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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. is given to a cow or calf. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. when neither name for the object to be designated. by whom the be understood. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. the present day. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. with an initial m or I. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. when we is represent to our children of the cow. and mully or mully cow is the . and where we are seeking. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. come Moolls. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. but nothing she herself knows the animals. or Mollein. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. persons of different tongues at the present day. in other words. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. or. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. the baaing of the sheep. mind of the of the animal. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. in language of the present day.NURSERY IMITATIONS. name of the cow. and. The syllables moo (mu. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). and in imitates the cry are used withitself. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. Molli. to the syllables which are significant to the child. the closer we shall approach to the . muK) and mae (rfie. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle.

p. First. to work over with the mouth. fiafifi&v (Hesych. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. . mumm. 72). so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. as well as the mind of the utterer. then. for everything fit to eat. &c. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. he called to to drink. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. Gradually. . schipp. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. and which we might express thus. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. analogous to Magyar mammogni. in children's language.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. became more perfect. A member of my own new sfop. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. On one occasion he said^e nim. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. Finally an n was placed before it. to eat. hm. for bad. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. I had watched the growth of this word. to For instance. family. his nurse adopting the word with him. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. nineteen years old. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. for things. We have. Gr. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes.. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. partly from sounds which the child caught.' he says. by the natural humming sound. when hungry. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. repulsive to eat. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. Heinicke.' In ordinary speech mump. and some were very clear and distinct. nim.). nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. and nim came to signify everything edible. He would now say good. had nim.

clangorqae tubarum. nam. palatable. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. . ut tinnitus aeris.ONOMATOPCEIA. ' Motherwell. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. we can call them so. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Africa) nimnim. i8o. taken up hastily on the sly. mujnpa. to mump. (in chil- dren's language). to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . make djamdjam). and the crab — p. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. Gothic niman. buckra man's language the white man. to taste . it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. 130-1. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). crab nam buckra man. on. as to . greedy . savory. 1 86). iii. the Scotch poet.' says the author of Modern Slang. and thence to be tasteful. mumpfen. jamsa (yamsa). tidbits nama . Vei (W. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. voracious. delicacies. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). and the fizzing (and Series. jammla.' says Quintilian. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. nyam nyam. to Sw. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. agreeing with Ein. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to be pleamind . p. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. eating. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. nobis vix permittitur. or word-making. to eat. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL).' And Diomedes. j ing . Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Nimm'd up. to take. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. nvrnma. sweet (Koelle). mumpfeln. snatched (Whitby Gl. memmexen. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. lita. yamming. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). ' id est. jumla. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. to chew laboriously. South Jutland hiamsk. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. Wolof nahenahe. Galla djam djeda. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. to fill the mouth. i. aves tinnire.' — Lersch. as well as the Sw. A negro proOr. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Swedish dialect gamsa. at hiamske i sig. aptantes adfectibus vocem. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. to smack in eat. oves lalare. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. to eat mampfen. and some of them . Africa) nimi. Primitive Culture. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. Soosoo (W. namnam. mumble. dial.). stolen. food (Tylor. to move the lips in continued chewing. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere.minis.

While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. barking. 89) with less hesitation. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. baaing or maeing of lambs. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. might be used as the designation of it. snarling of dogs. p. 'I doubt. lowing of oxen. might be used. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. snarling. chattering of pies or monkeys. hooting of owls. Indeed. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals.' — We speak of a cow. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. chirping of sparrows or crickets. when circumstances required. cooing or crooing of doves. or thoughts of our hearer. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. not of a baa. but of a dog. a lamb. for the purpose of bringing the animal. not of a moo of Lect.' he says. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. anything connected with it.' And elsevs^here (p. und growling. yelping. between dog and harking. dove and cooing. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. sparrow and chirping. or. ^6^. before the in other words. yelping. that there is When Man. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . twittering of swallows. neighing or whinnying of horses. Yet we ing. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. intended in the instance to represent the cry. cackling or gaggling of geese. croaking of frogs or ravens. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. bleating of sheep. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. whether it deserves the name of language. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. We . howling. bumping of bitterns. purring or mewing of cats. gobbling of a turkey-cock. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. bellowing of bulls. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. grunting or squealing of hogs. do not speak of a bowwow. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs.

). Malay gdgak. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. sound). it announces (Salaberry). or quawk. He to is therefore derives kdka. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. Aoo-Aoo. and the sound of that direction. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. crow. 349. crow. is kuM) for the cuckoo. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. whose sound (Pictet.IMITATIVE NAMES. coccolare. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. in g. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion.). lion. fi-om apakd- i. Sauscr. gackem. Sometimes the hoarse i . Barabra koka. kdka. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). 4th century before Christ is earliest times. a crow. birds. Arabic kdk. layitavya . 'Kdka. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. Columbia kahkah. a bird that is be driven away. In Basque. Bav. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. kauwe. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. derived fi-om a root ru or kru.' common sense. Georgian quaki. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. kae. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. and means a shouter. Kdrava. having a general predicative power. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. Hungary. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. ist ed. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. kuho. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. caw kuhii-rava (rava. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. caller. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. a daw. In Lat. We imitate the sound with a modulated. and Bavaria respectively. 380. a a crier (p. Manchu The kaha. Origines Indo-Europeennes). We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. and gaggele or gagkelein.. e. KOKKvi. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. ghak. Picard cau.' kd). The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. according to Durga). which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. a crow (Pictet). Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. in is Gr. 4th ed. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It.

and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. Du. tur. to croak. Yoruba koklo. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Fr. koeren.. reduplicate form. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. Malay kukuk. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. uhu. to croak. to cry loudly. name. a crow lish Lith. and sometimes both together. Ibo akoka. French dishuit. a crow . lilits. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. kukko. lulo. great variety of oKokv^uv. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. the name for a crow. tortbla. Esthonian kikkas. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. girre. coqueri- Languedoc. tbrtola. as well as of Sanscr. tbrtora. and e. kukhuta. kurre. k. kuku. Albacuculi a dove. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. Mod. korren. to crow. kruk. or Gr. coucouva. Magy. krauklys. synonymous forms of similar structure). xi. Hindi. to howl or Lat. t. by the verbs gurren or girren. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . Pers. a crow. cock. 6. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. and e. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. name of its is the bird. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove .Gr. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. in the North of England. either in the same or in related dialects.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. teewhoop. Heb. Da. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. kraeye. to hoot. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Du. Zulu kuku. the name of an animal will gen- . leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. "Welsh hwan from hwa. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. libufs. tuquheit. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. The crowing of cot in Fr. Lettish kiekuts. to crow. giving turtur (and thence It. German and Eng- krahen. Arabic tdtwit. 219. turtle) as the Lat.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. gugu. gufo. hibou. p. Scotch peeweip. Sp. So we have Polish krukac. Walachian coucouveike. The consonants p. tor. ghughu. It. wood-pigeon. while crouk. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. are represented. lUyrian kukurekati. German kielitz. kraeyen. another. Dutch kievit. Swedish kowipa. yell.. kraukti. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. German luhu. krahe. kirren. coccovaec.

German hummel. sound. shrill. to be compared with Sanscr. ajo. skirl. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. gives rise to chwymores. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. a beetle druna. to shrill sound sharp. grille. a sharp sound as of a 6. Australian bumberoo. ' — Pictet . horniss and from the buzzing The. hollow noise. and yelping cry. little intermission. e. In the N. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. from the humming. The name of the cricket indeed. buzzing.' Amazons. buzzing. in allusion to its music. 'The natives call it tanand. a bee. skryle.' —Tennyson. which they make in their flight very . to creak Bret. Danish dron. to chirp J may be compared with . of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. Lithuanian tranas. to hum. schrickel. cricket is from crick. schrecke. a drone. ta-na-nd. The Welsh chwyrnu. a hornet. Arabic tantanat. humming. or a gnat fly. a small as hawk is . resound. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. chirk. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. zirken. words imitative of humming . of England it is to the b 2 . sirkka. din. grillen. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. Fin. The Arabic sarsor. Gaelic dranndan. glass cracking (Schmeller). 337. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. Sanscr. Albanian tsentsir. the drone or non-working bee . droning is . The drone peal. pip-pi-ta. (Jieuschrecke) . to sound.' — i. kong-kong. and probably indicates that g. swirplys with 6. knetta. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. resounding of musical instruments. g. ' Sanscr.IMITATIVE NAMES. Corean sirsor.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. North of England. and not from E. Northern Farmer. to chirp . to rustle. there are infinite varieties. schwirren. booming. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. We may compare the Parmesan tananai.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. with or Fr. loud rumour. oE. growling. Lat. to grumble.or bumble-bee. common. Sc. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). grylhis. as . the humble. Naturalist on the tocano. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. flight its sting considered as a horn. and he kong-ko-rong. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. PofijivXwg. from schrick. We may cite Gr. bamba. g. bee. Danish gnaddre. g. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. whirr). German dronen. give a faint sound. succeeding each other — with noise. — Catafogo. schirke. skril with n. German drohne. i. bambhara. Speaking of a cricket he says. representing a short sharp sound. thunder. Lith. dhran. a fly (Tylor) .vf3.

Galla boa. mae. a cow. Hottentot bou (Dapper). Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). buculus. a drum . the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. bos. to shout. to bow- own bawl. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to bump as a bittern Illyr. or moo. bolt. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. a bull. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. Lat. bubati. bu. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. bukati. forms a. Zulu lulula. shoot . His analysis leads cow. verbal form given to the say. mugler. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. OFr. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. the animal. p. to shout. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. to make a loud deep sound. the Fr. to low or bellow. biibnas. On the same principle. to low . bo. From baa. The Galla lilbil. — ^Tylor. to make. bugle. say. that the imitative syllable are Lith. cattle. to sound. From the same lioao). or with on. be-l-er. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. Da. btibleti. to weep. and djeda. or formed Lat. representmake bow. to . it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. to or bark. a bullock. grumble as distant thunder . The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. to bellow like a bull. to boohoo. Cult. as that of the cow by boo. fivKaofiai. and in Hottentot baa was the . Lat. bue. Manx booa. k or g. bovis. bucula. to from bau. Thus from miau. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. bauli. or bau-l-i. to make. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. loge. ox. Piedmontese fi bau. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. muJiati. and from to ring. Fr. lulauti (to hoo-loo). to beat hard. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. has bilbilgoda. boo. to make a noise. to the uses goda. bwla. in same way. or a z to the imitative syllable. bullock. to mew. (iove. a buffalo. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. Gael. representing the mew of a cat. bull. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. w. a heifer. bugler. With these analogies. The Piedm. verb is evidently identical with our shout. to low. mugire. 167. as the Illyr. is inadmissible. amuse. maukati. It. bullus and e. mamoo-heeheek. from the imitative moo instead of boo. Fr. Lat. bae. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to ba-L-are. w. are (with a subsidiary k). bubenti. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. whence baula. agreeing exactly with Lith. make poo. in a imitation of a ringing sound. make to it laugh. miau-l-er. and thence Lat. baula. Illyr. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen.XX called booing. bae. a Geiger. Norse bu.

. karra. to themselves. and hoc'h. hunt (gen. name. in Wolof bae. a grunt. the snout of a pig. Hence Breton hoc ha. to grunt. to howl. in v. sheep or goat. Illyr. and thence groin. . leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. a pig. Gr. to bleat. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. we have Sanscr. and of (maelon). and with the subsidiary k or g. from hundama. a goat firixal^ta. grogner. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a goat. to bleat . guttural tone. or in any ! way ! persuading. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. this obstinate race. sound. hunon. to growl. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. a wolf. may with to snarl.). a sow. naskia. smack and naski. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. The g. as lou of an ox. grumpf. as the proper name of a tame sheep. hundi). ' In driving. menAda (ndda. With gen. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. does not produce a e. a sheep. It is probable also that e. ^.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. kurre. a sheep (Lowe). Gael. Magy. mecati. Gr. mutter. Da. corresponding to ohg. a sheep or a goat. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). It. nire. from knurre. cite as by grunt. meckern. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. name of a sheep. (iriKov of forms like Sw. a hog. undoubtedly imitative. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. — . In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. goats. oe. to bleat. hound. meigeal. a pig Fin. rumbling. may be identical with Esthon. Illyr. /xijeao/iat. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. 6. and Circassian maylley. a dog.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. a. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. grunt. he would hardly. leg-et-ni. Welsh and Breton). / The same Gr. grumble. Idgge (Rietz). appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. curmurring. cry). signifying a snarling. hund. knurfisk. kurren. /xj/caScj. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. a sheep or ewe. grunlike a pig in eating. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Africa laa. meil. a goat. lek-eg-ni. Gr. Kurren und murren. Illyr. to rumble. . a sow. and grumphie. hadg- Magy. lekavica. a (Hesych. From the imitative mae. lambs. grumbhng. Moreover. it and e. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. sus-sus. Manx meilee. G. hwch. meugler. groin. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. Fr. with the root ypaipm. mekegni. name of the animal itself. and snorke. grunny. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. although the imitation embodied in Lat. lecco. leknuti. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. for the voice of the ox). And it is true there between hog and grunt. growl. houch. meketati. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. the designations of a dog the term cur. purr). Fr. grumble. by which the shingle gives rise to It.' Moor's Suffolk words. grugno. to grunt. Among dog.

it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. without a — we root. and it is behind that wall that language really begins.root. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.. a horse. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. animal. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. such as cuckoo. Thus we are led to the Fr. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. of the character in question. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. a mare. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). houpy in Craven. Sc. when he found peculiarity.' — ist Series. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. hiine. cockade. to the left.).' ticular bird. a little am- bling horse. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. But words of this kind are. 91. ^6<. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. . Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased.' 2nd Series. hoppe. If onomatopoeias can . M). Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). hottihuh. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. hobby. coquelicot. Esthonian hoibo.). turn a horse to the is In Finland. (Craven Gloss. e. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. . So Sanscr. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. like artificial flowers. p. to whine. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. as in Yorkshire highly right. p. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. hobben. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. the cry to stop or back a horse. to go backwards. from the cry animal. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. humma. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. g. hobin.. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. coquette. There are of course some names. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock.

Sanscr. wiehern. hross. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. g. swift. creeper. redpole. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. horse. Sp. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. wrenska. Sw. titter. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. Du. as sigh. Fr. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. to Sanscr. Irieschen. cough. hikkd. but whether there kind between them and other words. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. to neigh. moan. signified It. Bohem. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. form corresponding hresh. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. ginniken. wagtail. lapwing. goatsucker. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. little speak for themselves. fehtati. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. .D. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. nounced with a guttural). ance or habits of the animal. sol. e. command of language was attained. diver. Pl. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. hresh. whitename in in- throat. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. rinchar. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. animals or certain kinds of sound. hennir. runniken. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. than to the sounds represented. groan. wrena. hresh. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. frenschen. woodpecker. nitrire. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. xxiii ginal object. giggle. hukkup. Lettish sweegt. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own.

for the sound of a fall. scream. aritischane. for blows with a rod.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. clap ! A smack Puff. thunder (Tylor) . When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . an attempt would be made to by the voice. hang. mer. knarr. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. atchini. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. dong Read. pump. ting-ting. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. ding. bang ' ! trenches. banga. beat of a clock child . Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. or the w. lumm. snore. the dashing of the sea .' ! ! ! ! — dong. Of a like forma- drum . Australian bungbung ween. in a nail Let.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser.' So imac. heaven). The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. — Sanders. plitsch-platsch. snort. beat. tlirob. fitsche-falsche. pit-a-pat. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. heart tick-tack. strippstrapp-stroll. to throw violently down.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. to knock. oren : Klapp. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . It is represented in e. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. haw. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. hoo ping ping. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. for a small one. for the for the sound of . debhes-lungotais (deifies. ping came the bullets about their ears. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. for the sound of a blow. for in such sound of blows. or tliat is accomit. for the creaking of a wheel.' it both sides went. root kshu. a kind of drum. Da. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. 1865. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. Mei gbengben. Zulu bongo. atchian. went the cannon. . snukkup). to ham. to beat. a large bell.' 'Haw. &c.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. the God of thunder . are familiar in ' to every one. klatsch. knack. to drive on. to hammer . White Lies. for the sound of milking. to sneeze. shriek. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. banke. Wtb. bang. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . bangas. haitshu. &c. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. wheeze. Vei gbangba. DingBang. —Brem. a more expressive than the e. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. for that of breaking. hoo. tisio (tisho). on the chops is represented also by pratx.

Lat. young bird. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. pigione. pipio. peep. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. pipe.sc. cry. of a word will appear supposed to represent. It seems to him that the teeth t. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. — . Florio. is pfeife. De Brosses. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. pipegni. pipilo. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. —Lyndsay. Magyar pip. child. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. to cry like imrli^u). to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. pipare. which he added to intensify the expression. Gr. pi. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. a fife or musical pipe. and whimper. pippione. calls S. pipelni. pipe. young child . of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. ducing the sound. a whelp. Mantuan pipiare. bleat. pigiolare. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. The pi. or a piailler. to designate cavity and hollow. pule. peep. G. Lat. is of expression. part of the What consciousness has the child. doubtless. He Yet asks. pipio. laugh. piccione. to squeak. piauler. to peep It. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. not- . to cheep like a bird or a young It. a (young) pigeon. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. piou. e. to cry pi. had been used laugh ? two. a chicken or gosling. piou. pigolare. In cases such as these. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. the voice of chickens (Cot. . mobility excavation and hollow ^. as k. far pipi. pu. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. and so forth. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. a or cheep. or the uneducated different consonants are man. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. as in other subjects of study. Fr.' instead. and their relations. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. chickens (Tylor).) a chick. cry of young birds . a fowler's bird call is lost. has been un- employed to designate fixity. as the simplest implement for proFr. scream. used as a call to .

to cluck. to creak knirren. thunder oil . Manchu kaka-kiki. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. a drum W. lachachen. rumble. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. knurren. murren. to rattle. creak. vaake gorgor) . Indian chack-chack. kirkirdnd. kniks. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. chack. like the noise of a glass breaking . crack. pi . kniks. to pant bejii- zela. cricli. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. tontonare. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. i. Zulu raraza. Pefuxela. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. Poppopvi^to. to grumble. bubble. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. tonare. crash. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . a short sharp sound.Gr. It. &c. of a loud strong sound.) Mod. . tintino. the side of g.. cluck. and lugh. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to pant violently (Colenso). ioriogliare (to make borbor). rumble (Fl. be cate to go on laughing loud . a closed or obscure sound. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. to gargle . Hindoo tomtom. along with Du. as the click of a latch or a trigger. rumble. to gurgle. to grate the teeth . turtur. as representing the sound made when something breaks. to be compared with Sc. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. it is If laugh were written as pronounced.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). kuruk. karkarana. to jar. to thunder. some small vowel or consonantal sound. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. sound of dry breaking. . u. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. gurren. to fizz like fat in frying. to bubble. {to It. a prolonged sharp sound. to hawhaw or laugh loud. knaks. lachen. sound). laqfF. grumble. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. to cry pi. Hindustani karak is rendered. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . is very common. garren. murmur (by . along with tinnio. to laugh. Pacific aka-aka. when it force than biscuit. knuks. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. to crackle like in boiling . where the variation. a.. to ring pipio. or springing back. preserved by Kilian. the clucking of a j hen . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. a sharp short one. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. to grumble). of something fine and thin. to clack. loud laughter. coo. in German. borrelen. to gorgogHare rattle. to growl. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. or kaka-faka. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. girren. make wood a clinking noise.

which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. Tiie Galla gigiteka. csam-csogni. jingle. awater* ' The Mme P. at an accelerated note. E. as of Tamil muromurmur. klirren. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. rifiirayov. The syllables lil-bil. thump. word. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. and the imitative nature of tivgle. identical with g. brings us to Fr. 1871. KaKog. and Gr. a smith. of keys or tinkling of bells. for the ringing of illustrate bells. drops of i. jangle. The whispering of the wind I. a nightingale. cry. for chut-chiit-er. hala-hald-faMa (falda. or of bells ringing. rvir (in tvittio. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. tumwata. chuchoter. a drum . The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. e. Maori pata. sound). Fr. Sanscr. djeda (to say tub). to the purling of a brook. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. clank. clash of arms. agrees with g. bent her head. Newman). or the bubbling up of to a spring. Scotch sough or sooch. ding-dong.' Member for Paris. call. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. as Fr. and bilhila. disturbance (F. compared with Gr. for the clinking Lat. and Gr. quarren. to say chut. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. bulbiil. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. uproar. fumtu. box on the ear imitation of the . champ. caca and Finnish adkkd. to knock. Manchu kaka. bad. a workman. sound. indicating the origin of Gr. are applied to the is excrements of children. . hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. to giggle. a boy's whistle. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. bubble up. tubh.and e. and e. rain (Tylor. to whisper. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. 192). sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. spring of water in the a bell. simmer. Magyar csamm-ogni. a nightingale. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. the tingling Ming-Hang. for a tTviror). while cacd / used in e. especially one who beats. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. for the sound of privy whispering. to strike. tup. the sound of a stringed instrument. corresponding in e. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. the gingling of glasses. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. or to Du. to be compared with g. make djamdjam). clango. wail. kiling-kalang. chinking of coin. is Manchu tang-tang. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. shout. coughing or clearing the throat. muro and e. to beat. Calt. croaking of frogs. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. clink. kl'mg-kling. is based on the same imitation as the e. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. to ring or jingle. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. chut. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. noise. 368). expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. borrelen.* the heart. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . and her heart went thump. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. tumult. Galla tuma. halaidlac'h. correspond to e. Prim. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. Turk. . koXiw.

squeal. disturbance. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. The use of g. The beating of drum is represented in e. and Fr. whine. bubble. plump. tap. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. parapatapan. clash. rattle. or v^hether jectional. without the intervention of orthodox roots. at a door tarapatan. murmur. dabble. twang. So in Fr. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun.' — Nohden. It. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump.. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. to fall. we have buffet or cuff. it is fallj AS. hum. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. souse. clack. splash. tum-ultus. patter. clatter. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. Humboldt. smash. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. pop. gargle. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. w. a applied as well to the force of the bang. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. crunch. 'pat. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. thump. rumble. ' Der puff. sputter. in e. report of a gun. bang. fizz. crack. lash. and Grimm. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. while e. and the French pouf. clank. But although and also found in Lat. squall. ring. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. blubber. splutter. jingle. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. thump. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. brumberum. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. tymmesll. craunch. squeak. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. dash. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. to dance. tumbian (to beat the ground). swash. whirr. crash. tingle. chink. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. by rubadub. blow. clang. whack. rataplan or rantanplan. clap. to is blow. snap.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. and soufflet. puff. tomber. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. the Germans puff. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. tinkle. rap. boom. hiss. whizz. mutter. paddle. gurgle. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. creak. flop. thump. flap. slash. answering to g. din. thwack. for (Sanders). Fr. guggle. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. douse. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. smack. clink. Nevertheless. chatter. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. according to the strictest phonetic rules.

INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. formerly cited. grief. because they are spontaneous. hay. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. Grimm or Bopp. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. is Thus ah!. every little pain. the kind of action that is desired of them. At the first beginning of life. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. an imitation of a sigh . as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. the interj. without a thought of symbolising to them. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. in the rushing waters. p. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . ugh . In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. little who has time to want of her nurseling. or any unsatisfied want.'. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. and found in the building of be burnt up. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. by the nature of the cry. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. and uttering plaintive sounds. or stubble is meaner name.' If chaos. xxix on the contrary. are made known by an instinctive cry. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. but if we must not complain on the beach. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. Crying. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. or of any if wood. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. the inteij. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. of horror. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. 94.' . stractions. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. and thus they become signs of despair. If. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. knows them. that he has taken the step in rational speech. in the case of the animal or of the infant. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. wringing the hands.

XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. groaning. which are frequently so toned down cance.' — ist Series. as who them spontaneous utterances. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. ^6g And to the same effect 371. p. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. more eloquent than a long speech. One short interjec- tion may fact. more to the point. shrieking. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. be more powerful. If I wish to make a person of an . And again. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. them to exercise it. 32. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. sneezing. interjections. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. the lowing of a cow. of all the mouth. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. or which is of me as suffering pain. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. should be remem- . he cites from Home Tooke.' p.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. He says. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. 344. may become traditional. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. they are involuntary interjections. and the eye. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. to solve the I shall call first..' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. p. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. and some of them the composition of words. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. Language begins where interjections end. coughing.

Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. demolishing here. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. he says. hahottaa. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. Lat. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. Tooke in truth. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. when I arp humming and hawing. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. and others from interjections. in Magy. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. speaking. bered. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . I am not hearer. Koxafw. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. but the less am at a loss what to say. Kayxa^u). Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. and thus. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. and more or less limited . kahkahah. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. loud laughter. some kind of language might have been formed. cachinno. hohottaa. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. interjections. hahota. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. then speech begins. in Fin. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Gr. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. for example. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. it them.

which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. and not. words receiving the meanings they now bear.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. But here nature soon conies to his help.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. a deaf-mute himself. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. a Picture-language. The following account is given by Kruse. the critical question should be. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. like peewit and cuckoo. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. Though. if taken as a whole. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. and go where we now say stand. makes them stand and walk upon the table.' he says. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. of the world. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. What strikes him . dumb is the language of signs. of the nature of this great movement. . and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. And so in the case of language. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. It as has ing their most striking features. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind.

nay. called Gesture-language.' In the Institutions. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. to name. and And thus he makes himself a language. or the verb to be.GESTURE most. becomes roast meat. most striking outline of an object. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. he. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. it means little. he. signs are taught for yet. push it towards the person addressed for thou. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and forms further and further. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. can do better and more easily abstract terms. among themselves. and fully serves to j . are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. the lan- guage cultivates itself. what more. the whole secret. but if I depress it instead. and gestures. walkest. walked. thought is already broken. for child. it seems. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. for walk. his action. and it is flesh or meat. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. like a V. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. thou. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. walker. and we have roast goose. such objects. for the agent. such as than the educated man. that signifies great . A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. xxxiii him between one thing and another. or To pull and flap with the arms. The of sign for left hand. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. And is. particular sense in properly so called. the sorecalling them to his memory. as it now opens out. and with his thought. many when or but these. and to taste. for single objects. The same sign stands and the act itself. that. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. that air.

it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. putting it into his pocket. . in other instances sentence. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. When a verb. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. or action. in fact. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. as in die it is a noun. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. a number of alternatives are suggested. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. I say. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. would be simply beginning of speech. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. as when Bang ! went the gun. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. it called an interjection. Do not bang the it is a verb. and so is an adverb. You beaten . VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. or an act. the ture of white term pink is and red. whether by additions or otherwise. substantive or adjective. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. and the as. or something of the kind. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. He gave door a bang. Who is has beaten you ? would be.xxxiv asking. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. the garden. and thus performs the part of an adjective. according to the circumstances of the case. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. to indicate the action of a certain person. qualifies the against the wall. when I say.' dener's knife. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. as But when it is meant door. or a passive scene of existence. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. depend entirely upon the use. The same word . When I say. a colour red. might be the knife. or a quality. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask.

wherehy. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. wonder. inside. 255.^ — Miiller I. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. contempt. but often self-evident. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. or with elements expressing relations of time. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. the man is great. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. a groan. coalesces with the personal pronouns. whereto. and may be used language. middle. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. with a stick. commencement of speech. Thus tafu signifies a great man. which is an old y ting (use stick). or some relation between it and another object. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. . in the is indicated by the syllable y. pain. wherefore.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. verb nor noun has yet been developed. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. as kuo cung. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. a noun. that admits itself in of audible representation. grie^ horror. Latin. that is. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. as cung. wherewith. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. and to be great. &c. inquiry.. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. a sigh of oppression and . and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . whereof. Jii ta. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. in the sense of great. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. or nei. some outward display of the affection. greatness.

misery. ache. ! ! Goth. oimare. miau-n-is. . woe. ui. vei-a. och. . Fr. is w. gwae. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. suffering. headache. the pangs of childbirth. It. oh. to gargle. Jar lau-lau. lau-l-e. ocAJ. och. miau-l-is. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. mostly a ! %. The form corresponding to Lat. to groan. to injure. guaj-ire. axofiai. al. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. lament from oimi. mew. e.ez. or r. Gael. first person. &. on. wAwa. wai-l. pain. . is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. to bewail oneself. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. grief] affliction. vaj. to wail. Let. oval. wai. ah. oi. form. n. It. and to bark . weh. 6. lament. Such are g.. gwe-l-a. to sound yapyap. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. ach. to lament. jaoh. tirr-djeda. wd. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. ach. ing action I. however. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to . . toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. die wehen. to cry at. to lament. to ache. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). as. w. has more kopfweh. misfortune. grief. Lat. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. 6. to cause pain. waiidt. ochan. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. ohi. representing a cry of pain. grief. o'i. to rriourn. Thus from springs otjucifw. in Gr. djamdjam goda (goda. j.-l-are. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. cece. vce. to make bow-wow. guajo. ai. wehthun. ahi. Gr. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. ochan. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. g. on. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. seen in Gr. gwae. aiai^to. probably a deeper groan. A widespread It. Gr. miau-l-er. achen. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. w. and cacak djeda (to say crack. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. w^wa. is Ay di me I Gr. guai. hei. to yell formed e. pain. ace. found in g. xxxvi grief. ah. to make). wehen (Schmeller). pain. as. Lat. Bret. to hurt Let. guaj- or cry out pitifully. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. dchzen. howl. woe. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . . are ol-ire. Gr. a groan or lamentation vir. weinen. jao. In this way from the root guai. e. la. g.'). to wail or cry alas . weh schreien. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. oh. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. It. to do woe. I oi[iot. Illyrian vaj. to weep. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. to chirp. vce. to cry n. e. Illyr. representing Illyr. to ache. at the close of the radical syllable. It. och. ochain. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. ach. wai. to weep. ohg.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. well as Goth. da. says da-da-da. and by a variety of expressions besides. or that it is. nurseries. is-te). but the truth is. his trowsers' pocket. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. as it Dieser da (as Lat. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong.' all is is — their consent. that is it. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. But. for instance. 'nay. Please. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). a specified were by pointing him out. when he wants something. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. The Fr. saying : there the ad- Trans. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. as. that gratifies me. a word of many applications in g. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. according to Menage. I add) . the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. Phil. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. the nursery da-da. . to here . give me that cheese. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. we may translate this by there (it is). we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. ' sees an object. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. da. der da-ige. or wants to name something. indeed. this here. that. Thank you. ToSe (or in Attic E. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. implying the direction of its good will towards them. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. when 1859. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate.' person.' this. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. Bav. and so on. When we pointing. more emphatically roSj)j that. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. is we I believe. Sie. Dr Lottner observes. give. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. Diet. Sanders (Germ. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. as to express. case. In the expression Da. and may be rendered. or carry me thither. or give me it.' then points to his wife. • The child. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. thata (ta-ta). child.

in every mode of expressing the idea. speech. and one in particular must. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. of which any one may. takes it — as When the soul. . to walk. to chatter. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da.' • liv ANALOGY. The da is dodem. pay. or dalliance. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things.' says Lottner interior. its desire. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself.^ its ' utters : a cry. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. or metaphor. to say to oneself. thinking. the original is that which he places first. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. sinking. p. strike.' says Muller. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. make dadada). beat. childish toying. tattle. sounds. and shapes it into an . tasting. reality. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. stutter. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. — Cot. to knock. standing. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. to tion to another. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. to move step by step. dadee. to beat. Thus Gr. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. which thus exertion. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. meanings. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. then instinctively interest. moving.

snotor. schiteren. bright. savour. in popular language. (parallel bilbila. to sniff out. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. sprageti. same imitative root with Sw. in the domain of movement. wise. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. to snilF.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. search . unlella. knistre. is used in the origin. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. snutrs. discreet. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. beorhtian. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. prudent. to shriek with laughter . properly a clap or explosion. tintelen. to shine. knittre. — 1. ghsten. a ringing . Fr. chime). clang. bilbil). Du. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. In the same way the Goth. smell. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. while sapere itself. and. air. rattle. for example. In the case of sparkle. and figuratively. to sparkle. to sniff. esclat). may be it explained . iclat (in Old Fr. man of nice taste. think. 1654. judicious. from the . Finnish. as kilind. firom the Gael. It is The word bright had a similar In as. to glitter. kiimottaa. . pracht. splendour. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. Lith. and schmecker. snudra. to be wise. we have and the and beorht. on. to glitter. to crackle. bilbilgoda (to make . taste. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. brilliancy. sound. then to sparkle. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. Heo Du. also wise. to glisten Dan. scTiateren. make a loud noise. &c. kimistd. gnittre. to smack or taste. . to ring. snuff the sniiten. may be quoted gUt. schmecken. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. the equivalent of g. beam. to shine. wilahtaa. noise. to glitter. extended to the exercise of the understanding. and thence e. smell. to ring as a glass willata. to . The 6. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. tinkling. to tinkle. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. magnificence. signified a clear sound. to quiver. sapere (which signifies the nose. wilistd. Again. to 5 ghtter. outcry. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. a with kimmaltaa. sense of brightness. to flash. to sound clear In Galla. suspect Bav. Bavarian bracht. as. scheteren. spraka. tumult. splendour. a rustling sound Gr. a brilliant light kilid. snot. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. which in ohg. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to have Sapiens. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. So firom Lat. a dis- cernment. fiapfiaipw. to crackle gnistre. to glitter e. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. to resound. wamara.

he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. to slide. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. of dressing loud. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. tremour. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. 1. the cross. smooth. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. Kpovtiv. &c. in truth. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. rough. sharp. in of his works. then in rpd/xoe. strike. . rend. eo ut res vol. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. or . crux. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. power of the letter-sounds. rough to the ear. as soft by the ear. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. wool. And observing that n kept the voice within. shatter. soft. inside. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. Tpa)(yg. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. mel. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). discusses the tone of a picture. ipuKuv. fitting the letters to the sense. itself letters are felt as sofl. flow and flux. which The Stoics. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. rough both ways. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. break. gluey. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. 6\tadaveii'. KoWiiSije.' he says. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. he says. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. briars. roughness. whirl. \nrap6e. kvTOQ. is felt Lana. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. accordance with the way in which by touch. the bleating of sheep. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. the neighing of horses. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. and vepres. we hear of screaming colours. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. pleasure soft to the ear . extremely loose. Much of the same has been often quoted. within. rough. Acre. The BpavEiv. Kep^arl'ieiv. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. he framed the words ivSov. oily. v. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. the clank (stridorem) of chains. pvfi^Civ.

because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. corresponding to the ineor. to reel abruptly from side to side). a rough and sudden . smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. to signify varieties of movement. the case of the voice. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. p. t. stag (in stagger. jih. as when. 'and consequently form. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. tug. shog. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. jag. sag-oter. cular effort Again. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. jog. degree of roughness sound. ii. rug. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. to jogj sac-cade. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . k. g. p. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. jig. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. dig. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. 138). in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. stab. shag.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. Fr. d. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. dag. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. and in the utterance of a high or or low. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. joli. or checks as they are called by Muller. A greater felt. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. for exis ample. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance.

to mutter. a small bodily object. a . which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. a piece or bit of anything. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. mie. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. Welsh cicio. Fr. mik. Thus we have B. to strike It. zigzag. and e. or check. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. used interjectionally to represent a . chicoter. to winkj micati is Lat. Accordingly the g. chique. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . tack. an old worthless horse or carriage. to glitter. Fr. and It. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. is so frequent a consequence of movement. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. passing to the signification of motion. to beat or play on a musical instrument. to take a thing on tick. for the sound of knocking at a door. sound Fr. is made to signify movement. The train of . mica. The production of sound. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. Brescian toch. also to stir.. to say a word . schockeln. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to tickle. micare. a quid of tobacco. Ene olde suksuk. The syllable suk is jerk. g. a stroke with a French toucher. cica. lead to Spanish tocar. then. zack. to have it ticked or marked on the score . in cases like the foregoing. &c. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. as Italian tocco. rough horse. a jog. a crum. Bolognese tocc. S-panish miga. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. Hence Lat. motion. tech-tech. to pulses being knock.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. To tick a thing off. and analogous movements. Dutch kicken. to utter a slight kick. Illyrian migati. it produces Dutch micken. to stir. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. mot. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. to touch. foot. The Mipen or pencil. kuk.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. schuckeln. Sukkeln. an infant . to move rapidly to and fro. however. to ring a bell. chiquet. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. sound barely audible. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . Mucken. a playiug-marble. to On the same principle j we have g. e. then. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. as tot. a little bit. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. not to utter a syllable. tock. Then. is lanese toch. to incite by light touches. properly a small lump'of . used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. that we never can be sure. It. a cracker. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. a good piece of road . figuratively. so to Italian toccare. like English tick. The analogy then carried a step further. (mitsati). chic. to mark it with a touch of the pen . toch-toch. tecche-tocche. movement. kik.

u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. clay . tot. to jot down or note with a fro. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. mutter. there (further of!) ao. further off. the same organ touched with the man. to touch lightly with a pen. a light quick blow. tottle. mossche. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). to dot. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. citto. fait. little. corresponding to the personal pronouns. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. at where the order is inverted. there '(at a short distance). ika. of movement in totter. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. . you. So. mot. ticktack. little j to that of a small bodily object. and mite. this. totle. for the beating of a clock. and he. is shown in murmur. ri that. and a small lump of something. titilh. e. anything . we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. eo. there. fragments It. a whisper. syllable mot. n. that. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. tiny. i. this . not to utter a syllable. titmouse (Du. bunch or flock of wool. zitio. mote. small of kind. a small bird. that iku. as in e. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. we have e. a small kind of lark. Cult. mutter j dust. tit. chico. a small horse. iki. and toddle like a child titter. tozzo. a. to e. This kind. to jog. here. . gno. tot. . move slightly to . a morsel girl . the least visible insect. Halliwell. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. e. mut. 199). to tremble. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. . motta. The following table from Tylor (Prim. Du.n. tittle. But the same is language has re Javan. a small quantity. taut. Then. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. . gnu. a tot . often entirely arbitrary.) . or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. . The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. To jot. or o toi. or the like its It. a bit. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. 0. motte. neither moit nor an atom. to movement of the pen . a sparrow). anything small flax. to touch. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . not because the pendulum makes a different left. to whisper (Pr. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. and out there. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . Pm. small titlark. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. a morsel. jot. tit.- a jot or little It. or the converse. zitella.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. Malagasy to. titter. tot. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. In a similar the relations of place. a girl. a lad citta. a bit. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. and dot. . for the three personal pronouns. a certain conception. lump of earth. a e. . the vowel sound. a little titty. not an atom . to make a slight mark. lix Sp. I. subdued manner. here (close hand). a small lump or pat. seesaw. tot. (Halliwell) Da. Fr. 48) cites from the African Tumale. gni.

owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). little. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. femina ama. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. Botocudo ati. Mm. akha. Chilian tva. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. small (Pott. Guarani nde. biii. minution further. Carib ne. It seems to (fen. usho. loo). that. there... there. father. Tarahumara ibe. here . here feraa. for the male. this <t. this . j Canarese ivanu. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family..* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. Fernandian az. you. Japan ko. there. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. ojOo. here this . ne. thou. this ole. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. qu. man erne. ulri. father k . Zulu ajoa. /e«. to. . to a like principle Ibu (Afr. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. 6. that. that. Magyar ez. Mutsun ne. there. this . (tt). that. /mya. probably initial of distinction that the k. child. that. thou ni. child. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. Tamul i. there. an old . that. It Carib lala. as in Italian Fin. w. an old woman chacha. tiiio. bi. and origin.araM. is Here. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. /wo. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. . here 5 Yoruba na. ni. there. uta. this fi. Then. that in the distance. . mother. . that. . Sahaptin (America) kina. ita. he. olo.) nna.e^. ndi. no constant rule is observed. ni. . is father. me probable that • Vei also little. Lat. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. km. I . . ^. respectively. young one. this . mother. Dhimas isho. mas cheche. mother. thou . Ossetic am.. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. ukko.) pronunciation of i or e. nne. there. Gr. Abchasian aSn. here . and a for the female. this . as the act of pointing was ta. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. ofj. ta to ka. he. as Mr Tylor remarks. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. . here j abe. here j ka. that. that (intermediate) j wana. that.

trSpigner. The sound trapp . for a succession of light blows low-wow. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. is to express simple continuance of action. keeh.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. just beginning to appear. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. wenig. lift 8. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. Fr. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. the pip or pippin. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. tion. or chink. a step. knob. the simplest mode by the g. to teet. stairs. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. trappa. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. The Sw. murmur. to peep through. to begin to appear . i Sw. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. trap. of smaller things. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. little. 401. fretful. nil. pepin. &c. to leap. at pippe frem is to spring forth. A little weeny thing. the nursery few j Sc. to tread.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. Da. the principle of reduplication. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. a little yellow beard. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. or even. while the special nature of the action intended syllable.' making the voice as small as possible. dance (Kil. Top. From cases like the foregoing. has tittafrem. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. titta. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. for instance. don-don. Thus we have Wolof sopa. looking through between obstacles. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. A little wee face with little. nipple. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. trappen. . din-din. repetition It. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. to peep. And perhaps the E. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. sound of bells . and in the Pacific dialects. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam.' — Merrv Wives. Clank represents the sound of something large. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. as ding-dong. to feet. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. a child. analogous to winy-piny. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. to make its way through the bursting envelope. in old e. wean. — Douglas Virgil. the idea is called. trippen. barking of a dog. nab. for the . trippelen.) . little To sup up. as j money. whence Fr.

to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. rack. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. loloa. could readily be conceived. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. little child (p. if very young. random . to express repetition or continuance in a general way. So from clamo. And generally. to pant. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. click. serves to show and in this way. The same principle of 196. to say pooh It is ! to. the lungs. mawhitiwhiti. sopasopa. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). Thus in E. hardness. child . and thus by analogy employed in Lat. ayunayunan. to cover e. Cult. from Maori muka. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to love. smallness. 99). acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to talk at to walk. kenda. cliqu-et-is. Mandingo ding. mpolu is uttered. repetition or continsignify long. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. the and clique. to or rub. or el. properly speaking. i. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. tache. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. lololoa. or in Fr. Malay ayun. ding-ding. or very very great. or imitative syllables. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. to call frequently from Fr. didi. or rdtchi. . rapidity and strength. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. the agent in panting . kendagenda. amusement. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. very bad. clash of weapons. puka- puka. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. instead of being actually repeated. child . expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. very long (Pott. a grasshopper. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. &c. tach-et-er. and the words express a continued sound of rack. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. to skip. to rock. ratsi-ratsi. very great. the comparative degrees of greatness. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. mawhiti. is language. a cradle. a spot.Ixii REPETITION. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. to to call. in familiar use with ourselves. and Fr. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. a clattering noise. bad . to vi^alk about for flax. kamha-gamla. keep spots. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . 97). calling. Susa di. er. to treat with contempt. (to use a to speak. Again. rack click. puka.. clamito. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. Thus in the Pacific loa. racket. or a little tee--ny thing. are echoed by the rudimentary et. .' expression is — ^Tylor.

which. smack. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. dabble. wankel. waggle. rynel. wankeln. mew and baa . to make gug. bubble. The Fr. from puka. syllable clat . to bark like a dog. to puff. where all direct connection with sound is lost. or in e. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. to make a succession of grabs . g. In cases like these. Piedmontese bau-l-S. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. miauler and beler correspond to E. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the .Jicol. as to handle. guggle. a from ayun. by the side of wanken. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. the knie-en to E. Ihre remarks under gncella. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. draggle. a succession of cracks to rattle. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. in some applications. such asjlap. jogging. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. he who rubs. to make bau-bau. dab. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. itself. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. fickle. joggle. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. crack. to wail woe . wavering. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. or Maori puka-puka. are to cry mew and pew . in used for dealing with an object by the hand. wagas ging. others. shuffle. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to move to and fro. rubber. to make a succession of shoves. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . to hand-le. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to crackle. compared with g. the lungs (the puffers of the body). or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. it. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to continue dragging. as mAS. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. and in as. The contrivance with any particular noise. miauler andpiauler. or by association. wancol. to rock or wag. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. bub. to hand. is In e. without the intervention of the frequentative element. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. or fi bau. to rock.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. Jickfacken. in Fr. kneel. or omitted. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail.

or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. will continue to be felt in daily speech. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. to cry ugh at. There is. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. deceit. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. moreover. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. known in Italian. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. Polish. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. or how generally. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. to the separation between the broken parts. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. and comparatively few easily deceived. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. at was more familiarly known. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. or in mode of use. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. on a moment's reflection. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. A gull or a dupe same sense. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. by a hard body breaking. or in aptness to combine with other elements. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. Dupe comes to us from the French. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. which. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. Breton. which is the origin of the word. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. the breach. although it is not difficult. it is obviously a mere chance how long.

wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. . ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. is. founded in manifest blunder. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. however. nor any limited of ideas. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. language is . or are afford satisfaction arising origin. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. life. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. and the word is used in a secondary sense. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. Hitl^erto. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach.

330. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. unintelligible to other hordes. I think it very probable. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . out. evique. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. and vescovo. compared with the duration of man. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. If English. hearing. and 'Russian. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. circle perpetrates a new slang term.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. episcopus. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. Naturalist on the Amazons. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. i. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. guages in South America. of material things. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. French. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. change. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. therefore. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. Welsh. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. in the course of many years' isolation. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation.

8. 6. as shown in the subjoined illustration. and . and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. The combination of the symbols I and 2. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. A key must unlock more doors than this. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. Cijlt. . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. which are idenr Figures 5. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. or whatever the proportion may be. ao8). ancient Greek M . Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. i. is MN. 9. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. Nor is there one of the letters. the actual it which would to represent. to be taken (Prim. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . it will leave figures 3 and 4. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. 7.

will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. what comes to the same thing. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. had its origin in imitation of sound. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. leading him to utterances. known to us as yet. or." the use of a change of vowel in as.' should be discovered.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. for instance. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. and the only safe beneficent Creator. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. his fellows. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. in the shape either of direct inspiration. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. which either by direct resemblance of sound. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race.

by animal without a trace name of Man. that he started from the lowest grade. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. or of their own reflected thoughts . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and when we look back as far as history will reach. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. until the progeny. the conduct of Ixix life. as elephants. for instance. or beavers. and sooner or later. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. or else. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint.COMPLETION OF MAN. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and rose towards a higher state of being. race were speaking men or not. of using imitative conduct . in the course of generations. or not. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man .

E. Carp. Grammar Boh. Esth.Saehsiches Worterbueh.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Teutonico-Lat. Fin. ^Ifr. Danish. Dief. Diefenbaeh. Catalan. 1654. Bav. Cot. Romano - Cas- traise. Cimbrisch. 1737. de la langue Cat. 1850. . Biglotton seu Diet. 1766. B. Dueange. Da. Supplement to Bret. Cimbr. Anglo-Saxon. Provincial dialect. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Bremisch. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Bigl. Sup. Castr.Nieder. Gothischen 1851. Diet. Esthonian. Brem. English. Bohemian or Czech. Diet. Dn. Diet. Supplement to Dueange. Dutch. Cotgrave. Dueange. or Dan. at the end of Somner's Diet. 1768. Bavarian. Baile/sEngl. Due.V. Wtb. Gr. Douglas' Virgil. dialect of the Sette Commune. Infimse Latini- D.-Eng. Dief. 1857. Elfric's Fl. Couzinid. Finnish. Fr. Diefeiibach. AS. Carpentier. dial.. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache.



>. buque 118 brodiquin r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r.percurrunt kimista^x. (/ijtf r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r.. kilistaa bugiie r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. word allagerr. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. Askance woud r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r.5 ERRATA. puHti r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. Blob plowied r. sveritet Asknace r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. baltresca nokkutomax. ^i?^i2! r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. cruccio deyrie. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. woman r. haverie crtOT r. katowai perairrantr. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . cti.nokkutama willekem. r. yjnaifia r. r. plowied budowaer. alUger ahaverie r. r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. willekom Blab r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r.


ar. have entire dominion over. on. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. "rom a height. a/tan. AS. To abuse is to use iway. command. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. ur. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. state of sleep . A. sion of 'an abandoned character. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. —Bruce. 843. ab. The word Ban is common orders. . Abaft. into the Romance ftrseg .he Goth. In Lat. behind.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. from a is to wake to abide. Ab-. vs. announcement. onis aback. until the event jlace . a. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. K . and secondarily in that of command. rule. as. on. ifter. AS. as. abaft. compounds. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . out of. in. Passing tongues. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. his. a washing off to abstain. off. ir. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. in a manner other than it should be ablution. Lat. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. Dent posture. Immediately from Fr. this word beand Spanish. baftan. us. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. downwards. erwachen. on-lic. and — Chaucer. er. away from. ibandonner. Abandon.t G. particular 1 . Thou spelds of mychty iction. power : Than Wallace thing. the er. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. an edict or proclamation. Again. Hence on-bceftan. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. abs. Abs-. alike. dominion. but now )bsolete). away. bandon in French. literally. to subdue. of-dune. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. on-bsec . implying a completion of J. to arise. be-ceftan. OHG. said. orders. Thus ip N3S. in the same sense. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. 244. plesyt him. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. Parson's Tale. among. to awake. from. o/j of or . Jvery man shewid baft. to hold . to sauff the king or spill. dominion. iway from. whatever he be.

must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. I was abawid for merveille. may be explained. to strike Froiss.polir. R. iv. abbatere dal prezzo. . beer. to astonish. abbas. baba. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. as ravish. with or without a final sh. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. esbahissant. his mouth. to overthrow. and that from Syrian abba.— — . grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape.' the surrender of a ' K. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. 364s. weaken. 1 1 8. to strike sail . et prirent terre.— R. to gape. abbatia. . to The . bandon. by Wall. or society of abbots or monks. burny. drink. Hence the OE. — Neccham. impetuously. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. terminedly. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to make lower. depress. abandonly. lish to abaisse orabaish. Hence Lat. baer. adverbial expressions at abandon. polish. esba. abbatis. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. down. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. and the verb was written in Eng. And he thereof was all abashed. so common in the found in the OFr.down. to take possession of an estate. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. overthrow. R. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. where custom (Grandg. A. On the other in use as well as hand.On princes. Abbot. Cotgr. merely the terminations ons. an abbey. Baba ! Mod. of the Fr. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba.) .esbawi. Beat. other. betrash. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. of wonder. Hart in Jamieson. to light upon. to hit. More correctly written abbat. Wall. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. To Abate. effect of shame. father. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. son bandon. or admiration. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground.Prov. from Lat. from ravir. abbattre. Bate. R. castle. It. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. Fr. ant. ne more vermeille. abbatere. in the active form. to beat furnish. vol. In or. to bate something of the price abbatersi. Milton. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. 1520. shame. astony. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections.fournir. See . astonish. ais. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . See Abide. abaundunem-ent. to diminish the force of any. esbahir. impulse. bawi. confound.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. to happen. and sets them all agape. and grooms besmeared with gold. at his own the lips. thing abbatere le vela. to ruin. burny was formerly burnish . and it that that it — .More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. of fear. de. Custom. to abaw or astonish. d. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to excite admiration. abate. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. Castrais. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. uncontroUedly. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. esbahissais.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. faire tomber. his eyen shene. Originally. Abbey. — — . law term abatement. Abbess. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. person. c. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. to put to con.

with the frequentative gueiile b^e. m Abeyance. inciting. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. Guernsey beth. expectfamily. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. lingering. — . verbeijen Sw. wait To Abide. to expect. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. the verb of abeyance. warten. Thus G. attendre avec en^pressement. — signifies to suspend action. Cat. usbeisnei. Ducange. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. also to OFr. . expectation. were called Brothers. to yawn. . othres abidan' The effacement expect. bouche bdante. endurance. Goth. baier. baer. abaier. Du. badare. bie compared with Dan. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. bana. ne chastised them. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. to desire earnestly. or do we AS. desire. to It. which the mind to an object. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. desirer (Roquef. . bida. gola badada. bide of the d endure. abayer. to be intent upon. John. and alluring to his own destruction. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. to mind. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. or absorption watching. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. tempting. abie. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. watch. Corant sens lui. beidan.— ^richer. says. de Champ. bouche b^ante. bder. open the mouth. we sceolon ON. abeter. endurArt thou he that should come. to suffer death in Du. Abele. Cat. to stay. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. on the one hand. qui iaaille. attendre See Bait. regarder. and E. to look. deceit. abbadare. guardare. bocca badata. de Berri) Prov. beidan. 1 • . to attend to. compared with (Bosworth). expectation. look for another. K. b^er. incite . badare. take care. E. Quant voit le serpent. exciter. Pol. delay.) abayer. 366. to deceive. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . and in E. house. abeyance. in Fr. and Prov. beijden. in Dan. badar. See Abide. syllable ba. badare. Fabl. —Raynouard. tity of E. From abahier. Corresponding to keep in suspense. to open the mouth. to desire.. bidan. have seen abide. To Abet. to expect gabeidan. tenere a bada. a bay or opening in the coast. baier compared with It. ' ' . waiting. covet. to hook. bada. beijen. bialodrze-w. Ni engigner ni abiter. The white poplar. suspense. gridare. bida. inciter.Fr. literally white tree. ceive. while the monks under his control ing. which is certainly related to It. abet. bie. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. — II. aspirer. listen. is idenwait. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. from Halo. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. abSiance. to wait. to deanimer. a right in suspense . beguile. F. abiiance. Abie. tarrying .— Roquef. abidan. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father.' is in AS. abet. to attend on . signifies the direction of tend. Gloss. to gape . With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. bhr. suffer b. badigliare. abie. beijen. white. with badia. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). The verb atwaiting.to wait. delay. tical with It. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. speaking of the Holy places. Norm. to tarry. abetter. songer.— Chaucer. . baier. In We . wait. with open mouth . to ance. to be intent upon. take notice. ne wist what way to chuse. OFr. forms with the d effaced are OFr. beter. deceiving. to open bader. . trick abetar. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. — ABELE Epiphanius. to wait. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. listening. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns.was formerly used in the sense of look. ^couter avec dtonnement. to remain or endure. aspire to. to stay. beguiling on the other. delay. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to abide . forbearance. Gloss. Thus we have It. Prov. Norm. pense. or in Fr. Boethius. intent observation. to wait. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. us. Q. to In great amaze. (Vocab.

Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. from Lat. abilh. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. N. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. O If tion. abie to Goth. Abie. Boucher. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. when compared with Aboard. beidan. in for any special purpose. to . — Able. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. Chaucer. Merch. Prol. him with che. suffer the Jul. — P. . to dress hemp. to pay the penalty. within the ship. al- be found so some will dear abide it. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. to draw fowls. bidan. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death.ynes.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. and Cr. habilis is closely preserved. abilej Prov. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. aboleo. abie. abidge. sufficient. must suffer for it. Innan bords. For on board. Cassar. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. is the verb abie. and death for handsel pay. able. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. as E. powerful. purpose. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. Wickliff in Richardson. 2nd Tale. the side of a ship. abycgan. de la volatile. use. God. a board. have-like. Mids. Tr. expert. abide. —Bacon in R. within the walls of a ship. ! ! Cotgr. AS. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Lat. to wear away. convenient. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. abicgan. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. P. or bie. Q. as habiller du chanvre. forbid for mother's children should abye. atling hem to her proper offices. It. from AS. ON. the Pardoner In the original. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. abigg. habilis (from habeo. willing to schewe his wrathe. to redeem. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it.^and to make his power knowne. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. adapted . at kasta fyri bord. The —Boucher. fault being simply clothing. power. bide. strong. L. Spenser. bord. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. durance in both applications. properly abuy. fit. &c. Fr. P. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. at hand). In this to erase or annul. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. to have . For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. to pay the purchasemoney. habile. while in later examples As I . was often used in the same sense. R. to perish. being disabled in the highest degree. Fr. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. consequences of anything . Milton. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. abeye. the Sir Tristrem. on board .am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. Dr. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. the Fr. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. God — dear. without special reference to the notion of retribution. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . F. though sometimes confounded with it. i. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. If it badare. — e. 2. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. She shall abie that trespass dere. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. abolir. and the simple buy. R.

off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. literally. awaking. The radical idea is to feed the flame. draw out. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. onbutan. Abrdger itself. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. ala is made to signify to rear. for ligeth butan. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. to produce. snatch In English we speak of away. abracan. To Abound. to main.1. to rear. motion. abbreviare. to turn. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. Sc. on high. af-oleii. Abray. to awake. of any kind . and alere flammain. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. which may God avert. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. D. adolere. parent. bufan. AS. leading immediately to Fr. to grow together. levis to the Romance languages. and bidden him abregge. and also to abridge. ufan.foda signifies to beget. be-ufan. to AS. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. by the to bring up. The primitive idea seems that of beget. to progress. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to cut short. the vital spark. natural ed direct from the latter language. breaking out in language. d. Severe the threatened evil. while the sense of beget.aboon. to start. coalesco. ABOMINABLE adolesco.. abrdger. the hair grow. nourish. and to do something to avert abbreviate. to fatten.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. Kiittner. that greatly agredge their sin. s —Casdmon. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. nurse Lat. seems aras. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). and also. Gael alaich. brood. Tale. OE.' Ymb hancred utan. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. See -und-. alUger. the form a&^^. nurse. the identity of which with ting. Finnish stock. greu. oil. en. titan. AS. . abredan. is a ively. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. abufan. hard. Du. but from Lat. above. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. heavy. Of these synonymous adolescere. as AS. abominor (from ab and omen. Then. as withotityn and without. common in Chaucer and Abominable. around on the out. way Sw. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. — . kindling. to nourish. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. explains soboles Lat. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to light a fire the Abraid. full ofte his words for to Fr. Quod abominor.) . In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. gravis.. side. whence the Fr. from Fr. without. the idea of breaking about . to feed. Abundant. Thence to regard greugetat. Goth. ala. the man dwindles away. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. the OSw. break out. outward. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. progeny. which passed into English under Abominate. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. to grow up. OE. Thonne Abroach. giving birth to. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. a portent).the older form. vital PI. abutan. to bring up. to break off. — ' — — preceding verb. alan. to let sleep. abrcBgdan. sec seftre — Chaucer. af-oolden. alere capillos. is not from G. See To Bray.' Parson's rence. as the duty of nourdisposition. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. al is growth. to feed. below. AS. abowen.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. alan. or cut short. Lat. or young forth. about cockcrow.ger. his contemporaries. Melibaeus. life. In the same brevis . showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. gravity. So in Lat. currence. . To abray or abraid. ol. agreujar. to rear. For on broach. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. Prov. to snatch. boven. butan. and in-d-oles. Virg.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. Above. agredge. to beget or give birth to children. while the verb alleThe root el. becomes leu in Prov. abbrechen. pedigree from brevis. from .ymbutan. be-utan. abbrechen. Fr.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring.— Abbreviate. OSw. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to aggravate. No doubt if we had not so complete a About.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. one. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Thus from gabe. from Stephanus. inAgain from the same author cudis. on. Gr. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Ilvtwotov. anticus. ReApe. Gr. cenig. . from an. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. Antick. swaged. rich. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. part. as we call it. Lat. plenteously with red. and ig. as posticus. a definite . to strike G. AS. something ler in R. to go in strange disguises. Lat. before. In like manner. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes.legacy of given against. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned.. work. from eigan. some one. Hence the applica.is to be given. anfilts Pl. a termination equivalent to Goth. Aperient. vex. Antidote. white.made out. Any. from avTiipoiuia). wealth. press. to imitate gestures. of. such as savages. Hall's Chron. Jorioc. Antler. from. to bring forth. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Pezron fiUist. and claret wine. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Anxious. from ante. choke. avri^ava. E. one having wealth. d. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. were chiefly of the former class. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. gabeigs. d<popi(xnbs. Lat. af. — — — . aperio. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Fr. a preventative . to have. Fr. as from as. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. Gr.D. three antike pillers. or in a ridiculous dress. surimitation of the ancient models. one at the least. to nourish. which by anvild. As the browcalled antiques. a puppet or an anti^hona. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. Otfried. a small quantity. strangle. andouillers. Antique. Apart. villan Gloss. verberas. apanage. before. to open. from an and — - . fauns. separate. Apartment. to strike. the anticks — behind. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Mannequin. a block to hammer on. Apartment. set aside. trouble. and devils. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. all of gold. amboltj Du. from in and cudere. to strain. eigs. See Cover. transferred to the grotesque characters. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. Ful- Apanage. finally applied to a whether grotesca. post. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. from ango. —Spencer. To go antiquely. anxius. younger child. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. i. a gift. or antique single chamber. panar. ab. anxi. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. aside. AS. left as the . antifena. a few. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Lat. : . Fr. Anvil. anapoz. from. Prov. in Shakespear. apertum. like a jack-pudding. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. stem. whence anthem. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. what Roman civilisation.— . panis. to display pario. G. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. To ape. apatiar. were andouiller the second. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. incus. burnished. to support. to sound in answer. Percutere. Aphorism. bread.—Aperture. ambeld. AS. antefn. as the Italians. separate purpose. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. So Lat. but the expresent day. whence Prov. should be received.

To Appear. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. 'LaX. or the like. good. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. peace. e. apin R. lAfiaam. Fr. when the . cepl. to Lat. pronounce fitting). a thing for one's purpose. become dizzy . quoth the frere. to send to. to rate. From Lat. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. prope (comp. Gr. from. Yr. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. . an epistle or letter. to deter- to strike. near. habiliments. appareiller. Apple. Formerly apricock. approver. to fit. 11. case. appellare. The Fr. avail. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. purpose. in fact. to understand.— . Apotliecary. or E. From Lat. Ir. irpaiKOKiaov. d-n-o. pretium. in Chaucer. apprise. known. word was specially applied to clothing. to learn. N. Pliny. to disable oftat. to accord. appaiser. to strike down. to be open to view. Appease. a learner. Hence It. habilUr. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. . a'^opi'Jw. poind. aptly.probare. And among other of his famous deeds. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. prohts. to come near. AS. preparation. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. jabloko. to suit. An old appalled wight. appareo. Fr. to mark to define a bound. Palsgr. to — . a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. ai. apar. apal. En peach. to learn. Lith. whether through age or sudden teiTor. were formed appropiare ejar. approcdare. : — — speak 'Lz.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. corresp. to deaden. mine. Fr. the good. diroBrjKr}. diroTrXriaatii. Apprehend. —Diez. apal. to finish a controversy. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. It. Apoplexy. Friar's Tale. To praise. H.prix. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. Cotgr. and metaphorically to take the meaning. to make a thing Apparel. laven is used both as E. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Fabian in R.propius). praise. to assign or grant over unto. value apprdder. Approach. to lose one's senses. in data. apparecchiare. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. A — . The PI. w. apropchar. a price. that it outfit. pragigua or prixcoda. dress. from paix. to send off. properly to join like to like. Hence appoind. trim. seiden of the stones. Walach. to — — . pronounce good. — Apprise. — dirondtfiu. They were considered To Appoint. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. to approach. away. to approve.parejo. APRICOT off. Mod. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. oVooroXof. 5w. despatch on some service. diminutive pariculus. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. a crime.—Apprentice.his giving evidence against his principal. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. APO sentence opoQ. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Fr. To Appraise. piteux poind. Fr. iwKjToKri. to call for judgment. opportunity. to announce. appartenir. From Gr. xv. to take away or lose the vital powers. one sent out. Apostle. to seize. ciously than nede is. equal. OFr. Cent Nouv. Cotgr. Fr. ar. 'L-zX. And whanne sum men Lat. —^Apparent. par. Gr. probare. ^wss. of. like. set a price on. order. apprentis. — Appurtenance. plight. whence the e. to which it is often referred. Prov. Apo- good time. Fr. prize. Epistle. S^. to set a price on. Fr. poind. in good season prendre son d. prover. consent unto. one the MLat. allow. Gr. Sp. and appoinder (to find fitting. horror. esteem. I prise ware. — prehendere.parecchio. Parson's Tale. to call. off. to dress in this fashion. to catch hold of. in commendation. to store or put Appal. Yr. apprendre. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. appris. 23 .t. i. apropid. approcher. to deem good. decree. apprehendere. array. one for his defence. Nouv. They werin his approvirs privily. peler. agree. Cotgr. pertain or belong to. like. . To cause to pall (see Pall). landmark. agreeing with "LtA. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. rise to \t. D. proper time came. taking. (cited by Diez from a late author). from aTroorlXXu. obolys. fit- — ness.pareil. and also as appraise. kind of action. and in the sense of condition. make a composition between parties. aparelhar. — Approve. ON. after his mind . one is in. Lat. find Then like Fr. Gr. Prov. manner. to commend. ap. Appareil. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise.

Now one of the points — — — . a soothsayer. however. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. conjectura conjec^ra. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. symbol. a lot. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. grande nappe. hariolus arpelen. herbere. intensitive of nape. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. Prol. to plough. Arbour. Lat. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. She made. and thence fit. derived. and sortilegus ation. as an eye-witness. — . . however. Albanian. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. From OFr. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. to decide by lot. divining rod. nected. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. aestimo. rofe and all. short. {mies ^=ia3. aqua. scr. aha. a pleasure-ground. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. nawl and awl. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. aro. properly the arwella. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. a lot. 331. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. ap. This path Aqueous. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. Arbitrate. doubtless is the origin of E. wata. a river. and with turfis new Goth. is taken in is a soothsayer. The loss or addition of n very common. and the one who gives oracles. A. Lat. arpa. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. tion under trial. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. It is certain that the apricot oracle. or barm-cloth. arwaus. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . J. It may be doubted. opinio. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. aa. Thus we have natiger and auger. — napkin is Naperon. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Beryn. 2. Freshly turnid Arable. shortdr. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. conjicio. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. Flower and Leaf.o. water Which that benchid was. and a protection of the clothes. words derived from arpa. ear. P. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth.meaning at Shrewsbury. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. suitable. . Now we find in Fin.. naperon. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. or eft. the spelland umpire. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. a cloth. sortium ductor. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. garden. As is a pretty parlour. P. con. man. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. . Lat. pracoqua was not an adapt. Alban. of of divination arpa-mies. Pm. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Hall. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. C. Pr. found in Fin. la nappe. to preserve it from stains. arbiter in re censendS. Marsh. OE. quod he. OHG. ughe.' —About. sorcerer. Gr. arbiter. delon. ahva.shrubs {arbor). Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. Naprun. a lot. Aquatic. fastened close. be That it inne groweth. . most conspicuous situation in the garden . as ihe diminutive. auguror. sestimatio arbitraria. Maan initial . subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — .] in the N.) E.sors. proper. From OE. and taken away before dessert. arbitrium. aptus. arbitror arwaaja. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. 31. Roquefort. arwelo. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. account for either of these significations.

government. ardor. un petit rusd. ardeo. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. sly. branch.In E. an arch boy. Gr. ers-betriiger. a court yard. an extent of flat surface. taxed with cowardice. the most arrant trash. in Due. arm. gwyrek. area.4 rir/. signifies chief or principal. bad of its kind. erz-bischof. aj-f. is essentially the same word.. stuff. et vulgari verbo. Alisaunder. Lat. arson. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. ancient. to be in comp. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). det arrigste snavs. which has been referred to W.aioj. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. Aristocracy. earg. ruling by the nobles. ON. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. Fr. arga. bad. it signifies roguish. Du. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. Perhaps erz-wticherer. to be on fire. apxtipfve. to rule. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. fabricate). patus). and not with apx. troublesome. It. AS. ^Argument. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. W. man. een erg kind. Lat. Applied in modern E. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. archangel. Cot. 2. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. shoulder Boh. which is derived from it. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. rame. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. and must be identified with Dan. curved line. malicious. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Gr. the court of a magistrate. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. a bare plot of ground. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. arch-bishop. earm. weapon. curved. erz in G. ardre. * ArchjAiTaxit. timid. a bow. 3340. armada. armee. receptacle where the public acts were kept. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. Lat. arwe. arm'ee. apxri. an arch-deceiver . weapon may be simply an application of annus. wanton. And thou as arwe coward.is the natural weapon of offence. ' — Argue. a burning or setting on fire. the best. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. apxtlov. arcA in e. sluggish. mischievous. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. to dry. Brem. Arson. make clear or prove. erg. high. burning heat. to demonstrate. the a brute. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. ardIn G. and our army. Du. . Lat. a. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Ardent. to arm. as in E. A construct. worker. the terminaGael. whence the body of the nobles collectively. arcus. Arduous. argvitugr. a noble. Fr. Sax.. armata. sly. arsum. argr. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. Arm. a chief builder. exercise lordship). a branch. by Russ. especially shoulder-joint. Area. Sp. Lat. vescovo. lofty. ein arger knabe. Arcliives. Arcadia in R. TiKToiv. and Kpurka. kpxi- beginning. un malin enfant. i. Uo^a^. raineno. bravest. forearm . There can be no doubt that E. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. a rule (princiruler.' Paul Warnefrid. Lat. . Dan. ramend). are formed the participial nouns. from nixa. Arch in composition. arma. to burn . apx^iv. Langobard. Arid. Fr. Lat. faint-hearted. morally bad.' Lex. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. as the arch of a bridge. From apxeiov was formed Lat. mischievous. ars. Lat. arm. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. The . The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. aridus. shoulder. gwyro to bend. contemptible. ramo (pi. earh. G. G. a threshing-floor. vocaveris. From the verb armare. Gr. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. to Arch. Gr. wretched OE. ill-tempered. an arrant usurer.— Army. apxh. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . arduus. . bad. an arrant rogue. D. Ardour. from areo. — Wtb. — Architect.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. first. arguo. arrig. . fainthearted. difficult to reach. while the Fr. adjective. arrant Arms. .' the Gr. arg.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

a ball. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . ball. balken. The primary sense seems as in G. Ball. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. a ball or pack.Fr. Da. torment. . balva-vesei. Fr. In like manner Fr. says Ray. pallo. Grief. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. sorrow. Mid. bol. 3. ' is a piece or confused talking. blister. a pill. palla. a division of the old laws. boll. wickedness ness . i. to plough for a boundary between lands. whether of wood or stone. Sw. baalie. dial. to plank. balge. stage or scaffold. ache. balle. to ache. We have then separate dial. a beam. a. a ballot). to by beams. heap up. * Balk. trouble. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. to grieve . to be balker. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. It. beaten road. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). to ail. Bohem. pila. Dan. sickness. bealwes. bol. similar connection is seen in Sp. I. package of goods. plague. balle. bacgtteter. Russ. a skin. to stir. to cause another to miss pustule. AS. bal. pallo. the beam of a ship. Sw. on the shore. Q. baler. separaison. balle. . bdlkr. balare. 2. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. maleficium. cka. the object of his expectation. a balk of foul weather. balk. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. Sp. baloier. the ballet of the theatres. balkr. a ball. from bacquet. ballone. bolawy. dial. to dance. chapurrar. Sw. to pack Da. Wotton. — A — — . TtaKKa a pail or tub . floor. balloon. globule. dial. to partition off . are applied to a From the same analogy. See Gall. . a clump . on. Sw. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. on. w. ballare. To Bale out water. balka. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. uveirs bolk. Sw. hue et illuc inclinare. to roll. Ballata. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. a ball.ing. calamity. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Rouchi ban. to move. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. Sw.— Ballet. hooting. bala. taich. Bale.Lat. It. Pol. lealo. Du. mass. a wooden partition . Ball. N. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . a beam. ne leaving any balke. Fr. dial. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. a dance. to avoid it. bola. a partition. bbllr bulla J. Sw. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. Sw. balka hopar. palloilla. balja. pain. ballo. ill. Hence. Fr. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. gen. Fin. Bret. to rock. A balk. balveins. a ballad. bollr. a continued noise of waves gently beating . a water-skin dim.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. pilula. weak liquor. to bale out. Baulke of land. a dance. palcare. Gael. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. bal. shouting. as we say. ban. ing. grieve . on. to on Holmedon's plain. bold. to signify washy drink. Goth. OHG. balka bunge. at giore en balk. ballan. to speak an un. may exhibit the original development of the signification. to paddle in water . baalien. afbalka. .). the breadth from side to side . Du. Da. Balloon. To baulke the Sir H. a together in the form of a ball. probably Lat. balla (with the augm. Perhaps on. balle.' speak gibberish champurrar. F. bolker. other while. pallukka. It. a scene acted in dancmg. balken. to shake or jog. G. destruction. balk. Hence Dan. a globe. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. a pail. . a separate portion. E. to wave. . It. boleii. (Hesych. G. a clod of earth water. ballet. a boil. ON. Bowl. It. e. tum. a pestilence. Gr. pallikka. a bubble. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. and the dim. bal. a But making way for death at large to walke. a ball. ball. Venet. to see-saw. a washing-tub. bal-daed. a great ball. bolyaf. misery Du. ballar). maan pallikka. ballotta. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. to Not sparing wight. a ball balla. OSw. to be ill. Boll. OFr. sick. a clapping or flapping of wings. and evil in general. with the perhaps from balg. . balk. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to dance. Ugutio in Due. vcdra bdlkr. ballare. roof. malefacGower in R. balk. wickedtorment ON. vacillare. bielke. ball. ball.of men .—Ballad. bolyatchka. ballare. Ballot. as in a barn or cow-house. bjdlki.

Baltic. make fun of a person. endormir par des contes. a rod. baume. ballustres. Mr Marsh whether the a load. Lat. a young babe. objects to the foregoing derivation. Fr.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. Balluster. ballast. Cotgr. To deceive. R.. but loadage. ^Arbuthnot in R. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. Sp. or ballast of a ship. lastra. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. baranda. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. dial. a useless load. bag-lest. astonished. . from Lat. Said to be from balaustia. To make fun of a person. ballustre) is a corruption. 1. more frequently than outward-bound. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. analogous to what is seen in It. Du. also with flatteries and . Sc. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. In OSw. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. the act of walking. ranked on the outside of cloisters. Dan. age. seems the original form of the word. Bamour. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. a false tale or jeer. a battlement . But because baglast is not found in the written documents. To Ban. Report Pennsylv. balustrade barandilla.000 tons. bambolo. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. bam. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. . Balsam. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. terraces. for a load or goods (Roquef. by met. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. baU. or movement of one who walks. barandado. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. ^a\Ba\iov. lastagium signified not only ballast. in the first place. back of the ship. is in Sweden and Norway. to preserve equilibrium. Bret. When a ship discharges. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. because. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. This is the backload. enchanter. &c. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. the backload. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. The Baltic sea. denounce. explains ballast. It is explained back by Adelung. Sept. galleries. it is forced to take in stones or sand. urtica. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. To proclaim. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. mare Balticun. like Fr. puzzled. Gr. little round and short pillars. It. It. curse. The Sp.that the going vessels. more serious objection is . By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. a small balustrade. A — — . deceive. &c. fonts. 1854. Ballast. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. Balm. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. lest.' And Kil. But Fr. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. a duty on goods last. lastre. from bara or vara. baUa. an Old dotard or imbambolare. bambocciolo. railing around altars. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. inutile onus. command. to walk. Venet. bumbazed. inutilis sarcina. called Bait. a fragrant gum. of balusters. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. to enchant. balconies. baltresac. and Mid. Fr. bamein.Lat. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. paid for the right of carriage. i860. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. To Bam.). for want of other freight. Bret. — — oltriga. lestage. as he says. deceiver. bertesca. bag-las. 43 — Cot. small railing. a nettle. last. barauste. If bambocciolare were child of one. Lest. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. forbid. bamboccio. balsamum. the flower of the pomegranate. To Bamboozle. sorcerer.

we constantly find the expression. and in E. ligue Taboada). Sp.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. he bannede his ferde. Se il — Romance languages.—John Villani in Due. curse. E. From the verb to banda. and thence to any proclamation. Bandus. side. Goth. to ctide. power. To Bandy. permission. flag. fahne. also the band or of marriage. bande. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Mag. In a special sense the term company itself. Band. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. There is some doubt how Fr. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. 2. . R- He Translated by Chaucer. 'A son bandon. Fr. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. A. bannum or bandum. bann. margin. Baud. then the signification w. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. bandon somewhat party. says Muratori. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. tener da alcuno. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. summoning to serve So in Swiss. biddal. is That with which anything AS. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Capitul. bannire exercitum. to take one to task. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. band. —R. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. In Fr. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. It. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. Wyntoun. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. OE. banda. theodscipe ut abannan. ex. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Fr. border. band. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. Sw. etc. banda the colour or material. G. &c. populum. passing on from proclamation to command. sostener Torriano. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. faction. See Abandon. those who side together (bande. banner marked the place of assembly.. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. at his own discretion.^ bandy. bande. side. It. from at the Lord's courts. eiiseigne. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. a company. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. to reprove. bundun. to form parties. 26. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . to unite with a band.e. in Fr. D. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. in hostem convocare. Diss. banda. Goth. 813. bindan. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. to bring corn to be fahne. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. to ban. bandi. 15. to . . Leg. — R. to excommunicate {lysa. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. acquired the sense of proclamation. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. bound.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Les saiges avait et les fols d. Spebifid.Lat. ba?idare. v. Ripuar. Bandear. bannire in exercitum. Commun^ment son bandon. i. — excommunication bann-lysa. to follow a faction. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. a coast. bandera ground at his mill. 19. Assises de Jerusalem.is further developed. whether by way of injunction or for- command. Sp. admolendinum. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. R. authority. to side or to bandy (Florio). banns pany of footmen serve. to publish) banna. change to the feminine gender in banda. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. parti. It. the ensign or banner. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). and It. bandon was used in the same sense. &c. 1. The to . region. he assembled his host. Cot. bande. — To partito d'alcuno. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. It seems this signification has arisen. Car. bando. hoc est vexillo.

bank of Dan. —^Vocab. band-dog. Hudibras. bank. as of an explosion or a blow. Fr. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. bank. Fr. It. a bank. banja. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. a blow. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. pastoralis. the slope of a hill. — Fr. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. eminence. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. To Bandy. But natheless wife at I bank. banish. a i.: . N. Lingua. Fl. roupt. Bang. home — Bandog. was formed the OFr. desk. banke. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. to bend a. . took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Lat. the same verb the It. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed .^ knock. From Mid. stir. g. the former Fr. — Paulus drive in a nail. The ridge of a hill is AS. a wound OHG. in the sense of place of business. canis vinculis assuetus. to knock. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. Goth. beating.HG. Banner. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. benk. to make a stir banke. de- party. the back. eminence. dorsum was applied to ject. The child cries bang! fire. With many a stiff thwack. Diez. to hammer in a nail. back of a knife. AS. 45 — — Bandit. Diaconus in Due. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. whence the mod. Milton in R. bander. many a bang. bance. bander tin arc. a counter. bench. among rotta. bakke. language of W. that the word is used by Romeo. bang. to join in league with others against Cotgn. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. bana. Bankrupt. to foment factions. death-blow . for shame. The ing. s'associer. large dog kept for a guatd. in R. and OFr. . The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Africa. The word is in E. rap hatike et som The Susu. It is in this sense nounce. bow. It. a de Vaud. From a desk . Ripuar. to knock. and poise Their lighter wings. . 2. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. ON. banca his creditors. and hence. banqueroute. to proclaim. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. ON. banditti acquired the like signification. banc. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. bana. counter. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Bandy. bana. Brewer. bane. panca. bannire. See Banish. bander. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. to work in wood. a bench. bank of a river. — — whence E. Tibalt. bank of river. tumult bangas. Sw. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. and therefore tied up. Mid. a sand-bank. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Dan. distinguishes bekkr. Banditti. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. to publicly order one out of the realm. seat . Benchi. When a man fails Lat. Bane. banka. banc G. put under the ban of the law. Bandy legs are crooked legs. — Kil. a long raised seat. . Fr. broken. se joindre. ON. a table. bana-sdr. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. disturbance banga. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. banco. of bandying words. a bench. band-hond. Bacon in R. shoal. murderer. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. destruction . clouds. to slay. death-sickness. Bank. See Balluster. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. &c. bandi. It. has bang-bang. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. forbear this outrage. Your stool. outlam came to signify a robber.z. A Shipman's Tale. b'ang. a rising bank. bana-sott. Du. standard. and bakki. hammering. follow a party. Mercutio. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. in the sense of a pirate. bent as a bow. de sable. &c. in the same way that E. a bankrupt merchant. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Benvoglio. banca fallita. Roquefort. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. . E. bandire. to beat. a bench. to cabal. bandear. See Band. at canis peciiarius. from banc. bankruptcy. se reunir. beat. — . hricg. Banister. death-wound. Draw. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. Bantze. bench. ruptus. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. AS.

of ensign would be a flag or streamer. manu anto make signs nuere. E. such as the Roman Eagle. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. Leduchat. sbarra. and with an initial s. senh. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. top. bandiera. knight Bardd. ON. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. himself in Pontus.cruel. 3. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. bannereti. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. token. hence a repast. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. jSdirTO). privileged to raise Barbarous.— Swift in R. a sign. barriire. sparre.aTa Kul nest. a barrier or stoppage. merki. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. a bantling. signuin. a bearded or Cot. from the same source. of a sign in general. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. uncivilised. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. It. arineXov. out of a wound. Fr. The original import of their own banner in the field. probably corSymbol. in Gr. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. In a similar manner are formed yearling. speaking of battle. wrapped. It may be thing. barde. Banneret. Flesche barbeUe.. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. benda.hinder. either in the Gr. &c. banda hendi. BARBAROUS reiflingr. a bench or table . to dip. Celtic bar. banneret was a higher class of knights. chan. barbe. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. heri-pau. brushwood.46 BANNERET . meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. ban- Baptise. branches of a tree {gwezen. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. then branches. barba. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. an animal a year old. OHG. senhal. Fr. Bap. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. senheira. barrack. Lat. barra. Fr. G. to beckon . would rupted from Fr. branch. and the work is done. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet.8ap6^o)voe. a ban. 2. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. senhal. dim. a war-beacon or war-signal. A It. sparro. and he would seem to derive Goth. barbed or trapped as a great horse. Barbe. ingly very generally known by a name branches. which is surely in barbed arrow. nestling. banneret. Gael. that the noise of voices Bantling. barbarus. Fr. Banquet. Duo. . Hence ner. ^oTrriKio. ing term appears in other languages. The barb of an arrow is the sign . indeed. i. Barbar. to bend. of banco. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Lat. OFr. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse.the analogous syllable viur. then fell among the foot. banchetto. a beam or long pole of wood. barrou-gwez. Fr. the bar at which a criminal enseigne.. ON. banne. remarked. — We A . summit. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. banda. and it was accord. the word came to signify rude. banner. To mock or jeer one. to having that signification. a tree). The origin is in all probability Goth. Thus Ovid. &c. E. The spar. Fr. Gr. bar. milites bannarii. bandva. and even of calling it banter. rarii. Lat. Gr. barreau. According to Diez the It. as they call it. of wind. to wash. To Banter. by a repetition of the syllable bar. banniire. sign. Barb. It. period vexillarii. and from ensign or banner Prov. a which the barrister addresses the court. Barb. E. Sw. to wrap. inur. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. OHG. —Cot. inferior to a baron. a. barre. says. men. iandvo. Bret. barrer. rod of any rigid substance. It. Hence Fr. from reifa. jSa'pjSapoc. or of this bantering.

coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. skola. as well as thwcEtta. Sp. twattle. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Pr. Barbican. brabble in the making of a bargain. w.— BARBEL merit of water. uncovered. barbaris. to make an outcry . as well as the modern twaddle. — . barbeau. Lucan. open. tattle. to bubble or spring up. barbugliare. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. upper chamber. Barberry. the nakedness of a woman. albardilla. in poetic language Bard for poet. barbier. skialldar-bard. murmur . The verb borrelen signifies in Du. barda. Lex. tree. to stammer. borbotar. border. bds. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state.) . barefooted Sanscr. saddle-cloth. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. to plash or dabble. borbulhar. Barder. Cotgr. . a bardelle. albarda'ah. in Fr. — — — men. to It. Gr. such as houses are covered Bardelle. Etym. baragouin. fortia —Strabo. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. which was of talking. barda. the beard. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. albarda. a rumbling. Russ. g. borboglio. baar. ala. horse armour covering the front. guazzolare. — Cot. barbeum. scouthouse. haggle. on. a long saddle for an ass or mule. barbarkama. /3opj3opwJu. unqualified. guaszare. to mumble or mutter words. The Pers. a tumultuous assembly. Sp. barbeter. mutter. and the word was used in OE. Bret. the quilted with. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. barbar. Hindost. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. bare baskojis. barbelin. also to wallow like a seething pot. Fr. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. . brim. bhasad. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. a shingle or small board. bdsiis. Fr. Lith. barbulla. the flap of a hat. twcEtta.' Cot. or more properly (says fer. barbel. to stammer. Arab. to chafbargain. jargon. skirt. berj G. Applied in E. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. and flanks. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. berries. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Bardeau. borbollar. grumble (Lowndes. speak confusedly. muttering. Cot. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Mod. i. name Fr. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. boil. barS. dial. is lb. to grunt. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. lb. bdla-khaneh. and foolishly. used 2. a pack-saddle. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. barguigner. Etym. back. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Bare. But Sp. and Sc. bar. borborinha. barboter. Fr. An outwork for the defence of a gate.) to wrangle. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. axilla. in the sense of fight.— — Pm. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Barber. Fl.— Fl. a jetty or outnook in a building. OFr. Bard. to gurgle. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . Port. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Barbel. Bargain. small pack-saddle. Festus in Diet. skirmish. quarrel . Diez. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. bardd. Mod. Exposed to view. A7 to the and warlike. baares geld. to boil or bubble up . It. Gr. Barde. G. Port. barbacane. bardes. also to bind or tie across. uproar. powdered all over. stutter. to barbe or trap horses. to bubble or boil. Fr. bdsas. barz. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. and in Flanders to vociferate. waschen. Cotgr. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. Hatt-bard. Sp. border of a garden bed. — . coping. gibberish. Hall in R. /3£pjSepi^w. to wash. formerly used in the sense of tattle. It. to rumble. to prattle. — — Hence. ready money. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Thus the on.

hemlock. husband. Manx bayrn. barn. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. then honoured man. barlys {bara. a load. OFr. baaring. . Bemiques. bern. bere. barajar. Gl. a. Rayn. a place. baratta. ThS man was not created for the woman. (Ihre. barafunda. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. ON. to strive. and the word. From Fr. bread. Barbour in Jam. barms. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Ibid. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. giving rise to It. the fore or after end of a boat . bern. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. barn. Swab.. Du. baerm. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. to shufSe. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. barley. barlys. aheap. Dan. bargain. bernac. skuta. dregs of oil. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell.Barum vel feminam. Spectacles. barafustar. is simply the Bret. barja. * Barnacles. as in the case of Lat. the slimy substance brewing of beer. W. berm. edge. Prov. Sw. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. bosom . limpet. To Bark. i. . It. to wrangle. The origin may be throat. bcerme. barn. barahunda. and ern. dispute. Sp. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. disorder. Camus. . dispute . was barlic. in the Brim. dial. Vocab. — battle. baarm. tumult. quarrel Port. the or prow of a ship. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. strife. entangle. AS. fray. barone. 2. Kil. contest. as. name being given to spectacles. —Bark. louzou. ON. See formed Yeast. Sp. but the woman for the man. See Barm. As Goth. trouble. and llysiaw. border. The older form in e. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Barn. Bark. commonly explained from bere. corn-shed. AS. Cornub. tion of the sound. mhg. Alam. contest. a heap . quarrel. — Zeuss. meta foeni. astringent. barley. bosom. then the bows pectus navis. herbs. baron. So also ON. beornt. one who stirs up strife. v. Bailey. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. squabble. Uzen. Acervus. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. in Nat. we pass to the vert) barguigner. berm. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. also a boat . hlaSa. a cap . bard). baralha. skutr.. as well as Scandinavian tongues. a receptacle for barley or corn. Provj bar (ace. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. On the other hand. E. a beak.' bardagi. and is probably a true bartig. ON. and 1. and hence probably (by a metaphor. baron)^ Fr. beorcan. baralhar. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Lith. Antiq. Originally man. borkr. the G. the rack or manger. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. to cheat. charlock. struggle. baratta.) lihtes-ern. berem. spectacles. barnis. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. The Goth. Leg. So ON. Leg. barge. It. berma. kani.^Voc^. Gael. put to confusion. limpets . barmr. as baces-ern. strife. strife. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . chaffer. beer. prominent part of a thing. hay-loft. a stack. Ripuar. baniffa. barnacles. a lantern. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. . as. — Barnacle. houbartij fsnile. barizeins indicates a noun baris. barlich. barki. altercation. baaren. at barka. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. a lap. barley. Du. to skin over barkandi. a baking place or oven. limpets. bamagh. a heap. to chop. OFr. brenig. to rout. to all the barca. Romance barsie. adj. a boat. Bret. bread-corn. 2. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. barii. hladi. Sp. Dan. to scold. prasepe . berm hoys. plants). the A — Ihre. dispute. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. ber (ace. bcern. Baron. bark . Garlick. OSw. w. baarn. varen. also to exchange. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. quant a perdu sa barja. Port. wine. baimeach. dispute . baragouin. — de Berri. barretor. Port. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. confusion. dispute barattare. Isidore in Rayn. am. from an imita- Barley. Barge. ON. lap. a barn.

staves. barrack. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. braeck. It should be observed that. bearg . whence Barrow. G. the braw. barri. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. borov'. qui have not much light on the pre. seem to be radically the same with Lat. baraignej Picard. a horse. ^Barrator. a. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. cover. as cavalcade. a word is always used in the plural number. AS. the two names. uncultivated. 1. Goth. alongside of barrow. vir. a. a castrated hog . 2. See Bar. a bar. were sometimes confounded. ibid. Barricade. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Sp. The feudal tenants next Fr. iver. implement for carryAS. barre. An ing. garment still used in Morocco. todtenbahre. calico. Formed from Fr. Nominale of the from braeckland. Baron andfemme. gravis et authenticus vir.. bara. baragan. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. a hut or booth. — A . a kind of coarse camlet. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. 26. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Russ. bara. Bern. litter. barBombicinus. also termed bannerets. dispute. Bohem. barchent. squabble. bera. berewe. Barratry. Bamnculus a baronet. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. S. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. beorh. baronuU. from a tree to which a man is hanged. See Barter. A. and not from Fr. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. It was not until the time of James I. branches. ^Vocab. nobles. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. Barrister. barrique. w. hut. Fr. (Schmeller). from beran. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. man.' Op. bahre. baracca. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. sterilis.' that Barrier. MHG. which would barragdn. or simply bahre. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. a barrow. and in several instances. beorgan. mound. gwr. especially those killed in battle. a hiU. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. beorg. barrique. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. berwen. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. to shelter.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. It. Fr. as. man and wife. then traffick4 Barrow. Bret. habeant. shed. rolls of Parliament. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. AS. barile. baronetti. Gael. — Kil. breinej Du. barril. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. It. Barrack. bredhan. brushwood. to * Barragan. a bier. G. bier. whenever Barrow-hog. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter.have been named from the haggling and gant. Bargus or moreland. perhaps through Prov. Barren. This word introduced into Fr. Antiq. Sp.parchanttuech. bouracan. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. barague. a barrel. OE. like bargain. in Nat. sepulchre. booth. strife. Gael. semen non accipiens landiEL. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff.— Gibbon. D. Joshua vii. baroncelli. to carry. E. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. barraca. StiU he shows conclusively. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. Sp. — — 15th Cent. from cavallo. barrila. Barrel. baronculi. in the first instance. over him. barrier. change of goods seems. heap. fallow. boar.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. vair. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. a man. by early examples. OFr.. cise formation of the word. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. It. signifying. vel pretiosos burellos. an obstruction.root signifying confused noise. tomb. facture. composed of dry branches ofer. fear. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. The Sp. became bidre. bark&n. fortification.

the — — to kill those that look upon it. back. to deceive. Fr.looketh upon his eyes. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. . bestcn. at basta og binda. partieren. Du. come near. baste. curtus. crassus. But according And Dan. Basket. a court-yard. besst. dwelling. fhe outhouses and yards. imbastire. lust. Sp. Isidore. ' Bosworth. beretun. Bastard. tierer. bran. baraet (from Fr. low note. scale in music. cog. aiKcig. Bast. baratar. to bind. Bass. foist in bargaining. hoops of a cask. leviter consuere. to bind. baraand especially teria. Sp. See Brattice. Sw. Sp. cheating. mean . PaaiKhms. and Bret. to truck. HaU in HaUiwell. embastir. Sylvester's Dubartas. said Base. Dan. Fris. Fr. — in Rich. to cheat. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. low. A fabulous serpent. bast. thick. To Bask. the a wide open vessel. a halter. found in Turkish . more noble in blood than notable in learning. which covers the grain Ger.D. low part of the Hickes in Rich. him. bas. Arthur and Merlini. inclosure. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. /«r<fSp. bast. chasa ogli a bastard. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. HaUiweU. basta. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis.' Gl. bassin. chasa. Kil. pressed down. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. i. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). from /3aR. to long — a British word by Martial. It. baos. mavult dicere Roma suam. Al is dai. mock not. and tun. the manorhousfe itself. baxoj w. BassuS. ' He was begetin o bast. or running away with the ship. Du. Basilisk. exchange. n' is n' is bacino. MS. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. humilis. then cheating. flat. binding. rope for — . or wic. discourse Nay. a bass rope. low. lattice-work. 516. to bargain. oe. Barbara de pictis veni patch.' Papias. fornication. to bind hand and foot. w. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . basta. — Bassoon. Lap. to Diez. exchange. a basket masg. to cheat. to baste. fornication. To stitch. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. basg. MHG. to stitch . by imbezzling their goods Bailey. barter. basso. unrighteous gain. truck. baste. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. bareter. Sw. bast-maatte. on a. also the demesne lands of a manor. lift me above Parnassus. fits de bas. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. It. — hanging. Swed. a bastard. preparatory stitching. bastear. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. bass-matting. Gr. Dan. MHG. a deceiver. The original meaning. netting. basgod. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. HoUinshed. bestan. a ftiesh. F. ^Is de bast. as It. he. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. Halliwell. the thin skin Dan. beguile. OFr. a king. which sets up its hood when angry. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. God it wot. but he dreth presently. descended of an honorable lineage. stitch. commonly A joined with the word binda. OFr. submovet omne Lucan. barley. fraud. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. Bassus. a ipgli So Turk. The like property hath the iasilisk. Lend me your hands. baratear. imbastire. as the diadem of the basilisk. Apparently of Celtic origin. bast-reb. Newman. Bartizan. would be. AS. Bass. It. bark. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. There is not one that. It. bds. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . Pl. but born in baste. over-reaching. baste. ibid. pdrdt. beortun. of the same sense. corn-farm. berewic. . to baste piece of cloth. bdtir. It. basso. court-yard. plaiting of splinters basged. It is mentioned as . husk bast van koren. shallow. peel. Barton. Fr. a tying. piiiguis. besst-u-b£nd&t. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. from bere. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. G. bast.). . Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. also to Cotgr. ohg. It. barter. according from Gael. ing for profit.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. To Baste. See Bath. Sicamb.

compared with blakka. a stick. baston. devise. ari instruineht for beating. basta. Sp. also to cudgel. Sw. which to rest the load. For the origin of baston see Baste. bastonnir. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. to spread bread and butter. — — Fl. blatta. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. Antiq. bastilde. It. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. Fr. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. For the loss of the / in back. Supp. a bird which. the E. bladier. a things prepared for future use. to whip. p. to beat. Cot. ON. Mid. Florio. basa. Rayn. pre. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush.-^ Chaucer. blakka. bastione. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. batta lucifuga. to rub. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. Sw. to build. blakta. worth (Nat. beating. bat.stick. Dan. to build. is explained by Cot. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. whence ledrblaka. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. Cot. blows. the original has corneille. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. cudgelling. I. Pr. frame. to beat. e. to set on foot a war Bastion. a. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. beysta. to lay the Sp. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. in the use of the E. to give him a sound bastingi 3.. bastine. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. guerra bastir. bast. explains Sp. and ditches bastion. club. night-bat. Fr. 11864. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . to teach one before. to thrash . liiake. bastimento. quelqu'un son roulet. vespertilio. 'iJipistreUo. a pad. victuals. niammal. bastonada. iastir. to pack a saddle i. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. * Bat. to devise or begin. the night-jar or goat-sticker. to flap. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. settiilg up. E. To donjon. which in the E. bastida. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . To baste one's hide . It seems to me that the sense of stitching. business (Altieri). . a bastion. That yche blak y dar wel telle. bdion. to Due. and Cot. Bastinado. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . a blockhouse. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. from Fr. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. has bastine. military term of a bat-horse). disposer. to cudgel. Perhaps baska. badger. set up. 2. Sp. staff. dial. flyinge best. Dieiif.— . translation to a bat. It. bastear. the winged . to rub gently. frotter. — Bakke. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. bastille. comp. baston. but this is hardly satisfactory. Sw. basto. Fr. erect.stitching in general. boste. aftonbakke. ment. a barSp. in the Romance languages. bastir. to drub. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka.'CaB. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. to stroke. Fr. It. passage Imbasto. 2. the bat . raise. set up. bastia. a packsaddle. nade. Sw. packsaddle. vledermus. also the ricado. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. blacta. put it together. contriving. a pad or packsaddle. natt-blakka. bak. dial. to quilt or stitch wool into it. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. All from bastir. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. R. blakra. stryk. blatta. blaka. Pm. or implement for 4 * A . contrive. R. provisions.baste or knock soundly. bastonFr. a blow cloth for dinner. To beat or bang soundly. a sconce. Sc.fortress or castle furnished with towers. — — — .Lat. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. the clapper of a bell. as weU as besteau. vespertilio. BAT neither. a with a stick. to belabour. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. and Arabs. like the owl and the bat. Derived by Diez from iasi. Prov. 164). glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. Dan. back. stryka. . iinbastire. bastir. 2.— Bailey. bakie-bird .

made of — A made by one Batcii. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. badda. Battery. baz. is in falling. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . a stick. beat down. from on. badask. . battre. Sp. to warm oneself. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. dial. Baka sik vid elld. to toast bread. as signifying warm baths. to become convalescent. a stirrer-up of strife. beat. batna. beat. bastille. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. and about an inch thick. debat. A Bath. to get better. makebate. oneself at the A into faggots. To Batten. term in falconry . and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. to become fat. See Better. To thrive. a blow with a light instrument. a main battle. to thrive. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. to foment with hot applica. water whether warm or cold. to flutter with the wings. Holz bdhen. G. Batten. dial. It. . baquetazo. Jurgor. a battle. for biia sik. baeddu. Goth. as wood-en. adapted for defence. a staff. bat. baka. Fr. a blow. fashes basking in the sun squadron. basa. busk. from battre. to heat . — — — ' — . the root of e. Hal. fortress or castle. Bailey. dispute. a battalion. an arrangement for giving blows. bada. Ayenst the sunne. 2. a washing beetle. as E. I baske. lessen. wet linen in washing. more. Pm. heat. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. to fire or in the sun. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. sich bakern. batir. or a dry stick. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Chaucer. I bathe in water viz. also. PLD. Batyn. to beat. signifying to give repeated blows. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to fight. to bathe oneself. and with staffslyng. and milk beaten up together. batte sig. to refresh oneself in language. to bathe. . to beat se battre. Pr. Plkkis. to betake oneself. Slav. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. — To . flour. of bread is so much baked zX one time. to beak. and as a verb. Barbour in Jam. to for fighting. I. tagUone. on the fire. bat-en. to beat. betten. to be profited. Pr. to foment. battere. quhar he suld assaill. A batch as wood. battere. Battalion. batacazo. Strife. Sw. Battery. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . then to warm by the application of hot water. better. in the case of a wall. Pm. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. To Bate. a beating. battions. Battle. by projections or in any licoure. dial. is a simple adoption of Fr. Hence pro. bdhen. Bat. Fr. gebdcke. howis. bataille. In OE. Bate. Bret. to warm. — Cot. allay . solen baddar. bdda vidjor. Fr. a band of armed men arranged basa. made of bats.— . was formed bastilU.' Palsgr. G. the heat of the It. to heat. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. to warm oneself at the fire. tradire. a great seems related to baden as Fr. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Flem. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. buask made like a fortress. battle was used beath wood.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. remit. battre. a from ON. baden. batador. battaglia. a Baiffi. bdt. on. abattre. or break down. hot. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. E. From bat in the sense of rod . The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Sp. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. quell. to dial. G. From OFr. bludgeon. batterie. It. to beat. squadron. as E. e. Mgy. Eggs. trahtr to It. also a sun badfish.— To Bask. whence the sun burns .Hence in the augmentative form It. to feed. battre las ailes. altercation. solbase. to cudgel. Batter. ON. dial. In some parts of England it is striking. in the sun. bet. Fr. Sw. abate. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. badda. cudgel. pak. gebdck. to foment. to beath wood Battledoor. Jeddris and covering. bake. w. perhaps first used adjectivally. Fr. certain bend. Gael.Bathe. Battlement. The bat with which a brot bdhen. gabatnan. strife. bdda. Fr. Florio. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. to fell. Du. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. or make debate.

rotten. or the animal so marked. Lat. trifles. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. to bark. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. bobbin or cluster of thread.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. a horse with white legs. to play the babby. E. to low or bellow as corn. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. baudrdj OHG. was simply a field gold. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . bauU. an object. in OE.guage). ground. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. fields. The It. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. sorry. Formed from baw. Pr. a white mark Bawdy. E. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. to trifle away ment. to void the bowels. 2. baw. Baw — .' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. W. dirty. balderich. also more Bawdekin. balGael. Jam. the white of his leg or foot. Cloth of gold. Cot. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. Filthy. s. a lump. From Bret. child. javelle. baudrat. mew. zano. from Fr. tille. Bawson. fooleries or fond To Bawl. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. dial. obstrepere. whimwham. Pr. sword-belt. ! Bauble. It. also the canopy carried part of his body. bad. having a white streak down Bagdad. babbole. babiole. to the same origin. A name of the badger. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. an — — — A — g — — — .— P. bouaila. P. to bark . the Swiss baben. to make the noise Baudrick. Gael. exactly corresponds Fr. Baldrick. speckled. tab. or sheaf of Bridel. baffe. cluster. baula. a horse marked with a procession. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. ON. from Baldacca. b \% bouala. BAWSON Swiss. brush faggot. dung. s.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. represented by the syllable miau. bauch. bow-wow. is Bagdad stuff. ball. Zalli. Hal. form with an initial seen in Fr. nastiness. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. a tassel. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. to 53 manure the To baw. spotted.. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. and Sp. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Piedm. c. bal. spot. a dog). to cry. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick.' ' Pegma. ish baubles. to talk Lacombe. The word may perhaps be sticks. Ball. Fr. to vociferate. to me-wl. collar. Prov. because made of cloth of white. Beaus^ent. whence the E.. ballach. — — ' Lydgate.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. —R. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. whence pouacre. Pm. faisceau. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). as Fr. divided between black and white. propugnaculum. instead oi s. dacchino. scarf. an embattled wall. R. babsmall toy to play withal. baugant. bau. bobine.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. Bagdad. baubare. Cot. a plot of Chaucer. P. Descript. Cotgr. the face. It. From ! an interjection of disgust. Irel. 8. disgusting. In like manner Grisons filthy. dirt. trifle. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. balbob. Fr. vacillo. bausan. a lump or cluster babhaid. a gavel. An analogous noisily. a belt. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. pie- . or Cot. fe bau. toys. miauler. Bavin. a tassel or hanging bunch . a zan. horse. is used for a sented by bau. excrement. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. and to-tore also. baue. OFr. and authorities in note. i. E. librillo. expressive of disgust. Ball-seirc. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. fagot. E. lewd . Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. — Pm. It is all bawdy. OFr. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. filth. bablyn or waveryn. Batylment of a wall. or toys. a spot. guigaw. Fr. pegma. bal. bow (as in our nursery Diez. Fl. It. Sc. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. Swiss Rom. on the face of animals. baban. filth. dente. P.

that from ba. a hole. Cot. ist. to be Bohem. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. baiare. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. buidhe- The ruadh. which however. &c. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. * To Be. in order to keep the enemy in check. A stag is said to stand at bay. Drayton in R. so called from its bearing bays. large window in a handsome . is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. he turns and faces his pursuers. to betray. — A At Bay. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. window . to split. Swab. weary of running. as gazing. . grapes or nuts. Piedm. when. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. baionette. buidhe. Such Antaeus seemed to me. arose two forms of the verb. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. especially beans. It. baca. bayo. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. berry. 1859. put to his last shifts. ing-floor. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. . bahia. Prov. and the To bark as a dog. white. Arts. or to have been first used at the Cot. 1. &. —Diez. bahia. AS. It. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. at his last gasp. bai. Q. Fr. to on anything. bate. a beast. . ' Tal parve Anteo a me. badius. w. the laurel-bay. life. It has been shown under Abie. bde. waiting . as if to signify a window of curved outline. living Ir. Holland's Pliny in R. life. baer. Lat. bilyejiti. See At Bay. Fr. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. From the former verb is the It. to open as a blossom. or recess in an apartment in modern times. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. Sp. stood watching him stoop. badia to Sp. bacca. is perhaps not directly from Lat. aux dehniers abois. gate. baya. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. S. to gape. berries. F. BAY marked with bjly. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. or window ' (in Fortification). and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. badarse. To Bay. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. bioth. baye. From Cat. like a pie. Earth — By Nature made to till. bayen-stein. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. laurel of the ancients. Gael. the cod of peas. baca. by the term rendre les abpis. alive. beothach. bilyega.' Bailey. watching intently. BauSfi)/. abbabayer. The word bay. Bay-tree. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. yellow . Catalan hadia. the world Gr. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. husk. a cluster of bacon. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Swiss beie. a'uno. Fr.—Journal Soc. corrupted into Bow-window. to keep at a bay. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. 25. from an imitation of the sound. Feb. Gael. the step is the same as from It. Vielp. tradire to Fr. bay. and zndly. window-sill. house . Q. |8i'os. stare. siege of Bayonne in 1665. beonj Gael. dividere. &c. overture. baja. badarc. a mark.— Stalder. bajo. baccello. a dagger. BE Probably conRuss. hddhe-dhonn. Fr. desiring. to iiitent nected PoL white. Sp. Lat. —Bay-windo'W. a berry. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. beo. It. Bay. See Bald. to keep one waiting. . — Schmid. It. It. to mark. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. the cod or husk of beans or the like. A hollow in the 'line of coast. Serv. and keeps them in check for a while. The — Fr. living thing . to stand watching one.' — — 54 bald. See Bawl. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. or berries. Abide. dehiscere ./^ bau. trahir. baher. or at bay. bialo. baie. Bay. Bayonet. batibari. Fr. Mod. Fr. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. baga. bagaid. bdcr. Sp. Gr. bay. A — he brought her to stand listening to him.. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. bijel. barn of two bays. baier. to open.. from badar. to amuse stare a bada. expresr sion tenere a bada. —F.c. OSp. open the mouth.

vii. ON. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. OSax. Pardoner's Tale. ffaen.from AS. bokan. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. atUndre. bean. which is. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. To Bear. Sw. not applied to the yelping of dogs. fero. a hill. Bret. — bedeau. a sign. bM. a nod OHG. as. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. bead. N. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. —F. according to of Sanscr. bakke. Goth. Hackluyt in R.' Hall's Chron. ffci.. bek. Chapters on Lang. — Bellenden in Jam. The nutu significare. beic. bob. . small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. ohg. It forms a. bidan. on. would say. Netherlands or North Germany. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. or however. Miss Gurney in Philolog. pig. The immediate shore of the Menage. * Beagle. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. a beak. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. into France. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. bdkna. Lat. like most nautical terms. . to carry. W. See To Bid. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Bean. AS. or breathing. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. The wild beast. Beadle. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Beach. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. fromthe danger. to bellow. gebed. becco. G. Gr. a curtsey. boom. fd or faVf beans. bydel. faba is Kvavoq.fer-re j Gr. -phxr. Gael. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. 54. a single bean. Du.fuis5e. tale of prayers or doxologies. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. bedm. .' adheres to the root. Farrar. baum. Boom. prodigy bauhnjan. Bret. a presage. a tree. g. The origin seems preserved in E. ON. be. bee. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. signifying individuality. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Goth. — : Beam. beugler. bank. bairan. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. nokkima.fui. was introduced from England sea. baun. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. a tree. rising ground. support. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. It is BEAR SI court. beans. l^ax. as well as f& or fav. Gael. Beckon. Fr. W. Beck. beic. bearti. bohne.ad. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Be. however. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. Trans. to wait-.' Suetonius in Diez. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. E. to produce young. He says. «va\ioQ. vol. bakkje. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. into a snjall river. stock. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. Fr. A two-year old nephew of mine p. Thus the final en. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. salve his hurts. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Beak. Gael. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. Q wait upon him. to wait. to nod . A Esthon. Catalan becar. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter.to have a French origin. as. an attendant. signifying a point. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. bohnej ON. a single bean. bidello. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. badmr. pierced for hanging on a string. fora-bauhan. the part overflowed by the tide. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. beacen. It. Beacon. and Lat. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. to beckon. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. beacnian. bagms. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. It. Bear. Slavon. — to bow or nod . backe. or beic. a prayer. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. Moreover the name. to nod the head. post. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. beck. bauhan. bar. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. or any action done with a pointed thing. G. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. faba. AS.

Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. to assume a certain form or Turk. the latter are derived It. an notion of being convenient. byrcti. Secondarily applied to a hat. venient. to dabble . ON. to happen. place to lie down. The OFr. as the babble of the child. to happen. bellus.AS.we call the arrangement becoming. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. bedr. produce. o. pens unmixed evU. proper .fair semblant where thou mayest blame. biivre. e.' ' He became very angry. Fr. but now a river only. To load with ornament.— Kiittner. Thcem. to come to or upon. Diez. pretty. G. Lat. The moveable part of a helmet. the beard.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. ON. beo. or river.getiman. baviire. Lat. E. Chaucer. pleasing. bekommen. talkative. living. proper. agreeable. AS. becuman. behkr. battere. from the same in the sense of bear2. R. Beck. bard. decorous. barba. perhaps a living thing. tidy. Bedizen. See Bat. bett. dress with unbecoming richness . ting. On the same principle. gelimplic. ON. it is probable that here also the to become. gefallen. timan. G.of being very angry. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. riviire. connected with ripa. handsome. bur. E. Dan. byw. W. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. to appertain. Russ. decent. slobber. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. a brook. to live. biber. In like manner condition. Prick of Conscience. i. to fall in with our bavard. dize or dtzen. baurthei. ziemen. See Bank. convenient. if sound of a sharp blow. bekkr. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. godum with ON. As rivus. burdr is used in the sense of a car. limplice. to hem. brada. Goth. It. to bear children. See Beacon. get J ' He got very angry. Fr.S6 fero. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. to fall. Now the Beast. comely. Lat. Beck. to the brook itself. because made of the fur of the beaver. — A — A — . befit. to get. riviera. judgment. now confined To Become. bave i. gebank. Perhaps from Pol. baba. edge. befall. suitable. brook. bib or slobbering cloth. Lith. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. beatanj It. a lip. and Fr. suitable. e. G. chin. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. to sleep on. to shore. duty. to the good hapHalbard. Sp. bobrowai. bava. That thou mayest attain Goth. receive. nothing to thy name make. a bank. brook . to be fulfilled. Boeth. rying. the ece thurhwuniath. to attain to the lot of any one. to happen. to please. babrad. bestiaj Gael. Slav. bebrus. G. The fitting or suitable. ON. our taste. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. Beckon. whence baveux. border. fiber. a bank.' every way suited to a prince. With shepherd sits not following flying fame.to clothe to slobber. boroda. I do thee pray. g. Thus OY. and also in that of birth. Fr. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. iida. formerly a happen. The quadruped. or a feeling to be gratified. and on.fit. bequem. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. and to acquire. agreeable. opportune. Do no To It fallith favour. bobr. dushmak. E. i. limpian. nod or sign. See becymth anfeald yvel. to those goods which endure for ever. to arrive at. or special purpose. tidig. Prov. gabaurths. R. Beaver. barf. — . He becom on sceathan. Bo. to be a part of his to. fitanimal. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. from baver. as. den. to G. badi. obtain. bel. blast. while from Shep. covered the face. con. AS. Beat. to be incumbent upon him. Lat. to wade through the water like a beaver. a. limpan. which. to happen. Fr. to fall mode of being. beauts. G. 1. to carry. becuman. birth. fit. to happen. bart. bavec. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. It. name applied originally to the bank then proper . fitly . From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. bring forth. taste. bearing. Cal. bcek. Fr. fallinn. bello. OSw. . bave. 2. Beauty. Bosworth. from beau. bach.' are equivalent expressions. seemly. when up. happening as it ought.

woman that is newly delivered. AS. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. the biter. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. to become Beech. a agulatum in the original Latin. . bette or blettej Lat. on. Originally. bitel.ing of the word is curdled. trees in a forest . whose face is clotty. clog for a dog b'oteln. I dysyn a dystaffe. to fall. an inhabitant of the desert.^ drink. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne.'— GL ^Ifr. kiissen-biere. It. sela que environna la terra. the ox. The first milk after a dizen. Lat. . Beet. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. taglio. a clapper.. Gael. Fr. to twist poorma. PI. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. biene. P1. a stinging bieUe. Ant. 1 to drink. may be shpped on and off. to curdle or lopper. Dan. a bee. g. buche. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. Bed-ridden. bbtel. beta. drink. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. pettiriso. Fr. ris. red curdled Arab . Pett. vaar. whence familiar. biiren. a Properly a cover that biiren. from the hos. beach-each. cushion-cover . wedges. drink. &c. 1156. to poordma. beutel. turn. from jtst-. In a passage of an Old Fr. Arab. beost. beach. bossen. to drink. Bedouia. buk. knock. doubtless. KXlvoTTiT^e. to flatten In OE. Fr. a paviour's beetle batail. to parget or rough-cast .jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. used for boull. 1. For that was law of lend. a bed-tick. from leberen. to colour with lime-wash. calleBedlam. crespir. fall. to change . Cot. to beat bossel. ir'm. and lebermer in G. bibere is a re. also the bite or sting of a bees. Gr. a wasp. bedawi. pital of St Mary. of beatmg. poculum. I put the flax upon it to spin. extant in Bohem. a horse-fly . a wandering Prov. Esthon. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. boytle. beetle also signified the impiti. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. erroneously modified in form. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. bove. to coagulate. 1.possible. bletumj Gr. water. tree. to turn. stakes. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. as.(paddi. bos. bytl. Bethlehem. as in It. . pude-vaar. It. Fr. Rom. imperative pi.cz//aj. Fr. Horn. paralyticus. The beer al for te shenche bate. by the analogy of bedaivb. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology.ON. E. a drink potus.). G. GaeL bior. cugino. badigeonner. briest. Cot. and in driving piles. . batAfter mete in sale. to and ale. a wasp.D. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. AS. I A pillow-beer. cogionare. desert. bukva. The honey-producing insect. bedskiissen-bUren. Let. buka. E. bedde-redirj ohg._t from the root pi. may be from K. /SXirov. prisons Venet. i. to knock. 'La Gl. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. biest-milch. which also 2. AS. garden-herb. waarin. to rough- cast.— B. briesch-milch.substance as to render navigation imtiriso.D. in Nat. boeuf. Fin. bet. comb. ^. sang vermeilh betatz. cozen. de Fierabras in Diez. 57 — Palsgr. Bernese. in Schmeller. turn (a garment). the meat of spinach. from risan. byst. Grimm. The meanpainting. beer. . thick. qui de lecto surgere non potest . an ox. a cup or implement for AS. case. kivih. the loppered sea. . Lat. fagus. bitela.— JI14. cow has calved. cousin. prigione. Bee. Fr. a cover. a malsense of drink. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. also bienst. by-flugaj G. from blood. G. Bav. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. cited by Diez. an Beetle. mars betada. Confined to bed. ProBeer. a pad or cushion). a mallet. Pl. betel. thick. ' MordiThe Lat. blow or thrust. Beetle. bably named from the destructive quali| T. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. speach. door. piwo. Slav.' So Gr. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. beyki.' the last word corresponds to cofly . But possibly bedizen 2. a pillow-case. beest. Beef. curded or beesty. translation beOj. a pillow case. as the milk of a that purpose in London. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. * Beestings. from Lat. D. bovis. G. duplicated form of the root. madhouse. It.

which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. When Q. Lollards. To Beg. Fr. Bruce. a wallet. begging. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. taking up. Into the are D. touched with emotion — . 168. yivofiai. It will . beriolare. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. to go a begging. Cold-begone. baigeir. sel. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. a beggar .' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. on the bag. to take. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. ' . tale. is com. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. & go a begging. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. is formed pocair. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven.bag full of the G. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. pose-pilte. &c. to know. P. Beghardus. Deutsch. vir mendi. a little bag). duginnan. affected. beginning. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. a chisel. Du. two betels —a grete oke. gen. a scrip euXaiciJoi. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. cans.D. krapszas. Du. to be acquire. Schm. a wedge for cleaving wood. a bag or poke. a beggar. to get children . gigno. to With hire belies & here bagges get children.' about undern he got down. a beggar-boy. ykvog. P. at geta talad. Mundart. V. a — wedge. but probably erroneously. Gr.' A. yiyvo/uat. a bag. gan. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. whence the E. a bag . 1867. beis- plement driven by blows. to cleve. He did alight. — yivsaiQ. Ancren Riwle. Political Songs. origin. beitel. ' Begone. P. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. to arise. one after that other. a scrip. begger. ysgrepan. covered with gold D. capere. 2. of Gr. not began to alight. can. P. AS. hags. to be born. to bear young. the fundamental notion of attaining to. appears improbable at first. oppressed with woe. on further examination. can. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. P. 58 BEG BEGONE G. P. ' ' .Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. image is cleft out of the trunk. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Florio. bag {baigean. Vocab. Creed. Barbour. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . From w. seizing. 'ex quo. ip AS. incipere. in Lat. chisel. by the help of wedges and beetles an N.' for ye shall lament and weep. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. to reduce him to beggary. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. To produce children is to acquire.pose. It. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. steinbosil. Of brede full ycrammed. on the tramp. yivwajcw. be^nnan. lapidicinus. Mettre quelq'un a la besace.3. fangen and Lat. giving in Gr. it is both to acquire and to beget. referred gan this Erie alight. 'Aboutin undern monly. to begaan. V. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. as alighting is a momentary operation. aginnan. from whete G. Skinner's derivation from bag.— . anfangen. to begin. to be able. su with gold. beissel. P. 142.quently used in OE. and Lat. literally. genus. ken. yivtrri. chap. P. ken. viii. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. 40.n. signifying to conceive. ytyvwfT'Kw. iv. In Luc vi. The tother seand the dint cum. onginnan. 'Dz.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Lith. woe-begone. So from Gael. above quoted to get beaten ON. kind. word. Si'Xa/coc. To Begin. y/yvo/iat. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. bertola. to beg. in D. ysgrepanu. beitel. Goth. Mod. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. — Stillingfleet. also called Bigots. V. in E. air a . at a time when all his alms were given in kind. 1430. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . OHG. P. beutel. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. but in the same language from poc. &c. although it ' the future. P. Nov. Du. ornamented phoc. a stone-cutter's chisel. or Of a pure poor man. 25.

to hit the mark. R. to meet. is on the top of or opposite to. exhort. a follower. observe. and (as Fr. to name. premi curi alicujus rei. Goth. Paladino. to look upon it as true . to raise. AS. tail. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to be be named. to call.the figure of throwing at a mark. heita. seeing to. from tragen. the equivalent of E. AS. obliged. us-hafjan. to vow. But. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. keeping.' Richardson. behatan.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. adjust. To look steadily upon. to cast or throw. AS. Sw. AS. the two verbs seem radically the same. gehouden. to call. promise. habere. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. And so from hania. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. Command. K. To place are most naturally ex. or the hence advantage. to carry corn into the barn .for throwing it. zu etwas gehalten haitan. hcefwa in seed. at the tail of. when the verb will hoof. by the compound observare. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. holding is originally derived from that of looking. behaviour. to command. behold. to be named. hofwa. G. and the E. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true.). BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. hantyri. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. to tend. se porter) to fare well or ill. promise . take yourself off. to lift. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. behoof. To Behold. behces. the name adapt. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. hevja. — Behest. At the back of The re. to keep. nittaa. to lift. healdan. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. ifl fact. to carry.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid.to vow. gehaben. fixed upon any object). zijn. gehat. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. beperson addressed. right. betragen. use. heeten willekem. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. or necessary. and their senses intermingle. Robert in Warton. to carry. G. is supported by many analogies. to be well pleased out. or purpose. to hold. beholden to him. hafjan. to take away. To Behave. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. hafwa. to vow. laborare. hafwa. hove. to feed. keeping. what is so required. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. servare. to be obliged to one. to keen or hold. habban. to follow. to behave. to halten. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. Thus in Finnish the heave. to command. invoke. what he wishes another to do . vow. hafwa ram. OE. name of the head is used to express what hbva. portarsi. commonly expressed. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. garder. hafwa bort. It. behat. Sw. take heed of. to keep. han- — js Kil. solicitum esse. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to have. to fit. to be obliged to do a thing. advantage. to hold. to bers of the body. to turn one out . hovast. behefe. ufhaban. on. to be suitable or becoming . is also found in the sense of looking. to regard. ward. to look. heave. to bring forwards. to promise. Kiittn. G. —Hest. N. The seyn. bound. 17. guardare. G. AS. gehalten seyn. to heave. Sw. to R. hevja. furtherance. behind. to be fit. ge' hatan. according as the * To Behove. hces. To be expedient. have the sense of calling or naming. The It. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. The Lat. tion. Plautus. vow. the distance of anything. as in the case of E. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. heeten. hatan. injunccommand. G. Aan iemand bid one welcome. promise or a command. to lead. to carry. to the equivalent of Du. to gehouden. G. gecall. behete.— . Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. hcef tig bort.

bervrit. permission. honoured. ungalaub kas. to be required for a certain purpose. filu-galaubs. true. peal. locus securitatis Schilter. range. to praise. to belay. bolken. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. is an easy progress. to sound loudly . border. To Believe. properly belonging to the church tower. Sw. to put a high price or value on. bulken. bellow. laubjan. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. . consent. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . loven.D. The word be- Belfry. praising. garnish. bialla. .. Fr. glauben. frid. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. a tower. are innate .D. a watch tower. distance to which a piece will carry. bettifredo. an implement for making a loud noise. to estimate them at a To believe. To Belay. Det er ofwer er hofwa. leave . 6o BELAY BELL loven. to believe. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. is used in the sense of approving. beset. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. esteeming good and valid. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. and. to believe. Goth. to lay the cable round the bits. galaubjan. to boke. giving leave or permission. AS. beffroi. to give leave. on. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . — mankind. In Mid. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . and bergan. See Gain. to believe. laven. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. OHG. to praise. to give leave Dan. erlauben. .D. To praise is essentially Xo prise. AS. to roar. certain rate.Lat. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. ornament. moderation. Fair sir and Fair lady. bealcettanj OE. permitting or giving leave. if a promise. reach. to lay be- around. a little shed. lofa. OFr. then. reputation. and E. or high estimation. to cry out bell. praise. mark ON.. resonare. to sanction an arrangement. met. Pl. to der swaren lave. and Du. To Belch. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages.alyfan. in nautical language. leaf geleafa. ley/a. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. bertefredum. appearing in Mid. beleggen. P1. gelyfan. a. Du. then. aim. promising. belief . stand. to extol the worth of anything. Northamptonshire. to permit. to a loud noise. laven. to give leave. to express approval. to fix a price upon one's wares. lyfan. Du. to protect. promiser. precious. to promise or engage. Another application of the same word is in Pl. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. battefredum. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. ON. or house. is (Sternberg). galaubs. bounds. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. cela est audessus de votre portde. — . probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. were civil terms of address. lov. fitness. boare. behove. belja. to hit hafi. measure. with the consent of the heirs. —F. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. overspread. for purposes of low estimation . The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. loben. In the middle voice hofwas.. bellan. Du. ON. to praise. berfroi. to bolk. or a sconce. to make it fast. if a narration. a vessel made for dishonour. It. — Diicange.Lat. to befit. orloven. Fr. turris. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. satisfaction. bell. to bellow. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. pro3. to resound. Q. under the forms belfredum. portion. a tower for defence . It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. esteemed . from mhG. loven. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. b'ola. G. Du. legsel. to to make A Templorum campana boant. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. Pl. fringe. hesfa. Hence to simple approbation.D. and E. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. on. Bell. bealcan. beau sire and bel dame. tain a certain end. are other modifications of the same imitative root. allow. From AS. to promise. beffroit. Then. bylja. we have Goth. verloben. bercvrit.

Bench. as. See I . to make bilbil. ball. — root consisting of concentric skins. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. I say). Quoth. pino3. incense of Java. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. to. To Belong'. to stretch it on a frame. See Nether. belgr. border. benjoim. benaigon. Ptg. benehusk. bag. bienfait.' — Hie fimus. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. bilbil-goda. poX^ri. one who does good. — See Numb. bendan. Gum benjamin. ." — — . OUG. bcelg. to use words of good omen. pertinere. bimaissen. from which is also bulbus. ray. from benedictio. bene/actum. a benefit. to exert force. blister balgan-snamha. I soyle it or araye it. a leather bag. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Benign. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. Gael. to do good to one . Benefice. ' . welt of a shoe gwald. wallet. gelangen. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. Benefactor. welt of a shoe. w. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. . belliJ Lat.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to hallow. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. wallet Benefit. disposed to oblige. est matris in lucem editus. benejicium. Lat. See Bank. bellows. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. to come to the crown belangen. . Lat. Du. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . Benignant. The ing-skin. pertinere. from cwcsthan. to bless. are stripped off whole blase-balg. bendaj as. blast-bcelg. skin. to belong. Benedico. Benediction. J'emboue. the skin of those animals that factor. well. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. Javanese perfume. attinere. bimpsen. ON. means seeds of plants. benir. bolg. fyle To dirty. rushes. a water-bubble builge. vulva. was in Mid. bilbila. bellows. a accusative. beneison. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. a good deed. dirt. to touch one. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. Fr. To Bend. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. Eenison. Gael. binssen. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. bolch.' Palsgr. Bav. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. belly.— Belly. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. From OFr. Fr. as concerning that. volva. . to arrive at. — ray. a spring.pinuz. to reach. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. fens et hie liraus. Belt. benignus (opposed to malignus). belt. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members.Fr. pouch. or fyle with myre. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. ON. to bend a bow . — Ducange. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. benedicere. a speaking well of one. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. Fr. ^To Beray. belch. to concern. leather sack. Dozy.polch. from another modification of the word for bubble. OFr. To Benum.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. is a kindred form. the word. pod. G. a blow. hem. to attain to. needs no ex. . langen. to say. Lat. loubdn djawt. a border. . balg. belly. balteus . bander un arc. gwaldas. pervenire. . the womb. benefacere.videtur. vulgarly the belly. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. a round or bubble-shaped root. because bcelg. bellows. or sometimes louban. an inflated Lat. a bellows . attingere. G. to attain belangen. G. Benzoin. to concern. Bent.. bless. Bret. a kindness. rise against external force . balg. to ring. Beneath. Lat. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. G. has assumed a plural form. a bellows. taken absolutely. benjoin. to hold to one. In E. attinere. bandoir. To belong is thus to reach up to. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. is The word balg. a blessing. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. on. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. binsen. to become one's property . Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). Kil. hence with ashes. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. or simply djawt. I marre a thyng. bell. Lat.' The term had been previously planation. generous. se bander. Was das belanget. See Bind. to touch. or a It is times the to signify services. cod or husk of pulse. ' I beraye. bolg. kind. Sw. I araye. benedictio {bene^ and dico. bags or bellows. Lat. by itself. becwathan. To Bequeath. from Arab. skin.

Berry. besje^ Sanscr. — Chaucer. the side bhakshya. to light the fire . . mud. improve. in the sense ctf beria. baete. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. ^akka. Du. The dry. buttare. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. Hfence backing.X. put. to put on the saddle. BEREAVE Wall. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. BETE dirty'. bdt. The origin is AS. reafian. Tusser. Esthon. bacca.— Hal. Bestead. is to perform a serviceable office to him. G.irova. reparation. or the space kept clear betan. ropahtaa.• 62 Antiq. sets fire to. the origin of which is to be found in ON. — amendment. a place . to give a place to. to cast. ship for a make amend. what does it better a man. vol. lewth. as in growth. beseech. an incendiary. as. basjaj Du. — Biglotton. Devon. barthless. fall with sound. p. barth may be for barf. From abet. To Bestow. what does it boot. Du. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. To bete his Jam. dial. might have been . betan. eld up- On is to be placed A — . to defend. On the other hand. dirt. So Lat. besIn sen. to on the other Goth. and Du. See Reave. sweepings. bal oppbota. or. besein. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. Beit. botesward. to seek.— VixHsm. from AS. but in practice. The proper meaning of the bale. think more probable. broom twigs. * Berth. but it is specially applied mister. as bouter selle. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. AS. one who shelter. an incendiary. bat.D. advantage. supply. to be-place. as Du. noise. bereafian. same word with the provincial barth. because used for making besoms. protect .bhaksh. boeten. to supply a want. To Bet. advantage. houseless. 3. basya. to amend. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. Zeitschr. Ihre. lay out. from grow. E. Du. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. of ffeed a fire. to kindle the fire. it seems hard to separate as. as. Goth. make better . bestow. Du. dirt .t.ot-i. To help. jnore. to the place boarded off in a. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. compared with bargham. ^•n. stealth from steal. When men of mekeness him baet. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. burrow. dust rojahtaa. hva mannan. repair. the guardian . Rob. — bota. Best. It is the restore fyr betan. bouter. besnij Pl. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. AS. to thrust. het vuur The serise of Boeten. stow. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. to strip.—^fake. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. G. p. roju. to to deprive of. place. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. See Better. E. ariierf to 113. preferably. beorgan. besmas. and also to entreat. To Beseech. to fire a funeral pile of . a horse collar. scopse spartis. buttafuoco.fish the other hand. to entreat. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. reparation. peto. So too Yorkshire arf. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. fearful. better. stede. vi. arwe. baete. Sw. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. as. Beet. small eatable fruit. boutefeu. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. to mend. dung . fyrbotare. to stand one in good stead. profit. to exercise on a definite object. I from lew. So roto rattle down. as conversely a besom is called broom. encouraging. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . to To Bereave. betan. bdt. berwe. a fire. roju. put forth. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. besen. Sw. — . in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. Kil. earh. Fr. a berry. boteith Goth. from It. Fr. bota. * To Bete. sheltered from the wind. to make better. to word is shelter. berry. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. To Gl. Fin. amendment. supporting on the one side Lat. R. or to bestead one. berwham. making better. solicit. rods. bur-we. bet. Besom. R. roe. to fall with roisto. boeten. to thrust. to make it. brem-bessen. person to lie in. Grose. seems twigs or rods.iooA. AS. rubbish. barfham. and on which the wager is laid. earg. Tha het he micel fyr betan. Beere. . boeten. as. To seek something from a person. OE. position.

is used for the — R. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. E. Goth. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. Now the stirring of an object. to accuse. find it good: Goth. Mich self a good glass of wine. betray. ON. Percy Soc. said he. two.D. baet. find in one's heart. E. suitable. It. Between. suitable. sloped off. i. obdissais. Lat. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. I approve of beveau. betera. his mouth. as tlock. bet. It. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. and thence twegen. batista. tradere. deem suitable. to happen. of quails. some attention. From the former of these are AS. lot). R. a different form of twa. spritigs from schicken. AS.' Dialogue on Witches. to stir. r'ojer dig. larks. proficere. From It. To boot in coursing (i. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. better. a brood. verbs in ir with a double ss. evidence of life. Ik tame mi dat nig. in the same way Lat. To vouchsafe. to happen. trakir. to fall. To Betray. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. In like manner from twain is fothied between. fate. of pheasants. a bevy. what does It is forward him. progress. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. In the water anon was seen His nose. ON. x. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Fr. beuvrage. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. Bav. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Best. abash j from polir. are commonly to one's lot. bibere. to deliver tip. The as. to deceive. for measuring angles. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. wrogia. G. e. amiddes. bat. R. bouter davantaige. from invadere. G. springs from ON. taemen.— . BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. deign. a traitor. roja. The inflections of Fr. from. betweohs. dir. — of the authorities. by two. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. trahir. AS. from Fr. bedriegen. to drink . betriigen. Du. — Betwixt. become. moveable and compass branches. by a final sh. twain. Better. Det sig sjelft. as one would have it fall. bevere. whence beveraggio Fr. it bewrays itself. in the middle of two. an instrument opening like a a thing. Fr. G. has — In a like sense tanie>i. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. be fitting or suitable. bevde. R. betest. betweoh. riigen. OE. Ober D. betweox. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. as from obdir. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. traditor. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. To Beteem. to fall Some call it a bevel. tweoh. e. traitre. Dit tungomal rendered in E. as trahissons. ruogia. G. which may be compared as to form with amid. amidst. gesiemen. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. betst. Slant. . wreia. fitting. Bevy. Cot. On the same principle ON. — that schickiich. Goth. zemen.D. vrohjan. BETEfiM translated. the being pushed to the frbnt. Dii. pair of compasses. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. Fris. batizo. Car son umbre si le trahit. *Ah. more. to make forwards. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. to discover. E. Fl. Friar's Prol. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. regen. treachery. against. e. taemen. i. not to have the heart to give up a thing. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. better. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. To Bewray. a drinking . Thus from dbahir. dispose (whence schicksal. to deliver up in breach of trust. obeish. from Lat. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. to Teem. better. betwuxt. in the middle of twain. Sahissais. trahison. fallinn. Fr. beverage. or with again. is treason. best. awry. betwuh. Sw. bet. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. A — drink. are there Regt R. Tinia eigi at lata eit. gatiman. to Hence It. /alia. tima. afford. trahissais. 88. betaemen. zimet. Buveau. tradire. In like manner folissais. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. Hence last G. -to appoint. order. make manifest. roebucks. tima. gezimet eines dinges. Golding's Ovid in R. polish. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. Fr. — See To Bete. Pl. ziemen. beva. Chaucer. advance. to cheat. Pl. &c. kein leben mehrin no signs . his eyen sheen. as envahir. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance.

stock still. bickeler. to make tongue Du. Hal. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. and zahr. b&zahr. OE.as in Biped. makes ble. Fr. I Wallon. in two ways for duis. he is Wtb. though such a change of form would be very unusual. sbriscio. to well up with Cot. poison. misFr. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Pl. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. It is especially applied in Sc. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. to slaver or drivel. a slabbering-bib. To bicker in NE. bisdare. bending. dial. bickelen. Bib. Pers. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. its clothes. biascio. presence. Oh when shall I bizzle. or in and out. expelling or preserving against. Fr. notice.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. — crooked. to creep or crawl sideling. sbiscio. Bezoar. besanca. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. to shake. To Bib. baverole. . bescompte. bring under ' Thy accuse. Schiitze. which good bibbeler. In comp. used in precisely stone . . ber-laita (for bes-laita). one who drinks in excess. to purl. bickel. —Dozy. Fr. Fr. Hal- — do something aslant. whence Du. bibaculus. It. a stone-hewer . tailU en biseau. To drink hard. Fris. wraggeln. bickel-sieenken.s bellum for duellum. Jamieson. ice . sbieco. Piedm. Bice. him. Mantuan. bark of which paper was first made. it becomes (Jz-.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. bibo. sbrisciare. to tipple. a fragment bieco. Probably.or from obliquus. crooked. Yes. bias-wise. It. bickai. or by any rapid motion. evident. sloped.a. sbiagio. two- footed. lips. to stir. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). the papyrus. Ci^. of the sliced off. aslope sbisciare. bisel. bihais. Sardin. .' bibble. to give signs of life. a bezle. petit-lait. to glide or slip as upon. Bezel. winding or crawling in and out. wrogen. biaiser. /3i/3Xof a book originally. metaphor). Sard. Cat. Bisect.two. bible. 172. to move. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. The It.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. per\'erted belief. a bibber. beregen. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Ant. bezling or skueing. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Sp. dial. biberer. to the stirring of their conscience. — Bi-. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi.{ioin dua. pddzahr. to cut in two. Diet. in Fr. from pdd-. To Bibble. bis. twice. —Bickering'. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. Fr. 78). as an eel or a snake. is explained to clatter. biais. bestemps. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. edge of a plate of looking-glass. roggle. specially in a bottle. or kwijl-slab. sbiesso. bes-azur. Du. bavon. baviere. bebble. slippery.to drink much. liwell. sbiescio. asure-bice (Early E. sbiasciai. The train of thought is then. See Wriggle. pible. Misc. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Uprogen. babbefore the eyes. wrangle. sbrissare. In Arab. to a fight with stones. to sip. kwijl-bab. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). To Bezzle. the basil Sc. it were the mouth. to stir. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. sbrisso. reveal. E. foul weather. sbias. inferiority. shows the P1. Bias. oblique. to stir up . The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. babbi. snout. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. by throwing of stones. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. Fr. rogt un bogt sik nig. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. . discover. sik beregen. to slaver . like guzzle. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Biseau. whey count . convicts thee of being drink. love first begins to life signs of him. An inferior blue. Lat. Cat. Bible. rogge. to stir. slanting . the word became bddizahr. to dispute. has a singular stone-picker. a sloping edge. to it evident to sense. in him. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. sliding.D. (according to the Fr. biascia. Piedm. to be a paring. biax. Lat. Dan.D. To Bicker. kwijlen. a Galilean. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. To skirmish. biberon. to tipple. . kwijllap. Gr. to Jam. beslei. aslope. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. biberen. An excellent Basil. Bibelsworth in Nat. Prov.

to pray one to dinner. bigan. verbieten. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen.t. ten. bolginn. a suitor. to solicit. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bidill. Bigamy. bead. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. byggia.Leta). OSw.peto. to bulge. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. may plausibly be derived from Goth. proud. praestare. athird class. bieden. P. Du. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. buga. called the tertiary order. bag. Big. bugan. to ask. The original Swollen. Bickelen. The ON. Two verbs are here confounded. bulge. bygga. balg. cultivate. which is stiU. bulk. to belly. bugt. anleta. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. has leta. an entire skin. swelling.' Addison. G. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. inhabit. to dwell. To Big. bog. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. to bicker. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. porrigere. bi-. to pro- command. to bend. form. beadle. and yajiBui. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bit- bidja. praebere. bauen to cultivate. Kil. and consequently ordering or reGoth. to ask. Big-swol- . from seek. biegen. to cultivate. to offer one the wish of a good day. to bid one good day. related to big or bug. pressing on one's notice. build. to move quickly. iiQ. be bug. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. bolgna). Analogous expressions are G. from belgia. ON. and Gael. to offer. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. ON. AS. a swelling. ' Bug as a Lord. OSw. explaining the Sc. pray. as tears from the eyes. consisting both of men and women. Einem einen guten tag bieten.uddered len heart. R. . BIGOT beidan. bulky. are also used in the sense of asking for. 1. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to build. besides the professedmonks and nuns. spelling seems to used in the N. rising up. AS. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. forwards. swoln. Wallace in Jam. — To Bid. to start out. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. who. bend. The . bced. A bjudan in anabjudan. G. boa. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. The ON. bulge. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. belly. bilge or bulge. AS. The 'La. gebeden j G. bieten. to offer it to public notice. To bid the banns. gebodenj G. beidast. a chip. — prepare. ON. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. ON. quiring something to be done. bend of a shore or of a rope. Jam. the meaning of bid. to build. from bidan. From Gr. to arrange. inhabit Du. to E. to presimpler pare. bow. bat . bidan. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. abidan. byggan. Bight or Bought. W. bugne (answering to ON. bidan.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P.. swaggering. BID of stone. of More ' in Richardson. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. bath. and the Sw. or bad." buque with E. a flexure. A pose to one to come to dinner. To Bid ' Big . to marry. by seek and beseech. to build G. beodan. to forbid . to inflate E. to forbid . to have one called before him. With respect to logical pedigree. twice. ewes. bedun. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. bis and in comp. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. bidjan. bo. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to curve. Bigot. The loss of the / gives Dan. or third order of penitence. to look for. belly. as G. qucero. offerre. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. to abide or wait on. to inhabit. Hence Sc. — — — Halliwell. bouwen. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for.' Pope in R. to swell. einen vor Gericht bieten. 2. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. repair. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. G. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to look for. the belly of a ship. or. bidel. to bend. . bolga. in the sense of ask for. It must be observed that the word bidja. Compare also Sp. becoming in Lat. bua. as. biddan. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. faurbjudan. bug. England for swollen.

borel. bighiotto. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy.D. In a similar manner from bigello. homespun cloth. D. In the same way Fr. They wore a similar dress.D. beghino. says.' Matthew Paris. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. 15 18. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. sed maxim^ in muliebri. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. corruption would easily creep in.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart.' Chart. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. as well as bizocco. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. beghart. vol.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. A. Bighini. which must not be confounded with begardo. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. and also unlearned common men.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. Augustini dotarint.a. vocati Fraticelli. aliqui Begardi. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators.' says an Venet. a dunce. Bizocco. and hence the variations bigutta. natural grey or sheep's russet. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. rustical. Bighiotti). S. From bigio. probably from biso. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. and Q. ac labores manuum detestantes. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. dark-coloured cloth. author quoted in N. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. honesti plebeii amictus. perch^ i Terziari di S. to adopt a similar course of life. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. biso.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. was formed bigello.. with reference to A. grey.D. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. a blockhead.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. xx. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. A. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. Francisci communiter appellabant. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. Hence the OE. clownish. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. coarse woollen cloth. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders.' says one of of bigio. bigotta.' translated by Muratori. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. A. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. bigio. 560. Flor. alii de paupere viti.— BIGOT bigardo. &c. the other form Per te Tribune.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. G.— Ducange. 1499. grey. absque votorum religionis emissione. the nobles to Rienzi. 1243. face VIII. all apparently derived from Ital. ix. both men and women. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. begutta. bighellone. Beguttce. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. Bizoccki. signifying bagmen or beggars. alii Apostolici.

bla-berry. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. deceit. inscriptum. bila. a sword.' in Richardson. 5 * . on. beghart. bisoch. a hatchet. The proper meaning bylgia. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. biilge. I. bile. Sp. w. the swelling G. obsolete. Sw. AS. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. of boja. dziobad. Bojce. p. used in legal proceedings. billet is the diminutive of this. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. an axe. boia. G. billot. Billette. bigot. billard also signified at billyards. might be taken to express a hypocrite. Prov. whortle-berries. loi. Bill. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. fetters. bill in parliament. Piedmontese bigot. In English the meaning has received a further development. a of the sea. Sw. as craneberry. an axe. Bilberry. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. gleischner (Frisch). bullet. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. bille. Du. 'tumidi fluctus. the bill of a bird. blue . BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. So in Gr. to pick a millstone. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. buie. The origin of the term is probably from bole. Billow. symbolum. OFr. 3. clog to a fetter. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. Dan.' mariners. however. Aurelles. dziob. Sw. and in Lat. genus vincu- Bilboes. an ingot of gold or silver. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bwyell. to strike. Fr. NFris. Bill. To Bilk. procella Kil. an axe. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Bilge. in the sense of a writing. false pretender to reUgious feeling. topor. dissimulation . from Mid. billard or billart. to strike. blamand. Bille. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. horn of an animal. 2. to job. gan. of E. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . irons or set in a kind of stocks.. tepati. A lorum tam in — Diez. To defraud one of expected sinking. fluctus maris. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. from the dark colour. See Bulk. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. The Du. bil. to peck. a short note. boeye. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. at sea Billet. person of religion leading a loose life. Bohem. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. a beak. a hypocrite. the o changing to an i to express diminution. Mundart. that of swell. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. buail. blaa. a seal. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. plog-bill. Bilbo. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. belghen. — bigardia. Tartuffe. as a bill of indictment. Deutsch. a seal. bulla. an adze . hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Lat. to swell with rage). a devotee. is properly a sealed instrument. a floating log to mark the place of some. beil. b'olja. . abelthe fetter itself. — Cot. bui. bizocco. belgan. bull-berries. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Lat. the trunk of a tree. in the same sense. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Thus we find in It. In the same way are related Pol. Ludwig. bigot. a shackle. Johansen.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. and dziobas. An instrument for hewing. 2. Gascoigne in R. from OSw. bigotto. e. bulghe. AS. weapon . where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. Langued. bulgja. to be angry (i. bigardo. Fr. Billet. bill of exchange. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. A slang term for a sword. a bigot or hypocrite. axe. ^Billiard. AS. billet. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Du. Du. the beak of a bird.— — — . an axe . top. Kil. Gael. ferrese quam ligneae. — — ' . e. See Bull. . bill. Roquef. and a billard. a man who rests on a stick in walking. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. a negro. a name given to a. now A Bilboa blade. Bigin. Kil. Fr. bolghe. BILBERRY nated. Dan. boja. seems to be rather the unda. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. . a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. names bill-berries.' bilio. an ingot. crowberry. buoy [i. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus.

the young of an animal. Bailey. to bring Biscuit. isfiw. to cook). is in Scotland applied to ivy. — properly near-sighted. to net. bunt. — — . binge. bitacora. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. — Kil. biccej ON. bord. We — A Birth. AS. is rendered in ON. &c. The proper meaning is a heap. bin-wood. See To Bear. burt. to bulge. Habitacle. overlooker. beitsl. to fasten it together.. bij sien. beran. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Fr. biscuit. or ben-wood. from \t3\. Fr. Sw. Dan. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. bund. and of Fr. terial. poule. to bear. lusciosus et myops. bundle. Sw. Bizened. a little dog. life. See Belly. — Surrey in R. e. G. than vice versi. evigue. . The bitol. bunga. a hind or female stag. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. a female stag. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. Then added division in a granary. Bin. evegue. to build. piiiti. Goth. bigne. Bird. AS.. AS. pittjo. a weight of 48 pounds. sc. from Lat. a house. a habit- Binnacle. Bine. a knob.68 BIN Bio-. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. by the verb knit or net. or petze. videt. pinnu. Lith. ON. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. v. ge- from AS. brut. brid. Fr. It. bjork. bita. Bisson. evesgue. copus.. admota non Bit. The term ON. pin-ti. while bind-wood. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. episcopus. . G. properly a young pigeon. habitacle. Sp. a heap. to bind at . See Breed. . Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Bing. to wreathe. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. an eagle's young G. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. bundun. doubtless a stone. Bind. beitan. are commonplaces. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. a bump or knob. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. to swell. biclie. Lat. j). bircej Sw. truss. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. hith. hiindiiin. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. AS. wine. or baked. . pippione. a heap. — See Bittacle. AS. AS. viz. a brood or hatch of young. a weight. IV. ON. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. E. which is expressed in E. pullus. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. to hang. a truss. In like manner from knot. Goth. to plait. to knot nets for fish. Fr. forth. berkas (z=:Fr. beorth. BITTACLE /Siof. band. to be derived from Ibfiaq. also a stone weight. bij sienigh. bitill. Bindweed. Lap. G. bunch. binda nat. beisseii. betsel. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bindan. When compared with Fr. Bittacle or Binnacle./«idere. Bisom. a bitch. a bitch applied also to other animals. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. pinnii. H. bundle. where the compass stands. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. bundt. EpisETTiTOOTToe. bindan. bundt. Gr. or bin. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. propius videre bij sicndc. by binda. Fr. It. from Gr. Thus I suppose the Gr. vescovo. Lith. a gallinaceous bird. bunki. a pig petz. piccione. I would derive the verb to knit. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. G. from pondus. a corn. bhurja. and especially to a small poor horse. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. twice cooked. 'tumens sequor. V. to bind together. an overseer. i. biscotto. . Lat. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. a bear. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Sanscr. qui nisi propius Blind. Lat. bund. To — — —D. the young of birds . a bitch. . Bisen. Du. to twine. Bitch. to form a knotted structure. a female dog hindinn. in Swabia. earnes brid. beize. fowl. Birch. bikkia. nodus. poultry.' and the like. i. Lat. expressed by Sw. a bunch. pundas. To Bite.

Bittern. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. as is seen in sputter and splutter. blob. synonymous with baber-lip. bihovac. to speak Dan. from wachen. It. Ai-mstrong. shine. BITTER dwelling or abiding place.plab is used to .' G. — Hollyband. To Blab the anchor. In a similar manner Gael. is placed. Mantuan babbi. yellowish. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. a childe dothe gasouille. a large coarse lip . Gael. a* mast . blakk. 't huisje. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. to let out whai should have been concealed.. in contempt. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. . to babble. blabhdach. ' Biovac. AS. to the sharpness of a weapon. A a rail. Black. Fr. . plabartaich. G. Gael. To or he can speake. iroxafealo. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. blabbre. Again. babbe. x. ^chops. a flapping. pale yellow . Mag. to To blabber blabber with the lips. to watch. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. maculS. G.' by Haldorsen. apparently from its biting the tongue. light-coloured.' It would thus acle. an additional watch. baboyer. beitr. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. whitish. bittour. Sp. blabbern. small guard-house. — cheeked maid. Je N. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. a shelter for the steersman. quick. blabaran.— Blabber-lip. Mund. whiteness (candor sine It. corrupted in Fr. blob. Why presumest And laam's asse. mouth. a large lip. buft". a beam in a house or ship. things —Palsgr.. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. Blabber-lip. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Bleak. bitts of Bitts. 'fuscus. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. blab. In Legrand's Fr. mona mid Dan. obscurus. on. blank. a tati. a continued soft sound. Lydgate. viz. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. discoloured . Sp. bleikr. bleich. I blaber. 't kompas huis. blubber-lipped. /ealo-/or. bitr. blesmer. Cot. pale.). blake. Se bleek. as in that of pale and white on the other. Fr. white. bites. as of wings . whitish. Sw. Sp. his blacan light. quoted by Ihre. blunt we say it will not bite. gulblakk. ON. Fr. The Gz. pins of the capstern. chatter babbler . biacca. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. ' plabraich. white lead. blob. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. Hist. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. ^aj'/^r. bitones. Alex. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. as of water gently beating the shore. fallow . Wit hung her mourn. beiwache. Goth. ON. Hal. mouth. plappem. ON. dark. to talk much.. pale yellow. butorj OE. NE. Du. to babble. round which the cable is made fast. The bitas. blac-hleor ides. Hald. beuni. thoughtlessly . is apprehension of danger. bittore. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. babbling. bitor. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. Sp. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. the palebleff. night guard. Fr. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey.' by Gudmund. Bivouac. biti. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. fallow fawn-coloured. Cotgr. So Fr. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). blanc. an edge is sharpest sword. blepLith. to loll it out. a stammerer. gabble. In like manner E. leohte . out the tongue. v. a fluttering noise. white. Nagt huis. even humour seemed and beuin. Percy Soc. Fieldfare. on the one side. shining. dusky. blobach. first. 332. unintelligible talk plabair. blebberis. confusedly. baitrs. term. stutterer. bitter. to chops.€i. Deutsch. ON. to bivouac. cut. 156. . AS. pale. faded. blakki. black. indistinctly. as of a body falling into water. — Collins in Hal. a babbler. pale brown . bird of the heron tribe. pale. to wax pale or bleaked. yellow . Pl. Applied in Hin ON. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. from whence we have adopted the. Bav. "uivac. —Neumann. faded. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it .D. or water beating gently on the beach . garrulous. Bohem. bleg. brunblakk.

blanchir. pass over. most complete example of leafy structure. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. Dan. on. Perhaps from blegen. defame. Du. bladder. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. piatto. Fr. tree. blister. with all other loose idle masterless men. and others engaged in dirty work. bladra. bladder . blasphemare. whitish. G. To Blare. in R. branches . speak impiously. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. to shine. as Lat. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. pimple. Bav. a bubble. is identical with Flanders borlen. Wott. linkboys. G. leaf of a. the leaf of a tree. blinken. blactra. a. madder. 5/^a/^ of colour. blame. and thence to babble. pluddre. variable than the signification of words designating colour. 7. Fr. Du. p. and he shall be sure to have O. chatter. or blafich. blanqne. blaeren. blether. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. shining. to bleak in the sun. to glow. Eadmer. Fr. Torriano. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. plat. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. also jabber. to blanch. Besides the examples of this connection given above. . as blader. boys.. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. also tanned by the sun. — — — to jabber. the ON. and wandering men and women. blad. a blank ticket. Lat. Sir. blena. and E. Du. blahen. foolish talk. white. G. livido . waschen. blister. a leaf. The radical bubble. to vocifer- — Cot. coat. leaf. Blank "verse. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. blister. blad. dial. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. smore. probably ate. blanc. moere. smother. Now. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. polished. blather. to disappoint. and the agitation of liquids. pXaatpiiiiHv. black. to make or become white blanc. Blade. to glitter. Hist. The present forms then should be classed with blether. dripping-pans. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. as. irXariQ. PI. &c. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. D. blatter. It. flap of a Du. a buible. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. commonly called the Black-guard. as. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. bladder. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. Blank. I am degraded from a cook. blanchet. leaves. on. 86. Du. mus-blackt. borrelen. candidus. —We Bladder. which we . and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. imbrunire. pladdern. as scullions. the origin of . to blow. But perhaps a more Gr. sheet of paper. skola and thwatta. Bacon in R. pallido. white. Blame. his meat burnt. chatter. bladre. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. a blanket a bed. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. gabble. and G. plat. bladder. — rura. a white or unwritten ticket. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. broad. to dabble in water. blank. Reliqu. Jan. blanchet. reproach.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. board. Dan. Dan. blein. a pustule . Play in Nares. vagabonds. mire. mud. — . 1854. to Hence Ital. —^Webster. leafy. blister. to To bellow. slush. bladdra. blatt. or of an oar G. Sw. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. Gr. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. . contracted from bladeren. name originally given Blackguard. plate. cited in N. Blancli.. biasimare. Blain. blatter. or a mass of bubbles. rogues and wanderers. Sc. blather. Du.— Kil. and Q. to omit.—Blatter. to purl. e. . From being made of white wooUen for cloth. bladeren. to —Blaspheme. mud. roar.— ^o thehotsun. Fr. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. or as E. a bladder or pustule. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. to bubble. a boil. to shine. To blank. Blanket. also white woollen cloth . vagrants. Sw. blaere. a bubble.—Blatant. tattle. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. See Blubber. blegne. Cot. blegen. whitish. from candere. — Sw. revile. biastner.

To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. . . I. Lye. blazen. magniloquus. much plausibility. blaser vid. blcEsan. blcese. a loud noise.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. indeed. blaeteren. is used in the sense of manifestatio. also praeblczse. bldsse. brasa. to extol. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. blysa. blaze. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. abroad. thraso. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. ventosus. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. pale. i. in that of praise. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. blys.— . kept up. — — ' : bless. brasa. bawling. blesse. blase. But now.' to fastum . blaesen. Fr. a MS. commendation blason funebre. as a verb. Kil. abroad. and which. on whose behalf the herald appeared. AS. blcesett. visui patet. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. stultd loqui. The origin of this exSp.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. — Elazen. Blast. by stripping off a portion of the bark. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. baladron. Cot. a flame . a shout. quus. blast. blcest. declaratio. to blow. to de. to blow . a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . braise.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. shield or surcoat. to publish. and to make him word blaze. A blaze is so intimately Then. ing of arms. biter. noisy blor. See Blare. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. a coat of arms. to blow. to spread news. blason. Du. senses. light-coli. AS. blatero. 2. gloriosus. To blow AS. to bellow. whence Blazonry. the noisy. Du. coloured prints. Du. The other derivation. Golden Book in R. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. G. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. embraser. an empty and two theories are proposed. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. blorach. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. blcEsan. Du. splendour. bliEsan. To Blaze. First from the E. blateroon. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. to trumpet forth. to cut off prematurely. blus. Cot. With inversion of the liquid. a blast. or to the sound which it produces. used. e. to blaze Sp. Dan. a shield. Fr. a torch . ON. — ' — stroy. blasonner. . to set on fire. is the imme. Gael. magnilo. laudes (Kil. To blast. bles. it is manifest. Troilus and Cressida. a flame.). Blaze. She roade at peace through his heraldry. might spring from the same origin by a . oured. g. Du. Du. G. of an animal. bleis. is from AS. A strong flame. also blazon or the blazSpenser. boasting. 'op een trompet blaazen. — ^Jam. proclaim the virtues of. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. ON. blase. blaterare. a whisperer. a voice Jr. The AS. Blatant. each of boaster. friend Cornelius. loud . which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. Sc. blaodh. has also blencke.' painted or figured . in the same way as we 2. oron-blasare. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. a funeral oration . OE. blass. Fr. might And sain. blose. Dan. to publish the praises. a shining spot. If armour. proflare tues. to proclaim. A gust of wind. fire. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. Gudmund. how. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. blezo. Blanches illuminies. a torch.sound a trumpet. a flame.whence the Fr. live coal . clamorous. blesse. or blazening. somewhat different train of thought. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. among other . ill-speaMng their proper colours . blasa. and. blason. Sw. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. an conium. a lamp blasere. blossi. beast. also only pains and excellent endurance. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. ther it was erst not knowe. Prov. baladrar. Sw. blis. redness . blaodhrach. besides blesse. the matter incendiary . As Kilian. like the in English. blasoen.

Pol. A stain in a man's reputation.D. from on. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. spSt. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. From the OFr. a fault. blema. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. confound him. a stain. souiller. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. to soil. plama. darkness of vices. Bleb.' the devil makes a vain back. B. Schmel. See Black. See Blood. ' — — ' : — — . the formal equivalent of English wink. paleness. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. AS. on. sugillatio. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. a blotch plerr. — — R. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. A Blab. ^Blencher. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. bloken. blot. So in Sw. to spot . it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. Richardson. blcecan. Mac. wheal. a disgrace. ' — — eye. the livid colour of a bruise. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. Bleed. pale . spla7nU sie. to cry or weep. boggle at something. a red watery eye. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . a blemish in one's 2. as of dust or mist . blot. exposed. tumanid. blink. sinen langen tranen. to spot. blur before their eyes. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. a blot or smear blanking one.P. c. livor. Bleak. blesmir. geplerr. to disgrace one's name. whitish.'he cried till the tears ran down. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. 115. Blear-eyed j having sore i. Gr. flack. dead-coloured Cotgr. The term blear. . slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. tutnan is a cloud. pier vor den augen eyes.' to deceive one. blemissemeiit. N. Blemisli. Fr.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. blakna. . to cast a mist before the eyes. light-coloured. Blear. 419. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. Manuel de Pecch&. to blare been weeping. See Black. drop of water. To Bleat. . wan. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. Ancren Riwle. blister. blesmissure. Sw. Sir J. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. p. which are blurred with the have shewed you. blarren. to bleach. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. a spot. a spot. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. to stain one's honour or reputation. And now are these but mansbond (i. splamii!. to make him feel blank. ^Xiixaoftai. To totally different from the foregoing. ' . a spot. I chaunge colour. and thence to a bruise. blench came to be used for a trick. wanness. a boil. from the than schal I go. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. or to low as oxen. Palsgr. start vor den augen. like one that has long P1. Bejaune. BLENCH obfusco. stain flack pa ens a crying eye.' God in his wordes. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. As AS. or blemysshen — blaken. tacher. to blear one's eye. To salir. ' He blarrede or roar. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. color plumbeus bldma. to become livid. Gower in R. guenchir. a been distinct. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. Blancher. bleikr. is Blench. avoid looking it in the face.v. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. while the agent ac- From . G. to wink the eye. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. 242. pimple . yet he doeth not for all that Cot. a spot. to bleat as sheep. what blenched him therwith. (faith or creaunce) Be war. novice. goda nainn. to wink at it. livid. or blemish. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. pale Du. . and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. . In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. bleakness. And By a similar metaphor Pol. in the expression reputation. bldmi. to humbug. Bailey. to start away from. — blink the question is to shrink from it.filerren. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. inflamed eyes.

seems the simple netel. blithe.nasal. burn up. blinzler. the Slavonic languages. blende. window-blind. The inblissful. tless —Gamm. tire. gladness. to stir or puddle. bleg. blent. make these hands 3. Sc. to act like a — . riches blajennii blicksem. blicken. be glad flash. To Blend. to bluiter up with water. wink of sleep . thou knave. wink.. blazeny. to shine. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. although in the in the next article. To blunder water. . — when he — Bailey. also to wink. false windows. joy . blogi. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. happily. to glitter ful .wink . Du. Pol. plonsen. blidu. a nounce happy. Wtb. with or without the nasal. glance. shine. a glance Swiss blenden. Needle. Du. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. to plunge. to glitter. graceful. sertion of the nasal. sung. blessed. To Bless. lighten. as taschen. to glance. blindr. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. a wink. blind- ON. Biglotton. happy . to shine. . bludder. Blink. fortunately. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning.blunda. Sc. AS. cascultare. lightning sweet blago.blinze. flash of light . — A A — . representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. a blick-ooghen. moment.not sting thiiren. or nettle which does form. a gleam. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. blindselen. riches . Sw. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. — . glimpse. AS. blithe blis. csecubrandish. blicken. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. AS. lightning. trix. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. to shine. blincken.D. livid. Owl and Nightingale. ' Pl. to be blind. Thence apblinds. to mix.corn. Blight. weaklaveny. to dazzle . 375. Nares. to lighten. III. as a blind entry. The term then self or others. good. blanssen.eyed. Serv. to dabble in water. to make a rumbling noise. money. to rejoice. Tany. glitter.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. to shut the eyes. joyful. to bless . a dead nettle. to rejoice. . a. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. —Brera. readily passes into a /. . blag. blahoslaviti to twinkle. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. dazzle . pearance of the blighted . well blagaya. to glitter . blend. Du. blahos. G. in potters' language. and joys of Paradise bliden. to shut the eyes G. Deprived of sight. G. The sound of k before an s. lightning. . blissian. G. as in Du. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. — Goth. to flash. De Sonne ' verblekken. blendian. Swiss (obsolete). lovely Bohem. blessed. blink. ^Jam. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blund. to churn. OHG. the G. to — make it thick and muddy. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. to pro. well blahy blick and blink. OHG. Du. to bluiter.blinken. . blago. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. blac. From the action of the hand making Sw. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. . blicksem. doors. G. joy. an entry which leads to nothing . blet. pockets. Paradises blidnissu. . a look. glad. as in the case of blaze. blatida. blinzeln. blinzdugig. to twinkle. Blazena Bea. is I shall Gurt. joy. blitzen. a wink With the bletsian. the verb to bless is some. bluiter. . but by no means therefore a pre. sweet. blind. blide. to make happy. happy . Swab. blaziti. to fall into water with a sudden noise. gives blinzen. to consecrate . happy . glitter. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . blitz. to dilute too much . . giving (Fr. a blessing. to blithsian. Russ. Blind. a flash. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. mix from blekken. I hold thee a grote thee. to dash wine with water. blink-eyed. . blick. blich-fiur. to bless. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. AS. vious one in the order of formation. the sign of the cross while blessing one. j). bliss look . tative source of the word is wholly lost. a. F. (=bene dicere). . to merry. mixing in general. glitter. as a vatn i vin. Du. blotzen. A . Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. Kiittner. liquid filth to bluther. a glance. pale. Bliss.' To — blunge clay. plotzen. ON. Dan. blican.Q. blinde fenster. goods.blinkard .

blouca and Fr. blindsehn. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. orbicular. Gael. blobber. — — — — — From blabber. — Sw.— Bailey. husks. senting the dashing of water. ON. soft. or blinde-kiih. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. as a blab of ink. — Blob. I believe. blister. and bouclette. blond. bausen. having an unsound swollen look. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. blesme.—Bloated. blod. blaustem. buckle. Cotgr. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. blot. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. expressed by cognate roots. as blinzeln. Sw. bluyster. to bubble. . blindman's-buff. Blond. fiustula. B. to swell. Gael. signifying in the first instance to soak. viscid. any lump or mass of things. mass. swell. to steep. N. repre- pusula. fish blind person. bloated. Block. ^Jam. a blister. Langued. Egillson. in bulk. to block up the way. . The roots /. The blow E. Bleb. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. joyful. to blow. Fr. bloc. pimple. blote. shells. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. a block or log en bloc. Dan. a blot or spot. sloppy dirt. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. in Nares. blinzel-maus. pausten. biota. round. also to set See Bless. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b.pusta. Du. cooking. light yellow. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. Of sheep. separate portion. The stem or trunk of a tree. pods. B. to desire the male. blad. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. a See Blot. Lat. is formed squad. blubber. to blissom. soaked. Fr. — . blot. . subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. bluster. a dirty blister. blcesma. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it.. it is must be observed. like manner the coloured. the unhewn bole of a tree. lagga i blot. or the mark which it makes. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. must be classed with forms like Gr. Hence. To Blissom. or the like. boucler. In Fin. in the sense of a soft tint. G. puff. and pisg. Ibid. and F. Thus we have blab and babble. to blow. formed spot. in the lump or mass of wood. or bleb. or is inserted or omitted. pustula. Svt. blidr. buclde. a small lump of anything thick. mild. pusula. blotfisk. —Bailey. A under this name was imported into England. an unformed mass. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. speaking rapidly any . is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. is also used in the sense of swelling . in imitative an exceedingly movable element. It may be formed Blithe. weak. whence blast. to blow. while Lat. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Bav. to cure by smoke. like clot. ON. blobbes or droppes of water. See Blot. bubble and blubber. to to puff and be noisy. blaud. a bubble. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. soak in water cured fish.plisg. from blcsr.— Hal. blot. Du. a bubble. kostia. To Bloat. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. Blob. in gusts. mild. a lumpish head plubach. Mod. as in E. Jonson. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. and inarticulately. must be referred to AS. a bubble. Sc. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. Blister. inde humiditate tumidus. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. plub. and easily changes its place. Blob. And so from squatter. a . busten.—Bloater. gentle OHG. to soak. G. blithe. as if soaked in water. a ram. blijde. bloc. a blister . strawclod. frequentative. soft. soft. a little blisg. blab. a blain. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. ^vaaa. bleiths. W. blide. a drop of water. merciful ON. blister blasan. . to dash liquid. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. Hence E. Sw. to breathe hard. For this. Goth. stone. A solid blouquette blisters. to close it with a solid mass. blautr. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. Kil. To a smoking or drying by the fire. taken altogether. kostua. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. Boyd in Jam. Dan.

blond is used in blatt. E. to shine . blue. blust. Schilter. blaeuw. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . wan. Plots. to be red. Du. See Blow. bliise. blue. a torch blusse. proto shine with bright colours . to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. fall down . lustre. — Blotch-paper. in v. a black eye Du. great leaf of cabbage. biado (of which the evidence plattern. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. a blaze. to strike with something soft or flat. bloi. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. Dan. blou. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. spot pletter i solen. a flower. bleistern. Lat. Jios. whence plader. Blot. to slap. E. blond. livid marks. of a blow with something lios. Sw. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Dan. bfys. blistaf. a flower. . skam. to glisten . the bright colour of the cheeks . ' — . pale. E. as the skin or hair. fair in en blat vand. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. a Schmid. blad. blaeuwe ooghe. blosen. bloedsd. — Cot. coloured (Diaz. bliihen. blosem. Sc. . blotting-paper. livid . to dash down. blosa. bloeme. a pelting shower). let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. Ir. . splashing full. a The form platschefz.platter. gloss. It should be of filth blak-blatte.blauschlagen. glossi. Stalder. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. lidmr. Fr. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. bloed. 2.— . kuh-plader. to blot the land was in a leme. blodelsa and blawelsa. dial. — — . . to patter. S-wiss pladern. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blotter. to strike . dirty spot on the cheek. to splash. to grow pale). platschern. Blood. yellowish It's G. to spot or blot. pale biavo. blondheid. lump flower. redness. See Blow. a drop of water or colour. flower. yellow. blady. G. . splendour . to blush . to glow. kobladde. The G. dial. — Stalder . or the sound of it . couleur livide. Wendish blodo. OFr. to flame. platz-voll. platt-voll. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. Harmar in R. Sw. bloto. lump of anything soft to blad. Du. bletister. clod. plotterwis. E. E. to dabble in water . a. ])erly Du. to squat or lie close. Pl.^ Kil. Dan. a blot or spot. —Barbour. bluish. a Usaae. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. blue. to From . to strike with such these objects exhibit.properly to scatter liquid . ON. parallel form with ON. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. blomstr. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. glister . plants which prepares the seed. bloetnsel. Ein platsch milch. a spot or blot. blooth. blue . ^Bleed. blostma. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. Bloom. to scribble. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. It. bldts. Schmid. a blow. bldmi. bloi. to blaze . blue. ^lys. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. Sc. . spots in the sun. platz-regen. a beater. Du. blatte. blowen. bloi. blaeuwen. D. a gush of milk . gammon. blotte. Blotcli. to blaze. blond en blaauw slaan. blysa. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. blat. to dirty. Fris. Prov.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. bit by bit. to slap. straw. probably connected with Pol. white blatte. to exists in biadetto. (of cattle) to dung. blosma. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blawels. plattata. blois. Florio).D. blose. soft or flat. a cow-dung. AS. Blow. bloemen. Sw. Schwenck. G. brilliancy. Du. ON. gfyssa. colour of the cheeks. gleam. leme. E. plot of land is a spot or small rage. to squander. Fris. platsch-voll. cow-dung. plottra. pale tint. Hatch. j^ blottir. to dash down Du. shine . mud. bliithe.' the rain is driving and blue . glose. ON. bloutre. a lump. . — gush. pladdern. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). AS. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. light. blus. Russ. a water ploutsche. blase. PI. Wflz<^«. Erploten. . plet. fall to overflowing. from the bright colour which 7'vci. the bright to blot paper morsels. glus. a deli. blauwel. Blossom. to be red with blot. en blau ach. to dabble in water. pladern. on. blut. from G. sbiadare. a nature. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. to sparkle. glasi. a flower. bleustern. a Halm a. Blad.

wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. a Blossom. heath. P1. blaw j biavo. blahen. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. — To Blubber. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. Notwithstanding the We . jabber. gliihen. Kil. blodern. These are — Bludder. . G. And. wan. Bret. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. piusen. |8A)'. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. to breathe G. glowing coal . Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. to gush. vi^ound. fiubbem. bluther. disordered in head-dress. to exhibit bright colours. blue. plodern. blubbern. E.D. blubbern. grug. to Plodern. bliuwan. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. a fat. . fqded. br. OFr. plubair. where the word may be compared bliggman. toused. y\r)yi»v. The aUied forms. blodyn. glas. pludern.D.. Jla-re. a herb Gr. gloeyen. disordered. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker).' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. meurtrissure Roquefort. A. 1. — . glas. in rapid or indistinct utterance. to make bubbles in drinking. grow pale. blazi. Pl. to hard. We . G. bliihen.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. grey. is very frequent. Chaucer. bliithe.Jlasa. Mund. to'disorder. in E. Du. gloeden. ^Jam. foam. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. Bav. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. Lat. sponds with Sw. In agitation of water. the red fluid of the body . OHG. blass. —SchmelIt. fied vowel. a blow. bloeden. bldt.to blossom. marking some application from that bladder. a bruise. bl. pale . Sik upplustem. to blurt out. and closely allied with Du. to shine with bright From colours. into flower. red-faced bloted wench. fem. blao. to glow.' — Palsgr. — . 1292. and thence. G. Du. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. . blau. to puff up. ler. to bruise Roquef. may cite for example G. — To blubber. AS. to bubble up. Chaucer. blut. to beat. to spot. — Bluther. corre. /idXavoc. Her sweet bloderit face. Gael. to fade. -ii. flower OHG. pale. blodelsa. Deutsch. blduen. To Blow. little apparent resemblance. Langued.nify bubble. 2. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. a continued noise of agitated water. to breathe bouteiUis. B. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. bludder. to with Bohem. blezir. Gr. blubonciti. a blast. The radical sense is shown in Gael. To Blow. bluh. blebber. to make blue. It is howbliuwen. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. to flourish. glow. a paddling in wate r. to glow. wan. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. florere. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. a flower. G. bledniai.— . . E. sound like water. pale OFr. puff. bruised Prov. blosen. plubraich. blazir. to gabble. Pludern. chatter.D. a. bluod. to guggle. . Blowzy. flower w. Pl. Danneil. closely difference in of blabber. w. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. cheeks bedabbled with tears. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. blue . blust. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. bliihen. ' BLUE or guggling. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. v. especially with respect to the hair. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. blady. Wtb.D. bloom. withered. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. The primary sense is to shine. to show flower. blawan. bloi. tache. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. is confined to the — . to fade. bruk. — — Mundart. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. to fade. blois. Prov. plusig. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. boil. to blow. Tumbled. bloes. plubartaich. a gurgling . Blowze. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. It. 92. glaodh and blaodh. blow.' Hamburgh Archives. d in Sc. Blue. gliihen. 51. and the forms mentioned under Swab. green. glansj Ir. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to beat with a mallet. gUd. MHG. The interchange of an initial gl. to blow. like manner Lat. blau. to blow. glede. to flap like loose clothes. plustrig. or gr. . bloeyen. Deutsch. boasting. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. OHG. sense. Raynouard. coup. pale. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. bloemen. to inflate.xo'»'. blava. dirty.

idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. Flor. his business with much noise. and metaphorically. yellowish red. Du. poltern. verdure. dial. Altieri. sbiavare. pale) is provincially used in the. plomp. like Du. And blunders on and staggers every pace. blac. A bluff manner. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. . the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. It is remarkable however that the E. plo-wy. Blunt. to fall suddenly on the ground. to dabble in the mud. bawling. blue. earth and water mixed together. and then generally idle talk. glundr. blutter. in the same way as from It'. from the brilliant green of the young E. puddle. — .in mud or water. to lose colour. find accordingly It. bulmanner. E. je perturbe. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Then with the nasal. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. planus. corn. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. and biavo (Diez). Pm. - reddish yellow. blunderhead. blunder. polterer. without image or superscription. speech. trahir. tutte le semente ancora in erba. a flounder. sloppy drink. G. blaf. mistake. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. biava. 't — —Hal. yellow. disturb. corn. Supp. Bluff. G. Lat. Hal. originally growing up turf and water. falb. contrasted with the dle.D. a blunderbuss. bUich. to agitation of liquids. glundra. is. and Du. Kiittner. verdoyer. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. flodderen (Weiland). asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Dryden in R. having a bluff forehead. See Blurt. blave is moreover. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. blunt. Halma. or an abrupt manner. I blonder. Hence we pass to Prov. Sw. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. a boisterous violent man. which is rendered by Florio. bluish. used for the work of an unskilful performer. non rotunda. The Du. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. G. Roquefort. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. as well as sbiadafe. Bladum. G. See Blunt. an ill-done job. from an imitation of the sound. buller-bak. discoloured {plowiee. liebefactor.make a noise. . fallow. buller-bas. as well as biado. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. Romance bluiter. Dief. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. devenir vert blavoie. segetes virentes. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. to work To blunder out a fronto. to dabble Biglotton E. to become pale or wan. superficie plani. to become pale. blanssen. tradire to Fr. flav-us. to plump into the water. from the Lat. Roquefort. blahir. bloi. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. pale straw-coloured. a plain coin herausplatzeu. blandum. Kil. to fade). The Du. to mix it up with water.//aay. blake (identical with AS. all representing the — . in water dobbelen.. applied to green as well as blue. and sbiadare. It then signifies something done at once. jaune. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . Kil. bullern. to confound. to blunge clay. and bustle . — — — . pale yellow. to become pale or livid.— . a fore. rustic. Blunderer or blunt worker. blunder. something. The word is here synonymous with amplus. herauspoltem or sloping shore. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . in plur. bleu et blanc. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. blavus. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. herbe. Du. ploffen. Pol. Pl. Analogous forms are Du. biavo. Palsgr. polter-hans. Hence a Slcelton in R. Bodge. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. blond. to puddle. Ditton in R. blue. Blavoyer. From G. like the Celtic glas. OFr. blue. To blunder is then. biada. Biada. has donder-bus. Blaffart. pale. fawn-coloured. a shore abruptly rising. abrupt. to blunder water. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. mix It. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. pludder. Dan. We Blunder. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground.' trouble. — Pr. confusion. Bohem. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. sense of yeUow.• BLUFF biado. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft.

plompen. plonsen. plotz. Blaitie-bum. plump. It is from this notion of suddenness. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. Probably radically hlekit. inaKil. G. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. — — pidus. heavy. mit etwas heraus-platzen. homo stolidus. and hath swiche languor in his soul. dull. plump.to fall into the water. without horns. to make a noise of such a Stalder. plutz T)\i. Swab. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Dan. plumbeus. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. pale. bare. naked. Molof something wet. Plontp. fooUsh. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. naked. Pol. figuratively. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. viz. biosso. Kiittner. ang. stupid fellow. to bring it suddenly out. bus. is The word dull. pointless. bare or blunt. in Richardson.—D. without Maolaich. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Q. Bare and blunt. or blab out a thing Kiittner . — blunt. plotsen. that the sense of bare. to blunt a thing out. massive. that it not easy to discover the connection. A modification of the same root. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. blunt. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. without preparation. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. More in Richardson. void. obtusus. poor Sc. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. Plump. sheepish. platz-regen. bare. as Sw. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. inactive Swiss bluntschi. It will be seen that the G. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. naked. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. blutten. Woddis. ineffectual reason. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. rough. Plump mit etwas umgehen. rudely. The syllables blot. hebes. blockish. bluntschen. viz. forestis. unwrought. the absence of sharpness. Du. Won by degrees. from the loud report a fire-arm. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. and an unintelligent. V. blunt. it will be observed. and. down. —D. blunsch. through which a man is so blont. awkwardly. used in both senses. good plump person. absence of preparation. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. or heraus plumpen. blotta sanningen. blat. . Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. a bluntie. clownish. Bluntet. plump. It. silly. clumsy. pressions. heavy.pludse. rude. V. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. to blurt. Ford in R. with or without the nasal. it will be well to point out a sense. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. naked. . maol. without the nasal. thick. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. bloss. to make foliage. like a thing thrown down with a noise. Kiittner. F. azure. blait. Sw. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. a simpleton. of a knife which not cut. A light blue colour. blait. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. platzen. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Dan. plump. fling down .— — — . a thick and will person. Stalder. awkward. nis. Chaucer. a blot. heavy. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. identical with E. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blatte. bald. to plump down. to plump into the water. raw. as in E. —D. Blunt. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . as cow-dung. edgeless. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. seems to be derived. biotto. Sc. united in Gael. unceremonious manner. blunt. plains The large bech. — Kil. exactly corresponding to the G. obtusus. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . blott. insensible. wan. Then cometh indevotion. blunt. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. duU. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. and the like. to handle a thing bluntly. Sir T. Halma. The blait body. is thrown. bleak. and in the same sense. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. nature. blue. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. plump J to plump out with it. unpolished. blout. blunder. V. a portion To inquire for slaves. dull. dial. Now the Swiss bluntsch. unfledged Sw. Sc. G.

plump. to dabble. to threaten. AS. a mist before the eyes plerren. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. and boisterous. to say bluntly. an edge. Gael. Schmeller. The elision of the d is very to chatter. Wright's ed. bobine. boot. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. rude. to jabber. De Boat. . 1. to blaze. bdtr. a small lump. cheeks glow. flat. Lat. margin. See Boisterous. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. primarily signify loud noise. ader. AS. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. to crying. eafor. — To Bob. planks or boards. batello. to spurt out. be a crack or loud sound.pusten. blarra. Du. stellio. violent G. table. both used in the sense of boasting. whence bob. hot. and swimmeth very well. a blow . blodern. a Jam. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. Hal. E. a blotch. To blow in puffs. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. coarse. blot. gabble Sw. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. voce intonare. To splirt. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. 'Ba. brett. bhis. to guggle. bot. sudden. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. a flurt with one's fingers. to blore. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. this root are formed Sc. — From mouth. boord. baiag. Wtb. blaffen and baffen. mire. Boa. A large snake. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. bdta. &c. bladdra. violent. the Brem. 156. will fly up. Wallace. to blow. acre. blurra. BOB 79 — To Blur. — — — * Boast.' — Red Riding-hood. to puff. bludder. Fl. To tinct. Board. It. Pull the bobbin. to give a crack. baban. dial. a torch blusse. blaustem. whence bordvidr. blot. Kil. blur. The to radical meaning D. fringe. splurt and spirt. to smear. dial. bludder. large. Supp. a tassel. pluddre. puddle. rude. to brag grande loqui. to puff.— . it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. a club foot . botte. is formed Du. Du. Bot zeggen.plerr. blaste?i. to bark. To Blurt. boa. Du. c. geplerr. to make a noise with the mouth. then applied to indistinct vision . a board or plank. Du. boistous. a short thick body. AS. to roar. border. aper. borrar. . margin. to endeavour to terrify. Du. to talk quick and indistinctly . It. 9396.v. Swiss blodern.y. Dan. bord. imitated by has also In like . w. blaere. blirt of greeting. pausten. and the latch . pfludern. the sound of a blow poffen. stupid. chicchere. as in Du. G. bit. to rumble. Gael. Fr. blose. to sound like water boiling.D. short pieces of any filthy mud. Sc. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. cluster. and when applied to vaunting language. It. blubber. beer. Du. Explained by Jam. dull. To move quickly up and down. gabble. or blurt with one's mouth. i. to bounce. an end or stump. beacon fire. a blot. to disfigure with E. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. blunt. a grows to a great bigness. an ear of corn. crack made by bursting open. margin. to snuff. to dangle. a smear. . lacerta. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. literally edge-wood. a border. to blush. bateau. Halma. bord. on. pludern. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. outward edge. blotch and botch. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. bluther. bdd. eber. of the word seems . blow vioAn augmentative from lently.plodem. . skin. to dirty. as splurt to splutter. to blubber. bord. a mistiness. Blush. Comp. swagger. — — . a tassel. blusse i ansigtet. blosken. Du. strong. or backwards and forwards. planks raised up outside the roofs. Boa. 274. OE. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. to chatter. a baU of thread the mud. and Du. burra. bora. and E. G. to make a noise in boiling.the syllable bot. bur. Pl. BLUR Boar. G. to blur. a burst of tears. berd. common. Slur. board. cocodrUlus. bliise. bakke bleustern. it implies that it is empty sound. pof. Fr. — a blaze. bot-voet. . P. bausen. Sverris Saga. As the as. E. Boost is used for the boast. to render indisbhir.—Bobbin. bobbin. V. See Blossom. puffen. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. a. Related to blutter. to glow . properly noisy. ground. to make mouths. to blurt out. lindwurm. blader. to breke. edge. 29. to be out of temper. bleuster. Fl. To brag and to crack. a bladder . Hal. — ' Dief. blast. bustuous. table. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. Bav. blasen and See Burr. like the parapets (viggyrdil. boccheggiare. Bluster. ON. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. Sc. edge. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. ever-swin. or bog also thread. e. bar. bluter. a dangling object. my dear. pustern. to puff.

Now unskilful action is conmire. * To Boggle. exhibit another modification of the root. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. where bogs form Gael. speak of the barrel of a horse. gagei. corpses pot.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. In like manner E. bottich are derivatives. Russ. bogle. Bog. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. fickle . as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. to bob. as in stammering or staggering. . bodi. round.' Bogglie. and the word is well explained by Bailey. shake. body and G. bodian. To mock. gag. whence paUchen. Thy i. Body. . as I bootless labour swim against the tide. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. gog. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. Bodkin. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bogan. stuttering. We . barrique. a sting . Miracle-plays. and E. The Sp. a bog or morass. then from the yielding. AS. bagges. precept. — 2. bogadaich. bodak. ^Jam. a command. unsteady nature of a soft substance. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. Wall. The signification of the root bot. bogach. whence Fr. Shakespear has badged with blood.rabodi. mud. biodag. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. patsche. Commonly explained as if from Sc. Gl.gmh:t. . or stem of a tree. goggle. to commit a blunder. gogach. a round body both. swelling. nodding. Gael. a messenger . nave of a wheel. bodig. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. shaking . idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. To portend good or bad. stitch. expression hogglin an bogglin. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. bolr. to bodge. bodnu. the belly. It introduced from Ireland. pall. Gael. to waver. anything protuberant. as a horn. Ir. bod. badyti. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. potahha. stutter gogmire.a (i\ia. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . bodat. unsteady. Bodice. to smack. to stick. to be uncertain what to do. a puddle. moist mire. See Bid. is a lump. to push with the horns. message boda. to stammer. — as well as the body of an animal. ON. point. a quagsoft. 3. thrust with something pointed. quakmg. a prick. a spur. biodeachan. the body. body of a shirt bol. boftich. barriga. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. to start start and back as from a bugbear. Gael. needle. bottig. to blurt a thing out. bodhag. Lap. baboyer. to stir. cask bottich. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. to thrust. potacha. bodilo. is identical with Fr. a body. arise E.\\i\c\iset. a prickle. Crist. To Bode. to prick. To Bodge.. the body of a shift gaguejar. or bag. wavering. VI. . Reliq Antiq. To make bad work. to make a mow at. woman's stays. — H. bodene. . rounded. Ptg. Bohem. Bret. Cot. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Banff. anything soft. so large a feature in the country. So BOB To Bob. of which the E.! . . the thick part of anything. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. bog. See To Botch. to be unsteady tich. to make. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. gog in gog-mire. waving. Lith. a cask. to butt. See Baber-lipped. belly. corpset.hollow. bod. bog (equivalent to E. to fail. French bouter. stumpy. . W. '£. an awl. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. corset from corps. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Supp. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Ptg. Schmel. a ghost .' A — Sherwood's Diet. 43. or a pair of bodies. daubed or dabbled with blood. gebod. as signifying anything spherical or round. unsteady. And waves. AS. palleg. bogadh. potig. gago. moving backwards and forwards. toss. move. . to scruple. . from fitting close to the body. to fail. butt. bodies. bole. BOGGLE trunk and G. potacha. strike with the horns. bodetz. to roll. bot. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. the stem of a tree . calf of the leg. bodi. e. an announcement. to deliver a message. bayonet . formerly bodies. corset. a . quagmire). by the syllable patsch. a cask. boll. agitate. bayonet. meaning the round part of his body. bob. — Grandg. a dagger. the boss of a buckler. bog. bothog. dies. to dabble or paddle. busti. gagoula. the trunk of the animal body. bo tich.

and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. bola. merry. — 6 . He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. wag. to be prominent. noise. G. but that Bolt. bolstar. poppy (Bailey). bealder. to be at a loss a shirt. w. is probably a modification of boll. then violent. bochken (titubare. as E. buller. Cot. bolla. may be identified with It. a head . Bustuous. free. strong. Bole. It. bald. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. tartalear.D. brave. to stumble. animal as distinguished from the limbs. ^Vocab. from the branches. bout is explained by Kil.— — . obex.Du. to swell. E. up of bubbles. Lat. cows the people from speaking. bolt. tar. To Bolter. styffe or rude . . . polc'h. sels of flax. excellent. boll. . chatter. ^Boistous. to hesitate from doubt. Daring. as baltha. boystousnesse. bolt upright. capiing into a cavity. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. Wall. bolzen. stud. Goth. Boil. E. confident. the body . pusten. stramenta. dint in a metal vessel. whence bulla. To Boil. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. Du. Magy. ON. and manace for to de. ON. as those of nuts. ON. tartle. stutSw. tulum. Swab. bout. blow. bald. bulla. Fr. bola. roydeur. bolle. a quaking mire. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. bog. balldr.w. boutpijl. furfures. impetuosity. ballr. stameln vel bochken. he will speak out. the husk of nuts. properly represent belly.rounded part of the body. b^gayer. glass phial. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. repagulum. buile. courageous. a bubble. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. bok. Me doth awate. Fr. boggle. globular bod)'. bog. hollow. a swelling in ice. which are not used for a similar purpose. bullire. warlike. * Boisterous. a cushion. intrepid. Kit. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . pimple ON. huge. bol. a fastening for a door. G. the gurgling sound of water rush. In the same way Sc. capitellum. — ' — tagliare. flax-boU. Bret. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. OHG. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. quick. to tattle. cheerful. treated under Bowl. a bubble. a bubble. 45. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bag or bog are derived Piedm. a boil or swelling Du. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. by which it is moved to and fro. Gael. belc'hj. bal. (of Mons) b^guer. puile. pillow. Du. Mund. in the sense of handsome . strong. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. bolleken. Chaucer seems Dan. bold. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). 374. biiilen. bulla. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Stalder. bulr. The round stem of a tree. courageous. bol. to stagger. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G.' Mrs Baker. perpendicular. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . proud. Fr. the body of a man or of ter. see Boast. pustule. Du. Boll. The term applies in — — impressed . A. ON. to give a hoUow sound. Test. trunk of a tree . Boystous.palleg. bouil. beule. bula. . round the first instance to the materials with . OG. in speaking. G.— D. to waver or hesitate. bold. Pm. swelling. from Du. i. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. rough. Da. or the like. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. boil . insolent baude. bhster. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. tomentum. bol. puilen. boss. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. The bob. 304). Chaucer. used. bagaji. as. ohg. as. a bakazikni. scruple. bolzBold. bul. pall. gluma. coarse. V. bSlstr. bald. prince. Lat. shake. the lir. Sp. strong. bolc'h. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. See Bulk. Properly noisy. hero. gerade signifies straight to the mark. hakogni. Du. — — which the cushion is stuffed.). Love. to stammer. boly. to boil.. * Bolster. Kil. to puff. balder. bold. Sc. folliculus grani. a bump. Lap. bul. G. baud. caput scapulse. to stammer. tartajear. This iv. Sw. to the belly as the or dislike. notes. and then applied to other husks. fiausten. chaff of corn siliqua. swelling. 1430 in Deutsch. haughty. Pr. Westerwald bollern. also a blister. the. bolster. bolr. bollen (Kil. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bolster. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren.

. uneven. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. buUire. ler. to bolt meal barutel. to start with palpitate. abolter. to shake. So also we pass from Lat. staff which sounds tar. Supp.fe/2?. pull. to make a knocking. to clack. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. zen. buletel. kloteren. sestuare. Champagne burtcau. from G. croler. lumpy. poltern. bullern. bolt-foot. P1. hole. I boulte meale in a boulter. to start out. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. Sanders. bortelen. a clap of thunnences. to coagulate. taratantarum. a sod (Schiitze). small heap. as Fr. — — — . Schiitze. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. Wtb. Hence Palsgr. a rattle. bluter. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. . Passing from the sense of movement burattare. hammer. as a rabbit from its baritel. to agitate. OFr.D. swelling.— . budeln daz mele . a small portion. tling or crashing noise. Brem. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. tumultuari. bulla. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. as snow balling on a horse's foot. bolzen. to E. beliitea. buletare. baruta. a round glass ending — bultig. / is transposed in Fr. loud and fast.u. Here the radical image is the violent O. with E. to bolt meal barutel. then to knock. hump-backed (to be compared A ' .Lat. brattle. Sw. poltern. Du. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. crotlar. to bolter. vessel with narrow opening. on the one hand. a crashing or racketing noise. crash. to significance of the term was overlooked. a millpoltzet augen. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. projecting eyes pul. btilt. or a racer from the course.clack. fied bot. . as of a trumpet.thump or blow. boss. bolt.through a cloth of loose texture. poll. in S'W plotter. a .). die treppe pressed. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. Prov. barutare. ex•wagen. and to crash. 2. rugged. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. Fr.i5a//^«. holier poller. clump. tuft. to form lumps. Bav. . to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. or the like. bultred. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. barutela. hulch. jolting. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. The ulti. a clump of turf. the wheels groaned. we see that the one consists of a words. bulk. ' Holler poller / bulter.. a clod. the sense of right on end. Pr. taraabout. cruddle.On the same principle. Pm. taratarrum. gebolder. have Lat. . we have Du. grasbulten. .D. bulstrig. buideln. pultare. Dauphiny a sudden movement. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. projections. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. as above explained. protuberance. OFr.D. to come rattling downstairs. bulk or quantity . also to curdle. OFr. we pass to Du. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig.noise {brattle of thunner. a bolter Prov. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. It. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. . we der Brocket). uneven. bultig. to knock. and the Thus from So. Pl. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. hammer. representing a rat. The ment and the operation. to talk pulzen. je bulte. And as the agitation of cream in . From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. mole-hill. Pl. barutela. to spring forth E. bulio. bolzaugen. buretter{CQ\. Du. knob. G.agitation of the meal in the bolter. tar. to bolt flour burato. racket gepolter.nature of the operation. zare. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. one after the other. Mid. a bunch. bolzauget) Sp. ' — — ! ! : — . to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. pattern. : ' — — . cro. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. by the representation of a racketing sound.protuberance. . rugged. Lang. bolt head is a retort. Bulte-pook or bulstar.D. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. . Hence. or ill. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. curdle. Lat. a clod cloth. hump. blotttre. bolting to that of form. agitari (Kil. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. MHG. beluter. to become lumpy. a rattling carriage. a club-foot. Dan. On this account Mid. tantara. In the next place. hulter de bulter. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. a bolter or implement for bolting.).) E. crod. burclct.by forms like G.as the essential element signifying the talum.

bonfras. i.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. Mid. derivation. and in fact we find the and Du. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. and that from Fr. to cast to and fro. to boult meal. boulenger. baun. to beat a drum. — bombast came guage. tiffany. buttel trueb (of liquids). — Bombard. booming over the water. breast-bone. beuteln.^Altieri. In legal language. &c. from teu. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. to shake. bwmbwr. lana lignea. ODu. bambacium. butteln. to thump W. bonds. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. Fl. sye. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. Bomb. been. borel. achsel bein. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. the shank the shoulder-bone. bon. bras. When ture. cotton stuff. bureau. From builen. bindan. silk-worm. bwmbwry mar. thick. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. a ligature. . But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. whence bomme. Banstead. bongam.bast. bureau. bonog. a bone in general. to bolt meal. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. a word of which we have traces in several English names. agreement. Castrais barato.). bommen. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. to shake down fruit from a tree. term is appropriated in G. is supported by the analogy of G. Moreover. G. a churn for butter. basin. to bind G. tie. bopin. bauniwolle. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. an implement of binding. cotton. G. Schm. bande. the Fr. again. bombdra. bombarda. the silk-worm. d. bombasine. Bonfire. and called in Mid. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. ties. HoUybandin R. builen. barate. banitola (Fl. Du. 83 Gr. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. butteln. sericum arboreum. the leg. and also the leg. bulter from It. As cotton was used for padding clothes. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . sije. a baker. to shake (as to shake the head. coarse. to resound. . bone of the . bombice. and Mod. gossipium. brust-bein. bond. tree. Dan. . 155. thick from shaking. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. from boom. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. PoUitriduare. Dan. a beacon. stuff. bunden. as Banbury.Lat. or trunk word in W. bombast. a hollow sound. e. Need you any ink and bonibase. .) . OE. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. Gascoi^e in R. band. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. It. sijde. we speak of a gun to resound. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. iuttern. It. ^o/j.Su?. Fr. It. a boulter of meal. Kil. raw silk. baum-bast. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. band. G. burato. crook-shanked bondew. It. The material called by this name. bombase. Antiq. bambagioj whence It. band pi. buidelen. tie. to thunder. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. to which the leg. buidelen. . a thundering noise bomre. to ring bells. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act.D. bommer. must be explained Fr. a —Bombasine. . also thick-shanked. gunpowder. Bibelesworth in Nat. beuteln. the contracted form of Du. bombasin. as in . q. a string. — AS. a drum bombammen. has repeatedly varied. bambagino. stump. In E. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. Du. . bolting-cloth. Bone. bein. It. biire. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. rimbombare. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. bombe. Butterglas. and Bond. a stock. thick-legged. beil'n. a stem or base. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. assuming the of leg : special signification W. Fr. bombicina. It. silk. produced the Pl. Near 6 * . Du. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. and Du. E. however. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. the murmuring of the sea. — having a stem or stalk. bomba.

short boots. gawney. and Gael. Thin ben Luke i. netis stall. Swab. boutig. Kil. countryman. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. boo. biikui. bota.. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. boer. Prov. writing bokos. .—Bootless. a dry stalk. p. — e. Fr. a lofty blaze. Trans. See Bown. E. babau. Bun. The origin of the word is probably the W. bose. of wonder On the same principle Sp. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. till. a stall. — . a head-dress. wondering signifies not only straw. gaby. Goth. boten-shoen. to ask. Pr.n. Du. But bosg. a bonfire. bauer. to cultivate. letter. . dial. b^er. baier. reparation. bobo ! interj. It is commonly explained as identical with It. to litter bosu. A favour. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. at everything. build. petition. The i. remedy of evil. simpleton. — From the participle present. — To boot. Sp. tigh. pole. to gape. from beida (E. succour Bailey. bosig. Palsgr. bene. boia. which one gaping and staring about. dolt. See Bomb. the possessor of the farm.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. a good turn or re- meaning. litter. Du. the scriptures bokareis. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. The character of folly is i860. wall hangings. boubair. head-dress wai^g. Gl. a silly fellow. Gael. . chaff. signifying beech. to aid. Boot of bale. ON. where a cross (or a gun. See Butt. is Du. Binau Brychyniog. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. as the Brecknockshire Banns. bobo. booby. ganian. boandi. build. gehyred. Mrs Baker. boubi^. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. ben. Book. b'ukvdry. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. clown. by itself for head-dress. Mrs Baker explains bun. \ais-band. Boot. botte. A stall for cattle. the alphabet. also called Brecknock Beacons. the stubble of beans. Booby. been. Hal. ty Gael. From bo. a. Hal. to prepare. and fig. G. in Phil. Build. To Boot. bonaid. set in order. nachbar. without ad- . . a hollow skin. or Vanns. G. A peasant. a tree. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. often cut for burning and lighting fires. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. high. however. relief from sorrow. a simpleton. a letter Russ. from Du. . swinbusa. bAkva. ON. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. petition. bommen. . boom. to strew with straw. . bua. to dress. Bonnet. to gape. buandi. as a lying-place for cattle. and thence Rouchi baia. bos. a scribe G. a vessel for holding liquids. boutig. literally cow-house. fool. feu de behourdis. in w. a. till. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. inhabit.^ —P. Wall. pig-sty. comes bondi. foolish. lofty. badaud. Kil. beam. quest. Perhaps. bossen. although in the OG. dress. desire. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. . Bootless. bds. house. bdn. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. OW. Fr. dial. and from AS. botte. and Ban in w. hu?idbusa. ass. bonad. Boom. prayer. Hufwud-bonad. bid). In nautical language. the cultivator. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. help. Du. OSlav. b&ber. It. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. bonnet. E. to set in order. — Bailey. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Busk. Fr. . AS. dog-kennel. botta. bonad. from gape. pero. are formed Fr. beiSne. inhabit. Jr. busu. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. whence ban-ffagl. betere thing werse. bauen. ON. a lying-place for dogs or swine. bolt. bosih. one who dwells nigh. 232. G. boa. from badare. blockhead. babb^o. 13. Ox. w. by arbitours sholde bote the P. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . . bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. Schm. Boon. bd. the name of the letter b. AS. gaping hoyden — Cot. bua. buch-stab. to yawn. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E.Boos. * Boose. a letter . bowwen. tapestry. remnants of hay or straw. prayer. babin. stabulum. Pm. dress. ON. bote. Boor. Fr. — — . the mouth. bas. Bonnefyre. but stall. Basa. master of the house. tall. N. the first consonant of the alphabet. The latter is the original AS. to cultivate. a bag of skin or leather. Thus from the syllable ba.

266. Gael. forare. To Bore. from borra. a shed. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. &c. bottino. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). pointed. to repair. AS. and meta- Fr. to . a cupboard. uzboro.par. borino. lappalare. 1. bower. a shop. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. to bite. ON. of an edge that will not bite. Esthon. a chisel. Esthon. . OHG. to The Sw. exchange or divide. puru. a. fire. butin is explained by Flor. A phorically a drunkard. from bord. • — To Bore. sawroot. or the gradual working a hole in anything. The cor. cup- awl. mat-bod. purra. to anything Neither G. piercer. to quench one's thirst . And so in ON. rof. Another derivation from Fin. a borer . . but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. The ON. make . bdra. Mag. on. Burke in R. bud. to pierce. admovere titiones. bauda. a bladder. both. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. cellar. a granary . butin. OSw. cure Sw. hem or gard of a garment. Fin. . a hut. biorag. — ON. Gael. as afford a satisfactory explanation. Compare Manx birrag. dust. a shop budowati. in Ihre. barn. . a shelter of branches. a border. a booth or shed. wave. to bete the properly to mend the fire. byte points to the verb byta. . Bohem. bata. an engraver's chisel. Border. reparation. furni. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. wine-skin. a great bur. and parrets. sculpo 05\xiik. a borer. borracha. It. to boot. puras. abode. N. a borer. is purin. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. Du. amendment. Fin. BoracMo. to build buda. sharp. Fl. Du. ON. boeye. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. in Lap. bdt. puru. boards. or anything pointed. Palsgr. bordi. . struere ignem. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. It is admitted that Fr.por. pi.. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. aid. Fr. kvit-bara. ora. Bete. the . to stick unto as a bur. to importune. making good again . Gael. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . extremitas Bore. bothag. budowai. to restore. terebra sculptoria purastoa. remedy. are derived from G. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. Booty. to foam. . lappolone. tent. to bore. boede. and hence to fine. purra. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. Kil. swell bara. Fr. Lat. fimbria. welt. G. 3. Sp. repair. yfirbdt. Alexand. cottage. bite. to expiate boeten den dorst. bora. and E. But probably the E. limbus. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. pu purro (saha =: saw . to hut. In the Fin. terebro. p. to patch. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. to mend. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. bardure. which are probably from the same root. better. and thence to eat build. to profit. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. boeten het vier. a wave. See Burgeon.—Burin. a hut or tent. from deila and skipta. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. Fin. botjan. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. batr. furd. scsdes-bod. ON. are parret. a tusk. boete. to build. puras. dens mordens vel caninus. to divide. Pol.. The as G. a sharp-pointed tooth. to to . urboro. scalpo. to surge. beute. It. a leather bag or bottle for wine. amendment boeten. Magy. a bothy. differs only in termination. See Bower. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. drillen. bothan. hut. budka. chisel. bauen. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. The Fin. purro. baete. recovery bata. . . nor E. chewed food for infants. BOOTH vantage. bohren. borracha. margin. burin. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries.. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. a word. betan fyr. limbus. to profit Goth. to swell. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. comminuted by either kind of action. bolino.— Return from Parnassus I inR. See To We speak in E. edge. to bite. a responding forms . bord. Booth. baara.

burh. the must have arisen burgensis. bierge. V. bundle. clownish. bosh.' if thou give money on loan.' every man be under bail. 106. Du. a boss. knur. knocking. beorgan. to give bail or answer for an. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. the ordinary a swelling. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. the sun sets. boschen. boss. botse. poor. into borsholder. of bail throughout the country. Borrow. or perhaps also To Borrow. Bos a surety. a knob. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. rude. Turk. burel. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. northern. a.. grey). a bunch or hump. G. secure. Russ. tuft. hollow bucklers.' Vegetius in Diez. gesylle. basse. borg. primarily signifying coarse sound . to take in. . to strike . boss. Altieri. formerly used in the sense of knocking. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. . from AS. (1867). bos. Jam. bourg. the Sc. AS. borealis.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. Gr. boussi. whether from the fact preserve G. Hence knot. Swiss Rom. Fr. storm. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. empty. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. one who sticks to you like a bore. nonsense. tempest. Bunch. to contain. was origin of the term is the OFr. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. the hollow between the Borsholder. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. to conceal. bourgeois. borei. Lang. borel. is used in the sense of bussare. Fr. head. It. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. from their grey clothing. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. plain rude fellow. to become is emitted by a hollow body. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . bosse. to knock or strike. a surety. connected. bunch. when that system was forgotten. to keep. Jam. to save Sw. busse. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. to protect. ^ma. Hal. Hence borhes ealdor. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. pitch. burgess. i. unpolished. The origin seems to be the Goth. knob. less. pego.mass. bom. bail biirgen. bos. botsen.' the chief of the ' borh. the N. without.any round sweUing. &c. bussi. cnag signifies both a clergy. brown cloth. useCanterbury. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. Sc. the North Wind. — ' wind burya. agrees with E. to pick or cull plants. hollow. See found in Bav. . butse. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. blow on a hollow object. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. loan. a little blow. or head-borough. that which biirge. bossen. AS. ' — — . — — — A — . destitute. rustic. borg. poor. boss sound. Botany. bosseu. a pushing or striking out. and thus could not shake off the old burr. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. Goth. butsen. is probably radically Boss. to strike so as to Bureau. striking. Bosh. empty. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. a wen. Cot. D. a citizen. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. bttssel. Boreal. by which of or belonging to plants. which now signifies a knob. whence the burg. vain. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth.vr\. a herb. ^o^^flj. botch. Du. botch. Newbury. I. So Du. to save. projection. undyed wool of brown sheep. to give a hollow bizo. borgese. or because a blow berga. borgo. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Bailey. boss of the side. bump. a tower. to save. cob. The primi. as we speak of a thumping potato. In like manner It. cnoc. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. in the body struck. empty. beorgan. Lat. while Gael. a bouncing baby . bump is used in lump or piece. boss or knob of a buckler . coarse cloth made of the Du. a city . It. a blow. as if from the verb to hold.bucklers.' or system of bail. to protect. E. ON. f graauw. a boor. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. Fr. borough or chief constable. tive idea seems to bring under cover.ribs and the side. borough-holder. in instead of without. plant. cormpted. The other. bussa coarse. or perhaps it may be See Bury. AS. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. ' pledge. Borough. and borough in the sense of a town. viipyoc. a citizen. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. baurgs. And that unsittynge is to here degre. /3oraMK6f. . borh. (Bridel). pegou. cnap. Borowholder. bergen. knock and a knob . gum vocant. byrig. an eminence. huschen. surety. a giving rise to It.

E. AS. schuhbosser. to knock. bAdtr. a bunch. — duj Lett. to mend (kettles. noise. Fr. the bud of a flower . baiothsj Sanscr. dabble). botte. dim. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. to botch or patch. stump. what pushes outwards. Leg. ledge It. ON. mess. — Jidwi. to strike . botn. to we have OHG. Judwi. a lump of somebatschen. botm. botel. abbi. to put on a patch. G. gen. tumour. a pock. a humpback. they two. a botcher of shoes. Botcli. See To Bodge. G. ubhau. a vessel for holding liquids. — . to rage. bdsser. botse. is boteau. Diez. bativa. to work without order or know. pimple.— . and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. a knock. AS. Again. Fyre to botme. is also a bubble. a bottle. ambo. Fl. a bottle. disturbance. to dip in liquid (to Gael. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a slop. . buddl. to bcBta. boil.^Dec. boitean. bozza. boiteag. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. beggtaj Goth. Bouteille. &c. the lowest part. burgi vel pontis refectionem. e. bundle. blain. . See Butt. pother. a cesspool pass. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. whence the name ol pool to podge. mend. a pit. blister. Bouds. OSax. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. gling piece of work. dial. ba. — Bottom. Both. signify a in OE. w. a boil or swelling Halma. Butu. botola.ments of the same root. the first rough draught 2. abbi-diwij Slavon. bulderen. poltern. bund. To Botch. contusion . bdt. bouteille. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. knock. I. See Boss. was called a push. Wedu. bodem. stroke. a depth. Parmesan poccia. scuohbuzere. nets. Podge. Du. The Gr. noise. of botta. A — oba-dwaj Lat. a bott . bun. To confuse with noise. the science or knowledge of plants. a root. butsen.— Hal. stock. Hal. a. pozzo. fundus. bottom. turmoil. Bottle. boden . bunch. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. ixorapudder. Prov. to mend. buazen. however. to simmer. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. a wisp. thing soft batsch. stem or base. botel foenn. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. in the sense of mend the fire. a bubble. botte. i. a maggot. empty or hollow. ing out. It. oba. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. or plague sore . to stir and mix together. Du. to podge. ' G.) . It. buideal. Gael. buddeln. any plain round viol glass bozzo. kessel-biisser. boiteal. to froth as beer . Mudu. puddle. — . to stir and mix together . boccia. maggots in barley. abbution. as Fr. N. On — Du. From the dim. botsen. bethia. corresponding to . a tinker schuhbiisser. bide. Bochu. both. bSn. putra. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. batschen. 212. by met. Kil. to give a sounding blow.of a ball of thread. stock. House-bote. and E. Lat. Lith. . ^kvBoQ. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. shoes. pocciar. .foundation. Fr.— Swift in R. pozzanghera. podge. biissen. — — belly-worm. bulder. a pit. bot. Lith. to make better. to smack. any round ball or bowl to play withal. j3i/9os.' to the fiery Csedm. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. we have Swiss batscken. a cask. AS. Danneil. bots. botch. bosser. and ajSvamg. to make a make a noise. round lump. Jtidu. Bailey. whisper. we two. a patch patschen. bottigUa. a slop. to fall : with a sound batsch. Pl. . — Dief. gipuozan. &c. bluster. Bret. mess. patch. ON. Canut. A horses. A bottom depth. as a push or windgaU.D. * To Bother. . the other hand. boss. a bottle of hay. bossu. blow. potra. See Bound. Here the radical image seems a bubble. boute. you two. H^cart. to from the root bot. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. abbu. ON. And so we speak of an eruption. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. It. bozza. an imperfect and bunbutt end. an abyss or bottoniless pit. botus. Fl. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. botte. — Fl. Stalder. bile. fire-bote. repara- — — See To Bete. Gael. Boa two. for a bud. • Bott. butwo. buts. a bump or swelling. Ancren Riwle. mutter. abyss. Hal. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. disturbance to . butse. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. . a bundle of straw or hay. Decorde. a plague-boil Kil. On the other hand. hurly-burly. a cess. — — A 2. especially in Gael. a waterfall. Dan. from the dashing of water. to dash about . BOTCH understood). btitse. — — . a cobbler.

the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . baby. pothel. the larger kind of pebbles. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . to hum. . thumping. Pr. by Bujns or Buns. of thread. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. mere. winding. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Bonny. Bound. boujtce.. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. bouton. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. Pm. The branch of a tree. its kind. To Boult. an de dor bunsen. The Bight of Benin.— Cot. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. Coxcomb. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. he fell so that it sounded. boh. — — Bight. ni motz brugir. Bowlder.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. Alpine Re- — gions. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word.' round and round in similar circles. Nor a centinel whistle. See To Bolt. the hollow of a bay. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. boss of a buckler. Fr. to make a loud noise." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. dial. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Bout. an occasion. volta. the verb bondir in OFr. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. Mid. to knock. and F. Dan. has hot. a round body both. bend. suorum recognoverunt agrorum.' B. bay. signifying in nautical coil of rope. Ni gacha cor bondir. Probably from the Celtic root bon. bunda. Boulderstone. p. pimple Richards bothog. and Prov. a boss. language a * Boulder. march. Bret. nave of a wheel bothel. a bouncing apple. bolder. mcn-bomi. Q. ing. to set bounds. — strike. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. 136. Du. debodinare. Raynouard. bone. in the absence of actual e. butina. frequently used in the same sense with bound. from volgere.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. . dial. came home with his face all to-bounced. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. in contrast to klappersten. to resound. knock it sounds again. a button. AS. a turn or time. a bud. to spring. bend. Webster. boriie. bonndn. To Bound. bondir. bullra. bumper. See Bunch. tnndo. a blister. as that of E. Bough. E. a large pebble. bunsen.— F. geration. as a bout of fair or foul weather.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. a boundary stone (men stone). — — leap. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. to thunder. 3. Fr. bounbounejha. bottom. a stock. bog. A Langued. jump. Sw. from bugan. or Bow-pot. buUersten. to turn. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. — Take care my house be handsome. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. botwm. I assure you. Wtb. contusi.'— Charter of K. Fr. the smaller ones. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. 2. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. bonna. boundina. to knock at the door. bamsen. a large stone rounded by the action of water. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. Bought. And the new stools set out. bugan. Ducange. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. From Sw. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. . a bound. ni frestelar. Brem. till The dat et bunsede. iv. — No i ausiratz parlar. whence buj7isen. Halma. limit. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bun. the bay of Benin. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. So It. as a nosegay. signifies a sliort thick mass.>a bout. see Boss. bugt. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. strapping. to set out by metes and bounds. nor horn sound. Bough-pot. round. root (see Bottom).D. turn. to fix limits. bons. bodina. a blow. Primarily to strike. carpet. jungen. To Bounce.— Boundary. like bobbin. from AS. The W. bonzen.— — — - 88 BOUGH . Bodinare. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. to bow. gulf. Bunche. to thundering big one hum. to spring.

as was for. bwa. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. g. bagna. the burden of a song. from spring. G. pot. bage. Prov. the ting of a bell. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. the big end of a club. jest. deceit. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. biegen. identical with E. of the ON. bog. bending. a prop. addressed to. brausen. Gael. It is bov. bordon. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. epaule du vaisseau. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. bogha. brunna. G. tinton. Sw. also the humming or ON. Fr. curvature. belly out. to bow. It. puff out. bausen. bov. a jibe Shaw bururus.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. Gael. verb bua. When used alone it . A water. The meaning of bound. bugna. Dan. to tope. burt. an arch. . to tope W. Dan. staff. Immediately from Fr. good. Fr. Bounty. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. a mill-post. AS. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. . Chaucer in R. a drone or dor-bee. pared. bugna. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. a well. fresh* water. ridicule buirte. language of folly or ridicule. Eown. a bow. purra. bow to shoot with. bend Sw. bue. Bow. Bret. bend. fun of one . . bordone. taunt. on. a sing-song. Cot. beogan. bogr. cheat. buga. beygja. pre. way ba7n. Fr. Dan. bending of a joint knie-bug. . Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. Burden. i. drone of a bagpipe. — probably through this latter signification. Gael. to swell. ready to pike or spear . Du. a. to bulge. crutch. pausen.. burdan. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. buigen.which see. bourdon. ing. A —Cot. Spenser in R. game. or of an Gael. G. to tipple. bourde in the same sense. explaining Sw. borne. Gael. Sw. are applied to the bow of a ship. bug. And there in mourning spend Sw. a for New York. drink deep. head Fr. patesten. to pre2. to take one in. burdan. bommen. lance. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. bovne. steady. and that probably from a Celtic root. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. The foregoing derivation seems. limit. whether by sound or gesticulation. a humming noise. that ON. whence buysen. schenkelbug. a jibe. on the whole. schulter-bug. Bourdon. a brook. bugan. cudgel. spelling the word iox bound. Du. bordo. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bdgi. Bourdon. purlBav. is. mockery. a cup kroesen. shoulder-blade. a drone of a bagpipe. Sc. Du. different modification gives ON. to hum. buizen. Gael. to hum as a bee. like quaff. ^<7r«i?. to take breath. Bound. a go to. a — — . it is probable that the It. flagon. to drink deep. analogous to Fr. Comp. address. Cot. bogen. Du. to indulge in his cups . to our bous. the shoulder of the vessel. sausen. bonitas. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. drunken. btiga. when we speak of. — — — A pare. sport. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. bontS. Sw. firm. bugne. w. warbling. a from Du. Swiss bausen. burlare. to banter or laugh at. buys. kroes. bunaiteach. sotich. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. saufen. buyse. bourdon. burreti.bass of a stringed instrument. It is the participle past buinn. sense durd. repartee. Borden. their time -With "wailful tunes. buzz. bending. souf. — — . a pot. to mutter. hence musical accompaniment. bonus. joke. . spring. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. ruption of bonne. burn. springbiirn. in Fr. It is remarkable that we find vary. Lat. biugan. has also buirleadh. . brummen. As the Gael. must be referred to the same root. ready. to draw a deep breath. . gurgling. a corToward the garden. So Sc. potio. G. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . grumble Sw. the fixed. a. buzzing of bees. Dan. burd. prepared for. to draw a deep breath. Goth. to trick. Burgeon. set out. to drink deep. Sp. to bow or incline the . a humming noise Macleod. Bourd. bogna. bog. bourd. to take deep draughts. to — Hal. hous^ Man in the Moon.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. trick. pusta. bound. the Bourdon.

dial. make obeisance. bog. beuz. a protuberance. . Sp. busskai. bocka. . bulb of an onion bolleyield. Bret. belly. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects.\s. bosso. pusspan. bowl . the box-tree It. belly. knob From the former modification we have bolla. a pot. . folliculus . The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. boxtree pusska. bubble. cumena-bur. convexity. gut. similar shape. boor. a bubble bolli. From the other form are G. E. Du. trestle. . W. bossola. bulne. a croft by a house. bwr.. budello. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. to bend down. spherical Dan. Fr. the box-tree. to puff up. boil. . a round glass or bolg. Bret. stream forth bugyogni. mausbollelein. an outhouse AS. Du. ne. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. a separate apartment . a boil. spring as water bugya. busse. hollow wooden case. G. sausage. or. buigen. PLD. bulla. iri'iaQ. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. beutel. * Bowels. . . intrenchment. Du. bulcken. a stud. fyn. Cable. globe or spherical body.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. . different position in ODu. budel. the bogna. buga. the barrel of a gun. . a sack. buckel. a iDubble. in both senses. buk. bugyola. Sw. ask. bugna. bow. a swelling or rising up. head of a cabbage. signified by forms like Gael. to puff up pullakka. the head. bol. a chamber swefnbur. crooked. w. passing on stud. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. boucle. swoUei) Lat. hiidel. hollow. to raise the back boll OHG. the crop of a bird. boss. of a wooden ball to play with and — . bending. is applied to a coach-box. bolla. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm.). without the and grits. ON. bugyani.) to incline oneself . OFr. See Boil. . the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. Pol.flask It. a bowl. or in e. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. W. buello. purse. a. Bower. a bubble Fin. Bowl.cup Du. bolne. . a box. with inversion of the round. . heafod bolla. the box-tree and articles made of it G. to buckle G. biiske. ^o«/«. kupula. tumour . Thus we have Esthon. bouzellou. lump . . a sleeping-room . to bulge. a wardrobe . a black pudding. bouellou. AS. bogla. bukke. boxtree. acsian. . round glass phial. wisp of straw . . at the e. Dan. bur. bur. a parlour. Bohem. buckelig gehen. blister. AS.. to swell. box. a box. bug. as in AS. A . bolle. biichse. a buck. bola.). round bead. a bundle. Lat. A Bulk. bowels. Dan. a ball . bulla in aqua. bock. ON. . . hill. kupukka. to stoop. to stoop biickling. buis. hollow place Fr. bhuj. Sanscr. tumour. bouge. a bubble. and to a coachbox in particular. Sw. a bubble. bowel Box. anything globular. ku^o. a box Lat. See Crab. convex. Sw. in walking appears in a . In like manner the Pol. kuppelo. utibur. a ball. water pulli. honse-bur. bulge. to bow buck. Fr. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. bwra. It is more probably from the G. box in both senses. Hal. a hen-coop . bhugna. and on swollen. a hump on the back rossbollen. bulka. crown of a hat. an inclosure. then by the loss of the /. . a ball. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. bow. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. kupu. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . inclinare se (Kil. fata-bur. the head. globular body. ken. (in pass . G. a box. bollen. pocket. koziel. polla. bolgna. a wine-can . to bubble up. biicken. . zich onder jemand under to him. boudin. The word may probably be identical with Fris. . Boll. . OE. peated in Magy. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. guestchamber . &c. bugyni. Bav. bugy. a box. Gr. bulk compared with Sw. The / a bow. as in E. a little box . mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bol. a polla. . much plausibility from the figure of a pul. Buckle. . a drop of pullistaa. Fr. bolla. ON.a. puffy. a bud. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. a thing of liquid. give in to. to guggle. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. belly of a cask. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. ^o/a. .D. to bend. boss. to make crooked . See MHO. compared with Fr. ttuJic. biisse. buchsbaum. pullo. buxus. globular. swell. bog. painter's easel. Hence. prominence. the skull or brainpan . bubble. bent. boel. as well as the name of a. botulus. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. to yield to one. bucka. a knot.

dog that hunts by scent. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. brasselet. V. a grown youth Cimbr. merely in our mode of considering them. strike. brek. to give a gebrechen. ON. baukscheht. Kil. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. brae. a girl. defect. brae. Swiss bub. flap. brechen ihm. rakka. braca. from a root brak. filth . the word passed on to signify salt water in general. ing from a mixture of salt. to stutter. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. a boy pupa. in R. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life ." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall.. bresta. breach. beagle. bracket. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. Sp. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. A — — . briche. Pm. bou^ba. — . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. variation of babble. salo sive aqua marinS. Du. loud smack. . to smack the hand batschen. a braceOFr. mud. and then Pl. break. Swab. a bubbling dura del mun. to give a sounding blow defect. . thwack. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. or bracer Cot. One girl. See Broker. It. &c. want. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . brostia. ratch. Brack. bracil. ' — A — — — . brae. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. his eyes are failing him). To fight with the fists. bouibo. To brace is to draw together. pus. Brack. by the same inversion of J and k. flaw. boussole. cramp-iron holding things together . damaged board a ship. acidus. Boy. See Brake.nated by dirt. Kil. Prov. pupus. Lat. G. quarrel Bohem. fuse. braquet. brakke Bracelet. priated to the original sense. mud. It. . defect Du. bitch Du. brakke grund. breach. babble. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. to is derived brestr. land batsken. salsus. brago. defect. wristband. bray. whelp as. Cot. Fr. Du. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. breptati. pube. the first instancebya physical tie.. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. wrack. In like manner the It. spaniel. brack. want. race. land spoilt Kil. ON. Prov. wnzC/J. OFr. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. which sigof straining. mud. to give a blow with the fists. refuse. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. — . murmur. Gael.D. braco. bracke. — . boiste. in R. lalear-eyed Prov. fault. s. confining. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. . bube. odorinsecus. MHG. a box. BOX To Box. an languages. taneous talking. to stammer. — . let. jabber. Fr. G. suppuration. Heligoneed. moral or physical. brabbelen. baske. Fr. rakki. — . bracon. rack. is a rope holding G. It. flaw. La ville ou y avait Brace. a crack. need. dog Sw. dog in general. youth. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . brassard. the arm. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. to box the ears. Thus brack. OE. bracer. bask. to fall. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. braic. corruptse. fault . OFr. a bog or pass Fr. — — . I sal slyng. unmarried man . to burst. ghebreck. and string of his bow. bracha. compressing. as noticed under Box. Sp. Prov. matter. parallel with OK.with a noise.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. or defect. braecke. Kil. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. clay. bruxula. Rouchi Then as an adj. brechen. A to halt between two derivations. Ptg. Fr. Sp. To Brabble. boy bouba. brageuses. A brace probis. brace on and Du. brague. a sounding blow. to crack. buah. breuque. con. brack. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. bue. Hdcart. posh. and F. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. foul. . . . brec.— D. Bracket. It is B. boy. bragos. Bracelet. dirty. 91 the Dan. by an overflow of sea water. root). Brach. then from break. which has many representatives in the other Europe. Pl..D. . Swiss Rom. .. Prov. braque. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. Water rendered boubo. s. brae. to slap. isolated part of the text. Pr. bracco. brek. The different meanings of the brageux. to Swiss batschen. On the same principle from the buksteht. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. rakke. AS. Brak-goed. Brackish. want. Lett. disturb. a guard to torf.puddle. a comworld Rayn. to want. to be wanting. armour for the arm. a pair of braces. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. braco.

in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. brave. goods. Faire le brave. and that from e. . It is certain that the word for arm is.Shepherd's Cal. confining. se parer de beaux habits. . gallant. braies. bravado j Fr. Langued.explosion. stately. used in the sense of force. flaunt in fine clothes . breagh. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. — Equivalent forms are Gael. brag or jet it braguard. Brail. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. ative fellow. would be to brace. Dan. empty pride. power. brayete. subduing. the arm. Sp. brabhdair. Haldorsen Gael. to cord a bale of tie up. . Walloon bress.. in numerous dialects. Brain. braicli. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. BRAG Piedm. crash ON. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. bullying. ^Brave. It. Wallachian bratsou. noisy ostentation. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. Sc. breghe. brabhdadh.. bragging. fine.aburst. From Fr. gallant (in apparel) also proud. to boast of his own worth. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . brazo. fine. From brayel. The meanings of brake are very numerous.breeches. — Chaucer. Turk bazu are used in both senses. brav. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel .^ Sp. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. bully . crack. swagger. stout. braver. an iron for holding Zalli.i5nz^. or by gaudy dress and show. and it is very likely that the root brak. brao. hectoring. to Rouchi brMer.^Vocab. Hence E. h-avare and Fr. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. in order to prevent its catching the wind. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . To Braid. showy bravery. to make a noise. brake in the sense of constraining. the opposite of which. fine. a roisterer. brae. to stand upon terms. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. bragaireachd. bragging of his own valour. in the sense of the Lat. Hecart. braggard also valiant. beautiful. Bray. bragd. &c. gay. Thus we are brought to the OE. Brag was then used brisk. fine. to rattle. to brail up a sail. to shout. blusterer. — . idle talk. Rom. compressing. brails. smart. The meanings included under — Bragget. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. to crack. an inclosure for cattle . vanter une chose. de Vaud. subigere. vaunting. braske. brag. proud. riches. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk.%. affront. brachittm. braguer. to swagger. gorgeous. braszketi. . Cot. vain glory. or from braie itself. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. to unbrace or let down the breeches. See Brace. to strut. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . finery. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. is Cot. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). brave. gay. Brake. bra!. To Brag. boast. spot. braw. A — Hal. bravacherie. Bret. flaunting. binding anything together. was formed brayele. a carriage for breaking in horses . that will carry no coals. se pavaner. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. brag. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . be found. To Brail. braegenj Du. as the type of exertion and strength. braka. Bret. splendid. Lat. See Bray. make a noise . the bridge or part of the breeches ing. bravache.hy which this idea is con\eyed. strength. bragio. brave. slight modificajoining the two legs. brave. be noisy . courageous. brake is. Brake. Dan. w. Fr. Lith. — A — . also tion of this was brayeul.—— . 2. breyne. breghen. i. well-dressed. a noisy talkboasting. also derived Fr. Chaucer. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. . drawers. Cot. about the hawk's fundament. Fris. The plant y^r«. se donner trop de licence. . cry. handsome. Primarily to crack. bushy . excellent. . —Spenser in R. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. dhbrailler. torture . braga. Fr. 92 Cot. expensive. is identical with Gael. bravo. . From sprouted corn. AS. braga. also insolenter se gerere . — From W. boasting. swaggerer. breach. Thus Bret. braka. Cot. crash. to sprout malt. the feathers ON. called by our braggard. gayly dressed. to flaunt. to boast or brag. valiant The head are sumptuous. braga. brave. braske.

Swiss Rom. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. gebroge. Dan. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. and G. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. for — Due. the original meaning of G. break flax PLD. brcekke. a horse's a horse's twitch.. broor bushy place Hal. flachs brechen. brage. brook. Fr. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. el arco. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. breaking in the operation. braca. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. broilium. Fr. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. Pl. to bend or direct a cannon. to row. glebas subigere. as in Sp. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. to fracture. bredza. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. casser le \va. — Fl. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. Gael. — — . In the case of the ne. to bray in a mortar. 2. broillet. 3. bush. bregar brake. to exert force in different ways. tris). marsh or swamp. bush. to stiffen against Taboada). Voc. to head must be bit. Biglotton. a swampy Mid. to The ON. P&. ^raca. as in Du. farinam in mortario subigere. to harrow (Lat. braken. been confounded with the verb break. to bend a bow. Gr. broyer. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. where from Esthon. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. Prov. copse-wood. Brake. signifying to sweep. iSpsx". —Bracken. fratto. braecken het vlasch. frangere linum. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. in usus braca. brook. brolium. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. brega. It may be sus- . briser. might come to signify a swamp. break of such a kind. broken fratta. Dan. and when once thrown down. brogille. In like manner Lat. quarry from Fin. Brake. thing is brought under control. it is not surprising that the word has here. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). braka. e. brage. brog above mentioned. the lever by which the string was drawn up. braquer un canon. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. as in the case of horse-breaking. We — .D.D. brambles. gebrUche. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . thicket. game. OFr. to break. and Lat. Lat. watered. is formed murd. in northern climates. to distinct. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. brake. a spinning-wheel.' It. bregille. a marsh. briers. gebroge. to break. or A A ' . bruch. to break or fracture. breuil. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. or a wood in a marshy place . It. murrokko. de Vaud. marsh. Corrfeze bredgea. G. word. referred brake. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. properly braking or subduing them. brak is a frame in which strip. subigere. a thicket. brambles. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. gebroge. to pound. brook. any thicket of brakes. bregar. In ON. to brush.bracan. a fen. or overthrow of trees by the wind. —Ovid. In the sense of a thicket. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. ing of flax or hemp. Fr. to rub. a stream. murran. dial. pasture. tnurdma. brego. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. brog or brake. broeck. bushes.— . brog. murtaa. . broil. t° moisten. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. gebiisch. cover G. brushwood. BRAKE to external force. The Fr. have thus Du. low wet land bruch. gebrUche. Sp. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. gilum. conSo in G. To the same bend a bow. to subdue. as well as in the case of the e. cetur. It. is braukti. Dan. braeken. a brace on board a ship. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. nemus. riguus. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brake. a harrow. to knead or mix up in a mortar.

So Swiss gaggi. bruk. Bav. a shrub from Bret. &c. . from Lat. Pl. constrain. Port. young twig {brom-beisser. Grisons bruch. brushwood. brank. Fr. a small deri\'ation . bruk. . Sir Topaz.D. — branca. brass. heath ON. . heath. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. or ling. broussaille. brok. a shrub . stink . G. is the draff or excrement of the com. The same form becomes in It. Thus in Lat. Brank. and waste growths. brarn. broom." The bmno a • on . bromboli. It. brenn hesken. bruskoad. brin (as It brano). See Brush. Fr. in the same sense. and E. That beareth the red hepe. a burning fragment of wood.G. In like hrst. the thorn apple or stramonium. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. ordure . brand. also pfriemkraut. branche. branchia. &c. 2. w. bren. a halter. heath. a bud. breanan. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. Dan. a shoot or twig. brin d. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. heath (Bret. a bridle or bit . bro7n. 1 8. Pl. Thus we have w. from brug. Rouchi bren d'orMe. bran.). thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. brake. Bramble. as AS. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. It will be found that shrubs. a rod or twig. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. to brank. from Servian pnit. brom. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. titio. thorns and Gen. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. young buisson fort epais. brenda. broem. cack. from virga. a heath. a bud It. pfriemen. it glitters — — . bramble Du. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. Gael. brandello. a briery plot. heath. brandr. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. the bull-finch. brancas. a vine twig Bav. bronbo. brano. bushes. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. Broom. a shoot. . bracken or fern . bran. AS. sawdust. brang. G. as. brandmurk. piecemeal brindelles. bruch. . gebriiche. The naof strain. branco.D. Bret. brandiiialil. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. Piedm. brous. braam. Serv. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. Russ. berneux. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. sprouts. breme j Sw. brin. Then by comparison with claws or arms. a dunghill. iii. sweet broom. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. brosst. breun. Brancare. dirt . brughera. bretnel. i. to or iron. a thick bush. gebroge. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. bruk. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. to gripe. or with It. briars. brug). brank. broembel-CBppel. wood composed of twigs. to burn. nasty. brem. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. bruch. Diez. thicket of brambles Cot. and thence a shoot. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. brenna. excrement. Bret.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. a firebrand. Fr. also a marshy low ground or fen . . cabbage sprouts Fl. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. brejo. broccoli. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. . that is to say. brwnt. brog. the branch of a tree. to bridle. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. pfropf. broust. —Ducange. brug. G. Brand. a roA. in the sense oi fern. or other plants of a like nature. virgultum. brouskoad. Bret. . what is cast out as worthless. a bud. Gael. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . from brand. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . clutch. ground full of briers. brambles. A mark made by burning. Bran. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. w. to -brugen. Branch. compress. pfriem in the sense of an awl. brein. sedge burkni. piece of anything. may be so called in analogy with Bret. ear-wax mud. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. bren. heath. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. As ON. It. burning brennen. bit by bit. Fr. apiece orbitbrandone. snotty . broom. hallier. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. pected that brake. from gaggi. restrain. . prufye. brugek. But we find It. Bret. brenn. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. braeme. chaff.. G. E. a single plant of heath. — . Thornas and bremelas.

the spelling to kindle. brasca. brane-wood. brush. to shake. Lye. flagrans. Fr. Chron. a To Brandish. a pan of hot coals. bra?ier. brangle or brawl in E. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. aqua ardens. to make display . weinbrenner. comes from thence. Milan.^Brandle. brasa. stake. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. Braser. n. Bailey. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. a round dance. to confuse. to shake The word brisil. bruciare. to burn. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. — . to totter. set on fire. as Fr. to shake. brouir. Brasil. to brangle. to make sense of a bright red dye. spirit distilled from wine. to crackle . brasca. braise or hot coals. brandolare is exbrandish. as Jamieson explains it. to make shine with shaking. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. to hurl with great force.pan of coals. With top trimbling. brandiller. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. Formerly brandy-wine. Ija. distilled wine. brazil. branler. bragia. to blaze. then brandr. Fr. — . eldibrandr. braise. fire-wood. not. It. totter. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. e. a stick. to solder iron.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. braser. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. firebrand. to sound of the Fr. to shog. to and fro in the hand. and branchis shaiand D. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. to distil . in Marsh. so. shake. E. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. a brusler. In the same way the set on fire . brennen. du Roi et laine. to Bailey. bruan. Du. N. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. brazeiro. brandigh. all. So. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. splinter. Brangle. Sw. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. bransella. to quarrel. G. prasseln. bum. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. bryne. became ashes Pied. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. is bntan. Fr. brastlian. brascct. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. perplex. a fragment. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. from used in dyeing cloths.well. WaUon. to braze or lute. briiler. bracia. and bruir. Chron. brasa. brin. was in use Fr. Fr. bruzi. noise. bresil. gebrannter wein. to glisten or flash. to roar. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. brustle. incendium. to murmur. Diez. d'Angl. crackle. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. 59. — . brandende wijn. ish. to dash. brausen. morsel. apparently very distinct from each other. braza. to French brawl or brangle. hoisting to the fall. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. or in stick. bracea. Sw.. To brase AS. De Goes. to rustle. brasil. It. to burn. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. E. to bicker 2nd. before the discovery of America in the brandir. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. braise. Brase. G. Guill. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. — ting to confusion. firewood. conbillet. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. plained by Florio. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. bransle. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. brandiller. It. billet. V. put. Jam. Fl. embraser. The corresponding form in Gael. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. branler. the colour than hitherto known. given to the country. live coals. Kil. To brand. to burn. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. bragale\ wood. brand. to brandle. Fr. forms brasil. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . brus^. Port. a roaring fire. Gris. The name Brandy. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. faire fracas. glowing embers . as again by well as the blade of a sword. urens. bruire. crackle. to brandle or The It. Thus the bound up again. branla. and scold. ist. The tre brangillis. to brustle. Hume in brand in ON. hot Fr. AS. Bret. make a — . from to vociferate. De Barros considers vinum ardens. make an outcry. Manx bransey.

Gael. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. bras. Circumeunt cibertesca. neita girl). brat. braeye. G. brettys. Du. ni autres choses sur Due. Brangle. ship. 1156. — . a wooden tower.^ — Sverris Saga. bratach. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. ferruminare. Sp. ' A vraale. braede.— Fl. Lorraine bravon. Pm. braion. brat. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Florio. Westphal. deblaterare. flesh of a leg of pork. frequentative of braire. 1224. at brasa.D. A. bartising. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. Brat. burning coals. a cloak. a plank or board.' BRASS BRAY et AS.propugnaculum. to scold . Pisana in Mur.D. to braze. is The word — uous name for a woman. apron. slakker-bortchen. breteque. in the first instance of boards. bretesche. brces. Cot. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. The same correspondence is seen between It. A dispute or squabble.96 Roquefort. W. discord. saillies. boarding being sbranare. bralle. lat'te. borderinge. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. a Lap. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower.— Diez. Brawn. slut. OFr. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. Bailey. breyon. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. the calf of the leg. Brass. baltresca. ON. then a parapet. contignatio. muscular parts of the body. It.D. AS. See Bray. bred. a fortification. a lump of flesh. a parapet. a patch of cloth. a loud noise. braodhlach. a slabbering-bib. Swiss bradle. —-Jam. brandillo. calf of the leg. cob. a rag . Fr. a contemptuous name for a young child. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. The muscular part of the body. Jam. as a brawling brook. a battle-girdle. Brattice. pil. bruir. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Sc. the buttocks. It . ^Altieri. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. squall. pan- — Rayn. much and high and make a disturbance bawl.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. a lath. strepitus 2. braser Fargent. OHG.' Hal. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. brass. a contempt- banner. coassatio. Bartizan. So also See Brag. brdto (ace. bribe de viande. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. bronze. tasce. I. branle. 2. Cot. See Brandish. a. or on the top of a wall. Fr. bransle. a lump of flesh.— Braid. braoilich. a rag . especially that used in the working of iron . A land of dance. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. to cry. braiio. Cologne broden. bratdn). bretays). Many gambes. to shake. bas morceau de viande brawhng. Paris. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. KiL Prov. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. slibro. Brawl. Certainly a little girl. bretesque. bradon. equivalent to the Du. bartisan. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. fraiche. Brave. brett. to tear piecemeal. cloth. boutures. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . breyon de kinds of .— Remade. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). braon. a clout. any piece. a mantle. brat. brailler. to carbonado. buttock Sc. roar. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. or whether it be from Fr. as rashers upon quick burning coals. Kil. berd. esbraotier. Hist. OFr. a — A from the confused noise. bran. bratidone. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. a lump. from branler. noise. —^Bronze. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. slibro {neita. bmhon for brado7i. bronzare. from Fr. Betrax of a —^Jam. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing.walle — Pr. bradlete. frame of laths. as lattice. trul. from Sc. Sup. and bronzo. Fris. to Gael. as scrawl from scrabble. whether contracted from brabble. luncheon. Wall. Mundart. bronzacchiare. solder. &c. le repasser un peu sur la braise. P1. A.brettysing. a rag. brazen. rag. calf of the leg. as criailler of crier. to copper. Dan. to solder. Fr. 368. to talk at bralle op. It. Math. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. The verb is probably derived from the brase. . bratid calf of the leg. — Deutsch. breyon d'chaur.

braa. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. — . upbraid. to cry out. e. bradar. D. And with a traid I tumyt me about. bray. rustle.y. a . to bray in a mortar. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. imitate or resemble one. W. to break. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. Beryn. bragd — ON. to cry Port. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. to rub Fr. and fracasously. resound . crepo and E. Lat. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. breche. to sound very loud and very harshly. Bailey. brame. F. Gr.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. Fr. brot. Chaucer. disturbance. — koa. or cry out loudly . paxog. is .used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. yell. to resemble. bregar. to work up in a mortar.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. starts crackling up. yell. appearance Hal.g. Fin. roar. make a disturbance. bregar. ^p&xia. to knead. 2. at once. bruzir. to The cup was uncoverid. Wal. the sword was out break. .fracas. to scold. paste or dough. i. . to bellow. at a braid. braa.ch. broyer. to braid the hair. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. Du. Bread. turn. brikan. Cot. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. AS. regi. Ppvxia. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. brechen. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. iU-favouredly — in Jam. 7 . breuan. ON. R. I'll live and die a maid. brice. — — — explained motus loud noise. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to roar. instantane. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. ON. mos. with or without a final d. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another.ear rog. fractus j Gr. riAprjyvvfu. to N. a brack. to cry out. The Lat. vapna-brak. a rag f . BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. E. to braid. R. The ON. to bray like an ass. Q. to smack or the eye. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. D. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. will. to start. And at a braid he gun it bende. rattle. to roar as the sea. Chaucer. braea. to rumble.. to rush. or wound. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. a crash. brak. See Brake. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. augnabragd. ser. &c. in Jam. a breach Cot. Then is simply. a mill. soft . . brugier. Breach. V. noise . Cat. breach. broad. to pretend. bruire. to roar or bellow. G. braidar. gestus. to snatch. bratsche. bragr. as the notion of turning crack. fish.' To Bray. Bread. bregda. the miller's dog. Prov. to break. The same He might don us both a villany. as the voice of the ass. abraid. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. V. father. braire. to resemble him. &c. relation is seen between Lat. Bret. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to t. to crash. cyprinus latus. Swiss bratschig. rangere. to crash. to have the lineaments of one's ON. to resemble. a wink. crash. brak. braid. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to braid. fragor. baiyl. brand. verb to break. crackle . to tear Bret. To Break. ing. at braga eftir euium. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. Fr. Prov. as OE.^ Fr. crash. a rent. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. bru. Dunbar braessem. kind. plait. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. bragd is also applied nets. Goth. k. OE. weave The ON. To rub or grind down Sp. and make a hideous noise. to bawl. D. to the seijauntes. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. a brake for hemp or flax. explaining a very obscure application of the E. twist. the sound — of arms. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. Then. V. to break. to braid acquires the sense of bend. &c. on. roar. G. which has given much trouble to commentators. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. From the or brack in a wall. to break Fr. &c. and to signify the fracture itself. braidir. father. and frangere. ybrayid. brage. rogi. 145.

corresponding to G. met de bridse slaan. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. brugga. Fr. braciarc. — — strument for smacking. a horse's twitch. to bind. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. bruise. in Schilter. brist. the breech or buttocks. breinse. from AS. broden. Fris. representing the sound of a blow. burst. bracecs . /esses. or the blow itself. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. rubbish. breson. brisd. brasiare. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. to breech. Breast. bruzun. to fry Then from a Gl. Swiss brdtsch. . an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Breeches. Piedm. Prov.'— Gl. their stings draw . To Brew. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. are in like manner ' . braga. from brace. little bits of wood Berri briser. . OFr. britze. brisoler. brissle. of trees. bryi^ga. — . switch. to burst.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. to smack. Dev. to fry . as by the Sc. AS. brusc. G^nev. briiz. bretilles. morsel. brijsen. bruzir. Breeze. brut. a crum. braca. Du. rubbish. einem de britze geven. broil. briosat'. one on the breech so that (klatschet). briste. instead of being derived from 'La. properly to crackle. chillness or shivering. as. &c. vapour. a to lay fly-flap. bruc. as. braux. broiiwen. malt. polenta. braca. G. Dtyden. Swiss AS. Gl. to crackle. bark Fr. brasser. to simmer. broza. brisciare. from ligare. a cool wind.D. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. noise. breme. sheep's droppings bruss. to shiver for cold. remains of leaves. of E. E. dial. b}-as. Du. brise. It. drawers. braga. the bust. to bray. See Brick. cloven. fitzen. fail. G. QNtsterviald) pritschen. forms analogous to E. bridsen. bra. orts. peitschen. AS. simmering. . to hum. brodem. malt. PI. Gael. bre- I'os qui bresole. braich.britschen. brossi!. Gl. windy withal. a girdle. brcekur j It. E. brosame. bremse. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. brezling. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. to resound. to feize or feaze. the soler. We bragezj on. Breeze. brire. to roast. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. . braia J OFr. and brought beneath between the legs. may be from the wurh fesser. Bracha. i5r(Z^. Du. de bridse geveii. a box.98 borst. coaldust. brezzare. Fr. . brustia. The Teutonic verbs. grillare. to murmur. Russ. and other rubbish dibris. Brize. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. breeze. to crush to break. of straining. w. an odour. to rattle (as hail). bris de charbon. braie. braies. braies. as commonly explained. Breeze. braucn. Lat. brdtschen. bresilles.t. grill. breath. brok. brimme. as the G. breost. Du. a gadfly. as in the case of twitter. bris. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. The Breech (Prov. grillen. brison. Sw. Isidore and Tatian. to be misty and cold. crush. to brew. fastening . Goth. Biglotton. trembling. G. xyligogio castigare. brijselen. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. bratscher. So ON. G. an into shiver. brache. briosa. murmur. bris. briosa. to brew. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. Compare OE. are related to Prov. and E. forms. Briss and buttons. brcEth. de Vaud. a cramp-iron for holding things together. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Fr. braguier. a crum Du. brumtnen. Breath. Bret. sprouted corn. murmur—Vocab. also to chill and shiver with cold. Hume in Jam. brasiuiii. then to broil. griller. brezza. but more probably the E.vare. Lat. Hence the Lat. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. — . brimsa. siibligar. Originally probably the word signified steam. Dan. brinisa. Swiss Rom. binding. briig. G. simmer. Bret. break. brew. — Halma. zare. brciz. brodel. — See Broth. bragues. a twitch for a horse. . a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Piedm. clout for a child. subligaculum. — Brist. a smack. chilly. Gael. applied to shivering. Rom. a cold and windy mist or frost . the dry spines of furze broken off. trusts. point to G. Bruise. so AS./ssus. — And blood. to break. bandage or truss for a rupture.). Prov. —Briss. singing bone. to buzz. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. with It. body brostia. scent. to whip.

a brig or priodor. AS. E. bribe de pain. A — A — . a married man or woman Lat. pavement Lith. bitill. two-masted vessel. Thom. Gael. The Sw. Hdcart. . bro is applied not only to a bridge. brau. buckler J ON. brughiera. feast. Neumann. Walach. fraoch. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. AS. In the patois of briccia. a heath brughera. Pro(merch=:maid). heath. broken victuals. brere.bergantino. bride. and ODu. to boil. BRIGADE dead. company. malt. to brew. ibrukkti. ap. guma. bruk. graf-ol. masted vessel. Trovarfor bride-ale. — . to press. a briole. E. sugga. Pol. to break. funeral. to pave. brice. briicke. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a cheat. E. remarkable that the Gr. bricge j G. bara briw. brar. braut. bryd-gutna. If the foregoing were not so clear. to boil. a Bride. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . . the Fr. especially to a letter or command. to rub. barren land priodas. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . Du. Brick. bruskr and buskr. Brier. Fr. OHG. — . Lat. daughheath. conjux. division of an army. Flor. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. Brique. from bit. bribour. married. ON. Dan. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Fr. breve or brevis. privus. thick appropriated. bretonica. a fragment. Goth. jipaaaiii. W. malt. it is applied to the letter to OE. Brief.Fr. priod. bryd-eale. Lang. httle bit. See Broth. It. birbante. from the last 99 of which. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. brigade. briiths. a bride Brig. The origin of the word is the w.gfiugga. peculiar. brittil. bricou. . Bridle. Brigade. bidsel. AS. So in The Prov. betony brulicame. grug. Bridal. corresponding or letter. . . crew.privatus. . AS. brA. Bridge. stone-bridge bnikkoti. twopares Lat. feast of espousals. Gl. bably contracted from brigantine. berwi. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. gf2o. buskins. brigata. to Isrew. Fl. is still used in this sense. brocaly. Fr. Diez. son. broosekens. fastningar-ol. a bit. a rogue . Ihre. brieden. bruk. lipdZu}. but probably Bricoteau. hlafes brice. G^n^v. piece of burnt clay. bruyere. bread. brasser. brug. bruith. broken. nurus G. frayer. bro. Ducange. Gael. betonica. has briguer. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. bulicame. served (Patois de Bray). a wedding priod-fab. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. to break to pieces bricalio. brilt. fervere. bridge. bruarium. but to a paved road. from the Normans. to pave brukkti.. OSw. imprint. w. from Bridegroom. arf-ol. of burial. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. the newly. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. In E. broken bread. in the sense of OSw. to circulate. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a lump of bread. brahi. Grisons bruch. Bridal. consort with. to prepare. So It. . brutg. whence berw. as so. a crum. to meet together. bygga. pavement. fragment. a lump of bread briber. one's ovin. — — — — — — . AS. collect bits of food. birbone. a crum. or brizo. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. any jot or crum. Bribe. Applied ous words derived from break. as. Rouchi brife. ment of anything broken. a bride. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. A bribe is A — — arval. to appropriate. which however is undoubtedly from brace. groom (mab=:son). brood. to boil. ter-in-law.groom. E. a married man guma.It. a rogue. a fragment. the equivalent of to the dial. sponsa.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. brique de pain. to press in. and that from It. Mid. bro. ' . brakes of high-grown ferns. brukkas. briw. fit. Due. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. a heath. to stamp. AS. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. . Hence OE. briwo. bo. troop. to tlie brico. a bush. from Bret. a boiling. It — is Kil. owned also propriate. bride. It. a beggar. with transposition of the r. brigantine. to beg one's bread. In the G. priod-ferch. beaten way Dan. a proprietor. . then the marriage itself. Cot. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. appropriate. pier. jetty. a lump of bread. pavement brolegge.pritil . a quoit of stone. ' — .rough with brambles and bushes. Priodi. Diefenbach com. the marriage si in brigata. berwedd. a man. bridelj OHG. a sow. Sp. a little king's writs. boiling up brocoliere. brygga. Brewis. and berweddu.

brdgen. pugna. to contend with another. In the same way to strive is.Lat. clarus. manifest ON. and the E. to make a loud noise. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. kilistua. It. It. In Fin. rover either by sea or land. to rove. there are many armour. is easily understood. bairhts. riis ' — Chron. XafXTTpoQ. dine. biartr. — Probably then to strive. to glamr.D. malandrini. Gall. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. The primary meaning of Sp. to resound. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. a sound. with respect either to sound or colour. willata. brigant. sound. Brigand. from hall.shine. the bench-notes resounded. \oice. bray. schateren. OHG. lay was sung. — Beowulf. glbram. clear sound. Adelung. brigandare. Flor. inde squammatus. tumult. Brilliant. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. A strepere. briga.' The sense of strife or combat express. to sound. Schmeller. Goth. seems to be to exert force gar el area. and ner me hit iherde. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. From ON. splcnornd de brigandine. brigan. to piracy. to cry 'Schmid OE. and led it away. Brigata. and. schiteren. the grew high.glampa. splendour. on his — own account. braid. himself to serve men of merit. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to strive for. a spark. loo BRIGAND lor. speech. briegen. beorht. tuilahtaa. to cry. in the sense of a robber. Wilista. 1351. Beorktode bene sweg. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. in the first instance. tinnitum clarum movco. briga. clear. Du. to ring. kii:'a. bright bearhtm. and. AS. to shine. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . clare lucens. — A A .prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. clang. Florio. a brigantine. rixa. — brigante. wilella. a glittering. Heo — song That AS. brigare. a small light pinnace pro. jurgia. cange has 'Veles. Owl and beorhtian. See Brake. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. to glitter. — — . combat. — Due. that of Fr. They or brigantini. twinkling. then.' in Due.clare ^tinniens. in later times a robber or highway-man. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. brebrigare. Gr. at a later period. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . to reservavit. splendour. strife. to bend a bow It. show the origin of Lat.' torum.— . dine. — Briganbriga. a pirate. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set .' The passage from the sense of a light. to shift for with care. clangour. and to associate with them. squamma . So G. brcEhtin. 1654. clear. Bav. outcry. representing a sudden noise.dorem clarum reflecto. —Capgrave. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. and diligence. splendens .pracht. Bright. transparent. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. brak. tion. Xa/iTTii). bragen. bregar. Mid. A. the gleeman's song. necessary business. tinkle. The E. . Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. clear. glamra. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. — brigante. and hence be explained glampi. etincelle. to shine. bracht. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. tinnitus. glamm. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. It. . secondarily. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. bryhtm. brawl. It. labour. 312. also called briganders. Due. and secondly. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. noise. glir. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. hell. Lat. to rob. The Ir. moment. a noise. brigare. — Brigantine. praht. may play the pirate or thief at sea. Swab. glitter. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. shriek with laughter.

from bringe. brant.' Elyot in Way. rugire (cervorum. grdzil.' d'etre marie . s. to sound deep or hollow.). dial. a rod. The identity of ON. spraing. edge Pol. brumft. ON. an apron. G. that the original meaning of the Sc. a stick. to . to utter cries. to parch. AS.preni. to glitter . to shimmer. whether of desire or anger. coloured in stripes. E. reecho.D. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. komottaa. grullo. briller. Dief. brissle.its vent in cries and roaring. kommata. furious. Kil. the lap or bosom. — . In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. griller). brullo. brow of a hill. ring. bar. originally the lap folding over the breast. to wish or covet. brastlian. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. breme. komista. sonitum edere bremen. grisser. — g. to twinkle. brandr and Fr. surface of the ocean. kimina. brummen. Prov. rugire. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. Subo. greDiet. brennistein. bremmen. The E. os qui bresole. which seems identical with rim. voux. Sc. have then in Fr. to roar. 1 1 64. glisten. the heat of animals. the edge. border. Rayn. brim Magy. whence bilbil-goda (literally. earnestly . Sw. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. crackle. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. Fr. to storm. ON. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. bramer. as is the case also with Pl. to shine. The expression is now confined to the sow. griller. hence the bosom. barmr. briller (related to each other as OFr. fringe (Lat. bresoler (Gloss. Du. briller. lip of a vessel. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. to shine. tience. — — So Fr. barm. bremmen. to make a crackling noise. . . margin. greedily to covet Cot. brim. rut. kiimottaa. to roar. Brimstone. lap of a garment . frequently interchange. bry7ie. to glitter distance .) brimi. Brindled. sparkle. fierce. bryn. It. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). brillare. brame. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. bray as an ass bramire. ous. brame. the verbs Flor. rym^. post. vigorHal. to glitter. (poet.ioTiviS acutus. fire. burning stone. burning. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. to creak. ter. striped or streaked. and 1. also to reflect. Langtoft. Supp. brezil. bramar. Tresiller. brama. brisoler. clangor tinniens. the meaning is transL' amour. to shake. 154. fimbria) . kajata. Sc. Wtb. gresiller. gresiller. border. as in Langued. to fret . duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. to burn.— BRIM . : ' — bone). border. brunft. The meaning of the Fr. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. identical with passion. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. AS. brinfire. pMiller. . Said of swine when in heat. brand-krossottr. leonum). to creak. the eye-brow. to crackle. Rugere. a borDu. ling noise and a sparkling light. brommen. In the same way Sw. a border. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. bramar. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. is used of raging. as well as bl and gl.— Brinded. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. Closely connected is OE. breme. chime). griller d'impatience. ardere desiderio. Brem. It. to crackle. breziller. beam. Dan. to make bilbil). brmdottr. or violent action. and corresponding to these. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. breziller. parched. sprainged. of the eye. crackle . to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. the singing of Sodom — — . lap. shine. excited. Thus Lat. It. der. to broil. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. the sow is brimming. vattubryn. Tutschek. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. 754. a long. from brandr. To Brim. barm-cloth or barmskin. perent. with an initial br instead of gr. Brim. the heat of animals. Hence with an initial s. cross-barred in colour. bramire. bremas. a streak. s. brummen : de soge brummet. to quaver with the voice. as of meat in broiling . brdnnsten. FJ. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. finds the Fr. to shine. Fl. to long for a thing. In Fr. Swiss Rom. on. kimmaltaa. brimmen. to sparkle. glit. A . small gravel. noise made by meat in broiling. kimista. ON. 1. to resound. — — — . Lith. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. Streaked. broiled. fringe . — Rim. broil . Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. grisler.

breaking of the waves brim sior. brocco. to roar. is to erect the hair. bruched (Fr. Da. breast. spur. brot. to turn up the point of anything. brusco. brittle. Abroacli. a skewer. It. In the N. brcit. Port. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. bresk. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Breeze been connected with the Sc. has under It. Prov. borstel. from brande. Commonly explained as from Fr.' Nat. the surf. a cold and windy mist or frost. broccata. britchet. brim. brickie. Sc. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. Swiss to stand out . Brisk. Palsgr. Brym. fragile. — — . ruffling. briota. brime. the brisket or . a fragment. quick. Salte sand is called brimsand. to stick. spricka. braidsj ON. as. fierce.. a morsel. to goad. e. as a noun. bros. Walach. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. rebursiis. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver.g. p. — bryme.). breidr. brisk in taste. flames. bricho (with the diminutives. Bristle. to thrust. brijn (Kil. a rod or twig. bronchus. Fr. Mid. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. craw of a bird. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. brog. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Fr. brocciare. rebrousser. to set up one's birse. to bud. Sc. See Brand. brytan. to break. brddj Goth. to spur. as unripe fruits. — in Due. brodden. borzen. Liquamen vel garum. sharp. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. or — . a bud. It. birse. brezza. against the grain . brim (poet. Fr. byrst. sour. . Gl. to break. whence may be explained the Sc. to set it a going. Prov. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. See Spread. Hal.Lat. a stitch brocher. brich. and. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. to burn. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. bryde. or the full • . ON. brimhliod. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. fantas'* tical.. a peg sbrocco. breaking out into growth. sprocco. Hence ribrezzare. grim. Brickie. Compare also E. hot-tempered. brote. fiscbryne. to break. roar of the sea saltr. Cot. Sp. expression. britar. /3pE^m. cK) the . birssy. Sw. bros. sprout. brindelles de balai. from AS. strong itself. Ptg. thick — A elastic hair. form bris. bruckle. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. It. as. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. angry. apt to break.procio. a shoot or sprig. a belly. broca. brimme. broche. and hence. brissko). a morsel . Alfr. broca. an awl. harsh vin brusque. brocco. ' . to begin upon it. saulmeure.rcendij'i. brandello. — . setting the hair on end compare It. Bret. a crum. birsle.'— Vita'abbatum S. to birstle. brusk. man's throat. of astonishment. reburrus. Brine. a button broche. from break. bristly . is called a birssy day. a stormy brimsea . like the Broad. Du. a deluge. smart taste. ' breast. Brittle. brim. brocher. chest. Fris. brin. very salt brimi. and Sc. Russ. G. to put one in a rage . emotions which produce it. NE. as. — A . bryne. rash. wine of a sharp. 'V^. flame. brisciare. stitch. Fr. Fr. See To Brim. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). a rebours. humorous. a brooch. a brad or tack. It. Brooch. to stitch. brusque. a spit. brioshko. 222. borzos (struppig). ribrezzoso. borst. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. are used in the sense of brittle. broc. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. a bit . metaphorically. briota. briocho. brocchus. prick with Sw. . coli. a clasp. bringe traced through the brano. birstle. to stab Gael. Fr. . startling. brust. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. trembling. of E. to broil. broccare. setting the hair on end. Dan. suddenly angry. brezzare. Bret. to spur. crabbed. b. briser. Bohem. to shiver for Sold or for fear. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. britar. Formerly written brotil. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. lively. Zeuss. and forms on. to shoot. bruskett. to crack. Lat. Pectusculum. Then as the effect of shivering. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. brittle. Brisket. . . sprouts. Boh. Berri. brockle. i. Brocade. a bud. eager. The Pl. Gr. to spit. Antiq. to scorch. Prov.).D. birs. brichet. brissle. a slip or sprig of an herb . . aculeus. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. Russ. shoot. brocar. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. bringe. Du. the surf. to broach a business. the twigs of a besom. a projecting tooth It. bringue. sticking up . rude.

tufted ornaments. brodio. a flake of snow sion. brerd. Fr. with Sc. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. piebald . gresiller. houx. spotted. brindled.sound. to spur. So from Pol. to crackle. brucach. breard. a freckle. broglio. brucilare. brusler. parti-coloured. gold and silver. to darn. sparks E. to crackle. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. frocadura. — The proper sense is that of Fr. It. the shoot of corn. a mole. Brocket. It of br the Fr. storms. has grisser. shuffle. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. broccato was used to signify stuff . birsle. to crackle. A fried or boiled steaks). is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. to On the other hand the Sp. Fr. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. and AS. Compare also AS. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. ToBroider. parched. to boss. bustling. dar seems derived from borde. broiled. Cot. and w. Florio. or glowing coals broged. noise. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. noisy. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. to instigate.— B. ornamented with a raised pile. E. — — . brustle. scorch. brocach. silkes-borda. Compare G. grullo. brastlian. From direct imitation of Brock. kled breac. bordar. Gael. thread. broder. a confused streaked face of the animal. fundamental origin. Hal. broukit. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. Broker. or salted fish on coals. trouble. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. embroidery. borprick. v. a To Broil. briefh. stump. bramowanie. border ornamented with silk. Fr. bmsciare. streaked. bordo. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. margin. the line of development has been something different. a border. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. brychau. a quarrel. a border ornamented with gold. or snag. Thus brod. Sc. speckled. to crackle as a shell in the fire. Bret. A badger. hart of two years old. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. broc. to parch or broil. an edge. a fallingThe sense has been out. Contracted from Fr. braird. motes. grislement. frecSee Brawl. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. hurly-burlies. The Bret. prod. to streaked or speckled in the face. ciare. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. carbonado. brocco. b?-od. parch. badger . a badger. — . onbryrdan. a brim. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. B. to broil. . whence broccare. a flock or Gael. briz. Cot. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). W. atoms . a brouhaha. bruler. trouble. creak. age was termed a pricket. to scorch. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. or roast on the braise. brocart. rinj'. Sc. speckled. Ihre has guU-bord. a peg. brasuole. border. Grisons brascla. To roast upon hot coals. brod. embroidering.. It. point to an origin in Bret. broud. AS. — brissle. Icnotty. freckled. tori shows that. brusuole. prasseln. broil. bram. sting. forming to jumble. brasiller. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . brouda. agree in being the extremity of a thing. a point. to knots or loops. rustle. tumult broighleach. q. precisely analogous to the Sc. a prick. to crackle.. to prick. initial . — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. of pointing out their latent defects. broccuto. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. The ON. blusters. to embroider. brasbrasciuolare. bawling. from the white. to embroider. to burn. spots. brasiller. brullare. . knobby . brooked.tumultuous. bj'oil. R. broil. brych. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. to burn. broighlich. Sp. broice. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. — Fl. confound. here. broc. — Gower in It. Here to ornament with needle-work. Ptg. or It. a b?-ustolare. a brecJi. brasolare. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. Surrey in R. 103 embroidered. brizen. Dan. Gael. to stud broccoso. a freckle. brouFr. froco. and bord or bred. parti-coloured.

Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. brokoti. Tooke's Catherine. See Broth. If to vomit . brakyne. and fishes . the young of any animal . 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. braken. faulty. See Wreak. as. keep warm. . Alb. refuse. has exactly the force of G. refuse brakowad. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. spittle. Kil. inspect. bronze. vrage. make out. embers. — broeden. refuse brakovat. which E. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. warm. to garble. . . spittle . to blame. to hatch. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. burning. et A. buy and sell by commission. braeck goed. analogous to Bohem. to scorch. to copper. the spawn of fishes. brack. stain. brak. in the sense of rejection. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. term was correcfo^ir. goods damaged by sea-water. to hatch. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. inspection. bronce. brands. brid. Fr. Lat. — a spark. Sc. an outcast or rejected sheep. find fault with. insects. Pl. cherish. brae. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. brod. find fault — — — fuse matter. in which sense the OHG. brod. refuse wares. bronze. a brood . The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. criticise (makeln). cracker. brasa. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. and to reject the damaged and unsound. to — garble. Alb. brumo. raquer. hot. to emit sparks. broen. — point out the faults. — . Bret. a cough Hal. damaged. nounce unsound. Teutonic class : Du. an operation performed over hot coals. to sort brakovanie. 396. Russ. embers. brut. In those countries the term braker.— — . to throw blame upon. On • tliis principle the G. phlegm. raca. to brew. bronzo. wreak.— Lib. bridde. to be hot. to criticise. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. OFr. Bronzare. on. Fl. G. screatio Junfus . from break. pan metal. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack.— Breed. Prov. S.D. ordure. brak. brwd. bric-a-brac. ON. brot. brack-gut (Sanders). mediationem quorundam J. a fault. but from the primary sense of the It. The Langued. Dan. brechen. Du. G. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. to spit . appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brydio. Bronze. bredan. 38. or brascla. Sp.D. The use sunburn. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. to pro- to reject . • . Commonly referred to the notion of warming. briiten. a broker. hrak. Per manus et old worthless horse. trumpery. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. matter of blame weak place. to hatch G. brack-gut. to .D. filth. want. brieden. a breach or flaw.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. tan. Abbronzare. i. rejection Pol. glowing coals. to pick. selection. bring eggs and spawn into active life. whence the modern courtier. slaae vrag paa. hraki. Adelung. . [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. sort. brokers' goods. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. try . Du. damaged. dial. progeny of birds. a makeln. . wraken. abject. abbronzanchiare. dirty. and as an adj. fermenting. Grisons brinzla. embers to brund. See Brackish. to braze. blur. Pl.D. Jam. In the . to pick and choose. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. whnake. reject. fish-spawn broden. merchandises de rebut G. broiid. corrector. To blame mens ware. a chicken. brass does to Sp. brasa. to be wanting. hot. couratier. to sort goods . from makel. to roast on the embers. ODu. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. . to sit on eggs. mud. — Fl. brackefi. This word shows the same relation to It. refuse. designation is indkler. cast Lith. try out. sunburnt. : ' . G. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. refuse Fr. find fault with. w. fault censure. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. For the same reason the Kiittner. It may be compared with It. rejected. Brood.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. It. an . brunds. Pro v. with. lack. racaille. to nourish. correctarius. vile. tussis. sbrinzlar. e. to reject. To correct an exercise is to Lib. wrack-good. Pl. wrak. brokas. bronze. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. refuse goods. bracker. racher. to sparkle. vile.

bor. But the Walach. a hill. seethe. bank. bruich. bruc. brogues. broden. bank. briar. Gael. It is Brother. &c. breg. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. a hut or cottage It. brow. noise. to browse. eye-brow. a sprout. broth brothaire. Russ. bruith. G. bree. surDu. Limousin broudi. a bud brous-koad. mettle. to bubble up with noise. to boil. a caldron.) . broi. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. brouser. Brothel. branches. a shrub broust. braussa. brouskaol. pith. a river. border. low The AS. as rhododendrons. brost. 'Lzt. vigour. brawdj Slavon. a sprig. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . brusmalt. bruceti. . eye-brow. juice of briars. brouches. meal. bregh. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. . sprocco. Fr. a bud. Sanscr. Bav. Ger.. frui.D.D. OHG. to burn. bushes. brd. Gael. infusion. grow brossa. frucius. riviere. brocco. It. bryn. brue . on. bros. frater. . signifying twigs. or bushes and scrubby growths. rage. thick bush brousta. Prov. pour boiling water over. in which brinnan. margin. broth is sometimes used . Celtic. a derived from the boards. bank. steam from heated bodies. a shore. braces. Fr. brst. from Goth. Commonly Teutonic. Due. — exiit et heath. . warmth ch'an. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. bud. properly boiling water briihen.brons. OHG. and It. iVlanx broogh. briihe. Fr. brosses. signifying low wet land (Brem. to sprout. brushbroccoli. eye-brow. Bret. G. to browse. brous. simmer from the murmuring AS. cia. &c. brushbrothas) gives the OE. sproc. Roquef. brink. Sp. circuindedit cum familia. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. Du. to Pl. bruach. and also border.braubiti. a little house or cottage of timber. shrubs. . to use. BROOK brook w. spirit. brwd. rerum decoctarum. brlgh. shoot. — . wood . thairj w. The AS. brukjan. cabbage soup . to use. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. forms appear related to the Ir. . brass. strength Ir. shoots. eye-lash . brauwe. broca.' Due. brozia. or broken up . bruth. brouter. hovel. 105 Brook. bank. bordeau. bryii. sprot. borda. to roar. Dan. broeye. breg. riviera. waves. useful G. See Bramble. as small-pox. heat explaining the Prov. Kil. brucan. brouic. bordel. brosst. Bohem. vigour. . bhratrj Zend. Fr. sodden. brad. hot. to shoot. has briw. — ' . a spring. bruich. boiled . Mid. brstiti. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. to scald. w. a hill. juniper. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. sprout. Gr. &c. broth the ocean Sw. and Slavonic families. braew. ale . edge. Here we find throughout the Romance. brosses. dialects is very different. Bret. browys. face. surface of Broth. broieii. dumetum. brotar. Gris. to spring . to make sprouts brous-gwezen. shore . plants composed of twigs. a confused noise of winds. brov. to border. cabbage water. brdtaj Gael. strength. the bubbling or springing up of water. of which the variety of forms. and Sc. who is steaming with sweat. — . sordes seu strigmata young branch. .— Overyssel Almanack. kail brose. Pl. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. to bear patiently. to boil. Ppim. spuma. bruddeln. . brus. as Fr. broth Brown. broem bark. brio. bruitheati. of plants broust. the colour of things burnt. brun. Catalan brossa. A — . buds. brodem. brmi. grow into a bush. The softening down of the consonant bud. broo. bntdien. bruithim. borde. . to boil. brewis. to murmur. Lat. . sprout. . may be connected with Russ. Russ. verge. (for brodem). brpuster. breh. house of ill fame. a . It." Serv. was originally used in the innocent sense of . broza. Wtb. Prov. AS. fur Broom. bros. w. Gael. G. The origin is a re. brotar. heath. brouet. Sp. edge. OFr. . . Browse. chen. a little . eye-lid. brothas. heat. juice of meat. a source Gael. Serv. broth. to boil bruithe. braun. Brow. . breg. ceales briw. Pol. . broccola.spross. broth. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Bohem. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. pfriemkraut. briu. eye-brow. heath. Fr. bruno. brau. broc. laissent Domunculum. sense the Sc. or shoot. from ripa. G. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. bruscosd quam de arabili. Manx broie. Tam de terrS. eat. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. bratrj Lat. pottage. Cot. AS.brink. It. sprouts . hut. infusion the barley bree. Du. t— Cot. shore. bryn. on. broit. eminence . a bruth. Bohem. eye-lid. brabruach. augen-braune. Gael. G. brodo. enjoy Goth. brow of a hill. to use bruks. To digest. &c. sap. Sc. b7-un. brudi. thicket. awl-plant. protecting the eye. perhaps burnt coloilr. fabric consists. break out brewet. brennen. shrub with leafless pointed edging. brew . broud. brost.

a noise. splinters. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. bruire. Lang. a brush . a briser. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. dust. to break. and sighid therewithal. Sw. and also Brush. irruo. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. shivers. Pm. fescue . brosse. bruis (sing. bruit. a horse-brush. brossa. coal See Breeze. In E. chips. Fr. brusc (Diet. brico or brizo. a brush . it schall be al Sw. and in the second place a besoiB. Fr. borste. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. bricalio. a brush. to make a rumbling. brikan. bruiser. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. to crush. insultus. Fl. brist. . Bruise. a mote. G. OE. borste. and It. Piedm. orts. brysan. B?-usske. brist j Port. brustid. rubbish. bushy ground. borste. Gael. The Lat. borste. Sw. brosst. bush. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bruscolo. broustia. — Fr. burs. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. . Prov. ca7-bo>i. brosse. an enmy. That in all haste he wouli. rods. . a brush . bruito. K. to brush. p. a rumbling. escousse. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. E. Gael. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. Pr. twig. broken. desbrisar. a bud. wool-card. Pr. Fr. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . a blow. brottcher.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. or shoot. a brush . brosst. a brush. Bav. bruc. bris.— — i. ling or heath for brushes. — OE. Sp. biirste. bruscolo. brustia. Gael. brusca. Port. — those signifying a sprig. a bush of hair. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. brugir. The same relation holds good between G. It. brise. Cot. a — — (Agea) said. Lang.). a crum. field. biirste. a tuft of heath . to break or burst. ON. brossar. Brush. Palsgr. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. Fr. to butt. to stumble. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. — a bush. borst. brushwood. Prov. brous. Wicliff. broust. as It. britar. remnants of hay or fodder. to cleanse. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. crum bit . —Chaucer. Broach. dust. brist. briser. brusco. Brunt of a daunger. brMt. to make brusshes on. Castr. Beryn. On the other hand. Allit. to break. a brush. seems named from burst(on. . heath. E. G. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. Poems. briketo. brisar. broza. bross. crush. flax-comb brossettes. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. abroncar. burt. mg Cat. brusg. and actually come in collision. bruyere. a brush Swiss bruske. brous. a flax comb. The Bav. Piedm. appearin Goth. a bud or sprout Bret. 134. brisd. britar. brousso. It. 201. Pr. quisquilise. and Piedm. brusca. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. See next article. It. quasi twigs. and . Pr. to break to bits . * Brunt. NE.). bruskr. E.). brizeto. rubbish. detergere . effort. brunt. Brunt. or sodenly comyn' dust. Prov. brus. Pm. dust. blow burcar. .! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. OFr. dust. insilio. shoot brouskoad. —Fabyan. sordes. bross. also a head-brush. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. . bruise exOFr. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. broza. tremely. brust. to strike the foot against an obstacle. break. A. a shrub composed of small twigs . brusco. rubbish. fasx . brustia. brik. bris. Fr. Text Soc.— Palsgr. twig. brista) or breaking out . bris. briiis (in the pi. brit. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. AS. a bristle. 174. Cot. into a multitude of points. wood composed OE. bris. Prov. wool-card. Bret. wool-card. brossa. Bruit. bruscia. tuft of grass or hay. borste. bruzir. fragments. a bristle. . Hall in R. Alexander. shock. of twigs. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. modification of the same root which gives the E. brist. bud. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. And that best is. a little brizal. Diez. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. Gael. To brush then would be to dust.

who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. knock. is 1. pukkata. Formerly. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. from colar. soft It. 17th century. Magy. blast or strike with the forehead. — . does not hold. But see Bristle. not so plentiful a commodity. Cot. molle. pup. Diet. The cipally on the Spaniards. It. it is beuchen. Dan. It. bukke. rap. buchen. BUBBLE bruschetta. to butt. Fr. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. a push. tender. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . bucata. as G. and then to other wild tumour Lith. . the lower soak in lye. boh. a bubble. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. In G. buck-ashes. to wet Pol. a to the male deer.-wtt miekki. tap . bwch.steep or soak. colada. says Laudon. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. a. mollire. from weich. The place of such a 2. Bohem. . hog dressed whole). little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. Bohem. of wind.tare. moist. a bubble. pokka7na. caned' Hence those who established them. 1586. tender. buborek. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid.D. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. a. bugada. The term bocan is still ap. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. Fr. designation of a knob. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. to butt or jurr Dan. hump. soft . buck-ashes.biiken j Svi. w. de la Floride. and as a verb. mieknad. From an imita. the first wheal. Bubble. to filter. buquer. bubauti. . A . to buck. to butt. lye. a ashes.boukaat. bubseti. w. Etym. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. lye. Bret. It. wood. byge. or mok.buchen. and Fr. bubBuck.wet Lat. who resorted to the islands beichen. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. to a place used for the mouillir. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. I. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. a knock word. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. to murmur. Fin. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. — . different form. hump. buquer. to strain. bub. the linen at buck. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. Bret. open lath-work. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. was called bucking the linen. See Dupe. Illust. a fescue. when soap was tion is commonly taken. bokni. . Fr. bifbel. watery bud. bouk. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. to soak. bube. at a door. . and the bunch. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. top. boucaner. a steep for flax. buerj It. Gael. The natives of Florida. This bubette. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin.lessiver. . to Gael. to stick. bucking. boc. mote. Magy.to allow a free current of air. bucaIndies. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. bubbola. erweichen. very generally designated by the same puk. mokry. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. plied in the W. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). or projecTo Buck. News. bduclien. . because bucare does not in Marsh). The name. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. drying of produce. to bubble. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. Pol. as a buck rabbit. Sp.' Palsgr. Pref A. was called in Fr. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. soft. bog-aske. boc. bublati. Sc. also applied Una. to soften . in which the flesh dish.derivation has been much discussed. Pol. the upper for coifee. faire la lessive. to soften. to soften. a hole. bucquer. The male goat. The word was very generally Buccanier. to soak. to which in their language they call bou. 1857.byka. blister. bub. March 28. thunder gently . bubiti. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. and exercised their cruelties prin. Sp. maban and baban. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to bump as a bittern. bouc. — — ' A : ' ' . Esthon. boil animals. . soft. to soak foul linen before washing. bugd. ac. a bubble . tuft. moczyd. to knock the type of anything round and swelling.— . ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. set of pirates in the spread.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. soft. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti.

— — . It termination is lost. A water-plant with leaves and gille. bub. Sp. Dan. Pied. The knob or projection formN.— . Mid. soft. imbuere. child. Bret. a pail or flowers. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. to boss or swell out G. Dan. Bucolic. to budge. butze. Fr. bod. and weichen. built.r//'. don't a baby). Gael.stumpy man. clump. bouprobably identical with inok. bud butzen. great pouch. ornamental stud. wallet. to stir.chissima. Fr. dinted. bloca.' Schm. a shoot. bo. bod. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. seen in Hesse botz. boucle. no wheel bogeilio. ble. bump. See Bulk. knock. water message. Prov. from bo. bloca. Bav. This expression boglire. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. boulj. bugnir. Pol. boucler. as in Fr. the radical image seems to be a set plants. with which it was ornamented. no business to do that. * Bud. boucle. need. of bouge. boucaran. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. Fr. bouter. a pustule bout. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. and the reference to It. Sw. probably from the notion of bubbling. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. potz. agreeing with Gael. Fr. a bubble three thyngis. boglyn. bocla. above mentioned. crack. from Gr. with a central boss. butzen (Du. of a surface. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. Hence quel. fur. also a leather tuft . Fr. bloquier.). * Bucket. bulga. botzen. loud Cot. . — . push forwards. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. budge. rump of fowls . brobrocchiere. goat's hoof. prick in a target. a leathern sack. bouger. call. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. boss. a bump. . a boss. buachazlle. to pen cattle. bog and G. bollire.pode.n. boiling. skins pushit'. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. pwtio. The Fr. bouk is a pail and with the dim. like a bean. protuberance./a. to butt. stroke.stuff.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. to move. Fr. hump. bunch . It. W. a dumpy gin. bulb. OFr. Fr. Prov. a shield. case of leather . NE. OHG. butzen. a wallet. trunk of wood covered with leather. Bav. boss of a shield. bedde. Budget. a little coffer or turgidus. bunch. In Lat. The word is a ddyn. a buckle or protuberance. Du. call. butt . Budge. buckel. macero. The dressed fur of lambs. K. scion. Port. butzen. * Buckle. noise . ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim.Lat. bullion.. bogla. a budget. bolgia. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. to thrust. Hardly identical with Fr. bougette. bolgetta.. to un bout d'homme. boccula. pote. Russ. the root of the Slavonic words gran. bulka. a . ' . male or botzen. stud. were To Budge. thrust. a tuft. to line with fur. pulga. knob dwfr yn boglynu. explaining Fr. bucherame. bukke-blad. G. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. whom it is still much in use. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. of bac. inboachen. clasp of a book.. swelling. bouljein. bucolicus. So on. swelling. Bret. turgere buczendig.) .goa. Buck-bean. call bo. bougette. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. from bugr. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. the word w ' — . Behoves. Swab. a fold ceilio. butzen K. ON. Bus. bdden. It. in the beginning of to pierce holes. having a boss. where the G. become bochen. and of the Lat. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield.' And this sacrament bus have dial. cattle. Mid. Lat. bulla. rabodS. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten.' Boccaccio. It. a ring. weich. ' . a bud. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. sboge. — . bouton. gjeit-klauv. . ein. to poke. mani. belonging to the calling of the chen. . . jSouKoXiKog. words is converted into b. It. a stump buckle up. excrescence.' Hal. bode. a navel. pwt o Fr. . a boss. is to shrivel up. a curl. boucle. bul. to swell. II I'a feru desor I'escu. weich. to graft or bud trees. a servant. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. weichen. knob . Buckler. a budget. . a boy. to bud or bocla. dim. to word. a trough). butz. . convexity. To thrusting part of a long body. set of a plant in bulk. stir. The entire train of thought is bucket. to 'soak. Du. bucherare. put. boqueranmis.anything short of its kind. boaLat. bulais daqui. pulga. Prov. bug. boach. don't stir from hence.may probably be explained by N.poot. a short thick man. lump. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. bucket Fl. with let. or male of to boil . a buclder or shield budge.t-le!L{ * Bud. dint . Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bouclier. a cowherd. blow. . is doubtless fallacious. . Wtb.) as to soak. Cot. motus creber. A buckle or fastening for botch. ' . botzen. a small shallow and open tub. w. — — . to boil. bouge. w.

or wild ox. to blow . From bulga. a side-board. yar^aa. bw! It. buffet. Buffalo. Esthon. Magy. dausinti. a jester./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. puff. buffets. often covering his E. a goblin). Lat. boman. Buffoon. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. scarecrow .' La Crusca. The children were playing in an oppocomer. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. Buff. Swiss baui. a buffle or a bugle. It. colour. wine may The verb in taverns. soufflet. Sc. buivol. a clap. to marre often tasting it . it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. bwg. sounds. made to —Bugbear. btifetarius. a hollow sound. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. Bufetarium. a puff. Fr. bouffer. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. a skin. bobaow. smells . to beat.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. bugs. bugle. 265. to jest or sport. as Diez remarks. botffon. Buffeter. . Fr. buffer. A — Bug. tastes. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. bubach. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. and in Fr. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. to blow. — Z. mingled with water.D. from souffler. made by a person. W. bufogni. a In .—Buffet. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. A puff with — Fl. also the skin or heck of a buffe. buffare. Lith. as emblematically making light of an object. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn .' perfield. baubau. It. buffare. The use of the exclamation children. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Gael. bugbear. blurt or puff with one's mouth. air. bufogni. a bugbear. — retailing buffeter buffetier. Sc. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. a budget. The cry made to excite terror is then used. buffet. leathern bucket. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. buffa. the place whence the wine was drawn. while in Sp. word other cases. dausa. site The two — — iii. Limousin bobal. bauwi. — Bogle. either alone or with various terminations. to rePl. — La Crusca. to strike face to represent the unknown. deadened. buffle. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. as wine that hath taken wind. &c. buffeteur. Thus buffet would a tapster. a dull BUG From 109 — A . Fr. bubaRuss. as from Lith. often blown upon. Fr. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. a block-headed noddy. buffle-headed. bumann. G. w. bo ! an interj.D. buffet. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. Fr. mumming. to frighten . and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. a hobgoblin. een duffen toon. God's boast seemed feare children. human. breath. wauwau. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. —Boggart. the buffe. buMagy. Pl. or hath been Cot. dial. by metaphor. Hence the E. thus be translated to tap. tabernarius. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. buffetto. to give benti. bufHe. A blow. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. from It. cuff . from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. boo. to a representation of his voice. buff leather. dull sound.— Buflae. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . senses. to give a as of a blow. Lat. bubus. Lith. bw. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Teet-bo. Romola. of colours. Buff. a cuff or buffet. caupo. pulse . Fl. stupid.D. bolgia. to bellow . him but Boyd iugges. to excite terror in Macleod. E. popo. rebuff. bukow Ikow. Mid. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. to puff. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. bouffer. confused. Cot. It. It. also a G. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. — thence it has been transferred in E. ' They rether puffed at him. le reste emplissant d'eau. for this purpose is very widely spread. bau ! children. — — — Buffet. Pl. Cot. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. buffen.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. bolgetta. things in Jam. duff^ dull. bubiti. to blow souffleU. to signify an indefinite object of terror. From buff! of terror. buffalo. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. to puff.

poggl. buba. to take fright. pugaf. mask ' . a silk-worm. vermin. is very common. high-sounding words. bug-bear. bogil. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. language any kind of insect. i. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. Cheval de trombugti. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. to origin in the expression bugs words. bobal. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. scarecrow . roo. 3. bugler. Mid.— . . E. Parolone. Bug. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. Fl. See The name terror). Schmidt. Sw. a. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. to bellow. is the dim. Sp. bugbear. Bdronie. larva (a bug-bear. the black a maggot. Swiss ing. tumble-bug. tion of the beetle tribe. fierce. Hence bugle-horn. Chaucer. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. booggen. (Spurrell). — . bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. iv. a buffalo. buffle.Fr. quos what produces dread or disgust. Mundart. a misshapen person. A similar applica. roarHal. — boogg. long. bukashka. bwg and E. a rabme. — — ' . the buggaboo w. the word is lin) bbgge. shepe and gootes. fear. gad. troll. banian boube. W. forSc. and a boggarty ing. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. threatening. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. boeuf sauvage. I. 493. paws the ground . — — . a bugbear for children. bucula. used in the same sense. baco. Russ. bold. monster. oxen. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. fette. well as the terrific object. bug. an object of terror. and is Deutsch. blustering. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. It. rose-bug. Manx boa. insect. 2.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. of pipes sewn on. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . bugar. swollen. w. according to Coles. bogk. and in Lat. Illyr. a beetle. bogle. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. : no BUG . xiv. Magy. Magy. protuberant. to frighten scarecrow. big. boo. . ghost. buggabod). the Devil. to creeping things. as Buffalo.. a proud overbearing man pujat'. terrifying ward. and bugle. also a baco-baco. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. insect. . earwig bau da grascha. The final guttural of W..loud noise. Bogge. worm. Swiss booggen. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. to roar Aasen. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. bukati. a boogg. Grisons bau. threatening. The w. biignt. bug dung-beetle. and in child's Magy. dial. given in Chaucer. bbgni. also a bug-bear. hert. Stalder bog. to bellow. bok. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. beugler. as an object of dread. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. bugle. boa-peep. a goblin.Lat. Hal. Deut. thus connected with bug. pujalo. An ornament of female dress condread. affright. bug-bear. Same as buffle. Big. to take fright. superbire. coco. any disgusting animal. BUGLE Tentennino. b'dgni. Lap. bau (Pureiglia. disgust. The name of bug is — . saucy. Bug as a lord. especially to beetles or winged insects. bogk. to take bug. — — terror.3uhtii&:. a bug-bear. Lett. bogil bo (e. bwgar. Fl. also a bug-bear. a bug-bear. bauginti. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Bible. * 2. Lith. il brutto Demonio. . proud. great or bug words. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. Grose. Bugle. of bugabo was given. with more or less modification represents bau. an insect. Swelling. high. Lesachthal. 1551. then a horn for drinking. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. Serv. bwgwl. provincially an insect. It. bug-bear. buculus. pugalo.

Lat. bouge. a bunch. . the carcase. balcone. husk. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. or cargo of a ship. the position of liquids in the word In English. Bolke or hepe. bulwis. bulg. hollow. mass. pimple. a tuberous or bulbous root . to bubble up Pol. Bulch. bulcke. belly van de kerche. bo. G. bulgen. a round bulky body bwlgan. balgs. to blow. ' . See bollekeii next article. — . the body Du. bouk. Palco.'— Cot. — . or. bilge. hold or bilge of a ship. to undo the cargo. a bubble Gael. to puff up bolginn. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). bulbe. cultivate. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. belly. He found a country fellow dead drunk. to break bulk. to build. whence bylja. skin bag. bolgna. bullka. hull of a ship. ON. boa. bauch. bolle. . acervus. beuck. To Build. at riufa bulkann. a bulb Du. boss of shield. blow. bolgetta. — — . of an inflated skin. — Bulb. swell. in vessel. . Here stand behind this bulk. Hal. Mister. Pm. bulne. a leather sack or budget Fr. bulbus. bulk is a partition of boards. ' . bubbling up.' Festus. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. the potato G. and N. van loock. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. .pulks. dial. gebolgen. wallet. buc. herd^ swarm pulkd. Mandeville.). pulkas. bug. bellows builgean. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. — — . in Sc. bed of a river. swollen OE. bulka. crowd. Dan. inhabit. belly. bubble. leather sack. belly. skin flayed whole. boss. a lump or mass. bua. biilken. It. balg. (3oX|8oc. globule bolg-lhuingey. In the representation of natural sounds. buhe. ON. OSw. bwlg. a. knob. chest. . 1388. bulge or convex part of a cask. a stage or scaffold. The addition of a dim. habitaculum. Melancholy.' Palsgr. knobby. With these must probably be classed ON. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. . bukr. lump. Jno. Dan. bubble. straight will he 2. compare Da. puff. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. as it was merly written in English to bylle. villa. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. has bulbuk. body of an animal. swollen. jnake bulch. bugue. A — ' — Bulk. or of what is shaped like a bubble. boulge. skin of an animal. From till. knot in thread. bunch or projection. pocket. snorting on a bulk. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. cumulus. belly Sw. stuffed bag. bauen. ball. . .' Fl. thorax buick. Lett. Pr. to swell. PoXj3a. the head of an onion. bolnyn. bubble. boss of a buckler. — — . a. trunk. tumidus. a water-bubble). bole. ^ — . From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. projection. G. the capacity or burden of a ship.— . in bulk. bag. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. belgr. . boss. blister Manx bolg. . OSw. knob. were a habitation. head . the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. Hence e. a dint in a metal . a heap. Bulk. the womb. tumeo. principal portion. sedes. belly. turgeo bolnyd. Bav. ne. bulki. of E. belly Cat. blister. to raise a habitation. nave or body of the church van 't schip. to throw out a convexity. body of a ship . unevenness Sw. Bulge. or bear out as a full purse. to gather. ' . and bulbukd. balg.' Cot. a bubble. trunk of the body. bolg. lump. m um Placentiae. . bulk. the contents of the hold. formed a farm. bubble {palgan tiisge. to spring. swell. bulbe. Ptg.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. a globe. belly. Pm. and put it home. buk.' Anat. mass. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. on. I. . bale. Pr. See how this tode bolneth. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. bol. The Walach. swell. the belly. vulva. bol. bolso. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. Sp. to bubble up. balco. w. MHG. to swell. bulk or capacity of anything. domicilium.d. bulked or bumped out. bulle. . Gr. blister. . Lith. For the latter sense ' — My . a protuberance. a prominence. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. . Othello. bulgen. it again. See Bulk. pod ON. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. as well as is very variable. be protuberant. a straw corn-vessel. bladder. to bol. anything prominent. to belly out. pouch builgeadh. bulkaf. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bolgia. . G. bolgan. . bol. bulge or bilge. bolle. trunk. or feminine termination gives Bav. Lat. Gr. belgja. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. byli. The radical sense is shown in Russ. body. Lith. Boss^. Kil. Muratori. as water beginning to boil bolg. a leathern sack or portmanteau. womb. Bourser.

— — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. it may be observed that a bullet in E. w. boss. many to protuberant objects.D. as the ornanails. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. The wild plum. lumpish. the seal affixed to the document. a blockhead. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. a seal. but is more probably iden- palchetto. stud. bullos. in N. however. G. biitzibau. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. a bull Swiss bullen. stud. bulke. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. and thence terror. Du. The bullfrog.Fris. — A tition in a ship. of the ox kind. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. beams or boards. to bubble. 2. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. The male W. embossed work. bole or trunk of a tree. also a parFl. bolli. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. The final element tergeist.. as in E. elves. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. bellow. a bowl. pwl. 2. ba. bollos de relieve.D. to boil. a tadpole . to tical with Sw. bubble. ON. thick. pimple. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. 3. Pl. bellocier. scarecrow. is of a class with Pl. Du. blunt. Fr. in the sense of base metal.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. bullus. a stud. also of the tadpole or young frog. whence bullire. bollar. the matrix or die . bouillon. Bullet. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. signifying roaring. Eullrusli. any embossed work. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. round glass phial. hhint. — Fl. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Bullfrog. leraures nocturni nigri. A papal rescript. a wasp.'— ' Palsgr. from baula. stamped money. coarse. bwlas. as geting. spirits. Lith. a scare-bug. bal. bolla. poltern. bwla. a bul-begger. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. i. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. G. I. dim. Dan. from the noise. This word is used in several senses. bullocks. G.. to bellow. See Bowl. from Lat. a beam or rafter. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. bugbear. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. it is boulet de canon. eth and frighteth. bulle. /SouWivu. — — Bull. bulla. . A lace tree. blister. bietebau.' do not go by the dangerous water. billoti in Fr. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . large of its kind. Gold or silver uncoined. bulloi. Du. bulk of a thing. BuUiou. Bullace. large. which may probably be the origin of the name. And The word bullerbak. a framework of balks. bullern. balgeting. polten. BulUiead. penbwl. Du. a cow. of boule. Bret..lle de fusil. Terriculamentum. whence Mod. sloes. baula. on the contrary. a noisy violent fellow. Fr. bwbach. poli-cheannan. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. Bullbeggar. bulderen. a seal. pollach. a hobgoblin. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. a tadpole. brass-headed nail . is called a ball. and vellon in Sp. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. Scot's Deso. Bully. a little fish nearly all head. b2iggaboo. Cot. as a mill-dam or the like. of Witchcr. dial. bolos Fr. urchens. from the Lat. N.. stupid . &c. Pm. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug.Gr. stamp.D. a bulox polos. a bull. boss or stud. Sp. See Billet. poll-cheannach. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. G. It. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. billon. witches. a hobgoblin. bauli. to seal. from Fr. bollon. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. from the use of the equivalent terms. bulla.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. W. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. boulct. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. any great-headed or studded nail. a hornet. bouillon. lumpheaded . Gael. tition of deals instead of a wall. boillon. assito. It. w. bolli. bulk. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. to emboss . a sight that frayHigins in Pr. bullebak. as It. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl.

Bailey. Thus ' ble. bustle. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. 1687). The 27 Ed. bombilare.d. c. BULLY with which coins were stamped. G. — Boom. 'lega. Kil.' ' mettre au billon. From the notion of a humming. droning. 4 Hen. Bum-bailiff. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. 14. bastion. bommele. 1305. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. bodem. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. Bully-rock. Hence — . minari verbulderen. to terrify by noise and clamour. &c. a. blaterare. buene.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. To Bum. buller-bas. Miege in Hal. up was termed monnaie de billon. — bombam?nen. beat a — Hal. 9 E. 10. buller-jaan (bully. clamour. agrees with e. baluarte.. Kil. buller-brook. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. on the other hand.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. Bum. perturbare saevis dictis.' Stat. bulderen. primarily the ramparts of a town. but now is the central part of the town. ^Bully-rook.the ramparts. a stage. To bum. boene. un faux brave.D. bol-werck. bolderen.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. bomtnen. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. vallum. John). intonare. The cry of the bittern. is called bumping or bells. to drum Lat. 2. blunder-buss. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud.' Again. D. or work of defence. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. A. To bum. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. violent. St. Hence bom and ban. — Bumto . or a humblebee.. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees.' reals of standard currency. G. IIL st. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. a noisy blustering fellow. a hectoring. Bully. provides. debacchari. a bumble-. bottn.D.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. Du. c. Fris. ON. ground. ierd-boeyme. to . to make a noise .' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. resonare. furious man. boulevard. IV. provides. Hal. then in general a rampart. G. It. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. bottom. violent overbearing person. 2. The decried coin. from boden. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. and porter au billon. buller-bas. botm. Kiittner. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. — Bump. ierd-beame. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. biihne. Etym. III. a blunderhead. boisterous fellow. block-werck. polterer. scaffold. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. hum. buller-bak. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. to make a droning Du. Sw. The Sw. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. AS. to dun. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . the soil. — — plate d'argent. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . 2. sound. legaggio di metallo. The Stat.' agger. argentum and silver. Du. by corruption boulevart.' for the purpose of exchange. Philip le Bel in Due. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. propugnaculum. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. a boisterous. poltem. c. Fr. Du. noise. For bottom. Fris. is bullion — A — buller. a floor. ^i^/«. honunele. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. blunder-buss. To bully is to bluster.

Fr. protuberance. knuckles. hay stubble . and related with ON. bamgetroffen. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Hal. bum-boot. . inconsiderately. gibbus. cluster. dial. passes Sw. bottom. clown. as we have seen E. OSw. Lang. Again. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. To bam. root. the Pr. A Du. bulse. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. il me pousse. Gael. noise. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. ! — knocking. . bottom bun feoir. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive.. ner. Bunch. E. bull. awkward clown.' Palsgr. explaining E. to bang. banga. Du. . a heap or cluster. Bun. boi7ieog. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. bundle. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . from bunsen. a rabbit. stump. a bunch. a Sp. a rabbit. bunki. bunnion. a button. stalk. or to the mass by which it is given. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bunkc. . bugno. Pm. bunga. callus. abrupt manbuns-wise. a hump. See Bounce. Hal. a knotty stick) Sw. applied to young persons. Ir. . Bumpkin. to beat. Fr. mto Sp. bunke. . . Suffolk bonnka. Probably from bump. — — Bun. stock. to thump. the tail of a hare. bunka. He buncheth me and beateth me. poumpido. nor would it concern the public if he did. a dry No . Sc. Probably for bun-boot. to knock . a very wide boat used by fishers in S. See Bunch. pompon. buns. bonnock. a. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess.). botn. hdk passing and E. seems to unite Gael. He fult dat et bunsede. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. Mrs Baker. . bump. lungeous.. Bony. Dunchyn or bunchyn. bmidt. lenten loaves. foundation w. E. pwmp. &c. a pumpion or gourd. pumpurras. See Boss. a boil (punkos bot. a swelling from a blow. a dried hemp-stalk. to ' . a bag or sack. — — Bun. a large . pumpa. a boil or blain. Pl. to bang ON. bugno. binge. . a bump. bunan. bmike. round mass of anything. throw down with a bang. Pm. a bowl P1. strike E. large. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. a heap Wall. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. E. a wallet. a knob . Moor. bun with ON. bolsa. Pm. Bunk. Then.^Cot. a tail (Macleod). a knock. poumpi. so the form btmk. A clumsy. forms. Hal. from knock) It. calamus. especially girls. Holland and Flanders. bunsen. w. —Bunny. 1. a. pompette. bumtel. .' Bun. bongie. gibber. one ever saw the word in that shape. Forby. a lump on the foot bunny. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. pwmpl. Thus e. w. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. bonuach. Bums it's hit. bungersome.P. blain. bun. Dan. . Bunewand. bulscha. Pl. — — de dor bunsen. strapping. . stock.D. banke. bun eich. dial.D. Pr. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Gael. pwmpio. a hemp-stalk. S. clumsy. bunken. — round fruit. to bang down. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Radically identical with Dan. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. knob or heap. . . boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. stump. any round knob or bunch. bunny.D. Fl. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Bang sen. should probably be a short tail. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. bumsen. stubble of beans. tundo. a pocket Sw. bonge. trunk. Li cake. a swelling. stem or base. bune or boon. a bud.D. bugnet. to beat. Sc. Bung^. bunch— Hal. — stalk .! . are dim. and signifies consequently a mass. Hal. bottom. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. lump. a heap. Dan.' he fell with a bang. bu<rnone. stubble Manx bun. a knob. Hence E. a boss Lith. bung. bannock. — Marine Diet. bunga. Roding. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. a into Dan. a bunch Magy. root. to swell out E. bugnone. any round knob or bunch.pummel. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. Bumsen.-^Fl. Bunch. bunt.— Bunnion. as in other cases. butt end. BUNCH bum-bailiff. Bump. knochen. or grete knobbe. Bumboat. a person employed to dun one for a debt. a heap OSw. It. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. Kyx or bunne. bund. H.— Pr. Related on the one side to Pl. bulto. Daal bu7iseti. while bulch was traced through Gris. a knob.S. a purse . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bignet. bans. an old stump of a horse. a round mass . Manx bonkan. a heap. to . truss E. bon. awkward. to . — — — — ' — knock.

biirde. N. Fl. to pype. bounta. Burble. . unskilful working. is originally a wisp or bunch . to knock. contignatio. dark. dark grey bura. Sp. do a thing bunglingly. . Palsgr. bundt. * Buoy. a wisp of hay or straw. AS. Bunny. to gingle. modem bummle. To bunt. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. Bung of a tonne or Lith. Russ. gyves. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. on. stilmpern. bon. It. bungande. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bundel. tinkle. the noise of drums. bote. Banff.punt. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. bourguignote. to Somerset is to sift. bunsen. was formerly pronounced buro. So in Pol. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Johansen. to stop. OG. on. a sort of helmet. bove. to hum. anchor or of a net boyar. the bung of a barrel Lim. to botch. bummle. Sw. the loose open grow big about or gross. to stop. bondeau. — — To Bungle. fascis. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. colligatio. shackles. clumsy performance. Bunting. Prov. See Barbarous. to float. stocks or such OSw. and E. bondon. To Bunt. bangla. To burgeon. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. coassatio et Du. Du. See Bourdon. Hal. to bungle. Prov. to push ghebondte. Sp. a cork. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. that the primitive meaning of shackle . — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. bondelj bundell. Burly. To do anything awk- wardly. bang. buret. or putting forth of a vine. to in to stop the hole. to kick. tap. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. B. la Borgonota. the young cloth used for sifting flour. a boye. borboUar. and the Sw. or used as a receptacle for papers. racket. bond. Bunt. boya. driving in the bung. buove. to bear. with the head. and now more Bailey. a bunch. bimge. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. a bungler. guggle as water. boucher. bourion. The Fr. would be the earliest float for an anchor. B. and Du. reddish brown. to bolt meal. 202. Fr. to gingle. Sw. klempern. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO.' Festus in Diez. borgonota. properly a Burgundian helmet. banga. of a song. Sp. to work ineffectually. tinker . To bunt in Burgundian fashion. Lat. dial. also a piinple in the face. knocking. fetters. p. sprig. bundle. to push. stiimpeln. bourgeon. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. knock. generally known as the material of which bud. Cat. a bunch Burbulas. bouchon. Burden. klimpem. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. ho-tapp. bondel-loos. the middle part of it. to stnmi on an instrument. working in wood (especially with an axe). Rietz. dicimus rufum. Bundle. Sw. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. Bret. The word is flags are made. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . halm-tapp. a botch. E. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bongun. Sp. however. shove . Pl. banghagr. from beran. are from bouscfie. dial. The Italian buio. . or tuft. especially in wood. bangla. punishments for prisoners. ' — work . loosed from bonds. tapp (whence tceppa. bindini. . and van t' vat. the stopper of a cask). bondir. a drum . bou^e. bang. See Borel. The belly or hollow of a sail. Burganet. Bung. and bomme. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. clogs. Fr. — — . — Bureau. bourjon. to push with the head del. rumble as the bowels. to hum. The stopper for the hole in a boia. Biu'geon. OFr. bonde. to work at carpentry bangan. racket .Fris. to knock. a water bubble made by rain. noise. bouche. to resound. — . burion. bury. OFr. byrthen. byndel. whence bunting. G. See Bun. The Magy. the float of an bundle. to cobble. bag to catch the wind. something bound together (Mrs Baker). it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. boil or bubble up. Fr.D. a bung. boj. buret. bonde. an anchor buoy. A load. ghebundte. Kil. to hum. A Dan. Cot. boei. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. knocking. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. So Du. to bud forth. bunta. Muratori. AS. A bubble. to shove. bongani. G. burboloti. Compare G. to strum on an instrument. whence in bure. bolting-cloth.— . . bommen. Burden. buie. in is Fr. — btiruii. russet. Fr. bui.

cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. laer. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. brausen.Ps. See under Bore. brynsten. Nat. with Dan.. and Dan. See Berough. brandung. to ridicule. swell up or strout out. fire. Sp. A — — . to effervesce.. bouril. to swell with pride. Walach. compared with G. language of folly or ridicule. like the wind in trees. a blaze. Burgess. barrel. a wine skin. . See Burr. to burgen or wax big.. leo Fin. to Gael. which has given much trouble to etymologists.j'own. Schm. boiirre. ' rugiens. — — . Swiss Rom. burlare. Probably. Lang. a lie. to roar 5. explaining the E. taunt. Bret. to burn. brasa. is termed burling. Fl. G. from bryii. 122. to polish. In the same way ON. water. BURNISH i5«r/. a spring a robber. Goth. borujon. . — . burly. a purling hiwe brennen. burle of cloth. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. to rub. pur (see Burgeon). ^ttsa. Castrais bourril. bururus. broil. Burglar. a knob. . OE. a gurgling ^. to ridicule. brinnen or Also ein roar. bruzir. Limousin bourdo. to roar. Fl. brinii. an &c. abourioner. to polish. to puff up borr^ . hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. pressa puret. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. a bubble. a margin. It.' Cot. See Burgeon. to set on fire. burgen. Sw. condemnentur morti. warbling. angular . brima. Sw. spring-water bumach. Prov. a prominent eye borracka. brustle. Burn. tahkoa. Bestiary. flocks. from Lat. purrata. sbornoi. burn. ii6 BURGESS Gael. knob. tahko. to bourda. to surge. ON.). to bouronna. to polish helmets. big. briis^. Pren7ien. ridicule. borr. to murmur. to roar. burgensis. Bouffer. bruse. to roar. brunnen. he rustle. sidiary element. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. to give an edge to. burren. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. to bud . N. Cot. sicut sound. The Gael. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. From Fr. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. like. Probably a modifica. surge or dashing of the sea . a bubble to spring as water. to swell. to swell oneself out as birds borras. like straw or small . the word seems Pm. protuberance. singe or scorch with fire. toast.. bunch. an edge. bud or sprout forth. — — . it of the knots. Burly. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. bremmen. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue.. Fr. tumentum. to roar. The in. as in cousteau. and the Burin. boura. burgi latro. bourd. the J in OFr. to burn.' a jibe. E. to make a So from Fin. a bud. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. Pm. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. de Vaud. as of suggests. ends of thread. Swiss Rom. with little iron nippers called burling irons. ample of polishing metal. brAler. born. to have acquired the sense of polishing. occupying much space. — — . the roaring surge of the — — — . &c. It. in Schm. Pr. dial. the flocks. roguing beggars. joking. brusler being a faulty spelling. — Han to bruser op. bears. and the Burnish. Burlesque.sharpen. Bav. a fountain. become big and proud. from the roaring sound of flame. purling. to sharpen. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. Antiq. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. brun. borni. ^Notk. a bladder. j. mockery. In the manu. Burgher. a whetstone. From the same root E. grancelli. A burl. swelling borr-shuil. Lang. thence. to grind on a whetstone. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. brim or edge of anything. jest of. G. i5«r4 biiirte.). is an Thus G. Burgh. blow. ends of thread. a jest. bourglairs. 56. Supp. Bav. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. Burryn. to fiy. Compare also Piedm.). It is probable indeed that Fr. to roar (as lions. A legal term from the Lat. repartee . explaining Sp. crackle wood in burning Hal.ireui£r:e.— Pr.— . brunna. has also borr. . strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. burgeois. sea. as Diefenbach bud. is connected with brim. Dief. Todd. brunnr. borracka. Gael. brinna. Fr. lerre. to sharpen on a whetstone. The primary origin of the word. de Vaud. Hence Bridel. Fr. boure. purra. brook. So also Sw. brunir. brimmen. OFr. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. bourou. bururus. must be explained on the same principle from G.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. OE. a jest. and OG. fires up. as the / in purl. OFr.bryna.or bubbling up. embraser. Burler. to To Bum. brase. robber. the er is a dresser of cloth. to puff. It. — . tion of the root which gave the OE. borrelen. a well. brustolare. to tell lies. to hum. schleiffen. lorra. buirleadh. watery.

and. to hide. brist. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. shelter. the — — castle or fortress. Hence Fr. brickie. It. brown. signifying protrude. a. bur. birgan. perruque. some people in pronouncing the letter r. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. Cot. dial. Sw. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. — Translated by Kemble. Mid. S w. brokil and brotil. It. bourse. Du. peluca to Fr. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. when they spring So in W. bris. brittle. berstan. force. a rabbit burrow. byrstan. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. stuffing. Compare also OE. Bursar. mentioned under Burgeon.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. With a slightly different ghen. from AS. ON. bersten. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist.' The same word with burgh. brast. shales. brista. G. — Clare. an exchange. OHG. Burr. brisd. g. cover. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. the officer who bears the purse. also all such stuff as hay. also ' any such trash as chaff. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. briketo. OHG. shearing of cloth. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. a port.. iii. This word seems safety.Lat. ultimately resting on the Gael. borra. brjota. briser. to break. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. In a met. from whence we pass through Sp. dial. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. byrgen. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. to P'air. burial place. bur. to mutter Sw. Fr. a barn or cupboard. preserve. chips or anything else Fl. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. G. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. &c. Sw. brest. E. whirr and burr. casting bullets. but it is more probably a development of It. britar. preserve. ' ' — — burren. bristen. byrgan. a sepulchre. of England. to burst. swell. karborre. any rapid whirling biarga. shuffling. save. The root forms brik. Sexy. AS. In OE. AS. Swiss burren. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . birr. &c. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. and met. ber•whirr to whizz. a harness or collar maker) . be more in accordance with AS. Jam. brisdeach. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. cwning-gaer. blurra. leather. skin. bris. pipaa. Fr. bourrer. whence Kil. borsa. . a wallet or scrip. to hide . a purse. -burse. bourse. from Fr. as for the protection of a child's head. To Burst. explained E. borsia. to buzz. Burse. its own protection. foretell great storms at 3. borre. . a pad. fortify. to bury . Burr is related to buzz as protect. bolgia. borrow. Burrow. Burse. See Burgeon.— . beorgan. Dan. an annular swelling. as in Northumberland. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. tomb. as from Sp. burgisli. and spelling. brico. makes the disbursements of the college. hair. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. caer is a — — — ' ' : . root borr. to stuff.' edge grew weak. byrsa. See Bulge. Hal. moss. impetus. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. break . bourrelet. 2. verbergen. bergen. that birds make their nests with. brist. bourlet. borra. borsa. prsnuti. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. Shelter. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. a purse. I. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. Fris. ON. A rabbit burmotion. Brun on bane. byrigels. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. Burser. a place of defence. coo. i5(7&a. of a body hurled through the air. buscha. bristeach. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes.' Harris in Todd. idiom if 4. barza. briso. byrgels. Burial. Du. keep. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . a morsel. brit. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. to save. . To Bury. Port. bres- — tan. as it is still pronounced in N. whirr. purr. burra. straw. birigean. -Grisons bulscha. Beowulf. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. borre. and thence flocks 'of wool. husks. 5150. bourre. ptcrren. brittle. beurs. bolsa to It. Fr. 225. burre. appears under the Lang. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. talk fast and indistinctly. ' BURR AS. brizeto. Gael. any kind of quilting or stuffing.

Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. occultare K. bush. whence at bua sik. boissa. : — . busk. busken. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. sur une litifere.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. BUSH hreaw. to dress.boisteau. Thence byrigean. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. . that the lend had lorn thorn. bosch (a diminutive ?). Sir Tristram. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. bua. ' . . bousche. . -idis. verb. a rampart. which would later have truast. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. a grove bosch van haer.' sheath. Layamon. Thus Froister . and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. borseof trees. the Moors and of Morocco. protect . bundle. a clot of phlegm sart. a troop. They busked and malced them boun. Du. So from Fr. gave Lat.Lat. Sibriht that I of told. Ptg. ch). thicket of thorns . the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . See Bust. the land. . OFr. to sepulchre. To prepare. borcegui. bush. a tuft. van wijnbesien. knot. brake. to prepare. a hump. AS. boiste. bousse. . And her ful sone tuft. a bunch of twigs. at buast. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. il fut couch6 l^jkema). Malberg. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bustellus. ' . The primary sense of hair . tuft. bussare. and he cites wisp bauschen. a bush. induere vestes . a bundle. biichse. to swell. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. 410. dead. basse. besom). fiast.gur bidst austur um EySascog. Gr. bo7ich (Fr. box wood to bush. R. ' . in the For Skirnis . boistel. barsc in Heimskringla. Fris. signifying to entomb. or the like. mount. bousIn the other copy ser. rad. ' . to turn. from the ON. bustula. Mid. hjul-bosse. borghen. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. a bunch. ' —P. a tuft guini. truasc. and we actually find bushel. boucher. buskr. bausen. or — Busk. a gun biichse. to stop. to bury.) to hide in the ground. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. a corpse). preserve. bairgan. as synonymous with to inake one boun. brodiquin. busse. to bow. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. —Busk.P. roquies. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. a tuft of hair. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. boisseau. bossen. a tuft. buxta. in OE. for at buasc. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. bossida. as boun is simply buinn. iriCtf -ifoe. diminutives. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. is thus accounted for. 'at bua sik. to keep. bos. berghen. Brunne. Bouchet. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. and thence Mid. The bone in a woman's stays. bosta. 2.' a box. to direct one's course towards. we have Fr. AS. at bua sig. Bush. wisp. tow. Sw. ieorh.fiasc. grapes. burial mound. Le roy Richard mort. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. and from the Fr. a box.Lat. It. bussellus. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. oneself. OFr. a been written buasc. Brunne.— ' ii8 {chreo. The radical idea is seen in Goth. Harold G. basse. clusprobably Morocco leather. qualster-boscken. bramble. and not directly (as Du. Du. the idea of knocking. beorgan. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. make ready. apparently a secondary verb. bundle * Buskin.' The word is explained by — — . To Busk. See Box. buxida. whente beorg. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. bunch. a box. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. then a tuft Sp. G. The word frequency with which to busk is used. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. Fr. lump. projection. bussel.-^Bushel. a wisp. a little box Dan. Prov. a bush. boxta. Bush. condere. It. whence bouchon. hunch Du. bouche. to bend one's steps. abdere. Du. bulk. . aheap of stones. to dress. buysschen. thicket {buski. a -tavern bush. barst. brodequin tout noir. In to Brutaine. Sc. the past participle of the same verb bua. to forest of Eyda. a box for measuring corn. defence. cluster.' The buskin is said Bret. to enclose in a case or box. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. bulge. bosc. buxula. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss.

to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. Hence probably au-tarda. but Dozy cites the OldPtg.). business. bulk. thick end. kiss. body of garment. ' bistardej It. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). 22. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. a projection. vessel employed in the herring fishery. Walach. chest. Bav. knock. Fr. mouth. and supposes that the common Arab. butz. Cat. beezig. lump. would explain the G. representing a blow.pjik. geidha. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. brut. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. a. Sp.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. 119 bi{tr. Buss. I bustle. body . to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. Hal. body of a man. of a doublet. brusc. mons. body without arms and legs. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. buyse. work. bussen. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. I. The form brust. the breast. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. tarda. made stiff. a large cljest or particular applibox. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. abutarda. Lindenbr. Sp. — clattering about. 2. stem. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. B. sera. as in ON. also a busk. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. occupation. 1372. in Diaz Gris. to make a splash in the water. windbutsch. buc. avuDiez. ON. 2l box. btcc. lip. Gael. knock. putta. austarda.> Also written buskle. a Mid. So in Fin. bu. the body without arms busque. outarde. crack . also a flagon. Prov. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. I. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. bust. Edrtst. trunk. outard. forest. trunk of a tree. bisgung. biseg. Prov. an affair. an ostrich. A great sluggish fowl. Swiss butschen. Busy. — . BUSS Dozy from Arab. abotarda. a fishing vessel. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. betarda. Bust. borcegui. Fr. AS. baiser. or chest in which the vitals are contained. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. bisg. Lat. beso. and then with avis again prefixed. besoigAe. busc. bust. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. small. On the other hand. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. ON. trunk. pussa. busta. bruskras well as buskr. bysgian. buta. buquer. tuft. love gestures. stump. putschen.bezig. — Thus we should have mocherqui. especially of a woman's dress. a stroke of wind. ^A. kiss. or avutarda. Business. the trunk. a mouth. as in moharra from harbe. bucha. Bust. So Wes- terwald munds. Fr. Cot. 7o\. Fl. plated body or other quilted thing. occupied bezigen. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk.Lat. log . A A busquer (Sigart). body. To hurry or make a great B. bus. a bust. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa.' Plin. worn to make the body straight . A wisp. to make use of. a bulk or trunk without a head. bussa. Nained from Proximse iis zia. . .D. busq. utarda. sunt quas Hispania aves . bist. also a It. the point of a lance. a kiss. smack. busy. lip. box. inde discurro et operosus sum. brostia as well as bostia. cata — . ottarda. bus. otarda. I go strepo) . The Prov. Fris. bus and Pol. but. Prov. busch. Busitiess :c3iVi .' ON. To Bustle. buz. biist. trunk of Cot. to bustle. arbor ramis trunGloss. Bulch. busche. Sp. from jnund. a log. a kiss of reverence. Comp. ViM. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. Fr. hipista. Pol. fe^a. body. says. forms morseqiiill. a kiss. bukr. a sleeveless truss or doublet. mohedairova. — hardly be distinct from Fr. or Cherqui. body of a woman's dress It. a blow. See Boss. a bunch of flowers . Rouchi. signifying trunk of a the body. 1555. a busk.— . Bustard. busto. kupata. ship Sp. a great billet Cot. busch. buc. Port. Lang. ' BUSY 2. and also a sounding blow. mouth.d. a bush. Sw. Box. stir. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . Namur — Champagne Fr. to knock . a blow. a kiss. to Swab. a backstock. bysgje. mogangas from gonj. a boat or small vessel . of the human body (Grandg. besongne. mosequin. stump. bustla. snout. The proceedings of Parliament. — — — — It is like the smouldering. morsequi. lips. employment bisgan. basiuin. the long. bacio. and by transposition morchequi. buc. a tree. Du. — — difications of the same word. a ship of some size. Xerqui. to occupy. statue of the upper part of Fr. Busk. 10. its slowness of flight. bnist. With respect to bust. bisegung.

Ben-house. without buiten-man. bute. beyond the Piedm. Fr. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. original sense of without. a leathern bag. in addition. besides that . bochier. Where at an earthen jar . similar train of thought is seen in ON. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. from boc. or what in in charge of the pantry. a wooden cask. by the mode in which he is treated. bous. boccino. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. Fr. But when will you pay it ? the belly.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. bouteillier. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. Lang. Buttery. the store of ten. Tooke's dis. But It. (children) boc. a small winebag. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. Lang. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. viz.' ' write. tinction between but. bhcciero. gives at least two pounds sterling. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. a budget. calf. the present day we should say. Prov. beccaro. It.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out.' — — ' . Coutume d'Alost in Diet. outside that moreover. of the wine and drink. which the word corresponds to the Fr. from as. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . also a hollow vessel . bouz. are. Whatever is in addition to Butler. Sp. rotundity of the body. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. as Pantler. biitait slaughterer of goats . So in Italian from becco. be out. The E. ox. bolgia. a barrel. is put in a class by himself. Here the but implies the existence of an. Fr. the precise correlative of but.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. ' Besides all that. collection of casks. but one thing. a butcher. the principal apartment. the Perhaps besogne — . boteria. sup- meat and drink. except. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . my is called the adversative use of but. body of a shirt w. wooden receptthing to be done. without care. bole of a tree.The Sp. As a conjunction but is in every portion. bag. hull of a ship. ' There is leathern bottle.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. butan. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. Du. ways. large barrel. a butcher . of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. equivalent of AS. a butchery. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. without punishment . botilla. without the house kept in bottles.streets. without law. botte. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. belly. binnan. belly.' Thus Chaucer says. viz. But In Sc. botija. bodifie. trunk. those in beccaio. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. skin-bag. a cask. the trunk or body of an animal. "PLT) . the belly. the bottles. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. moreover. Sp. — we acle for liquors.' there is really a negation to be supplied. Butler. G. OFr. then hoUow trunk. bitten dai. bola. add. a goat. the jug and in E. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. the name must have arisen before the within. without. ont jhi^ton. A A . slaughter-house. young mais. a goat (and not besides . nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. buta. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. and with It. bout. rumpf. butan ce. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. and the real origin of the and within . a bottle. the body of a tree or of a man. is well explained by Tooke. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. earthen which the debtor has adverted.jamin. the body of an animal. bol. to-boot. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. Sp. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. hollow case. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. and bot. Wall. Butcher. calf of the ' say. bisgung. that which would be translated by Fr. bocin. an outlaw from bouche. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh .in which his brethren are included. bitlga. able. . belly. we find ben. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. bolr. being wholly unten. boucher. properly a butan wite. the servant in charge of the original object. beta._ bitten j biiten door. bounds of. If that where now we should compiler. Butt. mais. bountifully. a baiTel . AS. — . boquier. the full expres. barriga. beccaria. . the mouth).

pied. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree.— BUTT leg . Du. striking end. a. thrust. See Butler. Buttress. from notirrir. ment being supposed to resemble butter. able that Chaucer. end . So in English pimples were fora clod. Bout van het schouderIt. coxa. the Butter-fly. a tub. boutoir. caput scapula bout van f been. Fr. a but in the W. trapu. Perhaps corrupted Lat. nourrisson. Fr. Kil. . Gr. to femur. Grandg. buttals. butyrum. Fr. or person Schmeller . — . of the present day. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. bottich. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. butt of a person. to thrust. a stroke di animal. To come full butt against a butts. : . rabodd. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. butte. bottig. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. the thick end. boutis. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. Buttrice. To strike with the head bags. a bot. — . e. Fris. Boutant. bocgsuin. clunis. a mound. stump. butz. botwm. obedient. give way. aim whence to make a support to a wall. It. to cast. large head. Kil. signify a cask or tub. boding. R. buttern. a barrel. botto. Fr. i. short thick thing pimple. as in G. potacha. butteln. to thrust. to boult flour. Buttery. from stossen. in the R. thick. lams-bout. to thrust . bodi. a buttress Cot. buttock of beef is called butr. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. bot. as rejeton. Kil. Buttel-triib. courtaud. a flying buttress. butt. so as to make a sounding blow. bocsam. boil. bud. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . to abut on. butte. Halma. * Buxom. From Grisons biitt. To Butt. Bav. humble. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . From Du. to blad. to abut a stone roof. at. From the noise of drinkables in a house. boter-vliege. strike. bouton. are the strips at the edges of the field. to heap up earth or ihrust. and the true derivation boar. to bow. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. povrvpov.' thick from shaking. oir spike with a k coup . clumsy . a ribbed glass for dient. — — — — . a dle . a scope. any short thick thing. to throw . butt. to thrust Fr. poke. having a rotundity . bott. geboogsaem. Boutje.to push. a boss. — A . bothog. nursling. Du. the edge forwards.arbre. a buttrice. obeto shake backwards and forwards. Lang. to so close to the Fr. Hal. AS. from bouter. . Buttock. buttare. or or shore post. Fr.. a large belly. both. fle>(ible.thum and not button. The Bavarian potig. a blow. on. -ez. stump of a tree Fr. bot. as if from Povg. bata. of E. Du. a button. Schmell. to butt. butter un. then the thigh or leg of an to push . G. buter. butter. bouter. boteria. butt. a little push . waste ground. Du. from the large knobbed head of botto. bodi'. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. Gris. a heap of merly called pushes. a leg of mutton. &c. Schmell. a corner horses' hoofs. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. a button. the rosebud. Du. grease that sets by merely standing. a button. hillock . a stump or club foot. W. boiUer. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. what is kept in a blow. pwtiaw. boter-schijte. bot blijven staan. tress. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. Bav. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . bout. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. suddenly . &c. nourrissons. leg of lamb. Fr. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. by boE. from rejeter. the prick in the middle of a target. bouton. — A . a. submit shaking up salad sauce. a wall butor butt on. the store of while bottich. to push earth .. botta. pwt. but. Gael. Fr. to touch at the end. . W. but this is probably from Fr. bouter. to be con. Hal. Cot. is formed the augmentative buttatich. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. Butter. from bugan. a thrust the thigh-bone. put. w. Btetter-schmalz. Butter-glass. a blow. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. to thrust. Button.putan. thrust forwards. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. bout. botta. Mur-buttant. a cask. dripping. a bun. a bolt. the trunk. Sp. the thigh of a goose. fowl. buhsom. The word body itself seems identical with G. any small projection. a hill. An erection built up as a Fr. botten. a boss. to strike. a mound of turf in a field to sup. tout seat or breech.rejected thing. botte. an ox. A — — — . butter. boter-vogel. gigot. an etwas anstossen.against another which needs support .

21. CABAL Goth. cow-house. Verstegan in R. Many good mological explanation. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). Too used a Foxes Martyrs. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Cabal. to pass by. bei. buzzicare. ii. . a buzzard or puttock. byar-log. blessing me with their of side. Goth. from whom it was addressed. called Cabala or Tradition. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. Buzzard. village. It. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. p. 200. . iii. —gracious of speech. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. son. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. Pecock Repressor.in N. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. 3. favourable. bygge. town having separate jurisdiction. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. Sw. who makes abigg. bylove. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. bi. See Abie.— Diet. buteoj Fr. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. bugjan. bar. Originally the law of a particular town. leges urbanse ON. Then applied to speaking low. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . to wit. Sw. buso. gracious. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. to purchase for money. G. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. harty prayers and God speedes. farm. indistinctly. OE. buzac. To Buy. By-law. a borough. bylag. stall. Du. to whisper. to buzz. bohte. a town. ON. A ful benygne buirde. & Q. It. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. A A We — — — days' wonder. also say. 519. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. a beetle. and would have been lost in E. Byre. groat in token of his good heart towards him. — 122 BUY P. to sell. tions by one. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God.. jus municipii. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. favourably to a petition. frabttg- To Buzz. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. bozzago. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation.busardj Prov. P. bycgan. and it is of good will. Dan. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to.. lb. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. A by. abozzago. a by-path is a side path . used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. and boxome of speche xviii. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. as Fr. . bauhta. byar-rettr. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. bees. \s\xy. The ON. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. confusedly. from by. AS. The sense of buxom. to swear with him by . train of thought which has become obso.P. buzarg. good-humoured one.— P. as heedless as a cock-chafer. AS. to stand at his side . Mercy hight that mayde. lete. bij. Etynj. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. Lat. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. bi. to jan. a meke thynge with — alle. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. depends upon a esteem in falconry. big. byr. 116. as in Da.

cabacho. cabuyskoole. E. Cabinet. to strain in such a manner . or as an interjection of disMod. chabla. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. a rope. Cappa in OSp. Didot. traboccare. a cloak of felt or Cack. to chatter. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . string. capanna. Due. laitue cabusse. a headed cole or cabbage . and the Arab. — . Fr. main. headed. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Due. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. The double a in the OFr. Lith. dirt and the Fr. in which sense are explained The the OFr. stercus. E. Fr. agge machen (in nurses' language). cadabula. name of the projectile engine. wilful). but it would seem to explain To Cackle. whence Fr. and as we find stones Mid. cabulus. Etym. filth. nasty. to put or pack up in a frail. cabo. cab lis. . gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. (ca/coe. signifying properly a rope's end. serious injury — In like manner It. a car- We convasare. as Diez supposes). Cot. manganare. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. signifies down. cabre.ticula. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. vincially used in E. &c. it would seem fundain children's language. gaggi. Cablisb. kakaloH. Du. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. lactuca capitata. Finn. heady. Castr. OSp. Kil. Mid. — the ON. calabre. Fr. from manganum. cabo. deponat a store closet. The Sp. Lang. Brushwood — — B. an engine for casting stones. gabardme. cabus. Sp. cabaii. . overwhelm. It. Sp. a tunic. cadabulum. band. Celtic. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. to hurl in Nat. It. Choux cabus. accablcr. ceach / exclamation of guages. a rope or cable. has kabbel. as an expression of Gr. cacare . and Finnish lanLat. 'habl. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. a covering. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. mdhaigner. : — from violence without blood. to hurl down. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut.Lat. Lat. is probably unconnected. Coticesserint Swiss aa. akista. dirty. round or great headed. caables. cabane. — Kil. especially shepherd's frock.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. cab. a head (whence cabochard. Tugurium. dung. caboche. OFr. dirty. . chaable. properly windfalls. kakla. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. hut. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. precisely in the sense of the lari E. cabbage. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty.). covering. from trabocco. prostratio ad terram.Lat. —Diet. giiare. the Slavonian. Common to Lat. forms indi. a rope. chadabula. Capstan. form kactal. cdble. To steal or pocket. a jacket Fr. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . kabaSsen. ckaable. capo. Item habeat vocant. and Or. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. for the origin of which see Carabine. gaggele. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. gaban. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. hovel. . OFr. geese. Cot. disgust. su/Furari. disgust cac. come the Fr. cadabulum. Imitative of the cry of hens. Sw. Very generally used. Katr-iT-aKt. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. . ! — . disgusting such an engine was exerted. It is remarkable that the Esthon. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. origin is the OFr. capuccio. surripere. Cabbage. agge. cable . hoard together. maim. To Cabbage. bad.Lat. caable..' Due. brassica — capitata. w. OFr. cables. &c. cabasser. It. the Prov. kabat. originally an Gael. cabarino. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . aeggi. The name of the engine. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Du. . as Turk. aak! tandi like Fr. — . a cabbage . Gaggle. cadabola. It. Du. Ptg. case. Mid.. cabuccio.Gr. or rush basket. would correspond to cable. as it must have stood in French.. a frail. vile. From It. the bowels. a rope. a shed. cabas. headed or cabbage lettuce. whence Lang. head. kabas. caqueter. to crush. aakkat'a. cadabalum. Mid. Fr. to keep or Du. — Tarbe. overwhelm (Diet. Antiq. cacare. caable. Neckam — by the wind.. havyar to caviare. chaable. Fr. agga. Cabin. a booth or hut. caable (in legal language). or cadable. gatsch. kabane. — Ibid. and Ptg. manticuKil. cabre.

pen Mod. kauwe. a vessel for heating water. Calendar. a tea-chest. Lat. kaad. calessa. Fr. capCalenture. Due. for green fields. calibre. kolyasochka. * Cade. koeck. Calash. Arab. the pith or soft part of wood. kola. boy. Calamary. a low note. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. kdtr. Calandre. Sw. caioler. A cuttle-fish. calentura. the pi. a roller. Pol. the lump and the increase. gabbia. chaudron. Cadet. of the nature of lime to calcine. rattaat (wheels). an ugly waggon kolaska. a cake or loaf. cadence. a corpse. To Cajole. Dan. so gabble corresponds with Fr. kage. little chief. to — Fr. limestone. From lerie. of which. Du.warmth . kalfi. &c. kukje. — in a kiln. Sp. Lat. Cot. kail. 124 prattle . kolasa. cuttle-fish. safe. Flo. a circle. Calc-. Lat. . gaggia. gabbia. kolyaska. . a counter used in casting accounts. master. Calp is riadh. Russ. Lat. kdfich. when they are said to poor. Lat. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. one unduly indulged by. pith. kolo. of oxen and similar animals. Lat. calpa. See Kiddier. Lat. chetif. cadere. To Calender. to throw themselves into the sea. ON. desire of land. Cajol. a loaf of bread. from calendcE. a caFr. Sw. Du. pi. frolicsome kaad mund. Fr. Caitiff. lindrus. kat. An open travelling chariot. is probably delusive. calesa. G. reed-pen. It is another form of the E. A hooded carriage. caliche. kalb. The Lat. ben- kalf. Du.— Calliper. a wheel . kolo. Gael. bad . hence musical rhythm. Dan. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. from the Chinese catty. —Atkinson. lime whence calcareous. dial. to heat. . calentar. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. kolo. Serv. cattivo (from Lat. signifies a waggon. a hollow place. It. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. whence Lat. or colpa na coise. chaudiere. without loss. and troublesomely attached to. kaka. a wheel . prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). chattering. Roman reckoning. Fr. jabber. a wheel . Calcialate. gavia. Lat. to treat like lime. calculo. . from calculus. colibro. A . The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. capitetum. whence calash. coop. especially of something soft. kalem. to compute. to . Perhaps from w. naXaiidpi. a falling. En kaka br'od. In the same way Fin. kakulla. a calash . Fr. Fr. cauldron. cage. taking it Sp. or prattle. Calf of the Leg. calf of leg. G. — — — Dan. ever and anon. pet lamb. ' . N. form) calderone. wanton.— Cot. It. gabble. to sleek hence a den. * Calibre. It.— . Lat. Gascon capdet. calidus. the calf of the leg. misfortune. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. KaKKat. Cauldron. the bore of a cannon. . caldarius. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Cadaverous. cadet. hot. cabdillo. Cadge*. collop. Fr. a wheel. a dence. calibre. calba. Tea-caddy. to cage. wretched. calx. kolesnitza. lord. Turk. Caddy. Mrs B. ratas. loss. Fr. It. a car. Cot. cavea. caldaria. just falling. disease of sailors from tivus). to prate much to little purpose. principal and interest. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. The Calf. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. KxiKivh^o^. marrow. a lump or large piece. cageoler. cake. to gabble. hot . a fever. kaeckelenj Gr. captive.Gr. Turk. or smooth Hnen cloth. calendarium. (in the augm. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. A — fall. a waggon . cykevie. Cadence. calamus. the younger son of a family said to be from . a reed. kolesb. calendrer. roller. a calesh. on. from the ink-bag which it contains. The young G. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. an inkstand . The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. calcis. Cake. Sp. unruly . Calamity. Fr. coll. cage. to cackle . a cylinder. frisky. a mischievous dial. B. loss. Lat. Lat. joyous . gaggle. babbhng. cha'cmie cadence. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. Cot. from Gr. incolumis. Cage. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. javioler. prate. cadenza. It. cadaver. Originally from a Slavonic source. kalfvan hout. Sp. its mother. It. kuchen. a wretch. calamitas. calidus. gabberen is identical with E.uv. Du. Sw. Caldron. a common cart. As Du. dead body. Calocli. a small stone.

a feathers. CALICO Calliper-compasses. The primitive colubrina bombarda. — — — — — . Antiq. to affirm. dragoon. Calm. oldire from audire. qAlab. Sp. calme.' Slange. push violently. i. to calk.— . serpens. abto suppose that E. cauque. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. So It.piicede Lat. overheated. to abuse . a soldier who the It. 125 Prov. of the bore of a firearm met. calgua. trull. Bi. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. bombarda Cauma incendium. Kavfia. calat of leude demeaning. people's remarks. Ptg. Derived by some from Arab. Sup. or mould. callus. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . koluvre. the heat of Now these Du. moso. overscalmaccio. to tread. the Fr. kael. from Calicut in the E. Mil. to call. caluw. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. heat. calcare. hallottaa. to callet. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. depreciatory term for a woman. Mahn derives it from Lat. calare. calo. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . vulgo Coluvrine. ram. klover.position is much less common than the geschut. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. chatter kallen. faint. coluber also. whehce it was first brought. alta voce ploro. Among these were the turn. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. colubraria canna. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim.' Whitby Gl. ululo Turk. femme frivole et babillarde. skin hardened by labour. scold. a round of abuse. piece of bigger circuite. The word was also written cawme in OE. to say. sence of wind. couleuvre. Fin. ' rine. to prattle. . sestus. calor. coulevrine. and heat. culverin. Dief. a. calk. dragonder. them &c. diameter of a ball.' Winter's Tale. Mid. and dragon. serpentina. Lang. kol. kahcwe. To call. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. given. kil-u-kal. whereas in troth it is not. the day. The origin is Gr. a last. to proclaim. KaXka. to call. kal. Fr. however. tapulta.from Ka'tm. to be of a good or bad quality.Lat. tittle-tattle. harquebus or handgun. done with heat Alt. AS. of a column. Caliph. callum. drive. kallo. the Fr. To drive tow or oakham. u to an I in such a colubrum. calcaich. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. harden by pressure. kal.' Chaucer. donderbuchs Sp.en~ kinds of firearms. to burn. saucy. It. calleting.(jaa= ice). * Caliver. chatter. quA librd. a successor. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. calicot. calma. fistula. B. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). faint. scalmato. Sc. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. calca. form. caillette. Fr. — — — — — . chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey).meaning of the word. gossiping. but is only a jda-kallo.' But it is hard Du. Diez. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. quality. — Fl. to hear. hollaing. try. a good calling. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. by many that the weapon Callous. to cram. calvus. bald. calclover. which has its memory preserved in Du. licht stuk The change from a. coluber. 'A callet of boundless tongue. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Unfledged. can be distinct from ODu. sclopus. which is as much as to say. Du. calibre. According to Jal (Gl. longior. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. voice. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. cotton cloth. Sir John Smith in Grose. the latter of chamber. cauma. Gael. Callow. prattle. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. Ibid. Turk. * Callet. water-tight. To Calk. kind heat of the sun. Kil. the hard surface of the ground. dial. To century was Squalibre. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. on. The reference to heat is preserved in. calc. Hard. brawny. Fr. Indies. calibre. or languishing drought is . cahna. the scalp or skull. CALM to press or stuff. sound. and sometimes a handgun. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. nautique). an adder. Lat. word of mouth . heat. a drab. Sp. Lat. moist. Ca. colubrina.. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. NE. form in the kalib. khalif. kalla. Gr. Fr. hot. or caliever. ' pert. to rail or scold . and E. Kil. caliver. quiet. E. Heb. whence couleuv. having a thick skin. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. Diet. glotton. Call. Fin. calma. . Calico. Due.

Lat. Caloyer. an eating. and yspiuv. Bret. chaitcre. brought from Fr. Kakoycpos. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. camber-nosed. campo. callour. crooked. canis.conduit-pipe. whence the Fr. Candy. or Caribs.Gr. Camisade. Camp. icaSoytipoe. — B. The Grisons cauina. cambre. callar. Or the word Lat. Peter Martyr. Camlet. Calver of cane.—Candidate. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Sp. mg Canister. unwater chamelot . would plenier. From campus was formed Lat. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Properly calver in the field during a war. Fr. the calix. the space of false imputation. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. It. ko/utuXoc. is Cambering. Lat. Ptg. Fr. camahutus. Sanson khanda. arched. camiscieia. bis. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair.' Forme of Cury in Way. E. Campaign. Canal Channel. Candid. salmon. Gr. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Gr. lame. cere : Lat. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. In a different application It. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. E. candela. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Cambrav—Cam.' ' Quhen a lattice. — — — A — — escume de saumon.— Hackluyt in R. also an eatmg sore. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. cup. — Lat. higher in the middle than Fr. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. monk. aged. to warp. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. A — the Cannibals. Sp. arched. See Canker. It. Fr. lattice. ation. Lat. B. properly good country.— B. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad.—Cambrel. cambr^. Arab. or hollow of a flower. a large drinking . catmneo. a crab. calutmiia. sore. different sections of the like the Chinese. camiscia. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. a' Sc. KafitjUe. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Mid. From fluting or furrow in a column . It was distinfrom work. whence the noun signifying an applicant. campren. B. when its substance appears inter. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. camafeo. frank and sincandidatus. canalis. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. camp. good. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. aspirant. crooked. to glow. camaien. Turk. Lat. canistrum. a._ kamm. Lat. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. KafivTu. kanna.—Jam. open and level ground. to jut. across — Bellenden in Jam. the spersed with white flakes like curd. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Cancer. water chamlet . crooked. Cambray. Sp. . sugar in pieces or lumps khand. cam^e. a piece. from candere. on. It.who their language. chamold man. campagne. Mod. to bend. It. India Islands. campaign. to the force of the wind. Canine. camisa. champagne. crook. Fr. Canker. to avoid enemy in their shirts. paign. white. from xaXbg. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. sugar. a basket. whence Fr. Lat. arch. cancer. camelus. champ. to bend. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. camisade. Calyx. Cambrel. Fr. camelot. toile some of whom. se cameloter. lie level. a field Greek monk. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. cup. Cambric. samon. the bed of a stream. slander. campagna. cAouma. Fr. crooked-stick. a goblet bud. spot for cattle. cambren. a dog. chommer. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. E. to bow. Cot. clothed in white. ckaouma. Fr. to break. Cann. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. hooked. Pers. the heat. It. An eater of human flesh. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. at the ends. a may have acquired that signification from plain. campo. a. canna. candidus. fair. campus. — Cancel. is Candle. Cameo. cambrer. the type of a hollow pipe. fresh. cancello. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon.Lat. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Calumny. It. died in 1526. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. a caught. campagna. Canibal.— Chandelier. chandelle. . Camel. w. cainahelus. Palsgr. had no r in de bric— Cot.. co7nbar. nia. calj'x. field . Lat. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Fr. the salmondis faillis thair loup. having an aquiline nose.

is found languages of very different stocks. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. canevas. kq. or cantell of bread. the quartile. The — . coat. contain. To canvas — . a reed. trine. cantle then is a corner of a thing. margo panis diffracta. to contain. or hold. a side. haitt. capace. that the G. To his judicial And trowl the tile. From Lat. covered. A slow gallop. a cantle of bread. a hunch of bread. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Canoe. &c. The word seems to be taken from Gael. astrology. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. and hence a gobbet. It. side. he discourseth of dissection. canoa. a tube. Sp. Prov. Capable. a ship canot. hemp. Fr. canapa. coarse hempen cloth Fr. Kil. To Canonise. Picard. a rule or standard of excellence. canto. But it may be different source. a scull- — here. Of vena cava and of vena porta. signifying cover. Canopy. kwvwxIi. cheese. cane. a boat. B. kanta. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. hemp. shut. the heel.— Cot. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. coarse hemp. a torch. cape. Cot. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. From Gr. Germanis kdppen. OFr. cane. Mod. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. say. a cane. N. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Cannoii.^on.Gr. . quito curtain. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. a small boat. and the sex- &c. kand. cappe. A piece of anything. The meserseum and the mesentericum. See Chape. It. canton. cantone. a corner. Cant. being a yard or thereabouts . Gael.n. a hundred. quarter. It. Wtb. Capacious. Swab. from . a door . schlapp. corner. A . cannabis. cannu. kandt-broodts. pipe. a reed. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. cannevaccia. cantred.CANNEL vessel. It. a cap. carcase . Canteen. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. the heel. Canvas. from a Canter. capevole. Sp. a ruler. It. cover kapi. cane. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. the part easiest broken off. It. chape. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. &c. canapaccia. Probably only the augmentative of canto. a cloak. as. Palsgr. capax. a cover Turk. cane. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. name. kantr. properly a large Prov. language. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a pipe. Kavt\. and met. has kahn. If the word had been from cantherius. a — A — Cannel Coal. to sing. Hence Lat. Diez. canvas. chantel. also a measure. Sp. can. clqse. cover . and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. . cappa. to put upon sacred writers. Cope. edge. region. lump. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta.. a Fr. Canton. Lat. kynnel. which is not the case. Gugel. and tref. a straight rod. Du. cannone. canon. measure for cloth. Goldast — in in Schmid. a horn of the moon . from cant. Again we have Lat. hirnschlapple. Esthon. cappe. part. a wine-cellar or vault. border. rumme. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. from Dan. it would have been found in the continental languages. to con- rummer. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. as a cantle of bread. tain. KCLvva. See Capt-. like a torch or candle. able to receive. . the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. from canna. border Dan. kyndel. Capari. Mod. It. Cape. a gelding. quarter . Fr. kapamak. cainnt. Jonson. was formed Kavtiiv. chanteau. hood. regular. canonici. Fr. call. root cap. capello Italis. canonicus. Cantle. speech. kaput. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. caparazon. to shut. capa. schlappen. gnat. canteau. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. leiwan kanta. .Gr. Canon. cantina. the tried list of saints. W. Schwab. KaTTiram. cantref. Alamannis. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a cloak kapali. ON. hamlet. a drinking glass. cope. Fin. Coal burning with bright flame. cannevo. territorial hundred. a division of a country.

as Fr.' Cot. Lang. herissonnement. capitulare. or represented by the syllable e. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. brug. explained by Diez from capra. s'hdrisser. capro. grisser. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. w. gricciare. to from capitulum. knis. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. It. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . brisciare. h^risser. hedge-hog.impressions on the ear. A . It. gives rise to brezza. aggricciare. of a fowl. abridge amKoTroq. brissle. hair. the initial mute of forms like Gr. frisson- ner . greziller. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. chattering of the teeth. caprice It. also the capriole. To treat Capitulate. It. the hair to stand on end. the singing'bone). capriola. a capriol. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. a buck. shivering. rihrczzoso. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. . a young kid met. prickly husk of chestnut. Caper. cappriccio. then find the symptoms of shivering. The same imitation of Capon. the head. Arab. Capillary. to crackle. Genevese bresoler. principal. horror. for which he cites the Comask nucia. brezilia. frizzle. frissoner. ziki. ribrezzo.). brisciare.) d'etre The It. is either wholly lost.' — (Supp. Acad. A headland. to shiver for cold. to shiver. to fry. Fl.— 128 CAPE a rustling. See Chief. gricciare. a ch illness.'— Trev. caj)o. grillcr. — to yearne. or other things. they longed extremely to see it. — — A a hair. cover of a saddle. to shudder. to crackle. capillus. It. alcaparra. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. G^' Many words — ' ndv. caprice. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. a little head. as Fr. Fr. brisciare. Fr. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. and with an initial gr instead of br. birsle. curly. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. frisser {frissement d'un trait. to broil.— Fl. end. and his body bristled We to castrate. sault. greziller. to ruffle the surface of water. curling. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . erica. of a coach. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. castrated. Fr. capparis. with joy' Vikram. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . II bresole (Gl. Lat. cut. arricciarsi. then to be in a state of vibration.standing on end. brisoler. a goat. rissoler. and 7tucc. bristling. or. capar. humorous. ericius. then to shiver or shudder. curl. ticchio. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. belonging to From caput. chief. heath. frort^Lat. grug. a hedge-hog. Mod. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. a . Fr. to parch. airoKOTrrw. to desire earnestly. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. a chevret. a kid. So from Sw. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. as the means of earning profit. ^piKos. of a tremtdoiis sound. Capers. a head. knis-hujwud . Cot. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. horripilation. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. a yearning through sudden fear. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. Griller d'im' patience. to . I have shivered with love. algabr. wriggle. and OHG. cApre. Hal. toy. or goat's leap (done by a horse). Unexpected pleasure. Lat. bristling. It. castrated cock. capriole. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. hi. the head. capriol or caper in dancing. CAPRICE twittering. bruco. Hair-like. eruca compared with It. grisser. riccio. cut off. a caterpillar. shrub. caper j caprio. compared with Bret. It is probable that Gr. Lat. 75. <I>pi'?oe. the hair to stand on end. upon terms Sp. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. or Lat. roughening of the skin. according to the Hindoos. the principal part of the debt. Lat. a separate division of a matter. to twitter as birds. kid. as Fr. And similarly to yearn. Caprice. p. It. gives rise to Sc. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. It. arricciarsi. as in Lat. where Burton adds in a note. Sp. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. Capital. shivering. The true derivation lies in a different direction. Torriano. fansuddenly angry.Gr. crackling sound Cape. Hence capitalis the sum lent. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. to broil. It.) grezille marid. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. a caper in dancing. capitalis.

to carry . a sawing-block or trestles. cabreia. Kiittner. where it forms a very large class of compounds. decepte. Fin. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. contain. hold. fantastic. intercept. Carabine. Carbine. It. shivering fit (Altieri). &c. caricare. to take. Cot. Lat. a. or the (capo-riccio). of capsa. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. a coffer. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. Capriole. Sp. concebir. calabrin. G. recepte. to this is It. from head. commander. Capsule. concept. a hood (dim. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament.s. chirriar. charger. a kind of torture. deception. crab s. capitis. a taking back. to creak. Fr. a cloke) capuccino. cabrestante (whence e. -cept. receptus. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. recibir. capp%tccio. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels.. conceive. and of captus to an e. karista. a fantastical humour. Fr. acceptus. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Du. Carabin. to take to. cabestan. Captain. captive. charrier. cams. except. It. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. Fl. as the dragoons (Du. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. as in OFr. Derivatives are Fr.of these compound verbs. It. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. recipio. captivate. accept. and has thus descended unaltered to English. as in accipio. Capt-. 129 — receive. It. one odd. Cot. chirrion. -ceive. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. Castr. a creaking waggon.). dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. &c. Du. Sp. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. conceit.or -cib-. i The meaning Car. crepo. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. capra. karrende waegen. Cart. karra. tnoschetta. and has accordingly been lost in E. a reception. case. and tropically. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. In the S. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. Fr. It. a cart. charret. desire. de- price. It. also a kind of rack. box. latterly. di cappa. carro. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. captus. The It. strideo. trestle. a sudden will. also to carry on a car . to creak. capio. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. carretta. concevoir. whence capture. Capstern. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus.). a hooded friar. cabestrantej Fr. capitano. Crab. at least. however. Lat. It. Capuchin. a she-goat. caput. carabin. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. calabrino. a capuchin. — — Capstan. perceive. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. cabra. a head man. seize. a windlass. dim. conception. verbs gives rise to the element . Fr. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. recipere.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). . char. capuccio. See Caper. karren. OSp. In cases. was a kind of horse soldier. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. concipere. Etym. to accept. Fr. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. an engine for throwing stones. bock. the -cevofthe Fr. to receive receptio. was converted into -ceb.. Fr. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. deceit. oisr. -cept. It is a standing crab. fancy. caprice. to take baclc. a. precept. chevre. of the Sp. Neumann. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. krul. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. caThe hrestante. Lat. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. recevoir. was originally a missile . kerren. Nordfoss. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. — —Diet. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. Lat. &c. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. Thus the musket. Caseneuve in Diet. sels. capsula. Passing on into E. to please. Fr. to load . a sudden fear apprehended. also tresFl. Carry.

to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. also a small weight. confining. cramp. a thistle. a winding staircase. cdrlag. military engines made for hurling stones. a case or chest . word is only an adoption of the Turk. cerran. the case of the flesh. Parmesan cassiron. a card or comb . a gem resembling a live coal. Caravel. It. karri. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. cardo. mural attack. OHG. winding carach. Fr. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. the . also (as Gr. a wool card. a twist. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. fire . half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. It. turn of a horse. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. a crane. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. a coffer. It.z. of carbo). carmiiiarc. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. a kind of ship. carcaij. The radical meaning . cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. case. is the word used in modern Lat. the carcase of a fowl. to comb. to turn. eit. carate. caraffa. carere. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. carbh. ancient springald. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. for a gun. carbunculus (dim. From the battering-ram. a small weight. a prison. kirat. casso. ON. carta.charcoal .' From the same source are SicU. Pers. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. An implement for dressing wool. wool card. Sp. to card wool. Gr. carquasse. Fr. an ulcer. to comb wool . I. a he-goat. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. car. «capa'|8i. Fr. skeleton toise. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. Cat. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. caravela. Exot. to ripple flax. Lat. carcasa. a firelock.. Carboy. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. skeleton. avSpaS. carabba. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. quilato. Sp. cabrita. Bohem. the carob bean. skeleton. a quiver. designated in the case of G. kerwan. KtpaTwv. . carcame. the core of fruit . to curry horses karsztuwas. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. copperas. in the same way that the Sp. carabe. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Sp. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. of the same Caravan. an engine for hurling stones. shell. caracal. silique. matter. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. bock and Fr. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. Fr. Derived in the first edition from Mod. Cot.. See Carpenter. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . carcanada. winding. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. turning. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. a skeleton.Gr. tcapKaai. karszti. espi7igarda. to creak. burning coal. &c. . vitriol.Gr. a snail.. poison eiz. eitar. garafa. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. Gael. the trunk or chest of the body . a lock of wool . . and catapulta. to hiss (as gee^e). boch. caraffe. Gael. black dye. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. the name might naturally Mod. ' Vasa vitrea. It. carch. . to card wool. a goat. The Trjg xeXwwac. Lat. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg.. Carbonaceous. Mod. decanter. Carat. to draw in. Lith. a battering-ram). Carcax. a dead carcase. Card. the shell of a torcarcasso. Comp. a ripple for flax. coming to four grains. a quiver . carduus. seed of carob. Caraool. properly a siege machine. carbo. . Gael. kard boyd. carquois. contract. Gr. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Carcase.— — — . a quiver . curry-comb. It. carquan. card. constraining . the dead body of any creature. bend. &c. W. cabreia. cabra. Gael. restraint . AS. is the chine. Sp. a ship. krciti. wine- bottle. or framework.applied to a battering-ram (G. cassa. a thistle. Cot. karra. Ptg. a machine for casting large darts. the husk or cod of beans. a quiver.. Carbuncle. Arab. Carrob. &c. — seems to be something holding together. quse vocant karabd. chevre by the name of the goat. a collar or chain for the neck. carcanet. Sp. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . alia sunt majora. p. Venet.

The object of carminatives is to expel wind. . carnasciale. karantez. piger. quadrifurcum from quameet. an endearment. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin.' Slceat. or grumbling —Due. Chart. tuorfurcm (Burguy). solicitous. and sum. voce strepo stridente. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. OFr. fleshy . from carus. Fin. A quirito ut infans. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. Fr. to distress growl. . Mur. immediately before the long fast of Lent. Lat. the flesh of animals . in N. meet at a head. giierlir. 273. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. charie. It. karry. It. Bret. zanken .. kummer. to scrape . principal. Care. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. Cot.— Charter. OHG. ON. combing them out like the knots in wool. caricatura. kargr. asper. Fin. to lie on its side. carena. a card. act of moaning. Fl. Fr. p. G. It. a highway. careless take care of. tenax. crawl. . to parch. is to say. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. at murmuring. Translated in MS. Properly a car-road. Sp. chartre. x'»P'"^s)) paper. cearian. — — — : Cardinal. grief. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Fr. murahtaa. Sept. Sp. stridere. the old theory of humours. beans. carian. sgritudo animi. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. crosier. AS. Charnel. Trin. 8. to scratch. or street. caritia. car. and murhet. karg. record. AS. as peas. W. to fry or broil. to rumble. affection. murren. in Carp. 1S66. No ' place there had. soUicitus OSax. A place where four roads Mid. also a career on horseback. . Coll. care. essere in carena. Gael. caMid. kroU-erbser. ignarus. cura intenta. from carrus. clown or churl. karout. E. Carminative. to load. from caricare. crowl. carrefourg. surrata. cdrle. one of those ac- 9 * . . Roquef. Probably the origin of the word is the . caresse. a man. Fr. carina. cardinis. from the keel to the water . Champ. to load. Carl. sensual. ceorl. appertaining to the flesh. ress. from Lat. is This however Shrove tide. . the keel of a vessel. the several meanings of the words above Rom. a hinge. to comb wool. road. Groler. grolU. weyes. Ptg. kara. in St Jerome. Fr. Carnal. — Carfax. cargar. to clean the bottom of the ship. place for exercise on horseback. & Q. charneux. quarreG.. parched or carled. Lat. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. dear. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. winding. Carnage. wool cards. carezza. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Carlings. see Garble. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Peas steeped and fried. stingy. G. charger. strideo. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. astutus. whence carricare. carcus. carena. what is felt as grievous. male person. For the root of carminare. sorrow. Dan. quaver a lazar's clack. fundamental. scharren. — — . Cot. From. Carled peas. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. the keel. A medical term from line —Boerio. karrig. carnavale. charag. — — Diez. an overloaded representation of anything. Bret. Farewell flesh.Lat. be anxious. gakaran. like connection may be seen between Fin. that Fl. a turn. karl. Card. rixosus. Cath. It. caru. Properly. 2. regar. the hull of a ship. de Parthenay.Lat. ON. W. carnal. four. carnalis. to whirr (schnurren). It. as carminare. carriera. It. W. sorrow. morosus sum. AS. to load. morosus. carnis. A mod-carag. love. intrasset caro. Fr. and compare Bret. karista. to take Goth. Carenare. care on. . cargo. carriire. — — — Caress. and G. to card wool. Cargo. w. to eat flesh. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. &c. kribina. Fr. msstus. and thin. that on wliich the matter hinges. charta (Gr. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. tremble. camovale. cearig. a deed. caricare. charnage. to comb flax or hemp. niggardly . croller. hoed. to shake. — To Careen. the load of a ship. Venet. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. carminare. carch. Cot. Bois crolant d'un ladre. carcare. Fr. to fry. compared with Fin. kumra. Cartel. It. murista. Cark. carFrom carrus. the time during which to Rom. charg. moeThe Lat. to growl. graller. to love. mutter. cardo.— CARD karr-kambar. as quadrivium from Carnaval. to care unkarja. bottom. Caricature. . carener. cura may be ror. charnel. kurista.

vel coopertorio carebit. querole. carpende fast Carol. charpie. On this. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation.D. is erroneous. Sup. . i. Discov. Beggars Bush. A. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. From Lat. to dance. Properly a round dance. carpia. gonna. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. and F. cxciv. to chatter coroli. carpita. chariot carbad. carduz.Lat.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. i. qui sacco. The karole of the stones behelde. ON. carpenta. differing To Carp. 94). about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. ballare. carnelascid). charpentier. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis.Lat. to dance. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. skraf. as Fr. ship. carpetam (a quilt?). Fr. 2. In Dominica d'autant. a wheelwright. Carpenter.Why give's some wine then. Carpet.: . chirp. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. To pledge them thou refuse. act of drinking a full Eq. carbh. ! Carouse. Templariorum — ' — Due. chatter skra/a. to gather. gar aus / all out is correct. Olr. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Bohem. Here's to you still my captains friend.— Neum. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. carpetrix. to talk. to pull asunder. carpat (Stokes). and Carnem laxare (It. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. The ' ' a chariot. — — ' ' — — — I — — . course. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. carpentum. yede tham about. Pm. as the Lat. In a MS. Shrove Tuesday. Pr. krapati. worker in timber Fr.' Reg. cited by Marsh. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Other names of the sea. carpo. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. Analogous R. lint.]e bois Carnelevale. pluck. a song accompanying a dance then. krapanj.' Ordo Eccles. on that. was formed Mid. litter.' says Motley (United Neth. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Carnelevale. carpere. cardos. 760. a car carpentarius. I drink all out. a plank. to reel. in Due.— Patriarchi. in Carp.Lat. fabulor. to pluck.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. On the other hand bumper to one's health. sense. as E. All out B. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. The custom. chatter. a carder.' Raleigh. or loose as a couch without further preparation. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. Teut. e. culcitra. Carpitam habeat in lecto. biheld without. to find fault with. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. pluck at. quoted by Carpentier. Biheld within. garrulo. carpenter only in the latter sense. Sp. carpenticre. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. . W.gonnella. balade from It.— Drant in R.— R. Mid. Palsgr. of Guiana. Alluz (G. . It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. all aus). The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. The tippling sots. The word seems of Celtic origin. Bret. Fr. whence the form carnasciale. Pref. tymmer. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Dief. a dance. Cot.'— Stat. 216. Carnevale. bier. Gael. Mediol. maker of waggons It. 2. zimmer. a drinking cup. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. So gone they forthe. used for stuffing mattresses. Lat. 1 1 30. or a carouse fully drunk up. — . linteamen. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Gower in Way. as carnaval from carnelevamen. Carpyn or talkyn. a wheelwright. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. ' ' — . in Nat. tattle. garrire. I quaught. to rustle. Nomin. Chanson de carole. Mid. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Lat. Lat. peta. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Carole. koroll. zimmerspan. Ant.

coffin of paper for groceries. carriaggio. Rouchi carone. discharge. Walach. G. shell or carcase of a house. slaughter-house. Fr. cassa. a long coat. charrier. carretto. Sp. It. as we . casualis. ceorfan. cancelled. Fr. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. to slay. afterwards any written challenge. To quash an indictment. blotted out. bag and baggage of a camp. Hence casket. To Cashier.' Bailey. a hut. To duash. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. a canonry or slaughterhouse. to hold. quasser. dim. It. caroach. packing ' cloth. kirpti. Lat. an augmentative from Lat. Sp. carroc- carrozza . a merchant's cash or counter. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. cartoccio. Rouchi caroche. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. carroccio. something that actually occurs. luggage. cassus. a chance or accident. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. a paper case. from casa. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. house. Fr. from Lat. break to pieces. Lat. To Carve. Cot. cartouche. pasteboard. discharge It. like all the names of tendon. Ready money. cascade. casitiste. casa. casser. It. Cassock. It. caxa. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. long man's gown with a close body. to cut or carve . coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. where Fr. casus. a car. from It. Fr. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Cartel. of carro. caisse. from the sound it makes when Alban. kerven. cassa. carretta. an act of falling. to bear or carry. case. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. Fl. the charge of — — Fr. caroche. to crack. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. cut with scissors. turn out of service. Cartoon.to annul. Cascade. to notch. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. cartella. — — nul the proceeding. a car. cartilage. hung up in some place and to be removed. Lat. — Cartoose.' Fl. a of water. AS. not reaching to the height of the ditch. AS. It. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Case. krat. and that apparently from capio. gristle.' — Hdcart. caro. ' Casa-matta.. des rideaux A'carp^ie. properly to convey in a car. cassere. Du. helmet. and the OE. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. mord-grube. Fr. mata. crush. Rouchi carpHe. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . casacca. cia. a loopscale the wall. CartOTicli. carrosse. Cart. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. caisse. — FI. Fr. caisse. casuelj Fr. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. augm. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. fall It. card. It. Fl. Lat. cascare. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Fr. Flor. to fall. hull of a ship. paper. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. abrogate. The Sp. — Cartridge. Fr. Casket. Fr. to — — also casse. OE. to convey in a cart. See Card. fortuitous. Cash. Gael. mord-keller. Case-mate. vault hole in a fortified wall. kerpu. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. casag. crown of a hat. Casque. cascata. To Carry. from It. hollow. charogne. bitten. cassette. the money chest. casco signifies a skull. annul. carogna. carreaggio. to shear. a coffer or small case for jewels. Du. Case. ignominiously exposed. to dash. case-maiej Sp. As defence from shells became more important. a fall. empty. gristle. It. cancel. kerben. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE.— Fl. for the security of the defenders. Preparatory drawing of a It. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. charrette. Carriage. casa-maita. Cask. It. carota. a chest. tion from Sp. Rouchi carter. Cot. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Fr. Casual. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. cashiered. augmentatives of carro. subject for a picture. casso. Casuist. See Case. capsa (Diez). also the carriage. to break. Fr. casaque. made void. The carrying of anything. one who reasons on cases put. Probably. corresponding to the G. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. It. and matar. Fr. — — . void cassare. See Gristle. to an- — Kil. of carta. coffer. cartone. cascar. Lith. kasseren. Carrion. quash.' Cot. to fire on the enemy. Carrot.

to break. fer toTa. Castle. Gael. cojz^/a. to cast or beat to tioner . To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Brunne. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. to turn overturn. a garment for performing the mass in. the castanets for or implement . and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. a chesnut . Catastrophe. Lang. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. Fr. to look at. fall. Lat. Catalogue. to make clean or chaste. . however. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. Hence castaneta. down. catar. cat. from the first of Castrate. Fr. It. cascar. . puss / for calling them. torture. the earlier sense of catch. bot-kotis. cacciuolo. perhaps from which we have E. second chase. to close. Roukind. to crackle. on. casulla. ating. _G. castello. punch. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. It. like that of It. KaTappaKTrjQ. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. speak of dashing a thing down. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . Pol. dashing it to pieces. while kiss / Pol. koshka. catch. represented by the syllable quash. Etym. force j Rouchi equerviche.. to scourge. drive away. . squash. puras E. cat-o'-nine. handle of an axe. klakka. image accasciare. kasi. a whip on the other into latch. cacciarc. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. Isidore — in Diez. 120.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Yz.'— Pr. Fr.— Fl. to clack. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . accastiare. mino. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. in the fire. kotas. a thump. tails. or comba. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. dash. the ground . was introduced. V Lith. casser. to crack. . shaft of a 1 push. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. It. Pic. cassa / cry for the same purpose. or bruise together. a little house or hut. Mid. to lash. to hurl See Awgrim. rack. to drive away. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. stilts. to is Essentially the Sp. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. Gr. to Fl. a fortified place. Chase. lance. Fr. Lat. kotas. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. In the dialect of Picardy. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. name. Cat. Cot. Fr. V. kaJoivad. and from the castus. To Catch.Lat. coming to us through different dialects of French. castellum. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. ecrevisse.out cacciare . Cast. To It. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. casipola. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. down. Castanets. kakka. chasuble. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. Pm. Fr. kissa. casupola. 'Vaaaw. a cat . OFr. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Fr. to dash. chasser. n. castana. first made ordinary Fr. The Diet. away. katze. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. same word with break. B. is not satisfactory. — We a cavity. . castro.the / or c respectively. to end. R. casule. which.to drive out. 134 CAST Catacomb. signifying breed. Sp. kic' kicil are used chasser. to torture. Hal. race. the stalk of plants. kasta. heat . dashing it out of the window. The E. Fr. and tomba. a cat koshki. probably from an imita. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. Others explain it from Kara. kottr. and KviilSog. under chi caleur.. ON. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. to fall as over a precipice. cacciare fuora. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). KaraXoyog. to drive Cat o' nine tails. from water Karappaaaiii. KarapaKrr]g. arpi^m. a Cataract. being Fin. squash. or Rouchi cat. KaTaarpifm. to bring to an crack given by the joints. which has been retained in E. Gr. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. of sarabands does Gr. crush . Sp. execu. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. to hunt. chat. ichasses.Rouchi Scaches. castanetazo. sue. cast. dim. cash. a vault. follow after. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. of castrum (castra). ' Catchyn away abigo. chasser. Thus we have Caste. Fr. chaleur. kat. an enumerlist. burst cascare. So also from It. &c.

silkworm. called in Fr. Fr. the elements of a science.' ^Jam. Rouchi clincailleux. to chat. ' ' word catch. klatschen. * Caterpillar. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. clap. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. resono ictu lash. . a carter's Pat. Claucht. which all . a whip. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. to crack GATES cache. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. sound. klatsche and Norm. formerly called cliket. — . bicho. chachara. an accusing. a. as of the latch of a As ! — . to A bailiff. clatter. In the XV'e. c or ^. E. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. P. — explained. insect. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. 'Horxa. 135 — Aasen. s. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. flap klatsche. Swiss Lombard G. to chatter with the teeth cake. Wal. cagnon (a dog). Metivier. chink. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. fragor kletsoore. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . a. to clap hands. to kythe D. the the same principle he was Fr.from Bard and ayopsw. seize. head. gattola. Du. millecaterpillars. companaige. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. blow. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. i. glcu. chenille {canicula. with and without an / after the c. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. * Cates. 'Bxn. to snatch (said of dogs). Chate peleuse. Cates. On Catechism. instruction in forms. weevils. Gr. Guernsey pilleure. Ptg. KaTtix'so. Kil. wild-beast. a pill. smack. apprehend a person. caucht. catc?u. snatching. dainty vic- a form lash. latch. to the crack. Du. woodlice. dainties. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. to teach by oral instruction. Sp. Fr. devouring mite or weevil. catch. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. whip. cache. icarrix'Ki^. . ArbaUte de courte chasse. from shutting with a click. ictus resonans. bichano (pussy). kletsen. GaUa catchiza. ketsoore. happe-chair. chatter . For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. . ' Fr.' CATCH Fr. Cot. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. a cornIn the s. a whip or Kuttner. to take. from Gr. . catch. a clap. Diez. snatching it with a any one. to snap. klatsch. — tinman. a smack. a whip Rouchi cachoire. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. Kil. . ecachoire. Caterer. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . cat is not apparent. E. Guernsey chafer. Gael. kletse. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. to catch strength. chasse.V. Fr.yopl(. an officer of taxes. the OE. a caterpillar Milanese can. Gael.) . pedes. klatscherei. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. the distance to which the ball is struck. resound. a — gatta. — Catcli-poll. Sc. Kartiyopta (/cari. in order). Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. or any kind of relishing food tuals. — with a whip. children's name for cat .V. Cot. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . de Bray. E.j.. called dog or Galla catchamza. verberare kUts. catch-flesh. clap with the hand. e. — Kiittner. and answer. kaetse. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. predicament. compare G. chassoire. G. snatched. has both or of charming by sound. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. gingle. is said that he got a claucht of it. a whip. klinke. gliong. caker. claquer. a little dog). OFr. Grandg. Tutschek. quincailler. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. worm. to harangue. chatter. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. — B.s. door when it is shut. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry.P. chacepol. Du. latch of. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. chase. e.

puss. calotte. ' Gr. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Fr.Y\\Xea. KaHSpa. to sound like a blow . net or caul-work. to ac- — Fr.Lat.' Elyot in Way. Cause. Du. Cave. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. catkin Magy. Cavalry. to shoe. Gr. Caustic.—— — 136 correct. cabbage-stalk. Caballus. Caudle. Fr. That he was ay before in his estate. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Kavrijp. puss. kdtzchen. accapitare Rouchi acater. Diez). Lat. cautis. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. mutz. walnut with the husk on challer. deyntie meates. kitten kotki. CAVE Caul. KiwariKog. and spareth for no perell. &c. a horse . accattare. Manciple's Tale. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. is Prologue. via strata. kocie. . Fin. Bessie of Bednall. caldo. adcaptare. hazel. rete A — Prov. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. fur. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. otherwise written kell. catkins . Richly she feeds. . Ka^afriKOQ. Fr. Cathedral. calqada. Causeway. a horse . Palsgr. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Catkin. to purge. achepter. Sx. acater. cauHs. OE. calceata. choufleur {choii. cavaliere. capull. Lat. Kavrfipiov. Pol. a horseman. — Cauterise. from delf^gato. cautus). It.. a kettle for heating water. Fr. from caveo (p. quire. flue. despencier. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. kaussijde. A warm comforting drink. Caution. . acaptar. The word — . It.Lat. a mare. Kil. to buy. Cathartic. lamb. Fr. Gr. calidus. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. hollow. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. KaPaWrii. dumpf tonen. On the other hand. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Cavity. macska. cal^ar. a kind of skull-cap. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Delycates. Rete. chatideau. challe was ther of a temple. 4. katteken. Pr. a receptacle for small things. the caul of the liver. It. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. kin. Lat. Palsgr. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. Lat. . a road calceata. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. puss. Cavern. catkin mitz. cale. klopfend knallen. mudet. • — — See Chattel. caudex . a paved road. catkin Pol. cabbage. a pulpit. having the property of cleansing. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Gael. Mid.^Hal. flock. Jonson in R. Fr. a pavement. from KaSaipio. cat maczoka. — . make clean. a branding from koiio. 2. cabbage). chair. calceta. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. It. Gr. to shale or peel. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Fr. catons. a The peel. kautsije. little cap is . kopano. chausser. Jaubert. the. Cavalier. cheval. Fr. a horse. Mid. and hence a skull-cap. Cattle. to beware. shaled or picked Fr. also to pave . chaudiire. hot. B. from chaud. minon. ce^l. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. chaussJe. chevalier. kopista. Lat. Provider. katte. caple.. what . Dryden in R rete. Cauldron. kassije. Du. Chaud. . little cat. Lat.willow. Russ. a stalk.' B. Thus Bav. . green husk of a calon. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. caballus. kocianki. any Fl. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. kobuiV. whence cathedralis. but the acates that are sent him. w. . — com en achate or buying Chaucer. cale. reticella. It. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. to burn. a seat. by land.^ acheter (Lat. causa. to shoe . G. the stones of a street. fur in general. Fr. Fr. cavus. Port. koparet. Boethius. hot. chaudroii. — — cavallo. Wyatt in R. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. CATHARTIC sense. apt to burn iron. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Cavalcade. kobyla.p. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. chauderon.

. hivtmel. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. plank. wuoren komo. thelu. del into English without ' translation gave cele. Hence concede. the inner roof of a room of state. caveqon. to argue capto tiously. deal. sus-lambris. p. death. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. of E . of cavezza. quibble. cielo. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. kommata.). Lat.. Plancher. komo. cabegon. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Soc. the roof of a coach. IV. cessum. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. . give place. wall. cavezzone. door-sill J Sc. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. syl. to cut. to go forth. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. a canopy. cease. selar. is applied to a canopy. H. The importation of Fr. Cam. a board. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. yield. proceed. Lat. a beam. . departure from this life. also a seeling of boards. sybire.' del. 32. to panel or wainscot MHG. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. .' — Gawan . in Hal. selure. crooked kopio. a log. 43. The line of descent from Fr. CAVESON kopera or kowera. . obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. a canopy. -ceed. . tester of a bed. — — — toyour soverane. Lat. lambrisser une chambre seeling. that. succeed. a fir-plank. ciel de lit. canopied. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons.' Marriage of James IV. thil. 7. curved. . sky. heaven. thili.). the testern of a bed. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . ciel is so unbroken. as. and Gol. —Decease. p. a halter. Boyd in Jam.' Cot.j have come from this source. rafter. dScis. Fr. board . a log. Cede. &c. with their substantives concession. Fr. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. but hang around at the sides. cellar. plank. kapp-zaum. a boarded floor. an aquiline nose. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. Sherwood. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. komista. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. In the N. jaa.. It. So from Fin. Wore. in Jam. bridle. cedo. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. The sense of roofing. Sp. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. to canopy siled.' Hall. to plank or floor with planks. &c.' Ordinances and Reg. . column E. 5. dille. heaven. — . coffer. augm. a severe bridle. See -cede. decessus. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. -cede. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. . to seele or close with boards plancher. empty. B. Gawaine & Sir Gol. Ceiling. a hut.' Rutland papers. cabega. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. and zaum. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. hollow. koppeli. ceiling. — . to plank ON. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. lambris. recede. VIII. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. thel. E. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. a plank. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. Cot. -cease. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. thilja. Fr. pp. Cavil. thil. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. hollow ice . a log. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. flooring E. in Jam. -cess. . sill. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. Cease. the deck of a ship at thilja. cesso. thiling. To seele a room. excess. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. ceiling. . step away. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. In the same way G. menuiserie. wainscot thiljar (in pi. beam. as if from happen. Fr. hung. Lat. &c. . departure. — komo tain). A — A false accommodation produced G. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. nailes will begin to cling. were met. dil. sill in window-sill.'— Z. hollow. And seik — Cessation. semely on syll. cavillor. post. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. &c. applied to a canopy. cyling (W. or of a bed. and that from Sp. seele. . Hal. Sir 137 pit . and then to gape. a head. a planking or boarding tkilian. syle. The It. exceed. little house. dayntily diglit.

centum. to glow. solemn (of per. criticism. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. -oept. observe. Assess. calefare. Lat. and thence censer. to take. Fl. to sleep). Census Censor. in comp. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. to set on fire. sift. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. sile. age. the place where the de. -cess. -ceptjun. crevi. Lat. capio. See Cede. — . celer. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi.. a registration of one's self. the hollow the Lat. census. capturn. distinIt. judge. a religious observance. pick out. Censer. -ceit. assess.' Celebritas. and put it through the over eyelydde. from censeo. Lat. irot\oe. Cot. tax. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Fr. cilibat. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. /ctj/rsw. Lat. appertain. to rate. zens according to their property. Ta^oe. To chafe is for wine. to prick. become heated with anger. &c. dchauffer. -cipio. judge Lat. Centurion. the talk of men. — . provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. parted sleep. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. decebre) . camentum. a solemnity. celeber certus. Fr. siller les yeux. is the opposite of disora virum. K^'ivut. see.' Book of St Albans. Prov. concerner. Gr. tax. and — — — possessions. Fr. ' . Cess. of heating. to chafe. heaven.). chauffer. eschattffer. in Marsh. Centre. receipt. to blindfold. a valuation of every man's estate. concetto. To Incense. Coehim. thronged the participle cretus. -cern. cigliare. sure. the point round which a circle is drawn. or any bird's. Lat. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. goad. -cepere. The term cilium. and met. estimate. to twinkle darkness. Chafe. keep in It. Cereal. abundance. a prick. to warm. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. being taken from Fr. Gr. Cell. — . OFr. Ceremony. mortar. Sc. — . ciglio. To seel or close the eyes. single or unwedded life. Lat. -ciper. family. sting. Lat. KsvTpov. a Cemetery. cenio. Fr. Celebrity. Assize. a storehouse Chafe. as in some places burnt. S. eyelid. deceipt. to distinguish. to attend on object with. Fr. cerealis. to rub for the purpose a hut. Cij(fe5j. rubble. cceremonia. Cot. -i^oivre. cella. hollow. Celerity. See Celibacy. we have a modified form of (of a place). rough from the quarry. what to set in a chafe. his office. decide. point. and thence to conceal. as entering largely into the derivative certo. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. -cense. oil. -cepire. sacred show. and so of that other. {cori)cipere. -cebre ifoncebre. census. or expression of Ennius. to separate. (and thence also) to hoodwink. deceit. to seal a pigeon's eye. confounded ist from It. to sepap rate. materials It. blind. ceremonia. quarters for slaves.j 138 thill. Fr. a hundred centuria. guish. -cevoir. is totally distinct from the foregoing. syll.unmarried. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. oil.). It. -ceive. -civer {conciver— Roquef. ciller. — — Cenotapli. incense. but was gradually lost in conceit.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. a solemnity. in accordance with the Fr. Censor. cencer. Incensum. to bury). a shaft horse. judge. to contend. — A . Accelerate. value. to concern. to take. conceipt. make angry. then to rub without reference Cement. Lat. with transposition hence (of a day). to course of people. Censure. to incense. to celebrate. to visit in numbers. to heat. . cillier. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. . for building. an eyelash. to -sum. a tomb. riscaldarsi.of the r. the officer appointed to take such returns .. festive. In Celebrate. calefacere. Lat.cern. renown be embodied with.— Cellar. a numerous con. to burn incendo. cot. swift. a hundred of what- — . Sherwood. Gr.— Chafing-dish. chaufferette. empty. Century. much frequented. Lat. to think. Gr. — . Lat. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. 1. with the eyes. thence belonging to or connected with corn. For sess from assess. It. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. cretum. in comp. concernor. contend. to be regarded as one celebro. from Saa-rw. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. stones to the production of heat. Take the nedyll and threde. — . encens. Certain. -CEIVE a shaft. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. candeo. caber. Fr. Lat. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Lat. Fr. also grave opinion. censura.ing a room where there is not fire. &c. to seele or sew up the eyelids . and then she is ensiled as she ought to be.

cam. without chap/are makiinde. to move the jaws. Ayenbite. jaw. to gnaw. calonjar. quisquilise offence. The jaw chafty. chatter. Lat. To buy and sell. Came. kiaftr. vis. a pulpit Cot. ing a hard case to their wings. 11. in a monstrous fume. catena. KoBiSpa. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. calice. muzzle. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. chaise. a prattling woaction. refuse barley . Cheffern. . which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. kdfer. to buzz. camera. taubes korn oder hafer. kahu. yap. From Port. grief. hght Chalk. (ca'e'ra) to chair. chagrin. P. contestation. Pr. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. ckapfare. Due. Lat. avena vilior.sure carriage. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Bav. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. — — — — — — . &c. Chair. Halma. cauvette. vel susurro. to calumpnjamen. Chain. Pat. Prov. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. as a carriage is a moveable seat. Fr. dongio. kaff. sborfare. Prov. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. haggle. chawe. talkative. kever. or puff with snorting. tattle cheep. cadena. a rustling noise. Pers. to caw chawer. keffen. matter by combat. to tattle. far lima-lima. calx. a chain. Camera. false accusation. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. to claim. chafing. p. In like manto huff. keuchen. a vault or arched roof. chaine. kuhuja. Fr. chalanger. rustle Challenge. difficulty . have a mind to parley. clamare. snort. cadena gives chain. lime . kedja. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. De Ir4. Du. kiqfta. puffed or ruffled with ly. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. care. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. leviter crepo Then. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Fr. chamar. to chatter or talk lightly. OFr. breathe hard. to gnaw. So from dominio. any insect of the beetle kind. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Kuttn. kuhista. Lat. kahuja. fern-chafer. chaulx. to call. green sagrin. to a seat. a chough. fume. cup. thick and short. From the To Chaff. and as this was the beginning of man. to pant. lime. In vulgar language. Fr. kuhata. Fr.nium. rustling motion challenge. Lat. to sit. cadieira. Chayire. Gr. kaff. Cot. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. ^Altieri. ing rapidly repeated cries. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. to bark. kdfelen. chafeter. to action arose. place See Cheek. E. dispute. Lat. Fl.. on. G. ple^. to institute anforensic action. to babble. songe. rustling corn. gewolb. cathedra. Chagrin. idle words. kiamta. Piedm. from the shark-skin. Fr. 35. Prov. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. grief. — — ' — — — A . fa sagramen de calompnia. — — — . a double operation * Chafer. chayire. kauchen. swelling with anger. signal by drum or P. chaene. sagri. Fr. chaire. chambre. that leneth e per I'autra. charge with. cathedra. rally one. hordeum vel let. with a:n arched roof. Gr. ceaf.— — . . jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. .. kuhina. often puffing. chaffare.' Rayn. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). of. Perhaps Pm. much more Genoese sagrind. calumnia. Hal. tattle. Du. ON. chicane. in a cana. . a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Bouffard. chaps Chamber. preise. cadera. snuff. Chalice. much blowing. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. great chafe. from Swiss kafeln. hiss. sagrindse. bargain. to ner It. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Fin. refuse. Lat. a pulpit. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. as. limare. to Latin calumniare. Fr. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. ceafer. Probably from According to Diez. havOFr. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. to fret inwardtronfo. calix. — . shaIt. G. from of the G. Fr. Kaiiapa. Lat. a jackdaw. also to prattle. kahista. now a chair. Wall. care. and signifies to consume with anger. Cot. Adelung. a goba rustling . to file. . From to go to law. calonja. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to puff and blow. Fr. khah. de Brai. — — — . puff. baras of ants. to dispute. call in question for an ley). to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. breathe KaOa^oiiat. tronfio. B. crooked.

a horse-race. from cheoir. cample). — Ch-amberlain. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. champ. kimppu (Lap. zampettare. kippo. to hold . Champaign. Fr. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel.' melleia. chamfrain. kablys. ciamberlano. wood. Chance-n3. kimpustella.edley. Lat. kampeln. at the railings. dial. keiiipe. Lith. certare. therewithal. to fasten oneself to another . And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. kampa. chanfrar. — Hal. surpassing. a hook . athlete. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . Sp.' SherI'altro ' ' . kabintis. cadere. to strive at games . — ^Tusser. kabinti. from Fr. difficulty . Get campers a ball To camf . to flute as a column. kiinp. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. dial. kibti. tsamtsogni. fight. . to be eminent. . Ptg. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. cancelli. compound. Campar. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. Fr. CHANCEL It. kimbu. Carpentier. Fr. camp. a scufSe. jeu parti. kimpUma. dial. Lat. Du. to chew. termediaries between them and the judge. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. camp. fight. who stood ad cancellos. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. dial. cameratus. cahir. i. — KiL . Prov. E. It will. to cample. . divided game. pedilusor. chajnbellan . to wrestle. kempa. hero Sw. top of a borehole. accident. to to chew champ. chance. fray. prize-fighter. escazenza. kriimmen gebogen. ON. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . s. ciambellano. to tread The sound heavily. the chafldn. kabe. to hang. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . a game at football. sukibti. to wrestle. to slope. ing. e. pinch. Magy. a warrior. M. Prov. to fasten on. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). calida et sans aguet. campus. to — — champ. dispute Hal. Sup. reusement — fight in single combat. Fin. dricka i kapp. to paw the ground E. to debate. a court of justice. contend or argue G. luctare. boys speak of capping verses. kinipen. to fall). See Camp. contest. and acted as inofficers of .—Charfron E. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. chdance. . slope of a bevelled angle.Lat. calidameya. The G. champ. kabMe. Sp. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. act of falling. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. champion Du. To cope or contend with. to fasten oneself on to another . Chancery. chanfreindre. chamble. zs jeopardy. Fr. to stick to. which seems another form of the root. to groove bevel off a right angle. a hollow chanfreiner. camerlengo. to hollow out.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. ON. tsammogni. To hollow out in chanPtg. To Chamfer. gewolbt. The happening of things Chance. to talk. dial.' ' Pr. cempa. mesleiare. is explained by serrarsi. hng. to move the jaws kiamt. Hence (with the nasal) w. kapp. contention kappi. Champ. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. or less ignorant. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. to Hal. giving rise to the as. Gall. to smack the lips in eating. Champarty. E. from chaud. . to slope out the . or player at football. a feat. Fr. cazer. Lat. campar. hamper. to quarrel (comp. a jaw kianisa. . combat. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. gekrUmmt. Chancellor. The E. a field of battle. — masterly Sp. kampen. kanip. chain. chaude mesUe. bundle. as in It. When the to quarrel. an athlete. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. fighting place. champ parti. excellent. campear. to .140 CHAMBERLAIN .—Tutschek. champ. schmatzen s. —Chamfrain. chance. a bundle. . to fall. So in e. jocus partitus. Lat. campus partitus . The word is preserved in E. kappd). head armour. chanfrein. Champion. accidere. and mesUe. rare. to bevel. chanfrein. bickering. G. hot. as swine. Partnership. ON. Fr. received the petitions of the suitors. Meleare. kampeln. move the jaws. broil. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. Pm. nels. Chamfron. Dief. Chancel. to happen {ad and cadere. Commonly derived from campus. game campio. to excel. kiammi. kempen. caer. . champ. camp.

Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. a pipe. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. kemma. ceaflas. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. kvar kjceften. changer. Fr. 2. chaps. to plate. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. to plate. and the modern canal. Chapel. Da. a small plate of flat metal. not a soul. the clappers of the scupper holes. — . . Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. or the cracking of one. kiceft. Aasen. —Chantry. as chancery . is used in the same sense . the cape or little cloke of St Martin. . — : Lat. Lith.^. from chandler. a reed. a dealer in candles then. as those on a trunk. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. Compare chark. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Chandler. surfaces striking together. leather. kapoti. . chap. . Molbech. chancery. hack . CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. any hollow for conveying water. Lat. esclapa. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. lips of an animal. chapear. AS. exchange. Walach. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. to strike. kennel. Man of Law's Tale. flat . kaupa. to truck. to — cut. Hence chantry. Chape. W. Sp. to sing. and also to chap or crack. Chap. Russ. esclapo. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. canalis. cantare. Chap. klepan. Lang. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . cambiare. to put on fresh clothes. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. chop. to break . muzzle. Fr. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Hence It. ON. kiceft as well as kjakje. Hal. — — —Marculfus in Due. ^Jam. Channel. I. gab. Da. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. while the broader vowels a. from clap. 140. Chop. hard bodies. to creak. properly in a hard body. to chap at a door. Sp. clapet. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. wood. Commonly derived from capella. the chaps . and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. That wide were sentin their spicery. to cut up into small pieces. the gutter that runs along a street. like the knocking of hard things together. to spht a chip. . Bret. may be compared with ON. See Chop. prune. ceaplas. cangiare. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. kjaakaa. chapeta. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. to paw like a horse . A fellow. chandelier. a money-changer. exchange. waterconduit. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. skipta. jaw. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. cambium. to strike. from canna. the mouth. chapelete de una bomba. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . See Chant. Cheek. a chap is a crack or fissure. or the like chapar. as to chap hands. Hal. Prov. are kept. to deal. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. a small metal plate Port. chapeletas de imbornales. And N. chancellerie. as skin chapped hands. Chip. Du. shift. camjar. to peck. chap. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. debeant conjurare. to apply one flat thing to another. to hack. chanter. a strip of metal plate. chapa. exchange schimbatoriu. Probably from chap. to coat. E. a jaw. to change. also a clap. schimbu. Fr. To Change. chop. throat of an animal. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. In like manner Walach. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. It is also used in the sense of the E. Sc. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. cambiar. to peck. the place where candles ler. to swap. extended to other trades. kappen. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. cobio. as It. chiappa. to cut off . jaw. to cut. cheek. —Ordericus Vitalis. as corn-chandChandry. Fr. Chaps or chops. schimbd. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. to strike with a sharp edge. Chap. chapilla.

and at line 2520 it runs Charm. Fr. a The OFr.. cluck kirklys. Sup. chirriar. carmen. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. to turn Gael. Gr. Lith. charcoal burners. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. —— . to prattle. to chirp.czirksti.charme. capella. cearcian. schreien. See Cheap. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . — a car. — spell. jabber. a dispute . babdistinction. the nature of a thing. in To ness Charity. return. as Pol. tegere. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. siarad (pronounced — sharad). decken. a charm. Lat. chapitre. eyre. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. to . equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. prattling quacksalver. Chark. kirkti. go. The crash. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. ceap-man. cam. called kedlock. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. Swiss. . (eucharistie. to load . twist. that turned decken . Prov. carricare. from cape or cope. Macduff. — — — turned to coal. The G. enough. 2. ghirlanda seor garland. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. bler. a garland of roses. seems to be derived charade. Character. Justin. tattler. beloved. to charcoal. to sing or chirp as birds. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. Charade. the turtle pitre. to chirp as sparrows. czurliwoti. from capitulum. Charge. to dove . chapelet. capellare.Lat. Chaplet. chapel. a merchant. as a beetle. char. kurkti. condo il volgar francese. carmo. from carrus. Fr. to turn. Lat. Charcoal was ciarlare. Bret. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. chirk. gadka. from Charade. Hence carminare. karout. Lay on. a verse. . xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. talking. . Fr. corona. It. . to tattle. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. carus. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Charlatan. wood to coal. cher um cher. cha. charade. charger. of chapel. colliers that charred coal. Charlock. to talk . Mundart. surris seu Lat. caritas. AS. It. twitter. a mark of a mountebank. Sp. Fr. 370. Cot. Chirk. chirlar. charge an enemy is to lay on. a hood. babbling. a turn cerran. Du. clack. car. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake.whirr. dear. chatter. to prattle. hadka. burning without consuming the substance. ciarlatore. to love. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. And damned be he who first cries Hold. * Charcoal. w. w. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. kurkelis. which was incantation. occasional turn. a rhyme. charitas. properly to place — . Lang. grave or make incised marks on an ob. ject). chara. Deutsch. as. czurksti. from capa. dear(in both senses). It. krachzen). in turns. a cricket karkti (schnarren. caricare. a riddle. &c. used in the sense of magic Fl. Chapter. called in Sp. cedeleac. keeren. a mark made on a thing. OE. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. to of the governing body. capitolo. cabildo. and in It. hiss Lith. charlar. See Charlatan. Chapman. charlatan. From Norm.). Boh. Mid. to creak. In that work the verb is written caire. Chare. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Lat. capital. wreath for the head. to converse. A weed among com AS. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. be- e. carregar. turn about. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . gnash. es ist mi cheer. to croak as a frog . Fr. AS. czirbti.' Boccaccio in Diez. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. from gadai. Sp. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. turn. it is my turn. Inst. . cluck. charer. a head or division of a book. An enchantment. creak. affection. to chirp. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. gaggle . cerran. eapitulo. Ptg. dim. chat. Yx. for the same reason rosario. chatter. It. pohadka. creak. a riddle. canne. To Char. Sp.

chip. or equivalent forms. flesh. See Catch. to cry as a chicken . gallan or ogan. chisf. See Cistern. So in Gael. schioppare. converse. kata-kata. cassa s. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. to crack. shout OE. splinters. gazzolare. Chart. to cut and faggoted. to burst open. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). a plate of metal. jackdaw . —Bailey. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2.— Chatter. root of the Lat. germinate . cyrm. a word. clatter. to gape. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. sordidus. — sharp sound of a crack. a twig Suffolk chaits. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. Pm. chit-chat. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. as purgare Fr. to set a jewel. Fr. prattle. to clap. from xoAn. la chasse d'une rose. — — . as. Kil. gaddc. limpid. the calix of a rose. To chip is then to crack. to chirp as a bird to cheep. OE. csacsogni. chip.). knatiern. It. Parallel with E. cs E. a shrine for a relic. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. chikat'. — The . . a yawning. Lat castigare. clean. The egg is chipped. Kil. To work plate as silversmiths do. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. occasionally Forby. Fr. CHATS fit 143 to name. csaterdzni. From carinen was formed It. warble. V. or suckers on rough borders. as from nomen It. B. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. chip. magpie. chat. snap. talk much . czysty. or a bird out of the egg.house. To Chasten. to baptize. ch&tier. racket . discourse. gadu-gadu. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. Chat-wood. chaste. Cot. To Chase. — Hal. Cot. tenax. the bird is iiown. To chitter or chipper. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. s. noise. %aafi. Chamel. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. to care). clap. speak . carme and Fr. to talk. to wet. charmer. chick. to enchase it . a hum or low murmuring ijoise. — Fr. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. blackthorn-chats. as we speak of olive branches. kata.— Chit. a gap. chykkyn (Pr. g. also to hatch. a branch and a young female.a. careful. karigh. tittle-tattle. to chatter or prattle . or pop. —Charter. clear. ferire. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. i. parcus. niggardly. Chary. an enchantress. See Card. clack. carmen is presented in AS. castus. the noise of birds. the young shoots . gazzerare. to chirp. from purus. Pol. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. also a youth. ch). knacken. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . gazzettare. letters p. Malay. clean. Chaste. fragments or leavings of food. a chatter-box. cearig (from cearian. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. castus. nome and . to chirp. To chit. Fl. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. kna. enchasser. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. chair. chits. It. xi'i-'^vui. Chat. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. Pol. little sticks cudere. crackle. kastaa. chit. To talk. karg. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. —Chastise. prate. to which it bears the same relation as chape. as in the E. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. Lat. nommer. a crack or a flaw . a young man . —Jam. csacsogany. — = Chats. — We ornamental work the to signify E. charm. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. to crack. geug. chary. be wide open. Gr. caro. in Jam. csatora (Magy. the cry of the bat. make a noise as birds do. pure. shivers. Du. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. or the cry of a bird or the like. pure. to separate in morsels. chaste. to make a noise. — Yorkshire chat. incassare. . D. warble. used to represent a sharp note. Fr. chit in the latter sense Du. To Chase. whistle. as turnip-chaits. Diez. chick. from pure. also to germinate or spring forth. fragments. Hal. Magy. gazeuiller. It. Fr. scraps of for fuel. Fl. Chasm. a churchyard or charnel-house. the handle of a razor . carnisj bones kept. a flock of those birds. gazzogliare. whence a charm of goldfinches. pure. — Palsgrave.ppen. The origin seems preserved in the Fin.). also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir.. It. noise. talk. clean. In like manner Russ. is to represent the chamier. kippen. eclats. a branch. Russ. It t. An imitative word. chatter. G.

snout. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. Fr. NE. Bav. &c. Soc. force of the word. — To check an account. the Lat. retching. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. lower. KaviiXog. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. with Dief. a canting knave. sale. a willing look and unwilling heart. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. a dealer in horses. chavylbone or chawlbone. agreeing upon. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. kaupiti. CHEEK zitella. gagkern. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes.. upon a checked cloth. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. It. stuttering. gig. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. visage. hawkmann. lead to OE. Pr. truffa. chapman. society. Lat. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. to buy. to swap goods . stuttering.. Sc. See Cheek. 144 the It. while it Bret. chaptel.' kezen. to deal ON. cattle. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. CHATTELS has ciio. look. bon marche. OFr. to — . . kik. kak. kakkaset. a repulse. a cheater. sum in a loan. Modern Slang. caupo. citello. chear in the sense of victuals. to fetch the breath with difficulty. welcome heartily. to stutter gigken. Hal. a tavern-keeper. to coup s. the tongue. a rogue or person who used the canting language. to chop and change.— Chole. entertain kindly. kaupa. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching.. cachinnari. the Confessor. Cheek. kauf. cara. G. laughing. e. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. horse-couper. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. frown.kakot. cattle. to buy.-^. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. Fr. — — —Chowl. dchec. cheeks. which is used in the to stutter. choule. a dealer. kakaista. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. OFr. to act as a rogue. to . us.— . prattlingchete. .counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. Then.of the throat in coughing. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Chear.— Chaps. goods. Chattels. any cheating. ku. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. chatel. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Sp. and hence the E. ceahhetan. thers. the face. chuckle. Chew.ing. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. Fl. aspect of a man. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Check. to negotiate. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. a young boy or girl. Gr. to laugh. Bohem. in widely separated languages by the Lat.' to exchange to gasp. Fin. goods.— Cattle. Du. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. capitale. to cluck like a hen. Cheat. chire. kaufen. with the exception of land. . chop. Ek dry and hard. farm for farm. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. Hence to cheat. . Pm. Ingulphus. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . et juxta catalla sua. sob E. jaw. It — Brompton in Due. giggling. . cera. Slav. Faire bonne chire. syllables ^ag-. chatal. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. ceafl. teeth . giving or taking in exchange. to make inarticulate sounds in . catalliim. cattle. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. to coff—Yisi. to clear the throat . and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. favour. s. from AS. kek. equiva. Pro v. koopen. in Fr. countenance. Cot. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. to nauseate (to retch). changing. which is the word in ceap. tradesman. exAS. Cam. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. mandibula. whence captale. ceaflas. The gutGoth. and. ceap. keck. price. kaupon. the countenance Fr. chiere. kok. It. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. are represented piti. kichen. from Lat. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. sense of bargaining. entertainment. See Chess. cita. the principal ' colloquial E.—Choke. kikottaa. — We ' . to vomit. cozener. jaws. gagkezen. a piece of moveable property.

throat. . condition of being taken. Lat. cherir.D. for cheese itself. kapen. ceaflas. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. — — . jaw. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. E. carnium. schach. whence kasa-leipa. the neck. clear the throat. kastanie. the hke. F*-. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Lat. chevron.perly head. to belch. quoka. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. gabe. Cherry. frame by which the exertion is made.their struggle for independence. to kep. AS. chasi. (Kil. accomplishment cayed. . AS. quok. ON. Fin. subacidus. rennet. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. old bread. geagl. rafters in heraldry. treat with affection. then end. E. In these latter forms we see the transIt. chiffe. — — .Xo belch. Chess. . See Chess. ceocian. Prothroat of an animal . gill of fish AS. Fr.. Lat. as. the loose the game of checks. jowl. to gasp. — — . to make a noise different word. dear. w. cams. . hasten. Chef. dersen .. Thus "we are brought din. See Alchemy. Sp. kok. scacco. by laying up in a covered heap. to swallow. See Case. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. kdkel. Fr. kikna of dorum coacervatio. To make a shrill noise Chest. OHG. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. to accomThis they call hdrsk. cough. gapen. Sc. a chicken. kjcebe. to hold dear. to year. to boken. Du. Kil. w. veluti piscium. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Sw. geafl. giffle. It. chesten. to gape gab.koppen. Lat. Achievement. kikna. kasiiUPr. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. Fris. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. chevir.cirieggia. Fr. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. cheek. czypti. incaseatus. cufd. Cherish. chaps. the final guttural is retained in writing. kopen. cabiron. Sp.EP CHEVRON 145 on. It would Cheese. to heap up such things for the purchoke. cheeks. things Da. by laying it in come to an agreement with. G. kces. schach. cireggia. rupted into chess. xaque. to choke. An imitative word. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON.pose of acidifying them kasadr. . cheek. gous forms are G. kistej Lat. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. a heap. as meat and butter. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. Fr. E. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. To Cheep. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. skratt. cerise j G. cese. to love. a cricket. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. jouffle. Du. Chevaux de frise. Jam. cyse. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . ichec. jaws Sw. the palate Chequer. Tutschek. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. nish source. Analo. cabrio. a rafter . when the king is put in the Schmeller E. Chekenyd or querkenyd. ceac. w. made rancid koka. squeak as a mouse. to prevent the attack of cavalry. chops. gullet. the The use of the word kcesir. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. kirsche. gaghel. From them the plish. acquisition. chAtaigne. AS. king). the throat. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Sw. cisty G. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. ceg. ceaplas. to kasa. kesten. jaw . prevail with. Chevisance. mouth kek. achever. kdke. Da. Lith. G. to bring to an end. subjected to this process with that which the throat . castaneusj Fr. The Sw. cheken. CHE. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. Hence kikna is identical with OE. kjakje. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh.D. throat. N. ca' — . Chemistry.G. cheek. Cher. e. equal squares of opposite colours. As the board to gasp i. rattle in the throat. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. food. Sc. jaws. whence czypulas. make an end. cista. chests in OE. E. The name of creak as shoes. practice seems to have been communiChevron. caws. like a young chicken. caru. Prov. Fr. the mouth.' to w.peep in the same sense. kastr. cerasus. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. to choke with laughter. &c. to geahl. ation. jaw. suffo. Hence chesten-nut. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. mollium congeries. gap. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Pl. /Ji2^/(W.). kaecke. cegio. kjceve. X'C&s. chops. caseus. kasa. takes place in the formation of cheese. Lith. Pm. ost. — 10 . when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. the mouth or so marked are called chequered.

kimme. by driblets. cabar beinne. Prov. the jole. Imitative of a loud clear sound. the head. in Walach. The Pl.. CHEW . to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. chikat'. kimista^ . while didder is to shiver or citteren. mountain top . Pm. pipe. are formed Du. keichen.. the rim or edge of a vase. killen. — . chic. to gasp for breath (Hal. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. beam. gosling. Palsgr. Sp. to scold. caferu. to chime. kilderkin. 146 brial. ]). capo. has probably the same origin. Walach. De finger killet mi for kalte. ' . chol. Chief. strideo. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. kauchen. Swiss kiden. Fr. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. to chirp or peep like a chicken. to Du. Magy. tiukkua. to pettifog. W. rafter. — — Mother Hubbard. chiquei. To Chide. k'imm s. kind. knirschen. chill. pululo. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. to use the jaws. cebr. E. a cup. chillness or shivering. rafter . machouere. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. a finch. jaw.^ to resound as a bell. when the vibrations become very rapid. And hence. — Fin. or the broken noise of birds. Fr. cica cica. See Chimmer. twitter. branchy. Fr. chillrar. from the second Lat. pipio. a head. also the horizon. into a continuous shriU sound. chavel. then cold. knarren. — It. gills of a fish. Chimb. Fin. It. tiuk. 'Among these the G. stake. A To Chew. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. kop. to raise the rim. grelot). the same principle I regard On birds. cib. kauwe. : — a lump. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. kime. the cry of young . chicken. kouwe. Lat. . To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. knit the brow cib-led.. Fl. kaau•wen. Brezza. as. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. ach. the least imaginable jot. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . while the Magy.D. kuwe. cabriones. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. klagend tonen. De chic en chic. a small cask OFr. jaws . Chick. Chime. cabar. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. to contest about trifles. cap. from little to little. a hen. kimia. Pr. kitista. to contest. capu. Payer chiguet A chiguet. E. Kil. ultimate origin of the Mite. caput. a cup cibaw. chawbone. deer's horn. cheek. hiss as meat on the gridiron. chavel. kinderen. killen. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. term is ssaru fu.— Cot. a quid of tobacco. The loss of the syllable it in Du.D. For the see word Doit. CHJME the radical form is unusual. s. a chicken. as pointing out the origin of the E. to chew. captain. choule. Fl.' my finger tingles with cold. .). chimb. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. the young of animals in general. to smart. alter. a young bird. pip. mouth. pi.peep. lead through the synonymous E. Fin. kopf Du. chaps. kindeken. tiukka. a cup. tintelen van koude. a chicken. w. Pm. head.^ Hal. the Ptg. pole. Fin. Du. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. kibr. . chicaner. horn wood. queror. G. — Du. Chitter. signifying properly shivering. Russ. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. tyuk. zitterti. Chill. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. cidan. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. Probably from Fr. Du. a chicken. sonorous. greloter is to shiver for cold. czypulas. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. chew or chaw. aner. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. caprioru. tremble with cold. kieken. or chick. E. to go. chieftain. kaw.— Gattel. chef. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. G. a little bit. Da. pipio. and not vice versd. acute. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. to titter is Du. cild. from the first of which is Lith. cabarach. Pl. or as E. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. to twitter. capete. To chitter. rafter . the throat. crepo. Halm. Pr. Gael. then as G. AS. or qf people talking rapidly. a jaw.-ill. Gattel. tiukkata. chin. horns of the house. kippa. quivering sound which passes. Bret. to the brim. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. to crackle. tremble. chicoter. Now gan some courage unto him to take. chillar. and from the third E. jaw. chiler. kidata. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Chigue. Child. creak.. kauen. Tintillo.— . Chaw. antler.

The desig. chirp. Chat. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. — . skina. Chink-cough. Gloss. squittire. and light.. the whooping cough. zirken. fyr. caminata. twinkling light. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. See Chap. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . sounding deep. the mouth (jaws) . It. gena. to prattle . x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. Sp. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. a thorn. sonants. Chink. Du. the chin . killed by Bellerophon. Diez de. twitter caminus. esquena. Chintz. from Lat. kumina. See Chark. schrick. komia. Fr. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. Sw.iron. Chimera. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. stridere. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. klincken. In the same sense. The change from the sound ter \s. . caminsects. epine. a chap. Fr. Sp. Ptg. dial. to chink with laugh2. a surkik hosta. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . the jaw. backe. a fire-place.. also vibrans. See Bright. sound. eschiner. Bav. hiss Pm. and bodily movement in shimm. cincel. all these imitative terms being minata. hiss chirlar. disCot. bx-eak the back of schena. eschine. genawi. part lion. to tremble. Fr. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. to prattle czirpti. resonance . also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. to creak. kinne. Prov. quavering of the voice. Chin-coug^h. as a large bell . from 10 * ' Chia. to chirp. the chine. cisello. to sizel. schiena. clipping of coin. but or cry as a parrot. in the same crack. Chip. cinan. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. the cheek. Chytof J^ to sk is singular.' Phaer's Virg. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. have been used to designate the spine. to squeak in It. chhint. komista. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. up and down.to chirp. as the/ is preserved tering. a Kuttn. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. to chirp . as the chink of money. keich husten. . tremulous motion. Magy. simmer. sound on beginning to boil. See Chats. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. Hindost. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. to tattle. Gascoigne in Todd. to sound.sharp. — . G.czirbti. to chine. Gower in Hal. To Chitter. quivering or shakyng for colde. ciarlare. a szemrcU. sparkle. AS. chick. or chyFrigutus. and the Du. as a bell kommata. are In like manner E. To chirp or twitter. hus. to creak. shiver and the chyver of Pr. spina. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. ykvvQ. Chyrme or chur. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. to gape. KinneGr. Chitter. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. czirszkti. — — — — — . Du. representing connected together. Chymerynge. in Hal. chatter . flaw Hal. kieck hoest. to simmer. clashing of weapons. Cot. tsongeni. To Chimmer. eschin^e (de pore). Kil. a thorn. do. Fr. Chisel. E. Pm. Primarily a shrill sound. It. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. It. a crowing sound in recovering breath. cinne. Sp. . Chimney. i. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. caperd. schetteringe. spina. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. fissure. the cheek (jaw) . to chink. plodere. et garrire . — . and chim-mer. kumista. tinnire. Caminatum. cheek. kink hoest. Chitterling. hollow. tsengeni. pare also Walach. A . a chink or fissure.Huloet in Hal.er. from the geon's lancet. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. sonus the backbone Lat. the jaw. zirpen. then of a fabulous monster part goat. yivtiov. backBut she withal no worde may soune. to chirre. To chink with laughter. crepare. cleft.). Pr. chin . j^lf. . gen. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. which differ from each other only as Chirk. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. a hall Mid. tschirpen. and from a similar sound to boil gently. cisaille. Chine. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. vincially used in the sense of a crack. verynge or dyderinge. Sp.Lat. The small entrails of a hog. G. to murmur.schricken. Fr. Huloet. cheminde. pork) . genou (pi. clangor tinniens kummata. esquina. chits. — . E. rustle. ter. Lat. to open chirriar. Chit. ciseau (for cisel). chink. It. companied. 147 kimina. to sound deep or the Gr. Lith. as birds the mouth. schetteren. bone . applied to tremulous motion. Bret. then to any narrow crack or AS. It. .to divide or Du. name Then. schina.

2. Gr. heaped measure. schoch. to shiver. kruszki. a knight. Body and Soul. fine threads of flowers. —Chorus. a blow. x^poc. whence Lat. Chap. Choleric.gust. to taste. — Cholera. krussyi. a calf's pluck or chaldron . keypa. word is more likely to be from Lat. to clap up Hal. I. from chevalier. shiver. a goose's giblets. — — — . to palpitate . cape.' who shall not taste death. to hack. To Chop. wein didder for cold. •- Russ. try. * To Choose. Fr. a rag.' Verie coinme Cot. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. by which they are Fr. curly . ON. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. Yr. Chives are also a kind of small onion. &c. chaup. and N. all seem slate . kaup. from %u\i). and in kosten. a heap.yEuffM. kor6n. a ruff or frill. Gr. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. by the vibrations of sound or motion. skifa. cive. Warwickshire coff. to taste . chibble. haslets. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . fresure. experience valerie. Jam. kiusan. gusten. to taste. as green as leeks. Boh. to stop geschoppt voll. Serv. to break off in small shive. it is probable that the root kus. to try. Choice is probably direct from Fr. developments of the same radical image. cke. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. to Compare also Pol.D. to tempt. Lat. gdnse gekrose. schiefer. Luc. a fragment. chceur. kbhren. crammed Choir. to taste. Enn Sigridur sem ' . pluck. xiv. to taste. caperd. G. chorus. an onion.vonic languages are Pol. . In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. specially with an application to theatrical performances.— B jag E. friller. taste. chimp. To Choke. a ruff. to try.. to taste. Chives. pieces . lead us on to Lat. The Sc. a wine taster. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. approve. Cavalry. Fr. to try . Prov. chiffe. select. coro. g'schochet voll. choix. and in this sense the * small pieces. i. ON. Equivalents in the SlaFr. to ^cleave . cepa. civette. OHG. then to shiver. then to try. ^euw. the small parts of the roots of plants.freze. rare. ^S. cut up into — See Chats. . ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. full to overflowing. wrath. a scale or fragment P1. . a company of singers or dancers. kieser. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. full. Swiss kust. to exchange horses. Chivalry. wkusit' prikushat. of an angry — — — ' ' — . to choose. The . okusyti. to chap at a door . or original meaning is preserved in G. . and It. taste. to experience. See try. are used in the same sense. of E. chife. Chuck-full. kiesen. kusid. the inwards of an animal. Schmid. the ridges prove. ments of the knightly class. a young . chawdron. keuren. . ruffs. Choice. kustigen. Swab. try. Goth. The I go to prove them. to strike hands . . to try. seallion or unset leek. chock full. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. gustare. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. CHOP kros. to wrinkle. to turn. disposition. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. from kraus. Walach. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . chives. chattering. koren. As kushnuti. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. propagated. %o\ifa.ffrill. whence choleric. chap hands. to chap. schevel-steen. The manners and senti. chippe.V)^x. scheve. G. . arkiusan.. kalbs gekrose. &c. gekrose.ceosan. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. Gr. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. a small slice or slip of anything . coup. kiezen. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. to ing is doubtless to taste. — See Cheek. as with a blow. in the same language. called cMtters in the N. chatter. to prove. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. also calPs. G. Fr. and Vf. bile. ent quarter. anger. a twittering.' At last he dwelt . causir. a calf's chaldern of E. a chive. — Chock-full. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. choppe. shoot . kiusan. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. kausjan. kushevati. 19. kushati. prove. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. signify to kiss.

kubb. a small fish with a large head. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. caker. Sp. cresmeau. to strike in the hand. To Chouse. Du. sent before him a Chiaus. cauc. kaufen. noble Doctor. the teeth to chatter . Fr. Chuck. whence the Fr. from kloppen. which was written 27. connected with G. monedula. Gr. klopper. kaw. Lat. ceo. Fr. cangiare. a The What dhy ^. the same word with the It.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. that will thank chiaus — you richly. Picard. to chatter. Du. claquer.— Chevin. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. kaulhaupt (club-head. a thick piece. xftovoq. dealing. kowej Sax. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. a stump. — Chrisom. kobe. cheap. kolbe (club). as in Fr.—Chuokstone. by the Robert Shirley. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. chevane. equivalent to the E. to cant. civetta.' Jam. chapineria. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. P. Marin. cambiare. kubbr. gull. the string of a musical instrument originally. kaej Lith. gobio capitatus. chevane. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. Ant. overset. caqueter. Nominale in Nat. That Face. ley in Giiford. To Chop logick. Chrysalis. merchant. for to defraud. gold. 4. To coup. e. whence apparently the Sup. A fish with a thick snout and head. choucas.sohola. whence — E. Chough. Peace. or miller's kaycke . prattle . E. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. Chub. soul-couper.). because she would not endure this husband chopping. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. &c. the intestine of an animal. — Dief. quappe. — — — . klompe. capitanus. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper.• — . a trafficker in souls. kowe. cheviniau. cob. chrisme. an offence against the fitness of times. Alchemist. in Chaucer. Fr. capita. i. A jackdaw. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. bearand aits. OE. E. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed.X.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Jam. in i6io. syllables chat. high clog. chatter . capito. chrysalis (Plin. peace. See Chaff. traffic. and we actually find champman for chapman. to overturn. XpvaaXic. of which such strings are made.(. a bullhead. Madam. What do you think of me. Chronicle. chroniques. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. we find the following passage Dap. caphatenus. Chopino. Gr. chouquette. chouette. Gr. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. clogs. to clack. I bring you the Cloughs. AS. ON. Wall.povucd. e. to knock. kauwe. E. thumb Fl. to turn over. ' ' What's that? Dap. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. — . Fr. Come. time ra . xop5>}. G. a lump or piece chump.. thick-set. capitone.\^s. chub. Cot. chapma?i. whence e. clat. applied to an owl in that language. plump. chack. 49. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. Anachronism. Gr. xpi'^lia. Chord. dial.). and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. Fr. to speak thieves' slang. Confounded with the bullhead. The Turk was here As one should say. one who buys and sells horses or cows.' They are forebuyers of quheit. cauvette j Fr. -chron-. From the Turkish Chiaus. p. See Change. short piece kubbug. If I discover. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Borgoens happen. . a messenger or envoy. —Shakespeare. dial.— Landnamabok. gull. In the Alchemist. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. koppe. chevin. cavena. yiSA. as Du. E. cow-couper. chapin. chop. chuet. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. chronicles. . CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. — Quabbe. Sw. forms are Chrism.. who took in the Turk- clack. fat. In Sc. slipper . Kil.

karl. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. To chuck in the fall from. Sc. Chunk. chofe (Grandgagnage). to turn from blossom to fruit.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. See Cheek. Fris. that the word is an adoption of Fr.^. dial. has been impugned which it has really no connection. &c. a pebble. male person.' he adds. In Sc. Hence -cid-. chaps. kernjen. as a board. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . fat-cheeked. to cut decide. cheek. Du. sindr. with It the Lord's house. . kiorne. -cis-. Aasen.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. . calx. e. scoria. a man. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. to churn. Churn. residue of burnt coals. cheeks Cincture. Cob. whence church. a man. to Newsp. ON. sive piratiam facere sciant. cinders used disjunctively. a husband. chack or stane-chacker. KaxXij?. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. log of wood. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). The origin ation. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. spuma metalli. the kernel. a girding on. i. chack-stone. a pebble . to To Chuckle. pp. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. chops. AS. chuffy. a fellow. ciuffo. cinctus. . in circumcision. chife.— . a miser. ladre from Lazare. &c. Fr. As AS. ashes. to him a sudden blow. Church. It is certain. See Cheek. . cidre. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. klakka. blow on the I io6 in Mur. to form grains of butter. to gird. ON. Lat. a lump. whence ON. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. as Fr. to jaw chack or snap. Cieling. the snout of an animal. set kerti. kaerle. Wall. dust. Gr. casum (in comp. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. Cleland in Jam. -cide-. -cise. gffe. to determine incision. -cisuiri). See Ceiling. kern. 24. calculus. G.rendered by Kil. tindra.' And cold. AS. sindra. as in E. from Lat. to make a aiKipa. a douse on the tores. Sicerawry face ceffata. a resounding object. to fall upon decide. Sw. G. -cido. flower. whence deciduous (of trees). or choice part of a thing . — . Gothic nations. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. KvptaKolg. Lat. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach .D. to make a rippling noise. i.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. accido. Fr. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. to strike clatter. Du. but by way of explan. — — A — ' ' — . This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. chakil. from Lat. a cutting an old chuff. cendre. ceaplas. OFr. ceffore. however. C^z^j^ churHsh. ChurL husbandman. sinter. Diss. The spelling of chider has Chump. ceorl. Lat. Jennings. Cider. as water running over rocks or stones. chofu. Gr.. to throw out sparks. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. Wall. as Epkema explains it. pith. or. — of the two words. Du. domhnach. geaflas. cinis. . to fall at or on. then the on oh StX iv roXt. ON. comp. tie about). joufflu. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. giffle. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. lamak. sintel. Ir. an old man. so as to make the happen . sicera. Lat. The derivation from Kvpiasov. countryman. e. we have to chack. Da. cinctura {cingo. thence a belt. kerl. in Sc. . to separate the kernel of the milk. * Cinder.for the residue of stone coal. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. x^^i?. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. cut off. kakka. a cutting round.V//a'6'?. jaws. surly.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. incido.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. to fall. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Ka-^aiva. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). cado. in the face. to cause the milk to grain. ccedo. Chuff. kirna. joffu. ceaflas. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. have given rise. kjami. a rustic .— Chu%. sindel. -eris. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. to sparkle. a man. swollen or puffed up Cot. ceffo. marrow. Probably from It.

clapper. of citta. sindri. klimp. —Circuit. outcry. or quill to draw waier through Fl. lash . as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. To Clack. Lat. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. clap. crack. dob. a lump Du. Hence Incite. cittade. bunch . Mack. Cite. a block. sprig. belonging to cities or social life . suck). tinnitus . It. to gnash the teeth. Cot. Fr. claquet de moulin. Gr. lump. a kind of rattle. clatCot. circle. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. 'mass. circum. a. clamer. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. dim. cista. W. clamp. . Lat. Recite. a clod Russ. a whip. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. Circum-. klambr. a cleansing place. for Cion. gutter. cifra. bunch. In Fr. ball kloben. to toll . clamras. clap. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. circ2tlus. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. klappe. hringr. clog. chest. klabb. slam. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. civitas. It. klak. Fr. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. a'upiav. a reservoir Probably from Lat. a whirlwind. Gael. circum. glam. clasp. chatter . cry. log. lump. a city. noise — — a cistern. to appeal. sound- — hands figures. So a light. clobyn. to call by name. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. clangor avium . cion. rattle . around. to knock. The syllables clap. a mass. CION See Tinder.' sione. Du. claquer. cisterna. KpiKoe. cry out . a city. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. Citadel. uproar. or split with noise. in the frequentative form. a citizen . globus. cito. E. . domern. . Lat. a circle. with an initial s instead of c. Clamp. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). Lat. clack-box. . to clatter. a clod. circa. Scion. citrus. to go. . . Dan. klammer. cluster. a cistern. klumbr. a for water. klateren. castus). accordingly find the roots dab. Circle. prattle. a circle. lump. The notion of a lump. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. a ball.to suck. stimulate. Clump. klemte. KipKog. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. a boss . to chatter. a rattle Fr. cieo. a young and tender plant. a lump Lat. See -cid-. ter. claquer. sound of blow. to be empty. a split. about. . clambar. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. The Gr. babble . to call. klamp. ruin. Citron. —Civil. glambar. compared with It. &c. Bohem. lump. Lat. to clap at a theatre. to chatter .. noise. chupon. See Crankle. ern. clack-dish. clack. radical identity of the Fr. Comp. a judgment cern. scion or sucker. creak les dents. ON. empty Golius. To Claim. klubb. clamare. as caverna from cavus. clack. to chatter. G. to make to go. the place of . a shoot. Fr. Excite. klekotati. klepati. kluV. clot ON. to mention. to cleanse. City. a knob. from chupar. sifr. chupon. sphere gleba. ring. cion. — (Dozy) ing blow. a Pol. It. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. klopati. We . sound. is traced by Gr. See Circle. as. Chaste. rattle. forms — — — parent plant. or clap-dish. klqb. claquer crash. Sw. From Arab. Sw. the door was slammed J slamem. * Cistern. to set in motion by means of the voice. Gr. klater-busse. claim. crack. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. to bawl. whence cistiti. Dan. may cite w. . klompe. Gael. klacken. to summon or call on. Sp. . a ring. klappen. kringr. -cis-. and E. -cite. parallel root is slam. clamp. area. sip. klacke-busse. Hal. a hiding-place. cittd. lump of wood or with the nasal. . to strike. to call. Clam. clat. a place See place hiddern. smack. the tongue. a kind of pipe. a ball.— . glamm. * Ciplier. ON. G. Du. Arab. wasserkasten (water chest). cisterna. a loud uksa slamketi. civis. chijfre. biw. fall. to cry out. crack. Alt. Fr. ON. a rattle . citujn. klap. clapping of klacke. E. klump. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . cit^. and. prattle. excite. a lemon tree. a Lat. lump . ciste. and clash. to clack. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. clump. to cluck. sajira. Lat. city. Du. civilis. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. kringla. trunk. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. a block. a pop-gun. as in Sp. scion. cittadella. lucerna. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. Lat. a circle. around. mass . Lap. . We . twig. and Sp. vociferation.

club . a heap of stones. apprehend . rattle. damor. Du. gripe. cream Manx doan. descendants . G. a trap. a whip. anything hidden. In like manner Du. a rattle . and hence to pinch . klepanie.' klibba. a loud tingle. a burr. holdfast. G. to clutch or cling oneself up. clang. G. clibby. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. cramp. prison. ring as metal. klopfen. klappen. hook. solid. a hawk. cleave. — Climb. G. is used in the sense of secretly. to patronus. clamber. to daub pinch.1. G. dank. kleben. Bav. contraction. compress. See Clam. offspring. to glue. Clamour. sound. from the w. a stone See Claim. Dan. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. Sw. for tame conies. to pinch. a craCmp. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. dink Du. strain . to. dam. Swiss kldbem. Clink. sound . to climb. rumour. and hence moist. to beat. The Fr. B. OE. clap. originally a heap of large stones. &c. Dan. to hold fast with the . These are imitations of a loud. to knock. who occuG. sticky Hal. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. bandage. klemmen. cramp-iron. in a hidSen place. klang. To Clamber. to climb. to clap on. klette. hands or claws to grasp. G. also to clog up. dem. — — . where- A — unto they retire themselves. klappen. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . to seize. substances of a stickydam. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. to clap. Du. a place underground where rabbits breed. clear sound. . The equivalent of Lat. . dam. to Hal. These words To are closely connected with damp. grasp. Swiss kletten. a claw . chatter. klam. sound. klappre. gum. dapier. E. grimper. dientes. clajnmy. — Lat. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. coagulated cream. kleppen. clammy brace. clapas. dapi^. beating. klemmen. B. Clap.er. run to lumps Clandestine. beat. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. the in many languages. to starve. clav\f. dienklebber. resonance klingen. damras. klem-vogel. to glue. strait. klippe. klampen. klemmen. tingle. Lang. Russ. chief. To sticky. compression. Du. Mampe. dap up. dang. take hold of. — Cot. Du. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. diver. as the Lat. klank. to climb . clann. kloben. of money Gael. tattle. narrow. to cleave or stick. klavre. from birdlime. Halma. uproar. sound of the trumpet . nature . dial. klibber. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . a sound. to do anything with a clap. klamme. to hide. dam. as the clapping of hands. klammer. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. klynge. Hence the Fr. G. glambar. a noose . Clamp. buckle klamp. crowd . clandestine. to climb. seize. kluppel. E. Clank. to cling. Lat. of which the locative case. to climb. cluster. accent. dapier. is a nasalised form of gripper. viscous. E. a stick. Clapper. daver. klam7n. children. conceal. to hold to pinch. children. tenacious. to stick or glue. To clap in E. but perhaps not directly from it. Fr. dee. klatten. klimmeii. to claw oneself up. tinkle. kleppe. knocking. klebern. a claw. to hook things together. Clang. a heap of stones or other things piled up . the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. viscosity . yf. sound object . of the children. klepel. . dambar. salafa. AS. dia. tight. to climb. A i. adopted Lat. with cramp-irons. cling. dandestinus. gliong. klepati. kleppe. scendants. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. salaan. clap. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. ney. chatter. or klamp-vogel. Clan. pinching. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. klamm. Gael. . to dame. privately. bond. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. Dan. clangor. Salainen. to Sw^. closely analogous to that of the fast. E. hold. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. — with hunger. — . to clamp.p correspond- ' without order. to knock. The E. celo produces Fin. dren. c). is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. to gingle. tremble . brawl.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. klynge sig op.. stick. klamre. The root which gives rise to klibb. dam immediate modifications — . a sound made by a still . clapper of conies. and that from celo. a sound made by a lighter clink. clasp. massy. tone. a bird of prey.' to take coals to Newcastle. klettern. dial. to stick conceal. Bohem. . pressed close or hard together. klubber. clink. whence sala. . klammern. Dan. ancestor. klobber-saen.

— Clarinet. fibula. in the sense of a mass or lump. to clash as arms. . kletse. . It. to rattle . The b readily passes into gleba. a claFr. it is called clamming. uproar. is used in Sc. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. rubellum. Analogous Jam.to cra. a nail. to cleave. and through v into a.\x\xvn. Clash. clausum. a complete sentence. hook. from clinging to the tree which supports it. klampvoghel. Owl and that by which cleave to. a ball. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. row aii/iaTos. mass. klaskad. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. clausula. locket of a door. Lang. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. thwack . biichse. a claw. Gr. Sp. from the resemblance to a key. a lash. kleeven. a key origmally a crooked nail. KXeiSi. same class with w. clarinado. a heap. seizes) . Pol. Mask ! plask ! thwick. stop of an organ.Z. Eau clairette. bawling. to fasten. klouwe. Clavicle. It. clair. contraction. The form clew. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. sauna de classes. a sphere . teren. to knock. or as G. clamp. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. fracas. noise. subrubidum. glcis. Sw. also a knell for the dead. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Eya-klasi. buckle. klauw. nail.— CLARET clamp. a club or massy stick. Russ. to patter. Du. ghespe. klucz. nawith stanis. to do anything with a . vin claret. Lat. ansa. to ring in such a manner for the dead. claw (what fastens together. sphaera. Rayn. claret win e. clatter. a. Du. Fr. compression. Thus from clamp. klatscha pop-gun. somewhat clear. as G. Kil. cloi. chatter. &c. Nightingale. a lump .w or u on the other. from scknallen. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. insularum nexus . In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. In E. biichse. to snap. K\a. as Mod. kiosk bicza. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. hawk. thence a definite head of an edict or law. whence kleuer. Lat. with a reddish tint.oi. blab. — Clarion. clew or fasten upon a thing. diver. klatschen. he of white and red grapes mingled together. skeria-klasi. a distribution of things into groups. kleuen. chiarello. klot. a clasp. klauwe. e. pet. the cracking of a whip. klase. we pass to the E. to clap . globus. Lat. Clause. — Kiittner. dap. klos. chasguear. flap. gaspe. G. climp. a key KKtitid. to shut. clopa. cluster. Thus from Lat. fragor . is preserved in Lang. globus. the collar-bone. From clairet. to animals Sp. E. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. chiarino. ivy. klatschen. rion. Du. a clod. to draw it up into a bunch. a bird with powerful talons. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. the primary origin clapa. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. which signifies a ball in E. klampe. an on the one hand. klijven. under three modifications dava. and shrill-sounding trumpet.Gr. cinnamon. an ending.. Commonly made. crying. But clasp or elapse. schnalle. Clew. straight-mouthed. forms are the Du. —Kil. Klatsch- a pop-gun . and clavis. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. a little hook . as it is written by Chaucer. clew. vin clairet. Clatter. Serv . from its use in fastening things together. klaequivalent to clack or clap. and old red rose-water. chiaro clear. clavis. To clew. klatsche. i. Originally clasis. ictus resonans. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw.It. kluczka. — tells us. a kind of small. Du. Cot. Fr. applied in their harness. clump. mass. classis. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. Class. klc^i. a key. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. From claudo. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. Du. Claret.). a water made of aquavitse. clarin. Fr. to end. klamme. clairon. a lump. Prov. klaterbusse. Identical with ON. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Clasp. syrtium junctura. 269. Dan. klouwe (Kil. clavus. Nawith stavis. vinum helvolum. Wyutoun in Jam. clas. to fasten together . klaeret. In the same way is formed the OE.ck a whip. waU. Du. Lat. clairon of a trumpet— It. a. in the sense of a claw. Claw. sound of the foregoing description. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. pellet . the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . So Pol. &c. a bunch. chiizjj-o. assembly. puUs. The collar-bone. a buckle.

— fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. from diquer. to dag ox dog. explained from the klinken. W. seem formed dial. Lat. a noose. polished. glitta. a bunch of When flax). or of a tree. to clench. See Clam. klinke. clash. in two ways. Clean. klyft. klutsch. E. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. G. Da. Omklinken. daggy. and Dan. and E. The word is . cleave. a one end. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. celebrated . klirren. a fissure or division See Cleave. rift. and. pure. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. kloben. Sw. Dan. Gael. doff. — : A rivet. glandse. pure . conserere antklankjan. klove The Dan. E. The word may be — . vice. door-latch. G. Wilbraham. G. This is probably one of the clean. kleverig. Axletree clouts. radiant. nitidus.— Claggy. klafwa. tongs. provinciaUy termed dout. clear. speech . kldnkelein. to tear or cleave asunder. klinke. famous. clean. chaps in the skin. to sound or make a noise . To Clench. clear. that was a striking proof. the fork of the body. neat. dags. to be composed. Du. To call. a plate. Du. to 2. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. to glitter.— . cloven wood. neat. Du. glitnir. kleg. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. 2. glbr. splendid pohshed. clink. dench. kleevig. . A — A Clement.' was nailed to a rock. Sw. loam. rive. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . hook. dams. clemens. smooth. doggy. an object is simply cleft.). vissticky . merciful. a cleft. Sw. from nitere. glatt. the original . klieben. bogs cous. ON. Lat. to shine . holding together. bend in a stream. voice. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. kloben. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. dut. AS. clean. to separate into parts. klinka. Da. klank. to clinch a nail. G. gaklankjan. The Dan. Clinch. This word is used in two business is finished off. Du. cliquet. .— Clag. ON. Da. is fast and sure. kluyte. glent. See Clog. the To Cleave. words applicable sight. Sc. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. Clemency. clout. kluftholz. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. to shine. klceg. klag. to stick to. as Fr. as Lat. danche. either by the coherence To Clepe. kla:g. ON. a noise. a — — . a cleft or fissure. split. glan. a latch. to fasten. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . pretty. to fasten. dag. as explained under G. kleben. calm. Clay. From clap. a mass. glan. sticky earth. klinken. a cleft. viz. a mass. G. clibby. clear. kloue. polish . gingle. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . Kil. klov. Fr. of iron worn on shoes by country people. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. glint. date is AS. found in other cases. river. kleg. and Celtic glan. sticky . mud. klinken. deot. klouen. a in that of sphtting. B. kloben. (Cot. . klinken. klirre. . that was Torriano. to cleave. Probably a modification of the word doitt. a lump. Clear. . . identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. klinke. a lump. Mar. Du. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. to stick or adhere . viz. opposite senses. klieuen. dedgy. sticky. sleek. Du.Q. dial. clay . to clink or sound. as the Du. glbram. Cleft. kluit. from the clinking of the latch. Halma. gentle. a claw or talon. geklonken. lump. glan. Die zaak is zS. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. klincke. Bav. shine. glindse. klor. klink. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. to Brilliant. a clincher. From dob. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. diquetcr. klijveii. E. to fasten E. glance . The double signification of the word clack or rattle. Cleat. dinquet kleeven. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. together . or from being divided into two parts. Sc. a key. kluft. it cleave together. a flash. clean. glor-mhor. i. glorious. a fissure. The proper meaning of the word is shining. pellet. rivet. bright. to chink. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. clean. pure. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. to clinch GB. gleit. Thus from G. 154 CLAY dutch. klouen. as ON. the latch of a door. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. the two parts of Du. give a shrill sound Jr.

corresponding to the Sc. pen. whence Fr. to stir. a lot. Clew.. on. deudi. We movement catch. Norm. Klover i munden. one of the clergy. 3. dough. d See Clan. a hook. click. rock. in rhetoric. a mill-clack . dergi. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. a lump. as Lat. cliof.' ii. one admitted to the tonsure. clever. syn. CLINCH De . above the pole. to bend. globus. with hamarskard. derjon. Cot. OE. snatch. Commonly derived from deliver. pulsare. IS5 Du. The Sc. as Sc. as a click with the tongue. Du. See AS. Bav. what so men clappe or crie. klika. light-fingered. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. klev. Chaucer. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. or Sc. has kl'dver. — have the notion of a short quick in E. klippe. quick of perception. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. — — A . gleg. rupes . catching. declivity. to tattle. a child's or clack . clack. click it. slope . chatter. chat. rock. a hump. frap- per rudement une personne. diofian. cautes. to talk as a parrot. klikklakken. dial. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. neither as having lordship in the. temperature. littus. G. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. kleppe. Climate. scar. and (with the nasal) — clincher. kliv. would have been derida. in precisely the same sense as the E. deik. had a form. a tumbril. a figure mentioned. klok klep- crepitare. Du. -Toe (from KXivm. klippe. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. clypian. a cleft in a rock . a clew. deuch.— Clicket. klinge. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. ready of speech. to tattle. Cliff. a precipice. has also deik. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. Lat. See Clench. Lat. klinket. an inclination.Lat.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. cliquet. clif- stanas. diquette. babble. CLERK sound of a blow. climate. klif. klaiv. Clever. to sound an alarm to clap. cliff. verge). expeditious. from clifian. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. a latch. glomus. to rattle. that is a clever feUow. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. is NE. a latch . exactly Gr. to seize. . and hence climate. to confess . stein- kluppen. a sphere. 3. as from derido. deik. dek. to catch. prattle. cliquer. kleppen. quick in motion. to prate. clima. corresponding to Fr. speak. dial. claw or talon to dek or deik. cart that tilts over. derigo. diver. cligner. klikker. sink. . or an object character- Clerical. Sw. say. a claw or clutch. in the sense of active. cleft in a rock. Claw. Fr. a clicket or clapper. dutch). kloof. dicher. &c. agile. a cliff. . Lat. cleopian. which is used in Scotch and N. skard. derecia. Dunbar in Jam. Climb. name. clatter. Somner. clerus. —Vocab. e. cleke. ravine. click. klever. See Clamber. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. cleugh. klinke. to teU tales. Sp. the clergy. G. Clam. to cry. to catch. clyf. Now the OE. chatter. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. crack. Client. the dick of a latch or a trigger. The origin is the Gr. Gr. deuck. crepare. hamraklif. the knocker of a door.— Clue. which in Mid. it must be observed. Da. Clerk. to wink. the clergy clericus. a clerk . kliket. . Sc. But the Dan. Click. KkrifoQ.) Brai. klaffen. precipices. AS. Rouchi cliche. to cleave. ized . rapidus from rapio. to move. /cXi'fia. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. cleft of a hill. a hold. derigon. a ball of twine. a ladder. call. dink. klouwe. Jam. clep. highest is attained. to clack. clever. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. Hence Lat. cave . duke. icXi/ja?. to snatch.dergie! Wiclif in R. precipice. call. a baU of yarn. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. dexterous. score7i clif.). duik. Happen. chatter. abrupta rupes . implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . lively. clif. a trigger. Boh. nimble. Du. clap. from Gael glac. dichet. de ripa. In I Peter v. region not observe it. seize (Hal. Climax. dial. ginally from dob (extant in W. Clergy. and hence deik. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). a lazar's clicket or clapper. cleft. dob. rugged ascent. crackle. dook (identical with E. sonare. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . Det er en Mover kerl. on. dever. a latch. click.

incline. Esthon. dial. to ring. a beU. Ir. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. to crowd or squeeze chingy. as we now say three or four o'clock. to form one mass with. straits. incline. klungelin. clivus. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. acclivis. from klepati. to beat. sticky.. to crowd together klynge sig ved. clips. to wither. Decline. Fr. met. glungelin. -CLINE make pinch. glocke. to snip. to knock. klunker. ring clag. to snap tongs. . The notion of a loose moveable substance. Du. kXiVu. nip. I. to clap or clack. to shrink up. kliks. pallium. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. klynge. quincailler. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. w. as to snip in the same sense from snap. a cluster. gUong. sloping forwards. dial. Clock. Gr. to cling to a thing. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. klocke. bow. klippa. See Clang. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. a tinman. a lump G. a lump of butter.D. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. to lean. shears. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. klik. a bell. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. rima. toga muliebris. to snap kneipen. hill . knippchen. kima. . also to form a compact mass.. kukla. a hood. to beat on the board. hlinian. klinken. knippe. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. to strike. See Cowl. clinke. G. Bi klik uti klak. klocke. 'Till famine cling thee. Da.— Clot. E. and so' to contract. kleppe. ten. to lean backwards. compress . iissura. to bend downwards . ON. klocka. . Sussex peasant AS. to clunge. a bell. clique. to wither. The E. To Clip. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. a rising ground. schnippen. klo^gen. knot klynge. parva ruptura. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. toga. -atum. kluben. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. Sw. disposed to a thing. difficulty. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. 156 -cline. especially of something soft or clammy. kldpp. sloping downwards . klak. pinch. pinch. klungeln. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. clutch. recline. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. at first probably on a wooden board. klinka. G. Serv. to slope or bend . Sw. G. a clock. club). Lat. Du. hluccti. clingan. G. Lat. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. Een kliks bolter. related to clock. Kil. a snare. to snap or fillip schnippen. &c. Cliofue. klincke. to sound sharp. to cluster. as thick or curdled liquids.' for a dry stick. . Ang. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. klippur. Flem. knippen. noise. klingen. clangere. verklungeln. Cloak. hlinen. To stick to. sloping upwards procUvis. globulus' (Gl. 2. four of the bell. Sw. a clog or fetter for a beast . claw. Clink. Swiss klungele. Gael. outcry. like cling. a ball of thread . klippen. ON. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. To cut with shears. a separate portion. N orman clincailler.. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. Walach. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. . Hal. as G. hluk. to resound. Pl. clog. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. . to . because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. dag. clock is a variation of clack. brett-glocke. dial. . -cliv-. Bohem. OHG. difficulty .D. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. kluppe. to clip. cochl. Fr. clinker. by bits. cloche. declivis. * Clod. ' . Sw. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . klicke. S w. in Schmeller) klunk. a woman's mantle . to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Swiss klokken. clino. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. clato make a noise. hooded . to clink auf.und zuk-lippen. klepalo. cloak. Du. and a similar syllable without the /. gang. klunge. klupen. g. Bohem. kolki-laud. klippa. Du. to AS. also to wink . to pinch klupe. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. klok. a lump. or bagging clothes.. Sw. chcng.' From Pl. — clot. to make a loud noise. whence E. kol- The word . tuft. slant. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. E. to shrink up. . klipa. a faction.— KSS. . klaka. klippe. and 'E. To Cling. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. ON. G. kolbe to E. speaks of a ' clung bat. dial. fetter. — a mantle.'— Shaks.ginglej Fr. G. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. to pinch.

clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. figer. schlettern. Pr. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. The origin of clod and clot is to . 3. to shut up. loose mud. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. He was a man without a dag. of something clammy or heavy. loppe. we pass to Schlatter. shaky.dial. an imputation. dial. to bubble. kleck. a skittle-ground klos- sen. IV. klateren. unctuous. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. zoccoli. and Du. congeler. pattens G. Closhe. to paddle in the wet. shut up. a portion of something soft and adhesive. be found rattle.D. ! . splash. bemired. clos. claudo. lob. clotted locks Dan. a Christmas log. a clog. lump of mud on the clothes . fat. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. forbidden by 17 Ed. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. clos. G. I doda clod. lopin. Gr. dunch).). whence klack. klos-bane. enOE. curdled. be&c. without. Clog. a field inclosed clos. geschlotter (as E. neither spot nor hang loose. paludosus. lobberen. then liquid or loose substance. to rattle. kloster. chiuso. claggy. clotted milk klotte. laggery. tJokok. analogous plan to clod or club. motzen. clammy loam. Mat. klakken. kladde. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. bloutre. a dirty wench claggy. . wide bagging clothes. . To hinder by the adhesion Sc. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). is a blot on one's character. a blot. thick spoon . in accordance with It. from claudo. AS. Yule-clog. . kloteispaen. Idppern. to bedaub. To Clog. or E. mud klcEg. Russ. to flounder in the wet. watery. MHG.— Clothe. separate part. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. lobbig. a clod Swab. meat from Du. a clod.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. to sup up liquid food. klunkern. dag. kl'dnken. -cludo. in accordance with Pl. . finish . A — — A Thus from Bav. compared with clump. Klak also. I clodde. to rattle. . to dabble. clog or overshoe. to dash like heavy rain. loblolly. je amoncele. miry laggerit. . pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. . His heart was franlc without a flaw. -clusum. klottern. to play at bowls. . slops slodderen. to spill liquids. aspersion. klokotat. kloden. slab. a blot. fors. or Sc. dangle. a log. Pl. Du. like G. chiudere. mire. Hence inclose. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. lump of something soft . Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. paddle. Cloister.D. schlott. dab. G. dirt. closed. rattle. . slops). blot. bespotted with mire E. to slop or spill liquids. pludre. It. dirt. clatk. . slobber. -close. E. a monastery. a bal!. daustrum. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. loose trowsers. from Fr. is connected with pludder. Pm.'^ Palsgr. from Du. or loppern. klotzschuh. slob. In the same way Dan. and Gael. lopperig.rge lump.' end. lobberen. zocco. close.1a. m&se noch stain. clogs. klac. da- . slop. truncus. kloten. we pass to E. Klottermelck. Pr. boil. to claggock. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. I clodde. a log. klos. to close against one. and thus seem endowed . loppered (of milk). with Fr. . clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. a babbler. lunch. clogs for the feet klakk. mud. kleck or lack. Bav. schlottern. clausum. in forms like Du. spatter. g. schlotter. E. a spot. a lump from Du. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. Du. foreclose. to bodies. terminate. Lat. . Dan. to shut in. schlattern. slobbe. kloteren. spot of dirt. tuditare. of a body of any kind. clot. to cling locks. Lat. bowl . slabberen. klot. daggerey. Sc. tramp in wet or mire. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general.. a block. TZoxapov. to wabble. clausum. gelatinous. log. in comp. to shut. a trowelful of mortar. klotz. klakk.. Fr. to shut. plod. klag. • lump. -clus-. clorre. Close. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. lump of butter. motte. and E. loose. wabbling from Du. laggyn. inclose. . beklakken. cloth. Swiss schlott. lag. Fr. the radical sylla. Fr. thick sour milk. to flap as loose clothes. The game called ninepins. . to a. shut up. A . a clog or wooden shoe Mod. paddle or dabble in the wet. slobberen. Fr. or drablyn with separate existence. lumps of butter. doitre. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. claque. to lobberig. klod. hanging loose and full. to rattle or shake to and fro. . to dabble.

clot.bar. AS. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. to beFr. hebes (Kil. Then applied to a lump of mate. and closely do conspire. as Fr. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). kl'dnne. klumpfot. a lump. a patch. Du. dial. clydion. from Du. To Cloy.). . . . a nail. nelke (dim.). davus. wisp. warm. cludadh. lunch). rustic. warm place . with lout. klebek. kluV. klobbersaen. mass. mud (Pat. ON. and clout d eudaich.D. dial. ser. a bousche. cluster. AS. naegel. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. shel- kloen. motte. clou de girofle. . a garthas.ft. Sw. kloete. a fissure. de Champ. and clay. dump. a . lump. cobble. group of people Sw. CLUCK rustic. botch. klove. and of a rustic unpolished person.D. piece Cot. a bunch. a clown. to cherish. een klaven kruflook. a. blockish. spice) G. little nails. Fr. caillebottes. mire. a ball. — . cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. a curdled sky. kluppe. clog. but confounded with cailler. milk run to lumps. of thumping clumsy action. a bunch. Clumpered in balls of clouds. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. of sloppy materials. of nagel. clump. clavo di especias. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. Sp. knob. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . A division of a root of garlick. from W. Du. to strike . klubba. cloud Delfortrie. Imitative of the note of a society. strike. to stop. clod is used in both senses . clothes ment. clump of a clout on the head. lie clyd. a lump.158 . klubb. klu77ip. The priClout. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. E. clot . boucher.clod.' Sanders. dut. and -the word Clove. kloven. Move. (kruyd =. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. w. loggish. to tramp in the kluyve. are often connected. a knot of people. warm. a clubfoot klabb. in the same sense. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. a thick mass. klubb. Properly that which covers and Du. clod. a ball of twine . kldverj P1. Coventry Mysteries in Hal.). Gael. klotzig. the terms expresssplit. N. Met. a boss. klump. Du. Mabousfrom Lat. lump of earth aria. dillad bumkin. dys. a clod or clot. klotz. a log. From dog. The radical sense seems to be an unE. G. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. and tapp. dirt. dote. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. also homo obtusus. G. eine to slop. mary sense is a blow. a bobbin. lump. block. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . to cover Bret. The significations of a clod or lump. knob. a clove of garlick. ON. nagelein.Fris. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. to cloy. klcBdi. botsen. clot. Clump. Cloud. sheltered . klumba. tered . log. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. are also used in the sense of a stopper. cob. coarse. duthaich. nourish . . klunds. Dan. lumps of curd. clyd. zolla. A kind of spice resembling Du. clunch. dial. E. sheltered up warm. I. clue. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. formed lump or thick mass. dabosser. a cover or coverture . klubbe. klaven. Das volk hat sich in splitten. clothe. to strike. It. make warm. to lump mend clumsily. warm clothes {dillad. In the same way E. the air. clotted milk or cream. from OFr. kUid. zolla dell' . Pl. cluth mhor. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. to cleave. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. indispalte knoblauch. del mattond. to splash. So Fr. G. diboter. klqb. aglio. a clot or keeps one warm. klonte. klever. Du. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. clods. clammy earth. a bunch.D. a ball. To Cluck. choke or stop up. to cleave or the splashing of water. stock. Sw. to a lump. dob. . Ir. bunch. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. Clown. sticky. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. More in R. Clover. — — — . lump. Club. dash (Cot. clunch. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. daggy. Cld. klotsen. Rouchi dapoter. Kiittner. cludaim. a sky Cot. clothes). matte. dabaire. of a lump of earth and that figure. when something has got into the touch-hole. clumhar. tuft. a blabber. a sticky. a breach. G. to curdle. cobio. puddle. a nail) Fr. a log. ball of thread Russ. clobyn. Du. w. a clod.). rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. CLOUD an awkward clod . E. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. 2. chiodo di girofano. klieven. a ball. unpolished. probably from daboter. eene ODu. Du. esdaboter (Roquef. Gael. from kloven.

COAL dumpish. a coach. finish. inclusive. Lat. G. &c. to syllable click. ' Clumper.e. havi. hooknosed. are the nasalised forms of klotte. ' . to benumb with cold. cluntClyster.D. bunch. wooden shoes. dumpse. cleche. paste. as Fr. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. a clod clunter. a lump. hand to cleuk. clointer. ment. a ball . to stick together . Champ. dumpers. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. dial. calling her chickens. to to snatch. a litter. hands stiff with cold. kol. from klupen. Hence cleik. may recline. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. plad or plod. obstructum. clumsy. ball of snow on horse's foot . from ON. to curdle. klemmen. -olus-. kluntfrom KKvKdi. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. klamp. MHG. and make ye strong feeble knees. to tramp. awkward. klimpern. OHG.. claws. klomje. unhandy. Fris. klcise. lay hold of. Com. Du. Fr. might be reached from clump. Sp. klumpern. cleuk. dial. eviratus. -close. Ang. or aclommyde.E. clip or pinch. n. Analogous forms with a tongs. Fr. Coach. klontet. and klonteren. claudo. klumpig. thick and clumsy.forklomme (Outzen). gelidus. Coal. Boh. exclude. -CLUDE hen Du. unwieldy Hal. from laver. pinched. carriage in which you klodset. klampa. a block. coucher became in unhandy. cleik. In the same way Du. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. The Fr. or from Sw. klemma. — sen.'— animal.mene tied. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. klunsen. 159 E. clopiner. to curdle. lavesen. Du.' Wycliff. properly to do anything Fr. to pinch. dek. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. idle. Lincolns. doquear. Clutter. -elude. ' Thou clontsest for cold. See reclusion. E. klamen. the word is more probably connected with OE. G. to grip. -cludo. a clod or lump. It. Cath. E. klummklummshandt. algidus. eviratus. esclaboter. verklomen. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . —More. coccolare. with E. crooked inwards . to lie. klocken. Muster.— — . . klont. Gr. as clumper. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. a clot klissen. dussomed (Wilbrabam). clutch. clotted cream. splash. klump. MHG. — ' — — tonista. unhandy. clump. klos. klomen. koetsen. klette. glocire. OE. a lump. of garlick. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. a bunch. in v. conclusion. . producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. Hindust. koetsie. klobber in klobbersaen. verkommelen. differing only in the absence of the duik. to curdle. kohle. klikonosy. Cluster. . ' Uorte (for clogs. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. koetsDa. with a quick. A group. to gingle. Hesse. ether comelia P. dial. strum on an instrument. Lat. a noise. See -elude. a clove Sw. unfashioned. cluster. a lump or compact mass. But clunchy. dial. klonte. Teulazy. whence koetse. cliboter. 130. kichlemmit. — . Compare Swiss klupe. klister. beklummen. dumps. in comp. a ball. to squeeze. Cheshire. ill-made . klikaty. Riwle. clook. clabosser. conclude. to klotz. wagen.D. to wash. Fr. duke. —To Clumsyd. Pl. limp. Isaiah. Sw.' Benecke. enervatus. viscous material. hondis. Beklummen van kelde. Sw. a couch. G. Du. close.D. Variation of clatter. Pl. The sense of awkward. Clump.Ancr. From the notion of sticking together. lump of soft mate. benumbed with cold. glousser. klompen. eene beklum. and klotteren. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. klonte. clausum. klods. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. a nasalised form of club. tight — — . to wash. seize. klummerhdndt. of Du. clutch. having the Pl. to collect in lumps. Graff in Klamjan. er. Pm. * Clumsy. wooden sole. awkward. a clod or lump. . rial.P. — Hence include. Hence snatching. ball as snow. smart motion. to shut. fingers (familiar). dystere. Ray. to tramp or tread heavily. ON. to tramp.D. xXvariip. claw. through the senses of lumpish. to paddle or dabble. a pinching time. heavily. as from seken. Clutch. klunt. pladdern. Du. koetblockish. Sc. Du.' Vegecius in Way. -clus-.D. acomelydfor could Pr. klisse. and koetse. log. * Clump.' Comfort ye dumsid. dek. to rinse. -clusum. a clod or The noclot. G.pare P1. an instrument for nasal form e. beklommen. — Cot. also a cluster. a claw.

kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. kolna. Du. to grow together. gull. to cobble shoes. blaze. Pm. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. w. pryf-coppyn. cock or nescock. probably from the Fr. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . klabbsmed. COCHINEAL Cobber. — Cobbler. Sp. meaning that she is plain and coarse. a coat or frock. to speak or act confusedly. Fr. quilet. cofasse. ignem. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. T' waerkopet. cob. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. 3. It. and hobble. bijamie. — — . staggering or halting. may be A found in Sw. tempered clay for building. dial. a spider. cob is a dumpy horse. according to the ordinary run of events. Du. itself is Nescock . A spider's web. broddelen. habble. of poison. viz. to be hot. a firesteel Lat. cule cocosse. from bearing a bag. a bungler. a tuft. walk clumsily. of E. cob. that is. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. a bubble. dim.. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. in Essex Jow*2c^. tuft. as in arr. Fr. cotta.—Atkinson. however. to stutter. a kitchen. The dirt. united. . to kindle jvAla. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place.. and fig. kop. pock. a rib. koppe. an old idiot. to pdt with We may cite Fr. Coarse. of cochina. numb. rivation are found in Sw. imbecille. properly to daub. The Fris. to be inflamed . cochinilla. pockbecility and liability to imposition.. to bungle .inflated with air or liquid. a woodlouse. CooMneal. Cocasse. to strike. large coals. petrilla. the one of thump. k'dlla. to bungle Sc. Outzen. . nursery lang. Sanscr. quele. large stones . Dan. flame. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. A plausible origin. is one of thump. to knock. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. niais. acomelyd or aclommyd. It. dial. in Du. sweets and the other of poisons. a cobweb. Lat. Flem. says Varro.' And colo. ridi. s.). ON. a spider (/r)^=grub. and imperfect or unskilful action. hakkelen. also a coast. — Cleveland Gl. Coalesce. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. used in — . cluster. from some fancied resemblance. a darling. Cobbles in the N. When the .the water boils. a crea. give the full meaning of the word. to beCoax. frock. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . glowing embers. a sow. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn.. or cobble. of E. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. dial. a pock mark. Trevoux. or upper . coalesce. kop-ar. one Pr. H^cart. are often connected. ailina or colina. cotte. niais. side . may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. then to work unskilfully . spinne-ivebbe. or E. and the spider as collectors. cobcoals. Coast. — — — E. s. e. to kindle or cause to burn . to worship. dial. grown together. a knock.).(pi. to burn. as shown in dob and cob. cokes was a simpleton. to stutter. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. Coat. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. probably left his home. . throw a blow. verkommelen. to . a similar According to Ihre. gull. to glow . a large round nut cobstones. E. coste. to wheedle or gull vermin). ordinary as in the expression of course. any kind of coat. atter-kop. a great falsehood. unfledged bird. small pox (pocks) . glow jvalaya. a nest. cobble. .a spider. . kylla. boil. to cob. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. woman is said to be very ordinary.' Nares. Pm. Coalition.—