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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. or. with an initial m or I. come Moolls. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. Molli. and mully or mully cow is the . who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. muK) and mae (rfie. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. The syllables moo (mu.NURSERY IMITATIONS. name of the cow. in language of the present day. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. the present day. when neither name for the object to be designated. to the syllables which are significant to the child. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. when we is represent to our children of the cow. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. mind of the of the animal. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. or Mollein. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). and. the baaing of the sheep. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. by whom the be understood. and where we are seeking. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. in other words. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. the closer we shall approach to the . persons of different tongues at the present day. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. but nothing she herself knows the animals. is given to a cow or calf. come Moolls (Mrs Baker).

He would now say good.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. repulsive to eat. as well as the mind of the utterer.' he says. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. had nim. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. for everything fit to eat. when hungry. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. p. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. to work over with the mouth. to eat. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. . which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. A member of my own new sfop.' In ordinary speech mump. Finally an n was placed before it. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. he called to to drink. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. and nim came to signify everything edible. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. by the natural humming sound. I had watched the growth of this word. &c. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. and some were very clear and distinct.). analogous to Magyar mammogni. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. became more perfect. and which we might express thus. hm. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. . his nurse adopting the word with him. On one occasion he said^e nim. Heinicke. Gr. First. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. for bad. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. family. We have. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. in children's language. fiafifi&v (Hesych. to For instance. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. Gradually. partly from sounds which the child caught. schipp. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. nim. nineteen years old. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning.. mumm. then. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. 72). for things. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things.

fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Gothic niman. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. . Soosoo (W. the Scotch poet. as well as the Sw. Swedish dialect gamsa. Primitive Culture. to mump. South Jutland hiamsk. crab nam buckra man. to smack in eat. oves lalare. as to . mujnpa. 130-1. voracious. iii.' — Lersch. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. jammla. (in chil- dren's language). memmexen. agreeing with Ein. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. at hiamske i sig.' says Quintilian. to Sw. Africa) nimnim. mumble. or word-making. Wolof nahenahe. Nimm'd up. namnam. to move the lips in continued chewing. and thence to be tasteful. dial. nam. to fill the mouth. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. and the crab — p.' And Diomedes. we can call them so. j ing . nvrnma. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. i8o. savory. and the fizzing (and Series. buckra man's language the white man. Africa) nimi. i. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. palatable. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words.).minis. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). jumla. p. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. Galla djam djeda.ONOMATOPCEIA. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . ' id est. food (Tylor. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. 1 86). consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. ' Motherwell. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. to take. aptantes adfectibus vocem. eating. snatched (Whitby Gl. to eat. sweet (Koelle). or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). and some of them . clangorqae tubarum. tidbits nama . stolen. nyam nyam. to eat mampfen. mumpfeln. ut tinnitus aeris. lita. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. jamsa (yamsa). make djamdjam). to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). mumpfen. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. on. to chew laboriously. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . Vei (W. greedy . A negro proOr. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. to be pleamind . nobis vix permittitur. to taste . words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. yamming. aves tinnire. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. taken up hastily on the sly.' says the author of Modern Slang. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. delicacies. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym).

and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. croaking of frogs or ravens. ^6^. bumping of bitterns. sparrow and chirping. 89) with less hesitation. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. between dog and harking. intended in the instance to represent the cry. bellowing of bulls. before the in other words. lowing of oxen. 'I doubt. purring or mewing of cats. barking. yelping. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. for the purpose of bringing the animal. snarling. snarling of dogs. chattering of pies or monkeys. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. cackling or gaggling of geese. do not speak of a bowwow. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. gobbling of a turkey-cock. We . might be used. grunting or squealing of hogs. when circumstances required. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. dove and cooing. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. neighing or whinnying of horses. that there is When Man. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. but of a dog. yelping.' And elsevs^here (p. und growling.' — We speak of a cow. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. or thoughts of our hearer. Yet we ing. not of a baa. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. anything connected with it. p. or. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. baaing or maeing of lambs. not of a moo of Lect. cooing or crooing of doves. howling. twittering of swallows. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. hooting of owls. whether it deserves the name of language. a lamb. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. bleating of sheep. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. Indeed. might be used as the designation of it.' he says. chirping of sparrows or crickets.

and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. In Lat. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. or quawk. a crow. KOKKvi. and Bavaria respectively. is kuM) for the cuckoo. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Georgian quaki. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. according to Durga). a a crier (p. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. Manchu The kaha. sound). and gaggele or gagkelein. crow. gackem. whose sound (Pictet. having a general predicative power. caller.' kd).IMITATIVE NAMES. Columbia kahkah. Sauscr. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. in is Gr. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. We imitate the sound with a modulated. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. kuho. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. kae. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. fi-om apakd- i. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. caw kuhii-rava (rava. birds. crow. and means a shouter. kauwe. 380. a daw. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. Origines Indo-Europeennes).' common sense. layitavya . Malay gdgak. a crow (Pictet). 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Bav. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. Kdrava. coccolare. Hungary. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. 349. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. 4th ed. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. it announces (Salaberry). In Basque. a bird that is be driven away. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Arabic kdk. e. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. ghak. 'Kdka.. He to is therefore derives kdka. kdka. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck.). this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. Picard cau. in g. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. and the sound of that direction. Barabra koka. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name.). Sometimes the hoarse i . village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. Aoo-Aoo. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. ist ed. lion.

hibou. Mod. the name for a crow. gugu. tbrtola. kruk. girre. to howl or Lat. kukko. ghughu. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. by the verbs gurren or girren. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. Zulu kuku. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part.Gr. tortbla. kurre. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. to hoot. kukhuta. xi. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. koeren.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. cock. Dutch kievit. are represented. tbrtora. German kielitz.. synonymous forms of similar structure). Du. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. p. and sometimes both together. t. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. lilits. Yoruba koklo. while crouk. coccovaec. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. Albacuculi a dove. German and Eng- krahen. turtle) as the Lat. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. 6. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. The consonants p. Hindi. So we have Polish krukac. reduplicate form. wood-pigeon. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. another. coqueri- Languedoc. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. either in the same or in related dialects. tor. the name of an animal will gen- . German luhu. korren. to croak. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. Arabic tdtwit. and e. name of its is the bird. name. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. giving turtur (and thence It. to crow. libufs.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. Fr. It.. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. a crow. Esthonian kikkas. Scotch peeweip. Lettish kiekuts. krahe. Magy. or Gr. lUyrian kukurekati. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. to crow. Du. teewhoop. "Welsh hwan from hwa. Ibo akoka. to cry loudly. in the North of England. Swedish kowipa. French dishuit. great variety of oKokv^uv. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. uhu. Pers. a crow lish Lith. as well as of Sanscr. Heb. Da. kuku. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . to croak. lulo. kirren. yell. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. Sp. tur. Malay kukuk. The crowing of cot in Fr. gufo. 219. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. a crow . and e. coucouva. kraeyen. krauklys. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. kraeye.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Walachian coucouveike. k. kraukti. tuquheit.

a hornet. sound. loud rumour. give a faint sound.IMITATIVE NAMES. or a gnat fly. hollow noise. Speaking of a cricket he says. German dronen. chirk. to hum. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. and he kong-ko-rong. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. whirr). In the N. pip-pi-ta. a bee. Lith. humming. growling. din. shrill.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. (Jieuschrecke) . The name of the cricket indeed. Gaelic dranndan. to sound. in allusion to its music. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. Corean sirsor. and yelping cry. 'The natives call it tanand. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. grylhis. with or Fr. a fly (Tylor) . to chirp J may be compared with . a small as hawk is . bamba. bee. ajo. i. from the humming. and probably indicates that g. flight its sting considered as a horn. swirplys with 6. a sharp sound as of a 6. Albanian tsentsir. schirke. ' Sanscr. g. the drone or non-working bee .' —Tennyson. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . Fin. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. to shrill sound sharp. skirl. to be compared with Sanscr.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. schrecke. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. The Arabic sarsor. Lithuanian tranas. of England it is to the b 2 . a beetle druna. zirken. g. and not from E. representing a short sharp sound.' Amazons.or bumble-bee. to grumble. Danish gnaddre. Danish dron. ta-na-nd. The Welsh chwyrnu. buzzing. to creak Bret. from schrick. bambhara. buzzing. — Catafogo. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. droning is . sirkka. ' — Pictet . resounding of musical instruments. resound. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. skril with n. We may cite Gr. dhran. schwirren. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. common. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. kong-kong. a drone. knetta. cricket is from crick. PofijivXwg. The drone peal. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). as . to chirp . Naturalist on the tocano. the humble. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. skryle.' — i. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. succeeding each other — with noise.vf3. 337. Australian bumberoo. German hummel. grille. Lat. grillen. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. which they make in their flight very . glass cracking (Schmeller). Arabic tantanat. horniss and from the buzzing The. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. booming. there are infinite varieties. German drohne. Sc. to rustle. Sanscr. words imitative of humming . little intermission. g. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. thunder. North of England. oE. schrickel. e. Northern Farmer. gives rise to chwymores.

Hottentot bou (Dapper). OFr. the Fr. in a imitation of a ringing sound. is inadmissible. muJiati. or bau-l-i. From baa. to bellow like a bull. bugler. that the imitative syllable are Lith. to make. His analysis leads cow. to or bark. to from bau. k or g. boo. w. Gael. and from to ring. bauli. to ba-L-are. Galla boa. With these analogies. to low . In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. maukati. to beat hard. to low or bellow. a drum . Fr. Lat. — ^Tylor. and in Hottentot baa was the . bugle. amuse. From the same lioao). or with on. representing the mew of a cat. Da. are (with a subsidiary k). a bullock. mae. The Galla lilbil. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. a bull. and djeda.XX called booing. as that of the cow by boo. to sound. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. bae. mamoo-heeheek. to low. make to it laugh. btibleti. bos. ox. The Piedm. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. representmake bow. verb is evidently identical with our shout. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. or a z to the imitative syllable. bucula. as the Illyr. loge. Manx booa. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. bubenti. agreeing exactly with Lith. Lat. Piedmontese fi bau. bukati. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. or formed Lat. to bow- own bawl. to shout. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. make poo. to weep. biibnas. bolt. a cow. Cult. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. forms a. the animal. whence baula. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. bovis. Zulu lulula. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to bump as a bittern Illyr. bwla. and thence Lat. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. verbal form given to the say. baula. bu. to mew. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to . fivKaofiai. in same way. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. Fr. bae. say. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. to boohoo. Lat. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. buculus. be-l-er. bue. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. cattle. Illyr. to the uses goda. bull. a heifer. to make a noise. On the same principle. a buffalo. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. has bilbilgoda. bullock. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. p. 167. bullus and e. Norse bu. shoot . bo. bubati. to make a loud deep sound. from the imitative moo instead of boo. mugire. mugler. lulauti (to hoo-loo). NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. or moo. to shout. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. to make. (iove. w. Thus from miau. miau-l-er. It. grumble as distant thunder . a Geiger.

).NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Manx meilee. Kurren und murren. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. Illyr. curmurring. as the proper name of a tame sheep. meigeal. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. may be identical with Esthon. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. a sheep or ewe. (iriKov of forms like Sw. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. growl. With gen. the designations of a dog the term cur. to grunt. grumble. hunon. signifying a snarling. / The same Gr. and thence groin. lek-eg-ni. lekavica. ' In driving. meckern. meugler. grogner. and grumphie. by which the shingle gives rise to It. Welsh and Breton). It. a sow. grunny. it and e. a grunt. Moreover. cite as by grunt. oe. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. to bleat. to growl. in v. a goat. as lou of an ox. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). purr). And it is true there between hog and grunt. a dog. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. cry). . sus-sus. grumbhng. a goat firixal^ta. to howl. . for the voice of the ox). . may with to snarl. does not produce a e. although the imitation embodied in Lat. /xijeao/iat. the snout of a pig. hundi). G. a sheep or a goat. name. kurre. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. karra. a goat. a pig. or in any ! way ! persuading. kurren. and with the subsidiary k or g. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. smack and naski. mutter.' Moor's Suffolk words. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. this obstinate race. Gael. a pig Fin. to themselves. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. sheep or goat. a hog. Among dog. grunt. lecco. meil. naskia. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. and Circassian maylley. It is probable also that e. and hoc'h. with the root ypaipm. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. sound. knurfisk. a sheep (Lowe). leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. we have Sanscr. to grunt. a (Hesych. groin. from knurre. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. Illyr. a sow. hunt (gen. ^. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. mecati. and snorke. name of the animal itself. guttural tone. Gr. Illyr. grumble. grumpf. goats. grunlike a pig in eating. mekegni. Fr. undoubtedly imitative. to bleat. grugno. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. Da. Gr. a wolf. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Idgge (Rietz). he would hardly. to rumble. leknuti. /xj/caScj. from hundama. leg-et-ni. From the imitative mae. rumbling. houch. in Wolof bae. hadg- Magy. name of a sheep. Africa laa. a. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. lambs. Hence Breton hoc ha. 6. corresponding to ohg. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. hund. a sheep. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. Gr. hwch. menAda (ndda. — . Fr. nire. to bleat . and of (maelon). meketati. Magy. hound. The g.

Sc. and it is behind that wall that language really begins.' ticular bird. turn a horse to the is In Finland. . In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. such as cuckoo. a mare. to the left. like artificial flowers.. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. e. a little am- bling horse.root.' 2nd Series. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. g. hobben.. without a — we root. when he found peculiarity. coquette. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. cockade. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. M). 91. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. humma. coquelicot. p. Esthonian hoibo. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. hobin. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. from the cry animal.' — ist Series. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. ^6<. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird.). as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. houpy in Craven. the cry to stop or back a horse. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. hiine. to go backwards. to whine.). hoppe. a horse. of the character in question. Thus we are led to the Fr. as in Yorkshire highly right. . So Sanscr. hottihuh. p. hobby. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. There are of course some names. (Craven Gloss. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. But words of this kind are. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. animal. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). If onomatopoeias can . the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal.

that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. to Sanscr. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. Bohem. moan. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Lettish sweegt. command of language was attained. little speak for themselves. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. wrenska. Fr. hikkd. nounced with a guttural). animals or certain kinds of sound. fehtati. g. giggle. wagtail. hresh. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. Sp. diver. goatsucker. ance or habits of the animal.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. swift. e. Sanscr. wiehern. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. form corresponding hresh. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. Irieschen. hross. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. wrena. as sigh. Sw. titter. runniken. than to the sounds represented. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. Pl. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. but whether there kind between them and other words. Du. xxiii ginal object. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. groan. horse. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. nitrire. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. lapwing. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. frenschen. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. hennir. to neigh. cough. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. whitename in in- throat. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. creeper. hresh. . and if there all knowledge of the Lat. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. sol. rinchar. ginniken. woodpecker. redpole. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. hukkup. signified It.D.

pump. shriek. for the sound of milking. ping came the bullets about their ears. for in such sound of blows. a large bell. to hammer . mer. are familiar in ' to every one. tisio (tisho). bang ' ! trenches. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. bang. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. debhes-lungotais (deifies. the dashing of the sea . From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . DingBang. ting-ting. atchini. klatsch. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. hoo. snukkup). pit-a-pat. knarr. ding. dong Read. to throw violently down.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. 1865. Wtb. Zulu bongo. or the w. banke. for a small one.' it both sides went. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. strippstrapp-stroll.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. — Sanders. It is represented in e. beat of a clock child . Da. clap ! A smack Puff. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. —Brem. haitshu. for that of breaking. Mei gbengben. haw. a kind of drum. Of a like forma- drum . to beat. fitsche-falsche. for the report of a musket (Colenso) .' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. to knock. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. on the chops is represented also by pratx. a more expressive than the e.' 'Haw. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. for the for the sound of . familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. lumm. . White Lies. to drive on. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. plitsch-platsch. for blows with a rod. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. heaven). banga. snore. to ham. or tliat is accomit. to sneeze. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted.' So imac. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. Vei gbangba. hoo ping ping.' ! ! ! ! — dong. knack. aritischane. for the creaking of a wheel. &c. for the sound of a fall. root kshu. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. oren : Klapp. Australian bungbung ween. bangas. heart tick-tack. in a nail Let. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . &c. an attempt would be made to by the voice. hang. went the cannon. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. tlirob. wheeze. scream. atchian. thunder (Tylor) . beat. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. for the sound of a blow. the God of thunder . snort.

to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. cry. pigione. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. is pfeife. as k. — . Magyar pip. piauler. Fr. a or cheep. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. e. De Brosses. piou. not- . Florio. pule. pi. Gr. as the simplest implement for proFr. piou. —Lyndsay. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. He Yet asks. has been un- employed to designate fixity.' instead. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pu. child. as in other subjects of study. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. cry of young birds . peep. pipe. peep. a fowler's bird call is lost. mobility excavation and hollow ^. piccione. pipelni. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. the voice of chickens (Cot. G. which he added to intensify the expression. pigolare. or the uneducated different consonants are man. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. had been used laugh ? two. of a word will appear supposed to represent. and their relations. a whelp. calls S. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. Mantuan pipiare. to cry pi. pipio. to squeak. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. laugh. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. far pipi. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. part of the What consciousness has the child. . and so forth. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. The pi. doubtless. Lat. scream. It seems to him that the teeth t. a chicken or gosling. chickens (Tylor). used as a call to . bleat. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. In cases such as these. pipe.) a chick. pipegni. pipilo. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. a (young) pigeon. to cheep like a bird or a young It. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. pipio. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. to peep It. is of expression. pigiolare. ducing the sound. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. pippione. to cry like imrli^u). a fife or musical pipe. and whimper. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. or a piailler. young child .sc. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. young bird. pipare. Lat. to designate cavity and hollow.

Hindustani karak is rendered. to gurgle. crack. Hindoo tomtom. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to jar. to cluck. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). garren.. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. of something fine and thin. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . karkarana. or kaka-faka. Pefuxela. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. a prolonged sharp sound. loud laughter. a short sharp sound. to rattle. murren.. to gorgogHare rattle.Gr. knaks. make wood a clinking noise. to crackle like in boiling . rumble. cluck. sound of dry breaking. crash. Poppopvi^to. cricli. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. lachen. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. vaake gorgor) . In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. where the variation. rumble. to gargle . when it force than biscuit. lachachen. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. knurren. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. in German. tontonare. to ring pipio. grumble. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. along with tinnio. creak. or springing back. to pant violently (Colenso). to grate the teeth . &c. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. knuks. pi . gurren. to growl. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. Manchu kaka-kiki. to laugh. a closed or obscure sound. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to grumble). some small vowel or consonantal sound. to thunder. the clucking of a j hen . as the click of a latch or a trigger. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . along with Du. borrelen. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. like the noise of a glass breaking . to hawhaw or laugh loud. It. . to pant bejii- zela. bubble. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. sound). coo. be cate to go on laughing loud . susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. {to It. Pacific aka-aka. to cry pi. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. the side of g. to bubble. Indian chack-chack. a. a drum W. a sharp short one. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. of a loud strong sound. preserved by Kilian. to clack. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to fizz like fat in frying. and lugh. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to be compared with Sc. . laqfF. to grumble. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. chack. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. kirkirdnd. as representing the sound made when something breaks. to creak knirren. i. murmur (by . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. girren. thunder oil . Zulu raraza. tintino. tonare. u. kuruk. kniks.) Mod. turtur. kniks. rumble (Fl. is very common.

csam-csogni. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. ding-dong. the sound of a stringed instrument. shout. sound. especially one who beats. clank. the gingling of glasses. sound). simmer. compared with Gr. . caca and Finnish adkkd. disturbance (F. thump. and Gr. rifiirayov. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). for the sound of privy whispering. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. 368). The whispering of the wind I. identical with g. Calt. jangle. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. fumtu. brings us to Fr. clango. is based on the same imitation as the e. croaking of frogs. halaidlac'h. kl'mg-kling. to say chut. a drum . to ring or jingle. Scotch sough or sooch. klirren. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. tup. make djamdjam). Newman). of keys or tinkling of bells. or the bubbling up of to a spring. E. for the ringing of illustrate bells. coughing or clearing the throat. e. tubh. Maori pata. to whisper. bubble up. Fr.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. are applied to the is excrements of children. uproar. and e. spring of water in the a bell. 192). 1871. rain (Tylor. indicating the origin of Gr. agrees with g. corresponding in e. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. is Manchu tang-tang. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. for the clinking Lat. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. rvir (in tvittio. chuchoter. or to Du. correspond to e. kiling-kalang.* the heart. quarren. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. Prim. to knock. as Fr. a boy's whistle. KaKog. or of bells ringing. to strike. Manchu kaka. and the imitative nature of tivgle. wail. to beat. call. at an accelerated note. koXiw. clink. tumwata. while cacd / used in e. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. noise. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. a workman. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. clash of arms. Galla tuma. champ. The syllables lil-bil. a nightingale. hala-hald-faMa (falda. chinking of coin. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. to the purling of a brook. chut.and e. Turk. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. a nightingale. jingle. box on the ear imitation of the . a smith. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. to be compared with g. Magyar csamm-ogni. borrelen. tumult. and bilhila. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. . is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. Sanscr. bulbiil. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation.' Member for Paris. for a tTviror). as of Tamil muromurmur. and Gr. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. bent her head. drops of i. awater* ' The Mme P. for chut-chiit-er. cry. bad. and her heart went thump. muro and e. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. djeda (to say tub). for the Manchu hak for the sound of . the tingling Ming-Hang. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. word. to giggle. Tiie Galla gigiteka.

to is blow. bubble. ' Der puff. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. a applied as well to the force of the bang. parapatapan. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. snap. clank. It. bang. flap. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. jingle. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. craunch. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. flop. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. clink. tum-ultus.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. hiss. and Fr. So in Fr. splash. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. puff. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. the Germans puff. while e. tingle. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. The beating of drum is represented in e.' — Nohden. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. tomber. mutter. to fall. in e. tinkle. clatter. w. clang. squeal. rataplan or rantanplan. hum. rattle. boom. smack. according to the strictest phonetic rules. thump. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. tumbian (to beat the ground). dash. patter. we have buffet or cuff. din. fizz. Humboldt. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. thump. guggle. crunch. blubber. souse. by rubadub. thwack. crash. tap. 'pat. pop. without the intervention of orthodox roots. disturbance. to dance. The use of g. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. and soufflet. murmur. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. or v^hether jectional. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. whine. gurgle. it is fallj AS. rap. douse. brumberum. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. gargle. ring. answering to g. whack. clash. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. dabble. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. blow. crack. whirr. Fr. whizz. clack. and Grimm. Nevertheless. plump. rumble. sputter. and the French pouf. clap. swash. splutter. tymmesll. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables.. creak. chatter. thump. squall. chink. squeak. smash. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. lash. twang. But although and also found in Lat. for (Sanders). paddle. at a door tarapatan. report of a gun. slash.

grief. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. is Thus ah!. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. the inteij. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. p. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. little who has time to want of her nurseling. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. and thus they become signs of despair. the kind of action that is desired of them. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. If. the interj. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. or stubble is meaner name. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. without a thought of symbolising to them. hay. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. every little pain. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. because they are spontaneous. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. but if we must not complain on the beach. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. wringing the hands. or of any if wood. of horror. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it.'. an imitation of a sigh . or any unsatisfied want. and found in the building of be burnt up. knows them. 94. Grimm or Bopp. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. in the rushing waters. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. ugh . Crying. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. that he has taken the step in rational speech. are made known by an instinctive cry. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. and uttering plaintive sounds. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. by the nature of the cry.' . that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. formerly cited. Henceforth rational beings may produce them.' If chaos. xxix on the contrary. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. in the case of the animal or of the infant. At the first beginning of life. stractions.

. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. p. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. which are frequently so toned down cance. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. should be remem- . ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. groaning. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. as who them spontaneous utterances. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. If I wish to make a person of an . it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. and some of them the composition of words. Language begins where interjections end. of all the mouth. the lowing of a cow. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. more to the point. sneezing. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. be more powerful.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. them to exercise it.' p. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. 344. or which is of me as suffering pain. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. he cites from Home Tooke. and the eye.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. may become traditional. And again. He says. 32.' — ist Series. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. they are involuntary interjections. One short interjec- tion may fact. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. p. ^6g And to the same effect 371. shrieking. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. to solve the I shall call first. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. more eloquent than a long speech. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. interjections. coughing. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second.

which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. for example. hohottaa. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. but the less am at a loss what to say. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. loud laughter. it them. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. some kind of language might have been formed. Kayxa^u). interjections. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. and others from interjections. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and more or less limited . We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. then speech begins. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. in Fin. kahkahah. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . and thus. Lat. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. cachinno. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Tooke in truth. he says. demolishing here. bered. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. in Magy. hahota. hahottaa. Gr. I am not hearer. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. speaking. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. when I arp humming and hawing. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. Koxafw.

and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. Though. the critical question should be. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and not. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. And so in the case of language. It as has ing their most striking features. like peewit and cuckoo. ideas by a rude outline-gesture.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. But here nature soon conies to his help. and go where we now say stand. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. The following account is given by Kruse. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. a Picture-language. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. if taken as a whole. makes them stand and walk upon the table. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. dumb is the language of signs. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. words receiving the meanings they now bear. What strikes him . of the world. a deaf-mute himself.' he says. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. . "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. of the nature of this great movement.

or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. his action. letter To hold the two fingers apart. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. and it is flesh or meat. and And thus he makes himself a language. or the verb to be. such objects. walked. or To pull and flap with the arms. signs are taught for yet.' In the Institutions. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. The same sign stands and the act itself. and fully serves to j . I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. it seems. the whole secret. it means little. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. but if I depress it instead. what more. to name. walkest. such as than the educated man. most striking outline of an object. like a V. can do better and more easily abstract terms. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. And is. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. thou. as it now opens out. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and forms further and further. particular sense in properly so called. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. called Gesture-language. many when or but these. for single objects. walker. among themselves. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. nay. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. for walk. he. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. for the agent. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. thought is already broken. becomes roast meat. that signifies great . by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and we have roast goose. and with his thought. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . he. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. xxxiii him between one thing and another. the lan- guage cultivates itself. The of sign for left hand. and gestures. for child. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. push it towards the person addressed for thou.GESTURE most. that. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. and to taste.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. that air. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. the sorecalling them to his memory. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact.

bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. as But when it is meant door. When a verb. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. . and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. substantive or adjective. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. I say. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. The same word . whether by additions or otherwise. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth.xxxiv asking. in other instances sentence. as when Bang ! went the gun. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. Who is has beaten you ? would be. When I say. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. He gave door a bang. or an act. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. to indicate the action of a certain person. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. or a passive scene of existence. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. in fact. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. might be the knife. or a quality. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. You beaten . hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. depend entirely upon the use. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. would be simply beginning of speech. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. qualifies the against the wall. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR.' dener's knife. a number of alternatives are suggested. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. and so is an adverb. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. the garden. Do not bang the it is a verb. or something of the kind. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. according to the circumstances of the case. when I say. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. or action. a colour red. the ture of white term pink is and red. and thus performs the part of an adjective. putting it into his pocket. as in die it is a noun. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. and the as. it called an interjection.

will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. commencement of speech. some outward display of the affection. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. coalesces with the personal pronouns. that is. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. in the sense of great. that admits itself in of audible representation. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. verb nor noun has yet been developed. and to be great. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. as kuo cung. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . but often self-evident. in the is indicated by the syllable y. Latin. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. grie^ horror. or with elements expressing relations of time. which is an old y ting (use stick). but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. inside. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. whereto. the man is great. with a stick. wherewith. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. . The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. middle. wherefore. wonder.^ — Miiller I. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. Thus tafu signifies a great man. contempt. or some relation between it and another object. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. inquiry. pain. 255. as cung. wherehy. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself.. a groan. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. a noun. a sigh of oppression and . whereof. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. greatness. Jii ta. or nei. &c.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. and may be used language.

o'i. Illyr. to weep. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. to make bow-wow. Lat. to lament. ohi. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. to rriourn. to hurt Let. misery. to bewail oneself. at the close of the radical syllable. lament from oimi. w. och. cece. 6. suffering. &. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. wai. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. grief. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. A widespread It. The form corresponding to Lat. Such are g. gwe-l-a. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. I oi[iot. vce. a groan or lamentation vir. Thus from springs otjucifw. die wehen. to lament. as. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. w^wa. aiai^to. to weep. It. wai-l. e. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. mostly a ! %. waiidt. to chirp. g. Fr. grief. to groan. on. to gargle. ace. to injure. mew. to sound yapyap. to wail. lau-l-e. ach. ocAJ. however. ai. xxxvi grief. .'). miau-l-er. wehthun.ez. Jar lau-lau. jao. e. . oval. ach. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). on. guaj-ire. wai. pain. ah. jaoh. form. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. Gr. ochain. guaj- or cry out pitifully. ah. weh schreien. to yell formed e. guai. representing Illyr. weh. oh. miau-n-is. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. In this way from the root guai.-l-are. found in g. oi. Gael. in Gr. ui. tirr-djeda. al. 6. wd. the pangs of childbirth. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. e. ochan. howl. and cacak djeda (to say crack. dchzen. is Ay di me I Gr. Lat. Bret. j. w. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. vei-a. and to bark . gwae. lament. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. to cause pain. It. Let. seen in Gr. representing a cry of pain. g. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. och. gwae. vaj. woe. . to make). to cry n. miau-l-is. has more kopfweh. misfortune. guajo. to wail or cry alas .. Gr. are ol-ire. first person. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. oh. vce. pain. axofiai. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. to ache. ahi. Illyrian vaj. to . . to ache. headache. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. ache. oimare. la. ochan. . ach. wAwa. hei. to do woe. It. och. It. ohg. as. pain. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. ! ! Goth. is w. grief] affliction. achen. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. woe. Gr. djamdjam goda (goda. probably a deeper groan. or r. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. n. wehen (Schmeller). ing action I. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. weinen. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. to cry at.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

. is we I believe. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. In the expression Da. case. Phil. as. and so on. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. this here. indeed. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. The Fr. as to express. Dr Lottner observes. give. when 1859. a specified were by pointing him out.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. nurseries. Bav. I add) . we may translate this by there (it is). or that it is. a word of many applications in g. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving.' all is is — their consent. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. da. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. thata (ta-ta). saying : there the ad- Trans. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. or give me it. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. der da-ige. that is it. When we pointing. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it.' then points to his wife. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing.' person.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. But. is-te). is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. implying the direction of its good will towards them. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.' this. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. when he wants something. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. for instance. ToSe (or in Attic E. • The child. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. well as Goth. Please. and may be rendered. Diet. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. that gratifies me. or wants to name something. to here . 'nay. Sie. Sanders (Germ. but the truth is. da. says da-da-da. that. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. Thank you. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. according to Menage. as it Dieser da (as Lat. and by a variety of expressions besides. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. the nursery da-da.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. child. or carry me thither. give me that cheese. more emphatically roSj)j that. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. his trowsers' pocket. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. ' sees an object.

strike. reality. tasting. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. the original is that which he places first. in every mode of expressing the idea. to move step by step. or metaphor. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. thinking. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. — Cot. to tion to another. to walk. moving. to say to oneself. and shapes it into an . Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. meanings. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. of which any one may. Thus Gr.' • liv ANALOGY. to beat. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. speech. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. make dadada). . for which Johnson gives seventy taken. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. which thus exertion. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows.' says Lottner interior. p. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. standing. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. or dalliance. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall.' says Muller. to chatter. sounds. takes it — as When the soul. stutter. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. and one in particular must. then instinctively interest. sinking. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. The da is dodem. its desire. beat. childish toying.^ its ' utters : a cry. dadee. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. pay. to knock. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. tattle. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da.

to snilF. firom the Gael. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. smell. air. for example. as. savour. Bavarian bracht. esclat). from the . kiimottaa. tinkling. 1654. also wise. to smack or taste. a dis- cernment. judicious. to be wise. Du. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. extended to the exercise of the understanding. and schmecker. snot. Heo Du. and thence e. beorhtian. to have Sapiens. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. clang. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. in popular language. a rustling sound Gr. to sniff out. beam. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. to resound. chime). bilbil). may be it explained . So firom Lat. the equivalent of g. to glisten Dan. Finnish. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. brilliancy. same imitative root with Sw. snudra. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. which in ohg. In the case of sparkle. sound. (parallel bilbila. outcry. rattle. — 1. wilahtaa. Fr. make a loud noise. snutrs. signified a clear sound. to glitter. to quiver. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to sniff. wamara. magnificence. pracht. ghsten. snotor. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. iclat (in Old Fr. spraka. we have and the and beorht.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to ring as a glass willata. splendour. man of nice taste. tumult. The 6. as kilind. sprageti. to ring. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. &c. and figuratively. properly a clap or explosion. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. to crackle gnistre. a with kimmaltaa. knittre. prudent. It is The word bright had a similar In as. discreet. smell. knistre. to . bright. think. to shriek with laughter . Again. . search . to sound clear In Galla. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. snuff the sniiten. scheteren. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . taste. a brilliant light kilid. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. then to sparkle. fiapfiaipw. while sapere itself. schiteren. in the domain of movement. to tinkle. to shine. sense of brightness. on. kimistd. a ringing . then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to sparkle. and. suspect Bav. to glitter. gnittre. to crackle. Lith. to 5 ghtter. wise. sapere (which signifies the nose. schmecken. to glitter. wilistd. to flash. unlella. scTiateren. bilbilgoda (to make . splendour. to glitter e. may be quoted gUt. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. . The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. In the same way the Goth. noise. to shine. tintelen. is used in the origin.

rough both ways. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. strike. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. as soft by the ear. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. crux. itself letters are felt as sofl. flow and flux. the bleating of sheep. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. . Tpa)(yg. the clank (stridorem) of chains. pleasure soft to the ear . then in rpd/xoe. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. fitting the letters to the sense. v. rough to the ear.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. smooth. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. briars. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij.' he says. Kpovtiv. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. rend. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. which The Stoics. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. oily. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). to slide. in of his works. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. discusses the tone of a picture. &c. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. wool. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. 1. he framed the words ivSov. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. tremour. And observing that n kept the voice within. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. and vepres. gluey. KoWiiSije. \nrap6e. sharp. Kep^arl'ieiv. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. accordance with the way in which by touch. ipuKuv. power of the letter-sounds. we hear of screaming colours. kvTOQ. 6\tadaveii'. rough. mel. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. shatter. extremely loose. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. he says. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. the neighing of horses. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. rough. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. Much of the same has been often quoted. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. within. break. or . inside. Acre. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. soft. of dressing loud. is felt Lana. in truth. The BpavEiv. the cross. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. whirl. pvfi^Civ. eo ut res vol. roughness.

d. a rough and sudden . as when. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. tug. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . dag. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. rug. jih. corresponding to the ineor.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. the case of the voice. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. A greater felt. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. g. degree of roughness sound. p. to signify varieties of movement. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. stab. shog. 'and consequently form. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. for exis ample. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. ii. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. p. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. sag-oter. joli. k. 138). to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. or checks as they are called by Muller. t. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. jig. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. jog. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. shag. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. and in the utterance of a high or or low. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. dig. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. stag (in stagger. to jogj sac-cade. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. Fr. to reel abruptly from side to side). by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. cular effort Again. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. jag. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline.

S-panish miga. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. tack. The Mipen or pencil. mik. The syllable suk is jerk. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. chique. Fr. to move rapidly to and fro. The production of sound. Welsh cicio. a jog. zack. to take a thing on tick. to glitter. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Sukkeln. Thus we have B. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. to say a word . is so frequent a consequence of movement. to On the same principle j we have g. chicoter. or check. kuk. kik. rough horse. motion. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. to mark it with a touch of the pen . properly a small lump'of . sound barely audible. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. it produces Dutch micken. Accordingly the g. (mitsati). chiquet. in cases like the foregoing. mica. tock. Illyrian migati. so to Italian toccare. to pulses being knock. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to utter a slight kick. a small bodily object. as Italian tocco. The train of . to tickle. that we never can be sure. a playiug-marble. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. chic. lead to Spanish tocar. like English tick. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. a crum. however. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Brescian toch. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . a . to stir. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. an infant . movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to ring a bell. to beat or play on a musical instrument. cica. for the sound of knocking at a door. g. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. then. micare. To tick a thing off. is made to signify movement. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. schuckeln.. to strike It. mot.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. The analogy then carried a step further. also to stir. Hence Lat. then. tecche-tocche. e. and e. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . and analogous movements. to have it ticked or marked on the score . Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. as tot. to incite by light touches. and It. Fr. Ene olde suksuk. passing to the signification of motion. It. not to utter a syllable. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. a piece or bit of anything. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. Dutch kicken. a good piece of road . a quid of tobacco. to mutter. figuratively. Bolognese tocc. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. an old worthless horse or carriage. toch-toch. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. Then. &c. a stroke with a French toucher. to touch. tech-tech. used interjectionally to represent a . sound Fr. a little bit. zigzag. a cracker. Mucken. mie. to winkj micati is Lat. movement. schockeln. is lanese toch. foot.

ri that. the least visible insect. a e. a small lump or pat. Cult. Then. little j to that of a small bodily object. tittle. So. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. syllable mot.n. anything small flax. Fr. a light quick blow. a. To jot. or o toi. Halliwell. totle. to jog. this. here (close hand). we have e. for the three personal pronouns. little. tot. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. to dot. . as in e. zitio. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. small of kind. small titlark. a little titty. a small quantity. tottle. a morsel girl . subdued manner. motte. this . taut. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). that. bunch or flock of wool. and a small lump of something. a small kind of lark. fait.) . tiny. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. or the like its It. motta. further off. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. lix Sp. clay . zitella. a bit. is shown in murmur. ticktack. a girl. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . for the beating of a clock. and dot. a tot . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. not because the pendulum makes a different left. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. I. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. you. a small bird. 0. tot. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. there. gni. tit. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. to tremble. and mite. citto. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . and out there. the vowel sound.- a jot or little It. tit. titmouse (Du. a bit. of movement in totter. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. tozzo. a whisper. lump of earth. a small horse. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. to movement of the pen . a certain conception. eo. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. . are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. corresponding to the personal pronouns. mote. . Du. mut. . titter. i. mutter. and toddle like a child titter. Malagasy to. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. tot. neither moit nor an atom. the same organ touched with the man. often entirely arbitrary. that iku. to whisper (Pr. iki. mot. . not an atom . e. 48) cites from the African Tumale. mutter j dust. Pm. gno. to jot down or note with a fro. jot. to touch lightly with a pen. e. This kind. In a similar the relations of place. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. to make a slight mark. But the same is language has re Javan. and he. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. titilh. a sparrow). The following table from Tylor (Prim. move slightly to . there '(at a short distance). or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. anything . there (further of!) ao. mossche.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. gnu. . to touch. seesaw. chico. or the converse. at where the order is inverted. a morsel. a lad citta. . to e. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. not to utter a syllable. . tot. here. n. (Halliwell) Da. ika. 199). fragments It.

he. Magyar ez. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. Gr. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. ^. there. . ukko. thou . /mya. /wo. Zulu ajoa. Tarahumara ibe. ita. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). Carib ne. that.e^. this <t. me probable that • Vei also little. man erne. here this . tiiio. Mm. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. I . he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. no constant rule is observed. j Canarese ivanu. . ta to ka. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. child.. Mutsun ne. thou ni. there. there. father. young one. child. femina ama. Tamul i. this . he. father k . uta. as the act of pointing was ta. as Mr Tylor remarks. respectively. that. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. . Dhimas isho. here j abe. mother. ojOo. . there. probably initial of distinction that the k. mas cheche. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. here . little. here feraa. is father. there. . this . Sahaptin (America) kina. akha. km. It seems to (fen. Japan ko. this . Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. . this . . and a for the female. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. Botocudo ati. here j ka..) pronunciation of i or e. ni. Lat. ndi. Guarani nde. that. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. ni. usho. nne. an old woman chacha. there. (tt). here 5 Yoruba na. /e«. . small (Pott. bi. ulri. Chilian tva. Ossetic am. mother. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. to. as in Italian Fin. that.. 6. loo). that. ne. minution further. this ole. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. biii. Abchasian aSn. for the male. that. that in the distance. Fernandian az. that (intermediate) j wana. and origin. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner.. is Here. It Carib lala. ofj. qu. here . Then. an old . you. thou. w. mother. this fi.araM. that. olo. there.) nna. that. that.

and in the Pacific dialects. din-din. to tread. A little wee face with little. dance (Kil. pepin. tion. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. The sound trapp . trappa. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. wenig. at pippe frem is to spring forth. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. trippelen. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. nab. looking through between obstacles. trappen. And perhaps the E. the simplest mode by the g. sound of bells . . The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. &c. keeh. to make its way through the bursting envelope. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. Thus we have Wolof sopa. little. repetition It. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. the pip or pippin. has tittafrem. as j money. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. trap. the idea is called. knob. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. 401. trSpigner. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. wean. or chink. Da. to peep. fretful. don-don. stairs. Clank represents the sound of something large. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du.' making the voice as small as possible. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. for the . principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. little To sup up. for instance. nipple. barking of a dog. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. the nursery few j Sc. for a succession of light blows low-wow. a step. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. titta. as ding-dong. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. just beginning to appear. to peep through. From cases like the foregoing. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. lift 8. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. of smaller things. whence Fr. or even. Top. is to express simple continuance of action. Fr. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. to feet. to leap. i Sw. to begin to appear . to teet. murmur. in old e.) . analogous to winy-piny. The Sw. trippen. a child. A little weeny thing. nil. a little yellow beard. the principle of reduplication. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. — Douglas Virgil.' — Merrv Wives. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general.

uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. 99). Cult. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. Thus in the Pacific loa. calling. tache. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. kendagenda. or in Fr. a grasshopper. little child (p. to skip. Thus in E.Ixii REPETITION. to say pooh It is ! to. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to vi^alk about for flax. 97). That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. And generally. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. Mandingo ding. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). mpolu is uttered. The same principle of 196. keep spots. child . to love. ayunayunan. or very very great. . er. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. puka- puka. (to use a to speak. is language. Malay ayun. serves to show and in this way. click. Again. bad . the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. very bad. to pant. to rock. in familiar use with ourselves.. and Fr. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. didi. if very young. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. . to talk at to walk. repetition or continsignify long. could readily be conceived. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. loloa. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. rapidity and strength. i. sopasopa. kenda. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. kamha-gamla. clash of weapons. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. the and clique. ratsi-ratsi. or a little tee--ny thing. rack click. puka. or rdtchi. rack. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. clamito. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. &c. the lungs. to treat with contempt. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. So from clamo. racket. tach-et-er. lololoa. to cover e. a clattering noise. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to or rub. from Maori muka.' expression is — ^Tylor. or imitative syllables. mawhitiwhiti. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. Susa di. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. hardness. very long (Pott. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. to call frequently from Fr. mawhiti. cliqu-et-is. the agent in panting . smallness. a spot. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. are echoed by the rudimentary et. properly speaking. ding-ding. instead of being actually repeated. to to call. or el. amusement. child . a cradle. random . as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. and the words express a continued sound of rack. very great. the comparative degrees of greatness.

the part that moves on a hinge up and down. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. dab. rynel. is In e. the lungs (the puffers of the body). the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. to continue dragging. a from ayun. miauler and beler correspond to E. In cases like these. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. The Fr. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. to make gug. dabble. as to handle. waggle. to move to and fro.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. which. bub. to puff. a succession of cracks to rattle. compared with g. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. or omitted. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to make a succession of grabs . g. to make a succession of shoves. itself. wankeln. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. fickle. the knie-en to E. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. kneel. miauler andpiauler. in some applications. wancol. mew and baa . such asjlap. in Fr.Jicol. or Maori puka-puka. Ihre remarks under gncella. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. to crackle. to rock or wag. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. by the side of wanken. shuffle. wavering. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. without the intervention of the frequentative element. draggle. guggle. or in e. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . to rock. to bark like a dog. Jickfacken. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to wail woe . it. jogging. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. and in as. he who rubs. rubber. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . to make bau-bau. crack. syllable clat . or by association. where all direct connection with sound is lost. or fi bau. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. wankel. as mAS. smack. Piedmontese bau-l-S. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. The contrivance with any particular noise. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. wagas ging. bubble. to hand. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to hand-le. joggle. others. are to cry mew and pew . either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. from puka.

until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. which. A gull or a dupe same sense. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . deceit. it is obviously a mere chance how long. There is. although it is not difficult. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. or in mode of use. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. and comparatively few easily deceived. or how generally. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. on a moment's reflection. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. known in Italian. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. Polish. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. or in aptness to combine with other elements. Breton. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. will continue to be felt in daily speech. by a hard body breaking. to cry ugh at. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. which is the origin of the word. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. Dupe comes to us from the French. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. moreover. to the separation between the broken parts. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. at was more familiarly known.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. the breach. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity.

it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. nor any limited of ideas. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. founded in manifest blunder. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. life. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. Hitl^erto. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. however. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. . and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. is. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. language is . it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. and the word is used in a secondary sense. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue.

words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. guages in South America. Welsh. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. hearing. I think it very probable. evique. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. episcopus. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. French. and vescovo. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. 330.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. out. and 'Russian. circle perpetrates a new slang term. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. change. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. of material things. Naturalist on the Amazons. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. i. compared with the duration of man. If English. in the course of many years' isolation. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. unintelligible to other hordes. therefore. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language.

Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. ancient Greek M . 8. Nor is there one of the letters. which are idenr Figures 5. 6. Cijlt. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. ao8). we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. to be taken (Prim. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. as shown in the subjoined illustration. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. is MN. the actual it which would to represent. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. and . 7. i. The combination of the symbols I and 2. 9. . But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. it will leave figures 3 and 4. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. or whatever the proportion may be. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . A key must unlock more doors than this.

what comes to the same thing.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence." the use of a change of vowel in as. his fellows. for instance. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. leading him to utterances. which either by direct resemblance of sound. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. had its origin in imitation of sound. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. in the shape either of direct inspiration. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and the only safe beneficent Creator. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. or. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. known to us as yet. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day.' should be discovered. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive.

is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and sooner or later. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. of using imitative conduct . and rose towards a higher state of being. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . in the course of generations. or not. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. or of their own reflected thoughts . or beavers. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. until the progeny. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and when we look back as far as history will reach. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. the conduct of Ixix life. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. by animal without a trace name of Man. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . race were speaking men or not. that he started from the lowest grade. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. for instance. as elephants. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. or else.COMPLETION OF MAN. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man.

Dutch. Diet.V. Bavarian. Cimbrisch. Castr. Carp.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Dief. Infimse Latini- D. Bremisch. Dueange. AS. Supplement to Dueange. ^Ifr. Bohemian or Czech. Romano - Cas- traise. at the end of Somner's Diet. E. dial. Baile/sEngl.Nieder. Bigl. Sup. B. Wtb. Cot. Teutonico-Lat. Dn. Douglas' Virgil. Carpentier. Da. Grammar Boh. Dueange. 1737. . Supplement to Bret. Diefenbaeh. Anglo-Saxon. Esthonian. Elfric's Fl. or Dan. Cotgrave. 1766. Couzinid. Brem. Catalan. Gr. 1850. Finnish. Provincial dialect. Gothischen 1851. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Fr. Diet. 1768. 1654. de la langue Cat. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Bav.-Eng. 1857. English. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Due. Fin. Diefeiibach.. Diet. Cimbr. Biglotton seu Diet. Dief. Esth. Danish. dialect of the Sette Commune.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS.



hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. willekom Blab r. Blob plowied r. puHti r. r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. woman r. cti..percurrunt kimista^x. baltresca nokkutomax. ^i?^i2! r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. kilistaa bugiie r. cruccio deyrie. yjnaifia r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. katowai perairrantr. (/ijtf r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. word allagerr. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. buque 118 brodiquin r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. Askance woud r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. haverie crtOT r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . alUger ahaverie r.>. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.5 ERRATA. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.nokkutama willekem. plowied budowaer. sveritet Asknace r.


Abaft. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. abs. away from. into the Romance ftrseg . Thus ip N3S. ab. ar. rule. er. compounds. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. OHG. until the event jlace . An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. Dent posture.t G. dominion. whatever he be. ifter.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. Jvery man shewid baft. this word beand Spanish. ibandonner. said. literally. AS. on. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. be-ceftan. The word Ban is common orders. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. announcement. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . iway from. baftan. behind. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. among. Hence on-bceftan. abaft. ur. ir. particular 1 . Ab-. In Lat. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. to arise. A. as. Abandon. off. plesyt him. alike. . have entire dominion over. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. in the same sense. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. on-lic. Abs-. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. "rom a height. orders. state of sleep . to hold . away. from a is to wake to abide. in a manner other than it should be ablution. a washing off to abstain. as. command. power : Than Wallace thing. on. out of. erwachen. a. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. the er. on-bsec .he Goth. to awake. downwards. AS. bandon in French. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. onis aback. Immediately from Fr. vs. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. and secondarily in that of command. to subdue. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. sion of 'an abandoned character. in. 843. Lat.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. —Bruce. from. K . I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. Passing tongues. an edict or proclamation. Thou spelds of mychty iction. and — Chaucer. his. implying a completion of J. Parson's Tale. To abuse is to use iway. to sauff the king or spill. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. o/j of or . but now )bsolete). us. dominion. of-dune. Again. a/tan. 244.

abbatis. to happen. father. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. to strike sail . in the active form. ais. iv. See Abide. esba. thing abbatere le vela. and grooms besmeared with gold. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. Hence the OE. so common in the found in the OFr. from ravir. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. A. where custom (Grandg. R. to overthrow. astonish. to beat furnish. to hit. To Abate. esbahir. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. at his own the lips. depress. terminedly. faire tomber. to bate something of the price abbatersi. abandonly. of fear. to excite admiration. astony. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. to ruin. Fr. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. 364s. to diminish the force of any. R. esbahissant. Cotgr.— R. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. Castrais. an abbey.esbawi.polir. to gape. to light upon.fournir. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. abbattre. of the Fr. More correctly written abbat. burny. See . The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. weaken. Custom. esbahissais. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. and sets them all agape. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. impulse. . shame. Milton. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. On the other in use as well as hand. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Hart in Jamieson. — — . baba.On princes. et prirent terre. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. vol. to take possession of an estate. to astonish. . abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. abbatia. Bate. to put to con. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. 1 1 8. d. with or without a final sh. effect of shame. to strike Froiss.Prov. — Neccham. his mouth. polish. of wonder. Abbess. abate. other. or society of abbots or monks. abbas. abbatere. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. Beat. to The . may be explained. law term abatement. baer. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. ne more vermeille. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . confound. In or. abbatere dal prezzo. It. impetuously. Abbot. de.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. to make lower. burny was formerly burnish . c. as ravish. bandon. Originally.) . person. bawi. 1520. and it that that it — .' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash.— — . and that from Syrian abba. his eyen shene.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. R. ant. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. from Lat. merely the terminations ons. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. to abaw or astonish. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. or admiration. And he thereof was all abashed. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. Hence Lat. Abbey. I was abawid for merveille. Baba ! Mod. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat.' the surrender of a ' K. uncontroUedly. son bandon. drink. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. abaundunem-ent. Wall. down. lish to abaisse orabaish. by Wall. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. betrash. and the verb was written in Eng. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. castle.down. overthrow. adverbial expressions at abandon. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. beer.

beijen. John. Norm. abiiance. to stay. othres abidan' The effacement expect. E. qui iaaille. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. baier. baer.' is in AS. to abide . abSiance. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. to It. beguiling on the other. exciter. From abahier. speaking of the Holy places. to hook. covet. beguile. which the mind to an object. bidan. take notice. take care.— ^richer. abie. badare. badare. m Abeyance. Corresponding to keep in suspense. delay. were called Brothers. Thus G. to remain or endure. to be intent upon. delay. K. deceit. lingering. trick abetar. is idenwait. tity of E. Ducange. songer. or absorption watching. to yawn. and in E. to wait. and alluring to his own destruction. badare. waiting. abaier. F. to stay. tarrying . baier.to wait. abie. beidan. desire. abet. to desire earnestly. listening. while the monks under his control ing. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. bocca badata. expectation. — . bhr. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. Thus we have It. inciting. to suffer death in Du. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. to mind. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. inciter. and E. in Dan. or in Fr. Abie. 366. See Abide. —Raynouard. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe).was formerly used in the sense of look. baier compared with It. bida. bialodrze-w. abet. abbadare. de Berri) Prov. house. beidan. with open mouth . and Prov. . pense. Norm. . expectation. Pol. abidan. abeter. to look. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. to open bader. beijden. warten.. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. white.) abayer. bouche bdante. or do we AS. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. usbeisnei. tenere a bada. gola badada. signifies the direction of tend. bana.Fr. listen. ne wist what way to chuse. Fabl. syllable ba. abetter. badigliare. — II. To Abet. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. ne chastised them. badar. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. which is certainly related to It. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. to expect gabeidan.— Chaucer. wait. The white poplar. we sceolon ON. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. to be intent upon. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. suspense. 1 • . — ABELE Epiphanius. Q. attendre avec en^pressement. forbearance. abeyance. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. a right in suspense . Du. b^er. bie compared with Dan. bder. to open the mouth. regarder. bie. Corant sens lui. Goth. beijen. intent observation. tical with It. the verb of abeyance. forms with the d effaced are OFr. verbeijen Sw. beter. says. Cat. look for another. to deanimer. . on the one hand. Cat.— Roquef. suffer b. to gape . also to OFr. abayer. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. tempting. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. ' ' . to deceive. The verb atwaiting. endurance. to wait. Abele. ceive. to wait. Gloss. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. ^couter avec dtonnement. delay. aspirer. compared with (Bosworth). to tarry. to expect. In We . wait To Abide. Quant voit le serpent. Prov. attendre See Bait. us. Guernsey beth. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . to attend to. OFr. literally white tree. have seen abide. incite . — signifies to suspend action. Boethius. . deceiving. de Champ. Ni engigner ni abiter. to desire. a bay or opening in the coast. with badia. aspire to. guardare. desirer (Roquef. bada. (Vocab. watch. to ance. to In great amaze. in Fr. bouche b^ante. gridare. open the mouth. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. to attend on . expectfamily. bide of the d endure. endurArt thou he that should come. Gloss. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. from Halo. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. . bida.

2.ynes. to perish. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. to pay the penalty. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. The —Boucher. abie to Goth. a board. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. —Bacon in R. the Fr. to draw fowls. strong. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. use. abilej Prov. R. within the walls of a ship. Tr. For on board. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. suffer the Jul. — e. from AS.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. ON. habilis is closely preserved. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. In this to erase or annul. R. must suffer for it. abicgan. Q. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. God — dear. ! ! Cotgr. powerful. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. and death for handsel pay. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. the side of a ship. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. Chaucer. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. and the simple buy. i. abolir. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. Fr. habile. on board . in for any special purpose. Lat. to pay the purchasemoney. Innan bords. abidge. — Able. able.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. sufficient. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. Prol. bord. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. or bie. is the verb abie. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. N. abie. forbid for mother's children should abye. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. Fr. Mids. purpose.^and to make his power knowne. God. L. from Lat. atling hem to her proper offices. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. convenient. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Spenser. the Pardoner In the original. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. al- be found so some will dear abide it. have-like. abeye. &c. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. within the ship. 2nd Tale. him with che. to wear away. as habiller du chanvre. If it badare. abigg. at hand). willing to schewe his wrathe. power. expert. de la volatile. properly abuy. fault being simply clothing. P. consequences of anything . aboleo. Cassar. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. bidan. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. at kasta fyri bord. bide. while in later examples As I . when compared with Aboard. fit. durance in both applications. as E. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. AS. without special reference to the notion of retribution. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. to . Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. the Sir Tristrem. though sometimes confounded with it. She shall abie that trespass dere. beidan. It. Boucher. Dr. habilis (from habeo. adapted . Merch. Milton. and Cr. to redeem. being disabled in the highest degree. to dress hemp. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . Wickliff in Richardson. F. . abycgan. Abie. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. to have . and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. abilh. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. P. — P. was often used in the same sense. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. abide. O If tion.

to light a fire the Abraid. AS. without.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. to let sleep. giving birth to. to grow together. the form a&^^. while the sense of beget. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. abbrechen. common in Chaucer and Abominable. to break off. about cockcrow. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. greu. above. Thonne Abroach. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. Du. explains soboles Lat. as withotityn and without. abowen. to main. Lat.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. gravis. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. pedigree from brevis. Severe the threatened evil. AS. to produce. abutan. which passed into English under Abominate. See To Bray. The radical idea is to feed the flame. af-oolden. literally. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. ABOMINABLE adolesco.— Abbreviate. to rear. but from Lat.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. bufan. To abray or abraid. progeny. of any kind .the older form. to start. or young forth. nourish. Thence to regard greugetat. around on the out. natural ed direct from the latter language. abbreviare. the hair grow.' Parson's rence. to grow up. the idea of breaking about . breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. to feed. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan.aboon. to fatten. abominor (from ab and omen.1. d. Gael alaich. by the to bring up. For on broach. — ' — — preceding verb. alUger. Finnish stock. Goth. agreujar. heavy. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). whence the Fr. disastrous portent in some passing oc. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. parent. abrcBgdan. abrdger. adolere. ol. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. alan. The primitive idea seems that of beget. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. to snatch. hard. OE. levis to the Romance languages. currence. is not from G. breaking out in language. awaking. Sc. Virg. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. and also to abridge. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. nurse Lat. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat.. the vital spark. Tale. for ligeth butan. See -und-. to rear. oil. which may God avert. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. from Fr. to progress. that greatly agredge their sin.) . OSw. Then. al is growth. abbrechen. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. AS. side. motion. titan. to bring up. the OSw. as AS. his contemporaries. D. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. and in-d-oles. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. a portent). Abray. onbutan. Of these synonymous adolescere. to AS. becomes leu in Prov. Melibaeus. outward. the identity of which with ting. — . break out. To Abound.ymbutan. coalesco. ala. alan. seems aras. to nourish. alere capillos. the man dwindles away. Fr. abracan. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. abufan. leading immediately to Fr.. and alere flammain. to awake. vital PI. be-utan. as the duty of nourdisposition. . below. from . ala is made to signify to rear. butan. OE. af-oleii. gravity. be-ufan. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor.ger. Abundant. nurse. or cut short. ufan. Kiittner.' Ymb hancred utan.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. So in Lat. snatch In English we speak of away. en. boven. Quod abominor. In the same brevis . on high. to beget or give birth to children. is a ively. and bidden him abregge. Abrdger itself. to feed. to cut short. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. s —Casdmon. abredan. brood. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. way Sw. Above. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. while the verb alleThe root el. to aggravate. life. kindling. to turn. sec seftre — Chaucer. draw out. and also. and to do something to avert abbreviate. agredge. Prov. . showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. full ofte his words for to Fr.foda signifies to beget.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


to support. wealth. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. So Lat. work. plenteously with red. Mannequin. Hence the applica.—Aperture. apatiar. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. to open. d. Ful- Apanage. villan Gloss. ReApe. choke. Anxious. ab. post. the anticks — behind. panis. Aperient. gabeigs. apertum. or in a ridiculous dress. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. stem. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. Fr. a termination equivalent to Goth.D. to sound in answer. finally applied to a whether grotesca. See Cover. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Prov. Gr. whence Prov.made out. from the imitative habits of monkeys. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. from an and — - . a preventative . anxius. to display pario. white. Lat. In like manner. burnished. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes.legacy of given against. Fr. one. fauns. af. Antick.. amboltj Du. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. Ilvtwotov. or antique single chamber. anfilts Pl. Thus from gabe. Gr. were chiefly of the former class. in Shakespear. set aside. Anvil. such as savages. ambeld. from eigan. a puppet or an anti^hona. and claret wine. a block to hammer on. as from as. a few. verberas. bread. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. AS. and devils. antefn. some one. one at the least. Gr. from avTiipoiuia). which by anvild. Antidote. anxi. before. incus. from. trouble. transferred to the grotesque characters. Antler. a gift. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. something ler in R. strangle. antifena. d<popi(xnbs. Otfried. Fr. eigs. i. To ape. as we call it. — — — . a definite . andouillers. from in and cudere. AS. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. Antique. avri^ava. from. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. —Spencer. panar. anticus. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. from ante. all of gold. : . whence anthem. AS. Lat. separate purpose. E. from Stephanus. to nourish. from an. to strain. as the Italians. G. to have. Pezron fiUist. to strike. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. Jorioc. should be received. separate. three antike pillers.is to be given. before. left as the . rich. to imitate gestures. one having wealth.th centuries the recognised models of antic. anapoz. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. swaged. Apartment. aperio. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. to strike G. part. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. aside. but the expresent day. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. a small quantity. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. and ig. Any.— . Aphorism. what Roman civilisation. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. like a jack-pudding. As the browcalled antiques. to bring forth. of. from ango. to go in strange disguises. Apartment. press. younger child. . something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. vex. Hall's Chron. cenig. on. To go antiquely. Lat. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. were andouiller the second. as posticus. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. Percutere. Apart. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. Lat. inAgain from the same author cudis. apanage. surimitation of the ancient models. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art.

like. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. . To cause to pall (see Pall). to commend. to disable oftat. ap. to accord. Cent Nouv. a thing for one's purpose. w. to be open to view. e. one for his defence. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. Cotgr. to send to. D. approcher.his giving evidence against his principal. fit- — ness. — prehendere. Apotliecary. ^wss. to — . From Gr. off. Sp. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. ai. An old appalled wight. an epistle or letter. to approve.probare. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. of. known. avail. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. habiliments. when the . Apostle. — Apprise. S^. consent unto. appaiser. set a price on. And among other of his famous deeds. to approach. from aTroorlXXu. Cotgr. Formerly apricock. away. Ir. praise. to deaden. Yr. To Appear. or E. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. to which it is often referred. OFr. apin R. appareiller. obolys. probare. apar. laven is used both as E. Hence It. Gr. Gr. To Appraise. Fr. jabloko. in good season prendre son d. Cotgr. prover. —^Apparent. to learn. . 23 . allow. d-n-o. approver. — dirondtfiu. diminutive pariculus. a crime. properly to join like to like. Fabian in R. mine. kind of action. prohts. I prise ware. peace. to mark to define a bound. diroBrjKr}. Prov. pronounce good. to strike down. habilUr. to set a price on. pronounce fitting). dress. to fit. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. landmark. like. agreeing with "LtA. to learn. APO sentence opoQ. to lose one's senses. Yr. a price. Friar's Tale. case. a'^opi'Jw. apprehendere. 'L-zX. Gr. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. proper time came. aparelhar. whether through age or sudden teiTor. From Lat. purpose. . to make a thing Apparel. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. ar. a learner. become dizzy . Nouv. Apprehend. To praise. to rate. Prov.—Apprentice. prize. to finish a controversy. appareo. esteem. Appareil. H. to deem good. one is in. from paix. were formed appropiare ejar. Fr. appellare. prope (comp. and appoinder (to find fitting. apparecchiare. find Then like Fr. rise to \t. Apo- good time. irpaiKOKiaov. — Approve. to suit. Fr. to deter- to strike. make a composition between parties. in Chaucer. 11. and also as appraise. Epistle. word was specially applied to clothing. Walach. near. poind. the good. to — — . Pliny. It. Approach. pertain or belong to. to call. And whanne sum men Lat. manner. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. cepl.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. Fr. apal. approcdare. ON. taking. in fact.parejo. to assign or grant over unto. that it outfit. AS. lAfiaam. to send off.t. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. decree. horror.parecchio. despatch on some service. Fr. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. equal. ciously than nede is. 'LaX. to catch hold of. in data. apropchar. agree. or the like. Hence appoind. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. appartenir. one sent out. to Lat. to call for judgment. appris. From Lat. The Fr. Lat. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. iwKjToKri. from. plight. (cited by Diez from a late author). and metaphorically to take the meaning. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. apprise. — Appurtenance. i. to take away or lose the vital powers. Fr. Mod. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. order. apropid. to seize. apprentis.propius). opportunity.prix. Gr. par. Lith. good. : — — speak 'Lz. to dress in this fashion. 5w. N. En peach. apal. value apprdder. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Appease. —Diez. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. one the MLat. Fr. to understand. piteux poind. in commendation. pragigua or prixcoda. The PI. apprendre. Palsgr. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. after his mind . A — . to announce. trim. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. corresp. They were considered To Appoint. quoth the frere.pareil. Apple.— . Fr. aptly. preparation. whence the e. poind. oVooroXof. array. to store or put Appal. pretium. They werin his approvirs privily. seiden of the stones. Parson's Tale. Apoplexy. APRICOT off. xv. and in the sense of condition. to come near. diroTrXriaatii. peler. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. is a man who has lost his vigour through age.

Maan initial .shrubs {arbor). and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Thus we have natiger and auger. Pr. is taken in is a soothsayer. properly the arwella. a lot. sestimatio arbitraria. shortdr. wata. Pm. The loss or addition of n very common. A. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. proper. and a protection of the clothes. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. fastened close. {mies ^=ia3. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. herbere. water Which that benchid was.] in the N. arbiter.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. It is certain that the apricot oracle. . a cloth. opinio. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. From OE. pracoqua was not an adapt. man. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. and taken away before dessert. and with turfis new Goth. delon. It may be doubted. symbol. and thence fit. intensitive of nape. sorcerer. P. conjicio. or eft. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. auguror. Now we find in Fin. sortium ductor. as ihe diminutive. a soothsayer. nected. garden. grande nappe. 331. a lot. a river. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. ear. As is a pretty parlour. P. aha. hariolus arpelen. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Aquatic. Lat. aestimo. Albanian. arwaus. to preserve it from stains. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. C. ughe. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi.. and the one who gives oracles. as an eye-witness. arwelo. aa. ap. arbitror arwaaja. conjectura conjec^ra. a pleasure-ground. or barm-cloth. account for either of these significations. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat.) E. Arbitrate. con. naperon. of of divination arpa-mies. a lot. 31. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . J. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland.o. Roquefort. aro. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. Beryn. arbiter in re censendS. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. arpa. however. Freshly turnid Arable. doubtless is the origin of E. Lat. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. derived. . quod he. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. short. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. — napkin is Naperon. OE. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Hall. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. divining rod. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. Now one of the points — — — . nawl and awl. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. rofe and all. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. la nappe. to plough. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — .' —About. Alban. She made. words derived from arpa. From OFr. Lat. Naprun. . for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. Marsh. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. to decide by lot. tion under trial. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. suitable. however. ahva. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. Flower and Leaf.meaning at Shrewsbury. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. arbitrium. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. be That it inne groweth. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. scr. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. OHG. This path Aqueous. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. — . Arbour. and sortilegus ation. Gr. the spelland umpire. aptus. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. found in Fin. Prol.sors. . The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. 2. aqua.

i.4 rir/. to arm. Arm. arduus. Arch in composition. which has been referred to W. erz in G. ruling by the nobles.. forearm . Gr. erg. a noble. in Due. malicious. earg. A construct. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. shoulder Boh. vocaveris. — Architect. to demonstrate. adjective. det arrigste snavs. — Wtb. Alisaunder. Ardour. Gr. an extent of flat surface. Dan. ers-betriiger. from areo. from nixa. 3340. AS. ardre. weapon. troublesome. a bare plot of ground. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. apxh. aridus. to burn . patus). G. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. arm. the best. gwyrek. Brem. kpxi- beginning. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. un malin enfant. wanton. Arid. armata. apxtlov. make clear or prove. man. Du. ramo (pi. difficult to reach. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. TiKToiv. to Arch. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. sly. G. and must be identified with Dan. D. erz-bischof. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. een erg kind. vescovo. an arrant usurer. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. ardIn G. arm'ee. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. ardeo. apx^iv. bad of its kind. . Lat. first. shoulder. while the Fr. a branch. The . are applied only to an armed body of land forces. a court yard. curved. as the arch of a bridge. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. Uo^a^. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Lat. There can be no doubt that E. bad. un petit rusd. and our army. * ArchjAiTaxit. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. arrig. by Russ. arga. arch-bishop. taxed with cowardice. arrant Arms. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. signifies chief or principal. the most arrant trash. arson. ardor. high. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. to rule. Gr. mischievous. Area. Fr. apxtipfve. Arcadia in R. arcA in e. armee. as in E. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. Applied in modern E. ill-tempered. archangel. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. argvitugr. stuff. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. arma. raineno. morally bad. Lat. armada. a bow. whence the body of the nobles collectively. . bravest. are formed the participial nouns.— Army. apxri. From apxeiov was formed Lat. arg.' the Gr. gwyro to bend. is essentially the same word. earm. Lat. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. the court of a magistrate. a chief builder. faint-hearted. a burning or setting on fire.In E. and Kpurka. area. Fr. And thou as arwe coward. argr. Du. . burning heat. Ardent. arguo. arwe. Aristocracy. to dry. mischievous. W. weapon may be simply an application of annus. receptacle where the public acts were kept. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. arm.' Paul Warnefrid. rame. wretched OE. It. fainthearted. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. ancient. especially shoulder-joint. Cot. Lat. an arch boy.is the natural weapon of offence. ramend). aj-f. an arch-deceiver .. Sp. Langobard. timid. fabricate). contemptible. Lat. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. to be on fire. which is derived from it. Gr. arcus. . Lat. bad. ars. sly. to be in comp. ' — Argue. and not with apx. arsum. ON. a. worker. ^Argument. . earh. branch.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. Arcliives. it signifies roguish. 2. lofty. et vulgari verbo. a threshing-floor. an arrant rogue. Sax. ein arger knabe. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Lat. exercise lordship). This particle takes the form of arcz in It. sluggish. a rule (princiruler. the a brute. Perhaps erz-wticherer. government.aioj. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. From the verb armare.' Lex. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. Fr. curved line. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. Arduous. the terminaGael. Arson.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

pain. OSw. Sw.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. a clapping or flapping of wings. to ache. to on Holmedon's plain. shouting. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Dan. 3. lealo.ing. a ball balla. Sw. at giore en balk. balle. balkr. It. a ballad. bdlkr. dial. a continued noise of waves gently beating . to plough for a boundary between lands. ballar). to see-saw. bielke. a together in the form of a ball. the breadth from side to side . balle. tum. It. balken. Fr. ballone. a But making way for death at large to walke. ballare. Russ. Ballot. weak liquor. Du. balka. a dance. calamity. plague. Sw.Lat. Grief. OHG. package of goods. a ball. on. ache. Fin. stage or scaffold. bolawy.' speak gibberish champurrar. balka hopar. ball. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. ballare. w. wickedtorment ON. . Perhaps on.). that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. floor. (Hesych. on the shore. Fr. a division of the old laws. destruction. A balk. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. It. hooting. a ball. balk. We have then separate dial. Hence Dan. To baulke the Sir H.— Ballet.of men . balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. Rouchi ban. balare. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. The primary sense seems as in G. a balk of foul weather. It. ON. to rock. bacgtteter. to stir. and evil in general. cka. torment. a dance. a boil. G. ballan. Bale. In like manner Fr. . balge. the beam of a ship. hue et illuc inclinare. . mass. bal. vcdra bdlkr. dial. palcare. taich. It. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. bal. palloilla. a beam. a skin. . Ugutio in Due. bol. Ballata. afbalka. Boll. beaten road. to cause another to miss pustule. balka bunge. ill. ball. pallo. i. Bret. balla (with the augm. ne leaving any balke. . pallukka. TtaKKa a pail or tub . e. Gr. maan pallikka. to grieve . may exhibit the original development of the signification. whether of wood or stone. Ball. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. to bale out. to shake or jog. a great ball. Da. the object of his expectation.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . . G. sorrow. To Bale out water. baloier. wickedness ness . a bubble. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. probably Lat. Bohem. Sw. Ball. Bowl. on. balk. chapurrar. Q. from bacquet. grieve . sick. other while. ban. bolyaf. a ballot). with the perhaps from balg. bolyatchka. Wotton. bal. to wave. baalien. misery Du. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. globule. as we say. boleii. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G.Fr. a water-skin dim. N. bealwes. See Gall. the ballet of the theatres. I. a pill. to pack Da. bollr. to roll. bbllr bulla J. sickness. a ball. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. blister. balva-vesei. uveirs bolk. Fr. bal-daed. ball.—Ballad. ballotta. to paddle in water . In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. ballet. . balja. Venet. Du. and the dim. F. Mid. as in a barn or cow-house. ing. to ail. vacillare. Pol. bola. ballare. Balloon. * Balk. pilula. to partition off . to be ill. trouble. palla. a ball. a beam. bold. balle. bolker. balk. dial. Hence. ' is a piece or confused talking. Da. balken. a washing-tub. to be balker. a clod of earth water. a ball or pack. E. to speak an un. AS. ball. Sw. to move. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. pallikka. a partition. balle. a clump . pila. maleficium. heap up. to signify washy drink. a separate portion. balk. a pestilence. from the more general notion of moving up and down. bjdlki. Gael. a. OFr. gen. balveins. — A — — . a pail. a globe. malefacGower in R. boll. Sw. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. to avoid it. says Ray. bala. Sp. pallo. dial. Sw. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. a wooden partition . or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Goth. ballo. to plank. roof. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. on. balloon. to Not sparing wight. a scene acted in dancmg. 2. similar connection is seen in Sp. Sw. baler. Baulke of land. to dance. to by beams. to dance. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. bol. separaison. baalie. are applied to a From the same analogy.

make fun of a person. bam. endormir par des contes. To Bamboozle. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. more serious objection is . small railing. the act of walking. explains ballast. &c. command. Sc. an Old dotard or imbambolare. &c. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. In OSw. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. Said to be from balaustia. inutile onus. lastra. a nettle. objects to the foregoing derivation. because. barauste. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. 1854. baume. To deceive. is in Sweden and Norway. inutilis sarcina. baltresac. for want of other freight. To proclaim. 43 — Cot. the backload. lestage. seems the original form of the word. denounce. curse. Balsam. bamein. a battlement . Dan. and Mid. A — — . as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. It is explained back by Adelung. bumbazed. bambocciolo. also with flatteries and . a rod. astonished. bag-las. If bambocciolare were child of one. To Ban. It. ^a\Ba\iov. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. Du. Bamour. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Balm. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. Lest. ballustres. forbid. Lat. paid for the right of carriage. balsamum. lastre. baU. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Fr. Balluster. it is forced to take in stones or sand. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. to preserve equilibrium. to walk. bag-lest.Lat. a young babe. more frequently than outward-bound. baUa. Bret. fonts. Sept. Cotgr. i860. Sp. barandado. Gr. ballast. sorcerer. from Lat. bambolo. a fragrant gum. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. or movement of one who walks. It. little round and short pillars. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. in the first place. series But how appropriate the designation would really be.). it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. bertesca. mare Balticun. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. ^Arbuthnot in R. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast.' And Kil. dial. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. urtica. analogous to what is seen in It. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. deceiver. puzzled. the flower of the pomegranate. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North.that the going vessels. a small balustrade. But Fr. Report Pennsylv. Fr. age. The Baltic sea. Venet. like Fr. . It is BAN as well as to ballast it. called Bait. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. This is the backload. balconies. To make fun of a person. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. by met. for a load or goods (Roquef. To Bam. R. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. of balusters. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. baranda. When a ship discharges. lest. Mr Marsh whether the a load. 1. deceive. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle.. bamboccio. — — oltriga. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. ranked on the outside of cloisters. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. Baltic. Ballast. . back of the ship. as he says. ballustre) is a corruption. to enchant. enchanter. lastagium signified not only ballast. from bara or vara. balustrade barandilla. or ballast of a ship. a useless load. a false tale or jeer. railing around altars. galleries. terraces. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. The Sp. but loadage.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. last. a duty on goods last.000 tons. Bret. even calls in question last syllable is the Du.

Se il — Romance languages. and It. ba?idare. v. banner marked the place of assembly. to . flag. ex. E. to follow a faction. Thus the word is also used in both senses. — To partito d'alcuno. to form parties. —R. It. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. banda. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. — excommunication bann-lysa. at his own discretion. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. to side or to bandy (Florio). Diss.is further developed. fahne. OE. summoning to serve So in Swiss. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Goth. banns pany of footmen serve. faction. banda. 'A son bandon. See Abandon. 26. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). to reprove. Les saiges avait et les fols d. 1. Car. to ctide. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. in Fr. he bannede his ferde. to bring corn to be fahne. we constantly find the expression. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. and in E. Sw. Wyntoun. permission. In Fr. A. 19. hoc est vexillo. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. bandon somewhat party. It. is That with which anything AS. bann. those who side together (bande. to excommunicate {lysa. ligue Taboada). 15. to unite with a band. &c. to publish) banna. It seems this signification has arisen. whether by way of injunction or for- command. Capitul. bando. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. bande.Lat.. Band. bandi. bandera ground at his mill. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. from at the Lord's courts. band. admolendinum.^ bandy. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. sostener Torriano. tener da alcuno.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. G. border. Baud. eiiseigne. bande. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. bindan. says Muratori. populum. Leg. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . bannire exercitum. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. . however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. R. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. There is some doubt how Fr. To Bandy. a company. Cot. bandon was used in the same sense. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Ripuar. side. Sp. the ensign or banner. — R. change to the feminine gender in banda. bannum or bandum. D. in hostem convocare. curse.—John Villani in Due. It. margin. . Spebifid. Sp. Mag. bound. also the band or of marriage. The to . Bandear. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. theodscipe ut abannan. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. 813. Assises de Jerusalem. 2. acquired the sense of proclamation. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. and thence to any proclamation. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. bannire in exercitum. banda the colour or material. R- He Translated by Chaucer. bundun. to ban. region. power. Goth. passing on from proclamation to command. band. In a special sense the term company itself. side. Bandus. parti. a coast.e. Commun^ment son bandon. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. biddal. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. authority. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. bande.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. From the verb to banda. he assembled his host. i. etc. then the signification w. to take one to task. Fr. Fr. &c. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. In like manner we find bannire adplacita.

a bankrupt merchant. 2. bane. Banner. Diaconus in Due. bank. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. — Fr. Roquefort. whence the mod. Bandy. banca his creditors. death-sickness. a i. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. E. Banister. desk. Bank. language of W. pastoralis. Lingua. the slope of a hill.: . to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . standard. To Bandy. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. to publicly order one out of the realm. . prince had forbidden faction fightSp. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets.HG. Banditti. bander. a rising bank. de- party. See Band. death-wound. banc. back of a knife. ON. in R. to make a stir banke. A Shipman's Tale. AS. Tibalt. the same verb the It. Bane. the former Fr. ON. banditti acquired the like signification. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. bench. distinguishes bekkr. Mercutio. se joindre.z. dorsum was applied to ject. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. of bandying words. But natheless wife at I bank. bakke. It. Lat. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. and poise Their lighter wings. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. banke. a bench. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. a blow. See Balluster. home — Bandog. Fr. N. outlam came to signify a robber. to work in wood. band-hond. banish. bana-sdr. bana-sott. a sand-bank. from banc. Your stool. — Kil. From Mid. banja. eminence. Milton in R. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. bang. to cabal. forbear this outrage. It. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. among rotta. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. death-blow . bander tin arc. Ripuar. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). that the word is used by Romeo. Benchi. bench. The child cries bang! fire. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. panca. With many a stiff thwack. a table. Bantze. banka. bent as a bow. Sw. bank. Benvoglio. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Bankrupt. se reunir. Bang. bank of river. a bench. to slay. Mid.^ knock. the back. Fr. Africa. follow a party. s'associer. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. bandear. clouds. &c. shoal. band-dog. . to join in league with others against Cotgn. . hricg. and therefore tied up. to hammer in a nail. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. When a man fails Lat. for shame. bance. bannire. banca fallita. a wound OHG. beating. seat . she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bandire. a de Vaud. to knock. —^Vocab. bandi. beat. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Bacon in R. Dan. eminence. banqueroute. ruptus. roupt. a long raised seat. Draw. Diez. bana. de sable. The word is in E. Brewer. rap hatike et som The Susu. Bandy legs are crooked legs. bana. — Paulus drive in a nail. . bow. It is in this sense nounce. &c. The ing. counter. and bakki. was formed the OFr. . to foment factions. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. It. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. murderer. The ridge of a hill is AS. has bang-bang. g. banc G. bander. See Banish. in the same way that E. in the sense of place of business. a bench. — . bankruptcy. broken. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. as of an explosion or a blow. to proclaim. Fr. hammering. bank of a river. ON. a bank. bank of Dan. large dog kept for a guatd. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. and OFr. at canis peciiarius. many a bang. to bend a. tumult bangas. in the sense of a pirate. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. Goth. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. AS. stir. and hence. destruction . b'ang. disturbance banga. Hudibras. Du. benk. — — whence E. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. to knock. Fl. put under the ban of the law. From a desk . banco. 45 — — Bandit. canis vinculis assuetus. a counter. to beat. bana. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions.

cruel. wrapped. i. and he would seem to derive Goth. an animal a year old. The spar. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. ban- Baptise. It. and from ensign or banner Prov. a bearded or Cot. Barbar. from the same source. rod of any rigid substance. 3. . sbarra. senhal. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. branches of a tree {gwezen. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. G. barrer. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Sw. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. barrou-gwez. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. a bench or table . probably corSymbol. himself in Pontus. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. Banquet. barbe. and it was accord. Lat. Gr. arineXov.— Swift in R. manu anto make signs nuere. E. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. To Banter. sign. OHG. barba.46 BANNERET . hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva.. OFr. OHG. dim. &c.hinder. Hence Fr. a war-beacon or war-signal. and even of calling it banter. a beam or long pole of wood. privileged to raise Barbarous. Thus Ovid. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. senhal. Leduchat. The original import of their own banner in the field. signuin. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. banneret. bannereti. Duo. period vexillarii. bar. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. Barb. Bap. barriire. either in the Gr.aTa Kul nest. banner. heri-pau. to having that signification. barreau. banda. Banneret. a ban. sparre. It may be thing. barrack. milites bannarii. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. —Cot. A It. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. nestling. indeed. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. which is surely in barbed arrow. It. knight Bardd. a tree). E. banne. then fell among the foot. Lat. banchetto. &c. chan. sparro. summit. To mock or jeer one. BARBAROUS reiflingr. from reifa. Lat. to beckon . senheira. to wash. bandiera. inur. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. benda. Barbe. It. top. to dip. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. or of this bantering. banneret was a higher class of knights. that the noise of voices Bantling. speaking of battle. token. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. the word came to signify rude.the analogous syllable viur. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. in Gr. ing term appears in other languages. Fr. Celtic bar. ingly very generally known by a name branches. remarked. hence a repast. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. Fr.8ap6^o)voe. a sign. uncivilised. would rupted from Fr. ON. According to Diez the It. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. barbarus. of wind. bandva. Gael. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. rarii. Gr. ^oTrriKio. barre. as they call it. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. Hence ner. of a sign in general. — We A . In a similar manner are formed yearling. banniire. Bret. Barb. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves.. 2. barbed or trapped as a great horse. brushwood. jSa'pjSapoc. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. E. a. of banco. barra. barde. to wrap. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. to bend. Fr. merki. jSdirTO). banda hendi. branch. inferior to a baron. such as the Roman Eagle. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. ON. Flesche barbeUe. men. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. senh. out of a wound. a bantling. then branches. The barb of an arrow is the sign . a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. Fr. and with an initial s. and the work is done. a which the barrister addresses the court. The origin is in all probability Goth. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Fr. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. says. iandvo. Fr. a barrier or stoppage.

Fr. Lucan. barbulla. tree. and in Flanders to vociferate. barbugliare. barbelin. Barbican. mutter. . waschen. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. border of a garden bed. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. to stammer. to bubble or spring up. quarrel . in the sense of fight. guaszare. to bubble or boil. — — — men. Mod. Diez. barbaris. . The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. Hatt-bard. guazzolare. skirt. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. to grunt. the beard. barbeter. as well as the modern twaddle. Thus the on. gibberish. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. in poetic language Bard for poet. skialldar-bard. borborinha. Gr. scouthouse. uproar. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. borbotar. bdsiis. OFr. barbeum. g. borbulhar. the nakedness of a woman. — . Fl. baar. open. formerly used in the sense of tattle. A shrub bearing acid Diet. name Fr. a jetty or outnook in a building. albardilla. axilla. barbar. Port. back. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. to mumble or mutter words. skola. bardes. Etym. Bargain. border. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Mod. borboglio. to wash. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. brim. borbollar. An outwork for the defence of a gate. barguigner. Hindost. barS. baares geld. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . such as houses are covered Bardelle. a tumultuous assembly. twattle.) to wrangle. Etym. a pack-saddle. But Sp. which was of talking. It. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. to plash or dabble. Exposed to view. unqualified. jargon. tattle. upper chamber. Festus in Diet. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. berj G. Lith. barbarkama. and foolishly. speak confusedly. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. skirmish. barbeau. Barber. Port. a rumbling. boil. Bret. ala. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. a shingle or small board. fortia —Strabo. twcEtta. Cotgr. barz. Applied in E. bhasad. barda. horse armour covering the front. to gurgle.) . to prattle. Barde. G. Barbel. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. — Cot. albarda. — — Hence. It. i. albarda'ah. Sp. Cotgr. in Fr. murmur . barbacane. bdsas. saddle-cloth. Bare. Barder. barboter. uncovered. — . to boil or bubble up . barefooted Sanscr. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. on. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit.— — Pm. grumble (Lowndes. Gr. Bardeau. Fr. and the word was used in OE. Sp. to rumble. the flap of a hat. barda. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. a bardelle. also to wallow like a seething pot. baragouin. A7 to the and warlike. and Sc. Pr. ready money. bardd. the quilted with. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Arab. to make an outcry . bare baskojis. is lb. w. haggle. Barberry. to stammer.— BARBEL merit of water. and flanks. or more properly (says fer. to barbe or trap horses. The Pers. bar. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. muttering. Sp.' Cot. also to bind or tie across. Russ. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. stutter. Fr. to chafbargain. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. dial. brabble in the making of a bargain. The verb borrelen signifies in Du.— Fl. to It. used 2. bdla-khaneh. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. barbier. lb. /3opj3opwJu. powdered all over. as well as thwcEtta. barbel. Cot. bds. Lex. Bard. small pack-saddle. Fr. coping. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. the edge of a shield hval-barct. /3£pjSepi^w. Hall in R. berries. a long saddle for an ass or mule.

Ibid. one who stirs up strife. ON. Bemiques. baratta. tion of the sound. Rayn. Dan. Uzen. Port. baarm. put to confusion. trouble. quarrel Port. (Ihre. barn. bargain. aheap. berm hoys. barnis. border. adj. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. bern. AS. quant a perdu sa barja. dispute barattare. meta foeni. Du. and llysiaw. Sw. It. and 1. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. we pass to the vert) barguigner. w. bern. louzou. a heap. but the woman for the man. from an imita- Barley. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. baron)^ Fr. Manx bayrn. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. and hence probably (by a metaphor. Bret. Ripuar. berem. barms. It. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. spectacles. charlock. herbs. as in the case of Lat. bosom . also a boat . . as. barn. a stack. Camus. prasepe . bcerme.. to scold. bard). barja. prominent part of a thing. bosom. then the bows pectus navis. Dan. husband. dispute . mhg. corn-shed. skutr. a place. then honoured man. the or prow of a ship. barahunda. Tarn baronem quam feminam. barmr. — battle. confusion. skuta. as baces-ern. — Zeuss. Antiq. houbartij fsnile. a cap . bark . Gl. * Barnacles. strife. hemlock. hay-loft. strife. 2. Isidore in Rayn. giving rise to It. a heap . E. barizeins indicates a noun baris. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. barley. baaring. baaren. berm. Cornub. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. to shufSe. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. a load. barley. the G. to skin over barkandi. dispute. Leg. The Goth. Originally man. Provj bar (ace. chaffer. dial.^Voc^. The older form in e. struggle. ON. dispute . edge. to all the barca.' bardagi. a barn. a baking place or oven. barii. Sp. as. Spectacles. beornt. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion.Barum vel feminam. brenig. Barn. tumult. squabble. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. So ON. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. bread. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Vocab. a beak. . These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Kil. See Barm. berma. —Bark. bamagh. Romance barsie. barafustar. On the other hand. Lith. Alam. barlys. kani. quarrel. i. v. a lantern. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. — Barnacle. Leg. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. is simply the Bret. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. to chop. Gael. To Bark. strife. barley. Barge. the rack or manger. and the word. ber (ace. bernac. commonly explained from bere. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. to cheat. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. . Swab. the fore or after end of a boat . From Fr. a lap. wine. limpets . dregs of oil. entangle. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. beer. at barka. Prov. contest. was barlic. the A — Ihre. Sp. berm. — de Berri. dispute. and ern. and is probably a true bartig. barlys {bara. borkr. to strive. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . lap. Sp. hladi. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. plants). baniffa. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. to wrangle. in Nat. a receptacle for barley or corn. Port. baralhar. . baralha. beorcan. also to exchange.. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. OFr. barajar. The origin may be throat. name being given to spectacles. ThS man was not created for the woman. Baron. Du. 2. So also ON. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. contest. baratta. bread-corn. As Goth. in the Brim. and may therefore be an Eastern word. AS. barretor. Garlick. fray. to rout. Acervus. the slimy substance brewing of beer. altercation. a. astringent. ON. Bailey. am. as well as Scandinavian tongues. baragouin. W. baron. barnacles. barafunda. barone. varen. Barbour in Jam. See formed Yeast. barlich. limpets. barge. Bark. baimeach. barki. OFr. OSw. bcern. ON. baerm. barn. a boat. baarn. bere. disorder. hlaSa.) lihtes-ern. limpet.

barrique. fallow. todtenbahre. MHG.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted.. Sp. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. perhaps through Prov. branches. like bargain. heap. Fr. On chet — We — — their resemblance. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. bara. It. It was not until the time of James I. Barren. barrila. Bohem. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. D. 26. barague. Bret. Russ. It. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. See Barter. braeck. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. a barrel. bouracan. barril. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. baroncelli. Bargus or moreland. hut. barchent. barile. uncultivated. a hiU. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. composed of dry branches ofer. were sometimes confounded. brushwood. barrique. AS. Barrack. a barrow. borov'. sepulchre. barrack. vel pretiosos burellos. berewe. E. Joshua vii. ^Barrator.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. baronetti.root signifying confused noise. See Bar. Gael. vir. G. StiU he shows conclusively. An ing. garment still used in Morocco. — — 15th Cent. barre. whenever Barrow-hog. — A . Baron andfemme. It. fear. from a tree to which a man is hanged. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. 2. ibid. beorg. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. iver. from cavallo. Barrister. Bamnculus a baronet. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. G.. AS. nobles. vair. change of goods seems. bara. as. to carry. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. berwen. booth. Bern. from beran. cover. shed. The Sp. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Gael. man. became bidre. bahre. Barratry. then traffick4 Barrow. Formed from Fr. habeant. This word introduced into Fr. gwr. over him. a bier. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. Barrel. an obstruction. beorgan. alongside of barrow. man and wife. Sp. to * Barragan. bera. whence Barrow.' Op. w. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. bier. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. baragan. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. It should be observed that. (Schmeller). litter. beorh. rolls of Parliament. OE. as cavalcade. OFr. in Nat. bark&n. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. gravis et authenticus vir. which would barragdn. Sp. in the first instance. a bar. signifying. a horse. a kind of coarse camlet. The feudal tenants next Fr. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. a. Antiq. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. by early examples. mound. 1. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. Goth. a hut or booth. the braw. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. dispute. also termed bannerets. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. barBombicinus. calico. a castrated hog . Nominale of the from braeckland. sterilis. Fr. bearg . baraignej Picard. Barricade. the two names. S. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. strife. breinej Du.— Gibbon. a man. barri. cise formation of the word. to shelter. especially those killed in battle. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. facture. boar. baracca. seem to be radically the same with Lat. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. ^Vocab. — Kil. A. tomb. fortification. and not from Fr. implement for carryAS. barrier. a. staves. a word is always used in the plural number. bredhan. or simply bahre.have been named from the haggling and gant.parchanttuech. baronuU. and in several instances. baronculi. qui have not much light on the pre. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. semen non accipiens landiEL. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. squabble.' that Barrier. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. barraca.

basso. . a tying. preparatory stitching. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. corn-farm. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. but born in baste. basso. Lap. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. It. ohg. Basilisk. Halliwell. Sicamb. bark. ' He was begetin o bast. him. See Bath. Gr. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. he. bassin. to baste piece of cloth. . bast-maatte. — Bassoon. to Diez. chasa ogli a bastard. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. beguile. lattice-work. basta. truck. mean . bast. bran. barley. baste. beortun. MS. low. Swed. a king. Du. exchange. bast-reb. F. over-reaching. Dan. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . bestan. Bass. berewic. Basket. ibid. dwelling. It. cog. w. Sylvester's Dubartas. to deceive. a halter. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). but he dreth presently. Icegge eeii i baand og bast.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Bartizan. Sw. baratear. commonly A joined with the word binda. MHG. plaiting of splinters basged. cheating. ing for profit. husk bast van koren. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. a court-yard. God it wot. bass-matting. inclosure. humilis. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. to long — a British word by Martial. to bind. Fris. a ipgli So Turk. lift me above Parnassus. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. then cheating. on a. fornication. to baste. and tun. flat. baste. To Bask. lust. fhe outhouses and yards. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. Pl. — hanging. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. fits de bas. bas. Isidore. low note. a deceiver. Arthur and Merlini. The original meaning.looketh upon his eyes. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. mavult dicere Roma suam. Barton. at basta og binda. basg. pdrdt. Bassus. bestcn. besst-u-b£nd&t. baratar. according from Gael. barter. basta. as It. partieren. Sw. i. the manorhousfe itself.' Gl. curtus. pressed down. basgod. foist in bargaining. descended of an honorable lineage. to stitch . But according And Dan. Du. piiiguis. as the diadem of the basilisk. G. It. — in Rich. which sets up its hood when angry. A fabulous serpent. peel. ' Bosworth. fraud. imbastire. which covers the grain Ger. It is mentioned as . a basket masg. bds. tierer. baste. shallow. the a wide open vessel. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. low part of the Hickes in Rich. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. HaU in HaUiwell. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. or running away with the ship. Fr. To Baste. Sp. aiKcig. baxoj w. found in Turkish . — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. n' is n' is bacino. baraet (from Fr. Fr. Sp. to bargain. oe. baraand especially teria. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. to bind hand and foot. also to Cotgr. It.' Papias. rope for — .' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. Sp. the — — to kill those that look upon it. to cheat. The like property hath the iasilisk. OFr. leviter consuere. Bast. bdtir. /«r<fSp. Newman. It. HoUinshed. . barter. Bass. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Kil. BassuS. binding. 516. Lend me your hands. or wic. bast. to truck. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . more noble in blood than notable in learning. come near. netting. a bass rope. AS. Fr. back. embastir. MHG. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Apparently of Celtic origin. said Base. HaUiweU. from bere. from /3aR. hoops of a cask. of the same sense. court-yard. unrighteous gain. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). There is not one that. also the demesne lands of a manor. bast. bareter. fornication. discourse Nay. OFr. and Bret. thick. ^Is de bast. Bastard. Barbara de pictis veni patch. crassus. a ftiesh. stitch. It. to bind. Al is dai. bastear. to cheat.). imbastire. would be. baos.D. beretun. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. a bastard. To stitch. low. chasa. submovet omne Lucan. PaaiKhms. exchange. besst. scale in music. See Brattice. mock not. the thin skin Dan. Dan.

bastear. to set on foot a war Bastion. a bird which. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. Sw. . Derived by Diez from iasi. frotter. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. * Bat. whence ledrblaka. p. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. Bastinado. contrive. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. Cot. 164). Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . night-bat. back. vespertilio. a blow cloth for dinner. in the Romance languages. iastir. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. — Bakke. blows. and ditches bastion. compared with blakka.Lat. the winged . to build. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. also the ricado. to belabour. 2. liiake.-^ Chaucer. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. I. 11864. Sw. the night-jar or goat-sticker. e. business (Altieri). explains Sp. to devise or begin. stryk. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. to rub gently. victuals. a packsaddle. For the origin of baston see Baste. bastilde. and Cot. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush.stick. packsaddle. a with a stick. frame. a pad. to cudgel. guerra bastir. bastione. 2. but this is hardly satisfactory. to drub. It. bladier. set up. to spread bread and butter. the bat . nade. Dieiif. to stroke. aftonbakke. It. To baste one's hide . natt-blakka. to rub. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. like the owl and the bat.— . bastonFr. BAT neither. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. military term of a bat-horse). For the loss of the / in back. to Due. ment. Rayn. a pad or packsaddle. stryka. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . a stick. a barSp. beating. bakie-bird . stitching of a quilt or mattrass. It. also to cudgel. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. or implement for 4 * A .— Bailey. Antiq. worth (Nat. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. badger. erect. basto. has bastine. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. ON. is explained by Cot. E. set up. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. blakka. — — — . Pr. bastida. basta. vledermus. To donjon. basa. blaka.fortress or castle furnished with towers. bastir. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. niammal. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. a things prepared for future use. Dan. Supp. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. bast. to beat. dial.baste or knock soundly. and Arabs. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. To beat or bang soundly. to teach one before.'CaB. Sp. Sp. Dan. raise. quelqu'un son roulet. to whip. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. as weU as besteau. a bastion. baston. bdion. bastille.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. contriving. cudgelling. Mid. 'iJipistreUo. to lay the Sp. Sw. a sconce. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. blakra. to give him a sound bastingi 3. which to rest the load. . batta lucifuga. to quilt or stitch wool into it.stitching in general. from Fr. provisions. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. Cot. the E. settiilg up. R. dial. vespertilio. Fr. bastimento. Florio. blakta. to flap. pre. Fr. bastine. to thrash . Pm. boste. put it together. devise. blacta. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. That yche blak y dar wel telle. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. Sc. bat. to beat. blatta. staff. flyinge best. the clapper of a bell. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment.. which in the E. 2. blatta. bak. baston. iinbastire. to pack a saddle i. passage Imbasto. the original has corneille. bastonada. a. Sw. in the use of the E. translation to a bat. bastia. Perhaps baska. to build. bastonnir. Fr. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. ari instruineht for beating. — — Fl. beysta. Prov. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. club. a blockhouse. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. Fr. R. All from bastir. comp. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. bastir. disposer.

and with staffslyng. To Bate. Bate. 2. to bathe. a stirrer-up of strife.— To Bask. bat. abattre. G. abate. or make debate. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to foment. bet. a battalion. to feed. to become fat. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day.— . to refresh oneself in language. In some parts of England it is striking. altercation. to beath wood Battledoor. certain bend. to flutter with the wings. as E. as signifying warm baths. beat. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. makebate. Battery. Bat. I bathe in water viz. more. . a staff. cudgel. a band of armed men arranged basa. to betake oneself. fashes basking in the sun squadron. Fr. Battalion. dial. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. Hence pro. battle was used beath wood. bdda vidjor. baeddu. fortress or castle. bastille. gebdck. the root of e. and milk beaten up together. flour. strife. From bat in the sense of rod . a stick. Sw. to beat se battre. Hal.Hence in the augmentative form It. also. whence the sun burns . bada. Strife. . solbase. oneself at the A into faggots. hot. baden. Gael. baz. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. Bailey. to for fighting. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. bludgeon. to beat. battere. Florio. term in falconry . a beating. In OE. batte sig. heat. in the sun.' Palsgr. Batter. basa. sich bakern. Fr. dispute. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Fr. or break down. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. to become convalescent. The bat with which a brot bdhen. betten. a battle. Du. Sp. See Better. perhaps first used adjectivally. as E. allay . to warm oneself. Eggs. badda. Battle. Sp. dial. to heat. It. wet linen in washing. a from ON. badda. Jeddris and covering. dial. signifying to give repeated blows. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. made of — A made by one Batcii. to toast bread. pak. in the case of a wall. Fr. batacazo. trahtr to It. busk. better. Barbour in Jam. Chaucer. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. made of bats. I. It. badask. Sw. beat down. a Baiffi. Fr. ON. also a sun badfish. A batch as wood.Bathe. adapted for defence. to dial. To thrive. — To . Slav. bdt. E. of bread is so much baked zX one time. Batyn. water whether warm or cold. I baske. from on. A Bath. Bret. w. gabatnan. beat. to fell. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. Pr. debat. for biia sik. — — — ' — . battions. — Cot. battre las ailes. to foment with hot applica. as wood-en. battaglia. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. baquetazo. To Batten. the heat of the It. and as a verb. Jurgor. remit. to bathe oneself. was formed bastilU. is in falling. Pm. to warm. from battre. to get better. howis. dial. bake. a great seems related to baden as Fr. Pr. From OFr. bataille. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . battre. quhar he suld assaill. tagUone. Plkkis. Goth. to beat. baka. by projections or in any licoure. to beat. e. Baka sik vid elld. tradire. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. and about an inch thick. to fight. a blow with a light instrument. Holz bdhen. bdda. Ayenst the sunne. an arrangement for giving blows. Fr. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. to cudgel. quell. lessen. Flem. batterie. or a dry stick. a washing beetle. Battlement. then to warm by the application of hot water. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. is a simple adoption of Fr. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. solen baddar. a blow. a main battle. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . on the fire. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. battere. G. on. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. buask made like a fortress. batir. to be profited. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. G. squadron. batador. to beak. bdhen. . to thrive. batna. gebdcke. Batten. Mgy. bat-en. to foment. to heat . Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Pm. battre. Battery. to warm oneself at the fire. PLD. to fire or in the sun.

a tassel or hanging bunch . to vociferate. pegma. to 53 manure the To baw. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. a lump. tab..guage). whimwham. babiole. It. and to-tore also. the white of his leg or foot. ballach. excrement. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. a plot of Chaucer. collar. is used for a sented by bau. Irel. Batylment of a wall. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. Fl. fagot. The It. to trifle away ment. dirt. trifle. or toys. bal. form with an initial seen in Fr. bobbin or cluster of thread. mew. baudrdj OHG. balGael. to make the noise Baudrick. P. horse. Bawson. Jam. BAWSON Swiss. Filthy. divided between black and white. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. and authorities in note. is Bagdad stuff. — — ' Lydgate. lewd . a white mark Bawdy. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. It. Lat. from Baldacca. s. dial. 2. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. Swiss Rom. baffe. or the animal so marked. whence pouacre. Beaus^ent. a zan. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Fr. to low or bellow as corn. whence the E. The word may perhaps be sticks. dente. baubare. fe bau. to cry. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. W. bablyn or waveryn. E. bal. also the canopy carried part of his body. zano. babbole. spot. toys. bow-wow. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. bausan. fields. an embattled wall. to me-wl. bauch. — Pm. to void the bowels. bow (as in our nursery Diez. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned.' ' Pegma. ish baubles. a spot. P. Prov. i.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. c. E. a horse with white legs. an — — — A — g — — — . Ball. baue. Cot. R. Gael. and Sp. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . A name of the badger. baugant. From Bret. miauler. from Fr.— P. bouaila. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. also more Bawdekin.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Pr. nastiness. to play the babby. an object. javelle. a lump or cluster babhaid. a gavel. rotten. dung. a dog). faisceau. Bagdad. instead oi s. filth. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. —R. a belt. guigaw. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. a horse marked with a procession. librillo. in OE. P. 8.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. Cotgr. Baldrick.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. tille. Fr. baudrat. fooleries or fond To Bawl. was simply a field gold. E. Cloth of gold. sword-belt. the Swiss baben. bad. expressive of disgust. Pr. child.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. Formed from baw. a tassel. Pm. bau. filth. b \% bouala. babsmall toy to play withal. Hal. s. Cot. Ball-seirc. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. Fr. or sheaf of Bridel. ON. ball. OFr. trifles. because made of cloth of white. bauU. or Cot. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. the face. speckled. as Fr. baula. Descript. bobine. exactly corresponds Fr. to talk Lacombe. In like manner Grisons filthy. disgusting. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. represented by the syllable miau. sorry. to the same origin. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. cluster. An analogous noisily. baw.. dirty. on the face of animals. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. ground. vacillo. propugnaculum. ! Bauble. E. to bark. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. pie- . then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. From ! an interjection of disgust. balderich. dacchino. Baw — . Zalli. baban. obstrepere. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. spotted. having a white streak down Bagdad. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. It. Piedm. It is all bawdy. Bavin. OFr. scarf. Sc. brush faggot. to bark . a horse that hath a white leg or foot. balbob.

1859. &c. a cluster of bacon. a beast. husk. living Ir. w. to stand watching one. stood watching him stoop. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. especially beans. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. bahia. baer. bay. BauSfi)/. F. the cod or husk of beans or the like. he turns and faces his pursuers. bilyega. to betray. badarse. to split. Gr. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. Bay-tree. |8i'os. life. beonj Gael. It has been shown under Abie. bai. Feb. &c. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. to iiitent nected PoL white. the laurel-bay. The — Fr.' — — 54 bald. expresr sion tenere a bada. From Cat. from an imitation of the sound. bate. baionette. baya. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. abbabayer. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. baye. baier. bay. Lat. . having the primary signification of opening the mouth. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. so called from its bearing bays. Sp. batibari. Swab. bioth. baca. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. The word bay. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. Fr. bialo. berries. baccello. Q. See Bawl. Catalan hadia. corrupted into Bow-window. It. Lat. or at bay. overture. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. Drayton in R. and keeps them in check for a while. baiare. or berries. To Bay. bilyejiti. living thing . I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. siege of Bayonne in 1665. a'uno. Swiss beie. Fr. or window ' (in Fortification). gate. Bay. buidhe- The ruadh. badia to Sp. like a pie. bayen-stein. which however. stare. A stag is said to stand at bay. a mark. when. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. baher. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. &.c. as if to signify a window of curved outline. See Bald. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. From the former verb is the It. Abide. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Such Antaeus seemed to me. the cod of peas. to amuse stare a bada. weary of running. —Diez. barn of two bays. AS. is perhaps not directly from Lat. baga. to open as a blossom. Arts. Cot. Piedm. Fr. bayo. Serv. laurel of the ancients. Fr. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. a hole. or recess in an apartment in modern times. — A At Bay. Holland's Pliny in R. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. the step is the same as from It. Bay. I will not keep you waiting with a long story.. to on anything. ist. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Sp. white. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. —Bay-windo'W. BE Probably conRuss. * To Be. It. . waiting .— Stalder. berry. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. to be Bohem. Earth — By Nature made to till. Q. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. a berry. S. Fr. 1. watching intently. buidhe. —F. ing-floor. Mod. bde. Bayonet. life. baie. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. Vielp. to keep at a bay. . the world Gr. a dagger. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. bdcr. to keep one waiting. bahia. baja. It. tradire to Fr. badarc. hddhe-dhonn. to mark. OSp. bajo.—Journal Soc. — Schmid. dehiscere . house . dividere. trahir. bijel. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. bagaid. Prov. large window in a handsome . A — he brought her to stand listening to him. It. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. badius. beothach. and the To bark as a dog. A hollow in the 'line of coast. and zndly. from badar. by the term rendre les abpis. put to his last shifts. Gael. window-sill. desiring. alive. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. in order to keep the enemy in check. window ./^ bau. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. at his last gasp. yellow . to gape. Gael.' Bailey. as gazing. aux dehniers abois. . BAY marked with bjly. that from ba. or to have been first used at the Cot. baca. bacca. Fr. Sp. open the mouth.. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. It. 25. beo. See At Bay. to open. arose two forms of the verb. grapes or nuts.

Be. Trans. 54. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. a tree. a beak. bokan. bedm. a tree. as. bairan. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. becco. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. bead. backe. Beak. bee. Fr.fer-re j Gr. like most nautical terms.fui. bar. Goth. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. «va\ioQ. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. — to bow or nod . Q wait upon him. Beckon. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. beic. bohnej ON. support. bob. the part overflowed by the tide. and Lat.' Hall's Chron. or beic. Beadle. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. bM. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. Catalan becar. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. as. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. The wild beast. baun. atUndre. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. a single bean. —F. W. to wait. N. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. baum. to nod the head. He says. pierced for hanging on a string. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. -phxr. fora-bauhan. to bellow. Gael. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. boom. to beckon. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. g. or breathing. ON. Farrar. Bret. Beacon. bek. gebed. It forms a. AS. fromthe danger. which is. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. — bedeau. would say. It. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. ON. bearti. The immediate shore of the Menage. or any action done with a pointed thing. beck. a hill. G. bauhan. It. bidello. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. To Bear. ffaen. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. beugler. into a snjall river. bank. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. — : Beam. not applied to the yelping of dogs. beacnian. to carry. a nod OHG. See To Bid. . bdkna. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. pig. Bear. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. faba. bagms. prodigy bauhnjan. Bean. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. an attendant. as well as f& or fav. Lat. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. on. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Gael. to nod . salve his hurts. beic. into France. fd or faVf beans. Gael. post.fuis5e. G. bohne. Boom. a sign. stock. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. * Beagle. according to of Sanscr. ffci.to have a French origin. fero. W. bydel. Sw. beacen. bean. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. a curtsey. Goth. Pardoner's Tale. however. — Bellenden in Jam. or however. badmr. Beck. bakke. l^ax. Fr. A Esthon. Slavon. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. to wait-. beans. Beach. bidan. Moreover the name. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us.. signifying a point. Where it live ? where is it ^ e.' Suetonius in Diez. It is BEAR SI court. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. signifying individuality. Netherlands or North Germany. ohg. rising ground. The origin seems preserved in E. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. Chapters on Lang. Gr. vii. A two-year old nephew of mine p. Miss Gurney in Philolog. AS. nokkima.from AS. And East and West upon the peple I tefke.' adheres to the root. . scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. a presage. The nutu significare. a prayer. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. tale of prayers or doxologies. a single bean. to produce young. OSax. be. Thus the final en. E. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church.ad. bakkje. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. . Bret. was introduced from England sea. Hackluyt in R. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. vol. faba is Kvavoq. Du.

a bank. to those goods which endure for ever. the beard. To load with ornament. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. a brook. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. Prov. dushmak. to happen. proper . to bear children. boroda. G. bekkr.' are equivalent expressions. receive. to sleep on. Lat. battere. Russ. bring forth.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. pretty. opportune. as the babble of the child. Thus OY. to assume a certain form or Turk. bobr. Beauty. barf. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. whence baveux. decorous.AS. agreeable. bur. and on. I do thee pray. proper. brook . timan. edge. bavec. dress with unbecoming richness . imitative of the case happen as we would have them. brada.we call the arrangement becoming. bett. decent. . The OFr. ziemen. Diez. godum with ON. get J ' He got very angry. R. suitable. bel. Fr. babrad. AS. bobrowai. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. brook. burdr is used in the sense of a car.fit. talkative. biivre. — A — A — . E.' ' He became very angry. bestiaj Gael. to fall. our taste. to be a part of his to. to be fulfilled. On the same principle. or a feeling to be gratified. Fr. but now a river only. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. beauts. behkr. an notion of being convenient. limplice. a bank. Boeth. agreeable. As rivus.to clothe to slobber. iida. g. Fr. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. formerly a happen. judgment. Beck. It. gelimplic. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. bebrus. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. venient. to get.of being very angry. Sp. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. Perhaps from Pol. from beau. bearing. Bosworth. becuman.— Kiittner. Fr. riviire. suitable. Thcem.S6 fero. bave i. 1. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. or special purpose. the ece thurhwuniath. to dabble . tidig. handsome. it is probable that here also the to become. to fall mode of being. Goth. to wade through the water like a beaver. Do no To It fallith favour. the latter are derived It. nod or sign. ON. to the good hapHalbard. to appertain. bib or slobbering cloth. duty. Beaver. pens unmixed evU. The fitting or suitable. nothing to thy name make. byrcti. Dan. R. to G. to the brook itself. bave. baurthei. ting. place to lie down. comely. connected with ripa. limpan. to happen. when up. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. convenient. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. badi. bequem. seemly. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. fit. slobber. to carry. Bedizen. fallinn. Beat. to live. taste. bach. i. pleasing. G. It. a. He becom on sceathan. G. Slav. Beckon. beatanj It. dize or dtzen. E. becuman. G. e. bellus.' every way suited to a prince. bedr. Bo. gefallen. happening as it ought. In like manner condition. bello. and also in that of birth. while from Shep. bekommen. Prick of Conscience. bart. gabaurths. G. covered the face. perhaps a living thing. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. rying. den. Beck. riviera. to please. AS. The quadruped. to attain to the lot of any one. as. name applied originally to the bank then proper . baba. See Bat. con. birth. befall. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. befit. if sound of a sharp blow. fiber. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. blast. to happen. Fr. See becymth anfeald yvel. Lat. to come to or upon. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. byw. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. The moveable part of a helmet. ON. OSw. bava. — . now confined To Become. to happen. i. gebank.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. which. bard. e. 2. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. o. to be incumbent upon him. Lat. and to acquire. W. and Fr. See Beacon. produce. to shore. living. or river. ON. biber. from the same in the sense of bear2. Now the Beast. barba. beo. Cal. fitly . That thou mayest attain Goth. to fall in with our bavard. obtain. a lip. tidy. bcek. to happen. baviire. See Bank. chin.getiman. E. fitanimal. from baver. Lith. because made of the fur of the beaver. border. Chaucer. Secondarily applied to a hat. Lat. ON. to arrive at. limpian. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. to hem.

Dan. speach. prigione. The first milk after a dizen. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. drink.' the last word corresponds to cofly . to knock. bletumj Gr. by the analogy of bedaivb. to curdle or lopper. The honey-producing insect. a wandering Prov. woman that is newly delivered. 1 to drink. boeuf. 57 — Palsgr. Fr. whose face is clotty. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. . a Properly a cover that biiren. as the milk of a that purpose in London. waarin. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. G. ' MordiThe Lat. taglio.D. a pad or cushion). doubtless. Pett. and lebermer in G.^ drink. to change . For that was law of lend. erroneously modified in form. bytl. the biter. The meanpainting. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. a horse-fly . as in It. cogionare. 'La Gl. Confined to bed. AS. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. fagus. briesch-milch.possible. to poordma. It. and in driving piles. AS. trees in a forest . which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. Cot. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne.— JI14. door. tree. in Schmeller. clog for a dog b'oteln. from jtst-. kivih. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. blow or thrust. as. a cup or implement for AS. Bed-ridden. qui de lecto surgere non potest . the meat of spinach. cited by Diez.'— GL ^Ifr. desert. red curdled Arab . Beef. byst.ON. I dysyn a dystaffe. buka. in Nat. cow has calved. ris. water. . beach. 1. paralyticus. Gael. Lat. duplicated form of the root. bossen. turn. whence familiar. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. turn (a garment). Gr. a paviour's beetle batail. to and ale. badigeonner.(paddi. pettiriso. from Lat. E. thick. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. bitela. buk. Slav. ir'm. translation beOj. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. bette or blettej Lat. prisons Venet.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. kiissen-biere. buche. poculum. to parget or rough-cast . to colour with lime-wash. bitel. to beat bossel. biene. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. I put the flax upon it to spin. beest.D. a pillow case. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Grimm. a drink potus. GaeL bior. Esthon. . to twist poorma. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. thick. garden-herb.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. from blood. KXlvoTTiT^e. fall. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. extant in Bohem. a wasp. beyki. to become Beech. cugino. beer. wedges. crespir. Cot. Fr. a malsense of drink._t from the root pi. an ox. Lat. mars betada. beost. Beetle. stakes. * Beestings. Fr. cousin. vaar. case. Fr. on.cz//aj. used for boull. bet. may be from K. pital of St Mary. from risan.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. PI. to rough- cast. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. i. to coagulate. a mallet. bovis. Bedouia.' So Gr. also the bite or sting of a bees. g. piwo. Bethlehem. an Beetle. also bienst. a cover. It. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. Ant. Beet. calleBedlam. madhouse. by-flugaj G. bos. beutel. G. drink. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. ProBeer. bedde-redirj ohg.— B. to turn. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. /SXirov. But possibly bedizen 2.. beach-each. bably named from the destructive quali| T. Originally. a bee. P1. a agulatum in the original Latin. a clapper. a pillow-case. biiren. batAfter mete in sale. bbtel. Let. may be shpped on and off. ^. bedawi. Pl. . to fall. from the hos. cozen. beetle also signified the impiti. a wasp. to drink. . from leberen. G. de Fierabras in Diez. pude-vaar. an inhabitant of the desert. 1. of beatmg. imperative pi. bukva.). briest. E. It. Arab. D. . cushion-cover . boytle. Bav. knock. Bernese. a bed-tick. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. &c. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. the loppered sea. bibere is a re. biest-milch. to flatten In OE. Bee. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. which also 2. Fin. Horn. 1156. sang vermeilh betatz. betel. Fr. bedskiissen-bUren. In a passage of an Old Fr. bove. curded or beesty. the ox. a stinging bieUe. comb.ing of the word is curdled. sela que environna la terra. I A pillow-beer. The beer al for te shenche bate. AS. Rom. beta. Fr.

on the tramp. 1867. chisel. a wallet. Creed. Fr. To produce children is to acquire. fangen and Lat. seizing. as alighting is a momentary operation. in Lat. gen. giving in Gr. a scrip euXaiciJoi. lapidicinus. two betels —a grete oke. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. of Gr. but in the same language from poc. chap. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. 'ex quo. to cleve. on the bag. It will . literally. in E. beissel. 25. appears improbable at first. from whete G. vir mendi. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. yiyvo/uat. He did alight. Du. ' ' . ken. bag {baigean. referred gan this Erie alight. beitel. a wedge for cleaving wood. Schm. Gr. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. at geta talad. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. can. to reduce him to beggary. Lollards.' about undern he got down. a bag . to know. P. ykvog. Of brede full ycrammed. be^nnan. beitel. can. 168. anfangen. whence the E. P. V. genus. air a . woe-begone. tale. to get children . iv. also called Bigots. P. y/yvo/iat. to be acquire. a beggar . a beggar-boy. Deutsch. Into the are D. Lith. beriolare. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. hags. V. &c. although it ' the future. steinbosil. image is cleft out of the trunk. aginnan. ytyvwfT'Kw. V. baigeir.' for ye shall lament and weep. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. beutel. To Begin. ysgrepan. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . a — wedge.pose. a bag or poke. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. Bruce. When Q. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. gigno. 2. &c. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. P. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. begger. to beg.bag full of the G.' A. affected. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. In Luc vi. not began to alight. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Mod. AS. ip AS. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock.quently used in OE. — Stillingfleet.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. So from Gael. covered with gold D. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. pose-pilte.D. or Of a pure poor man. 40. to begaan. 142. a scrip. P. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. is com. ken. 'Dz. a stone-cutter's chisel. Si'Xa/coc. duginnan. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. one after that other. The tother seand the dint cum. Cold-begone. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. P. is formed pocair. to be able. oppressed with woe. ' Begone. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. 'Aboutin undern monly. — yivsaiQ. P.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. word. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. Florio. OHG. Ancren Riwle. Du. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. signifying to conceive. From w. a beggar. taking up.3.— . the fundamental notion of attaining to. Nov. kind. to bear young. gan. bertola. Barbour. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . sel. Political Songs. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. on further examination. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. yivtrri. to take. krapszas. capere. su with gold. it is both to acquire and to beget. Vocab. viii. and Lat. in D. to go a begging. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. yivofiai. a little bag). ' . beginning.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Skinner's derivation from bag. beis- plement driven by blows. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. yivwajcw. incipere. P. Beghardus. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. a chisel. Du. to begin. to arise. It. 58 BEG BEGONE G. cans. ornamented phoc. P. begging. above quoted to get beaten ON.n. but probably erroneously. to be born. 1430. onginnan. P. touched with emotion — . to With hire belies & here bagges get children. & go a begging. Mundart. ysgrepanu. a bag. Goth. To Beg. origin. Mettre quelq'un a la besace.

The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. G. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. portarsi. vow. right. on. promise. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. gehalten seyn. se porter) to fare well or ill. heita. Goth. ward. name of the head is used to express what hbva. bound. to carry. guardare. To look steadily upon. tail. to halten. hatan. to turn one out . Aan iemand bid one welcome. observe. Sw.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to raise. hafjan. or the hence advantage. premi curi alicujus rei. hcef tig bort. what he wishes another to do . to look. AS.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. It. Command. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. And so from hania. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to lead. gehaben.). invoke. G. and (as Fr. Kiittn. adjust. when the verb will hoof. gecall. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to fit. to command. hcefwa in seed. behind. habere. heeten willekem. hafwa ram. solicitum esse. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. the name adapt. to behave. behces. to look upon it as true . from tragen. behatan. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. or purpose. use. Plautus. behete. han- — js Kil. Sw. to follow.— . behold. vow. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to carry. behoof. as in the case of E. AS. according as the * To Behove. to bring forwards. beperson addressed. advantage. seeing to. heave. Paladino. ge' hatan. to hit the mark. have the sense of calling or naming. to heave. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. to be named. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. G. hafwa. to be suitable or becoming . hces. to the equivalent of Du. hantyri. To place are most naturally ex. behaviour. to be fit. AS. G. to command. servare. exhort. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. laborare. But. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. The Lat. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. the distance of anything. to be obliged to do a thing. behat. hove. to vow. 17. beholden to him. G. ifl fact. to regard. the two verbs seem radically the same. keeping. zijn. to call. to take away. to cast or throw. to be be named. to feed. to keep. — Behest. The It. habban. to meet.' Richardson. AS. what is so required. to bers of the body. To Behold. Thus in Finnish the heave. to keep. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. hevja. to hold. AS. hevja. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. us-hafjan. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. to be well pleased out. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. by the compound observare. To Behave. to carry. promise or a command. at the tail of. take heed of. to gehouden. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. Robert in Warton. injunccommand. G. behefe.the figure of throwing at a mark. to hold. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. betragen. heeten. ufhaban. keeping. —Hest. promise . garder. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. fixed upon any object). to keen or hold. is also found in the sense of looking. to lift. take yourself off. healdan. gehouden. To be expedient. to name. hovast. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. hafwa bort. the equivalent of E. to lift.to vow. is supported by many analogies. hofwa. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. R. to carry corn into the barn . hafwa. At the back of The re. commonly expressed. K. to promise.for throwing it. furtherance. to be obliged to one. to tend. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. is on the top of or opposite to. to have. gehat. obliged. Sw. and the E. a follower. OE. to call. to vow. to R. The seyn. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . or necessary. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. nittaa. zu etwas gehalten haitan. holding is originally derived from that of looking. N. and their senses intermingle. tion.

to make it fast. turris. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. frid. is an easy progress. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. aim. properly belonging to the church tower. beffroit. certain rate. 6o BELAY BELL loven. to estimate them at a To believe. for purposes of low estimation . to boke. to bellow. Du. and E. hesfa. to promise or engage. to put a high price or value on. Fr. to believe. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . reputation. a tower for defence . if a promise. Det er ofwer er hofwa.D. pro3. galaubjan. beffroi. Bell. or high estimation. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. bylja. on. galaubs. verloben. To Belch. peal. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. or a sconce. filu-galaubs. resonare. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. bounds. gelyfan. bercvrit. Hence to simple approbation.Lat. allow. From AS. . if a narration. promising. a watch tower. to believe. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. Du. See Gain. The word be- Belfry. to bolk. range. laven. Du. loben. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. esteemed . bealcan. fitness. is used in the sense of approving. mark ON. bulken. to protect. glauben. In the middle voice hofwas. lofa.D. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. satisfaction. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. overspread. Q. Du. stand.. . bealcettanj OE. ON. to believe. a tower. then. loven. OFr. praising. to der swaren lave. consent. cela est audessus de votre portde. then. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . bervrit. bellow. permitting or giving leave. fringe. bell. — . orloven. bialla. lyfan. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. to lay the cable round the bits.. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. bettifredo. a vessel made for dishonour. legsel. ON. and Du. to sound loudly .D. In Mid. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. belief . Sw. to sanction an arrangement. moderation. bellan. to lay be- around. leaf geleafa. to give leave. Goth.Lat. leave . to cry out bell. lov. to roar. to hit hafi. It. G. promiser. To Believe. and. we have Goth. garnish. true. to praise. are other modifications of the same imitative root. are innate . — Diicange. were civil terms of address. behove. to befit. a. to a loud noise. Pl. a little shed. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. to praise. beleggen. AS. locus securitatis Schilter. to extol the worth of anything. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. — mankind. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. and bergan. loven. to belay. to express approval.D. to resound. beau sire and bel dame. bertefredum. tain a certain end. precious. to fix a price upon one's wares. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. ley/a. P1. to give leave Dan. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . measure. to promise. Northamptonshire. To Belay. border. laven. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. distance to which a piece will carry. to praise. To praise is essentially Xo prise. erlauben. laubjan. to permit. giving leave or permission. bolken. is (Sternberg). praise. beset. portion. honoured. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. and E. Pl. met. on. . to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. berfroi. to be required for a certain purpose. ornament. OHG. an implement for making a loud noise. appearing in Mid. ungalaub kas. to give leave. boare. Fr. —F. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. belja. reach.alyfan. Fair sir and Fair lady. b'ola. in nautical language. AS. battefredum. esteeming good and valid. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. from mhG. Then. permission. to to make A Templorum campana boant. with the consent of the heirs. Another application of the same word is in Pl.. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. or house. under the forms belfredum.

rise against external force . benjoin. Du. vulva. bienfait. G. — Ducange. G. disposed to oblige. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. a round or bubble-shaped root. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. Belt. to concern. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. bcelg. blast-bcelg. on. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. generous. a bellows . ' . bag. a leather bag. . Lat. to concern. loubdn djawt. as concerning that. ' I beraye. from another modification of the word for bubble. skin. Benediction. bless. wallet Benefit. as. benedicere. balg. a good deed.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. bimaissen. Lat. means seeds of plants. benaigon. Fr. pino3. incense of Java. welt of a shoe. pertinere. or sometimes louban. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. G. becwathan. pouch.polch. bander un arc. benjoim. poX^ri. wallet. langen. blister balgan-snamha.' The term had been previously planation.' — Hie fimus. Kil. OUG. See Bank. rushes. ." — — . — ray. — See Numb. dirt. ^To Beray. skin.— Belly. To Bend. to belong. Gael. to reach. belly. volva. to make bilbil. or fyle with myre. bolg. is The word balg. to. to attain belangen. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. border. is a kindred form. because bcelg. to bend a bow . a bellows. from Arab. Lat. bags or bellows. benedictio {bene^ and dico. bendaj as. benefacere. belly. . I araye. See Bind. bilbila. belgr. bellows. I say). Quoth. bene/actum. Fr. to ring. vulgarly the belly. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines.' Palsgr. attinere. Ptg. beneison. The ing-skin. ray. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. fyle To dirty. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. I soyle it or araye it. taken absolutely. from cwcsthan. Benefactor. binsen. a border. bimpsen. est matris in lucem editus. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. are stripped off whole blase-balg. J'emboue. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). To Bequeath. from benedictio. Bav. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. binssen. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. . or a It is times the to signify services. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. benir. the womb. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Beneath. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. gwaldas. to arrive at.. See I . to touch one. bandoir. . . — root consisting of concentric skins. bolch. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. belliJ Lat. Gael. Benignant. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. fens et hie liraus. ON. bellows. se bander. or simply djawt. to stretch it on a frame. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . bendan. See Nether. to bless. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. belch. a blessing. to touch. belt. w. Lat. a spring. needs no ex. balg. . a blow. to come to the crown belangen.videtur. OFr. bell. a speaking well of one. Benedico. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. to use words of good omen. one who does good. bilbil-goda. gelangen. a kindness.Fr. To belong is thus to reach up to. benignus (opposed to malignus). pervenire. to hold to one. cod or husk of pulse. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. from which is also bulbus. Lat. a water-bubble builge. welt of a shoe gwald. well. to become one's property . the skin of those animals that factor. leather sack. a accusative. attingere. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. ON. bolg. Bench. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. hence with ashes. Gum benjamin. Dozy. Benign. Was das belanget. by itself. G. a benefit. to hallow. benejicium. pod. bellows. an inflated Lat. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. Javanese perfume. Sw. hem. To Benum. From OFr. Lat. Bent. pertinere. Bret. Benzoin.pinuz. kind. to say. to exert force. ball. benehusk. Fr. I marre a thyng. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. was in Mid. has assumed a plural form. to do good to one . to attain to. Eenison. In E. To Belong'. balteus . the word. Benefice. attinere.

ropahtaa. See Reave. So Lat. bur-we. dung . a beacon-fire fyrbotare. earh. to thrust. ariierf to 113. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. and on which the wager is laid. earg. dust rojahtaa. to entreat. baete. to thrust. to supply a want. bat. Berry. from It. a place . to give a place to. berwe. Hfence backing. besIn sen. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . het vuur The serise of Boeten. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. To bete his Jam. in the sense ctf beria. to the place boarded off in a. Sw.— Hal. rods. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. — . bet. Fin. to to deprive of. . beorgan. fall with sound. To Gl. Rob. G.• 62 Antiq. Kil. as. — Biglotton. or. The proper meaning of the bale. berwham. mud. boeten. put. Tha het he micel fyr betan.X. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. So roto rattle down. small eatable fruit. barth may be for barf. besnij Pl. to amend. to mend. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. to seek. burrow. position. bestow. advantage. from grow. arwe. make better . rubbish. bal oppbota. a horse collar. as. beseech. improve. berry. person to lie in. dirt . Ihre. to on the other Goth.fish the other hand. is to perform a serviceable office to him. scopse spartis. basjaj Du. Bestead. Du. as Du. better. an incendiary. From abet. bacca. to To Bereave. R. reafian. fyrbotare. or to bestead one.—^fake. as in growth. dirt. R. compared with bargham. * Berth. E. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. besje^ Sanscr. p. to defend. a fire. noise.iooA. vi. of ffeed a fire. 3. Du. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. basya.bhaksh. stealth from steal. BEREAVE Wall. Beit. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Sw. Du. To seek something from a person. To Bet. barfham. AS. to fall with roisto. Du. p. to make it. but in practice. stede. lay out. to make better. to kindle the fire. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. or the space kept clear betan. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. sweepings.irova. the origin of which is to be found in ON. Fr. Beere. broom twigs. E. to strip. — Chaucer. to fire a funeral pile of . vol. bouter. supporting on the one side Lat. On the other hand. to word is shelter. roju.t. making better. ^•n. ^akka. boteith Goth. repair.— VixHsm. bereafian. stow. Tusser. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as.ot-i. bdt. * To Bete. same word with the provincial barth. as. Zeitschr. baete. to exercise on a definite object. buttafuoco. betan. — bota. It is the restore fyr betan.D. dial. as. lewth. as conversely a besom is called broom. as bouter selle. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. bota. besmas. preferably. boeten. barthless. the side bhakshya. BETE dirty'. what does it better a man. Grose. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. and also to entreat. put forth. To Bestow. houseless. to put on the saddle. the guardian . — amendment. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. G. brem-bessen. Fr. Devon. supply. When men of mekeness him baet. Best. sets fire to. To Beseech. seems twigs or rods. botesward. reparation. amendment. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. to cast. a berry. and Du. solicit. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. Besom. boutefeu. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. from AS. bdt. one who shelter. advantage. peto. To help. boeten. The dry. I from lew. The origin is AS. Goth. might have been . to be-place. it seems hard to separate as. eld up- On is to be placed A — . protect . to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. See Better. an incendiary. think more probable. Beet. place. because used for making besoms. So too Yorkshire arf. Esthon. sheltered from the wind. roe. buttare. hva mannan. what does it boot. to light the fire . AS. roju. reparation. betan. jnore. besein. AS. besen. . fearful. encouraging. OE. ship for a make amend. but it is specially applied mister. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. to stand one in good stead. profit.

to accuse. Ober D. bat. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. In the water anon was seen His nose. a bevy. his eyen sheen. twain. spritigs from schicken. to discover. zemen. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. Better. Thus from dbahir. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. BETEfiM translated. e. as trahissons. trahir. treachery. to Teem. a different form of twa. evidence of life. better. amiddes. A — drink. To Bewray. obeish. as tlock. Fr. tima. in the middle of twain. what does It is forward him. batizo. Dii. said he. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. progress. a traitor. fate. betwuxt. — of the authorities. ziemen. Pl. e. some attention. beva. — Betwixt. pair of compasses. Golding's Ovid in R. G. Friar's Prol. x. To Beteem. zimet. to deceive. ruogia. deign. The as. order. /alia. afford. and thence twegen. by a final sh. AS. find it good: Goth. batista.D. roja. It. in the same way Lat. betweoh. riigen. be fitting or suitable. E. — See To Bete. from Fr. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. traditor. Fr. From It. of pheasants. to stir. suitable. better. Hence last G. for measuring angles. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. Fris. better. Mich self a good glass of wine. taemen. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. tradire. make manifest. fitting. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. To Betray. bet. Buveau. tweoh. e. find in one's heart. the being pushed to the frbnt. become. lot). dispose (whence schicksal. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. baet. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. Du. betera. traitre. gesiemen. Fl. a brood. as envahir. Chaucer. roebucks. sloped off. vrohjan. amidst. or with again. polish. gezimet eines dinges. R. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. it bewrays itself. in the middle of two. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. advance. Percy Soc. proficere. Pl.' Dialogue on Witches. gatiman. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. to fall. E. against. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. betst. betaemen. Det sig sjelft. a drinking . verbs in ir with a double ss. i. E. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. ON. AS. taemen. Cot. OE. G. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. tradere. springs from ON. regen. bet. kein leben mehrin no signs . betwuh. to fall Some call it a bevel. by two. an instrument opening like a a thing. trahison. to drink . from. has — In a like sense tanie>i. bevde. bibere. -to appoint. 88.— . *Ah. The inflections of Fr. larks. bouter davantaige. moveable and compass branches. to happen. dir. — that schickiich. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Sw. to deliver tip. of quails. beuvrage. Bav. awry. To vouchsafe. Lat. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. to make forwards. Now the stirring of an object. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. betweohs. To boot in coursing (i. wreia. . wrogia. which may be compared as to form with amid. ON. from Lat. best. betriigen. are there Regt R. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. Goth. It. are commonly to one's lot. is treason. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. G. to happen. trahissais. suitable. I approve of beveau. Tinia eigi at lata eit. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. Goth. Fr. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. betweox. as one would have it fall. as from obdir. Fr. to cheat. is used for the — R. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. not to have the heart to give up a thing. more. betray. &c. Ik tame mi dat nig. bevere. deem suitable. R. trakir. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. bedriegen.D. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. fallinn. two. obdissais. Best. From the former of these are AS. Between. from invadere. his mouth. r'ojer dig. G. In like manner folissais. Car son umbre si le trahit. to Hence It. abash j from polir. Dit tungomal rendered in E. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. betest. to deliver up in breach of trust. R. Sahissais. On the same principle ON. Slant. i. whence beveraggio Fr. beverage. tima. Bevy.

— Bi-. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. misFr. to Jam. b&zahr. sbiagio. as an eel or a snake. to be a paring. slanting . to hew resemblance to sbiescio. by throwing of stones. Hal- — do something aslant. I Wallon. its clothes. or by any rapid motion. or kwijl-slab. a bezle. to dispute. ice . two- footed. biberen. Hal. biais. to give signs of life. he is Wtb. twice.or from obliquus. sloped. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). Fr. beslei. the word became bddizahr. to tipple. whey count . Dan. Bib. it becomes (Jz-.s bellum for duellum. wraggeln. To drink hard. biaiser. Sard. to purl. bickelen. To Bezzle. bavon. 172. sbriscio. biberon. Pl. poison. baviere. . A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. bisdare. Mantuan. in two ways for duis. roggle. Piedm. to the stirring of their conscience. in Fr. rogge. pddzahr. bickel. To Bibble. evident. babbefore the eyes. sbieco. Lat. him. Fr. Sp. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. to stir. bickel-sieenken.' bibble. Du. the basil Sc. wrangle. rogt un bogt sik nig. kwijllap. —Dozy. . ground slanting from the general surface drinking. to make tongue Du. to tipple. a Galilean. To skirmish. convicts thee of being drink. biax. OE. to creep or crawl sideling. The It. oblique. love first begins to life signs of him. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. bebble. from pdd-. has a singular stone-picker. Bible. notice. See Wriggle. bibo. Bezoar. To Bib. to cut in two. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. kwijl-bab. Bibelsworth in Nat. snout. Sardin. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. petit-lait. Jamieson. though such a change of form would be very unusual. one who drinks in excess.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. Bisect. to shake. besanca. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. sbrisciare. sbias. An inferior blue. sbrisso. bending. — crooked. bickai. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . it were the mouth. bibaculus. shows the P1. Fr. —Bickering'. bible. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. Gr.as in Biped. which good bibbeler. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. to stir. tailU en biseau. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. to stir. winding or crawling in and out.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. bihais. In comp. Fr. Bice. sliding. babbi. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant.D. 78). and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Fris. Oh when shall I bizzle. E. per\'erted belief. biascia. biberer. An excellent Basil. specially in a bottle. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. to stir up . In Arab.a. The train of thought is then. To Bicker. discover. the papyrus. dial. dial. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. expelling or preserving against. Yes. like guzzle.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. Bias. to well up with Cot. bes-azur. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. biascio. in him. baverole.to drink much. Ant. Biseau. Fr. It. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. liwell. Ci^. makes ble. and zahr. is explained to clatter. slippery. used in precisely stone . a fragment bieco. pible. stock still. bark of which paper was first made. to glide or slip as upon. sik beregen. a slabbering-bib. ber-laita (for bes-laita). reveal. bezling or skueing. Misc. To bicker in NE. aslope sbisciare. sbiescio. to it evident to sense. It is especially applied in Sc. Schiitze. a stone-hewer . Probably. . kwijlen. foul weather. Prov. sbiscio. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to sip.{ioin dua. lips. (according to the Fr. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). to slaver or drivel. bis. a bibber. a sloping edge. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Cat. Uprogen. presence. to slaver . sbiasciai. /3i/3Xof a book originally. Diet. bescompte. Pers. sbiesso. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. or in and out. Cat. bestemps. bias-wise. of the sliced off. whence Du.D. It. to a fight with stones. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. bring under ' Thy accuse. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. to move. Lat. . sbrissare. beregen. Piedm. Fr. inferiority. . metaphor). wrogen. bisel. asure-bice (Early E. aslope. bickeler. Bezel. crooked.two.

Einem einen guten tag bieten. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. 1. porrigere. AS. Du. has leta. to offer.Leta). The 'La. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. Bickelen. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. iiQ. are also used in the sense of asking for. BID of stone. To Big. to bend. bug. pressing on one's notice. bead. bolgna). Hence Sc. gebodenj G. ON. faurbjudan. twice. bidjan. bidan. biddan. ten. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. to bicker. and yajiBui. inhabit Du. or bad. by seek and beseech.' Addison. — — — Halliwell. bouwen." buque with E. or. ewes. Bigot. Wallace in Jam. in the sense of ask for. Big. rising up. gebeden j G. cultivate. BIGOT beidan. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. form. repair. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. a swelling. to presimpler pare. ON. With respect to logical pedigree. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. bow. to bulge. praestare. ein paar verlobte aufbieten.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bath. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. quiring something to be done. to inflate E. bo. bua. swaggering. The ON. to cultivate. abidan. England for swollen. bedun.uddered len heart. praebere. offerre. to arrange. . bog. bolga. bulge. Two verbs are here confounded. to bid one good day.t. to solicit. to belly. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. a flexure. to ask. to curve. belly. It must be observed that the word bidja. A pose to one to come to dinner. Analogous expressions are G. bidill. P. W. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. explaining the Sc. pray. an entire skin. A bjudan in anabjudan. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to dwell. swoln. inhabit. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. bulge. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. spelling seems to used in the N. forwards. the meaning of bid. qucero. bugne (answering to ON. byggia. to abide or wait on. balg. Bight or Bought. proud. a chip. who. to forbid . bauen to cultivate. Kil. 2. to pray one to dinner. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. to build G. bend of a shore or of a rope. OSw. to E. G. to build. anleta. bend. to build. to move quickly. consisting both of men and women. Jam. bugt. bolginn. to forbid . seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. byggan. or third order of penitence. becoming in Lat. — To Bid. ' Bug as a Lord. may plausibly be derived from Goth. bigan. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. be bug. to look for. bced. to offer one the wish of a good day. OSw. as G. bieten. G. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. and consequently ordering or reGoth. as tears from the eyes. The original Swollen. To Bid ' Big . bilge or bulge. bygga. bulk. bidan. bi-. from belgia. The ON. AS. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. Big-swol- . bugan. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. besides the professedmonks and nuns. The loss of the / gives Dan. biegen. beadle. related to big or bug. beidast. bulky. to look for. athird class. AS. build. verbieten. ON. to inhabit. Bigamy. to offer it to public notice. to ask. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. . to pro- command. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. belly. called the tertiary order. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. and Gael. einen vor Gericht bieten. From Gr. Compare also Sp. which is stiU. the belly of a ship. To bid the banns. to have one called before him. swelling. buga. from bidan. bidel.. G. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. to bend. from seek. bit- bidja. to marry. bis and in comp. bag. to start out. boa. a suitor. of More ' in Richardson. bicker in the sense of throwing stones.peto. bat . Palsgrave in Halliwell. and the Sw. bieden.' Pope in R. ON. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. The . R. as. beodan. to swell. — prepare.

In a similar manner from bigello. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. was formed bigello. as well as bizocco..D. alii de paupere viti. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude.' says an Venet. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. Augustini dotarint. corruption would easily creep in.' Chart. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Bighini. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes.D.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. grey.D. 15 18. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart.— Ducange. the nobles to Rienzi. honesti plebeii amictus. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. both men and women. natural grey or sheep's russet. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. 1243. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. and Q.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. borel. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . a dunce. Beguttce. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. alii Apostolici. and underwent much obloquy and persecution.' says one of of bigio.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. dark-coloured cloth.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. coarse woollen cloth. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. aliqui Begardi. bighiotto. grey. vocati Fraticelli. A. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. A. probably from biso. Bizoccki. In the same way Fr. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini.' Matthew Paris. ac labores manuum detestantes. bigio. perch^ i Terziari di S. S. the other form Per te Tribune. vol. begutta. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis.a. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. clownish. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. rustical. Bizocco. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. to adopt a similar course of life.— BIGOT bigardo. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. with reference to A.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. author quoted in N. Bighiotti). signifying bagmen or beggars. Hence the OE. homespun cloth. bighellone. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. beghart. and also unlearned common men. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. beghino. bigotta. face VIII. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. absque votorum religionis emissione. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. xx. From bigio. D. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. biso. which must not be confounded with begardo. G. and hence the variations bigutta. They wore a similar dress. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. 1499. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.' translated by Muratori. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. says. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. Francisci communiter appellabant.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. sed maxim^ in muliebri. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. ix. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. 560. Flor. all apparently derived from Ital. a blockhead. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. A. &c. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders.

bla-berry. The Du. bil. Sw. the bill of a bird. In English the meaning has received a further development. bolghe. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. the swelling G. however. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. A slang term for a sword. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. bille. a short note. Aurelles. Du. Sw. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. NFris. to be angry (i.' bilio. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. Bigin. from Mid. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. . bulgja. bulla. bizocco. bigardo. and a billard. Fr. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. boja. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . blue . Bojce. a seal. from OSw.' mariners. bill in parliament. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). a name given to a. axe. Sp. Johansen. from the dark colour. Thus we find in It. Mundart. Bill. in the sense of a writing. might be taken to express a hypocrite. to job. a hypocrite. Lat. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. bwyell. bull-berries. used in legal proceedings. billard or billart. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. the o changing to an i to express diminution. AS. Kil. beghart. Bill. boia. — — ' . Bilberry. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. symbolum. billard also signified at billyards. An instrument for hewing. an axe. beil. Bilbo. obsolete. plog-bill. Billette. Bilge. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. to peck. Langued. an axe. a devotee. blamand. genus vincu- Bilboes. Gael. as a bill of indictment. in the same sense. Dan. an axe. a hatchet. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. Bille. Fr. Lat. Piedmontese bigot. billet is the diminutive of this. that of swell. belgan. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. bigot. buail. p. a negro. bigotto. 2. I. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. person of religion leading a loose life. 2. Gascoigne in R. Prov. deceit. boeye. Tartuffe. bui. The proper meaning bylgia. billot. an axe . fluctus maris. topor. e. Billet. buie. ferrese quam ligneae. bill of exchange.— — — . of E. fetters.' in Richardson. Dan. inscriptum. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. buoy [i. a seal. the trunk of a tree. Roquef. — Cot. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. horn of an animal. Billow. belghen. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. the beak of a bird. Fr. is properly a sealed instrument. an ingot. of boja. a man who rests on a stick in walking. to strike. Du. w. AS. 3. to swell with rage). a sword. AS. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing.. clog to a fetter. to pick a millstone. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. A lorum tam in — Diez. gleischner (Frisch). a of the sea. an ingot of gold or silver. false pretender to reUgious feeling. and dziobas. to strike. . So in Gr. biilge. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. a shackle. on. procella Kil. dziobad. Ludwig. names bill-berries. tepati. gan. e. a floating log to mark the place of some. 5 * . crowberry. bullet. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. — bigardia. In the same way are related Pol. a beak. Sw. and in Lat. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. To Bilk. BILBERRY nated. b'olja. bigot. To defraud one of expected sinking. bill. abelthe fetter itself. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. seems to be rather the unda. Du.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. whortle-berries. The origin of the term is probably from bole. See Bulk. Bohem. as craneberry. bisoch. G. dissimulation . See Bull. an adze . The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. ^Billiard. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. bila. loi. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. at sea Billet. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. top. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . blaa. OFr. 'tumidi fluctus. now A Bilboa blade. Deutsch. bile. dziob. irons or set in a kind of stocks. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. weapon . Kil. billet. bulghe. . a bigot or hypocrite.

A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. to fasten it together. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. Bind. Then added division in a granary. BITTACLE /Siof. &c. Bisen. When compared with Fr. pullus. . a brood or hatch of young. biccej ON.. Lat. G. H. a weight of 48 pounds. Lith. to be derived from Ibfiaq. — See Bittacle. Bittacle or Binnacle. Du. to bear. is rendered in ON. I would derive the verb to knit. a knob. a bunch. a bitch. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Fr. where the compass stands. from Gr. Dan.' and the like. biscotto. AS. to plait. binge. . V. bundle. while bind-wood. AS. isfiw. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. vescovo. bigne. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. to swell.. beisseii. ON. Lat. videt. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. life. by binda. G. evigue. a hind or female stag. forth. a female dog hindinn. beran. To — — —D. are commonplaces. an eagle's young G.68 BIN Bio-. Sw. to net. evesgue. to cook). AS. a corn. fowl. from \t3\. a heap. a habit- Binnacle. or baked. terial. — properly near-sighted. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. j). a little dog. twice cooked. . Something of the same confusion is seen in G. It. Fr. betsel. bitill. bund. bhurja. We — A Birth./«idere. Bird. truss. EpisETTiTOOTToe. or ben-wood. beitsl. brut. to bind together. biclie. a truss. Thus I suppose the Gr. hiindiiin. i. See To Bear. Bine. an overseer. Fr. to bulge. episcopus. pittjo. to knot nets for fish. — Kil. Sp.. Sanscr. and of Fr. bundle. a bitch. the young of an animal. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. AS. to bring Biscuit. The term ON. bunga. Bin. a bump or knob. Bizened. berkas (z=:Fr. Bisson. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. bij sienigh. ON. poultry. IV. earnes brid. Goth. Lat. to build. biscuit. i. G. — Surrey in R. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. piccione. band. . propius videre bij sicndc. bindan. Bindweed. and especially to a small poor horse. It. a bear. Lap. from Lat. bita. binda nat. the young of birds . a gallinaceous bird. than vice versi. overlooker. or petze. . bund. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. burt. In like manner from knot. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. to twine. Bitch. sc. which is expressed in E. bircej Sw. The bitol. piiiti. E. bikkia. beize. pin-ti. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. a pig petz. by the verb knit or net. or bin. AS. to bind at . The proper meaning is a heap. pinnii. also a stone weight. hith. wine. bundun. expressed by Sw. Bailey. Gr. bin-wood. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. Lat. ge- from AS. Bing. Bisom. See Breed. lusciosus et myops. Fr. e. doubtless a stone. 'tumens sequor. bitacora. beitan. a female stag. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. from pondus. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. beorth. is in Scotland applied to ivy. nodus. bundt. Lith. pippione. a weight. admota non Bit. See Belly. brid. evegue. pundas. a heap. bjork. bundt. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. pinnu. bord. to form a knotted structure. bunch. properly a young pigeon. to hang. copus. bunki. qui nisi propius Blind. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Habitacle. Sw. . and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. bij sien. Fr. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. v. to wreathe. a bitch applied also to other animals. G. Birch. To Bite. a house. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. bunt. — — . viz. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. poule. bindan. Goth. in Swabia. habitacle. AS.

out the tongue. cut. a beam in a house or ship. a large coarse lip . quoted by Ihre. Ai-mstrong. white lead. shine. a shelter for the steersman. chatter babbler . bittore. Hal. baboyer. ' plabraich. dark. Sw. "uivac. dusky. Goth. Cot. bitter. bird of the heron tribe. as is seen in sputter and splutter. biti. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. 't huisje. from wachen. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. Lydgate. blobach. iroxafealo. a continued soft sound. 't kompas huis. night guard. first. buft". Fr. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. Bleak. Mantuan babbi. whiteness (candor sine It. is apprehension of danger. A a rail. white. round which the cable is made fast. the palebleff. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. blob. In a similar manner Gael. a* mast . as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. blab. thoughtlessly . confusedly. faded. pale yellow . unintelligible talk plabair. Fr. blabbre. to babble. pins of the capstern. Sp. blob. blabhdach. gabble. to To blabber blabber with the lips. Hald. things —Palsgr. beuni. bitr. Sp. .' by Haldorsen. black. bitts of Bitts.). plabartaich. pale. Je N. pale brown . Du. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. blabaran. fallow fawn-coloured. butorj OE. blob. to babble. ON. a tati. mona mid Dan. x. blebberis. garrulous. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. 332. . Hist. whitish. Deutsch. Why presumest And laam's asse. on. a stammerer. a flapping. bitones. pale. . ON. as of water gently beating the shore. bites. bihovac. corrupted in Fr. blac-hleor ides. bitor. v. ^aj'/^r. gulblakk. To or he can speake. term. indistinctly.— Blabber-lip. babbe. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. blank. quick. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. Mag. blubber-lipped. plappem. mouth. blunt we say it will not bite. even humour seemed and beuin. an edge is sharpest sword. NE. discoloured . in contempt.. faded. In like manner E. Alex. mouth. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. blesmer. Black. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). ' Biovac. Percy Soc. whitish. Se bleek. Blabber-lip. small guard-house. blabbern. It.D. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. a large lip. maculS. shining. beiwache. AS. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. In Legrand's Fr. G. from whence we have adopted the. 'fuscus. apparently from its biting the tongue. Pl. Cotgr. blakki. blepLith. to let out whai should have been concealed. leohte . — Collins in Hal. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. Gael. babbling. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. to loll it out.' It would thus acle. 156. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. pale. Sp. AS. Sp. — Hollyband. I blaber. baitrs. on the one side. bittour. is placed. Again. his blacan light. yellow . bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Gael. fallow . viz. to bivouac. The bitas. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. yellowish.' G. to chops. Nagt huis.. ^chops.. white. as of a body falling into water. The Gz. a childe dothe gasouille. blakk. Bivouac. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. ON. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. synonymous with baber-lip. to wax pale or bleaked. So Fr. bleich. — cheeked maid. blake. to speak Dan. Fieldfare. Fr. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. G. to talk much.' by Gudmund. Applied in Hin ON.plab is used to . an additional watch. brunblakk. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Fr. or water beating gently on the beach . Wit hung her mourn. a babbler.€i. to the sharpness of a weapon. beitr. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. obscurus. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. bleg. Bohem. Mund. light-coloured. to watch. Bav. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. To Blab the anchor. bleikr. stutterer. as in that of pale and white on the other. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. biacca. —Neumann. /ealo-/or. blanc. Bittern. pale yellow. a fluttering noise. ON. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . as of wings .

piatto. dripping-pans. a bubble. . candidus. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. See Blubber. Sc. pass over. blanchet. Wott. Blame. and others engaged in dirty work. Bacon in R. G. chatter. leaf of a. board. &c. blanqne. blether. biastner. slush. the origin of . and E. Hist. whitish. blegne. blaere. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. Reliqu. Blade. The radical bubble. blatter. Fr. Cot. blister. blena. mud. and wandering men and women. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. commonly called the Black-guard. Sw. p. speak impiously. . to purl. biasimare. Du. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. irXariQ. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. blactra. . bladdra. linkboys. a. Fr. imbrunire. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Du. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. and G. reproach. flap of a Du. moere. Now. Blain. to disappoint. Sw. as. It. revile. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. white.—Blatter. white. Fr. smore. sheet of paper. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. blanc. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. blank. the ON. in R. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. a blank ticket. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. 86. his meat burnt. The present forms then should be classed with blether. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. also white woollen cloth . do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. blanchir. Dan. bladder . definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. plat. Play in Nares. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. Perhaps from blegen. variable than the signification of words designating colour. Blanket. most complete example of leafy structure. which we . vagabonds.. a pustule . is identical with Flanders borlen. on. a buible. a bubble. blister. to Hence Ital. bladder. blein. — Sw. mire.— Kil. and Q. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. mus-blackt. and he shall be sure to have O. blather. to blow. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. Dan.— ^o thehotsun. or as E. dial. Gr. — rura. leaves. to bleak in the sun. blatter. blad. blame. Torriano. chatter. to bubble. blister. also jabber. tattle. as Lat. to glitter. also tanned by the sun. from candere. Blank "verse. PI. and the agitation of liquids. Lat. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. pluddre. Fr. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. — . plat. boys. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. blanchet. D. To blank. e. blegen. bladre. cited in N. to make or become white blanc. plate. blather. and thence to babble. Sir. roar. blaeren. tree. to blanch. pladdern. to shine. Blancli. the leaf of a tree. to dabble in water. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Du. G. or of an oar G. waschen. leaf. a boil. Bav. blahen. 5/^a/^ of colour. whitish. blister. foolish talk. bladra. —We Bladder. polished. —^Webster. blinken. pallido. to To bellow. as scullions. to vocifer- — Cot. borrelen. a bladder or pustule. black. to omit. — — — to jabber. branches . To Blare.TaaVi%^-&\xxi.. on. as. skola and thwatta. shining. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. as blader. a leaf. a blanket a bed. leafy. Blank. 7. with all other loose idle masterless men. or blafich. livido . a white or unwritten ticket. to shine. pimple. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger.—Blatant. blatt. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. bladder. rogues and wanderers. Dan. to —Blaspheme. mud. bladder. But perhaps a more Gr. G. gabble. bladeren. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. vagrants. smother. contracted from bladeren. coat. I am degraded from a cook. madder. Jan. broad. defame. 1854. pXaatpiiiiHv. blasphemare. Du. to glow. blad. or a mass of bubbles. Eadmer. Du. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. probably ate. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. name originally given Blackguard.

used. With inversion of the liquid. might spring from the same origin by a . backPerhaps the expression of blazing. A gust of wind. ther it was erst not knowe. a MS. Sw. splendour. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. . blcesett. I. bliEsan. also only pains and excellent endurance. — — ' : bless. ventosus. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. an empty and two theories are proposed. A blaze is so intimately Then. blys. The other derivation. or blazening. blase. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. The AS. an conium. to cut off prematurely. Fr. Du.whence the Fr. blaser vid. blasoen. to set on fire. Cot. blaterare. She roade at peace through his heraldry. A strong flame. blossi. G. to de. live coal . Gudmund. a torch . blcest. magniloquus. to proclaim. Du. g. blase. a flame. blast. loud . properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. Fr. Prov. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . proflare tues. a blast. noisy blor. a lamp blasere. or to the sound which it produces. redness . among other .' to fastum . Lye. each of boaster. a whisperer. bldsse. blezo. blcese. friend Cornelius. Sc. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. blasa. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. abroad. blesse. also praeblczse.). Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. blcEsan. of an animal. whence Blazonry. Golden Book in R. blaesen. declaratio. besides blesse. bles. Gael. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. a coat of arms. blcEsan. ing of arms. blaeteren. Du. indeed.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. much plausibility. 2. thraso. abroad.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. blus. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. blasonner. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. As Kilian. First from the E. Troilus and Cressida. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. braise. and. baladrar. light-coli. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. biter. clamorous. to bellow. blatero. fire. a loud noise. To blow AS. has also blencke. to publish. to publish the praises. To Blaze. Dan. commendation blason funebre. blaodhrach. — ' — stroy. visui patet. Blaze. AS. — Elazen. is used in the sense of manifestatio. beast. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. coloured prints. a shield. — ^Jam. a flame . 'op een trompet blaazen. to spread news. senses. is the imme. proclaim the virtues of. Dan.— . gloriosus. a funeral oration . ON. blateroon. The origin of this exSp. blorach.' painted or figured . — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d.sound a trumpet. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Du. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. blaodh. See Blare. ON. oured. oron-blasare. pale. Du. to blaze Sp. G. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. Fr. a voice Jr. like the in English. stultd loqui. laudes (Kil. Cot. . bleis. If armour. is from AS. a torch. blason. blason. blysa. a shining spot. AS. Blast. Du. the matter incendiary . shield or surcoat. OE. ill-speaMng their proper colours . brasa. baladron. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. on whose behalf the herald appeared. bawling. blaze. in that of praise. a flame. Blanches illuminies. it is manifest. magnilo. blass. quus. i. brasa. embraser. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. also blazon or the blazSpenser. a shout. blis. to blow. Blatant. and to make him word blaze. to trumpet forth. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. Sw. blazen. To blast. But now. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. . and which. might And sain. kept up. the noisy. somewhat different train of thought. to blow. to extol. to blow . e. in the same way as we 2. Kil. boasting. by stripping off a portion of the bark. blesse. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. as a verb. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. how. blose.

is Blench. to soil. splamii!. blench came to be used for a trick. a boil. whitish. To salir. pimple . 115. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. flack.'he cried till the tears ran down. AS. blister. See Blood. exposed. to blear one's eye. light-coloured. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . wheal. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. a spot. a red watery eye. color plumbeus bldma. to spot . blac includes the notion of pale and dark. See Black. Mac. Bailey.' the devil makes a vain back. Sir J. ^Xiixaoftai. As AS. goda nainn. avoid looking it in the face. darkness of vices. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. blot. or blemysshen — blaken. to disgrace one's name. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. tutnan is a cloud. a disgrace. Blancher. or to low as oxen. dead-coloured Cotgr. spla7nU sie. on. ' — — ' : — — . stain flack pa ens a crying eye. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. the formal equivalent of English wink. p. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. to cast a mist before the eyes. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. while the agent ac- From . a spot. (faith or creaunce) Be war. 419. paleness. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. plama. a blemish in one's 2. Pol. blarren. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. geplerr. from on. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. livid. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. what blenched him therwith. blink. blesmissure. So in Sw. bleikr. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to cry or weep. Gower in R. inflamed eyes. wan. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. To totally different from the foregoing. souiller. And By a similar metaphor Pol. B. a blotch plerr. to bleat as sheep. to start away from. novice.filerren. Blemisli. to bleach. tumanid. and thence to a bruise. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. pier vor den augen eyes. blot. a been distinct. A stain in a man's reputation. Fr. to make him feel blank. Schmel. spSt. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. to humbug. pale . to wink at it. pale Du. — blink the question is to shrink from it. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. a spot. a stain. blur before their eyes. blesmir. ' — — eye. blemissemeiit. a spot. like one that has long P1. Palsgr. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. Blear-eyed j having sore i. Gr. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. A Blab. From the OFr. See Black. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. tacher. to blare been weeping. bleakness. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. G. . a blot or smear blanking one.' God in his wordes. sinen langen tranen. wanness. sugillatio. Bleed. Ancren Riwle. which are blurred with the have shewed you. Bejaune.v. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. drop of water. Sw. the livid colour of a bruise. And now are these but mansbond (i. or blemish.D. to become livid. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. blcecan.P. livor. Bleak. to wink the eye. confound him. I chaunge colour. in the expression reputation. ' . In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. . boggle at something. to spot. guenchir. N. Blear. — — R. blema. bloken. Bleb. . Manuel de Pecch&.' to deceive one. 242. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. ' He blarrede or roar. The term blear. to stain one's honour or reputation. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. from the than schal I go. . Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. BLENCH obfusco. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. Richardson. . as of dust or mist . c. ^Blencher. blakna.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. start vor den augen. a fault. bldmi. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. To Bleat.

From the action of the hand making Sw. sung. pale. Blink. to twinkle. G. lightning. blissian. blatida. csecubrandish. blessed. happy . To Blend. blaziti. to bluiter up with water. to churn. to — make it thick and muddy. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. to dabble in water. moment. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. blet. blahoslaviti to twinkle. Du. Blazena Bea. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. Sw. . joy. wink of sleep . and joys of Paradise bliden. in potters' language. blanssen. Swiss (obsolete). blessed. the Slavonic languages. tire.corn. to act like a — . blide. to bless. a. joy . Thence apblinds. Biglotton. as taschen. a look.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. to flash. to shine. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. blithe. bluiter. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter.blinken. blazeny. Du. a dead nettle. cascultare. to rejoice. Wtb. doors. Blind. OHG. bludder. Paradises blidnissu. blick. Owl and Nightingale. A . to lighten. a blessing. liquid filth to bluther. blicken. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. readily passes into a /. I hold thee a grote thee. plotzen. III. as in Du. F. Sc. to bless . window-blind. be glad flash. To blunder water. to dazzle . . whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. . a. is I shall Gurt. money. .blunda. thou knave. with or without the nasal. also to wink. riches blajennii blicksem. bliss look . glad. Bliss. to glitter ful . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . blicksem. weaklaveny. The term then self or others. riches .eyed. Swab. blogi. . to dash wine with water. Serv. — A A — . latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. joy. . to rejoice. blund. seems the simple netel. blidu. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. wink. Russ. to dilute too much . blinzeln. well blagaya. Kiittner. Needle. Tany. to consecrate . j). . is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. AS. pearance of the blighted . AS.' To — blunge clay. blinzdugig. bleg. glitter. livid. AS. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. blind. ON. The inblissful. 375. make these hands 3. De Sonne ' verblekken. pockets. plonsen. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. —Brera. blotzen.wink . to merry. Nares. blent. to fall into water with a sudden noise. a wink. graceful. — when he — Bailey. ' Pl.blinze. — Goth. blindr. happy . blendian. blithe blis. goods. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. good. blende. lovely Bohem. to glitter. blincken. the verb to bless is some. but by no means therefore a pre. — . blink. The sound of k before an s. to mix. OHG. Du. or nettle which does form. a nounce happy. gives blinzen. . although in the in the next article. the G. burn up. blend. as a vatn i vin. lightning sweet blago. Pol.blinkard . mixing in general. giving (Fr. to shut the eyes. trix. blahos. AS. shine. gladness. joyful. blitzen. well blahy blick and blink. mix from blekken. G.nasal. a wink With the bletsian. To Bless. as a blind entry. glance. to shine. glitter. to stir or puddle. happily. Du. lightning. . vious one in the order of formation. an entry which leads to nothing . blind- ON. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. to glitter . representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. . blac. blink-eyed.Q. blich-fiur. G. Du. glitter. (=bene dicere). to blithsian. to be blind. blago. a flash. to bluiter. blicken. sweet.not sting thiiren. glimpse.D.. tative source of the word is wholly lost. blitz. fortunately. to pro. to plunge. to glance. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. blinzler. a gleam. lighten. blindselen. to make happy. the sign of the cross while blessing one. G. to make a rumbling noise. blinde fenster. as in the case of blaze. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. . happy . to shut the eyes G. blican. dazzle . sertion of the nasal. Blight. Deprived of sight. a blick-ooghen. . flash of light . tless —Gamm. false windows. ^Jam. a glance Swiss blenden. a glance. blag. Dan. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. Sc. to shine.

inde humiditate tumidus. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. a blot or spot. — . blithe. — Sw. and pisg. a bubble. bleiths. Bleb. A solid blouquette blisters. a ram. ^vaaa. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. Kil. blubber. . You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. In Fin. blesme. a blister . round. stone. a blain. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. bloc. as in E. and bouclette. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. from blcsr. blobbes or droppes of water. in the lump or mass of wood. Du. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. blautr. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Gael. blijde. shells. blcesma. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. puff. as a blab of ink. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. . See Blot. mild. orbicular. must be referred to AS. taken altogether. Thus we have blab and babble. blidr. . fiustula. separate portion. also to set See Bless.—Bloater. Fr. a blister. A under this name was imported into England. Hence. And so from squatter. blote. .— Hal. N. expressed by cognate roots. as if soaked in water. Cotgr. The stem or trunk of a tree. blobber. pusula. Dan. speaking rapidly any . mild. Goth. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. bluster. gentle OHG. — — — — — From blabber. buckle. must be classed with forms like Gr. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. For this. any lump or mass of things. blindsehn. Blob. soft. blinzel-maus. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blotfisk. blad. I believe. Bav. blaustem. blister. kostua. a lumpish head plubach. viscid. blouca and Fr. to steep. blond. blot. Boyd in Jam. Langued. — Blob. formed spot. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. bloc. kostia. and inarticulately. Jonson. or the mark which it makes. blide. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. Blond. G. or blinde-kiih. It may be formed Blithe. a bubble. bausen. swell. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. to blissom. having an unsound swollen look.—Bloated. in Nares. repre- pusula. Du. pustula. Dan. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. a drop of water. The blow E.pusta. B. Ibid. or the like. to bubble. and easily changes its place. sloppy dirt. is also used in the sense of swelling . a small lump of anything thick. The roots /. W. blindman's-buff. strawclod. husks. Of sheep. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blister blasan. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. and F. Sw. Blister. in the sense of a soft tint. Egillson. boucler. blod. while Lat. as blinzeln. to cure by smoke. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. in gusts. —Bailey. soft. fish blind person. pimple. To Blissom. a dirty blister. ON. to blow. Gael. to blow. to soak. G. ^Jam.. to dash liquid. pausten. to to puff and be noisy. a little blisg. Svt. an unformed mass. ON. to close it with a solid mass. B. Blob. Sw. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend.plisg. Block. blot. pods. soak in water cured fish. or is inserted or omitted. joyful. buclde. blab. bloated. like manner the coloured. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. bubble and blubber. is formed squad. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. blaud. To a smoking or drying by the fire. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. merciful ON. lagga i blot. to block up the way. like clot. weak. biota. a See Blot. Lat. to breathe hard. bluyster. to desire the male. Mod. plub. to blow. in bulk. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. a bubble. a .— Bailey. or bleb. whence blast. the unhewn bole of a tree. mass. Hence E. soaked. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Sc. To Bloat. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. soft. light yellow. blot. frequentative. Fr. to swell. a block or log en bloc. cooking. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. signifying in the first instance to soak. senting the dashing of water. busten. it is must be observed. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation.

Florio). G. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. blosen. or the sound of it . Dan. bletister. fall to overflowing. to spot or blot. to dash down. a water ploutsche. bldmi. lidmr. bliihen. Fris. ^Bleed. kobladde. blase.D. 2. blotting-paper. blosa. ON. Du.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. blaeuwe ooghe. coloured (Diaz. glasi. brilliancy. colour of the cheeks. Du. the bright to blot paper morsels. dial. E. PI. to strike with such these objects exhibit. bloedsd. Blow. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. en blau ach. a beater. bloemen. blond en blaauw slaan. shine . glus. a blaze. glister . glossi. plottra. bloed. to glow. a flower. bleustern. blady. a gush of milk . blaeuw. to dirty. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. E. whence plader.— . blostma. to exists in biadetto. livid . — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. the bright colour of the cheeks . platschern. It. cow-dung. — Stalder . E. bliithe. bleistern. plattata. to strike with something soft or flat. Wendish blodo. Schilter. Bloom. Russ. from the bright colour which 7'vci. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. a spot or blot. blad. to dabble in water. blue. clod. S-wiss pladern. blodelsa and blawelsa. AS. spots in the sun. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. blose. white blatte. a The form platschefz. to blaze. — gush. to dabble in water . to sparkle. great leaf of cabbage. in v. blue. bloi. bloto. a pelting shower). blowen. a Usaae. — — . the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. blat. Sc. fall down . plet. platsch-voll. blooth. Schmid. Sw. plants which prepares the seed. to squander. . to squat or lie close.properly to scatter liquid . a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. Blossom. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. — Blotch-paper. . blatte. . to blaze . a flower. Sw. to patter. to be red. a Halm a. blawels. livid marks. to flame. platz-voll. to slap. skam. a nature. — Cot. as the skin or hair. Blad. E. wan. from G. Du. couleur livide. ^lys. blysa. parallel form with ON. light. blue. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. dial. E. Blot. probably connected with Pol. Ein platsch milch. gleam. pladern. pale. Plots. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. platt-voll. bfys. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. splendour . leme. D. gfyssa. bloi. Jios. Fris. Du. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. bluish. —Barbour. Harmar in R. blondheid. pale tint. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. lump of anything soft to blad. yellow. flower. glose. a blow. bloeme. lump flower. Pl. pladdern. on. soft or flat. yellowish It's G. pale biavo. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. blut. proto shine with bright colours . to slap. sbiadare. blond is used in blatt. . Wflz<^«. ' — . E. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. bit by bit. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. blue . See Blow. . Stalder. j^ blottir. straw. to blush . Erploten. redness. ON. to strike . plotterwis. bloutre.platter.^ Kil. a cow-dung. a Schmid. biado (of which the evidence plattern. Blotcli. mud. a blot or spot. blotter. Schwenck. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. blotte. to be red with blot. a lump. to splash. blust. ON. gloss. AS. to shine . (of cattle) to dung. kuh-plader. a deli. a black eye Du. of a blow with something lios. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). gammon. G. to scribble. platz-regen. fair in en blat vand. lustre. plot of land is a spot or small rage. Dan. bldts. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. a drop of water or colour. blus. blond. to dash down Du. blosem. Fr. Sw. blois. blosma. blauwel. Hatch. bliise. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. a flower. Ir. Lat. OFr.' the rain is driving and blue . dirty spot on the cheek. Dan.blauschlagen. to blot the land was in a leme. . of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. It should be of filth blak-blatte. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. . bloi. blou. . blaeuwen. Prov. to glisten . to From . Sc. blue. The G. See Blow. blistaf. ])erly Du. bloetnsel. to grow pale). blomstr. a torch blusse. Blood. a. spot pletter i solen. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . splashing full.

and the forms mentioned under Swab. gliihen. To Blow. glaodh and blaodh. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. coup. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. blass. bledniai. bloeden. bloom. to fade. — To blubber. like manner Lat. blaw j biavo. bloeyen. The interchange of an initial gl. In agitation of water. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. Blowze. bluod. -ii. plusig. — . to blow. blazi. It. blava. blduen. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. to beat with a mallet. |8A)'. and thence. blosen. glas. is very frequent. glede. to inflate. Gael. to with Bohem. plubartaich. fqded. blois. to make bubbles in drinking. to spot. ^Jam. cheeks bedabbled with tears. Jla-re. glow. boil. — . . a gurgling . Bret. bliuwan. to blow. glowing coal . Mund. blady. to gabble. blodelsa. E. Du. OHG. or gr. glas. bruised Prov. Deutsch. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. vi^ound. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. foam. — To Blubber. meurtrissure Roquefort. blubbern. G. to blow. plustrig. pale. The radical sense is shown in Gael. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. Kil. fied vowel. and closely allied with Du.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem.D. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. to hard. a blow. gloeden. marking some application from that bladder. Langued. —SchmelIt. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. The primary sense is to shine. chatter. grow pale. sense. blodyn. green. a flower. blawan. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. to flourish. 92. florere. To Blow. to blurt out. grey. bluh. blow. Wtb. Pl. a. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. bloes. .Jlasa. Du. ' BLUE or guggling. bl. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand.xo'»'. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. . — Bluther. is confined to the — . /idXavoc. flower OHG. And. jabber. Gr. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. Raynouard. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. in rapid or indistinct utterance. fem. a bruise. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. blubbern. Bav. flower w. Lat.nify bubble. blau. a herb Gr. to Plodern. red-faced bloted wench.. Pl. blue. Blue.D. to glow. MHG. G. pale. in E. glansj Ir. toused. to gush. disordered. boasting. the red fluid of the body . Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. to shine with bright From colours. to guggle.D. Sik upplustem. sponds with Sw. pale OFr. puff. blebber. to puff up. Prov. blue . dirty. bloemen. bliihen. 1. to fade. . bldt. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker).D. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. Deutsch. a blast. blahen. These are — Bludder. gUd. G. blubonciti. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. heath. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. gliihen. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. — — Mundart. . Her sweet bloderit face. little apparent resemblance. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. B. w. bliithe. to exhibit bright colours. bliihen. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. disordered in head-dress. sound like water. 1292. pludern. y\r)yi»v. pale . v. a fat. Chaucer. where the word may be compared bliggman. blut. corre. 51. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. br. a Blossom.— . a continued noise of agitated water.' Hamburgh Archives. Pludern. ler. blazir. blezir. into flower. to make blue. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . P1. d in Sc. to show flower. bloi. to fade. gloeyen. OHG. Blowzy. blau. wan. OFr. plodern. It is howbliuwen. Tumbled. closely difference in of blabber. grug. Notwithstanding the We . Danneil. fiubbem. to'disorder. Chaucer. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. bluther. tache. G. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. to beat. piusen. to glow. bludder. E. We . The aUied forms. especially with respect to the hair. to flap like loose clothes. 2. a paddling in wate r. to bruise Roquef. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. bruk. blust. withered. plubair. blao. A. . AS. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. to breathe G.' — Palsgr. to bubble up. blodern. to breathe bouteiUis. wan.to blossom. may cite for example G. plubraich.

in the same way as from It'. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. Bodge. verdoyer. plomp. originally growing up turf and water. - reddish yellow. Du. pludder. blave is moreover. blue. to fall suddenly on the ground. his business with much noise. used for the work of an unskilful performer. Bohem. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil.— . which is rendered by Florio. sloppy drink. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. G. bawling. glundr. dial. A bluff manner. or an abrupt manner. superficie plani. and biavo (Diez). to puddle. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. pale yellow. polter-hans. Kiittner. something. mix It. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . — — — . discoloured {plowiee. an ill-done job. Bladum. bleu et blanc. — Pr. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. as well as biado. all representing the — . herbe. blavus. to confound. to blunge clay.' trouble. Roquefort. bullern. I blonder. blutter. G. buller-bak. Ditton in R. non rotunda. See Blurt. blake (identical with AS. and bustle . We Blunder. a fore. and Du. Pm. and then generally idle talk. tradire to Fr. blunderhead. having a bluff forehead. pale. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. plo-wy. E. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. pale) is provincially used in the. Lat. flodderen (Weiland). In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. biada. Pl. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. like Du. a blunderbuss. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . to agitation of liquids. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. bloi. Kil. Hence we pass to Prov. Blaffart. And blunders on and staggers every pace. speech. Sw. Dryden in R. polterer. find accordingly It. Halma. The word is here synonymous with amplus. See Blunt. Dief. bUich. fawn-coloured. and metaphorically. and sbiadare. Palsgr. yellow. G. confusion. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. bulmanner. It then signifies something done at once. sbiavare. tutte le semente ancora in erba. a boisterous violent man. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. yellowish red. planus. buller-bas. blue. disturb. Analogous forms are Du. to become pale. glundra. to become pale or livid. Blavoyer.//aay. is. contrasted with the dle. Dan. blunt. Blunt. blanssen. to mix it up with water. applied to green as well as blue. pale straw-coloured.make a noise. It is remarkable however that the E. blandum. to plump into the water. like the Celtic glas.D. without image or superscription. Roquefort. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. rustic. The Du. blaf. a flounder. poltern. blond. — . Bluff. Hence a Slcelton in R. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. 't — —Hal. as well as sbiadafe. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. from an imitation of the sound.. ploffen. Then with the nasal. blunder. devenir vert blavoie. mistake. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. verdure. corn. to lose colour. bluish.• BLUFF biado. a plain coin herausplatzeu. has donder-bus. Hal. from the Lat. . Pol. fallow. to dabble in the mud. corn. je perturbe. To blunder is then.in mud or water. Blunderer or blunt worker. to dabble Biglotton E. Kil. biavo. in plur. herauspoltem or sloping shore. to fade). trahir. From G. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. Supp. segetes virentes. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. to become pale or wan. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. G. in water dobbelen. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. puddle. blahir. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. to work To blunder out a fronto. Romance bluiter. blunder. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. Flor. falb. Du. . a shore abruptly rising. sense of yeUow. abrupt. from the brilliant green of the young E. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. earth and water mixed together. OFr. Altieri. liebefactor. blac. to blunder water. The Du. blue. Biada. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. biava. flav-us. jaune.

platzen. pressions. with or without the nasal.plompen. Won by degrees. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. blait. rough. —D. — — pidus. plains The large bech. plonsen. to make foliage. rude. naked. and in the same sense. V. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. inactive Swiss bluntschi. The syllables blot. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. identical with E. Sc. exactly corresponding to the G.to fall into the water. and an unintelligent. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. fooUsh. Blunt. blait. Chaucer. a bluntie. mit etwas heraus-platzen. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. raw. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. poor Sc.pludse. figuratively. pale. fling down . massive. obtusus. azure. ang. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. awkward. or blab out a thing Kiittner . down. a simpleton. wan. like a thing thrown down with a noise. Bluntet. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz.—D. stupid fellow. from the loud report a fire-arm. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water.— — — . bluntschen. Molof something wet. bus. blunt. plump. Probably radically hlekit. as in E. obtusus. It is from this notion of suddenness. bare. blunder. Du. bloss. plotsen. in Richardson. that it not easy to discover the connection. sheepish. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. to make a noise of such a Stalder. thick. to plump down. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. a blot. absence of preparation. F. Ford in R. pointless. It will be seen that the G. plump. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. without preparation. hebes. and. void. Pol. united in Gael. blunt. — Kil. The blait body. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. plotz. ineffectual reason. inaKil. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. to blunt a thing out. to plump into the water. biosso. G. through which a man is so blont. used in both senses. nis. Plontp. blutten. bare. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. naked. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. . and the like. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . insensible. heavy. of a knife which not cut. a portion To inquire for slaves. Q. unfledged Sw. blunsch. heavy. good plump person. viz. Sc. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. it will be well to point out a sense. plump J to plump out with it. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. Dan. Plump. blott. Stalder. to blurt. awkwardly. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. blotta sanningen. to handle a thing bluntly. a thick and will person. is The word dull. V. Swab. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. — blunt. Then cometh indevotion. platz-regen. the absence of sharpness. blunt. heavy. as Sw. dull. naked. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. Halma. bleak. unceremonious manner. G. and hath swiche languor in his soul. biotto. dial. seems to be derived. bald. A modification of the same root. edgeless. blatte. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . plutz T)\i. or heraus plumpen. without the nasal. without Maolaich. Kiittner. dull. duU. More in Richardson. it will be observed. Dan. Woddis. blockish. homo stolidus. Sw. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. —D. plump. . Sir T. that the sense of bare. nature. It. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. viz. Bare and blunt. as cow-dung. blat. Plump mit etwas umgehen. forestis. blout. bare or blunt. naked. V. to bring it suddenly out. unwrought. clownish. rudely. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. A light blue colour. blunt. Kiittner. plump. is thrown. plumbeus. clumsy. silly. Now the Swiss bluntsch. unpolished. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. but of something soft thrown on the ground. blue. maol. Blaitie-bum. without horns.

puffen. short pieces of any filthy mud. Du. hot. Dan. to blush. See Blossom. BOB 79 — To Blur. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. berd. a Jam. Board. De Boat. swagger. a small lump. bot-voet. to blubber. blaustem. ever-swin. splurt and spirt. margin. &c. blaste?i. Kil. It. V. blodern. As the as. a blow . bleuster. little knob hanging by a piece of thread.pusten. both used in the sense of boasting. to say bluntly. rude. of the word seems . lacerta.v. properly noisy. large. — a blaze. . bdd. bluter. bausen. bludder. lindwurm. boord. table. Hal. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. stupid.D. bord.—Bobbin. a club foot . bord. strong. outward edge. rude. Du. and boisterous. primarily signify loud noise. blot. or backwards and forwards. to puff. will fly up. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. . beer. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. then applied to indistinct vision . Comp. violent. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. blaere. to blore. literally edge-wood. i. to breke. a baU of thread the mud. it implies that it is empty sound. OE. — — . blow vioAn augmentative from lently. to puff. Pull the bobbin. Wtb. blot. an ear of corn. pausten. Fr. To move quickly up and down.' — Red Riding-hood. coarse. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. dial. to endeavour to terrify. boccheggiare. ON. blusse i ansigtet. mire. Gael. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. sudden. to dirty. the Brem. Bluster. To brag and to crack. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. to disfigure with E. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. bustuous. a torch blusse. to puff. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. blaffen and baffen. a tassel. Schmeller. bakke bleustern. A large snake. The elision of the d is very to chatter. aper. Bot zeggen.the syllable bot. G. acre. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. plump. Du. It. blunt. crack made by bursting open. as in Du. to smear. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. pfludern. Lat. a bladder . eafor. a tassel. To blow in puffs. blirt of greeting. planks raised up outside the roofs. pof. to make a noise with the mouth. BLUR Boar. cluster. a mist before the eyes plerren. baiag. . To splirt. a. 'Ba. E. To tinct. Explained by Jam. pluddre. P. c. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. bliise. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. border. to snuff. See Boisterous. margin. cocodrUlus. borrar. and E. Wright's ed. dial. blader. bluther.y. to make a noise in boiling. batello. to be out of temper. Boa. a blotch. G. blose. stellio. as splurt to splutter. Du. blur. chicchere. gabble. pludern. to give a crack. blasen and See Burr.— . flat. to render indisbhir. — To Bob. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. an edge. blurra. 274. bar. the sound of a blow poffen. blubber. Supp. whence bordvidr. Boost is used for the boast. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. Gael. to crying. brett. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Du. blarra. to dabble. blotch and botch. fringe. to dangle. bord. Blush. beacon fire. gabble Sw. is formed Du. eber. a grows to a great bigness. blosken. bobbin. on. imitated by has also In like . e. this root are formed Sc. to jabber. The to radical meaning D. or blurt with one's mouth. 29. Wallace. voce intonare. a short thick body. — ' Dief. Hal. whence bob. to roar. geplerr. Du. Related to blutter. Swiss blodern. to bark. and Du. w. cheeks glow. a burst of tears. to glow . board. be a crack or loud sound. common. Fl. dull. to bounce. a board or plank. 156. Fr. violent G. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. to blur. . ader. or bog also thread. bhis. and swimmeth very well. to chatter. to make mouths. a flurt with one's fingers. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. Sc. Pl. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. boot. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. to guggle. a mistiness. AS.plerr. — From mouth. bdta. baban. pustern. edge. bateau. to blow. skin. bludder. edge. boa. bdtr. Fl. to threaten. To Blurt. to sound like water boiling. a border. to blaze. 9396. to spurt out. G. Sverris Saga. and the latch . bladdra. to brag grande loqui. a blot. blast. an end or stump. planks or boards. botte. boistous. margin. to rumble. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. bora. to talk quick and indistinctly . Bav. bit. It. E. table. burra. Sc. Halma. Slur. my dear. . bur.plodem. puddle. ground. bobine. to blurt out. and when applied to vaunting language. bot. 1. a smear. a dangling object. Du. AS. Boa. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. AS. — — — * Boast.

bodnu. biodeachan. gog in gog-mire.' Bogglie. Banff. bagges. busti. stitch. Lith. to scruple. where bogs form Gael. message boda. nave of a wheel. Cot. woman's stays. Now unskilful action is conmire. 43. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. daubed or dabbled with blood. To Bodge. Bohem. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. to fail. To make bad work. bodies. a puddle. whence paUchen. Russ. precept.rabodi. the body. The signification of the root bot. toss. belly. — as well as the body of an animal. . Bodice. bob. anything soft. to smack. Gael. AS. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. a body. potacha. gog. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. potahha. stuttering. to make. . bodat. the stem of a tree . bod. and the word is well explained by Bailey. quagmire). gogach. as a horn. the body of a shift gaguejar. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. or bag. to stick. body and G. bog. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. . See Baber-lipped. bod. to prick. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. gago. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. to bodge. a messenger . pall. a sting . Ptg. an awl. shaking . the thick part of anything. boftich. bolr. Schmel. butt. cask bottich. Supp. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. gagei. corset. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. whence Fr. gagoula. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. .' A — Sherwood's Diet. a cask. palleg. Commonly explained as if from Sc. VI. So BOB To Bob. exhibit another modification of the root. speak of the barrel of a horse. bogach. Ptg. an announcement.hollow. to roll. bayonet . from fitting close to the body. To Bode. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. point. a round body both. to stir. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. badyti. Gael. With With this we charged again We bodged again. a ghost . as in stammering or staggering. gebod. a prickle. gag. swelling. a dagger. We . bodhag. unsteady. e. to be unsteady tich. — 2. or stem of a tree. potig.! . bogadh. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. agitate. biodag. barriga. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. and E. needle. a quagsoft. moist mire. bodi. a spur. stutter gogmire. arise E. — Grandg. as signifying anything spherical or round. thrust with something pointed. Ir. body of a shirt bol. unsteady. Lap. Reliq Antiq. . 3. strike with the horns. to deliver a message. AS.\\i\c\iset. Body.a (i\ia. to make a mow at. See To Botch.gmh:t. to fail. a command. Miracle-plays.. the belly. corset from corps. then from the yielding. bot. moving backwards and forwards. a bog or morass. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. . bodetz. ON. bottich are derivatives. calf of the leg. unsteady nature of a soft substance. * To Boggle. to thrust. . a . meaning the round part of his body. expression hogglin an bogglin. . to be uncertain what to do. is identical with Fr. ^Jam. bodak. the boss of a buckler. Bodkin. See Bid. to butt. bottig. to push with the horns. formerly bodies. Crist. bothog. To portend good or bad. round. to dabble or paddle. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. wavering. Gl. bayonet. rounded. to start start and back as from a bugbear. bog. goggle. bodilo. In like manner E. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. to stammer. fickle . to blurt a thing out. French bouter. so large a feature in the country. bog (equivalent to E. Bret. bodi. waving. to bob. stumpy. of which the E. anything protuberant. bo tich. move. mud. W. Shakespear has badged with blood. shake. to commit a blunder. quakmg. patsche. or a pair of bodies. bogle. bogan. a cask. Thy i. '£. The Sp. bogadaich. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. boll. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. by the syllable patsch. And waves. It introduced from Ireland. bole.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. To mock. dies. BOGGLE trunk and G. corpses pot. is a lump. baboyer. bodene. Gael. to waver. bodig. — H. Bog. nodding. bodian. potacha. a prick. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. . barrique. corpset. Wall. the trunk of the animal body.

the husk of nuts. The bob. courageous. bald. used. bouil. may be identified with It. bog. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. bol. This iv. bag or bog are derived Piedm. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. bolle. ON. a bubble. also a blister. to puff. to give a hoUow sound. A. a swelling in ice. Love. boil . swelling. 304). he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. he will speak out. It. b^gayer. — ' — tagliare. confident. tar. to stammer. a fastening for a door. V. perpendicular. balldr. bul. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. to waver or hesitate.. the lir. from Du. cows the people from speaking. wag. .— — . G. bagaji. bolc'h. To Boil. puilen. Du. to stammer. treated under Bowl. folliculus grani. bealder. bal. biiilen. cheerful. tartajear. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . strong. Stalder. quick. boll. merry. coarse. rough. . tulum. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. properly represent belly. in the sense of handsome . Bole. * Bolster. by which it is moved to and fro. bolt. bula. E. Fr. noise. bochken (titubare. stameln vel bochken. stramenta. boggle. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Du. ON. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. Sc. bolr. globular bod)'. the gurgling sound of water rush. as baltha. round the first instance to the materials with . bolleken. as those of nuts. excellent. strong. G. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. ohg. buile. bolster. to be at a loss a shirt. bhster. Test.). The round stem of a tree. 1430 in Deutsch. Swab. proud. In the same way Sc. puile. a bubble. to be prominent. ON. as. in speaking. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bog. which are not used for a similar purpose. the body . bulla. obex. a cushion. Boystous. * Boisterous. bulla. roydeur. ballr. Bustuous. bulr. bol. sels of flax. bSlstr. is probably a modification of boll. chaff of corn siliqua. ^Vocab.' Mrs Baker. baud. up of bubbles. hollow. bul. Fr. Sw. to swell. See Bulk. Da. w. Boll. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bolzBold. E. Chaucer seems Dan. bok. bald. 45. Magy. Boil. dint in a metal vessel. warlike. beule. . then violent. pillow.Du. Daring. notes. the body of a man or of ter. capiing into a cavity. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. bout. flax-boU. To Bolter.palleg. belc'hj. i. bullire. fiausten. see Boast. tomentum. capitellum. Kil. Cot. OG. — 6 . a quaking mire. shake. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. blow. a bakazikni. glass phial. but that Bolt. Me doth awate. bolstar. chatter. hero. whence bulla. Gael. styffe or rude . Goth. to the belly as the or dislike. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. to stumble. pusten. bald. bolla. haughty. The term applies in — — impressed . a head . G. Chaucer. a boil or swelling Du. a bubble. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. (of Mons) b^guer. boystousnesse. boutpijl. Lat.w. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . G. prince. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. boly. and manace for to de. the. strong. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. or the like. bold. tartle. intrepid. tartalear. bollen (Kil. to boil. free. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Du. scruple. to stagger.D. gluma. polc'h. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. a bump.rounded part of the body. bolt upright. to tattle. hakogni. courageous. caput scapulse. swelling. bolzen. impetuosity. as E. bout is explained by Kil. balder. . Lat. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. Fr. furfures. ^Boistous. bol. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. bold. trunk of a tree . bold. from the branches. Mund. and then applied to other husks. bola. Du. insolent baude. stutSw. bola. Kit. Pm. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. — — which the cushion is stuffed. brave. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. repagulum. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. Bret. pimple ON. boss. to hesitate from doubt. gerade signifies straight to the mark. poppy (Bailey). pall. Pr. pustule. Wall. Sp.— D. 374. Lap. buller. Properly noisy. stud. Westerwald bollern. huge. bolster. OHG. ON. as.

And as the agitation of cream in . bolt-foot. bolzauget) Sp. . The ment and the operation. P1. a millpoltzet augen. to E. or ill. croler.D. bolting to that of form. agitari (Kil. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. Fr. racket gepolter. bolzaugen. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner.fe/2?. to form lumps. on the one hand. small heap. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. representing a rat. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. 2. protuberance. buretter{CQ\. poltern. bluter. . the name of bolter mixed flour and water.— . hammer. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. a clap of thunnences. a clod. to make a knocking. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Du. as above explained. brattle. cruddle. — — — . Wtb. a . . beliitea.nature of the operation. crotlar. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. Pr. poll. or the like. a bolter Prov. tling or crashing noise. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. btilt. je bulte.noise {brattle of thunner. grasbulten. .through a cloth of loose texture. kloteren. bulla.D. The ulti. bultig. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. to spring forth E. Dauphiny a sudden movement. budeln daz mele . achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff.u.). buletel. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. . pattern.). we see that the one consists of a words. bulstrig. hole. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Champagne burtcau. Here the radical image is the violent O. MHG. the wheels groaned. ler. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. ' Holler poller / bulter. Lang. as of a trumpet. Pl. we pass to Du. barutela. bolt. to come rattling downstairs. OFr. then to knock.. in S'W plotter.agitation of the meal in the bolter. loud and fast. to become lumpy. . gebolder. bolt head is a retort.On the same principle. baruta. abolter. bolzen. zen. I boulte meale in a boulter. lumpy. Hence Palsgr. bortelen. to bolt flour burato. one after the other. a club-foot. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. die treppe pressed. Mid. projecting eyes pul. bulio.protuberance. Dan. : ' — — . and the Thus from So. rugged. as a rabbit from its baritel. swelling. to talk pulzen. clump. buletare. a bunch. to bolter. Bulte-pook or bulstar. pultare. as Fr. also to curdle. to bolt meal barutel. a crashing or racketing noise. tumultuari. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. to start out. taratantarum. Prov. OFr. hulch. buideln. OFr. Lat. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. Supp. we have Du. to coagulate. projections. Schiitze. ex•wagen. tantara. bullern. G. tar. a rattling carriage. from G. Sanders. barutare. hump. a small portion. Du. by the representation of a racketing sound. hammer. to significance of the term was overlooked. Brem. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. bulk. bultred. Sw. Hence. to bolt meal barutel. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil.thump or blow. Pm. burclct. sestuare.Lat. Pl. cro. barutela. Bav. have Lat. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. we der Brocket). crash. to clack. to start with palpitate. So also we pass from Lat. buUire. It. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. . to agitate. staff which sounds tar. boss. or a racer from the course. a clod cloth. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. zare. / is transposed in Fr. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. hulter de bulter. a clump of turf.) E. poltern. In the next place.as the essential element signifying the talum. to knock. pull. bulk or quantity . beluter. knob. holier poller. a rattle. rugged. taraabout. On this account Mid. and to crash.D. ' — — ! ! : — . blotttre. with E. uneven. fied bot.clack. crod. .D. taratarrum. a bolter or implement for bolting. vessel with narrow opening. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau.i5a//^«.by forms like G. curdle. a round glass ending — bultig. jolting. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . the sense of right on end. uneven. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. tuft. mole-hill. a sod (Schiitze).. to shake. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface.

iuttern. sye. Need you any ink and bonibase. bambagino. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. barate. builen. a hollow sound. It. beuteln. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. OE. It. rimbombare. In E. d. 83 Gr.Su?. bombicina. Fr. E. ties. gunpowder. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. Moreover. to bolt meal. agreement. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. band. brust-bein. a churn for butter. The material called by this name. to which the leg. the silk-worm. to shake (as to shake the head. term is appropriated in G. Butterglas. Near 6 * . bonds.D. bombase. bombasine. the shank the shoulder-bone.). to shake. the leg. bond. and called in Mid. Bomb. Antiq.bast. however. ODu. — bombast came guage. When ture. a stem or base. also thick-shanked. borel. bonog. It. q. band. . booming over the water. banitola (Fl. a string. to thump W. Bibelesworth in Nat. bombe. biire. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bommer. — Bombard. &c. . or trunk word in W. bwmbwr. Fl. a ligature. the Fr. Du. Dan. a baker. . It. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. must be explained Fr. bonfras. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. tiffany. bombice. to bind G. Bone. Gascoi^e in R. . the murmuring of the sea. produced the Pl. Du. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. boulenger. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. baun. a thundering noise bomre. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. a stock.^Altieri. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . bambacium. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. Schm. sijde. G. we speak of a gun to resound. basin. an implement of binding. Mid. the contracted form of Du. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. to beat a drum. G. again. bwmbwry mar. bombarda. bureau. . buttel trueb (of liquids). a —Bombasine.) . cotton stuff. bande. tree. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. silk-worm. HoUybandin R. bombast. stump. Du. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . beil'n. It. a drum bombammen. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. G.Lat. bureau. a beacon. thick-legged. has repeatedly varied. ^o/j. tie. stuff. bein. As cotton was used for padding clothes. bulter from It. butteln. . and in fact we find the and Du. to boult meal. buidelen. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. from boom. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. a boulter of meal. bolting-cloth. and also the leg. Kil. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. as in . butteln. cotton. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. band pi. Castrais barato. bras. buidelen. . thick from shaking. and Mod. and Du. — AS. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bommen. bombasin. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. derivation. Dan.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. e. It. bopin. thick. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. gossipium. sije. burato. silk. beuteln. bombdra. sericum arboreum. whence bomme. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. breast-bone. coarse. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. from teu. — having a stem or stalk. i. raw silk. Banstead. is supported by the analogy of G. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bauniwolle. bongam. been. bomba. In legal language. to thunder. to shake down fruit from a tree. a bone in general. to ring bells. Fr. to resound. Bonfire. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. as Banbury. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. and Bond. bone of the . sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. PoUitriduare. achsel bein. crook-shanked bondew. tie. bambagioj whence It. and that from Fr. 155. lana lignea. assuming the of leg : special signification W. to cast to and fro. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. baum-bast. bunden. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. bon. From builen. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. bindan.

bose.Boos. Schm. and thence Rouchi baia. Sp. often cut for burning and lighting fires. petition. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. bosih. where a cross (or a gun. the possessor of the farm. bd. prayer. simpleton. build. at everything. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. See Bomb. Thus from the syllable ba. Basa. Prov. the first consonant of the alphabet. to litter bosu. a bag of skin or leather. Thin ben Luke i. ON. G. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. It. bos. boo. . are formed Fr. to cultivate. p. Boot of bale. stabulum. literally cow-house. boutig. master of the house. gawney. Swab. a good turn or re- meaning. baier. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. Booby. a simpleton. a. by arbitours sholde bote the P. hu?idbusa. litter. a stall. also called Brecknock Beacons. botta. of wonder On the same principle Sp. The latter is the original AS. boandi. pig-sty. a vessel for holding liquids. A stall for cattle. — — . bonaid. foolish. b'ukvdry. blockhead. bauen. . . A favour. bolt. bdn. bota. to yawn. OSlav. Goth. bua. build. It is commonly explained as identical with It. gaby. . boubi^. — Bailey. inhabit. bosig. boten-shoen. bauer. AS. the stubble of beans. Bonnefyre. Mrs Baker explains bun. netis stall. . bene. OW. countryman. a scribe G. bonnet. A peasant. a lofty blaze. in Phil. succour Bailey. bonad. but stall. head-dress wai^g. a head-dress. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. . from beida (E. short boots. ganian. \ais-band. dial. fool. although in the OG. Fr. wondering signifies not only straw. — . pero. quest. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. whence ban-ffagl. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. ben. Boor. a letter Russ. from Du. dolt. 13. From bo. — From the participle present. chaff. to ask. a silly fellow. betere thing werse. b^er. pole. to dress. or Vanns. Gael. bobo. 232. as a lying-place for cattle. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. bowwen. But bosg. signifying beech. dial. tapestry. feu de behourdis. Perhaps. Binau Brychyniog. wall hangings. is Du. a lying-place for dogs or swine. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. and Gael. . a tree. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. dress. To Boot. In nautical language. the mouth. without ad- . reparation. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. clown. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki.n. letter. bid). to strew with straw. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. a letter . dress. Ox. the cultivator. Boon. AS. badaud. bobo ! interj. bonad. dog-kennel. Palsgr. bAkva. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. till. E. G. prayer. Jr. Book. petition. to prepare. to cultivate. and Ban in w. Hal. . a. Mrs Baker. busu.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. inhabit. The character of folly is i860. Hal. The origin of the word is probably the W. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Bun. a dry stalk. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. Boot. from gape. a hollow skin. * Boose. nachbar. to set in order. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. beiSne. ass. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. E. tall. and fig. Kil. Bootless. boutig. babin. buandi. help. Du. Fr. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. desire. . which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. botte. botte. Trans. Wall. to gape. however. ON. to gape. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. boia. boa. Kil. gehyred. — To boot. bds. from badare. high. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. . G. which one gaping and staring about. tigh. Bonnet. Gl. remnants of hay or straw. bas. writing bokos. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. by itself for head-dress. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. Hufwud-bonad. — e. babau. to aid. gaping hoyden — Cot. house. Build. as the Brecknockshire Banns. bote. and from AS. See Bown. See Butt. the alphabet. bua. the scriptures bokareis. comes bondi. Fr. Du. swinbusa. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . The i. babb^o.^ —P. Fr. b&ber. been. in w. Pm. one who dwells nigh. booby.. buch-stab. N. remedy of evil. beam. biikui. ON. till. w. ty Gael. set in order. boom. lofty. the name of the letter b. bommen. boer. bossen. Du. Pr. relief from sorrow. Boom. the word may signify merely a fire of buns.—Bootless. boubair. a bonfire. Busk. ON.

bauda. Fl.. to quench one's thirst . pointed. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. to build. and hence to fine. which are probably from the same root. swell bara. remedy. hut. puras. to restore. Burke in R. In the Fin. The Fin. and E. boete. cure Sw. an engraver's chisel. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. Fr. a shop. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. Gael.por. bottino. as afford a satisfactory explanation. kvit-bara. from borra. dens mordens vel caninus. to boot. limbus. butin. puras. chisel. cottage. A phorically a drunkard. Booth. aid. N. biorag. Booty. a responding forms . a shop budowati. purro. ora. mat-bod. 1. a hut.. furni. differs only in termination. bower. wave. . yfirbdt. It. are parret. Lat. make . This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. a wave. margin. Bete. Du. . butin is explained by Flor. and parrets. limbus. in Ihre. sawroot. to build buda. to profit Goth. making good again . — ON. a leather bag or bottle for wine.. Esthon. rof. byte points to the verb byta. bite. hem or gard of a garment. a great bur. cellar. bauen. to . to hut. a shelter of branches. to to . Alexand. to foam. to The Sw. to repair. a bladder. a borer. bata. Another derivation from Fin. a border. a tusk. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. both. bdra. bolino. and thence to eat build. sculpo 05\xiik. See To We speak in E. Palsgr. . Border. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. borino. a granary . betan fyr. to bete the properly to mend the fire. bothag. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. a word. bohren. puru. beute. lappolone. on. better. edge. puru. terebro. boede. amendment. to pierce. borracha. drillen. a shed. to patch. or anything pointed. ON. to bore. Fr. See Burgeon. AS. a borer . comminuted by either kind of action. p. from deila and skipta. The cor. or the gradual working a hole in anything. And so in ON. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. struere ignem. purra. 266. . boeten het vier. boards. It. Mag. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. budka. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. chewed food for infants. cup- awl. purra. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. nor E. a booth or shed. bord. Fin. forare. &c. of an edge that will not bite. a bothy. and meta- Fr. a borer.— Return from Parnassus I inR. batr. ON. piercer. • — To Bore. Kil. a chisel. OSw. welt. scalpo. a cupboard. barn. a sharp-pointed tooth. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. to bite. Esthon. bordi. to divide. Compare Manx birrag. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. bardure. fire. See Bower. pu purro (saha =: saw . dust.—Burin. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. bud. 3. from bord. extremitas Bore. G. sharp. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. to importune. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). Du. to swell. to stick unto as a bur. is purin. a hut or tent. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. bothan. Fin. to surge. abode. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. . OHG. . pi. are derived from G. But probably the E. exchange or divide. It is admitted that Fr. urboro. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. bora. botjan. bdt. Magy. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. The as G. a. baete. boeye. repair. . an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . to bite. baara. The ON. in Lap. Bohem. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. the . ON.par. Sp. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. . uzboro. Gael. fimbria. budowai. admovere titiones. lappalare. borracha. to anything Neither G. Pol. to profit. recovery bata. Gael. BOOTH vantage. burin. to mend. to expiate boeten den dorst. scsdes-bod. amendment boeten. To Bore. Fin. . BoracMo. reparation. tent. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. terebra sculptoria purastoa. furd. wine-skin.

unpolished. ' — — . poor. borg. bundle. bump. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. Jam. And that unsittynge is to here degre. hollow. tive idea seems to bring under cover. Lat. a wen. one who sticks to you like a bore. Gr. See found in Bav. boussi. The origin seems to be the Goth. It. pego. Bos a surety. a blow. byrig. a surety. D. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. baurgs. whence the burg. bourgeois. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. Borrow. to keep. bosse. butse. the North Wind. knur.' or system of bail. a boor. was origin of the term is the OFr. The other. Boreal. botch. in instead of without. I. of bail throughout the country.any round sweUing.' every man be under bail. bussi. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. ^o^^flj. is used in the sense of bussare. a. the N. boss of the side. a giving rise to It. pitch. northern. to protect. bergen. Sc. botse.mass. or because a blow berga. Fr. beorgan. Fr. i. in the body struck. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. which now signifies a knob. formerly used in the sense of knocking. without. Hence knot. botsen. So Du. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. to give bail or answer for an. Goth. to give a hollow bizo. It. (Bridel). tempest. borei. bierge. butsen. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. In like manner It. poor. hollow bucklers. to save Sw. cnag signifies both a clergy. from their grey clothing. — ' wind burya. an eminence. Botany. a citizen. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. a boss. storm. Russ.' if thou give money on loan. cob. and borough in the sense of a town. nonsense. head. bos.' Vegetius in Diez.' the chief of the ' borh. as if from the verb to hold.vr\. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. bossen. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. agrees with E. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. bom.. connected. basse. a bouncing baby . to knock or strike. The primi. Hal. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. secure. AS. cnoc. by which of or belonging to plants. to save. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. from AS. 106. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. empty. knob. pegou. a knob. the Sc. a pushing or striking out. bail biirgen. bosseu. to strike . while Gael. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. grey). ij |8oraviKi) The — A . or perhaps also To Borrow. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. borgo. boss sound. ' pledge. plain rude fellow. G. borel. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. ON. a tower. Borough. boss. to protect. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. burgess. striking. /3oraMK6f. borough-holder. bump is used in lump or piece. a citizen. or head-borough. bttssel. . Altieri. Fr. viipyoc. . as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. borh. gesylle. coarse cloth made of the Du. blow on a hollow object. to strike so as to Bureau. boss. to save. loan. ^ma. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. tuft. brown cloth. Lang. the must have arisen burgensis. Newbury. borough or chief constable. whether from the fact preserve G. bos. bunch. . bosh. V. busse.ribs and the side. boschen. gum vocant. primarily signifying coarse sound . Du. bussa coarse. Swiss Rom. rude. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. burel.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. knocking.bucklers. beorgan. E. knock and a knob . &c. borgese. f graauw. boss or knob of a buckler . Bosh. to conceal. to pick or cull plants. into borsholder. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. the hollow between the Borsholder. empty. bourg. less. rustic. empty. Turk. Hence borhes ealdor. useCanterbury. cormpted. that which biirge. AS. burh. a city . . is probably radically Boss. to take in. borealis. plant. to contain. when that system was forgotten. or perhaps it may be See Bury. and thus could not shake off the old burr. a bunch or hump. Bailey. undyed wool of brown sheep. vain. clownish. projection. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. as we speak of a thumping potato. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. Borowholder. borg. destitute. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. botch. huschen. Cot. Jam. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. the sun sets. to become is emitted by a hollow body. a herb. a little blow. (1867). cnap. surety. AS. Bunch. Du. — — — A — . the ordinary a swelling.

On — Du. Hal. abbu. ON.' to the fiery Csedm. pimple. burgi vel pontis refectionem. botte. shoes. pother. bottom. bot. Decorde. potra. and E. to mend. Du. N. bottigUa. you two. to work without order or know. Diez. bunch. empty or hollow. Botcli. a waterfall. ^kvBoQ. to mend (kettles. a humpback. they two. I. bativa. E. by met. to knock. — . a wisp. G. kessel-biisser. botola. House-bote. botch. ON. bile. bozza. a maggot. gipuozan. schuhbosser. blow. It. boiteag. a bundle of straw or hay. bots. biissen. See Butt. is also a bubble. stock. H^cart. Pl. boss. Du. — — A 2. to froth as beer . BOTCH understood). a bottle. See To Bodge. w. a cesspool pass. pozzanghera. disturbance.of a ball of thread. fundus.— . Bochu. buddeln. bozza. noise. Both. to dip in liquid (to Gael. botte. bossu. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. bun. to stir and mix together . to rage. signify a in OE. blister.ments of the same root. Leg. ing out. we two. . boden . an abyss or bottoniless pit. as a push or windgaU. . It. boil. botse. to make better. from the dashing of water. abbi. — — . dabble). . Prov. a cess. j3i/9os. Gael. Ancren Riwle. botus. a bunch. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. a bott . baiothsj Sanscr. the lowest part. a boil or swelling Halma. a slop. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. See Bound. bodem. abbi-diwij Slavon.) . bethia. round lump. a pit. mend. • Bott. Again. mess. mess. to strike . bluster. bSn. Wedu. a plague-boil Kil. putra. A — oba-dwaj Lat. — — belly-worm. Bottle. boccia. we have Swiss batscken. bdt. dim. AS. to give a sounding blow. Danneil. — Dief. tumour. — . whence the name ol pool to podge. what pushes outwards. for a bud. beggtaj Goth. a bump or swelling. Mudu. to bcBta. botsen. especially in Gael. Lith. to put on a patch. bund. patch. stump. knock. Boa two. gen. to dash about . a bubble. to simmer. the bud of a flower . abyss. hurly-burly. bide. bAdtr. to botch or patch. Bret. — Jidwi. scuohbuzere. ledge It. Canut. to fall : with a sound batsch. however. any round ball or bowl to play withal. botte. stroke. and ajSvamg. Parmesan poccia. abbution. or plague sore . pozzo. a patch patschen. butse. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . to we have OHG. ' G. a depth. boitean. bulder. See Boss. 212. batschen. podge. AS. pocciar. a bottle. AS. &c. turmoil. whisper. a slop. botel. . Si quis burgbotam sive projection. repara- — — See To Bete. A horses. a bottle of hay. the other hand. a root. to stir and mix together. contusion . to from the root bot. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. From the dim. to smack. stock. Jtidu. the science or knowledge of plants. Bailey. oba. butsen. a cobbler. Gael. as Fr. dial. a vessel for holding liquids. a pock. to make a make a noise. And so we speak of an eruption. On the other hand. Fr. gling piece of work. stem or base. in the sense of mend the fire. . btitse. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. thing soft batsch. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. Hal. boute. botm. buideal. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. bdsser. Fyre to botme. ba. i. Butu. Fl. bosser. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e.foundation. A bottom depth. OSax. bulderen. — Fl. Lat. . Kil.D. poltern. . an imperfect and bunbutt end. Fr. Judwi. ambo. botel foenn. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. blain. Dan. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. buddl. e. is boteau. To Botch. G.^Dec. To confuse with noise. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. mutter. nets. * To Bother. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters.— Swift in R. Lith. noise. a knock. both. corresponding to . Bouteille. botn. to podge. was called a push. ixorapudder. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. ubhau. Fl. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a pit. — duj Lett. any plain round viol glass bozzo. a lump of somebatschen. It. disturbance to . &c. ON. buts. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl.— Hal. a. a botcher of shoes. a tinker schuhbiisser. maggots in barley. Podge. buazen. bouteille. Stalder. a cask. boiteal. bundle. fire-bote. butwo. — Bottom. The Gr. puddle. Bouds. of botta. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. Here the radical image seems a bubble. the first rough draught 2.

D. tnndo. Fr. limit. from bugan. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. Halma. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. whence buj7isen. signifying in nautical coil of rope. — Take care my house be handsome. I assure you. and Prov. A Langued. Fr. a boss. its kind. in the absence of actual e. The branch of a tree. The W. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. a bound. boss of a buckler. Probably from the Celtic root bon. of thread. bumper. .>a bout. bottom. as a bout of fair or foul weather. an occasion. Dan. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. he fell so that it sounded. Bonny. So It. to set bounds. bamsen. bonzen. bonna. to resound.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. AS.— Cot. Bunche. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. bog. boujtce. bonndn. or Bow-pot. dial. came home with his face all to-bounced. Bret. . to bow. like bobbin. bone. buUersten. to thunder.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. — No i ausiratz parlar. to spring. E. To Boult. Bodinare. Bowlder. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. Webster.'— Charter of K. a turn or time. — — leap. To Bounce. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. 2. From Sw. baby. to set out by metes and bounds. Sw. a bud. a boundary stone (men stone). Bought. the smaller ones. and F. carpet. p. — — Bight. And the new stools set out. from AS. Bough. geration. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. a stock. knock it sounds again. language a * Boulder. contusi. 3. the verb bondir in OFr. bunda. Fr. bend. boh. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. to fix limits. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. round. the hollow of a bay. Nor a centinel whistle. Du. turn. Primarily to strike. See Bunch. bodina. mere. a bouncing apple. bolder. march. boriie. to spring. Bout. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. bunsen. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. bondir. as that of E. Boulderstone. Q. to turn. winding. pothel. Ni gacha cor bondir. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. nor horn sound. root (see Bottom). 136.— Boundary. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . bay. See To Bolt. a round body both. dial. Alpine Re- — gions. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows.' B. a blister. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. To Bound. The Bight of Benin. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper.— F. thumping. Pm. jump. bugt. to knock. volta. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. nave of a wheel bothel. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. . to make a loud noise. signifies a sliort thick mass. Wtb. by Bujns or Buns. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. the bay of Benin. an de dor bunsen. a large stone rounded by the action of water. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. Pr. Bound. Brem. pimple Richards bothog. to knock at the door. a button. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. mcn-bomi. Ducange. bugan. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. ing.— — — - 88 BOUGH .' round and round in similar circles. butina. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. has hot. from volgere.. till The dat et bunsede. bullra. ni frestelar. — strike. to hum. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. in contrast to klappersten. bun. bouton. Coxcomb. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. to thundering big one hum. Bough-pot. bounbounejha. see Boss. gulf. strapping. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . a large pebble. frequently used in the same sense with bound. botwm. bons. boundina. ni motz brugir. as a nosegay. iv. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. debodinare. jungen. Raynouard. bend. Mid. a blow. the larger kind of pebbles.

limit. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. hous^ Man in the Moon. to pre2. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. to draw a deep breath. burlare. to mutter. beogan. .bass of a stringed instrument. Dan. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. burreti. buizen. jest. crutch. or of an Gael. explaining Sw. warbling. a. identical with E. So Sc. Du. to swell. bontS.which see. a. It. Gael. also the humming or ON. on. Fr. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bourd. to take breath. Bow. curvature. Burden. Gael. Comp. i. firm. bdgi. deceit. Eown. to drink deep. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Dan. Chaucer in R. Du. to take one in. saufen. the shoulder of the vessel. bog. a prop. burn. bovne. . nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. the big end of a club. The meaning of bound. head Fr. Bounty. a bow. . AS. biegen. to tope. fun of one . bogha. sotich. The foregoing derivation seems. G. bugna. has also buirleadh. bommen. — probably through this latter signification. bordone. a humming noise. Sw. trick. ruption of bonne. souf. patesten. ridicule buirte. Sp. in Fr. to draw a deep breath. ready to pike or spear . Sw. different modification gives ON. are applied to the bow of a ship. to our bous. borne. a sing-song. that ON. bend. bue. gurgling. bend Sw. buigen. w. bogna. to bow. bordon. drink deep. It is the participle past buinn. address. addressed to. whether by sound or gesticulation. to trick. repartee. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. to hum. pausen. bugne. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. the ting of a bell. to take deep draughts. a for New York. ing. when we speak of. . shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. to bow or incline the . bagna. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. buyse. buga. grumble Sw. pusta. brunna. from spring. sport. lance. Sc. biugan. a pot. the fixed. Goth. pot. bunaiteach. As the Gael. btiga. When used alone it . buzz. bourdon. and not in the sense of curvature in general. sense durd. bogen. a cup kroesen. Bret. It is remarkable that we find vary. Prov. Dan. Du. staff. a from Du. Gael. pre. bugna. Lat. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. to — Hal. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. hence musical accompaniment. Du. Burgeon. flagon. a jibe Shaw bururus. to bulge. way ba7n. ready.. G. spelling the word iox bound. shoulder-blade. analogous to Fr. cudgel. like quaff. it is probable that the It. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. to tipple. whence buysen. Sw. bonus. Bound. springbiirn. . drone of a bagpipe. taunt. bog. is. an arch. A —Cot. Cot. a go to. Gael. a — — . . Bourdon. Bourd. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. steady. g. bourde in the same sense. purra. schulter-bug. a brook. as was for. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. brausen. prepared for. A water. kroes. bonitas. Bourdon. mockery. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. to tope W. bug. potio. drunken. bourdon. bage. tinton. purlBav. G. bugan. a mill-post. burd. burdan. pared. bending. Dan. bending of a joint knie-bug. epaule du vaisseau. bordo. a jibe. G. bausen. burt. . and that probably from a Celtic root. Borden. buzzing of bees. to banter or laugh at. their time -With "wailful tunes. — — — A pare. ^<7r«i?. the Bourdon. language of folly or ridicule. puff out.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. bound. of the ON. Fr. on the whole. buys. a well. brummen. Fr. to hum as a bee. bwa. Spenser in R. spring. — — . good. Cot. bending. game. a drone or dor-bee. It is bov. to drink deep. a drone of a bagpipe. belly out. Gael.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. fresh* water. beygja. And there in mourning spend Sw. to indulge in his cups . bow to shoot with. the burden of a song. burdan. cheat. bov. a humming noise Macleod. must be referred to the same root. a corToward the garden. verb bua. bogr. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. set out. Immediately from Fr. schenkelbug. sausen. joke. Swiss bausen.

or. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. mausbollelein. bwra. bulcken. hiidel. then by the loss of the /. . a bubble. botulus. Sanscr. ne. the skull or brainpan . buk. bulla. AS. bocka. lump . bhuj. in both senses. a iDubble. as in E. intrenchment. AS. . a ball. Thus we have Esthon. the bogna. boil. Bav. pocket. to puff up. to bend. folliculus . Pol. . bog. beuz. passing on stud. or in e. bowels.). buis. w. Du. the box-tree It. beutel. Bower. belly of a cask. to bend down. painter's easel. a round glass or bolg. bola. to guggle. bulla in aqua. W. box. buckelig gehen. a ball . a swelling or rising up. a sack. G. blister. kuppelo. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. globular body. a ball. . bolla. A . bolne.) to incline oneself . The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. (in pass . while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. buga. bow. a little box . water pulli. iri'iaQ. to puff up pullakka. a hen-coop . hill. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. . bouzellou. the barrel of a gun. PLD. tumour. . inclinare se (Kil. boucle. . In like manner the Pol. bowel Box. bent. . bol. box in both senses. bock. From the other form are G. with inversion of the round. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a bubble bolli. bogla. Fr. ON. biisse. bucka. globular. G. bugy. buxus. ON. polla.. round glass phial. buchsbaum. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. biicken. bulb of an onion bolleyield. W. bwr. A Bulk. crown of a hat. biichse. prominence. ^o/a. OFr. Cable. wisp of straw . globe or spherical body. . budel. spring as water bugya. buckel. boor. different position in ODu. the crop of a bird. hollow wooden case. bol. a separate apartment . busse. . ask. sausage. give in to. bolgna. It is more probably from the G. a box. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. Sp. a box. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. bubble. koziel. a box Lat. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. Sw. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. . Fr. Lat. kupukka. in walking appears in a . bugyani. bulge. bollen. a box. belly. is applied to a coach-box. guestchamber . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. . as in AS. bugyola. ku^o. Hal.\s. . . tumour . to stoop. as well as the name of a. bur. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . bowl . bulne.). Dan. . boxtree. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. . boss. without the and grits. trestle. E. zich onder jemand under to him. to bow buck. bulk compared with Sw. head of a cabbage. bubble. and on swollen. a drop of pullistaa. a wardrobe . . to stoop biickling. acsian. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bow. to buckle G. . a polla. See Boil. and to a coachbox in particular. Fr. pullo. a. OE. ON. bending. budello. convexity. signified by forms like Gael. The / a bow. to raise the back boll OHG. the box-tree and articles made of it G. purse. a thing of liquid. heafod bolla. ken. anything globular. bugna.flask It. * Bowels. .. fata-bur. Du. a chamber swefnbur. bouge. a wine-can . Bowl.a. biiske. a bubble Fin. dial. honse-bur. buigen. to make crooked . a pot. an outhouse AS.cup Du. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. . hollow. a bowl. Du. boudin. make obeisance. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. bossola. the box-tree. a buck. See MHO. bugyni. of a wooden ball to play with and — . bulka. &c. Dan. similar shape. busskai. . a knot. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. compared with Fr. a sleeping-room . boxtree pusska. the head. crooked. a box. boel. convex. Boll. Gr. Bohem. Sw. stream forth bugyogni. . a bud. Bret. to yield to one.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. ^o«/«. bhugna. Sw. kupula. belly. pusspan. knob From the former modification we have bolla. . kupu. bog. round bead.D. a parlour. buello. to swell. The word may probably be identical with Fris. a protuberance. ttuJic. peated in Magy. a black pudding. gut. swell. bolle. a hump on the back rossbollen. to bubble up. a croft by a house. at the e. bur. boss. Buckle. spherical Dan. a bundle. Bret. . to bulge. bukke. bouellou. bosso. utibur. the head. a boil. bug. See Crab. a bubble. hollow place Fr. a stud. fyn. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. puffy. bolla. Hence. an inclosure. cumena-bur. swoUei) Lat.

It. Fr. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. root). a sounding blow. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. need. — . fuse. to be wanting. In like manner the It. BOX To Box. pus. and string of his bow. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. break. baske. boussole. braco. a comworld Rayn. strike.. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. ON. bracha. Kil. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. bresta. braco. Boy. a girl. Du. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. bouibo. to give a sounding blow defect. flaw. boy. It. The different meanings of the brageux. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. bue. posh. flaw. 91 the Dan. murmur. G. to Swiss batschen. in R. and then Pl. Prov. or bracer Cot. &c. ON. let. flap. unmarried man . bracil. ing from a mixture of salt. . loud smack.D. . want. breach. I sal slyng. merely in our mode of considering them. braca. s. G. briche. jabber. Prov. and F. AS. acidus. con. bask. Pm. Kil. brostia. a bog or pass Fr. wnzC/J. Rouchi Then as an adj. To Brabble. Sp. salsus. filth . boiste. matter. One girl. Fr. disturb. rakka. See Broker. Lett. to smack the hand batschen. OE. Brak-goed. rakke. or defect. a box. Brack. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. is a rope holding G. compressing. brae. Swiss bub. rakki. Fr. bracco. La ville ou y avait Brace. A — — . ghebreck. thwack. Du. brakke grund. Brackish. Bracelet. breuque. wristband. brasselet. suppuration. mud. bragos. Brach. babble. a grown youth Cimbr.. bube.. — . refuse. foul. OFr. braquet. youth. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. brack. his eyes are failing him). braecke. Gael. bracon. brae. Water rendered boubo. from a root brak. damaged board a ship. . From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. On the same principle from the buksteht. a boy pupa. dog in general. lalear-eyed Prov. s. priated to the original sense. by the same inversion of J and k.puddle. Kil. beagle. clay. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. to want. corruptse. — . brageuses. pupus. land spoilt Kil. MHG. want. breptati. ' — A — — — . mud. braic. dirty. salo sive aqua marinS. brabbelen. Thus brack. Hdcart. Fr. Prov. the arm. to give a gebrechen. bracke. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . It. braque.nated by dirt. Ptg. as noticed under Box. a braceOFr. to fall. a crack. to stutter.D. Swiss Rom. fault. To fight with the fists. a guard to torf. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. brechen. defect Du. cramp-iron holding things together . V. brago. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. breach. quarrel Bohem. brek. Brack. which sigof straining. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. a bubbling dura del mun. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. brague. — — . fault . bruxula. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brassard. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. whelp as. by an overflow of sea water. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. — . to slap. to box the ears. an languages. . confining. Lat. brace on and Du. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. want. Swab. then from break. brakke Bracelet.— D. . variation of babble. taneous talking. wrack. bracket. bracer. Cot. defect. — . bitch Du. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . to stammer. brae. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . brae. bou^ba. . . Sp. brack. It is B. baukscheht. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. parallel with OK. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Bracket. brek. See Brake.. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. Pr. Prov. land batsken. odorinsecus. OFr.with a noise. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. to is derived brestr. To brace is to draw together. ratch. defect. armour for the arm. the first instancebya physical tie. Heligoneed. . to give a blow with the fists. to crack. a pair of braces. . isolated part of the text. to burst. boy bouba. bray. rack. A brace probis. moral or physical. dog that hunts by scent. buah. the word passed on to signify salt water in general.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. brec. A to halt between two derivations. dog Sw. race. Pl. in R. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. spaniel. pube. Sp. brechen ihm. mud.

Fris. make a noise . Rom. brave. gallant (in apparel) also proud. be noisy . . Haldorsen Gael. Thus Bret. — A — . Brain. excellent. braw. se parer de beaux habits. braver. fine. 2. flaunting. bravacherie. brave. cry. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. Fr. to stand upon terms. braga. . braggard also valiant. To Braid. crash. 92 Cot. The meanings of brake are very numerous. to rattle. Sc. Brake. stately. se donner trop de licence. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. braegenj Du. or from braie itself. bravado j Fr. Dan. Sp. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. slight modificajoining the two legs. braka. bragaireachd. . called by our braggard. finery. bullying. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. expensive. showy bravery. w. a carriage for breaking in horses . the arm. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. Langued. riches. to cord a bale of tie up. From sprouted corn. smart. Hecart. to brail up a sail. breyne.breeches. affront. vanter une chose. Walloon bress. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . hectoring. brag or jet it braguard. blusterer. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . To Brail. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. drawers. was formed brayele. binding anything together. flaunt in fine clothes .i5nz^. ^Brave. h-avare and Fr. Faire le brave. Lat. an iron for holding Zalli. brave. i. breach. to unbrace or let down the breeches. brave. noisy ostentation. swaggerer. bully . braga. bragging. to swagger. subduing. Dan. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. Lith. Fr. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . bragd. crash ON. From Fr. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. is Cot. Wallachian bratsou. gayly dressed. confining. To Brag. gay. proud. and that from e. dhbrailler. braske. See Brace. Brail. &c. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. . — Chaucer. brabhdadh. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. gorgeous. brayete. in the sense of the Lat. A — Hal. brag.. beautiful. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . strength. Thus we are brought to the OE. boasting. . to crack. braguer.explosion. breghe. brails.. se pavaner. From brayel. used in the sense of force. . goods. to boast of his own worth. The plant y^r«. Brag was then used brisk. or by gaudy dress and show. that will carry no coals. Brake. brabhdair. in numerous dialects. brazo. also insolenter se gerere . Chaucer.^ Sp.%. Cot. ative fellow. courageous. bra!. be found. It is certain that the word for arm is. brave. Primarily to crack. braies. to Rouchi brMer. empty pride. Bret. gallant. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. AS. to shout.hy which this idea is con\eyed. torture . about the hawk's fundament. to strut. braske. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. brao. Hence E. subigere. as the type of exertion and strength. braicli. brake is. de Vaud. breghen. Cot. and it is very likely that the root brak. braga. bravo. —Spenser in R. crack. brag. Cot. valiant The head are sumptuous. in order to prevent its catching the wind. spot. braszketi. — Equivalent forms are Gael. to flaunt. brachittm. bragio. . swagger. well-dressed. The meanings included under — Bragget. bragging of his own valour. would be to brace. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. bravache. vaunting.Shepherd's Cal. vain glory. also tion of this was brayeul. Bret. to make a noise. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. handsome. also derived Fr. idle talk. breagh. Turk bazu are used in both senses. fine. the feathers ON. stout. to sprout malt. — . a noisy talkboasting. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. an inclosure for cattle . a roisterer. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A .^Vocab. to boast or brag. compressing. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. — From W. It. braka. . gay. splendid. the opposite of which. See Bray. bushy . fine. brake in the sense of constraining.aburst. Bray. brae.—— . BRAG Piedm. power. boast. is identical with Gael. brav. fine.

as in the case of horse-breaking. bregar. brook. brook. tris). In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. It. glebas subigere. to fracture. bregille. and when once thrown down. murrokko. have thus Du. —Ovid. a brace on board a ship. to break or fracture. the original meaning of G. for — Due. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. watered. it is not surprising that the word has here. bush. properly braking or subduing them. break of such a kind. To the same bend a bow. brog. broillet. brambles. copse-wood. Lat. — — . In like manner Lat. brake. brog or brake. nemus. to brush. broor bushy place Hal. el arco. and Lat. —Bracken. Biglotton. flachs brechen. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E.D. broil. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. a marsh. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. Fr. bush. Brake. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. Gr. a harrow. braken. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. any thicket of brakes. It. 3. thicket. to row. to break. subigere. broyer. briser. cover G. referred brake. ing of flax or hemp. signifying to sweep. brega. Dan. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. bruch. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. to bend or direct a cannon. Gael. murran. a spinning-wheel. marsh or swamp. as in Sp. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. word. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . In the sense of a thicket. brambles. conSo in G. broilium. It may be sus- . while in other dialects the words are kept Pl.. brcekke. fratto. where from Esthon. Pl. broken fratta. a swampy Mid. a thicket. Voc. farinam in mortario subigere. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. bredza. braca. gebiisch. or overthrow of trees by the wind. 2. dial. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. the lever by which the string was drawn up. The Fr. braquer un canon. In ON. low wet land bruch. tnurdma. a stream. brage. brushwood. might come to signify a swamp. We — . gebroge. brak is a frame in which strip.D. Prov. — Fl. brage. breaking in the operation. game. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. Fr. to head must be bit. bregar brake. Corrfeze bredgea. to distinct. braka. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. or a wood in a marshy place . brolium. Dan. thing is brought under control. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. or A A ' . to stiffen against Taboada). in northern climates. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. Swiss Rom. to harrow (Lat. bushes. In the case of the ne. to subdue. a horse's a horse's twitch. Brake. and G. is braukti. been confounded with the verb break. braeken. to pound. as well as in the case of the e. is formed murd. a fen. gebroge. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. to exert force in different ways. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. . brego. Sp. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. to break. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. brake. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. casser le \va. as in Du. to The ON. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. Fr. e. cetur. to bend a bow. braecken het vlasch. Dan.' It. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. riguus. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. break flax PLD. gebrUche. BRAKE to external force. broeck. quarry from Fin. ^raca. P&. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. to knead or mix up in a mortar. de Vaud. gebroge. marsh. iSpsx". pasture. brook. gebrUche. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. brogille. to bray in a mortar.— . in usus braca. t° moisten.bracan. G. brog above mentioned. frangere linum. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). to rub. briers. gilum. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. murtaa. breuil. OFr.

is the draff or excrement of the com. braam. Bav. bren. Bret. Broom. A mark made by burning. also pfriemkraut. broem. bramble Du. i. brom. a firebrand. a bridle or bit . bro7n. braeme. a dunghill. young twig {brom-beisser. broom. Port. brenna. or ling. pected that brake. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. brejo. So Swiss gaggi. may be so called in analogy with Bret. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. berneux. a shoot. brin (as It brano). brank. Branch. broust. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. wood composed of twigs. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . bruk. bruch. and E. As ON. pfriem in the sense of an awl. constrain. to bridle.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. heath (Bret. nasty. . brake. a shrub . brug. G. brug). pfropf. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. bran. breanan. brass. . salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. Rouchi bren d'orMe. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. &c. bruskoad. as. Bramble. Fr. or other plants of a like nature. thicket of brambles Cot. sedge burkni. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. young buisson fort epais. . See Brush. Piedm. a shoot or twig. . a burning fragment of wood. heath. brenn. Pl. brin. Brank. also a marshy low ground or fen . is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. a rod or twig. Serv. as AS. that is to say. 2.. 1 8. it glitters — — . and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. cack. to gripe. snotty . brous. branco. brang. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. and waste growths. broussaille. brambles. But we find It. Fr. ground full of briers. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. a bud. gebriiche.G. Sir Topaz. a thick bush. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. a shrub from Bret. Then by comparison with claws or arms. sprouts. Bret. apiece orbitbrandone. brwnt. brandello. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. The same form becomes in It. bronbo. piece of anything. in the sense oi fern. breme j Sw. . broccoli. — branca. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. titio. a halter. brushwood. clutch. brancas. That beareth the red hepe. from gaggi. what is cast out as worthless. to brank. to burn. Brand. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. the thorn apple or stramonium. briars. iii. Brancare. from brug. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. w. sawdust. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. bracken or fern . gebroge. Thus in Lat.). hallier. burning brennen. G. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. from virga. branche. brano. brosst. brarn. pfriemen. brandiiialil.D. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . from Servian pnit.D. breun. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. bran. prufye. bruk. dirt . In like hrst. bruch. Pl. a bud. heath ON. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. It will be found that shrubs. brok. in the same sense. . brand. restrain. to -brugen. Fr. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. bruk. —Ducange. and thence a shoot. branchia. bromboli. the bull-finch. ordure . Thus we have w. broembel-CBppel. w. Dan. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. a vine twig Bav. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. a single plant of heath. bit by bit. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. or with It. brouskoad. ear-wax mud. G. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. a roA. the branch of a tree. heath. brandmurk. Gael. Thornas and bremelas. excrement. heath. It. a small deri\'ation . AS. brank. brughera. &c. stink . It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake." The bmno a • on . Fr. cabbage sprouts Fl. from brand. The naof strain. a bud It. sweet broom. brem. brenn hesken. bren. . . to or iron. broom. brin d. a heath. . G. chaff. Russ. Bret. brandr. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. — . bushes. Diez. heath. brenda. piecemeal brindelles. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. Bran. It. Grisons bruch. brugek. Gael. bretnel. brein. Bret. virgultum. E. brog. thorns and Gen. a briery plot. from Lat. compress.

braser. With top trimbling. to Bailey. Port. braise. brastlian. flagrans. a round dance. to burn. brangle or brawl in E.. braise or hot coals.pan of coals. a To Brandish. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. not. braise. put. make a — . In the same way the set on fire . perplex. e. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. — . bruire. to shake. to rustle. bruan. bresil. firewood. to totter. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. bransella. to burn. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. bracea. conbillet. bra?ier. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. brasa. It. brand. brandiller. to brustle. It. Fr. Kil. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. incendium. became ashes Pied. a pan of hot coals.^Brandle. to hurl with great force. Lye. to confuse. and scold. Braser. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. — . distilled wine. Bret. billet. Bailey. Manx bransey. brazil. bragale\ wood. as Fr. 59. braza. brus^. brandiller. — . embraser. Ija. live coals. brane-wood. from used in dyeing cloths. crackle. glowing embers . weinbrenner. all. to glisten or flash. Chron. Sw. Brangle. to and fro in the hand. to dash. urens. was in use Fr. bransle. to braze or lute. WaUon. bruzi. to murmur. to French brawl or brangle. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. splinter. So.well. totter. to crackle . It. De Goes. so. plained by Florio. to solder iron. Milan. Sw. as Jamieson explains it. fire-wood. morsel. set on fire. G. a roaring fire. brandende wijn. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. comes from thence. G. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. E. before the discovery of America in the brandir. from to vociferate. brush. to brangle. noise. brausen. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. gebrannter wein.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. hot Fr. to quarrel. du Roi et laine. then brandr. Jam. to burn. De Barros considers vinum ardens. brazeiro. or in stick. eldibrandr. Fr. briiler. brandigh. make an outcry. bum. the spelling to kindle. to brandle. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. to make sense of a bright red dye. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Formerly brandy-wine. Guill. Brase. bracia. aqua ardens. and bruir. To brase AS. n. the colour than hitherto known. to make shine with shaking. brandolare is exbrandish. to brandle or The It. Chron. brennen. brasil. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. The name Brandy. spirit distilled from wine. The corresponding form in Gael. branler. as again by well as the blade of a sword. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. Fr. is bntan. Hume in brand in ON. To brand. Du. brasca. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. brascct. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. forms brasil. Fr. to bicker 2nd. a fragment. ish. bragia. brouir. apparently very distinct from each other. given to the country. bryne. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. stake. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. to shake The word brisil. to roar. prasseln. Fl. and branchis shaiand D. Brasil. firebrand. V. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. a stick. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. to shog. to make display . branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. N. Diez. crackle. bruciare. branler. to blaze. Thus the bound up again. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. faire fracas. a brusler. — ting to confusion. ist. E. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. hoisting to the fall. shake. The tre brangillis. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. brustle. Fr. to shake. brin. AS. Gris. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. to distil . d'Angl. to sound of the Fr. in Marsh. brasa. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. brasca. branla.

96 Roquefort. a fortification.' BRASS BRAY et AS.D. is The word — uous name for a woman. See Bray. Hist. AS. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. —^Bronze. Cologne broden. apron.^ — Sverris Saga. 1224.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. to braze. brat. A. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. braodhlach. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a rag . then a parapet. fraiche. at brasa. squall. braser Fargent. from Sc. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. Math. breyon. to tear piecemeal.— Braid. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. discord. Bartizan. especially that used in the working of iron . a plank or board. a Lap. muscular parts of the body. berd. brat. branle. boarding being sbranare. ship. braede. 368. Paris. as lattice. Cot. and bronzo. esbraotier. Brawl. Brass.walle — Pr. to cry. A dispute or squabble. to scold . pil. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. rag. to carbonado. a contempt- banner. brat. slibro. braeye. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Pm. bribe de viande. a patch of cloth. slut. breteque. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. to Gael. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. to solder. equivalent to the Du. bruir. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. 1156. Jam. Fris. whether contracted from brabble. brass.— Fl. baltresca. roar. bratidone. Pisana in Mur.D. bartisan.— Remade. to copper. bralle. a lump of flesh. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . a clout. Brangle. coassatio. a contemptuous name for a young child. Florio. Fr. bronzacchiare. A land of dance. a battle-girdle. bratdn). Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. brandillo. as scrawl from scrabble. a rag . any piece. P1. ^Altieri.D. Mundart. tasce. braiio. Kil. bretesche. to shake. Certainly a little girl. Gael. Cot. a lump of flesh. bronze. a wooden tower. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. bran. cloth. neita girl). Sup. a lump. a loud noise. The muscular part of the body. OFr. from Fr. luncheon. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Many gambes. bas morceau de viande brawhng. bred. OFr. bretesque. frequentative of braire. bradlete. —-Jam. borderinge. KiL Prov. The same correspondence is seen between It. the calf of the leg. W. ON. calf of the leg. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Fr. a lath. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. flesh of a leg of pork. bmhon for brado7i. 2. Brattice. Betrax of a —^Jam. a. braon. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. or whether it be from Fr. So also See Brag. brazen. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. Lorraine bravon. from branler. as rashers upon quick burning coals. braion. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. bronzare. Sc. breyon d'chaur. a mantle. bretays). le repasser un peu sur la braise. Fr. pan- — Rayn. . buttock Sc. It. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. as a brawling brook. bradon. slibro {neita. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). a slabbering-bib. Dan. boutures. a — A from the confused noise. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. bratid calf of the leg. It . Brawn. frame of laths. cob. contignatio. brailler. brdto (ace. brettys. solder. deblaterare. brett. Bailey. as criailler of crier. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. strepitus 2. A. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. It. the buttocks. bratach. The verb is probably derived from the brase. — . Sp. a rag. Brave. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. bransle. ferruminare. bras. saillies. &c. a parapet. slakker-bortchen. calf of the leg. See Brandish. Du. a cloak. Brat. trul. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. brces. OHG. — Deutsch.— Diez. burning coals. Wall. or on the top of a wall. Circumeunt cibertesca. braoilich. ' A vraale. lat'te. noise. in the first instance of boards. to talk at bralle op. G. ni autres choses sur Due. breyon de kinds of . la rue au prejudice de ses voisins.brettysing. I. bartising.' Hal. Westphal. Swiss bradle.propugnaculum.

braidar. ybrayid. a . braid. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. Fr. . D. brot. . instantane.g. Bread. father.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. starts crackling up. &c. See Brake. D. &c. to braid. to break. 2. noise . to t. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. crash.ear rog. imitate or resemble one. on. . To Break. broyer. to N. to rumble. to smack or the eye. bregda.. as the voice of the ass. in Jam. to resemble. R. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to resemble. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. regi. ^p&xia. OE. and make a hideous noise. braea. relation is seen between Lat. to cry Port. father. to crash. R. crackle . the sound — of arms. To rub or grind down Sp. with or without a final d. a rent. weave The ON. to pretend.ch. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. to bray like an ass. bregar. as OE. breuan. The same He might don us both a villany. bru. a rag f . to cry out. roar. E. to break. and to signify the fracture itself. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. Cot. mos. as the notion of turning crack. explaining a very obscure application of the E. Chaucer. D. to tear Bret. at braga eftir euium. fractus j Gr. to snatch. to braid. Cat. brak. rustle. abraid. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. brugier. roar. a crash. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. I'll live and die a maid. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. riAprjyvvfu. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. will. e. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. rattle. iU-favouredly — in Jam. to roar or bellow. Goth. to have the lineaments of one's ON. at once. bragr. &c. verb to break. braa. brikan. the sword was out break. AS. V. a brack. to the seijauntes. to start. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. crepo and E. Ppvxia. braidir. bradar. to work up in a mortar. bruzir. ser. bray. Lat. Bread. Prov. or wound. G. &c. paxog. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. k.y. plait. to bellow. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. Then is simply. F. make a disturbance. to scold.^ Fr. upbraid. — koa. which has given much trouble to commentators. to The cup was uncoverid. to cry out. Beryn. gestus. Swiss bratschig. paste or dough. breach. to break. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. — . brice. brame. augnabragd. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. braa. brand. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. braire. And at a braid he gun it bende. 145. to crash. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to resemble him. V. brak. ON. W. Gr. G. rogi. disturbance. soft . i. appearance Hal. Bret. a brake for hemp or flax. the clash of ai-ms Dan. is . crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. at a braid. bratsche. Q. to roar. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. — — — explained motus loud noise. V. The Lat. a mill. The ON. the miller's dog. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. bregar. fish. rangere. Dunbar braessem. a wink.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. and frangere. crash. Du. ON. And with a traid I tumyt me about. turn. resound . Breach. a breach Cot. to bray in a mortar. Chaucer. cyprinus latus.' To Bray. brage. Fr.fracas. yell. kind. to rush. to sound very loud and very harshly. From the or brack in a wall. Bailey. broad. to break Fr. twist. or cry out loudly . or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. bragd is also applied nets. to bawl.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. to roar as the sea. brechen. bruire. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. bragd — ON. to braid the hair. to rub Fr. Wal. baiyl. breche. vapna-brak. Fin. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. ing. yell. Then. Prov. to knead. 7 . and fracasously. fragor.

brodem. Fr. crush. — . brok. brimme. brezza. also to chill and shiver with cold. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. body brostia. brezzare. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. to breech. . peitschen. Russ. brisd. bremse. to be misty and cold. Bret. the soler. breost. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. dial. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. to buzz. and brought beneath between the legs. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. PI. to resound.britschen. fail. — Halma. E. brasiare. Lat. siibligar. brosame. bre- I'os qui bresole. brusc. QNtsterviald) pritschen. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. and E. brinisa. from ligare. Compare OE.). little bits of wood Berri briser. a gadfly. as. brumtnen. zare. are related to Prov. britze. grill. to brew. — See Broth. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. brcekur j It. murmur. AS. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. to feize or feaze. Prov. a twitch for a horse. — — strument for smacking. bris de charbon. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. Breeze. de Vaud. brustia. properly to crackle. the dry spines of furze broken off. to brew. a to lay fly-flap. — . — Brist. . Prov. braich. See Brick. Briss and buttons. bruise. brijselen. to break. rubbish. and other rubbish dibris. scent. a cool wind. Bret. Lat. G. Biglotton. Swiss AS. to bray. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. fitzen. Bracha. met de bridse slaan. in Schilter. braia J OFr. of straining. broza. brissle. de bridse geveii. trembling. braie. cloven. a smack. bratscher. broil. braca. then to broil. G. w. brache. Goth. Gael. briosa. may be from the wurh fesser. the breech or buttocks. to whip. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. Dan. brezling. to fry Then from a Gl. brodel. braguier. grillen. The Teutonic verbs. briosat'. G. . —Briss. brise. brison. brire. bracecs . . Piedm. murmur—Vocab.'— Gl. to simmer. the bust. briosa. Bruise. Brize.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. brist. so AS. Dev. as by the Sc. sheep's droppings bruss. binding. brew. brimsa. brciz. remains of leaves. briig. brasser. switch. bruzun. AS./ssus. to fry . OFr. simmering. b}-as. bresilles. bris. braucn. Gael. with It. malt. bretilles. Breast. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. Swiss Rom. braies. subligaculum. braux. breath. to crackle. a cramp-iron for holding things together. chilly. their stings draw . a box. fastening . break.98 borst. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. Breeze. Piedm. einem de britze geven. Du. representing the sound of a blow. Sw. Du. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. E. or the blow itself. briste. as commonly explained. an into shiver. burst. to murmur. as the G. forms analogous to E. Du. a cold and windy mist or frost . point to G. breinse. a crum. . windy withal. to rattle (as hail). — And blood. Swiss brdtsch. Fr. breson. of E. to hum. Gl. chillness or shivering. an odour. G. Gl. Fr. Rom. trusts. To Brew. bra. polenta. of trees. braga. bandage or truss for a rupture. Hume in Jam. Originally probably the word signified steam. applied to shivering. simmer. brcEth. one on the breech so that (klatschet). brugga. rubbish. Hence the Lat. brut. as. to roast. corresponding to G. to burst. as in the case of twitter. briiz. a crum Du. breme. orts. bris. brisciare. malt. brdtschen. bruzir. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. The Breech (Prov. braies. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . a horse's twitch. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. braciarc. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Breath. G^nev. instead of being derived from 'La. braga. Isidore and Tatian. broden. bryi^ga. Fris. grillare. bark Fr. to smack. bragues. braca. singing bone. morsel. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. brijsen. xyligogio castigare. brisoler. &c. Dtyden. breeze. sprouted corn. are in like manner ' . but more probably the E.D. from brace. clout for a child. coaldust. vapour. griller. . /esses. to bind. G. to crush to break. forms. We bragezj on. bruc. drawers.t. Breeze. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. Breeches. a girdle. So ON. It. to shiver for cold. bridsen. i5r(Z^.vare. from AS. brossi!. brasiuiii. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. broiiwen. Du. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. noise.

Cot. a boiling. arf-ol. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. Flor. served (Patois de Bray). bo. In E. to boil. Brick. jetty. bride. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. brahi. bridge. to rub. masted vessel.Fr. bruskr and buskr.rough with brambles and bushes. . Bribe. brughiera. nurus G. barren land priodas. which however is undoubtedly from brace. owned also propriate. betony brulicame. A bribe is A — — arval. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. remarkable that the Gr. appropriate. bruarium. a sow. Brigade. Pol. Bridle. bread. briw. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. bara briw. . berwi. bro. but probably Bricoteau. brique de pain. brilt. a brig or priodor. bridelj OHG. bretonica. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. W. fastningar-ol. troop. the newly. a married man or woman Lat. two-masted vessel. Fl. BRIGADE dead. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. to tlie brico. to boil. consort with. So in The Prov. Grisons bruch. a briole. sugga. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. Hence OE. to break to pieces bricalio. . grug. to prepare.privatus. twopares Lat. from Bret. a fragment. A — A — . brug. Thom. a crum. Fr. Pro(merch=:maid). pavement Lith. division of an army. berwedd. brukkas. ' — . a cheat. a bush. hlafes brice. Brique. crew. a rogue . brigantine. heath. a lump of bread. lipdZu}. braut. daughheath. of burial. Goth. Fr. In the patois of briccia. graf-ol. AS. to Isrew. to appropriate. betonica. a man. ment of anything broken. ap.bergantino. privus. the equivalent of to the dial. collect bits of food. whence berw. it is applied to the letter to OE. brau. buckler J ON. a lump of bread briber. . a crum. bruyere. E. broken bread. Diez. to boil. bidsel. Du. stone-bridge bnikkoti. to circulate. jipaaaiii. brigade. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Brewis. bricou. httle bit. The origin of the word is the w. Applied ous words derived from break. any jot or crum. a rogue. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. gf2o. If the foregoing were not so clear. bulicame.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. a quoit of stone. Rouchi brife.. bricge j G. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. OHG. bribe de pain. Priodi. Lang. has briguer. Dan. is still used in this sense. . Hdcart. briiths. from the last 99 of which. from Bridegroom. beaten way Dan. Sp. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. briicke. Ducange. a proprietor. It. brocaly. from bit. ter-in-law. brigata. to press. one's ovin. pavement. — . G^n^v. broken. especially to a letter or command. buskins. Diefenbach com. a fragment. bro. brasser. brieden. a little king's writs. bruk. bride. pavement brolegge. breve or brevis. ibrukkti. brice. Gael. feast. fervere. a married man guma. imprint. bryd-gutna. a heath brughera. a Bride. brygga. bryd-eale. brood. but to a paved road.pritil . Mid. from the Normans. Due. feast of espousals. to beg one's bread. frayer. E. to break. boiling up brocoliere. a wedding priod-fab.gfiugga. malt. to pave brukkti. and that from It. guma. AS. the marriage si in brigata. bygga. briwo. Brief. a bride. in the sense of OSw. groom (mab=:son). fraoch. Trovarfor bride-ale. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . — . thick appropriated. piece of burnt clay. to brew. AS. fit. priod-ferch. Gael. to pave. peculiar. bribour. . son. as. a beggar. AS. and ODu. company. So It. a bit. birbone. Neumann. Ihre. bitill. The Sw. then the marriage itself. broosekens. a bride Brig. funeral. Brier. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Bridal. Gl. bably contracted from brigantine.It. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. Lat. . brere. AS. Walach. conjux. and berweddu. the Fr. bruk. Bridal. a heath. a lump of bread. birbante. broken victuals. AS. brutg. to press in. brA. priod. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. pier. corresponding or letter. fragment. In the G. married. E. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Bridge. ON. sponsa. as so. to stamp. malt. brakes of high-grown ferns. It. bruith. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. See Broth. to meet together. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. with transposition of the r. w. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . Fr. ' . brar. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. E. .groom. . or brizo. OSw. brittil. It — is Kil. — — — — — — .

bragen. tinnitum clarum movco.glampa. to make a loud noise. twinkling. — brigante. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. lay was sung. to piracy. schiteren. in the sense of a robber. and led it away. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. a sound. clear sound. is easily understood.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. dine. speech. glamra. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to glamr. hell. to rob. labour.shine.' in Due. to strive for. — brigante. They or brigantini. Adelung. Florio.Lat. and ner me hit iherde. a spark. tinnitus. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur.D. outcry. clear. bairhts. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. tinkle. bryhtm. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. noise. 1351. brebrigare. malandrini. on his — own account. Swab. representing a sudden noise. braid. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. XafXTTpoQ. 1654. — Brigantine. briegen. Brigata. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. Mid. splendour. transparent. etincelle. to shine. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. loo BRIGAND lor. Brilliant. necessary business. clare lucens. that of Fr. It. See Brake. squamma . Due. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. AS. combat. strife. splendour. from hall.' torum. It. brigant. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. to sound. Brigand. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. moment.' The sense of strife or combat express. Bright.' The passage from the sense of a light. — — . in later times a robber or highway-man. It. Du. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . rixa. also called briganders. glamm. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Flor. then. — A A . would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . Schmeller. Wilista. jurgia. rover either by sea or land. splcnornd de brigandine. In the same way to strive is. Heo — song That AS. to bend a bow It. clarus. brak. — Probably then to strive. to cry 'Schmid OE. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. bright bearhtm. and. bregar. to glitter. a glittering. dine. Gall. . brdgen. and secondly. It. pugna. the gleeman's song. to contend with another. The Ir.pracht. a noise. — Briganbriga. 312. clear.dorem clarum reflecto. bray. So G. and the E. clang. shriek with laughter. glitter. briga. a small light pinnace pro. a brigantine. tuilahtaa. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. A. and diligence. secondarily. and to associate with them. glir. biartr. The primary meaning of Sp. riis ' — Chron. to resound. The E. to rove. there are many armour. Bav. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. inde squammatus. — Due. to cry. —Capgrave. with respect either to sound or colour. . a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. brigandare. wilella. cange has 'Veles. tion. — Beowulf. at a later period. the grew high. kilistua. kii:'a. brigan. \oice.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. tumult. clangour. himself to serve men of merit. willata. Gr. to ring. splendens . In Fin. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. the bench-notes resounded. From ON. Goth. bracht. and hence be explained glampi. brcEhtin. seems to be to exert force gar el area. in the first instance. brigare. schateren. glbram. to shift for with care. briga. A strepere. Owl and beorhtian.clare ^tinniens. brigare. show the origin of Lat. OHG. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . Xa/iTTii).— . The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. beorht. Beorktode bene sweg. manifest ON. Lat. a pirate. praht. clear. may play the pirate or thief at sea. to shine. and. to reservavit. brawl. sound.

1 1 64.' Elyot in Way. striped or streaked. brdnnsten. an apron. post. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. that the original meaning of the Sc. identical with passion. brant. excited. — . bremmen.ioTiviS acutus. Sc. crackle . lip of a vessel. the eye-brow. barm-cloth or barmskin. The meaning of the Fr. 754. ous. voux. breme. to creak. and 1. brennistein. from bringe. Dief. fimbria) . AS. ON. to shine. to twinkle. to . — — — . In the same way Sw. perent. from brandr. whether of desire or anger. greedily to covet Cot. to sparkle. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. as in Langued. to roar. Supp. lap. glit. sonitum edere bremen. griller d'impatience. The expression is now confined to the sow.its vent in cries and roaring. rugire. 1. to creak. kiimottaa. bramer. . Tresiller.D. burning. to parch. kommata. grisser. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. Prov. Sw. shine. ON. brastlian. barmr. ter.). to burn. fringe (Lat. to make bilbil). to shimmer. Brim.— BRIM . brisoler. Streaked. the meaning is transL' amour. Brem. and corresponding to these. Langtoft. brillare. a borDu. Swiss Rom. ON. noise made by meat in broiling. tience. dial. a stick. A . surface of the ocean. AS. brullo. E. Brindled. It. brim Magy. vattubryn. Rugere. To Brim. brame. It. brummen : de soge brummet. a border. ring. (poet. G. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. breziller. : ' — bone). The identity of ON. gresiller. brummen. leonum). crackle. to shine. lap of a garment . and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. brim. the heat of animals. the sow is brimming. cross-barred in colour. chime). margin. griller). brama. also to reflect. to resound. Thus Lat. komottaa. to long for a thing. Dan. to glitter distance . It. brumft. der. Du. bramar. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. . to glitter . kajata. to crackle. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to shine. brinfire. to storm. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. briller (related to each other as OFr. — Rim. In Fr. — — So Fr. is used of raging. broil . as of meat in broiling . burning stone. the lap or bosom. frequently interchange. komista. to make a crackling noise. griller. s. border. as is the case also with Pl. Subo. to shake. bresoler (Gloss. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. breme.— Brinded. Rayn. finds the Fr. brand-krossottr. FJ. a streak. The E. ardere desiderio. border. — g. of the eye. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. to broil. vigorHal. furious. rut. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. to crackle. grisler. Closely connected is OE. bramar. as well as bl and gl. Lith. bray as an ass bramire. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. gresiller. kimina. brunft. bremas. a rod. with an initial br instead of gr. rugire (cervorum. Wtb.' d'etre marie . bramire. kimista. Fr. fire. sparkle. os qui bresole. coloured in stripes. brissle. . reecho. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. a long. the singing of Sodom — — . beam. Tutschek. sprainged. border. parched. small gravel. glisten. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. clangor tinniens. broiled. ling noise and a sparkling light. brommen. bremmen. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. to utter cries. spraing. on. to quaver with the voice. brame. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). Kil. pMiller. Hence with an initial s. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. greDiet. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E.preni. fierce. to wish or covet. brandr and Fr. breziller. or violent action. Said of swine when in heat. bar. edge Pol. rym^. Brimstone. Sc. grdzil. briller. brimmen. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. briller. hence the bosom. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. brow of a hill. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. whence bilbil-goda (literally. the edge. to sound deep or hollow. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. the heat of animals. brezil. earnestly . brmdottr. have then in Fr. grullo. which seems identical with rim. 154. to roar. to fret . s. barm. bry7ie. originally the lap folding over the breast. kimmaltaa. bryn. to glitter.) brimi. the verbs Flor. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. Fl. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. fringe .

to broach a business. bristly . emotions which produce it. Zeuss. It. bresk. aculeus. sprocco. Antiq.D. a spit. to shiver for Sold or for fear. Cot. to bud. spricka. a morsel. brim. Brittle. birstle. Du. suddenly angry. brin. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. reburrus. brezza. Then as the effect of shivering. brickie. a clasp. Brine. Brisket. sticking up . Pectusculum. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). the brisket or . to set it a going. fiscbryne. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. and Sc. a projecting tooth It. Bret. saulmeure. to turn up the point of anything. a morsel . Brooch. bronchus. bruskett. Fr. briota. to spit. rash. p. Fr. broca. rebursiis. fantas'* tical. broccare. like the Broad. — bryme. 222. as. flame. strong itself. harsh vin brusque. bruched (Fr. to scorch. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. i. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. ON.' Nat. borst. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. is to erect the hair. to stab Gael. Walach. Du. G. birs. a crum. brioshko. Salte sand is called brimsand. has under It. . briota. setting the hair on end compare It. Liquamen vel garum. Compare also E. stitch. bryne. to set up one's birse. a stormy brimsea . ruffling. fierce. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. Sc. borstel. shoot. of E. Brisk. — — . Fris. broche. setting the hair on end. brocar. against the grain . to begin upon it. expression. Brocade. britchet. breidr. the surf. bringe. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. form bris. Breeze been connected with the Sc. . roar of the sea saltr. brcit. . Sw. — . thick — A elastic hair. is called a birssy day. broccata. to roar. briocho. breaking out into growth. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. birssy. brittle. to break. a bud. brocco. It. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. sprouts. . bringue. and hence. as. fragile. wine of a sharp. cK) the . The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON.). Berri. Mid. brot. are used in the sense of brittle. brocchus. an awl. humorous. brim. as a noun. a rod or twig. brog. brissko). 'In sua to stand up of Corn. Commonly explained as from Fr. birse.g.rcendij'i.. 'V^. a bit . See To Brim. a rebours. Fr. . Fr. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. or — . trembling. breaking of the waves brim sior. brodden. the surf.'— Vita'abbatum S. brusk. smart taste. angry. Russ. Prov. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. from brande. brezzare. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. to shoot. britar. of astonishment. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. a bud. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. a slip or sprig of an herb . Swiss to stand out . brockle. rude. to goad. brimme. e. flames. Fr. Palsgr. as. See Spread. a shoot or sprig. braidsj ON. brisk in taste. to break. Dan. In the N. It. the twigs of a besom. crabbed. brust. to break. brindelles de balai. startling. briser. brocco. Bohem. broca. to stick. brittle. chest. Russ. to stitch. Prov. rebrousser. brocciare. a belly. or the full • . brddj Goth. ribrezzoso. man's throat. whence may be explained the Sc. to broil. borzos (struppig). — A . bruckle. broc. Gl. NE. to spur. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. ' .procio. hot-tempered. spur. borzen. and. Da. a cold and windy mist or frost. a fragment. brote. bricho (with the diminutives. brime. very salt brimi. breast. metaphorically. a stitch brocher. brandello. ' breast. Prov.Lat. to spur. Bret. — in Due. Lat. Bristle. Ptg. to put one in a rage . prick with Sw. from break. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. as unripe fruits. Brym. to crack. a brad or tack. brim (poet. grim. byrst. brich. See Brand. brijn (Kil. brusco. Formerly written brotil. bros. It. britar. brichet. apt to break.. Gr. Alfr. to birstle. brocher. Abroacli. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. lively. coli. eager. Fr. brisciare. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. b. a brooch. bringe traced through the brano. Sp. Hal. quick. The Pl. brusque. Port. bros. birsle. and forms on. /3pE^m. . craw of a bird. bryde. a deluge. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. Sc. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. brimhliod. sour. Boh. brissle.). a button broche. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. to burn. a peg sbrocco. brytan. sprout. to thrust. a skewer. sharp. from AS. Hence ribrezzare. Brickie.

a fallingThe sense has been out. To roast upon hot coals. Sc. A fried or boiled steaks). a confused streaked face of the animal. bj'oil. It. border ornamented with silk. tori shows that. broder. knobby . hart of two years old. brocach. speckled. bustling. prasseln. ToBroider. and AS. ciare. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). broc. birsle. confound. Ptg. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. Thus brod. The ON. brusuole. a badger. the line of development has been something different. broil. brasiller. freckled. Florio. Hal. brustle. brasbrasciuolare. broglio. Gael. — The proper sense is that of Fr. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. bram. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. margin. blusters. a flock or Gael. briz. brasiller. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . stump. to crackle. houx. or snag. briefh. v. brucach. brasuole. or roast on the braise. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. parti-coloured. spots. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. hurly-burlies. b?-od. atoms . prod. brullare. Compare also AS. W. — Gower in It. to spur. a flake of snow sion. forming to jumble. Fr. brizen. a prick. tumult broighleach. parch. to parch or broil.. here. has grisser. parti-coloured. a point. broiled. the shoot of corn. age was termed a pricket. precisely analogous to the Sc. to crackle. a brim. a brecJi. 103 embroidered. border. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. dar seems derived from borde. a mole. — Fl. — brissle. Brocket. broccuto. or glowing coals broged. broice. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. badger . make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. spotted. whence broccare. broighlich. of pointing out their latent defects. thread. to scorch. E. AS. Here to ornament with needle-work. Dan. to On the other hand the Sp. agree in being the extremity of a thing. It of br the Fr. frocadura. to crackle. to instigate. trouble. Grisons brascla. frecSee Brawl.tumultuous. trouble.. onbryrdan. Cot. Cot. to broil. broukit. bordar. Fr. Contracted from Fr. — — . sparks E. a freckle. a b?-ustolare. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. brych. . The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. broil. gold and silver. embroidery. to crackle as a shell in the fire. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. streaked. Sc. bramowanie. storms. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. motes. bordo. carbonado. to embroider. to embroider. rinj'. brasolare. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. or salted fish on coals. to crackle. Broker. noise. Fr. a peg. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. and w. braird. So from Pol. bawling. Gael. brooked. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. to knots or loops. breard. a freckle. brucilare. brychau. B. scorch. a border ornamented with gold. brocco. to darn. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. silkes-borda. bmsciare. Icnotty. sting. point to an origin in Bret. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. It. gresiller. to stud broccoso. parched. kled breac. or It. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. rustle. Compare G. to boss. fundamental origin. Sp. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. broccato was used to signify stuff .sound. with Sc. brerd. to burn. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. initial . brusler. a brouhaha. froco. piebald . . to streaked or speckled in the face. speckled. an edge. a border. grislement. a quarrel. brouda. Surrey in R. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. noisy. to prick. Bret. brouFr. A badger. From direct imitation of Brock. The Bret. creak. q. tufted ornaments. borprick. bruler. broud. broc. a To Broil. grullo. — . brindled. brocart. shuffle. and bord or bred. ornamented with a raised pile. brodio. from the white. embroidering. brod.— B. Ihre has guU-bord. to burn. brastlian. R.

to pick. on. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. or brascla. 396. In the . — . It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. Jam. brack-gut (Sanders). any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. to sparkle. brydio. brack-gut. sunburnt. from makel. wraken. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. burning. a brood . — a spark. selection.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. . rejected. brakyne. glowing coals. buy and sell by commission. wrack-good. abbronzanchiare. analogous to Bohem. racher. It may be compared with It. brid. brumo. to — garble. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. In those countries the term braker. rejection Pol. G. in the sense of rejection. If to vomit . Per manus et old worthless horse. inspect. brak.— — .D.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. On • tliis principle the G. refuse. It. Russ.D. Fr. Du. insects. matter of blame weak place. Sp. bronce. refuse brakovat. refuse wares. make out. nounce unsound. raca. vile. briiten. hraki. brechen. mediationem quorundam J. fault censure. Fl. brae. refuse. fish-spawn broden. The use sunburn. raquer. whnake. . trumpery. dirty. Grisons brinzla. try . • . to blame. to be wanting. keep warm. braken. brut. vrage. goods damaged by sea-water. abject. to sit on eggs. to brew. damaged. mud. warm. stain. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. phlegm. OFr. faulty. bronze. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. a broker. spittle . progeny of birds. brunds. the young of any animal . merchandises de rebut G. tussis. the spawn of fishes. For the same reason the Kiittner. a chicken. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. bredan. a cough Hal. as. to hatch. from break. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. . try out. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. and to reject the damaged and unsound. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. : ' .— Lib. to sort goods . reject. wrak. term was correcfo^ir. Brood. to spit . whence the modern courtier. brass does to Sp. Abbronzare. Pl. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. racaille. e.D. a fault. to braze. See Broth. To correct an exercise is to Lib. to pro- to reject . — Fl. Lat. blur. bronze. Pro v. to criticise.D. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. brands. brasa. to copper. bracker. Adelung. but from the primary sense of the It. Alb. designation is indkler. brackefi. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. filth. brokas. Bronze. Pl. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. bridde. wreak. want. with. refuse goods. See Wreak. damaged. embers. brwd. to hatch. To blame mens ware. pan metal. correctarius. i. bronzo. an . Dan. brak. has exactly the force of G. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. Prov. embers. spittle. sort. which E. braeck goed. . brod. an outcast or rejected sheep. broen. cherish. ON. couratier. brasa. Pl. to reject. inspection. bric-a-brac. brod. in which sense the OHG. to be hot. bring eggs and spawn into active life. embers to brund. brot. and fishes . to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. tan. Sc. 38. refuse brakowad. — broeden. to emit sparks. Alb. cast Lith. a makeln. hrak. brokers' goods. screatio Junfus . find fault with. to throw blame upon. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. Kil. — point out the faults. broiid. to . to hatch G. w. ordure. . cracker. Bronzare. S. This word shows the same relation to It. Teutonic class : Du. to pick and choose. bronze. corrector. a breach or flaw. Du.— Breed. an operation performed over hot coals. find fault with. to roast on the embers. et A. G. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. criticise (makeln). to sort brakovanie. refuse Fr. See Brackish. brieden. hot. and as an adj. slaae vrag paa. lack. sbrinzlar. hot. to garble. Bret. to scorch. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. G. . brokoti. Tooke's Catherine. brack. dial. to nourish. The Langued. ODu. vile. fermenting. find fault — — — fuse matter.

Prov. . brov. rage. house of ill fame. frater. to spring . brocco. Russ. infusion.brink. brauwe. or shoot. rerum decoctarum. dumetum. bree. who is steaming with sweat. plants composed of twigs. Gael. Bret. brstiti. 105 Brook. a spring. brink. broth brothaire. bntdien. bank. Russ. Fr. bruc. bruddeln. to Pl. Commonly Teutonic. fur Broom. brudi. Roquef. breg. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. sproc. a caldron. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. verge. branches. frucius. hot. broden. to murmur. Fr. brozia. a derived from the boards. boiled . chen. eye-brow. ceales briw. The AS. Gael. brouser. breh. — ' . a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. breg. broth. warmth ch'an. ale . brio. a sprout. augen-braune. heath. (for brodem). brusmalt. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. to browse. bruno. meal. brun. vigour. brost. the bubbling or springing up of water. G. . dialects is very different. — . surface of Broth. strength Ir. brlgh. to boil. or bushes and scrubby growths. Bohem. bruscosd quam de arabili. w. spirit. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. eye-lid. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. cabbage water. brotar.— Overyssel Almanack. But the Walach. browys. borda. awl-plant. brous. brow. pour boiling water over. properly boiling water briihen. pfriemkraut. bruth. brd. a . to use. brotar. OHG. Due. Limousin broudi. brau. Sp. strength. briar. cabbage soup . &c. heath. broca. Mid. w. vigour. low The AS. and Sc. . simmer from the murmuring AS. sprocco. Brow.D. Du. from ripa. bruithim. bank. brwd. as small-pox. OFr. Ger. edge. brst. forms appear related to the Ir. brouic. surDu. riviere. laissent Domunculum. from Goth. to boil bruithe. . AS. brawdj Slavon. bhratrj Zend. braew. or broken up . A — . G. shrubs. Dan. face. Wtb. braun. bank. protecting the eye. brouches. Manx broie. broza. grow into a bush. riviera. noise. Ppim. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. a shrub broust. heat. brushbrothas) gives the OE. Fr. brass. bruith. brodem. Gael. brosses. brucan. Fr. to sprout. sprout. sodden. to boil. brabruach. bryn. a hill. as Fr. Here we find throughout the Romance.D. Kil. thicket. hut. brue . deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. to bear patiently. braces. G. broccola. Tam de terrS. circuindedit cum familia. to burn. to boil. hovel. — . a sprig. to roar. perhaps burnt coloilr. buds. break out brewet. bordel. brothas. broc. Gr. as rhododendrons. brus. brad. kail brose. broth. bruitheati. 'Lzt. to use bruks. brouter. G. Sc. steam from heated bodies. border. — exiit et heath. G.braubiti. grow brossa. sprouts . bruceti. Pol. broth the ocean Sw. brosst. brogues. to scald. . sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. . sprout. useful G. may be connected with Russ. sordes seu strigmata young branch. bud. seethe. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . shore . bor. a bud brous-koad. broieii. signifying low wet land (Brem. bruich. . pith. juice of briars. breg. a river. Lat.' Due. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. bryii. enjoy Goth. &c. a confused noise of winds. To digest. Serv. brukjan. waves." Serv. . shore. a little . eye-lid. infusion the barley bree. . eye-brow. a hut or cottage It. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. . brost. bruach. on. brpuster. frui. brewis. bregh. briu. Gris. Browse. sprot. bordeau. bank. was originally used in the innocent sense of . broi. edge.) . . Celtic. brmi. BROOK brook w. t— Cot. Brothel. broo. Gael. broth Brown. Bohem. to use. brdtaj Gael. braussa. OHG. mettle. to shoot. AS. It. a bud. Fr. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. Cot. b7-un. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. brouskaol. Sp. broud. . eye-brow. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. broeye. signifying twigs. &c. brouet. and also border.. briihe.brons. broem bark. the colour of things burnt. See Bramble. thairj w. . margin. Sanscr. has briw. It is Brother. thick bush brousta. brew . wood . borde. brushbroccoli. brow of a hill. The softening down of the consonant bud. eat. a little house or cottage of timber. Du. a shore. . eye-lash . Bohem. brennen. bushes. brosses. shoots. and It. juniper. a hill. broit. bros. in which brinnan. broth is sometimes used . on. . Catalan brossa. eminence . spuma. The origin is a re. shrub with leafless pointed edging. &c. It. and Slavonic families. Bret. brodo. juice of meat.spross. a source Gael. It. eye-brow. sap. heat explaining the Prov. of which the variety of forms. fabric consists. bratrj Lat. a bruth. cia. Pl. bryn. sense the Sc. to browse. Prov. to border. bros. of plants broust. pottage. iVlanx broogh. bruich. shoot. . to bubble up with noise. Bav.

a brush . remnants of hay or fodder. a little brizal. Castr. . break. brugir. Cot. Beryn. crush. fescue . Fr. Lang. bris. and Piedm. Sw. but on whom it schall to brisen him. of twigs. To brush then would be to dust. heath. quasi twigs. The Lat. bris. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. desbrisar. On the other hand. appearin Goth. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. a brush . wood composed OE. a bristle. to break. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. bush. fragments. field. B?-usske. wool-card. Sp. brisd. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. a brush. bud. brusg. to break. a brush. dust. brysan. broza. shock. bruire. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. brit. to crush. E. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. ON. Gael. bruito. brusco. tuft of grass or hay. brous. brise. brist. —Fabyan. The same relation holds good between G. Brush. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. It. brik. broken. bris. It. broustia. And that best is. bruis (sing. bruskr. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. G. burs. brist. modification of the same root which gives the E. . bross. brizeto. Bret. brossa. a flax comb. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. tremely. briketo. to cleanse. . —Chaucer. a shrub composed of small twigs . Palsgr. bruscolo. a bristle. * Brunt. a brush.— — i. a horse-brush. . E. Pr. blow burcar. OE. a blow. G. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. effort. Fr. Prov. Bav. Allit. — those signifying a sprig. a rumbling. brusco. shoot brouskoad. Hall in R. brMt. brosse. brottcher. brustid. brusc (Diet. brust. a bud. Fl. Lang. A. Fr. seems named from burst(on. and actually come in collision. brustia. bruiser. brustia. Bruit. brisar. an enmy. 201. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. wool-card. Piedm. it schall be al Sw. Brunt. bruyere. Diez. See next article. Pr. dust. a bush of hair. to brush. borste. insilio. dust.). escousse.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. and It. NE. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. into a multitude of points. Pm. Pr. abroncar. bruscolo. to break to bits . irruo. biirste. briiis (in the pi. as It. bruc. K. — OE. burt. rubbish. Broach. brosse. twig. rods. Piedm. orts. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. bruscia.— Palsgr. sordes. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. broza. Prov. a — — (Agea) said. The Bav. twig. and .). a tuft of heath . p. brossar. brist. brousso. E. britar. Fr. rubbish. . borste. Pm. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . Gael. a mote. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. Fr. and also Brush. briser. bross. crum bit . . And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. brikan. to strike the foot against an obstacle. to break or burst. Port. brista) or breaking out . brosst. . mg Cat. Alexander. to butt. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. bricalio. fasx . — a bush. a brush . a brush . borste. brunt. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. and in the second place a besoiB. Brunt of a daunger. bruzir. Cot.). dust. — Fr. ca7-bo>i. Sw. AS. borste. borst. a crum. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Poems. It. brusca. bruise exOFr. 174. or sodenly comyn' dust. to make a rumbling. a briser. That in all haste he wouli. Prov. brist j Port. and sighid therewithal. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. wool-card. splinters. Gael. brushwood. bris. detergere . to make brusshes on. ling or heath for brushes. biirste. brico or brizo. brus. or shoot. rubbish. insultus. OFr.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. to stumble. a noise. quisquilise. bruit. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. shivers. brossa. coal See Breeze. also a head-brush. Text Soc. borste. a bud or sprout Bret. brous. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. 134. In E. Gael. brusca. Bruise. Pr. a brush Swiss bruske. Prov. britar. chips. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. brosst. Wicliff. broust. flax-comb brossettes. bushy ground.

. bifbel. to soften.derivation has been much discussed. to filter. byge. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. 1857.— . a fescue. Fr. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Esthon. soft. boucaner. pukkata. a. soft. to murmur. Magy. faire la lessive. bog-aske. The cipally on the Spaniards. The name. News. and as a verb. open lath-work. not so plentiful a commodity. de la Floride. Cot. hog dressed whole). soft It. the upper for coifee. tap .byka. Illust. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. does not hold. bucata. to soak. rap. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. a steep for flax. is 1. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . Sp. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. pup. moist. bubBuck. bub. to buck. But see Bristle.lessiver. tender. boc. different form. to Gael. watery bud. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. soft . The place of such a 2. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. Bret. was called in Fr. and the bunch. The term bocan is still ap. moczyd. to butt or jurr Dan. BUBBLE bruschetta. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. mieknad. blister. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. a hole. Bret. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. molle. as a buck rabbit. bubauti. the linen at buck. Formerly. ac. bucaIndies. tuft. Bubble. to which in their language they call bou. a bubble . a to the male deer. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. to soften . to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. — . Magy. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. bubseti. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. a bubble. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. bucquer. Gael. A . very generally designated by the same puk. a. Dan. bub. buck-ashes. a bubble. plied in the W. to butt. soft. buerj It. The natives of Florida. buquer. w. bublati. blast or strike with the forehead. from colar. set of pirates in the spread. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. bubbola. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). it is beuchen. designation of a knob. erweichen. See Dupe. bugd. . buquer. . 17th century. says Laudon. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. From an imita. . boc. 1586.D. thunder gently . bokni. buborek. mote. bwch. was called bucking the linen. bouc. Etym. Pol. It.to allow a free current of air. a push. In G. hump. Sc. to soak. . Pol. tender. caned' Hence those who established them. This bubette. mokry. Bohem. the lower soak in lye. pokka7na. Sp. — .wet Lat.biiken j Svi. bube. boh. at a door. maban and baban. and exercised their cruelties prin. — — ' A : ' ' . knock. It. from weich. w. colada. also applied Una.tare. Fr. March 28. to soften. a ashes. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. The word was very generally Buccanier. a knock word. bubiti. lye. bucking. hump. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. buck-ashes. bouk. Pref A. to wet Pol. and Fr. when soap was tion is commonly taken. . as G. Bohem. or projecTo Buck. to stick. Fr. buchen. because bucare does not in Marsh).buchen.boukaat. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. and then to other wild tumour Lith.steep or soak. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. The male goat. I. . of wind. . to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. bukke. to a place used for the mouillir. mollire. lye. to bubble. wood. to butt. bugada. It. top. to soak foul linen before washing. or mok. to bump as a bittern. the first wheal. in which the flesh dish. bduclien.-wtt miekki. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. to strain. Fin. drying of produce.' Palsgr. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. Diet. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. boil animals. who resorted to the islands beichen.

skins pushit'. Bucolic. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bouljein. butze. It. boucaran. dim. buckel. a boy. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. bouclier. protuberance. bugnir. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. to butt. Budget. a servant. and the reference to It. a small shallow and open tub. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. where the G. * Bud. It. See Bulk.anything short of its kind. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. don't a baby). like a bean. of bac. w. a buckle or protuberance. seen in Hesse botz. Cot. weich. lump. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. belonging to the calling of the chen. rump of fowls .). Prov. a bubble three thyngis. a pustule bout. goat's hoof. bloquier. . .) as to soak.r//'. to poke. to un bout d'homme. bulka. to thrust. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. a trough). butz. — — . bougette. In Lat. bouger. a wallet. . swelling. a boss. to budge. W. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. The knob or projection formN. bloca. dint . NE. bolgia. butt . bulga. noise . Russ. boulj. hump. This expression boglire.' Schm. Sp. w. crack. bloca. The dressed fur of lambs. potz. bucolicus. Du. a dumpy gin. cattle. Sw.. prick in a target. to move. ble. put. clasp of a book. to pen cattle. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. a short thick man. a shoot. Budge. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. Bret. to graft or bud trees. pulga. bunch . bdden. child. bedde.' Boccaccio. Fr. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. pulga. * Bucket. rabodS. to boil. from bo. a bud. a ring. Fr. . become bochen. buachazlle. K.t-le!L{ * Bud. scion. stroke.Lat. G./a.. to bud or bocla. boss. . OHG. Fr. bulla. mani. boach. a budget. macero. a bump.' And this sacrament bus have dial. also a leather tuft . Bav. the radical image seems to be a set plants. bocla. To thrusting part of a long body. bollire.— . bolgetta. brobrocchiere. bucherame. bouprobably identical with inok. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. to word. a boss.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. . So on. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. a stump buckle up. in the beginning of to pierce holes. bump. Buckler. need. call. fur. soft. is doubtless fallacious. dinted. set of a plant in bulk. to swell. A water-plant with leaves and gille. Pol. The entire train of thought is bucket.goa.n. Swab. bouk is a pail and with the dim. bub. to stir. boqueranmis. Dan. a curl. clump. a budget. bod. pote. great pouch. boccula. . bud butzen. thrust. with let. boaLat. bode. sboge. with a central boss. boiling. butzen K. Mid. having a boss. * Buckle. The word is a ddyn. Bav. Port. bulais daqui. Bus. as in Fr. Du. A buckle or fastening for botch. ON. built. of bouge. bogla. to 'soak. bog and G. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. ' . bod.) . and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. Fr. Gael. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield.stuff. excrescence. ' . ornamental stud. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. Fr. a shield. Prov. bulb. to boss or swell out G.chissima.poot. probably from the notion of bubbling. bucherare. no business to do that. turgere buczendig. bouge. explaining Fr. Mid. from Gr. OFr. knob dwfr yn boglynu. no wheel bogeilio. Behoves. inboachen. whom it is still much in use. case of leather . bouton. Wtb. a buclder or shield budge. wallet. blow. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. Bret. — — .. male or botzen. Lat. bul. bunch. call bo. It. botzen. knock. ' . water message. . bullion. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. a . It termination is lost. words is converted into b. Buck-bean. boglyn. boucle. butzen. call. is to shrivel up. boss of a shield. bougette. were To Budge. II I'a feru desor I'escu. ein. a little coffer or turgidus. knob . — . Pied. bukke-blad.may probably be explained by N. the root of the Slavonic words gran. jSouKoXiKog. the word w ' — . butzen. of a surface. Dan. Prov. a cowherd. a leathern sack. stud.' Hal. weich. It. bug. motus creber. and of the Lat. Fr. Hardly identical with Fr. butzen (Du. imbuere. stir. Fr. a fold ceilio. The Fr. boucle. bo. . and weichen.stumpy man. bucket Fl. or male of to boil . arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. budge. — . . above mentioned. don't stir from hence. agreeing with Gael. a tuft. a pail or flowers. botzen. a navel. bouter. push forwards. loud Cot. boucler. convexity. pwtio. to line with fur. pwt o Fr. weichen. Hence quel. from bugr. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. boucle. with which it was ornamented. gjeit-klauv. trunk of wood covered with leather.pode. swelling.

popo.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said.— Buflae. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. to give a as of a blow. Fr. sounds. buffare. confused. scarecrow . mingled with water. to blow. as emblematically making light of an object. as wine that hath taken wind. — retailing buffeter buffetier. Limousin bobal. bobaow. It. bubus. or hath been Cot. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. cuff . either alone or with various terminations. for this purpose is very widely spread. stupid. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bumann. a goblin). to signify an indefinite object of terror.—Buffet. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. bugs. W. Lat. bw. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. soufflet. buffle-headed. buffer. smells . It. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. made by a person. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. From bulga. Fr. to excite terror in Macleod. bolgia.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. 265. pulse . Cot. buff leather. Romola. Pl. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. bubaRuss.' La Crusca. human. by metaphor. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Sc. and in Fr. boman. The cry made to excite terror is then used. as Diez remarks. A puff with — Fl. caupo. A — Bug. to marre often tasting it . or wild ox. —Boggart. to strike face to represent the unknown. puff./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . Lat. w. Buff. a puff. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. Fr. to beat. bouffer. yar^aa. often covering his E. from souffler. Lith. buivol. Magy. buffetto. Buffalo. Fl. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. bo ! an interj. It. buffalo.' perfield. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. as from Lith. to frighten . G. buffa. — Z. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. to a representation of his voice. Lith. A blow. a hollow sound. bouffer. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. bw! It. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. bauwi. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. dial. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. bufogni.D. &c. a side-board. bubach. thus be translated to tap. deadened. Hence the E. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. buffet. him but Boyd iugges. Buff. Gael. duff^ dull. — Bogle. Mid.D. to puff. while in Sp. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Swiss baui. to give benti. . dull sound. the place whence the wine was drawn. site The two — — iii. breath. God's boast seemed feare children. a buffle or a bugle. It. a budget. things in Jam. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. colour. blurt or puff with one's mouth. air. a block-headed noddy. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Thus buffet would a tapster. dausinti. E. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. dausa. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. The use of the exclamation children. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bufHe. tastes. to bellow . Fr. bugle. bolgetta. from It. wine may The verb in taverns. leathern bucket. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. bukow Ikow. Sc. Buffeter. a clap. to puff. bugbear. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. rebuff.D. mumming. baubau. Cot. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. — thence it has been transferred in E. botffon. buffeteur. to blow souffleU. ' They rether puffed at him. a jester. bufogni. Bufetarium. bau ! children. From buff! of terror. a dull BUG From 109 — A . — — — Buffet. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. a bugbear. a skin. a hobgoblin. to rePl. Esthon. to jest or sport. buMagy. Teet-bo. buffet. The children were playing in an oppocomer. a In . constitutes the game of Bo-peep. boo. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. made to —Bugbear. le reste emplissant d'eau. — La Crusca. buffen. buffle. also a G. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bubiti. of colours. Buffoon. senses. bwg. the buffe. buffets. often blown upon. buffare. een duffen toon. Pl. buffet. btifetarius. Fr. tabernarius. word other cases. a cuff or buffet. to blow . wauwau.

— — terror. Lett. tumble-bug. dial. bugler. booggen. Fl. 1551. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. Magy. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. banian boube. roarHal. Deut. Russ. coco. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. a buffalo. bug dung-beetle. boo. disgust. Big. threatening. also a baco-baco. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. a bug-bear.. beugler. i. bok. 2. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. buculus. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. Lesachthal. and in Lat. pujalo. big. tion of the beetle tribe. Mundart. Stalder bog. bwg and E. a bug-bear. . insect.3uhtii&:. bogil. and in child's Magy. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. shepe and gootes. E. w. insect. See The name terror).— . fette. scarecrow . : no BUG . or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. Hal. Hence bugle-horn. the buggaboo w. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. great or bug words. worm. Serv. a bugbear for children. * 2. quos what produces dread or disgust. Cheval de trombugti. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. ghost. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. Schmidt. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. biignt.Fr. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . buba. BUGLE Tentennino. fierce. Parolone. A similar applica. to take bug. oxen.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. Same as buffle. Swiss booggen. Grisons bau. and bugle. terrifying ward. pugaf. and is Deutsch. — — . bucula. modern English is appropriated to the OFr.loud noise. an object of terror. bukati. bauginti. Mid. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Bdronie. bug-bear. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. W. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. larva (a bug-bear. bugle. a silk-worm. iv. It. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. Bugle. bogle.. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. bold. The final guttural of W. to origin in the expression bugs words. the black a maggot. also a bug-bear. forSc. bugar. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. Bogge. superbire. high-sounding words. Bug as a lord. An ornament of female dress condread. Magy. as Buffalo. with more or less modification represents bau. given in Chaucer. an insect. bogk. bug. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. . bbgni. poggl. to take fright. a rabme. high. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. to take fright. protuberant. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce.Lat. according to Coles. — — ' . 493. bugbear. Manx boa. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. Bug. Fl. to bellow. blustering. Lith. Illyr. the word is lin) bbgge. earwig bau da grascha. bukashka. vermin. — boogg. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bug-bear. is very common. — . roo. boeuf sauvage. bau (Pureiglia. swollen. to creeping things. a. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. of pipes sewn on. bwgar. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. buggabod). (Spurrell). a beetle. and a boggarty ing. pugalo. buffle. well as the terrific object. as an object of dread. rose-bug. Chaucer. I. a goblin. a misshapen person. especially to beetles or winged insects. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. il brutto Demonio. Sw. It. mask ' . monster. b'dgni. fear. language any kind of insect. bobal. gad. thus connected with bug. to bellow. 3. Lap. is the dim. Sp. The name of bug is — . to roar Aasen. boa-peep. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. the Devil. also a bug-bear. . troll. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. paws the ground . bogil bo (e. bogk. to frighten scarecrow. Swelling. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Grose. used in the same sense. any disgusting animal. proud. threatening. a boogg. affright. hert. Swiss ing. bwgwl. xiv. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. then a horn for drinking. provincially an insect. The w. long. bug-bear. . baco. Bible. saucy. of bugabo was given.

bolnyn. a bulb Du. skin flayed whole.' Cot. bulwis. skin bag. swollen OE. Hence e. Bulk. or cargo of a ship. in bulk. Bulch. the contents of the hold. Othello. or feminine termination gives Bav. See bollekeii next article. m um Placentiae. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. projection. pod ON. the position of liquids in the word In English. I. anything prominent. pocket.— . and bulbukd. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. body of an animal. (3oX|8oc. . we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. trunk. bole. bauch. and put it home. gebolgen. to puff up bolginn. bulkaf. — — . — . bulgen. In the representation of natural sounds. be protuberant. wallet. husk. bua. tumeo.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. Gr. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. herd^ swarm pulkd.pulks. straight will he 2. dial. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. Pm. in Sc. habitaculum. knob. leather sack. cumulus. acervus. womb. bulk is a partition of boards. swell. a heap. bulbe. boss of a buckler. to undo the cargo. a water-bubble). a dint in a metal . for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. a bubble.d. MHG. bolgna. A — ' — Bulk. . to break bulk. to build. of an inflated skin. The addition of a dim. to swell. bag. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. turgeo bolnyd. hull of a ship. boss. thorax buick. belgr. head . . the belly. balg. ' . biilken. formed a farm. a leathern sack or portmanteau. Here stand behind this bulk. belly Sw. skin of an animal. Boss^. jnake bulch. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. a round bulky body bwlgan. Muratori. w. buk. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bug. bol. a leather sack or budget Fr. the carcase. a tuberous or bulbous root . bulka. belgja. swollen. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. . lump. Lat. bullka. buc. a straw corn-vessel. bubble. it again. belly. swell. bulk. mass. globule bolg-lhuingey. G. bauen. bolg. G. of E. Bolke or hepe. Kil. . knobby. the head of an onion. Palco. belly van de kerche. . bellows builgean. in vessel. as well as is very variable. Hal. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. For the latter sense ' — My . balcone. . domicilium. a globe. belly Cat.' Festus. to swell. whence bylja. as water beginning to boil bolg. Jno. Sp. bulge or bilge. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. on. Bourser. ON. ne. pulkas. bulge or convex part of a cask. bed of a river. crowd. stuffed bag. a lump or mass. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. knot in thread. hollow. or bear out as a full purse. ' . — . . ball. belly. Pr. the womb. knob. 1388. cultivate. bol. Bulge. has bulbuk. to belly out. PoXj3a. inhabit. a protuberance. bulbus. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. to bubble up Pol. . bladder. bubbling up.'— Cot. trunk. OSw. Lat. bulbe. ON. Melancholy. balg. bukr. bwlg. were a habitation. bulki. Bav. . pouch builgeadh. See Bulk. See how this tode bolneth. to bol. bugue. bolle. The radical sense is shown in Russ. chest. bale. Mandeville. a bunch. Mister. Lett. . bolso. From till. Pr. . . It. boss of shield. body. balgs. bulle. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. mass. He found a country fellow dead drunk. unevenness Sw. bolle. buhe. villa. snorting on a bulk. bunch or projection. bulked or bumped out. OSw. . bulk or capacity of anything. With these must probably be classed ON. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). sedes. to blow. bulne. — — . swell. blister. boss. — — .). as it was merly written in English to bylle. ^ — . — Bulb. . or of what is shaped like a bubble. to bubble up. G. Dan. vulva. bulcke. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bouge. lump. beuck. to raise a habitation. belly. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. the body Du.' Fl. Dan. Lith. blister. a bubble Gael. the potato G. bo. Ptg. pimple. bubble. bolgetta. to gather. compare Da. blister Manx bolg. and N. Gr. boulge.' Palsgr. trunk of the body. at riufa bulkann. the capacity or burden of a ship. The Walach. body of a ship . bilge. or. van loock. bubble {palgan tiisge. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bolgan. puff. To Build.' Anat. a. . a prominence. bolgia. to throw out a convexity. bubble. . ' . bulgen. hold or bilge of a ship. balco. Lith. belly. a. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. belly. bol. bulg. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. Pm. boa. blow. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. tumidus. byli. bouk. principal portion. a stage or scaffold. to spring.

elves. a bull Swiss bullen. balgeting. stamp. Bullace. pwl. blister. Bullbeggar. G. a wasp. lumpheaded .. the seal affixed to the document. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. child by the represents the hobgoblin. it may be observed that a bullet in E. to emboss . it is boulet de canon. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. as in E. thick. any great-headed or studded nail.. whence Mod. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. a bul-begger. Bullet. bolli. bubble. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. beams or boards. Du. w. N. a seal. Du. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug.D. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . bolli. as a mill-dam or the like. A papal rescript. bulk. bouillon. which may probably be the origin of the name. The bullfrog. to seal. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. BulUiead. Du. w. W. but is more probably iden- palchetto. a stud. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. BuUiou. a tadpole . Pm. and thence terror. bwbach. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. bullos. any embossed work. blunt. stud. Cot. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. stupid . ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. 3. urchens. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. pollach. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. Du. bulk of a thing. . boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. a noisy violent fellow. Gold or silver uncoined. Dan. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. boss. tition of deals instead of a wall. stamped money. And The word bullerbak. a hornet. See Billet. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. ba. bietebau. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. a bull. bolos Fr. bwla. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. as the ornanails. embossed work. &c. Fr. a seal. Lith. a hobgoblin. This word is used in several senses. from the use of the equivalent terms. is of a class with Pl. bole or trunk of a tree. bolla. bulderen. bulloi. from Fr. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. bulle. Pl.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. — Fl. signifying roaring. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. penbwl. in N. large.Fris. to tical with Sw. bollos de relieve. coarse. whence bullire. b2iggaboo. Bully. G.. Bret. also of the tadpole or young frog. leraures nocturni nigri. G. round glass phial. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. G. bwlas. a bulox polos.' do not go by the dangerous water. bouillon. A lace tree. spirits. of boule. 2. a little fish nearly all head. as It. from Lat. Terriculamentum. dim. dial. sloes. a blockhead. is called a ball. The wild plum. of the ox kind. bullocks. a cow. /SouWivu. to bellow. See Bowl. bullern. Fr. bauli. a scare-bug. a framework of balks. assito. as geting. a bowl. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. bollar. 2. lumpish. — A tition in a ship. from baula. also a parFl. the matrix or die . Eullrusli. i. bulke. boss or stud. pimple. from the Lat.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. Bullfrog. witches. bulla. It. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. bollon. hhint. bullus.Gr. from the noise. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. in the sense of base metal. Gael. brass-headed nail . bugbear. on the contrary. polten. baula. The final element tergeist. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion.D..lle de fusil. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. Scot's Deso. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. of Witchcr. The male W. eth and frighteth. many to protuberant objects. It. bulla. to boil. and vellon in Sp. bellocier. I. scarecrow. large of its kind. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble.D. to bubble. stud.'— ' Palsgr. bullebak. poll-cheannach. poli-cheannan. billoti in Fr. bal. Sp. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. however. biitzibau. bellow. — — Bull. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. a hobgoblin. ON. boulct. a tadpole. boillon. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. billon. a beam or rafter. poltern.

sound. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. vallum. bommele. Bully-rock.d. but now is the central part of the town. bodem.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. violent overbearing person. resonare. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. To bully is to bluster. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. Philip le Bel in Due. to dun. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. buller-bas. Kiittner. Bully. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. to terrify by noise and clamour. Etym. ierd-beame. &c. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. 1687). c. buller-brook. honunele.the ramparts. — Boom. then in general a rampart. to make a droning Du. and porter au billon. Du. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. G. argentum and silver. blunder-buss. primarily the ramparts of a town. 9 E. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. — bombam?nen. buller-bak. Fris. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. to make a noise . is bullion — A — buller. buene. For bottom. BULLY with which coins were stamped. The Stat. — — plate d'argent. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. a hectoring. provides. ierd-boeyme. or work of defence. Du. ^i^/«. a boisterous. propugnaculum. The Sw. ^Bully-rook. To bum. violent. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. 10.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. St. ground.' Again. legaggio di metallo. up was termed monnaie de billon. provides. Du.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. baluarte. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. 1305. IV.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. a floor. to .' agger.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. is called bumping or bells. G. Bum-bailiff. AS. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook.D. blaterare.' ' mettre au billon. a. Hence — . Sw. A. — Bumto . a bumble-. To Bum. buller-jaan (bully. from boden. c. Hence bom and ban. perturbare saevis dictis. boulevard. bastion. Thus ' ble. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. ON. 2. From the notion of a humming. a stage. Bailey. D. furious man.' for the purpose of exchange. Fris. bottn. 14. bombilare. buller-bas. to drum Lat. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. Fr. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . III. the soil. a noisy blustering fellow. G. on the other hand. debacchari. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. polterer. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur.' Stat. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. a blunderhead. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. biihne. It. 2. To bum. un faux brave. bottom.D. clamour. — Bump. scaffold. blunder-buss. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. Miege in Hal. by corruption boulevart. 4 Hen. bomtnen. beat a — Hal. droning. 'lega. The 27 Ed.. poltem. intonare. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . bustle. Kil. bol-werck.' reals of standard currency. minari verbulderen. boisterous fellow. bolderen. boene. hum. Hal. Kil. 2. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. The cry of the bittern. agrees with e. c. noise. or a humblebee.. block-werck. Bum. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. IIL st. John). botm. The decried coin. bulderen.

stem or base. binge. Bumsen. See Boss.-^Fl. . Hal. a bowl P1. Then. banga. To bam. ! — knocking. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. bugno. stubble Manx bun. a heap Wall. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. dial. Hal. Hal.! . cluster. root. bonge. butt end. a rabbit. seems to unite Gael. Gael. dial. mto Sp. bugnone. Pl. Roding. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. to .' Bun. Li cake. il me pousse. Du. knob or heap. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. pwmpio. Hal. Lang. stock. Holland and Flanders. bunan. as in other cases. bun eich. Manx bonkan. a bag or sack. bundle. He fult dat et bunsede. gibbus. Bony. stalk. . applied to young persons. to strike so as to give a dull sound. inconsiderately. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Pl. bumtel. abrupt manbuns-wise. a. bugnet. E. — Marine Diet. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. bulse. a boil (punkos bot. . a knotty stick) Sw. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. Thus e. a hump. pwmp. Dan. bunga. pompon. noise. bongie. stock. truss E. a boil or blain. especially girls. . pwmpl. Bump. explaining E. bunki. a hemp-stalk. passes Sw. bum-boot. Bunch. . should probably be a short tail. or grete knobbe. a rabbit. — — — — ' — knock. —Bunny. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. nor would it concern the public if he did. Bang sen. a dry No . a heap. knochen. bunt. bulscha. Related on the one side to Pl. a swelling. callus. Probably for bun-boot. bun. — round fruit. a bump. calamus. lenten loaves. any round knob or bunch. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. the tail of a hare. stubble of beans. a into Dan. bull. botn. large..D. as we have seen E. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Ir. Dan. so the form btmk. clumsy. Gael. a lump on the foot bunny. forms. a round mass . ner. bans. blain. Bumpkin. bunke. bu<rnone. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. bumsen. bottom. to ' . Pm. awkward.' he fell with a bang. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bunch— Hal. bmike. bignet. from bunsen.D. a bunch Magy. bamgetroffen. a knob. .^Cot.. bump. stump. bulto. bung. to beat. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Forby. a. to knock . a knob. 1. bunga. lungeous. — stalk . a Sp. bmidt. . a boss Lith. Dunchyn or bunchyn. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bun with ON. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. hdk passing and E. a pocket Sw. w. boi7ieog.S. — — de dor bunsen. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. bunny. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. knuckles. any round knob or bunch. a dried hemp-stalk. . — — Bun. . poumpi. bunken. a pumpion or gourd. awkward clown. and related with ON. Pm. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt.D. pumpa. He buncheth me and beateth me. one ever saw the word in that shape. Sc.— Pr. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Bunewand. Bums it's hit. Again. Hence E. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' .— Bunnion. strike E. and signifies consequently a mass. Suffolk bonnka. signifying one who does things in a thumping. a button. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. round mass of anything. — — Bun. bottom bun feoir. E. . Kyx or bunne.D. . Fr. Mrs Baker. a heap.pummel. to thump. Pr. S. . hay stubble .P. It. are dim. to bang ON. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON.' Palsgr. a heap or cluster. bottom. bonuach. bunsen. bunnion. Sc. Daal bu7iseti. buns. while bulch was traced through Gris. to bang. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. bannock. . Moor. bolsa. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. strapping. a bud. a knob . BUNCH bum-bailiff. banke. Bun. foundation w. &c. bune or boon. poumpido.). trunk. A clumsy. to beat. from knock) It. tundo. pumpurras. a large . E. Bung^. Bumboat. bund. a heap OSw. bunkc. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Radically identical with Dan. Bunch. protuberance. a person employed to dun one for a debt. bon. OSw. See Bounce. a wallet. pompette. See Bunch. H. clown. Fr. Probably from bump. A Du. a swelling from a blow. an old stump of a horse. stump. bungersome. Bunk. a knock. root. bonnock. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Pm. or to the mass by which it is given. a bunch. bugno. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). w. to swell out E. the Pr. gibber. to bang down. lump. bunka. a tail (Macleod). throw down with a bang. a purse . to . Fl. .

bond. to work ineffectually. banga. to cobble. borgonota. Sp. sprig. bourguignote. dial. bommen. . Bret. See Bourdon. The Fr. Bunting. bunta. Compare G. the bung of a barrel Lim. bon. the middle part of it. bou^e. bouche. bouchon. banghagr. bourgeon. a wisp of hay or straw. The Magy. Bung. shackles. bongun. Sw. bag to catch the wind. that the primitive meaning of shackle . klempern. a bunch. with the head. to botch. something bound together (Mrs Baker). Biu'geon. Sp. bimge. bonde. — — . The belly or hollow of a sail. clogs. dial. burion. punishments for prisoners. a water bubble made by rain. bangla. fetters. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. to pype. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. clumsy performance. stocks or such OSw. of a song. Bunny. bondelj bundell. to bear. bunsen. boei. Sp. . boil or bubble up. Cat. is originally a wisp or bunch . stiimpeln. To bunt. and the Sw. Bundle. Fl. bang. boya. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. G. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. to knock. knocking. So Du. Sw. Bunt. on. bui. Rietz. It. shove . bounta. bungande. A load. or used as a receptacle for papers. to work at carpentry bangan. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. Hal. a botch. Sp. to hum. E. bundle. dicimus rufum. — Bureau. to knock. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. To burgeon. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. to push. to kick. working in wood (especially with an axe).' Festus in Diez. Cot. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. buret. bote. A Dan. bury. borboUar. the stopper of a cask). as it still is in Modena and Bologna. modem bummle. B. loosed from bonds. to in to stop the hole. Burble. tinker . To Bunt. an anchor buoy. to float. to push ghebondte. knock. Fr. bourjon. bove. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. See Bun. reddish brown. are from bouscfie. . bindini. bondon. tapp (whence tceppa.D. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. To do anything awk- wardly. to shove. Burly. See Borel. stilmpern. the noise of drums. gyves. unskilful working. biirde. — — To Bungle. Bung of a tonne or Lith. to stop. and now more Bailey. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. ho-tapp. a bunch Burbulas. whence in bure. Fr. to push with the head del. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. bummle. in is Fr. generally known as the material of which bud. G. and E. burboloti. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. coassatio et Du. Fr. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. Prov. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. or putting forth of a vine. Russ. russet.— . a bung. and bomme. tinkle. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. racket. dark grey bura. bangla. colligatio. on. to bud forth. Lat. to Somerset is to sift. Burganet. OFr. the loose open grow big about or gross. bolting-cloth. would be the earliest float for an anchor. A bubble. also a piinple in the face. to bolt meal. bourion. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. the float of an bundle. Sw. dark. racket . a cork. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. from beran. ghebundte.punt. to hum. The Italian buio. . fascis. to resound. The word is flags are made. to bungle. Fr. do a thing bunglingly. Banff. to stnmi on an instrument. — . Johansen. B. bang. to gingle. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker.Fris. Muratori. contignatio. buie. to strum on an instrument. — btiruii. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bonde. a bungler. bondeau. and Du. OFr. la Borgonota. rumble as the bowels. ' — work . to gingle. tap. 202. Palsgr. * Buoy. boj. a boye. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . So in Pol. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. byndel. and van t' vat. Pl. especially in wood. bundel. noise. Kil. anchor or of a net boyar. or tuft. Burden. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. N. klimpem. to stop. bondel-loos. bongani. The stopper for the hole in a boia. See Barbarous. AS. guggle as water. bundt. driving in the bung. OG. byrthen. knocking. a sort of helmet. . Burden. p. Prov. whence bunting. Du. to hum. properly a Burgundian helmet. however. halm-tapp. AS. buove. a drum . buret. was formerly pronounced buro. boucher. the young cloth used for sifting flour. bondir.

56. explaining Sp. the J in OFr. &c. to polish. In the same way ON. Todd. Bav. brinii. Sp. Fr. brook. a gurgling ^. bud or sprout forth. sbornoi. Swiss Rom. to roar (as lions. purling. schleiffen. buirleadh. swell up or strout out. the roaring surge of the — — — . From Fr. leo Fin. warbling.' Cot. from the roaring sound of flame. Dief. Bret. Hence Bridel.sharpen. swelling borr-shuil. N. to roar.). Probably. to roar. to hum. knob. to fiy. embraser.. Burler. brinna. bourd.or bubbling up. . Cot. to bouronna. bears. briis^. water. Supp. Burn. ends of thread. taunt. to puff up borr^ . A burl. is connected with brim. brasa.).. bremmen. watery. brusler being a faulty spelling. blow. broil. Prov.Ps. to ridicule. Goth. brunna. fires up. It. pur (see Burgeon). Antiq. a blaze. to bourda. to ridicule. compared with G. It. to burn. joking. to puff. bruzir. barrel. 122. a bladder. the flocks. burly. It. brima. must be explained on the same principle from G. burn. — . tahkoa. become big and proud. from bryii. Burgess. Swiss Rom. The primary origin of the word. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. thence. burlare. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. ridicule. and the Burnish. an &c. to burn. repartee . Fr. ii6 BURGESS Gael. to swell oneself out as birds borras. a jest. like straw or small . Pm. spring-water bumach. to give an edge to. tion of the root which gave the OE. occupying much space. robber. bururus. boure.ireui£r:e. condemnentur morti. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. OFr. to set on fire. abourioner. borracka. See Berough. to roar. Burgher. Burglar. to tell lies. big. and Dan. Castrais bourril. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew.— Pr. to burgen or wax big. dial.— . it of the knots. Nat. Bouffer. burgensis.. — Han to bruser op. bunch. a whetstone. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. Sw. to grind on a whetstone. to bud . a knob. A legal term from the Lat. like. protuberance. Probably a modifica. G.. ^ttsa. imitation of the sound of bubbling water.). a well. brAler. i5«r4 biiirte. to sharpen on a whetstone. Bav. borni. a bud. OFr. to roar. flocks. brynsten. singe or scorch with fire. burle of cloth. the er is a dresser of cloth. as Diefenbach bud. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. brunnr. a wine skin. boura. to roar 5. language of folly or ridicule. sicut sound. roguing beggars. boiirre. a lie. See Burgeon. laer. de Vaud. brimmen. Lang. brunnen. an edge. a purling hiwe brennen. Fl. grancelli. .bryna. and OG. j. lorra. Burlesque. crackle wood in burning Hal. to swell with pride. to polish helmets. which has given much trouble to etymologists. In the manu. to surge. brustolare. Compare also Piedm. tumentum. as in cousteau. toast. lerre. he rustle. The Gael. tahko. Lang. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael.. burgeois. ^Notk. purra. a spring a robber. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. ON. See Burr. It is probable indeed that Fr. . brustle. to sharpen. brausen. with Dan. bouril. See under Bore. From the same root E.' a jibe. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. brunir. brase. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. from Lat. a bubble to spring as water. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. pressa puret. Pren7ien. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. to make a So from Fin. a fountain. a prominent eye borracka.j'own. So also Sw. OE. brinnen or Also ein roar. — — . — — . sea. — — . Burly. is an Thus G. — . to have acquired the sense of polishing. E. a margin. Sw. to polish. the word seems Pm. bourou. jest of. bururus. Bestiary. Burgh. as of suggests. Walach. fire. . brun. a bubble. brim or edge of anything. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. burgi latro. bourglairs. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. borr. burren. to swell. burgen. to effervesce. and the Burin. born. is termed burling. Fr. surge or dashing of the sea . explaining the E. purrata. ' rugiens. to Gael. sidiary element. BURNISH i5«r/. OE. Limousin bourdo. Burryn. Fl. A — — . Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. brandung. Pr. in Schm. Gael. ample of polishing metal. bruse. like the wind in trees. G. Schm. to murmur. with little iron nippers called burling irons. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. The in. as the / in purl. ends of thread. angular . to rub. borrelen. mockery. has also borr. borujon. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. a jest. to To Bum. de Vaud.

shuffling. bersten. Burr is related to buzz as protect. OHG. verbergen. dial. a purse. 2. Fris. Sw. Shelter.' edge grew weak. Burser. barza. and met. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. explained E. &c. save. ' ' — — burren. shearing of cloth. burial place. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. a morsel.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. an annular swelling. and. mentioned under Burgeon. but it is more probably a development of It. force. chips or anything else Fl. borsa. E. Beowulf. i5(7&a.' The same word with burgh. as it is still pronounced in N. hair. AS. Du. karborre. britar. the — — castle or fortress. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. Cot. that birds make their nests with. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. brist. keep. an exchange. break . Fr. brisdeach. -Grisons bulscha. . talk fast and indistinctly. dial. beorgan. bris. of England. a wallet or scrip. brast. as for the protection of a child's head. skin. a harness or collar maker) . as in Northumberland. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. to save. Bursar. husks. — Translated by Kemble. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. brest. Compare also OE. &c. Mid. byrigels. from Fr. Sw. to stuff. brown. prsnuti. Fr. borsa. a pad. brista. to burst. brickie. a purse. to hide . Swiss burren. as from Sp. fortify. It. ' BURR AS. Gael. a port. brjota. borra. a sepulchre. bourse. purr. bristeach. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. G. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. byrgan. brittle. casting bullets. 225. bergen. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. coo. briser. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. buscha. brit. -burse. Burial. AS. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. straw. of a body hurled through the air. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. Burse. birr. preserve. the officer who bears the purse. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. from whence we pass through Sp. Port. to mutter Sw. tomb.— . borra. some people in pronouncing the letter r. 5150. — Clare. iii. bolsa to It. bres- — tan. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. See Burgeon. brittle. Burrow. ON.. pipaa. a rabbit burrow. briso. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. briketo. perruque. . bris. To Burst. any rapid whirling biarga. makes the disbursements of the college. appears under the Lang. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. a place of defence. I. blurra. brizeto. to hide. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. moss. bourrelet. from AS. foretell great storms at 3. signifying protrude. ON. birgan. birigean.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. ber•whirr to whizz. its own protection. to P'air. borsia. brisd. OHG. Hal. burre. beurs. This word seems safety. bur. It. bolgia. borrow. a barn or cupboard. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. Dan. burgisli. bourlet. In a met. swell. root borr. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. borre. bourrer. byrsa. peluca to Fr. See Bulge. burra. shelter. Fr. bourre. idiom if 4. bristen. Du. borre. A rabbit burmotion. berstan. whirr and burr. bur. preserve. byrstan. The root forms brik. shales. In OE. be more in accordance with AS. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. Brun on bane. S w.Lat. and thence flocks 'of wool. brokil and brotil. any kind of quilting or stuffing. g. . Jam. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Burse. To Bury. G. brico. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. to break. impetus. whirr. and spelling. stuffing. Burr. cwning-gaer. bourse. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . also ' any such trash as chaff. With a slightly different ghen. Sexy. ultimately resting on the Gael. ptcrren. leather. Hence Fr.' Harris in Todd. whence Kil. byrgen. brist. caer is a — — — ' ' : . a. also all such stuff as hay. byrgels. to buzz. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . when they spring So in W. to bury . cover.

Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. Malberg. In to Brutaine. bossen. bosc. to direct one's course towards.) to hide in the ground. Sw. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. burial mound. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. a clot of phlegm sart. bousIn the other copy ser. to forest of Eyda. projection. to prepare. Du. hunch Du. boucher. bo7ich (Fr. AS. make ready. boisseau. Sc. condere. brake. buxida. Fris. bussare. whente beorg. to dress. ' . dead. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. See Box. basse. truasc. bua. a box. to enclose in a case or box. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. Mid. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather.' The buskin is said Bret. Du. bundle * Buskin. bulk. Bouchet. at bua sig. ieorh. busken. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. induere vestes . 2. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. ' . is thus accounted for. abdere.Lat. bundle. a corpse). a little box Dan. from the ON. bush. a been written buasc. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. diminutives. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. berghen. buskr. a tuft.gur bidst austur um EySascog. mount. bustula. which would later have truast. Fr. to sepulchre. Bush. il fut couch6 l^jkema). boxta. The word frequency with which to busk is used. To Busk.fiasc. at buast. buxta. cluster. for at buasc. 410. a bunch. OFr. Sibriht that I of told. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. or the like. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. The bone in a woman's stays. . protect . a rampart. bausen. tow. G. To prepare. to bow. a wisp. bosch (a diminutive ?). knot. bousse. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. and he cites wisp bauschen. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. Brunne. box wood to bush. bunch. bustellus. as boun is simply buinn. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. occultare K. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. and not directly (as Du. wisp. biichse. So from Fr. brodiquin. OFr. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. bosta. Harold G. AS. basse. Le roy Richard mort.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. a -tavern bush. or — Busk. the past participle of the same verb bua. lump. a bush. roquies. to turn. hjul-bosse. They busked and malced them boun. a box for measuring corn. preserve. apparently a secondary verb. It. beorgan. —Busk. in the For Skirnis . to bury.— ' ii8 {chreo. bos. rad. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. ch). bouche. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. and thence Mid. Layamon. boissa.' a box. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. Brunne. a tuft of hair. gave Lat. bramble. to bend one's steps. defence. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. barsc in Heimskringla. boistel. thicket of thorns .-^Bushel. sur une litifere. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a gun biichse. that the lend had lorn thorn. the land. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. besom). buxula. bairgan. ' . bush. van wijnbesien. oneself. thicket {buski. then a tuft Sp. R. Du. ' . tuft. to keep. signifying to entomb. whence bouchon. aheap of stones. . grapes. The primary sense of hair . borghen. Gr. to dress. bussellus. in OE. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. . whence at bua sik. Ptg. qualster-boscken. a bush. brodequin tout noir. borcegui. Prov. . the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . BUSH hreaw. Sir Tristram. bulge. The radical idea is seen in Goth. as synonymous with to inake one boun. a troop.P. barst. we have Fr. . busse. borseof trees. the idea of knocking. a bunch of twigs. and from the Fr. to swell. bussel. 'at bua sik. Thus Froister . boiste. buysschen. busk.Lat.boisteau. a hump. clusprobably Morocco leather. the Moors and of Morocco. verb. a bundle. Bush. bousche. And her ful sone tuft. . a box. to stop. a tuft. Thence byrigean. -idis. iriCtf -ifoe.' The word is explained by — — . : — . contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. bossida. ' —P. It. a tuft guini. and we actually find bushel. a grove bosch van haer. fiast.' sheath. See Bust.

buz. mouth. snout. austarda. mons. mogangas from gonj.Lat. beso.' Plin. ' BUSY 2. kiss. With respect to bust. to occupy. trunk of Cot. Lang. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a bulk or trunk without a head. — clattering about. stem. buquer. Cot. bustla. I go strepo) .fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. 2. 119 bi{tr. body of a woman's dress It. tuft. also a busk. biist. basiuin. I. bruskras well as buskr. mohedairova. Du. 1372. mosequin. to make use of. also a It. sunt quas Hispania aves . of the human body (Grandg. Fr. trunk. stir. kupata. love gestures.bezig. geidha. occupation. crack . — — difications of the same word. bisgung. body. Bav. — hardly be distinct from Fr. to Swab. stump. busch. putschen. 10. avuDiez. ON. The proceedings of Parliament. bus. lip.> Also written buskle. signifying trunk of a the body.' ON. ship Sp. Fr. brusc. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. knock. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. 2l box. a blow. bus and Pol. buc.— . Xerqui. made stiff. bus. Swiss butschen. thick end. body. otarda. as in moharra from harbe. . kiss. besongne. The form brust. buta. forest. Lat. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. Busy. See Boss. lip. Gael. Hal. bisegung. Hence probably au-tarda. cata — . buc. worn to make the body straight . btcc. Edrtst. On the other hand. Prov. pussa. besoigAe. A A busquer (Sigart). brut. Sp. beezig. plated body or other quilted thing. employment bisgan. lump. Bustard. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. abutarda. brostia as well as bostia. buc. abotarda. to bustle. or chest in which the vitals are contained. a bust. trunk of a tree. morsequi. Rouchi. utarda. Comp. an ostrich. body . as in avestruz (^avis struthio). body without arms and legs. 22. business. and supposes that the common Arab. smack. buyse. So in Fin. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. bysgian. Sp. busch. vessel employed in the herring fishery. statue of the upper part of Fr. bukr. busche. an affair. bulk. a ship of some size. Bust. A great sluggish fowl. bucha. also a flagon. — Thus we should have mocherqui. in Diaz Gris. the point of a lance. and then with avis again prefixed. Box. Cat. A wisp. ottarda. Prov. a kiss of reverence. bacio. work. Namur — Champagne Fr. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a stroke of wind. log . ^A. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. lips. Pol. 1555. Nained from Proximse iis zia. Lindenbr. but. sera. busq. small. chest. busta. Port. outard. its slowness of flight. BUSS Dozy from Arab. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Sp. a great billet Cot. Sw. hipista. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. Business. I. Bulch. Bust. . a kiss. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. Buss. and also a sounding blow. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. a mouth. ViM. representing a blow. knock. borcegui. body of garment. — . a large cljest or particular applibox. bussa. bust. butz. To Bustle. bust. a projection. bu. of a doublet. a blow. biseg. outarde. inde discurro et operosus sum. body of a man. a log. forms morseqiiill. putta. bnist. 7o\. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. Fr. from jnund. would explain the G. occupied bezigen. the trunk. says. as in ON. I bustle. the body without arms busque. B. Fr. Fl. busc.). Prov. or Cherqui. Busitiess :c3iVi . a kiss. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. to knock . a fishing vessel. arbor ramis trunGloss. bysgje. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. trunk. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. a bunch of flowers . a Mid.D. a kiss. a boat or small vessel . Fris. to make a splash in the water. and by transposition morchequi. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk.pjik. bussen. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. windbutsch.d. bisg. stump. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. mouth. tarda. a tree. AS. baiser. busy. the breast. To hurry or make a great B. fe^a. a backstock. a sleeveless truss or doublet. — — — — It is like the smouldering. busto. The Prov. bist. a busk. especially of a woman's dress. Walach. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. a. So Wes- terwald munds. ON. box. ' bistardej It. Busk. or avutarda. the long. a bush. betarda.

the body of an animal. of the wine and drink. a bottle. body of a shirt w. bitlga. a leathern bag. boquier. earthen which the debtor has adverted. from boc. botija. Lang. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. bocin. the full expres. and the real origin of the and within . belly. moreover. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. those in beccaio. — we acle for liquors. which the word corresponds to the Fr.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. calf of the ' say. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. Fr.' ' write.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. Whatever is in addition to Butler. boucher. beccaria. botilla. a barrel. large barrel.' — — ' . Lang.' Thus Chaucer says.streets. rumpf. biitait slaughterer of goats . collection of casks. Buttery.jamin. properly a butan wite. the store of ten. without. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. a budget. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. we find ben. viz. by the mode in which he is treated. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. the precise correlative of but. boteria. butan ce. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. to-boot. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. but one thing. and bot. hull of a ship. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. boccino. without punishment . Wall. ' Besides all that. the belly. the bottles. a butcher. a butchery.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. is put in a class by himself. without care. without buiten-man. hollow case. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. without law. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. belly. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. G. bola. So in Italian from becco. . young mais. in addition. Butler. bous. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. a goat (and not besides . being wholly unten. binnan. bounds of. bolr. calf. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. butan. Sp. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . OFr. It. be out. If that where now we should compiler. ' There is leathern bottle. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. But when will you pay it ? the belly. ways. able. the name must have arisen before the within. are. as Pantler. rotundity of the body. bole of a tree. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. bisgung. But It. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. skin-bag. my is called the adversative use of but. a cask. a butcher . Sp. (children) boc. ox. Du.The Sp. the principal apartment. botte. . bitten dai. beyond the Piedm. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. Here the but implies the existence of an. bountifully. a wooden cask. bochier. trunk. As a conjunction but is in every portion. the body of a tree or of a man. besides that . bouz. without the house kept in bottles. bouteillier. or what in in charge of the pantry. except. viz. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. Fr. that which would be translated by Fr._ bitten j biiten door. Sp. But In Sc. also a hollow vessel . beta. the servant in charge of the original object. Butt. an outlaw from bouche. "PLT) . tinction between but. bout. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. then hoUow trunk. mais. ont jhi^ton. the trunk or body of an animal. Where at an earthen jar . wooden receptthing to be done. slaughter-house. the jug and in E. bhcciero. gives at least two pounds sterling. bag made of the entire skin of an animal.in which his brethren are included.' there is really a negation to be supplied. the present day we should say. the mouth). the Perhaps besogne — . from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. Fr. bolgia. equivalent of AS. Tooke's dis. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . sup- meat and drink. bag. belly. bol. add. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. is well explained by Tooke. — . Ben-house. and with It. original sense of without. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. Prov. a small winebag. a baiTel . barriga. similar train of thought is seen in ON. a goat. A A . buta. bute. Butcher. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. from as. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. outside that moreover.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. beccaro. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. bodifie. AS.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. The E.

butz. a scope. Du. the edge forwards. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. a mound. boutoir. butt. bout. geboogsaem. of the present day. from rejeter. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. From Grisons biitt. Du. . . fowl. boter-schijte. Buttel-triib.. Hal. grease that sets by merely standing. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. bouton. pied. botto. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. of E. w. striking end. botta. a large belly. by boE. Halma. bottich. buhsom. butter un. povrvpov. butter. to thrust. Fr. on. as in G. to strike. To Butt. to throw . To strike with the head bags. thrust. Du. nursling. a thrust the thigh-bone.' thick from shaking. Button. the thigh of a goose. a button. boiUer. a cask. butte. So in English pimples were fora clod. thrust forwards. bot. to thrust . in the R. Bav. botte. bothog. See Butler. are the strips at the edges of the field. the Butter-fly. a blow. to so close to the Fr. obeto shake backwards and forwards. bodi'.arbre. boteria. submit shaking up salad sauce. so as to make a sounding blow. * Buxom. a boss. Buttery. oir spike with a k coup . a bot. to push earth . Schmell. The Bavarian potig. stump of a tree Fr. From the noise of drinkables in a house. a. dripping. bout. Buttrice. to blad. to cast. bata. : . a leg of mutton. Kil. from notirrir. bouter. The word body itself seems identical with G. -ez. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. Schmell. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. and the true derivation boar. but. a button. to femur. from bugan. a little push . &c. to thrust. bouter. but this is probably from Fr. a stroke di animal. to butt. lams-bout. bocgsuin. a buttrice. a bun. bot. humble. Bav. Buttress. fle>(ible. give way. a stump or club foot. a heap of merly called pushes. short thick thing pimple. Bout van het schouderIt. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. — — — — . Fris. boutis. Hal. boter-vogel. Fr. AS. ment being supposed to resemble butter. trapu. a barrel. aim whence to make a support to a wall. from stossen. To come full butt against a butts. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. a boss. large head. i. Boutje. butt. poke. bott. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. Boutant. Du. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. Fr. a tub. Mur-buttant. the thick end. It. or person Schmeller . — A . bocsam. to abut a stone roof. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. the trunk. or or shore post. . Gael. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. Buttock. courtaud. as rejeton. hillock . bot blijven staan. clumsy . signify a cask or tub.to push. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. nourrissons. — . an etwas anstossen. Butter-glass. Lang. then the thigh or leg of an to push . a flying buttress. to touch at the end. what is kept in a blow. as if from Povg. a ribbed glass for dient. suddenly . to heap up earth or ihrust. Fr. put. Grandg. able that Chaucer. a bolt. — . a but in the W. to boult flour. boding.thum and not button. at. Perhaps corrupted Lat. butte. leg of lamb.rejected thing. a dle . Cot. having a rotundity . from the large knobbed head of botto. Kil. a wall butor butt on. An erection built up as a Fr. bodi. boter-vliege. buttare. G. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. buttern. a blow. any short thick thing. an ox. A — — — . R. coxa. thick.— BUTT leg . from bouter. a hill. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . pwtiaw.. both. bouton. is formed the augmentative buttatich. a mound of turf in a field to sup. caput scapula bout van f been. W. obedient. botta. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. butter. to be con. to thrust Fr. the rosebud. Sp. to bow. a corner horses' hoofs. — A . rabodd. buter. to abut on. botten. to thrust. butyrum. nourrisson. clunis. pwt. waste ground. butt. botwm. any small projection. stump. the prick in the middle of a target. buttock of beef is called butr.against another which needs support . buttals.putan. butteln. Gris. Fr. Kil. a button. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . to make him a mark for arc-boutant. end . tress. &c. Du. Fr. W. Btetter-schmalz. potacha. bud. Fr. bottig. Butter. boil. gigot. a. Gr. butt of a person. tout seat or breech. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . e. the store of while bottich. a buttress Cot. From Du. strike.

bylag. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. to jan.P. Goth.busardj Prov. By-law. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Originally the law of a particular town. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. It. iii. also say. from whom it was addressed. AS. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. confusedly. to purchase for money. & Q. harty prayers and God speedes. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. to stand at his side . son. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. train of thought which has become obso. Cabal. Sw. stall.— P. to pass by. tions by one. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. byr. cow-house. byar-rettr. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. OE. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. to swear with him by . Sanscrit abhi (Dief). blessing me with their of side. P. — 122 BUY P. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. . and it is of good will. bycgan. to wit. village. a borough. a meke thynge with — alle. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. as heedless as a cock-chafer. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. lete. bi. town having separate jurisdiction. as in Da. to whisper. as Fr. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . farm.. To Buy. Mercy hight that mayde. buzarg. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. bees. good-humoured one. —gracious of speech. leges urbanse ON. ON. from by. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. and would have been lost in E. 519. buteoj Fr. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. 116. lb. buso. bugjan. It.. 200. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Lat. Many good mological explanation. The ON. frabttg- To Buzz. abozzago. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. See Abie. indistinctly. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. The sense of buxom. bei. bylove. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. groat in token of his good heart towards him. bar. Buzzard.— Diet. Du. AS. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. A ful benygne buirde. CABAL Goth. a buzzard or puttock. to buzz. and boxome of speche xviii. A by. Verstegan in R. ii. Pecock Repressor. depends upon a esteem in falconry. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. bygge. Sw. a town. buzac. who makes abigg. . like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. 21. to sell. bozzago. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. G. 3. Dan. . buzzicare. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. \s\xy. A A We — — — days' wonder. called Cabala or Tradition. big. a by-path is a side path . Then applied to speaking low. bi.in N. bij. gracious. Byre. byar-log. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. favourably to a petition. bohte. Etynj. p. jus municipii. a beetle. bauhta. favourable.

caables. Etym. calabre. origin is the OFr. Lang. Imitative of the cry of hens. laitue cabusse. signifies down. forms indi. Celtic. cable . headed. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. cabuccio. to chatter. Didot. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. chaable. OFr. Mid. vile. a shed. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. The Sp. a cabbage . cacare. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. cabo. — the ON. Fr. (ca/coe. To Cabbage. the bowels. hovel. — Ibid. Capstan. cadabulum. &c. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . . overwhelm. Cabin. a rope. wilful). Item habeat vocant. a covering. Very generally used. to put or pack up in a frail. Castr. cabulus. accablcr.Lat. signifying properly a rope's end. aeggi. as it must have stood in French. has kabbel. a rope. Finn. The name of the engine. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. from trabocco. overwhelm (Diet. giiare. main. and Ptg. caable. cab. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. aak! tandi like Fr. cacare . caable (in legal language).). caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. It.. or rush basket. kabane. caboche. brassica — capitata. . from manganum. w. OSp. cadabalum. OFr. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. dirty. an engine for casting stones. cabus. a frail. To steal or pocket. Du. . cabasser. cabre. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. geese. mdhaigner. whence Fr. Fr. Due. a car- We convasare. manticuKil. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. Fr. Lith. cabo. and Finnish lanLat. maim. Antiq. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. to keep or Du. Mid. as an expression of Gr. akista. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. cadabula. a rope or cable. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. to hurl down.ticula. a tunic. The double a in the OFr. disgust. serious injury — In like manner It. agge machen (in nurses' language). filth. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. nasty. kakla. disgust cac. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. Cabbage. to crush. as Turk. case.' Due. cadabulum. would correspond to cable. heady. Cot. caable. head. round or great headed. Coticesserint Swiss aa. it would seem fundain children's language. cabaii. disgusting such an engine was exerted. lactuca capitata. Common to Lat. Neckam — by the wind. in which sense are explained The the OFr. —Diet. It. aakkat'a. gabardme. &c. gaban. and the Arab. capanna. Gaggle. OFr. surripere. to strain in such a manner . bad. precisely in the sense of the lari E. Kil. and as we find stones Mid. to hurl in Nat. cab lis. Cabinet. It. come the Fr. kakaloH. It. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. chadabula. manganare. a head (whence cabochard. Du. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. cabre. kabas. kabat. band. Mid. Sp. gaggi. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . deponat a store closet. gatsch. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. kabaSsen. cables. cabarino. traboccare. whence Lang.Lat. and Or. stercus. headed or cabbage lettuce. From It. E. especially shepherd's frock. 'habl. ! — . cabane. the Prov.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. dirt and the Fr. Katr-iT-aKt. Choux cabus. a headed cole or cabbage . caqueter. cabuyskoole. a jacket Fr. string. — . cadabola. for the origin of which see Carabine. . originally an Gael. vincially used in E. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. havyar to caviare. name of the projectile engine. ckaable. . prostratio ad terram. E. Brushwood — — B. cdble. Lat. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre.. Tugurium. properly windfalls.Gr. as Diez supposes).. Sp. Cablisb. a rope. ceach / exclamation of guages. agga. Sw.Lat. chaable. — . — Kil. or cadable. — Tarbe. Du. cabacho. It is remarkable that the Esthon. a cloak of felt or Cack. Ptg. su/Furari. hut. dung. capuccio. dirty. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. form kactal. covering. hoard together. the Slavonian. gaggele. or as an interjection of disMod. is probably unconnected. Cot.. cabbage. Fr. Due. chabla. a booth or hut. Cappa in OSp. cabas. : — from violence without blood. capo. . Fr. agge.

one unduly indulged by. G. Lat. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. Calocli. The young G. loss. An open travelling chariot. A cuttle-fish. reed-pen. kolesb. so gabble corresponds with Fr. just falling. See Kiddier. its mother. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. a common cart. a hollow place. safe. unruly . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. to throw themselves into the sea. . ben- kalf. * Cade. Sp. Cake. — in a kiln. KxiKivh^o^. whence Lat. Caddy. coop. Sp. marrow. gaggle. the pith or soft part of wood. . bad . calidus. the bore of a cannon. a small stone. a cake or loaf. kaka. to cage. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. when they are said to poor. Cot. desire of land. a circle. Fr. Calamity.warmth . cadere. gavia. Caitiff. a falling. Serv. calf of leg. Flo. a dence. calessa. collop. Calamary. especially of something soft. Due. to prate much to little purpose. Originally from a Slavonic source. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. calx. pi. of oxen and similar animals. calendrer. Calp is riadh. Cadence. a corpse. Lat. kuchen. a wheel . A — fall. or colpa na coise. gabble. A . a wheel . a mischievous dial. pith. chaudiere. Calandre. cauldron. dial. a fever. cage. Cot. from Gr. a lump or large piece. Gascon capdet. Tea-caddy. cykevie. Cot. Cadaverous. Du. Lat. Turk. * Calibre. hot. Fr. A hooded carriage. kolo. lord. Perhaps from w. The Calf. calba. is probably delusive. calamus.uv. kolyasochka. babbhng. It. To Calender. little chief. to heat. Fr. on. from the Chinese catty. to sleek hence a den. lindrus. Dan. It. The Lat. kauwe. Lat. to gabble. As Du. Calf of the Leg. cuttle-fish. to cackle . master. calidus. Pol. whence calash. a waggon . a flippant tongue kaad dreng. cageoler. Fr. capitetum. lime whence calcareous. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. Calendar. of which. — — — Dan. It. a caFr. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump.— . ON. kat. a vessel for heating water. Lat. calendarium. calibre. roller. chattering. —Atkinson. ratas. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Gael. It. captive. cattivo (from Lat. the calf of the leg. the younger son of a family said to be from . gabberen is identical with E. Calc-. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. incolumis. B. KaKKat. gabbia. a roller. hence musical rhythm. Lat. for green fields. the pi. kolasa. a wheel. Lat. Fr. form) calderone.Gr. caldarius. the lump and the increase. coll. a wheel . From lerie. frisky. kdtr. prate. Mrs B. Cajol. kolesnitza. Sw. principal and interest. or prattle. wanton. colibro. cage. gabbia. Fr. to . a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. calcis. javioler. . calpa. hot . kalfvan hout. kdfich. Calcialate. from the ink-bag which it contains. calentura. kola. kalb. cadence. to treat like lime. cadenza. In the same way Fin. Du. G. joyous . ever and anon. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Turk. caioler. cavea. boy. pet lamb. loss. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). . En kaka br'od. Dan. kage. caliche. To Cajole. Cadet. an ugly waggon kolaska. wretched. kalfi. N. or smooth Hnen cloth. Fr. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. Russ. a calesh. from calculus. to — Fr. Cauldron. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. kalem. chetif. Lat. to compute. cha'cmie cadence. pen Mod. a counter used in casting accounts. kolo. an inkstand . a calash . 124 prattle . It. misfortune. Lat. Caldron. limestone. Du. dead body.— Cot. &c. rattaat (wheels). It is another form of the E. . jabber. calesa. calentar. Cage. a reed. kolo. taking it Sp. a cylinder. koeck. a loaf of bread. Arab. calamitas. kakulla. Lat. kolyaska. without loss.— Calliper. a car. a tea-chest. Sw. Cadge*. kaad. signifies a waggon. calculo. gaggia. a low note. naXaiidpi. Du. Sw. frolicsome kaad mund. capCalenture. kukje. (in the augm. calibre. a wretch. It. cadet. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. and troublesomely attached to. kail. of the nature of lime to calcine. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. ' . Sp. Roman reckoning. caldaria. Fr. from calendcE. cadaver. chaudron. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. cake. cabdillo. Lat. Calash. disease of sailors from tivus). kaeckelenj Gr.

having a thick skin. CALICO Calliper-compasses. According to Jal (Gl. overscalmaccio. sclopus. calcare. the scalp or skull.piicede Lat. dragoon. try. The reference to heat is preserved in. Fin.position is much less common than the geschut. to affirm. trull. The word was also written cawme in OE. to prattle. kind heat of the sun. Heb. to abuse . Fr. Fr. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. cauque. Callow. or languishing drought is . fistula. Lat. KaXka. harden by pressure. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . To century was Squalibre. E. CALM to press or stuff. gossiping. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. * Callet. Mil. the hard surface of the ground. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. faint. a successor. calma. Kil. calca. bombarda Cauma incendium. To Calk. them &c. Ibid. which has its memory preserved in Du. or caliever. Kil.' Whitby Gl. heat. and sometimes a handgun. piece of bigger circuite. . kol. given. klover. ram. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Diet. ululo Turk. Bi. Sp. whehce it was first brought. Dief. quality. the latter of chamber. whence couleuv. done with heat Alt. B. or mould. to callet. Mahn derives it from Lat. which is as much as to say.' Chaucer. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. moso. an adder. caillette. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). Turk. abto suppose that E. Sp. Ptg. coulevrine. a drab. u to an I in such a colubrum. Unfledged. calvus. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. skin hardened by labour. ' pert. donderbuchs Sp. Due. cahna. Calico. saucy. calor. couleuvre. kal. Calm. nautique). 'A callet of boundless tongue. Ca. depreciatory term for a woman. calclover. It. colubraria canna. hollaing. callus. calgua. form in the kalib. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. coluber. calcaich. oldire from audire. from Calicut in the E. and heat. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. calat of leude demeaning. Fr. but is only a jda-kallo. a. scalmato. koluvre. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. scold. to tread. drive. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. Lang. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram.en~ kinds of firearms. faint. hot. The origin is Gr. calo. calibre. culverin. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. — Fl. calma. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). calk. sence of wind. — — — — — . chatter. a round of abuse.meaning of the word. by many that the weapon Callous. prattle. colubrina. coluber also. a good calling. 125 Prov. Du. Diez. quA librd. word of mouth . Lat. Sc. quiet. voice. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. licht stuk The change from a. push violently. tittle-tattle. To drive tow or oakham. kahcwe. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. to say. to burn. So It. on. to call. to call. and dragon. NE. can be distinct from ODu. Indies. alta voce ploro. kil-u-kal. vulgo Coluvrine. dial. caluw.Lat.' But it is hard Du.. dragonder. kael. femme frivole et babillarde. water-tight.— . hallottaa. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. calicot. to be of a good or bad quality. Mid. Gael. chatter kallen. a feathers. serpentina. AS. a last. Gr. the heat of Now these Du. and E. glotton. To call. diameter of a ball.from Ka'tm. calibre. of the bore of a firearm met. cauma. * Caliver. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. calc. qAlab. Fr. to calk. Antiq. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. Among these were the turn. caliver. a soldier who the It. form. to rail or scold . They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. people's remarks. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. i.(jaa= ice).' Winter's Tale. Sup. khalif. bald. cotton cloth. ' rine. Kavfia. sound. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . the Fr. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. brawny. harquebus or handgun. of a column. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. the day. serpens. Call. calleting. Sir John Smith in Grose. overheated. kallo. . Derived by some from Arab. longior. kal.' Slange. callum. sestus. whereas in troth it is not. Caliph. Fin. kalla. to proclaim. heat. however. to hear. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. the Fr. tapulta. The primitive colubrina bombarda. to cram. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Hard. moist. — — — — — . calme. calare. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre.

camahutus. campus. to bow. From campus was formed Lat. It was distinfrom work. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. cam^e.—Candidate. Calyx. ckaouma. cup. candidus. Cambrel. to break. bis. camelus. samon. catmneo. to bend. chandelle. the calix. Cot. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. slander. Fr. the type of a hollow pipe. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. open and level ground. from candere. aged. Calumny. brought from Fr. the heat. mg Canister. Camel. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli.Lat. B. Canal Channel. nia. a field Greek monk. good. fresh. icaSoytipoe. E. Fr. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. ation. calj'x. An eater of human flesh. Sp. — Lat. callar.— Hackluyt in R.—Jam. frank and sincandidatus. Lat. Campaign. Kakoycpos. E. co7nbar. callour. is Candle. Mid. to bend. campagne. Cancer. having an aquiline nose. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. the salmondis faillis thair loup. toile some of whom. Fr. KafivTu. It. lame. camaien. a goblet bud. had no r in de bric— Cot. Sp. Candid. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Or the word Lat. — B. crook. is Cambering. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. crooked. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. See Canker. Camlet. lattice. camiscia. to the force of the wind. clothed in white. Sanson khanda. cambre. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. canna. would plenier. camiscieia. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Calver of cane. campo. cAouma. From fluting or furrow in a column . to jut. In a different application It. on. Arab. camisa. canalis. Ptg. sore. whence Fr. Cann. arched. campagna. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Pers. field . Fr. The Grisons cauina. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Gr. Caloyer. Lat. — Cancel. Canker. to glow. cambren. a basket. died in 1526. arched.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. water chamlet . champagne. Mod. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. cere : Lat._ kamm. Lat. Sp. Lat. cainahelus. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. cancello. cup. a large drinking . campagna. candela. A — the Cannibals. a. Camp. sugar. se cameloter. chommer. KafitjUe. and yspiuv. from xaXbg. Cambrav—Cam. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. monk. white. w. whence the Fr. different sections of the like the Chinese. paign. crooked. calutmiia. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Camisade. crooked. whence the noun signifying an applicant. camafeo. Lat. campo. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. a piece.Gr. spot for cattle. Canine. camisade. Candy. Lat. at the ends.— Chandelier. a dog. . camp. a crab. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. It. Properly calver in the field during a war. canis. salmon. a. cancer. Cameo. It. a caught.who their language. Fr. champ. Palsgr. aspirant. cambr^. an eating. It. Fr. E. B. campaign. Gr. — — — A — — escume de saumon. canistrum. Fr. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. arch. properly good country. India Islands. crooked-stick. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. fair. ko/utuXoc. the space of false imputation. camber-nosed. lie level. when its substance appears inter. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. higher in the middle than Fr.. Lat. across — Bellenden in Jam.— B. the spersed with white flakes like curd. It.—Cambrel. .conduit-pipe. kanna. also an eatmg sore. a may have acquired that signification from plain. campren. Cambric. to warp. Peter Martyr. Canibal. chamold man. chaitcre. the bed of a stream. a' Sc. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. hooked. unwater chamelot . Turk. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. cambrer. Bret. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. It.' Forme of Cury in Way. or hollow of a flower. camelot.' ' Quhen a lattice. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. Cambray. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. or Caribs. Fr.

a ruler. cantref. haitt. coarse hemp. from cant. schlapp. coat. a ship canot. caparazon. gnat. Du. &c. Fr. cane. The meserseum and the mesentericum. Goldast — in in Schmid. Jonson. kand. If the word had been from cantherius. a hunch of bread. also a measure. Cantle. the tried list of saints. capax. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. lump. a division of a country. a wine-cellar or vault. cannu. and tref. was formed Kavtiiv. To canvas — . quito curtain. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. a tube. To Canonise. Canton. quarter. Canon. kantr. kyndel. capa. a corner.. cantina. Palsgr. a cover Turk. cappe. N. From Lat. cantle then is a corner of a thing. cane. Canopy. &c.^on. pipe. side. Of vena cava and of vena porta. kapamak. cope. Cot. carcase . root cap. a reed. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. KCLvva. canapaccia. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Picard. Sp. or hold. It. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. a door .n. say. canvas. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. measure for cloth. Schwab. a cloak kapali. canteau. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. canoa. margo panis diffracta. A slow gallop. has kahn. coarse hempen cloth Fr. border Dan. part. From Gr. Lat. astrology. shut. B. chanteau. . a straight rod. chantel. Diez. Capacious. It. It. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. to shut. Probably only the augmentative of canto. Kavt\. schlappen. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. from a Canter. hood. kaput. region. like a torch or candle. The — . Gugel. tain. It. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. a reed. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. canon. from canna. cantone. cannevaccia. he discourseth of dissection. to con- rummer. kq. Mod. contain. But it may be different source. and met. the part easiest broken off. covered. chape. W. See Chape. as a cantle of bread. hemp. or cantell of bread. . capevole. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Coal burning with bright flame. a cap. Sp. canton.CANNEL vessel. Fin. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. as. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. the heel. canonici. Capari. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. cappa. . Alamannis. Sp. hamlet. ON. the heel. a small boat. being a yard or thereabouts . Canoe. Canteen. canapa. a drinking glass. KaTTiram. properly a large Prov. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. to sing. The word seems to be taken from Gael. can. is found languages of very different stocks. from . To his judicial And trowl the tile. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. hemp. cape. Gael. a — A — Cannel Coal. from Dan. a torch. cane. canonicus. cannone. Germanis kdppen. a pipe. Again we have Lat. a side. clqse. Fr. Wtb. canevas. trine. the quartile. Esthon. . See Capt-. a cane. and hence a gobbet. Capable. which is not the case. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. a cantle of bread. a hundred. cane. territorial hundred. capello Italis.— Cot. rumme. a scull- — here. Swab. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. corner. cappe. cantred. signifying cover. a rule or standard of excellence. Cant. a gelding. that the G. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. Kil. to put upon sacred writers. edge. A . a boat. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. Mod.Gr. cheese. Cape. Cope. canto. it would have been found in the continental languages. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a horn of the moon . Canvas. Cannoii. cainnt. speech. It. Prov. A piece of anything. able to receive. kandt-broodts. quarter . name. a cloak. kanta. cover . cover kapi. kynnel. It. kwvwxIi. a Fr. Fr. language. leiwan kanta. cannevo. border. and the sex- &c. hirnschlapple. Hence Lat.Gr. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. OFr. regular. capace. It. to contain. cannabis. call. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise.

to . a yearning through sudden fear. arricciarsi. horror. So from Sw. as Fr. to ruffle the surface of water. grisser. wriggle. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. or other things. The same imitation of Capon. or goat's leap (done by a horse). curl. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. It. knis. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. ribrezzo. ticchio. explained by Diez from capra. castrated. ericius. caper j caprio. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. ziki. to broil. Capillary. as Fr. G^' Many words — ' ndv. It. Fr. cut off. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. curly. shrub.) grezille marid.standing on end. CAPRICE twittering. upon terms Sp. capitulare. Lat. chief. castrated cock. frisser {frissement d'un trait. end. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. and with an initial gr instead of br. a young kid met. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. hair. It. a little head.' — (Supp. algabr. to twitter as birds. or represented by the syllable e. grisser. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. 75. erica. brisoler. brisciare. capriole. aggricciare. It is probable that Gr. the head. II bresole (Gl. arricciarsi. humorous. and 7tucc. cappriccio. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. to shiver for cold. greziller. Mod. greziller. a caterpillar. kid.impressions on the ear. a . cut. Caper. then to shiver or shudder. cover of a saddle. of a coach. compared with Bret. capriola. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle.— 128 CAPE a rustling. Fr. and OHG. It. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. brisciare. Fr. roughening of the skin. a capriol. caprice It. Torriano. to crackle. or Lat. Capers. brug. The true derivation lies in a different direction. h^risser. birsle. capillus. shivering. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. for which he cites the Comask nucia. to crackle. to fry. gricciare. and his body bristled We to castrate.'— Trev. capitalis. prickly husk of chestnut. brissle. principal. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. hi. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. of a tremtdoiis sound. chattering of the teeth. of a fowl. knis-hujwud . brisciare. the singing'bone). as in Lat. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . gives rise to brezza. It. See Chief. a chevret. capparis. to parch. bristling. s'hdrisser. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi.Gr. is either wholly lost. according to the Hindoos. the hair to stand on end. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. It. horripilation.— Fl. airoKOTrrw. also the capriole. Lat. w. It. grug. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. the hair to stand on end. Capital. A headland. capriol or caper in dancing. sault. toy. belonging to From caput. capar. a separate division of a matter. Unexpected pleasure. — — A a hair. the head. Genevese bresoler. a head. a kid. ^piKos. a hedge-hog. And similarly to yearn. Sp. gricciare. — to yearne. a buck. herissonnement. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. caj)o. a caper in dancing. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. grillcr. a ch illness. shivering. the principal part of the debt. frissoner. then find the symptoms of shivering. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. hedge-hog. To treat Capitulate.). heath.) d'etre The It. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. where Burton adds in a note. curling. Caprice. capro. crackling sound Cape. Cot.' Cot. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. bruco. eruca compared with It. brezilia. Lang. or. riccio. bristling. then to be in a state of vibration. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. fansuddenly angry. to from capitulum. cApre. frizzle. a goat. to broil. abridge amKoTroq. Lat. with joy' Vikram. caprice. Hal. Arab. alcaparra. <I>pi'?oe. It. p. as Fr. they longed extremely to see it. Hair-like. frort^Lat. Acad. the initial mute of forms like Gr. Fr. Griller d'im' patience. rihrczzoso. A . rissoler. to desire earnestly. gives rise to Sc. to shudder. Hence capitalis the sum lent. Fl. frisson- ner . I have shivered with love. to shiver. Lat. as the means of earning profit. .

verbs gives rise to the element . capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. In the S. or the (capo-riccio). cabreia. the -cevofthe Fr. to carry . desire. Cot. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. a taking back. to take to. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. at least. Du. carretta. It. deception. capuccio. conceive. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. Fin.. a creaking waggon. It. recepte. Lat. one odd. perceive. char. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. also to carry on a car . Fr. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Carbine. deceit. krul. caprice. calabrino. kerren. OSp. charrier.of these compound verbs. karista. Sp. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. acceptus. &c. chirriar. chevre. to load . precept. Etym. whence capture. where it forms a very large class of compounds. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. Fr. See Caper. fancy. intercept. recevoir. capitano. capitis. captus. Capuchin. also a kind of rack. a capuchin. also tresFl.). — — Capstan. It. carabin. captivate. concebir. Passing on into E. Nordfoss. conception. Neumann. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. de- price. Caseneuve in Diet. to this is It. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. case. Fr. 129 — receive. Fr. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . It.or -cib-. Fr. cabestan.s. Fl. i The meaning Car. shivering fit (Altieri). karren. G. crepo. a cloke) capuccino. strideo. contain. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. as in OFr. latterly. to accept. a fantastical humour. seize. to creak. Lat. of capsa. a hood (dim. Capstern. karra. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. Capt-. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. capsula. oisr. cams. and of captus to an e. of the Sp. as the dragoons (Du. was converted into -ceb. caThe hrestante. -cept. a sudden fear apprehended. Carry. from head. concevoir. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. Cart. a reception. a kind of torture. bock. conceit. trestle. was originally a missile . charger. however. capra. tnoschetta.. a head man. a hooded friar. caricare. hold. chirrion. Fr. captive. — —Diet. dim. a. It is a standing crab. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. &c. Derivatives are Fr. as in accipio. to creak. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. a sawing-block or trestles. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. Sp. charret. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. concept. fantastic. sels. a coffer. Cot. karrende waegen. Du. a she-goat. a sudden will. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Thus the musket. capp%tccio. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. Castr. and tropically. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. crab s.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. decepte. to please. -cept. box. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. caput. an engine for throwing stones. a windlass. Carabin. commander. It. Crab. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. and has accordingly been lost in E. In cases. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. Lat. di cappa. accept. was a kind of horse soldier. Captain. carro. a cart. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. a. to take baclc. except. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. and has thus descended unaltered to English. recipio. cabrestante (whence e. cabestrantej Fr. Capsule. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. Carabine. calabrin. The It. -ceive. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. Kiittner.). &c. Capriole. receptus. cabra. Lat. recipere. to take. . It. It. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. recibir. to receive receptio. capio. concipere. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. Fr.

carmiiiarc. carere. of the same Caravan. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. a quiver . word is only an adoption of the Turk. Carat. to card wool. cdrlag. or framework. It. Mod. an engine for hurling stones. carduus. Caraool. military engines made for hurling stones. Cot. bock and Fr. eitar. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. mural attack. and catapulta. garafa. matter. Exot. a winding staircase. vitriol. carate. I. Sp. a ripple for flax. karra.' From the same source are SicU. bend. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. . — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. Card. a thistle. Gael. Carbuncle. kerwan. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. It. Caravel. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. burning coal. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Lat. a battering-ram). half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. silique. is the chine. Bohem. the trunk or chest of the body . a quiver. poison eiz. the case of the flesh. the husk or cod of beans. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. carcanada. cabra. Gr. An implement for dressing wool. contract. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Fr. carbo. karszti. Ptg. ON. to ripple flax. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. the . ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. in the same way that the Sp. carbh. wine- bottle. an ulcer. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . fire . It. the dead body of any creature. to turn. a quiver . cardo. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain.. carcasa. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. a coffer. also a small weight. the core of fruit . caraffa. karri. seed of carob. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. krciti. skeleton toise. turning. Pers. carcaij. carquasse. a case or chest . to comb wool . OHG.— — — . the name might naturally Mod. &c. the shell of a torcarcasso. a skeleton. the carcase of a fowl. properly a siege machine. a collar or chain for the neck. W.charcoal . decanter. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. the carob bean. Fr. to hiss (as gee^e). a snail.applied to a battering-ram (G. Sp. case. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . a thistle. caracal. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. Sp. It. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. ancient springald. a dead carcase. car. KtpaTwv. caravela. &c. restraint . «capa'|8i. cabreia. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Carrob. winding carach. cramp. Sp. a he-goat. The radical meaning . kirat. a goat. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Carcase. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. cabrita. to creak. — seems to be something holding together. a kind of ship. tcapKaai. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a wool card. Venet. a quiver. a prison. . Carboy. caraffe. Derived in the first edition from Mod. shell. kard boyd. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. quse vocant karabd. . to draw in. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. carta. skeleton. ' Vasa vitrea. AS. It. turn of a horse. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. &c. carcanet. a card or comb . . is the word used in modern Lat. constraining . card. Cot. Fr. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning.z. a gem resembling a live coal. Carbonaceous. The Trjg xeXwwac.. carbunculus (dim. cassa. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. avSpaS.Gr. carcame. for a gun. casso. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. carquois. boch. See Carpenter. Parmesan cassiron. a machine for casting large darts. Gael. a firelock. Cat. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. copperas. Arab. Comp. a twist. coming to four grains.Gr. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. carabe. black dye. chevre by the name of the goat. carquan. a lock of wool . curry-comb. a crane. Carcax. cerran. of carbo). From the battering-ram. Fr. to comb. designated in the case of G.. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . eit. carch. carabba. winding. . quilato. Gr. p. to card wool. a ship. to curry horses karsztuwas. confining. wool card. Gael. Sp. skeleton.. Lat. Gael. alia sunt majora. Lith. espi7igarda. a small weight.. also (as Gr.

the time during which to Rom. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. Care. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. road. whence carricare. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. OHG. bottom.— Charter. niggardly . to care unkarja. Fin. karista. Venet. cardinis. parched or carled. OFr. — — . to load. carnalis. crosier. charag. morosus. caresse. to love. dear. or street. murista. camovale. is to say. to clean the bottom of the ship. essere in carena. kroU-erbser. Bois crolant d'un ladre. carena. karrig. stingy. wool cards. voce strepo stridente. in Carp. A mod-carag. karantez. . G. . the hull of a ship. sorrow. AS. Carnage. to lie on its side. From. in N. carnal. Carenare. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. Properly a car-road. a turn.Lat. clown or churl. — — — Caress. charnage. to comb wool. a highway. carian. cearig. . carriera. — — Diez. For the root of carminare. giierlir. cura may be ror. . soUicitus OSax. a hinge. like connection may be seen between Fin. murren. caricare. Carl. ress. Ptg. is This however Shrove tide. . W. murahtaa. carminare. Cark. Fr. . asper. sensual. Fr. &c. to parch. It. Farewell flesh. Card. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. stridere. tremble. It. car. Cath. from caricare. It. A quirito ut infans. combing them out like the knots in wool. winding. Trin. Carnal. to scrape . Mur. w. immediately before the long fast of Lent. quadrifurcum from quameet. kara. Bret. Translated in MS. caricatura. Sp. 8. charnel. gakaran. charie. AS. sgritudo animi. be anxious. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. ON. A place where four roads Mid. crawl. and murhet. Cot. It. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. Cot. the keel of a vessel. as carminare. 2. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. cardo. to rumble. care. croller. Chart. that Fl. the old theory of humours. carch. an endearment. to take Goth.— CARD karr-kambar. careless take care of. caritia. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. and thin. as quadrivium from Carnaval. carnasciale. care on. Properly. . solicitous. It. quaver a lazar's clack. W. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Gael. to load. Fr.' Slceat. and sum. kummer. to card wool. to fry or broil. astutus. meet at a head. fleshy . Coll. also a career on horseback. kurista. Groler. weyes. to comb flax or hemp. to whirr (schnurren). from carrus. Fr. a deed. carriire. grolU. cargar. A medical term from line —Boerio. No ' place there had. what is felt as grievous. karg. to fry. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. four. carena. the several meanings of the words above Rom. that on wliich the matter hinges. msstus. carezza. cdrle. strideo. carener. cearian. de Parthenay. caru. Fl. to shake. to eat flesh. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. from Lat. Champ. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. cura intenta. tenax. . Fr. to distress growl. love. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. record. It. Fr. rixosus. charger. G. crowl. carFrom carrus. Peas steeped and fried. carnis. to growl. scharren. from carus. charta (Gr. principal. charneux. the load of a ship. — To Careen. ignarus. and compare Bret. to scratch. karl. carnavale. p. Caricature. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. a card. beans. 1S66. chartre. place for exercise on horseback. & Q. the keel. affection. to load. Lat. 273. Fr. appertaining to the flesh. W. at murmuring. male person.. and G. Sept. piger. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. hoed. from the keel to the water . cargo. a man. Bret. act of moaning. Cot. quarreG. grief. Dan. ceorl. or grumbling —Due. carcare. Cargo. kribina.Lat. Probably the origin of the word is the . E. carrefourg. morosus sum. moeThe Lat. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. It. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. in St Jerome. graller. mutter. kumra. zanken . Charnel. as peas. surrata. — Carfax. Carminative. AS. charg. Carled peas. Carlings. tuorfurcm (Burguy). compared with Fin. Lat. carcus. see Garble. sorrow.. ON. caMid. — — — : Cardinal. an overloaded representation of anything. Fin. karout. regar. Fr. the flesh of animals . intrasset caro. one of those ac- 9 * . fundamental. Sp. carina. kargr. Roquef. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. karry. Cartel. x'»P'"^s)) paper.

Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. chirp. Shrove Tuesday. Carpenter. or a carouse fully drunk up. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. i. Mediol. . Sp. of Guiana. cited by Marsh. i. Carpyn or talkyn. Sup. I drink all out. Lat. . carduz. On the other hand bumper to one's health. 94).' Reg. linteamen. Ein we find the signification transferred from . culcitra. carpita. litter. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. carpat (Stokes). — . Pref. Teut. Mid. 2. cxciv. Biheld within. whence the form carnasciale. Nomin. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. to pluck. peta. Olr. 216. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric.'— Stat.: . to rustle. carpetrix.gonnella.' says Motley (United Neth. Carpitam habeat in lecto. The word seems of Celtic origin. Lat. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. lint. bier. 2. zimmerspan. querole.]e bois Carnelevale. Fr. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. Dief. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. charpie. Properly a round dance. On this. carpetam (a quilt?). used for stuffing mattresses. Gael. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. Lat. to reel. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. carpo. chariot carbad. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. chatter skra/a. is erroneous. on that. .Why give's some wine then. Mid. carpende fast Carol. Palsgr. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. as E. ON. cariielevamen or carnis levamen.— Drant in R. pluck at. Pr. to pull asunder. The tippling sots. Alluz (G. a dance. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. charpentier. e. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. The ' ' a chariot. carbh. Carpet. gar aus / all out is correct. as carnaval from carnelevamen.— Patriarchi. A. Cot. ' ' — . carpenticre. In a MS. ship. CarTo quaff carouse do use. in Carp. as the Lat. was formed Mid. carpenta. carpia. act of drinking a full Eq. Bohem. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Here's to you still my captains friend. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. To pledge them thou refuse. In Dominica d'autant.Lat. a song accompanying a dance then. Templariorum — ' — Due. gonna. ballare. Bret. koroll. All out B. yede tham about. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. zimmer.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. The custom. course. a car carpentarius. Carnevale. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. all aus). fabulor. to dance. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. cardos. krapanj. Carole. a carder. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. The karole of the stones behelde. quoted by Carpentier. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. skraf. in Due. Analogous R.— R. and Carnem laxare (It. a drinking cup. Chanson de carole. Ant. carpenter only in the latter sense. to talk. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. to dance. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. tymmer.Lat. From Lat.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. biheld without.Lat. chatter. at midnight which derivation from kroes. a plank. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. garrire. to gather.D. maker of waggons It. vel coopertorio carebit. a wheelwright. carpere. So gone they forthe. Carnelevale. krapati.— Neum. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. a wheelwright. in Nat. differing To Carp. Pm. 1 1 30. qui sacco. to chatter coroli. 760. tattle. balade from It.' Raleigh. or loose as a couch without further preparation. Other names of the sea. ! Carouse. W. Gower in Way. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Discov. and F. sense. Fr. garrulo. as Fr. pluck. — — ' ' — — — I — — . to find fault with. carnelascid).' Ordo Eccles. worker in timber Fr. Beggars Bush. I quaught. carpentum.

where Fr. — Cartoose.' Cot. Cash. Fr. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. fortuitous. OE. cartilage. cartone. case-maiej Sp. Walach. mord-grube. bag and baggage of a camp. Casque. hull of a ship. The carrying of anything. Cart. and that apparently from capio. ceorfan. a loopscale the wall. packing ' cloth. Fr. See Case. empty. capsa (Diez). Fl. Casket. Carrion. a coffer or small case for jewels. a chest. kirpti. slaughter-house. It. — FI. G. void cassare. Cot. Casuist. carota. carogna. dim. Fl. cut with scissors. casso. Lith. hollow. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. ' Casa-matta. coffer. Lat. the charge of — — Fr. As defence from shells became more important. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. pasteboard. to convey in a cart. cashiered. fall It. carroc- carrozza . cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. luggage. casser. to shear. casacca. shell or carcase of a house. It. Fr. charogne. to break. to dash. a canonry or slaughterhouse. like all the names of tendon. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. It. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Fr. — — . It. hung up in some place and to be removed. gristle. card. Rouchi caroche. cascare. Du. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . cancelled. of carta. Fr. Du. Case. Cot. To Carry. cartouche. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. casag. charrette. kasseren. quasser. caro. mata. not reaching to the height of the ditch. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Hence casket. and the OE. afterwards any written challenge. Case-mate. casualis. Fr. It. corresponding to the G.' — Hdcart. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. discharge It. casitiste.' Bailey. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. from It. a of water. carrosse. Fr. caxa. to crack. paper. cassere. to — — also casse. Cartel. a merchant's cash or counter. — — nul the proceeding. properly to convey in a car. caisse. a car. cascar. coffin of paper for groceries. the money chest. house. AS. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. It. made void. Cask.. Ready money. an augmentative from Lat. discharge. to slay. Carrot. — Cartridge. to fall. an act of falling. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. subject for a picture. cartoccio. Sp.— Fl. crown of a hat. Lat. casa. a paper case.' Fl. and matar. Gael. charrier. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. AS. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Probably. Cassock. To Cashier. to notch. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. casus. It. a chance or accident. gristle. Lat. quash. break to pieces. caroche. Fr. for the security of the defenders. cassette. from It.to annul. a car. To duash. from Lat. kerven. abrogate. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. mord-keller. Preparatory drawing of a It. cascade. krat. from the sound it makes when Alban. caroach. to bear or carry. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. kerpu. Rouchi carone. to fire on the enemy. a hut. from casa. casa-maita. one who reasons on cases put. as we . Lat. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. It. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. to an- — Kil. turn out of service. bitten. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. caisse. Fr. cassa. casaque. Fr. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Rouchi carpHe. cassa. Flor. carriaggio. To quash an indictment. See Card. casco signifies a skull. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Casual. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. crush. Carriage. augm. cascata. carroccio. helmet. It. Fr. long man's gown with a close body. See Gristle. case. annul. a fall. Cascade. kerben. of carro. a long coat. Cartoon. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. Rouchi carter. casuelj Fr. something that actually occurs. cia. Case. augmentatives of carro. to cut or carve . cassus. carretto. vault hole in a fortified wall. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Sp. to hold. blotted out. also the carriage. cartella. CartOTicli. tion from Sp. ignominiously exposed. carreaggio. Fr. Hence a challenge openly hung up. The Sp. caisse. cancel. carretta. To Carve.

an enumerlist.Rouchi Scaches. to end. Lang. Gr. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. is not satisfactory. . and from the castus. follow after. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Fr. squash. castanetazo. name. Lat. kotas. or bruise together. — We a cavity. Catalogue. _G. or comba. catch. down. Isidore — in Diez. castana. to scourge. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. to lash. casupola. 120.. It.the / or c respectively. to fall as over a precipice. to crack. cat. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. a chesnut . down. kic' kicil are used chasser. to bring to an crack given by the joints. fall. chasuble. B. to break. Castanets. Castle. OFr. a garment for performing the mass in. ichasses. ' Catchyn away abigo. punch. same word with break. of sarabands does Gr. chat. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. kasta. which has been retained in E. coming to us through different dialects of French. fer toTa. squash. cash. torture. burst cascare. Chase. katze. . Sp. casser. however. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Fr. castello. The E. Hence castaneta. chasser. image accasciare. a Cataract. kat. ating. of castrum (castra).' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Pol. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. Fr.to drive out. to cast or beat to tioner . &c. cacciare fuora. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. to Fl. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . shaft of a 1 push. a little house or hut. speak of dashing a thing down. It. klakka. . Cat. a vault. Pic. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Others explain it from Kara. Brunne. Cast. represented by the syllable quash. V Lith. cat-o'-nine. drive away. n. perhaps from which we have E. Mid. probably from an imita. KaTappaKTrjQ. stilts. kasi. the stalk of plants. force j Rouchi equerviche. puss / for calling them. ON. a cat koshki. to is Essentially the Sp. puras E. a cat . cacciarc. cojz^/a. to drive Cat o' nine tails. cascar. from the first of Castrate. The Diet. Roukind. like that of It. Yz. to hunt. Fr. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. cast. kakka. casipola. signifying breed. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. castro. KaTaarpifm. and KviilSog. in the fire. Hal. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. the earlier sense of catch.'— Pr. So also from It. to torture. Gr. Fr. mino. Sp. . arpi^m. second chase. cacciuolo. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. ecrevisse. to dash. execu. tails. chaleur. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. being Fin. KaraXoyog. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. catar. to look at. koshka. first made ordinary Fr.Lat. to clack. Fr. away.out cacciare . kotas. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. dashing it to pieces. rack. the castanets for or implement . to make clean or chaste. by the loss of with several pitched cords. kissa. or Rouchi cat. . Fr. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. 134 CAST Catacomb. to turn overturn. 'Vaaaw. to drive away. casulla. V. dashing it out of the window. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . race. kaJoivad. castellum. accastiare. Fr. It. a thump. casule. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. Gael. to crackle. the ground . R. crush . was introduced. which. heat . to hurl See Awgrim. kottr. KarapaKrr]g. In the dialect of Picardy. Catastrophe. Etym. on. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. under chi caleur. from water Karappaaaiii. To It. Lat. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. to close. dash. cassa / cry for the same purpose. To Catch. a whip on the other into latch. dim. while kiss / Pol. lance. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. Fr. Pm..— Fl. Thus we have Caste. and tomba. Cot. handle of an axe. sue. chasser. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. bot-kotis. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. a fortified place.

the distance to which the ball is struck. the the same principle he was Fr. to teach by oral instruction. pedes. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . Chate peleuse. snatched. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. head. which all . from Gr. smack. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. in order). one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. latch. catch. to chatter with the teeth cake.V. to take. s. bicho. Guernsey pilleure. klinke. to the crack. clatter. klatsch. e. with and without an / after the c. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte.s. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Ptg. Swiss Lombard G. c or ^. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Gr. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. a caterpillar Milanese can. de Bray. the OE. and answer. chasse. devouring mite or weevil. Kil. . caucht. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. In the XV'e. GaUa catchiza. to kythe D. chacepol.. E. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. kaetse. clap.from Bard and ayopsw. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart.yopl(. catc?u. an accusing. Cot. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. Sc. — tinman. cache. snatching it with a any one. Rouchi clincailleux. compare G. chase. e. ' ' word catch. Cates. seize. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. . P. gingle. chink. 'Bxn. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion .V. wild-beast. bichano (pussy).' CATCH Fr. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. G. worm. Fr. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. a. has both or of charming by sound. glcu.) . clap with the hand. On Catechism. catch-flesh. apprehend a person. chatter . E. cat is not apparent. . — . catch. Fr. KaTtix'so. a whip. Guernsey chafer. fragor kletsoore. to snatch (said of dogs). ecachoire. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . a whip or Kuttner. sound. Diez. Caterer. a little dog). millecaterpillars. as of the latch of a As ! — . woodlice. a cornIn the s. * Caterpillar. or any kind of relishing food tuals. an officer of taxes. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. a — gatta. formerly called cliket. flap klatsche. — B. ' Fr. klatscherei. — Kiittner. Gael. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. whip. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. chenille {canicula. cagnon (a dog). Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread.P. Du. door when it is shut. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. kletsen. Sp. klatschen. Grandg. Du. from shutting with a click. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. E. a carter's Pat. 'Horxa. . to chat. OFr. Cot. — explained. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s.j. silkworm. a pill. to harangue. ArbaUte de courte chasse. ketsoore. to snap. called in Fr. is said that he got a claucht of it. gliong.' ^Jam. latch of. caker. — with a whip. Du. Kil. to catch strength. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. a whip Rouchi cachoire. to A bailiff. icarrix'Ki^. verberare kUts. weevils. Fr. Wal. called dog or Galla catchamza. children's name for cat . 135 — Aasen. Tutschek. dainties. Claucht. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. i. predicament. Kartiyopta (/cari. resono ictu lash. . snatching. companaige. chatter. a. kletse. chachara. insect. the elements of a science. Gael. gattola. a whip. a clap. to clap hands. a smack. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. claquer. instruction in forms. klatsche and Norm. blow. — Catcli-poll. * Cates. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. to crack GATES cache. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. happe-chair. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). quincailler. chassoire. dainty vic- a form lash. Metivier. resound. ictus resonans.

kdtzchen. kobuiV. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Jaubert. a horse. cavaliere. and at the rich man's cost By sea. catkin Magy.p. The word — . primitive is meaning a shale or off. make clean. Boethius. flue. rete A — Prov. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. to beware. kautsije. a branding from koiio. Russ. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. katteken. by land. . kassije. cat maczoka. to sound like a blow . arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. chauderon. to buy. apt to burn iron. CAVE Caul. . Palsgr. It. mudet.. Ka^afriKOQ. Lat. a kind of skull-cap. fur in general. Cathedral. accapitare Rouchi acater. capull. from caveo (p. Chaud.. deyntie meates. catkin Pol. what . having the property of cleansing. a The peel. to ac- — Fr. On the other hand. It. lamb. Lat. Rete. Richly she feeds. puss. Kil. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. a kettle for heating water. hollow. otherwise written kell. Cavalier. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Mid. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. hot. Cathartic. a road calceata. Caballus. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. catkin mitz. KiwariKog. Diez). cabbage-stalk. a horse . That he was ay before in his estate. 2. Gr. little cap is . acaptar. fur. to shoe. Fr. Lat. . catons. kobyla. Causeway. Cavity. KaPaWrii. It. Caudle. cale. Caustic. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Lat. Du. adcaptare. from KaSaipio. Kavrijp. puss. Catkin. Jonson in R. to shoe . KaHSpa. achepter. caballus. green husk of a calon. Cavern. to purge. calceta. Fr. a horseman. klopfend knallen. and hence a skull-cap. chair. to shale or peel. Cauldron. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. calidus. via strata.^Hal. dumpf tonen. Gr. A warm comforting drink. challe was ther of a temple. Du. Gr. It. chatideau.Lat. kaussijde. any Fl. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. to burn. walnut with the husk on challer. cauHs. Sx. cabbage). Fr. macska. Delycates. w. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Port. Palsgr.^ acheter (Lat. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. calceata. and spareth for no perell. is Prologue. minon. Cavalry. Fr. cal^ar. OE. a mare. . a horse . chausser. koparet. Fr. chaudiire. . • — — See Chattel. 4. Caution. B. mutz. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. the. Fr. but the acates that are sent him. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. kitten kotki. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. &c. accattare. cale. . net or caul-work. the caul of the liver. Kavrfipiov.willow. Dryden in R rete. causa.' B. kocie. hot. shaled or picked Fr.' Elyot in Way. Gael. chaudroii. Cave. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. chevalier. calqada. a pavement. reticella. flock. . ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. quire. CATHARTIC sense. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. calotte. a paved road. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Lat. Pr. a seat. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Lat. Bessie of Bednall. It. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. — Cauterise. from delf^gato. G. Provider. Mid. ce^l.—— — 136 correct. Cavalcade. kocianki. a receptacle for small things. Pol. chaussJe. a pulpit. cheval. kin. Cause. caple. also to pave . catkins . caul is also a small net to confine the hair. cautis. choufleur {choii. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. cautus). in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. Fr. a stalk. from chaud. caudex . kopista. cavus. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. Manciple's Tale. Thus Bav. Fr. whence cathedralis.Lat. cabbage. Cattle. — . Fr. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Fr. Wyatt in R. katte. the stones of a street. hazel. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Fin.Y\\Xea. caldo. little cat. despencier. ' Gr. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. puss. kopano. acater. — — cavallo.

' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . dScis. a fir-plank. give place. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. of cavezza. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. —Decease. and zaum. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. CAVESON kopera or kowera. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. were met. a head. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. death. &c. to seele or close with boards plancher. plank. . ciel de lit. cabegon. 5. to panel or wainscot MHG. to plank or floor with planks. yield. ciel is so unbroken. a boarded floor. ceiling. semely on syll. Fr. The line of descent from Fr. in Hal. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. to cut. sky. thili. lambrisser une chambre seeling. To seele a room. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. to go forth. &c. Cede. kommata. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. an aquiline nose. B. syle. post. It. hollow. — . VIII. beam. Sp. a severe bridle. — komo tain). Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. the inner roof of a room of state. and that from Sp. dil.j have come from this source. 7. Sherwood. Hal. crooked kopio. the deck of a ship at thilja. jaa. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. Boyd in Jam. the roof of a coach. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. heaven. as. to plank ON. flooring E. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Sir 137 pit . -cease. &c. 43. a board. The It. . departure from this life. caveqon.' del. kapp-zaum. sill in window-sill. 32. The sense of roofing. heaven. cellar. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. a log. a canopy. in Jam. p. Fr. cedo. tester of a bed. to argue capto tiously. cease.' Rutland papers. the testern of a bed. Plancher. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. syl. but hang around at the sides.). pp. Cam. wall. succeed. plank. augm. canopied. hung. sill. thil. Wore. that. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. a planking or boarding tkilian.' Cot. proceed. Soc. Cavil. cabega. . dayntily diglit. del into English without ' translation gave cele. to canopy siled. a canopy. excess. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. a log. . it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. . of E . . . 'A celler to hange in the chamber. — — — toyour soverane. koppeli. &c. and Gol. So from Fin. bridle. a plank. menuiserie. . selure. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. in Jam. . Ceiling. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. seele. The importation of Fr. curved. lambris. selar. coffer. board . decessus. deal. ... wainscot thiljar (in pi. . In the N. recede.'— Z. a halter. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. cessum. is applied to a canopy. cesso. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. as if from happen. or of a bed. dille. cielo.' — Gawan . thil. thilja. H. door-sill J Sc. Cease.). quibble. thelu. applied to a canopy. . the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. komo. Lat. nailes will begin to cling. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka.' Ordinances and Reg. Lat. a log. Cot. step away. komista. also a seeling of boards. -ceed. See -cede. Fr. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. a beam. Fr. And seik — Cessation. A — A false accommodation produced G. -cess. Hence concede. -cede. Gawaine & Sir Gol. a hut. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. Lat. sybire. — . thiling. IV. p. cavillor. little house. wuoren komo. Lat. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. and then to gape. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. rafter. departure. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. sus-lambris. exceed. hivtmel. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. . thel. ceiling. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. E.' Marriage of James IV. hollow ice . cyling (W. cavezzone. empty. column E. In the same way G. with their substantives concession. hollow.' Hall.

to rate. deceit. his office. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. oil. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. See Celibacy. Lat.cern. point. Censure. Centurion. sacred show. thronged the participle cretus. family. -cipio. sift.j 138 thill. Certain. KsvTpov. Cess. Fr. as in some places burnt. from censeo. Lat. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. -cess.ing a room where there is not fire. cerealis. Celebrity. . Cot.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. empty. In Celebrate. Lat. cretum. concerner. but was gradually lost in conceit. hollow. centum. the hollow the Lat. cillier. Fr. swift. Coehim. encens. to burn incendo. to take. Celerity. to rub for the purpose a hut.' Celebritas. -CEIVE a shaft. Lat. &c. Cot. Lat. -cense. Chafe. judge Lat. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. to attend on object with. to contend. a storehouse Chafe. judge. census. It. to prick. what to set in a chafe. cella. Fr. contend. a tomb. Cij(fe5j. an eyelash. or expression of Ennius. is the opposite of disora virum. -ceit. and met. Prov. in comp. crevi. eschattffer. Fl. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. and put it through the over eyelydde. celer. zens according to their property. cot. dchauffer. K^'ivut. parted sleep. being taken from Fr. and thence censer. OFr. mortar. Lat. Lat. observe. to seal a pigeon's eye. irot\oe. Fr. siller les yeux. a numerous con. See Cede. then to rub without reference Cement. a prick. cencer. abundance. capturn. — .— Cellar. ciller.). for building. -i^oivre.. a hundred of what- — . to sleep). Assess. -oept. -cepire. Century. cceremonia.. value. to visit in numbers. distinIt. a solemnity. caber. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Fr. to course of people. quarters for slaves. judge. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. goad. sile. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. Census Censor. stones to the production of heat. estimate. ciglio. rubble. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. to sepap rate. of heating. to be regarded as one celebro. the point round which a circle is drawn. become heated with anger. Gr. S. Take the nedyll and threde. Lat. in accordance with the Fr. conceipt. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. concetto. much frequented. to -sum. assess. age. Censor. and so of that other. 1. /ctj/rsw.). single or unwedded life. to concern. a shaft horse.unmarried. a solemnity. Fr. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. -ciper. tax. oil. — — Cenotapli. guish. syll. materials It. to incense. to take. to bury). to twinkle darkness. appertain. see. Fr. festive. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. chaufferette. Lat. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. censura. It. heaven. Incensum. incense. -cevoir. and — — — possessions. -cern. to blindfold. {cori)cipere. &c. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. a hundred centuria. calefacere. sting. make angry. To seel or close the eyes. solemn (of per. thence belonging to or connected with corn.' Book of St Albans. to set on fire. Lat. . confounded ist from It. Cereal. census. Ceremony. ' . Accelerate. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. in comp. camentum. to warm. capio. from Saa-rw. to heat. cenio. — . the talk of men. the officer appointed to take such returns . riscaldarsi. criticism. — . a Cemetery. Lat. Gr. For sess from assess. -ceive. Sc. Cell. Fr. pick out. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. with the eyes. Assize. a valuation of every man's estate. (and thence also) to hoodwink. celeber certus. — . we have a modified form of (of a place). to chafe. candeo. and thence to conceal. to distinguish. Lat. -ceptjun. decide. to separate. with transposition hence (of a day). or any bird's. to seele or sew up the eyelids . Censer. to glow. Gr. keep in It. and make them faste und the becke that she se not.of the r. decebre) . as entering largely into the derivative certo. sure. To Incense. a registration of one's self. calefare. To chafe is for wine. rough from the quarry. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. blind. to think. a religious observance. eyelid. is totally distinct from the foregoing. -cepere. -civer {conciver— Roquef. in Marsh. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. also grave opinion. cigliare. The term cilium. Lat. Centre. the place where the de. Ta^oe. cilibat. tax. Sherwood. Gr. receipt. ceremonia. deceipt. renown be embodied with. chauffer.— Chafing-dish. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. — . — . — A . -cebre ifoncebre. to celebrate. concernor.

puffed or ruffled with ly. signal by drum or P. avena vilior. chaise. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. in a monstrous fume. to move the jaws. . Chain. calix. to pant. to action arose. kiqfta. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Piedm. Chayire. Lat. false accusation. to gnaw. without chap/are makiinde. Fr. have a mind to parley. grief. Lat. Lat. to claim. vel susurro. p. Lat. clamare. crooked. Chair. chicane. ple^. Lat. haggle. as. and signifies to consume with anger. songe. Fr. tattle. to ner It. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. refuse. calx. a vault or arched roof. a chough. Pers. In vulgar language. to puff and blow. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. a pulpit. to gnaw. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Kaiiapa. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. Fr. catena. ON.nium. dongio. ing rapidly repeated cries. Probably from According to Diez. Du. From to go to law. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Fr. Gr. — . kauchen. contestation. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. vis. (ca'e'ra) to chair. gewolb. to Latin calumniare. difficulty . ing a hard case to their wings. hordeum vel let. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. chaps Chamber. Ayenbite. chamar. limare. de Brai. now a chair. Wall. or puff with snorting. fern-chafer. . Pr. . with a:n arched roof. OFr. Kuttn. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. cup. sborfare. kahu. any insect of the beetle kind. Fr. to sit. charge with.— — . CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. kedja. cadena. kdfelen.' Rayn. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. From Port. calumnia. idle words. kaff. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . fa sagramen de calompnia. G. often puffing. P. chafing. to chatter or talk lightly. Hal. and as this was the beginning of man. Camera. Due. Bav. kuhista. rally one. to buzz. grief. havOFr. chambre. chaire. in a cana. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. fume. keffen. rustling corn. Cheffern. leviter crepo Then. ceaf. chawe. tattle cheep. cam. lime. Lat. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. to call. cadera. rustle Challenge. far lima-lima. The jaw chafty. shaIt. — — — — — — . thick and short. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. to a seat. refuse barley . — — — . baras of ants. — — — . The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Fr. lime . hght Chalk. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. a chain. kuhina. kuhuja. So from dominio. to caw chawer. Cot. &c. rustling motion challenge. kiamta. Cot. from the shark-skin. Chagrin. to fret inwardtronfo. call in question for an ley). Fr. cathedra. kaff. on. green sagrin. that leneth e per I'autra. ^Altieri. to bark. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. quisquilise offence. keuchen. puff. Pat. To buy and sell. calice. a prattling woaction. snuff. to babble. matter by combat. calonjar. G. chaine. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. B. From the To Chaff. cauvette. ckapfare. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. snort. Fr. chaene. Prov. camera. Fr.. Adelung. to calumpnjamen. Came. kuhata. care. a jackdaw. Prov. tronfio. from of the G. chaulx. much blowing. chalanger. sagrindse. a goba rustling . de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). cathedra. . from Swiss kafeln. chagrin. Gr. Prov. cadena gives chain. kever. taubes korn oder hafer. ceafer.sure carriage. Fin. kahista. hiss. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. chatter. of. muzzle. talkative. calonja. a double operation * Chafer. Fl. bargain. sagri.. Fr. yap. a rustling noise. a pulpit Cot. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. khah. Du. . kiaftr. to file. — — ' — — — A . chaffare. Perhaps Pm. to dispute. Halma. breathe hard. dispute. to tattle. jaw. kdfer. to institute anforensic action. Lat. place See Cheek. also to prattle. chafeter. 11. Bouffard. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. care. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Chalice. as a carriage is a moveable seat. preise. great chafe. chayire. 35. much more Genoese sagrind. KoBiSpa. In like manto huff. cadieira. E. De Ir4. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. kahuja. swelling with anger.

Hence (with the nasal) w.140 CHAMBERLAIN . E.' SherI'altro ' ' . a scufSe. Lith. a jaw kianisa. Champarty. to smack the lips in eating. to groove bevel off a right angle. excellent. . chanfrein. and acted as inofficers of .Lat. champ. Chance-n3. to to chew champ. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. ON. difficulty . received the petitions of the suitors. cadere. game campio. Champaign. champ. kiammi. campus. dispute Hal. a bundle. So in e. kimpustella. Lat. to wrestle. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. and mesUe. ON. escazenza. kanip. contest. to slope. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. cample).—Tutschek. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. chajnbellan . champ. fight. Lat. jeu parti. fray. tsammogni. champion Du. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — .' ' Pr. zampettare. to chew. contention kappi. Dief. cazer. cempa. tsamtsogni. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. Carpentier. a court of justice. from chaud. camp. to stick to. Lat. kapp. Fr. chanfrein. to tread The sound heavily. or player at football. s. zs jeopardy. to hold . Chamfron. cameratus. to happen {ad and cadere. to cample. an athlete. ciamberlano. Champion. . to fasten oneself to another . — masterly Sp. The happening of things Chance.—Charfron E. kabinti. hng. caer. Champ. kabe. Prov. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. to debate. broil. — ^Tusser. rare. . fighting place. chamble. keiiipe. To cope or contend with. The E. to be eminent. kibti. a game at football. Ptg. dricka i kapp. Sp. kampa. When the to quarrel. —Chamfrain. kempen. — Ch-amberlain. hero Sw. sukibti. to fasten on. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. the chafldn. to hang. Chancery. kimbu. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. schmatzen s. luctare. cahir. Du. kiinp. dial. head armour. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. campar. to fall. kinipen. Fr. . a horse-race. kempa. termediaries between them and the judge. gekrUmmt. The word is preserved in E. wood.' melleia. giving rise to the as. accident. Chancel. prize-fighter. . dial. camerlengo. Campar.edley. a hollow chanfreiner. fight. kampen. to excel. M. to talk. kampeln. contend or argue G. gewolbt. chdance. dial. to hollow out. bickering. Fr. chanfrar. pedilusor. to quarrel (comp. kimpUma. Meleare. reusement — fight in single combat. — KiL . champ parti. a field of battle. To hollow out in chanPtg. Fr. chance. ing. at the railings. as in It. Prov. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to . kriimmen gebogen. to bevel. E. chamfrain. to slope out the . chance. . to move the jaws kiamt. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. champ. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. Fin. hot. e. ON. hamper. CHANCEL It. Fr. dial. Partnership. compound. . as swine. To Chamfer. calida et sans aguet. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . calidameya. divided game. kabintis. Fr. to paw the ground E. The G. . accidere. kabMe. — Hal. Chancellor. kablys.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. is explained by serrarsi. certare. from cheoir. a hook . campear. chain. to flute as a column. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . therewithal. camp. act of falling. to — — champ. G. Commonly derived from campus. pinch. Pm. campus partitus . nels. to Hal. chaude mesUe. to fall). kappd). It will. Gall. or less ignorant. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). i. who stood ad cancellos. Sup. a warrior. Magy. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. cancelli. move the jaws. to wrestle. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. a feat. to fasten oneself on to another . to strive at games . kimppu (Lap. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. kippo. slope of a bevelled angle. jocus partitus. dial. bundle. kampeln. surpassing. See Camp. combat. boys speak of capping verses. ciambellano. mesleiare. Get campers a ball To camf . Sp. chanfreindre. Lat. which seems another form of the root. camp. from Fr. top of a borehole. athlete. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel.

Channel. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. Fr. to spht a chip. chop. schimbd. chiappa. Hence It. Hal. chap. Fr. a reed. jaw. cheek. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. and the modern canal. chapa. AS. wood. as those on a trunk. gab. chap. —Ordericus Vitalis. Lat. chancellerie. Chaps or chops. a small metal plate Port. as corn-chandChandry. It is also used in the sense of the E. as chancery . Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. Da. Commonly derived from capella. muzzle. Man of Law's Tale. skipta. to strike with a sharp edge. Da. kvar kjceften. That wide were sentin their spicery. to cut off . . and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . kemma. cambiare. exchange. And N. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. ^Jam. a chap is a crack or fissure. Lang. and also to chap or crack. chapelete de una bomba. kjaakaa. from canna. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. to coat. may be compared with ON. properly in a hard body. W. I. Probably from chap. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. Chandler. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. leather. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. 140. Sp. the place where candles ler. schimbu. . Chap. kaupa. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. the gutter that runs along a street. — : Lat. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . the representation of the sound made by two same manner. a money-changer. ceaflas. waterconduit. . extended to other trades. Sc. esclapa. are kept. — . . kennel. while the broader vowels a. klepan. to peck. cangiare. exchange schimbatoriu. ON. a pipe. See Chant. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. Bret. Chap. like the knocking of hard things together. lips of an animal. hard bodies. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Chape. kapoti. E. shift. to swap. canalis. Chop. to break . is used in the same sense . Hal. from clap. any hollow for conveying water. throat of an animal. to cut. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. Chip. to apply one flat thing to another. a small plate of flat metal. Sp. Cheek. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. . to cut up into small pieces. to sing. to strike. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. —Chantry. a jaw. chanter. the chaps .^. Compare chark. to plate. — — —Marculfus in Due. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. as to chap hands. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. chapilla. cobio. to plate. Hence chantry. kiceft. to deal. camjar. In like manner Walach. chandelier. debeant conjurare. Russ. Walach. to — cut. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. or the cracking of one. a dealer in candles then. hack . cantare. chaps. to creak. chapear. Lith. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. to peck. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. also a clap. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. jaw. as skin chapped hands. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. the mouth. chancery. to hack. the loose flesh of the cheeks. esclapo. or the like chapar. to put on fresh clothes. to change. the clappers of the scupper holes.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Molbech. See Chop. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Prov. Aasen. from chandler. chapeta. cambiar. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. changer. Chap. kiceft as well as kjakje. chop. to paw like a horse . ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. as It. to strike. prune. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. surfaces striking together. not a soul. 2. A fellow. to chap at a door. Du. To Change. to truck. cambium. chapeletas de imbornales. a strip of metal plate. ceaplas. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Fr. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. clapet. Fr. flat . kappen. Chapel. exchange.

Yx. It. a merchant. a charm. See Charlatan. go. creak. (eucharistie. hadka. cha. Character.whirr. cearcian. to prattle. Lith. affection. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. to love. 2. a verse. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. cam. w. properly to place — . czirbti. kurkelis. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. charge an enemy is to lay on. Macduff. — spell. to converse. called in Sp. It. wreath for the head. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. from gadai. seems to be derived charade. siarad (pronounced — sharad). and in It. turn about. —— . that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Hence carminare. to of the governing body. as. to talk . capellare. dear(in both senses). creak. AS. capella. Swiss. krachzen). hiss Lith. capital. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. condo il volgar francese. Sup. as Pol. that turned decken . for the same reason rosario. Chapter. — — — turned to coal. bler.Lat. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. to chirp as sparrows. cabildo. to turn. Charcoal was ciarlare. See Cheap. Deutsch. Lay on. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. to prattle. beloved. Charade. return. corona. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. An enchantment. Bret. prattling quacksalver. to tattle. carus. a garland of roses. caritas. Prov. The G. from capitulum. talking. a mark of a mountebank. twist. w. from capa. cher um cher. Ptg. kirkti. Charlock. from Charade. chirlar. It. charcoal burners. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz.charme. Lat. to chirp. to . colliers that charred coal. dear. Fr. . . dim. Mundart. gnash. used in the sense of magic Fl. — a car. charlar. a turn cerran. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. a rhyme. turn. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. eyre. the turtle pitre. Du. wood to coal. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. carregar. es ist mi cheer. to sing or chirp as birds. babbling. gaggle . chatter. surris seu Lat. Charlatan. schreien. ghirlanda seor garland. Lat. of chapel. To Char. from cape or cope. charlatan. Fr. grave or make incised marks on an ob. a cricket karkti (schnarren. to chirp. capitolo. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. keeren. a dispute . to creak. tegere. enough. Fr. In that work the verb is written caire. to turn Gael. caricare. Chark. charade. twitter. charger. cedeleac. a The OFr. chara. a riddle. to croak as a frog . . jabber. cluck kirklys. cluck. It. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. Boh. A weed among com AS. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. a hood. chat. karout. Lang. gadka. called kedlock. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Chapman. * Charcoal. chirk. Justin. a mark made on a thing. Fr. . czurliwoti. to load . OE. czurksti. canne. the nature of a thing. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . pohadka. Chaplet. it is my turn. char. eapitulo. decken. And damned be he who first cries Hold. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. ciarlatore. Chare. chirriar. Fr. Sp. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. car. &c. Inst.' Boccaccio in Diez. from carrus. . Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. to dove . babdistinction. tattler. Sp.). charer. to charcoal. The crash. Chirk. ject). kurkti. burning without consuming the substance. chapitre. chatter. Mid.czirksti. chapel. as a beetle. a riddle. Sp. AS. Charge. From Norm. which was incantation. a head or division of a book. Lat. be- e. occasional turn. cerran. ceap-man. carmen. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. carmo.. in turns. in To ness Charity. charitas. Gr. chapelet. carricare. Cot. clack. 370.

Fr. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. the young shoots . to enchase it . blackthorn-chats. So in Gael. cyrm. cearig (from cearian. to gape.. to cut and faggoted. from purus. careful. ch). . chisf. G. or a bird out of the egg. chat. a chatter-box. scraps of for fuel. to make a noise. pure. i. from pure.— Chatter. chit. Chat-wood. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . chick. from xoAn. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. nome and .house. tenax. as we speak of olive branches. csatora (Magy. to set a jewel. magpie. to which it bears the same relation as chape. to chirp as a bird to cheep. a branch and a young female. See Cistern. Malay. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. chits. to chatter or prattle . —Chastise. Kil. kata. kna. a shrine for a relic. cassa s. Pm. to care). used to represent a sharp note. as in the E. Chat. Fr. See Catch. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. chick. talk much . and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. the bird is iiown. chip. gaddc. ferire. %aafi. nommer. shivers.ppen. castus. a plate of metal. to wet. —Jam. as turnip-chaits. as purgare Fr. chit-chat. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. or pop. To Chasten. chatter. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. Russ. — = Chats. An imitative word. to baptize. s. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. to cry as a chicken .a. to crack. clean. charmer. occasionally Forby. castus. pure. chair. jackdaw . The egg is chipped. Fr. a gap. letters p. To talk. whistle. shout OE. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. caro. root of the Lat. discourse. cs E. be wide open. fragments. prattle. chaste. is to represent the chamier. B. make a noise as birds do. gazzolare. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. kata-kata. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. tittle-tattle. carnisj bones kept. Gr. Pol. Cot. geug. talk. limpid. to burst open. Chary. kippen. to crack. clean. — Fr. a churchyard or charnel-house. Cot. Pol. little sticks cudere. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. — We ornamental work the to signify E. gazeuiller. To chit. warble. or equivalent forms. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. an enchantress. ch&tier. karg. carmen is presented in AS. a branch. a yawning. — — . a word. to separate in morsels. g. gadu-gadu.). gazzettare. also to hatch. the cry of the bat. gazzogliare. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. speak . It. It t. carme and Fr. Chasm. csacsogni. or the cry of a bird or the like. — Yorkshire chat. To work plate as silversmiths do. la chasse d'une rose. a young man . sordidus. fragments or leavings of food. the calix of a rose. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. knatiern.). germinate . or suckers on rough borders. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. Lat. Lat castigare. warble. to chirp. gazzerare. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. —Bailey. Diez. enchasser. schioppare. gallan or ogan. to talk. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. the handle of a razor . crackle. prate. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. csaterdzni. chaste. to chirp. — The . chit in the latter sense Du. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. clean. Du. a twig Suffolk chaits. V. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. clap. parcus. chary. See Card. kastaa. Fl.— Chit. Chaste. clack. to clap. chip. To Chase. as. OE. Chamel. splinters. also a youth. incassare. chykkyn (Pr. clatter. a crack or a flaw . It. whence a charm of goldfinches. a flock of those birds. knacken. charm. czysty. also to germinate or spring forth. — Hal. chikat'. converse. Chart. eclats. From carinen was formed It. in Jam. csacsogany. — sharp sound of a crack. It. pure. as from nomen It. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. — Palsgrave. clear. flesh. niggardly. the noise of birds. Hal. To chitter or chipper. snap. karigh. . to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. xi'i-'^vui. D. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). To Chase. CHATS fit 143 to name. Parallel with E. It. In like manner Russ. Magy. racket . Kil. chip. Fl. noise. To chip is then to crack. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. noise. Fr. —Charter.

Check. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. It. s. sense of bargaining. .— Chaps. prattlingchete.—Choke. horse-couper. &c. to negotiate. syllables ^ag-. from AS. the countenance Fr. kakkaset. CHATTELS has ciio. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. chaptel. CHEEK zitella. entertain kindly. to coff—Yisi. ku. — — —Chowl. snout. a canting knave. et juxta catalla sua. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. giving or taking in exchange. force of the word. . e. look. chuckle. kichen. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. mandibula.. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. a rogue or person who used the canting language. from Lat. Cam. Soc.ing. to cough and hence either buying or selling. the tongue. Slav. Ek dry and hard. Cheek. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. gig. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . caupo. kak. entertainment. price. thers. a cheater. to deal ON. It — Brompton in Due. chatel. frown. a dealer in horses. agreeing upon. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. . aspect of a man. ceap. OFr. Gr. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. cara. and. Chear. . farm for farm. to buy.— Chole.— Cattle. to stutter gigken. to nauseate (to retch). ceaflas. with the exception of land. to swap goods . kaupiti. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. giggling. to coup s. cera. laughing. the Confessor. in Fr. exAS. chop. Faire bonne chire. Sp. See Cheek. any cheating. to clear the throat . capitale. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. equiva. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. citello. kok. retching. changing. society. a willing look and unwilling heart. bon marche. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. kik. to make inarticulate sounds in . where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. teeth . while it Bret. Fr. sob E. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini.kakot. Sc. cattle. cachinnari. Du. Pm. Chew. truffa. chavylbone or chawlbone. a dealer. See Chess. to cluck like a hen. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. which is the word in ceap. cozener.' kezen. upon a checked cloth. ceahhetan. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. to act as a rogue. Cot. catalliim. KaviiXog. welcome heartily. kaufen. . canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. stuttering. Pr. a piece of moveable property. Bav. countenance. Modern Slang. Hal. gagkezen. chatal. sum in a loan. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. dchec. Pro v. visage. to vomit. with Dief. goods. kaupon. Fl. cita. the Lat.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. chapman. — We ' .' to exchange to gasp. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. lead to OE. a repulse. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. favour.— . cattle. NE. to chop and change. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. in widely separated languages by the Lat. stuttering. — To check an account. Cheat. 144 the It. ceafl. to laugh. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Fr. us. choule. Chattels. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. tradesman. goods. 'li^'opa jord i jord. kakaista. kek. keck. It. Lat. The gutGoth. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. cattle. G. hawkmann. kaupa. to . jaw. OFr. chiere. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. the face. a young boy or girl.of the throat in coughing. Fin. sale.. Bohem. Then. a tavern-keeper. and hence the E. chear in the sense of victuals. chire. are represented piti. whence captale. Hence to cheat.-^. gagkern. jaws. kikottaa. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. to fetch the breath with difficulty. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. lower. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. kauf. which is used in the to stutter. koopen. to — . the principal ' colloquial E.. cheeks. to buy. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. Ingulphus.

The Lapps prepare much of their compass. chevron. Fr.. Sc. — — . to belch. The name of creak as shoes. quoka. schach. giffle. . To Cheep. chests in OE. as meat and butter. AS. acquisition. to boken.. to choke with laughter. ceac. As the board to gasp i. a chicken. like a young chicken.cirieggia. kastr. things Da. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. mouth kek. Cherish. geagl. kjceve. for cheese itself. Pm. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. kistej Lat. to choke. to accomThis they call hdrsk. ON. Prov. See Alchemy. czypti. xaque. kjcebe. to year.). kapen. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. mollium congeries. skratt. /Ji2^/(W. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. to kasa. OHG. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. dersen . takes place in the formation of cheese. kjakje. Kil. frame by which the exertion is made. Lat. cheken. Achievement. Lat. kesten. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source.perly head. food. the final guttural is retained in writing. nish source. Fr. Chef.their struggle for independence. Chevaux de frise. subjected to this process with that which the throat . cisty G. to make a noise different word. . jaws. old bread. to heap up such things for the purchoke. to kep. cyse. achever. by laying it in come to an agreement with. chiffe. cams. cese. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. condition of being taken. kdkel. E. Hence kikna is identical with OE. chops. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. scacco. N. caru. cireggia. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. kdke. cerasus. rupted into chess.Xo belch.D. chesten. — — . a rafter . the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. made rancid koka. Fris. suffo. e. ceaflas. Cherry. ca' — . To make a shrill noise Chest. clear the throat. It. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. E. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase.pose of acidifying them kasadr. castaneusj Fr. Sp. the loose the game of checks. jaw. rennet. CHE. Lith. treat with affection. a cricket. Chess. cheek. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. equal squares of opposite colours. jaw. Prothroat of an animal . practice seems to have been communiChevron. Analo. gap. &c. to prevent the attack of cavalry. E. prevail with. hasten. w. king). Thus "we are brought din. to swallow.D. caws.G. then end. chaps. — — . Lat. to bring to an end. Chevisance. . jouffle. Sw. subacidus. It would Cheese. the The use of the word kcesir. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. F*-. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Fr. cheek. to love. throat. Du. rafters in heraldry. From them the plish. gullet. carnium. ation. kok. Pl. rattle in the throat. throat. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. the hke. See Case. w. AS. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. (Kil. kikna of dorum coacervatio. See Chess. E. chasi. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. Fr. Sp. dear. kasiiUPr. gabe. cista. ichec. Fin. The Sw.' to w. . X'C&s. cheeks. kasa. the palate Chequer. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. the mouth. a heap. cough. Lith. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl.koppen. to gasp. jowl. as. gapen. cherir. jaws Sw. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. ceg. . Chekenyd or querkenyd. the neck. G. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. kopen. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. veluti piscium. Lat. schach. jaw . Sw. cabrio. Tutschek. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Hence chesten-nut. cerise j G. An imitative word. ost. to geahl. kikna. Sc. In these latter forms we see the transIt. accomplishment cayed.EP CHEVRON 145 on. Fr. the throat.peep in the same sense. kirsche. make an end. gaghel. cegio. kces. Du. gous forms are G. chAtaigne. G. incaseatus. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. to hold dear. chops. — 10 . geafl. gill of fish AS. by laying up in a covered heap. ceaplas. chevir. cufd. AS. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. Cher. Da. Jam. kastanie. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. ceocian. kaecke. cabiron. whence kasa-leipa. quok. squeak as a mouse. cheek. caseus. to gape gab. whence czypulas. w. Chemistry.

jaw. Imitative of a loud clear sound. kauchen. strideo. chillrar. and not vice versd. k'imm s. while the Magy. a finch. gills of a fish. by driblets. kibr. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. from the first of which is Lith. to smart. Chigue. ]). cabriones. G. ' . captain. to twitter. kauen. pi. G. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. chikat'. klagend tonen. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. jaw. pipio. a head. stake.— . sonorous. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . ach. czypulas. greloter is to shiver for cold. E. : — a lump. To Chide. to contest.— Cot. mouth. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. chillness or shivering. a young bird. s. . E. a cup. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. . The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Fl. Pm. . grelot). to crackle. Chief. knit the brow cib-led. kouwe. For the see word Doit. crepo. to chew. kime. pole. caprioru. cap. Sp. Chimb. then as G. kop. 146 brial. the least imaginable jot. the cry of young .-ill. Fin. chavel. — Fin. to gasp for breath (Hal. or the broken noise of birds. alter. keichen. to scold.peep. chicken. horn wood. knarren. To chitter.. the head. De chic en chic. from the second Lat. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. cib. tyuk. the rim or edge of a vase. — — Mother Hubbard. chol. the jole. chiler. or qf people talking rapidly. chew or chaw. or chick.' my finger tingles with cold. Magy. CHJME the radical form is unusual. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys.D. and from the third E.. caput. A To Chew. Russ. chavel.^ Hal. See Chimmer. kauwe. Pr. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. kaw. Prov. kitista. capo. creak. or as E. kaau•wen. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. De finger killet mi for kalte. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. to pettifog. a chicken. to chime. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. when the vibrations become very rapid. rafter. a chicken. w. queror. cabar beinne. are formed Du. W. quivering sound which passes. pipio. beam. Halm. tiuk. And hence. E. a cup cibaw. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. kopf Du. to chirp or peep like a chicken. has probably the same origin. Chaw. tiukkata. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. the young of animals in general. Pr. Tintillo. kuwe. chef. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. a small cask OFr. rafter . a quid of tobacco.). Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. jaws .^ to resound as a bell. kindeken. chicaner. capu. chaps. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. to contest about trifles. to use the jaws. ultimate origin of the Mite. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. also the horizon. cebr. Palsgr. kimme. machouere. to raise the rim. tiukka. cabar. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. kimista^ . Fr. Gattel. deer's horn. Fin. tremble. chimb. to the brim. It.. tintelen van koude. Gael. — It. head. lead through the synonymous E. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. knirschen. to go. Fr. capete. The loss of the syllable it in Du. Fin. tremble with cold. Now gan some courage unto him to take. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. chill. cild. Du. killen. Du. choule. Lat. acute. the same principle I regard On birds. kinderen. chieftain. a chicken. chicoter. Da. killen. chillar. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. — . twitter. cabarach. rafter . caferu. AS. pipe. kind. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. from little to little. kieken. Chick. Pm. to Du. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. Kil. Walach. cheek. zitterti. tiukkua. — Du. The Pl. Pl. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. cidan. 'Among these the G. hiss as meat on the gridiron. chawbone. Fl. signifying properly shivering. chic. horns of the house. Child. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. Chitter. kilderkin. mountain top . Probably from Fr. in Walach. as pointing out the origin of the E. while didder is to shiver or citteren. pip. term is ssaru fu. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. the Ptg. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. a hen. Fr. Bret. a little bit. aner. into a continuous shriU sound. kimia. CHEW . as. pululo.. to titter is Du. Chime. a cup. gosling. Chill. Swiss kiden. Brezza. a jaw. branchy. kidata. then cold.D.— Gattel. the throat. Payer chiguet A chiguet. chiquei. cica cica. antler. kippa. chin.

yivtiov. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. also vibrans. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. which differ from each other only as Chirk. — . is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. Chitter. spina. Bav. 147 kimina. It. hiss chirlar. a thorn. disCot. schina. — . hus. G. sounding deep. keich husten. See Bright. . — . KinneGr. kumina. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. . caminata. chits. chatter . Fr. chhint. et garrire . bx-eak the back of schena. resonance .czirbti. then of a fabulous monster part goat. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. are In like manner E. a thorn. the mouth (jaws) . as birds the mouth. The desig. sonants. Chimera. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. a crowing sound in recovering breath. a fire-place. tsengeni. Chitterling. clipping of coin. Chink. To Chimmer. Du. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Chymerynge. to sound. to murmur. komia. cisaille. applied to tremulous motion. as the chink of money. quavering of the voice. Chat. cleft.to divide or Du. crepare. Kil. the jaw. in Hal. kumista. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. See Chats. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. caperd. Chine. tschirpen. a Kuttn. Chyrme or chur. all these imitative terms being minata. cinne. The change from the sound ter \s.schricken. i. hollow. cheminde. Prov. flaw Hal. Bret. rustle. do. G. sparkle. Chisel.Huloet in Hal. and the Du. to prattle czirpti. the chin . name Then. as the/ is preserved tering. verynge or dyderinge. sound.Lat. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. esquina. schiena. killed by Bellerophon. the cheek. AS. Chimney. to chirp . Chink-cough.). the jaw. ciseau (for cisel). Lith. Chip. E. czirszkti. then to any narrow crack or AS. eschin^e (de pore). See Chark. ciarlare. Pm. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. genawi. companied. Ptg. as a bell kommata. To chirp or twitter. from Lat.' Phaer's Virg. tinnire. sonus the backbone Lat. to creak. Sp. simmer. plodere. Huloet. to tremble. eschiner. shiver and the chyver of Pr. to sound deep or the Gr. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. eschine. chin . genou (pi. Fr. Chin-coug^h. a chap. clangor tinniens kummata. have been used to designate the spine. Sp. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. a chink or fissure. up and down. Diez de. to squeak in It. backBut she withal no worde may soune. Gower in Hal. to creak. the whooping cough. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. stridere. backe. from 10 * ' Chia. hiss Pm.iron. — . To chink with laughter. spina. chirp. tsongeni. to tattle. Sp. Cot. kink hoest. schetteren. See Chap. a surkik hosta. or chyFrigutus. fissure. Sw.sharp. kieck hoest. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Hindost. a szemrcU. to chink. representing connected together. gen. Pr. chink. to chirp. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. tremulous motion. caminsects. to chirre. zirken. the chine. E. to chine. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. chick. A . pare also Walach. gena. but or cry as a parrot. In the same sense. Fr. zirpen. part lion. Caminatum. as a large bell . vincially used in the sense of a crack. to prattle . schetteringe. ter. Magy. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. fyr. to chink with laugh2. cincel. klincken. . to simmer. It. dial. the cheek (jaw) . to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . To Chitter. twinkling light. Fr. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. Sp. Gloss. It. It. from the geon's lancet. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. It. to sizel. Chit. and chim-mer.. sound on beginning to boil. Primarily a shrill sound. pork) . schrick. to open chirriar. Lat.to chirp.. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. j^lf. to gape. kinne. cinan. cheek. twitter caminus. cisello. skina. a hall Mid. Chintz. and from a similar sound to boil gently. bone . komista. epine. ykvvQ. esquena. . Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Fr. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. and bodily movement in shimm. squittire. The small entrails of a hog. and light. Du. quivering or shakyng for colde. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. . in the same crack. clashing of weapons. — — — — — . Gascoigne in Todd.er.

V)^x. kbhren. a heap.' At last he dwelt . a company of singers or dancers. choppe. it is probable that the root kus. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . to try. to clap up Hal. signify to kiss. ent quarter. Chives. G. scheve. a young . chives. to taste.— B jag E. The I go to prove them. the inwards of an animal. — Cholera. Yr. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. coup. a blow. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. kaup. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. coro. or original meaning is preserved in G. ON. from chevalier. in the same language. chatter. and It. by which they are Fr. Schmid. to taste. a fragment. OHG. a knight. to strike hands . Boh. schiefer. chimp. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter.' who shall not taste death. gusten. ruffs. developments of the same radical image. &c. kusid. a scale or fragment P1. chap hands. okusyti. to Compare also Pol. Choice is probably direct from Fr. to break off in small shive. Serv. chife. . a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. then to shiver. —Chorus. See try. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. skifa. all seem slate . the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. also calPs. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. to turn. chock full. by the vibrations of sound or motion.. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. To Choke. to shiver. Warwickshire coff. to stop geschoppt voll. pluck. to exchange horses. chaup. Body and Soul.yEuffM. friller. kausjan. Chuck-full. to palpitate . . ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. to taste. a calf's pluck or chaldron . schevel-steen. fine threads of flowers. bile. experience valerie. pieces . the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . to try. a ruff or frill. cke. to choose. to wrinkle.' Verie coinme Cot. Jam. full to overflowing. civette. gustare. g'schochet voll. Cavalry. keuren. chibble. and in kosten. heaped measure. Fr. a chive. to hack. gekrose. The manners and senti. a twittering. a ruff. kustigen. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. kor6n. . Chives are also a kind of small onion. a wine taster. cut up into — See Chats. kushati. Equivalents in the SlaFr. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. ^euw. to taste. Choice. to ing is doubtless to taste. are used in the same sense. chippe. Gr. wkusit' prikushat. kalbs gekrose. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. whence Lat. of E. a rag. and N. to experience.gust.. chorus. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. full. G. Enn Sigridur sem ' . Swiss kust. to chap. krussyi. kiesen. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. chattering. specially with an application to theatrical performances. a calf's chaldern of E. Chap. haslets. fresure. As kushnuti. %o\ifa. wrath. x^poc. — — — . a goose's giblets. Lat. choix.vonic languages are Pol. G. an onion. whence choleric. disposition. the small parts of the roots of plants. I.ffrill. to taste. kiusan. ON. to tempt. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter.D. rare. crammed Choir. kiusan. and in this sense the * small pieces. — See Cheek. Gr. keypa. The . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. then to try. . causir. xiv. CHOP kros. •- Russ. to try. The Sc. approve. ments of the knightly class. Prov. taste. to try . propagated. &c.ceosan. kushevati. Luc. as with a blow. seallion or unset leek. 2. chawdron. i. wein didder for cold. . cive. as green as leeks. Fr. taste. kruszki. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. curly . Gr. Walach. 19. To Chop. kiezen. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. anger. chceur. from kraus. to prove. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. to ^cleave . the ridges prove. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. to taste . Choleric. word is more likely to be from Lat. gdnse gekrose. lead us on to Lat. cape. caperd. cepa. . koren. of an angry — — — ' ' — . try. ^S. prove. schoch. chiffe. . or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. Chivalry. called cMtters in the N. a small slice or slip of anything . shiver. * To Choose. from %u\i). Goth. shoot . and Vf. try. Swab. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. — Chock-full.freze. select. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. arkiusan. kieser. to chap at a door . Fr.

a lump or piece chump. chroniques. connected with G. chack. cambiare. Fr. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. merchant. yiSA. chouette. dealing. time ra . chronicles. Anachronism. kubb. overset. chevane. to chatter. chapin. Gr. quappe. Chord. chrisme. whence — E. Confounded with the bullhead.' Jam. .\^s. chop. as Du. the string of a musical instrument originally. dial. of which such strings are made.— Chevin. noble Doctor. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. . gull. from kloppen. Sw. syllables chat. claquer. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. to knock. 4. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. Chough. ' ' What's that? Dap. e. Chronicle. e. Fr. — — — .— Landnamabok. capito. dial. to turn over. kowe. kauwe. as in Fr. klompe. capitone. gull. whence the Fr. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. to cant. to speak thieves' slang. cauvette j Fr.sohola. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. AS. chevane.(. chuet. To Chouse. gold.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. I bring you the Cloughs. Ant. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. —Shakespeare. klopper. a bullhead. a The What dhy ^. kaw. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. chapineria. caker. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. From the Turkish Chiaus. sent before him a Chiaus. Madam. Gr. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. — . — Dief. kobe. who took in the Turk- clack. that will thank chiaus — you richly. in i6io. to overturn. kaufen. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. short piece kubbug. equivalent to the E. E. cheviniau. Marin.). Come. the teeth to chatter . prattle . Alchemist. E. gobio capitatus. high clog. for to defraud. Jam. thumb Fl. Chuck.). chouquette. capita. That Face. OE. slipper . we find the following passage Dap. cresmeau. P. Lat. ley in Giiford.X. plump. To coup. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. To Chop logick. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. XpvaaXic. to strike in the hand. caqueter. kaej Lith. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. ON. fat. Borgoens happen. Gr. Chrysalis. cauc. Picard. A fish with a thick snout and head. &c. a thick piece.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. cob. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. See Chaff. the intestine of an animal. Nominale in Nat. peace. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. The Turk was here As one should say. forms are Chrism.. Fr. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. A jackdaw. G. capitanus. clogs. Chub. E.povucd. to clack. chub. ceo. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. traffic. chatter . If I discover. a small fish with a large head. the same word with the It. bearand aits. kaulhaupt (club-head. one who buys and sells horses or cows. in Chaucer. kubbr.• — . a messenger or envoy. choucas. Peace. xop5>}. kowej Sax. Fr. a trafficker in souls. and we actually find champman for chapman. Sp. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. p. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. koppe. thick-set. Wall. 49. Du. -chron-. — Quabbe. Du. which was written 27.—Chuokstone. civetta. cangiare. Chopino. E. clat. because she would not endure this husband chopping. chevin. Gr. In Sc. — Chrisom. by the Robert Shirley. or miller's kaycke . cheap. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . caphatenus. chrysalis (Plin. kolbe (club). soul-couper. applied to an owl in that language. What do you think of me. Fr. xpi'^lia. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. whence e. a stump. whence apparently the Sup. Cot. chapma?i. xftovoq.' They are forebuyers of quheit.. monedula. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. i. an offence against the fitness of times. cavena. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. In the Alchemist. cow-couper. Kil. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. See Change.

Chuff.^. a man. sive piratiam facere sciant. to separate the kernel of the milk. It is certain. In Sc. i. KaxXij?. Gr. Sw. to throw out sparks. surly. to turn from blossom to fruit. G. joffu. to fall at or on. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . cinders used disjunctively. residue of burnt coals. a man. blow on the I io6 in Mur. — . chuffy. e. sicera. Hence -cid-. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. x^^i?. incido. chofe (Grandgagnage). a man. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. a fellow. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . giffle. to fall. joufflu. cheeks Cincture. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. Cider. to jaw chack or snap. -cido. male person. to make a aiKipa. Wall. cheek. pp. sinter. pith. kakka. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. ceaplas. * Cinder. as Fr. ChurL husbandman. -eris. as a board. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. however. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. tindra. -cisuiri). whence ON. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. to gird. thence a belt. ashes. cinis. as water running over rocks or stones. a miser. gffe. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Chunk. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). kerl. to make a rippling noise. flower. fat-cheeked. a pebble. jaws. &c. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. calculus. cut off. kirna. to cut decide. e. countryman. scoria. Churn. in Sc. to determine incision. cinctura {cingo. chack or stane-chacker. Da. karl. kjami.D. spuma metalli. a douse on the tores. OFr. chops. &c. ceffo. Aasen. ccedo. — of the two words. to cause the milk to grain. lamak. .— . Du. . Church. a cutting an old chuff. ladre from Lazare.' he adds. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. See Cheek. a pebble . chife. ON. Gr.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. See Cheek. . a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. ON. a girding on. to strike clatter. Jennings. ceorl. casum (in comp. KvptaKolg. — — A — ' ' — . sindra. sindr. from Lat. Wall.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. to form grains of butter. . sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. marrow. to churn. Sicerawry face ceffata. chack-stone. Sc. so as to make the happen . i. has been impugned which it has really no connection. AS. sindel is although only this canon directly dis.— Chu%. Probably from It. geaflas. Du. -cise. sindel. . log of wood. in the face. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. Cleland in Jam. tie about). but by way of explan. As AS. ceffore. or. to To Chuckle. a husband. Ir. . to fall upon decide. Lat. chakil. kaerle. a cutting round. Ka-^aiva. whence church.' And cold. dial. whence deciduous (of trees). a resounding object. from Lat. klakka. The derivation from Kvpiasov. the kernel.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. cado. as Epkema explains it. Cob.rendered by Kil. comp. then the on oh StX iv roXt. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. The spelling of chider has Chump. Diss. in circumcision. swollen or puffed up Cot. domhnach. have given rise. See Ceiling. To chuck in the fall from. The origin ation. to Newsp. chofu. Fr. -cis-. cidre. we have to chack. AS. Lat. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). Gothic nations. set kerti. ON. Fris. sintel. as in E. chaps. a lump. cinctus. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. a rustic . kernjen. Lat. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. Fr. C^z^j^ churHsh.. 24. ciuffo. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. that the word is an adoption of Fr. with It the Lord's house. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. to him a sudden blow. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. cendre. to sparkle. dust. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. Cieling. accido.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. ceaflas. -cide-. or choice part of a thing .V//a'6'?. Du. the snout of an animal. calx. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. kern. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. G. an old man. Lat.for the residue of stone coal. kiorne.

to cry out. bunch . clat. cit^. castus). crack. smack. circum. a clod. to chatter . a citizen . klammer. dim. to chatter. twig. gutter. a clod Russ. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). the tongue. of citta. a whirlwind. cry. To Claim. a cistern. around. Chaste. to set in motion by means of the voice. chest. whence cistiti. cisterna. clog. fall. sifr. uproar. claim. —Civil. lump. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. kringla.. creak les dents. klambr. In Fr. klimp. area. as in Sp. Lat. a ball. lash . Du. clump. klamp. compared with It. crack. a hiding-place. to mention. suck). See -cid-. and Sp. a Lat. cisterna. rattle . To Clack. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. clamp. to summon or call on. a young and tender plant. a split. Du. Fr. cista. or quill to draw waier through Fl. chatter . a judgment cern. as. to chatter. KpiKoe. babble . clamp. a mass. .' sione. Comp. cluster. cittade. from chupar. hringr. ball kloben. Scion. is traced by Gr. a lemon tree. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. Excite. globus. clatCot. a kind of pipe. clapping of klacke. citrus. citujn. for Cion. Bohem. Citron. chupon. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. So a light. Arab. empty Golius. -cis-. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. cifra. The syllables clap. klepati. klap. clamare. klacke-busse. ern. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. civilis. lump. cittadella. cion. to be empty. stimulate. klopati. sindri. a knob. . Sp. Recite. Dan. civis. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. glam. Fr. Mack. the door was slammed J slamem. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . Lat. ruin. a kind of rattle. rattle. radical identity of the Fr. Lat. See Crankle. Clump. Lap. Alt. Lat. klak. — (Dozy) ing blow. noise — — a cistern. a circle. Dan. a ring. klabb. Hal. clasp. See Circle. klappe. lucerna. . lump of wood or with the nasal. clack-box. CION See Tinder. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Sw. a Pol. &c. City. . the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. prattle. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. E. circa. clot ON. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. a boss . cieo. with an initial s instead of c. may cite w. vociferation. a circle. Gr. and clash. The Gr. lump. Circle. kringr. claquer. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. claquer. E. cry out . to appeal. to strike. to go. belonging to cities or social life . —Circuit. Cot. a loud uksa slamketi. a reservoir Probably from Lat. to make to go. clapper. It. Clam. . ter. to call. forms — — — parent plant. clack. slam. Clamp. to gnash the teeth. parallel root is slam. a block. It. glambar. about. to knock. clack-dish. W. sip. From Arab. to cleanse. biw. ciste. lump. the place of . klacken. clobyn. lump . . a. and E. ON. . KipKog. city. * Ciplier. a cleansing place. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. Fr. prattle. excite. a place See place hiddern. clangor avium . klumbr. to bawl. noise. Fr. a block. tinnitus . clamer. as caverna from cavus. Citadel. clamras. clack. chijfre. a lump Lat. claquet de moulin. clambar. kluV.— . accordingly find the roots dab. Gael. or split with noise. a city. a for water. to toll . a city. Lat. sound. a shoot. to cluck. and. clap. crack. or clap-dish. ON. klekotati. to clap at a theatre. civitas. mass . . It. klump. Circum-. We . Gael. sound- — hands figures. klqb. 'mass. claquer crash. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. -cite. The notion of a lump. . Cite. Sw. to clack. scion or sucker. a rattle Fr. a circle. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. Lat. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . sound of blow. dob. . Du. wasserkasten (water chest). Lat. a'upiav. domern. trunk. circ2tlus. cito. around. a pop-gun. sprig. sajira. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. a lump Du. to clatter. a rattle . clap. to call. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. cittd. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON.to suck. klompe. chupon. ring. . Hence Incite. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. circle. klubb. in the frequentative form. scion. glamm. klappen. cion. to call by name. a whip. klateren. We . ON. a ball. Gr. outcry. klater-busse. log. sphere gleba. * Cistern. klemte. G. G. circum. bunch.

klepel. to claw oneself up. Clang. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. daver. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. gliong. chatter. hook. tingle. clibby. a craCmp. E. klemmen. AS. to hide. dee. c). — Climb. klappre. klampen. a rattle . Russ. klamm. klettern. a claw. chief. dambar. The root which gives rise to klibb. to seize. G. to beat. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. viscosity . rumour. dam immediate modifications — . To Clamber. massy. clapper of conies. klibber. a heap of stones or other things piled up . viscous. klammer. to dame. a bird of prey. to clap on. sound. G. klappen. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. descendants . dam. closely analogous to that of the fast. narrow. — Lat. In like manner Du. klippe. to do anything with a clap. The E. ney. to starve. a sound made by a lighter clink. apprehend . klette. klappen. damor. the in many languages. Fr. salafa. take hold of. to Hal. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. . Clink. conceal. a trap. klammern. diver. dam. klam. seize. to hook things together. tight. whence sala. kleben. from the w. dial. to clutch or cling oneself up. tinkle. Du. cramp. clap. nature . solid. and hence to pinch . Salainen. to cling. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. dial. a heap of stones. kleppen. Swiss kldbem. a loud tingle. cramp-iron. klavre. of money Gael. to clamp. &c. and that from celo. A i. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . dapier. cling. grasp. cleave. to hold to pinch. in a hidSen place. klamme. clammy brace. a stone See Claim.' to take coals to Newcastle. scendants. Bav. children. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klynge sig op. sticky Hal. to daub pinch. Sw. adopted Lat. gripe.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. to climb. klem-vogel. B. to patronus. beat. The Fr. G. sound. — Cot. from birdlime. to stick or glue.1. gum. Dan. a place underground where rabbits breed. buckle klamp. Clamour. klam7n. ring as metal. glambar. kleppe. to Sw^. and hence moist. to clap. brawl. clapas. who occuG. coagulated cream. accent. compress. to cleave or stick. substances of a stickydam. klepati. dink Du. clamber. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . cluster. rattle. dam. clann. a stick. dientes. Clank. Clap. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. E.er. These words To are closely connected with damp. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. a sound made by a still . dapi^. clangor. Dan. or klamp-vogel. To sticky. run to lumps Clandestine. cream Manx doan. klemmen. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. dandestinus. Clapper. clap. Swiss kletten. with cramp-irons. See Clam. to climb. kloben. klobber-saen.' klibba. These are imitations of a loud. celo produces Fin. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. club . to climb. . hands or claws to grasp. is a nasalised form of gripper. children. klepanie. dienklebber. E. chatter. tone. G. dapier. pressed close or hard together. of the children. . hold. . clang. E. holdfast. a noose . kluppel. damras. a burr. Lat. klubber. prison. . to knock. clav\f. to climb . to pinch. resonance klingen. bond. Mampe. — . to hold fast with the . for tame conies. anything hidden. salaan. klimmeii. sound . is used in the sense of secretly. strain . compression. a claw . dia. clajnmy. to climb. G. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. to knock. G. klang. To clap in E. Bohem. a sound. ancestor. clasp. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. Dan. B. offspring. G. bandage. klatten. knocking. beating. to stick conceal. to glue. — with hunger. to gingle. of which the locative case. dem. klank. grimper. klebern. a whip. Halma. clink. Gael. crowd . also to clog up.p correspond- ' without order.. to. Clamp. originally a heap of large stones. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. but perhaps not directly from it. Du. tremble . dang. sound of the trumpet . as the clapping of hands. as the Lat. dren. a hawk. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. klamre. Dan. clandestine. klopfen. stick. Clan. tenacious. Hence the Fr. to climb. to glue. dank. pinching. . contraction. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. strait. Lang. sound object . dap up. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. yf. where- A — unto they retire themselves. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. kleppe. klynge. OE. privately. Du. clear sound. klemmen. Du. The equivalent of Lat. uproar. — — . tattle.

Than thai wald clew upon his banis. cloi. from the resemblance to a key. chiarino. a key KKtitid. — Clarinet. fragor . is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. to clap . a water made of aquavitse. an on the one hand. Thus from Lat. as it is written by Chaucer. to cleave. klauwe. schnalle. a little hook . to rattle . Clavicle. kleuen. klc^i. in the sense of a claw. klouwe (Kil. But clasp or elapse. So Pol. The collar-bone. G. Cot. a lump. Claw. hook. Analogous Jam. clatter. klaterbusse. a.). subrubidum. Nightingale. Pol. bawling. biichse. climp. kleeven. Fr. as Mod. Clasp. Sw. Mask ! plask ! thwick. a clod. a distribution of things into groups. Du. Commonly made. dap. fibula. clamp. it is called clamming. Claret. a key origmally a crooked nail. klampvoghel. he of white and red grapes mingled together. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. clausula. buckle.Gr. a complete sentence.to cra. kletse. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . &c. Clatter. crying. we pass to the E. uproar. to fasten. klatscha pop-gun. globus. E.oi. chiarello. — Clarion. e. straight-mouthed. Clew. clarinado. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. From clairet. to draw it up into a bunch. a lash. KXeiSi. Du. puUs. In the same way is formed the OE. a heap. assembly. locket of a door.\x\xvn. forms are the Du. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. sphaera. to snap. a kind of small. vin clairet. claw (what fastens together. the collar-bone. Du. Nawith stavis. a claFr. classis. to animals Sp. biichse. Sp. — tells us. Clash. . K\a. blab. mass. Lat. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. to knock. Clause. clavus. teren. chiizjj-o. diver. and old red rose-water. mass. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. . nawith stanis. a nail. to end. rion. — Kiittner. In E. klaequivalent to clack or clap. Dan. &c.w or u on the other. clausum. pet. klampe. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. whence kleuer. clopa.It. hawk. from scknallen. under three modifications dava. clump. rubellum. vinum helvolum. as G. The form clew. kiosk bicza. seizes) . In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. compression. applied in their harness. row aii/iaTos. claret win e. contraction. noise. the primary origin clapa. klatsche. klijven. Fr. sauna de classes. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. thwack . to clash as arms. thence a definite head of an edict or law. —Kil. and shrill-sounding trumpet.— CLARET clamp.Z. fracas. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. klaeret. It. cinnamon. waU. chatter. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. klucz. clavis. cluster. to ring in such a manner for the dead. which signifies a ball in E. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. a club or massy stick. clew or fasten upon a thing. same class with w. ansa. chasguear. a bunch. clas. is used in Sc. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. with a reddish tint. a ball. Du. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. klouwe. to shut. also a knell for the dead. Lang. i. sound of the foregoing description. Gr. pellet . chiaro clear. klase. Eau clairette. and through v into a. a clasp. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. a. Lat. Kil. somewhat clear. a claw. Originally clasis. klot. is preserved in Lang. globus. skeria-klasi. Russ. clarin. From claudo. clairon of a trumpet— It. from clinging to the tree which supports it. To clew. It. to patter. Prov. Thus from clamp. clair. a key. gaspe. an ending. nail. klaskad. Fr. Lat. in the sense of a mass or lump. a bird with powerful talons. Owl and that by which cleave to. klatschen. Serv . stop of an organ. and clavis. flap. The b readily passes into gleba. a sphere . clairon. klamme. Wyutoun in Jam. Lat. to fasten together . ghespe. a lump . Identical with ON. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. to do anything with a . vin claret. ictus resonans. syrtium junctura. from its use in fastening things together. 269. Du. kluczka. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. Du. klatschen. Klatsch- a pop-gun . Class. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat.ck a whip. klos. or as G. Eya-klasi. the cracking of a whip. klauw. Rayn. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. insularum nexus . clew. ivy. a buckle. glcis..

as the Du. klouen. an object is simply cleft. a cleft. . to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. clink. dial. clean. from nitere. G. kluftholz. klink. The word is . Mar. to clink or sound. clemens. to stick to. and Dan. Bav. to fasten E. a mass. kluft. glance . geklonken. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. a claw or talon. Du. klinke. Clear. to fasten. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. gaklankjan. a noise. from the clinking of the latch. gingle. klank. G. kldnkelein. bogs cous. klceg. provinciaUy termed dout. clean. klouen. Die zaak is zS. clean. Axletree clouts. opposite senses. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. radiant. a noose. together . Dan. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . Clemency. Du. explained from the klinken. The word may be — . clout. pretty. a bunch of When flax). the fork of the body. glitnir. Du. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. sticky earth. neat. loam. to glitter. dinquet kleeven. dag. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. to cleave. dags. to clinch a nail. . Thus from G. The proper meaning of the word is shining. 2. Sw.' was nailed to a rock. Kil. a fissure or division See Cleave. klieuen. as explained under G. Da. vice. kleverig. as ON. a latch. klinke. shine. a key. G. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. cliquet. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. gentle. it cleave together. G. Probably a modification of the word doitt. daggy. and Celtic glan. a plate. klincke. ON. polish . smooth. Gael. or of a tree. holding together. Halma. to fasten. Du. Sw. glandse. kloben. Da. split. klinken. a cleft. Sw. kleg. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. klafwa. klinken. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. AS. to clench. is fast and sure. words applicable sight. and. to tear or cleave asunder. a in that of sphtting. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . 154 CLAY dutch. the latch of a door. klieben. nitidus. sticky. merciful. To Clench. dut. doggy. Clinch. glint. diquetcr. clear. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. clear. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. celebrated . that was a striking proof. rivet. ON. hook. a cleft or fissure. ON. tongs. and E. glan. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. rift. From dob. klinken. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. a clincher. klinka. clear. glatt. to separate into parts. Clay. glorious. glbr. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. W. kleben. calm. glent. doff. to stick or adhere . Du.— Claggy. speech . Wilbraham. . kluit. to 2. pellet. . found in other cases. klag. rive. kla:g. sleek. lump. clay . door-latch. From clap. This word is used in two business is finished off. E. vissticky . kleevig. Fr. glindse. glor-mhor. Cleat. conserere antklankjan. as Fr. See Clam. pure. in two ways. pure . either by the coherence To Clepe. as Lat. E. Sc. kluyte. dedgy. neat. The Dan. mud. To call. to dag ox dog. clibby. the original . to clinch GB. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. a — — .— Clag. the two parts of Du. klyft. E. to sound or make a noise . viz. of iron worn on shoes by country people. to chink. . klijveii. bright. This is probably one of the clean. Lat. Lat. danche. cloven wood. See Clog. Du. to shine. gleit. glan. famous. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. viz. seem formed dial. sticky . a flash. bend in a stream. i. clean. chaps in the skin. give a shrill sound Jr. cleave. A — A Clement. a lump. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. voice. dams. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. . the To Cleave. kloue. klirren. deot. glan.— . a mass. kloben. Da. a one end. — : A rivet. date is AS. klor. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. klutsch. glbram. that was Torriano. Omklinken. klirre. Sc. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . a fissure. a lump. river. klov. (Cot. polished.). to shine . kloben. from diquer. Cleft. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. kleg. pure.Q. or from being divided into two parts. klove The Dan. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. glitta. klinke. clash. dench. Clean. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. splendid pohshed. to Brilliant. B. to be composed. G.

nimble. a hook. which is used in Scotch and N. a clicket or clapper. cliquer. speak. Climax. But the Dan. klinge. which in Mid.. slope . clever. or an object character- Clerical. Klover i munden.' ii. kliket. a cliff. We movement catch. . click. rock. . in rhetoric. diquette. cligner. dicher. diver. cleft of a hill. claw or talon to dek or deik. Clever. light-fingered. a trigger. one admitted to the tonsure. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. &c. dial. deudi. Da. has also deik. —Vocab. clif- stanas. cleugh. diofian. to talk as a parrot. dob. kleppe. dink. the knocker of a door. cliquet. gleg. klever. Click. — — A . . a claw or clutch. /cXi'fia.) Brai. The Sc. dial. See AS. to sound an alarm to clap. to catch. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. chat. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. to clack. deuck. as Sc. the clergy clericus.Lat. Commonly derived from deliver. Hence Lat. Du. agile. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). on. from Gael glac. climate. a figure mentioned. lively. a sphere. Dunbar in Jam. derigon. littus. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. Lat. Climate. click. G. cart that tilts over. a clew. a clerk . Now the OE. declivity. chatter. crackle. Du. call. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. AS. See Clamber. deik. catching. to wink.dergie! Wiclif in R. ready of speech. Client. scar. Cliff. a precipice. dough. a cleft in a rock .— Clue. clap. in precisely the same sense as the E. Jam. call. has kl'dver. Det er en Mover kerl. kloof. klouwe. corresponding to the Sc. and hence climate. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. klaiv. an inclination. derigo. and hence deik. cliff. precipices. deuch. Norm. sink. dergi. klok klep- crepitare. . temperature. clatter. cave . Gr. cleopian. as from derido. skard. to catch. the clergy. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . to move. clif. dek. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. Somner. Du. dever. Clergy. Boh. ized . Sp. chatter. a child's or clack . quick of perception. e. verge). to prate. klikklakken. klev. pen. dook (identical with E. stein- kluppen. cleft in a rock. clyf. a hump. dexterous. klika. to tattle. IS5 Du. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. Clerk. cautes. ravine. Clam. a ladder. the dick of a latch or a trigger. clima. clypian. rock. babble. highest is attained. Sw. Cot. neither as having lordship in the. say. cleft. duik. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. what so men clappe or crie. In I Peter v. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. rugged ascent. to tattle. in the sense of active. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . cleke. to cry. clack. d See Clan. klaffen. would have been derida. that is a clever feUow. klinket. duke. G. on. Fr. abrupta rupes . one of the clergy. pulsare. expeditious. a latch . CLERK sound of a blow. cliof. Bav. kliv. click. a lot.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. had a form. to teU tales. a latch. score7i clif. a ball of twine. to confess . or Sc. derecia. snatch. klif. dichet. name. region not observe it. syn. a mill-clack . The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. a tumbril. a hold. 3. with hamarskard. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. 3. sonare. glomus. icXi/ja?. The origin is the Gr. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. to stir. a baU of yarn. ginally from dob (extant in W. rupes . rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. — have the notion of a short quick in E.). clever. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. prattle. Happen. a latch. crack. CLINCH De . Climb. kleppen. de ripa. a lazar's clicket or clapper. rapidus from rapio. Lat. dutch). klinke. quick in motion. derjon. seize (Hal. KkrifoQ. exactly Gr. globus. a lump. whence Fr. clep. from clifian. corresponding to Fr. hamraklif. dial. Clew. to bend. it must be observed.— Clicket. to rattle. -Toe (from KXivm. crepare. click it. to snatch. to seize. Chaucer. as a click with the tongue. is NE. to cleave. See Clench. as Lat. deik. klippe. Sc. precipice. Rouchi cliche. clerus. and (with the nasal) — clincher. Lat. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. klikker. klippe. frap- per rudement une personne. Claw. above the pole. chatter. OE.

w.. cloak. klipa. to snap or fillip schnippen. Ir. .' for a dry stick. Du. klaka. noise. Cloak. to wither. ' . knippe. . . clog. The notion of a loose moveable substance. recline. a clog or fetter for a beast . a cluster. -CLINE make pinch. &c. klingen. -cliv-. hlinen. to crowd or squeeze chingy. rima. to snap tongs. quincailler. sloping upwards procUvis. nip. Lat. outcry. dial. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. Ang. . kXiVu. to shrink up. like cling. klunge. a lump. * Clod. clangere. cochl. to clunge. klinken. to clap or clack. as we now say three or four o'clock. . to beat. related to clock. toga muliebris. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. sticky. The E. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. . . G. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. declivis. acclivis. knippen. G. and 'E.— Clot. klo^gen. kol- The word . to clink auf. Clock. a woman's mantle . and a similar syllable without the /. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. parva ruptura. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. klicke. a bell. to lean. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. ring clag. difficulty . schnippen. kluppe. Sw. kldpp. Lat. To cut with shears. as G. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. pinch. a rising ground. klocke. Walach. Sussex peasant AS. Een kliks bolter. met. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. kolbe to E. kolki-laud. Da. ten. clock is a variation of clack. klynge. — clot. Swiss klungele. to make a loud noise. cloche. klippe... from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. Esthon. -atum. klippur. clino. dag. clique. glocke. pallium. to sound sharp. Hal.und zuk-lippen. compress . ON. Decline. klippa. bow. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. to strike. hooded . klok. hlinian. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. g. four of the bell. a lump G. brett-glocke. to cluster. 'Till famine cling thee. Sw. To stick to. claw. Flem.' From Pl. glungelin. to knock.. klippen. 156 -cline. a clock. 2. klinka. difficulty. Bohem. a lump of butter. in Schmeller) klunk.D. kima. clivus. a beU. klik. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. Gael. Bohem. chcng. to lean backwards. klungelin. kukla. Swiss klokken.D. pinch. a snare. Du. sloping downwards . being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. a hood. speaks of a ' clung bat. Sw. Bi klik uti klak. a tinman.ginglej Fr. Sw. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. fetter. clutch. Gr. klunker. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. S w. clips. incline. club). klepalo. G. Pl. also to form a compact mass. hill . Kil. to bend downwards . disposed to a thing. G. gang. klupen. to ring. kleppe. OHG. to resound. a faction. Cliofue. to . See Cowl. kluben. verklungeln. Serv. kliks. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. to shrink up.— KSS. dial. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. to pinch. . The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. See Clang. knippchen. dial. . Clink. to wither. hluk. to clip. G. klak. klungeln. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. E. clinke. globulus' (Gl. to pinch klupe. Du. to cling to a thing. klincke. as to snip in the same sense from snap. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . klubben und klicken aufgeloset. gUong. to slope or bend . iissura. E. N orman clincailler. also to wink . clingan. To Clip. To Cling. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches.'— Shaks. to beat on the board. clato make a noise. hluccti. — a mantle. Du. as thick or curdled liquids. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. klocka. straits. sloping forwards. to AS. to snap kneipen. from klepati. I. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. to crowd together klynge sig ved. ON. toga. a bell. slant. or bagging clothes. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. tuft. Sw. clinker. shears. Fr. especially of something soft or clammy. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. klippa. klocke. knot klynge. at first probably on a wooden board. and so' to contract. a ball of thread . kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. incline. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Fr. to form one mass with. a separate portion. ON. dial. to snip. whence E. by bits. G.

to rattle or shake to and fro. to slop or spill liquids.'^ Palsgr. foreclose. . ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. G. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. a monastery. is a blot on one's character. to lobberig. truncus. I doda clod. slobber. bespotted with mire E. slops). Dan. a log. schlotter. whence klack. clogs for the feet klakk. . klac. To Clog. clog or overshoe. klot. dirt. a portion of something soft and adhesive. hanging loose and full. dangle. daustrum. aspersion. Fr. and thus seem endowed . Fr. boil. His heart was franlc without a flaw. to rattle. clotted milk klotte. . laggery. Sc. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. . to dabble. log. splash. a bal!. Hence inclose. Yule-clog. a clod Swab. IV. . slob. Close. inclose. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. klottern. to shut. Clog. Lat. pludre. plod. rattle. slobbe. chiudere. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. lunch. dab. G. to bodies. Du. slabberen. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. Klak also.. dial. terminate. clos. I clodde. lopin. Pr. or E. E. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. spatter. kl'dnken. slops slodderen. dirt. enOE. miry laggerit. loose trowsers. . klotz. watery. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. to rattle. from claudo. schlettern. E. . gelatinous. curdled. to dash like heavy rain. to spill liquids. in forms like Du. Fr. slobberen. slab. we pass to E. Pl. He was a man without a dag. to bubble. to shut up. I clodde. be&c. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. to wabble. a blot. kladde. a babbler. klos. lag. to flap as loose clothes. forbidden by 17 Ed. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. the radical sylla. lob. loppe. . paddle or dabble in the wet. tramp in wet or mire. neither spot nor hang loose. kloteispaen. tJokok. or Sc. tuditare. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. a trowelful of mortar. loose. slop. a clog. laggyn. spot of dirt. separate part. clos. . and Gael. geschlotter (as E. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water.rge lump. or drablyn with separate existence. bowl . to play at bowls. dunch). without. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. kloten. shaky. meat from Du. doitre. mire. . TZoxapov. claudo. closed. wide bagging clothes. bemired. A . In the same way Dan. wabbling from Du. zocco. a clod. with Fr. da- . clausum. in accordance with It. Du..D. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. kleck. motzen. mud. shut up. Mat. to paddle in the wet. loppered (of milk). a lump from Du. congeler.D. an imputation. -close. compared with clump. to shut in. Swiss schlott. and E. lump of mud on the clothes . close. lump of something soft . shut up. fors. clammy loam. AS. klakk. clotted locks Dan. be found rattle. from Fr. in comp. klos-bane.dial. m&se noch stain. 3. a skittle-ground klos- sen. like G. is connected with pludder. g. a field inclosed clos. figer. Gr. then liquid or loose substance. to cling locks. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. dag. Pr. clogs. clausum. motte. Russ. thick spoon . analogous plan to clod or club. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). schlott. chiuso. thick sour milk. to a. to dabble. MHG. Bav. to shut. pattens G. Cloister. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. klunkern. claque. klotzschuh. clatk. in accordance with Pl.— Clothe. beklakken. klakken. loblolly. lobberen. klag.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. a block. schlattern. zoccoli. finish . a log. bloutre. . a dirty wench claggy. lobberen. The game called ninepins. to sup up liquid food. kleck or lack. to claggock. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr.1a. . lobbig. of something clammy or heavy.' end. -cludo. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. Fr. cloth. from Du. . and Du. to close against one. blot. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm.). we pass to Schlatter. clot. kloster. Klottermelck. to flounder in the wet. kloden. lumps of butter. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. lump of butter. mud klcEg. klokotat. Closhe. Lat. or loppern. a spot. The origin of clod and clot is to . lopperig. Idppern. a blot. kloteren. claggy. unctuous. -clus-. paddle. a Christmas log. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. • lump. clorre. ! . paludosus. -clusum. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. je amoncele. fat. daggerey. schlottern. of a body of any kind. A — — A Thus from Bav. . loose mud. It. klateren. . klod. to bedaub. Pm.

Du. blockish. warm. clammy earth. Sw. naegel. a cover or coverture . Met. and clout d eudaich. a sky Cot.D.).). kldverj P1. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. E. dote. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. To Cloy. a patch. and of a rustic unpolished person. to strike. botsen. a bunch. clavo di especias. a nail. from W. Mabousfrom Lat. strike. G. dabaire. ser. clothe. Dan. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). to cherish. AS. cobble. and tapp. de Champ. a bunch. to splash. shel- kloen. N. dial. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. kloete. a lump. mire. klubb. a. cluth mhor. kUid. duthaich. to cleave. . —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. klubbe. nelke (dim. knob. a clubfoot klabb. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. In the same way E.). clumhar. block. from kloven. lump of earth aria. clotted milk or cream. a clove of garlick. klebek. The significations of a clod or lump. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. clydion. group of people Sw. klaven. puddle. caillebottes. davus. a log. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . boucher. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. unpolished. of a lump of earth and that figure. motte. Cloud. klever. to tramp in the kluyve. sheltered . — — — .). E. zolla. klu77ip. to stop. also homo obtusus. klotzig. ON. Ir. CLOUD an awkward clod . chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. — . a thick mass. rustic. warm. a log. eene ODu. Du. diboter. Club. kluyfketi loocksj Pl.D. to lump mend clumsily. in the same sense. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. chiodo di girofano. eine to slop. to cloy. zolla dell' . Pl. ball of thread Russ. klobbersaen. clou de girofle. E. G. From dog. clue. hebes (Kil. lunch). CLUCK rustic. tuft. and -the word Clove. kl'dnne.D. are often connected. nourish . clothes). to cover Bret.clod. G. dump. of sloppy materials. log. probably from daboter. kloven. milk run to lumps. a curdled sky. Cld. klqb. lie clyd. a clod. bunch.bar. a bobbin. Das volk hat sich in splitten. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. Sp. of thumping clumsy action. a breach.Fris. Properly that which covers and Du. clot. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. A division of a root of garlick. klubba. cluster. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. clog. . the air.ft. Gael. Clumpered in balls of clouds. dys. a ball. a blabber.' Sanders. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. to cleave or the splashing of water. indispalte knoblauch. Du. ON. clunch. . lump. clods. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. to strike . a clown. clod. a ball. warm place . little nails. klunds. daggy. Imitative of the note of a society. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. and clay. So Fr. stock. Du. matte. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. but confounded with cailler. warm clothes {dillad. a clod or clot. clunch. clothes ment. The radical sense seems to be an unE. clump of a clout on the head. wisp. clot. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. (kruyd =. esdaboter (Roquef. clobyn. een klaven kruflook. spice) G. Gael. w. dillad bumkin. make warm. lumps of curd. a clot or keeps one warm. cob. klubb. Then applied to a lump of mate. clyd. mary sense is a blow. cobio.158 . a nail) Fr. w. a garthas. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . a bunch. Clover. mud (Pat. piece Cot. kluV. cludadh. knob. with lout. the terms expresssplit. Clown. klotsen. Du. a ball. are also used in the sense of a stopper. klumba. klieven. clod is used in both senses . dash (Cot. to a lump. lump. klove. kluppe. I. To Cluck. botch. Rouchi dapoter. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. clot . from Du. Du. tered . klonte. sheltered up warm. to curdle. loggish. a boss. G. a ball of twine . formed lump or thick mass. It. a fissure. Sw. lump. cloud Delfortrie. sticky. Clump. dirt. . klotz. a sticky. and closely do conspire. when something has got into the touch-hole. klcBdi. as Fr. More in R. aglio. a . del mattond. coarse. a bousche. a lump. mass. choke or stop up. 2. to beFr. a knot of people. . The priClout. cludaim. clump. Kiittner. Move. klump. from OFr. klumpfot. . dob. dut. dial. nagelein. Fr. dial. A kind of spice resembling Du. of nagel. dabosser. AS.

Du.' Wycliff. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. MHG. er. n. a clod or lump. a lump or compact mass. klunt. dumpse. dussomed (Wilbrabam). — Hence include. —To Clumsyd. ' Uorte (for clogs. ON. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. G. to to snatch. klunsen. dystere. clump. Lat. dek. a clot klissen. 159 E. to squeeze. MHG. klamp. The Fr. * Clump. Hence snatching. claw. unfashioned. enervatus. to stick together . claudo. klompen. to benumb with cold. G. Coach. Variation of clatter. and make ye strong feeble knees. klamen. exclude. Boh.D. unhandy. havi. Champ. -cludo. cluster. ment. wooden shoes. Riwle. Lat. — Cot. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. of garlick. lump of soft mate. klumpern. ball of snow on horse's foot . klemmen. -olus-. Clump. lay hold of. clotted cream. Pl. seize. obstructum. a coach.. clausum. klomje. Hesse. conclude. to tramp. The sense of awkward. -elude. xXvariip. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes.mene tied. to pinch. coucher became in unhandy. eviratus. dial. tight — — . ball as snow. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. as clumper. conclusion. to curdle. klumpig. Muster. algidus. -clus-. limp. to syllable click.pare P1. with E. Du. Sp. claws. in v. 130. Com. with a quick. having the Pl. whence koetse. from klupen. doquear. Du. differing only in the absence of the duik. pladdern. gelidus. strum on an instrument. G. OE. finish. Gr. klos. to wash. verklomen. and klotteren. Analogous forms with a tongs. a couch.— — . a pinching time. a nasalised form of club. a clod clunter. wooden sole. Fr. pinched. . klods. Hence cleik. koetsDa. in comp. E. clip or pinch. are the nasalised forms of klotte. koetblockish. thick and clumsy. Clutch. clumsy. glousser. &c. Pl. smart motion. klette. —More. Fris. In the same way Du. -close. Sw. a noise. to paddle or dabble. Graff in Klamjan. klocken. a lump. klonte. ' . as Fr. clutch. and klonteren. . Hindust. kohle. Ray. from ON. Coal. acomelydfor could Pr. clabosser. cleuk. See -elude. heavily. Cath. Du.E. benumbed with cold. esclaboter. -CLUDE hen Du. E. an instrument for nasal form e. ether comelia P. a claw. to shut. dial. or aclommyde.forklomme (Outzen).' Benecke.D.' Vegecius in Way. koetsie. cleik. a ball. duke. viscous material. klummklummshandt. Beklummen van kelde. — ' — — tonista.D. from laver. Ang. a lump. plad or plod. a litter. klummerhdndt. Isaiah. ' Thou clontsest for cold. clopiner. unhandy.' Comfort ye dumsid. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. klontet. hooknosed. to collect in lumps. klemma. awkward. klont. Cluster. dumpers. a clove Sw. to tramp. to klotz. clook.e. awkward. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise.D. unwieldy Hal. OHG. beklummen.D. cliboter. a block. to wash. also a cluster. Sc. verkommelen. Lincolns. inclusive. log. of Du. klcise. through the senses of lumpish. the word is more probably connected with OE. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. hondis. lavesen. klikonosy. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action.'— animal. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes.P. hand to cleuk. G. glocire. klomen. Sw. — sen. Fr. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. close. -clusum. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. dek. might be reached from clump. Teulazy. kichlemmit. klobber in klobbersaen. ill-made . to gingle. to curdle. paste. Compare Swiss klupe. klump. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. kluntfrom KKvKdi. properly to do anything Fr. and koetse. Fr. * Clumsy. But clunchy. dial. calling her chickens. kol. a ball . splash. clointer. klampa. Clutter. — . fingers (familiar). crooked inwards . carriage in which you klodset. From the notion of sticking together. coccolare. bunch. as from seken. clutch. dial. beklommen. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. a clod or The noclot. eviratus. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. A group. dumps. to rinse. It. klimpern. ' Clumper.Ancr. rial. to tramp or tread heavily. . klonte. . eene beklum. to grip. cluntClyster. klikaty. or from Sw. to curdle. idle. a bunch. Cheshire. See reclusion. to lie. klister. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . Pm. may recline. koetsen. cleche. COAL dumpish. klisse. a clod or lump. wagen. hands stiff with cold. Du.

of poison. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. a knock. meaning that she is plain and coarse. or E. . inflammation. . A plausible origin. to kindle or cause to burn . a kitchen. Lat. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . habble. spinne-ivebbe. Sp. cofasse. to beCoax. to cob.the water boils. any kind of coat. k'dlla. to grow together. . a similar According to Ihre. and E. to bungle . * To Cobble. pockbecility and liability to imposition. and the spider as collectors. blaze. A spider's web. to kindle jvAla. throw a blow. koppe. are often connected. long standing. kop-ar. a cobweb. used in — . to be inflamed . as in arr. verklomen. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. in Essex Jow*2c^. a great falsehood. one Pr. OE. Colina' the place where a fire is made. a firesteel Lat. Coast. imbecille.). a tuft. side . to stutter. dial. of cochina. klabbare. as shown in dob and cob. — Cobbler. bijamie. To cobble. It. to Lett. . cokes was a simpleton. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. cotte. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. pryf-coppyn. viz. dial. cochinilla. . Dan. tuft. dial. Coat. coste. dial. properly to daub. to burn. cock or nescock. — — — E. koljarn. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. nursery lang. — — . or upper . haggle. H^cart. from bearing a bag. Outzen. e. ON. or cobble. to knock. however. plaisant. The OE. acomelyd or aclommyd. pock. bredouiller. a spider (/r)^=grub. hakkelen. top cobio.' Nares. to peck as a hen cobyn. large coals. and hobble. probably from the Fr. klabba.). cob. then to work unskilfully . Fr. a thumper. caleo. ordinary as in the expression of course. and fig. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. to speak or act confusedly. rivation are found in Sw. cotta. and thence a lump cobnut. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. pustule. cule cocosse. to wheedle or gull vermin). says Varro. to worship. ignem. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. itself is Nescock . in Du. koppen-gespin.(pi. s. cokes or fool of him. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering.' And colo. an egg. and imperfect or unskilful action. The Fris. ailina or colina. small pox (pocks) . frock. coalesce. petrilla. v. a bubble. — Pr. to be hot.—Atkinson... w. and jval. quilet. dial. s. It. to form an union with another coalitus. of E. Trevoux. tempered clay for building. niais. to strike. quele.— Cobble. Fr. Flem. Pm. numb. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. burning. sweets and the other of poisons. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. a coat or frock. kuppa. COCHINEAL Cobber. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- .. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. Lat. Du. to stammer. Fin. ridi. flame. kylla. the one of thump. 3. a nest. a bungler. gull. to hobble . large stones . broddelen. united. glow jvalaya. T' waerkopet. When the . a sow. give the full meaning of the word. a spider. a darling. e. from some fancied resemblance. gull. to glow . a woodlouse. according to the ordinary run of events. Cobbles in the N. boil. kolna. The contrast between the bee • Cob. cacd).inflated with air or liquid. Coarse. cobble. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. unfledged bird