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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


and in imitates the cry are used withitself. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. name of the cow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. and. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. by whom the be understood. when we is represent to our children of the cow. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. is given to a cow or calf. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. The syllables moo (mu. muK) and mae (rfie. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow.NURSERY IMITATIONS. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. when neither name for the object to be designated. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. in other words. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. the present day. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. mind of the of the animal. Molli. or. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). in language of the present day. the closer we shall approach to the . without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. persons of different tongues at the present day. with an initial m or I. but nothing she herself knows the animals. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. to the syllables which are significant to the child. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. or Mollein. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. and where we are seeking. and mully or mully cow is the . and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. come Moolls. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. the baaing of the sheep. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or.

so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. and nim came to signify everything edible. partly from sounds which the child caught. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. First. had nim. in children's language. his nurse adopting the word with him. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. when hungry. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. to eat. analogous to Magyar mammogni. and some were very clear and distinct. and which we might express thus. Gradually. A member of my own new sfop. to work over with the mouth. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. nineteen years old. . A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. Finally an n was placed before it. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. He would now say good. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. Heinicke. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. On one occasion he said^e nim. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. hm. . he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. repulsive to eat. fiafifi&v (Hesych. mumm. 72). became more perfect. then. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. I had watched the growth of this word.. he called to to drink. for bad.' In ordinary speech mump. as well as the mind of the utterer. nim. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. Gr.). There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. We have. by the natural humming sound. for everything fit to eat. family. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. &c. to For instance. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. p. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes.' he says. for things. schipp.

food (Tylor. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. to take. to be pleamind . And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. ' id est. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. at hiamske i sig.' And Diomedes.minis. buckra man's language the white man. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Africa) nimnim. taken up hastily on the sly. and thence to be tasteful. as well as the Sw.ONOMATOPCEIA. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. nam. palatable. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . mumpfeln. voracious.' says the author of Modern Slang.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Wolof nahenahe. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. Gothic niman. mumble. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. savory. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. and the crab — p. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). clangorqae tubarum. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. memmexen. nyam nyam. Primitive Culture. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. to smack in eat. oves lalare. aptantes adfectibus vocem.' — Lersch. mumpfen. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. . mujnpa. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. nobis vix permittitur. Nimm'd up. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. as to . yamming. sweet (Koelle). j ing . we can call them so. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. stolen. ut tinnitus aeris. to eat. 1 86). Africa) nimi. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. ' Motherwell. to taste . Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. to Sw. make djamdjam). Vei (W. to fill the mouth. p. tidbits nama .). Soosoo (W. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. delicacies. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). snatched (Whitby Gl. and the fizzing (and Series. dial. and some of them . jammla. greedy . it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). South Jutland hiamsk. crab nam buckra man. to mump. (in chil- dren's language). 130-1. eating. to chew laboriously. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. namnam. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. the Scotch poet. or word-making. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. A negro proOr. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). lita. to eat mampfen. nvrnma. i. aves tinnire. agreeing with Ein.' says Quintilian. to move the lips in continued chewing. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. on. jamsa (yamsa). Swedish dialect gamsa. jumla. iii. Galla djam djeda. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. i8o.

howling.' — We speak of a cow. barking. whether it deserves the name of language. might be used as the designation of it. chattering of pies or monkeys. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. Indeed. purring or mewing of cats. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. for the purpose of bringing the animal. not of a baa. ^6^. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. do not speak of a bowwow. grunting or squealing of hogs. yelping. chirping of sparrows or crickets. lowing of oxen. Yet we ing.' he says. or thoughts of our hearer. between dog and harking. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. yelping. snarling. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. snarling of dogs. might be used. gobbling of a turkey-cock. croaking of frogs or ravens. bleating of sheep. anything connected with it. p. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. 89) with less hesitation. sparrow and chirping. We . mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. when circumstances required. cackling or gaggling of geese. bumping of bitterns. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. und growling. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. 'I doubt. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. neighing or whinnying of horses. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. baaing or maeing of lambs. that there is When Man. but of a dog.' And elsevs^here (p. not of a moo of Lect. cooing or crooing of doves. bellowing of bulls.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. twittering of swallows. before the in other words. hooting of owls. dove and cooing. intended in the instance to represent the cry. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. a lamb. or.

coccolare. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. a a crier (p. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Bav. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. a crow (Pictet). The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. caw kuhii-rava (rava. ghak. Kdrava. Aoo-Aoo. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. it announces (Salaberry). harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. is kuM) for the cuckoo. 4th ed. Sauscr. whose sound (Pictet. KOKKvi. having a general predicative power. in g. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. Columbia kahkah. gackem.IMITATIVE NAMES. sound). as which is unmistakeably the source Du. In Lat.' common sense. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. Georgian quaki. and the sound of that direction. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. a crow. Sometimes the hoarse i . it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. birds. Barabra koka. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. 380. Manchu The kaha. crow. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. 349.). He to is therefore derives kdka. a daw. and means a shouter. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. Picard cau. in is Gr. Malay gdgak. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. or quawk. Origines Indo-Europeennes). crow. kae. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. fi-om apakd- i.' kd). and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. layitavya . and Bavaria respectively. lion. kdka. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Hungary.. kauwe.). a bird that is be driven away. kuho. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. and gaggele or gagkelein. according to Durga). 'Kdka. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Arabic kdk. In Basque. e. ist ed. caller.

the name of an animal will gen- . Malay kukuk. lUyrian kukurekati. 219. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. kukhuta. coccovaec. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. lilits. tortbla. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . while crouk.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. turtle) as the Lat. Esthonian kikkas. The consonants p. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur.Gr. Ibo akoka. Arabic tdtwit. Du. Fr. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. reduplicate form. uhu. kurre. tor. coqueri- Languedoc. kuku. Walachian coucouveike. to hoot. It. 6. lulo. coucouva. Dutch kievit. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . t. in the North of England. by the verbs gurren or girren..' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Hindi.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Albacuculi a dove. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. to crow. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. The crowing of cot in Fr. are represented. as well as of Sanscr. libufs. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. Mod. French dishuit. kraukti. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. korren. to croak. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. to howl or Lat. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. Swedish kowipa. to cry loudly. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. to crow. and e. ghughu. wood-pigeon. great variety of oKokv^uv. cock. kraeye. krahe. name of its is the bird. tur. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. a crow. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. Yoruba koklo. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. a crow lish Lith. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. synonymous forms of similar structure). xi. German kielitz. teewhoop. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. to croak. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. the name for a crow. kirren. or Gr. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. Du. and e. Zulu kuku. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Pers. kraeyen. Sp.. p. koeren. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Heb. "Welsh hwan from hwa. a crow . kruk. kukko. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. tbrtola. gugu. So we have Polish krukac. another. girre. Da. hibou. krauklys. Scotch peeweip. giving turtur (and thence It. and sometimes both together. either in the same or in related dialects. tuquheit. Magy. name. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. k. yell. gufo. tbrtora. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. Lettish kiekuts. German and Eng- krahen. German luhu.

succeeding each other — with noise. German hummel. buzzing. i.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. schirke. a fly (Tylor) . a small as hawk is . oE. ta-na-nd. Lith. common. Arabic tantanat. Gaelic dranndan. and probably indicates that g. Speaking of a cricket he says. PofijivXwg. to sound. give a faint sound.vf3. a sharp sound as of a 6. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . Lithuanian tranas. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. booming. ajo. In the N. (Jieuschrecke) . resound. g. schrecke. skril with n. to chirp . — Catafogo. to shrill sound sharp.' — i. dhran. sound. skirl. from schrick. whirr). name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. bamba. German dronen. from the humming. Northern Farmer. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. North of England. e. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. with or Fr. growling. 'The natives call it tanand. kong-kong. loud rumour. Fin. a bee. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. droning is . a drone. horniss and from the buzzing The. humming. The Arabic sarsor. little intermission. thunder. skryle. and yelping cry. swirplys with 6. din. 337. Sc.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. sirkka. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. the humble. which they make in their flight very . ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. Albanian tsentsir. schrickel. a hornet. Corean sirsor. resounding of musical instruments. words imitative of humming . cricket is from crick. grille.' —Tennyson. The Welsh chwyrnu. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. g. as . pip-pi-ta. Danish gnaddre. to grumble. the drone or non-working bee . to hum.' Amazons. knetta. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons.IMITATIVE NAMES. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). ' Sanscr. to rustle. grylhis. and not from E. Danish dron. g. glass cracking (Schmeller). ' — Pictet . German drohne. hollow noise. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. a beetle druna. buzzing. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. Naturalist on the tocano. grillen. schwirren.or bumble-bee. or a gnat fly. bambhara. We may cite Gr. Australian bumberoo. Sanscr. to chirp J may be compared with . Lat. chirk. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. to be compared with Sanscr. The name of the cricket indeed. zirken. of England it is to the b 2 . bee. gives rise to chwymores. shrill. to creak Bret. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. The drone peal. there are infinite varieties. representing a short sharp sound. flight its sting considered as a horn. in allusion to its music. and he kong-ko-rong.

or with on. Lat. be-l-er. whence baula. With these analogies. w. to bellow like a bull. a buffalo. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. bukati. Lat. to ba-L-are. The Galla lilbil. bo. to bow- own bawl. bolt. Illyr. a bull. agreeing exactly with Lith. to shout. bovis. shoot . — ^Tylor. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. or a z to the imitative syllable. bae. btibleti. ox. to weep. Fr. the animal. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. biibnas. From baa. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. as that of the cow by boo. that the imitative syllable are Lith. Lat. bue. w. bull. bwla. from the imitative moo instead of boo. OFr. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. to or bark. miau-l-er. and djeda.XX called booing. (iove. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. fivKaofiai. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. to bump as a bittern Illyr. It. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. make poo. to the uses goda. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to low . grumble as distant thunder . representmake bow. to mew. bugler. or bau-l-i. to make. His analysis leads cow. buculus. bubenti. to sound. bauli. mugler. Norse bu. Da. a drum . to make a loud deep sound. or formed Lat. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. Gael. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. mugire. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. bubati. maukati. representing the mew of a cat. p. Fr. say. to beat hard. and from to ring. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. bullus and e. bullock. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. is inadmissible. cattle. bugle. bae. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. a bullock. a cow. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. are (with a subsidiary k). boo. amuse. mamoo-heeheek. The Piedm. verb is evidently identical with our shout. to . But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to from bau. Piedmontese fi bau. to boohoo. Hottentot bou (Dapper). the Fr. lulauti (to hoo-loo). 167. Thus from miau. to make a noise. and thence Lat. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to make. loge. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. bucula. muJiati. as the Illyr. On the same principle. Manx booa. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. has bilbilgoda. a heifer. or moo. Cult. mae. k or g. to low or bellow. a Geiger. and in Hottentot baa was the . From the same lioao). in a imitation of a ringing sound. forms a. Zulu lulula. Galla boa. make to it laugh. verbal form given to the say. baula. in same way. to low. bu. bos. to shout.

to themselves. goats. a pig Fin. hunt (gen. nire. sound. / The same Gr. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. grumbhng. in Wolof bae. . lekavica. Gr. this obstinate race. to bleat. and hoc'h. meugler. It. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. hound. guttural tone. groin. Gr. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. in v. grumpf. a wolf. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. although the imitation embodied in Lat. Fr. we have Sanscr. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. and Circassian maylley. meckern. Illyr. to growl. to grunt. to howl. from hundama. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. name of the animal itself. . sheep or goat. name. hwch. naskia. smack and naski. ' In driving. grugno. Da. From the imitative mae. The g. grogner. growl. grunlike a pig in eating. grumble. lambs. . Among dog. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. /xj/caScj. or in any ! way ! persuading. (iriKov of forms like Sw. oe. with the root ypaipm. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. meketati. as lou of an ox. the designations of a dog the term cur. Magy. and grumphie. a goat. Illyr. lek-eg-ni. a sow. Africa laa. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). ^. menAda (ndda.' Moor's Suffolk words. 6. Gr. a sheep or ewe. leg-et-ni. signifying a snarling. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a pig. name of a sheep. undoubtedly imitative.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Manx meilee. to bleat . Kurren und murren. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. hadg- Magy. and of (maelon). hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. and snorke. And it is true there between hog and grunt. a sheep (Lowe). /xijeao/iat. rumbling. does not produce a e. Welsh and Breton). grunny. Moreover. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. leknuti. he would hardly. sus-sus. the snout of a pig. a goat. knurfisk. mecati. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. a sheep or a goat. curmurring. a sheep. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. as the proper name of a tame sheep. by which the shingle gives rise to It. cry). It is probable also that e. a. Fr. and with the subsidiary k or g. Idgge (Rietz). from knurre. meil. a hog.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. — . for the voice of the ox). meigeal. houch. Illyr. With gen.). it and e. may be identical with Esthon. a grunt. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. a goat firixal^ta. a dog. G. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. grumble. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. kurre. mekegni. and thence groin. kurren. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. hund. to rumble. karra. Hence Breton hoc ha. hundi). grunt. a (Hesych. mutter. lecco. a sow. may with to snarl. Gael. cite as by grunt. corresponding to ohg. to bleat. to grunt. hunon. purr).

p. hobin. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. hiine. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. coquelicot. Sc.' — ist Series. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. such as cuckoo. as in Yorkshire highly right. the cry to stop or back a horse. There are of course some names. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.. . it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino.). The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. a horse. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.root. a mare. from the cry animal. g. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. hoppe. to whine. turn a horse to the is In Finland. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. coquette. cockade. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. a little am- bling horse. .' ticular bird. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. hobben. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). when he found peculiarity.. 91. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. Esthonian hoibo. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. p. But words of this kind are. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. So Sanscr. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. humma. If onomatopoeias can . the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. to go backwards. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. to the left. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. hottihuh.' 2nd Series. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. M). e. houpy in Craven. animal.). (Craven Gloss. like artificial flowers. hobby. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. of the character in question. without a — we root. Thus we are led to the Fr. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). ^6<.

and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. frenschen. whitename in in- throat. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. signified It. rinchar. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. Lettish sweegt. hukkup. redpole. hikkd. as sigh. nitrire. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. xxiii ginal object. wrenska. moan. Sp. form corresponding hresh. wiehern. horse.D. command of language was attained. sol. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. Sanscr. to Sanscr. lapwing. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. hresh. Irieschen. runniken. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. fehtati. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. creeper. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. hresh. e. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. Du. g. hross. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. wrena. to neigh. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. giggle. . Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. but whether there kind between them and other words. ginniken. little speak for themselves. Sw. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. swift. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. Bohem. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. diver. than to the sounds represented. nounced with a guttural).IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. cough. goatsucker. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. Fr. hennir. ance or habits of the animal. Pl. wagtail. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . titter. woodpecker. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. animals or certain kinds of sound. groan. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan.

for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. knarr. tlirob. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. scream. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. ding. dong Read. thunder (Tylor) . &c. plitsch-platsch.' So imac. hang. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. lumm. for the for the sound of . Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. went the cannon. for the sound of milking. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. &c. for in such sound of blows. clap ! A smack Puff. beat of a clock child . heaven). to throw violently down. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. in a nail Let. — Sanders. wheeze. to beat. or tliat is accomit. haitshu. klatsch. Mei gbengben. for a small one. bang ' ! trenches. White Lies. are familiar in ' to every one. 1865. tisio (tisho). —Brem. for the sound of a blow. an attempt would be made to by the voice.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . DingBang.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. It is represented in e. beat. for the report of a musket (Colenso) .' 'Haw. atchini. a kind of drum. on the chops is represented also by pratx. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . fitsche-falsche. pit-a-pat. Da. hoo ping ping. shriek. Vei gbangba.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. oren : Klapp. to sneeze. Wtb. heart tick-tack. for that of breaking. aritischane. Zulu bongo. for blows with a rod. snort. to ham. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. a more expressive than the e. the dashing of the sea . bang. mer. the God of thunder . To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. atchian. to hammer . and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. . banke. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. for the sound of a fall. for the creaking of a wheel. knack. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear.' it both sides went. debhes-lungotais (deifies. snore. to drive on. Of a like forma- drum . ting-ting. Australian bungbung ween. hoo.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. or the w. haw. a large bell. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. ping came the bullets about their ears.' ! ! ! ! — dong. strippstrapp-stroll. banga. pump. to knock. snukkup). bangas. root kshu.

— . used as a call to . to peep It. had been used laugh ? two. cry. which he added to intensify the expression. piou. Lat. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter.sc. far pipi. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. a whelp. and their relations. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. Lat. mobility excavation and hollow ^. G. . To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. pipare. calls S. e. pi. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. piccione. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. Gr. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. the voice of chickens (Cot. of a word will appear supposed to represent. and whimper. pipe. to designate cavity and hollow. doubtless. pigione. Florio. young child . pule. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. and so forth. cry of young birds . a or cheep. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. pipio. young bird. Magyar pip. to cheep like a bird or a young It. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. peep. to cry like imrli^u). a fife or musical pipe. a fowler's bird call is lost. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. piou. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. piauler. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman.' instead. to squeak. scream. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. pippione. The pi. as in other subjects of study. a chicken or gosling. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. is pfeife. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. pu. to cry pi. pipio. —Lyndsay. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. as the simplest implement for proFr. not- . has been un- employed to designate fixity. pipilo. a (young) pigeon. pigiolare. peep. pigolare. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. bleat. child. is of expression. In cases such as these. It seems to him that the teeth t. or the uneducated different consonants are man. De Brosses. Mantuan pipiare. part of the What consciousness has the child. He Yet asks.) a chick. ducing the sound. Fr. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. or a piailler. as k. pipegni. pipe. chickens (Tylor). laugh. pipelni.

crash. loud laughter. crack. a short sharp sound. murmur (by . of something fine and thin. Poppopvi^to. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. coo. sound). along with Du. tonare. ioriogliare (to make borbor). the side of g. kniks. along with tinnio. u. to cluck. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. . brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . the clucking of a j hen . to grumble. make wood a clinking noise. lachachen. to grate the teeth . Indian chack-chack. or springing back. rumble (Fl. Manchu kaka-kiki. or kaka-faka. to pant violently (Colenso). signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . {to It. to crackle like in boiling . vaake gorgor) . be cate to go on laughing loud . Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. Pacific aka-aka. kuruk. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . Zulu raraza. to fizz like fat in frying. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word.. karkarana. a closed or obscure sound. turtur. tintino. to growl. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. to gurgle. Pefuxela. like the noise of a glass breaking . is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to cry pi. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. to creak knirren. gurren. in German. bubble. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. as representing the sound made when something breaks. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. Hindustani karak is rendered. and lugh. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. to grumble). it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to ring pipio. to rattle. girren. to clack. a drum W. It.' We te he ! quoth Tyb.) Mod. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . a prolonged sharp sound. sound of dry breaking. to laugh. to bubble. cluck. of a loud strong sound. tontonare. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. murren. cricli.. to thunder. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to jar.Gr. to pant bejii- zela. preserved by Kilian. where the variation. grumble. laqfF. to gargle . is very common. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. knuks. a sharp short one. thunder oil . borrelen. as the click of a latch or a trigger. rumble. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. . to be compared with Sc. kirkirdnd. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). some small vowel or consonantal sound. creak. knurren. a. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. chack. when it force than biscuit. garren. to gorgogHare rattle. &c. to hawhaw or laugh loud. pi . rumble. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. Hindoo tomtom. lachen. i. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). kniks. knaks.

is based on the same imitation as the e. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. The syllables lil-bil. bulbiil. to say chut. to strike. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. to ring or jingle. clank. hala-hald-faMa (falda. or the bubbling up of to a spring. e. Calt. fumtu. klirren. croaking of frogs. or to Du. the gingling of glasses. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. djeda (to say tub). coughing or clearing the throat.' Member for Paris. agrees with g. and e. for the ringing of illustrate bells. a drum . a workman. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. a smith. brings us to Fr. The whispering of the wind I. . wail. are applied to the is excrements of children. the tingling Ming-Hang.* the heart. borrelen. tubh. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. 1871. champ. spring of water in the a bell. Manchu kaka. halaidlac'h. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. bent her head. and her heart went thump. corresponding in e. kl'mg-kling. ding-dong. tumult. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. drops of i. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. 368). and Gr. quarren. Sanscr. clink. caca and Finnish adkkd. Scotch sough or sooch. Newman). Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. tumwata. simmer. especially one who beats. shout. to whisper. and Gr. for chut-chiit-er. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. clash of arms. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . Magyar csamm-ogni. jangle. Tiie Galla gigiteka. muro and e. Maori pata. a nightingale. sound. Prim. to be compared with g. as Fr. make djamdjam). the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. chuchoter. compared with Gr. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . box on the ear imitation of the . may be compared with Australian pitapitata. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. . kiling-kalang. is Manchu tang-tang. cry. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. and the imitative nature of tivgle. and bilhila. 192). at an accelerated note. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. or of bells ringing. word. a nightingale. for a tTviror). same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. to beat. koXiw. jingle. a boy's whistle. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. KaKog. E. rifiirayov. indicating the origin of Gr. tup. bad. of keys or tinkling of bells. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. Galla tuma. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. identical with g. csam-csogni. for the clinking Lat. as of Tamil muromurmur. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. sound). rain (Tylor. rvir (in tvittio. awater* ' The Mme P. thump. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. while cacd / used in e. bubble up. for the sound of privy whispering. disturbance (F. call. chinking of coin. Turk. noise. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). chut. correspond to e. to giggle. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E.and e. to the purling of a brook. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. to knock. the sound of a stringed instrument.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. Fr. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. uproar. clango.

clank. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. lash. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. So in Fr. the Germans puff. and soufflet. to dance. squeak. ' Der puff. it is fallj AS. sputter. twang. crash. jingle. patter. we have buffet or cuff. in e. brumberum. clatter. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . fizz. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. blow. and the French pouf. and Fr. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. smack. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. dash. clink. souse. plump. clash. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. by rubadub. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. crunch. or v^hether jectional. smash. hum. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. blubber. flop. It. for (Sanders). Humboldt. bubble. tinkle. whirr. craunch. But although and also found in Lat. douse. according to the strictest phonetic rules. The beating of drum is represented in e. crack. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. ring. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. 'pat. gargle. bang. answering to g. rap. The use of g. tum-ultus. gurgle. thump. rumble. flap. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. murmur. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. report of a gun. puff. swash. Fr. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. squall. boom.' — Nohden. pop. squeal. thump. mutter. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. whine. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. a applied as well to the force of the bang. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries.. clang. thwack. din. paddle. to fall. at a door tarapatan. chatter. snap. creak. whizz. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. tomber. rattle. to is blow. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. thump. while e. Nevertheless. slash. rataplan or rantanplan. disturbance. tumbian (to beat the ground). sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. tingle. splutter. and Grimm. splash. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. without the intervention of orthodox roots. clap. tap. chink. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. parapatapan. w. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. whack. guggle. tymmesll. clack. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. hiss. dabble.

Henceforth rational beings may produce them. but if we must not complain on the beach. At the first beginning of life. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. xxix on the contrary. every little pain. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. in the rushing waters. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. or any unsatisfied want. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. and uttering plaintive sounds. grief. and thus they become signs of despair. Crying. are made known by an instinctive cry. Grimm or Bopp. and found in the building of be burnt up. little who has time to want of her nurseling. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. or of any if wood. or stubble is meaner name. without a thought of symbolising to them. in the case of the animal or of the infant. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. by the nature of the cry. because they are spontaneous. ugh . It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother.' If chaos. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it.'. stractions. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. formerly cited.' . he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. the inteij. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. of horror. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. wringing the hands. an imitation of a sigh . in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . the interj. is Thus ah!. knows them. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . p. that he has taken the step in rational speech. the kind of action that is desired of them. hay. 94. If.

and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. and some of them the composition of words. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. may become traditional. as who them spontaneous utterances. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. they are involuntary interjections. sneezing. them to exercise it.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. shrieking. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. One short interjec- tion may fact. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. ^6g And to the same effect 371. And again. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. more eloquent than a long speech. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. groaning. or which is of me as suffering pain.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. 32. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. to solve the I shall call first. Language begins where interjections end. p. coughing. He says. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. of all the mouth. be more powerful. p.. If I wish to make a person of an . interjections.' — ist Series. and the eye. the lowing of a cow.' p. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. more to the point. he cites from Home Tooke. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. 344. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. which are frequently so toned down cance. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. should be remem- . but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men.

in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. he says. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. bered. kahkahah. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. when I arp humming and hawing. and more or less limited . over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. hahota. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. Tooke in truth. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. in Fin. loud laughter. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. for example. speaking. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. hohottaa. it them. interjections. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. some kind of language might have been formed. Koxafw. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. Lat. but the less am at a loss what to say. cachinno. Gr. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. hahottaa. then speech begins. in Magy. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. I am not hearer. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. and others from interjections. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. demolishing here. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. Kayxa^u). nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. and thus. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS.

There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. What strikes him . The following account is given by Kruse. of the world. like peewit and cuckoo. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation.' he says. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. It as has ing their most striking features. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. . and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. of the nature of this great movement. dumb is the language of signs. But here nature soon conies to his help. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. if taken as a whole. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. the critical question should be. words receiving the meanings they now bear. Though. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. a Picture-language. and not. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. And so in the case of language. a deaf-mute himself. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. and go where we now say stand. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. makes them stand and walk upon the table.

or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. he. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and we have roast goose. signs are taught for yet. becomes roast meat. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. like a V. and it is flesh or meat. as it now opens out. and fully serves to j . walked. can do better and more easily abstract terms. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. the sorecalling them to his memory. most striking outline of an object. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. xxxiii him between one thing and another. what more. for the agent. that. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. and gestures. walker. to name. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. The of sign for left hand. his action. nay. such objects. particular sense in properly so called. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. And is. that signifies great . or the verb to be. that air. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. for single objects. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. he. such as than the educated man. The same sign stands and the act itself. it means little. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and forms further and further. it seems. push it towards the person addressed for thou. the whole secret. and with his thought. for walk. and to taste. thought is already broken. among themselves.' In the Institutions.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. many when or but these. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. or To pull and flap with the arms. and And thus he makes himself a language. for child. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. walkest. but if I depress it instead. thou. called Gesture-language.GESTURE most. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. the lan- guage cultivates itself.

in fact. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. as in die it is a noun. according to the circumstances of the case.xxxiv asking. the garden. as when Bang ! went the gun. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. in other instances sentence. The same word . qualifies the against the wall. might be the knife. and the as. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. when I say. When I say. putting it into his pocket. . as But when it is meant door. When a verb. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. Do not bang the it is a verb. and so is an adverb. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. You beaten . bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. Who is has beaten you ? would be. the ture of white term pink is and red. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. or something of the kind.' dener's knife. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. would be simply beginning of speech. to indicate the action of a certain person. I say. or a passive scene of existence. a number of alternatives are suggested. substantive or adjective. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. it called an interjection. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. a colour red. whether by additions or otherwise. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. or a quality. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. He gave door a bang. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. depend entirely upon the use. and thus performs the part of an adjective. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. or an act. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. or action. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish.

pain. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. whereof. or some relation between it and another object. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. verb nor noun has yet been developed. and may be used language. with a stick. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. Latin. greatness. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. as kuo cung. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. wherewith. Thus tafu signifies a great man. inquiry. that is.. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer.^ — Miiller I. a groan. wherehy. middle. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. that admits itself in of audible representation. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. or with elements expressing relations of time. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. but often self-evident. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. in the is indicated by the syllable y. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. as cung. or nei. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. in the sense of great. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . . the man is great. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. commencement of speech. contempt. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. inside. whereto. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. grie^ horror. a sigh of oppression and . moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. wherefore. 255. coalesces with the personal pronouns. and to be great. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. which is an old y ting (use stick). &c. some outward display of the affection. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. Jii ta. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. a noun. wonder.

to make). ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. oi. . A widespread It. representing Illyr. n. miau-l-er. first person. ache. e. howl. to cry at. . A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. Gael. to weep. pain. oh. pain. In this way from the root guai. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. o'i. cece. misfortune. w. to wail or cry alas . ochan. to yell formed e. found in g. to hurt Let. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. Bret. Such are g. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. grief] affliction. on. weinen. to gargle. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. or r. ui. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. is Ay di me I Gr. at the close of the radical syllable. oh. wai. The form corresponding to Lat. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. achen. to cause pain. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. axofiai. on.-l-are. guajo. ach. gwe-l-a. weh. och. to wail. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. It.ez. wd. guaj- or cry out pitifully. representing a cry of pain. g. e. Illyr. weh schreien. Gr. ohg. seen in Gr. headache. vce. to sound yapyap. &. and to bark . toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. woe. miau-l-is. tirr-djeda. ! ! Goth.'). Let. lau-l-e. to . djamdjam goda (goda. och. Fr. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. to make bow-wow. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. wAwa. ohi. misery. miau-n-is. Lat. to chirp. w^wa. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. ochain. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. waiidt. . ocAJ. wehthun. form. mew. suffering. ace. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. grief. however. a groan or lamentation vir. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. la. has more kopfweh. ing action I. mostly a ! %. to cry n. Gr. It. gwae. wai-l. vaj. wehen (Schmeller). dchzen. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to ache. . oval. 6. e. the pangs of childbirth. Gr. to injure. ochan. in Gr. guaj-ire. Jar lau-lau. aiai^to. ah. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . ach. al. 6. ai. to ache. g. It. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). are ol-ire. to groan. is w. Thus from springs otjucifw. to lament. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself.. ahi. Lat. to do woe. vce. jaoh. guai. as. ah. och. vei-a. to weep. to rriourn. grief. It. as. lament from oimi. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. j. pain. ach. jao. wai. to bewail oneself. xxxvi grief. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. w. woe. . Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. die wehen. oimare. and cacak djeda (to say crack. to lament. hei. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. probably a deeper groan. gwae. I oi[iot. Illyrian vaj. lament.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate.' then points to his wife. Diet. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. or give me it. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. nurseries. to here . Dr Lottner observes. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. a specified were by pointing him out. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. • The child. according to Menage. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. this here. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. In the expression Da. der da-ige. Please. give me that cheese. well as Goth. his trowsers' pocket. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. The Fr. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. as to express. da. as. or carry me thither.' this. and by a variety of expressions besides. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. we may translate this by there (it is).) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. Bav. case. that. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. thata (ta-ta). I add) . show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. or wants to name something. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. 'nay. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. child. that gratifies me. . that is it. Thank you. a word of many applications in g. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). indeed. when he wants something.' person. or that it is. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. is we I believe. saying : there the ad- Trans. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. But. says da-da-da. When we pointing. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. but the truth is. Sie. Phil. and may be rendered. Sanders (Germ. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. more emphatically roSj)j that. is-te). A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. and so on. for instance. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. ' sees an object. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. implying the direction of its good will towards them. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. when 1859. da.' all is is — their consent.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. ToSe (or in Attic E. the nursery da-da. as it Dieser da (as Lat. give.

Thus Gr. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. to say to oneself. then instinctively interest. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. speech. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. to move step by step. — Cot. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. or dalliance. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. beat. thinking. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. The da is dodem. tasting. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. to walk. to tion to another. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. or metaphor. its desire. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. reality. takes it — as When the soul. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. the original is that which he places first. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. to beat. to knock. in every mode of expressing the idea. pay. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. p. of which any one may. tattle. strike. and one in particular must. which thus exertion. moving.^ its ' utters : a cry. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. dadee.' says Lottner interior. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. sinking. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. meanings. . to chatter.' says Muller. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. stutter. and shapes it into an . make dadada).' • liv ANALOGY. childish toying. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. sounds. standing.

tumult. sense of brightness. esclat). . firom the Gael. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. tintelen. Again. rattle. in the domain of movement. The 6. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. Finnish. man of nice taste. Du. prudent. splendour. schmecken. to shine. to sparkle. clang. noise. to glitter e. then to sparkle. snutrs. which in ohg. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. same imitative root with Sw. to crackle. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. In the case of sparkle. as. and schmecker. to be wise. to ring. snuff the sniiten. knistre. knittre. Heo Du. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. smell. iclat (in Old Fr. splendour. to shriek with laughter . to tinkle. wamara. &c. may be it explained . unlella. to 5 ghtter. suspect Bav. tinkling. (parallel bilbila. brilliancy. air. to ring as a glass willata. bright. extended to the exercise of the understanding. wilahtaa. may be quoted gUt. kiimottaa. bilbil). gnittre. wilistd. savour. kimistd. beam. outcry. snot. discreet. 1654. to flash. scTiateren. while sapere itself. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. and. also wise. ghsten. to . signified a clear sound. and thence e. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. Bavarian bracht. to glitter. to glisten Dan. fiapfiaipw. a rustling sound Gr. to glitter. think. scheteren. snudra. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. bilbilgoda (to make . . pracht. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. In the same way the Goth. sprageti. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. smell. — 1. snotor.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. properly a clap or explosion. sapere (which signifies the nose. taste. to glitter. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. as kilind. wise. in popular language. judicious. a brilliant light kilid. for example. beorhtian. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. and figuratively. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. to crackle gnistre. a with kimmaltaa. to shine. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . It is The word bright had a similar In as. to have Sapiens. make a loud noise. a ringing . to quiver. Fr. schiteren. magnificence. spraka. to sniff out. search . on. the equivalent of g. Lith. from the . So firom Lat. sound. to sound clear In Galla. we have and the and beorht. to resound. to snilF. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. is used in the origin. a dis- cernment. chime). to smack or taste. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to sniff.

rend. pleasure soft to the ear . sharp. strike. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. Tpa)(yg. in truth.' he says. he says. ipuKuv. \nrap6e. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. Much of the same has been often quoted. then in rpd/xoe. crux. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. fitting the letters to the sense. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. KoWiiSije. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. inside. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. Kpovtiv. smooth. And observing that n kept the voice within. in of his works. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. oily. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. the neighing of horses. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. break. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. pvfi^Civ. &c. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. briars. wool. the clank (stridorem) of chains. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. tremour. The BpavEiv. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. of dressing loud. kvTOQ. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. is felt Lana. the bleating of sheep. power of the letter-sounds. discusses the tone of a picture. accordance with the way in which by touch. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. he framed the words ivSov. v. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. rough. we hear of screaming colours. rough both ways. to slide. which The Stoics. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. rough to the ear. flow and flux. as soft by the ear. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. or . from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. within. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. 1. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. itself letters are felt as sofl. mel. Kep^arl'ieiv. 6\tadaveii'. the cross. whirl. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. roughness. Acre. . and vepres. rough. shatter. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. gluey. soft. extremely loose. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. eo ut res vol. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one.

ii. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. stab. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. to jogj sac-cade. to signify varieties of movement. jag. Fr. dag. stag (in stagger. and in the utterance of a high or or low. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. shog. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. corresponding to the ineor. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. rug. jig. shag. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. 'and consequently form. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. joli. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. A greater felt. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. a rough and sudden . to reel abruptly from side to side). as when. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. the case of the voice. jih. degree of roughness sound. p. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. g. t. cular effort Again. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. for exis ample. dig. tug. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. or checks as they are called by Muller. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. p. 138). making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. sag-oter. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. k. d. jog. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves .

transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. Ene olde suksuk. The Mipen or pencil. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. used interjectionally to represent a . sound barely audible. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. marked by the change of vowel from i to a.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. mica. to touch. Dutch kicken. to have it ticked or marked on the score . to move rapidly to and fro. a playiug-marble. and analogous movements. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Bolognese tocc. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to mutter. toch-toch. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. chiquet. Fr. tecche-tocche. zigzag. like English tick. kuk. (mitsati). thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to stir. e. not to utter a syllable. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. foot. as Italian tocco. then. rough horse. so to Italian toccare. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to strike It. to utter a slight kick. tack. to tickle. The syllable suk is jerk. to glitter. is lanese toch.. an old worthless horse or carriage. zack. also to stir. &c. is so frequent a consequence of movement. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. a jag or sharp projection zickzack.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. a good piece of road . lead to Spanish tocar. sound Fr. g. for the sound of knocking at a door. as tot. and It. The production of sound. kik. schockeln. is made to signify movement. that we never can be sure. to beat or play on a musical instrument. motion. Fr. tock. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. to pulses being knock. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. properly a small lump'of . mik. The analogy then carried a step further. chicoter. to incite by light touches. mie. figuratively. mot. or check. to take a thing on tick. movement. a small bodily object. a cracker. Mucken. a crum. micare. however. a quid of tobacco. The train of . tech-tech. a . a jog. to say a word . S-panish miga. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. It. Thus we have B. passing to the signification of motion. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. schuckeln. To tick a thing off. to winkj micati is Lat. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. to On the same principle j we have g. it produces Dutch micken. Illyrian migati. then. to mark it with a touch of the pen . to ring a bell. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . a piece or bit of anything. chic. Accordingly the g. a little bit. Hence Lat. Then. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. an infant . Sukkeln. Welsh cicio. cica. in cases like the foregoing. a stroke with a French toucher. Brescian toch. chique. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. and e.

a bit. here (close hand). at where the order is inverted. tottle.- a jot or little It. mut. Fr. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. a light quick blow. Malagasy to. a sparrow). 48) cites from the African Tumale. gnu. . . of movement in totter. fait. to tremble. to touch. a e. motte. mot. tot. to dot.n. iki. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . fragments It. a lad citta. further off. . . for the beating of a clock. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. tit. This kind. titilh. e. a. Pm. (Halliwell) Da. In a similar the relations of place. . tittle. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. or the converse. a certain conception. tozzo. and he. tot. and out there. for the three personal pronouns. there. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. The following table from Tylor (Prim. To jot. tit. i. a morsel girl . lix Sp. 0. n. or the like its It. this . often entirely arbitrary. to jog. Then. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. to touch lightly with a pen. there (further of!) ao. a small bird. jot. to jot down or note with a fro. motta. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. . neither moit nor an atom. gni. mutter j dust. . But the same is language has re Javan. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. syllable mot. this. the least visible insect. little j to that of a small bodily object. taut. little. not because the pendulum makes a different left. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. mossche. I. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). to e. a small horse. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. zitio. small titlark. seesaw. ticktack. So. eo. small of kind. the same organ touched with the man. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. chico. anything small flax. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. here. and dot. . mutter. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. to whisper (Pr. Cult. mote. you. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. or o toi. Du. the vowel sound. zitella. corresponding to the personal pronouns. ri that. ika. and toddle like a child titter. clay . light — to note a thing hastily on paper . to make a slight mark. as in e. a morsel. titter. a small quantity. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. tiny. Halliwell. anything . a bit. to movement of the pen . and mite. subdued manner. tot. not an atom .) . that. lump of earth. and a small lump of something. not to utter a syllable. citto. a small lump or pat. totle. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. a tot . that iku. bunch or flock of wool. there '(at a short distance). move slightly to . passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. titmouse (Du. is shown in murmur. e. we have e. tot. a girl. a little titty. gno. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. 199). either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. a whisper. a small kind of lark.

It seems to (fen. Gr.. Lat. Carib ne. Tarahumara ibe. there. that. is father. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. this .. that. Chilian tva. Japan ko. Mutsun ne. /wo. . biii. Then. small (Pott. that (intermediate) j wana. . and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. mas cheche. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. thou ni.e^. and origin. Zulu ajoa. usho. here this . as in Italian Fin. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-.. this . there. me probable that • Vei also little. ojOo. akha. that. thou. . for the male. there. you. tiiio. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. ukko. here feraa. (tt). The vowels a and o sound of the voice. ni. . he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. bi. ndi. this ole. that. young one. that. km. an old woman chacha. that. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). Tamul i. Ossetic am. and a for the female. . Fernandian az. qu. femina ama. ta to ka. Sahaptin (America) kina. Botocudo ati. here 5 Yoruba na. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. olo. ni. Guarani nde. child. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. Abchasian aSn. child. that in the distance. minution further. to. . Dhimas isho. j Canarese ivanu. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. there. an old . as the act of pointing was ta. here . ofj. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. there. is Here. . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. ne. father. man erne. that. mother. there. mother. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. there. ita. little. he. he. /e«. that. It Carib lala. here j abe. . I .* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. ^. 6. mother. father k . loo). this fi. ulri. Mm. as Mr Tylor remarks.) pronunciation of i or e.araM. nne.. probably initial of distinction that the k. this . this <t. Magyar ez. thou . that. respectively. this . /mya. uta. here j ka. here . w.) nna. no constant rule is observed.

nab. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. for instance. the nursery few j Sc. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. . Clank represents the sound of something large. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. trippen. The sound trapp . dance (Kil. trappa. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. pepin. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to teet. as ding-dong. Top. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. to peep.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. titta. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. &c. murmur. the idea is called. the pip or pippin. And perhaps the E. at pippe frem is to spring forth. just beginning to appear. a little yellow beard. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. of smaller things. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. analogous to winy-piny. i Sw.' making the voice as small as possible. as j money. nipple. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. A little wee face with little. in old e. looking through between obstacles. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. stairs. repetition It. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. a step. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. din-din. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. a child. tion. to feet. From cases like the foregoing. fretful. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. has tittafrem. — Douglas Virgil. trippelen. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. little. Thus we have Wolof sopa. little To sup up. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. keeh. for the . trappen.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. to begin to appear . where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. The Sw. Da. Fr. and in the Pacific dialects. 401. to peep through. to tread. for a succession of light blows low-wow. trSpigner. knob.) . is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. is to express simple continuance of action. A little weeny thing. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. to make its way through the bursting envelope. barking of a dog. wenig. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. to leap. trap. the principle of reduplication. nil. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. the simplest mode by the g. whence Fr. or even. sound of bells . wean. don-don. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. lift 8. or chink. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary.' — Merrv Wives.

and thus by analogy employed in Lat. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. Malay ayun. a cradle. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. to treat with contempt. are echoed by the rudimentary et. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. or rdtchi. the comparative degrees of greatness. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. could readily be conceived. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. random . a spot. keep spots. to rock. ayunayunan. calling. rapidity and strength. in familiar use with ourselves. . rack click. to love. if very young. sopasopa. mpolu is uttered.' expression is — ^Tylor. loloa. Mandingo ding. ratsi-ratsi. smallness. the lungs. to to call. cliqu-et-is. clamito. very great. amusement. er. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. to talk at to walk. &c. rack. click. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. serves to show and in this way. to skip. So from clamo. to vi^alk about for flax. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. tache. or a little tee--ny thing. a grasshopper. Thus in the Pacific loa. mawhiti. puka- puka. instead of being actually repeated. repetition or continsignify long. Susa di. kendagenda. or imitative syllables. child . racket. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. lololoa. i. or in Fr. 97). kenda. tach-et-er. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. The same principle of 196. clash of weapons. little child (p. is language. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. Thus in E. a clattering noise. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. the and clique. (to use a to speak.Ixii REPETITION. mawhitiwhiti. hardness. puka. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. to say pooh It is ! to. didi. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. kamha-gamla. Again. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. to pant. very bad. properly speaking. child . and Fr. to or rub. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. Cult. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. to call frequently from Fr. to cover e. bad . the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. and the words express a continued sound of rack. ding-ding. 99). the agent in panting . without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. . or el. or very very great. And generally. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. from Maori muka. very long (Pott. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- ..

or Maori puka-puka. a succession of cracks to rattle. he who rubs. is In e. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to make gug. are to cry mew and pew . By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to wail woe . is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. dab. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. where all direct connection with sound is lost. or omitted. to continue dragging. Piedmontese bau-l-S. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. a from ayun. joggle. shuffle. bub. itself. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. waggle. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. or in e. to puff. and in as. the knie-en to E. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. or fi bau. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. dabble.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to make a succession of grabs . cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . from puka. rynel. to rock or wag. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. to rock. wavering. wankel. smack. In cases like these. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. g. kneel. without the intervention of the frequentative element. The Fr. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. to bark like a dog. guggle. crack. in some applications. to crackle. to make a succession of shoves. it. or by association. others. such asjlap. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . fickle. syllable clat . or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to make bau-bau. Jickfacken. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. to hand. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to hand-le. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. compared with g. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. Ihre remarks under gncella. miauler andpiauler. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. bubble.Jicol. mew and baa . be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. draggle. by the side of wanken. rubber. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. wancol. as mAS. as to handle. in Fr. wagas ging. wankeln. The contrivance with any particular noise. miauler and beler correspond to E. the lungs (the puffers of the body). way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. which. jogging. to move to and fro.

Polish. and comparatively few easily deceived. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. which. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. will continue to be felt in daily speech. to cry ugh at. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. on a moment's reflection. it is obviously a mere chance how long. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. or in mode of use. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. Breton. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . moreover. deceit. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. A gull or a dupe same sense. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. Dupe comes to us from the French. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. There is. to the separation between the broken parts. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. although it is not difficult. the breach. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. or how generally. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. by a hard body breaking. known in Italian. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. or in aptness to combine with other elements.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. which is the origin of the word. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. at was more familiarly known. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird.

it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. founded in manifest blunder. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. . But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. nor any limited of ideas. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. however. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. life. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. Hitl^erto. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. language is . And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. is. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. and the word is used in a secondary sense. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language.

and vescovo. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. evique. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. circle perpetrates a new slang term. change. and 'Russian. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. out. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. compared with the duration of man. guages in South America. therefore. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. hearing.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. Naturalist on the Amazons. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. Welsh. in the course of many years' isolation. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. episcopus. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. of material things. 330.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. i. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). unintelligible to other hordes. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. French. I think it very probable. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. If English.

ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. 8. Cijlt. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. Nor is there one of the letters. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. The combination of the symbols I and 2. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. and . to be taken (Prim. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. which are idenr Figures 5. . 6. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . it will leave figures 3 and 4. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. A key must unlock more doors than this. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. 9. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. ao8). and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. is MN. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. the actual it which would to represent. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. as shown in the subjoined illustration. i.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. or whatever the proportion may be. ancient Greek M . although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 7.

for instance. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. and the only safe beneficent Creator. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . We must either suppose that in a civilised state. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. or. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. and it has been established in a wide range of examples." the use of a change of vowel in as. in the shape either of direct inspiration. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. which either by direct resemblance of sound. what comes to the same thing. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. his fellows. had its origin in imitation of sound. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. known to us as yet. leading him to utterances. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished.' should be discovered. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense.

that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. the conduct of Ixix life. and rose towards a higher state of being. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. in the course of generations. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. for instance. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. that he started from the lowest grade. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . and when we look back as far as history will reach. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . as elephants. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . race were speaking men or not. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. or else. until the progeny. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. or beavers. by animal without a trace name of Man.COMPLETION OF MAN. of using imitative conduct . or of their own reflected thoughts . or not. and sooner or later.

Due. English. 1857. Finnish. 1768. Brem. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Fr. Dief. Baile/sEngl. Dief. . 1654. de la langue Cat. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Bavarian. Cot. or Dan. Danish. Gr.-Eng. Dueange. at the end of Somner's Diet. Castr. Catalan. Supplement to Dueange. Anglo-Saxon. Couzinid. Gothischen 1851. Elfric's Fl.Saehsiches Worterbueh. AS. E. dialect of the Sette Commune. Diet. Dutch. Bigl. Carpentier. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Provincial dialect. Romano - Cas- traise. Cotgrave. Cimbr. dial. Diefenbaeh. Infimse Latini- D.. Dueange. Sup. Diet. Bremisch.V.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Dn. Diet. Bohemian or Czech. Douglas' Virgil. Esthonian. Fin. 1850. Bav. Teutonico-Lat. 1766. Supplement to Bret. Grammar Boh. 1737. Biglotton seu Diet. B. Esth. Diefeiibach.Nieder. Carp. Cimbrisch. Wtb. Da. ^Ifr.



katowai perairrantr. baltresca nokkutomax. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. buque 118 brodiquin r.>. kilistaa bugiie r. plowied budowaer. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. r. Askance woud r. ^i?^i2! r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r.nokkutama willekem. word allagerr. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. haverie crtOT r. cruccio deyrie. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. willekom Blab r. sveritet Asknace r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.5 ERRATA. cti. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni .percurrunt kimista^x. woman r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. alUger ahaverie r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. r. r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. (/ijtf r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . Blob plowied r. puHti r. yjnaifia r..


An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. a. Thus ip N3S. to arise. Dent posture. implying a completion of J. and secondarily in that of command. and — Chaucer. of-dune. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. to awake.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. . Immediately from Fr. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. Ab-. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. Thou spelds of mychty iction. ar. Abandon. abs. dominion. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. into the Romance ftrseg . He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. er. as. to sauff the king or spill. o/j of or . ir. Jvery man shewid baft. ibandonner. literally. dominion. out of. In Lat. A. this word beand Spanish. sion of 'an abandoned character. as. but now )bsolete). command. a washing off to abstain. 843. Lat. orders. on-lic. until the event jlace . ur. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. particular 1 . K . "rom a height. in. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. us. —Bruce. on. on-bsec . OHG. Parson's Tale. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. Hence on-bceftan. The word Ban is common orders. AS. bandon in French. Abs-. compounds. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. away from. said. whatever he be. the er. downwards. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. abaft. ab. have entire dominion over. on. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. onis aback. from a is to wake to abide. rule. power : Than Wallace thing. his. ifter. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. behind. Abaft. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . erwachen. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. vs. a/tan. alike. Passing tongues.t G.he Goth. away. 244. among. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. an edict or proclamation. from. Again. state of sleep . AS. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. to hold . To abuse is to use iway. iway from. to subdue. plesyt him. in the same sense. announcement. baftan.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. be-ceftan. in a manner other than it should be ablution. off.

to strike Froiss. by Wall. A. to excite admiration. to happen. of the Fr.polir. thing abbatere le vela. ne more vermeille. abbatis. with or without a final sh. et prirent terre. Baba ! Mod. More correctly written abbat. Wall.Prov. faire tomber. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Hence the OE. to put to con.— R. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. R. It. uncontroUedly. R. may be explained. burny. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille.' the surrender of a ' K. See Abide. burny was formerly burnish .which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. an abbey. esbahissant. And he thereof was all abashed. In or.fournir. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to diminish the force of any. abandonly. Castrais. adverbial expressions at abandon. abate. person. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. terminedly. to beat furnish. baer. — Neccham. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. and it that that it — . esbahissais. depress. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. d. to hit. to bate something of the price abbatersi. . Abbess. Milton. Custom. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. R. esba. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to take possession of an estate. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. To Abate. to gape. astonish. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. abbatere. where custom (Grandg. or admiration. 1520. from ravir. betrash. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. and sets them all agape. Hart in Jamieson. iv. polish. abaundunem-ent.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. astony. . as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. Originally. effect of shame.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. from Lat. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. his eyen shene.) . castle.esbawi. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. — — . to astonish. abbatere dal prezzo. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. at his own the lips.— — . and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. weaken. in the active form. abbattre. Fr. and that from Syrian abba. to The . Bate. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. Cotgr. overthrow. confound. father. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. his mouth. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. bawi. shame. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. law term abatement. c. Beat. de. Abbot. to overthrow.On princes. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. as ravish. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. other. of wonder. lish to abaisse orabaish. See . The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. to make lower. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . baba. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. ant. abbas. down. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. so common in the found in the OFr. I was abawid for merveille. and the verb was written in Eng. to strike sail . esbahir. vol. beer. and grooms besmeared with gold. to ruin. 364s. to light upon. or society of abbots or monks. to abaw or astonish. Abbey. merely the terminations ons. impulse. bandon.down. On the other in use as well as hand. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. impetuously. 1 1 8. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. drink. Hence Lat. son bandon. of fear. abbatia. ais.

badar. to wait. beter. Norm. de Berri) Prov. with badia.— ^richer. abie. or absorption watching.was formerly used in the sense of look. Boethius. Goth. songer. abetter. open the mouth. watch. beijen. speaking of the Holy places. Q. aspirer. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. to look. usbeisnei. says. to be intent upon. tarrying . with open mouth . wait To Abide. signifies the direction of tend. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. (Vocab. badigliare. to expect gabeidan. Corant sens lui. beijden. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. tity of E. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. See Abide. to deceive. gola badada. to open the mouth. Gloss. in Fr. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. wait.— Roquef. abidan. take care. m Abeyance. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. white. K. abaier. or do we AS. Cat. we sceolon ON.Fr. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. . — signifies to suspend action. . F. From abahier. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. bhr. listening.' is in AS. regarder. listen. Ni engigner ni abiter. guardare. badare. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. to gape . a bay or opening in the coast. gridare. delay. or in Fr. —Raynouard. ne chastised them. abeyance. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. badare. verbeijen Sw. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. E. house. to stay. suspense. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. bocca badata. from Halo. exciter. baier. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. desire. to wait. OFr. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. suffer b. in Dan. Thus we have It. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. Thus G. to ance. to wait. delay. Quant voit le serpent. and E. attendre See Bait. to stay. on the one hand. tical with It. badare. which the mind to an object. Cat. bada. othres abidan' The effacement expect. Du. have seen abide. expectation. waiting. de Champ. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. bide of the d endure. endurance. bana. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . syllable ba. bialodrze-w. is idenwait.— Chaucer. and Prov. Guernsey beth. inciter. qui iaaille. Abele. to abide . to be intent upon. delay. baer. covet. to attend to. beidan. take notice. to tarry. aspire to. — ABELE Epiphanius. us. Fabl. ceive. Prov. to expect. To Abet. expectfamily. intent observation. abeter. and in E. beidan. bida. which is certainly related to It. forbearance. a right in suspense . . to desire earnestly. tenere a bada. compared with (Bosworth). Ducange. to mind. look for another. to yawn. deceit. John. . In We . tempting. to In great amaze. to open bader. baier. lingering. were called Brothers. Abie. Norm. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. to attend on . abie. abayer. to desire. The white poplar. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. trick abetar. forms with the d effaced are OFr. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. b^er. pense. to remain or endure. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. deceiving. the verb of abeyance. to suffer death in Du. bida. bouche b^ante. and alluring to his own destruction. beguiling on the other..) abayer. to deanimer. to It. bouche bdante. beijen.to wait. bie compared with Dan. abet. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. attendre avec en^pressement. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. 366. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. Corresponding to keep in suspense. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. bder. to hook. ' ' . . inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). desirer (Roquef. abSiance. 1 • . literally white tree. bidan. abet. — . The verb atwaiting. expectation. ne wist what way to chuse. abbadare. incite . while the monks under his control ing. baier compared with It. warten. — II. also to OFr. beguile. endurArt thou he that should come. ^couter avec dtonnement. Gloss. Pol. bie. abiiance. inciting.

ynes. abilej Prov. expert. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. to pay the purchasemoney. Q. bord. . and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. Dr.^and to make his power knowne. him with che. Mids. abidge. the Fr. while in later examples As I . from Lat. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. without special reference to the notion of retribution. al- be found so some will dear abide it. purpose. the side of a ship. abolir. at kasta fyri bord. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Wickliff in Richardson. and the simple buy. to pay the penalty. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. to perish. Prol. fault being simply clothing. P. and death for handsel pay. sufficient. N. Chaucer. on board . It. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. abycgan. the Sir Tristrem. to draw fowls. was often used in the same sense. P. when compared with Aboard. though sometimes confounded with it. AS. and Cr. is the verb abie. aboleo. suffer the Jul. the Pardoner In the original. able. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. — Able. de la volatile. habile. durance in both applications. Tr. strong. Merch. or bie. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. O If tion. have-like. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. use. must suffer for it. Milton. forbid for mother's children should abye. bide. ! ! Cotgr. habilis is closely preserved. R. F. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. as E. The —Boucher. within the ship. For on board. 2. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. abide. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. abeye. She shall abie that trespass dere. to wear away. In this to erase or annul. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. —Bacon in R. as habiller du chanvre. willing to schewe his wrathe. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. abicgan. i. beidan. Cassar. in for any special purpose. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. being disabled in the highest degree. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. a board. to have . Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. God. within the walls of a ship. to redeem. from AS. L. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. Lat. habilis (from habeo. Fr. Boucher. consequences of anything . abigg. R. — P. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. abie. Spenser. abilh. If it badare.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. bidan. Fr. fit. power. to dress hemp. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. ON. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. convenient. &c. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. adapted . Innan bords. — e. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. atling hem to her proper offices. abie to Goth. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. at hand). 2nd Tale. Abie. to . powerful. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. properly abuy. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. God — dear.

adolere. the hair grow. be-utan. Kiittner. the identity of which with ting. and bidden him abregge.the older form. from . OE. greu. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. to AS. while the sense of beget. Abray. al is growth. and in-d-oles. af-oleii. to start. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. a portent). abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). the form a&^^. Thonne Abroach. common in Chaucer and Abominable. which may God avert. sec seftre — Chaucer. the OSw. onbutan. abbreviare. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. to produce. abrdger.aboon. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. full ofte his words for to Fr. Abrdger itself. breaking out in language. Lat.ymbutan. and also to abridge. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. and also. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. See To Bray. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. disastrous portent in some passing oc. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. — . nurse. pedigree from brevis. as AS. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. abracan. bufan. Then. to feed. titan. abredan. OSw. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. to cut short. abowen. to grow up. Thence to regard greugetat. Of these synonymous adolescere. to fatten. on high. the vital spark. vital PI. and alere flammain. motion. to aggravate. butan. OE. of any kind . is not from G. ol. currence. to beget or give birth to children. Du. becomes leu in Prov.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. abominor (from ab and omen. boven. agreujar. by the to bring up. D. life. levis to the Romance languages. above. be-ufan. to let sleep. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. To abray or abraid.— Abbreviate.1. Virg. which passed into English under Abominate. that greatly agredge their sin. hard. Goth. ABOMINABLE adolesco. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to main. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. outward. whence the Fr. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. In the same brevis . analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. en. abufan.' Parson's rence. as the duty of nourdisposition. is a ively.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. coalesco. natural ed direct from the latter language. nourish. So in Lat.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. abutan.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. heavy. . Fr. to awake. about cockcrow. draw out. brood. Tale. to turn. break out. AS. or young forth. parent. For on broach. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. as withotityn and without. ufan. side. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. progeny. alan. while the verb alleThe root el. gravity. Melibaeus. Quod abominor. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. Sc. around on the out. kindling. See -und-. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. gravis. Prov. af-oolden. but from Lat. abrcBgdan. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. seems aras. Severe the threatened evil. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. to break off. Gael alaich. abbrechen. to progress. s —Casdmon. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to.. To Abound. alan. giving birth to.) . the man dwindles away. The radical idea is to feed the flame. his contemporaries. the idea of breaking about . or cut short. from Fr. ala. . agredge. to grow together. without. snatch In English we speak of away. The primitive idea seems that of beget. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. alUger. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. oil. to snatch. to rear. AS. to feed.foda signifies to beget. for ligeth butan. — ' — — preceding verb. to light a fire the Abraid. alere capillos. AS. way Sw. nurse Lat. literally. explains soboles Lat. below. abbrechen. Finnish stock. ala is made to signify to rear. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. leading immediately to Fr.ger. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. to bring up. to nourish. and to do something to avert abbreviate. to rear. awaking. d. Abundant. Above..' Ymb hancred utan.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


G.made out. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. So Lat.D. in Shakespear. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. what Roman civilisation. before. As the browcalled antiques. ab. E. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. anxius. Fr. aperio. Mannequin. from eigan. from. amboltj Du.—Aperture. antefn. were chiefly of the former class. stem. —Spencer. panis. or in a ridiculous dress.is to be given. to sound in answer. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. from ante. Anvil. Gr. Hall's Chron. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. d<popi(xnbs. AS. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. antifena. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. plenteously with red. gabeigs. post. In like manner. i. AS. af. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. anfilts Pl. part. trouble. like a jack-pudding. Gr. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. to display pario. Ilvtwotov. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. all of gold. fauns. Jorioc. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. separate purpose. apanage. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. Hence the applica. as from as. AS. such as savages. Thus from gabe. as posticus. one. to strain. work. to support. younger child.legacy of given against. Apartment. from ango. anticus. eigs. a block to hammer on. to open. transferred to the grotesque characters. Lat. from the imitative habits of monkeys. andouillers. vex. Apart. swaged. which by anvild. avri^ava. See Cover. but the expresent day. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. surimitation of the ancient models. Otfried. villan Gloss. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. apertum. Anxious. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. three antike pillers. as the Italians. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. a definite . Percutere. something ler in R. to strike. from. the anticks — behind. separate.th centuries the recognised models of antic. To ape. and ig. Antique. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. left as the . wealth. Antidote. To go antiquely. Antler.. . In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. from Stephanus. before. Any. panar. — — — . as we call it. rich. apatiar. some one. a termination equivalent to Goth. from in and cudere. set aside. Lat. to go in strange disguises. Fr. Prov. a gift. a preventative . should be received. to bring forth. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Gr. Lat. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Ful- Apanage. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Apartment. to have. whence Prov. of. a few. press. strangle. Pezron fiUist. verberas. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Fr. a puppet or an anti^hona. a small quantity. whence anthem. or antique single chamber. and devils. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. incus. Aphorism. one at the least. : . bread.— . d. anapoz. to nourish. and claret wine. Antick. to strike G. one having wealth. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. on. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. inAgain from the same author cudis. from an. cenig. were andouiller the second. white. burnished. from avTiipoiuia). ReApe. aside. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. anxi. Lat. Aperient. choke. from an and — - . to imitate gestures. ambeld.

habilUr. approcher.his giving evidence against his principal. to Lat. An old appalled wight. Cotgr. Gr. esteem.pareil. apprendre. aptly. Approach. : — — speak 'Lz. apropchar. and also as appraise. appareiller. equal. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. that it outfit. Pliny. to fit. 11. from aTroorlXXu. in commendation. Apostle. — dirondtfiu. S^. Cotgr. apal. oVooroXof. proper time came. Fr. ON. To cause to pall (see Pall). jabloko. agree. to store or put Appal. and metaphorically to take the meaning. cepl. apprise. Fr. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Yr. like. And whanne sum men Lat. or the like. horror. Fr. diminutive pariculus. to commend. to be open to view. Lat. or E. to — — . corresp. Hence appoind. make a composition between parties. a learner. to send to. Cent Nouv. find Then like Fr. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. apar. Prov. to approach. rise to \t. par. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing.parecchio. 'LaX. whence the e. avail. to finish a controversy. To Appraise. approcdare. from paix. dress. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. The Fr.parejo. agreeing with "LtA. to announce. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. purpose. allow. I prise ware. — Apprise. To praise. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. to learn. near. value apprdder. probare. one sent out. habiliments. prover. opportunity. to set a price on. to learn. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. Apo- good time. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Formerly apricock. appartenir. D. H. laven is used both as E. plight. prope (comp. properly to join like to like. known. ciously than nede is. to make a thing Apparel. poind. appris. . —Diez. Friar's Tale. to seize. apparecchiare. in fact. For their acquaintance was not come of new . iwKjToKri.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d.— . Appease. and in the sense of condition. peace. They werin his approvirs privily. praise. . — prehendere. pertain or belong to. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Fr. array. Apple. to call for judgment. Sp. to assign or grant over unto. like. peler. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. to approve. to — . diroBrjKr}. to call. Cotgr. to deter- to strike. d-n-o. En peach. From Gr. ap. Parson's Tale. a thing for one's purpose. a'^opi'Jw. Fr. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. case. To Appear. pronounce good. quoth the frere. (cited by Diez from a late author). in Chaucer. Apprehend. word was specially applied to clothing. and appoinder (to find fitting. when the . Walach. decree. Fr. Fr.probare. pretium. after his mind . to understand. one the MLat. Apoplexy. The PI. one is in. diroTrXriaatii. to catch hold of. Gr. piteux poind. Mod. Lith. ai. to rate. obolys. appellare. to disable oftat. a crime. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. apropid. xv. approver. a price. away. prohts. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. to take away or lose the vital powers. of. APRICOT off. ar. in good season prendre son d. 'L-zX. to come near. — Appurtenance. N. They were considered To Appoint. And among other of his famous deeds. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. . were formed appropiare ejar. A — . Fabian in R. set a price on. ^wss. appaiser. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. w. 23 . from. 5w. kind of action. apprehendere. pronounce fitting). seiden of the stones. Ir. to strike down. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. prize. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal.t. off. Palsgr. become dizzy . consent unto. Nouv. despatch on some service. manner. to suit. fit- — ness. OFr. Gr. — Approve. landmark. Fr.—Apprentice. e. apin R. to mark to define a bound. apal. an epistle or letter. It. order. apprentis. i. to which it is often referred. trim. —^Apparent.prix. to deem good. pragigua or prixcoda. Gr. in data. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. Apotliecary. aparelhar. Yr. one for his defence. From Lat. Epistle. to lose one's senses. appareo. Appareil. the good. poind. irpaiKOKiaov. preparation. From Lat.propius). to deaden. APO sentence opoQ. lAfiaam. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Hence It. to dress in this fashion. to send off. good. mine. Prov. AS. taking. to accord.

Alban. Beryn. {mies ^=ia3. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. suitable. . The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. Naprun. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. opinio. . It will be observed in how large a proportion of . doubtless is the origin of E. aestimo. and thence fit. or barm-cloth. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. Lat. delon. It is certain that the apricot oracle. water Which that benchid was. herbere. Pr.. shortdr. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. however. Lat. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. ahva. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. as ihe diminutive. Hall. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. a soothsayer. Prol. con. a river. be That it inne groweth. symbol. properly the arwella. a lot. This path Aqueous. 2. She made. account for either of these significations. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. auguror. Maan initial . The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. arbiter. 31. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. and the one who gives oracles. is taken in is a soothsayer. Freshly turnid Arable. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. intensitive of nape. OHG.meaning at Shrewsbury. C. Arbour. divining rod. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Pm. P. and taken away before dessert. sortium ductor.sors. Now we find in Fin.) E. grande nappe. sorcerer. quod he. fastened close. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . aqua. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. and a protection of the clothes. proper. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. ear.shrubs {arbor).o. and sortilegus ation. a lot. rofe and all. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Arbitrate. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. P. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. nected. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may.] in the N. Flower and Leaf. of of divination arpa-mies. Albanian. tion under trial. As is a pretty parlour. however. . OE. a cloth. and with turfis new Goth. man. arwelo. arbiter in re censendS. short. derived. Marsh. The loss or addition of n very common. arbitrium. From OFr. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. naperon. a lot. nawl and awl. words derived from arpa. . for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. arwaus. aa. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. pracoqua was not an adapt. to plough. Gr. 331. to preserve it from stains. Now one of the points — — — . The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. conjicio. most conspicuous situation in the garden . the spelland umpire. hariolus arpelen. to decide by lot. arbitror arwaaja. Thus we have natiger and auger. aro. It may be doubted. — . found in Fin. A. sestimatio arbitraria. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. ap. arpa. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. — napkin is Naperon. wata. Lat.' —About. Aquatic. or eft. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. garden. aptus. scr. la nappe. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. J. From OE. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. ughe. a pleasure-ground. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. as an eye-witness. conjectura conjec^ra. Roquefort. aha.

make clear or prove. . Aristocracy. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Arcadia in R. an arrant rogue. which is derived from it. armata.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. are formed the participial nouns. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. arcA in e. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. 2. There can be no doubt that E. first. branch. un petit rusd. morally bad. exercise lordship). Arm. and our army. fabricate). Langobard. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. patus). ardor. ' — Argue. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. TiKToiv. Lat. the court of a magistrate. apxh. a noble. sluggish. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Applied in modern E. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. difficult to reach. Lat. worker. . as the arch of a bridge.. especially shoulder-joint. receptacle where the public acts were kept. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. Arcliives.4 rir/. Sp. G. ^Argument. to burn . Lat. sly. * ArchjAiTaxit. a threshing-floor. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. vescovo. rame. . arch-bishop. sly. Gr. Arduous. Sax. ars. to arm. armada. Cot. AS. earh. an arch boy. mischievous. to Arch. an extent of flat surface. apxtlov. Fr. Brem. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. arm'ee. area. ruling by the nobles. from nixa. i. wretched OE. by Russ. a burning or setting on fire. fainthearted. mischievous. det arrigste snavs. to be on fire. apx^iv. burning heat. Gr. to dry. Uo^a^. arsum. ill-tempered. a chief builder. the best. Fr. ardeo.' Paul Warnefrid. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . lofty. a bare plot of ground. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. arg. the a brute. From apxeiov was formed Lat. arga. ON. bad. faint-hearted. troublesome. to be in comp. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). argvitugr.is the natural weapon of offence. . arrant Arms.. curved line. kpxi- beginning. government. taxed with cowardice. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. et vulgari verbo. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. Lat. It. from areo. shoulder Boh. apxri. — Architect. a branch. ein arger knabe. 3340. Gr. W. high. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. Ardent. Arch in composition. ers-betriiger. gwyrek. arrig. wanton. ardre. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. a bow. erz in G. the most arrant trash. a. adjective. whence the body of the nobles collectively. Lat. curved. From the verb armare. weapon may be simply an application of annus. and Kpurka. an arch-deceiver . A construct. it signifies roguish. an arrant usurer. a court yard. Dan. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. gwyro to bend. Perhaps erz-wticherer. arwe.' Lex. erz-bischof. ardIn G. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. The .In E. een erg kind. Arid. man. G. Lat. weapon. Arson. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. stuff. Du. shoulder. arduus. the terminaGael. arguo. a rule (princiruler. arm. aridus. in Due. vocaveris. Fr. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. timid. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. ancient. ramend). arma. aj-f. contemptible. — Wtb. Lat. to demonstrate. earg. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. un malin enfant. forearm . Area. arm. D. while the Fr. is essentially the same word. argr. Lat. armee. which has been referred to W. bad of its kind. ramo (pi. erg. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. to rule. bravest.' the Gr. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Alisaunder. malicious. And thou as arwe coward. . — degree when appHed to a bad quality. raineno. earm. arson. arcus. apxtipfve. Ardour. bad. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. and must be identified with Dan. and not with apx. Du. Gr. signifies chief or principal. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus.— Army.aioj. archangel. as in E. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

on the shore. balle. the breadth from side to side . pallo. floor. bacgtteter. . OSw. beaten road. balja. to wave. Da. the beam of a ship. as we say. To Bale out water. G. balka. to signify washy drink. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. to paddle in water . ball. roof. a ball or pack. a boil. to avoid it. cka. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. Q. balka hopar. a clod of earth water. bolyatchka. a ball. Sw. a dance. pila. a continued noise of waves gently beating . bolker. pain. Rouchi ban. Sw. to partition off . E. Russ. weak liquor. dial. It. balloon.— Ballet. ing. lealo. Fr. i. shouting. It. Bale. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Bohem. ballan.' speak gibberish champurrar. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. Wotton. We have then separate dial. N. to grieve . maleficium. Goth. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). Hence Dan. a. bala. In like manner Fr. to see-saw. to plank. Sw. Mid. bielke. a washing-tub. to shake or jog. balveins. Fr. to plough for a boundary between lands. sick. pilula. boleii. to ail. Hence. blister. ballotta. Baulke of land. stage or scaffold. ball. 3. to ache. as in a barn or cow-house. afbalka. uveirs bolk. ballone. pallikka. bol.—Ballad. to be balker. ache. ballar). to dance. sickness. taich. at giore en balk. palcare. to roll. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing.). Sw. trouble. bealwes. destruction. bdlkr. . balk. balle. a water-skin dim. bal. To baulke the Sir H. to rock. a bubble. balk. dial. and the dim. balare. wickedness ness . on. the object of his expectation. Sw. G. a balk of foul weather.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . pallo. and evil in general. globule. Ballot. heap up. Perhaps on. to speak an un. a pestilence. malefacGower in R. a division of the old laws. a beam. Sw. Gael. torment. a beam.ing. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. may exhibit the original development of the signification. balle. from bacquet. Pol. separaison. The primary sense seems as in G. bola. bol. vacillare. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. w. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. says Ray. ballet. pallukka. a ball. a clapping or flapping of wings. wickedtorment ON. Fr. a ballot). ballo. Ugutio in Due. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. from the more general notion of moving up and down. a But making way for death at large to walke. baalien. ill. bjdlki. mass. palloilla. dial. boll. Da. to move. . Sp. bal-daed. a ballad. the ballet of the theatres. Grief. bolyaf. Sw. to pack Da. balla (with the augm. a clump . e. a dance. baler. Gr. a ball. balkr. to Not sparing wight. balk. It. 2. ON. bal. balken. a ball balla. baalie. TtaKKa a pail or tub . tum. Bowl. chapurrar. to be ill. bbllr bulla J. . misery Du. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. other while. bold. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. to on Holmedon's plain. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. on. Boll. baloier.of men .Fr. a wooden partition . probably Lat. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. a together in the form of a ball. ballare. ballare. Du. I. Bret. to dance. ne leaving any balke. balka bunge. Fin. See Gall. Venet. palla. grieve . or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. bollr. AS. Ball. a scene acted in dancmg. * Balk. (Hesych. balk. — A — — . plague. Balloon. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. are applied to a From the same analogy. . ball. maan pallikka. F. calamity. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. vcdra bdlkr. to stir. whether of wood or stone. Sw. on. a pill. hooting. Du. ballare. hue et illuc inclinare. a skin. a pail. a separate portion. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. a ball. OFr. balva-vesei. balge. It. bolawy. OHG. ' is a piece or confused talking. Dan. Ball. a partition. . a great ball. . balle. a globe. package of goods. A balk. with the perhaps from balg.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. bal. It. balken.Lat. similar connection is seen in Sp. ban. to cause another to miss pustule. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. dial. sorrow. Ballata. gen. ball. to bale out. to by beams. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle .

bag-las. a fragrant gum. barauste. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. Report Pennsylv. mare Balticun. back of the ship. for a load or goods (Roquef. explains ballast.). command. ballustre) is a corruption. to preserve equilibrium. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. bag-lest. railing around altars. a battlement . The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. . It. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. Du.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. more frequently than outward-bound. and Mid. If bambocciolare were child of one. a young babe. It is explained back by Adelung. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. lastre. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. To deceive. endormir par des contes. Bret. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. denounce. like Fr. balsamum. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. make fun of a person. Lat. Ballast. To proclaim. Mr Marsh whether the a load. a useless load. deceiver. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. bambolo. a rod. Sp. sorcerer. by met. a small balustrade. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. To make fun of a person.that the going vessels. paid for the right of carriage. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. lest. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. little round and short pillars.' And Kil.Lat. ranked on the outside of cloisters. ballustres. inutile onus. to walk. The Sp. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. Cotgr. The Baltic sea. Fr. small railing. To Ban. ballast. galleries. To Bam. deceive. but loadage. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. This is the backload. in the first place. bambocciolo. the backload. to enchant. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. from Lat. is in Sweden and Norway. i860. baranda. Lest. or movement of one who walks. ^Arbuthnot in R. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. baU. more serious objection is . and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. it is forced to take in stones or sand. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. Fr. a duty on goods last. bamein. 1854. forbid. But Fr. balustrade barandilla. dial. Bamour. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. lestage. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. ^a\Ba\iov. — — oltriga. bumbazed. age. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Balm. 43 — Cot. Bret. or ballast of a ship. . curse. &c. terraces. enchanter. because. A — — . Venet. of balusters. a false tale or jeer. the act of walking. lastagium signified not only ballast. When a ship discharges. inutilis sarcina. for want of other freight. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. Sept. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. Sc. the flower of the pomegranate.000 tons. Balluster. bertesca. objects to the foregoing derivation. R. bamboccio. from bara or vara. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life.. &c. fonts. To Bamboozle. lastra. Said to be from balaustia. astonished. It. seems the original form of the word. In OSw. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. also with flatteries and . Dan. Gr. called Bait. Baltic. barandado. balconies. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. bam. puzzled. a nettle. baltresac. baUa. an Old dotard or imbambolare. urtica. analogous to what is seen in It. last. as he says. 1. baume. Balsam.

&c. Cot. banda. Mag. in Fr. bindan. Fr. R- He Translated by Chaucer. says Muratori. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. he bannede his ferde. It. passing on from proclamation to command. bundun. bandera ground at his mill. The to .^ bandy. curse. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. . term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Se il — Romance languages.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp.Lat. bann. bannire in exercitum. the ensign or banner. band. G. bande. See Abandon. D. Bandus. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. and It. Band. 15. Goth. band. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. to ctide. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl.—John Villani in Due. banda the colour or material. E. to unite with a band. Capitul. Assises de Jerusalem. tener da alcuno. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. Sp. Baud. sostener Torriano. v. . 1. Commun^ment son bandon. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. —R. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. border. summoning to serve So in Swiss. ex. — To partito d'alcuno. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. 813. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. power. parti. Wyntoun. bando. OE. — excommunication bann-lysa. he assembled his host. then the signification w. banda. Diss. to take one to task. and in E. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. side. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. banner marked the place of assembly. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. to side or to bandy (Florio). Les saiges avait et les fols d. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. ba?idare. In Fr. Spebifid. to . i. to publish) banna. change to the feminine gender in banda. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Ripuar. whether by way of injunction or for- command. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. eiiseigne. flag. 'A son bandon. to reprove. bandon was used in the same sense. Sw. In a special sense the term company itself. banns pany of footmen serve. Leg. hoc est vexillo. to bring corn to be fahne. permission. a coast. bandon somewhat party. fahne. admolendinum. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. from at the Lord's courts. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Bandear. 26. is That with which anything AS. margin.. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought.e. — R. It. acquired the sense of proclamation. bande. ligue Taboada). a number of persons associated for some common purpose. It seems this signification has arisen. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Car. to ban. and thence to any proclamation. we constantly find the expression.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Sp. Goth. bandi. faction. Fr. 2. region. to follow a faction. A. To Bandy. From the verb to banda. There is some doubt how Fr. 19. bannire exercitum. R. &c.is further developed. in hostem convocare. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. side. to form parties. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. at his own discretion. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. It. theodscipe ut abannan. those who side together (bande. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . to excommunicate {lysa. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. populum. a company. bannum or bandum. bande. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. bound. etc. biddal. authority. also the band or of marriage.

Dan. Benvoglio. beating. ON. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. to work in wood. See Balluster. back of a knife. s'associer. home — Bandog. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. se joindre. was formed the OFr. rap hatike et som The Susu. the former Fr. as of an explosion or a blow. Diez. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Banditti. Africa. bannire. and poise Their lighter wings. bander. Brewer. Diaconus in Due. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). standard. bank of river. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. that the word is used by Romeo. a bank. bank. banca his creditors. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. Du. The word is in E. With many a stiff thwack. bank. many a bang. put under the ban of the law. whence the mod. Bandy legs are crooked legs. — . a sand-bank. the same verb the It. bander. a bankrupt merchant. and bakki. Tibalt. bandi. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. — Kil. bow. . bank of Dan. Benchi. From a desk . prince had forbidden faction fightSp. Bacon in R. and therefore tied up. clouds.HG. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. eminence. Lat. Mid. See Banish. banc. has bang-bang. bandear. bandire. tumult bangas. banco. g. The ing. de sable. It. AS. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. for shame. death-sickness. From Mid. bana. ON. bench. de- party.: . It is in this sense nounce. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. It. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. . a bench. and hence. bana-sott. Mercutio. banditti acquired the like signification. Roquefort. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. destruction . bang. a blow. . when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. death-blow . — Fr. to cabal. . eminence. AS. bakke. outlam came to signify a robber. a de Vaud. a rising bank. to publicly order one out of the realm. band-hond. bana-sdr. to knock. at canis peciiarius. and OFr. banka. It. a i. — — whence E. Your stool. roupt. to proclaim. Bankrupt. benk. murderer. Bank. se reunir. bana. bance. bane. the slope of a hill. A Shipman's Tale. band-dog. Fr. panca. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Fl. Sw. forbear this outrage. distinguishes bekkr. a counter. shoal. bankruptcy. to make a stir banke. banca fallita. ruptus. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. to hammer in a nail. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Bane. in the sense of place of business. &c. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . language of W. counter. Hudibras. a long raised seat. to bend a. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. 2. banish. a bench. from banc. banc G. to slay. a wound OHG. to knock. dorsum was applied to ject. of bandying words. Fr. banke. Bantze. bent as a bow. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. large dog kept for a guatd. to beat. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. seat . in the same way that E. The child cries bang! fire. E. a bench. a table.z. . Bang. in R. hammering. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Goth. follow a party. 45 — — Bandit. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. banqueroute. bank of a river. Milton in R. pastoralis. broken.^ knock. ON. among rotta. stir. death-wound. bander tin arc. Banner. disturbance banga. Draw. Lingua. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Fr. &c. the back. bana. But natheless wife at I bank. bench. hricg. To Bandy. —^Vocab. See Band. to foment factions. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. Banister. in the sense of a pirate. The ridge of a hill is AS. b'ang. beat. banja. Ripuar. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. — Paulus drive in a nail. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. canis vinculis assuetus. N. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Bandy. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. When a man fails Lat. desk.

of a sign in general. rod of any rigid substance. jSdirTO). inur. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. Barb. dim. summit. in Gr. and even of calling it banter. barbed or trapped as a great horse. It. barbe. to having that signification. a tree). token. would rupted from Fr. .— Swift in R. Gr. Leduchat. sparro. Celtic bar. probably corSymbol. Fr. says. uncivilised. remarked. barbarus. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. BARBAROUS reiflingr. top. senh. E. himself in Pontus. ON. such as the Roman Eagle. The original import of their own banner in the field. out of a wound. According to Diez the It.the analogous syllable viur. barre. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. Hence Fr. bar. wrapped. and from ensign or banner Prov. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. Thus Ovid. Fr. ^oTrriKio. jSa'pjSapoc. to bend. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. rarii. a which the barrister addresses the court. indeed. from the same source.hinder. chan. ing term appears in other languages. Banneret. To Banter. a. banchetto. senhal. milites bannarii. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. a bantling. E. heri-pau. or of this bantering. Banquet. It. and the work is done. Barbar.cruel. In a similar manner are formed yearling. Barbe. branches of a tree {gwezen. brushwood. Gr. A It. banda hendi. Bret. barriire. E. speaking of battle. barba. OHG. banneret was a higher class of knights. to wrap. iandvo. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. 2. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. an animal a year old. to dip. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. The spar. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. a bench or table . as they call it. banner. nestling. Fr. bannereti. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. barreau. inferior to a baron. Lat. sign. manu anto make signs nuere.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. barrou-gwez.. To mock or jeer one. the word came to signify rude. OHG. a sign. Sw. either in the Gr. Barb.8ap6^o)voe. a barrier or stoppage. that the noise of voices Bantling. Lat. banne. bandiera. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. of wind. the bar at which a criminal enseigne.46 BANNERET . 3. hence a repast. Hence ner. arineXov. and with an initial s. period vexillarii. Lat. senheira. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. privileged to raise Barbarous. then branches. ingly very generally known by a name branches. — We A . Bap. ban- Baptise. from reifa. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round.aTa Kul nest. a beam or long pole of wood. branch. senhal. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. OFr. and it was accord. which is surely in barbed arrow. barde. to beckon . by a repetition of the syllable bar. banda. men. benda. The origin is in all probability Goth. then fell among the foot. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j.. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. It. merki. Fr. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. Fr. barrack. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. signuin. banneret. The barb of an arrow is the sign . sparre. It may be thing. knight Bardd. banniire. Duo. barrer. Gael. i. sbarra. &c. and he would seem to derive Goth. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. of banco. Flesche barbeUe. Fr. to wash. barra. —Cot. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. a bearded or Cot. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. a ban. a war-beacon or war-signal. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. ON. &c. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. G. bandva.

barbier. borbulhar. Bard. Hindost. to gurgle. Lith. a shingle or small board. barbaris. bardd. barbarkama. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. barbeum. Bargain. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Fr. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. bardes. bds. Sp. Fl. — . a rumbling. or more properly (says fer. Cotgr. mutter. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. uproar. saddle-cloth. axilla. Etym. unqualified. Fr. berj G.) to wrangle. to bubble or spring up. which was of talking. to grunt. It. a pack-saddle. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Festus in Diet. baares geld. The Pers. the edge of a shield hval-barct. barbeau. An outwork for the defence of a gate. OFr. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. bdsiis. albardilla. Bret. Port. berries. barbel. barguigner. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. grumble (Lowndes. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Mod. guazzolare. bdsas. the quilted with. bar. barbulla. Hatt-bard. — — — men. twattle. bare baskojis. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Bardeau. . to plash or dabble. waschen. ala. border. to boil or bubble up . a bardelle. to bubble or boil. Bare.— Fl. to make an outcry . Barber. barbugliare. Barberry. borborinha. speak confusedly. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. to chafbargain. /3opj3opwJu. in Fr. barefooted Sanscr. /3£pjSepi^w. borbollar. and the word was used in OE. Gr. stutter. bhasad. gibberish. barz. such as houses are covered Bardelle. to rumble. Lex. also to wallow like a seething pot. barbelin. Sp. Barbican. a tumultuous assembly. the nakedness of a woman. But Sp. brim. used 2. also to bind or tie across. barboter. barbeter. It. Barder. horse armour covering the front. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. uncovered. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. jargon. haggle. Exposed to view. and foolishly. the flap of a hat. bdla-khaneh. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. name Fr. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. brabble in the making of a bargain. Lucan. Russ. fortia —Strabo.— — Pm. a long saddle for an ass or mule. to stammer. A7 to the and warlike. on. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. G. in poetic language Bard for poet. quarrel . Etym. Fr. barda. to prattle. Fr. Barbel. murmur . to It. Pr. Cot. — — Hence. barda. skirt. Port. skirmish. barbacane. guaszare. Mod. Thus the on. to stammer. . tattle. as well as the modern twaddle. to barbe or trap horses. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. and flanks. skialldar-bard. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. border of a garden bed. formerly used in the sense of tattle. muttering. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. boil. Barde. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. to mumble or mutter words. — Cot.) .' Cot. barbar. albarda. and in Flanders to vociferate. Cotgr. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. as well as thwcEtta. twcEtta. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. baar. lb. ready money. borbotar. — . is lb. the beard. upper chamber. borboglio. Hall in R. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. tree. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. in the sense of fight. to wash. coping. open. Gr. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. Applied in E. skola. powdered all over. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . a jetty or outnook in a building. albarda'ah. Diez. small pack-saddle. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. baragouin. Sp. w. barS. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. i. and Sc. g. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. back. scouthouse.— BARBEL merit of water. Arab. dial.

mhg. bern. Sp. berm. dispute. limpet. a lantern. Prov. bcern. spectacles. The Goth. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . barley. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. louzou. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. then honoured man. baarm. baralhar. bread-corn. barley. limpets. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. we pass to the vert) barguigner. to rout. limpets . OFr. and ern. chaffer. bread. herbs. husband. hladi. edge. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer.Barum vel feminam. — Zeuss. to skin over barkandi. Cornub. border. from an imita- Barley. baralha. put to confusion. . barki. the or prow of a ship. a stack. barn. Garlick. a load. barley. (Ihre. dispute . plants). Acervus. to shufSe. barlys {bara. baragouin. Bailey. . and 1. ber (ace. Baron. bern. to strive. disorder. bernac. berem. borkr. ON. It. to all the barca. baarn. barone.^Voc^. Sw. bard). tion of the sound. at barka. astringent. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. The older form in e. corn-shed. bargain. barms. bosom. dispute . the rack or manger. ON. prominent part of a thing. Vocab. beer. Camus. On the other hand. to chop. prasepe . Provj bar (ace. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Romance barsie. quarrel Port. Barge. and hence probably (by a metaphor. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. bcerme. the A — Ihre. . commonly explained from bere. then the bows pectus navis. Ibid. squabble. baniffa. Originally man. altercation. bark . from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. bamagh. and the word. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. 2. bere. barnis. Isidore in Rayn. berm. From Fr. a baking place or oven. a heap . kani. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Swab. and is probably a true bartig. Leg. strife. to cheat. W. v. Kil. trouble. confusion.' bardagi. baron. Leg. tumult. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. w. So also ON. baaring. lap. Bret. i. . Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. barafustar. berm hoys. Antiq. charlock. Port. the slimy substance brewing of beer. aheap. Barn. barahunda. also to exchange. baerm. in the Brim. quant a perdu sa barja. Ripuar. skutr. Bemiques. also a boat . 2. but the woman for the man. baimeach. was barlic. meta foeni. Sp. Rayn. baaren. in Nat. as. strife. OSw. the G. adj. dial. ThS man was not created for the woman. brenig. OFr.) lihtes-ern. baratta. Uzen. Alam. baratta. Manx bayrn. and llysiaw. as. the fore or after end of a boat . dispute. barretor. bosom . hay-loft. barlich. fray. to scold. contest. —Bark. Bark. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. barajar. — Barnacle. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. wine. dregs of oil. Du. contest. one who stirs up strife. barn. skuta. See formed Yeast. barge. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla... varen. a cap . a beak. It. barii. barja. a heap. a. am. to wrangle. Sp. a receptacle for barley or corn. is simply the Bret. struggle. barizeins indicates a noun baris. houbartij fsnile. — de Berri. beornt. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. Barbour in Jam. barafunda. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. and may therefore be an Eastern word. barmr. Port. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. hlaSa. As Goth. barlys. Lith. beorcan. a place. quarrel. Gael. barn. name being given to spectacles. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Tarn baronem quam feminam. dispute barattare. AS. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. as in the case of Lat. Du. as well as Scandinavian tongues. giving rise to It. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. — battle. AS. Spectacles. * Barnacles. To Bark. ON. Gl. See Barm. a boat. berma. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. hemlock. a lap. Dan. a barn. Dan. The origin may be throat. entangle. E. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. baron)^ Fr. ON. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. barnacles. as baces-ern. strife. So ON.

They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. barrila. or simply bahre. cise formation of the word. alongside of barrow. whenever Barrow-hog. barrique. An ing. beorg. over him. baroncelli. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. AS. Bern. S. baronuU. tomb. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. qui have not much light on the pre. (Schmeller).—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. Sp. signifying.have been named from the haggling and gant. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. the two names. the braw. beorh. bera. baraignej Picard. baronetti. vir. became bidre. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. also termed bannerets. baragan. barri. barchent. barrique. bearg . bredhan. berewe. to * Barragan. branches. — A . Bargus or moreland. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad.parchanttuech. strife. squabble.— Gibbon. a bar. It was not until the time of James I. to carry. On chet — We — — their resemblance. a castrated hog . bahre. G. bier. E. fortification.' that Barrier. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. heap. a barrel. a kind of coarse camlet. It. AS. iver. braeck. See Bar. OE. barraca. mound. barril. Barricade. litter. Fr.' Op. Barratry. It. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. Antiq. as. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. cover. — Kil. barrack. Joshua vii. See Barter. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. ^Vocab. Gael. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. perhaps through Prov. by early examples. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. Formed from Fr. composed of dry branches ofer. Barren. It should be observed that. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. D. bark&n. The feudal tenants next Fr. and in several instances. facture. bouracan. bara. 1. whence Barrow. Barrel. Sp. It. Barrister. semen non accipiens landiEL. as cavalcade. fallow. breinej Du. like bargain. barile. to shelter. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. barague. dispute. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. change of goods seems. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. rolls of Parliament. barrier. gravis et authenticus vir. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. todtenbahre.root signifying confused noise. seem to be radically the same with Lat. StiU he shows conclusively. then traffick4 Barrow. Sp. uncultivated. brushwood. bara. Bohem. man. booth. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. barre. a hut or booth. staves. Fr. from beran. Bret. implement for carryAS. Bamnculus a baronet. borov'. ibid. The Sp. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. a man. This word introduced into Fr. vair. man and wife. a horse. a. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. ^Barrator. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. baronculi. Baron andfemme. and not from Fr. w. Barrack. fear. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. berwen. sepulchre. barBombicinus. beorgan. boar. habeant. — — 15th Cent. hut. nobles. 26. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. from a tree to which a man is hanged. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. MHG. a word is always used in the plural number. Gael. from cavallo. shed. baracca. an obstruction. a barrow. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. especially those killed in battle. which would barragdn. in Nat. sterilis. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. garment still used in Morocco. Goth. calico. gwr. were sometimes confounded.. A.. in the first instance. a. a hiU. Nominale of the from braeckland. 2. a bier. G. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. vel pretiosos burellos. OFr. Russ.

baos. It. piiiguis. the a wide open vessel. Sp. a ftiesh. A fabulous serpent. from bere. to stitch . at basta og binda. Lap. of the same sense. unrighteous gain. lift me above Parnassus. would be. Barton. Newman. crassus. said Base. partieren. leviter consuere. ' He was begetin o bast. MS. See Bath. barley. as the diadem of the basilisk. mavult dicere Roma suam.' Gl. low. Sicamb. OFr. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). . Sp. Barbara de pictis veni patch. berewic. baxoj w. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Fr. Al is dai. bdtir. basgod. to cheat. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. humilis. bestan. according from Gael. Pl. . thick. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. mean . mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . and tun. Fris. then cheating. pdrdt. ' Bosworth. fornication. imbastire. F. foist in bargaining. to bind. Bass. hoops of a cask. It.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. he. Bast. w. to cheat. bastear. a basket masg. Dan. fhe outhouses and yards. Basket. a bass rope.looketh upon his eyes. back. to bind. ohg. bast. Fr. basta. bran. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. But according And Dan. bast.' Papias. to bargain. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. — in Rich. i. chasa ogli a bastard. corn-farm. It. but born in baste. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. a deceiver. submovet omne Lucan. OFr. to long — a British word by Martial. inclosure. mock not. AS. Sw. or running away with the ship. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. but he dreth presently. on a. MHG. Swed. from /3aR. which sets up its hood when angry. court-yard. or wic. baste. 516. preparatory stitching. a halter. a king. low part of the Hickes in Rich. besst. descended of an honorable lineage. There is not one that. baraet (from Fr. exchange. To stitch. baraand especially teria.). — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. — Bassoon. To Baste. as It. dwelling. BassuS. Arthur and Merlini. plaiting of splinters basged. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Basilisk. It. Lend me your hands. to baste. HaU in HaUiwell. which covers the grain Ger. come near. cog.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. bareter. — hanging. HoUinshed. aiKcig. Du. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. cheating. . Isidore. him. baste. beguile. ibid. MHG. Gr. also to Cotgr. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. The like property hath the iasilisk. truck. barter. HaUiweU. low note. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. G. to baste piece of cloth. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. Bass. bass-matting. found in Turkish . Fr. bark. to deceive. netting. shallow. n' is n' is bacino. Bassus. ing for profit.D. Halliwell. binding. Bartizan. the manorhousfe itself. embastir. fornication. the — — to kill those that look upon it. and Bret. Apparently of Celtic origin. To Bask. imbastire. fraud. flat. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. Du. basg. oe. low. beretun. bestcn. curtus. beortun. bast-maatte. a tying. bas. God it wot. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). baratear. bds. exchange. It. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. peel. bast-reb. basta. commonly A joined with the word binda. basso. ^Is de bast. Sp. lust. bassin. more noble in blood than notable in learning. PaaiKhms. husk bast van koren. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. discourse Nay. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. besst-u-b£nd&t. also the demesne lands of a manor. baratar. Bastard. stitch. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. basso. fits de bas. It is mentioned as . Sw. Sylvester's Dubartas. over-reaching. a court-yard. It. bast. See Brattice. a bastard. a ipgli So Turk. tierer. pressed down. to Diez. scale in music. rope for — . The original meaning. chasa. Dan. Kil. to truck. barter. lattice-work. /«r<fSp. to bind hand and foot. the thin skin Dan. baste.

Fr. It. a pad. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. ON. ment.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It.fortress or castle furnished with towers. vespertilio. the bat . agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. cudgelling. basta. — — — . worth (Nat. contriving. 11864. bastille. a blow cloth for dinner. badger. p. Sc. It.baste or knock soundly. dial. bastia. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. blatta. to beat. beating. erect. blacta. to Due. vledermus. BAT neither. bastear. blakta. Sw. bastione. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. Rayn. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. set up. 164). — — Fl. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. 2. iastir. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. like the owl and the bat. aftonbakke. the clapper of a bell. to whip. vespertilio. Pr. Mid. beysta. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool.stick. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. to build. devise. — Bakke. batta lucifuga. a. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. raise. ari instruineht for beating. Sw. a blockhouse. night-bat. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking.stitching in general. to pack a saddle i. put it together. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. a things prepared for future use. 2. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. bastilde. bastir. the night-jar or goat-sticker. to rub gently. Antiq. from Fr. For the loss of the / in back. Sp. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. blakra. set up. Dan. to build. bastonnir. to thrash . contrive. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. basto. to flap. bastonada. liiake. a bird which. That yche blak y dar wel telle. in the Romance languages. All from bastir. frame. a barSp. the E. Derived by Diez from iasi.. . frotter. blaka. guerra bastir. settiilg up. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. niammal. and Cot. a bastion. boste. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. To donjon. also the ricado. stryka. to beat. Dieiif. stryk. bladier. For the origin of baston see Baste. bastimento. iinbastire. comp. to belabour. Cot. e. dial. Cot. baston. bastida. to stroke. to spread bread and butter. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive.'CaB. pre. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. to quilt or stitch wool into it. Supp. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . to give him a sound bastingi 3. passage Imbasto. back. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. a packsaddle. to lay the Sp. R. or implement for 4 * A . has bastine. blows. bastine. It. baston. compared with blakka. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. in the use of the E. 2. a pad or packsaddle. which in the E. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . stitching of a quilt or mattrass. a with a stick. a stick. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. explains Sp. nade. Fr. packsaddle. and ditches bastion. To beat or bang soundly. * Bat. to cudgel. to set on foot a war Bastion. Fr.Lat. Sw. is explained by Cot. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. the winged . bat.— . Florio. club. bak. Pm. to drub. bast.— Bailey. provisions. R. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . Dan. victuals.-^ Chaucer. . to devise or begin. To baste one's hide . but this is hardly satisfactory. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. as weU as besteau. Perhaps baska. bakie-bird . basa. I. whence ledrblaka. bastir. Fr. to teach one before. translation to a bat. flyinge best. blatta. Bastinado. 'iJipistreUo. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. business (Altieri). military term of a bat-horse). disposer. also to cudgel. bastonFr. quelqu'un son roulet. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. Sp. a sconce. E. Prov. the original has corneille. to rub. natt-blakka. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. which to rest the load. blakka. Sw. staff. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. and Arabs. bdion.

I bathe in water viz. Hence pro. as signifying warm baths. to beat. beat down. From OFr. lessen. signifying to give repeated blows. a Baiffi. battions. better. to beat. Fr. as E. a beating. is in falling. a staff. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. dial. buask made like a fortress. Battery. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. tagUone. in the case of a wall. strife. also. battre. badda. makebate. a band of armed men arranged basa. e. a main battle. is a simple adoption of Fr. altercation. batterie. to foment with hot applica. G. bataille. to heat . beat.Bathe. a blow with a light instrument. solen baddar. Goth. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. beat. Sw. A Bath. to refresh oneself in language. ON. to thrive. to flutter with the wings. Bat. trahtr to It. whence the sun burns . abate. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. . To thrive. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. to be profited. also a sun badfish. dial. hot. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Hal. battre las ailes. wet linen in washing. quell. to get better. battle was used beath wood. To Batten. bet. to foment. for biia sik. water whether warm or cold. as wood-en. I baske. oneself at the A into faggots. bdda. From bat in the sense of rod . Du. and milk beaten up together. — — — ' — . Batten. Baka sik vid elld.— To Bask. E. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Batyn. Fr. to beat se battre. perhaps first used adjectivally. a from ON. tradire. Bret. a stirrer-up of strife. Pr.' Palsgr. Pm. allay . baka. adapted for defence. from on. on. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. bastille. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. battre.— . basa. to cudgel. was formed bastilU. batte sig. to warm oneself. Barbour in Jam. Florio. Fr. flour. . Chaucer. . to foment. The bat with which a brot bdhen. Battery. pak. Holz bdhen. Fr. to warm oneself at the fire. certain bend. to warm. Battle. to beath wood Battledoor. gebdcke. Strife. Pr. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm.Hence in the augmentative form It. batir. remit. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. betten. Jurgor. gabatnan. In some parts of England it is striking. cudgel. dial. or break down. Sp. batacazo. to heat. to beak. I. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. an arrangement for giving blows. Bailey. See Better. batna. busk. to become convalescent. the heat of the It. to for fighting. baquetazo. In OE. abattre. Gael. fortress or castle. It. Battalion. to fire or in the sun. to bathe oneself. the root of e. to feed. a battalion. — To . fashes basking in the sun squadron. from battre. Sw. Ayenst the sunne. w. Fr. to beat. to toast bread. — Cot. battere. and with staffslyng. badask. sich bakern. a washing beetle. bake. Jeddris and covering. Eggs. howis. bdhen. Bate. PLD. Batter. Plkkis. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . debat. on the fire. Flem. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . a stick. bludgeon. a great seems related to baden as Fr. bat-en. and as a verb. as E. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. of bread is so much baked zX one time. A batch as wood. dial. bada. in the sun. battere. to become fat. baz. G. To Bate. Fr. then to warm by the application of hot water. battaglia. to fight. or make debate. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Battlement. to dial. more. Slav. to fell. batador. Mgy. to bathe. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. 2. to betake oneself. solbase. Sp. made of — A made by one Batcii. bdt. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. G. a blow. and about an inch thick. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. or a dry stick. by projections or in any licoure. bat. a battle. squadron. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. badda. It. heat. quhar he suld assaill.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. dispute. bdda vidjor. baden. term in falconry . Pm. gebdck. made of bats. baeddu.

pegma. E. Filthy. propugnaculum. the white of his leg or foot. Sc. 8. Lat. It is all bawdy. to bark . Descript.' ' Pegma. is used for a sented by bau.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. on the face of animals. toys.guage). tab. a tassel. baugant. It. to bark. filth. 2. exactly corresponds Fr. P. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. guigaw. A name of the badger. excrement. Swiss Rom. miauler. a lump or cluster babhaid. E. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. bau. bow (as in our nursery Diez. javelle. An analogous noisily. ball. the face. to cry. Beaus^ent. Piedm. mew. Cot. — Pm. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. Pm. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. Hal. obstrepere. — — ' Lydgate. to 53 manure the To baw. and authorities in note. Baw — . filth.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. a lump. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. Ball-seirc. Bawson. E. fagot. also the canopy carried part of his body. ish baubles. to me-wl. or toys. whence the E. vacillo. Bavin. Cloth of gold. baban. divided between black and white. i. also more Bawdekin. from Fr. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. an embattled wall. baue. BAWSON Swiss. Cot. a plot of Chaucer. Baldrick. baula. collar. is Bagdad stuff. spot. pie- . bablyn or waveryn. Formed from baw. dacchino. ON. b \% bouala. bobine. baw. The It. lewd . ballach. baubare. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. c. Zalli. babiole. baudrat. a dog). Gael. a white mark Bawdy. instead oi s.. trifles. a spot. The word may perhaps be sticks. to the same origin. or Cot. Prov. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. In like manner Grisons filthy. W. whence pouacre. trifle. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. tille. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . from Baldacca. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. horse. a gavel. Bagdad. to low or bellow as corn. bouaila. faisceau. expressive of disgust. zano. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. a horse with white legs. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. Cotgr. balderich. balbob. because made of cloth of white. It. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. Batylment of a wall. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. dente. ground. Pr. a zan. to talk Lacombe. in OE. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. ! Bauble. dial. fe bau. or sheaf of Bridel. an — — — A — g — — — . brush faggot. dirt. bal. was simply a field gold. to vociferate. balGael. having a white streak down Bagdad. as Fr. spotted. whimwham. fields. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. bauch. baffe. or the animal so marked.— P. librillo. and Sp. babbole. bausan. nastiness. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. P. bal. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. bad. Ball. form with an initial seen in Fr. rotten. scarf. E. It. sorry. to play the babby. From ! an interjection of disgust. OFr. represented by the syllable miau.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. OFr. R. Fr. dung. to trifle away ment. s. the Swiss baben. bobbin or cluster of thread. Fr. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. an object. fooleries or fond To Bawl. a horse marked with a procession. Pr. a belt. P. to make the noise Baudrick. babsmall toy to play withal. s. to void the bowels. Fr. —R. Fl. cluster. and to-tore also. bow-wow. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout.. baudrdj OHG. speckled. a tassel or hanging bunch . Irel. disgusting. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. bauU.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Jam. dirty. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. sword-belt. child. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. From Bret. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri).

I will not keep you waiting with a long story. &c. and keeps them in check for a while. husk. batibari. Fr. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. ing-floor. Gael. a dagger. baye.. when. a beast. w. arose two forms of the verb. baie. from an imitation of the sound. . Q. bayen-stein. badius. It. Drayton in R. Such Antaeus seemed to me. Sp. bioth. the world Gr. siege of Bayonne in 1665. to keep one waiting. A hollow in the 'line of coast. waiting . dehiscere . Sp. 25. beonj Gael. that from ba. to betray. hddhe-dhonn. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. Bay-tree. . Bay. the laurel-bay. berries. and zndly.c. Fr. bilyega. Earth — By Nature made to till. especially beans. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. barn of two bays. ist. AS. desiring. which however. Gr. . S. The — Fr. bate. Piedm. It has been shown under Abie. Catalan hadia. baya. so called from its bearing bays. to gape. expresr sion tenere a bada. bai.' Bailey. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. at his last gasp. bdcr. To Bay. baja. &c. living Ir. from badar. to amuse stare a bada. watching intently. The word bay. BAY marked with bjly. Serv. —Bay-windo'W. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. See Bawl. yellow . bay. Fr. stare. baer. aux dehniers abois. baionette.—Journal Soc. or to have been first used at the Cot. as if to signify a window of curved outline. or window ' (in Fortification). abbabayer. baier. — A At Bay. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. a mark. BauSfi)/. laurel of the ancients. buidhe. the cod of peas. as gazing. bde. to open. bialo. grapes or nuts. buidhe- The ruadh. . It. Swiss beie. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. —Diez. Lat. Fr. —F. |8i'os. baca. badarse./^ bau. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. gate. bajo. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. bagaid. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. he turns and faces his pursuers. bayo. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. Fr. window-sill. OSp. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. bay. Lat. Prov. baccello. bijel. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. corrupted into Bow-window. See At Bay. to iiitent nected PoL white. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. Vielp. See Bald. overture. open the mouth. bahia. baiare. From the former verb is the It. Fr. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. put to his last shifts. life.' — — 54 bald. badarc. a hole. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. Mod. Arts. or at bay. 1859. house . baher. to mark. Swab. or berries. Abide. to be Bohem. A stag is said to stand at bay. and the To bark as a dog. by the term rendre les abpis. Holland's Pliny in R. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. bilyejiti. badia to Sp. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. — Schmid. a cluster of bacon. Bayonet. life. or recess in an apartment in modern times. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Sp. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. 1. It. dividere. Bay. bacca. white. beo. to keep at a bay. stood watching him stoop. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house.— Stalder. bahia. Q. Cot. like a pie. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. living thing . BE Probably conRuss.. F. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. weary of running. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. &. in order to keep the enemy in check. to stand watching one. the cod or husk of beans or the like. It. large window in a handsome . Gael. window . che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. tradire to Fr. * To Be. Feb. to open as a blossom. It. trahir. baca. a'uno. baga. From Cat. to split. is perhaps not directly from Lat. berry. to on anything. alive. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. a berry. the step is the same as from It. beothach.

Bear. G. or breathing. to produce young. g. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. be. post. a beak. Hackluyt in R. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. l^ax. to wait-. Pardoner's Tale. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. a presage. Lat. * Beagle. bokan. It. to carry. like most nautical terms. into France. Catalan becar. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Beak. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. would say. gebed. bakkje. Q wait upon him. or however. a prayer. a single bean. faba. signifying individuality. was introduced from England sea. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. fero. beacnian.' adheres to the root. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. bakke. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. Trans. backe. support. signifying a point. Slavon. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. It. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. rising ground. stock.to have a French origin. a tree. — bedeau. salve his hurts. a single bean. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. a hill. according to of Sanscr. —F. N. He says. The wild beast. bank. bar. A two-year old nephew of mine p. Netherlands or North Germany. . and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. Goth. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. into a snjall river. tale of prayers or doxologies. a sign. G. faba is Kvavoq. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. beic. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Fr. however. bauhan. badmr. Farrar. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Beck. Gael.' Suetonius in Diez. fd or faVf beans. fromthe danger. bearti. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Beadle. Bret. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. E. bM. to bellow. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. ON. beans. to nod . «va\ioQ. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. a tree. as. bdkna. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Goth. See To Bid. or any action done with a pointed thing. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. which is. ON. bidello. bean.' Hall's Chron. The origin seems preserved in E. bee. bagms. as. baun. -phxr. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. Thus the final en. Bean. pierced for hanging on a string.fuis5e. not applied to the yelping of dogs.. W. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. as well as f& or fav. To Bear. A Esthon. bohnej ON. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter.fui.fer-re j Gr. Chapters on Lang. bek. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. a nod OHG. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. The immediate shore of the Menage. or beic. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Beacon. baum. a curtsey. beic. ffaen. OSax. ohg. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. beacen. atUndre. bead. Be. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. bohne. bedm.ad. Gael. vol. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. AS. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. vii. an attendant. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. AS. to beckon. — Bellenden in Jam. Your hat no lib that place you put him in.from AS. boom. W. becco. 54. to nod the head. It is BEAR SI court. The nutu significare. Beckon. bydel. . Fr. ffci. bidan. bob. Gr. It forms a. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. on. nokkima. Sw. — to bow or nod . the part overflowed by the tide. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Boom. and Lat. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Gael. to wait. beugler. fora-bauhan. Bret. bairan. prodigy bauhnjan. Du. . To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Moreover the name. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. — : Beam. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. pig. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Beach. beck.

riviera. Chaucer. or special purpose. ON. to get. fiber. an notion of being convenient. bur. gefallen. convenient. judgment. biber. to happen. comely. to fall in with our bavard. Beat. Beckon. gebank. i. G. On the same principle. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. See Beacon. to happen. covered the face. behkr. bobr. That thou mayest attain Goth. AS. — A — A — . pleasing. Thcem. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. venient.of being very angry. rying. . as fall itself was sometimes used in E.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. burdr is used in the sense of a car. limpan. bavec. edge. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. bello. i. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. chin. proper. duty. byrcti. if sound of a sharp blow. OSw. bart. timan. bava. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. bobrowai. den. Beck. bcek. tidig. from baver. becuman. when up. o. G. iida. to hem. bearing. and Fr. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to shore. from beau. riviire. byw. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. and to acquire. W. bring forth. e. taste. as the babble of the child. E. In like manner condition.getiman. Prick of Conscience. proper . blast. Lat. brada. bard. to fall mode of being.to clothe to slobber. befit. E.' every way suited to a prince. godum with ON. opportune. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. pens unmixed evU. Fr. baviire. Thus OY. It.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. but now a river only. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. Secondarily applied to a hat. nothing to thy name make. badi.fit. perhaps a living thing. as. receive. limplice. beauts. a brook. befall. ON. Boeth. whence baveux. Do no To It fallith favour. The moveable part of a helmet. fallinn. to please. from the same in the sense of bear2. beo. talkative. Beaver. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. decent. Perhaps from Pol. our taste. because made of the fur of the beaver. bett. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. and also in that of birth. the ece thurhwuniath. brook. to G. handsome. con. it is probable that here also the to become. 2. fitly . ON. to be incumbent upon him. babrad. bekkr. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. to bear children. bave i. The OFr. to be a part of his to. obtain. formerly a happen. a bank. border. Sp. produce. gelimplic. brook . to come to or upon. Bosworth. — . to attain to the lot of any one.S6 fero. suitable. to wade through the water like a beaver. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. dushmak. slobber. becuman.' are equivalent expressions. to dabble .— Kiittner. Russ. The quadruped. agreeable. happening as it ought. I do thee pray. The fitting or suitable. fitanimal. bestiaj Gael. Dan. dress with unbecoming richness . agreeable. bebrus. See Bank. limpian. G. or river. and on. Prov. now confined To Become. a bank. Lat. a. biivre. Beauty. the beard. to fall. get J ' He got very angry. See Bat. See becymth anfeald yvel. baurthei. Cal. bekommen. e. bel. barba. dize or dtzen. bib or slobbering cloth. to live. seemly. Fr. Diez. while from Shep. As rivus. Lat. 1. fit. bequem. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. Goth. Fr. to those goods which endure for ever. bellus. Lith. nod or sign. Beck. bach. to happen. suitable. pretty. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. living. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS.' ' He became very angry. to the brook itself. ting. to happen.we call the arrangement becoming. birth. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. Fr. to assume a certain form or Turk. name applied originally to the bank then proper . G. Fr. to the good hapHalbard. AS. To load with ornament. bedr. decorous. place to lie down. a lip. ziemen. R. to happen.AS. Bedizen. baba. Bo. gabaurths. beatanj It. barf. the latter are derived It. tidy. to arrive at. to appertain. Slav. It. g. battere. or a feeling to be gratified. bave. R. Lat. He becom on sceathan. to sleep on. ON. which. connected with ripa. G. to carry. E. to be fulfilled. Now the Beast. boroda.

and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. to and ale. G. to drink. mars betada. fagus. stakes. madhouse. to change . . a mallet. a pillow-case. 57 — Palsgr. a pad or cushion). . woman that is newly delivered. kivih. boytle. Pl. a agulatum in the original Latin.).cz//aj. Fr. the meat of spinach._t from the root pi. pude-vaar. comb. water.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. The honey-producing insect. a wandering Prov. briest.' So Gr. door. 1 to drink. bitela. cugino.(paddi. an inhabitant of the desert. biest-milch. Fr. The first milk after a dizen. Fr. D. bedskiissen-bUren. Beetle. 1. ir'm. to fall. a bed-tick. bet. to colour with lime-wash. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. 1156. bette or blettej Lat. Arab. batAfter mete in sale. waarin. beest. Bedouia. vaar. drink. Slav. Fr. in Nat. cozen. a horse-fly . bedde-redirj ohg. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. cushion-cover . . knock. cited by Diez. ^. red curdled Arab . Cot.. kiissen-biere. betel. cogionare. wedges. the biter. beyki. &c. to curdle or lopper. thick. byst. beer. de Fierabras in Diez. It. as the milk of a that purpose in London. . PI. to poordma. The beer al for te shenche bate. Originally. The meanpainting. Bee. . from the hos. I put the flax upon it to spin. Bav. It. garden-herb. I dysyn a dystaffe. Bernese. bos. the loppered sea. speach. beta. Lat. also the bite or sting of a bees. by the analogy of bedaivb.ON. from risan. fall. to knock. erroneously modified in form. tree. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. beach. to twist poorma. beutel. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. to become Beech. to beat bossel. Rom. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. to turn. a malsense of drink. trees in a forest . in Schmeller. an Beetle. AS. 1. a cover. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen.ing of the word is curdled. duplicated form of the root. pettiriso. may be from K. to rough- cast. paralyticus. Gr. bovis. bably named from the destructive quali| T. calleBedlam. beetle also signified the impiti. bove. drink. from jtst-. cousin. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. a wasp. to parget or rough-cast . Horn. a wasp. Gael. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. of beatmg. bossen. turn. Esthon. G. bibere is a re. the ox. qui de lecto surgere non potest . /SXirov. buche. extant in Bohem. But possibly bedizen 2. KXlvoTTiT^e. pital of St Mary. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. Pett. AS. sela que environna la terra. It. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. may be shpped on and off. Bed-ridden. taglio. turn (a garment). from leberen. Bethlehem. briesch-milch. from blood. Ant. Fr. blow or thrust. and lebermer in G.possible. GaeL bior. I A pillow-beer. Cot.— JI14. biiren. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs.' the last word corresponds to cofly . bedawi. used for boull. whose face is clotty. a drink potus. Fr. ris. beach-each. boeuf. case. bitel. biene. a Properly a cover that biiren. imperative pi. to flatten In OE. desert. piwo. buk. thick. poculum. an ox. beost. as in It. translation beOj. as. a cup or implement for AS. E. prisons Venet. Beet. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. on. g. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. G. Fin. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. Grimm. Let. by-flugaj G. bytl. doubtless. a paviour's beetle batail. and in driving piles. . sang vermeilh betatz. a stinging bieUe. which also 2. Beef. i. also bienst. Lat. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. * Beestings. In a passage of an Old Fr. 'La Gl. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. badigeonner. For that was law of lend.^ drink. buka. bletumj Gr. crespir.D. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. a pillow case. P1. ' MordiThe Lat. Dan. a clapper. bbtel. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. cow has calved. bukva. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. a bee. prigione. E.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. to coagulate. The same metaphor is seen in Fr.'— GL ^Ifr.— B. whence familiar.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. Confined to bed. clog for a dog b'oteln. curded or beesty. from Lat.D. ProBeer. AS. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover.

lapidicinus. to take. Political Songs. as alighting is a momentary operation. Lith. Of brede full ycrammed. V. gigno. Florio. steinbosil. iv.' for ye shall lament and weep.bag full of the G. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. 58 BEG BEGONE G. a beggar-boy. to go a begging. ip AS. a chisel. be^nnan. a wallet. it is both to acquire and to beget. Cold-begone. at geta talad.n. yivtrri. image is cleft out of the trunk. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. yivofiai. and Lat. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. or Of a pure poor man. touched with emotion — . &c. P. 1430.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. ykvog. Beghardus. air a . to be acquire. ' Begone. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. seizing. To Begin. a bag . V. to cleve. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. 'ex quo. Si'Xa/coc. to beg. P. giving in Gr. not began to alight. It will . P. Ancren Riwle. To produce children is to acquire. 142. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. to be born. can. appears improbable at first. incipere. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. 25.' about undern he got down. Into the are D. P. to be able. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. Du. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. to reduce him to beggary. 'Aboutin undern monly. the fundamental notion of attaining to. chisel. From w. So from Gael. &c. — yivsaiQ. It. oppressed with woe. Goth. beutel. also called Bigots. Barbour. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. to begaan. ' ' . to get children . a beggar . a wedge for cleaving wood. Deutsch. aginnan. on the tramp. in D. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. to arise. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. a bag. covered with gold D. beitel. 2. Du. on further examination. ' . AS. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. whence the E. baigeir. beitel. tale. beissel.' A. literally. yiyvo/uat. su with gold. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. viii. to begin. beis- plement driven by blows. begging. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. but probably erroneously. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. y/yvo/iat. in Lat. capere. P. in E. He did alight. bag {baigean. ysgrepan. woe-begone. bertola. of Gr. one after that other. vir mendi. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . a beggar. to bear young. P. kind. fangen and Lat. although it ' the future. begger. beriolare.3. to know. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Nov. signifying to conceive. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . a little bag). gen. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. on the bag. taking up. duginnan.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . & go a begging. anfangen. but in the same language from poc. Mod. Bruce. Schm. onginnan. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. a stone-cutter's chisel. P. affected. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. a scrip euXaiciJoi. pose-pilte. genus. Creed. ytyvwfT'Kw. a scrip. 168. 'Dz. P. OHG. ornamented phoc. ken. beginning. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. gan.D. When Q. Fr. can. P. krapszas. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. cans. from whete G. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. P. yivwajcw. word. above quoted to get beaten ON. V.— . Lollards. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. origin. The tother seand the dint cum. Gr. a bag or poke. hags. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. chap. is com. Du.quently used in OE. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. — Stillingfleet. a — wedge. is formed pocair. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. To Beg. two betels —a grete oke. and subsequently Down duschit the beist.pose. Vocab. ysgrepanu. Mundart. sel. In Luc vi. 1867. ken. referred gan this Erie alight. 40. Skinner's derivation from bag.

to hit the mark. to lead. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. hantyri. to behave. to bers of the body. to lift. hevja. se porter) to fare well or ill. R. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. garder. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. hcef tig bort. G. to hold. and (as Fr. AS. furtherance. fixed upon any object). a follower. To be expedient. to call. heeten. zijn. observe. to R. hofwa. to command. To Behave. to name. Kiittn. gehat. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. Paladino. habere. what is so required. at the tail of. hcefwa in seed. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. han- — js Kil. laborare. To look steadily upon. to vow. use. It. Plautus.for throwing it. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. hafwa bort. behete. to have. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to promise. To place are most naturally ex. holding is originally derived from that of looking. G. G. habban.— . to carry corn into the barn . gehalten seyn. premi curi alicujus rei. to keep. Sw. to keep. Thus in Finnish the heave. K. promise or a command. healdan. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. behaviour. right. to be be named. betragen. to command. — Behest. to look. name of the head is used to express what hbva. 17. to keen or hold. behefe. vow. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . Goth.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to follow. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. take yourself off. hovast. is supported by many analogies. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. heeten willekem.' Richardson. adjust. is also found in the sense of looking. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. OE. Sw. or purpose. G. to carry. To Behold. us-hafjan. to feed. the name adapt. keeping. The seyn.). In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to be obliged to one. to call. seeing to. The Lat. And so from hania. to be suitable or becoming . bound. gecall. to vow. to be well pleased out. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to turn one out . AS. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. G.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. behat. or necessary. to heave. have the sense of calling or naming.to vow. to carry. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to be fit. Aan iemand bid one welcome. hafwa.the figure of throwing at a mark. ifl fact. advantage. obliged. —Hest. to gehouden. the equivalent of E. exhort. hatan. or the hence advantage. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. tail. to regard. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. to be obliged to do a thing. to look upon it as true . hces. ward. to bring forwards. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to raise. Sw. to hold. to lift. as in the case of E. behold. the two verbs seem radically the same. on. tion. portarsi. injunccommand. AS. heita. beperson addressed. Robert in Warton. hevja. gehaben. heave. servare. from tragen. and the E. to cast or throw. But. promise. to carry. what he wishes another to do . take heed of. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. zu etwas gehalten haitan. hove. to take away. invoke. At the back of The re. behces. hafwa. Command. to meet. hafwa ram. The It. promise . guardare. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to halten. G. and their senses intermingle. gehouden. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. according as the * To Behove. nittaa. to fit. to be named. ge' hatan. ufhaban. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. AS. is on the top of or opposite to. keeping. when the verb will hoof. commonly expressed. behatan. to the equivalent of Du. N. behind. the distance of anything. beholden to him. solicitum esse. AS. taking notice or care of (Gloss. by the compound observare. to tend. hafjan. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. behoof. vow.

to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. locus securitatis Schilter. to be required for a certain purpose. orloven. —F. Fr. bealcan. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. belja. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. precious.. 6o BELAY BELL loven. portion. under the forms belfredum. measure. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. to bolk. is (Sternberg). to lay be- around.D. garnish. pro3. to der swaren lave. beffroi. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. To Belch.Lat. lov. bulken. — . laubjan. Du. if a promise. with the consent of the heirs. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. — Diicange. satisfaction. lofa.D. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. permission. Det er ofwer er hofwa. to give leave Dan. Sw. certain rate. and Du. reach. galaubjan. to give leave. were civil terms of address. to praise. laven. The word be- Belfry. laven. or high estimation. a vessel made for dishonour. to sanction an arrangement. bolken. stand. to believe. b'ola. Then. to bellow. then. promiser. Fair sir and Fair lady. Du. overspread. ON. frid. Q. true. moderation. a tower. to cry out bell. on. Hence to simple approbation. or a sconce. permitting or giving leave. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. — mankind. appearing in Mid. range. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . are innate . to roar. to sound loudly . border. to to make A Templorum campana boant. mark ON. bervrit. from mhG. to promise or engage. and. is an easy progress. properly belonging to the church tower. beau sire and bel dame. Pl. See Gain. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. esteeming good and valid. bettifredo. reputation. in nautical language. to estimate them at a To believe. to believe. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to express approval. bealcettanj OE. to fix a price upon one's wares. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. battefredum. Pl. esteemed . Du.D. to hit hafi. AS. Goth. . Bell. bertefredum. lyfan. a. to boke. bialla. bercvrit. AS. Fr. honoured. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. cela est audessus de votre portde. is used in the sense of approving. Another application of the same word is in Pl. resonare. loven. berfroi. bellan. then. leave . a watch tower. To praise is essentially Xo prise. fringe.Lat. turris. we have Goth. beset. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. to lay the cable round the bits. belief . to believe. beffroit. erlauben. promising. and bergan. ungalaub kas. behove. to extol the worth of anything. filu-galaubs. to belay.D. OHG. loven. loben. ornament. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. ley/a. G. to protect. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. bellow. Du. an implement for making a loud noise. OFr. . distance to which a piece will carry. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. ON. verloben. on. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. To Believe. a little shed. aim. consent. galaubs. From AS. to permit. leaf geleafa. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . giving leave or permission. are other modifications of the same imitative root. tain a certain end. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. gelyfan. legsel. to make it fast. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. or house. fitness. to praise. It. and E. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. to resound.. glauben. a tower for defence . to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to a loud noise.alyfan. In the middle voice hofwas. for purposes of low estimation . praising. to befit. Northamptonshire. praise. . met. to put a high price or value on. beleggen. boare. hesfa. peal. allow. In Mid. To Belay. bylja. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. and E. to praise. to promise. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. bounds. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. if a narration. P1. to give leave. bell. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman..

bell. are stripped off whole blase-balg. disposed to oblige. se bander. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . a water-bubble builge. Gael. bimaissen. belly. From OFr. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. a accusative.videtur. Benediction. bellows. becwathan. to bless. J'emboue. incense of Java. as concerning that. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. to attain to. . . to touch one. Dozy. langen. OFr. bandoir. Benignant." — — . Benefice.polch. ^To Beray. See Bank. Lat. Lat. attingere. balg. bellows. a speaking well of one. ' I beraye. or sometimes louban. a bellows. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. means seeds of plants. . bendaj as. bienfait. Benedico. wallet Benefit. to exert force. skin. pouch. Benzoin. to reach. blister balgan-snamha. or a It is times the to signify services. Kil. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. bolch. Sw.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. from benedictio. Belt. pervenire. Benefactor. vulva. because bcelg. See Bind. benjoim. to bend a bow . to say. a good deed. to concern. Quoth. is The word balg.' Palsgr. a blow. belliJ Lat.' The term had been previously planation. benjoin. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. as. . hem. rushes. .pinuz. bilbila. leather sack. In E. bolg. binssen. I soyle it or araye it.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. Bav. vulgarly the belly. Lat. blast-bcelg. balg. to attain belangen. to hold to one. a kindness. kind. bene/actum. bilbil-goda. benedicere. Bent. from which is also bulbus. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. To belong is thus to reach up to. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment.— Belly. Javanese perfume. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. an inflated Lat. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. wallet. volva. fyle To dirty. bag.. has assumed a plural form. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). . binsen. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. poX^ri. border. to belong. dirt. from Arab. to become one's property . — Ducange. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. ON. to do good to one . Beneath. the womb. ' . Ptg.' — Hie fimus. attinere. to come to the crown belangen. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. fens et hie liraus. The ing-skin. on. benignus (opposed to malignus). a border. the word. pod. Eenison. bless. a bellows . bellows. Fr. to arrive at. loubdn djawt. — root consisting of concentric skins. skin. belt. bander un arc. cod or husk of pulse. to concern. See Nether. or fyle with myre. est matris in lucem editus. Fr. Benign. G. Bret. I araye. hence with ashes. gwaldas. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. to. OUG. ray. benejicium. one who does good. bags or bellows. a benefit. Lat. a leather bag. benaigon. — ray. to ring. Gael. benefacere. welt of a shoe gwald. bimpsen. rise against external force . ON. Fr. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. belly. to use words of good omen. the skin of those animals that factor. to touch. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. a spring. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. attinere. See I . belgr. Was das belanget. Du. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. is a kindred form. taken absolutely. from cwcsthan. To Bequeath. — See Numb.Fr. G. pertinere. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. ball. Lat. gelangen. or simply djawt. to hallow. was in Mid. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. bcelg. To Belong'. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Bench. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. pertinere. belch. G. balteus . to make bilbil. by itself. needs no ex. beneison. w. Lat. To Benum. a blessing. benir. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. welt of a shoe. . I say). generous. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. benedictio {bene^ and dico. a round or bubble-shaped root. well. bolg. Gum benjamin. from another modification of the word for bubble. benehusk. to stretch it on a frame. bendan. I marre a thyng. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. pino3. To Bend. G.

make better . boeten. beseech. to fire a funeral pile of . Du. earh. from AS. besnij Pl. to make it. het vuur The serise of Boeten. Esthon. BETE dirty'. an incendiary. to make better.X. G. stealth from steal. Fin. burrow. what does it better a man. — Chaucer. Besom. Beet. as. Zeitschr. R. is to perform a serviceable office to him. OE. of ffeed a fire. or the space kept clear betan. besen. or to bestead one. Berry. repair. or. as. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. bouter. basjaj Du. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. besein. and Du. but in practice. as. Tusser. To seek something from a person.D. sets fire to. it seems hard to separate as. roju. p. — amendment. Kil. fearful. to to deprive of. basya. buttare. to on the other Goth. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. a place . and also to entreat. fyrbotare. to To Bereave.iooA. Hfence backing. and on which the wager is laid. dirt. a fire. dirt . ropahtaa. . So too Yorkshire arf. bat. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. small eatable fruit. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. G. When men of mekeness him baet.• 62 Antiq. mud.irova. to strip. p. in the sense ctf beria. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. beorgan. AS. put forth. to put on the saddle. bereafian. put. to amend. berwham. So Lat. to thrust. a berry. same word with the provincial barth. to supply a want. Du. to seek. arwe.bhaksh. E. dial. — . as Du. houseless. to be-place. Fr. to fall with roisto. — bota. to mend. to give a place to. E. boteith Goth. rods. as bouter selle. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. Devon. noise. To Gl. BEREAVE Wall. brem-bessen. besje^ Sanscr. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Best. making better. Sw. from grow. profit. to thrust. think more probable. better. * Berth. rubbish. baete. roju. Beit. berwe. To Bestow. See Better. what does it boot. improve. eld up- On is to be placed A — . AS. as conversely a besom is called broom. to entreat. On the other hand. Du. baete. to stand one in good stead. sheltered from the wind. barth under hedge is a succour to beast.— Hal. supporting on the one side Lat. stow. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. — Biglotton. from It. betan. as in growth. the guardian . broom twigs. besIn sen. I from lew. position. Fr. lay out. ^•n. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. to light the fire . to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. The proper meaning of the bale. preferably. reparation. bal oppbota. See Reave. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. From abet. bur-we. Beere. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. the origin of which is to be found in ON. besmas. boutefeu. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. lewth. vol. hva mannan. barthless. peto. Bestead. solicit. to the place boarded off in a. Grose. betan. vi. to cast. To help. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun.ot-i. R. bota. fall with sound. because used for making besoms. Goth. but it is specially applied mister. to exercise on a definite object. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. to kindle the fire. protect . boeten. advantage. * To Bete. reafian. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. ariierf to 113. Ihre. botesward. To Beseech. dung . ship for a make amend. The origin is AS. 3. boeten. So roto rattle down. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. scopse spartis. Du. supply. amendment. To Bet. ^akka. person to lie in. seems twigs or rods. advantage. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. an incendiary. sweepings. to defend. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. Tha het he micel fyr betan.t. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . the side bhakshya. roe. encouraging.fish the other hand. a horse collar. bestow. buttafuoco. one who shelter. bdt.— VixHsm. might have been . as. It is the restore fyr betan. place. AS. Rob. stede. jnore. bdt. reparation.—^fake. dust rojahtaa. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. barth may be for barf. The dry. berry. Sw. bet. compared with bargham. . to word is shelter. barfham. To bete his Jam. earg. bacca. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position.

r'ojer dig. his eyen sheen. moveable and compass branches. as envahir. deem suitable. G. Cot. tradire. bouter davantaige. ON. and thence twegen. twain. from. betray. tima. x. Lat. to happen. Mich self a good glass of wine. To vouchsafe. AS. to discover. not to have the heart to give up a thing. beva. best. A — drink. a drinking . BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. suitable. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. To Bewray. In like manner folissais. Sahissais. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. lot). Goth. thy speech bewrayeth thee. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave.D. to fall. against. Fris. obdissais. Between. E. his mouth. Car son umbre si le trahit. roja. dispose (whence schicksal. Bevy. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. to fall Some call it a bevel. Hence last G. make manifest. Buveau. taemen. some attention. bet. betwuxt. more. Fl. traditor. -to appoint. ON. — Betwixt. larks. Now the stirring of an object. evidence of life. baet. Better. Tinia eigi at lata eit. to drink . suitable. deign. it bewrays itself. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. Ober D. i. of pheasants. is treason. to stir. fate. In like manner from twain is fothied between. gezimet eines dinges. batista. 88. Friar's Prol. is used for the — R. pair of compasses. Goth. G. E. R. to cheat. beverage. kein leben mehrin no signs . fitting. spritigs from schicken. by two. Fr. The inflections of Fr. trahison. the being pushed to the frbnt. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. an instrument opening like a a thing. sloped off. Pl. bevde. Thus from dbahir. in the middle of two. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. beuvrage. batizo. abash j from polir. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. taemen. amiddes. of quails. roebucks. G. betweohs. Sw. find in one's heart. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. trahir. To Beteem. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. verbs in ir with a double ss. To Betray. tradere. in the middle of twain. The as. obeish. from Lat. Fr. whence beveraggio Fr.' Dialogue on Witches. e. which may be compared as to form with amid. R. trakir. In the water anon was seen His nose. amidst. to Hence It. G. as trahissons. &c. ziemen. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. wreia. wrogia. Pl. Slant. R. betriigen. bat. tima. e. betwuh. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. OE. regen. to happen. find it good: Goth. a different form of twa. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. betweoh. Ik tame mi dat nig. from invadere. to accuse. vrohjan. betweox. betera. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. — of the authorities. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. /alia. springs from ON. It. two. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. in the same way Lat. From It.D. zemen. polish. to deliver tip. advance. zimet. Fr. e. order. betest. bet. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. E. progress. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. become. Chaucer. betst. a traitor. *Ah. better. afford. to deceive. treachery. for measuring angles. said he. by a final sh. proficere. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. are there Regt R. as tlock. Dit tungomal rendered in E. ruogia. be fitting or suitable. a brood. Best. bedriegen. — See To Bete. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. awry. to make forwards. from Fr. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. a bevy. as from obdir. From the former of these are AS. what does It is forward him. riigen. betaemen. Det sig sjelft. — that schickiich. Dii. It. to deliver up in breach of trust. On the same principle ON. Du.— . AS. as one would have it fall. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. Percy Soc. traitre. or with again. gesiemen. dir. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. Fr. I approve of beveau. better. Golding's Ovid in R. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. . i. to Teem. are commonly to one's lot. gatiman. fallinn. better. tweoh. bevere. has — In a like sense tanie>i. To boot in coursing (i. trahissais. BETEfiM translated. bibere. Bav.

Probably. sik beregen. Dan. Uprogen. Hal- — do something aslant. metaphor).{ioin dua. bezling or skueing.or from obliquus. biberon. Sardin.as in Biped. Fris. bickel-sieenken. dial. biais. bavon. Piedm. bibaculus. in Fr. Piedm. a slabbering-bib. Bible. aslope sbisciare. Pers. reveal. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. aslope. An excellent Basil. bias-wise. To Bicker. To skirmish.s bellum for duellum. sbiasciai. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. . See Wriggle. foul weather. beslei. inferiority. Jamieson. to stir. to the stirring of their conscience. to purl. bis. bestemps. Ci^. winding or crawling in and out. poison. sliding. per\'erted belief. sbias.to drink much. To Bibble. to slaver . to dispute. to give signs of life. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. lips. Fr. roggle. Sp. biaiser. Fr. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. babbefore the eyes. him. or in and out. kwijllap. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . bihais. to shake. — Bi-. (according to the Fr. to glide or slip as upon. Fr. twice. sbrisso. It. specially in a bottle. a sloping edge. Fr. by throwing of stones. a stone-hewer . bebble. Mantuan. whey count . in two ways for duis. bible. a bibber. wrangle. biascio. it were the mouth. . to Jam. bickel. bickelen. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. bescompte. though such a change of form would be very unusual. Lat. baviere. —Bickering'. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. In comp. Bezel. pible. he is Wtb. used in precisely stone . sbiscio. has a singular stone-picker. The train of thought is then.' bibble. is explained to clatter. Diet. Bezoar. In Arab. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. or by any rapid motion. ber-laita (for bes-laita).— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense.a. Pl. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. stock still. Cat. of the sliced off. dial. The It. bisel. wrogen. Bisect. to tipple. or kwijl-slab. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. makes ble. bickai. to slaver or drivel. sbiagio. its clothes. An inferior blue. Prov. oblique. liwell. Biseau. b&zahr. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. kwijlen. whence Du. To drink hard. rogt un bogt sik nig. to cut in two. Bias. asure-bice (Early E. a Galilean. presence. to stir. kwijl-bab. like guzzle. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. which good bibbeler. and zahr. sbiescio. Schiitze.two. Bibelsworth in Nat. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to move. one who drinks in excess. to it evident to sense. to stir up . It is especially applied in Sc. Bice. two- footed. misFr. besanca. petit-lait. Fr. sbrissare. sbriscio. Bib. bibo. the papyrus. OE. to tipple. expelling or preserving against. it becomes (Jz-. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). biberen. Misc. baverole. the word became bddizahr. love first begins to life signs of him. —Dozy. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. bickeler. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. . to creep or crawl sideling. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Lat. tailU en biseau. snout. Yes. Cat. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. bring under ' Thy accuse. crooked.D. Hal. notice. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. to stir. sloped. Du. 172. a fragment bieco. Fr. . The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. to make tongue Du. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. To Bib. E. sbieco. to be a paring. a bezle. — crooked. bisdare. slippery. 78). evident. Ant. biberer. beregen.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. bending. biascia. To bicker in NE. sbrisciare. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. . from pdd-. rogge. sbiesso. wraggeln. It. in him. I Wallon. Oh when shall I bizzle. to sip. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri).' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. discover. ice . bark of which paper was first made. biax. convicts thee of being drink. slanting . /3i/3Xof a book originally. as an eel or a snake. pddzahr. To Bezzle. to well up with Cot. to a fight with stones. shows the P1. Gr.D. Sard. babbi. the basil Sc. bes-azur.

bend of a shore or of a rope. to forbid . bidan. to look for. Big. swelling. to curve. or. beadle. Kil. BIGOT beidan. as. bog. swoln. inhabit Du. bead. as tears from the eyes. Bickelen. pressing on one's notice. ON. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick.uddered len heart. to offer. G. to build. ON. Bight or Bought. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. by seek and beseech. bilge or bulge. bath. From Gr. to forbid . 2. boa. bug. bigan. England for swollen. byggia. To Bid ' Big .Leta). ' Bug as a Lord. to dwell. or third order of penitence. to pray one to dinner. bat . rising up. G. to look for. consisting both of men and women. besides the professedmonks and nuns. inhabit. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS.t. W. Du. To Big. OSw. to start out. to have one called before him. a flexure. verbieten.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. or bad. Einem einen guten tag bieten. to bend. pray. and yajiBui. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. of More ' in Richardson. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. build. in the sense of ask for. OSw. bulky. to E. may plausibly be derived from Goth. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bo. A bjudan in anabjudan. Hence Sc. bouwen. ON. Jam. a suitor. faurbjudan. buga. to ask. byggan. balg. to solicit. bidan. anleta. It must be observed that the word bidja. has leta. Big-swol- . BID of stone. Two verbs are here confounded." buque with E. Bigamy. to pro- command. repair. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. from belgia. bieten. to offer one the wish of a good day. The loss of the / gives Dan. the meaning of bid. bygga. to inhabit. to bid one good day. to bulge. are also used in the sense of asking for. bolga. bidjan. to swell. bulk. The 'La. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. iiQ. bolginn. Analogous expressions are G. bedun. praestare. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. and consequently ordering or reGoth. 1. twice. . to marry. to inflate E. bulge. belly. bidill. an entire skin. abidan.. offerre. related to big or bug. spelling seems to used in the N. bi-. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. and the Sw. Bigot. a chip. gebeden j G. from seek. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. G.' Addison. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bag. to ask. bow. praebere. ON. — — — Halliwell. bis and in comp. bulge. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to abide or wait on. which is stiU. and Gael. beidast. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. belly. einen vor Gericht bieten. AS. to bicker. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. bced. to bend. — To Bid. qucero. bit- bidja. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. form. cultivate. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. With respect to logical pedigree. The ON. A pose to one to come to dinner.' Pope in R. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. To bid the banns. to presimpler pare. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bend. bugan. P. quiring something to be done. to belly. swaggering. bugt.peto. biddan. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. a swelling. the belly of a ship. — prepare. The . to build. porrigere. Wallace in Jam. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. to move quickly. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. proud. athird class. to offer it to public notice. bolgna). . bieden. who. The ON. from bidan. AS. R. bauen to cultivate. as G. ten. explaining the Sc. gebodenj G. bugne (answering to ON. to build G. be bug. biegen. called the tertiary order. bua. to cultivate. AS. forwards. bidel. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. to arrange. Palsgrave in Halliwell. ewes. becoming in Lat. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. The original Swollen. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. beodan. Compare also Sp.

xx. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. author quoted in N. rustical. A. a blockhead. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. honesti plebeii amictus.' says an Venet. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. aliqui Begardi. Beguttce. Augustini dotarint. Flor. 15 18. bigotta. and hence the variations bigutta.— BIGOT bigardo. both men and women. bigio. all apparently derived from Ital. ac labores manuum detestantes. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. was formed bigello.— Ducange. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. with reference to A. G. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. ix. Bizoccki.' Chart. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. vocati Fraticelli. grey. &c. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.D. natural grey or sheep's russet. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. sed maxim^ in muliebri. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. clownish. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. 1243. perch^ i Terziari di S. Bighiotti).' They were however by no means confined to Italy.D. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. face VIII. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. 560.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. and Q. alii Apostolici. homespun cloth. beghart. coarse woollen cloth. bighellone. From bigio. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. borel. and also unlearned common men.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. S.' Matthew Paris. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy.D. biso. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. alii de paupere viti. beghino. says. Francisci communiter appellabant. bighiotto. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. grey. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt.' translated by Muratori. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. 1499. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. to adopt a similar course of life. dark-coloured cloth. They wore a similar dress. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. begutta. which must not be confounded with begardo. Bizocco. Bighini. a dunce. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. vol. Hence the OE. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. probably from biso. A. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. D. In the same way Fr. the nobles to Rienzi.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. signifying bagmen or beggars.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. as well as bizocco. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. In a similar manner from bigello. absque votorum religionis emissione.' says one of of bigio. corruption would easily creep in.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. the other form Per te Tribune..a. A. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis.

used in legal proceedings. See Bull. Billette. now A Bilboa blade. whortle-berries. b'olja. as craneberry. billard or billart. plog-bill. crowberry. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Bill. a sword. In English the meaning has received a further development. See Bulk. Deutsch. in the same sense. irons or set in a kind of stocks. dziobad. bila. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. fluctus maris. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. bla-berry. 2. . NFris. Bigin. abelthe fetter itself. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). the trunk of a tree. boeye. a hypocrite. To defraud one of expected sinking. a name given to a. and in Lat. bullet. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. billot. at sea Billet. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Piedmontese bigot. an adze . a punishthe offender is laid in Du. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. a negro. the o changing to an i to express diminution. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. G. from the dark colour. blamand. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. Roquef. Sw. to pick a millstone. Bojce. false pretender to reUgious feeling. biilge. a of the sea. dissimulation . Gascoigne in R. — bigardia. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. w. bigotto. AS. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. a hatchet. from OSw. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Dan. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Fr. buail.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. I. Du. axe. inscriptum. bizocco. bill of exchange. In the same way are related Pol. Ludwig. bile. Lat. 'tumidi fluctus. and a billard. an ingot of gold or silver. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. buie. Kil. So in Gr. like change takes place in the other sense of — — .— — — . dziob. Fr. Sw. A lorum tam in — Diez. OFr. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. — — ' . Aurelles. a seal. as a bill of indictment. on. — Cot. boia. the beak of a bird. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. bulgja. . Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. 2. belgan. billard also signified at billyards. billet. Sw. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for.' bilio. Billet. bille. Bill. from Mid. Billow. Tartuffe. 3. p. Gael. of boja. a devotee. ^Billiard. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. in the sense of a writing. e. deceit. a shackle. bulla. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. . A slang term for a sword. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. an axe . might be taken to express a hypocrite. a floating log to mark the place of some. Langued. top. of E. weapon . AS. Du. Dan. bisoch. to peck. the swelling G. horn of an animal. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Prov. beil. bwyell. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. symbolum. Bilbo. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. belghen. to job. bui. an axe. a short note. seems to be rather the unda. Kil. loi. gan. bolghe. bill. person of religion leading a loose life. fetters. The proper meaning bylgia. the bill of a bird. to swell with rage).' mariners. clog to a fetter. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. procella Kil. however. Bohem. a beak. and dziobas. a bigot or hypocrite. obsolete. bigot. is properly a sealed instrument. Lat. a false pretender to honesty or holiness.' in Richardson. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. beghart. a seal. ferrese quam ligneae. to strike. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Mundart. e. AS. Johansen. bigardo. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . blaa. Sp. To Bilk. gleischner (Frisch). buoy [i. billet is the diminutive of this. Bilge. bulghe. BILBERRY nated. bil. Bilberry. genus vincu- Bilboes. to strike. bigot. boja. an ingot. bill in parliament. an axe.. names bill-berries. An instrument for hewing. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. The Du. that of swell. topor. an axe. bull-berries. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. blue . tepati. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. Bille. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. 5 * . the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. The origin of the term is probably from bole. Du. Thus we find in It. to be angry (i. Fr.

beitsl. Bisson. AS. bindan. a heap. betsel. In like manner from knot. BITTACLE /Siof. The proper meaning is a heap./«idere. admota non Bit. AS. life. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. hiindiiin. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. properly a young pigeon. v. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. AS. IV. are commonplaces. by the verb knit or net. bunga. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. truss. a heap. doubtless a stone. a female dog hindinn. AS. AS. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. a pig petz. Lat. See Belly. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. Lith. Lat. to bind together. a bitch. H. or ben-wood. vescovo. or bin. beran. a bitch applied also to other animals. to wreathe. from Lat. a bump or knob. a habit- Binnacle. bund. Goth. to be derived from Ibfiaq. is rendered in ON. a weight of 48 pounds.. 'tumens sequor. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. beitan. and of Fr. ge- from AS. Dan. Bind. a truss. pin-ti. biclie. a hind or female stag. to bulge. Goth. beorth. Habitacle. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Sp. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. AS. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. i. The bitol. Bisen. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. Fr. terial. Gr. Birch. Bisom. and especially to a small poor horse. episcopus. j). burt. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. from Gr. biscotto. binda nat. . G. fowl. forth. a knob. Bin. binge. to fasten it together. videt. To — — —D. bikkia. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. pittjo. Lap. isfiw. . biscuit. — Kil. pullus. nodus. pundas. i. Bizened. lusciosus et myops. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. — — .68 BIN Bio-. a brood or hatch of young. bigne. Fr. &c. habitacle. band. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. wine. bindan. a bitch. bitill. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. It. a weight. . as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. expressed by Sw. to bind at . to knot nets for fish. earnes brid. from \t3\. to swell. to bear. Bine. while bind-wood.' and the like. Fr. Sanscr. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. to cook). — Surrey in R. sc. bij sien. Lith. Bitch. in Swabia. piccione. When compared with Fr. a female stag. an eagle's young G. See Breed. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Bittacle or Binnacle. bhurja. Then added division in a granary. poultry. I would derive the verb to knit. e. Sw. to hang. bundle. bundt. — See Bittacle. Fr. a bear. bundt. bundun. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. ON. Bailey. To Bite. ON. to plait. evegue. from pondus. bin-wood. to form a knotted structure. — properly near-sighted. EpisETTiTOOTToe. G. poule. bund. Sw. evesgue. a house. G. bunch. E. Bird. bjork. bitacora. than vice versi. It. to net. See To Bear. V. bunki. propius videre bij sicndc. brid. a corn. Lat. beisseii. pinnii. bita. the young of birds . or petze. Bindweed. bircej Sw. pippione. Fr. . berkas (z=:Fr. bunt. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. The term ON. twice cooked. an overseer. copus. viz. evigue. by binda. bord. to bring Biscuit. bundle. Bing. overlooker. . the young of an animal. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. We — A Birth. biccej ON. to build. beize. G... to twine. Du. qui nisi propius Blind. where the compass stands. Lat. a gallinaceous bird. hith. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. brut. is in Scotland applied to ivy. which is expressed in E. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. piiiti. a little dog. . also a stone weight. Thus I suppose the Gr. bij sienigh. pinnu. a bunch. or baked.

It is in fact radically identical with Fr.— Blabber-lip. bitones. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. bleikr. blakk. In Legrand's Fr. blake. It. to To blabber blabber with the lips. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly.' G. x. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. pale. dusky. as is seen in sputter and splutter. Gael. thoughtlessly . To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. blank. to the sharpness of a weapon. blab. Bleak. a childe dothe gasouille. a fluttering noise.D. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. ON. So Fr.. Ai-mstrong. mona mid Dan. to babble.€i. G. a continued soft sound. Fieldfare. A a rail. In like manner E. blubber-lipped. ^aj'/^r. synonymous with baber-lip. Blabber-lip. blepLith.plab is used to . first. NE. v. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. to loll it out. viz. 332. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip).. whiteness (candor sine It. a large lip. from whence we have adopted the. light-coloured. Deutsch. whitish. to babble. 't kompas huis. To or he can speake. babbling. to speak Dan. — Collins in Hal. yellow . a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. a babbler. ON. gabble. bihovac. blabaran. a tati. Fr. as of wings . Fr. blabbern. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. shining. bleg. bitr. blebberis. faded. "uivac. discoloured . dark.. baboyer. Gael. Hist. as of a body falling into water. maculS. blob. a* mast . an additional watch. plabartaich. unintelligible talk plabair. Cotgr. blesmer. mouth. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. bleich. beitr. Sw. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . iroxafealo. quick. indistinctly. Sp. a stammerer. Goth. butorj OE. or water beating gently on the beach . buft". blac-hleor ides. ' plabraich. an edge is sharpest sword. blabbre.' by Gudmund. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. stutterer. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. — Hollyband. a flapping. blunt we say it will not bite. quoted by Ihre. Alex. to bivouac. —Neumann. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. Fr. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. Du. . plappem. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. G. Sp. blobach. bittour. round which the cable is made fast. Bav. shine. out the tongue. Mund. Nagt huis.). Percy Soc. . Sp. Why presumest And laam's asse. cut. Bohem. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. blob. term. Bivouac. beuni. — cheeked maid. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. blabhdach. blakki. In a similar manner Gael. Mantuan babbi. bitor. 156. blob. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. obscurus. white. gulblakk. black. bitter. on the one side. the palebleff. Again. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. small guard-house. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast.' by Haldorsen. Hal. as in that of pale and white on the other. 't huisje. babbe. /ealo-/or. mouth. Hald. are two strong posts standing up on the deck.' It would thus acle. a beam in a house or ship. to watch. AS. Bittern. corrupted in Fr. garrulous. Lydgate. from wachen. Se bleek. a large coarse lip . Sp. Cot. in contempt. pale yellow. ON. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. pale. even humour seemed and beuin. bitts of Bitts. pale. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. bittore. to wax pale or bleaked. To Blab the anchor. is placed. chatter babbler . pins of the capstern. leohte . things —Palsgr. on. Je N. Wit hung her mourn. pale yellow . his blacan light. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. bites. Applied in Hin ON. faded. fallow . ^chops. baitrs. blanc. whitish. confusedly. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. apparently from its biting the tongue. ON. biti. to let out whai should have been concealed. as of water gently beating the shore. The Gz. white lead. Pl. white. Mag. biacca. night guard. Black. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. The bitas. 'fuscus. bird of the heron tribe. to talk much. yellowish. is apprehension of danger. ' Biovac. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. beiwache. brunblakk. Fr. I blaber. to chops. . AS. fallow fawn-coloured. pale brown . a shelter for the steersman.

— . blanchet. board. also jabber. also white woollen cloth . Sw. Dan. Hist. in R. leafy. chatter. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. Blain. biasimare. chatter. to blanch. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. blad. rogues and wanderers. boys. a bladder or pustule. shining. as blader. Gr. a. blank. variable than the signification of words designating colour. 5/^a/^ of colour. Du. which we . verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. and others engaged in dirty work. blasphemare. name originally given Blackguard. mus-blackt. Du. dial. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. to make or become white blanc. and wandering men and women. mud. a pustule . reproach. bladder. is identical with Flanders borlen. PI. To blank. blaere. See Blubber. from candere. Sir. mire. blatter. a blanket a bed. Torriano. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. blinken. to vocifer- — Cot. blanqne. — — — to jabber. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. smore. to omit. Fr. with all other loose idle masterless men. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. and the agitation of liquids. G.. Fr. to glitter. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. tree. p. Blank "verse.—Blatter. skola and thwatta. leaf of a. or of an oar G. to shine. and thence to babble. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. Dan. smother. — Sw. to bubble. a boil. flap of a Du. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. blatter. plat. Eadmer. blanc. tattle.— ^o thehotsun. D. leaf. a blank ticket. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. bladra. 1854. to bleak in the sun. Blade. The present forms then should be classed with blether. borrelen. the ON. a leaf. a bubble. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Fr. To Blare. defame. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. on. . or as E. the leaf of a tree. his meat burnt. madder. most complete example of leafy structure. —We Bladder. Cot. Du. the origin of . broad. But perhaps a more Gr. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. &c. blena. to Hence Ital. Du. blether. blatt. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. Fr. Play in Nares. or blafich. piatto. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. pluddre. blister. on. blad. to purl. gabble. dripping-pans. commonly called the Black-guard. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. to —Blaspheme. blactra. vagrants. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. blahen. a white or unwritten ticket. whitish. livido . Besides the examples of this connection given above. roar. Lat. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. Sc. pXaatpiiiiHv.— Kil. to disappoint. pimple. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. and Q. plate. Jan. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. bladder . to glow. to dabble in water. Sw. bladdra. vagabonds. pass over. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. imbrunire. Bacon in R. blanchir. Du. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. bladeren. candidus. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. whitish. leaves. blather. blister. revile. a buible. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. cited in N. blather. pallido. bladder. It. Now. sheet of paper. white. to blow. as scullions. e. bladre. plat. as. biastner. speak impiously. a bubble. and E. white. blein. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. Perhaps from blegen. I am degraded from a cook. blister. polished. . blegne. Blame. as. —^Webster. blanchet. . The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. branches . slush. Reliqu. and he shall be sure to have O.—Blatant. moere. pladdern.. — rura. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. as Lat. to To bellow. 7. blister. blaeren.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. G. or a mass of bubbles. Blank. mud. linkboys. Blanket. blame. blegen. probably ate. black. Bav. and G. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. waschen. coat. foolish talk. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. Blancli. 86. G. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. contracted from bladeren. Dan. Wott. The radical bubble. to shine. irXariQ. also tanned by the sun. bladder.

If armour. loud . bldsse. biter. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . blatero.' painted or figured . coloured prints. laudes (Kil. Prov. blose. 'op een trompet blaazen. a funeral oration . G. of an animal. visui patet. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. on whose behalf the herald appeared. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. clamorous. Lye.whence the Fr. — — ' : bless. how. blcest. commendation blason funebre. and to make him word blaze. blcesett. stultd loqui. ventosus. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. blezo. blis. might And sain. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. Sw. and which. the noisy. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. 2. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. blaeteren. — ^Jam. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. a shield. Golden Book in R. in that of praise. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. a loud noise. AS. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. used. an empty and two theories are proposed. Blast. To Blaze. bliEsan. To blow AS. blorach. Fr. A gust of wind. much plausibility. blaterare. Gael. G. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. pale. Blaze. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. or blazening. by stripping off a portion of the bark. also blazon or the blazSpenser. blossi. ON. magnilo. Fr. ing of arms.' to fastum . baladron. . is used in the sense of manifestatio. abroad. a shout. a flame. senses. live coal . each of boaster. a shining spot. But now. to bellow. i. thraso. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. blazen. OE. also only pains and excellent endurance. . blcEsan. a lamp blasere. — Elazen. Kil. to cut off prematurely. blaodh. braise. blysa. blason. Dan. has also blencke. a flame . bleis. She roade at peace through his heraldry. blason. Gudmund. in the same way as we 2. gloriosus. declaratio. blcEsan. brasa. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. besides blesse. bawling. Du. a voice Jr. quus. blcese. whence Blazonry. ther it was erst not knowe. is the imme. to blow . baladrar. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. or to the sound which it produces. ill-speaMng their proper colours . Du. as a verb. blast. and. brasa. ON.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. Cot. blaodhrach. blass. to blow. to publish the praises. is from AS. to extol. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Blanches illuminies. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. Fr. To blast. As Kilian. a torch . friend Cornelius. .the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. Du. among other . shield or surcoat. blesse. the matter incendiary . to trumpet forth. embraser. proflare tues. a flame. also praeblczse. somewhat different train of thought. abroad. magniloquus. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. an conium.— . Du. to proclaim. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. it is manifest. First from the E. like the in English. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. AS. to blaze Sp. blaze. With inversion of the liquid. bles. splendour. Du. a coat of arms. might spring from the same origin by a . I. a blast. See Blare. boasting. light-coli. The other derivation. to spread news. blaesen.sound a trumpet. beast. oured. g. The AS. to blow. — ' — stroy. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. fire. to set on fire. blasonner.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. a MS. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. Troilus and Cressida. Sc. indeed. redness . a whisperer. blys. e. blateroon. blasa. to publish. a torch. blase. oron-blasare. blase.). Du. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. kept up. blus. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. to de. blaser vid. The origin of this exSp. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blesse. A blaze is so intimately Then. Sw. Dan. blasoen. noisy blor. Cot. A strong flame. proclaim the virtues of. Blatant.

from on. a blot or smear blanking one. ' . Bleak. Richardson. blench came to be used for a trick. a blemish in one's 2. pier vor den augen eyes. color plumbeus bldma. spla7nU sie. 115. ' He blarrede or roar. tumanid. bleikr. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. a spot. boggle at something. blakna. plama. light-coloured. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. Mac. Sir J. See Black.'he cried till the tears ran down. geplerr. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. or blemysshen — blaken.D. To totally different from the foregoing. bleakness. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. BLENCH obfusco. Bailey. blesmir. 419. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. blarren. A Blab. a spot. to wink at it. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly.' the devil makes a vain back. ^Xiixaoftai. The term blear. splamii!. pimple . or blemish. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. livid. whitish. See Blood. sugillatio. a blotch plerr. As AS. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. to humbug. or to low as oxen. to spot . 1 blenschyn blemysshe. to blare been weeping. Bejaune. to bleach. to soil. to start away from. . to bleat as sheep. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Schmel. novice. wan. livor. Blear. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. start vor den augen. blot. the livid colour of a bruise. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. and thence to a bruise. pale . a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. blemissemeiit. dead-coloured Cotgr. a fault. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Ancren Riwle. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. Gr. tutnan is a cloud. to blear one's eye. I chaunge colour. a stain. from the than schal I go. while the agent ac- From . a disgrace. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. sinen langen tranen. . a spot. as of dust or mist . the formal equivalent of English wink.' to deceive one. exposed. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. souiller. G. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. Blear-eyed j having sore i. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. blur before their eyes. like one that has long P1. guenchir. tacher. And now are these but mansbond (i. to wink the eye. blot. to disgrace one's name. See Black. a spot.P. blcecan.filerren. is Blench. on. (faith or creaunce) Be war. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . And By a similar metaphor Pol. wanness. Blancher. p. N. . — — R. To Bleat. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. to stain one's honour or reputation. to make him feel blank. ' — — eye. paleness. a been distinct. spSt. which are blurred with the have shewed you. blister. . a red watery eye. . Fr. to cry or weep. A stain in a man's reputation. blink. c. blesmissure. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. confound him. bldmi. avoid looking it in the face. to spot. Manuel de Pecch&. Sw. bloken. ' — — ' : — — . wheal. AS. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. From the OFr. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. Pol. So in Sw. B. inflamed eyes. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. Blemisli. goda nainn. in the expression reputation. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. Bleb. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. pale Du. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. what blenched him therwith. darkness of vices. drop of water. — blink the question is to shrink from it.' God in his wordes. to become livid. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. a boil. flack. blema. Bleed. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. To salir. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. Palsgr. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. Gower in R. 242. to cast a mist before the eyes.v. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. ^Blencher.

. be glad flash. . a blick-ooghen. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. . to het dat Koorn is verblekket. Blight. dazzle . OHG. blanssen. doors. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. To Bless. blac. to shine. to glitter . Du. Du. a wink. Serv. blinde fenster. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. happily. false windows. gladness.corn. Thence apblinds.blinkard . Blink. riches blajennii blicksem. to shine. blindr. as a blind entry. weaklaveny. — Goth. mixing in general. Deprived of sight. wink. bleg.blinken. readily passes into a /. the Slavonic languages. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blund. with or without the nasal. graceful. as in the case of blaze.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. Tany. lightning. . to flash. to blithsian. Bliss. Pol. happy . blendian. blican. in potters' language. riches . joy. flash of light . sweet. to shine. happy .wink .not sting thiiren. . tative source of the word is wholly lost. to dabble in water. to plunge. to fall into water with a sudden noise. gives blinzen. to make a rumbling noise. shine. blahos. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. to — make it thick and muddy. lightning sweet blago. Swab. blithe blis. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. to glitter. I hold thee a grote thee. sung. sertion of the nasal. livid. G. Swiss (obsolete). bliss look . bludder. blinzdugig. to lighten. blind- ON. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . blithe. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. a gleam. blitzen. bluiter. AS. blinzeln. blatida. Blind. a glance Swiss blenden. plonsen. lightning. blink-eyed. 375. blitz. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. make these hands 3. blogi. (=bene dicere). to make happy. Owl and Nightingale. an entry which leads to nothing . . pale. lighten. ' Pl. Du. De Sonne ' verblekken. Needle. trix. a look.Q. vious one in the order of formation. liquid filth to bluther. blind. blicken. blotzen. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. III. glitter. or nettle which does form. burn up. To Blend. to bluiter. to dilute too much . AS. blende. G. window-blind. Du. a glance. blich-fiur. glad. wink of sleep . to consecrate . . ON. to bless. well blahy blick and blink. the G. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. Russ. to merry. blick. pockets. G. blissian. glitter. glimpse. Paradises blidnissu. blahoslaviti to twinkle. to glance.blunda. blend. the verb to bless is some. F. —Brera. . csecubrandish. although in the in the next article. to rejoice. a. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. blessed. to churn. blincken. Sw. a nounce happy. blent. to bluiter up with water. seems the simple netel. pearance of the blighted . From the action of the hand making Sw. . plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. to be blind. — A A — . The sound of k before an s. to glitter ful . cascultare. to rejoice. blessed. ^Jam. Du. glance.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. a wink With the bletsian. a blessing. as a vatn i vin. To blunder water. blag. to shut the eyes G. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. to dash wine with water. money. — . plotzen. but by no means therefore a pre.. to mix. blet.D. G. The inblissful. thou knave. A . Biglotton. a flash. Blazena Bea. a dead nettle. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS.nasal. Sc. blago. as taschen. Kiittner. — when he — Bailey. joy. Nares. blidu. joy . OHG. j). to bless . mix from blekken. . well blagaya. good. glitter. happy . AS. as in Du. to stir or puddle. . tless —Gamm. to shut the eyes. to dazzle . blide. Sc. Dan. blicksem. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. to act like a — . blindselen. blazeny. blinzler. The term then self or others. . giving (Fr. lovely Bohem. joyful. goods. a. is I shall Gurt. to pro. AS. also to wink. Wtb. fortunately.eyed. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. blicken. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless.' To — blunge clay. blink. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. moment. and joys of Paradise bliden.blinze. tire. blaziti. to twinkle. the sign of the cross while blessing one.

a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. blindman's-buff. a bubble. — — — — — From blabber. Block. a blain. The blow E. blaud. in the lump or mass of wood. taken altogether. to blow. pustula. kostia. Blob. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. B. blote. to soak. merciful ON.plisg. Boyd in Jam. is also used in the sense of swelling . Lat. — Blob. an unformed mass. A solid blouquette blisters. blad. Goth. a bubble. To Blissom. blot. a lumpish head plubach. to blow. speaking rapidly any . any lump or mass of things. Of sheep. blcesma. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Sw. from blcsr. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. husks. Sc. blotfisk. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. lagga i blot. swell. ^vaaa. it is must be observed. soak in water cured fish. buckle. senting the dashing of water. to bubble. Ibid. . bluyster. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. while Lat. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. To Bloat. like clot. — Sw. inde humiditate tumidus. frequentative.. W. the unhewn bole of a tree. must be referred to AS. signifying in the first instance to soak. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. blubber. . To a smoking or drying by the fire. For this. Cotgr. a dirty blister. pimple. See Blot. —Bailey. to to puff and be noisy. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. boucler. as blinzeln. — . blindsehn. strawclod. bleiths. blond. pusula. blijde. in the sense of a soft tint. Bleb. biota. A under this name was imported into England. blot. to dash liquid. mass. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. G. in gusts. a small lump of anything thick. blister blasan. Blister. must be classed with forms like Gr. Blond. Fr. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. It may be formed Blithe. a blister . or blinde-kiih. formed spot. a blister. viscid. blidr.— Bailey. bloc. blod. Kil. to close it with a solid mass. buclde. soft. Bav. is formed squad. shells. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Du. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. whence blast. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. a . Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. to cure by smoke. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. mild. blide. blinzel-maus. joyful. blaustem. mild. Sw. light yellow. separate portion. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. or bleb. to blow. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. bubble and blubber. as a blab of ink. Du. fiustula. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. blobbes or droppes of water. soaked. to breathe hard. and F. like manner the coloured. gentle OHG. a bubble. bloated. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. having an unsound swollen look. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. a block or log en bloc. in Nares. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. blesme. orbicular. . ON. G. Svt. or is inserted or omitted. busten. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd.— Hal. and pisg. puff. Hence. . N. The roots /. blautr. expressed by cognate roots. I believe. bloc. or the like. a See Blot. pods. plub. as in E. sloppy dirt. to desire the male. blab. Blob. blobber. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. also to set See Bless. Gael. a ram. fish blind person. cooking. Gael.pusta. to block up the way. ON. ^Jam. The stem or trunk of a tree. or the mark which it makes. Mod. soft. bausen. a little blisg. and bouclette. blot. to steep. kostua. to blissom. to swell. And so from squatter. as if soaked in water. soft. and easily changes its place. Fr. round. blouca and Fr. B. Thus we have blab and babble. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. repre- pusula. pausten. and inarticulately. blithe. Dan. In Fin. bluster. weak. stone. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. Hence E.—Bloated. Dan. Egillson. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Jonson. in bulk. blister. a blot or spot. Langued.—Bloater. a drop of water.

blue. a Halm a. a The form platschefz. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a blaze. blotte. Blad. blatte. blat. yellowish It's G.platter. proto shine with bright colours . to dash down Du. bloeme. a Schmid. on. Du. blistaf. blotter. blois. or the sound of it .properly to scatter liquid . of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. j^ blottir. to strike . plants which prepares the seed. Prov. fall to overflowing. blady. ])erly Du.— . bloetnsel. pladdern. a deli. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. splendour . Du. bleistern. yellow. shine . . blue. OFr. kobladde. whence plader. Bloom. great leaf of cabbage. blust. parallel form with ON. Wflz<^«. soft or flat. glose. 2. to strike with something soft or flat. bletister. gloss. blou. ON. blawels. bloi. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. bloi. blaeuw. colour of the cheeks. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. to squander. bliise. platt-voll. to slap. The G. Blow. bleustern. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. a nature. dial. blose. bloed. AS. plet. . blosem. Russ. bloemen. to dirty. Dan. Hatch. bloto. a lump. to be red. blauwel. Schmid. blomstr. couleur livide. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. a black eye Du. . E. white blatte. pale tint. blad. to squat or lie close. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. blooth. platz-voll. lidmr. blostma. a blow. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. pladern. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. a flower. blysa. It should be of filth blak-blatte. — Blotch-paper. to blaze . a. to slap. blondheid. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. fair in en blat vand. blue. lump of anything soft to blad. Du. . to grow pale). kuh-plader. platsch-voll.D. gammon. to glisten . gfyssa. Stalder. E. bloutre. Erploten. platschern. blowen. Lat. plot of land is a spot or small rage. cow-dung. See Blow. bloi. of a blow with something lios. Fris. blotting-paper. sbiadare. Fris. blond. to blaze. E. E. — — . the bright colour of the cheeks . Fr. a torch blusse. G. blodelsa and blawelsa. to blush . Blot. . Harmar in R. a flower. to scribble. Dan. Ir. blosa. to exists in biadetto. mud. — gush. to strike with such these objects exhibit. a cow-dung. bluish. bliithe. to From . Sc. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. ON. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. spots in the sun. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. to dabble in water . bloedsd. spot pletter i solen. in v. Sw. to be red with blot.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. blut. dirty spot on the cheek. to splash. D.^ Kil. blosma. . blosen. It. to glow. to sparkle. a Usaae. blus. clod. Sw. Jios. flower. glus. to blot the land was in a leme. to flame. leme. as the skin or hair. a water ploutsche. a drop of water or colour. Schwenck. to dabble in water. G. Pl. — Stalder . skam.' the rain is driving and blue . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. bit by bit. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. . glossi. platz-regen. biado (of which the evidence plattern. S-wiss pladern. en blau ach. See Blow. Du. to dash down. livid marks. a flower. a beater. Blood. —Barbour. — Cot. blase. lustre. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. Blotcli. E. blond is used in blatt. E. probably connected with Pol. a gush of milk . Wendish blodo. ^lys. splashing full. . Schilter.blauschlagen. wan. blue. bliihen. pale. plottra. lump flower. a pelting shower). glasi. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. (of cattle) to dung. ' — . coloured (Diaz. the bright to blot paper morsels. Sc. plattata. bfys. blue . straw. to spot or blot. Ein platsch milch. light. bldts. brilliancy. a spot or blot. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to shine . Blossom. fall down . glister . to fall (of liquids) in abundance. Sw. plotterwis. Florio). redness. gleam. dial. ^Bleed. blaeuwen. Dan. from the bright colour which 7'vci. to patter. from G. a blot or spot. blaeuwe ooghe. pale biavo. PI. AS. ON. blond en blaauw slaan. livid . bldmi. Plots.

bliithe. bldt. a blast. to fade. — . to show flower. may cite for example G. blass. toused. a continued noise of agitated water. OFr. blebber. Pludern. gloeyen. Notwithstanding the We . It. cheeks bedabbled with tears. bloeyen. flower w. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. ' BLUE or guggling. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. glas. blaw j biavo. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. a fat. to puff up. — . The primary sense is to shine. wan. gliihen. blow. Raynouard. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. plustrig. to make bubbles in drinking. Pl. — — Mundart. Sik upplustem. a paddling in wate r. Wtb. wan. bliihen. br. boil. and thence. tache. blue . . florere.nify bubble. like manner Lat. bledniai. to fade. Deutsch. bluther.D. withered. jabber. grow pale. fiubbem. . where the word may be compared bliggman. fqded. In agitation of water. Bret. v. to'disorder. Du. bruised Prov. to fade. blava. to breathe G. glansj Ir.— . fem. to beat. |8A)'. the red fluid of the body . a Blossom. corre. Jla-re.Jlasa. a bruise. 1. blut. pludern. blubbern. to gush. to beat with a mallet. -ii. To Blow. to inflate. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. OHG. B. bliihen. puff. fied vowel. /idXavoc. G.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. The interchange of an initial gl. glow. in rapid or indistinct utterance. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. OHG. . bliuwan. Langued. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. and closely allied with Du. Gael. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. marking some application from that bladder. G. . blazi. To Blow. blubonciti. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. little apparent resemblance. . bloi. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. to make blue.D. bluh. to flourish. Chaucer. w. Du. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blau. is very frequent. bluod. to hard. to glow.D. red-faced bloted wench. MHG. Gr. blduen. Lat. ler. sponds with Sw. in E. blao. blodyn. And. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. blazir.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Deutsch. The aUied forms. — To Blubber. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. disordered. AS. to bruise Roquef. bloom. to guggle. is confined to the — . when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. A. to shine with bright From colours. Her sweet bloderit face.D. to blurt out. Mund. We . blahen. glas. a flower. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. blue. blodern.xo'»'. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. sound like water. Tumbled. It is howbliuwen. Blowze. blubbern. Blue. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . bloeden. to flap like loose clothes. The radical sense is shown in Gael. to blow. a herb Gr. plodern. 92. to with Bohem. plubartaich. gloeden. —SchmelIt. Prov. to breathe bouteiUis. closely difference in of blabber. gUd. — Bluther. 1292. ^Jam. to blow. plusig. blodelsa. green. Kil. . Blowzy. G.' — Palsgr. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping.to blossom. meurtrissure Roquefort. blust. Danneil. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. 51. bloes. grey. pale OFr. a gurgling . disordered in head-dress. gliihen. y\r)yi»v. blosen. pale . bruk. glede. glaodh and blaodh. and the forms mentioned under Swab. especially with respect to the hair. blawan. sense. to gabble. to exhibit bright colours. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. plubair. These are — Bludder. G. to bubble up. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. Bav. blezir. plubraich. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. d in Sc. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. to blow. blady. dirty. glowing coal . Pl. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. or gr. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. foam. grug. flower OHG. pale. a blow. to Plodern. a. coup. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise.. pale. vi^ound. piusen. chatter. bl. Chaucer. heath. blois. to glow. bludder. E. into flower. E. boasting. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. P1. to spot. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). bloemen. — To blubber. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. blau. 2.' Hamburgh Archives.

je perturbe. mix It. planus. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. bluish. yellow. blue. to become pale or livid. Dan. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. and then generally idle talk. biava. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. glundr. to fade). puddle. as well as biado. G. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. See Blunt. Hal.make a noise. confusion. Ditton in R. — . G. to puddle. liebefactor. as well as sbiadafe. to dabble Biglotton E. And blunders on and staggers every pace. Kil. yellowish red. trahir. dial. biavo. tutte le semente ancora in erba. Bohem. — Pr. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. jaune. find accordingly It. Du. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Dief. From G. The Du. to work To blunder out a fronto. tradire to Fr. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. a plain coin herausplatzeu. The Du. sbiavare. or an abrupt manner. Roquefort. It then signifies something done at once. sloppy drink. Pm. in the same way as from It'. Lat. corn. bleu et blanc. Pl. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. to blunge clay. a flounder. blavus. . bUich. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. like the Celtic glas. fallow. contrasted with the dle. something.• BLUFF biado. E. plo-wy. Blavoyer. rustic. blue. from an imitation of the sound. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. The word is here synonymous with amplus. bawling. verdure. to agitation of liquids. blond. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Hence we pass to Prov. G. poltern. disturb. Pol. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. all representing the — . verdoyer. 't — —Hal. abrupt. A bluff manner. to fall suddenly on the ground. pludder. blaf. polter-hans. buller-bak. blunt. bullern. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. Then with the nasal. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. blahir. Blunt. from the Lat. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. applied to green as well as blue.' trouble.— . bulmanner. plomp. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. in water dobbelen. to become pale. Palsgr. without image or superscription. to blunder water. Supp. Altieri. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to become pale or wan.D. Flor. blue. Sw. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. Blaffart. Kil. Bodge. a fore. Biada. superficie plani. pale) is provincially used in the. having a bluff forehead. Dryden in R. herbe. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. to dabble in the mud. flav-us. Roquefort. to plump into the water. pale. used for the work of an unskilful performer. — — — . blunderhead. an ill-done job. corn. mistake.//aay. falb. Analogous forms are Du. Du. bloi. in plur. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. blandum. which is rendered by Florio. G. to lose colour. pale yellow. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. blunder. I blonder. earth and water mixed together. and bustle . blutter. from the brilliant green of the young E. See Blurt. OFr. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. a boisterous violent man. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. speech. Halma. discoloured {plowiee. and metaphorically. blac. originally growing up turf and water. blake (identical with AS. We Blunder. blave is moreover. herauspoltem or sloping shore. non rotunda. Bluff.in mud or water. is. sense of yeUow. to confound. and Du. devenir vert blavoie. Kiittner. . like Du. To blunder is then. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. fawn-coloured. blunder. has donder-bus. polterer. - reddish yellow. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. blanssen. segetes virentes. flodderen (Weiland). Bladum. a shore abruptly rising. his business with much noise. glundra. Hence a Slcelton in R. pale straw-coloured. buller-bas. to mix it up with water. It is remarkable however that the E. ploffen. and sbiadare. Blunderer or blunt worker. and biavo (Diez). Romance bluiter. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . biada.. a blunderbuss.

Molof something wet. plotsen. obtusus. Blunt. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. forestis. homo stolidus. ang. The syllables blot. down. blutten. sheepish. to handle a thing bluntly. Probably radically hlekit. Woddis. stupid fellow. as in E. and hath swiche languor in his soul. rough. awkwardly. Plump. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. to bring it suddenly out. and an unintelligent. It is from this notion of suddenness. a blot. and the like. bloss. dull. hebes. heavy. maol. Plontp. — — pidus. good plump person. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. blue. void. thick. raw. Ford in R.pludse. the absence of sharpness. plonsen. Sw. Won by degrees. pointless. Then cometh indevotion. to make foliage. pale. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Plump mit etwas umgehen. it will be observed. to make a noise of such a Stalder. naked.— — — . Kiittner. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt.to fall into the water. Sc. poor Sc. blatte. platz-regen. fling down . blockish. and in the same sense. blunt. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. to plump down. F. that it not easy to discover the connection. Swab. bleak. Chaucer. united in Gael. as cow-dung. plump. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. ineffectual reason. or heraus plumpen. with or without the nasal. plump. insensible. pressions. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. blat. a thick and will person. nature. inaKil. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. V. and. bald. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. — Kil. bare. —D. The blait body. azure. rude. clownish. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. duU. blait. rudely. Kiittner. inactive Swiss bluntschi. Halma. A modification of the same root. unpolished. bare or blunt. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . Dan. a portion To inquire for slaves. blait.—D. blout. as Sw. blunder. to blurt. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. unfledged Sw. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. It will be seen that the G. Dan. plumbeus. dull. of a knife which not cut. obtusus.plompen. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. without horns. naked. mit etwas heraus-platzen. . plutz T)\i. to blunt a thing out. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Blaitie-bum. or blab out a thing Kiittner . naked. that the sense of bare. It. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. without Maolaich. without preparation. dial. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. Q. blunsch. is thrown. plump J to plump out with it. identical with E. heavy. like a thing thrown down with a noise. blott. it will be well to point out a sense. V. clumsy. platzen. G. to plump into the water. Sir T. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. heavy. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. —D. unwrought. Sc. viz. G. plump. — blunt. A light blue colour. Bluntet. biosso. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. edgeless. silly. Bare and blunt. absence of preparation. nis. Du. used in both senses. in Richardson. blunt. viz. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Stalder. is The word dull. More in Richardson. without the nasal. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. fooUsh. Pol. figuratively. plotz. bus. blunt. a simpleton. bare. wan. from the loud report a fire-arm. blunt. through which a man is so blont. plump. a bluntie. naked. blotta sanningen. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. biotto. . a pelting have then the exshower of rain. awkward. unceremonious manner. exactly corresponding to the G. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. Now the Swiss bluntsch. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. V. massive. bluntschen. plains The large bech. seems to be derived.

to snuff. sudden. margin. to puff. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. eafor. Schmeller. an ear of corn. blodern. It. a smear. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. borrar. To splirt. mire. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. Hal. gabble. ON. ever-swin. chicchere. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Du. ground. as splurt to splutter. To blow in puffs. bludder.y. G. rude. — From mouth. to breke. batello. to make a noise in boiling. is formed Du. 29. gabble Sw. Kil. Explained by Jam. coarse. Blush. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. a dangling object. to crying. blurra. lacerta. the Brem. rude. a baU of thread the mud. boord. blasen and See Burr. of the word seems . Wtb. Comp. pfludern. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. geplerr. bdtr. Boa. — ' Dief. a small lump. to bark. to sound like water boiling. bateau.D. Hal. blusse i ansigtet. w. a mistiness. Gael. Fl. to disfigure with E. puffen. bluther. Pull the bobbin. common. — — . Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. Du. a border. to make a noise with the mouth. to smear. blur. to talk quick and indistinctly . bar. to roar. a bladder . a club foot . stellio. strong. The to radical meaning D.— . To move quickly up and down. a tassel. AS. bora. Du. blosken. blader. to guggle. As the as. — a blaze. flat. properly noisy. to blubber.v. It. or bog also thread. to endeavour to terrify. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. to dirty. an edge. It. c. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. puddle. AS. an end or stump. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. bdta. beacon fire. whence bordvidr. board. or blurt with one's mouth. to be out of temper. G. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. Boost is used for the boast. 'Ba. V. margin. a Jam. bluter. a short thick body. bord. violent. to spurt out. pludern. Related to blutter. bausen. BOB 79 — To Blur. skin. boistous. aper. crack made by bursting open. to blaze. ader. to puff. pausten. to blurt out. and swimmeth very well. this root are formed Sc. beer.the syllable bot. to chatter. The elision of the d is very to chatter. a tassel. a board or plank. fringe. Bot zeggen. blotch and botch. . botte. as in Du. Du. to glow . it implies that it is empty sound. De Boat. Fr. a blow . From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. blose. imitated by has also In like . Boa. Du. a burst of tears. baiag. and when applied to vaunting language. short pieces of any filthy mud. berd. Board. bur.—Bobbin. A large snake. cheeks glow. splurt and spirt. outward edge. and E. pof. border. the sound of a blow poffen. To Blurt. cocodrUlus. To brag and to crack. whence bob. bord. P. like the parapets (viggyrdil. to blur. bord. 1. — — — * Boast. blaffen and baffen. violent G. &c. bludder. bot. e. a grows to a great bigness. a blot.plerr. Halma. See Blossom. hot. boccheggiare. Slur. E. both used in the sense of boasting. To tinct. Dan. table. bliise. to jabber. . 274. dial.plodem. . Bluster. my dear. lindwurm. Sc. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. OE. bhis. bustuous. 9396. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. blarra. blunt. planks or boards. stupid. — To Bob. See Boisterous. Swiss blodern. then applied to indistinct vision . blubber. Bav. i. a mist before the eyes plerren. swagger. Pl. . to render indisbhir. Fr. 156. edge. planks raised up outside the roofs. a flurt with one's fingers. Lat. G. edge. and the latch . bobbin. brett. Supp. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward.pusten. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. dial. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. a. to blush. to threaten. eber. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. to dangle. to blore. to bounce. and Du. BLUR Boar. cluster. Wright's ed. boa. E. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. bot-voet. blaste?i.' — Red Riding-hood. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. to make mouths. Fl. to say bluntly. AS. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. to rumble. on. blirt of greeting. blaere. blot. to dabble. will fly up. Sc. to give a crack. bobine. Sverris Saga. blaustem. and boisterous. a blotch. table. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. bit. blot. primarily signify loud noise. pluddre. pustern. voce intonare. to blow. large. plump. boot. Du. . margin. bladdra. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. bleuster. Wallace. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. Du. to brag grande loqui. be a crack or loud sound. bdd. or backwards and forwards. blast. dull. bakke bleustern. Gael. to puff. acre. literally edge-wood. baban. a torch blusse. burra.

Ptg. bodi. as a horn. to fail. and the word is well explained by Bailey. . barrique.' A — Sherwood's Diet. boftich. bodies. mud. busti. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. swelling. To portend good or bad. round. biodeachan. stutter gogmire. to make. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. bog. to be unsteady tich. Schmel. to thrust. VI. point. Lap. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. pall. bothog. Bodkin. corset. gebod. bod. a spur. a prickle. — H. . In like manner E. 3. anything soft. calf of the leg. bodian. Banff. bole. AS. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. . The signification of the root bot.! . as in stammering or staggering. bayonet. or stem of a tree. to blurt a thing out. bodene. expression hogglin an bogglin. palleg. potacha. Lith. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. bodnu. Ir. badyti. bot. . formerly bodies. to stick. stitch. to make a mow at. Bret. a messenger . bodak. Thy i. anything protuberant. a dagger. where bogs form Gael. potacha. to push with the horns. Bog. Miracle-plays. goggle. French bouter. Commonly explained as if from Sc. ^Jam. barriga. bottich are derivatives. bodhag. cask bottich. gog. unsteady. Cot. BOGGLE trunk and G. W. bogle. So BOB To Bob. waving. patsche. * To Boggle. To mock. body of a shirt bol.gmh:t. bottig.. It introduced from Ireland. to waver. boll. a command. the boss of a buckler. message boda. moist mire. the thick part of anything. bodat. a prick. a cask. to smack. Shakespear has badged with blood.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. gagei. to roll. bo tich. arise E. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. See To Botch. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. — 2. . ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. — as well as the body of an animal. woman's stays. whence paUchen. a bog or morass. Now unskilful action is conmire. To Bodge. baboyer. . gagoula. bodilo. '£. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. Ptg. e. a puddle. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. a ghost . to prick. toss. a sting . move. moving backwards and forwards. bogach. a round body both. to dabble or paddle. Crist. gago. to scruple. AS. Gael. nodding. corpset. then from the yielding. .a (i\ia. bog. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. rounded. to be uncertain what to do. quagmire). Reliq Antiq. whence Fr. a quagsoft. unsteady. corset from corps. to bodge. nave of a wheel. the trunk of the animal body. gag. to commit a blunder. And waves. by the syllable patsch. gog in gog-mire. to bob. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret.' Bogglie. . dies.rabodi. or a pair of bodies. — Grandg. biodag. the body. to fail. To make bad work. To Bode. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. needle. unsteady nature of a soft substance. fickle . bayonet . quakmg. Russ. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. meaning the round part of his body. thrust with something pointed. bogan. 43. See Baber-lipped. bagges. to stammer. Bohem. a . to deliver a message. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. exhibit another modification of the root. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. speak of the barrel of a horse. belly. body and G. stuttering. Gael. an announcement. gogach. shake. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . of which the E. daubed or dabbled with blood. With With this we charged again We bodged again. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. from fitting close to the body. stumpy. bogadaich. potig. a body. the body of a shift gaguejar. bob. bodig. or bag. agitate. wavering. ON. We . Wall. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller.hollow. . In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. to start start and back as from a bugbear. bodi. Gael. Body. butt. strike with the horns. bogadh. and E. precept. The Sp. the stem of a tree . so large a feature in the country. a cask. is identical with Fr. shaking . Gl. as signifying anything spherical or round. bodetz. Supp. See Bid. bolr. to butt. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. potahha. is a lump. bog (equivalent to E. an awl. to stir. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. the belly. corpses pot. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G.\\i\c\iset. Bodice. bod.

ohg. belc'hj. the lir. a cushion. . Fr. to be prominent. rough. boil . . to stammer. Cot. folliculus grani. dint in a metal vessel. bald. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Daring.. Sw. i. bulla. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. ^Vocab. Da. to give a hoUow sound. buller. tartle. bulla. balder. bol. pall. boggle. globular bod)'. as. swelling. bout. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. repagulum. a fastening for a door. the. Pm. In the same way Sc. a bakazikni. see Boast. the gurgling sound of water rush. bolla. poppy (Bailey). OG. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. the body of a man or of ter. notes. — — which the cushion is stuffed. a swelling in ice.palleg. treated under Bowl. gluma. bochken (titubare. in speaking. bolzBold. capiing into a cavity. courageous. Me doth awate. perpendicular. and manace for to de. bol. tartalear. to tattle. ON. strong. G. Westerwald bollern. bald. OHG. whence bulla. This iv. To Bolter. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. wag. a quaking mire. polc'h. as those of nuts. up of bubbles. quick. haughty. boutpijl. is probably a modification of boll. Boil. The round stem of a tree. scruple. in the sense of handsome . 1430 in Deutsch. bold. beule. bola. tomentum. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. puile. Stalder. Boystous. G. roydeur. strong. bold. tartajear. bolleken. bold. styffe or rude . — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). also a blister. confident. impetuosity. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. pillow. G. boll. Test. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion.rounded part of the body. huge. obex. excellent. blow. merry. Properly noisy. bolstar. the husk of nuts. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. hollow. ON.D. from Du. stutSw. Du. Swab. . as baltha. to stagger. E. by which it is moved to and fro. Mund. bal. flax-boU. bouil. strong.). and then applied to other husks. a head . hero. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. then violent. Du. bhster. * Boisterous. 304). Sp. to stammer. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Boll. A. coarse. The term applies in — — impressed . He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bog. Lat. prince. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. Chaucer seems Dan. proud. ON. to waver or hesitate. Kit. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. boss. bolster. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. a bubble. bul. bolle. to be at a loss a shirt. Bustuous. gerade signifies straight to the mark. balldr. It. Fr. bagaji. boystousnesse. Bole. Gael. pusten.Du. bolc'h.— D. Lat. round the first instance to the materials with . to puff. Lap. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. Chaucer. Love. he will speak out.' Mrs Baker. biiilen.w. to boil. bola. a bump. Fr. 374. bula. bolr. may be identified with It. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. to hesitate from doubt. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bolzen. cows the people from speaking. stameln vel bochken. ON. bealder. bok. used. Bret. caput scapulse. brave. E. swelling. capitellum. (of Mons) b^guer. stud. bolt upright. The bob. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bog. Magy. buile. Goth. the body . pimple ON. as. courageous. 45. Kil. bolt. warlike. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. to stumble. but that Bolt. tulum. Wall. shake. intrepid.— — . Pr. Sc. puilen. furfures. or the like. bag or bog are derived Piedm. a boil or swelling Du. baud. a bubble. fiausten. free. a bubble. bulr. bout is explained by Kil. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . glass phial. Du. to the belly as the or dislike. bullire. sels of flax. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . ^Boistous. bul. Du. boly. as E. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. bald. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. See Bulk. properly represent belly. to swell. bol. trunk of a tree . — 6 . which are not used for a similar purpose. * Bolster. hakogni. G. bSlstr. chatter. from the branches. tar. w. . stramenta. noise. bollen (Kil. cheerful. pustule. b^gayer. — ' — tagliare. chaff of corn siliqua. V. To Boil. insolent baude. bolster. ballr. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus.

rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. Dan. zare. the name of bolter mixed flour and water.) E. Pl.On the same principle.D. a . P1. tling or crashing noise. as snow balling on a horse's foot. The ulti. Du. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. barutela. abolter. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. to bolt meal barutel. ' — — ! ! : — . to knock. a rattling carriage. and the Thus from So. Pr. jolting. Lang.D. tuft. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. to bolt meal barutel. . baruta. pull. a bunch.Lat. to clack. Prov. Mid.. Lat. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil.nature of the operation. die treppe pressed. grasbulten. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. we der Brocket). the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. On this account Mid. ex•wagen. loud and fast. as a rabbit from its baritel. burclct. a crashing or racketing noise. hulch. vessel with narrow opening. on the one hand. Schiitze. lumpy.u. boss. hulter de bulter. . beliitea. staff which sounds tar. a small portion. tumultuari.i5a//^«. clump. . Hence Palsgr. fied bot. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps.).protuberance. taratantarum. to make a knocking. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. je bulte. to start with palpitate. to agitate. a clap of thunnences. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. to form lumps. to become lumpy. to shake. bluter. tantara. a rattle. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. bulk or quantity . bulk. small heap.D. mole-hill. the wheels groaned. barutela. and to crash. to talk pulzen. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. to bolt flour burato. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. we have Du.through a cloth of loose texture. crash. bulstrig. a clump of turf. MHG. / is transposed in Fr. kloteren. budeln daz mele . a round glass ending — bultig. Wtb. buideln. poll. Pm. ler. Brem. a millpoltzet augen. a clod.D. And as the agitation of cream in . blotttre. gebolder. bolzen. . a bolter Prov. bolt. pultare. also to curdle. The ment and the operation. bolzaugen. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. beluter. have Lat. taraabout. Bulte-pook or bulstar.noise {brattle of thunner. swelling. uneven. Champagne burtcau. as above explained.agitation of the meal in the bolter.as the essential element signifying the talum. In the next place. bulla. . cruddle. I boulte meale in a boulter. buletare. bultig. barutare. the sense of right on end. a sod (Schiitze). by the representation of a racketing sound. buUire. OFr. bulio. from G. protuberance. projections. Sanders. to bolter. then to knock. we pass to Du. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. bultred. Fr. croler. to E. rugged. Bav. hammer. brattle. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. OFr. buretter{CQ\. a club-foot. Here the radical image is the violent O. to spring forth E. agitari (Kil. tar. poltern. btilt. a clod cloth. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. racket gepolter. So also we pass from Lat. as of a trumpet. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . or the like. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. Dauphiny a sudden movement. we see that the one consists of a words. crotlar. bullern. 2. sestuare.by forms like G.— . ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E.thump or blow.. holier poller. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. pattern. : ' — — . taratarrum. cro. bolt-foot. It. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig.). hammer. . hole. bortelen. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. Sw. hump. projecting eyes pul. . was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. one after the other. Du. Supp. uneven. — — — . representing a rat. to significance of the term was overlooked. Pl. Hence. zen. G. to coagulate. buletel. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. to come rattling downstairs. a rattling noise and a jolting motion.clack. a bolter or implement for bolting. rugged. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. crod. or ill. ' Holler poller / bulter. . curdle. bolting to that of form. with E. bolzauget) Sp. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. to start out.fe/2?. as Fr. bolt head is a retort. poltern. knob. OFr. in S'W plotter. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. or a racer from the course.

again. to shake (as to shake the head. booming over the water. stuff. bureau. and that from Fr. a hollow sound. bomba. to bolt meal.Lat. It. agreement. Banstead. to shake. beuteln. cotton stuff. ^o/j. G. a boulter of meal. brust-bein. a stock. to ring bells. to beat a drum. bopin. bambagioj whence It. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. Dan. bombe. biire. sericum arboreum. and Du. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. . rimbombare. to cast to and fro. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. bombasin. barate. It. The material called by this name. a —Bombasine. tie. boulenger. produced the Pl. i. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. gossipium. Bone. . a beacon. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. been. raw silk. breast-bone. Gascoi^e in R. 155. derivation. bras. Castrais barato. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. we speak of a gun to resound. — AS. Dan. tie.D. and also the leg. silk. bongam. from teu. borel. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. thick from shaking. d. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . to which the leg. . Near 6 * . butteln. the shank the shoulder-bone. buidelen. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. Bomb. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic.Su?. bone of the . bwmbwr. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. coarse. bolting-cloth. band pi. Fl. band. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. builen. crook-shanked bondew. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. iuttern. to shake down fruit from a tree. It. G. G. — Bombard. cotton.). tiffany. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. the silk-worm. the murmuring of the sea. the Fr. ODu. . beuteln. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. to thump W. a bone in general. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. Kil. and Bond. a churn for butter. OE. burato. term is appropriated in G.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. from boom. It. baun. bond. as Banbury. Need you any ink and bonibase. thick. It. to boult meal. bombasine. has repeatedly varied. stump. . bonog. silk-worm. bombarda. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. As cotton was used for padding clothes. butteln. the contracted form of Du. to bind G. band. In legal language. is supported by the analogy of G. or trunk word in W. a baker. bureau. baum-bast. e. From builen. q. beil'n. When ture. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. bombase. an implement of binding. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. Bibelesworth in Nat. HoUybandin R. lana lignea. sije. bon. bindan. assuming the of leg : special signification W. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bambacium. bulter from It. and in fact we find the and Du. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. must be explained Fr. sye. bunden. gunpowder. Du. bwmbwry mar. bonds. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. and Mod. also thick-shanked. Fr. Mid. a stem or base. bommen. — having a stem or stalk. a string. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. the leg. — bombast came guage. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. Fr. PoUitriduare. bombdra. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. basin. bauniwolle. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. &c. to thunder. a thundering noise bomre. bein. It. bande. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. and called in Mid. . a word of which we have traces in several English names. buttel trueb (of liquids). undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep.) . tree. Moreover. Schm. Butterglas. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. Du. thick-legged. a ligature. bombicina. 83 Gr. a drum bombammen. whence bomme. Antiq. as in . to resound. In E. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. ties.^Altieri. bommer. bombast. sijde. Bonfire. E. bombice.bast. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. banitola (Fl. buidelen. Du. achsel bein. bonfras. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. bambagino. . however.

and thence Rouchi baia. baier. the possessor of the farm. pole. letter. bauen. and fig. Binau Brychyniog. bonnet. bua.—Bootless. w. Palsgr. swinbusa. short boots. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. — To boot. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. — Bailey. . Du. Bonnet. petition. dial. and Ban in w. from Du. Fr. prayer. to litter bosu. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. bommen. G. stabulum. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. in Phil. Wall. one who dwells nigh. It is commonly explained as identical with It. which one gaping and staring about. a letter Russ. E.Boos. bota.n. G. also called Brecknock Beacons. . nachbar. a head-dress. in w. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . bonaid. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. a bonfire. a scribe G. bobo. foolish. a vessel for holding liquids. to aid. The origin of the word is probably the W. till. are formed Fr. boa. Goth. to strew with straw. wall hangings. A peasant. E. . b^er. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Book. Du. 232.. set in order. head-dress wai^g. Gl. . to cultivate. Thus from the syllable ba. Boot of bale. boubair. dial. bossen. and Gael. blockhead. or Vanns. Booby. remnants of hay or straw. petition. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. often cut for burning and lighting fires. build. as a lying-place for cattle. \ais-band. quest. bAkva. build. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. . p. comes bondi. whence ban-ffagl. wondering signifies not only straw. bonad. the cultivator. been. Boom. at everything. master of the house. from gape. inhabit. ass. a good turn or re- meaning. a. bua. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. Trans. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. literally cow-house. Gael. gaping hoyden — Cot. gawney. pero. to yawn. Fr. 13. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. botte. Schm. Perhaps. the scriptures bokareis. a lofty blaze. — . Kil. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. bobo ! interj. to ask. bos. Swab. Basa. Mrs Baker. betere thing werse. bas. tall. succour Bailey. inhabit. ON. netis stall. as the Brecknockshire Banns. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. from beida (E. the name of the letter b. Fr. bolt. the mouth. Jr. bdn. feu de behourdis. . ty Gael. to gape. boia. Sp. simpleton. bd. the alphabet. b'ukvdry. b&ber. boandi. Busk. bote. clown. Bonnefyre. dress.^ —P. ON. where a cross (or a gun. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. badaud. bonad. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. Boor. Build. fool. A favour. the first consonant of the alphabet. the stubble of beans. boo. to dress. From bo. babau. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. bene. bid). See Butt. — — . to gape. ben. G. bosig. help. But bosg. beiSne. botta. a letter . A stall for cattle. by itself for head-dress. a hollow skin. should contribute something to make the bargain equal.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. till. dolt. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. buch-stab. In nautical language. house. boten-shoen. gaby. Hufwud-bonad. bosih. Kil. buandi. bose. Mrs Baker explains bun. Thin ben Luke i. The latter is the original AS. a simpleton. pig-sty. booby. a tree. babin. Pm. boer. Boon. See Bown. a lying-place for dogs or swine. by arbitours sholde bote the P. See Bomb. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. Hal. N. Bootless. tigh. writing bokos. a dry stalk. Hal. and from AS. chaff. AS. beam. is Du. To Boot. countryman. . Bun. ganian. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. reparation. — e. tapestry. litter. boutig. Pr. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. biikui. dress. dog-kennel. a stall. lofty. OW. to prepare. gehyred. The character of folly is i860. boutig. signifying beech. ON. Boot. however. . bowwen. without ad- . babb^o. ON. of wonder On the same principle Sp. botte. It. * Boose. bds. a silly fellow. to set in order. . Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. The i. prayer. boubi^. high. but stall. hu?idbusa. AS. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. busu. Prov. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. OSlav. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. from badare. a bag of skin or leather. although in the OG. Du. Fr. to cultivate. a. boom. bauer. remedy of evil. — From the participle present. desire. relief from sorrow. Ox. .

or anything pointed. boeten het vier. bottino. Esthon. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. a chisel. OSw. boete. It is admitted that Fr. are parret. borino. Pol. amendment. barn. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. • — To Bore. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. to expiate boeten den dorst. a shop budowati. Lat. Bohem. bauen. better. cure Sw. to stick unto as a bur. exchange or divide. to profit Goth. Magy. amendment boeten. Compare Manx birrag. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. OHG. tent. baara. batr. butin. to anything Neither G. furni. See To We speak in E. bower. mat-bod. differs only in termination. lappalare. comminuted by either kind of action. bite. urboro. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. — ON. a hut or tent. uzboro. bordi. chisel. to hut. a hut. cup- awl. aid. to to . are derived from G. butin is explained by Flor. Kil. But probably the E. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. Fr. . G. to bore. bdt. bothag. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. ora. . budka. bohren. ON. Esthon. AS.par. To Bore. The cor. scalpo. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. admovere titiones. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. to . a borer. remedy. abode. bord. a. hut. ON. to build. bata. is purin. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. from bord. boards. botjan.. In the Fin. to bite. . extremitas Bore. recovery bata. Fin. Bete.por. See Bower. . a responding forms . and E. Fl. margin. burin. BoracMo. &c. The ON. a booth or shed. bora. of an edge that will not bite. 1. to swell. and thence to eat build. puru. terebro. . The as G. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. swell bara. purra. Burke in R. yfirbdt. betan fyr. . bud. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. nor E. puru. And so in ON. dust. a wave. Du. chewed food for infants. to surge. a borer. Fin. byte points to the verb byta. . wave. 3. pi. to restore. bdra. borracha. reparation. fimbria. a sharp-pointed tooth. struere ignem. Another derivation from Fin. edge. . from deila and skipta. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. Alexand. Du. forare.. It. bauda.— Return from Parnassus I inR. a bothy. sawroot. bolino. bothan. and meta- Fr. welt. to profit. Gael. kvit-bara. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. to build buda. to mend. or the gradual working a hole in anything. cottage. a tusk. 266. repair. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Sp. sculpo 05\xiik. to boot. scsdes-bod. a shed. make . and parrets. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. terebra sculptoria purastoa. Border. drillen. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. Booth. to foam. baete. puras. Fr. Palsgr. Fin. boeye. making good again . the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. N. a great bur. a leather bag or bottle for wine. limbus. The Fin. to divide. on. bardure. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. piercer. purro. a bladder. a word. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. fire.. to patch. Gael. boede. purra. biorag. as afford a satisfactory explanation. a shop. rof. beute. dens mordens vel caninus. to pierce. Gael. A phorically a drunkard. p. ON. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. It. hem or gard of a garment. the . a borer . Booty. budowai. to repair. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. from borra. puras. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. See Burgeon. to bite. in Ihre. . in Lap. a border. lappolone. Mag. pu purro (saha =: saw . to importune. wine-skin. BOOTH vantage. which are probably from the same root.—Burin. an engraver's chisel. a cupboard. cellar. sharp. a shelter of branches. to The Sw. to bete the properly to mend the fire. and hence to fine. a granary . pointed. both. to quench one's thirst . furd. borracha. limbus.

tive idea seems to bring under cover. burh. and borough in the sense of a town. to knock or strike. Fr. borel.' or system of bail. from their grey clothing. The other. the sun sets. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. a pushing or striking out. bundle. borough-holder. into borsholder. blow on a hollow object. Russ. Botany.' if thou give money on loan. Sc. clownish. a knob. to strike so as to Bureau. Bailey. while Gael. It. rustic. basse. loan. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. the ordinary a swelling. bump. northern.any round sweUing. nonsense. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. f graauw. Hal. ^o^^flj. formerly used in the sense of knocking. byrig. ' — — . E. pitch. cnap. 106. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. secure. hollow bucklers. beorgan. to conceal. a. bos. or perhaps it may be See Bury. borh. Hence borhes ealdor. projection. boss of the side. (Bridel). — ' wind burya. to give a hollow bizo. The origin seems to be the Goth. grey). whether from the fact preserve G. Cot. by which of or belonging to plants. ' pledge. And that unsittynge is to here degre. butse. bussi. a wen. — — — A — . I. rude. Fr. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. the N. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. borealis. In like manner It. to keep. borough or chief constable. Bos a surety. . (1867). whence the burg. Goth. which now signifies a knob. useCanterbury. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. to take in. bergen. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. and thus could not shake off the old burr. Bunch. boss or knob of a buckler . bourg. a herb. . or head-borough. agrees with E. a bunch or hump. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. to save. to protect. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. of bail throughout the country. is probably radically Boss.' the chief of the ' borh. was origin of the term is the OFr. .86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. to pick or cull plants. bump is used in lump or piece. D. Lat.' every man be under bail.ribs and the side. burgess. boschen. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. a citizen. gesylle. brown cloth. that which biirge. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. borg. a boss.bucklers. or perhaps also To Borrow. boss. to become is emitted by a hollow body. to strike . an eminence. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. cnag signifies both a clergy. . tuft. connected. V. bosh. See found in Bav. empty. is used in the sense of bussare. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. vain.vr\. bussa coarse. gum vocant. to give bail or answer for an. borgo. Du. a tower. AS. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. a bouncing baby . Jam. /3oraMK6f. botch. Newbury. plain rude fellow. viipyoc. undyed wool of brown sheep. cormpted. a little blow. a boor. It. Gr. ^ma. G. the Sc. botse.' Vegetius in Diez. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. Borough. in the body struck. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. unpolished. Fr. to save. pegou. destitute. botch. The primi.mass. the North Wind. cob. the hollow between the Borsholder. busse. knur. bttssel. cnoc. less. the must have arisen burgensis. hollow. bierge. to contain. head. one who sticks to you like a bore. a surety. borei. borgese. poor. bosse. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. i. bosseu. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. plant. Jam. when that system was forgotten. from AS. knocking. primarily signifying coarse sound . AS. bossen. or because a blow berga. poor. bail biirgen. empty. Swiss Rom. Bosh. burel. a citizen. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . a giving rise to It. knob. bunch. Boreal. Lang. bourgeois. striking. boss. a city .. coarse cloth made of the Du. botsen. beorgan. surety. Du. to save Sw. boss sound. bos. as we speak of a thumping potato. &c. Altieri. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Turk. borg. in instead of without. Borowholder. tempest. butsen. storm. to protect. a blow. baurgs. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. knock and a knob . huschen. empty. without. Borrow. So Du. as if from the verb to hold. AS. boussi. pego. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. ON. bom. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. Hence knot.

• Bott. botel. Decorde. a root. boss. OSax. E. It. a bottle. . blain. pocciar. Fr. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . pother. H^cart. is boteau. buideal. Judwi. noise. — . boccia. bosser. botsen. a boil or swelling Halma. &c. butsen. what pushes outwards. Lith. the first rough draught 2. to dash about . From the dim. to make a make a noise. signify a in OE. Fl. to make better. a bubble. is also a bubble. Prov. a plague-boil Kil. shoes. Ancren Riwle. ambo. ON. to put on a patch. mend. for a bud. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. .foundation. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e.^Dec. a maggot. a cobbler. Bouds. w. a bott . Pl. bodem. we two. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. Fyre to botme. to podge. of botta. AS. — Bottom. a tinker schuhbiisser. mess. Canut. bouteille. abbi-diwij Slavon. a cesspool pass. a bundle of straw or hay. mess. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. ing out. Fl. stem or base. bots. a slop. to we have OHG. j3i/9os.— . kessel-biisser. To confuse with noise. See Butt. empty or hollow. podge. Diez. A horses. — — belly-worm. fundus. the other hand. whisper. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. N. — duj Lett. . bunch. House-bote. to mend (kettles. See Boss. hurly-burly. — Fl. botse. a pit. to rage. buts. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. we have Swiss batscken. i. Leg. Du. bSn.D. bot. repara- — — See To Bete. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. a cask. by met. . AS. was called a push. potra. buddeln. ledge It. any round ball or bowl to play withal. to give a sounding blow. . a bump or swelling. On — Du. botch. dim. an abyss or bottoniless pit. It. bozza. . boiteal. boil.ments of the same root. Again. or plague sore . It. Lith. any plain round viol glass bozzo. bundle. See To Bodge. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. On the other hand. btitse. ixorapudder. the bud of a flower . and E. poltern. boute. a slop. abbution. ' G. 212. Bochu. beggtaj Goth. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. a patch patschen.— Swift in R. abbi. a bottle. a lump of somebatschen. oba. Hal. a waterfall. Dan. blister. boden . bide. nets. an imperfect and bunbutt end. a vessel for holding liquids. mutter. to dip in liquid (to Gael. bulderen. the science or knowledge of plants. to fall : with a sound batsch. — . Mudu. bluster. To Botch. Parmesan poccia. Hal. e. to simmer. — Dief. boiteag. Kil.of a ball of thread. Wedu.' to the fiery Csedm. stock. Botcli. especially in Gael. botus. stump. buddl. baiothsj Sanscr. burgi vel pontis refectionem. See Bound. puddle. pimple. a bottle of hay. bethia. thing soft batsch. — — . Boa two. Stalder. bAdtr. Du. a wisp. stroke. contusion . however. bossu. a pit. knock. botola. Both. G. pozzanghera. butse. to knock. to stir and mix together. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. you two. from the dashing of water. Fr. Jtidu. Danneil. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. Gael. schuhbosser. a cess. Lat. to mend. bozza. to work without order or know. G. — — A 2. buazen. gipuozan. BOTCH understood). biissen. bottigUa. turmoil. Gael. both. as Fr. bile. botel foenn. ubhau. round lump. a humpback. putra. to stir and mix together . botte. abbu. ^kvBoQ. The Gr. bottom. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. gling piece of work. bun. A bottom depth. ON. gen. a. bulder. tumour. A — oba-dwaj Lat. Bouteille. a knock. a botcher of shoes. they two. Butu. Here the radical image seems a bubble. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. a pock.— Hal. bund. * To Bother. pozzo. I. blow. abyss. patch. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. bdsser. fire-bote. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Bottle. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. noise. AS. ba. to smack. ON. scuohbuzere. dial. corresponding to . disturbance. in the sense of mend the fire. Bret. Podge. botte. batschen. butwo. stock. as a push or windgaU. to froth as beer . whence the name ol pool to podge. disturbance to . and ajSvamg. the lowest part. to botch or patch. to from the root bot. bdt. maggots in barley. bativa. a bunch. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. . &c. — Jidwi. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a depth. to strike . to bcBta. dabble). boitean. botm.) . botn. botte. And so we speak of an eruption. Bailey.

bugan. p. A Langued. knock it sounds again. From Sw. to knock. Raynouard. contusi. — No i ausiratz parlar. limit. debodinare. winding. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Webster. bondir. Coxcomb. Boulderstone. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. — — Bight. The W. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. whence buj7isen. came home with his face all to-bounced. Pr. turn. bun. butina. Bough-pot.'— Charter of K. Fr. Sw. So It. bottom. march. bamsen. thumping.D. Halma. a boundary stone (men stone). geration.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. pimple Richards bothog. bouton. Bought. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bounbounejha. from AS. like bobbin. of thread. from bugan. See Bunch.xperience such sounds as the foregoing.' B.— Cot. by Bujns or Buns. Bough. jungen. To Bound. nave of a wheel bothel. 2. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. bend. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bumper. signifies a sliort thick mass. a stock. baby. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. ing. Bret. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. root (see Bottom). Bout. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. I assure you. strapping. . to spring. to turn. Brem.— Boundary. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. to make a loud noise. a large pebble. the bay of Benin. as a bout of fair or foul weather. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. from volgere. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Ni gacha cor bondir. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. Alpine Re- — gions. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. to thunder. or Bow-pot. bog. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. a bouncing apple. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. bodina. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Dan. volta. as that of E. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. boundina. a large stone rounded by the action of water.' round and round in similar circles. as a nosegay. bonna. a round body both. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . boujtce. Primarily to strike. in contrast to klappersten. Nor a centinel whistle. Fr. boriie. Q. in the absence of actual e. bone. Fr. see Boss. a bound. Bunche. — — leap. an occasion. Ducange. . The Bight of Benin. Pm. bons. signifying in nautical coil of rope. to knock at the door. dial. Wtb. its kind. Bowlder. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. frequently used in the same sense with bound. a blister. The branch of a tree. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Probably from the Celtic root bon. carpet. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. has hot. mcn-bomi. dial. bonzen. the verb bondir in OFr. tnndo. bullra. to spring. bugt. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. Mid. — Take care my house be handsome. a turn or time. gulf. bunsen. to resound. and Prov. . round. botwm. till The dat et bunsede. — strike. to set out by metes and bounds.— — — - 88 BOUGH . the larger kind of pebbles. ni frestelar. Bonny.>a bout. bunda. pothel. buUersten. jump. bolder. bend. nor horn sound. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. to bow. 3. ni motz brugir. To Boult. mere. iv. he fell so that it sounded. language a * Boulder. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . the hollow of a bay. the smaller ones. a button. E.. See To Bolt. bay. Bound. and F.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. to hum. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. Bodinare. 136. to fix limits. To Bounce. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan.— F. AS. a blow. a boss. bonndn. boh. a bud. And the new stools set out. to thundering big one hum. an de dor bunsen. Du. boss of a buckler. to set bounds.

shoulder-blade. steady. bordo. Gael. beogan. burreti. a sing-song. schulter-bug. verb bua. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. A water. buzzing of bees. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. sotich. bage. tinton. lance. buzz. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. to draw a deep breath. brausen. bugne. bwa. biugan. a. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. AS. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. spring. the ting of a bell. Goth. cheat. is. a. hous^ Man in the Moon.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Gael. burd. from spring. a prop. buys. buga. . the Bourdon. Chaucer in R. buizen. analogous to Fr. on the whole. bourdon. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. a humming noise Macleod. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. a jibe Shaw bururus. bugna. language of folly or ridicule. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. Comp. are applied to the bow of a ship. spelling the word iox bound. sense durd. bog. brummen. It is the participle past buinn. bommen. ready. or of an Gael. Dan. Dan. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. brunna. It is remarkable that we find vary. fresh* water. potio. . The foregoing derivation seems. purra. bug. the fixed. schenkelbug. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. to swell. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. . nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. Immediately from Fr. fun of one . The meaning of bound. . Du. buigen. bending. hence musical accompaniment. the burden of a song. addressed to. Gael. And there in mourning spend Sw. — — — A pare.. whence buysen. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. . crutch. to bow or incline the . ruption of bonne. identical with E. bonitas. joke. flagon. to take deep draughts. bovne. borne. bordone. Cot. bourdon. .which see. — probably through this latter signification. to take breath. firm. game. gurgling. their time -With "wailful tunes. g. to draw a deep breath. Prov. pared. ing. pusta. btiga. deceit. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. head Fr. Spenser in R. G. puff out. epaule du vaisseau. a — — . souf. jest. sausen.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. must be referred to the same root. to pre2. bogna. bourd. the shoulder of the vessel. Bow. A —Cot. bunaiteach. drink deep. . pot. limit. bausen. to take one in. to drink deep. Bound. drunken. a cup kroesen. repartee. bend.bass of a stringed instrument. So Sc. biegen. Sc. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. — — . When used alone it . belly out. Bourd. Fr. bourde in the same sense. sport. Burden. it is probable that the It. to mutter. different modification gives ON. to drink deep. a jibe. ready to pike or spear . a well. address. in Fr. burt. purlBav. a humming noise. trick. has also buirleadh. a corToward the garden. bending. Fr. grumble Sw. Burgeon. burlare. Du. bugna. Bourdon. Dan. Lat. that ON. to tope. bagna. and that probably from a Celtic root. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. bogr. to our bous. an arch. of the ON. a from Du. i. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . and not in the sense of curvature in general. Eown. to hum as a bee. Sw. bonus. pre. prepared for. pausen. bordon. bdgi. Fr. w. bontS. bend Sw. beygja. Swiss bausen. burn. bending of a joint knie-bug. drone of a bagpipe. kroes. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. saufen. bound. way ba7n. to bow. warbling. a drone or dor-bee. a bow. It. to tope W. springbiirn. Sw. Sp. burdan. the big end of a club. also the humming or ON. Gael. as was for. Gael. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. bogen. a pot. mockery. to banter or laugh at. when we speak of. Du. ridicule buirte. Cot. to tipple. Sw. a mill-post. curvature. like quaff. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. to bulge. good. G. Du. bogha. to indulge in his cups . bov. Dan. explaining Sw. Borden. on. staff. cudgel. to — Hal. Bourdon. It is bov. a brook. patesten. buyse. to trick. burdan. whether by sound or gesticulation. G. a go to. G. a for New York. bog. bue. set out. to hum. a drone of a bagpipe. Bounty. bow to shoot with. bugan. ^<7r«i?. taunt. Bret. As the Gael.

bouge. Fr. Hence. bossola. Pol. convex. ^o/a. utibur. knob From the former modification we have bolla. Sw. as in AS. box in both senses. bugyola. a hen-coop . Bohem. . swoUei) Lat. blister. a stud. buigen. a bundle. a box. bola. polla. belly. heafod bolla.. . bwr. . belly of a cask. a sleeping-room . buello. Lat. guestchamber . 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. pusspan. . The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. bulla in aqua. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. A Bulk. busskai. kupula. a pot. bugyni. globular body.\s. to stoop. * Bowels. ku^o. a knot. Gr.) to incline oneself . beuz. See MHO. to bubble up. bowel Box. biicken. AS. hollow place Fr. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. ^o«/«. Buckle. a parlour. G. PLD. iri'iaQ. budello. a ball. and to a coachbox in particular. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. kupukka. bouzellou. . . G. an inclosure. the crop of a bird. peated in Magy. globular. make obeisance. See Boil. . . representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . spring as water bugya. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bucka. ON.flask It. buckel. boss. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. then by the loss of the /. tumour . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. a bubble. give in to. bollen. a buck. Sanscr. busse. crooked. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. In like manner the Pol. with inversion of the round. compared with Fr. signified by forms like Gael. boil. hollow wooden case. &c. . a. swell. a ball. a black pudding. bocka. bending. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. . the box-tree It. koziel. See Crab. passing on stud. hiidel. water pulli. buk. beutel. round bead. bhugna. bulcken. a bubble Fin. . Fr. bog. Fr. the box-tree and articles made of it G. boudin. honse-bur. Cable. Bret.D. as in E.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. boucle. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. . ON. painter's easel. the barrel of a gun. boor. . w. to bend. Dan. a hump on the back rossbollen. . . bubble. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. Du. a thing of liquid. . bolgna. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. a separate apartment . bow. crown of a hat. cumena-bur. stream forth bugyogni. a little box . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. without the and grits. biiske. bwra. of a wooden ball to play with and — . . bowels. Sw. different position in ODu. . bogla. . a chamber swefnbur. to bow buck. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. buckelig gehen. to yield to one. kupu. bhuj. to stoop biickling. hill. OE. intrenchment. a box. ON. ttuJic. biichse. belly. a bubble bolli. to guggle. buis. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. ken. acsian. to puff up. a wardrobe . From the other form are G. bosso. bulb of an onion bolleyield. to puff up pullakka. to buckle G. boxtree. . bulk compared with Sw. sausage. bur.). or. the box-tree. Hal. wisp of straw . bog. The / a bow. bukke. bugy. bolle. similar shape. buxus. or in e. Thus we have Esthon. a ball . folliculus . tumour. budel. lump . Bower. E. head of a cabbage. bol. a box. botulus. gut. buga. bugyani. at the e. bur. a bubble. bug. ne. bulge. a wine-can . bolla. Sp. ask. bouellou. to bulge. box. the head. fyn. the bogna. puffy. W. the head. a sack.). The word may probably be identical with Fris. . a drop of pullistaa. biisse. an outhouse AS. spherical Dan. OFr. as well as the name of a. W. is applied to a coach-box. in both senses. A . dial. a croft by a house. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. bulne. to swell. trestle. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. fata-bur. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. Du. Boll. bolne. boel. AS. zich onder jemand under to him. a iDubble. round glass phial. Bret. to raise the back boll OHG. pullo. anything globular. convexity. Bav. pocket. .. bolla. a swelling or rising up. a boil. Dan. in walking appears in a . bock. to make crooked . boxtree pusska. inclinare se (Kil. prominence. bugna.cup Du. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. bubble. boss. a polla. bol. a protuberance. the skull or brainpan . globe or spherical body. buchsbaum. bent. . and on swollen. hollow. Du. to bend down. mausbollelein.a. bow. purse. It is more probably from the G. . kuppelo. a bud. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. a bowl. bulka. a round glass or bolg. bowl . bulla. Bowl. a box Lat. (in pass . Sw. a box.

to smack the hand batschen. mud. G. Fr. pupus. ON. confining. Brak-goed. a grown youth Cimbr. corruptse. the first instancebya physical tie. Du. s. Lett. . ing from a mixture of salt. to give a sounding blow defect. moral or physical. A to halt between two derivations. brec. spaniel. a comworld Rayn. priated to the original sense. wristband. braque. taneous talking. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. to want. Kil. The different meanings of the brageux." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall.. bray. dog that hunts by scent. bracke. G. his eyes are failing him). odorinsecus. a guard to torf. fault . mud. It. Prov. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. . brechen ihm. briche. the arm. as noticed under Box. a braceOFr. quarrel Bohem. which sigof straining. I sal slyng. To fight with the fists. thwack. Pr. Thus brack. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. need. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. is a rope holding G. which has many representatives in the other Europe. bouibo. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. wrack. Swiss Rom. want. an languages. youth. Ptg. beagle. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. Bracket.nated by dirt. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. bruxula. To brace is to draw together. dog Sw. brack. Boy. brae. suppuration. clay. loud smack. to give a gebrechen. Sp.D.with a noise. MHG. — . to box the ears. breach. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. brago. bracil. foul. brassard. Du. dirty. cramp-iron holding things together . compressing. disturb. brace on and Du. Hdcart. Lat. Fr. braco. bracha. — . Brack. ratch. brae. a boy pupa. brageuses.puddle. murmur. 91 the Dan. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. Water rendered boubo. to be wanting. salsus. AS. to stammer. boiste. bresta. armour for the arm. La ville ou y avait Brace. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. in R. rakki. bue. OFr. &c. brae. Swiss bub. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. and F. s. to fall. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. rakke. salo sive aqua marinS. a girl. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . brague. Swab. brack. fault. parallel with OK. buah. brabbelen. Pl. . bitch Du. or defect. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. breach. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. Gael. con. unmarried man . to burst. A brace probis. acidus. to stutter. Sp. braquet. and string of his bow. baske. to give a blow with the fists. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . lalear-eyed Prov. to crack. to is derived brestr. . brek. brae. ' — A — — — . a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Prov. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. brek. refuse. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. filth . breuque. Sp. ON. race. and then Pl. It is B. See Brake. — — . BOX To Box. Pm. a sounding blow. mud. brakke grund. flaw.— D. braco.. rack. Heligoneed. bracer. whelp as. posh. bracket. Prov. by an overflow of sea water. want. It.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. A — — . Kil. merely in our mode of considering them. to Swiss batschen. rakka. break. pube. . by the same inversion of J and k. a bog or pass Fr. boussole. bou^ba. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. . One girl. strike. Brackish. in R. braecke. jabber. a crack. To Brabble. Kil. Cot. let. Fr. defect. wnzC/J. bracon. variation of babble. to slap. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. a box. Prov. See Broker. defect. bask. It. V. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. OFr. breptati. a pair of braces. braic. Brach. land batsken. bube. matter. — . — . damaged board a ship. . Fr.. brechen. brakke Bracelet. flaw. baukscheht. isolated part of the text. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Bracelet. . root). brasselet. On the same principle from the buksteht. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. In like manner the It. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. a bubbling dura del mun. or bracer Cot. defect Du. ghebreck. fuse. bragos. pus. flap. OE. want.D. Rouchi Then as an adj. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. brostia. dog in general. — . bracco.. then from break. land spoilt Kil. from a root brak. Brack. boy bouba. . babble. braca. boy. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life .

— From W. the feathers ON. to rattle. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. Fris. and it is very likely that the root brak. bravo. brag. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. braka. strength. w. used in the sense of force. . A — Hal. excellent. The meanings included under — Bragget. Brail. — . the bridge or part of the breeches ing. to brail up a sail. to swagger. From sprouted corn. to stand upon terms. From brayel. crash ON. showy bravery. noisy ostentation. brave. fine. handsome. BRAG Piedm. braicli. goods. brazo. vain glory. . braga. Cot. subigere. brayete. bragaireachd. It is certain that the word for arm is. to boast of his own worth. Langued.^ Sp.—— . Bret. AS. Primarily to crack. Wallachian bratsou. brabhdair. cry. . &c. brag or jet it braguard. is identical with Gael. or by gaudy dress and show. vaunting. bravado j Fr. to Rouchi brMer. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). well-dressed. bragd. Dan. braka. to cord a bale of tie up.%. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. fine. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . breagh. bully . instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . Hecart. confining. . It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A .i5nz^. breghe. bragio.. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. braw. called by our braggard. Turk bazu are used in both senses. braggard also valiant. . From Fr. See Bray. Brake. Hence E. be found. Haldorsen Gael. beautiful. torture . to sprout malt. the opposite of which. smart. Sc. brave. boasting. be noisy . in order to prevent its catching the wind. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. It. brae. about the hawk's fundament. Dan. expensive. Bret. gay. an inclosure for cattle . to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. courageous. also insolenter se gerere . braske. braszketi. to strut. Thus we are brought to the OE. gayly dressed. — Equivalent forms are Gael. was formed brayele. breach. To Braid.Shepherd's Cal. to make a noise. brave. splendid. gallant (in apparel) also proud. breghen. fine. Fr. The meanings of brake are very numerous. bravache. brav.aburst. braver.. is Cot. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise.^Vocab. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. stout. also tion of this was brayeul. make a noise . and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. blusterer. slight modificajoining the two legs. ^Brave. . braies. de Vaud. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. Bray. a roisterer. Faire le brave. a noisy talkboasting. drawers. Walloon bress. hectoring. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. Thus Bret. braguer. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. braegenj Du. or from braie itself. Brain. brake in the sense of constraining. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. ative fellow. 92 Cot. . brabhdadh. braske. The plant y^r«. Chaucer. and that from e. as the type of exertion and strength. bravacherie. crack. Cot. To Brail. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. to shout. dhbrailler. swagger. Brake. gallant. brachittm. bushy .breeches. subduing. vanter une chose. bragging of his own valour. gorgeous. power. se pavaner. flaunting. breyne. Rom. — Chaucer. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . boast. compressing. stately. To Brag. h-avare and Fr. finery. se donner trop de licence. bragging. swaggerer. . Lat. proud. binding anything together. Fr. bra!. brao. empty pride. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. brake is. valiant The head are sumptuous. the arm. flaunt in fine clothes . to crack. brave. brag. an iron for holding Zalli.hy which this idea is con\eyed. in the sense of the Lat. Sp. idle talk. 2. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . to flaunt. would be to brace. braga. also derived Fr. braga. brave. spot. Cot. brails. se parer de beaux habits. bullying. a carriage for breaking in horses . i. Lith. to unbrace or let down the breeches. to boast or brag. affront. —Spenser in R. that will carry no coals. riches. in numerous dialects.explosion. crash. gay. — A — . in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. See Brace. Brag was then used brisk. fine.

with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. brook. de Vaud. to subdue. In like manner Lat. It. to brush. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. P&. gilum. casser le \va. gebroge. brage. a horse's a horse's twitch. to distinct. to break. or overthrow of trees by the wind.— . In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. properly braking or subduing them. a thicket. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. In the case of the ne. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. in northern climates. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. to knead or mix up in a mortar. been confounded with the verb break. brak is a frame in which strip. thing is brought under control. braca. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. or A A ' . is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. conSo in G. to break or fracture.' It. In the sense of a thicket. bregille.D. BRAKE to external force. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. thicket. Lat. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. to head must be bit. briser. Dan. brogille. to rub. in usus braca. Gr. as in Sp. Voc. have thus Du. We — . passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. Brake. game. It. brego. marsh. for — Due. to The ON. bruch. broeck. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. To the same bend a bow. Fr. brog or brake. to fracture. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. Dan. murrokko. 2. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. broor bushy place Hal. breuil. In ON. briers. brambles. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. tris). brega. — — . gebrUche. brog. Pl. brcekke. Swiss Rom. to pound.bracan. Brake. where from Esthon. frangere linum. brake. a swampy Mid. Biglotton. broken fratta. gebroge. to row. brushwood. breaking in the operation. braken. braka. a brace on board a ship. any thicket of brakes. signifying to sweep. brage. watered. as well as in the case of the e. bush. and Lat. a fen. braquer un canon. to harrow (Lat. gebiisch. glebas subigere. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. tnurdma. dial. bregar. Fr. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). OFr. and when once thrown down. it is not surprising that the word has here. quarry from Fin. braecken het vlasch. Gael. flachs brechen. bregar brake. gebrUche. —Ovid. brambles. bush. cover G. G. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. 3. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. ing of flax or hemp. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. referred brake. braeken. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. as in the case of horse-breaking. the original meaning of G. break of such a kind. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. el arco. to bray in a mortar. Fr. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. to bend or direct a cannon. is formed murd. e. or a wood in a marshy place . skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. Prov. the lever by which the string was drawn up. a harrow.. . farinam in mortario subigere. to exert force in different ways. ^raca. low wet land bruch.D. broilium. a spinning-wheel. subigere. brook. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. to break. — Fl. murran. cetur. Sp. marsh or swamp. break flax PLD. a stream. copse-wood. pasture. brook. as in Du. word. —Bracken. brolium. to bend a bow. Dan. brog above mentioned. bredza. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. The Fr. might come to signify a swamp. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. bushes. broillet. t° moisten. It may be sus- . murtaa. brake. iSpsx". difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . gebroge. is braukti. a marsh. fratto. to stiffen against Taboada). riguus. nemus. Corrfeze bredgea. broyer. broil. and G. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses.

It. bruch. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brushwood. thicket of brambles Cot. brein. from gaggi. Bret. brandiiialil. bren. a bridle or bit .G. broust. bromboli. brejo. brank. or other plants of a like nature. But we find It. to gripe. . Pl. heath. from brug. bracken or fern .. Dan. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. apiece orbitbrandone. G.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. broom. heath. Rouchi bren d'orMe. branco. That beareth the red hepe. that is to say. titio. gebriiche. nasty. bruk. Fr. G. wood composed of twigs. to brank. AS. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. pfriemen. in the sense oi fern. — . pected that brake. a firebrand. constrain. Fr. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. thorns and Gen. Bret.). in the same sense. prufye. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. breanan. pfriem in the sense of an awl. or with It. . In like hrst. branchia. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. G. brake. —Ducange. heath. Diez. &c. . broem. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. heath. Brank. a roA. brancas. sawdust. a single plant of heath. brandello. or ling. brugek. the thorn apple or stramonium. braeme. sedge burkni. hallier. brin d. Pl. bramble Du. bushes. to -brugen. w. piecemeal brindelles. Brancare." The bmno a • on . It. brin. bronbo. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. . young twig {brom-beisser. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. brang. ground full of briers. broembel-CBppel. piece of anything. is the draff or excrement of the com. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. Fr. ordure . brom. excrement. a halter. a small deri\'ation . brandr. stink . bren. a bud. bruch. i. Thus we have w. virgultum. clutch. from Lat. a bud. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. bit by bit. . Thus in Lat. restrain. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. a vine twig Bav. what is cast out as worthless. brwnt. a shrub . breun. breme j Sw. As ON. bro7n. Bramble.D. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. the bull-finch. 1 8. as. a rod or twig. as AS. Brand. Sir Topaz. Bav. Branch. bruk. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du.D. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. So Swiss gaggi. brughera. a burning fragment of wood. brenn. a thick bush. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . bran. brambles. heath ON. berneux. Bran. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. brarn. brog. ear-wax mud. Thornas and bremelas. Gael. from Servian pnit. may be so called in analogy with Bret. Then by comparison with claws or arms. sweet broom. Bret. bruskoad. Broom. bretnel. brass. to or iron. Port. brosst. brouskoad. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. heath (Bret. Piedm. See Brush. and waste growths. cabbage sprouts Fl. burning brennen. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brous. brenda. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. broccoli. a bud It. and thence a shoot. w. a shoot. Grisons bruch. chaff. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . brano. brin (as It brano). briars. — branca. compress. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. to burn. Gael. from brand. the branch of a tree. brem. broussaille. snotty . A mark made by burning. . brandmurk. bran. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. . E. branche. It will be found that shrubs. brank. a shrub from Bret. to bridle. 2. cack. Bret. . dirt . gebroge. Serv. a heath. iii. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. also a marshy low ground or fen . Russ. brug. brug). a shoot or twig. young buisson fort epais. brenn hesken. it glitters — — . from virga. braam. a briery plot. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. sprouts. G. brok. Fr. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. brand. brenna. pfropf. a dunghill. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. The same form becomes in It. &c. The naof strain. bruk. also pfriemkraut. . all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. broom. and E.

to French brawl or brangle. a roaring fire. crackle. noise. to blaze. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. gebrannter wein. to make display . Bailey. in Marsh. incendium. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. was in use Fr. to bicker 2nd. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. the spelling to kindle. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. to brandle. crackle. to sound of the Fr. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. totter. briiler. to glisten or flash. to shake. bracea. Braser. De Goes. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. conbillet. before the discovery of America in the brandir. N. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. G. e. plained by Florio. So. apparently very distinct from each other. It. aqua ardens. brascct. brush. hoisting to the fall. Chron. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. bracia. Sw. brennen. Ija. perplex. G. Fr. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. to solder iron. brin. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. brangle or brawl in E. Sw. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. all. brandende wijn. Hume in brand in ON. Thus the bound up again. — . to burn. a pan of hot coals. to totter. from to vociferate. Fr. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. stake. to and fro in the hand. brandiller. as again by well as the blade of a sword. To brand. live coals. Brasil. Kil. Fr. brausen.. flagrans. make an outcry. bransella. bragale\ wood. to Bailey. Manx bransey.pan of coals. not. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. given to the country. the colour than hitherto known. firebrand. as Fr. to shake. to quarrel. weinbrenner. brasil. Du. Gris. to roar.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. to brangle. to burn. n. fire-wood. Fl. branler. firewood. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. braise. became ashes Pied. and branchis shaiand D. brouir. as Jamieson explains it. ist. a stick. E. Chron. morsel. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. brazil. The tre brangillis. braser. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. Jam. d'Angl. bruire.well. The name Brandy. distilled wine. bransle. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. branler. bruciare. bresil. bra?ier. embraser. Brase. make a — . prasseln. set on fire. Port. forms brasil. AS. Bret. to shog. to distil . Fr. brasa. put. billet. brasa. ish. It. With top trimbling. 59. to hurl with great force. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. then brandr. In the same way the set on fire . The corresponding form in Gael. Guill. brasca. eldibrandr. so. du Roi et laine. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. splinter. to burn. — . brandolare is exbrandish. to brandle or The It. brane-wood. bragia. is bntan. shake. to rustle. bum. bryne. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. Milan. Formerly brandy-wine. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. to brustle. brazeiro. to confuse. To brase AS. Lye. to shake The word brisil. — ting to confusion. from used in dyeing cloths. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. V. WaUon. a brusler. glowing embers . branla. Brangle.^Brandle. faire fracas. braza. — . urens. a fragment. hot Fr. and scold. a round dance. brastlian. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. brandiller. De Barros considers vinum ardens. brustle. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. comes from thence. brandigh. braise or hot coals. to crackle . bruan. a To Brandish. brand. Fr. to braze or lute. or in stick. to dash. braise. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. to make sense of a bright red dye. to make shine with shaking. bruzi. It. brus^. brasca. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. E. Diez. to murmur. and bruir. spirit distilled from wine.

Gael. Lorraine bravon. ni autres choses sur Due. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. brett. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. bronzacchiare. Sp. bmhon for brado7i. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Cot. braede. a mantle. braiio. OFr. bralle. —-Jam. Westphal. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. tasce. It. brettys. neita girl). bruir. frequentative of braire.— Diez. See Brandish. pan- — Rayn. to carbonado. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. breyon de kinds of . 1224. bartisan. A. Fr. to solder. flesh of a leg of pork. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). Sc. braeye. or on the top of a wall. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. brdto (ace. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. Pisana in Mur. Mundart. especially that used in the working of iron . Cologne broden. a wooden tower. a contemptuous name for a young child. A dispute or squabble. discord. to tear piecemeal.— Braid. a. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Cot. brandillo. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. bretays). equivalent to the Du. a contempt- banner. the buttocks. bradlete. Certainly a little girl. a rag. Kil. Dan. muscular parts of the body. brass. The muscular part of the body. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. For the application to a^child compare Bret. branle. a cloak. a rag . bronzare. See Bray. a — A from the confused noise.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. in the first instance of boards. a lump. —^Bronze. Math. Brawn. &c.— Remade. to scold . brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. frame of laths. braodhlach. rag. bratidone. bronze.' Hal. Du. le repasser un peu sur la braise. boarding being sbranare. W. Brass. Swiss bradle. Wall. Circumeunt cibertesca. A land of dance. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. to talk at bralle op. a lath.— Fl. coassatio. bras. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. as lattice. bribe de viande. braion. OFr. ' A vraale.96 Roquefort. slibro. or whether it be from Fr. cloth. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant.propugnaculum. a slabbering-bib. to Gael. ON. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. noise. Fr. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. — Deutsch. Fr. fraiche. Betrax of a —^Jam. G. baltresca. solder. braon. breyon d'chaur. as rashers upon quick burning coals. bartising. bratach. Pm. strepitus 2. is The word — uous name for a woman. breteque. bradon. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. 2. ^Altieri. braoilich. P1. It. Bartizan. Fris. a patch of cloth. at brasa. 368. as a brawling brook. Paris. then a parapet. saillies. trul.brettysing. Brat. and bronzo. — . a clout. slut. KiL Prov. slakker-bortchen. a lump of flesh. Brave. bred. brat. Florio. brces. cob. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. The verb is probably derived from the brase. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. brazen. a Lap. The same correspondence is seen between It. braser Fargent. calf of the leg. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house.walle — Pr. bran. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. as criailler of crier. Bailey. bratdn). berd.D. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. esbraotier. borderinge. a plank or board. Sup. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. ship. pil. . OHG. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a parapet. to cry. roar. Hist. burning coals. whether contracted from brabble. from branler. to copper. bretesque. ferruminare. Brattice. any piece. AS. a rag . contignatio. So also See Brag. luncheon. 1156.' BRASS BRAY et AS. bransle. from Fr. as scrawl from scrabble. a lump of flesh. the calf of the leg. bretesche.D. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques.D. I. to braze. A. slibro {neita. apron. Many gambes. deblaterare. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. bas morceau de viande brawhng. Brangle. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. breyon. a battle-girdle. a loud noise. boutures. squall. Brawl. calf of the leg. Jam. It . was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. bratid calf of the leg. brat. to shake. from Sc. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . a fortification. brailler. lat'te. brat. buttock Sc.^ — Sverris Saga.

a wink. father. roar. to resemble. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. plait. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. Cat. will. to sound very loud and very harshly. Breach. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. braire. to break. as OE. The ON. . Goth. brot. brand. See Brake. a brack. Fr. W. — . ser. to bellow.ear rog. . make a disturbance. brechen. crepo and E. brage. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. explaining a very obscure application of the E. Lat. mos. to roar as the sea. ^p&xia. bruire. to cry out. braea.ch. the sound — of arms. Fr. to crash. to The cup was uncoverid. to rub Fr. 2. starts crackling up. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. bragd — ON. with or without a final d. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. Beryn. to work up in a mortar.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. bray. the miller's dog. Prov. and frangere. Bret. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. resound . and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. crash. brice. bratsche. abraid. to bray in a mortar. bragr. to tear Bret.y. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. braidir. R. yell. augnabragd. iU-favouredly — in Jam. From the or brack in a wall. Swiss bratschig. to rush. broyer. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. brak. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. to snatch. breuan. noise . Then. imitate or resemble one. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. a breach Cot. at a braid. — — — explained motus loud noise.' To Bray. To rub or grind down Sp.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. kind. ing. to scold. and fracasously. Cot. gestus. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. &c. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. bregar. And with a traid I tumyt me about. as the notion of turning crack. is . to braid the hair. to bawl. to t. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. to braid. a rent. to break. D. F. rattle. k. rangere. a crash. the sword was out break. G. fish. which has given much trouble to commentators. at braga eftir euium. The same He might don us both a villany. braa. The Lat. upbraid. or wound. at once. braidar. &c. to start.g. to cry Port. yell. a mill. soft . To Break. twist. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. and to signify the fracture itself. bruzir. fragor. I'll live and die a maid. to roar. brugier. Du. Ppvxia. Fin. bragd is also applied nets. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. . riAprjyvvfu. a rag f . to resemble him. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. as the voice of the ass. disturbance. Wal. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to crash. &c. to rumble. And at a braid he gun it bende. to knead. 7 . roar. Prov.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. breche. Q. to pretend. fractus j Gr. to the seijauntes. ON. Bailey. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. G. father. brikan. verb to break. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. rustle. cyprinus latus. appearance Hal. braa. braid. Chaucer.^ Fr. brame. to bray like an ass. a brake for hemp or flax. to break Fr. ybrayid. and make a hideous noise. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. Dunbar braessem. paxog. OE. V. instantane. in Jam. Chaucer. crackle . crash. Then is simply. a . turn. bregda. 145. broad. ON. weave The ON. — koa. to cry out. AS. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. e. V. to braid acquires the sense of bend. Bread. or cry out loudly . to N.fracas. relation is seen between Lat. &c. bru. D. D. to break. baiyl.. Bread. paste or dough. rogi. to roar or bellow. to smack or the eye. on. to braid. E. to have the lineaments of one's ON. bregar. breach. R. vapna-brak. regi. bradar. i. Gr. brak. to resemble. V. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen.

to burst. brijselen. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. brisciare. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. a gadfly. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. breath. to break. to crackle. a box. — — strument for smacking. . Piedm. brisoler. braies. rubbish. to be misty and cold. burst. Briss and buttons. de Vaud. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . brison. Gael./ssus. a twitch for a horse. brossi!. rubbish. as in the case of twitter. to simmer. G. from ligare. cloven. chilly. to smack. to murmur.). We bragezj on. Breeches. Originally probably the word signified steam. a girdle. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. also to chill and shiver with cold. a cramp-iron for holding things together. briiz. Fr. brodel. brciz. braies. — Brist. Dan. G. may be from the wurh fesser. breost. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. bruzun. bruzir. brist. Breath. fastening . Fris. . subligaculum. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. brdtschen. &c. braich. siibligar. to roast. noise. Dtyden. — See Broth. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. binding. einem de britze geven. and other rubbish dibris. bresilles. murmur. morsel. are in like manner ' . Brize. peitschen. breme. to brew. to fry . break. bris. as the G. — And blood. Bret. Gl. braca. breinse.britschen. britze. brcEth. to brew. bretilles. Sw. trembling. Prov. Biglotton. bryi^ga. Gl. little bits of wood Berri briser. as. instead of being derived from 'La. grill. brissle. to fry Then from a Gl. body brostia. Russ. grillare. corresponding to G. singing bone. G. representing the sound of a blow. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise.D. broden. AS. bre- I'os qui bresole. with It. brodem.'— Gl. brugga. . brasiare. braux. of trees. i5r(Z^. Du. Bracha. Breeze. Bruise. brimme. bruise. braia J OFr. bris. braucn. and E. fail. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. brimsa. in Schilter. breson. scent. griller. The Teutonic verbs. See Brick. E. to bray. Fr. . Breeze. briosa. braca. murmur—Vocab. bra. bratscher. . their stings draw . — Halma. a cool wind. brezza. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. a crum. brisd. Prov. the bust. to rattle (as hail). sprouted corn. applied to shivering. brijsen. de bridse geveii. /esses. w. one on the breech so that (klatschet).t. as. So ON. Rom. to buzz. are related to Prov. a smack. Du. the soler. an odour. coaldust. to feize or feaze. brew. a cold and windy mist or frost . which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. brumtnen. so AS. brise. to shiver for cold. from AS. AS. Bret.vare. trusts.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. briste. Du. bridsen. dial. —Briss. the dry spines of furze broken off. The Breech (Prov. OFr. brosame. of straining. bragues. drawers. Du. malt. brinisa. Hume in Jam. G. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. brezzare. vapour. brasser. simmer. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. Lat. braga. brache. Swiss AS. brustia. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. broil. Breast. forms analogous to E. remains of leaves. Gael. then to broil. braga. briosa. To Brew. Hence the Lat. simmering. polenta. breeze. brcekur j It. briig. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. point to G. broiiwen. Breeze. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Fr. bark Fr. G. met de bridse slaan. It. briosat'. bruc. G^nev. QNtsterviald) pritschen. to crush to break. bris de charbon. Dev. braie. chillness or shivering. broza. Swiss brdtsch. Compare OE. Piedm. windy withal. to breech. PI. to bind. braguier. Swiss Rom. the breech or buttocks.98 borst. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. as commonly explained. zare. Goth. bremse. switch. forms. bracecs . brasiuiii. Lat. brire. xyligogio castigare. b}-as. crush. of E. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. but more probably the E. to whip. properly to crackle. E. sheep's droppings bruss. fitzen. a crum Du. Isidore and Tatian. and brought beneath between the legs. or the blow itself. an into shiver. — . brezling. brok. grillen. from brace. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. clout for a child. brusc. bandage or truss for a rupture. as by the Sc. to resound. a to lay fly-flap. orts. braciarc. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. brut. — . malt. to hum. . a horse's twitch.

to break. the newly. grug. imprint. Du. of burial. a heath brughera. and berweddu. a wedding priod-fab. from the last 99 of which. buskins. betonica. to press in. Brigade. guma. bara briw. boiling up brocoliere. OHG. a crum. Mid. brakes of high-grown ferns. lipdZu}. a married man or woman Lat. Pol. whence berw. ibrukkti. brigata. is still used in this sense. . brughiera. a lump of bread. betony brulicame. So It. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. Flor. G^n^v. stone-bridge bnikkoti. barren land priodas. thick appropriated. Fl. and that from It. brigantine. brasser. w. brique de pain. Neumann. Walach. to appropriate. the marriage si in brigata. bryd-eale.rough with brambles and bushes. . ON. jipaaaiii. from Bridegroom. Priodi. Rouchi brife. to meet together. Pro(merch=:maid). would correspond in like manner to the Fr. a bride. birbone. sponsa. a fragment. E. Due. a crum. . A bribe is A — — arval. brau. AS. bruk.bergantino. breve or brevis. ' . a proprietor. Fr. .Fr. hlafes brice. funeral. pavement. E. E. The origin of the word is the w. to rub. Thom. two-masted vessel. Brief. a fragment. a man. to Isrew. Hdcart. brocaly. to boil. or brizo.groom. to beg one's bread. to boil. graf-ol. Brier. bro is applied not only to a bridge. brood. bulicame. a briole. . Bridal. it is applied to the letter to OE. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. bro. twopares Lat. a sow. bruyere. briicke.. pavement Lith. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. with transposition of the r. feast. priod-ferch. a lump of bread. which however is undoubtedly from brace. OSw.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. AS. berwedd. from bit. a quoit of stone. Ducange. Bridle. to brew. to tlie brico. bridge. berwi. buckler J ON. brittil. daughheath. owned also propriate. . a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. W. arf-ol. pavement brolegge. Brique. — .It. A — A — . ter-in-law. nurus G. briwo. Fr. bricou. Lat. bribour. bitill. brice. a heath. Brick. E. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. pier. from the Normans. brutg. to break to pieces bricalio. ' — . fastningar-ol. Ihre. Diefenbach com. peculiar. remarkable that the Gr. bruith. The Sw.privatus. to prepare. to stamp. brygga. bruk. Gl. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. Bribe. but to a paved road. a married man guma. a bride Brig. Bridge. bryd-gutna. especially to a letter or command. It. a boiling. but probably Bricoteau. fervere. — — — — — — . BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. a little king's writs. from Bret. AS. bruarium. a Bride. malt. bricge j G. a beggar. Applied ous words derived from break. brug. piece of burnt clay. briw. to boil. as so. bribe de pain. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. bruskr and buskr. as. Cot. troop. bridelj OHG. Fr. the Fr. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . married. Gael. broken victuals. to pave. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. fragment. brilt. BRIGADE dead. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. broosekens. AS. . In the patois of briccia. ap. a rogue . collect bits of food. . brere. masted vessel. appropriate. Gael. a bit. fraoch. In E. corresponding or letter. AS. consort with. sugga. crew. feast of espousals. division of an army. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . groom (mab=:son). served (Patois de Bray). Goth. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. brieden. bidsel. and ODu. briiths. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. bo. fit. bygga. bro. gf2o. bably contracted from brigantine. Dan. If the foregoing were not so clear. brukkas. Lang. birbante. brahi. It — is Kil. AS. in the sense of OSw. — .pritil . brigade. bread. Grisons bruch. to circulate. beaten way Dan. the equivalent of to the dial. broken bread. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat.gfiugga. broken. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. a bush. to pave brukkti. a rogue. braut. Hence OE. jetty. malt. brar. frayer. Bridal. Diez. So in The Prov. In the G. one's ovin. privus. a brig or priodor. See Broth. any jot or crum. Trovarfor bride-ale. ment of anything broken. then the marriage itself. Brewis. conjux. brA. son. bride. a lump of bread briber. has briguer. a cheat. priod. It. company. to press. bretonica. httle bit. . bride. Sp. heath.

bracht. See Brake. They or brigantini. and the E. a spark. Gr. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. squamma . A strepere. jurgia. . moment. willata. loo BRIGAND lor. Mid. Flor. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. — Due. pugna. glbram. brak. outcry.glampa.clare ^tinniens. a pirate. — Probably then to strive. 1654. brdgen. brigant.shine. combat. The Ir. glitter. clear. AS. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. glamra.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. to bend a bow It. and led it away. to shine. Swab. the grew high. — Beowulf. —Capgrave. brcEhtin. bray. and to associate with them. then. brigare. clangour. brigan. splendour. and ner me hit iherde. and hence be explained glampi. splendens . So G. bragen. to shift for with care. to sound. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . OHG. schiteren. glamm. rixa. — A A . to cry 'Schmid OE. clare lucens. biartr. It. rover either by sea or land. the bench-notes resounded. Brigata.pracht. — Brigantine. clear sound. brigare.' The sense of strife or combat express. is easily understood. clear. noise. to rove. himself to serve men of merit. speech. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. briga. It. on his — own account. clear. the gleeman's song. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. splendour.dorem clarum reflecto. with respect either to sound or colour. Brilliant. to strive for. The primary meaning of Sp. praht. Gall. kii:'a. tumult. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. there are many armour. a noise. transparent. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. glir. clang. dine. necessary business. to rob. hell. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. to glitter. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. in the sense of a robber. and diligence. A. to ring. — brigante. Due. sound. bregar. beorht. Owl and beorhtian.' torum. that of Fr. Schmeller. strife. brawl. show the origin of Lat. may play the pirate or thief at sea. and. to shine. — Briganbriga. Lat.' in Due. etincelle. and secondly. — brigante. In Fin. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. Bav. to cry. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. dine. XafXTTpoQ. at a later period. Brigand. clarus. a brigantine. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. bright bearhtm. to piracy. from hall. schateren. braid. Bright. — — . Beorktode bene sweg. riis ' — Chron.— . to resound. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. shriek with laughter. tion. Florio. 312. tinnitus. brebrigare. wilella. It. Goth. labour. lay was sung. also called briganders. Xa/iTTii). Adelung. to make a loud noise. 1351. bairhts. briegen. \oice. manifest ON. splcnornd de brigandine. .' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. a sound. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. seems to be to exert force gar el area.Lat. a glittering. Heo — song That AS. malandrini. secondarily. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. From ON. in later times a robber or highway-man. The E. Wilista. Du. to contend with another. and. cange has 'Veles. twinkling. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. to reservavit. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . tinkle. kilistua. briga. inde squammatus. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. a small light pinnace pro. It. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . bryhtm. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands.' The passage from the sense of a light. tuilahtaa. In the same way to strive is. in the first instance. to glamr. tinnitum clarum movco. representing a sudden noise. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound.D. brigandare.

). crackle.D. griller). breziller. brim Magy. and corresponding to these. 754. brinfire. lip of a vessel. bremmen. a rod. have then in Fr. a streak. leonum). griller. shine. the singing of Sodom — — . to shine. bramar. Sc. border. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). the edge. to twinkle. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. Rugere.' Elyot in Way. brummen : de soge brummet. reecho. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. Sw. tience. bramire. an apron. to roar. — — — . Swiss Rom. It. edge Pol. hence the bosom. It. broil . In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil.) brimi. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. to crackle. Brim. excited. briller. furious. Said of swine when in heat. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. brame. brissle. striped or streaked. which seems identical with rim. dial. der. brant. ring. brand-krossottr. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. to glitter. noise made by meat in broiling. to shine. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. is used of raging. — . gresiller. to shine. whence bilbil-goda (literally. grdzil. os qui bresole. . ON. : ' — bone). clangor tinniens. to . the heat of animals. A . grisler. and 1. brumft. vigorHal. Wtb. small gravel. The identity of ON. ON. ON. bresoler (Gloss.ioTiviS acutus. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. broiled. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. to broil. a border. spraing. border. fire. Brindled. bry7ie. parched. 154. kimmaltaa. crackle . que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. of the eye. brisoler. burning stone. rugire (cervorum. on. (poet. perent. brunft. G. briller. to make a crackling noise. a stick. with an initial br instead of gr. surface of the ocean. breme. earnestly . rut. brimmen. burning. In the same way Sw. rugire. kimina. Hence with an initial s. 1. — — So Fr. fringe (Lat. grisser. brame. to make bilbil). barm-cloth or barmskin. Du. greDiet. border. the meaning is transL' amour. . kimista. as of meat in broiling . Supp. gresiller. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. bremas. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. a borDu. as is the case also with Pl. fierce. s. bramer. the sow is brimming. also to reflect. The E. — Rim. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. to sparkle. The meaning of the Fr. to sound deep or hollow. to creak. to utter cries. to storm. Closely connected is OE. kommata. 1 1 64. brdnnsten. komottaa. to crackle. Rayn. Brimstone. vattubryn. voux. Lith. from brandr. Tresiller. sonitum edere bremen. brezil. Sc. Brem. the lap or bosom.— BRIM . Fr. brim. bar. lap of a garment . the verbs Flor. to glitter distance . from bringe. bryn. Thus Lat. bramar. brmdottr. Prov. that the original meaning of the Sc. brommen. as in Langued. Fl. lap. brullo. kiimottaa. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. briller (related to each other as OFr. frequently interchange. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. post. a long. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. To Brim. Subo. Streaked. brastlian. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. coloured in stripes. brama. Dief.its vent in cries and roaring. to glitter . to burn. brummen. originally the lap folding over the breast. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. brillare. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. ling noise and a sparkling light. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris.— Brinded. breziller. brennistein. komista. Kil. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. bray as an ass bramire. ter. to fret . Tutschek. E. to roar. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. to creak. bremmen. to quaver with the voice. margin. beam. grullo. AS. chime). barmr. or violent action. s. to resound. AS. Langtoft. whether of desire or anger. FJ. breme. fringe . ardere desiderio. to long for a thing. kajata. . sparkle. finds the Fr. sprainged. cross-barred in colour. the heat of animals. barm. brow of a hill. griller d'impatience. glit.preni. the eye-brow. to wish or covet. In Fr. It. to parch. as well as bl and gl. The expression is now confined to the sow.' d'etre marie . to shake. pMiller. greedily to covet Cot. to shimmer. rym^. Dan. ous. identical with passion. fimbria) . brandr and Fr. glisten. — g.

humorous. very salt brimi. Port. against the grain . broca. bruched (Fr. Swiss to stand out . is to erect the hair. reburrus. fierce. — bryme.). bricho (with the diminutives. G. to shiver for Sold or for fear. — in Due.Lat. a brooch. fiscbryne. brittle. roar of the sea saltr. a morsel. bristly . originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. p. as a noun. or the full • . borstel. grim. to scorch. the surf. Alfr. metaphorically. sprocco. sour. to roar. Gl. broc. to begin upon it. rebrousser. a brad or tack. fantas'* tical. Formerly written brotil. . an awl. a stormy brimsea . Brisk. thick — A elastic hair. setting the hair on end compare It. to break. . to stab Gael. the twigs of a besom. Brym. a bit . It. strong itself. brot. Brine. borzos (struppig). . angry.rcendij'i. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. spur. bryne. has under It. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Russ. Prov. quick. brichet. to crack. It. See Spread. broccare. broche. Walach. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Salte sand is called brimsand. apt to break. Du. bruskett. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. brocco. Hence ribrezzare. to set it a going. form bris. a slip or sprig of an herb . to burn. to stitch. stitch. Brooch. — . Du. Commonly explained as from Fr. brissle. aculeus. are used in the sense of brittle. brddj Goth. Boh. Sp. to set up one's birse. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. brissko). emotions which produce it. brandello. brusque. breidr. of astonishment. birsle.. breaking of the waves brim sior. brog. a bud. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Gr. to thrust. bros. See To Brim. brocar. a bud.'— Vita'abbatum S. brezza. Bohem. setting the hair on end. to birstle. like the Broad. . and Sc.). brocciare. harsh vin brusque. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. to break. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. the surf. Pectusculum. Fr. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. startling. broccata. briota.D. Berri. Fr. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. brust. Lat. to turn up the point of anything. ' breast. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. trembling. bruckle. a skewer. hot-tempered. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Prov. flame. Abroacli. a fragment. brim. and hence. Fr. a belly. a shoot or sprig. Mid. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. In the N. or — . Palsgr. briser. brim (poet. breaking out into growth. — A . Zeuss. borst. Brittle. as. brich. Fr. briota. brim. — — . ON. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. to shoot. brcit. to spit. Hal. brimme. Brickie. to break. brusk. sticking up . a rebours. 'V^. from brande. Compare also E. bringe. to spur. Brisket. as. sharp. i. the brisket or . byrst. briocho. is called a birssy day. bronchus. brimhliod. It. man's throat. brickie. from AS. Liquamen vel garum. britar. brocher. brocchus. to bud. fragile. . brin. bringe traced through the brano. Cot. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. flames. britchet. to spur. breast. brindelles de balai. to broil.procio. brocco. . whence may be explained the Sc. a peg sbrocco. ribrezzoso. Fris. sprouts. a morsel . brisciare. craw of a bird. brijn (Kil. braidsj ON. The Pl. Bristle. brisk in taste. eager. a spit. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. rash. sprout. Sw. prick with Sw. a rod or twig. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. and. bros. brote. Dan. brusco. a deluge. 222. borzen. chest. rebursiis. Bret. a button broche. brodden. brime.' Nat. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). bresk. coli. brioshko. Fr. a clasp. rude. saulmeure. Sc. brittle. shoot. ruffling. birssy. b.g. to goad. Antiq. a stitch brocher. expression. lively. See Brand. wine of a sharp. birstle. birse. smart taste. birs. from break. britar. Prov. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. crabbed. to put one in a rage . to broach a business. as. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. Breeze been connected with the Sc. Brocade.. and forms on. of E. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Then as the effect of shivering. as unripe fruits. a projecting tooth It. a cold and windy mist or frost. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. /3pE^m. bryde. cK) the . brytan. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Da. NE. Bret. brezzare. e. brockle. Russ. suddenly angry. Ptg. spricka. a crum. ' . Sc. Fr. It. broca. to stick. bringue.

broder. spots. The ON. parched. grislement. thread. ciare. bram. b?-od. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. tufted ornaments. Cot. Gael. birsle. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance.. broc. — . point to an origin in Bret. AS. bustling. gold and silver. a border ornamented with gold. embroidery. hart of two years old. the line of development has been something different. W. Dan. or It. broiled. — — . to embroider. broil. brasiller. brouFr. to spur. an edge. agree in being the extremity of a thing. broice. here. to streaked or speckled in the face. and w. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. briefh. speckled. border ornamented with silk. a mole. Compare also AS. precisely analogous to the Sc. prod. Compare G. R. silkes-borda. A fried or boiled steaks). Fr. broukit. bmsciare. bordo. brizen. to On the other hand the Sp. atoms . freckled. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. scorch. a brouhaha.— B. to burn. broighlich. ornamented with a raised pile. brustle. briz. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). froco. border. hurly-burlies. broc. broccato was used to signify stuff . Ptg. brasbrasciuolare. knobby . From direct imitation of Brock. parch. brocart. houx. a peg. It. — Gower in It. to broil. spotted. borprick. stump. So from Pol. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. noisy. and AS. or roast on the braise. the shoot of corn. brerd. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. 103 embroidered. forming to jumble. brucilare. to instigate. Here to ornament with needle-work. tumult broighleach. broccuto. v. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. from the white. to stud broccoso. The Bret. a border. streaked. . somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. brasolare. to boss. Sc. whence broccare. . a quarrel. Sc. to crackle. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. rustle. sparks E. to prick. a flock or Gael. bordar. a To Broil. creak. to scorch. brychau. a confused streaked face of the animal. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. Gael. It of br the Fr. a b?-ustolare. parti-coloured. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. tori shows that. broil. Surrey in R.tumultuous. and bord or bred. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. brastlian. brasuole. Brocket. brasiller. dar seems derived from borde. Hal. brooked. brych. to crackle as a shell in the fire. trouble. confound. Bret. Sp. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. motes. a flake of snow sion. a point. to crackle. piebald . It. to darn. fundamental origin. rinj'. bawling. sting. prasseln. to crackle. Florio. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . Thus brod. q. kled breac. speckled. blusters. — The proper sense is that of Fr. a freckle. age was termed a pricket. bramowanie. parti-coloured. Broker. a brim. brocco. brusler. with Sc. Icnotty. Fr. — brissle. to burn. braird. or glowing coals broged. bruler. to knots or loops. initial . onbryrdan. embroidering. a brecJi. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. or salted fish on coals. Fr. brouda. frecSee Brawl. brullare. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. badger . to crackle. broud. breard. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. gresiller. to parch or broil. noise. of pointing out their latent defects. frocadura.sound. A badger. to embroider. brod. To roast upon hot coals. has grisser. a fallingThe sense has been out. B. bj'oil. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. Grisons brascla. a badger. carbonado. Ihre has guU-bord. brucach. E. trouble. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. Cot. margin. a prick. or snag. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. brodio. brocach. — Fl.. shuffle. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. broglio. a freckle. grullo. ToBroider. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. Contracted from Fr. brusuole. storms. brindled.

See Wreak. vrage. — a spark. or brascla. slaae vrag paa. brack-gut. • . a cough Hal. brack-gut (Sanders). brydio. Abbronzare. sunburnt. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. to reject. inspect. lack. a broker. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. tussis. criticise (makeln). to scorch. faulty. bracker. G. correctarius. whnake. racher. trumpery. corrector. phlegm. hraki. fish-spawn broden. To blame mens ware. refuse brakovat. from makel. ordure. — Fl. bronce. the spawn of fishes. brass does to Sp. to criticise. tan. and as an adj. refuse brakowad. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. find fault — — — fuse matter. reject. i. pan metal. merchandises de rebut G. with. on. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. to pick. as. brands. want. See Brackish. Adelung. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage.D. refuse goods. to . and fishes . bredan. but from the primary sense of the It. Kil. hot. brwd. Bronzare. briiten. brod. brokoti. Russ. glowing coals. Du. fault censure. brut. insects. This word shows the same relation to It. brackefi. an .' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. G. cherish. to sort brakovanie. sort. refuse. refuse Fr. — broeden. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. raca. burning. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. . a chicken. Bronze. an outcast or rejected sheep. Dan. wraken. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. an operation performed over hot coals. For the same reason the Kiittner. ODu. a fault. try . in which sense the OHG. brokas. rejection Pol. try out. abbronzanchiare. term was correcfo^ir. has exactly the force of G. to throw blame upon. nounce unsound.— — . Alb.— Lib. to hatch G. To correct an exercise is to Lib. broen. Fl. 396.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. to garble. Per manus et old worthless horse. analogous to Bohem. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. couratier. brechen. brak. selection. Fr. brae. to pick and choose. It. . brid. brasa. sbrinzlar. Bret. bronze. Lat. spittle . hrak. to nourish. wrack-good. . spittle. to be wanting. progeny of birds. brak. to copper. Pl. mediationem quorundam J. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. to pro- to reject . screatio Junfus . brasa.D. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. The use sunburn. bronzo. refuse wares. bring eggs and spawn into active life. filth. brokers' goods. hot. braken. brieden. mud. S. to roast on the embers. from break. and to reject the damaged and unsound. wreak. brakyne. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. fermenting. ON. damaged. . e. to spit . Pro v. find fault with. dial. On • tliis principle the G. OFr. to — garble. warm. inspection. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. In the . the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. buy and sell by commission. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. Sc. refuse. find fault with. the young of any animal . cracker. brumo. to brew. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. embers. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. in the sense of rejection. a breach or flaw. to hatch. It may be compared with It. Grisons brinzla. goods damaged by sea-water. vile. to blame.— Breed. broiid. — . to emit sparks. to hatch. 38. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. . whence the modern courtier. dirty. raquer. If to vomit . et A. wrak. Sp. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. Du. damaged. bric-a-brac. blur. Pl. Jam. embers to brund. which E. make out. a brood . bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. Prov. Pl. Alb. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. w. to sit on eggs. Brood. racaille. — point out the faults. keep warm. abject. rejected. The Langued. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. vile. matter of blame weak place. Tooke's Catherine. Teutonic class : Du. bridde. G. braeck goed. cast Lith. brod. to sparkle. See Broth. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. : ' . designation is indkler. to be hot. to braze.D. to sort goods . a makeln. brack. embers. . brunds. stain. brot. bronze.D. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. In those countries the term braker. bronze.

hot. as small-pox. brus. Bret. from ripa. Prov. of plants broust. braun. brost. the bubbling or springing up of water. brewis. The AS. . brouter. boiled . a hill. braussa. pour boiling water over. a river. has briw. OHG. a . 105 Brook. buds. G. cabbage soup . brstiti.D. But the Walach. Gael. surDu. . awl-plant. sense the Sc. broth the ocean Sw. eye-lash . bruithim. from Goth. bordeau. See Bramble. G. bntdien. a sprig. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. sprocco. shrub with leafless pointed edging. Gris. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. to use. breg. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. broth. as rhododendrons. brodo. and It. OHG. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. Pl. eye-brow. The origin is a re. AS. G. bruich. circuindedit cum familia. It. break out brewet. signifying low wet land (Brem. brous. To digest. Browse. to Pl. brew . . w. sap. bank. browys. a derived from the boards. brouser. waves. brink. to boil. b7-un. Pol. The softening down of the consonant bud. . broc. — . bree. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. ale . thicket. seethe. vigour. brdtaj Gael. brad. on. frui. strength.) . grow into a bush. bank. a bud brous-koad. (for brodem).' Due. brothas. G.brink. Russ. plants composed of twigs. heath. or shoot. heath. Kil. brotar. Serv. bruach. rerum decoctarum. bruddeln. bud. Ger. Sc. riviere. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. broca. rage. juice of meat. brucan. brow. fur Broom. . broud. . and also border. bruceti. brogues. bank. Catalan brossa. — . 'Lzt.braubiti. juniper. a little . sprout. in which brinnan. t— Cot. . shrubs. bryn. cia. broo. signifying twigs. margin. Gael. or broken up . brotar. Celtic. eye-brow. brusmalt. to use. who is steaming with sweat. Bohem. sprouts . brodem. Limousin broudi. It is Brother. to murmur. Bohem. spuma. bryii. juice of briars. bros. dialects is very different. to roar. protecting the eye. Mid. dumetum. Fr. infusion. strength Ir. a shore. and Slavonic families. perhaps burnt coloilr. eye-brow. a hut or cottage It. Brothel. broth. brukjan. &c. to boil. vigour.spross. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. to boil bruithe. borda. breh. chen. to browse. thairj w. to scald. to use bruks. Gr. brlgh. sodden. Bav. or bushes and scrubby growths. a shrub broust. brpuster. brosses. bruth. thick bush brousta. broccola. pfriemkraut. brawdj Slavon. Roquef. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . sprot. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. house of ill fame. kail brose. to shoot. It. meal. Bohem. bregh. a bruth. brabruach. bordel. Manx broie. Wtb. the colour of things burnt. broth is sometimes used .brons. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. shore. frucius. bor. Here we find throughout the Romance. broieii. heat explaining the Prov. . to border.. w. a caldron. augen-braune. brushbrothas) gives the OE. braces. brd. ceales briw. brouskaol. face. shoot. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. brudi. edge. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. mettle. brun. a little house or cottage of timber. brau. wood . shore . shoots. Bret. verge. enjoy Goth. braew. breg. Sp. Sp. Du. cabbage water. brue . to boil. simmer from the murmuring AS. a hill. briihe. broth brothaire. bratrj Lat. Ppim. bushes. fabric consists. brass. brouet. . brosses. of which the variety of forms. Fr. bros. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Prov. broi. . brouches. brio. to spring . Brow. brennen. branches. to bear patiently. . laissent Domunculum. to browse.D. Gael. bruitheati. surface of Broth. AS. border. Fr. to bubble up with noise. OFr. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. Du. brauwe. grow brossa. — ' . eat. hovel. brwd. bhratrj Zend. sprout. Dan. a spring. G. Fr. properly boiling water briihen. a sprout. pottage. broit. brocco. useful G. Lat. iVlanx broogh. bruno. heat. to burn. as Fr. sordes seu strigmata young branch. brow of a hill. a bud. eye-lid. briu. noise. to sprout. Fr. brst. bank. bruich. pith. BROOK brook w. brouic. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. sproc. frater. . low The AS. Russ. It. broza. warmth ch'an. broth Brown. briar.— Overyssel Almanack. eye-brow. . — exiit et heath. &c. may be connected with Russ. . brosst. brmi. &c. Gael. on. broden." Serv. bruc. &c. hut. breg. . pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. Cot. edge. borde. a source Gael. broem bark. bruith. eminence . bruscosd quam de arabili. riviera. steam from heated bodies. brov. broeye. bryn. brushbroccoli. a confused noise of winds. and Sc. Commonly Teutonic. infusion the barley bree. eye-lid. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. spirit. Due. brost. . brozia. forms appear related to the Ir. A — . Tam de terrS. Sanscr.

A. Brunt of a daunger. brus. On the other hand. brisar. broustia. . rubbish. brist. to break or burst. a mote. E. Gael. a brush . Cot. chips. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede.). That in all haste he wouli. brise. — Fr. NE. and actually come in collision. it schall be al Sw. a bush of hair. The Bav.— Palsgr. Beryn. twig. twig. fasx . bruyere. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. bruise exOFr. Sw. brusg. broken. briiis (in the pi. Text Soc. bross. E. brossa. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Fl. . Port. . broust. See next article. a briser. The Lat. and Piedm. seems named from burst(on. dust. brosse. a brush Swiss bruske. remnants of hay or fodder. K. bruire. desbrisar. * Brunt. Pr. into a multitude of points. AS. of twigs. brosst. Gael. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. burt. Pr. Bret. bruscia. splinters. wool-card. brusc (Diet. brico or brizo. a bristle. bruscolo. brusco. Hall in R. Prov. a brush. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . to butt. and sighid therewithal. Brunt. brik. to crush. a bud. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. shivers. . And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. Prov. sordes. bruito. borste. brusco. brista) or breaking out . while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Prov. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. rods. Fr. —Chaucer. bushy ground. Fr. shock. brustia. bris. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre.). or shoot. to break.). Palsgr. E. bris. to make a rumbling. a horse-brush. borste. quisquilise. Bruise. Broach. and . coal See Breeze. biirste. effort. And that best is. bris. fragments. an enmy. a flax comb. Fr. insultus. bruit. Poems. 134. G. shoot brouskoad. burs. ca7-bo>i. to break. mg Cat. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. biirste. brustia. abroncar. modification of the same root which gives the E.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. britar. brunt. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. brusca. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. brusca. borst. borste. brist. brosse. brysan. rubbish. rubbish. briketo. Allit. Fr. brit. Alexander. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. bruskr. bruscolo. G. or sodenly comyn' dust. bruc. bruzir. dust. a shrub composed of small twigs . tuft of grass or hay. brossa. orts. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Fr. brMt. Pr. and It. to brush. brosst. blow burcar. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. tremely. brist. a rumbling. crum bit . brushwood. fescue . a blow. bruis (sing. bross. a brush. brous. Sp. detergere . . to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. Diez. appearin Goth. to break to bits . impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. brisd. Sw. brottcher. heath. brizeto. 201. borste. — a bush. wool-card. a — — (Agea) said. brustid. also a head-brush. a little brizal. as It. Cot. ling or heath for brushes. broza. borste. bris. brust. crush. The same relation holds good between G. brugir. insilio. Pm. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. Brush. To brush then would be to dust. and in the second place a besoiB. Bruit. Prov. Wicliff. In E. brossar. a brush . bush. p. Lang. dust. Pr. a noise. a brush . An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. It. bricalio. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. briser. dust. brousso. . 174.— — i. to strike the foot against an obstacle. —Fabyan. bruiser.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. — OE. Gael. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. britar. Lang. — those signifying a sprig. escousse. flax-comb brossettes. to make brusshes on. brous. but on whom it schall to brisen him. Piedm. Gael. B?-usske. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. Piedm. a bud or sprout Bret. a brush . ON. brikan. Castr. quasi twigs. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. a bristle. to cleanse. field. irruo. wool-card. wood composed OE. and also Brush. brist j Port. Pm. a brush. broza. Bav. a crum. . It. It. to stumble. OE. a tuft of heath . break. bud. OFr.

boil animals. because bucare does not in Marsh). The name. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate.— . does not hold. Bubble. buquer. w. to bump as a bittern. Sp. See Dupe. a steep for flax. Sc. to stick. Esthon. also applied Una. I. plied in the W. boucaner. tender. drying of produce. the lower soak in lye. a bubble. was called in Fr. hog dressed whole). a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. a bubble . The cipally on the Spaniards.wet Lat. Gael.-wtt miekki. blast or strike with the forehead. . bub. open lath-work. not so plentiful a commodity. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. tap . bucata.boukaat. bugd. to strain. The word was very generally Buccanier. de la Floride. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. Diet. tender. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti.' Palsgr. Bohem. to buck. is 1. Pol. to butt. . The male goat.buchen. a bubble. But see Bristle. mokry. It. to filter. hump. hump. bokni. mieknad. bublati. bog-aske. thunder gently . to soak foul linen before washing. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. mote. to bubble. bouk. moczyd. Magy. top. The place of such a 2. buborek. In G. to wet Pol. . to soften. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. caned' Hence those who established them. 17th century. BUBBLE bruschetta. 1586. a fescue. buquer. as G. soft . — . bubbola. rap. the linen at buck. Bret. maban and baban. Fr. bucquer.derivation has been much discussed. Magy. a hole. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. ac. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. News. to butt. .tare. and as a verb. set of pirates in the spread. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. colada. soft. Bret. The natives of Florida. bucaIndies. or projecTo Buck. bubBuck. a ashes. buck-ashes. to butt or jurr Dan. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . Pol. pokka7na. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. and Fr. very generally designated by the same puk. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. the first wheal. bugada. Illust. buchen. moist. Cot. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. tuft. buerj It. was called bucking the linen. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. mollire. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw.byka. to which in their language they call bou. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog.biiken j Svi. bubseti. . faire la lessive. and the bunch. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. to murmur. or mok. in which the flesh dish. soft It. lye. boc. Pref A. molle.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. Dan. pukkata. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. from weich. w. to soak. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). boh. pup. Our next illustration represents the Bocan.D. bifbel. says Laudon. A . ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble.steep or soak.to allow a free current of air. soft. bwch. of wind. bduclien. soft. a. Sp. a knock word. as a buck rabbit. a. blister. different form. to soak. byge. March 28.lessiver. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. from colar. . a push. — — ' A : ' ' . to soften. to Gael. Formerly. The term bocan is still ap. Etym. watery bud. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. who resorted to the islands beichen. Bohem. bube. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. bouc. Fin. the upper for coifee. It. — . a to the male deer. lye. It. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. and exercised their cruelties prin. it is beuchen. This bubette. at a door. designation of a knob. bukke. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. to a place used for the mouillir. 1857. erweichen. bucking. bubiti. bub. Fr. and then to other wild tumour Lith. bubauti. . Fr. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. knock. From an imita. when soap was tion is commonly taken. wood. buck-ashes. . from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to soften . boc. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies.

t-le!L{ * Bud. boglyn. Mid. W. butzen K. bukke-blad. potz. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. a short thick man. to thrust. a leathern sack.. rump of fowls . call. OFr. skins pushit'. G. The knob or projection formN. . a . bloquier. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. Du. . a boy. Cot.' Hal. Prov. bucolicus. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. The entire train of thought is bucket. rabodS.n. Buckler. don't stir from hence. with which it was ornamented. Wtb. swelling. Fr. . jSouKoXiKog. It termination is lost. built.) . pulga. excrescence. II I'a feru desor I'escu. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. pwtio. bucherare. Sw. bo. swelling. Buck-bean. bucket Fl. case of leather . a ring. It. weich. bolgetta. ble. Mid. It. bouk is a pail and with the dim. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. protuberance. pote. to move. a fold ceilio. botzen. bdden. having a boss.) as to soak. with let. a budget. boqueranmis. water message. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Bret. boucler. from bo.stumpy man. turgere buczendig. pulga. bloca. loud Cot. So on. Prov. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. bug. Dan. agreeing with Gael. butzen (Du. male or botzen. ON.— . become bochen.' Boccaccio. a boss. ornamental stud. no business to do that. knock. butz. boss of a shield. w. buachazlle. a boss. bode. The Fr. clasp of a book. boaLat. a bud. Prov. .' And this sacrament bus have dial. bougette. crack. bucherame. hump. Port. Sp. a bubble three thyngis. . belonging to the calling of the chen. bulais daqui. . put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. bog and G. probably from the notion of bubbling. and weichen. butzen.' Schm. brobrocchiere. whom it is still much in use. no wheel bogeilio. to bud or bocla.chissima. to swell. Fr. bolgia. w.Lat. put. to line with fur. — . sboge. Budget. Du.r//'. convexity. a trough). dint . wallet. in the beginning of to pierce holes. macero. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. to 'soak. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. dinted. to stir. Russ. a buckle or protuberance./a. Fr. the word w ' — .pode. boiling. Lat. * Buckle. bouljein. Dan. of bac. — — . explaining Fr. don't a baby). bouton. bougette. . buckel. Behoves. bocla. and of the Lat. bulka. — . K. . a curl. soft. boucaran. butt . stir. Bucolic. seen in Hesse botz. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Fr. Pol. motus creber. Swab. botzen. to graft or bud trees. to un bout d'homme. a budget. the root of the Slavonic words gran. from bugr. bulga. . bogla. bouger. thrust. bul. * Bud.. Bav. is to shrivel up. also a leather tuft . bullion. to boss or swell out G. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. bouclier. NE. trunk of wood covered with leather. See Bulk. set of a plant in bulk. were To Budge. a pail or flowers. butze. bunch. Fr. a little coffer or turgidus. ein. Bret. of a surface. to pen cattle. dim. ' . movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. of bouge. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. bub. butzen. to budge. Hence quel. a stump buckle up. bouge.stuff. pwt o Fr. with a central boss. A buckle or fastening for botch. noise . call bo. It. bollire. ' . nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. and the reference to It. push forwards. Hardly identical with Fr.poot. Fr. a tuft. boach. a cowherd. The dressed fur of lambs. bulla. inboachen. bud butzen. bump. fur. boss. from Gr. bunch . budge. boccula. goat's hoof. boucle. * Bucket. Bav. .). blow.may probably be explained by N. clump. great pouch. — — . words is converted into b. Bus. boucle. This expression boglire. a navel. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. To thrusting part of a long body. a servant. In Lat. stroke. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. A water-plant with leaves and gille. bouter. Pied. the radical image seems to be a set plants. a dumpy gin. OHG. ' . a pustule bout. call. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. bod. a shoot. a bump. bedde. to word. need.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. to poke. mani. It. Budge. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. The word is a ddyn. bouprobably identical with inok. weich. as in Fr. to boil. bulb. stud. is doubtless fallacious. gjeit-klauv. to butt. a buclder or shield budge. bod. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. or male of to boil .. like a bean. lump. boucle. cattle. a small shallow and open tub. Fr. child. imbuere. scion. Gael. bugnir.anything short of its kind. boulj. weichen. a shield. above mentioned. where the G. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. prick in a target. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. a wallet. knob dwfr yn boglynu. bloca.goa. knob .

soufflet. buffle. the buffe. things in Jam. . it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table.' La Crusca. bolgetta. Magy. often covering his E. Buff. Teet-bo. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. a jester. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. buffer. to excite terror in Macleod. a side-board. a puff. dausinti. air. Esthon. a dull BUG From 109 — A . to marre often tasting it . a buffle or a bugle. Buffalo. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. 265. baubau. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. colour. Lat. to rePl. to frighten . buffle-headed. bobaow. to blow . ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. a clap. or wild ox. yar^aa. breath. Buffoon. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. It. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. bugle. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. a bugbear. by metaphor.— Buflae. buffet. buffalo. stupid. to signify an indefinite object of terror. tastes. bolgia. buffet. buffeteur. Lith.—Buffet./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . bouffer. to jest or sport. to puff.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Fr. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. sounds. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. Pl. bubus. buffare. Lat. as Diez remarks. buffen. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . cuff . —Boggart. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. dausa. It. a cuff or buffet. — — — Buffet. senses. to beat. often blown upon. or hath been Cot. while in Sp. either alone or with various terminations. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. Fr. A blow. word other cases. popo. as wine that hath taken wind. dull sound.D. leathern bucket. to a representation of his voice. bwg. bugbear. bubach. Buff. God's boast seemed feare children. to strike face to represent the unknown. confused. btifetarius. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. to puff. dial. Swiss baui. him but Boyd iugges. — thence it has been transferred in E. W. site The two — — iii. a In . Limousin bobal. duff^ dull. Fl. buffare. to bellow . The name of the beast seems taken from lus. made to —Bugbear. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. bufogni. boman. Hence the E. buff leather. a skin. bufHe. to blow souffleU. the place whence the wine was drawn. wauwau. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. buffets. Gael. Sc. The use of the exclamation children. made by a person. thus be translated to tap. a goblin). the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. scarecrow . buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. Sc. The children were playing in an oppocomer. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Cot. a hobgoblin. E. It. mingled with water. deadened. puff. Lith. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. bw. — La Crusca. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. Buffeter. buffa. also a G. The cry made to excite terror is then used. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. From buff! of terror. w. &c. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. — retailing buffeter buffetier. bufogni. G. to blow. buMagy. Mid. of colours. a budget. A — Bug. buffetto. buivol. and in Fr.D. human. botffon. as emblematically making light of an object. ' They rether puffed at him. Fr. tabernarius. bugs. bo ! an interj. blurt or puff with one's mouth. a hollow sound. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. bauwi. boo. Cot. bukow Ikow. from It. bw! It. — Z.D. buffet. for this purpose is very widely spread. caupo. mumming. een duffen toon. from souffler. — Bogle. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. bau ! children. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Bufetarium. bumann. a block-headed noddy. A puff with — Fl. rebuff.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Thus buffet would a tapster. Romola. bubiti. Pl. le reste emplissant d'eau. to give benti. Fr. Fr.' perfield. From bulga. wine may The verb in taverns. pulse . a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . as from Lith. bouffer. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. to give a as of a blow. bubaRuss. It. smells .

a silk-worm. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Same as buffle. a misshapen person. big. BUGLE Tentennino. bug-bear. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. larva (a bug-bear. terrifying ward. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. . vermin. a goblin. to take bug. A similar applica. Fl. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. Lith. Lett. Hal. Grose. poggl. bwg and E. language any kind of insect. bwgwl. thus connected with bug.3uhtii&:. high-sounding words. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. Bugle. bug dung-beetle.Lat. of pipes sewn on. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. a bug-bear. scarecrow .. a rabme. Magy. protuberant. also a bug-bear. used in the same sense. a proud overbearing man pujat'. to frighten scarecrow. Russ. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. blustering. bbgni. gad. Stalder bog. bwgar. — boogg.— . especially to beetles or winged insects. a bugbear for children. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. according to Coles. as Buffalo. a bug-bear. fette. troll. Cheval de trombugti. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. It. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. . a beetle. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. great or bug words. iv. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. is very common. buggabod). bau (Pureiglia. bugler.. The w. bogle. . provincially an insect. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. 3. the word is lin) bbgge. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. bok. buffle.Fr. the black a maggot. bug. worm. I. Big. with more or less modification represents bau. disgust. beugler. bogil. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . banian boube. Swiss ing. bug-bear. is the dim. * 2. mask ' . to bellow. biignt. dial. insect. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. saucy. the Devil. Bug. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. proud. and in child's Magy. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. boa-peep. roo. Grisons bau. Swiss booggen. boeuf sauvage. coco. a boogg.loud noise. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. bogil bo (e. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. threatening. b'dgni. Fl. 2. bogk. Sw. ghost. baco. monster. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. long. to roar Aasen. also a bug-bear. xiv. a buffalo. bold. bukashka. Swelling. 493. Parolone. high. then a horn for drinking. i. Schmidt. buba. — . of bugabo was given. Bible. (Spurrell). fierce. pugalo. Illyr. tumble-bug. See The name terror). An ornament of female dress condread. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. w. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. and a boggarty ing. E. as an object of dread. Mundart. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. — — . Deut. Mid. Lap. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. bauginti. bogk. to origin in the expression bugs words. pujalo. shepe and gootes. boo. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. also a baco-baco. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. forSc. and is Deutsch. The final guttural of W. tion of the beetle tribe. an object of terror. to take fright. Bogge. bobal. bugle. Magy. superbire. pugaf. bucula. the buggaboo w. booggen. quos what produces dread or disgust. Bug as a lord. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. well as the terrific object. bugar. a. Lesachthal. — — terror. — — ' . affright. Serv. W. swollen. Chaucer. buculus. to take fright. and in Lat. rose-bug. bukati. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. 1551. to creeping things. The name of bug is — . oxen. Sp. : no BUG . bug-bear. threatening. il brutto Demonio. It. paws the ground . fear. bugbear. given in Chaucer. . insect. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. earwig bau da grascha. and bugle. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. roarHal. Bdronie. Manx boa. any disgusting animal. an insect.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. to bellow. hert. Hence bugle-horn.

we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. — . puff. or of what is shaped like a bubble. a leather sack or budget Fr. Bulch. to bubble up Pol. swell. Bourser. whence bylja. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. bolle. inhabit. globule bolg-lhuingey. or cargo of a ship. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bladder. Kil. sedes. ^ — . of E. (3oX|8oc. herd^ swarm pulkd. to build. to swell. ' . bubble {palgan tiisge. balcone. From till. body of a ship . buc. in bulk. pod ON. ' . ON. to throw out a convexity. In the representation of natural sounds. belly. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. Jno. Lat. to swell. a protuberance. acervus. bole. to puff up bolginn. the capacity or burden of a ship. leather sack. snorting on a bulk. bouk. boss. Pr. boa. Muratori. . blow. thorax buick. bolgan. cultivate. boss of shield. Ptg. bug. body of an animal. skin bag. bubble. Mister. the body Du. formed a farm. ne. tumidus. to bubble up. . bolle. pimple. Lat. pouch builgeadh. bolg. stuffed bag. turgeo bolnyd. nave or body of the church van 't schip. has bulbuk. bunch or projection. boulge. a prominence. Lett. bulgen. buk. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bwlg. belly. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. in Sc. to gather. a bubble. to bol. knobby. bed of a river. projection. and bulbukd. jnake bulch. a bubble Gael. to belly out. bullka. G. gebolgen. the head of an onion. principal portion. trunk of the body. The addition of a dim. of an inflated skin. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. the contents of the hold. a stage or scaffold. skin of an animal. swollen OE. trunk. or. habitaculum. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. Boss^. — — . balg. boss. m um Placentiae. bulki. belgr. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. husk. a heap. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). in vessel. . mass. Gr. a. ball. Othello. . knot in thread. . dial. chest. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. a tuberous or bulbous root . balgs. bulcke. bulbe. womb. — . . a straw corn-vessel. vulva. See bollekeii next article. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. The radical sense is shown in Russ. OSw. the potato G. swell. belgja. bolgia. swollen. boss of a buckler. Bulk. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. bellows builgean. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. a dint in a metal . the belly. bulge or bilge. mass.d. buhe. byli.' Palsgr. a lump or mass. For the latter sense ' — My .' BULK moribus civi- — De byli.' Festus. as water beginning to boil bolg. to undo the cargo. . bolgna. Sp. blister. belly van de kerche. bauen. at riufa bulkann. belly. a globe. as it was merly written in English to bylle. trunk. were a habitation. bouge. Bolke or hepe. a. Dan. bulwis. ' . unevenness Sw. skin flayed whole. a bunch. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bulbe. Bulge. wallet. hollow. bugue.). bulg. beuck. Hal. bulgen. or bear out as a full purse. Pm. bulge or convex part of a cask. as well as is very variable. a round bulky body bwlgan. bulbus. bol. Pm. Lith. swell. Melancholy. Hence e. G. belly Sw. body. and N. With these must probably be classed ON. . crowd. PoXj3a. belly. belly Cat. the position of liquids in the word In English. bag. knob. Mandeville. bol. or feminine termination gives Bav. bulkaf. tumeo. . straight will he 2. cumulus. . bulk or capacity of anything. balg. on. bulka. a water-bubble).' Anat. . bilge. w. the carcase. See how this tode bolneth. hull of a ship. G. the womb.' Cot. Dan. to break bulk. lump. balco. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. A — ' — Bulk. bukr. be protuberant. Here stand behind this bulk. Pr. to blow. — Bulb. bubbling up.— . . bolso. 1388. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bauch. pocket. . bo. To Build. knob. Palco. van loock. . bulk is a partition of boards. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. head . to raise a habitation. The Walach. biilken. belly. anything prominent. blister Manx bolg. He found a country fellow dead drunk. hold or bilge of a ship. pulkas. lump. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. . villa. a leathern sack or portmanteau. to spring. OSw. bale. and put it home. . See Bulk. Lith. Bav. blister. bubble. bubble. ON. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. compare Da. bulne. bolgetta. I. bol. bolnyn. MHG. a bulb Du. bulked or bumped out. it again. bulk. — — . domicilium.' Fl. Gr. bulle. It. bua.'— Cot. — — .pulks. .

Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. The final element tergeist. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. The male W. bullebak. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. to emboss . signifying roaring.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. sloes. ba. b2iggaboo. bulk of a thing. w. is called a ball. in the sense of base metal. scarecrow. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. it is boulet de canon. bouillon. a bulox polos. N. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. witches.. of boule. This word is used in several senses. a hobgoblin. pimple. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. bullern. bulk. stamped money. pollach. w. billoti in Fr. from Lat. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. bullus. whence bullire. lumpish. spirits. — — Bull. 2. bolos Fr. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. stud.Gr. coarse. blister. bwla. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. bollon. i.'— ' Palsgr. boulct.. Fr. as geting. bullocks. from Fr. bulderen. bulla. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. boss. leraures nocturni nigri. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. bollar. /SouWivu. from the noise. tition of deals instead of a wall. a cow. large of its kind. And The word bullerbak. pwl. as the ornanails. Bullet. BuUiou. G. stupid . Pm. beams or boards. bal. Lith. is of a class with Pl. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. a hornet. bugbear. lumpheaded . dim. penbwl. BulUiead. to boil. bulle. it may be observed that a bullet in E. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. as It. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Gold or silver uncoined. Cot. . a beam or rafter. the matrix or die . It. to bubble. embossed work. Bully. any embossed work. brass-headed nail . large. on the contrary. a stud.D. also of the tadpole or young frog. however. bollos de relieve. a seal. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. a wasp. Scot's Deso. a tadpole. bolli. bole or trunk of a tree. G. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. urchens. I. of the ox kind. a noisy violent fellow. poli-cheannan. from the Lat. Bullfrog. from baula. stud. — Fl. bulla. a little fish nearly all head. dial. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bulke. bullos. a seal. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. bolli..Fris. poll-cheannach. but is more probably iden- palchetto.' do not go by the dangerous water. &c. — A tition in a ship. W. round glass phial. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. See Bowl. Gael. It. a bull Swiss bullen. elves. whence Mod. Du. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace.. stamp. The wild plum. to tical with Sw. See Billet. poltern. ON. also a parFl. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. a blockhead. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. bubble. as in E. boillon. Sp. baula. biitzibau. 3. billon.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. bellow. bouillon. Bullbeggar. a hobgoblin. from the use of the equivalent terms.D. a tadpole . A papal rescript. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. a bul-begger. Pl. a bowl. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. A lace tree. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . as a mill-dam or the like.D. Du.lle de fusil. Eullrusli. Du. balgeting. and thence terror. any great-headed or studded nail. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. hhint. in N. a scare-bug. Bret. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. thick. assito. of Witchcr. The bullfrog. and vellon in Sp. Fr. a framework of balks. the seal affixed to the document. bwbach. bulloi. boss or stud. bolla. Terriculamentum. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. bauli. which may probably be the origin of the name. to seal. polten. G. bwlas. blunt. many to protuberant objects. 2. Du. eth and frighteth. a bull. to bellow. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Dan. bietebau. G. bellocier. Bullace.

Bully-rock. boene. buller-bas. bottn. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. Hence — . argentum and silver. to make a noise . agrees with e. beat a — Hal. buller-jaan (bully. to dun.D. noise. honunele. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. — Bumto . To bum. c. bombilare. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. hum.' ' mettre au billon. biihne. a noisy blustering fellow. to drum Lat. 'lega. a blunderhead. G. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. BULLY with which coins were stamped. a hectoring. up was termed monnaie de billon. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. bomtnen. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. The decried coin. AS. &c. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. Kil. bodem. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. John). 1305. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . the soil. violent overbearing person. violent. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet.' agger. poltem.' reals of standard currency. bustle.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. blaterare. G. is called bumping or bells. primarily the ramparts of a town. III. ^i^/«. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. From the notion of a humming. but now is the central part of the town. a bumble-. a. buller-bas. To bully is to bluster.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. 4 Hen. 1687). to terrify by noise and clamour. 10. Bum-bailiff. propugnaculum. boisterous fellow. To Bum. then in general a rampart. 9 E. The 27 Ed. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. Hence bom and ban.' Stat. or a humblebee. botm. G. For bottom. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. and porter au billon. Sw. vallum.. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. legaggio di metallo. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. The Sw. ground. — Bump. IV. on the other hand. ^Bully-rook. a boisterous. St. Miege in Hal. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. boulevard. or work of defence. polterer. resonare. ierd-boeyme. buller-bak. Du. intonare. from boden. Kil. It. To bum. perturbare saevis dictis.. block-werck. provides. Bailey. Fris.' Again. IIL st. c. scaffold. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . ierd-beame. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. bommele. bottom. 14. to make a droning Du. bol-werck. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. blunder-buss. baluarte. furious man. minari verbulderen. A.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver.D. droning. un faux brave. ON. buller-brook. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. is bullion — A — buller. 2. c. Hal. Fr. sound. 2. The cry of the bittern. Philip le Bel in Due.' for the purpose of exchange. Du. blunder-buss. Kiittner. by corruption boulevart. Du. — Boom. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. Fris.d. to . bastion. Bum. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. bulderen. 2. The Stat. a floor. D. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. bolderen. debacchari. — — plate d'argent.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Etym. Bully. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. Thus ' ble. buene. a stage. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. provides.the ramparts. clamour. — bombam?nen. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life.

. a. a heap. Bung^. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. il me pousse. noise. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Dan. pwmpio. a hump. bunan. clown. Bumpkin. Again. bolsa. knuckles. Dunchyn or bunchyn. a rabbit. a heap Wall. a rabbit. bans. awkward clown. bung. binge. Hence E. cluster. Bunk. buns. Probably for bun-boot. Bunch. Lang. . strapping. E. bun with ON. a bag or sack. callus. botn. Hal. Bang sen. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Sc.-^Fl. a purse . Bun. bon. bunga. bunnion. root. A Du. to swell out E. to bang ON. stalk. stubble of beans. knochen. . . bun eich. Roding. Fr.— Bunnion. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Gael. to beat. mto Sp. gibbus. tundo. Probably from bump. . and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him.^Cot. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. bune or boon. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a knob. poumpi. Daal bu7iseti. boi7ieog. bonge. stubble Manx bun. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. a lump on the foot bunny. E. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. any round knob or bunch.D. bumsen. pompon. bonuach. OSw. bamgetroffen.D. Bumboat. Bunfeaman (stump-tail).P. explaining E. a knob . a boil or blain. lenten loaves.pummel. blain. bun. protuberance. Manx bonkan. a hemp-stalk. Bunewand. Fl. — — de dor bunsen. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. a bowl P1. Du. bunny. bundle. throw down with a bang. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. — Marine Diet. bunken. the tail of a hare. bunki. See Bunch. bunkc. Hal. pumpurras. or to the mass by which it is given. foundation w. Bumsen. Ir. bunsen. ! — knocking. a round mass . Pl. See Bounce. He fult dat et bunsede. passes Sw. Li cake. a heap OSw. a Sp. to bang down. a. to bang. a dried hemp-stalk. . . — — — — ' — knock. calamus. root. stock. a heap. bongie. A clumsy. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. bottom bun feoir. should probably be a short tail. from bunsen. bunch— Hal. bunga. any round knob or bunch. Thus e. Mrs Baker. bu<rnone. Bums it's hit. to ' .' Bun. poumpido. Sc. the Pr. Bump. E. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. a pocket Sw. lump. a bud. a swelling from a blow. a boil (punkos bot. hay stubble .D. forms. — round fruit. a dry No . bulto.' he fell with a bang. dial. a bunch Magy. applied to young persons. Holland and Flanders. signifying one who does things in a thumping. gibber. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. knob or heap. a button. bmidt. Fr. truss E. banga. stem or base. one ever saw the word in that shape. bunka. and related with ON. . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. BUNCH bum-bailiff. Then. strike E. a swelling. To bam. — stalk . bulscha. trunk. It. Moor. Pm. as we have seen E. H. Bony. bulse. are dim. a wallet. stump. pompette. Dan. a tail (Macleod). bungersome. loaves or lumps made of fine meal..S. . especially girls.). Radically identical with Dan.— Pr. bugno. a into Dan. He buncheth me and beateth me. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. bmike. bugnet. Pl. &c. a knock. round mass of anything. while bulch was traced through Gris. a heap or cluster. abrupt manbuns-wise. stock. nor would it concern the public if he did. Pr. a pumpion or gourd. pwmpl. Pm. a large . to knock . 1. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a boss Lith. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . from knock) It. —Bunny. banke. a knob. bunke.. Pm. ner. bund. S. . Hal. bannock. to beat. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Related on the one side to Pl. bugno. butt end. .' Palsgr. stump. bignet. a person employed to dun one for a debt. bull. lungeous. seems to unite Gael. See Boss. Bunch. bonnock. pumpa. and signifies consequently a mass. — — Bun. bumtel. to . a knotty stick) Sw. — — Bun. . The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. to . w. dial. Forby. clumsy. w. inconsiderately.D. bunt. an old stump of a horse. to thump. bugnone. bum-boot. Kyx or bunne. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^.! . as in other cases. hdk passing and E. Gael. bump. large. or grete knobbe. . The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a bunch. Suffolk bonnka. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Hal. . pwmp. a bump. bottom. awkward. so the form btmk. bottom.

N. bourgeon. noise. Sw. and bomme. AS. A load. properly a Burgundian helmet. a bung. fetters. Burganet. is originally a wisp or bunch . — Bureau. See Borel. bimge. tap. Fr. a bungler. Bundle. knocking. — btiruii. So Du. bonde. banghagr. in is Fr. would be the earliest float for an anchor. whence bunting. working in wood (especially with an axe). Palsgr. dark grey bura. bang. buove. bote. boucher. rumble as the bowels. to cobble. G. are from bouscfie. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. So in Pol. from beran. bourion. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. to gingle. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. bove. See Bun. and the Sw. a water bubble made by rain. the bung of a barrel Lim. Rietz.' Festus in Diez. bondir. driving in the bung. bundle. It. to gingle. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. to in to stop the hole. or putting forth of a vine. the middle part of it. Bung. to Somerset is to sift. . Sw. coassatio et Du. bui. to float. russet. reddish brown. B. Pl. to push with the head del. bouchon. buie. something bound together (Mrs Baker). Fl. dark. biirde. A bubble. to botch. bondelj bundell. tapp (whence tceppa. Prov. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. shackles. tinker . klempern. boei. a bunch. * Buoy. to resound. bag to catch the wind. B. to bear. bongun. . OG. A Dan. Bunting. to stop. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. a boye. the noise of drums. racket. and E. ' — work .Fris. a cork. — . or tuft. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . to bolt meal. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. 202. to strum on an instrument. Cat. Muratori. especially in wood. bourguignote. to stnmi on an instrument. bond. Sp. to pype. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. byndel. the loose open grow big about or gross. Prov. gyves. banga. To burgeon. halm-tapp. . unskilful working. to work ineffectually. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. an anchor buoy. to bungle. boj. Bret. bury. to work at carpentry bangan. and now more Bailey. and van t' vat. bundt. bon. The belly or hollow of a sail. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. The Italian buio. bondel-loos. byrthen. Bunt. Sp. a bunch Burbulas. shove . to shove. Bunny. Fr. Sp. on. Fr. Du. Fr. dial. buret. . Sw. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Burden. also a piinple in the face. was formerly pronounced buro. to kick. Lat. and Du. bonde. tinkle. See Barbarous. To do anything awk- wardly. guggle as water. borboUar. Burden. bongani. stiimpeln. la Borgonota. bunsen. to hum. bunta. punishments for prisoners. The stopper for the hole in a boia. boya. boil or bubble up. racket . Biu'geon. dial. or used as a receptacle for papers. clogs. The Magy. See Bourdon. Burly.— . bouche. borgonota. stilmpern. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep.punt. Russ. bommen. bondeau. Banff. however. to push ghebondte. klimpem. bangla. the stopper of a cask). ho-tapp. fascis. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. burboloti. bounta.D. Johansen. Burble. whence in bure. AS. the float of an bundle. — — To Bungle. that the primitive meaning of shackle . To bunt. a botch. bolting-cloth. Sp. with the head. bungande. a wisp of hay or straw. ghebundte. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. dicimus rufum. on. — — . G. Bung of a tonne or Lith. to bud forth. contignatio. Compare G. bondon. knocking. to hum. The Fr. modem bummle. bundel. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. Hal. colligatio. The word is flags are made. clumsy performance. OFr. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. do a thing bunglingly. to stop. bang. bindini. . a drum . to push. loosed from bonds. Cot. sprig. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. knock. To Bunt. anchor or of a net boyar. OFr. bou^e. burion. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. a sort of helmet. p. E. to knock. Kil. generally known as the material of which bud. of a song. bummle. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. the young cloth used for sifting flour. buret. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. to knock. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. stocks or such OSw. bourjon. bangla. to hum.

.ireui£r:e. — — . bururus. a knob. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. See Burr. sicut sound. a prominent eye borracka. burlare. to bud . ample of polishing metal. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. From Fr. The Gael. 56. flocks. a bladder. as the / in purl. singe or scorch with fire. to puff up borr^ . Fr. brinna. a whetstone. 122. brandung. to polish helmets. from bryii. a gurgling ^. water. swelling borr-shuil. Pren7ien. from the roaring sound of flame. Pm. a spring a robber. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. to give an edge to. borujon. burren. become big and proud. brusler being a faulty spelling. explaining the E. OE. Probably a modifica. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. is an Thus G.' a jibe. the flocks. borrelen. From the same root E. Bret. borni. a jest. to fiy. to murmur. protuberance. ridicule. A — — . repartee . brook. to puff. abourioner. from Lat. condemnentur morti. roguing beggars. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. bremmen. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. Todd. G. to ridicule. to swell. and the Burin. tahko. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis.). leo Fin. taunt. Castrais bourril. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. Burryn. Burgh. to roar. Dief. knob. swell up or strout out. a bubble. Fr.j'own. a bubble to spring as water. &c. fires up. sea. to polish. tion of the root which gave the OE. . N. burly. Goth. to roar.bryna. brun. buirleadh. Bav. is connected with brim. burgen. Sw. tumentum. as in cousteau. like the wind in trees. lorra. surge or dashing of the sea . — — . to ridicule. A burl. brausen. a margin. toast.— Pr. boura. ends of thread. BURNISH i5«r/. brase. to tell lies. like straw or small . Walach. Burler. robber. See Berough. Swiss Rom. with little iron nippers called burling irons. big. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. to swell with pride. purling. bourd. Fl.). language of folly or ridicule. mockery. In the same way ON. sbornoi..Ps. bourou. Fr. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. borracka. Gael. bruzir. to roar. thence. the word seems Pm. ON. embraser. he rustle. Schm. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. Prov. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. OFr. Bestiary. to surge. E. to swell oneself out as birds borras. brimmen. burgeois. ^ttsa. Burlesque. a bud. Bav. the J in OFr. Bouffer. the roaring surge of the — — — . born. purrata. It. bud or sprout forth. angular . as Diefenbach bud. In the manu. Swiss Rom. schleiffen. and the Burnish. is termed burling. bururus. to roar 5. de Vaud. brunnr. to Gael.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. The primary origin of the word. briis^. boure. pressa puret. — . burgensis. Fl. spring-water bumach. . Supp. It. A legal term from the Lat. a lie. . dial. the er is a dresser of cloth. and OG. bears. — — . Burn. to burn. brunnen. Lang. The in. to roar. borr. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. Nat. it of the knots. broil. fire. brinnen or Also ein roar.' Cot. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. boiirre.— . brima. bunch. Burgher. brunir. Burglar. Sp. Cot. sidiary element..sharpen. to sharpen. de Vaud. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. to burgen or wax big. See Burgeon. ^Notk.. grancelli. — . laer. Compare also Piedm. So also Sw. pur (see Burgeon). like. brinii. a jest. lerre. burle of cloth. . occupying much space. to effervesce. bourglairs. barrel. It. ii6 BURGESS Gael. warbling. — Han to bruser op. Antiq. brim or edge of anything. OE. OFr. a blaze. to hum. in Schm. brustolare. to have acquired the sense of polishing. Sw. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. a well. Burgess. burn. joking. It is probable indeed that Fr.. to polish. a fountain. to grind on a whetstone. brunna. burgi latro. watery. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. to sharpen on a whetstone. to rub. ends of thread. a wine skin. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. ' rugiens. must be explained on the same principle from G. to make a So from Fin. an &c. i5«r4 biiirte. crackle wood in burning Hal. j. Hence Bridel. to bouronna. purra. Lang. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. explaining Sp. has also borr. to set on fire. as of suggests. G. brynsten. a purling hiwe brennen.or bubbling up. blow. brustle. Limousin bourdo. brAler. brasa. with Dan. Pr. Burly. compared with G. to To Bum. Probably. which has given much trouble to etymologists. an edge. and Dan. jest of. tahkoa. to burn.). See under Bore. bruse. to bourda. bouril. to roar (as lions.

bres- — tan. of England. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. berstan. as it is still pronounced in N. bourrelet. brown. bristen.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. i5(7&a. a port. brisdeach. some people in pronouncing the letter r. but it is more probably a development of It. Mid. coo. to mutter Sw. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. This word seems safety. brist. borsia. pipaa. casting bullets. OHG. &c. It. byrstan. bersten. -Grisons bulscha. G. save. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. brjota. to bury . leather. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. Burse. 225. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. 5150. to buzz. byrgen. bergen. Port. a sepulchre. See Bulge. Shelter. bur. To Burst. bourre. brokil and brotil. root borr. also ' any such trash as chaff. I. byrgan. any rapid whirling biarga. borsa. makes the disbursements of the college. Fr. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . Burser. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. bolgia. In a met. . brist. straw. to hide. Burrow. fortify. brico. from whence we pass through Sp. caer is a — — — ' ' : . shuffling. a. the — — castle or fortress. swell. bris. Dan. a place of defence. peluca to Fr. whirr and burr. 2. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. stuffing. brittle. birigean. Brun on bane. Swiss burren. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . Sw. cwning-gaer. Hence Fr. .Lat. britar. shearing of cloth. explained E. To Bury. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. to stuff. brit. prsnuti. Compare also OE. A rabbit burmotion. brista. Bursar. force. Gael. byrsa. and thence flocks 'of wool. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. The root forms brik. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. Fr. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. brest. borrow. of a body hurled through the air. and met. bolsa to It. In OE. signifying protrude. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. the officer who bears the purse. burra. barza. Fris. as from Sp. purr. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. to P'air. moss. whence Kil. a purse. Jam. birr. a purse. bourrer. borre. borsa. Cot. skin. Fr. dial. burial place. With a slightly different ghen. &c. beorgan. to break. preserve. dial. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. bourse. karborre. a pad. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. ON. appears under the Lang. brisd.. Burial. as in Northumberland. . to to buzz like a beetle chatter. to hide . be more in accordance with AS. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. bris. Burse. a harness or collar maker) . its own protection. bourlet. S w. impetus. mentioned under Burgeon. idiom if 4. blurra. burgisli. Hal. ' ' — — burren.' Harris in Todd. also all such stuff as hay. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. a barn or cupboard.' edge grew weak. from Fr. as for the protection of a child's head. a wallet or scrip. Burr is related to buzz as protect. brast. It. ptcrren. to save. briso. byrgels. briser. talk fast and indistinctly. -burse. tomb. husks. Sw. chips or anything else Fl. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. preserve. Du. borra. burre. an annular swelling. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. ultimately resting on the Gael. beurs. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. birgan. E. ON. perruque. borra. verbergen.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. — Clare.' The same word with burgh. break . to burst. borre. hair. G. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Burr. iii. a rabbit burrow. bourse. briketo. bristeach. an exchange. byrigels. and. brittle. Sexy.— . whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. any kind of quilting or stuffing. and spelling. when they spring So in W. foretell great storms at 3. shelter. whirr. brizeto. brickie. — Translated by Kemble. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. shales. a morsel. ber•whirr to whizz. Du. from AS. that birds make their nests with. bur. g. keep. cover. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. OHG. AS. buscha. Beowulf. See Burgeon. AS. ' BURR AS.

abdere. brake. to direct one's course towards. Ptg. a tuft. ' . borseof trees. from the ON. To prepare. whente beorg. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. Prov. bussare. to bury. a tuft guini. ieorh. So from Fr. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. brodequin tout noir. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. barsc in Heimskringla. The word frequency with which to busk is used. bundle * Buskin. rad. grapes. And her ful sone tuft. a troop. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. busken.P. brodiquin. the idea of knocking. ' . boucher. buxta. Thus Froister . AS. occultare K. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. Le roy Richard mort. a corpse). bulge. to keep. bustula. iriCtf -ifoe. qualster-boscken. projection. Sc. a box. knot. . See Bust. berghen. fiast. besom). roquies. oneself. . that the lend had lorn thorn. bussellus. bousche. at buast. bos. protect . to dress. and we actually find bushel. busk. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. To Busk. Thence byrigean. a bunch of twigs. BUSH hreaw. bunch. to dress. Brunne. borcegui. preserve. box wood to bush. truasc. to turn. bundle. Gr. for at buasc. a box. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. to prepare. or — Busk. Harold G. barst. bausen. Sw. defence. Malberg. which would later have truast. gave Lat. busse. induere vestes . Sibriht that I of told. clusprobably Morocco leather. AS. a box for measuring corn. we have Fr. and not directly (as Du. to forest of Eyda. aheap of stones. apparently a secondary verb. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. in OE. thicket of thorns . a bunch. a clot of phlegm sart. a wisp. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. in the For Skirnis . a bush. a rampart. bossen. 'at bua sik. as synonymous with to inake one boun. mount. boxta. burial mound. a bush. It. . a gun biichse. and from the Fr. boissa. -idis.— ' ii8 {chreo. bustellus. R. boistel. bosta. the past participle of the same verb bua. Mid. boisseau. cluster. hunch Du. as boun is simply buinn. Du. a tuft of hair. dead. The primary sense of hair . a tuft. . 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. Layamon. the land. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. It. ' . bramble. OFr. : — . a hump. hjul-bosse. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. a grove bosch van haer. and he cites wisp bauschen. bush. ' —P. bosc. diminutives. The radical idea is seen in Goth. bairgan. borghen. to sepulchre. . signifying to entomb. at bua sig. Brunne. buxida. Fr. to stop. then a tuft Sp. Du. In to Brutaine. —Busk. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. bosch (a diminutive ?). Bush. to bend one's steps. buskr. See Box. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. to bow. a little box Dan. or the like. wisp. is thus accounted for. bousIn the other copy ser. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. Fris. OFr. bo7ich (Fr. whence bouchon. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. buxula. basse. the Moors and of Morocco. G. bulk. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch.gur bidst austur um EySascog. bua. 2. to swell. bouche. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel .boisteau.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. bossida. il fut couch6 l^jkema). verb. a -tavern bush. .fiasc. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. basse. thicket {buski. whence at bua sik. to enclose in a case or box. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia.' sheath.Lat. They busked and malced them boun.' a box. 410. ' . make ready. van wijnbesien. ch). Du. a been written buasc. Bush. bousse. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. sur une litifere. Sir Tristram. biichse. boiste.Lat. tuft. tow. a bundle.' The word is explained by — — .' The buskin is said Bret.-^Bushel. lump. beorgan. The bone in a woman's stays. buysschen. Bouchet. condere. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. bush.) to hide in the ground. bussel. and thence Mid.

Busy. Lindenbr. A A busquer (Sigart). Buss. love gestures. Lang. 10. a bulk or trunk without a head. — hardly be distinct from Fr. to make use of. a bust. bus and Pol. borcegui. baiser. but. ' BUSY 2. lip. tarda. a Mid.bezig. bus. Xerqui. its slowness of flight. . kiss. to occupy. trunk of Cot. lips. outarde. Box. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. abutarda. A wisp. butz. So Wes- terwald munds. bisgung. says. trunk of a tree. Lat.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. Sp. The Prov. — — — — It is like the smouldering. brut. body without arms and legs. a boat or small vessel . or avutarda. btcc. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. mouth. Bav. Fris. a tree. bist. a backstock. betarda. Port. busche. 1555. windbutsch. ottarda. With respect to bust. and by transposition morchequi. Business. — clattering about. Namur — Champagne Fr. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. ^A.d. buta. sunt quas Hispania aves . To hurry or make a great B. and also a sounding blow. — Thus we should have mocherqui. forest. mons. small. a kiss of reverence. Prov. To Bustle. the trunk. also a flagon. busch.' ON. bussen. I. a ship of some size. Bustard. of a doublet. Cot.— . corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc.pjik. Walach. worn to make the body straight . forms morseqiiill. Busk. a bush. a log. in Diaz Gris. a sleeveless truss or doublet. as in ON. hipista. brusc. beezig. besoigAe. body of a woman's dress It. log . avuDiez. vessel employed in the herring fishery. mouth. the breast. buc. See Boss. an affair. B. chest. body of garment. buc. Prov. Du.Lat. the long. trunk. besongne. representing a blow. bu. Bust. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. bisg. So in Fin. Hence probably au-tarda. occupied bezigen. stir. Comp. bussa. 7o\. Bust. bysgje. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. A great sluggish fowl. body. signifying trunk of a the body. body . Rouchi. ' bistardej It. Swiss butschen. would explain the G. 119 bi{tr. or chest in which the vitals are contained. an ostrich. Edrtst. 2. buz. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. a stroke of wind. beso. a great billet Cot. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. knock. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. bukr. a projection. 1372. AS. to Swab. ship Sp. and then with avis again prefixed. bacio. occupation. the point of a lance. to knock . mohedairova. a mouth. 2l box. work. outard. busy. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. to make a splash in the water. of the human body (Grandg. Sw.' Plin. busc. stump. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). utarda. bust. kupata. brostia as well as bostia. a busk. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. from jnund. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. lump. putta. kiss. box. Bulch. busch. On the other hand. also a It. cata — . Fr. bus. bruskras well as buskr. or Cherqui. 22. I go strepo) . basiuin. BUSS Dozy from Arab. made stiff. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . a fishing vessel. business. Sp. — . arbor ramis trunGloss. buc. biseg. abotarda. snout. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. Fl. . body of a man. austarda. bucha. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Sp.). buyse. lip. bisegung. ON. as in moharra from harbe. Cat. smack. the body without arms busque. bustla. statue of the upper part of Fr. busta. a bunch of flowers .D. a blow. Pol. Hal. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. putschen. — — difications of the same word. a kiss. also a busk. busq. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. inde discurro et operosus sum. geidha. Fr. Busitiess :c3iVi . to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. plated body or other quilted thing. pussa. Fr. mosequin. body. ON. bnist. The proceedings of Parliament. knock. Nained from Proximse iis zia. tuft. a large cljest or particular applibox. a kiss. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. Prov. a kiss. ViM. mogangas from gonj.> Also written buskle. a. to bustle. trunk. stem. buquer. bulk. biist. stump. and supposes that the common Arab. bysgian. bust. The form brust. sera. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a blow. otarda. crack . morsequi. I bustle. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. employment bisgan. Gael. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. thick end. Fr. especially of a woman's dress. fe^a. busto. I.

then hoUow trunk. a butcher. Fr. the Perhaps besogne — . butan ce. a cask. rotundity of the body. tinction between but. viz. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. bouz. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. barriga. botte. without buiten-man. Sp. by the mode in which he is treated. without. Whatever is in addition to Butler. a budget. plain the conjunction as signifying boot.The Sp. Du. But In Sc. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. bochier. but one thing. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. a baiTel . beccaro. bute. gives at least two pounds sterling. the body of an animal. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. the servant in charge of the original object. able. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. As a conjunction but is in every portion. biitait slaughterer of goats . earthen which the debtor has adverted. without the house kept in bottles.' Thus Chaucer says. to-boot. outside that moreover. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. binnan. calf. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. without care._ bitten j biiten door. and bot. similar train of thought is seen in ON. It. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. the precise correlative of but. Here the but implies the existence of an. beccaria. Prov. a goat (and not besides . nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. bitten dai. ways. a goat. boccino. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. slaughter-house. the full expres. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . (children) boc. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. young mais. that which would be translated by Fr. is well explained by Tooke. or what in in charge of the pantry. from boc. bouteillier. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. a butcher . I20 la Court BUT du Roi. bisgung.' ' write. without law. If that where now we should compiler. skin-bag. a leathern bag. bolgia. we find ben. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. Butler. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. in addition. properly a butan wite. bocin. a butchery. boteria. Tooke's dis. beyond the Piedm. Wall. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors .' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. ox. hull of a ship. the body of a tree or of a man.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. also a hollow vessel . Lang. bag made of the entire skin of an animal.' there is really a negation to be supplied. — we acle for liquors. hollow case. Fr. Where at an earthen jar . sup- meat and drink. Lang. the belly. bhcciero. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. trunk. botilla. large barrel. collection of casks. ont jhi^ton. the name must have arisen before the within. AS. Sp. The E. equivalent of AS. boquier. the mouth). The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. bout. Ben-house. G. viz. being wholly unten. besides that . moreover.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. bitlga. bous. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. are. original sense of without. ' There is leathern bottle. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. bodifie. bolr. the trunk or body of an animal. But when will you pay it ? the belly. be out. belly. and with It. a bottle.' — — ' . bounds of. the store of ten. those in beccaio. Butcher. bag. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. belly. a small winebag. Butt. So in Italian from becco. a wooden cask. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. Buttery.streets. which the word corresponds to the Fr. as Pantler. But It. .jamin.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. Sp. Fr. the present day we should say. from as. except. botija. an outlaw from bouche. belly. ' Besides all that.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. "PLT) . beta. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. boucher. and the real origin of the and within . bole of a tree. butan. the bottles. without punishment . of the wine and drink. is put in a class by himself. wooden receptthing to be done. the principal apartment.in which his brethren are included. — . add. buta. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. rumpf. the jug and in E. mais. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . . body of a shirt w. calf of the ' say. my is called the adversative use of but. bola. A A . ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. bountifully. bol. OFr. a barrel.

Fr. strike. the thick end. thrust forwards. from bouter.to push. pwtiaw. From Du. a ribbed glass for dient. a hill. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . s'arrgter tout ^ coup. from stossen. butteln. botto. gigot. Butter. — A . thrust.arbre. botta. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. — A . the edge forwards. a stroke di animal.. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. Buttress. stump. bot blijven staan. lams-bout. so as to make a sounding blow. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. a. The word body itself seems identical with G. on. Gr. bouter. Fr. botta. clumsy . give way. short thick thing pimple. Kil. buhsom. boutis. of the present day. but. to butt. a bot. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. G. a boss. Buttel-triib. fowl. to blad.against another which needs support . * Buxom. . able that Chaucer. at. botwm. Boutant. a. bouter. An erection built up as a Fr. a heap of merly called pushes. bud. Cot. bouton. So in English pimples were fora clod. Buttery. trapu. bott. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. bodi. and the true derivation boar. geboogsaem. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. Gris. a button. a buttress Cot. Sp. a little push . is formed the augmentative buttatich. the thigh of a goose. a tub. bata. : . from notirrir. a large belly. fle>(ible. a mound of turf in a field to sup. bottich. To come full butt against a butts. both. to heap up earth or ihrust.putan. as if from Povg. large head. -ez. leg of lamb. coxa. Boutje. . butte. Fr. what is kept in a blow. Fr. i. boutoir. To strike with the head bags. bot. Hal. butz. From the noise of drinkables in a house. a flying buttress. Bav. oir spike with a k coup . from rejeter. a thrust the thigh-bone. — . &c. bout. Du. W.thum and not button. povrvpov. To Butt. Lang. are the strips at the edges of the field. as in G. buttare. to thrust . the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. pied. bottig.' thick from shaking. Schmell. a bun. The Bavarian potig. to thrust. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. potacha. aim whence to make a support to a wall. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. ment being supposed to resemble butter. &c. the rosebud. a stump or club foot. A — — — . bot. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. a mound. Hal.. a button. butter un. nursling. a blow. a corner horses' hoofs. bout. courtaud. Fr. Buttrice. to push earth . boiUer. the prick in the middle of a target. See Butler. botten. or person Schmeller . bouton. nourrissons. any small projection. submit shaking up salad sauce. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. Du. It. boter-vliege. buttals. a dle . butte. by boE. dripping. from bugan. buttern. an ox. in the R. a cask. botte. Gael. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. the trunk. bocsam. to bow. Du. clunis. butt of a person. a bolt. Du. having a rotundity . boter-schijte. Du. thick. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. R. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Perhaps corrupted Lat. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. an etwas anstossen. e. boter-vogel. a buttrice. to thrust Fr. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. AS. Halma. butter. a but in the W. a blow. then the thigh or leg of an to push .— BUTT leg . boil. stump of a tree Fr. a wall butor butt on. striking end. Fr. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . tout seat or breech. . bodi'. boding.rejected thing. to abut on. — — — — . rabodd. Fris. to strike. any short thick thing. to so close to the Fr. to throw . obeto shake backwards and forwards. — . a leg of mutton. the store of while bottich. buttock of beef is called butr. butt. to cast. end . bocgsuin. to boult flour. to femur. From Grisons biitt. signify a cask or tub. butt. as rejeton. W. boteria. obedient. butyrum. humble. waste ground. put. or or shore post. of E. Fr. to thrust. suddenly . Mur-buttant. Schmell. to be con. tress. hillock . butt. Bav. a boss. Button. bothog. pwt. Kil. caput scapula bout van f been. butter. nourrisson. poke. Btetter-schmalz. to thrust. Buttock. buter. Grandg. w. grease that sets by merely standing. a barrel. a button. from the large knobbed head of botto. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. to touch at the end. but this is probably from Fr. a scope. Bout van het schouderIt. to abut a stone roof. Kil. the Butter-fly. Butter-glass.

from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. a borough. \s\xy. Verstegan in R. to swear with him by . OE. bygge. groat in token of his good heart towards him. frabttg- To Buzz. P. bij. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. bycgan. tions by one. AS. Dan. town having separate jurisdiction. bar. A by. byar-rettr. big. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. called Cabala or Tradition. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. blessing me with their of side. buzac. 3. a by-path is a side path . lete. ON. farm. favourably to a petition. Goth. iii. . Pecock Repressor. to sell. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. bauhta. from by. and would have been lost in E. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats.. to wit. & Q. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. who makes abigg. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. . buso.busardj Prov. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. bees. cow-house. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. Etynj. gracious. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. son. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. Lat. Originally the law of a particular town. as heedless as a cock-chafer.— Diet. as Fr. It. byr. Sw. a town. train of thought which has become obso. depends upon a esteem in falconry. — 122 BUY P. to buzz. Du. buteoj Fr. Byre. Cabal. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. stall. from whom it was addressed. a buzzard or puttock.P. The sense of buxom. jus municipii. leges urbanse ON. also say. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. indistinctly. as in Da. bugjan. Then applied to speaking low. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. See Abie. byar-log. confusedly. bylove. Buzzard. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. A A We — — — days' wonder. By-law. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. —gracious of speech. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. bozzago. bylag. G. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. a meke thynge with — alle.— P. a beetle. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. buzarg. and boxome of speche xviii. village. The ON. favourable.in N. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. to purchase for money. harty prayers and God speedes. and it is of good will. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. Too used a Foxes Martyrs.. ii. To Buy. . 519. buzzicare. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. abozzago. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. 200. 116. It. AS. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. Sw. 21. Mercy hight that mayde. to jan. bohte. lb. p. bei. to stand at his side . good-humoured one. to pass by. to whisper. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). Many good mological explanation. A ful benygne buirde. CABAL Goth. bi. bi.

Fr. It. Very generally used. havyar to caviare. accablcr. kakla. Mid. a tunic. capuccio. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. and Ptg. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. agge. cabaii. and as we find stones Mid. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . giiare. as an expression of Gr. origin is the OFr. Celtic. headed or cabbage lettuce. Du. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. — . precisely in the sense of the lari E. —Diet. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . Didot. Ptg. ! — . prostratio ad terram. To steal or pocket. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. a car- We convasare. cab lis. to crush. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. properly windfalls. chadabula. would correspond to cable. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. has kabbel. The Sp. hovel.). Cabbage. — Ibid. Capstan. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. to put or pack up in a frail. Antiq. Fr. headed. gaggele. the Prov. . to hurl in Nat. Cot. dirt and the Fr. Katr-iT-aKt. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. cadabola. cabarino.. in which sense are explained The the OFr. whence Lang. chaable. Cabinet. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. kabat. Du. is probably unconnected. head. to chatter. cabasser. cabus. cadabulum. cabane. a cloak of felt or Cack. kabaSsen. gaggi. . a booth or hut. to hurl down.Lat. mdhaigner. Coticesserint Swiss aa. Kil. Gaggle. dirty. caables. cabo. wilful). serious injury — In like manner It. ckaable. OFr. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. aeggi. cadabalum. vincially used in E. laitue cabusse. forms indi. ceach / exclamation of guages. a head (whence cabochard. from trabocco. heady. overwhelm (Diet. Mid. disgusting such an engine was exerted. Sw. band. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. E. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. a cabbage . To Cabbage. It. kabane. . covering. Lith. gatsch. deponat a store closet. . a covering. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. From It. cabo. Imitative of the cry of hens. Item habeat vocant. Cablisb. agga. form kactal. Fr. nasty. Lang. a frail.. — . especially shepherd's frock. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Du. chaable. a rope or cable. hoard together. capo. to keep or Du. calabre. as Diez supposes). a headed cole or cabbage . and Or. to strain in such a manner . capanna. or cadable. caboche. The name of the engine. &c.' Due. — Tarbe. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. aakkat'a. agge machen (in nurses' language). name of the projectile engine. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . overwhelm. an engine for casting stones. cabbage. Brushwood — — B. : — from violence without blood. Sp. Castr. signifying properly a rope's end. Mid. — the ON. or as an interjection of disMod. OFr.Gr. It.. 'habl. It is remarkable that the Esthon. filth. Fr. Lat. OFr. caqueter. cacare . Cappa in OSp.ticula.. su/Furari. cabas. manganare. round or great headed. main. the bowels. from manganum. cabre. geese. as Turk. &c. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. lactuca capitata. gabardme. bad. Sp. case. cacare. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. . cable . Common to Lat. and Finnish lanLat. originally an Gael. Tugurium. cabuyskoole. string. cabuccio. dung. It. Cabin. cab. OSp. kakaloH. E. Neckam — by the wind. come the Fr. caable. . Etym. cabulus. a rope. caable (in legal language). cadabulum. caable. a jacket Fr. Cot. maim. manticuKil. cadabula. — Kil. stercus. cdble. gaban. for the origin of which see Carabine. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez.Lat. cables.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. brassica — capitata. surripere. akista. signifies down. traboccare. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. a rope. hut. whence Fr. a rope. it would seem fundain children's language. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Fr. disgust. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Choux cabus. and the Arab. The double a in the OFr. cabacho. Finn. chabla.Lat. aak! tandi like Fr. (ca/coe. Due. disgust cac. a shed. w. Due. kabas. vile. the Slavonian. dirty. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. or rush basket. cabre. as it must have stood in French.

one that is brought up by hand a petted child. kdtr. loss. It. or prattle. cabdillo. In the same way Fin. so gabble corresponds with Fr. cykevie. gabberen is identical with E. See Kiddier. calibre. pet lamb. to sleek hence a den. caldarius. kukje. javioler. gabbia. kaeckelenj Gr. Caldron. Calp is riadh. Turk. caldaria. just falling. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. calessa. A — fall. little chief. bad .uv. a wheel. lindrus. frolicsome kaad mund. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Fr. ratas. KaKKat. kauwe. Lat. Fr. a dence. Lat. a hollow place. loss. marrow. incolumis. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. or smooth Hnen cloth. lime whence calcareous. master. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. cage. It is another form of the E. caliche. . It. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. 124 prattle . or colpa na coise. chaudron. Lat. gaggia. Du. Fr. to gabble. * Calibre. Calcialate. principal and interest. It. Cot. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. the pi. kat. calibre. Calash. . Fr. Sp. Serv. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. a caFr. a cake or loaf. kola. colibro. kaka. the bore of a cannon. cage.— . form) calderone. to prate much to little purpose. kalb. whence calash. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. a wheel . Calf of the Leg. pen Mod. calcis. . Perhaps from w. Lat. a reed. hot. Sp. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. one unduly indulged by. cageoler. Lat. gabble. Flo. Du. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. a wretch. capitetum. from the ink-bag which it contains.Gr. from Gr. koeck. jabber. &c. kolasa. a corpse. a cylinder. wanton. chaudiere. Fr. whence Lat. ever and anon. Cadge*. calx. Lat. for green fields. The Calf. Cot. calentura. cauldron. from calculus. Cadence. Calc-. Calandre. —Atkinson. cavea. From lerie. joyous . babbhng. Caitiff. En kaka br'od. Calocli. to cackle . to . chetif. calidus. to heat. a car. Fr. gaggle. KxiKivh^o^. to cage. captive. collop. ' . a roller. kolo. from calendcE. kuchen. Cadaverous. cake. is probably delusive. a wheel . Tea-caddy. — in a kiln. The young G. kalfi. Roman reckoning. coop. lord. a common cart. Du. Mrs B. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. to treat like lime. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. of oxen and similar animals. — — — Dan. Cajol. a waggon . cadet. calba. Fr. Caddy. caioler. a calesh. to throw themselves into the sea. reed-pen. hot . when they are said to poor. unruly . hence musical rhythm. capCalenture. Dan. calendrer. calesa. ben- kalf.— Cot. prate. coll. a loaf of bread. It. cadenza. Sw. on. an inkstand . from the Chinese catty. cuttle-fish. Cot. signifies a waggon. calf of leg. Lat. N. Du. . Calamity. Cake. rattaat (wheels). calculo. kalem. kalfvan hout. the pith or soft part of wood. Turk. Calendar. Pol. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. taking it Sp. a vessel for heating water. Due. dead body. frisky. a tea-chest. cha'cmie cadence. kolyaska. gabbia. its mother. Russ. especially of something soft. kdfich. Lat. chattering. G. a mischievous dial. calidus. the lump and the increase. Sw. Dan. and troublesomely attached to. dial. a lump or large piece. Sw. cadence. cadaver. G. A . a low note. Originally from a Slavonic source. kakulla. Calamary. kolesb. kail. To Calender. disease of sailors from tivus). It. roller. cattivo (from Lat. Sp. the younger son of a family said to be from . cadere. desire of land.warmth . to compute.— Calliper. the calf of the leg. kolyasochka. to — Fr. kolo. pi. calamus. a counter used in casting accounts. Arab. a falling. kolesnitza. calentar. of the nature of lime to calcine. Gael. of which. Gascon capdet. Cage. The Lat. pith. calamitas. Fr. An open travelling chariot. naXaiidpi. Lat. kage. To Cajole. gavia. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. misfortune. a circle. kolo. without loss. a fever. calpa. Lat. * Cade. boy. Cauldron. A cuttle-fish. limestone. wretched. As Du. a calash . A hooded carriage. calendarium. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). . safe. It. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Cadet. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. a small stone. ON. (in the augm. kaad. B. an ugly waggon kolaska. a wheel . Lat.

Fr. prattle. Diez. given. hallottaa. the latter of chamber. . alta voce ploro. cotton cloth. It. To call. ' pert. To Calk. Sir John Smith in Grose. sence of wind. can be distinct from ODu. — Fl. Mil. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. the heat of Now these Du. Hard. Ca. or caliever. cahna. a. kalla. diameter of a ball. to call. calibre. serpens. Kavfia. whehce it was first brought.en~ kinds of firearms. Kil. serpentina. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. but is only a jda-kallo. calk. Callow. calo. voice. nautique). to burn. calvus. however. and heat. quA librd. heat. the Fr. calc. to callet. to affirm.piicede Lat. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. to say. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Caliph. a successor. on. bald.' Slange. kal. femme frivole et babillarde. to be of a good or bad quality. sestus. Sp. kind heat of the sun. Du. couleuvre. kol. According to Jal (Gl. dragonder. qAlab. Lat.meaning of the word. caliver. to calk. Diet. calcare. chatter. harquebus or handgun. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Mid. dial. Unfledged. 125 Prov. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . Lat. CALM to press or stuff. try. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. Calico. kal. whence couleuv. of a column. skin hardened by labour. to proclaim. calleting.' Whitby Gl. Fr. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. cauque. calgua. overheated. Ptg. which has its memory preserved in Du. i. people's remarks. calare. a good calling. and dragon. them &c. * Callet. quiet. vulgo Coluvrine. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. Dief. Sp. scold. klover. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. kil-u-kal. or languishing drought is .' Chaucer. calma. bombarda Cauma incendium. Bi. drive. caluw. callus. kahcwe. * Caliver.— . coluber also. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. piece of bigger circuite. or mould. trull. Gael. calca. calat of leude demeaning. gossiping. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. chatter kallen. the day. kallo. depreciatory term for a woman. coulevrine. to abuse . coluber. to tread. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. The word was also written cawme in OE. a soldier who the It. calcaich. harden by pressure.Lat. to rail or scold . Gr. Lang. Calm. of the bore of a firearm met. sound. quality. push violently. To century was Squalibre. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. culverin. the Fr. Among these were the turn. — — — — — . scalmato. Sc. . form.' Winter's Tale. Due. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. ram. a last. oldire from audire. 'A callet of boundless tongue. fistula. Fr. NE. Call. which is as much as to say. Indies. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. longior. dragoon. kael. saucy. heat.. ' rine. calme. brawny. Kil. done with heat Alt. donderbuchs Sp. So It. hollaing.(jaa= ice). and E. having a thick skin. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. Fr. calibre. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. Fin. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. glotton. the scalp or skull. by many that the weapon Callous. calicot. colubrina. moist. a drab. calor. Ibid. colubraria canna. whereas in troth it is not. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). — — — — — . calclover. KaXka. faint. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . a round of abuse. hot. To drive tow or oakham. tittle-tattle. and sometimes a handgun. cauma. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. faint. callum. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. licht stuk The change from a. Sup. from Calicut in the E. koluvre. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. khalif. CALICO Calliper-compasses. water-tight. Derived by some from Arab. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. E. The primitive colubrina bombarda. an adder. Heb. to call. sclopus. tapulta. form in the kalib. overscalmaccio. abto suppose that E. moso.position is much less common than the geschut. Fin. to hear. u to an I in such a colubrum. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Antiq. a feathers.' But it is hard Du. Turk. B.from Ka'tm. The reference to heat is preserved in. AS. The origin is Gr. Mahn derives it from Lat. calma. to cram. to prattle. ululo Turk. word of mouth . the hard surface of the ground. caillette.

salmon. See Canker. Cambrav—Cam. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. An eater of human flesh. lattice. had no r in de bric— Cot. a basket.Gr. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand.—Candidate. arch. a field Greek monk. Peter Martyr. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. It was distinfrom work. Lat. canalis. candidus.who their language. the space of false imputation. samon. camisa. a piece. Palsgr. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. catmneo.. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. the type of a hollow pipe. camahutus. cambrer. Pers. From campus was formed Lat. camiscia. — B. clothed in white. champagne. Fr. Canker. canna. cup. From fluting or furrow in a column . or hollow of a flower. Gr. cainahelus. hooked. It. a crab. callar. crooked-stick. — Lat. a' Sc. crooked. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. is Candle. Cann._ kamm. the salmondis faillis thair loup. a dog. cambr^. camelot. cere : Lat.—Cambrel. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Sp. whence the Fr. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. arched. champ. bis. Sp. co7nbar. . field . India Islands. campren. canis. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Cancer. on. a caught. — — — A — — escume de saumon. campagna. Arab. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. having an aquiline nose. Bret. campaign. brought from Fr. ko/utuXoc. spot for cattle. cancer. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. died in 1526. toile some of whom. It. campo. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. a may have acquired that signification from plain. to the force of the wind. cancello. fresh. ckaouma. KafivTu. the bed of a stream. cAouma. fair. camelus. Or the word Lat. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Fr. Cambrel.— B. camafeo. cup. Lat. camber-nosed. to jut. also an eatmg sore. Lat. Cot. higher in the middle than Fr. chamold man. the spersed with white flakes like curd. or Caribs. Camisade.conduit-pipe.— Hackluyt in R. Calyx. the heat. The Grisons cauina. across — Bellenden in Jam. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. Calumny. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. an eating. Lat. It. crooked. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. to warp. canistrum. se cameloter. Properly calver in the field during a war. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. camaien. Canibal. Calver of cane. . Camel. Cambray. from candere. E. Lat. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. when its substance appears inter. lie level. mg Canister. the calix. is Cambering. different sections of the like the Chinese.— Chandelier. It. Gr. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Mid. calutmiia. sugar. It. to glow. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. monk. white. unwater chamelot . Canal Channel. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. campagna. Camp. good. nia. aspirant. Fr. Cameo. and yspiuv. B. Lat. Fr.—Jam. chaitcre.' ' Quhen a lattice. w. to bow.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. calj'x. camp. campus. Camlet. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. from xaXbg. Cambric. Lat. Fr. campagne. ation. crooked. candela. frank and sincandidatus. a goblet bud. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. KafitjUe.' Forme of Cury in Way. E. to bend. callour. — Cancel. Fr. crook. chandelle. cambre. Canine. Sp. paign. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. It. sore. arched. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. B. Candy. at the ends. open and level ground. Candid.Lat. Turk. properly good country. aged. a. to break. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. In a different application It. cam^e. camisade. Ptg. camiscieia. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Caloyer. icaSoytipoe. A — the Cannibals. campo. cambren. E. whence the noun signifying an applicant. kanna. Kakoycpos. whence Fr. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. Sanson khanda. a. slander. Fr. water chamlet . would plenier. chommer. Mod. lame. a large drinking . Fr. to bend. Campaign.

^on.CANNEL vessel. Of vena cava and of vena porta. It. from . cantle then is a corner of a thing. Cantle. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. cappe. and the sex- &c. cappa. cane. From Gr. cappe. It. regular. From Lat. tain. cantina. a wine-cellar or vault. cane. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Hence Lat. It. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. a cloak kapali. or hold. Kil. canonici. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. W. and met. Mod. part. call. the heel. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. kand. If the word had been from cantherius. cantref. side. To his judicial And trowl the tile. edge.Gr. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. a Fr. a boat. Capable. It. Gael. a — A — Cannel Coal. cover kapi. from Dan. quito curtain. is found languages of very different stocks. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. kwvwxIi. Cannoii. a hunch of bread. cape. shut. pipe. It. Canopy. canapaccia. a cap. Sp. &c. hirnschlapple. Fr. cantred. ON. To canvas — . hamlet. chape. properly a large Prov. the part easiest broken off. canevas. measure for cloth. cannu. root cap. region. Probably only the augmentative of canto. chanteau. . astrology. Kavt\. It. kaput. The meserseum and the mesentericum. he discourseth of dissection. hemp. carcase . clqse. Canoe. chantel. OFr. quarter . a small boat. See Capt-. Picard. cainnt. Germanis kdppen. speech.— Cot. from cant. to sing.Gr. cannabis. cannone. schlapp. a hundred. capax.. also a measure. as. Du. Cot. a side. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. kandt-broodts. Esthon. Fr. rumme. a ruler. capace. cheese. a cantle of bread. a corner. leiwan kanta. or cantell of bread. Schwab. Fin. Alamannis. name. say. gnat. cane. can. kanta. corner. trine. kynnel. hood. to contain. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. margo panis diffracta. canoa. Swab. from a Canter. Diez. a reed. cantone. Cape. Again we have Lat. coarse hempen cloth Fr. caparazon. a torch. the tried list of saints. a rule or standard of excellence. a gelding. which is not the case. contain. to con- rummer. language. a cover Turk. was formed Kavtiiv. Canvas. coat. A . territorial hundred. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. to shut. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral.n. a cloak. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. Gugel. from canna. KCLvva. a pipe. cannevaccia. Capacious. like a torch or candle. has kahn. a reed. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. &c. kapamak. Mod. a straight rod. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. kantr. it would have been found in the continental languages. canton. that the G. A piece of anything. cover . Cope. To Canonise. a tube. a drinking glass. Sp. canapa. a division of a country. being a yard or thereabouts . Prov. Canon. coarse hemp. KaTTiram. a scull- — here. See Chape. Wtb. and tref. canon. a horn of the moon . N. B. a cane. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. canteau. cope. Lat. canonicus. quarter. Cant. Palsgr. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. . able to receive. the heel. border. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. Capari. haitt. kyndel. covered. canvas. kq. hemp. as a cantle of bread. cannevo. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. schlappen. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. signifying cover. The word seems to be taken from Gael. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. capevole. lump. The — . Canteen. Fr. Jonson. Goldast — in in Schmid. to put upon sacred writers. a door . capello Italis. Canton. border Dan. It. A slow gallop. canto. Coal burning with bright flame. . a ship canot. and hence a gobbet. . the quartile. capa. But it may be different source. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. cane. Sp.

capro. is either wholly lost. brisoler. to crackle. Lat. Caprice. h^risser. shivering. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. — — A a hair. Fl. Torriano. erica. or goat's leap (done by a horse). rihrczzoso. Cot. cut off. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn.). or other things. cApre. greziller. a caper in dancing. as Fr. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. Capers. and OHG. — to yearne. 75. It. hair. Fr. a caterpillar. Hair-like. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. to ruffle the surface of water. Fr. horripilation. heath. the head. CAPRICE twittering.) grezille marid. wriggle. kid. capitulare. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. horror. the hair to stand on end. to twitter as birds. cover of a saddle. gives rise to Sc. Griller d'im' patience. alcaparra.' Cot. curly. I have shivered with love. So from Sw. Lang. A headland. algabr. gricciare. then find the symptoms of shivering. a head. toy. frizzle. gives rise to brezza. to shiver for cold. to fry. then to shiver or shudder. a young kid met. It. frisser {frissement d'un trait. to crackle. compared with Bret. a buck.— 128 CAPE a rustling. Mod. a ch illness. brezilia. Caper. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . Sp. as Fr. birsle. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. <I>pi'?oe. caprice. the head. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. a yearning through sudden fear. sault. a kid. To treat Capitulate. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. they longed extremely to see it. to desire earnestly. eruca compared with It. Lat. and his body bristled We to castrate. of a fowl. capar. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. Lat. chief. the initial mute of forms like Gr. Hence capitalis the sum lent. caper j caprio. of a tremtdoiis sound. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. capriola. Lat. or. or Lat. a . as in Lat. frort^Lat. gricciare. grisser. roughening of the skin. capriole. Acad. humorous. curling. arricciarsi. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. with joy' Vikram. And similarly to yearn. Fr. cut. chattering of the teeth. brisciare. principal.impressions on the ear. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. ericius. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. to from capitulum. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . riccio. brisciare. arricciarsi. Unexpected pleasure. frisson- ner . bristling. also the capriole. the principal part of the debt. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. knis. aggricciare. airoKOTrrw. as Fr. the hair to stand on end. bristling. then to be in a state of vibration. according to the Hindoos. to . shrub. brisciare. the singing'bone). See Chief. as the means of earning profit. It is probable that Gr. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. a separate division of a matter. Capillary. and 7tucc. II bresole (Gl. to broil. It. where Burton adds in a note.standing on end. ticchio. w. a chevret. hedge-hog. Capital. brug. Arab. prickly husk of chestnut. a hedge-hog. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. It. to chill and chatter with one's teeth.) d'etre The It. ziki. The same imitation of Capon. knis-hujwud . capriol or caper in dancing. a capriol. belonging to From caput. Fr. ribrezzo. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. bruco. . to shiver. end. upon terms Sp. cappriccio. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. p. grisser. explained by Diez from capra. and with an initial gr instead of br. curl. shivering. abridge amKoTroq. s'hdrisser. caj)o. A . G^' Many words — ' ndv. grillcr. grug. rissoler. It. to parch. It. or represented by the syllable e.Gr. a goat. to broil.' — (Supp. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. crackling sound Cape.— Fl. The true derivation lies in a different direction. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. Hal. castrated cock. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. It. of a coach. ^piKos. a little head. fansuddenly angry. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. capparis. herissonnement. Genevese bresoler. castrated. capillus. frissoner. to shudder.'— Trev. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. hi. brissle. caprice It. capitalis. It. for which he cites the Comask nucia. greziller.

an engine for throwing stones. Capt-. also tresFl. a coffer. -cept. oisr. Cot. chevre. recibir. as the dragoons (Du. OSp. krul. Fin. Fr. Capriole. It. cabrestante (whence e. conception. Carbine. karra. desire. Kiittner. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. except. Lat. chirrion. i The meaning Car. G. captus. also a kind of rack.of these compound verbs. deception. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. dim. crab s. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. was converted into -ceb. strideo. a capuchin. Fr. precept. cabreia. calabrino. hold. conceit. latterly. Lat. perceive. capio. calabrin. caprice. capuccio. cabestrantej Fr. conceive. from head. cams. It. also to carry on a car . But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. a hood (dim. caricare. a sudden will. was a kind of horse soldier. caput. one odd. commander. to receive receptio. 129 — receive. Lat. concevoir. and has accordingly been lost in E. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. karren. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. recipio. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. recipere. Du. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. It. a windlass. a cloke) capuccino. — — Capstan. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. cabestan. concebir. to take. cabra. decepte. a creaking waggon. at least. It. Fr. caThe hrestante. to load . In the S. deceit. It.s. Thus the musket. carabin. a cart. Du. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. It is a standing crab. the -cevofthe Fr. Carabin. -cept. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. a she-goat. trestle. or the (capo-riccio). tnoschetta. fancy. carretta. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. Carry. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. Fl. See Caper. Capsule. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. a. accept. and tropically. captive. a kind of torture. Fr. Crab. verbs gives rise to the element . name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. karrende waegen. a reception. fantastic. capitis. and of captus to an e. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. capp%tccio. where it forms a very large class of compounds. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. a head man. and has thus descended unaltered to English. &c. Capuchin. Cart. of the Sp. Neumann. carro. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. to take to. was originally a missile . charger. Etym. recepte. kerren. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. Capstern. charret. Carabine. Captain. Fr. Fr. to carry . Cot. a. to please. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. a taking back. crepo. acceptus. to this is It. of capsa. sels. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. In cases. . however. -ceive. de- price. Fr. box. Derivatives are Fr. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. to take baclc. Sp. captivate. to creak. Sp. It. as in accipio. to accept. charrier. Castr. concept. as in OFr. Passing on into E. karista. intercept. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. concipere. a hooded friar. a sawing-block or trestles.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). shivering fit (Altieri). which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. &c. Caseneuve in Diet. seize. Lat. contain. &c. capitano. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. The It. di cappa.or -cib-. recevoir. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. capra. capsula. chirriar. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. — —Diet. char.). to creak. bock.). a sudden fear apprehended. case. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. receptus. It. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Nordfoss. whence capture. a fantastical humour... It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre.

the case of the flesh. Carat. a thistle. a snail. to hiss (as gee^e). The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. chevre by the name of the goat. caravela. Caraool. boch.. to card wool. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. carere. the trunk or chest of the body . the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. a lock of wool .Gr. karri. Gael. carmiiiarc. also (as Gr. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. Comp. carate. W. coming to four grains. a quiver . mural attack. carduus. &c. a thistle. caraffe. of the same Caravan. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . The Trjg xeXwwac. the .. alia sunt majora. a ship. the core of fruit . quilato. a goat. seed of carob. cabreia. Fr. quse vocant karabd. caracal. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. a twist. Mod. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. the carob bean. It. shell. Cot. avSpaS. of carbo). skeleton toise. Derived in the first edition from Mod. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. KtpaTwv. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. garafa. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a quiver. It. confining. Carcax. bock and Fr. cabrita. Lith. Carbuncle. carbo. Fr. properly a siege machine. to ripple flax. fire . carquan. Bohem. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. a quiver. carcame. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. for a gun. carcanada. Caravel. and catapulta. An implement for dressing wool. the shell of a torcarcasso. Gael. black dye. carch. a he-goat. eitar. Arab. Gr. restraint . Cot. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. the dead body of any creature.charcoal . From the battering-ram. skeleton. carcasa. wool card. Pers. a crane. a winding staircase. . A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. Lat. cerran. carcaij. a skeleton. is the word used in modern Lat. Card. kirat. wine- bottle. a case or chest . I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. an engine for hurling stones. case. cdrlag. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. Carbonaceous. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. winding carach. Carrob. casso. Sp. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. turn of a horse. Sp. It. to curry horses karsztuwas. Lat. Sp. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. decanter. Parmesan cassiron. designated in the case of G. a coffer. cardo. military engines made for hurling stones. carbh. contract. cabra. . carta. «capa'|8i. cramp.. a prison.z. to comb. cassa. the husk or cod of beans. I. a firelock. also a small weight. carbunculus (dim. karra. poison eiz. skeleton. an ulcer. krciti. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. Ptg. silique. Carcase. is the chine. &c. to comb wool . a quiver . a gem resembling a live coal.Gr. winding. Exot. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Gr. carcanet. to draw in. the name might naturally Mod. p. kerwan. carquois. carabba. card. Gael. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. Sp. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. a machine for casting large darts. Sp. &c. a collar or chain for the neck. . to card wool. or framework. See Carpenter. Gael. copperas. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. a dead carcase. . ON. a kind of ship. kard boyd. Cat. a ripple for flax. a wool card.applied to a battering-ram (G. car. AS. turning. karszti. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. OHG. the carcase of a fowl.. constraining . and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. ancient springald. a small weight. vitriol. word is only an adoption of the Turk. burning coal. Fr. eit. It. Fr. bend. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. The radical meaning . But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. in the same way that the Sp.' From the same source are SicU. carabe. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Carboy.— — — . caraffa. curry-comb. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. carquasse. It.. espi7igarda. ' Vasa vitrea. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . a card or comb . tcapKaai. Venet. to creak. . — seems to be something holding together. to turn. matter. a battering-ram).

asper. intrasset caro. sgritudo animi. Sp. the load of a ship. charger.— CARD karr-kambar. to parch. and G. care. . Dan. It. an overloaded representation of anything. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. clown or churl. AS. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. . in N. — — — : Cardinal. male person. Carnage. Chart. carina. caricare. Ptg. and murhet. charta (Gr. moeThe Lat. from the keel to the water . to comb flax or hemp. charneux. at murmuring. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. to load. wool cards. that on wliich the matter hinges. morosus. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. zanken . solicitous. A mod-carag. Card. camovale. carnal. cargar. a deed. carch. karrig. Farewell flesh. W. winding. Fr. graller. cdrle.Lat. rixosus. — — . AS. croller. Fr. chartre. carrefourg. It. or grumbling —Due. morosus sum. be anxious. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. Roquef. to fry or broil. Bret. immediately before the long fast of Lent.. and thin. Mur. G. combing them out like the knots in wool. the old theory of humours. AS. bottom. ON. to rumble. 8. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. surrata. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. charie. one of those ac- 9 * . 273. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. the hull of a ship. Cath. Carminative. grief. a man. fleshy . karista. giierlir. car. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. to clean the bottom of the ship. the flesh of animals . kroU-erbser. carnasciale. caricatura. and compare Bret. kummer. de Parthenay. as carminare. karry. a highway. A quirito ut infans. to load. crowl. Probably the origin of the word is the . from carrus. charnel. record. carnavale. cearian. p. Groler. stridere. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. regar. E. care on. & Q. Champ. to whirr (schnurren). karout. crosier. Carled peas. from carus. Carenare. ceorl. cura may be ror. Venet. from caricare. . dear. Fin. a card.. Fr. gakaran. . carriire. to eat flesh. A place where four roads Mid. caritia. Carl.' Slceat. — — Diez. G. For the root of carminare. as peas. W. Peas steeped and fried. Fr. affection. charg. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. from Lat. Sept. kara. caru. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Fl. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. murista. fundamental. tuorfurcm (Burguy). Lat. Charnel. cura intenta. cardo. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. sorrow. to fry. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. see Garble. karg. niggardly . carena. kurista. Properly a car-road. Fin. Cartel. carezza. or street. Cot. cargo. It. OFr. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. Fr. tremble. — Carfax. Fr. to scratch. astutus. beans. the several meanings of the words above Rom. carcare. . compared with Fin. quaver a lazar's clack. crawl. that Fl. &c. voce strepo stridente. is This however Shrove tide. Sp. Care. sensual. quadrifurcum from quameet. road. murahtaa. mutter. kribina. Cot. murren. karantez. also a career on horseback. whence carricare. x'»P'"^s)) paper. to growl. tenax. carian. carnis. charag. — — — Caress. parched or carled. to lie on its side. carena. to distress growl. w. to shake. cardinis. Cargo. It. Fr. Lat. Bois crolant d'un ladre. It. Bret. carminare. karl. carnalis. a turn. is to say. Cark. msstus. love. place for exercise on horseback. Coll. Fr. 2. to care unkarja. ress. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Translated in MS. W. act of moaning. hoed. cearig. carFrom carrus. carener. From. It. the keel of a vessel. an endearment. principal. to card wool. like connection may be seen between Fin. sorrow. appertaining to the flesh. 1S66. essere in carena. . to comb wool. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. in St Jerome. A medical term from line —Boerio. to take Goth. ON. Gael. caresse. . Trin. No ' place there had.Lat. careless take care of. the time during which to Rom. the keel. Carlings. piger. to scrape . ignarus. what is felt as grievous. stingy. and sum. soUicitus OSax. Carnal. carriera. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. Properly. a hinge. scharren. charnage. — To Careen. Caricature. four. weyes. grolU.— Charter. meet at a head. kumra. to load. kargr. to love. It. caMid. . Cot. carcus. quarreG. OHG. strideo. in Carp.

Ant. whence the form carnasciale. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. tymmer. So gone they forthe. sense. as carnaval from carnelevamen. bier. Fr. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. carpetrix. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Gael. chatter. to pull asunder. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. in Nat. Chanson de carole.— R.' Reg. From Lat.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. Mediol. to gather. carpia. In a MS. in Carp. pluck at. Fr. I drink all out. ' ' — . and Carnem laxare (It. In Dominica d'autant. garrulo. garrire. of Guiana. carpenter only in the latter sense. Alluz (G. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. all aus). a car carpentarius.— Drant in R. Teut. Pm. carpentum. Sup. peta.]e bois Carnelevale. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Carpet. 216. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. carpenticre. — — ' ' — — — I — — . All out B. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. as E. to talk. On this. carnelascid). cxciv. carbh. culcitra. lint. balade from It. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Bohem. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Carole. Mid. linteamen. is erroneous. 94). and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. querole. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. or loose as a couch without further preparation. ballare. Templariorum — ' — Due. Other names of the sea.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Palsgr. carpat (Stokes). biheld without. Here's to you still my captains friend. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. To pledge them thou refuse. to find fault with. Carpyn or talkyn. quoted by Carpentier.gonnella. at midnight which derivation from kroes. a carder. krapati. Nomin. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. The custom.Lat. a drinking cup. act of drinking a full Eq. 1 1 30. Analogous R.' Ordo Eccles. zimmer. Shrove Tuesday. chariot carbad. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. to dance. tattle. Gower in Way. in Due. . W. as Fr.Lat. Discov. yede tham about. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. cardos. krapanj. a song accompanying a dance then. gonna. skraf. a wheelwright. on that. to dance. i. carpende fast Carol. carpenta. Cot. a plank. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out.' says Motley (United Neth. to reel. Carnevale. Carpitam habeat in lecto. e. Lat. Carnelevale. was formed Mid. Dief.'— Stat. charpentier. chatter skra/a. 2. Pref. carduz. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. A. Bret. — . cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Sp. or a carouse fully drunk up.— Patriarchi. differing To Carp. carpita. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. carpere. and F. course.' Raleigh. 2. Lat. to chatter coroli. 760. vel coopertorio carebit. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Mid. carpetam (a quilt?). litter. ! Carouse. On the other hand bumper to one's health.D. worker in timber Fr. ON. gar aus / all out is correct. Properly a round dance. Lat. pluck. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. I quaught. to rustle. cited by Marsh. i.: . ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. The karole of the stones behelde. charpie. ship. to pluck.Why give's some wine then. . carpo. a dance. koroll. Beggars Bush. Ein we find the signification transferred from . used for stuffing mattresses. a wheelwright. .Lat. qui sacco. The ' ' a chariot. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. zimmerspan. chirp.— Neum. Olr. maker of waggons It. The word seems of Celtic origin. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Biheld within. The tippling sots. Pr. fabulor. as the Lat. Carpenter.

a of water. Fr. Walach. casualis. a car. cancelled. casag. — — . abrogate. Fr. caxa. charogne. See Gristle. Sp. to — — also casse. The carrying of anything. a merchant's cash or counter. an augmentative from Lat. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. hung up in some place and to be removed. casco signifies a skull. charrier. Cash. Cot. Lat. Fr. Preparatory drawing of a It. cassa. afterwards any written challenge. casser. made void. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. mord-grube. cassette. bitten. a canonry or slaughterhouse. Hence a challenge openly hung up. — — nul the proceeding. corresponding to the G. cancel. fall It. slaughter-house. Rouchi carone. carroccio. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. for the security of the defenders. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. See Card. to an- — Kil. a fall. a loopscale the wall. Du. casa.to annul. caro. casitiste. carriaggio. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. to dash. quasser. a long coat. fortuitous. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. a chest. To Carry. not reaching to the height of the ditch. Cartoon. cartilage. AS. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. gristle. caisse. Casket. to break. The Sp. shell or carcase of a house. quash. G. cascar. break to pieces. Carrion. and that apparently from capio. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Case-mate. Fr. properly to convey in a car. Fl. ' Casa-matta. kasseren. a car. Cask.. dim. kerpu. a chance or accident. — Cartridge. the charge of — — Fr. Fr.' Fl. tion from Sp. ceorfan. like all the names of tendon. Carriage. hollow. carota. Rouchi carpHe. OE. Fr. of carta. coffin of paper for groceries. Cassock. casso. to crack. to bear or carry. charrette. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. to fire on the enemy. casuelj Fr. and matar. caisse. It. coffer. Gael. from Lat. ignominiously exposed. Lat. gristle. Cartel. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . case. To quash an indictment. cashiered. Carrot. crush. mord-keller. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. from casa. Fl. It. — Cartoose. Cot. cartella. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. void cassare. also the carriage. It. cassere. casacca. packing ' cloth. cartoccio. hull of a ship. carogna.— Fl. — FI. cascata. card. cassus. as we . empty. carrosse. carreaggio. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. Fr. one who reasons on cases put. Fr.' Cot. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. carretto. discharge It. cascade. To duash. cia. Case. caisse. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. from It. See Case. subject for a picture. Casque. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. caroche. annul. capsa (Diez). Probably.' — Hdcart. Cart. to fall. blotted out. long man's gown with a close body. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Case. kirpti. carroc- carrozza . turn out of service. It. a hut. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. discharge. Ready money. Fr. from the sound it makes when Alban. to slay. Cascade. an act of falling. to cut or carve . the money chest. Lith. cut with scissors. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. To Carve. To Cashier. Casual. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. case-maiej Sp. cassa. Fr. Flor. AS. cartone. and the OE. It. to hold. Hence casket. from It. to convey in a cart. where Fr. house. to notch. crown of a hat. krat. to shear. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. mata. Rouchi caroche.' Bailey. Sp. CartOTicli. pasteboard. It. Casuist. Lat. cascare. of carro. des rideaux A'carp^ie. something that actually occurs. Lat. vault hole in a fortified wall. helmet. cartouche. carretta. paper. Fr. casaque. Fr. casus. a coffer or small case for jewels. It. As defence from shells became more important. kerben. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. caroach. a paper case. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. luggage. It. casa-maita. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. kerven. bag and baggage of a camp. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. augmentatives of carro. augm. It. Du. Rouchi carter.

puras E. cassa / cry for the same purpose. dim. cacciare fuora. to drive Cat o' nine tails. chasuble. or Rouchi cat. race. kasi. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. 134 CAST Catacomb. Pic. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio.to drive out. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. perhaps from which we have E. KaraXoyog. n. follow after. kasta. ating. Catastrophe. castana. on. crush . Fr. a Cataract. to crack. to hunt.'— Pr. Chase. lance. to turn overturn. cacciarc. arpi^m. kottr. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela.out cacciare .— Fl. . represented by the syllable quash. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. klakka. stilts. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. rack. OFr. to Fl. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. a whip on the other into latch. Fr. casulla.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. V Lith. fall. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). down. KaTaarpifm. It. to end. kakka. and from the castus. To It. B. casule. . Cast. was introduced. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. down. squash. chasser. kic' kicil are used chasser. kotas. chaleur. to look at. a vault. of castrum (castra). Lat.. kotas. cascar. drive away. squash. Roukind. dash. chat. to close. to make clean or chaste. to drive away. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. Fr. Others explain it from Kara. a chesnut . is not satisfactory. torture. bot-kotis. to hurl See Awgrim. accastiare. being Fin. the stalk of plants. image accasciare.. Fr. casser. from the first of Castrate. handle of an axe. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. Castle. from water Karappaaaiii. Gr. in the fire. heat . signifying breed. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. a garment for performing the mass in. to lash. by the loss of with several pitched cords. The Diet. a thump. To Catch. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. So also from It. — We a cavity. . Lang. Lat. to clack.Rouchi Scaches. ' Catchyn away abigo. chasser. speak of dashing a thing down. Sp. koshka. second chase. Pm. Fr. to torture.Lat. to dash. Cot. punch. cat. to scourge. ON. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India.the / or c respectively. which has been retained in E. a cat . cat-o'-nine. execu. . fer toTa. of sarabands does Gr. cash. kissa. KaTappaKTrjQ. shaft of a 1 push. and KviilSog. to is Essentially the Sp. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Hal. catar. Etym. Thus we have Caste. however. puss / for calling them. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . a fortified place. burst cascare. while kiss / Pol. first made ordinary Fr. _G. catch. under chi caleur. force j Rouchi equerviche. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . cast. Yz. name. The E. cojz^/a. or bruise together. Fr. Hence castaneta. Fr. kaJoivad. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. a cat koshki. away. Fr. kat. Pol. Sp. 'Vaaaw. to bring to an crack given by the joints. ecrevisse. a little house or hut. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. the ground . Gr. to break. Castanets. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. to fall as over a precipice. castanetazo. . ichasses. Gael. an enumerlist. castello. same word with break. R. coming to us through different dialects of French. the castanets for or implement . Catalogue. &c. castellum. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. 120. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. In the dialect of Picardy. probably from an imita. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. tails. katze. Fr. casipola. which. V. casupola. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. cacciuolo. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. the earlier sense of catch. Isidore — in Diez. or comba. It. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. and tomba. It. Mid. Cat. sue. mino. to crackle. dashing it out of the window. dashing it to pieces. like that of It. to cast or beat to tioner . Brunne. castro. KarapaKrr]g.

' Fr. a little dog). cross-bow that carries but a From poll. sound. Rouchi clincailleux. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. G. a cornIn the s. resono ictu lash. icarrix'Ki^. flap klatsche. clap with the hand. P. — Catcli-poll. snatched. Du. Cot. chachara. a — gatta. ArbaUte de courte chasse. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. to chatter with the teeth cake. . above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. chassoire. apprehend a person. klatsch. c or ^. and answer. instruction in forms. Du. E. . blow. a whip Rouchi cachoire. claquer. ecachoire. glcu. chatter . klatscherei. Cot. to harangue. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. 'Horxa. happe-chair. the the same principle he was Fr.from Bard and ayopsw.. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. cat is not apparent. On Catechism. a caterpillar Milanese can. Chate peleuse. dainty vic- a form lash. devouring mite or weevil. caucht. s. In the XV'e. Kartiyopta (/cari. e. to crack GATES cache. quincailler. door when it is shut. to A bailiff. 135 — Aasen. a. clap. catch. de Bray. 'Bxn. Diez. ictus resonans. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . to catch strength. Metivier. GaUa catchiza. i. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. to chat. OFr. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. seize. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. * Cates. Gael. pedes. has both or of charming by sound. predicament. companaige. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. in order). klatsche and Norm. a whip or Kuttner. as of the latch of a As ! — . compare G. — . snatching it with a any one.' ^Jam. cagnon (a dog). catch. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. e. woodlice. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. a smack. Fr. from Gr. caker. insect. to take. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. klinke. from shutting with a click. catch-flesh. to snatch (said of dogs). to the crack. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. Wal. the distance to which the ball is struck. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis.s. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. resound. to kythe D. head. dainties. . the larva of the cockteufelskatz. the elements of a science. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. — tinman. to teach by oral instruction. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. is said that he got a claucht of it. chenille {canicula. . verberare kUts. worm. * Caterpillar. called in Fr. formerly called cliket. Gr.V. Kil. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). children's name for cat . a whip. chatter. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. catc?u. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. . Cates. ' ' word catch. millecaterpillars. Caterer. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. gingle. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . or any kind of relishing food tuals. ketsoore. snatching. bichano (pussy). Tutschek. with and without an / after the c.V. smack.) . latch.j. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. chase. E. cache. Sp. chasse. Du. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. silkworm. which all . the OE. KaTtix'so. weevils. Fr. chink. kletse. Claucht.P. — with a whip.' CATCH Fr. called dog or Galla catchamza. Grandg. to clap hands. klatschen. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. E. — explained. Gael. a whip. Ptg. a carter's Pat. gliong. kaetse. Swiss Lombard G. a clap. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. bicho. to snap. an accusing. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . Kil. Guernsey chafer. — B.yopl(. a pill. Sc. gattola. latch of. fragor kletsoore. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. chacepol. a. wild-beast. clatter. Guernsey pilleure. an officer of taxes. Fr. — Kiittner. whip. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. kletsen.

Fr. Fr. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. reticella. klopfend knallen. flock. kautsije. hot. Cavalcade. G. chaudiire. Gr. from caveo (p. — Cauterise. and hence a skull-cap. acater. Fr. a horseman. Fr. puss. to buy. Sx. catons. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. a pulpit. a paved road. Cattle. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. the. catkin Pol. challe was ther of a temple. a kind of skull-cap. . — — cavallo. kopano. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Cauldron. accattare. Cathedral. from chaud. Fr. Kavrijp. B. otherwise written kell. kocie. Bessie of Bednall. cavus. caudex . choufleur {choii. cat maczoka. Caudle. Lat. Ka^afriKOQ. catkins . of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Mid. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. to burn. mudet.. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate.Lat. cavaliere. That he was ay before in his estate.^Hal. CATHARTIC sense. Jonson in R. The word — . Caustic. and spareth for no perell. Cause. 2. . Cavalry. Fr. Lat. Fin. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. catkin mitz. ' Gr. to shoe . a mare.. the stones of a street. dumpf tonen. macska. . to ac- — Fr. Mid. shaled or picked Fr. quire. OE. It. caple. chatideau. katteken. cautis. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. kobyla. w. koparet. whence cathedralis. chair. cabbage-stalk. chaudroii. It. but the acates that are sent him. caballus. . chauderon.' B. a road calceata. • — — See Chattel. Fr. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. fur in general. Cavern. the caul of the liver. Cavity. Delycates. a receptacle for small things. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. Russ. a pavement. Provider. a horse . mutz. cauHs. calceata. KaPaWrii. adcaptare. kobuiV. by land. Cavalier. Lat. Cave. achepter. Palsgr. . Manciple's Tale. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. cale. kitten kotki. despencier. katte. any Fl. It. Wyatt in R. green husk of a calon. kaussijde. Catkin. Port. calidus. to shoe. Gr. &c. — . and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Kil. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Gael. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. catnever sells — — Cauliflower.Y\\Xea. flue. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Du. On the other hand. chaussJe. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Cathartic. a seat. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Fr. acaptar. to shale or peel. cautus). is used in the sense of cat-skin. It. walnut with the husk on challer. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Causeway. puss. Palsgr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer.Lat. a kettle for heating water. Pr. kocianki. to beware.willow. fur. Gr.' Elyot in Way. Diez). to purge. causa. Fr. kdtzchen. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. 4. Lat. Fr. having the property of cleansing. chevalier. to sound like a blow . Chaud. rete A — Prov. Kavrfipiov. calotte. make clean. Caution. via strata. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Lat. Dryden in R rete. caldo. calqada. cabbage). calceta. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. CAVE Caul. Thus Bav. kopista. a branding from koiio. little cat. lamb. Pol. hazel. cale. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Jaubert. chausser. Rete. cabbage. from KaSaipio. a The peel.^ acheter (Lat. Lat. Caballus. catkin Magy. A warm comforting drink. hot. is Prologue.p. also to pave . Du. deyntie meates. net or caul-work. hollow. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. puss. a stalk. what . Richly she feeds. little cap is . capull. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. . cal^ar. KiwariKog. . Boethius. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. accapitare Rouchi acater. kassije. apt to burn iron. from delf^gato. KaHSpa. ce^l. It. and at the rich man's cost By sea. a horse. a horse . cheval. kin.—— — 136 correct. minon.

Fr. &c. proceed. flooring E. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. Cavil. hivtmel. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. kommata. coffer. Cede. — — — toyour soverane. Cot. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. a fir-plank. deal. Sherwood. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. H. The line of descent from Fr. komista. that. heaven. as if from happen.). In the same way G. &c.' Cot. It. cease. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. thilja. thiling. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. in Jam. to plank or floor with planks. To seele a room. sill in window-sill. thili. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. give place. IV. p. . in Jam. succeed. . board . cyling (W. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. in Hal.. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. thelu. an aquiline nose. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. syl. dScis. a halter. to argue capto tiously. cielo. a boarded floor. plank. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. semely on syll. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. crooked kopio. plank. syle. jaa. . a beam. Soc. and then to gape. a log. -cede. the deck of a ship at thilja. a log.j have come from this source.. B. to cut. curved. the roof of a coach. to canopy siled. sky. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. a planking or boarding tkilian. little house. The importation of Fr. the testern of a bed. decessus. to seele or close with boards plancher. cabega. menuiserie. cesso. Boyd in Jam. but hang around at the sides. lambris.'— Z. — . 32. of E . . a hut. 7. with their substantives concession. And seik — Cessation. cabegon. koppeli. — komo tain). . dayntily diglit. —Decease. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. . Lat. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. Lat. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . nailes will begin to cling. caveqon. a plank. hollow. ciel is so unbroken.' Marriage of James IV. Gawaine & Sir Gol. hung. VIII. to plank ON. the inner roof of a room of state. a head. wall. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. .' del. Sp. applied to a canopy. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. The sense of roofing. column E. rafter. Cam. So from Fin. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. hollow. sybire. .). Lat. or of a bed. 43. p. and that from Sp. pp. post. canopied. Plancher. augm. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. — .' Hall. Lat. dil. door-sill J Sc. kapp-zaum. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. selar. thil. beam. thil. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. -cease. cessum. . Sir 137 pit . Fr. 5. as. cellar. Hence concede. E. . -ceed. to go forth. Fr.' Rutland papers. A — A false accommodation produced G. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. a log. were met. cedo. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. See -cede. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. cavezzone. excess. death. a board. CAVESON kopera or kowera. &c. yield. cavillor. thel. del into English without ' translation gave cele. komo. a canopy. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. sus-lambris. a canopy. Hal. quibble. ceiling. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. departure from this life. also a seeling of boards. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. wainscot thiljar (in pi. and Gol.' — Gawan . Wore. seele. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. departure. &c. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. ciel de lit. lambrisser une chambre seeling. Ceiling. of cavezza. Cease. ceiling. wuoren komo. heaven. dille. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. . Fr. recede. . tester of a bed. to panel or wainscot MHG. and zaum. step away. . is applied to a canopy. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. The It. sill. exceed.' Ordinances and Reg. -cess. hollow ice . bridle. a severe bridle. In the N. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. empty. selure.

to contend. census. to burn incendo. The term cilium. sile.). Lat. -cebre ifoncebre. Lat. to distinguish. abundance. To Incense. Fr. Assess. the point round which a circle is drawn. we have a modified form of (of a place). Lat. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. renown be embodied with. then to rub without reference Cement. a valuation of every man's estate. a religious observance. (and thence also) to hoodwink. rubble. caber. judge. cenio. /ctj/rsw. Fr. -ciper. the officer appointed to take such returns . conceipt. concernor. guish. to be regarded as one celebro. rough from the quarry. a solemnity. with transposition hence (of a day). . to seele or sew up the eyelids . judge Lat. to separate. To seel or close the eyes. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial.cern. empty. to rate. ciglio. Celebrity. what to set in a chafe. goad. to heat.' Book of St Albans. -ceptjun. Incensum. KsvTpov. Lat. Coehim. Accelerate.. sure. -i^oivre. observe. Lat. receipt. confounded ist from It. in Marsh. contend. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. in accordance with the Fr. a hundred centuria. Assize. -ceit. a prick. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. in comp. Celerity. -cess. — A . make angry. capio.j 138 thill.. a registration of one's self. Chafe. family.). Sc. Censure. to think. to rub for the purpose a hut. Prov. quarters for slaves. Cij(fe5j. Ceremony. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. decide. criticism. cella.unmarried.ing a room where there is not fire. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Lat. to set on fire. cillier. Lat. Lat. OFr. — . -cevoir. -oept. Cess. oil. Gr. to warm. — — Cenotapli. as entering largely into the derivative certo. see. parted sleep. from censeo. become heated with anger. distinIt. tax. to concern. oil. chaufferette. Lat. It. Censer. riscaldarsi. Census Censor. and put it through the over eyelydde. Certain. -cipio. calefare. to course of people. ceremonia. blind. Gr. {cori)cipere. and thence censer. to seal a pigeon's eye. sift. Fr. siller les yeux. his office.— Chafing-dish. &c. To chafe is for wine. concetto. Lat. mortar. 1. Centre. for building. to take. age. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. cretum. to blindfold. a storehouse Chafe. cencer. celer. crevi. concerner. thronged the participle cretus. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. estimate. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. -cense. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Fr. -cepire. to glow. celeber certus. syll. judge. In Celebrate. For sess from assess. deceit. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Take the nedyll and threde. from Saa-rw. much frequented. Fr. a hundred of what- — . See Celibacy. camentum. cigliare. Gr. as in some places burnt. chauffer. the hollow the Lat. incense. See Cede. Lat. encens. a Cemetery. stones to the production of heat. swift. — . K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. eyelid. and thence to conceal. decebre) . with the eyes. . heaven. and met. sting. point.— Cellar. cilibat. materials It. candeo. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. — . to sepap rate. to attend on object with. deceipt. Cot. thence belonging to or connected with corn. cot. irot\oe. the place where the de. &c. Cot. Centurion. centum. censura. -cepere. to bury). a shaft horse. also grave opinion. -CEIVE a shaft. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. ' . Century. Fr. and — — — possessions. is the opposite of disora virum. -cern. to sleep). to ensile the haukes that ben taken. but was gradually lost in conceit. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. an eyelash. cceremonia. appertain. Fr. Fr. Ta^oe. zens according to their property. — . to twinkle darkness. to take. in comp. a numerous con. sacred show. Fl. of heating. the talk of men. and so of that other. to prick. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. Cereal. It. being taken from Fr. Sherwood.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. hollow. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. to -sum. capturn. Lat. Censor. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. tax. keep in It. a tomb.of the r. — . solemn (of per. a solemnity. pick out. K^'ivut. value. census. to chafe. — . dchauffer. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. Cell. assess. Lat.' Celebritas. ciller. single or unwedded life. or any bird's. S. to incense. cerealis. to visit in numbers. Gr. to celebrate. -civer {conciver— Roquef. or expression of Ennius. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. calefacere. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. eschattffer. festive. -ceive.

leviter crepo Then. ple^. B. preise. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. snuff. Lat. Gr. &c. now a chair. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. to puff and blow. — . cadena. rustling motion challenge. Lat. shaIt. Cheffern. without chap/are makiinde. to call. Lat. chamar. Chagrin. The jaw chafty. to caw chawer. grief. Prov. kiqfta. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Gr. vel susurro. chaffare. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . In vulgar language. Hal. cadera. dispute. hght Chalk. G. idle words. . To buy and sell. charge with. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Fin. kuhina. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Bav. . Chalice. Fr. lime. Du. camera. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. chaps Chamber. to fret inwardtronfo. also to prattle. Camera. that leneth e per I'autra. Kaiiapa. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. green sagrin. dongio. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. kuhata. Pr. breathe hard. breathe KaOa^oiiat. from Swiss kafeln. gewolb. Lat. KoBiSpa. matter by combat. tronfio. calonja. Perhaps Pm. kuhista. to pant. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E.' Rayn. E. From the To Chaff. calix. Kuttn. any insect of the beetle kind. calx. to dispute. to bark. kdfelen. So from dominio. kdfer. Due. care. sagrindse. thick and short. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. Prov. cadieira. ON. Lat. ^Altieri. Pat. a chough.sure carriage. Lat. to sit. jaw. chatter. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. difficulty . to gnaw. tattle cheep. Chair. De Ir4. calonjar. kedja.. contestation. ing rapidly repeated cries. chaise. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. G. (ca'e'ra) to chair. to calumpnjamen. cauvette. or puff with snorting. kahista. Adelung. calice. Fr. lime . dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. ceafer. chaire. Cot. a rustling noise. puff. a prattling woaction. fern-chafer. limare. tattle. . cup. yap. avena vilior. cadena gives chain. and signifies to consume with anger. Pers. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. — — ' — — — A . p. from the shark-skin. catena. kiamta. rustling corn. — — — — — — . fa sagramen de calompnia. refuse. have a mind to parley. cathedra. rally one. — — — . baras of ants. From Port. cam. refuse barley . kiaftr. swelling with anger. fume. hordeum vel let. Chain. call in question for an ley). from of the G. to buzz. place See Cheek. to institute anforensic action. 11. Fr. quisquilise offence. to claim. care. From to go to law. talkative. Fr. crooked. Chayire. a vault or arched roof. Fr. calumnia. Came. havOFr. to ner It. ceaf. Wall. Lat. to action arose. in a cana. false accusation. as. chaine. de Brai. Prov. as a carriage is a moveable seat. Du. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. often puffing. chafing. Piedm. kever. to file. Fr. Ayenbite. kaff. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. chawe. chambre. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. with a:n arched roof. chaulx. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. ckapfare. chaene. rustle Challenge. on.— — . de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. chalanger. grief. bargain. clamare.nium. ing a hard case to their wings. kahuja. In like manto huff. a chain. sborfare. kahu. haggle. muzzle. Fr. to Latin calumniare. kuhuja. a jackdaw. in a monstrous fume. Fr. to a seat. snort. — — — . hiss. of. to babble. great chafe. Probably from According to Diez. to move the jaws. keuchen. and as this was the beginning of man. P. Fr. sagri. chafeter. Fl. a pulpit. kauchen. keffen. puffed or ruffled with ly. much more Genoese sagrind. Bouffard. . far lima-lima. chicane. chayire. signal by drum or P. cathedra. . CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. kaff. khah. Halma. a pulpit Cot. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. much blowing. OFr. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. chagrin. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter.. a double operation * Chafer. to gnaw. a goba rustling . songe. to tattle. to chatter or talk lightly. taubes korn oder hafer. Fr. vis. 35. Cot. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft.

attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. hot. to happen {ad and cadere. chanfrein. Fr. kimbu. certare. To cope or contend with. schmatzen s. to hollow out. Sp. Sp. Chancery. Sup. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to be eminent. kampa. hamper. campar. cazer. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. Lat. Magy. fight. camp. broil. gewolbt. . a jaw kianisa. fighting place. prize-fighter. Campar. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. fray. a field of battle. kempa. kinipen. fight. a horse-race. Commonly derived from campus. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. to hang. s. G. slope of a bevelled angle.' melleia. from chaud. athlete. Chamfron. caer. a bundle. tsammogni. top of a borehole. to move the jaws kiamt. dial. to paw the ground E. which seems another form of the root. chain. champ. boys speak of capping verses. head armour. from Fr. Partnership. campus. bickering. to hold . to tread The sound heavily. Champ. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). rare. chance. Ptg. . game campio. sukibti. champ parti. Champaign. accidere. calida et sans aguet. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. Lith. ing. act of falling. chanfreindre. kempen. hero Sw. chance. ON. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. jocus partitus. is explained by serrarsi. to groove bevel off a right angle. Fin. as in It. E. to Hal. kimppu (Lap. calidameya. or less ignorant. mesleiare. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. a warrior. cameratus. therewithal. — KiL . And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. Champarty. who stood ad cancellos. — Hal. to excel. kanip. . gekrUmmt. to fasten oneself to another . cadere. to debate. ON. a hook . To them naturally fell the office of keep- . contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. kabintis. kabe. and mesUe. kimpustella. cancelli. as swine. So in e. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . escazenza.—Charfron E. to cample. Carpentier. campear. dial. bundle. to quarrel (comp. CHANCEL It. — masterly Sp. E. received the petitions of the suitors. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. . The E. The word is preserved in E.edley. When the to quarrel. kablys. Dief. kampeln. kimpUma. chaude mesUe. The happening of things Chance. Fr. to smack the lips in eating. Lat. champ. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . chanfrein. champion Du. to stick to. Lat. ciamberlano. dispute Hal. to — — champ. Hence (with the nasal) w.—Tutschek. nels. to chew. camp. contest. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. kapp. champ. . to fall). an athlete. to talk. dial. It will. to wrestle. dial. divided game. ON. To Chamfer. surpassing. To hollow out in chanPtg. combat. the chafldn. chdance. at the railings. kampen. Du. . Prov. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. move the jaws. kabMe. wood. Meleare. Fr. to fasten on. pinch. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. pedilusor. a game at football. difficulty . kabinti. e. Gall. and acted as inofficers of . to wrestle. zs jeopardy. Chancel. kibti. ciambellano.140 CHAMBERLAIN . the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. Pm. champ. kiammi. to bevel. chanfrar. keiiipe. Prov. kiinp. Lat. Champion. excellent. Get campers a ball To camf .' ' Pr. campus partitus . giving rise to the as. kampeln. cahir. contention kappi. reusement — fight in single combat. See Camp. camerlengo. cample). Chance-n3. dricka i kapp. contend or argue G.' SherI'altro ' ' . Fr. . Fr. to slope out the . — ^Tusser. —Chamfrain. kriimmen gebogen. i. to flute as a column. chamble. — Ch-amberlain. . a scufSe. Fr. to fasten oneself on to another . zampettare. termediaries between them and the judge. compound. accident. jeu parti. or player at football. luctare. chajnbellan .Lat. kippo. hng. from cheoir. kappd). cempa. to strive at games . M. camp. to slope. tsamtsogni. to . Chancellor. The G. to fall. chamfrain. dial. to to chew champ. a hollow chanfreiner. a court of justice. a feat.

ceaplas. Hal. as It. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Du. muzzle. And N. kiceft. Chapel. Bret. chap. as skin chapped hands. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. jaw. to plate. See Chant. to deal. to spht a chip. It is also used in the sense of the E. Sc. changer. kaupa. Sp. cambiare. Fr. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. as those on a trunk. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. while the broader vowels a. Chandler. Chop. kennel. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. to break . to swap. the chaps . kapoti. the place where candles ler. shift. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. In like manner Walach. schimbu. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . E. chandelier. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. to paw like a horse . . a money-changer. or the like chapar. Chap. chop. Hal. hack . and also to chap or crack. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. is used in the same sense . The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Chaps or chops. 2. chapelete de una bomba. cheek. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. to apply one flat thing to another. the gutter that runs along a street. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. or the cracking of one. exchange schimbatoriu. Lang. camjar. a dealer in candles then. Lith. to cut off . Man of Law's Tale. Chap. from chandler. a pipe. a reed. . That wide were sentin their spicery. Channel. to cut. the mouth. to strike. to put on fresh clothes. Cheek. waterconduit. and the modern canal. chapilla. chapeta. to peck. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. a chap is a crack or fissure. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. . to strike. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. I. —Chantry. Lat. — : Lat. a strip of metal plate. from canna. schimbd.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. debeant conjurare. . to strike with a sharp edge. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. skipta. to — cut. a small metal plate Port. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. chapa. Walach. Prov. To Change. kemma. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. Fr. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. prune. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Sp. to change. ceaflas.^. as chancery . extended to other trades. as to chap hands. to truck. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. — — —Marculfus in Due. kappen. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. chapear. chiappa. to creak. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. W. Da. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. jaw. AS. also a clap. Da. hard bodies. —Ordericus Vitalis. chap. . cambiar. ^Jam. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. to cut up into small pieces. Chap. chaps. any hollow for conveying water. kjaakaa. cangiare. not a soul. leather. Fr. canalis. a small plate of flat metal. throat of an animal. properly in a hard body. chapeletas de imbornales. lips of an animal. chancery. a jaw. Probably from chap. See Chop. as corn-chandChandry. clapet. Aasen. flat . chanter. to peck. Hence chantry. chop. Chip. ON. kvar kjceften. Hence It. — . kiceft as well as kjakje. 140. Molbech. to hack. like the knocking of hard things together. Fr. from clap. cantare. surfaces striking together. Chape. to chap at a door. wood. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. may be compared with ON. esclapo. the clappers of the scupper holes. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. to sing. exchange. Commonly derived from capella. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. Russ. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. the loose flesh of the cheeks. to plate. chancellerie. klepan. gab. esclapa. Compare chark. to coat. A fellow. exchange. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. cobio. are kept. cambium.

Sup. cearcian. capella. wood to coal. capital. Justin. capellare. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. affection. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. to creak. go. chatter. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. cha. carmen. to . creak. And damned be he who first cries Hold. which was incantation. 2. . to load . called in Sp. Deutsch. a cricket karkti (schnarren.. OE. for the same reason rosario. krachzen). from gadai. An enchantment. corona. chirk. Sp. capitolo. — a car. charcoal burners. czirbti. ceap-man. from capa. Chapter. The G. Bret. Hence carminare. a mark of a mountebank. cher um cher. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. from Charade. a garland of roses. to croak as a frog . cluck. properly to place — . charge an enemy is to lay on. a riddle. (eucharistie. prattling quacksalver. talking. w. cabildo. It. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. a hood. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. chara. Chaplet. to converse. charade. To Char. in To ness Charity. A weed among com AS. charer. Prov. turn about. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. to tattle. gaggle . . to charcoal. —— . caricare. a merchant. Charlatan. Sp. Cot. Mid. chirriar. decken. kurkelis. cedeleac. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. It. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. Fr. Boh. to love. colliers that charred coal. gadka. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. a verse. — — — turned to coal. tattler. &c. ghirlanda seor garland. — spell. to of the governing body. condo il volgar francese. carmo. See Cheap. cerran. gnash. hiss Lith. burning without consuming the substance. Chapman. eyre. a mark made on a thing. seems to be derived charade. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. as. chapitre. it is my turn. Chirk. Lat. ject). chatter. Ptg. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. enough. to dove . karout. czurksti. creak. the turtle pitre. * Charcoal. used in the sense of magic Fl. charitas. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. to chirp as sparrows. Yx. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. a head or division of a book. schreien. chat.Lat. The crash. w. to prattle. 370. keeren. clack. chapelet. Fr. cluck kirklys. twist. carus. Chare. AS.charme. a The OFr. to chirp. cam. . Lat.whirr. It. to turn. carricare. It. occasional turn. Lith. pohadka. eapitulo. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Fr. as a beetle. chapel. See Charlatan. jabber. char. czurliwoti. . hadka. to prattle. Sp. bler. a dispute . from capitulum. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Charade. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. as Pol. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Character. and in It. to talk . Lay on. babdistinction. kurkti. the nature of a thing. dim. turn. car. canne.' Boccaccio in Diez. from carrus.). Fr. Charge. From Norm. a charm. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. babbling. chirlar. carregar. a rhyme. Lang. Fr. surris seu Lat. from cape or cope. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Mundart. Charcoal was ciarlare. twitter. dear. to turn Gael. called kedlock. tegere. charlatan. of chapel. . wreath for the head. return. caritas. Chark. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . beloved. charger. a turn cerran. that turned decken . siarad (pronounced — sharad). Macduff. to chirp. Lat. be- e. Gr. in turns. a riddle. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . Inst. kirkti. AS. Charlock. charlar. ciarlatore. In that work the verb is written caire. to sing or chirp as birds. es ist mi cheer.czirksti. dear(in both senses). Du. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. Swiss.

ferire. . snap. %aafi. .). the noise of birds. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. chip. from xoAn. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. Chamel. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. cyrm. as in the E. —Jam. See Catch.ppen. germinate . niggardly. Gr. scraps of for fuel. Chart. To chitter or chipper. to make a noise. the bird is iiown. G. to separate in morsels. schioppare. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. as from nomen It. See Card. make a noise as birds do. chaste. shivers. Fl. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. a twig Suffolk chaits. To Chasten. geug. gazzettare. gaddc. to chirp as a bird to cheep. To work plate as silversmiths do.. to clap. talk.). It. carme and Fr. So in Gael. used to represent a sharp note. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. cassa s. pure. to care). chit. To talk. chick. chary. also to hatch. s. careful. clack. chick. Lat. Fr. Chat. csatora (Magy. discourse. noise. CHATS fit 143 to name. to chirp. a hum or low murmuring ijoise.— Chatter. czysty. csaterdzni. enchasser. to which it bears the same relation as chape. Malay. It t. D. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. from pure. gazeuiller. chaste. speak . Lat castigare. — Yorkshire chat. noise. kata. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. a branch and a young female. chisf. as turnip-chaits. Cot. nome and . latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. kippen.a. a chatter-box. to chirp. — Hal. Fr. chit in the latter sense Du. flesh. Fl. It. kata-kata. carnisj bones kept. letters p. caro. a shrine for a relic. or equivalent forms. converse. OE. kastaa. knacken. to baptize. knatiern. — Fr. charm. xi'i-'^vui. Kil. cs E. the young shoots . csacsogni. charmer. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. from purus. be wide open. as. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). chip. prattle. chikat'. chit-chat. racket . whence a charm of goldfinches. root of the Lat. a word. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. to gape. in Jam. magpie. also to germinate or spring forth. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. — — . splinters. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. a crack or a flaw . a plate of metal. i. To chip is then to crack. csacsogany. prate. Diez. g. chykkyn (Pr. — = Chats. carmen is presented in AS. or a bird out of the egg. karigh. gazzolare. Pol. Chat-wood. ch&tier. to set a jewel. jackdaw . — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. a young man . See Cistern. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. gallan or ogan. a churchyard or charnel-house. to crack. —Bailey. Pol. is to represent the chamier. a flock of those birds. pure. — The . to cut and faggoted. pure. chip. Kil. —Charter. Magy. warble. To Chase. Fr. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. gazzerare. to enchase it . fragments or leavings of food. gazzogliare. to crack. Russ. fragments. parcus. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Chasm. clean. to talk. It. crackle. cearig (from cearian. incassare. tittle-tattle. blackthorn-chats. an enchantress. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. Fr. talk much . Chaste. also a youth. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. little sticks cudere. gadu-gadu. In like manner Russ. la chasse d'une rose. clean. kna. or pop.house. The egg is chipped. clean. a yawning. to chatter or prattle . castus. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . chatter. Cot. clear. sordidus. to burst open. tenax. B. a gap. clap. Pm. shout OE. Hal. castus.— Chit. the calix of a rose. or the cry of a bird or the like. chits. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. Chary. —Chastise. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. V. nommer. as we speak of olive branches. chat. the handle of a razor . ch). eclats. as purgare Fr. whistle. to wet. clatter. the cry of the bat. Du. limpid. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. An imitative word. It. chair. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. or suckers on rough borders. — Palsgrave. to cry as a chicken . warble. occasionally Forby. From carinen was formed It. To chit. Parallel with E. — sharp sound of a crack. To Chase. a branch. karg.

in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. giving or taking in exchange. with the exception of land. chiere. prattlingchete. changing. 'li^'opa jord i jord. syllables ^ag-. price. Lat. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. catalliim. Cheat. . the face. Chew. s. to coff—Yisi. to negotiate. the principal ' colloquial E. to nauseate (to retch). chear in the sense of victuals. a young boy or girl. jaw. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. cozener. to swap goods . us. look. a repulse. Check. to make inarticulate sounds in . the Confessor. frown. to buy. mandibula. — We ' . kok. a piece of moveable property. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. a cheater. OFr. Soc. Fr. welcome heartily. . Ingulphus. caupo. ceafl. countenance. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough.. kakkaset. to fetch the breath with difficulty. Then. cita. keck. the Lat. chapman. with Dief.— Chole. kauf. agreeing upon. from Lat. to deal ON. the tongue. to clear the throat . Pro v. Fin. 144 the It. Cam.of the throat in coughing. entertain kindly. cachinnari. a dealer in horses. Sc. and. the countenance Fr. ceaflas. cattle. chatel. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. kakaista. It — Brompton in Due. any cheating. OFr. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du.' kezen. gig. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred.-^. choule. a tavern-keeper. Slav. gagkezen. The gutGoth. in widely separated languages by the Lat. to laugh. upon a checked cloth.— . a rogue or person who used the canting language. to coup s. kaupa. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. horse-couper. . &c. See Chess. to chop and change. truffa. Cot. exAS. while it Bret. from AS. to buy. NE. to cluck like a hen. Modern Slang. kikottaa. kichen. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. sale.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. It. goods. Sp. a dealer. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Chear. to stutter gigken. are represented piti. citello. retching. to vomit. in Fr. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. gagkern.—Choke. kaufen. capitale. Bohem. sum in a loan. stuttering. Fl. a canting knave. force of the word. a frequent change of the initial k into ch.' to exchange to gasp. . to . and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. — — —Chowl. and hence the E. cattle. koopen. kaupon. ceahhetan. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. chuckle. Bav. Faire bonne chire. tradesman. It. lower. et juxta catalla sua. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. favour. Pr. Pm. e. Fr. G. stuttering. Gr. snout. sob E. bon marche. Hence to cheat. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. dchec. aspect of a man. laughing. KaviiXog. to — . cattle. Chattels.— Chaps. — To check an account. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin.. chaptel.kakot. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. chavylbone or chawlbone. chatal. cheeks. kek. Du. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. cara. hawkmann. cera. jaws. See Cheek. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. Hal. farm for farm. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. which is the word in ceap. kaupiti. ku. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. thers. to cough and hence either buying or selling.. CHATTELS has ciio. giggling. equiva. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. goods. teeth . a willing look and unwilling heart. kak. whence captale. ceap. kik. Cheek. visage. CHEEK zitella. . chire. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. sense of bargaining. which is used in the to stutter. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Ek dry and hard. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as.ing. entertainment. lead to OE. chop. society.— Cattle. to act as a rogue.

to heap up such things for the purchoke. In these latter forms we see the transIt. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. the The use of the word kcesir. Chemistry. chevron. AS. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. like a young chicken. Sp. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. a cricket. Chevisance. Achievement. &c. subacidus. . xaque.Xo belch. kjakje. The Sw. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. E. cheken. kdke. Chevaux de frise. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Tutschek. kaecke. the loose the game of checks. to make a noise different word. king). to choke with laughter. veluti piscium. Fr. to hold dear. gill of fish AS. Fr. cyse. jaw . Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. From them the plish. kastr. to bring to an end. gullet. caru. Hence kikna is identical with OE. a rafter . ceac. kces. clear the throat. condition of being taken. the neck. jaws. prevail with. Lat. It would Cheese. Sw. squeak as a mouse. chiffe. czypti. to love. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. Cher. things Da. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. kirsche. cheeks. ca' — . jouffle. the throat. Du. chAtaigne. subjected to this process with that which the throat . chops. as. Thus "we are brought din. practice seems to have been communiChevron. kopen. rennet.). kdkel. The name of creak as shoes.G. by laying up in a covered heap. G. Kil. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. See Alchemy. quok. Lat. make an end. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. mouth kek. Sp. /Ji2^/(W. . kikna of dorum coacervatio. rupted into chess. chops. chaps. cabrio. chevir. Pm. acquisition. to accomThis they call hdrsk.pose of acidifying them kasadr. to choke. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. then end. from the cry of check 1 (Pers.their struggle for independence. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. cerise j G. The Lapps prepare much of their compass.' to w.koppen. e. kapen. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. caseus. cufd. kjcebe. cireggia. gous forms are G. Du. ost. throat. cerasus. kikna. Lat. cams. Prov. jowl. G. Hence chesten-nut. kasa. to belch. caws. jaw. dersen . cegio. AS. E. to year. gap. gaghel.perly head. to prevent the attack of cavalry. An imitative word. rattle in the throat. carnium. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. nish source. — — . chesten. throat. Prothroat of an animal . Fin. AS. gapen. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. kjceve. kastanie. To Cheep. (Kil. jaws Sw. Sw. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. whence czypulas. suffo. chests in OE. a heap. cese. to kasa. ceaplas. Jam. for cheese itself. castaneusj Fr. dear. Chekenyd or querkenyd. cheek. schach.EP CHEVRON 145 on. Sc. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. F*-. to gape gab.D. As the board to gasp i. jaw. whence kasa-leipa. scacco. rafters in heraldry. to swallow. giffle. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. equal squares of opposite colours. old bread.. . accomplishment cayed. ceg. ON. . frame by which the exertion is made. achever. gabe. Sc. cough.D. ceaflas. Fr. geagl. kasiiUPr. the hke. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. — — . Pl. w. the mouth.cirieggia. See Chess. a chicken. Fr. To make a shrill noise Chest. Lith. schach. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . X'C&s. made rancid koka. geafl. cherir. Chef. to boken. to geahl. cisty G. takes place in the formation of cheese. treat with affection. E. hasten. ation. Cherish. the palate Chequer. quoka. Da. kistej Lat. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. mollium congeries. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. kok. to gasp. ceocian. cheek. food. w. as meat and butter. Chess. It. w. Fris. by laying it in come to an agreement with. cabiron. Lat. the final guttural is retained in writing. CHE. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. See Case. ichec. OHG. chasi. E. incaseatus. cheek. cista. Lith.peep in the same sense. Fr. kesten. . Analo. — — . skratt. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. — 10 . ition from a guttural to a labial termin. to kep. Cherry.. N.

horn wood.^ Hal. to raise the rim. chikat'. the cry of young . kieken. a head. — — Mother Hubbard. or the broken noise of birds. Pr. Pr. deer's horn. tremble with cold. to titter is Du. Tintillo. kouwe. Gattel. stake. aner.. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. jaw. then as G. kindeken. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. klagend tonen. capo. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver.' my finger tingles with cold. or as E. chillar. a little bit. to use the jaws. to the brim. rafter .D. Chief. . a quid of tobacco. Magy..— Cot. to chime. kaau•wen. Chigue. pululo. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. chic. gosling. cidan. and from the third E. the throat. And hence. W. jaws . cabarach. Payer chiguet A chiguet. k'imm s. to scold. Chitter. A To Chew. sonorous. Gael. alter. To chitter. Fl. caput. kimme. ' . pipe. beam. mouth. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. cheek. mountain top . jaw. Imitative of a loud clear sound. killen. and not vice versd.peep. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. cabar beinne. Probably from Fr. Russ. kippa. Sp. . machouere. kibr. chillrar.^ to resound as a bell. kitista. to go. or chick. tyuk. tiukka.. branchy. strideo. a jaw. cild. knit the brow cib-led. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. chew or chaw. kop. chieftain. w. also the horizon. a cup. The loss of the syllable it in Du. the rim or edge of a vase. in Walach. Swiss kiden. Fr. tiukkata.— . capu. while the Magy. Halm. rafter. a chicken. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Du. chiquei. 'Among these the G. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. De finger killet mi for kalte. See Chimmer. to gasp for breath (Hal.-ill. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. kauen. Chaw. 146 brial. G. twitter. G. by driblets. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. cap. Da. chaps. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. It. Fin. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. capete. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. CHJME the radical form is unusual. pole. a finch. kimia. antler. — Fin. crepo. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. AS. killen.— Gattel. kinderen. — It. to contest. kind. Fin. chicaner. Chimb.. For the see word Doit. ach. Chick. cebr. E. czypulas. signifying properly shivering. pipio. De chic en chic. are formed Du. Brezza. quivering sound which passes. or qf people talking rapidly. keichen. choule. while didder is to shiver or citteren. ultimate origin of the Mite. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. chimb. Pm. term is ssaru fu. Lat. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. to twitter. — . a cup cibaw. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. the head. to crackle. E. Fl. tintelen van koude. chef. Palsgr. chawbone. ]). chill. from the first of which is Lith. to contest about trifles. to Du. caferu. Walach. horns of the house. Prov. . captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . captain. head. cica cica. chiler. into a continuous shriU sound. cabriones. when the vibrations become very rapid. a young bird. chavel.). grelot). a chicken. Child.D. kuwe. then cold. cib. has probably the same origin. : — a lump. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. greloter is to shiver for cold. tiukkua. pip. from little to little. the jole. Fin. Fr. chol. Chime. E. the same principle I regard On birds. the young of animals in general. kauwe. to chew. Du. from the second Lat. kidata. knirschen. zitterti. a cup. a chicken. chillness or shivering. a small cask OFr. chavel. To Chide. pi. rafter . — Du. Bret. knarren. acute. as pointing out the origin of the E. Chill. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Kil. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. tiuk. creak. as. to chirp or peep like a chicken. The Pl. caprioru. Fr. chicken. lead through the synonymous E. s. CHEW . to pettifog. gills of a fish. a hen. pipio. Pm. kopf Du. queror. hiss as meat on the gridiron. chin. the least imaginable jot. tremble. kilderkin. kauchen. chicoter. the Ptg. kaw. Now gan some courage unto him to take. kimista^ . cabar. kime. to smart. Pl.

and the Du. twitter caminus. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. ter. Diez de. eschiner. the cheek (jaw) . to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. caperd. tsongeni. . kumista. czirszkti. cheminde. It. Chymerynge. chirp. a szemrcU. genou (pi. do. Chimera. See Chark. chink.to divide or Du. . Ptg. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. schina. To Chitter. Pm. then of a fabulous monster part goat. are In like manner E. to chink. — . It. plodere. eschin^e (de pore). cheek. epine. To chink with laughter. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. and chim-mer. See Bright. dial. and light. ciarlare. Gascoigne in Todd. i. and bodily movement in shimm. AS.schricken. to simmer. part lion. to open chirriar. sounding deep. name Then. sonus the backbone Lat. the chine. resonance . vincially used in the sense of a crack. — . as birds the mouth. Fr. CHITTERLING sonus acutus.. Lith. Sw. schetteren. cincel. Chink-cough. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. to gape. twinkling light. sound. Fr. to chirre. A . Chit. chits. ykvvQ. 147 kimina. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. a chap. esquina. clangor tinniens kummata. gen. quivering or shakyng for colde. schrick. Chisel. hus. cisello. sonants.). To Chimmer. cleft. Fr. It. then to any narrow crack or AS. Cot. Bav. genawi. bone . kink hoest. — . kumina. fyr. Chin-coug^h. as the chink of money. tschirpen.. tremulous motion. bx-eak the back of schena. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. Chink. to sound. companied. to chirp . Chytof J^ to sk is singular.czirbti. Fr. and from a similar sound to boil gently. crepare. from Lat. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. chick. schetteringe. ciseau (for cisel). See Chap. also vibrans. sound on beginning to boil. to prattle czirpti. keich husten. It. as a bell kommata. in the same crack. chin . — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . to creak. chhint. caminsects. a crowing sound in recovering breath. Fr. In the same sense. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. the cheek. hollow.iron. have been used to designate the spine. cisaille. Lat. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. yivtiov. from 10 * ' Chia. kinne. the jaw. squittire.sharp. backBut she withal no worde may soune. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . but or cry as a parrot. The change from the sound ter \s. komista. a thorn. Huloet. eschine. caminata. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. schiena. to prattle . Du. applied to tremulous motion. all these imitative terms being minata. pare also Walach. E. See Chats. simmer. up and down. a Kuttn. Prov. a surkik hosta. Sp. To chirp or twitter. Gower in Hal.' Phaer's Virg. a hall Mid. Gloss.Huloet in Hal. chatter . to sizel. Chitter. Primarily a shrill sound. rustle. to chink with laugh2. G. tsengeni. to squeak in It. clashing of weapons. Pr. cinne. tinnire. Kil. zirken. Bret. — . backe. as the/ is preserved tering. flaw Hal. sparkle. Caminatum. as a large bell . in Hal. Sp. verynge or dyderinge. kieck hoest. to murmur. Sp. Chine. quavering of the voice. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. to chirp. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. from the geon's lancet. Hindost. pork) . hiss chirlar. . to chine. the jaw. . komia. Du. Chat. to tattle. a fire-place. disCot. j^lf. Chimney. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. Chip. klincken.Lat. KinneGr. the whooping cough. to creak.to chirp. Chyrme or chur. . is applied to the separation of the broken parts. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place.er. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. spina. zirpen. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Magy. hiss Pm. stridere. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. or chyFrigutus. — — — — — . E. cinan. clipping of coin. gena. G. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. the chin . It. esquena. The small entrails of a hog. a chink or fissure. Chitterling. a thorn. which differ from each other only as Chirk. killed by Bellerophon. Chintz. to tremble. the mouth (jaws) . spina. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. representing connected together. skina. to sound deep or the Gr. fissure. Sp. et garrire . The desig. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound.

wkusit' prikushat. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. to taste. of an angry — — — ' ' — . ON. To Choke. i. a ruff or frill. Fr. a rag. chiffe. kruszki. and N. whence choleric. — Chock-full. full to overflowing. by which they are Fr. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. chimp. Fr. a small slice or slip of anything . kiusan. or original meaning is preserved in G. To Chop. xiv. cive. The Sc. also calPs. Body and Soul. to shiver.' At last he dwelt . G. Goth. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. propagated. cke. kbhren. . 19. pieces .ceosan. &c. Choice is probably direct from Fr. developments of the same radical image. Equivalents in the SlaFr. —Chorus.' Verie coinme Cot. kor6n.gust. a calf's chaldern of E. . 2. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. to prove. to exchange horses. the inwards of an animal. a wine taster. a blow. to ing is doubtless to taste. kustigen. a young . and in kosten. caperd. ent quarter. shiver. to tempt. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. by the vibrations of sound or motion. a chive. Cavalry. full. a twittering. to palpitate . kausjan. Warwickshire coff. whence Lat. friller. Lat. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. of E. The manners and senti. to try . fine threads of flowers. Chivalry. G. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. a calf's pluck or chaldron . See try. kiezen. as with a blow. arkiusan. chorus. OHG. to try. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. CHOP kros. chaup. Yr. skifa. ^euw. to wrinkle. the small parts of the roots of plants. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . a company of singers or dancers. kieser. anger. chattering. disposition. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. koren. x^poc. cut up into — See Chats. it is probable that the root kus. %o\ifa. to try. Gr. a heap. lead us on to Lat. to try. word is more likely to be from Lat. The I go to prove them. kiusan. all seem slate . * To Choose. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. coro. cepa. keypa. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. signify to kiss. The . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. . to stop geschoppt voll. chawdron. Walach. a ruff. try. . and in this sense the * small pieces. to hack. wein didder for cold. seallion or unset leek. bile. civette. chatter. to taste. and Vf. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . Fr. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. okusyti. &c. Prov. choppe. ON. to taste. to taste. chippe. a scale or fragment P1. Luc. to taste. curly . kusid.vonic languages are Pol. to strike hands . a fragment. kaup. Gr. chock full. chibble. to chap. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. select. Chuck-full. scheve. to chap at a door . kalbs gekrose. As kushnuti. an onion. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. gekrose. Chives are also a kind of small onion. a goose's giblets. in the same language. Enn Sigridur sem ' . Schmid.. then to shiver. specially with an application to theatrical performances. crammed Choir. cape.D. Jam. gusten. . g'schochet voll. to choose. called cMtters in the N. the ridges prove. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. — Cholera. from kraus. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. schiefer. keuren. krussyi. heaped measure. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. I. chceur. from %u\i). — — — . causir. rare. G. pluck. ruffs. from chevalier. kushevati. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. Chives. Boh. prove.ffrill.yEuffM. as green as leeks. a knight. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. taste. Swab. — See Cheek. fresure. experience valerie. gustare. and It. . shoot . gdnse gekrose. wrath. schevel-steen. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix.' who shall not taste death. •- Russ. to turn. to clap up Hal. coup. kushati. chives. approve. to break off in small shive. chife. chap hands.. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc.— B jag E. kiesen. ments of the knightly class. are used in the same sense. to ^cleave . In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. taste. ^S. to Compare also Pol. Chap. Gr. try. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. Choleric. to experience. to taste . choix. haslets.freze. . schoch. then to try. Choice. Swiss kust. Serv.V)^x.

E. prattle . Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. Gr. gold.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. kubb. P. cavena. gull. Fr. G. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. by the Robert Shirley. Picard. 4. AS. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. cob. to overturn.• — . clat.— Landnamabok. Gr. chouette.). In the Alchemist. bearand aits. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. Borgoens happen.povucd. I bring you the Cloughs. civetta. cresmeau. to chatter. ley in Giiford. cheap. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. dealing. to strike in the hand. xop5>}. of which such strings are made. noble Doctor. xftovoq. dial. kaej Lith. plump. an offence against the fitness of times. kobe. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . Peace. Chrysalis. In Sc. dial. — . a lump or piece chump. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. in Chaucer. a bullhead. A fish with a thick snout and head. e. kaulhaupt (club-head. chuet. koppe. yiSA. —Shakespeare. To Chouse. the intestine of an animal. From the Turkish Chiaus. and we actually find champman for chapman. a The What dhy ^. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. to turn over.— Chevin. soul-couper. the same word with the It. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. for to defraud. chevane.X. cauc. i. Chronicle. If I discover. the teeth to chatter . chapin. klopper. gull. sent before him a Chiaus. chapineria. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. claquer. Chord. cheviniau. Gr. high clog. which was written 27. capita. — Dief. cow-couper.. Chub. Du. Confounded with the bullhead. a thick piece. E. short piece kubbug. klompe. XpvaaXic. merchant. See Change. a stump. caphatenus. thick-set. E. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Anachronism. E. one who buys and sells horses or cows. Nominale in Nat. cauvette j Fr. capitone. that will thank chiaus — you richly.). because she would not endure this husband chopping. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. thumb Fl. kubbr. whence apparently the Sup. Come. caqueter. a messenger or envoy. traffic. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. chapma?i. chrisme. connected with G. kauwe. Jam.sohola. from kloppen. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. who took in the Turk- clack. OE. Ant. Chuck. the string of a musical instrument originally. Chopino. to speak thieves' slang.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Fr. capitanus. forms are Chrism. chub. time ra . Sp. p. chroniques. peace. clogs. ON. a trafficker in souls. a small fish with a large head. To coup.' Jam. chack. as in Fr. gobio capitatus. kowej Sax. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. . happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. Fr. e. Chough. — Chrisom. chronicles. chop. -chron-. Fr. ' ' What's that? Dap. in i6io. kaw. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Madam. chouquette. cangiare. kaufen. equivalent to the E. Kil. What do you think of me. A jackdaw. kowe. choucas. monedula. To Chop logick. to knock. cambiare. we find the following passage Dap. . caker. — — — . xpi'^lia. ceo. Lat. chatter . kolbe (club). quappe..(. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. chevin. That Face. fat. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. to cant. chrysalis (Plin. as Du. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. slipper . applied to an owl in that language. Alchemist. chevane. — Quabbe. Cot. to clack. Gr. overset.—Chuokstone. The Turk was here As one should say. &c. whence — E. whence the Fr. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. or miller's kaycke . Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. 49. Sw. whence e. See Chaff.\^s. syllables chat. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Fr. Du. Marin. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. capito. Wall.

cheeks Cincture. ciuffo. e.— . Aasen. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Fr. ccedo. to cut decide. a cutting round. but by way of explan. . sindel. ON. sindr. tie about). a pebble . to sparkle. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. -cido. sive piratiam facere sciant.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. To chuck in the fall from. Gothic nations. — . chaps. have given rise. Sw. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. G.rendered by Kil. chakil. as Epkema explains it. ashes. to gird. Cieling. Diss. -eris. as a board. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. set kerti.' he adds. kernjen. Gr. The derivation from Kvpiasov.for the residue of stone coal. comp.V//a'6'?. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. a lump. whence ON. -cisuiri). sinter. Da. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. 24. incido. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. countryman. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. sindra. ChurL husbandman. from Lat. Gr. so as to make the happen . IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. that the word is an adoption of Fr. to make a aiKipa. chack or stane-chacker. dust. KvptaKolg. . tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. a man. to make a rippling noise. kaerle. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). kirna. the kernel. Ir. residue of burnt coals. chofu. however. domhnach. Lat. a cutting an old chuff. AS. — of the two words. cinctura {cingo. Hence -cid-. geaflas. cinctus. Churn. a girding on. cado. a resounding object. to cause the milk to grain. chuffy. ceffo. fat-cheeked. Chuff. Fr. the snout of an animal. to fall upon decide. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. &c. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. calculus. Wall. male person. chops. The spelling of chider has Chump. ON. — — A — ' ' — . cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. . pp. a man. as in E. in the face. Du. It is certain.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. calx. chack-stone. -cide-. Church. Fris. See Cheek. Ka-^aiva. joufflu. KaxXij?. in circumcision.D. to determine incision. sintel. an old man. * Cinder. In Sc. thence a belt. cendre. . or. i. Cider. lamak. Cleland in Jam. to turn from blossom to fruit. to Newsp. kakka. blow on the I io6 in Mur. ceaplas. G. in Sc. joffu. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . pith. ceffore. a rustic . surly.^. as Fr. a miser. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. Jennings. a man. swollen or puffed up Cot. whence church. scoria. Lat. karl. as water running over rocks or stones. Lat.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. See Cheek. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. dial. gffe. a fellow. Sicerawry face ceffata. cinis. &c. spuma metalli. C^z^j^ churHsh. AS. Cob. marrow. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. to churn. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach .' And cold. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. . has been impugned which it has really no connection. ladre from Lazare. Probably from It. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. to form grains of butter. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk.. whence deciduous (of trees). a douse on the tores. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. to throw out sparks. we have to chack. jaws. to strike clatter. accido. The origin ation. See Ceiling. to him a sudden blow. i. cinders used disjunctively. Du. from Lat. tindra. -cis-. -cise. or choice part of a thing . ON. chofe (Grandgagnage). to fall at or on. sicera. kjami. kern. ceaflas. OFr. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. then the on oh StX iv roXt. Wall. x^^i?. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. a husband. kiorne.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. casum (in comp. cidre. . Chunk. to To Chuckle. ceorl. log of wood. cut off. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). klakka. Du. Sc. chife. kerl. cheek. As AS. a pebble. giffle. to jaw chack or snap. with It the Lord's house.— Chu%. e. flower. to fall. Lat. to separate the kernel of the milk.

globus. babble . a circle. klumbr. . a rattle Fr. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. — (Dozy) ing blow. to strike. a circle. -cis-. Fr. clap. klekotati. To Claim. a young and tender plant. Fr. We . G. dob. cista. may cite w. Lat. Lat. lump of wood or with the nasal. Cite. cisterna. prattle. to cluck. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. lump. citujn. Du. Citron. vociferation. claquer. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. klak. cion. circ2tlus. wasserkasten (water chest). civis. slam. a split. klimp. prattle. It. klepati. a ball. in the frequentative form. belonging to cities or social life . a lump Lat. Gael. noise. klamp. Clam. Comp. clatCot. Hence Incite. to clatter. circa. Arab. the tongue. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. a circle. a Lat. clack-dish. klump. Hal. a place See place hiddern. City. stimulate. klappe. clamare. a block. and E. log. clamras. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. We . compared with It. clambar. circle. klambr. clamp. to make to go. ON. whence cistiti. empty Golius.' sione. klateren. klacken. to chatter . claquer crash. a city. . —Circuit. The notion of a lump. of citta. circum. The Gr. W. the door was slammed J slamem. . In Fr. Scion. noise — — a cistern. suck). a whip. a city. lump . ern. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . E. as caverna from cavus. See -cid-. sound. clap. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Mack. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. Excite. cisterna. bunch . clot ON. clangor avium . klompe. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. a whirlwind. kluV. to cleanse. a. biw. Sw.— . kringla. klqb. clack. sindri. excite. or quill to draw waier through Fl. to clack. Dan. . Sw. twig. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. domern. or clap-dish. mass . for Cion. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. a for water. 'mass. Clamp. rattle . circum. klubb. tinnitus . Lat. CION See Tinder. See Circle. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. city. to set in motion by means of the voice. Circle. lucerna. It. parallel root is slam. a reservoir Probably from Lat. around. a citizen . The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . clamer. klacke-busse. Lat. civilis. . a block. ON. to call by name. chupon. It. ter. to cry out. klappen. —Civil. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). smack. chijfre. clat.. Circum-. a clod. So a light. sip. scion or sucker. a clod Russ. sifr. glam. to bawl. Alt. accordingly find the roots dab. to go. klabb. clack-box. outcry. cry out . castus). lump. glambar. uproar. a boss . Citadel. Fr. To Clack. See Crankle. lump. or split with noise. and clash. KipKog. to appeal. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. cieo. Dan. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. clobyn. * Cistern. klap. clack. a kind of rattle. radical identity of the Fr. trunk. a shoot. a lemon tree. cry. with an initial s instead of c. clog. crack.to suck. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. Cot. Lat. Gael. E. a ball. clamp. Clump. ciste. klopati. scion. cito. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. as. and. as in Sp. chatter . -cite. a ring. civitas. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. cion. . a hiding-place. chupon. Du. From Arab. klemte. Sp. hringr. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. lump. a cleansing place. cifra. * Ciplier. to be empty. cittd. crack. clapper. Gr. &c. G. forms — — — parent plant. . a Pol. glamm. a knob. rattle. creak les dents. a kind of pipe. . lash . Gr. KpiKoe. Recite. sound- — hands figures. a'upiav. Fr. to gnash the teeth. ring. ruin. to call. . to toll . chest. Bohem. around. a loud uksa slamketi. a rattle . cit^. cluster. to summon or call on. klammer. clump. . kringr. and Sp. claquet de moulin. to chatter. Lap. Lat. cittade. a mass. area. Du. . the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. bunch. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. crack. ON. to chatter. Lat. The syllables clap. gutter. about. to call. from chupar. ball kloben. a cistern. is traced by Gr. sajira. to clap at a theatre. to mention. claim. a judgment cern. cittadella. sprig. the place of . sound of blow. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. sphere gleba. a lump Du. a pop-gun. Chaste. klater-busse. citrus. claquer. to knock. clapping of klacke. dim. clasp. fall.

a burr. Du. of which the locative case. narrow. with cramp-irons. clap. G. diver. descendants . clapas. sound. dank. to seize. E. where- A — unto they retire themselves. glambar. To clap in E. daver. to patronus. sound. — — . the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. dial. klynge sig op. Clang. beat. in a hidSen place. chatter. to clap on. holdfast. cream Manx doan. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. Lang. the in many languages. A i. conceal. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. salafa. clann. klynge. The E. tingle. klavre. to clamp. dial. cluster. tight. buckle klamp. The root which gives rise to klibb. from birdlime. salaan. a heap of stones or other things piled up . to cling. klappre. originally a heap of large stones. gripe. a claw . dia. dandestinus. brawl. grasp. accent. kleben. AS. a bird of prey. and that from celo. a rattle . klubber. klibber. but perhaps not directly from it. bandage. klam7n. hook. Dan. damras. a loud tingle. is a nasalised form of gripper. to beat. cleave. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. E. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. Bav. to daub pinch. klappen. klebern. To Clamber. prison. klemmen. seize. to hook things together. dem. kluppel. clangor. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. to hide. dam immediate modifications — . viscosity . to hold to pinch. klobber-saen. clink. See Clam. c). klemmen. to hold fast with the . gum. — with hunger. to pinch. hands or claws to grasp. offspring. — Cot. dapier. viscous. klem-vogel. dambar. Halma. to starve. ring as metal. take hold of. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. privately. damor. G. from the w. to stick conceal. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. G. Mampe. klammer. Sw. for tame conies. sound object . bond. pressed close or hard together. cramp-iron.' to take coals to Newcastle. to Hal. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. a sound. of the children. Du. a heap of stones. dapi^. tone. beating. klatten. to climb. a craCmp. yf. who occuG. Fr. B. klette. chatter. pinching. to stick or glue. as the Lat. a whip. rumour. is used in the sense of secretly. cling. tenacious. to climb. apprehend . dang. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . clav\f. knocking. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. sound . celo produces Fin. Clap. klappen. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. E. clear sound. to clutch or cling oneself up. .. Clapper. adopted Lat. club . Swiss kletten. a place underground where rabbits breed. — Lat. ney. to climb. . dap up. whence sala. klang. a claw. clang. kloben. compress. of money Gael. clamber. substances of a stickydam. klammern. solid. run to lumps Clandestine. uproar. children. — . to climb. . a sound made by a still . nature . dren. Gael. closely analogous to that of the fast. klepanie. to claw oneself up. a noose . compression. a trap. klettern. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . klepati. clapper of conies. clibby. to knock. G. . and hence to pinch . clasp. clap. also to clog up. crowd . to gingle. . klank. Dan. kleppe. cramp.' klibba. to glue. scendants. dienklebber. Salainen. strait. Clan. or klamp-vogel. klamme. Du. kleppe. anything hidden. &c. to glue. a sound made by a lighter clink. tattle.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. to climb. a stone See Claim. massy. klepel. as the clapping of hands. klamre. dam. Du. E. klamm. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. dink Du. resonance klingen. klam. to clap. a hawk. — Climb. sound of the trumpet . coagulated cream. and hence moist.er. Russ. clammy brace. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. Clamp. Dan. To sticky. a stick. Clamour. to climb . . da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. Clank. strain . B. grimper. clandestine. rattle. dapier. dee. to knock. G. dientes. Bohem. tremble . dam. kleppen. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. stick. OE. sticky Hal. to do anything with a clap. tinkle. to. In like manner Du. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klimmeii. Swiss kldbem. klippe.p correspond- ' without order. to dame. hold. klemmen. These words To are closely connected with damp. Dan. chief. Lat. clajnmy.1. to Sw^. Clink. ancestor. to cleave or stick. The equivalent of Lat. G. gliong. G. The Fr. contraction. klopfen. Hence the Fr. klampen. children. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. dam. These are imitations of a loud.

a lump .. Du. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. and shrill-sounding trumpet. a kind of small. The collar-bone. Clew. clump. clarinado. whence kleuer. Owl and that by which cleave to. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. somewhat clear.to cra. classis. klouwe (Kil. bawling. Lat. from scknallen. to draw it up into a bunch. Sp. ghespe. noise. — Kiittner. mass. kletse. sauna de classes. row aii/iaTos. a. a clod. — tells us. clew or fasten upon a thing. Cot. a. Du. clavus. subrubidum. forms are the Du. glcis. skeria-klasi. a key origmally a crooked nail. kluczka. a heap. In the same way is formed the OE. ivy. klouwe. e. as Mod. klatscha pop-gun. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together.— CLARET clamp. clopa. to animals Sp. 269. clew. K\a. Kil. Klatsch- a pop-gun . an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. to clap . the cracking of a whip. and old red rose-water. Du. to fasten together . vin clairet. climp. Eau clairette. or as G. is preserved in Lang. klatsche. —Kil. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. klaskad. Lang. It. chatter. vinum helvolum. puUs. thwack . fragor . fibula. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . nail. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. klamme.\x\xvn. which signifies a ball in E. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Du. Clause.ck a whip. the collar-bone. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. clavis. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. &c. same class with w. to ring in such a manner for the dead. Lat. to cleave. with a reddish tint. globus. hook. klc^i. to rattle . from clinging to the tree which supports it. klatschen. Claw. Clasp. cinnamon. waU. pellet . contraction. chasguear. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. cloi. a lash. klaeret. a claFr. a clasp. G. clatter. an on the one hand. flap. Fr. &c. vin claret. a sphere . Originally clasis. Lat. from the resemblance to a key. Fr. a key KKtitid. klauw. It. From clairet. Serv . to end. in the sense of a claw. . and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. he of white and red grapes mingled together. Sw. clamp. to snap. So Pol. Analogous Jam. chiarino. sphaera. clairon. as G. chiaro clear. a water made of aquavitse. dap. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. a complete sentence. Du. assembly. stop of an organ. schnalle. clair. From claudo. gaspe. Nightingale. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. To clew. The form clew.Gr. a distribution of things into groups. from its use in fastening things together. under three modifications dava. buckle. Gr. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. klatschen. The b readily passes into gleba. KXeiSi. klampvoghel. Mask ! plask ! thwick. is used in Sc. applied in their harness. kiosk bicza. in the sense of a mass or lump. teren. a bunch. clas. ansa. claw (what fastens together. seizes) . klot. kleuen. sound of the foregoing description. mass. . kleeven. claret win e. and through v into a. chiarello. globus. Clatter. Prov. Rayn. clarin. crying.It. klaterbusse. klaequivalent to clack or clap. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Thus from clamp. it is called clamming. ictus resonans. klos. Nawith stavis. E. compression. the primary origin clapa. to knock. as it is written by Chaucer. insularum nexus . to do anything with a . nawith stanis. chiizjj-o. a bird with powerful talons. Clavicle. clairon of a trumpet— It. to clash as arms. a ball. rion. syrtium junctura. blab. klampe. Wyutoun in Jam. clausula. to patter. hawk. rubellum. biichse. we pass to the E. also a knell for the dead. klijven. Thus from Lat. Claret. a key. Du.). klase. diver. But clasp or elapse. i. In E.Z. Clash. a lump. biichse. an ending. locket of a door. a claw. Class. Dan. — Clarion. a nail. klucz. Pol. klauwe. to fasten. a club or massy stick. pet. thence a definite head of an edict or law. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. to shut. Eya-klasi. Commonly made. fracas. Identical with ON. straight-mouthed. clausum. Russ.w or u on the other. Lat. a buckle. a little hook . Fr. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. and clavis. — Clarinet.oi. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. uproar. cluster.

Sw. clean. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . Lat. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. a key. conserere antklankjan. chaps in the skin. and. to fasten. Thus from G. klinken. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. G. Du.— Claggy. Cleat. clear. cloven wood. words applicable sight. Kil. gaklankjan. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E.). a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. clash. kloben. viz. rive. kluftholz. sticky . sticky. Halma. neat. gentle. daggy. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. as the Du. 154 CLAY dutch. kldnkelein. the fork of the body. 2. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. Da. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. kluyte. Axletree clouts. To call. Clear. klinke. klinke. klinka. to be composed. Sc. Sw. to clink or sound. klouen. glorious. From dob. . to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . a noose. klink. famous. dags. lump. or from being divided into two parts. danche. bogs cous. glan. that was a striking proof. i. . klieben. To Clench. Sw. klor. dedgy. neat. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. glitta. as ON. clink. as Lat. to stick to. Cleft. pellet. klincke. merciful. rivet. that was Torriano. to chink.— Clag. the two parts of Du. to clinch GB. Bav. geklonken. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. The word may be — . kloue. a cleft. a flash. Clemency. Omklinken. — : A rivet. to cleave. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. pure. vice. or of a tree. klov. a fissure or division See Cleave. splendid pohshed. klceg. a claw or talon. G. Fr. nitidus. is fast and sure. shine. loam. kleg. klag. W. glatt. kloben. an object is simply cleft. a clincher. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. a latch. to clinch a nail. smooth. E.' was nailed to a rock. clout. dinquet kleeven. G. date is AS. klutsch. pure. glan. cleave. Lat. to Brilliant. A — A Clement. cliquet. found in other cases. klove The Dan. klyft. Gael. hook. to fasten. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. See Clog. to sound or make a noise . clay . kleverig. Du. vissticky . Mar. kla:g. door-latch. clean. glbram. speech . the latch of a door. pretty. and E. klijveii. sticky earth. a cleft or fissure. The Dan. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. glan. doggy. klieuen. to dag ox dog. clemens. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. as Fr. together . a cleft. glance . G. clean. polished. as explained under G. Du. ON. Du. radiant. AS. clear. and Dan. to stick or adhere . a — — . bend in a stream. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. dut. klank. it cleave together. glitnir. pure . provinciaUy termed dout. rift. clean. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. E. deot. . klirren. give a shrill sound Jr. a lump. glandse. klouen. seem formed dial. mud. gleit. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. a mass. celebrated . river. glbr. From clap. to 2.Q. to clench. This word is used in two business is finished off. See Clam. Da. opposite senses. Sc. a one end. Probably a modification of the word doitt. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . ON. the original . bears nearly the same relation to both senses.— . diquetcr. to shine. glor-mhor. E. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. Da. and Celtic glan. a fissure. gingle. a lump. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. clibby. Wilbraham. glindse. Du. kleevig. calm. klinke. dag. a noise. kleben. The proper meaning of the word is shining. of iron worn on shoes by country people. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. klinken. Du. kluit. voice. Die zaak is zS. to shine . from the clinking of the latch. a in that of sphtting. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. G. kloben. Clay. klafwa. either by the coherence To Clepe. dench. (Cot. Clean. the To Cleave. viz. kleg. The word is . a mass. This is probably one of the clean. ON. B. dams. split. . klinken. bright. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. a bunch of When flax). . to tear or cleave asunder. explained from the klinken. tongs. kluft. . to glitter. holding together. a plate. Clinch. from nitere. to fasten E. clear. doff. polish . Dan. dial. from diquer. glint. in two ways. klirre. to separate into parts. glent. sleek.

call. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. &c. catching. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. has kl'dver. See AS. exactly Gr. one of the clergy. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. klippe. Bav. cliof. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. clever. declivity. snatch. region not observe it. ready of speech. has also deik. In I Peter v. The origin is the Gr. rock. Fr. Climate. clerus. d See Clan. dergi. Du. dial. sonare. a sphere. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. Clerk. IS5 Du. to clack. score7i clif. gleg. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). klouwe. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. with hamarskard. kleppen. from Gael glac. clyf. klever. a hook. a tumbril. a latch. Lat. cleft. dink. rupes . to teU tales. to tattle. speak. klinket. light-fingered.Lat. click. neither as having lordship in the. or Sc. precipices. deuck. to talk as a parrot. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. derigo. Gr. cleke. G. cleugh. KkrifoQ. klaiv. . Clever. We movement catch. dek. clif- stanas. globus. dough. clever. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . frap- per rudement une personne. Du. the clergy clericus. a lazar's clicket or clapper. it must be observed. kleppe. 3. Somner. . Chaucer. had a form. Clergy.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. -Toe (from KXivm. temperature. as Sc. crack. nimble. a claw or clutch. Claw. dever. as Lat. to rattle. littus. Hence Lat. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. dichet. duke. diofian. klinge. dob. claw or talon to dek or deik. kloof. Jam. derecia. cliff. in the sense of active. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. from clifian. in rhetoric. pen. Now the OE. See Clench. call. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. chatter. rock. name. Sp. diquette. klev. to tattle. chat. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. verge). to prate. diver. Commonly derived from deliver. babble. cautes. and hence climate. on. a hump. click it. ginally from dob (extant in W. to confess . klok klep- crepitare. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. e. OE. what so men clappe or crie. klippe. deik. Climax. Cliff. Lat. cleopian. Sc. The Sc.dergie! Wiclif in R. See Clamber. cliquet. klif. sink. AS. Lat. derjon. would have been derida. prattle. an inclination. clif. klikker. 3. Cot. icXi/ja?. which in Mid. deudi. clep. ized . lively. glomus. Dunbar in Jam. is NE. click. cart that tilts over. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. the knocker of a door. CLINCH De . cleft of a hill. clatter. ravine. slope . kliket. a ball of twine. —Vocab. corresponding to the Sc. rugged ascent. ball of thread oriTo CUnch.— Clue. to move. quick of perception. scar.) Brai. climate. to seize. whence Fr. a latch. crepare. Click. klikklakken. a trigger. a clerk . to catch. — — A . Norm. de ripa. a baU of yarn. clypian. a ladder. G. Climb. to wink. and hence deik. CLERK sound of a blow.' ii. a figure mentioned. click. highest is attained. dicher. dial. Klover i munden. Du. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Happen. klika. dexterous. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . dook (identical with E. as from derido. agile. dutch). skard. /cXi'fia. to cry. to sound an alarm to clap. dial. precipice.. in precisely the same sense as the E. stein- kluppen. expeditious. klaffen. cliquer. or an object character- Clerical. . — have the notion of a short quick in E. a mill-clack . corresponding to Fr. clack. derigon. hamraklif. cleft in a rock. duik. rapidus from rapio. as a click with the tongue. above the pole. a cliff. a clicket or clapper.— Clicket. a hold. a child's or clack . which is used in Scotch and N. the clergy. Boh. clima. . to stir. deik. to cleave. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. Sw. a clew.). pulsare. on. and (with the nasal) — clincher. chatter. Clam. cligner. But the Dan. clap. one admitted to the tonsure. that is a clever feUow. chatter. quick in motion. a cleft in a rock . a lot. Det er en Mover kerl. crackle. Client. a precipice. a latch . Da. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. kliv. seize (Hal. Clew. abrupta rupes . to bend. Rouchi cliche. cave . a lump. klinke. deuch. to snatch. say. to catch. the dick of a latch or a trigger. syn.

to wither. speaks of a ' clung bat. G. a lump G. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty.' From Pl. klok. to resound. G. a beU. Serv. pinch. a lump of butter. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. klungeln. a cluster. to pinch klupe. kol- The word . Decline. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. klunge. disposed to a thing. clinker. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. clips. ten. . pallium. and 'E. klincke. a woman's mantle . The E. chcng. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. a tinman. gUong. — a mantle. a separate portion. sloping upwards procUvis. Ir. dial. to snap or fillip schnippen. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. ring clag. incline. clique. to lean. to clunge. S w. globulus' (Gl. toga muliebris. glocke. iissura. a clock. to sound sharp. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . to form one mass with. difficulty . outcry. sloping downwards . klippe.. to lean backwards. compress . clino. kolki-laud. club). to cling to a thing. sticky.— Clot. to crowd together klynge sig ved. klippur. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. E. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. to beat. G. a rising ground.und zuk-lippen. * Clod. ' . . knippchen. clingan. pinch. to crowd or squeeze chingy. kXiVu. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. cloche. Clink. E. straits. especially of something soft or clammy. ON. Fr. four of the bell. dag. OHG. in Schmeller) klunk. and so' to contract. hill . . met. Du. 2. Du. kleppe. by bits. to snip. See Cowl. difficulty. hluccti. fetter. kldpp. kluppe. Du. to ring. a clog or fetter for a beast . knippen. klocka. glungelin. kima.ginglej Fr. Clock. Ang. to slope or bend . . as thick or curdled liquids. kluben. declivis. . to clap or clack. schnippen. Sussex peasant AS. Esthon. klippa. klunker. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. Flem. to shrink up. shears. klepalo. to pinch. a snare. klinka. Kil. Fr. g. to knock. to bend downwards . Sw. acclivis. related to clock. a bell. to make a loud noise. verklungeln. klipa. klippa. hlinen. clog. as to snip in the same sense from snap. Een kliks bolter. Swiss klokken. dial. &c. — clot. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. G. ON. to AS. Walach. as G. klupen. whence E. clivus. klo^gen. See Clang. Bohem. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. Bohem. . 'Till famine cling thee. cochl. bow. a faction. klicke. kliks. -CLINE make pinch. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. klocke. To stick to. Sw. . In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. kolbe to E. to clip. N orman clincailler. To cut with shears.. also to form a compact mass. or bagging clothes. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. Sw. To Cling. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. rima. -atum. 156 -cline. a ball of thread . also to wink . at first probably on a wooden board. clinke. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to clink auf. slant. Swiss klungele. Pl. Da. a hood. as we now say three or four o'clock. like cling. clock is a variation of clack. Cloak. Bi klik uti klak. w.D.. klynge. to snap kneipen. noise. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. clangere. claw. Hal.' for a dry stick. sloping forwards. dial. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. cloak. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. klingen. klik. klinken. brett-glocke. G. Lat. a bell. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. incline. to snap tongs. dial. Lat. -cliv-. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. to . knot klynge. and a similar syllable without the /. to strike. quincailler. klaka.— KSS. toga. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. to cluster. . Gael. gang. to wither. recline. hlinian.. klak. G. Cliofue. klippen. a lump. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. to shrink up. tuft. knippe. Gr. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. clato make a noise. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael.D. nip. klungelin. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. . kukla. Sw. klocke. Du. Sw. from klepati. hooded . to beat on the board. clutch. The notion of a loose moveable substance.'— Shaks. I. ON. hluk. To Clip. parva ruptura.

then liquid or loose substance.' end. -clusum. to rattle. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. and E.— Clothe. to a. kleck. slops slodderen. .D. g. . A . to flap as loose clothes. kleck or lack. close. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. a spot. Fr. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. Du. clog or overshoe. we pass to Schlatter. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. to dabble. klakken. clotted locks Dan.. klotzschuh.D. . cloth. to bubble. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. slobberen. . Clog. with Fr. in comp. spatter. a clog. claudo. paddle or dabble in the wet. a bal!. gelatinous. curdled. and thus seem endowed . clogs. miry laggerit. enOE. spot of dirt. . E. Bav. a clod Swab. mud klcEg. of something clammy or heavy. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. without.rge lump. be&c. a field inclosed clos. To Clog. bowl . like G. Hence inclose. clammy loam. to shut in. to lobberig. analogous plan to clod or club. paddle. Fr. Pr. Pm. clorre. blot. laggery. clogs for the feet klakk. He was a man without a dag. lob. bloutre. kl'dnken. clausum. mire. finish . kladde. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. kloteispaen. slob. IV. pattens G. Klak also. a block. bespotted with mire E. klottern. splash. shaky. tuditare. meat from Du. or drablyn with separate existence. figer. • lump. MHG. or loppern. dirt. a log. In the same way Dan. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. daustrum. claggy. Russ. dirt. TZoxapov. . to dabble. loppe. or Sc. kloden. slab. A — — A Thus from Bav. klot. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. a monastery. truncus. 3. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground.. I doda clod. G. mud. to sup up liquid food. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. m&se noch stain. whence klack. of a body of any kind. and Gael. lobberen. separate part. klotz.). chiuso. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). Fr. paludosus. His heart was franlc without a flaw. .'^ Palsgr. klod. . lobbig. we pass to E. in accordance with Pl. to wabble. from Fr. dag. thick spoon . Klottermelck. closed. clausum. to play at bowls. lump of butter. slops). is connected with pludder. boil. . fat. a babbler. slobbe. clot. Lat. lobberen. neither spot nor hang loose. je amoncele. . congeler. be found rattle. Idppern. schlattern. lopperig. lump of something soft . bemired. to rattle. geschlotter (as E. compared with clump. a clod. loose trowsers. to bedaub. to shut. forbidden by 17 Ed. Dan. ! . to shut. klateren. shut up. I clodde. a blot. klos-bane. zoccoli. Pr.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. dunch). unctuous. . pludre. dangle. clatk. to bodies. schlettern. lumps of butter. motte. a blot. Mat. klag. Close. or E. tJokok. log. wide bagging clothes. clos. a dirty wench claggy. kloteren. . clos. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. to shut up. to close against one. a log.dial. Cloister. to spill liquids. lump of mud on the clothes . kloten. plod. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. clotted milk klotte. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. an imputation. schlott. Closhe. G. . klac. lag. Pl. thick sour milk. Lat. inclose. wabbling from Du. terminate. slop. is a blot on one's character. to paddle in the wet. slabberen. shut up. The game called ninepins. zocco. Du. to cling locks. foreclose. loose mud. lopin. a trowelful of mortar. to flounder in the wet. It. dial. klos. . Fr. a skittle-ground klos- sen. loose. to slop or spill liquids. Yule-clog. watery. lunch. to claggock. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. to dash like heavy rain. -close. -clus-. klokotat. loblolly. a lump from Du. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. hanging loose and full. E. . aspersion. daggerey. klunkern. -cludo. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. loppered (of milk). Gr. laggyn. fors. in accordance with It. dab. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. motzen. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Sc. chiudere. tramp in wet or mire. and Du. from claudo. doitre. The origin of clod and clot is to . a portion of something soft and adhesive. beklakken. slobber. to rattle or shake to and fro. kloster. in forms like Du. AS. schlotter. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. the radical sylla. claque. rattle. Swiss schlott. from Du. a Christmas log. klakk. da- . I clodde. schlottern.1a.

Gael. clue. clod is used in both senses .D. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. are often connected. a log. of a lump of earth and that figure. a. clothes). clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. AS. klobbersaen. to cherish. dut. Du. clog. davus. esdaboter (Roquef. loggish. clump of a clout on the head. klubb. del mattond. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . block. kUid. dillad bumkin. G. Mabousfrom Lat. clydion. de Champ. clot. Rouchi dapoter. ON. een klaven kruflook. choke or stop up. klumba. w. It. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. cloud Delfortrie. nagelein. E. the air. rustic. Du. Fr. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. puddle. Clumpered in balls of clouds. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. ON. a ball. a patch. nourish .D. The radical sense seems to be an unE. are also used in the sense of a stopper. Du. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). probably from daboter. to splash. to cover Bret. indispalte knoblauch. clyd. klubba. The significations of a clod or lump. the terms expresssplit. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. group of people Sw. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. a . to beFr. N. klieven. stock. a boss.D.158 . cobio. Move. lump. and tapp.ft. dial. also homo obtusus. lump. bunch. zolla dell' . dote. to stop. a clod or clot. clot. clot . klqb. . Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. to curdle. chiodo di girofano. warm place . eine to slop. klu77ip. to cleave. daggy. hebes (Kil. a bunch.clod. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. tuft. a curdled sky. kldverj P1. eene ODu. a lump. naegel. matte. From dog. Then applied to a lump of mate. tered . w. Met. but confounded with cailler. with lout. nelke (dim. Sw. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. a clod. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. To Cluck. . a nail. knob. strike. kluV. clumhar. botsen. Du. of nagel. a bunch. The priClout. knob. G. clavo di especias. warm clothes {dillad. a fissure. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. lump of earth aria. Sw. Du. Dan. a sky Cot. piece Cot. clothe. dash (Cot. klubbe. clunch. a bunch.bar. CLOUD an awkward clod . Kiittner. wisp.). boucher. klever. from Du. to cloy. and closely do conspire. klumpfot. A kind of spice resembling Du. a breach. cluster. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. AS. I. More in R. clotted milk or cream. cludadh. CLUCK rustic. a bobbin. a cover or coverture . lunch). milk run to lumps. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . a clove of garlick. . cobble. Imitative of the note of a society. dabaire. mass. to tramp in the kluyve. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. diboter. klcBdi. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. zolla. of sloppy materials. little nails. sheltered . vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. Ir. Clover. lumps of curd. blockish. a knot of people. to strike . klotz. mire. Cloud. (kruyd =. klump. dys. klubb. dump. and of a rustic unpolished person. a nail) Fr. aglio. clothes ment. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. G. Du. and clout d eudaich. klotsen. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. clobyn. of thumping clumsy action.). — .' Sanders. . formed lump or thick mass. make warm. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. Properly that which covers and Du. a thick mass. a bousche. a blabber. klotzig. dob. Club. from W. Cld. a lump. mary sense is a blow. when something has got into the touch-hole. a log. klunds. dial. a clubfoot klabb. Gael. a ball of twine . Das volk hat sich in splitten. cob. a ball. to cleave or the splashing of water. caillebottes. motte. E.Fris. botch. kluppe. duthaich. mud (Pat. Clump. klaven. warm. A division of a root of garlick. Pl. sheltered up warm. cludaim.). spice) G. unpolished.). klove. to strike. clump. lie clyd. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. clou de girofle. to a lump. kloete. klonte. from OFr. sticky. dabosser. kl'dnne. So Fr. in the same sense. E. shel- kloen. cluth mhor. clod. a clown. and -the word Clove. ball of thread Russ. coarse. 2. — — — . from kloven. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. and clay. clods. lump. log. clammy earth. a ball. dial. Clown. a sticky. To Cloy. to lump mend clumsily. as Fr. a garthas. . G. klebek. a clot or keeps one warm. In the same way E. clunch. kloven. ser. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. warm. dirt. . Sp.

' Benecke. to tramp. to lie. or from Sw. to tramp. to collect in lumps. A group. klompen. -clusum. obstructum. to stick together .Ancr. See reclusion. Lat. COAL dumpish. E. — . riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. from laver. klummklummshandt. G. Clump. klont. kohle. a nasalised form of club. klimpern. clip or pinch. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. a claw. er. benumbed with cold. splash. a ball. and klonteren. properly to do anything Fr. dial. Ang. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . unhandy. seize. Sw. to tramp or tread heavily. beklommen. from ON. doquear. klampa. through the senses of lumpish. differing only in the absence of the duik. viscous material. . dussomed (Wilbrabam). also a cluster. In the same way Du. klunt. a clove Sw. awkward. — Hence include. hondis. cluntClyster. a ball . unwieldy Hal. But clunchy. unfashioned. verklomen. a lump or compact mass. Lincolns. clausum. klomje. unhandy. —More. The Fr. coccolare. ether comelia P. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. eene beklum. Cheshire. claws. as clumper. to squeeze. clook. ball of snow on horse's foot . ment.. klump. clabosser. * Clumsy. -close. lavesen. Sw. klumpern. and koetse. esclaboter. algidus.forklomme (Outzen). coucher became in unhandy. Beklummen van kelde. klunsen. klette. clotted cream. dumpers. the word is more probably connected with OE. a coach. klumpig. a clod or lump. verkommelen. Graff in Klamjan. koetsie. idle.' Vegecius in Way. * Clump. with E. whence koetse. a clod or lump. to curdle. dumps. to wash. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. Clutter. From the notion of sticking together. may recline. gelidus. a block. Fr. G.D. awkward. enervatus. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. Du. Sp. exclude. -olus-. ill-made . eviratus.P. in comp. to klotz. heavily. Ray. kluntfrom KKvKdi. hooknosed. klobber in klobbersaen. Cluster. klummerhdndt.mene tied.' Wycliff. claw. Lat. dial. -elude. . Boh. wagen. Fr. glocire. — ' — — tonista. fingers (familiar). -CLUDE hen Du.— — . a litter. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. to pinch. OHG. G. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. beklummen. Pl. pladdern. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. MHG. clutch. klontet. -cludo. claudo. to rinse. klonte. MHG. klcise. of garlick. to curdle. Riwle. Du. to shut. koetblockish. acomelydfor could Pr. to wash. — Cot. eviratus. It. klamp. Com. klods. havi. tight — — . Pm. to gingle. paste. Hence snatching.e. hand to cleuk. Isaiah.D. dek. Teulazy. Compare Swiss klupe. to to snatch. clutch. dumpse. klomen. to curdle. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. dial. klos. conclusion. ' Uorte (for clogs. and klotteren. inclusive. The sense of awkward. a bunch. clumsy. hands stiff with cold.' Comfort ye dumsid. having the Pl. to grip. Hence cleik. wooden sole. thick and clumsy. lay hold of. ball as snow. a noise. Variation of clatter. klikonosy. Analogous forms with a tongs. carriage in which you klodset. klister. log. Fris. a couch. or aclommyde. -clus-. .D. klamen. Clutch. an instrument for nasal form e. Coach. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. Hindust.D. a clod or The noclot.pare P1. in v. glousser. clump. —To Clumsyd. ' Thou clontsest for cold. Coal. ' Clumper. clopiner. duke. klocken. a lump. wooden shoes. cliboter. clointer. Muster. pinched. n. rial. close. cluster. OE. a clod clunter. klemmen. .'— animal. a clot klissen. cleche. Fr. koetsDa. Pl. E. 159 E. ON. to benumb with cold. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. as Fr. Sc. See -elude. cleuk. klonte. conclude. Du. cleik. strum on an instrument. Hesse. 130. Du. of Du. ' .E. klemma. might be reached from clump. Champ. from klupen. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. klikaty. as from seken. Du. smart motion. with a quick. and make ye strong feeble knees. Gr. koetsen. finish. kol. Cath. bunch. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. dial. are the nasalised forms of klotte. dystere. lump of soft mate. limp.D. to syllable click. plad or plod. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. dek. klisse. to paddle or dabble. a lump. — sen. crooked inwards . &c. a pinching time. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. kichlemmit. G. xXvariip. calling her chickens.

dial.' Nares.' — Thus from (Hal. things. verkommelen. w. to grow together. of poison. * To Cobble. hakkelen. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. are often connected. See Cot.. Coalesce. united. In the E. . — Pr. and imperfect or unskilful action.a spider. Pm. cacd). to be hot. Fr. to kindle or cause to burn . to strike. to stutter. ON. burning. to stutter. caleo. also a coast. A spider's web. cokes or fool of him. probably from the Fr. staggering or halting. dial. COCHINEAL Cobber. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. The contrast between the bee • Cob. Fin. a large round nut cobstones. give the full meaning of the word. quilet. — — — E. viz. a spider. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. cofasse. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. kolna. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn.(pi. v. frock. cobcoals. pustule. haggle. Flem. cock or nescock. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . To cokes or coax one then is to make a w.. to worship. are round stones or round coals of small size. of E. cule cocosse. . Fr. Dan. cob. grown together. A plausible origin. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. . as in arr. coalesce. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. a crea. cob is a dumpy horse. T' waerkopet. to bungle . e. Coast. to knock. a thumper.—Atkinson. glowing embers. Lat. . may be A found in Sw. numb. glow. to burn. a tuft. a woodlouse. pockbecility and liability to imposition. When the . flame. the one of thump. a bunch. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering.). one Pr. Sanscr. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. a firesteel Lat. dial. to pdt with We may cite Fr. a cobweb. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. Pm. itself is Nescock . that is. a pock mark. The OE. large coals. sweets and the other of poisons. Colina' the place where a fire is made. as shown in dob and cob. dial. throw a blow. atter-kop. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. probably left his home. ridi. niais. to glow . . The form attercop seems to him into doing something. cobble. a great falsehood. Cocasse. spinne-ivebbe. in Du. to cob. of cochina. side . Du. ignem. and jval. to peck as a hen cobyn. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. — Cleveland Gl. cotta. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment.inflated with air or liquid. an egg. pryf-coppyn. glow jvalaya. ailina or colina. acomelyd or aclommyd. a similar According to Ihre. to kindle jvAla.— Cobble. tuft. meaning that she is plain and coarse. costa. a knock. to wheedle or gull vermin). then to work unskilfully . to Lett. cob. Coalition. and E. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. koppe. a spider (/r)^=grub. or upper . niais. cotte. koljarn. kop-ar. bijamie. klabba. properly to daub. H^cart. top cobio. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. of E. a kitchen. boil. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . rivation are found in Sw. k'dlla. habble.). large stones . to be inflamed . Coat. in Essex Jow*2c^. verklomen. woman is said to be very ordinary. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. klabbare. a sow. cochinilla. cluster. pock. says Varro. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. to hobble . is one of thump. kuppa. unfledged bird. a bungler. an old idiot. kop. OE. cokes was a simpleton. used in — .).' And colo. 3. e. petrilla. however. — Cobbler. Coarse.. Fr. E. from being laid A Sp