdeach. G. purr. casting bullets. -burse. verbergen. burgisli. to break. Dan. and met. coo. See Bulge. brit. byrgen. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. Sw. Port. bristen. a rabbit burrow. byrstan. stuffing. straw. This word seems safety.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. bur. 2. iii.' The same word with burgh. bourrer.. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. With a slightly different ghen. ON. dial. byrigels. that birds make their nests with. . tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. the officer who bears the purse. See Burgeon. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. Sw. shales. brico. Jam. peluca to Fr. force. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . root borr. bristeach. an annular swelling. Hal. to P'air. 5150. the — — castle or fortress. shelter. karborre. swell. explained E. from AS. Compare also OE. bourlet. Burial. byrsa. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. of a body hurled through the air. Brun on bane. leather. borre. AS. borsa. -Grisons bulscha. bris. To Burst. as from Sp. brjota. its own protection. also ' any such trash as chaff. bur. to stuff. byrgels. a port. Burr. brizeto. burial place. as for the protection of a child's head. dial. ber•whirr to whizz. chips or anything else Fl. keep. foretell great storms at 3. Burrow. — Clare. whence Kil. I. In a met. idiom if 4. birr. a harness or collar maker) . briser.' edge grew weak. birgan. to buzz. whirr. burre. brest.Lat. bourrelet. E. signifying protrude. To Bury. ' BURR AS. of England. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. caer is a — — — ' ' : . A rabbit burmotion. brisd. bersten. blurra. fortify. g. Gael. Bursar. briketo. berstan. Du. brist. also all such stuff as hay.' Harris in Todd. impetus. Burse. to save. prsnuti. i5(7&a. borsa. pipaa. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. AS.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. ptcrren. — Translated by Kemble. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. Burse. perruque. a barn or cupboard. bourre. bergen. beorgan. brown. &c. Burser. cover. husks. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. Mid. talk fast and indistinctly. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn.

as boun is simply buinn. Bush. Mid. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. bustellus. beorgan.Lat. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. bunch. The bone in a woman's stays. whente beorg. BUSH hreaw. They busked and malced them boun. is thus accounted for. condere. Sibriht that I of told.— ' ii8 {chreo. See Bust. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook.' The word is explained by — — . OFr. Fr. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. Fris. bousIn the other copy ser. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. brodequin tout noir. brake. cluster. And her ful sone tuft. bustula. a troop. So from Fr. and from the Fr. then a tuft Sp. which would later have truast. that the lend had lorn thorn. Thus Froister . boisseau. 'at bua sik. 410. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. borcegui. whence bouchon. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. a gun biichse. a bunch of twigs. berghen. defence. bousche. . truasc. bush. See Box. protect . we have Fr. a little box Dan. bussellus. Sir Tristram. . and thence Mid. a -tavern bush. roquies. bouche. aheap of stones. preserve. rad. to enclose in a case or box. and not directly (as Du. bairgan. bos. bossen. sur une litifere. The word frequency with which to busk is used. R. -idis. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. for at buasc. or the like. bulk. mount. a tuft. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. Du. tuft. bussare. bush. basse. barst. a box for measuring corn. Layamon. a tuft. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. buskr. boucher. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps.-^Bushel. abdere. besom). a grove bosch van haer. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. from the ON. G. : — . Le roy Richard mort. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. buxula. bussel. bo7ich (Fr. boistel. borghen. at buast. bousse. make ready. bosta. 2. thicket {buski. a rampart.gur bidst austur um EySascog. bramble. to swell. It. The primary sense of hair . Malberg. . buxida. to bury. bundle * Buskin. To prepare. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. bosch (a diminutive ?). to stop. whence at bua sik. fiast. to dress. or — Busk. bundle. ' . boxta. a been written buasc. projection. hjul-bosse. to bow.' sheath. It. —Busk.Lat. clusprobably Morocco leather. signifying to entomb. to direct one's course towards. a bunch. Du. The radical idea is seen in Goth. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. bua. Du. Harold G. a box. ' —P. a bundle. Gr. AS.P. . box wood to bush. . in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. Bush. boissa. to prepare. Sc. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. burial mound. to bend one's steps. ' . lump. buxta. a wisp. bossida. qualster-boscken.' The buskin is said Bret. bosc. thicket of thorns . and we actually find bushel. Prov. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . AS. iriCtf -ifoe. busken. ' .) to hide in the ground. Thence byrigean. knot. Ptg. tow. hunch Du. the Moors and of Morocco. . brodiquin. a corpse). Brunne. in the For Skirnis . borseof trees. in OE. as synonymous with to inake one boun. to keep. Bouchet. In to Brutaine. diminutives. busse. oneself. at bua sig. ch). a hump. boiste. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bulge. Brunne. to forest of Eyda. the past participle of the same verb bua. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. the land.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. a bush. a box. to dress. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. van wijnbesien. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. a tuft of hair. a bush. bausen. verb. induere vestes . to sepulchre.' a box. il fut couch6 l^jkema). busk. ' . OFr. buysschen. biichse. ieorh. Sw.boisteau. grapes. dead. a tuft guini. the idea of knocking. wisp. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. and he cites wisp bauschen. apparently a secondary verb. barsc in Heimskringla. basse. a clot of phlegm sart. occultare K. to turn.fiasc. To Busk. gave Lat.

— clattering about. ' BUSY 2. to bustle. a fishing vessel. tuft. utarda. bus. bukr. says. body. bussa. Cot. betarda. buz. 10. a kiss. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. brostia as well as bostia. forms morseqiiill. lip. ^A. bisg.' ON. ottarda. To hurry or make a great B. bus. mouth. stem. otarda. trunk. putta. buquer. Fr. Hence probably au-tarda. signifying trunk of a the body. bruskras well as buskr. The form brust. hipista.). a mouth. a bush. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. 2. worn to make the body straight . the body without arms busque. bust. would explain the G. knock. body . Lang. abutarda. also a flagon. basiuin. busto. Pol. — hardly be distinct from Fr. bussen. fe^a. a blow. B. plated body or other quilted thing. sunt quas Hispania aves . a blow. or Cherqui. lump. a log. Busitiess :c3iVi . ViM. busc. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . Bustard. body of a woman's dress It. bucha. buta. The proceedings of Parliament.Lat. Nained from Proximse iis zia. a boat or small vessel . speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. A great sluggish fowl. beezig. outard. busq. Fris. Comp. A A busquer (Sigart). Gael. a ship of some size. Namur — Champagne Fr. but. stump. With respect to bust. a bust. an ostrich. body without arms and legs. Bav. also a busk. a large cljest or particular applibox. especially of a woman's dress. buyse. 2l box. Fr. mons. — Thus we should have mocherqui. kiss. busche. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. arbor ramis trunGloss. bulk. small. 119 bi{tr. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. ' bistardej It. also a It. Prov. body of a man. snout. To Bustle. smack. a kiss. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. to Swab. as in moharra from harbe. work. mohedairova. an affair. Port. mouth. kiss. or avutarda.d.pjik. trunk of Cot. ON. a busk. lips.' Plin. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. cata — . the long. bustla. a bulk or trunk without a head. BUSS Dozy from Arab. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. — — difications of the same word. On the other hand. body. abotarda. the point of a lance. to make a splash in the water. a tree. buc. Xerqui. beso.bezig. baiser. to occupy. morsequi. bysgian. a great billet Cot. — — — — It is like the smouldering. geidha. Sp. bnist. Bust. trunk. bysgje. the breast. Swiss butschen. — . chest. Sp. a. buc. a kiss. . a kiss of reverence. 1372. austarda. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. I bustle. body of garment. outarde. Sp. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. Rouchi. Prov. biist. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. ship Sp. knock. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. its slowness of flight. bisgung. the trunk. trunk of a tree. a sleeveless truss or doublet. inde discurro et operosus sum. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. besoigAe. Busy. I go strepo) . business. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. sera. busy. Business. bust. busch. a projection. representing a blow. borcegui. Cat. busta. windbutsch.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. to make use of. bacio. statue of the upper part of Fr. avuDiez. and also a sounding blow. butz. bisegung. Bust. a stroke of wind. forest. busch. bist. made stiff. mosequin. to knock . Bulch. bus and Pol. . occupation. occupied bezigen. and by transposition morchequi. employment bisgan. crack . Buss. Lat. buc. as in ON. a backstock. in Diaz Gris. mogangas from gonj. of a doublet.> Also written buskle. log . I. and then with avis again prefixed. Sw. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. 7o\. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. Lindenbr. Busk. A wisp. So in Fin. Box. a Mid. tarda. kupata. btcc. Fr. of the human body (Grandg. putschen. besongne. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. pussa. Walach. I. bu. love gestures. Hal. thick end. stump. Edrtst. ON. So Wes- terwald munds. stir. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. biseg. Fr. AS. vessel employed in the herring fishery. and supposes that the common Arab. or chest in which the vitals are contained. See Boss. Du. The Prov.— . box. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. from jnund. brusc. Fl. 22. 1555. a bunch of flowers .D. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. lip. Prov. brut. then trunk of respect to busk we have on.

' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. bitlga. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. a butchery. beyond the Piedm. mais. large barrel. without the house kept in bottles. in addition. bouteillier. Fr.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. ' There is leathern bottle. bouz. bochier. rumpf. bounds of. besides that . but Benjamin has a five-fold But. is put in a class by himself. gives at least two pounds sterling. the body of a tree or of a man. equivalent of AS. buta. a baiTel . is well explained by Tooke. viz. Ben-house. Prov. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. the precise correlative of but. and with It. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. Sp. Buttery. belly. Where at an earthen jar . without. calf. bol. moreover. which the word corresponds to the Fr. botija. boccino. hull of a ship. But In Sc. bhcciero. the principal apartment. The E. properly a butan wite. bodifie. earthen which the debtor has adverted. a budget. Whatever is in addition to Butler. bola. a leathern bag. a butcher. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. Du.' there is really a negation to be supplied. boquier. Fr. botilla. Wall. a cask. the present day we should say.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. . a barrel. plain the conjunction as signifying boot.' ' write. the store of ten. a bottle. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. Butcher. rotundity of the body.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. butan ce. the servant in charge of the original object. a goat. — we acle for liquors. that which would be translated by Fr. bolr. body of a shirt w. Here the but implies the existence of an. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. beccaria. to-boot. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. boteria. as Pantler. those in beccaio. but one thing. from as. and bot.' — — ' . except. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. "PLT) . sup- meat and drink. a butcher . belly. — . inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. binnan. viz. botte. biitait slaughterer of goats . without buiten-man. being wholly unten. bountifully. bocin. then hoUow trunk. an outlaw from bouche. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. belly. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . . The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. without punishment . Butt. similar train of thought is seen in ON. ox. and the real origin of the and within . the full expres. bag. Fr. the body of an animal. the jug and in E. Sp. outside that moreover. trunk. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. Lang. ways. bous. It. the mouth)._ bitten j biiten door. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. A A . bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. wooden receptthing to be done. As a conjunction but is in every portion. calf of the ' say. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out.in which his brethren are included. But It. skin-bag. bisgung. Lang. or what in in charge of the pantry. beta. add. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. collection of casks. young mais. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors .' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. beccaro.The Sp. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben.' Thus Chaucer says. the bottles. hollow case. without care. AS. the name must have arisen before the within. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. tinction between but. bute. the Perhaps besogne — . Butler.streets. bolgia. we find ben. be out. without law. a wooden cask. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. (children) boc. slaughter-house. by the mode in which he is treated. also a hollow vessel . Tooke's dis. Sp. bout. original sense of without. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. are. the trunk or body of an animal. OFr. the belly. bitten dai. able. ' Besides all that. But when will you pay it ? the belly.jamin. my is called the adversative use of but. If that where now we should compiler. G. butan. a small winebag. boucher. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. barriga. of the wine and drink. from boc. bole of a tree. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. a goat (and not besides . So in Italian from becco. ont jhi^ton.

bodi. botten. a boss. Perhaps corrupted Lat. to thrust . a boss. * Buxom. bouton. by boE. a ribbed glass for dient. put. From Grisons biitt. boter-vogel. obedient. the Butter-fly. Sp. W. to thrust. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. bothog. a mound of turf in a field to sup. thrust. i. butter. large head. in the R. butt of a person. pwtiaw. an ox. tress. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. obeto shake backwards and forwards. It. or person Schmeller . aim whence to make a support to a wall. An erection built up as a Fr. a cask. a blow. stump. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. boiUer. Halma. as if from Povg. any short thick thing. botwm. buttock of beef is called butr. bout. a blow.' thick from shaking. To strike with the head bags. bot. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris.against another which needs support . boter-vliege. To Butt. to thrust Fr. Kil.to push. Fr. R. pied. an etwas anstossen. See Butler. gigot. hillock . botta. botto. the store of while bottich. Fr. thrust forwards. bot blijven staan. from stossen. boter-schijte. clumsy . Schmell. ment being supposed to resemble butter. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. of the present day. geboogsaem. potacha. a barrel. &c. butz. courtaud.thum and not button. Du. waste ground. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. w. Fr. to push earth . farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . W. a flying buttress. Cot. coxa. boding. Buttery. butte. a. to thrust. butter un. Buttock. thick. Gr. Btetter-schmalz. a stroke di animal. Du. both. a bot. Du. Bav. bouter. and the true derivation boar. The word body itself seems identical with G. to cast. A — — — .putan. Kil. so as to make a sounding blow. the rosebud. bocsam. Grandg. e. bouter. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. the edge forwards. pwt. submit shaking up salad sauce. buhsom. of E. striking end. end . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. to femur. from the large knobbed head of botto. Fr. butteln. a button. at. to abut a stone roof. Bav. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. butter. bocgsuin. botta. Butter. rabodd. bout. strike. a corner horses' hoofs. lams-bout. Fr. — . : . AS.— BUTT leg . BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. on. to thrust. to blad. Hal. — A . butyrum. to abut on. botte. From the noise of drinkables in a house. poke. to heap up earth or ihrust. a wall butor butt on. a thrust the thigh-bone. fle>(ible. dripping. bott. — A . to strike. bodi'. boutoir. buter. boil. Fr. Du. a bun. a little push . oir spike with a k coup . from notirrir. a stump or club foot. a buttrice. a dle . . signify a cask or tub. is formed the augmentative buttatich. . bouton. able that Chaucer. fowl. to butt. tout seat or breech. what is kept in a blow. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. but. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. clunis. Boutje. leg of lamb. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. any small projection. butt. boteria. bata. a scope. bot. the trunk. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. . nourrissons.. — — — — . but this is probably from Fr. povrvpov. — . humble. Buttress. boutis.rejected thing. a leg of mutton. Lang. bottig. give way. as rejeton. to so close to the Fr. Hal. a button. from bugan. nursling. Gael. So in English pimples were fora clod. -ez. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. Fris. buttern. a button. To come full butt against a butts. The Bavarian potig. Fr. buttals. as in G. the prick in the middle of a target. short thick thing pimple. to boult flour. caput scapula bout van f been. trapu. a large belly. butt. a heap of merly called pushes. Gris. grease that sets by merely standing. Bout van het schouderIt. Schmell. Butter-glass. suddenly . a tub. a hill. then the thigh or leg of an to push . from rejeter. Button. a. Kil. stump of a tree Fr. to be con. From Du. a but in the W. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. to touch at the end. bud. &c. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . having a rotundity . Du. from bouter. a bolt. a buttress Cot. to throw . buttare. G.arbre. bottich.. are the strips at the edges of the field. butte. the thigh of a goose. or or shore post. Buttrice. Boutant. Buttel-triib. Mur-buttant. the thick end. to bow. butt. nourrisson. a mound.

abozzago.— P. By-law. tions by one. to sell. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. Verstegan in R. to purchase for money. bylag. See Abie. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. a buzzard or puttock. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. Du. A ful benygne buirde. 116. Lat. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. ON. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. as heedless as a cock-chafer. Cabal. Buzzard.. . 21. to jan. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness.— Diet. to pass by. depends upon a esteem in falconry. . Many good mological explanation. confusedly. and would have been lost in E. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. son. . groat in token of his good heart towards him. p. byr.P. & Q. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . 519. To Buy. Byre. —gracious of speech.busardj Prov. and boxome of speche xviii. favourable. a meke thynge with — alle. as in Da.in N. favourably to a petition. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. buzarg. \s\xy. from by. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. 200. bycgan. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. as Fr. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. who makes abigg. 3. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Dan. buzac. A A We — — — days' wonder. G. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. bij. Mercy hight that mayde. bauhta. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. bei. to buzz. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. Then applied to speaking low. Sw. from whom it was addressed.. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. bohte. bees. a by-path is a side path . lete. blessing me with their of side. to whisper. bugjan. bygge. a beetle. P. ii. bylove. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. buteoj Fr. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). byar-log. to swear with him by . but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. OE. Etynj. A by. iii. The ON. bozzago. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. gracious. Pecock Repressor. a borough. indistinctly. cow-house. and it is of good will. The sense of buxom. byar-rettr. AS. called Cabala or Tradition. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. big. It. bar. buzzicare. — 122 BUY P. buso. also say. It. train of thought which has become obso. frabttg- To Buzz. good-humoured one. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. stall. leges urbanse ON. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. a town. farm. bi. Originally the law of a particular town. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. AS. CABAL Goth. town having separate jurisdiction. bi. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. to stand at his side . harty prayers and God speedes. jus municipii. lb. Sw. Goth. village. to wit.

To Cabbage. Neckam — by the wind. from trabocco. a rope. aak! tandi like Fr. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to .Lat. is probably unconnected. headed. come the Fr. cabacho. cadabula. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. calabre. the Slavonian. to hurl in Nat. gaggele. stercus. Cappa in OSp. Cablisb. giiare. From It. cadabalum.. kabane. mdhaigner. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. Cot. as Turk. vile. overwhelm (Diet. (ca/coe. overwhelm. band. to hurl down. — Tarbe. It. 'habl. — . maim. gabardme. cabuyskoole. agga. dung. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. a jacket Fr. su/Furari. capuccio. forms indi. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. caqueter. cabas. dirty. It. a headed cole or cabbage . OFr. cdble. disgust. to keep or Du. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. to strain in such a manner . brassica — capitata. precisely in the sense of the lari E. Brushwood — — B. kakaloH. heady. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. It. Antiq. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. hut. Fr. kabas. and a cabal is a conclave of persons.Gr. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. a rope or cable.). Tugurium. kakla. Fr. Fr. cabuccio. a head (whence cabochard. cabulus. a rope. a tunic. cadabulum. cab lis. kabat. dirt and the Fr. caable. The Sp. cabre. OSp. It. cab. vincially used in E. cabaii. chaable. a car- We convasare. Very generally used. Coticesserint Swiss aa. to crush. serious injury — In like manner It. dirty. laitue cabusse. Finn. whence Lang. Celtic. as Diez supposes). caable (in legal language). Katr-iT-aKt.' Due. has kabbel. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . Due.ticula. case. Du. kabaSsen. and Ptg. hovel. head. to put or pack up in a frail. . Capstan. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. disgust cac. the bowels. Cabbage. covering. E. Fr. Lang. — Ibid. deponat a store closet. ! — . Imitative of the cry of hens. and Finnish lanLat. — Kil.Lat. havyar to caviare. in which sense are explained The the OFr. geese. cabre. nasty. OFr. or as an interjection of disMod. Castr. ceach / exclamation of guages. . scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. It is remarkable that the Esthon. : — from violence without blood. especially shepherd's frock. Common to Lat. hoard together. filth. form kactal. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. agge machen (in nurses' language). aakkat'a. and as we find stones Mid. or rush basket. cabus. a covering. from manganum. cabo. cabbage. a rope. capanna. cacare . signifies down. properly windfalls. . &c. a cabbage . traboccare.. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. wilful). Cabinet. string. Cabin. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus .Lat. Mid. for the origin of which see Carabine. cacare. prostratio ad terram. as an expression of Gr. caable. Gaggle. a booth or hut. whence Fr. The double a in the OFr. . caables. OFr. cabo. E. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. an engine for casting stones. Mid. lactuca capitata. &c. akista. originally an Gael. Ptg. Sp. bad. accablcr. . Item habeat vocant. Sp. cables. Lith. cable . or cadable. — . cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. cabarino. it would seem fundain children's language. Mid. Fr. gaban.. Choux cabus. w. cabasser. aeggi. round or great headed. manticuKil. manganare. capo. would correspond to cable. main. cadabola. surripere. name of the projectile engine. and Or. headed or cabbage lettuce. cabane. agge. caboche. signifying properly a rope's end.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. a cloak of felt or Cack. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez.. origin is the OFr. To steal or pocket. Etym. Didot. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. —Diet. gatsch. disgusting such an engine was exerted. — the ON. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. chabla. Lat. and the Arab. as it must have stood in French. chaable. Du. a shed. the Prov. . Sw. ckaable. The name of the engine. Du. Cot. a frail. cadabulum. Due. gaggi. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. chadabula. to chatter. Kil.

wanton. to cage. on. Calf of the Leg. It. Sw. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. ' . from Gr. its mother. * Calibre. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. calcis. Calash. Cadaverous. calx. Cake. gabbia. a car. . kolesb. Fr. a lump or large piece. Perhaps from w. Sw. misfortune. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. a wheel . colibro. (in the augm. an ugly waggon kolaska. Pol. G. coop. Caldron. whence Lat.— Cot. a wheel . pi. Roman reckoning. Sp. — — — Dan. Lat. Du. unruly . —Atkinson. cadenza. lord. when they are said to poor. Flo. for green fields. See Kiddier. A — fall. gabbia. kat. to compute. calendrer. calba. chaudiere. calamus. kaad. Cadet. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Turk. B. Cadence. It. chattering. pen Mod. Lat. kalfvan hout. — in a kiln. . pith. a waggon . Russ. a reed. Tea-caddy. a common cart. pet lamb. gabberen is identical with E. ON. Calc-. Fr. It is another form of the E. dead body. cage.— Calliper. cadence. cake. Gael. calessa. kdtr. to heat. kolo. Lat. * Cade. joyous . from calculus. from the Chinese catty. one unduly indulged by. Originally from a Slavonic source. the pi. an inkstand . Sp. to treat like lime. a vessel for heating water. boy. the bore of a cannon. The Calf. kolyaska. A . jabber. hence musical rhythm. calibre. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. lime whence calcareous. caldaria. gavia. kukje. From lerie. caioler. capCalenture. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. As Du. Dan. Lat. bad . the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. caldarius. kaeckelenj Gr. Lat. lindrus. kalfi. just falling. calamitas. caliche. Lat. a tea-chest. cabdillo. cadere. a small stone. to throw themselves into the sea. Cot. Sw. Caitiff. G. gabble. a caFr.Gr. a hollow place. of which. Lat. Lat. Calocli. from calendcE. to cackle . calentar. babbhng. the younger son of a family said to be from . Cajol. a counter used in casting accounts. limestone. It. so gabble corresponds with Fr. KaKKat. to prate much to little purpose. hot. To Calender. ever and anon. reed-pen.warmth . cage. cavea. Cadge*. calesa. a falling. kolo. KxiKivh^o^. the calf of the leg. . . a calesh. kalem. Caddy. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. The Lat. . without loss. It. gaggle. little chief. Mrs B. of oxen and similar animals. frisky. naXaiidpi. calibre. roller. dial. calidus. disease of sailors from tivus). kuchen. prate. from the ink-bag which it contains. rattaat (wheels). a wheel. calf of leg. kolasa. kola. a low note. Fr. Calandre. A hooded carriage. a fever. chaudron. capitetum. Fr. a loaf of bread. incolumis. cattivo (from Lat. a roller. cauldron. taking it Sp. of the nature of lime to calcine. a wretch. Lat. desire of land. loss. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Calamity. collop. to sleek hence a den. cykevie. kage. Fr. master. kaka. ratas. and troublesomely attached to. kdfich. Lat. kolo. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. In the same way Fin. to . Du. wretched. a mischievous dial. Fr. kakulla. Fr. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. frolicsome kaad mund. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. cadet. a calash . Due. Cage. cageoler. kauwe. kalb. Dan. loss. It. calendarium. kolyasochka.uv. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. signifies a waggon. javioler. The young G. to — Fr. a dence. cha'cmie cadence. En kaka br'od. Calendar. a corpse. Serv. N. koeck. or colpa na coise. Du. Lat. ben- kalf. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. whence calash. gaggia. calculo. &c. Cot. calpa. a cake or loaf. especially of something soft. Calp is riadh. Arab. Turk.— . a wheel . chetif. hot . is probably delusive. a circle. Gascon capdet. cadaver. coll. to gabble. A cuttle-fish. Cauldron. To Cajole. marrow. a cylinder. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). or prattle. 124 prattle . principal and interest. An open travelling chariot. calidus. Calamary. kolesnitza. Sp. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. form) calderone. Du. the lump and the increase. safe. cuttle-fish. It. the pith or soft part of wood. Cot. captive. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Fr. or smooth Hnen cloth. kail. Calcialate. calentura.

* Caliver. Mil. Gael. To Calk. the scalp or skull. Kil. brawny. calgua. diameter of a ball. Bi.' Slange. faint. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. or mould. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. dragonder. cauma. — Fl. — — — — — . whehce it was first brought. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship.' But it is hard Du. a round of abuse. the hard surface of the ground. a soldier who the It. gossiping. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. harden by pressure. Mid. to callet. oldire from audire. ram. kal.' Whitby Gl. tapulta. to prattle. According to Jal (Gl. to proclaim. Indies.' Chaucer. qAlab. the Fr. them &c. Du. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. culverin. Gr.position is much less common than the geschut.. to hear. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. of the bore of a firearm met. water-tight. quality. The primitive colubrina bombarda. can be distinct from ODu. from Calicut in the E. Hard. a good calling. harquebus or handgun. quA librd. Unfledged. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. The word was also written cawme in OE. skin hardened by labour. quiet. calme. people's remarks. Ibid. sestus. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. form. try. to calk. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. a last. caliver. Sir John Smith in Grose. Among these were the turn. Diez. Fr. To drive tow or oakham. push violently. kol. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. nautique). done with heat Alt. licht stuk The change from a. by many that the weapon Callous. calare. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). to affirm. a feathers.Lat. glotton. 125 Prov. CALICO Calliper-compasses. chatter kallen. B. but is only a jda-kallo. Caliph. drive. a. heat. or caliever. scalmato. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. coluber also. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. To century was Squalibre. vulgo Coluvrine. Fr. calo. . which is as much as to say. to be of a good or bad quality. So It. saucy. whereas in troth it is not. calcaich. femme frivole et babillarde. Fr. a successor. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. faint. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. piece of bigger circuite. The reference to heat is preserved in. hollaing.en~ kinds of firearms. or languishing drought is . calibre. moso. Fr. Mahn derives it from Lat. calor.(jaa= ice). Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon.' Winter's Tale. calclover. caluw. caillette. to burn.— . Calico. calvus. to cram. depreciatory term for a woman. NE. colubraria canna. hot. ululo Turk. however. Lang. calca. cauque. sound. coulevrine. alta voce ploro. i. coluber. kael. calk. Call. It. — — — — — . cahna. calicot. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word.meaning of the word. Diet. sclopus. Sp. to call. Fin. the heat of Now these Du. to rail or scold . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). having a thick skin. kal. form in the kalib. calma. kahcwe. and heat. which has its memory preserved in Du. Dief. E. Derived by some from Arab. and E. Sp. Fin. Kil. The origin is Gr. on. Sc. serpens. overscalmaccio. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. scold. u to an I in such a colubrum. ' rine. a drab. bald. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. Callow. kalla. Ptg. Lat. kil-u-kal. calc. the latter of chamber. ' pert. Calm. colubrina. calma. couleuvre. khalif. 'A callet of boundless tongue. of a column. callum. serpentina. voice. given. CALM to press or stuff. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . to abuse . longior. moist. overheated. heat. calcare. prattle. chatter. to say. dragoon. koluvre. to call. fistula. Lat. KaXka. hallottaa. dial. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. * Callet. an adder. . Heb. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . and dragon. To call. trull. the day. calibre. calat of leude demeaning. calleting. cotton cloth. Due. Turk. Ca. kind heat of the sun.from Ka'tm. sence of wind. and sometimes a handgun. the Fr. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. whence couleuv. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. klover. word of mouth . abto suppose that E. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. callus. to tread. Sup. tittle-tattle. Antiq. Kavfia. donderbuchs Sp. bombarda Cauma incendium.piicede Lat. kallo. AS.

lie level. Lat. callour. KafitjUe. aged. Properly calver in the field during a war. camafeo. the heat. An eater of human flesh. toile some of whom. Fr. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Fr. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. lame. calj'x. cambre. candela. canalis. camp. Fr. Canibal. crooked. calls them Cannibals or Caribees._ kamm. a caught. campaign. Campaign. campren. Pers. arched. sugar. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. a piece.' Forme of Cury in Way. Lat. the space of false imputation. had no r in de bric— Cot. Sp. callar. Bret.— Chandelier. cambren.— Hackluyt in R. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. the bed of a stream. camber-nosed. Fr. From campus was formed Lat. samon. India Islands. . a large drinking . sugar in pieces or lumps khand. Palsgr. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. A — the Cannibals. — Lat. Cambric. is Cambering. a crab. It. cancello. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. Lat. cere : Lat. Gr. lattice. arch. canis. campus. higher in the middle than Fr. salmon.who their language. Or the word Lat. to glow.Gr.— B. Arab. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. white. the type of a hollow pipe. a field Greek monk. open and level ground. from xaXbg. canistrum. KafivTu. to bend. w. . Fr. Candy. cambrer.—Jam. to the force of the wind. The Grisons cauina. Cambray. properly good country. Cambrel. crook. Calver of cane. It. slander. camisade. Candid. It. Cancer. ation. camiscieia. Ptg. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. hooked.conduit-pipe. spot for cattle. fair. Sp. camelot. calutmiia.' ' Quhen a lattice. to avoid enemy in their shirts. water chamlet . also an eatmg sore.—Cambrel. the calix. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Lat. and yspiuv. the salmondis faillis thair loup. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. brought from Fr. It was distinfrom work. B. Canker. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Gr. unwater chamelot . catmneo. Peter Martyr. whence Fr. camisa. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. would plenier. It. kanna. a dog. It. Canine. to bow. Camel. campagna. Camisade. Sanson khanda. a' Sc. crooked-stick. crooked. E. died in 1526. cambr^. monk. — — — A — — escume de saumon. It. Lat. In a different application It. candidus. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. camiscia. Fr. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. mg Canister. to break. a goblet bud. Mid. canna. Mod. paign. whence the Fr. from candere. B. good. Camp. nia. cancer. Cameo. camahutus. campo. fresh. camelus. cup. Sp.—Candidate. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. campo. Fr. aspirant. camaien. is Candle. a. — Cancel. E. bis. Fr. different sections of the like the Chinese. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. ko/utuXoc. a. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. to bend. sore. co7nbar. cainahelus. E. cup. cAouma. Cot. a may have acquired that signification from plain. arched..Lat. a basket. Cambrav—Cam. icaSoytipoe. frank and sincandidatus. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. — B. when its substance appears inter. at the ends. ckaouma. to warp. campagna. Cann. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. From fluting or furrow in a column . se cameloter. or hollow of a flower. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. or Caribs. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. crooked. champagne. chaitcre. having an aquiline nose. Lat. Caloyer. chommer. on. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Turk. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Camlet. campagne. chamold man. to jut. See Canker. across — Bellenden in Jam. Calyx. clothed in white. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Canal Channel. an eating. field . cam^e. champ. Lat. chandelle. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Kakoycpos.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. Calumny. whence the noun signifying an applicant. the spersed with white flakes like curd.

cane. Gael. leiwan kanta. shut. Fr. is found languages of very different stocks. kyndel. from cant. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. kq. Cot. &c. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. capace. KCLvva. cannone. Canteen. Swab. Cantle. able to receive. border. a ship canot. kand. a pipe. a wine-cellar or vault.n. name. But it may be different source. a ruler. and met. to shut. rumme. A . Kil. Fin. properly a large Prov. being a yard or thereabouts . Canoe. Germanis kdppen. Sp. like a torch or candle. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. It. canevas. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a side. gnat. Probably only the augmentative of canto. ON. also a measure. Kavt\. a torch. root cap. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. to put upon sacred writers. Capari. chantel. It. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. was formed Kavtiiv. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. coarse hempen cloth Fr. call. Canvas. quito curtain. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. margo panis diffracta. Goldast — in in Schmid. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. Fr. regular. See Chape. canonici. . quarter. Du. Mod. From Gr. Fr. a cap. Schwab.CANNEL vessel. To Canonise. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. as. Canton. cape. edge. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Of vena cava and of vena porta. The meserseum and the mesentericum. It. trine.^on. Hence Lat. kwvwxIi. quarter . kanta. It. . cannu. a cloak kapali. a hunch of bread. canapaccia. It. to con- rummer. side. It. cannevo. Alamannis. the heel. cane. region. a cane. a reed. a — A — Cannel Coal. See Capt-. a cover Turk. Sp. canton. chanteau. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. Cannoii. or cantell of bread. chape. he discourseth of dissection. a Fr. a horn of the moon . Gugel. cannabis. tain. to sing. a scull- — here. capevole. a tube. the tried list of saints. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. hood. If the word had been from cantherius. cantone. OFr. schlapp. cover . a hundred. kynnel. capax. hamlet. cappa. To canvas — . can. from canna. cannevaccia. Cope. The — . Wtb. . Coal burning with bright flame. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. cappe. KaTTiram. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. cantref. cane. cantina. Jonson. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. contain. pipe. W. corner. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Esthon. coat. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. which is not the case. language. Mod. A slow gallop. capa. kandt-broodts. kapamak. it would have been found in the continental languages. canoa. say. Palsgr. haitt. a rule or standard of excellence. from . a reed. carcase . hemp. signifying cover. cheese. as a cantle of bread. a cantle of bread. N. hemp.. cope. territorial hundred. cantred. part. to contain. or hold. Picard. &c. the heel. Canon. from a Canter. speech. B. measure for cloth. the part easiest broken off. Cant. and hence a gobbet. Capacious. Canopy. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. from Dan. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. canonicus.Gr. a small boat. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. a cloak. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise.Gr. canto. a door . canapa. . a drinking glass. coarse hemp. clqse. cantle then is a corner of a thing. canteau. cainnt. astrology. a gelding. From Lat. border Dan. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. canvas. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. Again we have Lat. a division of a country. covered.— Cot. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a boat. Prov. schlappen. Diez. Sp. has kahn. caparazon. the quartile. and the sex- &c. canon. and tref. kantr. a straight rod. To his judicial And trowl the tile. that the G. capello Italis. hirnschlapple. Lat. lump. cappe. cover kapi. cane. kaput. Cape. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Capable. It. A piece of anything. a corner.

p. Arab. Sp. shrub. end. Unexpected pleasure. It. frizzle. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. according to the Hindoos. to crackle. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. of a tremtdoiis sound. greziller. frisson- ner . they longed extremely to see it. as Fr. and 7tucc. rissoler. Fr. also the capriole. Griller d'im' patience. brisoler. s'hdrisser. grisser. sault. with joy' Vikram.) d'etre The It. To treat Capitulate. capitalis. upon terms Sp. It. gricciare. as Fr. or. alcaparra. chief. to shudder. brug. wriggle. to broil.' Cot. A . cut. It. brissle. or goat's leap (done by a horse). fansuddenly angry. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. See Chief. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. Cot. curly. to shiver. Fr. Lat. the hair to stand on end. Fr. castrated cock. prickly husk of chestnut. Mod. a hedge-hog. where Burton adds in a note. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. CAPRICE twittering. arricciarsi. and his body bristled We to castrate. brisciare. frisser {frissement d'un trait. shivering. cover of a saddle. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. or other things. shivering. cut off. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . bristling. a caper in dancing. w. to twitter as birds. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. herissonnement. . hair. And similarly to yearn. hedge-hog.'— Trev. a . gives rise to brezza. Acad. a yearning through sudden fear. frort^Lat. compared with Bret. A headland. humorous. a young kid met. chattering of the teeth. belonging to From caput. brisciare. a buck. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. of a fowl. a little head. It.— 128 CAPE a rustling. algabr. II bresole (Gl. a chevret. as in Lat. ^piKos. It. capriola. It is probable that Gr. the head. birsle. to . capro. a separate division of a matter. — to yearne. capparis. Hal. Caper. It. kid. gives rise to Sc. grisser. as the means of earning profit. then to shiver or shudder.) grezille marid. then to be in a state of vibration. Genevese bresoler. knis-hujwud . the principal part of the debt. then find the symptoms of shivering. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. hi.). capriol or caper in dancing. the head. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle.Gr. gricciare. caj)o. ericius. Lat. and OHG. erica. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. Lang. Hair-like. aggricciare. Lat. the initial mute of forms like Gr. a goat. It. brezilia. or Lat. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. It. the singing'bone). of a coach. to ruffle the surface of water. capar. 75. Fr. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. a capriol. bristling. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. curl. abridge amKoTroq. Fl. roughening of the skin. the hair to stand on end. So from Sw. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. Lat. The true derivation lies in a different direction. cappriccio. a caterpillar. Capers. arricciarsi. ziki. Capillary. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. grillcr. I have shivered with love. Torriano. heath. knis. to from capitulum. capillus. castrated. caper j caprio. caprice It. capitulare. riccio. greziller. to shiver for cold. curling. for which he cites the Comask nucia. rihrczzoso. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. Caprice. Capital. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. Hence capitalis the sum lent. eruca compared with It. airoKOTrrw. h^risser. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. ribrezzo. bruco. caprice. a head. a kid.standing on end. capriole. principal. to crackle.' — (Supp. cApre. or represented by the syllable e. horror. is either wholly lost. toy. to desire earnestly. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . G^' Many words — ' ndv. ticchio. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. to broil.impressions on the ear. as Fr. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. <I>pi'?oe. — — A a hair. grug. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. frissoner. and with an initial gr instead of br. explained by Diez from capra. to parch. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. The same imitation of Capon. brisciare. crackling sound Cape. to fry. horripilation. a ch illness.— Fl.

to this is It. capra. Passing on into E. recipio. deceit. Neumann. Carry. recibir. — — Capstan. bock. concept. caput. a hooded friar. also to carry on a car . Fl. a cloke) capuccino. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. &c. Capstern. — —Diet. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. conception. 129 — receive. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. to carry . dim. Lat. a taking back. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. calabrino. Fr. kerren. tnoschetta. Sp. or the (capo-riccio). and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull.). was originally a missile . charret. oisr. to creak. Fin. captus. a capuchin. It. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. Carbine. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. di cappa. and has accordingly been lost in E. cabestrantej Fr. Nordfoss. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. caricare. where it forms a very large class of compounds. to accept. Fr. i The meaning Car. Lat. concipere. recepte. as in accipio. to take to. karista. Cart. was converted into -ceb. of capsa. Kiittner. karren. to please. The It. sels. cabestan. capuccio. a she-goat. Thus the musket. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. chirrion. shivering fit (Altieri). originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. a sudden will. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. -cept. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. Captain. from head. to load . the p was commonly not pronounced in French. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. recipere. char. karra. also a kind of rack. precept. a head man. capsula. OSp. a coffer. conceit. an engine for throwing stones. recevoir. Capsule.of these compound verbs. Fr. trestle. verbs gives rise to the element . as the dragoons (Du. chirriar. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. chevre.or -cib-. acceptus. Du. capp%tccio. In the S. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. however. carro. deception. as in OFr. Capuchin. carabin. the -cevofthe Fr. G. concebir. a fantastical humour. was a kind of horse soldier.s. Fr. a windlass. of the Sp. to take. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. &c. It. capio. Castr. hold. -ceive. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. caThe hrestante. to take baclc. a sudden fear apprehended. carretta. cabreia. Capt-. capitis. desire. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. perceive. Lat. caprice. cabrestante (whence e. Carabine. fantastic. a cart. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. a sawing-block or trestles. seize. receptus. to receive receptio. to creak. one odd. captivate. It is a standing crab. capitano. a. a creaking waggon. Cot. It. a hood (dim. . Derivatives are Fr. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. de- price. fancy. concevoir. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. It. karrende waegen. crab s. and tropically. crepo. Etym. It. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Fr. whence capture. latterly. commander. Du. Crab. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Carabin. Sp. See Caper. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. In cases. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. It. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. at least. intercept. cams. cabra. captive. contain. Fr. &c. -cept. charger. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. a reception. accept. decepte.. and of captus to an e. Fr. a kind of torture. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. calabrin. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. charrier. krul. Lat. It. case. Cot. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. box. conceive.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). also tresFl. strideo. Capriole..). except. and has thus descended unaltered to English. a. Caseneuve in Diet.

Sp. caraffe. a snail. Arab. decanter. car. Pers. Carbuncle. wine- bottle. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. — seems to be something holding together. An implement for dressing wool. Carcax. . to curry horses karsztuwas. also a small weight. a wool card. a coffer. restraint . for a gun. bock and Fr. Sp. Bohem. AS. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. a crane. a collar or chain for the neck. Carbonaceous. a battering-ram). to creak. kerwan.Gr. a kind of ship. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. avSpaS. coming to four grains. turn of a horse. the shell of a torcarcasso. to card wool. mural attack. From the battering-ram. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. a quiver . Gr. See Carpenter. cabreia. Carat. wool card. shell. the name might naturally Mod. copperas. W. Gael. caracal. karra. ' Vasa vitrea. the case of the flesh. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . garafa. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. a dead carcase. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. a winding staircase. carbh. karri. Cot. seed of carob. a goat. carbo. a prison. Sp. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. a machine for casting large darts. Lat. caraffa. cerran. carcame. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. .. &c. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. quilato. to card wool. carere. Derived in the first edition from Mod. «capa'|8i. confining.. Cot. carta. casso. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. Fr. quse vocant karabd. in the same way that the Sp. It. Parmesan cassiron. eit. poison eiz. Caravel. a card or comb . an ulcer. Carboy. espi7igarda. The Trjg xeXwwac. &c.— — — . contract. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. also (as Gr. krciti. fire . the carcase of a fowl. carabe. black dye. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . OHG. It. a quiver . to comb. Gael. to draw in. word is only an adoption of the Turk. Lith. the dead body of any creature. The radical meaning . carquan. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. Venet. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. boch. and catapulta. a small weight. Exot. matter. a quiver. cramp. a skeleton.. kard boyd. It. a thistle. to turn. bend. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. to hiss (as gee^e). of carbo). a twist. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. carquois.Gr. Gael. an engine for hurling stones. carmiiiarc. designated in the case of G. a firelock. curry-comb. is the word used in modern Lat. cdrlag. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. the . to comb wool . skeleton. properly a siege machine. cabra. &c. carcaij. Ptg. burning coal. a thistle. vitriol. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. cabrita. kirat. . Fr. a lock of wool ..' From the same source are SicU. carquasse. is the chine. Carrob. military engines made for hurling stones. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. the trunk or chest of the body . Carcase. Sp. winding carach. carate. a case or chest . ancient springald. Gael. carcanada. Gr. cardo. eitar. the husk or cod of beans. constraining . the carob bean. Lat. skeleton. p. a he-goat. or framework. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. carcasa. carduus.charcoal . silique. It. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. chevre by the name of the goat. ON. alia sunt majora. case. a gem resembling a live coal. card.applied to a battering-ram (G. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. of the same Caravan. turning. Card. carch. carbunculus (dim. Fr. . tcapKaai. Caraool. carabba. skeleton toise. Fr. KtpaTwv. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. a ship. winding. . Mod. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent.z. cassa. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. Sp. to ripple flax. caravela. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first .. Cat. It. Comp. karszti. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. carcanet. a quiver. a ripple for flax. I. the core of fruit .

as peas. carnis. It. a highway. Fr. to take Goth. karrig. and compare Bret. carnalis. in St Jerome. carcus. dear. charie. From. OHG. w. . to growl. from carrus. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. carnal. Sept. caresse. murren. or street. A place where four roads Mid. stingy. and thin. care on. . Carl. that on wliich the matter hinges. carener. fundamental. Mur. Champ. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. and G. soUicitus OSax. It. Cartel. carch. It. Ptg. to load. AS. immediately before the long fast of Lent. 1S66. Carnal. voce strepo stridente. cearig. croller. to comb wool. essere in carena. ignarus. karista. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. ress. a card. act of moaning. surrata. ON. Fl. . Lat. Groler. Fr. A quirito ut infans. — — Diez. to whirr (schnurren). A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. tenax. to lie on its side. carian. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. camovale. Carminative. kara. E. charnage. Coll. A medical term from line —Boerio. carnasciale. mutter. principal. Carenare. quadrifurcum from quameet. carFrom carrus. de Parthenay. — — . it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. kargr. four. cura may be ror. caricatura. from caricare. or grumbling —Due. 8. and sum. Fr. rixosus. . ceorl. G. to scratch. be anxious. — — — : Cardinal. charta (Gr. at murmuring. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. sorrow. to clean the bottom of the ship. combing them out like the knots in wool. Dan. to scrape . from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. Cath. AS. Bret. the load of a ship. compared with Fin. to shake. 273. to comb flax or hemp. to distress growl. the several meanings of the words above Rom. Fin. tuorfurcm (Burguy). charnel. is This however Shrove tide. to care unkarja. carriera. to rumble. wool cards. Carlings.Lat. giierlir. Bois crolant d'un ladre. a deed. that Fl. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. cargo. Venet. in Carp. quaver a lazar's clack. Farewell flesh. morosus sum. crosier. quarreG. a turn. cardinis. It. x'»P'"^s)) paper. the time during which to Rom.' Slceat. kumra. place for exercise on horseback. & Q. is to say. Care. caMid. Cot. tremble. sgritudo animi. appertaining to the flesh. Chart. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. to load. p.. karantez. strideo. Fr. carcare. astutus. murahtaa. winding. piger.— CARD karr-kambar. to eat flesh. chartre. carena.Lat. intrasset caro. what is felt as grievous. record. Cargo. kurista. cura intenta. a hinge. also a career on horseback. kummer. stridere. an overloaded representation of anything. caritia. karl. moeThe Lat. Cark. car. — — — Caress. morosus. &c. niggardly . karg. OFr. kroU-erbser. carina. cardo. AS. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Fr. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. Sp. It. affection. Fr. It. Lat. whence carricare. kribina. . solicitous. Fin. to fry or broil. msstus. see Garble. clown or churl. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. hoed. the flesh of animals . W. . charg. Properly a car-road. road. Cot. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. from carus. to love. in N. karout. caricare. graller. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. to fry. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. sorrow. carrefourg. weyes. meet at a head. charneux. Translated in MS. A mod-carag. It. . Trin. . Probably the origin of the word is the . Peas steeped and fried. Roquef. crawl. as carminare. as quadrivium from Carnaval. carriire. from the keel to the water . — To Careen. carena. care. grolU. For the root of carminare. No ' place there had. to load. karry. carnavale. regar. a man. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. Caricature. grief. and murhet. Fr. male person. ON. charger. an endearment. Bret. 2. the keel. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. to card wool. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Sp. Cot. crowl. love. carminare. parched or carled. cargar. asper. — Carfax. caru. charag. gakaran. cearian. fleshy . zanken . from Lat. beans. W. Carnage. Carled peas. bottom. careless take care of. the old theory of humours.. W. sensual. one of those ac- 9 * . Fr. scharren.— Charter. cdrle. G. Properly. Charnel. Gael. carezza. Card. to parch. the hull of a ship. murista. the keel of a vessel. like connection may be seen between Fin.

koroll. to pluck. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation.' Ordo Eccles.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. in Carp. carduz. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. biheld without. To pledge them thou refuse. carpenticre. Bohem. sense. used for stuffing mattresses. Chanson de carole.D. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. I drink all out. a plank. Carole. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Other names of the sea. carpere. Shrove Tuesday. a song accompanying a dance then. to gather. Ant. e. CarTo quaff carouse do use. a drinking cup. pluck at.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. ! Carouse. The custom. to chatter coroli.Lat. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. charpentier. is erroneous. yede tham about. differing To Carp. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Mediol. in Nat. carpita. 2. Pr. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. chirp. Sp. Properly a round dance. and F.— Patriarchi. W. ballare. cxciv. — . zimmer. to dance. On the other hand bumper to one's health. Sup. carpenta. of Guiana. as carnaval from carnelevamen. carpetam (a quilt?). Lat. Biheld within. Teut. chatter. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite.: . a car carpentarius. carpende fast Carol.'— Stat. to find fault with. garrire. Discov. Templariorum — ' — Due. to pull asunder. carpenter only in the latter sense. charpie. 2. Here's to you still my captains friend. So gone they forthe. as Fr. ship. linteamen. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. bier. on that. Pref. 94). From Lat.' Raleigh. as the Lat. Mid. Carpenter. — — ' ' — — — I — — . The tippling sots. tymmer. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Lat. 1 1 30. Carpet. peta. I quaught. fabulor. litter. Gael. Gower in Way. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. or loose as a couch without further preparation.gonnella. krapanj. Olr. carpat (Stokes).Lat. pluck. Beggars Bush. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. ON. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. balade from It. Cot. was formed Mid. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. qui sacco. Fr. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Dief. The karole of the stones behelde. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. i. 760.Lat. to reel. Nomin. course. On this. krapati. act of drinking a full Eq. and Carnem laxare (It. . Alluz (G. chatter skra/a.' says Motley (United Neth. gar aus / all out is correct. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. vel coopertorio carebit. to rustle. Bret. All out B. a carder. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. tattle. carnelascid). The ' ' a chariot. or a carouse fully drunk up. Analogous R. querole. a wheelwright. Pm. carpo. The word seems of Celtic origin. Palsgr.— Neum. Carnevale. carpia. carpetrix. Carpitam habeat in lecto. to dance. worker in timber Fr. Carnelevale. a wheelwright. all aus). as E. to talk.Why give's some wine then. carbh. lint. carpentum. A. garrulo. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. Mid. . gonna. in Due. chariot carbad. Lat. . each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. In Dominica d'autant. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Ein we find the signification transferred from . ' ' — . skraf. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. whence the form carnasciale. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Carpyn or talkyn. a dance. cardos. In a MS. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Fr. maker of waggons It.' Reg.]e bois Carnelevale. culcitra. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. 216. cited by Marsh. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out.— R. zimmerspan. quoted by Carpentier.— Drant in R. i.

hung up in some place and to be removed. ceorfan. mord-keller. also the carriage. Hence casket. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. The carrying of anything. cartoccio. kerpu. Casuist. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. to fall. bitten. Cassock. Rouchi caroche. — Cartridge. It. a loopscale the wall. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. a chance or accident. cassa. Fr. Cot.' Fl. Lat. cartilage. Sp. carretta. cassa. properly to convey in a car. house. It. like all the names of tendon. Carrot. to fire on the enemy. Fr. carriaggio. caisse. to hold. ignominiously exposed. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. carota. casus. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. cascare. carrosse. slaughter-house. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Casque. shell or carcase of a house. quash. It. Carrion. subject for a picture. bag and baggage of a camp. Carriage. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. As defence from shells became more important. CartOTicli. empty. To Carry. Fr. casa-maita. charrier. cancel. from casa. cascata. Hence a challenge openly hung up. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. the money chest. pasteboard. as we . one who reasons on cases put. Fr. caxa. a hut. caisse. casacca. casa. to slay. casitiste. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Cartel. fortuitous. It. cia. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. annul. cassere. Fr. kasseren. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Fr. casualis. charrette. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. AS. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . — — nul the proceeding. casaque. crush. to break. cashiered.. hull of a ship. kerben. and matar. a car. Fl. krat. charogne. of carro. Lat. luggage. Cask. made void. cut with scissors. carroccio. Lith. cartouche. Fr. Ready money. corresponding to the G. kerven. an augmentative from Lat. card. It. of carta. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. gristle. It. AS. a long coat. Case. Rouchi carter. To Carve. break to pieces. Preparatory drawing of a It. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. It. caisse. Flor. an act of falling. Lat. See Card. to cut or carve . See Case. cartone. cartella. To duash. Casual. from It. Walach. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. The Sp. to crack. from It. Rouchi carone. Sp. casser. Fr. gristle. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion.— Fl. long man's gown with a close body. cancelled. to shear. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Lat. where Fr. Cartoon. a of water. cascade. Cascade. to convey in a cart. Fr. carreaggio. cassus. paper. caroche. the charge of — — Fr. carroc- carrozza . quasser. See Gristle. abrogate. Cart. something that actually occurs. — Cartoose. cassette. case-maiej Sp. mord-grube. caro. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. Fl. a chest. casuelj Fr. dim. OE. To quash an indictment. a coffer or small case for jewels. case. G. discharge. Du. discharge It. capsa (Diez). from the sound it makes when Alban. It. It. packing ' cloth. Case-mate.' — Hdcart. for the security of the defenders. casco signifies a skull. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. carretto. kirpti.to annul. a canonry or slaughterhouse. casag. Du. — — . void cassare. ' Casa-matta. a fall. a merchant's cash or counter. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. caroach. coffer. Cash. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. helmet. and that apparently from capio. carogna. to dash. Fr. mata. to an- — Kil. a car. Fr. Rouchi carpHe. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. hollow.' Cot. fall It. to notch. to — — also casse. crown of a hat. to bear or carry. casso. blotted out. not reaching to the height of the ditch. tion from Sp. Casket. afterwards any written challenge. — FI. cascar. augmentatives of carro. Gael. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. coffin of paper for groceries. and the OE. turn out of service. augm. Cot. Case. vault hole in a fortified wall. To Cashier. des rideaux A'carp^ie.' Bailey. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Fr. Probably. a paper case. from Lat.

catch. casule. kotas. first made ordinary Fr. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. Hence castaneta. to scourge. Cat. to is Essentially the Sp. Fr. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. castello. Fr. chaleur. Sp. cacciarc. Catastrophe. same word with break. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. from water Karappaaaiii. to look at. however. kakka. ichasses. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. castellum. or comba.— Fl. cassa / cry for the same purpose. Cot. coming to us through different dialects of French. casupola. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . down. . cascar. to make clean or chaste. a Cataract. to Fl. 134 CAST Catacomb.out cacciare . Sp. torture. and tomba.. of sarabands does Gr. V Lith. ' Catchyn away abigo. Brunne. castana. from the first of Castrate. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Fr. a garment for performing the mass in. kasta. bot-kotis. a cat . to crack. In the dialect of Picardy. execu. 'Vaaaw. KarapaKrr]g. Fr. drive away. lance. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. casser. squash.Rouchi Scaches. Pm. kat. mino. which. 120. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. like that of It. ON. or bruise together. Hal. to drive Cat o' nine tails. was introduced. image accasciare. Fr. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Chase. dashing it to pieces. is not satisfactory. Castanets. puras E. The Diet. Yz. of castrum (castra). to close. kissa. Others explain it from Kara. a little house or hut. an enumerlist. kasi. away. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. So also from It. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. cacciare fuora. to end. punch. Lat. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. the ground . speak of dashing a thing down. It. burst cascare.the / or c respectively. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. n. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. stilts. kic' kicil are used chasser. in the fire. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. cojz^/a. Mid. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. a whip on the other into latch.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Lat. on. Etym. Fr. R. fer toTa. to bring to an crack given by the joints. KaraXoyog. casipola. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead.. and KviilSog. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. Lang. to hunt. rack. arpi^m. a thump. while kiss / Pol. Pic. _G. crush . handle of an axe. Castle. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. cat. to cast or beat to tioner . a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). tails. heat . down. It. casulla. castro. . ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. which has been retained in E. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. B. accastiare. dashing it out of the window.to drive out. chasser. To Catch. a cat koshki. V. Roukind. catar. OFr. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. Gr. Cast. Pol. fall. chasuble. cash. signifying breed. or Rouchi cat. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . the castanets for or implement . to hurl See Awgrim. klakka. to turn overturn. shaft of a 1 push. second chase. Thus we have Caste. the stalk of plants. force j Rouchi equerviche. . to fall as over a precipice. kaJoivad. Gael. to drive away. KaTappaKTrjQ. Gr. squash. a vault. a chesnut . dash. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. Fr. &c. cacciuolo. chat. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. KaTaarpifm. to crackle. to torture. to lash. It. sue. to clack. probably from an imita. kottr. cast. koshka. perhaps from which we have E. ating. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. castanetazo. — We a cavity. chasser. race. . kotas. The E. the earlier sense of catch. Fr.'— Pr. . Catalogue. ecrevisse. represented by the syllable quash. dim. under chi caleur. and from the castus. name. follow after. Fr. Isidore — in Diez. being Fin. puss / for calling them. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. To It. cat-o'-nine. to dash. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. to break. katze. a fortified place.Lat.

with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. compare G. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. happe-chair.P. e. verberare kUts. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. Chate peleuse. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. Kil. weevils. Rouchi clincailleux. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction.yopl(. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. to clap hands. snatching. bicho. gattola. — explained. ' Fr. has both or of charming by sound. snatching it with a any one. Claucht. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. klatsch. to teach by oral instruction. KaTtix'so. cat is not apparent. i. Cot. children's name for cat . ictus resonans. claquer. devouring mite or weevil. apprehend a person. kletsen. . instruction in forms. an officer of taxes. chatter. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. the the same principle he was Fr. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. Du.) . companaige. in order). obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. Gael. a — gatta. Diez. a little dog). In the XV'e. a carter's Pat. klatscherei. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. quincailler. the distance to which the ball is struck. e. 'Horxa. a whip Rouchi cachoire. bichano (pussy). . snatched. catch. to crack GATES cache. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . whip. woodlice. clap. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. worm. klatschen. OFr. — Kiittner. dainties.s. 'Bxn. a whip. gliong. is said that he got a claucht of it. de Bray. which all . Cot. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Kil. formerly called cliket. predicament.' ^Jam. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. s. to chatter with the teeth cake.' CATCH Fr. called dog or Galla catchamza. Fr. ecachoire. chasse. cache. a. the OE. head. E. resono ictu lash. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. Fr. to A bailiff. blow. — Catcli-poll. * Caterpillar. Sc. chassoire. to the crack. GaUa catchiza. wild-beast. seize. cagnon (a dog). — tinman. the elements of a science. gingle. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Gael. latch. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). ArbaUte de courte chasse. Cates. klinke. Guernsey chafer. On Catechism. * Cates.j. door when it is shut. — . For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. silkworm. Guernsey pilleure. a caterpillar Milanese can. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. catch. — B. flap klatsche. Ptg. fragor kletsoore. chase. icarrix'Ki^. ketsoore. to take. from Gr. Gr. c or ^. a pill. insect. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. kaetse. chachara. to catch strength. G. from shutting with a click. P. caucht. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. a cornIn the s. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. sound. latch of. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart.V.from Bard and ayopsw. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. clap with the hand. to harangue. chacepol. millecaterpillars. Sp. to kythe D. as of the latch of a As ! — . Swiss Lombard G. Du. catch-flesh. Caterer. E. kletse. Fr. smack. an accusing. a clap. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. to chat. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. a whip. klatsche and Norm.. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . and answer. a. Wal. dainty vic- a form lash. to snap. a whip or Kuttner. . such a sound or the stroke which produces it. or any kind of relishing food tuals. to snatch (said of dogs). Grandg. E. chenille {canicula. 135 — Aasen. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. . clatter. ' ' word catch. with and without an / after the c. chink. caker. resound. Metivier. Kartiyopta (/cari. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. chatter . catc?u. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. glcu. Tutschek. Du. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. — with a whip. called in Fr. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . . a smack. pedes.V.

shaled or picked Fr. On the other hand. Provider. kaussijde. Richly she feeds. cautis. Pr. 4. a The peel. kobuiV. Gr. a kind of skull-cap. net or caul-work. Fr. rete A — Prov. fur. katteken. Fr. Fr. cavus. cabbage. Cavalier. caldo. Bessie of Bednall. Caudle. flock. cauHs. apt to burn iron. cavaliere. cat maczoka. 2. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix.willow. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. a horseman.. the. — . calceata. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Jonson in R. kobyla. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. challe was ther of a temple. ce^l. . and spareth for no perell. Mid. Fin. . chair. and at the rich man's cost By sea. catkin Magy. Cathartic.Lat. Fr. . Lat. the stones of a street. mudet. Gr. chatideau. Diez). koparet. minon. Pol. little cat. to shoe . Lat. a receptacle for small things. Chaud. despencier. to purge. puss. causa. mutz. &c. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. calqada. cale. G. from chaud. lamb. • — — See Chattel. otherwise written kell. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. KaPaWrii. Thus Bav. catkin Pol. Caballus. chauderon. having the property of cleansing. a stalk. . choufleur {choii. also to pave . achepter. chausser.' Elyot in Way. and hence a skull-cap. a pulpit. A warm comforting drink. kin. Cavity. Delycates. from delf^gato. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. a horse . deyntie meates. Wyatt in R. Caution. Gael. KiwariKog. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Rete. calidus. kopano. caple. Lat. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Boethius. is Prologue. — Cauterise. Cavern. a road calceata. any Fl. hazel. Fr. little cap is . puss. hollow. whence cathedralis. a seat. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. from KaSaipio. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . w. Fr. — — cavallo. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. That he was ay before in his estate. to ac- — Fr. green husk of a calon. Du.^ acheter (Lat. Kavrijp. KaHSpa. It. kdtzchen. kocie. calotte. to shoe. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. It. a horse.p. Cavalcade. to buy. what . kitten kotki. Cause. catkins . Cathedral.Lat. Manciple's Tale. acater. The word — . catons. CAVE Caul. . cale. Du. Gr. to shale or peel. hot. to sound like a blow . And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Cattle. Sx. accapitare Rouchi acater. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. . B. Kil. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Fr.Y\\Xea. a mare. cal^ar. Fr. . specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. but the acates that are sent him. walnut with the husk on challer. Caustic. acaptar. cabbage-stalk. from caveo (p. Fr. is used in the sense of cat-skin. via strata. chaudiire. dumpf tonen. It.' B. It. catkin mitz. make clean. Kavrfipiov. CATHARTIC sense. Cavalry. chaudroii. the caul of the liver.. by land. to beware. Cauldron. a paved road. hot.—— — 136 correct. kautsije. flue. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. chevalier. Jaubert. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Dryden in R rete. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. kassije. puss. adcaptare. fur in general. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. ' Gr. Fr. Palsgr. Ka^afriKOQ. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Catkin. cheval. macska. a horse . caudex . of delicates the most Her cater seeks. klopfend knallen. caballus. Lat. Causeway. Cave. kocianki. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. kopista. OE. a pavement. chaussJe. capull. a kettle for heating water. calceta. Palsgr.^Hal. a branding from koiio. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Russ. to burn. Port. cautus). Lat. katte. Mid. quire. It. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. reticella. accattare. Lat. cabbage).

a halter. departure from this life. a log. to plank ON. but hang around at the sides. the roof of a coach. rafter. Ceiling. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. a severe bridle. In the same way G. See -cede. 7. column E. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . plank.' Ordinances and Reg. cease. Gawaine & Sir Gol. departure. a cavern in a mountain {wuora.' Hall. as if from happen. 5. cedo. a boarded floor. of cavezza. a head. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. CAVESON kopera or kowera. that. to argue capto tiously. — komo tain). flooring E. cielo. a log. in Jam. ceiling. thili. thil. hivtmel.' Rutland papers. — . . komista. Cam. ciel de lit. The line of descent from Fr. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. H. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. dScis. to cut. B. wuoren komo. sybire. selar. quibble. A — A false accommodation produced G. hollow. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. a planking or boarding tkilian. . to go forth. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS.'— Z. curved. 32. proceed. Sir 137 pit . wainscot thiljar (in pi. nailes will begin to cling. menuiserie. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson.j have come from this source. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. Lat. Sherwood. It. &c. to canopy siled. succeed. E. cyling (W. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. — . Fr. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. heaven. del into English without ' translation gave cele. komo. post. Wore.). a plank.' — Gawan . a beam. the inner roof of a room of state. Cavil. . -cease. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. coffer. Hence concede. -ceed. . syl. To seele a room. Lat. kapp-zaum. exceed. . thelu. cessum. In the N. —Decease. sus-lambris. . VIII. Hal. Sp. The It. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. dayntily diglit. heaven. to seele or close with boards plancher. p. selure. crooked kopio. -cede. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. pp. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew.' Marriage of James IV. applied to a canopy.. The sense of roofing. Lat. sill in window-sill. . &c. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. thel. and that from Sp. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. and Gol. deal. cabega. &c. semely on syll. board . and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. step away. The importation of Fr. an aquiline nose. hollow. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. hung. decessus. a canopy. is applied to a canopy. the testern of a bed. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. caveqon. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. a log. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. plank. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. . door-sill J Sc. Fr. So from Fin. with their substantives concession.. bridle. jaa. Cot. were met. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. and then to gape. cabegon. cesso. a canopy. p. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. Lat. a board. Plancher. .' Cot. augm. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. — — — toyour soverane. the deck of a ship at thilja. tester of a bed. thil. . ceiling. to panel or wainscot MHG.). beam. a fir-plank. wall. syle. sky. and zaum. cavillor. 43. canopied.' del. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Soc. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. cavezzone. seele. of E . Cede. dil. thilja. give place. as. or of a bed. ciel is so unbroken. excess. hollow ice . also a seeling of boards. . And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. to plank or floor with planks. kommata. Boyd in Jam. recede. in Jam. little house. IV. . kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. empty. death. -cess. yield. lambrisser une chambre seeling. Fr. &c. sill. a hut. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. lambris. cellar. Cease. Fr. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. thiling. . koppeli. And seik — Cessation. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. dille. in Hal.

celer. and — — — possessions. family. a shaft horse. rubble. to course of people. siller les yeux. — A . to ensile the haukes that ben taken. the hollow the Lat. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. festive. to twinkle darkness. — . criticism. &c. Cell. to incense.unmarried. to burn incendo. renown be embodied with. cretum. being taken from Fr. ceremonia. Cij(fe5j. camentum. to rub for the purpose a hut. -cess. zens according to their property. Fl. Lat. -cepire. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. chauffer. the place where the de. with transposition hence (of a day). -i^oivre.cern. caber. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. deceit. quarters for slaves. celeber certus. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. To seel or close the eyes. concerner. become heated with anger. — . of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. cenio. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. a solemnity. eyelid. the point round which a circle is drawn. to set on fire. a tomb. Gr. observe. Cereal. Lat. a registration of one's self. It. -cense. riscaldarsi. Ta^oe. Certain. Censor. For sess from assess. {cori)cipere. tax. blind.' Book of St Albans. K^'ivut. or any bird's. Lat. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. ' . To Incense. &c. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. KsvTpov. -cevoir. sile. cilibat. value. we have a modified form of (of a place). pick out. assess. make angry. as entering largely into the derivative certo. dchauffer. for building. Census Censor. Gr. Censure. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. a Cemetery. then to rub without reference Cement. also grave opinion. cella. Fr. estimate. solemn (of per. to contend. to sepap rate. concernor. — . conceipt. Lat. -ceptjun. Prov. cigliare. cceremonia. see. to seal a pigeon's eye. -cipio. deceipt. concetto. to glow.). to attend on object with. -cebre ifoncebre. what to set in a chafe. in accordance with the Fr. confounded ist from It. encens. Celerity. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. candeo. -cepere. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr.. abundance. to heat. Lat. stones to the production of heat. judge Lat. Centurion. from Saa-rw. Lat. sting. much frequented. to chafe. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. thence belonging to or connected with corn. irot\oe. S. Gr. chaufferette. Cot. To chafe is for wine. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. judge. guish. capturn. Lat.— Cellar. Century. a hundred centuria. . syll. Fr. decebre) . a valuation of every man's estate. thronged the participle cretus. incense. Fr. eschattffer. of heating.— Chafing-dish. sure. to warm. or expression of Ennius. to celebrate. The term cilium. Lat. Chafe. calefare. his office. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. appertain. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. empty.j 138 thill. the talk of men. a solemnity. Lat. census. -CEIVE a shaft. to sleep). hollow. and thence to conceal. to think. heaven. Cot. census. to distinguish. censura. with the eyes. 1. and met. swift. a religious observance. OFr. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. centum. in Marsh. crevi. a numerous con. single or unwedded life. is totally distinct from the foregoing. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. Celebrity. a hundred of what- — . Take the nedyll and threde. Assess. as in some places burnt. ciglio. /ctj/rsw. -ceive. to take. — . and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. See Cede. Ceremony. mortar. Lat. Lat. cillier. — — Cenotapli. cot. decide. cencer. and put it through the over eyelydde. to rate. is the opposite of disora virum. Fr.ing a room where there is not fire. contend. oil. ciller. keep in It. the officer appointed to take such returns . sift. Fr. Accelerate. (and thence also) to hoodwink. an eyelash. calefacere. a prick. Sherwood. distinIt. to separate. in comp. Lat. Sc. See Celibacy. In Celebrate. to concern. to bury). Lat. tax. receipt. . goad. in comp. Censer. Fr. Fr. sacred show. — . a storehouse Chafe. and thence censer. -ceit. parted sleep. to seele or sew up the eyelids . cerealis. to take. age. materials It. to -sum. -cern. -ciper. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend..of the r. Assize. Coehim. It. Fr. — . Gr. to prick.). to be regarded as one celebro. oil. Incensum. judge. to visit in numbers. -oept. Cess. capio.' Celebritas. rough from the quarry. from censeo. Centre. to blindfold.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. -civer {conciver— Roquef. and so of that other. but was gradually lost in conceit. point.

Fr. — — — — — — . to institute anforensic action. . to tattle. lime .. kiqfta. cam. Hal. rustling corn.— — . Kuttn. Pat. De Ir4. muzzle. now a chair. Lat. Cheffern. Chair. Chagrin. chalanger. chaine. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. ^Altieri. B. sborfare. call in question for an ley). bargain. baras of ants. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. . Bav. kuhuja. a pulpit. refuse. rustling motion challenge. Du. a pulpit Cot. to Latin calumniare. vis. chawe. Fr. dispute. kuhata. kauchen. grief. — — — . jaw. also to prattle. ckapfare.' Rayn. care. far lima-lima. ceafer. a chain. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. . to babble. snuff. place See Cheek. chicane. shaIt. often puffing. clamare. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). kaff. puff. chaffare. to action arose. Chayire. kiamta. crooked. Prov. charge with. To buy and sell. Ayenbite. Chain. Halma. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Lat. yap. keffen. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. calix. to caw chawer. chaire. P. The jaw chafty. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. from the shark-skin. hordeum vel let. Lat. Perhaps Pm. sagri. khah. Due. to pant. kedja. care. keuchen. talkative. (ca'e'ra) to chair. tattle cheep. ing a hard case to their wings. a prattling woaction. Gr. Cot. Fr. chayire. Fr. to file.sure carriage. snort. calonja. kaff.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. to chatter or talk lightly. camera. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . or puff with snorting. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. chatter. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. difficulty . to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. preise. in a cana. on. kdfer. as. Adelung. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. cadera. From to go to law. sagrindse. tronfio. avena vilior. Fr. Wall. calumnia. thick and short. — . to calumpnjamen. a double operation * Chafer. cauvette. hiss. Lat. hght Chalk. haggle. kuhista. havOFr. contestation. cup. ceaf. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. signal by drum or P. chaene. fa sagramen de calompnia. ON. Cot. puffed or ruffled with ly. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. p. lime. kever. with a:n arched roof. Fr. calice. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. Came.. grief. breathe hard. Prov. chambre. taubes korn oder hafer. to puff and blow. &c. and as this was the beginning of man. calonjar. chagrin. quisquilise offence. Piedm. So from dominio. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Fl. matter by combat. KoBiSpa. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. a chough. kiaftr. false accusation. any insect of the beetle kind. kdfelen. Kaiiapa. a vault or arched roof. Du. swelling with anger. much more Genoese sagrind. kahuja. fern-chafer. Probably from According to Diez. . cadena. Gr. from of the G. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. a goba rustling . kahu. From the To Chaff. Fr. refuse barley . to sit. that leneth e per I'autra. From Port. dongio. chafeter. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. fume. as a carriage is a moveable seat. cathedra. Camera. 35. to a seat. to ner It. catena. a rustling noise. gewolb. Fr. to claim. Lat. vel susurro. chafing. 11. in a monstrous fume. green sagrin. songe. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. and signifies to consume with anger. Prov. limare. calx. cadieira. to buzz. without chap/are makiinde. to gnaw. to move the jaws. — — — . Fr. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. Fin. Pr. Chalice. breathe KaOa^oiiat. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. idle words. Lat. Fr. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. kuhina. have a mind to parley. G. Lat. chaulx. a jackdaw. cathedra. OFr. E. chamar. Pers. kahista. leviter crepo Then. rally one. much blowing. G. In vulgar language. Bouffard. ing rapidly repeated cries. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. to dispute.nium. great chafe. In like manto huff. to fret inwardtronfo. ple^. . cadena gives chain. to gnaw. to bark. tattle. — — ' — — — A . from Swiss kafeln. de Brai. to call. chaps Chamber. chaise. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. of. rustle Challenge.

kampa. tsamtsogni. a bundle. ON. . i. boys speak of capping verses. giving rise to the as. campus partitus . Sup. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. Lat. kabintis. camp. E. hng. champ. chamble. to debate. divided game. dricka i kapp. zampettare. — Hal. schmatzen s. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). To Chamfer. to flute as a column. escazenza. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. and acted as inofficers of . contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. chanfrar. ON. Fin. Fr. kampen. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. dial. to happen {ad and cadere. kampeln. Campar. ciamberlano. broil. top of a borehole. The G. Fr. — KiL . . M. G.' melleia. to Hal. Prov. excellent. jocus partitus. a hook . The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to strive at games . a scufSe. to quarrel (comp. kabinti. kempa. to fall. to slope out the . Chancel. chdance. Meleare. champ parti. Chamfron. athlete. to fasten oneself to another . to move the jaws kiamt. .140 CHAMBERLAIN . kanip. to smack the lips in eating. ciambellano. Fr. chain. or less ignorant. cameratus. kippo. bickering. who stood ad cancellos. ing. to cample. . to hollow out. Hence (with the nasal) w. Champaign. to excel. slope of a bevelled angle. to tread The sound heavily. Fr. Gall. kapp. Sp. contend or argue G. champ. a hollow chanfreiner.' ' Pr. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages.' SherI'altro ' ' . campar. tsammogni. is explained by serrarsi. chance. luctare.—Charfron E. dial. chanfrein. a warrior. So in e. kabe. . to bevel. Champarty. calida et sans aguet. Chancellor. CHANCEL It. fight. cample). — Ch-amberlain. Prov. kablys. chaude mesUe. camp. chance. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. kabMe. The E. Pm. hero Sw. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . difficulty . pedilusor. kampeln. from Fr. champ. and mesUe. game campio. a court of justice. to slope. campear. Lat. To cope or contend with. contest. a feat. dial. to fasten oneself on to another . The word is preserved in E. Commonly derived from campus. Champion. termediaries between them and the judge. therewithal. dispute Hal. e. to talk. bundle. kiinp. Du. a field of battle. kimpustella. See Camp. —Chamfrain. the chafldn. calidameya. Get campers a ball To camf . combat. nels. Carpentier. at the railings. Chancery. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. rare. The happening of things Chance. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner.Lat. or player at football. To hollow out in chanPtg. fighting place. Fr. reusement — fight in single combat. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. as swine. . Sp. cancelli. kempen. kinipen. kibti. to wrestle. to to chew champ. kimppu (Lap.—Tutschek. Fr. Champ. kiammi. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. act of falling. as in It. wood. cahir. accidere. camp. an athlete. move the jaws. contention kappi.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. chajnbellan . origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . hamper. certare. chanfrein. E. head armour. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to hang. a jaw kianisa.edley. to chew. Lat. dial. kriimmen gebogen. Ptg. cempa. surpassing. sukibti. kimpUma. s. dial. hot. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. to be eminent. to . cadere. zs jeopardy. Partnership. fight. cazer. to fasten on. to fall). gewolbt. chanfreindre. champion Du. from chaud. When the to quarrel. Dief. to wrestle. . Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. ON. keiiipe. a horse-race. kappd). Lith. a game at football. camerlengo. accident. — ^Tusser. Chance-n3. to hold . to paw the ground E. from cheoir. It will. to stick to. . — masterly Sp. jeu parti. Lat. caer. gekrUmmt. fray. which seems another form of the root. prize-fighter. received the petitions of the suitors. mesleiare. to groove bevel off a right angle. kimbu. to — — champ. Magy. champ. compound. campus. pinch. chamfrain.

chop. to hack. chop. throat of an animal. schimbd. lips of an animal. waterconduit. properly in a hard body. . to truck. to break . schimbu. Man of Law's Tale. or the cracking of one. chap. a dealer in candles then. Channel. is used in the same sense . chapa. Aasen. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. Prov. jaw. Fr. kappen. to apply one flat thing to another. . to deal. to strike. the chaps . a jaw. not a soul. Lat. Russ. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . chapelete de una bomba. as chancery . are kept. hack . Hence chantry. — . to plate. cantare. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Lang. any hollow for conveying water. Chape. to strike. 140. That wide were sentin their spicery. — : Lat. chaps. W. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. camjar. to creak. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. a small plate of flat metal. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. prune.^. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. cambiare. cheek. chapeta. as skin chapped hands. kiceft as well as kjakje. skipta. ^Jam. a strip of metal plate. canalis. Probably from chap. AS. —Ordericus Vitalis. cangiare. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. to paw like a horse . In like manner Walach. ceaplas. 2. or the like chapar. a money-changer. to chap at a door. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. to — cut. to swap. to coat. while the broader vowels a. as to chap hands. Chap. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. chap. to spht a chip. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. a chap is a crack or fissure. kemma. from canna. clapet. I. Hal. Sc. chanter. surfaces striking together. to peck. as corn-chandChandry. chancellerie. exchange. the clappers of the scupper holes. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. kennel. Commonly derived from capella. muzzle. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. kvar kjceften. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. Chop. a pipe. Sp. Sp. chancery. chandelier. jaw. Fr. and also to chap or crack. to strike with a sharp edge. Chip. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. gab. to sing. kjaakaa. It is also used in the sense of the E.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. ON. from chandler. Chap. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. chapear. —Chantry. a small metal plate Port. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. See Chant. as those on a trunk. changer. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. debeant conjurare. exchange. See Chop. Walach. . cambium. klepan. to peck. to plate. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. like the knocking of hard things together. also a clap. Hence It. extended to other trades. Fr. And N. may be compared with ON. esclapa. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. the loose flesh of the cheeks. to cut off . Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. hard bodies. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. to change. flat . cobio. a reed. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. the place where candles ler. Lith. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Chapel. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. kaupa. E. Da. from clap. and the modern canal. ceaflas. shift. Cheek. chiappa. Du. esclapo. exchange schimbatoriu. Chaps or chops. to cut up into small pieces. — — —Marculfus in Due. cambiar. kiceft. Molbech. to put on fresh clothes. Chandler. to cut. Da. A fellow. Chap. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. To Change. Hal. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. chapeletas de imbornales. as It. Compare chark. leather. kapoti. Bret. . the gutter that runs along a street. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. the mouth. Fr. chapilla. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. wood. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. .

enough.charme. seems to be derived charade. capital. * Charcoal. Mundart. Fr. Fr. es ist mi cheer. carus.whirr. dear(in both senses). to talk . Chapter. prattling quacksalver. from capitulum. to of the governing body. Sup. chapitre. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. charlatan. schreien. eyre. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. the turtle pitre. dim. go. Ptg. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. car. . It. turn. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. Prov. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. babbling. bler. Lat. which was incantation. from carrus. Hence carminare. called kedlock. wreath for the head. Swiss. babdistinction. eapitulo. to sing or chirp as birds. pohadka.Lat. Sp. to chirp as sparrows. The G. carmo. charcoal burners. Character. gadka. carricare. that turned decken . a dispute . creak. Charcoal was ciarlare. Charge. chirriar. in To ness Charity. surris seu Lat. to load . —— . and at line 2520 it runs Charm. gnash. occasional turn. w. It. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi.). forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. a verse. 370. Chark. An enchantment. in turns. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . chirk. cha. creak. charger. a head or division of a book. siarad (pronounced — sharad). a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. to converse. turn about. be- e. . twist. twitter. to love. cluck kirklys. cedeleac. Macduff. Charlatan. krachzen). Bret. cher um cher. charge an enemy is to lay on. Justin. a garland of roses. Mid. chapel. capitolo. AS. From Norm. a cricket karkti (schnarren. Chirk. called in Sp. Lith. czirbti. Deutsch. czurksti. chara. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. dear. charitas. chatter. In that work the verb is written caire. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. chatter. ghirlanda seor garland. used in the sense of magic Fl. ciarlatore. carmen. It. as a beetle. — a car. — — — turned to coal. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. 2. charer. AS. Fr. kurkelis. karout. a turn cerran. to chirp. w.. a rhyme. decken. to creak. the nature of a thing. to . a charm. Lat. capellare. return. czurliwoti. — spell. carregar. chapelet. a riddle. charlar. a hood. burning without consuming the substance. to turn. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. See Cheap. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Lang. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. To Char. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. for the same reason rosario. clack. tattler. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. wood to coal. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. cam. . It. cabildo. kirkti. talking. A weed among com AS. a riddle. to charcoal. Chare. from Charade. affection. caritas. to tattle.czirksti. to dove . And damned be he who first cries Hold. cerran. Charade. chirlar. ject). a The OFr. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. . a mark of a mountebank. Sp. Sp. cluck. condo il volgar francese.' Boccaccio in Diez. Boh. (eucharistie. grave or make incised marks on an ob. and in It. The crash. Du. &c. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. Lat. kurkti. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. to turn Gael. capella. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. to prattle. a merchant. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . jabber. Yx. Charlock. char. Fr. to croak as a frog . equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. OE. chat. beloved. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. caricare. from gadai. a mark made on a thing. Cot. ceap-man. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. hiss Lith. it is my turn. to chirp. cearcian. charade. from capa. to prattle. from cape or cope. Gr. Inst. . corona. Lay on. as. hadka. gaggle . colliers that charred coal. Chaplet. Chapman. of chapel. Fr. See Charlatan. canne. keeren. tegere. properly to place — . as Pol.

V.). cs E. a branch and a young female. from pure. — We ornamental work the to signify E. an enchantress. to which it bears the same relation as chape. i. a gap. to make a noise. as we speak of olive branches. To chit. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. Chamel. To Chasten. fragments. Chary. prattle. Fr. make a noise as birds do. chary. gallan or ogan. chaste. . a branch. CHATS fit 143 to name. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. s. blackthorn-chats. — Yorkshire chat. clean. Fr. An imitative word. chip. From carinen was formed It. talk much . chasse (another form of caissej see Case). And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. See Card. carmen is presented in AS. It.— Chit. whence a charm of goldfinches. nome and . — Hal. cassa s. or pop. Russ. prate. castus. Pol. Pm. the young shoots . kata-kata. as from nomen It. It. gadu-gadu. Parallel with E. in Jam. Chart. a flock of those birds. or the cry of a bird or the like. clear. clack. to separate in morsels. karigh. to chirp. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. to chirp. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. charmer. cearig (from cearian. — Fr. shout OE. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. noise. the noise of birds. Chaste. — Palsgrave. racket . chit in the latter sense Du. clean. —Charter. chikat'. It. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. as. schioppare. to chirp as a bird to cheep. warble. gazzerare. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. or suckers on rough borders. as turnip-chaits. OE. In like manner Russ. occasionally Forby. enchasser. To Chase. So in Gael.. g. speak . incassare. a shrine for a relic. geug. —Bailey. Cot. Chat-wood. Du. Lat castigare. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. sordidus. to set a jewel. chip. karg. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. pure. —Jam. Pol. caro. chip. snap. to crack. a word. talk. a twig Suffolk chaits. . To talk. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . kippen. a crack or a flaw . D. chit. ferire. Hal. castus. carnisj bones kept. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. the handle of a razor . a chatter-box. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. The egg is chipped. Chat. gazzogliare. to cut and faggoted. warble. gazzolare. To chip is then to crack. Malay. flesh. as purgare Fr. to burst open. the calix of a rose. — The . kna. noise. converse. root of the Lat. to wet. la chasse d'une rose. Fr. is to represent the chamier. to talk. To work plate as silversmiths do. chits. xi'i-'^vui. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. a yawning. Gr. magpie. Fl. B. eclats. be wide open. discourse.a. or a bird out of the egg. — sharp sound of a crack. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. to chatter or prattle . The primary import of the syllable a great number together. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot.— Chatter. chick. Lat. gazeuiller. clap. chat. G. germinate . chit-chat. as in the E. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. czysty. shivers. csaterdzni. to cry as a chicken . Chasm. to care). or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Kil. a churchyard or charnel-house. Diez. splinters. to enchase it . csacsogni. to clap. chair. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. chykkyn (Pr. to crack. pure. — = Chats. kastaa. gazzettare. kata. tittle-tattle. chisf. It t. the bird is iiown. csatora (Magy. jackdaw . used to represent a sharp note. Fl. ch). chick. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay.house. a young man . See Cistern. fragments or leavings of food. to baptize. See Catch.ppen. little sticks cudere. ch&tier. crackle. To chitter or chipper. a plate of metal. Cot. chatter. Kil. %aafi. tenax. also to germinate or spring forth. charm. — — . cyrm. to gape. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. gaddc. or equivalent forms. scraps of for fuel. also a youth. the cry of the bat. also to hatch. knatiern. It. clatter. from xoAn. whistle. —Chastise. csacsogany. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. careful.). clean. Magy. from purus. limpid. chaste. Fr. parcus. carme and Fr. niggardly. nommer. knacken. pure. To Chase. letters p.

is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. teeth . us. the Lat. kikottaa. horse-couper. kak. Cot.of the throat in coughing. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. favour. to . chavylbone or chawlbone. . Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. ku. G. Fin.ing. to fetch the breath with difficulty. Bohem. kichen. cheeks. tradesman. cattle. Soc. The gutGoth.. chatal. a rogue or person who used the canting language. bon marche. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere.' kezen. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. a young boy or girl. farm for farm. chuckle. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. — — —Chowl.' to exchange to gasp. goods. from AS. ceaflas. jaw. thers. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. sale. whence captale. mandibula. lower. to buy. a cheater. citello. a willing look and unwilling heart. the countenance Fr. a canting knave. in widely separated languages by the Lat. sense of bargaining. . syllables ^ag-. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. force of the word. to vomit. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. to stutter gigken. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. with the exception of land. to cluck like a hen. keck. a dealer in horses. which is used in the to stutter. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. while it Bret. giggling. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. cachinnari. koopen. kok. and hence the E.-^. hawkmann. Du. to laugh. See Cheek. Fr. kik. kaufen. a piece of moveable property. sob E. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. CHEEK zitella. Chattels. cozener. NE. in Fr.— Cattle. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. which is the word in ceap. retching. society. Gr. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. Hal. — We ' . look. entertain kindly. the face. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Chew. Lat. Pro v. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. chatel. ceahhetan. gig. chire.—Choke. OFr. goods. upon a checked cloth. et juxta catalla sua. exAS. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. . Sc. prattlingchete. choule. Ingulphus. a repulse. to swap goods . aspect of a man.— Chole. from Lat. welcome heartily. 144 the It. to negotiate.. 'li^'opa jord i jord. e. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. Cheat. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. price. gagkezen. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. Pr. Fl. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. cattle. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. Fr. to clear the throat . to coff—Yisi. Cam. &c. caupo. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. kakaista. Slav. frown. Modern Slang. stuttering. kaupiti. jaws. to nauseate (to retch). to coup s. truffa. to cough and hence either buying or selling. cera.— Chaps. — To check an account. visage.— . chiere. Bav. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. OFr. the principal ' colloquial E. to — . kaupa. It — Brompton in Due. cita. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. with Dief. ceap. Faire bonne chire. to act as a rogue. countenance. chop. to chop and change.. It. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Chear. sum in a loan. Hence to cheat. to buy. gagkern. kaupon. It.kakot. cattle. changing. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. giving or taking in exchange. a dealer. the tongue. lead to OE. KaviiXog. Check. any cheating. and. kakkaset. Pm. . to deal ON. kauf. s. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. equiva. stuttering. chear in the sense of victuals. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. kek. Then. . catalliim. dchec. Cheek. cara. to make inarticulate sounds in . Sp. chaptel. See Chess. capitale. CHATTELS has ciio. Ek dry and hard. are represented piti. agreeing upon. a tavern-keeper. entertainment. laughing. chapman. ceafl. the Confessor. snout.

castaneusj Fr. . dear. takes place in the formation of cheese. G.peep in the same sense. cams. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Hence chesten-nut. Achievement. jouffle. Cherish. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. old bread. e. kistej Lat. the throat. subacidus. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. gapen. throat. to swallow. for cheese itself.. a rafter . chiffe. Fr. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. kikna. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. chops. From them the plish. to kep. Pl.Xo belch. cista. kok. achever. as. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. — 10 . Chevaux de frise. like a young chicken. Pm. Chemistry. the palate Chequer. Lat. As the board to gasp i. chasi. Prothroat of an animal . Fr. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. cheken. hasten. kdke. Lith. E. rattle in the throat. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. schach. To make a shrill noise Chest. . subjected to this process with that which the throat . the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. incaseatus. things Da. . AS. whence kasa-leipa. cerise j G. cyse. Sp.their struggle for independence. AS. E. (Kil.EP CHEVRON 145 on. to heap up such things for the purchoke. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. .pose of acidifying them kasadr. to belch. Lith. kjakje. Sw. Sp. w. cheek. the mouth. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . kastanie. E. Chef. to year. Chess. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. geagl. caru. by laying up in a covered heap. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. whence czypulas. — — . then end. cabiron. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. mouth kek. quoka. the loose the game of checks. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. kces. ceac. Fr. food. kapen. ation. made rancid koka. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Chevisance. AS. caseus. to accomThis they call hdrsk.perly head. which in the case of cough has Chesnut.. F*-. kirsche. Sc. cese.koppen. czypti. OHG. chests in OE. to choke. Sw. w. Fr. scacco. cheeks. w. frame by which the exertion is made. to choke with laughter. make an end. Cherry. clear the throat. kasiiUPr. chops. ceocian. quok. carnium. to geahl. to kasa. Du. jaw . the neck. jowl. kesten. To Cheep. to gasp. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. chaps. gill of fish AS. geafl. /Ji2^/(W. Du. Sc. Da. kdkel. Chekenyd or querkenyd. gaghel. the The use of the word kcesir.D. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. giffle. ceaflas. kasa. kaecke. Lat. kastr. ichec.cirieggia. practice seems to have been communiChevron. ceg. kjcebe. to make a noise different word. cheek. X'C&s. kjceve. Lat. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. caws. It. chevron. xaque. gullet. Fin. ON. cough. accomplishment cayed. nish source. a heap. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. N. jaws. throat. Kil. kopen. Tutschek. Prov. Thus "we are brought din. Fris. &c. to hold dear. squeak as a mouse.' to w.). king). veluti piscium. the final guttural is retained in writing. An imitative word. kikna of dorum coacervatio. E. rafters in heraldry. to gape gab. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. suffo. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. gous forms are G. . Analo. ost. cegio. CHE. to prevent the attack of cavalry. The Sw. as meat and butter.G. jaw. chAtaigne. cherir. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. chesten. G. a cricket. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. treat with affection. cireggia. a chicken. dersen . See Case. The name of creak as shoes. gabe. — — . cheek. condition of being taken. skratt. jaw. chevir. Hence kikna is identical with OE. jaws Sw. cufd. prevail with. gap.D. cisty G. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. ceaplas. See Chess. It would Cheese. See Alchemy. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. by laying it in come to an agreement with. to boken. acquisition. mollium congeries. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. schach. Fr. the hke. cerasus. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. In these latter forms we see the transIt. Lat. to love. Jam. to bring to an end. rupted into chess. rennet. cabrio. equal squares of opposite colours. ca' — . — — . Cher.

chin. rafter . kopf Du. kimme. kieken. Chimb. the young of animals in general. sonorous. cild. The loss of the syllable it in Du. to chirp or peep like a chicken. Tintillo. cib. Fl. Du. to smart. Kil. W. killen. Pm. ach. chill. into a continuous shriU sound. greloter is to shiver for cold. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Pr. in Walach. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. Pm. Fin. — — Mother Hubbard. term is ssaru fu.). It. then as G. — Du. — .^ to resound as a bell. CHJME the radical form is unusual. acute. jaw. then cold. Du. gosling. a finch. Fr. kaw. capo. ultimate origin of the Mite. cabarach. cebr. a chicken. mouth. alter. chillrar. Chick. by driblets. killen. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. horn wood. G. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. crepo. kaau•wen. jaw. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. capete. caferu. knit the brow cib-led. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. chavel. cidan. 146 brial. are formed Du. Probably from Fr. a chicken. gills of a fish. while the Magy. E. to raise the rim. rafter . beam. to twitter. queror. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. tintelen van koude. Chill. kouwe. the least imaginable jot. head. tiukka. tiukkata. the head. Halm. Magy. chicaner. chikat'. a jaw. a cup cibaw. kimista^ . to Du.— . The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. And hence.^ Hal. Prov. Payer chiguet A chiguet. Now gan some courage unto him to take. to contest about trifles. the cry of young . twitter. pipe. Fin. klagend tonen. a young bird. E. horns of the house. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. to go. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. : — a lump. machouere. ' . The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. keichen. a cup. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. kidata. Fr. kindeken. Child. kauen. . the rim or edge of a vase. a little bit. . kind. De finger killet mi for kalte. captain. . pole. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Brezza. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. a quid of tobacco.. Pr. pululo. signifying properly shivering. Da. Imitative of a loud clear sound. tiuk. the same principle I regard On birds. creak. ]). w.-ill.D. a chicken. aner. chawbone. kippa. pip.— Cot.. to chew. — It. chicoter. Chaw. cabar. CHEW .D. To chitter. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. the Ptg. has probably the same origin. to contest. kibr. Palsgr. grelot). cabriones. as pointing out the origin of the E. stake. jaws . zitterti. also the horizon. Pl. Swiss kiden. chef. to the brim. pipio. chimb. chol. Chigue. chillness or shivering. and from the third E. AS. or chick. Walach. branchy. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. a hen. cheek. a cup. tremble. caprioru. See Chimmer. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. and not vice versd. to crackle. — Fin. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . or the broken noise of birds. deer's horn. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. s. Gattel. from the second Lat. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. Lat.peep. kauchen. when the vibrations become very rapid. chaps. tiukkua. rafter. Chitter. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. to scold. chic. A To Chew. E. Fr. For the see word Doit. the throat. knirschen. chiquei. kitista. kauwe. or qf people talking rapidly. kinderen. to gasp for breath (Hal. k'imm s. knarren. a head.— Gattel.. or as E. while didder is to shiver or citteren. to pettifog. mountain top . to titter is Du.. the jole. chew or chaw. to chime. pi. as. chillar. kilderkin. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. cap. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask.' my finger tingles with cold. chieftain. strideo. Fin. caput. lead through the synonymous E. cica cica. kop. chicken. The Pl. czypulas. kime. G. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. from little to little. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. cabar beinne. Chime. Russ. kuwe. Bret. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. chiler. to use the jaws. antler. kimia. tyuk. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. choule. Chief. 'Among these the G. De chic en chic. capu. tremble with cold. Gael. Fl. quivering sound which passes. chavel. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. from the first of which is Lith. To Chide. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. pipio. Sp. a small cask OFr.

then to any narrow crack or AS. squittire. a hall Mid. sonants. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . See Chap. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. a szemrcU. to simmer. Chimney. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. — — — — — . To chink with laughter. a crowing sound in recovering breath. flaw Hal. Chin-coug^h. Diez de. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. i. Chintz. Lat. Hindost. from Lat. Ptg. a Kuttn. The desig. chink. czirszkti. caperd. Bav. Huloet. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. spina. Chip. as the chink of money. Fr. cheminde. sonus the backbone Lat. . to chink with laugh2. Sp. a thorn. pork) . Fr. the chine. tsengeni. gen. cisello. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. In the same sense.to divide or Du. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. eschine. — . cinan.czirbti. to murmur. E. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. to creak. chick. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. the whooping cough. bx-eak the back of schena. quivering or shakyng for colde. Gower in Hal. resonance . hiss chirlar. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. cleft. AS. fissure. to sound deep or the Gr. caminata. Pr. Primarily a shrill sound. Lith. A . bone . but or cry as a parrot. to creak. Prov. twinkling light. kink hoest. Kil. caminsects. a chink or fissure. eschin^e (de pore). Sp. Pm. and the Du. See Chats. komia. Sw. klincken. to prattle czirpti. Chisel. ciseau (for cisel). Chymerynge. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. also vibrans.Lat. to prattle . zirpen. komista. from the geon's lancet. the cheek.). esquena. dial. the jaw. Du. To Chimmer.. and bodily movement in shimm. are In like manner E. in the same crack. epine. . simmer. schina. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. It. Caminatum. to tremble. sounding deep.iron. — . and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. Chimera. keich husten. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. Chine. all these imitative terms being minata. as birds the mouth. in Hal. gena. verynge or dyderinge. then of a fabulous monster part goat. the jaw. tremulous motion. and chim-mer. representing connected together. . esquina. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. ter. See Bright. G. clashing of weapons.er. as a bell kommata. vincially used in the sense of a crack. twitter caminus. It. Du. Fr. quavering of the voice. or chyFrigutus. Chyrme or chur. cinne. chhint. schiena. as a large bell . the cheek (jaw) . Sp. tschirpen. a fire-place. part lion. It. fyr. cisaille. To Chitter. chin .schricken. See Chark.Huloet in Hal. Chitterling. schetteringe. hollow. to chirre. spina. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. a thorn. to chine. — . so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. chirp. pare also Walach. up and down. E. to open chirriar. . backBut she withal no worde may soune.sharp. rustle. plodere. zirken. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. and from a similar sound to boil gently. to chirp. to sizel. Chink. schrick. applied to tremulous motion. the chin . which differ from each other only as Chirk. eschiner. j^lf. yivtiov. skina. Chit. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. It. tsongeni. to chink. Sp. kinne. from 10 * ' Chia. the mouth (jaws) . to sound. chatter . cincel. It. ciarlare. chits. as the/ is preserved tering. — . disCot. To chirp or twitter. Fr. Bret. Chink-cough. a chap. do. G. tinnire.' Phaer's Virg. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. genou (pi. Fr. have been used to designate the spine.. Gascoigne in Todd. a surkik hosta. shiver and the chyver of Pr. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. kumista. to gape. sound on beginning to boil. genawi. sound. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. killed by Bellerophon. hiss Pm. name Then. KinneGr. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. to squeak in It. clipping of coin. et garrire . cheek. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Gloss. schetteren. and light. to chirp . backe.to chirp. Magy. kieck hoest. crepare. stridere. The change from the sound ter \s. sparkle. . Chat. clangor tinniens kummata. hus. The small entrails of a hog. companied. Chitter. Cot. ykvvQ. 147 kimina. to tattle. kumina.

Serv. and N. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. g'schochet voll. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. to shiver. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. word is more likely to be from Lat. cut up into — See Chats.D. in the same language. Swab. CHOP kros. kbhren. it is probable that the root kus. select. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. Chap. kustigen. 2. . Yr. crammed Choir. to chap at a door . pieces . prove.gust. causir. whence Lat. . In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. to strike hands . the ridges prove. chattering. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. Luc. Equivalents in the SlaFr. Warwickshire coff. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. chock full. kushati. Choleric. ^euw. kalbs gekrose. Gr. chaup. to try. taste. . experience valerie. as green as leeks. Enn Sigridur sem ' . greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. from kraus. civette. to break off in small shive. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. a rag. kushevati. to taste.' who shall not taste death. kieser. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. OHG. try. and in kosten. from chevalier. to taste . keuren. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. bile. Fr. to try. the small parts of the roots of plants. haslets. Lat. Goth. from %u\i). all seem slate . to palpitate . to choose. G. as with a blow. full to overflowing. gekrose. a young . a chive. a twittering. xiv. also calPs. gusten. to taste. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. * To Choose.freze. a heap.' At last he dwelt . full. to taste. 19. caperd. . then to shiver. chceur. to experience. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. x^poc. a calf's pluck or chaldron . ON. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. Cavalry. . arkiusan. See try. •- Russ. Gr. — Cholera. scheve. The . cepa. to chap. to taste. Fr. to Compare also Pol. keypa. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. a company of singers or dancers. —Chorus. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. to wrinkle. Prov. chorus. an onion. chawdron. choppe. Swiss kust. pluck. — Chock-full. — See Cheek. a goose's giblets. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. As kushnuti. — — — . kiezen.. Choice is probably direct from Fr. ^S. and Vf. gdnse gekrose. chibble. chives. to try. Chivalry. seallion or unset leek. fine threads of flowers. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . called cMtters in the N. To Chop.vonic languages are Pol. by the vibrations of sound or motion.V)^x. anger. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. cive. ent quarter. kor6n. are used in the same sense. chap hands. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. or original meaning is preserved in G. signify to kiss. a small slice or slip of anything . wkusit' prikushat. to clap up Hal. then to try. whence choleric. to taste. try. and in this sense the * small pieces. Boh.. shoot .ffrill. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. To Choke. a calf's chaldern of E. disposition. of an angry — — — ' ' — . kiusan. to ^cleave .yEuffM. I. friller. cape. a blow. to prove. koren. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. krussyi. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. coup. . . curly . schevel-steen. to try . chife. Choice. &c. specially with an application to theatrical performances. developments of the same radical image. kruszki. a knight. Chives. by which they are Fr. kiusan.' Verie coinme Cot. rare. ruffs. schoch. gustare. taste. and It. a ruff. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . The Sc. Walach. heaped measure. wrath. kiesen. ON. okusyti. propagated. lead us on to Lat. to hack. &c. kausjan. G. skifa. a ruff or frill. Jam. kaup. The manners and senti. G. to exchange horses. i. Gr. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. a fragment. chimp. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. to ing is doubtless to taste. the inwards of an animal. to stop geschoppt voll. %o\ifa. chippe. approve. The I go to prove them. a scale or fragment P1. to tempt.— B jag E. to turn. of E. coro. schiefer. choix. Chuck-full. kusid. Chives are also a kind of small onion. a wine taster. cke. Body and Soul. ments of the knightly class. chiffe. chatter. wein didder for cold. Schmid.ceosan. fresure. Fr. shiver.

kowej Sax. soul-couper. chapineria. that will thank chiaus — you richly.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. e. chapin. In Sc. to knock. to cant. XpvaaXic. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. klopper. by the Robert Shirley. Chord. overset. P. to clack. ceo. kaej Lith. — Dief. Fr. a thick piece. Confounded with the bullhead. chatter . clat.• — . dealing. a trafficker in souls. Borgoens happen. chrisme. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. AS. 49. capitone. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. G. Sw. applied to an owl in that language. gull. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. kowe. a bullhead. peace. civetta. cow-couper.. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. in i6io. fat. noble Doctor. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. in Chaucer. time ra . the string of a musical instrument originally. kaulhaupt (club-head. klompe. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. — — — .povucd. an offence against the fitness of times. Madam. plump. slipper . A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. E. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. kolbe (club). Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. Sp. Chrysalis. Kil. chop. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird.(. cresmeau. the teeth to chatter . I bring you the Cloughs. kubbr. which was written 27. who took in the Turk- clack. a small fish with a large head. Chub.' Jam. ' ' What's that? Dap. Picard. chrysalis (Plin. merchant. as in Fr. capita. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. Jam. to strike in the hand. connected with G. the same word with the It. To Chop logick.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Gr. — Quabbe. E. Lat. syllables chat. short piece kubbug. forms are Chrism. Gr.— Landnamabok. Anachronism. from kloppen. to overturn. and we actually find champman for chapman.). Gr. Chough. Cot. capitanus. prattle . Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. because she would not endure this husband chopping. choucas. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. What do you think of me. cauvette j Fr. chevane.—Chuokstone. sent before him a Chiaus. e. See Chaff. whence the Fr.). chub. we find the following passage Dap. chouette. i. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. A jackdaw. a lump or piece chump. See Change. chack. Chopino. chapma?i. kaufen.— Chevin. p. cavena. kobe. as Du. Ant. Fr. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. Chronicle. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. the intestine of an animal. cangiare. ON. E. or miller's kaycke . kubb. Fr. chronicles. xftovoq. E. Wall. xop5>}. one who buys and sells horses or cows. capito. caqueter. — Chrisom. . Alchemist. — . to chatter. chevane. To coup. gobio capitatus. chroniques. That Face. xpi'^lia. cheap. caphatenus. whence — E. cheviniau. a messenger or envoy. The Turk was here As one should say. cob.. claquer.sohola. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. whence apparently the Sup. If I discover. clogs. &c. of which such strings are made. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. cauc. for to defraud. From the Turkish Chiaus. To Chouse. A fish with a thick snout and head. caker. to speak thieves' slang. —Shakespeare. 4. -chron-. dial. monedula. In the Alchemist. Chuck. to turn over. Fr.\^s. chuet. quappe. Peace. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. thick-set. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. . Fr. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. gold. chouquette. kaw. a stump. Come. Gr. Du. thumb Fl. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. Marin. cambiare. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. a The What dhy ^. equivalent to the E. yiSA. ley in Giiford. chevin.X. bearand aits. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. kauwe. traffic. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . high clog. dial.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Du. OE. whence e. Nominale in Nat. gull. koppe.

The spelling of chider has Chump. as water running over rocks or stones. ChurL husbandman. to To Chuckle. tie about). sindel. See Ceiling. then the on oh StX iv roXt. a husband. Sc. chack or stane-chacker. Ir. — . i.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. Gr. KvptaKolg. Fr. to make a rippling noise. . See Cheek. sindr. sive piratiam facere sciant. to Newsp. -cide-. kjami. whence deciduous (of trees). to separate the kernel of the milk. Wall. log of wood. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. a lump. Churn. Sw. to him a sudden blow. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. Du. however. e. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. chife. to cut decide. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . kernjen. Gothic nations. 24. cendre. giffle. to form grains of butter. Du. chofu. to turn from blossom to fruit. cinctura {cingo. calculus. dust. cheeks Cincture. -cis-. -cido. but by way of explan. to throw out sparks.for the residue of stone coal. comp. dial. ceaplas.— Chu%. cinctus. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. -eris. Lat. surly. sintel.' And cold. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. casum (in comp. chofe (Grandgagnage). tindra. cado. cinders used disjunctively.D. . — of the two words. has been impugned which it has really no connection. the snout of an animal. chakil. whence church. ceaflas. kern. See Cheek. in circumcision. a cutting an old chuff. * Cinder. To chuck in the fall from. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. cut off. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. OFr. swollen or puffed up Cot. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. Jennings. a douse on the tores. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Ka-^aiva. joufflu. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. -cise. to fall upon decide. sinter. a man. have given rise. male person. sicera. to determine incision. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. to fall at or on. from Lat. chack-stone. kiorne. a girding on.. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder.V//a'6'?. with It the Lord's house. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. Gr. whence ON. calx. In Sc. scoria. ON. Da. As AS.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. chuffy. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. kakka. . marrow. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Chuff. kaerle. as Fr. Hence -cid-.— . ON. a resounding object. .rendered by Kil. cinis. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Lat. The derivation from Kvpiasov. Cieling. a man. ciuffo. Diss. to fall. we have to chack. Probably from It. — — A — ' ' — .' he adds. a fellow. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. or choice part of a thing . . to gird. ashes. an old man. Wall.^. incido. Lat. to jaw chack or snap. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. The origin ation. Cob. &c. sindra. gffe. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). &c. Du. G. from Lat. kerl. ceffo. to make a aiKipa. a cutting round. -cisuiri). cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. a man. Fr. or. . cheek. ON. pp. a pebble. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. jaws. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. as Epkema explains it.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. domhnach. cidre. Cleland in Jam. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. so as to make the happen . lamak. a pebble . geaflas. a miser. klakka.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. i. C^z^j^ churHsh. Fris. thence a belt. fat-cheeked. spuma metalli. to strike clatter. Aasen. AS. as in E. flower. to churn. set kerti. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). e. Lat. blow on the I io6 in Mur.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Sicerawry face ceffata. AS. kirna. chaps. joffu. G. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. Cider. ceffore. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. ladre from Lazare. countryman. that the word is an adoption of Fr. karl. Chunk. a rustic . in Sc. Church. accido. in the face. to cause the milk to grain. the kernel. as a board. residue of burnt coals. KaxXij?. It is certain. ccedo. ceorl. pith. x^^i?. to sparkle. chops. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier.

* Cistern. Lat. ON. * Ciplier. cieo. a reservoir Probably from Lat. circum. rattle . lump. a place See place hiddern. around. Scion. . whence cistiti. Gael. prattle. —Circuit. Clam. &c. to bawl. to knock. accordingly find the roots dab. klappe. sound. to cleanse. Cot. -cite. clack. klubb. We . to chatter. of citta. From Arab. gutter. crack. to mention. glambar. Sw. to call. Fr. to chatter . around. cry. or split with noise. . as caverna from cavus. trunk. Arab. a loud uksa slamketi. or quill to draw waier through Fl. Lat. cry out . lump. log. See Circle. domern. Gael. clobyn. 'mass. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. . klimp. clamare. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Gr. civis. outcry. a hiding-place. See -cid-. clapping of klacke. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. a rattle Fr. may cite w. Clump. parallel root is slam. chijfre. and Sp. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). klabb. noise. ruin. cisterna. claquet de moulin. a for water. a Lat. to make to go. clamer. sajira. . . ON. crack. clot ON. clatCot. to cluck. a clod. circum. uproar. twig. a ball. klap. klamp. to go. So a light. klappen. globus. Lat. to call. In Fr. Dan. about. a whirlwind. Recite. circle. a block. It. sprig. cluster. biw. a lemon tree. clapper. klammer. Citadel.' sione. a citizen . a judgment cern. the door was slammed J slamem. — (Dozy) ing blow. Citron. Hal. clog. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. . ter. klacken. Dan. G. KpiKoe. a pop-gun. kringla. noise — — a cistern. To Claim. Sw. crack. hringr. a cleansing place. cifra. Lat. Comp. Du. sifr. Du. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. mass . chest. a block. clangor avium . for Cion. ON. ball kloben. clack-box. Lat. Bohem. cittd. a split. forms — — — parent plant. in the frequentative form. clap. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. klompe. Hence Incite. cion. civilis. chupon. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. smack. a circle. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. clamras. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . claim. and clash. to toll . a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. glam. cion. claquer. excite. to cry out. klekotati. clat. kluV. chupon. cito. Excite. W. -cis-. a rattle . clamp. citujn. lump of wood or with the nasal. . castus). bunch. E. the place of . sphere gleba. sound- — hands figures. a city. the tongue. G. clack-dish. to call by name. suck). klumbr. klqb. It. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . See Crankle. claquer crash. Lat. scion. kringr. cittade. rattle. cisterna. clump. to strike. . clap. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. Gr. cista. Clamp. is traced by Gr.— . circa. a Pol. Sp. a kind of rattle. as. sound of blow. sindri. clamp. to clatter. as in Sp. Fr. Cite. Lap. to clack. KipKog. belonging to cities or social life . lump. citrus. klambr. a'upiav. ern. a clod Russ. scion or sucker. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed.. a city. klemte. a circle. a lump Lat. Circum-. to set in motion by means of the voice. a knob. klacke-busse. fall. empty Golius. to chatter. Fr. Circle. a circle. radical identity of the Fr. to be empty. creak les dents. or clap-dish. Mack. stimulate. Alt. lash . The notion of a lump. a shoot. clasp. chatter . area. with an initial s instead of c. and E. glamm. from chupar. klateren. It. klopati. claquer. a mass. a whip. Chaste. city. The syllables clap. a ball. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. . to gnash the teeth. CION See Tinder. clambar. klater-busse. cit^. wasserkasten (water chest). dim. klump. compared with It. civitas. to summon or call on. a cistern. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. to clap at a theatre. lucerna. clack. a boss . vociferation. and. ring. tinnitus . cittadella. a lump Du. ciste. slam. . prattle. . Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. dob. klak. To Clack. babble . klepati. a young and tender plant. lump . We . to appeal. a kind of pipe. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. City. sip. a. Fr. Lat. bunch .to suck. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. Du. circ2tlus. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. a ring. —Civil. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. E. The Gr. lump.

a heap of stones. chatter. clapper of conies. from the w. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . to hold fast with the . with cramp-irons. dial. and that from celo. a noose . G. ancestor. klette. E. Halma. sound . Du. gum. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. a heap of stones or other things piled up . cling. children. a sound made by a still . da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. Fr. — — . a sound. accent. To clap in E. to hook things together. sticky Hal. a trap. clap. strain . sound object . holdfast. . damras. to Sw^. Clapper. a stone See Claim. take hold of. nature . To sticky. kluppel. clasp. cluster. to gingle. strait. clear sound. B. tattle. stick. closely analogous to that of the fast. is a nasalised form of gripper.' to take coals to Newcastle. grimper. klemmen. — .152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. klepanie. chatter. brawl. descendants . descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. klepati. G. dapi^. G. scendants. glambar. tight. Dan. klang. resonance klingen. to climb. Du. in a hidSen place. — Lat. Clang. sound. The Fr. for tame conies. to cling. dial. klappre. klebern. klopfen. who occuG. &c.1. to climb. pressed close or hard together. kloben. or klamp-vogel. clapas. a stick. a whip. to hold to pinch. viscous. dang. . rumour. clajnmy. privately. dam immediate modifications — . is used in the sense of secretly. In like manner Du. klank. tremble . c). clap. to glue. diver. to pinch. E. klamre. to knock. cleave. pinching. of money Gael. hook. Lang. See Clam. daver. dam. massy. Salainen. to climb. klobber-saen. Swiss kldbem. to. klepel.p correspond- ' without order. offspring. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. G. — Climb. viscosity . tinkle. to dame. . Hence the Fr. Dan. klippe. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. klavre. bandage. These words To are closely connected with damp. klam. Mampe. clav\f. a burr. dam. Bohem. uproar. klammer. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. Bav. a rattle . kleppe. to cleave or stick. to clap on. buckle klamp. G. klam7n. to daub pinch. compress. . of which the locative case. a claw. bond. anything hidden. tingle. to stick conceal. Lat.' klibba. to Hal. seize. dem. Du. but perhaps not directly from it. clammy brace. dienklebber. gliong. of the children. hold. to hide. chief. E. dia. the in many languages. klappen. Du. from birdlime. klamm. narrow. dapier. dink Du. klemmen. G. a sound made by a lighter clink. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. a craCmp. prison. solid. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. tone. dren. to clamp. kleppe. compression. grasp. run to lumps Clandestine. originally a heap of large stones. whence sala. klubber. contraction. Clank. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. and hence moist. cramp. OE. coagulated cream. to knock. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. The E. to beat. to climb. a claw . The equivalent of Lat. klynge sig op. E. clink. to clutch or cling oneself up. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. klamme. conceal. salaan. sound of the trumpet . clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . and hence to pinch . cramp-iron. Clan. dandestinus. children. dambar. knocking. To Clamber. These are imitations of a loud. B. clibby. clamber. hands or claws to grasp. — Cot. celo produces Fin. klampen. salafa. G. to seize. substances of a stickydam. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. dee. cream Manx doan. Dan. kleppen. klynge. dap up. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. gripe. clann. Swiss kletten. klemmen. dam. club .er. clandestine. . to patronus. clangor. .. dank. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. a place underground where rabbits breed. Sw. The root which gives rise to klibb. beat. klammern. Clamour. clang. apprehend . Dan. Russ. klimmeii. as the clapping of hands. beating. to stick or glue. to clap. kleben. to glue. a bird of prey. klappen. a loud tingle. Gael. Clink. a hawk. crowd . — with hunger. adopted Lat. klettern. where- A — unto they retire themselves. klem-vogel. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. dapier. klibber. dientes. to climb. rattle. to climb . tenacious. yf. ney. Clap. to claw oneself up. Clamp. to do anything with a clap. sound. also to clog up. damor. to starve. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. klatten. AS. as the Lat. A i. ring as metal.

uproar. The b readily passes into gleba. a clod. claw (what fastens together. cluster. clew or fasten upon a thing. biichse. blab. Clew. insularum nexus . — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. vinum helvolum. applied in their harness. clausum. pellet . clairon of a trumpet— It. klatscha pop-gun. Claw. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. &c. Dan. is preserved in Lang. the cracking of a whip.It. Lang. Du. Eau clairette. a club or massy stick.). globus. Rayn. a bunch. Thus from Lat. as it is written by Chaucer. Du. Lat. Fr. klijven. and clavis. skeria-klasi. claret win e. to animals Sp. to draw it up into a bunch. from its use in fastening things together. The form clew. biichse. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. rubellum. sound of the foregoing description. clair. But clasp or elapse. nail. is used in Sc. — tells us. sphaera. kleeven. clavus. under three modifications dava. nawith stanis. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. assembly. chiarino. with a reddish tint. a kind of small. gaspe. in the sense of a mass or lump. Sp. also a knell for the dead. Mask ! plask ! thwick. from scknallen. waU. a complete sentence. to do anything with a . thence a definite head of an edict or law. hawk. to patter. Fr.Gr. klot. to clap . chiaro clear. klucz. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. Pol. clew. klauw. a distribution of things into groups. Klatsch- a pop-gun . clatter. and shrill-sounding trumpet. clump. locket of a door. It. fracas. kletse. clairon. — Clarion. contraction. from clinging to the tree which supports it. 269. Clash. clausula. globus. i. pet. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. fragor . the collar-bone. compression. the primary origin clapa. syrtium junctura. but not the full red of ordinary red wine.Z. klatsche. straight-mouthed. Lat. Prov. a key KKtitid. klaterbusse. Owl and that by which cleave to. Lat. whence kleuer. vin clairet. a lash. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack.— CLARET clamp. Claret. an on the one hand. a claw. a sphere . a. a buckle. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. bawling. it is called clamming. . classis. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. The collar-bone. glcis. to snap. From claudo. klauwe. From clairet. klaeret. Russ. klatschen. klaequivalent to clack or clap. Nightingale. a key. to rattle . chiarello. In E. to shut. kleuen. row aii/iaTos. clarin. to ring in such a manner for the dead. klaskad. cloi.to cra. K\a. subrubidum. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. &c. Clavicle. Analogous Jam. a key origmally a crooked nail. Du. buckle. Du. forms are the Du. a bird with powerful talons. as Mod. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. same class with w. from the resemblance to a key. Clasp. crying. which signifies a ball in E. a little hook . To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. clavis. Gr. chatter. a heap. To clew. Commonly made. ghespe. klatschen. Clause. ansa. an ending. stop of an organ.. a lump. Class. Identical with ON. Nawith stavis. to clash as arms. a lump . to knock. flap. chasguear.ck a whip. Du. KXeiSi. mass. It. Clatter. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. thwack . a ball. In the same way is formed the OE. klouwe. to end. and through v into a. klampvoghel. — Clarinet. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. klc^i. cinnamon. a nail. a claFr. ivy. schnalle. Thus from clamp. a. to cleave. or as G. somewhat clear. Serv . So Pol. fibula. rion. klase. in the sense of a claw. . seizes) . a water made of aquavitse. sauna de classes. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. hook. diver. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. clopa. vin claret. G. mass. Originally clasis. teren. klamme. clarinado. dap. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. Fr. klos.\x\xvn. clamp. kiosk bicza. climp.w or u on the other. to fasten together . Cot. —Kil. chiizjj-o. — Kiittner. klampe. Sw. we pass to the E. he of white and red grapes mingled together. Kil. clas. to fasten.oi. a clasp. e. as G. kluczka. Lat. E. puUs. Du. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. ictus resonans. noise. and old red rose-water. Wyutoun in Jam. Eya-klasi. klouwe (Kil.

kleg. (Cot. a mass. kloben. date is AS. conserere antklankjan. as explained under G. famous. to Brilliant. neat. Fr. to separate into parts. The proper meaning of the word is shining. doggy. klirre. and Dan. klirren. Du. To call. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. Dan. of iron worn on shoes by country people. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. is fast and sure. G. klinken.— . clash. pure.). to shine . and E. glitnir. a cleft or fissure. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. as Fr. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. 154 CLAY dutch. to be composed. geklonken. to clench. Bav. cleave. a cleft. Sw. From dob. merciful. the two parts of Du. or of a tree. explained from the klinken. voice. E. To Clench. a fissure. klceg. glor-mhor. tongs. A — A Clement. glbr. to shine. the fork of the body. See Clog. bright. pure. glan. The word is . it cleave together. glan. shine. nitidus. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. glandse. dial. Kil. to clink or sound. chaps in the skin. either by the coherence To Clepe. diquetcr. klieben. to stick or adhere . dags. clear. pellet. a one end. bogs cous. a claw or talon. ON. klincke. words applicable sight. glint. kldnkelein. Wilbraham. klinka. See Clam. . Sw. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. clink. klinken. a lump. klinke. glent. The Dan. neat. Cleft. Axletree clouts. klieuen. lump. glance . mud. opposite senses. to clinch a nail. kluit. danche. Clinch. klinke. provinciaUy termed dout. clibby. a lump. doff. klafwa. a fissure or division See Cleave. The word may be — . calm. Omklinken. give a shrill sound Jr. to stick to. a mass. to fasten. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. a bunch of When flax). Lat. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. door-latch. klyft. speech . . klov. G.— Claggy. G. a plate. that was Torriano. klouen. in two ways. clear. clemens. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. a — — . kloben. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. ON. dinquet kleeven. from diquer. ON. AS. Probably a modification of the word doitt. clean. kluft. clean. to glitter. pure . to tear or cleave asunder. dag. a noose. Du. the To Cleave. loam. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. From clap. a flash. sleek. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. a cleft. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. E. glan. kleverig. Thus from G. to 2. Da. — : A rivet. klor. . to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. and. Lat.Q. Da. gingle. that was a striking proof. Cleat. an object is simply cleft. klutsch. rift. Mar. together . polished. cloven wood. and Celtic glan. glorious. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. Halma. the latch of a door. gaklankjan. Clemency. klank. klink. This is probably one of the clean. the original . . dut. kleg. from nitere. kla:g. klijveii. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. cliquet. Sw. from the clinking of the latch. found in other cases. viz. hook. to cleave. to fasten E. kloue. glitta. klag. a noise. split. radiant. clay . Die zaak is zS. Du. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . glatt. river. to clinch GB. kleevig. sticky earth. W. G. glindse. a in that of sphtting. dench. This word is used in two business is finished off. vice. G. daggy. deot. E. to sound or make a noise . Du. gleit. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Gael. . klouen. clear. celebrated .' was nailed to a rock. kluftholz. seem formed dial. Clay. Clean. sticky. to chink. holding together. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. Du. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. viz. or from being divided into two parts. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc.— Clag. as Lat. a clincher. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. kleben. rivet. smooth. B. gentle. rive. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . as the Du. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. dedgy. bend in a stream. clout. kloben. Du. polish . 2. klove The Dan. Sc. a key. clean. klinke. vissticky . Sc. to fasten. splendid pohshed. dams. kluyte. to dag ox dog. i. pretty. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . as ON. . sticky . Clear. glbram. klinken. clean. a latch. Da. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one.

a hook. precipices. crack. verge). click. Clerk.. hamraklif. cleke. klok klep- crepitare. de ripa. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. to cry. exactly Gr. klaiv. quick in motion.— Clue. dial. dink. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. KkrifoQ.dergie! Wiclif in R. to catch. a claw or clutch. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. from Gael glac. kliv. agile. chatter. ready of speech. cautes. and hence climate. Somner. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. clypian. dexterous. klinge. diver. light-fingered. slope . declivity. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. pulsare. clap. diquette. a clicket or clapper. cliof. syn. a lazar's clicket or clapper. on. to confess . klinke. a cliff. a latch . klev. Sw. the clergy.' ii. catching. Sp. Lat.— Clicket. crepare. in the sense of active. and (with the nasal) — clincher. kleppe. Climax. Claw. In I Peter v. klikker. nimble. dutch). what so men clappe or crie.). a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. quick of perception. 3. neither as having lordship in the. derjon. globus. a mill-clack . cleft of a hill. click. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . a clerk . rupes . a precipice. to tattle. duke. to seize. had a form. rugged ascent. dial. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. click. to cleave. or an object character- Clerical. a ball of twine. deik. as Sc. corresponding to Fr. call. Boh. a lot. that is a clever feUow. a cleft in a rock . klif. Du. a hump. one admitted to the tonsure. to clack. speak. The Sc. Click. CLINCH De . kloof. babble. Gr. Client. Rouchi cliche. chat. deudi. a baU of yarn. has kl'dver. dook (identical with E. would have been derida. clack. . klippe. clyf. with hamarskard. . Clergy. a trigger. derigon. Cliff. d See Clan. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). rock. as from derido. glomus. e. Clam. as a click with the tongue. cave . Du. /cXi'fia. to move. ginally from dob (extant in W. rock. the knocker of a door. The origin is the Gr. on. snatch. ravine. Det er en Mover kerl. Now the OE. to wink. a latch. klouwe. crackle. scar. dial. chatter. cliquet. duik.Lat. Norm. dob. &c. klever. OE. score7i clif. a clew. highest is attained. a ladder. a figure mentioned. clima. kliket. deik. prattle. Lat. Cot. . clatter. Jam. But the Dan. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. Clever. seize (Hal. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. cliff. name. IS5 Du. cligner. ized . say. Chaucer. abrupta rupes . — have the notion of a short quick in E. in precisely the same sense as the E. expeditious. derigo. lively. cleft. has also deik. frap- per rudement une personne. above the pole. Happen. or Sc. sonare. to prate. rapidus from rapio. in rhetoric. klinket. 3. precipice. sink. as Lat. a latch. which in Mid. Commonly derived from deliver. clever. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. is NE. to stir. Klover i munden. Climb. gleg. which is used in Scotch and N. the dick of a latch or a trigger. to bend. Bav. to talk as a parrot. klaffen. cleopian. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. temperature. Hence Lat. region not observe it. to catch. Fr. clif. stein- kluppen. G. chatter. See Clamber. clever. to teU tales. Dunbar in Jam. Clew. a child's or clack . claw or talon to dek or deik. whence Fr. dergi. call. cliquer.) Brai. a sphere. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. cart that tilts over. See Clench. corresponding to the Sc. Sc. a tumbril. Lat. a lump. dough. to tattle. G. from clifian. to snatch. derecia. the clergy clericus. click it. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. deuck. clif- stanas. to sound an alarm to clap. klikklakken. cleft in a rock. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. klika. We movement catch. -Toe (from KXivm. Du. — — A . kleppen. Da. clerus. cleugh. dever. Climate. and hence deik. icXi/ja?. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. clep. to rattle. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. skard. AS. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . CLERK sound of a blow. . one of the clergy. See AS. deuch. littus. diofian. it must be observed. dichet. klippe. climate. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. —Vocab. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. an inclination. a hold. dek. pen. dicher. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik.

. Kil. cloche. to ring. related to clock. G. fetter. Lat. ten.' From Pl. klincke. a lump. iissura. Du. . which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. Clock. hooded . clog. to clip. schnippen. Flem. to bend downwards . a rising ground. difficulty. G. gang. Lat. nip. to resound. E.— Clot. Fr. dial. clique. cloak. ON. to clap or clack. also to form a compact mass.— KSS. clutch. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. Clink. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. Du. I. 2. clingan. klynge. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. klinka. klepalo. as to snip in the same sense from snap. See Cowl. a woman's mantle . So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Gr. To Clip. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. to cling to a thing. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. a bell. Gael. ring clag. klunker. g. verklungeln. w. klippen. a lump of butter. sloping upwards procUvis. . as G. clangere. brett-glocke. and a similar syllable without the /. to wither. Sw. dial. to lean. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. gUong. clato make a noise. hlinen. to snip. like cling. difficulty . The notion of a loose moveable substance. outcry. klocka. slant. klungelin. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. G. . leads to the notion not always of complete separation. See Clang. to pinch klupe. clock is a variation of clack. Cliofue. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. klippa. sloping forwards. to sound sharp. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. a beU. knippe. a bell. kluben. knot klynge. to slope or bend . -cliv-. a clock. toga. a cluster. . knippen. — a mantle. glocke. klingen. klok. to . a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. rima. glungelin. as thick or curdled liquids. pinch. klik. OHG. kluppe. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. claw. to crowd together klynge sig ved. . kleppe. pinch. kolki-laud. and 'E. to crowd or squeeze chingy. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. . the participial form is the nearer to the original root. kolbe to E. -CLINE make pinch. Swiss klokken. to beat. also to wink . To stick to. kliks. ON. sticky. shears. klipa. klicke. toga muliebris. Du. in Schmeller) klunk. Een kliks bolter. knippchen. straits. a ball of thread . clino. kukla. a lump G. to shrink up. Swiss klungele. Da. Sussex peasant AS. to wither. . to snap or fillip schnippen. klippa. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty.' for a dry stick. to snap tongs. 'Till famine cling thee. as we now say three or four o'clock. to cluster. Bohem. to beat on the board. Pl. * Clod.ginglej Fr. Cloak. or bagging clothes. . especially of something soft or clammy. compress . incline. a hood. to AS. clinke. dial. at first probably on a wooden board. globulus' (Gl. Bohem. Serv. Sw. clips. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Sw. chcng. and so' to contract. acclivis. The E. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. club).'— Shaks. Sw. to strike. by bits. Decline. — clot. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. Bi klik uti klak. to snap kneipen. klupen. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. to make a loud noise. klungeln. hluk. G. hluccti. To cut with shears. ' . a separate portion. To Cling. klippe. klunge. to shrink up. hill . because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. Walach. N orman clincailler. -atum. recline. clivus.. Ir. klo^gen. kldpp. hlinian. 156 -cline. Esthon. to pinch. disposed to a thing. klocke. Fr. a faction. E. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades.D. from klepati. S w. kima. to clink auf. klak. kol- The word . to lean backwards. pallium. klippur. a snare. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. dag. Ang. clinker. sloping downwards . a tinman. whence E.. dial. a clog or fetter for a beast . Sw. Du. to knock. speaks of a ' clung bat. kXiVu. to clunge. cochl. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. quincailler. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . bow. klaka. Hal. .und zuk-lippen. ON. incline. declivis. klocke. four of the bell. G. tuft.. met. klinken. noise. &c. G. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. to form one mass with. parva ruptura. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim.D.

da- . to spill liquids. Gr. Sc. klottern. a clog. klotzschuh.D. 3. schlettern. wabbling from Du. figer. schlott. to shut. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. lopperig. Russ. slobbe. TZoxapov. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. Swiss schlott. klunkern. enOE. meat from Du. is connected with pludder. slob. klac. . Du. to flap as loose clothes. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. AS. paludosus. foreclose. tJokok.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. dunch). claque. klot. in forms like Du. -clusum. unctuous. kloten. with Fr. Fr. to bedaub. clotted milk klotte. . miry laggerit. be found rattle. The game called ninepins. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Dan. clot. fors. of something clammy or heavy. dag. G. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. His heart was franlc without a flaw. klokotat. Yule-clog. beklakken. klakken. to paddle in the wet. motte. klos-bane. an imputation.D. a log. E. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. kladde. boil. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. . to a. of a body of any kind. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. shut up. tuditare. lobberen.' end. Du. slab. klakk. aspersion. lag. Cloister. . lump of butter. to bodies. watery. I doda clod. lump of something soft . claggy. klos. to play at bowls. a Christmas log. to bubble. be&c. dirt. to cling locks. schlottern. mire. slobber. Pm. Close. Bav. MHG. zoccoli. to claggock. Klak also. to dash like heavy rain. Pl. gelatinous. kleck or lack. Lat. slops slodderen. Pr. loose. laggery. truncus. In the same way Dan. . Hence inclose. klod. dangle. inclose. bemired. to rattle. To Clog. Closhe. • lump. bowl . Clog. to slop or spill liquids. neither spot nor hang loose. to flounder in the wet. . . -cludo. klotz. schlattern. lunch. to shut. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. klateren. The origin of clod and clot is to . like G. kloteren. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. slabberen. curdled. E. to rattle. from Du. loppe. kloden. and E. lumps of butter. to shut up. in accordance with It. A — — A Thus from Bav. slops). and Gael. tramp in wet or mire. bloutre. or loppern. lob. Mat. kloster. finish . spatter. dab. dial.— Clothe. and thus seem endowed . To hinder by the adhesion Sc. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. splash. hanging loose and full. the radical sylla. compared with clump. paddle. -close. to lobberig. clotted locks Dan. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. Lat. and Du. A . blot. wide bagging clothes. loose mud. Klottermelck. terminate. daustrum. loose trowsers. to rattle or shake to and fro. Idppern. pludre. zocco. a dirty wench claggy. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. fat. motzen. . spot of dirt. lump of mud on the clothes . bespotted with mire E. then liquid or loose substance. a spot. geschlotter (as E. chiuso. chiudere. closed. a blot. IV. clorre. daggerey. paddle or dabble in the wet. in accordance with Pl. a log. in comp. a babbler. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. forbidden by 17 Ed. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. we pass to Schlatter. shaky. a trowelful of mortar. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. clogs for the feet klakk. a portion of something soft and adhesive.. It. .). dirt. to wabble. kl'dnken. congeler. je amoncele. from claudo. I clodde. kloteispaen. clausum. a block. or Sc. pattens G. . cloth. laggyn. Fr. log. plod. Fr. or drablyn with separate existence. without. thick spoon . g. Fr. thick sour milk. a skittle-ground klos- sen. claudo. clammy loam. a monastery. clos. loblolly.dial. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. analogous plan to clod or club. Pr.. to sup up liquid food. a clod. clogs. a lump from Du. doitre. or E. .rge lump. to dabble. separate part. close. slobberen. mud klcEg. clausum. schlotter. from Fr. G. . -clus-.1a. to dabble. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. clos. lopin. lobbig. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. a bal!. a field inclosed clos. loppered (of milk). ! . lobberen. He was a man without a dag. clatk. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). m&se noch stain. slop. we pass to E. mud. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. to close against one.'^ Palsgr. klag. whence klack. clog or overshoe. a blot. . I clodde. rattle. . . is a blot on one's character. shut up. to shut in. kleck. a clod Swab.

. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). a clubfoot klabb. indispalte knoblauch. coarse. kluppe. a ball. to cloy. mary sense is a blow. warm. More in R. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. to lump mend clumsily. a nail) Fr. kldverj P1. tered . strike. and clay. clods. cluster. a curdled sky. klotsen. . E. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. Gael. the terms expresssplit. dirt. to beFr. klaven. klieven. klubb. The significations of a clod or lump. the air.D. A division of a root of garlick. a lump. Properly that which covers and Du. log. Rouchi dapoter. a ball. clobyn. a clown. formed lump or thick mass. to a lump. sticky. a bunch. cobble. klcBdi. puddle. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. klebek. klunds. Dan. a cover or coverture . cluth mhor. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. Then applied to a lump of mate. duthaich. but confounded with cailler. clothes). ON. probably from daboter.). clammy earth. and -the word Clove. Met. a clod. Gael. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . w. klonte. dial. a knot of people. a clot or keeps one warm. warm place . lunch). of ordnance is said to be cloyed. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. to strike .' Sanders. klqb. botch. a ball of twine . A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . Coventry Mysteries in Hal. dabaire. cludadh. N. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. Clover. a clod or clot. kloven. Kiittner. clot . — — — . aglio. dillad bumkin. dash (Cot. From dog. also homo obtusus. Mabousfrom Lat. diboter. wisp. a bunch. a bunch. lump. kl'dnne. clump. dob. eine to slop. of a lump of earth and that figure. AS. CLOUD an awkward clod . A kind of spice resembling Du. dys. clunch. Clown. — . klotzig. a breach. ON. klove. clog. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. Fr.). dump. . In the same way E. warm clothes {dillad. and closely do conspire. to strike. . esdaboter (Roquef. lumps of curd. klumba. Sp. mass. nelke (dim. clothes ment. caillebottes. lie clyd. to cleave or the splashing of water. Move. of nagel. Imitative of the note of a society. blockish. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. a bobbin. klubbe. spice) G. a fissure. Sw. choke or stop up. clot. and tapp. matte. Sw. make warm. Du.Fris. in the same sense. Du. with lout. nagelein. clunch. I. a lump. lump. a sticky.clod. and of a rustic unpolished person.ft. to cover Bret. eene ODu. de Champ. E. of sloppy materials. from kloven. Du. and clout d eudaich. G. Cld. unpolished. zolla dell' . Clump. to tramp in the kluyve. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. warm. w. stock. mud (Pat. clue. G. klotz. klumpfot. group of people Sw. . a patch. G. Du. a ball. to stop. clou de girofle. klobbersaen. een klaven kruflook. sheltered up warm. clot. cobio. as Fr. a blabber. davus. piece Cot. (kruyd =. kloete. dial. clotted milk or cream. a nail. boucher. CLUCK rustic. clump of a clout on the head. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. clavo di especias. klu77ip. a bousche. dut. clumhar. from OFr. are often connected. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. clydion. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. klubb. Du. milk run to lumps. cob. Du. a log. motte. To Cloy. nourish . Das volk hat sich in splitten. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown.D. dote. clyd. a. to curdle. . It. clod is used in both senses . daggy. to splash. a . klump. So Fr. dabosser. to cherish. a boss.bar. a log.). when something has got into the touch-hole. from Du. sheltered . cloud Delfortrie. a clove of garlick.D. kluV. AS. knob. chiodo di girofano. zolla. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. klubba. block. hebes (Kil. E. Pl. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. Clumpered in balls of clouds. knob. from W. botsen. del mattond. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. To Cluck. a garthas. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. clod. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. of thumping clumsy action. The radical sense seems to be an unE. Club. tuft. ser. a sky Cot. naegel. dial. Cloud. are also used in the sense of a stopper. ball of thread Russ. to cleave. mire. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. a thick mass.158 . loggish. 2. kUid. The priClout. lump. lump of earth aria. little nails. shel- kloen. G. rustic. cludaim. bunch. clothe.). Ir. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. klever.

Cath. claudo. Lat. klods. klisse. clausum. as from seken. idle. Du. thick and clumsy. COAL dumpish.mene tied. smart motion. of Du. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. dek. MHG. dial. obstructum. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. also a cluster. — . clump. clointer. to wash. cluster. awkward. from laver. Clump. doquear. ON.E. klunsen. -close. and klotteren. kohle.D. a bunch. — sen. Du. Lat. See -elude. as clumper. * Clumsy. Gr. to curdle. A group. duke. to collect in lumps. ill-made . a noise. ' Clumper. From the notion of sticking together. -elude. clip or pinch. klompen.' Benecke. E. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. dumps. to wash. klontet. klemma. cliboter. 159 E. hands stiff with cold. cluntClyster. koetsDa. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. klister. in v. klump. glousser. Sp. wooden shoes. klummerhdndt. koetsie. Com. Fr. havi. kichlemmit. wagen. er. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. . Lincolns. or from Sw. and make ye strong feeble knees. ball of snow on horse's foot . verklomen. G. pinched. Variation of clatter. — Hence include. Champ. It. ' Uorte (for clogs. to paddle or dabble. Du. to tramp. dumpers. to benumb with cold. clook. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. Boh. Pl. carriage in which you klodset. In the same way Du. as Fr.pare P1. claw. Pl. a couch. a ball. Graff in Klamjan.' Vegecius in Way. seize. klamp. a clod or lump. kluntfrom KKvKdi. verkommelen. lay hold of. a clove Sw. plad or plod. a coach. Sw. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. But clunchy. a clod clunter. klomen. hooknosed. clabosser. a ball . lump of soft mate. clutch. —To Clumsyd. -clus-. Analogous forms with a tongs. MHG. coccolare. unhandy. Isaiah. esclaboter. unhandy. klocken. to shut.D. with a quick. to syllable click. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . klummklummshandt. klont. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen.D. Sc. eviratus. —More. cleik. paste. kol. klonte. Ang. from klupen. Clutter. Beklummen van kelde. close. claws. conclude. klunt. strum on an instrument. Pm. algidus. the word is more probably connected with OE. with E.forklomme (Outzen). . enervatus. The sense of awkward. dussomed (Wilbrabam). klamen. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. to to snatch. to tramp or tread heavily. n. a block. limp. Fr. finish.' Wycliff. benumbed with cold. Hindust. unfashioned. to pinch. splash. beklummen. gelidus. dystere.D. whence koetse. ' Thou clontsest for cold. hand to cleuk. through the senses of lumpish. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action.— — . OE. in comp. crooked inwards . log. to grip. a clod or The noclot. are the nasalised forms of klotte. koetblockish. unwieldy Hal. conclusion. acomelydfor could Pr. * Clump. Cheshire.' Comfort ye dumsid. klimpern. — Cot. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. clopiner. to klotz. differing only in the absence of the duik. eene beklum. clumsy. Sw. to lie. klemmen. 130. to squeeze. ' . awkward. . Riwle. klos. from ON. a clot klissen. cleuk. inclusive. Teulazy. a lump or compact mass. -olus-. G. to gingle. hondis. dial. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. cleche. klonte. klette. clotted cream. eviratus. may recline.. Ray. a litter. The Fr. glocire. -CLUDE hen Du.D. klampa. klcise. bunch. or aclommyde. coucher became in unhandy.e. and klonteren. lavesen. See reclusion. a pinching time. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. Cluster. fingers (familiar). ether comelia P. clutch. a nasalised form of club. Du. tight — — . exclude. klikaty. OHG. xXvariip. to tramp.P. Coal. having the Pl. E. dial. and koetse. -clusum. — ' — — tonista.'— animal. klikonosy. a lump. G. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. dumpse. of garlick. an instrument for nasal form e. a clod or lump. rial. a claw. . pladdern. klobber in klobbersaen. Fris. dek. Du. dial. to rinse. Muster. klumpig. Fr. calling her chickens. might be reached from clump. ball as snow. Clutch. viscous material. koetsen. -cludo. Hence cleik. heavily. klumpern. properly to do anything Fr. ment.Ancr. to curdle. Coach. Compare Swiss klupe. to stick together . &c. G. Hence snatching. a lump. klomje. wooden sole. to curdle. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. beklommen. Hesse.

probably left his home. acomelyd or aclommyd. pryf-coppyn. ailina or colina. The OE. niais. to wheedle or gull vermin). Trevoux. plaisant. Cobbles in the N. things. cluster. cobble. in Essex Jow*2c^. E. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn.(pi. the one of thump. kuppa. CooMneal. . throw a blow. then to work unskilfully . petrilla. hakkelen. glow. walk clumsily. Du. e. sweets and the other of poisons. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. says Varro. . cochinilla. Flem. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. cacd). caleo. to Lett. w. and thence a lump cobnut. as in arr. a similar According to Ihre. to hobble . to stutter. large stones . properly to daub. a sow. Coalition. habble. a spider (/r)^=grub. See Cot. Lat. itself is Nescock . to . gull. verklomen.. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. to pdt with We may cite Fr. pock. to burn. or upper . ON. cokes or fool of him. to grow together. Coat. The contrast between the bee • Cob. any kind of coat. a firesteel Lat. to bungle Sc. When the . The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . are often connected. 3. tuft. a kitchen. to bungle . The dirt. a coat or frock. to form an union with another coalitus. dial. H^cart. coste. ignem.). gull. Lat. that is. In the E. to kindle or cause to burn . or cobble. cob. a pock mark.inflated with air or liquid.' — Thus from (Hal. Coast. to cobble shoes. staggering or halting. to knock. a nest. klabbsmed. to beCoax. tempered clay for building. . poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. imbecille. are round stones or round coals of small size. — Pr.the water boils. cokes was a simpleton. grown together. numb. T' waerkopet. or E. a rib. rivation are found in Sw. a great falsehood.' And colo. cule cocosse. to be inflamed . Cocasse. To cobble. may be A found in Sw. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. s. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. unfledged bird. k'dlla. Coalesce. woman is said to be very ordinary. to worship. frock. koppe. from some fancied resemblance. in Du. Outzen. dial. is one of thump. — Cobbler.a spider. dial. glow jvalaya. pustule. A spider's web. Fr. a bungler. Fin. klabba.). give the full meaning of the word. kylla. — — — E. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. pustule. Pm. and E. It.. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. of E. ridi. united. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. a knock. a woodlouse. cock or nescock. a cobweb. cobcoals. OE. probably from the Fr. used in — . a darling. and jval. Sanscr. to peck as a hen cobyn. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. an old idiot. ordinary as in the expression of course. Colina' the place where a fire is made. flame. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. a tuft. burning. s. dim. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. and imperfect or unskilful action. quilet. Dan. cofasse. inflammation. koljarn. — Cleveland Gl.). also a coast.—Atkinson. cob is a dumpy horse. and hobble. and the spider as collectors. long standing. side . — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. to strike. costa. to glow . Fr. to cob. of poison. a spider. . kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. cotte. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. A plausible origin. kop. the designation may have be