Dictionary of Etymology_1872



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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


in language of the present day. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. the present day. or Mollein. muK) and mae (rfie. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle.NURSERY IMITATIONS. come Moolls. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. to the syllables which are significant to the child. with an initial m or I. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. the closer we shall approach to the . in other words. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. the baaing of the sheep. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. is given to a cow or calf. The syllables moo (mu. name of the cow. persons of different tongues at the present day. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. and mully or mully cow is the . mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. and. and where we are seeking. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. mind of the of the animal. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. when we is represent to our children of the cow. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. by whom the be understood. Molli. when neither name for the object to be designated. or.

to work over with the mouth. nineteen years old. and which we might express thus. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. On one occasion he said^e nim. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. he called to to drink. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. p. He would now say good. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. then. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. analogous to Magyar mammogni. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. &c. First. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. when hungry. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man.' he says. in children's language. Gr. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. by the natural humming sound. for everything fit to eat. his nurse adopting the word with him. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. 72). .. nim. Gradually. A member of my own new sfop. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. We have. partly from sounds which the child caught. for things. repulsive to eat. fiafifi&v (Hesych.). had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made.' In ordinary speech mump. to eat. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. schipp. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. hm. Finally an n was placed before it. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. . which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. and some were very clear and distinct.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. to For instance. for bad. Heinicke. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. became more perfect. mumm. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. and nim came to signify everything edible. as well as the mind of the utterer. family. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. had nim. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. I had watched the growth of this word.

A negro proOr. jammla. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. voracious. stolen. (in chil- dren's language). and the fizzing (and Series. nam. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. ' id est.' And Diomedes. to move the lips in continued chewing. p. Africa) nimnim. buckra man's language the white man. Swedish dialect gamsa.). or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). to eat mampfen. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. and thence to be tasteful. mumpfen. to chew laboriously. Nimm'd up. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. as to . to be pleamind . to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). lita. to take. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. memmexen. Galla djam djeda. jumla. nvrnma. . ' Motherwell. make djamdjam). or word-making. aptantes adfectibus vocem.' says the author of Modern Slang. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. mujnpa. Wolof nahenahe.' — Lersch. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. dial. sweet (Koelle). 1 86). djamdjamgoda (to say djam. the Scotch poet. nobis vix permittitur. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. 130-1. i. iii. and some of them . i8o. Gothic niman.minis. we can call them so. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). snatched (Whitby Gl. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. Vei (W. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes.ONOMATOPCEIA. South Jutland hiamsk. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Soosoo (W. Africa) nimi. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. j ing . the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. namnam. to mump. to fill the mouth. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. agreeing with Ein. eating. Primitive Culture. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . aves tinnire. crab nam buckra man. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature.' says Quintilian. delicacies. yamming. on. mumpfeln. mumble. as well as the Sw. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. to eat. ut tinnitus aeris. tidbits nama . jamsa (yamsa). greedy . palatable. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. clangorqae tubarum. taken up hastily on the sly. oves lalare. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). food (Tylor. at hiamske i sig. to smack in eat. and the crab — p. nyam nyam. savory. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. to Sw. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. to taste .

between dog and harking. or. neighing or whinnying of horses. bleating of sheep. might be used as the designation of it.' And elsevs^here (p. do not speak of a bowwow. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. not of a moo of Lect. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. grunting or squealing of hogs. whether it deserves the name of language. baaing or maeing of lambs. for the purpose of bringing the animal. bumping of bitterns. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. chirping of sparrows or crickets. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. purring or mewing of cats. yelping. cooing or crooing of doves. before the in other words. bellowing of bulls. Indeed. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. howling. snarling of dogs. cackling or gaggling of geese. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. lowing of oxen. might be used. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. We . dove and cooing. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. ^6^. a lamb. twittering of swallows. 'I doubt. barking.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. und growling.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. when circumstances required. p. 89) with less hesitation. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. that there is When Man. Yet we ing. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world.' — We speak of a cow. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. anything connected with it. intended in the instance to represent the cry. croaking of frogs or ravens. chattering of pies or monkeys. not of a baa. hooting of owls. but of a dog.' he says. or thoughts of our hearer. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . yelping. sparrow and chirping. gobbling of a turkey-cock. snarling.

ghak. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Sometimes the hoarse i . Manchu The kaha. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Hungary. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence.IMITATIVE NAMES.. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Malay gdgak. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. kauwe. Columbia kahkah. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. according to Durga). whose sound (Pictet. He to is therefore derives kdka. 4th ed. is kuM) for the cuckoo. having a general predicative power. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. Aoo-Aoo. a crow (Pictet). derived fi-om a root ru or kru. Arabic kdk. We imitate the sound with a modulated. a daw. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. Georgian quaki. 'Kdka. a a crier (p. in g. 380. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. it announces (Salaberry). he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. a bird that is be driven away. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. and gaggele or gagkelein. in is Gr. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. kuho. birds. Sauscr. crow. coccolare. layitavya . roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. fi-om apakd- i. Origines Indo-Europeennes). so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. kdka. e. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. or quawk. caw kuhii-rava (rava. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. sound). KOKKvi. Bav. 349.). and the sound of that direction. In Basque.' kd). crow. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring.). to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. In Lat.' common sense. a crow. ist ed. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. Kdrava. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. and means a shouter. caller. kae. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. lion. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Picard cau. Barabra koka. and Bavaria respectively. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. gackem.

Gr. a crow. wood-pigeon. Magy. coqueri- Languedoc. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Malay kukuk. to crow. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . giving turtur (and thence It. to cry loudly. German luhu. to croak. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. k. or Gr. to hoot. kraeye. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. German and Eng- krahen. xi. "Welsh hwan from hwa. while crouk. 6. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin.. turtle) as the Lat. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. by the verbs gurren or girren. a crow lish Lith. Sp. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. are represented. a crow . and sometimes both together. kuku. kurre.. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. name. coucouva. Lettish kiekuts. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. coccovaec. Du. gufo. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. Fr. lulo. Hindi. p. Pers. kukko. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. kukhuta. either in the same or in related dialects. Du. another. to crow. Arabic tdtwit. libufs. koeren. synonymous forms of similar structure). krauklys. Dutch kievit. tor. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. and e. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. girre. as well as of Sanscr. in the North of England. kruk. German kielitz. cock. Scotch peeweip. The consonants p. to croak. Yoruba koklo. tur. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. yell. t. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. korren. The crowing of cot in Fr.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. teewhoop. tbrtora. tbrtola. kraukti. gugu. great variety of oKokv^uv. and e. Albacuculi a dove. Zulu kuku. 219. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. uhu. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . tortbla. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. krahe. kraeyen. Ibo akoka. name of its is the bird. So we have Polish krukac. Walachian coucouveike. Da. the name for a crow. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. French dishuit. the name of an animal will gen- . lUyrian kukurekati. It. kirren. Mod. hibou. reduplicate form. lilits.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. tuquheit. Esthonian kikkas. Heb. ghughu. to howl or Lat. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Swedish kowipa.

The drone peal. and not from E. ajo. Gaelic dranndan. droning is . Corean sirsor. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. kong-kong. in allusion to its music. swirplys with 6. to chirp J may be compared with . Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. gives rise to chwymores. to shrill sound sharp. The name of the cricket indeed. Danish dron.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd.' — i. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu .vf3. to sound. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). g. hollow noise. words imitative of humming . zirken. Fin.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. The Welsh chwyrnu. succeeding each other — with noise. cricket is from crick. g. and probably indicates that g. i. the humble. bamba. German drohne. skryle. ' Sanscr. of England it is to the b 2 . Speaking of a cricket he says. Northern Farmer. pip-pi-ta. North of England. skirl. g. ' — Pictet . from the humming. (Jieuschrecke) . din. bee. to creak Bret. from schrick. We may cite Gr. grille. a beetle druna.' Amazons. oE. schwirren. Albanian tsentsir. Arabic tantanat. — Catafogo. to hum. a sharp sound as of a 6. bambhara. Sc. grylhis. as . Lith. common. a fly (Tylor) . Danish gnaddre. with or Fr. 337. flight its sting considered as a horn. there are infinite varieties. loud rumour. The Arabic sarsor. a bee.' —Tennyson. skril with n. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. growling. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. buzzing. to be compared with Sanscr. to rustle. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. schirke. to chirp . Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. shrill. or a gnat fly. Lithuanian tranas. Lat. resound. schrickel. resounding of musical instruments. to grumble. and yelping cry. little intermission. humming. grillen. German dronen. the drone or non-working bee . e. whirr). PofijivXwg. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. knetta. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. a drone. a hornet.or bumble-bee. dhran. 'The natives call it tanand. thunder. give a faint sound. sound. Australian bumberoo. buzzing. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. ta-na-nd. glass cracking (Schmeller). In the N. schrecke. booming. German hummel. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. and he kong-ko-rong. Sanscr. horniss and from the buzzing The. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. representing a short sharp sound. chirk. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. Naturalist on the tocano. which they make in their flight very . sirkka. a small as hawk is .IMITATIVE NAMES. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner.

p. verb is evidently identical with our shout. bubati. Thus from miau. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. make poo. to mew. to make a loud deep sound. muJiati. bubenti. btibleti. say. to low or bellow. bwla. from the imitative moo instead of boo. biibnas. bos. to bow- own bawl. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. Lat. to shout. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. w. to make. Da. are (with a subsidiary k). that the imitative syllable are Lith. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah.XX called booing. grumble as distant thunder . Zulu lulula. to shout. bauli. bullock. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. It. Fr. bolt. bae. or formed Lat. a cow. is inadmissible. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. baula. to bellow like a bull. Fr. OFr. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. (iove. bu. maukati. Lat. to ba-L-are. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. miau-l-er. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. On the same principle. a buffalo. lulauti (to hoo-loo). in same way. as the Illyr. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). to make a noise. Piedmontese fi bau. Lat. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. or a z to the imitative syllable. forms a. buculus. mamoo-heeheek. ox. to boohoo. boo. as that of the cow by boo. Gael. a bull. a Geiger. whence baula. to or bark. to low . to from bau. 167. bucula. to . representing the mew of a cat. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. His analysis leads cow. in a imitation of a ringing sound. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. Norse bu. to the uses goda. representmake bow. a heifer. or with on. a drum . i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. and in Hottentot baa was the . The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. w. to low. loge. and from to ring. Illyr. The Piedm. With these analogies. a bullock. Hottentot bou (Dapper). — ^Tylor. or moo. bugler. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. bugle. bae. make to it laugh. The Galla lilbil. bull. mugire. verbal form given to the say. to beat hard. From baa. to bump as a bittern Illyr. bo. or bau-l-i. agreeing exactly with Lith. shoot . and djeda. bue. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. Cult. amuse. has bilbilgoda. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. be-l-er. to sound. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. the animal. k or g. to make. Manx booa. to weep. Galla boa. mae. From the same lioao). bullus and e. bukati. mugler. fivKaofiai. cattle. the Fr. bovis. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. and thence Lat.

groin. smack and naski. — . he would hardly. It is probable also that e. and of (maelon). . and thus explains the origin /3^k»). lekavica. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. from knurre. Manx meilee. menAda (ndda. with the root ypaipm. mutter. naskia. hadg- Magy. growl.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. grogner. /xijeao/iat. Illyr. and hoc'h. corresponding to ohg. in v. . remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. name of a sheep. grunny. grumpf. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. It. does not produce a e. Hence Breton hoc ha. and grumphie. 6. grunlike a pig in eating. meigeal. Gael. and Circassian maylley. name. purr). From the imitative mae. may with to snarl. to bleat. hundi). houch. G. Gr. a grunt. lek-eg-ni. to bleat. kurren. a (Hesych. may be identical with Esthon. hunt (gen. Illyr. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. grumble. a hog. a goat firixal^ta. and with the subsidiary k or g. hound. lecco. And it is true there between hog and grunt. the designations of a dog the term cur. oe. a pig. rumbling. a. kurre. a dog. signifying a snarling. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. a pig Fin. to themselves. . but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. ' In driving. grumble. (iriKov of forms like Sw. hunon. sound. this obstinate race. as lou of an ox. to rumble. goats. the snout of a pig. curmurring. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. hund. nire. a sow. Da. Idgge (Rietz). is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. ^. from hundama. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. The g. meil. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr.). sheep or goat. a sheep or ewe. it and e. Magy. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. in Wolof bae. hwch. a sheep (Lowe). In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. although the imitation embodied in Lat. cry). Africa laa. With gen. cite as by grunt. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. a goat. meketati. sus-sus. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. knurfisk. to howl. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. leg-et-ni. to grunt. lambs. / The same Gr. a goat. to bleat . a sheep or a goat. leknuti. Moreover.' Moor's Suffolk words. meckern. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. a sow. mecati. grumbhng. a wolf. name of the animal itself. karra. to grunt. mekegni. a sheep. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. /xj/caScj. grugno. Illyr. guttural tone. Fr. and snorke. as the proper name of a tame sheep.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Gr. Welsh and Breton). meugler. Gr. Kurren und murren. Among dog. Fr. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. by which the shingle gives rise to It. we have Sanscr. to growl. and thence groin. or in any ! way ! persuading. for the voice of the ox). grunt. undoubtedly imitative.

. Thus we are led to the Fr. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. from the cry animal. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). p. hobby. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. (Craven Gloss. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. the cry to stop or back a horse. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. of the character in question. There are of course some names. a little am- bling horse.. hottihuh. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. hobin. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). M). as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe.root. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. hiine. If onomatopoeias can . but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.). to the left. But words of this kind are. when he found peculiarity. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. a horse. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. coquette. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. g. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. hoppe. e. houpy in Craven. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. hobben. like artificial flowers. Sc. . In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. such as cuckoo. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. to whine. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. without a — we root. p. as in Yorkshire highly right. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. cockade. coquelicot.' 2nd Series. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. So Sanscr. ^6<.' ticular bird. turn a horse to the is In Finland. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. humma. Esthonian hoibo. . 91. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself.). which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. to go backwards. animal. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold.' — ist Series. a mare. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.

hross. wiehern. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. fehtati. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. redpole. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. Sanscr. horse. . extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved.D. form corresponding hresh. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. as sigh. rinchar. but whether there kind between them and other words. Sp. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. command of language was attained. wrena. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. hresh. wagtail. to neigh. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. ance or habits of the animal. hukkup. goatsucker. groan. creeper. Lettish sweegt. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. wrenska. ginniken. moan. nounced with a guttural). Bohem. Pl. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. than to the sounds represented. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. hennir. lapwing. titter. to Sanscr. e. xxiii ginal object. animals or certain kinds of sound. swift. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. Fr. signified It. hresh. whitename in in- throat. frenschen. Sw. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. runniken. and if there all knowledge of the Lat.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. cough. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. woodpecker. Irieschen. g. diver. Du. giggle. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. nitrire. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. little speak for themselves. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. sol. hikkd. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan.

To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. &c. 1865. for in such sound of blows.' it both sides went. mer. in a nail Let. to beat. scream. atchian. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for blows with a rod. bang ' ! trenches.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. banga. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. a kind of drum. a more expressive than the e. Of a like forma- drum . to drive on. hoo. fitsche-falsche. shriek. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. snukkup). lumm. bangas.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. a large bell. for that of breaking. an attempt would be made to by the voice. thunder (Tylor) .^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. pit-a-pat. pump. knarr. bang. hang. the dashing of the sea . tisio (tisho). or the w. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. aritischane. for the sound of a fall. to hammer . Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. beat. ping came the bullets about their ears. Da. Mei gbengben. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. It is represented in e. root kshu. haw. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. for the for the sound of . I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. Australian bungbung ween. . acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. ding. knack. to ham. for the creaking of a wheel. DingBang. debhes-lungotais (deifies. or tliat is accomit.' ! ! ! ! — dong. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. Vei gbangba. White Lies. went the cannon.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. beat of a clock child . klatsch. heart tick-tack. to sneeze. for the sound of a blow. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. Wtb. &c. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . hoo ping ping.' So imac. are familiar in ' to every one. dong Read. plitsch-platsch. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. for the sound of milking. clap ! A smack Puff. banke. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . strippstrapp-stroll. ting-ting. haitshu. Zulu bongo. on the chops is represented also by pratx. tlirob. heaven). to knock. snort. oren : Klapp. wheeze. —Brem. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . the God of thunder .' 'Haw. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. — Sanders. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. to throw violently down. snore. for a small one. atchini.

child. pipilo. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. young child . Florio. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. — . the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. pigolare. and whimper. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. as k. laugh. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. is pfeife. piou. to peep It. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears.) a chick. has been un- employed to designate fixity. —Lyndsay. pigiolare. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. pipio. calls S. De Brosses. pippione. doubtless. cry of young birds . to squeak. bleat. to cheep like a bird or a young It.' instead. the voice of chickens (Cot. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. In cases such as these. mobility excavation and hollow ^. pipelni. Magyar pip. a fife or musical pipe. a chicken or gosling. a or cheep. piou. pipare. had been used laugh ? two. or a piailler. pule. and so forth. far pipi. not- . It seems to him that the teeth t. Mantuan pipiare. Gr. pipio. ducing the sound. is of expression. used as a call to . or the uneducated different consonants are man. e. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. as in other subjects of study.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. pu. Lat. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. piauler. Lat. as the simplest implement for proFr. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. peep. pipe. a whelp. scream. to cry like imrli^u). and their relations. to cry pi. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. cry. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. . At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. pigione. a (young) pigeon. He Yet asks. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. peep. G.sc. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. which he added to intensify the expression. young bird. Fr. chickens (Tylor). The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. to designate cavity and hollow. part of the What consciousness has the child. a fowler's bird call is lost. pi. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. of a word will appear supposed to represent. pipe. pipegni. piccione. The pi.

and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. karkarana. coo. a sharp short one. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. of a loud strong sound. along with tinnio. preserved by Kilian. to ring pipio. a short sharp sound. rumble. of something fine and thin. to jar. or springing back. creak. sound). the side of g. make wood a clinking noise. to gorgogHare rattle. murmur (by . crash. to crackle like in boiling . Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. Indian chack-chack.Gr. It. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. rumble. tintino. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. kniks. kirkirdnd. laqfF. kniks. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. to hawhaw or laugh loud. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). grumble. in German. the clucking of a j hen . turtur. Hindoo tomtom. a closed or obscure sound. as the click of a latch or a trigger. Pacific aka-aka. i. cricli. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to growl. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . to rattle. to gurgle. garren. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . kuruk. &c. to grumble). The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. sound of dry breaking. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to grumble. borrelen. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. some small vowel or consonantal sound. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. and lugh. knuks. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented.. to cry pi. a prolonged sharp sound. Manchu kaka-kiki. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. knaks. as representing the sound made when something breaks. to cluck. thunder oil . gurren. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. where the variation. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. lachachen. lachen. girren. . murren. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. . to thunder. knurren. cluck. crack. {to It. to pant violently (Colenso). to fizz like fat in frying. to grate the teeth . tonare. to bubble. bubble. when it force than biscuit. u. or kaka-faka. loud laughter. tontonare. to creak knirren. chack. Hindustani karak is rendered. to be compared with Sc. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . Zulu raraza. along with Du. like the noise of a glass breaking . pi . it is If laugh were written as pronounced.) Mod. be cate to go on laughing loud . is very common. Poppopvi^to. rumble (Fl. a. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to gargle .. to pant bejii- zela. a drum W. Pefuxela. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. to clack. vaake gorgor) . to laugh. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- .

or the bubbling up of to a spring. The whispering of the wind I. shout. while cacd / used in e. e. Galla tuma. 368). expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. borrelen. caca and Finnish adkkd. for the clinking Lat. to be compared with g.and e. and Gr. for a tTviror). to giggle. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. agrees with g. The syllables lil-bil. or of bells ringing. Prim. to the purling of a brook. rain (Tylor. and e. to say chut. Maori pata. koXiw. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. chut. klirren. hala-hald-faMa (falda. tumwata. quarren. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. of keys or tinkling of bells. corresponding in e. rifiirayov. sound. the sound of a stringed instrument. and Gr. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. call. word.* the heart. champ. tubh. . correspond to e. a workman. 192). for the sound of privy whispering. to knock. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. spring of water in the a bell. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. as Fr. tup. for the ringing of illustrate bells. Magyar csamm-ogni. bent her head. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. cry. disturbance (F. uproar. and bilhila. drops of i. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. indicating the origin of Gr. jingle. and her heart went thump. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. is based on the same imitation as the e. bad. tumult. the gingling of glasses. muro and e. kl'mg-kling. are applied to the is excrements of children. simmer. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. compared with Gr. a nightingale. and the same may be said of Zulu kala.' Member for Paris. the tingling Ming-Hang. a nightingale. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. rvir (in tvittio. chuchoter. thump. clank. halaidlac'h. sound). at an accelerated note. a drum . Sanscr. fumtu. djeda (to say tub). Turk. awater* ' The Mme P. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. brings us to Fr. KaKog. Calt. clash of arms. Fr. Newman). make djamdjam). . bubble up. Manchu kaka. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. and the imitative nature of tivgle. to strike. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. is Manchu tang-tang. to ring or jingle. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. Scotch sough or sooch. as of Tamil muromurmur. or to Du. 1871. for chut-chiit-er. ding-dong. to beat. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . a boy's whistle. croaking of frogs. coughing or clearing the throat. chinking of coin. clink. a smith. noise. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. csam-csogni. Tiie Galla gigiteka. to whisper. kiling-kalang. jangle. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. bulbiil. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). identical with g. wail. especially one who beats. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. box on the ear imitation of the . E. clango. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller.

rap. tomber. tap. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. So in Fr. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. w. brumberum. to dance. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. and the French pouf. clap. according to the strictest phonetic rules. we have buffet or cuff. thump. ' Der puff. jingle. Humboldt. while e. the Germans puff. gargle. dabble. sputter. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. But although and also found in Lat. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. thump. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. blubber. dash. in e. creak. tinkle. thwack. squeak. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. and Grimm. rattle. tumbian (to beat the ground). make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. douse. tingle. guggle. hum. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. rataplan or rantanplan. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. clash. splash. crack. whirr. crunch.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. plump. flap. ring. gurgle. puff. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. rumble. lash. splutter. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. mutter.' — Nohden.. to is blow. or v^hether jectional. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. smack. clack. The beating of drum is represented in e. tymmesll. answering to g. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. hiss. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. for (Sanders). to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. murmur. to fall. The use of g. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. Nevertheless. patter. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . din. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. without the intervention of orthodox roots. thump. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. swash. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. smash. at a door tarapatan. pop. Fr. flop. report of a gun. whine. squall. it is fallj AS. squeal. and soufflet. bubble. bang. whizz. clatter. souse. craunch. chatter. a applied as well to the force of the bang. slash. parapatapan. It. boom. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. chink. fizz. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. paddle. blow. whack. disturbance. snap. tum-ultus. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. by rubadub. clink. twang. clank. crash. and Fr. 'pat. clang. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS.

cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. At the first beginning of life. an imitation of a sigh . If. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. in the rushing waters. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows.' If chaos.'. knows them. or any unsatisfied want. wringing the hands. or stubble is meaner name. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. Crying. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. xxix on the contrary. formerly cited. and found in the building of be burnt up. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. of horror. the inteij. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. ugh . little who has time to want of her nurseling. are made known by an instinctive cry. is Thus ah!. but if we must not complain on the beach. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . that he has taken the step in rational speech. grief. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . and thus they become signs of despair. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. and uttering plaintive sounds. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. by the nature of the cry. every little pain. the kind of action that is desired of them. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. hay. because they are spontaneous. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. in the case of the animal or of the infant. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression.' . Grimm or Bopp. without a thought of symbolising to them. the interj. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. p. 94. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. or of any if wood. stractions. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections.

One short interjec- tion may fact. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. as who them spontaneous utterances. coughing. p. more eloquent than a long speech. or which is of me as suffering pain. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections.' — ist Series. and the eye. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. he cites from Home Tooke. 32. He says. which are frequently so toned down cance.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. to solve the I shall call first. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. them to exercise it. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. And again. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. more to the point. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. interjections. ^6g And to the same effect 371. 344. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. should be remem- . groaning. of all the mouth. Language begins where interjections end. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. p. and some of them the composition of words. shrieking. be more powerful. sneezing. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . the lowing of a cow. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse.' p.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. If I wish to make a person of an . would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat.. may become traditional. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. they are involuntary interjections.

Lat. in Fin. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. Tooke in truth. and more or less limited . To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Koxafw. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. and others from interjections. speaking. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. he says. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. cachinno. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. demolishing here. Gr. it them. for example. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. in Magy. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. when I arp humming and hawing. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. Kayxa^u). then speech begins. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. hahota. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. loud laughter. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. and thus. bered. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. hahottaa. hohottaa. kahkahah. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. interjections. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. some kind of language might have been formed. I am not hearer. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. but the less am at a loss what to say.

have understand them studying as claim to consideration. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. the critical question should be. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. What strikes him . and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. The following account is given by Kruse. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. dumb is the language of signs. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. . when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. It as has ing their most striking features. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. and go where we now say stand. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. But here nature soon conies to his help.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. of the world. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. of the nature of this great movement.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. words receiving the meanings they now bear. a deaf-mute himself. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. like peewit and cuckoo. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing.' he says. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. and not. a Picture-language. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. Though. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. if taken as a whole. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. And so in the case of language. makes them stand and walk upon the table. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative.

the sorecalling them to his memory. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. like a V. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. or To pull and flap with the arms. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. the whole secret. that. push it towards the person addressed for thou. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. for single objects. and fully serves to j . his action. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. many when or but these. to name. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and forms further and further. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. thought is already broken. And is. it seems. for the agent. particular sense in properly so called. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. most striking outline of an object. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. he. and we have roast goose. but if I depress it instead. such as than the educated man. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. such objects. xxxiii him between one thing and another. walker. that air. can do better and more easily abstract terms. and And thus he makes himself a language. what more. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. letter To hold the two fingers apart. for child. called Gesture-language. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. for walk. becomes roast meat. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. or the verb to be. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and to taste. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. signs are taught for yet. walkest. and it is flesh or meat. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. nay. as it now opens out. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. he. that signifies great .' In the Institutions. and gestures.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. among themselves. thou. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . it means little. walked. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking.GESTURE most. The same sign stands and the act itself. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. and with his thought. The of sign for left hand.

like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. whether by additions or otherwise. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. or a quality. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. when I say. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. according to the circumstances of the case. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. the ture of white term pink is and red. or something of the kind. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. or action. Do not bang the it is a verb. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. as in die it is a noun. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. or a passive scene of existence. The same word . putting it into his pocket. When a verb. substantive or adjective. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. . a colour red. might be the knife. and so is an adverb. as But when it is meant door. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. Who is has beaten you ? would be. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. in fact. as when Bang ! went the gun. You beaten . to indicate the action of a certain person. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent.' dener's knife. When I say. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. in other instances sentence. and thus performs the part of an adjective. qualifies the against the wall. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. He gave door a bang. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. depend entirely upon the use. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. would be simply beginning of speech. the garden. it called an interjection. or an act. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but.xxxiv asking. a number of alternatives are suggested. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. and the as. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. I say.

255. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. that admits itself in of audible representation. grie^ horror. coalesces with the personal pronouns. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. contempt. Jii ta. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. as kuo cung. wherewith. Latin. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. or some relation between it and another object. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. whereto. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. and may be used language. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . &c. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. and to be great. wherehy. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. or nei. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. wonder. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. . It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. commencement of speech. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. in the is indicated by the syllable y. but often self-evident. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. Thus tafu signifies a great man. whereof. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. pain. a noun. a groan. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind.. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. middle. verb nor noun has yet been developed. a sigh of oppression and . with a stick. or with elements expressing relations of time. greatness. as cung. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. in the sense of great. inside. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. which is an old y ting (use stick). the man is great. inquiry. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. some outward display of the affection. wherefore. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view.^ — Miiller I.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. that is.

pain. guai. wai-l. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. has to cry laa the Piedmontese.. . n. jao. Lat. ochan. miau-n-is. Gael. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. to groan. vce. o'i. It. ace. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. e. to wail or cry alas . Illyr. to sound yapyap. ach. . to weep. ah. ! ! Goth. g. och. lament. has more kopfweh. is Ay di me I Gr. wAwa. miau-l-is. It. w^wa. Thus from springs otjucifw. &. lau-l-e. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. al. oh. Gr. The form corresponding to Lat. vce. grief. on. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. j. or r. to bewail oneself. misery. Let. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. I oi[iot. weinen. at the close of the radical syllable. ochan. e. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating.-l-are. ui. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. and cacak djeda (to say crack. woe.ez. oimare. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. It. djamdjam goda (goda. In this way from the root guai. to hurt Let. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. jaoh.'). Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. however. wd. la. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. vaj. gwae. It. in Gr. oh. weh schreien. oval. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. to injure. wehen (Schmeller). wehthun. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. w. representing a cry of pain. e. to rriourn. Lat. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. as. guajo. pain. waiidt. a groan or lamentation vir. found in g. weh. the pangs of childbirth. seen in Gr. lament from oimi. Jar lau-lau. ing action I. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. 6. och. to lament. ochain. ocAJ. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to ache. to make). to gargle. guaj- or cry out pitifully. first person. cece. 6. . to lament. tirr-djeda. gwe-l-a. to . axofiai. die wehen. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. Gr. vei-a. ach. pain. to cry at. Such are g. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. g. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. Gr. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. guaj-ire. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. misfortune. to do woe. och. w. as. ache. mostly a ! %. aiai^to. A widespread It. . ohi. miau-l-er. ohg. hei. to chirp. . to ache. gwae. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. grief] affliction. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. dchzen. on. to make bow-wow. to weep. ai. Illyrian vaj. is w. ahi. mew. to cry n. to cause pain. to yell formed e. probably a deeper groan. to wail. form. grief. and to bark . ah. Fr. representing Illyr. xxxvi grief. suffering. headache. wai. woe. ach. howl. oi. achen. Bret. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. wai. are ol-ire.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

his trowsers' pocket.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. for instance. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. Phil. Diet. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have.' person. or carry me thither. der da-ige. But. nurseries.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. to here . of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. Dr Lottner observes. as to express. case. this here. or that it is. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. when 1859.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether.' all is is — their consent. thata (ta-ta). We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. Sie. Please. is we I believe. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. that gratifies me. the nursery da-da. implying the direction of its good will towards them. well as Goth. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. da. is-te). says da-da-da. 'nay. give. da. we may translate this by there (it is). In the expression Da. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. ToSe (or in Attic E. Bav. and so on. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. when he wants something. as. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. child. or wants to name something. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. according to Menage. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this.' this. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. give me that cheese. . The Fr. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. I add) . saying : there the ad- Trans. and by a variety of expressions besides. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. When we pointing. or give me it. Thank you.' then points to his wife. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. a word of many applications in g. that. more emphatically roSj)j that. ' sees an object. a specified were by pointing him out. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. • The child. indeed. Sanders (Germ. and may be rendered. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. but the truth is. as it Dieser da (as Lat. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. that is it.

childish toying. to move step by step. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. to chatter. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. then instinctively interest. its desire. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. to tion to another. stutter. . and shapes it into an . thinking. strike. the original is that which he places first. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. in every mode of expressing the idea. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. to say to oneself. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. — Cot. then we have a pronoun demonstrative.' says Muller. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. Thus Gr. standing. tattle. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. sounds. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. to knock. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. reality. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. The da is dodem. p. dadee. moving. or dalliance. to beat. tasting. takes it — as When the soul. beat. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. or metaphor. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. of which any one may. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating.^ its ' utters : a cry. which thus exertion. to walk. speech. sinking. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. and one in particular must. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. make dadada). pay. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' says Lottner interior.' • liv ANALOGY. meanings.

tintelen. Bavarian bracht. also wise. a ringing . scheteren. clang. (parallel bilbila. beorhtian. savour. fiapfiaipw. Finnish. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . smell. for example. tinkling. snutrs. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. to smack or taste. snuff the sniiten. judicious. Fr. is used in the origin. then to sparkle. bright. esclat). on. Du. knistre. properly a clap or explosion. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. snotor. to crackle. as. . kiimottaa. smell. while sapere itself. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. to 5 ghtter. sapere (which signifies the nose. In the same way the Goth. wilistd. iclat (in Old Fr. to resound. scTiateren. to glitter. to glitter. may be quoted gUt. to sound clear In Galla. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to sparkle. to glitter. outcry. extended to the exercise of the understanding. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. same imitative root with Sw. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. schiteren. to sniff. ghsten. make a loud noise. the equivalent of g. Lith. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. Heo Du. unlella. Again. in popular language. suspect Bav. . Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. It is The word bright had a similar In as. which in ohg. noise. may be it explained . chime). is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. snot. taste. to have Sapiens. firom the Gael. to shriek with laughter . tumult. wise. signified a clear sound. snudra. to glitter e. splendour. a dis- cernment. spraka. man of nice taste. a with kimmaltaa. splendour. and figuratively. a brilliant light kilid. to . and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. brilliancy. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. we have and the and beorht. to snilF. and. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to be wise. from the . to flash. to shine. bilbilgoda (to make . sound. pracht. to ring.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. &c. kimistd. to sniff out. a rustling sound Gr. air. knittre. In the case of sparkle. and schmecker. magnificence. — 1. prudent. bilbil). The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. beam. schmecken. and thence e. 1654. rattle. sprageti. search . to ring as a glass willata. The 6. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. to tinkle. discreet. as kilind. think. gnittre. to shine. to quiver. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. wamara. to crackle gnistre. to glisten Dan. sense of brightness. in the domain of movement. wilahtaa. So firom Lat.

. he framed the words ivSov.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. the clank (stridorem) of chains. Acre. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. break. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. then in rpd/xoe. he says. and vepres. we hear of screaming colours. the cross. pleasure soft to the ear . in of his works. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. is felt Lana. And observing that n kept the voice within. rend. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. Kep^arl'ieiv. KoWiiSije. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. in truth. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. to slide. within. wool. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. 6\tadaveii'. the bleating of sheep.' he says. Tpa)(yg. as soft by the ear. pvfi^Civ. mel. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. \nrap6e. the neighing of horses. oily. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. accordance with the way in which by touch. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. Much of the same has been often quoted. power of the letter-sounds. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. strike. shatter. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. tremour. 1. smooth. crux. sharp. ipuKuv. of dressing loud. fitting the letters to the sense. inside. rough to the ear. &c. flow and flux. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. eo ut res vol. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). v. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. itself letters are felt as sofl. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. extremely loose. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. rough both ways. whirl. briars. soft. which The Stoics. gluey. rough. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. roughness. Kpovtiv. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. The BpavEiv. rough. discusses the tone of a picture. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. kvTOQ. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. or . cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat.

jog. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. shog. joli. sag-oter. jih. k. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. shag. g. t. as when. p. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. stag (in stagger. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. dag. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. stab. tug. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. for exis ample. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. jig. 138). we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. to signify varieties of movement. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. corresponding to the ineor. 'and consequently form. degree of roughness sound. cular effort Again. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. the case of the voice. p. ii. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. or checks as they are called by Muller.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. dig. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. a rough and sudden . rug. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. A greater felt. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. jag. d. to jogj sac-cade. to reel abruptly from side to side).' It is on account of the roughness of pain. Fr. and in the utterance of a high or or low. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes.

to pulses being knock. and e. a good piece of road . The analogy then carried a step further. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. S-panish miga. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. a piece or bit of anything. is so frequent a consequence of movement. micare. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. The syllable suk is jerk. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. It. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . Accordingly the g. kuk. to beat or play on a musical instrument. chicoter. as tot. as Italian tocco. and analogous movements. to move rapidly to and fro. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. sound Fr. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. for the sound of knocking at a door. chic. an infant . passing to the signification of motion. To tick a thing off. a stroke with a French toucher. lead to Spanish tocar. a cracker. kik. Thus we have B. zack. in cases like the foregoing. Welsh cicio. mie. a small bodily object. g. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . chique. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. a quid of tobacco. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. however. (mitsati). motion. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. rough horse. mot. to strike It. Bolognese tocc. Sukkeln. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. a crum. zigzag. e. tecche-tocche. to ring a bell. that we never can be sure. mik. to mark it with a touch of the pen . or check. to tickle. an old worthless horse or carriage. mica. so to Italian toccare. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. not to utter a syllable. Dutch kicken. tech-tech. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. figuratively. movement. to mutter. The production of sound. Ene olde suksuk. a jog. a playiug-marble. The Mipen or pencil. a little bit. tack. and It. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to On the same principle j we have g. to utter a slight kick. foot. schuckeln. to say a word . to stir.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to incite by light touches. then. tock. a . to winkj micati is Lat. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. Illyrian migati. cica.. also to stir. Fr. Mucken. then. to glitter. is made to signify movement. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. schockeln. Fr. The train of . to take a thing on tick. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. to have it ticked or marked on the score . properly a small lump'of . Then. toch-toch. is lanese toch. chiquet. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. sound barely audible. like English tick. Hence Lat. it produces Dutch micken. Brescian toch. used interjectionally to represent a . &c. to touch.

often entirely arbitrary. a small kind of lark. Cult. gni. eo. a tot . Fr. . not to utter a syllable. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. . zitio. this . we have e. a sparrow). to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). there (further of!) ao. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. jot. a bit. little j to that of a small bodily object. tittle. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. tot. that iku. motte. a e. a little titty. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. and dot. here (close hand). is shown in murmur. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. a small quantity. This kind. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. small titlark. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. a small lump or pat. corresponding to the personal pronouns. neither moit nor an atom. that. . fragments It. to make a slight mark. and he. for the three personal pronouns. e. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. move slightly to . In a similar the relations of place. tottle. lix Sp. to whisper (Pr. to e. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. mossche. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. you. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . . as in e. at where the order is inverted. or o toi. this. Halliwell. seesaw. a bit. titilh. to touch. a morsel. titmouse (Du. a light quick blow. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. for the beating of a clock. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. Du. not an atom . or the like its It. n. tit. lump of earth. 199).- a jot or little It. a morsel girl . mote. iki. motta. e. gnu. not because the pendulum makes a different left. . mutter j dust. tot. citto.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. and toddle like a child titter. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. tozzo. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. to dot. 0. ika. the same organ touched with the man. titter. a girl. or the converse. i. syllable mot. a whisper. tiny. (Halliwell) Da. tit. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. mut. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. a small horse. anything small flax. . gno. a small bird. ri that. totle. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. a certain conception. clay . Malagasy to. tot. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. and out there. bunch or flock of wool. a. mutter. Pm. anything . here. Then. there '(at a short distance). and a small lump of something. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. . subdued manner.) . . there. I. zitella. taut. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. small of kind. to jot down or note with a fro. light — to note a thing hastily on paper .n. 48) cites from the African Tumale. So. tot. But the same is language has re Javan. to touch lightly with a pen. chico. the least visible insect. mot. the vowel sound. to jog. little. to movement of the pen . To jot. further off. fait. to tremble. ticktack. and mite. The following table from Tylor (Prim. of movement in totter. a lad citta.

mother. for the male. this . ni. I .* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. Abchasian aSn. father k . there. this ole.e^. an old woman chacha. j Canarese ivanu. as in Italian Fin. and a for the female. uta..) nna. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. as the act of pointing was ta. /mya. biii. Magyar ez. Chilian tva. that. akha. father. Botocudo ati. ni. Ossetic am. Sahaptin (America) kina. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. here . ofj. thou. The vowels a and o sound of the voice.. that. ^. there. w. mother. there. that. Guarani nde. is Here. this . Fernandian az. there. he. that. . to a like principle Ibu (Afr. nne. that. 6. here j ka. ne. is father. Mutsun ne. child. probably initial of distinction that the k. small (Pott. that. there. there. It seems to (fen. that. as Mr Tylor remarks. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. mas cheche. man erne. he. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Tamul i. ita. ndi. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. this fi. child. here . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. . femina ama. there. respectively. you. usho. to. an old . it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. olo. minution further. . Dhimas isho. and origin. here this . here j abe. that. /wo. loo). mother. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. little. this . tiiio. no constant rule is observed. Japan ko. qu. thou ni. . It Carib lala. Zulu ajoa. Gr. that (intermediate) j wana. ulri.. . Tarahumara ibe. ukko. here 5 Yoruba na. . this <t. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. me probable that • Vei also little. km.) pronunciation of i or e. thou . Carib ne. ta to ka. Then. /e«. . . Mm. (tt). by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. ojOo. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. young one. that.. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). that in the distance. Lat. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. bi. here feraa. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr.araM. this .

Top. titta. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. the simplest mode by the g. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. trappen. pepin.' making the voice as small as possible. nil. looking through between obstacles. as j money. wean. whence Fr. to peep through.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS.) . The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. a child. A little wee face with little. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. a little yellow beard. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. nipple. fretful. dance (Kil. trSpigner. has tittafrem. to make its way through the bursting envelope. barking of a dog. wenig. or chink. — Douglas Virgil. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. din-din. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. to tread. at pippe frem is to spring forth. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. a step. The sound trapp . to leap. trappa. is to express simple continuance of action. Clank represents the sound of something large. murmur. 401. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. Thus we have Wolof sopa. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. for the . little To sup up. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. A little weeny thing. repetition It. trippelen. for a succession of light blows low-wow. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. keeh. lift 8. just beginning to appear. . the principle of reduplication. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. stairs. in old e. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. sound of bells . The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. to teet. the idea is called. don-don. nab. the pip or pippin. to begin to appear . of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. or even. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. The Sw. the nursery few j Sc. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. as ding-dong. And perhaps the E. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to feet. i Sw. From cases like the foregoing. analogous to winy-piny. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. trap. &c. trippen. and in the Pacific dialects. Da. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. tion. for instance. little. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb.' — Merrv Wives. to peep. of smaller things. knob. Fr.

99). ayunayunan. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. mpolu is uttered. or in Fr. is language. child . . rack click. kamha-gamla. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. clash of weapons. racket.. kendagenda. Thus in E. the agent in panting . loloa. a cradle. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. instead of being actually repeated. i. mawhiti. Cult. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. rapidity and strength. hardness. click. to say pooh It is ! to. or very very great. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. bad . be used as far an echo to hard sounds.' expression is — ^Tylor. tach-et-er. a clattering noise. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. and the words express a continued sound of rack. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. And generally. very great. a spot. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. in familiar use with ourselves. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. Mandingo ding. could readily be conceived. Thus in the Pacific loa. from Maori muka. or el. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. to skip. to talk at to walk. puka. &c. tache. little child (p. lololoa. kenda. mawhitiwhiti. to cover e. to rock. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. Malay ayun. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). ding-ding. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. the and clique. The same principle of 196. calling. ratsi-ratsi. to love. amusement. the comparative degrees of greatness. to to call. or rdtchi. smallness. very bad. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. didi. Susa di. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. serves to show and in this way. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. a grasshopper. to call frequently from Fr. and Fr. So from clamo. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. if very young. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. the lungs. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. or a little tee--ny thing. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. puka- puka. 97).Ixii REPETITION. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. to or rub. to pant. properly speaking. child . cliqu-et-is. keep spots. repetition or continsignify long. rack. or imitative syllables. to treat with contempt. er. to vi^alk about for flax. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. random . artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. Again. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . (to use a to speak. sopasopa. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. . clamito. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. are echoed by the rudimentary et. very long (Pott.

Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. it. rynel. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. fickle. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. as mAS. to crackle. dab. a succession of cracks to rattle. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. Jickfacken. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. rubber. shuffle. to wail woe . then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. to continue dragging. miauler and beler correspond to E. are to cry mew and pew . The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. from puka. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . and in as. to rock. to rock or wag.Jicol. compared with g. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. in Fr. to make gug. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. wagas ging. syllable clat . miauler andpiauler. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. jogging. without the intervention of the frequentative element. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. to make a succession of grabs . a from ayun. g. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. joggle. or Maori puka-puka. crack. itself. bubble. Ihre remarks under gncella. or omitted. the lungs (the puffers of the body).FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. The Fr. to hand-le. wavering. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. draggle. waggle. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . The contrivance with any particular noise. wankel. mew and baa . is In e. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. or by association. wankeln. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. to puff. to move to and fro. dabble. wancol. he who rubs. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. such asjlap. to hand. to bark like a dog. others. to make bau-bau. by the side of wanken. or in e. or fi bau. In cases like these. where all direct connection with sound is lost. kneel. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. the knie-en to E. to make a succession of shoves. Piedmontese bau-l-S. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . guggle. bub. as to handle. which. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. in some applications. smack.

on a moment's reflection. deceit. or in aptness to combine with other elements. moreover. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. or in mode of use. although it is not difficult. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. or how generally. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. A gull or a dupe same sense. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. Polish. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. it is obviously a mere chance how long. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). to the separation between the broken parts. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. by a hard body breaking. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. which is the origin of the word. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. will continue to be felt in daily speech. which.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. known in Italian. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. the breach. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. and comparatively few easily deceived. Breton. at was more familiarly known. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . There is. Dupe comes to us from the French. to cry ugh at. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning.

and the grounds of lie shortcomings. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. however. language is . That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. life. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. Hitl^erto. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. . founded in manifest blunder. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. is. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. and the word is used in a secondary sense. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. nor any limited of ideas. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary.

without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. hearing. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. Naturalist on the Amazons. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. i. 330. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. I think it very probable. French. Welsh. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. out. episcopus. and vescovo. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. circle perpetrates a new slang term. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. change. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. evique. of material things. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). in the course of many years' isolation. unintelligible to other hordes. If English. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. compared with the duration of man. therefore. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. and 'Russian. guages in South America.

it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. to be taken (Prim. A key must unlock more doors than this. 6. and . Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. i. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. or whatever the proportion may be. Nor is there one of the letters.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. is MN. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . . as shown in the subjoined illustration. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. ao8). 9. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. which are idenr Figures 5. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. 7. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. The combination of the symbols I and 2. ancient Greek M . that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. the actual it which would to represent. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. Cijlt. 8. it will leave figures 3 and 4. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions.

Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment.' should be discovered. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. leading him to utterances. known to us as yet. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. which either by direct resemblance of sound. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. for instance. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . what comes to the same thing. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. his fellows. had its origin in imitation of sound. in the shape either of direct inspiration." the use of a change of vowel in as. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. and the only safe beneficent Creator. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. or. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought.

we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. until the progeny. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. as elephants. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. or of their own reflected thoughts . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. or not. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. or beavers. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. by animal without a trace name of Man. race were speaking men or not. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. of using imitative conduct . signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. for instance. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and when we look back as far as history will reach. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and rose towards a higher state of being.COMPLETION OF MAN. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . in the course of generations. or else. that he started from the lowest grade. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . and sooner or later. the conduct of Ixix life.

Supplement to Bret.. Due. Dueange. Bav. Bigl. 1766. Provincial dialect. Diefenbaeh. Bremisch. Dief. Diet. Diet. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Cotgrave. Esth. Cimbr.Nieder. Wtb. Esthonian. Teutonico-Lat. E. Diefeiibach. Dueange. 1768. 1737. Douglas' Virgil. Bavarian. Fin. Anglo-Saxon. de la langue Cat.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. ^Ifr. Carp. Elfric's Fl. Sup. Baile/sEngl. Infimse Latini- D. Da. Biglotton seu Diet. Grammar Boh. Romano - Cas- traise. 1857. Gr. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache.V. Dn. 1654. Danish. Bohemian or Czech. at the end of Somner's Diet. Cimbrisch. dialect of the Sette Commune.-Eng. Carpentier. Dief. Cot. Gothischen 1851. . Diet. B.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Couzinid. Catalan. Castr. Dutch. English. or Dan. Finnish. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. 1850. Supplement to Dueange. Brem. dial. AS. Fr.



haverie crtOT r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. kilistaa bugiie r. puHti r. yjnaifia r. r. Askance woud r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. word allagerr. buque 118 brodiquin r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r.>. Blob plowied r. cruccio deyrie. katowai perairrantr. willekom Blab r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. sveritet Asknace r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. (/ijtf r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . ^i?^i2! r.. r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.percurrunt kimista^x.nokkutama willekem. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . baltresca nokkutomax. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. plowied budowaer.5 ERRATA. woman r. cti. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. alUger ahaverie r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. r.


He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. AS. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. away from. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. iway from. to subdue. ifter. . to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. on. said. from a is to wake to abide. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. ar. Hence on-bceftan. bandon in French. to hold . AS. compounds. —Bruce. announcement. to arise. this word beand Spanish. To abuse is to use iway. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. Jvery man shewid baft. and secondarily in that of command. Thou spelds of mychty iction. behind. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. er. In Lat. in. baftan. into the Romance ftrseg . Dent posture. 843. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. a washing off to abstain. "rom a height. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. from. OHG. away. to sauff the king or spill. of-dune. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. on-lic. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. 244. ibandonner. sion of 'an abandoned character. ur. his. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. onis aback. Parson's Tale. K . abaft. A. the er. ab. as. as. dominion. on-bsec . a/tan. Abs-. dominion. but now )bsolete). erwachen. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. us. and — Chaucer. abs.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice.t G. in the same sense. out of. downwards. alike. off. Again. Ab-. a. power : Than Wallace thing. orders. literally. command. Passing tongues. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. implying a completion of J. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. ir. state of sleep . an edict or proclamation. o/j of or . whatever he be. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. Thus ip N3S. plesyt him. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. The word Ban is common orders. Abaft. among. be-ceftan. have entire dominion over. Abandon. particular 1 . on. rule. Immediately from Fr. until the event jlace . to awake.he Goth. vs. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. Lat. in a manner other than it should be ablution.

which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. Baba ! Mod.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. Bate. Hence the OE. and grooms besmeared with gold. impulse.' the surrender of a ' K. Custom. Fr. On the other in use as well as hand. abbatere.Prov. abate. R. to beat furnish. confound. other. to light upon. person. to hit. of fear. Hart in Jamieson. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. ne more vermeille. esba. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. R. as ravish.— R. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. to The . — — . See Abide. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. impetuously. adverbial expressions at abandon. and it that that it — . effect of shame.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. bawi.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. burny. by Wall. to ruin. See . Originally. esbahir. of wonder. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. to overthrow. to make lower. his eyen shene. where custom (Grandg. faire tomber. to strike Froiss. down. to strike sail . to bate something of the price abbatersi. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. with or without a final sh. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground.esbawi. abaundunem-ent.— — . Abbey. esbahissant. to abaw or astonish. abandonly. I was abawid for merveille. at his own the lips. iv. to happen. astony. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. abbas. 364s. may be explained. overthrow. et prirent terre. Abbess. drink. Hence Lat. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. abbatere dal prezzo. to astonish. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. from Lat. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. Abbot. abbattre. from ravir. vol. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . astonish. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. merely the terminations ons. lish to abaisse orabaish. baer. To Abate. . son bandon. And he thereof was all abashed. law term abatement. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. More correctly written abbat. Milton. his mouth.polir. abbatis. shame. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. — Neccham. abbatia. father. R. or admiration. A. ant. to put to con.fournir. . uncontroUedly. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. It. to take possession of an estate. or society of abbots or monks. ais. so common in the found in the OFr. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to excite admiration. and the verb was written in Eng. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. betrash. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Beat. esbahissais. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. depress. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. thing abbatere le vela. Castrais. Cotgr. 1 1 8.On princes. in the active form. Wall. d. an abbey. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. weaken. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to diminish the force of any. to gape. de. bandon. c. and that from Syrian abba. In or. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. castle. polish. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. and sets them all agape. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. beer.) .down. baba. burny was formerly burnish . and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. terminedly. of the Fr. 1520.

de Berri) Prov. to desire earnestly. From abahier. . ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. gola badada. to wait. look for another. abet. a bay or opening in the coast. intent observation. verbeijen Sw. to remain or endure. literally white tree. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. beguiling on the other. to deceive. qui iaaille. bie. us. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . tenere a bada. inciter. incite . bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. to wait. to open bader. inciting. Du. and E. Ni engigner ni abiter. The white poplar. wait. delay. abidan. Gloss. bie compared with Dan. tity of E. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. Cat. bder.was formerly used in the sense of look. ^couter avec dtonnement. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. abie. — II. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). Thus G. badare. forbearance. m Abeyance. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. aspirer. warten. Abele. badar. expectation. which the mind to an object. compared with (Bosworth). . to wait. bouche bdante. expectfamily. on the one hand. house. F. listening. bana. ne wist what way to chuse. take notice. Prov. beter. Ducange. and Prov. to expect gabeidan. to ance. . Thus we have It. 366.' is in AS. — signifies to suspend action. tical with It. beijen. endurance. exciter. tempting. to deanimer. the verb of abeyance. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. E. OFr. aspire to. abiiance. In We . covet. delay. to yawn.— ^richer. with open mouth . is idenwait. syllable ba. endurArt thou he that should come. abSiance. usbeisnei. Corant sens lui. Corresponding to keep in suspense. — . to hook. in Dan. bida. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. badare. to desire. Gloss. Cat. bialodrze-w. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. . abaier. beijen. K. bidan. to be intent upon. says. abet. beidan. abeter. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. badare.to wait. to look. bida.. suspense. bide of the d endure. to open the mouth. and in E. expectation. lingering. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching.— Chaucer. listen. beijden. to abide . with badia. trick abetar. pense. tarrying . beidan. othres abidan' The effacement expect. speaking of the Holy places. to stay. to In great amaze. baier. Guernsey beth. bocca badata. Boethius. desire. The verb atwaiting. deceiving. Abie. . or in Fr. to gape . from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. Quant voit le serpent. or do we AS. abeyance. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. —Raynouard. bhr. baier. take care. bouche b^ante. also to OFr. wait To Abide. while the monks under his control ing. gridare. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. signifies the direction of tend. or absorption watching. guardare. forms with the d effaced are OFr. watch. to be intent upon. ceive. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. desirer (Roquef. badigliare. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. abayer. in Fr. to stay. open the mouth. ne chastised them.Fr. Goth. to It. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. suffer b. John. (Vocab. attendre avec en^pressement. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. attendre See Bait. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns.— Roquef. we sceolon ON. deceit. to suffer death in Du. delay. songer. Q. bada. 1 • . baier compared with It. white. ' ' . abie. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. abetter. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. to attend on . Pol. Norm. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. Fabl. baer. de Champ. regarder. abbadare. from Halo. to expect. b^er. have seen abide. Norm. beguile. were called Brothers. to mind. To Abet. See Abide. waiting. and alluring to his own destruction. which is certainly related to It. to tarry. a right in suspense . to attend to. — ABELE Epiphanius.) abayer.

— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. and the simple buy. the Pardoner In the original. him with che. while in later examples As I . O If tion. on board . abidge. bord. at kasta fyri bord. N. at hand). 2. abolir. being disabled in the highest degree. properly abuy. was often used in the same sense. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. able. when compared with Aboard. habile. as E. the side of a ship. strong. abicgan. God. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Q. to wear away. Merch. fault being simply clothing. R. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. — e. ! ! Cotgr. If it badare. and Cr. abie. the Sir Tristrem. convenient. from Lat. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. P. She shall abie that trespass dere.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. atling hem to her proper offices.ynes. as habiller du chanvre. power. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. powerful. willing to schewe his wrathe. from AS. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. habilis is closely preserved. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Dr. bide. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. The —Boucher. abigg. In this to erase or annul. Spenser. ON. de la volatile. Cassar. L. P. abycgan. Boucher. abide. i. suffer the Jul. without special reference to the notion of retribution. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. sufficient. purpose. God — dear. abeye. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. within the ship. abilej Prov. bidan. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. have-like. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. to pay the penalty. . habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. For on board. It. and death for handsel pay. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. is the verb abie. Tr. Fr. Fr. — Able. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it.^and to make his power knowne. use. to dress hemp. must suffer for it. fit. abilh. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. the Fr. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. to have . AS. Chaucer. in for any special purpose. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. forbid for mother's children should abye. to perish. habilis (from habeo. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. R. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. 2nd Tale. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. beidan. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. Mids. — P. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. to redeem. Milton. though sometimes confounded with it. to pay the purchasemoney. —Bacon in R. abie to Goth. durance in both applications. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. expert. to draw fowls. to . and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. aboleo. within the walls of a ship. consequences of anything . Wickliff in Richardson. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Innan bords. Prol. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. &c. a board. F. adapted . Lat. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . or bie. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Abie. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg.

The radical idea is to feed the flame. as withotityn and without. Prov.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. to aggravate. Fr. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. abominor (from ab and omen. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. d.' Parson's rence. a portent). to produce. — ' — — preceding verb. to AS. abbreviare. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. . side. break out. Thence to regard greugetat. to progress. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. is a ively. way Sw. abbrechen. full ofte his words for to Fr. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. AS. explains soboles Lat. alere capillos. abrdger. adolere. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. and to do something to avert abbreviate. and in-d-oles. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. abredan. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. snatch In English we speak of away. from Fr. Goth. or cut short. to rear. OE. oil.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. for ligeth butan. ala. vital PI. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. al is growth. abbrechen. nourish. while the sense of beget. Severe the threatened evil. the idea of breaking about . without. parent. so that here also we to deprecate the omen.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. ol. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. en. Quod abominor.ger. abufan. to light a fire the Abraid. titan. the man dwindles away. For on broach. to beget or give birth to children. seems aras. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. which passed into English under Abominate. Kiittner. Abrdger itself. and also. Tale. to grow up. disastrous portent in some passing oc. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). to break off. currence. but from Lat. to cut short. his contemporaries. To Abound. Above. Finnish stock. to start. and alere flammain. the form a&^^. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. or young forth. abracan. greu. nurse Lat. to grow together. Abray. OSw. giving birth to. alUger. ABOMINABLE adolesco. and bidden him abregge. boven. Gael alaich. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. and also to abridge. about cockcrow. the hair grow. nurse. s —Casdmon. af-oolden. natural ed direct from the latter language.' Ymb hancred utan. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. AS. af-oleii. AS. to fatten. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. heavy. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. draw out.. of any kind . be-utan. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to.aboon. to bring up. OE. butan. Of these synonymous adolescere. life. bufan. — . is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. ala is made to signify to rear. ufan. gravity. whence the Fr. the vital spark. Abundant. alan. becomes leu in Prov. to awake. coalesco. that greatly agredge their sin. the OSw. Then. levis to the Romance languages. which may God avert. to rear. by the to bring up.) . around on the out.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. on high.foda signifies to beget. In the same brevis . abowen. as AS. pedigree from brevis. to main. above. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. Virg. agredge. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. abrcBgdan. while the verb alleThe root el. So in Lat. breaking out in language. Lat. The primitive idea seems that of beget. alan. be-ufan. is not from G. See -und-. leading immediately to Fr. to feed. hard.ymbutan. to nourish. onbutan.the older form. Sc. awaking. literally. below. abutan. to snatch. motion. Du. gravis. To abray or abraid.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. brood. to feed. to let sleep. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. common in Chaucer and Abominable.— Abbreviate. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. . The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root.1. kindling. as the duty of nourdisposition. to turn. D. sec seftre — Chaucer. from . agreujar. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. See To Bray. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con.. outward. Melibaeus. the identity of which with ting. Thonne Abroach. progeny.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


Lat. antefn. Lat. from. work. to go in strange disguises. or antique single chamber. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. should be received.D. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. Thus from gabe. panar. separate. aperio. Apart. in Shakespear. to nourish. ab. To ape. Prov. anxi. part. from an and — - . Aperient. gabeigs. a definite . apanage. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. trouble. rich. As the browcalled antiques. younger child. i. one having wealth.—Aperture. all of gold. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. eigs. to have. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. to open. Gr. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. d. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were.. three antike pillers. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Otfried. from ango. whence Prov. as posticus. antifena. which by anvild. Ilvtwotov. To go antiquely. stem. AS. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. villan Gloss. —Spencer. cenig. a block to hammer on. from. Aphorism. . plenteously with red. aside. from in and cudere. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. swaged. to bring forth. something ler in R. AS. surimitation of the ancient models. a gift. Fr. were chiefly of the former class. Lat. incus. fauns. Lat. to strike. Anvil. before. as the Italians. one at the least. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Anxious. to support. E. or in a ridiculous dress. panis. Antidote. were andouiller the second. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. d<popi(xnbs. to display pario. and ig.— . some one. anticus. choke. a few. apertum. as from as. press. and claret wine. strangle. Jorioc. a puppet or an anti^hona. on. Percutere. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. a termination equivalent to Goth. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. like a jack-pudding. transferred to the grotesque characters. before. post. Fr. the anticks — behind. ambeld. Gr. Fr. but the expresent day. apatiar. from eigan. to imitate gestures. of. left as the . the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. set aside. Mannequin. such as savages. from avTiipoiuia).legacy of given against. finally applied to a whether grotesca. In like manner. from ante. So Lat. andouillers. a small quantity. avri^ava. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. Hall's Chron. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. one. anapoz. Hence the applica. : . a preventative . anxius. bread. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. what Roman civilisation. and devils. Antique. verberas. Apartment. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. Gr. burnished. Ful- Apanage. to sound in answer. AS. amboltj Du. Apartment. to strike G.th centuries the recognised models of antic.is to be given. from an. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. anfilts Pl. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Antick.made out. wealth. Any. See Cover. ReApe. vex. Pezron fiUist. white. from Stephanus. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. to strain. separate purpose. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. whence anthem. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Antler. — — — . as we call it. inAgain from the same author cudis. G. af.

to learn. I prise ware. taking. — dirondtfiu. Nouv.his giving evidence against his principal. to finish a controversy. To Appear. after his mind . ar. habilUr. APO sentence opoQ. approcher. prize. Fr. poind.propius). to learn. one the MLat. agree. Cotgr. The PI. i. to deter- to strike. peace. — Appurtenance. prope (comp. 'L-zX. like. En peach. horror. appris. Gr. order. N. preparation. to approach. Fabian in R. pronounce good. dress. 'LaX. to be open to view. and also as appraise. cepl. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. apropid. properly to join like to like. AS. ^wss. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. from aTroorlXXu. were formed appropiare ejar. Sp. to understand. to store or put Appal. diroTrXriaatii. to — . Gr. Apo- good time. known. decree. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. to seize. case. to send off. whence the e. in Chaucer. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. aparelhar. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. appellare. 11. Hence It. approver. apin R. one is in. to call. that it outfit. Fr. D. e. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. Parson's Tale. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Apprehend. appartenir. iwKjToKri. despatch on some service.—Apprentice. to — — . Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. piteux poind. obolys. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. apparecchiare. . a'^opi'Jw. or the like. OFr. To praise. become dizzy . And among other of his famous deeds. one for his defence. appareiller. in commendation. From Gr. to catch hold of.probare. approcdare. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. quoth the frere. Prov. to disable oftat. Fr. to announce. A — . pretium. to Lat. : — — speak 'Lz. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. whether through age or sudden teiTor.pareil. opportunity. Fr. APRICOT off. 23 .prix. when the . and appoinder (to find fitting. Fr. near. esteem. apal. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. apropchar. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Apotliecary. apal. irpaiKOKiaov. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. Pliny. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. one sent out. ciously than nede is. to dress in this fashion. rise to \t. Mod. to make a thing Apparel. landmark. to set a price on. Fr. purpose. a learner. word was specially applied to clothing. Apoplexy. prohts. pronounce fitting). — Apprise. Epistle. d-n-o. —Diez. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. to take away or lose the vital powers. of. from. away. — prehendere. Cotgr. the good. apprehendere. Hence appoind. make a composition between parties. ai. set a price on. appaiser. in good season prendre son d. a price.parejo. fit- — ness. value apprdder. . —^Apparent. Prov. apprise. Lat. peler. prover. like.parecchio. oVooroXof. probare. seiden of the stones. From Lat. trim. Friar's Tale. Gr. to mark to define a bound. to deem good. array. jabloko. ON. Appareil. Cent Nouv. to assign or grant over unto. laven is used both as E. or E. To cause to pall (see Pall). proper time came. to which it is often referred. from paix. avail. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. xv. consent unto. appareo. S^. pertain or belong to. off. Fr. They werin his approvirs privily. an epistle or letter. good. corresp. diminutive pariculus. Walach.— . Fr. in data. find Then like Fr. Apple. manner. mine. lAfiaam. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. a thing for one's purpose. Yr. allow. in fact. to approve. w. to deaden. to fit. to strike down. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. The Fr. It. apprentis. 5w. H. Formerly apricock. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. to come near. equal. An old appalled wight. praise. diroBrjKr}. and in the sense of condition. They were considered To Appoint. poind. apar. to commend.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. Apostle. to suit. Gr. to accord. a crime. — Approve. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. And whanne sum men Lat. par. . From Lat. To Appraise. habiliments. apprendre. to call for judgment. Ir. Approach. to send to. (cited by Diez from a late author). pragigua or prixcoda. to rate. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. plight. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Cotgr. ap.t. Appease. Palsgr. Lith. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. aptly. agreeing with "LtA. to lose one's senses. kind of action. Yr.

in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. — . a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. found in Fin. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. Thus we have natiger and auger. {mies ^=ia3. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. From OFr. Naprun. arbiter. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. It is certain that the apricot oracle. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. ughe. shortdr. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. . a cloth. Beryn. auguror. The loss or addition of n very common. to preserve it from stains. arwelo. fastened close. Maan initial . is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. 31.sors. a pleasure-ground. and a protection of the clothes. P. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. aptus. a soothsayer. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Aquatic. 2. to plough. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. ap. scr. Lat. symbol. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. of of divination arpa-mies. rofe and all. She made. sestimatio arbitraria. opinio. Albanian. to decide by lot. properly the arwella. aa. aestimo. con. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. a lot. 331. divining rod. Roquefort. a lot. conjicio. Flower and Leaf.] in the N. Arbitrate. nawl and awl. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. — napkin is Naperon. sortium ductor. hariolus arpelen. water Which that benchid was. intensitive of nape.o. or eft. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. is taken in is a soothsayer. grande nappe. Gr. arpa. herbere. derived. Pm. OHG. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other.' —About. account for either of these significations. Lat. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. Prol. Arbour. la nappe.. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. arbiter in re censendS. A. OE. Marsh. J. a river. tion under trial. This path Aqueous. conjectura conjec^ra. proper. Freshly turnid Arable. however.) E. Alban. and taken away before dessert. words derived from arpa. suitable. short. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. P. and with turfis new Goth. aro. a lot. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Pr. ear. be That it inne groweth. . as an eye-witness. It may be doubted. delon. aqua. C. Hall.shrubs {arbor). nected. As is a pretty parlour. naperon. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. or barm-cloth. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. quod he. sorcerer. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. arbitror arwaaja. the spelland umpire. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. Now one of the points — — — . and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. most conspicuous situation in the garden . and the one who gives oracles. .meaning at Shrewsbury. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. however. pracoqua was not an adapt. From OE. ahva.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. and thence fit. doubtless is the origin of E. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. arwaus. wata. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. Lat. and sortilegus ation. as ihe diminutive. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. arbitrium. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. garden. Now we find in Fin. man. aha. .

the court of a magistrate. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. archangel. a branch. and Kpurka. Arm. Applied in modern E. from nixa. et vulgari verbo. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. aj-f. arga. which has been referred to W. From apxeiov was formed Lat. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. Lat. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. The . erz-bischof. Du. faint-hearted. ruling by the nobles. rame. ON. There can be no doubt that E. een erg kind. Lat. armada. an arch-deceiver . it signifies roguish. a. Du. to demonstrate. burning heat. Cot. the best. arrant Arms. wretched OE. malicious. Perhaps erz-wticherer. an arrant rogue. un petit rusd.4 rir/. to be in comp. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. arma. From the verb armare. earm. arduus. apxtlov. sly. Lat. G. 3340. man. an arrant usurer. ardre. adjective. especially shoulder-joint. And thou as arwe coward. is essentially the same word. Sp. apxh. vocaveris. ers-betriiger.' the Gr.' Lex. Lat. and must be identified with Dan. arson. gwyrek. TiKToiv. receptacle where the public acts were kept.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. forearm . to Arch. exercise lordship).is the natural weapon of offence. ancient. ^Argument. argr. an arch boy. arm. weapon. bad. are formed the participial nouns. earh. troublesome. ars. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. G. . a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. contemptible. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. bravest. arguo. mischievous. while the Fr. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. which is derived from it. a bow. a court yard. a chief builder. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. . arm. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. Langobard. a rule (princiruler. vescovo. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. . armee. Lat. arrig. arcus. worker. fabricate). a noble. to arm. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . signifies chief or principal. arwe. ardIn G. arch-bishop. to be on fire. W. Fr. and our army. high. mischievous. to dry. the terminaGael. ill-tempered. Gr. to burn . sluggish. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. weapon may be simply an application of annus. apxri. armata. shoulder. Gr. ramend). sly. as in E. ardor. Area. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. area. argvitugr. taxed with cowardice. raineno. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. Dan. fainthearted. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. first. gwyro to bend. Uo^a^. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. ein arger knabe. morally bad. bad of its kind. It. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents.— Army. Alisaunder. arcA in e. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. whence the body of the nobles collectively. ' — Argue. branch. Fr. a burning or setting on fire. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. Brem. from areo. and not with apx. Lat. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. arm'ee. the a brute. Aristocracy. Arcliives. erz in G. Gr. ramo (pi. a threshing-floor. Lat. curved line. un malin enfant. det arrigste snavs. to rule.aioj. government. in Due. kpxi- beginning. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Arid. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Lat. make clear or prove. — Wtb. * ArchjAiTaxit. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Ardent. i. a bare plot of ground. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. as the arch of a bridge. by Russ. difficult to reach. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Arcadia in R. arsum.' Paul Warnefrid. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. lofty. ardeo. stuff. patus). apxtipfve. the most arrant trash. shoulder Boh. . Arson. A construct. aridus.In E. apx^iv. an extent of flat surface. D... Arduous. earg. wanton. Gr. . Sax. timid. bad. Arch in composition. curved. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. 2. Fr. — Architect. Ardour. arg. AS. erg.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

i. a clump .Fr. I. boll. baalien. a continued noise of waves gently beating . hue et illuc inclinare. other while. 3. Bale. palla. Gr. to be balker. bal. on.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . as we say. to rock. cka. roof. uveirs bolk. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. to pack Da. a clapping or flapping of wings. to cause another to miss pustule. bolawy. says Ray. globule. balare. the object of his expectation. Du. wickedtorment ON. shouting. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail.). Venet. bold. to ache. ballan. palcare. a partition. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. floor. ballar). e. at giore en balk. pallo. hooting. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. bal. to signify washy drink. ballotta. Perhaps on. N. to on Holmedon's plain. ball. pallo. . balle. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. balka hopar. maleficium. Sw. (Hesych. plague. bal. bbllr bulla J. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. It. misery Du. a balk of foul weather. * Balk. a globe. to grieve . 2. to by beams. a bubble. Sp. balloon. ball. from bacquet. See Gall.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. to paddle in water . to plank. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). trouble. maan pallikka. tum. ball. a scene acted in dancmg. Ball. To baulke the Sir H. . dial. Dan. It. OSw. Q. stage or scaffold. Sw. baloier. balveins. to speak an un. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. a ball. package of goods. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. sickness. w. a together in the form of a ball. Bowl. bolyaf. a wooden partition . to move. Ballot. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. Boll. a ball. Russ. Pol. on. dial. dial. balla (with the augm. . with the perhaps from balg. a beam. a boil. a ball. a division of the old laws. Rouchi ban. Ball. a beam. Bret. the ballet of the theatres. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Fr. Da. to avoid it. on the shore. a great ball. ballone. a ball. balken. It. the breadth from side to side . TtaKKa a pail or tub . Ugutio in Due. beaten road. Wotton. bjdlki. to dance. a dance. ballet. to dance. bol. vcdra bdlkr. separaison. calamity. OHG. ballare. ON. are applied to a From the same analogy. vacillare. ball. balk. .—Ballad. boleii. bal-daed. bala. pallikka. In like manner Fr. may exhibit the original development of the signification. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. balkr. taich. to ail. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Sw. balk. grieve . mass. We have then separate dial. sorrow. to be ill. blister. . Fin. It. a skin. balle. ballare. and evil in general. Mid. — A — — . to wave. a washing-tub. Hence. to plough for a boundary between lands. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. baler.Lat. gen. bielke. to Not sparing wight. a ballot). Du. a ball balla. Sw.ing. a But making way for death at large to walke. Goth.— Ballet. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. Fr. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. whether of wood or stone. balka bunge. on. dial. probably Lat. Sw. as in a barn or cow-house. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. destruction. . Baulke of land. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. balle. AS. G. balk. baalie. lealo. Gael. a. similar connection is seen in Sp. pilula. bdlkr. to bale out. ache. to see-saw. E. the beam of a ship. chapurrar. ill. bolker. balk. to roll. pain. bollr. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. pallukka. a water-skin dim. A balk. a pill. bola. weak liquor. bacgtteter. to shake or jog. a pestilence. a ball or pack.' speak gibberish champurrar. sick. Sw. and the dim. palloilla. . to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. It. Fr. afbalka. Sw. heap up. to partition off . balge. ballare.of men . G. balja. torment. malefacGower in R. bol. to stir. a dance. balle. Sw. Ballata. wickedness ness . balken. Bohem. bolyatchka. balka. ' is a piece or confused talking. ballo. Balloon. a clod of earth water. Hence Dan. balva-vesei. The primary sense seems as in G. Da. bealwes. OFr. To Bale out water. a ballad. a pail. ne leaving any balke. pila. Grief. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . ing. a separate portion. F. ban.

Sp. Cotgr. to walk. barandado. balustrade barandilla. because. The Baltic sea. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. puzzled. to enchant. Bamour. Report Pennsylv. but loadage. astonished. from Lat. in the first place. bambolo. lest. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. Balm. lastagium signified not only ballast. Dan. Venet. also with flatteries and . The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. as he says. To Ban. lastre. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. a duty on goods last. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. baU. a battlement . Lest.' And Kil. mare Balticun. make fun of a person. Mr Marsh whether the a load. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. But Fr. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. deceiver. bumbazed. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. objects to the foregoing derivation. small railing. ^Arbuthnot in R. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. analogous to what is seen in It. a nettle.that the going vessels. To Bamboozle. ballast. baltresac. for want of other freight. dial. bamboccio. 43 — Cot. 1. 1854. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. a rod. more frequently than outward-bound. Ballast. balconies. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. denounce. or movement of one who walks. &c. To deceive. barauste. it is forced to take in stones or sand. To proclaim. the act of walking. and Mid. forbid. In OSw. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Baltic. Lat. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. Sept. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. like Fr. is in Sweden and Norway. . .000 tons. Bret. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. Fr. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. railing around altars. to preserve equilibrium. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. a false tale or jeer. endormir par des contes. Balsam. bertesca.Lat. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. Gr.). balsamum. R. back of the ship. bag-lest. age. ^a\Ba\iov. When a ship discharges. To make fun of a person. an Old dotard or imbambolare.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. ballustres. explains ballast. the backload. a fragrant gum. or ballast of a ship. It. i860. urtica. baranda. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. from bara or vara. deceive. This is the backload. sorcerer. for a load or goods (Roquef. inutile onus. Fr. a useless load. If bambocciolare were child of one. A — — . and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. bag-las. curse. a small balustrade. paid for the right of carriage. seems the original form of the word. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. Balluster. bambocciolo. galleries. It. Bret. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Sc. enchanter. lastra. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. terraces. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. of balusters. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. ranked on the outside of cloisters. little round and short pillars. called Bait. the flower of the pomegranate. It is explained back by Adelung. baUa.. inutilis sarcina. lestage. To Bam. The Sp. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. Du. bam. ballustre) is a corruption. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. Said to be from balaustia. more serious objection is . — — oltriga. bamein. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. a young babe. fonts. last. command. &c. by met. baume.

— To partito d'alcuno. and thence to any proclamation. . 1. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . 813. at his own discretion. Se il — Romance languages. It. to . In like manner we find bannire adplacita. then the signification w. the ensign or banner. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Baud. To Bandy. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. curse. Spebifid. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. permission. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. flag. Ripuar. region. Fr. banns pany of footmen serve. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. those who side together (bande.is further developed. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. Wyntoun. OE. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. faction. fahne. 2. from at the Lord's courts. he bannede his ferde. and It. passing on from proclamation to command. bindan. In Fr. bande. band. R. tener da alcuno. in Fr. Bandear. i. to ctide. eiiseigne. Cot. to take one to task. See Abandon. says Muratori. bannum or bandum. There is some doubt how Fr. banda. authority.e. Fr. side. in hostem convocare.^ bandy. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. parti. and in E. power. ligue Taboada). whether by way of injunction or for- command. to unite with a band. bande. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. is That with which anything AS. Mag. to side or to bandy (Florio). 15. Band. bound. R- He Translated by Chaucer. we constantly find the expression. — R. Les saiges avait et les fols d. side.Lat. to publish) banna. 26. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. 'A son bandon. It. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. bandi. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. margin. Leg. Car. summoning to serve So in Swiss. Sw. Sp. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. From the verb to banda. Diss. etc. Bandus. Assises de Jerusalem. hoc est vexillo. v. populum. to follow a faction. change to the feminine gender in banda. bann. —R. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. theodscipe ut abannan. bannire exercitum.. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. band. biddal. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. The to . admolendinum.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore.—John Villani in Due. Goth.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. banda the colour or material. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. to bring corn to be fahne. to form parties. bundun. 19. banner marked the place of assembly. to ban. to reprove. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. sostener Torriano. also the band or of marriage. bannire in exercitum. In a special sense the term company itself. ex. bande. G. &c. a company. . It. — excommunication bann-lysa. It seems this signification has arisen. Thus the word is also used in both senses. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. he assembled his host. bandon somewhat party. D. Commun^ment son bandon. to excommunicate {lysa. a coast. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. ba?idare. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. acquired the sense of proclamation. banda. Goth. bandon was used in the same sense. Capitul. border. &c. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. bandera ground at his mill. bando. Sp. E. A.

45 — — Bandit. at canis peciiarius. of bandying words. bander tin arc. banke. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. bana. was formed the OFr. Bacon in R. beating. bank of Dan. . bank. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. forbear this outrage. Benvoglio. bent as a bow. — Kil. death-wound. canis vinculis assuetus. Banditti.z. large dog kept for a guatd. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Du. the slope of a hill. for shame. a sand-bank. panca. in the sense of a pirate.: . disturbance banga. bank of a river. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. Fr. to cabal. destruction . g. s'associer. Lat. a counter. bana. has bang-bang. in R. ON. to knock. many a bang. Fr. a rising bank. AS. 2. Your stool. Bantze. hricg. banco. counter. banc G. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. murderer. back of a knife. that the word is used by Romeo. and bakki. shoal. bana.HG. banish. The child cries bang! fire. Diaconus in Due. Mercutio. ruptus. band-dog. Banister. follow a party. With many a stiff thwack. From a desk . Bandy legs are crooked legs. beat. Tibalt. hammering. ON. Banner. se reunir. a bankrupt merchant. bane. to hammer in a nail. bank of river. to publicly order one out of the realm. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. Bankrupt. pastoralis. banja. banqueroute. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Diez. E. bankruptcy. The ridge of a hill is AS. bana-sdr. AS. bench. de- party. a i. bance. distinguishes bekkr. Roquefort. among rotta. bannire. to join in league with others against Cotgn. It is in this sense nounce. the same verb the It. b'ang. clouds. de sable. Benchi. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. It. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. &c. se joindre. From Mid. band-hond. N. a de Vaud. standard. Fl. put under the ban of the law. Sw. in the same way that E. Dan. and OFr. See Balluster. and hence. the former Fr. banditti acquired the like signification. &c. and therefore tied up. to bend a. Bang. Bane. . bana-sott. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. a bench. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. seat . tumult bangas. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. bank. Fr. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Milton in R. Hudibras. a bank. The ing. as of an explosion or a blow. banca fallita. outlam came to signify a robber. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Ripuar. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. Bandy. A Shipman's Tale. bandear. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. language of W. a wound OHG. . It. desk. See Banish. —^Vocab. bandi. bang. to foment factions. to beat. to proclaim. banka. bakke. a long raised seat. bandire. See Band. Brewer. But natheless wife at I bank. the back. whence the mod. Lingua. eminence. to work in wood. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. To Bandy. a bench. to knock. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. banc. — — whence E. to make a stir banke. stir. a bench. Africa. and poise Their lighter wings. — . rap hatike et som The Susu. from banc. death-sickness. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bench. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . — Paulus drive in a nail. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. — Fr. eminence. Draw. dorsum was applied to ject. Goth. a blow. broken. to slay. death-blow . Bank. It.^ knock. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). benk. in the sense of place of business. bow. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. The word is in E. Mid. ON. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. roupt. bander. banca his creditors. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. a table. When a man fails Lat. . Forbannitus is used in the Leg. . home — Bandog. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. bander.

barreau. It may be thing. and from ensign or banner Prov. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. nestling. a ban. OFr. knight Bardd. senheira. a war-beacon or war-signal. inur. a bench or table . is to virtue of the number of their retinue. Fr. period vexillarii. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose.— Swift in R.aTa Kul nest. banchetto. Duo. barbarus.cruel. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. such as the Roman Eagle. It. or of this bantering. Barbe. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. E. A It. Celtic bar. to beckon . sparro. Gr. bandiera. branches of a tree {gwezen. The original import of their own banner in the field. from the same source. &c. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. benda. a bearded or Cot. the word came to signify rude. top. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Fr. Gr. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. banne. In a similar manner are formed yearling. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. arineXov. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. probably corSymbol. merki. bar. jSa'pjSapoc. chan. . and it was accord. ON. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. heri-pau. a bantling. barre. Barb. — We A . Fr. Fr.. Fr. and with an initial s. E. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. privileged to raise Barbarous. senhal. barrer. ban- Baptise. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. banniire. 2. a which the barrister addresses the court. inferior to a baron. Lat. OHG. barrack. &c. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. and he would seem to derive Goth. Bret. The spar. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. To Banter. rod of any rigid substance. Barb. Hence Fr. either in the Gr. token. milites bannarii. dim. Sw. himself in Pontus. speaking of battle. branch. Banneret.the analogous syllable viur. The barb of an arrow is the sign . to bend. barbed or trapped as a great horse. Lat. from reifa.hinder. Banquet. barba. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. Lat. To mock or jeer one. E. remarked. banneret was a higher class of knights. a beam or long pole of wood. barrou-gwez. BARBAROUS reiflingr. then fell among the foot. by a repetition of the syllable bar. which is surely in barbed arrow. It.. a. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. signuin. bannereti. 3. Leduchat. brushwood. to bar or stop the way as with a bar.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world.8ap6^o)voe. that the noise of voices Bantling. as they call it. ^oTrriKio. barbe. According to Diez the It. rarii. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. OHG. a sign. ing term appears in other languages. wrapped. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. sparre. banda. barra. summit. The origin is in all probability Goth. jSdirTO). banneret. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. an animal a year old. hence a repast. to dip. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. a tree). Barbar. banda hendi. Hence ner. then branches. iandvo. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. ON. indeed. men. manu anto make signs nuere. senhal. to wrap. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. out of a wound. G. sign. bandva. to having that signification. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. a barrier or stoppage. It. would rupted from Fr. banner. Gael. barde. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. sbarra. of banco. says. in Gr. uncivilised. of a sign in general. and the work is done. Fr. Flesche barbeUe. Bap. senh. barriire. —Cot. to wash. of wind. and even of calling it banter. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. i.46 BANNERET . Thus Ovid.

ala. But Sp. uproar. bardd. waschen. dial. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. unqualified. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. a shingle or small board. brim. Diez. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Sp. Bare. uncovered. upper chamber. tattle. Bret. Hall in R. stutter. twcEtta. powdered all over. bar. — — Hence. — Cot. Port. barbarkama. — — — men. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Bardeau. Lucan. ready money. borborinha. barboter. to gurgle. baragouin. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. berj G. bdla-khaneh. barS. Cotgr. formerly used in the sense of tattle. Fr. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. the nakedness of a woman. barbelin. — . a jetty or outnook in a building. scouthouse. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. which was of talking. albarda'ah. bdsas. quarrel . Port. haggle. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. Cot. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. horse armour covering the front. twattle. skola. small pack-saddle. and foolishly. OFr. /3opj3opwJu. Pr. bhasad. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. Barbican. bds. axilla. to mumble or mutter words. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. A shrub bearing acid Diet. barda. Barder. . saddle-cloth. grumble (Lowndes. borboglio. on. barbacane. also to bind or tie across. barbeau. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. to bubble or boil. and in Flanders to vociferate. barz. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. i. to make an outcry . to It. and flanks. barbier. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. boil. It. and Sc. baar. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. mutter. w. fortia —Strabo. skialldar-bard. Mod. Mod. a rumbling. Barberry. as well as the modern twaddle.— — Pm.— Fl.) . back. in poetic language Bard for poet. Fl. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. The Pers. a tumultuous assembly. barbaris. such as houses are covered Bardelle. Etym. . Barber. barbeter. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. /3£pjSepi^w. Arab. Russ. Bargain. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. to wash. Hatt-bard. Applied in E. barbar. guazzolare. Fr. It. skirt. Lex. barda. borbollar. gibberish. bare baskojis.— BARBEL merit of water. brabble in the making of a bargain. to boil or bubble up . the quilted with. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. to stammer. G. in the sense of fight. border of a garden bed. the beard. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. jargon. muttering. albardilla. Hindost.) to wrangle. bardes. border. Etym. a pack-saddle. Sp. to grunt. to prattle. borbulhar. Sp. albarda. barbel. a long saddle for an ass or mule. and the word was used in OE. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. borbotar. baares geld. Thus the on. to rumble. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. used 2. tree. to bubble or spring up. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. barguigner. the flap of a hat. open. Lith. barefooted Sanscr. Barde. skirmish. to chafbargain. Festus in Diet. Cotgr. A7 to the and warlike. bdsiis. lb. g. or more properly (says fer. as well as thwcEtta.' Cot. in Fr. to stammer. Bard. guaszare. Gr. Fr. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. speak confusedly. barbeum. to plash or dabble. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Exposed to view. is lb. Fr. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. to barbe or trap horses. Barbel. barbulla. — . or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. a bardelle. berries. An outwork for the defence of a gate. murmur . coping. name Fr. barbugliare. Gr. also to wallow like a seething pot.

' bardagi. to skin over barkandi. OFr. spectacles. trouble. ThS man was not created for the woman. berem. beer. dispute barattare. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. dial. Gael. Camus. charlock. bern. commonly explained from bere. hlaSa. am. the fore or after end of a boat . These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. to rout. baarm. tion of the sound. bargain. . meta foeni. barizeins indicates a noun baris. one who stirs up strife. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. Barn.^Voc^. a stack. and may therefore be an Eastern word. barmr. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. barahunda. Du. quarrel Port. herbs. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. . . a beak. then honoured man. Ibid. and hence probably (by a metaphor. beornt. contest. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. and llysiaw. dispute . disorder. Dan. barki. Leg. bread-corn. and ern.Barum vel feminam. 2. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. to wrangle. It. a. skuta. louzou. the A — Ihre. chaffer. Port. Cornub. To Bark. v. prasepe . Ripuar. Garlick. Bret. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. bosom. barretor. aheap. As Goth. barajar. So ON. lap. prominent part of a thing. . Barge.) lihtes-ern. entangle. as. barn. AS. baerm. a load. Antiq. put to confusion. bernac. a lap. baniffa. baron. name being given to spectacles. bcerme. So also ON. — Zeuss. The older form in e. dispute . was barlic. On the other hand. from an imita- Barley. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. brenig. dregs of oil. baaren. From Fr. strife. It. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. barja. the rack or manger. a cap . Prov. strife. —Bark. barlys {bara. squabble. Vocab. Dan. Sp. See formed Yeast. a boat. as. borkr. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Romance barsie. the or prow of a ship. Swab. barafunda. Rayn. a barn. kani. E. ON. OSw. OFr. bamagh. a receptacle for barley or corn. Originally man. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. bcern. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. baarn. Du.. barnis. Spectacles. bard). Acervus. Baron. barnacles. w. Leg. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. baralha. to all the barca.. edge. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. as baces-ern. the G. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Bark. to shufSe. limpet. to strive. mhg. Alam. plants). Sp. altercation. See Barm. confusion. skutr. at barka. dispute. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. giving rise to It. also a boat . conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. a baking place or oven. a lantern. and 1. (Ihre. ON. to chop. ber (ace. barley. barlich. as well as Scandinavian tongues. barge. also to exchange. in the Brim. quarrel. bosom . contest. Uzen. we pass to the vert) barguigner. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . hladi. The Goth. bark . * Barnacles. Bemiques. a place. — de Berri. berm. Gl. barn. adj. to scold. baratta. ON. then the bows pectus navis. border. barley. barn. berm. tumult. Port. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. bread. husband. and is probably a true bartig. limpets . a heap . Bailey. the slimy substance brewing of beer. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. — battle. bern. Kil. Barbour in Jam. limpets. barms. baratta. hay-loft. baaring. Sp. berma. varen. strife. to cheat. baralhar. baragouin. and the word. dispute. wine. barone. barii. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. Manx bayrn. barlys. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. is simply the Bret. berm hoys. AS. 2. barley. W. a heap. Sw. The origin may be throat. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. but the woman for the man. beorcan. in Nat. houbartij fsnile. Isidore in Rayn. hemlock. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. astringent. as in the case of Lat. i. fray. corn-shed. ON. — Barnacle. Provj bar (ace. barafustar. struggle. quant a perdu sa barja. Lith. bere. baron)^ Fr. baimeach.

(Schmeller). a barrow. a horse. shed. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. bara. StiU he shows conclusively. habeant. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. branches. whence Barrow.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. G. signifying. to carry. over him. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. berwen. seem to be radically the same with Lat. — A . bearg .have been named from the haggling and gant. sterilis. vair. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. borov'. Sp. Barricade. vel pretiosos burellos. gravis et authenticus vir. calico. also termed bannerets. as. as cavalcade. baronetti. heap. w. It was not until the time of James I. baronuU. Nominale of the from braeckland. AS. fear. hut. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. barril. G. cise formation of the word. from a tree to which a man is hanged. 1. uncultivated. from beran. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. fallow. D. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. baragan. bouracan. The feudal tenants next Fr. became bidre. Barrel. like bargain. squabble. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. to shelter. Formed from Fr. braeck. barague. beorh. todtenbahre. implement for carryAS. An ing. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Barratry. a word is always used in the plural number. barrack. barrier. barraca. Barrister. a man. in the first instance. a. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. rolls of Parliament. in Nat.— Gibbon. a barrel. cover. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state.root signifying confused noise. See Bar. berewe. barre. staves. garment still used in Morocco. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. tomb. to * Barragan. — — 15th Cent. qui have not much light on the pre.' that Barrier. AS. sepulchre. beorg. barchent. dispute. a. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. bier. baroncelli. change of goods seems. ^Barrator. barri. Antiq. Baron andfemme. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. especially those killed in battle. barrila. It. It. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. gwr. a kind of coarse camlet. baraignej Picard. a castrated hog . nobles. an obstruction. and not from Fr. or simply bahre. bark&n. perhaps through Prov. by early examples. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. MHG. Barren. — Kil. barrique. fortification. E. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. barrique. Bohem. composed of dry branches ofer. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. Bargus or moreland. man and wife. bera. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. iver. ^Vocab. a bier. A. mound. Bern. litter. Sp. facture. a bar. 26. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. alongside of barrow. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. bredhan. vir. which would barragdn. Fr.parchanttuech. The Sp. breinej Du. barile. then traffick4 Barrow.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. This word introduced into Fr. a hiU. Bamnculus a baronet. It should be observed that. were sometimes confounded. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus.. barBombicinus. and in several instances. ibid. boar. S. the braw. OFr. Gael. On chet — We — — their resemblance. It. OE. Fr. 2. See Barter. Bret. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. semen non accipiens landiEL. whenever Barrow-hog. a hut or booth. Joshua vii. Russ. the two names. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. booth. baronculi. Sp.. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. strife.' Op. Gael. Barrack. bahre. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. bara. man. baracca. from cavallo. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. Goth. beorgan. brushwood.

to bind. It. a basket masg. Sp. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. exchange. on a. lift me above Parnassus. low note. to Diez. Barton. bast. piiiguis. baratar. lust. imbastire. or running away with the ship.D. would be. mavult dicere Roma suam. to cheat. ohg. beguile. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. hoops of a cask. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. MS. Bass. bestcn. Bastard. ibid. It. It. baraet (from Fr. chasa ogli a bastard. /«r<fSp. husk bast van koren. Lend me your hands. back. low. truck. Fris. BassuS. 516. basso. but born in baste. basso. beortun. netting. also the demesne lands of a manor. . baste. barter. corn-farm. Basket. Arthur and Merlini.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. Bast. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. Pl. said Base. Dan. A fabulous serpent. mock not. . a ipgli So Turk. It. To stitch. baos. — Bassoon. AS.looketh upon his eyes. oe. Basilisk. and Bret. Sw. pressed down. HaU in HaUiwell. but he dreth presently. bast-reb. or wic. imbastire. to baste piece of cloth. fornication. to bargain. Sicamb. mean . MHG. a halter. fits de bas. berewic. Newman. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. OFr. descended of an honorable lineage. Gr. Kil. a bass rope. Du. cheating. from bere. as It. commonly A joined with the word binda. Bass. baraand especially teria.' Gl. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. HaUiweU. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . embastir. bark. Fr. i. The original meaning. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. discourse Nay. which sets up its hood when angry. bareter. barley. Bartizan. a ftiesh. basta. beretun. It.' Papias. humilis. pdrdt. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. the a wide open vessel. Barbara de pictis veni patch. bast. he. basta. Sw. a bastard. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. also to Cotgr. Swed. God it wot. Apparently of Celtic origin. found in Turkish . besst. The like property hath the iasilisk. chasa. Isidore. which covers the grain Ger. shallow. bastear. fraud. w. bas. baste. curtus. bassin. baratear. to truck. Halliwell. thick. low. of the same sense. besst-u-b£nd&t. a king. It. Sylvester's Dubartas. the thin skin Dan. basg. to baste. There is not one that. HoUinshed. stitch. Fr. bran. Bassus. from /3aR. and tun. peel. at basta og binda. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. MHG. Sp. lattice-work. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. him. low part of the Hickes in Rich. to stitch . F. over-reaching. See Bath. To Baste. rope for — . Sp. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. a deceiver. submovet omne Lucan. plaiting of splinters basged. preparatory stitching. But according And Dan. Du. bdtir. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. to deceive. bast. baste. leviter consuere. ^Is de bast. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. to bind. to long — a British word by Martial. — hanging. a tying. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. . partieren. the manorhousfe itself. bds. barter. to cheat. G. according from Gael. PaaiKhms. tierer. ing for profit. crassus. exchange. scale in music. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. fhe outhouses and yards. court-yard. basgod. ' He was begetin o bast. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). ' Bosworth. baxoj w. as the diadem of the basilisk. to bind hand and foot. the — — to kill those that look upon it. Dan. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. — in Rich. To Bask. come near. Al is dai. a court-yard. then cheating. dwelling. OFr. binding. unrighteous gain. It is mentioned as . bestan. foist in bargaining. bast-maatte. flat. bass-matting. inclosure. more noble in blood than notable in learning. See Brattice. fornication.). cog. aiKcig. Lap. n' is n' is bacino. Fr. Probably from reports of the cobra capel.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son).

has bastine. aftonbakke. cudgelling. Sc. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . the clapper of a bell. to beat. I. BAT neither. All from bastir. pre. iastir. a. Sw. set up. stryka.stitching in general. club.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. in the use of the E. to drub. bat. dial. a pad. a blow cloth for dinner.-^ Chaucer. erect. which in the E. contriving. raise. dial. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. to beat. Fr. Sp. which to rest the load. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. Fr. a things prepared for future use. back. 164). frotter. worth (Nat. R. Fr. It. to quilt or stitch wool into it. compared with blakka. beysta. in the Romance languages. translation to a bat. bakie-bird .. Sp. bastine. to spread bread and butter. bastimento. settiilg up. Rayn. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. blakka. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. Derived by Diez from iasi. the bat . iinbastire. blows. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. vledermus. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. or implement for 4 * A . glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. beating. quelqu'un son roulet. provisions. 2. frame. ari instruineht for beating. and ditches bastion. a with a stick. disposer. blakta. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. Pm. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. to give him a sound bastingi 3. basto.stick. — Bakke. guerra bastir. vespertilio. p. liiake. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. to cudgel. to belabour. Pr. For the origin of baston see Baste. . batta lucifuga. like the owl and the bat. business (Altieri). Dieiif. nade. victuals. Cot. to Due. bast.— . To beat or bang soundly. bastear. from Fr. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. bastione. bastir. blaka. to set on foot a war Bastion. 2. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. but this is hardly satisfactory. flyinge best. basta. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. a barSp. set up. and Cot. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. to thrash . a packsaddle. * Bat. Sw. whence ledrblaka. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. military term of a bat-horse). For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. Cot. bastonada. Fr. bastonnir. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. — — — . also the ricado. baston. the original has corneille. E. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. badger. Prov. to stroke. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. stryk. bdion. Sw. as weU as besteau. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. Antiq. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . to lay the Sp. bladier. to flap. 11864.Lat. bastia. and Arabs.baste or knock soundly. To donjon. ment. the winged . bastilde. to whip. contrive. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. packsaddle. Perhaps baska. . That yche blak y dar wel telle. also to cudgel. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. the E. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. To baste one's hide . staff. a blockhouse. blatta. It. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. bak. put it together. It. a pad or packsaddle. ON. a bird which. 2. 'iJipistreUo. bastida. bastonFr. Dan. Bastinado.'CaB. Florio. to rub. blakra. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. to rub gently. passage Imbasto. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. blacta. to build. to teach one before. boste. blatta. comp. a sconce. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. to devise or begin. Mid. niammal. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. to pack a saddle i. devise. baston. R. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone.— Bailey. basa. a bastion. explains Sp. For the loss of the / in back. Dan. the night-jar or goat-sticker.fortress or castle furnished with towers. vespertilio. is explained by Cot. night-bat. a stick. Supp. bastir. natt-blakka. e. to build. — — Fl. bastille. Sw.

E. a blow with a light instrument. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt.Bathe. to warm oneself. — — — ' — . strife. to toast bread. to warm. gebdcke. buask made like a fortress. abate. Bate. the root of e. as E. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. Jurgor.— . Goth. howis. and as a verb. made of — A made by one Batcii. bake. tradire. to foment. bdda vidjor. bdhen. Eggs. Bailey. solbase. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. to beath wood Battledoor. allay . batir. Fr. term in falconry . to for fighting. beat down. flour. to be profited. Fr. Ayenst the sunne. Battlement. to betake oneself. to become convalescent. to foment. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. gabatnan. dial. a stick. from on. 2. Hence pro. certain bend. abattre. a beating. heat. Pr. Chaucer. battions. bludgeon. lessen. sich bakern. oneself at the A into faggots. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. better. In OE. Sw. squadron. bat. battre las ailes. by projections or in any licoure. from battre. busk. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. Pm. Hal. I. wet linen in washing. to cudgel. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. dial. It. to beat se battre. Holz bdhen. badda. a Baiffi. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . pak. remit. to dial. in the case of a wall. — To . was formed bastilU. as E. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to bathe. a blow. dispute. an arrangement for giving blows. baeddu. Batten. a battalion. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. to beat. batador. as signifying warm baths. G. To thrive. Batter. batte sig. Battery. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to beat. to beat. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. to foment with hot applica. debat. e. baz. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. basa. battre. A Bath. for biia sik. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. See Better. more. Fr. to heat . In some parts of England it is striking.' Palsgr. beat. Battle. or make debate. I bathe in water viz. Flem. battle was used beath wood. signifying to give repeated blows. dial. batterie. battere. cudgel. Sp. in the sun. Sp. Jeddris and covering. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. baka. to thrive. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . also a sun badfish. battere. perhaps first used adjectivally. to become fat. Baka sik vid elld. solen baddar. made of bats. bataille. badask. Pm. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. Strife. Plkkis. on. bada. Fr. and about an inch thick. the heat of the It. to get better. dial. to warm oneself at the fire. badda. to bathe oneself. a from ON. water whether warm or cold. bat-en. Sw. to heat. to fight. From OFr. quhar he suld assaill. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. to flutter with the wings. and with staffslyng. From bat in the sense of rod . then to warm by the application of hot water. G. Battalion. w. adapted for defence. altercation. is a simple adoption of Fr. Barbour in Jam. trahtr to It. hot. to refresh oneself in language. on the fire. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. To Bate. To Batten. I baske. Gael. to fire or in the sun. gebdck. to feed. Mgy. ON. bdt. is in falling. Slav. a battle. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. a staff. Florio. batna. . and milk beaten up together. Bret. It. Fr. beat.Hence in the augmentative form It. also. to fell. to beak. Bat. as wood-en. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. . baden. whence the sun burns . batacazo. bet. a main battle. baquetazo. fortress or castle. Batyn. Du. betten. battaglia. Fr. bdda. battre. — Cot. G. A batch as wood. of bread is so much baked zX one time. a great seems related to baden as Fr. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. a washing beetle. Pr. makebate. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. a stirrer-up of strife. fashes basking in the sun squadron. tagUone. PLD. Battery. The bat with which a brot bdhen. or a dry stick. a band of armed men arranged basa. or break down. bastille.— To Bask. . the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. quell.

an embattled wall. to vociferate. E. Jam. Ball-seirc. Fr. a dog). balGael. Swiss Rom. From Bret. b \% bouala. a gavel. fe bau. Fr. babsmall toy to play withal. a horse with white legs. a tassel. Baldrick. bow (as in our nursery Diez. balderich. Ball. exactly corresponds Fr. or sheaf of Bridel. OFr. on the face of animals. fagot. to bark.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. Pr. and authorities in note. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. to make the noise Baudrick. obstrepere. to void the bowels. from Baldacca. mew. spot. to bark . c. baue. Sc. bobbin or cluster of thread. speckled. trifles. also more Bawdekin. It. filth. a zan. spotted. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. lewd .. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. P. Baw — .— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. — — ' Lydgate. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. pegma. bad. nastiness. Irel. as Fr. W. dente. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. baw. Cot. dirt. is used for a sented by bau. to play the babby. scarf. librillo. disgusting. — Pm. Prov. a plot of Chaucer. bouaila. whimwham. Lat. ON. In like manner Grisons filthy. Hal. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. ballach. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. s. E. dung.guage). ground. ! Bauble. baffe. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. Batylment of a wall. is Bagdad stuff. a white mark Bawdy. the white of his leg or foot.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. whence pouacre.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. BAWSON Swiss. guigaw. sorry. to the same origin. Piedm. Zalli. the face. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. collar. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. bow-wow. divided between black and white. bauch. to low or bellow as corn. a belt. bauU. a lump. brush faggot. E. P. dacchino. fields. Fl. Filthy. 8. 2. Cot. fooleries or fond To Bawl. excrement. Descript. bau. Bagdad. s. child. Gael. bal. bobine. From ! an interjection of disgust. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. an — — — A — g — — — . R. instead oi s. tab. i. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. or Cot. Pm. baubare. to cry. —R. P. baudrdj OHG. or toys. sword-belt. because made of cloth of white. Cotgr. bablyn or waveryn. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. filth. E. in OE.. baudrat. Fr. miauler. It. balbob. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. ball. Cloth of gold. ish baubles. Pr. Beaus^ent. a spot. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. It.' ' Pegma. baula. or the animal so marked. It is all bawdy. bausan. Bavin. babiole. cluster. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. to trifle away ment. and to-tore also. form with an initial seen in Fr. was simply a field gold. dirty. horse. babbole. and Sp. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. a tassel or hanging bunch . to me-wl. dial. tille. a horse marked with a procession. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. OFr. bal. expressive of disgust. baugant. Formed from baw. baban. faisceau. to 53 manure the To baw. Bawson. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. trifle. from Fr. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. the Swiss baben. an object. vacillo. represented by the syllable miau. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . An analogous noisily. also the canopy carried part of his body. pie- . zano. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. whence the E. rotten. propugnaculum. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. A name of the badger. The word may perhaps be sticks. having a white streak down Bagdad. The It. to talk Lacombe.— P. a lump or cluster babhaid. javelle. toys. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements.

from badar. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. &c. to split. Vielp. to iiitent nected PoL white. S. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. Fr. To Bay. and zndly. baier. . I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. See Bawl. bate. Gr. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. The — Fr. bdcr. to open. desiring. watching intently. house . and keeps them in check for a while. as gazing. is perhaps not directly from Lat. Fr. to mark.' — — 54 bald. — A At Bay. Bay-tree. Cot. Bayonet. laurel of the ancients. It has been shown under Abie. &c. Mod. or berries. ist. A stag is said to stand at bay. baca. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. AS. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. buidhe. baja. Gael. baye. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. &. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Gael. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. bahia. in order to keep the enemy in check. the world Gr. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. living Ir. baie. bilyejiti. Sp. to on anything. The word bay. . life. bijel. baccello. stood watching him stoop. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. tradire to Fr. — Schmid. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. See At Bay. alive. to gape. w. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. baer. baca. aux dehniers abois. From Cat. to open as a blossom. a hole. which however. siege of Bayonne in 1665. F. Fr. bay. to betray. It. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. so called from its bearing bays. Serv. waiting .. BAY marked with bjly. badia to Sp. gate. a cluster of bacon. the step is the same as from It. bayo. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. or at bay. 1859. See Bald. badarse. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. . baionette. white. Such Antaeus seemed to me. arose two forms of the verb. bajo. Piedm. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. dividere. Earth — By Nature made to till. bahia. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. at his last gasp. BE Probably conRuss. weary of running. bioth. open the mouth. beonj Gael. bai. * To Be. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Prov. or window ' (in Fortification). a berry. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. Catalan hadia. the cod or husk of beans or the like. bay. berry. baher. Lat. Fr. bacca. Q. like a pie. stare. bilyega. ing-floor. a beast. Bay. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. —F. he turns and faces his pursuers. Drayton in R. Bay. It. —Diez. when. ./^ bau. from an imitation of the sound. badius. BauSfi)/. to keep one waiting. OSp. Abide. Swiss beie. window . the laurel-bay. baiare. baya. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. Q. the cod of peas. large window in a handsome . especially beans. 1. From the former verb is the It. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. expresr sion tenere a bada. A hollow in the 'line of coast. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. and the To bark as a dog. beothach. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. badarc. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. or recess in an apartment in modern times. beo.—Journal Soc. bayen-stein. dehiscere . —Bay-windo'W. put to his last shifts.— Stalder. Holland's Pliny in R. to stand watching one. grapes or nuts. Fr. window-sill. Fr. 25. life. It. Sp. as if to signify a window of curved outline. It. Lat. berries. Sp. hddhe-dhonn. or to have been first used at the Cot. barn of two bays. Feb. Swab.' Bailey. by the term rendre les abpis. buidhe- The ruadh. |8i'os. bde.. living thing . a dagger. husk. abbabayer. It. bagaid.c. that from ba. baga. yellow . Arts. to amuse stare a bada. overture. to keep at a bay. to be Bohem. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. a'uno. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. trahir. bialo. batibari. a mark. corrupted into Bow-window.

Beach. Gael. Chapters on Lang. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which.to have a French origin. gebed. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. rising ground. bidan. To Bear. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Gael. and Lat. on. bead. into France. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. . Gael. ON. — bedeau. Pardoner's Tale. E. bob.' Suetonius in Diez. support. Sw. salve his hurts. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. 54. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. Fr. bar. Trans. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. ON. beck. bee. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. fero. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. to nod the head. to carry. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Beacon. or beic. signifying individuality. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E.from AS. bohne. Slavon. W. beic. post. backe. The immediate shore of the Menage. Goth. fromthe danger. or any action done with a pointed thing. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. beugler. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. a prayer. beacen. Bean. * Beagle. to nod . Your hat no lib that place you put him in. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. Bret. . prodigy bauhnjan. ffaen. a hill. N. bank. an attendant. a curtsey. bdkna. a tree. to wait-. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. — Bellenden in Jam. stock. badmr. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Boom. a beak. Goth. Beadle. signifying a point. bairan. ohg. The wild beast. as. l^ax. . like most nautical terms. as well as f& or fav. G. would say. Gr. Miss Gurney in Philolog. It forms a. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Bear. — : Beam. He says. to beckon. Beck. beic. to produce young.' adheres to the root. A Esthon. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven.ad. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. a single bean. to bellow. as. nokkima. G. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. faba. Thus the final en. It is BEAR SI court. baun. Du. atUndre. bydel. to wait. —F. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Lat. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. -phxr. faba is Kvavoq. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers.fuis5e. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. pig. be. a nod OHG. Moreover the name. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. or breathing. a single bean.fer-re j Gr. bean. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. baum. vol. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. a tree. Beckon. Be. Fr. into a snjall river. «va\ioQ. bearti. bM. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Bret. fd or faVf beans. which is. Beak. boom. a sign. W. g. however. according to of Sanscr. We haled our bark over a bar of beach.' Hall's Chron. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. The nutu significare. bohnej ON. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. was introduced from England sea. The origin seems preserved in E. becco. Netherlands or North Germany. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. the part overflowed by the tide. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. pierced for hanging on a string. bauhan. A two-year old nephew of mine p. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. beans. bokan. bedm. Farrar. a presage. It. Q wait upon him. bakkje. bek. Hackluyt in R. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. bagms. See To Bid. ffci. bidello. vii. tale of prayers or doxologies. bakke.. Catalan becar. beacnian. fora-bauhan. or however.fui. AS. It. AS. OSax. — to bow or nod .

timan. bello. to happen. ON.' are equivalent expressions. Bedizen. bave i. Lat. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Bo. handsome. Lat. or river. gelimplic. To load with ornament. a lip. blast. barf. the beard. See Beacon. I do thee pray. fallinn. Beauty. judgment. and Fr. to happen. Now the Beast. to wade through the water like a beaver. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. bellus. bava. ting. fiber. Bosworth. ON. rying.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. pens unmixed evU. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. badi. Secondarily applied to a hat. to get. decorous. ON. bring forth. Lith. receive. riviire. from baver. R. battere.AS. E. Lat. a. befall. beo. byw. but now a river only. if sound of a sharp blow. to happen. brook . from beau. Beckon.to clothe to slobber. bavec. it is probable that here also the to become. taste.S6 fero. Chaucer. from the same in the sense of bear2. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. dress with unbecoming richness . Thus OY. biber. bart. boroda. bestiaj Gael. byrcti. an notion of being convenient. bebrus. Goth. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. bekommen. i.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. limpian. covered the face. baviire. bobr. . talkative. R. It. to arrive at. bett. den. pretty. while from Shep. beatanj It. g. formerly a happen. burdr is used in the sense of a car. AS. a bank. See Bank. happening as it ought. produce. That thou mayest attain Goth. our taste. perhaps a living thing. tidig. Lat. Prov. to fall in with our bavard. Fr. G. Do no To It fallith favour.— Kiittner. nod or sign. because made of the fur of the beaver. to sleep on. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. and on. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. comely. bach. agreeable. to appertain. G. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. proper . — A — A — . barba. bard. Fr. to fall mode of being. to please. G. biivre. bobrowai. now confined To Become. godum with ON. gefallen. In like manner condition. birth. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge.of being very angry. as. bedr. Perhaps from Pol. decent. gebank. The quadruped. opportune. to be incumbent upon him. venient. Beck. suitable. or a feeling to be gratified. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. as the babble of the child. to the good hapHalbard. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. bib or slobbering cloth. fitanimal.' ' He became very angry. The OFr. e. to the brook itself. dushmak. becuman. fitly . baurthei. Thcem. iida. o. limplice.' every way suited to a prince.fit. See becymth anfeald yvel. connected with ripa. to shore. Dan. bur. bearing. riviera. bekkr. — . It. nothing to thy name make. 2. ON. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. Fr. As rivus. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth.we call the arrangement becoming. to fall. agreeable. The moveable part of a helmet. tidy. Diez. chin. ziemen. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. convenient. He becom on sceathan. slobber. to be a part of his to. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. AS. OSw. to attain to the lot of any one. fit. when up. Fr. border. befit. Sp. Slav. Beck. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. becuman. to G.getiman. to bear children. babrad. to come to or upon. pleasing. get J ' He got very angry. obtain. con. baba. E. to assume a certain form or Turk. gabaurths. G. Russ. to live. to happen. Prick of Conscience. duty. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. to happen. name applied originally to the bank then proper . suitable. i. seemly. Beaver. e. to hem. brada. Beat. bave. On the same principle. a brook. whence baveux. bel. proper. Cal. which. limpan. to those goods which endure for ever. Boeth. and to acquire. dize or dtzen. living. or special purpose. The fitting or suitable. G. W. place to lie down. the latter are derived It. to carry. a bank. behkr. E. See Bat. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. beauts. the ece thurhwuniath. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to be fulfilled. brook. and also in that of birth. 1. to dabble . edge. bcek. bequem. Fr.

bbtel.— JI14. may be shpped on and off. bedde-redirj ohg. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. whose face is clotty. buche. by-flugaj G. i. AS. sela que environna la terra. used for boull. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. beach.D. to and ale. kivih. the biter. bet. may be from K. kiissen-biere. /SXirov. Bed-ridden. the loppered sea.ON. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. to fall. E. the meat of spinach. Cot. buk. piwo. G. Bav. ' MordiThe Lat. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Fin. erroneously modified in form. For that was law of lend. and lebermer in G. a wasp. The first milk after a dizen. woman that is newly delivered. Fr. It. a cover. * Beestings. as in It. Gael. GaeL bior. Ant. to colour with lime-wash. wedges. It. taglio.). Fr. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. as the milk of a that purpose in London. of beatmg. also bienst. drink. qui de lecto surgere non potest . Beetle. to change . . a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. duplicated form of the root.— B. But possibly bedizen 2.^ drink. E. 1. Cot. ^. prigione. Bernese. turn. Dan. bitela. translation beOj. beta. from risan. a paviour's beetle batail. an inhabitant of the desert. 57 — Palsgr. mars betada. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. boytle. 1 to drink. Lat. briesch-milch. I put the flax upon it to spin.' So Gr. boeuf. the ox. door. a cup or implement for AS. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. tree. Horn. in Nat.D. calleBedlam. AS. cozen. Lat. . Pett. to poordma. a horse-fly . Bedouia. cugino. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. G. to turn. Slav.(paddi. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. . Confined to bed. a Properly a cover that biiren. prisons Venet. a wasp. de Fierabras in Diez. Grimm. a malsense of drink. biest-milch. as. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. poculum. briest. from jtst-. bedawi. P1. Pl. cow has calved. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. cushion-cover .BEDLAM a distaff with flax. in Schmeller. I dysyn a dystaffe. desert. from leberen. stakes. The honey-producing insect. ris. KXlvoTTiT^e. PI. g. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. vaar. In a passage of an Old Fr. a stinging bieUe. thick. to flatten In OE. betel. The beer al for te shenche bate. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. sang vermeilh betatz. turn (a garment). G. beyki. and in driving piles. beest. a pillow case. paralyticus. bedskiissen-bUren. which also 2. Rom. fall. to coagulate. &c. Let. a drink potus. a agulatum in the original Latin. beetle also signified the impiti.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. biiren. badigeonner. knock. Fr. thick. The meanpainting._t from the root pi. from Lat. curded or beesty. to beat bossel. fagus. comb. Bee. to become Beech. a clapper. Fr. cousin. AS. a bee. . beutel. case. bletumj Gr. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. waarin. an ox. on. pettiriso. byst. to twist poorma. Arab. trees in a forest . beach-each. ir'm. also the bite or sting of a bees. garden-herb. Esthon. pital of St Mary. a mallet. extant in Bohem. bably named from the destructive quali| T. 1. to curdle or lopper. speach.ing of the word is curdled. from the hos. batAfter mete in sale. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. crespir. 'La Gl. Fr. whence familiar. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. Gr.. madhouse. a wandering Prov. pude-vaar. bette or blettej Lat. bossen. a pillow-case.'— GL ^Ifr. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. D. a bed-tick. Beet. bytl.possible. blow or thrust. biene. Fr. . bukva. from blood. bove. I A pillow-beer. bitel. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. cogionare. beer. bibere is a re. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne.' the last word corresponds to cofly . . beost. ProBeer. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. by the analogy of bedaivb. buka. to knock. to rough- cast. a pad or cushion). The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. to parget or rough-cast . to drink. Beef. cited by Diez. It. imperative pi.cz//aj. red curdled Arab . clog for a dog b'oteln. bos. doubtless. Bethlehem. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. bovis. Originally. water. drink. an Beetle. 1156.

Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. ornamented phoc. a wallet. He did alight. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. cans.' about undern he got down. gigno. from whete G. signifying to conceive. vir mendi. Du. AS. seizing. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. P. capere. 'Aboutin undern monly. 2. but probably erroneously. gen. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. tale. P. hags. beriolare. touched with emotion — . Bruce. bertola. one after that other. ip AS. anfangen. literally. P. sel.' A. P. a bag . &c. begger. also called Bigots. The tother seand the dint cum. beginning. to bear young. ' Begone. woe-begone. in E. onginnan. taking up. word. but in the same language from poc. Gr. P. Beghardus. ' ' . to begin. P. P. on the bag. Goth. P. 40. It will . Fr. 168. gan. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. can. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. Lith.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. — yivsaiQ. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. as alighting is a momentary operation. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. be^nnan. su with gold. From w. at geta talad. to arise. a wedge for cleaving wood. above quoted to get beaten ON. Mundart. ysgrepanu. Into the are D.bag full of the G. on the tramp.quently used in OE. affected. kind.3. or Of a pure poor man. yiyvo/uat. in D. — Stillingfleet. referred gan this Erie alight. beitel. begging. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. Si'Xa/coc.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. air a . beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. 1430. Political Songs. iv. ' . it is both to acquire and to beget. Schm. aginnan. & go a begging. V. beis- plement driven by blows. krapszas. to go a begging. 'ex quo. to reduce him to beggary. to be able. fangen and Lat. the fundamental notion of attaining to. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. &c. y/yvo/iat. yivwajcw. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. genus. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. a bag. a beggar-boy. Cold-begone. in Lat. In Luc vi. not began to alight. duginnan. Of brede full ycrammed. bag {baigean. appears improbable at first. a beggar. 25. incipere. Ancren Riwle. to cleve. to be acquire. Creed.pose. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . 142. and Lat. Du. a beggar . on further examination. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. to beg. beissel. to know. to begaan. a scrip. image is cleft out of the trunk. to With hire belies & here bagges get children.D. Nov. chisel. viii.— .' for ye shall lament and weep. P. is com. pose-pilte. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. a stone-cutter's chisel. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Florio. To Beg. steinbosil. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. is formed pocair. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. origin. Du. baigeir. Lollards. chap. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. can. Deutsch. ken.n. giving in Gr. a bag or poke. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Vocab. ysgrepan. although it ' the future. When Q. ken. 'Dz. to get children . Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. ykvog. 58 BEG BEGONE G. To Begin. V. a — wedge. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. beitel. V. a little bag). Mod. to be born. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. whence the E. yivtrri. lapidicinus. OHG.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. a chisel. P. covered with gold D. So from Gael. oppressed with woe. Barbour. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . Skinner's derivation from bag. of Gr. to take. a scrip euXaiciJoi. To produce children is to acquire. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. yivofiai. beutel. 1867. ytyvwfT'Kw. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . two betels —a grete oke. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. It.

to cast or throw. han- — js Kil. to carry corn into the barn .— . to keep. zu etwas gehalten haitan. behatan. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. hofwa. To look steadily upon. to hold. to be fit. G. what he wishes another to do . Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to lift. to call. AS. solicitum esse. by the compound observare. And so from hania. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. To Behold. heave. Sw. take yourself off. advantage. to regard. healdan. hovast. —Hest. us-hafjan. observe. promise or a command. or purpose. keeping. to halten. Command. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. Aan iemand bid one welcome. keeping. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. obliged. to hit the mark. hantyri.for throwing it. bound. behefe. gehat. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. from tragen. ge' hatan. G. is also found in the sense of looking. to keep. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. hatan. and the E. the equivalent of E. hces. what is so required.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. tail. behoof. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. R. the two verbs seem radically the same. or necessary. to heave. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to be suitable or becoming . Kiittn. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. to command. to name. to be named. hafwa. Paladino. to raise. AS.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. right. to be obliged to one. hcefwa in seed. to bers of the body. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to keen or hold. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. behold. Plautus. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. To Behave. tion. zijn. take heed of. hevja. heita. to feed. hevja. to call. hafjan. ifl fact. to lead. fixed upon any object). ward. promise. behces. Sw. to vow. N. AS. AS. beperson addressed. behind. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold.). the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. AS. premi curi alicujus rei. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. hove. hafwa ram. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to be obliged to do a thing. hafwa bort. to turn one out . vow. on. commonly expressed. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. OE. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. to the equivalent of Du. to look. name of the head is used to express what hbva. nittaa. beholden to him. habban. heeten. Goth. adjust. to have. heeten willekem. G. invoke. garder. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to bring forwards. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to tend. G. and (as Fr. guardare. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. holding is originally derived from that of looking. exhort. Thus in Finnish the heave. to carry. K. to carry. The Lat. But. injunccommand. the name adapt. to carry. se porter) to fare well or ill. to gehouden. servare. hcef tig bort. to meet. to vow. vow. taking notice or care of (Gloss. behete. The It. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. G. — Behest. to lift. promise . when the verb will hoof. as in the case of E.' Richardson. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to hold. to follow. and their senses intermingle. betragen. Robert in Warton. to command. to be be named. G. is on the top of or opposite to. gehalten seyn. laborare. at the tail of. to take away. behaviour. to be well pleased out. to fit. use. or the hence advantage. habere. the distance of anything. gehaben. ufhaban.the figure of throwing at a mark. behat. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. have the sense of calling or naming.to vow. 17. hafwa. is supported by many analogies. At the back of The re. seeing to. Sw. according as the * To Behove. furtherance. to behave. The seyn. to R. a follower. gecall. portarsi. It. To place are most naturally ex. gehouden. to look upon it as true . to promise. To be expedient.

leave . bounds. portion. Pl. moderation. were civil terms of address. fringe. orloven. to fix a price upon one's wares. to sound loudly . appearing in Mid. ungalaub kas. bealcettanj OE. to lay be- around. Another application of the same word is in Pl. Fr. AS. promising. OFr. under the forms belfredum. bertefredum. and E. or a sconce. to believe. . laven. In the middle voice hofwas. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. gelyfan. is (Sternberg). to believe.D. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to make it fast. in nautical language. bylja. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. beleggen. The word be- Belfry. bellan. — mankind. garnish. certain rate. to bellow. bellow. measure. loven. to give leave. to praise. bealcan. and Du. a vessel made for dishonour. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . to permit. to der swaren lave. It. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. are other modifications of the same imitative root. to extol the worth of anything. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. and E. From AS. . met. 6o BELAY BELL loven. to give leave Dan. belief . — Diicange. To Belch. to give leave. praising. to resound. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. overspread. aim. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. tain a certain end. Northamptonshire. allow. permission. — . De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. laven. to belay. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . Hence to simple approbation. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to .. bolken. To praise is essentially Xo prise.. to sanction an arrangement. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. ON. Du. locus securitatis Schilter. to praise. to hit hafi. then. laubjan. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. Det er ofwer er hofwa. filu-galaubs. reputation. lofa. Then. G. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. See Gain. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. a watch tower. are innate . galaubjan. to express approval. bervrit. OHG. Du. to lay the cable round the bits. verloben. leaf geleafa. a little shed. ON. and bergan. Pl. giving leave or permission. a tower. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. consent. with the consent of the heirs. praise. legsel. and. bialla. —F. bettifredo.. mark ON. to be required for a certain purpose. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. bulken. To Belay. lov. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. berfroi. to befit. In Mid.D. to promise or engage. loven. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. promiser. hesfa. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. behove. pro3. frid. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr.alyfan. is used in the sense of approving. to bolk. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. a. fitness. range. beffroit. Du. an implement for making a loud noise. resonare. glauben. beffroi. to roar. erlauben. to praise. lyfan. a tower for defence . bercvrit. peal. on. beau sire and bel dame. . to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. bell. to boke. satisfaction. border. to a loud noise. to believe. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. To Believe. to protect. turris. P1. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. beset. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. esteeming good and valid. or high estimation. to cry out bell. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to put a high price or value on. precious.D. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. then. on. or house. stand.D. Goth. galaubs. to estimate them at a To believe. true. boare. Q. Fair sir and Fair lady. Bell. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. to promise. for purposes of low estimation . Sw. distance to which a piece will carry. ornament.Lat. is an easy progress.Lat. from mhG. ley/a. battefredum. properly belonging to the church tower. cela est audessus de votre portde. permitting or giving leave. honoured. b'ola. esteemed . Du. reach. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. if a narration. AS. belja. Fr. if a promise. we have Goth. loben.

' Palsgr. a benefit. bellows. rushes. generous. belgr. disposed to oblige. bolch. belliJ Lat. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. from cwcsthan. bander un arc. volva. . or sometimes louban. bene/actum. ball. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. rise against external force . because bcelg. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. attinere. To Belong'. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. was in Mid. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. to touch one. to use words of good omen. Du. See Bank. or fyle with myre. an inflated Lat. wallet. to become one's property . as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . a speaking well of one. Lat. fyle To dirty. G. J'emboue. to attain to. bilbila. leather sack. See Bind. blister balgan-snamha. Gael. benaigon. Dozy. ' I beraye. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. to arrive at. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. ' . used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. a round or bubble-shaped root. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. poX^ri. skin. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. to make bilbil. Quoth. — See Numb. langen. balg. benjoim. are stripped off whole blase-balg. well. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. — Ducange. a bellows . benejicium. Eenison. a water-bubble builge. or simply djawt. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. bcelg. balteus . Gael. the word. ray. benignus (opposed to malignus). bell. benjoin. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. See I . hem. Bav. Sw." — — . To Bend. bandoir. attingere. bendan. Bent. benehusk. attinere. ^To Beray. welt of a shoe. to touch. Lat. wallet Benefit. Fr. To Benum. Benefice. I say). to hallow. to say. Fr. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. . . means seeds of plants. a good deed. I soyle it or araye it. bellows.videtur. bags or bellows. a kindness. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Gum benjamin. pod. vulgarly the belly. by itself. . Was das belanget. ON. pertinere. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. to come to the crown belangen. blast-bcelg. binssen. to hold to one. Lat. a bellows. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. benedictio {bene^ and dico. pouch. se bander. belly.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. benefacere. Kil. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. skin. needs no ex. the womb. to. OUG. a spring. vulva. border.polch. is The word balg. Lat. est matris in lucem editus. Lat. on. to concern. Belt. from another modification of the word for bubble. belly. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. one who does good. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. To Bequeath. to exert force. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. to belong. becwathan. In E. G. from which is also bulbus. benir. I araye. cod or husk of pulse.pinuz. hence with ashes. to bless. is a kindred form. bimpsen. loubdn djawt. bimaissen. bolg. Benediction. the skin of those animals that factor. to stretch it on a frame. to ring. bellows. bag. Bret. benedicere. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. incense of Java. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. gelangen. ON. to concern. a border. belch. The ing-skin. Lat. to bend a bow .' — Hie fimus. — root consisting of concentric skins. from Arab. to attain belangen. Benzoin. . pertinere. Benedico. kind. from benedictio. Ptg. bless. welt of a shoe gwald. taken absolutely. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. . See Nether. to reach. — ray. belt. bendaj as. has assumed a plural form. dirt. Bench. bilbil-goda.Fr. balg. pino3. gwaldas.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. beneison. Benignant. Fr. pervenire. Benign.. To belong is thus to reach up to. binsen. I marre a thyng. as. to do good to one . Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). bolg. fens et hie liraus. or a It is times the to signify services. a blow. G. a accusative. Beneath. Javanese perfume. a leather bag. a blessing. bienfait. as concerning that. w. From OFr. Benefactor.' The term had been previously planation.— Belly. G. OFr. .

sets fire to. an incendiary. R. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. baete. mud. Bestead. fyrbotare. making better.irova. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. what does it better a man. a horse collar. roe. * Berth. protect . vol. To Bestow. to exercise on a definite object. bet. beorgan. BETE dirty'. E. put. person to lie in. supply. stow. When men of mekeness him baet. to To Bereave. dirt . berwham. To bete his Jam. but in practice. bal oppbota. Goth. to fall with roisto. hva mannan. repair. E. advantage. reparation. On the other hand. Sw. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. sheltered from the wind. to kindle the fire. p. basya. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. — amendment. stealth from steal.X. botesward. boteith Goth. dirt. Tha het he micel fyr betan. ropahtaa. OE. of ffeed a fire. boeten. . The origin is AS. to put on the saddle. To help. seems twigs or rods. earh. fall with sound. to entreat. think more probable. ^akka. barfham. Esthon. earg. to thrust. to amend. as. buttafuoco. reafian. to fire a funeral pile of . Du. Du. and also to entreat.• 62 Antiq. from It. position. So roto rattle down. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. scopse spartis. — bota. the side bhakshya. To seek something from a person. broom twigs. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. solicit. R. Besom. Devon.ot-i. — Biglotton. brem-bessen. besnij Pl. as bouter selle. a berry. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. a place . to strip. make better . See Better. lay out. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. as. to stand one in good stead. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. to make better. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. p. Du. To Bet. barth may be for barf. AS. berwe.D. Grose. baete. compared with bargham. Kil. from AS. to be-place. small eatable fruit. or. G. * To Bete. besein. in the sense ctf beria. to word is shelter. stede. So Lat. buttare. Zeitschr. Beet. rubbish. Hfence backing. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. The proper meaning of the bale. Best. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. From abet. because used for making besoms. to mend. See Reave. AS. barthless. from grow. besje^ Sanscr. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. to make it. Berry. bur-we. an incendiary. So too Yorkshire arf. or to bestead one. AS. to seek. same word with the provincial barth. dust rojahtaa. burrow. bdt. betan. ship for a make amend.— Hal. bota. lewth. Fr. advantage. It is the restore fyr betan. Sw. but it is specially applied mister. and Du. to the place boarded off in a. boeten.fish the other hand. better. ariierf to 113. the origin of which is to be found in ON. to cast. encouraging. supporting on the one side Lat. — . besIn sen. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. berry. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. I from lew. jnore. dung . bat. bereafian. betan. eld up- On is to be placed A — . put forth. arwe. might have been . to on the other Goth. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. beseech. BEREAVE Wall. Fr. Beere.— VixHsm. one who shelter. to thrust.—^fake. G. boutefeu. or the space kept clear betan.iooA. — Chaucer. Ihre. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . place. bouter. noise.t. basjaj Du. The dry. Beit. what does it boot. To Beseech. besen. amendment. bestow. boeten. it seems hard to separate as. roju. bdt. reparation. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. Du. sweepings. as in growth. bacca. to to deprive of. and on which the wager is laid. roju. to defend. as conversely a besom is called broom. preferably. to supply a want. To Gl. the guardian . . dial. 3. peto. a fire. as Du. ^•n. Tusser. as. profit. Fin. besmas. Rob. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. fearful. houseless. to light the fire . as. improve. het vuur The serise of Boeten. vi. is to perform a serviceable office to him. rods.bhaksh. to give a place to.

fate. or with again.D. betwuh. Pl. Car son umbre si le trahit. *Ah. as from obdir. best. betera. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. dispose (whence schicksal. suitable. Sw. lot). From It. a traitor. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. taemen. more. Det sig sjelft. to discover. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. ON. obdissais. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. In the water anon was seen His nose. Ober D. Golding's Ovid in R. tradere. by two. batizo. roebucks. tima. bedriegen. bevde. Between. -to appoint. better. amidst. obeish. Lat. ON. bibere. in the middle of two. Ik tame mi dat nig. to happen. traditor. a brood. abash j from polir. vrohjan. which may be compared as to form with amid. Bevy. sloped off. better. To Bewray. tradire. r'ojer dig. bouter davantaige. To Beteem. batista. dir. by a final sh. trakir. better. To vouchsafe. G. betweox. betray. tweoh. pair of compasses. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. his mouth. wrogia. Fr. traitre. ziemen. Dit tungomal rendered in E. taemen. G. Sahissais. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. To boot in coursing (i. become. OE.— . fitting. polish. The inflections of Fr. to Teem. is used for the — R. From the former of these are AS. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. Fl. Slant. in the same way Lat. as one would have it fall. — of the authorities. Goth. afford. &c. Friar's Prol. proficere. to make forwards. ruogia. are commonly to one's lot. Goth. riigen. gatiman.' Dialogue on Witches. gezimet eines dinges. find it good: Goth. are there Regt R. deem suitable. AS. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. what does It is forward him. to fall Some call it a bevel. a drinking . bet. has — In a like sense tanie>i. — that schickiich. wreia. spritigs from schicken. a bevy. To Betray. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. bet. roja. Fr. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. to deliver tip. beva. an instrument opening like a a thing. make manifest. in the middle of twain. Du. evidence of life. betweoh. zimet. betriigen. Thus from dbahir. E. R. trahir. treachery. trahissais. bevere. and thence twegen. Bav. E. It. zemen. to deliver up in breach of trust. to stir. said he. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. to fall. larks. On the same principle ON. /alia. regen. suitable. betst. Mich self a good glass of wine. betwuxt. . Pl. from invadere. twain. deign. gesiemen. Best. be fitting or suitable. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. In like manner from twain is fothied between. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. kein leben mehrin no signs . bat. e. progress. awry. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. Fr. betest. two. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. Percy Soc. baet. verbs in ir with a double ss. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. his eyen sheen. to deceive. thy speech bewrayeth thee. is treason. i. to happen. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. against. Fris. of quails. a different form of twa. advance. Buveau. In like manner folissais. betaemen. Now the stirring of an object. — See To Bete. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. not to have the heart to give up a thing. it bewrays itself.D. whence beveraggio Fr. to cheat. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. to accuse. Hence last G. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. Chaucer. to Hence It. for measuring angles. some attention. moveable and compass branches. beverage. Dii. A — drink. e. trahison. springs from ON. R. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. beuvrage. G. BETEfiM translated. tima. betweohs. The as. fallinn. E. find in one's heart. of pheasants. Fr. Better. to drink . from. as tlock. order. the being pushed to the frbnt. from Lat. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. e. Tinia eigi at lata eit. from Fr. R. I approve of beveau. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. It. x. G. as trahissons. 88. AS. as envahir. amiddes. i. Cot. — Betwixt.

Pl. . An excellent Basil. snout. To Bezzle. winding or crawling in and out. —Bickering'.a. a bibber. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). as an eel or a snake. sbiagio. or kwijl-slab. tailU en biseau. the basil Sc. Fr. bickel. to sip. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. whey count . Fr. E. Pers. Mantuan. sbriscio. Bezel. kwijl-bab.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. or by any rapid motion. a sloping edge. kwijllap. per\'erted belief. to be a paring. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. to cut in two. sbrisciare. Prov. of the sliced off. its clothes. evident. dial. bestemps. a fragment bieco. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. . bible. babbefore the eyes. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. bark of which paper was first made. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). Fr. Bias. presence. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. /3i/3Xof a book originally. sbias. beslei. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. biaiser. to Jam.as in Biped. sbiesso. or in and out. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. bibaculus. petit-lait. a Galilean. bickai.' bibble. lips. Piedm.D. bending. To drink hard. — Bi-. sik beregen. bes-azur. . The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. Dan. sliding. Bible. Fr. a bezle. to slaver or drivel. stock still. two- footed. convicts thee of being drink. —Dozy. beregen. To Bibble. Bezoar. rogge. Sp. An inferior blue. sbrissare. to slaver . to it evident to sense. Gr. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Yes. Probably. love first begins to life signs of him. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. bibo. pddzahr. It. discover. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. crooked. bickel-sieenken. to dispute. in him. The train of thought is then. poison. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. misFr. biberer. to creep or crawl sideling. Bibelsworth in Nat. bisdare. — crooked. wrangle. in two ways for duis. sbieco. biais. foul weather. specially in a bottle. and zahr. biberen.s bellum for duellum. it becomes (Jz-. bring under ' Thy accuse.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. Diet. bavon. In comp. it were the mouth. him. metaphor). inferiority. twice. to tipple. OE. sbiescio. to move. Hal- — do something aslant. Oh when shall I bizzle. reveal.to drink much. to tipple. To Bicker. used in precisely stone . wrogen.{ioin dua. to glide or slip as upon. one who drinks in excess. has a singular stone-picker. asure-bice (Early E. Bib. babbi. which good bibbeler.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. liwell. from pdd-. To bicker in NE. bescompte. rogt un bogt sik nig. to a fight with stones. (according to the Fr. bezling or skueing. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. biax. Fris. Sard. baviere. to purl. . barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. kwijlen. Biseau. . wraggeln. Jamieson. It is especially applied in Sc. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. baverole. Lat. sbiscio. bisel. bickeler. the word became bddizahr. Cat. Misc. Fr. slippery. to give signs of life. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. b&zahr. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Sardin. to stir. ber-laita (for bes-laita). Lat. besanca. to stir up . Ci^. a stone-hewer .two. oblique. Schiitze.or from obliquus. To skirmish. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. bickelen. to make tongue Du. the papyrus. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. by throwing of stones. shows the P1. I Wallon. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. sbiasciai. like guzzle. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. bias-wise. in Fr. is explained to clatter. edge of a plate of looking-glass. sbrisso. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin.D. makes ble. though such a change of form would be very unusual. 78). bis. expelling or preserving against. 172. Hal. bebble. to stir. To Bib. pible. biascio. Ant. biberon. The It. notice. slanting . to the stirring of their conscience. Piedm. sloped. bihais. Du. It. whence Du. roggle. Cat. dial. to well up with Cot. to shake. Bice. aslope sbisciare. In Arab. ice . See Wriggle. Fr. biascia. a slabbering-bib. aslope. he is Wtb. to stir. Uprogen. Bisect.

To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. G. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. explaining the Sc. The loss of the / gives Dan. beadle. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. abidan. bua. or third order of penitence. to forbid . from bidan. 2. The ON.uddered len heart. bidan. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. praestare. offerre. OSw. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. bced. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. to ask. to pray one to dinner. bidel. bilge or bulge. pressing on one's notice. qucero. ON. ON. bow. . to build. who. or bad. bend. Bigot. bulky. related to big or bug. To Bid ' Big . bulge. proud. to look for. Wallace in Jam. With respect to logical pedigree. becoming in Lat. England for swollen. buga. twice. a swelling. to bend. rising up. bi-. Bickelen. bolgna). bygga. and yajiBui. to arrange. OSw. R. ewes. to look for. bath. inhabit. and the Sw. byggia. Kil. called the tertiary order. beidast. to bid one good day. cultivate. has leta. to inflate E. as tears from the eyes.' Addison. by seek and beseech. belly. G. A pose to one to come to dinner.. AS. — — — Halliwell. Analogous expressions are G. athird class. A bjudan in anabjudan. porrigere. beodan. Bight or Bought. bug. faurbjudan. to forbid . and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. to build. bieden. bog. bit- bidja. — To Bid. form. Jam. to offer. an entire skin. pray. bidan. — prepare. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. from belgia. a flexure. BID of stone. to build G. bolginn. Einem einen guten tag bieten. G. bidjan. bat . I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. from seek. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. belly. be bug. ' Bug as a Lord. W. bieten. to start out. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick.Leta). The . swelling. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. to offer it to public notice. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. To bid the banns. to swell. gebeden j G. balg. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. bolga. Bigamy. the belly of a ship. repair. bigan. Palsgrave in Halliwell. a suitor. and consequently ordering or reGoth. Two verbs are here confounded. which is stiU. biddan. as G.peto. bugne (answering to ON. of More ' in Richardson. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. in the sense of ask for. are also used in the sense of asking for. bugan. gebodenj G. bauen to cultivate. From Gr. bedun. AS. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. byggan. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. The ON. to cultivate. biegen. to inhabit. to have one called before him. Du. Compare also Sp. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. AS. a chip. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. einen vor Gericht bieten. praebere. to bicker. It must be observed that the word bidja. inhabit Du. or. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. consisting both of men and women. as. to belly. Hence Sc. to pro- command. bend of a shore or of a rope. ON. ON. to presimpler pare. bulge. build. The 'La. and Gael. to bend. forwards. spelling seems to used in the N. ten. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. the meaning of bid. bouwen. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. Big.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bis and in comp.t. swaggering. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bidill. Big-swol- . to offer one the wish of a good day. The original Swollen. to dwell. to bulge. may plausibly be derived from Goth. anleta. to abide or wait on. To Big. to curve. to ask. bead. to marry. BIGOT beidan. to E. to solicit." buque with E. verbieten. bo. to move quickly. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. boa. quiring something to be done. besides the professedmonks and nuns.' Pope in R. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. swoln. bag. bugt. . 1. bulk. iiQ. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. P.

' They were however by no means confined to Italy. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. author quoted in N.' translated by Muratori. which must not be confounded with begardo. dark-coloured cloth. a dunce. to adopt a similar course of life. the other form Per te Tribune. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. bighellone.— Ducange. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. 560. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. They wore a similar dress. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. bighiotto. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. a blockhead. clownish. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.D. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. biso. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart.D.— BIGOT bigardo.a. A. D.' says one of of bigio. signifying bagmen or beggars. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. homespun cloth. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. sed maxim^ in muliebri. corruption would easily creep in. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. vocati Fraticelli.' Chart. ac labores manuum detestantes.. Bighiotti). alii de paupere viti. aliqui Begardi. grey. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. perch^ i Terziari di S. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. In the same way Fr. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. with reference to A. alii Apostolici.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. grey. Augustini dotarint. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur.' Matthew Paris.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. coarse woollen cloth. rustical. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. bigotta. beghino. natural grey or sheep's russet. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. A. vol. Bizocco. both men and women. 1499. begutta. absque votorum religionis emissione. probably from biso. Bighini. borel. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. bigio. A. face VIII. &c. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant.D. Bizoccki.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. xx. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . In a similar manner from bigello. From bigio. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. all apparently derived from Ital. says.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. beghart. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. Hence the OE.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. Flor. ix. honesti plebeii amictus. as well as bizocco. Beguttce. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. and Q.' says an Venet. 1243. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. the nobles to Rienzi.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. and hence the variations bigutta. Francisci communiter appellabant. G. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. 15 18. and also unlearned common men. was formed bigello. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. S.

the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. buail. Sw. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. Ludwig. that of swell. BILBERRY nated. beghart. NFris. buoy [i.— — — . in the sense of a writing. the beak of a bird. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). bizocco. bila. Bilbo. Gael. Bill. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. clog to a fetter. bigardo. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. See Bulk. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. boeye. ferrese quam ligneae.' mariners. an axe. bwyell. top. the o changing to an i to express diminution. bull-berries. fetters. dziobad. abelthe fetter itself. a negro. Bohem. An instrument for hewing. See Bull. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. ^Billiard. beil. a of the sea. boja. bigot. — Cot. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. from Mid. biilge. Aurelles. an ingot. Du. to job. and a billard. billet. So in Gr. on. bill of exchange. 2. bullet. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. — — ' . a man who rests on a stick in walking. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. a name given to a. a seal. as craneberry. Billow. a devotee. however. The proper meaning bylgia. billard or billart. billot. belghen.. blaa. 5 * . AS. bill. Billette. In the same way are related Pol. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. axe.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Roquef. an axe. symbolum. Sp. Du. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. a seal. a short note. Lat. an ingot of gold or silver. of E. the swelling G. Dan. I. to swell with rage). Sw. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. e. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. boia. Lat. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. a shackle.' bilio. an axe. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. false pretender to reUgious feeling. from OSw. irons or set in a kind of stocks. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Fr. Kil. Sw. genus vincu- Bilboes. Bille. the trunk of a tree. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. A lorum tam in — Diez. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. topor. Dan. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. AS. buie. seems to be rather the unda. Bigin. Bilberry. and in Lat. 2. Du. of boja. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. crowberry. dziob. plog-bill.' in Richardson. tepati. — bigardia. billet is the diminutive of this. bille. in the same sense. . Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. 3. a bigot or hypocrite. a beak. obsolete. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. Bill. OFr. In English the meaning has received a further development. Langued. a hatchet. bil. is properly a sealed instrument. now A Bilboa blade. whortle-berries. used in legal proceedings. bile. Mundart. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Billet. bolghe. The Du. person of religion leading a loose life. bigot. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. inscriptum. to strike. . e. procella Kil. To Bilk. fluctus maris. 'tumidi fluctus. gan. gleischner (Frisch). a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. names bill-berries. To defraud one of expected sinking. Fr. . the bill of a bird. belgan. deceit. G. w. Kil. bulgja. dissimulation . as a bill of indictment. AS. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. Johansen. to pick a millstone. Piedmontese bigot. an axe . like change takes place in the other sense of — — . might be taken to express a hypocrite. loi. bulla. a floating log to mark the place of some. A slang term for a sword. weapon . p. bla-berry. to be angry (i. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. an adze . bulghe. Tartuffe. to strike. b'olja. horn of an animal. bisoch. Thus we find in It. Fr. Deutsch. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. from the dark colour. blue . Bojce. bui. bill in parliament. and dziobas. Prov. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. at sea Billet. Gascoigne in R. The origin of the term is probably from bole. to peck. blamand. bigotto. Bilge. a sword. billard also signified at billyards. a hypocrite. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing.

BITTACLE /Siof. 'tumens sequor. a female dog hindinn. to bind together. viz. videt. G. or petze. pinnii. nodus. a little dog. . EpisETTiTOOTToe. Lith. Fr. Bine. properly a young pigeon. Bindweed. bij sienigh. piccione. admota non Bit. binge. to bind at . which is expressed in E. to net. are commonplaces. evigue. biscotto. bundt. i. Dan. a bitch applied also to other animals. to bring Biscuit. pinnu. a heap. beitan. See To Bear. qui nisi propius Blind. propius videre bij sicndc. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. Then added division in a granary. Lat. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. a gallinaceous bird. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. bij sien. To Bite. &c. a female stag. to form a knotted structure. bunki. to plait. an eagle's young G. and of Fr. pin-ti. Bing. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry.68 BIN Bio-. bindan. Bailey. bindan. habitacle. the young of an animal. sc. biclie. earnes brid. Sw. a bitch. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. poule. a habit- Binnacle. or bin. IV. Lat. Goth. . a weight of 48 pounds. Bind. a pig petz. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. bitacora. truss. bundle. See Belly. bundun. bigne. — See Bittacle. a corn. — Kil. bund. to build. life. pullus. isfiw./«idere. ON. overlooker. a knob. bord. Birch. AS. . from Lat. When compared with Fr. than vice versi. where the compass stands. or ben-wood.' and the like. bunga. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. also a stone weight. biccej ON. a truss. pundas. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. brut. piiiti. The proper meaning is a heap. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. bircej Sw. Goth. to hang. bikkia. wine. Sanscr. in Swabia. It. AS. Thus I suppose the Gr. Habitacle. from Gr. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Bisom. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. Sw. biscuit. evegue. beize. brid. v. to knot nets for fish. by binda. a house. betsel. j). Bin. is rendered in ON. E. — — . poultry. Lap. and especially to a small poor horse. vescovo. to twine. — properly near-sighted. i. by the verb knit or net. . bunt. We — A Birth. Bisen. bhurja. to wreathe. G. the young of birds . bita. to be derived from Ibfiaq. The bitol. The term ON. pippione. lusciosus et myops. bitill. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. to cook). AS. terial. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. fowl. from \t3\. pittjo. Lat. Gr. G. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. a heap. — Surrey in R. expressed by Sw. burt. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. while bind-wood.. bundle. a bunch. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. Bird. Du. a bear. To — — —D. bunch. ge- from AS. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Bittacle or Binnacle. Bizened. a hind or female stag. hiindiiin. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. twice cooked. or baked. band. to swell. Lith. e. is in Scotland applied to ivy. bin-wood. . It. I would derive the verb to knit. evesgue. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. Fr. Bisson. doubtless a stone. beitsl. episcopus. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. a bitch. Lat. In like manner from knot. to bulge. ON. a brood or hatch of young. copus. an overseer. hith. beran. V.. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. Sp. AS. Fr. from pondus. to fasten it together. a bump or knob. berkas (z=:Fr. Fr. bundt. to bear. Fr. G. AS. AS. binda nat. bund. beorth. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Bitch. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. a weight. forth. . beisseii.. H. See Breed. bjork.

Pl. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. unintelligible talk plabair. . — Hollyband. small guard-house.' G. ^chops. mouth. shine. a beam in a house or ship. gabble. in contempt. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. round which the cable is made fast. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. pale yellow. a* mast . babbling. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. Fieldfare. blakki. v. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. Sp. ON. Sp. a fluttering noise.. white. mona mid Dan. garrulous. — Collins in Hal.€i. to To blabber blabber with the lips. corrupted in Fr. faded. Bittern. 156. shining. babbe. yellow . Hist. to bivouac. biti. Fr. G. blabhdach. as in that of pale and white on the other. x. G. Mantuan babbi. blac-hleor ides. blob. AS. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. apparently from its biting the tongue. Wit hung her mourn. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. baitrs. In Legrand's Fr.' by Haldorsen. as of water gently beating the shore. to talk much. as of wings . the moon with her pale — —Blabber. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Sp. blab. dark. to loll it out. black. — cheeked maid. blebberis. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. beuni. bleikr. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). To or he can speake. pale. ^aj'/^r. Ai-mstrong. to babble. pale brown . thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. Hal. Black. whitish. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake..' by Gudmund. Bav. stutterer. Fr. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. A a rail.D. cut. ' Biovac. as is seen in sputter and splutter.).. Applied in Hin ON. Du. 't huisje. bleich. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Deutsch. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. Alex. to chops. to babble. Bohem. a large coarse lip . blanc. is apprehension of danger. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. The Gz. gulblakk. Cotgr. quick. bitones. quoted by Ihre. iroxafealo. bitor. indistinctly. to wax pale or bleaked. on. pale. 332. bittour. term. fallow . 't kompas huis. . blabaran. white. In like manner E. Lydgate. butorj OE. dusky. plappem. The bitas. Again. So Fr. a continued soft sound. even humour seemed and beuin. beiwache. Sp. fallow fawn-coloured. blake. a childe dothe gasouille. bitts of Bitts. blob. —Neumann. Se bleek. blepLith. pins of the capstern. light-coloured. the palebleff. maculS. confusedly. In a similar manner Gael. blakk. Gael. Percy Soc. It. Goth. beitr. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. Mag. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. a shelter for the steersman. pale yellow . buft". whitish. Gael. from whence we have adopted the. blob. bitter. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. blesmer. a flapping. bleg. Hald. Sw.plab is used to . Fr. blabbre. whiteness (candor sine It. or water beating gently on the beach . Mund. baboyer. as of a body falling into water. first. blubber-lipped. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. plabartaich. chatter babbler . a large lip. his blacan light. to speak Dan. NE. Cot. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. white lead. synonymous with baber-lip. viz. Blabber-lip. to let out whai should have been concealed. bird of the heron tribe. blobach. Bivouac. /ealo-/or. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. Nagt huis. brunblakk. bittore. blunt we say it will not bite. Je N. bitr. blabbern. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure.' It would thus acle. obscurus. biacca. I blaber. out the tongue.— Blabber-lip. an additional watch. blank. a stammerer. ON. pale. things —Palsgr. Why presumest And laam's asse. faded. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. To Blab the anchor. an edge is sharpest sword. is placed. Fr. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. from wachen. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. bites. a babbler. discoloured . ' plabraich. Bleak. night guard. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . "uivac. thoughtlessly . mouth. a tati. yellowish. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. to the sharpness of a weapon. ON. bihovac. 'fuscus. on the one side. to watch. leohte . AS. ON. .

Blancli. mire. vagrants. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. 7. to shine. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. blahen. the ON. blegne. chatter. blather. blank. e. blaeren. branches . Blanket. Bav. to shine. a boil. from candere. — . p. and he shall be sure to have O. tattle. blad.— ^o thehotsun. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. to make or become white blanc. Du. blather. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. bladre. slush. pallido. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. the leaf of a tree. pXaatpiiiiHv. Fr. 1854. in R. bladder. to glow. board. plat. Bacon in R. blister. Reliqu. and G. blactra. . See Blubber. a. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. roar. a bubble. Hist. But perhaps a more Gr. on. a blanket a bed. to bubble. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. or as E. defame. Jan. blether. dripping-pans. a bubble. mus-blackt. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. To Blare. rogues and wanderers. bladder. as. —We Bladder. also jabber. Blame. also white woollen cloth . whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger.—Blatter. Du. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. Sc. Dan. whitish. Blank "verse. and Q. Gr. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. variable than the signification of words designating colour. blatt. to blanch. plat. irXariQ.. &c. chatter. blena. a leaf. 86. or of an oar G. Wott. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. The radical bubble. Torriano. contracted from bladeren. Lat. leaf of a. to bleak in the sun. or a mass of bubbles. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. Dan. to To bellow. blanqne. or blafich. polished. a white or unwritten ticket. linkboys. livido . 5/^a/^ of colour. to Hence Ital. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. white. his meat burnt. to —Blaspheme. also tanned by the sun. boys. blaere. vagabonds. to vocifer- — Cot. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. probably ate. as scullions. smother. name originally given Blackguard. Sir. whitish. —^Webster. bladra. reproach. most complete example of leafy structure. candidus. Play in Nares. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. blanc. Du. to glitter. G. Eadmer. and the agitation of liquids. to dabble in water. a buible. Blade. pimple. Blank. pluddre. Sw. revile. dial. coat. Fr. . — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. mud. — rura. From being made of white wooUen for cloth.— Kil. . blister. commonly called the Black-guard. as Lat. broad. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. biastner. to omit. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. blanchet. leaves. pass over. Fr. blasphemare. to disappoint. sheet of paper. black. Fr. It. madder. blatter.. biasimare. Dan. — — — to jabber. a blank ticket. white. PI. To blank. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. blanchet. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. mud. as blader. and thence to babble. Cot. which we . to blow. smore. bladder . The present forms then should be classed with blether. G. flap of a Du. and wandering men and women. bladdra. G. moere. Sw. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. blame. blanchir. gabble. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Blain. Besides the examples of this connection given above. tree. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. blister. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. Perhaps from blegen. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. piatto. waschen. borrelen. blister. as. with all other loose idle masterless men. blatter. plate.—Blatant. is identical with Flanders borlen. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. blinken. — Sw. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. skola and thwatta. speak impiously. the origin of . I am degraded from a cook. shining. cited in N. imbrunire. bladder. and E. and others engaged in dirty work. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. on. foolish talk. blad. blein. Du. leafy. Du. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. pladdern. blegen. Now. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. a pustule . The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. to purl. leaf. bladeren. a bladder or pustule. D.

blysa. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. boasting. also praeblczse. blys. a coat of arms. blasonner. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. of an animal. Cot. pale. to extol. a shout. a flame . blaeteren. a lamp blasere. G. senses. and to make him word blaze. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves.). a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. blaser vid. A strong flame. proclaim the virtues of. somewhat different train of thought. blateroon. besides blesse. blazen. might And sain. . is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. blis. e.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. blezo. Dan. in that of praise. Du. Sc. commendation blason funebre. also blazon or the blazSpenser. a flame. noisy blor. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. oured. gloriosus. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. indeed. how. baladrar. But now.' to fastum . proflare tues. coloured prints. — Elazen. blasoen. . a shield. — ' — stroy. magniloquus. shield or surcoat. To blow AS. by stripping off a portion of the bark. Cot. blcEsan. to blaze Sp. blaze. a shining spot. to publish. brasa. declaratio. Sw. To blast. bawling. AS. quus. To Blaze. ON. among other .sound a trumpet. 2. clamorous. to cut off prematurely. is the imme. 'op een trompet blaazen. on whose behalf the herald appeared. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blasa. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. a loud noise. blast. blass. to blow. and. Sw. blcEsan. a whisperer. I. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. friend Cornelius. fire. A gust of wind. to spread news. might spring from the same origin by a . A blaze is so intimately Then. i. Gael. visui patet. Fr. As Kilian.— . The AS. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. blesse. brasa. Du. braise. biter. Du. If armour. oron-blasare. ventosus. Du. blcesett. blose.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. like the in English. Fr. Du. thraso. to proclaim. also only pains and excellent endurance. to publish the praises. to blow . blus. bliEsan. bldsse. ing of arms. a MS. Troilus and Cressida. redness .' painted or figured . See Blare. OE. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blorach. splendour. baladron. and which. to trumpet forth.whence the Fr. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. With inversion of the liquid. bleis. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. a funeral oration . abroad. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. beast. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. Du. Fr. First from the E. — — ' : bless. in the same way as we 2. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. blase. a torch. blaodh. has also blencke. Blatant. blcese. Blaze. — ^Jam. blaodhrach. ill-speaMng their proper colours . blason. loud . used. blase. blossi. to de. blaterare. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. to bellow. is used in the sense of manifestatio. a torch . Kil. embraser. . whence Blazonry. G. AS. blason. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . blatero. Blanches illuminies. Dan. bles. blaesen. a blast. to blow. it is manifest. an conium. Prov. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. light-coli. an empty and two theories are proposed. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. The other derivation. or to the sound which it produces. is from AS. much plausibility. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. She roade at peace through his heraldry. to set on fire. a flame. each of boaster. g. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. the noisy. Golden Book in R. abroad. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. the matter incendiary . Gudmund. or blazening. a voice Jr. live coal . blesse. The origin of this exSp. magnilo. as a verb. Lye. blcest. ther it was erst not knowe. ON. Blast. laudes (Kil. kept up. stultd loqui.

From the OFr. N.filerren.P. Fr. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. novice. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. . To salir. from on. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. on. Richardson. souiller. So in Sw.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. a been distinct. c. to stain one's honour or reputation. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. a boil. Blear-eyed j having sore i. a fault. a blotch plerr. A Blab. blur before their eyes. sinen langen tranen. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. Sw. G. — — R. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. a spot. bloken. pale . see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. to bleat as sheep. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. bleikr. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. livid. 242. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. geplerr. AS. blot. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. to become livid. Blear. to cry or weep. a blemish in one's 2. or to low as oxen. blesmissure. exposed. To Bleat. Sir J. as of dust or mist .' to deceive one.' God in his wordes. See Black. in the expression reputation. paleness. To totally different from the foregoing. blakna. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. inflamed eyes. while the agent ac- From . B. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. to blear one's eye. Schmel. Blemisli. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. a red watery eye. goda nainn. to disgrace one's name. like one that has long P1. splamii!. whitish. Palsgr. bleakness. to cast a mist before the eyes. Ancren Riwle. blench came to be used for a trick. a disgrace. darkness of vices. a spot. to wink the eye. or blemish. tutnan is a cloud. tacher. . blister. The term blear. ^Blencher. p. And now are these but mansbond (i. Bleed. to blare been weeping. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. wheal.v. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. confound him. Bleak. avoid looking it in the face. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. . 419. 115. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. guenchir. a blot or smear blanking one. to wink at it. ' . ' — — eye. and thence to a bruise. See Black. which are blurred with the have shewed you. boggle at something. spla7nU sie. to spot. or blemysshen — blaken. pale Du. tumanid. spSt. a stain. blemissemeiit.D. .' the devil makes a vain back. Bailey. light-coloured. the formal equivalent of English wink. Bejaune. bldmi. to soil. I chaunge colour. dead-coloured Cotgr. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. a spot. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. ' He blarrede or roar. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. to bleach. blarren. Mac. wan. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. the livid colour of a bruise. (faith or creaunce) Be war. to spot . plama. is Blench. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. blema. pier vor den augen eyes. blink. a spot. blesmir. what blenched him therwith. to humbug. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . Manuel de Pecch&. drop of water. Pol. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Bleb. to start away from. sugillatio. Gower in R. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. Blancher. pimple . As AS. blot. A stain in a man's reputation. flack. to make him feel blank. And By a similar metaphor Pol. ^Xiixaoftai. livor. from the than schal I go. . color plumbeus bldma. wanness. blcecan. Gr.'he cried till the tears ran down. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. start vor den augen. BLENCH obfusco. — blink the question is to shrink from it. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. See Blood. ' — — ' : — — . — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold.

glance. a dead nettle. blidu. to merry. — Goth. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. to stir or puddle. —Brera. blac.. to act like a — . to flash. Du. a gleam. AS. lighten. the verb to bless is some. to shine. — . joy.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. trix. Thence apblinds. but by no means therefore a pre. a nounce happy. to — make it thick and muddy. to dash wine with water. a. OHG. . and joys of Paradise bliden. I hold thee a grote thee. glitter. glitter. Russ. to shine. graceful. as in the case of blaze.D. as a vatn i vin. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. F. blago. AS. as in Du. sung. G.blunda. to dilute too much . blinde fenster. Bliss. as taschen. a blick-ooghen. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. Nares. . with or without the nasal. blende.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. riches blajennii blicksem. to bluiter. Dan. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. blinzler. to shut the eyes. dazzle . Du. tless —Gamm. to glance. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . . blotzen. to lighten. blahoslaviti to twinkle. moment. also to wink. livid. blindr. blinzdugig.eyed. flash of light . pearance of the blighted . A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. blanssen. glimpse. blag. blicken. blund. . glad. j). blitz. to pro. weaklaveny. csecubrandish. lightning sweet blago. AS. . BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. blessed. Deprived of sight. false windows. pockets. To blunder water. an entry which leads to nothing . be glad flash. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to glitter . (=bene dicere). . burn up. to shine. blick.wink . to het dat Koorn is verblekket. blendian. 375. to twinkle. the G. The term then self or others. a. to make happy. pale. Blight. blican. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. De Sonne ' verblekken. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. G. the Slavonic languages. happy . happily. Owl and Nightingale. a wink. . Sc. blich-fiur. G. Wtb. blind- ON.nasal. blent. make these hands 3. bliss look . To Bless. to plunge. although in the in the next article. blide. to make a rumbling noise. giving (Fr. readily passes into a /. to mix.blinkard . Swab. in potters' language. goods. wink of sleep . seems the simple netel. blaziti. lightning. to blithsian. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to fall into water with a sudden noise. bleg. to churn. blitzen. lovely Bohem. a wink With the bletsian. to rejoice. Blazena Bea. to glitter. Kiittner. well blagaya. to dazzle . to rejoice. blahos. to be blind. . AS. blithe blis. doors. or nettle which does form. is I shall Gurt. Pol. blend. blinzeln. to bluiter up with water. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. bluiter. Paradises blidnissu. a look.' To — blunge clay. liquid filth to bluther. III. vious one in the order of formation. to consecrate .Q. blink-eyed. to shut the eyes G. lightning. gives blinzen. . blithe. Tany. fortunately. ^Jam. Du. blind. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. blindselen. glitter. happy . The sound of k before an s. bludder. sertion of the nasal. to dabble in water. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. a glance. Sw.corn. blatida. Needle. — A A — . plonsen. happy . wink. gladness. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. blissian. good. shine. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. thou knave. well blahy blick and blink. blicksem. Blink. to bless. Biglotton. The inblissful. joy . Sc. joy. A . . ON. mixing in general. blogi. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. . To Blend. G. plotzen. blet. sweet. blicken. ' Pl. OHG. riches . a glance Swiss blenden.not sting thiiren. Du. From the action of the hand making Sw. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. tire. a flash. to bless . mix from blekken.blinken. a blessing. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. . blincken. to glitter ful . whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. joyful. money.blinze. as a blind entry. Serv. blessed. window-blind. blazeny. blink. — when he — Bailey. cascultare. Swiss (obsolete). Du. Blind.

as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. a dirty blister. soft. It may be formed Blithe. See Blot. blond. Sw. as in E. blindsehn. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. fish blind person. blithe. in bulk. Dan. sloppy dirt. joyful. . and easily changes its place. . Hence. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. a bubble. blot. or the mark which it makes. And so from squatter. a . Of sheep. blod. B. Lat. strawclod. biota. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. speaking rapidly any .—Bloater. blidr. a lumpish head plubach. or is inserted or omitted. a bubble. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. the unhewn bole of a tree. a block or log en bloc. Thus we have blab and babble. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. blinzel-maus. to bubble. or blinde-kiih. For this. pustula. a small lump of anything thick. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. — Sw. bubble and blubber. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. W. signifying in the first instance to soak. Ibid. Bleb. weak. round. a blister. stone. blijde. is formed squad. or bleb. Du. Dan. bloc. like manner the coloured. repre- pusula. blcesma. a drop of water. like clot. bloated. a See Blot. soaked. to blow. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. blobber. separate portion. blister. Gael. Egillson. ^vaaa. ^Jam. Hence E. B. bluster. blot. also to set See Bless. inde humiditate tumidus. pusula. husks. mass. Block. as blinzeln. blobbes or droppes of water. a little blisg. A under this name was imported into England. to swell. Sw. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. while Lat. G. . blesme. swell. N. to soak. bloc.— Hal. to blow. formed spot. blindman's-buff. and F. a blister . Jonson. having an unsound swollen look. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. and inarticulately. blotfisk. as a blab of ink. The roots /. to desire the male. in Nares. in the sense of a soft tint. blad. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. Goth. Blob. it is must be observed. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. Fr. kostia. The blow E. ON. Du. to steep. Svt. a blot or spot. to blissom. fiustula. or the like. Langued. — . .. blide. ON. blouca and Fr. whence blast. an unformed mass. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. pausten. bluyster. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. soft. taken altogether. Fr.—Bloated. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. merciful ON. is also used in the sense of swelling . gentle OHG. as if soaked in water. Cotgr. orbicular. mild. blautr. expressed by cognate roots. must be classed with forms like Gr. puff. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing.pusta. bausen. to blow. and bouclette. Blond. to block up the way. frequentative. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation.plisg. blister blasan. Bav. A solid blouquette blisters. In Fin. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. boucler. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. —Bailey. To a smoking or drying by the fire. Sc. must be referred to AS. light yellow. cooking. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. Blob. G. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. soak in water cured fish. blaustem. The stem or trunk of a tree. blubber. I believe. to dash liquid. Kil. Blister. a blain. Boyd in Jam. bleiths. blaud. and pisg. shells. kostua. — Blob.— Bailey. busten. from blcsr. lagga i blot. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. pimple. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. buclde. to breathe hard. any lump or mass of things. viscid. pods. — — — — — From blabber. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Mod. a bubble. in the lump or mass of wood. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. to cure by smoke. soft. a ram. To Blissom. blote. To Bloat. Gael. blab. blot. buckle. to to puff and be noisy. plub. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. in gusts. mild. to close it with a solid mass. senting the dashing of water.

Du. Jios. Blotcli. blase. — — . bliihen. a Usaae. E. leme. ON. blond en blaauw slaan. to scribble. blue . — Blotch-paper. lump of anything soft to blad. blut. bloi. It. bloutre. fall down . blauwel. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. PI. ^Bleed. plattata. Stalder. E. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. G. S-wiss pladern. E. shine . to slap. AS. blue. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. AS. Schilter. Plots. gfyssa. plet. bliithe.' the rain is driving and blue . See Blow. to squander. Blossom. glossi. blust. —Barbour. Dan. bletister. mud. blostma. a. to dabble in water . from G. kobladde. biado (of which the evidence plattern. lustre. lump flower. E. bloto. blosa. Wflz<^«. couleur livide. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. flower. pladdern. Ein platsch milch. blomstr. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to be red with blot. brilliancy. to glow. bleustern. Du. coloured (Diaz. blue. Du. gammon. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . platz-voll. a nature. spots in the sun. a deli. to blaze. yellow. light. to splash. to dabble in water. Hatch. blaeuwen. platz-regen. to dirty. sbiadare.D. Ir. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. livid marks. Harmar in R. blosem. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. . to slap. to blush . plot of land is a spot or small rage. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. bloi. spot pletter i solen. a drop of water or colour. ' — . ON. E. blaeuwe ooghe. bloemen. blotter. . Schmid. bleistern. a gush of milk . to be red. — gush. See Blow. a water ploutsche. the bright colour of the cheeks . parallel form with ON. to dash down.platter. blotte. to strike . Sw. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. to grow pale). Sc. 2. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. soft or flat. blosen. to squat or lie close. a lump. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. plants which prepares the seed. to patter. Pl. Lat. bloed. a blaze. proto shine with bright colours . OFr. a flower. to dash down Du. as the skin or hair. cow-dung. Blad. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Fris. a flower. Dan.— . plottra. probably connected with Pol. ])erly Du. a blot or spot. pale biavo. blois. blus. bit by bit. clod. on. to flame. (of cattle) to dung.blauschlagen. platsch-voll. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. gleam. from the bright colour which 7'vci. Bloom. platt-voll. platschern. Sw. Sw. Fris. to strike with something soft or flat. glasi. .^ Kil. in v. blodelsa and blawelsa. a torch blusse. yellowish It's G. a pelting shower). the bright to blot paper morsels. ON. to exists in biadetto. bldts. a blow. — Cot. fall to overflowing. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. blowen. blond is used in blatt.properly to scatter liquid . blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. Blow. dirty spot on the cheek. wan. a flower. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. to shine . blue. blad. of a blow with something lios. a Halm a. bliise. to From . or the sound of it . to strike with such these objects exhibit. bluish.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. dial. lidmr. Russ. splashing full. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. glus. pladern. whence plader. blue. blat. a spot or blot. great leaf of cabbage. glose. Schwenck. — Stalder . blady. blose. a black eye Du. to glisten . a Schmid. bfys. ^lys. blosma. to spot or blot. blatte. blotting-paper. straw. blaeuw. fair in en blat vand. splendour . to sparkle. . Blood. blond. Dan. redness. blistaf. bloeme. bloedsd. Prov. Du. pale. a cow-dung. Fr. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. bloetnsel. G. to blot the land was in a leme. blysa. plotterwis. bldmi. a beater. colour of the cheeks. white blatte. Florio). E. Wendish blodo. gloss. en blau ach. j^ blottir. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. Blot. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). livid . Erploten. pale tint. . blawels. Sc. to blaze . blou. D. skam. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. blooth. The G. It should be of filth blak-blatte. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. . glister . . blondheid. . a The form platschefz. kuh-plader. dial. bloi.

bloeyen. ^Jam. in rapid or indistinct utterance. fiubbem. plustrig. These are — Bludder. blau. — — Mundart. plubraich. to gabble. pale OFr. Langued. grow pale. disordered in head-dress. It is howbliuwen. P1. jabber. bludder. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. bledniai. to glow. . Lat.D. 1. to gush. green. glaodh and blaodh. gloeyen. Deutsch. blebber. E. may cite for example G. bliuwan. OHG. meurtrissure Roquefort. bloes. -ii. bluther. grey. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. AS. blodern. —SchmelIt.Jlasa. G. — Bluther. corre. bliihen. ' BLUE or guggling. Bav. Du. boil. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. flower w. marking some application from that bladder. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. Gr. boasting. is confined to the — . especially with respect to the hair.. Chaucer. Tumbled. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. gloeden. 92. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. blois. a blow. blubonciti. the red fluid of the body . a bruise. blezir. Du. bruised Prov. a flower. to show flower. tache. a Blossom. sense. 51. heath. G. in E. 2. blubbern. blue. puff. blodelsa. to breathe bouteiUis. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. vi^ound. . Bret. a fat. little apparent resemblance. Mund.— . — To blubber. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. bloemen. red-faced bloted wench. G. fem. bliithe. br. To Blow. to bruise Roquef. bloeden. and closely allied with Du. bliihen.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. y\r)yi»v. foam. to breathe G.to blossom. blau. bloom. blao. B. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. blazi. w. Deutsch. flower OHG. to blow. grug. blosen. Pl. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. to with Bohem. florere. plusig. bluod. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. blut. fqded. to'disorder. to beat with a mallet. glow. blduen. and thence. OHG. bruk. plodern. a herb Gr. to glow. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. plubartaich. to shine with bright From colours. and the forms mentioned under Swab. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. piusen. — To Blubber. Pludern. chatter. glowing coal . Blowze. . where the word may be compared bliggman. OFr. . sponds with Sw. into flower. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. to fade. to blow. pale . (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. blust. We . glas. MHG. Kil. to beat. to fade. A. to make bubbles in drinking. a continued noise of agitated water. . Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. To Blow. Gael. a gurgling . when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig.' Hamburgh Archives. blue . G. pludern. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to flap like loose clothes. to Plodern. or gr. gliihen. blawan.' — Palsgr. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. to blow. like manner Lat. bloi. to exhibit bright colours. v. to hard. to spot. 1292. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. toused. to inflate. to flourish. d in Sc. The aUied forms. pale. glansj Ir. |8A)'. to guggle. wan. In agitation of water. Notwithstanding the We . Danneil. .D. blady. blow. to puff up. blazir. ler. fied vowel. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . a paddling in wate r. The radical sense is shown in Gael. It. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. to make blue. to bubble up. to blurt out. Pl. Raynouard. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). to fade. E. bluh. Jla-re. dirty. coup. blahen. The primary sense is to shine. blava. gliihen. Her sweet bloderit face. a.xo'»'. Blowzy. The interchange of an initial gl. And. — . whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. Blue. closely difference in of blabber. gUd. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. sound like water. Chaucer. disordered. Prov.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. blass.nify bubble. blaw j biavo. pale. wan. glede. blubbern. Wtb. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. cheeks bedabbled with tears.D. glas. plubair. — . withered. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. bl. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. blodyn. /idXavoc. bldt. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping.D. is very frequent. a blast. Sik upplustem.

blaf. falb. superficie plani. flodderen (Weiland). The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. biava. bulmanner. contrasted with the dle. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. tutte le semente ancora in erba. non rotunda. Kil. segetes virentes. blond. Lat. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. Dryden in R. Blaffart.' trouble. Then with the nasal. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. It then signifies something done at once. pale yellow. fallow. blue. jaune. puddle. polterer. devenir vert blavoie. plomp. Palsgr. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. G. to puddle. Flor. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . blunder. to become pale or wan. from the brilliant green of the young E. in the same way as from It'. abrupt. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. It is remarkable however that the E. Altieri. Roquefort. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . pale. bleu et blanc. or an abrupt manner. buller-bak. to plump into the water. A bluff manner. blunderhead. Supp. disturb.//aay.D. G. from the Lat. Hal. blue. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. herbe. an ill-done job. in plur. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Dief. fawn-coloured. See Blunt. without image or superscription. and sbiadare. having a bluff forehead. a boisterous violent man. to lose colour. bawling. Bluff. verdoyer. confusion. blue. I blonder.. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. And blunders on and staggers every pace. To blunder is then. applied to green as well as blue. Du. discoloured {plowiee. blac. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Analogous forms are Du. buller-bas. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. Bodge. ploffen. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. mix It. yellowish red.— . Kiittner. Bohem. — Pr. to dabble Biglotton E. is. Blavoyer. tradire to Fr. to blunge clay. to blunder water. verdure. plo-wy. G. The word is here synonymous with amplus. glundra. to dabble in the mud. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Biada. like the Celtic glas. and then generally idle talk. bloi. We Blunder. find accordingly It. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. a shore abruptly rising. biavo. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. sloppy drink. bullern. blunder. — — — . Bladum. to become pale or livid. Romance bluiter. all representing the — . trahir. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. blake (identical with AS. Blunt. blavus. corn. something. — . — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Pl. blanssen. in water dobbelen. liebefactor. rustic. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. blahir. sbiavare. his business with much noise. blutter. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. From G. pale straw-coloured. from an imitation of the sound. polter-hans. as well as sbiadafe. . Du. corn. a flounder. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. The Du. OFr. poltern. to fall suddenly on the ground. pludder. Pol. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. a blunderbuss. biada. flav-us. glundr. to confound. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. Kil. a plain coin herausplatzeu. has donder-bus. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. a fore. Hence we pass to Prov. and Du. - reddish yellow. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. blunt. like Du. See Blurt. Hence a Slcelton in R.in mud or water. to agitation of liquids. speech. to become pale. which is rendered by Florio. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. used for the work of an unskilful performer. Dan. Pm. . and metaphorically.• BLUFF biado. sense of yeUow. je perturbe. G. bluish. planus. dial. and bustle . to and not introduced by degrees or cere. blave is moreover. E. 't — —Hal. Ditton in R. to mix it up with water. The Du. bUich. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to work To blunder out a fronto. as well as biado. mistake. yellow. blandum. Blunderer or blunt worker. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. Sw. to fade). Roquefort. originally growing up turf and water. Halma. and biavo (Diez). pale) is provincially used in the. earth and water mixed together.make a noise.

void. plump J to plump out with it. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. Kiittner. that the sense of bare. to plump into the water. blue. like a thing thrown down with a noise. blotta sanningen. blunsch. or blab out a thing Kiittner . Sc. the absence of sharpness. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. Then cometh indevotion. The syllables blot. Bluntet. naked. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . The blait body. homo stolidus. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. without Maolaich. without preparation. is The word dull. Ford in R. unpolished. A modification of the same root. figuratively. Pol. — Kil. Probably radically hlekit. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. fooUsh. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. F. to bring it suddenly out. pressions. pointless. is thrown. inaKil. blunt. stupid fellow. poor Sc. viz. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Chaucer. Now the Swiss bluntsch. G. dull. bloss.—D. It. Plump mit etwas umgehen. and in the same sense. unceremonious manner. blunt. Plump. from the loud report a fire-arm. Du. Sc. . rudely. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. Halma. good plump person. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. unwrought.to fall into the water. thick. as in E. . plonsen. blunt. as Sw. sheepish. with or without the nasal. Dan. nature. bald. a bluntie. to plump down. through which a man is so blont. in Richardson. it will be observed. platzen. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. — blunt. a thick and will person. forestis. it will be well to point out a sense. heavy. Stalder. united in Gael. blat. biosso. dial. Sir T. plumbeus. Plontp. identical with E. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. without horns. blunt. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . ang. and. to handle a thing bluntly. Woddis. More in Richardson. that it not easy to discover the connection. inactive Swiss bluntschi. blockish. a portion To inquire for slaves. bluntschen. It will be seen that the G. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. Kiittner. and the like. blout. but of something soft thrown on the ground. to blunt a thing out. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. biotto. mit etwas heraus-platzen. absence of preparation. pale. —D. ineffectual reason. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. rough. obtusus. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. blait. rude. V. insensible. a simpleton. massive. Blaitie-bum. wan. blatte. plump. heavy. fling down . —D. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Blunt. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. without the nasal. A light blue colour. Sw. hebes. unfledged Sw. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. heavy. blait. — — pidus. plains The large bech. Q. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. to make a noise of such a Stalder. V. raw. G. clumsy. bleak. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Bare and blunt. It is from this notion of suddenness. naked. exactly corresponding to the G. seems to be derived. plotz. blott. down. naked. nis. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz.plompen. and hath swiche languor in his soul. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. or heraus plumpen. V. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. silly.pludse. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. bare. bus. Won by degrees. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. of a knife which not cut. plump.— — — . Molof something wet. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Swab. plutz T)\i. platz-regen. viz. used in both senses. plump. bare or blunt. duU. blutten. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. maol. naked. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. dull. to blurt. blunder. awkward. awkwardly. as cow-dung. Dan. a blot. edgeless. obtusus. plump. azure. bare. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. to make foliage. clownish. and an unintelligent. plotsen.

borrar. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Fr. a mist before the eyes plerren. Pull the bobbin.plodem. sudden. See Blossom. pof. to dabble. Bluster. to glow .the syllable bot.plerr. chicchere. E. — — . plump. pustern. this root are formed Sc. crack made by bursting open. dial. Sverris Saga. dial. bliise. bit. To move quickly up and down. to blaze. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. See Boisterous. primarily signify loud noise. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. gabble Sw. Du. to snuff. boord. Kil. . blusse i ansigtet. a torch blusse. to disfigure with E. Fl. to be out of temper. to make a noise with the mouth. Comp. AS. Sc. swagger. Fl. then applied to indistinct vision . Schmeller. both used in the sense of boasting. to make a noise in boiling. bord. planks raised up outside the roofs. blodern. blot. to bounce. bord. Hal. boot. Sc. .v. beer. stupid. blaere. as in Du. baban. blasen and See Burr.D. a tassel. G. planks or boards. an end or stump. lindwurm. Wright's ed. to threaten. Du. Du. bakke bleustern. Halma. Boa. to puff. blirt of greeting. blaste?i. &c. puffen. or blurt with one's mouth. — a blaze. eber. pludern. beacon fire. blotch and botch.' — Red Riding-hood. border. Blush. a blot. edge. strong. to blore. bot. to blush. AS. large. pausten. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. Bav. on. to sound like water boiling. boa. acre. blot. blaustem. blaffen and baffen. to blubber. cheeks glow. or bog also thread. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. boccheggiare. cocodrUlus. literally edge-wood. bladdra. to make mouths. to brag grande loqui. will fly up. botte. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. burra. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. OE. brett. bdta. Supp. — To Bob. a border. skin. w. whence bordvidr. i. splurt and spirt. to say bluntly. my dear. 156. to rumble. a Jam. margin. Related to blutter. 274. c. bora. lacerta. 1. It. to crying. it implies that it is empty sound. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. short pieces of any filthy mud. a short thick body. and the latch . proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bdtr. common. eafor. bobbin. violent G. a grows to a great bigness. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Du. to give a crack. a blotch. and E. — — — * Boast. To brag and to crack. a smear. a baU of thread the mud. Boa. whence bob. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. dull. bord. flat. properly noisy. bhis. of the word seems . Explained by Jam. mire. a flurt with one's fingers. gabble. batello. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. bludder. blurra. Hal. blast. blubber. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. The elision of the d is very to chatter. to breke. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. bur. P. to render indisbhir. and Du. a bladder . a mistiness. to roar. Gael. Slur. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. To blow in puffs. bustuous. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. e. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. outward edge. the sound of a blow poffen. Lat. To tinct. to endeavour to terrify. To splirt. ader. to blurt out. As the as. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. Board. BOB 79 — To Blur. to bark. blur. blose.pusten. coarse. G. baiag. Bot zeggen. to talk quick and indistinctly . V. to jabber. like the parapets (viggyrdil. to spurt out.—Bobbin. 29. a blow . a club foot . Du. voce intonare. as splurt to splutter. and boisterous. a tassel. berd. Dan. bdd. to blow. pluddre. pfludern. a board or plank. a dangling object. Pl. 9396. ground. BLUR Boar. table. the Brem. Swiss blodern. Du. The to radical meaning D. to smear. hot. and when applied to vaunting language. Boost is used for the boast. bleuster. bateau. It. margin. imitated by has also In like . E. ever-swin.— . To Blurt. to dangle. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. It. Wallace. — ' Dief. . AS. Fr. an ear of corn. puddle.y. De Boat. — From mouth. rude. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. is formed Du. board. rude. . blarra. bar. a small lump. table. 'Ba. A large snake. edge. . stellio. bluter. cluster. bluther. fringe. bobine. blader. bot-voet. bludder. to guggle. G. a. be a crack or loud sound. to chatter. violent. Wtb. to blur. bausen. boistous. to puff. blunt. margin. to dirty. or backwards and forwards. an edge. blosken. ON. to puff. a burst of tears. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. Gael. Du. geplerr. and swimmeth very well. aper.

the belly. to start start and back as from a bugbear. bogle. expression hogglin an bogglin. stitch. badyti. message boda. bogach. butt. or bag. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. bogadh. toss. waving. bayonet. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. moist mire. bob. . goggle. bayonet . Commonly explained as if from Sc. or stem of a tree. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. a ghost . cask bottich. corpset. gebod. stuttering. French bouter. See Baber-lipped. corset. gog. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. . bodian. to bob.hollow. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. Lith. by the syllable patsch. . a messenger . precept. speak of the barrel of a horse. calf of the leg. a round body both. bodi. 3. bothog. Wall. is identical with Fr. to be uncertain what to do. e. the stem of a tree . — Grandg. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. a puddle. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bodig. bodhag. fickle . daubed or dabbled with blood. agitate. To portend good or bad. a cask. gog in gog-mire. bod. palleg. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. . '£. See Bid. bagges. We . rounded. — 2. Gael. the body of a shift gaguejar. to stammer. nave of a wheel. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. and E. — as well as the body of an animal. bodene. belly. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. meaning the round part of his body. stumpy. a command. to scruple. bodak. Bret. where bogs form Gael. strike with the horns. The Sp. . to stir. anything protuberant. woman's stays. potig. And waves. Cot. Crist. To make bad work. thrust with something pointed. Miracle-plays. swelling. a quagsoft. Ir. a dagger. corset from corps. Body. VI. to roll. . gag. . bogan. shake. bodetz. * To Boggle. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. To Bode. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. 43. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. a . To Bodge. potacha. whence Fr. pall. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. unsteady. the thick part of anything.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. needle. gogach. Shakespear has badged with blood. Gael. the trunk of the animal body. to fail. potacha. to make a mow at. as signifying anything spherical or round. to stick. to butt.a (i\ia. Gael. It introduced from Ireland. Thy i. body of a shirt bol. as a horn. a prickle. quakmg. Ptg. potahha. BOGGLE trunk and G. bodilo. ^Jam. bodies. whence paUchen.! . In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. AS. W. a prick. bog. point. busti. to deliver a message. Ptg. stutter gogmire. mud. is a lump. a body. See To Botch. . barriga. to thrust. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . to commit a blunder. Banff. AS. to blurt a thing out. Now unskilful action is conmire. round. formerly bodies. a bog or morass. bottich are derivatives. bogadaich. anything soft. an awl. body and G.' Bogglie.. to be unsteady tich. biodeachan. Bodice. as in stammering or staggering. biodag. bo tich. patsche. Russ. move. bodi. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. a sting . — H. to bodge. wavering. to smack. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bod. a spur. boll. unsteady nature of a soft substance. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun.' A — Sherwood's Diet. gagei. exhibit another modification of the root. the boss of a buckler. to waver. ON. Supp. Bodkin. to fail. bottig. Gl. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. nodding. to make. bog (equivalent to E. or a pair of bodies. bolr. . thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. boftich. In like manner E. bog. and the word is well explained by Bailey. to prick. of which the E. bodnu. the body. an announcement. baboyer. corpses pot. arise E. So BOB To Bob. gago. The signification of the root bot. quagmire).\\i\c\iset. from fitting close to the body. to push with the horns. a cask. bole. to dabble or paddle. then from the yielding. Bohem. unsteady. Bog. Lap. Reliq Antiq. so large a feature in the country. bodat. gagoula. To mock. shaking . dies. of broken efforts or brokeii movements.rabodi. moving backwards and forwards. barrique. bot. Schmel.gmh:t.

Sc. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bolstar. buile. (of Mons) b^guer. wag. Stalder. obex. Kit. strong. a boil or swelling Du. belc'hj. E. up of bubbles. — ' — tagliare. The round stem of a tree. bolc'h. Kil. as those of nuts. the body . tar. he will speak out. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. . a swelling in ice. the lir. bochken (titubare. notes. bol. . Sw. bulla. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. stramenta. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. to hesitate from doubt. to be at a loss a shirt. bullire. G. bhster. bolt. styffe or rude . He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. pillow. 304). insolent baude. Pm. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. poppy (Bailey). Love. bal.— D.. fiausten. merry. impetuosity. bolr.Du. stutSw. boutpijl. as. Pr. stameln vel bochken. sels of flax. in the sense of handsome . Bret. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. — 6 . pusten. tulum. bula. w. bag or bog are derived Piedm. buller. bouil. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . to puff. Boystous. Bustuous. bulla.D. * Boisterous. See Bulk. G. globular bod)'. gerade signifies straight to the mark. tartle. ON. Du. a bakazikni. bagaji. as E. stud. ON. . Wall. Da. . Du. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. balder. repagulum. to the belly as the or dislike. by which it is moved to and fro. OG. furfures. tartajear. scruple. then violent. shake. caput scapulse. cows the people from speaking. in speaking. Gael. puile. a quaking mire. tomentum. biiilen. the husk of nuts. bolster. the. gluma. Lap. perpendicular.). bola. strong.— — . roydeur. haughty. intrepid. G. courageous. chaff of corn siliqua. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. A. to swell. ^Vocab. also a blister. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . 1430 in Deutsch. Cot. bolleken. bold. folliculus grani. b^gayer. i. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. ^Boistous. Sp.palleg. bald. Boll. boss. bolzen. properly represent belly. coarse. bout is explained by Kil. bolzBold. It. boggle. The term applies in — — impressed . Mund. to be prominent. OHG. bold. and manace for to de. from the branches. In the same way Sc. Daring. strong. proud. This iv. from Du. huge. puilen. bulr. Fr. a bubble. excellent. bul. Lat. noise. but that Bolt. bollen (Kil. warlike. capiing into a cavity. Fr. to boil. Lat. a bump. swelling. V. bol. hakogni. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. beule. boystousnesse. Du. as. swelling. to stammer. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. round the first instance to the materials with . — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). bola. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. the body of a man or of ter. and then applied to other husks. ballr. Boil. bolla. to stammer. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. The bob. Magy. bol. Westerwald bollern. brave. bolt upright. tartalear. or the like. used. which are not used for a similar purpose. Test. is probably a modification of boll. bolster. whence bulla.w. bald. Goth. dint in a metal vessel. a bubble. see Boast. pall. pustule. Properly noisy. a bubble. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing.' Mrs Baker. free. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. to stagger. prince. quick. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. ohg. Swab. bald. * Bolster. polc'h. bolle. Chaucer seems Dan. Fr. bSlstr. may be identified with It. the gurgling sound of water rush. boll. — — which the cushion is stuffed. a head . confident. boly. to tattle. Bole. hero. courageous. to waver or hesitate. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. bog. To Boil. animal as distinguished from the limbs. rough. trunk of a tree . Du. glass phial. Me doth awate. G. capitellum. hollow. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. To Bolter. bold. chatter.rounded part of the body. 374. bul. blow. bok. flax-boU. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. bealder. to give a hoUow sound. to stumble. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. boil . See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. 45. balldr. bog. treated under Bowl. Chaucer. ON. ON. cheerful. a cushion. as baltha. baud. pimple ON. a fastening for a door. bout. E.

then to knock. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. G. lumpy. Champagne burtcau. to form lumps.fe/2?. OFr. bolt. knob. a bolter or implement for bolting. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. pattern. tar. Prov. a small portion. pull. hammer. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. Hence. crash. Lat.i5a//^«.D. agitari (Kil. mole-hill. Brem.On the same principle. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. 2. as snow balling on a horse's foot. the wheels groaned. taratarrum. tling or crashing noise. bluter. crod. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. Schiitze. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. OFr. brattle. Bulte-pook or bulstar. je bulte. or ill. also to curdle. one after the other. we see that the one consists of a words. swelling. to talk pulzen. Du. barutare. The ulti. Lang. On this account Mid. Pm.). ex•wagen. zare. in S'W plotter. hump. ' — — ! ! : — . a club-foot. bolt head is a retort.through a cloth of loose texture. Fr. The ment and the operation. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface.thump or blow. to clack. or a racer from the course. Wtb. we have Du. Sw. taratantarum. btilt.noise {brattle of thunner.D.) E. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. MHG. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. vessel with narrow opening. OFr. fied bot. a clump of turf. rugged. buletare. hole.agitation of the meal in the bolter.nature of the operation. projections. tantara. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. I boulte meale in a boulter. pultare. bolt-foot. to shake. abolter. representing a rat. taraabout. . grasbulten. hulter de bulter. a clod. buideln. to knock. as a rabbit from its baritel. curdle. . with E.clack. we pass to Du. to bolt flour burato. And as the agitation of cream in . rugged. tuft.D. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. . Passing from the sense of movement burattare. from G. uneven. by the representation of a racketing sound. Hence Palsgr.Lat. racket gepolter. we der Brocket). bolzauget) Sp. bulk. as Fr. a round glass ending — bultig. sestuare.protuberance. to significance of the term was overlooked. Supp. to E. beliitea. Dauphiny a sudden movement. bulio. a rattle. to start out. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. to bolter. poll. croler. buUire. and the Thus from So. buletel. Mid. poltern. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. a bunch. cruddle. on the one hand. Sanders. . a rattling carriage. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . . and to crash. boss. to coagulate. to come rattling downstairs. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. as of a trumpet. ' Holler poller / bulter. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. clump. jolting. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. a bolter Prov.u. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. to become lumpy. cro. kloteren.D.). to start with palpitate. to bolt meal barutel. to spring forth E. bortelen. as above explained. projecting eyes pul. ler. hammer. holier poller. small heap. Bav. a crashing or racketing noise. Pl. It. baruta. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. P1. Here the radical image is the violent O. a clap of thunnences. zen. / is transposed in Fr. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. burclct. bultig. barutela. beluter. In the next place. or the like. bolting to that of form. — — — . die treppe pressed. to agitate. blotttre. Dan. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. to make a knocking. a sod (Schiitze).as the essential element signifying the talum. . . So also we pass from Lat. Du. .by forms like G. buretter{CQ\. bullern. crotlar. the sense of right on end. bulk or quantity . gebolder. bulstrig. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. bulla. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. uneven. bolzaugen. loud and fast.— . was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. protuberance.. to bolt meal barutel. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. barutela. budeln daz mele . Pl. a . bolzen. bultred. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. : ' — — . have Lat.. Pr. staff which sounds tar. a clod cloth. a millpoltzet augen. tumultuari. poltern. hulch.

and called in Mid. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. iuttern. and Mod. beil'n. to resound. however. or trunk word in W. q. raw silk. bambacium. tie. It. an implement of binding. biire. booming over the water. breast-bone. — Bombard. tiffany. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. assuming the of leg : special signification W. a stem or base. a word of which we have traces in several English names. PoUitriduare. Castrais barato. a string. stuff. i.bast. lana lignea. to beat a drum.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. It. is supported by the analogy of G. bauniwolle. tie. — having a stem or stalk. thick from shaking. . e le furfre (of bren) demor^. a drum bombammen. Schm. butteln. Need you any ink and bonibase. rimbombare. basin. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. a —Bombasine. a stock. to bind G. buttel trueb (of liquids). bonds. bongam. to shake (as to shake the head.^Altieri. bombasin. silk-worm. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. From builen. to thunder. Bibelesworth in Nat. and that from Fr. coarse. bombe. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. . thick. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. HoUybandin R. the contracted form of Du. Fr. Fr. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. band. Banstead. In E. OE. banitola (Fl. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. beuteln. the silk-worm. silk. produced the Pl. sericum arboreum. 83 Gr. bulter from It. sijde. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. bombdra. Dan. Bomb. buidelen. In legal language. a churn for butter. e. as in . A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. achsel bein. a ligature. . are applied to BONFIRE Bom. Bone. It. gunpowder.) . . The material called by this name. crook-shanked bondew. Fl. bande. a baker. It. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. thick-legged. bonog. derivation. G. baum-bast. boulenger. bone of the . bras. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bunden. . a hollow sound. to thump W. bureau. G. bombicina. bombice. bommer. the leg. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. to boult meal. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. also thick-shanked. Du. and Du. bambagioj whence It. G. a bone in general. sije. As cotton was used for padding clothes. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. bein.Lat. bond. band pi. term is appropriated in G. bindan. d. Butterglas. — bombast came guage.). Du. must be explained Fr. to shake. ties. to ring bells. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Du. . to cast to and fro. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. to shake down fruit from a tree. been. bambagino. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. Near 6 * . 155. ^o/j.D. bommen. Kil. baun. Moreover. again. It. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. barate. bopin. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . ODu. builen. stump. a beacon. E. brust-bein. Bonfire. buidelen. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. burato. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. whence bomme. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . beuteln. Gascoi^e in R. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. &c. bombasine. a boulter of meal.Su?. bwmbwry mar. bwmbwr. to which the leg. cotton stuff. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. tree. When ture. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. — AS. Dan. It. and also the leg. bon. borel. bombarda. gossipium. the Fr. sye. the shank the shoulder-bone. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. bureau. Antiq. agreement. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. cotton. bombase. bombast. the murmuring of the sea. butteln. a thundering noise bomre. bolting-cloth. Mid. and in fact we find the and Du. has repeatedly varied. bonfras. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. as Banbury. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. bomba. and Bond. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. band. we speak of a gun to resound. from boom. from teu. . to bolt meal.

— — — representing the opening of the mouth. The i. dress. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. from gape. petition. boutig. the mouth. Pm. bobo. Boom. From bo. build. wondering signifies not only straw. Schm.n. — Bailey. bossen. Hufwud-bonad. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. Bonnet. to litter bosu. to aid. the first consonant of the alphabet. boa. or Vanns. by itself for head-dress. Boon. . the name of the letter b. inhabit. bas. although in the OG. Booby. and fig. a silly fellow. bos. Perhaps. without ad- . bonad. b'ukvdry. . fool. — From the participle present. to ask. buch-stab. Boot of bale. the possessor of the farm. bonaid. a letter . betere thing werse. gawney. petition. boutig. — . ON. . bid). wall hangings. Du. Bun. clown. Kil. Ox. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . set in order. build. one who dwells nigh. ON. bose. The character of folly is i860. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. blockhead. the cultivator. Binau Brychyniog. The origin of the word is probably the W. quest. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. b^er. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. ben. a bonfire. the scriptures bokareis. . Wall. E. remnants of hay or straw. however. which one gaping and staring about. and Gael. is Du. as a lying-place for cattle. pero. Kil. bua. a tree. badaud. till. been. boia. . It. A peasant. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Prov. botte. . . Swab. Thin ben Luke i. in Phil. Fr. * Boose. to dress. OW. a letter Russ. w. G. high. Book. litter. bowwen. by arbitours sholde bote the P. as the Brecknockshire Banns. OSlav. Goth. from badare. bobo ! interj. bolt. a scribe G. and thence Rouchi baia. Trans. to gape. AS. Mrs Baker. beam. in w. Fr. ass. relief from sorrow. ty Gael. 13. botte. a simpleton. countryman. bds. Palsgr. Boor. to gape. a good turn or re- meaning. where a cross (or a gun. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. a. also called Brecknock Beacons. ON. pig-sty. to set in order. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. botta. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. to prepare. to strew with straw. help. to cultivate. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. head-dress wai^g. N. tapestry. Du. A stall for cattle.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. bdn. bosig. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. master of the house. babin. The latter is the original AS. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. tigh. nachbar. biikui. dog-kennel.—Bootless. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. . . dial. writing bokos. bote. bd. prayer. bAkva. swinbusa. a dry stalk. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. bommen. till. Jr. E. a hollow skin. Du. letter. a bag of skin or leather. of wonder On the same principle Sp. a lying-place for dogs or swine. But bosg. tall. bonnet. booby. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Hal. Build. bauer. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. desire. Thus from the syllable ba. boom. a stall. and Ban in w. gaping hoyden — Cot. Fr. from beida (E. boo. a vessel for holding liquids. ganian. 232. boubi^. comes bondi. Gl. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. baier. AS. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. buandi. literally cow-house. See Bomb. bene. \ais-band. simpleton. to yawn. G. a lofty blaze. beiSne. Sp. busu. bua. hu?idbusa. Hal. foolish. — To boot. to cultivate. netis stall. but stall. dolt. Mrs Baker explains bun. bota. boubair. Gael. See Bown. often cut for burning and lighting fires. a. Bonnefyre. stabulum. See Butt. are formed Fr. To Boot. babb^o. prayer. boten-shoen. bauen. Pr. p. ON. house. calceus rusticus e crudo corio.Boos. short boots. pole. reparation. Basa. G. . dial. at everything. lofty. bosih. Bootless. — — . gehyred. chaff. succour Bailey. a head-dress. Busk. whence ban-ffagl. Fr. Boot. babau. and from AS. gaby. dress. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. feu de behourdis. boer. bonad.^ —P. boandi. the alphabet. — e.. signifying beech. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. from Du. the stubble of beans. In nautical language. It is commonly explained as identical with It. b&ber. A favour. remedy of evil. inhabit. the word may signify merely a fire of buns.

extremitas Bore. &c. yfirbdt. nor E. hem or gard of a garment. Gael. Magy. sculpo 05\xiik. Mag. a word. fimbria. boete. baete. Compare Manx birrag.. to swell. 3. But probably the E. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. batr. . flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. hut. and parrets.par. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. puras. to restore. a wave. or anything pointed. both. . to The Sw. from deila and skipta. to to . Du. lappolone. urboro. Fin. furd. a tusk.. boede. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). a sharp-pointed tooth. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. cure Sw. a. budka. to bite. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. admovere titiones. bauda. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. as afford a satisfactory explanation. bohren. repair. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. reparation. . struere ignem. margin. sharp. uzboro. to boot. boeten het vier. Kil. scalpo. making good again . make . a hut or tent. OHG. from bord. botjan. borracha. It is admitted that Fr. to hut. a shop. the . BOOTH vantage. Bohem. welt. Fr. on. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. a shed. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. Border. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. purro. drillen. and meta- Fr. Fin. boards. The ON. butin. a borer. 1. to quench one's thirst . a responding forms . cup- awl. The cor. lappalare. bora. to build. and hence to fine. bata. to profit Goth. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. barn. to . are derived from G. abode. to mend. bite. G.—Burin. See Burgeon. better. bardure. terebro. purra. kvit-bara. Alexand. p. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. a bladder. amendment boeten. bolino. ON. tent. And so in ON. See To We speak in E. Palsgr. in Lap. to bete the properly to mend the fire. OSw. Du. dens mordens vel caninus. bauen. to pierce. of an edge that will not bite. bud. exchange or divide. is purin. comminuted by either kind of action. Fl. rof. an engraver's chisel. . In the Fin. a great bur. cottage. — ON. Burke in R. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. Lat. to foam. bordi. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. See Bower. budowai. burin. in Ihre. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken.. The as G. • — To Bore. to divide. boeye. fire. dust. a leather bag or bottle for wine. remedy. sawroot. To Bore. bdra. and E. borino. to bite. The Fin. to anything Neither G. from borra. to build buda. beute. N. Another derivation from Fin. borracha. . Booth. purra. to bore. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. bothag. a borer . baara. a cupboard. are parret. . Sp. ON. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. betan fyr. which are probably from the same root. Gael. a booth or shed. It. bower. bottino. forare. ora. pointed. differs only in termination. wave. Fin. to repair. a granary . Gael. 266. Fr. bothan. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. to surge. Bete. a shop budowati. A phorically a drunkard. a hut. puru. to patch. Pol. edge. . puras. and thence to eat build. a borer. It. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. furni. to expiate boeten den dorst. to importune. bord. limbus. cellar. limbus. byte points to the verb byta. scsdes-bod. Esthon.— Return from Parnassus I inR. a border. to profit. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. a chisel. Esthon. amendment. or the gradual working a hole in anything. bdt. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce.por. chewed food for infants. pi. biorag. BoracMo. puru. wine-skin. Booty. a shelter of branches. ON. swell bara. aid. to stick unto as a bur. terebra sculptoria purastoa. . AS. a bothy. mat-bod. recovery bata. . piercer. butin is explained by Flor. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. chisel. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . pu purro (saha =: saw .

hollow bucklers.' if thou give money on loan. Russ. viipyoc. whether from the fact preserve G. borough-holder. undyed wool of brown sheep.vr\. Bosh. So Du. surety. while Gael. bussa coarse. bunch. empty. bom. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. or perhaps also To Borrow. when that system was forgotten. striking. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. gum vocant. Fr. whence the burg. loan. V. Jam. in the body struck. boschen. botch. Fr. beorgan. boss or knob of a buckler . The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. knur. bosh. without. into borsholder. AS. boss. the N. bourgeois. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. to strike . Lat. in instead of without. nonsense.mass. Botany. a citizen. borough or chief constable. Boreal. pitch. boss sound. agrees with E. Cot. And that unsittynge is to here degre. formerly used in the sense of knocking. Fr. to contain. AS. Goth. bergen. D. Swiss Rom. the Sc. a wen.ribs and the side. See found in Bav. plain rude fellow. or because a blow berga. blow on a hollow object. and thus could not shake off the old burr. an eminence. (Bridel).' the chief of the ' borh. bussi. the North Wind. head.' Vegetius in Diez. Borrow. to take in. bail biirgen.' or system of bail. gesylle. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. tuft. burh. borei. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. was origin of the term is the OFr. primarily signifying coarse sound . a little blow. In like manner It. from their grey clothing. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. rustic. the sun sets. by which of or belonging to plants. borealis. a boss. a boor. the ordinary a swelling. poor. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. Du. a giving rise to It.any round sweUing. botse. boss. bierge. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. G. Bailey. burgess. burel. byrig. projection. AS. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. secure. or head-borough. to give bail or answer for an. a bunch or hump. ' — — . borgese. cob. boss of the side. Lang. It. borg. a city . to protect. bos. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . a pushing or striking out. to strike so as to Bureau. &c. pegou. a knob. Turk. The primi. (1867). Bos a surety. to save. . busse. destitute. from AS. a citizen. rude. The other. northern. one who sticks to you like a bore. to protect. cnap.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour.bucklers. a blow. empty. hollow. f graauw. unpolished. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. to pick or cull plants. or perhaps it may be See Bury. /3oraMK6f.' every man be under bail. botch. that which biirge. I. the hollow between the Borsholder. boussi. Hence knot. — ' wind burya. ^ma. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. a bouncing baby . beorgan. 106. poor. useCanterbury. a. to knock or strike. botsen. E. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. as if from the verb to hold. bosseu. Jam. ^o^^flj. bourg. is used in the sense of bussare. a herb. to give a hollow bizo. brown cloth. bosse. plant. borg. bundle. basse. tive idea seems to bring under cover. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. to keep.. cnag signifies both a clergy. grey). bossen. ' pledge. coarse cloth made of the Du. which now signifies a knob. It. empty. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. borh. butse. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. less. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. Newbury. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. bump. to become is emitted by a hollow body. borgo. vain. bos. a tower. Hal. and borough in the sense of a town. bump is used in lump or piece. butsen. . storm. ON. cnoc. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. to save Sw. borel. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. to save. . Gr. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. the must have arisen burgensis. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. Altieri. — — — A — . Du. Bunch. Borough. is probably radically Boss. knocking. clownish. Hence borhes ealdor. knob. to conceal. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. baurgs. Sc. a surety. huschen. i. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. pego. of bail throughout the country. Borowholder. . tempest. cormpted. knock and a knob . The origin seems to be the Goth. connected. as we speak of a thumping potato. bttssel.

bozza. ba. bot. bunch. thing soft batsch. round lump. botch. botus. bozza. Du. biissen. kessel-biisser. bide.D. schuhbosser. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Hal. a bundle of straw or hay. Fyre to botme. the first rough draught 2. . to mend (kettles. Du. knock. . an abyss or bottoniless pit. botte. to stir and mix together. See Bound. Fr. a bott . especially in Gael. Boa two. On — Du. a tinker schuhbiisser. Stalder. i.— . Gael. from the dashing of water. boccia. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. Lith. shoes. in the sense of mend the fire. . a bunch. contusion . bundle. It. AS. ledge It. — Bottom. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. to make a make a noise. pother. bosser. a boil or swelling Halma. to simmer. On the other hand. e. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. Mudu. bottom. any plain round viol glass bozzo. a root. the bud of a flower . poltern. Here the radical image seems a bubble. botel. hurly-burly. Bottle. Bouds. and E. Leg. botel foenn. See Boss. a cobbler. is also a bubble. a depth. the other hand. oba. to we have OHG. bativa. Lat. repara- — — See To Bete. batschen. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. to strike . theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. Ancren Riwle. as Fr. H^cart. disturbance to . to fall : with a sound batsch. buazen. bulderen. ON. to work without order or know. ixorapudder.— Swift in R. ' G. boitean. scuohbuzere. Kil. The Gr. fire-bote. podge.) . butse. signify a in OE. a pit. bile. fundus. ^kvBoQ. ambo. mutter. stock. to botch or patch. dabble). Again. buideal. bdt. whence the name ol pool to podge. any round ball or bowl to play withal. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. &c. &c. It. a plague-boil Kil. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . putra. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. Jtidu. patch. a bottle. pimple. a slop. the lowest part. — Fl. noise. Both. Diez. to rage. a bump or swelling. as a push or windgaU. by met. bodem. dial. Judwi. botn. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. Decorde. is boteau. stump. See To Bodge. boil. botse. abyss. G. of botta. corresponding to . Bret. Dan. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. btitse. Pl. bossu. blow. bulder. bethia. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. a bubble. for a bud. ing out. stem or base. — duj Lett. a cask. Parmesan poccia. botola. botsen. OSax. Hal. a lump of somebatschen. a wisp. Butu. w. boss. To Botch.^Dec. dim. — . AS. — — . potra. Gael. to dip in liquid (to Gael.of a ball of thread. G. abbi.— Hal. Fr. a knock. bund. Danneil. To confuse with noise. AS. buddeln. It. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. — — belly-worm. Bailey. an imperfect and bunbutt end. turmoil. what pushes outwards. and ajSvamg. Wedu. House-bote. a pit. abbi-diwij Slavon.' to the fiery Csedm. to make better. to knock. blister. BOTCH understood). to froth as beer . a waterfall. to podge. to put on a patch. stroke. botte. abbu. Botcli. maggots in barley. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. tumour. — Dief. to give a sounding blow. burgi vel pontis refectionem. gen. whisper. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. gling piece of work. butwo. to stir and mix together . a humpback. or plague sore . • Bott. Prov. . E. blain. Bochu. Canut. both. I. stock. butsen. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. A bottom depth. ON. pozzanghera. to dash about . empty or hollow. A horses. gipuozan. pozzo. mess. to mend. a pock. j3i/9os. botm. you two. to bcBta. baiothsj Sanscr. bAdtr. however. a cess. 212. a. — — A 2. boute. bottigUa. noise. was called a push. . the science or knowledge of plants. And so we speak of an eruption.foundation. ON. we have Swiss batscken. N. . bluster. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. bots.ments of the same root. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. a patch patschen. Bouteille. beggtaj Goth. bouteille. nets. boden . a maggot. they two. bdsser. to smack. disturbance. abbution. Fl. puddle. we two. See Butt. * To Bother. a bottle. . a botcher of shoes. pocciar. botte. a slop. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. ubhau. boiteag. to from the root bot. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. — . Lith. a cesspool pass. Fl. A — oba-dwaj Lat. Podge. a bottle of hay. a vessel for holding liquids. From the dim. mend. — Jidwi. bun. mess. buts. bSn. boiteal. buddl.

a blow. turn. language a * Boulder. Primarily to strike. the smaller ones. — Take care my house be handsome. a blister. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. has hot. Alpine Re- — gions. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. its kind. 2. Bret. Ducange. bodina.' round and round in similar circles. a bound. bounbounejha.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. — — Bight. The W. a large pebble. jump. geration. I assure you. Brem. tnndo. — No i ausiratz parlar. a stock. bullra. bun. signifies a sliort thick mass. came home with his face all to-bounced.— Boundary. Bodinare. limit. to fix limits. pimple Richards bothog. A Langued. 3. dial. Bonny. frequently used in the same sense with bound. p.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. he fell so that it sounded. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. to resound.'— Charter of K. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. bouton. strapping. The branch of a tree. boujtce. To Boult. jungen. in contrast to klappersten. Dan. the bay of Benin. boriie. Wtb. Ni gacha cor bondir. bugan. and Prov. a button. from volgere. boundina. signifying in nautical coil of rope. bend. volta. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. as a nosegay. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. bend. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Fr. Bough. to turn. butina. the larger kind of pebbles.— — — - 88 BOUGH . bog. to knock. a boundary stone (men stone).. whence buj7isen. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. bugt. bondir. the verb bondir in OFr.' B. by Bujns or Buns. 136. dial. bonndn. contusi. thumping. as that of E. bunda. bolder. mcn-bomi. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . . knock it sounds again. bumper. or Bow-pot. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. Boulderstone. botwm. to knock at the door. to spring. Nor a centinel whistle. Mid. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. to set bounds. Coxcomb. a boss. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing.— F. from AS." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. — strike. — — leap. Bought. root (see Bottom). Probably from the Celtic root bon. The Bight of Benin.>a bout. bons. pothel.— Cot. a round body both. till The dat et bunsede. bamsen. baby. bone. Pr. So It. like bobbin. nor horn sound. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. carpet. bonna. Webster. an de dor bunsen. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . to hum. Sw. to set out by metes and bounds. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. to thunder. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. Bound. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. To Bound. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. mere. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. boh. buUersten. Bough-pot. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. And the new stools set out. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. in the absence of actual e. Halma. . to spring. Du. gulf. and F. to make a loud noise. To Bounce. . a turn or time. to thundering big one hum. bonzen. E. to bow. ing. Q. bay. See Bunch. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. Fr. an occasion. bunsen. a large stone rounded by the action of water. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. iv. winding. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. bottom. Raynouard. a bud. ni motz brugir. round. AS. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.D. march. of thread. nave of a wheel bothel. see Boss. debodinare. See To Bolt.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. boss of a buckler. ni frestelar. Bunche. From Sw. Bowlder. the hollow of a bay. Fr. Bout. a bouncing apple. Pm. from bugan.

grumble Sw. G. to trick. Bourd. whence buysen. — probably through this latter signification. to indulge in his cups . A water. Bow. Swiss bausen. G. Lat. When used alone it . to bow. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. drone of a bagpipe. bunaiteach. . to swell. Sc. warbling. patesten. bontS. pot. bound. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Burden. bagna. to take one in. a for New York. Borden. bug. bage. burdan. to take breath. a prop. of the ON. spring. Dan. a cup kroesen. steady. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. firm. . epaule du vaisseau. bov. different modification gives ON. g. btiga. spelling the word iox bound. Goth. w. Gael. i. It is bov. sotich. . repartee.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. brunna. Du. analogous to Fr. to mutter. A —Cot. it is probable that the It. Dan. purra. good. to tope W. buzzing of bees. AS. identical with E. bugna. ing. pusta. a well. lance. a — — . has also buirleadh. bdgi. a mill-post. bend. bog. ready. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. and that probably from a Celtic root. springbiirn. way ba7n. bog. bugne. explaining Sw. borne. Immediately from Fr. limit. a bow. on the whole. a drone or dor-bee. Chaucer in R. burd. drink deep. Gael. ruption of bonne. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. purlBav. — — . Cot. when we speak of. to banter or laugh at. bugan. buga. pared. bonus. buigen. to pre2. shoulder-blade. sport. a go to. biugan. It is the participle past buinn. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. bausen. bourd. bourdon. ^<7r«i?. Comp. burn. trick. the ting of a bell. cheat. buzz. a. puff out. sense durd.which see. Dan. Gael. bordo. a humming noise Macleod. curvature. also the humming or ON. Fr. a brook. burlare. Bourdon. And there in mourning spend Sw. bourdon. to — Hal. Bret. deceit. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. Burgeon. to tipple. Gael. set out. bordon. mockery. the big end of a club. to draw a deep breath. brausen. verb bua. Dan. ready to pike or spear . to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. bonitas. to bow or incline the . to drink deep. a from Du. sausen. Du. Bounty. As the Gael. Du. pausen. Du. crutch. Fr. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. hence musical accompaniment. the shoulder of the vessel. Sp. It is remarkable that we find vary. flagon. in Fr. schulter-bug. Bourdon. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. a jibe. the Bourdon. whether by sound or gesticulation. . gurgling. to bulge. taunt. bourde in the same sense. the fixed. a pot. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. Prov. to hum. bommen. Sw. bovne. buyse. like quaff. schenkelbug. must be referred to the same root. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. biegen. head Fr. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. fun of one . a jibe Shaw bururus. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. from spring. drunken. bow to shoot with. to draw a deep breath. as was for. beogan. buys. that ON. It. . shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. a sing-song. bordone. So Sc. burreti. fresh* water. prepared for. The meaning of bound. bogen. their time -With "wailful tunes. an arch. Fr. to take deep draughts. burdan. is. bwa. Cot. saufen. Spenser in R. to hum as a bee. are applied to the bow of a ship. brummen. belly out. bue. G. a humming noise. bugna. souf. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. hous^ Man in the Moon. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. address. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . G. ridicule buirte. kroes. tinton.. bogha. Eown. pre. a drone of a bagpipe. the burden of a song. jest. game. or of an Gael. cudgel.bass of a stringed instrument. bending. . burt. staff. a. beygja. — — — A pare. bend Sw. Sw. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. . joke. on. Gael. bending of a joint knie-bug. bogna. bending. to tope. addressed to. language of folly or ridicule. potio. The foregoing derivation seems. bogr. a corToward the garden. to our bous. Sw. Bound. to drink deep. buizen.

purse. &c. bhugna. bulka. spring as water bugya.. the head. Fr. sausage. . . kupukka. Bret. a bubble bolli. It is more probably from the G. an inclosure. beutel. bur. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. a box. a box. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. W. boel. buk. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bending. Thus we have Esthon. buis. to bubble up. bolgna. as in AS. make obeisance. crooked. . G. globular. Pol. acsian. bubble. kupula. passing on stud. bulcken. bugyni. bent. . Du. bucka. prominence. crown of a hat. . globe or spherical body. . G. bulne. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. hill. See Boil. busskai. AS. to puff up. Boll. wisp of straw . knob From the former modification we have bolla. a ball . Du. See Crab. A Bulk. a bubble. bolne. polla. ne.a. . trestle. Gr. hollow wooden case. bow. a swelling or rising up. Dan. a protuberance. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. boudin. . buckelig gehen. bugyola. . the crop of a bird. and to a coachbox in particular. cumena-bur. to bulge. the bogna. a thing of liquid. . compared with Fr. signified by forms like Gael.\s. pusspan. boxtree. ON. Bower. the barrel of a gun. bouellou. convexity. bur. the box-tree and articles made of it G. a wine-can . bol. round glass phial. a chamber swefnbur. . boxtree pusska. to bend. globular body.). bugna. Sanscr. hiidel. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. a parlour. bugyani. the box-tree. Hence. bolla. ttuJic. a iDubble. a drop of pullistaa. belly. ken. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. pocket. . to stoop biickling. boucle. tumour. to yield to one. blister. in walking appears in a . biiske. without the and grits. belly of a cask. OFr. stream forth bugyogni. in both senses. AS. boor.. and on swollen. iri'iaQ. a bud. to guggle. a stud. a knot. peated in Magy. to swell. . at the e. as in E. a bubble. fata-bur. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. anything globular. spherical Dan. bowels. kuppelo. the skull or brainpan . Bret. bulla. inclinare se (Kil. ku^o. dial. bulb of an onion bolleyield. E. or. a bowl. fyn. . Fr.) to incline oneself . From the other form are G. guestchamber . Bohem. to bend down. utibur. belly. boss. to bow buck. Du. give in to. bug. the box-tree It. bulla in aqua. head of a cabbage. bow. Hal. buckel. buga. . a bundle. then by the loss of the /. bwr. of a wooden ball to play with and — . buchsbaum. . as well as the name of a.flask It. . painter's easel. gut. hollow. folliculus . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. to make crooked . a box. honse-bur. lump . In like manner the Pol. a boil. pullo.ige\y illustrated under Bulk.). with inversion of the round. buigen. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. mausbollelein. PLD. an outhouse AS. different position in ODu. The word may probably be identical with Fris. bosso. A . containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. bouzellou. to buckle G. swoUei) Lat. bog. Sw. a sleeping-room . zich onder jemand under to him. Bav. water pulli. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. a hump on the back rossbollen. to puff up pullakka. (in pass . buxus. budel. . Sw. a little box . Buckle. a sack. swell. a box Lat. bulk compared with Sw. bwra. bogla. a wardrobe . a ball. See MHO. bowl . — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. * Bowels. a round glass or bolg. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. bukke. a bubble Fin. box in both senses. to stoop. bhuj.cup Du. bulge. Lat. biichse. bubble. a polla. biisse. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . boss. Cable. kupu. convex. bouge. a black pudding. . a separate apartment . ^o/a. similar shape. buello. bog. is applied to a coach-box. round bead. puffy. biicken. budello. a. bolle. hollow place Fr. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. Dan. a buck. bol. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. a croft by a house. a box. W. Bowl. botulus. . the head. bocka. box. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. beuz. bollen. tumour . heafod bolla. ON. intrenchment. bola. w. to raise the back boll OHG. Sp. bossola. OE. or in e. a pot. ^o«/«. ON. bowel Box. bolla.D. Sw. . ask. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. a ball. koziel. The / a bow. . busse. Fr. a hen-coop . boil. bock. . bugy. .

root). merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Swiss bub. a sounding blow. an languages. — . ghebreck. Brackish. to give a gebrechen. Pl. brae. A to halt between two derivations.D. brek. Kil. pus. Prov. bue. To brace is to draw together. Rouchi Then as an adj. a girl. the arm. in R. brack. defect. . Brach.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. to want. compressing. brae. the first instancebya physical tie. to give a sounding blow defect. want. It. a boy pupa. Sp. &c. rakke. moral or physical. It is B. BOX To Box. damaged board a ship. bask. or defect. Prov. bracha. refuse. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. defect. . el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. dog that hunts by scent. to slap. which sigof straining. Brack. brec. brakke grund. brek. con. wristband. s. a box. strike.. to be wanting. Water rendered boubo. brae. Bracelet. boy. It. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. a comworld Rayn. acidus. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . matter. Brack. Heligoneed. bruxula. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. ' — A — — — . land batsken. La ville ou y avait Brace. V. bresta. braco. brassard. want. ratch. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air.. bracket. land spoilt Kil. braque. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. to burst. wnzC/J. briche. a guard to torf. to give a blow with the fists. variation of babble. wrack. fault. by the same inversion of J and k. — . A bracket is properly a scenting dog. in R. Prov. — — . On the same principle from the buksteht. lalear-eyed Prov.with a noise. a bog or pass Fr. boussole. and F. Sp. To Brabble. G. Ptg. rakki. a pair of braces. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. It. Pm." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. or bracer Cot. race. from a root brak. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. Boy. whelp as. 91 the Dan. jabber. beagle. boy bouba. posh. Du. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. brasselet. rakka. unmarried man . might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. buah. salsus. Prov. filth . to crack. Fr. brack. bou^ba. dirty. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. See Brake. A brace probis. . Kil. disturb. salo sive aqua marinS. See Broker. parallel with OK. Fr. bracco. murmur. pupus. ON. breuque. . Pr. suppuration. bitch Du. Brak-goed. braic. . as noticed under Box. Hdcart. — . s. to is derived brestr.. bracke. cramp-iron holding things together . One girl.nated by dirt. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . then from break. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. thwack. fault . . Kil. odorinsecus. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt.. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. A — — . to Swiss batschen.D. — . ON. . G. isolated part of the text. baukscheht. Swab. Fr. breptati. to smack the hand batschen. brechen ihm. bray. braquet. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. pube. flap. dog Sw. Bracket. foul. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. a grown youth Cimbr. braecke. brace on and Du. merely in our mode of considering them. to fall. brakke Bracelet. Du. quarrel Bohem. ing from a mixture of salt. bouibo. In like manner the It. a crack. OE. priated to the original sense. Lett. AS. Fr. to stammer. defect Du. braca. The different meanings of the brageux. brageuses. — . Thus brack. To fight with the fists. breach. dog in general. boiste. Sp. brabbelen. youth. and then Pl. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. bragos. brague. Gael.puddle. Lat. breach. . is a rope holding G. flaw. bracon. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. spaniel. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. by an overflow of sea water. mud. fuse. OFr. corruptse. Swiss Rom. armour for the arm. want. a braceOFr. MHG. bracer. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. baske. brostia. flaw. and string of his bow. to stutter. OFr. let. clay. confining. loud smack. brechen. brae. mud. a bubbling dura del mun. braco. Cot. bube. I sal slyng. rack. mud. . to box the ears. his eyes are failing him). break.— D. brago. babble. bracil. taneous talking. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. need.

hy which this idea is con\eyed. finery. fine. excellent. de Vaud. Thus we are brought to the OE. to sprout malt. brav.breeches. It. braka. or by gaudy dress and show. . cry. a roisterer. valiant The head are sumptuous. — . to unbrace or let down the breeches. 92 Cot. Brag was then used brisk. swaggerer. bravache. swagger. power. is identical with Gael. about the hawk's fundament. is Cot. — From W. to boast of his own worth. brave. Brain. bully . Bray. brave. Brake. Sc. in numerous dialects. goods. breach. —Spenser in R. A — Hal. crack. to cord a bale of tie up.%. fine. torture . an inclosure for cattle . stout. braicli. Sp. riches. beautiful. to make a noise. Langued. to crack. brave. braske. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. brachittm. to stand upon terms. bravo. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. .^Vocab. AS. The meanings of brake are very numerous. w. . affront. bragio. Faire le brave. — A — .. i. breghen. ative fellow. Chaucer. strength. braies. gallant (in apparel) also proud. See Brace. breagh. braegenj Du. drawers. Thus Bret. Brail. Fr. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . as the type of exertion and strength. boasting. also insolenter se gerere . From sprouted corn. h-avare and Fr. also derived Fr. expensive.—— . From brayel. bravacherie. Rom. bullying. make a noise . vaunting. Turk bazu are used in both senses. to strut. noisy ostentation. and that from e. to flaunt. binding anything together. The meanings included under — Bragget. se donner trop de licence. that will carry no coals. bravado j Fr. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes.^ Sp. gallant. was formed brayele. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. Brake. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . in order to prevent its catching the wind. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. The plant y^r«. gayly dressed. . But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. also tion of this was brayeul. brave. breghe. Fr. and it is very likely that the root brak. to Rouchi brMer. braggard also valiant. Hence E.i5nz^. braszketi. se parer de beaux habits. Dan. Cot. confining. braga. splendid. empty pride. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. Lat. called by our braggard. the opposite of which. Fris. . gay. showy bravery. boast. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk.explosion. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. Primarily to crack. braske. braga. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . bragging of his own valour. handsome. well-dressed. bragaireachd. slight modificajoining the two legs. Walloon bress. crash.aburst. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. To Brag. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . dhbrailler. blusterer. vanter une chose. — Chaucer. to boast or brag. in the sense of the Lat. to rattle. courageous. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources.. gay. 2. bra!. bragd. idle talk. the arm. braga. brave. Cot. to brail up a sail. bushy .Shepherd's Cal. to shout. . compressing. or from braie itself. gorgeous. bragging. Bret. a noisy talkboasting. the feathers ON. used in the sense of force. brae. Dan. flaunt in fine clothes . crash ON. fine. brag. ^Brave. brayete. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. a carriage for breaking in horses . stately. &c. vain glory. proud. be found. smart. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. be noisy . se pavaner. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. To Brail. brails. brag or jet it braguard. brake in the sense of constraining. Bret. Lith. brao. flaunting. braw. It is certain that the word for arm is. See Bray. subigere. . spot. fine. an iron for holding Zalli. brabhdair. braguer. brazo. braka. From Fr. to swagger. braver. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. brag. . in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. breyne. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . Haldorsen Gael. hectoring. Hecart. would be to brace. — Equivalent forms are Gael. BRAG Piedm. brabhdadh. To Braid. brake is. subduing. Wallachian bratsou. Cot.

sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. braka. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. to head must be bit. Biglotton. to break.D. brook. gebroge. to stiffen against Taboada). gebroge. for — Due. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. flachs brechen. farinam in mortario subigere. to The ON. braeken. to bray in a mortar. Prov. to break. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. conSo in G. OFr. any thicket of brakes. ^raca. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. to row. and when once thrown down. Fr. a thicket. to knead or mix up in a mortar. briers. it is not surprising that the word has here. The Fr.— . Dan. brcekke.. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. as in Sp. to rub. gebiisch. might come to signify a swamp. quarry from Fin. —Bracken. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. bregar. It. bregar brake. 3. bregille. Swiss Rom. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. Gael. where from Esthon. 2. Dan. el arco. gebroge. brega. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. cetur. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. nemus. Fr. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. In the case of the ne. marsh. break flax PLD.D. a spinning-wheel. brego. or a wood in a marshy place . Sp. to harrow (Lat. Pl. murran. breuil. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . to fracture. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. brog. is braukti.' It. Brake. and G. as in Du. iSpsx". sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. marsh or swamp. In ON. low wet land bruch. a brace on board a ship. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. To the same bend a bow. and Lat. glebas subigere.bracan. cover G. brage. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. broil. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. referred brake. de Vaud. been confounded with the verb break. It. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. broilium. brake. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. braca. murrokko. t° moisten. broeck. broillet. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. Dan. to exert force in different ways. In like manner Lat. to bend or direct a cannon. gebrUche. break of such a kind. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. broken fratta. to brush. braquer un canon. — — . to subdue. bredza. casser le \va. murtaa. brolium. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. brambles. Voc. braecken het vlasch. P&. broor bushy place Hal. dial. a horse's a horse's twitch. have thus Du. . Fr. Lat. brak is a frame in which strip. a stream. game. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. the original meaning of G. brambles. to pound. or A A ' . ing of flax or hemp. or overthrow of trees by the wind. pasture. BRAKE to external force. brog or brake. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. riguus. G. breaking in the operation. frangere linum. a marsh. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. Gr. tris). fratto. brage. gilum. Corrfeze bredgea. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. bruch. brog above mentioned. a swampy Mid. bushes. It may be sus- . subigere is used for any kind of dressing. — Fl. gebrUche. briser. bush. thicket. —Ovid. e. brook. braken. tnurdma. We — . this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. brake. a harrow. brook. a fen. is formed murd. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. as well as in the case of the e. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. to break or fracture. broyer. copse-wood. the lever by which the string was drawn up. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). word. in usus braca. subigere. brogille. Brake. in northern climates. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. thing is brought under control. In the sense of a thicket. bush. brushwood. signifying to sweep. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. to distinct. properly braking or subduing them. as in the case of horse-breaking. to bend a bow. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. watered.

bretnel. thicket of brambles Cot. broembel-CBppel. pected that brake. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. bruk. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose.D. from virga. brandiiialil. or with It. piece of anything. thorns and Gen. braeme. It. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. Port. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brenn hesken. brwnt. brugek. brom. heath. a vine twig Bav. to gripe. — . sprouts. Bran. A mark made by burning. . . Grisons bruch. from brand. broust. brandr. the thorn apple or stramonium. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. apiece orbitbrandone. 2. brouskoad. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . wood composed of twigs. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. and E. excrement. branco. w. a small deri\'ation . the bull-finch. But we find It. Sir Topaz.D. brin. bruch. sedge burkni. to -brugen. Branch. In like hrst. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. ear-wax mud. snotty . brenna. The same form becomes in It. also pfriemkraut. heath (Bret. brandmurk. Broom. to burn. burning brennen. bromboli. bruskoad. brank. Gael. heath. heath. brake. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. Bret. AS. E. bran. constrain. Dan. may be so called in analogy with Bret. broom. Brank. bushes. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. broccoli. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. brous. Thus in Lat. in the sense oi fern. brok. stink . as places overgrown with brakes or fern. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. Fr. The naof strain. . braam. breun. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. —Ducange. sawdust. brano. to brank. Then by comparison with claws or arms. a bud It. a thick bush. breme j Sw. It. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brug. bit by bit. bren. from gaggi. . bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. a bud. brandello. hallier. bren. Bret. See Brush. — branca. Pl. berneux. chaff. a shoot. in the same sense. Thus we have w. . brejo. a rod or twig. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . titio. brank. brin (as It brano). bruk. . also a marshy low ground or fen . G. sweet broom. brushwood.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. Fr. it glitters — — . from brug. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. brenn. or ling. restrain. Brancare. a roA. So Swiss gaggi. brin d. &c. breanan. bruk. brenda. w. Bret. what is cast out as worthless. that is to say. iii. a shrub from Bret. a burning fragment of wood. brein. branche. Bav. pfriem in the sense of an awl. nasty. broom. to or iron. heath ON. Bret. Fr. brog. from Servian pnit. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brug). brancas. i. bracken or fern . . dirt . ground full of briers. &c. a bud. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. a heath. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. as AS. is the draff or excrement of the com. clutch. . The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. broem. gebroge. Piedm. briars. a dunghill. piecemeal brindelles. young buisson fort epais. It will be found that shrubs. as. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. . Bramble. bran. virgultum. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. bruch. Russ. Gael. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret." The bmno a • on . brang. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. cack.). sword is called a ^ra«rf because . branchia. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. heath. a halter. Fr. bronbo. Rouchi bren d'orMe. G. broussaille. the branch of a tree. brand.G. bro7n. Pl. Brand. compress. young twig {brom-beisser. 1 8. Thornas and bremelas. pfropf.. to bridle. That beareth the red hepe. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. a bridle or bit . a shoot or twig. As ON. and thence a shoot. a single plant of heath. brarn. a shrub . bramble Du. from Lat. G. G. Serv. a firebrand. pfriemen. a briery plot. brughera. gebriiche. brem. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. Diez. and waste growths. ordure . or other plants of a like nature. brass. cabbage sprouts Fl. prufye. brambles. brosst.

Chron. to confuse. ish. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. brandiller. Jam. Brangle. morsel.pan of coals. to bicker 2nd. ist. perplex. du Roi et laine. The corresponding form in Gael. n. N. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. brasca. — ting to confusion. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. It. bransella. or in stick. a pan of hot coals. to shake. hoisting to the fall. aqua ardens. To brase AS. Braser. spirit distilled from wine. from used in dyeing cloths. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. then brandr. brausen. brandolare is exbrandish. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. to quarrel. to Bailey. crackle. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. put.. G. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. weinbrenner. It. Brase. Chron. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. e. E. glowing embers . plained by Florio. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . brazil. brazeiro. brouir. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. became ashes Pied. Brasil. so. set on fire. to hurl with great force. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brangle or brawl in E. from to vociferate. to brustle. briiler. brasil. Thus the bound up again. apparently very distinct from each other. hot Fr. — . urens. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. Sw. Formerly brandy-wine. bragia. brasa. to make shine with shaking. to blaze. De Goes. braise. to glisten or flash. to burn. Port. a round dance. bum. billet. bra?ier. Fr. Hume in brand in ON. as Fr. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. So. brush. to braze or lute. in Marsh. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. not. totter. bruan. Sw. brascct. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. to solder iron. crackle. To brand. gebrannter wein. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. to crackle . — . embraser.^Brandle. before the discovery of America in the brandir. brasca. Lye. to brandle. braise. braza. to roar. and bruir. forms brasil. all. Kil. comes from thence. the spelling to kindle. is bntan. and branchis shaiand D. and scold. Gris. — . With top trimbling. brastlian. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis.well. the colour than hitherto known. bruire. incendium. a fragment. make a — . distilled wine. to dash. as again by well as the blade of a sword. brandigh. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. It. eldibrandr. make an outcry. Du. to burn. WaUon.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. noise. Fr. branla. to shog. The tre brangillis. live coals. brustle. branler. Fr. braser. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. Fl. stake. to make display . Fr. E. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Guill. a brusler. prasseln. to distil . brus^. fire-wood. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. to make sense of a bright red dye. to shake The word brisil. given to the country. to totter. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. Milan. firewood. Diez. bragale\ wood. to French brawl or brangle. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. to rustle. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. to murmur. brandende wijn. bryne. to burn. brane-wood. a stick. to shake. brand. De Barros considers vinum ardens. brandiller. brennen. Ija. a To Brandish. V. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. shake. a roaring fire. The name Brandy. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. branler. bresil. conbillet. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. Manx bransey. to and fro in the hand. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. bransle. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. AS. Bret. G. bracea. bruzi. splinter. In the same way the set on fire . 59. d'Angl. to sound of the Fr. faire fracas. braise or hot coals. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. was in use Fr. brasa. bruciare. firebrand. as Jamieson explains it. Bailey. flagrans. Fr. to brandle or The It. brin. to brangle. bracia.

a patch of cloth. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. brazen. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. to cry. bretays). a contempt- banner. It. ' A vraale.96 Roquefort. le repasser un peu sur la braise. as scrawl from scrabble. a fortification.— Remade. cloth. Brat. breyon d'chaur. equivalent to the Du. slibro. the calf of the leg. a wooden tower. 1156. a Lap. OFr. a contemptuous name for a young child. bradon. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. esbraotier. Sp. 1224. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. from Fr. Dan. Math. P1. calf of the leg. bretesche. a clout. bratid calf of the leg. Westphal. ship. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. Kil. bronzacchiare. saillies. Brawn. Pm. bronze. or on the top of a wall. A. cob.— Diez. The same correspondence is seen between It. G. roar.propugnaculum. squall. 2. See Brandish. to carbonado. bruir. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. trul. It .' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. braede. bas morceau de viande brawhng. slibro {neita. bran. braon. coassatio. slut. —^Bronze. to copper. — Deutsch. a battle-girdle. brettys. ni autres choses sur Due. Du. bras. bmhon for brado7i. to braze. especially that used in the working of iron . a rag . KiL Prov. bartising. a lath. . in the first instance of boards. bred. Mundart. Sup. a. a lump. Paris. to scold . deblaterare. any piece. a cloak. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. braodhlach. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. then a parapet. calf of the leg. a parapet. slakker-bortchen.D.' Hal. a rag .brettysing. See Bray. flesh of a leg of pork. bralle. brces. bronzare. muscular parts of the body. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Fr. bradlete. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. tasce. OFr. Fr. contignatio. Brave. discord. boarding being sbranare. the buttocks. Fris. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. and bronzo. Brass. at brasa. apron. braoilich. Brangle. braion. rag. brat. or whether it be from Fr.^ — Sverris Saga. as criailler of crier. luncheon. a lump of flesh. to tear piecemeal. as rashers upon quick burning coals. is The word — uous name for a woman. bratidone. It. Cologne broden. ON. to talk at bralle op. brett. brass. Sc. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. 368. The verb is probably derived from the brase. —-Jam. bartisan. Hist. A dispute or squabble. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. Certainly a little girl. breyon. braser Fargent. neita girl). Florio. whether contracted from brabble. So also See Brag. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. Cot. Lorraine bravon. Cot. boutures. ferruminare. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. frame of laths. Circumeunt cibertesca. berd. pil. Brawl. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. I. as a brawling brook. braeye. to solder. lat'te. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. solder. burning coals. from Sc. brdto (ace. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. A land of dance. Many gambes. OHG. Gael. pan- — Rayn.walle — Pr. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. a mantle. braiio. &c. brailler. breyon de kinds of . trulen or pilen (in the feminine form).' BRASS BRAY et AS.D. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. A. a lump of flesh. ^Altieri. brandillo. brat. bratdn). to Gael. bransle.D. Bailey. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. to shake. from branler. branle.— Fl. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . frequentative of braire. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. buttock Sc.— Braid. a plank or board. bratach. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. Wall. a slabbering-bib. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. bribe de viande. The muscular part of the body. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. a — A from the confused noise. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Bartizan. strepitus 2. Pisana in Mur. bretesque. AS. a rag. borderinge. fraiche. a loud noise. as lattice. Brattice. Swiss bradle. Betrax of a —^Jam. breteque. — . Jam. W. brat. baltresca. Fr. noise.

to start. to braid. appearance Hal. R. R. gestus. to rub Fr.g. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. verb to break. the clash of ai-ms Dan. the sound — of arms. disturbance. brage. to have the lineaments of one's ON. riAprjyvvfu. which has given much trouble to commentators. mos. to break. iU-favouredly — in Jam. I'll live and die a maid. bregar. plait. to the seijauntes. and frangere. W. brugier. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to break Fr. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. braid. brak. &c. imitate or resemble one. to knead. brand. 145. father. resound . Goth. brak. bradar. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. at a braid. Cat. 7 . fractus j Gr. starts crackling up. The same He might don us both a villany. to smack or the eye. a rag f . relation is seen between Lat. and fracasously. Dunbar braessem. to rumble. braidir. to resemble. D.' To Bray. abraid. soft . to bawl. a . a mill. paste or dough. in Jam. to snatch. to tear Bret. ON. bregar. bruzir. &c. fish. bragr. a crash. to bray in a mortar. G. To rub or grind down Sp. kind. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. a breach Cot. brice. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. or cry out loudly . as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. to roar as the sea. to scold. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. Fr. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. on. Chaucer. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. Prov. yell. crackle . 2. rattle. E. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. augnabragd. brechen.ear rog. See Brake. Du.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. bratsche. braire. Bret. bru. Prov. the miller's dog. is . crepo and E. baiyl. crash. fragor. And at a braid he gun it bende. roar. to t. to N. breche. brame. — — — explained motus loud noise. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. at once. breuan. as the notion of turning crack.ch. &c. make a disturbance. — koa. the sword was out break. vapna-brak. k. to cry out. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. ^p&xia. Beryn. cyprinus latus. D. brikan. to roar. ybrayid. to break.^ Fr. ON. to sound very loud and very harshly. And with a traid I tumyt me about. to cry Port. F. twist. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. To Break. i. noise . a wink. V. instantane. bragd — ON. The Lat. to braid acquires the sense of bend. Bailey. bragd is also applied nets. as the voice of the ass. as OE. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. will. Bread. Chaucer. to rush. ing. to pretend. yell. brot. D.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. Q. to bellow. Fr. Gr. crash. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. to work up in a mortar. . weave The ON. and make a hideous noise. bray. AS. paxog. bruire. to break. a brake for hemp or flax. a rent. G. . turn. Bread. Fin. Lat. V. with or without a final d. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. braea. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. e. a brack. OE. V. upbraid. . roar. The ON. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. ser. to crash. father. to braid. to crash.fracas.. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. regi. braa. braa. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. &c. to roar or bellow. to The cup was uncoverid. Cot. broad. at braga eftir euium. braidar. rustle. Breach. to resemble him. Then. broyer. to braid the hair. to bray like an ass. breach. and to signify the fracture itself. to resemble. rangere. rogi. Wal. bregda. From the or brack in a wall. or wound. to cry out. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. — . Ppvxia.y. Swiss bratschig. Then is simply. explaining a very obscure application of the E.

Breath. G. The Breech (Prov. and E. briosat'. bruise. crush. Dev. grill. Prov. also to chill and shiver with cold. brusc. Bruise. one on the breech so that (klatschet). brijselen. trusts. E. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. PI. bark Fr. a to lay fly-flap. bresilles. so AS.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack.vare. the breech or buttocks. brise. brisd. malt. polenta. bris. brodel. fitzen. G.). To Brew. braca. braie. to fry . Du. simmer. G. OFr. Dan. Breeches. brcEth. to crackle. a twitch for a horse. to simmer. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. to resound. the soler. einem de britze geven. morsel. brissle. . windy withal. brimme. broza. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. broden. properly to crackle. — . rubbish. brache. binding. a gadfly. briosa. /esses. Goth. braia J OFr. brut. braich. Fris. peitschen. noise. orts. forms analogous to E. a smack. The Teutonic verbs. braciarc. of straining. bratscher. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. brcekur j It. b}-as. remains of leaves. briosa. Gael. brezling. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. brisoler. Du. G. bragues. britze. murmur. Compare OE. We bragezj on. representing the sound of a blow. breeze. brdtschen. — See Broth. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. cloven. fail. bruzir. Gl. as in the case of twitter. Breeze. of trees. from brace. to burst. brosame. to feize or feaze. brew. to fry Then from a Gl. breath. coaldust. as by the Sc. braucn. brumtnen. a girdle. met de bridse slaan. an odour. w. trembling. as commonly explained. forms. Hence the Lat. sprouted corn. Du. their stings draw .'— Gl. braga. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Fr. chilly. E. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. to rattle (as hail). sheep's droppings bruss. burst. Breeze. braies. . bretilles. . Hume in Jam. to break. de Vaud. bris. So ON. — . are in like manner ' . to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. AS. brasiuiii. or the blow itself. —Briss. bruc.D. a cool wind. corresponding to G. briste. to brew. of E. . braca. from ligare. brezza. de bridse geveii. brasiare. brimsa. brison. bremse. brok. Briss and buttons. a cold and windy mist or frost . brezzare. G. braies. It. Piedm. as. to shiver for cold. to smack. instead of being derived from 'La. — Halma. malt. brijsen. Bret. a crum. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. murmur—Vocab. subligaculum. to bind.98 borst. See Brick. Lat. briiz. then to broil. Swiss Rom. to buzz. brinisa. a box. Russ. Du. bridsen. — And blood. bre- I'os qui bresole. body brostia. Sw. to be misty and cold. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack.t. dial. Rom. point to G. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. siibligar. braux. with It. from AS. brugga. brciz. i5r(Z^. Fr. may be from the wurh fesser. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. rubbish. bryi^ga. QNtsterviald) pritschen. briig. Swiss brdtsch. Lat. fastening . to crush to break. Dtyden. Originally probably the word signified steam. — — strument for smacking. vapour. G^nev./ssus. brist. the bust. broil. in Schilter. bandage or truss for a rupture. bra. grillare. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. Breeze. a cramp-iron for holding things together. Prov. breost. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. brustia. &c. to hum. Fr. Bret. breme. . AS. scent. and other rubbish dibris. breinse. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. broiiwen. switch. drawers. clout for a child. griller. but more probably the E. as the G. break. brisciare. chillness or shivering. to brew. — Brist. a horse's twitch. to whip. an into shiver. applied to shivering. braga. simmering. Isidore and Tatian. breson. Brize. are related to Prov. zare. Breast. Swiss AS. the dry spines of furze broken off. as. grillen. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. Biglotton. brodem. Piedm. to bray. . Bracha. brire. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. to murmur. braguier. Gael. brossi!.britschen. xyligogio castigare. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. and brought beneath between the legs. bruzun. brasser. to breech. little bits of wood Berri briser. Gl. bracecs . to roast. a crum Du. bris de charbon. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. singing bone.

piece of burnt clay. and that from It. a wedding priod-fab. Fr. OSw. to press in. . In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. from Bret. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Brewis. If the foregoing were not so clear. So It. a lump of bread. Thom. A bribe is A — — arval. grug. The origin of the word is the w. Mid. masted vessel. bygga. to boil. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . brique de pain. E. a lump of bread briber. briwo. a bush. from bit. Du. . Ihre. a brig or priodor. a heath. a married man or woman Lat. Pol. Lat. pavement Lith. and berweddu. brygga. hlafes brice. of burial. . to pave brukkti. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . E. bruarium. — . brigade. Grisons bruch. Due. It. a boiling. braut. brigantine. nurus G. the newly.rough with brambles and bushes. fraoch. brigata. owned also propriate. lipdZu}. bread. Brief. bruyere. frayer. imprint. broken bread. In the G. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. bridelj OHG. to pave. Ducange. In E. bara briw. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. ' . Rouchi brife. married. to prepare. with transposition of the r. whence berw. Neumann. Brick. thick appropriated. boiling up brocoliere. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. — . is still used in this sense. Brigade. ON. malt. Bridge. Bridle. . brilt. to meet together. In the patois of briccia. to beg one's bread. guma. Gael. to boil. Lang. any jot or crum. brittil. G^n^v. bulicame. Flor. brahi. buskins. broken victuals. Gael. berwedd. Cot.gfiugga. sponsa. malt. priod-ferch. jetty. has briguer. Bribe. a man. OHG. . to rub. . — — — — — — . to break. a fragment. fragment. and ODu.pritil . birbante.groom. Diefenbach com. Sp.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. briw. division of an army.. AS. bitill. Fr. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. company. breve or brevis. bretonica. fervere. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. stone-bridge bnikkoti. funeral. bride. Brique.bergantino. bruk. bro. a quoit of stone. Gl. priod. from the Normans. W. httle bit. a Bride. . a fragment. AS. Brier. groom (mab=:son). a rogue . to circulate. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. E. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. buckler J ON. berwi. The Sw. peculiar. then the marriage itself. ' — . feast. arf-ol. beaten way Dan. fastningar-ol. a heath brughera. brughiera. betonica. bo. bro. but to a paved road. a little king's writs. So in The Prov. Walach. a bride Brig. AS. Goth. brug. brutg. ter-in-law. as. brar. AS. brere. in the sense of OSw. twopares Lat. or brizo. broosekens. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. It — is Kil. appropriate. Applied ous words derived from break. bricou. crew. to stamp. brood. ap. as so. brice. bride. AS. a crum. bribour. to appropriate. privus. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. BRIGADE dead. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. it is applied to the letter to OE. . daughheath. consort with. graf-ol. bricge j G. feast of espousals. brasser. briicke. a lump of bread. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. the marriage si in brigata. jipaaaiii. a bit. gf2o. especially to a letter or command. pavement. brukkas. pavement brolegge.privatus. brA. a crum. one's ovin. a beggar. bidsel. A — A — . heath. a cheat. bably contracted from brigantine. E. Hdcart. brocaly. the Fr. collect bits of food. barren land priodas. w. briiths. ibrukkti. but probably Bricoteau. to boil. from the last 99 of which. which however is undoubtedly from brace. to press. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. sugga. a briole. pier. remarkable that the Gr. troop. from Bridegroom. fit. to tlie brico. Dan. brieden. . son. served (Patois de Bray). Hence OE. broken. Bridal. conjux. a bride. to brew.Fr. bridge. brakes of high-grown ferns. to break to pieces bricalio. bryd-gutna. betony brulicame. bruk. bryd-eale. to Isrew. Bridal. a married man guma. a sow.It. bruskr and buskr. Priodi. birbone. Fr. Fl. See Broth. two-masted vessel. Trovarfor bride-ale. a rogue. bribe de pain. corresponding or letter. Pro(merch=:maid). ment of anything broken. brau. It. AS. bruith. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Diez. the equivalent of to the dial. a proprietor. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall.

cange has 'Veles. a small light pinnace pro. beorht. It. glitter. clear. The E.' torum. Xa/iTTii). clear sound. with respect either to sound or colour. there are many armour. \oice. in the first instance. to ring. Bav. tinnitum clarum movco. in the sense of a robber. wilella. Wilista. 1654. to shift for with care. to shine. Brigata. — A A . 1351. etincelle. clear. clangour. OHG. himself to serve men of merit. Lat. brebrigare. bracht. brigandare. Gall.— . Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. — Probably then to strive. From ON. bright bearhtm. and the E. A. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. to resound. representing a sudden noise. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. to rob.D. Brilliant. and to associate with them. kii:'a. . to piracy.' The sense of strife or combat express. tuilahtaa. bray. Due. splendour. from hall. brigare. lay was sung. a sound. and hence be explained glampi. briga. show the origin of Lat. clear. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. seems to be to exert force gar el area. — Due. AS. brigan. splendens . glamm. squamma .prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. The primary meaning of Sp. tinkle. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . to sound. and diligence. —Capgrave.glampa. clare lucens. 312. It. to glitter. — — . The Ir. Heo — song That AS. willata. biartr. Mid. — Beowulf. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . at a later period. necessary business. splcnornd de brigandine. rover either by sea or land. . twinkling. and. Bright. Florio. brawl.clare ^tinniens.Lat. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. to bend a bow It. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. to rove. schiteren. tinnitus. then. brigant. and led it away. kilistua. inde squammatus. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. XafXTTpoQ. bairhts. speech. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. hell. Adelung. to contend with another. clarus. the bench-notes resounded. splendour. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. outcry. loo BRIGAND lor. combat. jurgia. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. — Brigantine.shine. sound. Gr. the gleeman's song. Schmeller. also called briganders. Flor.pracht. and ner me hit iherde. So G. — brigante. may play the pirate or thief at sea. pugna. shriek with laughter. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. briegen. brcEhtin. — Briganbriga. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. manifest ON. tumult. in later times a robber or highway-man. a spark. glir. glbram. a brigantine.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. to shine. brigare. and secondly. to glamr. to strive for. to cry. They or brigantini. strife. braid. labour. a glittering. rixa. dine. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. Owl and beorhtian. a noise. clang. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. — brigante. the grew high. noise. It. A strepere. dine. tion. Goth.dorem clarum reflecto. Swab. schateren. that of Fr. moment. Brigand. a pirate. and. bregar. It.' The passage from the sense of a light. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. to reservavit. bryhtm. malandrini. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . bragen. Beorktode bene sweg. to make a loud noise. is easily understood. glamra. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. riis ' — Chron. praht. secondarily.' in Due. In Fin. brdgen. Du. to cry 'Schmid OE. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. In the same way to strive is. transparent. brak. on his — own account. See Brake. briga.

Rugere. bremmen. griller d'impatience. vattubryn. small gravel. have then in Fr. brastlian. Brimstone. perent. brand-krossottr. fimbria) . brezil. from brandr. barmr. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. chime). to long for a thing. broiled. margin. spraing. It. griller). whence bilbil-goda (literally. Rayn. s.— Brinded. Dief. post. In Fr. as of meat in broiling . grisser.— BRIM . a long. to crackle. . (poet. to fret . to storm. briller. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. fierce. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. furious. is used of raging. broil . also to reflect. clangor tinniens. rut. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. ring. greedily to covet Cot. burning. bresoler (Gloss. or violent action. edge Pol. as well as bl and gl. a borDu. beam. brame. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. excited. 1. border. bray as an ass bramire. the lap or bosom. Supp. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. brinfire. ON. brame. AS. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke.its vent in cries and roaring. brummen : de soge brummet. the verbs Flor. ous. brillare. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. kimista. rugire. the edge. The meaning of the Fr. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. vigorHal. to utter cries. finds the Fr.) brimi. bramar. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). a border. brimmen. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. to sparkle. bar. a rod. Streaked. brow of a hill. the heat of animals. frequently interchange. bry7ie. . hence the bosom. to glitter distance . brommen. breme. to shine. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus.' d'etre marie . shine. brim.D. ling noise and a sparkling light.ioTiviS acutus. breziller. kiimottaa. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. tience. The expression is now confined to the sow. bremas. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. It. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. brunft. Thus Lat. cross-barred in colour. an apron. kommata. Tutschek. to roar. with an initial br instead of gr. — g. lap of a garment . Prov. surface of the ocean. Sc. gresiller. kajata.preni. to crackle. komottaa. ardere desiderio. 154. whether of desire or anger. greDiet. the sow is brimming. brummen. to roar. brandr and Fr. crackle . rugire (cervorum. 1 1 64. fringe (Lat. gresiller. os qui bresole. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. Fl. the heat of animals. grisler. briller. — Rim. Brindled. grullo. brama. to shake. the meaning is transL' amour. striped or streaked. identical with passion. glisten. Lith. and 1. pMiller. The E. a stick. ON. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. crackle. as is the case also with Pl. to . to creak. The identity of ON. — . brim Magy. Brim. sprainged. to make a crackling noise. Said of swine when in heat. bramire. griller. to shimmer. bramar. Swiss Rom. Wtb. dial. border. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. 754. Subo. brant. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. It. bramer. — — — . fire. FJ. s. to resound. Sw. brumft. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. kimina. to creak. to glitter. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. bremmen. parched. originally the lap folding over the breast. fringe . Langtoft. to wish or covet. the singing of Sodom — — . ON. A . brissle. noise made by meat in broiling. Dan. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. G. and corresponding to these. sparkle. Du. Hence with an initial s. breme. leonum). barm-cloth or barmskin. brennistein. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. that the original meaning of the Sc. brdnnsten. brullo. sonitum edere bremen. . uses bresoler (il bresole fir. E.' Elyot in Way. to quaver with the voice. glit. Sc. to shine. Closely connected is OE. coloured in stripes. reecho.). brisoler. Kil. lap. from bringe. breziller. on. : ' — bone). to glitter . rym^. lip of a vessel. the eye-brow. bryn. to make bilbil). — — So Fr. to twinkle. Tresiller. briller (related to each other as OFr. barm. AS. as in Langued. a streak. border. ter. earnestly . grdzil. voux. Fr. burning stone. Brem. to burn. kimmaltaa. to parch. of the eye. In the same way Sw. to broil. which seems identical with rim. der. brmdottr. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. To Brim. to shine. to sound deep or hollow. komista.

a bud. brockle. brickie. See Brand. Du. and forms on. p. brusco.procio. coli. Sc. eager. Bohem. against the grain . a rebours. bringue. roar of the sea saltr. . brissko). setting the hair on end. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. Brine. from AS. Boh. — A . grim. an awl. the brisket or . bruckle. lively. flames. trembling. to scorch. bryne. of E. fierce. and Sc. to spit. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. craw of a bird. Brisk. to stab Gael. brcit. startling. bryde. borst. a cold and windy mist or frost. to broach a business. . — bryme. Hal. to shiver for Sold or for fear. breidr. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. sprout. bringe traced through the brano. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Zeuss. sticking up . — — . G. setting the hair on end compare It. Brickie. Then as the effect of shivering.. Brocade. brisk in taste. to birstle. briser. hot-tempered. breaking out into growth. Bret. i. brusque. form bris. and hence. Breeze been connected with the Sc. brimhliod. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. borstel. borzen. brote. It. and. brezza. breaking of the waves brim sior. a fragment. a brad or tack. a bit . Sw. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. sprouts. Berri. the surf. sharp. Commonly explained as from Fr. brichet. spricka. brddj Goth. angry. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. apt to break. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Fr. to goad. fragile. Fr. bruskett. broca. Brym. briocho. Prov. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. harsh vin brusque. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. to shoot. rebursiis. saulmeure. brin. brimme.'— Vita'abbatum S. Fr. Ptg. ' breast. birstle. brijn (Kil. smart taste. brioshko. whence may be explained the Sc. NE. Brooch. In the N. brisciare. quick. man's throat. bronchus. ' . to break. fantas'* tical. brim. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. flame. . from brande. brim. a shoot or sprig. a crum. to spur. a deluge. birse. Prov. spur. aculeus. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. brim (poet. the twigs of a besom. brezzare. brissle. a peg sbrocco. brindelles de balai. to broil.' Nat. brocciare. to set up one's birse. Compare also E. e. braidsj ON. brytan. very salt brimi. crabbed. as. bros. birssy. a morsel. See Spread. emotions which produce it. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. a clasp. a bud. Abroacli. as.rcendij'i. like the Broad. . birsle. a skewer. Fris. .D. a projecting tooth It. has under It. sour. See To Brim. Fr. It. brusk. a morsel . Gl. brime. Port. britar. Alfr. broccare. brodden. Formerly written brotil. a button broche. a brooch. birs. Palsgr. Salte sand is called brimsand. 222. Hence ribrezzare. brocco. rude. Brittle. brich. bresk. or from that of a splinter or small fragment.). stitch. Russ. rash. to put one in a rage . prick with Sw. to burn. brocher. bricho (with the diminutives. Pectusculum. to stitch. broche. Liquamen vel garum. britchet. from break. ruffling. Swiss to stand out . to break. brocchus. brittle. Walach. to spur. Mid. expression. Bret. wine of a sharp. shoot. Da. Du. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. as. borzos (struppig). is to erect the hair. brocco. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. of astonishment. Lat. The Pl. britar. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud.. broca. cK) the . as a noun. briota. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). suddenly angry. — in Due. to turn up the point of anything. byrst. are used in the sense of brittle. ON. breast. to set it a going. Russ. thick — A elastic hair. brot. a stitch brocher. brittle. a slip or sprig of an herb . a belly. It. brocar. chest. brog. b. briota. brust. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. to thrust. Dan. as unripe fruits. Prov. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. broccata. Fr. rebrousser. Brisket. sprocco. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. . or — . bringe. — . 'V^. to begin upon it. or the full • . a stormy brimsea . bros. /3pE^m. reburrus. It. metaphorically. Bristle. to bud. Antiq. the surf. fiscbryne. Gr. broc.). brandello. is called a birssy day. bruched (Fr. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. ribrezzoso. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. strong itself. Sp. to break. a rod or twig.Lat. to crack. a spit. Sc.g. Cot. to stick. Fr. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. humorous. to roar. bristly . Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli.

perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. AS. Compare G. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. a mole. bmsciare. borprick. a fallingThe sense has been out.. rinj'. . For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Gael. a badger. Ihre has guU-bord. q. brocart. broukit. a prick. Florio. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. shuffle. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. thread. to burn. to crackle. to embroider. ToBroider. R. spots. with Sc. to prick. to burn. noisy. streaked. B. the shoot of corn. Thus brod. atoms . parti-coloured. brasbrasciuolare. a peg. broc. briz. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. grislement. sting. fundamental origin. or roast on the braise. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. brusuole. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. sparks E. embroidery. point to an origin in Bret. prasseln. b?-od. dar seems derived from borde. Dan. a freckle. frocadura. Here to ornament with needle-work. Cot. piebald .— B. houx. the line of development has been something different. ornamented with a raised pile. v. broice. The ON. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. A fried or boiled steaks). From direct imitation of Brock. parti-coloured. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. and w. precisely analogous to the Sc. to embroider. a brim. Gael. to stud broccoso. to darn. border. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. The Bret. a quarrel. Contracted from Fr. broiled. So from Pol. braird. brouda. bordar. broccuto. and bord or bred. a b?-ustolare. — . Fr. or glowing coals broged. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. It. briefh. forming to jumble. a confused streaked face of the animal. to streaked or speckled in the face. Bret. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Icnotty. age was termed a pricket. a point. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. tori shows that. kled breac. or It. speckled. an edge. brustle. Sc. — brissle. Cot. It. onbryrdan. Brocket. breard. brizen. gresiller. 103 embroidered. ciare. frecSee Brawl. brasiller. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. to broil. broc. grullo. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. or salted fish on coals. bj'oil. trouble. broccato was used to signify stuff . Fr. Ptg.sound. parched. broil. brusler. has grisser. initial . brucach. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. — Gower in It. To roast upon hot coals. stump. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. Fr. a border ornamented with gold. broder. — Fl. tufted ornaments. bawling. brych. bram. A badger. scorch. Grisons brascla. blusters. gold and silver. to spur. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. a flock or Gael. creak. to scorch. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. storms. broil. and AS. Compare also AS. brerd. to parch or broil. a To Broil. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. hurly-burlies. brastlian. a brecJi. brindled. embroidering. broglio. Surrey in R. badger . E. motes. border ornamented with silk. Sc. brucilare. broighlich. brasuole. brasiller. Broker. margin. trouble. brocach. noise. froco. brooked. brasolare. brullare. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . to On the other hand the Sp. to crackle. bramowanie. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). — The proper sense is that of Fr. to boss. whence broccare. silkes-borda.tumultuous. to crackle. a brouhaha. or snag. Hal. tumult broighleach. It of br the Fr. a flake of snow sion. brocco. parch. bruler. spotted. — — . knobby . speckled. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. hart of two years old. agree in being the extremity of a thing. bustling. a freckle. to crackle. birsle. to crackle as a shell in the fire.. to instigate. of pointing out their latent defects. bordo. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. . Sp. a border. to knots or loops. here. from the white. freckled. rustle. broud. carbonado. brychau. confound. brouFr. brod. prod. brodio. W.

Alb. briiten. lack. — broeden. Du. to roast on the embers. tussis. brokoti. bric-a-brac. . giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. to blame. insects. rejection Pol. the spawn of fishes. If to vomit . want. bracker. brack. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. brwd. couratier. i. Sp. cast Lith. to sort brakovanie. find fault with. — a spark. wrack-good. nounce unsound. brackefi. Lat. brak. the young of any animal . keep warm. vrage. brae. and as an adj. — point out the faults. embers. Pl. et A. selection. on. to hatch. refuse. a chicken. to nourish. Fl. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. See Broth. Alb.D. embers. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. To blame mens ware. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. To correct an exercise is to Lib. bronzo. brut. hot. damaged. to spit . brands. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. ODu. and fishes . bridde. to sort goods . is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. Grisons brinzla. faulty. sort. in the sense of rejection. bronze. fish-spawn broden. Fr. an . try . [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. Brood. abject. 396. brakyne. to pick and choose. to . progeny of birds. vile. braeck goed. bronce. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. fault censure. For the same reason the Kiittner. brod. — Fl. and to reject the damaged and unsound. See Brackish. broen. dial. w. brokas. to brew. cracker. to scorch. to hatch G. to sparkle. find fault with. Teutonic class : Du. to emit sparks. from break. Russ. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. an outcast or rejected sheep. Jam. brak. brack-gut. reject. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. matter of blame weak place. brid. correctarius.— — . hot. stain. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. vile. Pl. This word shows the same relation to It. The use sunburn. designation is indkler. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. abbronzanchiare. embers to brund. . 38. wrak. . to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. — . whence the modern courtier. tan. to criticise. criticise (makeln). Pl. In those countries the term braker. ordure. brot. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. . brack-gut (Sanders). : ' .' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. slaae vrag paa. brydio. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. Sc. to — garble. refuse. refuse wares. which E. cherish. burning. sunburnt. to hatch. brumo. goods damaged by sea-water. but from the primary sense of the It. wraken. filth. G. racaille. brod. to reject. hrak. S. Adelung. It may be compared with It. hraki. Per manus et old worthless horse. G. make out. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. inspection. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. brasa. spittle. Du. bring eggs and spawn into active life. wreak. merchandises de rebut G. find fault — — — fuse matter. phlegm. . whnake. In the . . brunds. refuse brakovat. racher.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. The Langued. It. raca. refuse Fr. broiid. braken. in which sense the OHG. Pro v. a brood .D. a broker. raquer. ON. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. inspect. brechen.D. with. brokers' goods. fermenting. to be hot. See Wreak. a makeln. Bronze. e. dirty. a cough Hal. corrector. analogous to Bohem. rejected. damaged. sbrinzlar. term was correcfo^ir. Kil. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters.— Lib. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. bronze. brasa. Bronzare. a breach or flaw. Dan. to sit on eggs. as. glowing coals. to garble. brass does to Sp. Abbronzare. to copper. pan metal. • . Prov. an operation performed over hot coals. blur. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. or brascla. bredan. G. to pick. refuse goods. brieden. from makel. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. to braze. mud.D. OFr. has exactly the force of G. warm. refuse brakowad. spittle . to pro- to reject . bronze. trumpery. On • tliis principle the G. buy and sell by commission. Tooke's Catherine.— Breed. try out. to throw blame upon. a fault. screatio Junfus . we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. to be wanting. mediationem quorundam J. Bret.

spirit. braun. edge. broden. brous. a . broth Brown. — exiit et heath. rage. break out brewet. Fr. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. braces. bruc. brushbroccoli. thick bush brousta. brosses. The AS. — . Cot. bruich. bntdien. Gr. face. Bohem. or bushes and scrubby growths. b7-un. broieii. breg. brodem. sprouts . brlgh. To digest. to shoot. . briu. to use. shore. on. frui. OHG. Du. to bear patiently. sodden. fabric consists. pfriemkraut. briihe. spuma. or broken up . rerum decoctarum. bank. a hill. grow into a bush. broud. brudi. brst. Sp. Ger. broca. in which brinnan.spross. breg. brad. to burn. . Bret. It. shrubs. Pol. a shore. braew. bryn. OHG. pottage. steam from heated bodies.. signifying twigs. Sanscr. low The AS. wood . G. shrub with leafless pointed edging. brow. to boil. bryii. Fr. dumetum. w. It. See Bramble. broc. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. . AS. Sp. sap. to murmur. a bruth.' Due. Kil. or shoot. brusmalt. useful G. the bubbling or springing up of water. broza. broeye. thicket. Catalan brossa. a little house or cottage of timber. G. to boil. frucius. Gael. riviere. brue . Mid. broth the ocean Sw. brouches. Gael. a sprout. bryn. signifying low wet land (Brem. the colour of things burnt. Fr. to boil bruithe. brink. broem bark. forms appear related to the Ir. Bret. and Sc. bruceti. vigour. simmer from the murmuring AS.brink. . sproc. Lat. sprout. broth brothaire. &c. broccola. w. Prov. juice of meat. circuindedit cum familia. bordeau. shoot. G. brouic. who is steaming with sweat. Brow. Gael. of plants broust. as small-pox. a source Gael. waves. fur Broom. awl-plant. 105 Brook. a spring. Wtb. to use. seethe. border. thairj w. borde. bushes. eminence . house of ill fame. a sprig.) . hovel. Brothel. bratrj Lat. eye-brow. Here we find throughout the Romance. . briar. t— Cot. of which the variety of forms. . Celtic. from Goth. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. brstiti. brawdj Slavon. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. bruno. Roquef. bruith. . brost. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. dialects is very different. brow of a hill. to browse. chen. a little . laissent Domunculum. and It. to bubble up with noise. to Pl. brmi. edge. sprocco. 'Lzt. pour boiling water over. cabbage water. Russ. . The meaning of the word brook in the low G. branches. (for brodem). BROOK brook w. cabbage soup . brothas. It is Brother. brus. brdtaj Gael. properly boiling water briihen. eat. brio. iVlanx broogh. brov. ceales briw. heath. bank. browys. Russ. broth. brouet. &c.— Overyssel Almanack. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. eye-brow. to spring . bree. . brd. Fr. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. heath. noise. borda. &c.D. to boil. bhratrj Zend. brpuster. protecting the eye. sense the Sc. But the Walach. bruddeln. margin. mettle. a hill. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. Pl. a derived from the boards. bor. sprot. eye-lid. broth is sometimes used . a bud. warmth ch'an. shoots. a shrub broust. Gael. Tam de terrS. hot. as Fr. on. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . infusion. brushbrothas) gives the OE. brotar. eye-lash . brucan. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. brabruach. has briw. AS. a caldron. brosses. brun. meal. . a bud brous-koad." Serv. augen-braune. Prov. bank. sprout.brons. brosst. Serv. Fr. surface of Broth. bank. Bav. Du. and also border. Gris. bruth. surDu. juniper. Manx broie. infusion the barley bree. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. Ppim. frater. kail brose. . buds. bros. shore . Dan. . — ' . ale . Sc. bros. brwd. to browse. Commonly Teutonic. bordel. bruithim. — . brew . brotar. riviera. broit. The softening down of the consonant bud. bud. brozia. plants composed of twigs. pith. strength Ir. a hut or cottage It. It. to roar. as rhododendrons. brouser. brogues. OFr. bruscosd quam de arabili. sordes seu strigmata young branch. Bohem. . G. to use bruks. braussa. brauwe. brass. brau. breh. . Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. juice of briars. bruitheati.D. bruach. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Due. eye-brow. to border. a river. perhaps burnt coloilr. grow brossa. eye-lid. A — . cia. breg. enjoy Goth. strength. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. verge. G. heat explaining the Prov. brukjan. to sprout. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. broi.braubiti. brocco. heat. and Slavonic families. broo. brodo. brewis. The origin is a re. &c. bregh. bruich. may be connected with Russ. to scald. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. hut. brost. vigour. from ripa. Browse. Bohem. brennen. Limousin broudi. boiled . . brouter. . broth. eye-brow. brouskaol. a confused noise of winds.

a bush of hair. Sp. a flax comb. K. britar. Text Soc. a brush Swiss bruske. A. of twigs. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. bris. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Pm. On the other hand. a crum. bruc. Diez. splinters. Brunt of a daunger. a shrub composed of small twigs . brise. into a multitude of points. . which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. bruscia. Poems. twig. a bristle. bruito. britar. Pr. blow burcar. rubbish. Allit. borste. rubbish. Cot. The same relation holds good between G. brunt. It. a bud or sprout Bret. a — — (Agea) said. brusca. or shoot. borste. AS. bud. insultus. That in all haste he wouli. shivers. fragments.). The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. bricalio. and sighid therewithal. rods.— — i. broza. Fr. — Fr. brossa. fescue . brustid. brist. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . . to break. brustia. to cleanse. To brush then would be to dust. Prov. . a brush . bross. escousse. brizeto. shock. to stumble. insilio. seems named from burst(on. it schall be al Sw. —Chaucer. And that best is. See next article. bruiser. field. quisquilise. tremely. Gael. brysan. quasi twigs. bruzir. brit. Castr. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. broustia. Gael. a blow. a brush . brossa. G. ling or heath for brushes. Lang. a brush. or sodenly comyn' dust. brusco. Wicliff. brusco. brosst. brisar. to brush. wood composed OE. and in the second place a besoiB. Pm. dust. Brush. Pr. broust. Fr. brottcher. also a head-brush. The Bav. to make a rumbling. sordes. Bav.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. shoot brouskoad. B?-usske. Piedm. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. bruis (sing. Bruit. bris. and Piedm. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Beryn. but on whom it schall to brisen him. tuft of grass or hay. a brush . Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. . brico or brizo. E. desbrisar. Pr. brista) or breaking out . the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. mg Cat. brous. brous. It. a tuft of heath .). crush. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. modification of the same root which gives the E. Alexander. crum bit . the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. brosse. borste. a brush. brisd.— Palsgr. to make brusshes on. brist. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Prov. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. Brunt. detergere . 134. . a brush . And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. and It. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. to break. 201. a brush. E. E. a briser. Fr. briiis (in the pi. borst. bris. dust. brustia. brossar. flax-comb brossettes. * Brunt. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. brushwood. — those signifying a sprig. borste. Gael. a bud. brik. to butt. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. Port. dust. Bruise. Hall in R. Lang. appearin Goth. Pr. brousso. Cot. as It. p. a noise. a rumbling. an enmy. The Lat. bruise exOFr. Broach. OE. and also Brush. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. to crush. — a bush. to break or burst. bruire. remnants of hay or fodder. —Fabyan. orts. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Fr. brusg. 174. and actually come in collision. Prov. NE. bushy ground. brus. a little brizal. brist. bruyere. ca7-bo>i. wool-card. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. . ON. burt. chips. brist j Port. brust. to strike the foot against an obstacle. — OE. abroncar. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. brosst. brikan. bush. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. brMt. burs. wool-card. briser. biirste. irruo. brusca. effort. heath. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. to break to bits . Sw. bris. rubbish. bruskr. Piedm. Fl. In E. twig. broken. Prov. Bret. G. borste. and . break. bruit. Sw. fasx . broza. It. bross. a horse-brush. . brosse. brusc (Diet. bruscolo.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. dust. Gael. Fr. coal See Breeze.). a bristle. OFr. biirste. Palsgr. briketo. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. bruscolo. brugir. a mote. wool-card.

1586. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. In G. rap. bublati. to buck. lye. bduclien. pukkata. when soap was tion is commonly taken. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. a bubble. knock. BUBBLE bruschetta. buborek. bub. hump. ac.— . Bret. was called in Fr. Magy. 17th century. Sc. as G. From an imita. to soften. and then to other wild tumour Lith. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. . buck-ashes. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. Pref A. wood. as a buck rabbit. Sp. in which the flesh dish. buquer. also applied Una. w. The name. The place of such a 2. — — ' A : ' ' . Esthon.lessiver. Dan. Magy. Illust. Gael. . it is beuchen. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. top. blast or strike with the forehead. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. of wind. bubBuck. bouc. thunder gently . maban and baban. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. mokry. says Laudon. . Bret. a. or mok. the upper for coifee. to murmur. . . erweichen. the linen at buck. — . very generally designated by the same puk.steep or soak. bog-aske. bubauti. a bubble.tare. .boukaat. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. set of pirates in the spread. and as a verb. moist. watery bud. Pol. to bubble. See Dupe. March 28. bucaIndies.wet Lat. does not hold. to soften . Formerly. moczyd.' Palsgr. tender. soft. designation of a knob. hog dressed whole). to Gael. and exercised their cruelties prin. to wet Pol. a fescue. boucaner. It. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. molle. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. drying of produce. Bubble. boh.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. Fr. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. to stick. Pol. and the bunch. This bubette. boc. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. to which in their language they call bou. a knock word. pokka7na. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. Fr. bukke. mollire. not so plentiful a commodity. the first wheal. a to the male deer. buchen. a push. buerj It. colada. byge. at a door. bucking. faire la lessive.D. But see Bristle. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. a ashes. bifbel. or projecTo Buck. bubiti. to soak. 1857. to butt or jurr Dan. . soft . to bump as a bittern. a bubble . to strain. Bohem. bouk. to soak. buck-ashes. to filter. lye. tap .-wtt miekki. bucata.biiken j Svi. de la Floride. a hole. boc. bucquer. bubbola. . The male goat. to soften. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). hump. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. soft. the lower soak in lye. blister. bube. News. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. — .derivation has been much discussed. a steep for flax. because bucare does not in Marsh). different form. soft. bubseti. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. to a place used for the mouillir. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . Bohem. boil animals. Diet. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. The natives of Florida. Sp. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. It. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. to butt. and Fr. bugd. The cipally on the Spaniards.to allow a free current of air. who resorted to the islands beichen. from weich. Fin. was called bucking the linen. w. The word was very generally Buccanier. I. caned' Hence those who established them. tender. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. a. A . mieknad. soft It. bwch. from colar. It. bugada. to butt. open lath-work. bub. tuft. buquer. mote.byka. The term bocan is still ap. is 1. pup. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. plied in the W. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. Etym. bokni. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. Fr. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. Cot. to soak foul linen before washing.buchen. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog.

the root of the Slavonic words gran. It. . explaining Fr. to bud or bocla. Fr. bulga. bod. call. Hence quel.n. The dressed fur of lambs. Sw. the word w ' — . a ring. bougette.' Boccaccio. butzen. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. don't stir from hence. pwt o Fr. crack. to swell. knob dwfr yn boglynu. ' ./a. inboachen. case of leather . loud Cot. soft. Budge.may probably be explained by N. Bret. Dan. bulla. Mid. child. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. bolgetta. is doubtless fallacious. It termination is lost. were To Budge. bougette. butzen (Du. w. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. boaLat.chissima.goa. probably from the notion of bubbling. a short thick man. bub. a boy. ein. gjeit-klauv. . jSouKoXiKog. Dan. It is explained by Miiller (MHG.' Hal. with a central boss. A water-plant with leaves and gille. become bochen. . lump. a boss. potz. noise . W. Bav. boccula. Behoves. hump. knob . K.stuff. a little coffer or turgidus. boss of a shield. a cowherd. Mid. of bac. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. — — . Bucolic. above mentioned. from Gr. bocla. weichen. need. bouge. to graft or bud trees. of bouge. Buckler.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. bod. bunch. bouprobably identical with inok. Lat. a servant. butzen K. bo. macero. words is converted into b. fur. It. . like a bean.pode. Du. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. . Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. set of a plant in bulk. excrescence. mani. and of the Lat. belonging to the calling of the chen. boucle. bulb. agreeing with Gael. The Fr. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. butzen. goat's hoof. to 'soak. stroke. call. motus creber.anything short of its kind. ble. brobrocchiere. OFr. buachazlle. to butt. bulka. where the G. Fr. to poke. bouger. — — . — . weich. thrust. Budget. Swab. bouljein. dint .— . II I'a feru desor I'escu. Fr. Sp. This expression boglire. skins pushit'. to un bout d'homme. Prov. blow. bulais daqui. male or botzen. boss. Pol. Pied. Cot. bugnir. The word is a ddyn. OHG. bode. Bus. ' . is to shrivel up. to line with fur. bukke-blad. Prov. . So on. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. with which it was ornamented.. rabodS. The entire train of thought is bucket.) as to soak. a bump. The knob or projection formN. In Lat. ON. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. a pustule bout. bucherare. as in Fr. of a surface. bogla. boqueranmis. protuberance. Du. a shield.). to pen cattle.stumpy man.) . Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. butze. dinted.t-le!L{ * Bud. a boss. bud butzen. great pouch. scion. It. pulga. bog and G. Port. sboge. put. Hardly identical with Fr. a budget. . stir. a curl. * Buckle. to boss or swell out G. trunk of wood covered with leather. to word. bucolicus. no wheel bogeilio. pote. * Bud. clump. Russ. a shoot. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. bug. boulj. To thrusting part of a long body. and the reference to It. and weichen. botzen. a tuft. stud. boucler. ' . a navel. butz. prick in a target. Fr. NE. boucaran. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature.Lat. bolgia. — . a fold ceilio. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. . a leathern sack. boiling. rump of fowls .. from bugr.' And this sacrament bus have dial. swelling. Fr. ornamental stud. a trough). bucherame. water message. See Bulk. boucle. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. boglyn. Fr. A buckle or fastening for botch. Bret. bullion. having a boss. a buckle or protuberance. to thrust. bedde. to budge. Fr. no business to do that. or male of to boil . call bo. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bouclier. bloca. push forwards. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. botzen. a wallet. a bud. the radical image seems to be a set plants..r//'. bunch . . knock. convexity. whom it is still much in use. swelling. G. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. Bav. also a leather tuft . a dumpy gin. a . a bubble three thyngis. a small shallow and open tub. Wtb. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. imbuere. clasp of a book. bloca. pulga. a stump buckle up. It. cattle. to move. w. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. bouter.poot. a pail or flowers. budge. to boil. with let. bloquier. bump. in the beginning of to pierce holes. bul. boucle. dim. a budget. weich. buckel. a buclder or shield budge. * Bucket. turgere buczendig. wallet. from bo. bouk is a pail and with the dim.' Schm. boach. Gael. seen in Hesse botz. bouton. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. Buck-bean. pwtio. butt . movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. to stir. bucket Fl. Prov. bollire. built. . don't a baby). bdden.

. popo. a budget. dial.—Buffet.D. — retailing buffeter buffetier. confused. The use of the exclamation children. Limousin bobal. The cry made to excite terror is then used. mumming. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. to jest or sport. It. made to —Bugbear. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Buffalo. rebuff. God's boast seemed feare children. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. bubus.' perfield.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. bugbear. E. buffa. to blow. Lith. buffle-headed. a side-board. cuff . as emblematically making light of an object. bolgetta. or wild ox. Lat. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. stupid. made by a person. — La Crusca. a In . bufogni. and in Fr. to blow souffleU. to rePl. a hobgoblin. buivol. buffare. a cuff or buffet. as from Lith. Cot. a skin. bubiti. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. a hollow sound. buffetto. a goblin). Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Fl. duff^ dull. Esthon. thus be translated to tap.' La Crusca. Hence the E.D. bubaRuss. Lith. also a G. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to give a as of a blow. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. bwg. bukow Ikow. Fr. often covering his E. &c.— Buflae. dull sound. buffets. often blown upon. Swiss baui. — Bogle. a jester. to blow . il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. baubau. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. a block-headed noddy. Pl. Gael. for this purpose is very widely spread. to give benti.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. of colours. —Boggart. bo ! an interj. scarecrow . Fr. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. to excite terror in Macleod. while in Sp. ' They rether puffed at him. caupo. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. the buffe. or hath been Cot. bauwi. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. word other cases. buffen. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . Magy. wauwau. as Diez remarks. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bouffer. It. buffalo. boman. Romola. W. bumann. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. to bellow . een duffen toon. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. leathern bucket. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Buff. le reste emplissant d'eau. Lat. deadened. A blow. a clap. sounds. It. to frighten . a dull BUG From 109 — A . From bulga. Thus buffet would a tapster. buffle. Sc. blurt or puff with one's mouth. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. 265. human. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. to marre often tasting it . tastes. pulse . Fr. to signify an indefinite object of terror. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. either alone or with various terminations. bolgia. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. bobaow. site The two — — iii. bau ! children. Sc. — thence it has been transferred in E./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . from It. puff. dausinti. Fr. a puff. colour. The children were playing in an oppocomer. From buff! of terror. boo. It. buffet.D. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. bubach. bw! It. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. Buffoon. wine may The verb in taverns. bugle. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bouffer. to puff. Pl. air. buffet. buffeteur. Buffeter. botffon. to strike face to represent the unknown. buff leather. buffare. buffer. buMagy. Teet-bo. A puff with — Fl. w. smells . and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. to puff. things in Jam. bufogni. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. a bugbear. Buff. Mid. dausa. by metaphor. mingled with water. breath. senses. bufHe. btifetarius. bugs. Fr. to beat. Bufetarium. Cot. buffet. to a representation of his voice. a buffle or a bugle. — — — Buffet. G. from souffler. yar^aa. — Z. A — Bug. bw. him but Boyd iugges. as wine that hath taken wind. soufflet. tabernarius. the place whence the wine was drawn.

gad. 1551.3uhtii&:. buculus. pujalo. Bugle. high. bugler. forSc. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. An ornament of female dress condread. of bugabo was given.loud noise. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. biignt. bogk. 2. especially to beetles or winged insects. tumble-bug. big. bukati. bug. 493. with more or less modification represents bau. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. i.Fr. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. * 2. . superbire. xiv. baco. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. 3. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. scarecrow . roarHal. and bugle. Bug. . to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. Hence bugle-horn. terrifying ward. — boogg. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. to take bug. rose-bug. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. pugalo. bok. the word is lin) bbgge. . an object of terror. BUGLE Tentennino. Sw. protuberant. buffle. coco. saucy. and a boggarty ing. a silk-worm. (Spurrell). terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. bug-bear. bwg and E. monster. mask ' . bogil. is the dim. See The name terror). Bible. bobal. high-sounding words. Chaucer. Parolone. Swiss booggen. swollen. used in the same sense. bucula. great or bug words. Illyr. W. insect. a goblin. given in Chaucer. and is Deutsch. Bogge. Lith. — — ' . Bdronie. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. pugaf. Swelling.. to frighten scarecrow. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. insect. The final guttural of W. disgust. — — . threatening. is very common. bug-bear. Grose. long. w. : no BUG . and signifies also terror as name of an insect.Lat. bug-bear. proud. of pipes sewn on. also a baco-baco. a rabme. any disgusting animal. the black a maggot. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. Fl. bwgar. Sp. the Devil. hert. a bug-bear. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. earwig bau da grascha. boeuf sauvage. E. as Buffalo. bug dung-beetle. quos what produces dread or disgust. It. a boogg. boa-peep. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. iv. tion of the beetle tribe. also a bug-bear. Manx boa. to take fright. well as the terrific object. larva (a bug-bear. Grisons bau. a buffalo. to take fright.. fette. troll. The name of bug is — . Schmidt. a misshapen person. a bug-bear. The w. fierce. language any kind of insect. and in child's Magy. a bugbear for children. as an object of dread. Russ. b'dgni. A similar applica. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. thus connected with bug. fear. beugler. Lett. worm. dial. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. to bellow. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Big. buba. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. bbgni. bau (Pureiglia.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. blustering. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. Deut. bwgwl. Stalder bog. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. to origin in the expression bugs words. boo. buggabod). Hal. oxen. bugle. bold. — — terror. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. shepe and gootes. threatening. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. a beetle. Bug as a lord. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. Serv. then a horn for drinking. I. vermin. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. also a bug-bear. a. Mundart. Swiss ing. according to Coles. It. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. bogil bo (e. Fl. bogk. il brutto Demonio. ghost. an insect. Lesachthal. the buggaboo w. Mid. to bellow. roo.— . Same as buffle. and in Lat. Magy. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. a proud overbearing man pujat'. bogle. provincially an insect. booggen. to roar Aasen. bugbear. banian boube. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. bukashka. Magy. — . . Cheval de trombugti. Lap. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. bugar. to creeping things. affright. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. paws the ground . bauginti. poggl. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile.

compare Da. bladder. Lett. Dan. pimple. Pm. Pr. mass. MHG. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. a tuberous or bulbous root . formed a farm. globule bolg-lhuingey. husk. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. bubble. The radical sense is shown in Russ. to bol. For the latter sense ' — My . womb. knot in thread. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. PoXj3a. Bulch. belly. belly Cat. bulka. . turgeo bolnyd. or cargo of a ship. buk. of an inflated skin. bulbus. blister. belly. bulcke. . in vessel. A — ' — Bulk. . Jno. boss of shield.'— Cot. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. acervus. bol. trunk. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. . Palco.— . as well as is very variable. the capacity or burden of a ship. to throw out a convexity. the contents of the hold. . blister Manx bolg. and bulbukd. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. swell. swell. belly. . body of a ship . the position of liquids in the word In English. ^ — . belgja. crowd. ne. bulle. boulge. gebolgen. chest. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. swollen OE. tumidus. . See how this tode bolneth. ' . bolle. ' . a. van loock. G. habitaculum. balg. Muratori. thorax buick. bulgen. a bunch. w. swell. of E. domicilium. boa. bouge. Bulk. Kil. biilken. bulne. and N. . boss. Ptg. blister. knobby. to gather. knob. dial.' Fl. the carcase. to belly out. Bulge. bolso. tumeo. a heap. . swollen. Hence e. or bear out as a full purse. Lat. bolnyn. It. whence bylja. belly Sw. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. puff. bulk. . trunk of the body. skin of an animal.pulks. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bilge. — — . . skin bag. in bulk. be protuberant. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. a straw corn-vessel. balgs. the potato G. See Bulk. Bolke or hepe. bwlg. snorting on a bulk. lump. a stage or scaffold. hold or bilge of a ship. Gr. I. bole. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. as water beginning to boil bolg. lump.d. bolle. to raise a habitation. belgr. wallet. ON. on. a bubble Gael. . a round bulky body bwlgan. bouk. skin flayed whole. to blow.). it again. Sp. To Build. inhabit. ' . and put it home. sedes. has bulbuk. . bol. Lith. Mandeville. or. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bunch or projection. — . . a prominence. bugue. bua.' Cot. bullka. at riufa bulkann. buc. bolgan. bubble. cultivate. to spring. to bubble up. a globe. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. Dan. Pr. balcone. bale. See bollekeii next article. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. byli. bug. beuck. a leathern sack or portmanteau. . bulge or convex part of a cask. bubble {palgan tiisge. bulgen. Lat. boss.' Festus. to swell. . principal portion. bulked or bumped out. bubble. OSw. head . as it was merly written in English to bylle. to break bulk. . bubbling up. bukr. 1388. bauen. a dint in a metal . cumulus. or of what is shaped like a bubble. to bubble up Pol. bellows builgean. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. Hal. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. belly van de kerche. a leather sack or budget Fr. ball. pouch builgeadh. From till. knob. buhe. mass. G. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. belly. stuffed bag. pulkas. — — . bag. leather sack. bulk or capacity of anything. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. bulg. Boss^. bulbe. unevenness Sw. bed of a river. bulge or bilge. He found a country fellow dead drunk. a. jnake bulch. Melancholy. to undo the cargo. Bav. villa. to puff up bolginn. Bourser. nave or body of the church van 't schip. hollow. belly. (3oX|8oc. a bubble. Here stand behind this bulk. boss of a buckler. body of an animal. were a habitation. bolg. m um Placentiae. bulk is a partition of boards. the belly. — . trunk. bulbe. vulva. balco. pod ON. in Sc. — — . OSw. bolgetta. a lump or mass. straight will he 2. Othello. Mister. blow. The Walach. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bo. to swell. bol. Lith. bolgna. to build. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. or feminine termination gives Bav. the womb. The addition of a dim.' Palsgr. body. projection. bauch. a bulb Du. bulwis. Gr. a protuberance. hull of a ship. bulki.' Anat. the body Du. herd^ swarm pulkd. G. ON. pocket. With these must probably be classed ON. a water-bubble). In the representation of natural sounds. bolgia. bulkaf. anything prominent. — Bulb. Pm. the head of an onion. balg.

pollach. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. a noisy violent fellow. dial. ba. Bullbeggar. also a parFl. coarse. The wild plum. bullocks. Scot's Deso. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. G. Lith. Fr. a seal. stud. G. it is boulet de canon. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. bolli. a tadpole. however. poltern. from the Lat. any embossed work. baula. bolli. round glass phial. bouillon. to emboss . meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. from Fr. poli-cheannan. bollar. Cot. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. a hobgoblin. pwl. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. scarecrow. billon. bulle. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. Du. BuUiou. polten. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. large of its kind. a blockhead.Fris.lle de fusil.D. bauli. spirits. balgeting. tition of deals instead of a wall.D. bulk. bulke. The bullfrog. a bull Swiss bullen. biitzibau. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. BulUiead. I. penbwl. 2. as It. a bowl.' do not go by the dangerous water. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. brass-headed nail . This word is used in several senses. also of the tadpole or young frog. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. bulk of a thing. leraures nocturni nigri. Du.. w. lumpheaded . Bully. a framework of balks. embossed work. bullern. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. which may probably be the origin of the name. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. sloes. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. but is more probably iden- palchetto. any great-headed or studded nail.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. Du. &c. to boil. Fr. bulloi. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Du. is called a ball. Eullrusli. a bul-begger. of Witchcr. assito. 2. beams or boards. 3. w. blunt. a bull. stamped money. Terriculamentum. poll-cheannach. from Lat. b2iggaboo. a beam or rafter. a scare-bug. bwbach. is of a class with Pl. pimple. stud. blister. in N. on the contrary. bullebak. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. bullos. ON. Pl. bulla. a tadpole .. /SouWivu. bolos Fr. The male W. — — Bull. bulla. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. a little fish nearly all head. from the noise. — Fl. bubble. bollon. bole or trunk of a tree. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. dim. bulderen. i. Pm. to bellow. billoti in Fr. hhint. elves. boulct. a bulox polos. it may be observed that a bullet in E. a seal. the matrix or die . bullus. W. Gael. child by the represents the hobgoblin. boillon. Bullfrog. the seal affixed to the document. bellocier.D. Sp. Bullet. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. bal.Gr. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. See Billet. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. It. and vellon in Sp. as in E. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. bwla. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. as a mill-dam or the like. Dan. stupid . bwlas. N. G. a cow. from baula. a hornet. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. of boule. whence bullire. eth and frighteth. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. as geting. Gold or silver uncoined. A papal rescript. many to protuberant objects. And The word bullerbak. witches. boss. of the ox kind. boss or stud. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. — A tition in a ship. A lace tree. to seal..'— ' Palsgr. bolla. . a wasp. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. bellow. bollos de relieve. from the use of the equivalent terms. The final element tergeist. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. Bret. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. signifying roaring. and thence terror. G. bouillon. Bullace. large.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. in the sense of base metal. to bubble. It. to tical with Sw. a stud. See Bowl. lumpish. a hobgoblin. as the ornanails. bugbear. whence Mod. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers.. thick. bietebau. urchens. stamp.

Bully-rock. is called bumping or bells. buller-brook. Miege in Hal. John). argentum and silver. Etym. agrees with e. to terrify by noise and clamour.the ramparts. Bully. perturbare saevis dictis. debacchari. 4 Hen. To bum. minari verbulderen. For bottom. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. the soil.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. &c. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. bomtnen. c. The decried coin. to make a droning Du. 1687). bolderen. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. To Bum. buller-bas. a stage. a boisterous. III. To bully is to bluster. on the other hand.' agger. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. Hence — . — Bumto . ON. The Sw. — Bump. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. ierd-beame. violent overbearing person. Kiittner. a blunderhead. Fris. — bombam?nen. violent. but now is the central part of the town. noise. Philip le Bel in Due. 2. provides. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . droning. poltem. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. from boden. Thus ' ble. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . 2. Hal. 'lega. un faux brave. polterer. ^i^/«. IV. or a humblebee. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. 9 E.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. — — plate d'argent. bastion. to make a noise . 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. to dun. bodem. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. ground. Bum-bailiff. baluarte. legaggio di metallo.' for the purpose of exchange. bol-werck. BULLY with which coins were stamped. G. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. primarily the ramparts of a town.D. G. clamour. Du.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. bombilare. 2. The cry of the bittern. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. D. To bum. Bum. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. IIL st. resonare. biihne. 14. then in general a rampart. Bailey.' Again. scaffold. a. sound. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. a bumble-. boulevard. blunder-buss. bustle. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. ierd-boeyme. block-werck. It. is bullion — A — buller. to drum Lat.. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. buller-bas. propugnaculum. or work of defence. a hectoring. From the notion of a humming. provides. furious man. boisterous fellow. vallum. buene. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. Kil.d.D. A. boene. 1305.. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. Kil. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. AS. Sw. G. and porter au billon. The 27 Ed. 10.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. to .' ' mettre au billon. honunele. blaterare.' Stat. bottn. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. blunder-buss. bottom. Hence bom and ban. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. beat a — Hal.' reals of standard currency. St. buller-jaan (bully. c. Du. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. Fr. a floor. bommele. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. ^Bully-rook. hum. botm. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. Du. c. Fris. up was termed monnaie de billon. by corruption boulevart. bulderen. buller-bak. — Boom. a noisy blustering fellow. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. intonare. The Stat.

binge. Pl. knochen. bans. Hal. bugnet. a swelling from a blow. a heap. bunka. passes Sw. — — Bun. a boil (punkos bot. or to the mass by which it is given. — Marine Diet. to thump. explaining E. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. to beat. stubble of beans.' Bun. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. See Boss. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. . the tail of a hare. poumpido. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. bonnock. It. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. ner. E. bun. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. a round mass . Bunch. — — Bun. knuckles. a heap OSw. a bunch. a lump on the foot bunny. poumpi. Daal bu7iseti. OSw. so the form btmk. Hal. stalk. bunan. to beat. Fr. bump. bunken. Bump. a boil or blain. hdk passing and E. .D. a large . buns. stump. Hal. a purse . Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. bum-boot. to bang. a heap Wall. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). as we have seen E. throw down with a bang. bongie. Bunewand. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. bignet. stem or base.). banke. one ever saw the word in that shape. Moor. round mass of anything. bugnone. Dan. bunch— Hal. . Manx bonkan. — stalk . See Bounce. awkward. root. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. Pm. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. pwmpio. the Pr. blain. dial. strike E. . protuberance. Sc.' he fell with a bang. a Sp.— Bunnion. Lang. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. — round fruit. Again. dial. Fl. to bang ON. clown. . To bam. gibber. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. Bumsen. a knob. root. Hal. Related on the one side to Pl. pompette. stubble Manx bun.D. a swelling. a. bonge. Probably from bump. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Li cake. abrupt manbuns-wise. a rabbit. bunnion. Bunch. bunsen. bmidt. bunki. bamgetroffen. Dan. a button. or grete knobbe. bundle. Bony. any round knob or bunch. bun eich. Holland and Flanders. stump. Gael. a rabbit. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. pwmpl. bunkc. stock. a hump. an old stump of a horse. See Bunch. callus. a boss Lith. bulto. bumsen. Forby. a bunch Magy. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bunke. from knock) It. . A clumsy. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a heap or cluster. bunga. pwmp. bungersome. a bowl P1. . nor would it concern the public if he did. . especially girls. inconsiderately. Probably for bun-boot. bunga. botn. . bottom. cluster. Hence E. a knob . bottom bun feoir. a dry No . bottom. il me pousse. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. stock. bolsa. bulse. to bang down.— Pr. to .D. Fr. foundation w. any round knob or bunch. &c. noise. a person employed to dun one for a debt. w. a bag or sack. a bud. bun with ON. Bung^.. a wallet. H. banga. from bunsen. strapping. Du. Roding. hay stubble . A Du. should probably be a short tail. E. Ir. are dim. a bump. S.D. bunny. Mrs Baker. . a pocket Sw. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. a heap.P. large. seems to unite Gael. bune or boon. bonuach. tundo.' Palsgr. gibbus. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. w. —Bunny. Radically identical with Dan. lungeous. — — de dor bunsen. while bulch was traced through Gris. Bumboat. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Bumpkin. Thus e. Bunk. bugno. a hemp-stalk. bulscha. a knock. He fult dat et bunsede. — — — — ' — knock. a tail (Macleod).! . loaves or lumps made of fine meal. lump.pummel. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . . E. Bun. Sc. .. forms. bmike. Pm. Pl. knob or heap.S. Pr. as in other cases. Bums it's hit. a into Dan. a knob. pompon. Kyx or bunne. bugno.-^Fl. ! — knocking. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. signifying one who does things in a thumping. to ' . bund. He buncheth me and beateth me. butt end. bannock. . truss E. a dried hemp-stalk. to strike so as to give a dull sound. a knotty stick) Sw. 1. Dunchyn or bunchyn. bon. a pumpion or gourd. pumpa. boi7ieog. Bang sen. bumtel. bull. bung. to . to swell out E. BUNCH bum-bailiff. Gael. bu<rnone. . Pm. lenten loaves. and signifies consequently a mass. and related with ON. mto Sp. to knock .^Cot. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. awkward clown. calamus. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. a. Suffolk bonnka. Then. applied to young persons. bunt. pumpurras. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. clumsy. trunk.

whence bunting. G. ho-tapp. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. bolting-cloth. . the noise of drums. bounta. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. or putting forth of a vine. Bret. working in wood (especially with an axe). . 202. tapp (whence tceppa. banghagr. to push. bag to catch the wind. an anchor buoy. klempern.— . tap. properly a Burgundian helmet. was formerly pronounced buro. bondelj bundell. to pype. bundle. anchor or of a net boyar. bonde. Fl. To bunt. to stnmi on an instrument. The belly or hollow of a sail. bunsen. buret. AS. Bunting. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. Compare G. to kick. that the primitive meaning of shackle . boya. shove . to bear. is originally a wisp or bunch . sprig. — btiruii. bou^e. E. a bung. Banff. bonde. also a piinple in the face. generally known as the material of which bud. bourion. to stop. to knock. boj. noise. and van t' vat. to cobble. knock. Bunny. Burden. in is Fr. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. the float of an bundle. to shove. or tuft. something bound together (Mrs Baker). B. punishments for prisoners. A Dan. a boye. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. fascis. Fr. the young cloth used for sifting flour. bang. the stopper of a cask). bond. See Bourdon. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. boucher. Sp. The Fr. . stilmpern. Bung of a tonne or Lith. knocking. clogs. with the head. contignatio. especially in wood. dial. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. to bungle. So in Pol. Fr. to hum. buie. whence in bure. Johansen. See Borel. reddish brown. to stop. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. burboloti. dial. banga. klimpem. to hum. A bubble. a water bubble made by rain. See Bun. the loose open grow big about or gross. A load. bouchon. and now more Bailey. buove. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. to hum. Sp. To burgeon. biirde. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. Burganet. bondeau. modem bummle. Fr. The stopper for the hole in a boia. bon. bindini. to push with the head del. Prov. of a song. bondir. Rietz.' Festus in Diez. to gingle. byndel. unskilful working. to work ineffectually. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Sw. stiimpeln. buret. The Italian buio. borboUar. do a thing bunglingly. racket . tinkle. bangla. to bolt meal. Cat. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. OG. dark. bourguignote. — — To Bungle. bourjon. Sp.D. Fr.Fris. to gingle. bourgeon. To do anything awk- wardly. a botch. are from bouscfie. or used as a receptacle for papers. * Buoy. . bangla. B. bote. a drum . boil or bubble up. the middle part of it. bunta. byrthen. to botch. borgonota. to push ghebondte. guggle as water. Burly. shackles. bove. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. and Du. bimge. on. knocking. bongun. a sort of helmet. coassatio et Du. Palsgr. fetters. gyves. The Magy. Burden. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. bury. on. . and the Sw. G. Kil. bondon. bundt. Bundle. Bunt. racket. bommen. to work at carpentry bangan. ghebundte. Biu'geon. to bud forth. dark grey bura. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet.punt. Sp. bui. bang. to Somerset is to sift. Sw. To Bunt. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. AS. Russ. and E. clumsy performance. dicimus rufum. The word is flags are made. OFr. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. to strum on an instrument. So Du. russet. Sw. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. — . Bung. from beran. See Barbarous. ' — work . and bomme. la Borgonota. rumble as the bowels. Burble. the bung of a barrel Lim. halm-tapp. Muratori. bouche. however. a bungler. to float. a bunch Burbulas. a cork. bundel. OFr. loosed from bonds. Lat. boei. — — . hence the name would seem to have been boundica. burion. — Bureau. It. stocks or such OSw. Prov. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bummle. to resound. N. Cot. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. to knock. p. to in to stop the hole. driving in the bung. would be the earliest float for an anchor. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. Du. a bunch. tinker . bondel-loos. bongani. bungande. colligatio. Hal. Pl. a wisp of hay or straw. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table.

through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. burgensis. Probably. to burgen or wax big.). dial. has also borr. to swell with pride. — — . bururus. a bubble to spring as water. It. to make a So from Fin. pressa puret. E. A legal term from the Lat. &c. Fr. a fountain.). like the wind in trees. Burgh. a purling hiwe brennen. to bud . bruse. brustolare. Supp. Castrais bourril. bourou. sidiary element. thence. sicut sound. fires up. become big and proud. A — — . is connected with brim. to set on fire. — Han to bruser op. — — . schleiffen. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. roguing beggars. brunnr. to swell oneself out as birds borras. he rustle. bremmen. — — . and the Burnish. as of suggests. spring-water bumach. OE. to surge. burly. bourglairs. warbling. burle of cloth. brunir. a wine skin. purrata. to roar 5. to sharpen. brase. purra. an edge. i5«r4 biiirte.or bubbling up. mockery. G. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. lerre. to burn. ample of polishing metal. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Nat. Burgess. and OG. to roar. G. See under Bore. is termed burling. to effervesce. swelling borr-shuil. big. bud or sprout forth. ' rugiens. it of the knots. borracka. which has given much trouble to etymologists. ends of thread. robber. is an Thus G. 56. jest of. a lie. embraser. ^ttsa.' a jibe. a prominent eye borracka. to give an edge to. crackle wood in burning Hal. brinii. to burn. Pm.— . Hence Bridel. ii6 BURGESS Gael. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. brook. burgen. ON. a knob. brusler being a faulty spelling. taunt. tahko. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. Fl. to sharpen on a whetstone. a gurgling ^.j'own. A burl. to swell. ridicule. condemnentur morti. Sw. borni. knob. the er is a dresser of cloth. Fr. boura. must be explained on the same principle from G. bunch. brun. In the manu. abourioner. occupying much space. Prov. Bestiary. Limousin bourdo. to polish. the J in OFr.. Fr. Burryn.bryna. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. tumentum. From the same root E.. . to Gael.sharpen. . born. Compare also Piedm. Schm. Walach. toast.. Burgher. The in. Swiss Rom. Antiq. to have acquired the sense of polishing. barrel. Burglar. Bav. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. and the Burin. Gael. like. bouril. — . a spring a robber. brinnen or Also ein roar. to roar. burgi latro. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. to To Bum. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. Bret. as in cousteau. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. ^Notk. a bubble. laer. brustle. from the roaring sound of flame. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. water. repartee . . Burlesque. brausen. It. a jest. bears. Probably a modifica. swell up or strout out. OFr. brynsten. borr. Todd.— Pr. explaining Sp.. brinna. de Vaud. Sw. to roar. OE. borrelen. to murmur. to bourda. fire. Pr. Sp.' Cot. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. . See Burgeon. burgeois. Burly. brunnen. BURNISH i5«r/. bruzir. to roar (as lions. watery. to tell lies. Fl. Bav. brima. with little iron nippers called burling irons. See Burr. to ridicule. grancelli. to puff up borr^ . Burn. broil. as Diefenbach bud. buirleadh.ireui£r:e. the roaring surge of the — — — . brimmen. angular . a whetstone.Ps. N. protuberance. a bladder. OFr. In the same way ON. a well. borujon. tahkoa. surge or dashing of the sea .). to roar. briis^. See Berough. compared with G. sbornoi. the word seems Pm. Swiss Rom. lorra. Bouffer. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. from Lat. Dief. to ridicule. burlare. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. explaining the E. a jest. to polish. Goth. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. blow. to rub. to bouronna. brunna. Burler. and Dan. burren. boure. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. singe or scorch with fire. to hum. bururus. tion of the root which gave the OE. leo Fin. in Schm. to fiy. to grind on a whetstone. sea. Lang. joking. like straw or small . de Vaud.. from bryii. the flocks. brim or edge of anything. bourd. Pren7ien. So also Sw. brasa. The primary origin of the word. Lang. flocks. brandung. j. to polish helmets. The Gael. pur (see Burgeon). purling. to puff. Cot. with Dan. an &c. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. — . a bud. boiirre. language of folly or ridicule. From Fr. 122. burn. brAler. It. a margin. a blaze. It is probable indeed that Fr. ends of thread. as the / in purl.

to to buzz like a beetle chatter. Gael. foretell great storms at 3. burial place. a wallet or scrip. — Clare. and spelling. Beowulf. brest. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. Swiss burren. to burst. This word seems safety. brast. prsnuti. casting bullets. brit. . to bury . Bursar. brisd.. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. as in Northumberland. borra. preserve. Hal. Burse. brist. berstan. idiom if 4. root borr. bristeach. brjota. beurs. birigean. of England. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. Compare also OE. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. OHG. Hence Fr. impetus. whirr and burr. that birds make their nests with. bolsa to It. a purse. OHG. any kind of quilting or stuffing. as from Sp. Sw. to hide.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. and. bourre. byrgen. a sepulchre. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. ptcrren. 5150. ON. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. Shelter. a harness or collar maker) . Jam. Fr. &c. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . caer is a — — — ' ' : . bersten. brittle. a port. purr. bolgia. cwning-gaer. to mutter Sw. blurra. dial. Fris. bristen. whirr. verbergen. byrsa. It. bergen. g. leather. and thence flocks 'of wool. as for the protection of a child's head. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. To Bury. birr. Burrow. appears under the Lang. &c. buscha. S w. iii. perruque. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. borra. break . tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. britar. bourrer. bris. barza. a. Sexy. a purse. Port. bris. Burse. brista. beorgan. See Burgeon. bourse. ON. borsa. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. Fr. pipaa. whence Kil. bur. -Grisons bulscha. makes the disbursements of the college. cover. the — — castle or fortress. but it is more probably a development of It. byrgels. a rabbit burrow. fortify. signifying protrude. coo. to hide . to save. a pad. to break. a place of defence. borsia. In a met. Brun on bane. shearing of cloth. peluca to Fr. bur. A rabbit burmotion. byrigels. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. ber•whirr to whizz. 225. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. keep. In OE. when they spring So in W. Sw.— . borre. an annular swelling. briso. Mid. birgan. as it is still pronounced in N. also ' any such trash as chaff. See Bulge. brist.' Harris in Todd. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. briketo. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . bourrelet. some people in pronouncing the letter r. burre. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments.' edge grew weak. -burse. and met. brickie. The root forms brik. from Fr. brown. brico. the officer who bears the purse. With a slightly different ghen. Du. to P'air. hair. borrow. bres- — tan. borsa. Du.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. its own protection. Burr. shelter. brisdeach. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. of a body hurled through the air. tomb. straw. to buzz. G. a barn or cupboard. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. Fr.Lat. explained E. ' ' — — burren. byrstan. also all such stuff as hay. i5(7&a. a morsel. bourlet. burgisli. burra. dial. moss. from whence we pass through Sp. brittle. It. mentioned under Burgeon. briser. . upon the bone but it And burred moons night. ' BURR AS. save. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. Dan. Burser. I. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. AS. be more in accordance with AS. G. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. karborre. an exchange. E. . to stuff. stuffing. AS. borre. 2. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. shales. shuffling. any rapid whirling biarga. skin. To Burst. Burr is related to buzz as protect. brizeto. Burial. bourse. talk fast and indistinctly. Cot. swell. chips or anything else Fl. preserve.' The same word with burgh. from AS. brokil and brotil. — Translated by Kemble. ultimately resting on the Gael. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. byrgan. force. husks.

'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. boucher. knot. to bow. box wood to bush. whence bouchon. hjul-bosse. bossen. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. verb. The word frequency with which to busk is used. a grove bosch van haer.fiasc. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. iriCtf -ifoe. bussellus. defence. Fris. . abdere. thicket of thorns . a tuft. bussel. to stop. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi.-^Bushel. buxida. It. preserve. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather.Lat. bua. Mid. Du. boistel. in the For Skirnis . in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. and thence Mid. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. ' —P. Harold G. or — Busk. bussare. a bunch. busk. van wijnbesien. barsc in Heimskringla. ' . And her ful sone tuft. condere.— ' ii8 {chreo. bulk. clusprobably Morocco leather. to prepare. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. Layamon. Bush. oneself. fiast.' The word is explained by — — . buskr. brodiquin. barst. rad. to turn. a hump. AS. for at buasc. wisp. biichse. To prepare. apparently a secondary verb. boissa. Ptg. lump. The primary sense of hair . R. -idis. borseof trees. Malberg. truasc. Bouchet. bush. to dress. a bush. They busked and malced them boun. beorgan. induere vestes . to sepulchre. a tuft of hair. See Bust. mount. . to bend one's steps. sur une litifere. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. Bush. berghen. a been written buasc. whence at bua sik. The bone in a woman's stays. to keep. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. bausen. a bundle. The radical idea is seen in Goth. Brunne. a corpse). OFr. the Moors and of Morocco. to swell. Sibriht that I of told. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. G. a rampart. the past participle of the same verb bua. ' . the idea of knocking. AS. borghen. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . bossida. ch). and from the Fr. OFr. we have Fr. besom).gur bidst austur um EySascog. to forest of Eyda.P. make ready. basse. . a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. Thus Froister .Lat.' The buskin is said Bret. grapes. boiste. ' . bustula. bo7ich (Fr. in OE. See Box. Du.) to hide in the ground. boisseau. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. To Busk. . which would later have truast. il fut couch6 l^jkema). burial mound. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. ' . that the lend had lorn thorn. and we actually find bushel. busse. qualster-boscken. bush. tuft. Du. hunch Du. a clot of phlegm sart. Brunne. bairgan. tow. and he cites wisp bauschen. diminutives. boxta. bosch (a diminutive ?). bramble. 'at bua sik. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. at buast. It. busken. bousche. a box. occultare K. to dress. signifying to entomb. a -tavern bush. Gr. or the like. buxta. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. a box for measuring corn. BUSH hreaw. Fr. a wisp. from the ON. 2. In to Brutaine. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. a box. protect . Prov. brodequin tout noir. bousse. Sir Tristram. —Busk. basse. bosc. So from Fr. borcegui. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. : — . a bush. Sc. bulge. bosta. and not directly (as Du. is thus accounted for. . to direct one's course towards. as synonymous with to inake one boun.boisteau. Le roy Richard mort. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. to bury. aheap of stones. bousIn the other copy ser. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. bouche. 410. bustellus.' sheath. a troop. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. bos. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bundle. a tuft. as boun is simply buinn. gave Lat. roquies. a little box Dan. a tuft guini. . Thence byrigean. bundle * Buskin.' a box. bunch. buxula. a bunch of twigs. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. then a tuft Sp. to enclose in a case or box. at bua sig. projection. dead. ieorh. thicket {buski. whente beorg. buysschen. cluster. Sw. the land. brake. a gun biichse.

lip. a tree. bnist. putta. of a doublet. busy. fe^a. an affair. Prov. knock. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. A wisp. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. bysgian. trunk. lip. B. as in ON. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. especially of a woman's dress. a mouth. the long. Busk. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. — hardly be distinct from Fr. stem. To hurry or make a great B. a backstock. mons. worn to make the body straight . bussen. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. busq. bruskras well as buskr. avuDiez. to make a splash in the water. buz. windbutsch. a projection. Fris. Fr. The proceedings of Parliament. bacio. a. the body without arms busque. small. and also a sounding blow. kiss. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. a boat or small vessel . body . trunk of Cot. Hal. in Diaz Gris. ViM. Business. I. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. pussa. — clattering about. bu. outard. thick end. Du. hipista. a large cljest or particular applibox. bustla.> Also written buskle. forest. box. a kiss. Edrtst. btcc. body of a man.bezig. The form brust. Lindenbr. bus and Pol. Fl. stump. bust.). corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. a kiss of reverence. bisgung. — — — — It is like the smouldering.Lat. bussa. 119 bi{tr. bulk. busch. busche. Port. 1555. trunk. log . business. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. ottarda. signifying trunk of a the body. a Mid. Nained from Proximse iis zia. geidha. knock. lump. mohedairova. Fr. Namur — Champagne Fr. and by transposition morchequi. . smack. — . and then with avis again prefixed. 22. Prov. ON. the trunk. but Dozy cites the OldPtg.' ON. ON. work. I bustle. to bustle. mouth. a fishing vessel. brut. Fr. body of garment. Sw. tarda. the point of a lance. as in moharra from harbe. Swiss butschen. vessel employed in the herring fishery. to make use of. a great billet Cot. Pol. beezig. a blow. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. the breast. ' bistardej It. tuft. arbor ramis trunGloss. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. 2l box. A great sluggish fowl. The Prov. statue of the upper part of Fr. forms morseqiiill. occupied bezigen. a bunch of flowers . a ship of some size. Sp.d. buyse. also a busk. . a busk. a log. basiuin. to Swab. body. crack . also a flagon. With respect to bust. to occupy. or chest in which the vitals are contained. 1372. bist. biseg. bysgje. occupation. or avutarda. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. Bulch. brostia as well as bostia. made stiff. Prov. So Wes- terwald munds. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. ' BUSY 2. Sp. To Bustle. bus. — — difications of the same word. also a It. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. stump. bust. 2. Bust. Walach. bucha. of the human body (Grandg. Comp. Gael. a stroke of wind. brusc. Lat. betarda. busta. a bulk or trunk without a head. Cot. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). stir.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Hence probably au-tarda. mogangas from gonj. buta. biist. See Boss. Box. and supposes that the common Arab. morsequi. outarde. mouth. bukr. sera. buc. body without arms and legs. baiser. Bust. borcegui. inde discurro et operosus sum. Busitiess :c3iVi .D. a bust. buquer. austarda. besoigAe. BUSS Dozy from Arab.pjik. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. a kiss. employment bisgan. Bav. kiss. or Cherqui. AS. So in Fin. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. says. a sleeveless truss or doublet. Rouchi. busto. Cat. 7o\. Sp. Buss. from jnund. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. bus. plated body or other quilted thing. butz. busch. sunt quas Hispania aves . trunk of a tree. Bustard. mosequin. besongne. would explain the G. cata — . a blow. I. On the other hand. ^A. buc. 10. putschen. Busy. a kiss. love gestures. but.— . Xerqui. snout. utarda. kupata. ship Sp. representing a blow. an ostrich. A A busquer (Sigart). These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. a bush. Lang. to knock . chest. its slowness of flight.' Plin. abotarda. busc. bisegung. otarda. beso. body of a woman's dress It. — Thus we should have mocherqui. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . buc. bisg. abutarda. Fr. body. I go strepo) . lips.

ways. If that where now we should compiler. by the mode in which he is treated. . ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. hull of a ship. gives at least two pounds sterling. sup- meat and drink. boquier. bouteillier. without the house kept in bottles. my is called the adversative use of but. trunk. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. then hoUow trunk. a leathern bag. the precise correlative of but. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. Sp. hollow case. similar train of thought is seen in ON.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. Ben-house. bochier. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. belly. the body of a tree or of a man. the servant in charge of the original object. G. bute. calf of the ' say. a butcher . outside that moreover. bag. being wholly unten. boucher. Fr. beccaria. the body of an animal. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. belly. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. It. bodifie. without buiten-man. large barrel. bolgia. bounds of. a wooden cask. "PLT) . tinction between but. bol. botte. So in Italian from becco. beccaro. properly a butan wite. buta._ bitten j biiten door. — we acle for liquors. without punishment .' there is really a negation to be supplied. Lang. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . viz. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. ' Besides all that. OFr. AS. a butcher. barriga. the store of ten. from boc. . belly. ont jhi^ton. butan. the full expres. bocin. bole of a tree. that which would be translated by Fr. ox. able.jamin. Butt. without law. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. bola. bout. the present day we should say. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. without care. skin-bag. the mouth). Prov. is put in a class by himself. an outlaw from bouche. we find ben. slaughter-house.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. biitait slaughterer of goats .' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. Fr.in which his brethren are included. binnan. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. is well explained by Tooke. the principal apartment. be out. young mais. mais. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . a cask. botilla. equivalent of AS. a bottle. the trunk or body of an animal. Tooke's dis. rumpf. (children) boc. Here the but implies the existence of an.' ' write. the name must have arisen before the within. The E. bouz. earthen which the debtor has adverted. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. the Perhaps besogne — . is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. botija. the jug and in E. Butcher. in addition.streets. and the real origin of the and within .The Sp. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. moreover. Sp. a goat (and not besides . ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. bous. Where at an earthen jar . without. of the wine and drink. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. Buttery. a baiTel . wooden receptthing to be done. besides that . Wall. a goat. to-boot. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. a barrel. are. Whatever is in addition to Butler. a budget. boteria. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson.' Thus Chaucer says. ' There is leathern bottle. beta. bhcciero. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. those in beccaio. but one thing. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. except. beyond the Piedm. and with It. body of a shirt w. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. or what in in charge of the pantry. A A . then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. a small winebag. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. Lang. Fr. Du. as Pantler. viz. bisgung.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. which the word corresponds to the Fr. As a conjunction but is in every portion. — . Butler. But when will you pay it ? the belly. the bottles. and bot. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. boccino. rotundity of the body. bolr. But It. But In Sc. bountifully. Sp. a butchery. add. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . also a hollow vessel . calf. from as. butan ce. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. the belly. bitlga.' — — ' . original sense of without. bitten dai. collection of casks.

Buttock. strike. a flying buttress. butt. so as to make a sounding blow. by boE. i. a mound. a thrust the thigh-bone. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . The word body itself seems identical with G. &c. a corner horses' hoofs. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands.against another which needs support . A — — — . pied. buter. botto. to thrust . bata. a barrel. Grandg.. bothog. a wall butor butt on. butt. Schmell. to femur.to push. to be con. the trunk. from rejeter. a bolt. bot blijven staan. . a bot. the edge forwards. a hill. having a rotundity . bouter. leg of lamb. Cot. to abut a stone roof. stump. nourrissons. butter. botwm. Bav. buhsom. a. Du. . tout seat or breech. Fr. : . to so close to the Fr. to butt. butter. a cask. boutis. but. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. from the large knobbed head of botto. thrust. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . bouton. a stump or club foot. the prick in the middle of a target. a dle . buttock of beef is called butr. botta. the Butter-fly. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. boter-vliege. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. R. nursling. short thick thing pimple. to bow. butz. an ox. Du. or or shore post. as in G. -ez. — A . Boutant. to thrust Fr. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. the thick end. butyrum. Schmell. tress. a little push . boutoir. rabodd. to thrust. boding. give way. pwt. thrust forwards. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. stump of a tree Fr. butt. to abut on. and the true derivation boar. Mur-buttant. of the present day. from bouter. a tub. The Bavarian potig. botten. put. large head. at. G. hillock . Gr. a blow. — — — — . butte. to thrust. a boss. Kil. Buttrice. aim whence to make a support to a wall.putan. Fr. a. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. signify a cask or tub. from stossen. then the thigh or leg of an to push . to touch at the end. Du. &c. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. suddenly . Hal. Fr. waste ground. to boult flour. any small projection. An erection built up as a Fr. coxa. pwtiaw. AS. Du. of E. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. boil. Buttress. Fr. humble. end . grease that sets by merely standing. on. buttals. bottich. as if from Povg. poke. Buttel-triib. an etwas anstossen. See Butler. ment being supposed to resemble butter. bot. a bun. or person Schmeller . povrvpov. potacha. dripping. a button. W. Lang. bouton. to strike. a button. clunis. Butter. boter-schijte. * Buxom. is formed the augmentative buttatich. a heap of merly called pushes. Butter-glass. geboogsaem. fle>(ible. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. obedient. clumsy . From the noise of drinkables in a house. To come full butt against a butts. Boutje. to push earth . e. the thigh of a goose. Fris. a but in the W. To strike with the head bags. a leg of mutton. Btetter-schmalz. trapu. . From Grisons biitt. lams-bout. both. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. Perhaps corrupted Lat. gigot. butter un. any short thick thing. to thrust. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. a mound of turf in a field to sup. bot. a boss. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. obeto shake backwards and forwards. — . a buttress Cot. oir spike with a k coup .thum and not button. bout. bocsam. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. are the strips at the edges of the field. bodi'. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. W. to heap up earth or ihrust. w. Kil. Bout van het schouderIt. Gris. bott. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . but this is probably from Fr. butt of a person. Sp. From Du. a buttrice.rejected thing. bout. what is kept in a blow. bottig. a button. nourrisson. Fr. — A . Gael. submit shaking up salad sauce. bodi. butteln.arbre. Bav. boiUer. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. It. the store of while bottich. a blow. as rejeton. Halma. courtaud. able that Chaucer. bouter.. bocgsuin. bud. from notirrir. To Butt.— BUTT leg .' thick from shaking. a ribbed glass for dient. in the R. thick. — . fowl. boter-vogel. So in English pimples were fora clod. Kil. boteria. the rosebud. buttern. botta. buttare. a scope. striking end. caput scapula bout van f been. Fr. Buttery. to cast. a stroke di animal. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. Fr. botte. to blad. a large belly. butte. Du. from bugan. Button. to throw . Hal.

to pass by. bar. also say. gracious. bylag. Then applied to speaking low. from whom it was addressed. a borough. buteoj Fr. depends upon a esteem in falconry. buzarg. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. p. AS. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. who makes abigg. bohte. bi. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. bygge. confusedly. abozzago. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. Sw. buso. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. bei. to whisper. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. a town. village. Dan. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. Lat. leges urbanse ON. bozzago. The ON. as in Da. son. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. AS. ii. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. and would have been lost in E. favourably to a petition.— P. Buzzard. \s\xy. a by-path is a side path . groat in token of his good heart towards him. CABAL Goth. & Q. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. Originally the law of a particular town. Mercy hight that mayde. — 122 BUY P. jus municipii. a meke thynge with — alle. 3. bylove. Cabal.— Diet. P. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. G. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. to purchase for money.in N. a beetle. buzac. lete. Byre. to stand at his side . Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. and boxome of speche xviii. 116. It. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. big. as Fr. Verstegan in R. town having separate jurisdiction. to wit. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. tions by one. to sell. 519. favourable. bees. farm. buzzicare. OE. ON. and it is of good will. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. stall. byar-log. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. called Cabala or Tradition.. indistinctly. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. A A We — — — days' wonder. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one.busardj Prov. bi. 200. Sw. Pecock Repressor. byr. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. . frabttg- To Buzz. bycgan. harty prayers and God speedes.P. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Goth. byar-rettr. from by. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . . 21. The sense of buxom. good-humoured one. Etynj. bauhta. Many good mological explanation. It. . and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. to buzz. —gracious of speech. as heedless as a cock-chafer. train of thought which has become obso. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). a buzzard or puttock. cow-house. bij.. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Du. bugjan. lb. A by. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. to jan. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. blessing me with their of side. See Abie. iii. A ful benygne buirde. to swear with him by . By-law. To Buy.

Lang. hoard together. 'habl. a tunic. ceach / exclamation of guages. cabre. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Fr. to hurl down. Du. precisely in the sense of the lari E. Celtic. Fr. or cadable. The Sp. &c. gaggi. a rope. gaggele. cabas. form kactal. as an expression of Gr. cabus. band. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. overwhelm (Diet. a frail. originally an Gael. Fr. Cappa in OSp. to crush. Didot. brassica — capitata. Due. as Diez supposes). Common to Lat. cabarino. manticuKil. an engine for casting stones. cadabola. Ptg. Gaggle. gatsch. origin is the OFr. covering. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . dirty. kabas. caable. would correspond to cable. deponat a store closet. to hurl in Nat. It. filth. overwhelm. headed or cabbage lettuce. havyar to caviare. kabat. caable. manganare. aakkat'a. a rope. E. agge. Cabbage. or as an interjection of disMod. giiare. Sp. the bowels. OSp. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. It. Lat. especially shepherd's frock. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. ! — . vile. . cabre. — . cab. OFr. dung. kakla. kakaloH. — Tarbe. a rope or cable. in which sense are explained The the OFr. name of the projectile engine. a headed cole or cabbage . . Lith. Tugurium. whence Fr. a cloak of felt or Cack. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. OFr. nasty. Sp. Du.Gr. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. head. the Prov. properly windfalls. cabasser. Cot. heady. Due. From It. stercus. Coticesserint Swiss aa. a cabbage . as it must have stood in French. Kil. a booth or hut. cabulus. aak! tandi like Fr. come the Fr. cables. to put or pack up in a frail. is probably unconnected. maim. (ca/coe. prostratio ad terram. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. E. kabaSsen. to strain in such a manner . wilful). and Or.. cabane. signifying properly a rope's end. The name of the engine. forms indi. disgusting such an engine was exerted. cacare. a jacket Fr. aeggi. calabre. Castr. a car- We convasare. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. and the Arab. : — from violence without blood. agge machen (in nurses' language). Cabinet. hut. . an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. lactuca capitata. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. chabla. Cot.. Antiq. It. cabo.. main. string. or rush basket. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. ckaable. has kabbel. chaable. caable (in legal language). gaban. a rope. Very generally used. Choux cabus. su/Furari. to keep or Du. cabacho. vincially used in E. signifies down. Neckam — by the wind. It.). as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. accablcr. cadabalum. disgust. hovel. Item habeat vocant. cabaii. — Ibid. To steal or pocket. &c. Mid. Katr-iT-aKt. To Cabbage. Cablisb. Cabin. OFr. cable . Finn. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. cabuyskoole. — the ON. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. cadabulum. w. for the origin of which see Carabine. a shed. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. cadabula. surripere. Fr. from trabocco. Imitative of the cry of hens. caables. a covering. cabuccio.ticula. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . — . — Kil. whence Lang. cacare . from manganum. caqueter. akista.' Due. bad. The double a in the OFr. and Finnish lanLat.Lat. a head (whence cabochard. . as Turk. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. Fr. It is remarkable that the Esthon. disgust cac. capo. Brushwood — — B. gabardme. mdhaigner. cadabulum. geese. Capstan. engine of war for hurling large stones caca.. agga. Sw.Lat. to chatter. cabbage. laitue cabusse. cdble. Mid. Mid. —Diet. serious injury — In like manner It. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. . kabane.Lat. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. caboche. headed. the Slavonian. cabo. round or great headed. traboccare.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. chaable. Etym. capanna. chadabula. . parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. dirty. and Ptg. it would seem fundain children's language. capuccio. and as we find stones Mid. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. dirt and the Fr. case. Du. cab lis.

Calamity. Lat. Sw. just falling. colibro. a fever. calidus. Du. caldaria. kakulla. loss. a roller. lime whence calcareous. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. koeck. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. It. Lat. of which. a counter used in casting accounts. calendarium. kdtr. jabber. Cauldron. reed-pen. En kaka br'od. It is another form of the E. the lump and the increase. or prattle. one unduly indulged by. without loss. Sp. Calc-. Arab. a low note. from calculus. or smooth Hnen cloth. whence Lat. The Calf. from Gr. Fr. gabble. Cot. KaKKat. kolasa. Fr. kolo. Calandre. loss. coll. ' . Du. a wheel. limestone. It. is probably delusive. gaggle. kolesb. cykevie. Fr. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. for green fields. javioler. a hollow place. calentura. signifies a waggon. kauwe. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Dan. Calf of the Leg. incolumis. kalem. hot. disease of sailors from tivus). and troublesomely attached to. a car. kukje. Du. calentar. G. a common cart. the bore of a cannon. . to compute. to — Fr. . a small stone. of oxen and similar animals. cadet. It. desire of land. hot . kage. calamus. master. Dan. Cake. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. a vessel for heating water. boy. Gascon capdet. to sleek hence a den. kalfi. little chief. kaka. —Atkinson. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. roller. marrow. a tea-chest. gabbia. a wheel . an ugly waggon kolaska. Serv. Lat. calesa. Cajol. To Cajole. Caddy. cage. calidus. joyous . gabberen is identical with E. capCalenture. dial. Du. Lat. Fr. Calendar. naXaiidpi. a reed. G. taking it Sp. the pith or soft part of wood. Tea-caddy. Calocli. Lat.— Cot. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. cadence. ratas. Lat. ben- kalf. Cot. caldarius. Perhaps from w. Cage. Cadence. cuttle-fish. Cadaverous. chaudiere. Caldron. Roman reckoning. Cadge*. bad . the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. a calesh. a calash . pen Mod. kolyasochka. to prate much to little purpose. from the ink-bag which it contains. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. frisky. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). wanton. wretched. unruly . a loaf of bread. Cot. Turk. Calash. whence calash. To Calender. As Du. calcis.— Calliper. Lat. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. pi. Sp. calibre. kdfich. prate. a wheel . It. Lat. to heat. a circle. a waggon . — in a kiln. chetif. or colpa na coise. calibre. A cuttle-fish. cavea. cageoler. a mischievous dial. Flo. A hooded carriage. It. KxiKivh^o^. Caitiff. Due. rattaat (wheels). Calcialate. Mrs B. calx. Calamary. kolyaska. . A . the younger son of a family said to be from . gavia. kalb. Sp. a corpse. Sw. ON.Gr. 124 prattle . cadaver. (in the augm. pet lamb. Cadet. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. cauldron. babbhng. Originally from a Slavonic source. Lat. kuchen. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. to . of the nature of lime to calcine. a cake or loaf. the calf of the leg.— . kat. The young G. Lat. Fr. capitetum. From lerie. from the Chinese catty. caioler. collop. an inkstand . captive. calba.uv. Calp is riadh. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. pith. safe. Russ. to throw themselves into the sea. a wretch. Fr. Fr. kalfvan hout. kola. especially of something soft. lord. * Calibre. . a cylinder. cadenza. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. gabbia. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. In the same way Fin. cabdillo. See Kiddier. chattering. Sw. principal and interest. * Cade. when they are said to poor. calamitas. A — fall. N. Fr. dead body. to cage. gaggia. calpa. Pol. a dence. Turk. ever and anon. frolicsome kaad mund. a wheel . &c. kolo. chaudron. misfortune. a caFr. The Lat. calessa. from calendcE. to cackle . hence musical rhythm. the pi. kaad. cattivo (from Lat. — — — Dan. Lat. to treat like lime. cage. kolesnitza. cadere. cake.warmth . to gabble. kail. B. calf of leg. calendrer. calculo. its mother. caliche. a lump or large piece. . kolo. It. An open travelling chariot. form) calderone. so gabble corresponds with Fr. kaeckelenj Gr. cha'cmie cadence. on. coop. lindrus. Gael. a falling.

not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. To century was Squalibre.' Whitby Gl. to say. by many that the weapon Callous. quA librd. calo. Gr. kael. NE. CALICO Calliper-compasses. calleting. and sometimes a handgun. a round of abuse. — — — — — . form in the kalib. Call. calk. kol. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. u to an I in such a colubrum. dial. an adder. or languishing drought is . brawny. to tread. the latter of chamber. ululo Turk. diameter of a ball. skin hardened by labour. moist. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Ibid. prattle. The origin is Gr. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. water-tight. To drive tow or oakham. klover. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. to cram. people's remarks. koluvre.' Slange. harden by pressure. quiet. of a column. try. callus. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. B. cauma. the Fr. calclover. Sup. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). * Caliver. * Callet. piece of bigger circuite. The reference to heat is preserved in. Sir John Smith in Grose. scold. the scalp or skull. kil-u-kal. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. hollaing. a. calat of leude demeaning. qAlab. According to Jal (Gl. khalif. kalla. — Fl. form.piicede Lat. caillette. bald. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. overheated. to affirm. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. callum.' But it is hard Du. a soldier who the It. kallo. calme. to calk. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. a good calling. of the bore of a firearm met. trull. heat. which is as much as to say. kind heat of the sun. — — — — — . kal. ' rine. ' pert. Sc. to call. calare. whehce it was first brought. vulgo Coluvrine. culverin. to callet. given. alta voce ploro. calma. moso. Diez. Fin.position is much less common than the geschut. or caliever. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Among these were the turn. a drab. bombarda Cauma incendium. whereas in troth it is not. coluber also. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. cauque. caliver. push violently. hot. kahcwe. Diet. them &c. calc. calcare. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. coulevrine. quality. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. faint. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . the Fr. dragonder. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. dragoon. Ca. Heb. licht stuk The change from a.from Ka'tm. . to hear. which has its memory preserved in Du. . or mould. longior. from Calicut in the E. to abuse . whence couleuv.(jaa= ice). femme frivole et babillarde. to prattle. to be of a good or bad quality. faint. calibre. Unfledged. hallottaa. sestus. ram. to burn. kal. Turk.' Chaucer. E. Due.' Winter's Tale. drive. a successor. i. on. and dragon. nautique). Bi. chatter. scalmato. Antiq. Gael. sclopus. and E. sence of wind. It. Lat. CALM to press or stuff. harquebus or handgun. Fr. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. Sp. Mid. calibre. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. having a thick skin. Ptg. heat. Mahn derives it from Lat. Kil. 125 Prov. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Lang. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. donderbuchs Sp. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. AS. To call. abto suppose that E. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. tapulta. colubrina. Calm. Indies. calca. depreciatory term for a woman. chatter kallen. Mil. Sp. Dief. and heat. but is only a jda-kallo. The primitive colubrina bombarda.. Kavfia. calicot. gossiping. To Calk. caluw. Calico. Fr.— . tittle-tattle. glotton. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. done with heat Alt. oldire from audire. the hard surface of the ground. Derived by some from Arab. saucy. Lat. calgua. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. colubraria canna. the day.Lat. Caliph. voice. calvus. calcaich. coluber. to call. The word was also written cawme in OE. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . to proclaim. calor. Kil. fistula. Fr. serpentina. Du. KaXka. couleuvre. to rail or scold . overscalmaccio. cotton cloth. can be distinct from ODu. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. Callow. serpens. the heat of Now these Du. cahna. Fin. word of mouth . sound. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. So It.meaning of the word. Fr. a feathers. Hard. however. a last.en~ kinds of firearms. calma.

An eater of human flesh. See Canker. chandelle. is Cambering. campagna. hooked. fair. Cambric. icaSoytipoe. to warp. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Fr. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. camiscia. camafeo. It. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. callar. to the force of the wind. KafivTu. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. . whence the noun signifying an applicant. also an eatmg sore. A — the Cannibals. aged. sore. callour. cup. camber-nosed. campo. across — Bellenden in Jam. having an aquiline nose. a dog. camelot. cambrer. camaien. crooked. a large drinking . . to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Fr. or hollow of a flower. to jut. an eating. cere : Lat. From fluting or furrow in a column . campus. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Caloyer. properly good country. Canal Channel. whence the Fr. campagne. Fr. camelus.—Candidate. a caught. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. It. campaign. paign. co7nbar.Lat. Sp. calutmiia. ko/utuXoc. It. arched. cancello. and yspiuv.—Cambrel. unwater chamelot . calj'x. Fr. the heat. had no r in de bric— Cot. catmneo. B. a piece. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. Candy. Palsgr. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Sanson khanda. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth.—Jam. Lat. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Canibal. Calumny. Calyx. Arab. campren. Or the word Lat. — Lat. canis. chamold man. Camlet. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. to glow. canna. Candid. salmon. chommer.— B. mg Canister. ation. cambre. on. the spersed with white flakes like curd. Calver of cane. From campus was formed Lat. a. It. camiscieia. camisade. — — — A — — escume de saumon. In a different application It. crook. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. champ. Peter Martyr. Gr. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. a' Sc. Fr. Camel. water chamlet . Kakoycpos. the calix. a may have acquired that signification from plain. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. canalis. white. cainahelus. crooked-stick. samon. canistrum. arch. fresh. Mod.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. the type of a hollow pipe. Cambrav—Cam.' ' Quhen a lattice. kanna. Bret. died in 1526. se cameloter. chaitcre. spot for cattle.— Chandelier. champagne. a goblet bud. a night attack upon the enemies' camp._ kamm. ckaouma. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. open and level ground. camp. Cancer. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. crooked.. from xaXbg. cam^e. cambr^. is Candle. Cambray. Cambrel. cancer. candela. frank and sincandidatus. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. the salmondis faillis thair loup.who their language. arched. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. campo. It. monk. The Grisons cauina. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. India Islands. E. Lat. lie level. Lat. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Campaign. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. from candere. bis. lame. It. E. Cann. — B. Lat. the space of false imputation. or Caribs. slander. the bed of a stream. cambren. good.' Forme of Cury in Way. brought from Fr.conduit-pipe. camisa. w. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. It was distinfrom work. aspirant. Turk. Camisade. Ptg. B.— Hackluyt in R. to bow. Camp. Fr. Mid. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. at the ends. camahutus. KafitjUe. field . Canine. a basket. Properly calver in the field during a war. Canker. Lat. a field Greek monk. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Fr. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. when its substance appears inter. Gr. to bend. cAouma. sugar. nia. E. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Sp. Lat. Cot. Fr. Sp. campagna. candidus. Cameo. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. crooked. a crab. Pers. toile some of whom. clothed in white. higher in the middle than Fr. a. would plenier. whence Fr. to bend. Lat. cup. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface.Gr. different sections of the like the Chinese. to break. lattice. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. — Cancel.

properly a large Prov. canonicus. lump. B. border Dan. cope. and tref. border. contain. cannone. a tube. from . which is not the case. from a Canter. pipe. cape.CANNEL vessel. hamlet. kq. a ship canot. the heel. cheese. Sp. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Fr. a division of a country. Prov. trine. kantr. Canon. also a measure. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Of vena cava and of vena porta. Canvas. canvas. Mod. Kil. cantone. is found languages of very different stocks. cannevaccia. . hemp. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. haitt. kynnel. Mod. canonici. coarse hempen cloth Fr. kanta. a cap. or hold. Probably only the augmentative of canto. Gael. cantina. To his judicial And trowl the tile. quito curtain. say. It. cainnt. canon. a small boat. . regular. cannabis. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. leiwan kanta. a torch. It. name. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. covered. Cannoii. a drinking glass. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. capax. schlapp. signifying cover. he discourseth of dissection. From Gr. Canopy. Cant. a straight rod. cane. It. kyndel. chape. The — . chanteau. was formed Kavtiiv. Canteen. canoa. From Lat. side. A piece of anything. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. canton. or cantell of bread. caparazon. Picard. a ruler. Cantle. a — A — Cannel Coal.Gr. cantref. OFr. &c. cane. Sp. capa. can. measure for cloth. has kahn. a Fr. gnat. hemp. call. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. as a cantle of bread. The word seems to be taken from Gael. able to receive. Palsgr. Cot. cannu. It. Capacious. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. coat. shut. Capable.. kandt-broodts. See Chape. ON.— Cot. canteau. kand. the part easiest broken off. cane. a door . Lat. kapamak. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. carcase . to shut. canevas. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. cane. Wtb. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. canto. and hence a gobbet. territorial hundred. it would have been found in the continental languages. to sing. &c. a corner. language. KaTTiram. kwvwxIi. like a torch or candle. canapaccia. Fin. a reed. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. cantle then is a corner of a thing. corner. a gelding. to con- rummer. capace. Goldast — in in Schmid. edge. Kavt\. . being a yard or thereabouts . capello Italis. a hundred. . To Canonise. a boat. W. a hunch of bread. cappa. Coal burning with bright flame. that the G. Du. Fr. a cloak kapali. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. part. quarter. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. region. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. a pipe. a scull- — here. a horn of the moon . to contain. and the sex- &c. from cant. If the word had been from cantherius. Capari. margo panis diffracta. Canton. root cap. speech. It. and met. cannevo. a wine-cellar or vault. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. It. Esthon. Fr. to put upon sacred writers. It. cover kapi. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a side. Sp. a cover Turk. a cantle of bread. Gugel. KCLvva. a reed. Alamannis. Swab. Hence Lat. a rule or standard of excellence. the tried list of saints. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. hood.n. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. the heel. chantel. Jonson. But it may be different source. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. rumme. cantred.^on. tain. a cane. cover . See Capt-. the quartile. Cope. Germanis kdppen. clqse. a cloak. astrology. canapa. schlappen. as. Diez. cappe.Gr. kaput. quarter . A slow gallop. capevole. N. Cape. coarse hemp. Canoe. cappe. A . Again we have Lat. from canna. Schwab. from Dan. hirnschlapple. To canvas — . The meserseum and the mesentericum.

frizzle. crackling sound Cape. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. a buck. brisciare. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. Caper. of a coach. is either wholly lost. also the capriole. a head. curling. Acad. and with an initial gr instead of br. I have shivered with love. Mod. ticchio. humorous. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. gives rise to Sc. to crackle. Cot. to fry. It is probable that Gr. capillus. to broil. a little head. abridge amKoTroq. the hair to stand on end. explained by Diez from capra. capparis. cut off. Fl. rissoler. caper j caprio. aggricciare. — — A a hair. principal. Hal. a caper in dancing. grisser. It. or other things. frort^Lat. Lat.— Fl. roughening of the skin. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. herissonnement. or goat's leap (done by a horse). To treat Capitulate. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. as the means of earning profit. shivering. they longed extremely to see it. The same imitation of Capon. ribrezzo. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. gricciare. the head. end. as Fr. ^piKos. as in Lat. algabr. cApre. Genevese bresoler. sault. It. a capriol. grillcr. It. brug. Arab. to shiver. to .' — (Supp. fansuddenly angry. rihrczzoso. wriggle. knis-hujwud .standing on end. airoKOTrrw. upon terms Sp. Capillary. brisoler. Caprice. a goat. CAPRICE twittering. greziller. and his body bristled We to castrate. capriol or caper in dancing. Torriano. caj)o. . frisser {frissement d'un trait. It. the head. p. with joy' Vikram. A headland. brisciare. for which he cites the Comask nucia. castrated cock. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . 75. bruco. erica. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. to twitter as birds.— 128 CAPE a rustling. eruca compared with It. then to be in a state of vibration. to shudder. and 7tucc. capriole. capitalis. the principal part of the debt. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. as Fr. and OHG. riccio. a separate division of a matter. to ruffle the surface of water. kid. Capital. a yearning through sudden fear. hi. hedge-hog. G^' Many words — ' ndv. <I>pi'?oe. Fr. knis.'— Trev. to parch. Hair-like. grug. gives rise to brezza. brisciare. brissle. Lat. a young kid met. a chevret. II bresole (Gl. compared with Bret. to from capitulum. arricciarsi. a . curl.) grezille marid. Capers. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. of a tremtdoiis sound. to broil. chattering of the teeth. as Fr.). Hence capitalis the sum lent. Lat. The true derivation lies in a different direction. hair. a caterpillar. A . as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. Fr. then find the symptoms of shivering. to crackle. Fr. bristling. greziller. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. s'hdrisser. a kid. cut. Unexpected pleasure. cappriccio. Sp. toy. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. chief. grisser. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. arricciarsi. It. — to yearne. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. bristling. capro. caprice. It. belonging to From caput. w. It. where Burton adds in a note. of a fowl. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. frissoner. or. shrub. the initial mute of forms like Gr. cover of a saddle. h^risser. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. according to the Hindoos. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame.Gr.impressions on the ear. castrated. capar. or represented by the syllable e.) d'etre The It. Griller d'im' patience. capriola. horripilation. a ch illness. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. heath. a hedge-hog. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. alcaparra. It. prickly husk of chestnut. shivering. gricciare. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. to desire earnestly. birsle. Fr. capitulare. Lat. brezilia. frisson- ner . then to shiver or shudder. ziki. the hair to stand on end. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . So from Sw. caprice It. See Chief. to shiver for cold.' Cot. And similarly to yearn. horror. the singing'bone). curly. or Lat. Lang. ericius.

and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. It is a standing crab. charrier. Carbine. was originally a missile . cams. caput. charret. also to carry on a car . Du. Capt-. Carabine. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. a sudden fear apprehended. a taking back. cabreia. 129 — receive. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. and has accordingly been lost in E. concevoir. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. deception. Kiittner. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Lat. captus. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones.of these compound verbs. at least. dim. &c. the -cevofthe Fr.. Capuchin. oisr. It. capuccio. a head man. Capsule. to receive receptio. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. desire. cabestan. Etym. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. a coffer. to please. i The meaning Car. -ceive. karra. a cart. Fin. Fr. OSp. captive. latterly. concebir. di cappa. Derivatives are Fr. one odd. Passing on into E. sels. deceit. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. to this is It.). from head. calabrin. receptus. char. It. except. Caseneuve in Diet. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . carretta. was a kind of horse soldier. decepte. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. hold. to accept. cabrestante (whence e. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. It. and has thus descended unaltered to English. a windlass. recibir. It. Crab. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Cart.s. capio. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. It. karrende waegen. however. Du. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. Fr. or the (capo-riccio). &c. Fr. accept. capra. crab s. recipere. Fr. precept. also tresFl. chirrion. capitis. an engine for throwing stones. of capsa. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. -cept. Fr. capitano. In cases. to take. carabin. acceptus. recepte. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. Carabin. carro. a sudden will. charger. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. and tropically. Cot. trestle. kerren. a cloke) capuccino. Lat. a kind of torture. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. chirriar. G. fancy. a fantastical humour. verbs gives rise to the element . it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. karren. captivate. .— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). commander. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. cabestrantej Fr. a. also a kind of rack. a capuchin. whence capture. shivering fit (Altieri). capp%tccio. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. Capstern. chevre. case. caThe hrestante. concipere. contain. See Caper. a creaking waggon. calabrino. conceit. conceive. de- price. Sp. to take baclc. — —Diet. and of captus to an e. Cot. -cept.. a hooded friar. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. Carry. Lat. caricare. to creak. The It. Fr. seize. krul. tnoschetta. Neumann. cabra. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock.). where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. Sp. Castr. to creak. Captain. a hood (dim. recipio. Thus the musket. It. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. a she-goat. to take to. Fr. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. perceive. a sawing-block or trestles. &c. bock. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. of the Sp. capsula. to carry . as in OFr. was converted into -ceb. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Fl. as in accipio. It. a reception. to load . Capriole. karista. as the dragoons (Du. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. In the S. fantastic. Lat. strideo. conception. concept. box. caprice. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback.or -cib-. intercept. Nordfoss. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. recevoir. — — Capstan. crepo. a. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon.

kirat. the dead body of any creature. the carcase of a fowl. wine- bottle. kard boyd. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . is the chine. Gael. carmiiiarc. a twist. Cot. Card. carabe. cabreia. the case of the flesh. case. an engine for hurling stones. Fr. It. cabra. a card or comb . calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. espi7igarda. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. Arab. Sp. skeleton. ancient springald. the husk or cod of beans. &c. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . a battering-ram). carbh. kerwan. the name might naturally Mod.. skeleton. Derived in the first edition from Mod. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . of carbo). to hiss (as gee^e). cdrlag. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. quse vocant karabd. mural attack. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent.' From the same source are SicU. to turn. Exot. a wool card. avSpaS. Venet. carate. OHG. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. — seems to be something holding together.. Sp. Fr. vitriol. carquasse.. garafa. See Carpenter. in the same way that the Sp. to creak. cassa. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. poison eiz. . Gr. karri. copperas. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. cerran. restraint . winding. W. Ptg. Bohem. a thistle. a case or chest . and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. krciti. p. carcanet. a quiver . an ulcer. shell. Fr. a snail. carabba. turn of a horse. wool card. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a quiver. alia sunt majora. It. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. the core of fruit . also (as Gr. caraffa. Mod. KtpaTwv. Carbuncle. the . to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. a thistle. Caravel. a goat. Carcax. Cat. a ripple for flax. to curry horses karsztuwas. . eit. cardo. cramp. carch. carcasa. a collar or chain for the neck. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin.applied to a battering-ram (G. It. to comb. designated in the case of G. winding carach. Gr. a kind of ship. carere. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. carta. caravela. to card wool. From the battering-ram. matter. a prison. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. card. Sp. Caraool. to card wool. a crane. . and catapulta. a lock of wool .. carquan. a dead carcase. quilato. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. carcame. It. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. . the trunk or chest of the body . Gael. tcapKaai. Carbonaceous. Gael. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz.. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Gael. properly a siege machine. a quiver. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. I. to ripple flax. a small weight. a gem resembling a live coal. carcaij. a he-goat. &c. Carboy. also a small weight. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. Carrob. to draw in. a skeleton. karszti. «capa'|8i. carcanada. fire . or framework. car. caraffe. confining. black dye. curry-comb. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. silique. caracal. coming to four grains. to comb wool . word is only an adoption of the Turk. carbunculus (dim. Carat. The radical meaning .charcoal . Fr. casso. Sp. Lat. Comp. a winding staircase. contract. Lith. carbo. &c. decanter. cabrita. constraining . a machine for casting large darts. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. eitar. ' Vasa vitrea. Carcase. carquois. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. a quiver . of the same Caravan. Parmesan cassiron. carduus. Sp. skeleton toise. the carob bean. boch. a ship. burning coal. Pers. the shell of a torcarcasso. for a gun. bend. An implement for dressing wool. a firelock. is the word used in modern Lat. military engines made for hurling stones. It. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. seed of carob. AS. Lat.— — — . The Trjg xeXwwac.Gr.Gr.z. turning. ON. . bock and Fr. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. chevre by the name of the goat. Cot. a coffer. karra.

caricatura. Trin. quaver a lazar's clack. grolU. be anxious. karout. quadrifurcum from quameet. to card wool. and murhet. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. cearian. from carrus. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. cdrle. Fr. see Garble. the several meanings of the words above Rom. crosier. Caricature. — To Careen. It. at murmuring. A quirito ut infans. charnel. soUicitus OSax. whence carricare. a turn. charta (Gr. de Parthenay. carnal. in Carp. Bret. AS. as peas. It. carezza. Fr. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. Fr. an endearment. Sp. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. Fr. charger. Fin. Carnage. mutter. a highway. that Fl. caru. It. carian. ignarus. combing them out like the knots in wool. in St Jerome. voce strepo stridente. caricare. . G. sorrow. carener. tremble. AS. cargar. carnis. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. clown or churl. piger. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici.Lat. karrig. carena. carriera. A medical term from line —Boerio. It. a card. hoed. one of those ac- 9 * . asper. W. the keel of a vessel. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Groler. Fl. It. karry. Carnal. Mur. stingy. 8. meet at a head. Properly.. beans. Coll. from the keel to the water . Fr. that on wliich the matter hinges. . to love. rixosus. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. also a career on horseback. W. . essere in carena. . Roquef. Cargo. Ptg. carch. A place where four roads Mid.— Charter. care on. cardinis. stridere. to rumble. . carnalis. Care. E. charg. male person. or street. karista. carcus. Cot. an overloaded representation of anything. — Carfax. murahtaa. from Lat. murista. appertaining to the flesh. moeThe Lat. road. morosus. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. a hinge. grief. — — — Caress. caMid. fundamental. regar. kumra. to lie on its side. to clean the bottom of the ship. 2. charie. sgritudo animi. dear. crowl. affection. to load. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. quarreG. Carenare. the time during which to Rom. Carminative. chartre. kribina. G. It. record. Probably the origin of the word is the . ON. Carlings. p. Bret. bottom. karg. OHG.Lat. solicitous. in N. A mod-carag. cearig.. Gael. care. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Chart. Peas steeped and fried. . OFr. sorrow. Cath. gakaran. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. &c. and sum. principal. to fry or broil. ON. Cartel. Dan. compared with Fin. giierlir. and compare Bret. zanken . charneux. From. Card. 1S66. from caricare. to load. to take Goth. charnage. like connection may be seen between Fin. carcare. Cot. kara. fleshy . to distress growl. . Lat. carnasciale. caresse. or grumbling —Due. kummer. Charnel. weyes. the load of a ship. Sept. immediately before the long fast of Lent. strideo. to scratch. carFrom carrus. from carus.' Slceat. Carl. the keel. Carled peas. Sp. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Fin. carminare. car. No ' place there had.— CARD karr-kambar. to fry. to care unkarja. murren. For the root of carminare. scharren. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. to growl. . act of moaning. croller. x'»P'"^s)) paper. carriire. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. sensual. astutus. the flesh of animals . karl. karantez. careless take care of. place for exercise on horseback. cargo. to comb wool. carnavale. and G. 273. cardo. Venet. Translated in MS. AS. the old theory of humours. & Q. carena. Fr. Fr. Lat. Cot. — — Diez. It. ceorl. the hull of a ship. is This however Shrove tide. to shake. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. to eat flesh. crawl. camovale. Fr. winding. to comb flax or hemp. Champ. intrasset caro. tuorfurcm (Burguy). a man. to whirr (schnurren). carrefourg. w. ress. charag. is to say. surrata. — — . to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. and thin. four. Properly a car-road. as carminare. msstus. W. tenax. — — — : Cardinal. cura intenta. kargr. kroU-erbser. wool cards. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. to parch. niggardly . morosus sum. carina. cura may be ror. what is felt as grievous. a deed. parched or carled. to scrape . kurista. Cark. as quadrivium from Carnaval. love. graller. caritia. Farewell flesh. Bois crolant d'un ladre. to load.

carpetrix. pluck at. carduz. as Fr. I drink all out. or a carouse fully drunk up. carpenter only in the latter sense. a dance. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. gonna. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. 2. ' ' — . carnelascid). to reel. Gael. charpentier. a plank. Sup.' Reg. zimmerspan. or loose as a couch without further preparation. course. On the other hand bumper to one's health. cxciv. Here's to you still my captains friend. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. — — ' ' — — — I — — . In a MS. carpetam (a quilt?). Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence.: . garrire. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Mediol. maker of waggons It. biheld without. worker in timber Fr.'— Stat. to chatter coroli. Bohem.]e bois Carnelevale. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. to gather. The tippling sots. chatter skra/a. Analogous R. Olr. to dance. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. was formed Mid. to pluck. carpat (Stokes). peta. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. 2. The word seems of Celtic origin. Beggars Bush. Lat. carpenta. krapati. is erroneous. Carnevale. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. whence the form carnasciale. i. Fr. as E. used for stuffing mattresses. So gone they forthe. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Other names of the sea. W. Carpenter.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. cardos.gonnella. a wheelwright. 216. ON. to rustle. Pr. balade from It. in Carp. The karole of the stones behelde. carbh.Why give's some wine then. A. — . carpenticre. Pref. tymmer.' says Motley (United Neth. The ' ' a chariot. e. i. 94). Lat. . koroll. zimmer. Biheld within. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. chirp. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. and F. querole. ship. carpia. Carole. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Alluz (G. cariielevamen or carnis levamen.' Raleigh. Ant. to find fault with. All out B. fabulor. of Guiana. differing To Carp. to dance. I quaught. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. litter. tattle. 1 1 30. a car carpentarius. In Dominica d'autant. The true derivation is : seen in Mid.Lat. Cot. Properly a round dance. Gower in Way. The custom. Bret. ! Carouse. lint. cited by Marsh. Mid. yede tham about. carpere. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Teut. on that. a song accompanying a dance then. skraf. Dief. carpo.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. in Due. krapanj. at midnight which derivation from kroes. linteamen. Carpet. carpita. Nomin. a wheelwright. in Nat. carpentum. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol.— R. gar aus / all out is correct. all aus). Pm. Lat. chariot carbad. Templariorum — ' — Due. chatter. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. to pull asunder. as the Lat.— Drant in R. charpie. act of drinking a full Eq. Shrove Tuesday. ballare. Discov.' Ordo Eccles.— Patriarchi. On this. From Lat. Carpyn or talkyn. Palsgr. CarTo quaff carouse do use. quoted by Carpentier. culcitra. carpende fast Carol. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. To pledge them thou refuse. bier. 760. pluck. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. to talk. as carnaval from carnelevamen. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Chanson de carole. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. and Carnem laxare (It. sense. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. .D.— Neum.Lat. Mid. qui sacco. Carnelevale.Lat. a drinking cup. garrulo. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Fr. . vel coopertorio carebit. a carder. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Sp.

Fl. caisse. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Fr. casus. Lat. Cascade. a chest. to dash. discharge It.' Fl. carogna. Lith. See Case. It.to annul. ' Casa-matta. caro. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. of carro. a hut. To Cashier. from Lat. Fr. cascar. hollow. cia. Carrion. It. The Sp. Cot. Sp. kerven. quash. caroche. a car. kasseren. cartilage. The carrying of anything. carreaggio. shell or carcase of a house. caroach. from It. to — — also casse. — Cartridge. Casket. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. to slay. a car. abrogate. cancel. Cassock. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Fr. Rouchi caroche. fall It. Hence a challenge openly hung up. — FI. charogne. cassette. Casuist. Ready money. helmet. It. bitten. made void. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. CartOTicli. discharge. Cot. To Carry. paper. Walach. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. to an- — Kil. It. casacca. cartoccio. Carriage. a loopscale the wall. coffer. not reaching to the height of the ditch. dim. a long coat.' Bailey. cassa. OE. cut with scissors. Du. Cartel. carretta. AS. casitiste. Lat. cascade. Du. empty. AS. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. cashiered. gristle. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. It. cartone. Cask. See Gristle. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . cassere. void cassare. G. — — . case-maiej Sp. afterwards any written challenge. Fr. Fr. to crack. fortuitous. capsa (Diez). also the carriage. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. to notch. It. Casque. caisse. and that apparently from capio.' Cot. casser. Rouchi carter. kerben. something that actually occurs. As defence from shells became more important. carota. Sp. Lat.— Fl. gristle. a chance or accident. Case-mate. from It. casso. — Cartoose.. corresponding to the G. crush. Fr. augmentatives of carro. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. a fall. charrier. one who reasons on cases put. from the sound it makes when Alban. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. mord-keller. casualis. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Fr. crown of a hat. cartouche. caxa. to shear. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. It. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. a merchant's cash or counter. Gael. and the OE. charrette. cascata. Probably. carroccio. cartella. casaque. Rouchi carone. casa-maita. for the security of the defenders. Case. an act of falling. an augmentative from Lat. casa. Flor. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. hung up in some place and to be removed. kirpti. as we . kerpu. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. casag. It. carroc- carrozza . augm. See Card. to fall. carretto. case. Fr. Fr. Rouchi carpHe. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. break to pieces. to bear or carry. to hold. mord-grube. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. annul. to convey in a cart. Case. and matar. house. a paper case. bag and baggage of a camp. carriaggio. Fr. a coffer or small case for jewels. casuelj Fr. To quash an indictment. Fr. tion from Sp. to break. properly to convey in a car. like all the names of tendon. slaughter-house. Cartoon. to cut or carve . vault hole in a fortified wall. Lat. Fr. Cash.' — Hdcart. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. casco signifies a skull. cascare. Preparatory drawing of a It. a canonry or slaughterhouse. To Carve. card. caisse. luggage. cancelled. coffin of paper for groceries. cassus. the money chest. Hence casket. krat. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. — — nul the proceeding. of carta. cassa. To duash. packing ' cloth. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. to fire on the enemy. blotted out. ceorfan. turn out of service. mata. from casa. subject for a picture. long man's gown with a close body. Fl. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Casual. a of water. Cart. carrosse. It. the charge of — — Fr. Carrot. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. pasteboard. quasser. ignominiously exposed. where Fr. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. hull of a ship.

passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. fall. to drive Cat o' nine tails. casule. to clack. bot-kotis. same word with break. KaraXoyog. 120. It. chasser. Yz. and KviilSog. lance. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. cascar. a little house or hut. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. under chi caleur. or Rouchi cat. klakka. follow after. to is Essentially the Sp. Sp.to drive out. represented by the syllable quash. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. of castrum (castra). Fr. cacciarc.. catch. dash. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. kasi. on. — We a cavity. Cast. race. the stalk of plants. in the fire. Thus we have Caste. It. Pm. heat . Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. drive away. coming to us through different dialects of French. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. from the first of Castrate. a chesnut . Pol. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Roukind. ecrevisse. Gael. stilts. kakka. Etym. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. being Fin. Fr. castana. rack. chasuble. koshka.the / or c respectively. of sarabands does Gr. to end. Others explain it from Kara. squash. or bruise together. from water Karappaaaiii. a fortified place. the ground . KaTappaKTrjQ. cast. Gr. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. perhaps from which we have E. Castanets. 'Vaaaw. B. Castle. to hurl See Awgrim. to Fl. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. To Catch. to close. . was introduced. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. Fr. to torture. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. . the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti.out cacciare . So also from It. a vault. to bring to an crack given by the joints. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. Gr. the castanets for or implement . execu. and tomba. To It. . to look at. kissa. catar. image accasciare. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. mino. punch. probably from an imita. 134 CAST Catacomb. The Diet. castro. to fall as over a precipice. which. handle of an axe. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. away. &c. kottr. KarapaKrr]g. chasser. ON. R. the earlier sense of catch. accastiare. . It. arpi^m. to scourge. Pic.Lat. katze. dashing it out of the window. first made ordinary Fr. dim. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . castello. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Isidore — in Diez. Cat. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. ating. a cat koshki. while kiss / Pol. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat.. torture. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Fr. V Lith. casulla. chaleur. down. a thump. burst cascare. to drive away. cojz^/a. kasta. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Fr. to turn overturn. puras E. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. a cat . casupola. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. puss / for calling them. Catastrophe. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. a garment for performing the mass in. Brunne. crush . to crack. ' Catchyn away abigo. Mid. cassa / cry for the same purpose. signifying breed. casipola. second chase. Lat. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Lat. to make clean or chaste. to lash. however. a whip on the other into latch. Sp. to crackle. which has been retained in E. castanetazo. or comba.'— Pr. Fr. to dash. Fr. sue. cat. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. OFr. The E. kic' kicil are used chasser.— Fl. down. cat-o'-nine. like that of It. squash. V. Chase. to break. by the loss of with several pitched cords. and from the castus. kotas. Lang. Cot. shaft of a 1 push. tails. In the dialect of Picardy. to cast or beat to tioner . castellum. cacciuolo. dashing it to pieces. Catalogue. Hal. Fr. kotas. casser. chat. kaJoivad. _G. to hunt.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. an enumerlist. cacciare fuora.Rouchi Scaches. a Cataract. fer toTa. . is not satisfactory. cash. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. n. Hence castaneta. ichasses. name. force j Rouchi equerviche. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. speak of dashing a thing down. Fr. kat. KaTaarpifm.

one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. * Caterpillar. Gael. catch.V. snatched. is said that he got a claucht of it. .V. ' Fr. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. a cornIn the s. a clap.yopl(. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. Kil. fragor kletsoore. resound. On Catechism. has both or of charming by sound. G. i. head. s. — explained. clatter. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. a whip Rouchi cachoire. ketsoore. Kartiyopta (/cari. bichano (pussy). whip. klatscherei. ictus resonans. snatching. GaUa catchiza. Fr. to harangue. verberare kUts. kletse. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . catch. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. icarrix'Ki^. the distance to which the ball is struck. gattola. flap klatsche. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. Swiss Lombard G. — . . klinke. clap with the hand. dainties. resono ictu lash. Gael. from Gr. E. a. Du. to kythe D. In the XV'e. to crack GATES cache. ArbaUte de courte chasse. a — gatta. Wal. wild-beast. with and without an / after the c. gingle. ecachoire. instruction in forms. — Kiittner. and answer. the OE. Caterer. — B. Guernsey chafer. an accusing. klatschen. devouring mite or weevil.' ^Jam. happe-chair. to take. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. catc?u. Ptg. Fr. gliong. . blow. P. Cot. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. kaetse. as of the latch of a As ! — . children's name for cat . predicament. chacepol. chenille {canicula. to clap hands. to teach by oral instruction. e. chatter. catch-flesh. to snap. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. a little dog). of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. . chasse. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any.j. the elements of a science. quincailler. bicho. Claucht. kletsen. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. the the same principle he was Fr. Du. Cot. chink. millecaterpillars. pedes. E. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. OFr. to chat. weevils. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. Sc. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. Grandg. c or ^. sound. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. de Bray. in order). or any kind of relishing food tuals. ' ' word catch. KaTtix'so. formerly called cliket. chatter . claquer. an officer of taxes. Metivier. cagnon (a dog). Chate peleuse. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. Guernsey pilleure. which all . woodlice. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Cates. a whip. to snatch (said of dogs). Diez. a. seize. Rouchi clincailleux. e. insect.) . Tutschek. Sp. to chatter with the teeth cake. 'Bxn. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. called in Fr. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. E.. chassoire. a pill. silkworm. — tinman. apprehend a person. to A bailiff. a whip or Kuttner. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates.' CATCH Fr. dainty vic- a form lash. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. caucht. latch of. 'Horxa. 135 — Aasen. chachara. to catch strength. compare G. klatsche and Norm. called dog or Galla catchamza. glcu. Fr. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. from shutting with a click.from Bard and ayopsw. klatsch. Du. Kil. a caterpillar Milanese can. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. a carter's Pat. chase. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . . Gr. caker.s. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). a smack. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. a whip. cat is not apparent. companaige. latch. smack. — with a whip. worm. clap. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. snatching it with a any one. cache.P. door when it is shut. to the crack. * Cates. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. — Catcli-poll.

&c. a mare. Provider. B. — — cavallo. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. quire. — Cauterise. Pol. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. from KaSaipio. kin. acater. Bessie of Bednall. kitten kotki. Fr. Palsgr. Caudle. kobyla. puss. It. cautis. Kavrfipiov. hollow. catkin Magy. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. kocie. Richly she feeds. . from chaud. to sound like a blow . chaussJe. Jaubert. calqada. mutz. That he was ay before in his estate. a The peel. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. katteken. a horse. to shoe. is Prologue. Fr. ' Gr. fur in general. Cavity. 2. reticella.. dumpf tonen. Lat. Pr. .Y\\Xea. calotte. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. to beware. cavaliere. chatideau. klopfend knallen. Cathartic. a paved road. kopano. Chaud. adcaptare. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. flock. kocianki. caple. achepter. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Catkin. puss. Russ. shaled or picked Fr. walnut with the husk on challer. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. cat maczoka. Cavalry. rete A — Prov. kdtzchen. w. causa. Causeway. It. Fr. Mid. caldo. cautus). Cavalcade. Fin. koparet. a road calceata. to burn. Du. Cavern.^ acheter (Lat. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Caballus. Gr. Fr. accapitare Rouchi acater. the stones of a street. Cave. It.^Hal. G. chaudroii. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. a horseman. Lat. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. cabbage. calidus. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. cabbage-stalk. It. . little cat. catons. to shoe . from delf^gato.. caudex . KiwariKog. chair. Caution. Fr. by land. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. a seat. Manciple's Tale. katte. kautsije. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. OE. . mudet. Kavrijp. On the other hand. Fr. A warm comforting drink. little cap is . Sx. kopista. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. otherwise written kell.p. Cauldron. whence cathedralis. . what . cale. catkin mitz. kassije. The word — . Du. catkins . 4. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. acaptar. Fr. via strata. challe was ther of a temple. but the acates that are sent him.willow.Lat. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Fr. KaHSpa. cal^ar. apt to burn iron. Dryden in R rete. accattare. Gr. . Cause. Jonson in R. cavus. green husk of a calon. calceta. catkin Pol. Hence achates or acates signified purchases.' B. hot. hot. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. puss. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying].—— — 136 correct. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. a pulpit. Fr. lamb. Caustic. and at the rich man's cost By sea.' Elyot in Way. Lat. cabbage). Port. Lat. the. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. ce^l. CAVE Caul. flue. a branding from koiio. chevalier. capull. calceata. Diez). chaudiire. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. from caveo (p. Kil. CATHARTIC sense. macska. any Fl. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. chauderon. Palsgr. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Delycates. . minon. despencier. • — — See Chattel. Cathedral. a kettle for heating water. a stalk. Boethius. to shale or peel. — . deyntie meates. kobuiV. chausser. KaPaWrii. Rete. Thus Bav. having the property of cleansing. a horse . to ac- — Fr. cheval. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. a kind of skull-cap.Lat. Lat. the caul of the liver. to purge. Gael. Cavalier. caballus. choufleur {choii. and hence a skull-cap. Mid. Ka^afriKOQ. a horse . hazel. primitive is meaning a shale or off. to buy. kaussijde. fur. Wyatt in R. and spareth for no perell. a receptacle for small things. Gr. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. net or caul-work. cauHs. a pavement. It. make clean. cale. Cattle. also to pave . Fr. Lat.

The It. a planking or boarding tkilian. Fr. Sir 137 pit . excess. hollow. . augm. — . sky. thilja. cielo. The sense of roofing. So from Fin. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. p. plank. the deck of a ship at thilja. bridle. a canopy. a head. del into English without ' translation gave cele. Gawaine & Sir Gol. . also a seeling of boards. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. &c. wainscot thiljar (in pi. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Cam. exceed.' Marriage of James IV. were met. koppeli. lambris. . . that. to seele or close with boards plancher. And seik — Cessation. -cease. Ceiling. p. B.' Rutland papers. death. seele. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. Lat. recede. pp. kapp-zaum. ciel de lit. cesso. wall. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. nailes will begin to cling. . the roof of a coach.j have come from this source. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. E.). a halter. thil. cyling (W. applied to a canopy. Cede. The line of descent from Fr. Lat. heaven.' Hall. cease. sybire. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. to canopy siled. kommata. jaa. to argue capto tiously. Sherwood.). a log. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. rafter. . a boarded floor. cabegon. curved. a canopy. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over.' Cot. plank. cedo. to cut. tester of a bed. To seele a room. thelu. is applied to a canopy. a beam. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Cease. -ceed. sill in window-sill.' — Gawan .. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. syle. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. thil. crooked kopio. quibble. semely on syll. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. to go forth. cavillor. cavezzone. as if from happen. canopied. decessus. a hut. Plancher. but hang around at the sides. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. beam. of cavezza. departure from this life. Cot. — — — toyour soverane. deal. to plank ON. Cavil. ceiling. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. Sp. hollow ice . cabega. syl. hollow. Fr. The importation of Fr. Wore. Lat. H. 5. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. of E .' del.. and Gol. -cede. See -cede. komo. sill. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Boyd in Jam. cellar. a fir-plank. —Decease. in Jam. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. to panel or wainscot MHG. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. coffer. the testern of a bed. dille. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. A — A false accommodation produced G. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . Fr. menuiserie. selar. in Jam. selure. -cess. dScis. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. and that from Sp. a board. ciel is so unbroken. Soc. thiling. VIII. &c. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. IV. It. . little house. thel. a log. — komo tain). departure. with their substantives concession. Lat. CAVESON kopera or kowera. proceed. lambrisser une chambre seeling. . in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. — . 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. . but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. yield. 7. hung.'— Z. flooring E. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. dayntily diglit. empty. 43. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. a log. an aquiline nose. and zaum. Hal. give place. 32. door-sill J Sc. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. hivtmel. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. . &c. komista. sus-lambris. . step away. caveqon. to plank or floor with planks. In the same way G. wuoren komo. a severe bridle. column E. the inner roof of a room of state. a plank. succeed. dil. Hence concede. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. . and then to gape. heaven. or of a bed. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. In the N. thili. in Hal. cessum. as. &c. Fr. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. post. .' Ordinances and Reg. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. board . ceiling.

to course of people. to take. with the eyes. — . calefare. guish. in comp. Sc. to glow. cot. cencer. Fr. to seele or sew up the eyelids . eyelid. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. census. to contend. . judge Lat. Lat. Fr. a solemnity. To seel or close the eyes. in Marsh. confounded ist from It. — — Cenotapli. we have a modified form of (of a place). as in some places burnt. Lat. swift. rough from the quarry.ing a room where there is not fire. what to set in a chafe. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. to visit in numbers. to rub for the purpose a hut. &c. ciller. to -sum. -cepire. then to rub without reference Cement. Censure. a shaft horse. to separate. decide. thence belonging to or connected with corn.j 138 thill. sting. the point round which a circle is drawn. Gr. {cori)cipere. to rate.' Book of St Albans. and put it through the over eyelydde. sacred show. as entering largely into the derivative certo. KsvTpov. Centurion. caber. sift. thronged the participle cretus. In Celebrate. -ciper. — . Celebrity. Fr. Centre. Lat. and met. capio. deceit. Lat. is the opposite of disora virum. irot\oe. deceipt. Gr. festive. Cot. Prov. Lat.' Celebritas. judge. to burn incendo. age. single or unwedded life. incense. -civer {conciver— Roquef. tax. — . the place where the de. The term cilium. — . cceremonia. It. a religious observance. to prick. value. a hundred of what- — . to seal a pigeon's eye. and so of that other. the officer appointed to take such returns . materials It. heaven. Lat. or expression of Ennius. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. Take the nedyll and threde. capturn. siller les yeux. ciglio. to blindfold. from censeo. -cipio. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. renown be embodied with. for building. a numerous con. cillier. to set on fire. solemn (of per. Fr. oil. oil. Censer. abundance. to chafe. K^'ivut. (and thence also) to hoodwink. — . Lat. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. -cess. and thence censer. concetto. Fr. Celerity. sile. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. to incense. cilibat. in accordance with the Fr. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. -cense.of the r. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. cretum. cerealis. being taken from Fr. celer. Chafe. to be regarded as one celebro. a tomb. to heat. cella. &c. hollow. to concern. Census Censor. chauffer. -CEIVE a shaft. to sleep).. eschattffer. or any bird's. an eyelash. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. parted sleep. empty. goad. Accelerate. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. -i^oivre. Cij(fe5j. quarters for slaves. Coehim. Fr. Assize. to warm. Lat. pick out. riscaldarsi. — A . see. Cell. Censor. . rubble. to attend on object with. concernor. a registration of one's self. cenio.— Cellar. census. point. the talk of men. celeber certus. and thence to conceal. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. also grave opinion. stones to the production of heat. Fr. Fl. chaufferette. ' . Assess. assess. to take. Cess. -cepere. calefacere. to twinkle darkness. Incensum. dchauffer. Century. Ceremony. receipt. — . blind. Lat. See Celibacy. family. of heating. Lat.). estimate. Gr. contend. in comp. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. OFr. sure. but was gradually lost in conceit.cern. cigliare. distinIt. -cevoir. and — — — possessions. decebre) . -ceptjun. to bury). For sess from assess. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. to distinguish. much frequented. -ceive. to celebrate. Gr. a hundred centuria. 1. Lat. Lat. tax.. candeo. Cereal. become heated with anger. Lat.— Chafing-dish. Cot. -cern. S. a Cemetery. /ctj/rsw. to think. conceipt. appertain. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. keep in It. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. a valuation of every man's estate. To chafe is for wine. a solemnity. zens according to their property. To Incense. centum. to sepap rate. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. crevi. -ceit. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. observe. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. censura. mortar. a storehouse Chafe. ceremonia. Certain. encens. It. Ta^oe. criticism. -oept. the hollow the Lat. from Saa-rw. with transposition hence (of a day). -cebre ifoncebre.unmarried. camentum. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be.). his office. syll. Sherwood. See Cede. a prick. make angry. is totally distinct from the foregoing. judge. Fr. concerner.

a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. . puff. Ayenbite. . a double operation * Chafer. OFr. 35. green sagrin. as. kiqfta. in a cana. lime . Lat. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. cathedra. baras of ants. difficulty . de Brai. on. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. vis. sagri. idle words. . Chain. fa sagramen de calompnia. ^Altieri. calix. kever. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. From Port. much blowing.. grief. and as this was the beginning of man. chaise. chafeter. a jackdaw. Lat. ing a hard case to their wings. Fr. calx. To buy and sell. Adelung. breathe KaOa^oiiat. a rustling noise. rustling corn. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. chamar. to dispute. chalanger. Fin. B. Bav. Wall. care. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. — — — — — — . lime. ing rapidly repeated cries. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Piedm. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. G. to action arose. to institute anforensic action. sborfare. Perhaps Pm. to file. a goba rustling . signal by drum or P. From to go to law. G. from Swiss kafeln.' Rayn. Fr. to caw chawer. cadieira. any insect of the beetle kind. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Gr. to sit. So from dominio. kuhuja. to calumpnjamen. to Latin calumniare. talkative. without chap/are makiinde. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. vel susurro. kuhata. a chain. and signifies to consume with anger. ckapfare. muzzle. Prov. a chough. to gnaw. Kuttn. &c. Du. Lat. breathe hard. Chayire. chafing. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. of. thick and short. (ca'e'ra) to chair. often puffing. Kaiiapa. songe. In vulgar language. kiaftr. kaff. ple^. catena. ceafer. Probably from According to Diez. chayire. to chatter or talk lightly. Pr. Lat. fume. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). rustle Challenge. shaIt. calonjar. kahuja. jaw. Cot. to move the jaws. dongio. cam. Halma. a pulpit Cot. to puff and blow. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. also to prattle.— — . trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. false accusation. to fret inwardtronfo. care. or puff with snorting. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. keuchen. snort. to ner It. Hal. Gr. kauchen. Fr. grief. snuff. calonja. call in question for an ley). Fr. calumnia. cadera. rustling motion challenge. Bouffard. contestation. From the To Chaff. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. haggle. chawe. chaffare. to tattle. khah. Fr. kahista. to call. camera. Lat. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . Cot. cadena gives chain. ceaf. E. that leneth e per I'autra. Fr. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Fr. chambre. from of the G. as a carriage is a moveable seat. chaene. gewolb. Fr. — — ' — — — A . kahu. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. a vault or arched roof. kuhina. Pers. cathedra. — — — . dispute. ON. P. leviter crepo Then. — . taubes korn oder hafer. to babble. havOFr. In like manto huff. . CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. Due. much more Genoese sagrind. swelling with anger. chaine. with a:n arched roof. now a chair. preise. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. have a mind to parley. puffed or ruffled with ly. place See Cheek. Chair. Du. chaulx. to a seat. keffen. to gnaw. clamare. chagrin. KoBiSpa. kdfer. limare. Lat.nium. to claim. Pat. chaps Chamber. yap.. — — — . kdfelen. refuse barley . great chafe. matter by combat. hordeum vel let. quisquilise offence. Lat. De Ir4. p. crooked. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. to bark. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. kiamta. Fl. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. sagrindse. rally one. a prattling woaction. kedja. kuhista.sure carriage. tronfio. tattle. Camera. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Chagrin. cauvette. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. cup.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. hiss. chaire. Came. to pant. The jaw chafty. chatter. tattle cheep. . calice. bargain. far lima-lima. Fr. refuse. chicane. Chalice. fern-chafer. a pulpit. avena vilior. 11. hght Chalk. in a monstrous fume. charge with. kaff. from the shark-skin. Cheffern. Prov. to buzz. cadena. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Prov. Fr.

nels. to . compound. to paw the ground E. Fr. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. to flute as a column. CHANCEL It. . a hollow chanfreiner. excellent. to fasten on. kampa. The word is preserved in E. G. Fr. camp. Partnership. Hence (with the nasal) w. Gall. prize-fighter. as swine. cancelli. to fasten oneself to another . to chew. chanfreindre. a field of battle. i. Campar. to wrestle. to hollow out. a game at football. The happening of things Chance. kimbu. Magy. schmatzen s. dricka i kapp. received the petitions of the suitors. jocus partitus. a feat. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . keiiipe. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. Prov. Fr. campus partitus . to be eminent. tsamtsogni. at the railings. Chancery. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Champ. kippo. to — — champ. from chaud. . to hold . gewolbt. a bundle. kampeln. dial. contend or argue G. ON. termediaries between them and the judge. . Get campers a ball To camf . kanip. who stood ad cancellos. E. reusement — fight in single combat. to to chew champ. kampeln. broil. boys speak of capping verses. ing. kapp. to debate. top of a borehole. Dief. champ. Champarty. athlete. kablys. . a jaw kianisa. Fr. Du. accidere. to bevel. Lat.' ' Pr. cempa. Chamfron. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. difficulty . and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. ON. sukibti.' melleia. To cope or contend with. kempen. to stick to. cazer. to fall). luctare. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. Champaign. Champion. hng. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. hot. as in It. a horse-race. ciamberlano. contest. kabintis. fight. —Chamfrain. Fr. contention kappi. to hang. campus. to fall. champ parti. chanfrein. divided game. certare. chance. to tread The sound heavily. The G. chamble. rare. dispute Hal. chanfrar. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. champ. to groove bevel off a right angle. slope of a bevelled angle. pinch.—Tutschek. Sup.' SherI'altro ' ' . and acted as inofficers of . chaude mesUe. Lat. wood. campear.—Charfron E. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. ON.Lat. tsammogni. an athlete. dial. gekrUmmt. or less ignorant. To hollow out in chanPtg. combat. E. Fin. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. to excel. kabe. zampettare. . calidameya. which seems another form of the root. to happen {ad and cadere. dial. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. cameratus. . chdance. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. is explained by serrarsi. kampen. cadere.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. a court of justice.edley. dial. to strive at games . cample). — Hal. When the to quarrel. kimpUma. ciambellano. Carpentier. champion Du. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. camerlengo. camp. jeu parti. Sp. To Chamfer. — masterly Sp. So in e. cahir. e. kabMe. to move the jaws kiamt. dial. to slope out the . Ptg. — Ch-amberlain. Lat. Meleare. hamper. to quarrel (comp. surpassing. to talk. Fr. s. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Chancellor. caer. or player at football. head armour.140 CHAMBERLAIN . kabinti. Pm. . kriimmen gebogen. Lith. It will. bundle. to smack the lips in eating. a scufSe. chance. mesleiare. fray. Lat. therewithal. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. The E. kappd). from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. escazenza. move the jaws. camp. game campio. Commonly derived from campus. campar. fighting place. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . . pedilusor. and mesUe. chamfrain. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Prov. See Camp. M. act of falling. from cheoir. kinipen. champ. chajnbellan . bickering. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . chain. to fasten oneself on to another . a warrior. kempa. accident. chanfrein. champ. fight. the chafldn. calida et sans aguet. to cample. Chance-n3. kiammi. Chancel. a hook . hero Sw. — ^Tusser. zs jeopardy. Sp. from Fr. to wrestle. kibti. giving rise to the as. to slope. to Hal. kimpustella. kimppu (Lap. kiinp. — KiL .

chapelete de una bomba. chop.^. Fr. flat . to chap at a door. while the broader vowels a. to paw like a horse . and also to chap or crack. a strip of metal plate. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. or the like chapar. ON. A fellow. ceaflas. chapilla. Lang. chanter. Du. Da. changer. Chip. as skin chapped hands. Bret. chap. to coat. as chancery . Hal. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. any hollow for conveying water. clapet. a small metal plate Port. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Hence It. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . to hack. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. exchange. to break . Hal. And N. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Channel. Chapel. to spht a chip. Chap.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. 140. kapoti. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. a money-changer. cambium. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Chop. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. kiceft as well as kjakje. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. to swap. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . the clappers of the scupper holes. . or the cracking of one. Da. Walach. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. to — cut. cobio. Lat. skipta. AS. surfaces striking together. is used in the same sense . . and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. also a clap. may be compared with ON. as It. to plate. ceaplas. to strike. leather. a small plate of flat metal. as to chap hands. exchange. See Chant. Aasen. klepan. to creak. —Ordericus Vitalis. Hence chantry. to change. muzzle. chancery. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. debeant conjurare. Fr. Chap. wood. jaw. jaw. Chaps or chops. chapear. Compare chark. a dealer in candles then. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. kappen. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. chapeta. gab. Sp. exchange schimbatoriu. See Chop. to peck. the place where candles ler. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. chiappa. to apply one flat thing to another. chapeletas de imbornales. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. to sing. cheek. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. chandelier. to put on fresh clothes. to truck. a reed. from clap. properly in a hard body. ^Jam. chaps. to strike with a sharp edge. kemma. a pipe. kjaakaa. kennel. chancellerie. Fr. throat of an animal. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. to cut off . to cut. to deal. the mouth. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. — . Chape. Russ. I. like the knocking of hard things together. Cheek. are kept. canalis. esclapa. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. the gutter that runs along a street. — — —Marculfus in Due. chop. — : Lat. It is also used in the sense of the E. schimbu. as those on a trunk. to cut up into small pieces. Fr. kiceft. Sc. Commonly derived from capella. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. That wide were sentin their spicery. hard bodies. extended to other trades. Sp. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. Chap. prune. In like manner Walach. shift. cantare. E. esclapo. schimbd. . Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Chandler. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Man of Law's Tale. kaupa. cambiare. the chaps . Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. waterconduit. . a chap is a crack or fissure. chap. as corn-chandChandry. To Change. Prov. Probably from chap. camjar. and the modern canal. W. 2. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to strike. a jaw. not a soul. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. to plate. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. . kvar kjceften. —Chantry. chapa. hack . Molbech. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. lips of an animal. to peck. from chandler. cambiar. cangiare. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. Lith. from canna.

— a car. kurkti. a rhyme. to load . of chapel. carus. . Sp. as Pol. Chapman. Charge. bler. charger. charer. AS. capellare. to prattle. it is my turn.czirksti. as. Du. charge an enemy is to lay on. karout. To Char. * Charcoal. Character. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. wood to coal. dear. dear(in both senses). condo il volgar francese. affection. gadka. carmo. siarad (pronounced — sharad). chat. See Cheap. eyre. Lat. chirlar. gaggle . cedeleac. It. ject). Sp. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. beloved. Fr. from cape or cope. capitolo. to prattle. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. twitter. ciarlatore. hiss Lith. Deutsch. Chirk. It. corona. from gadai. Charade. to charcoal. An enchantment. — spell. Lat. from Charade. Lith. to creak. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. chatter. kurkelis. Cot. called in Sp. It. from carrus. krachzen). came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. a dispute . car. to love. Bret. Sp. wreath for the head. eapitulo. to turn Gael. to converse. be- e. enough. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . as a beetle. charlatan. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. turn. 2. OE. cam. Charlatan. a The OFr. a riddle. and at line 2520 it runs Charm.' Boccaccio in Diez. cearcian. cher um cher. the turtle pitre. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. colliers that charred coal. . Inst. —— . that turned decken . charitas. Fr. a merchant. talking. a hood. babdistinction. tegere. from capitulum. (eucharistie. jabber. Chare. . charlar. hadka. a garland of roses. decken. cha. burning without consuming the substance. dim. in turns. carmen. Mundart. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. In that work the verb is written caire. for the same reason rosario. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. czirbti. czurliwoti. ghirlanda seor garland. to croak as a frog . a mark of a mountebank.Lat. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. to dove .). Lang. chapelet. used in the sense of magic Fl. to turn. creak. turn about. w. Fr. return. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. a cricket karkti (schnarren. capella. to . keeren. go. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. chara. to tattle. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. Charcoal was ciarlare. Swiss. babbling. the nature of a thing. charade. gnash. creak. a riddle. to sing or chirp as birds. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. capital. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. to chirp. seems to be derived charade. chirk. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. to of the governing body. czurksti. &c. in To ness Charity. Lay on. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. cluck kirklys. char. Hence carminare. carricare. Macduff. Yx. Sup. cluck. The G. to talk . ceap-man.. — — — turned to coal. pohadka. grave or make incised marks on an ob. caricare. Prov. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. From Norm. from capa. Justin. It. surris seu Lat. Mid. 370. which was incantation. . prattling quacksalver. carregar. a charm. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Charlock. AS. chatter. called kedlock. w. Lat. cerran. properly to place — . And damned be he who first cries Hold. Boh. chirriar. See Charlatan. charcoal burners. a mark made on a thing. to chirp. and in It. a turn cerran.charme. canne. caritas. a head or division of a book. Ptg. Gr. Fr. Fr. The crash. . es ist mi cheer. schreien. to chirp as sparrows. tattler.whirr. kirkti. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Chark. chapel. cabildo. twist. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. a verse. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. Chaplet. Chapter. chapitre. occasional turn. clack. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. A weed among com AS.

whistle. the young shoots . chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. — Yorkshire chat. —Jam. as we speak of olive branches. the noise of birds. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. from xoAn. Gr. chit-chat. la chasse d'une rose. a yawning. incassare. be wide open. See Catch. Kil. talk. gazzettare. ch&tier. To chit. Kil. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. Fr. . — Hal. from pure. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. karg. in Jam. clean. —Bailey. also to germinate or spring forth. gazeuiller. to which it bears the same relation as chape. eclats. scraps of for fuel. It. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. xi'i-'^vui. a word. noise. also to hatch. to chirp. as. tittle-tattle. a churchyard or charnel-house. to chirp. to enchase it . Parallel with E. to crack. jackdaw . V. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. Chaste. clean. OE. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . the bird is iiown. G. Chary. as purgare Fr. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. — sharp sound of a crack. castus. Pm. to separate in morsels. chat. an enchantress. to chatter or prattle . to set a jewel. to care). chip. occasionally Forby. — = Chats. So in Gael.— Chatter. clatter. chit in the latter sense Du. tenax. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object.). csatora (Magy. gazzogliare. Chasm. kna. fragments or leavings of food. . chits. The egg is chipped. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. — Fr. parcus. prate. or a bird out of the egg. or equivalent forms. clap. chatter. sordidus. to baptize. talk much . chykkyn (Pr. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. To chitter or chipper. the calix of a rose. Diez. kata-kata. discourse. — We ornamental work the to signify E. a branch and a young female. g. csacsogni.). make a noise as birds do. clack. noise. carnisj bones kept. to gape. csacsogany. splinters. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. —Chastise.house. chikat'. snap. cyrm. carmen is presented in AS. whence a charm of goldfinches. chair. chit. a branch. also a youth. kippen. pure. to talk. to chirp as a bird to cheep. a crack or a flaw . pure. crackle. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. shout OE. is to represent the chamier. nommer. chaste. knatiern. to cut and faggoted. clear. a young man . a twig Suffolk chaits. It. Du. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. chary. B. Lat castigare. Malay. kata. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. charmer. little sticks cudere. charm. gaddc. to wet. to make a noise. clean. csaterdzni. To Chase. Russ. Chamel. or pop. nome and . a chatter-box. gazzolare. Chat. blackthorn-chats. prattle. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). caro. to crack. — — . Cot. czysty. cearig (from cearian. Chart. It. a plate of metal. warble. letters p. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. or the cry of a bird or the like. to cry as a chicken . See Cistern. ch). knacken. used to represent a sharp note. the cry of the bat. Fr. pure. the handle of a razor . Hal. as in the E. fragments. karigh. warble. To Chasten.. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. — The . It. Chat-wood. To Chase. to clap. chip. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. racket . chaste. germinate . — Palsgrave. To work plate as silversmiths do. castus. niggardly. Pol. kastaa. D. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. From carinen was formed It. as turnip-chaits. from purus. ferire.a. gallan or ogan. To talk. See Card. speak . i. It t. shivers. geug. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. a shrine for a relic. s. To chip is then to crack. or suckers on rough borders. Lat. CHATS fit 143 to name. %aafi. cassa s. —Charter. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. to burst open. as from nomen It. schioppare. Fr. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. carme and Fr. gazzerare. Fl. chisf. flesh. root of the Lat. cs E. magpie. enchasser. Fl. Magy. chick.ppen. Fr. converse. An imitative word. limpid. chick. a gap. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. careful. Cot. chip.— Chit. In like manner Russ. gadu-gadu. a flock of those birds. Pol.

Check. — We ' . giggling.. truffa. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. to fetch the breath with difficulty. entertainment. and hence the E. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. cattle. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. to deal ON. It — Brompton in Due. chatel. to . kak. Hence to cheat. Cam. the face. CHATTELS has ciio. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. to clear the throat . laughing. Ek dry and hard. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . to cluck like a hen. farm for farm. aspect of a man. Lat. in Fr. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. goods. chear in the sense of victuals. Chew. to coup s.ing. kok. . Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. cita. citello. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. kakaista. koopen. . The gutGoth. the tongue. jaw. equiva. which is used in the to stutter. us. Fl. Pr. to buy. the countenance Fr. lower. Hal. any cheating. chire. It. price.-^. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. frown. G. countenance. 144 the It. gig. sum in a loan. chop. the Confessor. are represented piti. chapman. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. OFr. See Cheek. &c. chuckle. Slav. . a cheater. society. gagkezen. to negotiate. the Lat. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. catalliim. See Chess. from Lat. ceafl.. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. a willing look and unwilling heart. chatal. from AS. kakkaset. Sc. agreeing upon. Cheek. Bohem. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. whence captale. stuttering. Fr. to make inarticulate sounds in . a repulse. choule. It. bon marche. Modern Slang. in widely separated languages by the Lat. entertain kindly. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. to laugh. cara. force of the word. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Bav. retching. mandibula. Ingulphus. e. upon a checked cloth. kikottaa. goods. Faire bonne chire. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. to coff—Yisi.— Chaps. teeth . horse-couper. to stutter gigken. Chear. exAS. KaviiXog. Cot. to cough and hence either buying or selling. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. cera. kek. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap.kakot. a dealer in horses. Chattels. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Gr. which is the word in ceap. to act as a rogue. gagkern.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. a rogue or person who used the canting language. chaptel. caupo. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Soc. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. cattle. a young boy or girl. to vomit. kichen.— Cattle. Du. . with Dief. cozener.— Chole. to — . a tavern-keeper. Then.' to exchange to gasp. Pm. the principal ' colloquial E. syllables ^ag-. — To check an account. NE. ceahhetan. favour. giving or taking in exchange. kaufen. to swap goods .' kezen. cattle. hawkmann. sale. lead to OE. Fr. while it Bret. chavylbone or chawlbone. welcome heartily. ku. jaws. ceap. sob E. Pro v.of the throat in coughing. thers. cheeks. OFr. keck. visage. kauf. capitale. CHEEK zitella. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. a piece of moveable property. kaupon. et juxta catalla sua. ceaflas. Fin. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as.—Choke. a dealer. stuttering. snout. cachinnari.— . 'li^'opa jord i jord. to buy. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. to nauseate (to retch). tradesman. changing. kaupiti. chiere. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. a canting knave. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. look. kaupa. sense of bargaining. Cheat. to chop and change. Sp. kik. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. prattlingchete. s. dchec. — — —Chowl. . is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. and. with the exception of land..

Du. G. OHG. mollium congeries. chasi. E. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. E. practice seems to have been communiChevron. cheeks. /Ji2^/(W. To Cheep. cegio. things Da. Sp. chops. Sc. — — . proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. a chicken. carnium. G. cufd. chiffe. F*-. dear. N. Chevisance. ceg. cerise j G. cheek. It. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. cams. to make a noise different word. schach. Pl. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. mouth kek. &c. to choke. Sc. achever. Thus "we are brought din. by laying it in come to an agreement with. (Kil. cheek. to bring to an end. To make a shrill noise Chest. — 10 . whence czypulas. ON. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. jaws.peep in the same sense. treat with affection. As the board to gasp i. The name of creak as shoes. Lat. Hence chesten-nut. Tutschek. From them the plish. accomplishment cayed. Chess. See Chess. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. Cherish. geafl.G. Achievement. the The use of the word kcesir. E. Lat.koppen. old bread. cisty G. w.. to swallow. kasiiUPr. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. kikna. the throat. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. kdke. to gasp. prevail with. See Case. veluti piscium. — — . . jaws Sw. Sw. made rancid koka. equal squares of opposite colours.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Du. Chef. caseus. Prov. Kil. whence kasa-leipa. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. rattle in the throat. the loose the game of checks. as. gabe. kok. Jam. An imitative word. throat. caws. w. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Fr. scacco. chops. Analo. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. ichec. a cricket. kaecke. kjceve. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. kirsche. cese. chaps.D. dersen . incaseatus. Chekenyd or querkenyd. kdkel. kces. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. cheek.D. gapen. cherir. food. Lith. to year. to choke with laughter. — — . chevron. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. to kasa. castaneusj Fr. ca' — . ceaflas. to geahl. e. CHE. nish source. takes place in the formation of cheese. kapen. rupted into chess.' to w. chesten. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Cher. a rafter . gap. xaque. kikna of dorum coacervatio.perly head. rafters in heraldry. Sw. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. squeak as a mouse. to prevent the attack of cavalry. giffle.cirieggia. to accomThis they call hdrsk. the final guttural is retained in writing. X'C&s. cerasus.their struggle for independence. cabiron. The Sw. Fr. to hold dear. It would Cheese. Lat. clear the throat. the hke. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. quoka. frame by which the exertion is made. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. skratt. the mouth. jaw. gaghel. like a young chicken. kopen. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. . ation. Prothroat of an animal . kjcebe. Cherry. to boken. Lith. ceac.. Fr. to heap up such things for the purchoke.Xo belch. jaw. to love.). as meat and butter. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. kastr. to belch. kastanie. schach. Fris. cyse. cabrio. Chevaux de frise. caru. acquisition. Pm. jouffle. Chemistry. . See Alchemy. E. chests in OE. kjakje. to gape gab. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. Hence kikna is identical with OE. cireggia. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. . hasten. jowl. the neck. kesten. cheken. In these latter forms we see the transIt. czypti. cough. king). ceaplas. Da. geagl. ceocian. ost. for cheese itself. subacidus. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. AS. a heap. Fr. kasa. to kep. gill of fish AS. condition of being taken. chevir. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. throat. w. rennet. Fin. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Sp. suffo. then end. chAtaigne. gous forms are G. Lat. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. by laying up in a covered heap.EP CHEVRON 145 on. jaw . AS. gullet. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. Fr. kistej Lat. AS. quok. make an end. . breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. the palate Chequer. cista.

— — Mother Hubbard. chillness or shivering. Fin. as.). cebr. knarren. into a continuous shriU sound. to chime. pipio. 'Among these the G. chikat'. a small cask OFr. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. Pm. Du. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. when the vibrations become very rapid. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. G. Bret. gills of a fish. tremble with cold. to go. capo. chieftain. Imitative of a loud clear sound. a finch. while didder is to shiver or citteren. caput. the least imaginable jot. the jole. keichen. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. to chirp or peep like a chicken. pipe. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. A To Chew. to crackle. kime. a young bird. to contest about trifles. E. caferu. Chaw. Fr. kibr. a chicken. chicken. . Now gan some courage unto him to take. chin. Chime. as pointing out the origin of the E. cica cica. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. kind. Walach. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. Chimb. chol. sonorous. acute.— . chillrar. Fin. to twitter. chillar. Tintillo. kopf Du. cidan. Chitter. Fl.D. from little to little. Pr. chic. pi.^ Hal. mouth. tremble. or chick. then as G. zitterti. ' . Fr. pole. tyuk. . cabriones. chicaner. killen. a chicken.D. cap. E. kaw. Gael. Swiss kiden. a jaw. gosling. kilderkin. Gattel. G. chill. quivering sound which passes. ]). — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. grelot). The loss of the syllable it in Du. ach. CHEW . doubtless originally a chicken Lap. klagend tonen. — It. Pm. choule. kauen. the same principle I regard On birds. kindeken. kimista^ . Child. the cry of young . kippa. or the broken noise of birds. to raise the rim. chiler.— Gattel. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. knit the brow cib-led. Fr. in Walach. Chill. has probably the same origin. to use the jaws. Prov.. the rim or edge of a vase. Kil. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. 146 brial. a cup. Fin. — Du. kop. cabarach. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib.peep. horn wood. czypulas. Da. to smart. the young of animals in general. chimb. cabar beinne.. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. chavel. rafter . kidata. a hen. captain. kimme. rafter .. Halm. Palsgr. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. crepo. stake. creak. horns of the house. chiquei. — Fin. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. capu. chaps. from the first of which is Lith. Sp. or as E. jaw. Fl. To chitter. to chew. the Ptg. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. a chicken. cheek. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice .. deer's horn. Chigue. kuwe. jaw. pipio. to Du. AS. s. kauchen. . kieken. mountain top . pululo. to gasp for breath (Hal. jaws . twitter. Magy. knirschen. capete. cild. It. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. from the second Lat. strideo. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Russ. To Chide. greloter is to shiver for cold. queror. Du. and not vice versd. a cup. rafter. while the Magy. See Chimmer. also the horizon. kauwe. Payer chiguet A chiguet. chew or chaw.' my finger tingles with cold. branchy. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. killen. the throat. beam. CHJME the radical form is unusual. caprioru. aner. Pr. kitista. tiukkata. a cup cibaw. alter. And hence. tiuk. chicoter. lead through the synonymous E. kinderen. cabar. — . tiukkua. then cold. to scold. Pl. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. and from the third E. cib. to titter is Du.— Cot. a little bit. pip. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. De finger killet mi for kalte. kimia. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. For the see word Doit. De chic en chic. or qf people talking rapidly. Probably from Fr. Lat. ultimate origin of the Mite. a head. tintelen van koude. machouere. kaau•wen. hiss as meat on the gridiron. : — a lump. by driblets. to contest. The Pl. to the brim. Chick. kouwe. E. chawbone. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. Brezza. signifying properly shivering.-ill. chef.^ to resound as a bell. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. a quid of tobacco. head. antler. tiukka. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. term is ssaru fu. w. the head. Chief. W. chavel. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. to pettifog. k'imm s. are formed Du.

to chirp. kink hoest. clashing of weapons. klincken. to creak.' Phaer's Virg. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. cisaille. cinan. bone . companied. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. the whooping cough. See Chap. Chat. esquina. a fire-place. ciarlare.schricken. to chirp . In the same sense.iron. simmer.to divide or Du. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. Bret. twitter caminus. To Chimmer. Caminatum. are In like manner E. Magy. chink.). gena. to prattle czirpti. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. cincel. as birds the mouth. eschine. — . Chimera. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . to tattle. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. See Bright. yivtiov. sound on beginning to boil. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. schiena. disCot. Fr. gen. — . spina. kumina. Chip. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. clangor tinniens kummata. The desig. ciseau (for cisel). ykvvQ. schetteringe. cheminde. then of a fabulous monster part goat. a chink or fissure. tschirpen. It. applied to tremulous motion. shiver and the chyver of Pr. as a bell kommata. to chink with laugh2. to prattle . G. stridere. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. sounding deep. KinneGr. fyr. czirszkti. to squeak in It. the cheek (jaw) . and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. resonance . hus.er. — . from Lat. to chirre. G. ter. Gascoigne in Todd. kumista. chatter . j^lf. komia. schrick. to sizel. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. Chink-cough. Bav. or chyFrigutus. It. epine. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. and the Du. and bodily movement in shimm. Huloet. Gower in Hal. to chine. See Chats. fissure. as the/ is preserved tering. Cot. name Then. do. eschiner. chhint. E. and from a similar sound to boil gently.sharp. Du. cleft. tremulous motion. the jaw. Chisel. E. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Fr. clipping of coin. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. Lith. the mouth (jaws) . hiss Pm. The change from the sound ter \s. Pm. vincially used in the sense of a crack. but or cry as a parrot. to open chirriar. — . esquena.Huloet in Hal. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. Prov. caminata. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Pr. Diez de. bx-eak the back of schena. the jaw. a surkik hosta. all these imitative terms being minata. part lion. kinne. genawi. flaw Hal. schina. hiss chirlar. Sw. Kil. Primarily a shrill sound. Chyrme or chur. Chin-coug^h. the chine. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. Sp. Ptg. cinne. chin . is applied to the separation of the broken parts. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. to murmur. chirp. dial. representing connected together. verynge or dyderinge. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. Chitterling. To chirp or twitter. Sp.czirbti. . komista. zirpen. Hindost. to tremble. . tsongeni. a chap. Chimney. The small entrails of a hog. It. spina. Chit. Chintz. Fr. Sp. rustle. . AS. hollow. backBut she withal no worde may soune. Du. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. from 10 * ' Chia. schetteren. . genou (pi. quavering of the voice. Chitter. pare also Walach. to sound deep or the Gr. a Kuttn. tinnire. Chink. as the chink of money. Chymerynge. Fr. quivering or shakyng for colde. chick. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . cheek.. the cheek.. zirken. To chink with laughter.Lat. crepare. killed by Bellerophon. then to any narrow crack or AS. et garrire . sound. pork) . is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. to sound. have been used to designate the spine. Gloss. up and down. tsengeni. sparkle. to simmer. a hall Mid. keich husten. 147 kimina. — — — — — . Lat. i. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. Sp. caminsects. Fr. a crowing sound in recovering breath. to creak. backe. to gape.to chirp. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. kieck hoest. skina. as a large bell . the chin . and chim-mer. chits. . cisello. Chine. It. squittire. in the same crack. A . a thorn. plodere. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. a szemrcU. To Chitter. sonus the backbone Lat. See Chark. from the geon's lancet. twinkling light. sonants. It. a thorn. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. to chink. also vibrans. eschin^e (de pore). and light. in Hal. caperd.

kieser. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile.yEuffM. gdnse gekrose. OHG. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. of E. Fr. — Cholera. Choice. chives. scheve. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . kbhren. of an angry — — — ' ' — . Choleric.vonic languages are Pol. Swab. To Choke. a goose's giblets. to palpitate . CHOP kros. to ing is doubtless to taste. a chive. or original meaning is preserved in G. a heap. chife. 2. Yr. from %u\i). to chap at a door . ent quarter. as green as leeks. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. Gr. by the vibrations of sound or motion. . chaup. rare. xiv. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. a calf's chaldern of E. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. to taste. to tempt. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. a ruff or frill. chap hands. pieces . a twittering.V)^x. cke. from chevalier. coup. a young . In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. chock full. fresure. taste. chorus. full to overflowing. cepa. g'schochet voll. caperd. &c. kalbs gekrose. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. full.gust. — See Cheek. to try . Cavalry.freze. Warwickshire coff. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . and in this sense the * small pieces. to break off in small shive. disposition. to taste. then to try. whence Lat. Luc. Gr. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. to try. Chuck-full. See try. called cMtters in the N. anger. cut up into — See Chats. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. and It. kushati. koren. Jam. cape. to taste. taste. as with a blow. * To Choose. Chivalry. schoch.D. to hack. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. developments of the same radical image. kiezen. chatter. G. chawdron. kor6n. chimp. a wine taster. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. Boh. kruszki. Body and Soul. chattering. to choose. Lat. krussyi. chiffe. ^S. kiusan. gekrose. wein didder for cold. the small parts of the roots of plants. a fragment. to taste . x^poc. Swiss kust. the inwards of an animal. causir. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. kaup.' who shall not taste death. i. — — — . . . As kushnuti. to ^cleave . crammed Choir. from kraus.' At last he dwelt . okusyti. &c. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. Gr. . to taste. gustare. wkusit' prikushat. gusten. bile. all seem slate . chceur. a blow. chibble.' Verie coinme Cot. are used in the same sense. then to shiver. a calf's pluck or chaldron . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. try. to Compare also Pol. the ridges prove. fine threads of flowers. •- Russ. The I go to prove them. schiefer. Chives are also a kind of small onion.— B jag E. Enn Sigridur sem ' . shoot . experience valerie. to stop geschoppt voll. Walach. friller. ^euw. also calPs. a scale or fragment P1. specially with an application to theatrical performances. and in kosten. and N. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. Schmid. Fr. choix. and Vf. prove. civette. kiesen. to try. 19. kustigen. word is more likely to be from Lat. try. to exchange horses. . a ruff. propagated. seallion or unset leek. a knight. to experience. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. to wrinkle. an onion.ceosan. The manners and senti. shiver. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. Chives.. it is probable that the root kus. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. kusid. to prove. a small slice or slip of anything . to shiver. — Chock-full. approve. wrath. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. kushevati. to strike hands . heaped measure. . lead us on to Lat. Equivalents in the SlaFr. curly . kausjan. I. ON. select. Goth. G. a company of singers or dancers. G. pluck. chippe. The Sc. keypa. haslets. The . Choice is probably direct from Fr. to clap up Hal. Prov. Chap. arkiusan. ruffs. keuren. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. to try. to chap. whence choleric. a rag. coro. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves.. by which they are Fr. to taste. Serv. schevel-steen. to turn. Fr. skifa. ments of the knightly class. signify to kiss. kiusan. . choppe.ffrill. —Chorus. To Chop. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. cive. ON. in the same language. %o\ifa.

the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. soul-couper. To Chop logick. chapma?i. kaw. E. That Face. Come. — Quabbe. gobio capitatus. to strike in the hand. kubbr. dial.. the intestine of an animal. chapineria. cangiare. to cant. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. — — — . caqueter. whence the Fr. Confounded with the bullhead. chuet. forms are Chrism. E. from kloppen. capitanus. chroniques. yiSA. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. dial. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. Marin. klompe. See Change. time ra . capita. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. . traffic. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. Sp. connected with G. Sw. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. Gr. kauwe. a small fish with a large head. of which such strings are made. for to defraud. we find the following passage Dap. as Du. the string of a musical instrument originally.— Landnamabok. in i6io. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino.—Chuokstone. — . What do you think of me. clat. prattle . Alchemist. XpvaaXic. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. cauc.(. whence apparently the Sup. chub. slipper . G. . which was written 27. caphatenus. fat. Cot. to overturn. kolbe (club). E. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. chrisme. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. See Chaff. If I discover.\^s. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. In Sc. chronicles. chapin. equivalent to the E. chop.• — . chatter . a stump. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. a bullhead. capitone. In the Alchemist. to clack. a lump or piece chump. xftovoq. gold. Chrysalis. 49. klopper. the same word with the It. kowe. capito. ceo. whence — E. that will thank chiaus — you richly.).povucd. overset. quappe. xop5>}. Picard. Du. Chough. and we actually find champman for chapman. Chub. high clog. p. bearand aits. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened.' They are forebuyers of quheit. choucas. cheviniau. Borgoens happen. koppe. to knock. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. a messenger or envoy. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. kubb. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Gr. OE. who took in the Turk- clack. kowej Sax. Anachronism. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. whence e. chevin. ley in Giiford. one who buys and sells horses or cows. -chron-. noble Doctor. P. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. cow-couper. kobe. chevane. ' ' What's that? Dap. The Turk was here As one should say. monedula. clogs. short piece kubbug. Gr. 4. chrysalis (Plin. merchant. in Chaucer. Du. dealing. A jackdaw. by the Robert Shirley. to speak thieves' slang. — Dief. —Shakespeare. plump. e. cavena. Jam. a The What dhy ^. to turn over. Fr.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. thumb Fl. claquer. Kil. or miller's kaycke . applied to an owl in that language. Chopino. Fr. ON. as in Fr. AS. Fr. cambiare. Chronicle. thick-set. kaej Lith. xpi'^lia. gull. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. — Chrisom. civetta. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you.— Chevin. a trafficker in souls. Lat. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. e. chevane.). Peace. gull. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. I bring you the Cloughs. Wall. Madam. kaulhaupt (club-head. Fr. cheap. chack. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. Chord. i. cob. To coup.sohola. A fish with a thick snout and head. Nominale in Nat. kaufen. caker. Gr. To Chouse. to chatter. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . From the Turkish Chiaus. Fr. sent before him a Chiaus. the teeth to chatter .' Jam. syllables chat. a thick piece. an offence against the fitness of times. cauvette j Fr. cresmeau.X. Chuck.. E. because she would not endure this husband chopping. peace. chouquette. &c. chouette. Ant.

karl. See Cheek. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Sicerawry face ceffata. marrow.rendered by Kil. -cis-. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). to cause the milk to grain. AS. ashes. swollen or puffed up Cot. Jennings. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. to jaw chack or snap. The origin ation. See Ceiling. sindr. dial. has been impugned which it has really no connection. Du. to sparkle. to fall. a fellow. lamak. or. Fr. to make a rippling noise. x^^i?. cado. to him a sudden blow. ceffore. . Chuff. a resounding object. to turn from blossom to fruit. chops. sintel. ceffo. the snout of an animal. -eris.. Cieling. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. -cide-. OFr. to strike clatter. chuffy. cendre. with It the Lord's house. ON. . chofu. corresponding term should have made its way among to G.' he adds. whence church. -cisuiri). KvptaKolg.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. to fall upon decide. — of the two words. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. a husband. geaflas. a rustic . and thence an ugly face far ceffo. chofe (Grandgagnage). The derivation from Kvpiasov. to form grains of butter. See Cheek. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. Cider. i. calculus. -cido. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A.' And cold. a cutting round. ChurL husbandman. surly. tindra. to throw out sparks. kaerle. Lat. cheeks Cincture. male person. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. Wall. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. a cutting an old chuff. Lat. . cut off. jaws. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. kjami. but by way of explan. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Chunk.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. a man. log of wood. a lump. a girding on. to fall at or on. incido. fat-cheeked.— Chu%. . chakil. as Epkema explains it. Church. a man. Sw. Ka-^aiva. cinders used disjunctively. Aasen.^. joffu. C^z^j^ churHsh. an old man. &c. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. a douse on the tores. as a board. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. . kirna. tie about). spuma metalli. G. thence a belt. from Lat. chack-stone. sicera. i. In Sc. a pebble . kerl. Churn. ladre from Lazare. cinis. chaps. chack or stane-chacker. — . As AS. domhnach. in Sc. scoria. casum (in comp. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. Gr. in circumcision. to cut decide. ceaplas. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. kiorne. kakka. Ir. have given rise. the kernel. as in E. . joufflu. ceorl. e. giffle. e. a pebble. blow on the I io6 in Mur. accido. G.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. ON. Cleland in Jam. ciuffo. Da. cinctura {cingo. pp. cidre. Diss. set kerti. to make a aiKipa. sindra. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. gffe. pith. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. to Newsp. To chuck in the fall from. cinctus. dust. Gothic nations. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. a miser. ceaflas. The spelling of chider has Chump. we have to chack. &c. Gr. a man. sinter.D. Cob. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). ON. as Fr. Fris.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. whence ON. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. Wall. it is carrying scruples to In Germany .— . 24. -cise. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. Sc. to To Chuckle. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. in the face. from Lat. calx. KaxXij?. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. chife. to churn. to determine incision. residue of burnt coals. that the word is an adoption of Fr. Fr. as water running over rocks or stones.for the residue of stone coal. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. AS. comp. sindel. kernjen. Du. to separate the kernel of the milk.V//a'6'?. countryman. Du. It is certain. however. Lat. ccedo. whence deciduous (of trees). klakka. flower. kern. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. sive piratiam facere sciant. Lat. so as to make the happen . cheek. * Cinder. Hence -cid-. or choice part of a thing . to gird. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach .analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Probably from It. — — A — ' ' — . then the on oh StX iv roXt.

Fr. clack. uproar. cion. Arab. scion. a whirlwind. klateren. The Gr. Gr. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. klemte. klubb. . sifr. a kind of rattle. a ring. cry out . Sw. crack. a cistern.. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. circa. E. Excite. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. to be empty. to strike. clobyn. clat. klap. whence cistiti. klumbr. — (Dozy) ing blow. civitas. stimulate. sindri. a pop-gun. clap. Lat. globus. klqb. a clod. cry. to clap at a theatre. circle. glambar. —Civil. noise — — a cistern. cion. cit^. parallel root is slam. sajira. sprig. klacken. or quill to draw waier through Fl. ter. and. Dan. clangor avium . Fr. a circle. a lump Lat. excite. gutter. a cleansing place. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. claquer. a rattle . castus). chest. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . circum. See -cid-. clog. . claim. to set in motion by means of the voice. a knob. cisterna.' sione. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. ruin. a boss . latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. klambr. Fr. Fr. a for water. and Sp. Sw. biw. klopati. klammer. clapping of klacke. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. a lemon tree. citrus. to call. a clod Russ. the tongue. lump of wood or with the nasal. a city. a Lat. Citadel. cista. chupon. and clash. domern. Hal. a'upiav. Clamp. 'mass. Lat. CION See Tinder. It. clump. Scion. ring. creak les dents. . E. a citizen . . mass . cifra. Circum-. clapper. around. about. scion or sucker. with an initial s instead of c. -cis-. klimp. Hence Incite. Alt. prattle. To Clack. Lat. a judgment cern. the place of . clatCot. klater-busse. a ball. klacke-busse. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. is traced by Gr. It. babble . a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. Gael. cluster. civilis. klompe. around. cieo. cittade. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. a Pol. cittd. as caverna from cavus. a place See place hiddern. &c. a circle. claquet de moulin. may cite w. Chaste. a young and tender plant. to chatter. Clump. clack. Lat. dob. In Fr.— . We . citujn. a mass. Sp. glamm. claquer crash. W. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. . lump. to knock. KipKog. Lat. kringla. clack-dish. to gnash the teeth. chupon. Lat. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. clamp. Mack. Gael. sound of blow. to clatter. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. suck). area. a lump Du. . dim. Comp. twig. noise. We . Gr. Du. smack. glam. a kind of pipe. crack. for Cion. or split with noise. chijfre. lump . clamare. hringr. wasserkasten (water chest). Clam. a block. * Cistern. cito. . On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. clambar. See Circle. lucerna. City. to cry out. clot ON. to summon or call on. claquer. Lat. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. klepati. sound. lump. ON. klekotati. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. kluV. Lap. So a light. to clack. circ2tlus. a city. ciste. klabb. from chupar. Citron. to call by name. See Crankle. a loud uksa slamketi. chatter . a rattle Fr. rattle. and E. civis. a hiding-place. Cot. a reservoir Probably from Lat. to appeal. From Arab. clasp. Bohem. trunk. a. lump. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . to make to go. clap. bunch. * Ciplier. rattle . bunch . ON. vociferation. G. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). ern. Circle.to suck. —Circuit. klamp. to mention. lash . circum. or clap-dish. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. . ON. to cleanse. klappen. clack-box. It. radical identity of the Fr. klappe. sphere gleba. a circle. a whip. to cluck. a shoot. to toll . city. belonging to cities or social life . to call. to chatter . . of citta. accordingly find the roots dab. a split. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. Dan. . Recite. ball kloben. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. to chatter. to bawl. cittadella. lump. tinnitus . klump. as. slam. in the frequentative form. a block. log. The notion of a lump. klak. To Claim. compared with It. to go. prattle. . -cite. the door was slammed J slamem. outcry. fall. Du. Cite. clamras. clamp. kringr. crack. empty Golius. G. a ball. cisterna. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. as in Sp. sound- — hands figures. clamer. KpiKoe. The syllables clap. Du. sip. forms — — — parent plant.

to glue. coagulated cream. offspring. sound. Bav. substances of a stickydam. Swiss kldbem. The equivalent of Lat. celo produces Fin. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. a whip. strain . G. Dan. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. to climb. to stick conceal. sound. Salainen. and that from celo. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. dank. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. klettern. to clap. a claw. The Fr. klemmen. yf. to cleave or stick. In like manner Du. is used in the sense of secretly. B. to Sw^. hook. cramp-iron. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. to beat. to climb. klepel. salafa. of the children. klynge sig op. klemmen. bond. G. clink. gliong. To sticky. pinching. klepanie. . a sound made by a lighter clink. klamme. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. These words To are closely connected with damp. Mampe. clap. nature . salaan. dam. to. sound of the trumpet . ney. adopted Lat. AS. clibby. B. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. tight. cling. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. tenacious. clajnmy. — Cot. kleppen. cleave. holdfast. knocking. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . Swiss kletten. dink Du. kleppe. klappen. kleppe. Bohem. and hence moist. also to clog up. klammern. of money Gael. dren. E. anything hidden. clangor. klam7n. dem. as the clapping of hands. a trap. but perhaps not directly from it. . — with hunger. G. to do anything with a clap. dienklebber. — . klam. dang. klepati. a stick. to starve. with cramp-irons. dam. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. to gingle. bandage. beat. to pinch. to clamp. in a hidSen place. originally a heap of large stones. is a nasalised form of gripper. klynge. Russ. ring as metal. a heap of stones or other things piled up . Clang. klamm. tone. dapier. from birdlime. to hook things together. clandestine. To clap in E. to knock. Gael. clamber. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. damras. take hold of. sticky Hal. uproar. to climb. viscosity . for tame conies. to daub pinch. accent. klippe. to climb . a loud tingle. apprehend . clapas. To Clamber. conceal. klem-vogel. klobber-saen. Clan. klappen. as the Lat. where- A — unto they retire themselves. brawl. klavre. and hence to pinch . . as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. viscous. Clank. to knock.. dientes. tingle. Halma. a hawk. a burr. club . G. klatten.1. c).152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. G. run to lumps Clandestine.er. A i. to climb. stick. .' klibba. to claw oneself up. contraction. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. Du. a sound made by a still . OE. tinkle. E. Lat. clap. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. glambar. dial. — Lat. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. Dan. resonance klingen. a heap of stones. sound . Clapper. cream Manx doan. a sound. compression. to glue. descendants .' to take coals to Newcastle. to cling. a craCmp. ancestor. cramp. The E. klammer. tremble . kleben. klebern. to seize. prison. clann. compress. a claw . whence sala. klank. dandestinus. a bird of prey. klappre. Sw. Lang. grimper. E. narrow. strait. rattle. &c. dial. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. clapper of conies. children. damor. a stone See Claim. Clamour. gum. privately. crowd . sound object . klamre. dam immediate modifications — . to hide. from the w. closely analogous to that of the fast. clasp. klopfen. clav\f. to clap on. chatter. Du. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . The root which gives rise to klibb. . a place underground where rabbits breed. a noose . to hold to pinch.p correspond- ' without order. G. These are imitations of a loud. klette. who occuG. or klamp-vogel. Clap. Fr. to dame. to Hal. Dan. — Climb. dapier. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. dia. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. gripe. grasp. to patronus. dap up. E. — — . hold. cluster. klang. diver. kloben. to hold fast with the . klibber. G. klimmeii. kluppel. hands or claws to grasp. chief. beating. dee. rumour. of which the locative case. Dan. klemmen. to climb. dapi^. Du. See Clam. . dambar. solid. to stick or glue. Clink. seize. children. Du. clammy brace. massy. buckle klamp. Clamp. klampen. tattle. the in many languages. pressed close or hard together. chatter. Hence the Fr. klubber. daver. dam. a rattle . to clutch or cling oneself up. clang. clear sound. scendants. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat.

clausum. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. thence a definite head of an edict or law. klampvoghel. It. globus. kiosk bicza. which signifies a ball in E. an on the one hand. Cot. klase. klaterbusse. Fr. ansa. Lat. Clew. &c. hook. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. klot. biichse. a bird with powerful talons. a kind of small. claret win e.Z. Du. is preserved in Lang. From clairet. an ending. a nail. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. to draw it up into a bunch. under three modifications dava. a sphere . to ring in such a manner for the dead. The b readily passes into gleba. &c. clausula. So Pol. teren. klouwe (Kil. a water made of aquavitse. insularum nexus . Du. row aii/iaTos. is used in Sc. thwack . gaspe. klc^i. applied in their harness. contraction. Wyutoun in Jam. ghespe. 269. to fasten together . rion. klaskad. klos. Du. to rattle .Gr. clavis. clairon of a trumpet— It. buckle. K\a. clairon. Du. to animals Sp. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. pellet . to end. mass. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Du. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. from its use in fastening things together. kletse. subrubidum.ck a whip. The collar-bone. ivy. Lat. crying. cinnamon. fibula. chiizjj-o. But clasp or elapse. a lash. ictus resonans. Thus from Lat. klaequivalent to clack or clap. Mask ! plask ! thwick. to clash as arms.— CLARET clamp. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Originally clasis. the cracking of a whip. klatsche.to cra. . klauw. a ball. a. chatter. clarinado. klijven. sauna de classes. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. Class. chiarino. assembly. — Clarion. Clash. to do anything with a . klampe. and shrill-sounding trumpet. Eau clairette. a clod. E. Lang. clatter. To clew. G. a club or massy stick. or as G. klatschen. sound of the foregoing description. clarin. whence kleuer. It. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse .\x\xvn. klatschen. Clatter. a key KKtitid. schnalle. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. clamp.w or u on the other. Lat. klucz. the collar-bone. clump. mass. Fr. In E. noise. a bunch. Nawith stavis. — Kiittner. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. kleeven. in the sense of a mass or lump. same class with w. flap. and through v into a. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening.). to clap . Gr. From claudo. blab. Analogous Jam. Sp. Claret. Serv . from the resemblance to a key. chiaro clear. Clause. fragor . klaeret. KXeiSi. hawk. Kil. kluczka. as G. to fasten. forms are the Du. Clavicle. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Eya-klasi. straight-mouthed. chiarello. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. to snap. clew or fasten upon a thing. to patter. clair. Du. Russ. — tells us. waU. Clasp. e. to cleave. clew. a little hook . dap. a lump . Dan. as Mod. uproar. rubellum. the primary origin clapa. it is called clamming. Klatsch- a pop-gun . Identical with ON. a distribution of things into groups. a key origmally a crooked nail. Rayn. and old red rose-water. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. Prov. compression.oi. biichse. cloi. vinum helvolum. somewhat clear. diver. The form clew. a clasp. Fr. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. bawling. a key. globus. a claw. i. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. classis. klatscha pop-gun. a claFr. vin clairet. a lump. skeria-klasi. clopa. klauwe. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. a buckle. seizes) . . claw (what fastens together. Lat. kleuen. a complete sentence. — Clarinet. and clavis. with a reddish tint.. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. clas. sphaera. as it is written by Chaucer. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. a. to shut. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. syrtium junctura. fracas. Claw. locket of a door. we pass to the E. in the sense of a claw. Thus from clamp. nawith stanis. Nightingale.It. puUs. to knock. Commonly made. vin claret. he of white and red grapes mingled together. stop of an organ. climp. glcis. Sw. chasguear. pet. klouwe. from scknallen. cluster. Pol. Owl and that by which cleave to. In the same way is formed the OE. klamme. a heap. clavus. nail. also a knell for the dead. —Kil.

The double signification of the word clack or rattle. a key. klijveii. G. klove The Dan. ON. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. . celebrated . the To Cleave. i. to sound or make a noise . A — A Clement. Kil. pure. to dag ox dog.). Du. the original . klouen. cliquet.— Clag. Gael. clibby. 2. sleek. as Lat. from diquer. kleverig. or from being divided into two parts. to shine. voice. . Thus from G. mud. Cleft. 154 CLAY dutch. Cleat. pellet. bogs cous. . bright. to clinch a nail. From dob. neat. See Clog. klag. clash. klyft. viz. Da. Du. See Clam. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. Sc. To call. kluft. klink. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . The proper meaning of the word is shining. the two parts of Du. Omklinken. B. dut. klutsch. kluftholz. a latch. doff. loam. chaps in the skin. This word is used in two business is finished off. Da. G. clear. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. G. gleit. viz. dench. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. klincke. Clear. klov. The word may be — . klinke. a flash. tongs. Lat. deot.— Claggy.— . klafwa. a lump. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. shine. ON. glandse. to tear or cleave asunder. glent. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. (Cot. calm. polish . as ON. From clap. klirre. to fasten E. . together . klor. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. a noose. to shine . an object is simply cleft. seem formed dial. a bunch of When flax). to be composed. as Fr. Dan. pretty. a in that of sphtting. diquetcr. found in other cases. kloue. — : A rivet. klinken. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . To Clench. doggy. geklonken. gentle. kla:g. Halma. Bav. from the clinking of the latch. dial. glatt. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. split. the fork of the body. glint. a cleft. klinka. to fasten. The Dan. clay . In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. W. clean. to chink. holding together. from nitere. klieben. rivet. nitidus. explained from the klinken. a cleft or fissure. klinke. radiant. gaklankjan. kloben. klouen. kleben. and E. Du. clemens. neat. that was a striking proof. kldnkelein. to Brilliant. to glitter. kleg. dedgy. a mass. pure . or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. a one end. and. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. G. and Celtic glan. Clay. klirren. gingle. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. famous. klinken. and Dan. to separate into parts. The word is . Probably a modification of the word doitt. dinquet kleeven. clink. a fissure or division See Cleave. glbram. glan. klinke. sticky. dags.Q. Sw. to clink or sound. vice. glan. splendid pohshed. kluyte. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. Wilbraham. a — — . speech . glbr. Sc. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. klceg. door-latch. to fasten. to 2. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . kloben. hook. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. give a shrill sound Jr. cloven wood. of iron worn on shoes by country people. glorious. E. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. cleave. danche. klieuen. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. kloben. conserere antklankjan. This is probably one of the clean. lump. rift. sticky earth. Fr. glindse. a plate. Da. opposite senses. the latch of a door. clout. date is AS. as explained under G. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E.' was nailed to a rock. rive. river. clean. clean. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. to cleave. to clench. daggy. sticky . Clemency. Du. is fast and sure. kluit. Du. a cleft. Mar. a lump. Sw. . . klank. clear. dag. to stick or adhere . E. to clinch GB. Clinch. a clincher. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. bend in a stream. a mass. a fissure. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. G. E. either by the coherence To Clepe. pure. clean. a claw or talon. Die zaak is zS. smooth. Lat. Axletree clouts. dams. that was Torriano. provinciaUy termed dout. polished. AS. glance . Clean. ON. glor-mhor. vissticky . kleg. a noise. or of a tree. klinken. Du. glitta. it cleave together. to stick to. words applicable sight. in two ways. clear. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. merciful. Sw. kleevig. glitnir. glan. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. as the Du.

Cliff. snatch. say. deik. scar. diquette. clerus. pulsare. what so men clappe or crie. a ladder.. Lat.— Clue. cliof. dergi. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). in precisely the same sense as the E. klinge. to rattle. G.' ii. Claw. clatter. declivity. would have been derida. .— Clicket. neither as having lordship in the. crack. /cXi'fia. a baU of yarn. kleppen. corresponding to the Sc. to talk as a parrot. Jam. cliff. ized . klev. and hence climate. temperature. Client. one admitted to the tonsure. clif- stanas. prattle. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. Da. to sound an alarm to clap. one of the clergy. cliquet. a sphere.Lat. Lat. to catch. Cot. hamraklif.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. dek. as a click with the tongue. from Gael glac. cleft of a hill. a latch. Sp. an inclination. which is used in Scotch and N. dink. clypian. and (with the nasal) — clincher. a hook. a cleft in a rock . crepare. dob. as from derido. corresponding to Fr. sonare. — — A . We movement catch. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . cleopian. rock. Chaucer. chatter. cleft in a rock. Dunbar in Jam. as Lat. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. See Clench. to wink. clack.). and hence deik. in the sense of active. dial. precipices. e. a clerk . to prate. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. a latch. lively. derjon. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. on. The origin is the Gr. kliv. dichet. slope . Somner. rugged ascent. cligner. klippe. IS5 Du. dever. agile. above the pole. to seize. a hold. AS. . klaiv. with hamarskard. stein- kluppen. speak. Bav. kloof. a figure mentioned. frap- per rudement une personne. &c. rapidus from rapio. deuck. the clergy clericus. a lump. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . has kl'dver. chatter. to tattle. call. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. diofian. Du. to teU tales. See AS. climate. that is a clever feUow.) Brai. clif. littus. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. diver. click. precipice. Happen. Du. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. ginally from dob (extant in W. klika. klippe. Now the OE. crackle. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. to bend. cleke. Clergy. 3. catching. Gr. CLINCH De . rock. icXi/ja?. name. syn. in rhetoric. a child's or clack . d See Clan. to clack. verge). -Toe (from KXivm. rupes . Sc. deudi. on. ready of speech. to move. kliket. cautes. deuch. Commonly derived from deliver. skard. had a form. nimble. region not observe it. a clew. quick in motion. glomus. click. The Sc. babble. exactly Gr. —Vocab. to stir. to confess . klinket. to cry. as Sc. derigo. a hump. dexterous. klif. klikklakken. ravine. sink. derigon. has also deik. OE. the knocker of a door. Hence Lat. a lazar's clicket or clapper. Du. Climb. deik. dial. dial. Clever. click it. or an object character- Clerical. dook (identical with E. G. a tumbril. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. Click. dutch). from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. call. duke. cart that tilts over. the clergy. kleppe. to snatch. a trigger. click. Sw. See Clamber. seize (Hal. abrupta rupes . CLERK sound of a blow. — have the notion of a short quick in E. chatter. to tattle. clyf. quick of perception. chat.dergie! Wiclif in R. duik. klaffen. to cleave. to catch. whence Fr. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. light-fingered. Climax. the dick of a latch or a trigger. cleugh. a mill-clack . dough. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. is NE. a cliff. claw or talon to dek or deik. Det er en Mover kerl. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. a lot. Clam. clever. clep. Rouchi cliche. clap. a precipice. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. score7i clif. Fr. globus. klikker. a latch . cliquer. it must be observed. derecia. In I Peter v. klouwe. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. from clifian. klever. Boh. a claw or clutch. de ripa. klinke. . Norm. But the Dan. a ball of twine. Lat. 3. Clerk. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. clever. clima. cleft. pen. gleg. expeditious. Klover i munden. a clicket or clapper. cave . klok klep- crepitare. KkrifoQ. Clew. dicher. . which in Mid. or Sc. Climate. highest is attained.

clinker. straits. a bell. clutch. rima. to AS. also to form a compact mass. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. ring clag. knippe. Du. klok. G. klippur. four of the bell. and so' to contract. See Cowl. cochl. The E. Swiss klokken. gang. To Clip. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. to shrink up. toga. klaka. hooded . klipa.und zuk-lippen. to wither. hluccti. claw. club). lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood.' From Pl. to beat on the board. clino. clog. a separate portion. speaks of a ' clung bat. . sloping upwards procUvis. Bohem. To stick to. Fr. klippa. to sound sharp. fetter. schnippen. a rising ground. ten. related to clock. klingen. Pl. toga muliebris. . G. quincailler. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. a bell. from klepati. pallium. a woman's mantle . verklungeln. clato make a noise. G. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. &c. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. to clap or clack. klippen. difficulty . ' . incline. G. hlinian. a hood. a tinman. Een kliks bolter.ginglej Fr. also to wink . pinch. glocke. bow. kXiVu. glungelin. a clog or fetter for a beast . clinke. to cling to a thing. to pinch klupe. declivis. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . klocke. Hal. Ang. I. sloping forwards. disposed to a thing. G. to slope or bend . Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. . difficulty. at first probably on a wooden board. klak. klynge. in Schmeller) klunk. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to snap or fillip schnippen. kolbe to E. compress . ON. slant. Du. klunge. a cluster. Sw. Lat. kliks. to clunge. or bagging clothes. G. klocke. to pinch. outcry. to wither. Du. sloping downwards . a lump of butter. ON. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. -atum. g. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. met. Flem. globulus' (Gl. hlinen. to snip. especially of something soft or clammy. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. 156 -cline. as thick or curdled liquids. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. Sw. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Cliofue. . Esthon. Fr. See Clang. Clink. to beat. a beU. klupen. Walach. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty.' for a dry stick. To Cling. Lat. N orman clincailler. * Clod. Da. klepalo. clangere. Du. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail.. Decline. Sw. as to snip in the same sense from snap. to clip. noise. klunker. Sw. S w. kolki-laud. Gr. recline. to knock. klocka. kima. to lean. to snap kneipen. w. to strike. -cliv-. Cloak. a ball of thread . the participial form is the nearer to the original root. clivus.— KSS. kukla. Sw. E. to cluster. nip. kleppe. -CLINE make pinch. 'Till famine cling thee. . acclivis. to crowd together klynge sig ved. . klik. — a mantle. Bi klik uti klak. a faction. to . Swiss klungele. clingan. a lump G. cloche. dial.D. by bits.. kluben. dial. klo^gen. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. dag. knot klynge. a lump. to clink auf. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. to make a loud noise. . pinch. — clot. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. Gael. chcng. dial. kol- The word . from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. whence E. to shrink up. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. kldpp. klippa. to crowd or squeeze chingy. as G.'— Shaks. hill . In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. dial. to form one mass with. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. klicke. to bend downwards . and a similar syllable without the /... The notion of a loose moveable substance. clock is a variation of clack. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. knippen. clips.D. iissura. Bohem. Sussex peasant AS. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. a clock. and 'E.— Clot. as we now say three or four o'clock. knippchen. shears. klungeln. kluppe. hluk. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. . to ring. tuft. Ir. like cling. klungelin. to lean backwards. To cut with shears. OHG. clique. Clock. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. Kil. . klippe. to snap tongs. to resound. klinka. E. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. sticky. parva ruptura. ON. klincke. Serv. cloak. 2. klinken. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. brett-glocke. a snare. incline. gUong.

a blot. of a body of any kind. a lump from Du. dab. slobberen. claque. paludosus. spot of dirt.D. dirt. is a blot on one's character. cloth. klod. -clus-. -close.— Clothe. or drablyn with separate existence. is connected with pludder. a field inclosed clos. kleck or lack. klot. dial. tuditare. zocco. . . whence klack. or E. schlotter. To Clog. kloster. lobberen. Idppern. clotted milk klotte. to lobberig. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. in forms like Du. a bal!. and Gael. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. gelatinous. Du. . and thence to clot or curdle as milk. and E. bespotted with mire E. to flap as loose clothes. AS. Pr. slobber. Klak also. an imputation.dial. lumps of butter. motzen. Fr. closed. clotted locks Dan. Sc. a skittle-ground klos- sen. a log. to claggock. analogous plan to clod or club. klotz. thick spoon . indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. blot. curdled. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. tramp in wet or mire. claudo. lunch. . loose. -clusum. wide bagging clothes. lump of butter. to dash like heavy rain. enOE. klos-bane. geschlotter (as E. slabberen.' end. je amoncele. clos. a dirty wench claggy. schlettern. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. spatter. a clog. a clod. Closhe. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). to rattle. slops slodderen. m&se noch stain. Bav. with Fr. to shut in. schlott. forbidden by 17 Ed. log. congeler. terminate. Pr. slop. to shut. pattens G. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. aspersion. to dabble. from Du. or Sc. zoccoli. shut up. lobbig. to a. slops). inclose. we pass to E.). loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. laggyn. slob. loose trowsers. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. to dabble. from Fr. lopperig.. thick sour milk. His heart was franlc without a flaw. claggy. loblolly. clorre. schlattern.. schlottern. to sup up liquid food. clogs for the feet klakk. I clodde. . mud klcEg. kloteren. then liquid or loose substance. loose mud. It. a babbler. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. bowl . in accordance with It. Swiss schlott. G. The origin of clod and clot is to . klac. . unctuous. to flounder in the wet. lump of something soft . compared with clump. -cludo. a portion of something soft and adhesive. shaky. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. E. splash.rge lump. to shut up. paddle or dabble in the wet. . klottern. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. clammy loam. doitre. lump of mud on the clothes . The game called ninepins. 3. loppered (of milk). klateren. truncus. to spill liquids. Clog. in comp. kloten. and Du. Yule-clog. be found rattle. to close against one. a trowelful of mortar. or loppern. to bubble. .1a. dunch). to bedaub. . • lump. dag. kloden. klokotat. da- . chiudere. a clod Swab. The word is probably formed on an Cloth.'^ Palsgr. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. bemired. the radical sylla. G. A . mire. daggerey. without. rattle. . to slop or spill liquids. hanging loose and full. close. Fr. I clodde. a block. Hence inclose. of something clammy or heavy. Du. I doda clod. lag. fat. . klunkern. lobberen. MHG. clos. . clog or overshoe. clot. to paddle in the wet. shut up. be&c. to cling locks. beklakken. from claudo. a spot. plod. Fr. g. laggery. to rattle. daustrum. we pass to Schlatter. bloutre. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. to rattle or shake to and fro. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. a monastery. to play at bowls. watery. kladde. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. Dan. a Christmas log. pludre. mud. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. like G. klag. in accordance with Pl. loppe. klakk. a blot. Gr. to wabble. clatk. Pm. Pl. TZoxapov. foreclose. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. and thus seem endowed . Lat. kloteispaen. Mat. to bodies. to shut. klakken. figer. meat from Du. lopin. Lat. A — — A Thus from Bav.D. motte. lob. . wabbling from Du. clausum. Russ. He was a man without a dag. fors. klotzschuh. clausum. Fr. slab. dirt. . clogs. kl'dnken. a log. boil. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. IV. miry laggerit. ! . paddle. slobbe. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. dangle. klos. In the same way Dan. kleck. . Klottermelck. finish .cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. neither spot nor hang loose. tJokok. Close. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. Cloister. E. chiuso. separate part.

make warm. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. Cloud. Club. a lump. are often connected. mire. clod. mud (Pat. from OFr. dial. klubb. clumhar. a clod. cluster. clou de girofle. a cover or coverture . More in R. From dog. klubba. milk run to lumps. a boss. E. clotted milk or cream. and clout d eudaich. clyd. to cloy. a bousche. Clown. lie clyd. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. piece Cot. a nail) Fr. are also used in the sense of a stopper. Move. (kruyd =. klever. G. a clown. clobyn. a fissure. boucher. Sw.158 . cloud Delfortrie. of sloppy materials. clot . . klumba. — — — . a thick mass. to curdle. bunch. G.). spice) G. sheltered . strike. a ball. — . dillad bumkin. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . . a clove of garlick. warm. probably from daboter. E. shel- kloen. a clot or keeps one warm. lunch). warm. Rouchi dapoter. clavo di especias. clue. dob. to lump mend clumsily. dash (Cot. unpolished. to cherish. Du. Ir. clods. matte. cobio. a sticky. caillebottes. N. clunch. a clod or clot. daggy. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. klubbe. dut. a curdled sky. in the same sense. Du.D. dabosser. a sky Cot. nourish . knob. hebes (Kil. E. a ball of twine . . —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. from Du. Kiittner. to strike. de Champ. puddle. een klaven kruflook. a bunch. Clover. warm clothes {dillad. clydion. to splash. of thumping clumsy action. aglio. kldverj P1. clump. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. esdaboter (Roquef. the terms expresssplit. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. to strike .D. cludadh. AS.). clot. CLUCK rustic. to cover Bret. Du. chiodo di girofano. klotz. motte. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. stock. with lout. kl'dnne. as Fr. a ball. Cld. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. a ball.). choke or stop up. little nails.' Sanders. Properly that which covers and Du. cludaim. a bobbin. klqb. davus. . 2. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown.Fris. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. dirt. . a. klieven. to stop. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. A division of a root of garlick.D. lumps of curd. lump. zolla. In the same way E. Du. and tapp. klebek. Du. eene ODu. a bunch. warm place . the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . ser. clunch. nagelein. klumpfot. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. to cleave or the splashing of water. sheltered up warm. naegel. blockish. to a lump. Gael. a log. log. kluppe. Sp. mary sense is a blow. and of a rustic unpolished person. indispalte knoblauch. cobble. clump of a clout on the head. A kind of spice resembling Du. Du. tered . I. To Cluck. a patch. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. lump of earth aria. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. a knot of people. w. nelke (dim. but confounded with cailler. a breach.). klaven. To Cloy. Then applied to a lump of mate. mass. cluth mhor. Met. dabaire. clothes ment. klove. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a bunch. . Clumpered in balls of clouds. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. from W. Fr.bar. Sw. a clubfoot klabb. clammy earth. ON. a nail. from kloven. Mabousfrom Lat. of nagel. knob. and closely do conspire. dump. when something has got into the touch-hole. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. klotzig. clothes). vapours drawn into clods or separate masses.clod. The radical sense seems to be an unE. w. a log. klunds. Pl. So Fr. the air. a blabber. del mattond. kloete. cob. zolla dell' . klotsen. group of people Sw. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. klcBdi. coarse. kUid. block. It. kluV. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. dote. rustic. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. G. tuft. clog. clothe. loggish. Dan.ft. Imitative of the note of a society. dys. a garthas. diboter. sticky. clot. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). botch. kloven. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. also homo obtusus. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. The significations of a clod or lump. dial. and clay. duthaich. klump. The priClout. klubb. formed lump or thick mass. klobbersaen. botsen. to cleave. Das volk hat sich in splitten. dial. of a lump of earth and that figure. to beFr. a lump. G. eine to slop. AS. and -the word Clove. lump. klonte. lump. ball of thread Russ. Gael. to tramp in the kluyve. Clump. wisp. ON. a . klu77ip. clod is used in both senses . CLOUD an awkward clod .

to tramp. 159 E. a litter. —More. strum on an instrument. Clutter. lump of soft mate. a couch. beklommen. limp.E. Hindust. klunsen. and klotteren. inclusive. ment. or aclommyde.mene tied. Fr. a lump. Muster. verkommelen. It. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. -cludo. — Cot. and koetse.' Comfort ye dumsid. * Clump. acomelydfor could Pr. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise.D. Du. glousser. G. Cluster. crooked inwards . klunt. klos. wooden shoes. cleuk. ' . claws. Lat. &c. benumbed with cold. glocire. -clus-. But clunchy. to stick together . ' Uorte (for clogs. COAL dumpish. beklummen. a block. also a cluster. A group. klummklummshandt. Lincolns. to wash. whence koetse. plad or plod. MHG. lavesen. Pl. paste. G. klompen. idle. kluntfrom KKvKdi. from ON. dek. — Hence include. unhandy. . cliboter.— — . clausum. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. bunch. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . klemma. koetblockish. hand to cleuk. Champ. a clod or The noclot. Pl. Du. klump. Sc. havi. klisse. a ball. G. ' Clumper. a claw. the word is more probably connected with OE. Ray. Fris. —To Clumsyd. kohle. wooden sole. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. to curdle. tight — — . esclaboter. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. to syllable click. From the notion of sticking together. * Clumsy. klontet. kichlemmit. klomen.forklomme (Outzen). as Fr. cluntClyster. klumpig.D.' Vegecius in Way. dial. unhandy. seize. dystere. lay hold of. a coach. to tramp or tread heavily. a ball . to wash. to pinch. Cheshire. Com. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. to shut. -close. cleik. to tramp. eviratus. dumpers. koetsen. an instrument for nasal form e. splash. klonte. thick and clumsy.pare P1. klette. enervatus.P. ball of snow on horse's foot . clointer. dek. cleche. a clove Sw. klcise. kol. The Fr. of Du. calling her chickens. klamp. claudo. a noise. awkward. Teulazy. having the Pl. E. clumsy. clip or pinch. xXvariip. algidus. klummerhdndt. to lie. -elude. klobber in klobbersaen. klampa. dumpse. clopiner. klumpern. In the same way Du. pinched. or from Sw. klikonosy. ' Thou clontsest for cold. clook. eene beklum. to collect in lumps. gelidus. — ' — — tonista. Du. Isaiah. clutch. unwieldy Hal. Riwle. koetsDa. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. klimpern. pladdern. The sense of awkward. ill-made . See -elude.' Benecke. n. klont. Coach. Fr. with a quick. differing only in the absence of the duik. -olus-. klocken. er. and make ye strong feeble knees. from laver. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. klods. dumps. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. a clod clunter. dial. Fr. awkward. as from seken. a pinching time. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. coucher became in unhandy. klikaty. heavily. may recline. hondis. viscous material. Graff in Klamjan. to klotz. Sp. Analogous forms with a tongs. rial. dial. Beklummen van kelde. OE. in comp. G. to paddle or dabble. of garlick. Lat. as clumper.Ancr. a nasalised form of club. clotted cream. Coal. Gr. a clot klissen. to curdle. ON. fingers (familiar). to gingle. Pm.' Wycliff. E. klister. coccolare. klamen. might be reached from clump. 130. dial. doquear. Du. hands stiff with cold. claw. . to benumb with cold. smart motion. ether comelia P. wagen. . cluster. to squeeze. with E. Hence snatching. exclude.D. log. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. koetsie.D. Boh. Ang. -clusum. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. clutch. MHG. Compare Swiss klupe. to curdle. finish. are the nasalised forms of klotte. OHG.D. clabosser. dussomed (Wilbrabam). to grip. a lump. properly to do anything Fr. and klonteren. close. Variation of clatter. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids.e. klomje. a bunch. Cath. in v. Du. carriage in which you klodset. Sw. to rinse. klonte. ball as snow. a clod or lump. clump. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. duke. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. klemmen. — sen. conclusion. — . Hesse. a lump or compact mass. Hence cleik.. through the senses of lumpish. from klupen. Clump. . -CLUDE hen Du. verklomen. eviratus. obstructum. a clod or lump. hooknosed. to to snatch. Clutch.'— animal. See reclusion. conclude. Sw. unfashioned.

to pdt with We may cite Fr. a thumper. a kitchen. also a coast. Lat. to Lett. klabba. * To Cobble. . tempered clay for building. ridi. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. . pustule. See Cot. to burn. Trevoux. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. pustule. according to the ordinary run of events. A spider's web. a similar According to Ihre. bijamie. the one of thump. . a crea. Pm. of E. quele. to glow . glow. imbecille. a cobweb. or upper . dial. to kindle or cause to burn . s. numb. Colina' the place where a fire is made. kop. in Essex Jow*2c^. side .). cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. viz.' And colo. . cokes was a simpleton. — — — E. flame. atter-kop. The dirt. are round stones or round coals of small size. dial. then to work unskilfully . cobcoals. costa. may be A found in Sw. from some fancied resemblance. a spider. to . klabbsmed. any kind of coat. to be inflamed . The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. Fin. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. a firesteel Lat. koppe. cofasse. Cobbles in the N. — Pr. e. Fr. a darling. Lat. Sanscr. Coarse. cock or nescock. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone.). to form an union with another coalitus. To cobble. The Fris. petrilla. E. tuft. cacd). dim. united. a nest. small pox (pocks) . 3. itself is Nescock . a sow. pryf-coppyn. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. coalesce. caleo. one Pr. and imperfect or unskilful action. as shown in dob and cob. w. used in — . v. unfledged bird. to be hot. meaning that she is plain and coarse. koljarn. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England .. verkommelen. It. dial. cotte. throw a blow.). in Du. to stutter. The contrast between the bee • Cob. spinne-ivebbe. . to cob. dial. or cobble. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. things.. verklomen. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. bredouiller. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. Dan. as in arr. a coat or frock. a tuft. CooMneal. a woodlouse. give the full meaning of the word. Fr. ON. ordinary as in the expression of course. and the spider as collectors. frock. kylla. T' waerkopet.inflated with air or liquid. OE. to stutter. long standing. to peck as a hen cobyn. a knock. to grow together. H^cart. cobble. In the E. broddelen. niais. Coast. klabbare. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. and hobble. properly to daub. Fr.—Atkinson. Coalesce. cluster. ignem. to hobble . quilet. a rib. — — . — Cobbler. A pl