original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the


Cornell University Library



dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. or. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. to the syllables which are significant to the child. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. and mully or mully cow is the . The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. but nothing she herself knows the animals. muK) and mae (rfie. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. come Moolls. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. the closer we shall approach to the . or Mollein. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. the baaing of the sheep. when we is represent to our children of the cow. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. by whom the be understood. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. The syllables moo (mu. when neither name for the object to be designated. and. and where we are seeking.NURSERY IMITATIONS. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). Molli. persons of different tongues at the present day. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. the present day. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). in language of the present day. with an initial m or I. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. is given to a cow or calf. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. name of the cow. in other words. mind of the of the animal.

p. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. had nim.' In ordinary speech mump. We have. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. Gr. for things. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. On one occasion he said^e nim. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. his nurse adopting the word with him. to eat. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. . gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. Gradually. Finally an n was placed before it. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. by the natural humming sound. . and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. hm. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. then. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things.). for bad. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. to For instance. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. A member of my own new sfop. First. and which we might express thus. analogous to Magyar mammogni. family. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. Heinicke. repulsive to eat. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. schipp. as well as the mind of the utterer. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. he called to to drink. But soon the growing mind began to generalise.' he says. fiafifi&v (Hesych. 72). he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. He would now say good. nim. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. to work over with the mouth..' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. I had watched the growth of this word. for everything fit to eat. mumm. in children's language. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. nineteen years old. partly from sounds which the child caught. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. and some were very clear and distinct. became more perfect. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. and nim came to signify everything edible. when hungry. &c.

' Motherwell. A negro proOr. sweet (Koelle). to move the lips in continued chewing. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. we can call them so. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. mumble. to take.' says Quintilian. agreeing with Ein. eating. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. Nimm'd up. Soosoo (W. ' id est. clangorqae tubarum. mujnpa. as to . To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. taken up hastily on the sly. greedy . The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . nyam nyam. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). Africa) nimnim. ut tinnitus aeris. Galla djam djeda. mumpfeln. Wolof nahenahe. delicacies. or word-making. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus.' — Lersch. voracious. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. Primitive Culture. mumpfen.' And Diomedes. nam. tidbits nama . jamsa (yamsa). at hiamske i sig. buckra man's language the white man. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. nobis vix permittitur. and the crab — p. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. to mump. namnam. Gothic niman. and thence to be tasteful. and some of them . crab nam buckra man. i8o.). Africa) nimi. savory. make djamdjam). (in chil- dren's language). memmexen.minis. stolen. to Sw. to eat. aptantes adfectibus vocem. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. to taste . 1 86). thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. to be pleamind . and the fizzing (and Series. oves lalare. .ONOMATOPCEIA. the Scotch poet. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. to smack in eat. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. to fill the mouth.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. lita. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. 130-1. Vei (W. jumla. as well as the Sw. South Jutland hiamsk. aves tinnire. iii. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. j ing . yamming. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. nvrnma. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. jammla. to eat mampfen. food (Tylor. snatched (Whitby Gl. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. dial. p. palatable.' says the author of Modern Slang. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). on. to chew laboriously. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Swedish dialect gamsa. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). i.

dove and cooing. when circumstances required. Indeed. twittering of swallows. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. chattering of pies or monkeys. hooting of owls. yelping. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. neighing or whinnying of horses. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African .' And elsevs^here (p. anything connected with it.' he says. yelping. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. baaing or maeing of lambs. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. gobbling of a turkey-cock.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. sparrow and chirping. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. snarling of dogs. whether it deserves the name of language. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. that there is When Man. bleating of sheep. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. 89) with less hesitation. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. bellowing of bulls. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. do not speak of a bowwow. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. We . intended in the instance to represent the cry. might be used. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. between dog and harking. for the purpose of bringing the animal. or thoughts of our hearer. a lamb. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. chirping of sparrows or crickets.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. howling. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. barking. or. snarling. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. not of a moo of Lect.' — We speak of a cow. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. cackling or gaggling of geese. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. ^6^. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. croaking of frogs or ravens. 'I doubt. bumping of bitterns. lowing of oxen. Yet we ing. might be used as the designation of it. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. und growling. but of a dog. cooing or crooing of doves. not of a baa. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. purring or mewing of cats. before the in other words. grunting or squealing of hogs. p.

KOKKvi. caw kuhii-rava (rava. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. In Lat. Sauscr. coccolare. e. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. a daw. in is Gr.). 4th century before Christ is earliest times.. having a general predicative power. caller. Malay gdgak. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. 380. Aoo-Aoo. or quawk. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Picard cau. Kdrava. 'Kdka. Manchu The kaha. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. is kuM) for the cuckoo. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. Columbia kahkah. kauwe. kae. He to is therefore derives kdka. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. crow. in g. a crow. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists.IMITATIVE NAMES. 4th ed. a a crier (p. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. fi-om apakd- i. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. it announces (Salaberry). village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. a bird that is be driven away. and gaggele or gagkelein. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). sound). Barabra koka. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says.). layitavya . ist ed. kdka. Georgian quaki. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. Sometimes the hoarse i . I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. birds. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Bav. We imitate the sound with a modulated. and means a shouter. Hungary. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. and the sound of that direction. crow. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. In Basque. gackem.' kd). and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. and Bavaria respectively. kuho. according to Durga). a crow (Pictet). 349. derived fi-om a root ru or kru.' common sense. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. lion. Origines Indo-Europeennes). ghak. whose sound (Pictet. Arabic kdk.

6. German kielitz. yell. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . xi. Scotch peeweip. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. a crow . Sp. Ibo akoka. turtle) as the Lat. kukko. as well as of Sanscr. kraeye. tortbla. Swedish kowipa. coucouva. the name for a crow. and e. name. Du. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. tbrtola. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Fr. libufs. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. Du. The consonants p. Albacuculi a dove. and sometimes both together. to croak. to howl or Lat. Magy. the name of an animal will gen- . Walachian coucouveike. "Welsh hwan from hwa. krauklys. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. krahe. kurre. to crow. kruk. tur. tor. a crow lish Lith. Esthonian kikkas. another. uhu. kirren. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. girre. Zulu kuku. coccovaec. p. Yoruba koklo. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. korren. synonymous forms of similar structure). ghughu. lulo. kuku.. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. or Gr. Malay kukuk. Hindi. Mod. tuquheit. koeren. tbrtora. Arabic tdtwit.Gr. to crow. lilits. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. kukhuta. to hoot.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. gugu. are represented. while crouk. a crow. wood-pigeon. name of its is the bird. great variety of oKokv^uv.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Heb. giving turtur (and thence It. to croak. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. coqueri- Languedoc. kraeyen. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. The crowing of cot in Fr. cock. teewhoop. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. and e. lUyrian kukurekati. 219.. Dutch kievit. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Lettish kiekuts. German and Eng- krahen. kraukti. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . gufo. t. reduplicate form. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. in the North of England. Pers. French dishuit. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. by the verbs gurren or girren. to cry loudly. German luhu. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. either in the same or in related dialects. hibou. Da. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. k. It. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. So we have Polish krukac. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry.

of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. knetta. or a gnat fly. words imitative of humming . Speaking of a cricket he says. bamba. shrill. give a faint sound. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). horniss and from the buzzing The. a drone. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Lat. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. Northern Farmer. grille. German dronen. i. schrickel.IMITATIVE NAMES. flight its sting considered as a horn. buzzing. from the humming. cricket is from crick. — Catafogo. 'The natives call it tanand. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. Sc. as .' Amazons. (Jieuschrecke) . to creak Bret. and probably indicates that g. pip-pi-ta. to shrill sound sharp. schrecke. schirke. a sharp sound as of a 6. booming. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. glass cracking (Schmeller). g. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. We may compare the Parmesan tananai.vf3. Australian bumberoo. thunder. hollow noise. Danish gnaddre. swirplys with 6. the humble. Gaelic dranndan. to sound. German hummel. Lithuanian tranas. e. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. Corean sirsor. and not from E. humming. which they make in their flight very . The drone peal. g. to hum. little intermission. whirr). to be compared with Sanscr. ajo. The name of the cricket indeed. buzzing. ta-na-nd. zirken. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. We may cite Gr. kong-kong. sound. and yelping cry. a beetle druna. resound. 337. ' — Pictet . with or Fr. a hornet. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. to chirp J may be compared with . droning is . In the N. to chirp . Danish dron. grillen. resounding of musical instruments. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. Arabic tantanat. ' Sanscr. German drohne. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. oE. loud rumour. there are infinite varieties. schwirren. from schrick. dhran. g. common. of England it is to the b 2 .y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead.' — i. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. and he kong-ko-rong. skryle. representing a short sharp sound. Fin. a bee.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. The Arabic sarsor. in allusion to its music. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. din. a fly (Tylor) .or bumble-bee.' —Tennyson. skirl. growling. skril with n. bambhara. sirkka. Sanscr. grylhis. to rustle. chirk. succeeding each other — with noise. a small as hawk is . North of England. gives rise to chwymores. the drone or non-working bee . The Welsh chwyrnu. PofijivXwg. Albanian tsentsir. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. Lith. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. Naturalist on the tocano. to grumble. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. bee.

has bilbilgoda. and thence Lat. Hottentot bou (Dapper). in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. On the same principle. to low . baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to or bark. or moo. a bullock. biibnas. mae. or a z to the imitative syllable. 167. Gael.XX called booing. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. (iove. and from to ring. and djeda. to make a noise. btibleti. loge. amuse. to low or bellow. a buffalo. Manx booa. verb is evidently identical with our shout. bull. ox. to mew. From baa. Lat. from the imitative moo instead of boo. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. bae. bos. w. bukati. muJiati. cattle. to the uses goda. bubenti. make to it laugh. the animal. The Piedm. Illyr. Lat. bo. is inadmissible. to weep. It. w. to from bau. bubati. lulauti (to hoo-loo). fivKaofiai. bullock. mugler. bugle. mamoo-heeheek. to shout. bae. as that of the cow by boo. or bau-l-i. With these analogies. as the Illyr. The Galla lilbil. k or g. Fr. Zulu lulula. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. agreeing exactly with Lith. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. to sound. — ^Tylor. His analysis leads cow. boo. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. be-l-er. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Galla boa. OFr. Thus from miau. baula. or formed Lat. verbal form given to the say. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to beat hard. bullus and e. bolt. to shout. forms a. grumble as distant thunder . a Geiger. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. bue. the Fr. From the same lioao). representing the mew of a cat. Piedmontese fi bau. to . a drum . and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. Da. are (with a subsidiary k). The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. p. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. that the imitative syllable are Lith. Fr. Cult. say. make poo. bucula. mugire. a cow. Norse bu. to make. bu. maukati. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. to make a loud deep sound. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. to bellow like a bull. to boohoo. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. miau-l-er. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. and in Hottentot baa was the . Lat. in a imitation of a ringing sound. in same way. bwla. a bull. bauli. shoot . to low. to bow- own bawl. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. bovis. whence baula. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to bump as a bittern Illyr. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. to make. bugler. a heifer. representmake bow. to ba-L-are. or with on. buculus. a name preserved in our bugle-horn.

appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. hwch. The g. Fr. Da. Illyr. a pig Fin. to growl. this obstinate race. a sheep or a goat. curmurring. signifying a snarling. grumpf. and thence groin. groin. grumbhng. the snout of a pig. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. a wolf. meckern. hundi). as lou of an ox. as the proper name of a tame sheep. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. a hog. And it is true there between hog and grunt. grogner. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. leknuti. Welsh and Breton). mekegni. growl. to bleat. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. Africa laa. with the root ypaipm. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. Among dog. and Circassian maylley. ^. lecco. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. /xijeao/iat.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. purr). a (Hesych. With gen. name of the animal itself. Magy. 6. hadg- Magy.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. grunt. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. to grunt. hunt (gen. a pig. mecati. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. ' In driving. a goat. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. a sheep (Lowe). by which the shingle gives rise to It. a sheep or ewe. grumble. nire. to themselves. Moreover. and with the subsidiary k or g. from knurre. mutter. guttural tone. It. Illyr. G. a sheep. name. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. for the voice of the ox). or in any ! way ! persuading. and grumphie. From the imitative mae. meugler. hund. Fr. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. to bleat. name of a sheep. to bleat . Gr. to howl. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. Gael. karra. oe. Gr. naskia. Gr. lek-eg-ni. /xj/caScj. it and e. to grunt. grumble. grugno. meketati. smack and naski. in Wolof bae. may be identical with Esthon. Illyr. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. a. Hence Breton hoc ha. Idgge (Rietz). in v. knurfisk. sus-sus. cite as by grunt. rumbling. sheep or goat. we have Sanscr. a sow. meil. grunlike a pig in eating. (iriKov of forms like Sw. undoubtedly imitative. Manx meilee. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. cry). grunny. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. he would hardly. although the imitation embodied in Lat. lambs. hunon. a sow. houch. sound. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. goats.' Moor's Suffolk words.). to rumble. lekavica. . Kurren und murren. may with to snarl. does not produce a e. corresponding to ohg. and snorke. hound. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. — . the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. It is probable also that e. . a grunt. . and thus explains the origin /3^k»). kurren. menAda (ndda. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. and hoc'h. the designations of a dog the term cur. kurre. and of (maelon). a dog. from hundama. leg-et-ni. a goat. a goat firixal^ta. / The same Gr. meigeal.

and it is behind that wall that language really begins.). The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. when he found peculiarity. . as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. to whine. g. the cry to stop or back a horse.' 2nd Series. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. hoppe. There are of course some names. a horse. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. from the cry animal..root. coquette. Sc. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. e. humma. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. hottihuh. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). Thus we are led to the Fr. hiine. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. p. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. ^6<. . a mare. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. to the left.' — ist Series. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. hobin. Esthonian hoibo. hobben.. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. (Craven Gloss. hobby. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. So Sanscr. turn a horse to the is In Finland. a little am- bling horse. like artificial flowers. without a — we root. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. of the character in question. 91. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. such as cuckoo. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. cockade. to go backwards. M). If onomatopoeias can .' ticular bird. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks.). houpy in Craven. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. as in Yorkshire highly right. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). coquelicot. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. p. animal. But words of this kind are.

sol.D. moan. ginniken. wrena. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. xxiii ginal object. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. command of language was attained. diver. goatsucker. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. whitename in in- throat. hennir. Fr. hikkd. hross. redpole. hukkup. to Sanscr. groan. Bohem. titter. ance or habits of the animal.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. little speak for themselves. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. creeper. Lettish sweegt. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. hresh. frenschen. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . fehtati. woodpecker. Sp. as sigh. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. wiehern. but whether there kind between them and other words. rinchar. to neigh. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. hresh. Sw. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. giggle. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. g. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. horse. nounced with a guttural). Du. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. swift. Sanscr. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. lapwing. than to the sounds represented. signified It. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. . animals or certain kinds of sound. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. e. cough. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. wrenska. nitrire. wagtail. Irieschen. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. form corresponding hresh. runniken. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. Pl.

a more expressive than the e. Australian bungbung ween. the dashing of the sea . . &c. for a small one. Mei gbengben. a large bell. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. pit-a-pat. beat. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. for the for the sound of . banke. for the sound of a blow. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. heaven). tlirob.' ! ! ! ! — dong.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. hoo ping ping. strippstrapp-stroll. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. ding. oren : Klapp. knarr. knack.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. for the report of a musket (Colenso) .' 'Haw. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. an attempt would be made to by the voice. aritischane. White Lies. bangas. snore. dong Read. haitshu. to ham. heart tick-tack. mer. banga. or tliat is accomit. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . clap ! A smack Puff. are familiar in ' to every one. bang. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. in a nail Let. 1865. snukkup). snort.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. root kshu. &c. beat of a clock child . for the sound of milking. shriek. to drive on. lumm. Wtb. hoo. to throw violently down. haw. atchian. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Of a like forma- drum . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. hang. klatsch. for the sound of a fall. ting-ting.' So imac. to sneeze. It is represented in e. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. —Brem. or the w.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. ping came the bullets about their ears. a kind of drum. to beat. atchini. Da. DingBang. for blows with a rod. for in such sound of blows. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. to hammer . To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. tisio (tisho). for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. thunder (Tylor) . Zulu bongo. debhes-lungotais (deifies. fitsche-falsche. went the cannon. for the creaking of a wheel. for that of breaking. to knock. pump. — Sanders. bang ' ! trenches. the God of thunder . on the chops is represented also by pratx. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. plitsch-platsch.' it both sides went. Vei gbangba. scream. wheeze.

pigione. to designate cavity and hollow. had been used laugh ? two. piauler. pigiolare. pigolare.) a chick. and so forth. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. used as a call to . In cases such as these. pipe. pi. Mantuan pipiare. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. part of the What consciousness has the child. of a word will appear supposed to represent. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. far pipi. —Lyndsay. calls S. doubtless.sc. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. He Yet asks. The pi. pule. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. cry. pipe. piou. — . of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. as k. ducing the sound. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. as in other subjects of study. . and whimper. a whelp. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident.' instead. pu. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. a fowler's bird call is lost. as the simplest implement for proFr. laugh. piccione. bleat. has been un- employed to designate fixity. pipelni. It seems to him that the teeth t. Gr. or a piailler. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. not- . G. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. pipio. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. chickens (Tylor). Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. peep. a (young) pigeon. a chicken or gosling. peep. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. to cry pi. Magyar pip. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. Lat. mobility excavation and hollow ^. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. is of expression. young child . piou. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. Fr. scream. the voice of chickens (Cot. to cheep like a bird or a young It. young bird. a or cheep. Lat. Florio. or the uneducated different consonants are man. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. child. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. a fife or musical pipe. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. to peep It.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. and their relations. pipare. e. is pfeife. cry of young birds . to squeak. to cry like imrli^u). pipegni. pipio. pipilo. De Brosses. pippione. which he added to intensify the expression.

thunder oil . to thunder. turtur. some small vowel or consonantal sound. loud laughter. or kaka-faka. pi . rumble. Indian chack-chack. to hawhaw or laugh loud. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. kniks. laqfF. where the variation. cricli. a drum W. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. to bubble. lachen. i. Pefuxela. to gurgle. tontonare. to rattle. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. as representing the sound made when something breaks. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. karkarana. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. in German. preserved by Kilian. crack. Poppopvi^to. coo. knurren. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to growl. as the click of a latch or a trigger. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). to be compared with Sc. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to gargle . gurren. murmur (by . to ring pipio. along with tinnio. or springing back. to pant bejii- zela. Manchu kaka-kiki. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. to clack.) Mod. sound of dry breaking. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . borrelen. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. rumble. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . creak. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. of something fine and thin. a short sharp sound.. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. knuks. a prolonged sharp sound. bubble. lachachen. garren. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. {to It. sound). Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. tonare. Pacific aka-aka. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . a. be cate to go on laughing loud . a closed or obscure sound. &c. tintino. to cluck. . like the noise of a glass breaking . it is If laugh were written as pronounced. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to jar. Hindoo tomtom. girren. knaks. kniks.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. to gorgogHare rattle. to creak knirren. Hindustani karak is rendered. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). and lugh. is very common. to fizz like fat in frying. make wood a clinking noise. Zulu raraza. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to pant violently (Colenso). when it force than biscuit. to cry pi. kuruk. to grumble). murren. u. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. cluck. to grumble. rumble (Fl. to crackle like in boiling . grumble. to grate the teeth .Gr. to laugh. kirkirdnd.. vaake gorgor) . the clucking of a j hen . crash. a sharp short one. along with Du. It. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. the side of g. of a loud strong sound. . chack.

nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. a drum . clank. halaidlac'h. box on the ear imitation of the . klirren. rifiirayov. make djamdjam). clash of arms. for a tTviror). or the bubbling up of to a spring. and Gr. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . to say chut. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. while cacd / used in e. coughing or clearing the throat. drops of i. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. croaking of frogs. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. brings us to Fr. at an accelerated note. . or to Du. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). koXiw. chuchoter. to whisper. Newman).* the heart. to giggle. to knock. sound. a nightingale. borrelen. a workman. KaKog. disturbance (F. as Fr. Sanscr. Calt. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . for the sound of privy whispering. Prim. wail. chut. identical with g. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. for the ringing of illustrate bells. sound). answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. and bilhila. tumwata. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. muro and e. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. bulbiil. kl'mg-kling. rain (Tylor. bubble up. bent her head. hala-hald-faMa (falda. The whispering of the wind I. Tiie Galla gigiteka. are applied to the is excrements of children. and the imitative nature of tivgle. shout. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. 192). fumtu. or of bells ringing. to strike.and e. thump. as of Tamil muromurmur. is based on the same imitation as the e. chinking of coin. a boy's whistle. jingle. is Manchu tang-tang. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. uproar. Manchu kaka. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. the tingling Ming-Hang. csam-csogni. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. quarren. and e. champ. a nightingale. bad. caca and Finnish adkkd. agrees with g. E. tumult. Fr. a smith. clink. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. The syllables lil-bil. for the clinking Lat. of keys or tinkling of bells. noise. the sound of a stringed instrument. Galla tuma. Scotch sough or sooch. indicating the origin of Gr. djeda (to say tub). simmer. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. e. clango. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. to be compared with g. tubh. rvir (in tvittio. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. cry. corresponding in e. to beat. Turk. the gingling of glasses. 1871. to the purling of a brook. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. Maori pata.' Member for Paris. . 368). and Gr. Magyar csamm-ogni. ding-dong. correspond to e. jangle. compared with Gr. word. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. for chut-chiit-er. and her heart went thump. awater* ' The Mme P. call. to ring or jingle. kiling-kalang. especially one who beats. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. spring of water in the a bell. tup.

' Der puff. it is fallj AS. clang. douse. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. snap. The use of g. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. clap. tum-ultus. crunch. fizz. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. hum. So in Fr. whirr. according to the strictest phonetic rules. bubble. chatter. puff. blow. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. while e. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. to fall. gurgle. ring. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. Nevertheless. 'pat. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. answering to g. thump. boom. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. whine. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. thump. smash. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. tingle. by rubadub. Humboldt. creak. rattle. swash. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. whizz. at a door tarapatan. rap. guggle. tomber. murmur. report of a gun. lash. tymmesll. and the French pouf. pop. jingle. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos.. without the intervention of orthodox roots. sputter. But although and also found in Lat. hiss. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. gargle. brumberum. chink. flop. disturbance. rataplan or rantanplan. in e. and soufflet. tinkle. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. thwack. a applied as well to the force of the bang. plump. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. to is blow. clink. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. the Germans puff. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. clash. souse. splutter. parapatapan. dash. crash. clank. splash. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. tap. whack. craunch. bang. squeak. and Fr. Fr. patter. or v^hether jectional. we have buffet or cuff. dabble. slash. mutter. squeal. paddle. rumble. clatter. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. thump.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. flap. The beating of drum is represented in e. and Grimm. smack. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. squall. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. crack. twang. to dance. w.' — Nohden. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. for (Sanders). is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. clack. It. blubber. din. tumbian (to beat the ground).

knows them. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. every little pain. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. At the first beginning of life. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. of horror. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. and uttering plaintive sounds. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. p. and found in the building of be burnt up.' If chaos. in the rushing waters. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series.' . the interj. but if we must not complain on the beach. and thus they become signs of despair. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. are made known by an instinctive cry. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. because they are spontaneous. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. the kind of action that is desired of them. is Thus ah!. without a thought of symbolising to them. 94. ugh . exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. stractions. xxix on the contrary. hay. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. by the nature of the cry. or stubble is meaner name. little who has time to want of her nurseling. or of any if wood. or any unsatisfied want. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. the inteij.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. Crying. If. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. grief.'. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. wringing the hands. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. that he has taken the step in rational speech. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. Grimm or Bopp. in the case of the animal or of the infant. formerly cited. an imitation of a sigh .

XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. ^6g And to the same effect 371. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. may become traditional. sneezing. interjections. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. them to exercise it. Language begins where interjections end. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. of all the mouth. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. p. more to the point. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. they are involuntary interjections. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. One short interjec- tion may fact. shrieking. and some of them the composition of words. to solve the I shall call first. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. 32. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech.. p. the lowing of a cow. as who them spontaneous utterances. And again. coughing. He says. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. which are frequently so toned down cance. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound.' p. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. and the eye. groaning. be more powerful. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. more eloquent than a long speech.' — ist Series. he cites from Home Tooke. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. or which is of me as suffering pain. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. 344. should be remem- . their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. If I wish to make a person of an .

and more or less limited . hahottaa. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. interjections. loud laughter. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. bered.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. Tooke in truth. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. and thus. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. Gr. Lat. Koxafw. and others from interjections. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . he says. hahota. but the less am at a loss what to say. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. it them. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. for example. I am not hearer. demolishing here. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. some kind of language might have been formed. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. cachinno. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. hohottaa. when I arp humming and hawing. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. in Fin. kahkahah. then speech begins. speaking. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. Kayxa^u). yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. in Magy.

if taken as a whole. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. a Picture-language. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. the critical question should be. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. It as has ing their most striking features. and not. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. .' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. a deaf-mute himself. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. makes them stand and walk upon the table. The following account is given by Kruse. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. words receiving the meanings they now bear.' he says. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. dumb is the language of signs. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. of the nature of this great movement. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. What strikes him . Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. Though. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. and go where we now say stand. But here nature soon conies to his help. And so in the case of language. like peewit and cuckoo. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. of the world.

and fully serves to j . such as than the educated man. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. walked. or To pull and flap with the arms. for child. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. that. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name.GESTURE most. most striking outline of an object. he. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. called Gesture-language. for walk. the sorecalling them to his memory. thought is already broken. but if I depress it instead. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. as it now opens out. that signifies great . and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. such objects. The same sign stands and the act itself. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. to name. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. and we have roast goose.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. becomes roast meat. like a V. and with his thought. for single objects. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. thou. and forms further and further. many when or but these. it seems. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. the lan- guage cultivates itself. can do better and more easily abstract terms. that air. he. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. letter To hold the two fingers apart. it means little. among themselves. and And thus he makes himself a language. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. the whole secret. particular sense in properly so called. what more. his action. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. walkest. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. signs are taught for yet. and to taste. And is. or the verb to be. and it is flesh or meat. The of sign for left hand. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. walker. for the agent.' In the Institutions. push it towards the person addressed for thou. nay. and gestures. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language.

'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. and the as. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife.xxxiv asking. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. would be simply beginning of speech. . struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. and thus performs the part of an adjective. or a quality. When a verb. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. You beaten . putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. or an act. might be the knife. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children.' dener's knife. or something of the kind. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. in other instances sentence. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. in fact. Who is has beaten you ? would be. or action. I say. whether by additions or otherwise. when I say. as when Bang ! went the gun. depend entirely upon the use. Do not bang the it is a verb. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. He gave door a bang. and so is an adverb. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. When I say. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. according to the circumstances of the case. the ture of white term pink is and red. or a passive scene of existence. as in die it is a noun. substantive or adjective. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. the garden. a colour red. The same word . qualifies the against the wall. a number of alternatives are suggested. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. putting it into his pocket. to indicate the action of a certain person. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. as But when it is meant door. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. it called an interjection.

leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. Jii ta. some outward display of the affection. whereto. inside. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. the man is great. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. wherefore. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. wonder.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS.^ — Miiller I. . a noun. and to be great. that is. commencement of speech. a groan. greatness. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. pain. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. middle. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. wherehy. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. in the is indicated by the syllable y. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. or with elements expressing relations of time. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. a sigh of oppression and . is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. wherewith. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. as kuo cung. that admits itself in of audible representation. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. with a stick. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. in the sense of great. but often self-evident. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. grie^ horror. verb nor noun has yet been developed.. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. Latin. and may be used language. Thus tafu signifies a great man. coalesces with the personal pronouns. which is an old y ting (use stick). moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. as cung. contempt. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. 255. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. or some relation between it and another object. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. or nei. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. inquiry. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. &c. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. whereof.

guajo. ach. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. mew. to weep. miau-n-is. hei. g. gwe-l-a. Thus from springs otjucifw. &. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. misery. die wehen. to cry at. or r. to cause pain. cece. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. to do woe. first person. In this way from the root guai. to lament. vce. to injure. weh. 6. to wail. suffering. is w. to rriourn. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. Gr. to ache. representing a cry of pain. lament from oimi. waiidt. found in g. lau-l-e. mostly a ! %. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. Such are g. pain. oh. on. . to bewail oneself. Lat. to gargle. ! ! Goth. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. the pangs of childbirth. djamdjam goda (goda. to hurt Let. e. la. . ai. wai. a groan or lamentation vir. Let. jao. och. dchzen. lament. and to bark . w. Gael. och. Fr. . wehen (Schmeller). form. Illyr. I oi[iot. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. ace. to ache. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to .. representing Illyr. . Gr. ocAJ. ui. g. ach. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. has more kopfweh. to groan. Jar lau-lau. wai. tirr-djeda. ah. It. Illyrian vaj. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. ache. achen. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. ochain. 6. wAwa. n.-l-are. on. woe. miau-l-is. wd. headache. oi. It. w^wa. Gr. w. however. are ol-ire. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. guai. pain. seen in Gr.'). probably a deeper groan. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . oval. It. ohg. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to make). is Ay di me I Gr. miau-l-er. wai-l. axofiai. j. vaj. as. vei-a. och. guaj-ire. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. grief. wehthun. as. gwae. It. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. The form corresponding to Lat. grief] affliction. ah. guaj- or cry out pitifully. . to sound yapyap. to weep. in Gr. ochan. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. jaoh. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. howl. oimare. A widespread It. to make bow-wow. al. aiai^to. xxxvi grief. at the close of the radical syllable. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. ohi. to lament. ahi. Lat. weinen. o'i. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. Bret. oh. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to chirp. to yell formed e. e. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. gwae. ing action I. grief. woe. ochan. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. and cacak djeda (to say crack. vce. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. misfortune. e.ez. ach. pain. to wail or cry alas . to cry n. weh schreien.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made.' this. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. 'nay. The Fr. Sanders (Germ. as to express. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. der da-ige. when he wants something. Please. the nursery da-da. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. when 1859. well as Goth. this here. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. ' sees an object. or wants to name something.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. that is it. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. says da-da-da. as. Dr Lottner observes. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. for instance. child. da. nurseries.' person. When we pointing. thata (ta-ta). that gratifies me. and so on. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. we may translate this by there (it is).' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. give. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted.' all is is — their consent. In the expression Da. and by a variety of expressions besides. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. give me that cheese. his trowsers' pocket. indeed. . is-te). and may be rendered. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. or give me it. ToSe (or in Attic E. Sie. But.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. or carry me thither. that. • The child. saying : there the ad- Trans.' then points to his wife. implying the direction of its good will towards them. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. to here . Diet. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. a word of many applications in g. Thank you. da. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. according to Menage. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. or that it is. but the truth is. Phil. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. is we I believe. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. more emphatically roSj)j that. a specified were by pointing him out. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. case. Bav. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. I add) . as it Dieser da (as Lat. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. properly (give) be compared with by which a g.

to chatter. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen.^ its ' utters : a cry. strike. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. to move step by step. then instinctively interest. its desire. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. pay. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. . and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. to walk. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. to tion to another. make dadada). to beat. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. takes it — as When the soul. thinking. tasting. Thus Gr. dadee. moving. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. standing. tattle. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. to say to oneself. — Cot. p. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. which thus exertion. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. meanings. of which any one may. stutter. to knock. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. and shapes it into an . and one in particular must. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. childish toying. sinking. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. or metaphor. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. or dalliance. in every mode of expressing the idea. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. sounds. the original is that which he places first. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. speech. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy.' • liv ANALOGY. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. The da is dodem. beat. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai.' says Muller. reality.' says Lottner interior.

It is The word bright had a similar In as. to sniff. iclat (in Old Fr. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. and schmecker. The 6. noise. wilahtaa. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to shine. is used in the origin. man of nice taste. knistre. snudra. in the domain of movement. air. search . a brilliant light kilid. and figuratively. rattle. to snilF. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. a with kimmaltaa. to flash. may be quoted gUt. to glisten Dan. smell. signified a clear sound. from the . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. Bavarian bracht. a dis- cernment. Heo Du. — 1. same imitative root with Sw. to smack or taste. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to sparkle. pracht. to ring. clang. taste. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. also wise. prudent. schiteren. tintelen. to glitter. snutrs. sapere (which signifies the nose. we have and the and beorht. In the same way the Goth. wise. sound. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. chime). &c. to 5 ghtter. fiapfiaipw. ghsten. for example. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. Fr. Again. make a loud noise. . magnificence. snotor. to glitter. knittre. kimistd. splendour. . extended to the exercise of the understanding. outcry. sense of brightness. which in ohg. scheteren. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. firom the Gael. to . to crackle. gnittre. bilbil). while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. on. 1654. (parallel bilbila. unlella. suspect Bav. brilliancy. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to quiver. beorhtian. bilbilgoda (to make . to tinkle. snuff the sniiten. a ringing . Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . as kilind. beam. then to sparkle. to crackle gnistre. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. splendour. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. properly a clap or explosion. while sapere itself. to sniff out. snot. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. to ring as a glass willata. think. and thence e. savour. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. as. Du. wamara. in popular language. to be wise. schmecken. scTiateren. to resound. Finnish. a rustling sound Gr. bright.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to glitter e. tumult. the equivalent of g. judicious. and. So firom Lat. Lith. tinkling. In the case of sparkle. to have Sapiens. may be it explained . to shine. to glitter. to sound clear In Galla. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. spraka. esclat). is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. wilistd. to shriek with laughter . kiimottaa. discreet. sprageti. smell.

the bleating of sheep. shatter. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. he says. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. . ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. is felt Lana. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. of dressing loud. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. briars. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. in of his works. oily. whirl. rough to the ear. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. roughness. \nrap6e. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. mel. Kpovtiv. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. tremour. itself letters are felt as sofl. rough. to slide. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. strike. as soft by the ear. rough both ways. rough. the neighing of horses. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. Acre. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. inside. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. smooth. The BpavEiv.' he says. wool. gluey. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. Much of the same has been often quoted. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. rend. within. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. the clank (stridorem) of chains. soft. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. we hear of screaming colours. flow and flux. ipuKuv. power of the letter-sounds. eo ut res vol. fitting the letters to the sense. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. pvfi^Civ. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. the cross. or . &c. which The Stoics. discusses the tone of a picture. sharp. in truth. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. he framed the words ivSov. KoWiiSije. break. 1. v. accordance with the way in which by touch. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. pleasure soft to the ear . Kep^arl'ieiv. and vepres. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. And observing that n kept the voice within. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. Tpa)(yg. 6\tadaveii'. kvTOQ. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. extremely loose. then in rpd/xoe. crux.

stab. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. 'and consequently form. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . A greater felt. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. degree of roughness sound. shag. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. to signify varieties of movement. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. sag-oter. p. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. shog. jag. g. the case of the voice. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. dig. tug. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. jog. Fr. as when. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. a rough and sudden . joli. corresponding to the ineor. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. 138). There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. to jogj sac-cade. to reel abruptly from side to side).' It is on account of the roughness of pain. k. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. for exis ample. rug.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. jig. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. cular effort Again. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. jih. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. p. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. and in the utterance of a high or or low. ii. or checks as they are called by Muller. d. dag. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. t. stag (in stagger. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked.

Brescian toch. lead to Spanish tocar. for the sound of knocking at a door. a jog. properly a small lump'of . Mucken. to utter a slight kick. The train of . to take a thing on tick. The production of sound. an old worthless horse or carriage. to ring a bell. The Mipen or pencil. then. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. chic. Thus we have B. schuckeln. a quid of tobacco. it produces Dutch micken. a piece or bit of anything. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. as Italian tocco. a playiug-marble. cica. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. chiquet. in cases like the foregoing. is lanese toch. an infant . like English tick. toch-toch. to On the same principle j we have g. kik. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. to pulses being knock. The analogy then carried a step further. to mark it with a touch of the pen . and It. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. is so frequent a consequence of movement. a little bit. to move rapidly to and fro. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. Hence Lat. mica. S-panish miga. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. to have it ticked or marked on the score . or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. sound Fr. tack. Sukkeln. mie. so to Italian toccare. passing to the signification of motion. g. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. motion. chicoter. also to stir. mot. as tot. figuratively. sound barely audible. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. a cracker. then. &c. Then. a stroke with a French toucher. zigzag. however. to touch. that we never can be sure. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. zack. Bolognese tocc. and e. Welsh cicio. foot. to stir. to beat or play on a musical instrument. mik. Illyrian migati. e. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. to strike It. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. Accordingly the g. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . schockeln. Ene olde suksuk. Fr. tech-tech. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom.. rough horse. Dutch kicken. The syllable suk is jerk. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. kuk. a small bodily object. or check. to tickle. It. used interjectionally to represent a . Fr. to say a word . a good piece of road . a crum. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. (mitsati). a .'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. micare. tecche-tocche. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. chique. tock. movement. To tick a thing off. to incite by light touches. is made to signify movement. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. to glitter. and analogous movements. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . to winkj micati is Lat. to mutter. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. not to utter a syllable.

tot. and dot. n.) . a morsel. to jot down or note with a fro. lix Sp. seesaw. ticktack. or the converse. is shown in murmur. tit. mot. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . a certain conception. or the like its It. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. to make a slight mark. this. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. move slightly to . a lad citta. . The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. there '(at a short distance). a small horse. titmouse (Du. Du. mut. gnu. totle. of movement in totter. you. But the same is language has re Javan. . here. further off. for the beating of a clock. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. neither moit nor an atom. to touch lightly with a pen. and mite. titter. zitio. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. . anything . and toddle like a child titter. a e. gni. Malagasy to. gno. a small lump or pat. 48) cites from the African Tumale. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). Cult. as in e. or o toi. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . tittle. . at where the order is inverted. ika. to dot. a tot . we have e. . not an atom . small titlark. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. ri that. a small bird. a little titty. and out there. citto. e. . to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. mutter. this . The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. . to touch. a bit. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. a bit. a small kind of lark. This kind. and he. small of kind. often entirely arbitrary. tot. here (close hand). a whisper. little j to that of a small bodily object. In a similar the relations of place. that. a morsel girl . the vowel sound. . The following table from Tylor (Prim. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language.- a jot or little It. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. corresponding to the personal pronouns. tottle. (Halliwell) Da. titilh. e. iki. tiny. subdued manner. Halliwell. fragments It. the least visible insect. eo. jot. zitella. to movement of the pen . for the three personal pronouns. 0. a small quantity. chico.n. mossche. to tremble. little. the same organ touched with the man. and a small lump of something. tot. that iku. to jog. not because the pendulum makes a different left. anything small flax. a light quick blow. Pm. tot. tit. lump of earth. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. i. there (further of!) ao. motta. a girl. Then. mote. 199). where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. Fr. To jot. I. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. motte. tozzo. to e. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. there. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. fait. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. bunch or flock of wool. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. a. syllable mot. clay . So. not to utter a syllable. mutter j dust.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. a sparrow). to whisper (Pr. taut.

as in Italian Fin. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. he. Lat. child. as Mr Tylor remarks. to. . biii. respectively. that..araM. loo). (tt). this .) nna. ^. ita. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. little. small (Pott. . femina ama. probably initial of distinction that the k. that. j Canarese ivanu. Mm. usho. . there. thou ni. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. is father. no constant rule is observed. ofj. Then. It seems to (fen. there. /mya. /e«. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. that. olo. here feraa. this . Dhimas isho.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. this fi. mother. young one. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Japan ko. Abchasian aSn. Guarani nde. Sahaptin (America) kina. is Here. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. this . here 5 Yoruba na. uta. here j abe. that. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. ndi. Chilian tva. for the male. there. and a for the female. there. an old woman chacha. ni. this ole. mother. that. It Carib lala. Tamul i. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). that. tiiio. he. thou . that in the distance. qu. as the act of pointing was ta. that. father. there. this <t. that.) pronunciation of i or e. man erne. here . he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. here j ka. that (intermediate) j wana. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. akha. ojOo. ukko. . you. km. Carib ne. bi. ulri. Magyar ez. Botocudo ati. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. there. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. thou. ta to ka. . by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. there. this . .. ne. minution further. I . Gr. Zulu ajoa. Tarahumara ibe. and origin. w. 6. here this .. mother. . father k . to a like principle Ibu (Afr. /wo. here . Fernandian az.. that.e^. me probable that • Vei also little. . an old . mas cheche. ni. Mutsun ne. Ossetic am. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. nne. child.

has tittafrem. a child. din-din. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. trappa. barking of a dog. is to express simple continuance of action. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. and in the Pacific dialects. And perhaps the E.) . signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. at pippe frem is to spring forth. . this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to make its way through the bursting envelope. Fr. trap. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. the idea is called.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. A little wee face with little. a step. repetition It. lift 8. little To sup up. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. dance (Kil. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. knob. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. pepin. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. trappen. for instance. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. Thus we have Wolof sopa. to teet. sound of bells . whence Fr. A little weeny thing. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. the principle of reduplication. stairs. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. to begin to appear . the pip or pippin. 401. nipple. nab. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. to peep.' — Merrv Wives. a little yellow beard. The sound trapp . by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. keeh. Da. as ding-dong. to leap. trippen. for a succession of light blows low-wow. murmur. titta. &c. i Sw. the nursery few j Sc. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. or chink. Clank represents the sound of something large. to feet. The Sw. fretful. analogous to winy-piny. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. trSpigner. the simplest mode by the g. just beginning to appear. in old e. nil. or even. Top. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. of smaller things. as j money. don-don. for the .' making the voice as small as possible. to peep through. little. wean. to tread. wenig. trippelen. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. — Douglas Virgil. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. From cases like the foregoing. looking through between obstacles. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. tion.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood.

rapidity and strength. are echoed by the rudimentary et. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. keep spots. very bad. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. is language. the lungs.. calling. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. Thus in E. from Maori muka. and Fr. child . expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. racket. ayunayunan. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. amusement. puka- puka. child . as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. a grasshopper. Susa di. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. if very young. (to use a to speak. a clattering noise. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. cliqu-et-is. clash of weapons. ding-ding. &c. kamha-gamla. a cradle. Malay ayun. or imitative syllables. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r.' expression is — ^Tylor. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. ratsi-ratsi. to pant. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. hardness. to rock. loloa. . instead of being actually repeated. to to call. to love. mawhiti. 99). or in Fr. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. to skip. . lololoa. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. serves to show and in this way. little child (p. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. didi. in familiar use with ourselves. click. random . repetition or continsignify long. rack click. bad . ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. a spot. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. kenda. 97). the agent in panting . Mandingo ding. tach-et-er. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. tache. to or rub. to call frequently from Fr. rack. or very very great. or el. or rdtchi. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail.Ixii REPETITION. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . very long (Pott. the comparative degrees of greatness. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). mawhitiwhiti. i. properly speaking. to treat with contempt. to talk at to walk. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. Again. mpolu is uttered. to vi^alk about for flax. kendagenda. The same principle of 196. Cult. puka. to cover e. smallness. and the words express a continued sound of rack. the and clique. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. er. So from clamo. to say pooh It is ! to. could readily be conceived. or a little tee--ny thing. And generally. sopasopa. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. very great. clamito. Thus in the Pacific loa.

or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. in some applications. or fi bau. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . Jickfacken. g. which. it. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. is In e. fickle. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. kneel. dabble. to bark like a dog. jogging. to rock. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound.Jicol. dab. syllable clat . the lungs (the puffers of the body). a from ayun. wavering. as mAS. or Maori puka-puka. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. to make bau-bau. to make a succession of shoves. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. crack. as to handle. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . itself. rubber. miauler andpiauler. without the intervention of the frequentative element. to puff. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. mew and baa . from puka. wagas ging. In cases like these. to move to and fro. compared with g. The contrivance with any particular noise. joggle. bubble. such asjlap. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. Piedmontese bau-l-S. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. to crackle. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. by the side of wanken. the knie-en to E. to make a succession of grabs . where all direct connection with sound is lost. shuffle. he who rubs. or omitted. miauler and beler correspond to E. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. are to cry mew and pew . then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. to rock or wag. smack. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. wankel. wancol. rynel. guggle. others. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. draggle. wankeln. Ihre remarks under gncella. to hand. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. to wail woe . and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to hand-le. waggle. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. a succession of cracks to rattle. in Fr. and in as. or by association. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to continue dragging. or in e. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. to make gug. bub. The Fr.

or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. on a moment's reflection. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. although it is not difficult. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. moreover. will continue to be felt in daily speech. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. which. known in Italian. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. at was more familiarly known. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. to cry ugh at. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. There is. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. such as might have arisen from a breach between them.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. the breach. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. deceit. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. or in mode of use. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. Breton. Dupe comes to us from the French. which is the origin of the word. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. and comparatively few easily deceived. A gull or a dupe same sense. by a hard body breaking. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or in aptness to combine with other elements. or how generally. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. Polish. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). to the separation between the broken parts. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence.

In savage when the communities are small and ideas few.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. life. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. and the word is used in a secondary sense. however. nor any limited of ideas. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. . no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. is. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. founded in manifest blunder. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. Hitl^erto. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. language is .

which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. out. compared with the duration of man. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. Welsh. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. evique. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. and vescovo. of material things.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. French. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. If English. therefore. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. Naturalist on the Amazons. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. change. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. guages in South America. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. I think it very probable. episcopus. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. i. hearing. 330. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. in the course of many years' isolation. unintelligible to other hordes. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. circle perpetrates a new slang term. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. and 'Russian.

of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 7. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. and . it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. which are idenr Figures 5. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. is MN. i. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. 8. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. ancient Greek M . it will leave figures 3 and 4. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. Nor is there one of the letters. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. A key must unlock more doors than this. as shown in the subjoined illustration. . ao8). or whatever the proportion may be. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. 9. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. The combination of the symbols I and 2. the actual it which would to represent. to be taken (Prim. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. Cijlt. 6.

ready instructed in the arts necessary for . but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. or. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. in the shape either of direct inspiration." the use of a change of vowel in as. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. known to us as yet. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. which either by direct resemblance of sound.' should be discovered. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. leading him to utterances. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. had its origin in imitation of sound. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. for instance. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. and the only safe beneficent Creator. what comes to the same thing. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. his fellows.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT.

and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. of using imitative conduct . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . or beavers. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. the conduct of Ixix life. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. and rose towards a higher state of being. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. in the course of generations. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and when we look back as far as history will reach. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. by animal without a trace name of Man. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. or of their own reflected thoughts . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. that he started from the lowest grade. until the progeny. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or else. as elephants. and sooner or later. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . race were speaking men or not. or not. for instance. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life.COMPLETION OF MAN. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator.

Gothischen 1851. . Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Wtb. Diet. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. AS. 1857. Bavarian. Bohemian or Czech. 1654. Douglas' Virgil. Supplement to Bret. Bremisch. Teutonico-Lat. Fr. Bav. 1850. Cotgrave. Dueange. dial.. Biglotton seu Diet. or Dan. Esthonian. 1766. ^Ifr. Gr. Baile/sEngl.Saehsiches Worterbueh. de la langue Cat. 1768. Diet. Da. Cimbr. Danish.Nieder.-Eng. 1737. Carpentier. Infimse Latini- D. Cimbrisch.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Supplement to Dueange. Cot. dialect of the Sette Commune. Couzinid. Anglo-Saxon. B. Fin. Grammar Boh. Romano - Cas- traise. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dn. English. Sup. Brem. Castr. at the end of Somner's Diet. Dueange. Diet. Finnish. Dief. Due. Esth. E.V. Carp. Dief. Diefeiibach. Diefenbaeh. Elfric's Fl. Bigl. Dutch. Catalan. Provincial dialect.



5 ERRATA. haverie crtOT r. plowied budowaer. buque 118 brodiquin r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. puHti r. r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r.percurrunt kimista^x. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. cti. baltresca nokkutomax. r. katowai perairrantr. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. sveritet Asknace r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. r..? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. (/ijtf r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . cruccio deyrie. yjnaifia r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. willekom Blab r. woman r. ^i?^i2! r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. alUger ahaverie r.nokkutama willekem. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . Askance woud r.>. Blob plowied r. kilistaa bugiie r. word allagerr.


to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. Immediately from Fr. K . A. power : Than Wallace thing. The word Ban is common orders. literally. "rom a height. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. an edict or proclamation. a washing off to abstain. Ab-. his. Hence on-bceftan.he Goth. 244. in the same sense. implying a completion of J. us. sion of 'an abandoned character. out of. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. Again. ur.t G. in a manner other than it should be ablution. er. In Lat. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. on-bsec . AS. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. erwachen. off. AS. Lat. a. to awake. rule. to subdue. as. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. of-dune. Parson's Tale. behind. plesyt him. announcement. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. on. ar. the er. compounds. from a is to wake to abide. Jvery man shewid baft. orders. away. in. on. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . but now )bsolete). vs. —Bruce. to arise. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. ifter. have entire dominion over. Abaft. Thus ip N3S. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. dominion. and secondarily in that of command. a/tan. this word beand Spanish. abs. among. abaft. alike. into the Romance ftrseg . 843.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. be-ceftan. on-lic. whatever he be. said. o/j of or . bandon in French. downwards. away from. ab. to sauff the king or spill. to hold . iway from. ir. until the event jlace . dominion. ibandonner. from. . Thou spelds of mychty iction. Dent posture. state of sleep . The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. baftan. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. command. To abuse is to use iway. onis aback. particular 1 . came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. Passing tongues. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. Abs-. as. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. and — Chaucer.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. Abandon. OHG.

adverbial expressions at abandon. beer. to light upon. to hit. from Lat. R. ant. to make lower. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. uncontroUedly. See Abide. burny. to strike sail . effect of shame.) . It. R. ne more vermeille. . and grooms besmeared with gold. baba. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. ais. weaken.— R. and the verb was written in Eng. Hence Lat. or society of abbots or monks. betrash. et prirent terre. burny was formerly burnish . abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. d. of fear. to put to con. faire tomber. castle. thing abbatere le vela. Hence the OE. to meet with abbatersi in una terra.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. to strike Froiss. with or without a final sh. Beat. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. drink. to bate something of the price abbatersi.y^J fusion from any strong emotion.fournir. to excite admiration. Custom. down. merely the terminations ons.On princes.' the surrender of a ' K. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. may be explained. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. abbatis. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. to abaw or astonish. Abbot. impetuously. baer. To Abate. c. Milton. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. Baba ! Mod.down. or admiration. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. to gape. person. of wonder. And he thereof was all abashed. esba. terminedly. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. impulse. to happen. esbahissant. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. abbas. astony. — — . More correctly written abbat. overthrow. law term abatement. son bandon. 1 1 8. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. iv. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. abbattre. confound. Bate. Wall.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. In or. and it that that it — . so common in the found in the OFr. Fr. astonish. to beat furnish. to The . His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to ruin. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. depress. abaundunem-ent. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. esbahir. where custom (Grandg. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. abate. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. shame. to diminish the force of any. bandon. to overthrow. at his own the lips. Abbess. and sets them all agape. R. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . of the Fr. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say.Prov. father. I was abawid for merveille. Hart in Jamieson. to take possession of an estate. — Neccham. and that from Syrian abba. abbatere dal prezzo. other. esbahissais. A. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. See . polish. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. lish to abaisse orabaish. de. abbatia.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. Originally. Castrais. to astonish.esbawi. Abbey. his mouth.— — . The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. abandonly. his eyen shene.polir. Cotgr. from ravir. abbatere. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. 364s. . and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. On the other in use as well as hand. 1520. vol. by Wall. as ravish. bawi. an abbey. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. in the active form.

Norm. Ducange. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. to open the mouth. inciter. the verb of abeyance. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. tity of E. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to mind. deceiving. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. To Abet. delay. to ance. beijden. to deanimer. to desire. — . bie. to tarry. to It. ceive. regarder. (Vocab. forbearance. or in Fr. delay. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. Corresponding to keep in suspense. badare. Guernsey beth. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. tical with It. ' ' . to In great amaze. white. — ABELE Epiphanius. pense. endurArt thou he that should come. to suffer death in Du. with badia.— Roquef. bouche bdante. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. gola badada. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. ne chastised them. to look. deceit. to wait. suffer b. Abele. . I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . abeyance. waiting. . othres abidan' The effacement expect. while the monks under his control ing. intent observation. take notice. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. to remain or endure. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. says. songer. bide of the d endure. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. endurance. with open mouth . ne wist what way to chuse. aspirer. lingering. which is certainly related to It. exciter. wait. look for another. bialodrze-w. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Abie.) abayer. de Champ. in Dan. to be intent upon. abet. abayer. on the one hand. b^er. in Fr. beidan. were called Brothers. usbeisnei. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. The verb atwaiting. —Raynouard. .. abidan. to stay. to gape . In We . have seen abide. to open bader. abet. to desire earnestly. 1 • . abaier. tempting. abie. Fabl. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. is idenwait. baier.' is in AS. listen.Fr. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. covet.— Chaucer. or do we AS. a bay or opening in the coast. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. expectation. Corant sens lui. to yawn. Ni engigner ni abiter. delay. Pol. — II. tarrying . to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. bida. trick abetar. house. gridare. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. forms with the d effaced are OFr. Q. Gloss. beijen. guardare. to hook. baier compared with It. . listening. or absorption watching. aspire to. baier. badar. desirer (Roquef. bie compared with Dan. beijen. suspense. bidan. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. abbadare. de Berri) Prov. abSiance. OFr. See Abide. incite . syllable ba. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. to attend on . wait To Abide. 366. bouche b^ante. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. badigliare. attendre See Bait. Quant voit le serpent. abiiance. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. m Abeyance. . bocca badata. beguile. From abahier. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. inciting. F. verbeijen Sw. expectation. bhr.— ^richer. Du. speaking of the Holy places. abetter. abeter. literally white tree. to deceive. Gloss. watch. beguiling on the other. us. and in E. Prov. bana. tenere a bada. bder. from Halo. a right in suspense . The white poplar.was formerly used in the sense of look. warten. which the mind to an object. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). Boethius. badare. qui iaaille. to wait. Cat. attendre avec en^pressement. we sceolon ON. bida. John.to wait. and alluring to his own destruction. and Prov. take care. to wait. beidan. open the mouth. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. to expect. to expect gabeidan. badare. compared with (Bosworth). Goth. to stay. to abide . Cat. Norm. ^couter avec dtonnement. abie. K. — signifies to suspend action. signifies the direction of tend. expectfamily. E. and E. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. bada. desire. Thus we have It. to be intent upon. baer. also to OFr. Thus G. to attend to. beter.

Lat. to pay the purchasemoney. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. For on board. Innan bords. though sometimes confounded with it. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. fault being simply clothing. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. is the verb abie. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. to wear away. 2nd Tale. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. habilis is closely preserved. the side of a ship. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. bidan. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. powerful. abolir. F. AS. Q. able. in for any special purpose. bord. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. willing to schewe his wrathe. Fr. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. The —Boucher. al- be found so some will dear abide it. when compared with Aboard. abycgan. while in later examples As I . as habiller du chanvre. without special reference to the notion of retribution. Abie. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. L. . P. was often used in the same sense. suffer the Jul. from AS. expert. God. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. fit. to dress hemp. to have . or bie. Tr. and the simple buy. abicgan. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. being disabled in the highest degree. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. abigg. to pay the penalty. power. to perish. It. ! ! Cotgr. to draw fowls. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. Mids. the Fr. abilej Prov. i. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. O If tion. forbid for mother's children should abye. abidge. must suffer for it. Spenser. use. 2. habile. — P. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. at kasta fyri bord. Milton. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. strong. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. Dr. convenient. abie. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. Fr. as E. She shall abie that trespass dere. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. de la volatile. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. bide. God — dear. If it badare. abide. on board . have-like. abie to Goth. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. sufficient. and Cr. purpose. properly abuy. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. — Able. — e. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. within the walls of a ship. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. within the ship. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. —Bacon in R.^and to make his power knowne. R. N. P. and death for handsel pay. Wickliff in Richardson. Chaucer. the Pardoner In the original. the Sir Tristrem. abeye. him with che. Merch. &c. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. In this to erase or annul. consequences of anything .ynes. R. beidan. Boucher.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. durance in both applications. adapted . habilis (from habeo. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. at hand). Prol. ON. to redeem. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . God tokeneth and assigneth the times. from Lat. aboleo. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. Cassar. atling hem to her proper offices. to . abilh. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. a board.

to rear. as withotityn and without. full ofte his words for to Fr.the older form. explains soboles Lat. gravity. without. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol.foda signifies to beget. abufan. and also.ymbutan. D. above. s —Casdmon. The radical idea is to feed the flame. alan. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. becomes leu in Prov. from Fr. for ligeth butan. to feed. to AS. snatch In English we speak of away. kindling. the form a&^^.aboon. vital PI. Gael alaich. from .plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to feed. his contemporaries. abrcBgdan. as AS. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. to grow up. is not from G. See To Bray.. alere capillos. while the sense of beget. around on the out. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. al is growth. Du. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. abutan.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. to beget or give birth to children. Abray. the idea of breaking about . nurse. nurse Lat. So in Lat. and in-d-oles. af-oleii. abbrechen. See -und-. abredan. OE. . about cockcrow. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. below. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. ABOMINABLE adolesco.' Ymb hancred utan. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. OE. parent. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. AS. oil. is a ively. Then. alUger. hard. Quod abominor. alan. to bring up. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. to awake. break out. To Abound. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. whence the Fr. Severe the threatened evil. Kiittner. to rear. Finnish stock. af-oolden. — ' — — preceding verb. but from Lat. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. boven. greu. coalesco. Goth. nourish. abracan.) . Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. Tale. progeny. way Sw. pedigree from brevis. which may God avert. Abundant. titan. to start. The primitive idea seems that of beget. awaking. ufan. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. breaking out in language. the man dwindles away. leading immediately to Fr. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. draw out. Above. the vital spark. In the same brevis . to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. OSw. the hair grow. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. to produce. to snatch. on high. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. ala.— Abbreviate. onbutan. which passed into English under Abominate. to turn. and bidden him abregge. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire.. while the verb alleThe root el. For on broach. to aggravate. agreujar. Abrdger itself. disastrous portent in some passing oc. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. bufan. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. AS. Thence to regard greugetat. to break off. Fr. of any kind . to grow together. the identity of which with ting. levis to the Romance languages. currence. or young forth. natural ed direct from the latter language. abbreviare. gravis. abominor (from ab and omen. common in Chaucer and Abominable. a portent). Of these synonymous adolescere. to cut short. sec seftre — Chaucer. or cut short.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. literally. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. . and to do something to avert abbreviate. butan. Prov. To abray or abraid. giving birth to. to progress. AS. as the duty of nourdisposition. en. that greatly agredge their sin. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. adolere. be-ufan. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. to let sleep. to light a fire the Abraid. life. be-utan. to nourish. and alere flammain. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. agredge.' Parson's rence. the OSw. to main. seems aras. motion. by the to bring up. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to fatten. side. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. brood. Melibaeus. Lat. ala is made to signify to rear. Thonne Abroach. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. outward. ol.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. Virg. abbrechen.ger. Sc. and also to abridge. heavy. abowen.1. — . abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). d. abrdger.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


to open. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. cenig. aside. to sound in answer. To ape.D. Ful- Apanage. Aphorism. d<popi(xnbs. Thus from gabe. wealth. af. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. part. d. G. See Cover. a preventative . the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes.legacy of given against. antefn. to strike G. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. some one. such as savages. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Lat. Prov. which by anvild. but the expresent day. three antike pillers. were chiefly of the former class. apertum. a termination equivalent to Goth. in Shakespear. from ante. stem. from avTiipoiuia). Percutere. i. to nourish. a block to hammer on. panar. white. younger child. transferred to the grotesque characters. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Anvil. To go antiquely. amboltj Du. as we call it. from. fauns. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. Gr. ReApe. what Roman civilisation. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. a gift. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. one. from eigan. Antidote. anapoz. apanage. whence Prov. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. to display pario. as the Italians. before. villan Gloss. and devils. incus. Mannequin. as from as. E. Lat. should be received. anfilts Pl. Antler. Any.— . apatiar. anxius. a few. —Spencer. Apartment. gabeigs. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. In like manner. and ig. whence anthem. Gr. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. Hence the applica. swaged.is to be given. from ango.made out. to strike. like a jack-pudding. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. Pezron fiUist. andouillers. from.th centuries the recognised models of antic. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. — — — . left as the . to support. from an. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. and claret wine. Lat.. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. work. of. separate purpose. ab. surimitation of the ancient models. something ler in R. before. anticus. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. Otfried. . eigs. trouble. to go in strange disguises. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. or in a ridiculous dress. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Jorioc. vex. or antique single chamber. Apart. aperio. bread. separate. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. Fr. all of gold. So Lat. Lat. from in and cudere. set aside. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. plenteously with red. AS. Anxious. were andouiller the second. burnished. as posticus. antifena. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. one at the least. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. AS. Fr. Gr. Ilvtwotov. one having wealth. post. Antique. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. a small quantity. panis. to have. Apartment. Fr. the anticks — behind. avri^ava. choke. to bring forth. on. : . to strain. a definite . Aperient. inAgain from the same author cudis. strangle. from an and — - . verberas. Hall's Chron. to imitate gestures. rich. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R.—Aperture. AS. from Stephanus. anxi. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. As the browcalled antiques. press. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Antick. ambeld. a puppet or an anti^hona.

Fabian in R. whence the e. diroBrjKr}. good. Apo- good time. one is in. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. to suit. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. pertain or belong to. And whanne sum men Lat. from. to announce. to lose one's senses. esteem. To cause to pall (see Pall). praise. value apprdder. AS. Cent Nouv. To praise. laven is used both as E. array. apprentis. e. an epistle or letter. manner. iwKjToKri. Mod. to set a price on. Parson's Tale. Fr. in Chaucer. To Appraise. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. 23 . Epistle. — Apprise. From Gr. ap. kind of action.propius). apprise. like. Hence It. in good season prendre son d. — Appurtenance. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Formerly apricock. become dizzy . dress. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. to rate.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. to store or put Appal. apropchar. Cotgr. or E. to Lat. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. approcher. . seiden of the stones. set a price on.parejo. Yr. to — — . Apple. away. agreeing with "LtA. from paix. pragigua or prixcoda. a learner. diroTrXriaatii. (cited by Diez from a late author). a price. one sent out. that it outfit. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled.prix. —^Apparent. i. to deter- to strike. apprehendere. H. trim. to understand. Fr. in fact. after his mind .—Apprentice. apprendre. piteux poind. taking. Apoplexy. xv. ^wss. To Appear. of. pretium. —Diez.pareil. to finish a controversy. — prehendere. Fr. obolys. Apotliecary. Friar's Tale. properly to join like to like. to come near. to deem good. Fr. a crime. preparation. aptly. to make a thing Apparel. apar. apal. to seize. poind. Cotgr. apparecchiare. appaiser. It. appareiller. appellare. jabloko. to deaden. Walach. apropid. and also as appraise. to catch hold of. Gr. Approach. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. like. in commendation. 'L-zX. mine. — Approve. to assign or grant over unto. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. lAfiaam. to approve. peler. From Lat.his giving evidence against his principal. horror. Gr. D. En peach. one for his defence. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. to mark to define a bound. irpaiKOKiaov. from aTroorlXXu. landmark. to call. — dirondtfiu. : — — speak 'Lz. Fr. Appease. Sp. approcdare. a thing for one's purpose. A — . I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. prize. Hence appoind. Gr. Nouv. Lith. off. pronounce fitting). poind. equal. find Then like Fr. plight. diminutive pariculus. They werin his approvirs privily. whether through age or sudden teiTor. ar. ciously than nede is. to disable oftat. case. And among other of his famous deeds. prope (comp. APO sentence opoQ. to take away or lose the vital powers.t. . to be open to view. aparelhar. N. Appareil.parecchio. ON. An old appalled wight. known. to learn. allow. one the MLat. word was specially applied to clothing. to send to. to learn. They were considered To Appoint. appareo. and appoinder (to find fitting. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. 'LaX. prohts. 11. d-n-o. near. avail. prover. peace. Gr. in data. Lat. Fr. consent unto. habiliments. order. APRICOT off. pronounce good. Cotgr. to fit. to — . opportunity. Ir. to commend. appris. to send off. agree. Pliny. par. Apprehend. Apostle. . ai. purpose. were formed appropiare ejar. approver. probare. corresp. The Fr. Yr. apal. S^. and in the sense of condition. habilUr. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. The PI. Fr. quoth the frere. decree. rise to \t. to strike down. to dress in this fashion. For their acquaintance was not come of new . but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. fit- — ness.probare. cepl. to call for judgment. to approach. Prov. despatch on some service.— . make a composition between parties. and metaphorically to take the meaning. to accord. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. Fr. w. oVooroXof. Palsgr. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. 5w. From Lat. when the . the good. appartenir. I prise ware. apin R. to which it is often referred. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. or the like. proper time came. OFr. a'^opi'Jw. Prov.

The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. conjectura conjec^ra. and sortilegus ation. Now we find in Fin. Maan initial . The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. J. Marsh. a soothsayer. Prol. nected. arwelo. aptus. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. la nappe. Beryn. arbitrium. . properly the arwella. Albanian. however. Thus we have natiger and auger. to plough.' —About. fastened close. and a protection of the clothes. con. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Alban. suitable. ahva. Pm. wata. intensitive of nape. aro. Lat. . arwaus. OE.sors. Now one of the points — — — . man. ear. rofe and all. however. and thence fit. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. a lot. short. Naprun. OHG. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. account for either of these significations. aqua. herbere. to decide by lot. and the one who gives oracles. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. and with turfis new Goth. aestimo. pracoqua was not an adapt. {mies ^=ia3.meaning at Shrewsbury. nawl and awl. grande nappe. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. It is certain that the apricot oracle. This path Aqueous. ughe. found in Fin. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. be That it inne groweth. most conspicuous situation in the garden . It will be observed in how large a proportion of .o. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte.shrubs {arbor). opinio. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. arbiter. quod he. 2. It may be doubted. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. As is a pretty parlour. a pleasure-ground. . nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. as ihe diminutive. — napkin is Naperon. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. Aquatic. sorcerer. 331. From OFr. doubtless is the origin of E. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. the spelland umpire. garden. tion under trial. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. symbol. to preserve it from stains. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. of of divination arpa-mies. Lat. . derived. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Pr. 31. — . hariolus arpelen. arpa. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. and taken away before dessert. water Which that benchid was. P. auguror.] in the N. words derived from arpa. The loss or addition of n very common. C. sortium ductor. ap. is taken in is a soothsayer. Hall. proper. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. a cloth. or eft. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. Flower and Leaf. Arbitrate. a lot. divining rod. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. arbitror arwaaja. Freshly turnid Arable.) E. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. arbiter in re censendS. Roquefort.. Gr. as an eye-witness. From OE.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. scr. Lat. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. aa. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. delon. aha. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. naperon. Arbour. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. shortdr. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. conjicio. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. a river. She made. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. or barm-cloth. a lot. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. A. P. sestimatio arbitraria. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian.

Du. to dry. Fr. malicious. erz-bischof. taxed with cowardice. Perhaps erz-wticherer. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. Lat. stuff. burning heat. It. ardeo. as in E. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. . sly. bravest. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. A construct. weapon. vocaveris. especially shoulder-joint. curved. ramend). Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. D. ardIn G. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Uo^a^. * ArchjAiTaxit. by Russ. arma. i. an extent of flat surface. Aristocracy. signifies chief or principal. Arch in composition. ers-betriiger. lofty. forearm . in Due. Sax. TiKToiv. From the verb armare. ruling by the nobles. arch-bishop. Arcadia in R. From apxeiov was formed Lat. ardor. Fr. Langobard. Lat. arm. Cot. whence the body of the nobles collectively. erz in G. arrig. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. armata. an arch-deceiver . part of a circle anything of a bowed form. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. it signifies roguish. arrant Arms. mischievous. to rule. Gr. ' — Argue. mischievous. arm'ee. an arrant usurer. 3340. Sp. difficult to reach. ein arger knabe. aj-f. to demonstrate. apxtlov. ramo (pi. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. ardre. high. W.is the natural weapon of offence. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. rame. are formed the participial nouns. Lat. een erg kind. to Arch. troublesome. a branch. which has been referred to W. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. det arrigste snavs. Gr.. government. Lat. to be in comp. arga. ON. the most arrant trash. gwyrek. sly. receptacle where the public acts were kept. a noble. — Wtb. to burn .' Paul Warnefrid. arsum. There can be no doubt that E. Arduous. Lat. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. et vulgari verbo.' Lex. bad of its kind. 2. ancient. earm.— Army. an arch boy. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. patus). a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. apx^iv. vescovo. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Area. Arm. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. the best. Arson. Gr. kpxi- beginning. archangel. Lat. man. the court of a magistrate. from areo. apxri. fabricate). to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. wretched OE. ^Argument. while the Fr. to arm. a chief builder.4 rir/. branch. an arrant rogue. Ardour. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. armada. argvitugr. exercise lordship). . earg. and our army. Alisaunder. adjective. AS. fainthearted. ill-tempered. shoulder. and not with apx. arcA in e. worker. first. morally bad. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . G. arm. Lat. as the arch of a bridge. And thou as arwe coward. Brem. Ardent. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. un malin enfant. Arid. Dan. The . archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). . Gr. a bare plot of ground. a threshing-floor. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. is essentially the same word. Fr. ars. a burning or setting on fire. Applied in modern E.. gwyro to bend. a court yard. a rule (princiruler. weapon may be simply an application of annus. faint-hearted. Du. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. arson.In E. raineno.aioj. argr. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. arg. arguo. contemptible. . of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. . area. a. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. make clear or prove. bad. arcus. to be on fire. bad. G. un petit rusd. from nixa. apxtipfve. arwe. Lat. which is derived from it. Arcliives. armee. and Kpurka. the a brute. timid. aridus. and must be identified with Dan. shoulder Boh. the terminaGael.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. a bow. — Architect. sluggish. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. apxh. wanton. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. arduus. earh. curved line.' the Gr. erg.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

a dance. balle. a pestilence. dial. on the shore. vcdra bdlkr.' speak gibberish champurrar. bol.Fr. palcare. at giore en balk. G. similar connection is seen in Sp. package of goods. It. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. malefacGower in R. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. It. dial. Du. the beam of a ship. bealwes. ball. to grieve . to rock. The primary sense seems as in G. to dance. Sw. a beam. calamity.ing. palla. TtaKKa a pail or tub . F. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. To baulke the Sir H. to speak an un. Q. to signify washy drink. Hence Dan. to be balker. and evil in general. Bret. balge. Venet. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. baler. Sw. balle.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . ne leaving any balke. to partition off . A balk. ballar). bola. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. ballare. Du. a water-skin dim. Ballata. Sw. pallo. balk. to roll. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. on. to Not sparing wight. pallikka. a ball balla. baloier. In like manner Fr. to stir. To Bale out water. floor. . ballare. a ball.Lat. to shake or jog. Sw. as we say.—Ballad. Perhaps on. Fr. Ball. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . OHG. to see-saw. bal. ball. ill. We have then separate dial. ache. a ball. balk. . Pol. a ball. torment. bdlkr. I. vacillare. ' is a piece or confused talking. baalien. uveirs bolk. bjdlki. a great ball. says Ray. It. balare. Mid. balken. gen. taich. trouble. ON. w. a together in the form of a ball. Grief. as in a barn or cow-house. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. Hence. may exhibit the original development of the signification. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. ballet. to plank. to cause another to miss pustule. Gael. balle. ballone. a washing-tub. pain. (Hesych. to pack Da. a wooden partition . grieve . bala. dial. maan pallikka. G. to paddle in water . balla (with the augm. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). Ball. It. Rouchi ban. pilula. ballare. bal. to ache. ball. a boil. to avoid it. beaten road. wickedtorment ON.). to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. balken. E. balva-vesei. Fin. with the perhaps from balg. . balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. bold. sick. bol. on. hooting. bacgtteter. to dance. bolyatchka. a pill. to on Holmedon's plain. boleii. the object of his expectation. blister. a continued noise of waves gently beating . a ballad. Bowl. plague. heap up. Fr. mass. pallukka. balka bunge. balveins. Sw. Wotton. Sw. wickedness ness . Sp. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. balka hopar. Gr. ban. are applied to a From the same analogy. ball. and the dim. boll. bal-daed. whether of wood or stone. probably Lat. a But making way for death at large to walke. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Goth. shouting. to wave. to ail. — A — — . a bubble. Balloon. ballotta. Bohem. a clapping or flapping of wings. the breadth from side to side . 3. Ugutio in Due. a scene acted in dancmg. to by beams. Sw. Sw. roof. misery Du. the ballet of the theatres. OSw. a globe. cka. OFr. baalie. from bacquet. pallo. a balk of foul weather. lealo. balka. AS. balk. a ball. a division of the old laws. sickness. a ballot). to bale out. destruction. chapurrar. bolawy. Fr. to be ill. balk. a beam. pila. balloon. bal. bbllr bulla J. a ball or pack. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. tum. ballan. Ballot. a. Dan. a pail. . balle. a skin. Bale. a separate portion. a dance. balja. ballo. on. e. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. . other while. bolyaf. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. * Balk. bielke. Boll. separaison. to move. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. to plough for a boundary between lands. afbalka. globule. dial. weak liquor. . ing.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Baulke of land. hue et illuc inclinare. . palloilla. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Da. N. bolker.— Ballet. a partition. bollr. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. See Gall. Russ. balkr. sorrow. It. i. stage or scaffold. 2. a clump . Da.of men . In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. maleficium. a clod of earth water.

. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Report Pennsylv. to preserve equilibrium. a false tale or jeer. a nettle. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. Balluster. bag-las. To Ban.). Sept. If bambocciolare were child of one. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. for want of other freight. R. endormir par des contes. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. Cotgr. To deceive. from Lat. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. back of the ship. terraces. age. dial. and Mid. like Fr. Bret. urtica. a fragrant gum. bumbazed.000 tons. But Fr. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. When a ship discharges. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. command. 1854. The Baltic sea. objects to the foregoing derivation. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. galleries. analogous to what is seen in It. from bara or vara. Sp. or ballast of a ship. bamboccio. . curse. Venet. but loadage. baranda. balconies. more frequently than outward-bound. It is explained back by Adelung. lest. more serious objection is .' And Kil. This is the backload. fonts. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. denounce. i860. puzzled.Lat. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. is in Sweden and Norway. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. also with flatteries and . bamein. the act of walking. baUa. a battlement . 43 — Cot. — — oltriga. lastre. explains ballast. bam. railing around altars. make fun of a person. inutilis sarcina. to walk.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. 1. in the first place. Gr. Du. the flower of the pomegranate. it is forced to take in stones or sand. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. by met. Lest. astonished. ranked on the outside of cloisters. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. because. bambocciolo. Bamour. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. lastra. bambolo. Lat. It. baltresac. to enchant. last. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. a useless load. small railing. little round and short pillars. deceiver.that the going vessels. the backload. mare Balticun. ^a\Ba\iov. ballustres. a rod. To Bamboozle. barandado. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. a young babe. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Balm. a small balustrade. Sc. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. balustrade barandilla.. The Sp. baU. of balusters. barauste. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. To Bam. Bret. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. Fr. as he says. baume. lastagium signified not only ballast. for a load or goods (Roquef. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. A — — . balsamum. deceive. a duty on goods last. &c. Said to be from balaustia. To proclaim. ballustre) is a corruption. Ballast. bag-lest. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. Baltic. forbid. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. sorcerer. lestage. an Old dotard or imbambolare. To make fun of a person. called Bait. Dan. ^Arbuthnot in R. It. ballast. Mr Marsh whether the a load. enchanter. inutile onus. bertesca. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. paid for the right of carriage. In OSw. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. seems the original form of the word. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. &c. Fr. Balsam. or movement of one who walks.

D. populum. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. banda the colour or material. to . term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. etc. to take one to task. margin. he bannede his ferde. in Fr. from at the Lord's courts.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). — R. Thus the word is also used in both senses. 2. to publish) banna. side.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. It seems this signification has arisen. eiiseigne. 19. Baud. fahne. bannire in exercitum. banns pany of footmen serve. 1. we constantly find the expression. —R. Sp. R. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. 813. hoc est vexillo. and It. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. biddal. to unite with a band. Les saiges avait et les fols d. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. 15. Diss.e. Fr. power. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. ba?idare. to follow a faction. Bandus. To Bandy. See Abandon. those who side together (bande. v. &c. parti. permission. to excommunicate {lysa. authority. Band. — excommunication bann-lysa. It. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. to side or to bandy (Florio). There is some doubt how Fr. also the band or of marriage. Goth. &c. side. Ripuar. 26. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. whether by way of injunction or for- command. bandon was used in the same sense. region. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. bundun. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Bandear. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. Assises de Jerusalem. A. R- He Translated by Chaucer. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. band. to ctide. Car. bannum or bandum.Lat. Cot. curse. Wyntoun. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. to form parties. G. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. tener da alcuno. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. bannire exercitum. in hostem convocare. 'A son bandon. to ban. — To partito d'alcuno. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Goth. a company. a coast. flag. acquired the sense of proclamation. E. summoning to serve So in Swiss. In a special sense the term company itself. From the verb to banda. Leg. Se il — Romance languages. admolendinum. says Muratori. border. to bring corn to be fahne. banda. bindan. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. Sp. i. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. passing on from proclamation to command. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. banda. Sw. . tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. ligue Taboada). bandon somewhat party. Fr. It. sostener Torriano. and in E. he assembled his host. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. is That with which anything AS.. Capitul. bandi. and thence to any proclamation. bando. ex. bound. Mag. The to . In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. bande. then the signification w.—John Villani in Due. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. theodscipe ut abannan.is further developed. at his own discretion. In Fr. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. bann. bande. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. the ensign or banner. . OE. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. banner marked the place of assembly. It. Spebifid. bande. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. bandera ground at his mill. to reprove.^ bandy. band. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. faction. change to the feminine gender in banda. Commun^ment son bandon. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid.

the slope of a hill. rap hatike et som The Susu. a table. bandire. was formed the OFr. — Kil. among rotta. destruction . in the sense of place of business. bank of a river. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. It is in this sense nounce. outlam came to signify a robber. Tibalt. banditti acquired the like signification. for shame. large dog kept for a guatd. AS. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. Goth. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. Diez. to make a stir banke. Bantze. banc G. Diaconus in Due. de sable. 45 — — Bandit. bakke. . the back. When a man fails Lat. Bang. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. as of an explosion or a blow. the former Fr. a counter. to work in wood. a bench. follow a party. a long raised seat. desk. Fl. bank. bana. death-wound. to knock. dorsum was applied to ject. Banner. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. many a bang. bank of Dan. banca fallita. With many a stiff thwack. and therefore tied up. bankruptcy. banka. in the same way that E. Benchi. It. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. Hudibras. bana-sott. Banister. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Bane. band-dog. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. roupt. Bandy legs are crooked legs. Brewer. hammering. to bend a. 2. banca his creditors. A Shipman's Tale. murderer. The ridge of a hill is AS. put under the ban of the law. AS. See Balluster. Draw. a de Vaud. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Bandy. bander. Benvoglio. Banditti. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. eminence. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. The ing. banc.z. back of a knife. a blow. a bench. that the word is used by Romeo. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. — — whence E. ON. stir. a bank. benk. a bench. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. pastoralis. to join in league with others against Cotgn. to slay. banqueroute. It. Mercutio. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. band-hond. &c. Bacon in R. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. death-sickness. bander. bow. has bang-bang. bana. Fr. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. home — Bandog. forbear this outrage. distinguishes bekkr. a bankrupt merchant. g. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. Fr. Your stool. Africa. &c. bank of river.: . bang. tumult bangas. and hence. ON. See Banish. Bankrupt. Milton in R.HG. bannire. to cabal. to publicly order one out of the realm. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. to hammer in a nail. Roquefort. From Mid. E. seat . ON. se joindre. bander tin arc. and poise Their lighter wings. a sand-bank. broken. It. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. whence the mod. and OFr. bench. ruptus. de- party. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. standard. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. Bank. to beat. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. a wound OHG. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). the same verb the It. in R. — . Du. Lat. banke. hricg. Ripuar. a i. Fr. beating. at canis peciiarius. See Band. disturbance banga. . from banc. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. bandi. —^Vocab. bana-sdr. . prince had forbidden faction fightSp. . shoal. canis vinculis assuetus. Dan. clouds. bane. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. N. bance. bank. in the sense of a pirate. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. beat. — Fr. b'ang. eminence. bent as a bow. banja. The word is in E. The child cries bang! fire. From a desk . bandear. panca. to foment factions. s'associer. banish. — Paulus drive in a nail. a rising bank. of bandying words. banco. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. bana. language of W. to proclaim.^ knock. death-blow . bench. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. But natheless wife at I bank. to knock. counter. To Bandy. Sw. and bakki. Lingua. Mid. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . beat down their weapons Gentlemen. . se reunir.

as they call it. top. rarii. ing term appears in other languages. barrer. a bantling. barrack. E. Fr. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. and it was accord. Barbe. branch. G. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. Gael. — We A . barbe. nestling. Lat. would rupted from Fr. to wash. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. barre. uncivilised. The original import of their own banner in the field. banda hendi. men. a bench or table . The origin is in all probability Goth. To mock or jeer one. Fr. sign. a tree). bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. E. barreau. Barb. heri-pau. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar.hinder. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. to bend. to beckon . Barb. privileged to raise Barbarous. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. 2. Leduchat. manu anto make signs nuere. Duo. OHG. by a repetition of the syllable bar. ON. or of this bantering. senhal. Sw. barra.— Swift in R. Fr. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. A It. sparre. Celtic bar. and the work is done. barbarus. jSa'pjSapoc. i. It. to having that signification. E. It. benda. in Gr.. brushwood. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. of banco. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. Thus Ovid. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. senh. such as the Roman Eagle. Barbar. from reifa. dim.8ap6^o)voe. rod of any rigid substance.the analogous syllable viur. jSdirTO). Fr. of wind. and from ensign or banner Prov. Banquet. banda. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. ^oTrriKio. which is surely in barbed arrow. barrou-gwez. Gr. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. ban- Baptise. probably corSymbol. Fr. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. Bret. ON. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. period vexillarii. hence a repast. inferior to a baron. himself in Pontus. knight Bardd. Lat. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. an animal a year old. sparro. senheira. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. . then fell among the foot. barba. from the same source. Banneret. that the noise of voices Bantling. bandiera. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. ingly very generally known by a name branches. banchetto. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. wrapped. and he would seem to derive Goth. chan. banneret. Flesche barbeUe.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. out of a wound. bar. indeed. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. barriire. Hence Fr. —Cot. a war-beacon or war-signal. banniire. token. then branches. It. Hence ner. to dip. iandvo. According to Diez the It. either in the Gr. and with an initial s. signuin. banne. Gr.aTa Kul nest. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. a which the barrister addresses the court. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. a beam or long pole of wood. the word came to signify rude. bandva. Lat. branches of a tree {gwezen. milites bannarii. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. 3.46 BANNERET . sbarra. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. senhal. The barb of an arrow is the sign . says. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. arineXov. a barrier or stoppage. of a sign in general. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. bannereti. a sign. OFr. barde. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. a bearded or Cot.. The spar. banner. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. to wrap.cruel. summit. speaking of battle. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. inur. In a similar manner are formed yearling. &c. and even of calling it banter. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Fr. a. &c. It may be thing. remarked. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. merki. Bap. To Banter. OHG. barbed or trapped as a great horse. banneret was a higher class of knights. a ban.

bardd. stutter. to bubble or spring up. Bret. is lb. /3opj3opwJu. on. Applied in E. barbelin. Pr. . Cot. barbeau. Thus the on. barbarkama. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. bardes. Arab. barbaris. in poetic language Bard for poet. barbier. and in Flanders to vociferate. or more properly (says fer. tree. the nakedness of a woman. Bare. as well as thwcEtta. albarda. skialldar-bard. to stammer. Barberry. barbacane. Sp. Gr. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. barda. such as houses are covered Bardelle. horse armour covering the front. axilla. borbollar. and flanks. berj G. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. powdered all over. guazzolare. to grunt. the flap of a hat. to rumble. Cotgr. Hall in R. It. to gurgle. Fr. Barde. albarda'ah. Bard. twattle. border. Sp. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . Mod. /3£pjSepi^w. baragouin. twcEtta.) . skola. — . ready money. speak confusedly. — Cot. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. also to bind or tie across. to It. boil. the quilted with. haggle. Port. Russ. gibberish. w. which was of talking. Etym. An outwork for the defence of a gate. to bubble or boil. bhasad. skirmish. bdsas. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Barder. uproar. albardilla. Gr. mutter. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. barbar. bdla-khaneh. coping. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. a pack-saddle. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Fl. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. borboglio. fortia —Strabo.— Fl. Etym. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. bdsiis. Cotgr. scouthouse. borborinha. barbulla. also to wallow like a seething pot. borbulhar. ala. waschen. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. to wash. It. unqualified. baar. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. upper chamber. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. baares geld. — . Lex. Fr. Exposed to view. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. g. to boil or bubble up . Mod. and foolishly. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. name Fr. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. barda. Bardeau.— BARBEL merit of water. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. grumble (Lowndes. Fr. Lith. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. as well as the modern twaddle. brim. barbel. barbeum. barbugliare. . — — — men. and Sc. saddle-cloth. in Fr. berries. to barbe or trap horses. Port. tattle. open. Hatt-bard. the beard. formerly used in the sense of tattle. Diez.) to wrangle. used 2. OFr. to plash or dabble. guaszare. a bardelle. Lucan. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. jargon. G. barefooted Sanscr. in the sense of fight. uncovered. bare baskojis. skirt. barz. lb. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Sp. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. borbotar. quarrel . and the word was used in OE. back. A shrub bearing acid Diet. to mumble or mutter words. — — Hence. to prattle. the edge of a shield hval-barct. barguigner.— — Pm. Hindost. murmur . a rumbling. to make an outcry . Barbican. border of a garden bed. a shingle or small board. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai.' Cot. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. to chafbargain. Barbel. bar. The Pers. But Sp. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. dial. a tumultuous assembly. Fr. barboter. bds. Barber. A7 to the and warlike. Festus in Diet. muttering. brabble in the making of a bargain. i. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. Bargain. barS. to stammer. barbeter. a jetty or outnook in a building. small pack-saddle.

barretor. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. to wrangle. See Barm. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. v. one who stirs up strife. skutr. name being given to spectacles.Barum vel feminam. quarrel. Ripuar. to strive. trouble. Ibid. husband. baron)^ Fr. OSw. a cap . dial. It. the rack or manger. — de Berri. Sp.^Voc^. aheap. the or prow of a ship. Kil. bark . a barn. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. at barka. Tarn baronem quam feminam. kani. The Goth. to shufSe. Sp. — Zeuss. am. beorcan. barafustar. as in the case of Lat. squabble. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. contest. barii. contest. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. meta foeni. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. struggle. mhg. baralhar. limpets. Prov. strife. borkr. barms. skuta. barnacles. Cornub. It. tion of the sound. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. So ON.) lihtes-ern. as. a load. Barge. . Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. strife. Antiq. barn. also to exchange. from an imita- Barley. Sp. * Barnacles. barone. was barlic. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. baniffa. a baking place or oven. 2. as. dispute. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. berem. Dan. hladi. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Acervus.. Baron. Barbour in Jam. to rout. See formed Yeast. and llysiaw. Bemiques. Lith. bargain. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. a lantern. altercation. then the bows pectus navis. ON. Manx bayrn. As Goth. quarrel Port. baratta. a heap. a place. barajar. a receptacle for barley or corn. (Ihre. barley. barizeins indicates a noun baris. to scold. hay-loft. Originally man. the A — Ihre. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. barlys {bara. the fore or after end of a boat . Leg. Dan. wine. disorder. barafunda. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. is simply the Bret. but the woman for the man. barja. dispute barattare. quant a perdu sa barja. astringent. as well as Scandinavian tongues. then honoured man. AS. confusion. bread. to cheat. entangle. ber (ace. to skin over barkandi. louzou. bread-corn. — Barnacle. barge. dregs of oil. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. adj. On the other hand. berma. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. a stack. Gl. Gael. Provj bar (ace. bern. baimeach. Bret. — battle. 2. baarn. spectacles. Leg. dispute. baragouin. baaring. Alam. Port.' bardagi. barmr. to chop. barlys. edge. Romance barsie. giving rise to It. baerm. barahunda. From Fr. the slimy substance brewing of beer. baarm. brenig. put to confusion. . i. the G. prominent part of a thing. baratta. Isidore in Rayn. So also ON. berm. Garlick. a. tumult. hlaSa. prasepe . The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. commonly explained from bere. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. barn. Spectacles. bcern. and the word. varen. baaren. dispute . Uzen. barn. . ThS man was not created for the woman. —Bark. barley. OFr. and ern.. OFr. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. baralha. we pass to the vert) barguigner. and 1. border. lap. bosom . corn-shed. and hence probably (by a metaphor. hemlock. also a boat . berm. bere. in Nat. bosom. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. ON. limpets . Sw. beornt. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. To Bark. as baces-ern. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. and may therefore be an Eastern word. a beak. bern. and is probably a true bartig. bamagh. barnis. a heap . to all the barca. barley. berm hoys. bard). Du. a boat. strife. E. . limpet. bernac. fray. plants). w. Swab. beer. chaffer. Du. Port. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. Rayn. W. Vocab. barki. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. Bailey. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. The origin may be throat. barlich. bcerme. herbs. baron. dispute . AS. Barn. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Camus. The older form in e. houbartij fsnile. Bark. charlock. in the Brim. a lap. ON. ON.

barraca. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. See Bar. a man. beorh. E. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. sepulchre. sterilis. the braw. cise formation of the word. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. baronuU. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. mound. An ing. (Schmeller). in Nat.root signifying confused noise. G. nobles. AS. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. A. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. This word introduced into Fr. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. fortification. ^Barrator. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. barrack. barile. a. seem to be radically the same with Lat. a bier. bredhan. staves. became bidre. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. berwen. It. 1. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. berewe. The Sp. vair. squabble. perhaps through Prov. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. the two names. alongside of barrow. in the first instance. a castrated hog . Barrel. barrier.' that Barrier. bera. man and wife. branches. Gael. a barrel. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. over him. habeant. also termed bannerets. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. See Barter. bark&n. fear. strife. garment still used in Morocco. OFr. a hut or booth. barchent. qui have not much light on the pre. rolls of Parliament. StiU he shows conclusively. signifying. uncultivated. Nominale of the from braeckland. Fr. breinej Du. which would barragdn. Barrister. whence Barrow. and not from Fr. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. a hiU. semen non accipiens landiEL. Joshua vii. composed of dry branches ofer. calico. cover. The feudal tenants next Fr. Formed from Fr. ibid. gwr. baronetti. — A . barBombicinus. whenever Barrow-hog. booth. facture. a. todtenbahre. vel pretiosos burellos. as cavalcade. It should be observed that. baraignej Picard. bier. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. fallow. were sometimes confounded. G. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. borov'. Bamnculus a baronet. Bern. baragan. barrila. implement for carryAS. baracca.have been named from the haggling and gant. w. bahre. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. from beran. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. vir. Russ. barri. Sp. to shelter. Sp. a bar. Sp. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. or simply bahre. from cavallo. Gael. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Goth. brushwood. from a tree to which a man is hanged. braeck.parchanttuech. a word is always used in the plural number. Baron andfemme.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. AS. boar. then traffick4 Barrow.. bouracan. litter. barrique. Barricade. Barratry. It. — — 15th Cent. an obstruction. gravis et authenticus vir. change of goods seems. heap. baroncelli. a kind of coarse camlet. Bret. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. S. to * Barragan. tomb. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. barague. 2. dispute. to carry. a barrow.— Gibbon. a horse. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. Bargus or moreland. Bohem. by early examples. as. hut. and in several instances. Barrack. It was not until the time of James I. bearg . especially those killed in battle. MHG. Barren. bara. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Fr. OE. ^Vocab. barrique. man. beorg. It. like bargain. barre. — Kil.' Op. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. D. beorgan. barril. bara. 26. iver. baronculi. shed. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. Antiq. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer..

to baste. i.' Papias. It. basgod. . a halter. baratear. Gr. netting. MHG. Barton. Arthur and Merlini. plaiting of splinters basged. baraet (from Fr. basso. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. imbastire. bds. partieren. inclosure. To Baste. the thin skin Dan. Fr. to bind hand and foot. bark. he. See Brattice. rope for — . Sp. Bast. It is mentioned as . 516. pressed down. shallow. aiKcig. him. bdtir. besst. a bastard. ' Bosworth. to bind. baste. Kil. fhe outhouses and yards. at basta og binda. /«r<fSp.looketh upon his eyes. chasa ogli a bastard. low part of the Hickes in Rich. AS. to cheat. baos. beretun. mock not. a king. F. descended of an honorable lineage. commonly A joined with the word binda. also to Cotgr. MS. . Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. To stitch. court-yard. said Base. n' is n' is bacino. over-reaching. the manorhousfe itself. Sp. scale in music. fornication. Sicamb. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. basg. binding. Bass. bas. to cheat. baraand especially teria. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. from bere. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Du. Dan. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. come near. Newman. cheating. stitch. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. flat. MHG. or running away with the ship. to stitch . Bass. peel. Halliwell.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. a ftiesh. Dan. which sets up its hood when angry. low. God it wot. baratar. The original meaning. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. dwelling. piiiguis. But according And Dan. Bastard. ' He was begetin o bast. bareter. Sw. ohg. on a. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). a bass rope. the a wide open vessel. Basilisk. low note. It. fraud. baxoj w. husk bast van koren. Al is dai. a court-yard. to Diez. — in Rich. It. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Sw. low. to truck. fornication. baste. thick. Isidore. A fabulous serpent. a ipgli So Turk. submovet omne Lucan. hoops of a cask. from /3aR. but born in baste. crassus. bast. bast. Fris. chasa. found in Turkish . Lend me your hands. a tying. truck. Fr. foist in bargaining. as It. exchange. It. beguile. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. Barbara de pictis veni patch. discourse Nay. w. basta. Lap. The like property hath the iasilisk. bestan. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. then cheating. bassin. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. preparatory stitching. leviter consuere. but he dreth presently. bastear.' Gl. a basket masg. would be. bestcn. OFr. tierer. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. of the same sense. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). barter. oe. — Bassoon. to bind. berewic. lust. PaaiKhms. pdrdt. barter. bast. bran. basso. Apparently of Celtic origin. to baste piece of cloth. Swed. cog. OFr. beortun. also the demesne lands of a manor. or wic. to long — a British word by Martial. humilis. curtus. imbastire. and Bret. more noble in blood than notable in learning.). according from Gael. G. back. as the diadem of the basilisk. lift me above Parnassus. and tun. to deceive. which covers the grain Ger. It. — hanging. To Bask. baste. bast-reb. ing for profit. ^Is de bast. . mean . Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. BassuS. Sylvester's Dubartas. exchange. a deceiver. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. HoUinshed. embastir. lattice-work. Basket. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. HaUiweU. the — — to kill those that look upon it. Pl. HaU in HaUiwell. See Bath. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. fits de bas. Bassus. bast-maatte. to bargain. Du. barley. corn-farm. unrighteous gain. Bartizan. Sp. mavult dicere Roma suam. Fr.D. It. besst-u-b£nd&t. bass-matting. ibid. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. There is not one that. basta.

Supp. provisions. vledermus. basa. frotter. niammal. staff. Pr. basto. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. bastine. bastir. Sp. bastida. and ditches bastion. dial. e. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. ari instruineht for beating. but this is hardly satisfactory. Sw. to beat. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . a blow cloth for dinner.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. Cot. — Bakke. Bastinado. batta lucifuga. to pack a saddle i. a with a stick. 164). Sw. Fr. Perhaps baska. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. contriving. bastia. Florio. For the loss of the / in back. Cot. bastione. 2. bast. to give him a sound bastingi 3. guerra bastir. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. explains Sp. the bat . to whip. as weU as besteau. bastonFr. to thrash . to rub. blows. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr.fortress or castle furnished with towers. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . iastir. vespertilio. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. to quilt or stitch wool into it. bastonnir. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. a pad or packsaddle. 2. 2. All from bastir.baste or knock soundly. iinbastire. baston.'CaB.-^ Chaucer. bdion.— Bailey. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Dan. boste. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. Antiq.. Sw. comp. to Due. also the ricado. disposer. To donjon.Lat. night-bat. bastonada. Rayn. Fr. also to cudgel. Sc. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. a blockhouse. stryka. packsaddle. — — — . Mid. which in the E. a. dial. raise. To baste one's hide .— . the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. from Fr. in the Romance languages. quelqu'un son roulet. nade. business (Altieri). worth (Nat. Fr. the winged . beysta. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. the original has corneille. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. natt-blakka. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. translation to a bat.stick. and Cot. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. a barSp. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. blakra. bastir. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. to stroke. or implement for 4 * A . R. blatta. to belabour. to rub gently. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. compared with blakka. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. to build. badger. baston. Dieiif. put it together. bastear. Dan. For the origin of baston see Baste. Fr. pre. I. the night-jar or goat-sticker. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. Pm. to beat. bladier. It. a packsaddle. set up. . frame. victuals. bastilde. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. erect. cudgelling. the E. 11864. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. It. ment. a pad. to drub.stitching in general. contrive. which to rest the load. a stick. R. blaka. a sconce. the clapper of a bell. back. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. to flap. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . has bastine. blakka. to set on foot a war Bastion. like the owl and the bat. . BAT neither. Derived by Diez from iasi. aftonbakke. blacta. beating. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. E. whence ledrblaka. is explained by Cot. in the use of the E. and Arabs. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. blakta. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. p. bastimento. a bird which. vespertilio. stryk. — — Fl. To beat or bang soundly. a bastion. Sp. It. to teach one before. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. bastille. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. That yche blak y dar wel telle. club. set up. flyinge best. bakie-bird . This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. liiake. military term of a bat-horse). settiilg up. devise. ON. to devise or begin. * Bat. to build. Sw. to spread bread and butter. bak. to cudgel. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. passage Imbasto. to lay the Sp. blatta. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. basta. Prov. a things prepared for future use. bat. 'iJipistreUo.

Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. baz. Florio. battre las ailes. a stick. more. Fr. dial. basa. a battalion. flour. the heat of the It. from on. baden. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. for biia sik. from battre. batterie. certain bend. From OFr. Fr. to feed. to foment. Battalion. Pr. bdda. badda.Hence in the augmentative form It. 2.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. bat-en. ON. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . PLD. howis. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. Bret. The bat with which a brot bdhen. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. and as a verb.' Palsgr. betten. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. in the case of a wall. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. on. quell. battere. Battery. cudgel. . also a sun badfish. debat. to become fat. batna. a blow. Batten. Fr. Mgy. Battlement. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. to heat. baeddu. G. tradire. I. Flem. Jeddris and covering. — To . made of bats. I baske. a band of armed men arranged basa. bastille. to toast bread. batir. to dial. then to warm by the application of hot water. Fr. Chaucer. to warm oneself at the fire. battere. Ayenst the sunne. dispute. a Baiffi. badda. to betake oneself. — Cot. Sp. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. It. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. bet. and with staffslyng. to be profited. gebdck. Bate. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. in the sun. on the fire. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. . Sw. Hal. A batch as wood. bake. beat. adapted for defence. Battle. a blow with a light instrument. e. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. whence the sun burns . remit. baquetazo. a washing beetle. From bat in the sense of rod . bat. to beat se battre. also. Batter. tagUone. a main battle. E. hot. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. bludgeon. Pm. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. as signifying warm baths. oneself at the A into faggots. as E. buask made like a fortress. term in falconry . gabatnan.Bathe. is a simple adoption of Fr. to foment. better. Battery. To Batten. abate. sich bakern. fortress or castle. badask. dial. a from ON. as wood-en. pak. To thrive. squadron. and about an inch thick. a battle. the root of e. Batyn. to beat. to warm. water whether warm or cold. battre. Barbour in Jam.— To Bask. wet linen in washing. to heat . — — — ' — . beat. Holz bdhen. to become convalescent. to cudgel. A Bath. dial. quhar he suld assaill. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. to fight. battions. It. Bailey. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. bdt. In OE. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. solen baddar. Bat. Eggs. gebdcke. G. is in falling. Baka sik vid elld. Du. to beat. to beat. Goth. to beak. Pm. a staff. bdhen. a beating. Strife. To Bate. batte sig. to bathe oneself. to get better. bdda vidjor. w. G. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. or make debate. allay . a stirrer-up of strife. or break down. busk. dial. baka. to warm oneself. abattre. batador. perhaps first used adjectivally. Slav. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . and milk beaten up together. was formed bastilU. to bathe. beat down. altercation. Gael. lessen. to refresh oneself in language. a great seems related to baden as Fr. to beath wood Battledoor. to for fighting. Sp. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. bataille.— . to thrive. bada. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. made of — A made by one Batcii. See Better. Plkkis. to foment with hot applica. . solbase. an arrangement for giving blows. Jurgor. Pr. battle was used beath wood. Fr. battaglia. fashes basking in the sun squadron. makebate. to flutter with the wings. to fire or in the sun. or a dry stick. batacazo. strife. Hence pro. battre. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. to fell. trahtr to It. heat. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. Sw. In some parts of England it is striking. as E. by projections or in any licoure. I bathe in water viz. signifying to give repeated blows. Fr. of bread is so much baked zX one time.

OFr. baban.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Prov. Cotgr. or sheaf of Bridel. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). dirt. a spot. spot. a plot of Chaucer. to trifle away ment. zano. W. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. c. Beaus^ent. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. the face. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. was simply a field gold. bobine. instead oi s. Irel.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Cot. balbob. Jam. a zan. dacchino.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. bad. and authorities in note. vacillo. From ! an interjection of disgust. sorry. child. a lump. balderich. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. tab. or Cot. scarf. Bagdad. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. or toys. E. to me-wl. an embattled wall. P. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. exactly corresponds Fr. ish baubles. Sc. expressive of disgust. bow-wow. divided between black and white. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. dirty. Fr. a dog). then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. a lump or cluster babhaid. From Bret. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. an — — — A — g — — — . fe bau. filth. javelle. lewd . bau. It. babsmall toy to play withal. s. fields. baubare. fooleries or fond To Bawl. form with an initial seen in Fr. spotted. Ball. 8. Batylment of a wall. i. whence the E. propugnaculum. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. bauch. whimwham. excrement. It. Baldrick. or the animal so marked. Descript. BAWSON Swiss. It. an object. from Fr. Filthy. The It. Lat. balGael. ball. obstrepere. baudrat. speckled. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. OFr. bablyn or waveryn. trifles. An analogous noisily. trifle. bal. the white of his leg or foot.. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. —R. whence pouacre. baffe. E. disgusting. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. a belt. P. Baw — . — — ' Lydgate. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. bouaila. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . It is all bawdy. baula. to play the babby. bauU. sword-belt. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. Pr. librillo. baugant. because made of cloth of white. Cloth of gold. Gael. 2. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. guigaw. represented by the syllable miau. Formed from baw. to bark. Pr. ON. babbole. pie- . fagot. as Fr. E. ground. a tassel. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. A name of the badger. Fr. Bawson. ! Bauble. and to-tore also. tille. Cot. to the same origin. to bark . a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. Bavin. baudrdj OHG. a horse with white legs. to vociferate. babiole. Fr. In like manner Grisons filthy. a gavel. also more Bawdekin. baue.. a white mark Bawdy. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. dial. Swiss Rom. on the face of animals. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. horse. from Baldacca. and Sp. is Bagdad stuff. dung. rotten. toys. s. ballach.guage). Fl. dente. P. brush faggot. to void the bowels.' ' Pegma. bobbin or cluster of thread. bow (as in our nursery Diez. the Swiss baben. nastiness. Zalli. having a white streak down Bagdad. Piedm. The word may perhaps be sticks. is used for a sented by bau. E. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. to talk Lacombe. Pm. miauler.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. Hal. baw. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. b \% bouala. in OE. filth. to make the noise Baudrick. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. a tassel or hanging bunch . mew. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. also the canopy carried part of his body. R. faisceau. cluster. to cry. — Pm. Ball-seirc. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle.— P. to low or bellow as corn. collar. bal. bausan. a horse marked with a procession. pegma. to 53 manure the To baw.

Said to have been invented at Bayonne. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. It. It. the cod of peas. Fr. AS. weary of running. Q. by the term rendre les abpis. to amuse stare a bada. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Such Antaeus seemed to me. It. Fr. living Ir. open the mouth. from badar. Prov. Earth — By Nature made to till. as gazing. It. beo. waiting . and zndly. Gael. and keeps them in check for a while. Fr. yellow . — A At Bay. laurel of the ancients.— Stalder. baie.' Bailey. hddhe-dhonn. desiring. to be Bohem. badarc. Lat. Sp. . bahia. window . berries. as if to signify a window of curved outline. bayo. bayen-stein. to on anything. at his last gasp. life. baer. corrupted into Bow-window. a hole. Abide. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. a cluster of bacon. 1859. to iiitent nected PoL white. badia to Sp. to open as a blossom. bilyega. To Bay. siege of Bayonne in 1665. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. Swiss beie. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. Lat. —F. Piedm. bioth. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. husk. baca. Bay.—Journal Soc. bijel. that from ba. house . Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. stood watching him stoop. BauSfi)/. bilyejiti.c. baier. stare. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. trahir. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. Catalan hadia. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Feb. overture. the laurel-bay. . &c. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. baiare. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. batibari. Fr. 25. Bay-tree. 1. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. Fr. or berries. From the former verb is the It. baga. baja. A stag is said to stand at bay. living thing . so called from its bearing bays. berry. to open. bate. buidhe- The ruadh. —Bay-windo'W. See At Bay. baya. to keep one waiting. Bay. From Cat. baye. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. bay. Sp. Mod. or recess in an apartment in modern times. BAY marked with bjly. to mark. dehiscere . baionette. bialo. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. — Schmid. —Diez. ist. . Cot. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. put to his last shifts. The word bay. &. beonj Gael. tradire to Fr. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Fr. grapes or nuts. to gape. baca. Holland's Pliny in R. to betray./^ bau. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. . It. to stand watching one. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. Sp. a dagger. a'uno. See Bald. OSp. See Bawl. ing-floor. bde. Vielp. bdcr. baccello. Arts. The — Fr.' — — 54 bald. aux dehniers abois. bahia. |8i'os. F. a mark. large window in a handsome . to split. white. bagaid. It has been shown under Abie. the world Gr. which however. the cod or husk of beans or the like. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. or to have been first used at the Cot. buidhe. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. bacca. watching intently. gate. to keep at a bay. alive. from an imitation of the sound. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. dividere. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Serv. Swab. beothach.. baher. A hollow in the 'line of coast. BE Probably conRuss. badius. is perhaps not directly from Lat. badarse. &c. bajo. like a pie. bai. or window ' (in Fortification). che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. Bayonet. the step is the same as from It. especially beans. a beast. life. expresr sion tenere a bada. Gael. and the To bark as a dog. barn of two bays. window-sill. arose two forms of the verb.. w. bay. he turns and faces his pursuers. S. when. Drayton in R. in order to keep the enemy in check. * To Be. Gr. Q. or at bay. abbabayer. a berry.

or any action done with a pointed thing. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. bohnej ON. gebed. Gr. beck. bagms. ffci. fero. a sign. bek. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. beic. bydel. See To Bid. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. bokan. Bret. — Bellenden in Jam. Netherlands or North Germany. badmr. atUndre. bearti. to wait. bM. Gael. would say. Fr. «va\ioQ. on. A two-year old nephew of mine p. prodigy bauhnjan. bakkje. to nod the head. Fr. beans. according to of Sanscr. Hackluyt in R. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. fd or faVf beans. bar. becco. Beach. or beic. l^ax. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. faba is Kvavoq. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. AS. Chapters on Lang. Be. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. vol. Beck. a prayer. Q wait upon him. a curtsey. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. as. —F. It is BEAR SI court. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. A Esthon. Catalan becar. as. as well as f& or fav. to carry. to nod . and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. ON. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. bedm. He says. Beadle. bee. backe. . The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. W. OSax. support.fuis5e. to bellow.' Suetonius in Diez. baum. — bedeau. like most nautical terms.from AS. 54. post. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. to wait-. Slavon. a beak. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. to beckon. pierced for hanging on a string. a presage. Beckon. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. beacnian. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. g. signifying individuality. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. Beacon. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. a single bean. bob. It. pig. Goth. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones.' adheres to the root. G. tale of prayers or doxologies. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. however. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. N. bohne. bidan. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. beugler. -phxr. Farrar. a tree. was introduced from England sea. Miss Gurney in Philolog.' Hall's Chron. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. The origin seems preserved in E. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. to produce young. into France. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. a single bean. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. beic. It forms a. Sw.to have a French origin. To Bear. bidello. Lat. beacen. bead.fui. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Beak. Du. bakke. — : Beam. Gael. Bret. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. stock. E. signifying a point. Goth. Bean. bairan. fora-bauhan.fer-re j Gr. fromthe danger. which is. or however. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. AS. rising ground. ON. or breathing. bank. not applied to the yelping of dogs. bauhan. The nutu significare. ffaen. Moreover the name. Bear. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. into a snjall river. . bean. ohg. faba. G. Trans. a nod OHG. the part overflowed by the tide. be. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. nokkima. a tree. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. The immediate shore of the Menage. It. The wild beast. * Beagle. Thus the final en. an attendant. salve his hurts. Pardoner's Tale. W. . and Lat.ad. Gael. Boom. vii.. bdkna. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. a hill. baun. boom. — to bow or nod .

The quadruped. con. bestiaj Gael. pleasing. bel. biber.fit. to fall mode of being. a bank. judgment. — . E. Dan. barba. bekommen. iida. dushmak. fit. It. fitanimal. to attain to the lot of any one. or a feeling to be gratified. to happen. suitable. barf. border. handsome. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. dize or dtzen. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. ON. Fr. to shore. slobber. In a second sense to become is to be ing children.' ' He became very angry. brada. bellus. As rivus. ON. See Bank. talkative. covered the face. Lat. Bedizen. Now the Beast. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. a lip. Prick of Conscience. Cal. becuman. when up. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. He becom on sceathan. Bosworth. agreeable. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. to sleep on. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. edge. Slav. Beck. our taste. g. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. Fr. tidy. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. ting. i. tidig.we call the arrangement becoming. to be fulfilled. brook. and on. a. to live. seemly. bett. a brook. to come to or upon. den. to be incumbent upon him. AS. riviera. The fitting or suitable. behkr. bello. — A — A — . e. Fr. byrcti. living. The moveable part of a helmet. W. to happen. formerly a happen. gebank. baba. Beauty. gelimplic. 2. because made of the fur of the beaver. Beck. ON. bave. Beat. suitable.to clothe to slobber. Fr. to happen. Lat. Secondarily applied to a hat. from the same in the sense of bear2. . to happen. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. befall. G. That thou mayest attain Goth. comely. On the same principle. to hem. Bo. bcek. dress with unbecoming richness . babrad. blast. bequem. befit. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. byw. which. The OFr.getiman. Diez. from baver. Chaucer. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. to fall in with our bavard. to those goods which endure for ever. G. bur. and Fr. bard. and to acquire. biivre. a bank. 1.of being very angry. e. convenient. burdr is used in the sense of a car. chin. but now a river only. receive. Fr. E. perhaps a living thing.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. G. i. proper . name applied originally to the bank then proper . place to lie down. to the good hapHalbard. bava. brook . or special purpose. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. Beaver. timan. limplice. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. decent. and also in that of birth. happening as it ought. See becymth anfeald yvel. Lith. decorous. ziemen. baurthei. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. bobrowai. fallinn. badi. fitly . bart. to G. bebrus. opportune. bedr. Thus OY. it is probable that here also the to become. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. obtain. beo. gabaurths. E. to happen. ON. as the babble of the child. the ece thurhwuniath. nod or sign. It. OSw. to appertain. gefallen. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. o. Lat. bekkr. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. Boeth. an notion of being convenient. to be a part of his to. bobr. Goth. to wade through the water like a beaver. To load with ornament. beauts. taste. produce. to arrive at. to the brook itself.' are equivalent expressions. battere. nothing to thy name make. I do thee pray. Sp. G. to please. to get. now confined To Become. baviire. if sound of a sharp blow. birth. Lat. bach. bave i. R.S6 fero. G. or river. get J ' He got very angry. R. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. agreeable. AS. godum with ON. becuman. to dabble . rying. Perhaps from Pol. the beard. the latter are derived It. riviire. while from Shep. to carry. beatanj It. Russ. boroda. limpan. In like manner condition. See Beacon. from beau. pens unmixed evU. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. to assume a certain form or Turk. venient. bib or slobbering cloth.AS. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. Beckon.' every way suited to a prince. Thcem. whence baveux. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. bearing. connected with ripa. proper.— Kiittner. bavec. bring forth. to fall. See Bat. pretty. Do no To It fallith favour. fiber. limpian. to bear children. as. duty. Prov.

erroneously modified in form. bedawi. to turn. buk.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. . a horse-fly . from risan. buka. briest. Bedouia. bably named from the destructive quali| T. AS. G. bedde-redirj ohg. taglio. E. to coagulate. a stinging bieUe. which also 2.D. cousin. Esthon.'— GL ^Ifr. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. ' MordiThe Lat. In a passage of an Old Fr. may be shpped on and off. bitela. bukva. the biter. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. a paviour's beetle batail. to parget or rough-cast . This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. Fin. a cup or implement for AS. crespir. blow or thrust. Fr. PI. extant in Bohem. beyki. translation beOj. a wasp. bbtel.' the last word corresponds to cofly . to drink. Fr. to curdle or lopper. bitel. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Bav. bossen. bet. as the milk of a that purpose in London. calleBedlam. to poordma. Slav. to beat bossel.ing of the word is curdled. Originally. Ant.possible. Bethlehem. from the hos. cow has calved. woman that is newly delivered. Dan. Cot. bove. beutel. paralyticus. badigeonner.cz//aj. an Beetle. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. a pad or cushion). garden-herb. beer. 1156. Beet. Rom. Bee. . biiren. beach-each. biest-milch. P1. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. in Schmeller. prisons Venet. 57 — Palsgr. from jtst-. Pett. bibere is a re. of beatmg. It. pettiriso. thick. cogionare. cushion-cover . ris. to knock. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. bletumj Gr. desert. 1. boytle. waarin. Pl. boeuf. briesch-milch. It. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. . a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. Beetle. a mallet. to fall. comb. from blood. The first milk after a dizen. qui de lecto surgere non potest . AS. and in driving piles. by the analogy of bedaivb. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. Fr. whence familiar. The beer al for te shenche bate. G.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. /SXirov. The honey-producing insect. prigione. buche. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. 'La Gl. Bed-ridden. drink. used for boull. knock. a malsense of drink. beest. beetle also signified the impiti. case. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. imperative pi. AS. from Lat. turn (a garment). 1 to drink. Beef. an ox. a wandering Prov. a bed-tick. a Properly a cover that biiren. a pillow-case. Fr. wedges. &c. also the bite or sting of a bees. bytl.(paddi. on. as in It. a drink potus. kivih. Fr. curded or beesty. pude-vaar. thick. stakes. doubtless. may be from K. E. Arab. Let. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. I put the flax upon it to spin. bos. i. Cot. poculum. piwo.). . a wasp. to twist poorma._t from the root pi.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. trees in a forest . bovis. pital of St Mary. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji.— JI14. Fr. in Nat. to colour with lime-wash. cited by Diez. bedskiissen-bUren. vaar. whose face is clotty. de Fierabras in Diez. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. G. D. fagus. and lebermer in G. red curdled Arab . sang vermeilh betatz. the meat of spinach. beach. Lat. It. * Beestings. to flatten In OE.D. to rough- cast. 1. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be.. clog for a dog b'oteln. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. batAfter mete in sale. also bienst. cozen. KXlvoTTiT^e. from leberen. by-flugaj G. Lat. door. betel. a clapper. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. speach. GaeL bior. the ox. an inhabitant of the desert.^ drink. Horn. ProBeer. I dysyn a dystaffe. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. sela que environna la terra. . to become Beech. Confined to bed. But possibly bedizen 2. to and ale. Gael. The meanpainting. madhouse. a agulatum in the original Latin. a cover. . bette or blettej Lat. Gr.— B. the loppered sea. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. biene. ir'm. byst. water. tree. beta. a bee.ON. drink. a pillow case. Grimm. as. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. Bernese. to change . fall. cugino. g.' So Gr. duplicated form of the root. turn. I A pillow-beer. kiissen-biere. mars betada. beost. For that was law of lend. ^.

Florio. oppressed with woe. be^nnan. appears improbable at first. anfangen. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. P. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. aginnan. ken. one after that other. to be born. gigno. Vocab. Gr. 58 BEG BEGONE G. P. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . a bag or poke. V. origin. yivwajcw. a wallet. 40. P. a wedge for cleaving wood. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. — yivsaiQ. two betels —a grete oke. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Barbour. It.3. it is both to acquire and to beget. to arise. P. although it ' the future. a chisel. P. yiyvo/uat. ' Begone. or Of a pure poor man. at geta talad. ornamented phoc. P. a bag. is formed pocair. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. to reduce him to beggary. 1430. to bear young. Lollards. lapidicinus. a — wedge. 'ex quo. woe-begone. ykvog. can. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. genus. to begin. ysgrepan. He did alight. bag {baigean.pose. Du. Schm. word. vir mendi. Du. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. to know. To produce children is to acquire. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. It will . in D. from whete G. — Stillingfleet. sel. cans. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. above quoted to get beaten ON. but probably erroneously. a stone-cutter's chisel. whence the E. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. P.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. OHG. Lith. V. a beggar-boy.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. a little bag). a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. & go a begging. touched with emotion — .' for ye shall lament and weep.' A. referred gan this Erie alight. Si'Xa/coc. In Luc vi. ytyvwfT'Kw. to cleve. AS. not began to alight. 'Aboutin undern monly. Fr. covered with gold D. The tother seand the dint cum.' about undern he got down. Political Songs. to take. giving in Gr. 1867. of Gr. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. bertola. viii. signifying to conceive. ' .bag full of the G.— .D. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. on the bag. Mod. begger. Skinner's derivation from bag. Ancren Riwle. beissel. Du. onginnan. to begaan. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. fangen and Lat. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Into the are D.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. on the tramp. duginnan. beginning. 25. So from Gael. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. iv. &c. a bag . P. 'Dz. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. seizing. beis- plement driven by blows. ken. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. beriolare. in E. chap. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. su with gold. beutel. is com. begging. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. kind. to be acquire. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . taking up. Beghardus. gen. ysgrepanu. Of brede full ycrammed. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. also called Bigots. a scrip euXaiciJoi.n. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. yivtrri. to beg. Cold-begone. 142. Goth. ip AS. To Beg. y/yvo/iat. a beggar. Nov. From w. to be able. 2. beitel. can. Mundart. krapszas. Bruce. capere. ' ' . to get children . as alighting is a momentary operation. a beggar . and Lat. image is cleft out of the trunk. but in the same language from poc. Creed. 168. beitel. When Q. To Begin. tale. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. Deutsch. a scrip. &c. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. steinbosil. baigeir. incipere.quently used in OE. pose-pilte. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. gan. in Lat. V. hags. the fundamental notion of attaining to. P. literally. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. air a . yivofiai. to go a begging. P. chisel. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. on further examination. affected.

to command. —Hest. ge' hatan. observe. AS. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to fit. to halten.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. The Lat. to the equivalent of Du. to name. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. G. to call. zu etwas gehalten haitan. beperson addressed. to take away. AS. is on the top of or opposite to. to follow. hatan. on. solicitum esse. to be well pleased out. and (as Fr. behind. promise . command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. holding is originally derived from that of looking. heeten willekem. behat. fixed upon any object). to lead. hantyri. injunccommand. Robert in Warton. the equivalent of E. to look upon it as true . Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. The seyn. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to hold. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. AS. ufhaban. to tend. to hit the mark. K. To place are most naturally ex. invoke. exhort. healdan. Paladino. furtherance. and the E. behold. gehat. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to call. But. hafwa ram. to keep.' Richardson. AS. Thus in Finnish the heave. G. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. zijn.the figure of throwing at a mark. at the tail of. hove. hevja. vow. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. bound. to be obliged to do a thing. to behave. to promise. to R. It. beholden to him. to raise. to be suitable or becoming . premi curi alicujus rei. And so from hania. to bers of the body. hafwa bort. — Behest. to keen or hold. keeping. is also found in the sense of looking. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. Aan iemand bid one welcome. behefe. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. the name adapt.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. Sw. to carry. To look steadily upon. and their senses intermingle. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. a follower. G. take heed of. the two verbs seem radically the same. to meet. by the compound observare. behaviour. obliged. Sw. Command. to have. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to carry. according as the * To Behove. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to carry. gecall. to vow. hafwa. heeten. to heave. portarsi. or necessary. adjust. to be named. promise or a command. hces. ifl fact. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. behoof. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. vow. advantage. heave. G. habere.for throwing it. To Behave. Sw. R. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. hcef tig bort. hcefwa in seed. to be fit. keeping. to feed. garder. have the sense of calling or naming. At the back of The re. when the verb will hoof. to vow.— . Goth. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. gehouden. guardare. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. se porter) to fare well or ill. or purpose. commonly expressed.). to hold. tion. use. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. 17. nittaa. behete. to lift. tail. to keep. Kiittn. Plautus. behces. to bring forwards. G. hafjan. from tragen. to lift. seeing to. the distance of anything. to regard. hevja. G. to turn one out . habban.to vow. to command. OE. right. AS. to cast or throw. promise. hofwa. us-hafjan. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. hovast. to be obliged to one. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to look. gehaben. gehalten seyn. betragen. To be expedient. what is so required. is supported by many analogies. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. what he wishes another to do . behatan. To Behold. laborare. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. take yourself off. as in the case of E. heita. ward. to be be named. or the hence advantage. han- — js Kil. hafwa. servare. to gehouden. The It. N. to carry corn into the barn .

to extol the worth of anything. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. bell. reach. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. to lay the cable round the bits. with the consent of the heirs. permitting or giving leave. to put a high price or value on. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. belja. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. See Gain. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . giving leave or permission. To Belay. ungalaub kas. gelyfan. a tower.Lat. b'ola. and bergan. ON. erlauben. — mankind. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . Another application of the same word is in Pl. praising. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to be required for a certain purpose. Northamptonshire. we have Goth. to believe. turris. to sanction an arrangement. esteemed . to praise. cela est audessus de votre portde. honoured. and E. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. promiser. a little shed. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. orloven. loven.. to protect. are innate . reputation. to estimate them at a To believe. hesfa. to cry out bell. . Du. to promise. is an easy progress. To praise is essentially Xo prise. bylja. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. to make it fast. under the forms belfredum. The word be- Belfry.. loben. esteeming good and valid. Pl. range. To Believe. To Belch. a vessel made for dishonour. or high estimation. bealcettanj OE. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. to roar. bervrit. Pl. true. to boke. beau sire and bel dame. to express approval. beleggen. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. galaubjan. met. Hence to simple approbation. bolken. filu-galaubs. loven. AS. from mhG. to bolk. measure. promising. to resound. Q. distance to which a piece will carry. P1. mark ON. beffroit. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. and Du. In the middle voice hofwas. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. a. lyfan. beffroi. were civil terms of address.D. locus securitatis Schilter. bellan. an implement for making a loud noise. overspread. to praise. laven. garnish. to bellow. beset.D. then. battefredum. tain a certain end. bercvrit. AS. for purposes of low estimation . is used in the sense of approving. to give leave. to give leave. fitness. to sound loudly . those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. praise. bertefredum. In Mid. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to der swaren lave.D. G. on. laubjan. certain rate. Goth.alyfan. and. glauben. in nautical language. — Diicange. are other modifications of the same imitative root. leaf geleafa. ON. if a promise. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to believe. then. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. Bell. Du. bealcan. moderation. Sw.D. permission. laven. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. bellow. bounds. to praise. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman.Lat. From AS. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. Du. lofa. satisfaction. if a narration. Du. to belay. or house. leave . fringe. Det er ofwer er hofwa. to hit hafi. boare. to befit. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. berfroi. —F. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. It. legsel. ley/a. 6o BELAY BELL loven. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. border. resonare. — . bettifredo. galaubs. stand. to fix a price upon one's wares. is (Sternberg). allow. to a loud noise. Fair sir and Fair lady. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to believe. belief . a tower for defence . . properly belonging to the church tower. Fr. portion.. precious. to lay be- around. lov. bulken. to give leave Dan. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. behove. . aim. OFr. or a sconce. Fr. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. pro3. to promise or engage. Then. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. peal. verloben. OHG. ornament. bialla. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. and E. a watch tower. appearing in Mid. consent. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. frid. on. to permit.

vulva. bolch. ' I beraye. skin. To belong is thus to reach up to. G. In E. bless. generous. volva. Kil. to belong. fyle To dirty. benjoin. — See Numb. Javanese perfume. to come to the crown belangen. on. pino3. benir. est matris in lucem editus. to touch one. Eenison. bimpsen. the skin of those animals that factor. welt of a shoe. well. a blow. benaigon. balg. wallet Benefit. . a spring. Gael. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. ^To Beray. I marre a thyng. to. balg.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to use words of good omen. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. ray. to become one's property . Quoth. fens et hie liraus. rushes. to hallow. . Dozy. bellows. Du. poX^ri. to arrive at. Bav. or fyle with myre. incense of Java. is a kindred form. pertinere. a good deed. To Bend. Lat. pouch. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. attinere. a bellows .' The term had been previously planation. — Ducange. — ray. vulgarly the belly. benedicere. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. — root consisting of concentric skins. benjoim. are stripped off whole blase-balg. to ring. a leather bag. benefacere. Bench. to do good to one .polch. skin. See I . bcelg. binsen. bilbila. a round or bubble-shaped root. benedictio {bene^ and dico. as. . bags or bellows. taken absolutely. bandoir. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. because bcelg. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. is The word balg. beneison. Benignant. ball. to hold to one. . from cwcsthan. gwaldas. bellows. needs no ex. Lat. to make bilbil. bilbil-goda. rise against external force . G. To Belong'. the womb. G. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. blast-bcelg. To Bequeath. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Fr. Belt. a speaking well of one. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. has assumed a plural form.videtur.— Belly. bendan. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. dirt. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. Gum benjamin. benehusk. or simply djawt. bienfait. belgr. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. G. cod or husk of pulse. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. Lat. or sometimes louban.pinuz. a water-bubble builge. ON. Benediction. was in Mid. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. to say. binssen. attinere. Ptg. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). to attain to. benignus (opposed to malignus). from Arab. OUG. belly. to concern. kind. bell. langen. Gael. bolg. welt of a shoe gwald. the word. bellows. To Benum. Benefice.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. a blessing. to concern. one who does good. se bander. bander un arc. a border. means seeds of plants. I say). to attain belangen. . Sw. pod. leather sack. Was das belanget. hem. I soyle it or araye it. to stretch it on a frame. bag. bimaissen. belch. or a It is times the to signify services. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. bendaj as." — — . from another modification of the word for bubble. See Nether. a bellows. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. benejicium. border. Benedico. by itself. to bless. See Bank. a benefit. wallet. OFr. Lat. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . Lat. attingere. gelangen. Fr. bolg. The ing-skin. J'emboue. an inflated Lat. Bret. Lat. from which is also bulbus. to exert force. ' .Fr. from benedictio.. bene/actum. Beneath. disposed to oblige. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. See Bind. hence with ashes. pertinere. belliJ Lat. balteus . blister balgan-snamha. . a accusative. From OFr. to bend a bow . w. . becwathan. belly. as concerning that. I araye. Bent.' — Hie fimus. to touch. Fr. pervenire. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. Benzoin. belt. Benefactor. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. ON. loubdn djawt. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla.' Palsgr. Benign. a kindness. to reach. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi.

Du. I from lew. The origin is AS. eld up- On is to be placed A — . Du. See Better. boteith Goth. The proper meaning of the bale. repair. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. a horse collar. to give a place to. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. to defend. stede. make better . AS. to strip. ariierf to 113. a berry. reparation. . making better. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. To bete his Jam. * To Bete. as. ship for a make amend. Ihre. better. to put on the saddle. dirt . baete. p. houseless. * Berth. to thrust. bestow. To Beseech. to make better. earh. Sw. scopse spartis. earg. but in practice. Kil. is to perform a serviceable office to him. but it is specially applied mister. dial. or the space kept clear betan. AS. put. roe. to supply a want. bal oppbota. the guardian . vi. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. a place . a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. to on the other Goth. berwe. to stand one in good stead. — Biglotton. to entreat. of ffeed a fire. Beere. besen. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. Devon. So too Yorkshire arf. or. bdt.—^fake. Besom. bouter. compared with bargham. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. mud. Esthon. 3. stealth from steal. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Beit. roju. and also to entreat. het vuur The serise of Boeten. to kindle the fire. vol. to To Bereave.— VixHsm. dirt. reafian. rods. To seek something from a person. protect . beorgan. from AS. Grose. R. an incendiary. ropahtaa. beseech. dust rojahtaa. To Bestow. it seems hard to separate as. barthless.X.bhaksh. preferably. Fin. bdt. betan. to the place boarded off in a. fall with sound. basjaj Du. arwe. profit. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . To Bet. The dry. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. dung . sets fire to. broom twigs. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. burrow. Fr. small eatable fruit. peto. BETE dirty'. position. what does it boot.t. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. To help. place. botesward. as. an incendiary. in the sense ctf beria. Fr. See Reave. noise. to cast. Sw. and on which the wager is laid. G. G. Goth. When men of mekeness him baet. E. to thrust. bur-we. From abet. boutefeu. jnore. ^akka. from grow. berry. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. the origin of which is to be found in ON. — . to fire a funeral pile of . or to bestead one.D. might have been . — amendment. as. buttafuoco. Du. barth may be for barf. encouraging.ot-i. bereafian. a fire. To Gl. think more probable. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. as Du. rubbish. Bestead. Zeitschr. buttare. . lewth. besIn sen. OE.fish the other hand. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. besein.irova. besnij Pl. solicit. seems twigs or rods. Hfence backing. It is the restore fyr betan. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. to mend. Rob. Beet. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. berwham. put forth. roju. sweepings. bat. advantage.• 62 Antiq. So Lat. boeten. lay out. Tha het he micel fyr betan. one who shelter. fearful. AS. — bota. as in growth. advantage. stow. baete. besmas. to seek. to to deprive of. Berry. boeten. amendment. R. sheltered from the wind. what does it better a man. improve. fyrbotare. E. bota. from It.— Hal. So roto rattle down. and Du. basya. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. betan. to be-place. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. same word with the provincial barth. to fall with roisto. supporting on the one side Lat. supply. boeten. as conversely a besom is called broom. BEREAVE Wall. Du. to exercise on a definite object. bacca. because used for making besoms. besje^ Sanscr. the side bhakshya. to light the fire . brem-bessen. hva mannan. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Tusser.iooA. — Chaucer. On the other hand. to word is shelter. bet. Best. ^•n. p. as. as bouter selle. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. reparation. to amend. person to lie in. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. to make it. barfham.

Ober D. Det sig sjelft. against. riigen. dispose (whence schicksal. kein leben mehrin no signs . From It. suitable. e. more. trakir. Friar's Prol. tima. Du. To Betray. betriigen. Dit tungomal rendered in E. to happen. to cheat. Fr. The inflections of Fr. tradere. gesiemen. from invadere. *Ah. E. is treason. for measuring angles. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. betaemen. pair of compasses. dir. betst. to Teem. . betweox. evidence of life. vrohjan. G. tweoh. trahir. fallinn. batista. Fr. find in one's heart. trahissais. to fall. Lat. amiddes. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. ON. bat. sloped off. abash j from polir. some attention. from Fr. e.D. as from obdir. &c. e. It. wreia. Bav. Slant. be fitting or suitable. as tlock. make manifest. gatiman. advance. his eyen sheen. to fall Some call it a bevel. In the water anon was seen His nose. better. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. traditor. two. in the same way Lat. whence beveraggio Fr.— . Ik tame mi dat nig. an instrument opening like a a thing. Golding's Ovid in R. bet. betera. become. Buveau. suitable. of pheasants. which may be compared as to form with amid. to discover. Between. G. is used for the — R. polish. Percy Soc. treachery. betweoh. bibere. a bevy. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. betwuh. /alia. springs from ON. betray. Cot. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. by two. Thus from dbahir. in the middle of two. twain. r'ojer dig. better. progress. obdissais. Sahissais. a traitor. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. To vouchsafe. bouter davantaige. On the same principle ON. OE. beva. i. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. Sw. BETEfiM translated. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. to deliver tip. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. bet. Fris. traitre. find it good: Goth. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. AS. larks. thy speech bewrayeth thee. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. regen. deem suitable. roja. ruogia. — Betwixt. in the middle of twain. moveable and compass branches. or with again. not to have the heart to give up a thing. what does It is forward him. R. amidst. Dii. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. to deceive. better. i. bedriegen. Best. ziemen. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. it bewrays itself. A — drink. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. a brood.D. To Bewray. verbs in ir with a double ss. wrogia. order. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. -to appoint. trahison. Tinia eigi at lata eit. spritigs from schicken. deign. fitting. as trahissons. bevere. proficere. to happen. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. roebucks. by a final sh. zemen. — See To Bete. To Beteem. as one would have it fall. baet. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. a different form of twa. betweohs. To boot in coursing (i. to make forwards. Now the stirring of an object. to stir. as envahir. are there Regt R. In like manner from twain is fothied between. a drinking . the being pushed to the frbnt. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. R. From the former of these are AS. gezimet eines dinges. In like manner folissais. are commonly to one's lot. Chaucer. 88. lot). tradire. and thence twegen. to deliver up in breach of trust. awry. It. his mouth. AS. betest. fate. of quails. afford. Mich self a good glass of wine. Pl. to accuse. Pl. x. G. batizo. tima. betwuxt. Fr. beverage. zimet. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. Bevy. from. best. G. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. Hence last G. Goth. I approve of beveau. Fl. — of the authorities.' Dialogue on Witches. to drink . Car son umbre si le trahit. Goth. taemen. has — In a like sense tanie>i. The as. R. said he. E. bevde. Better. to Hence It. ON. taemen. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. beuvrage. — that schickiich. E. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. obeish. Fr. from Lat.

. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Fris. Pers. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). lips. bezling or skueing. biberen. Bib. to stir. to make tongue Du. expelling or preserving against. which good bibbeler.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. is explained to clatter. Pl. Lat. Sard. wrangle. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. sbiesso. by throwing of stones. beslei. —Dozy. babbi. it becomes (Jz-. in Fr. convicts thee of being drink. in two ways for duis. wrogen. the basil Sc. Bible. baverole. to well up with Cot. besanca. bis. to Jam. discover. to be a paring. Piedm. sbrissare. bestemps. in him. It. Fr.{ioin dua. of the sliced off. To Bibble. The It. to cut in two. it were the mouth. sbrisciare.to drink much. Diet. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. bisdare. — crooked. bickeler. misFr. a slabbering-bib. An inferior blue. Sp.as in Biped. to tipple. biberon. shows the P1. the papyrus. to give signs of life. Gr. sbriscio. I Wallon. Hal. In Arab. To Bib. whence Du. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. Fr.' bibble. sbiagio. a fragment bieco. Bisect. winding or crawling in and out. roggle. bickelen. bias-wise. a bezle. tailU en biseau. kwijl-bab. Cat. b&zahr. to dispute. Yes. two- footed. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). — Bi-. oblique. to the stirring of their conscience. Ant. Oh when shall I bizzle. kwijllap. To bicker in NE. and zahr. Schiitze. to stir up . The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. dial. biax. aslope. slippery. sbiasciai. a stone-hewer . biberer. from pdd-.a. rogt un bogt sik nig. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. to stir. a bibber. Fr. sbieco. Cat.D. bickel-sieenken. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. aslope sbisciare. edge of a plate of looking-glass. See Wriggle. bible. a sloping edge. has a singular stone-picker. whey count . babbefore the eyes. to it evident to sense. . pible. —Bickering'. Lat. biascio. bending. evident. Ci^. reveal. Piedm. to move. asure-bice (Early E. stock still. to purl. Bice. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe.s bellum for duellum. . To drink hard. It is especially applied in Sc. biascia. slanting . baviere. Fr. bescompte. snout. to sip. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil.D. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. or kwijl-slab. . Bezoar. bibaculus. Uprogen. Prov. OE. 78). It. bring under ' Thy accuse. a Galilean. To Bezzle. sbiescio. specially in a bottle. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Hal- — do something aslant. biaiser. ber-laita (for bes-laita). Jamieson. bark of which paper was first made.or from obliquus. E. bibo. or by any rapid motion. crooked. Bias. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. though such a change of form would be very unusual. sloped. its clothes. to creep or crawl sideling. to tipple. metaphor). to stir. . per\'erted belief. foul weather. one who drinks in excess. Fr. rogge. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. pddzahr. biais. bickai.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. sbiscio. Probably. Fr. as an eel or a snake. Mantuan. Bibelsworth in Nat. ice . Sardin. to a fight with stones. bihais.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. notice. wraggeln. he is Wtb. sliding. (according to the Fr. To skirmish. to glide or slip as upon. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Dan. twice. makes ble. Bezel. poison. Du.two. beregen. liwell. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. to shake. sbrisso. An excellent Basil. In comp. bes-azur. 172. bisel. petit-lait. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. bickel. dial. or in and out. Biseau. To Bicker. Misc. The train of thought is then. the word became bddizahr. inferiority. sik beregen. presence. /3i/3Xof a book originally. like guzzle. sbias. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. used in precisely stone . to slaver . bebble. bavon. to slaver or drivel. kwijlen. love first begins to life signs of him. him.

beodan. are also used in the sense of asking for. bilge or bulge. or third order of penitence. to ask. The ON. may plausibly be derived from Goth. Palsgrave in Halliwell. inhabit Du. The . OSw. Wallace in Jam.uddered len heart. Two verbs are here confounded. to arrange. G.' Addison. becoming in Lat. inhabit. beadle. gebodenj G. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. — — — Halliwell. athird class. offerre. ON. from seek. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. pray. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bidill. bulge. bend of a shore or of a rope. — To Bid.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. bua. to cultivate. to build. faurbjudan. byggia. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. 1. The 'La. G. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. to swell. bend. boa. bat . to inhabit. has leta. BID of stone. an entire skin. bugt.peto. Bickelen. be bug. The ON. bog. bolginn. AS. bidan. . to look for. A bjudan in anabjudan. swelling. to pro- command. build. to presimpler pare. to forbid . as G. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to bend. swaggering. buga. to move quickly." buque with E. to bicker. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. anleta. to pray one to dinner. to forbid . bced. To Bid ' Big .Leta). 2. rising up. bouwen. to inflate E. ON. A pose to one to come to dinner. and the Sw. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. to ask. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. Analogous expressions are G. forwards. by seek and beseech. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. quiring something to be done. to abide or wait on. With respect to logical pedigree. bit- bidja. qucero. biegen. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. cultivate. to solicit. belly. Bigamy. bag. explaining the Sc. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. to E. W. to build G. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. to offer.. to have one called before him. to offer one the wish of a good day. praestare. to bid one good day. as tears from the eyes. in the sense of ask for. ON. abidan. To bid the banns. OSw. Kil. to marry. form. AS. a flexure. and Gael. R. besides the professedmonks and nuns. From Gr. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. porrigere. a chip. which is stiU. Bight or Bought. Bigot. bi-. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. ON. AS. G. bulky. ten. to dwell. Big. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. bidjan. related to big or bug. to bulge. bead. belly. Jam. bigan. praebere. bugne (answering to ON. bedun. proud. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. spelling seems to used in the N. Hence Sc. a suitor. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. from bidan. byggan. iiQ. bulge. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. bidel. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. ewes. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. to start out. Du. to curve. to build. England for swollen. Einem einen guten tag bieten. bauen to cultivate.t. or. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. swoln. a swelling. P. and yajiBui. called the tertiary order. Big-swol- . bo. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. balg. or bad. to offer it to public notice. BIGOT beidan. to belly. from belgia. It must be observed that the word bidja. bieden. pressing on one's notice. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bolga. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. as. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. biddan. repair. ' Bug as a Lord. The original Swollen. The loss of the / gives Dan.' Pope in R. bath. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. To Big. bugan. bieten. bygga. consisting both of men and women. the meaning of bid. bolgna). bulk. — prepare. to look for. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. verbieten. Compare also Sp. bis and in comp. gebeden j G. who. of More ' in Richardson. bow. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. twice. to bend. bug. . the belly of a ship. einen vor Gericht bieten. beidast. bidan.

bighellone. dark-coloured cloth.D.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. bighiotto. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. a dunce. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.' translated by Muratori. natural grey or sheep's russet.D. bigotta.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. 560. biso. A. and hence the variations bigutta. grey.D. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. and also unlearned common men. vol. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. Hence the OE. clownish. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. all apparently derived from Ital. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. D. with reference to A. the nobles to Rienzi. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. signifying bagmen or beggars. G. absque votorum religionis emissione. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. Beguttce. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • .' Matthew Paris. Bighini. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose.— BIGOT bigardo. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. author quoted in N. Bizoccki. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. alii de paupere viti. ac labores manuum detestantes. perch^ i Terziari di S. and Q. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. In the same way Fr.' Chart. xx. beghart. bigio. corruption would easily creep in.— Ducange. In a similar manner from bigello.. 1499. S. Bighiotti). the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. honesti plebeii amictus. aliqui Begardi. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. begutta.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. They wore a similar dress.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. to adopt a similar course of life. alii Apostolici. homespun cloth. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. Francisci communiter appellabant. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. beghino. borel. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini.a. rustical.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. grey. coarse woollen cloth. From bigio. which must not be confounded with begardo.' says an Venet. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. vocati Fraticelli. A. a blockhead. probably from biso. 15 18. A.' says one of of bigio. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. face VIII. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. both men and women. Bizocco. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. was formed bigello. Flor. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. says.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. the other form Per te Tribune. sed maxim^ in muliebri. 1243.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. &c. as well as bizocco. ix. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. Augustini dotarint.

Billet. blue . belghen. to pick a millstone. the trunk of a tree. bille. Piedmontese bigot. an axe. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). 2. Kil. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. gleischner (Frisch). the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. Roquef. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. buie. a devotee. beil. Sp. b'olja. Tartuffe. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. fetters. Sw. bullet. a short note. Dan. ferrese quam ligneae. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. The proper meaning bylgia. bile. an ingot. I. Bilge. bulgja. axe. Kil. an axe. The Du. dissimulation . NFris. billet. — bigardia. clog to a fetter. a seal. billot. bui. A slang term for a sword. of boja. topor. — — ' . used in legal proceedings. bila. Du. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . ^Billiard. . buoy [i. from the dark colour. In English the meaning has received a further development. G. to job. Prov. An instrument for hewing. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. blamand. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. a beak. and dziobas. Lat. bigot. to be angry (i. dziobad. procella Kil. the swelling G. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. inscriptum. Fr. crowberry. a man who rests on a stick in walking. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. bigot.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk].. Bohem. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. as a bill of indictment. horn of an animal. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. the beak of a bird. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Bigin. boia. bolghe. a seal. to strike. Mundart. from Mid. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. billard also signified at billyards. boeye. symbolum. bisoch. a hatchet. 'tumidi fluctus. Du. Fr. . e. biilge. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. To defraud one of expected sinking. weapon . obsolete. A lorum tam in — Diez. Bill. a of the sea. bwyell. buail. Johansen. Dan. — Cot. a name given to a. Bilberry. and a billard. might be taken to express a hypocrite. AS. Bojce. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen.' mariners. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. in the sense of a writing. Deutsch. bigotto. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. Bille.' bilio. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. seems to be rather the unda. abelthe fetter itself. loi. Bill. bizocco. Billow. an ingot of gold or silver. bill. Billette. a hypocrite. that of swell. Sw. person of religion leading a loose life. Gascoigne in R. the bill of a bird. p. Bilbo. So in Gr. bulla. a floating log to mark the place of some. OFr. to swell with rage). Thus we find in It. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. top. tepati. Du. plog-bill. an axe . oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Langued. boja. dziob. at sea Billet. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. To Bilk. Gael. Lat. e. billard or billart. whortle-berries. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. in the same sense. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. to peck. bil. AS. of E. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . bigardo. an axe. a negro. as craneberry. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. See Bulk. an adze . however. The origin of the term is probably from bole. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. belgan. now A Bilboa blade. gan. bulghe. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. billet is the diminutive of this. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Fr.— — — . . 5 * . BILBERRY nated. the o changing to an i to express diminution. on. bill in parliament. Sw. beghart. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. and in Lat. bull-berries. names bill-berries. bill of exchange. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. blaa. deceit. In the same way are related Pol. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Ludwig. See Bull. 3. a bigot or hypocrite. w. irons or set in a kind of stocks. genus vincu- Bilboes. a shackle. to strike. is properly a sealed instrument. bla-berry. 2. Aurelles. false pretender to reUgious feeling.' in Richardson. a sword. fluctus maris. AS. from OSw.

Bisson. bhurja. E. a bump or knob. bindan. to twine. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. beitsl. and of Fr. a female dog hindinn. Gr. IV. to bear. binda nat. a knob. pinnii. G. I would derive the verb to knit. The proper meaning is a heap.' and the like. ON. nodus. pippione. bij sien. . Bird. See Breed. — Surrey in R. and especially to a small poor horse. . pittjo. a habit- Binnacle. Sanscr. doubtless a stone. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Bisom. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. an eagle's young G. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. Fr. Thus I suppose the Gr. to cook). Bittacle or Binnacle. In like manner from knot. a truss. a hind or female stag. See Belly. Lap. beize. Fr. a bear. truss. qui nisi propius Blind. Birch. episcopus. — Kil. twice cooked. pullus. a bitch. from pondus. biscuit. G. Lat. G. . an overseer. the young of birds . biscotto. ge- from AS. Lat. i. pin-ti. AS. is rendered in ON. — properly near-sighted. from Gr. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. brut. piiiti. Lith. bitill. bundle. bircej Sw. i. to hang. It. Du. evigue. to bring Biscuit. bund. Habitacle. brid. betsel. viz.68 BIN Bio-. also a stone weight. biclie. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. where the compass stands. bigne. copus. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. a corn. beorth. . AS. a weight of 48 pounds. to bind at . to form a knotted structure. the young of an animal. than vice versi.. bundle. Dan. V. to bind together. e. overlooker. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. isfiw. to swell. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Fr. To Bite. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. Sw. bjork. — — . habitacle. Bitch. poultry. bitacora. poule. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. or ben-wood. or bin.. to wreathe. Lith. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. videt. j). sc. a bunch. a bitch. wine. bundt. See To Bear. . terial. ON. from \t3\. v. bikkia. bunga. Sw. to net. pundas. 'tumens sequor. to knot nets for fish. To — — —D. bundun. Lat. berkas (z=:Fr. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. which is expressed in E. bund. H. Lat. a house. Fr. bin-wood. earnes brid. bord. bunt. The term ON. When compared with Fr. bunch. a heap. vescovo. bij sienigh. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Bing. Bizened. beran. AS. G. is in Scotland applied to ivy. admota non Bit. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Bin. hiindiiin. burt. Goth. expressed by Sw. evegue. bindan. lusciosus et myops. by the verb knit or net. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. evesgue. forth. Bindweed. AS. piccione. biccej ON. to be derived from Ibfiaq. in Swabia. pinnu. ./«idere. Sp. Bailey. fowl. a brood or hatch of young. binge. Then added division in a granary. Bisen. are commonplaces. band. beisseii. a bitch applied also to other animals. bunki. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bundt. Bine. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. propius videre bij sicndc. or baked. Bind. a female stag. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Goth. AS. EpisETTiTOOTToe. life. properly a young pigeon. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. hith. beitan. Fr. &c. to build. a gallinaceous bird. BITTACLE /Siof. a weight. — See Bittacle. a little dog. AS. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. a pig petz. to fasten it together.. or petze. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. bita. by binda. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. while bind-wood. to bulge. to plait. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. The bitol. We — A Birth. It. a heap. from Lat.

dusky. To or he can speake. dark. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. a childe dothe gasouille. Hald. a large lip. unintelligible talk plabair. — Collins in Hal. Applied in Hin ON. as is seen in sputter and splutter. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. babbling. cut. yellow . as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. Mag. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. brunblakk. synonymous with baber-lip. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. blabaran. ON. in contempt. Black. In like manner E. parallel with Fris — — — When bite.— Blabber-lip. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. 332. 'fuscus. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. AS. — cheeked maid. pale yellow. 156. gabble. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. ^chops. Goth. bitts of Bitts. blank. white lead.plab is used to . . to let out whai should have been concealed. or water beating gently on the beach . Je N. "uivac. whitish. x. I blaber. white. out the tongue. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Bav. bitor. discoloured . Sp. to the sharpness of a weapon. beuni. bitr. indistinctly. bird of the heron tribe. light-coloured. blebberis. corrupted in Fr. as in that of pale and white on the other. plappem.' G. to chops. To Blab the anchor. mouth. a tati. Mund. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. plabartaich.). —Neumann. night guard. Ai-mstrong. to babble. gulblakk. bleich. Bittern. an edge is sharpest sword. So Fr. blanc. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. Lydgate. Blabber-lip. small guard-house. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. blabbre. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. quoted by Ihre. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. The Gz. pale. viz. blunt we say it will not bite. . The bitas.. Nagt huis. Fieldfare. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. Se bleek. Fr. white. biacca. . bittore. Fr. thoughtlessly . an additional watch. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. Mantuan babbi. ON. mouth. beiwache. fallow . ON. term. blabbern. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). from whence we have adopted the. to bivouac. blabhdach.' It would thus acle. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. maculS. a beam in a house or ship.. Pl. Sp. biti. to babble. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. Hal. garrulous. bleg. ' Biovac. NE. baboyer. blob. ' plabraich. fallow fawn-coloured. as of a body falling into water. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. Sp. iroxafealo. Fr. a flapping. blesmer. beitr. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. bittour. Why presumest And laam's asse. Sw. pale yellow . bitter. is apprehension of danger. Hist. Gael. blob. chatter babbler . as of water gently beating the shore.. to loll it out. to wax pale or bleaked. baitrs. Bohem. pins of the capstern. blubber-lipped. pale. mona mid Dan. to speak Dan. a continued soft sound. Wit hung her mourn. G. bihovac. a fluttering noise. his blacan light. Again. v. to watch. blab. a shelter for the steersman. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. blake. faded. pale brown . apparently from its biting the tongue.€i.D. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. Du. quick. first. Bivouac. leohte . thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. Sp. blepLith. butorj OE. things —Palsgr. Gael. Deutsch. the palebleff. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. blob. bitones. a* mast . shining. pale. In a similar manner Gael. blakki.' by Gudmund. 't kompas huis. G. even humour seemed and beuin. In Legrand's Fr. ON. buft". babbe. A a rail. shine. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . on. bites. /ealo-/or. a stammerer. AS. as of wings . Fr. Cot. from wachen. blobach. obscurus. Percy Soc. black. to talk much. 't huisje.' by Haldorsen. on the one side. yellowish. to To blabber blabber with the lips. Bleak. blakk. Cotgr. is placed. whitish. a babbler. stutterer. It. blac-hleor ides. ^aj'/^r. bleikr. whiteness (candor sine It. faded. round which the cable is made fast. Alex. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. confusedly. a large coarse lip . — Hollyband.

blister. &c. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Dan. shining. smother. Du. or as E. leaf. or of an oar G. skola and thwatta. and others engaged in dirty work. commonly called the Black-guard. to glitter. plat. pluddre. bladdra. Perhaps from blegen. Sir. Blank "verse. Wott. biasimare. as Lat. a white or unwritten ticket. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. candidus. cited in N. vagrants. linkboys. the origin of . the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. Blame. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. G. Play in Nares. blather. whitish. blame. smore. Bav. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. as blader. tattle. and Q. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. But perhaps a more Gr. a bladder or pustule. blather. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. leaves. 86. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. blister. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. To Blare. bladder. and G. 7. black.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. to bubble. biastner. a bubble. Dan. mud. borrelen. Du. to omit. pass over. contracted from bladeren. Cot. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. to purl. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. a boil. 5/^a/^ of colour. blad. Jan. Du. —^Webster. leaf of a. boys. bladder. Eadmer. variable than the signification of words designating colour. To blank. blegen. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. plat. — rura. bladder . blinken. Gr. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables.— Kil. chatter. a. a buible. G. Torriano. It. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. to —Blaspheme. revile. blatter. madder. —We Bladder. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. blad. as. bladre. dripping-pans. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Blank. branches . a pustule . to disappoint. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. 1854. Sc. mire. on. e. and the agitation of liquids. Du. Fr. I am degraded from a cook. Bacon in R.— ^o thehotsun. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. blanchet. pladdern. leafy. which we . rogues and wanderers. to dabble in water. . to bleak in the sun. as. blanqne. pallido. to blow. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. slush.—Blatant. Sw. Besides the examples of this connection given above. waschen. Now. white. — . — — — to jabber. pXaatpiiiiHv. speak impiously. chatter. to make or become white blanc. most complete example of leafy structure. foolish talk. blatt. to glow. the ON. The radical bubble. and thence to babble. bladeren. to vocifer- — Cot. PI. and wandering men and women. moere. irXariQ. to To bellow. blether. or a mass of bubbles. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. G. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. . or blafich. Fr. and E. imbrunire. from candere. Sw. Hist. blein. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. broad. to Hence Ital. blatter. whitish. See Blubber. to shine. is identical with Flanders borlen. plate. Dan. to blanch. a blank ticket. also tanned by the sun. defame. D. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. the leaf of a tree. roar.. his meat burnt. as scullions. dial. board.—Blatter. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. mud. polished. also jabber. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. blasphemare. blactra. blanchir. reproach. blank. white. mus-blackt. flap of a Du. Blade. vagabonds. tree. Fr. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. Du. . and he shall be sure to have O. Blain. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. with all other loose idle masterless men. livido . Blanket. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. blaere. a bubble. probably ate. to shine. bladra. The present forms then should be classed with blether. p. blahen. Blancli. pimple. a blanket a bed. name originally given Blackguard. a leaf. on. blister. Reliqu. coat. blegne. in R. blanc. piatto. Lat. blena. sheet of paper. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Fr.. blister. also white woollen cloth . blaeren. blanchet. bladder. gabble. — Sw.

blaeteren. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. besides blesse. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. ill-speaMng their proper colours . The other derivation. brasa. is from AS. gloriosus. Gudmund. or to the sound which it produces. splendour. baladron. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. bliEsan. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. Lye. to spread news. i. each of boaster. 2. Golden Book in R. on whose behalf the herald appeared. and which. magnilo. much plausibility. Dan.' to fastum . to de. Du. First from the E. to publish the praises. bles. Blanches illuminies. Prov. coloured prints. blason. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. is the imme. abroad. might spring from the same origin by a . might And sain. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. Dan. loud . — Elazen. by stripping off a portion of the bark. biter. bleis. G. a flame. and to make him word blaze. also blazon or the blazSpenser. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. how. Blaze. a blast. G. a voice Jr. But now. or blazening. blateroon. proclaim the virtues of. . — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. e. AS. to bellow. A gust of wind. whence Blazonry. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. blase. laudes (Kil. redness . ON. Cot. in that of praise. a shout. a flame. blys. Du. As Kilian. baladrar. to blaze Sp. blossi. a whisperer. to publish. Cot. a funeral oration . To Blaze. to blow. like the in English. — ^Jam. bawling. Sw. to blow. a coat of arms. in the same way as we 2. blcEsan. To blast. blcesett. kept up. to trumpet forth. Fr. Du. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . Du. magniloquus. blaterare. With inversion of the liquid. indeed. To blow AS. live coal .— . blason. an conium. blasa. boasting. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. Blatant. used. of an animal. bldsse. oured. light-coli. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. blasonner. If armour. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. fire. blesse. blysa.' painted or figured . as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blasoen. as a verb. blass. senses.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound.whence the Fr. blatero. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. Du. also praeblczse. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. The origin of this exSp. ON.). — — ' : bless. a shining spot. a shield. blaodh. a lamp blasere. Sc. g. to proclaim. braise. blus. Sw. a loud noise. shield or surcoat. declaratio. to extol. clamorous. noisy blor. blcese. 'op een trompet blaazen. an empty and two theories are proposed. blesse. blezo. among other . somewhat different train of thought. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. Fr. — ' — stroy. blazen. ventosus. a MS. blaesen. Blast. also only pains and excellent endurance. the matter incendiary . a torch . as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. embraser. blaodhrach. ther it was erst not knowe. blaser vid. blast. blcEsan. blcest. A blaze is so intimately Then. OE. thraso.sound a trumpet. blase. blorach. I. has also blencke. Kil. a flame . friend Cornelius. AS. abroad. blose. Fr.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. ing of arms. quus. blaze. beast. is used in the sense of manifestatio. She roade at peace through his heraldry. the noisy. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. commendation blason funebre. Troilus and Cressida. to blow . his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. to cut off prematurely. visui patet. . stultd loqui. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. brasa. pale. it is manifest. Du. proflare tues. Gael. blis. . See Blare. and. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. A strong flame. to set on fire.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. oron-blasare. The AS. a torch.

' . pale Du. Blancher. blema. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. Bailey. G. bldmi. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. Blear.P. tumanid. to blear one's eye. ^Xiixaoftai. splamii!. a stain. Sw. bleakness.' the devil makes a vain back. See Black. a red watery eye. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. a blot or smear blanking one. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. while the agent ac- From . a blemish in one's 2. Palsgr. The term blear. to bleach.filerren. B. to humbug. livid. dead-coloured Cotgr. . geplerr. Gr. to wink at it. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. pier vor den augen eyes. novice. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. ^Blencher. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. To salir. bleikr. blemissemeiit. as of dust or mist . is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. I chaunge colour. pimple . guenchir. to become livid. spla7nU sie. AS. to stain one's honour or reputation. a spot. a spot. Pol. Bleed. a spot. a disgrace. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to spot . to disgrace one's name. And now are these but mansbond (i. start vor den augen. in the expression reputation. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. spSt. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. 115. (faith or creaunce) Be war. a spot.'he cried till the tears ran down. is Blench. . stain flack pa ens a crying eye. Bejaune. blarren. whitish. blesmissure. Blemisli. tacher. A stain in a man's reputation. N.D. blot. drop of water. exposed. . to wink the eye. c. To Bleat. blink. a blotch plerr. bloken. the livid colour of a bruise.' God in his wordes. p. blot. As AS. to blare been weeping. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. sugillatio. So in Sw. blister. to concealing something that had originally discomfit.v. or blemish. Mac. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. on. blur before their eyes. to soil. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. or to low as oxen. sinen langen tranen. Manuel de Pecch&. to cast a mist before the eyes. color plumbeus bldma. to spot. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Bleb. ' He blarrede or roar. from on. blench came to be used for a trick. See Blood. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. from the than schal I go. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. to bleat as sheep. Gower in R. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. Sir J. — — R. — blink the question is to shrink from it. wheal. To totally different from the foregoing. tutnan is a cloud. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. avoid looking it in the face. Schmel. souiller. darkness of vices. to start away from. blesmir. the formal equivalent of English wink. to make him feel blank. pale . See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. 419. and thence to a bruise. inflamed eyes. like one that has long P1. a been distinct. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. . wan. Ancren Riwle. a boil. And By a similar metaphor Pol. flack. From the OFr. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. BLENCH obfusco. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. what blenched him therwith. Bleak. 242. goda nainn. Fr. wanness. See Black. livor. paleness. A Blab. blakna. . So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. blcecan. to cry or weep. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. light-coloured. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . ' — — ' : — — . — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. boggle at something. plama. Richardson. or blemysshen — blaken. which are blurred with the have shewed you. ' — — eye. Blear-eyed j having sore i. confound him. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. a fault.' to deceive one.

mixing in general. happy . a glance. and joys of Paradise bliden. window-blind. good. with or without the nasal. glitter. AS. .passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. an entry which leads to nothing . bliss look . seems the simple netel. — . Bliss. wink of sleep . joy . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . to dilute too much . a dead nettle. Serv. blicken. doors. to glitter . blindselen. a blessing. to shine. blogi. — when he — Bailey. blick. Du. to glitter. moment. . whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. cascultare. to lighten. a look. Du. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. to mix. j). riches . blithe. blotzen. blindr. G. the sign of the cross while blessing one.wink . tire. blund. as in the case of blaze. pockets. to be blind.blunda. lighten. blink-eyed.Q. goods. csecubrandish. to rejoice. to rejoice. to glitter ful . Tany. . or nettle which does form. lightning. a flash. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. wink. blind- ON. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. fortunately. blinzdugig. to blithsian. livid. blide.blinken. to stir or puddle. Blink. blessed. money. blahoslaviti to twinkle. gives blinzen. to plunge. G. joy. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. a blick-ooghen. 375. happily. sweet. joyful. to dash wine with water. To Bless. to pro. sertion of the nasal. ^Jam. well blagaya. lovely Bohem. glitter. to consecrate . A . III. to dazzle . De Sonne ' verblekken. to shut the eyes G. a glance Swiss blenden. Sc. bleg. weaklaveny. blendian. vious one in the order of formation.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. glitter. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. false windows. flash of light .blinkard .' To — blunge clay. . to bluiter. to bless . Blazena Bea. in potters' language. the G. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. thou knave. —Brera. Swiss (obsolete). blaziti. blich-fiur. to fall into water with a sudden noise. to twinkle. mix from blekken. Thence apblinds. to dabble in water. blac. to make a rumbling noise. pale. as in Du. ON. Kiittner. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. The sound of k before an s. blinde fenster. graceful.blinze. happy . a wink. joy. sung. a nounce happy. OHG. blinzler. plotzen. as taschen. G. Wtb. blissian. glance. a. AS. to merry. Du. Du. lightning. blitz. F. blessed. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. pearance of the blighted . giving (Fr. HalliwelL Of this latter the E.D.. ' Pl. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. Sc. blink. burn up. AS. blicksem. .eyed. a wink With the bletsian. . I hold thee a grote thee. blahos. — Goth. happy . Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. To blunder water. to make happy. to — make it thick and muddy. the Slavonic languages. trix. Blind. to glance. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. G. bludder. blind. The term then self or others. to shine. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency.not sting thiiren. also to wink. . blago. to churn. well blahy blick and blink. (=bene dicere). blinzeln. Blight. blazeny. although in the in the next article. glad. Dan. . . to bluiter up with water. but by no means therefore a pre. . blatida. blent. plonsen. a. blag. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. Du. Nares. blithe blis. tless —Gamm. gladness. blidu. to flash. Needle.corn. blet. bluiter. blend. as a vatn i vin. is I shall Gurt. From the action of the hand making Sw. . blican. blitzen. readily passes into a /. To Blend. shine. be glad flash. Owl and Nightingale. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. to shut the eyes. dazzle . OHG. Deprived of sight. Sw. blende. to shine. as a blind entry. Russ. tative source of the word is wholly lost. make these hands 3. blincken.nasal. Biglotton. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. liquid filth to bluther. lightning sweet blago. — A A — . . blanssen. to bless. blicken. AS. the verb to bless is some. Swab. riches blajennii blicksem. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. Pol. Paradises blidnissu. The inblissful. a gleam. to act like a — . glimpse.

Du. Mod. a . See Blot. blod. frequentative. a bubble. Bav. blaustem. G. from blcsr. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. blot. soaked. Du. Dan. while Lat. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. bausen. whence blast. a blister. as in E. Hence E. repre- pusula. blaud. Blob. soft. a bubble. To Blissom. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. pods. to steep. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. it is must be observed. to soak. Bleb. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. like manner the coloured. merciful ON. bloc. Blob. bloated. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Langued. blote. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. blindsehn. bleiths. blautr. and F. as if soaked in water. B. Blond. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. a bubble. and easily changes its place. and inarticulately. light yellow. blab. blide. Fr. husks. in Nares. blubber. blijde. to dash liquid. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. or is inserted or omitted. a small lump of anything thick. In Fin. signifying in the first instance to soak. mild. bloc. to blissom. ^Jam. the unhewn bole of a tree. G. For this. expressed by cognate roots. kostia. as a blab of ink. The stem or trunk of a tree. or blinde-kiih.plisg. B. as blinzeln. lagga i blot. N. buckle. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. orbicular. — Blob.pusta. . boucler. Jonson. and pisg. Boyd in Jam. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. blinzel-maus. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Block. swell. like clot. a drop of water. a blister . busten. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. puff. A solid blouquette blisters. . a detached portion of the agitated liquid. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. in bulk. must be classed with forms like Gr. I believe. fiustula. a dirty blister. a lumpish head plubach. cooking. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. any lump or mass of things. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. It may be formed Blithe.—Bloated. and bouclette. Sc. Thus we have blab and babble. is formed squad. a blain. blobber. strawclod. Kil. Fr.— Hal. blister blasan. or bleb. pusula. — — — — — From blabber. a little blisg. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. speaking rapidly any . separate portion. bluyster. stone. kostua. taken altogether. A under this name was imported into England. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. Of sheep. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blcesma. Sw. blithe. blidr. Gael. bluster. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blad. a blot or spot. to swell. Ibid. or the mark which it makes. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. joyful. blindman's-buff. To a smoking or drying by the fire. to bubble. ON. in gusts. a block or log en bloc. buclde. blot. blister. formed spot. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. soft. a ram. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. bubble and blubber. a See Blot. having an unsound swollen look. Gael. soft. — . The blow E. is also used in the sense of swelling . to desire the male.. To Bloat. And so from squatter. pustula. Dan. weak. pimple. blesme. or the like. —Bailey. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. pausten. to block up the way. must be referred to AS. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. to blow. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. to breathe hard. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. Hence. ^vaaa. blotfisk. ON. to blow. inde humiditate tumidus. — Sw. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. to cure by smoke. an unformed mass. blond. mild. . in the lump or mass of wood. plub. also to set See Bless. . mass. shells. fish blind person. Svt. blot. round. Goth. blobbes or droppes of water. blouca and Fr.—Bloater. The roots /. to to puff and be noisy. biota. Cotgr. Lat.— Bailey. W. in the sense of a soft tint. to close it with a solid mass. Sw. sloppy dirt. to blow. soak in water cured fish. Blister. senting the dashing of water. gentle OHG. Egillson. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. viscid. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it.

lidmr. a water ploutsche. from the bright colour which 7'vci. plottra. blue. fall to overflowing. to splash. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. brilliancy. Blow. shine . in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. bloeme. E. blaeuwe ooghe. kobladde. gfyssa. blus. blatte. Sw. . E. platsch-voll. platz-regen. blosem. Fr. livid . of a blow with something lios. bloedsd. the bright colour of the cheeks . redness. blooth. to blush . ON. blue. to flame. couleur livide. leme. coloured (Diaz. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blowen. Du. plot of land is a spot or small rage. probably connected with Pol. a blot or spot. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. a Usaae. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. blawels. light. blysa. a cow-dung. to glisten . blotting-paper. ON. clod. flower. Bloom. bloi. a black eye Du. gammon. a torch blusse. platschern. D. Du. . Schmid. blosa. proto shine with bright colours . bliithe. bloi. to be red. white blatte. bit by bit. in v. great leaf of cabbage. Blotcli. pale. soft or flat. —Barbour. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. bldmi. platt-voll. blauwel. Fris. — — . blotter. gloss. OFr.^ Kil. spot pletter i solen. ])erly Du. bloetnsel. glasi. blad. bleistern. pladdern. Wendish blodo. bletister. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. plet. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. Florio). Pl. . blaeuwen. .blauschlagen. a blow. to patter. Dan. blostma. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). to blot the land was in a leme. The G. S-wiss pladern. glossi. blois. blat. blond. to scribble. See Blow. a gush of milk . Du. Schilter. blue. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. Sc. blase. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. pladern. fair in en blat vand. ON. or the sound of it . to blaze . Stalder. blue . lump flower. colour of the cheeks. AS. biado (of which the evidence plattern. plattata. Jios. whence plader. blosma. blady. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. spots in the sun. j^ blottir. . a blaze. blond en blaauw slaan. a Halm a. a. plotterwis. a flower. Plots. yellowish It's G. to dash down Du. Sw. a Schmid. blondheid. ^lys. . Dan. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. lump of anything soft to blad. a pelting shower). to spot or blot. mud. (of cattle) to dung. blond is used in blatt. platz-voll. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. Blossom. Sc. a flower. E. Ein platsch milch. yellow. to grow pale). E. bloemen. . to From . Blad. to exists in biadetto. Du. Lat. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Sw. to dirty. to glow. bloi. to slap. from G. to slap. bldts. a flower. E. It should be of filth blak-blatte. to squander. 2. Schwenck. bliise. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. Blot. — Blotch-paper. plants which prepares the seed. splendour . — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blodelsa and blawelsa. Ir. It. to dabble in water . bloed. blut. Prov. PI. pale biavo. dirty spot on the cheek. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. blust. AS. glus. bluish. Russ. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. Dan. straw. blomstr. a beater. a The form platschefz. glose. to squat or lie close. bleustern. to strike . en blau ach.properly to scatter liquid . bfys. Wflz<^«. to dash down. ^Bleed. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. glister . sbiadare. See Blow. lustre. — gush. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. to be red with blot. to sparkle. blou. to strike with such these objects exhibit. bliihen. to shine . a lump.' the rain is driving and blue . ' — . as the skin or hair. bloto. Harmar in R. — Cot.platter. blistaf. Hatch. bloutre. the bright to blot paper morsels. on. gleam. Erploten. splashing full. blosen. dial. E. cow-dung. skam. dial. a drop of water or colour. a nature. Fris. Blood. a spot or blot. pale tint. a deli. fall down . G. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . blue.D. livid marks. parallel form with ON. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. . blotte. to dabble in water. blose. wan. kuh-plader. to strike with something soft or flat.— . blaeuw. G. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. — Stalder . to blaze.

gliihen. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. in E. blue. It is howbliuwen. gloeden. bledniai. The radical sense is shown in Gael. bruised Prov. red-faced bloted wench. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. a fat.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. flower OHG. sound like water. G. wan. Raynouard. fiubbem.D. gliihen. y\r)yi»v. We . to make bubbles in drinking. Blue. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. may cite for example G. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. glas. bloeyen. or gr. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. To Blow. 51. Bret. blow. fqded. OHG. bliithe. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. Wtb. bliihen. — To blubber. plodern. plubraich. d in Sc. blut. E. bliuwan. . to bubble up. blaw j biavo. Pl. plubair. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). marking some application from that bladder. blue . and thence. to'disorder. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. tache. fied vowel. — . In agitation of water. to exhibit bright colours. pale OFr. — To Blubber. B. ^Jam. foam. E. where the word may be compared bliggman. to blow. blubonciti. MHG. to gabble. blodern. to Plodern. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. Blowze. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. dirty.to blossom. Deutsch. disordered. pale . a gurgling . a blow. G. blezir.D. w. to blow. bloi. Blowzy. 2. bloom. blosen. Kil. — Bluther. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. To Blow. is confined to the — . to beat with a mallet. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. blois. Chaucer. ler. . disordered in head-dress. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. Pl. to with Bohem. Lat. to fade.nify bubble. And. plusig. The interchange of an initial gl. closely difference in of blabber. chatter. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. G. blass. These are — Bludder. fem. to blurt out. plubartaich. pale.' Hamburgh Archives. the red fluid of the body . to bruise Roquef. puff. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. . to flourish. glansj Ir. blava. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. blubbern. to beat. to gush. to breathe bouteiUis. bluod. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. 1. piusen. v. bruk. to breathe G. pale.D. It. a. and the forms mentioned under Swab. /idXavoc. a Blossom. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. . 1292. glas. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. to blow. Tumbled. glede. bloemen. Langued. into flower.D. AS. and closely allied with Du. to fade. bl. to fade. P1. sponds with Sw. jabber. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. like manner Lat. glow. vi^ound. Deutsch. to show flower. Mund. bliihen.' — Palsgr. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. 92. bldt. blau. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. withered. br. Chaucer. blazir. Bav. in rapid or indistinct utterance. a blast. — — Mundart. bluh. to hard.xo'»'. heath. bloeden. bloes. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. ' BLUE or guggling. glowing coal . grug. -ii. . blady. blahen. to guggle. pludern. boil. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. Du. to spot. The primary sense is to shine. Prov. cheeks bedabbled with tears. blebber. gloeyen. to glow. to glow. to inflate. a herb Gr. toused. — . blodelsa. especially with respect to the hair.. The aUied forms. to puff up. Danneil. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. blduen. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. wan. |8A)'. florere. bludder. Sik upplustem. blodyn. grey. corre. OHG. is very frequent. coup. A. glaodh and blaodh. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair.Jlasa. flower w. a continued noise of agitated water. a paddling in wate r. gUd. little apparent resemblance. a bruise. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. blao. Gr. Jla-re. Du. plustrig. blazi. blau. to make blue. a flower. green. blust.— . Notwithstanding the We . meurtrissure Roquefort. Gael. Her sweet bloderit face. blubbern. sense. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. blawan. Pludern. G. grow pale. OFr. . blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. bluther. to shine with bright From colours. —SchmelIt. boasting.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. to flap like loose clothes. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing .

without image or superscription. and bustle . tutte le semente ancora in erba. And blunders on and staggers every pace. sloppy drink. something. disturb. blac. as well as sbiadafe. segetes virentes. Biada. discoloured {plowiee. abrupt. a boisterous violent man. bUich. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. blunder. Pol. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. fawn-coloured. blandum. to fade). is. bawling. plo-wy. mistake. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. — Pr. jaune. Du. to fall suddenly on the ground. glundr. polterer.make a noise. From G. tradire to Fr. dial. a plain coin herausplatzeu. Pl. Palsgr. biada. Kiittner.//aay.. planus. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. in plur. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. or an abrupt manner. sbiavare. to dabble Biglotton E. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. verdoyer. flav-us.in mud or water. . all representing the — . OFr. Hence we pass to Prov. bullern. pale straw-coloured. non rotunda. flodderen (Weiland). herauspoltem or sloping shore. in the same way as from It'. Kil. It is remarkable however that the E. bleu et blanc. glundra. rustic. biava. originally growing up turf and water. . and Du. and sbiadare. and biavo (Diez). a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . E. Then with the nasal. used for the work of an unskilful performer. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. blahir. buller-bas. Blavoyer. blake (identical with AS. — — — . I blonder. corn. to confound. Blunderer or blunt worker. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. having a bluff forehead. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Ditton in R. to dabble in the mud. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. To blunder is then. a flounder. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. G. — .— . Blaffart. blaf. yellow. Hal. 't — —Hal. blunder. trahir. blunt. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to puddle. Bladum. like Du. The Du. blunderhead. blavus. to become pale or wan. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. in water dobbelen. G. liebefactor. from an imitation of the sound. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. See Blurt. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. to blunge clay. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . Bluff. confusion. We Blunder. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. blutter.• BLUFF biado. to become pale or livid. sense of yeUow. devenir vert blavoie. Blunt. G. Bohem. Romance bluiter. pale yellow. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. polter-hans. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. A bluff manner. a blunderbuss. speech. has donder-bus. Analogous forms are Du. Bodge. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. See Blunt. Roquefort. an ill-done job. a fore. and then generally idle talk. to plump into the water. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. buller-bak. verdure. - reddish yellow. Pm. herbe. Roquefort. It then signifies something done at once. je perturbe. find accordingly It. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. earth and water mixed together. from the Lat. yellowish red. G. contrasted with the dle. The word is here synonymous with amplus. to mix it up with water. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. mix It. pale. blave is moreover.D.' trouble. to lose colour. Altieri. blond. falb. Halma. Du. Dan. blue. bulmanner. blanssen. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. applied to green as well as blue. Lat. to work To blunder out a fronto. ploffen. The Du. Dryden in R. fallow. biavo. blue. Kil. to agitation of liquids. his business with much noise. poltern. and metaphorically. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. pale) is provincially used in the. from the brilliant green of the young E. superficie plani. to become pale. Dief. Sw. to blunder water. like the Celtic glas. bluish. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. bloi. corn. blue. Hence a Slcelton in R. which is rendered by Florio. Flor. as well as biado. puddle. Supp. pludder. plomp. a shore abruptly rising.

Dan. heavy. obtusus. that it not easy to discover the connection. sheepish. without the nasal. G. pale. Ford in R.— — — . Sc. — — pidus. Then cometh indevotion. —D. mit etwas heraus-platzen. to bring it suddenly out. blue. —D. naked. Bluntet. Halma. inactive Swiss bluntschi. blout. pressions. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. Swab. dull. blatte. blutten. forestis. to make a noise of such a Stalder. bare. it will be well to point out a sense. without preparation. is thrown. blunt. rough. V. blunsch. obtusus. to blurt. seems to be derived. and an unintelligent. ang. blait. The syllables blot. G. silly. to make foliage. with or without the nasal. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. bald. heavy. It will be seen that the G. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. poor Sc. united in Gael. hebes. massive. a blot. Kiittner. It is from this notion of suddenness. F. identical with E. bare. plonsen. rudely. down. a simpleton. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. Probably radically hlekit. More in Richardson. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. unfledged Sw. Q. rude. of a knife which not cut.plompen. V. Plump. good plump person. dull. like a thing thrown down with a noise. clownish. it will be observed. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . plump. Dan. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. to plump into the water. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. or blab out a thing Kiittner . plotz. blat. bare or blunt. in Richardson. but of something soft thrown on the ground. V. as cow-dung. biotto. and. blockish. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. naked. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Now the Swiss bluntsch. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Chaucer. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Pol. ineffectual reason. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. viz. Plump mit etwas umgehen. as in E. plumbeus. is The word dull. biosso. blunt. plump. wan. awkward. a portion To inquire for slaves. used in both senses. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. bus. figuratively. bleak. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. insensible. clumsy. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. . nature. plains The large bech. azure. Blunt. as Sw. plump. Sc. The blait body.to fall into the water. void. plutz T)\i. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. blunder. dial. Kiittner. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. It. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. A modification of the same root. blait. Sw. homo stolidus. platz-regen. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. nis. pointless. thick. maol. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blunt. and the like. unceremonious manner. plump. viz. to handle a thing bluntly. or heraus plumpen. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. heavy. duU. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. fooUsh. naked. through which a man is so blont. to plump down.—D. bloss. raw. — blunt. Sir T. edgeless. a bluntie. without Maolaich. . Won by degrees. blotta sanningen. and in the same sense. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Woddis. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt.pludse. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. that the sense of bare. blott. Blaitie-bum. Stalder. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. platzen. absence of preparation. and hath swiche languor in his soul. A light blue colour. — Kil. inaKil. exactly corresponding to the G. to blunt a thing out. without horns. plump J to plump out with it. fling down . stupid fellow. from the loud report a fire-arm. bluntschen. Molof something wet. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. blunt. Plontp. a thick and will person. the absence of sharpness. plotsen. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. naked. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. Bare and blunt. unpolished. unwrought. awkwardly. Du.

plerr. bord. bluter. to be out of temper. — — — * Boast. V. 9396. Du. E. Pl. bdta. to talk quick and indistinctly . proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. to blore. to glow . on. The to radical meaning D. to puff. To Blurt. to smear. to dabble. To move quickly up and down. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. bot. boistous. Fl.the syllable bot. bobbin. and E. pof. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Gael. lacerta. bustuous. . — a blaze. skin. or blurt with one's mouth. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Bav. blaffen and baffen. a board or plank. ader. Kil. to roar. a tassel. to threaten. to blush. voce intonare. batello. BLUR Boar. See Boisterous. De Boat. to say bluntly. a club foot . puffen. dial. my dear. borrar. blaustem. to blaze. . The elision of the d is very to chatter. BOB 79 — To Blur. As the as. to spurt out. Sc. and Du.pusten. ON. bludder. a dangling object. &c. w. 'Ba. strong. to bark. G. pustern. Slur. blast. c. blusse i ansigtet. Lat. acre. bliise. Blush. a short thick body. boord. Du. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. Boa. bdd. to guggle. AS. to sound like water boiling. Boost is used for the boast. short pieces of any filthy mud. to make mouths. dull. Bluster. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. puddle. a bladder . it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. botte. pludern. to blubber. blodern. Comp. common.—Bobbin. a baU of thread the mud. To blow in puffs. Du. Supp. to brag grande loqui. — From mouth. and swimmeth very well. an ear of corn. boa. table. Wtb. outward edge. primarily signify loud noise. is formed Du. Explained by Jam. cheeks glow. berd. bludder. bar. bleuster.plodem. boot. pfludern. to render indisbhir. rude. Halma. gabble Sw. See Blossom.D. Hal. to puff. bdtr. pluddre. to blow. i. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. and boisterous. a blotch. bot-voet. whence bordvidr. bhis. fringe. splurt and spirt. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. cocodrUlus. G. an edge. to breke. to chatter. baiag. as splurt to splutter. bur. literally edge-wood. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. Boa. Fr. a small lump. coarse. a torch blusse. A large snake. blasen and See Burr. to dirty. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. blader. plump. Sverris Saga. will fly up. chicchere. to snuff. Fr. of the word seems . or backwards and forwards. an end or stump. planks or boards. blot. bit. it implies that it is empty sound. — ' Dief. a border. 29. Hal. beacon fire. Sc. Du. Du. a mist before the eyes plerren. this root are formed Sc. a mistiness. To brag and to crack. beer. the Brem. violent G. . eber. Wallace. e. stupid. like the parapets (viggyrdil. ground. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. — To Bob. a grows to a great bigness. blose. blotch and botch. blot. boccheggiare. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. to make a noise with the mouth. . blosken. blarra. 274. . board. swagger. Pull the bobbin. to jabber. a flurt with one's fingers. a blow . to dangle. and the latch . — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. blaere. To splirt. and when applied to vaunting language. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. burra. crack made by bursting open. It. G. to endeavour to terrify. bora. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. margin. table. flat. Bot zeggen. to blurt out. brett. Du.' — Red Riding-hood. to make a noise in boiling. imitated by has also In like . baban. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. It. a. dial. ever-swin. bluther. or bog also thread. P. margin. blirt of greeting. lindwurm. Du. Swiss blodern. OE. blaste?i. blurra. aper. bord. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement.y. a smear. cluster. edge. bladdra. then applied to indistinct vision . but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. Fl. bord. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. Gael. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. as in Du. to bounce. to crying. hot. Wright's ed. eafor. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. stellio. E. edge. both used in the sense of boasting. the sound of a blow poffen. to blur. whence bob. AS. be a crack or loud sound. to puff. It. rude. Board. properly noisy. to give a crack. a tassel. border. large. 156. to rumble. geplerr. to disfigure with E. blur. margin. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. AS. gabble. a burst of tears. bateau. a Jam. Schmeller. 1.— . violent. Related to blutter. sudden.v. bobine. To tinct. a blot. — — . bakke bleustern. blubber. bausen. Dan. planks raised up outside the roofs. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. blunt. mire. pausten.

represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Schmel. or stem of a tree. butt. See Baber-lipped. To Bode. an announcement. anything protuberant. Ptg. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bodnu. quagmire). Bret. bothog. the stem of a tree . Miracle-plays. a prick. bog (equivalent to E. from fitting close to the body. exhibit another modification of the root. . bodilo. bodi. AS. In like manner E. to be uncertain what to do.\\i\c\iset. * To Boggle. is a lump. agitate. BOGGLE trunk and G. to fail. and E. corpses pot. mud. to stammer. baboyer. See Bid. swelling. gebod. bodat. e. . to blurt a thing out. The Sp. . Thy i. palleg. a dagger. to scruple. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. ^Jam. stumpy. bodhag.gmh:t. . cask bottich. Wall. by the syllable patsch. . To Bodge. to push with the horns. ' boggle at every unusual appearance.a (i\ia. Bodice. bogle. dies. as in stammering or staggering. so large a feature in the country. to smack. gagoula. belly. a puddle.! . an awl. the body.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. potacha. boftich. bodig. a prickle. bogach. move. then from the yielding. biodag. To mock. nave of a wheel. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. speak of the barrel of a horse.' Bogglie. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. bagges. a command. And waves. toss. corset from corps. bodene. Supp. to thrust. bod. to butt. whence paUchen. boll.hollow. fickle . See To Botch. corpset.' A — Sherwood's Diet. bayonet. bole. arise E. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. Crist. Commonly explained as if from Sc. is identical with Fr. a . So BOB To Bob. to be unsteady tich. the body of a shift gaguejar. Gael. strike with the horns. unsteady. precept. bo tich. needle. Now unskilful action is conmire. bottich are derivatives. meaning the round part of his body. . the belly. . bodetz. — Grandg. gag. bodies. body of a shirt bol. — as well as the body of an animal. to fail. round. to dabble or paddle. point. goggle. a cask. pall. formerly bodies. gago. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. To portend good or bad. a messenger . corset. bogan. expression hogglin an bogglin. the boss of a buckler. 43. — 2. to roll. unsteady. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. a sting . bottig. nodding. where bogs form Gael. — H. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. to start start and back as from a bugbear. a spur. whence Fr. to prick. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. Ptg. to waver. to make. quakmg. patsche. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. as a horn. . VI.rabodi. potahha. bogadh. body and G. bog. Bodkin. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. ON. French bouter. unsteady nature of a soft substance. barrique. bog. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. daubed or dabbled with blood. Reliq Antiq. Body. '£. bodi. to stir. moist mire. bogadaich. stutter gogmire. or bag. rounded. We . and the word is well explained by Bailey. busti. stuttering. . gogach. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. Bohem. barriga. the thick part of anything. Gael. a quagsoft. Lith. potig. message boda. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. Ir. W. AS. of which the E. stitch. the trunk of the animal body. as signifying anything spherical or round. Cot. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bot. bolr. to bob. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. It introduced from Ireland. Bog. calf of the leg. to stick. a ghost . shake. shaking . woman's stays. wavering. a bog or morass. To make bad work. to commit a blunder. thrust with something pointed. Shakespear has badged with blood.. gagei. biodeachan. Gl. Banff. to bodge. bod. Russ. bayonet . moving backwards and forwards. 3. bob. badyti. Gael. waving. a round body both. anything soft. The signification of the root bot. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. a body. or a pair of bodies. potacha. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. gog. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. gog in gog-mire. Lap. bodak. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. to deliver a message. With With this we charged again We bodged again. to make a mow at. bodian. a cask.

bolzen. . a bubble. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . bolster. ballr. bald. bola. which are not used for a similar purpose. a bubble. a bubble. ohg. Wall. Me doth awate. to be at a loss a shirt. to tattle. bul. * Boisterous. to waver or hesitate. obex. tartle. boutpijl. Swab. bollen (Kil. b^gayer. a cushion. bagaji. bul. he will speak out. merry. puile. caput scapulse. To Boil. Lat. bola. boly. gluma. chaff of corn siliqua. pustule. G. from the branches. Du. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. boll. chatter. Sw. boss. properly represent belly. Sp. prince. ^Boistous. bout is explained by Kil. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. E. a boil or swelling Du. ON. cows the people from speaking. stramenta.' Mrs Baker. folliculus grani. up of bubbles. boil . a bakazikni. the body . OG. tartajear. Goth. Westerwald bollern. boystousnesse. buller. Magy. a bump. Boystous. . Bole. — ' — tagliare. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. bolstar. The bob. may be identified with It. and manace for to de. flax-boU. stutSw. * Bolster. 1430 in Deutsch. biiilen. bold. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. Pm. 304). cheerful. Cot. see Boast. in the sense of handsome . Fr. bok. pall. bal. beule. ^Vocab. noise. and then applied to other husks. bolster. bald. bochken (titubare. bald. repagulum.D. ON. bouil. hollow. perpendicular. blow. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. to boil. bulr. bulla. bolt. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. to puff. buile. Chaucer. as. excellent. Properly noisy. trunk of a tree . animal as distinguished from the limbs. a fastening for a door. bula. coarse. to swell. bhster. to the belly as the or dislike. stud. tulum. quick. bolla. tartalear. baud. bolle. Du. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. Du. to hesitate from doubt. notes. Test. — — which the cushion is stuffed. bSlstr. or the like. balder. the husk of nuts. gerade signifies straight to the mark. It. the body of a man or of ter. styffe or rude . globular bod)'. ON. then violent.Du. proud. strong. See Bulk. haughty. impetuosity. bag or bog are derived Piedm. hakogni. bolr. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. 45. belc'hj. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. . i. bout. free. strong. capitellum. Da. to give a hoUow sound. A. intrepid. Love. bulla.w. OHG. wag. V. tar. in speaking. is probably a modification of boll. Kil. as baltha. shake. but that Bolt.. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . fiausten. . the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. bol. bolleken. capiing into a cavity. round the first instance to the materials with . This iv. to stagger. courageous. Chaucer seems Dan. bolzBold. pusten. from Du. insolent baude. Boll. Mund. polc'h. G. bolt upright. treated under Bowl. Daring. a head . a quaking mire. as those of nuts. scruple. a swelling in ice. Fr. hero.— — . Lap. bol. G. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. bog. roydeur. warlike. glass phial. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). w. as. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. Boil. to be prominent. Pr. Lat. the lir. strong. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. to stammer. tomentum.— D. boggle. swelling. Sc. confident. 374. bullire. — 6 . poppy (Bailey). bolc'h. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. to stumble. bog. bol.). pimple ON. puilen. rough. as E. Du. E. used. the. (of Mons) b^guer. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. The term applies in — — impressed . The round stem of a tree. bold. brave. Bustuous. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. Bret. Fr. huge. balldr. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. courageous. bold. whence bulla.palleg. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat.rounded part of the body. dint in a metal vessel. bealder. G. Gael. Kit. the gurgling sound of water rush. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. Stalder. also a blister. by which it is moved to and fro. To Bolter. stameln vel bochken. In the same way Sc. sels of flax. furfures. swelling. ON. to stammer. pillow. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion.

a . In the next place. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. OFr. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. a sod (Schiitze). Brem.thump or blow. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. to start with palpitate. a rattling carriage.by forms like G. zare. from G. bulla. ' — — ! ! : — . beliitea.clack. buretter{CQ\. bolzen. as above explained. blotttre. to start out. then to knock. to become lumpy. taratarrum. racket gepolter. projecting eyes pul. bulk. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. to spring forth E. buideln. the sense of right on end. uneven. lumpy.D. pull. a small portion. a crashing or racketing noise. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. as a rabbit from its baritel. .agitation of the meal in the bolter. Bulte-pook or bulstar. to agitate. to shake.noise {brattle of thunner. buletare. the wheels groaned. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps.through a cloth of loose texture. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. to significance of the term was overlooked. die treppe pressed. . indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. loud and fast. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. to E. bolt-foot. bolting to that of form. abolter. one after the other. bolt head is a retort. to form lumps. Pl. Supp. gebolder. crash. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. protuberance. Fr. hammer. to coagulate. knob. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. So also we pass from Lat.u. G. vessel with narrow opening. zen. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. a bunch. crod. rugged. have Lat. / is transposed in Fr. a bolter Prov. The ment and the operation. by the representation of a racketing sound. and to crash. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. projections. as snow balling on a horse's foot. taratantarum. a round glass ending — bultig. And as the agitation of cream in . Schiitze. boss. tling or crashing noise. — — — . rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. as of a trumpet. to clack. or the like. P1. a rattle. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. OFr. Dan. representing a rat. budeln daz mele . bolzauget) Sp. tuft. barutela. poltern. Sanders. to make a knocking. small heap. tumultuari. Hence Palsgr. Bav. jolting. uneven. MHG. to bolt meal barutel. poltern. buletel. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. a club-foot. hulter de bulter. Pr. . or a racer from the course. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. The ulti. On this account Mid. je bulte. hump. It.as the essential element signifying the talum. a clod cloth. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. bortelen. and the Thus from So. poll. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. sestuare. with E. bolzaugen. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . to bolt flour burato. Pm. fied bot. a clump of turf. to bolt meal barutel. we der Brocket). a clod. Wtb. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. 2. barutela. Du. Du. Champagne burtcau. croler. Pl. . mole-hill. to bolter. bultig. to talk pulzen.. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. beluter. Prov. burclct. ' Holler poller / bulter. holier poller. OFr. . clattering other of a series of projections or emi. cruddle. Here the radical image is the violent O. pultare. bulio. . to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. to come rattling downstairs. brattle. baruta. a bolter or implement for bolting. Hence. buUire. staff which sounds tar. on the one hand. swelling.). bolt. also to curdle. bulstrig. in S'W plotter.D. or ill.Lat.On the same principle. as Fr.) E. Sw. bullern.fe/2?. Dauphiny a sudden movement. barutare. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. tar. . cro.protuberance. Mid. pattern. we see that the one consists of a words. ex•wagen. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern.nature of the operation. btilt. Lang. rugged. . For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil.D. a millpoltzet augen. curdle.— . agitari (Kil. hole. tantara. crotlar. grasbulten. hammer. bultred.). bulk or quantity . : ' — — .i5a//^«. we pass to Du. kloteren. we have Du.. taraabout. bluter. clump.D. a clap of thunnences. I boulte meale in a boulter. hulch. Lat. ler. to knock.

bras. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. a churn for butter. beuteln. rimbombare. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. Dan. produced the Pl. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. basin. . Greek iSa/iliaiciov. It. Fr. coarse. achsel bein. the Fr. whence bomme. to bind G. It. buidelen. Mid. bande. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. i. ties. Moreover. 83 Gr. bolting-cloth. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. assuming the of leg : special signification W. a hollow sound. lana lignea. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. breast-bone. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bond. term is appropriated in G. a stock. buidelen. ODu. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. cotton. we speak of a gun to resound. thick. bambacium. brust-bein. stump. When ture. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. bulter from It. silk-worm. derivation. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. Antiq.^Altieri. to boult meal. bone of the . and in fact we find the and Du. Butterglas. Banstead. an implement of binding. bommen. bommer. Fl. tie. from teu. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. been. . In E. bein. a boulter of meal. As cotton was used for padding clothes. tie. to bolt meal. has repeatedly varied. Need you any ink and bonibase. a ligature. gossipium. bopin.). and called in Mid. Dan. bombasine. In legal language. is supported by the analogy of G. a baker. Du. the silk-worm. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. banitola (Fl. bonog. 155. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. must be explained Fr. and Bond. a —Bombasine. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. to which the leg. beil'n.Su?. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. or trunk word in W. butteln. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. builen. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. baum-bast. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise .bast. bambagioj whence It. and that from Fr. the contracted form of Du. bombast. from boom. stuff. — AS. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. tree.) .— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. d. tiffany. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. to cast to and fro. however. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. as Banbury. silk. agreement. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. bauniwolle. bureau. bonds. Gascoi^e in R. bwmbwry mar. crook-shanked bondew. Kil. bomba. raw silk. baun. to shake down fruit from a tree. Bibelesworth in Nat. and Mod. as in . band pi. Bone. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. to resound. to shake (as to shake the head. . boulenger. The material called by this name. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. sije. to ring bells. a stem or base. buttel trueb (of liquids). the shank the shoulder-bone. G. burato. E. bombarda. Bonfire. e.D. bonfras. — bombast came guage. borel. a bone in general. a string. band. bon. Du. bombdra. and Du. HoUybandin R. sye. — Bombard. again. bombase. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . cotton stuff. bombicina. bombice. OE. thick from shaking. Near 6 * . booming over the water. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. Du. bwmbwr. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. butteln. the leg. to shake. . bambagino. sijde. barate. It. biire. band. It. Bomb. also thick-shanked. . undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. PoUitriduare. beuteln. bongam. the murmuring of the sea. to thump W. Castrais barato. and also the leg. sericum arboreum. gunpowder. iuttern. to thunder. &c. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. bindan. a beacon. From builen. . It. thick-legged. G. . to beat a drum. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. a drum bombammen. q. bombasin.Lat. It. ^o/j. bureau. Schm. a thundering noise bomre. — having a stem or stalk. G. Fr. bunden. bombe. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium.

G. A favour. boia. .. bossen. to cultivate. Trans. as a lying-place for cattle. boandi. bonad. from badare. bonnet. Prov. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. a stall. p. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. Hal. the stubble of beans. tigh. . boer. AS. bene. dress. bua. \ais-band. Du. It. b&ber. 232. from beida (E. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. often cut for burning and lighting fires. a. Fr. — To boot. short boots. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. pig-sty. w. Palsgr. swinbusa. a bag of skin or leather. ON. to gape. . Perhaps. simpleton. Hal. bid). * Boose. master of the house. dolt. Boom. a good turn or re- meaning. ass. See Bomb. the mouth. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Fr. Gl. boten-shoen. OW. buch-stab. b'ukvdry. . gaping hoyden — Cot. boubair. as the Brecknockshire Banns. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. netis stall. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. however. to ask. where a cross (or a gun. and fig. bote. a head-dress. bos. It is commonly explained as identical with It. build. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. babau. busu. Bun. Fr. AS. desire. boubi^. is Du. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. are formed Fr. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. to prepare. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. dial. build. Boot. reparation.—Bootless. wondering signifies not only straw. quest. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. gawney. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. Basa. and Ban in w. The i. lofty. one who dwells nigh. tapestry. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. bosig. by itself for head-dress.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. to set in order. See Butt. A stall for cattle. But bosg. Booby. — From the participle present. . of wonder On the same principle Sp. bolt. a dry stalk. OSlav. pole. relief from sorrow. Swab. Hufwud-bonad. petition. N. booby. wall hangings. from gape. boa. and Gael. bAkva. Sp. a silly fellow. foolish. at everything. a letter Russ. or Vanns. a tree. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. Boon. . bd. . Kil. Bonnefyre. to aid. bds. Du. 13. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. to cultivate. Du. remnants of hay or straw. been. bose. blockhead. remedy of evil. chaff. tall. b^er. the alphabet. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Schm. beiSne. the cultivator. Binau Brychyniog. which one gaping and staring about. set in order. Ox. a lying-place for dogs or swine. botte. boutig. In nautical language. Mrs Baker explains bun. dress. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. The character of folly is i860. feu de behourdis. E. writing bokos. comes bondi. literally cow-house. bosih. botta. in w. Thin ben Luke i. to yawn. dial. a hollow skin.Boos. See Bown. To Boot. house. prayer. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. boo. A peasant. Goth. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. Kil. ON. and from AS.n. clown. the possessor of the farm. a lofty blaze. till. a vessel for holding liquids. pero. to litter bosu. and thence Rouchi baia. dog-kennel. whence ban-ffagl. The latter is the original AS. Book. bowwen. a scribe G. . nachbar. Build. gehyred. litter. Jr. — — . without ad- . a bonfire. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. although in the OG. bobo ! interj. Pm. succour Bailey. signifying beech. inhabit. bota. — e. to dress. ty Gael. . boom. to gape. G. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. inhabit. Boor. babin. Bootless. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . letter. beam. from Du. G. in Phil. baier. ganian.^ —P. high. betere thing werse. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. The origin of the word is probably the W. help. — . a letter . babb^o. Busk. ben. From bo. . gaby. badaud. bobo. bauen. bommen. ON. fool. to strew with straw. buandi. till. a. prayer. boutig. bonaid. by arbitours sholde bote the P. also called Brecknock Beacons. bas. Pr. Gael. the name of the letter b. Thus from the syllable ba. a simpleton. stabulum. biikui. botte. the scriptures bokareis. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. bua. head-dress wai^g. Bonnet. Wall. petition. — Bailey. bdn. but stall. countryman. E. bauer. hu?idbusa. Boot of bale. Mrs Baker. ON. the first consonant of the alphabet. Fr. bonad.

Fl. Alexand. And so in ON. a border. to surge. Fr. ON. in Ihre. a word. to profit Goth.—Burin. wine-skin. a cupboard. boeye. tent. piercer. Lat. to pierce. biorag. are parret. which are probably from the same root. • — To Bore. bauen. terebro. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. Fin. boete. butin. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. fimbria. pi. &c. or anything pointed. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). a borer . a booth or shed. a shed. to expiate boeten den dorst. bauda. to . the . hem or gard of a garment. a hut or tent. swell bara. The Fin. bata. exchange or divide. 3. reparation. cellar. . bord. boede. bdt. urboro. a borer. Burke in R. puru. bothan. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. repair. a hut. Kil. cottage.. purra. G. making good again . a. Border. as afford a satisfactory explanation. chewed food for infants. amendment boeten. furni. a bothy. Sp. . AS. a wave. Gael. abode. Gael. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. bower. . to bite. and E. a shelter of branches. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. See Bower. dust. sharp. puru. aid. forare.. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. bothag. bdra. extremitas Bore. Another derivation from Fin. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. fire. Booty. scsdes-bod. sculpo 05\xiik. and parrets. The cor. terebra sculptoria purastoa. . scalpo. baete. batr. It. to profit. The as G. . . a shop. lappalare. furd. baara. to boot. p. pu purro (saha =: saw . nor E. an engraver's chisel. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. to bore. borracha. to bite. bora. Gael. 266. budka. Bohem. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. a chisel. are derived from G. edge. borracha. purro. or the gradual working a hole in anything. See To We speak in E. Palsgr. byte points to the verb byta.. to foam. to stick unto as a bur. — ON. from deila and skipta. bottino. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. bolino. To Bore. on. hut. 1. from borra. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. is purin. mat-bod. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. remedy. Du. barn.— Return from Parnassus I inR. a borer. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. It is admitted that Fr. chisel. betan fyr. cup- awl. botjan. pointed. to importune. to anything Neither G. bordi. . a leather bag or bottle for wine. ora. cure Sw. But probably the E. drillen. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Bete. of an edge that will not bite. OSw. in Lap. boeten het vier. to build. dens mordens vel caninus. uzboro. a sharp-pointed tooth. The ON. . See Burgeon. BOOTH vantage. to mend. OHG. better. to build buda. amendment. puras. Fr. and hence to fine. ON. make . kvit-bara. comminuted by either kind of action. budowai. a bladder. to hut. welt. butin is explained by Flor. to divide. limbus. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. Esthon. rof. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. a shop budowati. to restore. a responding forms . It. borino. to to . Compare Manx birrag. Mag. bite. bud. N. puras. yfirbdt. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. limbus. bardure. to The Sw.par. . purra. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. A phorically a drunkard. sawroot. and thence to eat build. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. to quench one's thirst . a tusk. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. and meta- Fr. admovere titiones. Magy. In the Fin. to repair. ON. a great bur. Du. boards. burin. Pol. differs only in termination.por. BoracMo. Fin. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. to patch. wave. Fin. to bete the properly to mend the fire. to swell. from bord. a granary . lappolone. Booth. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. recovery bata. both. margin. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. beute. bohren. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. Esthon. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. struere ignem.

connected. from their grey clothing. useCanterbury. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. the ordinary a swelling. to give bail or answer for an. ' — — . without. See found in Bav.' Vegetius in Diez. (1867). Lat. knock and a knob . It. Hal. a herb. burel. cob.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. Bos a surety. a boss. is used in the sense of bussare. of bail throughout the country. empty. AS. baurgs. bos. botch. from AS. Jam. Jam. So Du. is probably radically Boss. unpolished. D. vain. — — — A — . rustic. to strike . blow on a hollow object. or perhaps also To Borrow. Botany. bump. a citizen. in contradistinction to the more polished knock.' if thou give money on loan. AS. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. boss sound. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. — ' wind burya. primarily signifying coarse sound . but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. to pick or cull plants. that which biirge. In like manner It. tive idea seems to bring under cover. secure. a city . ^ma. borealis. as we speak of a thumping potato. head. was origin of the term is the OFr. loan. butse. borel. ^o^^flj. boschen. borgese.any round sweUing.vr\. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. I. to give a hollow bizo. knur. an eminence. bttssel. surety. in the body struck. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. projection. and borough in the sense of a town. whether from the fact preserve G. viipyoc. to save Sw. a bouncing baby . a citizen. to contain. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. byrig. plant. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. borg. the hollow between the Borsholder. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. borei. Hence knot. beorgan. 106. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. to conceal.. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. gesylle. burgess. bundle. bergen. Cot. /3oraMK6f. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. Du. busse. rude. the sun sets. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. Swiss Rom. or because a blow berga. boss. the North Wind. Sc. a tower. burh. as if from the verb to hold. Borowholder. Fr. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. pitch. agrees with E. bump is used in lump or piece. a. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. poor. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. beorgan. nonsense. &c. or perhaps it may be See Bury. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth.' or system of bail. The other. tempest. bail biirgen. to become is emitted by a hollow body. or head-borough. cnoc. And that unsittynge is to here degre. knob. grey). . Lang. Boreal. storm. . to strike so as to Bureau. botse. boss or knob of a buckler . which now signifies a knob. less. a blow. i. gum vocant. hollow bucklers. a giving rise to It. to save. ' pledge. bourg. Bunch. borough-holder. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. the Sc. basse. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. empty.mass. hollow. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. Goth. cormpted. striking. poor. bourgeois. pego. G. when that system was forgotten. by which of or belonging to plants. a pushing or striking out. Turk. huschen. Altieri. undyed wool of brown sheep.' the chief of the ' borh. bom. knocking. coarse cloth made of the Du. It. bierge. a wen. to knock or strike. bussa coarse. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . Fr. one who sticks to you like a bore. the N. Borrow. . f graauw. boss of the side. a bunch or hump. bosse. and thus could not shake off the old burr. The origin seems to be the Goth. bussi. bosh.bucklers. boss. E.ribs and the side. Russ. botsen. The primi. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. V. Bosh. bos. a little blow. Du. Gr. in instead of without. to take in. tuft. ON. brown cloth. borough or chief constable. to protect. to keep. cnag signifies both a clergy. botch. Fr. the must have arisen burgensis. Newbury. borg. whence the burg. cnap. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. destitute. borgo. a knob. to protect. into borsholder. Borough. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. boussi. clownish.' every man be under bail. bunch. . formerly used in the sense of knocking. while Gael. borh. plain rude fellow. (Bridel). bosseu. AS. pegou. to save. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. Hence borhes ealdor. northern. a boor. bossen. Bailey. empty. a surety. butsen.

dim. and E. signify a in OE. Lith. On the other hand. AS. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. thing soft batsch. . — . botola. a bottle. botel. Bouteille. to put on a patch. as a push or windgaU. buts. is boteau. ^kvBoQ. pozzo. Pl. H^cart. botm. a bundle of straw or hay. bluster. G. mess. the science or knowledge of plants. botse. botte. botn. Fyre to botme. of botta. abbi. Stalder. bundle. fundus. a vessel for holding liquids. bSn. an abyss or bottoniless pit. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Again. a lump of somebatschen. Gael. House-bote. Leg. gling piece of work. a. i. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. boute. Bouds. to stir and mix together. — Jidwi. A — oba-dwaj Lat. bAdtr. especially in Gael. the bud of a flower . bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. the other hand. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. stock. podge. a plague-boil Kil. Here the radical image seems a bubble. N. stock. Lat. boccia. a pit. a bubble. biissen. ixorapudder. fire-bote. ambo. to mend (kettles. puddle. to make better. to we have OHG. tumour. dabble). a botcher of shoes. a depth. you two. boitean. Prov. bouteille. bdsser. See Butt. to dash about . seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. * To Bother. pocciar. is also a bubble. potra. for a bud. Hal.^Dec. to give a sounding blow. stump. a maggot. repara- — — See To Bete. a slop. ledge It. a bott . bativa. Parmesan poccia. to bcBta. bunch. — Dief. a bottle. whence the name ol pool to podge. buideal. turmoil. patch. boss. baiothsj Sanscr. knock. — — . Both.' to the fiery Csedm. butwo. 212. AS. bot. a bunch. bottigUa. To confuse with noise. It. blain. butsen. kessel-biisser. botel foenn. abbu. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote.ments of the same root. a boil or swelling Halma. whisper. both. a cobbler. botus. poltern. noise. to knock. disturbance. botte. pother. schuhbosser. beggtaj Goth. bile. Du. . bun. Danneil. I. a pit. corresponding to . Boa two. hurly-burly. to botch or patch. gen. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . a bump or swelling. to work without order or know. See Boss. — — belly-worm. Dan. . what pushes outwards. to from the root bot. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bossu.) . a bottle of hay. . any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Judwi. OSax. On — Du. btitse. Jtidu. or plague sore . Butu. blister. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. botte.D. botsen. stem or base. by met. to simmer. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. bots. buazen. mess. ing out. a humpback. Lith.of a ball of thread. abbution. — Bottom. to strike . abyss. to smack. boiteag. The Gr. bodem. bosser. . a slop. batschen. a knock. from the dashing of water. noise. bozza. G. — — A 2. empty or hollow. as Fr. buddl. A bottom depth. a cess. . boil. It. Hal. bozza. to rage. ubhau. buddeln. ON. j3i/9os. BOTCH understood). bulderen.foundation. to stir and mix together . From the dim. Bochu. a cesspool pass. dial. Kil. a cask. ON. To Botch. to fall : with a sound batsch. scuohbuzere. to mend. See To Bodge. bulder. Diez. ON. &c. was called a push. to froth as beer . Botcli. • Bott. mutter. a pock. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. Canut. bund. a tinker schuhbiisser.— . shoes. pozzanghera. any plain round viol glass bozzo. Bailey. they two. however. Mudu. Gael. And so we speak of an eruption. boden . It. putra. Decorde. mend. and ajSvamg. ba. Podge. — . a patch patschen. E. Fl. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. Ancren Riwle. to podge. round lump. Fl. . bethia. — duj Lett. contusion . another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. a wisp. boiteal. — Fl. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. oba. Fr. &c. ' G. w.— Swift in R. the first rough draught 2. bottom. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. pimple. A horses. an imperfect and bunbutt end. Wedu. Du. blow. Fr. botch. burgi vel pontis refectionem. a root.— Hal. AS. we two. any round ball or bowl to play withal. butse. Bottle. abbi-diwij Slavon. bide. to make a make a noise. the lowest part. we have Swiss batscken. stroke. bdt. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. a waterfall. to dip in liquid (to Gael. Bret. nets. in the sense of mend the fire. gipuozan. maggots in barley. disturbance to . e. See Bound.

Sw. to spring. bouton. signifies a sliort thick mass. jump. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Dan. bugan. a bound.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. as a nosegay. to thundering big one hum. its kind. dial. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. boss of a buckler. p. Raynouard. pothel. a stock. Du. I assure you. bumper. bay. a blister. Mid." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. an occasion. ing. from AS. To Boult.— Boundary. tnndo. he fell so that it sounded. an de dor bunsen. From Sw. Bret. Bout. Bodinare. Ni gacha cor bondir.— F. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. contusi. came home with his face all to-bounced.D. — No i ausiratz parlar. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. Bonny. by Bujns or Buns. baby. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Fr. strapping.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. buUersten. a large pebble. pimple Richards bothog. — — leap. bonzen. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. bonndn. bonna.— — — - 88 BOUGH . bons. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. round. to make a loud noise. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. boh. bun.' round and round in similar circles. a button. To Bound. to spring. bugt. has hot. bend. dial. . 2. boriie. carpet. the hollow of a bay. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. Halma. bolder. botwm. — strike. Bough-pot. bend. see Boss. like bobbin. Boulderstone. — — Bight. to bow.— Cot. butina. as that of E. Ducange. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. So It. a turn or time. Alpine Re- — gions. or Bow-pot. Brem.>a bout. frequently used in the same sense with bound. — Take care my house be handsome.' B. language a * Boulder. bullra. a boundary stone (men stone). Bough. to fix limits. of thread. Primarily to strike. to set out by metes and bounds. See To Bolt. in the absence of actual e. to knock. the larger kind of pebbles. a bouncing apple. thumping. nave of a wheel bothel. A Langued. bog. a boss. a blow. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . 3. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. bottom. boundina. Pm. to resound. iv. mere. The branch of a tree. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. a bud. E. to knock at the door. bone. winding. signifying in nautical coil of rope. to hum. bunsen. Fr. Fr. bodina. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. . and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. from bugan. Q. bamsen. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . limit. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. bounbounejha. debodinare. And the new stools set out. Coxcomb. Bound. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. and F. The W. volta. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. turn. Bought. ni motz brugir.. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. to set bounds. Bowlder. mcn-bomi. to turn.'— Charter of K. a round body both. Pr. See Bunch. to thunder. Bunche. a large stone rounded by the action of water. The Bight of Benin. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. bunda. jungen. from volgere. march. whence buj7isen. Probably from the Celtic root bon. ni frestelar. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. . suorum recognoverunt agrorum. root (see Bottom). AS. 136. the verb bondir in OFr. Webster. To Bounce. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. and Prov. knock it sounds again. geration. the bay of Benin. the smaller ones. nor horn sound. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. till The dat et bunsede. Wtb. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. gulf. in contrast to klappersten. Nor a centinel whistle. boujtce. bondir.

bontS. bagna. purra. beogan. hous^ Man in the Moon. gurgling. a humming noise. bogha. . from spring.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. sausen. fun of one . Goth. explaining Sw. pausen. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. belly out. bue. sport. G. Bourd. is. a — — . epaule du vaisseau. Gael. bending of a joint knie-bug. bog. bommen. schenkelbug. bausen. Sw. set out. As the Gael. to bulge.which see. a. . the burden of a song. It is bov. way ba7n. btiga. taunt. bogen. Fr. a corToward the garden. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. drunken. the ting of a bell. Comp. to mutter. fresh* water.. Sw. the fixed. repartee. address. bov. sense durd. bend Sw. Du. to take deep draughts. a drone of a bagpipe. bourd. bonitas. ing. Lat. and that probably from a Celtic root. schulter-bug. deceit. Bow. a humming noise Macleod. kroes. staff. a mill-post. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. tinton. good. on. a. bordo. firm. bug. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. bow to shoot with. Prov. curvature. brausen. a go to. Bourdon. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. Sc. buzz. buga. Burgeon. spelling the word iox bound. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. identical with E. bound.bass of a stringed instrument. Bourdon. potio. and not in the sense of curvature in general. Dan. the shoulder of the vessel. to indulge in his cups . to take one in. pusta. . bourde in the same sense. jest. it is probable that the It. biugan. Gael. buzzing of bees. analogous to Fr. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. must be referred to the same root. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. bog. . and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Fr. G. Eown. head Fr. ready to pike or spear . bonus. Gael. Chaucer in R. When used alone it . Dan. prepared for. a sing-song. borne. are applied to the bow of a ship. G. Spenser in R. bordon. a for New York. a drone or dor-bee. addressed to. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. — — . — probably through this latter signification. i. puff out. lance. So Sc. And there in mourning spend Sw. The foregoing derivation seems. grumble Sw. Cot. a prop. A —Cot. also the humming or ON. ready. pre. a cup kroesen. to — Hal. springbiirn. buyse. bourdon. to hum. . to trick. to tope W. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. G. brunna. joke. has also buirleadh. ^<7r«i?. Du. drink deep. a bow. spring. limit. as was for. Cot. Fr. bwa. to drink deep. Sp. Swiss bausen. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. Dan. the Bourdon. on the whole. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Gael. It. pot. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Immediately from Fr. their time -With "wailful tunes. to draw a deep breath. bending. to draw a deep breath. Bounty. Bound. to banter or laugh at. drone of a bagpipe. buigen. to take breath. a jibe. cudgel. bourdon. the big end of a club. to hum as a bee. to pre2. saufen. Bret. g. It is the participle past buinn. mockery. w. to tope. Du. A water. shoulder-blade. that ON. Borden. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. burdan. burt. pared. language of folly or ridicule. bugna. AS. warbling. brummen. sotich. buizen. a from Du. like quaff. a jibe Shaw bururus. whence buysen. ridicule buirte. — — — A pare.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. bovne. or of an Gael. patesten. to drink deep. a pot. bugna. to swell. bugne. trick. in Fr. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. a well. bordone. Burden. . to tipple. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. . biegen. Dan. bogna. hence musical accompaniment. It is remarkable that we find vary. game. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. an arch. Du. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. steady. burdan. bdgi. The meaning of bound. purlBav. cheat. Sw. burn. bunaiteach. flagon. of the ON. ruption of bonne. bending. beygja. burreti. Gael. crutch. burlare. souf. to bow. verb bua. bend. bogr. to our bous. burd. bage. different modification gives ON. buys. a brook. whether by sound or gesticulation. to bow or incline the . bugan. when we speak of.

folliculus . bhugna. spring as water bugya. bola. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. of a wooden ball to play with and — . hollow. at the e. bulne. bucka. bugy. bug. bowels. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. swell. belly of a cask. the head. a protuberance. . bow. to guggle. biichse. Du. (in pass . botulus. bulla in aqua. See Crab. Sw. or in e. ku^o. bulge. a hump on the back rossbollen. bugyni. convex. ON. a wardrobe . with inversion of the round. Dan. mausbollelein. Boll. make obeisance. w. . OFr. to puff up pullakka. the box-tree It. Lat. and on swollen. dial. bock. lump . beutel. OE. AS. . is applied to a coach-box. buchsbaum. a bowl. bouge. Bower.a. Bret. pocket.. ne. boss. boel. bolle. bosso. Sw. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bubble. . bolla. bolgna. .) to incline oneself . In like manner the Pol. boucle. fata-bur. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. . bouellou. the barrel of a gun. gut. . the box-tree. to raise the back boll OHG. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. ^o«/«. . a buck. a sleeping-room . belly. stream forth bugyogni. a bud. W. the bogna. a ball. Bav. Gr. as in E. Sanscr. The / a bow. a box Lat. give in to. Du. painter's easel. signified by forms like Gael. intrenchment. knob From the former modification we have bolla. trestle. a hen-coop . bow. boor. beuz. as well as the name of a. a knot. a sack. in walking appears in a . bur. bulla. See Boil. box in both senses. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. . prominence. the box-tree and articles made of it G. . blister. in both senses. ON. swoUei) Lat. bugyani. Buckle. a round glass or bolg. Fr. AS.cup Du. as in AS. honse-bur. a swelling or rising up. Fr. or. bulb of an onion bolleyield. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. iri'iaQ. a parlour. bocka. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. ^o/a. E. a separate apartment . an outhouse AS. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. anything globular. . to buckle G. acsian. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. a bubble. kupukka. belly. zich onder jemand under to him. bent. globular. Thus we have Esthon. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. cumena-bur. an inclosure.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. buckel. . Bret. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. tumour . hill. fyn.). to yield to one. a thing of liquid. boss. a wine-can . bending. buk. the skull or brainpan . The word may probably be identical with Fris. a polla. bog. buga. bolne. Du. a ball. a iDubble. bulk compared with Sw. kupula. bossola. to bow buck. to bulge. &c. hollow wooden case. Cable. . bogla. convexity. A Bulk. bugyola. similar shape. a ball . pusspan. bulcken. crooked. bwra. purse. boudin. crown of a hat. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. . a. a croft by a house. ttuJic. biicken. . tumour. busse. . box. passing on stud. guestchamber . boil. bur. heafod bolla. to stoop. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. to bubble up. ken. bowel Box. . boxtree pusska.flask It. a black pudding. bolla. A . a chamber swefnbur. water pulli. buello. buckelig gehen. a stud. a box. From the other form are G. utibur. Bohem. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. to bend down. polla. . kupu.. to make crooked . the crop of a bird. a box. bukke. bulka. biisse. a bundle. Fr.). buis. budel. pullo. bwr.D. It is more probably from the G. bugna. bubble. boxtree. See MHO. bol. and to a coachbox in particular.\s. PLD. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. a little box . Hal. Hence. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . busskai. G. G. a box. Sw. a bubble. different position in ODu. bol. round glass phial. spherical Dan. bollen. buxus. budello. buigen. . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. Sp. . puffy. globe or spherical body. to stoop biickling. wisp of straw . biiske. bowl . bhuj. to puff up. bog. compared with Fr. Bowl. hollow place Fr. head of a cabbage. a bubble Fin. Pol. a box. peated in Magy. kuppelo. without the and grits. a bubble bolli. bouzellou. globular body. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. to bend. a boil. a drop of pullistaa. sausage. . the head. round bead. hiidel. a pot. . Dan. ON. ask. W. . to swell. inclinare se (Kil. * Bowels. koziel. . then by the loss of the /.

ing from a mixture of salt. or bracer Cot. and then Pl.. breptati. bruxula. a bog or pass Fr. Fr. brago. clay. break. A brace probis. wristband. — — . mud. by the same inversion of J and k. braecke. to slap. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. unmarried man . brec. ' — A — — — . to give a gebrechen. braco. merely in our mode of considering them. It is B. braco. dog in general. s. dirty. bou^ba. bouibo. bracket. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. V. in R. lalear-eyed Prov. boy.. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. I sal slyng. briche. his eyes are failing him). flaw. . brechen ihm. brague. The different meanings of the brageux. a comworld Rayn. Pm. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. brasselet. Fr. OFr. and F. It. . . Brack. disturb.. flap. brabbelen. a box." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. to fall. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brae. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . land spoilt Kil. the first instancebya physical tie. by an overflow of sea water. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. Rouchi Then as an adj. Swab. salo sive aqua marinS. a grown youth Cimbr. whelp as. rakki. rakka. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . OFr.— D. Brak-goed. is a rope holding G.with a noise. a guard to torf. brace on and Du. Du. . strike. MHG. Gael. On the same principle from the buksteht. want. — . or defect. to want. suppuration. want. to smack the hand batschen. ON. defect Du.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. dog that hunts by scent. pupus. brakke Bracelet. mud. ratch. braca. breuque. filth . brae. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. . from a root brak. a girl. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. defect. a pair of braces.puddle. ghebreck. See Broker. brageuses. Swiss bub. fault. fault . brek. Du. Brach. 91 the Dan. Prov. brae. It. mud. One girl.nated by dirt. a boy pupa. loud smack. youth. Heligoneed. Sp. to crack. to give a sounding blow defect. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. A to halt between two derivations. To brace is to draw together. boy bouba. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. foul. priated to the original sense. s. Sp. brek. bracer. — . quarrel Bohem. bragos. defect. spaniel. Pr. confining. See Brake.D. salsus. — . beagle. braic. Swiss Rom. brack. — . armour for the arm. bresta. bracha. posh. Fr. Lett. To Brabble. bray. — . brack. moral or physical. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. let. . bask. . corruptse. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. A — — . wnzC/J. and string of his bow. to stutter. to is derived brestr. Prov. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. race. rack. Lat. Kil. a crack. brassard. bitch Du. bracke. damaged board a ship. jabber.. acidus. G. taneous talking. bracco. Boy. murmur. baske. ON. La ville ou y avait Brace. cramp-iron holding things together . bracil. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. pus. To fight with the fists. refuse. Bracelet. Sp. parallel with OK. Fr. want. braquet. Brackish. a braceOFr. baukscheht. Prov. fuse. BOX To Box. Kil. to Swiss batschen. compressing. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. land batsken. odorinsecus. wrack. brostia. bue. babble. Water rendered boubo. bube. rakke. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . G. Ptg. to be wanting. buah. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. need. brechen. to give a blow with the fists.D. to burst. boiste. In like manner the It. root). in R. a bubbling dura del mun. Kil. It. dog Sw. a sounding blow. pube. matter. to box the ears. brae. boussole. isolated part of the text. braque. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. as noticed under Box. flaw. the arm. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. breach. Thus brack. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. thwack. con. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. AS. Cot. to stammer. breach. . Pl. variation of babble. OE. which sigof straining. . an languages. Hdcart. Prov. &c. brakke grund. Brack. bracon. then from break. Bracket.

The plant y^r«. Faire le brave. to rattle. — Equivalent forms are Gael. bully . smart. braga. to stand upon terms. vanter une chose. as the type of exertion and strength. strength. Brake. . confining. Sp. — Chaucer. brav. braegenj Du. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). an iron for holding Zalli. gay. Bray. breach. To Brag. bravo. Fr. brails. would be to brace. a roisterer. in the sense of the Lat.%. brave. or by gaudy dress and show. make a noise . and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. Turk bazu are used in both senses. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. Hence E. subigere. brave. Haldorsen Gael. blusterer. slight modificajoining the two legs. Langued. Thus we are brought to the OE. bragaireachd. se pavaner. fine.hy which this idea is con\eyed. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . torture . braguer. It is certain that the word for arm is. Dan. that will carry no coals. affront. 2. stately.. the opposite of which. to sprout malt. also derived Fr. cry. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. to unbrace or let down the breeches. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. flaunting. Bret. empty pride. i. ative fellow. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. . Thus Bret. to brail up a sail. w. To Braid. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. well-dressed. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. a noisy talkboasting. brae. called by our braggard.^ Sp. se parer de beaux habits.—— . breghen. braver. bragging of his own valour. bushy . hectoring. . instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . crash. . ^Brave. to make a noise. and that from e. —Spenser in R. From Fr. courageous. Bret. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. boast.i5nz^. . drawers. stout. the feathers ON. compressing. brachittm. also tion of this was brayeul. about the hawk's fundament. to boast of his own worth. goods. gay. brave. The meanings included under — Bragget. also insolenter se gerere . h-avare and Fr.aburst. to crack. or from braie itself. splendid. proud. vain glory. — . brao. de Vaud. gayly dressed. brake is. riches. braka. braies. braske. brazo. subduing. power. bragging. bragd. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. to shout. crack. Cot. gorgeous. BRAG Piedm. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. braszketi. breagh. Dan. A — Hal. AS. braga. and it is very likely that the root brak. braga.breeches. brag. se donner trop de licence. brave. brave. finery. fine. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so.Shepherd's Cal. braw.. It. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. dhbrailler.^Vocab. 92 Cot. Brain. breyne. breghe. &c. swagger. brabhdair. From sprouted corn. . Fr. Primarily to crack. . brag. Cot. boasting. Cot. — From W. fine. to Rouchi brMer. be noisy . brabhdadh. braske. Brag was then used brisk. is Cot. to cord a bale of tie up. bravado j Fr. brake in the sense of constraining. Rom. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. used in the sense of force. an inclosure for cattle . swaggerer. See Bray. bravacherie. in numerous dialects. brag or jet it braguard. bra!. showy bravery. Brake. Lith. gallant (in apparel) also proud. braicli. is identical with Gael. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. Walloon bress. To Brail. From brayel. bullying. a carriage for breaking in horses . See Brace. Wallachian bratsou. bravache. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. handsome.explosion. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. brayete. vaunting. beautiful. expensive. the arm. be found. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. . Sc. in order to prevent its catching the wind. to flaunt. to strut. excellent. fine. spot. crash ON. Fris. was formed brayele. braka. flaunt in fine clothes . Brail. to swagger. braggard also valiant. — A — . noisy ostentation. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . Hecart. Chaucer. The meanings of brake are very numerous. Lat. idle talk. valiant The head are sumptuous. bragio. gallant. to boast or brag. binding anything together.

brook. Brake. bredza. Fr. it is not surprising that the word has here. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. to rub. Gael. Fr. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. bregar. broeck. Biglotton. watered. or overthrow of trees by the wind. braka. brambles. to fracture. thicket. gebrUche. — Fl. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. It. marsh or swamp. In the sense of a thicket. and G. Swiss Rom. to stiffen against Taboada). is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. BRAKE to external force. bush. brake. brog. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. brog above mentioned. bush. a swampy Mid. brook. which originally designated a broken mass of wood.. Fr. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. where from Esthon. Corrfeze bredgea. brogille.D. braca. Dan. brake. brambles. brushwood. breaking in the operation. a stream. have thus Du. break flax PLD. for — Due. to brush. as in Du. It may be sus- . a marsh. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. G. Dan. to row. cover G. —Bracken. to bend a bow. or A A ' . or a wood in a marshy place . braecken het vlasch. subigere. to knead or mix up in a mortar. gebroge. copse-wood. ^raca. game. brcekke. P&. to bend or direct a cannon. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. to pound. bushes. 3. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. Brake. murrokko. de Vaud. in usus braca. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. tris). brook. riguus. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. brego. brolium. OFr. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. — — . murtaa.bracan. . to subdue. In ON. bregille. brog or brake. t° moisten. word. gebrUche. the lever by which the string was drawn up. as well as in the case of the e. ing of flax or hemp.— . Dan. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis.' It. a brace on board a ship. to break or fracture. break of such a kind. The Fr. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. referred brake. to head must be bit. signifying to sweep. to harrow (Lat. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. e. any thicket of brakes. in northern climates. to distinct. a fen. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. gebiisch. bregar brake. iSpsx". farinam in mortario subigere. In like manner Lat. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. brega. as in the case of horse-breaking. a thicket. It. the original meaning of G. bruch. is braukti. briers. is formed murd. braquer un canon. flachs brechen. In the case of the ne. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). Pl. nemus. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. broillet. gebroge. braken. gilum.D. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. properly braking or subduing them. To the same bend a bow. might come to signify a swamp. a horse's a horse's twitch. to exert force in different ways. to The ON. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. Lat. and when once thrown down. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. We — . multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. low wet land bruch. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. Voc. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. —Ovid. broken fratta. tnurdma. murran. as in Sp. fratto. brage. frangere linum. broor bushy place Hal. to break. brage. broyer. breuil. braeken. and Lat. pasture. 2. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. brak is a frame in which strip. casser le \va. a spinning-wheel. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. gebroge. to bray in a mortar. marsh. Sp. broilium. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. briser. Prov. glebas subigere. broil. been confounded with the verb break. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . dial. thing is brought under control. conSo in G. el arco. a harrow. cetur. quarry from Fin. Gr. to break. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood.

braam. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. gebroge. from Lat. It will be found that shrubs. Dan. Brancare. brom. braeme. Thus in Lat. Bret. Russ. branchia. broembel-CBppel. Broom. heath ON. or with It. wood composed of twigs. E. a halter. from gaggi. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. heath. Gael.). excrement. bruskoad. gebriiche. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. branche. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. cack. Bav. brosst. what is cast out as worthless. in the same sense. . brand. breme j Sw. bruch. Thornas and bremelas. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. Port. brejo. G. stink . and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. a bridle or bit . brog. . the twigs of a besom from brenneti. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. Serv. 1 8. a shoot or twig. brin. w. heath. In like hrst. heath. brouskoad. Thus we have w. But we find It. bran. A mark made by burning. a bud. Piedm. brake. breun. —Ducange. pfriemen. Diez. bruk. G. Fr. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. Pl. That beareth the red hepe. broom. heath. brugek. breanan. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. bromboli. as AS. also pfriemkraut. broccoli. a bud It. G. bruch. brughera. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. a heath. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. bit by bit. it glitters — — . Brank. young buisson fort epais. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. brwnt. brein. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. pfropf. brandr. brenn hesken. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. w. brenn. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brous. restrain. bretnel. brushwood. Then by comparison with claws or arms. and thence a shoot. Branch. piecemeal brindelles. bushes. It. . Gael. Brand. G. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. to or iron. . or ling. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. to burn. bracken or fern . &c. Fr. from Servian pnit. a bud. See Brush. Sir Topaz. Bret. ground full of briers." The bmno a • on . brem. brug). snotty . that is to say. berneux. chaff. a single plant of heath. brandmurk. nasty. brok. bran. to bridle. Fr. titio. the thorn apple or stramonium. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . — branca. bren. . — . broussaille. may be so called in analogy with Bret. i. bronbo. iii. to -brugen. a shrub . bren. apiece orbitbrandone. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters.D. brank. or other plants of a like nature. briars. piece of anything. brambles. Fr. bruk. Grisons bruch. It. broust. a thick bush. constrain. brin d. .94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a rod or twig. cabbage sprouts Fl. bramble Du. broem. pected that brake. a roA. virgultum. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. from virga. brenda. So Swiss gaggi. a dunghill. burning brennen. heath (Bret. Bran. brass. as. brarn. hallier. brin (as It brano). dirt . Bret. bruk. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. Bramble. Bret. clutch. branco. is the draff or excrement of the com. AS. a shrub from Bret. the bull-finch. a small deri\'ation . thicket of brambles Cot. from brug. sweet broom. 2. As ON. brank. sedge burkni.D. in the sense oi fern. brang. the branch of a tree. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. bro7n. brenna.G. to gripe. and waste growths. a burning fragment of wood. The same form becomes in It.. broom. a shoot. to brank. compress. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. sawdust. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. pfriem in the sense of an awl. brandiiialil. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . ear-wax mud. . and E. from brand. &c. also a marshy low ground or fen . a firebrand. . Rouchi bren d'orMe. thorns and Gen. brug. ordure . brancas. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. Pl. brandello. a briery plot. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. . prufye. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. The naof strain. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. sprouts. brano. young twig {brom-beisser. a vine twig Bav.

to brandle. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. brasil. E. and branchis shaiand D. to confuse. to shake The word brisil. to sound of the Fr. — . bragale\ wood. crackle. Lye. to burn. apparently very distinct from each other. brus^.pan of coals. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. bresil. all. to brangle.^Brandle. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. bruan. is bntan. Braser. Fr. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. bruire. before the discovery of America in the brandir. bracea. Brangle. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. make a — . make an outcry. to make sense of a bright red dye. put. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. live coals. WaUon. a pan of hot coals. gebrannter wein. — . bra?ier. to crackle . — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. It. in Marsh. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. brandiller. Fr. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. n. faire fracas. to quarrel. brandende wijn. braise. eldibrandr. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. With top trimbling. urens. bragia. totter. and bruir. braise. so. and scold. bruzi. Brasil. du Roi et laine. AS. brascct. bruciare. brand. to shake. spirit distilled from wine. It. the spelling to kindle. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. Gris. V. brasa. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. glowing embers . given to the country. brandigh. to and fro in the hand. branla. Diez. weinbrenner. braza. crackle. Ija. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. to shog. morsel. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. N. noise. was in use Fr. the colour than hitherto known. billet. perplex. plained by Florio.well. to brustle. Jam. brangle or brawl in E. In the same way the set on fire . Thus the bound up again. from to vociferate. a fragment. to burn. conbillet. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. ish. brush. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. to shake. a round dance. De Goes. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. brasa. Brase. to blaze. or in stick. brandolare is exbrandish. flagrans. then brandr. brin. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. to brandle or The It. bransella. to dash. 59. e. to distil . to braze or lute. splinter. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. a roaring fire. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. G. a brusler. The name Brandy. to burn. to murmur. bransle. branler. distilled wine. became ashes Pied. brandiller. bracia. prasseln. Du. Sw. to make shine with shaking. braise or hot coals. set on fire. stake. G. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brazeiro. Manx bransey. to Bailey. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. The corresponding form in Gael. to French brawl or brangle. a stick. to rustle. as Fr. hot Fr. not. Milan. brasca. brouir. to solder iron. brastlian. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. hoisting to the fall. Chron. — . ist. fire-wood. So. Formerly brandy-wine. firebrand.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. aqua ardens. To brand. braser. Sw. De Barros considers vinum ardens. Fr. to glisten or flash.. bum. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. forms brasil. Chron. to hurl with great force. Fr. incendium. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Fr. bryne. Fl. brennen. Kil. to make display . ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. to bicker 2nd. brazil. To brase AS. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. to roar. Bailey. — ting to confusion. brasca. to totter. firewood. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. briiler. as again by well as the blade of a sword. The tre brangillis. d'Angl. It. a To Brandish. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. from used in dyeing cloths. E. Port. branler. brane-wood. comes from thence. as Jamieson explains it. brustle. Hume in brand in ON. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. embraser. brausen. Bret. shake. Guill.

The verb is probably derived from the brase. bronzacchiare. Pm. then a parapet.D. Lorraine bravon. bratach. Paris. the calf of the leg. Florio. For the application to a^child compare Bret. I. slibro. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. KiL Prov.' BRASS BRAY et AS. to tear piecemeal. brat. bratidone. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. from Sc. a loud noise. 1224. slakker-bortchen. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. brass. bradon. Cot. boarding being sbranare. deblaterare. to braze. A land of dance. braodhlach. Cot. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. flesh of a leg of pork.— Braid. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. as rashers upon quick burning coals. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. slut. calf of the leg. brces. Brangle. Swiss bradle. from Fr. Fr. Betrax of a —^Jam. brazen. at brasa. a slabbering-bib. ' A vraale. solder. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). See Brandish. braeye. a contemptuous name for a young child. Mundart. ON. fraiche. or whether it be from Fr.' Hal. ship. as criailler of crier. Brawn. to talk at bralle op. to scold . slibro {neita. bred. and bronzo. a lump of flesh. braiio. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. See Bray. a clout. to carbonado. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. a rag .^ — Sverris Saga. a. to Gael. Fris. Sc. It . esbraotier. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. brandillo. braion. Pisana in Mur. especially that used in the working of iron . Gael. a Lap. as scrawl from scrabble. It. bartisan. brat. burning coals. Many gambes.walle — Pr. Certainly a little girl. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. a cloak. brailler. ni autres choses sur Due. saillies. So also See Brag. Brawl. breyon de kinds of . OFr. muscular parts of the body. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. AS. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. bransle. to cry. tasce. borderinge. braede. a mantle. buttock Sc. brdto (ace. cloth. a plank or board. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. W. bretesque. pan- — Rayn. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. a battle-girdle.brettysing. 2. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. bronze. a fortification. Bartizan. calf of the leg. frequentative of braire. braser Fargent. brett. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. bas morceau de viande brawhng. It. a — A from the confused noise. bran. Fr.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. brat. cob.D. ferruminare. braoilich. bralle. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. breyon d'chaur. Fr. bmhon for brado7i. in the first instance of boards. A. a contempt- banner. or on the top of a wall. whether contracted from brabble. luncheon. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. Jam. rag. coassatio. a wooden tower.D. Wall. strepitus 2. Brass. Brave. a rag .— Diez. G. as lattice. . Sup. trul. a lath. as a brawling brook. boutures. le repasser un peu sur la braise. Du. The same correspondence is seen between It. noise. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. Dan. the buttocks. any piece. baltresca. to shake. discord. bratid calf of the leg. lat'te. &c.— Fl. bras. — Deutsch. a parapet. 1156. Sp. to solder. —-Jam. Kil. neita girl). ^Altieri. 368. The muscular part of the body. pil.— Remade. berd. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood.96 Roquefort. from branler. Brattice. a lump of flesh. Hist. Westphal. bartising. Brat. bruir. to copper. OFr. a rag. equivalent to the Du. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. Bailey. A dispute or squabble. braon. contignatio. breteque. — . OHG. Circumeunt cibertesca. a patch of cloth. bretays). la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. breyon. roar. branle. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. bradlete. Cologne broden. is The word — uous name for a woman. bribe de viande. A. squall. bretesche. bratdn). apron. bronzare. —^Bronze. brettys. a lump. P1. frame of laths. Math. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done .propugnaculum.

7 . starts crackling up.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. braidar. broad. bregar. yell. to break. to cry out. &c. brame. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. is .ch. to start. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to rub Fr. at braga eftir euium.' To Bray. crash. E. to smack or the eye. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. &c. explaining a very obscure application of the E. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. D. Gr. To Break. D. and make a hideous noise. to bray in a mortar. fractus j Gr. — koa. to braid acquires the sense of bend. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. a crash. Breach. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. Chaucer. G. bregda. Chaucer. to roar or bellow. ing. a brack. D. Fr. roar. bru. AS. The same He might don us both a villany. a rent. &c. . Dunbar braessem. paste or dough. 2. to roar. Prov. Then. k. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. R. to braid. to sound very loud and very harshly. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. to resemble him. V. father. a wink. braea. instantane. braire. ybrayid. to snatch. See Brake. disturbance. riAprjyvvfu. Du. Wal. soft . since such are the manners of Frenchmen. bratsche. to have the lineaments of one's ON. a breach Cot. augnabragd. ^p&xia. R. breche. crash. to bellow. braa. as the notion of turning crack. at once. appearance Hal. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. to tear Bret. V. G. bregar. or wound. fish. ON. to work up in a mortar. crepo and E. make a disturbance.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. — . abraid. Prov. turn. rangere. Bailey. From the or brack in a wall. To rub or grind down Sp. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to break. relation is seen between Lat. 145. upbraid. vapna-brak. crackle . twist. to cry Port. Then is simply. with or without a final d. — — — explained motus loud noise. paxog. to resemble. to scold. a . mos. to The cup was uncoverid. brak. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. fragor. as OE. Fr. cyprinus latus. bruzir. or cry out loudly . to break. braidir. a mill. to cry out. father. to crash. verb to break.y. brikan. Fin. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. a brake for hemp or flax. bragd — ON. weave The ON.ear rog. plait. braa. the miller's dog. Q. bradar. And with a traid I tumyt me about.fracas. Bread.g. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. Ppvxia. and to signify the fracture itself. rogi. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. to crash. The ON. broyer. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. to t. to knead. to bawl. brand. brice. bragd is also applied nets. The Lat. bruire. Swiss bratschig. baiyl. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. breach. to braid. . gestus. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. braid. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. W. on. brak. the sword was out break. bray. Lat. in Jam. will. roar. regi. and fracasously.. to pretend. to resemble. to rush. to braid the hair. the sound — of arms. bragr.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. Cat. ON. Goth. brugier. Cot. to N. ser. rattle. noise . as the voice of the ass. to rumble. kind. brage. F. at a braid. rustle. iU-favouredly — in Jam. Bret. to roar as the sea. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. I'll live and die a maid. a rag f . Bread. &c. imitate or resemble one. breuan. And at a braid he gun it bende. Beryn. to the seijauntes. V. resound . . OE. e. and frangere. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. to bray like an ass. brot. to break Fr. yell. brechen.^ Fr. which has given much trouble to commentators. i.

a crum. brok. noise. xyligogio castigare. Bracha. braga. are in like manner ' . G. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. as. to crackle. a box. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. bre- I'os qui bresole. Bret. Gael. . braies. brasser. Originally probably the word signified steam. to feize or feaze. in Schilter. applied to shivering. Du. a crum Du. Dan. brdtschen. dial. point to G. brimsa. Sw. are related to Prov. breinse. braca. from AS. fastening . brosame. brcekur j It. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. . scent. Swiss Rom. briosat'. as by the Sc. breath. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. de bridse geveii. bruzun. with It. brire. G^nev. Hence the Lat. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. drawers. Du. Hume in Jam. to be misty and cold. morsel. brisd. The Teutonic verbs. vapour. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. to fry . murmur. brasiuiii. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. peitschen. Breeze./ssus. . to burst. then to broil. Dev. to brew. Breeches. corresponding to G. bracecs . Piedm. Prov. chilly. Gl. braguier. braca. from ligare. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. braies. OFr. a cold and windy mist or frost . binding. G. met de bridse slaan. braie. switch. representing the sound of a blow. brimme. broza. as. brustia. griller. brise. Biglotton. Isidore and Tatian. Gl. clout for a child. breme. Rom. brison. Fr.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Swiss AS. to crush to break.98 borst. braga. brciz. simmer. a to lay fly-flap. bragues. as in the case of twitter. brisoler. cloven. the dry spines of furze broken off. to whip. grillen. to roast. their stings draw . zare. Briss and buttons. of E. of trees. It. brinisa. malt. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. Lat. Lat. bratscher. briig. b}-as. brijsen. /esses. grillare. siibligar. brache. a girdle. broil. broiiwen. windy withal. braux. We bragezj on. Breath. to breech. sheep's droppings bruss. Swiss brdtsch. bark Fr. subligaculum. remains of leaves. bresilles. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. brist. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust.t. QNtsterviald) pritschen. broden. to bind. fail. braich. The Breech (Prov. braucn. forms. briiz. G. the breech or buttocks. . brossi!. britze. so AS. to shiver for cold. to murmur. simmering. one on the breech so that (klatschet). — Halma. — See Broth. brasiare. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. Fr. brodem. little bits of wood Berri briser. Brize. &c. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. So ON. a smack. to buzz. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. de Vaud. Bruise. brumtnen. See Brick. a horse's twitch. . Breeze. braia J OFr. to break. brcEth. briosa. brezzare. to bray. brew. E. brodel. a cool wind.britschen. bretilles. to resound.).D. Russ. to smack. to fry Then from a Gl. Fris. bris de charbon. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. and brought beneath between the legs. sprouted corn. bruise. murmur—Vocab. trembling. an odour. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. an into shiver. Piedm. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. G. Breeze. to brew. AS. a cramp-iron for holding things together. may be from the wurh fesser. G. einem de britze geven. bra. bris. brissle. w. burst. AS. also to chill and shiver with cold. PI. singing bone. fitzen. from brace. Compare OE. . Du. rubbish. to rattle (as hail). To Brew. coaldust. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. —Briss. instead of being derived from 'La. a twitch for a horse. a gadfly. break. breson. Breast. Goth. grill. and other rubbish dibris. — — strument for smacking. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . — . and E. Fr. brezza. malt. Bret. brugga. bremse.'— Gl. to simmer. Du. bridsen. rubbish. bryi^ga. body brostia. or the blow itself. brut. breeze. to hum. briosa. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. polenta. forms analogous to E. bandage or truss for a rupture. as the G. orts. properly to crackle. E. brijselen. brusc. the bust. chillness or shivering. braciarc. breost. trusts. Gael. — Brist. brisciare. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. bruzir. — . but more probably the E. bruc. Prov.vare. of straining. the soler. Dtyden. bris. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. crush. as commonly explained. — And blood. brezling. i5r(Z^. briste.

Bridal. consort with. brigata. bruith. a married man or woman Lat. bribour. jipaaaiii. to tlie brico. ap. the newly. to pave brukkti. imprint. fit. and berweddu. bably contracted from brigantine.bergantino. fastningar-ol. feast of espousals. sugga. has briguer. See Broth. a brig or priodor.rough with brambles and bushes. brocaly. it is applied to the letter to OE. Dan. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. piece of burnt clay. E. arf-ol.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. ment of anything broken. . as so. a little king's writs. a lump of bread. . AS. a heath. Sp. funeral. brahi. barren land priodas. bricou. Brique. Cot. bo. priod. collect bits of food. to boil. Brigade. briwo. Mid. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. feast. brakes of high-grown ferns. Thom. brar. broken bread. Pro(merch=:maid). bricge j G. division of an army. ter-in-law.groom. a Bride. bryd-gutna. So in The Prov. . Bribe. in the sense of OSw. owned also propriate. berwi. bulicame. is still used in this sense. Hdcart. OSw. Diez. Ducange. masted vessel. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Fr. bread. It. In E. The origin of the word is the w. to boil. a rogue. Flor. brigantine. a briole. bruskr and buskr. bruarium. grug. bara briw. Neumann. . birbone. as. Priodi. broosekens. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. briw. a beggar. In the patois of briccia. privus. brau. ON. Ihre. to stamp. a proprietor. from the Normans. brilt.gfiugga.pritil . a boiling.privatus. E. frayer. w. sponsa. a bride. bridelj OHG. priod-ferch. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. bro. a man. So It.Fr. beaten way Dan. Pol. bruyere. which however is undoubtedly from brace. pavement. guma. married. Du. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Walach. to break. ' . BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. to brew. brasser. Fr. pavement brolegge. AS. Gael. a lump of bread. Gael. to Isrew. bitill. whence berw. peculiar. ibrukkti. ' — . and ODu. a bride Brig. to press. BRIGADE dead. — — — — — — . pavement Lith. to rub. Lat. bro. brA. birbante.. brieden. to break to pieces bricalio. bretonica. corresponding or letter. to prepare. to pave. Trovarfor bride-ale. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Fr. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. a bush. twopares Lat. a fragment. a bit. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. Gl. Hence OE. crew. malt. brutg. AS. broken victuals. or brizo. boiling up brocoliere. heath. berwedd. graf-ol. nurus G. brukkas. fraoch. W. malt. hlafes brice. from bit. then the marriage itself. lipdZu}. Brewis. AS. the marriage si in brigata. but probably Bricoteau. the Fr. brigade. thick appropriated. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . bribe de pain. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. It — is Kil. to meet together. any jot or crum. pier. remarkable that the Gr. from Bret. a crum. conjux. bride. Rouchi brife. troop. betony brulicame. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a crum. buckler J ON. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Brier. fervere. with transposition of the r. A — A — . a heath brughera. a rogue . to appropriate. Diefenbach com. Bridal. to beg one's bread. . httle bit. Fl. A bribe is A — — arval. AS. AS. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. of burial. Grisons bruch. breve or brevis. a wedding priod-fab. from the last 99 of which. company. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. In the G. betonica. brood. bride. and that from It. from Bridegroom. groom (mab=:son). bruk. bygga. If the foregoing were not so clear. a lump of bread briber. a fragment. buskins. brice. G^n^v. appropriate. It. Brief. . braut. The Sw. OHG. . to boil. . bidsel. Due. brique de pain. brittil. brughiera. a married man guma. bryd-eale. one's ovin. to circulate. briicke. but to a paved road. a cheat. Brick. — . a sow. Lang. briiths. served (Patois de Bray). brere. fragment. daughheath. bruk. to press in. — . Bridge. bridge. two-masted vessel. brygga. son. jetty. E. broken. a quoit of stone. Applied ous words derived from break.It. E. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Goth. . Bridle. brug. stone-bridge bnikkoti. especially to a letter or command. the equivalent of to the dial. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. gf2o.

ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass .' in Due. clangour. malandrini. noise. biartr. tion. and. to cry 'Schmid OE. It. Gall.D. twinkling. a pirate. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. Bright. clear.dorem clarum reflecto. The Ir. rixa. clang. glitter. to make a loud noise.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. to bend a bow It. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. that of Fr. a noise. and ner me hit iherde. brawl. representing a sudden noise. schateren. schiteren. AS. show the origin of Lat.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. A strepere. to glamr. hell. tuilahtaa. splendour. at a later period. In Fin. brigan. Florio. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. OHG. there are many armour. to ring. clear. bright bearhtm. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . and hence be explained glampi. brak. a glittering. and the E. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. lay was sung. Swab. A. to piracy. a brigantine. clare lucens. to shine. pugna. a sound. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. Brigata. Bav. 1351. . to cry.shine. tinkle. and secondly. Due. kilistua. jurgia. —Capgrave. briga. wilella. — A A . brigare. a small light pinnace pro. Beorktode bene sweg. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. The E. a spark. labour. loo BRIGAND lor. 1654. tinnitus. brcEhtin. beorht. braid. See Brake. on his — own account. glbram.— . seems to be to exert force gar el area. the bench-notes resounded. praht.glampa. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. clear. — Probably then to strive. to rob. brigandare. bray. brigant. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. — Due. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. the grew high. . is easily understood. splendour. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . and led it away. So G.clare ^tinniens. to shift for with care. outcry. bairhts. The primary meaning of Sp. Heo — song That AS. kii:'a. — — . brebrigare. squamma . far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. tumult. Brilliant. — brigante. moment. — brigante. and diligence. Goth. splcnornd de brigandine. Brigand.' torum. Owl and beorhtian. clarus. dine. Gr. in the first instance. etincelle. to rove. and. to strive for. glamra. XafXTTpoQ. transparent. to sound. Flor. from hall. to reservavit. In the same way to strive is. brdgen. also called briganders. Xa/iTTii). rover either by sea or land. may play the pirate or thief at sea. It. to shine.' The passage from the sense of a light. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. — Beowulf. glamm. Schmeller. in later times a robber or highway-man. It. Adelung. with respect either to sound or colour. himself to serve men of merit. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. bragen. riis ' — Chron. to contend with another. 312. bregar. glir. Lat. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. brigare.pracht. Du. strife. splendens . They or brigantini. in the sense of a robber. dine. — Briganbriga. briga. From ON. sound.Lat. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. manifest ON. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. then. willata. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. the gleeman's song. — Brigantine. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. It. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. necessary business. combat. Wilista. to glitter. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. to resound. Mid. \oice. inde squammatus.' The sense of strife or combat express. clear sound. tinnitum clarum movco. secondarily. bryhtm. and to associate with them. cange has 'Veles. speech. shriek with laughter. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. bracht. briegen.

It.' d'etre marie . Sw. bar. dial. and corresponding to these. hence the bosom. . rym^. furious. a borDu. which seems identical with rim. greedily to covet Cot. AS. barm. Du. os qui bresole. brummen : de soge brummet. grdzil. s.). vattubryn. to crackle. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. to creak. the lap or bosom. ous. kimina. post. barmr. to creak. Brindled. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. brame. burning. lap of a garment . ardere desiderio. brillare. brumft. Fl. barm-cloth or barmskin. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). rut. to storm. bramar. Thus Lat. bremmen. — g. Brem. whether of desire or anger. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. earnestly . brezil. Langtoft. The expression is now confined to the sow. Brimstone. frequently interchange.ioTiviS acutus. vigorHal. grisler. identical with passion. shine. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. coloured in stripes. that the original meaning of the Sc. Wtb. kommata. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. as well as bl and gl. fimbria) . Fr. The identity of ON. the meaning is transL' amour.D. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. Dief. bresoler (Gloss. fringe (Lat. brant. Said of swine when in heat. E. the verbs Flor. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. brennistein. : ' — bone). ring. to broil. bry7ie. Swiss Rom. parched. beam. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. griller d'impatience. to glitter . brimmen. crackle. the sow is brimming.— BRIM . ter. a long. der. the singing of Sodom — — . 1. gresiller. to make a crackling noise. griller. The meaning of the Fr. glit. bremas. fire. brandr and Fr. Tutschek. to roar. — — So Fr. s. rugire. border. with an initial br instead of gr. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. — Rim. spraing. — . to roar. sonitum edere bremen. It. reecho. Hence with an initial s. or violent action. a rod. striped or streaked. finds the Fr. komista. broil . Prov. G. breme. ling noise and a sparkling light. glisten. to parch. surface of the ocean. border. on. ON. the heat of animals. kimmaltaa. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. as is the case also with Pl. brand-krossottr. griller). to glitter distance . is used of raging. The E. excited. to shimmer. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. to shine. bramire. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. also to reflect. 1 1 64.its vent in cries and roaring. briller. bray as an ass bramire. brullo. brdnnsten. brama. brmdottr. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. To Brim. to shake. a streak. gresiller. whence bilbil-goda (literally. from brandr. ON. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. FJ. Sc. greDiet. brastlian. komottaa. to make bilbil).) brimi. crackle . the eye-brow. breme. to shine. leonum). brummen. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. of the eye. to glitter. an apron. Supp. brim Magy. lip of a vessel. ON. Subo. brommen. (poet. and 1. Kil. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. bramer. briller. grisser. Sc. to burn. pMiller. lap. margin. brissle. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. Tresiller. bremmen. edge Pol. A . to utter cries. rugire (cervorum. sprainged. brunft.preni. breziller. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. fierce. fringe . Here it cannot be doubted fremo. the heat of animals. noise made by meat in broiling. to resound. the edge. — — — . In the same way Sw. kajata. 154. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. clangor tinniens. to quaver with the voice. border. from bringe. sparkle. a stick. grullo. brame.' Elyot in Way. . breziller. brinfire. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. brisoler. a border. bramar. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. small gravel. to wish or covet. . strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. burning stone. to sparkle. Rayn. bryn. AS. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. brow of a hill. to sound deep or hollow.— Brinded. as of meat in broiling . brim. have then in Fr. kiimottaa. briller (related to each other as OFr. as in Langued. Dan. tience. In Fr. to crackle. perent. Brim. It. to long for a thing. originally the lap folding over the breast. Closely connected is OE. kimista. voux. Streaked. chime). to twinkle. 754. cross-barred in colour. to fret . to shine. broiled. Rugere. to . Lith.

brusque. bros. spricka. to bud. a belly. borzos (struppig). to set it a going. as a noun. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. smart taste. an awl. a crum.' Nat. as unripe fruits. a deluge. or the full • . to roar. Gr. G. p. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. brisciare. to burn. brocher. bricho (with the diminutives. has under It. brissko). can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Du. /3pE^m. byrst. shoot.. and forms on. — bryme. a stitch brocher. ON. whence may be explained the Sc. fantas'* tical. very salt brimi. form bris. sharp. a cold and windy mist or frost. a slip or sprig of an herb . . Bristle. brioshko. is called a birssy day. birsle. brin. Berri. brocar. — . Mid. trembling. brindelles de balai. It. a brad or tack. Fris. Russ. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Gl. briser. startling. thick — A elastic hair. brimme. sticking up . britar. ribrezzoso. to put one in a rage . b. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. to broil. a rebours. bringue. to scorch. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. eager. a skewer. the twigs of a besom. bryde. brisk in taste. Salte sand is called brimsand. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. emotions which produce it. In the N. Walach. Abroacli. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. of astonishment. Russ. brissle. suddenly angry. . Lat. breaking out into growth. wine of a sharp. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. fiscbryne. 222. to birstle. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. brim. Cot. breidr. brittle. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. a fragment. apt to break. flames. See Brand. birstle. 'V^. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. from break. britar. Pectusculum. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Brine. Brickie. Prov. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. See Spread. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. to stab Gael. like the Broad. crabbed. to broach a business. ' . Prov. spur. harsh vin brusque. to break. brote. a shoot or sprig. bringe. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. Dan. brog. brim. to begin upon it. a spit.procio. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. as. brandello. brim (poet. Brym. Fr. bruckle. as.). Formerly written brotil. Du. a peg sbrocco. brich. briota. prick with Sw. lively. Bret. Fr. — A . borzen. It. to break. Liquamen vel garum. — — . Sw. Hal. to spur. e. breaking of the waves brim sior. broc. roar of the sea saltr. broca. bronchus. Bret. a bit . brimhliod. quick. brot.D. Port. broca.Lat. to set up one's birse. Zeuss. bruskett. sour. See To Brim. briocho. to break. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. Prov. i. Alfr. setting the hair on end. against the grain . Sc. a morsel . Ptg. and Sc.. brijn (Kil. to spur. to turn up the point of anything. to spit. Compare also E. sprocco. rebursiis. the brisket or . humorous. brittle. reburrus. setting the hair on end compare It. brddj Goth. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. It. and hence. Brisk. . Commonly explained as from Fr. broccata. brezzare. Sc. brezza. . fragile. grim. a bud. Breeze been connected with the Sc. Fr. brodden. a bud. a button broche. to shiver for Sold or for fear. bruched (Fr. Then as the effect of shivering. are used in the sense of brittle. metaphorically. craw of a bird. to shoot. stitch. a clasp. flame. Da. bryne. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. a morsel. Palsgr. Boh. sprouts. to goad. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot.'— Vita'abbatum S. Sp. Brooch. NE. ruffling. rebrousser. brime. Bohem. britchet. The Pl. Fr. Brisket.). brcit. bresk. to crack. to thrust. borst. a brooch. a stormy brimsea . angry. from AS. bristly . broccare.g. brusco. is to erect the hair. strong itself. rash. Brittle. Fr. the surf. Fr. or — . expression. . brocciare. the surf. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. hot-tempered. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Swiss to stand out . as. birs. brytan. to stitch. Brocade. bros. man's throat. It. ' breast. from brande. brusk. coli. borstel. fierce. breast.rcendij'i. brockle. and. Antiq. birse. aculeus. broche. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. brust. cK) the . brocco. chest. . rude. a rod or twig. birssy. of E. brocchus. brichet. sprout. bringe traced through the brano. brickie. braidsj ON. saulmeure. a projecting tooth It. — in Due. briota. to stick. brocco. Hence ribrezzare.

In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. Gael. shuffle. broil. to On the other hand the Sp. brodio. border. brasiller. It. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. a border. stump. A badger. bram. brocco. to crackle as a shell in the fire. bmsciare. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. birsle. embroidering. and AS. atoms . Fr. carbonado. brusler. a badger. parti-coloured. parti-coloured. a mole. B. a brim. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. Compare G. or snag.tumultuous. From direct imitation of Brock. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. . or glowing coals broged. a peg. To roast upon hot coals. a confused streaked face of the animal. bramowanie. briz. freckled. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). and w. brouFr. broighlich. streaked. confound. brasiller. to crackle. brizen. brooked. a To Broil. the line of development has been something different. broccato was used to signify stuff . Broker.. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. rinj'. Fr. creak. blusters. — . Bret. Brocket. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. brychau. to boss. to crackle. broc.. to embroider. bawling. motes. to knots or loops. gold and silver. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. an edge. bj'oil. spotted. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. precisely analogous to the Sc. agree in being the extremity of a thing. onbryrdan. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. from the white. speckled. has grisser. storms. Thus brod. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. It of br the Fr. ciare. Grisons brascla. So from Pol. q. brouda. a flake of snow sion. a point. to darn. brusuole. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. to parch or broil. 103 embroidered. speckled. spots. broder. a b?-ustolare. trouble. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. Sc. — brissle. piebald . Surrey in R. bruler. a flock or Gael. parched. to stud broccoso. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. broc. to burn. brullare. point to an origin in Bret. brasbrasciuolare. grullo. It. prod. Fr. margin. Compare also AS. AS. kled breac. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. embroidery. gresiller. dar seems derived from borde. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. broukit. parch. R. a brouhaha. bustling. tufted ornaments. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. silkes-borda. a prick. trouble. broccuto. or roast on the braise. briefh. Ptg. sparks E. or It. froco. brucilare. Here to ornament with needle-work. prasseln. to streaked or speckled in the face. tori shows that. and bord or bred. A fried or boiled steaks). brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. Dan. Cot. to instigate. brustle. noise. W. — The proper sense is that of Fr. brerd. whence broccare. badger . brastlian. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . brod. brucach. or salted fish on coals. Hal. Sp. to burn. to scorch. the shoot of corn. brasuole. to embroider. The ON. of pointing out their latent defects. tumult broighleach. Sc. initial . hart of two years old. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. to spur. a border ornamented with gold. to crackle. Cot. noisy. here. sting. broice. knobby . age was termed a pricket. to prick. Icnotty. a brecJi.sound. — Fl. brocach. fundamental origin. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. brindled. bordo. to crackle. a freckle. ornamented with a raised pile.— B. bordar. rustle. a fallingThe sense has been out. broil. Florio. to broil. The Bret. forming to jumble. brych. a quarrel. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. breard. E. brasolare. borprick. Ihre has guU-bord. brocart. ToBroider. — Gower in It. hurly-burlies. grislement. v. with Sc. border ornamented with silk. houx. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. — — . scorch. broud. . Gael. braird. thread. frocadura. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. b?-od. Contracted from Fr. broiled. a freckle. frecSee Brawl. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. broglio.

— broeden. from makel. bracker. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. to copper. ODu. the spawn of fishes. bredan. couratier. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. to pick and choose. . brod. Russ. spittle. S. brod. merchandises de rebut G. a makeln. Du. Pro v. bronzo. on. brydio. sbrinzlar. — a spark. to brew. Bronzare. to blame. find fault with. whence the modern courtier. the young of any animal . appointed to classify goods according to their quality. refuse brakowad. to sit on eggs. brands. • . Sc. brack-gut (Sanders). giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. spittle . brack. to garble. wreak. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. Dan. Alb. find fault — — — fuse matter. fish-spawn broden. bronze. Pl. phlegm. G. mediationem quorundam J. brasa. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. reject. i. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. matter of blame weak place. rejection Pol. refuse wares. refuse brakovat. keep warm. to sort goods . to sort brakovanie. In the . the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. goods damaged by sea-water. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. whnake. : ' . glowing coals. On • tliis principle the G. Jam. Grisons brinzla. G. abbronzanchiare.— — . has exactly the force of G. Lat. mud. broiid. Fr. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. refuse Fr. insects. cast Lith. and as an adj. brwd. Prov. Fl. to sparkle. faulty. . bridde. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. brut. inspect. G. to scorch. brokoti. See Broth. ON. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. progeny of birds. to throw blame upon. find fault with. et A. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. to hatch. to nourish. embers. brak. See Brackish. brakyne.D. to roast on the embers.D. This word shows the same relation to It. an . lack. brokers' goods. to pick. Du. To blame mens ware. as. hot. pan metal. To correct an exercise is to Lib. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. ordure. cracker. — Fl. brackefi. refuse. . cherish. and to reject the damaged and unsound. brasa. rejected. dirty. an outcast or rejected sheep. designation is indkler. The Langued.D. Bret. a broker. wrack-good. bring eggs and spawn into active life. criticise (makeln). brokas. e. Pl. filth. tan. correctarius. bronce. In those countries the term braker. For the same reason the Kiittner. brack-gut. bric-a-brac. a cough Hal. and fishes . a fault. to emit sparks. . to be wanting. wraken. to hatch. 38. If to vomit . to spit . trumpery. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. See Wreak. Abbronzare. racher. . — point out the faults. raquer. wrak. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. brechen. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. vile. a breach or flaw. nounce unsound. to hatch G. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. Adelung. racaille. . inspection. bronze. in the sense of rejection. try . a chicken. an operation performed over hot coals. broen. damaged. fault censure. brunds. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. dial. sort. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. from break.— Breed. to . bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. blur. try out. to pro- to reject . buy and sell by commission. bronze. Bronze. which E. hrak. vile. brak. Tooke's Catherine. or brascla. make out. raca. 396. to braze. It may be compared with It. stain. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. fermenting. but from the primary sense of the It. brumo. brae. want. to be hot. Pl. hraki. — .) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. with. briiten. selection. damaged. Brood. OFr. brieden. to reject. to criticise. Alb. analogous to Bohem. vrage. embers.— Lib. screatio Junfus . brass does to Sp. refuse. brot. term was correcfo^ir. corrector. in which sense the OHG. braken. brid. w. warm. It. to — garble. tussis. burning. Sp. Kil. embers to brund. abject. hot.D. sunburnt. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. a brood . braeck goed. Teutonic class : Du. Per manus et old worthless horse. slaae vrag paa. refuse goods. The use sunburn.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost.

grow into a bush. Celtic. strength. brocco. Roquef. heath. briar. surface of Broth. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. brouskaol. brwd. infusion the barley bree. Sp. a bud. . brushbroccoli. brozia. pfriemkraut. Fr. shoot. The softening down of the consonant bud. brouser. . brstiti. brus. Kil. Sc. ceales briw. to boil. laissent Domunculum. brlgh. bruc. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. brawdj Slavon. to boil. bor. bryn. eye-lid. . spirit. brennen. w. eye-brow. bros. braew. shore. brost. browys. the colour of things burnt. brogues. t— Cot. awl-plant. Fr. thicket. Sanscr. forms appear related to the Ir. . fur Broom. sap. as Fr. Du. augen-braune. to murmur. house of ill fame. OHG.) . shore . infusion. Bav. Fr. — . to bubble up with noise. Browse. boiled . bruich. to boil bruithe. break out brewet. G.braubiti. bntdien. brmi. waves. bruith. cabbage soup . rage. The AS. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. Fr. vigour. brusmalt. eye-lid. brun. To digest. to border. a . brosst. It. Wtb. broth is sometimes used . broit. brink. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. a little house or cottage of timber. frucius. bruithim." Serv. Brothel. bregh. to browse. to roar. a bud brous-koad. brouches. broc. brodo. brov. brouic. bree. to bear patiently. braussa. borda. steam from heated bodies. brouet. brushbrothas) gives the OE. bank.— Overyssel Almanack. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. sprout. grow brossa. and It. AS. It is Brother. . So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. brad. brio. branches. Du. pour boiling water over. broud. a spring. bud. eye-lash . brabruach. the bubbling or springing up of water. broca. to boil. Ger. meal. broden. kail brose. bruth. or broken up . brow. broieii. brau. pottage. brouter. sodden. low The AS. iVlanx broogh. bros. borde. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. . frui. juniper. fabric consists. brpuster. hut. brudi. bruddeln. and also border. &c. braces. (for brodem). a bruth. mettle. margin. broth Brown. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. broo. cia. shrub with leafless pointed edging. and Slavonic families. Limousin broudi. Gael. Russ. surDu. edge. broth the ocean Sw. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. and Sc. broth. Prov. brow of a hill. hot. pith. &c. Manx broie. breg. But the Walach. OHG. . Gael. from ripa. bryii. properly boiling water briihen. shoots. shrubs. &c. — . bruich. breg. bank. signifying twigs. enjoy Goth. Gr. to Pl. sprouts . brass. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . to shoot. thairj w. bryn. 'Lzt. Brow. riviere. bruscosd quam de arabili. sprocco. AS. . frater.D. Bret. of plants broust. a river. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. broeye. to use bruks. broth. sordes seu strigmata young branch. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Russ. brosses. Tam de terrS.brink. cabbage water. bruceti. &c. brdtaj Gael. to spring . brodem. strength Ir. to use. G. a shrub broust.. 105 Brook. juice of meat. brous. thick bush brousta. circuindedit cum familia. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. . a hut or cottage It. eye-brow. as small-pox. brucan. of which the variety of forms. bruach. . G. on. has briw. — ' . Commonly Teutonic. .' Due. Fr. Pol. Due. See Bramble. broccola. brew . Lat. a hill. on. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. to sprout. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. Serv. Bohem. a caldron. brotar. to scald. to use. It. Gael. seethe. w. a source Gael. sproc. sense the Sc. breg. Prov. a derived from the boards. brost. a sprout. dialects is very different. brotar. brst. sprout. a hill. brukjan. or bushes and scrubby growths. bhratrj Zend. It. border. Ppim. bordeau. Bohem. hovel. sprot. braun. plants composed of twigs. Sp. . broem bark. useful G. — exiit et heath. The origin is a re. bruitheati. bruno. noise. bushes. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. brosses. Gris. buds. spuma. Bohem. OFr. bratrj Lat. . eye-brow. a confused noise of winds. . briu. eye-brow. bank. Pl. chen. wood . to burn. may be connected with Russ. eat. rerum decoctarum. brewis. face.spross. broza. eminence . juice of briars. bordel. brothas. bank. from Goth. edge. Here we find throughout the Romance. riviera. a sprig. briihe. Cot. dumetum. in which brinnan. perhaps burnt coloilr. brauwe.D. a little . heat explaining the Prov. verge. Dan. a shore. ale . signifying low wet land (Brem. Catalan brossa. vigour. brue . simmer from the murmuring AS. broth brothaire. breh. broi. warmth ch'an. heath. . . G. Gael. who is steaming with sweat. to browse. A — . brd. Bret. heat. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. as rhododendrons. b7-un. Mid. G. protecting the eye.brons. BROOK brook w. or shoot.

fescue . brus. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. 174. a brush. abroncar. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brustia. to brush. to break or burst. Poems.). or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. bruise exOFr. Lang. brMt. broustia. E. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. and sighid therewithal. break. a crum. escousse. biirste. Cot. tremely. . a flax comb. dust. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brosst.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. borste. effort. desbrisar. Pr. OE. It. quisquilise. OFr. to crush. brusca. a bristle. . Pr. bruzir. In E. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. briketo. brusco. modification of the same root which gives the E. borste. fragments. Fl. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. bud. a brush . brugir. It. bruskr. bruc. borst. detergere . —Chaucer. brista) or breaking out . Prov. Piedm. G. a little brizal. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Bruise. a bud. Gael. a brush . brossa. brist j Port. Alexander. chips. Fr.). a brush. burt. rods. Bret. See next article. — a bush. bruire. to make brusshes on. Brunt of a daunger. field. The same relation holds good between G. B?-usske. a shrub composed of small twigs . brikan. and . or shoot. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. bricalio. broken. crush. brottcher. Brunt. brico or brizo. but on whom it schall to brisen him. Broach. tuft of grass or hay. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. bruis (sing. brousso. It. On the other hand. brise. insultus. rubbish. britar. brushwood. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. brusg. a blow. flax-comb brossettes. a — — (Agea) said. The Lat. a noise. bruscolo. . a briser. a rumbling. broust. ON. and also Brush. to strike the foot against an obstacle. Fr. shock. shoot brouskoad. remnants of hay or fodder. bris. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break.— — i. a brush. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. and actually come in collision. briiis (in the pi. Lang. broza. bross. bruito. to make a rumbling. and in the second place a besoiB. brossar. Port. brustia. — those signifying a sprig. shivers. into a multitude of points. rubbish. Cot. Diez. dust. a brush . orts. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . brunt. bris. brisd. . brusc (Diet. to stumble. p. and Piedm. bruyere. britar. ling or heath for brushes. a mote. Gael. brizeto. Gael. NE. * Brunt. Fr. Sw. broza. Allit. brist. . Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. burs. brisar. Piedm. insilio. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. To brush then would be to dust. a brush Swiss bruske. ca7-bo>i. quasi twigs. A. Pr. of twigs. to break. a bristle. bris. E. Pr. brysan. bruiser. brous. brist. K. a horse-brush. 134. Gael. wool-card.— Palsgr. brist. wool-card. to break. or sodenly comyn' dust. 201. Sw. splinters. also a head-brush. to butt. G. brik. — Fr. sordes. . to cleanse. bushy ground. — OE. bush. as It. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. Bav. twig. crum bit . twig. brossa. and It. an enmy. AS. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. a bush of hair. Beryn. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. borste. seems named from burst(on. irruo. coal See Breeze. heath. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. . Wicliff. fasx . brosse. E. Pm. Castr. Hall in R. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. brusco. bruscolo. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Prov. Prov. And that best is. Pm. Palsgr. Text Soc. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. Fr. brust. bross. blow burcar. rubbish. appearin Goth. a bud or sprout Bret. brusca. brosse. The Bav. a brush . mg Cat. brustid. Fr. it schall be al Sw. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. a tuft of heath . wood composed OE. briser. biirste. to break to bits . dust.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. borste. Brush. —Fabyan. Bruit. dust. bruit. brous. borste. bruscia. wool-card. Sp. brit. Prov. bris.). That in all haste he wouli. brosst.

different form. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. lye. hump. hump. Etym. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. It. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. buborek. bifbel. . bub. lye. to wet Pol. to soften. to butt. It. and then to other wild tumour Lith. Esthon. a fescue. tuft. blast or strike with the forehead. The place of such a 2.-wtt miekki. mote. to soak. top. says Laudon. This bubette. a steep for flax. caned' Hence those who established them. or mok. w. and the bunch. . boh. open lath-work. bucaIndies. . The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. buck-ashes. to Gael.boukaat. to butt. blister. and as a verb. bouc.buchen. soft . . from colar. The cipally on the Spaniards. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . bucquer. to soften. Magy. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. when soap was tion is commonly taken. bub. buquer. to bubble. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. colada. to stick.lessiver. soft It. also applied Una. tender. rap. to buck. plied in the W. pukkata. The natives of Florida. — . which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. bduclien. not so plentiful a commodity.biiken j Svi.D. to soak foul linen before washing. to soften . because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). the upper for coifee. bugd. a knock word. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. a push. to bump as a bittern. It. maban and baban. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. to which in their language they call bou. buck-ashes. buerj It. byge. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. mollire. to murmur. ac. The male goat. very generally designated by the same puk. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. — . Sp. News. to a place used for the mouillir. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. from weich. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp.wet Lat. a. does not hold. mokry. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. Gael. bugada. knock. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin.' Palsgr. was called bucking the linen.derivation has been much discussed. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. and Fr. a bubble. watery bud. wood. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. . Fin. See Dupe. The term bocan is still ap. I. a ashes. designation of a knob. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. bublati. soft. as a buck rabbit. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. bube. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. buquer. soft. the lower soak in lye. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. thunder gently . moczyd. as G. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Bohem. or projecTo Buck. — — ' A : ' ' . Fr. pup. it is beuchen. Pol. bouk. moist. Bret.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. bubauti.tare. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. of wind. tender. bucata. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. Bohem. bubbola. set of pirates in the spread. is 1.steep or soak. bukke. erweichen. boucaner. hog dressed whole). to soak.to allow a free current of air. mieknad. Formerly. a bubble . bubseti. molle. because bucare does not in Marsh). a. In G. de la Floride. soft. the linen at buck. Fr. Fr. . boc. . BUBBLE bruschetta. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. drying of produce. a to the male deer. in which the flesh dish. bubBuck. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. bucking. at a door. 1586. From an imita. buchen. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. bwch. to strain. Magy. was called in Fr. a bubble. the first wheal.byka. tap . Bubble. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. But see Bristle. faire la lessive. Pref A. A . Illust. Sp. Cot. Bret. and exercised their cruelties prin. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. smokipg meat were called buccaniers.— . The word was very generally Buccanier. Dan. w. to butt or jurr Dan. 17th century. Diet. boil animals. . Our next illustration represents the Bocan. bubiti. Pol. to filter. a hole. 1857. bog-aske. March 28. Sc. boc. The name. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. pokka7na. bokni. who resorted to the islands beichen.

from bugr. butzen K. botzen. a buclder or shield budge. buckel. water message. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. of bouge. boss. a . child. no wheel bogeilio. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Bus. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. Bret. The word is a ddyn. OFr. protuberance. motus creber. bog and G. Dan. bogla. boaLat. built. to butt. whom it is still much in use. call bo. mani. W. bulais daqui. and the reference to It. Bav. a short thick man. boach. bugnir. It. pwtio.' Hal. Wtb. a wallet. call. weich. don't stir from hence. boiling. or male of to boil .— . and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. scion. The dressed fur of lambs.may probably be explained by N. Sw. put. noise . ein.' Boccaccio. excrescence.' And this sacrament bus have dial. — — . to boss or swell out G.). to boil. imbuere.) . butze. bougette. bo. * Bucket. ornamental stud. cattle. the word w ' — . a bud. Bav. * Bud. . also a leather tuft .stuff. crack. rabodS. to pen cattle. bollire. w. Pied. The entire train of thought is bucket. a small shallow and open tub. explaining Fr. pote. a shoot. skins pushit'. Fr. w. weichen. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. and weichen. bouprobably identical with inok. bouter. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. . bud butzen.n. bod. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. ' . a shield. blow. to thrust. bulga. The knob or projection formN. Hardly identical with Fr. wallet. prick in a target. butt . It is explained by Miiller (MHG. dinted. bloca.t-le!L{ * Bud. weich. bloquier. to un bout d'homme. bloca. to swell. boulj. boglyn. pulga. a cowherd. in the beginning of to pierce holes. dint . goat's hoof. above mentioned. a curl. bullion. like a bean. . — . is doubtless fallacious. a servant. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. ble. Buck-bean. Dan. To thrusting part of a long body. male or botzen. Mid. to word. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. pulga. words is converted into b. Fr. bouk is a pail and with the dim. bunch . a stump buckle up. bocla. bougette. bukke-blad. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. hump. from bo./a. bod. boss of a shield. bulla. ' . of bac. turgere buczendig. K. convexity. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu.stumpy man. a pustule bout. boucaran. great pouch. clasp of a book. having a boss.chissima. budge.anything short of its kind.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. bul. Fr. become bochen. ' . from Gr. bucherame. call. Port. . Cot. a leathern sack. butz. Swab. botzen.) as to soak. with a central boss. boqueranmis. soft. bode. case of leather . a budget. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. a boss. a fold ceilio. a dumpy gin. bolgetta. a tuft. * Buckle.. probably from the notion of bubbling. boucle. to budge. bucket Fl. a navel. to graft or bud trees. the root of the Slavonic words gran. with let. G. Budget. seen in Hesse botz. See Bulk. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. bouger. a bubble three thyngis. brobrocchiere. II I'a feru desor I'escu. boucle. boccula. buachazlle.poot. a trough). A water-plant with leaves and gille.. . potz. — — . This expression boglire. thrust. stroke. bulka. loud Cot. . bucolicus. and of the Lat. Fr. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. to stir. to bud or bocla. . bolgia. It. bedde. Bucolic. were To Budge. need. to 'soak. bump. Hence quel. bub. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. Sp. belonging to the calling of the chen. no business to do that. clump. inboachen.' Schm. a little coffer or turgidus. don't a baby). Fr. Budge. knob dwfr yn boglynu. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. jSouKoXiKog. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. Lat. Russ. The Fr. . dim. Bret. a pail or flowers. bug. So on. bucherare. where the G. a buckle or protuberance. set of a plant in bulk. to move. . Prov. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. is to shrivel up. a budget. It termination is lost. the radical image seems to be a set plants. stir. bulb. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. bouclier. bunch. Prov. a boy. Behoves. A buckle or fastening for botch. of a surface. It. . a boss. fur. Pol. OHG. bouton.r//'. butzen. Buckler. boucle. In Lat. NE. with which it was ornamented.pode. knob .goa. macero. It.. boucler. bdden. to line with fur. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. rump of fowls . sboge. butzen. Du. Mid. knock. swelling. Du. — . a ring. lump. a bump. Gael. bouljein. bouge. swelling. push forwards. to poke. trunk of wood covered with leather. gjeit-klauv. ON. pwt o Fr. Prov. butzen (Du. stud. as in Fr. Fr. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle.Lat. agreeing with Gael. Fr.

Sc. thus be translated to tap. Sc. to give benti. Lith. to puff. — — — Buffet. — retailing buffeter buffetier. a side-board. A — Bug. Lat. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. buffet. of colours. Thus buffet would a tapster. Buffalo.D. dial. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. God's boast seemed feare children. made to —Bugbear. a block-headed noddy. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. dull sound./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . air. Fr. bugs. as Diez remarks. le reste emplissant d'eau. word other cases. made by a person. a budget. buffeteur. buffa.' La Crusca. Fl. Buffeter. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. a jester. a goblin). caupo. yar^aa. a In . E. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. puff. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to frighten . to beat. The children were playing in an oppocomer. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. constitutes the game of Bo-peep.' perfield. bwg. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. as emblematically making light of an object. to excite terror in Macleod. — Bogle. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. site The two — — iii. buffalo. scarecrow . sounds. buffet. a hollow sound. Cot. popo. pulse . buffare. mumming. wine may The verb in taverns. The cry made to excite terror is then used. rebuff. while in Sp. A puff with — Fl. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. a puff. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. smells . for this purpose is very widely spread. soufflet. mingled with water. Esthon. — thence it has been transferred in E. bw. to rePl. or hath been Cot. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. bolgia. ' They rether puffed at him.D. often blown upon. a cuff or buffet. Bufetarium. leathern bucket. and in Fr. buffle. Buffoon. the place whence the wine was drawn. From bulga. bo ! an interj. Gael. senses. bubus. a buffle or a bugle. a clap. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. bugbear. wauwau. buffen. to jest or sport. btifetarius. as wine that hath taken wind. bobaow. by metaphor. Fr. bubiti. A blow. the buffe. Swiss baui. to blow . G. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. &c. bufogni. dausinti. — Z. Teet-bo. blurt or puff with one's mouth.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. either alone or with various terminations. bubach. a skin. a bugbear. to strike face to represent the unknown. Romola.— Buflae. boo. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . botffon. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. boman. as from Lith. a dull BUG From 109 — A . things in Jam. baubau. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. bubaRuss. to blow. Limousin bobal. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . colour. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. or wild ox. Lith. buff leather.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. confused. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. Buff. w. bauwi. buffare.D. Fr. to give a as of a blow. bufHe. bumann. to signify an indefinite object of terror. from souffler. buivol. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. to a representation of his voice. Buff. him but Boyd iugges. Fr. buffer. deadened. bau ! children. Fr. bolgetta. to blow souffleU. stupid. It. — La Crusca. It. to bellow . buffet. buffets. buffle-headed. tabernarius. to marre often tasting it . cuff . W. also a G. bufogni. from It. dausa. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Cot. Mid. bukow Ikow. From buff! of terror. Pl. bw! It. to puff. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. breath. duff^ dull. Pl. buffetto. een duffen toon. Lat. Hence the E. It. human. Magy. bouffer. . The use of the exclamation children. 265. —Boggart. bugle. often covering his E. buMagy. It. tastes. bouffer. a hobgoblin.—Buffet.

also a bug-bear. bwgwl. a buffalo. to roar Aasen. . a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. monster. tion of the beetle tribe. and in Lat. scarecrow . a silk-worm. used in the same sense. bogil bo (e. See The name terror). to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. Manx boa. Swiss ing. 493. biignt. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. the buggaboo w. Hence bugle-horn. to bellow. poggl. pugalo. is the dim. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. Mid. 2.. hert. Bug as a lord. buculus. high-sounding words.Lat. the Devil. bogk.Fr. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. a boogg. also a bug-bear. especially to beetles or winged insects. Magy. of bugabo was given. bwgar. great or bug words. Cheval de trombugti. a goblin. (Spurrell).3uhtii&:. — boogg. affright. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. high. bug-bear. to take fright. an insect. It. Bug. bugar. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. buggabod). coco. is very common. any disgusting animal. Fl. to origin in the expression bugs words. Illyr. bugbear. disgust. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. bold. threatening. roo. bauginti. Lith. paws the ground . terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. to take fright. Bible. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. rose-bug. tumble-bug. Grisons bau. bugle. dial. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. banian boube. and in child's Magy. with more or less modification represents bau. boa-peep. superbire. buba. an object of terror. buffle. xiv. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. long. threatening. protuberant. bug. swollen. a rabme. a beetle. bucula. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. bukashka. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. to frighten scarecrow. Grose. and a boggarty ing. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. bwg and E. il brutto Demonio. It. mask ' . bobal. beugler. given in Chaucer. gad. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. and bugle. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. to creeping things. w. bogil. iv. the word is lin) bbgge. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Same as buffle. quos what produces dread or disgust. Big.loud noise. Bugle. — — terror. E. An ornament of female dress condread. a bug-bear. W. bbgni. bugler. larva (a bug-bear. insect. The w. The name of bug is — . worm. Lett. to take bug. bau (Pureiglia. ghost. Schmidt. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. Bdronie. bogk. earwig bau da grascha. Chaucer. pugaf. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. : no BUG . oxen. a proud overbearing man pujat'. shepe and gootes. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. and is Deutsch. — — ' . to bellow. . language any kind of insect. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. I. boo. of pipes sewn on. bukati. well as the terrific object. BUGLE Tentennino. Lesachthal. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — .. A similar applica. Swelling. bok. Stalder bog. * 2. Parolone. Hal. Russ. as Buffalo. the black a maggot. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. vermin. fear. a bug-bear. bug-bear. bug dung-beetle. as an object of dread. booggen. Swiss booggen. . provincially an insect. 1551. thus connected with bug. Mundart. Fl. roarHal. baco. The final guttural of W. forSc.— . a bugbear for children. Serv. Deut. Bogge. saucy.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. Sp. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. Lap. blustering. fette. insect. a misshapen person. a. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. boeuf sauvage. b'dgni. according to Coles. — — . bug-bear. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. troll. i. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. also a baco-baco. big. Magy. 3. bogle. fierce. . Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. proud. — . Sw. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. terrifying ward. pujalo. then a horn for drinking.

. bug. belgr.' Festus. a. a prominence. projection. balg.' Palsgr. gebolgen. bua. bulcke. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop.' Anat. be protuberant. bulk or capacity of anything. domicilium. habitaculum. bulbe. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. Jno.d. as it was merly written in English to bylle. mass. Here stand behind this bulk. of E. the body Du. unevenness Sw. swollen. PoXj3a. Othello. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. the capacity or burden of a ship. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. the carcase. . Bolke or hepe. ' . boa. G. Dan. to raise a habitation. belly Cat. Dan. ' . pocket. . — — . in Sc. blister Manx bolg. lump. a lump or mass. or of what is shaped like a bubble. a water-bubble). . bulk is a partition of boards. pimple. of an inflated skin. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. to throw out a convexity. knot in thread. The radical sense is shown in Russ. snorting on a bulk.). sedes. skin flayed whole. w. skin bag. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. or. With these must probably be classed ON. and N. Hence e. bouk. and put it home. To Build. bolg. Bulge.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. ' . globule bolg-lhuingey. acervus. lump. belgja. (3oX|8oc. The addition of a dim. See bollekeii next article. Bulk. and bulbukd. — — . bale. it again. a bubble Gael. bauch. bo. 1388. husk. . cumulus. knob. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. or bear out as a full purse. Lith. belly. to build. Kil. belly. bwlg. the belly. bol. bubbling up.pulks. swell. A — ' — Bulk. a leathern sack or portmanteau. swell. bulkaf. It. balcone. formed a farm. herd^ swarm pulkd. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. at riufa bulkann. mass. belly van de kerche. cultivate. Pr. bolso. a globe. blister. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bulge or bilge. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). bulge or convex part of a cask. OSw. to gather. Lat. skin of an animal. . ON. as well as is very variable. vulva. bullka. dial. trunk. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. a stage or scaffold. bulka. bulgen. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. . . bulbus. buk. on. balg. He found a country fellow dead drunk. bulgen. a leather sack or budget Fr. to bubble up. Lith. m um Placentiae. . jnake bulch. Muratori. a bulb Du. to belly out. a round bulky body bwlgan. in bulk. bulki. bubble {palgan tiisge. — . to swell. belly. compare Da. bolgna. hold or bilge of a ship. Bourser. bolgia. anything prominent. ball. buc. bole. bukr. bulwis. knob.'— Cot. bubble. . head . For the latter sense ' — My . a dint in a metal . Pm. principal portion. boulge. pod ON. bulked or bumped out. Lett. ON. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. swell. bauen. I. straight will he 2. Sp. Bulch. bulk. turgeo bolnyd. boss of a buckler. Gr. Melancholy. bilge. Bav. Mister. belly. womb. blow. to bubble up Pol. Ptg. van loock. puff. body of an animal. bunch or projection. balgs. . a tuberous or bulbous root . bolgan. bulg. balco. to puff up bolginn. to break bulk. has bulbuk. From till. nave or body of the church van 't schip. . The Walach. pouch builgeadh. bouge. the contents of the hold. the head of an onion. tumidus. — Bulb. bellows builgean. tumeo. inhabit. — . crowd. . See how this tode bolneth. . OSw. the position of liquids in the word In English. bulbe. body of a ship . trunk of the body. pulkas.' Fl. as water beginning to boil bolg. Mandeville. a straw corn-vessel. swollen OE. . bubble. beuck. Pm. body. trunk. were a habitation. to swell. to blow. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. a bunch. bol. bugue. or cargo of a ship. to undo the cargo. bubble. . bolnyn.— . In this latter sense the word is identical with It. boss. MHG. hollow. a bubble. knobby. Lat. biilken. bag. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. ne. or feminine termination gives Bav. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. the womb. bulle. bolle. bolle. G. . thorax buick. Boss^. blister. bulne. Gr. a protuberance. bolgetta. leather sack. in vessel. buhe. hull of a ship. Palco. See Bulk. ^ — . wallet. bladder. stuffed bag. to bol. In the representation of natural sounds. a. Pr.' Cot. belly. boss. — — . chest. Hal. to spring. belly Sw. bol. bed of a river. villa. the potato G. a heap. byli. G. whence bylja. boss of shield.

also of the tadpole or young frog. See Bowl. bole or trunk of a tree. many to protuberant objects. the matrix or die . a seal. boss or stud. Bullbeggar. a bull. in the sense of base metal. round glass phial. however. biitzibau. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. boulct. stud. a tadpole . bellow. stamped money. whence bullire. Eullrusli. bulloi. bwbach. bauli. lumpish. large of its kind. The bullfrog. is of a class with Pl. Du. A lace tree. BuUiou. I. a seal. a noisy violent fellow. is called a ball. bullern. Pm. dim. from the Lat. beams or boards. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers.' do not go by the dangerous water. balgeting. bulla. pollach. as the ornanails. bietebau. witches. 2. And The word bullerbak. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. bouillon. i. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. and vellon in Sp. leraures nocturni nigri. bollon. as a mill-dam or the like. a stud. from baula. G. bwla. a hobgoblin. any embossed work. and thence terror. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. b2iggaboo. poltern. of the ox kind. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. spirits. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. bouillon. to tical with Sw. it may be observed that a bullet in E. This word is used in several senses. a scare-bug. pimple. in N. as It. to seal. any great-headed or studded nail. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. thick.'— ' Palsgr. dial. bulke. embossed work. bolla. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge.. bollos de relieve. bullocks. a blockhead. bugbear. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. polten. scarecrow. — A tition in a ship. boss. Du. from Lat. G. Du. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. bulle. of boule. Pl. stud. — — Bull. bwlas. bollar. hhint. a bowl. poll-cheannach. to bubble. pwl. &c. bullos. Bullet. Fr. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. ON. on the contrary. a wasp. a cow. Gael..' Baret's Alveary in Hal. It. Bullfrog. — Fl. bolli. bal. N. from the noise.lle de fusil. Dan. billon. Lith. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. a little fish nearly all head. of Witchcr. assito. poli-cheannan. a framework of balks. a hornet. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. baula. The wild plum. See Billet. as in E. BulUiead. ba. 3. G. Fr. eth and frighteth. Cot. W. a bulox polos. large.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. Bullace. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. billoti in Fr. Scot's Deso. stamp. sloes. /SouWivu. it is boulet de canon. A papal rescript. The male W. G. It. a bul-begger. blister. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn.D. a hobgoblin.. tition of deals instead of a wall. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. to emboss . Du. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. signifying roaring. whence Mod. which may probably be the origin of the name. bulderen. as geting. the seal affixed to the document. bolli. bullebak. bullus. to boil. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. elves. bellocier. Bully..D. penbwl. but is more probably iden- palchetto. The final element tergeist. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. 2. w. coarse. bulk. Sp. w. bolos Fr. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the .Gr. bulla. boillon.D. . a bull Swiss bullen. also a parFl. a beam or rafter. a tadpole. Gold or silver uncoined. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. lumpheaded .Fris. Bret. Terriculamentum. bubble. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. brass-headed nail . urchens. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. to bellow. bulk of a thing. blunt. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. from the use of the equivalent terms. child by the represents the hobgoblin. stupid . from Fr.

resonare. ^i^/«. biihne. Bum-bailiff. — bombam?nen. — — plate d'argent. provides. Kiittner. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. Miege in Hal. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. vallum. provides. bombilare. ground. Hal. Philip le Bel in Due. Du. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. polterer. or work of defence. buene. Bully. Fris. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. Fr. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. The cry of the bittern. buller-jaan (bully. 2. to drum Lat. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. intonare. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. ierd-boeyme. to dun. 2. 1305. Bailey. bulderen.' reals of standard currency. 2. scaffold. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . bustle. The Sw. a floor. a hectoring. Kil.' for the purpose of exchange. violent overbearing person. propugnaculum. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. bolderen.. bottom. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. Bully-rock. The Stat. The 27 Ed. c. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. — Boom. on the other hand.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. block-werck. a stage. a. a blunderhead. a boisterous. a bumble-. boulevard. and porter au billon. For bottom. bottn. From the notion of a humming. ierd-beame. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. BULLY with which coins were stamped. c. — Bump. furious man. — Bumto . blunder-buss. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. blaterare. violent. beat a — Hal. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. blunder-buss. poltem. 10. by corruption boulevart. or a humblebee. botm.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. bodem. bommele. 1687). buller-bas. buller-bak. is bullion — A — buller. To bum. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. hum. III. 'lega. AS. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. sound.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made.. to make a noise . G. Kil. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. to terrify by noise and clamour. minari verbulderen. boene.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. bol-werck. A. G. c. buller-bas. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees.D. but now is the central part of the town. Etym. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. &c. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. Bum. Thus ' ble.' Again. D. Du. Sw. St. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . droning. ^Bully-rook. from boden. to . primarily the ramparts of a town. perturbare saevis dictis. To bully is to bluster. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. bomtnen. a noisy blustering fellow. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. to make a droning Du. 14. The decried coin. bastion.' ' mettre au billon. IIL st. buller-brook.' agger. argentum and silver. un faux brave. It. debacchari. Du. boisterous fellow. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur.' Stat. IV. To bum. 9 E. To Bum. honunele. up was termed monnaie de billon. is called bumping or bells. clamour. Fris. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. Hence bom and ban. Hence — .the ramparts. ON. John). then in general a rampart. agrees with e. legaggio di metallo. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. noise.D. baluarte. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. 4 Hen. the soil.d. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. G.

throw down with a bang. dial. to beat. bulscha. . pwmpio. Gael. A clumsy. Probably for bun-boot.. bugnet. bumsen. stubble of beans. a boil or blain. a knock. are dim. to strike so as to give a dull sound. clown. Daal bu7iseti. to bang down. knochen. Du. gibber. from knock) It. BUNCH bum-bailiff. bunken. S. Forby. Li cake. to beat. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. bun with ON. — round fruit. pompon. bunt. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. bonnock. pwmp.). Bony. bans. to knock . Mrs Baker. —Bunny. a person employed to dun one for a debt. strapping. binge. and related with ON. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. bunsen. bongie. Pr. truss E. bugno. to . forms. inconsiderately. a lump on the foot bunny. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. pompette. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. Bumsen. Manx bonkan. Pm. ner. . passes Sw. . Bums it's hit. . stump. bon. — stalk . a Sp.' Bun. Sc. to . Bun. pumpurras.-^Fl. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. bune or boon. abrupt manbuns-wise. lenten loaves. w. the Pr. root. also for taking a pilot to a ship. bung. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. E. Suffolk bonnka. . one ever saw the word in that shape. bull. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. applied to young persons.pummel. See Bunch. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. Bung^. banga. Probably from bump.D. bunkc. Bump. or to the mass by which it is given. bunke. to ' . large. ! — knocking. or grete knobbe. cluster. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bonge. Holland and Flanders. poumpido. a purse . a hemp-stalk. a bump. a knob. nor would it concern the public if he did.S. bund. while bulch was traced through Gris. a bag or sack. A Du. bum-boot.D. Moor. as in other cases. a swelling from a blow. pwmpl. a. trunk. bmidt. a. Hal. any round knob or bunch.P.' Palsgr. He fult dat et bunsede. bunga. a bowl P1. signifying one who does things in a thumping. poumpi. bumtel. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Fr. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. bmike. bun. a dry No . w. He buncheth me and beateth me. H.. . round mass of anything. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. bannock. Pm. tundo. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. OSw. Thus e. strike E. Hence E. bunki.D. Pl. calamus. clumsy. a rabbit. . stubble Manx bun. Bunch. stalk. Lang. bottom. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. bunnion. awkward. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. callus. stock. as we have seen E.— Pr. Related on the one side to Pl. lungeous. &c. mto Sp. Bumboat. E. Bunk. Again. Radically identical with Dan. lump. and signifies consequently a mass. the tail of a hare. stock. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a bunch. a round mass . bulse. bunan. Dan. to thump. Dan. a knob . Hal. a boss Lith. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. — Marine Diet. root. to bang ON. a heap or cluster. from bunsen. banke. a heap. Fl. a rabbit. 1. a bud. seems to unite Gael. hdk passing and E. explaining E. bunga. bulto. Bunch. dial. Hal. a knob. a heap. a dried hemp-stalk. Hal. hay stubble . il me pousse. knob or heap. Kyx or bunne. boi7ieog. — — Bun. — — — — ' — knock. buns. to bang. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. a boil (punkos bot. gibbus. a pumpion or gourd. a bunch Magy. knuckles. so the form btmk. . But his special office is to dun or bum for debts.D. See Boss. a wallet.! . butt end.' he fell with a bang. Then. Bang sen. Bunewand. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. blain. a into Dan. — — de dor bunsen. . to swell out E. . Pl. a pocket Sw. bunka. any round knob or bunch. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. Sc. . foundation w. bugnone. a hump. bunch— Hal. especially girls. Dunchyn or bunchyn. a button. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. a heap OSw. bugno. It. a large . bun eich. bottom. Fr. To bam. bamgetroffen. bundle. Roding. bunny. bolsa. . . bonuach. bump. botn. stem or base. Gael. Ir. bu<rnone. bignet. an old stump of a horse. awkward clown. . bottom bun feoir. — — Bun. bungersome.— Bunnion. E. a knotty stick) Sw. stump. See Bounce. should probably be a short tail. a swelling. Bumpkin. a heap Wall.^Cot. Pm. protuberance. noise. pumpa. a tail (Macleod). the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated.

a bunch. B. burboloti. do a thing bunglingly. knocking. OFr. bounta. bimge. the loose open grow big about or gross. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. punishments for prisoners. To burgeon. bongani. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bundel. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. halm-tapp. working in wood (especially with an axe). boj. of a song. modem bummle. anchor or of a net boyar. bourion. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. to work at carpentry bangan. bouchon. bundt. to float. or putting forth of a vine. the bung of a barrel Lim. Cot. Lat. E. Cat. with the head. bangla. the stopper of a cask). boil or bubble up. dicimus rufum.D. tap. knocking. The stopper for the hole in a boia. a wisp of hay or straw. to gingle. racket . . — btiruii. bundle. to kick. B. Banff. Sp. — — To Bungle. is originally a wisp or bunch . to Somerset is to sift. buove. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. bonde. Rietz. AS. . — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. buret. fetters. ghebundte. ' — work . gyves. banga. the float of an bundle. klempern. an anchor buoy. something bound together (Mrs Baker). 202. . bote. bondir. borgonota. bondelj bundell. To bunt. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. generally known as the material of which bud. OFr. guggle as water. also a piinple in the face. rumble as the bowels. To do anything awk- wardly. to gingle. a boye. are from bouscfie. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. tapp (whence tceppa. bangla. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bondon. contignatio. reddish brown. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. dark. in is Fr. Biu'geon. bommen. tinkle. bove. stilmpern. boya. bourguignote. and Du. to bolt meal. bang. and now more Bailey.' Festus in Diez. Muratori. Bunt. to stnmi on an instrument. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. was formerly pronounced buro. to hum. to knock. Fr. biirde. The word is flags are made. Burganet. Burden. la Borgonota. russet. especially in wood. It. Sw. Palsgr. bindini. to stop. loosed from bonds. Fr. to hum. a bung. to work ineffectually. * Buoy. Johansen. ho-tapp. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. Burble. OG. Kil. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. See Barbarous. So in Pol. boucher. bunta. and the Sw. and van t' vat. Bung of a tonne or Lith. The Italian buio. to push with the head del. Pl. buret. or used as a receptacle for papers. bou^e. Sp. shove . a bungler. burion. bourjon. to stop. Prov. banghagr. Bret. a cork. bummle. coassatio et Du. Burden. dial. to bud forth. to cobble. to strum on an instrument. Sw. knock. to shove. a drum . or tuft. Sp. the noise of drums. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. bui. a water bubble made by rain. bouche. byndel. colligatio. to push ghebondte. dark grey bura. borboUar. bang. however. bolting-cloth. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. sprig. shackles. to bungle. So Du. Burly. bury. Sp. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. to knock. G. A bubble. bond. the young cloth used for sifting flour. bunsen. driving in the bung. would be the earliest float for an anchor. Sw.punt. See Bourdon. bourgeon. to bear. p. the middle part of it. whence in bure. The Magy. See Borel. — Bureau. Compare G. The belly or hollow of a sail. The Fr. to hum. klimpem. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. whence bunting. stiimpeln. Fr. Fr. to botch. bag to catch the wind. bondeau. and bomme. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. boei. dial. to push. — — . bondel-loos. racket. properly a Burgundian helmet. N. a bunch Burbulas. Bung. bon. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. — . that the primitive meaning of shackle . AS. noise. Russ. Fl. To Bunt. to in to stop the hole. buie. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. clumsy performance. See Bun. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. stocks or such OSw. bongun. bonde.Fris. . and E. byrthen. Bundle. on. on. as it still is in Modena and Bologna.— . G. unskilful working. Prov. fascis. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . Du. A Dan. clogs. Bunting. a sort of helmet. from beran. to pype. a botch. Bunny. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. tinker . bungande. Hal. . to resound. A load.

Fr. lerre. burle of cloth. burgeois. brandung. a lie. an &c. to rub.. In the same way ON. a purling hiwe brennen. to Gael. burlare.. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. thence. Burn. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. embraser. singe or scorch with fire. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. to polish helmets. .. is termed burling. purra. tumentum. a bubble. brunnen. sidiary element. leo Fin. borr. roguing beggars. a prominent eye borracka. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. bremmen. brinii. occupying much space. bouril. Sw. to surge.latus rei angulatas talikoincn.' a jibe. burren. a bubble to spring as water. knob. The Gael. A burl. with little iron nippers called burling irons. brim or edge of anything. OE. . brusler being a faulty spelling. brinna. must be explained on the same principle from G. explaining Sp. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. joking. taunt. the J in OFr. to To Bum. Probably. brima. Limousin bourdo. mockery. from bryii. to swell oneself out as birds borras. the flocks. bourglairs. a blaze. pressa puret. buirleadh. a jest. Castrais bourril. Bouffer. big. to hum. a jest. Prov. to burn. angular . Swiss Rom. to make a So from Fin. sicut sound. . From Fr. boiirre. in Schm. warbling.or bubbling up. Burgh.j'own. bruse. Lang. and the Burin. Burlesque. bururus. with Dan. repartee . like. brustolare. to ridicule. See under Bore. de Vaud. broil. — — . strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. swelling borr-shuil. brase. — . Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. to polish.). blow. Pr. Gael. OFr. Burgess. to grind on a whetstone. &c. water. j. which has given much trouble to etymologists. briis^. a bud. Fr. G. Swiss Rom. has also borr. Burler. pur (see Burgeon). a gurgling ^. In the manu. de Vaud. sbornoi. — . brausen. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. Fl. flocks. Supp. to ridicule.Ps. ' rugiens. purling. a well. brunir. become big and proud. to puff up borr^ . and Dan. The primary origin of the word. Pm. to sharpen. OFr. burgen. ii6 BURGESS Gael. sea. to roar (as lions. brunna. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. borrelen. abourioner. It. It is probable indeed that Fr. burn. to bouronna.sharpen. watery. tahko. brynsten. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. ON. protuberance. to roar. spring-water bumach. to burn. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. brustle. ^ttsa. boura. schleiffen. — — . grancelli. as of suggests. Cot. Bav. is connected with brim. Walach. compared with G. the roaring surge of the — — — . brAler. — — . as the / in purl. and the Burnish. Burgher. A legal term from the Lat. it of the knots. It. 56. like the wind in trees. BURNISH i5«r/. Bav. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. a fountain. to roar.— . Lang. from the roaring sound of flame. Hence Bridel. bururus. Sw. he rustle. burly. brimmen. toast. a bladder. to fiy. brinnen or Also ein roar.bryna. . bud or sprout forth. It. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. Probably a modifica.' Cot. See Burgeon. Nat. a wine skin. as in cousteau.). borracka. brunnr. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. bunch. surge or dashing of the sea . to roar.— Pr. to roar 5. brasa. language of folly or ridicule. the word seems Pm. The in. bourd. to roar. to puff. Pren7ien. to swell. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. explaining the E.). Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. crackle wood in burning Hal. brook. N. ends of thread. the er is a dresser of cloth. Fr. boure. Compare also Piedm. condemnentur morti. 122. to set on fire. Sp. burgi latro. borni. Goth. Burly. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. a spring a robber. Burryn. to polish. and OG. as Diefenbach bud. See Burr. lorra. i5«r4 biiirte. to swell with pride. A — — . Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. Bestiary. Dief. to murmur. G. Antiq. burgensis. tion of the root which gave the OE. ^Notk. to burgen or wax big. From the same root E. E. robber. to have acquired the sense of polishing. swell up or strout out. tahkoa. an edge.ireui£r:e. Burglar.. jest of. Todd. to bud . word would thus signify water springing To Burl. ends of thread. to bourda. barrel. a margin. a knob. purrata. So also Sw.. from Lat. to tell lies. to sharpen on a whetstone. a whetstone. fire. bourou. Bret. brun. Schm. to effervesce. fires up. is an Thus G. dial. borujon. to give an edge to. laer. OE. bears. born. See Berough. bruzir. ridicule. Fl. — Han to bruser op. ample of polishing metal. like straw or small .

from Fr. a place of defence. burre. also all such stuff as hay. This word seems safety. ultimately resting on the Gael. break . appears under the Lang. . hair. a pad. Burse. chips or anything else Fl. OHG. casting bullets. preserve. byrsa. ON. borra. Gael. bur. dial. the — — castle or fortress. ptcrren. a. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. shuffling. dial. cover. to P'air. straw. purr. of England. G. blurra. brast. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. The root forms brik. a purse. byrgels. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. G. brest. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. barza. brjota. 2. Fr. bres- — tan. to break. talk fast and indistinctly.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. the officer who bears the purse. bur. to hide . bristen. AS. Shelter. shearing of cloth. and met. fortify. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. — Clare. Fr. i5(7&a. Swiss burren. birgan. karborre. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. Sw. borsia. Hence Fr. burgisli. peluca to Fr. briso. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. bolsa to It. bris. husks. whence Kil. its own protection. impetus. Burrow. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. idiom if 4. Bursar. Du. In a met. coo. Burial. Du. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. brittle. A rabbit burmotion. stuffing. to buzz. shelter. when they spring So in W. buscha. bersten. be more in accordance with AS. to stuff. With a slightly different ghen. Fr. Burr is related to buzz as protect. Dan. brist. birigean. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. preserve. To Burst. It. Mid. borsa. brickie.. explained E. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. also ' any such trash as chaff. and spelling. -burse. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. byrgen. an annular swelling. cwning-gaer. whirr. ON. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . an exchange. whirr and burr. to burst.' edge grew weak. Port. . pipaa. borrow. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. a barn or cupboard. bourse. a wallet or scrip. a purse. burial place. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. shales. byrigels. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. any rapid whirling biarga. any kind of quilting or stuffing. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. brisdeach. swell. Hal. to mutter Sw. verbergen. as it is still pronounced in N. bolgia. Jam. I. bourse. of a body hurled through the air.' The same word with burgh. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. 225. from whence we pass through Sp. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. bourrer. borsa. a morsel. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. OHG. a port. Burse. bourlet. brizeto. leather. burra. birr. Brun on bane. a sepulchre. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. AS. root borr. some people in pronouncing the letter r. to hide. from AS. &c. bourrelet. as for the protection of a child's head. brico. foretell great storms at 3. caer is a — — — ' ' : . . ber•whirr to whizz. prsnuti. berstan. beurs. brit. mentioned under Burgeon. to bury . See Burgeon. britar. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. S w. force.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. 5150. ' ' — — burren. borra. as in Northumberland. See Bulge. borre. moss. Burser. as from Sp.Lat. and. a rabbit burrow. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. Sw. tomb. bergen. brist. bris. byrstan. makes the disbursements of the college. but it is more probably a development of It. signifying protrude. — Translated by Kemble. beorgan. -Grisons bulscha. and thence flocks 'of wool. Fris. brista. Compare also OE. perruque. bristeach. save. briketo. briser.' Harris in Todd. Beowulf. brisd. bourre.— . Cot. iii. borre. In OE. E. To Bury. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. brittle. &c. a harness or collar maker) . It. byrgan. Burr. to save. that birds make their nests with. g. Sexy. ' BURR AS. keep. brokil and brotil. skin. brown. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the .

To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. barsc in Heimskringla. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. a corpse). we have Fr. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. besom). bosc. bush. Prov. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. sur une litifere. that the lend had lorn thorn. See Box. Bouchet. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. cluster. Gr. oneself. a clot of phlegm sart. bua. a troop. clusprobably Morocco leather. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . and we actually find bushel. the past participle of the same verb bua. OFr. basse. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. ' —P. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp.— ' ii8 {chreo. roquies. ' . Malberg. from the ON. So from Fr. truasc. buskr. to swell. bouche. borseof trees. protect . bundle * Buskin. bussellus. Le roy Richard mort. van wijnbesien. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him.' The word is explained by — — . And her ful sone tuft. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. a bush. the idea of knocking. In to Brutaine.' sheath. to forest of Eyda. the land. to bow. To prepare. beorgan. Thus Froister . Sir Tristram. to prepare. a bunch of twigs. bulge. a tuft. for at buasc. in OE. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. bousIn the other copy ser. bussare.gur bidst austur um EySascog. to turn. bustula. tow. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. bos. a -tavern bush. to dress. Sibriht that I of told.' meaning of bua is simply to bend.-^Bushel. biichse. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. See Bust. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. . a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. barst. Sw. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. 410. bulk. a box for measuring corn. apparently a secondary verb. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. a been written buasc.P. a bush. gave Lat. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. a tuft.fiasc. bush. the Moors and of Morocco. tuft. OFr. defence. bunch. bustellus. 'at bua sik. knot. to bury. to bend one's steps. a hump. preserve. brodiquin. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. basse. bosch (a diminutive ?). The primary sense of hair . busk. Mid. Du. Ptg. or — Busk. The word frequency with which to busk is used. projection. aheap of stones.Lat. AS. at bua sig. borghen. a rampart. Bush. is thus accounted for. signifying to entomb. and not directly (as Du. whente beorg. berghen. a box. or the like. . Layamon. as boun is simply buinn. then a tuft Sp. To Busk. : — . borcegui. a little box Dan. Thence byrigean. hjul-bosse. wisp. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. rad. busse. . burial mound. fiast. Fris. a bunch. ' . to enclose in a case or box. and he cites wisp bauschen.) to hide in the ground. . diminutives. . busken. boissa. Brunne. BUSH hreaw. Brunne. buysschen. boiste. il fut couch6 l^jkema). They busked and malced them boun. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. a wisp. and thence Mid. condere.' a box. bo7ich (Fr. to keep. thicket of thorns . iriCtf -ifoe. whence bouchon. bossida. R.boisteau. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. make ready. dead. ch). bosta. -idis. Bush. induere vestes . boucher. a tuft of hair. The bone in a woman's stays. ' . whence at bua sik. and from the Fr. The radical idea is seen in Goth. at buast. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. ieorh. lump. in the For Skirnis . a gun biichse. to sepulchre. bousche. boisseau. It. to direct one's course towards. occultare K. a box. . ' . qualster-boscken. bousse. 2. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a bundle. boistel.' The buskin is said Bret. which would later have truast. AS. to stop. as synonymous with to inake one boun. brake. Sc. box wood to bush. bairgan. bundle. grapes. buxida. —Busk. Du. Harold G.Lat. thicket {buski. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. a grove bosch van haer. bossen. bussel. Du. Fr. buxula. G. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. a tuft guini. bramble. buxta. mount. bausen. It. boxta. brodequin tout noir. to dress. verb. abdere. hunch Du. It is certain that buast must once have Fr.

See Boss. mouth. Prov. Box. bisgung. brut. as in ON. buquer. — hardly be distinct from Fr.' Plin. its slowness of flight. the point of a lance. Fl. of a doublet. occupation. brostia as well as bostia. btcc. Prov. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. but. A wisp. bustla. a bust. a log. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. Xerqui. mohedairova. ' BUSY 2. bysgje. ship Sp. to Swab.d. — . occupied bezigen. Lang. Busitiess :c3iVi . log . basiuin. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . butz. buz. I go strepo) . Bav. or Cherqui. bist. fe^a. Walach. body of a man. would explain the G. Fr. Sp. body of garment. 119 bi{tr. trunk of a tree. stir. bulk. kiss. 22. ON. also a flagon. Hal. body. brusc. cata — . mosequin. Sp. a kiss. To hurry or make a great B. or avutarda. stem. Lat. busch. Bustard. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. bacio. austarda. AS. outarde. made stiff. trunk. Swiss butschen. body . stump. Buss. trunk. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a blow. tuft. . body of a woman's dress It. and supposes that the common Arab. I. to knock . otarda. lip. busc. Bulch. arbor ramis trunGloss. A great sluggish fowl. a kiss. geidha. biist. mouth. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. the breast. mogangas from gonj. Namur — Champagne Fr. bysgian. knock. mons. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. a bunch of flowers . The Prov. pussa. Sp.' ON. 2l box. busto. Bust. utarda. bussen. also a busk. hipista. lump. With respect to bust. buta. in Diaz Gris. Pol. small. the long. snout. and also a sounding blow. — Thus we should have mocherqui. morsequi. B. crack . forest. So Wes- terwald munds. busch. betarda. 2. also a It. body. bus. a Mid. a blow. Du. a fishing vessel. says. representing a blow. bisegung. a projection. Cat. busy. kiss. Sw. bucha. besongne. a tree. tarda. a bulk or trunk without a head. of the human body (Grandg. bu. buyse. bruskras well as buskr. a boat or small vessel . windbutsch. — — — — It is like the smouldering. On the other hand. as in moharra from harbe. ON. a large cljest or particular applibox. kupata. and then with avis again prefixed. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. busta. love gestures. 1372. Fr. a busk. putta. an ostrich. statue of the upper part of Fr. chest. a kiss of reverence. smack. a stroke of wind. Edrtst. busche. BUSS Dozy from Arab. baiser. the body without arms busque. a mouth. a great billet Cot. a backstock. to bustle. Rouchi. employment bisgan. bust. a ship of some size. — clattering about. bisg.bezig. business. or chest in which the vitals are contained. . bus. buc. 10. a. The proceedings of Parliament. knock. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. — — difications of the same word. plated body or other quilted thing. box. Gael. the trunk. bnist. Busk. Bust.pjik. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Business. Fr.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. outard. The form brust. buc. abutarda. So in Fin. I bustle. an affair. inde discurro et operosus sum. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc.D. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. beezig. lips. stump. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. Port. a bush. Fr. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. sunt quas Hispania aves . Nained from Proximse iis zia. I. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. to make a splash in the water. bust. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. bukr. besoigAe. Fris. ^A. Busy. from jnund. bussa. Lindenbr. Prov. forms morseqiiill. and by transposition morchequi. a kiss. Cot. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. bus and Pol. A A busquer (Sigart). Comp. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. worn to make the body straight . ViM. sera. 1555. 7o\. a sleeveless truss or doublet. Hence probably au-tarda.> Also written buskle. biseg. buc.Lat. to occupy. as in avestruz (^avis struthio).). thick end. especially of a woman's dress. busq.— . To Bustle. putschen. borcegui. abotarda. ottarda. work. vessel employed in the herring fishery. signifying trunk of a the body. body without arms and legs. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. beso. to make use of. trunk of Cot. ' bistardej It. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. avuDiez. lip.

add. collection of casks. But when will you pay it ? the belly. Lang. the body of an animal. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. bhcciero. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. Sp. original sense of without. ont jhi^ton. and the real origin of the and within . If that where now we should compiler. Whatever is in addition to Butler. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. botija. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship.in which his brethren are included. that which would be translated by Fr. rotundity of the body. "PLT) .' Thus Chaucer says. But It. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. bouz. those in beccaio. a leathern bag. bitlga. bole of a tree. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. butan. Butler. rumpf. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. AS.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. boucher. bocin. able. a barrel. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. viz. the body of a tree or of a man. Fr. Du. without buiten-man. Where at an earthen jar . calf. Buttery. bolr. besides that .' — — ' . ox. which the word corresponds to the Fr. Fr. outside that moreover. bolgia.jamin. Butcher. belly. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. sup- meat and drink. OFr. equivalent of AS. Wall. . calf of the ' say. also a hollow vessel . and it is essentially the same word with Lat. ' Besides all that. bochier. a budget. without care. Tooke's dis. boquier. earthen which the debtor has adverted. But In Sc. (children) boc. bute. Sp. young mais. skin-bag. from as. The E.streets. tinction between but. bitten dai. Here the but implies the existence of an. Lang. Fr. bola. a wooden cask. beta. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. viz. the servant in charge of the original object.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. bout. the principal apartment. the name must have arisen before the within. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. Butt. belly. beccaro. a goat.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. butan ce. a butcher. a baiTel . trunk. It. bouteillier. a goat (and not besides . A A . — . the present day we should say. Sp. except. hollow case. a bottle. without the house kept in bottles. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . buta. as Pantler.The Sp. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . then hoUow trunk. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. body of a shirt w. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. ' There is leathern bottle. bol. from boc. a butchery. of the wine and drink. an outlaw from bouche. ways. the full expres. As a conjunction but is in every portion. belly. large barrel. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. bisgung. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. bounds of. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . hull of a ship. being wholly unten. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. the bottles. is put in a class by himself. beyond the Piedm. the trunk or body of an animal.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. in addition. botilla. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. the belly. binnan. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. barriga.' ' write. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. moreover. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. bodifie. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree._ bitten j biiten door. without law. a small winebag. bountifully. the Perhaps besogne — . The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. be out. Ben-house. we find ben. or what in in charge of the pantry. mais. boteria. boccino. wooden receptthing to be done. the store of ten. slaughter-house. to-boot. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. bag. similar train of thought is seen in ON. — we acle for liquors.' there is really a negation to be supplied. beccaria. a butcher . properly a butan wite. without punishment . botte. are. and with It. Prov. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. So in Italian from becco. the mouth). my is called the adversative use of but. gives at least two pounds sterling. bous. without. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. and bot. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. the jug and in E. is well explained by Tooke. . the precise correlative of but. but one thing. by the mode in which he is treated. G.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. a cask. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. biitait slaughterer of goats .

Kil. put. from rejeter. buttock of beef is called butr. &c.putan. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Buttel-triib. lams-bout. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. having a rotundity . Bout van het schouderIt. to thrust Fr. to blad. Du. to thrust. waste ground. to touch at the end. a but in the W. to throw . a stroke di animal. butyrum. — . grease that sets by merely standing. a boss. submit shaking up salad sauce. then the thigh or leg of an to push . a hill. pied. ment being supposed to resemble butter. bottig. are the strips at the edges of the field. bot. botta. a tub. to so close to the Fr. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. a button. a button. bouter. a mound. A — — — . Gris. Fr. — . buttare. an ox. end . a flying buttress. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . buhsom.thum and not button. butt. From Grisons biitt. boutis. so as to make a sounding blow. or person Schmeller . to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. short thick thing pimple. to thrust. to abut a stone roof. butter. Lang. AS. w. povrvpov. botwm. Fris. Hal. botta. bothog. leg of lamb. a large belly. clumsy . bodi. Perhaps corrupted Lat. the Butter-fly. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body.rejected thing. Grandg. a dle . butteln. obedient. the thigh of a goose. G. Du. boil.. of the present day. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. R. as if from Povg. e. Bav. to bow. any short thick thing. rabodd. boter-vliege. suddenly . to thrust. is formed the augmentative buttatich. nourrisson. but this is probably from Fr. butt. bata. Mur-buttant. courtaud. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. thrust. in the R. bot blijven staan. Boutje.arbre. from stossen. butt of a person. a bot. to butt. Fr. bout. To come full butt against a butts. to cast. by boE.— BUTT leg . an etwas anstossen. as rejeton. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. a little push . as in G. butt. . the rosebud. dripping. Bav. Fr.to push. boding. a corner horses' hoofs. the edge forwards. gigot. a. Kil. -ez. trapu. boteria. of E. a leg of mutton. Buttress. butter un. to push earth . coxa. to abut on. Kil. From the noise of drinkables in a house. bud. buttals. on. to boult flour. the thick end. stump. or or shore post. a scope. Sp. Gael. — — — — . obeto shake backwards and forwards. bott. a buttrice. potacha. the trunk. Fr. Fr. a boss. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. Schmell. The Bavarian potig.against another which needs support . bouton. tout seat or breech. . farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. humble. aim whence to make a support to a wall. To Butt. butz. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. large head. bouton. a blow. and the true derivation boar. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. Du. bot. Schmell. &c. botte. bodi'. botten. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . clunis. a. . boter-schijte. to heap up earth or ihrust. boutoir. Du. a bun. pwt. at. It. Cot.' thick from shaking. but. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . strike. Button. the store of while bottich. a mound of turf in a field to sup. Fr. a button. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. bout. The word body itself seems identical with G. boter-vogel. from bouter. fle>(ible. a blow. Halma. — A . — A . give way. caput scapula bout van f been. from the large knobbed head of botto. Btetter-schmalz. signify a cask or tub. nursling. W. poke. botto. W. to femur. nourrissons.. Buttrice. boiUer. the prick in the middle of a target. bocgsuin. Buttock. hillock . : . To strike with the head bags. a bolt. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. a buttress Cot. butte. a stump or club foot. i. * Buxom. from bugan. bocsam. from notirrir. striking end. a ribbed glass for dient. Du. From Du. Gr. An erection built up as a Fr. See Butler. able that Chaucer. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. Butter-glass. tress. to be con. to strike. to thrust . butter. a wall butor butt on. what is kept in a blow. Fr. pwtiaw. geboogsaem. oir spike with a k coup . a cask. bouter. thrust forwards. Butter. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. stump of a tree Fr. bottich. a barrel. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. thick. buter. Boutant. Hal. any small projection. butte. both. fowl. So in English pimples were fora clod. a thrust the thigh-bone. Buttery. buttern. a heap of merly called pushes.

bij. See Abie. 519. . It. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. town having separate jurisdiction. cow-house. Then applied to speaking low. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. —gracious of speech. as Fr. Etynj. to whisper. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law.P. a town. buzarg. to sell. Many good mological explanation. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. bygge. depends upon a esteem in falconry. confusedly. favourably to a petition. tions by one. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). stall. bozzago. AS. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. a buzzard or puttock. big. buso. byar-log. village. bohte. By-law. Originally the law of a particular town. byar-rettr. blessing me with their of side. 21. and boxome of speche xviii. & Q. as heedless as a cock-chafer. bauhta. Sw. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. ii. to jan.in N. bees.busardj Prov. to wit. jus municipii. favourable.— Diet. bi. farm. \s\xy. bi. Sw. son. buzac. bar. from by. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. CABAL Goth. — 122 BUY P. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Mercy hight that mayde. buzzicare. from whom it was addressed.— P. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. byr. A by. a meke thynge with — alle. good-humoured one. leges urbanse ON. to purchase for money. groat in token of his good heart towards him. and would have been lost in E. Byre. to pass by. iii. and it is of good will. buteoj Fr. bycgan. to buzz. The ON. Pecock Repressor. to swear with him by . Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. train of thought which has become obso. . Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. lb. as in Da. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. lete. A A We — — — days' wonder. OE. Buzzard. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. also say. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for .. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. ON. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. P. G. to stand at his side . abozzago. bylag. . To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. bugjan. 116.. a by-path is a side path . Lat. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. indistinctly. frabttg- To Buzz. 3. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. 200. Cabal. Dan. Verstegan in R. Goth. The sense of buxom. To Buy. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. who makes abigg. It. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. a borough. bylove. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. Du. called Cabala or Tradition. A ful benygne buirde. AS. a beetle. harty prayers and God speedes. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. p. bei. gracious.

— Kil. kakaloH.Gr. cabo. : — from violence without blood. chaable. to chatter. in which sense are explained The the OFr. a head (whence cabochard. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. From It. . Antiq. Tugurium. originally an Gael. OFr. origin is the OFr. The double a in the OFr. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. a cabbage . a booth or hut. cadabulum. gaggi. a headed cole or cabbage . a car- We convasare.. Etym. gaban. ckaable. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. . E. mdhaigner. dirty. . Brushwood — — B. kabat. It. agge. to hurl down. akista. heady. deponat a store closet. ceach / exclamation of guages. a rope. the bowels. Cabbage. cabbage. prostratio ad terram. as it must have stood in French. disgust cac. Sp. and Or. Imitative of the cry of hens. signifies down. cabre. maim. laitue cabusse. manticuKil. Du. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . capuccio. cable . havyar to caviare. Cablisb. the Prov.Lat. dirt and the Fr. is probably unconnected. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. overwhelm. a rope or cable. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. Fr. a frail. aakkat'a. kabaSsen. caable (in legal language). signifying properly a rope's end.Lat. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. headed. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. — Tarbe. . Gaggle. hut. OSp. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. — Ibid. cadabulum. form kactal. for discharging mentally to signify shelter.. Finn. from manganum. Very generally used. OFr.). (ca/coe. filth. disgusting such an engine was exerted. Cabinet. Coticesserint Swiss aa. to strain in such a manner . Du. to crush. caboche. Mid. as Diez supposes). Celtic. wilful). properly windfalls. Capstan. cadabalum. or as an interjection of disMod. It.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. to put or pack up in a frail. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Cappa in OSp. cabre. gatsch. To steal or pocket. cabo. Due. band. a rope. main. To Cabbage. lactuca capitata. or rush basket. a shed. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. &c. traboccare. and Ptg. . agge machen (in nurses' language). a rope. Du. Neckam — by the wind. a tunic. chadabula. caqueter. cabulus. OFr. and Finnish lanLat. Cot. surripere. kabas. dung. Lith. 'habl. Sp. cabaii. calabre. su/Furari. vile. aeggi. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. . come the Fr. cacare. chaable. cabarino. would correspond to cable. Choux cabus. manganare. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. kabane. giiare. cacare . Ptg. Item habeat vocant. headed or cabbage lettuce. from trabocco. cadabula. Fr. has kabbel. whence Lang. chabla. an engine for casting stones. for the origin of which see Carabine. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . gabardme. especially shepherd's frock. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. a covering. the Slavonian. — . name of the projectile engine. as an expression of Gr. It is remarkable that the Esthon. cdble. and the Arab. cabas. it would seem fundain children's language. Cot. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. serious injury — In like manner It. Due. Mid. head.' Due. and as we find stones Mid. cabus. nasty. — . It. bad. Kil. dirty. precisely in the sense of the lari E. as Turk. capanna. overwhelm (Diet. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. cadabola. caable. ! — . — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . Sw.ticula. Cabin. cab lis. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. string. cabasser. Castr. Katr-iT-aKt. cabacho. aak! tandi like Fr. brassica — capitata. Fr. capo. cab. round or great headed. Didot. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. to hurl in Nat. —Diet. cables. caable. case. or cadable. Lat. hovel. to keep or Du. a cloak of felt or Cack. a jacket Fr. The name of the engine. Lang. kakla. cabane. Mid. caables. stercus. w. E. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. whence Fr. disgust. Common to Lat. vincially used in E. forms indi. covering. accablcr. agga. It. &c. hoard together. cabuccio. cabuyskoole. — the ON. gaggele.. Fr. geese. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft.. The Sp.Lat. Fr.

Cot. Gael. calesa. calendrer. boy. from the ink-bag which it contains. just falling. Sp. Sp. lime whence calcareous. a falling. . on. It. cha'cmie cadence. The Lat. form) calderone. Calp is riadh. kolo. from calculus. to treat like lime. kolesnitza. the pith or soft part of wood. babbhng.— . a cake or loaf. kdfich. * Calibre. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. from Gr. In the same way Fin. Calocli. a mischievous dial. pi. a wheel. a reed. —Atkinson. misfortune. to cackle . Du. caioler. Pol. ratas. frolicsome kaad mund. It. to . 124 prattle . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. the younger son of a family said to be from . Lat. The Calf. calamitas. safe.Gr. kuchen. calf of leg. jabber. gabble. the bore of a cannon. a wheel . See Kiddier.— Calliper. wretched. kauwe. Calamity. kat. and troublesomely attached to. B. bad . The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Lat. Sw. especially of something soft. calx. Lat. kalb. limestone. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. gavia. calentura. Fr. It. kail. prate. cageoler. kakulla. calessa. collop. Fr. for green fields. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Mrs B. to throw themselves into the sea. a wheel .warmth . Dan. from calendcE. cabdillo. gabbia. calibre. capCalenture. loss. to compute. Sw. caldaria. . En kaka br'od. cadaver. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. Sp. . wanton. . Fr. pen Mod. N. Cake. Du. its mother. To Cajole. Cot. hot. whence Lat. a wretch. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. pet lamb. to prate much to little purpose. kolasa. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. cage. It. taking it Sp. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. kalfvan hout. It. dead body. kolesb. cadere. ON. Perhaps from w. chattering. kalem. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Fr. Fr. ever and anon. &c. A . kdtr. coop. Cauldron. is probably delusive. cadet. a corpse. kolo. pith. disease of sailors from tivus). Cadaverous. calidus. Gascon capdet. of the nature of lime to calcine. Calandre. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. cuttle-fish.uv. A — fall. a cylinder. to sleek hence a den. calibre. A hooded carriage. Russ. Sw. The young G. a low note. incolumis. without loss. calculo. Lat. kaeckelenj Gr. (in the augm. Turk. Calendar. cadence. gaggle. Lat. whence calash. Cot. Arab. a calash . Du. cake. Cadet. Fr. kola. Dan. dial. to cage. ben- kalf. kolyaska. or smooth Hnen cloth. a caFr. gaggia. a calesh. KxiKivh^o^. when they are said to poor. cadenza. Lat. Turk. to heat. or colpa na coise. Lat. Serv. kalfi. the lump and the increase. Caitiff. lord. cauldron. Lat. Caddy. kaka. KaKKat. a lump or large piece. Roman reckoning. a hollow place. javioler. Calcialate. Cadence. Tea-caddy. a small stone. calcis. * Cade. hence musical rhythm. marrow. a dence. Calamary. G. roller. Lat. master. rattaat (wheels). of oxen and similar animals. ' . caldarius. Fr. joyous . a car. caliche. captive. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. to — Fr. — in a kiln. Calf of the Leg. — — — Dan. a circle. capitetum. A cuttle-fish. cage. principal and interest. cykevie. lindrus. Cajol. An open travelling chariot. kaad. so gabble corresponds with Fr. kolyasochka. coll. an inkstand . or prattle. It. frisky. Calc-. calentar. Cage. Due. calidus. colibro. . kukje. of which. koeck. G. a roller. Calash. Lat. cavea. gabberen is identical with E. As Du. calendarium. unruly . chaudron. a loaf of bread. the calf of the leg. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. desire of land. naXaiidpi. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. a tea-chest. reed-pen. Cadge*. Flo. an ugly waggon kolaska. gabbia. Originally from a Slavonic source. From lerie. Fr. calpa. a waggon . cattivo (from Lat. a counter used in casting accounts. signifies a waggon. little chief. from the Chinese catty. Caldron. chaudiere. kage. calba. calamus. one unduly indulged by. a common cart. a wheel . kolo. chetif. a vessel for heating water. Du. hot . loss. a fever. It is another form of the E.— Cot. the pi. To Calender. Lat. to gabble.

Dief. moist. Among these were the turn.meaning of the word. * Callet. on. calo. CALICO Calliper-compasses. callum. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Fin. khalif. calcaich. sestus. Sc. culverin. vulgo Coluvrine. harden by pressure. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea.' Whitby Gl. them &c. Fr. overscalmaccio. however. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. Caliph. Ca. sclopus. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. ' pert. water-tight. by many that the weapon Callous. which has its memory preserved in Du.' Winter's Tale. fistula. To call. Sp. longior. the Fr. gossiping. push violently. ululo Turk. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. a good calling. to rail or scold . quiet. calicot.position is much less common than the geschut. try. to prattle. the scalp or skull. to tread. Lat. coluber. Du. cotton cloth. kal. colubraria canna. sence of wind. form in the kalib. oldire from audire. coulevrine. Mil. To Calk. to hear. dragoon. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. serpens. abto suppose that E. KaXka. The reference to heat is preserved in. a drab. Kavfia. whence couleuv. whereas in troth it is not. caluw. Fr. i. and heat. Antiq.Lat. Diet. Lat. Turk. to cram. — — — — — . Heb. Mid. kalla. kallo. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. calma. the heat of Now these Du. kael. caliver. whehce it was first brought. Ptg. . harquebus or handgun. calma. Diez. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. * Caliver. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. can be distinct from ODu. calme. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. calor. calgua. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. a round of abuse. Fr. bald. heat. an adder. and E.' But it is hard Du. the Fr. a last. prattle. femme frivole et babillarde. Mahn derives it from Lat. kol. caillette. hot. diameter of a ball. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). According to Jal (Gl. overheated. Derived by some from Arab. 'A callet of boundless tongue.' Chaucer. a feathers. people's remarks. sound. hallottaa. skin hardened by labour. quality. dial. having a thick skin. So It. or languishing drought is . chatter. calare. given. Sir John Smith in Grose. Kil. calvus. Fr.(jaa= ice). the hard surface of the ground. scalmato. of a column. u to an I in such a colubrum. of the bore of a firearm met. To century was Squalibre. piece of bigger circuite. or caliever. done with heat Alt. Call. kind heat of the sun. nautique). to abuse . alta voce ploro. The word was also written cawme in OE. CALM to press or stuff. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. cauma. moso. and sometimes a handgun. Calico. cahna.. ' rine. calleting. kal.— . klover. 125 Prov. calk. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Bi. to calk. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. Fin.en~ kinds of firearms. koluvre. to be of a good or bad quality. Ibid. To drive tow or oakham. Sp. The primitive colubrina bombarda. glotton. to proclaim. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). to call. voice. hollaing. E. calcare. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. Indies. form. Kil. coluber also. calclover. a. heat. cauque. callus. quA librd. Due. faint. Calm. Lang. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. faint. B. tittle-tattle. calc. calibre. couleuvre. chatter kallen. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . — Fl. a soldier who the It. qAlab. a successor. — — — — — . scold. NE. Hard. trull. the latter of chamber. bombarda Cauma incendium. to callet. and dragon. calat of leude demeaning. brawny. from Calicut in the E. word of mouth . The origin is Gr. kahcwe. which is as much as to say. kil-u-kal. the day. dragonder. AS. Callow. to burn. to affirm.piicede Lat. to say. ram. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. licht stuk The change from a. Unfledged. Sup. depreciatory term for a woman. saucy. . to call. Gr. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. tapulta. calca. or mould.from Ka'tm. donderbuchs Sp. but is only a jda-kallo. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. calibre. It. Gael. drive.' Slange. colubrina. serpentina.

Camlet. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Fr. . the heat. — Lat. to bow.Lat. camiscieia. cambren. Fr. icaSoytipoe. Bret. whence the noun signifying an applicant. cancer. Mod. a field Greek monk. a goblet bud. sugar. campo. brought from Fr. also an eatmg sore. chaitcre. salmon. canis. Mid. champ. Candy. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Fr. camahutus. Kakoycpos.— B. frank and sincandidatus. . It. Or the word Lat. Camel. Camp. campo. Lat. Cot. Sp. whence Fr. campaign. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. the salmondis faillis thair loup. Fr. spot for cattle.' ' Quhen a lattice. Candid. crooked. white. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Cambrel. from candere. Cambrav—Cam. would plenier. Gr. ko/utuXoc. a large drinking . a. Palsgr. whence the Fr. camp. camaien. across — Bellenden in Jam. Calyx._ kamm.. Cameo. campren. campus. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. to break. campagna. Campaign.conduit-pipe. canna. Canal Channel. crooked. the calix. Fr. chommer. Sp. — Cancel. In a different application It. E. higher in the middle than Fr. Fr. B. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. a crab. camelot. KafivTu. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. to jut.Gr. canalis. cam^e. good. is Candle. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand.— Chandelier. It was distinfrom work. Lat. cainahelus. to bend. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. cere : Lat. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. properly good country. campagna. canistrum. kanna. Canker. Peter Martyr. arched. Properly calver in the field during a war. See Canker. co7nbar. Cancer. a piece. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. having an aquiline nose. ckaouma. had no r in de bric— Cot. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. clothed in white. calj'x. Cambray. cambr^. candela. died in 1526. E.who their language. callour. a dog.—Cambrel. nia. from xaXbg. or Caribs. Cambric. Lat. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. the bed of a stream. camiscia. ation. campagne. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. lattice. an eating. aspirant. camafeo. crook. se cameloter. Sp. Fr. chandelle. Pers. catmneo. Lat. Cann. E. It. field . lie level. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. — B. mg Canister. Ptg. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. a basket. Turk. fresh. Canine. India Islands. when its substance appears inter. cambrer. to bend. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Lat. to warp. fair. sore. crooked. From fluting or furrow in a column . and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. toile some of whom. callar. or hollow of a flower. Arab. unwater chamelot . The Grisons cauina. Canibal. different sections of the like the Chinese. Lat. w. camelus. Camisade. cancello. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. — — — A — — escume de saumon.—Candidate. chamold man. candidus. Gr. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. lame. camisade. camisa. cup. a caught. It. A — the Cannibals. paign. to glow. Fr. From campus was formed Lat. samon. It. is Cambering. Lat. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. a' Sc. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. B. crooked-stick. to the force of the wind. cup.— Hackluyt in R. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. monk. hooked. Calver of cane. An eater of human flesh. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. champagne. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. the type of a hollow pipe. It. Sanson khanda. open and level ground. at the ends. Calumny. on. and yspiuv. camber-nosed. the space of false imputation. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. bis. water chamlet . a. cAouma. KafitjUe. arched.—Jam. a may have acquired that signification from plain. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. aged. calutmiia. the spersed with white flakes like curd. cambre.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. Caloyer. slander.' Forme of Cury in Way. It. arch.

a Fr. call. Wtb. it would have been found in the continental languages. The meserseum and the mesentericum. a hundred. being a yard or thereabouts . But it may be different source. covered. and met. Cantle. to sing. contain. a — A — Cannel Coal. cannevo. tain. a scull- — here. Jonson.Gr. &c. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. pipe. hamlet. Of vena cava and of vena porta. corner. signifying cover. canonici. coat. cantone. say. canevas. coarse hemp. a drinking glass. edge. Cape. a pipe. from . he discourseth of dissection. W. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. the part easiest broken off. Fin. ON. leiwan kanta. caparazon. cheese. measure for cloth. KCLvva. Capacious. a reed. Lat. coarse hempen cloth Fr. able to receive. cappe. cope. Canoe. cane. can. cantina. cape. . Prov. Cope. It. from a Canter. canoa. to contain. . capevole. a cane. From Gr. A piece of anything. KaTTiram. A slow gallop. cantle then is a corner of a thing. quito curtain. chanteau. Sp. Cot. a cover Turk. carcase . speech. a straight rod. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. cover . chantel. Sp. language. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. To his judicial And trowl the tile. Swab. as. Canon. From Lat. Capable. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. trine. Fr. has kahn. Germanis kdppen. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a cantle of bread. Hence Lat.Gr. haitt. hirnschlapple. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a side. canteau. a ship canot. also a measure. capace. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. canapa.. a ruler. Probably only the augmentative of canto. schlappen. and the sex- &c. See Capt-. A . or cantell of bread. Du. astrology. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. was formed Kavtiiv. capello Italis. N. and tref. a reed. a corner. as a cantle of bread. kynnel. that the G. a small boat. Kil. cane. a cloak.CANNEL vessel. The word seems to be taken from Gael.— Cot. Schwab. a boat. cover kapi. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. hood. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. border Dan. capa. which is not the case. or hold. kapamak. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. the quartile. shut. name. Alamannis. It. canapaccia. border. Goldast — in in Schmid. Coal burning with bright flame. cannevaccia. side. clqse. It. rumme. cannabis. Canopy. a horn of the moon . Sp. kand. canvas. a rule or standard of excellence. canton. a door . regular. the tried list of saints. a wine-cellar or vault. the heel. part. a gelding. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. kwvwxIi. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. from cant. cainnt. kandt-broodts. canonicus. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. canto. canon. lump. It. See Chape. capax. . to shut. and hence a gobbet. Canteen. Capari. cantred. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Mod. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. from Dan. To canvas — . The — . Cant. like a torch or candle. cannone. kanta. Fr. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Palsgr. . would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. kaput. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. cane. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. OFr. Fr. Picard. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. quarter . a division of a country. kantr. a cloak kapali. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. hemp. To Canonise. the heel. from canna. &c. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. It. It. is found languages of very different stocks. schlapp. territorial hundred. a hunch of bread. Gael. cantref. root cap. Gugel. Kavt\. a torch. B. region. kyndel. chape. Again we have Lat. properly a large Prov. cappe. to con- rummer. Canvas. gnat. a tube. Canton. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. It. quarter. hemp. Mod. cappa.n. cannu. margo panis diffracta. If the word had been from cantherius. a cap. cane. Cannoii.^on. Diez. Esthon. kq. to put upon sacred writers.

— Fl. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. or Lat. greziller. a young kid met. Sp. a little head. brezilia. cut. It.). to twitter as birds. as Fr. capitulare. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. Fr. algabr. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . to crackle. then find the symptoms of shivering. to shiver. brisciare. capar. Caper. rihrczzoso. Mod. capro. Hal. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. also the capriole. I have shivered with love. ericius. frisser {frissement d'un trait. horror. kid. a . capitalis. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . shivering. arricciarsi. a capriol. Torriano. CAPRICE twittering. rissoler. to broil. <I>pi'?oe. bruco. riccio. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. a caper in dancing. Capillary. then to be in a state of vibration.' Cot. knis. the head. II bresole (Gl. then to shiver or shudder.standing on end. A . See Chief. prickly husk of chestnut. a caterpillar. compared with Bret. ^piKos. To treat Capitulate. the hair to stand on end. brissle. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. — — A a hair.'— Trev. to broil. . capparis. curly. Fr. with joy' Vikram.Gr. crackling sound Cape. to ruffle the surface of water. of a tremtdoiis sound. gives rise to Sc. Acad. caprice. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. ziki. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. belonging to From caput. aggricciare. or other things. h^risser. Lat. caper j caprio. a head. Fr. a yearning through sudden fear. capriol or caper in dancing. the principal part of the debt. the hair to stand on end. capillus. s'hdrisser. as Fr. cover of a saddle. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. greziller. of a coach. a kid. capriole. It. Capital. fansuddenly angry. as the means of earning profit. cappriccio. as Fr. arricciarsi. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. G^' Many words — ' ndv. to . cut off.impressions on the ear. toy. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. of a fowl. abridge amKoTroq. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. bristling. and with an initial gr instead of br. wriggle. to parch. grug. It. and his body bristled We to castrate. they longed extremely to see it. principal. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. to shiver for cold. frort^Lat. to crackle. Lang. or represented by the syllable e. a chevret. 75. brisciare. end. Cot. gricciare. a goat. sault. to from capitulum. as in Lat. Hair-like. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. frisson- ner . The same imitation of Capon. It. is either wholly lost. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. hair. Lat. airoKOTrrw. shivering. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. for which he cites the Comask nucia. caprice It. eruca compared with It. roughening of the skin. the singing'bone). a separate division of a matter. Griller d'im' patience. Fr. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . It is probable that Gr. or.— 128 CAPE a rustling. upon terms Sp. the head. w. Lat. shrub. frissoner. chief. hedge-hog. It. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. to desire earnestly. Unexpected pleasure. where Burton adds in a note. knis-hujwud . to shudder. Capers. alcaparra. chattering of the teeth. Fl. curl. a hedge-hog. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. grisser. erica. the initial mute of forms like Gr. curling. It.' — (Supp. a buck. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. explained by Diez from capra.) grezille marid. It. birsle. grillcr. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. caj)o. Caprice. brug. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. brisciare. ticchio. heath. frizzle. p. A headland. Genevese bresoler. according to the Hindoos. humorous. herissonnement. The true derivation lies in a different direction. — to yearne. It. a ch illness. to fry. Arab. horripilation. gricciare. Hence capitalis the sum lent. cApre. grisser. and 7tucc. So from Sw. castrated. Lat. And similarly to yearn. hi. or goat's leap (done by a horse). bristling. and OHG. ribrezzo. brisoler.) d'etre The It. castrated cock. capriola. gives rise to brezza.

Fr. perceive. captive. and tropically. OSp. and of captus to an e. a. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. — — Capstan. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. Capuchin. calabrino. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Fr. capp%tccio. It. char. Nordfoss. recepte. a sudden will. a she-goat. to take baclc. -ceive. to creak. Fl. a cloke) capuccino. Sp. 129 — receive. concipere. precept. and has accordingly been lost in E. intercept. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. fantastic. was a kind of horse soldier. Caseneuve in Diet. bock. decepte. to carry . calabrin. Fr. caprice. concevoir. Thus the musket. In cases. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. Lat. — —Diet. sels. to creak. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. to accept. except. Fr. dim. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. verbs gives rise to the element . carro. karra. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. conception. shivering fit (Altieri). caricare. to this is It. -cept. to receive receptio. Passing on into E. at least. hold. desire. Sp. captivate. conceit. also to carry on a car . a sawing-block or trestles. Crab. as in OFr. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. carretta. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. deception. Du. charrier.or -cib-. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. krul. Cart.. capsula. and has thus descended unaltered to English. a creaking waggon. It. was originally a missile . Lat. recibir. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. case. a head man. box. a capuchin. Carabin. capuccio. whence capture. karren. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. In the S. See Caper. G. karrende waegen. It is a standing crab. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. &c. Carabine. Fr. a sudden fear apprehended. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. concept.s. The It. chevre. capitis. commander. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. conceive.of these compound verbs. . charret. deceit. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. Cot. cams. latterly. Fr.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). recipio. a cart. as in accipio. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. seize. oisr. capitano. a reception. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly.). capra. or the (capo-riccio). fancy. It. also a kind of rack. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. accept. a fantastical humour. Kiittner. Cot. Capstern. tnoschetta. of capsa. recevoir. cabrestante (whence e.). to take. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. Captain. a windlass. cabestan. cabra. kerren. a taking back. charger. Capriole. i The meaning Car. It. to please. crepo. Etym. -cept. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. di cappa. to take to. It. cabreia. concebir. carabin. however. a coffer. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. Du. from head. Lat. Carry. to load . a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. a hood (dim. Neumann. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. Carbine. &c. Capsule. an engine for throwing stones. de- price. also tresFl. recipere. was converted into -ceb. of the Sp. a kind of torture. caput. It. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. capio. strideo. &c. cabestrantej Fr. Fin. contain. chirrion. Capt-. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. caThe hrestante. one odd. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. trestle. Fr. where it forms a very large class of compounds. the -cevofthe Fr. a hooded friar. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Lat. receptus. as the dragoons (Du. Castr. a. karista. It. crab s. Derivatives are Fr. captus. chirriar.. acceptus.

skeleton toise. eit. carcasa. quilato. a lock of wool . I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Fr. a quiver. carcame. caravela.Gr. It. &c. Card. I.. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . Derived in the first edition from Mod. to comb. It. See Carpenter. turn of a horse. carcanada. krciti. bock and Fr. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. Pers. an engine for hurling stones. winding. carquois. cabrita. It.. a thistle. From the battering-ram. OHG. It. a quiver . caraffa. carere. — seems to be something holding together. car. seed of carob. carcaij. case. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. eitar. Carcase. . to card wool. Sp. AS. Mod. matter. decanter. a quiver. Sp. a ripple for flax. or framework. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. contract. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. also (as Gr. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . Cot. It. a coffer. also a small weight. carbh. a prison. Gr. shell. avSpaS. in the same way that the Sp. Carbuncle..z. poison eiz. carquasse. Sp. to turn. mural attack. a gem resembling a live coal. ON. &c. cabreia. curry-comb. Carboy.. coming to four grains. a firelock. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. vitriol. Exot. boch. restraint . kard boyd. a wool card. ancient springald. carmiiiarc. a battering-ram). skeleton. alia sunt majora. cassa. black dye. cardo. a dead carcase. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. to ripple flax. a crane. Parmesan cassiron. burning coal. a snail. turning. quse vocant karabd. to comb wool . Carrob. tcapKaai. Lat. carabe.Gr. a skeleton. Bohem. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. a thistle. military engines made for hurling stones. karra. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. . fire . Carcax. a ship. a kind of ship.applied to a battering-ram (G. constraining . ' Vasa vitrea. a small weight. word is only an adoption of the Turk.— — — . a card or comb . cerran. an ulcer. Caraool. carch. the . skeleton. Comp.charcoal . 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. carbo. cramp. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . espi7igarda. and catapulta. The Trjg xeXwwac. the shell of a torcarcasso. properly a siege machine. Ptg. cdrlag. KtpaTwv. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. . a quiver . . Carat. to curry horses karsztuwas. Lith. is the word used in modern Lat. the dead body of any creature. to creak. silique. Gael. carate. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. Sp. Fr. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. Lat. of the same Caravan. Gael. caraffe. of carbo). the husk or cod of beans. garafa. the carob bean. kirat. Fr. p. wool card. cabra.' From the same source are SicU. bend. caracal. a goat. the name might naturally Mod. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. a winding staircase. &c. Cat. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. a case or chest . Gael. Carbonaceous. to draw in. the trunk or chest of the body . for a gun. . — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. Caravel. carta. casso. karri. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. carcanet. Gael. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. carbunculus (dim. winding carach. wine- bottle. carquan. the carcase of a fowl. designated in the case of G. W. chevre by the name of the goat. Gr. confining. carduus. Venet. carabba. An implement for dressing wool. the core of fruit . and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. a machine for casting large darts. to hiss (as gee^e). The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. is the chine. Arab. card. the case of the flesh. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain.. kerwan. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Sp. The radical meaning . a collar or chain for the neck. Cot. to card wool. a he-goat. Fr. copperas. a twist. karszti. «capa'|8i.

A mod-carag. quarreG. murista. It. carnasciale. male person. Translated in MS. Carled peas. x'»P'"^s)) paper. carcare. w. Fr. A medical term from line —Boerio. charnel. . Sp. asper. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. principal. Carminative. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. as peas. Dan.. Carenare. Fr. karista. to love. Cot. sorrow. cdrle. to eat flesh. surrata. cargo. to load. AS. morosus. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. cearig. karry. from carrus. caru. charta (Gr. is to say. 1S66. scharren. affection. to fry or broil. the several meanings of the words above Rom. Carnage. charg. sorrow. Chart. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. the hull of a ship. place for exercise on horseback. be anxious.. crosier. fleshy . Gael. Lat. as carminare. and compare Bret.— CARD karr-kambar. mutter. sensual. ON. Roquef. camovale. E. Fr. No ' place there had. — — — Caress. caricare. road. It. carener. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. carminare. Lat. Cartel. compared with Fin. weyes. to parch. Carlings. . appertaining to the flesh. Ptg. croller. an endearment. G. to growl. de Parthenay. sgritudo animi. — — . care on. to take Goth. carena. tenax. It. Fin. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. rixosus. what is felt as grievous. to shake. . carezza. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. — — Diez. beans. Fr. Venet. Properly a car-road. or street. karg. careless take care of. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. Cark. cura intenta. tuorfurcm (Burguy). is This however Shrove tide. to scratch. like connection may be seen between Fin. strideo. caMid. caricatura.Lat. a man. OHG. from the keel to the water . and thin. murren. & Q. Properly. For the root of carminare. 2. grief. A place where four roads Mid. to scrape . From. W. karl. cardinis. karantez. It. Caricature. Fr. to card wool. W. voce strepo stridente. essere in carena. the flesh of animals . morosus sum. Mur. quadrifurcum from quameet. . crowl. AS. from caricare. A quirito ut infans. soUicitus OSax. charger. astutus. to distress growl. to comb flax or hemp. four. kurista. cardo. that on wliich the matter hinges. or grumbling —Due. chartre. combing them out like the knots in wool. bottom. to load. cearian. in N. gakaran. karrig. Charnel. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. kroU-erbser. an overloaded representation of anything. also a career on horseback. charnage. to comb wool. zanken . giierlir. Cargo. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. Bret. regar. record. carriera. ignarus. clown or churl. Fl. whence carricare. piger. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. tremble. moeThe Lat. charie. to load. crawl. kumra. G. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Cot. msstus. Bret. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. stridere. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. to rumble. hoed. the time during which to Rom. kummer. care. carrefourg.Lat. . Sept. love. — Carfax. to lie on its side. niggardly . meet at a head. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. W. caritia. graller.— Charter. Cot. ress. . parched or carled. dear. It. — To Careen. charneux. solicitous. Cath. the old theory of humours. in St Jerome. the keel of a vessel.' Slceat. carch. a highway. to fry. in Carp. stingy. carnavale. It. wool cards. Fr. from carus. carina. to clean the bottom of the ship. Peas steeped and fried. OFr. and murhet. and G. fundamental. Champ. . the keel. a card. that Fl. immediately before the long fast of Lent. quaver a lazar's clack. to whirr (schnurren). — — — : Cardinal. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Care. 273. ON. carcus. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. kargr. &c. Fr. carnal. murahtaa. carena. a hinge. winding. p. AS. Card. Sp. carnalis. cura may be ror. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. carFrom carrus. It. Fin. Fr. one of those ac- 9 * . a deed. carnis. caresse. Groler. Coll. from Lat. . Farewell flesh. charag. grolU. kribina. a turn. and sum. Bois crolant d'un ladre. intrasset caro. ceorl. car. karout. carian. as quadrivium from Carnaval. to care unkarja. carriire. the load of a ship. Probably the origin of the word is the . 8. at murmuring. Trin. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. see Garble. cargar. kara. Carl. act of moaning. Carnal.

carpende fast Carol. chariot carbad. A. Gower in Way. In Dominica d'autant. ' ' — . biheld without. balade from It. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. to dance. all aus). Carnelevale. culcitra. — — ' ' — — — I — — . This Bretons renged about the felde to E. or loose as a couch without further preparation. All out B. Fr. W. qui sacco. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. to reel. Sp.' says Motley (United Neth. Analogous R. to chatter coroli. Pr.Lat. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. . pluck. carpentum. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. cardos. Biheld within.— R. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century.Lat. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. gonna. krapanj. Beggars Bush. . ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. yede tham about. I quaught.— Patriarchi. pluck at. ON. querole. course. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. whence the form carnasciale. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. carbh. I drink all out. a dance. The karole of the stones behelde. Ein we find the signification transferred from . a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. carpenter only in the latter sense. to talk. a song accompanying a dance then. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Discov. Teut. carnelascid). ballare. — . fabulor. The tippling sots. Templariorum — ' — Due. garrire. The word seems of Celtic origin. Carnevale. to dance. a carder. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. a wheelwright. act of drinking a full Eq. garrulo. Carpenter. 2. So gone they forthe. Chanson de carole. i. On this. a wheelwright. 1 1 30.'— Stat. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. The custom. Lat. Carpet. Pm. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat.]e bois Carnelevale. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. 94). zimmerspan. was formed Mid. to rustle. sense. Bret. used for stuffing mattresses.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. as carnaval from carnelevamen. differing To Carp. Carole. .gonnella. a car carpentarius. as Fr. On the other hand bumper to one's health. linteamen. Bohem. e.— Neum. to pull asunder. a drinking cup. In a MS. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. worker in timber Fr. as the Lat. tattle. at midnight which derivation from kroes. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Mediol. ship. tymmer. chirp. to pluck. Nomin.D. Sup. cxciv. charpie. as E. carpita. Lat. krapati. litter. in Carp. Cot. carpere. and F.Why give's some wine then. zimmer. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Other names of the sea. maker of waggons It. vel coopertorio carebit. in Nat. i.' Ordo Eccles. The ' ' a chariot. Mid. Alluz (G. chatter. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. charpentier. and Carnem laxare (It. to gather. 760. on that.: . carpo. carpenticre.Lat. Here's to you still my captains friend. of Guiana. peta.' Raleigh. ! Carouse. Dief. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. 216. lint. From Lat. gar aus / all out is correct. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. carpia. is erroneous.— Drant in R. Ant. carpat (Stokes). Mid. carpetam (a quilt?). in Due. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Fr. Lat. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. carduz. Palsgr. carpenta. 2. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. to find fault with. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. skraf.' Reg. Pref. Carpyn or talkyn. or a carouse fully drunk up. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Properly a round dance. carpetrix. cited by Marsh.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Shrove Tuesday. Gael. Olr. chatter skra/a. CarTo quaff carouse do use. bier. koroll. quoted by Carpentier. a plank. To pledge them thou refuse.

coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. — — . to notch. Carriage. pasteboard. — Cartridge. gristle. Rouchi carone. card. break to pieces. mord-grube. the charge of — — Fr. kasseren. krat. cartella. It. ' Casa-matta. a of water. CartOTicli. to an- — Kil. ceorfan. To Carve. Fr. Cot. Fr. for the security of the defenders. mata. AS. vault hole in a fortified wall. Case-mate. not reaching to the height of the ditch. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. The carrying of anything. Du. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. from the sound it makes when Alban. Lat. also the carriage. carroc- carrozza . from Lat. an act of falling. a car. It. Cascade. Fr. a paper case. empty. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. kerben. carroccio. Cash. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Rouchi carpHe. corresponding to the G. and the OE. Casuist.' Fl. abrogate. cassa. an augmentative from Lat. Preparatory drawing of a It. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. cartilage. The Sp. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. As defence from shells became more important. Fr. to slay. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Fl. bitten. gristle. shell or carcase of a house. charrier. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . helmet. turn out of service. packing ' cloth. Cask. to dash. It. casso. slaughter-house. kerpu. to hold. where Fr. Fr. casser. carogna. cascade. Fl. Fr. Fr. from It. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. the money chest. quash. casualis. hollow. It. Cot. paper. to fall. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. carrosse. as we . case-maiej Sp. caxa. coffin of paper for groceries. caisse.— Fl. of carro. casag. cassette. to convey in a cart. Gael. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. carriaggio. cia. cartoccio. to fire on the enemy. Flor. Hence casket. to crack. bag and baggage of a camp. made void. Rouchi carter. casacca. casuelj Fr. one who reasons on cases put. of carta. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. and that apparently from capio. long man's gown with a close body. OE. a fall. cut with scissors. It. augm. void cassare. carretta. Fr. casco signifies a skull. coffer. hung up in some place and to be removed. casaque. casa. to — — also casse. Walach. Du. Casque. quasser. cancel. Cassock. annul.' Bailey. Hence a challenge openly hung up. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Case. Fr. ignominiously exposed. It. and matar. a merchant's cash or counter. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. a chest. See Case. cashiered. from casa. G. Fr. a car. Case. caro. dim. discharge It. It. Lat. afterwards any written challenge. a chance or accident. To duash. caisse. charogne. crown of a hat. It. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. a long coat. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. cassere. carretto. a loopscale the wall. kerven. Lith. crush. To quash an indictment. cartouche. fortuitous. cancelled. cascar. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. — FI. Fr. to cut or carve . Cartel. like all the names of tendon. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. caroche. cassus. luggage. cassa. cascata. carreaggio. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. to break. house. something that actually occurs. to shear. mord-keller. Sp. capsa (Diez). case. To Cashier.' Cot. a coffer or small case for jewels. carota. to bear or carry. Probably. casitiste. a canonry or slaughterhouse. caroach. augmentatives of carro. Lat. Sp. Lat. Carrion. It. discharge. des rideaux A'carp^ie.' — Hdcart. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Casket. See Gristle. cartone. properly to convey in a car. tion from Sp. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. — Cartoose. Cart. casa-maita. from It. Carrot. See Card. To Carry.to annul. a hut. cascare. Rouchi caroche.. charrette. Fr. Casual. caisse. blotted out. AS. Cartoon. subject for a picture. Ready money. casus. kirpti. fall It. hull of a ship. — — nul the proceeding.

' Catchyn away abigo. Gael. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. perhaps from which we have E. burst cascare. Lat. Fr. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. catch. sue. being Fin. of sarabands does Gr. The E. to break. KaraXoyog. to hunt.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Fr. chaleur. probably from an imita. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). 'Vaaaw. It. to fall as over a precipice. Fr. the stalk of plants. stilts. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome.— Fl. Catalogue. which. dashing it to pieces. ichasses. a whip on the other into latch. Fr. name. fall. to turn overturn. squash. cash. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. mino. kakka. crush . a little house or hut. bot-kotis. ON. to close. chasser. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Yz. 120. accastiare. Cast.to drive out. lance. KaTappaKTrjQ. kasta. which has been retained in E. KaTaarpifm. a vault. the castanets for or implement . It. away. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. To Catch. kissa. down. n. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti.. Isidore — in Diez. force j Rouchi equerviche. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. a cat koshki. Fr. kottr. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Fr. kasi. and from the castus. castana. cassa / cry for the same purpose. to make clean or chaste. cacciarc. . by the loss of with several pitched cords. while kiss / Pol. cast. to drive Cat o' nine tails. puss / for calling them. fer toTa. Hence castaneta. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. chat. to clack. Gr. from the first of Castrate. _G. under chi caleur. to bring to an crack given by the joints. casulla. Chase. rack. cat. Lang. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. 134 CAST Catacomb. to lash. shaft of a 1 push. to dash. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. chasuble. Fr. the earlier sense of catch. kic' kicil are used chasser. klakka. or comba.'— Pr. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. drive away. .the / or c respectively. cascar. Castanets. — We a cavity. to crackle. Fr. first made ordinary Fr. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. follow after.. to is Essentially the Sp. to scourge. chasser. was introduced. or bruise together. is not satisfactory. kat. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. R. Cot. Sp. Others explain it from Kara. kotas. Lat. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. to torture. Brunne. V. OFr. . cojz^/a. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Castle. represented by the syllable quash. It. B. a chesnut . signifying breed. &c. Pol. KarapaKrr]g. Gr. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. casipola. casule. Pm. down. like that of It. a Cataract. Roukind. squash. to crack. cat-o'-nine. Mid. castanetazo. the ground . .Rouchi Scaches. kotas. execu. dashing it out of the window. Sp. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. The Diet. cacciare fuora. to cast or beat to tioner . dim. dash. V Lith. heat .Lat. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. torture. to hurl See Awgrim. handle of an axe. image accasciare. Hal. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Pic. and tomba. catar. In the dialect of Picardy. tails. a cat . to Fl. punch. koshka. Etym. Cat. speak of dashing a thing down. second chase. a fortified place. race. puras E. castro. to drive away. or Rouchi cat. castello. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion.out cacciare . and KviilSog. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . kaJoivad. cacciuolo. same word with break. katze. however. So also from It. Catastrophe. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. arpi^m. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. casupola. a thump. coming to us through different dialects of French. of castrum (castra). castellum. ating. a garment for performing the mass in. . from water Karappaaaiii. Fr. To It. casser. Thus we have Caste. ecrevisse. in the fire. an enumerlist. to end. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. to look at. on. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers.

Gael. a whip or Kuttner. e. a — gatta. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. s. 'Horxa. klatsch. Du. chenille {canicula. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. smack. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. OFr. 'Bxn. a pill. E. snatching. instruction in forms. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. klatscherei. millecaterpillars. klinke. Cot. sound. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Ptg. to snap. Guernsey pilleure. fragor kletsoore. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. called in Fr. catch-flesh. children's name for cat . as of the latch of a As ! — . Diez. the elements of a science. to catch strength. compare G. clap. ArbaUte de courte chasse. c or ^. wild-beast. Gr. a whip. P. catch.from Bard and ayopsw. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). G. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. woodlice. an accusing. chase. quincailler. seize. chassoire. snatched. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. whip. to A bailiff. devouring mite or weevil. from shutting with a click. On Catechism. Caterer. Fr. a caterpillar Milanese can. — tinman. a smack. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. which all . dainty vic- a form lash. kletsen. a whip. an officer of taxes. Du. companaige. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . Kil. Du. has both or of charming by sound. kaetse. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. — Kiittner. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. * Cates. kletse.P. Gael. Fr. a clap. KaTtix'so.V. a little dog). Kartiyopta (/cari. latch of.j. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. Cates. Sc.. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. chatter. ecachoire. klatschen. bicho. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. icarrix'Ki^.yopl(. in order). a. Rouchi clincailleux. — Catcli-poll. caucht. Chate peleuse. gliong. glcu. claquer. door when it is shut. silkworm. — . clap with the hand.' ^Jam. — explained. is said that he got a claucht of it. a. to snatch (said of dogs). to take. ' ' word catch. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. verberare kUts. to crack GATES cache. . to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. to clap hands. weevils. Fr. ' Fr. to kythe D. a carter's Pat. Metivier. Sp. a whip Rouchi cachoire. to chat. Wal. from Gr. chasse. gingle. blow. a cornIn the s. GaUa catchiza. resound. or any kind of relishing food tuals. caker. chachara. cat is not apparent. the distance to which the ball is struck. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . Tutschek.s. e. chink. and answer. to harangue. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. cache. Grandg. latch. . called dog or Galla catchamza. cagnon (a dog). ketsoore. . flap klatsche. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. 135 — Aasen. to chatter with the teeth cake. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. i. catc?u. to the crack. pedes. . E. . E. formerly called cliket. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. insect.' CATCH Fr. — B. Kil. ictus resonans. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. the OE. the the same principle he was Fr.) . catch. chatter . Guernsey chafer. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. de Bray. In the XV'e.V. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. head. Cot. Swiss Lombard G. gattola. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. worm. * Caterpillar. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . dainties. bichano (pussy). with and without an / after the c. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. chacepol. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. snatching it with a any one. apprehend a person. clatter. predicament. happe-chair. to teach by oral instruction. klatsche and Norm. resono ictu lash. Claucht. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. — with a whip.

On the other hand. the caul of the liver. a The peel. to shoe . catkins . koparet. Manciple's Tale. puss. kopano. a road calceata. chair. and at the rich man's cost By sea. by land. acaptar. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. cavus. . green husk of a calon. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. to ac- — Fr. CAVE Caul. apt to burn iron. macska. • — — See Chattel. fur. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. caballus. It. a paved road. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. — — cavallo. accattare. Cavalry. Catkin. Palsgr. Fr. flock. cabbage-stalk. cat maczoka. Sx. Cathartic. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. cauHs. the. caldo. a kettle for heating water. chaussJe. Hence achates or acates signified purchases.Y\\Xea. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. accapitare Rouchi acater. klopfend knallen. whence cathedralis. otherwise written kell. kautsije. any Fl. Caustic. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. a pulpit. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. kin. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Ka^afriKOQ. via strata. Kil. kobyla. calqada. capull. despencier.Lat. . Fr. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. from KaSaipio. cal^ar. choufleur {choii. A warm comforting drink. CATHARTIC sense. Russ. chaudiire. ce^l. kocianki. a branding from koiio. Cauldron. Pol. Provider. adcaptare. kaussijde.^ acheter (Lat. shaled or picked Fr. hot. chausser. Cavity. w. causa. from delf^gato. challe was ther of a temple. It. Cavalcade. Fr. walnut with the husk on challer. little cap is . . the stones of a street. B. Cavern. quire. dumpf tonen. Gr. Fr. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. calotte. a mare. to sound like a blow . — com en achate or buying Chaucer. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Lat. a horse. Rete.. Caballus. mutz. mudet. . a seat. deyntie meates. Fr. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Wyatt in R. 4. chaudroii. kobuiV. Pr. . — . a horse . Gr. — Cauterise. Cathedral. a stalk. a receptacle for small things. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. what . kitten kotki. katteken. caudex . Jaubert. It. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. Caution. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. calceta. net or caul-work.—— — 136 correct. Du. a pavement. kopista. acater. Kavrijp. Thus Bav. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe.p. rete A — Prov. Lat. It.Lat. caple. Mid. and spareth for no perell. Richly she feeds. having the property of cleansing. kdtzchen. Mid. Delycates. Cavalier. Caudle. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Bessie of Bednall. Dryden in R rete. Fr. 2. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. catkin Magy. from chaud. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. a horse . catkin mitz. to shale or peel. KiwariKog. Fr. Lat. KaHSpa. lamb. Fr. Jonson in R. to burn. Cause. reticella. Fin. G. puss.' B.. kocie.' Elyot in Way. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. flue. hot. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. The word — . fur in general. . Fr. and hence a skull-cap. KaPaWrii. Chaud. to buy. minon. puss. from caveo (p. make clean. cabbage). Port. to purge. katte. calceata. hollow. Palsgr. OE. cheval. Boethius. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. It. calidus. Kavrfipiov. cautis. &c. Lat. primitive is meaning a shale or off. cale. also to pave . chatideau. Du. Causeway. Fr. is Prologue.willow. Lat. cautus). hazel. to shoe. Cattle. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. achepter. Gr. catkin Pol. That he was ay before in his estate. Lat. . cabbage. kassije. Gael. but the acates that are sent him. little cat. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Cave. ' Gr. to beware.^Hal. chevalier. a horseman. a kind of skull-cap. chauderon. Diez). catons. cale. cavaliere.

hivtmel. Boyd in Jam. and that from Sp. dil. -cede. Lat. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . a log. door-sill J Sc. canopied. a head. a plank. post. Sp. coffer. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. yield. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. ceiling. komo. Ceiling. thili. tester of a bed. a planking or boarding tkilian. as if from happen. syle. to panel or wainscot MHG. H. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. wainscot thiljar (in pi. excess. beam. And seik — Cessation. also a seeling of boards. &c. cielo. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. 32. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. cavezzone. Wore. Cede.' Hall. cessum. in Jam. . Fr. a log. Fr.'— Z. to cut. cavillor. . sybire. plank. thiling. &c. caveqon. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. heaven. Lat. — — — toyour soverane. sky. in Hal. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. decessus. proceed. lambris. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. — . Fr. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. plank. To seele a room. VIII. komista. cellar. . syl.. that. Sir 137 pit . 7. but hang around at the sides. thil. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. Hence concede.' Cot. p. hung. It. E. B. So from Fin. ciel de lit. to argue capto tiously. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. semely on syll. little house. . quibble. p. . menuiserie. augm. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. ciel is so unbroken. of E . Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing.). Plancher. departure. exceed.. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. nailes will begin to cling. . cyling (W. curved. sus-lambris. pp. applied to a canopy. thil. the deck of a ship at thilja. give place. Hal.' Marriage of James IV. succeed. bridle. In the N. selure. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. to canopy siled. a halter. . wuoren komo. Cot. cabegon. The sense of roofing. . death. a boarded floor.).' — Gawan . it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. column E. 5. &c. selar. a board. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. . in Jam. — . to seele or close with boards plancher. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. an aquiline nose. the inner roof of a room of state. Cavil. cedo. —Decease. crooked kopio. to plank or floor with planks. departure from this life. heaven. — komo tain). . it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. a canopy.j have come from this source. jaa. dScis. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. cease. kapp-zaum. hollow ice . From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. Sherwood. rafter. were met. ceiling. -cess. The importation of Fr. or of a bed. Lat. and then to gape. with their substantives concession. of cavezza. a log. Gawaine & Sir Gol. &c. a canopy. the testern of a bed. a severe bridle. and zaum. del into English without ' translation gave cele. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. -cease. is applied to a canopy. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. dayntily diglit. thel. dille.' Rutland papers.' Ordinances and Reg. Lat. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. IV. koppeli. Cam. and Gol. A — A false accommodation produced G. In the same way G. Cease. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. wall. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. . the roof of a coach. a hut. flooring E. cesso. See -cede. -ceed. The line of descent from Fr. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. lambrisser une chambre seeling. to go forth. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. . Soc. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. sill. deal. hollow.' del. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. cabega. step away. a fir-plank. recede. sill in window-sill. kommata. Fr. as. CAVESON kopera or kowera. empty. thilja. thelu. board . to plank ON. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. . hollow. a beam. seele. 43. The It.

ciller. a shaft horse.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Lat. of heating. eschattffer. in Marsh. . to seal a pigeon's eye. Fr. cenio. — . concetto. -ceive. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. capturn. Sherwood. . eyelid. Lat. goad. See Celibacy. to rub for the purpose a hut. single or unwedded life. Celerity. K^'ivut. to twinkle darkness. Cij(fe5j. to prick. a valuation of every man's estate. Centre. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. to sleep). Lat. syll. Gr. {cori)cipere. to glow. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. caber. to incense. Lat. Fr. a solemnity. decide. Incensum. a solemnity. Fr. to rate. chaufferette. Assize. oil. from censeo. Centurion.). Fr. from Saa-rw. the point round which a circle is drawn. Lat. to -sum. Gr. in comp. guish. value. -cepire. or any bird's. make angry. the place where the de. cillier. — . S. Certain. zens according to their property. /ctj/rsw. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. blind. sure. distinIt. -cense. receipt. Cell. ' . celeber certus. deceipt. calefare.ing a room where there is not fire. Fr.' Celebritas.' Book of St Albans. a tomb. — A . cencer. camentum. age.cern. renown be embodied with. -cevoir. incense. encens. estimate. Prov. &c. cilibat. in accordance with the Fr. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. sift. tax. To Incense. his office. — — Cenotapli. to bury). Lat. and thence censer. as entering largely into the derivative certo. To chafe is for wine.). assess.— Chafing-dish. celer. thence belonging to or connected with corn. Lat.of the r. for building. a numerous con. irot\oe. mortar. to concern. cretum.. It. to set on fire. cerealis. a registration of one's self.— Cellar. to blindfold.. parted sleep. Celebrity. empty. is the opposite of disora virum. tax. criticism. Census Censor. -i^oivre. to visit in numbers. and thence to conceal. — . centum. Lat. and met. cceremonia. to chafe. a religious observance. siller les yeux. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. thronged the participle cretus. solemn (of per. Century. Coehim. pick out. also grave opinion. dchauffer. (and thence also) to hoodwink. become heated with anger. to sepap rate. sile. censura. deceit. the officer appointed to take such returns . oil. -ciper. -ceit. -CEIVE a shaft. and put it through the over eyelydde. a prick. sacred show. appertain. ceremonia. swift. stones to the production of heat. to course of people. to contend. a hundred of what- — . — . The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. Gr. census. with the eyes. — . &c. to think. -cepere.unmarried. Cot. contend. to seele or sew up the eyelids . point. conceipt. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. Gr. see. to be regarded as one celebro. Cess. -cern. judge Lat. See Cede. being taken from Fr. Censor. rubble. Lat. to attend on object with. KsvTpov. concerner. candeo. Fr. to take. an eyelash. the hollow the Lat. — . called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. Assess. Censer. then to rub without reference Cement. Chafe. heaven. Ta^oe. To seel or close the eyes. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. OFr. a storehouse Chafe. judge. Lat. Lat. a hundred centuria. but was gradually lost in conceit. In Celebrate. and — — — possessions. cot. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. -oept. the talk of men. Lat. -civer {conciver— Roquef. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. what to set in a chafe. Fr. to celebrate. much frequented. -cess. Take the nedyll and threde. to separate. capio. The term cilium. riscaldarsi. chauffer. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. sting. concernor. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. 1. Fr. It. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. Cereal. as in some places burnt. to distinguish. Lat. is totally distinct from the foregoing. to heat. Fl. judge. Censure. calefacere. crevi.j 138 thill. to warm. rough from the quarry. to take. Sc. decebre) . For sess from assess. family. keep in It. festive. -ceptjun. in comp. ciglio. or expression of Ennius. hollow. observe. and so of that other. cella. with transposition hence (of a day). -cipio. Accelerate. we have a modified form of (of a place). Cot. materials It. abundance. census. Ceremony. confounded ist from It. -cebre ifoncebre. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. quarters for slaves. a Cemetery. cigliare. to burn incendo. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. and make them faste und the becke that she se not.

hiss. thick and short. kever. Chair. to puff and blow. Lat. vis. muzzle. Pr. — . calx. calumnia. Gr. to calumpnjamen. Cheffern. cadieira. kuhuja. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. E. cadena gives chain. to babble. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. chatter. to Latin calumniare. Lat. also to prattle. as a carriage is a moveable seat. sborfare. . ^Altieri. limare. snort. much more Genoese sagrind. Fl. &c. kahuja. far lima-lima. Prov. care. kauchen. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS.nium. Adelung. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. jaw.' Rayn. chambre. breathe hard. matter by combat. kahista. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. cathedra. Fr. chicane. difficulty . swelling with anger. to sit. Hal. In vulgar language. Fr. chaene. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Lat. idle words. place See Cheek. ple^. lime . kdfelen. G. without chap/are makiinde. to fret inwardtronfo. Fr. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. puff. Fr. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. cauvette. Perhaps Pm. Probably from According to Diez. charge with. Due. In like manto huff. Fr. OFr. Camera. breathe KaOa^oiiat. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. a chain. a pulpit Cot. haggle. Fin. or puff with snorting. rustling corn. green sagrin.. quisquilise offence. kuhista. keuchen. From to go to law. chagrin. ing rapidly repeated cries. a chough. Cot. kuhina. grief. Du. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. to claim. G. from the shark-skin. (ca'e'ra) to chair.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. false accusation. From the To Chaff. rally one. Lat. to dispute. cadena. talkative. to gnaw. Came. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. baras of ants. great chafe. De Ir4. Kuttn. . often puffing. snuff. gewolb. care. Chalice. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. songe. chalanger. from of the G. havOFr. chaise. P. Chagrin. on. kdfer. Wall. calonjar. Kaiiapa. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. as. shaIt. — — ' — — — A . kiaftr. to move the jaws. tattle cheep. to a seat. calice. to call. any insect of the beetle kind. Gr. to action arose. kiamta. cathedra. to tattle. kiqfta. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. camera. chaps Chamber. KoBiSpa. tronfio. Piedm. to ner It. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. a prattling woaction. to gnaw. Lat. ON. chaine. and signifies to consume with anger. to caw chawer. Chayire. rustling motion challenge. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. to chatter or talk lightly. Prov. Fr. So from dominio. vel susurro. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Fr. — — — — — — . Cot. kuhata. Fr. chawe. rustle Challenge. ckapfare. sagrindse. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. From Port. calonja. to pant. from Swiss kafeln. contestation. a jackdaw. chayire. ing a hard case to their wings. fume. dongio. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. fern-chafer. Bav. to buzz. . Fr. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen.. taubes korn oder hafer. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. B. Lat. lime. 35. to bark. and as this was the beginning of man.sure carriage. kaff. crooked. kaff. in a cana. Fr. chaire. de Brai. puffed or ruffled with ly. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. kahu. keffen. chaffare. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. ceaf. to file. dispute. much blowing. . that leneth e per I'autra. chafing. The jaw chafty. Bouffard. a goba rustling . make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. refuse. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). hght Chalk. a double operation * Chafer. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. bargain. hordeum vel let. a pulpit. Prov. a rustling noise. calix. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . — — — . to institute anforensic action. with a:n arched roof. preise. . cadera. p. kedja. — — — . fa sagramen de calompnia. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. Du. Chain. khah. refuse barley . yap. To buy and sell. Lat. 11. in a monstrous fume. signal by drum or P. Halma. call in question for an ley). grief. of. leviter crepo Then. cup. chafeter. Pat. have a mind to parley. now a chair. clamare.— — . avena vilior. tattle. Ayenbite. chamar. Pers. sagri. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. catena. a vault or arched roof. ceafer. cam. chaulx.

dispute Hal. campus. a jaw kianisa. kibti. to hollow out. is explained by serrarsi.Lat. top of a borehole. champ parti. to fall. Chance-n3. To hollow out in chanPtg. cadere. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. pinch. So in e. giving rise to the as. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. . M. accidere. cahir. a field of battle. to hold . kimppu (Lap. Du.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. wood. dial.140 CHAMBERLAIN . to move the jaws kiamt. Campar. rare. hamper. to to chew champ. fray. a warrior. cempa. kabe. a hook . E. fight. head armour. ON. chanfreindre. campus partitus . governed by laws of which we are more OFr. the chafldn. a horse-race. Lat. an athlete. which seems another form of the root.' ' Pr. — Ch-amberlain. Ptg. escazenza. a bundle. a feat. ing. Prov. divided game. compound. camp. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . kiammi. Sp. who stood ad cancellos. fight. chdance. camp. certare. nels. gekrUmmt.—Charfron E. kimpUma. slope of a bevelled angle. gewolbt. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . to wrestle. To cope or contend with. To Chamfer. kiinp. accident. Meleare. ON. move the jaws. dial. Fr. Fr. . champ. to slope out the . and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. contend or argue G. hot. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. chamfrain. to fasten oneself on to another . to — — champ. Partnership. pedilusor. champion Du. . to wrestle. game campio. calida et sans aguet. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. reusement — fight in single combat. s. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. Fin. calidameya. Champarty. cameratus. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. to debate. hng. — ^Tusser. dricka i kapp. Hence (with the nasal) w. contest. a game at football. bundle. kappd). from cheoir. as swine. — masterly Sp. kempa. chance. luctare. ciambellano. or player at football. When the to quarrel. chanfrar. kampeln. Fr. mesleiare. to fall). Dief. to fasten on. act of falling. . i. prize-fighter. camp. zs jeopardy. and acted as inofficers of . kempen. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . boys speak of capping verses. Magy. to smack the lips in eating. to bevel. Chancel. bickering. received the petitions of the suitors. champ. therewithal.—Tutschek. . See Camp. Champion. to be eminent. to happen {ad and cadere. Pm. kimpustella. surpassing. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. G. to groove bevel off a right angle. a hollow chanfreiner. Gall. kablys. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). to tread The sound heavily. from chaud. . Chamfron. Carpentier. ON. Lat. contention kappi. a scufSe. champ. The happening of things Chance. chanfrein. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. cazer. combat. kabMe. camerlengo. tsamtsogni. hero Sw. caer. champ. kapp. Prov. or less ignorant. keiiipe. fighting place. and mesUe. tsammogni. Lat. CHANCEL It. to paw the ground E. jocus partitus. chain. campear. Commonly derived from campus. kabinti. ciamberlano. cample). difficulty . differs only in the transposition of the letter m. — Hal. . Fr. sukibti. to quarrel (comp. e. excellent.' SherI'altro ' ' . a court of justice. — KiL . Chancery. Get campers a ball To camf . to flute as a column. to cample. to chew. from Fr. cancelli.edley.' melleia. to talk. to hang. kampeln. kanip. Fr. athlete. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. termediaries between them and the judge. Lat. at the railings. to Hal. chaude mesUe. broil. to stick to. Fr. . dial. —Chamfrain. kriimmen gebogen. kabintis. The word is preserved in E. kampen. zampettare. dial. kimbu. Sp. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. Champ. kampa. to slope. Champaign. kippo. to excel. It will. chamble. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. dial. chanfrein. to . kinipen. Chancellor. The E. chance. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. Sup. Lith. E. as in It. The G. schmatzen s. to strive at games . to fasten oneself to another . campar. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. jeu parti. chajnbellan .

chap. flat . Cheek. also a clap. cangiare. kiceft as well as kjakje. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. kjaakaa. canalis. a pipe. Hence It. a chap is a crack or fissure. to cut up into small pieces. to strike. chop. To Change. hack . a reed. In like manner Walach. AS. to truck. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. kapoti. Hence chantry. not a soul. exchange. Fr. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . jaw. esclapa. chiappa. Aasen. as to chap hands. —Chantry. and the modern canal. ceaflas. skipta. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. That wide were sentin their spicery. jaw. And N. shift. Channel. ^Jam. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. kemma. Russ. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. Bret. A fellow. to plate. or the cracking of one. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. from canna. a dealer in candles then. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block.^. Walach. 140. Chip. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. a small metal plate Port. as those on a trunk. to sing. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. may be compared with ON. chapa. schimbd. cambium. or the like chapar. to creak. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. . Chop. properly in a hard body. esclapo. chop. to cut. to strike with a sharp edge. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. clapet. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. the gutter that runs along a street. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. to break . and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. chapear. Lang. to apply one flat thing to another. Chape. Sp. I. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . from clap. a jaw. klepan. 2. . changer. Da. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. to spht a chip. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. Man of Law's Tale. chanter. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. and also to chap or crack. the place where candles ler. exchange schimbatoriu. throat of an animal. cheek. the mouth. as skin chapped hands. camjar. chancellerie. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. any hollow for conveying water. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. chaps. See Chop. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. to cut off . leather. Prov. to — cut. a strip of metal plate. surfaces striking together. as chancery . kiceft. Da. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. . —Ordericus Vitalis. Chaps or chops. to plate. chandelier. Sc. to hack. like the knocking of hard things together. waterconduit. lips of an animal. — : Lat. muzzle. to peck.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. E. a small plate of flat metal. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Hal. . Chandler. extended to other trades. Chap. Sp. to coat. Lith. kennel. to change. to peck. kvar kjceften. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. Hal. — — —Marculfus in Due. cambiare. as corn-chandChandry. gab. wood. Commonly derived from capella. to put on fresh clothes. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. See Chant. chancery. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. as It. while the broader vowels a. schimbu. are kept. hard bodies. chap. Chapel. debeant conjurare. . Compare chark. It is also used in the sense of the E. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. from chandler. Fr. the clappers of the scupper holes. prune. chapelete de una bomba. chapeta. Fr. cobio. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. Du. is used in the same sense . which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. ON. chapeletas de imbornales. W. kaupa. — . to swap. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. to deal. the chaps . Chap. Chap. Lat. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. cantare. kappen. Molbech. ceaplas. the loose flesh of the cheeks. chapilla. to paw like a horse . exchange. a money-changer. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. Probably from chap. cambiar. to chap at a door. Fr. to strike.

a rhyme. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. properly to place — . dim. a hood. capital. See Charlatan. to prattle. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. czurksti. to converse. go. Mid. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. hadka. twist. Charade. It. Yx. that turned decken . es ist mi cheer. Justin. w. to sing or chirp as birds. a mark made on a thing. carmo. a head or division of a book. chapitre. Cot. charade. enough. cearcian. OE. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. chat. chara. Fr. Charge. beloved. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. . Mundart. Sp. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. dear.charme. gnash. a turn cerran. corona. Du. AS. —— . ject). turn about. From Norm. Bret. a riddle. bler. Chark. czirbti. in turns. colliers that charred coal. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. eyre. gaggle . to tattle. wreath for the head. Deutsch. to of the governing body. Charlock. a garland of roses. a merchant. a charm. char. — a car. a cricket karkti (schnarren. Fr. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. * Charcoal. surris seu Lat. to croak as a frog . turn. chatter. kirkti. cam. 370. from Charade.czirksti. czurliwoti. talking. for the same reason rosario. Fr. Sp. Charcoal was ciarlare. &c. burning without consuming the substance. AS. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. used in the sense of magic Fl. cluck kirklys. a riddle. charcoal burners. seems to be derived charade. — — — turned to coal. ghirlanda seor garland. capellare. . in To ness Charity. schreien. chirlar. Ptg. carmen. Hence carminare. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Lay on. It. caricare. babdistinction. 2. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. called in Sp. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. pohadka. Chaplet. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. kurkelis. cerran. Chirk. wood to coal. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. a mark of a mountebank. carricare. to chirp as sparrows. babbling. Chapman. And damned be he who first cries Hold. to charcoal. Swiss. Chare. caritas. kurkti. w. carregar. The crash.whirr. occasional turn. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. to chirp. return. ceap-man. The G. hiss Lith. It. chirriar. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . to dove . Lat. a The OFr. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. cha. It. . came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. cher um cher. as. from cape or cope. from capitulum. to chirp. Lat. . dear(in both senses). Fr.Lat. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. charger. capella. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Macduff. to prattle. to load . Sp. (eucharistie. A weed among com AS. chirk. a verse. to turn Gael. Lang.). tattler.. carus. cluck. condo il volgar francese. twitter. cabildo. to love. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. charer. tegere. karout. from carrus. of chapel. chapel. a dispute . as Pol. canne. to turn. the nature of a thing. Charlatan. — spell. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. gadka. the turtle pitre. Sup. Prov. An enchantment. as a beetle. car. Lat. be- e. charge an enemy is to lay on. See Cheap. eapitulo. from capa. Inst. creak. cedeleac. Lith. and in It. which was incantation. affection. charlatan. to creak. chatter. Boh. ciarlatore. clack. capitolo. charitas. Fr. siarad (pronounced — sharad). one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. Character. prattling quacksalver. to . creak. to talk . charlar. it is my turn. To Char.' Boccaccio in Diez. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. from gadai. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. . decken. In that work the verb is written caire. krachzen). jabber. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. called kedlock. chapelet. Chapter. Gr. grave or make incised marks on an ob. keeren. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz.

—Chastise. Hal. ferire. clean. To Chase. Chary.). czysty. charmer. An imitative word. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. csatora (Magy. jackdaw . as from nomen It. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. It. chit-chat. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. gazzogliare. clean. letters p. to chirp. nome and . or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. clear. To work plate as silversmiths do. a chatter-box. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. To chit. cyrm. the calix of a rose. So in Gael. charm. crackle. to crack. knacken. chat. — Fr. fragments or leavings of food. gaddc. chair. caro. a branch and a young female. to care). prate. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. be wide open. from pure. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . to baptize. See Card. to chirp as a bird to cheep. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. as turnip-chaits. Chat-wood. root of the Lat. from purus. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. to cut and faggoted. talk. warble. as we speak of olive branches. — Hal. also to hatch. %aafi. to chatter or prattle . —Jam. or equivalent forms. s. g. to separate in morsels. parcus. Magy. chykkyn (Pr. To Chase. Chart. ch&tier. chaste. csacsogany. csacsogni. carmen is presented in AS.house. Malay. chick. — Yorkshire chat. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. It. as purgare Fr. the bird is iiown. clatter. — The . discourse. cassa s. the young shoots . Lat castigare. a word. geug. whistle. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). noise. Chat. csaterdzni. whence a charm of goldfinches. a crack or a flaw . chits. flesh. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. Fl. nommer. chisf. Lat. clap. In like manner Russ. kata. from xoAn. Chaste. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. — — . Fr. kastaa. or suckers on rough borders. warble. Chasm. or the cry of a bird or the like.ppen. — We ornamental work the to signify E. chip. carme and Fr.. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. Du. Gr. noise. clack. chit. occasionally Forby. to make a noise. chaste. to clap. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. incassare. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. as. B. Fl. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. chikat'. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. to chirp. a branch. a gap. knatiern. Cot. schioppare. is to represent the chamier. to burst open. a young man . to gape. kna. Chamel. To chitter or chipper. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. gazzolare. to cry as a chicken . chary. la chasse d'une rose. Fr. the handle of a razor . also a youth. make a noise as birds do. germinate . It. V. eclats. sordidus. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. castus. chit in the latter sense Du. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. racket . snap. pure. cearig (from cearian. a churchyard or charnel-house. chip. G. a twig Suffolk chaits. Diez. kata-kata. . cs E.— Chit. niggardly. — = Chats. CHATS fit 143 to name. to set a jewel. converse. little sticks cudere. or a bird out of the egg. Pol. —Charter. pure. See Catch. gazzerare. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. It t. It. Fr. gazzettare. in Jam. pure.a. magpie. Kil. gallan or ogan. limpid. Pol. gazeuiller. speak . to talk. tittle-tattle. as in the E. an enchantress. Kil. Parallel with E. carnisj bones kept. To Chasten. chatter. — sharp sound of a crack. To chip is then to crack. enchasser. to crack. to which it bears the same relation as chape. the cry of the bat. The egg is chipped. also to germinate or spring forth. From carinen was formed It. kippen. the noise of birds. i. OE. To talk. — Palsgrave. See Cistern. a flock of those birds. shout OE. or pop.— Chatter.). Russ. scraps of for fuel. talk much . to enchase it . gadu-gadu. Fr. a plate of metal. chip. a shrine for a relic. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. karigh. Pm. splinters. clean. used to represent a sharp note. —Bailey. Cot. blackthorn-chats. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. D. . careful. a yawning. fragments. karg. prattle. ch). to wet. chick. shivers. xi'i-'^vui. castus. tenax.

kakkaset. tradesman. ceaflas. chavylbone or chawlbone. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. the face. and. to fetch the breath with difficulty. laughing. Sc. Fin. prattlingchete. to cluck like a hen. Chear. to coup s. to — . catalliim. a dealer in horses. to . gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. citello. kaufen. It. lead to OE. Cot. gig. force of the word. a canting knave. Cheat. kikottaa. — To check an account. to deal ON. to nauseate (to retch). chire. to buy. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. cera. chop. cattle. gagkezen. The gutGoth.. goods.' to exchange to gasp. which is used in the to stutter. a willing look and unwilling heart. the Confessor. Bav.— Chole. sale. equiva. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . kichen. giggling. to buy. 144 the It. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. thers. jaws. kakaista. retching. cozener. Du. KaviiXog. to clear the throat . .— . Fr. It — Brompton in Due. a rogue or person who used the canting language. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. with the exception of land. farm for farm. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. sense of bargaining. cita. stuttering. to negotiate. hawkmann. chiere. to swap goods . sum in a loan. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Soc. are represented piti. chatel. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. Gr. a tavern-keeper. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. et juxta catalla sua. CHATTELS has ciio. kak. Lat.—Choke. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. cattle. Fr. — We ' . entertainment. the Lat. Faire bonne chire. . snout. Slav. OFr. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Then. kaupiti.— Chaps. the countenance Fr. while it Bret. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. NE. which is the word in ceap.of the throat in coughing. Pr.ing. visage. See Cheek. a repulse. dchec. OFr. ceahhetan. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. any cheating. welcome heartily. frown. countenance. society. Ingulphus. look. in widely separated languages by the Lat. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. cachinnari. mandibula. capitale. and hence the E. kaupon. Chattels. jaw. with Dief. favour. koopen. entertain kindly.kakot. ku. sob E. a dealer. See Chess. to chop and change. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. chuckle.. . stuttering. Modern Slang. changing. caupo. to coff—Yisi. to act as a rogue. to stutter gigken. from Lat. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. cheeks. s.-^. aspect of a man. e. Pro v. chatal. Sp. kok. kek. — — —Chowl. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. Hal. &c. kik. Ek dry and hard. whence captale. ceafl. It. chapman. Pm. keck. Cam. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. goods. the tongue.. Hence to cheat. agreeing upon.— Cattle. to make inarticulate sounds in . a young boy or girl. to vomit. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. from AS.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. bon marche. lower. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. in Fr. Fl. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment.' kezen. to laugh. . buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. chear in the sense of victuals. kaupa. choule. price. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Cheek. Bohem. kauf. upon a checked cloth. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. ceap. a cheater. gagkern. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. cattle. chaptel. truffa. cara. giving or taking in exchange. syllables ^ag-. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. Chew. us. a piece of moveable property. exAS. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. teeth . Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. the principal ' colloquial E. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. horse-couper. G. CHEEK zitella. . Check. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred.

to hold dear. ceocian. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. geagl. the final guttural is retained in writing. to geahl. rennet. ceaplas. ichec. gap. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. chAtaigne. to gape gab. the loose the game of checks. jowl. Analo. kasa. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. the palate Chequer. gabe.' to w. to swallow. ceg. cese. throat. Hence kikna is identical with OE. incaseatus. kistej Lat. E. treat with affection. Fr. chevir. to choke with laughter. Sw. w. food. chops. The name of creak as shoes. . kaecke. . Lat. accomplishment cayed. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. scacco. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. cerise j G. Cher. cough. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. king). chiffe. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. a rafter . cheek. Du. a cricket. dersen . to heap up such things for the purchoke. — 10 . the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. E. gullet. by laying up in a covered heap. kastr. Pl. Chevisance. Sp. prevail with. to belch. to choke. cyse. kesten. gapen. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Fris. nish source. chests in OE. cheeks. Prothroat of an animal . made rancid koka. as meat and butter. F*-. mollium congeries. when the king is put in the Schmeller E.G. In these latter forms we see the transIt. — — . jaws. e. to boken.Xo belch. . skratt. Chekenyd or querkenyd. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. Sw. &c. squeak as a mouse. throat. ost. to make a noise different word. to accomThis they call hdrsk. kirsche. /Ji2^/(W. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. xaque. kjakje. Sc. gous forms are G. to gasp. CHE. Cherish. old bread. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. jaw. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. make an end. takes place in the formation of cheese. Lith. w. N.). to love. hasten. Chemistry. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. . for cheese itself. . From them the plish. Kil. Sc. Du. like a young chicken. chesten. AS.D. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . kastanie. dear. gaghel. Lat.D. to kep. kasiiUPr. cheken. subjected to this process with that which the throat . whence czypulas. Hence chesten-nut. quok. suffo. E. chops. chaps. See Alchemy. the hke. mouth kek. condition of being taken. kapen. gill of fish AS. cista. Chess. Da. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Tutschek. schach. To make a shrill noise Chest. — — . subacidus. Fr. AS. equal squares of opposite colours. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. cheek. It.perly head. to year.cirieggia. veluti piscium. caseus. things Da. rafters in heraldry. kikna. the throat. kopen. rupted into chess.. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. Lat. X'C&s. cisty G. then end. chevron. cherir. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Thus "we are brought din. cerasus. by laying it in come to an agreement with. Chef. the mouth. Lith. AS. jaw . chasi. a heap. E.EP CHEVRON 145 on. cabiron. as. kdkel. kces. It would Cheese. rattle in the throat. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. OHG. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. schach. jaws Sw. An imitative word. cireggia. ation. frame by which the exertion is made. castaneusj Fr. clear the throat. G. — — . practice seems to have been communiChevron. Fr. ON. kikna of dorum coacervatio. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. kok. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. quoka. Fin. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. a chicken. Fr. kjcebe. The Sw. caru. cegio. kdke.koppen. Cherry. the The use of the word kcesir. ceaflas.. As the board to gasp i. carnium. Pm. czypti. See Chess.peep in the same sense. Lat. to prevent the attack of cavalry. achever. the neck. Chevaux de frise. to bring to an end. See Case. jouffle. w. acquisition. Jam. Prov. geafl. cufd. ca' — . caws. giffle. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. Achievement. cabrio. G. to kasa. To Cheep. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours.their struggle for independence.pose of acidifying them kasadr. jaw. ceac. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. cams. (Kil. kjceve. cheek. Fr. Sp. whence kasa-leipa.

gosling. Fr. pipio. kouwe. kopf Du. keichen. 'Among these the G. To Chide. Pm. — It. Fl. beam. to titter is Du. killen. a chicken. caput. Gael. knit the brow cib-led. are formed Du. Imitative of a loud clear sound. Chime.peep. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. cheek. from the second Lat. Now gan some courage unto him to take. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. signifying properly shivering. the head. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. capete..). CHEW . CHJME the radical form is unusual. : — a lump. strideo. E. to Du. crepo. stake. into a continuous shriU sound. . chillrar. chicaner. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. a cup. a little bit. jaws . Bret. head. aner. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. kimme. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. while the Magy. or qf people talking rapidly. Fr. deer's horn. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. cap. a young bird. Chitter. to go. — — Mother Hubbard. Chimb. Du. a chicken. To chitter. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Fr. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. twitter. tiukka. and from the third E. kinderen. tremble with cold. mountain top . term is ssaru fu. a quid of tobacco. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. mouth. Fl. chaps. the young of animals in general. tintelen van koude. has probably the same origin. caprioru. tyuk. captain. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys.' my finger tingles with cold. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. cabar beinne. pipe. the least imaginable jot. chavel. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. rafter . to gasp for breath (Hal. Fin.D. kaau•wen. chill. Magy.. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. creak.. or the broken noise of birds. acute. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. kieken. kimia. czypulas. Probably from Fr. tiukkata.-ill. chawbone. kauen. Kil. caferu. also the horizon. kimista^ . Sp. rafter. then as G. E. kauwe. kauchen. as. horn wood. the Ptg. A To Chew. Chaw. Pl. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. to twitter. branchy. to use the jaws. ach. the jole. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. zitterti. Brezza. when the vibrations become very rapid. a cup cibaw. kop. killen. chimb. kaw.— Gattel. lead through the synonymous E. The loss of the syllable it in Du. to smart. cabarach. cebr. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. See Chimmer. Pm. . gills of a fish. cabar. Lat. Walach. De finger killet mi for kalte. Tintillo. chef. It. Palsgr.^ Hal. Chick. the cry of young . It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. — . choule. Chill. For the see word Doit. s. chikat'. W. sonorous. kuwe. or as E. chin.^ to resound as a bell. to contest. cabriones. E. from little to little. Prov. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. quivering sound which passes. Pr. a chicken. w. AS. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. pululo. by driblets. Du. and not vice versd. pipio. Gattel. ]). to scold. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Da. from the first of which is Lith. chic. kime. chiquei. Child. rafter . cica cica. kibr. kindeken. Swiss kiden. chillness or shivering.— Cot. chillar. kitista. knirschen. a finch. to chew. as pointing out the origin of the E. to crackle. Chigue. pole. Fin. the throat. queror. the same principle I regard On birds. in Walach. tiuk. kilderkin. knarren. to contest about trifles. greloter is to shiver for cold. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Payer chiguet A chiguet. chicoter.. capu. And hence. G. chieftain. then cold. horns of the house. the rim or edge of a vase. De chic en chic. klagend tonen.D. kidata. — Du. capo. Chief. Pr. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. or chick. a cup. 146 brial. — Fin. chew or chaw. pi. jaw. jaw. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. chol. chavel. kind. hiss as meat on the gridiron. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. a head. cib. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E.— . ' . cidan. to chime. tremble. to the brim. G. to chirp or peep like a chicken. ultimate origin of the Mite. a jaw. alter. to raise the rim. while didder is to shiver or citteren. tiukkua. chiler. Fin. grelot). machouere. kippa. pip. . cild. a hen. Russ. Halm. The Pl. to pettifog. a small cask OFr. antler. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. k'imm s. chicken.

Gower in Hal. all these imitative terms being minata. Sp. skina. the mouth (jaws) . — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . do. disCot. to simmer. — . Fr. caminsects. Fr. backe. bone . to sound. simmer. Lith. Primarily a shrill sound. Fr. killed by Bellerophon. Fr. as the/ is preserved tering. Cot. to open chirriar. ciarlare. tremulous motion. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. and the Du. Caminatum. Chisel. To Chimmer. clashing of weapons. komista. genawi. hus. G. chink. epine. See Bright. spina. It. to gape. backBut she withal no worde may soune. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. to chirp . See Chark. klincken. name Then. eschiner. keich husten. the whooping cough. to chine. ciseau (for cisel). up and down. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. sound on beginning to boil. . Sp. The change from the sound ter \s. gena. tschirpen. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. the jaw. applied to tremulous motion. clangor tinniens kummata. bx-eak the back of schena. — . cisello. zirken. chin . It. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. Gloss. Kil. then to any narrow crack or AS. as the chink of money. AS. To Chitter. then of a fabulous monster part goat. KinneGr. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . To chink with laughter. verynge or dyderinge. the chin . Chimney. twinkling light. ykvvQ. See Chats. caperd. i. Lat. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. hollow. crepare. cinan. part lion. Hindost. schetteringe. ter.iron. to sizel. Chitter. schetteren. a Kuttn. cheek. The desig. Ptg. rustle. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. and from a similar sound to boil gently. Chine. the chine. vincially used in the sense of a crack. . CHITTERLING sonus acutus. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. kieck hoest. Chintz. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. Diez de. hiss Pm. plodere. It. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. It. a surkik hosta. a hall Mid.czirbti. chhint. in the same crack. j^lf. The small entrails of a hog. Chat. sound. chits. the jaw. which differ from each other only as Chirk. caminata. to tattle. to creak. a crowing sound in recovering breath. hiss chirlar. Sp. gen. Chink-cough. kinne. cheminde. schiena. to tremble. schrick. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. E. Bav. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. Chyrme or chur. Chink. Chit. Chitterling. Pm. Du. tsongeni.. kink hoest. quavering of the voice. resonance . to prattle . cincel. Pr. cleft. to sound deep or the Gr. . as a bell kommata. to murmur. and chim-mer. To chirp or twitter. but or cry as a parrot. . — — — — — . and light. to prattle czirpti. chirp. clipping of coin. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Sp. squittire. to chink. In the same sense. sonus the backbone Lat. have been used to designate the spine. to chink with laugh2. et garrire . dial. eschin^e (de pore). representing connected together. . esquena. as birds the mouth. a fire-place. a thorn. chatter . spina. a szemrcU. eschine. Du. Prov. pork) .sharp. zirpen. to squeak in It. a chap. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. czirszkti. from 10 * ' Chia. as a large bell .Huloet in Hal. Chymerynge. It. or chyFrigutus. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Chin-coug^h. a chink or fissure. stridere. Bret. Huloet. komia.). schina.schricken. fissure. quivering or shakyng for colde. cinne. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. G. fyr. esquina.to divide or Du.er. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. cisaille. Fr. E. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. tinnire. flaw Hal. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne.. to chirp. Chimera. — . yivtiov. in Hal. Gascoigne in Todd. twitter caminus. Magy. a thorn. pare also Walach. kumina. the cheek. kumista. are In like manner E. from the geon's lancet. 147 kimina. to creak. companied.to chirp. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. and bodily movement in shimm. sounding deep.Lat. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. the cheek (jaw) . also vibrans. from Lat. sparkle. tsengeni. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. sonants. genou (pi. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Chip.' Phaer's Virg. chick. See Chap. A . to chirre. — . Sw.

try. G. as green as leeks. to experience. whence Lat. Yr. a fragment. a calf's chaldern of E. to taste. also calPs. coro. disposition. koren. cepa. keypa. Schmid. select. kiusan. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. or original meaning is preserved in G. —Chorus. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. taste. Chives are also a kind of small onion. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. chatter. Chuck-full. Chivalry. ON. — See Cheek. wrath. to hack. gustare.' who shall not taste death. specially with an application to theatrical performances. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. chibble.V)^x. . 2. kausjan. Swiss kust. a wine taster. the small parts of the roots of plants. chiffe. Cavalry. a blow. to chap at a door . heaped measure. to turn. a ruff or frill. a calf's pluck or chaldron . gusten. ruffs. Warwickshire coff. are used in the same sense. cut up into — See Chats. ^S. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. •- Russ. . kustigen. ments of the knightly class. developments of the same radical image. As kushnuti. haslets. experience valerie. gdnse gekrose. kusid. from chevalier. schiefer. fine threads of flowers. Fr. I. kushevati. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. Enn Sigridur sem ' . from kraus. Choleric. chives. ON. try. Jam. The Sc. Gr. g'schochet voll. schevel-steen.ceosan. to try. wein didder for cold. a goose's giblets. CHOP kros. an onion. civette.' At last he dwelt . to tempt. prove. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. cke. to exchange horses. and in this sense the * small pieces. chaup. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. a small slice or slip of anything . Lat. a chive. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. to break off in small shive.. as with a blow. chimp. The manners and senti. seallion or unset leek. G. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather.D. Gr. kruszki. Gr. to try. caperd. pieces . To Chop. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. — Chock-full. kalbs gekrose. kaup. to taste. &c. Choice is probably direct from Fr. called cMtters in the N. a heap. kiesen.— B jag E. a twittering. x^poc. schoch. friller. choppe. chife. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. bile. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. wkusit' prikushat. the ridges prove. . to taste . %o\ifa. skifa. to taste. To Choke. to stop geschoppt voll. . Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. i. okusyti. to prove. See try. cive. to try . shoot . propagated. . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. a young . of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. gekrose. arkiusan. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. and in kosten. to palpitate . in the same language. by which they are Fr. of E. from %u\i). chattering. then to try. a rag. . crammed Choir. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. and Vf. kiusan. krussyi. G. Swab. coup. rare. The .gust. all seem slate . cape. ^euw. Choice. and N. full to overflowing. Equivalents in the SlaFr. to choose. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. approve. kiezen. Goth. chock full. Body and Soul. chorus. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. Luc. xiv. to wrinkle. ent quarter. a scale or fragment P1. a knight. to clap up Hal. and It. Chives. it is probable that the root kus. to ^cleave . shiver. kushati.vonic languages are Pol. scheve. then to shiver. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. to Compare also Pol.ffrill. chawdron. full. pluck. Chap. Prov. signify to kiss. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. taste. &c. word is more likely to be from Lat. keuren. to try. kbhren.' Verie coinme Cot. causir. chippe. Serv. chap hands. kor6n. a company of singers or dancers.freze. Walach. choix. to strike hands . . to shiver. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. whence choleric.yEuffM. a ruff. to taste. OHG. Boh. the inwards of an animal. The I go to prove them. — — — . * To Choose. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to chap. chceur. kieser.. of an angry — — — ' ' — . anger. lead us on to Lat. Fr. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . to ing is doubtless to taste. 19. curly . — Cholera. fresure. Fr. to taste.

the same word with the It. — . clogs. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. capita.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. Gr. Chopino. Fr. a trafficker in souls. xpi'^lia. kubb. dial. In the Alchemist. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. short piece kubbug. applied to an owl in that language. which was written 27. That Face. Gr.—Chuokstone. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Peace. chronicles. To coup. kowej Sax. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. to overturn. Picard. peace. AS.— Landnamabok. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. cheviniau. Chub. Fr. cow-couper.' They are forebuyers of quheit.povucd. dial. whence e. Anachronism. monedula. soul-couper. ley in Giiford. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. Kil. chatter . Gr. kubbr. What do you think of me. . E. cheap. prattle . cob. chuet. — — — .— Chevin. Wall. syllables chat. E. a stump. cresmeau. 4. caphatenus. to turn over. See Chaff. a lump or piece chump. plump. — Dief. a messenger or envoy. ' ' What's that? Dap. traffic. kaej Lith. as in Fr. the teeth to chatter . cauc. Du.\^s. Marin. xftovoq. a thick piece. koppe. thumb Fl. In Sc.). coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. overset. kolbe (club). merchant. time ra . happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . bearand aits.' Jam. to clack. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. klopper. chroniques.. Sp. -chron-. cangiare.• — .. chop. To Chop logick. civetta. clat. G. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. The Turk was here As one should say. Fr. for to defraud. the string of a musical instrument originally. dealing. whence the Fr. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. cambiare. connected with G. fat. as Du. quappe. Chuck. i. choucas. in i6io. chevin. to strike in the hand. caker. to knock. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. Fr. to speak thieves' slang. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Chough. from kloppen. XpvaaXic. we find the following passage Dap. Chord.(. klompe. equivalent to the E. who took in the Turk- clack. If I discover. caqueter. — Quabbe. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. a bullhead. kaulhaupt (club-head. Come. e. chouquette. OE. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. that will thank chiaus — you richly. Nominale in Nat. kaufen. A fish with a thick snout and head. xop5>}. thick-set. a The What dhy ^. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. chouette. yiSA. cavena. whence apparently the Sup. Fr. E. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. See Change. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. —Shakespeare. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. Du. chrysalis (Plin. kauwe. . — Chrisom. I bring you the Cloughs. chapineria. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. to cant. the intestine of an animal. gull. capitone. chapma?i. From the Turkish Chiaus. shop where clogs and pattens are sold.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. p. Ant. gold. gobio capitatus. slipper . cauvette j Fr. chapin. Madam.X. Lat. Cot. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. chevane. Jam. kaw. Chronicle. sent before him a Chiaus. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. because she would not endure this husband chopping. 49. and we actually find champman for chapman. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. claquer. an offence against the fitness of times. by the Robert Shirley. in Chaucer. capito. kobe. chub. forms are Chrism. a small fish with a large head. Confounded with the bullhead. capitanus. to chatter. To Chouse. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. whence — E. gull.).sohola. P. Borgoens happen. &c. chevane. noble Doctor. ceo. A jackdaw. chrisme. of which such strings are made. high clog. Sw. or miller's kaycke . one who buys and sells horses or cows. E. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. chack. Chrysalis. ON. Alchemist. kowe. e. Gr.

. to strike clatter. whence church. Diss. to determine incision. sindra. sindel. In Sc. The spelling of chider has Chump. incido. comp. 24. as water running over rocks or stones. to make a rippling noise. but by way of explan. Cider. Lat. a pebble. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder.' And cold. Cleland in Jam. i. to churn. a fellow. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). as Fr. or choice part of a thing . ashes. to Newsp. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. pith. AS. kjami. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. The derivation from Kvpiasov. sinter. cendre. ChurL husbandman. x^^i?. to jaw chack or snap. the snout of an animal. flower. Gothic nations. cinctura {cingo. to separate the kernel of the milk. chofu. kernjen. Ir. sindr. kiorne. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything.V//a'6'?. klakka. Fr.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. set kerti. ceaflas. Lat. as a board. kakka. to fall. Cieling. ceffore. chack-stone. Jennings. have given rise. sintel. . so as to make the happen . to throw out sparks. a man. the kernel. Wall. -cide-. . to fall at or on. Sicerawry face ceffata.. cheek. calculus. whence deciduous (of trees). — . qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. G. kirna. To chuck in the fall from. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. See Cheek. a cutting round. a cutting an old chuff. See Ceiling. a girding on. * Cinder. swollen or puffed up Cot. See Cheek. chakil. Gr. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. AS. chops. tie about). cinders used disjunctively. ON. Chuff. from Lat. domhnach. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). G. Lat. Fris. lamak. joufflu. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. or. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. however. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. . Chunk. Da. countryman.D. kaerle.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. Sc. Probably from It. to form grains of butter. Churn. cinis. as in E. thence a belt. C^z^j^ churHsh. a resounding object. KvptaKolg. dial. as Epkema explains it. e. to turn from blossom to fruit. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. dust.^. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. a man. fat-cheeked. ceffo. -cisuiri). cut off. marrow. ceorl. The origin ation. a douse on the tores. chack or stane-chacker. to sparkle. Du. Church. to fall upon decide. sive piratiam facere sciant. to make a aiKipa. an old man. It is certain. cheeks Cincture. KaxXij?. Du. i. accido.rendered by Kil. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. male person. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. . in Sc. residue of burnt coals. surly.— Chu%. with It the Lord's house. we have to chack. Hence -cid-.for the residue of stone coal. from Lat. Sw. joffu. -cis-. cinctus. sicera. jaws.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Ka-^aiva. karl. has been impugned which it has really no connection. chofe (Grandgagnage). in circumcision. scoria. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. a miser. to him a sudden blow. a husband. Wall. ON. to gird. spuma metalli. Gr. then the on oh StX iv roXt. ciuffo. chuffy. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . to cause the milk to grain.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. cidre. pp. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. blow on the I io6 in Mur. giffle. calx. — — A — ' ' — . OFr. tindra. e. chife. kerl. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff.' he adds. ccedo. a rustic . to To Chuckle. in the face. Fr. a pebble . chaps. a lump. -cido. cado. As AS. -eris. ladre from Lazare. a man.— . geaflas. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. kern. to cut decide. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. casum (in comp. ON. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Aasen. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . -cise. — of the two words. Du. gffe. Cob. that the word is an adoption of Fr. Lat. whence ON. &c. ceaplas. . log of wood. &c.

around. of citta. Lat. with an initial s instead of c. Clamp. circle. The notion of a lump. ciste. to call by name. prattle. clack-box. a block. . E. log. rattle. 'mass. lump. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. empty Golius. claquer. Comp. and Sp. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. civilis. Dan. citujn. claim. a mass. klump. klemte. glam. sound. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. a clod Russ. G. wasserkasten (water chest). sphere gleba. cifra. is traced by Gr. claquer. and.— . or quill to draw waier through Fl. Arab. Cot. a shoot. klater-busse. biw. ON. bunch. G. as caverna from cavus. clamare. circum. to cleanse. a cistern. ern. lash . a kind of pipe. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. compared with It. to cluck. clasp. the place of . a circle. . a ball. Fr. So a light. city. castus). Citadel. a clod. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. to mention. Lat. sindri. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. sajira. . kringla. ON. to clatter. klambr. Du. parallel root is slam. Hal. scion. to be empty. The syllables clap. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. chest. from chupar. to clap at a theatre. See Circle. a lump Du. and clash. cittd. a lemon tree. cito. to gnash the teeth. klacken. . vociferation. dim. KipKog. klateren. Fr. a Pol. prattle. cittade. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. a boss . to set in motion by means of the voice. cry. a cleansing place. clap. klammer. cit^. CION See Tinder. Bohem. to appeal. claquer crash. cisterna. E. Sw. to chatter. as in Sp. lump. lump. or clap-dish. civitas. Sp. the tongue. a city. clot ON. Gr. chupon. clack. globus. smack. klubb. cista. a circle. and E. Lat. cion. forms — — — parent plant. klumbr. klepati. glambar. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. a split. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. . claquet de moulin. a. Circle. To Claim. crack. Lat. * Ciplier. radical identity of the Fr. Citron. to bawl. . clangor avium . It. a place See place hiddern. clamras. chupon. Gael. glamm. * Cistern. Excite. -cis-. to cry out. a lump Lat. klopati. cry out . a for water. cisterna. a whirlwind. twig. . —Circuit. kluV.to suck. a knob. gutter. Clump. lump of wood or with the nasal. clack-dish. around. klekotati. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. Lat. To Clack. mass . clamp. accordingly find the roots dab. in the frequentative form. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. a judgment cern. klabb. clambar. to summon or call on. area. Mack. lump. sip. Du. as. civis.. excite. a circle. City. — (Dozy) ing blow. clamp. a Lat. to go. a pop-gun. a rattle Fr. The Gr. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . Alt. to toll . chijfre. Lat. . Lat. for Cion. Chaste. a hiding-place. . cluster. clat. &c. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. circum. to knock. klompe. sound- — hands figures. Clam. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. . To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. noise. KpiKoe. a citizen . scion or sucker. a whip. clamer. a loud uksa slamketi. bunch . Circum-. stimulate. a rattle . a ball. circa. whence cistiti. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. klimp. ON. about. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. ball kloben. -cite. ter. —Civil. rattle . klak. a city. suck). clap. to call. to chatter . klacke-busse. domern. to chatter. a ring. It. See Crankle. creak les dents. crack. Cite. outcry. . clump. fall. sifr. See -cid-. belonging to cities or social life . or split with noise. Lap. cittadella. clog. cieo. a kind of rattle. We . a young and tender plant. clatCot. kringr. It. clapper. a reservoir Probably from Lat. hringr. dob. tinnitus . Fr.' sione. lucerna. We . also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). From Arab. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. to strike. Scion. klamp. lump . Gael. to call. sound of blow. Sw. trunk. chatter . clapping of klacke. clack. a block. Du. In Fr. slam. a'upiav. uproar. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. ruin. sprig. cion. babble . noise — — a cistern. klappe. may cite w. to make to go. W. citrus. Hence Incite. clobyn. Fr. klap. the door was slammed J slamem. klqb. ring. crack. Recite. Gr. circ2tlus. Dan. klappen. to clack.

or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. ancestor. G. Dan. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. dam. c). E. klemmen. kloben. dial. AS. tingle. klimmeii. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. as the clapping of hands. of the children. klavre. The Fr. to hook things together. klepati. Halma. to climb. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. klappre. — . a hawk. beating. Dan. a heap of stones or other things piled up . to Hal. kluppel. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. G. where- A — unto they retire themselves. Mampe. chatter. B. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . clink. children. Fr. and hence to pinch . . G. klemmen. a heap of stones. to gingle. dial. diver. kleben. klappen. prison. to cleave or stick. clandestine. dap up. pinching. salaan. Clamp. tattle. damras. klammer. klemmen. clapas. Clink. seize. gum. . kleppe. dam immediate modifications — . Hence the Fr. to do anything with a clap. to starve. dam. resonance klingen. a claw. . Clan. Du. a stone See Claim. to claw oneself up. to climb . to climb. a loud tingle. klappen. klamre. Clank. a sound made by a lighter clink. privately. ney. Du. Lat. compression. scendants. G. a burr. rattle. brawl. celo produces Fin. tremble . is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. Lang. beat. hold. bond. a claw . to Sw^. and that from celo. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. klampen. sticky Hal. klepel. also to clog up. dee. narrow. G. dink Du. Clapper. sound. as the Lat. klam. . contraction. klem-vogel. accent. E. klopfen. gliong. dia. grasp. sound of the trumpet . dambar. clav\f. to knock. ring as metal. is used in the sense of secretly. Swiss kldbem. for tame conies. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. To sticky. to. klubber. to clap. to stick conceal. clear sound. clamber. a sound. a noose . or klamp-vogel. substances of a stickydam. klebern. dren. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. who occuG. In like manner Du. club . klatten. of money Gael. damor. knocking. a rattle . Du. Bav. to climb. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. G. cling. to climb. Clang. daver. klippe. E. to stick or glue. &c. to glue. a craCmp. to seize. klynge. Sw. cream Manx doan. dapier. kleppe. a trap. cleave. gripe. viscosity . clap. glambar. — — . and hence moist. to knock. a place underground where rabbits breed. descendants . See Clam. massy. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. dandestinus. a bird of prey. but perhaps not directly from it.1. to dame. clap. cramp. klank. dem. compress. uproar. holdfast. These are imitations of a loud. to hide. stick. children. to patronus. dank. strait. To Clamber. to clamp. klammern. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klamm. tinkle. from birdlime. strain . klepanie. nature . originally a heap of large stones. dang. dapi^. hands or claws to grasp. Clamour. clann. clasp. Dan. cramp-iron. klibber. to beat. offspring. — Cot. The root which gives rise to klibb. yf. klettern. clapper of conies. dienklebber. klang.' to take coals to Newcastle. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . OE. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. clangor. viscous. dam. bandage. Swiss kletten. . rumour. E. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. chief. These words To are closely connected with damp. Du. Russ. to hold to pinch. sound object . clammy brace. a whip. dapier. chatter. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. B. to clap on. to daub pinch. to cling. from the w. to pinch. Clap. clang. — Lat. sound . tight. pressed close or hard together. Bohem. a sound made by a still ..' klibba.er. to climb. sound. — with hunger. — Climb. is a nasalised form of gripper. apprehend . with cramp-irons. A i. The E. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. closely analogous to that of the fast. a stick. buckle klamp. tenacious. Gael. take hold of. to hold fast with the . anything hidden. hook. klam7n. dientes. to glue. tone. adopted Lat. clibby. clajnmy. solid. klette. of which the locative case. whence sala. conceal. Dan. Salainen. salafa. the in many languages. klobber-saen. Pourta las p^iros as clapas.p correspond- ' without order. klamme. cluster. coagulated cream. The equivalent of Lat. in a hidSen place. klynge sig op. crowd . run to lumps Clandestine. G. to clutch or cling oneself up. kleppen. To clap in E. grimper. .

a lump. a clasp. a lump . If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. — Kiittner. a buckle. klauw. to shut. a heap. a kind of small. Klatsch- a pop-gun . klamme. ghespe. is used in Sc. From claudo. cloi. a. clairon. kleeven. locket of a door. klaterbusse. chiaro clear. we pass to the E. Fr.Z. klase. klatscha pop-gun. Sp. to animals Sp. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. In E. ivy. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. klatschen. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. from the resemblance to a key. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. clausum. a water made of aquavitse. Eya-klasi. as G. to end. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . under three modifications dava. buckle. he of white and red grapes mingled together. clatter. clew. Russ. dap. flap. to cleave. Claret. row aii/iaTos. Clatter.ck a whip. Kil. clamp. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. klucz. to do anything with a . a sphere . an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. From clairet. claret win e. ictus resonans. gaspe. a lash. klatschen. It. Du. clopa. teren. hook. KXeiSi. chatter. clarinado. Du. klauwe. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Du. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. subrubidum. — tells us.oi. klampe. klc^i. contraction. Analogous Jam. clavus. — Clarion. clair. to fasten together .\x\xvn. clairon of a trumpet— It. It. Du. mass. a nail. 269. Class. skeria-klasi. diver. nawith stanis. Sw. and clavis. to rattle . blab. Clavicle. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. classis. kleuen. a claFr. fracas. as it is written by Chaucer. Commonly made. climp. from clinging to the tree which supports it. from its use in fastening things together.to cra. also a knell for the dead. hawk. sphaera. compression. pellet . fragor . Pol. biichse. Lat. The form clew. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. klot. —Kil. mass. and through v into a. Dan. insularum nexus . With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. chiizjj-o. Clash. seizes) . In the same way is formed the OE. — Clarinet. clarin. rion. it is called clamming. klampvoghel. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. with a reddish tint. kluczka. or as G. a key KKtitid. Lat. as Mod. a. an ending. a bunch. thwack . sauna de classes. the collar-bone. Lat. Identical with ON. So Pol. bawling. klos. kiosk bicza. applied in their harness. Mask ! plask ! thwick. a club or massy stick. nail. a distribution of things into groups. from scknallen. klijven. forms are the Du. Rayn. clas. Clew. Fr. Prov. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. clavis. Claw. pet. cluster. claw (what fastens together. clump. assembly. klaskad. and old red rose-water. The b readily passes into gleba. rubellum.w or u on the other. Lang. an on the one hand. is preserved in Lang. a key origmally a crooked nail. Du. vin claret. Clause. Eau clairette. to clash as arms. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. K\a. e. noise. uproar. to draw it up into a bunch. chiarello. chasguear. in the sense of a claw. &c. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. a complete sentence. kletse. E.— CLARET clamp. Thus from Lat. straight-mouthed. crying. the primary origin clapa. Clasp. Nawith stavis. a ball. Wyutoun in Jam. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. &c. biichse. G. the cracking of a whip. vin clairet.). Cot. a clod. in the sense of a mass or lump. to fasten. a bird with powerful talons. globus. which signifies a ball in E. i. klouwe. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Owl and that by which cleave to. to knock. klatsche. to snap. same class with w. Originally clasis. clew or fasten upon a thing. klaequivalent to clack or clap. klaeret. a claw. waU. globus. Du. ansa. a key. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. Thus from clamp. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. glcis. . schnalle. vinum helvolum. Lat. cinnamon. whence kleuer. Gr. to patter. Fr.Gr.It. To clew. But clasp or elapse. stop of an organ. puUs. a little hook . klouwe (Kil. clausula. Serv . sound of the foregoing description. fibula. . and shrill-sounding trumpet. Nightingale. chiarino. to clap . somewhat clear. syrtium junctura. to ring in such a manner for the dead. The collar-bone..

as ON. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. to stick to. kleg. Da. from the clinking of the latch. a noise. dench. to sound or make a noise . G. a cleft or fissure. deot. split. glatt. to fasten. ON. seem formed dial. The word may be — . opposite senses. dial. (Cot. door-latch. W. Sw. geklonken. Lat. a latch. to clinch a nail. to stick or adhere . a claw or talon. the original . . to 2. the fork of the body. either by the coherence To Clepe. to clench. a cleft. holding together. kloben. See Clam. . pellet. to glitter. doff. cleave. to Brilliant. dams. a in that of sphtting. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. Thus from G. to fasten. . as explained under G. together . a cleft. Cleft. klinke. klirre. Clinch. kloben. a fissure. Bav. klinken. clear. The word is . Du. Du. G. To Clench. clay . klijveii. glandse. the latch of a door. sticky . clemens. to clinch GB. clear. and E. dag. and Celtic glan. to shine. to shine .' was nailed to a rock. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . klieuen. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. glan. doggy. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. pure. Sc. klouen.— . gaklankjan. klinke. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. Probably a modification of the word doitt. klouen. Die zaak is zS. Dan.— Clag. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. Clear. a noose. kluyte. a clincher. a one end. give a shrill sound Jr. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. nitidus. a fissure or division See Cleave. dags. dinquet kleeven. a mass. To call. glan. . Mar. vice.Q. kleevig. klink. a mass. glan. to fasten E. vissticky . cliquet. Sw. clout. klirren. rive. kloue. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . radiant. viz. clean. Du. klutsch. of iron worn on shoes by country people. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. 2. glance . clean. From clap. provinciaUy termed dout. glbram. Da. klceg. gingle. in two ways. G. klinke. famous. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. pure. clean. daggy. dut. klyft. glorious. tongs. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . shine. as Fr. glent. that was a striking proof. Sc. voice. rivet. ON. A — A Clement. a lump. kleverig. merciful. This is probably one of the clean. Sw. Axletree clouts. to clink or sound. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. it cleave together. as Lat. viz.— Claggy. kluftholz. sticky. kluft. kleben. danche. klincke. Du. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. Wilbraham. G. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. or from being divided into two parts. . and Dan. glindse. a bunch of When flax). a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. AS. dedgy. The Dan. or of a tree. glor-mhor.). bend in a stream. explained from the klinken. . polished. kluit. clear. smooth. bogs cous. to be composed. lump. kleg. the two parts of Du. E. words applicable sight. Fr. cloven wood. a flash. diquetcr. klank. a plate. to tear or cleave asunder. klag. Clean. Omklinken. Cleat. glint. E. neat. E. an object is simply cleft. clink. river. a — — . the To Cleave. as the Du. sticky earth. klov. rift. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. from nitere. gentle. klieben. to chink. polish . The proper meaning of the word is shining. Halma. is fast and sure. to separate into parts. bright. to cleave. speech . probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. See Clog. kla:g. sleek. Lat. i. hook. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. clibby. B. Clemency. klove The Dan. clash. This word is used in two business is finished off. a lump. a key. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. Gael. glitta. and. splendid pohshed. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. chaps in the skin. klinken. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. calm. glbr. date is AS. celebrated . that was Torriano. pure . bears nearly the same relation to both senses. neat. kldnkelein. klinken. Du. to dag ox dog. Kil. Da. from diquer. conserere antklankjan. pretty. mud. klor. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. glitnir. loam. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. ON. klinka. 154 CLAY dutch. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. kloben. klafwa. G. From dob. gleit. — : A rivet. Du. found in other cases. clean. Clay. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering.

—Vocab. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. and (with the nasal) — clincher. name. with hamarskard. click. to rattle. dook (identical with E. neither as having lordship in the. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. gleg. Happen. cliquet. clyf. hamraklif. In I Peter v. to prate. a child's or clack . one of the clergy. . Clergy. cliof. and hence climate. cliff. in rhetoric. as a click with the tongue. to catch. light-fingered. region not observe it. clerus. Commonly derived from deliver. a lump. a ladder. to bend. catching. rock. is NE. a latch. cave . cliquer. corresponding to Fr. deik. Lat. rupes . ready of speech. klinke. expeditious. call. to talk as a parrot. a cleft in a rock . to cry. clever. chat. kliv. and hence deik. as Lat. Climate. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. kliket. in the sense of active. Norm. to wink. klouwe. /cXi'fia. diver. deik. the clergy clericus. verge). 3. derecia. speak. Gr. to stir. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. klif. Jam. klinket. . Claw.' ii. de ripa. an inclination. dial. to catch. a hump. would have been derida. whence Fr. a hold. prattle. to cleave. quick in motion. Clew.) Brai. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. a trigger. See AS. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. rock. a sphere. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. lively. what so men clappe or crie. a cliff. . to seize. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . chatter. clack.). kloof. which is used in Scotch and N. sink. a hook. say. abrupta rupes . a lazar's clicket or clapper. Fr. dough. See Clamber. stein- kluppen. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. -Toe (from KXivm. cleft in a rock. dink. syn. The Sc. clif. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. The origin is the Gr. skard. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . derigon. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. &c. a mill-clack . We movement catch. But the Dan. crepare. kleppe. diofian. pen. cleft of a hill. clatter. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. to teU tales. babble. Boh. klaffen.— Clicket. as Sc. to clack. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. Da. the knocker of a door. cart that tilts over. score7i clif. one admitted to the tonsure. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. which in Mid. Du. clima. Du. AS. clap. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. clif- stanas. precipice. rapidus from rapio. call. a precipice. chatter. Rouchi cliche. klikker. Client. Now the OE. quick of perception. precipices. has also deik. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. Hence Lat. sonare. dial. Lat. diquette. dexterous. Chaucer. Lat. — — A . CLERK sound of a blow. cleke. highest is attained. the clergy. click. dichet. a figure mentioned. above the pole. cligner. Cliff. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). dever. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. Clam. klaiv. duik. Dunbar in Jam. scar. cleopian. to tattle. klippe. a latch . dicher. ravine. a clew. corresponding to the Sc. .r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. Cot. rugged ascent. Clever.. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. cleugh.dergie! Wiclif in R. klikklakken. derigo. agile. e. pulsare. click. Climax. kleppen. KkrifoQ. CLINCH De . Du. OE. 3. it must be observed. icXi/ja?. ized . to sound an alarm to clap. crack. a claw or clutch. a tumbril. deuck. cleft. klev. Klover i munden. has kl'dver. slope . klever. the dick of a latch or a trigger. — have the notion of a short quick in E. clep. nimble. See Clench. climate. G. a latch. G. declivity. as from derido. Bav. Somner. frap- per rudement une personne. dek. to move. a lot. or Sc. klinge. ginally from dob (extant in W. on. clever. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Clerk. claw or talon to dek or deik. Det er en Mover kerl. a ball of twine. chatter.Lat. to confess . had a form. to tattle. klok klep- crepitare. Climb. Click. dergi. to snatch. a clerk . littus. on. klippe. dob. clypian. a baU of yarn. dutch). that is a clever feUow. in precisely the same sense as the E.— Clue. snatch. IS5 Du. glomus. dial. or an object character- Clerical. duke. click it. deudi. a clicket or clapper. derjon. Sc. from clifian. seize (Hal. crackle. globus. temperature. Sw. cautes. d See Clan. klika. exactly Gr. Sp. from Gael glac. deuch.

— clot. and a similar syllable without the /. Esthon. from klepati. E. Da. tuft. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. knippchen. four of the bell.D. -CLINE make pinch. claw. a faction.' for a dry stick. klok. in Schmeller) klunk. klungelin. a rising ground. as thick or curdled liquids. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. G. to form one mass with. cochl. klippur. kolki-laud. difficulty. to lean backwards. a tinman. to wither. Decline. a separate portion. klocke. quincailler. Bi klik uti klak. by bits. to strike. club). Gael. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. G. parva ruptura. klipa. The notion of a loose moveable substance. toga muliebris.ginglej Fr. a lump. knippen. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. as we now say three or four o'clock. klippa. speaks of a ' clung bat. especially of something soft or clammy. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. to resound. dial. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. G. Ang. a beU. to knock. to cluster. Kil. difficulty . g. cloak. Sw. like cling. a woman's mantle . pinch. . to bend downwards . schnippen. ' . a bell. Sw. compress . Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound.. to AS. a snare.und zuk-lippen. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. See Clang. pinch. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. clangere. a cluster. and so' to contract. G. Sw. OHG. Pl. to clunge. to shrink up. kldpp. Lat. to clink auf. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. klungeln. to beat on the board. to lean. Fr. to slope or bend .. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. E. to snap kneipen. as G.. Du. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. . clino. knippe. Bohem. clock is a variation of clack. Walach. Clock. Flem. hlinen. klynge. kliks. G. a lump of butter. clique. To stick to. To cut with shears. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. hluccti. kolbe to E. fetter. clivus. klippe. Fr. . Gr. G. ON. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. toga. . sloping downwards . to snip. klippen. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. ring clag. klak. to pinch klupe. Sussex peasant AS. glungelin. . to clip. hooded . klo^gen. . 156 -cline. klunker.' From Pl. sticky. to sound sharp. a bell. clingan. kukla. sloping upwards procUvis. Swiss klungele. Hal. to snap tongs. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. slant. klingen. hluk. dag. to pinch. N orman clincailler. Serv. Cliofue. . ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. clutch. &c. incline.. whence E. a hood. noise. to snap or fillip schnippen. kleppe. * Clod. clog. to make a loud noise. outcry. ten. Ir. kluben. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. klicke. klinka. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. also to wink . klincke. a clock. at first probably on a wooden board. cloche. or bagging clothes. related to clock. klocke. klaka. 'Till famine cling thee. a clog or fetter for a beast . glocke. See Cowl. and 'E. bow. clato make a noise. shears. klocka. iissura. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . -cliv-. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. knot klynge. gUong. To Cling.'— Shaks. hlinian. pallium. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. a ball of thread . straits. kima. sloping forwards. as to snip in the same sense from snap.— Clot. Een kliks bolter.D. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. to clap or clack. rima. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. incline. to ring. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. ON. w. . brett-glocke. Cloak. declivis. 2. kluppe. to shrink up. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. disposed to a thing. dial. chcng. Du. clinker. — a mantle. to wither. nip. hill . acclivis. clips. Clink. verklungeln. dial. ON. klunge. -atum. also to form a compact mass. The E. to crowd or squeeze chingy. to cling to a thing. Sw. clinke. S w. klik. klepalo. Swiss klokken. to beat. I. Du. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. gang. Sw. a lump G. dial. To Clip. kol- The word . kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. recline. kXiVu. Du. to . to crowd together klynge sig ved. klupen. globulus' (Gl. Bohem. klinken. . Lat. klippa. met.— KSS.

slobber. daggerey. separate part.— Clothe. gelatinous. His heart was franlc without a flaw. lump of butter. a monastery. chiuso. lobbig. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. kl'dnken. Swiss schlott. truncus. to flap as loose clothes. Fr. chiudere. be&c. to cling locks. clogs for the feet klakk. finish . m&se noch stain. . je amoncele. Pr. In the same way Dan. TZoxapov. loose mud. A — — A Thus from Bav. laggyn. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. klokotat. plod. forbidden by 17 Ed. Pm. close. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. . dangle. a clod. lag. loppered (of milk). IV. is connected with pludder. dirt.. loose. to dash like heavy rain. beklakken. foreclose. a portion of something soft and adhesive. splash. from claudo. to rattle. to slop or spill liquids. . Russ. to play at bowls. -clusum. • lump. a Christmas log. lump of something soft . ! . shut up. Yule-clog. Bav. terminate. and E. AS. to a. paddle or dabble in the wet. closed. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. claque. of a body of any kind. kladde. shut up. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. Fr. the radical sylla. zocco. clorre. wabbling from Du. kleck. motzen. claggy. Pl. Close. Sc. geschlotter (as E. klod. slops slodderen. kleck or lack. or loppern. dab. E. bowl . I doda clod. to rattle or shake to and fro. . Klottermelck. -close. is a blot on one's character. fat. lob. tuditare. paludosus. claudo. to dabble. and thus seem endowed . compared with clump. klakken. schlattern. spot of dirt. in accordance with Pl. clatk. . schlottern. to shut in. klos-bane. a clod Swab. kloteren. clos. and Gael. an imputation. boil. klotz. He was a man without a dag. to bodies. mire. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. a field inclosed clos. Lat. lobberen. -clus-. with Fr. -cludo. we pass to Schlatter. to claggock. paddle. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. a blot. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. dag. bespotted with mire E. to wabble. miry laggerit. . to dabble.dial. to shut up. like G.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. . da- . slobbe. motte. tramp in wet or mire. in comp. a trowelful of mortar.rge lump. Clog. loppe. slobberen. Closhe. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. a dirty wench claggy. thick spoon . loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. whence klack. I clodde. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. schlotter. lunch. clausum. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. lump of mud on the clothes .'^ Palsgr. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. kloster. lumps of butter.D. log. dirt. dial. cloth. a spot. to rattle. a block. slabberen. . from Du. Klak also. aspersion. to sup up liquid food. . in forms like Du. to close against one. slops). analogous plan to clod or club. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). lopperig. Dan. meat from Du. be found rattle. klottern. clausum. slab. klot. Du. or drablyn with separate existence. clotted locks Dan.' end. doitre. spatter. bemired. a blot. or E. Hence inclose. klotzschuh. klakk. . kloden. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. bloutre. . . tJokok. of something clammy or heavy. a skittle-ground klos- sen. loose trowsers. laggery. . MHG. unctuous. klos. clos. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. a bal!. or Sc. pludre. enOE. A . to bubble. thick sour milk. mud klcEg. . to shut. neither spot nor hang loose. Fr.D. loblolly. from Fr.. to shut. E. klunkern. kloteispaen. to flounder in the wet. clog or overshoe. blot. watery. clammy loam. a clog. shaky. klag. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. dunch). to spill liquids. zoccoli. a log. inclose. a lump from Du. to bedaub. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. lobberen. schlettern. without. a log. rattle. mud. to paddle in the wet. G. clot. It. pattens G. The game called ninepins. Cloister. daustrum. Mat. Gr. To Clog. kloten. Lat. I clodde. congeler.1a. curdled. fors. Idppern. we pass to E. in accordance with It. G. Du. slob. to lobberig. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. then liquid or loose substance. klateren. hanging loose and full. The origin of clod and clot is to . lopin. slop. Pr. g. . pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. and Du. klac. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. Fr. schlott. clotted milk klotte. a babbler. figer. 3.). clogs. wide bagging clothes.

a boss. Du. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. Du. duthaich. dys. to cleave or the splashing of water. shel- kloen. ON. AS. a ball of twine . a curdled sky. Rouchi dapoter. Du. group of people Sw. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. from W. Du. mary sense is a blow. unpolished. and tapp. CLOUD an awkward clod . clue. Ir. probably from daboter. from kloven. bunch. a bousche. log. klotz. a nail) Fr. a sticky. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. a log. klieven. of sloppy materials. indispalte knoblauch. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass.D. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. warm. Gael. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. and clay. lie clyd.clod. clog. are also used in the sense of a stopper. a cover or coverture . a thick mass. a clown. a clod or clot. een klaven kruflook. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. but confounded with cailler. cludaim.158 . Cloud. Clump. w. a . clou de girofle. also homo obtusus. klubb. clod is used in both senses . lunch). chiodo di girofano. a. clavo di especias. Clown. nelke (dim. davus. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. mass. stock. klumba. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. little nails. Du. zolla. a breach. klubb. Das volk hat sich in splitten. to splash. diboter. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. clothes ment. a nail. Met. cobio. clammy earth. cluster. choke or stop up. the terms expresssplit. klump. clothes). E. From dog. aglio. G. A kind of spice resembling Du. dabosser. dump. eene ODu. clothe. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. boucher. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. kloete. clunch. a garthas. . The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. a clubfoot klabb. puddle. of nagel. warm clothes {dillad. zolla dell' . The radical sense seems to be an unE.). chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. and clout d eudaich. and -the word Clove. clobyn. loggish. tuft. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. . of thumping clumsy action. Kiittner. the air. klubben und klicken aufgeloset.D. AS. eine to slop. klove. Sw. dash (Cot. dabaire. lump. a patch. klubba. sticky. botch. dial. clot . wisp. ball of thread Russ. Cld. Properly that which covers and Du. strike. klcBdi. a ball. formed lump or thick mass. clunch. Club. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . from OFr. klobbersaen. kldverj P1. klotzig. The significations of a clod or lump. caillebottes. dob. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. To Cluck. motte. a knot of people. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. as Fr. dut. So Fr. and of a rustic unpolished person. lump of earth aria. kloven. when something has got into the touch-hole. and closely do conspire. de Champ. kl'dnne.). to cloy. to curdle. dial. . clod. warm. nagelein. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. kUid. N. A division of a root of garlick. make warm. klubbe. dirt. a bobbin. E. piece Cot. a ball. a sky Cot. Pl. More in R. klebek. are often connected. milk run to lumps. cludadh. G. of a lump of earth and that figure. to cleave. coarse. klotsen. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. Du. naegel. Clover. a ball. In the same way E. a clod. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. knob. dote. clydion. clot. clumhar. a lump. of ordnance is said to be cloyed.). with lout.ft. a bunch. Gael. clyd. Fr. to stop. to lump mend clumsily. clotted milk or cream. . klumpfot. kluppe. to cover Bret. G. spice) G. — . a bunch.Fris. cobble. block. nourish .bar. . It. to strike . to cherish. lumps of curd. daggy. cluth mhor. CLUCK rustic. klunds. Sw. from Du. to a lump. knob. a log. E. a blabber. blockish. tered . . klonte. to beFr. to tramp in the kluyve. sheltered . cob. esdaboter (Roquef. ser. klqb. hebes (Kil. G. Sp. — — — . matte. To Cloy. klaven. lump. clods. botsen. Clumpered in balls of clouds. ON. dillad bumkin. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours.D. 2. kluV. warm place . rustic. lump. a clot or keeps one warm.' Sanders. cloud Delfortrie. mire. to strike. a lump. mud (Pat. klever.). Then applied to a lump of mate. w. in the same sense. dial. a clove of garlick. klu77ip. Mabousfrom Lat. clump. del mattond. sheltered up warm. a bunch. clot. The priClout. Dan. I. (kruyd =. clump of a clout on the head. Imitative of the note of a society. a fissure. Move.

Fr. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. dystere. . and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. Du. unwieldy Hal. to grip. to klotz. a lump. to tramp. are the nasalised forms of klotte. beklommen. Lat. clook. viscous material.D. a clod clunter. to curdle. of garlick. clumsy. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. verklomen. clausum. a claw. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. G. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen.— — . Clutch. 159 E. eviratus. dial. ether comelia P. Graff in Klamjan. a clod or The noclot. coccolare. conclude. esclaboter. Fr. n. close. wooden shoes. Analogous forms with a tongs. ON. klampa. — Hence include. pinched. from klupen. obstructum. Coal. klummklummshandt. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. limp. klunsen. having the Pl. cliboter. hands stiff with cold. lavesen. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. and klotteren. klump. . to squeeze. in comp. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. clotted cream. to pinch. It. kol. E. and klonteren. to tramp. carriage in which you klodset. Lat. clutch. . klomen. . Sc. Hesse. lump of soft mate. klumpig. to wash. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. unhandy. 130. benumbed with cold. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. Boh. glocire. But clunchy. dek. kichlemmit. klocken. to rinse. E. dumpers. ill-made . and make ye strong feeble knees. er. From the notion of sticking together. See reclusion. — sen. hondis. to paddle or dabble. G. — Cot. a litter. ball of snow on horse's foot . klisse.D. a bunch. calling her chickens. may recline.D. wooden sole. coucher became in unhandy. paste.pare P1. idle. algidus.' Comfort ye dumsid. to tramp or tread heavily. seize. Hence snatching. glousser. splash. conclusion. Hindust. Clump. of Du. inclusive. —More. —To Clumsyd. hooknosed. Clutter. ' . klumpern. claudo. through the senses of lumpish. clip or pinch. from laver. lay hold of. duke. rial. Gr. ' Clumper. klimpern. ' Thou clontsest for cold. -CLUDE hen Du. havi. eviratus. a lump or compact mass. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material.D. and koetse. dial. a coach. Coach. a clot klissen. tight — — . crooked inwards . ball as snow. clopiner. a block. finish. — ' — — tonista. Du. Com. Du. differing only in the absence of the duik. COAL dumpish. Sw. eene beklum.forklomme (Outzen). clointer. Du. to lie. to syllable click. cleuk. Fr. with a quick. with E. klont. heavily. or from Sw. claw. from ON.' Vegecius in Way. clabosser. enervatus. cleik. might be reached from clump. a lump. koetsen. &c. fingers (familiar). pladdern.D. * Clumsy. claws. or aclommyde. acomelydfor could Pr. Cluster. Isaiah. ' Uorte (for clogs.. dial. klonte. beklummen. klemmen. MHG. -olus-. also a cluster. to to snatch. Compare Swiss klupe. thick and clumsy. klcise. Beklummen van kelde. The Fr. a nasalised form of club. properly to do anything Fr. Pm. unfashioned. Hence cleik. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . -clusum. strum on an instrument. klummerhdndt. Pl. awkward. an instrument for nasal form e. Cheshire. Lincolns. klunt. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. klomje. as Fr. to wash. The sense of awkward. as from seken. dussomed (Wilbrabam). In the same way Du.Ancr. -cludo. whence koetse. klister. clutch. koetblockish. kohle. dumpse.P. a noise. to stick together .e. in v. Variation of clatter. klamen.E. klamp. a clove Sw. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. klompen. -close. ment. to shut. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. See -elude. A group. OE. plad or plod. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. Sp. -elude. hand to cleuk. klontet. G. koetsie.' Wycliff. klette. G. bunch. cluster. a couch. klemma. a pinching time. Champ. Ray. log. * Clump. — . klos. wagen. -clus-. Muster. koetsDa. Cath. klikonosy. MHG. clump. gelidus. unhandy. to curdle. klonte. Riwle. doquear. Teulazy. a ball.mene tied. klobber in klobbersaen. to benumb with cold. dek. dumps. OHG. klikaty. the word is more probably connected with OE. Sw. to gingle. as clumper. smart motion. cluntClyster. klods. awkward. Fris. kluntfrom KKvKdi. a clod or lump. Ang. dial. exclude.' Benecke. Du. Pl. a clod or lump. cleche. to curdle. to collect in lumps.'— animal. verkommelen. xXvariip. a ball .

a knock. walk clumsily.' — Thus from (Hal. of poison.). things. to Lett. ridi. viz. cofasse. pockbecility and liability to imposition. pustule. to strike. acomelyd or aclommyd. It. and the spider as collectors. to be hot. pock. Colina' the place where a fire is made. Coat. a bungler. a thumper. a coat or frock. kuppa. to stutter. The dirt. to peck as a hen cobyn. to glow . a spider (/r)^=grub. to wheedle or gull vermin). give the full meaning of the word. as in arr. Fr. When the . side .(pi. from some fancied resemblance. Fr. E. glow jvalaya. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock.). also a coast. Coast. to hobble . used in — . klabbare. long standing. caleo.. and hobble. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. — Cleveland Gl. a spider. CooMneal. a bunch. to pdt with We may cite Fr. cob is a dumpy horse. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. blaze. the one of thump. boil. spinne-ivebbe. of E. . cobcoals. Coalition. and fig. a sow. Coalesce. glowing embers. a cobweb. koljarn. to burn. verklomen. broddelen. kop-ar. ailina or colina. cob. kolna. Coarse. cluster. woman is said to be very ordinary. niais. to stutter. s. coalesce. dial. inflammation. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. — Cobbler. cob.— Cobble. The Fris. that is. to kindle jvAla. to speak or act confusedly. s. Cobbles in the N. cacd). cock or nescock. Dan.' Nares. frock. a crea. v. cotta. . i6o COALESCE on in lumps. See Cot.. Lat. a similar According to Ihre. properly to daub. to form an union with another coalitus. one Pr. w. are often connected. to grow together. a rib. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. . kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. and thence a lump cobnut. throw a blow. rivation are found in Sw. dim. to stammer. klabba. any kind of coat. Du. top cobio. In the E. probably left his home. T' waerkopet. however. small pox (pocks) . A plausible origin. habble. cotte. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . quilet. Pm. nursery lang. — — — E. niais. petrilla. probably from the Fr.inflated with air or liquid. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. ignem. cobble.). Sp. then to work unskilfully . bijamie. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. cule cocosse. gull. to bungle . and E. Flem.' And colo. cokes or fool of him. The OE. of cochina. cokes was a simpleton. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. to be inflamed . Fin. . an egg. to cobble shoes. may be A found in Sw. as shown in dob and cob. kylla. to knock. cochinilla. of E. an old idiot. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. are round stones or round coals of small size. tuft. to beCoax. flame. pryf-coppyn. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. Cocasse. ON. — — . only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. atter-kop. To cobble. unfledged bird. haggle. a kitchen. meaning that she is plain and coarse. and jval. united. klabbsmed. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. a tuft. Pm. is one of thump. or E. says Varro. to kindle or cause to burn . kop is preserved in the provincial