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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


name of the cow. when neither name for the object to be designated. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). persons of different tongues at the present day. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. or. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. is given to a cow or calf. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. the present day. by whom the be understood. when we is represent to our children of the cow. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance.NURSERY IMITATIONS. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. the baaing of the sheep. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. the closer we shall approach to the . with an initial m or I. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. and where we are seeking. to the syllables which are significant to the child. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. in language of the present day. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. or Mollein. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. and. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. in other words. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. muK) and mae (rfie. come Moolls. The syllables moo (mu. Molli. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. mind of the of the animal. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. and mully or mully cow is the . would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. but nothing she herself knows the animals. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice.

&c. On one occasion he said^e nim. and some were very clear and distinct. schipp. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation.' he says. nim. family. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself.' In ordinary speech mump. in children's language. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. fiafifi&v (Hesych. and nim came to signify everything edible. mumm. nineteen years old. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. 72). Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. First. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character.. for bad. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. to work over with the mouth. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. and which we might express thus. became more perfect.). A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. analogous to Magyar mammogni. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. p. partly from sounds which the child caught. to For instance. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. when hungry. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. then. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. We have. He would now say good. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. A member of my own new sfop. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. for everything fit to eat. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. repulsive to eat. as well as the mind of the utterer. by the natural humming sound. Finally an n was placed before it. Gr. had nim. hm. his nurse adopting the word with him. for things. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. I had watched the growth of this word. . to eat. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. he called to to drink. Heinicke. .' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. Gradually.

lita. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . to smack in eat. stolen. yamming. Primitive Culture. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. sweet (Koelle). as well as the Sw. as to . Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). oves lalare. to eat. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. memmexen. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. jammla. i8o. tidbits nama . savory. aves tinnire. and some of them . it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. mumpfeln. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. taken up hastily on the sly. on. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. to taste .' And Diomedes. namnam. ' Motherwell.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Swedish dialect gamsa. j ing . while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. clangorqae tubarum. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. Nimm'd up. to take. ut tinnitus aeris. agreeing with Ein. p. palatable. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. delicacies. Galla djam djeda.minis. Soosoo (W. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. to move the lips in continued chewing. Africa) nimnim. nvrnma.' says Quintilian. to eat mampfen. snatched (Whitby Gl. to mump. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus.' — Lersch. jumla. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. aptantes adfectibus vocem. mujnpa. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. mumble.ONOMATOPCEIA. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. nyam nyam. (in chil- dren's language). Sprach-philosophie der Alten. and thence to be tasteful. . ' id est. A negro proOr. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. i. and the crab — p. buckra man's language the white man. Gothic niman. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). to Sw. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . eating. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. dial. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). nobis vix permittitur. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes.' says the author of Modern Slang. make djamdjam). Africa) nimi. Wolof nahenahe. South Jutland hiamsk. and the fizzing (and Series. the Scotch poet. to be pleamind . mumpfen. crab nam buckra man. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam.). at hiamske i sig. to fill the mouth. greedy . 130-1. iii. 1 86). Vei (W. or word-making. we can call them so. jamsa (yamsa). to chew laboriously. voracious. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). food (Tylor. nam.

not of a moo of Lect. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. bumping of bitterns. ^6^. purring or mewing of cats. or. grunting or squealing of hogs. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . baaing or maeing of lambs. not of a baa. do not speak of a bowwow. snarling. 'I doubt. Yet we ing. Indeed. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. intended in the instance to represent the cry. anything connected with it.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. might be used. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. between dog and harking. that there is When Man. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. cackling or gaggling of geese. yelping. chattering of pies or monkeys. bellowing of bulls. might be used as the designation of it. twittering of swallows. or thoughts of our hearer. howling. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. for the purpose of bringing the animal. hooting of owls. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. yelping. p. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. und growling. snarling of dogs. listen in vain for between goose and cackling.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. before the in other words.' — We speak of a cow. gobbling of a turkey-cock. a lamb. croaking of frogs or ravens.' And elsevs^here (p. when circumstances required. 89) with less hesitation. cooing or crooing of doves. but of a dog. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay.' he says. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. We . 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. dove and cooing. barking. neighing or whinnying of horses. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. chirping of sparrows or crickets. whether it deserves the name of language. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. lowing of oxen. bleating of sheep. sparrow and chirping.

and gaggele or gagkelein. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. 4th ed. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Arabic kdk. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. Georgian quaki. a crow (Pictet). Columbia kahkah. He to is therefore derives kdka. Hungary. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. In Lat. crow. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Aoo-Aoo. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name.. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. having a general predicative power. caw kuhii-rava (rava. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Picard cau.). at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. Barabra koka. 'Kdka. a crow. Malay gdgak. birds. in is Gr. kae. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. a daw. Kdrava. kauwe. whose sound (Pictet. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. is kuM) for the cuckoo. gackem. caller. and Bavaria respectively. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. sound). crow. a a crier (p. kuho. KOKKvi.' common sense. Sometimes the hoarse i . it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Sauscr. coccolare. according to Durga). is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. lion. a bird that is be driven away. Bav. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. and means a shouter. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. 349.' kd). fi-om apakd- i. ghak. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. and the sound of that direction.IMITATIVE NAMES. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. 380. We imitate the sound with a modulated. or quawk. e. in g. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. kdka. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. ist ed. In Basque. layitavya . British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. Origines Indo-Europeennes). it announces (Salaberry). Manchu The kaha. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place.).

to crow. hibou. giving turtur (and thence It. to hoot. Da.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. German kielitz. Walachian coucouveike. reduplicate form. tbrtola. Malay kukuk. Hindi. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. p. to croak. "Welsh hwan from hwa. turtle) as the Lat. or Gr. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. lilits. Magy. kuku. are represented. gugu.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. teewhoop. kraukti. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. kirren. to howl or Lat. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we .Gr. coqueri- Languedoc. tor. name. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. tbrtora.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. cock. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. krauklys. t. tur. libufs. koeren. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. Swedish kowipa. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. to croak.. French dishuit. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. yell. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. wood-pigeon. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. k. Scotch peeweip. girre. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. and sometimes both together. coccovaec. name of its is the bird. another. kurre. uhu. German luhu. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. the name of an animal will gen- . to crow. and e. 219. a crow lish Lith. lulo. lUyrian kukurekati. kraeyen. and e. Du. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. krahe. Sp. as well as of Sanscr. coucouva. gufo. kraeye. kruk. while crouk. Arabic tdtwit. a crow . So we have Polish krukac.. tuquheit. tortbla. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. It. synonymous forms of similar structure). Fr. by the verbs gurren or girren. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. in the North of England. Mod. Pers. Ibo akoka. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. to cry loudly. Esthonian kikkas. kukhuta. Heb. Yoruba koklo. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. either in the same or in related dialects. ghughu. The consonants p. the name for a crow. korren. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. 6. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Dutch kievit. great variety of oKokv^uv. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. xi. kukko. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . Albacuculi a dove. Du. a crow. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. Zulu kuku. Lettish kiekuts. The crowing of cot in Fr. German and Eng- krahen.

' Amazons. 337. succeeding each other — with noise. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Sc. Corean sirsor. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. the drone or non-working bee . No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. ' Sanscr.vf3. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. or a gnat fly. skril with n. flight its sting considered as a horn. din. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. PofijivXwg. The Welsh chwyrnu. whirr). resound. The drone peal. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. from schrick. little intermission. We may cite Gr. grillen.IMITATIVE NAMES. schirke. knetta. buzzing. skirl. Fin. Sanscr. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. from the humming.' — i. to chirp . g. schrecke. droning is . the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . — Catafogo. German dronen. zirken. glass cracking (Schmeller). Albanian tsentsir. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. bamba. g. schrickel. loud rumour. bee. bambhara. a small as hawk is . a sharp sound as of a 6. of England it is to the b 2 . the humble. there are infinite varieties. g. humming. Danish dron. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. ajo. hollow noise. The name of the cricket indeed.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. Gaelic dranndan. German hummel. grille. and probably indicates that g. thunder. pip-pi-ta. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. sirkka. swirplys with 6. common. gives rise to chwymores. skryle. a hornet. booming. a bee. with or Fr. Speaking of a cricket he says. give a faint sound. dhran. grylhis. ' — Pictet . Lith. to creak Bret. and yelping cry. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. cricket is from crick. kong-kong. resounding of musical instruments.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. as . growling. German drohne. The Arabic sarsor. Naturalist on the tocano. schwirren. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. to grumble. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. sound. shrill. to be compared with Sanscr. in allusion to its music.or bumble-bee. North of England. ta-na-nd. which they make in their flight very . i. and he kong-ko-rong. chirk. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. to rustle. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. Arabic tantanat. e. and not from E. words imitative of humming . Lat. representing a short sharp sound. a fly (Tylor) . to shrill sound sharp. to hum. In the N. horniss and from the buzzing The. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. (Jieuschrecke) . a drone. Danish gnaddre. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. oE. buzzing. Lithuanian tranas. to chirp J may be compared with . 'The natives call it tanand. Northern Farmer. Australian bumberoo.' —Tennyson. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). a beetle druna. to sound.

With these analogies. bos. Norse bu. bo. a buffalo. and djeda. bae. as the Illyr. the animal. bauli. Gael. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. His analysis leads cow. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. a cow. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). to boohoo. buculus. Illyr. miau-l-er. to from bau. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. to the uses goda. Thus from miau. muJiati. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. Fr. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. make to it laugh. to or bark. a Geiger. cattle. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. to ba-L-are. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. grumble as distant thunder . bubati. Fr. biibnas. bae. bullock. w. Piedmontese fi bau. bugler. mugler. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. whence baula.XX called booing. — ^Tylor. in a imitation of a ringing sound. fivKaofiai. to low . plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. or formed Lat. the Fr. OFr. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to mew. has bilbilgoda. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. k or g. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. and in Hottentot baa was the . Galla boa. to make a loud deep sound. mamoo-heeheek. mae. amuse. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. a drum . bwla. a heifer. to weep. as that of the cow by boo. The Galla lilbil. The Piedm. to shout. ox. to . that the imitative syllable are Lith. mugire. p. bucula. From the same lioao). bue. Lat. to bow- own bawl. or moo. Lat. to low. to make. in same way. to shout. Hottentot bou (Dapper). agreeing exactly with Lith. shoot . loge. to make. to bump as a bittern Illyr. representmake bow. lulauti (to hoo-loo). Zulu lulula. and from to ring. be-l-er. Cult. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to sound. a bull. boo. It. Manx booa. make poo. to low or bellow. to beat hard. On the same principle. w. bu. are (with a subsidiary k). say. bugle. is inadmissible. verbal form given to the say. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. bukati. or with on. bull. to bellow like a bull. baula. from the imitative moo instead of boo. btibleti. bubenti. bovis. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. Lat. representing the mew of a cat. 167. a bullock. to make a noise. and thence Lat. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. or a z to the imitative syllable. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. bullus and e. or bau-l-i. maukati. From baa. (iove. forms a. verb is evidently identical with our shout. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. Da. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. bolt.

is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. hundi). grumble. Moreover. Gr. lecco. a (Hesych. a wolf. With gen. Gr. and thence groin. a pig Fin. growl. to growl. or in any ! way ! persuading. undoubtedly imitative. meckern. guttural tone. a sow. with the root ypaipm. grunt. a sheep. Illyr. the designations of a dog the term cur. hwch. Kurren und murren. to bleat . Fr. It is probable also that e. a. Da. goats. rumbling. by which the shingle gives rise to It. in v. a dog. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. this obstinate race.). and hoc'h. and of (maelon). name of the animal itself. hunt (gen. nire. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. and with the subsidiary k or g. meketati. And it is true there between hog and grunt. and Circassian maylley. cite as by grunt. we have Sanscr. a sheep or a goat. grogner. Hence Breton hoc ha. although the imitation embodied in Lat. mecati. he would hardly. a pig. / The same Gr. hadg- Magy. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. from knurre. curmurring. . In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. karra. meugler. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. as the proper name of a tame sheep. /xijeao/iat. to howl. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. ' In driving. to bleat.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). a sheep (Lowe). of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. it and e. meigeal. Gr. Gael. hund. name. may be identical with Esthon. to themselves. mekegni. to grunt. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen.' Moor's Suffolk words. corresponding to ohg. cry). From the imitative mae. Illyr. . lekavica. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. Idgge (Rietz). appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. houch. lambs. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. knurfisk. for the voice of the ox). ^. meil. mutter. purr). (iriKov of forms like Sw. Illyr. to rumble. Africa laa. and snorke. Manx meilee. G. smack and naski. grumpf. a hog. to grunt. grunlike a pig in eating. hunon. signifying a snarling. lek-eg-ni. grumbhng. sheep or goat. grugno. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. grumble. a goat firixal^ta. in Wolof bae. oe. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. Welsh and Breton). but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. a goat. /xj/caScj. It. as lou of an ox. sound. from hundama. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. 6. Fr. the snout of a pig. hound. Magy. Among dog. a grunt. menAda (ndda. may with to snarl. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. — . a goat. name of a sheep. groin. . a sow. leknuti. grunny. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. a sheep or ewe. naskia. leg-et-ni. The g. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. to bleat. kurre. sus-sus. does not produce a e. and grumphie. kurren.

the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. houpy in Craven. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. e. like artificial flowers. . hobin. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names.. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.root.' ticular bird. ^6<. of the character in question. hobby. p. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. humma. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. 91. If onomatopoeias can . The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. the cry to stop or back a horse. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). g. to whine. a mare. as in Yorkshire highly right. (Craven Gloss. M). a horse. cockade. Esthonian hoibo. . when he found peculiarity. But words of this kind are. such as cuckoo. hobben. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee.' 2nd Series. hottihuh. Thus we are led to the Fr. So Sanscr. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language.). coquette. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. Sc. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. coquelicot. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. to the left.' — ist Series. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. animal. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. hoppe. hiine. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. without a — we root. to go backwards.). In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. from the cry animal. a little am- bling horse. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. p. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock.. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. There are of course some names. turn a horse to the is In Finland.

Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. Du. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. Irieschen. horse. diver. but whether there kind between them and other words. whitename in in- throat. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. hresh. Lettish sweegt. nounced with a guttural). Indian It is not unlikely that the on. groan. to neigh. Fr. hresh. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. goatsucker. ance or habits of the animal. redpole. nitrire. animals or certain kinds of sound. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. Sw. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. as sigh. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. g. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. wrena. form corresponding hresh. Sp. titter. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. little speak for themselves. woodpecker. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. to Sanscr. swift.D. Pl. wiehern. signified It. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. giggle. sol.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. fehtati. cough. runniken. frenschen. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. hross. wrenska. ginniken. hikkd. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. Bohem. command of language was attained. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. hennir. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. . With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. wagtail. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. creeper. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. hukkup. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. than to the sounds represented. Sanscr. e. lapwing. rinchar. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. xxiii ginal object. moan. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast.

1865. &c. bang. Vei gbangba. snort. root kshu. for the sound of a fall. knarr. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. Da. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. for blows with a rod. to hammer . haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. heart tick-tack. for the sound of a blow. — Sanders.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. haitshu. shriek. banga. in a nail Let. snukkup). by the introductionof intentionally imitative words.' So imac. scream. for in such sound of blows. . to beat.' ! ! ! ! — dong. beat of a clock child . mer. are familiar in ' to every one. Mei gbengben. ding. hoo ping ping. a more expressive than the e. banke. to sneeze. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. tisio (tisho). pit-a-pat.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. haw. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. —Brem. wheeze. hoo. on the chops is represented also by pratx. &c. went the cannon. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. aritischane. for the for the sound of . Wtb. for that of breaking. for the creaking of a wheel. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. to throw violently down. beat. to drive on. a large bell.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. thunder (Tylor) . snore. White Lies. knack. ping came the bullets about their ears. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. ting-ting. bangas. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. hang. the dashing of the sea . an attempt would be made to by the voice. atchini. bang ' ! trenches. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. heaven). for the sound of milking. a kind of drum. Zulu bongo. to knock. plitsch-platsch. DingBang. lumm. It is represented in e.' it both sides went. or the w. Australian bungbung ween.' 'Haw. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. pump. strippstrapp-stroll. tlirob. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. atchian. the God of thunder . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. dong Read. Of a like forma- drum . or tliat is accomit. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. klatsch. oren : Klapp. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. fitsche-falsche. clap ! A smack Puff. for a small one.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. to ham. debhes-lungotais (deifies.

pipegni. pipilo. and whimper.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. a fowler's bird call is lost. to cry like imrli^u). piauler. far pipi. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. to cry pi. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. laugh. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. Lat. pi. is pfeife. which he added to intensify the expression. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. pippione. piou. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. doubtless. pigolare. bleat. pigione. to designate cavity and hollow. has been un- employed to designate fixity. cry. part of the What consciousness has the child. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. pipe. De Brosses. or the uneducated different consonants are man. as the simplest implement for proFr. Gr. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. and so forth.sc. e. . to cheep like a bird or a young It. a fife or musical pipe. or a piailler. It seems to him that the teeth t. peep. of a word will appear supposed to represent. to squeak. pigiolare. a whelp. child. pipare. a or cheep. used as a call to . The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. He Yet asks. pipelni. Magyar pip. young child . pu. peep. —Lyndsay. mobility excavation and hollow ^. young bird. piccione. had been used laugh ? two. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. cry of young birds . the voice of chickens (Cot. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. not- . pipio.) a chick. as in other subjects of study. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. is of expression. In cases such as these. chickens (Tylor). piou. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. a (young) pigeon. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. scream. The pi. and their relations. pipio. pule. pipe. as k. calls S.' instead. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. Florio. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. to peep It. G. a chicken or gosling. ducing the sound. Fr. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. — . Mantuan pipiare. Lat.

To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. sound of dry breaking. tintino. to gargle . to thunder. rumble. creak. kniks. laqfF. be cate to go on laughing loud . Pacific aka-aka. coo. a drum W. garren. vaake gorgor) . it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to grate the teeth . to gurgle. rumble.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. grumble. to cry pi. i. knuks. . to hawhaw or laugh loud. as the click of a latch or a trigger. a. Zulu raraza. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . Hindustani karak is rendered. cricli. where the variation. is very common. ioriogliare (to make borbor). a short sharp sound. &c. the clucking of a j hen . by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. Hindoo tomtom. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. some small vowel or consonantal sound. murren. borrelen.Gr. bubble.) Mod.. or springing back. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. and lugh. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to cluck. like the noise of a glass breaking . Indian chack-chack. to jar. crash. to laugh. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. gurren. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). make wood a clinking noise. lachachen. tontonare. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. Manchu kaka-kiki.. knurren. to grumble. u. along with tinnio. girren. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. of something fine and thin. crack. to grumble). knaks. to crackle like in boiling . Poppopvi^to. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to clack. a closed or obscure sound. to fizz like fat in frying. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. when it force than biscuit. rumble (Fl. to ring pipio. loud laughter. to be compared with Sc. of a loud strong sound. It. the side of g. chack. to rattle. to growl. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. along with Du. preserved by Kilian. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . murmur (by . yapyapii^to (to make gargar). signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . thunder oil . to gorgogHare rattle. cluck. Pefuxela. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. lachen. . karkarana. sound). {to It. or kaka-faka. tonare. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. pi . kuruk. as representing the sound made when something breaks. in German. turtur. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to bubble. to pant bejii- zela. kirkirdnd. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. to pant violently (Colenso). to creak knirren. kniks. a prolonged sharp sound. a sharp short one.

to say chut. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. 192). corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. Manchu kaka. muro and e. as Fr. rvir (in tvittio. box on the ear imitation of the . chuchoter. uproar.' Member for Paris. kl'mg-kling. 1871. word.and e. tumult. and Gr. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. jingle. a workman. and the imitative nature of tivgle. thump. spring of water in the a bell. Newman). has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. E. clink. to be compared with g. kiling-kalang. The syllables lil-bil. simmer. for the ringing of illustrate bells. halaidlac'h. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. at an accelerated note. a boy's whistle. the sound of a stringed instrument. to giggle. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . compared with Gr. ding-dong. 368). KaKog. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. Galla tuma. sound. corresponding in e. for the clinking Lat. to ring or jingle. caca and Finnish adkkd. The whispering of the wind I. . Scotch sough or sooch. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. and e. as of Tamil muromurmur. rain (Tylor. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. agrees with g. and bilhila. . of keys or tinkling of bells. wail. to the purling of a brook. tumwata. or of bells ringing. bent her head. disturbance (F. coughing or clearing the throat. and her heart went thump. are applied to the is excrements of children. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha.* the heart. Tiie Galla gigiteka. clank. tubh. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. clango. is based on the same imitation as the e. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. to whisper. clash of arms. to beat. or the bubbling up of to a spring. for chut-chiit-er. klirren. tup. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. chut. drops of i. hala-hald-faMa (falda. while cacd / used in e.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. to strike. sound). jangle. awater* ' The Mme P. a drum . brings us to Fr. champ. Magyar csamm-ogni. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Fr. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). a nightingale. borrelen. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. and Gr. for a tTviror). a smith. fumtu. Sanscr. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. or to Du. especially one who beats. correspond to e. djeda (to say tub). Maori pata. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. to knock. Calt. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. for the sound of privy whispering. bad. quarren. croaking of frogs. identical with g. indicating the origin of Gr. a nightingale. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. csam-csogni. bubble up. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. the gingling of glasses. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. shout. is Manchu tang-tang. rifiirayov. make djamdjam). noise. call. koXiw. cry. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. e. bulbiil. Turk. Prim. the tingling Ming-Hang. chinking of coin.

clatter. at a door tarapatan. disturbance. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. clang. and soufflet. whine. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. ring.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. patter. and the French pouf. swash. din. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. for (Sanders). thump. 'pat. bubble. splutter. in e. and Grimm. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. we have buffet or cuff. thump. to dance. chink. hiss. crack. mutter.. rumble. fizz. and Fr. squeal. blow. bang. squall. tinkle. rap. But although and also found in Lat. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. flap. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. creak. douse. jingle. tumbian (to beat the ground). The use of g. puff. crash. clap. dabble. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. clack. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. lash. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. murmur. snap. craunch. sputter. w. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. flop. to fall. tap. souse. whack. tingle. twang. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. brumberum. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. dash. a applied as well to the force of the bang. slash. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. paddle. guggle. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. boom. tum-ultus. whizz. Fr. blubber. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. according to the strictest phonetic rules. smash. plump. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. squeak. chatter. Humboldt. clash. gurgle. smack. rataplan or rantanplan. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. it is fallj AS. without the intervention of orthodox roots. or v^hether jectional. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments.' — Nohden. report of a gun. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. thwack. parapatapan. whirr. hum. by rubadub. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. clank. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. answering to g. gargle. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. the Germans puff. crunch. splash. clink. tomber. to is blow. tymmesll. Nevertheless. So in Fr. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. while e. The beating of drum is represented in e. pop. thump. rattle. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . ' Der puff. It. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS.

attention of the simply to the mother or the master. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. or stubble is meaner name. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. knows them. of horror. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. Grimm or Bopp. xxix on the contrary. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. in the rushing waters. At the first beginning of life. and uttering plaintive sounds. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire.'. p. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. an imitation of a sigh . or of any if wood. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought.' If chaos. every little pain. but if we must not complain on the beach. stractions. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. in the case of the animal or of the infant. the kind of action that is desired of them. little who has time to want of her nurseling. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. and thus they become signs of despair. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. wringing the hands. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. grief. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . hay. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. ugh . are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair.' . the inteij. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . that he has taken the step in rational speech. or any unsatisfied want. the interj. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. 94. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. by the nature of the cry. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. formerly cited. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. Crying. is Thus ah!. If. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. because they are spontaneous. are made known by an instinctive cry. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. without a thought of symbolising to them. and found in the building of be burnt up. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother.

sneezing. And again. 32. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. or which is of me as suffering pain. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men.' — ist Series. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. and some of them the composition of words. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. should be remem- .. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. they are involuntary interjections. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. more eloquent than a long speech. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. interjections. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . If I wish to make a person of an . The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. and the eye. he cites from Home Tooke. them to exercise it. which are frequently so toned down cance. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. may become traditional. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. ^6g And to the same effect 371. the lowing of a cow. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. He says. p. of all the mouth.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech.' p. coughing. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. more to the point. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. groaning. to solve the I shall call first. shrieking. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. One short interjec- tion may fact. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. 344. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. be more powerful. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. as who them spontaneous utterances. p.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. Language begins where interjections end.

by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . Kayxa^u).PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. hohottaa. in Fin. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. and thus. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. and more or less limited . it them. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. Koxafw. some kind of language might have been formed. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. speaking. when I arp humming and hawing. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. hahota. for example. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. in Magy. then speech begins. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. kahkahah. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. interjections. bered. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. demolishing here. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. I am not hearer. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. but the less am at a loss what to say. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. Gr. Lat. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. cachinno. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. he says. loud laughter. Tooke in truth. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. and others from interjections. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. hahottaa. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others.

Though.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. if taken as a whole. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. and go where we now say stand.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting.' he says. a Picture-language. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. like peewit and cuckoo. The following account is given by Kruse. a deaf-mute himself. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. words receiving the meanings they now bear. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. But here nature soon conies to his help. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. It as has ing their most striking features. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. the critical question should be.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. and not. of the nature of this great movement. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. of the world. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. dumb is the language of signs. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. . tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. What strikes him . and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. And so in the case of language. makes them stand and walk upon the table. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none.

such as than the educated man. he. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. for walk. such objects. or the verb to be. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether.GESTURE most. The of sign for left hand. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. as it now opens out. for child. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. thought is already broken. but if I depress it instead. and gestures. that. walkest. walker. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. that air. he. or To pull and flap with the arms. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and forms further and further. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. letter To hold the two fingers apart. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. the lan- guage cultivates itself. what more. signs are taught for yet. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. like a V. among themselves. his action. for the agent. called Gesture-language. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. And is. and fully serves to j .' In the Institutions. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. to name. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. many when or but these. and we have roast goose. it seems. that signifies great . thou. the whole secret. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. it means little. The same sign stands and the act itself. and to taste. most striking outline of an object. and And thus he makes himself a language. walked. push it towards the person addressed for thou. and it is flesh or meat. the sorecalling them to his memory. can do better and more easily abstract terms. particular sense in properly so called. and with his thought. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. becomes roast meat. nay. for single objects.

and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. or a passive scene of existence. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. depend entirely upon the use. . when I say. putting it into his pocket. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. The same word . in other instances sentence. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. You beaten . I say. would be simply beginning of speech. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. and thus performs the part of an adjective. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. it called an interjection. the garden. as in die it is a noun. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. When a verb. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. and the as. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. or something of the kind.xxxiv asking. He gave door a bang. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. or action. whether by additions or otherwise. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. When I say. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. according to the circumstances of the case. to indicate the action of a certain person. or an act. or a quality. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. in fact. might be the knife. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. a colour red.' dener's knife. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. a number of alternatives are suggested. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. Do not bang the it is a verb. qualifies the against the wall. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. Who is has beaten you ? would be. as But when it is meant door. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. the ture of white term pink is and red. substantive or adjective. as when Bang ! went the gun. and so is an adverb.

Latin. greatness. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. in the is indicated by the syllable y. as cung. 255. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. or with elements expressing relations of time. Jii ta. inside. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. . lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. &c. which is an old y ting (use stick). that is. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. in the sense of great. Thus tafu signifies a great man. and to be great. some outward display of the affection. with a stick. a sigh of oppression and . pain. wherehy. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. coalesces with the personal pronouns. wonder.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. wherefore. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. a groan. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. wherewith. contempt. a noun. verb nor noun has yet been developed. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. but often self-evident. commencement of speech. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. whereto. grie^ horror. that admits itself in of audible representation. the man is great. as kuo cung. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost.. and may be used language. or nei. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. or some relation between it and another object. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. middle.^ — Miiller I. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. inquiry. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. whereof.

gwae. guaj- or cry out pitifully. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. . to lament. ui. ochan. guai. weh schreien. waiidt. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. Gr. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. miau-l-is. woe. dchzen. a groan or lamentation vir. oval. ach. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . ace. Bret. aiai^to. on. lau-l-e. wehen (Schmeller). to hurt Let. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. wai. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. achen. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. lament. is Ay di me I Gr. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. misery. ah. mew. . to . w. vaj. grief. form. oh. has more kopfweh. however. to wail. ohg. vce. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. gwae. It. . to weep. pain. and cacak djeda (to say crack. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. first person. g. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). oi. seen in Gr. miau-n-is. to make).ez. the pangs of childbirth. and to bark . Gael. ai. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. och. &. mostly a ! %. misfortune. as. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. to cry n. hei. to cry at. Thus from springs otjucifw. Lat. djamdjam goda (goda. Let. Gr. die wehen. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. vce. ohi. is w. to yell formed e. It. xxxvi grief. to ache. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. ! ! Goth. e.-l-are. Lat.'). to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. ache. representing Illyr. to wail or cry alas . . wehthun. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. I oi[iot. In this way from the root guai. la. Illyrian vaj. to groan. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. pain. wd. to bewail oneself. ocAJ. weh. to make bow-wow. probably a deeper groan. to chirp. or r. cece. ochain. tirr-djeda. Such are g. It. It. are ol-ire.. 6. to ache. lament from oimi. oh. g. on. A widespread It. wai-l. och. to do woe. gwe-l-a. al. jaoh. woe. ach. axofiai. e. grief] affliction. vei-a. weinen. o'i. ach. w. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. ah. Jar lau-lau. to gargle. to sound yapyap. ing action I. och. howl. suffering. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. headache. Gr. Fr. jao. oimare. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. representing a cry of pain. The form corresponding to Lat. ahi. . n. in Gr. to cause pain. found in g. 6. to injure. w^wa. wAwa. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. e. to weep. guajo. ochan. to rriourn. guaj-ire. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. as. wai. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. at the close of the radical syllable. j. pain. Illyr. miau-l-er. grief. to lament. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory.' this. that is it. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. implying the direction of its good will towards them. the nursery da-da. this here.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. • The child. ToSe (or in Attic E. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. indeed. is we I believe. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. But. says da-da-da. When we pointing. as it Dieser da (as Lat. but the truth is. a specified were by pointing him out. more emphatically roSj)j that. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. as. a word of many applications in g. . I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. I add) . when 1859. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. da. as to express. give me that cheese. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. Thank you. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. well as Goth. Phil. saying : there the ad- Trans. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. that. case. that gratifies me. Diet. Please. The Fr. or that it is. da. or give me it. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. and by a variety of expressions besides. or wants to name something. is-te). his trowsers' pocket. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. for instance. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. nurseries. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. according to Menage. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. when he wants something. Dr Lottner observes. ' sees an object. Sie.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference.' all is is — their consent. 'nay.' then points to his wife. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. Sanders (Germ.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. and may be rendered. der da-ige. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. child.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. In the expression Da. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. or carry me thither.' person. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. Bav. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. thata (ta-ta). is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. give. and so on. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. to here . we may translate this by there (it is).

tattle. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. takes it — as When the soul. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. . — Cot. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. or metaphor. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. sounds. moving. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. to tion to another. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. its desire. meanings.' • liv ANALOGY. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. to beat. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. dadee. in every mode of expressing the idea. to say to oneself. to chatter.' says Muller. or dalliance.^ its ' utters : a cry. the original is that which he places first. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. p. speech. The da is dodem. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. beat.' says Lottner interior. tasting. which thus exertion. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. to knock. stutter. pay. reality. Thus Gr. and one in particular must. of which any one may. make dadada). and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. to move step by step. childish toying. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. standing. strike. and shapes it into an . then instinctively interest. to walk. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. thinking. sinking.

on. It is The word bright had a similar In as. savour. iclat (in Old Fr. sense of brightness. a with kimmaltaa. to tinkle. for example. snotor. to glitter e. make a loud noise. to glisten Dan. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. smell. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. may be quoted gUt. . think. beam. discreet. scheteren. is used in the origin. unlella. air. splendour. &c. pracht. prudent. knistre. Du. snutrs. sapere (which signifies the nose. firom the Gael. to . Again. while sapere itself.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. as. to be wise. to shine. same imitative root with Sw. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. Finnish. 1654. to glitter. man of nice taste. which in ohg. spraka. a rustling sound Gr. taste. clang. from the . and thence e. judicious. to 5 ghtter. bright. tinkling. rattle. properly a clap or explosion. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. snot. chime). may be it explained . Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. smell. In the case of sparkle. esclat). snudra. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. knittre. scTiateren. bilbilgoda (to make . search . Lith. fiapfiaipw. ghsten. wilistd. to flash. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to glitter. and. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. schmecken. to crackle. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. in the domain of movement. tumult. Bavarian bracht. a brilliant light kilid. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. noise. brilliancy. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to resound. (parallel bilbila. to sound clear In Galla. as kilind. to sniff out. — 1. we have and the and beorht. in popular language. a ringing . splendour. In the same way the Goth. signified a clear sound. tintelen. to sniff. . So firom Lat. snuff the sniiten. to shriek with laughter . suspect Bav. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . then to sparkle. and figuratively. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. gnittre. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to quiver. wise. to glitter. to crackle gnistre. sprageti. Fr. the equivalent of g. to have Sapiens. to sparkle. sound. wilahtaa. Heo Du. outcry. schiteren. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. beorhtian. also wise. to ring as a glass willata. to shine. kiimottaa. to snilF. The 6. wamara. bilbil). Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to ring. to smack or taste. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. magnificence. and schmecker. a dis- cernment. kimistd.

so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. whirl. within. 1. rough. \nrap6e. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. power of the letter-sounds. the clank (stridorem) of chains. wool. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. And observing that n kept the voice within. extremely loose. Much of the same has been often quoted. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. then in rpd/xoe. in of his works. rough both ways. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. to slide. or . affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. in truth. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. he framed the words ivSov. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. accordance with the way in which by touch. and vepres. crux. ipuKuv. roughness. fitting the letters to the sense. break. The BpavEiv. of dressing loud. smooth. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. with these the similitude of touch comes into play.' he says. Acre. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. sharp. we hear of screaming colours. discusses the tone of a picture. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. as soft by the ear. pleasure soft to the ear . as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. &c. . for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. itself letters are felt as sofl. mel. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. oily. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. he says. the cross. is felt Lana. Kpovtiv. the neighing of horses. v. KoWiiSije. rough to the ear. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. tremour. pvfi^Civ. 6\tadaveii'. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. flow and flux. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. which The Stoics. briars. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. the bleating of sheep. strike. shatter.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. eo ut res vol. inside. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. gluey. rend. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. Tpa)(yg. soft. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. kvTOQ. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. Kep^arl'ieiv. rough. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij.

'and consequently form. jih. ii. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. to signify varieties of movement. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. jag. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. 138). The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. and in the utterance of a high or or low. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. g. dag. or checks as they are called by Muller. shag. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . cular effort Again. d. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. t. Fr. p. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. stag (in stagger. as when. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. k. to jogj sac-cade.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. rug. for exis ample. dig. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. p. corresponding to the ineor. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. jog. degree of roughness sound. A greater felt. jig. joli. shog. a rough and sudden . the case of the voice. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. tug. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. sag-oter. stab. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. to reel abruptly from side to side). by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound.

to tickle. motion. to incite by light touches. toch-toch. movement. Dutch kicken. figuratively. to glitter. a good piece of road . S-panish miga. to have it ticked or marked on the score . to touch. used interjectionally to represent a . in cases like the foregoing. Accordingly the g. a . also to stir. rough horse. to pulses being knock. zack. tack. so to Italian toccare. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. The train of . used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. chique. Sukkeln. and It. to take a thing on tick. Bolognese tocc. Mucken. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac.. To tick a thing off. &c. mot. to strike It. foot. it produces Dutch micken. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Fr. then. kik. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. mie. that we never can be sure. to mark it with a touch of the pen . Hence Lat. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. Brescian toch. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. to winkj micati is Lat. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. The production of sound. however. to move rapidly to and fro. an infant . a crum. and analogous movements. a cracker. to mutter. sound Fr. to ring a bell. a little bit. as tot. a quid of tobacco. The analogy then carried a step further. a stroke with a French toucher. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. not to utter a syllable. g. schockeln. cica.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. is so frequent a consequence of movement. like English tick. Welsh cicio. to beat or play on a musical instrument. tock. is lanese toch. Ene olde suksuk. (mitsati). The Mipen or pencil. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. schuckeln. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. zigzag. chiquet. Thus we have B. a jog. micare. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. passing to the signification of motion. then. an old worthless horse or carriage. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. and e. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. chicoter. is made to signify movement. The syllable suk is jerk. to say a word . e. to On the same principle j we have g. or check. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. a piece or bit of anything. tech-tech. sound barely audible. to utter a slight kick. mik. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . Fr. as Italian tocco. kuk. tecche-tocche. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to stir. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. a playiug-marble. for the sound of knocking at a door. lead to Spanish tocar. Illyrian migati. properly a small lump'of . which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. chic. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. mica. Then. It. a small bodily object.

we have e. totle. mutter. small titlark. this. The vowel changes from to tick-tack.) . fragments It. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. there (further of!) ao. Malagasy to. for the three personal pronouns. . gno. a bit.n. corresponding to the personal pronouns. to make a slight mark. bunch or flock of wool. motta. . not an atom . mote. tittle. and out there. e. clay . So. or o toi. titilh. mossche. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty.- a jot or little It. 48) cites from the African Tumale. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . little j to that of a small bodily object. here. tiny. mutter j dust. seesaw. zitella. syllable mot. often entirely arbitrary. . 0. The following table from Tylor (Prim. and mite. But the same is language has re Javan. To jot. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. tot. In a similar the relations of place. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . a. tot. 199). lump of earth. small of kind. that. not to utter a syllable. a small bird. titmouse (Du. e. the least visible insect. a morsel girl . and dot. a small horse. anything small flax. Pm. or the like its It. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. neither moit nor an atom. and toddle like a child titter. i. . to touch. a small quantity. a bit. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. Then. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). gnu. fait. jot. the vowel sound. ri that. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. to tremble. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. eo. a sparrow). In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. tit. Fr. a small lump or pat. here (close hand). This kind. a e. lix Sp. subdued manner. a little titty. a small kind of lark. move slightly to . . ika. I. motte. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. as in e. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. and a small lump of something. for the beating of a clock. mot. titter. a light quick blow. to dot. a lad citta. . ticktack. at where the order is inverted. a girl. a tot . is shown in murmur. to touch lightly with a pen. taut. tot. you. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. n. to e. not because the pendulum makes a different left. to movement of the pen . the same organ touched with the man. little. Cult. tot. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. there. tottle. chico. Halliwell. citto. tit. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. of movement in totter. zitio. to jog. or the converse. to whisper (Pr. iki. a whisper. a morsel. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. this . further off. a certain conception. tozzo. . mut. and he. gni. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. anything . to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. there '(at a short distance). or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. Du. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. (Halliwell) Da. that iku. to jot down or note with a fro. .

there.araM. father. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. as in Italian Fin. this ole. that. this . Lat. . Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. that in the distance. as the act of pointing was ta. qu. ne. Mm. an old woman chacha.) pronunciation of i or e. nne. mother. thou . thou ni. Chilian tva. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. ni. little. 6. bi. akha. j Canarese ivanu. ofj. I . mother. man erne. ^. an old . probably initial of distinction that the k. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. here j ka. minution further.. ukko. young one. Carib ne. here . and a for the female. . and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. loo). Sahaptin (America) kina. Ossetic am. Guarani nde. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. that. /mya. ta to ka. he. is father. no constant rule is observed. that. here j abe. w. Tarahumara ibe. me probable that • Vei also little.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. child. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. olo. this . that. that. there. this . Zulu ajoa. this <t. It Carib lala. there. child. Dhimas isho. Then. km. ndi. Fernandian az. biii. respectively. here 5 Yoruba na. there. you. femina ama. Botocudo ati. here feraa.e^. ni. he. . by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Tamul i. . ojOo. that. . there. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. It seems to (fen. is Here. Abchasian aSn. there. mas cheche. that.. for the male. here this .. Gr. Magyar ez. /wo. (tt). there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. there. that. tiiio. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand.. small (Pott. father k . usho. this . ita. Mutsun ne. that. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. ulri. this fi. that (intermediate) j wana. . . here . as Mr Tylor remarks. to. mother. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. uta. thou. Japan ko. /e«. . In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-.) nna. and origin.

A little wee face with little. the idea is called. to tread. Fr.' — Merrv Wives. — Douglas Virgil. nab.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. nipple. analogous to winy-piny. has tittafrem. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. titta. don-don. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. to begin to appear . tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. the pip or pippin. to peep through. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. repetition It. for instance. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. the principle of reduplication. trippelen. just beginning to appear. stairs. nil. the simplest mode by the g. dance (Kil. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. to feet. The sound trapp . to sup up by and with j lips barely open. &c. From cases like the foregoing. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. at pippe frem is to spring forth.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood.' making the voice as small as possible. A little weeny thing. to leap. tion. is to express simple continuance of action. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. or even. And perhaps the E. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. for the . trappen. a child. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. trippen. in old e. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing.) . fretful. a little yellow beard. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. din-din. and in the Pacific dialects. trSpigner. knob. the nursery few j Sc. for a succession of light blows low-wow. little. murmur. The Sw. looking through between obstacles. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. little To sup up. i Sw. wean. Da. as j money. to peep. 401. keeh. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. as ding-dong. barking of a dog. Clank represents the sound of something large. or chink. Thus we have Wolof sopa. sound of bells . . trappa. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. trap. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. of smaller things. whence Fr. to make its way through the bursting envelope. a step. lift 8. wenig. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. pepin. to teet. Top.

i. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. from Maori muka. the agent in panting . mpolu is uttered. puka. repetition or continsignify long. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. And generally. er. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. . cliqu-et-is. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. to love. clamito. ayunayunan. to rock. very long (Pott. . wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). loloa. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. serves to show and in this way. &c. in familiar use with ourselves. The same principle of 196. or rdtchi. child . FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. racket. kenda. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. mawhiti. Thus in E. Again. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. is language. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. properly speaking. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. or el. smallness. rack. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. So from clamo. or imitative syllables.Ixii REPETITION. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. a grasshopper. very great. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. Malay ayun. or very very great. or in Fr. puka- puka. amusement. and the words express a continued sound of rack. the and clique. to to call. Susa di. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. ding-ding. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. Mandingo ding. to or rub.. mawhitiwhiti. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. little child (p. lololoa. are echoed by the rudimentary et. kamha-gamla. the comparative degrees of greatness. Cult. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. to call frequently from Fr. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. Thus in the Pacific loa. rack click. child . such as the syllable expressed in a more called. (to use a to speak. to pant. and Fr. a clattering noise. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. the lungs. sopasopa. a spot. to talk at to walk. tache. tach-et-er. to vi^alk about for flax. to say pooh It is ! to. 99). kendagenda. to skip. calling. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to cover e. very bad. could readily be conceived. bad .' expression is — ^Tylor. ratsi-ratsi. clash of weapons. 97). or a little tee--ny thing. click. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. keep spots. rapidity and strength. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . random . didi. if very young. to treat with contempt. a cradle. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. instead of being actually repeated. hardness.

or by association. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. to hand-le. waggle. he who rubs. joggle. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. bub. to move to and fro. to continue dragging. shuffle. is In e. g. or in e. to make gug. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. it. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. The contrivance with any particular noise. to crackle. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. others. bubble. by the side of wanken. wagas ging. itself. dab. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. as to handle. in Fr. as mAS. miauler andpiauler. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. or fi bau. or omitted. dabble. syllable clat . cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . guggle. rubber. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. a succession of cracks to rattle. to bark like a dog.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. fickle. mew and baa .Jicol. to make a succession of shoves. to hand. wancol. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. which. Jickfacken. In cases like these. smack. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. rynel. such asjlap. without the intervention of the frequentative element. from puka. compared with g. to rock. to wail woe . By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. kneel. wavering. Ihre remarks under gncella. the knie-en to E. jogging. to rock or wag. The Fr. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. the lungs (the puffers of the body). The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. wankel. to puff. wankeln. Piedmontese bau-l-S. miauler and beler correspond to E. to make a succession of grabs . to make bau-bau. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. crack. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. a from ayun. where all direct connection with sound is lost. are to cry mew and pew . and in as. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. draggle. in some applications. or Maori puka-puka. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression.

The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. There is. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . moreover. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. A gull or a dupe same sense. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. deceit. to cry ugh at. will continue to be felt in daily speech. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. or in mode of use. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. Dupe comes to us from the French. Polish. to the separation between the broken parts. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. which. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. and it is only the where the verb is written houge.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. it is obviously a mere chance how long. known in Italian. Breton. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. by a hard body breaking. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. on a moment's reflection. the breach. or how generally. or in aptness to combine with other elements. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. although it is not difficult. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. at was more familiarly known. which is the origin of the word. and comparatively few easily deceived. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language.

the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. founded in manifest blunder. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and the word is used in a secondary sense. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. is. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. . or are afford satisfaction arising origin. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. Hitl^erto.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. nor any limited of ideas. language is . And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. life. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. however.

the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. 330. French.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. and 'Russian. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. and vescovo. out. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. in the course of many years' isolation. i. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. evique. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. therefore. hearing. change. guages in South America. of material things. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. If English.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. episcopus. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . circle perpetrates a new slang term. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. Welsh. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). Naturalist on the Amazons. I think it very probable. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. compared with the duration of man. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. unintelligible to other hordes.

are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. the actual it which would to represent. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. 7. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. A key must unlock more doors than this.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. as shown in the subjoined illustration. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. which are idenr Figures 5. and . as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . to be taken (Prim. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. i. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. Cijlt. Nor is there one of the letters. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. . or whatever the proportion may be. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. 6. 8. The combination of the symbols I and 2. ao8). as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. it will leave figures 3 and 4. ancient Greek M . occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. is MN. 9.

many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. which either by direct resemblance of sound. for instance. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart.' should be discovered. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. known to us as yet.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. and the only safe beneficent Creator. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. his fellows. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. or. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. had its origin in imitation of sound. in the shape either of direct inspiration. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence." the use of a change of vowel in as. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. what comes to the same thing. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. leading him to utterances. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. We must either suppose that in a civilised state.

and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or of their own reflected thoughts . race were speaking men or not. or beavers. the conduct of Ixix life. and sooner or later. until the progeny. or else. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or not. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. by animal without a trace name of Man. and rose towards a higher state of being.COMPLETION OF MAN. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . that he started from the lowest grade. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. as elephants. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and when we look back as far as history will reach. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . of using imitative conduct . in the course of generations. for instance. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives.

Diefeiibach. Carpentier. Esth. Da. Bigl. at the end of Somner's Diet.Saehsiches Worterbueh. 1857.V. Fin. Grammar Boh. Baile/sEngl. Anglo-Saxon. Esthonian. 1850. Diet. Brem. ^Ifr. Dueange. B. Douglas' Virgil. Diet. Cimbrisch.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Gr. . Dueange. dial. Cimbr. Bohemian or Czech. Danish.Nieder. Cotgrave. Supplement to Dueange. Teutonico-Lat. Bremisch. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dutch. Bavarian. Wtb. 1737. Fr. Dn. Biglotton seu Diet. Diet. Provincial dialect. de la langue Cat. Supplement to Bret. dialect of the Sette Commune. English. 1766. Carp. Infimse Latini- D. Diefenbaeh. Finnish. 1654. 1768. Dief.-Eng. Due. Elfric's Fl. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. AS. Romano - Cas- traise. Gothischen 1851. Couzinid. Sup. Catalan. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Bav. Cot.. Dief. or Dan. E. Castr.



rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. r.>. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . buque 118 brodiquin r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. cruccio deyrie. r.5 ERRATA. Blob plowied r.nokkutama willekem. puHti r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. cti. yjnaifia r. kilistaa bugiie r. (/ijtf r. alUger ahaverie r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r.percurrunt kimista^x. woman r. word allagerr. plowied budowaer. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . haverie crtOT r. ^i?^i2! r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. Askance woud r. sveritet Asknace r. baltresca nokkutomax.. katowai perairrantr. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. willekom Blab r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. r.


away from. have entire dominion over. a. bandon in French. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. rule. ur. orders. us. to awake. the er. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. literally. "rom a height. power : Than Wallace thing. ifter. and secondarily in that of command. away. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. Ab-. into the Romance ftrseg . The word Ban is common orders. from. 244. as. and — Chaucer.t G. dominion. ar. on. Parson's Tale. particular 1 . state of sleep .' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. sion of 'an abandoned character. AS. said. among. whatever he be. onis aback. o/j of or . his. Dent posture. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. Again. Thou spelds of mychty iction. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. K . command. to sauff the king or spill. Hence on-bceftan. alike. to hold . Abaft. dominion. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. on-bsec . As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. Immediately from Fr. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. Abandon. abaft. an edict or proclamation. on-lic. ibandonner. this word beand Spanish. er. until the event jlace . plesyt him. in a manner other than it should be ablution.he Goth. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. from a is to wake to abide. vs. A. Thus ip N3S. baftan. be-ceftan. OHG. compounds. behind. To abuse is to use iway. a/tan. ir. AS. but now )bsolete). iway from. implying a completion of J. announcement. downwards. to arise. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. Lat. in the same sense. in. Jvery man shewid baft. erwachen. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. 843. of-dune. to subdue. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. abs. Passing tongues. as. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. Abs-. off. .DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. In Lat. a washing off to abstain. out of. ab. —Bruce. on.

an abbey. person. . Abbey. to excite admiration. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. to diminish the force of any. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. Cotgr. to ruin. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. to astonish. betrash. down. to abaw or astonish. polish. to beat furnish. astonish. terminedly. to happen. to hit.polir. burny was formerly burnish . faire tomber.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. R. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba.' the surrender of a ' K. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. of fear. Milton. Bate. iv. baer. weaken. Abbess. abaundunem-ent. and sets them all agape. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. of the Fr. esbahissant. abbatia. abandonly. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. impulse. with or without a final sh. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. Baba ! Mod. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . thing abbatere le vela. uncontroUedly. merely the terminations ons. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. de. bandon.— — . impetuously. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Castrais. c. Hart in Jamieson.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. ne more vermeille. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. 1520. R. confound.fournir. in the active form. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. Hence Lat. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. burny. abbattre. to strike Froiss. to put to con. to The . vol. Beat. overthrow. where custom (Grandg. abbatere dal prezzo. or admiration. It. See Abide. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. abbatere. son bandon. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. et prirent terre. . His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti.esbawi. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. In or. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. d. shame. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. drink. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. so common in the found in the OFr. depress. other. abbas. and it that that it — . and the verb was written in Eng. to take possession of an estate. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. — — . adverbial expressions at abandon. And he thereof was all abashed. to overthrow. castle. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. R. abate. effect of shame. To Abate.) . to bate something of the price abbatersi. Fr. Abbot. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. beer. Wall. law term abatement. — Neccham.Prov. I was abawid for merveille. baba. astony. to gape. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. from ravir. bawi. his mouth. Originally. 1 1 8. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. and that from Syrian abba. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. to light upon. lish to abaisse orabaish. 364s.— R. abbatis. may be explained. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. Hence the OE. by Wall. as ravish. to strike sail . to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. his eyen shene. to make lower. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. from Lat. esba. On the other in use as well as hand. or society of abbots or monks.On princes. Custom. esbahissais. ais. More correctly written abbat. at his own the lips. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. and grooms besmeared with gold. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. esbahir. ant. of wonder. See .down. A. father.

Thus we have It. to open the mouth. Ni engigner ni abiter. to abide . tity of E. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. to In great amaze. bhr. to attend to. Quant voit le serpent. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. suffer b. beidan. trick abetar.was formerly used in the sense of look. also to OFr. to hook. with open mouth . Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. bida. Fabl. Cat. gola badada. ne wist what way to chuse. wait. beijen. bidan. or in Fr. to expect. badar. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. bide of the d endure. tempting. suspense. abet. compared with (Bosworth). b^er. desirer (Roquef. K. guardare. baier compared with It.— Chaucer. othres abidan' The effacement expect. and in E. Boethius. gridare. to expect gabeidan. forbearance. deceiving. F. Du. ne chastised them. bialodrze-w. attendre See Bait. To Abet. abiiance. to wait. abeter. tical with It. — ABELE Epiphanius. . have seen abide. . were called Brothers. — . ceive. to wait. delay. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. OFr. in Dan. take care. to attend on . tenere a bada. E. verbeijen Sw.) abayer. badare. open the mouth. Cat. to be intent upon. m Abeyance. Gloss. Abele. or do we AS. to remain or endure. to deceive. bada. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. deceit. to mind. us. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. we sceolon ON. bocca badata. . usbeisnei. to ance. to wait. beidan. badigliare. John. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. de Champ. abayer. The verb atwaiting. tarrying . to deanimer. . exciter. abSiance.. de Berri) Prov. Prov. expectation. beguile.to wait. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . beijden. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. attendre avec en^pressement. or absorption watching. ^couter avec dtonnement. expectation. forms with the d effaced are OFr. abetter. on the one hand. badare. songer. warten. house. badare. literally white tree. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. to suffer death in Du. to yawn. to stay. to look. a right in suspense . is idenwait. which the mind to an object. Q. white. look for another. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. abie. to open bader. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. In We . abbadare. listening. ' ' . Thus G. qui iaaille. 1 • .Fr. inciting. listen. bida. covet. while the monks under his control ing. and E. says. to desire earnestly.— ^richer. from Halo. Pol. See Abide. Goth. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. and Prov. speaking of the Holy places. — II. The white poplar. beguiling on the other. abie. with badia. waiting. bana. Guernsey beth. which is certainly related to It. Norm. to be intent upon. beter. Abie. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. syllable ba. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It.— Roquef. pense. signifies the direction of tend. regarder. Corant sens lui. bouche bdante.' is in AS. to desire. 366. desire. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. — signifies to suspend action. endurance. abidan. aspire to. (Vocab. baier. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. to stay. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. and alluring to his own destruction. abaier. bder. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). to tarry. the verb of abeyance. —Raynouard. abeyance. From abahier. incite . baier. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. . take notice. Corresponding to keep in suspense. lingering. expectfamily. Ducange. delay. delay. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. watch. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. bie compared with Dan. aspirer. intent observation. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. in Fr. abet. endurArt thou he that should come. bouche b^ante. baer. beijen. to gape . wait To Abide. to It. inciter. Gloss. bie. Norm. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. a bay or opening in the coast.

P. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. Milton. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. — P. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. strong. O If tion. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. or bie. and Cr. Mids. L. properly abuy. while in later examples As I . to have . power. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. God. The —Boucher. —Bacon in R. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. on board . It. without special reference to the notion of retribution. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. habilis is closely preserved. to draw fowls. though sometimes confounded with it. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Lat. purpose. Cassar. In this to erase or annul. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. in for any special purpose. as habiller du chanvre. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. abolir. bord. when compared with Aboard. from Lat.ynes. 2nd Tale. to pay the purchasemoney. convenient. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. She shall abie that trespass dere. as E.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. to wear away. fault being simply clothing. habilis (from habeo. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. . The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. is the verb abie. R. God — dear. Dr. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. de la volatile. habile. abeye. Q. bide. within the ship. al- be found so some will dear abide it. abide. If it badare. abilh. R. him with che. abicgan. to . seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. abidge. &c. Abie. i. Fr. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. must suffer for it. consequences of anything . to pay the penalty. have-like. abycgan. powerful. expert.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. at kasta fyri bord. being disabled in the highest degree. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. within the walls of a ship. Spenser. F. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. to redeem. to perish.^and to make his power knowne. the Pardoner In the original. atling hem to her proper offices. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. ! ! Cotgr. use. 2. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . Tr. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. N. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. adapted . was often used in the same sense. and the simple buy. from AS. willing to schewe his wrathe. abigg. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Fr. at hand). durance in both applications. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. abilej Prov. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. Chaucer. the Fr. fit. P. Prol. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. bidan. Merch. AS. aboleo. Boucher. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. the Sir Tristrem. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. forbid for mother's children should abye. a board. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. suffer the Jul. — e. the side of a ship. able. to dress hemp. abie to Goth. sufficient. beidan. Wickliff in Richardson. abie. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. Innan bords. and death for handsel pay. For on board. — Able. ON.

foda signifies to beget. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. to grow up. coalesco. as the duty of nourdisposition. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. nurse Lat. s —Casdmon. and bidden him abregge. sec seftre — Chaucer. and also. abrcBgdan. the idea of breaking about . nourish. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. AS.) .— Abbreviate. seems aras. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. of any kind . Abrdger itself. The primitive idea seems that of beget.ger. . alere capillos. hard. Quod abominor. ABOMINABLE adolesco. motion. abracan.the older form. life. oil. OE. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. to rear. giving birth to. which passed into English under Abominate. Abundant. abowen. is not from G. af-oolden. heavy. So in Lat.. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. to break off. for ligeth butan. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. and alere flammain. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. while the verb alleThe root el. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. Lat. parent. disastrous portent in some passing oc.' Parson's rence. which may God avert. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. Gael alaich. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. becomes leu in Prov. to feed. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. .abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. without. the form a&^^. The radical idea is to feed the flame. as AS. from Fr. to feed. Thonne Abroach. abrdger. from . to rear. alUger. snatch In English we speak of away. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to snatch. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. See To Bray. OSw. awaking. boven. To abray or abraid. progeny. brood. be-utan. — . to produce.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. or young forth. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to start. explains soboles Lat. or cut short. alan. his contemporaries. Thence to regard greugetat.ymbutan. ufan. draw out. D. bufan. pedigree from brevis. way Sw. onbutan. ol. kindling. to bring up.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. d. abominor (from ab and omen. Tale. and also to abridge. outward. currence. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. en. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. to aggravate. Goth. ala is made to signify to rear. titan. and to do something to avert abbreviate. To Abound. Above. to beget or give birth to children. be-ufan. full ofte his words for to Fr. while the sense of beget. adolere. to cut short. a portent). nurse. af-oleii. AS. Virg. but from Lat. side. abufan. Fr. literally.. and in-d-oles. breaking out in language. the vital spark. common in Chaucer and Abominable. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. natural ed direct from the latter language. is a ively. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. greu. around on the out. al is growth. to fatten. abbrechen. that greatly agredge their sin. Severe the threatened evil. Finnish stock. OE. abredan. to grow together. ala. to AS. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. abbreviare. above. about cockcrow. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere.' Ymb hancred utan. abbrechen. vital PI. by the to bring up.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. the man dwindles away. Kiittner. agreujar. to progress. — ' — — preceding verb. abutan. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. to nourish. Melibaeus. whence the Fr. on high.1. Abray. gravis. to light a fire the Abraid. leading immediately to Fr. See -und-. to let sleep. the hair grow. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. Of these synonymous adolescere. For on broach. to main. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. as withotityn and without. gravity. Sc. break out. the OSw. Then. to turn. Prov. Du. to awake. agredge.aboon. butan. AS. below. levis to the Romance languages. alan. In the same brevis . aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. the identity of which with ting.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


choke. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R.th centuries the recognised models of antic. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Otfried. anticus. In like manner. as we call it. to have. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. whence anthem. something ler in R. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. Apartment. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. and devils. ab. anapoz. trouble. from ango. andouillers. Apartment. Gr. to sound in answer. ambeld. finally applied to a whether grotesca. bread. Antick. of. panar. to strike G. Apart. from..— . Hall's Chron. gabeigs.is to be given. d<popi(xnbs. as posticus. a definite . Percutere. three antike pillers. what Roman civilisation. some one. Gr. a small quantity. to go in strange disguises. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. incus. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. villan Gloss. or in a ridiculous dress. press. i. plenteously with red. transferred to the grotesque characters. apatiar. Antidote. Mannequin. surimitation of the ancient models. burnished. on. Lat. younger child. Ful- Apanage. separate. one having wealth. a block to hammer on. a preventative . ReApe. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. set aside. d. a termination equivalent to Goth. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. AS. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. to support. to bring forth.—Aperture. Fr. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. : . to imitate gestures. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. wealth. rich. from an and — - . Lat. from Stephanus. Fr. Anvil. Lat. part. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. from eigan. Aperient. to display pario. So Lat. and claret wine. vex. Any. anxi. avri^ava. See Cover. were andouiller the second. verberas. a gift. Thus from gabe. As the browcalled antiques. cenig. the anticks — behind. amboltj Du. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. Pezron fiUist. like a jack-pudding. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. swaged. Antler. to open. but the expresent day. — — — . as the Italians. AS. Gr. or antique single chamber. anfilts Pl. Hence the applica. one at the least. all of gold. to strike. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. from an. white. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. whence Prov. a few. to strain. strangle. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. AS. stem. Anxious. in Shakespear.made out. G. Jorioc. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. a puppet or an anti^hona. Aphorism. inAgain from the same author cudis. from.legacy of given against. E. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. antifena. should be received. —Spencer. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. To ape. post. and ig. antefn. anxius. before. Ilvtwotov. To go antiquely. aside. left as the . before. . any is that which partakes of the nature of one. as from as. panis. eigs. which by anvild. from ante. Lat. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. separate purpose. one. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Fr. from the imitative habits of monkeys. from in and cudere. were chiefly of the former class. fauns.D. from avTiipoiuia). aperio. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. af. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. apanage. work. Prov. to nourish. apertum. such as savages. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. Antique.

Yr. were formed appropiare ejar. to — — . Fr. w. from.— . obolys. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. or E. En peach. to deem good. 'L-zX. Formerly apricock. an epistle or letter. kind of action. poind. to come near. cepl. appareo.probare. —^Apparent. in data. the good. taking. —Diez. OFr. seiden of the stones. to be open to view. 'LaX. like. avail. An old appalled wight. Fr. apropchar. become dizzy . Fr. in fact. appareiller. apin R. d-n-o. Epistle. or the like. properly to join like to like. . peace. — Approve. aparelhar. and in the sense of condition. Fr. agreeing with "LtA. to announce. apprendre. rise to \t. whence the e. laven is used both as E. Prov. apal. in Chaucer. allow. Friar's Tale. It. Apostle. apal. Nouv. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. pragigua or prixcoda. To praise. They werin his approvirs privily. ar. quoth the frere. a'^opi'Jw. of. praise. from paix. appartenir. ON. 5w. make a composition between parties. And whanne sum men Lat. apparecchiare. pertain or belong to. set a price on. piteux poind. equal. To cause to pall (see Pall). The PI. to lose one's senses. peler. Yr.propius). trim. fit- — ness. landmark. approcdare. to deaden. in good season prendre son d. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. proper time came.parecchio. Gr. value apprdder. . case. one sent out. after his mind . Palsgr. to send to. preparation. xv. Fr. order. to call. diroBrjKr}. Apprehend. Apoplexy. to strike down. to seize. Gr. APO sentence opoQ. consent unto. apprise. a price. Gr. Gr. i. Cotgr. From Lat. to Lat. and also as appraise. pronounce fitting).prix. aptly. pretium. : — — speak 'Lz. to learn. to store or put Appal. to take away or lose the vital powers. APRICOT off. And among other of his famous deeds. good. Fr. Cent Nouv. Sp. to call for judgment. They were considered To Appoint. that it outfit. Cotgr. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. D. Appease. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. manner. ai. ap. approcher. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Lat. — dirondtfiu. to make a thing Apparel. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. to dress in this fashion. one is in. 23 . to understand. jabloko.—Apprentice. lAfiaam. Ir. in commendation. away. to suit.his giving evidence against his principal. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. iwKjToKri. Apotliecary. A — . (cited by Diez from a late author). Cotgr. For their acquaintance was not come of new . plight. to deter- to strike. corresp. to learn. a learner. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. appris. — Apprise. array. habilUr. The Fr. To Appear.t. mine. to which it is often referred. Walach. ^wss. ciously than nede is. — Appurtenance. apar. N. habiliments. apprentis. to mark to define a bound. opportunity. prize. Appareil. apropid. From Lat. par. pronounce good. a thing for one's purpose. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to approve. despatch on some service. To Appraise. prohts. prope (comp. to — .were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. Fabian in R. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. Fr. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. purpose. From Gr. diminutive pariculus. and appoinder (to find fitting.parejo. appellare. one for his defence. Parson's Tale. Mod. Lith. horror. from aTroorlXXu. . known. approver. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. poind. 11. prover. dress. a crime. Hence It. irpaiKOKiaov. appaiser. to approach. to finish a controversy. to fit. off. Hence appoind. AS. to send off. — prehendere. to assign or grant over unto. Approach.pareil. I prise ware. Pliny. when the . oVooroXof. to accord. agree. and metaphorically to take the meaning. find Then like Fr. Fr. probare. to catch hold of. like. Prov. to disable oftat. Apple. word was specially applied to clothing. apprehendere. one the MLat. Apo- good time. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. to rate. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. H. near. to commend. to set a price on. e. diroTrXriaatii. esteem. S^. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. decree. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond.

garden. to plough. . From OE. 2. man. J.' —About. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. intensitive of nape. to decide by lot.] in the N. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. arwaus. C. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. is taken in is a soothsayer. Roquefort. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. arwelo. arbitrium. derived. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. and thence fit. delon.. and a protection of the clothes. sorcerer. Now one of the points — — — . SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. OHG. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. ap. short. aptus. aqua. Alban. auguror. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. . upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron.sors. or eft. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Lat. suitable. sortium ductor. as an eye-witness. opinio. symbol. Thus we have natiger and auger. and taken away before dessert. found in Fin. aro. Freshly turnid Arable. aha. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. Arbour. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. This path Aqueous. rofe and all. OE. be That it inne groweth. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. 31. Lat. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. Aquatic. water Which that benchid was. and the one who gives oracles. arbiter. con. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. fastened close. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. conjicio. a lot. — . a pleasure-ground. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. and sortilegus ation. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. Beryn.) E. as ihe diminutive. P. aa. nawl and awl. arpa. of of divination arpa-mies. pracoqua was not an adapt. Arbitrate. {mies ^=ia3. conjectura conjec^ra. doubtless is the origin of E. Hall. 331. la nappe.shrubs {arbor). and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Pr. Pm. From OFr. Lat. and with turfis new Goth. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir.meaning at Shrewsbury. shortdr. Prol. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. most conspicuous situation in the garden . wata. ahva. arbitror arwaaja. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. Flower and Leaf. the spelland umpire. quod he. A. Maan initial . a river. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. . naperon. words derived from arpa. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. . Albanian. ughe. Marsh. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. hariolus arpelen. As is a pretty parlour. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. scr. to preserve it from stains. grande nappe. Naprun. divining rod. aestimo. a lot. properly the arwella. It may be doubted. however. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. a lot. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. however. She made. arbiter in re censendS. — napkin is Naperon. ear. It is certain that the apricot oracle. The loss or addition of n very common. account for either of these significations. a soothsayer. tion under trial.o. P.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. a cloth. proper. Now we find in Fin. nected. sestimatio arbitraria. herbere. Gr. or barm-cloth.

gwyrek. high. Sp. — Wtb. an arch-deceiver . government. arson. * ArchjAiTaxit. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. a court yard. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. to burn . earh. earg. shoulder. apxtlov. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. arwe. from nixa. to arm. Arduous. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. erg. the a brute. to dry. curved. Du. ramend). ancient. It. Arcadia in R. ramo (pi. armata. fabricate). of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. and not with apx. G. arga. Gr. from areo. arcA in e. ^Argument. G. Fr. burning heat. apxh. armee. are formed the participial nouns. Fr. Fr. And thou as arwe coward. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Du. Lat. whence the body of the nobles collectively. Langobard. wretched OE. first. taxed with cowardice. mischievous. vocaveris. faint-hearted. D. the terminaGael. branch. difficult to reach. Area. a. the most arrant trash. i. a rule (princiruler. ' — Argue.. bad of its kind. arm. weapon may be simply an application of annus. a branch. which has been referred to W. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. malicious. shoulder Boh. ON. argvitugr. Alisaunder. weapon. Ardent. an arrant rogue.— Army. . Lat. arduus. Lat. a burning or setting on fire. Lat. to be in comp. worker. contemptible. the best. signifies chief or principal. ruling by the nobles. as the arch of a bridge. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. to demonstrate. AS. a bare plot of ground. 3340. Lat. vescovo. erz in G.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. an arch boy. to rule. ars. bravest. man. exercise lordship). apx^iv. morally bad. by Russ. Arm. Gr. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . arsum. a bow. gwyro to bend. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Gr. bad. adjective. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. argr. arm. in Due. while the Fr. arcus. From the verb armare. From apxeiov was formed Lat. arma. sly. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). TiKToiv.' Paul Warnefrid. it signifies roguish. a threshing-floor.' the Gr. det arrigste snavs. Arid. mischievous. and Kpurka. especially shoulder-joint. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. W. Aristocracy. armada. arg. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. Dan. to be on fire. . and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed.is the natural weapon of offence. archangel. et vulgari verbo. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. 2. Arcliives. raineno. arrig. arguo. stuff. and must be identified with Dan. Arch in composition. an extent of flat surface. forearm . and our army. The . un petit rusd. ardeo. ardor.' Lex. . Brem. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. fainthearted. arch-bishop. un malin enfant. Applied in modern E. patus). receptacle where the public acts were kept. Ardour. Lat.In E. apxri. . aridus. A construct. ardIn G. the court of a magistrate. ill-tempered. bad. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. ers-betriiger. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. Cot. curved line. . ein arger knabe. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. arrant Arms. which is derived from it. a noble. aj-f. Sax. a chief builder. earm. sly. rame. Lat. wanton. Arson. kpxi- beginning. sluggish. area. ardre. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. make clear or prove. Gr. — Architect. een erg kind. lofty. an arrant usurer. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. apxtipfve. is essentially the same word. This particle takes the form of arcz in It.. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition.4 rir/. timid. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. to Arch.aioj. erz-bischof. troublesome. There can be no doubt that E. Perhaps erz-wticherer. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. arm'ee. Lat. as in E. Uo^a^.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

on. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. balveins. a separate portion. misery Du. Bret. balva-vesei. ache. bol. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. balk. Fr. balla (with the augm. . a clump . . roof. on. stage or scaffold. a great ball. Ball. grieve . ing. Gael. dial. Sw. OHG. on. ' is a piece or confused talking. Fr. a washing-tub. baalien. a skin. to dance. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. N. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. to bale out. G. ballare. dial. the ballet of the theatres. may exhibit the original development of the signification. balken. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. Sw. dial. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. wickedness ness . being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . Ballata. a balk of foul weather. Ball. balken. plague. balare. ballotta. ball. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). balka. Da. Sw. hue et illuc inclinare. malefacGower in R. . In like manner Fr. To Bale out water. sick. bal. globule. floor. taich. to paddle in water . bolawy. balloon. bala. ballare. to rock. Bale. F. pilula. a wooden partition .ing. on the shore. afbalka.of men . ON. a continued noise of waves gently beating . balle. bal-daed. Ballot. TtaKKa a pail or tub . Dan. to stir. ball. cka. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. ballare. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. Russ. pallukka. Hence Dan. baler. bol. bolyatchka. to move. gen. It. a dance. bbllr bulla J. Du. to wave. Sw. to avoid it. blister. bollr. from the more general notion of moving up and down. bola. torment. Mid. Goth. destruction. ill.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . OFr. are applied to a From the same analogy. hooting. a scene acted in dancmg. Balloon. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. chapurrar. It. maleficium. maan pallikka. vacillare. a clod of earth water. Sw. bacgtteter. pain. calamity. palloilla. pallo. to on Holmedon's plain. to see-saw. to plank. a dance. to ail.—Ballad. ballone.). balkr. boleii. uveirs bolk. to partition off . similar connection is seen in Sp. A balk. w. separaison. 2. a ball. Fr. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. the breadth from side to side . Fin. a clapping or flapping of wings. bielke. Boll. sorrow. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. e. as we say. a ball. vcdra bdlkr. to shake or jog. ban. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. balk. to dance. lealo. the object of his expectation. Ugutio in Due. whether of wood or stone. i. palcare. . AS. palla. says Ray. bealwes. Sp. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. ball. a. a boil. ball. We have then separate dial. a ball. Pol. sickness. G. (Hesych. to signify washy drink. to be ill. a pestilence. shouting. Perhaps on. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. Wotton. — A — — . other while. and evil in general. and the dim. a beam. baalie. probably Lat. to by beams. ballet.Fr. the beam of a ship. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. as in a barn or cow-house. pallikka. bolker. balk. a together in the form of a ball. to plough for a boundary between lands. bal. Rouchi ban. bold. to pack Da. to cause another to miss pustule. baloier. balk. balja. bolyaf. balle. Sw. a ball balla. with the perhaps from balg. bdlkr. . * Balk. to roll. a pail. ballar). a partition. It. wickedtorment ON. a ball or pack. It. . balle. Du. Q. Grief. trouble. Bohem. package of goods. heap up. a bubble. a beam. bjdlki. ballo. To baulke the Sir H. a pill. pallo. Da. to Not sparing wight. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. ballan.' speak gibberish champurrar. from bacquet. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. weak liquor. The primary sense seems as in G. 3. mass. balka hopar. balge.— Ballet. to speak an un. I.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. bal. beaten road. tum. a ball. balle. dial. Sw. boll. ne leaving any balke. Bowl. at giore en balk. OSw. balka bunge. a globe. a But making way for death at large to walke. to grieve . a division of the old laws. Sw. Gr. It. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. a ballot). . a ballad.Lat. Venet. Hence. a water-skin dim. Baulke of land. See Gall. E. pila. to ache. to be balker.

like Fr.000 tons. This is the backload. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. to walk. Balsam. bag-lest. lestage. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. puzzled. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. is in Sweden and Norway. ranked on the outside of cloisters. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. To deceive. barauste. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. bambocciolo. or movement of one who walks. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. inutile onus. last. endormir par des contes. To Bam. galleries. Bret. paid for the right of carriage. bertesca. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. It. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl.Lat. In OSw. to preserve equilibrium. because. and Mid. a false tale or jeer. 43 — Cot. baU. A — — . Sp. urtica. back of the ship. the backload. the flower of the pomegranate. Sc. barandado. It is explained back by Adelung.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. Lat. 1. also with flatteries and . seems the original form of the word. If bambocciolare were child of one. But Fr. &c. lest. Dan. baUa. &c. in the first place. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. Sept. denounce. analogous to what is seen in It. Mr Marsh whether the a load. forbid. — — oltriga. more frequently than outward-bound. lastra. baltresac. to enchant. Ballast. baranda. Cotgr. or ballast of a ship. from Lat. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. Lest. Balm.). for want of other freight. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. a useless load. the act of walking. 1854. lastre. objects to the foregoing derivation. baume. a rod.. Balluster. as he says. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. i860. bag-las. enchanter.' And Kil. it is forced to take in stones or sand. ballast. The Baltic sea. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. bamboccio. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan.that the going vessels. from bara or vara. deceiver. but loadage. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. little round and short pillars. Said to be from balaustia. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. bam. . ^a\Ba\iov. a battlement . The Sp. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. ballustre) is a corruption. bumbazed. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. for a load or goods (Roquef. inutilis sarcina. of balusters. a nettle. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. It. Gr. bambolo. small railing. balustrade barandilla. fonts. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. astonished. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. To Ban. To make fun of a person. a small balustrade. command. explains ballast. mare Balticun. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. age. . Du. ballustres. make fun of a person. called Bait. a young babe. curse. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. a fragrant gum. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Baltic. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Venet. an Old dotard or imbambolare. by met. deceive. Fr. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. lastagium signified not only ballast. a duty on goods last. Bamour. sorcerer. dial. When a ship discharges. Bret. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. balconies. terraces. To Bamboozle. railing around altars. ^Arbuthnot in R. Report Pennsylv. Fr. balsamum. bamein. To proclaim. R. more serious objection is .

from at the Lord's courts. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. to unite with a band. banns pany of footmen serve. It. Goth. R. — To partito d'alcuno. 813. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. banda. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. 15. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. Mag. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. a coast. &c. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Assises de Jerusalem. D. . Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. curse. to excommunicate {lysa. admolendinum. bannire exercitum. authority. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. the ensign or banner.—John Villani in Due. Thus the word is also used in both senses. band. &c. Cot. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. i. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. To Bandy.^ bandy. and It. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. to take one to task.is further developed. Band. to bring corn to be fahne. G. A. to follow a faction.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. 19. bande. tener da alcuno. 2. Spebifid. theodscipe ut abannan. change to the feminine gender in banda. bandera ground at his mill. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. a company. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Commun^ment son bandon. Les saiges avait et les fols d. bande. Capitul. Sp. power. From the verb to banda. to form parties. in hostem convocare. side. biddal. says Muratori. sostener Torriano. Diss. Sw. It. ba?idare. 1. In a special sense the term company itself. bandi. ex. 26. etc. he assembled his host. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. to reprove. region. E. OE. v. whether by way of injunction or for- command. banda. faction.. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. to publish) banna. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. to . side. eiiseigne. It seems this signification has arisen. bundun. bannire in exercitum. Bandus. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. — R. and in E. R- He Translated by Chaucer. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. bandon was used in the same sense. band. . It has plausibly been deduced from Mid.e. also the band or of marriage. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Fr. Bandear. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . to side or to bandy (Florio). The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. fahne. populum. passing on from proclamation to command. then the signification w. bannum or bandum. at his own discretion. ligue Taboada). Goth. Ripuar. permission. Car. It. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. — excommunication bann-lysa. in Fr. There is some doubt how Fr. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. acquired the sense of proclamation. summoning to serve So in Swiss. he bannede his ferde. banner marked the place of assembly. 'A son bandon. to ban. is That with which anything AS. and thence to any proclamation. border. banda the colour or material. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. to ctide. In Fr. Baud. Sp. bandon somewhat party. Leg. bann. hoc est vexillo. those who side together (bande. Wyntoun. flag. bando. —R. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. See Abandon.Lat. The to . bound. Fr. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. we constantly find the expression. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. margin. parti. Se il — Romance languages. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. bande. bindan.

HG. a bench. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. a bench. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. bank. — Paulus drive in a nail. has bang-bang. The ing. Banister. bana. bandi. The word is in E. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. the slope of a hill. the same verb the It. murderer. eminence. Draw. for shame. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. to make a stir banke. ON. a bank. a rising bank. to beat. Mid. It. — Kil. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. Fr. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. . to knock. rap hatike et som The Susu. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. death-blow . a blow. See Band. Diaconus in Due. s'associer. N. hammering. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. AS. bane. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . from banc. language of W. hricg. banka. canis vinculis assuetus. —^Vocab. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. Brewer. the back. disturbance banga. . stir. tumult bangas. panca. banke. But natheless wife at I bank. se reunir. and poise Their lighter wings. ON. — Fr. banja. Bandy. to knock. a wound OHG. — — whence E. to hammer in a nail. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. It. a counter. With many a stiff thwack. bander. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. banc G. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. Banner. put under the ban of the law. in R. standard. bank of Dan. home — Bandog. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Bang. Roquefort. Fr. bench. Banditti. bana-sott. counter. b'ang. Dan. to slay. band-dog. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. and OFr. bank of river. . banditti acquired the like signification. Du. to proclaim. a table. Bane. . a i. desk. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. de sable. to work in wood. death-sickness. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. bandear. Benchi. Lingua. death-wound. Diez. . bank of a river. bakke. Ripuar. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. beat. Your stool. AS. destruction . band-hond. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. beating.z. Bank. banco. eminence. bandire. g. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. de- party. in the same way that E. See Banish. in the sense of place of business. bana. From a desk . Tibalt. bana-sdr. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. The ridge of a hill is AS. See Balluster. broken. at canis peciiarius. The child cries bang! fire. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. and therefore tied up. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. bang. distinguishes bekkr. of bandying words. whence the mod. as of an explosion or a blow. Benvoglio. a de Vaud. seat . to bend a. many a bang. Sw. and bakki. a sand-bank. Bacon in R. the former Fr. Hudibras. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. 2. forbear this outrage. benk. banish. bank. banca fallita. From Mid. &c. E. clouds. was formed the OFr. It. follow a party. banqueroute. pastoralis. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. bannire. to cabal. bander tin arc. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. to publicly order one out of the realm. that the word is used by Romeo. a bench. bench. large dog kept for a guatd. Africa. Fl. se joindre.: . and hence. outlam came to signify a robber. bance. Lat. a long raised seat. a bankrupt merchant. to foment factions. bander. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). roupt. banca his creditors. Goth. 45 — — Bandit. A Shipman's Tale. Milton in R. — . ON. To Bandy. Bankrupt. back of a knife. bankruptcy. banc. Fr.^ knock. &c. in the sense of a pirate. bent as a bow. It is in this sense nounce. dorsum was applied to ject. shoal. Bandy legs are crooked legs. When a man fails Lat. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. bana. ruptus. Bantze. bow. among rotta. Mercutio.

iandvo. OHG. Fr. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. an animal a year old. ingly very generally known by a name branches. sign. from reifa. uncivilised. barrou-gwez. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. benda. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. barra. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. rarii. would rupted from Fr. i. wrapped. Celtic bar. knight Bardd. Bret. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. barreau. period vexillarii. 2. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. The spar. from the same source. To mock or jeer one. Lat. that the noise of voices Bantling. &c. the bar at which a criminal enseigne.8ap6^o)voe. Hence Fr. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. men.cruel. brushwood. &c. the word came to signify rude. of wind. to beckon . a bantling. senhal. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. jSdirTO). a tree). To Banter. banchetto. a barrier or stoppage. of a sign in general. out of a wound. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. barde. senh. Gael. and from ensign or banner Prov.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. barre. of banco. It may be thing. barrer. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Banquet. probably corSymbol.. top. Lat. E. barrack. bannereti. then fell among the foot. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Flesche barbeUe. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. indeed. banneret. banda. and the work is done. milites bannarii. a bearded or Cot. inferior to a baron. Banneret. to wash. sparro. Barb. such as the Roman Eagle. dim. a which the barrister addresses the court. either in the Gr. banne. — We A . in Gr. and he would seem to derive Goth. banneret was a higher class of knights. arineXov. bandva. Fr. signuin. Fr.. senheira. to bend. It. merki. —Cot. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. or of this bantering. sparre. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. which is surely in barbed arrow. barriire. Barbe. Fr. rod of any rigid substance. Sw. a ban. a sign. banner. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. Fr. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. summit. barba. The origin is in all probability Goth. to having that signification. Duo. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification.aTa Kul nest. hence a repast. A It. inur. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. Thus Ovid. token. barbed or trapped as a great horse. bandiera. OFr. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. says. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. According to Diez the It. The barb of an arrow is the sign . It. speaking of battle. Fr. heri-pau. branches of a tree {gwezen. as they call it. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. senhal. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. OHG. nestling. by a repetition of the syllable bar. a beam or long pole of wood. a war-beacon or war-signal. then branches. banda hendi. Lat. a. a bench or table . jSa'pjSapoc. ^oTrriKio.hinder. and with an initial s. . to dip. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. Leduchat. ing term appears in other languages. ON. Hence ner. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. chan. ON. The original import of their own banner in the field.46 BANNERET . E. ban- Baptise.— Swift in R. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. sbarra. and even of calling it banter.the analogous syllable viur. barbarus. remarked. and it was accord. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. Barb. himself in Pontus. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. In a similar manner are formed yearling. E. Gr. privileged to raise Barbarous. G. branch. Barbar. banniire. Bap. bar. 3. barbe. to wrap. manu anto make signs nuere. Gr. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. It.

guaszare. unqualified.— — Pm.) to wrangle. to stammer. to bubble or spring up. the beard. barbeau. a rumbling. Exposed to view. tattle. Diez. A shrub bearing acid Diet. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. coping. G. borborinha. bardd. powdered all over. A7 to the and warlike. Lith. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. i. Arab. Applied in E. Fr. Bargain. the quilted with. waschen. Hindost. Lex. skirt. — . and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. in Fr. skialldar-bard. tree. albarda'ah. horse armour covering the front. used 2. albarda. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. uproar. barbugliare. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. brim. OFr. bdsiis. and Sc. to stammer. Sp. brabble in the making of a bargain. gibberish. albardilla. small pack-saddle. ready money. It. upper chamber. — . barbier. Mod. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. Cot. to bubble or boil. to chafbargain. Barde. Mod. ala. uncovered. to wash. bare baskojis. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . — — — men. baragouin. a pack-saddle. Pr. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald.' Cot. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. to prattle. to gurgle. barbelin. Russ. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. to It. speak confusedly. barbulla. a long saddle for an ass or mule. the nakedness of a woman. and foolishly. Barbel. in the sense of fight. barda. haggle. grumble (Lowndes. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Fl. name Fr. Port. to grunt. axilla. open. Gr. a shingle or small board. Port. borbotar. bar. borbulhar. scouthouse. formerly used in the sense of tattle. barbel. Thus the on. and the word was used in OE. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. twcEtta. The Pers. It. bds. and in Flanders to vociferate. barbarkama. g. barguigner. — Cot. quarrel . The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. bhasad. lb. . Festus in Diet. barda. muttering. barbeum. to make an outcry . barbaris. a bardelle. bardes. and flanks. Etym. back. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. Bardeau. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. barefooted Sanscr. Gr. border. bdla-khaneh. Bret. But Sp. Cotgr. berj G. /3£pjSepi^w. is lb. borboglio. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. jargon.— BARBEL merit of water. Barbican. to boil or bubble up . baares geld. Fr. barbacane. as well as thwcEtta. the flap of a hat. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. Sp. barz. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. a tumultuous assembly. also to bind or tie across. which was of talking. dial. skirmish. skola. twattle. as well as the modern twaddle. fortia —Strabo. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. in poetic language Bard for poet. Barberry. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. Barber. . bdsas. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. boil. on. Lucan. Bare. barbeter. such as houses are covered Bardelle. Etym. stutter. w. also to wallow like a seething pot. — — Hence. barbar. berries. mutter. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Hall in R. Fr. to rumble. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. Cotgr. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai.— Fl. saddle-cloth. Hatt-bard. Barder. border of a garden bed. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. barS. /3opj3opwJu. or more properly (says fer. baar.) . to mumble or mutter words. to barbe or trap horses. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. Fr. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. guazzolare. a jetty or outnook in a building. Bard. borbollar. to plash or dabble. barboter. murmur . Sp.

baerm. meta foeni. to rout. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . but the woman for the man. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. then honoured man. . beer. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. barki.. strife. baaring. Spectacles. wine. struggle. baniffa. herbs.) lihtes-ern. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. the fore or after end of a boat . To Bark. Du. skuta. and 1. Isidore in Rayn. at barka. and the word.^Voc^. quant a perdu sa barja. berm. barja. entangle. a place. So also ON. quarrel Port. Port. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Port. Tarn baronem quam feminam. barley. See Barm. The older form in e. mhg. baratta.' bardagi. ThS man was not created for the woman. baron. 2. Cornub. OFr. limpet. Sp. bamagh. and llysiaw. It. Acervus. OSw. — battle. fray. Sw. contest. astringent. to shufSe. tion of the sound. barnis. then the bows pectus navis. dial. Bemiques. ON. borkr. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. . hay-loft. Dan. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. The Goth. the A — Ihre. bcerme. limpets . to skin over barkandi. a stack. ON. squabble. and hence probably (by a metaphor. bard). dregs of oil. AS. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. barlys. quarrel. barn. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. w. barahunda.. barafunda. chaffer. hlaSa. baarn. also to exchange. bcern. barmr. plants). Originally man. prasepe . to scold. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. a heap. limpets. to strive. strife. corn-shed. prominent part of a thing. to chop. 2. Barbour in Jam. Barge. ON. ber (ace. Swab. . have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. berm hoys. dispute. also a boat . a heap . in Nat. the slimy substance brewing of beer. bern. lap. baron)^ Fr. bosom. a cap . the which is equivalent of the lys in w. name being given to spectacles. — Zeuss. charlock. * Barnacles. barge. barizeins indicates a noun baris. tumult. Alam. adj. bread-corn. a beak. Ibid. On the other hand. It. — Barnacle. OFr. louzou. as well as Scandinavian tongues. giving rise to It. barn. a receptacle for barley or corn. — de Berri. brenig. barley. Garlick. bosom . baimeach. contest. Barn. a baking place or oven. bread. —Bark. as in the case of Lat. from an imita- Barley. dispute . berma. Du. Gael. bere. a barn. ON. Rayn. baralhar. barretor. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. disorder. Provj bar (ace. a lap. Manx bayrn. in the Brim. beornt. From Fr. a lantern. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. baarm. the or prow of a ship. a boat. and is probably a true bartig. edge. barms. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. Camus. baratta. was barlic. AS. we pass to the vert) barguigner. commonly explained from bere. houbartij fsnile. v. Ripuar. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. baragouin. Lith. Bailey. As Goth. varen. a load. is simply the Bret. Vocab. Romance barsie. beorcan. strife. barn. barone. as. Prov. as. bark . dispute barattare. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. one who stirs up strife. bargain. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Antiq. berm. trouble. The origin may be throat. berem. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. hemlock. See formed Yeast. . dispute . put to confusion. aheap. barlich. i. Leg. altercation. to cheat. W. barafustar. Bret. Baron. a. barnacles. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. the rack or manger. the G. So ON. dispute. Kil. skutr. barlys {bara. am. barajar. and ern. and may therefore be an Eastern word. (Ihre.Barum vel feminam. kani. hladi. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Uzen. Dan. border. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. Gl. baaren. Sp. spectacles. bernac. E. as baces-ern. baralha. bern. Sp. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. husband. confusion. to all the barca. barley. to wrangle. Leg. barii. Bark.

bara.root signifying confused noise. beorh. G. Gael. — A . a hiU. from beran. The feudal tenants next Fr. baronuU. bearg . where baronetti is written in the printed copies. rolls of Parliament. vel pretiosos burellos. barri. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. booth. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. cise formation of the word. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. gravis et authenticus vir. like bargain. vir. OE. from a tree to which a man is hanged. — — 15th Cent. berewe. a barrel. baragan. a bier.' that Barrier. barrique. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. man and wife. It. todtenbahre. Barricade.. barrique. bier. baraignej Picard. tomb. seem to be radically the same with Lat. the two names. barraca. also termed bannerets. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. It. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. the braw. whence Barrow. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer.have been named from the haggling and gant. barague. It was not until the time of James I. which would barragdn. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. bahre. ibid. This word introduced into Fr. — Kil. cover. It should be observed that. Barrack. G. a hut or booth. gwr. See Barter. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. breinej Du. borov'.' Op. bara. and in several instances. bera. sterilis. braeck. a castrated hog . baracca. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. bouracan. OFr. strife. Sp. berwen. The Sp. were sometimes confounded. facture. barrila. or simply bahre.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt.— Gibbon. a man. D. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. fear. Bamnculus a baronet. 26. barile. garment still used in Morocco. ^Vocab. boar. uncultivated. man. perhaps through Prov. barre. Nominale of the from braeckland. Bret. fallow. beorg. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. Goth. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. a word is always used in the plural number. especially those killed in battle. barchent. became bidre. and not from Fr. An ing. ^Barrator. to * Barragan. dispute. S. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. AS. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Gael. Formed from Fr. MHG. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. a kind of coarse camlet. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. staves. StiU he shows conclusively. beorgan. bark&n. in Nat. Fr. iver. nobles. shed. A. Joshua vii. 1. by early examples. It. heap. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Sp. Barrel. Fr. AS. Barratry. a barrow. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. a. Barren. as. Bargus or moreland. w. vair. from cavallo. then traffick4 Barrow. barBombicinus. (Schmeller). E. an obstruction. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. Antiq. barrier. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. habeant.. litter. Russ. fortification. 2. alongside of barrow. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Barrister. a. signifying. a horse. brushwood.parchanttuech. to carry. sepulchre. See Bar.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. mound. branches. change of goods seems. barril. Sp. composed of dry branches ofer. as cavalcade. baronetti. Baron andfemme. Bern. Bohem. qui have not much light on the pre. over him. barrack. to shelter. implement for carryAS. baronculi. semen non accipiens landiEL. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. hut. whenever Barrow-hog. bredhan. baroncelli. squabble. a bar. calico. in the first instance.

BassuS. low. AS. bast. a ipgli So Turk. cog. imbastire. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. fhe outhouses and yards. Fr. — in Rich. HoUinshed. to stitch . 516. Swed. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. to deceive. bast-maatte. Dan. . back. The original meaning. lust. low. basso. But according And Dan. Sp. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. partieren. from bere. Basilisk. plaiting of splinters basged. Barton. MS. humilis. low part of the Hickes in Rich. F. bass-matting. Sicamb. to baste. corn-farm. preparatory stitching. Lend me your hands. It. aiKcig. piiiguis. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem.D. Gr. baratar. Bast. low note. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Barbara de pictis veni patch. basta. crassus. bareter. Fr. from /3aR. HaU in HaUiwell. but born in baste. . Sylvester's Dubartas. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. See Bath. truck. cheating. exchange. imbastire.' Papias. ibid. Fris. Du. Bass. ^Is de bast. Bastard. commonly A joined with the word binda. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. and Bret. a deceiver. bark.looketh upon his eyes. rope for — . Bartizan. It is mentioned as . a tying. The like property hath the iasilisk. thick. besst-u-b£nd&t. a basket masg. mock not. Basket. flat. a king. discourse Nay. to Diez. dwelling. a ftiesh. basg. the manorhousfe itself. would be. Lap. Newman. leviter consuere. then cheating. baste. to bind. ' Bosworth. to truck. — hanging. OFr. ing for profit. basso. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . baste. Du. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Pl. hoops of a cask. baratear. bds. pressed down. G. barter. baos. mean . to bind. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . barter. baste. to baste piece of cloth. ' He was begetin o bast. he. at basta og binda. Dan. also to Cotgr. of the same sense. — Bassoon. To stitch. pdrdt. to long — a British word by Martial. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. which covers the grain Ger.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Arthur and Merlini. It. bas. Sp. to cheat. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. A fabulous serpent. bast. MHG. besst. n' is n' is bacino. Sp. /«r<fSp. a bastard. husk bast van koren. . which sets up its hood when angry. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. stitch. w. To Baste.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. beortun. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. scale in music. bast. mavult dicere Roma suam. to cheat. chasa ogli a bastard. said Base. To Bask. the a wide open vessel. There is not one that. God it wot. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Apparently of Celtic origin. descended of an honorable lineage. him. to bind hand and foot. a court-yard. fornication. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. bassin. foist in bargaining. It. oe. also the demesne lands of a manor. according from Gael. or wic. ohg. binding. chasa. lattice-work. netting. and tun. fits de bas. Fr. Bass. exchange. on a. i. bdtir. the — — to kill those that look upon it. HaUiweU. baxoj w. over-reaching. as It. but he dreth presently. or running away with the ship. fraud. Kil. beguile. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. a bass rope. more noble in blood than notable in learning. lift me above Parnassus. the thin skin Dan. It. barley.' Gl. embastir. tierer. bast-reb. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. come near. OFr. peel. found in Turkish . MHG. Al is dai. submovet omne Lucan. curtus. Isidore. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. fornication. baraet (from Fr. beretun.). basgod. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. bastear. unrighteous gain. It. court-yard. basta. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). shallow. inclosure. PaaiKhms. to bargain. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. bran. It. Sw. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. Bassus. Sw. a halter. bestcn. Halliwell. berewic. as the diadem of the basilisk. bestan. See Brattice. baraand especially teria. by imbezzling their goods Bailey.

blakta. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. night-bat. bastida. to stroke. to spread bread and butter. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. from Fr. club. to Due. to build. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. vledermus. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde.— Bailey. contrive. To baste one's hide . e. to flap. Sp. * Bat. to quilt or stitch wool into it. Rayn. Cot.'CaB. R. It. ari instruineht for beating. to cudgel. Prov. bastonada. Derived by Diez from iasi. devise. bastia. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. Sw. basto. . Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . a barSp. a bird which. Sc. Antiq. iastir. — Bakke. a blockhouse. I. 'iJipistreUo. 2. dial. bakie-bird . the night-jar or goat-sticker. provisions. p. a stick. victuals. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. business (Altieri). It. whence ledrblaka. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. blakra. bastear. Sw. to pack a saddle i. Bastinado. which in the E. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. bastir. also to cudgel. to set on foot a war Bastion. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. to whip. Florio. liiake. frotter. a pad or packsaddle. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. military term of a bat-horse). Supp.stick. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. a blow cloth for dinner. . blaka. the original has corneille. 2. basta. ment. baston. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. niammal. nade. All from bastir. Fr. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. to beat. Sw. — — — . worth (Nat. to teach one before. That yche blak y dar wel telle. to belabour. bat. Fr. settiilg up. boste. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. bastir. vespertilio. flyinge best. bastonFr. For the origin of baston see Baste. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. guerra bastir. a pad. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. or implement for 4 * A . compared with blakka. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. beating. — — Fl.stitching in general. a with a stick. erect. BAT neither. blatta. Dieiif. in the use of the E. frame. Dan. To beat or bang soundly. bastilde. to build. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. stryka. dial. bastione. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. bastonnir. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. Fr. blacta. blatta. stryk. blows.baste or knock soundly. set up. set up. to rub. cudgelling. which to rest the load. to beat. iinbastire. R. vespertilio.. basa. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. disposer. to thrash . explains Sp. translation to a bat. put it together. to drub. also the ricado. beysta. the clapper of a bell. to rub gently. To donjon.fortress or castle furnished with towers. Dan. but this is hardly satisfactory. is explained by Cot. bastimento. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. 2. Sp. It.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. comp. the winged . the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. bastille. badger. E. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. 11864. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. Pm. a bastion. pre. has bastine. a packsaddle. baston. packsaddle. in the Romance languages.-^ Chaucer. bladier. to give him a sound bastingi 3. Fr. as weU as besteau. Sw. Mid. ON. back. bastine. staff. the E. For the loss of the / in back. bdion. and ditches bastion. Pr. and Cot. Cot. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. a. raise. a things prepared for future use. blakka. bak. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. aftonbakke. quelqu'un son roulet. to lay the Sp.— . like the owl and the bat. 164). to devise or begin. a sconce.Lat. and Arabs. contriving. passage Imbasto. Perhaps baska. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. the bat . A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . batta lucifuga. bast. natt-blakka. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head.

From bat in the sense of rod . Battlement. as E. battaglia. — Cot. also. to bathe. from on. a battalion. to become convalescent. Batten. abattre. battle was used beath wood. a stick. to for fighting. oneself at the A into faggots. and about an inch thick.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. cudgel. To thrive. to beath wood Battledoor.Hence in the augmentative form It. gebdck. battere. A batch as wood. e. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. strife. Strife. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. makebate. made of — A made by one Batcii. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . debat.— To Bask. Chaucer. Flem. or break down. Sp. Ayenst the sunne. To Bate. Battalion. A Bath. trahtr to It. to refresh oneself in language. I baske. baka. from battre. dial. Gael. to warm oneself at the fire. of bread is so much baked zX one time. to foment. Batyn. squadron. ON. batir. wet linen in washing. whence the sun burns . to fight. quhar he suld assaill. bdhen. certain bend. a washing beetle. Barbour in Jam. Pm. — — — ' — . a staff. G. bat-en. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. bdt. See Better. bat. . tagUone. pak. beat. a beating. to foment with hot applica. battre las ailes. The bat with which a brot bdhen. to feed. baden. to be profited. on the fire. Fr. lessen. busk. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. badask. . buask made like a fortress. Sw. bastille. Bat. Pm. and milk beaten up together. or a dry stick. in the case of a wall. Hal. in the sun. Battery. gabatnan. Bailey. To Batten. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day.— . beat down. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. a from ON. as wood-en. Bate. Pr. heat. howis. quell. Pr. a blow with a light instrument. dispute. a great seems related to baden as Fr. fashes basking in the sun squadron. term in falconry . to fire or in the sun. battre. allay . Fr. Slav. battre. Battery. dial. hot. 2. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. to thrive. to foment. to betake oneself. to cudgel. beat. dial. battions. Sp. to beat. . Du. signifying to give repeated blows. to get better. Fr. I bathe in water viz. was formed bastilU. also a sun badfish. Hence pro. to beat. to warm oneself. to heat. a band of armed men arranged basa. Mgy. baquetazo. the root of e. solen baddar. bake. — To . batador. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Goth. made of bats. is a simple adoption of Fr. E. fortress or castle. is in falling. I. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. a stirrer-up of strife. badda. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. sich bakern. to flutter with the wings. and with staffslyng. Fr. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. to beat se battre. w. solbase. to dial. bet. a blow. batacazo. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. to bathe oneself. betten. basa. badda. adapted for defence. an arrangement for giving blows. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad.Bathe. bada. a Baiffi. a main battle. perhaps first used adjectivally. a battle. altercation. Sw. to toast bread. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. to warm. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. bludgeon. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. G.' Palsgr. better. water whether warm or cold. to fell. Fr. Baka sik vid elld. batterie. gebdcke. or make debate. In some parts of England it is striking. batte sig. dial. by projections or in any licoure. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. the heat of the It. baeddu. and as a verb. Eggs. abate. as E. bdda. flour. bataille. PLD. Fr. From OFr. battere. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Jurgor. G. then to warm by the application of hot water. batna. Bret. as signifying warm baths. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Battle. Holz bdhen. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. to beat. to become fat. Jeddris and covering. Plkkis. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. on. Batter. more. tradire. Florio. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. to heat . baz. for biia sik. to beak. It. bdda vidjor. In OE. remit. It.

to vociferate. to play the babby. toys. whimwham. spotted. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. dial. Beaus^ent. The word may perhaps be sticks. baue. Bagdad. dirt. Cot. E. Baldrick. lewd . the Swiss baben.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. It is all bawdy. from Baldacca. Zalli. a tassel. form with an initial seen in Fr. From Bret. Cotgr. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. filth. babbole. Ball-seirc. speckled. librillo. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. E. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. baw. also the canopy carried part of his body. tab. baugant. an object. sword-belt. pie- . to 53 manure the To baw. sorry. the face. miauler. An analogous noisily.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. or the animal so marked. i. guigaw. is used for a sented by bau. dirty.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. whence the E. bablyn or waveryn. instead oi s. fe bau.. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. whence pouacre. disgusting. represented by the syllable miau. ON. 2. Fl. Prov. bad. to void the bowels. Pm. and to-tore also. a horse marked with a procession. to bark . Bawson. OFr. s. 8. having a white streak down Bagdad. baffe. From ! an interjection of disgust.. to trifle away ment. trifle. a lump. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. Ball. to me-wl. Hal. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. as Fr. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). ish baubles. and Sp. Descript.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Irel. because made of cloth of white. in OE. divided between black and white. filth. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . bouaila. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. a tassel or hanging bunch . rotten. expressive of disgust. Filthy. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. b \% bouala. a gavel. — Pm. R. Baw — . bausan. a horse with white legs. bal. Swiss Rom. bauU. from Fr. Fr. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. P. a spot. P. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. a dog). In like manner Grisons filthy. Gael. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. and authorities in note. a zan. bobine. baula. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. bow-wow. zano. Batylment of a wall. fields. Pr. Sc. E. horse. ballach. a plot of Chaucer. Jam. —R. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. It. the white of his leg or foot. a white mark Bawdy. It. balbob. bal. bau. exactly corresponds Fr. Cot. bobbin or cluster of thread. Fr. or toys. javelle. to talk Lacombe. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Cloth of gold. nastiness. obstrepere. was simply a field gold. bauch. mew. or Cot. — — ' Lydgate. balGael. bow (as in our nursery Diez. vacillo. an — — — A — g — — — . baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. BAWSON Swiss. excrement. The It. Piedm. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. s. also more Bawdekin. propugnaculum. an embattled wall. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. trifles. fooleries or fond To Bawl. Formed from baw. Fr. to low or bellow as corn. baudrat. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. to bark. baudrdj OHG. P. pegma. babiole. dacchino. to cry. W. to make the noise Baudrick. babsmall toy to play withal. scarf. ! Bauble. tille.— P. E.' ' Pegma. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. a belt. collar. on the face of animals. Lat. fagot. cluster. A name of the badger. spot. ball. is Bagdad stuff. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. Bavin. Pr. dung. c. OFr. dente. a lump or cluster babhaid. brush faggot. child. ground. baubare. baban. faisceau. It. to the same origin. balderich. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. or sheaf of Bridel. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like.guage). from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE.

Drayton in R. that from ba. * To Be. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. a hole. or window ' (in Fortification). che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. Bayonet. baher. F. and zndly. abbabayer. by the term rendre les abpis. a beast. Catalan hadia. Sp. baccello. life. house . grapes or nuts. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. open the mouth. window-sill. . batibari. Bay-tree. living Ir. to iiitent nected PoL white. bay. hddhe-dhonn. in order to keep the enemy in check. he turns and faces his pursuers. the cod of peas. to amuse stare a bada. stood watching him stoop. See Bald. aux dehniers abois. w. Sp. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. Lat. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. Fr. the world Gr. at his last gasp. corrupted into Bow-window. dehiscere . a cluster of bacon. Sp. bate. dividere. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. or recess in an apartment in modern times. living thing . —Diez. bacca. badarc. Piedm.' — — 54 bald. when. to on anything. to open as a blossom. Lat. It. Gael. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. bayen-stein. bilyega. baya. to gape. expresr sion tenere a bada. to open. yellow . put to his last shifts. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. The word bay. bayo. siege of Bayonne in 1665. See Bawl. baionette. or to have been first used at the Cot. baier. Holland's Pliny in R. to be Bohem. white. overture. tradire to Fr. from badar. especially beans. bahia. watching intently. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. baye. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. which however. window . S. Feb. See At Bay. as if to signify a window of curved outline. . badia to Sp. Prov. — Schmid. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. BAY marked with bjly. Arts. husk. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. BauSfi)/.. —F. A hollow in the 'line of coast. baiare. bialo. stare. beothach. waiting .— Stalder. baie. a berry. a'uno. AS. The — Fr. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. Gr. Bay. — A At Bay. baga.—Journal Soc. Q. Such Antaeus seemed to me. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. |8i'os. as gazing. bajo. From Cat. 1859. It. ist. life. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. Gael. A stag is said to stand at bay. to keep at a bay. Fr. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. and keeps them in check for a while. Fr. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. bahia. Fr. Q. like a pie. It has been shown under Abie. arose two forms of the verb. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. berries. baer. Mod. It. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. baja. ing-floor. badius.' Bailey. bay. berry. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. laurel of the ancients. large window in a handsome . as may be seen from the foregoing examples. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. baca. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. BE Probably conRuss. the laurel-bay. Swiss beie. desiring. bai. Serv. Fr. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. to mark. bde. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. &c. and the To bark as a dog. 25. from an imitation of the sound. —Bay-windo'W. bijel. Abide. to keep one waiting. 1. From the former verb is the It. the step is the same as from It. alive. trahir. a mark. to stand watching one. To Bay.c. gate. beonj Gael. . Bay. It. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. barn of two bays. It. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Earth — By Nature made to till. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. buidhe- The ruadh. Swab. the cod or husk of beans or the like. &c. buidhe. bioth. badarse. bagaid. is perhaps not directly from Lat. or at bay. &. to betray. bdcr. Fr. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i.. . a dagger. or berries. Cot. beo. baca./^ bau. so called from its bearing bays. Vielp. bilyejiti. to split. weary of running. OSp.

Gr.from AS. and Lat. stock. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. ohg. badmr. * Beagle. like most nautical terms. Fr. backe. on. ffci. The nutu significare. Catalan becar. bydel. ffaen. salve his hurts. The origin seems preserved in E. as well as f& or fav. — to bow or nod . the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. a tree. tale of prayers or doxologies. fora-bauhan. bar. into a snjall river. A Esthon. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. The immediate shore of the Menage. as. bagms. Gael. Be. nokkima. or breathing. A two-year old nephew of mine p. Bean. — Bellenden in Jam. bauhan. vii. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. to produce young. a presage. a single bean. as. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. or any action done with a pointed thing. It. to nod the head. bohnej ON. 54. Gael. bob. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. beic. bM. the part overflowed by the tide.ad. which is. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. bohne.' adheres to the root. Bret. «va\ioQ. G. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. The wild beast. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. ON. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. becco. beans. a sign. -phxr. bank. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Beckon. a tree. AS. to beckon. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. rising ground. Fr. Farrar. Trans. bokan. AS. Lat. to carry. G. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. beic. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. to bellow. Beach. Slavon. Boom. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. faba. l^ax. Goth. bidello. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. . pig. beck. He says. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. fd or faVf beans. a curtsey. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. gebed. fromthe danger. baum. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Beacon. Beak. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. beugler. a single bean. Q wait upon him. bdkna. bean. E. post.to have a French origin. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. or however. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. an attendant. Beck. a nod OHG. baun. would say. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. atUndre. support. bedm. bek. Du. It is BEAR SI court. ON. Sw. Bret. . branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. To Bear. faba is Kvavoq.fui. Pardoner's Tale. beacen. g. Hackluyt in R. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. prodigy bauhnjan. fero. N. bearti. beacnian. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. bidan. See To Bid. bakke. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as.' Hall's Chron. Gael. Thus the final en. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. boom. to wait. a beak. into France. was introduced from England sea. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. — bedeau.' Suetonius in Diez. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. bead. or beic. . a hill. — : Beam. to nod . according to of Sanscr. vol. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. not applied to the yelping of dogs. figuv y ball of some ornamental material.fer-re j Gr. Goth. —F. bee.. OSax. pierced for hanging on a string. W. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. bakkje. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. It. be. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages.fuis5e. Chapters on Lang. signifying a point. Netherlands or North Germany. signifying individuality. Beadle. to wait-. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. however. It forms a. Moreover the name. Bear. a prayer. W. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. bairan.

: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. a. to get. G. timan. fitly . G. dress with unbecoming richness . agreeable. bellus. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. fitanimal. and on. to attain to the lot of any one. Lith. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. befit. e. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. gelimplic.we call the arrangement becoming. Now the Beast. The moveable part of a helmet. birth. bedr. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to the brook itself. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bobrowai. befall. Bedizen. pretty. riviera. babrad. . taste. bart.' ' He became very angry. to fall. limpian. riviire. a bank. fiber. ON. dize or dtzen.AS. burdr is used in the sense of a car. Chaucer. — A — A — . G. G. agreeable. from beau. edge. to happen. See Beacon. to assume a certain form or Turk. i. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. fit. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. — .to clothe to slobber. bach. comely. i. He becom on sceathan. the beard. suitable. badi. brook . godum with ON. Perhaps from Pol.of being very angry. Lat. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. baba. Slav. to shore. Diez. or a feeling to be gratified. Thus OY. to happen. venient. the latter are derived It. barba. nod or sign. to hem. because made of the fur of the beaver.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. decorous. brada. produce. Lat. byw. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. to live. seemly. con. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. place to lie down. the ece thurhwuniath. brook. as the babble of the child. from the same in the sense of bear2. behkr. chin. to happen. to be incumbent upon him. an notion of being convenient. Cal. to happen. AS.' every way suited to a prince. bib or slobbering cloth. Fr. bekommen. dushmak. 2. opportune. when up. Beat. bava. g. o. Thcem. See becymth anfeald yvel. to bear children. blast. ON. or special purpose. It. Beauty. to please. border. limplice. to be a part of his to. Russ. Sp. That thou mayest attain Goth. ON. Do no To It fallith favour. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. to carry. it is probable that here also the to become. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. To load with ornament. Bosworth. while from Shep. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. and also in that of birth. Boeth. Beaver. limpan. bard. beatanj It. our taste. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. As rivus. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. Bo. bur. gabaurths. becuman. battere. beo. to arrive at. and Fr. to dabble . ting. e. and to acquire. happening as it ought. See Bank. biivre. now confined To Become. Lat. Secondarily applied to a hat. gefallen. R. ON. bcek. gebank. to those goods which endure for ever. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. if sound of a sharp blow. formerly a happen. a bank. E. Beck. proper . bello. to happen. Beckon. bearing. from baver. bring forth. nothing to thy name make. ziemen. a lip. talkative. Prick of Conscience. decent. The fitting or suitable. which. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. biber. rying. tidig. Fr. It. boroda. proper. to wade through the water like a beaver. but now a river only. to fall in with our bavard. iida. pleasing. to appertain. OSw. as. The quadruped. to the good hapHalbard. bave. Fr. judgment. get J ' He got very angry. barf. beauts. bequem. baviire. bel. G. The OFr. bave i. duty. byrcti. bebrus. pens unmixed evU. handsome. Goth.' are equivalent expressions.getiman. Fr. bett.fit. R.S6 fero. Fr. Dan. tidy. bestiaj Gael. to fall mode of being. Lat. W. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to G. a brook. baurthei. name applied originally to the bank then proper . suitable. perhaps a living thing. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. receive. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. obtain. to sleep on. whence baveux. bekkr. becuman. covered the face. convenient. to come to or upon. I do thee pray. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. to be fulfilled. slobber. Prov. AS. E. fallinn. E. 1. living.— Kiittner. bavec. bobr. den. In like manner condition. or river. connected with ripa. See Bat. On the same principle. Beck.

beost. to knock. G. a wasp. Fr. bedawi. 'La Gl.— JI14. a mallet. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. speach. Bedouia. bukva. pude-vaar. to parget or rough-cast .^ drink. madhouse. beach-each. E. byst. The first milk after a dizen. knock. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. cow has calved. in Schmeller. 1156. whose face is clotty. Fr. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. a drink potus. Lat. a agulatum in the original Latin. Horn.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. briesch-milch. Originally. a stinging bieUe. poculum. cousin. bovis. duplicated form of the root. a pillow-case. Cot. the ox. kiissen-biere. . and lebermer in G. Fin. red curdled Arab . which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. piwo.' the last word corresponds to cofly . fall. buk. bove. may be from K. qui de lecto surgere non potest . /SXirov. to rough- cast. bytl. which also 2. an Beetle. case. vaar. to curdle or lopper. desert. kivih.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. Bee. used for boull. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. wedges. cogionare. door. 57 — Palsgr. whence familiar. to turn. to colour with lime-wash. to become Beech. GaeL bior. a pillow case. drink. 1. Arab. prigione. Beef. to poordma. cugino. a clapper. an ox. by the analogy of bedaivb. beach. doubtless. to beat bossel. Ant. cited by Diez. a wasp. . to and ale.D. sela que environna la terra. Cot. pettiriso. Grimm. AS. translation beOj. stakes. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. In a passage of an Old Fr. Bed-ridden. Lat. biest-milch. Fr. KXlvoTTiT^e. E. turn (a garment). betel. from Lat. woman that is newly delivered. bitela. cushion-cover . from the hos. boytle. Fr. It. Gael. Confined to bed. a malsense of drink. . also bienst. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. waarin. a Properly a cover that biiren. G. Esthon. Bav. calleBedlam. 1 to drink. D. The honey-producing insect. ' MordiThe Lat. AS. Pl. to flatten In OE. The same metaphor is seen in Fr._t from the root pi. The meanpainting. buka. I A pillow-beer. from blood. water. blow or thrust. Beetle. to twist poorma. ProBeer. Beet. Bernese. Rom. a horse-fly .— B. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. by-flugaj G. beetle also signified the impiti.'— GL ^Ifr. a paviour's beetle batail. 1. de Fierabras in Diez.(paddi. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. Let. from risan. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. . briest. ^. bletumj Gr. But possibly bedizen 2. to fall. erroneously modified in form.. bably named from the destructive quali| T. tree. taglio. i. buche. in Nat. from jtst-. fagus. bos. Slav. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover.cz//aj. as in It. .ing of the word is curdled. a wandering Prov. drink. comb. bitel. as. also the bite or sting of a bees. I put the flax upon it to spin. It. curded or beesty. an inhabitant of the desert. and in driving piles. trees in a forest . to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. For that was law of lend. pital of St Mary. a bed-tick. Dan. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. beer. g. I dysyn a dystaffe. bedde-redirj ohg. paralyticus. to change .). * Beestings. thick. AS. a bee. Pett. ris. on. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. sang vermeilh betatz. . extant in Bohem. badigeonner. Fr.' So Gr. bossen. PI. Gr. crespir. beutel. beta. boeuf. mars betada. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. &c. bette or blettej Lat. cozen. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. a cup or implement for AS. bibere is a re. bet. garden-herb. as the milk of a that purpose in London. to drink. bedskiissen-bUren. It. the meat of spinach. beest.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. biene. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. G. thick. P1. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. a cover. the biter. of beatmg. ir'm.possible.D.ON. may be shpped on and off. The beer al for te shenche bate. Bethlehem. turn. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. a pad or cushion). batAfter mete in sale. bbtel. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. clog for a dog b'oteln. prisons Venet. imperative pi. the loppered sea. biiren. Fr. to coagulate. beyki. from leberen.

1867. a beggar. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. also called Bigots. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. beutel. lapidicinus. P. a bag or poke. the fundamental notion of attaining to. AS. to take. Political Songs. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. although it ' the future. 'Aboutin undern monly. ' .— . beis- plement driven by blows. whence the E. ip AS. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. to begaan. beissel. two betels —a grete oke. to bear young. OHG. Deutsch. ytyvwfT'Kw. of Gr. iv. 'ex quo. image is cleft out of the trunk. in D. V. yivwajcw. appears improbable at first. Du. Gr. begger. to get children . tale.' for ye shall lament and weep. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. Lith. Schm. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. aginnan. Mundart. — yivsaiQ. in Lat. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. capere. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. Fr. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. When Q.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. beitel. So from Gael. Du. is formed pocair. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. a little bag). gen. P. P. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — .' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. gan. to cleve. viii. ' Begone. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. above quoted to get beaten ON. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. gigno. baigeir. Cold-begone. Beghardus. ysgrepan. To Beg. to arise. The tother seand the dint cum. beginning. yivofiai. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Ancren Riwle. 2. to go a begging. From w. on the tramp.D. origin. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. beriolare. 'Dz. a beggar . ornamented phoc.3.bag full of the G. ' ' . a scrip. Mod. ken. P. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. beitel. bertola. To Begin. to be born. be^nnan. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. to be acquire.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Nov. sel. Goth. yivtrri. yiyvo/uat. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. P. y/yvo/iat. one after that other. cans. Si'Xa/coc. anfangen. pose-pilte. covered with gold D. a bag . and subsequently Down duschit the beist. 168.n. hags. 142. To produce children is to acquire.' A. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. begging. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. Creed. or Of a pure poor man. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. It. 1430. not began to alight. 58 BEG BEGONE G. P. V. V. Of brede full ycrammed. incipere. seizing. taking up. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. P. and Lat. &c. from whete G. — Stillingfleet. ysgrepanu. 25. onginnan. chisel. Du. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. 40. air a . gan provyde To eschew The Flem. to reduce him to beggary. touched with emotion — . ken. P. a chisel. Mettre quelq'un a la besace.quently used in OE. literally. on further examination. signifying to conceive. & go a begging. fangen and Lat. to be able. P. word. a wallet. it is both to acquire and to beget. affected. but in the same language from poc. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. In Luc vi. He did alight. a stone-cutter's chisel. &c. to beg. vir mendi. woe-begone. a wedge for cleaving wood. a beggar-boy. can. Skinner's derivation from bag. to know. a bag. chap. genus. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. in E. but probably erroneously. Florio.' about undern he got down. oppressed with woe.pose. giving in Gr. can. duginnan. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . to begin. Vocab. P. krapszas. su with gold. is com. at geta talad. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. Into the are D. on the bag. steinbosil. It will . as alighting is a momentary operation. referred gan this Erie alight. bag {baigean. Bruce. a — wedge. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Lollards. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. Barbour. kind. a scrip euXaiciJoi. ykvog. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a.

To Behold. servare. vow. beholden to him. name of the head is used to express what hbva. Goth. hafwa ram. gehouden. is supported by many analogies. the name adapt. G. R. take heed of. hafjan. The It. Command. promise . han- — js Kil. hafwa. promise. Robert in Warton. fixed upon any object). to meet. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. is also found in the sense of looking. have the sense of calling or naming. to behave. solicitum esse. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to feed. behete. to carry. to promise. hove. adjust. N. to lift. to command. to cast or throw. zijn. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. AS. or the hence advantage. G. to carry corn into the barn . hofwa. to turn one out . an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to vow. to gehouden. To Behave. to be be named. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. and (as Fr. behat. garder. AS. behoof. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. habere. us-hafjan. commonly expressed. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. habban.— . Sw. AS. keeping. healdan. use. heita. to lead. G. and their senses intermingle. hevja. heave. Sw. to R. laborare. —Hest. The Lat. the distance of anything. at the tail of. seeing to. bound. And so from hania. to hold. to hold. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. to bring forwards. ufhaban. to hit the mark. guardare. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. betragen. what is so required. hcef tig bort. ward. ifl fact. to carry. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. to vow. behold. to keen or hold. to take away.' Richardson. to be named.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to keep. the two verbs seem radically the same. holding is originally derived from that of looking. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. hovast. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . At the back of The re. to be obliged to one. hafwa. as in the case of E. behefe. the equivalent of E. invoke. Kiittn. gehat. tail. 17. vow. gehalten seyn. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. heeten willekem. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to halten. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. tion. ge' hatan. behaviour. or purpose. promise or a command. gehaben.to vow. or necessary. a follower. to be obliged to do a thing. G. when the verb will hoof. To place are most naturally ex. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. hcefwa in seed. advantage. behind. Paladino. AS. But. K. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. on. right. behces. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. observe. premi curi alicujus rei. It. AS. behatan. — Behest. nittaa.the figure of throwing at a mark. is on the top of or opposite to. furtherance. To look steadily upon. se porter) to fare well or ill. to call. hafwa bort. portarsi. and the E. hevja. taking notice or care of (Gloss. hatan.for throwing it. to carry. G. to lift. to be well pleased out. zu etwas gehalten haitan. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. injunccommand. to look. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to command. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to follow. to the equivalent of Du. from tragen. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. exhort. hces. to keep. obliged. hantyri. take yourself off. keeping. beperson addressed. gecall. to have. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. Plautus. to bers of the body. heeten. to tend. to regard. to call. To be expedient. Thus in Finnish the heave. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe.). to heave. Sw. G. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. OE. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to fit. The seyn. to be suitable or becoming . what he wishes another to do . to raise. to be fit. according as the * To Behove. by the compound observare. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to look upon it as true . to name.

to express approval. moderation. consent. beffroi. — mankind. permission. is an easy progress. to cry out bell. —F. are other modifications of the same imitative root. reputation. fitness. verloben. to be required for a certain purpose. or a sconce. are innate . to protect.D. To Belay. turris. from mhG. then. under the forms belfredum. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. Sw. portion. lov. pro3. galaubjan. allow. laubjan. to resound. permitting or giving leave. then. a vessel made for dishonour. . orloven. a. locus securitatis Schilter. OHG. or house. to hit hafi. bylja. ornament. for purposes of low estimation . to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman.. in nautical language. is used in the sense of approving. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. on. a tower. To Believe. Du.Lat. to befit. — . met. to lay be- around. and E. bialla. distance to which a piece will carry. laven. and bergan. to fix a price upon one's wares. to sound loudly . beffroit. gelyfan. border. resonare. Fr. to praise. giving leave or permission. to believe. Du. to put a high price or value on. Det er ofwer er hofwa. measure. Hence to simple approbation. AS. bolken. See Gain. properly belonging to the church tower. lyfan. ley/a. lofa. esteeming good and valid. to roar. berfroi. beau sire and bel dame. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. To Belch. to praise. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. honoured. true. satisfaction. to bolk. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . to give leave. appearing in Mid. boare. The principles which all mankind allcrw for ..D. with the consent of the heirs. bealcan. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. to bellow. cela est audessus de votre portde. to praise. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. or high estimation. mark ON. bercvrit. promising. overspread.Lat. beleggen. ungalaub kas. Pl. Another application of the same word is in Pl. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. aim. to a loud noise. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. The word be- Belfry. Then. . garnish. tain a certain end. to permit. Du. glauben. — Diicange. precious. laven. bervrit. bell. Q. Northamptonshire. reach.alyfan. to extol the worth of anything. to make it fast. galaubs. to promise.. promiser. to give leave. belief . to to make A Templorum campana boant. legsel. . 6o BELAY BELL loven. to der swaren lave. In the middle voice hofwas. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. a tower for defence . Fair sir and Fair lady. praising. were civil terms of address. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. Goth. frid. and. ON. bealcettanj OE. if a narration. loven. belja. bounds. behove. range. peal. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. Pl. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . Du. bulken. Bell. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. erlauben. to believe. on. AS. esteemed . battefredum. and Du. praise. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. bellow. leaf geleafa. P1. stand. G. hesfa. to belay. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. bellan. b'ola. to boke.D. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. bertefredum. we have Goth. To praise is essentially Xo prise. Fr. fringe. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. ON. to give leave Dan. bettifredo. to promise or engage. loben. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. leave . a watch tower. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to estimate them at a To believe. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. certain rate. to believe. an implement for making a loud noise. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. and E. From AS. if a promise. is (Sternberg). In Mid. filu-galaubs. loven. OFr. to lay the cable round the bits. It. a little shed. beset.D. to sanction an arrangement. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws.

a good deed. See Bind. Du. blister balgan-snamha. wallet Benefit. Benignant. belgr. or sometimes louban. to come to the crown belangen. an inflated Lat. Benedico. to bend a bow . bandoir. ' . applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. is The word balg. Ptg. Belt. from benedictio. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. a bellows . Fr. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. fens et hie liraus. To belong is thus to reach up to.' — Hie fimus. belch. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. . needs no ex. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Lat. bolg. bless. OUG. I soyle it or araye it. vulgarly the belly. rise against external force . benir. See I . The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. to ring. loubdn djawt. by itself. ^To Beray. from cwcsthan.' Palsgr. Bench. Bav. from Arab. Javanese perfume. bolg. are stripped off whole blase-balg. G. wallet. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. to reach. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. binsen. To Belong'. Quoth. taken absolutely. pod. Bret. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. — Ducange. Benefactor. from which is also bulbus.— Belly. I araye. to belong. to stretch it on a frame.' The term had been previously planation. on. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. belliJ Lat. To Benum. attinere. cod or husk of pulse. well.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. G. Lat. a kindness. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. the womb. balg. blast-bcelg. a accusative. See Bank. a speaking well of one. is a kindred form. balg. belly. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. — root consisting of concentric skins. bellows. was in Mid. In E. ON. . Eenison. Fr. ." — — . benehusk. Gael. has assumed a plural form. to attain belangen. to exert force. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. benefacere.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. Was das belanget. Lat. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. kind. Beneath. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. I say). Benzoin. to concern. bellows. bcelg. the word. bolch. benaigon. border. or a It is times the to signify services. . to do good to one . leather sack. Benediction. to touch one. balteus .Fr. to. pervenire. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Lat. belt. Lat. benedictio {bene^ and dico. to become one's property . bellows. bell. Dozy. . It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. one who does good. ON. fyle To dirty. skin.. a blessing. Kil. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. a round or bubble-shaped root. skin. belly. incense of Java. Gum benjamin. gwaldas. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. bilbila. gelangen. a leather bag. Benefice. Fr. est matris in lucem editus. — ray. ball. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. welt of a shoe gwald. pouch. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). Gael. pertinere. as concerning that. benedicere. to say. to hallow. bimaissen. . to make bilbil. a water-bubble builge. means seeds of plants. bienfait. attinere. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. a border. To Bequeath. to use words of good omen. becwathan. w. poX^ri. OFr. because bcelg. volva. G. benjoim. hence with ashes. .polch. The ing-skin. Lat. benejicium. bene/actum. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. Sw. J'emboue. See Nether. Benign. a blow. bags or bellows. to arrive at. welt of a shoe. pertinere. generous. hem. benjoin. ray. bendaj as. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. to hold to one. bilbil-goda. to concern. From OFr. benignus (opposed to malignus). a bellows. G. bander un arc. ' I beraye. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. se bander. bendan. from another modification of the word for bubble. to touch.pinuz. a spring.videtur. — See Numb. beneison. a benefit. attingere. as. binssen. dirt. disposed to oblige. the skin of those animals that factor. bimpsen. to attain to. pino3. or simply djawt. to bless. or fyle with myre. vulva. bag. I marre a thyng. langen. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Bent. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. rushes. To Bend.

Besom. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. It is the restore fyr betan. sets fire to. as. I from lew. besen. but in practice. To bete his Jam. dung . boutefeu. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. or. mud. Rob. Devon. to entreat. The origin is AS. p. BETE dirty'. reparation. sheltered from the wind. fearful. berry. fall with sound. sweepings. besein. place. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. R. Best. The dry. See Reave. het vuur The serise of Boeten. and on which the wager is laid. bet. roju. arwe. Sw. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. vi. Du. to mend.• 62 Antiq. To help. to fire a funeral pile of . supply. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage.— Hal. profit. besmas. to light the fire . is to perform a serviceable office to him. So Lat. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. To Gl. Tha het he micel fyr betan. * To Bete. stow. peto. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . bereafian. as bouter selle. basya. Kil. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. earh. to To Bereave. person to lie in. as. bouter. it seems hard to separate as. noise. Esthon. same word with the provincial barth. — . fyrbotare.iooA. as in growth. preferably. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. to defend. G. bat.X. in the sense ctf beria. the origin of which is to be found in ON. put forth. dial. Ihre. an incendiary. Goth. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. AS. boeten. reparation. better. Grose. to the place boarded off in a. besje^ Sanscr. bur-we. Sw. and also to entreat. betan. p. one who shelter. to word is shelter. bota. encouraging. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. a horse collar. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. might have been . the side bhakshya. scopse spartis.t. Du. AS. a fire. * Berth. to give a place to. boteith Goth. think more probable. stede. to seek. OE. but it is specially applied mister. what does it boot. — amendment.fish the other hand. See Better. dust rojahtaa. To seek something from a person.—^fake. burrow. position. G. as Du. besnij Pl. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. as. from grow. dirt . To Bestow. from It. or to bestead one. Beere. a place . brem-bessen. Du.irova. making better. to make it. to supply a want. beseech. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. berwham. boeten. what does it better a man. — bota. to thrust. besIn sen. Bestead. a berry. supporting on the one side Lat. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. to thrust. — Chaucer. ship for a make amend. ropahtaa. dirt. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. botesward. make better . to to deprive of. to stand one in good stead. solicit. lewth. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. earg. repair. R. to kindle the fire. bestow. Beit. boeten. to amend. hva mannan. E. BEREAVE Wall. Beet. Hfence backing. bacca. On the other hand. reafian. to strip. as. baete. amendment. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. betan. Du. 3. or the space kept clear betan. . seems twigs or rods. From abet. berwe. When men of mekeness him baet.ot-i. Fin.— VixHsm. roe. to exercise on a definite object. To Beseech. rubbish. bal oppbota. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Fr. basjaj Du. To Bet. Tusser. E. broom twigs. Zeitschr. advantage. compared with bargham. small eatable fruit. houseless. to make better. beorgan. stealth from steal. of ffeed a fire. buttafuoco. baete.D. and Du. to fall with roisto. to be-place. buttare. Fr. put. an incendiary. eld up- On is to be placed A — . improve. The proper meaning of the bale. to cast. from AS. AS. to on the other Goth. roju. rods. ariierf to 113. Berry. as conversely a besom is called broom. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. — Biglotton. So roto rattle down. ^•n. vol. bdt. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. advantage. barfham. So too Yorkshire arf. ^akka. . bdt. barth may be for barf.bhaksh. to put on the saddle. lay out. jnore. the guardian . because used for making besoms. protect . barthless.

a bevy. of pheasants. batista. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. e. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. trahir. BETEfiM translated. lot). taemen. E. Det sig sjelft. by two. as from obdir. On the same principle ON. taemen. Du. bibere. Ober D. evidence of life. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. -to appoint. from Fr. said he. kein leben mehrin no signs . make manifest.' Dialogue on Witches. betweoh. better. two. betray. by a final sh. to stir. In like manner folissais. has — In a like sense tanie>i. against. to deliver tip. Sahissais. better. or with again. Fl. Fris. afford. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. Cot. better. betwuh. To Beteem. from invadere. for measuring angles. to deceive. from Lat. I approve of beveau. tradere. suitable. vrohjan. Fr. A — drink. moveable and compass branches. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. Better.— . betweohs. Bav. beva. roja. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. larks. AS. proficere. — See To Bete. Fr. zimet. x. bet. riigen. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Thus from dbahir. whence beveraggio Fr. Hence last G. /alia. beuvrage. Now the stirring of an object. Golding's Ovid in R. betest. Between. *Ah. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. as trahissons. are commonly to one's lot. to Teem. a different form of twa. deign. wreia. G. obeish. his mouth. AS. bevere. order. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. To Betray. In like manner from twain is fothied between. trakir. Car son umbre si le trahit. to deliver up in breach of trust. as tlock. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. to Hence It. E. The inflections of Fr. Pl. Bevy. it bewrays itself. is treason. r'ojer dig. — Betwixt. gesiemen. e. regen. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. gatiman. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. From It. traitre. betriigen. wrogia. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. verbs in ir with a double ss. to discover. pair of compasses. OE. awry. find it good: Goth. G. progress. — of the authorities. bevde. what does It is forward him. In the water anon was seen His nose. &c. as envahir. trahison. Dii. betweox. To vouchsafe. treachery. Slant. to fall. bat. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. is used for the — R. to drink . Best. Chaucer. It. obdissais. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. Goth. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. e. in the same way Lat. Goth. Fr. more. an instrument opening like a a thing. tima. bouter davantaige. bedriegen. gezimet eines dinges. in the middle of twain.D.D. Dit tungomal rendered in E. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. — that schickiich. Ik tame mi dat nig. beverage. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. to happen. betera. betst. in the middle of two. traditor. best. betaemen. from. which may be compared as to form with amid. Mich self a good glass of wine. the being pushed to the frbnt. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. It. of quails. a drinking . polish. fallinn. tima. tradire. become. to happen. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. some attention. be fitting or suitable. his eyen sheen. betwuxt. dispose (whence schicksal. E. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. amiddes. G. Friar's Prol. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. i. as one would have it fall. sloped off. roebucks. . To boot in coursing (i. to cheat. batizo. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. twain. suitable. to make forwards. Lat. Fr. abash j from polir. bet. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. Pl. ziemen. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. thy speech bewrayeth thee. dir. deem suitable. 88. are there Regt R. find in one's heart. a brood. trahissais. not to have the heart to give up a thing. amidst. ON. to accuse. advance. ruogia. ON. and thence twegen. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. fitting. G. Buveau. springs from ON. R. The as. fate. i. From the former of these are AS. zemen. baet. R. To Bewray. spritigs from schicken. Sw. to fall Some call it a bevel. R. tweoh. a traitor. Percy Soc. Tinia eigi at lata eit.

edge of a plate of looking-glass. poison. Jamieson. its clothes. roggle. To Bezzle. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. kwijl-bab. The It. to sip. is explained to clatter. I Wallon. in two ways for duis. Fr. /3i/3Xof a book originally. pible. slippery. to tipple.to drink much. bickel-sieenken. discover. biascia. bes-azur. and zahr. Cat. to Jam. biberon. like guzzle. Biseau. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Mantuan. lips. kwijllap. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . pddzahr. to make tongue Du. See Wriggle. To Bibble. to purl. Bezel. sbias. babbi. to stir up . bisel. has a singular stone-picker. beregen. slanting . makes ble. whey count . expelling or preserving against. he is Wtb. rogge. biaiser. to slaver or drivel. wrangle. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. . Cat.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass.{ioin dua.two. to slaver . to creep or crawl sideling. in him. liwell. 78). Fr. or in and out. Lat. Ant. kwijlen. bickel. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. bibo. foul weather. biberer. to shake. To Bicker. Fr. one who drinks in excess. Hal. metaphor). Schiitze. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). to a fight with stones. a bezle. baverole. b&zahr. besanca. Oh when shall I bizzle. It. sloped.a. wrogen. biais. Bisect. Probably. E. to the stirring of their conscience. in Fr. the word became bddizahr. Pers. evident. aslope sbisciare. from pdd-. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. petit-lait. bias-wise. crooked. misFr. bebble. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. biberen. To skirmish. stock still. Bible. bestemps. . specially in a bottle. two- footed. beslei. the papyrus. An excellent Basil. a fragment bieco. to cut in two. . is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. sbrisciare. to stir. Fr. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. bavon. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. ice . inferiority. To bicker in NE. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. a stone-hewer . to well up with Cot. The train of thought is then.as in Biped. wraggeln. to stir. bis. it were the mouth. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. Prov. Diet. It is especially applied in Sc. to tipple. sbrisso. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. tailU en biseau. Pl. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. to it evident to sense. Sardin. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. In comp. Fr. Sard. though such a change of form would be very unusual. —Bickering'.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. it becomes (Jz-.D. convicts thee of being drink.s bellum for duellum. Bias. bible. aslope. Gr. An inferior blue. sbiesso. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. presence. sliding. to dispute. . 172. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. bescompte. bisdare. (according to the Fr. or kwijl-slab. rogt un bogt sik nig. Hal- — do something aslant. asure-bice (Early E.' bibble. sbiscio. Piedm. In Arab. a slabbering-bib. the basil Sc. OE.or from obliquus. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. per\'erted belief. snout. bring under ' Thy accuse. Yes. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. sik beregen. Bib.D. notice. sbieco. Piedm. Bice. or by any rapid motion. Fr. him. a Galilean. bickai. — crooked. bihais. Du. bickeler. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. to give signs of life. Sp. bending. Bezoar. shows the P1. love first begins to life signs of him. baviere. babbefore the eyes. —Dozy. — Bi-. as an eel or a snake. biascio. to be a paring. sbriscio. It. a bibber. Dan. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. bibaculus. biax. sbiescio. bark of which paper was first made. reveal. Lat. Bibelsworth in Nat. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. dial. Misc. . Fris. Ci^. To drink hard. bickelen. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). of the sliced off. twice. to stir. to glide or slip as upon. a sloping edge. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. To Bib. winding or crawling in and out. ber-laita (for bes-laita). sbrissare. Uprogen. whence Du. by throwing of stones. oblique. sbiasciai. dial. to move. which good bibbeler. sbiagio. used in precisely stone .' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. bezling or skueing.

a swelling. verbieten. twice. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. to bulge.uddered len heart. — prepare. bauen to cultivate. are also used in the sense of asking for. bidjan. to forbid . is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. to have one called before him. from bidan. bugt. Wallace in Jam. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to ask. as." buque with E. From Gr. bend. to cultivate. to arrange. swoln. Hence Sc. bieden. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bulk. BID of stone. Bigamy. inhabit Du. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. G. bolginn. The 'La. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. With respect to logical pedigree. to bicker. BIGOT beidan. — — — Halliwell. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to build. build. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. To bid the banns. bug. bigan. to belly. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. Analogous expressions are G. byggan. to marry. 2. To Bid ' Big . These admitted into the ranks of their followers. Two verbs are here confounded. beadle. belly. to pray one to dinner. anleta. R. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bit- bidja. swaggering. beidast. The ON. praebere. swelling. abidan. quiring something to be done. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. as G. bced. It must be observed that the word bidja. repair. spelling seems to used in the N. to start out. boa. To Big. P. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. a flexure. Big-swol- . Bickelen. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. to offer it to public notice. to build G. byggia. besides the professedmonks and nuns. England for swollen. bulge.t. . to bend. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. and the Sw. which is stiU. to E. offerre. OSw. form. G. bolgna). bead. and consequently ordering or reGoth. bag. Compare also Sp. ten. AS. bedun. rising up. OSw. bygga. bog. praestare. Einem einen guten tag bieten. einen vor Gericht bieten. pressing on one's notice. pray. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. to inflate E. bulky.' Addison. W. bo. related to big or bug. bolga. qucero. Bight or Bought.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bieten.. The original Swollen. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. to look for. to swell. to bend. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. or third order of penitence. bugne (answering to ON. or bad. bidel. to bid one good day. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bidan. bugan. The loss of the / gives Dan. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. bilge or bulge. to offer one the wish of a good day. faurbjudan. from seek. bat . — To Bid. cultivate. bidill. to inhabit. ' Bug as a Lord. Kil. bend of a shore or of a rope. proud. to dwell. to offer. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. biddan. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. balg. ON. AS. beodan. an entire skin. Palsgrave in Halliwell.' Pope in R. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. gebodenj G. a chip. iiQ. bi-. Du. . consisting both of men and women. athird class. biegen. forwards. G. bulge. to abide or wait on. a suitor. buga. ewes. explaining the Sc. porrigere. belly. ON. A bjudan in anabjudan. The . bath. in the sense of ask for. to move quickly. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. becoming in Lat. Big.Leta). has leta. inhabit. to ask. and Gael. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. ON. bidan. to forbid . called the tertiary order. Jam. the meaning of bid. bua. ON. to solicit. as tears from the eyes. and yajiBui. be bug. gebeden j G. A pose to one to come to dinner. bow. to look for. 1. by seek and beseech. from belgia. who.peto. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. of More ' in Richardson. The ON. AS. the belly of a ship. to curve. or. bouwen. Bigot. may plausibly be derived from Goth. to build. bis and in comp. to presimpler pare. to pro- command.

' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. and also unlearned common men. Bizocco.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. In the same way Fr. G. 1499. borel. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. and Q.a. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.' translated by Muratori.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. Bighini. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. 560. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. was formed bigello. the other form Per te Tribune. beghino. probably from biso. Hence the OE.' says one of of bigio. beghart. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. aliqui Begardi. clownish. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. bighellone. coarse woollen cloth. which must not be confounded with begardo. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. a dunce. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. S. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. 15 18. A. a blockhead. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. bighiotto. Francisci communiter appellabant. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. Bighiotti). Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name.D. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. In a similar manner from bigello. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. They wore a similar dress. D. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. rustical. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. ix.D. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. 1243. A. biso. From bigio. all apparently derived from Ital. &c.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. with reference to A. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. vol. author quoted in N. signifying bagmen or beggars.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due.' Chart. both men and women. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco.— Ducange. sed maxim^ in muliebri.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. as well as bizocco. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. says. grey. honesti plebeii amictus. vocati Fraticelli. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. xx.' Matthew Paris.D. Flor. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. homespun cloth. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . corruption would easily creep in. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. grey. dark-coloured cloth.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. Augustini dotarint. to adopt a similar course of life. and underwent much obloquy and persecution.. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. begutta. A. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. bigotta.' says an Venet. alii de paupere viti. Bizoccki. alii Apostolici. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. absque votorum religionis emissione. the nobles to Rienzi. bigio. face VIII. perch^ i Terziari di S. ac labores manuum detestantes. Beguttce.— BIGOT bigardo. and hence the variations bigutta. natural grey or sheep's russet. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool.

' mariners. bille. a of the sea. as a bill of indictment. So in Gr. Gascoigne in R. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Deutsch. tepati. bigotto. dziob. Fr. a name given to a. bolghe. a bigot or hypocrite. bwyell. Bill. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. In the same way are related Pol. blue . bill. abelthe fetter itself. dissimulation . Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. billard or billart. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Sw. an axe. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. from the dark colour. Billette. loi. and a billard. an ingot. A slang term for a sword. to strike. plog-bill. AS. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Sp. a short note. Langued. Dan. Kil. gleischner (Frisch). Mundart. Bojce. a hatchet. Billet. in the sense of a writing. bigardo. blamand. to be angry (i. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. bull-berries. 2. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. Aurelles. Bilberry. bla-berry. See Bulk. a shackle. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. bui. horn of an animal. a sword. Johansen. to strike. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. of boja. Lat. bulgja. Bohem. seems to be rather the unda. bill in parliament. The Du. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Bill. . the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. bisoch. See Bull. weapon . an ingot of gold or silver. from OSw. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . Lat. Fr. Sw. Thus we find in It. biilge. e. belgan. G. the beak of a bird. bizocco. ferrese quam ligneae. the bill of a bird. clog to a fetter. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. to job.. blaa. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. obsolete. procella Kil. on. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. an axe . 'tumidi fluctus. gan. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. BILBERRY nated. Du. topor. symbolum. — — ' . the swelling G. that of swell. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. bigot. NFris. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bill of exchange. from Mid. 2.— — — . at sea Billet. I. crowberry. beghart. the trunk of a tree. bil. To Bilk. 5 * . — bigardia. boeye. Kil. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). Ludwig. bile. buoy [i. OFr. billet is the diminutive of this. inscriptum. To defraud one of expected sinking. Billow. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. e. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. a negro. bila. the o changing to an i to express diminution. now A Bilboa blade. and in Lat. a floating log to mark the place of some. bigot. is properly a sealed instrument. billot. AS. fetters. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. Bigin. fluctus maris. boja. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. as craneberry. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Roquef. of E. b'olja. to swell with rage). that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. Bilge. axe. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Tartuffe. deceit. Fr. an axe. to peck.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. irons or set in a kind of stocks. however. Prov. A lorum tam in — Diez. In English the meaning has received a further development. buie. top.' bilio. in the same sense. a seal. Gael. p. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. names bill-berries. bulghe. a beak. Du. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. Piedmontese bigot. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. ^Billiard. The proper meaning bylgia. Dan. Du. a hypocrite. to pick a millstone. . bullet. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. used in legal proceedings. an axe. beil. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. dziobad. Bilbo. person of religion leading a loose life. The origin of the term is probably from bole. — Cot.' in Richardson. a seal. Bille. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Sw. might be taken to express a hypocrite. An instrument for hewing. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. buail. bulla. 3. an adze . w. billard also signified at billyards. a devotee. belghen. AS. genus vincu- Bilboes. boia. and dziobas. . billet. whortle-berries.

ON. See Belly. bircej Sw. a hind or female stag. Bine. ge- from AS. are commonplaces. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. Bisson. bunki. 'tumens sequor. to bring Biscuit. life. — Kil. a bump or knob. properly a young pigeon. brut.. beitan. binge. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. fowl. from Lat. Lat. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. evesgue. episcopus. Lith. from Gr. G. a bear. to bind together. bitacora. burt. a house. Lith. piiiti. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. Sanscr. bindan. bundle. G. We — A Birth. ON. bigne. which is expressed in E.' and the like. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. twice cooked. habitacle. The bitol. bunga. than vice versi. sc. while bind-wood. to fasten it together. overlooker. Lap. brid. pinnii. In like manner from knot. to plait. When compared with Fr.. qui nisi propius Blind. Lat. a heap. AS. AS. to wreathe. to twine. bindan. H. to bear. BITTACLE /Siof. to net. pullus. . expressed by Sw. isfiw. and of Fr. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. a bitch. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. pittjo. biscotto. bikkia. a weight of 48 pounds. or ben-wood. Fr. Then added division in a granary. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. admota non Bit. AS. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. betsel. — properly near-sighted. Bittacle or Binnacle. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. — Surrey in R. Thus I suppose the Gr. pippione. bjork. AS. nodus. bord. Fr. Fr. a little dog. EpisETTiTOOTToe. to bind at . A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. — — ./«idere. to cook). v. . a weight. See Breed. videt. band. to swell. from \t3\. evigue. viz. biscuit. truss. Fr. Du. poule. biccej ON. Bizened. beize. The proper meaning is a heap. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Bird. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. AS. to knot nets for fish. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. Sw. AS. and especially to a small poor horse. Sw. bhurja. beitsl. terial. an eagle's young G. bundle. to be derived from Ibfiaq. . Bailey. Lat. is in Scotland applied to ivy. a gallinaceous bird. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. a heap. the young of birds . bundun. pin-ti. beran. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. to bulge. Bitch.68 BIN Bio-. IV. Bind. a brood or hatch of young. The term ON. bund. copus. bita. Dan. Goth. biclie. doubtless a stone. G. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. to form a knotted structure. Habitacle. Gr. from pondus. vescovo. hiindiiin. an overseer. a habit- Binnacle. bundt. bij sien. by the verb knit or net. forth. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. — See Bittacle. a truss. It. a bitch. . bundt. berkas (z=:Fr. Bing. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. a pig petz. piccione. a bunch. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. Lat. . Sp. Goth. V. Fr. &c. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Bindweed. To Bite. To — — —D. lusciosus et myops. or baked. a knob. I would derive the verb to knit. to build. i. j). where the compass stands. Bisom. . hith. a female stag. a female dog hindinn. to hang. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space.. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. bund. a corn. the young of an animal. Bisen. or bin. See To Bear. in Swabia. poultry. bunt. also a stone weight. G. i. wine. or petze. is rendered in ON. a bitch applied also to other animals. E. propius videre bij sicndc. e. binda nat. bij sienigh. Birch. pinnu. beorth. bitill. bunch. evegue. Bin. pundas. It. bin-wood. beisseii. earnes brid. by binda.

a childe dothe gasouille. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. beitr. town guard to keep order at night bivouac.€i. light-coloured.' by Gudmund. blepLith. to loll it out. indistinctly. Je N.' by Haldorsen. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. AS. an additional watch. G. Sp. buft".D. ' Biovac. blobach. a stammerer. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. Black. faded. from wachen. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Applied in Hin ON. discoloured . blubber-lipped. The bitas. Cot. bihovac. Cotgr. on the one side. Gael. AS. "uivac. babbling.— Blabber-lip. a shelter for the steersman. ^chops. blebberis. white. Ai-mstrong. bitts of Bitts.' G. white lead. mouth. Goth. blac-hleor ides. Alex. Fr. Hist. bites. to watch. baitrs.' It would thus acle. a babbler. whitish. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. Sp. Se bleek. Mantuan babbi. — Hollyband. bittour. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. quoted by Ihre. Bivouac. the palebleff. chatter babbler . Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. ON. a flapping. Du. pale. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. obscurus. Mund. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. A a rail. Bohem. bitones. fallow fawn-coloured. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). The Gz. a beam in a house or ship. Gael. quick. biacca. out the tongue. pale yellow. bittore. is placed. shine. leohte . a large lip. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. iroxafealo. to talk much. mouth.. Why presumest And laam's asse. to babble. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. G. Again. stutterer. bird of the heron tribe. is apprehension of danger. Bav. In Legrand's Fr. 156. —Neumann. ON. viz. Nagt huis. blanc. blakki. as of wings . 't huisje. blank. Wit hung her mourn. round which the cable is made fast. on. whiteness (candor sine It. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. So Fr. thoughtlessly . a continued soft sound. a fluttering noise. to wax pale or bleaked. to chops. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. baboyer. Sp. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale.. Deutsch. pale. bleg. bitr. yellow . dark. bitter. Lydgate. Bleak. in contempt. small guard-house. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. a* mast . — cheeked maid. brunblakk. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. blabbern. Fieldfare. blesmer. butorj OE. . a large coarse lip . ^aj'/^r. blob.plab is used to . The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. cut. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. an edge is sharpest sword. Sw. to speak Dan. confusedly. to the sharpness of a weapon. /ealo-/or. pale yellow . and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. black. blabhdach. Bittern. gulblakk. from whence we have adopted the. garrulous. as is seen in sputter and splutter. To Blab the anchor. maculS. pins of the capstern. 332. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. ' plabraich.). as in that of pale and white on the other. x. Mag. — Collins in Hal.. bleikr. beuni. corrupted in Fr. Hald. ON. Pl. Hal. 't kompas huis. plappem. Fr. Fr. mona mid Dan. unintelligible talk plabair. things —Palsgr. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. or water beating gently on the beach . pale. bleich. babbe. white. to babble. Percy Soc. Fr. to To blabber blabber with the lips. blake. apparently from its biting the tongue. term. In like manner E. dusky. whitish. To or he can speake. pale brown . . Blabber-lip. gabble. blakk. NE. to let out whai should have been concealed. It. blabaran. faded. ON. biti. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. blob. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. shining. blabbre. yellowish. to bivouac. bitor. Sp. first. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . even humour seemed and beuin. beiwache. I blaber. blab. plabartaich. a tati. In a similar manner Gael. synonymous with baber-lip. his blacan light. night guard. as of water gently beating the shore. fallow . 'fuscus. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. v. . blob. as of a body falling into water. blunt we say it will not bite.

chatter. dripping-pans. with all other loose idle masterless men. livido . G. to Hence Ital. and the agitation of liquids. a blanket a bed. a buible. Reliqu. and E. — — — to jabber. Du.—Blatant. defame. plate. on. pass over. blena. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. most complete example of leafy structure. I am degraded from a cook. —^Webster. pladdern. Torriano. Blanket. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. Bav. a leaf. cited in N.—Blatter. to shine. blaeren. Perhaps from blegen. Eadmer. whitish. Fr. irXariQ. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. bladder. piatto. shining. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. in R. pallido. blaere. to To bellow. Besides the examples of this connection given above. blanchet. also white woollen cloth . bladeren. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. a boil. to bubble. Dan. polished. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. blinken. waschen. variable than the signification of words designating colour. his meat burnt. to bleak in the sun. a blank ticket. 5/^a/^ of colour. Sir. Hist. D. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. See Blubber. 7. and Q. blasphemare. blatter. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Blancli. from candere. 1854. plat. blein. dial. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. blad. skola and thwatta. blank. — Sw. to shine. G. Sw. plat. The old Dutch form of the word is blader.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. to glow. revile. Bacon in R. pluddre. rogues and wanderers. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. blister. Cot. the ON. board. Du. blanchir. leaf. Sc. the origin of . blanc. — . PI.— ^o thehotsun. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. or a mass of bubbles. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. mud. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. and he shall be sure to have O. vagrants. branches . white. smother. tree. and others engaged in dirty work. the leaf of a tree. bladre. blister. biastner. to —Blaspheme. sheet of paper. to glitter. blanchet. or of an oar G. blame. It. blister. a pustule .. imbrunire. to make or become white blanc. Wott. The present forms then should be classed with blether. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. flap of a Du. and wandering men and women. as scullions. Fr. to omit. reproach. as. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. Play in Nares. to disappoint. blanqne. &c. Blain. tattle. coat. bladra. candidus. contracted from bladeren. is identical with Flanders borlen. to vocifer- — Cot. on. or as E. pXaatpiiiiHv. Blank "verse. commonly called the Black-guard. Fr. smore. madder. white. boys. and G. which we . The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. leaves. blather. Now. Fr. as Lat. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. or blafich. blather. blister. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. as blader. e. a white or unwritten ticket. bladder. Blame. The radical bubble. bladder . BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. To blank. Jan. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. biasimare. Du. blether. pimple. G. blahen. a. a bladder or pustule. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Du. Blank. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. linkboys. . as. name originally given Blackguard. also jabber. foolish talk. borrelen. Gr. Dan. Dan. . moere. Sw. gabble. mire. leaf of a. Lat. blactra. and thence to babble. —We Bladder. blegne.— Kil. broad. mus-blackt. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn.. blatter. blegen. — rura. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. to purl. blatt. to dabble in water. p. bladder. bladdra. vagabonds. slush. To Blare. chatter. blad. But perhaps a more Gr. to blanch. 86. leafy. roar. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. speak impiously. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. to blow. Blade. black. . the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. a bubble. a bubble. probably ate. also tanned by the sun. mud. whitish. Du. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables.

Sw. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. blase. With inversion of the liquid. . his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. also praeblczse. a funeral oration . oured. braise. to bellow. a shout. Blast. blase. blaze. blose. Du. bliEsan. blatero. blasa. a shield. But now. blesse. blazen. a flame . fire. blass. Gael. is used in the sense of manifestatio. . and which. a lamp blasere. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. Fr. and. blaeteren. to blow . how. a loud noise. 'op een trompet blaazen. pale. declaratio.whence the Fr. Du. Du. splendour. it is manifest. To Blaze.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. the noisy. To blow AS. Dan. blason. stultd loqui. Fr. to publish the praises. Sw. to extol. a torch. ventosus. A gust of wind. bawling. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. baladron. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. Kil. blis. — ' — stroy. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. and to make him word blaze. like the in English. an empty and two theories are proposed. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch.sound a trumpet. baladrar. loud . on whose behalf the herald appeared. a coat of arms. biter. G. i. a voice Jr. quus. to blow. a blast. blus.). to cut off prematurely. Golden Book in R. She roade at peace through his heraldry. Gudmund. to proclaim. senses. has also blencke. kept up. bldsse. Dan. a flame.' painted or figured . — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. Du. abroad.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. . ill-speaMng their proper colours . a MS. As Kilian. also only pains and excellent endurance. AS. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. Lye. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. To blast. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blcEsan. in that of praise. used. blasoen. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blezo. blasonner. blcEsan. ON. The AS. to publish. of an animal. ON. in the same way as we 2. noisy blor. ther it was erst not knowe. Du. blcest. ing of arms. A strong flame. Du. I. indeed. AS. to blaze Sp. The other derivation.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. g. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. also blazon or the blazSpenser. an conium. to de. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. blorach. — ^Jam. besides blesse. visui patet. friend Cornelius. The origin of this exSp. See Blare. blcese. Sc. proclaim the virtues of. Troilus and Cressida. blast. blateroon. might And sain.' to fastum . blesse. If armour. beast. blaterare. among other . brasa. blaodh. — — ' : bless. blys. Blanches illuminies. — Elazen. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . OE. light-coli. to set on fire. a torch .— . blason. blaser vid. is from AS. to blow. thraso. A blaze is so intimately Then. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. each of boaster. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. Blatant. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blcesett. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. to spread news. much plausibility. by stripping off a portion of the bark. a flame. e. blaesen. gloriosus. boasting. or blazening. somewhat different train of thought. magnilo. brasa. Prov. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. Blaze. blossi. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. live coal . embraser. coloured prints. or to the sound which it produces. Cot. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. redness . shield or surcoat. to trumpet forth. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. the matter incendiary . blysa. abroad. is the imme. might spring from the same origin by a . Cot. a shining spot. commendation blason funebre. as a verb. clamorous. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. magniloquus. laudes (Kil. Fr. bles. proflare tues. First from the E. G. oron-blasare. bleis. blaodhrach. whence Blazonry. 2. a whisperer.

So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. To Bleat. blcecan. blesmissure. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. blot. to bleat as sheep. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. Manuel de Pecch&. to become livid. Fr. in the expression reputation. a spot. Gower in R. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. c. to wink at it. p. spla7nU sie. to bleach. See Black. the livid colour of a bruise. to cast a mist before the eyes. a spot. ' — — eye. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. from on. a disgrace. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. whitish. And now are these but mansbond (i. See Black. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. or blemysshen — blaken.D. So in Sw. AS. to disgrace one's name. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. Pol. to humbug. G. 242. And By a similar metaphor Pol. Gr. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. light-coloured. wan. Blear. to wink the eye. splamii!. B. livid. Blemisli. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. Sw. 419. confound him. dead-coloured Cotgr. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. paleness. pimple . blister. Bailey. blot. tutnan is a cloud. to blare been weeping. Ancren Riwle. wheal. bleikr. a red watery eye. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . darkness of vices. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. A stain in a man's reputation. as of dust or mist .v. N. guenchir. blur before their eyes. a stain. a spot. novice.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. blink. pier vor den augen eyes. blarren. inflamed eyes. tacher. to stain one's honour or reputation. flack. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. . pale Du. The term blear. livor. boggle at something. . In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. From the OFr.' the devil makes a vain back. is Blench. ' — — ' : — — . which are blurred with the have shewed you. Bleed. like one that has long P1. blema. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. To salir. avoid looking it in the face. color plumbeus bldma. or blemish. and thence to a bruise. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. Sir J. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. BLENCH obfusco. a blemish in one's 2. (faith or creaunce) Be war. a fault. Bleb. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. a blot or smear blanking one.filerren. Palsgr. what blenched him therwith. on. pale . See Blood. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows.P. to make him feel blank. goda nainn. Bleak.'he cried till the tears ran down. blench came to be used for a trick. — blink the question is to shrink from it. spSt. blemissemeiit. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. to blear one's eye. to soil. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. To totally different from the foregoing. bldmi. a been distinct. souiller. a blotch plerr. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. or to low as oxen. Mac. . a spot. tumanid. Blear-eyed j having sore i. A Blab.' to deceive one. ^Xiixaoftai. Schmel. from the than schal I go. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. drop of water. bleakness. Richardson. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. sugillatio. geplerr. exposed. bloken. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. a boil. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. to cry or weep. . ' He blarrede or roar. . blesmir. As AS. to spot. to start away from. to spot . ^Blencher. Bejaune. — — R. while the agent ac- From . ' . blakna. start vor den augen. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. the formal equivalent of English wink.' God in his wordes. plama. 115. Blancher. wanness. I chaunge colour. sinen langen tranen.

or nettle which does form.corn. to rejoice. blidu. giving (Fr. blotzen.Q. Kiittner. a nounce happy. blessed. glitter. with or without the nasal. readily passes into a /. in potters' language. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to glance. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. bliss look . Du. AS. blund. blend. glitter. well blagaya. bluiter. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. livid. lightning sweet blago. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . blicken. to consecrate . . Pol. to make happy. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. blindr. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. as taschen. also to wink. pearance of the blighted . a glance Swiss blenden. to shine. to bless. wink of sleep . joy. as a blind entry. to twinkle. 375. To Bless. to blithsian. to shine. good.' To — blunge clay. . happy . Deprived of sight. to dilute too much . From the action of the hand making Sw. A . to be blind. j). Tany. to bluiter.nasal. thou knave. to — make it thick and muddy. sung. as in the case of blaze. the G. III. blac. to shut the eyes G.blinze. to merry. blide. a wink With the bletsian. blahoslaviti to twinkle. G. riches . to fall into water with a sudden noise. blicksem. blende. blitzen. window-blind. mix from blekken. a wink. burn up. to mix. as a vatn i vin. graceful. G. a dead nettle. blindselen. . Du. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to flash. blogi. . moment. Thence apblinds. blind. AS. to dash wine with water. to stir or puddle. make these hands 3. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. — A A — . well blahy blick and blink.eyed. ^Jam. To blunder water. blink-eyed. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. csecubrandish. G.blinkard . Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. Needle. a. Paradises blidnissu. —Brera. blanssen. blahos. glad. blinzeln. blican. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blissian. Blazena Bea. Swiss (obsolete). (=bene dicere). glitter. Du. although in the in the next article. Swab. dazzle . Dan. riches blajennii blicksem. to dazzle . ' Pl. to pro. Sc. blitz. to rejoice. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. blag. — Goth. a gleam. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. be glad flash. joyful. false windows. To Blend. joy . bludder. joy.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. is I shall Gurt. vious one in the order of formation. sweet. bleg. a blessing. a blick-ooghen. goods. blind- ON. flash of light . as in Du. shine. blet. Serv. fortunately. blago. blithe. blick. happy . glance. OHG.. lighten. blincken. . Blind. . blent. Sw. to lighten. sertion of the nasal. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. mixing in general. — when he — Bailey. . a look.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blithe blis. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. Blink. . The term then self or others. to shut the eyes. F. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. to act like a — . to shine. blinzler. blicken. OHG. . but by no means therefore a pre. money. G. blatida. Biglotton. wink. Owl and Nightingale. the Slavonic languages. . .not sting thiiren. AS. AS.D. — . lightning. I hold thee a grote thee. an entry which leads to nothing . plotzen. to glitter . a. to churn. The inblissful. blinzdugig. seems the simple netel. to bluiter up with water. to plunge. Sc. to glitter ful . to glitter. Du. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited.blunda. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. blich-fiur. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window.blinken. Russ. a glance. blendian. Du. to make a rumbling noise. weaklaveny. . to bless . blazeny. pale. glimpse. liquid filth to bluther. blessed. tire. blaziti. doors. gives blinzen. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. the verb to bless is some. to dabble in water. The sound of k before an s. happily. cascultare. blinde fenster. plonsen. gladness.wink . A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. Nares. Bliss. ON. De Sonne ' verblekken. pockets. lovely Bohem. and joys of Paradise bliden. trix. tless —Gamm. Blight. blink. Wtb. lightning. happy . a flash. HalliwelL Of this latter the E.

Ibid. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. must be classed with forms like Gr. also to set See Bless. to to puff and be noisy. and inarticulately. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. to blow. to bubble. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. a blister . fiustula. mild. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. biota. in bulk. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. a dirty blister. —Bailey. N. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. round. Mod. separate portion. a . as in E. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. Jonson. in the lump or mass of wood. soaked. blide. a lumpish head plubach. Gael. to desire the male. expressed by cognate roots. G. gentle OHG. Fr. The roots /. having an unsound swollen look. Thus we have blab and babble. blot. a little blisg. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. ^vaaa. blidr. blab. bausen. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Du. soft. to close it with a solid mass. blesme. must be referred to AS. pusula. a ram. it is must be observed. viscid. ^Jam. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. Boyd in Jam. bloated. sloppy dirt. whence blast. I believe. ON. mass. soft. a blister. . pimple. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. like manner the coloured. bluster. senting the dashing of water. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. as if soaked in water. Sw. Bav. while Lat. B. signifying in the first instance to soak. blijde. a small lump of anything thick. to breathe hard. blot. Blob. blinzel-maus. formed spot. bloc. Kil. joyful. in the sense of a soft tint.. a blain. . Lat. swell. Sw. Dan. B. to block up the way. And so from squatter. To Bloat. Blond. stone. blod. — . to dash liquid. blaud. blote. from blcsr. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. soak in water cured fish. — — — — — From blabber. bubble and blubber. is formed squad. To Blissom. a bubble. is also used in the sense of swelling . merciful ON. or the like. pustula. A under this name was imported into England. blindsehn. Hence E. Blister. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. Langued. blcesma. A solid blouquette blisters. blister blasan. blobbes or droppes of water. In Fin. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. to swell. bleiths. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. a blot or spot. inde humiditate tumidus. Gael. blister. G. weak. Dan. taken altogether. . as blinzeln. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. Block. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. and pisg. To a smoking or drying by the fire. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. to blow. frequentative. light yellow. husks. Svt. kostua. or the mark which it makes. a See Blot. soft.— Bailey. It may be formed Blithe. buckle. plub. blautr. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. Of sheep. Goth. Sc. bloc. like clot. or is inserted or omitted. fish blind person. and F. repre- pusula. buclde. a bubble. shells. to cure by smoke. or bleb. speaking rapidly any . Bleb.—Bloater. Blob. ON. See Blot. Fr. to steep. For this. to soak. orbicular. Du. blond. boucler. cooking. strawclod. to blow.— Hal. or blinde-kiih. blindman's-buff. in Nares.plisg. busten. the unhewn bole of a tree. blubber. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. mild. — Sw. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blithe. and easily changes its place. a drop of water. . blouca and Fr. bluyster. Cotgr. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. and bouclette. blad. Hence. a bubble. puff. an unformed mass. kostia. pods. blot. Egillson. The stem or trunk of a tree. any lump or mass of things. blobber.pusta. a block or log en bloc. as a blab of ink. in gusts. The blow E. to blissom. — Blob. blotfisk. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. W. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. blaustem. lagga i blot. pausten.—Bloated.

proto shine with bright colours . j^ blottir. to squat or lie close. spots in the sun. plet. gloss. E. blond is used in blatt. blue . a deli. Du. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . (of cattle) to dung. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. probably connected with Pol. platz-voll. to splash. to exists in biadetto. ON. spot pletter i solen. blose. redness. whence plader. Wendish blodo. Stalder. blase. a lump. kuh-plader. fall to overflowing. bletister. to slap.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. to slap. . blou. blotting-paper. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). a cow-dung. the bright colour of the cheeks . kobladde. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. blistaf. couleur livide. Sw. light. ON. to glow. It should be of filth blak-blatte. blut. biado (of which the evidence plattern. — gush. 2. ' — . AS. bliise. white blatte. ])erly Du. to strike with such these objects exhibit. Sc. D. blond. livid marks. Dan. dial. blaeuw. — — . cow-dung. Blot. bloi. Du. pale biavo. to strike with something soft or flat. to be red. Prov. Fr. Dan. blad. blowen. Hatch. glossi. to spot or blot. bloutre. a gush of milk . . dirty spot on the cheek. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. Russ. the bright to blot paper morsels. blooth.— . Erploten. Pl. Blood. bloed. to dash down Du. E. bloto. a pelting shower). platt-voll. blue. en blau ach. blomstr. It. . sbiadare. plants which prepares the seed. Lat. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. Sw. glasi. yellow. to grow pale). blue. leme. to blaze . splashing full. a The form platschefz. Sc. platz-regen. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. to blaze. bloedsd. bldts. blus. Jios. Schilter. parallel form with ON. a drop of water or colour. from G. glister . clod. bloi. See Blow. blond en blaauw slaan. G. from the bright colour which 7'vci. blostma. platschern. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. ON. to dash down. to squander. G. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Schmid.blauschlagen. to be red with blot. Bloom. a flower. blois. to dirty. bluish. blady. . Schwenck. a nature. —Barbour. splendour . blondheid. bfys. straw. yellowish It's G. S-wiss pladern. E. to blush . bloeme. bleustern. — Stalder .^ Kil. gammon. plattata. See Blow. bloemen. The G. blat. a.properly to scatter liquid . shine . E. a flower. to dabble in water. pladern. great leaf of cabbage. plottra. pale tint. Wflz<^«. blosa. blawels. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. gleam. a black eye Du. a Usaae. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. skam. to shine . BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. a beater. a blaze. colour of the cheeks. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. on. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. a water ploutsche. Du. blauwel. lidmr. gfyssa. mud. plotterwis. . Blow. . blust.platter. a torch blusse. . to blot the land was in a leme. bloetnsel. pale. Fris. Blad. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. PI. lump of anything soft to blad. in v. Du. as the skin or hair. blue. pladdern. to glisten . platsch-voll. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. to From . blaeuwen. blysa. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. to strike . — Blotch-paper. E. AS. coloured (Diaz. Ein platsch milch. — Cot. ^lys. to dabble in water . Plots. blodelsa and blawelsa. glose. Sw. Harmar in R. fair in en blat vand. blatte. blotter. to patter. Fris. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. livid . blue.D. bit by bit. or the sound of it . plot of land is a spot or small rage. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. dial. bliihen. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. E. bleistern. OFr. blotte. Ir.' the rain is driving and blue . bliithe. to sparkle. flower. to flame. Florio). lustre. a spot or blot. a Schmid. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Dan. a blot or spot. a flower. a blow. soft or flat. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. . ^Bleed. glus. to scribble. bldmi. Blossom. blosem. brilliancy. blosma. Blotcli. lump flower. blaeuwe ooghe. blosen. bloi. wan. fall down . a Halm a. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. of a blow with something lios.

or gr. blawan. bliithe. plubair. blazi. to glow. blau. and the forms mentioned under Swab.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. Langued. gloeden. . bliuwan. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. toused. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. Her sweet bloderit face. gliihen. to beat. to bubble up. — . especially with respect to the hair. green. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. pludern. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blue . E. We . a gurgling . OFr. a fat. ler. to'disorder. blubbern.D. br. blduen. blodyn. P1. To Blow. to blow. plodern. to make blue. Jla-re. a blow. fqded. The aUied forms. Chaucer. vi^ound. gUd. -ii. Tumbled. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. Bret.to blossom. |8A)'. a blast. Pl. bluod. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. . 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. grug. — — Mundart. blazir. bloeden. OHG. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. plubartaich. into flower. gloeyen. a continued noise of agitated water. 1. Kil. glas. bloemen. — To Blubber. 51. gliihen. grow pale. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. Prov. plusig.— . AS. 1292. plubraich. to breathe G. fem. Blowze.. flower OHG. to spot. Pludern. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . Notwithstanding the We .' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. corre. to bruise Roquef. to blow.nify bubble. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. Raynouard. wan. and thence. The radical sense is shown in Gael. G. bloes. Gael. —SchmelIt. Blowzy. ' BLUE or guggling. to inflate. to exhibit bright colours. sound like water. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. blezir. . a herb Gr.Jlasa. piusen. Danneil. Sik upplustem. blao. a paddling in wate r. marking some application from that bladder. It. disordered. and closely allied with Du. The interchange of an initial gl. . glaodh and blaodh. dirty. where the word may be compared bliggman. to fade. In agitation of water.D. to fade. cheeks bedabbled with tears. ^Jam. bruk. closely difference in of blabber. blodelsa. Du. Lat. v. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. foam. withered. — Bluther. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. And. blass. to breathe bouteiUis. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. Wtb.xo'»'. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. glas. blois. bloom. tache. Du. . to blow. jabber. blahen. to hard. sense. 2. E. bldt. bloi. to flap like loose clothes. Deutsch. to guggle. in E. glede. These are — Bludder. to puff up. blubbern. a flower. to with Bohem. Chaucer. bledniai. /idXavoc. glow. G. to glow. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. in rapid or indistinct utterance. Pl. disordered in head-dress. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. meurtrissure Roquefort.D. grey. to fade. blaw j biavo. a bruise. puff. blut. bloeyen. is very frequent. blubonciti. chatter. Mund. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. 92. wan. Gr. To Blow. to Plodern. is confined to the — . glowing coal . y\r)yi»v. to show flower. . to gush. to shine with bright From colours. pale OFr. blebber. MHG. bliihen. plustrig. a Blossom. pale. blady. pale . one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. G. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. blodern. blava.' — Palsgr. — To blubber. florere. may cite for example G. bruised Prov. bluh. blue. blow. the red fluid of the body . a. blust. to beat with a mallet. little apparent resemblance. d in Sc. to gabble. w. OHG. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. It is howbliuwen. bluther. boil. pale. A. like manner Lat. G. sponds with Sw. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. Bav.' Hamburgh Archives. heath. red-faced bloted wench. fiubbem. to blurt out. glansj Ir. blau. blosen. to make bubbles in drinking. flower w. Blue. bliihen. coup. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. The primary sense is to shine. bl. to flourish. bludder. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. B. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). Deutsch. boasting. — .D. fied vowel.

or an abrupt manner. — Pr. G. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. G. to fade). to become pale. bulmanner. Lat. from the Lat. fallow. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. corn. which is rendered by Florio. Du. G. pale. falb. planus. pale straw-coloured. 't — —Hal. to blunge clay. find accordingly It.. blake (identical with AS. to become pale or wan. to dabble in the mud. discoloured {plowiee. Bodge. The Du. sbiavare.make a noise. bullern. a shore abruptly rising. as well as sbiadafe. And blunders on and staggers every pace. blunt. to fall suddenly on the ground. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. poltern. Roquefort. Pm. blandum. Kil. We Blunder. has donder-bus. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. polter-hans. like Du. — — — . his business with much noise. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. earth and water mixed together. Romance bluiter. to lose colour. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. A bluff manner. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . flav-us. corn. blahir. segetes virentes. liebefactor. herbe. It is remarkable however that the E. Bluff. blunder. tutte le semente ancora in erba. See Blunt. polterer. buller-bak. blunder.in mud or water. from the brilliant green of the young E. verdure. and Du. ploffen. sloppy drink. Kil. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. puddle. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. dial. to confound. bawling. glundr. Blunderer or blunt worker. je perturbe. Roquefort.— . devenir vert blavoie. to puddle. confusion. yellowish red. is. in water dobbelen.//aay. blond. See Blurt. blaf. OFr. plomp. blue. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. bluish. bUich. pludder. Du. in the same way as from It'. blave is moreover. Blaffart.' trouble. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. and biavo (Diez). Dief. Then with the nasal. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. and then generally idle talk. Pl. bleu et blanc. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. The word is here synonymous with amplus. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. abrupt. an ill-done job. and sbiadare. from an imitation of the sound. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. . E. to work To blunder out a fronto. Dan. a plain coin herausplatzeu. G. blanssen. yellow. pale yellow. Altieri. Blunt. Hal. biada. speech. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. in plur. and metaphorically. . something. I blonder. - reddish yellow. From G. Ditton in R. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. to become pale or livid. rustic. blunderhead. superficie plani. a boisterous violent man. Dryden in R. flodderen (Weiland). to stir or pudcorn in the spring. biava.D. to plump into the water. originally growing up turf and water. as well as biado. sense of yeUow. a blunderbuss. a flounder. Biada. mistake. blue. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. verdoyer. blavus. Halma. all representing the — . plo-wy. Kiittner. bloi. contrasted with the dle. Supp. Sw. Hence a Slcelton in R. tradire to Fr. applied to green as well as blue. It then signifies something done at once. blue. jaune. fawn-coloured. Palsgr. Flor. glundra. without image or superscription. mix It. Blavoyer. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. to mix it up with water. biavo. non rotunda. To blunder is then. disturb. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Pol. Analogous forms are Du. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Bladum. to blunder water. blutter. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. — . and bustle . blac. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. Bohem. having a bluff forehead. trahir. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise.• BLUFF biado. to agitation of liquids. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. pale) is provincially used in the. like the Celtic glas. buller-bas. The Du. a fore. to dabble Biglotton E. used for the work of an unskilful performer. Hence we pass to Prov.

pressions. to plump into the water. blout. and hath swiche languor in his soul. dial. blutten. nis. bleak.—D. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. sheepish. Ford in R. —D. Sw. plotz. blait. V. down. Sc. unwrought. pointless. bare. of a knife which not cut. blunt. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. massive. fooUsh. and an unintelligent. bus. a thick and will person. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. to bring it suddenly out. that it not easy to discover the connection. nature. to blunt a thing out. viz. through which a man is so blont. insensible. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. to blurt. Probably radically hlekit. like a thing thrown down with a noise. is The word dull. plump. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . Kiittner. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. rudely. a blot. Woddis. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. wan. to plump down. blue. a simpleton. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. naked.to fall into the water. and. inactive Swiss bluntschi. blunder. edgeless. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. bloss.— — — . as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. Sc. exactly corresponding to the G. maol. without horns. plutz T)\i. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. — blunt. Halma. dull. to handle a thing bluntly. Chaucer. obtusus. V. —D. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. platzen. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. without Maolaich. blunsch.plompen. inaKil. Then cometh indevotion. or blab out a thing Kiittner . A light blue colour. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Dan. blott. unpolished. Dan. naked. homo stolidus. Pol. F. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. . ang. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. rude. to make foliage. as cow-dung. fling down . Won by degrees. used in both senses. and the like. blatte. to make a noise of such a Stalder. — — pidus. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. plump. It will be seen that the G. blunt. forestis. united in Gael. plump. biotto. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. The blait body. biosso. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. It is from this notion of suddenness. is thrown. V. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. plains The large bech. pale. Blaitie-bum. azure. it will be well to point out a sense. seems to be derived. clownish. Plontp. obtusus. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Blunt. absence of preparation. as in E. a portion To inquire for slaves. the absence of sharpness. that the sense of bare. Molof something wet. blait. hebes. The syllables blot. without preparation. Q.pludse. mit etwas heraus-platzen. plotsen. identical with E. blotta sanningen. or heraus plumpen. It. Swab. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. — Kil. without the nasal. unceremonious manner. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. figuratively. with or without the nasal. viz. . and in the same sense. Bare and blunt. naked. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. Du. More in Richardson. heavy. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. silly. plump. thick. stupid fellow. good plump person. duU. dull. plumbeus. awkwardly. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . as Sw. in Richardson. Kiittner. rough. bluntschen. a bluntie. Bluntet. plonsen. blockish. naked. void. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. clumsy. G. Plump. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. A modification of the same root. Stalder. bare. blat. bare or blunt. ineffectual reason. poor Sc. plump J to plump out with it. heavy. Plump mit etwas umgehen. heavy. blunt. awkward. unfledged Sw. Sir T. blunt. raw. bald. it will be observed. Now the Swiss bluntsch. from the loud report a fire-arm. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. platz-regen. G.

short pieces of any filthy mud. Lat. bliise. See Boisterous. . Du. ader. and the latch . To brag and to crack. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. To move quickly up and down. Du. beacon fire. BLUR Boar. Du. It. Boa. large. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Related to blutter. AS. boord. is formed Du. a mistiness. to blore. a torch blusse. bluter. The elision of the d is very to chatter. to be out of temper. blotch and botch. blurra. as in Du. blader. whence bordvidr. E. Halma. To blow in puffs. to crying. mire. to dirty.the syllable bot. to bark. and swimmeth very well. lacerta. bobbin. Supp. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. violent G. to chatter.' — Red Riding-hood. To tinct. to blur. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. bludder. fringe. G. a tassel. common. a tassel. of the word seems . edge. P. my dear. aper.D. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. AS. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. to puff. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. to make a noise in boiling. violent. to dangle. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. BOB 79 — To Blur. bhis. puddle. rude. Sc. boccheggiare. pludern. an end or stump. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. a smear. Bav. coarse. dull. blunt. and Du. a grows to a great bigness. to guggle. Gael. bleuster. Boa. bausen. a dangling object. to disfigure with E. &c. — — — * Boast. 156. blarra. G. Comp. then applied to indistinct vision . 29. 9396. to blush. berd. Sc. bord. lindwurm. a club foot . will fly up. blusse i ansigtet. splurt and spirt. to blurt out. as splurt to splutter. baban. OE. to breke. on. voce intonare. Fr. blasen and See Burr. Swiss blodern. to blow. w.plodem. bur. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. to puff. this root are formed Sc. gabble Sw. Du. strong. blaste?i. blot. to say bluntly. plump. Wallace. Fl. bladdra. a blotch. bot-voet. an ear of corn. swagger. bar. a blot. Wtb. to spurt out. properly noisy. a small lump. 1.—Bobbin. to smear.plerr. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. Hal. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. or backwards and forwards. and when applied to vaunting language. blose. to make mouths. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. — To Bob. brett. the sound of a blow poffen. borrar. Blush. 'Ba. Du. to endeavour to terrify. bluther. margin. Bot zeggen. .y. edge. 274. a baU of thread the mud. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. ON. little knob hanging by a piece of thread.v. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. pfludern. Wright's ed. a short thick body. to blubber. V. — — . . dial. batello. table.pusten. bora. whence bob. blast. or blurt with one's mouth. As the as. imitated by has also In like . Hal. It. bobine. Du. it implies that it is empty sound. blaffen and baffen. Explained by Jam. dial. Sverris Saga. acre. a bladder . Fr. blur. chicchere. bdd. — a blaze. boa. a mist before the eyes plerren. Dan. table. and E. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. Bluster. Pl. and boisterous. an edge. i. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. to jabber. to dabble. crack made by bursting open. cluster. sudden. — From mouth. The to radical meaning D. a Jam. hot. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. skin. eafor. both used in the sense of boasting. . outward edge. a blow . planks or boards. to puff. ever-swin. border. It. bdta. ground. a flurt with one's fingers. baiag. Slur. a board or plank. pluddre. See Blossom. margin. blot. Kil. — ' Dief. cheeks glow. to glow . beer. primarily signify loud noise. a. boot. blosken. or bog also thread. bakke bleustern. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. board. cocodrUlus. like the parapets (viggyrdil. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. . bdtr.— . e. planks raised up outside the roofs. to bounce. bord. to snuff. stupid. be a crack or loud sound. stellio. to brag grande loqui. to threaten. eber. bustuous. Pull the bobbin. G. E. Board. To Blurt. to make a noise with the mouth. pustern. AS. De Boat. rude. blaere. to sound like water boiling. To splirt. Boost is used for the boast. to rumble. Du. margin. to talk quick and indistinctly . gabble. blodern. blaustem. bot. bateau. burra. c. pausten. geplerr. to give a crack. literally edge-wood. botte. bludder. Schmeller. blirt of greeting. blubber. bord. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. A large snake. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. boistous. a burst of tears. pof. puffen. the Brem. Gael. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. Fl. to render indisbhir. flat. bit. to blaze. a border. to roar.

Cot. to be unsteady tich. precept. . shaking . potacha. the body. to bob. gagei. unsteady. In like manner E. biodeachan. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. bagges. We . bodnu. . bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. Crist.a (i\ia. message boda. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Schmel. calf of the leg. . pall. The Sp. rounded. to prick. corpset. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. bogadh. — H. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. an announcement. a body. is a lump. to make a mow at. to smack. bayonet. Wall. mud. .' But the radical Glanville in Todd. AS. bodetz. Gael. to stir. to waver. to scruple. So BOB To Bob. It introduced from Ireland. To make bad work. expression hogglin an bogglin. dies. See Baber-lipped. bayonet . Lap. Reliq Antiq. bottig. . as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. move. speak of the barrel of a horse. shake. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bodilo. gag. to push with the horns. a prick. round. belly. as signifying anything spherical or round. To portend good or bad. patsche. swelling. bodat. Supp. thrust with something pointed. a ghost . a round body both. Banff. corset from corps. gogach. — 2. Shakespear has badged with blood. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. whence Fr. Bohem. is identical with Fr. . The signification of the root bot. VI. barrique. anything soft.\\i\c\iset. gagoula. daubed or dabbled with blood. Miracle-plays. woman's stays. French bouter. a sting . idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. of which the E. as a horn. potig. strike with the horns. bogadaich. from fitting close to the body. to stick. stuttering. to butt. fickle . to fail. bodak. anything protuberant. potahha. — as well as the body of an animal. whence paUchen. To Bode. potacha. the stem of a tree . stitch. agitate. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. bodies. Ptg. ^Jam. Commonly explained as if from Sc. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. barriga. a cask. and the word is well explained by Bailey. . bog (equivalent to E. boftich. 3. to deliver a message. bob. bogach. to fail. waving. bodi. . to be uncertain what to do. toss. Body. nave of a wheel. To mock. boll. to bodge. bodene. gog. bot.hollow. '£. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. formerly bodies. bodhag. stutter gogmire. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. cask bottich. a command. Bodkin. goggle. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. to stammer. Now unskilful action is conmire. unsteady nature of a soft substance. bodig. the boss of a buckler. AS. the body of a shift gaguejar. quagmire). or a pair of bodies. To Bodge. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. as in stammering or staggering. where bogs form Gael. quakmg. Lith. the belly. arise E. And waves. busti. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. bogle. bole. needle. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . to dabble or paddle. Gael. Gl. to commit a blunder. Bodice. bodian. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bothog. an awl.rabodi. a dagger. e. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. point. See Bid. ON. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. nodding. the trunk of the animal body. or stem of a tree. Bret. a . Russ. to blurt a thing out. Gael. bodi. body and G. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. so large a feature in the country. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bolr. corset. — Grandg. butt.! . corpses pot. to start start and back as from a bugbear. Ptg. Ir. moist mire. or bag. bog. meaning the round part of his body. bod. bo tich. palleg. W. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. gago. wavering. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. bogan. the thick part of anything. a spur. * To Boggle. and E. baboyer. unsteady. moving backwards and forwards. a prickle.' A — Sherwood's Diet. then from the yielding. 43. bog. gog in gog-mire. stumpy. Bog. See To Botch.gmh:t. a messenger . bottich are derivatives. by the syllable patsch. Thy i. body of a shirt bol. biodag.' Bogglie. a cask.. badyti. BOGGLE trunk and G. gebod. a bog or morass. to roll. to thrust. exhibit another modification of the root. to make. bod. . a puddle. a quagsoft.

then violent. bola. a bakazikni. trunk of a tree . boll. E. The term applies in — — impressed . bolla. bold. to waver or hesitate. Fr. a bubble. see Boast. a fastening for a door. obex. ON. bulr. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. a bubble. bochken (titubare. Da. to be prominent. fiausten.rounded part of the body. tartalear. and manace for to de.' Mrs Baker. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn.— — . To Boil. to stammer. OHG. the gurgling sound of water rush. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. a bump. stameln vel bochken. huge. This iv. Westerwald bollern. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. Bret. * Boisterous. beule. a boil or swelling Du. strong. animal as distinguished from the limbs. properly represent belly. may be identified with It. Bustuous. but that Bolt. — — which the cushion is stuffed. polc'h. boss. Boll. warlike. as. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. tartle. as E. to stammer. ON. a swelling in ice. gerade signifies straight to the mark. stramenta. 1430 in Deutsch. courageous. biiilen. swelling. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. to stumble. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. bul. quick. bul. bullire. sels of flax. prince. the body . bold. 374. V. Wall. and then applied to other husks. Sc. as those of nuts. bagaji. Goth. ^Boistous. perpendicular. in the sense of handsome . bouil. puile. balldr. or the like. the body of a man or of ter. Love. Mund. Kil. Du. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. insolent baude. Boil. roydeur. puilen. tar. bolc'h. strong. caput scapulse. Pm. wag. It. to stagger. bald. swelling. noise. chaff of corn siliqua. notes. Du. pusten. bulla. bag or bog are derived Piedm. buile. shake. globular bod)'. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. strong. A. bold. G. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. folliculus grani. whence bulla. See Bulk. stud. stutSw. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. pall. Cot. to hesitate from doubt. pimple ON. intrepid. Bole. The round stem of a tree. i. to give a hoUow sound. bok.Du. bolster. — ' — tagliare. coarse. Boystous. as baltha. rough. . furfures. OG. up of bubbles. flax-boU. bout is explained by Kil. as. boggle. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. Fr. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. styffe or rude . ON. the lir. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . pustule. he will speak out. bolt. — 6 . a head . In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise.). the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . excellent. Swab. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. blow. bula. poppy (Bailey). scruple. capitellum. boystousnesse. bolr. Chaucer seems Dan. chatter. repagulum. dint in a metal vessel. bolstar. 45. bolt upright. pillow. bog. to the belly as the or dislike. In the same way Sc. used. bolleken. the husk of nuts. cows the people from speaking. brave. Pr. a bubble. to swell. Magy. hero. bout. courageous. bealder. To Bolter. bulla. E. is probably a modification of boll. tartajear. b^gayer. bola. bol. bol. Kit. to puff. capiing into a cavity. bhster. Lap. by which it is moved to and fro. ballr. free. G. to tattle. in speaking. hollow. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion.— D. bollen (Kil. . tulum. (of Mons) b^guer. w. tomentum. haughty. a quaking mire. to boil. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. . bolzen. G. Daring. G. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. from the branches. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. glass phial. cheerful. proud. Me doth awate. bal. balder. to be at a loss a shirt. impetuosity. baud. Chaucer. gluma. boly. the. confident.. bald. Properly noisy.D. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. Test. bolle. boutpijl. boil . bolzBold. belc'hj. bog. also a blister. bald.w. Lat. buller. Du. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. bSlstr. treated under Bowl. Stalder. bol. 304). Lat. hakogni. ON.palleg. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. bolster. Fr. Gael. round the first instance to the materials with . * Bolster. Du. . Sp. which are not used for a similar purpose. Sw. from Du. The bob. ^Vocab. merry. a cushion. ohg.

Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. bolzen. Bav. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. poltern. taratarrum. cruddle. the sense of right on end. zen. we der Brocket). holier poller. to form lumps. grasbulten. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. a clod cloth. It.nature of the operation. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. Here the radical image is the violent O. beluter. hump. taratantarum. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. buUire. barutare. bulk or quantity . je bulte. And as the agitation of cream in . a club-foot.agitation of the meal in the bolter. Bulte-pook or bulstar. one after the other. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. Pr. we see that the one consists of a words. . as of a trumpet. to start with palpitate. bultig. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. hammer. buletel. . to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. bulla. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. with E.D. beliitea.D. ler. I boulte meale in a boulter. uneven. from G.D. crash. Pl. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. hulter de bulter. a clap of thunnences. The ulti. hole. Champagne burtcau. to shake. or a racer from the course. Mid. . bortelen. projecting eyes pul. we pass to Du. die treppe pressed. tumultuari.by forms like G. staff which sounds tar. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. to agitate. kloteren. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . . bolt-foot. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff.. as a rabbit from its baritel. bolt head is a retort. bulk. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. a clod. .fe/2?. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. on the one hand. as above explained.). rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. sestuare. small heap. or ill. to bolt meal barutel. bolting to that of form. tantara. we have Du. poltern. a crashing or racketing noise.clack. and the Thus from So. to bolt meal barutel.). . projections. Wtb. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. Pm. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. Sanders. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. crotlar. have Lat. Lang. barutela. the wheels groaned. then to knock. ' Holler poller / bulter. to knock. to make a knocking. tar. brattle. to start out. zare. Sw. bulstrig. to significance of the term was overlooked. protuberance. 2.i5a//^«. In the next place. racket gepolter. . Pl. bluter. to spring forth E. rugged.as the essential element signifying the talum. as snow balling on a horse's foot. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. Lat. pultare. Dan. So also we pass from Lat. cro. a sod (Schiitze). taraabout. to bolter. as Fr. ' — — ! ! : — . curdle. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. clump. Brem. buletare. abolter. to clack. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. bultred. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. by the representation of a racketing sound. P1.u. to talk pulzen. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. a small portion. OFr. budeln daz mele . polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. lumpy. in S'W plotter. a rattle. a bunch. buideln. buretter{CQ\. ex•wagen. boss. mole-hill. knob. Du. hulch. uneven. a clump of turf. a round glass ending — bultig. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. a rattling carriage. OFr. Dauphiny a sudden movement. MHG.thump or blow. to E. a millpoltzet augen. gebolder. bolzaugen. Fr. blotttre. a bolter or implement for bolting. fied bot. Prov. swelling. pattern. burclct. Hence Palsgr. pull. G. or the like. and to crash. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. / is transposed in Fr. bullern. On this account Mid. . to become lumpy. jolting. a . a bolter Prov. to bolt flour burato. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig.protuberance.through a cloth of loose texture. barutela. loud and fast.D. poll. OFr. agitari (Kil. series of jolts or abrupt impulses.— .noise {brattle of thunner. bolt. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. bolzauget) Sp. croler.On the same principle. Schiitze. bulio. vessel with narrow opening. Supp. Hence. tling or crashing noise.. Du. btilt. — — — . hammer. to come rattling downstairs. The ment and the operation. also to curdle. tuft. rugged.Lat. crod. : ' — — . to coagulate.) E. representing a rat. baruta.

a drum bombammen. a stock. bambagioj whence It. Gascoi^e in R. and also the leg. baun. breast-bone. bombast. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . sijde. a baker. to thump W. must be explained Fr. Du. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. to cast to and fro. cotton. G. bomba. builen. — AS. cotton stuff. and Mod. bombase. buttel trueb (of liquids). or trunk word in W. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. It. stump. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. ^o/j. bonfras. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. thick-legged. sije. bureau. crook-shanked bondew. bombasin. bommer. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . a beacon. &c. an implement of binding. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. As cotton was used for padding clothes. a hollow sound. In E. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. bongam. bone of the . to shake. bwmbwry mar. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. bras. tiffany. to bind G. Schm. a thundering noise bomre. Moreover. In legal language. from teu. brust-bein. bureau. band. Castrais barato. . Fr. Antiq. Fr. bunden. and in fact we find the and Du. baum-bast. a boulter of meal. buidelen. bommen. It. bombice. Du. ODu. and that from Fr. buidelen. again. E. Butterglas. to which the leg. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. bein. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. term is appropriated in G. to shake down fruit from a tree. OE. G. . been. It. . as in .Su?. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. assuming the of leg : special signification W. stuff. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. gossipium. band pi. bwmbwr. Bibelesworth in Nat.) . derivation.bast. to bolt meal. Dan. has repeatedly varied. It. bande. When ture. It. — Bombard. and Bond. and Du. bonds.). to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. bombarda. to boult meal. tie. borel. bombe. Near 6 * . bopin. — having a stem or stalk. butteln. Banstead. . tie. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed.^Altieri. however. i. HoUybandin R. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. whence bomme. a ligature. . which requires stuff of a thin open tex. 83 Gr. PoUitriduare. bambagino. sye. lana lignea. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bombicina. Fl. From builen. bon. to resound. produced the Pl. Du. The material called by this name. Dan. raw silk. thick from shaking. the Fr.Lat. Mid. we speak of a gun to resound. band. thick. bindan. Bone. silk. agreement. 155. ties. burato. bond. butteln. Need you any ink and bonibase. a bone in general. Kil. from boom. achsel bein. to thunder. basin. also thick-shanked. Bomb. the silk-worm. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act.D. — bombast came guage. bombasine. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. beuteln. a churn for butter. bolting-cloth. . a —Bombasine. coarse. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bulter from It. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. rimbombare. beil'n.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. iuttern. biire. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. gunpowder. to beat a drum. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. G. q. to ring bells. . We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. as Banbury. the leg. Bonfire. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. is supported by the analogy of G. silk-worm. tree. boulenger. barate. and called in Mid. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. d. It. bauniwolle. to shake (as to shake the head. a string. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. bombdra. beuteln. banitola (Fl. the contracted form of Du. the murmuring of the sea. bonog. sericum arboreum. booming over the water. bambacium. e. the shank the shoulder-bone. a stem or base.

petition. Booby. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. the first consonant of the alphabet. bds. to prepare. dog-kennel.^ —P. bolt. In nautical language. to set in order. swinbusa. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. biikui. G. Du. at everything. Mrs Baker. litter. help. the cultivator. boandi. a lying-place for dogs or swine. boubair. signifying beech. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. where a cross (or a gun. petition.—Bootless. busu. a letter . babin. Hal. a bag of skin or leather. The i. stabulum. From bo. bauer. the possessor of the farm. See Bomb. reparation. pero. gawney. Boot. . to gape. The latter is the original AS. See Butt. . to cultivate. bossen. remnants of hay or straw. tapestry. the scriptures bokareis. . one who dwells nigh. . boo. bobo. b&ber. pole. till. p. head-dress wai^g. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. bobo ! interj. and fig. . Gael. bota. G. ON. booby. succour Bailey. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. Schm. AS. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. But bosg. babau. by itself for head-dress. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. simpleton. ON. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. inhabit. bAkva. ganian. Du. bosih. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. botte. Bonnefyre. * Boose. Swab. bene. hu?idbusa. Kil. feu de behourdis. desire. bauen. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. . also called Brecknock Beacons. often cut for burning and lighting fires. b'ukvdry. A favour. ben. Boom. See Bown. relief from sorrow. wondering signifies not only straw. Wall. bote. N. Jr. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. . tigh. prayer. and thence Rouchi baia. Prov. Hufwud-bonad. pig-sty. house. a lofty blaze. ty Gael. netis stall. a good turn or re- meaning. without ad- . to gape. botte. Ox. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. dolt. been. — . or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. countryman. a letter Russ. 13. whence ban-ffagl.Boos. bdn. Boot of bale. A stall for cattle. Kil. boten-shoen. the name of the letter b. E. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position.. boubi^. Book. To Boot. till. dress. tall. AS. Pm. ass. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. Sp. are formed Fr. Palsgr. Fr. — From the participle present. in w. and from AS. chaff. bose. OSlav. fool. babb^o. Boor. — Bailey. inhabit. wall hangings. bid). a hollow skin. to ask. from Du. Perhaps. Build. The character of folly is i860. ON. Mrs Baker explains bun. gehyred. literally cow-house. b^er. buandi. Binau Brychyniog. a stall. build. Basa. short boots. — e. bua. bos. A peasant. buch-stab. the stubble of beans. Du. E. bonad.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. dial. which one gaping and staring about. Gl. Bun. 232. Pr. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. but stall. high. or Vanns. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. from beida (E. and Ban in w. to aid. The origin of the word is probably the W. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. nachbar. betere thing werse. however. boa. the alphabet. foolish. — To boot. although in the OG. of wonder On the same principle Sp. a scribe G. bas. a bonfire. dial. bonaid. Hal. to dress. . Fr. boutig. clown. \ais-band. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. remedy of evil. bonad. to litter bosu. botta. bd. from badare. bua. boia. bonnet. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. gaby. comes bondi. It. — — . bommen. dress. boom. beiSne. It is commonly explained as identical with It. the mouth. Busk. Boon.n. a head-dress. from gape. by arbitours sholde bote the P. master of the house. is Du. a simpleton. writing bokos. Fr. Thus from the syllable ba. in Phil. build. Bootless. lofty. bowwen. a silly fellow. bosig. a vessel for holding liquids. as the Brecknockshire Banns. a tree. a dry stalk. Fr. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. baier. to strew with straw. letter. and Gael. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Bonnet. beam. to cultivate. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . OW. . blockhead. Trans. as a lying-place for cattle. G. a. ON. . boutig. boer. set in order. Goth. w. badaud. to yawn. Thin ben Luke i. quest. a. gaping hoyden — Cot. prayer.

to profit. Fl. to build. are parret. bauen. sawroot. and meta- Fr. drillen. ON. Alexand. to divide. fimbria. a border. wave. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. It. purro. lappolone. to expiate boeten den dorst. to stick unto as a bur. bordi. bata. Pol. puru. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. to profit Goth. as afford a satisfactory explanation. The cor. Burke in R. or the gradual working a hole in anything. . a great bur. bothag. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. . Esthon.—Burin. amendment boeten. struere ignem. The Fin. sharp.par. cellar. — ON. dens mordens vel caninus. to mend. making good again . bud. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. Sp. borracha. 266. bite. rof. The as G. ON. which are probably from the same root. piercer. to importune. . Palsgr. a borer. botjan. batr. to anything Neither G. extremitas Bore. Bohem. kvit-bara. is purin. chewed food for infants. In the Fin. byte points to the verb byta. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. admovere titiones. a leather bag or bottle for wine. a wave. a granary . nor E. boards. biorag. purra. BoracMo. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. remedy. Fin. pointed. See Burgeon. an engraver's chisel. limbus. to restore. to to . Gael. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). barn. scsdes-bod. repair. forare. to build buda. baara. edge. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . to boot. scalpo.por. swell bara. cure Sw. boete. BOOTH vantage. Gael. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. bothan. a bothy. And so in ON. . baete. bardure. a sharp-pointed tooth. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. the . Booth. a responding forms . A phorically a drunkard. terebra sculptoria purastoa. to pierce. Booty. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. N. Fin. make . exchange or divide. a tusk. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. butin. differs only in termination. limbus. furd. ON. boede.. ora. a borer . Lat. hem or gard of a garment. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it.. OSw. comminuted by either kind of action. or anything pointed. a shed. to bite. But probably the E. in Ihre. a hut or tent. borino. better. bora. to surge. bohren. . bottino. a bladder. cup- awl. dust. &c. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. to bite. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. hut. reparation. to foam. Border. to swell. from deila and skipta. pi. mat-bod. puru. boeye. uzboro. betan fyr. Magy. a shelter of branches. bolino. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. budka. and parrets. and thence to eat build. chisel. a word. beute. Bete. Mag. margin. a. to patch. recovery bata. Compare Manx birrag. cottage. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. amendment. G. 1. to bete the properly to mend the fire. are derived from G. • — To Bore. bauda. a borer. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. welt. butin is explained by Flor. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. from bord. a hut. puras. a cupboard.— Return from Parnassus I inR. Another derivation from Fin. borracha. to quench one's thirst . p. . a booth or shed. Du. terebro. lappalare. to . . urboro. . abode. a shop budowati. Gael. OHG. AS. pu purro (saha =: saw . yfirbdt. furni. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. Kil. both. boeten het vier. fire. burin. of an edge that will not bite. purra. a shop. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. Fin. It. in Lap. budowai. It is admitted that Fr. . phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. puras. and hence to fine. on. See To We speak in E. to hut. to repair. Fr. sculpo 05\xiik. bdra. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. and E. wine-skin. a chisel.. from borra. Du. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. to The Sw. The ON. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. aid. to bore. Esthon. bord. See Bower. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. 3. tent. bdt. To Bore. bower. Fr.

clownish. pego. Lat. less. cnap. boschen. Bos a surety. is probably radically Boss.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. the North Wind.' the chief of the ' borh. to save Sw. tempest. a. or because a blow berga. primarily signifying coarse sound . which now signifies a knob. a bunch or hump. Borowholder. byrig. plant. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. bom. the ordinary a swelling. a wen. Borough. bussi. Fr. or head-borough. boss or knob of a buckler . huschen. when that system was forgotten. unpolished. ' pledge. hollow bucklers. E. So Du. . The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. from their grey clothing. beorgan. Borrow. empty. a boor. In like manner It. as we speak of a thumping potato. G. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. Fr.' or system of bail. &c. empty. ^o^^flj. . basse. V. of bail throughout the country. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. Bosh. butsen. in instead of without. to keep. . Du. AS. in the body struck. coarse cloth made of the Du. pitch. to knock or strike. knur. Hence knot. boss. And that unsittynge is to here degre. loan. empty. baurgs. i. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . Words signifying a lump or protuberE. Lang. bump. Russ. Fr. one who sticks to you like a bore. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. Boreal. as if from the verb to hold. bundle. Sc. butse. a knob. knocking. a herb. whence the burg. or perhaps it may be See Bury. borough or chief constable. bosseu. It. rude. Du. bergen. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. the sun sets. useCanterbury. rustic. blow on a hollow object.ribs and the side. agrees with E. (Bridel). a little blow.. striking. borel. Bailey. formerly used in the sense of knocking. projection. bossen. D. a surety. that which biirge. botch. Gr. (1867). a blow. destitute. bump is used in lump or piece. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. brown cloth. borgo. 106. The other. the hollow between the Borsholder. bos. busse. bos. vain. — — — A — .' every man be under bail. bail biirgen. and borough in the sense of a town.' if thou give money on loan. tive idea seems to bring under cover.any round sweUing. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. was origin of the term is the OFr. borg. bourg. cob. bttssel. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. Botany. botse. ON. bierge. to pick or cull plants. a pushing or striking out. tuft. AS. Cot. to give a hollow bizo. Jam. grey). that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. pegou. boss sound. botsen. borealis. ^ma. viipyoc. a boss. — ' wind burya. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. bourgeois. ' — — . to strike . the must have arisen burgensis. burh. to give bail or answer for an. beorgan. Swiss Rom. Newbury. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. Hal. a tower. a city . . Jam. It. Altieri. borei. cnoc. head.' Vegetius in Diez. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. whether from the fact preserve G. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. a citizen. I. or perhaps also To Borrow. Goth.vr\. northern. knock and a knob . /3oraMK6f. by which of or belonging to plants. bosse. a citizen. a bouncing baby . an eminence. knob. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. from AS. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. Turk. The origin seems to be the Goth. See found in Bav. borgese. to save. to save. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. Hence borhes ealdor. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. to protect. the N. boss. borg. gesylle. bosh. AS. is used in the sense of bussare. cormpted. burel. to strike so as to Bureau. secure. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell.bucklers. to contain. to conceal. gum vocant. Bunch. f graauw. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. and thus could not shake off the old burr. bunch. borough-holder. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. into borsholder. nonsense. storm. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. boss of the side. botch. a giving rise to It. The primi. burgess. to protect. to take in. boussi. connected. cnag signifies both a clergy. bussa coarse. the Sc. poor. to become is emitted by a hollow body. undyed wool of brown sheep. poor. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. hollow. surety. plain rude fellow. while Gael.mass. borh. without.

pozzanghera. N. — — belly-worm. the first rough draught 2. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. to froth as beer . ubhau. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. podge. shoes. whisper. stock. a knock. Mudu. the bud of a flower .' to the fiery Csedm. A — oba-dwaj Lat. a cask. See Butt. j3i/9os. Podge. I. hurly-burly. dabble). ixorapudder. pocciar. Fl. Du. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. i. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. you two. noise. repara- — — See To Bete. Again. Pl. . a pit. Butu. to dash about . — — . Both. e. blister. mutter.foundation. to stir and mix together . Canut. boil. Decorde. AS. turmoil. Lat. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. botte. whence the name ol pool to podge. gling piece of work. stump. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. bodem. Diez. ON. abbu. the other hand. — duj Lett. disturbance to . bundle. bouteille.D. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. both. however. boiteal. AS. bSn. . mess. to botch or patch. to fall : with a sound batsch. fire-bote. oba. botn. to make a make a noise. — Bottom. a bott . — — A 2. boiteag.) . a bump or swelling. patch. bozza. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . ambo. we two. See To Bodge. — Dief. botus. buazen. Ancren Riwle. bottigUa. to dip in liquid (to Gael. . Lith. tumour. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. butwo. burgi vel pontis refectionem. bdsser.— Swift in R. ON. Parmesan poccia. a pock. — Fl. botte. to from the root bot. House-bote. * To Bother. G. bot. H^cart. a depth. a waterfall. botel. from the dashing of water. a cobbler. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. Bochu. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. to mend (kettles. butse. or plague sore . to work without order or know. to make better. &c. botte. On the other hand. botse. signify a in OE. an abyss or bottoniless pit. bulder. Jtidu. a vessel for holding liquids. To confuse with noise. bdt. From the dim. to put on a patch. pother. boitean. of botta. bots. boden . Prov. stock. buddl. to rage. Dan. botm. abbution. kessel-biisser. was called a push. ^kvBoQ. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. dial. by met. The Gr.— . and E. Botcli. to bcBta. a. a bottle. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. A bottom depth. A horses. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. — . mess. the lowest part. a lump of somebatschen. ON. buts. It. 212. any plain round viol glass bozzo. gipuozan. what pushes outwards. is also a bubble. bulderen. to knock. pimple. ' G. Bailey. Bret. Leg. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. . another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. blain. Danneil. botola. • Bott. to we have OHG. abbi. botel foenn. fundus. bosser. blow. to simmer. we have Swiss batscken. Hal. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. to podge. schuhbosser. bethia. btitse. especially in Gael. batschen. AS. a bubble. botsen. mend. . to mend. boccia. bluster. buideal.— Hal. a cess. bunch. bun. baiothsj Sanscr. corresponding to . Fr. botch. OSax. BOTCH understood).of a ball of thread. Fyre to botme. in the sense of mend the fire. round lump. empty or hollow. a slop. Du. a root. and ajSvamg. w. contusion . a patch patschen. a botcher of shoes. It. a pit. any round ball or bowl to play withal. is boteau. And so we speak of an eruption.ments of the same root. putra. bile. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. To Botch. a bottle of hay. a plague-boil Kil. a maggot. to stir and mix together. Stalder. bide. bozza. It. bund. Gael. for a bud. Gael. bativa. buddeln. dim. they two. Fl. ledge It. puddle. noise. On — Du. to smack. knock. beggtaj Goth. E. pozzo. Here the radical image seems a bubble. ba. G. Lith. bossu. a slop. . a humpback. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. thing soft batsch. ing out. nets. — Jidwi. bottom. to strike . butsen. abyss. Boa two. abbi-diwij Slavon. boss. Bouteille. a boil or swelling Halma. to give a sounding blow. Judwi. poltern. a tinker schuhbiisser. Wedu. scuohbuzere. an imperfect and bunbutt end. disturbance. Bouds. potra. a cesspool pass. Kil. gen. the science or knowledge of plants. as Fr. Fr. a bundle of straw or hay. boute. See Boss. stroke. a bunch.^Dec. bAdtr. as a push or windgaU. a bottle. maggots in barley. . biissen. See Bound. stem or base. Bottle. a wisp. Hal. &c. — .

butina. gulf. an de dor bunsen. to bow. Pr. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Du. the larger kind of pebbles. the smaller ones. contusi. ing. iv. The Bight of Benin. to knock at the door. an occasion. knock it sounds again. bullra. ni motz brugir. Coxcomb. root (see Bottom). as a bout of fair or foul weather. boh. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. Bough-pot. nor horn sound. march. its kind. to set bounds. To Bound. bons. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bonna. bonzen. bugan. to knock. Bowlder. came home with his face all to-bounced.— Cot. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent.— — — - 88 BOUGH . Bought. a round body both. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Ni gacha cor bondir. . from volgere. to spring. Raynouard. jungen. a blow. bend. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. a boss.— F. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. thumping. dial. Halma. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. E. Mid. a turn or time. signifies a sliort thick mass. bolder. has hot. Bound. bend. language a * Boulder. a stock. — Take care my house be handsome. nave of a wheel bothel.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. bog. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Sw. A Langued.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. turn. from bugan. Fr. Fr. . boss of a buckler. from AS. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. in the absence of actual e. to fix limits. and Prov.>a bout. bunsen.'— Charter of K. Bonny. by Bujns or Buns. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. whence buj7isen. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Dan. — No i ausiratz parlar. a blister. See To Bolt. geration. Webster. to turn. Primarily to strike. strapping.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. carpet. mere. Boulderstone. Alpine Re- — gions. Nor a centinel whistle. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. dial. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. — strike. 3. jump. a bouncing apple. Bout. From Sw.. botwm. of thread. see Boss. a button. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. the hollow of a bay. — — Bight. debodinare. to thundering big one hum. 136. pothel. To Bounce. Pm.' round and round in similar circles. bounbounejha.— Boundary. limit. a boundary stone (men stone). Q. the verb bondir in OFr. bugt. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. Bodinare. Fr. as a nosegay. a bound. bunda. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Probably from the Celtic root bon. baby. volta. Bret. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. the bay of Benin. a large pebble. till The dat et bunsede. bodina. . to resound. bone.' B. To Boult. bamsen. Bough. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. So It. I assure you. bottom. winding. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. a bud. pimple Richards bothog. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. bondir. to spring. to make a loud noise. bay. Bunche. mcn-bomi. Wtb. as that of E. signifying in nautical coil of rope. like bobbin. bumper. The W. boundina.D. Ducange. boujtce. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . to thunder. bouton. tnndo. See Bunch. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. Brem. — — leap. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. p. bun. buUersten. to set out by metes and bounds. The branch of a tree. boriie. AS. bonndn. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. And the new stools set out. he fell so that it sounded. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. ni frestelar. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. 2. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . frequently used in the same sense with bound. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. and F. in contrast to klappersten. round. to hum. or Bow-pot. a large stone rounded by the action of water.

to mutter. bage. burd. the fixed. puff out. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. biugan. Gael. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bordon. bontS. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. It is the participle past buinn. bwa. bug. Goth. bogha. ready to pike or spear . verb bua. jest. addressed to. A water. to bow. schenkelbug. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. Borden. Du. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. As the Gael. Bourdon. bausen. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. a drone of a bagpipe. ruption of bonne. Sw. Comp. is. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. to trick. sense durd. Du. a cup kroesen. a jibe Shaw bururus. G. to take one in. bogen. cheat. Chaucer in R. on. that ON. Burden. When used alone it . bugna. a humming noise. purra. the burden of a song. the Bourdon. i. the ting of a bell. brausen. it is probable that the It. Du. bonitas. fresh* water. to — Hal. borne. the big end of a club. to draw a deep breath. explaining Sw. Bound. prepared for. whence buysen. purlBav. . a well. . drink deep. to hum. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. — probably through this latter signification. or of an Gael. Sw. drone of a bagpipe. bow to shoot with. to banter or laugh at. . in Fr.. Dan. bordone. a pot. fun of one . burt. bourdon.which see. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. a from Du. set out. bunaiteach. kroes. a. a jibe. bogna. joke. pusta. to take breath. a for New York. are applied to the bow of a ship. Bret. g. bogr. limit. bue. bend. Swiss bausen. bourde in the same sense. a — — . bending of a joint knie-bug. a drone or dor-bee. different modification gives ON. gurgling. G. to tipple. saufen. buga. taunt. shoulder-blade. potio. buizen. ridicule buirte. a go to. to our bous. . must be referred to the same root. identical with E. analogous to Fr. buzzing of bees. on the whole. to indulge in his cups . A —Cot. burlare. buyse. epaule du vaisseau. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. and that probably from a Celtic root. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. sport. a bow. bend Sw. beygja. to bow or incline the . flagon. as was for. a corToward the garden. also the humming or ON. brunna. to tope. It is remarkable that we find vary. lance. Gael. game. Dan. Sp. Dan. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. a humming noise Macleod. btiga. The meaning of bound. to tope W. bov. has also buirleadh. So Sc. an arch. Fr. — — . bagna. bonus. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. bound. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. sotich. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. tinton. burdan. bordo. souf. to take deep draughts. Du. a mill-post. . while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Cot. ^<7r«i?. bourdon. G. good. bog. steady. bugne. of the ON. hous^ Man in the Moon. to pre2. springbiirn. bovne. deceit. Spenser in R. staff. burreti. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. pausen. firm. cudgel. their time -With "wailful tunes. trick. Fr. . pre. bugna. It. The foregoing derivation seems. address. burdan. schulter-bug. drunken. bdgi. Lat. bommen. buzz. — — — A pare. It is bov. grumble Sw. Cot. a. like quaff. Immediately from Fr. bending. Fr. Bounty. Bourdon. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . head Fr. curvature. whether by sound or gesticulation.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Gael. belly out. to drink deep. AS. Gael.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. buys. ready. Bourd. from spring. to bulge. buigen. warbling. the shoulder of the vessel. Sw. to draw a deep breath. bugan. sausen. Dan. burn. to swell. mockery. And there in mourning spend Sw. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. repartee. to drink deep. Burgeon. bending. hence musical accompaniment. to hum as a bee. way ba7n. Eown. pot. biegen. w. Sc. a prop. bourd. beogan. brummen. pared. G. a sing-song. when we speak of. spelling the word iox bound. ing. crutch. . Gael.bass of a stringed instrument. language of folly or ridicule. spring. a brook. Bow. Prov. patesten. bog.

bocka. to make crooked . budello. zich onder jemand under to him. globular body. bowels. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. a drop of pullistaa. the head. a hen-coop . dial. a bud. buchsbaum. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. a box Lat.). intrenchment. to puff up. Fr. bolla. bolgna. See MHO. bulla in aqua. ttuJic. buga. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. . buk. blister. signified by forms like Gael. kupu. Thus we have Esthon. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. a ball. ON. bending. lump . a pot. . a round glass or bolg. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. PLD. a ball . a sleeping-room . passing on stud. swell. bosso. a protuberance. Boll. of a wooden ball to play with and — . to bend down. a wine-can . buckelig gehen.flask It. buis. Bav. Bowl. bowl . buxus. . a thing of liquid. bucka. a croft by a house. head of a cabbage. Bret. Fr. painter's easel. Du. a box. belly. boxtree pusska. . the crop of a bird. an inclosure. a separate apartment . to stoop biickling. (in pass . and on swollen. . a bubble Fin. Dan. a little box . . tumour . bulka. boucle. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. iri'iaQ. hollow place Fr. bugyola. bulb of an onion bolleyield. bur. . bowel Box. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. bock.) to incline oneself . biichse. Buckle. bukke. kupukka. OE. a chamber swefnbur. Sp. bow. or. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. puffy. tumour. fata-bur.cup Du. round glass phial. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. Cable. belly. honse-bur. boss. prominence. as well as the name of a. utibur. bulge. . bubble. . at the e. bwr. Bohem. Gr. In like manner the Pol. beutel. to raise the back boll OHG. kupula. G. knob From the former modification we have bolla. bogla. AS. a bubble. . Fr. G. bolle. convex. Sanscr. ON. . box. The / a bow. ask. a bundle. to guggle. bubble. the barrel of a gun. . bolne. cumena-bur. a iDubble. W. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. . koziel. It is more probably from the G. hill. hollow wooden case. is applied to a coach-box.a. anything globular. with inversion of the round. See Boil. a hump on the back rossbollen. ne. . to swell.). representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . boor. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. pusspan. swoUei) Lat. bossola. kuppelo. bouge. mausbollelein. and to a coachbox in particular. the box-tree and articles made of it G. bol. in walking appears in a . a box. stream forth bugyogni. water pulli. bulla.D. budel. boudin. w. different position in ODu. a polla. crooked. bent. biiske. . a bubble. polla. Bower. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. a ball. box in both senses. a box. bwra.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. bhugna. peated in Magy. round bead. similar shape. inclinare se (Kil. buigen. E. bola. bugyani. OFr. to bulge. bugna. a. bouzellou. as in AS. bol. From the other form are G. boil. . spring as water bugya. wisp of straw . 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. the skull or brainpan . &c. a buck. an outhouse AS. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. ON. buello. pullo. give in to. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. . to bubble up. A . guestchamber . without the and grits. Bret. in both senses. a knot. to puff up pullakka. biicken. . to yield to one. busse. . The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. See Crab. to stoop. hollow. bug. purse. crown of a hat. The word may probably be identical with Fris. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. trestle. bouellou. globe or spherical body. acsian. or in e. W. the bogna. the head. * Bowels. busskai. to bow buck. Dan. Sw. bhuj. . . compared with Fr. ken. A Bulk. AS. bollen. a wardrobe . Pol. . botulus. beuz. a bubble bolli. bolla. Sw. a swelling or rising up. to buckle G. bog. boss. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. a sack. a boil. bog. the box-tree It. bur. a bowl.. belly of a cask. ^o«/«. the box-tree. . bulne. Hence. ku^o. bow. buckel. hiidel. make obeisance. sausage. Sw.. Hal. bulcken. as in E. then by the loss of the /. biisse. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. Du. a box. pocket. convexity. spherical Dan. a black pudding. to bend. bulk compared with Sw. boxtree. heafod bolla. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. ^o/a. globular. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. Du. fyn. Lat.\s. bugyni. . a parlour. a stud. boel. bugy. gut. folliculus .

dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. a pair of braces. Fr. a box. fault. . a crack. by the same inversion of J and k. ON. merely in our mode of considering them. to give a sounding blow defect. his eyes are failing him). defect. Sp. Bracelet. bresta. to stammer. A brace probis. Gael. rakke. Lett. It. confining.. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. brae.D. the first instancebya physical tie. armour for the arm. parallel with OK. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers.D. babble. beagle. bask. . brack. braquet. Boy. La ville ou y avait Brace. land batsken. priated to the original sense. to stutter. flap. lalear-eyed Prov. Prov. bracil. baske. &c. a braceOFr. to box the ears. fault . bracha. an languages. . the word passed on to signify salt water in general. and then Pl. mud. OFr. baukscheht. brae. boy bouba. root). ratch. odorinsecus. brostia. brakke Bracelet. Sp. mud. brechen. A — — . want." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. the arm. a bog or pass Fr. clay. wnzC/J. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. Brak-goed. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. brago. Kil. in R. . el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. 91 the Dan. breptati. rakka. acidus. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. to is derived brestr. or defect. loud smack. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. a guard to torf. thwack. a sounding blow. Swiss bub. dirty.with a noise. ON. Swiss Rom. Prov. — . taneous talking. damaged board a ship. bouibo. brabbelen. mud. let. Cot.. brek. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Brach. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. Brack. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . bragos. brasselet. V. G. bitch Du.puddle. On the same principle from the buksteht. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together.. See Broker. bracket. braco. which sigof straining. brassard. Thus brack. brec. corruptse. a bubbling dura del mun. flaw. In like manner the It. It. braco. from a root brak. bracke. Kil. s. quarrel Bohem. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. — . dog that hunts by scent. Heligoneed. Swab. braic. as noticed under Box. matter. G. brae. to want. Fr. Rouchi Then as an adj. a boy pupa. foul. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . need. bracco. spaniel. a comworld Rayn. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. A to halt between two derivations. . AS. Prov. Prov. braecke. dog in general. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . wristband. buah. Pr. OFr. is a rope holding G. brae. Lat. boiste. bou^ba. ' — A — — — . bruxula. OE. ing from a mixture of salt. boussole. To Brabble. dog Sw. and F. . land spoilt Kil. pupus. bracer. suppuration. Pm. breach. then from break. brechen ihm. braque. See Brake. want. to Swiss batschen. Water rendered boubo. Ptg. and string of his bow. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Hdcart. moral or physical. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. variation of babble.nated by dirt. s. brace on and Du. brague. MHG. to fall. disturb. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. It is B. to give a gebrechen. compressing. breuque. The different meanings of the brageux. in R. salsus. Brack. To brace is to draw together. Du. Fr. Sp. breach. Brackish. . jabber. briche. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. It. fuse. ghebreck. a girl. by an overflow of sea water. cramp-iron holding things together . pube. One girl. or bracer Cot. youth. braca. filth . Kil. want. Pl. Du. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. unmarried man . boy. to burst. strike. BOX To Box. Fr. bracon. brack. to crack. refuse. bray. bube. I sal slyng. to slap. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. isolated part of the text. rack. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. Bracket. wrack. rakki. pus. to smack the hand batschen. whelp as. posh. a grown youth Cimbr. con. bue. to give a blow with the fists. murmur. brakke grund. To fight with the fists. . . a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. — . brageuses.. — . — . break. defect. defect Du. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. brek. flaw.— D. — — . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. race. salo sive aqua marinS. to be wanting.

idle talk. Walloon bress. Brag was then used brisk. to crack. is identical with Gael. Cot. breach. . binding anything together. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . AS. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. beautiful. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. brachittm. fine. an iron for holding Zalli. Bray. — A — . Fr. braw. The meanings included under — Bragget. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. braga. brae. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. Faire le brave. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed.^Vocab. bragging. It.explosion. From Fr. the arm. torture . subigere. in order to prevent its catching the wind. Hecart. compressing. se parer de beaux habits. breyne. Bret. flaunting. i. fine. subduing. braske. gorgeous. and it is very likely that the root brak. in the sense of the Lat. Haldorsen Gael. is Cot. bully . A — Hal. braegenj Du. ^Brave. braggard also valiant. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. dhbrailler. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . to stand upon terms. 92 Cot. power. brazo. See Brace. breghen. also insolenter se gerere . well-dressed. braszketi. be noisy . braka. . vaunting. or by gaudy dress and show. . Rom. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. or from braie itself. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . gayly dressed. Turk bazu are used in both senses. breagh. in numerous dialects. goods. braka. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. Sp. courageous. brave. braguer. brave. .aburst. braga. Dan. swagger. fine. From sprouted corn. spot. to strut. bragd. the opposite of which. brag. swaggerer. Fr. to cord a bale of tie up. bravo.hy which this idea is con\eyed.i5nz^. BRAG Piedm. Lith. vain glory. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). braies. brave. Thus Bret. strength. To Brag. slight modificajoining the two legs. brake is. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . called by our braggard. excellent. boast. bullying. — . that will carry no coals. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. cry. The meanings of brake are very numerous. Cot. to rattle. showy bravery. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. to shout. expensive. vanter une chose. Primarily to crack. See Bray. brave. From brayel. bragging of his own valour. blusterer. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a .. about the hawk's fundament. — Equivalent forms are Gael. Cot. . brav. gallant. The plant y^r«.^ Sp. to boast or brag.%. a roisterer. h-avare and Fr. It is certain that the word for arm is. brayete. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. handsome. noisy ostentation. the feathers ON. to make a noise. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. brag. —Spenser in R. a noisy talkboasting. bragio. fine. &c. make a noise . braske. gallant (in apparel) also proud. splendid. be found. to swagger. to sprout malt. . the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. gay. Dan. Lat. would be to brace. gay. brails. bushy . Fris. crack. stately. . a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. bravache. smart. Hence E.breeches. empty pride. and that from e. drawers. de Vaud. breghe. flaunt in fine clothes . crash ON. a carriage for breaking in horses . also derived Fr. to flaunt. braga. Langued. to brail up a sail. 2. boasting. Brake. — From W. brag or jet it braguard. w. brave.Shepherd's Cal. bragaireachd. proud. To Brail. brake in the sense of constraining.—— . Bret. bravado j Fr. used in the sense of force. ative fellow. crash. was formed brayele. braver. also tion of this was brayeul. brabhdadh. bravacherie. affront. brabhdair. Brain. as the type of exertion and strength. finery. Thus we are brought to the OE. Wallachian bratsou. stout. Brake. Chaucer. braicli. Sc. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. an inclosure for cattle . Brail. se donner trop de licence. . to boast of his own worth.. to Rouchi brMer. To Braid. hectoring. se pavaner. brao. bra!. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. — Chaucer. valiant The head are sumptuous. to unbrace or let down the breeches. confining. riches.

to bend a bow. broyer. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. for — Due. brog above mentioned. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. to exert force in different ways. brega. In ON. or a wood in a marshy place . where from Esthon. word. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. Prov. brushwood. braecken het vlasch. break of such a kind. In the sense of a thicket. brak is a frame in which strip. brambles. It. gilum. or A A ' . farinam in mortario subigere. it is not surprising that the word has here. breuil. Fr. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. broilium. murtaa. to The ON. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. Pl. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. have thus Du. cetur. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. Brake. tris). Lat. a marsh. — — . G. to fracture. as well as in the case of the e. referred brake. game. bregar brake. cover G. dial. e. the lever by which the string was drawn up. brolium. brogille. brage. Swiss Rom.D.. gebrUche. — Fl. Brake. ing of flax or hemp. bushes. is braukti. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. —Bracken. In the case of the ne. to break. is formed murd. a swampy Mid. briser. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. copse-wood. iSpsx". Dan. BRAKE to external force. any thicket of brakes. a spinning-wheel. t° moisten. braken. bredza. braeken. brook.bracan. nemus. to break or fracture. braka. 3. brake. el arco. low wet land bruch. fratto. brog or brake. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. bush. to subdue. to bray in a mortar. signifying to sweep. braquer un canon. thing is brought under control. Gael. gebiisch. brego. broillet. Voc. —Ovid. Biglotton. bregille. to row. bregar. In like manner Lat. broken fratta. conSo in G. marsh. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. Dan. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. a fen. to head must be bit. Fr. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . . It may be sus- . gebrUche. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. brook. de Vaud. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. frangere linum. a horse's a horse's twitch. to break. properly braking or subduing them. P&. To the same bend a bow. and Lat. a brace on board a ship. subigere. quarry from Fin. brook. riguus. to distinct. to brush. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Corrfeze bredgea. gebroge. glebas subigere. braca. to harrow (Lat. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses.D. brake. pasture. to stiffen against Taboada). a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. marsh or swamp. the original meaning of G. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. a harrow. watered.' It. 2. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. or overthrow of trees by the wind. bruch. and when once thrown down. a thicket. break flax PLD. broor bushy place Hal. brog. tnurdma. OFr. The Fr. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. brcekke. to rub. broeck. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. casser le \va. been confounded with the verb break. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. bush. in northern climates. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. Gr. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. brage. gebroge. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. in usus braca. ^raca. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. briers. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. Fr.— . and G. murrokko. flachs brechen. We — . reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. gebroge. brambles. Dan. to pound. broil. as in Sp. a stream. It. murran. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. Sp. as in Du. might come to signify a swamp. thicket. as in the case of horse-breaking. to bend or direct a cannon. breaking in the operation.

snotty . and waste growths. brem. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. So Swiss gaggi. brank. it glitters — — .94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. sedge burkni. berneux. branchia. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . ordure . a vine twig Bav. brok. &c. Bret. Bret. a bridle or bit . It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. bracken or fern . bruch. a bud It. from Lat. Then by comparison with claws or arms. Broom. brenda. to brank.D. bruk. a bud. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. a shoot or twig. broom. apiece orbitbrandone. sprouts. The naof strain. Thornas and bremelas. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. the bull-finch. brang. a shoot. branco. brughera.D. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. . As ON. — branca. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. the thorn apple or stramonium. from brug. Bran. ground full of briers. burning brennen. G. to gripe. i. . heath. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. brambles. It will be found that shrubs. brin d. thorns and Gen. brandiiialil. brom. brass. cack. constrain. ear-wax mud. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brejo. brein. chaff. Grisons bruch. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. that is to say. breanan. brug). G. Thus in Lat. Pl. heath. to -brugen. a briery plot. AS. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. heath ON. brushwood. broussaille. a burning fragment of wood. w. brin (as It brano). broem. w. broccoli. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. young twig {brom-beisser. thicket of brambles Cot. Gael. In like hrst. a shrub from Bret. brugek. a rod or twig. piecemeal brindelles. branche. Piedm. cabbage sprouts Fl. Bret. from virga. It. brandello. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. a firebrand. broom. from Servian pnit. Brand. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. pfriemen. bushes. brank. may be so called in analogy with Bret. . &c. bran. . a single plant of heath. or other plants of a like nature. or ling. also a marshy low ground or fen . breme j Sw. gebriiche. brous. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. stink . It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. brog. bronbo. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. what is cast out as worthless. from brand. brenn hesken. Branch. bruk. brenna. brancas. briars. virgultum. hallier. sweet broom. wood composed of twigs. heath (Bret. It. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. brano. a halter. brouskoad. nasty. Brancare. titio. Fr. broembel-CBppel. G. young buisson fort epais. pfriem in the sense of an awl. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. 1 8. Port. Sir Topaz. bruch. . bruskoad. to burn. heath. or with It. —Ducange. 2.. the branch of a tree. and thence a shoot. brandr. brenn. bran. brarn. . and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. iii. a roA. as. a bud. excrement. bramble Du.). Gael. G. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. breun. restrain. bit by bit. also pfriemkraut. braeme. Thus we have w. compress. in the same sense. . But we find It. pfropf. Fr. to bridle. a thick bush. bromboli. See Brush. to or iron. Russ. gebroge. bretnel. brwnt. brin. . Rouchi bren d'orMe. pected that brake. Pl. The same form becomes in It.G. Bret. brandmurk. Fr. E. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . Dan. Brank. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. dirt . to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. — . A mark made by burning. a small deri\'ation . Fr. braam. broust. Bramble. brosst. brug. . The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. from gaggi. bren. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. and E. Serv. a heath." The bmno a • on . in the sense oi fern. prufye. a shrub . is the draff or excrement of the com. piece of anything. Bav. heath. That beareth the red hepe. bro7n. as AS. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. bruk. clutch. a dunghill. Diez. bren. brand. sawdust. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . brake.

brin. to bicker 2nd. a To Brandish. De Barros considers vinum ardens. Formerly brandy-wine. to brandle. to blaze. put. a pan of hot coals. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. stake. brustle. V. and scold. to burn. to glisten or flash. E. spirit distilled from wine. Ija. braise or hot coals. 59. N. to solder iron. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. to shake. Fr. brand. so. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. — ting to confusion. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brandiller. Hume in brand in ON. to make display . brandende wijn. bryne. to brandle or The It.pan of coals. So. hoisting to the fall. Bret. to distil . to confuse. the spelling to kindle. bum. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. Jam. distilled wine. hot Fr. prasseln. bransle. weinbrenner. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to burn. bruzi. Thus the bound up again. to make sense of a bright red dye. e. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. eldibrandr. braza. or in stick. urens. apparently very distinct from each other. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. G. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. bra?ier. to quarrel. to murmur. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . brangle or brawl in E. set on fire. Chron. It. brazeiro. Bailey. bresil. Diez. brush. branler. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. Fl. a stick. faire fracas. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. bracea. The corresponding form in Gael. to roar.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. branla. bruan. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. firewood. E. live coals. noise. du Roi et laine. a roaring fire. to sound of the Fr. to totter. Chron. was in use Fr. bruciare. billet. to hurl with great force. brandigh. flagrans. to shake. splinter. braser. a brusler. firebrand. forms brasil.well. brennen. briiler. morsel. Guill. Du. d'Angl. embraser. To brand. to brangle. It. to French brawl or brangle. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Sw. became ashes Pied. bruire. Milan. to dash. and bruir. the colour than hitherto known. to brustle. brasa. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. brascct. perplex. brasca. — . though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. The tre brangillis. glowing embers . brasca. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. to crackle . shake. brasil. bragale\ wood. Fr. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to rustle. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. Brase. in Marsh. brandiller. WaUon. Braser. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. G. as Jamieson explains it. given to the country. from to vociferate. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. plained by Florio. brandolare is exbrandish. branler. to braze or lute. AS. bragia. before the discovery of America in the brandir. to shake The word brisil. braise. Port. to make shine with shaking. to burn. from used in dyeing cloths. bracia. all. Fr. Gris. to and fro in the hand. then brandr. to shog. fire-wood. De Goes. totter. make an outcry. The name Brandy. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. as Fr. Brangle. n. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. Fr. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. incendium. aqua ardens. is bntan. crackle. brastlian. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. — . bransella. brus^. brane-wood. Kil. ish. comes from thence. brasa. brouir. Lye. Brasil. make a — . to Bailey. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. as again by well as the blade of a sword.^Brandle. conbillet. gebrannter wein. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. brazil. brausen. — . a fragment. a round dance. crackle. With top trimbling. Sw. braise. In the same way the set on fire .. Manx bransey. and branchis shaiand D. It. To brase AS. Fr. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. not. ist.

Many gambes. Brangle.brettysing. calf of the leg. then a parapet. fraiche. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. saillies. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. A land of dance. brailler. bmhon for brado7i. boutures. muscular parts of the body. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. flesh of a leg of pork. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. bratid calf of the leg. breyon de kinds of . bralle. 1156. pan- — Rayn. Brawn. 2. a plank or board. a lump of flesh. . Dan. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. breyon. AS. a rag . slut. to tear piecemeal. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. brat. squall. bratach. bratdn). brdto (ace.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. as scrawl from scrabble. slakker-bortchen. or on the top of a wall. as lattice. breteque. rag. frame of laths. whether contracted from brabble. The muscular part of the body. Kil. strepitus 2. Sup. a parapet. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. to shake. Mundart. berd. brett. noise. brat. braeye. bretesque. OFr. braede. —^Bronze. The verb is probably derived from the brase. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. from Sc. Wall. bronze. bransle. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. a slabbering-bib. Sc. a mantle. A bretise or bretage is linguarum.— Braid. tasce. borderinge. Cologne broden. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. Hist. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Westphal. the calf of the leg. brandillo. coassatio. ' A vraale. a clout. a lump. It .D. Cot. braodhlach. OFr. at brasa. cloth. See Brandish. and bronzo. discord. A. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. as criailler of crier. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. ferruminare. or whether it be from Fr. bred.D. Bailey. For the application to a^child compare Bret. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. Du. burning coals. solder.' BRASS BRAY et AS. branle. cob. especially that used in the working of iron . Fris. &c. braon. brat. boarding being sbranare.96 Roquefort. to cry. P1. The same correspondence is seen between It. —-Jam. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. — . Brave. bran. Brawl. brettys. a — A from the confused noise. from Fr. Florio. to braze.D. to carbonado. W. 1224. It. le repasser un peu sur la braise. luncheon. Paris. frequentative of braire. lat'te. brass. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. a lump of flesh. neita girl). a wooden tower. Fr. to scold . braser Fargent. in the first instance of boards. braoilich. ni autres choses sur Due. Math. from branler. a fortification. Brat. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . to copper.— Remade. Pm. G. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. brazen. as rashers upon quick burning coals. a patch of cloth. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). So also See Brag. Fr. Fr. bronzacchiare. 368. bribe de viande. bras. buttock Sc. a rag . OHG. slibro.^ — Sverris Saga. a battle-girdle. bronzare. as a brawling brook. slibro {neita. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. bas morceau de viande brawhng. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. a loud noise. bratidone.' Hal. a contempt- banner. braiio. Cot. A.walle — Pr. a cloak. Pisana in Mur. calf of the leg. pil. Bartizan. Betrax of a —^Jam. contignatio. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. a Lap. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. baltresca. roar. equivalent to the Du. to solder. a. esbraotier. KiL Prov. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. braion. a rag. ship. Brass. bradon. Certainly a little girl. to talk at bralle op. deblaterare. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. bartisan. any piece. I. Swiss bradle. bradlete. Brattice.— Diez. ON.— Fl. See Bray. bruir. — Deutsch. a contemptuous name for a young child. trul. A dispute or squabble. Gael. apron. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. Jam. Circumeunt cibertesca. Lorraine bravon. It. bretays). is The word — uous name for a woman. ^Altieri. brces. to Gael. bartising. the buttocks. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a lath. Sp. bretesche. breyon d'chaur. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple.propugnaculum.

Fin. resound . ON. V. imitate or resemble one. . a . to break. paste or dough. gestus. brame. and make a hideous noise.' To Bray. to braid. kind. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. bratsche.fracas. appearance Hal.ear rog. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. disturbance. Cat. And at a braid he gun it bende. to resemble. on. paxog. crackle . V. braidir. a brack. weave The ON. fractus j Gr. OE. ON. yell. a brake for hemp or flax. brugier. breach. to bray in a mortar.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. Breach. Bailey. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. father. as the voice of the ass. i. upbraid. Fr. to The cup was uncoverid. broad. R. rattle. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. crash. fragor. bregda. iU-favouredly — in Jam. to cry Port. k. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. twist. And with a traid I tumyt me about. ser. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. Swiss bratschig. baiyl. father. ^p&xia. which has given much trouble to commentators. will. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. brikan. or cry out loudly . as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. relation is seen between Lat. Fr. a mill. cyprinus latus. The Lat. or wound. a rag f . mos. I'll live and die a maid. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. bragd is also applied nets. to tear Bret. plait. G. to work up in a mortar. and fracasously. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. R. crepo and E. e. fish. brand. . Q. Prov. Bread. noise . crash. riAprjyvvfu. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. to break. instantane. Beryn. brak. vapna-brak. ybrayid. breuan. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. to pretend. Goth. to the seijauntes. is .' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. The ON. To rub or grind down Sp. Cot. at braga eftir euium. to smack or the eye. to crash. F. roar. explaining a very obscure application of the E. bragr. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. a rent. braa. D. bregar. brechen. to start. bragd — ON. — . Bret. to braid. braire. Then is simply. a crash. Ppvxia. The same He might don us both a villany. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. To Break.y. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. yell. to braid the hair.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX.g. to roar or bellow. Gr. a wink. 2. abraid. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to rumble. starts crackling up. &c. &c. V. braid. Lat. Then. to N. broyer. to bray like an ass. to snatch. From the or brack in a wall. as OE.ch. D. and frangere. bray. bradar. to cry out. roar. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. turn. rustle. bruzir.. to resemble him. bregar. D. to scold. to roar as the sea. the sword was out break. G. &c. braidar. as the notion of turning crack. to sound very loud and very harshly. soft . to braid acquires the sense of bend. to crash. a breach Cot. regi. verb to break. to bellow. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. See Brake. make a disturbance. Wal. Prov. breche. brak. to cry out. rangere. brot. with or without a final d. ing. — koa. Chaucer. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. and to signify the fracture itself. to t. to rub Fr. 7 . Dunbar braessem. braea. W.^ Fr. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. 145. E. in Jam. to have the lineaments of one's ON. Bread. braa. to break. rogi. to rush. the miller's dog. Du. augnabragd. to break Fr. Chaucer. brage. to knead. the sound — of arms. bru. at once. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. at a braid. the clash of ai-ms Dan. AS. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. brice. to bawl. . — — — explained motus loud noise. to roar. to resemble. &c. bruire.

a cold and windy mist or frost . bresilles. . properly to crackle. breeze. grillare. brciz. to rattle (as hail). bruc. bridsen. brimme. b}-as. a to lay fly-flap. Lat. with It. brdtschen. a girdle.t. chillness or shivering. briosa. . a cool wind. to breech. simmer. brise. noise. zare. Gael. It. bris. brinisa. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . brossi!. the dry spines of furze broken off. a twitch for a horse. to fry Then from a Gl. bre- I'os qui bresole. Fris. braia J OFr. bragues. . a box. Bret. forms. brut. bris de charbon. breme. polenta. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. a crum. — Brist. may be from the wurh fesser. Compare OE. Swiss brdtsch. siibligar. to crackle. grillen. brosame. Fr. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. brisd. Dev. braux. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. brumtnen. to brew. . binding. brusc. braguier. vapour. fail. Du. from brace. brimsa. G^nev. of E. broil. griller. the soler. to feize or feaze. Dan. Biglotton. are in like manner ' . bandage or truss for a rupture. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. de bridse geveii. bruise. as. little bits of wood Berri briser. instead of being derived from 'La. an into shiver. to whip. orts. brison. trembling. bruzir. w. as by the Sc. to break. a cramp-iron for holding things together. to brew. OFr. brissle. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. brijselen. also to chill and shiver with cold. Bruise. &c. Isidore and Tatian. braciarc. We bragezj on. to burst. brezling. brustia. E. the breech or buttocks. Breath. trusts. Breeze. — Halma. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. of straining. drawers. Fr. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. and brought beneath between the legs. subligaculum. coaldust. G. braich. Lat. PI. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. Prov. Originally probably the word signified steam. to bray. bratscher. braucn. and E. briosa. as in the case of twitter. the bust. brcekur j It. Du. . i5r(Z^. Gl. broza. a smack. malt. sheep's droppings bruss. brcEth. remains of leaves. to murmur. breinse. brezza. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. break.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. de Vaud. The Teutonic verbs. their stings draw . to fry . corresponding to G. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. bryi^ga. Breeches. brugga. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. G. The Breech (Prov. brok. grill. Swiss Rom. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. brist. — — strument for smacking.98 borst. AS. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. singing bone. windy withal. brire. — See Broth. G. Du. E. — . body brostia. from ligare. Russ. brezzare. Sw. . to roast. simmering. of trees. morsel. bretilles. Prov. braca. a gadfly. broiiwen. breath. chilly. bruzun. bris. Breeze. to smack. as commonly explained. brew. G. Swiss AS. met de bridse slaan. brasser. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. breson. switch. G. and other rubbish dibris. bra. briste.britschen. Breeze. a crum Du. but more probably the E. sprouted corn. Briss and buttons. Du. an odour. Bret. AS. britze. to crush to break. Piedm. to shiver for cold. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. or the blow itself. clout for a child. briiz. Bracha. braies. burst. brijsen. einem de britze geven. one on the breech so that (klatschet)./ssus. dial. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Brize. xyligogio castigare. as the G. Hume in Jam. brache. scent. —Briss. to resound. braga. brasiare. QNtsterviald) pritschen. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. brisciare. brasiuiii. rubbish. braca. breost.vare.).D. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. malt. to bind. Piedm. peitschen. bracecs . crush. a horse's twitch. Breast. /esses. brodem. then to broil. — And blood. briosat'. fitzen. Gl. Fr. murmur—Vocab. bremse. Dtyden. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. brisoler. braies. brodel. from AS. rubbish. Rom. Goth. in Schilter. — . To Brew. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. braga. Gael. to buzz. Hence the Lat. forms analogous to E. to be misty and cold. So ON. briig.'— Gl. as. bark Fr. point to G. to hum. See Brick. broden. are related to Prov. cloven. to simmer. so AS. murmur. representing the sound of a blow. applied to shivering. fastening . braie.

briiths. brere. broken. It. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. Ihre. Bridge. betonica. feast of espousals.privatus. brahi. pavement brolegge. to pave. a briole. bro. to stamp. bulicame. Brier. to prepare. Walach. brA. heath. Fl. AS. So It. conjux. brigade. . pavement. pier. two-masted vessel. OSw. a bit. E. httle bit. barren land priodas. stone-bridge bnikkoti. company. masted vessel. and ODu. arf-ol. any jot or crum. bruk. The Sw. division of an army. a man. brique de pain. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bride. son. braut. has briguer. hlafes brice. a wedding priod-fab. but probably Bricoteau. In the G. imprint. brigata. buskins. a crum. sponsa. brigantine. Lang. a fragment. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance.It. Bridal. AS. twopares Lat. collect bits of food. E. a rogue . one's ovin. brukkas. whence berw. ibrukkti. bro is applied not only to a bridge. from the Normans. a quoit of stone. a cheat. bro. lipdZu}. brughiera. to Isrew. In the patois of briccia. brau. In E. being one of the numersummary or any short writing.Fr. bribe de pain. AS. feast. a heath. BRIGADE dead. jipaaaiii. a bride Brig. thick appropriated. Lat. a beggar. W. brakes of high-grown ferns. bridelj OHG. bably contracted from brigantine. remarkable that the Gr. a heath brughera. nurus G. a married man or woman Lat. briw. brasser. to press. berwi. bricge j G. a Bride. . as. buckler J ON. from the last 99 of which. Du. Priodi. If the foregoing were not so clear. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. broken bread. boiling up brocoliere.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. and berweddu. a proprietor. E. to boil. a fragment. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . bricou. brieden. brittil. to break. A — A — . especially to a letter or command. the equivalent of to the dial. Fr. malt. or brizo. bretonica. to circulate. Gl. AS. a married man guma. brug. the newly. a brig or priodor. Diefenbach com. to meet together. as so. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. Pol. Bribe. G^n^v. appropriate. bruk. ' — . ter-in-law. Gael.pritil . bruskr and buskr. daughheath. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. . brood. The origin of the word is the w. to brew. peculiar. it is applied to the letter to OE. Brick.rough with brambles and bushes. to pave brukkti. corresponding or letter. is still used in this sense. from Bridegroom. berwedd. briwo. . bara briw. OHG. It. the Fr. jetty. ' . . funeral. a rogue. owned also propriate. bryd-gutna. brilt. Hence OE. . guma. from Bret. bribour. married. — — — — — — . fastningar-ol. broken victuals. brice. AS. Flor. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Applied ous words derived from break. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. fraoch. Cot. fragment. pavement Lith. ap. fit. birbone. Brique. a little king's writs. a lump of bread briber. breve or brevis. to break to pieces bricalio. bridge. Brigade. brar. Diez. fervere. Grisons bruch. of burial. then the marriage itself. Sp. a lump of bread. Rouchi brife. Hdcart.. bride. in the sense of OSw. bryd-eale. which however is undoubtedly from brace.groom. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Goth. graf-ol. to appropriate. Thom. Mid. Bridal. Brewis. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. briicke. Neumann. AS. sugga. Pro(merch=:maid). It — is Kil. a bush. priod. to boil. a boiling. Ducange. bidsel. grug. See Broth. priod-ferch. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. consort with. beaten way Dan. Trovarfor bride-ale. and that from It. So in The Prov. groom (mab=:son). — . to beg one's bread. to rub. broosekens. birbante. . a sow. — . Gael. bruarium. frayer. piece of burnt clay. Brief. bitill.bergantino. A bribe is A — — arval. bruith. privus. to boil. brygga. bread. E. bo. w. a crum. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. Bridle. Fr. brocaly. Dan. but to a paved road. bruyere. the marriage si in brigata. . from bit. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. gf2o. a bride. ment of anything broken. Due. ON. Fr. with transposition of the r. brutg. a lump of bread. betony brulicame. to tlie brico. served (Patois de Bray). to press in.gfiugga. troop. malt. crew. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. bygga. .

Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. the grew high. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. a spark. clarus. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. OHG. briga. from hall. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. — — . brigan.Lat. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. briga. labour. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. also called briganders. clangour. to shine. to glitter. tinnitus. In Fin. willata. inde squammatus. a noise. then. and diligence. secondarily. Gall. They or brigantini. transparent. A strepere. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. combat. and secondly. moment. clare lucens. a brigantine. It. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . to piracy.shine. to resound. and to associate with them. glbram. Florio. clang. dine. bright bearhtm. From ON. splendour. brigandare. Swab.— . So G. Brigata. on his — own account. Lat. pugna. that of Fr. splendour. strife.pracht. brebrigare. hell. riis ' — Chron. The Ir. Beorktode bene sweg. tuilahtaa. Wilista. . in the first instance. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Du. to bend a bow It. — brigante. schateren. The primary meaning of Sp. Owl and beorhtian. and led it away. — Beowulf. to reservavit. brak. Brilliant. the gleeman's song. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. a pirate.glampa. It. brigare. bregar. to ring. to contend with another. in later times a robber or highway-man. dine. glir. Schmeller. bracht. a sound.' in Due. praht. The E. Flor. lay was sung. biartr.dorem clarum reflecto.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. tumult. bragen. glamm. wilella. to shift for with care. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. loo BRIGAND lor. necessary business. braid. and the E. Due. bairhts. brcEhtin. Xa/iTTii). and. 312. beorht. jurgia. malandrini. splendens . —Capgrave. outcry. Mid. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. clear. glitter. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . twinkling. to cry 'Schmid OE.' The sense of strife or combat express. — Due. to rove. 1654. Adelung. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. brigare. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. is easily understood. brdgen. bray. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. tinnitum clarum movco. noise. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren.' torum. XafXTTpoQ. — A A . to rob. — brigante.D. clear sound. to make a loud noise. Goth. in the sense of a robber. . rixa. In the same way to strive is. show the origin of Lat. Gr. — Probably then to strive. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . — Brigantine. at a later period. squamma . Bav. splcnornd de brigandine. rover either by sea or land. It. a glittering. See Brake. to sound. clear. shriek with laughter. bryhtm. with respect either to sound or colour. to cry. sound. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. brigant. to shine. brawl. a small light pinnace pro. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. Bright. and. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. cange has 'Veles. there are many armour. It. may play the pirate or thief at sea. to glamr. Heo — song That AS. schiteren. tinkle. AS. briegen. and ner me hit iherde. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. to strive for. A. glamra. etincelle. representing a sudden noise.clare ^tinniens. himself to serve men of merit. — Briganbriga. speech. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. the bench-notes resounded. tion.' The passage from the sense of a light. \oice. and hence be explained glampi. Brigand.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. clear. seems to be to exert force gar el area. manifest ON. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. 1351. kii:'a. kilistua.

ON. breziller. the heat of animals. s. ter. broil . to twinkle. fierce. to utter cries. Fl. brand-krossottr. voux. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. — . . to crackle. It. border. border. to quaver with the voice. Brim. fringe (Lat. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. the meaning is transL' amour. griller). from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. to broil. brandr and Fr. of the eye. striped or streaked. a long. furious. brissle. to shine. to long for a thing. ring. that the original meaning of the Sc. to make bilbil). brisoler. brennistein. Hence with an initial s. greedily to covet Cot. brim Magy. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. Kil. cross-barred in colour. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). Prov. to glitter . E. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. from brandr. — g. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. to glitter. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. sonitum edere bremen. Lith. griller. to burn. to . appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. noise made by meat in broiling. lap. (poet. whether of desire or anger. brame. In Fr. grisser. pMiller. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. Rayn. fringe . barm-cloth or barmskin. kimista. sprainged. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. bryn. der. Wtb. bramar. bremmen. ling noise and a sparkling light. whence bilbil-goda (literally. Thus Lat. Streaked. the edge. barm.— BRIM . brummen. brow of a hill. edge Pol.' d'etre marie . rut. to creak. Subo. finds the Fr. grdzil. vattubryn. fire. crackle . to sparkle. briller. the lap or bosom. Rugere. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to roar. Sc. bramer. A . 1. bremmen. barmr. the singing of Sodom — — . In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. In the same way Sw. a rod. which seems identical with rim. Said of swine when in heat. glit. brummen : de soge brummet. as is the case also with Pl. : ' — bone). burning stone. ardere desiderio. to crackle. Swiss Rom. . to resound.D. Sc. Dan. 754. sparkle. and 1. AS. and corresponding to these. brinfire. broiled.) brimi. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. reecho. Fr. to roar. Dief. to fret . fimbria) . ous. bremas. a streak. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. bresoler (Gloss. to storm. border. It. the heat of animals. G. grisler. gresiller. a stick. to make a crackling noise. brim. komottaa. to shake. crackle.). as well as bl and gl. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. to glitter distance . Supp. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. small gravel. the sow is brimming. 154. brullo. Brindled. to sound deep or hollow. excited. AS. to parch.— Brinded. — Rim. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. bar. brommen. Tresiller. spraing. Tutschek. surface of the ocean. coloured in stripes. rugire. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. margin.its vent in cries and roaring. brmdottr. briller. lip of a vessel. brant. Du. a border. chime). komista. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. to shimmer. to wish or covet. ON. the verbs Flor. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. as of meat in broiling . The meaning of the Fr. breme. — — — . as in ing or earnest desire bramare. to shine. breziller. clangor tinniens. parched. greDiet. perent. hence the bosom. Brimstone. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. os qui bresole. — — So Fr. shine. kimmaltaa. griller d'impatience. an apron. ON. The identity of ON. FJ. Langtoft. kommata. a borDu. glisten. brumft. The E. kiimottaa. bry7ie. have then in Fr. . leonum). 1 1 64. The expression is now confined to the sow. frequently interchange. To Brim. grullo. as in Langued. post. gresiller.' Elyot in Way. with an initial br instead of gr. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. lap of a garment . brezil. bramire. brdnnsten. brastlian.ioTiviS acutus. brama. s. kimina. Closely connected is OE. brillare. from bringe. on. rym^. burning. or violent action. brunft. Sw. kajata. the eye-brow. is used of raging. bray as an ass bramire. to shine. earnestly . vigorHal. brimmen. It. Brem. to creak. identical with passion. rugire (cervorum. also to reflect. originally the lap folding over the breast. breme. briller (related to each other as OFr. bramar. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. brame. tience.preni. beam. dial.

aculeus. a clasp. a shoot or sprig. to stab Gael. . brodden. rebrousser. Brocade. brittle. Fr. chest. Ptg. prick with Sw. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. cK) the . Pectusculum. a cold and windy mist or frost. Zeuss. brisk in taste. the surf. a morsel . Bret. Prov. broccata. brot. a projecting tooth It. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). a bud. saulmeure. broc. Antiq. setting the hair on end compare It. flame. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. has under It. emotions which produce it. brusk. angry. brocciare. Hal. eager. brissko). briota. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. bruckle. britar. Boh. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. Fr. a morsel.g. brichet. as. Fr. to goad. rude. brog. to spur. Then as the effect of shivering. Fr. the surf. reburrus. against the grain . to stitch. or — .). ruffling. Berri. e. brim (poet. Sp. a stormy brimsea . grim. a brooch. Commonly explained as from Fr. fierce. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. to set up one's birse. byrst. are used in the sense of brittle. flames. as unripe fruits. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. to burn. as a noun. NE. bryne. brindelles de balai. See Brand. broca. wine of a sharp. an awl.. Sw. Cot. to broil.). bryde.rcendij'i. broccare. to spur. a peg sbrocco. crabbed. brisciare. of astonishment. from break. rebursiis.Lat. Sc. briocho. Breeze been connected with the Sc. and. apt to break. Brickie. Dan. brote. Du. brocco. Du. See To Brim. Mid. borst. brocchus. brezzare. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. . to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. spur. brcit. breaking out into growth. p. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. of E. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. bringe traced through the brano. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. stitch. brezza. ON. Formerly written brotil. trembling. fiscbryne. metaphorically. sprouts. — A . and forms on. to break. spricka. whence may be explained the Sc. brust. sharp. to shoot. brusco. coli. to stick. as. — bryme. the twigs of a besom. Walach. brocar. brim. ribrezzoso. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. . setting the hair on end. very salt brimi. Abroacli. Gl. i. a rod or twig. brimhliod. to bud. Brym. a slip or sprig of an herb . to turn up the point of anything. G. Bristle. a stitch brocher. bruskett. a rebours. brimme. birs. to birstle. bringue. Alfr. brittle. brocco. — in Due. form bris. hot-tempered. is called a birssy day. . harsh vin brusque. Bret. as. to break. Liquamen vel garum. Sc. breidr. to break. Bohem. fragile. Brisk. Russ. bricho (with the diminutives. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. britchet. Hence ribrezzare. 222. brin. Prov. a deluge. brusque. brime. brandello. and Sc. Lat. It. broche. expression. brocher. to broach a business. sour.procio. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. ' breast. a bit . shoot. brddj Goth. It. to shiver for Sold or for fear. like the Broad. 'V^. bristly . Prov.'— Vita'abbatum S. It. sprout. brioshko. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick.D. bringe. Brittle. to scorch. — . — — . brich. smart taste. fantas'* tical. Da. craw of a bird. man's throat. is to erect the hair. borstel. a button broche. b. briser.. breast. birssy. a fragment. birstle. sprocco. Gr. ' . birsle. Compare also E. or the full • . Fr. rash. breaking of the waves brim sior. to roar. a crum. a spit. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. Fris. borzen. roar of the sea saltr. to begin upon it. bruched (Fr. humorous. from brande. briota. It. a skewer. Port. strong itself. Russ. See Spread. startling. to put one in a rage . broca. bresk. braidsj ON. bronchus. Brisket. . birse. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. to crack. bros. In the N. quick. . a brad or tack. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Palsgr. Fr. Salte sand is called brimsand. /3pE^m. and hence. a bud. bros. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. lively. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. Brine. brim. the brisket or . brytan. britar. brickie. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling.' Nat. brissle. to thrust. thick — A elastic hair. to set it a going. from AS. brockle. borzos (struppig). a belly. Brooch. The Pl. brijn (Kil. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. sticking up . to spit. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. Swiss to stand out . suddenly angry.

to crackle. sting. or It. brod. a confused streaked face of the animal. a freckle. margin. blusters. broccuto. broice.. Florio. brocach. The Bret. initial . scorch. a border. and bord or bred. a fallingThe sense has been out. onbryrdan. bmsciare. ornamented with a raised pile. spotted. froco. to knots or loops. bordar. embroidering. parti-coloured. E. rinj'. a freckle. a prick. To roast upon hot coals. broccato was used to signify stuff . speckled. From direct imitation of Brock. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. of pointing out their latent defects. Cot. border. braird. to On the other hand the Sp. A badger. badger .tumultuous. prod. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. brasuole. prasseln. . breard. Sc. birsle. Thus brod. broighlich. Compare G. carbonado. the line of development has been something different. borprick. So from Pol. parch. AS. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. grullo. ciare. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. broder. houx. Broker. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. rustle. a quarrel. Grisons brascla. or snag. — — . brouda. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. broc. The ON. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. thread. B. speckled. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. — brissle. grislement. precisely analogous to the Sc. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . a badger. Contracted from Fr. b?-od. — The proper sense is that of Fr. a brim. brucilare. Icnotty. q. a flake of snow sion. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. briz. silkes-borda. Fr. W. bj'oil. to crackle. to instigate. point to an origin in Bret. to stud broccoso. noisy. stump. agree in being the extremity of a thing.sound. Fr. knobby . confound. to broil. broglio. Compare also AS. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. hurly-burlies. broil.— B. and w. Surrey in R. parched. storms. to embroider. Brocket. Gael. a brouhaha. tufted ornaments. brooked. brasiller.. brodio. broil. tumult broighleach. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. or salted fish on coals. — Gower in It. 103 embroidered. brerd. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. a To Broil. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. Gael. a peg. A fried or boiled steaks). brocart. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. bustling. fundamental origin. Hal. It of br the Fr. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. broukit. brastlian. bram. a flock or Gael. to crackle. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. It. brusler. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. bruler. Sc. It. briefh. — Fl. trouble. age was termed a pricket. brasbrasciuolare. or roast on the braise. brocco. an edge. Ptg. broud. brucach. brizen. dar seems derived from borde. brustle. a point. and AS. shuffle. frecSee Brawl. Here to ornament with needle-work. Dan. trouble. to darn. streaked. motes. freckled. or glowing coals broged. whence broccare. piebald . noise. R. Ihre has guU-bord. ToBroider. — . as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. Cot. parti-coloured. with Sc. bramowanie. atoms . brusuole. spots. to boss. v. to spur. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. sparks E. bordo. brychau. broc. brouFr. to prick. the shoot of corn. bawling. forming to jumble. to burn. broiled. kled breac. to scorch. hart of two years old. brindled. to burn. embroidery. to embroider. a border ornamented with gold. gold and silver. Sp. creak. to streaked or speckled in the face. gresiller. brullare. to crackle as a shell in the fire. Bret. Fr. border ornamented with silk. to parch or broil. has grisser. a brecJi. brasolare. a b?-ustolare. brasiller. here. a mole. brych. from the white. frocadura. tori shows that. . BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. to crackle.

damaged. burning. Fl. a cough Hal. analogous to Bohem. S. See Wreak. sunburnt.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. On • tliis principle the G. mediationem quorundam J. whence the modern courtier. G. slaae vrag paa. fault censure. raquer. bridde. Du. matter of blame weak place. glowing coals. Bronze. bronze. vile. See Broth. to sparkle. brod. rejection Pol. an outcast or rejected sheep. refuse wares. brwd. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. keep warm. a brood . to sort goods . rejected. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. the young of any animal . make out. Kil. in the sense of rejection. wrak. . to — garble. Brood. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. ODu. i. and to reject the damaged and unsound. If to vomit . lack. brack-gut (Sanders). G. Dan. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. spittle. Bronzare. — broeden. to hatch G. refuse brakowad. — . with. ordure. Sp. an . inspection. a broker. from makel. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic.— Lib. brumo. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. to . Du. bronze. brechen. Pro v. from break.D. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. phlegm. brod. to be hot. OFr. to pick and choose. Teutonic class : Du. refuse. hot. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. term was correcfo^ir. In the . refuse brakovat. try out. whnake. embers. couratier. brot. blur. Per manus et old worthless horse. fish-spawn broden. but from the primary sense of the It. bredan. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brasa. progeny of birds. broiid. brunds. to hatch. criticise (makeln). an operation performed over hot coals. . or brascla. brackefi. trumpery. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. a makeln. In those countries the term braker. wrack-good. abject. to sit on eggs. to roast on the embers. ON. find fault with. embers. brydio. Lat. Alb. . In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. try . with which much of our early commerce was carried on. dirty. brass does to Sp. tan. a chicken. Pl. to copper. bronze. hraki. to emit sparks. It may be compared with It. corrector. This word shows the same relation to It. brae. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. to garble. and as an adj. refuse goods. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. For the same reason the Kiittner. goods damaged by sea-water. 396. vile. dial. brid. To correct an exercise is to Lib. a breach or flaw. fermenting. bric-a-brac. spittle . inspect. brak. brokas. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. brands. . In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. to spit . as. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. briiten. broen. bronce. brack-gut. brakyne. selection. The Langued. reject.D. the spawn of fishes. wraken. Adelung. brak. to sort brakovanie.D. stain. to braze. Russ. insects. : ' . in which sense the OHG. faulty. Grisons brinzla.— — . abbronzanchiare. find fault — — — fuse matter. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. brut. screatio Junfus . — Fl. to pro- to reject . to brew. to pick. sort. brieden. Pl. Sc. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. Abbronzare. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. bronzo. refuse Fr. • . damaged. braeck goed. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. wreak. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. to nourish. Tooke's Catherine. designation is indkler. brokoti. to be wanting. Alb.— Breed. to hatch. to blame. Bret. braken. It. Fr. Prov. correctarius. which E. racaille. merchandises de rebut G. — a spark. brasa. The use sunburn. e. cracker. et A. Pl. to reject. buy and sell by commission. want. raca. brokers' goods. hot. tussis. vrage. to throw blame upon. cast Lith. filth. to criticise. To blame mens ware.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. sbrinzlar. See Brackish. w. bring eggs and spawn into active life. hrak. . cherish. 38. mud. warm. to scorch. a fault. embers to brund.D. find fault with. has exactly the force of G. nounce unsound. and fishes . pan metal. refuse. Jam. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. on. . brack. racher. G. bracker. — point out the faults.

or bushes and scrubby growths. brost. a river. the bubbling or springing up of water. Due. Brothel. to use bruks. bruc. noise. eminence . to sprout. bruno. juniper. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. chen. sordes seu strigmata young branch. and also border. sprot. brus. borda. breg. brewis. browys. augen-braune. . BROOK brook w. brouser. Browse. It. Fr. strength. . broth Brown.) . bree. Tam de terrS. Catalan brossa. See Bramble. Fr. fabric consists. a shrub broust. frucius. broth. shoots. a caldron. brov. fur Broom. brennen. to bear patiently. brpuster. Du. OFr. grow into a bush. laissent Domunculum. broccola. — exiit et heath. braussa. or broken up . brudi. Manx broie. a bud. to bubble up with noise. brotar. brouet. Commonly Teutonic. braun. grow brossa. perhaps burnt coloilr. brew . bordel. in which brinnan. brost. briar. brlgh.D. heath. &c. Serv. to use. Bret. brukjan. brozia. . brucan. and Sc. bor. kail brose. verge. The AS. from ripa. Sc. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. brstiti. a little house or cottage of timber. Dan. eye-brow. broc. protecting the eye. bordeau. bros. Gris. breg. to border. eye-lid. a sprout. broo. awl-plant. Wtb. — ' . bruich. brous.spross. shore . a source Gael. to boil bruithe. a hill. bregh. . bank. cia. to browse. to use. eye-brow. from Goth. to boil. to Pl. brmi. brauwe. Kil. properly boiling water briihen. broeye. brouskaol. waves. G. thairj w. Fr. strength Ir. wood . brodem. The origin is a re. to roar. Pol. thicket. Sp.D. bryn. margin. It. bros. edge. to shoot. brusmalt. Ger. brouches. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. broth brothaire. brau. to boil. sprout. may be connected with Russ. eye-brow. bank. a . broieii.brons. brotar. a hill. brun. brodo. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. . juice of meat. OHG. boiled . a confused noise of winds. G. A — . Sanscr. surDu. dumetum. bruth. of plants broust. who is steaming with sweat. Mid. Brow. brabruach. warmth ch'an. a derived from the boards. face. brouic. bruith. But the Walach. a bruth. w. the colour of things burnt. brio. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. G. The softening down of the consonant bud. hovel. Bohem. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. to spring . a bud brous-koad. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. dialects is very different. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. &c. Russ. shrub with leafless pointed edging. on. juice of briars. . broud. Ppim. bruithim. brosses. frui. rerum decoctarum. hut. Prov. of which the variety of forms. brd. — . Du. .braubiti. to boil. Lat. sprocco. borde. as small-pox. surface of Broth. Gael. eye-brow. pottage. pour boiling water over. braces. . broem bark. break out brewet. riviera. and Slavonic families. simmer from the murmuring AS. briihe. AS. . Roquef. brue . b7-un. eat. a spring. cabbage water. . Bret. broth. bryii. Gael. cabbage soup . brushbrothas) gives the OE. edge. pfriemkraut. shrubs. brosst. was originally used in the innocent sense of . — . G. meal. brwd. brass. Bohem. steam from heated bodies. has briw. spirit. forms appear related to the Ir. a little . w. bratrj Lat. t— Cot. thick bush brousta. shore. signifying low wet land (Brem. &c. sense the Sc. on. Fr. brocco. iVlanx broogh. to burn. sproc. low The AS. breh. seethe." Serv. as rhododendrons. Celtic. as Fr. Here we find throughout the Romance. plants composed of twigs. broth the ocean Sw. braew. brosses. hot. Bohem. infusion.— Overyssel Almanack. Gael. 'Lzt. vigour. . Bav. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . riviere. &c. or shoot. Gr. Fr. rage. bank. brdtaj Gael. branches. Gael. bushes. brushbroccoli. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. brow. breg. bank. . bryn. brothas. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. 105 Brook. brawdj Slavon. eye-lid. infusion the barley bree. eye-lash . Pl. Limousin broudi. (for brodem). heat. to murmur. house of ill fame. spuma. sprout. Sp. a shore. . bntdien. to scald. Russ. sprouts . It is Brother. sap. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. brink. sodden. a hut or cottage It. brogues. heat explaining the Prov. signifying twigs. bruceti. G. Prov. Cot. useful G. bruach. To digest. briu. broza. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. brouter. to browse. bruich. broth is sometimes used . brow of a hill. border. and It. . bhratrj Zend. buds. pith.. mettle. AS. . . heath. bud. bruddeln. ceales briw. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. broden. OHG. bruscosd quam de arabili. vigour. brst. It. enjoy Goth. bruitheati. shoot. broit. broi. brad.brink. frater.' Due. ale . broca. circuindedit cum familia. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. a sprig.

rods. —Chaucer. also a head-brush. . escousse. to crush. brustia. That in all haste he wouli. . a flax comb. Pr. The Bav. brunt. bross. a bud or sprout Bret. brust. to break to bits . Gael. borste. insilio. to strike the foot against an obstacle. bruise exOFr. bruiser. brustid. brossa. bush. an enmy. quisquilise. Gael. and . and in the second place a besoiB. bruscia. tuft of grass or hay.). rubbish. brise. detergere . brizeto.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. brist. orts. of twigs. a tuft of heath . the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. bruis (sing. Pm. brusca. to brush. modification of the same root which gives the E. Bruit. —Fabyan. a brush. brusg. coal See Breeze. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. brous. chips. brik. shoot brouskoad. dust. brist. It. briser. brusco. into a multitude of points. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. Prov. heath. brusca. Bruise. E. a brush. Sw. G. Gael. and Piedm. OFr. a little brizal. bushy ground. fragments. ca7-bo>i. a briser. sordes. broustia. Brunt of a daunger. crum bit . On the other hand. bris. bruc. bruito. a blow. break. The Lat. OE. Piedm. . crush. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. See next article. and It. Brush.— — i. Poems. borste. to break. brottcher. Allit. brusco. seems named from burst(on. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Bret. and actually come in collision. * Brunt. biirste. a brush. dust. Fr. bruit. broza. brist. a horse-brush. — those signifying a sprig.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Piedm. bruscolo. A. burt. . brousso. brMt. brist j Port. G. Palsgr. borste. Castr. bris. Wicliff. briiis (in the pi. or shoot. Pr. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Prov. Prov. Pm. mg Cat. brosst. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. wool-card. Cot.). 134. twig. . which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. insultus. brisd. to make a rumbling. to stumble. NE. brushwood. Lang. but on whom it schall to brisen him. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. to butt. Lang. shock. Cot. Prov. a bristle. burs. bruyere. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. bricalio. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. abroncar. Text Soc. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. E. bruskr. bruzir. — a bush. desbrisar. a rumbling. to break. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. . Fr. a brush . wood composed OE. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. brus. ON. Bav. fasx . — Fr. brista) or breaking out . wool-card. Brunt. bross. blow burcar. wool-card. flax-comb brossettes. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. Broach. Port. field. brosst. brusc (Diet. brikan. brysan. borst. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. Gael. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. brous. a brush Swiss bruske. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. It. a brush . bruire. borste. Fl. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. or sodenly comyn' dust.— Palsgr. effort. bud. brossar. appearin Goth. brossa. a bristle. to cleanse. bruscolo. Fr. quasi twigs. K. brosse. as It. The same relation holds good between G. Pr. a crum. remnants of hay or fodder. brit. 201. Diez. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. and also Brush. to break or burst. bris. To brush then would be to dust. Hall in R. ling or heath for brushes. borste. In E. dust. tremely. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. brosse. Fr. a brush . brisar. Beryn. bris. 174. to make brusshes on. a shrub composed of small twigs . britar. a mote. a — — (Agea) said. and sighid therewithal. rubbish. splinters. It. irruo. briketo.). Fr. fescue . shivers. Sp. B?-usske. brustia. Pr. Alexander. . AS. broza. twig. it schall be al Sw. britar. Sw. E. — OE. p. rubbish. brico or brizo. dust. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. a bush of hair. a noise. a bud. broust. And that best is. brugir. broken. biirste. a brush .

to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. moczyd. See Dupe. bubBuck. a fescue. byge.biiken j Svi. Diet. bubauti. But see Bristle. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. to buck. also applied Una. Bubble. Magy. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). pup. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. 1586. Sp. does not hold. maban and baban. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. the first wheal. a hole. . . who resorted to the islands beichen. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. Gael. lye. a steep for flax. a bubble . from weich. is 1. to Gael. says Laudon. a bubble. soft It. Sp. bifbel. to butt.buchen.lessiver. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. of wind. and the bunch. and as a verb. molle. buborek. moist. a. . a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. faire la lessive.boukaat. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow.' Palsgr. bub. was called bucking the linen. In G. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. a ashes. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. soft. the upper for coifee. to filter. . a bubble. because bucare does not in Marsh). to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. buquer. it is beuchen. rap. — — ' A : ' ' . bublati. tender. ac. mieknad. . bub. set of pirates in the spread. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. hump. Etym. to soften. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. bubiti. bucaIndies.byka. to bubble. to soak. erweichen. Sc. from colar. soft. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. w. The natives of Florida. very generally designated by the same puk. bokni. as G. to soften . Pref A. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. tender. lye. and Fr. bukke. when soap was tion is commonly taken. This bubette. bube. pukkata. The name. hump. The word was very generally Buccanier. buchen. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. as a buck rabbit. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. bubbola. to which in their language they call bou. . From an imita. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. the linen at buck. bugada.— . in which the flesh dish. The term bocan is still ap. It. to wet Pol. watery bud. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. knock. blast or strike with the forehead. at a door. boil animals. . Pol. BUBBLE bruschetta. — .-wtt miekki. bog-aske. tap . not so plentiful a commodity. to murmur. pokka7na. Esthon. bugd. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. Formerly. designation of a knob. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. hog dressed whole). or projecTo Buck. mollire. bucking. to butt. different form. Illust. The cipally on the Spaniards. bubseti. bwch. plied in the W. thunder gently . 1857. boc. bouk. 17th century. and then to other wild tumour Lith. bucata. to soften. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. . A . mokry. News. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. Bret. It. to a place used for the mouillir. Fr. bucquer. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to bump as a bittern. to soak foul linen before washing. or mok. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. to soak. a to the male deer.wet Lat.steep or soak. Fr. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. boucaner. Bohem. wood. open lath-work. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. Bohem. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. a push. Cot. mote. — .tare. to strain.derivation has been much discussed. Dan. to stick. Bret. boh. soft. boc. Fin. The place of such a 2. bduclien. I.to allow a free current of air. buck-ashes. colada. Pol. It. Magy. blister. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. soft . to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . de la Floride. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. Fr. buquer. The male goat. buck-ashes. to butt or jurr Dan. was called in Fr. a. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. buerj It. and exercised their cruelties prin. March 28. a knock word. the lower soak in lye. caned' Hence those who established them.D. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. tuft. bouc. top. drying of produce. w.

child. knob dwfr yn boglynu. A water-plant with leaves and gille. a stump buckle up. pulga. also a leather tuft . Bav.) as to soak. turgere buczendig. Wtb. A buckle or fastening for botch. put. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. butt . bud butzen. Pol. It termination is lost. bulla. from Gr. clump.poot. a small shallow and open tub. bouprobably identical with inok. blow. like a bean. Prov. ON. a pustule bout. boglyn. bdden. bulb. . pulga. soft. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. to un bout d'homme. rump of fowls . botzen. bougette. W. loud Cot. bloca.stumpy man. . rabodS. a ring. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. case of leather . dim. The dressed fur of lambs. buckel. boucle. The entire train of thought is bucket. bouk is a pail and with the dim. G. Sp. . Mid. a boss. is doubtless fallacious. bloquier. Du. The knob or projection formN. motus creber. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. is to shrivel up. above mentioned. . from bo. crack. bucherare. protuberance. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. pote. boccula. boiling. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bucherame. don't stir from hence. the radical image seems to be a set plants. Budget. and the reference to It. bollire. water message. of bac. a pail or flowers. a budget. budge. boulj. stroke.anything short of its kind. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. hump. bug. stud. Lat. to word. and weichen. bugnir. Swab. . bogla. swelling. boucler. ble. . to butt. gjeit-klauv. convexity. * Bucket. dinted.may probably be explained by N.' And this sacrament bus have dial. thrust. belonging to the calling of the chen. to line with fur. Bav. NE. It. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. knob . call. In Lat. to budge. cattle. call. a navel. agreeing with Gael.— . w. boucle. to stir. It. explaining Fr.' Boccaccio. to graft or bud trees. So on. brobrocchiere. the word w ' — . a . bukke-blad. . to poke. boach. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. — . butzen.. bouton. bod. Bucolic. Bus. ornamental stud. buachazlle. — — . the root of the Slavonic words gran. bouljein. a tuft. a boy. a shield. Hardly identical with Fr. stir. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. sboge. with which it was ornamented. a leathern sack. butze. pwtio. Fr. Gael.) . boqueranmis. boss. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. * Buckle. weich. ' . Bret. Port. butzen (Du. OHG. ein. Sw.. to pen cattle. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. boss of a shield. K. bulais daqui. macero. no wheel bogeilio. ' . Mid. a buclder or shield budge. a leather strap probably takes its name clump.). a boss. bod. OFr. knock. To thrusting part of a long body. .chissima. swelling. dint . Buckler. male or botzen. butzen K. Fr./a. to boss or swell out G. Budge. with let. to thrust. a budget.pode. or male of to boil . bul. need. a fold ceilio. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. boucle. mani. bucolicus. become bochen. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. whom it is still much in use. bouge. a dumpy gin. bog and G. bocla. boucaran. weich. scion. bo. Buck-bean. See Bulk. Fr. Fr. built. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. Behoves. The word is a ddyn. bloca. botzen.Lat. call bo. bub. butz. imbuere. bolgia. Hence quel. Prov. to boil. Prov. w. . a short thick man. a little coffer or turgidus. a shoot. bulka. Fr. bouclier. bedde. wallet. Du. as in Fr. trunk of wood covered with leather. prick in a target. potz. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. set of a plant in bulk. Fr. This expression boglire. Cot. bullion. bunch . — . bucket Fl. of bouge. a bubble three thyngis. Fr. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. bougette. a bud. jSouKoXiKog. bode. a cowherd. push forwards. Pied. a wallet. to 'soak. Russ. with a central boss. bump. no business to do that. Dan.stuff. a bump. butzen. don't a baby).. * Bud. to swell. to bud or bocla. skins pushit'. bunch. noise . — — . and of the Lat. bulga.goa. great pouch. ' . It. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. seen in Hesse botz. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield.r//'. bouger.n. having a boss. Dan. clasp of a book. a servant. were To Budge. weichen. boaLat. where the G. The Fr. pwt o Fr. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. to move.' Hal. II I'a feru desor I'escu. a trough). words is converted into b.t-le!L{ * Bud. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. lump. a buckle or protuberance. in the beginning of to pierce holes. excrescence. Bret. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. goat's hoof.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. probably from the notion of bubbling. of a surface. bolgetta.' Schm. It. fur. from bugr. bouter. . inboachen. a curl.

le reste emplissant d'eau. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. to marre often tasting it .— Buflae. W. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. — thence it has been transferred in E. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . sense of buffeter seems to Fr. popo. Buffeter. Fr. 265. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. air. either alone or with various terminations. The children were playing in an oppocomer. buffetto. things in Jam. buff leather. dausinti. bufogni. colour. bubiti. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. by metaphor. Lith. a hollow sound. to beat. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. ' They rether puffed at him. Fr. buffet. Thus buffet would a tapster. to give a as of a blow. a jester. buffet. G. scarecrow . mingled with water. to blow. Pl. buffet. bouffer. often blown upon. to a representation of his voice. a block-headed noddy. bw! It. Swiss baui. a cuff or buffet. as emblematically making light of an object. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. Magy. Fr. to give benti. to blow souffleU. yar^aa. puff. the buffe. as from Lith. bugs. Teet-bo. baubau. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. thus be translated to tap. tabernarius. — — — Buffet. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. from souffler. a dull BUG From 109 — A . the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. a side-board. een duffen toon.' La Crusca. . as Diez remarks. the place whence the wine was drawn. boman. dull sound.—Buffet. human. a clap. It. Buffoon. — Z. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. to rePl. as wine that hath taken wind. a puff. to jest or sport. bobaow. buffets. to blow . Gael. sounds. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. for this purpose is very widely spread. also the skin or heck of a buffe. to excite terror in Macleod. Fr. mumming. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff.D. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. or wild ox. leathern bucket. Fl. A blow. buffle-headed. made to —Bugbear. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. Esthon. blurt or puff with one's mouth. buffle. Cot. botffon. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. pulse . It.D. to frighten . breath. buivol. Pl. bubach.' perfield. bau ! children. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. stupid. a buffle or a bugle. bolgia. caupo. bw. Mid. &c. to bellow . —Boggart. buffare. bugle. and in Fr. soufflet. a bugbear. Buff. dausa. bufogni. Romola. From buff! of terror. buffeteur. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . duff^ dull. God's boast seemed feare children. to strike face to represent the unknown. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. a budget. Buffalo. a In . bolgetta. btifetarius. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. or hath been Cot. while in Sp. A puff with — Fl. Fr. bumann. bufHe. senses. Sc. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. E. a skin. dial. bugbear. buffen. also a G. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. From bulga. bwg. Hence the E. smells . — Bogle. A — Bug. site The two — — iii. Lat. confused. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. a goblin). and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. made by a person. buffare. bubaRuss. It. to signify an indefinite object of terror.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. bubus. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. a hobgoblin. Bufetarium.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. often covering his E. from It. cuff . Buff. word other cases. wauwau. bauwi. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. to puff. The use of the exclamation children. of colours. buffalo. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. deadened. Cot. — La Crusca. Sc. — retailing buffeter buffetier. Limousin bobal. Lith. wine may The verb in taverns. him but Boyd iugges. w. bouffer. Lat. rebuff. bukow Ikow. boo. The cry made to excite terror is then used. buffer. It. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. to puff. bo ! an interj. buMagy. buffa. tastes.D.

bauginti. the word is lin) bbgge. and in child's Magy. pugalo. Cheval de trombugti. forSc. terrifying ward. An ornament of female dress condread. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. disgust. ghost. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. a buffalo. larva (a bug-bear. : no BUG . roo. Bogge. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug.3uhtii&:. Deut. Lith. a rabme. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. Mid. high. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. well as the terrific object. A similar applica. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. a. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. earwig bau da grascha. gad. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . Chaucer. to roar Aasen. . Big. banian boube. The final guttural of W. Hence bugle-horn. Bug as a lord. insect. 3. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. — — . (Spurrell). to take fright. . Mundart. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. I. bbgni. bucula. buculus.. Sw. and in Lat. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. the Devil. i. any disgusting animal. Russ. insect. . baco. a bug-bear. bogil. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. then a horn for drinking. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. fierce. — — ' . properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn.Fr. bobal. Magy. fear. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. of bugabo was given. protuberant. iv. worm. long. of pipes sewn on. hert. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. monster. language any kind of insect. boo. saucy. 1551. Swiss ing. poggl. as Buffalo. shepe and gootes. BUGLE Tentennino. . to creeping things. bugler. biignt. according to Coles. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. bwgwl. 2. thus connected with bug. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. quos what produces dread or disgust. Manx boa. bwgar. a proud overbearing man pujat'. to origin in the expression bugs words. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. xiv. a boogg. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. scarecrow . bau (Pureiglia. a misshapen person. Bugle. It. and a boggarty ing. tion of the beetle tribe.— . oxen. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. bug dung-beetle. Lap. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. blustering. mask ' . W. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. buggabod). especially to beetles or winged insects. also a bug-bear. buba. pujalo. See The name terror). bok. vermin. Lett. provincially an insect. bugar. affright. the black a maggot. tumble-bug. E. bwg and E. a silk-worm. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Bdronie. also a bug-bear. Fl. — boogg. troll. Serv. to bellow. threatening. Stalder bog. modern English is appropriated to the OFr.Lat. Same as buffle. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. The name of bug is — . boa-peep. Parolone. buffle. an insect. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. bogk. beugler. bukashka.. rose-bug. Bug. Sp. with more or less modification represents bau. bogle. boeuf sauvage. coco. — — terror. bogk. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. Illyr. bogil bo (e. as an object of dread. bold. Swelling. swollen. Swiss booggen. and bugle.loud noise. threatening. is very common. big.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. to frighten scarecrow. dial. Grisons bau. b'dgni. Hal. fette. superbire. and is Deutsch. an object of terror. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Schmidt. * 2. il brutto Demonio. bugbear. to bellow. to take bug. bug-bear. high-sounding words. 493. roarHal. — . is the dim. given in Chaucer. bug. proud. w. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. to take fright. Lesachthal. It. Magy. great or bug words. Fl. a goblin. booggen. a bug-bear. a beetle. the buggaboo w. also a baco-baco. a bugbear for children. bugle. bug-bear. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. The w. used in the same sense. paws the ground . Bible. bug-bear. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. pugaf. bukati. Grose.

bulk or capacity of anything. bulked or bumped out. to blow. bouge. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bol. the belly. formed a farm. bulne. With these must probably be classed ON. He found a country fellow dead drunk. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. MHG. belly. bubble. From till. womb. Sp. acervus. . for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. Lett. or bear out as a full purse. Bolke or hepe. Bav. OSw. a round bulky body bwlgan. bua. The Walach. bulk. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. a bubble Gael. bulge or bilge. — — . swollen OE. leather sack. boulge. swell. tumidus. be protuberant. or of what is shaped like a bubble. straight will he 2. knobby.' Fl. swell. knob. belgja. chest. lump. . balg. blister Manx bolg. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. . Pm. Bourser. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. bolnyn. blister. bo. bolle. Muratori. of an inflated skin. belly. skin bag. boss. a leathern sack or portmanteau. boa. a tuberous or bulbous root . bauch. at riufa bulkann. bulk is a partition of boards. dial. balgs. beuck. on. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. See Bulk. ON. w. PoXj3a. pouch builgeadh. bolle. I. tumeo. Dan. to spring. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. of E. Boss^. hollow. principal portion. Lat. to build. boss of shield. balcone. projection. bolgia. to undo the cargo. Bulk. swollen. ^ — . Ptg. has bulbuk. . The addition of a dim. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). to puff up bolginn. trunk. were a habitation. bulbe. bauen. body of an animal. ON. buhe. bale. To Build. ' . stuffed bag. gebolgen. to gather. m um Placentiae. bed of a river. bukr. bulgen. . globule bolg-lhuingey. van loock. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. as it was merly written in English to bylle. — — . hull of a ship. a bulb Du. a leather sack or budget Fr. thorax buick. bulbe. 1388. a protuberance. to swell. to raise a habitation. to bubble up Pol. . lump. bulka. cultivate.d.). domicilium. anything prominent. . the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. Othello. belgr. . knob. pocket. blow. bolgetta. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. Melancholy. and N. . the contents of the hold. Lith. byli. or. G. ne. herd^ swarm pulkd. as well as is very variable. and bulbukd. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. cumulus. belly. Pr. body. Kil. a straw corn-vessel. unevenness Sw. See how this tode bolneth. pod ON. mass. the potato G. or feminine termination gives Bav. a prominence. bulgen. buk. boss. compare Da. — . G. bolso. Mister. nave or body of the church van 't schip. the position of liquids in the word In English. wallet. (3oX|8oc. bullka.— . also the bunt or hollow of a sail. bolgan. .pulks. ball. knot in thread. Hal. belly van de kerche. to break bulk. blister. It. the womb. the carcase. a water-bubble). bladder.' Palsgr. Lith. pulkas. head . Jno. puff. ' . in Sc. jnake bulch. balco. Dan. bulle. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. to belly out. belly. — . bolgna. Lat. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. bunch or projection. . to throw out a convexity. Bulge. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bulbus. the capacity or burden of a ship. in bulk. crowd. Pr. belly Sw. or cargo of a ship. bag. Bulch. a.'— Cot. skin flayed whole. bol. to swell. a lump or mass. bug. . buc. a stage or scaffold. husk. bugue. body of a ship . — — . bubble. — Bulb. G. the head of an onion. bolg. Here stand behind this bulk. . In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bubble. sedes. bol.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli.' Anat. bulge or convex part of a cask. a dint in a metal . bwlg. the body Du. The radical sense is shown in Russ. as water beginning to boil bolg. belly Cat. In the representation of natural sounds. biilken. A — ' — Bulk. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. pimple. Palco. bilge. bole. . Gr. turgeo bolnyd. bulg.' Festus. trunk. boss of a buckler. mass. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. balg. a bubble. snorting on a bulk. a. OSw. . trunk of the body.' Cot. bubbling up. in vessel. bellows builgean. villa. See bollekeii next article. habitaculum. it again. a bunch. bulcke. vulva. For the latter sense ' — My . Mandeville. bubble {palgan tiisge. whence bylja. belly. to bubble up. Hence e. a heap. skin of an animal. and put it home. bouk. hold or bilge of a ship. to bol. inhabit. . bulwis. ' . a globe. Gr. swell. . bulkaf. bulki. Pm.

from the use of the equivalent terms. . bugbear. bole or trunk of a tree. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. polten. Pm. however. G. bwlas. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. baula. from the noise. Fr. round glass phial. 2. Du. It. assito. i. a bull.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. — Fl.lle de fusil. bellow. spirits. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. boillon. lumpish. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. a bulox polos. pwl. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. a bull Swiss bullen. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. — A tition in a ship. Cot. a hornet. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. See Billet. to bubble. a tadpole. See Bowl. Du. stamp. A lace tree. leraures nocturni nigri. bolla.' do not go by the dangerous water. bulla. w. G. b2iggaboo. /SouWivu.. bietebau. a noisy violent fellow. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. to emboss . bellocier. the seal affixed to the document. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. bulloi. a scare-bug. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. a bul-begger. boulct. BulUiead.Gr. bullos. penbwl. Bullbeggar. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. witches. The final element tergeist. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. whence bullire. 2. stupid . billoti in Fr. a blockhead. Bullace. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. And The word bullerbak. also of the tadpole or young frog.Fris.. to tical with Sw. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. bollos de relieve. bulla. eth and frighteth. a little fish nearly all head. lumpheaded . and vellon in Sp. The male W. bulle. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. from Fr. Du. W. Sp. from the Lat. blunt. thick. A papal rescript. to seal. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. Bully. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . as a mill-dam or the like. child by the represents the hobgoblin. bal. Pl. scarecrow. a framework of balks. in N. many to protuberant objects..D. the matrix or die . w. hhint. a seal. Scot's Deso. Gold or silver uncoined. which may probably be the origin of the name. signifying roaring. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. boss. a bowl. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. bolli. a stud. bolos Fr. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. bulderen. This word is used in several senses. BuUiou. a tadpole . embossed work. blister. as It. 3. of the ox kind. — — Bull. Gael. billon. any great-headed or studded nail. to boil. The wild plum. tition of deals instead of a wall. &c. G. pollach. any embossed work. bullus. it may be observed that a bullet in E. bullocks. bwbach. to bellow. and thence terror. a seal. but is more probably iden- palchetto. stud. stud. stamped money. from baula. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. I. a cow. sloes. pimple. balgeting.D. bulke. poli-cheannan. large. from Lat. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. a beam or rafter. G. Terriculamentum. It. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. bwla. it is boulet de canon. elves. bolli. urchens. a hobgoblin. ba. of boule. Bret. poltern. Du. a hobgoblin. large of its kind. bubble. bulk of a thing. in the sense of base metal. whence Mod. bullern. Lith. beams or boards. is of a class with Pl. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. ON. bouillon. Eullrusli. Dan. bauli. of Witchcr.D.'— ' Palsgr. Bullfrog. bullebak. a wasp. bollar. biitzibau. as in E. dial. coarse. N. The bullfrog. poll-cheannach. boss or stud. also a parFl. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. dim.. as geting. brass-headed nail . on the contrary. bollon. Bullet. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. bulk. Fr. is called a ball. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. as the ornanails. bouillon.

violent overbearing person. A. 'lega. from boden. Kiittner. To Bum. a hectoring. Bum-bailiff. primarily the ramparts of a town. boisterous fellow. Du. From the notion of a humming. argentum and silver. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England.' Stat. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. Thus ' ble. biihne. To bum.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. Bailey. G. by corruption boulevart. AS.' agger. boene. buller-brook. Fris. Du. ierd-beame. Du. c. a. IIL st.the ramparts. and porter au billon. polterer. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. ^Bully-rook.D. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. bodem. buene. bottom. ^i^/«. debacchari. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. resonare. John). intonare. noise.. legaggio di metallo.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. — — plate d'argent. to terrify by noise and clamour. vallum. un faux brave. baluarte. blunder-buss. To bully is to bluster. The decried coin. bottn. The Stat. or work of defence. — Boom. c. Sw. bomtnen. is called bumping or bells. D. provides. furious man. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. The Sw. but now is the central part of the town. bommele. hum. perturbare saevis dictis. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. Bum. poltem. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate.D. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. on the other hand. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. Fr. III. Hence — . agrees with e. Hence bom and ban. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings.d. a bumble-.' Again.' reals of standard currency. beat a — Hal. c. sound. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king .' for the purpose of exchange. Bully. to make a droning Du. — Bumto . &c. to dun. the soil.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. Fris. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. 1687). a stage. blunder-buss. then in general a rampart. Kil. For bottom. 2. G. Etym. It. a boisterous. 9 E. to . 10. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. droning. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. scaffold. 1305. The cry of the bittern. — bombam?nen. bustle. The 27 Ed. — Bump. honunele.. bulderen. is bullion — A — buller. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. violent. 14. 2. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. provides. Philip le Bel in Due. To bum. buller-jaan (bully. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. botm.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. Kil. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. St. a noisy blustering fellow. bolderen. ground. buller-bas. buller-bas. Hal. a blunderhead. minari verbulderen. Miege in Hal. block-werck. or a humblebee. ON.' ' mettre au billon. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. ierd-boeyme. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. clamour. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. bastion. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. a floor. 4 Hen. to make a noise . that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. boulevard. buller-bak. IV. BULLY with which coins were stamped. Bully-rock. G. bol-werck. to drum Lat.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . up was termed monnaie de billon. blaterare. propugnaculum. 2. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. bombilare.

a knob . il me pousse. the Pr. root. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. a boss Lith. bonnock. Probably from bump. a bud. Pl. a heap or cluster. throw down with a bang. calamus. He fult dat et bunsede. a bowl P1. so the form btmk. Hal. bun with ON. to . Sc. bump. . a round mass . explaining E. noise. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. a bunch Magy. To bam. He buncheth me and beateth me. Bumpkin. bunt. E. — — — — ' — knock. strike E. Fl.' Bun. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. banke. Bump. Fr. . Kyx or bunne. hay stubble . bugno. bund. . mto Sp. &c.. a person employed to dun one for a debt. Bunk. stock. especially girls. a wallet. a swelling from a blow. bunki. a knock. buns. bamgetroffen. bans. Thus e. and signifies consequently a mass. . stump. boi7ieog. Dan.— Pr. pwmpl. hdk passing and E. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. a heap. Bung^. bolsa. Forby. blain. bignet. dial. . Bang sen. lenten loaves. a knotty stick) Sw. bugno. . knob or heap. Pr. to beat. to thump. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. protuberance. See Boss. Roding. 1.D. lump. to bang ON. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. forms. Hal. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. Dunchyn or bunchyn. stem or base. or grete knobbe. a boil or blain. a large . gibber. gibbus. to bang down. a purse . Radically identical with Dan. bulse. as in other cases. bunga. as we have seen E. bunkc. a heap OSw. — round fruit. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. — — Bun. Pm. strapping. bunny. bunan. bunnion. bon. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. pompon.D. bundle. . bugnone. a hemp-stalk. a rabbit. stubble Manx bun.' Palsgr. any round knob or bunch.! . the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. a bunch. one ever saw the word in that shape. — — de dor bunsen. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bunke. a heap. abrupt manbuns-wise. Li cake. Mrs Baker. Again. bannock. bungersome. stalk. Manx bonkan. pwmp. bull. pumpa. trunk. a bag or sack. are dim. bunsen. inconsiderately. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. cluster. E. Pl. bumtel. round mass of anything. bmidt. Du. a. binge. a tail (Macleod). Sc. bonuach. See Bounce. bung. passes Sw. Moor. tundo. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. a dried hemp-stalk. a rabbit. to strike so as to give a dull sound. bu<rnone. pwmpio. Bums it's hit. bune or boon. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Gael. bun. Bony. . . Bunch. seems to unite Gael. bun eich. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. bum-boot. A Du. Then. knochen.D. stubble of beans. Bumboat. also for taking a pilot to a ship.-^Fl. stock. while bulch was traced through Gris. to swell out E. Fr. bunken. from bunsen. a bump. foundation w.— Bunnion. dial. stump. pompette. — Marine Diet. The word is probably to be explained from Gael.D. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Daal bu7iseti. a into Dan. the tail of a hare. callus. . . a button. poumpi. and related with ON. Dan. a knob. any round knob or bunch. . a Sp. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). or to the mass by which it is given. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. lungeous.' he fell with a bang. to knock . a knob. a hump. ner. to bang. S. Lang. bunka. applied to young persons. a swelling.pummel.). an old stump of a horse. butt end. Bunch. bunch— Hal. to beat. Related on the one side to Pl. a dry No . OSw. banga. bulto. Bunewand. a. to . —Bunny. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. w. Pm. Ir. bonge.S. Gael. bulscha. Bumsen. . Bun. A clumsy. Hal. bunga. root. signifying one who does things in a thumping. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. Suffolk bonnka. clumsy. bmike. Hence E. from knock) It. knuckles. — — Bun. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bugnet. w. . large. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bottom. H. a lump on the foot bunny.P. a boil (punkos bot. bumsen. E. a heap Wall. a pocket Sw. nor would it concern the public if he did. — stalk . bottom bun feoir. Probably for bun-boot. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. should probably be a short tail. It.. truss E. BUNCH bum-bailiff. bongie. Holland and Flanders. clown. Hal. botn. Pm. a pumpion or gourd. awkward. awkward clown. to ' . bottom. poumpido. ! — knocking.^Cot. See Bunch. pumpurras.

Sp. Burganet. stiimpeln. banghagr. rumble as the bowels. to knock. and the Sw. Sp. The Fr. Fr. to push ghebondte. To bunt. that the primitive meaning of shackle . G. a sort of helmet. to hum. racket. The Magy. Banff. halm-tapp. modem bummle. coassatio et Du. and bomme. . to resound. a water bubble made by rain. and Du. bolting-cloth. Bunting. klimpem. bourgeon. bag to catch the wind. AS. bourjon. So in Pol. Palsgr. Burble. tinker . bangla. Sw. See Bourdon. clogs. or used as a receptacle for papers. properly a Burgundian helmet. bunta. generally known as the material of which bud. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. Lat. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. dark grey bura. See Barbarous. bimge. bote. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. ghebundte. Kil. 202.punt. E. OFr. do a thing bunglingly. dial. It. knocking. shove . The belly or hollow of a sail. the float of an bundle. to cobble. tap. guggle as water. bungande. . bou^e. Du. bondel-loos. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. russet. loosed from bonds. Burden. to strum on an instrument. Burly. A load. buret. knocking. To burgeon. * Buoy. bondeau. to bungle. gyves. bommen. burion. boil or bubble up. to bear. to float. from beran. to in to stop the hole. knock. whence in bure. the middle part of it. and van t' vat. on.D. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. to hum. . G. bongani. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. and now more Bailey. anchor or of a net boyar. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. p. a botch. . Compare G. Russ. bouche. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. klempern. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. to stnmi on an instrument. dial. ' — work . hence the name would seem to have been boundica. banga. To Bunt. N. to hum. buret. Fl. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. bourguignote. a boye. colligatio. working in wood (especially with an axe). burboloti. the bung of a barrel Lim. racket . . fetters. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . shackles. bounta. bui. buie. biirde. in is Fr. Sp. Cot. or putting forth of a vine. to bolt meal. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to Somerset is to sift.' Festus in Diez. — btiruii. to kick. Bundle. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. AS. Muratori. the stopper of a cask).Fris. sprig. So Du. or tuft. OFr. — . is originally a wisp or bunch . bouchon. bunsen. however. a bungler. Biu'geon. and E. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. to push. bury. to stop. the noise of drums. stilmpern. to pype. to knock. to shove. bangla. bang. bundle. a bunch Burbulas. bondir. the loose open grow big about or gross. Cat. boucher. a cork. to gingle. the young cloth used for sifting flour. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. The stopper for the hole in a boia. borgonota. A Dan. especially in wood. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. clumsy performance. See Bun. bundt. Sp. to work at carpentry bangan. noise. bonde. reddish brown. Johansen. Rietz. buove. a bunch. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. bongun. a drum . to gingle. To do anything awk- wardly. byndel. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. dark. bundel. would be the earliest float for an anchor. Sw. Fr. OG. contignatio. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. bondon. are from bouscfie. to bud forth. Prov. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. The Italian buio. bindini. whence bunting. Hal. of a song. bondelj bundell. Fr. borboUar. bang. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. fascis. was formerly pronounced buro. See Borel. a bung. bove. la Borgonota. B. with the head. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. Bret. also a piinple in the face. byrthen. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. bonde. bummle. — — . to botch. — — To Bungle. driving in the bung. boj. unskilful working. to work ineffectually. Pl. a wisp of hay or straw. Bunny. to push with the head del. Bunt. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Fr.— . boei. bon. Prov. Burden. an anchor buoy. Sw. dicimus rufum. stocks or such OSw. bourion. on. Bung. A bubble. ho-tapp. bond. The word is flags are made. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. boya. tinkle. tapp (whence tceppa. punishments for prisoners. B. Bung of a tonne or Lith. — Bureau. to stop.

burgeois. — . he rustle. bruzir. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. Sw.sharpen. explaining the E.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. surge or dashing of the sea . to polish helmets. Fr. and Dan. Castrais bourril. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. to give an edge to. flocks. a jest. burgensis. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. to tell lies. spring-water bumach. a whetstone. a jest. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to polish. to murmur. to roar. Burgher. Bret. broil. a prominent eye borracka. borni. brim or edge of anything. Compare also Piedm. purling. to roar 5. Fl. robber. as of suggests. with Dan. Supp. to roar. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. OFr. it of the knots. Bestiary. borrelen. Probably. In the manu. It. the roaring surge of the — — — . imitation of the sound of bubbling water. from the roaring sound of flame. ON. 122.— . tahko. In the same way ON. taunt. Burgess. brunir. — . to have acquired the sense of polishing. It. from Lat.. is termed burling. burlare. Dief. tion of the root which gave the OE.Ps. lorra. a margin. burn. tumentum. Hence Bridel. OFr. brustolare. laer. Fl. brynsten. See Burr. bears. Burgh. brunnen. to bouronna. in Schm.). burly. toast. borr. pur (see Burgeon). brandung. From the same root E. Bav. Bouffer. brun. The Gael. the er is a dresser of cloth. with little iron nippers called burling irons. brusler being a faulty spelling. is connected with brim. Gael. burgi latro. from bryii. Todd. bruse.bryna. and the Burnish. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. brima. must be explained on the same principle from G. . a well. Burly. purra. burren. to bourda. Antiq. ample of polishing metal. explaining Sp. OE. a wine skin. language of folly or ridicule. occupying much space. burgen. Pr. a lie. So also Sw. a spring a robber. like straw or small . to swell oneself out as birds borras. From Fr. repartee . compared with G. Cot. N. borracka. has also borr. de Vaud. briis^. brimmen. Fr. — Han to bruser op. born. a gurgling ^. Walach. . the J in OFr.ireui£r:e. an &c. roguing beggars. ^ttsa. mockery. brunna. brausen. Burlesque. — — . It. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. joking. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. Pm. which has given much trouble to etymologists. lerre. watery. to burn. swell up or strout out. to burn. a blaze. to burgen or wax big. purrata. a knob. to ridicule. ends of thread. an edge. Burryn. buirleadh. bouril.. Sp. Probably a modifica. bururus. — — . cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. A burl. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. blow. Sw. brase. Swiss Rom. j. crackle wood in burning Hal. protuberance. as in cousteau. . swelling borr-shuil. ridicule. fire.' Cot. to set on fire. bourou. knob. as the / in purl. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike.). Swiss Rom.. angular . sea. to ridicule. the word seems Pm. jest of. to make a So from Fin. ' rugiens. boure. brinnen or Also ein roar. de Vaud. G. sicut sound. brAler. E. to Gael. dial. leo Fin. to puff.j'own. to roar. to grind on a whetstone. brinna. Lang. to surge. and OG. to roar (as lions. tahkoa. embraser. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. condemnentur morti. water. BURNISH i5«r/. bourd.). OE. Schm. abourioner. Burglar. Bav. barrel. a bubble. to To Bum. bremmen. Nat. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. . to rub. sidiary element. to polish. burle of cloth. See Burgeon. schleiffen. Fr. to effervesce. ends of thread. bururus. like the wind in trees. warbling. bourglairs. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. pressa puret. is an Thus G. See Berough. brasa. brustle. G.. a purling hiwe brennen. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. bunch. brunnr. to fiy. 56. like. boiirre. to hum. boura. to sharpen. A — — . brook. i5«r4 biiirte. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab.— Pr. Limousin bourdo. Goth. to bud . become big and proud. a bladder. to roar. to puff up borr^ . a bud. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. to sharpen on a whetstone. See under Bore. The primary origin of the word. Burn. bud or sprout forth. ii6 BURGESS Gael. The in. borujon. a fountain. to swell. thence. Prov. as Diefenbach bud. — — . grancelli.' a jibe. &c. Pren7ien. a bubble to spring as water. to swell with pride. sbornoi. fires up. Lang.or bubbling up. Burler. singe or scorch with fire. It is probable indeed that Fr. ^Notk. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. the flocks. big. and the Burin.. A legal term from the Lat. brinii.

whirr and burr. a morsel. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. skin. stuffing. bourrer. — Clare. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . brittle. burial place. &c. Fr. Burial. Hence Fr. Du. Burse. cover. shearing of cloth. 2. as from Sp. tomb. leather. beurs. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. brist. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. briser. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. Sw. barza. byrsa. and thence flocks 'of wool. ON. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . birigean. to break. bur. save. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. husks. brisdeach. With a slightly different ghen. bergen. Gael. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe.— . See Burgeon. and spelling. brickie. force. Sexy. explained E. to bury . foretell great storms at 3. a port. berstan. a rabbit burrow. bris. Burr. from whence we pass through Sp. preserve. Fr. also all such stuff as hay. idiom if 4. an exchange. brista. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. karborre. AS. but it is more probably a development of It. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. brest. shuffling. The root forms brik. blurra. birgan. that birds make their nests with. borra. bolgia. byrigels. cwning-gaer. be more in accordance with AS. chips or anything else Fl. ber•whirr to whizz.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. the — — castle or fortress. borsa. dial. bur. verbergen. burgisli. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. when they spring So in W. Fr. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. It. brokil and brotil. Du. AS. root borr. bristeach. buscha. I. to P'air. Burser. makes the disbursements of the college. In a met. birr. ' ' — — burren. brist. and. perruque. . a. its own protection. to burst. bourlet. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. To Bury. iii. byrgen. Burrow. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. peluca to Fr. Dan. talk fast and indistinctly. Fris. bourrelet.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. 5150. Sw. byrgan. as it is still pronounced in N. brit. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. to stuff. bris. as for the protection of a child's head. to save. impetus. borre. G. casting bullets. briso. . shelter. Beowulf. fortify. beorgan. from Fr. a barn or cupboard. A rabbit burmotion. to hide. G. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. straw. a pad. pipaa. In OE. &c. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. This word seems safety. coo. brisd. break . Jam. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. keep. whirr. preserve. any rapid whirling biarga.' Harris in Todd. to buzz. See Bulge. brast. It. bristen. Port. bolsa to It. briketo. bersten. purr. hair. bourse. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. an annular swelling. of England. borre. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. caer is a — — — ' ' : . the officer who bears the purse. borsia. -burse. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. a harness or collar maker) . from AS. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. .' The same word with burgh. bourre. burra. prsnuti. Mid. bourse. a place of defence. borra. a sepulchre. dial. whence Kil. signifying protrude.Lat. as in Northumberland. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. a purse. a purse. brico. ptcrren. ON. some people in pronouncing the letter r. E. mentioned under Burgeon. to hide . Burr is related to buzz as protect. Shelter. To Burst. i5(7&a. also ' any such trash as chaff. and met. byrstan. -Grisons bulscha. Brun on bane. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr.. S w. a wallet or scrip. ultimately resting on the Gael. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. of a body hurled through the air. Burse.' edge grew weak. any kind of quilting or stuffing. 225. OHG. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. Swiss burren. — Translated by Kemble. burre. brittle. ' BURR AS. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. swell. g. bres- — tan. borsa. OHG. shales. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. appears under the Lang. brizeto. Hal. borrow. britar. Compare also OE. Bursar. brown. Cot. to mutter Sw. brjota. moss. byrgels.

borseof trees. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. wisp. to enclose in a case or box. Bush.Lat. occultare K. Fris. a bunch. to stop. : — .' a box. clusprobably Morocco leather. the Moors and of Morocco. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. a bush. —Busk. barst. . and thence Mid. the deponent form of which is represented by the E.boisteau. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. box wood to bush. basse. bush. bussellus. 410. a tuft. Gr. to bend one's steps. bousche. to turn. at bua sig. . a wisp. a bunch of twigs. bundle. bossida. brodiquin. Harold G. G. to dress. is thus accounted for. -idis. a box. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. whence at bua sik. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. Le roy Richard mort. bua. Ptg. It. truasc. qualster-boscken. To Busk. gave Lat.P. lump. as synonymous with to inake one boun. projection. OFr. 'at bua sik. borghen. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. boisseau. cluster. ieorh. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock.gur bidst austur um EySascog. a bundle. and not directly (as Du. . which would later have truast. rad. The bone in a woman's stays. a been written buasc. R. 2. verb. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. as boun is simply buinn. AS. to keep. van wijnbesien. apparently a secondary verb. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. a gun biichse. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. the past participle of the same verb bua. thicket of thorns . busse. roquies.— ' ii8 {chreo. a box for measuring corn. diminutives. in the For Skirnis . il fut couch6 l^jkema). It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. a hump. ch). The radical idea is seen in Goth. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. condere. signifying to entomb. hjul-bosse. abdere. and he cites wisp bauschen. and from the Fr. berghen. Mid. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. bossen. bunch.' sheath. buxida. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump.Lat.' The buskin is said Bret. a tuft guini. grapes. to prepare. whence bouchon. bundle * Buskin. to direct one's course towards. Du. OFr. barsc in Heimskringla. make ready. And her ful sone tuft. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. a tuft. boiste. bulge. borcegui. boxta. besom). busken. Du. bosta. from the ON. brodequin tout noir. a tuft of hair. at buast. Prov. Fr. mount. Brunne. boissa. bush. buxta. dead. to forest of Eyda. a little box Dan. bairgan. buskr.fiasc.' The word is explained by — — . whente beorg. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. ' . a box. the land. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. boistel. a bush. bousse. . a clot of phlegm sart. protect . . bussare. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. aheap of stones. bosch (a diminutive ?). The primary sense of hair . bousIn the other copy ser. boucher. buysschen. hunch Du. a -tavern bush. ' .) to hide in the ground. induere vestes . bouche. It. Sibriht that I of told. bustula. oneself. bosc. So from Fr. to bow. Bush. and we actually find bushel. . See Bust. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. Layamon. in OE. iriCtf -ifoe. beorgan. to dress.-^Bushel. bo7ich (Fr. ' . Bouchet. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. bausen. a grove bosch van haer. fiast. preserve. Thence byrigean. to bury. biichse. bulk. bussel. They busked and malced them boun. Thus Froister . that the lend had lorn thorn. or the like. busk. buxula. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. for at buasc. we have Fr. Brunne. to swell. ' . basse. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. knot. Sir Tristram. BUSH hreaw. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. See Box. defence. burial mound. a rampart. bustellus. Malberg. then a tuft Sp. Sc. bos. AS. In to Brutaine. brake. tow. ' —P. The word frequency with which to busk is used. To prepare. tuft. sur une litifere. bramble. thicket {buski. or — Busk. Du. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . the idea of knocking. a troop. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. a corpse). Sw. to sepulchre.

ship Sp. a blow. signifying trunk of a the body. Lang. business. small. buyse. Fr. mosequin. I. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. 1555. bisg. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. cata — . basiuin. bust. a kiss. Pol. Hal. to knock . To hurry or make a great B. lip. the body without arms busque. a bush. Busy. A great sluggish fowl. bus and Pol. also a flagon. buquer. Fr. a Mid. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. stump. body of a woman's dress It. to make a splash in the water. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. Lat. sera. hipista. a kiss.> Also written buskle. outard. trunk of Cot.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. mouth.' ON. knock. bu. plated body or other quilted thing. forms morseqiiill. Sp. body. So in Fin. a projection.— . a mouth. AS. log . love gestures. a kiss of reverence. smack. btcc. baiser. With respect to bust. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. chest. and by transposition morchequi. I go strepo) . bisgung. — hardly be distinct from Fr. as in ON. beezig. busc. 2l box. bysgian. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. busche. Xerqui. Hence probably au-tarda. body of a man. lip. bucha. trunk of a tree. made stiff. putschen. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. 10. and supposes that the common Arab. Bulch. or chest in which the vitals are contained. mogangas from gonj. — — — — It is like the smouldering. representing a blow. ' bistardej It. a bulk or trunk without a head. biseg. tuft. besongne. but. bussen. to occupy. Lindenbr. the long. thick end. forest. The Prov. a tree. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. abutarda. kupata. body without arms and legs. stir. occupied bezigen. buc. especially of a woman's dress. from jnund. also a busk. Cat. statue of the upper part of Fr. On the other hand. Cot. the point of a lance. The proceedings of Parliament. body . knock. a blow. biist. stem. to bustle. arbor ramis trunGloss. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. a bunch of flowers . mohedairova. mons.pjik. a bust. bist. lump. a large cljest or particular applibox. I bustle. a log. a backstock. pussa. . A A busquer (Sigart). Sp. ON. as in moharra from harbe. Walach. See Boss. its slowness of flight. a boat or small vessel . lips. Buss. otarda. Fl. bussa. geidha. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. I. ottarda. body of garment. windbutsch. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk.D. Bav. Sw. busta. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. besoigAe. Comp. Sp. busch. buta. Nained from Proximse iis zia. employment bisgan. bnist. betarda. ON. a busk. crack . speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. to make use of. BUSS Dozy from Arab. Prov.). mouth. outarde. butz. beso. vessel employed in the herring fishery. borcegui. Bust. To Bustle. brostia as well as bostia. — clattering about. austarda. The form brust. brusc. snout. — . bus. kiss. 1372. Prov. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. or Cherqui. busq. tarda. Gael. Port. B. putta. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Busk. Edrtst. Swiss butschen. bulk. says. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. buc. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. 2. of a doublet.d. trunk. bisegung. Box. Business. and then with avis again prefixed. Namur — Champagne Fr. bruskras well as buskr. work. bysgje. would explain the G. Rouchi. in Diaz Gris.Lat. worn to make the body straight . Fris. box. Fr. fe^a. bacio. also a It. and also a sounding blow. Du. inde discurro et operosus sum. utarda. a. Busitiess :c3iVi . a great billet Cot. buc. an ostrich. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. So Wes- terwald munds. an affair. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. or avutarda. sunt quas Hispania aves . stump. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. bust. . A wisp. ViM. ' BUSY 2. the breast.' Plin. body. a sleeveless truss or doublet. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. brut. 119 bi{tr. occupation. of the human body (Grandg. morsequi. busch. Prov. busto. Bust. busy. — — difications of the same word. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). a fishing vessel. avuDiez. to Swab. bustla. a kiss. bukr. the trunk. 7o\. bus. buz. trunk. Fr. 22. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Bustard. ^A. kiss. abotarda. a stroke of wind.bezig. — Thus we should have mocherqui. a ship of some size.

bolgia. boteria.in which his brethren are included. without punishment . young mais. belly. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. rumpf. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. which the word corresponds to the Fr. earthen which the debtor has adverted. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. Lang. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. but one thing. able. the bottles. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. besides that . a butcher.streets.jamin. being wholly unten. the precise correlative of but. the store of ten. a goat. boquier. bochier. But when will you pay it ? the belly. boccino. A A . a butchery. hull of a ship. Buttery. except. of the wine and drink. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. belly. bous.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . It. Butt. a leathern bag. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. collection of casks. bute.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. Fr. hollow case. biitait slaughterer of goats . slaughter-house. properly a butan wite._ bitten j biiten door. gives at least two pounds sterling. bole of a tree. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. Prov. a budget. we find ben. add. calf. bountifully. a goat (and not besides . the present day we should say. large barrel. belly. botija. without law. original sense of without. The E. Butcher.' — — ' . ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. without care. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment.' ' write. boucher. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. Du. bol. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. and the real origin of the and within . the belly. Whatever is in addition to Butler. bodifie. a barrel. botilla. a baiTel . botte. — . OFr. the servant in charge of the original object. is put in a class by himself. Butler. a wooden cask. viz. beyond the Piedm. . ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bouteillier.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. So in Italian from becco. Fr. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. as Pantler. G. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. the trunk or body of an animal. ' Besides all that. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . from as.The Sp. Where at an earthen jar . to-boot. bolr. the name must have arisen before the within. Sp. barriga. the Perhaps besogne — . the jug and in E.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. ways. the full expres. by the mode in which he is treated. bitlga. mais. that which would be translated by Fr. equivalent of AS. beta. from boc. bout. ox. Tooke's dis. the principal apartment. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. Sp. Lang. rotundity of the body. outside that moreover. those in beccaio. beccaro. butan ce. . the body of a tree or of a man. bola. trunk. Ben-house. be out. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. without. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. skin-bag. in addition. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. binnan. But In Sc. ' There is leathern bottle. is well explained by Tooke. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . a cask. body of a shirt w. "PLT) . similar train of thought is seen in ON. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. ont jhi^ton. Here the but implies the existence of an. Fr. Wall.' there is really a negation to be supplied. my is called the adversative use of but. butan. As a conjunction but is in every portion. moreover. — we acle for liquors. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. viz.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. Sp. (children) boc. wooden receptthing to be done. bocin. the mouth). calf of the ' say. a bottle. But It. and bot. the body of an animal. bisgung. sup- meat and drink. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. an outlaw from bouche. buta. If that where now we should compiler. also a hollow vessel . bag. a small winebag. then hoUow trunk. bhcciero. bounds of. or what in in charge of the pantry. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. AS. a butcher . without buiten-man. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. without the house kept in bottles. beccaria. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. bitten dai. are. and with It. bouz. tinction between but.' Thus Chaucer says.

farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Boutje. Btetter-schmalz. both. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . the trunk. but. a hill. a tub. bouter. the Butter-fly. to blad. Kil. nursling. to thrust. Du. a flying buttress. Du. thrust. and the true derivation boar. of E. a mound of turf in a field to sup. AS. Grandg. coxa. give way. butt of a person. from the large knobbed head of botto. botta. It. as in G. boteria. the rosebud. Hal. Fr. any small projection. end . or person Schmeller . a barrel. aim whence to make a support to a wall. clumsy . obedient. a stump or club foot. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. buttock of beef is called butr. suddenly . botte. to boult flour. a dle . submit shaking up salad sauce. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. . to strike. the edge forwards. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. buhsom. Gael. tress. trapu. having a rotundity . Fr. buttare.putan. caput scapula bout van f been. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. i. So in English pimples were fora clod. Cot. Schmell. leg of lamb. Sp. a thrust the thigh-bone. from rejeter. signify a cask or tub. boutoir. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. what is kept in a blow. bocsam. a button. botto. to be con.against another which needs support .to push. a heap of merly called pushes. bout. An erection built up as a Fr. Bout van het schouderIt. to thrust . pwtiaw. a bolt. buter.— BUTT leg . . used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. Gris. to so close to the Fr. Buttrice. bout. — — — — .' thick from shaking. to femur. a button. from notirrir. a little push . Butter-glass. a boss. to push earth . a button. Fris. butt. the thick end. Fr. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. butte. The Bavarian potig. Kil. bottig. a bot. strike. so as to make a sounding blow. a. bodi'. to heap up earth or ihrust. boter-schijte. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . buttals. butte. striking end. Buttress. a blow. bottich. — . poke. to cast. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. large head. boiUer. Fr. Du. butter. to abut on. To strike with the head bags. Mur-buttant. Buttery. A — — — . butz. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. Du. a scope. e. a wall butor butt on. oir spike with a k coup . From Grisons biitt. a blow. humble. bouter. Gr. to bow. bot. butter. Du. to touch at the end. fowl. Halma. or or shore post. put.arbre. is formed the augmentative buttatich. Fr. Schmell. a cask. tout seat or breech. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a ribbed glass for dient. courtaud. Bav. a corner horses' hoofs. from stossen. To come full butt against a butts. to thrust Fr. to throw . The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. a buttress Cot. nourrissons. &c. from bugan. -ez. a bun.. — A . stump of a tree Fr. butt. stump. the thigh of a goose. Button. are the strips at the edges of the field. &c. a boss. bud. in the R. a buttrice. buttern. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. thrust forwards. a leg of mutton. — A . on. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. nourrisson. clunis. geboogsaem. waste ground. Boutant. gigot. Butter. an etwas anstossen. bott.thum and not button. The word body itself seems identical with G. to abut a stone roof. w. Perhaps corrupted Lat. : . able that Chaucer. pwt. To Butt. botten. boding. bot blijven staan. . but this is probably from Fr. povrvpov. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. Buttel-triib. to thrust. R. an ox. bot. * Buxom. botta. Kil. the store of while bottich. a stroke di animal. G. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. fle>(ible. any short thick thing. bouton. hillock . W. lams-bout.. Fr. the prick in the middle of a target. grease that sets by merely standing. botwm.rejected thing. butteln. See Butler. short thick thing pimple. at. boter-vogel. to butt. Hal. thick. by boE. obeto shake backwards and forwards. a mound. a large belly. rabodd. potacha. butyrum. boil. Bav. bouton. ment being supposed to resemble butter. butt. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. W. as rejeton. Fr. From the noise of drinkables in a house. From Du. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . boutis. butter un. bata. from bouter. boter-vliege. of the present day. Buttock. to thrust. bothog. then the thigh or leg of an to push . dripping. a but in the W. bodi. a. bocgsuin. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. — . pied. as if from Povg. Lang.

and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. a town. favourable. buso. To Buy. Cabal. byar-rettr. abozzago. CABAL Goth. 3. a beetle. Goth. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. gracious. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. Many good mological explanation. to swear with him by . AS. lete. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. Lat. buzarg. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. The sense of buxom. to wit. son. — 122 BUY P. Etynj. harty prayers and God speedes. bauhta. cow-house. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. depends upon a esteem in falconry. It. bar. tions by one. to pass by. bij. farm. to jan. bei. as heedless as a cock-chafer. byar-log. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. bees. By-law. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. lb. a borough. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. confusedly. a buzzard or puttock. bi. bylove. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. Sw. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. town having separate jurisdiction. See Abie. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. Buzzard. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. The ON. p. 519. G. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. a by-path is a side path . -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. from whom it was addressed. ii. bozzago. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . Verstegan in R. stall. . Sw. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). jus municipii. to whisper. train of thought which has become obso. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. bugjan. from by. Pecock Repressor. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. bygge. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. bohte. . favourably to a petition. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative.— Diet. and it is of good will.. iii. Dan. A by. It. ON. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. . bylag. 21. \s\xy. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. leges urbanse ON. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Then applied to speaking low. village. bycgan. as in Da. buteoj Fr. as Fr. byr. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. 116. to buzz. to sell. Originally the law of a particular town. Mercy hight that mayde. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. big.P.— P. AS. to stand at his side . Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. 200. buzac. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. Byre. called Cabala or Tradition. a meke thynge with — alle. blessing me with their of side. and would have been lost in E. A ful benygne buirde. A A We — — — days' wonder. good-humoured one.. P. indistinctly.in N. and boxome of speche xviii. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. Du. OE.busardj Prov. frabttg- To Buzz. & Q. also say. bi. to purchase for money. who makes abigg. —gracious of speech. buzzicare.

in which sense are explained The the OFr. origin is the OFr. hoard together. dirty. bad. or cadable.. aeggi. cabre. caable. filth. lactuca capitata. deponat a store closet. maim. as Turk. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Kil. Cot. It. giiare. &c. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. dirty. a shed. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. chadabula. cabulus. disgusting such an engine was exerted. The Sp. Neckam — by the wind. Mid. Very generally used. overwhelm (Diet. properly windfalls. : — from violence without blood. Coticesserint Swiss aa. chaable. It. as an expression of Gr.. Fr. an engine for casting stones. the bowels. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. accablcr. a rope or cable. kakaloH. w. OFr. and Finnish lanLat. manticuKil. precisely in the sense of the lari E.Lat. a rope. It. Lang. disgust. ! — . Lat. vincially used in E. To steal or pocket. . Celtic. — Tarbe. to put or pack up in a frail. covering. Du. Common to Lat. serious injury — In like manner It. heady..' Due. has kabbel. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . cacare.Lat. cabre. Due. band. cadabulum. brassica — capitata. overwhelm. agge machen (in nurses' language). caable. a rope. cable . cabacho. Fr. headed or cabbage lettuce. Brushwood — — B. cables. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. cab. a headed cole or cabbage . headed. string. — . OSp. calabre. especially shepherd's frock. From It. Cablisb. cacare . aakkat'a. Cabinet. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. E. capuccio. from manganum.). —Diet. Lith. and Or. Capstan. whence Lang. dung. laitue cabusse. a rope. to hurl down. a car- We convasare. cadabulum. wilful). parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. surripere. Due. a covering. traboccare. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. and Ptg. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. or rush basket. a frail. hut. a cabbage . come the Fr. cabaii. chaable. ckaable. cadabalum. vile. cabuccio. cabo. gatsch. — . to strain in such a manner . Sp. gabardme. . from trabocco. name of the projectile engine. the Slavonian. kakla. Item habeat vocant. to chatter. kabat. — Kil. Didot. Castr. is probably unconnected. The double a in the OFr. kabane. the Prov. mdhaigner. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Fr. E. Cot. manganare. Ptg. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. chabla. — the ON. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . Katr-iT-aKt. nasty. case. capo. prostratio ad terram. aak! tandi like Fr. signifies down. originally an Gael. . head. hovel.Gr. a jacket Fr. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. akista. It. 'habl. to crush.. round or great headed. It is remarkable that the Esthon. form kactal. The name of the engine. kabas. gaban. main. cabas. agge. Cabin. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. dirt and the Fr. as it must have stood in French. gaggi. Choux cabus. signifying properly a rope's end. a head (whence cabochard. Tugurium. kabaSsen. Gaggle. and as we find stones Mid. cabbage. agga. geese. a tunic. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. stercus. and the Arab. a booth or hut. Antiq. cabasser. . it would seem fundain children's language. capanna. Finn. cabane. disgust cac. Sp. Cappa in OSp. su/Furari. for the origin of which see Carabine. Etym.Lat. caable (in legal language). gaggele. OFr. cabarino. cabo. as Diez supposes). To Cabbage. Fr. cdble. caables.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. Mid. cadabula. cadabola. Du. whence Fr. Fr. OFr. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Cabbage. Sw. cab lis. forms indi. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . caboche. to hurl in Nat. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. havyar to caviare. cabus.ticula. (ca/coe. cabuyskoole. Imitative of the cry of hens. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. to keep or Du. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. a cloak of felt or Cack. &c. would correspond to cable. Mid. or as an interjection of disMod. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. caqueter. Du. . — Ibid. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. . ceach / exclamation of guages.

CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. caldarius. Cadence. joyous . calf of leg. cadet. . gabbia. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. It. A . cha'cmie cadence. wretched. to throw themselves into the sea. calendarium. Sp. a cake or loaf. to treat like lime. cuttle-fish. one unduly indulged by. to cackle . and troublesomely attached to. a lump or large piece. Russ. It. pi. kauwe. a circle. marrow. koeck. Lat. calidus. boy. N. It. Calc-. To Cajole. a dence. an inkstand . naXaiidpi. from the ink-bag which it contains. caldaria. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. kolesnitza. Fr. the lump and the increase. collop. kaad. a vessel for heating water. roller. * Cade. As Du. cadenza. calcis. It. from the Chinese catty. dial. Mrs B. Caitiff. incolumis. is probably delusive.— Cot. pith. Turk. calamitas. * Calibre. Perhaps from w. kolo. Calcialate. Du. kalb. hot. Lat. En kaka br'od. the pith or soft part of wood. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. To Calender. captive. just falling. or prattle. G. Du. Lat. capCalenture. Cadaverous. It is another form of the E. cage. cavea. Originally from a Slavonic source. principal and interest. without loss. Fr. taking it Sp. a roller. Fr. Fr. a common cart. Cake. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. a wheel. gabbia.warmth . analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. hot . Cage. Dan. Cajol. KaKKat. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. cykevie. a wheel . CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Cot. calesa. kolyasochka. ON. gavia. Sw. so gabble corresponds with Fr. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. Du. Lat. calba. Calocli. chetif. Calamary. kaeckelenj Gr. Arab. babbhng. Lat. Sp. a fever. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. a falling. Cot. kalfvan hout. Lat. cage. prate. kolesb. See Kiddier. a low note. a counter used in casting accounts. kolyaska. kalem. cageoler. gabble. of which. pet lamb. It. loss. when they are said to poor. Lat. Lat. The Lat. a tea-chest. kail. —Atkinson. ever and anon. An open travelling chariot. signifies a waggon. for green fields. a caFr. to sleek hence a den. form) calderone. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng.Gr. a cylinder. bad . ben- kalf. a hollow place. Du. capitetum. Sw. loss. Sp. rattaat (wheels). Fr. Gascon capdet. gabberen is identical with E.— Calliper. wanton. G. to — Fr. Flo. chattering. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. — in a kiln. Calf of the Leg. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). a loaf of bread. The young G. A hooded carriage. kat. kdtr. Gael. kage. a small stone. . cake. KxiKivh^o^. lindrus. kakulla. a calash . especially of something soft. hence musical rhythm. Calendar. whence Lat. From lerie. &c. kukje. The Calf. cadaver. a reed. Turk. calculo. Lat. chaudron. safe. 124 prattle . reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. ' . ratas. gaggia. calibre. frisky. calpa. a wheel . Caddy. calx. to heat. from calendcE. misfortune. Roman reckoning. In the same way Fin.— . chaudiere. to cage. Calandre. caliche. a mischievous dial. kdfich. (in the augm. Caldron. kolasa. unruly . the calf of the leg. Cot. Fr. Dan. calibre. gaggle. coop. javioler. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Lat. disease of sailors from tivus). kuchen. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. calendrer. coll. cauldron. kola. little chief. Cadet. to prate much to little purpose. of the nature of lime to calcine. . a wheel . from calculus. a waggon . calidus. limestone. whence calash. kolo. master. Due. . Calp is riadh. on. A cuttle-fish. or smooth Hnen cloth. B. kolo. — — — Dan. colibro. Cadge*. from Gr. of oxen and similar animals. Fr. a wretch. . desire of land. or colpa na coise. an ugly waggon kolaska. calamus. Pol. cadere. the younger son of a family said to be from . Calamity. cadence. kaka. calessa. a car. Fr. Sw. cabdillo. Calash. a corpse. Tea-caddy. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. calentar. Cauldron. the bore of a cannon. kalfi. A — fall. jabber. dead body. cattivo (from Lat. a calesh. the pi. calentura. frolicsome kaad mund. It. to . its mother. to compute. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. Serv.uv. Lat. reed-pen. lime whence calcareous. to gabble. lord. pen Mod. caioler.

push violently. calvus. alta voce ploro. Ibid. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Indies. chatter kallen. hot. to tread. Sc. Turk. but is only a jda-kallo. sence of wind. to hear. * Callet. kael. to prattle. depreciatory term for a woman. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. Diez. ' rine. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. heat. skin hardened by labour. Ptg. Hard. i. which is as much as to say. Derived by some from Arab. heat. Among these were the turn. — — — — — . whehce it was first brought. diameter of a ball. people's remarks. Diet.. them &c. Gr. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. khalif. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. nautique). dial. form in the kalib. and heat. a last. ' pert. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. calare. quality. whereas in troth it is not. To call. donderbuchs Sp. Sup. The origin is Gr. Fr. given. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. the heat of Now these Du. Sp. to call. sound. callum. the Fr. The reference to heat is preserved in.Lat. dragoon. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. calor. which has its memory preserved in Du.piicede Lat. cahna. can be distinct from ODu. calcare. KaXka. quA librd. an adder. quiet. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. kal. however. Lat. Fin. kalla. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. calma. tapulta. overheated. sclopus.meaning of the word. ram. a round of abuse. Fr. sestus. Kil. calma. calme. Fin. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. or languishing drought is . calleting. or mould. Fr. Kil.en~ kinds of firearms. or caliever. and dragon. to proclaim. to burn. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). B. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . faint. 125 Prov. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Caliph. harquebus or handgun. and sometimes a handgun. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. u to an I in such a colubrum. serpens. klover. Mil. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. to say. tittle-tattle. cotton cloth. Mid. kind heat of the sun. and E. done with heat Alt. — — — — — . a good calling. calat of leude demeaning. calicot. Gael. overscalmaccio. having a thick skin. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Callow. NE. drive. Du. couleuvre. glotton. koluvre. The word was also written cawme in OE. try. abto suppose that E. cauque. CALICO Calliper-compasses.' Winter's Tale. dragonder. on. coluber also. — Fl.(jaa= ice). from Calicut in the E. to rail or scold . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). The adder or poisonous serpent converse. 'A callet of boundless tongue. ululo Turk. moist. the Fr. the latter of chamber. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. to callet. hollaing. calc.' Slange. of a column. calgua. Calm.— . of the bore of a firearm met. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. kol. calcaich. To century was Squalibre. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Heb. brawny. voice. coulevrine. chatter. scalmato. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. the day. prattle. calibre. calk. Ca. colubraria canna. caliver. . Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. calo. vulgo Coluvrine. femme frivole et babillarde. by many that the weapon Callous. According to Jal (Gl. Call. water-tight. a drab. saucy. a soldier who the It. Kavfia. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. piece of bigger circuite. Dief. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. to calk. Calico. bombarda Cauma incendium. scold. Lang. E. colubrina. * Caliver. licht stuk The change from a. gossiping. to call. to affirm. longior. kal. coluber. CALM to press or stuff.' Chaucer. qAlab. serpentina. Mahn derives it from Lat.from Ka'tm. trull. kallo. calca. AS. faint. whence couleuv. the hard surface of the ground. The primitive colubrina bombarda. bald. Unfledged. Bi. a feathers. caluw. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . Sir John Smith in Grose. fistula. word of mouth . Lat. moso. Antiq.' Whitby Gl. So It. kil-u-kal. calclover. Sp. harden by pressure. To drive tow or oakham. culverin. to be of a good or bad quality. To Calk. form. Due. callus. a. cauma. oldire from audire. the scalp or skull. kahcwe. a successor. . Fr. to cram. caillette. calibre. to abuse . It. hallottaa.position is much less common than the geschut.' But it is hard Du. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse.

a. camisade. See Canker. Gr. Camel. to bend. a. across — Bellenden in Jam. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. a large drinking . canalis. Mod. kanna. cAouma. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. spot for cattle. icaSoytipoe. Sanson khanda. chaitcre. camp. arched. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t.conduit-pipe. died in 1526. Canker. Pers. It. cam^e. It. also an eatmg sore. brought from Fr. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. the type of a hollow pipe. camelus. camafeo. Arab. Cambric. camiscieia. to break. Lat. candidus. Camisade.' ' Quhen a lattice. is Cambering. Properly calver in the field during a war. aged. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. clothed in white. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. the heat. ko/utuXoc. Lat. Turk. to bend. campren. cancello. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. nia. cancer. cere : Lat. — — — A — — escume de saumon. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Lat. having an aquiline nose. a crab. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. crook. different sections of the like the Chinese. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. from candere. E. to jut.—Jam. the bed of a stream. chandelle. Camp. Cancer. . ckaouma. A — the Cannibals. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. E. callar. crooked. Sp. a piece. to glow. the calix. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. KafitjUe. toile some of whom. cambren. campaign. Cann. Canine. cainahelus. unwater chamelot . an eating. lie level. lame.— Chandelier. crooked-stick.—Candidate. hooked. field . callour. sugar.Lat. Cambrav—Cam. calj'x. white. camiscia. Cambray. a night attack upon the enemies' camp.who their language. properly good country. lattice. se cameloter. a goblet bud. cambr^. Fr. campus. monk. Fr.Gr. w. Or the word Lat. Campaign. campo. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. when its substance appears inter. Candid. to bow. Mid. the salmondis faillis thair loup. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. cambrer. cambre. canna. chamold man. E. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. good. Fr. Fr. or hollow of a flower.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. — Lat. a field Greek monk. a' Sc. Candy. Sp. is Candle. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang.— B. champ. KafivTu. canis. bis. higher in the middle than Fr. samon. Ptg. An eater of human flesh. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Gr. at the ends. camaien. catmneo. In a different application It. canistrum. Fr. and yspiuv. whence Fr. aspirant. a caught. salmon. Sp. B. camber-nosed. camisa. Canal Channel. campagna. candela. It. co7nbar. on. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Lat. campagne. slander.— Hackluyt in R. The Grisons cauina. cup. or Caribs. Cameo. frank and sincandidatus. B. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Cot.—Cambrel._ kamm. Lat. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. Canibal. Palsgr. Fr. the spersed with white flakes like curd. — B. campagna. Calyx. a dog. Lat. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. had no r in de bric— Cot. from xaXbg. the space of false imputation. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. From campus was formed Lat. Fr. open and level ground. It was distinfrom work. It. Peter Martyr. campo. Kakoycpos. chommer. a may have acquired that signification from plain. camahutus. champagne. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. cup. a basket. sore. Fr. water chamlet .. camelot. It. ation. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. to the force of the wind. crooked. mg Canister. Calver of cane. Cambrel. would plenier. calutmiia. crooked. Calumny. fair. arch. fresh. — Cancel. arched. From fluting or furrow in a column . Caloyer. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field.' Forme of Cury in Way. paign. to warp. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Lat. . India Islands. It. whence the Fr. Bret. Camlet. to avoid enemy in their shirts.

haitt. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. able to receive. a reed. like a torch or candle. The — . kq. Diez. rumme. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. a tube. A . It. Germanis kdppen. shut. Gugel. Canon. It. From Gr. or hold. canapaccia. chantel. name. cainnt. cope. a corner. cane. cane. a cover Turk. from Dan. properly a large Prov. a straight rod. corner. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. schlappen. side. cane. the quartile. territorial hundred. that the G. cannabis. Schwab. Coal burning with bright flame. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. the part easiest broken off. capevole. as a cantle of bread. caparazon. Jonson. It. from cant. Wtb. canonicus.n. cannu. Goldast — in in Schmid. KCLvva.CANNEL vessel. a wine-cellar or vault. which is not the case. Cot. trine. a ship canot. hamlet. canvas. coarse hempen cloth Fr. Canvas. measure for cloth. kanta. lump. cappa. speech. But it may be different source. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. a Fr. a scull- — here. From Lat.Gr. See Chape. Du. a hunch of bread. a — A — Cannel Coal. cappe. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. a cap. from . hemp. cantred. OFr. capa. quarter . It. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. astrology. Gael. quito curtain. and tref. border Dan. Canteen. Fr. . To his judicial And trowl the tile. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. region. Cant. Capacious. also a measure. a cantle of bread. Palsgr. To Canonise. language. canoa. cane. schlapp. a division of a country. . Kavutiriiav bed curtain. and met. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. kand. W. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. If the word had been from cantherius. canonici. KaTTiram. contain. Again we have Lat. the tried list of saints. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. chape. kyndel.^on. Picard. call. it would have been found in the continental languages. regular. canapa. . Sp. Canton. canton. a ruler. canevas. Capari. It. The meserseum and the mesentericum. margo panis diffracta. It. Sp. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a cane. cantone. being a yard or thereabouts . Capable. cappe. Esthon. covered. capax. kwvwxIi. cannone. a door . coarse hemp. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community.. Cape. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. to con- rummer. can. root cap. or cantell of bread. Of vena cava and of vena porta. hood. a hundred. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Lat. Cannoii. B. leiwan kanta. N. border. To canvas — . and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. &c. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. as. canto. kantr. was formed Kavtiiv. Cope. cover kapi. See Capt-. cantref. hemp. and the sex- &c. the heel. cannevaccia. Probably only the augmentative of canto. to put upon sacred writers. tain. cheese. signifying cover. from canna. and hence a gobbet. cape. a drinking glass. Fr. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Sp. a boat. kaput. coat. a reed. kandt-broodts. kapamak. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. part. A piece of anything. Swab. capace. from a Canter. Alamannis. capello Italis. the heel. quarter. Mod. Prov. Kavt\. edge. has kahn. kynnel. hirnschlapple. Kil. cannevo. he discourseth of dissection. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. a small boat. a cloak kapali. a cloak. Hence Lat. a pipe. Cantle. to contain. to sing. The word seems to be taken from Gael. a torch. say. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. A slow gallop. canon. a side. Fin. Canoe. a rule or standard of excellence. Fr. clqse. chanteau. Mod. canteau. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. It. pipe. &c. carcase . ON. cantle then is a corner of a thing.— Cot. cover . a gelding. cantina. a horn of the moon . thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta.Gr. gnat. . Canopy. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. is found languages of very different stocks. to shut.

as Fr. aggricciare. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. It. a separate division of a matter. wriggle. So from Sw. grillcr. to broil. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. a caterpillar. to shiver. Torriano. to ruffle the surface of water. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . greziller. caprice. the singing'bone). explained by Diez from capra. to crackle. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. the head. of a tremtdoiis sound. as Fr. Fr. capriole. according to the Hindoos. principal. Griller d'im' patience. Lang. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. or goat's leap (done by a horse). brisciare. brug.Gr. kid. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. abridge amKoTroq. Lat. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. capparis. Hal. sault. II bresole (Gl. and with an initial gr instead of br. frisson- ner . chattering of the teeth. h^risser. Fl. Hence capitalis the sum lent. brisciare. bristling. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. where Burton adds in a note. or represented by the syllable e. CAPRICE twittering. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. capitulare. caj)o. a head. and his body bristled We to castrate. And similarly to yearn. shivering. as Fr. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . cut off. and 7tucc. the initial mute of forms like Gr. capitalis. bristling. hedge-hog.) d'etre The It. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. bruco. to shiver for cold. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . compared with Bret. It.). to fry. curling. a . capro. See Chief. a yearning through sudden fear. rissoler. a chevret. to crackle. cappriccio. — to yearne. to parch. Capital. To treat Capitulate.standing on end. belonging to From caput. shivering. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. It is probable that Gr. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. brissle. horror. the hair to stand on end. It. a ch illness. herissonnement. to broil. grisser. s'hdrisser. Unexpected pleasure. .' Cot. Caprice. ribrezzo. crackling sound Cape. then to be in a state of vibration.— Fl. eruca compared with It. a goat. horripilation. frissoner. or Lat. birsle. Genevese bresoler. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. capar. greziller. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. frort^Lat. 75. frisser {frissement d'un trait. riccio. toy. knis. to twitter as birds. then find the symptoms of shivering. hair.impressions on the ear. It. airoKOTrrw. chief. gricciare. they longed extremely to see it. to .) grezille marid. A headland. p. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. shrub. w. ziki. end. to from capitulum. knis-hujwud . the head. a kid. grisser. Fr. as in Lat. Caper. is either wholly lost. algabr. the principal part of the debt. fansuddenly angry. grug. G^' Many words — ' ndv. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. with joy' Vikram. or other things. hi. cut. Sp. upon terms Sp. a caper in dancing. Capillary. gricciare. cApre. of a coach. The same imitation of Capon. then to shiver or shudder. curl. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. brisoler. also the capriole. as the means of earning profit. to shudder. ericius. a buck. The true derivation lies in a different direction. It. It. brisciare. capriola. erica. Acad. arricciarsi. the hair to stand on end. heath.' — (Supp. gives rise to brezza.'— Trev. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. I have shivered with love. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. caprice It. Cot. cover of a saddle. capillus. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. A . for which he cites the Comask nucia. Lat. roughening of the skin. of a fowl. alcaparra. Lat. Lat. to desire earnestly. Capers. ticchio. a little head. a young kid met. ^piKos. castrated. It. arricciarsi. humorous. It. and OHG. prickly husk of chestnut. curly. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. Arab. <I>pi'?oe. castrated cock. a capriol. Fr.— 128 CAPE a rustling. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. a hedge-hog. gives rise to Sc. Hair-like. frizzle. rihrczzoso. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. or. caper j caprio. brezilia. Mod. Fr. — — A a hair. capriol or caper in dancing.

Fr. a hood (dim. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. desire. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. It. cabreia. latterly. crepo. recibir. recevoir. hold. sels. 129 — receive. commander. caThe hrestante. Carry. OSp. It. . carabin. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. Du. a capuchin. also tresFl. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. at least. Passing on into E. karista. to creak. from head. concept. carro. The It. concipere. a coffer. cams. intercept. Lat. Fr. captivate. charger. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. to creak. to load . a head man. Crab. deceit. caprice. the -cevofthe Fr. to receive receptio. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. a reception. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. a creaking waggon.). In the S. Cot. capp%tccio. karren. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. Fr. as the dragoons (Du. a cart. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. Carabine. &c. and of captus to an e. charrier. It. was a kind of horse soldier. to accept. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. -cept. recepte. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. di cappa. Cart. Caseneuve in Diet. contain. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. captus. caricare. It is a standing crab. See Caper. whence capture. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . also a kind of rack. to take. a hooded friar. Capstern. seize. tnoschetta. Sp. an engine for throwing stones. capsula. shivering fit (Altieri). where it forms a very large class of compounds. chirrion. calabrin. perceive. conception. to carry . bock. strideo. dim. capra. captive. recipio. Castr. verbs gives rise to the element . capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. — — Capstan. Fr. Etym. Du. Fin. Carbine. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. i The meaning Car. a kind of torture. Derivatives are Fr. trestle. capio. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. Captain. case. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. calabrino. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. a taking back. and has thus descended unaltered to English. conceive. Carabin. a windlass. decepte. was originally a missile . The a of capio changes to an z in composition. cabestan. accept. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. to this is It. a cloke) capuccino.. capuccio. Capriole. Lat. krul. Fr. chevre. Neumann. de- price. a. recipere. Lat. carretta. Lat.of these compound verbs. and tropically. fancy. also to carry on a car .or -cib-. to please. karrende waegen. deception. char. a fantastical humour. or the (capo-riccio). a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. capitano. kerren. to take to. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. to take baclc. capitis. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. &c. as in accipio. &c. a she-goat. conceit. a sawing-block or trestles.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). — —Diet. It. acceptus. concevoir. of capsa.). Thus the musket. a. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Cot. one odd. receptus. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. Fl. Capsule. however. karra.. chirriar. as in OFr. a sudden will. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull.s. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. a sudden fear apprehended. Capt-. It. charret. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. cabestrantej Fr. Sp. cabrestante (whence e. was converted into -ceb. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. fantastic. G. caput. It. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. -cept. box. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. oisr. Fr. except. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. concebir. -ceive. In cases. Nordfoss. precept. Kiittner. and has accordingly been lost in E. Fr. of the Sp. It. cabra. crab s. Capuchin. the p was commonly not pronounced in French.

a card or comb . carcame. a small weight. shell. skeleton toise. military engines made for hurling stones. bend. Sp. caracal. cardo. a goat. the shell of a torcarcasso. The radical meaning . Cat. a he-goat. carquan. designated in the case of G. the trunk or chest of the body . to ripple flax. karri. an ulcer. confining. Parmesan cassiron. carcanada. Ptg. Comp. carbunculus (dim. a thistle. .. carcanet. Caravel. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. chevre by the name of the goat. cabreia. Gael. Gael. or framework. a kind of ship. cdrlag. kerwan. the . A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol.— — — . caraffa. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. an engine for hurling stones. the core of fruit . the case of the flesh. silique. From the battering-ram. Arab. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). tcapKaai. krciti. the dead body of any creature. Gael. word is only an adoption of the Turk. . half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. skeleton.Gr. Venet. Carrob. carduus. Sp. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. a wool card. matter. karra. curry-comb. a prison. the carcase of a fowl. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. boch. garafa. and catapulta. car. casso. caraffe. a machine for casting large darts. An implement for dressing wool. carch. Cot. Lat. carquois. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. «capa'|8i. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol.z. KtpaTwv. a twist. Gr. of carbo). seed of carob. a firelock. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. of the same Caravan. coming to four grains. I. to draw in. a ship. It. It. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. teasel for dressing woollen cloth.Gr. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. &c. the carob bean. Sp. carere.' From the same source are SicU. black dye. Carcax. to card wool. a winding staircase. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . Caraool. Mod.. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. to curry horses karsztuwas. espi7igarda. a quiver . &c. contract. carabba. . Carat. cabra. fire . copperas. to hiss (as gee^e). &c. a crane. a dead carcase. carquasse. p. Card. Carboy. Fr. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. the name might naturally Mod. a coffer. Bohem. eit. wine- bottle. carate. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . alia sunt majora. Lat. It. Lith. eitar. AS. — seems to be something holding together. properly a siege machine. carta.. skeleton. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. It. restraint . Cot. carbo. The Trjg xeXwwac. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. wool card. poison eiz. winding carach. carabe. ' Vasa vitrea. quse vocant karabd. a snail. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. to creak. is the chine. a lock of wool . a skeleton. is the word used in modern Lat. a ripple for flax. to comb wool . for a gun. a battering-ram). W. a thistle. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Sp. kard boyd. ancient springald. cramp. a quiver. to card wool. See Carpenter.. to turn. . cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. decanter. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . mural attack. kirat. karszti. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. cabrita. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Gael. Fr. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a collar or chain for the neck. burning coal. quilato. also a small weight. carcasa. Carbuncle. turning. a quiver. Derived in the first edition from Mod. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. carbh. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. bock and Fr. Carcase. a gem resembling a live coal. avSpaS.. vitriol. Gr. carmiiiarc. case.applied to a battering-ram (G. turn of a horse.charcoal . in the same way that the Sp. Carbonaceous. It. Pers. Sp. also (as Gr. . Fr. OHG. Fr. ON. winding. carcaij. card. Exot. constraining . the husk or cod of beans. to comb. a quiver . a case or chest . cerran. caravela. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. cassa. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles.

It. AS. to shake. — Carfax. grolU. carnavale. &c. Ptg. to comb flax or hemp. carener. from carus. carnalis. Translated in MS. charta (Gr. scharren. w. camovale. caricare. AS. one of those ac- 9 * . combing them out like the knots in wool.. Groler. asper. to clean the bottom of the ship. that on wliich the matter hinges. stridere. Fin. an endearment. Trin. x'»P'"^s)) paper. charnel. quadrifurcum from quameet. from Lat. sensual. to scratch. OFr. care on. meet at a head. Bret. in N. mutter. kargr. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. kara. carian. the flesh of animals . karrig. as peas. carina. Venet. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. — — — Caress. care. Coll. kurista. hoed. Cot. murren. It. Fr. caritia. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. kummer. in St Jerome. Roquef.Lat. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. charie. in Carp. . charg. Probably the origin of the word is the . compared with Fin. astutus. Fr. msstus. to care unkarja. AS. and compare Bret. croller. to rumble. strideo. parched or carled. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. E. tenax. Gael. caru. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. moeThe Lat. A mod-carag. clown or churl. Fin. also a career on horseback. giierlir. tremble. place for exercise on horseback. Cot. grief. carcare. It. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. G. and thin. Cargo. ress. — — Diez. carminare. Bois crolant d'un ladre. carnasciale. beans. carena. the hull of a ship. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. carrefourg. karantez. 273. Fl. winding. de Parthenay. a card. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. principal. is This however Shrove tide. to whirr (schnurren). p. . male person. Sp. gakaran.— Charter. morosus sum. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. to scrape . . A medical term from line —Boerio. carriera. Peas steeped and fried. . Cartel. ON. caMid. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Fr. Fr. whence carricare. road. Cark. . is to say. Card. 8. crosier. Cot. carezza. see Garble. cdrle. — — — : Cardinal. cargar. to parch. intrasset caro. charger. quaver a lazar's clack. or street. Charnel. Lat. Properly a car-road. solicitous. caricatura. or grumbling —Due. A quirito ut infans. to load. appertaining to the flesh. the old theory of humours. a turn. to comb wool. 1S66. karout. cardinis. carcus. carFrom carrus.. carnal. murahtaa. Dan. rixosus. to fry. tuorfurcm (Burguy). sorrow. ON. affection. karl. Mur. cargo. a man. kroU-erbser. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. karg. W. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. weyes. as carminare. crowl. cearig. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. charnage. It. Lat. what is felt as grievous. Carnal. Carl. voce strepo stridente. 2. kribina. to fry or broil. at murmuring. A place where four roads Mid. G. It. Farewell flesh. Chart. sorrow. carena. to growl. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. cura intenta. kumra. act of moaning. . Carnage. For the root of carminare. be anxious. an overloaded representation of anything. karry. cardo.Lat. surrata. dear. to eat flesh. from the keel to the water . ceorl. car. Carlings. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. a hinge. regar. to take Goth. murista. Fr. to card wool. From. carriire. Carled peas. Fr. to distress growl. to love. charneux. like connection may be seen between Fin. It. careless take care of. caresse. to load. essere in carena. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. love. W. that Fl. stingy. chartre. Caricature. bottom. It. . niggardly . graller. crawl. the time during which to Rom. record. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. the keel of a vessel. and sum. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. W. karista. a deed. four. sgritudo animi. Carenare. — — . immediately before the long fast of Lent. carch. fundamental. Fr. zanken . Cath. — To Careen. quarreG. No ' place there had. morosus. & Q. Sp. to lie on its side. piger. Fr. ignarus. carnis. the load of a ship. Bret. the several meanings of the words above Rom. and murhet. and G.' Slceat. fleshy . from caricare. to load. wool cards.— CARD karr-kambar. . OHG. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. soUicitus OSax. Champ. cearian. the keel. a highway. charag. Carminative. Sept. cura may be ror. Properly. from carrus. Care.

Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. Gael. Biheld within. The tippling sots. to pluck.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. a carder. to dance. From Lat. Ant. worker in timber Fr. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. Pr. All out B. a plank. Carpet. or a carouse fully drunk up. A. carpetam (a quilt?). i.' Reg. used for stuffing mattresses. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. 2. in Nat. carpenta. W. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. as the Lat. Carnelevale. as E. carpentum.' Raleigh. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. yede tham about. carduz. a song accompanying a dance then. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing.— Patriarchi. culcitra. Carpyn or talkyn.gonnella. . and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. I drink all out. ballare. chatter skra/a. On this. i. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Mid. in Carp. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. pluck at. Olr. Gower in Way. krapati. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Pref. Palsgr.D. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. is erroneous. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. carpo. Teut. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century.Lat. in Due. carpat (Stokes). CarTo quaff carouse do use. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Other names of the sea. act of drinking a full Eq. or loose as a couch without further preparation. ship.— R. qui sacco. Carole.' Ordo Eccles. Alluz (G. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. In a MS. charpie. and F. . Dief. Lat. differing To Carp. carpetrix. zimmerspan. all aus). vel coopertorio carebit. to dance. 2. Lat. I quaught. 760. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Sup. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. 216. Analogous R. The ' ' a chariot. Mediol. The karole of the stones behelde. sense. In Dominica d'autant. to find fault with. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. cited by Marsh. Properly a round dance. Cot. carbh. chatter. litter. Shrove Tuesday. a wheelwright. carpende fast Carol. e. carnelascid). Templariorum — ' — Due. Sp. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. skraf. maker of waggons It. koroll. quoted by Carpentier. tymmer. querole. Fr. peta. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. . carpere. pluck. charpentier. Mid. tattle. krapanj. Lat. On the other hand bumper to one's health. as Fr. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. Carpenter. lint. Bohem. at midnight which derivation from kroes. as carnaval from carnelevamen. bier. to pull asunder.— Neum. The custom. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. carpia. a dance. and Carnem laxare (It. linteamen. Beggars Bush. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. Discov. to reel. ON. course. Nomin. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Here's to you still my captains friend. balade from It.Lat. of Guiana.Lat. Carnevale. 94). Ein we find the signification transferred from . fabulor. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. a car carpentarius. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. to gather. to rustle. on that. to chatter coroli. 1 1 30. To pledge them thou refuse. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. garrire. chirp. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca.'— Stat. gar aus / all out is correct. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. whence the form carnasciale. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Pm. zimmer. The word seems of Celtic origin.— Drant in R. — . garrulo. So gone they forthe. Chanson de carole.: . carpenter only in the latter sense. carpita. to talk.Why give's some wine then. cxciv. cardos. ' ' — . a drinking cup. carpenticre. a wheelwright. Fr. gonna. — — ' ' — — — I — — .]e bois Carnelevale. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. Bret. chariot carbad. was formed Mid. biheld without.' says Motley (United Neth. ! Carouse.

coffin of paper for groceries. casso. made void. Preparatory drawing of a It. to crack. to fire on the enemy. Du. Fl. hung up in some place and to be removed. It. Fr. something that actually occurs. as we . a fall. abrogate. Cash. Du. carroc- carrozza . a coffer or small case for jewels. des rideaux A'carp^ie. caisse.' Cot. CartOTicli. annul. where Fr. cancel. To duash. coffer. cancelled. Fr. pasteboard.' — Hdcart. of carta. charrier. quash. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Walach. a chance or accident. To Carve. AS. an augmentative from Lat. cassette. To Cashier. Case-mate. augmentatives of carro. case.— Fl. house. Sp. To quash an indictment. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. and that apparently from capio. casus. Cartel. Fr. packing ' cloth. to — — also casse. case-maiej Sp. caroche. helmet. Fl. afterwards any written challenge. Fr. gristle. tion from Sp. hollow. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. carretta. dim. a chest. to fall. cartoccio. Ready money. OE. empty. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. cartella. a of water. from Lat. It. — Cartridge. to notch. It. Lat. Rouchi carone. Cot. Gael. a car. to convey in a cart. for the security of the defenders. augm. It. The Sp. cartilage. AS. Flor. carogna. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Hence casket. Case. Cask. Lat. luggage. casualis. like all the names of tendon. hull of a ship. discharge. cartone. long man's gown with a close body. Probably. to break. caisse. caxa. Fr. Rouchi carter. Casket. corresponding to the G. properly to convey in a car. cassus. — — . carretto.' Fl. from the sound it makes when Alban. a canonry or slaughterhouse. bitten. See Card. Carrion. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. and the OE. Cart. caro.to annul. of carro. kerven. G. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. — — nul the proceeding. Casque. break to pieces. paper. casser. mata. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. casco signifies a skull. Lat. carota. kirpti. bag and baggage of a camp. the charge of — — Fr. blotted out. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. from It. cia. subject for a picture. cascare. gristle. charrette. casa. a hut. a merchant's cash or counter. It. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. cascar. a loopscale the wall.' Bailey. It. cashiered. casaque. casitiste. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. cascata. crown of a hat. not reaching to the height of the ditch. cassa. slaughter-house. mord-keller. Cascade. from It. Fr. To Carry. Fr. casag. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. to cut or carve . from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Casuist. casuelj Fr. As defence from shells became more important. Fr. shell or carcase of a house. crush. Case. Casual. The carrying of anything. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. fortuitous. Fr. kerben. a car. kasseren. to shear. charogne. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. cassa. See Gristle. Cartoon. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. from casa. It. Carrot. ' Casa-matta. See Case. a long coat. card. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. a paper case. cassere. ignominiously exposed. caisse. fall It. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. an act of falling. quasser. carroccio. turn out of service. Fr. to slay. to hold. also the carriage. — Cartoose. mord-grube. to an- — Kil. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. to dash. casacca. and matar. Fr. Cot. one who reasons on cases put. the money chest. — FI. cut with scissors. Rouchi carpHe. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . It. kerpu. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. discharge It. Rouchi caroche. cascade. to bear or carry. Sp. Fr. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. caroach. carrosse. Carriage. Hence a challenge openly hung up. casa-maita. ceorfan. capsa (Diez). krat. Cassock. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. carreaggio. It. vault hole in a fortified wall. carriaggio. void cassare. Lat. cartouche.. Lith.

. Lat.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. dashing it out of the window. same word with break. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. the castanets for or implement . or comba. to crackle. an enumerlist. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. a little house or hut. first made ordinary Fr. KaTappaKTrjQ. from the first of Castrate. Sp. squash. speak of dashing a thing down. to look at. Lat. cash. rack. execu. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. To Catch. however. Hence castaneta. to torture. ichasses. was introduced. race. Lang.the / or c respectively. to drive away. castellum. Sp. Yz. 134 CAST Catacomb. a thump.'— Pr. Catalogue. . cassa / cry for the same purpose. cacciare fuora. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. torture. a vault. Roukind. which has been retained in E. stilts. KaTaarpifm. &c. down. chasser. dim. Mid. a Cataract. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . 120. To It. Fr. Cat. bot-kotis. casulla. a fortified place. kasi.— Fl. to clack. accastiare. to Fl. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. Others explain it from Kara. Fr. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. to bring to an crack given by the joints. the stalk of plants. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India.to drive out. dash. to break. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. n. cacciuolo. like that of It. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. Cast. arpi^m. dashing it to pieces. to make clean or chaste. chaleur. a cat .out cacciare . Fr. fer toTa. to fall as over a precipice. Cot. . cascar. crush . The E. cat-o'-nine. KaraXoyog. represented by the syllable quash. Etym. Pol. heat . kaJoivad. So also from It. to hunt. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. cacciarc. name. casule. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Castanets. fall. force j Rouchi equerviche. V. which. punch. Brunne. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Fr. katze. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. It. catar. Gael. ecrevisse. the ground . ON. Fr. chat. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. second chase.Lat.. klakka. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. Gr. Hal. burst cascare. Fr. sue. to drive Cat o' nine tails. . casupola. Catastrophe. kat. to dash. on. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. castana. puss / for calling them. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. Fr. The Diet. kotas. Chase. kasta. down. to scourge. cast. catch. squash. Pic. In the dialect of Picardy. handle of an axe. of castrum (castra). follow after. image accasciare. and tomba. away. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. . mino. B. and KviilSog. kic' kicil are used chasser. a cat koshki.. castanetazo. to cast or beat to tioner . to is Essentially the Sp. chasser. and from the castus. koshka. It. OFr. tails. a garment for performing the mass in. in the fire. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. coming to us through different dialects of French. lance. kakka. to turn overturn. casser. chasuble. — We a cavity. a chesnut . _G. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. casipola. kotas. to crack. kissa. puras E. or Rouchi cat. Pm. from water Karappaaaiii. ating. cojz^/a. or bruise together. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. perhaps from which we have E. to end. to close. Castle. ' Catchyn away abigo. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. to hurl See Awgrim. Fr. cat. Thus we have Caste. of sarabands does Gr. by the loss of with several pitched cords. R. V Lith.Rouchi Scaches. KarapaKrr]g. probably from an imita. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. is not satisfactory. It. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. Fr. while kiss / Pol. Gr. shaft of a 1 push. drive away. the earlier sense of catch. a whip on the other into latch. castello. to lash. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). kottr. castro. 'Vaaaw. being Fin. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . under chi caleur. Isidore — in Diez. signifying breed.

Swiss Lombard G. . KaTtix'so.from Bard and ayopsw. catch. . a whip or Kuttner. Kil. Fr. snatched. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. ecachoire. — with a whip. catch. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. called dog or Galla catchamza. chatter . a carter's Pat. icarrix'Ki^. compare G. bicho. Rouchi clincailleux. latch. smack. E. blow. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. On Catechism. whip. — Catcli-poll. woodlice. fragor kletsoore. ketsoore. formerly called cliket. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound.' CATCH Fr. Gael. to take. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. to A bailiff. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. chatter. to catch strength. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam.P. a little dog).yopl(. from shutting with a click. door when it is shut. the OE. ArbaUte de courte chasse. Grandg. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. Kartiyopta (/cari. a. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. chacepol. Du. from Gr. G. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. predicament. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. wild-beast. Ptg. klatscherei. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. chassoire. Metivier. worm. resound. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. glcu. klinke. 135 — Aasen. to crack GATES cache. kaetse. — . an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. cat is not apparent. called in Fr. a clap. . gingle. to chat. gliong. a pill. apprehend a person. an officer of taxes. chasse. weevils. 'Horxa. Diez. klatsche and Norm. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. happe-chair. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. children's name for cat . or any kind of relishing food tuals. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. to harangue. Du. ' ' word catch. latch of. cagnon (a dog). a. caker.j. quincailler. as of the latch of a As ! — .. a caterpillar Milanese can. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. chenille {canicula. sound. an accusing. a whip. has both or of charming by sound. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. ' Fr. Guernsey pilleure. Fr. claquer. E. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . i. c or ^. E. Claucht. * Caterpillar. Tutschek. Cates. millecaterpillars. clap with the hand. the the same principle he was Fr. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. s. P. chachara.' ^Jam. chase. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. Cot. kletse. e. Cot. snatching it with a any one. catc?u.) . 'Bxn. Sp. ictus resonans. — B. Caterer. silkworm. companaige. to teach by oral instruction. a — gatta. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. chink.s. to the crack. to snap. with and without an / after the c. the elements of a science. bichano (pussy). seize. Gr. resono ictu lash. and answer. instruction in forms. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. de Bray. to kythe D. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Fr. the distance to which the ball is struck. dainty vic- a form lash. — explained. OFr. GaUa catchiza. verberare kUts. In the XV'e. Chate peleuse. is said that he got a claucht of it. Guernsey chafer. Du. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. caucht. a smack. kletsen. to clap hands. clatter. Kil. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. which all . klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . . to snatch (said of dogs). klatschen. insect. . As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . flap klatsche. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. Sc. — tinman. e. Wal. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. a cornIn the s. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. head. — Kiittner. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. klatsch. to chatter with the teeth cake. catch-flesh. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way.V. devouring mite or weevil. clap. pedes. dainties. Gael. a whip. in order). * Cates. Kariicatching one a box on the ear.V. gattola. a whip Rouchi cachoire. cache. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). snatching.

Catkin. puss.Y\\Xea. reticella. Diez). having the property of cleansing. Gr. kocie. Fr. calceata. apt to burn iron. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Lat. catkins . It. a road calceata. a receptacle for small things. B. G. cavaliere. what . puss. Jonson in R. . w. Caustic. cale. a pavement. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. kitten kotki. chair. a horse . Caudle. chatideau. Cathartic. 2. a paved road. from chaud. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. a mare. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. cautus). from delf^gato. cautis. Cavalry. kopista. kopano. Kavrijp. to burn. Lat. .—— — 136 correct. and spareth for no perell. Lat. a horse . It. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. On the other hand. kautsije. a horse. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. net or caul-work. acaptar.^ acheter (Lat. chaussJe. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Sx. to purge. calceta. via strata. hot. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Caution. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Fr. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. It. Richly she feeds. flue. Cattle.. fur in general. Cathedral. flock. a The peel. to shale or peel. Jaubert. cabbage. chevalier. mutz. cal^ar. Cavern. Russ. Dryden in R rete. Fr. caldo. Lat. to shoe . and hence a skull-cap. The word — . a pulpit. kassije. minon. a stalk. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Port. mudet. That he was ay before in his estate. Ka^afriKOQ.. from caveo (p. Pr. — Cauterise. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. klopfend knallen. dumpf tonen. Lat. KaHSpa. katteken. Lat. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Fr. cavus. kobuiV. koparet. Cavalcade. kaussijde. cabbage). ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Bessie of Bednall. KaPaWrii. catons. green husk of a calon. Gr. whence cathedralis. calqada. Fr. Thus Bav. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. ce^l. OE. Manciple's Tale. macska. otherwise written kell. CATHARTIC sense. Rete. catkin Magy. the. a kettle for heating water. caudex . to sound like a blow . quire. Fr. Causeway. It. cheval. Wyatt in R. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. cabbage-stalk. shaled or picked Fr. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. A warm comforting drink. puss. . 4. . challe was ther of a temple. to beware. Mid.willow. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. Fr.' Elyot in Way. Kil. • — — See Chattel. make clean. Fr. Chaud. calidus. Cave.Lat. chaudiire. Gr.p. rete A — Prov. . Cavalier. Mid. a horseman. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. caple. a kind of skull-cap. also to pave . despencier. to buy. little cat. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. from KaSaipio. acater.^Hal. Cause. Fr. chaudroii. It. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Caballus. lamb. accapitare Rouchi acater. KiwariKog. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. — — cavallo. cauHs. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. .' B. ' Gr. &c. adcaptare. to ac- — Fr. little cap is . any Fl. choufleur {choii. catkin Pol. cale. Delycates. . Palsgr. Gael. but the acates that are sent him. accattare. is Prologue. by land. chauderon. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. fur. Pol. the caul of the liver. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. achepter. Palsgr. kin. Fin. deyntie meates. and at the rich man's cost By sea. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . calotte. capull. walnut with the husk on challer. causa. kdtzchen. Boethius. cat maczoka. katte. a branding from koiio. Fr. Kavrfipiov. hot. chausser. kobyla.Lat. CAVE Caul. Cauldron. hollow. primitive is meaning a shale or off. to shoe. — . the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Provider. Du. caballus. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Cavity. Du. hazel. kocianki. catkin mitz. a seat. the stones of a street.

lambris.j have come from this source. that. beam. to plank ON. and Gol. Lat. give place. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. &c. to seele or close with boards plancher. as if from happen. dil. Lat. in Jam. -ceed. wuoren komo. To seele a room. to canopy siled. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. The It. -cess. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. selure. Ceiling. — . bridle. . ..). Lat. The line of descent from Fr. a log. 7. thil. dayntily diglit.'— Z. quibble. wall. Fr. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber.' Hall. In the same way G. a log. to cut. -cede. selar. hung. IV. the testern of a bed. .). but hang around at the sides. cabega. cedo. caveqon. hollow. cielo. Sherwood. CAVESON kopera or kowera. The sense of roofing. the inner roof of a room of state. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. sill. Cease. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. plank. The importation of Fr.. Boyd in Jam. heaven. — — — toyour soverane. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. &c. a board. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. cabegon. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. Soc. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. thel. coffer. Cede. were met. proceed. board . And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. — komo tain). del into English without ' translation gave cele. and then to gape. Sir 137 pit . From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. death. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. &c. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . Lat. . a severe bridle. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. a planking or boarding tkilian. Gawaine & Sir Gol. with their substantives concession. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. cessum. ceiling. Cam. sybire. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. H.' del. — . . Fr. little house. as. Wore. hollow ice . succeed. canopied. thil. flooring E. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. recede. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. hollow. Plancher. syle. crooked kopio. Cavil. cease. Hence concede. an aquiline nose. step away. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. a canopy. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. a hut. in Jam. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. and zaum. . nailes will begin to cling. and that from Sp.' Rutland papers. 32. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. thili. sky. to panel or wainscot MHG. VIII. a plank.' — Gawan . —Decease. . koppeli. to argue capto tiously. kommata. kapp-zaum. . komista. curved. decessus. seele. dScis. hivtmel. . door-sill J Sc. cesso. 43. pp. a beam. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. syl. dille. sill in window-sill. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. E. of E . yield. tester of a bed. or of a bed. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. departure. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. in Hal. exceed. Cot. a log. In the N. And seik — Cessation. the roof of a coach. wainscot thiljar (in pi. a fir-plank. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. rafter. p. heaven. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. So from Fin. ciel de lit. p. ceiling. a halter. a head. . komo. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. of cavezza. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. cavezzone. thelu. cavillor. to plank or floor with planks. B. to go forth. menuiserie. thiling. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. It. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. departure from this life. column E. also a seeling of boards. a canopy. sus-lambris. applied to a canopy. -cease. jaa. a boarded floor.' Marriage of James IV. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. empty. cellar. the deck of a ship at thilja. excess. Fr. A — A false accommodation produced G. augm. deal. . post. semely on syll. plank. cyling (W.' Ordinances and Reg. Hal. . See -cede. Sp. is applied to a canopy.' Cot. . thilja. Fr. &c. ciel is so unbroken. 5. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. lambrisser une chambre seeling.

Cij(fe5j. point. to glow. being taken from Fr. make angry. to concern. -cipio.cern. camentum. calefare.). renown be embodied with. celer. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. The term cilium. /ctj/rsw. receipt. Lat. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. from censeo. sure. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere.' Book of St Albans. stones to the production of heat. judge. Assize. contend. ciglio. &c. -i^oivre. Lat. become heated with anger. -cense. a Cemetery. is totally distinct from the foregoing. empty. to heat. Gr. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. — . Fr. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. to chafe. what to set in a chafe. See Celibacy. Prov.of the r. in Marsh. — . Centre. Lat. conceipt. tax. Census Censor. parted sleep. to take. to prick. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. zens according to their property. S. celeber certus.ing a room where there is not fire. to celebrate. To chafe is for wine. Lat.unmarried. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. to take. to burn incendo. with the eyes. rubble. calefacere. festive. in accordance with the Fr. criticism. the place where the de. in comp. In Celebrate. and met. the talk of men. KsvTpov. keep in It. to be regarded as one celebro. concernor. to sepap rate. Sc. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. Lat. sift. For sess from assess. K^'ivut. census. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. — . incense. chauffer. then to rub without reference Cement. sile. to sleep). -cepire. dchauffer. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. -cess. -civer {conciver— Roquef.— Chafing-dish. Cell. Fr. a hundred of what- — . Fr. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. to seele or sew up the eyelids . rough from the quarry. -ceive. sting. Celebrity. to blindfold. Coehim. 1. of heating. &c. to set on fire. -ceit. concerner. with transposition hence (of a day). pick out. and put it through the over eyelydde. and so of that other. an eyelash. assess. goad. Fl. a prick. concetto. tax. — A . — . to -sum. (and thence also) to hoodwink. Lat. Censer. to rub for the purpose a hut. oil. To Incense. ceremonia. for building. OFr. to incense. a valuation of every man's estate. but was gradually lost in conceit. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. Take the nedyll and threde. Accelerate. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. value. judge Lat. Cot. quarters for slaves. swift. -CEIVE a shaft. census. -cebre ifoncebre. Censure. family. candeo. cceremonia. Certain. centum. oil. a shaft horse. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Fr. age. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. cencer. to bury). chaufferette. abundance. a solemnity. from Saa-rw. also grave opinion. cigliare. blind. It. thronged the participle cretus. the officer appointed to take such returns . a numerous con. cot. It. Ta^oe. cella. or expression of Ennius. Chafe. -ciper. to contend. Sherwood. Lat. Lat. estimate. solemn (of per. materials It. to distinguish. deceipt. a hundred centuria. Centurion..). -cevoir. Ceremony. observe. encens. we have a modified form of (of a place). deceit. guish. Lat. — — Cenotapli. irot\oe. capturn. appertain. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. siller les yeux. heaven. — . Century. -cepere. a registration of one's self. judge. . {cori)cipere. capio. cenio. Fr. decide. eschattffer. to warm. cillier. Cereal. a religious observance. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Lat. Incensum. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. To seel or close the eyes. -oept. riscaldarsi.. or any bird's. cilibat. Fr. Fr. distinIt. -ceptjun. censura. mortar. to attend on object with. single or unwedded life. eyelid. decebre) . and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Lat. Censor. Assess. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. caber. ciller. his office. Fr. Gr. to visit in numbers. cerealis. Celerity. Gr. Lat. thence belonging to or connected with corn. in comp. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr.' Celebritas. a solemnity. hollow. -cern. — . the point round which a circle is drawn. cretum. to think. and thence to conceal. as in some places burnt. See Cede. confounded ist from It. to course of people. Cot. a tomb. a storehouse Chafe. and — — — possessions. syll. the hollow the Lat. sacred show. Lat. is the opposite of disora virum. to separate. Cess. Gr.— Cellar. ' . to seal a pigeon's eye. to rate. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. crevi. . and thence censer. much frequented.j 138 thill. see. to twinkle darkness.

kaff. to Latin calumniare. Pers. a vault or arched roof.— — . cauvette. much blowing. chalanger. Due. as. cadena. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. refuse. Kuttn. tronfio. chawe. rustling corn. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). khah. shaIt. Fr. bargain. Pr. Ayenbite. songe. tattle. rustle Challenge. to sit. green sagrin. cadera. Chalice. charge with. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. To buy and sell. calonja. In vulgar language. OFr. keffen. chafeter. cam. place See Cheek. lime . a prattling woaction. to gnaw. call in question for an ley). much more Genoese sagrind. G. Fin. chaire. ceaf. kahu. chicane. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Fr. Lat. Halma. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. . Cot. to file. B. calix. kdfer. (ca'e'ra) to chair. Fr. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. De Ir4. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. great chafe. a pulpit Cot. any insect of the beetle kind. as a carriage is a moveable seat. clamare.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. 11. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat.nium. Pat. Gr. kiqfta. chambre. Chagrin. Fr. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. from the shark-skin. also to prattle. de Brai. ing rapidly repeated cries. care. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. cathedra. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. lime. Fr. a chain. avena vilior. Fr. havOFr. The jaw chafty. in a monstrous fume. breathe KaOa^oiiat. — . Kaiiapa. a double operation * Chafer. hght Chalk. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. a jackdaw. chayire. in a cana. quisquilise offence. snort. Bav. yap. of. idle words. rustling motion challenge. kahuja. cup. — — — . kdfelen. from of the G. chafing. care. to chatter or talk lightly. chatter. muzzle. Piedm. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. Lat. matter by combat. cathedra. thick and short. ckapfare. cadena gives chain. — — — . the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. . Hal. rally one. hordeum vel let. to pant. sagrindse.' Rayn. kuhista. puff. tattle cheep. Fr. kuhina. chaene. limare. to dispute. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . contestation. Du. chaps Chamber. a pulpit. to bark. chaine. puffed or ruffled with ly. ON. baras of ants. to ner It. vis. gewolb. difficulty .. 35. KoBiSpa. camera. ing a hard case to their wings. calumnia. preise. fern-chafer. Fr. keuchen. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. kauchen. sagri. Perhaps Pm. Adelung. chamar. a chough. from Swiss kafeln. Fl. Gr. kahista. Chain. kiamta. chaffare. signal by drum or P. jaw. crooked. and as this was the beginning of man. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. Prov. . a goba rustling . Lat. Cheffern. on. In like manto huff. to calumpnjamen. refuse barley . cadieira. to move the jaws. kuhuja. to claim. swelling with anger. E. false accusation. grief. ceafer. Fr. breathe hard. Lat. to fret inwardtronfo. From the To Chaff. a rustling noise. Wall. Chayire. P. grief. to a seat. Prov. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. dongio. — — ' — — — A . From Port. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. Du. kedja. &c. without chap/are makiinde. Came. Lat. to action arose. to institute anforensic action. hiss. Lat. vel susurro. to gnaw. catena. — — — — — — . kever. far lima-lima. ple^. have a mind to parley. Bouffard. fume. calx. sborfare. So from dominio. G. to caw chawer. haggle. ^Altieri. chaulx. Fr. dispute. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. chaise. now a chair. p. Chair. kuhata. Cot. taubes korn oder hafer. to babble. .. leviter crepo Then. Camera. calice. that leneth e per I'autra. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. . Lat. with a:n arched roof. From to go to law. kaff. to puff and blow. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. and signifies to consume with anger. to tattle. or puff with snorting. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. chagrin. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. fa sagramen de calompnia. calonjar. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Prov. kiaftr.sure carriage. Probably from According to Diez. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. often puffing. to call. to buzz. talkative. snuff.

champ. kibti. Sup. chain. e. kiammi. Meleare. bundle. chamfrain. to paw the ground E. Champ. . cadere.Lat. It will. pinch. The E. tsamtsogni. excellent. kabe. act of falling. rare. to groove bevel off a right angle. Fr. gewolbt. Fin. campus partitus . to to chew champ. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to happen {ad and cadere. from Fr. at the railings. chance. to fasten oneself on to another . escazenza. to hold .' ' Pr. kabMe. kabintis. —Chamfrain. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. to bevel. s. a bundle. caer. to fall. to chew. top of a borehole. Lat. Chancel. The G.' SherI'altro ' ' . Champion. See Camp. as in It. to fall). kempen. ciamberlano. cempa. to slope. chdance. fighting place. kiinp. Chancellor. Chancery. kempa. When the to quarrel. Chamfron. M. to cample. The word is preserved in E. kablys. or player at football. to be eminent. cample). Hence (with the nasal) w. zs jeopardy. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. . kanip. campus. fight. to tread The sound heavily. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. a scufSe. To hollow out in chanPtg. champ. Prov. Champarty. to Hal. Carpentier. Prov. broil. contention kappi. zampettare. from cheoir. to — — champ. compound. ON. camp. dial. to debate. To Chamfer. CHANCEL It. from chaud. contest. dial. hero Sw. champ parti. kabinti. to talk. to move the jaws kiamt. kampeln. Dief. ON. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. a game at football. surpassing. champ. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . Fr. Ptg. giving rise to the as. So in e. a feat. kappd). is explained by serrarsi. . cahir. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. — Hal. Fr. campar. Get campers a ball To camf . combat. Gall. chanfrein. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. chajnbellan . Chance-n3. To cope or contend with. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. Lat. . to quarrel (comp. kimbu. which seems another form of the root. as swine. dricka i kapp. Sp. nels. to excel. ciambellano. — KiL . G. and mesUe. kinipen. Fr.—Tutschek. or less ignorant. The happening of things Chance.—Charfron E. ing. kimppu (Lap. dial. a warrior. . champ. pedilusor. kampen. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. tsammogni. accident. hamper. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. a hook . campear. chaude mesUe. cazer. champion Du. and acted as inofficers of . an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. Lat. chanfreindre. — Ch-amberlain. a field of battle. . camp. sukibti. gekrUmmt. kippo. . keiiipe. mesleiare. a horse-race. Pm. camp. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. E. fight. slope of a bevelled angle. to strive at games . termediaries between them and the judge. reusement — fight in single combat.' melleia. to fasten on. head armour. cameratus. Du. i. — ^Tusser. to hollow out. chanfrar. to flute as a column. difficulty . to stick to. jocus partitus. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. hng. received the petitions of the suitors. a court of justice. kampa. kampeln. kimpUma. move the jaws. prize-fighter. calidameya. to slope out the . ON. schmatzen s. to wrestle. to wrestle. chamble. camerlengo. an athlete. Campar. dispute Hal. Champaign. to . bickering. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . a jaw kianisa. Magy. contend or argue G. the chafldn. Lith. chance. . athlete. accidere. therewithal. kriimmen gebogen. dial. Commonly derived from campus. Fr. chanfrein. kimpustella. wood. — masterly Sp. cancelli. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. certare. jeu parti.140 CHAMBERLAIN . Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam).be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. to fasten oneself to another . hot. Sp. luctare. to hang. who stood ad cancellos. Fr. calida et sans aguet. E. to smack the lips in eating. a hollow chanfreiner.edley. fray. boys speak of capping verses. divided game. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. game campio. Lat. kapp. Partnership. dial.

is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. extended to other trades. ON. Chapel. Chape. to strike with a sharp edge. a strip of metal plate. chap.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. to paw like a horse . exchange. wood. to strike. . cambiar. a chap is a crack or fissure. the loose flesh of the cheeks. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. cheek. Probably from chap. leather. kapoti. chapear. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. Hence It. ^Jam. cangiare. to put on fresh clothes. to strike. Sp. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. from chandler. cambiare. shift. Chandler. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. clapet. I. the gutter that runs along a street. to swap. Chap. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. And N. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. Fr. changer. a dealer in candles then. That wide were sentin their spicery. Hal. esclapa. Channel. —Ordericus Vitalis. chapeta. chandelier. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. schimbd. like the knocking of hard things together. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. chiappa. chapeletas de imbornales. It is also used in the sense of the E. surfaces striking together. 2. lips of an animal. cambium. as those on a trunk. while the broader vowels a. jaw. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. Chip. to creak. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. jaw. chaps. kappen. as corn-chandChandry. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Walach. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. also a clap. Hal. from clap. kaupa. Sp. or the like chapar. to peck. a small plate of flat metal. a reed. Fr. flat . and also to chap or crack. are kept. esclapo. — — —Marculfus in Due. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Russ. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. Da. a jaw. the chaps . AS. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. 140. to deal. the clappers of the scupper holes. . Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. a money-changer. to coat. cantare. camjar. Da. Chop. Chap. kemma. Man of Law's Tale. chop. to apply one flat thing to another. chanter. Cheek. Compare chark. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. as skin chapped hands. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Lith. chapilla. W. gab. from canna. Fr. chop. not a soul. exchange. may be compared with ON. In like manner Walach. as chancery . as It. to break . kiceft as well as kjakje. Chap. See Chant. is used in the same sense . klepan. See Chop.^. to spht a chip. waterconduit. the mouth. Fr. chancellerie. cobio. hard bodies. to cut off . Chaps or chops. throat of an animal. Sc. Bret. exchange schimbatoriu. Prov. properly in a hard body. as to chap hands. kjaakaa. . . Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Hence chantry. to cut up into small pieces. hack . and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . chapelete de una bomba. Lang. to truck. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Molbech. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. canalis. ceaplas. a pipe. ceaflas. a small metal plate Port. . The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. to sing. and the modern canal. to peck. to hack. kvar kjceften. —Chantry. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. to cut. To Change. to plate. to — cut. Commonly derived from capella. kennel. chancery. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. kiceft. A fellow. Du. the place where candles ler. schimbu. chapa. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. Lat. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. debeant conjurare. or the cracking of one. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. — . — : Lat. E. prune. any hollow for conveying water. skipta. chap. Aasen. to change. to chap at a door. muzzle. to plate.

eapitulo. Lat. dim. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. 2. twist. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. cluck kirklys. .whirr. schreien. Sp. as. to load . Charcoal was ciarlare. to chirp. chara. Justin. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . the turtle pitre. dear. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Chapman. enough. . a dispute . a garland of roses. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. chatter. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. keeren. a cricket karkti (schnarren. capital. Charlatan. a turn cerran. a riddle. carregar. the nature of a thing. canne. used in the sense of magic Fl. Sp. es ist mi cheer. To Char. chatter. AS. affection. to talk . gadka. charlar. to charcoal. prattling quacksalver. to prattle. cam. cedeleac. kirkti. wood to coal. to love. to tattle. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. tegere. Swiss. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. from Charade. be- e. as Pol. &c. babdistinction. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. clack. turn about. In that work the verb is written caire. a The OFr. Mid. Chaplet. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. which was incantation. chapel. to chirp. car. The crash. creak. to prattle. a riddle. w. for the same reason rosario. Sup. Charge. that turned decken . * Charcoal. charger. .' Boccaccio in Diez. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. a charm. —— . and in It. Lat. See Cheap. cerran. to of the governing body. as a beetle. Charade. Inst. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. ject). creak. chirlar. from capa. Cot. carmo. Lat. carus. twitter. to converse. babbling. decken. tattler. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. to creak. ciarlatore. cluck. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . gaggle .. burning without consuming the substance. krachzen). w. charer. ceap-man. Fr. charlatan. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. hadka. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Chirk. Prov. caricare. And damned be he who first cries Hold. carricare. OE. Fr. beloved. Yx. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. return. cabildo. to chirp as sparrows. See Charlatan. Chark. pohadka. Bret. Fr. It. condo il volgar francese. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. czirbti. karout. wreath for the head. char. it is my turn. Ptg. — a car. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella.charme. Chare. Gr. a rhyme. colliers that charred coal. cha. a hood. kurkelis. seems to be derived charade. Boh. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. caritas. called in Sp. From Norm. Macduff. turn. to sing or chirp as birds. to turn. chat. Lang. to croak as a frog . (eucharistie. Mundart. It. — spell. to dove .Lat. A weed among com AS. Sp. in To ness Charity. charitas. gnash. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. dear(in both senses). go. to . Hence carminare. chapelet. charade. cearcian. chapitre. . a merchant. a verse. An enchantment. from gadai. cher um cher. a mark of a mountebank. 370. jabber. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. . charge an enemy is to lay on. surris seu Lat.czirksti. chirk. Lith. czurksti. siarad (pronounced — sharad). — — — turned to coal. a mark made on a thing. from carrus. chirriar. kurkti. Chapter. properly to place — . Deutsch. called kedlock. of chapel. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. corona. ghirlanda seor garland. Fr. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. grave or make incised marks on an ob. from cape or cope. charcoal burners. capellare. Character. bler. hiss Lith. in turns. Charlock. a head or division of a book. eyre. talking. capitolo. Fr. Du. Lay on. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. from capitulum. The G. It. It. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. AS. czurliwoti. to turn Gael. occasional turn.). carmen. capella.

sordidus. used to represent a sharp note. caro. to cut and faggoted. as turnip-chaits. to chatter or prattle . an enchantress. See Catch. chick. Kil. as purgare Fr. or pop. gallan or ogan. chat. to wet. as that made by the crack of a hard substance.ppen. carme and Fr. geug. the calix of a rose. flesh. a crack or a flaw . Pol. to crack. talk. to chirp. niggardly. also to germinate or spring forth. chits. ch&tier. It. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. Cot. castus. nome and . To Chase. crackle. See Card. Chasm. Fl. Chat-wood. schioppare. — Palsgrave. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. gazeuiller. Fr. kastaa. as from nomen It. clean. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. Chaste. root of the Lat. noise. a young man . gazzolare.a. as we speak of olive branches. gazzogliare. kata-kata. letters p.— Chatter. cyrm. or a bird out of the egg. chip. It. Chat. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. — — . Pol. karigh. — Yorkshire chat. Fr. the bird is iiown. little sticks cudere. speak . gadu-gadu. a twig Suffolk chaits. kna. chatter. parcus. — Hal. From carinen was formed It. to separate in morsels. magpie. pure. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. prattle. Fl. to set a jewel. converse.— Chit. chikat'. — The . make a noise as birds do. . chary. castus. warble. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . . enchasser. To Chasten. chit-chat. the handle of a razor . scraps of for fuel. ferire. to gape. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. from xoAn. Chary. Kil. in Jam. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. ch). to cry as a chicken . a churchyard or charnel-house. noise. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. careful. karg. Malay. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. It. clap. xi'i-'^vui. to burst open. clean. — = Chats. tenax. to chirp. cs E. warble. chaste. csatora (Magy. or the cry of a bird or the like. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. la chasse d'une rose. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. —Charter. knacken. blackthorn-chats. To Chase. In like manner Russ. It t. cearig (from cearian. to make a noise. G. or suckers on rough borders. chip. whistle. nommer. germinate . as in the E. csacsogni.). eclats. the noise of birds. Russ. gaddc. chykkyn (Pr. knatiern. To chip is then to crack. Hal. pure. s. V. CHATS fit 143 to name. chick. Pm. to baptize. from purus. clack. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. racket . occasionally Forby. The egg is chipped. — Fr. or equivalent forms. tittle-tattle. pure. g. charm. %aafi. cassa s. to crack. to chirp as a bird to cheep. Lat castigare. a flock of those birds. to enchase it . discourse. i. limpid. gazzettare. a yawning. splinters. csacsogany. also to hatch. to which it bears the same relation as chape. chisf.). gazzerare. Gr. fragments or leavings of food. An imitative word. from pure. To work plate as silversmiths do. a shrine for a relic. —Jam. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. clatter. be wide open. csaterdzni. kippen. charmer. Diez. B. —Chastise. to clap. Magy. Lat. carnisj bones kept. clear.. jackdaw . shivers. the cry of the bat. carmen is presented in AS. prate. snap. the young shoots . —Bailey. to talk. a gap. So in Gael. To chitter or chipper. D.house. a word. incassare. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. is to represent the chamier. kata. a chatter-box. See Cistern. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. Chamel. also a youth. Fr. — We ornamental work the to signify E. To talk. chit. a branch and a young female. chair. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. talk much . OE. — sharp sound of a crack. chaste. Du. chit in the latter sense Du. a branch. chip. clean. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. Cot. Chart. To chit. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. whence a charm of goldfinches. to care). Fr. czysty. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. Parallel with E. shout OE. a plate of metal. as. fragments. It.

hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere.' kezen. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Then.of the throat in coughing. retching. stuttering. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. koopen. a tavern-keeper. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. Ek dry and hard. caupo. to stutter gigken. to chop and change. Cot. the Lat. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. dchec. entertain kindly. goods. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. a piece of moveable property. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. NE. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter.. the Confessor. catalliim. Hal. syllables ^ag-. teeth . equiva. — — —Chowl. chiere. to swap goods . countenance. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. and hence the E. ceafl.-^. Chear. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. with the exception of land. to buy. It. Pro v. which is used in the to stutter. &c. Slav. kik. — To check an account. Cheek. Faire bonne chire. giggling. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. kakaista. Pr. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. kaupon. sob E. to cough and hence either buying or selling. kek. entertainment. chavylbone or chawlbone. aspect of a man. the face. OFr. — We ' . chapman. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. laughing. . goods. ceaflas. Du. kichen. Hence to cheat. kaupa.— Cattle. cita. 144 the It. frown. mandibula. cheeks. thers. Ingulphus. keck. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. to act as a rogue. Fr. kok. to buy. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . favour. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. G. cattle. et juxta catalla sua. Cam. choule. from AS. to — . . Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. visage. giving or taking in exchange. jaws. to cluck like a hen. a willing look and unwilling heart. kauf. Fin. a cheater. Chattels. jaw. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. to coff—Yisi. Soc.— . in Fr. to negotiate. kak. to deal ON.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. Lat. and. lower. chatel. cattle. a repulse. a young boy or girl. chop. to clear the throat . cattle. to make inarticulate sounds in . kaupiti. bon marche. to nauseate (to retch). chaptel. in widely separated languages by the Lat. are represented piti.. KaviiXog. It — Brompton in Due. Sp. The gutGoth. to laugh. cozener. farm for farm.. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. stuttering. e. gig. lead to OE. gagkern. . s. sale. any cheating. chire. kaufen.— Chaps. chuckle. citello. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. from Lat. a dealer in horses. kakkaset. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. See Chess. chear in the sense of victuals. chatal. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough.— Chole. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. Pm. us. hawkmann. horse-couper. with Dief. 'li^'opa jord i jord. society. gagkezen. ku. ceap. upon a checked cloth. cara. See Cheek. a rogue or person who used the canting language. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. Fl. the countenance Fr. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. whence captale. to vomit. force of the word.ing. Chew. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Fr. CHEEK zitella. cera. changing. truffa. kikottaa. prattlingchete. price. Bohem. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred.kakot. agreeing upon. welcome heartily. Check. OFr. to coup s. CHATTELS has ciio. the principal ' colloquial E.—Choke. which is the word in ceap. It. to . snout. tradesman. Sc. a dealer. .' to exchange to gasp. a canting knave. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Bav. to fetch the breath with difficulty. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. the tongue. exAS. look. capitale. Modern Slang. cachinnari. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. ceahhetan. Cheat. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. . while it Bret. sum in a loan. sense of bargaining. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. Gr.

the The use of the word kcesir. e. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. throat. Sc. suffo. cheken. veluti piscium. . cegio. carnium.' to w.G. It would Cheese. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Lat. to make a noise different word. Du.D. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. king). quoka. E.. quok. cisty G. the neck.EP CHEVRON 145 on. kapen. cerasus. to boken. An imitative word. Hence chesten-nut. It. geagl. E. kikna. Lat. Fr. Chevaux de frise. cabiron. chesten. To Cheep. Sw. Lith. treat with affection. . Cherish. dear. to love. condition of being taken. ceaflas. dersen . /Ji2^/(W. cista. schach. CHE.). to gasp. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. like a young chicken. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. achever. hasten. The Sw. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Pm. to swallow. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Sp. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. X'C&s. as meat and butter. mouth kek. kjakje. Sc. cyse. — 10 . the mouth. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. . czypti. Sp. to gape gab.D. — — . made rancid koka. Chess. chAtaigne. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. Cher. gapen. Achievement. a chicken. kastanie. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl.perly head. Fr. E. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. skratt. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. a heap. E.cirieggia. Kil. to choke. AS. — — . ceac. to geahl. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. geafl. rattle in the throat. w. ation. See Chess. practice seems to have been communiChevron. whence czypulas. chaps. gill of fish AS. jouffle. ceaplas. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. to choke with laughter. to belch. Fr. Da. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. jaw . From them the plish. AS. Jam. nish source. equal squares of opposite colours. jaws Sw. gous forms are G. chevir. Fin. (Kil. — — . things Da. N. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. To make a shrill noise Chest. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. chiffe. kesten. to kep. jaw. rafters in heraldry. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. giffle. Fr. &c. to kasa. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. the throat. chops. kasa. clear the throat. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. kirsche. . cireggia. for cheese itself. rupted into chess. Chef. a rafter . the loose the game of checks. chasi. make an end. Lith. cheek. takes place in the formation of cheese. to bring to an end. food. kasiiUPr. The name of creak as shoes. kdkel. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. ichec. kok. Chevisance. kjcebe. cherir. xaque.koppen. scacco. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. Analo. Du. accomplishment cayed. Cherry.peep in the same sense.Xo belch. ceocian. subacidus. See Case. Pl. gap. mollium congeries. by laying it in come to an agreement with. G. whence kasa-leipa. frame by which the exertion is made. cheeks. to prevent the attack of cavalry. caws. prevail with. gaghel. Chekenyd or querkenyd. jaws. the hke. ceg. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. Thus "we are brought din. gullet. the palate Chequer. Lat. to year. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . AS. G. kistej Lat. cams. Lat. by laying up in a covered heap. cerise j G. kaecke. cough. In these latter forms we see the transIt.. to accomThis they call hdrsk. cabrio. old bread. kdke. cheek. the final guttural is retained in writing. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. Fr. F*-. cufd. caseus. ON. kopen. Sw. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Prov. cheek. jaw. OHG. . Tutschek. ost. schach. w. kces. kjceve. chests in OE. jowl. chevron. gabe. as. Prothroat of an animal . kikna of dorum coacervatio. a cricket. acquisition. w.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Fris. to heap up such things for the purchoke. to hold dear. chops. See Alchemy. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. As the board to gasp i. ca' — . then end.their struggle for independence. rennet. throat. incaseatus. kastr. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. squeak as a mouse. castaneusj Fr. Chemistry. cese. caru.

Prov. kopf Du. Chaw. pi. a cup cibaw. chawbone. or qf people talking rapidly. chimb. G. kimista^ . Tintillo.^ to resound as a bell. chillrar. AS. cheek. kieken. signifying properly shivering. See Chimmer. Fl. kibr. as. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. strideo. czypulas. aner. ]).. Du. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. chic. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. jaw. the same principle I regard On birds. kidata. : — a lump.-ill. cidan. a small cask OFr. chef. by driblets. kaw. Gattel.^ Hal. a cup. tiukkua. The loss of the syllable it in Du. kindeken. Now gan some courage unto him to take. to titter is Du..' my finger tingles with cold. Child. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. E. — . Da. to raise the rim. Fr. pole. The Pl. into a continuous shriU sound. rafter. beam. horn wood.D. greloter is to shiver for cold. knarren. Chill. to go. E. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. capo. killen. k'imm s. a chicken. cib. It. pipe. kauwe. Walach. deer's horn. kinderen.. Chitter. s. Pm. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Gael. from the second Lat. from the first of which is Lith. Chief. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. a finch. to smart. cabar. . gills of a fish. the least imaginable jot. Palsgr. a head.). tiukka. klagend tonen. chew or chaw. ultimate origin of the Mite. caferu. a cup. the rim or edge of a vase. chieftain. and not vice versd. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . rafter . then as G. kitista. kime. Fin. or the broken noise of birds. a hen. chol.D. to crackle. jaws . tintelen van koude. CHJME the radical form is unusual. queror. kilderkin. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. knirschen. tyuk. to the brim. head. rafter . wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. creak. tremble with cold. — It. lead through the synonymous E. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. chaps. as pointing out the origin of the E. tremble. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. De chic en chic. pipio. cebr.— . alter. to gasp for breath (Hal. 'Among these the G. mouth. twitter. Payer chiguet A chiguet. — — Mother Hubbard. chavel. W. pip. the cry of young . a little bit. crepo. Imitative of a loud clear sound. Sp. To chitter. to Du. Fl.— Cot. knit the brow cib-led. captain. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. has probably the same origin. Fin. Pl. to twitter. to use the jaws. then cold. ach. mountain top . hiss as meat on the gridiron. chillar. kop. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. jaw. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. pululo. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. chiquei. antler. caput. Brezza. Fin. kippa. Chimb. sonorous. when the vibrations become very rapid. And hence. — Fin. Chigue. tiukkata. Swiss kiden. tiuk. Halm. chicaner. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. to chirp or peep like a chicken.peep. the young of animals in general. De finger killet mi for kalte. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. cabarach. a jaw. ' . the throat. quivering sound which passes. kauen. chikat'. a young bird. E. — Du. or chick. Chime. Probably from Fr. chillness or shivering. G. while the Magy. to chew. Lat. kauchen. the jole. Du. a chicken.— Gattel. cap. to pettifog. Pm. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. Kil. cabriones. a chicken. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. killen. Bret. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Chick. chin. capete. kimme. Pr. caprioru. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. in Walach. CHEW . and from the third E. Pr. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. w. also the horizon. To Chide. cild. a quid of tobacco. to contest. kind. A To Chew. machouere. term is ssaru fu. Magy. kaau•wen. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. . choule. chavel. keichen. branchy. cabar beinne. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. to contest about trifles. Fr. chill. Fr. while didder is to shiver or citteren. to chime. chicken. kimia. the head. capu. kouwe. kuwe. For the see word Doit. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. grelot). stake. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. cica cica. the Ptg. . zitterti. horns of the house. pipio. from little to little. 146 brial. acute. gosling. chiler. are formed Du. or as E. Russ. chicoter.. to scold.

chink.sharp. sounding deep. to chirp . part lion. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. hiss chirlar. to gape. as a large bell .schricken. genou (pi. Bret. cinne. squittire. and chim-mer. to sound deep or the Gr. Sp. Chitterling. Bav. resonance . . or chyFrigutus. . kumista.iron. a chap. Huloet. then of a fabulous monster part goat. kieck hoest. quavering of the voice. Chimera. — — — — — . do. schrick. clangor tinniens kummata. to open chirriar. the whooping cough. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. The desig. cinan. — . a thorn. tschirpen. twitter caminus. KinneGr. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. Valentian charrarj Norman charer.Lat. komista. Chit. Primarily a shrill sound. to chirre. the mouth (jaws) . in the same crack. Chat. caminsects. tinnire. Chitter. tsongeni. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. flaw Hal. In the same sense. spina. Sp. zirpen. Caminatum.. gena. the chin . eschine. genawi. Du. the cheek (jaw) . to tremble. et garrire . gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. fyr. simmer. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. crepare. esquena. See Chap. . Gower in Hal. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . plodere. Prov.czirbti. and light. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. G. quivering or shakyng for colde. chin . representing connected together. cheminde. ciarlare. to sound. Fr. tremulous motion. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. fissure. Diez de. The small entrails of a hog. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . hus. cheek.). pork) . tsengeni.. i. G. the jaw.er. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. name Then. The change from the sound ter \s. kink hoest. sonus the backbone Lat. Lat. have been used to designate the spine. to prattle czirpti. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. a Kuttn. rustle. schetteringe. It. Kil. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. AS. from Lat. all these imitative terms being minata. E. chick. and bodily movement in shimm. verynge or dyderinge. cisello. ter. ciseau (for cisel). Fr. skina. in Hal. hollow. to chirp. to sizel. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Pr. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. then to any narrow crack or AS. Chin-coug^h. A . also vibrans. See Bright. kinne. E. to simmer. komia. Chink-cough. backe. To Chitter. a fire-place. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. the chine. Ptg. epine.to chirp. cisaille. dial. caminata. chits. applied to tremulous motion. caperd. zirken. Gascoigne in Todd. as the/ is preserved tering. to tattle. to chine. backBut she withal no worde may soune. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. schina. chhint. from 10 * ' Chia. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. It. Magy. sparkle. as birds the mouth. It. Fr. — . Du. a thorn. schetteren. to creak. Hindost. spina. clipping of coin. pare also Walach. to prattle . the jaw. Chink. To chink with laughter. bx-eak the back of schena. . keich husten. Lith. — . gen. from the geon's lancet. companied. a chink or fissure. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. czirszkti. ykvvQ. 147 kimina. as a bell kommata. Sp. To chirp or twitter. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. schiena. Sw. stridere. and the Du. Gloss. sound on beginning to boil. disCot. killed by Bellerophon. a hall Mid. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. Fr. chirp. vincially used in the sense of a crack. To Chimmer. as the chink of money. j^lf.Huloet in Hal. a szemrcU. sound. hiss Pm. Chymerynge. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. It. Sp. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. Fr. cleft. are In like manner E.' Phaer's Virg. to chink with laugh2. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Chintz. yivtiov. It. — . eschin^e (de pore). esquina. clashing of weapons. Chisel. and from a similar sound to boil gently. sonants. to creak. Chip. Chine. to chink. See Chats. but or cry as a parrot. Chyrme or chur. kumina. bone . eschiner. to squeak in It. a crowing sound in recovering breath. a surkik hosta. Pm. chatter . See Chark. . up and down. to murmur. the cheek. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. Chimney. twinkling light. klincken.to divide or Du. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. Cot. cincel.

to prove. to Compare also Pol. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. to experience. ent quarter. friller. in the same language. civette. fine threads of flowers. a rag. Choice is probably direct from Fr. a goose's giblets. Chives are also a kind of small onion. from %u\i). coup. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. pieces . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. kiezen. okusyti. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. Chap. — — — .. chippe. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. to try. Chivalry. taste. %o\ifa. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. to exchange horses. Chuck-full. caperd. shiver. to wrinkle. of E. chorus. . to ing is doubtless to taste. g'schochet voll. choppe. cepa. Fr. * To Choose. ON. to hack. and in this sense the * small pieces. approve. crammed Choir. kusid. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly.' At last he dwelt . full. . The manners and senti. a ruff. Serv. chock full. taste.yEuffM. a young . by the vibrations of sound or motion. Goth. keuren. schevel-steen. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. krussyi. wein didder for cold. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. cape. G. coro. •- Russ. to taste. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. to try . prove. chiffe. to taste . cut up into — See Chats. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. also calPs. haslets. kieser. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. . skifa. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. a small slice or slip of anything . gekrose. ^S. Gr. to strike hands . to taste. rare. to taste. 19. kiusan. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. Lat. a scale or fragment P1. developments of the same radical image. x^poc. gusten. a wine taster. . choix. —Chorus. chattering. cive. a company of singers or dancers. to taste. Luc. Boh.. G. arkiusan. a twittering. chife. or original meaning is preserved in G. ON. wrath. chaup. from chevalier. an onion. then to shiver. kruszki. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. Yr. whence choleric. then to try. Enn Sigridur sem ' .' who shall not taste death. causir. chawdron. Gr. Warwickshire coff. ruffs. it is probable that the root kus. from kraus. and Vf. shoot . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. Walach. a calf's chaldern of E. The I go to prove them. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. cke. kaup.freze. a fragment. kushevati. Choleric. wkusit' prikushat. a knight. schiefer. and in kosten.V)^x. anger. the small parts of the roots of plants. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . are used in the same sense. scheve. word is more likely to be from Lat. I. and It. kiesen. 2. kustigen. ^euw. chatter. pluck. schoch. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. G. to turn. lead us on to Lat.ceosan. chives. try. Schmid. Swab. . a calf's pluck or chaldron . to try. to clap up Hal. specially with an application to theatrical performances. the ridges prove. — Cholera. fresure. a chive. experience valerie. kausjan. To Choke. as green as leeks. Body and Soul. Prov. chibble. . all seem slate . propagated. xiv. full to overflowing. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. kushati. &c.vonic languages are Pol. disposition. The . keypa. chimp. kor6n. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. to taste. a heap. a ruff or frill. to try. OHG. signify to kiss. try. Choice. to chap. to break off in small shive.gust. . gustare. Cavalry. chap hands. as with a blow. kalbs gekrose. i. to ^cleave .— B jag E. Fr. to stop geschoppt voll.' Verie coinme Cot. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. to shiver. koren. Jam. kiusan. by which they are Fr.ffrill. to tempt. of an angry — — — ' ' — . chceur. select. — Chock-full. to choose. kbhren. Chives. to chap at a door . Fr. Swiss kust. gdnse gekrose. ments of the knightly class.D. and N. As kushnuti. bile. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. called cMtters in the N. a blow. &c. — See Cheek. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. seallion or unset leek. Equivalents in the SlaFr. See try. curly . The Sc. heaped measure. to palpitate . To Chop. CHOP kros. Gr. whence Lat. the inwards of an animal.

Sp. claquer.xl—Shirbe ridiculous.—Chuokstone. The Turk was here As one should say. that will thank chiaus — you richly. gold.).(. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. the teeth to chatter . E. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. and we actually find champman for chapman. p.• — . In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. to clack. the same word with the It. high clog. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. as in Fr. From the Turkish Chiaus. Fr. That Face. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. kowe. gull. noble Doctor. chrysalis (Plin. caker. bearand aits. Gr.' Jam. chevane.). copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. koppe. chevin.povucd. — . an offence against the fitness of times. short piece kubbug. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. clat. Chough.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. e. — Quabbe. Chub.— Chevin. kaufen.— Landnamabok. Fr. a small fish with a large head. chouette. Cot. chatter . cangiare. Confounded with the bullhead.. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. applied to an owl in that language. kaulhaupt (club-head. in Chaucer. Du. clogs. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. gobio capitatus. . chack. gull. ON. — — — . thick-set. Nominale in Nat. To Chouse. Peace. peace. chapineria. cheviniau.' They are forebuyers of quheit. cavena. chuet. I bring you the Cloughs.\^s. ceo. To Chop logick. civetta. — Dief. i.X. who took in the Turk- clack. merchant.sohola. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. to overturn. kowej Sax. cauvette j Fr. What do you think of me. quappe. by the Robert Shirley. klopper. to speak thieves' slang. Come. the intestine of an animal. kaw. Wall. E. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. time ra . In Sc. or miller's kaycke . And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. In the Alchemist. cheap. caqueter. e. overset. Chronicle. A jackdaw. cow-couper. ' ' What's that? Dap.. Madam. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. to knock. Fr. ley in Giiford. kauwe. cob. kolbe (club). E. because she would not endure this husband chopping. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. capito. dial. which was written 27. —Shakespeare. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. XpvaaXic. of which such strings are made. to turn over. Jam. prattle . capita. Kil. xop5>}. whence e. Borgoens happen. Chrysalis. See Change. Lat. Chord. a messenger or envoy. xpi'^lia. connected with G. traffic. To coup. chop. soul-couper. capitanus. to cant. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. Gr. Fr. yiSA. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. whence — E. Sw. Picard. forms are Chrism. Fr. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. 49. — Chrisom. kubb. to chatter. a The What dhy ^. chrisme. chub. OE. E. fat. a trafficker in souls. A fish with a thick snout and head. kubbr. one who buys and sells horses or cows. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. slipper . To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. chapma?i. 4. Alchemist. Marin. as Du. a thick piece. &c. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. G. chevane. chouquette. Gr. dealing. a lump or piece chump. Ant. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. capitone. equivalent to the E. Chopino. P. a bullhead. dial. Chuck. cresmeau. chronicles. from kloppen. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. kaej Lith. -chron-. we find the following passage Dap. to strike in the hand. whence apparently the Sup. See Chaff. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. . A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. kobe. caphatenus. thumb Fl. a stump. in i6io. cauc. xftovoq. AS. klompe. choucas. plump. syllables chat. Gr. If I discover. cambiare. chapin. for to defraud. Anachronism. chroniques. the string of a musical instrument originally. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. whence the Fr. monedula. sent before him a Chiaus. Du.

— of the two words. as in E. or choice part of a thing . to churn. See Cheek. to Newsp. joufflu. with It the Lord's house.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. tindra. comp. kerl. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. but by way of explan. has been impugned which it has really no connection. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . Probably from It. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. sicera. flower. surly. giffle. Da. joffu. a fellow. chaps. KvptaKolg. -cise. cendre. ceaplas. -cide-. as a board. ON. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. chife. whence deciduous (of trees). to jaw chack or snap. -cido. karl. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. we have to chack. spuma metalli. . cinctus. Gr. G. chofu. marrow. ciuffo. Cieling. kernjen. Ka-^aiva. to fall. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. as water running over rocks or stones. a girding on. Fris. Cleland in Jam. Lat. kiorne. gffe. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. a douse on the tores. Wall. or. The spelling of chider has Chump. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . Cider. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. have given rise. Jennings. to cut decide. a rustic . qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. sindra. blow on the I io6 in Mur. cidre. — — A — ' ' — .— . It is certain. sindr. Diss. a cutting an old chuff. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Aasen. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. however. cheeks Cincture. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. chack-stone. domhnach. chofe (Grandgagnage). ceorl. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. kern. a pebble . to make a rippling noise. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. cinctura {cingo. as Fr. chops. whence church. dial. a husband. KaxXij?. AS. to make a aiKipa. Churn. to cause the milk to grain. an old man. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. 24. Lat. G. chuffy. to him a sudden blow. See Ceiling. Fr. chakil. .— Chu%. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. Church. Du.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church.V//a'6'?. tie about). kjami. Gr. Du.^. ceaflas. Chuff. &c. from Lat. to turn from blossom to fruit. a lump. jaws. a man. ccedo. Wall. AS. Gothic nations. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. To chuck in the fall from. to gird. cinis.for the residue of stone coal. OFr.rendered by Kil.' he adds. calculus. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. .is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. then the on oh StX iv roXt. Chunk. kakka. geaflas. Hence -cid-. in the face. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. See Cheek. Lat. ON. to form grains of butter. scoria. klakka. -cisuiri). a miser. incido. dust. a man. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. As AS. kirna. e. Lat. whence ON. the kernel. a pebble. Ir. ceffore. . so as to make the happen . to determine incision. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. thence a belt. in circumcision. cheek. -cis-.. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. to throw out sparks. Sicerawry face ceffata. to strike clatter. male person. fat-cheeked. accido. i. i. cinders used disjunctively.' And cold. The origin ation. ashes. — . hot iron is beaten on the anvil. &c. to To Chuckle. x^^i?. C^z^j^ churHsh. cado. countryman. pith. to separate the kernel of the milk. * Cinder.D. to sparkle. the snout of an animal. swollen or puffed up Cot. Du. residue of burnt coals. as Epkema explains it. calx. a man. ChurL husbandman. sinter. casum (in comp. log of wood. e. a cutting round. -eris. . sintel. Cob. ceffo. Fr. to fall at or on. Sc. kaerle. chack or stane-chacker. to fall upon decide. a resounding object. ON. sindel. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). ladre from Lazare. Sw. lamak. in Sc. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. from Lat. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-).black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. cut off. . pp. set kerti. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. In Sc. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. sive piratiam facere sciant. The derivation from Kvpiasov. that the word is an adoption of Fr.

a lump Lat. Gael. City. dim. Chaste. ern. cifra. Citron. uproar. a kind of pipe. bunch . Dan. klamp. Lap. sound of blow. We . In Fr. Fr. accordingly find the roots dab. to go. stimulate. a loud uksa slamketi. to set in motion by means of the voice. circ2tlus. a circle. claquet de moulin.' sione. circa. lucerna. To Claim. civilis. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. lash . It. cisterna. to cleanse. with an initial s instead of c. * Ciplier. To Clack. area. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. a reservoir Probably from Lat. Mack. wasserkasten (water chest). ON. a circle. civis. clat. Lat. . clap. to call. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. clap. to clatter. kringr. empty Golius. to bawl. around. Lat. E. to strike. clump. sprig. clamras. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. Gael. for Cion. Circum-. klemte. clog. scion. —Civil. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. is traced by Gr. a boss . .to suck. * Cistern. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. . a. city. ter. a lump Du. . vociferation. klater-busse. of citta. babble . Hence Incite. It. klappen. — (Dozy) ing blow. gutter. See Circle. domern. tinnitus . sound. sphere gleba. citrus. KpiKoe. rattle . ruin. a circle. Clamp. to gnash the teeth. cry out . Cot. klappe. Du. Sw. Hal. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Fr. whence cistiti. Arab. clatCot. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. clapping of klacke. a citizen . to mention. Lat. claquer. outcry. Clam. clobyn. to toll . cion. G. scion or sucker. Du. cito. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. a ring. suck). klak. . glamm. to clap at a theatre. a'upiav. klompe. Fr. prattle. klateren. . about. sindri. claquer crash. the door was slammed J slamem. and Sp. klambr. lump. clot ON. chest. From Arab. a lemon tree. We . noise — — a cistern. Gr. Lat. log. klap. klacken. klabb. a Pol. &c. a young and tender plant. a block. and E. sajira. smack. sifr. in the frequentative form. Dan. ciste. KipKog. chijfre. around. glam. circle. ON. clack-dish. E. clamare. clack-box. a cleansing place. klekotati. lump. a whip. claim. to chatter . Recite. circum. a place See place hiddern. Clump. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . noise. Gr. to clack. clambar. sound- — hands figures. to knock. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. a for water. Circle. klimp. to chatter. -cis-. belonging to cities or social life . slam. fall. a knob. Citadel. from chupar. ON. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. or clap-dish. cittade. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . to call by name. klopati. kluV. as caverna from cavus. and. parallel root is slam. to make to go. W. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. clamp. a ball. -cite. clasp. compared with It. or split with noise. a cistern. civitas. sip. as in Sp. creak les dents. cittadella. bunch. Excite. clapper. a ball. ball kloben. a hiding-place. clamer. Bohem. to be empty. circum. clamp. klumbr. cisterna. a rattle . Scion. —Circuit. Fr. cieo. Sw. klammer. crack. a rattle Fr. Comp. See Crankle. to cry out. Du. The syllables clap. a split. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. crack. Sp. hringr. The Gr. chupon. 'mass. . cit^. dob. .— .. trunk. lump of wood or with the nasal. a whirlwind. See -cid-. as. biw. . radical identity of the Fr. may cite w. the tongue. a shoot. ring. glambar. a judgment cern. The notion of a lump. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). to call. a kind of rattle. CION See Tinder. chatter . lump. mass . klqb. cittd. chupon. globus. a pop-gun. twig. lump . cry. klacke-busse. klepati. or quill to draw waier through Fl. cion. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. a Lat. a clod. a clod Russ. forms — — — parent plant. a block. lump. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. clack. a city. Lat. prattle. to chatter. G. . klubb. to appeal. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. Alt. Cite. kringla. It. . rattle. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. crack. So a light. citujn. clack. Lat. cluster. klump. excite. clangor avium . the place of . to cluck. Lat. a mass. a city. castus). to summon or call on. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. claquer. cista. and clash.

to seize. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to cleave or stick. resonance klingen. sound. klappen. Mampe. klam. for tame conies. dink Du. Dan. Clink. dren. a loud tingle. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. See Clam. cleave. cramp. clap.. massy. to stick conceal. E. klubber. . klammern. as the clapping of hands. knocking. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. or klamp-vogel. a sound made by a still . descendants . yf. and hence to pinch . clangor. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. dambar. damras. Lang. a place underground where rabbits breed. scendants. hands or claws to grasp. also to clog up. compress. . A i. a trap. to hold fast with the . klappen. kloben. dapi^. to Hal. These are imitations of a loud. dank.' klibba. E. These words To are closely connected with damp. klynge. chatter. a whip. Fr. The equivalent of Lat. to dame. clamber. to claw oneself up. adopted Lat. of the children. uproar. strait. a noose . The E. dial. accent. dem. Du. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. salaan. clann. klappre. to do anything with a clap. hold. — Cot. Clank. klebern. . G. bandage. — with hunger. clasp. clapper of conies. contraction. tingle. buckle klamp. — Climb. klette. but perhaps not directly from it. to clap. Clamp. . klepati. a rattle . tenacious. clap. to climb. a sound. Lat. beating. cluster. Du. kleppe. gum. tight. cling. OE. Bohem. Hence the Fr. tattle. klobber-saen. grasp. klemmen. klamme. dia. klamre. run to lumps Clandestine. . from birdlime. bond. to hook things together. klemmen. grimper. cramp-iron. children. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. to. conceal. clink. tremble . rattle. of which the locative case. Du. and hence moist. dial. to stick or glue. dap up. klopfen. ring as metal. salafa. Russ. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. sound of the trumpet . hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. Pourta las p^iros as clapas.1. sticky Hal. G. originally a heap of large stones. nature . chief. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. clandestine. ney. dapier. hook. kleppen. to climb. G. to gingle. klepanie. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. apprehend . to pinch. dandestinus. anything hidden. celo produces Fin. sound object . to patronus. privately. Dan. in a hidSen place. brawl. sound . to clutch or cling oneself up. kluppel. stick. klem-vogel. tinkle. diver. to climb . clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . clammy brace. cream Manx doan. klam7n. substances of a stickydam. tone. to glue. solid. damor.' to take coals to Newcastle. holdfast. to knock. Swiss kldbem. with cramp-irons. viscous. a claw . pressed close or hard together. G. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. narrow. klynge sig op. To sticky. prison. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . from the w. Clang. The root which gives rise to klibb. a bird of prey. B. rumour. seize. to starve. a stick. klemmen. to cling. as the Lat. to hold to pinch. offspring. a sound made by a lighter clink. klang. Salainen. dang. dee. klampen. a stone See Claim.p correspond- ' without order. to clap on. G. of money Gael. klank. to Sw^. Clapper. who occuG. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. a heap of stones. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. ancestor. the in many languages. chatter. to climb. a hawk. viscosity . — . a heap of stones or other things piled up . . From small tribe subject to a single Gael. dam immediate modifications — . clapas.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. sound. — Lat. clajnmy. Dan. Halma. dienklebber. a claw. to climb. club . dam. strain . to beat. gliong. to knock. Bav. clav\f. pinching. dapier. kleppe. dam. klettern. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. take hold of. E. is a nasalised form of gripper. B. klimmeii. clibby. compression. Clan. gripe. crowd . clang. klavre. Du. To clap in E. to climb. The Fr. children. Clamour. G. Swiss kletten. klatten. To Clamber. klibber. Dan. closely analogous to that of the fast. clear sound. — — . whence sala. Sw. &c. glambar. G. dientes.er. to glue. E. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. to clamp. klammer. is used in the sense of secretly. c). Clap. klepel. klippe. daver. kleben. beat. dam. AS. to hide. In like manner Du. to daub pinch. and that from celo. where- A — unto they retire themselves. klamm. a craCmp. Gael. a burr. coagulated cream.

vinum helvolum. klaterbusse. &c.Z. chiarino. Russ. klatscha pop-gun. insularum nexus . from clinging to the tree which supports it. it is called clamming. clavis. the primary origin clapa. Lang.. glcis. vin claret. an on the one hand. and shrill-sounding trumpet. klc^i. to fasten. Clause. Fr. a distribution of things into groups. contraction. claret win e. a lash. a nail. — Clarion. Clasp. nail. Nawith stavis. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. Class. whence kleuer. from scknallen. seizes) . The b readily passes into gleba. under three modifications dava. klot. syrtium junctura. klaeret. clump. straight-mouthed. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Du.Gr. 269. &c. fibula. same class with w. chiaro clear. to patter. Du. From claudo. vin clairet. a lump. clausum. Lat. kletse. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. klaskad. Mask ! plask ! thwick. a clod. pet. a buckle. to clash as arms. Kil. klatsche. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. —Kil. crying. hawk. clopa. kleeven. a bunch.\x\xvn. in the sense of a claw. assembly. from the resemblance to a key. — Kiittner. Lat. klampe. Serv . ictus resonans. Gr. is used in Sc. waU. Clavicle. clatter. Du. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. KXeiSi. to clap . from its use in fastening things together. a ball. e. claw (what fastens together. Eau clairette. — tells us. fragor . kleuen. locket of a door. klauw. globus. schnalle. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. or as G. Owl and that by which cleave to. skeria-klasi. globus. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. It. In the same way is formed the OE.). clew. ansa. a heap. Du.ck a whip. biichse. clavus. a lump . klatschen. Cot. clarinado. a clasp. hook. climp. kiosk bicza. clew or fasten upon a thing. clas. diver. . an ending. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. Thus from clamp. So Pol. as G. chatter. Klatsch- a pop-gun . klijven. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. clarin. Sp. teren. fracas. we pass to the E. uproar. clamp. puUs. Thus from Lat. mass. bawling. to draw it up into a bunch. Clatter. with a reddish tint. To clew. clausula. sound of the foregoing description. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . a water made of aquavitse. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. compression. to end. he of white and red grapes mingled together. It. noise. in the sense of a mass or lump. clair. Pol. stop of an organ. and old red rose-water. ghespe. klucz. Lat. Nightingale. Lat. chiarello. and clavis. Eya-klasi. to animals Sp.— CLARET clamp. K\a. thwack . which signifies a ball in E. i. thence a definite head of an edict or law. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. From clairet. forms are the Du. a kind of small. cinnamon. to cleave. — Clarinet. a. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. klaequivalent to clack or clap. row aii/iaTos. Identical with ON. a key KKtitid. clairon of a trumpet— It. Fr. But clasp or elapse. a key. mass. also a knell for the dead. cloi. klampvoghel. to do anything with a . klouwe (Kil. Du. kluczka. rubellum. is preserved in Lang. a complete sentence. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Originally clasis. cluster. a little hook . the cracking of a whip. Du. to ring in such a manner for the dead. gaspe. to fasten together . Wyutoun in Jam. subrubidum. E. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. blab. a bird with powerful talons. as Mod. klauwe. klatschen. Prov. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. Rayn. chasguear. applied in their harness. nawith stanis. as it is written by Chaucer. to snap. to shut. Fr. klamme. biichse. ivy. flap. klos. Commonly made.oi. The collar-bone. In E.w or u on the other. buckle. G. the collar-bone. rion. pellet . klase. Claret. clairon. and through v into a.It. Sw. to knock. . to rattle . Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Dan. a club or massy stick.to cra. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Claw. a claFr. somewhat clear. Analogous Jam. Clew. classis. a key origmally a crooked nail. a claw. a sphere . klouwe. dap. a. chiizjj-o. The form clew. sphaera. Clash. sauna de classes. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw.

Cleft. bend in a stream. dench. that was Torriano. an object is simply cleft. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. a cleft or fissure. AS. dedgy. nitidus. to chink. From clap. Probably a modification of the word doitt. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. a mass. to tear or cleave asunder. clemens. rivet. as Fr. to shine . Clinch. provinciaUy termed dout. Omklinken. to 2. klinken. Lat. a one end. to cleave. . conserere antklankjan. glan. pretty. kluftholz. gleit. rive. clean. klceg. dinquet kleeven. klutsch. Clemency. daggy. glint. a lump. as Lat. glitnir. a in that of sphtting. hook. a plate. the fork of the body. clash. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. vissticky . pure . The word may be — . (Cot. shine. to fasten. a lump. river. chaps in the skin. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. Du. kldnkelein. cliquet. This word is used in two business is finished off. gingle. Du. calm. G. radiant. Gael. the latch of a door. klinke. klouen. to clinch a nail.— Clag. viz. B. klouen. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering.— Claggy. dag. clay . kleverig. glandse. dams. Da. gentle. clear. See Clam. to separate into parts. Halma. doggy. sticky. . The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. celebrated . klieuen. . sleek. Wilbraham. Fr. The word is . either by the coherence To Clepe. split. splendid pohshed. from nitere. is fast and sure. a cleft. the original . and. holding together. voice. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. mud. to fasten. from the clinking of the latch. viz. kloben. words applicable sight. klinke. ON. 154 CLAY dutch. ON. a fissure or division See Cleave. sticky . as explained under G. to clench. to shine. The proper meaning of the word is shining. neat. Lat. a clincher. vice. gaklankjan. kluit. a bunch of When flax). doff. a flash. danche. klijveii. — : A rivet. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. neat. Du.' was nailed to a rock. a — — . merciful. Bav. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. polish . famous. glorious. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. klirren. A — A Clement. to stick or adhere . klank. to clinch GB. kluyte. Thus from G. the To Cleave. to clink or sound. kleg. G. G. glan. i. Du. a mass. or of a tree. clear. . identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. . pure. glan. klinken. See Clog. to stick to. a fissure. geklonken. cloven wood. klov. to Brilliant. glindse. kleben. a latch.). door-latch. kloben. Da. klove The Dan. and Celtic glan. glbram. Cleat. dut. E. To call. kloue. give a shrill sound Jr. bright. from diquer. Sw. Axletree clouts. together . . Du. kleg. bears nearly the same relation to both senses.— . Die zaak is zS. Sc. pellet. Sc. kloben. G. it cleave together. Da. loam. diquetcr. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . W. clink. glbr. kla:g. pure. glitta. as ON. the two parts of Du. of iron worn on shoes by country people. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. to dag ox dog. to be composed. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. cleave. polished. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. opposite senses. a key. and E. tongs. clibby. or from being divided into two parts. klor. found in other cases. smooth. Sw. and Dan. klinken. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. klinke. klinka. clear. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. a noose. dial. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. a noise. a claw or talon. speech . rift. that was a striking proof. kluft. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. a cleft. glance . ON. Mar. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. kleevig. bogs cous. This is probably one of the clean. To Clench. E. Sw. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. to fasten E. as the Du. From dob. klincke. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. klag. seem formed dial. klyft. klink. Clear. Clean. The Dan. clean. Clay. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. klieben. explained from the klinken. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. dags. Dan. 2. clean. G. to sound or make a noise . E. in two ways.Q. Kil. lump. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . deot. date is AS. glent. klafwa. glatt. clean. klirre. clout. glor-mhor. to glitter. Du. sticky earth.

chat. G. Sc. Sw. which in Mid. klever. precipice. click it. See Clamber.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. light-fingered. Client. catching. from clifian. rapidus from rapio. with hamarskard. Da. name. klinket. on. crepare. dutch). deudi. above the pole. one of the clergy. the knocker of a door. clima. to bend. a hook. Hence Lat. as from derido. to clack. dook (identical with E. gleg. chatter. clap. pen. abrupta rupes . climate. diver. to sound an alarm to clap. dial. Dunbar in Jam. dink. clatter. klif. a lump. Lat. verge). to wink. Norm. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. one admitted to the tonsure. klaiv. highest is attained. Du.) Brai. kloof. the clergy clericus. cleugh. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. a latch. a baU of yarn. . dough. a latch. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. Commonly derived from deliver.dergie! Wiclif in R. neither as having lordship in the. cart that tilts over. /cXi'fia. to rattle. a hump. kleppen. or an object character- Clerical. claw or talon to dek or deik. to catch. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. speak. icXi/ja?. Jam.. sonare. a lazar's clicket or clapper. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. Cliff. deuck. derjon. cave . a cliff. chatter. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. region not observe it. dichet. corresponding to the Sc.). sink. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. cliquet. to prate. to move. The origin is the Gr. had a form. glomus. rugged ascent. corresponding to Fr. &c. frap- per rudement une personne. kliv. Claw. Bav. to cleave. cligner. whence Fr.Lat. cleft of a hill. -Toe (from KXivm. a clew. CLINCH De . Gr. a cleft in a rock . Du. as a click with the tongue. de ripa. call. babble. 3. as Sc. rock. Climb. Happen. Det er en Mover kerl. See AS. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. a hold. dergi. clypian. click. cliquer. a tumbril. deuch. lively. clerus. click. expeditious. G. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. which is used in Scotch and N. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. Now the OE. Clam. click. and hence climate. scar. clep. a trigger. KkrifoQ. clack. clif. quick in motion. clever. dicher. the clergy. in the sense of active. precipices. 3. cleke. to catch. Click. cleopian. an inclination. cliof. —Vocab. dek. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. Rouchi cliche. in rhetoric. stein- kluppen. prattle. klaffen.' ii. a claw or clutch. it must be observed. a clerk . has also deik. klikklakken. clyf. declivity. a clicket or clapper. ravine. a mill-clack . — have the notion of a short quick in E. d See Clan. klippe. from Gael glac. Clever. derigo. that is a clever feUow. See Clench. derigon. a child's or clack . a figure mentioned. IS5 Du. hamraklif. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. — — A . ized . to seize. cleft. quick of perception. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . to confess . duik. littus. Climate. crack. a latch . klikker. ready of speech. has kl'dver. nimble. Lat. rupes . to stir. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). a sphere. Clergy. . The Sc. score7i clif. Clew. cleft in a rock. Climax. as Lat. call. or Sc. Chaucer. to tattle. is NE. ginally from dob (extant in W. crackle. a precipice. We movement catch. dial. exactly Gr. agile. klippe. deik. cliff. Cot. e. Klover i munden. in precisely the same sense as the E. klev. In I Peter v. a ball of twine. to snatch. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. skard. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. chatter. Du. clever. OE. a lot. and hence deik. to teU tales. the dick of a latch or a trigger. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . a ladder. diofian. Boh. say. diquette. to talk as a parrot. . rock. CLERK sound of a blow. on. duke. pulsare. dever.— Clicket. what so men clappe or crie.— Clue. and (with the nasal) — clincher. dexterous. Somner. AS. klinge. But the Dan. slope . klinke. Sp. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. kliket. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. Fr. klok klep- crepitare. dial. klika. kleppe. to tattle. derecia. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. Lat. would have been derida. syn. seize (Hal. snatch. Clerk. klouwe. clif- stanas. to cry. cautes. globus. deik. dob. . temperature.

noise. a rising ground. klocke. ten.' From Pl. . . rima. Sw. G. kleppe. disposed to a thing. Cliofue. klepalo. also to form a compact mass. a faction. ON. kXiVu. to make a loud noise. Du. to cluster. cloak. to wither. gang. hlinen. -CLINE make pinch. . klaka. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. Flem. . ON. met. pallium. especially of something soft or clammy. G. tuft. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. ' . hluk.'— Shaks. to beat on the board.und zuk-lippen. Du. klocka. as we now say three or four o'clock. Bi klik uti klak. klungelin. to snap or fillip schnippen. Cloak. clingan. Gr. to snap tongs. to ring. klupen. to form one mass with. pinch. as thick or curdled liquids. Esthon. knippchen. -cliv-. as to snip in the same sense from snap. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. Fr. incline. . E. klunge. . to crowd or squeeze chingy. klincke. a separate portion. g. parva ruptura. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. to slope or bend . To cut with shears. G. incline. to crowd together klynge sig ved. See Clang. iissura. Decline. S w. difficulty . like cling.. declivis. kolki-laud. in Schmeller) klunk. Sw. The E. whence E. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. Da. kliks. a bell. dial. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. to pinch klupe. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. I. chcng. Ang. a woman's mantle . klak. .. dial.' for a dry stick. to clap or clack. a lump G. difficulty. Du. glocke. gUong. nip. to sound sharp. a beU. To Clip. hlinian. kol- The word . to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Clock. sticky. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. klok. to lean backwards.ginglej Fr. claw. clinke. to pinch. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. klinka. Gael. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . whence the hour of the day was designated as three.— Clot. clutch. kima. Een kliks bolter. Swiss klungele. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. slant. &c. clivus. Ir. to clink auf. dial. w. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. 156 -cline. recline. hooded . globulus' (Gl. to snap kneipen. Sussex peasant AS. 'Till famine cling thee. glungelin. verklungeln. and 'E. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. Swiss klokken. klocke. quincailler. Sw. a lump. kluppe. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. ON. sloping downwards . bow. fetter. to wither. — a mantle. clique. as G. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. klunker. sloping upwards procUvis. a bell. at first probably on a wooden board. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. klinken. klo^gen. Fr. dag. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. Bohem. OHG. G. or bagging clothes. related to clock. toga. also to wink . To Cling. hill . to cling to a thing. to shrink up. klippen. * Clod. kukla. shears. a cluster. E. hluccti. — clot. toga muliebris. klungeln. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. a clog or fetter for a beast . by bits. clangere. klippe. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. klynge. Du. klicke. G. a tinman. klippa. N orman clincailler. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. Serv. klippa. See Cowl. knot klynge. sloping forwards. straits. Hal. -atum. The notion of a loose moveable substance. Lat. four of the bell. Kil. ring clag. brett-glocke. compress . To stick to. to AS.D. schnippen. clock is a variation of clack. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. knippe. . Lat. knippen. klingen. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. to resound. cochl. to lean. and so' to contract. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch.. kldpp. dial. Pl.D. Walach. acclivis. a snare. a clock. to beat. clips.. speaks of a ' clung bat. Clink. to bend downwards . have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. to knock. a ball of thread . and a similar syllable without the /. 2. to clunge. to . G. outcry. to shrink up.— KSS. cloche. kolbe to E. a lump of butter. to snip. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. clato make a noise. kluben. Bohem. from klepati. Sw. clinker. to clip. a hood. clog. klipa. clino. klik. pinch. club). to strike. klippur. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. Sw. .

. tuditare. a monastery. to lobberig. mire. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. klotzschuh. klag. a log. It. a clod. Fr. -close. inclose. spatter. fat. be&c. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. kleck. bowl . meat from Du. mud. daggerey. Lat.1a. loose trowsers. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general.D. dirt. beklakken. dunch). clorre. Fr. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. motzen. . clogs.— Clothe. . a log. a lump from Du. dirt.). ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. to bodies. In the same way Dan. thick spoon . motte. clot. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). from Fr. slob. dag. neither spot nor hang loose. a field inclosed clos. klokotat. compared with clump. loose mud. to flap as loose clothes. lobberen. enOE. lobberen. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. klakk. klateren. pludre. of a body of any kind. terminate. Du. A . closed. slops slodderen. . . blot. to play at bowls. unctuous. claudo. Hence inclose. and Gael. to a. schlott. Pr. . with Fr. Mat. is connected with pludder. kloteren. Fr. Lat. to bedaub. loppe. to shut up. bloutre. bemired. To Clog. finish . Klottermelck. klod. gelatinous. to spill liquids. . shut up. MHG. slobberen. from Du. to cling locks. zocco. klos. . E. slobber. lump of butter. clog or overshoe. a portion of something soft and adhesive. Pr. E. shaky. clatk. and E. clogs for the feet klakk. to shut. a trowelful of mortar. paddle. in comp. Pl. in forms like Du. clotted milk klotte.'^ Palsgr. Closhe. miry laggerit. clausum. tJokok. to rattle. AS. foreclose. a block. loose. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. Du. to bubble. rattle.. schlottern. a clog. klakken. 3. clos. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. clammy loam. analogous plan to clod or club. lump of mud on the clothes . to claggock. paludosus. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. wabbling from Du. claggy. or E. clotted locks Dan. . from claudo. to rattle or shake to and fro. kloden. dial. . separate part. watery. truncus. clausum. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. aspersion. dab. ! .cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. of something clammy or heavy. a spot. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. pattens G. . a blot. paddle or dabble in the wet. boil. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. kladde. lumps of butter. to close against one. . Dan. chiuso. g. geschlotter (as E.rge lump. .' end. cloth. lag. lopperig. Clog. to slop or spill liquids. to flounder in the wet. and thus seem endowed . the radical sylla. -clusum. m&se noch stain. slab. dangle. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. close. lob. G. forbidden by 17 Ed. be found rattle. I clodde. Pm. lopin. or Sc. slobbe. The game called ninepins. doitre. kl'dnken. Swiss schlott. Gr. Sc. to wabble. we pass to E. zoccoli. a Christmas log. klot. . klottern. I clodde. to shut in. shut up. slabberen. thick sour milk. clos. congeler. curdled. to rattle. He was a man without a dag. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. in accordance with It. claque. spot of dirt. laggyn. loppered (of milk). kloten. lobbig. and Du. slop. schlattern. lunch. to dash like heavy rain. or loppern. to shut. Idppern. in accordance with Pl. Cloister. Fr. mud klcEg. to dabble. a bal!.dial. -cludo. is a blot on one's character. Klak also. tramp in wet or mire. whence klack. schlotter. then liquid or loose substance. klac. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. schlettern. . figer. hanging loose and full. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. or drablyn with separate existence. . je amoncele. bespotted with mire E. daustrum. His heart was franlc without a flaw. like G. -clus-. da- . Close. to sup up liquid food. to paddle in the wet. G. chiudere. log. to dabble. a blot. we pass to Schlatter. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. klotz. The origin of clod and clot is to . Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. laggery. lump of something soft . kleck or lack. wide bagging clothes. loblolly. klos-bane. a skittle-ground klos- sen. kloteispaen. a clod Swab. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood.D. A — — A Thus from Bav. fors. without. slops). klunkern. an imputation. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. a dirty wench claggy. a babbler. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. plod. TZoxapov. Bav. Russ. I doda clod. IV. • lump. kloster. splash. Yule-clog.

dial. N. dillad bumkin. a sky Cot. kluppe. of a lump of earth and that figure. Mabousfrom Lat. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr.' Sanders. a clod or clot. as Fr.clod. . klumba. kl'dnne. It. hebes (Kil. ball of thread Russ. klunds. klonte. cloud Delfortrie. clot. botch. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. a fissure. mary sense is a blow. davus. to strike . a clove of garlick.). rustic. G. a breach. to cloy. lump. ser. . to a lump. dial. klumpfot. loggish. a ball. and clout d eudaich. to tramp in the kluyve. mire. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. of thumping clumsy action. are also used in the sense of a stopper.D. Du.). klever. a lump. make warm. Met. klcBdi. klotzig. Kiittner. Cld. choke or stop up. cobio. kloete. clobyn. to cherish. when something has got into the touch-hole. de Champ. Imitative of the note of a society. a nail) Fr. the air. Das volk hat sich in splitten. clou de girofle. cob. mass. from W. Then applied to a lump of mate. More in R. a garthas. formed lump or thick mass.Fris. duthaich. klubbe. tered . to curdle. klobbersaen. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. warm clothes {dillad. eene ODu. klqb. AS. from Du. clavo di especias. The significations of a clod or lump. klu77ip. daggy.ft. Du. Du. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. of sloppy materials. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). from kloven. (kruyd =. of nagel. lump. . are often connected. a clubfoot klabb. nagelein. a bousche. clog. in the same sense. chiodo di girofano. cludaim. ON. dote.158 .D. clotted milk or cream. G. a clot or keeps one warm. blockish. dump. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. Move. cluth mhor. but confounded with cailler. and of a rustic unpolished person. piece Cot. Sw. I. . tuft. a bunch. clot . a curdled sky. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. warm place . To Cloy. little nails. Dan. clydion. a knot of people. strike. clod is used in both senses . botsen. Ir. clunch. Sp. nelke (dim. warm. matte. dabosser. aglio. caillebottes. dash (Cot. a bobbin. clue. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. lump. Du. klotsen. klaven. A kind of spice resembling Du. een klaven kruflook. The priClout. klieven. unpolished. log. Fr. klubba. puddle. clump of a clout on the head. w. diboter. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. stock. From dog. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. zolla dell' . a bunch. AS. knob. block. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. and tapp. group of people Sw. clothes ment. a ball. lunch). to beFr. dut. Pl. sheltered . clods. a clown. spice) G. esdaboter (Roquef. E. clunch. klump. dial. clot. eine to slop. Club. and -the word Clove. clod. a thick mass.). nourish . to strike. klubb. 2. Properly that which covers and Du. clump. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. Clown. ON. from OFr. E. clumhar. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. . Sw. sheltered up warm. dob. to splash. clyd. to cleave or the splashing of water. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. A division of a root of garlick. clammy earth. — . clothes). to cleave. a ball. wisp. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. a. the terms expresssplit. a lump. sticky. . a clod. zolla. a log. a nail. a . Gael. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. To Cluck. motte. cobble. klove. So Fr. warm. klubb. cluster. boucher. mud (Pat. Clumpered in balls of clouds. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. kUid. The radical sense seems to be an unE. — — — . klebek. G. to cover Bret. klotz. milk run to lumps. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . bunch. CLOUD an awkward clod . kldverj P1. Cloud. a boss. lumps of curd. and clay. lie clyd. In the same way E. Clover. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . Gael. a cover or coverture .). to stop. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. shel- kloen. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. a bunch. knob. Du. Rouchi dapoter. also homo obtusus. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a ball of twine . to lump mend clumsily. and closely do conspire. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. indispalte knoblauch. a sticky. a log. dirt. kloven.bar. with lout. a patch.D. probably from daboter. coarse. E. a blabber. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. w. del mattond. G. lump of earth aria. dabaire. Du. cludadh. kluV. dys. Clump. naegel. CLUCK rustic. clothe.

klont. Muster. may recline. E. glousser. log. claws. Hindust. pinched. Gr. klocken. clabosser. havi. to squeeze. coucher became in unhandy. dial. G. The sense of awkward. fingers (familiar). Variation of clatter. to curdle. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. viscous material. finish. to curdle. as clumper. Fr. klomen. &c. Graff in Klamjan. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. carriage in which you klodset. or from Sw. Com. Sw. ill-made .'— animal. Cheshire. dumpse. acomelydfor could Pr. glocire. klummerhdndt. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. -clusum. to syllable click. Riwle. calling her chickens. Du. —To Clumsyd. cleik. Pl. bunch. . a clot klissen. Clutter. paste. to wash. ' . to tramp. clopiner. Coal. -CLUDE hen Du.. — . clausum. a block. cluster. From the notion of sticking together. differing only in the absence of the duik. clip or pinch. koetsie. an instrument for nasal form e. of Du. The Fr. to shut. . A group. kohle. OHG. whence koetse.mene tied. klemmen. dumpers. a pinching time. seize. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. verkommelen. ether comelia P. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. * Clump. clointer.D. limp. to paddle or dabble. a clod or lump. dystere. a couch. and klonteren. unwieldy Hal. of garlick. a clod or The noclot. MHG. klunt. er. klomje. strum on an instrument. Isaiah. .' Wycliff. from klupen. ment. clumsy. koetsen. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. eviratus. klumpig. n. coccolare. -close. kichlemmit. klister. having the Pl. pladdern. —More.' Benecke. unhandy. klonte. eene beklum. to rinse. koetblockish. a bunch. hooknosed. a lump. beklommen.pare P1. esclaboter. unhandy. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . klikonosy. Champ. a coach. unfashioned. koetsDa. klompen. cleche. ' Uorte (for clogs. rial. crooked inwards . * Clumsy.D. Du.D. klobber in klobbersaen. But clunchy. klunsen. klemma. -elude. OE. G. . exclude. Teulazy. Ang. algidus. MHG. klisse. cleuk. inclusive. awkward. klummklummshandt. hondis. — sen. plad or plod. Cath. obstructum. 159 E. Lincolns. verklomen. lump of soft mate. G. Analogous forms with a tongs. Fris. Pl. See reclusion. klimpern. to gingle. conclude. to tramp. klos. to grip. Clump. also a cluster. claudo. dussomed (Wilbrabam). gelidus. klikaty. klonte. -olus-. might be reached from clump. to klotz. to lie. -cludo. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. Compare Swiss klupe. clook. a ball .P.Ancr.E. dial. as from seken. dumps. in v. or aclommyde. a lump. Sw. a claw. smart motion. dial. a nasalised form of club. xXvariip. lay hold of. a litter. Cluster. lavesen. Hence snatching. idle. Lat. klump. duke. Beklummen van kelde. 130. hand to cleuk. conclusion. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. ON. to wash. a noise. Hence cleik. to to snatch. It. Du. Sc. Pm. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. clutch. ball of snow on horse's foot . with E. Sp. See -elude. klontet.D. heavily. COAL dumpish. Du. klcise. with a quick. kol. Lat. thick and clumsy. wooden shoes. awkward. dek. claw. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. Fr. hands stiff with cold. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. Coach.— — . clutch. from laver. to tramp or tread heavily. as Fr. doquear. ball as snow. klampa. — Hence include.D. the word is more probably connected with OE. to pinch. enervatus. klods. clotted cream. a clove Sw.' Vegecius in Way. — ' — — tonista. kluntfrom KKvKdi. a ball. to collect in lumps. — Cot. benumbed with cold. tight — — . klamen. ' Thou clontsest for cold. a clod or lump.' Comfort ye dumsid. and klotteren. and koetse. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. Fr. Ray. are the nasalised forms of klotte.e. through the senses of lumpish. -clus-. wooden sole. in comp. splash. E. and make ye strong feeble knees. Du. klamp.forklomme (Outzen). In the same way Du. clump. to curdle. G. Hesse. from ON. eviratus. to stick together . When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. ' Clumper. close. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. klette. beklummen. klumpern. to benumb with cold. cliboter. dial. Boh. dek. wagen. cluntClyster. a lump or compact mass. Clutch. a clod clunter. properly to do anything Fr.

petrilla.. The OE. a kitchen.. itself is Nescock .—Atkinson. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. acomelyd or aclommyd. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. small pox (pocks) . pock. Flem. — — — E. gull. and E. quele. may be A found in Sw. coste.inflated with air or liquid. to Lett. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. cule cocosse. niais. cobble. from some fancied resemblance. a great falsehood. flame.' — Thus from (Hal. imbecille. broddelen. kuppa. numb. to kindle or cause to burn . 3. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. Fr. to . The contrast between the bee • Cob. throw a blow. cokes was a simpleton. are round stones or round coals of small size. cobcoals. sweets and the other of poisons. Cobbles in the N. to pdt with We may cite Fr. gull. to be inflamed .the water boils. verkommelen. to beCoax. The Fris. from bearing a bag. . long standing. to stutter. a similar According to Ihre. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. to stutter. or cobble. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . boil. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. dial. cochinilla. to cobble shoes. koppen-gespin. staggering or halting. cofasse. Sanscr. kolna. Lat. to knock. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. in Essex Jow*2c^. cob. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. Coast. E. to peck as a hen cobyn. things. a knock. Colina' the place where a fire is made. cock or nescock. CooMneal. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . verklomen. koljarn.(pi. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock.). kop-ar. tuft. give the full meaning of the word. in Du. cokes or fool of him. one Pr. e. . cacd). Coat. and jval. united. of E. a pock mark. large coals. cob is a dumpy horse. to glow .. To cobble. top cobio. Fin. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. to hobble . kop. probably left his home. properly to daub. as shown in dob and cob. then to work unskilfully . klabbsmed. Outzen. Formerly written course. OE. klabbare. Sp. an old idiot. Pm. w. to bungle . quilet. plaisant. ON. e. k'dlla. Lat.. and fig. Coalition. that is. klabba. cotte. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. as in arr.' Nares. large stones . of E. used in — . ignem. caleo. ridi. H^cart. to form an union with another coalitus. or E. a bunch. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. and imperfect or unskilful action. and hobble. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. also a coast. In the E. a spider. walk clumsily. to burn. to worship. to speak or act confusedly. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. costa. bredouiller. to cob. to strike. glow jvalaya. glowing embers. Coarse. It. a bubble. frock. and thence a lump cobnut. a crea. to grow together. probably from the Fr. a woodlouse. . To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. blaze. viz. bijamie. unfledged bird. dim. cotta. a coat or frock. Cocasse. pustule. COCHINEAL Cobber. Dan. atter-kop. acc