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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. The syllables moo (mu. when neither name for the object to be designated. the present day. come Moolls. and where we are seeking. to the syllables which are significant to the child. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. persons of different tongues at the present day. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. and mully or mully cow is the . is given to a cow or calf. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. name of the cow. the closer we shall approach to the . mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. by whom the be understood. when we is represent to our children of the cow. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. in other words. or Mollein. Molli. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. the baaing of the sheep. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. in language of the present day. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. and. with an initial m or I. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. muK) and mae (rfie. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. mind of the of the animal.NURSERY IMITATIONS. or. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating.

p. Finally an n was placed before it. He would now say good. mumm. We have. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. and which we might express thus. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. analogous to Magyar mammogni. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time.' In ordinary speech mump. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. to work over with the mouth. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. 72). schipp. &c. and some were very clear and distinct. Gradually.. nim. became more perfect. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. fiafifi&v (Hesych. family. in children's language. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. hm. to For instance. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. A member of my own new sfop. as well as the mind of the utterer. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. On one occasion he said^e nim. . and nim came to signify everything edible. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. when hungry. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. Heinicke. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. his nurse adopting the word with him. he called to to drink. for bad. I had watched the growth of this word. had nim. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. First. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. to eat. repulsive to eat. Gr. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. for everything fit to eat.' he says. for things. then. nineteen years old. partly from sounds which the child caught.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. by the natural humming sound. .).

to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Nimm'd up. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. the Scotch poet. dial.). taken up hastily on the sly. Africa) nimnim. i8o. Primitive Culture. nyam nyam. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. sweet (Koelle). clangorqae tubarum. yamming. and the crab — p. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. nvrnma. or word-making. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. (in chil- dren's language). Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. to mump. to be pleamind . in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). at hiamske i sig. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. as well as the Sw. and thence to be tasteful.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. 1 86). aptantes adfectibus vocem. savory. Galla djam djeda. ' id est. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. Wolof nahenahe. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). food (Tylor. eating. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. mumpfeln. Swedish dialect gamsa. mujnpa. . and some of them . Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. South Jutland hiamsk. Soosoo (W. snatched (Whitby Gl. to taste . chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. as to . Africa) nimi. agreeing with Ein. jammla. nobis vix permittitur. j ing . it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. ut tinnitus aeris. jamsa (yamsa). A negro proOr. Vei (W. memmexen. crab nam buckra man. namnam. oves lalare. and the fizzing (and Series. mumpfen. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. i.' says the author of Modern Slang. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. palatable. ' Motherwell. on.' — Lersch. 130-1. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim.minis. to smack in eat. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. to move the lips in continued chewing. mumble. greedy . to chew laboriously. to fill the mouth. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. lita. to take. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. buckra man's language the white man. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat .' says Quintilian.' And Diomedes. iii. stolen. delicacies. to eat mampfen. nam.ONOMATOPCEIA. we can call them so. jumla. to eat. p. to Sw. voracious. make djamdjam). tidbits nama . Gothic niman. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). aves tinnire. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt.

^6^.' And elsevs^here (p. not of a moo of Lect. purring or mewing of cats. or.' — We speak of a cow. hooting of owls.' he says. p. twittering of swallows. might be used as the designation of it. gobbling of a turkey-cock. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. Indeed. und growling. intended in the instance to represent the cry. whether it deserves the name of language. chattering of pies or monkeys. snarling of dogs. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . for the purpose of bringing the animal. bumping of bitterns. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. yelping. 89) with less hesitation. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. anything connected with it. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. croaking of frogs or ravens. cooing or crooing of doves. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. do not speak of a bowwow. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. grunting or squealing of hogs. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. or thoughts of our hearer. barking. that there is When Man. bleating of sheep. when circumstances required. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. sparrow and chirping. We . cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. lowing of oxen. but of a dog. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. baaing or maeing of lambs. 'I doubt. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. chirping of sparrows or crickets. might be used. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. a lamb. cackling or gaggling of geese. bellowing of bulls. dove and cooing. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. yelping. between dog and harking. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. not of a baa. howling. snarling. before the in other words. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. Yet we ing. neighing or whinnying of horses. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem.

a daw.IMITATIVE NAMES. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. Picard cau. kauwe. e. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. a bird that is be driven away. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. a a crier (p. Bav. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. kdka. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). kae. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. Kdrava. Aoo-Aoo. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. in is Gr. a crow (Pictet). and the sound of that direction. 4th ed. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Origines Indo-Europeennes). He to is therefore derives kdka. according to Durga). at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. Malay gdgak. In Basque. crow. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place.' kd). layitavya . koioratz represents the clucking of a hen.. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. and Bavaria respectively. having a general predicative power. and gaggele or gagkelein. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. and means a shouter. caw kuhii-rava (rava. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. kuho. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring.). derived fi-om a root ru or kru. lion. birds. 'Kdka. In Lat. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. whose sound (Pictet. coccolare.). KOKKvi.' common sense. is kuM) for the cuckoo. Georgian quaki. sound). In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. ist ed. 380. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Manchu The kaha. in g. a crow. caller. it announces (Salaberry). Arabic kdk. crow. Sometimes the hoarse i . when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. or quawk. gackem. We imitate the sound with a modulated. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Sauscr. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. ghak. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. 349. Barabra koka. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Columbia kahkah. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. Hungary. fi-om apakd- i.

The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. Ibo akoka. the name for a crow. German and Eng- krahen. Sp. The crowing of cot in Fr. kukhuta.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. ghughu. a crow. the name of an animal will gen- . names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. German luhu. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . great variety of oKokv^uv. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. Magy. tbrtora.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. Yoruba koklo. kruk. turtle) as the Lat. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. k. gugu. another. German kielitz. Arabic tdtwit. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. wood-pigeon. Heb. So we have Polish krukac. Pers. krahe.. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Fr. Mod. Da. to croak. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. kurre. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. Zulu kuku. to hoot. reduplicate form. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. lulo. Du. p. uhu. lUyrian kukurekati. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. xi. are represented.. coccovaec. as well as of Sanscr. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. by the verbs gurren or girren. synonymous forms of similar structure). gufo. The consonants p. Hindi. krauklys. and e. to cry loudly. kuku. or Gr. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. 219. giving turtur (and thence It. while crouk. to crow. tor. tur. t. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . name of its is the bird. Malay kukuk. Albacuculi a dove. Esthonian kikkas. teewhoop. to crow. kraukti. and sometimes both together. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. koeren. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. in the North of England. It. French dishuit. kraeye. Du. girre. hibou. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. either in the same or in related dialects. tortbla. 6. Lettish kiekuts.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. name. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. coqueri- Languedoc. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. coucouva. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. and e. korren. Scotch peeweip. a crow . to howl or Lat. to croak. cock. a crow lish Lith. kraeyen. libufs. tuquheit. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Dutch kievit. kirren. Walachian coucouveike. tbrtola. "Welsh hwan from hwa.Gr. kukko. yell. lilits. Swedish kowipa.

a beetle druna. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. (Jieuschrecke) . Corean sirsor. a small as hawk is . whirr). resound. skirl. growling. The drone peal. the humble. schirke. 'The natives call it tanand. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. from the humming. ' — Pictet . humming. Fin. oE. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . The Arabic sarsor. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. in allusion to its music. thunder. Arabic tantanat. German hummel. schrickel. to chirp J may be compared with . Speaking of a cricket he says. flight its sting considered as a horn. glass cracking (Schmeller). a fly (Tylor) . g. bee. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. din. Danish gnaddre. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. give a faint sound. droning is . little intermission. with or Fr. Sanscr. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. g. there are infinite varieties. to hum. buzzing. and he kong-ko-rong. Australian bumberoo. common. Danish dron. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. or a gnat fly. to sound.IMITATIVE NAMES. horniss and from the buzzing The. grylhis. Albanian tsentsir. resounding of musical instruments. and yelping cry. grille. Sc. and not from E. kong-kong. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. g. PofijivXwg. The name of the cricket indeed. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). chirk. to rustle. Lithuanian tranas. ' Sanscr. to grumble. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. skril with n. hollow noise. grillen. a drone. booming. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. and probably indicates that g. as . representing a short sharp sound. gives rise to chwymores. e. ta-na-nd. a hornet. German drohne. Gaelic dranndan. buzzing. zirken. bamba. bambhara. sound. skryle. knetta. sirkka. loud rumour. cricket is from crick. of England it is to the b 2 . to shrill sound sharp. Lat. In the N. We may cite Gr.' —Tennyson. schwirren.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. pip-pi-ta.' Amazons. to be compared with Sanscr. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. ajo.or bumble-bee. from schrick. The Welsh chwyrnu.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba.' — i. i. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. to creak Bret. 337. Lith. a bee. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. shrill. to chirp . schrecke. a sharp sound as of a 6. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. words imitative of humming . succeeding each other — with noise. German dronen. Naturalist on the tocano. the drone or non-working bee . erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. which they make in their flight very . North of England. dhran. — Catafogo. Northern Farmer.vf3. swirplys with 6.

plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. to shout. a cow. is inadmissible. muJiati. to bellow like a bull. to . biibnas. make poo. Lat. Manx booa. cattle. a heifer. grumble as distant thunder . baula. Da. and from to ring. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. Illyr. agreeing exactly with Lith. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. loge. to shout. forms a. to low . or with on. from the imitative moo instead of boo. lulauti (to hoo-loo). to weep. bolt. bukati. to make a noise. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to the uses goda. bauli. the Fr. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. bullock. bull. The Galla lilbil. bucula. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed.XX called booing. mugire. bovis. to ba-L-are. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. bu. Fr. bae. a drum . Galla boa. Lat. to or bark. miau-l-er. has bilbilgoda. Thus from miau. a bull. to bump as a bittern Illyr. bubenti. bullus and e. as that of the cow by boo. or bau-l-i. mamoo-heeheek. bwla. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). bugle. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. to mew. to bow- own bawl. to beat hard. verbal form given to the say. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. w. to low. fivKaofiai. The Piedm. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. bugler. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. a Geiger. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. to from bau. say. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. representing the mew of a cat. the animal. as the Illyr. Norse bu. be-l-er. ox. amuse. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. Gael. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. Piedmontese fi bau. Cult. boo. 167. (iove. p. in a imitation of a ringing sound. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. or a z to the imitative syllable. whence baula. w. to low or bellow. bos. bae. to make. Lat. — ^Tylor. mae. bo. His analysis leads cow. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. to make. mugler. make to it laugh. and thence Lat. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. or formed Lat. and djeda. bubati. On the same principle. to sound. in same way. With these analogies. to boohoo. and in Hottentot baa was the . The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. are (with a subsidiary k). maukati. or moo. a bullock. shoot . a buffalo. OFr. Zulu lulula. Hottentot bou (Dapper). it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. k or g. verb is evidently identical with our shout. Fr. From baa. It. that the imitative syllable are Lith. buculus. to make a loud deep sound. btibleti. representmake bow. From the same lioao). bue.

to rumble. Idgge (Rietz). /xj/caScj. Illyr. does not produce a e. the designations of a dog the term cur. we have Sanscr. oe. kurren. and snorke. meugler. mecati. . cite as by grunt. Fr. hunon. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. leg-et-ni. the snout of a pig. lek-eg-ni. rumbling. hadg- Magy. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. With gen. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout.' Moor's Suffolk words. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. And it is true there between hog and grunt. Gael. it and e. or in any ! way ! persuading. hunt (gen. 6. /xijeao/iat. ^. grogner. It is probable also that e. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. lekavica. undoubtedly imitative. Moreover. a goat firixal^ta. grunny. grugno. From the imitative mae. meigeal. to grunt. Gr. lambs. a grunt. a (Hesych. It. — . The g. sound. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. and of (maelon).have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. grumbhng. Da. nire. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. Magy. purr). Kurren und murren.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. to howl. and grumphie. a sheep or a goat. a sow. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. G. hund. in Wolof bae. to bleat. hwch. a sheep or ewe. a goat. mutter. to themselves. from knurre. a pig. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). a goat. a sow. . cry). lecco. mekegni. a hog. / The same Gr. Illyr. name of the animal itself. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. and Circassian maylley. karra. grumble. and thence groin. Hence Breton hoc ha. name of a sheep. smack and naski. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. to grunt. meketati. goats. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. houch. a sheep. Among dog. from hundama. sheep or goat. Fr. grunt.). although the imitation embodied in Lat. . hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. Gr. a. a sheep (Lowe). grumpf. Illyr. corresponding to ohg. sus-sus. for the voice of the ox). but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. menAda (ndda. hundi). kurre. a wolf. meckern. to bleat. Africa laa. a dog. to growl. groin. curmurring. signifying a snarling. grunlike a pig in eating. Welsh and Breton). this obstinate race. may with to snarl. as lou of an ox. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. grumble. he would hardly. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. knurfisk. may be identical with Esthon. as the proper name of a tame sheep. guttural tone. with the root ypaipm. growl. a pig Fin. in v. Manx meilee. meil. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. naskia. and hoc'h. to bleat . and with the subsidiary k or g. leknuti. Gr. hound. ' In driving. by which the shingle gives rise to It. (iriKov of forms like Sw. name. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected.

hoppe. like artificial flowers. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. humma. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. . The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. a horse. Thus we are led to the Fr. 91. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe.' — ist Series. animal. without a — we root. coquelicot. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. If onomatopoeias can . They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. p. to whine. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. to the left. houpy in Craven. when he found peculiarity. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. But words of this kind are. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. coquette. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. of the character in question. the cry to stop or back a horse. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names.). g. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal.. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself.' 2nd Series. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. e. from the cry animal. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. ^6<.. a little am- bling horse. hobben. p. hobin. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot.). which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. to go backwards. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. There are of course some names. Sc. turn a horse to the is In Finland. M). So Sanscr. a mare.root. cockade.' ticular bird. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. . hobby. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. hiine. hottihuh. such as cuckoo. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. (Craven Gloss. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. Esthonian hoibo. as in Yorkshire highly right. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil).

wrena. little speak for themselves. titter. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. horse.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. hresh. rinchar. runniken. wiehern. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. frenschen. moan. ance or habits of the animal. woodpecker. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. nitrire. Pl. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. whitename in in- throat. diver.D. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. redpole. hikkd. g. signified It. xxiii ginal object. creeper. form corresponding hresh. ginniken. giggle. hennir. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. wagtail. to neigh. animals or certain kinds of sound. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. . groan. goatsucker. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. but whether there kind between them and other words. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. Du. to Sanscr. hukkup. fehtati. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . wrenska. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. lapwing. e. swift. than to the sounds represented. command of language was attained. Lettish sweegt. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. Sp. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. sol. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. cough. hresh. Irieschen. Sw. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. Fr. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. hross. as sigh. Bohem. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. nounced with a guttural). Sanscr.

to knock. are familiar in ' to every one. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. for blows with a rod. for the sound of a fall. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. bangas. ting-ting. scream. pit-a-pat. hoo. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. bang ' ! trenches. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. banke.' ! ! ! ! — dong. haitshu. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. snukkup). and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. It is represented in e. for in such sound of blows. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. Of a like forma- drum . to throw violently down. snort. knarr. debhes-lungotais (deifies. tisio (tisho). Wtb. for the creaking of a wheel. oren : Klapp. a large bell. klatsch. a more expressive than the e.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. the dashing of the sea . lumm. clap ! A smack Puff. snore.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. Zulu bongo. for the sound of a blow. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. 1865. hoo ping ping. Da. ding. a kind of drum. Australian bungbung ween. on the chops is represented also by pratx. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. strippstrapp-stroll. pump.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. White Lies. &c. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. plitsch-platsch. dong Read. aritischane. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . or tliat is accomit. shriek. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. Vei gbangba. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. beat.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. heaven).' So imac. mer. for the sound of milking. an attempt would be made to by the voice. for the for the sound of . to drive on. DingBang. ping came the bullets about their ears. . atchian. in a nail Let. tlirob. the God of thunder . root kshu. heart tick-tack. to hammer . beat of a clock child . or the w. to sneeze. for that of breaking. wheeze. Mei gbengben. bang. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. atchini. knack. &c. — Sanders.' it both sides went. to ham. —Brem. went the cannon. for a small one. thunder (Tylor) . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr.' 'Haw. haw. to beat. fitsche-falsche. hang. banga. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley.

pipare. De Brosses. far pipi. pi. Lat. part of the What consciousness has the child. Gr. a or cheep. ducing the sound. young bird. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. the voice of chickens (Cot. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. pipio. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. chickens (Tylor).' instead. pipe. peep. to squeak. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. pipilo. laugh. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. pigione. Magyar pip. to cry like imrli^u). we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. piauler. —Lyndsay. mobility excavation and hollow ^. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. . a chicken or gosling. pipio. to designate cavity and hollow. In cases such as these. pigolare. to cheep like a bird or a young It. a whelp. G. calls S. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. scream. and whimper. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. has been un- employed to designate fixity. and their relations. cry. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. He Yet asks. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. which he added to intensify the expression. to cry pi. peep. Florio. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. as in other subjects of study. pipegni. child. pule. or a piailler. piccione. Fr. as the simplest implement for proFr. a fife or musical pipe. bleat. to peep It. pipelni. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. not- . a fowler's bird call is lost. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. doubtless.sc. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. Mantuan pipiare. It seems to him that the teeth t. The pi. is pfeife.) a chick. as k. a (young) pigeon. used as a call to . Lat. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. young child . the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. and so forth. pu. cry of young birds . — . pipe. of a word will appear supposed to represent. or the uneducated different consonants are man. piou. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. pippione. had been used laugh ? two. pigiolare. piou. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. is of expression. e. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE.

murmur (by . as the click of a latch or a trigger. murren. to cry pi. chack. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. It. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. pi . to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. girren. rumble. of a loud strong sound. Zulu raraza. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to gorgogHare rattle. bubble. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. tonare. where the variation. Poppopvi^to. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. along with tinnio. Manchu kaka-kiki. as representing the sound made when something breaks. a drum W. to grumble. ioriogliare (to make borbor). the side of g. to hawhaw or laugh loud. to ring pipio. to pant violently (Colenso). The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. to creak knirren. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. crack.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. kniks. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. sound of dry breaking. Pefuxela. rumble. to thunder. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. a short sharp sound. creak. kniks. rumble (Fl. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. a closed or obscure sound. and lugh. when it force than biscuit. . garren. to bubble. to growl. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. some small vowel or consonantal sound. a prolonged sharp sound. cluck. i. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. crash. vaake gorgor) . to gurgle. coo. to grate the teeth . in German. preserved by Kilian. to clack. loud laughter. turtur. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to fizz like fat in frying. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . laqfF. kirkirdnd. {to It. a sharp short one. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . knaks. borrelen. gurren. u. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. along with Du. Hindustani karak is rendered. or springing back. or kaka-faka. kuruk. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. cricli. like the noise of a glass breaking . and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. make wood a clinking noise. is very common. to be compared with Sc. to grumble). to rattle. Indian chack-chack. be cate to go on laughing loud .. to crackle like in boiling . . karkarana. &c. grumble.Gr.. to laugh. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented.) Mod. Hindoo tomtom. to gargle . Pacific aka-aka. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . lachachen. a. of something fine and thin. knuks. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. the clucking of a j hen . tintino. knurren. sound). to jar. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. tontonare. lachen. to pant bejii- zela. to cluck. thunder oil .

as of Tamil muromurmur. compared with Gr. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. . champ. especially one who beats. while cacd / used in e. chinking of coin. to ring or jingle. correspond to e. and her heart went thump. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. 192). bent her head. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. a drum . which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). awater* ' The Mme P. thump. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. corresponding in e. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . jangle. for a tTviror).' Member for Paris. Tiie Galla gigiteka. 368). or the bubbling up of to a spring. bubble up. a nightingale. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. is Manchu tang-tang. clank. for the clinking Lat. koXiw. word. sound. a smith. hala-hald-faMa (falda. fumtu. to whisper. clango. rvir (in tvittio. ding-dong. quarren. wail. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. e. E. kiling-kalang. 1871. croaking of frogs. box on the ear imitation of the . The syllables lil-bil. the sound of a stringed instrument. or of bells ringing. and Gr. at an accelerated note.* the heart. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. borrelen. and Gr. for the ringing of illustrate bells. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. indicating the origin of Gr. kl'mg-kling. Magyar csamm-ogni. chut. Scotch sough or sooch. Maori pata. Fr. sound). uproar. klirren. a nightingale. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. Turk. to giggle. tumult. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. muro and e. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. a boy's whistle. to the purling of a brook.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. caca and Finnish adkkd. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. cry. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. The whispering of the wind I. bulbiil. the tingling Ming-Hang. and bilhila. Newman). csam-csogni. Calt. noise. is based on the same imitation as the e. are applied to the is excrements of children. and the imitative nature of tivgle. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. coughing or clearing the throat. call. simmer. for the sound of privy whispering.and e. halaidlac'h. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. Manchu kaka. spring of water in the a bell. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. and e. clash of arms. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. tumwata. bad. agrees with g. rifiirayov. disturbance (F. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . the gingling of glasses. . to beat. to strike. shout. jingle. drops of i. to say chut. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. tup. of keys or tinkling of bells. to be compared with g. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. KaKog. djeda (to say tub). to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. to knock. tubh. brings us to Fr. Sanscr. or to Du. Galla tuma. as Fr. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. clink. rain (Tylor. chuchoter. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. for chut-chiit-er. make djamdjam). identical with g. Prim. a workman.

thump. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. crunch. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. pop. The beating of drum is represented in e. 'pat. thump. The use of g. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. mutter. fizz. crash. blow. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. Nevertheless. dash. in e. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. jingle. splutter. and soufflet. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. to dance. without the intervention of orthodox roots. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. tumbian (to beat the ground). Humboldt. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. clack. twang. rataplan or rantanplan. paddle. squeal. guggle.. clang. tymmesll. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. lash. or v^hether jectional. splash. tomber. thwack. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. Fr. creak. to is blow. w. for (Sanders). whirr. gurgle. chink. crack. bang. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. ring. clash. we have buffet or cuff. bubble. tum-ultus. clatter. But although and also found in Lat. So in Fr. at a door tarapatan. douse. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. whine. dabble. rattle. and Fr. while e. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. hiss. it is fallj AS. craunch. It. report of a gun. plump. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . din. blubber. smash. rumble. clank. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. boom.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. brumberum. slash. thump. ' Der puff. souse. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. puff. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. chatter. a applied as well to the force of the bang. flop. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. according to the strictest phonetic rules. rap. gargle. snap. whack. sputter. tap. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. the Germans puff. smack. squeak. tinkle. clap. murmur. and the French pouf. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. flap. hum. by rubadub. to fall. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. clink. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. parapatapan. disturbance. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. tingle. whizz. patter. answering to g. squall. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. and Grimm.' — Nohden. swash.

are made known by an instinctive cry. in the rushing waters. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. hay. the inteij. and found in the building of be burnt up. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. grief. by the nature of the cry. Grimm or Bopp. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. in the case of the animal or of the infant. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. that he has taken the step in rational speech. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. the interj. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. or any unsatisfied want. because they are spontaneous. and uttering plaintive sounds. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. stractions. At the first beginning of life. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections.'. 94. If. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. is Thus ah!. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. or of any if wood. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. xxix on the contrary. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. knows them. the kind of action that is desired of them. formerly cited. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. Crying. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. ugh . of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. but if we must not complain on the beach. little who has time to want of her nurseling. without a thought of symbolising to them.' . and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves.' If chaos. p. or stubble is meaner name. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. and thus they become signs of despair. wringing the hands. every little pain. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . of horror. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. an imitation of a sigh .

There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. they are involuntary interjections. p. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. sneezing. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. He says. One short interjec- tion may fact. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. more to the point. p. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. groaning. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. he cites from Home Tooke. should be remem- . to solve the I shall call first.' p. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. and some of them the composition of words. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. as who them spontaneous utterances. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. shrieking. be more powerful. 344.. ^6g And to the same effect 371. If I wish to make a person of an . them to exercise it. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. which are frequently so toned down cance. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. Language begins where interjections end. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. the lowing of a cow. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. and the eye. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. more eloquent than a long speech. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . may become traditional. 32. of all the mouth. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. coughing. interjections. And again.' — ist Series. or which is of me as suffering pain.

by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. and more or less limited . demolishing here. I am not hearer. cachinno. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. Lat. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. hohottaa. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. when I arp humming and hawing. some kind of language might have been formed. Tooke in truth. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. and thus. Gr. speaking.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. interjections. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. Koxafw. Kayxa^u). to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. kahkahah. loud laughter. then speech begins. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. bered. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. but the less am at a loss what to say. and others from interjections. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. it them. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. he says. hahottaa. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. in Magy. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. hahota. in Fin. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. for example.

we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. if taken as a whole. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. And so in the case of language.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. of the world. dumb is the language of signs. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. What strikes him . It as has ing their most striking features. words receiving the meanings they now bear. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea.' he says. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. the critical question should be. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. The following account is given by Kruse. But here nature soon conies to his help. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. of the nature of this great movement. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. and go where we now say stand. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. Though. a deaf-mute himself. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. a Picture-language. and not. makes them stand and walk upon the table. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. . like peewit and cuckoo. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.

becomes roast meat. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. the sorecalling them to his memory. particular sense in properly so called. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. but if I depress it instead. he. such objects. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. thou. walked. The of sign for left hand. among themselves. and fully serves to j . When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and with his thought. for walk. xxxiii him between one thing and another. he. to name. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. called Gesture-language. that. that signifies great . A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. walker. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. it seems. the whole secret. and it is flesh or meat. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear.GESTURE most. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. push it towards the person addressed for thou. for single objects. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things.' In the Institutions. most striking outline of an object. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. as it now opens out. what more. many when or but these. can do better and more easily abstract terms. thought is already broken. nay. The same sign stands and the act itself. it means little. like a V. his action. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. and gestures. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. And is. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. or To pull and flap with the arms. and forms further and further. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . letter To hold the two fingers apart. such as than the educated man. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. or the verb to be. and to taste. that air. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and we have roast goose. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. for child. and And thus he makes himself a language. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. the lan- guage cultivates itself. signs are taught for yet. for the agent. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. walkest.

it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. a colour red. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. as when Bang ! went the gun. it called an interjection. whether by additions or otherwise. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. He gave door a bang. as in die it is a noun. would be simply beginning of speech. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. putting it into his pocket. The same word .xxxiv asking. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent.' dener's knife. . which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. qualifies the against the wall. and thus performs the part of an adjective. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. depend entirely upon the use. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. according to the circumstances of the case. as But when it is meant door. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. might be the knife. the garden. to indicate the action of a certain person. or an act. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. Do not bang the it is a verb. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. in other instances sentence. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. the ture of white term pink is and red. When I say. or a quality. substantive or adjective. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. when I say. or action. I say. or something of the kind. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. or a passive scene of existence. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. You beaten . I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. Who is has beaten you ? would be. in fact. and so is an adverb. a number of alternatives are suggested. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. and the as. When a verb.

and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. and may be used language. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. with a stick. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. commencement of speech. as cung. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. wherefore. in the sense of great. Jii ta. and to be great.. wonder. that admits itself in of audible representation. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence.^ — Miiller I. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. as kuo cung. a sigh of oppression and . it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. whereof. inquiry. 255. but often self-evident. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. or nei. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. . is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. or with elements expressing relations of time. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. a groan. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. the man is great. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. Latin. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. greatness. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. middle. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. or some relation between it and another object. inside. coalesces with the personal pronouns. some outward display of the affection. which is an old y ting (use stick). leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. Thus tafu signifies a great man. wherewith. grie^ horror. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . whereto. that is. wherehy. &c. verb nor noun has yet been developed. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. a noun. contempt. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. pain. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. in the is indicated by the syllable y.

ez. a groan or lamentation vir. to cause pain. gwae. wehthun. la. to weep. w. n. oh.'). Illyrian vaj. vaj. die wehen. ah. miau-l-is. suffering. to lament. It. Bret. pain.-l-are. oh. and to bark . mew. to rriourn. It. aiai^to. guaj-ire. vce. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. vei-a. weh schreien. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. to make). way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. misery. grief. to hurt Let. I oi[iot. ochain. Lat. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. och. vce. g. is w. In this way from the root guai. lament from oimi. pain. Gael. woe. is Ay di me I Gr. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. to chirp. ai. The form corresponding to Lat. 6. to make bow-wow. miau-n-is. oimare. weinen. or r. ohg. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. at the close of the radical syllable. first person. ace. lau-l-e. ochan. . Thus from springs otjucifw. to injure. ui. . to bewail oneself. wd. and cacak djeda (to say crack. lament. ach. Illyr. to gargle. A widespread It. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). however.. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. ahi. to cry n. ochan. ing action I. to yell formed e. cece. ! ! Goth. dchzen. guai. on. . to do woe. on. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. och. . but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. seen in Gr. o'i. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. waiidt. . It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. to wail. j. guajo. axofiai. representing a cry of pain. oval. mostly a ! %. to sound yapyap. It. e. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . wai. Fr. tirr-djeda. misfortune. to weep. ocAJ. Let. wai. are ol-ire. Jar lau-lau. the pangs of childbirth. found in g. Lat. jao. to . pain. woe. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. gwe-l-a. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. ache. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. to wail or cry alas . w. e. ach. al. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. in Gr. has more kopfweh. e. guaj- or cry out pitifully. probably a deeper groan. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. grief] affliction. to ache. as. wAwa. xxxvi grief. &. g. wai-l. Gr. representing Illyr. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. ach. hei. djamdjam goda (goda. ohi. Gr. howl. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. miau-l-er. to lament. as. form. och. wehen (Schmeller). Gr. gwae. Such are g. weh. oi. headache. ah. w^wa. It. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. jaoh. to cry at. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. to ache. to groan. grief. 6. achen.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

as to express. as it Dieser da (as Lat. . He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. thata (ta-ta). this here. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). is we I believe. In the expression Da. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. ToSe (or in Attic E. Bav. When we pointing. when 1859. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. Sie. • The child. The Fr. der da-ige.' all is is — their consent. says da-da-da. that is it. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. or that it is. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. implying the direction of its good will towards them. for instance. more emphatically roSj)j that. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. that gratifies me. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. according to Menage. case. 'nay. or carry me thither. the nursery da-da. Sanders (Germ. give. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. as. a word of many applications in g. but the truth is. or wants to name something. his trowsers' pocket. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. indeed. is-te).' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. But.' then points to his wife. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. ' sees an object. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. Diet. well as Goth. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. word da repreIn the language of Tonga.' person. saying : there the ad- Trans. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. Phil. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. to here . A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. Thank you. da. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. or give me it. Please. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting.' this. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. when he wants something. and may be rendered. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. child. da. give me that cheese. and by a variety of expressions besides. we may translate this by there (it is). I add) . a specified were by pointing him out. nurseries. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. Dr Lottner observes. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. and so on. that.

or dalliance. and shapes it into an . or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. the original is that which he places first. to move step by step. to walk. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. pay. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. to tion to another. to knock. takes it — as When the soul. moving. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. . in every mode of expressing the idea. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. and one in particular must. sounds. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food.' • liv ANALOGY. — Cot. tattle. standing. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. sinking. beat. to chatter.' says Lottner interior. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. make dadada). The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. or metaphor. p. childish toying. to beat. which thus exertion. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. thinking. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. speech.' says Muller. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. The da is dodem. meanings. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy.^ its ' utters : a cry. dadee. to say to oneself. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. stutter. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. strike. tasting. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. Thus Gr. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. then instinctively interest. reality. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. its desire. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. of which any one may.

for example. in the domain of movement. clang. a dis- cernment. sound. to glitter. . to glitter. and schmecker. to crackle gnistre. judicious. Finnish. to crackle. and thence e. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. — 1. same imitative root with Sw. Du. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. bright. to flash. bilbil). then to sparkle. wamara. magnificence. schmecken. unlella. to sparkle. smell. to sound clear In Galla. fiapfiaipw. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to glisten Dan. Again. while sapere itself. sprageti. In the case of sparkle. tintelen. wilistd. air. ghsten. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. beorhtian. to sniff. a rustling sound Gr. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. rattle. The 6. (parallel bilbila. suspect Bav. in popular language. as. the equivalent of g. to ring as a glass willata.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. gnittre. as kilind. which in ohg. to ring. wilahtaa. kimistd. &c. Fr. to shine. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. knistre. Heo Du. to glitter e. splendour. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . chime). In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to tinkle. outcry. It is The word bright had a similar In as. iclat (in Old Fr. schiteren. to . to glitter. to be wise. snudra. discreet. spraka. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. we have and the and beorht. splendour. pracht. may be quoted gUt. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. snuff the sniiten. a with kimmaltaa. savour. tinkling. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. think. a brilliant light kilid. esclat). to have Sapiens. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. and figuratively. to shriek with laughter . So firom Lat. . and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. sapere (which signifies the nose. on. to resound. snotor. prudent. kiimottaa. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. from the . signified a clear sound. to snilF. and. scTiateren. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. Bavarian bracht. scheteren. to sniff out. may be it explained . smell. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. bilbilgoda (to make . tumult. Lith. to quiver. snutrs. sense of brightness. make a loud noise. In the same way the Goth. wise. is used in the origin. to 5 ghtter. beam. knittre. brilliancy. taste. to smack or taste. 1654. man of nice taste. search . noise. a ringing . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. also wise. properly a clap or explosion. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. firom the Gael. snot. to shine. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia.

discusses the tone of a picture. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. the cross. Kep^arl'ieiv. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. the clank (stridorem) of chains. flow and flux. or . which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. 1. in truth. the bleating of sheep. 6\tadaveii'. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. sharp. And observing that n kept the voice within. shatter. ipuKuv. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. oily. mel. eo ut res vol. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). we hear of screaming colours. strike. tremour. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. wool. rend. The BpavEiv. which The Stoics. pleasure soft to the ear . cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. crux. v. and vepres. he framed the words ivSov. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. rough to the ear. pvfi^Civ. as soft by the ear. Kpovtiv. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. inside. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. soft. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. he says. power of the letter-sounds. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. \nrap6e. extremely loose. accordance with the way in which by touch. itself letters are felt as sofl. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. of dressing loud. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. to slide. break. Much of the same has been often quoted. whirl. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. roughness. is felt Lana. gluey. in of his works.' he says. KoWiiSije. the neighing of horses. Acre. &c. fitting the letters to the sense. rough. briars. Tpa)(yg. smooth. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. kvTOQ. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. then in rpd/xoe. rough both ways. rough. within. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. . The language of painters is full of musical metaphor.

the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. as when. jig. A greater felt. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. jag. to jogj sac-cade. cular effort Again. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. dag. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. jih. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. sag-oter. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. a rough and sudden . joli. for exis ample. p. to signify varieties of movement. 138). stab. and in the utterance of a high or or low. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. t. the case of the voice. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. degree of roughness sound. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. corresponding to the ineor. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. tug. or checks as they are called by Muller. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. g. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. d. p. stag (in stagger.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. shag. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. k. to reel abruptly from side to side). that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. dig. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. shog. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. rug. Fr. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. 'and consequently form. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. ii. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. jog. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface.

a piece or bit of anything. a playiug-marble. mie. to mark it with a touch of the pen . in cases like the foregoing. it produces Dutch micken. to say a word . sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to take a thing on tick. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. to beat or play on a musical instrument. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. a stroke with a French toucher. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. also to stir. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. a quid of tobacco. tech-tech. as tot. sound barely audible. an old worthless horse or carriage. to pulses being knock.. tack.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. to tickle. To tick a thing off. Then. to incite by light touches. or check. passing to the signification of motion. rough horse. Illyrian migati. and e. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . a jag or sharp projection zickzack. is so frequent a consequence of movement. chic. to On the same principle j we have g. zigzag. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . to move rapidly to and fro. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. not to utter a syllable. tecche-tocche. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. micare. chiquet. so to Italian toccare. Brescian toch.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. Dutch kicken. a cracker. sound Fr. Fr. e. used interjectionally to represent a . like English tick. The Mipen or pencil. a little bit. Welsh cicio. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. to stir. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. Fr. Bolognese tocc. cica. schuckeln. Ene olde suksuk. a good piece of road . schockeln. mot. &c. to mutter. to touch. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. g. toch-toch. an infant . for the sound of knocking at a door. The production of sound. mica. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. mik. however. a . being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. tock. is lanese toch. to have it ticked or marked on the score . to ring a bell. is made to signify movement. chicoter. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. figuratively. The analogy then carried a step further. zack. kik. that we never can be sure. then. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. Accordingly the g. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. The syllable suk is jerk. kuk. foot. and analogous movements. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. movement. to strike It. to glitter. Mucken. lead to Spanish tocar. as Italian tocco. a crum. to utter a slight kick. and It. a jog. (mitsati). S-panish miga. Sukkeln. properly a small lump'of . Thus we have B. It. motion. Hence Lat. then. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. a small bodily object. The train of . to winkj micati is Lat. chique.

In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto.n. a light quick blow. subdued manner. clay . a little titty. tit. mutter. zitio. 199). and out there. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. and mite. Du. Then. to touch lightly with a pen. seesaw. . this. and dot. as in e. tozzo. or the like its It. and toddle like a child titter. to make a slight mark. mot. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. anything small flax. tot. to jot down or note with a fro. here (close hand). I. tit. the same organ touched with the man. taut. gni. gno. bunch or flock of wool. tot. To jot. further off.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. e. is shown in murmur. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. here. tittle. e. not an atom . citto. (Halliwell) Da. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. a small horse. mutter j dust. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. 48) cites from the African Tumale. Pm. i.) . there. a small lump or pat. a small bird. small of kind. little. lix Sp. of movement in totter. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. chico. Fr. titilh. mossche. fragments It. neither moit nor an atom. a tot . there (further of!) ao. . The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. 0. the least visible insect. Malagasy to. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. to tremble. In a similar the relations of place. a small kind of lark. corresponding to the personal pronouns. to touch. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. a lad citta. little j to that of a small bodily object. ticktack. and a small lump of something. ika. a morsel girl . a small quantity. . tottle. anything . . Halliwell. to jog. move slightly to . gnu. or o toi. a bit. jot. . . mote. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). The following table from Tylor (Prim. zitella. iki. a sparrow). for the beating of a clock. tot. you. titmouse (Du. So. to movement of the pen . a girl. small titlark. a. fait. a bit. syllable mot. to dot. But the same is language has re Javan. lump of earth. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . eo. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. to e. there '(at a short distance). This kind. at where the order is inverted. or the converse.- a jot or little It. motte. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. a e. n. that. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. Cult. the vowel sound. that iku. . a certain conception. a morsel. . ri that. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. titter. motta. not because the pendulum makes a different left. for the three personal pronouns. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. a whisper. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. often entirely arbitrary. this . mut. tot. totle. tiny. to whisper (Pr. and he. we have e. not to utter a syllable. light — to note a thing hastily on paper .

In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. as in Italian Fin. Lat. that. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. here this . here 5 Yoruba na. and origin.. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. uta. father. tiiio. Carib ne. mother. that. . an old woman chacha. usho. as Mr Tylor remarks. ne. . small (Pott. mother. (tt). here . .e^.) pronunciation of i or e.. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Then. young one. akha. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. ulri. here . olo. minution further. femina ama. loo).* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. Mm. Ossetic am. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. w. there. Tamul i. is Here. me probable that • Vei also little. Botocudo ati. . that. ta to ka. thou ni. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. that in the distance. /mya. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object.. ojOo. . there. It seems to (fen. ni. this fi. 6. to. probably initial of distinction that the k. Magyar ez. you. that. there. is father. Chilian tva. Zulu ajoa. this . father k . . there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. here feraa. .) nna. bi. /wo. j Canarese ivanu. as the act of pointing was ta. Guarani nde. thou. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). this . he. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. that (intermediate) j wana. this . this . he. ni. there. It Carib lala. for the male. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. there. mother. ndi. /e«. Fernandian az. mas cheche. Gr. little. there. I . Tarahumara ibe. thou . man erne. that. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. this ole. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. Japan ko. here j abe. Abchasian aSn. . an old . respectively.araM. nne. ita. there. that. Sahaptin (America) kina. ^. this <t.. qu. child. ofj. ukko. that. biii. that. and a for the female. km. no constant rule is observed. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. Mutsun ne. Dhimas isho. child. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. that. here j ka.

The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. trSpigner. . The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. Fr. or even. the principle of reduplication. keeh. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. nipple. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. Clank represents the sound of something large. a step. just beginning to appear. little To sup up. tion. repetition It. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. din-din. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. And perhaps the E. knob. murmur. pepin. don-don. or chink. to make its way through the bursting envelope. trap. trippelen. &c. to teet. Thus we have Wolof sopa. titta. to peep through. for instance. as ding-dong. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. the pip or pippin. lift 8. The Sw. a child. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. sound of bells .) . to sup up by and with j lips barely open. for the . the simplest mode by the g. A little weeny thing. to leap. — Douglas Virgil. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. i Sw. to tread. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. analogous to winy-piny. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. trappen. whence Fr. to feet. nab. nil. is to express simple continuance of action. fretful. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. stairs. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi.' — Merrv Wives. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. for a succession of light blows low-wow. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. looking through between obstacles. in old e.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. to begin to appear .' making the voice as small as possible. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. has tittafrem. trippen. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. dance (Kil. a little yellow beard. wenig. 401. the nursery few j Sc. barking of a dog. The sound trapp . trappa. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. at pippe frem is to spring forth. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. wean. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. Da. From cases like the foregoing. of smaller things. the idea is called. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. little. to peep.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. and in the Pacific dialects. as j money. Top. A little wee face with little.

lololoa. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. in familiar use with ourselves. and Fr. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. a clattering noise. er. ding-ding.. kendagenda. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. . tache. smallness. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . puka. 99). . The same principle of 196. 97). although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. loloa. or very very great. didi. racket. ratsi-ratsi. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. keep spots. very bad. So from clamo. to say pooh It is ! to. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. And generally. calling. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to pant. to treat with contempt. the comparative degrees of greatness. to vi^alk about for flax. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. or el. Thus in E. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. or rdtchi. puka- puka. the and clique. repetition or continsignify long. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. child . mawhitiwhiti. properly speaking. a spot. rack click. mpolu is uttered. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. bad .' expression is — ^Tylor. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. kamha-gamla. Thus in the Pacific loa. child . to love. sopasopa. &c. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. to cover e. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. Again. clamito. very great. Malay ayun. i. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. Cult. mawhiti. the agent in panting . and thus by analogy employed in Lat. the lungs. or a little tee--ny thing. cliqu-et-is. to skip. click. rapidity and strength. tach-et-er. serves to show and in this way. very long (Pott. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. clash of weapons. Susa di. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. ayunayunan. could readily be conceived. or imitative syllables. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. little child (p. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. rack. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. a cradle. to rock. or in Fr. from Maori muka. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. (to use a to speak. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. is language. Mandingo ding. kenda. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. random .Ixii REPETITION. instead of being actually repeated. to to call. to talk at to walk. amusement. to or rub. hardness. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. a grasshopper. are echoed by the rudimentary et. if very young. to call frequently from Fr. and the words express a continued sound of rack.

mew and baa . draggle. wancol. it. or in e. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. to hand-le. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to rock. where all direct connection with sound is lost. wankeln. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. by the side of wanken. to crackle. to hand. to make gug. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. compared with g. Ihre remarks under gncella. The Fr. such asjlap. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. syllable clat . rubber. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. in Fr. a succession of cracks to rattle. bubble. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. Jickfacken. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to bark like a dog.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. as mAS. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. bub. to rock or wag. itself. to continue dragging. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner.Jicol. fickle. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. The contrivance with any particular noise. to make a succession of shoves. the knie-en to E. without the intervention of the frequentative element. or fi bau. shuffle. joggle. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. as to handle. to puff. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. a from ayun. rynel. crack. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. guggle. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. miauler andpiauler. to make a succession of grabs . in some applications. In cases like these. which. smack. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. others. he who rubs. to wail woe . or by association. Piedmontese bau-l-S. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. or Maori puka-puka. are to cry mew and pew . or omitted. from puka. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. and in as. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. wavering. is In e. to move to and fro. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. wankel. g. waggle. to make bau-bau. dabble. dab. jogging. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. wagas ging. miauler and beler correspond to E. kneel. the lungs (the puffers of the body). as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan.

made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. it is obviously a mere chance how long. A gull or a dupe same sense. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. although it is not difficult. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. or how generally. Breton. Dupe comes to us from the French. the breach. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. on a moment's reflection. to the separation between the broken parts. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. Polish. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. deceit. known in Italian. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. to cry ugh at. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. There is. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. which. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. by a hard body breaking. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. at was more familiarly known. will continue to be felt in daily speech. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. or in mode of use. and comparatively few easily deceived. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. or in aptness to combine with other elements. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. which is the origin of the word. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. moreover.

that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. . as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. however. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. and the word is used in a secondary sense. founded in manifest blunder. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. language is . I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. Hitl^erto. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. is. nor any limited of ideas. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. life. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. is the examples given in the foregoing pages.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle.

peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. guages in South America. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. evique. episcopus. If English. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. of material things. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo.' — But even tendency to in civilised life.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. circle perpetrates a new slang term. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. change. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. compared with the duration of man. 330. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. and vescovo. and 'Russian. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. therefore. unintelligible to other hordes. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. out. i. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. French. hearing. Naturalist on the Amazons. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . in the course of many years' isolation. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. Welsh. I think it very probable. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become.

it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. A key must unlock more doors than this. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. Cijlt. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. it will leave figures 3 and 4. Nor is there one of the letters. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. 9. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. or whatever the proportion may be. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . The combination of the symbols I and 2. 7. to be taken (Prim.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. 6. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 8. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. ancient Greek M . i. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. which are idenr Figures 5. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. ao8). But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. . and . as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. is MN. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. the actual it which would to represent. as shown in the subjoined illustration.

If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. his fellows. known to us as yet. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. had its origin in imitation of sound. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. leading him to utterances. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised." the use of a change of vowel in as. in the shape either of direct inspiration. which either by direct resemblance of sound. for instance. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. or. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT.' should be discovered. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . and the only safe beneficent Creator. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. what comes to the same thing.

or not. until the progeny. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or beavers. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or else. by animal without a trace name of Man. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. the conduct of Ixix life. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. in the course of generations. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. as elephants. that he started from the lowest grade. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. and when we look back as far as history will reach. and sooner or later. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . race were speaking men or not. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. of using imitative conduct . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and rose towards a higher state of being.COMPLETION OF MAN. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. or of their own reflected thoughts . for instance. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives .

Bav. Bohemian or Czech. Brem. Gothischen 1851. 1857. Wtb. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Fin. dialect of the Sette Commune. English. at the end of Somner's Diet. Cotgrave. 1850. Catalan.-Eng. Supplement to Dueange. B. 1654. or Dan. Sup. Diet. E. ^Ifr. Elfric's Fl. Dief. Grammar Boh. Baile/sEngl. Esth. Danish. 1737. Supplement to Bret. Bremisch. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS.. Bigl.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Fr. Da. Dn. Romano - Cas- traise. Cimbrisch. 1766. 1768. Dief. Dueange. Castr. Diefenbaeh. Cot. Finnish. Provincial dialect. Diet. Diefeiibach. . Diet. Gr. Teutonico-Lat. Esthonian. Cimbr. Due. AS. Carpentier. Biglotton seu Diet. Dueange. Couzinid. Anglo-Saxon. Infimse Latini- D. dial. Carp. Bavarian. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany.V. Dutch. de la langue Cat. Douglas' Virgil.Nieder.



budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. yjnaifia r.nokkutama willekem. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. r. r. woman r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.5 ERRATA. word allagerr. baltresca nokkutomax." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. buque 118 brodiquin r. cruccio deyrie.>. haverie crtOT r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . cti. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. Askance woud r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. (/ijtf r. kilistaa bugiie r. katowai perairrantr. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. puHti r. plowied budowaer. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . alUger ahaverie r. Blob plowied r. sveritet Asknace r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r.. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. ^i?^i2! r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. willekom Blab r.percurrunt kimista^x. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r.


implying a completion of J. Again. whatever he be. away from. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. dominion. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. to arise. as. ir. alike. to awake. a/tan. compounds. particular 1 . an edict or proclamation. AS.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. abs. Hence on-bceftan. announcement. of-dune. Passing tongues. until the event jlace . this word beand Spanish. command. iway from. from a is to wake to abide. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. Ab-. abaft. the er. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. The word Ban is common orders. Lat. on-lic. to sauff the king or spill. in the same sense. K . —Bruce. as.t G. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. Immediately from Fr. downwards. rule. Thou spelds of mychty iction. erwachen. Thus ip N3S. from. be-ceftan. in a manner other than it should be ablution. Abaft. on-bsec . As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . plesyt him. AS. To abuse is to use iway. a. said. Jvery man shewid baft. but now )bsolete). OHG. baftan. "rom a height. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. Abs-. . a washing off to abstain. o/j of or . A. orders. In Lat. bandon in French. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. Parson's Tale. 244.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. have entire dominion over. Dent posture. into the Romance ftrseg . to subdue. among. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. ab. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. er. literally. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. out of. off. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. in. to hold . Abandon. sion of 'an abandoned character. ur. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. state of sleep . us. power : Than Wallace thing. onis aback. and — Chaucer. ifter. on. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. away. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. on. his. behind. dominion. ar. 843. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. ibandonner. vs. and secondarily in that of command.he Goth.

— — . by Wall. thing abbatere le vela. to make lower. abbatere. may be explained. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. his eyen shene. See . et prirent terre. with or without a final sh. vol. c. I was abawid for merveille. It. his mouth. 1 1 8. to take possession of an estate. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. son bandon. and that from Syrian abba. to light upon. to overthrow. at his own the lips. weaken. or society of abbots or monks. lish to abaisse orabaish. esbahir. or admiration. to abaw or astonish.) . Castrais.Prov. to put to con. abbatis. faire tomber. To Abate. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. astony. impulse. to hit. esba. 1520. Cotgr. abaundunem-ent. — Neccham. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to strike Froiss. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. of fear. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . in the active form. abandonly. effect of shame. R. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. Beat. burny. R. burny was formerly burnish . from ravir. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. to astonish. baba. to beat furnish. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. and the verb was written in Eng. overthrow. to gape. d. Hence the OE. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. down. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. Hart in Jamieson. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. an abbey. as ravish. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. Baba ! Mod. . See Abide. shame. abbatere dal prezzo. abbatia. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. depress. polish. abbas. and it that that it — . esbahissant. A. ant.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. And he thereof was all abashed.polir. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. Abbot. baer. from Lat.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. abate.fournir. to bate something of the price abbatersi. abbattre. to diminish the force of any. to happen. merely the terminations ons. bandon. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. and sets them all agape. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. drink. adverbial expressions at abandon. to excite admiration. and grooms besmeared with gold. In or. More correctly written abbat. so common in the found in the OFr.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. of the Fr. beer. Wall. Milton. ne more vermeille.— R. Hence Lat. astonish. to strike sail . bawi. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. .On princes. law term abatement.esbawi. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. uncontroUedly. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. castle. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. other. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. Abbey. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. impetuously. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape.— — . iv. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. esbahissais. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. Custom. father. confound. ais. person. Fr.down. 364s.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. where custom (Grandg. On the other in use as well as hand. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. terminedly.' the surrender of a ' K. Bate. Originally. Abbess. betrash. R. of wonder. to The . to ruin. de. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat.

expectation. See Abide. baier. tical with It. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. bocca badata. baier. badigliare. abeyance. to tarry. says. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . in Dan. beijen. usbeisnei.— Roquef. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. to In great amaze.— ^richer. to look. to wait. desirer (Roquef. Guernsey beth. beter. endurance. trick abetar. aspirer. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. take care. gola badada. to It. to desire. attendre avec en^pressement. bie compared with Dan. — signifies to suspend action. Gloss. bida. to attend on . pense. abidan. wait. to be intent upon. baer.— Chaucer. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. have seen abide. while the monks under his control ing. to ance. beguile. . in Fr. tempting. de Berri) Prov. Quant voit le serpent. —Raynouard. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. abet. or in Fr. beidan. bidan. house. Prov. bder. regarder. and E. aspire to. In We . . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. to attend to. wait To Abide. listen. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. to wait. baier compared with It. . Corant sens lui. To Abet. signifies the direction of tend. m Abeyance. tenere a bada. Ni engigner ni abiter.Fr.) abayer. were called Brothers. to open the mouth. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. with open mouth . to expect. OFr. abet. abetter. beidan. Thus G. b^er. look for another. to desire earnestly. . is idenwait.was formerly used in the sense of look. forms with the d effaced are OFr. to be intent upon. badare. and Prov. Cat. the verb of abeyance. suspense. also to OFr. to abide . From abahier. gridare. bana. or absorption watching. The verb atwaiting. warten. attendre See Bait. de Champ. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. to yawn. deceiving. with badia. E. bie. to expect gabeidan. waiting. Ducange. to gape . Cat. abbadare. Goth. ne chastised them. delay. and in E. Abele. tarrying . ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. lingering. a right in suspense . to deceive. ne wist what way to chuse.. to wait. white. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. 1 • .to wait. — ABELE Epiphanius. to open bader. . beijden. 366. badare. bida. suffer b. to deanimer. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. endurArt thou he that should come. to stay. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. delay. songer. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. guardare. inciter. which is certainly related to It. expectation. abeter. beijen. Q. F. Norm. bada. to remain or endure. incite . ^couter avec dtonnement. bouche b^ante. abie. abie. a bay or opening in the coast. literally white tree. (Vocab. othres abidan' The effacement expect. badare. listening. badar.' is in AS. desire. — . to mind. Pol. bialodrze-w. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. abaier. abayer. tity of E. — II. ceive. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. bhr. bouche bdante. deceit. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. delay. beguiling on the other. abiiance. forbearance. bide of the d endure. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. watch. syllable ba. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. The white poplar. expectfamily. intent observation. covet. verbeijen Sw. from Halo. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. ' ' . John. Corresponding to keep in suspense. on the one hand. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). take notice. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. us. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. speaking of the Holy places. Norm. K. Boethius. qui iaaille. exciter. inciting. compared with (Bosworth). Gloss. to suffer death in Du. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. or do we AS. we sceolon ON. Thus we have It. abSiance. open the mouth. which the mind to an object. Fabl. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. Abie. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. and alluring to his own destruction. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. Du. to stay. to hook.

Abie. R. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. him with che. consequences of anything . habilis is closely preserved. durance in both applications. being disabled in the highest degree. or bie.ynes. abilej Prov. aboleo. abigg. AS. at hand). power. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. to wear away. bidan. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. It. F. N. purpose. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. abicgan. fault being simply clothing. If it badare. sufficient. must suffer for it. — P. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. adapted . Mids. powerful. Q. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. &c. Wickliff in Richardson. abidge.^and to make his power knowne. while in later examples As I . fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. without special reference to the notion of retribution. O If tion. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. have-like. . to . willing to schewe his wrathe. on board . abie. Fr. though sometimes confounded with it. de la volatile. to perish. is the verb abie. a board. 2. properly abuy. to have . beidan. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. Lat. to draw fowls. In this to erase or annul. from AS. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. to redeem. was often used in the same sense. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. ON. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Dr. the Fr. P. strong. when compared with Aboard. within the ship. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. at kasta fyri bord. suffer the Jul. to pay the penalty. R. convenient. forbid for mother's children should abye. abie to Goth. —Bacon in R. Cassar. Prol. 2nd Tale. as E. abycgan. in for any special purpose. Boucher. to pay the purchasemoney. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. within the walls of a ship. — Able. P. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. from Lat. able. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. and Cr. bide. atling hem to her proper offices. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. The —Boucher. Merch. and the simple buy. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. to dress hemp. habilis (from habeo. For on board. abeye. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Tr. expert. as habiller du chanvre. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. L. ! ! Cotgr. God. Milton. al- be found so some will dear abide it. the Pardoner In the original. abolir. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. She shall abie that trespass dere. Chaucer. Spenser. — e. fit. abide. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. the Sir Tristrem. the side of a ship.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. Innan bords. habile. and death for handsel pay. God — dear. Fr. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. abilh. use. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. bord. i. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war .

to cut short. D.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. explains soboles Lat. to aggravate. to snatch. alUger. OE. and also. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. to bring up. Above. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to.the older form. nourish. as the duty of nourdisposition. to grow together. Goth. To abray or abraid. Virg. ufan. be-utan. pedigree from brevis. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. while the sense of beget. the identity of which with ting. which may God avert. breaking out in language. to break off. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. as withotityn and without. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. d. to start. OE. whence the Fr. Lat. above. See To Bray. Quod abominor. to rear. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. abracan. To Abound. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). The radical idea is to feed the flame. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. In the same brevis . shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. below. awaking. a portent). around on the out.foda signifies to beget. sec seftre — Chaucer. is not from G. ABOMINABLE adolesco. abredan. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen.— Abbreviate. to fatten. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. nurse. life. ala is made to signify to rear. the vital spark. . seems aras. draw out. boven. and in-d-oles. coalesco. progeny. disastrous portent in some passing oc. Severe the threatened evil. literally. alan. — ' — — preceding verb.aboon. that greatly agredge their sin. al is growth. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. For on broach. on high. agredge. to feed. but from Lat. So in Lat. AS. levis to the Romance languages. abominor (from ab and omen.. Du. bufan. is a ively. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. abutan. or young forth. snatch In English we speak of away. gravity. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. about cockcrow. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat.' Parson's rence. for ligeth butan.) . ala.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. the hair grow. brood. the idea of breaking about . Of these synonymous adolescere. natural ed direct from the latter language.. Kiittner. af-oolden. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. and to do something to avert abbreviate. to main. agreujar. the man dwindles away. alan. butan. to light a fire the Abraid. the form a&^^. full ofte his words for to Fr. Gael alaich. hard. Prov. to awake. common in Chaucer and Abominable.ymbutan. to rear. abrcBgdan. OSw. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. nurse Lat. from Fr. The primitive idea seems that of beget. Fr. AS. his contemporaries. abbrechen. currence. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. Melibaeus. abufan. which passed into English under Abominate. to turn. greu. abbrechen. break out. . motion. en. titan. Thence to regard greugetat. alere capillos. Then. leading immediately to Fr. without. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. See -und-. to grow up.' Ymb hancred utan. and also to abridge. — . to nourish. Abrdger itself.ger. and bidden him abregge. to let sleep. oil. by the to bring up. from . ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. Thonne Abroach. and alere flammain. the OSw. becomes leu in Prov. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. giving birth to. gravis. abbreviare. side. to progress. to feed. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. ol. as AS. to AS. s —Casdmon.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. to produce. vital PI. outward. of any kind . kindling. AS. heavy. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. or cut short. Tale. onbutan. Abray. parent.1. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. while the verb alleThe root el. abrdger. Sc. abowen. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. af-oleii. to beget or give birth to children. be-ufan. Abundant. way Sw. Finnish stock. adolere.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


from an and — - . Lat. burnished. apatiar. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. as posticus.made out. aside. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. all of gold. amboltj Du. ReApe. were andouiller the second. from ante. before. a block to hammer on. part. of. ambeld. bread. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. apanage. Gr. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. AS. Apart. Antick. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. To go antiquely. Fr. and ig. G. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. As the browcalled antiques. Prov. something ler in R. . inAgain from the same author cudis. Pezron fiUist. in Shakespear. fauns. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. avri^ava. what Roman civilisation. Ful- Apanage. one having wealth. Gr. Fr. : . as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. and devils. Aperient. villan Gloss. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. to support. or antique single chamber. as we call it. panar. from avTiipoiuia). Hence the applica. eigs. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. to go in strange disguises. and claret wine. separate purpose. panis. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. set aside. verberas. AS. as the Italians. separate. Otfried. d. Percutere. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. a small quantity. d<popi(xnbs. Antler. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. three antike pillers. i. rich. andouillers. Lat.. Jorioc. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned.—Aperture. to display pario. anticus. whence Prov. from in and cudere. to open. So Lat. to strike G. antifena.legacy of given against. left as the . anapoz. Lat. choke. Lat. gabeigs.is to be given. from an. a preventative . a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. To ape. vex. press. from eigan. anfilts Pl. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. on. Thus from gabe. antefn. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. such as savages. Apartment. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. one.— . E. younger child. af. from. Fr. apertum. from ango.th centuries the recognised models of antic. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. incus. the anticks — behind. See Cover. Antique. as from as. — — — . Anvil. whence anthem. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. a puppet or an anti^hona. which by anvild. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Any. Ilvtwotov. trouble. cenig. from the imitative habits of monkeys. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. to strike. a gift. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Hall's Chron. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. anxius. post. AS. swaged. Gr. —Spencer. In like manner. Anxious. plenteously with red. ab. aperio. like a jack-pudding. before. surimitation of the ancient models. Aphorism. wealth.D. to imitate gestures. to bring forth. Apartment. transferred to the grotesque characters. Antidote. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. to sound in answer. a definite . anxi. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. should be received. but the expresent day. from Stephanus. or in a ridiculous dress. strangle. a termination equivalent to Goth. to nourish. to have. one at the least. were chiefly of the former class. Mannequin. stem. a few. some one. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. to strain. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. white. from. work.

one sent out. 'L-zX. Prov. prize. a'^opi'Jw. prope (comp. horror. to commend. — Appurtenance. to rate. off. appareiller. . like. to — — . in commendation. to deaden. apparecchiare. to Lat. Cotgr. 'LaX.parecchio. Cent Nouv. an epistle or letter. opportunity. Palsgr.prix. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. esteem. APRICOT off. OFr. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. word was specially applied to clothing. one for his defence. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. decree. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. From Lat. praise. Apoplexy. pretium. approcher. apprentis. preparation. Apostle. consent unto. find Then like Fr. cepl. to seize. to announce. in Chaucer. 5w. Epistle. habiliments. known. To Appear. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. An old appalled wight. approcdare. purpose. irpaiKOKiaov. rise to \t. Mod. value apprdder. a price. 11. like. appartenir. a crime. dress. proper time came. i. agreeing with "LtA. AS. to set a price on. to accord. obolys. peace. And whanne sum men Lat. from paix.his giving evidence against his principal. mine. S^. Apo- good time. to learn. apar. e. Gr. to learn. a learner. Gr. Appease. Fr. manner. to fit. to catch hold of.—Apprentice. and also as appraise. ar. lAfiaam. poind. and in the sense of condition. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. one is in. — Approve. They were considered To Appoint. : — — speak 'Lz. to make a thing Apparel. — dirondtfiu. . Yr. apal. D. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. plight. in fact. ciously than nede is. par. set a price on. habilUr.t. of. laven is used both as E. It. near. — prehendere. Apprehend.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. ai. the good. aptly. Yr. appareo. properly to join like to like. to come near. case. They werin his approvirs privily. trim. —^Apparent. ^wss. diroTrXriaatii. Lat. apropchar. I prise ware. — Apprise. (cited by Diez from a late author). peler. Fr. were formed appropiare ejar. —Diez. 23 . that it outfit. Walach. A — . En peach.pareil. apprehendere. Approach. Sp. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. pronounce fitting). fit- — ness. order. And among other of his famous deeds. whence the e. to approach. Hence It. to send to. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. to disable oftat. to strike down. iwKjToKri. pertain or belong to. prohts. aparelhar. appellare. diminutive pariculus. Fabian in R. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. to call. APO sentence opoQ. Pliny. to call for judgment. to assign or grant over unto. away. to understand. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. prover. to take away or lose the vital powers. landmark. and appoinder (to find fitting. from aTroorlXXu. Apple. to deem good. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. Fr. pragigua or prixcoda. apin R. apprise. ON. Fr. To cause to pall (see Pall). to store or put Appal. allow. corresp. to deter- to strike. appris. to send off. oVooroXof. Fr. or the like. array. from. Prov. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. For their acquaintance was not come of new . whether through age or sudden teiTor. pronounce good. From Gr. Appareil. Nouv. Fr. H. or E. Friar's Tale. The Fr. jabloko. diroBrjKr}.probare. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. to approve. From Lat. appaiser. after his mind . quoth the frere. Formerly apricock. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. To praise.propius). Fr. Parson's Tale. taking. to suit. apal. to finish a controversy. and metaphorically to take the meaning.parejo. probare. apprendre. N. To Appraise. Fr. become dizzy . in good season prendre son d. when the . Ir. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. ap. avail. make a composition between parties.— . agree. despatch on some service. to which it is often referred. to lose one's senses. Cotgr. poind. apropid. w. approver. to be open to view. good. a thing for one's purpose. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. to dress in this fashion. in data. one the MLat. . piteux poind. Gr. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. Hence appoind. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. The PI. Cotgr. equal. Lith. to mark to define a bound. d-n-o. seiden of the stones. to — . kind of action. Gr. Apotliecary. xv. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled.

and taken away before dessert. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . aro. arwelo. The loss or addition of n very common. nawl and awl. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. It is certain that the apricot oracle. Lat. sestimatio arbitraria.shrubs {arbor). It may be doubted. water Which that benchid was. doubtless is the origin of E. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve.' —About. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. proper. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. derived. ughe. and with turfis new Goth. aha. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. conjectura conjec^ra. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. OE. words derived from arpa. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. From OFr. . suitable. la nappe. Arbour. or eft. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. 31. tion under trial. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. Now we find in Fin. Maan initial . Lat. a soothsayer. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. . properly the arwella. as ihe diminutive. of of divination arpa-mies. and the one who gives oracles. Beryn. aestimo. {mies ^=ia3. arbiter. ahva.meaning at Shrewsbury. to plough. opinio. aqua. divining rod. nected. Aquatic. a river. man. Freshly turnid Arable. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. 331. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. C. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. the spelland umpire. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. A. rofe and all. OHG. P. auguror. She made. most conspicuous situation in the garden . from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. . Flower and Leaf. Now one of the points — — — . arpa. intensitive of nape. a cloth. P. pracoqua was not an adapt. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. Marsh. ap. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. aptus. however. con. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. J. as an eye-witness. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. symbol. aa. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. — . be That it inne groweth. From OE. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. arbiter in re censendS. . Alban. Albanian. Roquefort. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke.sors. and a protection of the clothes.. delon. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. account for either of these significations. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. Thus we have natiger and auger. a lot.] in the N. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. ear. arwaus. Gr. however. wata.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. Prol. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. herbere. is taken in is a soothsayer. Naprun. 2. Pm. a pleasure-ground. arbitrium. sortium ductor. naperon. to decide by lot. This path Aqueous. Arbitrate. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. sorcerer. to preserve it from stains. — napkin is Naperon. grande nappe. found in Fin. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. conjicio. short. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. garden. fastened close. and sortilegus ation. arbitror arwaaja. Hall. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin.o.) E. shortdr. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. a lot. Pr. scr. or barm-cloth. a lot. quod he. As is a pretty parlour. and thence fit. Lat. hariolus arpelen.

branch. stuff. apxh. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. W. whence the body of the nobles collectively. lofty. G. timid. ruling by the nobles. mischievous.In E. wretched OE. fainthearted. Arid. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas.is the natural weapon of offence. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil .' Paul Warnefrid. curved. The . and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. 3340.. From apxeiov was formed Lat. Lat. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. apxtipfve. arm'ee. and our army. ardeo. bravest. apxtlov. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. Fr. Lat.' Lex. Dan. ON. arm. arch-bishop. to be in comp. bad. Lat. rame. ers-betriiger. sly. un malin enfant. a noble. from nixa. the most arrant trash. Gr. it signifies roguish. bad. Arm. a. A construct. ancient. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. Lat. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. ^Argument. Perhaps erz-wticherer. the terminaGael. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. arwe. Arcadia in R. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. G.. Fr. are formed the participial nouns. by Russ. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. arga.4 rir/. worker. Area. Lat. ill-tempered. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. earg. Uo^a^. Gr. a threshing-floor. fabricate). archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). — degree when appHed to a bad quality. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. and must be identified with Dan. D. which is derived from it. Arduous. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. archangel. curved line. erg. earm. adjective. Arcliives. a rule (princiruler. a bare plot of ground. first. an arch boy. een erg kind. Lat. . bad of its kind. Langobard. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. apx^iv. argvitugr. det arrigste snavs. gwyro to bend. a branch. From the verb armare. faint-hearted. earh. i. arrant Arms. a burning or setting on fire. ardor. ardIn G. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. — Architect. Fr. while the Fr. high. ars. Sax. arma. TiKToiv. an arrant rogue. Brem. sluggish.aioj. ' — Argue. armee. arg. especially shoulder-joint. an arch-deceiver . ein arger knabe. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. argr. contemptible. from areo. erz-bischof. gwyrek. taxed with cowardice. to rule. to demonstrate. to Arch. arm. Applied in modern E. area. burning heat. to burn . . Arson. arcA in e. arguo. forearm . mischievous. morally bad.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. Lat. There can be no doubt that E. to dry. Aristocracy. weapon. aridus. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. troublesome. arson. armada. government. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. a bow. * ArchjAiTaxit. in Due. And thou as arwe coward. signifies chief or principal. apxri. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. wanton. sly. ramend). a court yard. make clear or prove. shoulder Boh. shoulder. Cot. . Gr. as the arch of a bridge. arsum. kpxi- beginning. and not with apx. man. malicious. Ardour. Sp. and Kpurka. the a brute. an extent of flat surface. the court of a magistrate. ardre. to be on fire. arcus. patus). Lat. armata. a chief builder. exercise lordship). exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. .— Army. as in E. vescovo. It. receptacle where the public acts were kept. raineno. is essentially the same word. arduus. Gr. et vulgari verbo. ramo (pi. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Alisaunder. . aj-f. which has been referred to W. to arm. erz in G. Du. AS. Arch in composition. the best. Ardent. weapon may be simply an application of annus. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. an arrant usurer.' the Gr. Du. 2. — Wtb. arrig. vocaveris. difficult to reach. un petit rusd.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

to cause another to miss pustule. beaten road. It.Lat. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. a partition. balken. It. to be balker. baler. bdlkr. bolyatchka. a dance.of men . . to wave. on. to dance. Boll. the beam of a ship. ON. taich. bal. The primary sense seems as in G. a pestilence. to bale out. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. trouble. torment. I. a pail. sickness. We have then separate dial. a ball or pack. a ball. N. may exhibit the original development of the signification. hooting. maan pallikka. balle. other while. dial. to partition off . shouting. bol. destruction. Fr. a dance. the breadth from side to side . bal. TtaKKa a pail or tub . says Ray. floor. to move. ache. pallo. palla. vcdra bdlkr. to see-saw. Pol. Q. bjdlki. similar connection is seen in Sp. dial. It. dial. bielke. balle. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. pila. balka hopar. ballare. balken. probably Lat. a ball balla. from bacquet. pain. Sp. separaison. Russ. dial. blister. sorrow. . sick. Bale. boleii. lealo. to dance. heap up. a ball. Bret. misery Du. Hence Dan. Da. bealwes. a pill. balloon. To baulke the Sir H. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . wickedtorment ON. to ail. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. bola.— Ballet. to Not sparing wight. bolyaf. bol. bbllr bulla J. Gr. as we say. a ball. Da. OFr. mass.). ball. stage or scaffold. boll. Ballot. package of goods. balle. bala. Sw. balva-vesei. In like manner Fr. Sw. ' is a piece or confused talking. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. Fin. Bohem. pilula. 3. pallo. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. Fr. Sw. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. to shake or jog. ill.ing. gen. ballone. a boil. to roll. plague. Du. Ugutio in Due. the ballet of the theatres. palcare. uveirs bolk. Bowl. a washing-tub. bacgtteter. OSw. ball. a skin. to avoid it. balk. to signify washy drink. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Sw. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. a wooden partition . In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. bollr. afbalka. It. a scene acted in dancmg. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. balka bunge. Grief. a clod of earth water. balla (with the augm. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. * Balk.Fr. It. hue et illuc inclinare. Hence. a great ball. balare. bal-daed. (Hesych. grieve . the object of his expectation. bal. e. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. A balk. a beam.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . balka. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. malefacGower in R. a balk of foul weather. G. Sw. AS. a globe. balja. a ballad. See Gall. ne leaving any balke. i. ballotta. ban. Wotton. bolawy. . baalie. balk. Ball. G. to be ill. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. ball. Mid. . to paddle in water . also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). balk. calamity. Ballata. as in a barn or cow-house. to on Holmedon's plain. balveins. a continued noise of waves gently beating . . balkr. to speak an un. palloilla. maleficium.—Ballad. on. Goth. ing. wickedness ness . pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. E. and evil in general. pallikka. Ball. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G.' speak gibberish champurrar. ballare. ballan. ballare. F. a. baalien. balk. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. OHG. to stir. a ballot). with the perhaps from balg. ballet. at giore en balk. ballo. Sw. vacillare. Gael. Perhaps on. — A — — . Baulke of land. bolker. bold. a water-skin dim.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. on the shore. to ache. to pack Da. . Fr. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. on. a beam. are applied to a From the same analogy. cka. Venet. ball. a bubble. chapurrar. a separate portion. Rouchi ban. Sw. to plank. a ball. baloier. w. balge. . ballar). to rock. to plough for a boundary between lands. roof. a clump . a clapping or flapping of wings. globule. To Bale out water. weak liquor. 2. to by beams. balle. whether of wood or stone. a But making way for death at large to walke. to grieve . tum. a together in the form of a ball. Du. Dan. a division of the old laws. Sw. and the dim. Balloon. pallukka.

lest. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. Sc. Bamour. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. to preserve equilibrium. like Fr. Sept. for a load or goods (Roquef. is in Sweden and Norway. because. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. baume. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. ^a\Ba\iov. This is the backload.Lat. lastagium signified not only ballast. a small balustrade. a fragrant gum. terraces. To make fun of a person. baranda. back of the ship. Said to be from balaustia. barandado. — — oltriga. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. bam. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. make fun of a person. &c. To Ban. or ballast of a ship. . forbid. bumbazed. urtica. sorcerer. for want of other freight. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. the flower of the pomegranate. Baltic. bag-las. To Bamboozle. a battlement . a duty on goods last. Mr Marsh whether the a load. explains ballast. i860. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. Gr. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. from Lat. little round and short pillars. objects to the foregoing derivation. bamein. railing around altars. Sp. If bambocciolare were child of one. Balluster. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. dial.). Fr. analogous to what is seen in It. barauste. Lest. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. ^Arbuthnot in R. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. a rod. to walk. R. Dan. In OSw. galleries. &c. 43 — Cot. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. also with flatteries and . ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. balconies. bambocciolo.. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. The Sp. or movement of one who walks. bag-lest. in the first place. Bret. . Balsam. Fr. To Bam. ballast. but loadage. a useless load. an Old dotard or imbambolare. small railing. command. the act of walking. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. by met. It. curse. 1. bertesca. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. a false tale or jeer. To proclaim. ranked on the outside of cloisters. lastre. balsamum. Lat. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. Balm. When a ship discharges. ballustre) is a corruption. seems the original form of the word. balustrade barandilla. Du. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. bamboccio. lestage. a nettle. Venet. and Mid. But Fr. deceiver. of balusters. as he says. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. bambolo. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. the backload. paid for the right of carriage. A — — . ballustres. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. inutile onus. age. it is forced to take in stones or sand. denounce. enchanter. Bret. It is explained back by Adelung. a young babe. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. To deceive. The Baltic sea. endormir par des contes. It. 1854. to enchant. fonts. inutilis sarcina. lastra. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. deceive. mare Balticun. astonished. puzzled. Ballast.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. baUa. baltresac. from bara or vara. called Bait. Report Pennsylv. last.000 tons. more frequently than outward-bound. more serious objection is .that the going vessels.' And Kil. Cotgr. baU.

To Bandy. 1. — To partito d'alcuno. bandon somewhat party. side. tener da alcuno. Cot. Thus the word is also used in both senses. in Fr. bann. sostener Torriano. biddal. also the band or of marriage. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. passing on from proclamation to command. 2. bound. to take one to task. In a special sense the term company itself. D. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. It. etc. a coast. bannire in exercitum. to publish) banna. Sp. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). change to the feminine gender in banda. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard.^ bandy. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. Assises de Jerusalem. at his own discretion.is further developed. Mag. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. From the verb to banda. banner marked the place of assembly. permission. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. summoning to serve So in Swiss. It. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers.. Bandus. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore.Lat. Fr. and in E. Baud. whether by way of injunction or for- command. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. bandi. fahne. to ctide. to unite with a band. The to . banns pany of footmen serve. banda. curse. parti. Ripuar. to side or to bandy (Florio). bundun. There is some doubt how Fr. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. 19. side. bando. those who side together (bande. says Muratori. &c.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. bannum or bandum. Goth. ex. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Diss. band. banda the colour or material. . populum. and thence to any proclamation. — R. authority. — excommunication bann-lysa. faction. See Abandon. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. to . he assembled his host. It. Fr. OE. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. flag. 15. to reprove. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. acquired the sense of proclamation. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. in hostem convocare. bandera ground at his mill.e. power. ligue Taboada). banda. Bandear. Commun^ment son bandon. Les saiges avait et les fols d. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. In Fr. he bannede his ferde. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Goth. bande. a company.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Spebifid. eiiseigne. is That with which anything AS. bindan. and It. margin. to ban. &c.—John Villani in Due. A. v. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. Se il — Romance languages. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. G. bande. i. theodscipe ut abannan. bannire exercitum. to bring corn to be fahne. Wyntoun. the ensign or banner. region. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. to excommunicate {lysa. admolendinum. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. It seems this signification has arisen. Sw. bandon was used in the same sense. Band. ba?idare. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. border. Leg. band. 'A son bandon. Car. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. then the signification w. R. —R. to follow a faction. R- He Translated by Chaucer. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. Capitul. Sp. bande. E. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. we constantly find the expression. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. to form parties. hoc est vexillo. 813. 26. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. from at the Lord's courts. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. . The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion.

canis vinculis assuetus. Fl. hricg. clouds. seat . It. a sand-bank. and OFr. tumult bangas. bakke. See Band. bandi. the same verb the It. bank. in R. stir. It. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. the slope of a hill. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. a bench. to work in wood. E. a long raised seat. forbear this outrage. in the sense of a pirate. Benvoglio. was formed the OFr. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. ruptus. standard. Benchi. — Fr. a de Vaud. benk. 45 — — Bandit. Your stool. Bang. When a man fails Lat. eminence. The child cries bang! fire. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. bana. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. See Banish. at canis peciiarius. de sable. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. ON. bane. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. destruction . — . to cabal. to beat. a counter. broken. panca. Mercutio. counter. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. dorsum was applied to ject. Bacon in R. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. A Shipman's Tale.^ knock. to hammer in a nail. distinguishes bekkr. . Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. bow. The ing. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. bench. &c. disturbance banga. death-wound. banc. b'ang. a i. to bend a. bang. Fr. to make a stir banke. AS. bank. Draw. to foment factions. banditti acquired the like signification. s'associer. — Kil. Ripuar. Fr. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. eminence. banish. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. de- party. band-dog. From Mid. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. 2. bench. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. banca fallita. language of W. of bandying words. bannire. Bane. bander. Roquefort. bance. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. It. that the word is used by Romeo. to knock. Brewer. and bakki. From a desk .z. in the sense of place of business. as of an explosion or a blow. murderer. . banca his creditors. band-hond. death-sickness. bandire. se reunir. desk. Bandy legs are crooked legs. With many a stiff thwack. Hudibras. death-blow . to proclaim. the former Fr. — Paulus drive in a nail. shoal. large dog kept for a guatd. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. bana-sott. a rising bank. Goth. Sw. Diaconus in Due. Banditti. AS. beat. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Banner. bank of a river. bana.HG. Bank. to publicly order one out of the realm. Mid. The ridge of a hill is AS. Bankrupt. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. beating. But natheless wife at I bank. and hence. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Tibalt. many a bang. bana-sdr. a bench. bent as a bow. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. se joindre. It is in this sense nounce. bander tin arc. banka. a bank. bander. a wound OHG. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. N. — — whence E. . and therefore tied up. a bankrupt merchant. bankruptcy. has bang-bang. bandear. and poise Their lighter wings. —^Vocab. Banister. a blow. among rotta. Africa. Fr. The word is in E. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. Bandy. Lat. ON. Lingua. a table. . Milton in R.: . The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. put under the ban of the law. ON. Bantze. a bench. banqueroute. . Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. back of a knife. &c. Dan. outlam came to signify a robber. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. banja. rap hatike et som The Susu. banco. To Bandy. bank of river. for shame. roupt. the back. Diez. in the same way that E. from banc. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. to knock. See Balluster. to slay. follow a party. home — Bandog. whence the mod. bank of Dan. Du. bana. banc G. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). g. banke. hammering. pastoralis. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business.

barreau. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Hence Fr. senhal. a bearded or Cot. Lat. knight Bardd. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. from the same source. remarked. of banco. uncivilised. &c. a barrier or stoppage. banneret was a higher class of knights. barbarus. branch. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. would rupted from Fr.. Lat. jSa'pjSapoc. the word came to signify rude. and it was accord. Fr. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. such as the Roman Eagle. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. chan. wrapped. signuin. Bap. summit. barrack. rarii. banneret. a. milites bannarii. Gael. BARBAROUS reiflingr. banda hendi. to wash. It. branches of a tree {gwezen. Fr. Barb. Fr. Gr. The original import of their own banner in the field. and from ensign or banner Prov. barbe. 2. sbarra. Fr.hinder. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. sign. then branches. Duo. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. The origin is in all probability Goth. Banquet. and even of calling it banter. top. jSdirTO).. —Cot. from reifa. senh. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. senhal. In a similar manner are formed yearling. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. banner. a tree). Besides it must be by Barbary horse. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. banchetto. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Bret. To Banter. indeed. ban- Baptise. then fell among the foot. The spar. token. barba. heri-pau. a war-beacon or war-signal. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. manu anto make signs nuere. out of a wound. brushwood. banne. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. A It.46 BANNERET . privileged to raise Barbarous. to having that signification. to dip. It. ing term appears in other languages. sparro. says. barra. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. To mock or jeer one. The barb of an arrow is the sign . Flesche barbeUe. ^oTrriKio. nestling. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. probably corSymbol. either in the Gr. barrer. a ban.aTa Kul nest. benda. or of this bantering. iandvo. ingly very generally known by a name branches. period vexillarii. Celtic bar. inferior to a baron. 3. ON. and with an initial s. barde. a bench or table . a sign. an animal a year old. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. It may be thing. Fr. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. that the noise of voices Bantling. bandiera. inur. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. to beckon .the analogous syllable viur. to bend. bar. a bantling. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. arineXov. barriire. banniire. Banneret. a which the barrister addresses the court. of a sign in general.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Lat. men. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. . barre. a beam or long pole of wood. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. Sw. and he would seem to derive Goth. as they call it. E. OHG. G. Fr.8ap6^o)voe. ON. hence a repast. Hence ner. Gr. OFr. E. in Gr. &c. speaking of battle. i. of wind. barbed or trapped as a great horse. It.cruel. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. barrou-gwez. Barbe. — We A . himself in Pontus. Thus Ovid. bannereti. and the work is done. senheira. E. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. Barbar. banda. sparre. bandva. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. merki. to wrap. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. Barb. rod of any rigid substance. dim. which is surely in barbed arrow. According to Diez the It. OHG. Leduchat.— Swift in R.

borbollar. and foolishly. barS. Port.) . barbier. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. ready money. Sp. barda. — Cot.) to wrangle. also to bind or tie across. Etym. g. bds. waschen. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Lucan. axilla. Barberry. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. barefooted Sanscr. twcEtta. Cotgr. gibberish. Bard. unqualified. a bardelle. Exposed to view. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. But Sp. to chafbargain. back. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. barbugliare. border of a garden bed. a shingle or small board. barbel. It. albardilla. barda. barbeter. The Pers. Arab. Fr. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. as well as thwcEtta. scouthouse. borboglio. Hindost. Fr. guaszare. a rumbling. open. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. name Fr. muttering. — . and the word was used in OE. used 2. Cot. Barber. to grunt. baar. barbelin. barboter. tattle. to prattle. Port. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. to mumble or mutter words. barbaris. i. Bardeau. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. Diez. horse armour covering the front. albarda'ah. guazzolare. barbeum. /3opj3opwJu. fortia —Strabo. and Sc. speak confusedly. to make an outcry . Bare. which was of talking. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. powdered all over. borbotar. Festus in Diet. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. berj G. Mod. barbulla. to barbe or trap horses. to wash. quarrel . Pr. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. uncovered. in poetic language Bard for poet. G. bdsas. baragouin. Fl. skola. jargon. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. the nakedness of a woman. mutter. barz. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. border. to bubble or spring up. a long saddle for an ass or mule. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. to bubble or boil. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Fr. to gurgle. Russ. Thus the on. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Mod.— — Pm. to rumble. saddle-cloth. bardd. boil. the edge of a shield hval-barct. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. a jetty or outnook in a building. or more properly (says fer. Gr. Applied in E. Sp. An outwork for the defence of a gate. — . stutter. to plash or dabble. to boil or bubble up . Barder. dial. grumble (Lowndes. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. bdla-khaneh. Lex. formerly used in the sense of tattle. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. murmur . bhasad. bdsiis. in Fr. Etym. Fr. barguigner. on. /3£pjSepi^w. as well as the modern twaddle. to stammer. Lith. the beard. brabble in the making of a bargain. Hall in R.' Cot. ala. and flanks. A7 to the and warlike. small pack-saddle. upper chamber. tree. skirmish.— BARBEL merit of water. Bret. It. borbulhar. also to wallow like a seething pot. the quilted with. lb. a tumultuous assembly. bar. skialldar-bard. . And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. bare baskojis. . Sp. twattle. Bargain. and in Flanders to vociferate. Gr. borborinha. — — — men. to It. barbacane. albarda. Barde. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. in the sense of fight. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute.— Fl. brim. to stammer. Hatt-bard. uproar. such as houses are covered Bardelle. is lb. haggle. Barbel. skirt. a pack-saddle. barbeau. w. baares geld. Cotgr. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. Barbican. the flap of a hat. OFr. bardes. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. barbarkama. A shrub bearing acid Diet. barbar. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. coping. berries. — — Hence.

It. From Fr. Bailey. quarrel Port. Cornub. baimeach. ON. berem.. baarn. Tarn baronem quam feminam. v. quant a perdu sa barja. Leg. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. contest. tion of the sound. wine.. . barafustar. as. and may therefore be an Eastern word. as well as Scandinavian tongues. barizeins indicates a noun baris. prasepe . The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. dispute . w. a boat. Gl. berm. dispute . strife. bread-corn. at barka. baratta. — Barnacle. Barn. Bret. a lantern. barn. Sp. Port. barley. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. bard). berm hoys. Dan. Ripuar. Uzen. am. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. brenig. Leg. aheap. barlys. Acervus. Sp. So also ON. Vocab. lap. the slimy substance brewing of beer. It. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. the or prow of a ship. Port. barafunda. Sw. and llysiaw. — de Berri. barn. squabble. (Ihre. as in the case of Lat. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. also a boat . Prov. berm. and ern. put to confusion. W. bosom. Garlick. the G. Bark. a lap. baralhar. then the bows pectus navis. to rout. Bemiques. See Barm. The Goth. Du. . from an imita- Barley. a stack. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. beer. charlock. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. ThS man was not created for the woman. dial. barlich. baralha. hay-loft. limpet. * Barnacles. as. Provj bar (ace.' bardagi. the fore or after end of a boat . Rayn. to skin over barkandi. also to exchange. OFr. Alam. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. barii. Sp. baarm. in Nat. The origin may be throat. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. kani. barms. Du. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. adj. a place. ON. barlys {bara. prominent part of a thing. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. Dan. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. the rack or manger. 2. Kil. to chop. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. bargain. As Goth. to wrangle. a receptacle for barley or corn. fray. in the Brim. disorder. baratta. ON. then honoured man. bark . trouble. bern. baaring. husband. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship.Barum vel feminam. To Bark. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. astringent. Ibid. borkr. giving rise to It. and the word. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. name being given to spectacles. plants). These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. barone. bosom . to strive. is simply the Bret. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . baron. hlaSa. Baron. a cap . limpets . and is probably a true bartig. strife. bernac. —Bark. and hence probably (by a metaphor. barja. bcern. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. barretor. dispute. mhg. a beak. baaren. dregs of oil. hemlock.) lihtes-ern. barnis. OSw. and 1. edge. tumult. Barge. to all the barca. Camus. E. corn-shed. to scold. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. Isidore in Rayn. struggle. Romance barsie. commonly explained from bere. varen. quarrel. . we pass to the vert) barguigner. to shufSe. The older form in e. barnacles. ON. herbs. bere. OFr. Gael. bcerme. dispute barattare. Manx bayrn. a heap. barn. ber (ace. barley. bamagh. See formed Yeast. AS. spectacles. barki. baerm. chaffer. to cheat. Spectacles. skutr. bread. strife. was barlic. entangle. beorcan. limpets. confusion. bern. a baking place or oven. meta foeni. contest. Barbour in Jam. a heap . . Lith. On the other hand. as baces-ern. barahunda. barge. Originally man. dispute. border. barajar. So ON. — Zeuss. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. louzou. i. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. AS. Antiq. barley.^Voc^. berma. a barn. baron)^ Fr. barmr. houbartij fsnile. a load. Swab. hladi. altercation. beornt. baragouin. but the woman for the man. the A — Ihre. one who stirs up strife. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. skuta. a. — battle. baniffa. 2.

or simply bahre. became bidre. w. to * Barragan. heap. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart.root signifying confused noise. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. composed of dry branches ofer. a barrel. were sometimes confounded. Joshua vii. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. booth. G. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. ibid. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. Goth. alongside of barrow. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. man. Barrel. signifying. from cavallo. A. barBombicinus. a barrow. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. a horse. D. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. a hiU. especially those killed in battle.. hut. a word is always used in the plural number. iver. change of goods seems. semen non accipiens landiEL. Bamnculus a baronet. bark&n. Sp. whenever Barrow-hog. a bier. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. a. OFr. bara. cover. an obstruction. bier. the two names. fallow.' Op. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Antiq. 2. man and wife. barrique. and in several instances. barrier. todtenbahre. AS. baronetti. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. whence Barrow. It. habeant.have been named from the haggling and gant. Bargus or moreland.' that Barrier. brushwood. a hut or booth. berwen. barague. ^Vocab. in the first instance. It. Barrack. as cavalcade. by early examples. G. seem to be radically the same with Lat. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. Gael. baronuU. soldiers' barracks are mentioned.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. braeck. shed. bredhan. nobles. the braw. fear. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. dispute. berewe. baroncelli. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. a castrated hog . Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. 1. barchent. Baron andfemme. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. sepulchre.. Formed from Fr. It. strife. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. fortification. Fr. breinej Du. squabble. branches. Russ. beorh.— Gibbon. garment still used in Morocco. It should be observed that. also termed bannerets. It was not until the time of James I. barrack. Fr. Barricade. cise formation of the word. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. — Kil. E. beorgan. mound. beorg. AS. vair. barile. vel pretiosos burellos. bahre. as. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. See Barter. like bargain. See Bar. which would barragdn.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. Barrister. from beran. StiU he shows conclusively. vir. implement for carryAS. Barratry. a. Sp. gwr. (Schmeller). boar. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. S. The feudal tenants next Fr. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. barrique. rolls of Parliament. barri. The Sp. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Bern. An ing. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. baronculi.parchanttuech. baraignej Picard. litter. OE. Nominale of the from braeckland. gravis et authenticus vir. barril. over him. bearg . bouracan. baracca. a man. — — 15th Cent. barre. bara. staves. sterilis. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. tomb. to carry. facture. calico. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. from a tree to which a man is hanged. in Nat. qui have not much light on the pre. then traffick4 Barrow. This word introduced into Fr. Sp. perhaps through Prov. Bret. Bohem. borov'. and not from Fr. barraca. ^Barrator. barrila. 26. Gael. MHG. baragan. — A . to shelter. Barren. uncultivated. a bar. bera. a kind of coarse camlet.

Icegge eeii i baand og bast. at basta og binda. a ftiesh. besst-u-b£nd&t. stitch. MS. Kil. low part of the Hickes in Rich. a ipgli So Turk.). Dan. Swed. to truck. Sp. bdtir. found in Turkish . Sw. Sicamb. Bast. — Bassoon. basta. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. Pl. preparatory stitching. would be. ' He was begetin o bast. Apparently of Celtic origin. Sw. bassin. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. w. hoops of a cask. as the diadem of the basilisk. a king. a bastard. which sets up its hood when angry. bass-matting. a bass rope. Basilisk. Bartizan. berewic. baratar. bas. . a court-yard. lattice-work. Sylvester's Dubartas. But according And Dan. baxoj w. on a. from /3aR. ^Is de bast. OFr. truck. To Bask. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus.D. Isidore. fornication. also to Cotgr. Fris. which covers the grain Ger. bestan. A fabulous serpent. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). — hanging. to baste piece of cloth. It. cog. and tun. court-yard. to stitch . Dan. barter. barter. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. It. corn-farm. MHG. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. Gr. basgod. but born in baste. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). to cheat. Arthur and Merlini. It. BassuS. AS. to bind hand and foot. the manorhousfe itself. Lend me your hands. leviter consuere. more noble in blood than notable in learning. come near. scale in music. a halter. to bind. basso. F. Sp. Bass. bast. bareter. ing for profit. lust. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. as It. baraand especially teria. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. according from Gael. Barton. and Bret. fraud. curtus. to bind. PaaiKhms. a basket masg. It is mentioned as . aiKcig. chasa ogli a bastard. bast-reb. to baste. to Diez. bestcn. over-reaching. or wic. to long — a British word by Martial. Fr. The like property hath the iasilisk. low note. Fr. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. HoUinshed. from bere. netting. beguile. baratear. descended of an honorable lineage. shallow. dwelling. him. HaU in HaUiwell. Al is dai. the thin skin Dan. also the demesne lands of a manor. inclosure. besst. thick. Lap. . pdrdt. low. said Base. The original meaning. mock not. to cheat. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. ' Bosworth. G. ohg. It. Bastard. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. oe. fits de bas. bds. mean . God it wot. exchange. commonly A joined with the word binda. Barbara de pictis veni patch. To stitch. low. to bargain. cheating. Newman. Du.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. It. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. i. a tying. Fr. bastear. embastir. Basket. peel.looketh upon his eyes. chasa. foist in bargaining. barley. basg. bark. tierer. fhe outhouses and yards. baraet (from Fr. imbastire. piiiguis. he. baste. submovet omne Lucan.' Gl. flat. then cheating. rope for — . HaUiweU. or running away with the ship. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . bran. fornication. exchange. back.' Papias. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. but he dreth presently. Du. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. husk bast van koren. crassus. beortun. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. to deceive. lift me above Parnassus. n' is n' is bacino. the a wide open vessel. It. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . See Brattice. baste.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. a deceiver. mavult dicere Roma suam. baos. Sp. basta. discourse Nay. bast. — in Rich. There is not one that. Bass. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. plaiting of splinters basged. pressed down. binding. . OFr. See Bath. unrighteous gain. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. ibid. partieren. beretun. Bassus. /«r<fSp. basso. bast-maatte. imbastire. bast. MHG. 516. To Baste. Halliwell. baste. of the same sense. humilis. the — — to kill those that look upon it.

Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . To beat or bang soundly.baste or knock soundly. blakta. put it together.'CaB. boste. bastimento. nade. to rub gently. settiilg up. has bastine. Derived by Diez from iasi. Florio. a stick. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. Pm. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. bast. blakra. set up.-^ Chaucer. Sc. set up. business (Altieri). batta lucifuga. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. to pack a saddle i. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. to give him a sound bastingi 3. compared with blakka. vespertilio. Dieiif.fortress or castle furnished with towers. For the loss of the / in back. to build. to thrash . e. bak. — Bakke. bastir. in the Romance languages. ari instruineht for beating. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. It. or implement for 4 * A . natt-blakka. p. It. basa. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Sw. bastine. cudgelling. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. dial. packsaddle. military term of a bat-horse). That yche blak y dar wel telle. Sw. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. a things prepared for future use. . a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. bastida. which in the E. the original has corneille. Cot. Fr. and Cot. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde.stick. to Due. the winged . contriving. Sp. blaka. 11864. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. E. bastonFr. blows. bastia. and ditches bastion. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. bat. guerra bastir. a barSp. ment. iastir. Dan. To baste one's hide . BAT neither.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. like the owl and the bat. Bastinado. * Bat. stryk. Mid. Rayn. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. but this is hardly satisfactory. blakka. also to cudgel. — — — . the night-jar or goat-sticker.— . back. . to quilt or stitch wool into it. which to rest the load. as weU as besteau. R. ON. worth (Nat. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. a pad or packsaddle. explains Sp. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. staff.. 2. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . 'iJipistreUo. bdion. bladier. to spread bread and butter. 2. bastonada. disposer. to beat. to set on foot a war Bastion. club. comp. bastione. All from bastir. bakie-bird . flyinge best. baston. Dan. the E. dial. a bird which. niammal. provisions.stitching in general. devise. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. quelqu'un son roulet. Fr. Pr. vledermus. also the ricado. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. Perhaps baska. is explained by Cot. a pad. to lay the Sp. Antiq. whence ledrblaka. Cot. Fr. badger. iinbastire. the clapper of a bell. a bastion. — — Fl. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. 164). from Fr. beysta. Sp. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. Sw. baston. 2. frotter. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. to belabour. translation to a bat. a blockhouse. the bat . to rub. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. bastonnir. bastir.— Bailey. blacta. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. vespertilio. Fr. a sconce. bastear. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. pre. erect. bastilde. to whip. victuals. blatta. basto. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. to flap. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. raise. I. contrive. passage Imbasto. Prov. to devise or begin.Lat. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. a. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . bastille. basta. to drub. to build. beating. and Arabs. liiake. to beat. a packsaddle. It. blatta. R. frame. to stroke. Supp. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. For the origin of baston see Baste. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. stryka. in the use of the E. aftonbakke. Sw. night-bat. to teach one before. a with a stick. a blow cloth for dinner. To donjon. to cudgel.

to become convalescent. badask. cudgel. a from ON. dial. debat. to thrive. Bat. abattre. or break down. solbase. To Bate. to beak. to bathe oneself. strife. of bread is so much baked zX one time.' Palsgr. Sw. dispute. to become fat. battions. to flutter with the wings. Slav. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. to get better. Bate. Pm. badda. bdda. by projections or in any licoure. dial. made of — A made by one Batcii. Fr. hot. a staff. is a simple adoption of Fr. Du. G. Barbour in Jam. Mgy. I. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da.— . tradire. to warm oneself. the root of e. battaglia.Bathe. Bret. From OFr. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. Sp. adapted for defence. . Fr. abate. bada. It. to heat . signifying to give repeated blows. battere. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Bailey. to fight. to warm oneself at the fire. Pr. a band of armed men arranged basa. as E. baden. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. badda. tagUone. and milk beaten up together. was formed bastilU. as E. the heat of the It. battere. to for fighting. wet linen in washing. Fr. to refresh oneself in language. quell. bake. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Jeddris and covering. on the fire. for biia sik. Battle. Baka sik vid elld. fashes basking in the sun squadron. gebdck. Fr. pak. Jurgor. bludgeon.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. Fr. bataille. or make debate. in the sun. a Baiffi. baquetazo. and about an inch thick. from battre. allay . and with staffslyng. to foment. perhaps first used adjectivally. batterie. To thrive. to beat se battre. A batch as wood. a washing beetle. whence the sun burns . better. battre. Holz bdhen. bat. buask made like a fortress. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. bat-en. It. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. as wood-en. batte sig. Sw. to be profited. dial. — Cot. Battery. a beating. as signifying warm baths. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. Batter. to cudgel. Hence pro. I baske. Florio. bdt. heat. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. baka. From bat in the sense of rod . The bat with which a brot bdhen. flour. oneself at the A into faggots. lessen. To Batten. or a dry stick. Gael. dial. baz. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. bet. G. In some parts of England it is striking. baeddu. fortress or castle. to toast bread. betten. to warm. Plkkis. a main battle. Chaucer. Battery. to beath wood Battledoor.Hence in the augmentative form It. squadron. a battalion. sich bakern. E. to dial. to beat. busk. Battlement.— To Bask. bastille. a blow. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. is in falling. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Battalion. to heat. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. beat. also a sun badfish. remit. ON. basa. batir. bdhen. gabatnan. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. water whether warm or cold. G. in the case of a wall. battre. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . . In OE. e. bdda vidjor. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. beat down. to foment with hot applica. solen baddar. certain bend. Eggs. Fr. made of bats. to bathe. Strife. batador. beat. Sp. Ayenst the sunne. to fell. batna. See Better. and as a verb. Pm. Batyn. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Flem. — To . to beat. to foment. on. Goth. to feed. A Bath. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. . w. PLD. Batten. — — — ' — . a battle. a stirrer-up of strife. Hal. quhar he suld assaill. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . a great seems related to baden as Fr. makebate. an arrangement for giving blows. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. howis. I bathe in water viz. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. battre las ailes. altercation. a stick. gebdcke. term in falconry . also. trahtr to It. to beat. Pr. then to warm by the application of hot water. to fire or in the sun. batacazo. more. a blow with a light instrument. to betake oneself. from on. 2. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. battle was used beath wood.

The It. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces.' ' Pegma. Batylment of a wall. horse. lewd . s. It. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. tille. Zalli. P. a tassel. nastiness. the Swiss baben. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. guigaw. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. baffe. babiole. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. Baw — . instead oi s. filth. Pm. Prov. to cry. javelle.— P. speckled. fagot. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. to trifle away ment. filth. From ! an interjection of disgust. baula. an — — — A — g — — — .generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. ball. E. or the animal so marked. a tassel or hanging bunch . whence the E. The word may perhaps be sticks. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. Cot. form with an initial seen in Fr. balbob. zano. bal. ON.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. or Cot. or sheaf of Bridel. OFr. bad. Ball-seirc. It. a spot. cluster. dirty. E. vacillo. bausan. a zan. baw. bau. An analogous noisily. A name of the badger. expressive of disgust. sword-belt. whence pouacre. Irel. W. a belt. also the canopy carried part of his body. dirt. and to-tore also. child.guage). also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. bauch. bablyn or waveryn. baubare. Filthy. 8. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. was simply a field gold. baue. to void the bowels. BAWSON Swiss. to play the babby. a dog). icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. is used for a sented by bau. to talk Lacombe. Jam. — Pm. R. Descript. E. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. trifle. a white mark Bawdy. brush faggot. in OE. a lump. spot. Bagdad. an embattled wall. an object. bauU. Lat. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. from Fr.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. to the same origin. bobine.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. to me-wl. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. Cloth of gold. having a white streak down Bagdad. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. disgusting. P. — — ' Lydgate. baudrat. balderich. to vociferate. a horse marked with a procession. bow (as in our nursery Diez. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. Sc. ish baubles. dacchino. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. fe bau. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Baldrick. baban. Fr. Formed from baw. Pr. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. dente. Cotgr.. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. a gavel. and authorities in note. From Bret. —R. a plot of Chaucer. bouaila. whimwham. Bavin. the face. Beaus^ent. a horse with white legs.. is Bagdad stuff. balGael. OFr. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. to make the noise Baudrick. because made of cloth of white. dial. Gael. Fl. P. dung. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. Hal. pegma. bow-wow. the white of his leg or foot. excrement. 2. Fr. pie- . E. s. a lump or cluster babhaid. b \% bouala. baudrdj OHG. Pr. ! Bauble. bobbin or cluster of thread. to bark. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . toys. ground. bal. Bawson. librillo. tab. miauler. obstrepere. baugant. propugnaculum. It. also more Bawdekin. to low or bellow as corn. faisceau. mew. or toys. on the face of animals. i. Ball. to bark . Piedm. sorry.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. and Sp. In like manner Grisons filthy. fooleries or fond To Bawl. as Fr. fields. Swiss Rom. Cot. to 53 manure the To baw. scarf. rotten. divided between black and white. exactly corresponds Fr. babbole. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. represented by the syllable miau. babsmall toy to play withal. collar. c. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). spotted. trifles. ballach. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. It is all bawdy. Fr. from Baldacca.

beothach. to gape. and keeps them in check for a while. Lat. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. stood watching him stoop. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. Such Antaeus seemed to me. OSp. S. buidhe- The ruadh. grapes or nuts. dehiscere . the world Gr. a dagger. Fr. — Schmid. a hole. window-sill. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. |8i'os. badius. Fr. &c. bay. or at bay. a cluster of bacon. It. barn of two bays. to keep at a bay. to iiitent nected PoL white. Drayton in R. BE Probably conRuss. overture. Q. which however. baya. gate. Gr. desiring. or recess in an apartment in modern times. is perhaps not directly from Lat. the cod of peas. alive. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. Fr. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. like a pie. bde. It has been shown under Abie. living Ir. Cot. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. husk. badarse. See Bawl. To Bay. Earth — By Nature made to till. baie. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. w. to betray. the step is the same as from It. . hddhe-dhonn. bahia. Sp. 1859. arose two forms of the verb. baga. . a beast. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. from badar. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. expresr sion tenere a bada. Gael. berry. living thing . Feb. . in order to keep the enemy in check. tradire to Fr. to on anything. Sp. Mod. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. From Cat. —Diez. bacca. . watching intently. &. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. From the former verb is the It. buidhe. A stag is said to stand at bay. BauSfi)/. baca. stare. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. to open. AS. BAY marked with bjly. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. or to have been first used at the Cot. batibari. large window in a handsome . The word bay. life. Fr. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. baher. and the To bark as a dog. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. to open as a blossom. would give but a partial explanation of the expression.—Journal Soc. badarc. Swab. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. Bay. It. by the term rendre les abpis./^ bau. Bayonet. house . life. a'uno. See At Bay. bate. bdcr. bayen-stein.' Bailey. 1. to keep one waiting. bajo. Holland's Pliny in R. or berries. * To Be. and zndly. when.— Stalder. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. siege of Bayonne in 1665. &c. to amuse stare a bada. from an imitation of the sound.. 25. — A At Bay. a mark. Gael. bilyejiti. window . bagaid.' — — 54 bald. Catalan hadia. so called from its bearing bays. especially beans. baiare.c. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. Lat. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. the cod or husk of beans or the like. F. yellow . In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. berries. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. Serv. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. bialo. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. ist. as if to signify a window of curved outline. or window ' (in Fortification). Piedm. beonj Gael. Abide. the laurel-bay. Q. abbabayer. baionette. It. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. badia to Sp. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. as gazing. waiting . to be Bohem. —Bay-windo'W. that from ba. baer. See Bald. It. aux dehniers abois. a berry. Fr. weary of running. bay. Swiss beie. Bay. ing-floor. trahir. Fr. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. bai. A hollow in the 'line of coast. Prov. Arts. —F. bijel. It. dividere. to stand watching one. at his last gasp. bilyega. open the mouth. to split. laurel of the ancients. he turns and faces his pursuers. white. baja. bayo. The — Fr. baier. put to his last shifts. bahia. baca. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. beo. Vielp. baccello. Sp. to mark. baye. bioth. corrupted into Bow-window.. Bay-tree.

E. to bellow. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. tale of prayers or doxologies. salve his hurts. 54. which is. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. a curtsey. Beckon. badmr. Bret. fora-bauhan. The origin seems preserved in E. AS. on. ohg. as well as f& or fav. a beak. vol. beck. W. to produce young. It. . bead. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. — to bow or nod . a single bean. baun. Catalan becar.' Suetonius in Diez. becco. Goth. Bret. a prayer. fd or faVf beans.fui. bauhan.to have a French origin. The nutu significare. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Beck. nokkima. Pardoner's Tale. G. signifying a point. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking.' Hall's Chron. bedm. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. Sw. Boom.' adheres to the root. Beak. OSax. The wild beast. Lat. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. or beic. G. vii. backe. to nod . A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. be.fuis5e. It. fero. to nod the head. AS. Bear. rising ground. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. l^ax. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. however.. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Goth. bee. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent.from AS. bearti. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. not applied to the yelping of dogs. was introduced from England sea. bydel. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. ffci. to wait-. as. Fr. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. A two-year old nephew of mine p. as. Gr. N. according to of Sanscr. W. faba. a hill. support. pierced for hanging on a string. * Beagle. Be. bidan. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. bM. gebed. Du. ON. bairan. — Bellenden in Jam. — bedeau. to beckon. Beacon. Chapters on Lang. bokan. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. bek. beans. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. A Esthon. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. a nod OHG. beic. «va\ioQ. a sign. bob. boom. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. It forms a. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. and Lat. bakkje. Netherlands or North Germany. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. prodigy bauhnjan. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. g. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. . baum. Beach.ad. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Bean. a presage. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Hackluyt in R. -phxr. Gael. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. beugler. The immediate shore of the Menage. bar. Thus the final en. beacen. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. stock.fer-re j Gr. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. signifying individuality. bakke. into France. fromthe danger. beacnian. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Q wait upon him. the part overflowed by the tide. pig. post. faba is Kvavoq. to wait. or however. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. ON. would say. ffaen. Gael. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. He says. a tree. Gael. atUndre. Fr. To Bear. Slavon. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. bdkna. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. Beadle. bohne. . or any action done with a pointed thing. bidello. a single bean. bagms. Farrar. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. It is BEAR SI court. bohnej ON. bean. to carry. into a snjall river. bank. —F. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. See To Bid. Moreover the name. — : Beam. an attendant. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. or breathing. like most nautical terms. a tree. Trans. beic.

bello.fit. convenient. or special purpose. to carry. ziemen. barf. becuman. Thus OY. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense.AS. while from Shep.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. suitable. duty. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. rying. The moveable part of a helmet. Beaver. bobr. Cal. Lith. decent. Boeth. to wade through the water like a beaver. our taste. OSw. baviire. as. byrcti. to happen. R. godum with ON. dize or dtzen. Bedizen. bebrus. i. to bear children. fallinn. gabaurths. beo. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. ON. baba. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. gefallen. iida. pleasing. nothing to thy name make. brook . signifies both bench (= bank) and AS.to clothe to slobber. g. ON. Now the Beast. venient. ON. On the same principle. to assume a certain form or Turk. bavec. — . to fall. or a feeling to be gratified. con. bedr. Lat. beauts. now confined To Become. bequem. Beck. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. tidy. or river. it is probable that here also the to become. G. slobber. He becom on sceathan. to come to or upon. Bosworth. Beck. bart. bard. Bo. a bank. tidig. As rivus. befall. becuman. bur. to happen. behkr. E. befit. riviera. and to acquire. connected with ripa. bobrowai. ON. gelimplic. baurthei. Fr. to shore. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. Fr. . If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. dress with unbecoming richness . It.S6 fero. from beau. Perhaps from Pol. but now a river only. an notion of being convenient. Prick of Conscience. It. bcek. i. to be a part of his to. proper. riviire. to happen. comely. The OFr. and on. bekommen. Beat. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. R. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. place to lie down. blast.of being very angry. to be fulfilled. fitly . fitanimal.' ' He became very angry. Beckon. G. a. See becymth anfeald yvel. name applied originally to the bank then proper . bib or slobbering cloth. because made of the fur of the beaver. decorous. e. and also in that of birth. happening as it ought. birth. obtain. pretty. receive. nod or sign. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. barba.we call the arrangement becoming. to arrive at. Diez. babrad. to live. brook. G. if sound of a sharp blow. beatanj It. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. Thcem. the latter are derived It. get J ' He got very angry. Dan. G. agreeable. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. formerly a happen. to dabble . judgment. limpian. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. opportune. That thou mayest attain Goth.getiman. To load with ornament. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. biivre. bring forth. e. Lat. burdr is used in the sense of a car. the ece thurhwuniath. produce. to get. Slav. to attain to the lot of any one. badi. See Beacon. bestiaj Gael. bel. seemly. to hem. a bank. fit. Lat. The fitting or suitable. biber. whence baveux. 2. pens unmixed evU. and Fr. proper . With shepherd sits not following flying fame. boroda. agreeable. battere. fiber. bava. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. Chaucer. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. Fr. Secondarily applied to a hat. The quadruped. timan.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. den. bach. I do thee pray. Fr. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. G. bekkr. Sp. which. the beard. Fr. to happen. from baver. to fall mode of being. brada. E. o. edge. to the good hapHalbard. border. when up. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves.' every way suited to a prince. to be incumbent upon him. gebank. to sleep on. In like manner condition. dushmak. Beauty. See Bank. W. E. limpan. bellus. talkative. 1. See Bat. to the brook itself. — A — A — . limplice. Do no To It fallith favour. handsome. suitable. bave. to please. a lip. AS. byw. bett. bave i. living. to G. as the babble of the child. to those goods which endure for ever.' are equivalent expressions. chin. to fall in with our bavard. Lat. perhaps a living thing. AS. Goth. a brook. from the same in the sense of bear2. Russ. ting. bearing. to happen. taste. covered the face. to appertain. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. Prov.— Kiittner.

batAfter mete in sale. Cot. bedskiissen-bUren. Bernese. sela que environna la terra. I dysyn a dystaffe.— JI14. Beetle. bbtel. beach-each. blow or thrust. to fall. Fin. used for boull. from risan. . 1 to drink. P1. bedawi. byst. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. &c. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. D. which also 2. . 'La Gl. AS. bove. * Beestings. on. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. 1156. an ox. Fr. to parget or rough-cast . 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. Gr. Originally. Cot.'— GL ^Ifr. AS. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. .(paddi. Beef. to curdle or lopper. and in driving piles. a mallet. translation beOj. imperative pi. cugino. drink. E. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. the loppered sea. fagus. clog for a dog b'oteln. bytl. bitela. water. a stinging bieUe. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. may be from K. the meat of spinach. But possibly bedizen 2. tree. stakes. red curdled Arab . But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. comb. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. by the analogy of bedaivb. the biter. a cover. a pillow-case. to beat bossel. i. ProBeer. pettiriso.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. Fr. also the bite or sting of a bees. . from the hos. Lat.cz//aj. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. a wandering Prov. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. cogionare. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. Bed-ridden. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. doubtless. to and ale. The beer al for te shenche bate. Bedouia. a pad or cushion). kivih. The meanpainting._t from the root pi. bably named from the destructive quali| T. Fr. Bethlehem. from blood. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. taglio. a wasp. to colour with lime-wash. I A pillow-beer. /SXirov.). beetle also signified the impiti. qui de lecto surgere non potest . beutel. de Fierabras in Diez. beer. an Beetle.^ drink. beost. bibere is a re. buche. pude-vaar. Lat. buk. an inhabitant of the desert. as in It. a Properly a cover that biiren. briest. In a passage of an Old Fr. betel. may be shpped on and off. desert. boeuf.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. G. madhouse. 57 — Palsgr. boytle. GaeL bior. Let. from leberen. beta. cousin. a cup or implement for AS. Slav. from jtst-. Pett. as the milk of a that purpose in London. extant in Bohem. speach. a agulatum in the original Latin. 1.ON. It. crespir. turn (a garment). Bav. fall. to poordma. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. bos. door. bukva. piwo. Ant. Rom. of beatmg. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. bletumj Gr. KXlvoTTiT^e. Dan.D. to knock. knock.' the last word corresponds to cofly . cushion-cover . prisons Venet. in Schmeller. a horse-fly . Confined to bed. I put the flax upon it to spin. g. drink. ^. to drink. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. trees in a forest . garden-herb. whence familiar. bitel. bet. . Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. beest. a drink potus. prigione. also bienst. Esthon. Pl. biiren. poculum. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen.ing of the word is curdled. biest-milch. Fr. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. G. the ox.possible. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. thick. The honey-producing insect. paralyticus. beach. thick. AS. Arab. kiissen-biere. a bee. a bed-tick. in Nat. a pillow case. curded or beesty. Fr.D..substance as to render navigation imtiriso. to twist poorma. ' MordiThe Lat. PI. duplicated form of the root. buka. bossen. bovis. Gael. a clapper. to turn. Grimm. as. cozen. to become Beech. Beet. The first milk after a dizen. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. sang vermeilh betatz. cited by Diez. biene. cow has calved. For that was law of lend. erroneously modified in form. a malsense of drink. ir'm. pital of St Mary. woman that is newly delivered.' So Gr. Horn. by-flugaj G. from Lat. vaar. ris. whose face is clotty. to rough- cast. briesch-milch. E. to change . turn. mars betada. to flatten In OE. and lebermer in G. bette or blettej Lat. beyki. 1. wedges. bedde-redirj ohg. waarin. . It. Bee. calleBedlam. to coagulate. badigeonner. a wasp. a paviour's beetle batail.— B. It. G. Fr. case.

bag full of the G. to begaan. OHG. a scrip euXaiciJoi. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. gigno. on the tramp. Beghardus. origin. Deutsch. &c. but in the same language from poc. the fundamental notion of attaining to. to cleve. to bear young. P. 'Aboutin undern monly. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. 'ex quo. in Lat. P. although it ' the future. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. — Stillingfleet. to be acquire. From w. can. a bag . taking up. iv.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. from whete G. Lollards. 142. referred gan this Erie alight. incipere. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word.' about undern he got down. hags. ' . chap. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Lith. onginnan. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. Mod. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. it is both to acquire and to beget. P. giving in Gr.' A. cans. on the bag. ornamented phoc. ken. To produce children is to acquire.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. begging. to take. Cold-begone. Bruce. woe-begone. 40. a bag or poke. to be able. above quoted to get beaten ON. krapszas. chisel. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. steinbosil. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. When Q. signifying to conceive. is formed pocair.3. & go a begging.D. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . gan provyde To eschew The Flem. of Gr. The tother seand the dint cum. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. a little bag). su with gold. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Gr. beginning. P. yivtrri. to go a begging. to arise. to get children . one after that other. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. In Luc vi. beissel. a beggar-boy. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. gan. Mundart. 1430. ' Begone. V. to begin. image is cleft out of the trunk. vir mendi. capere. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. 168. yiyvo/uat.— . Goth. P. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. a beggar . but probably erroneously. duginnan. Political Songs. Si'Xa/coc. aginnan. Ancren Riwle. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open.' for ye shall lament and weep. beutel. Of brede full ycrammed. to be born.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. tale. To Beg. ' ' . ip AS. Skinner's derivation from bag. Into the are D. Florio. 58 BEG BEGONE G. To Begin. P. Vocab. two betels —a grete oke. It. touched with emotion — . P. beitel. a scrip. yivwajcw. is com. viii. He did alight. 1867. ysgrepanu. y/yvo/iat. beitel. anfangen. Schm. a bag. Fr. — yivsaiQ. baigeir. ytyvwfT'Kw. a stone-cutter's chisel. Du. Du. P. It will . whence the E. AS. affected. yivofiai. be^nnan. P. So from Gael. Barbour. Creed. V. to beg. a — wedge. seizing. ysgrepan. bag {baigean. air a . sel. not began to alight. ken. pose-pilte. can. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. as alighting is a momentary operation. Du. appears improbable at first. 25. V. ykvog. begger.n. P. at geta talad.pose. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. to reduce him to beggary. covered with gold D. a chisel. word. in E. on further examination.quently used in OE. lapidicinus. gen. oppressed with woe. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . kind. genus. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. bertola. to know. literally. or Of a pure poor man. a wedge for cleaving wood. 'Dz. Nov. and Lat. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. also called Bigots. a beggar. fangen and Lat. beis- plement driven by blows. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. 2. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. beriolare. in D. &c. a wallet.

hove.— . and their senses intermingle. to feed. to meet. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. heeten. the equivalent of E. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. — Behest. us-hafjan. zijn. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. promise or a command. G. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . premi curi alicujus rei. But. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to be be named. To look steadily upon. Sw. gehalten seyn. is also found in the sense of looking. hafwa. behoof. observe. vow. to have. promise. The Lat. to bring forwards. to turn one out . at the tail of. hovast. nittaa. to regard.). 17. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to keep.' Richardson. AS. behefe. tion. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. or necessary. to hold. hantyri. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . habere. gehaben. invoke. hofwa. Robert in Warton. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. promise . object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. portarsi. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. what he wishes another to do . ifl fact. keeping. garder. The It. gecall. behete. to vow. OE. laborare. hcef tig bort. Aan iemand bid one welcome. To Behave. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. N. to promise. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. se porter) to fare well or ill. behces. Paladino. Command. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. G. And so from hania. to be well pleased out. to R. G. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. furtherance. keeping.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. Thus in Finnish the heave. Plautus. obliged. from tragen. the name adapt. AS. betragen. beperson addressed. exhort. hatan. hevja. G. to carry. AS. to take away. hafwa ram. servare. behat. Sw. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. ufhaban. heita. bound. to halten. to vow. adjust.the figure of throwing at a mark. To Behold. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. or the hence advantage. to carry. ge' hatan. by the compound observare. to call. G. to command. solicitum esse. to bers of the body. to be suitable or becoming . guardare. behind.to vow. AS. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. to hold. on. to raise. Sw. hafwa bort. to the equivalent of Du. R. AS. Goth. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to behave. right. to tend. is on the top of or opposite to. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. K. hafwa. the distance of anything. To be expedient. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to be named. ward. to keep. Kiittn. injunccommand. vow. to fit. to keen or hold. to call. use. behold. G. to be obliged to one. to follow. to gehouden. hcefwa in seed. have the sense of calling or naming. to command. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. when the verb will hoof. gehouden. name of the head is used to express what hbva. advantage. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc.for throwing it. the two verbs seem radically the same. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. take heed of. commonly expressed. as in the case of E. and the E. —Hest. behatan. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to cast or throw. to lift. to look. to name. or purpose. to heave. healdan. according as the * To Behove. At the back of The re. gehat. seeing to. habban. behaviour. and (as Fr. heave. To place are most naturally ex. fixed upon any object). take yourself off. The seyn. what is so required. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. hafjan. to look upon it as true . is supported by many analogies. beholden to him. to be obliged to do a thing. heeten willekem. to hit the mark. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to carry corn into the barn . to carry. to be fit. hces. tail. a follower. to lift. han- — js Kil. to lead. hevja. It.

honoured. turris. bertefredum. verloben. Fr. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. Then. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . —F. is used in the sense of approving. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen.Lat. to be required for a certain purpose. with the consent of the heirs. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. peal. to praise. to befit. to to make A Templorum campana boant. Du. Pl. laven. 6o BELAY BELL loven. Pl. It. In the middle voice hofwas. OHG. ley/a. lyfan. is (Sternberg). border.D. bellan. and E. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. a watch tower. bealcan. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. were civil terms of address. filu-galaubs. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . a little shed. loven. appearing in Mid. beau sire and bel dame. an implement for making a loud noise. . leaf geleafa. measure. to give leave. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. berfroi. To Belch. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to protect. to bolk. locus securitatis Schilter. loben. to express approval. tain a certain end. Fr. behove. bialla. fitness. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. and bergan. to cry out bell. overspread. bervrit. bolken. bell. certain rate. pro3. to believe. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. praising. a tower. reputation.D. bylja. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. — mankind. Du. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt.. b'ola. loven. laven. — . promising. boare. esteemed . AS. if a promise. — Diicange. glauben. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. a vessel made for dishonour. stand. laubjan. belief . met. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. and E. to belay. to a loud noise. bercvrit. orloven. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. or high estimation. . or a sconce. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. or house. See Gain. bellow. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. are innate . tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to fix a price upon one's wares. esteeming good and valid. range. if a narration. distance to which a piece will carry. satisfaction. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. bettifredo. for purposes of low estimation . permitting or giving leave. galaubs. P1. legsel. to sound loudly . The word be- Belfry. hesfa. in nautical language. and Du. a tower for defence . beffroi. to promise. gelyfan. to make it fast. To Believe. on. frid. mark ON. leave . to give leave Dan. giving leave or permission. moderation. to der swaren lave. true. from mhG. properly belonging to the church tower. To praise is essentially Xo prise. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. In Mid. to promise or engage. lov. to bellow. to believe. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. promiser. To Belay. belja. Fair sir and Fair lady.Lat. to praise. to put a high price or value on. to extol the worth of anything. we have Goth. to lay be- around. to permit. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to give leave. then. to lay the cable round the bits.. on. AS. galaubjan. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. ON. Another application of the same word is in Pl. erlauben. permission. to believe. reach. G. bulken. resonare. ON. ornament. fringe. cela est audessus de votre portde. Q. battefredum. to estimate them at a To believe. bealcettanj OE. ungalaub kas. are other modifications of the same imitative root. under the forms belfredum. OFr. From AS. Hence to simple approbation. lofa. allow.. Sw. consent. to hit hafi. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. . to sanction an arrangement. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. a. beleggen. aim. Du. is an easy progress. Bell. beffroit. then. Goth. Du. to praise. portion.D. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to boke.alyfan. praise. bounds. and. Det er ofwer er hofwa. to roar. garnish. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . Northamptonshire. to resound.D. precious. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. beset.

and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. ON. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. vulva. gelangen. Lat. See I . from benedictio. . to touch one. attinere. Benefactor. pertinere. se bander. well. bandoir. Gael. Benign. the word. benir. to become one's property . a bellows . wallet Benefit. a benefit. bienfait. benjoim. Gum benjamin. Fr. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. hence with ashes.Fr. bless. to attain to. — root consisting of concentric skins. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. Benzoin. was in Mid. bolch. Benignant. J'emboue. or sometimes louban. bendan. binsen. attinere. to touch. welt of a shoe. is a kindred form. bellows. ON. w. Sw. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. I soyle it or araye it. bander un arc. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. bellows. to bless. belt. belgr. or a It is times the to signify services. bimaissen. pod. to hold to one. a blessing. welt of a shoe gwald. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. to arrive at. to do good to one . a spring. bilbila. a accusative. ball. Dozy. G. bilbil-goda. needs no ex. Javanese perfume. blast-bcelg. OUG. a water-bubble builge. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari).' — Hie fimus. benehusk. by itself. rushes. G. . as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . ray. balg. bellows. The ing-skin. Lat. . . Kil. cod or husk of pulse. from cwcsthan.. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. on. Beneath.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to say. Benefice. Eenison. Ptg. Lat. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. poX^ri. fens et hie liraus. leather sack. to stretch it on a frame. I araye. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS.videtur. I say). vulgarly the belly. belch. beneison. Benediction. Fr. to exert force. To belong is thus to reach up to. See Bank. . benedicere. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. to use words of good omen. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. In E. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. pino3. volva. means seeds of plants. From OFr. langen. To Benum. to hallow. one who does good. an inflated Lat. Belt.' The term had been previously planation. a border. from which is also bulbus. incense of Java. See Nether. to belong. a leather bag. a round or bubble-shaped root. because bcelg. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. to bend a bow . a blow. bolg. belliJ Lat. ' . — Ducange. from Arab. Bench. Lat. loubdn djawt. skin. Bav. benedictio {bene^ and dico. Bent. to come to the crown belangen. the womb. To Belong'. a bellows.' Palsgr. belly. becwathan. bcelg. dirt. bag. — See Numb. or fyle with myre. ' I beraye. pervenire. pouch. belly.polch. benignus (opposed to malignus).pinuz. to reach. . as concerning that. hem. border. To Bend. bendaj as. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. to ring. Lat. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. disposed to oblige. a good deed. to make bilbil. Was das belanget. Fr. benjoin. generous. benaigon. Quoth." — — . are stripped off whole blase-balg. wallet. gwaldas. balg. the skin of those animals that factor. balteus . Lat. G. pertinere. bell. bags or bellows. a speaking well of one. To Bequeath. bimpsen. attingere. has assumed a plural form. bene/actum. blister balgan-snamha. OFr. — ray. kind. from another modification of the word for bubble. benefacere. to concern. or simply djawt. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. . Du. to attain belangen. ^To Beray. Benedico. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. fyle To dirty.— Belly. rise against external force . benejicium. to concern. G. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. skin. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. as. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. Bret. Gael. is The word balg. a kindness. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. bolg. See Bind. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. I marre a thyng. taken absolutely. binssen. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. est matris in lucem editus. to.

To bete his Jam. Best. — . to defend. baete. R. make better . AS. OE. as Du. To Beseech. berry. basya. AS. From abet. person to lie in. to word is shelter. Goth. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. think more probable. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. baete. to strip. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in.fish the other hand. It is the restore fyr betan. as. preferably. ship for a make amend. betan. botesward. amendment. to give a place to. and on which the wager is laid. from It. bestow. to kindle the fire. as. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. Bestead. Du. compared with bargham. bur-we. To Bestow. . Kil. bet. bereafian. See Reave. fearful. buttare. p. to cast. jnore. boeten. stede. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. Zeitschr. To Bet. is to perform a serviceable office to him. Ihre. boeten. roju. Du. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . stealth from steal. So Lat. vi. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. — Biglotton. a berry.iooA. p. an incendiary. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. ropahtaa. besje^ Sanscr. a horse collar. Devon. houseless. bdt. sheltered from the wind. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. advantage. * To Bete. R. Berry. to supply a want. or to bestead one. AS. the origin of which is to be found in ON. Hfence backing. and also to entreat. same word with the provincial barth. of ffeed a fire. Sw. Rob. So roto rattle down.— Hal. or. but it is specially applied mister. as in growth. * Berth. — amendment. mud. an incendiary. scopse spartis. bota. advantage. dial. making better. as. sweepings. to thrust. E. See Better. from AS.D. reparation. profit. het vuur The serise of Boeten. Fr. BEREAVE Wall. vol. to the place boarded off in a. Du. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. Tusser. dust rojahtaa. in the sense ctf beria. ^•n. barfham. or the space kept clear betan.t. one who shelter. to fall with roisto. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. Beere. as conversely a besom is called broom. besein. G. to stand one in good stead. to mend. to seek. seems twigs or rods. better. Grose. as bouter selle. Sw. buttafuoco. When men of mekeness him baet. brem-bessen. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. dirt. besmas. place. to be-place. put. bal oppbota. dung . it seems hard to separate as. to To Bereave. bouter. reafian. but in practice. the guardian . E. boeten.—^fake. position. small eatable fruit. ariierf to 113. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. beseech. solicit. besen. what does it better a man. bat. might have been . barth may be for barf. ^akka. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. protect . basjaj Du. Beet. to light the fire . On the other hand. earg. supply. To seek something from a person. besIn sen. Esthon. to make it. eld up- On is to be placed A — . Besom. 3. — Chaucer. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. Tha het he micel fyr betan.bhaksh. a place . improve.X. to amend. to put on the saddle. to fire a funeral pile of . rubbish.• 62 Antiq.ot-i. Beit. reparation. to exercise on a definite object. repair. besnij Pl. supporting on the one side Lat. burrow. as. because used for making besoms. what does it boot. boutefeu. The origin is AS. encouraging. So too Yorkshire arf. To help. The dry.irova. to to deprive of. — bota. Fin. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. earh. berwham. I from lew. to entreat. The proper meaning of the bale. To Gl. betan. and Du. . fall with sound. to thrust. stow. boteith Goth. fyrbotare. G. to on the other Goth. put forth. sets fire to. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. peto. bdt. beorgan.— VixHsm. Du. the side bhakshya. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. barthless. a fire. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. bacca. noise. BETE dirty'. lay out. roju. from grow. Fr. lewth. to make better. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. roe. berwe. hva mannan. arwe. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. rods. broom twigs. dirt .

Pl. Dit tungomal rendered in E. *Ah. are there Regt R. amidst. kein leben mehrin no signs . taemen. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. of pheasants. — Betwixt. to stir. bevere. G. in the middle of two. betweohs. a brood. bouter davantaige. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. e. is used for the — R. zemen. betweox. beverage. Hence last G. which may be compared as to form with amid. regen. taemen. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. betwuxt. it bewrays itself.D. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. afford. To boot in coursing (i. batizo. pair of compasses. his mouth. Friar's Prol. suitable. to cheat. From It. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. in the same way Lat. Fr. E. OE. fitting. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Fr. R. AS. betest. roja. lot). e. betst. Buveau. . — of the authorities. AS. 88. said he. In like manner from twain is fothied between. riigen. to happen. of quails. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. Sahissais. proficere. as envahir. betera.— . trakir. Chaucer. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. Du. tima. better. Golding's Ovid in R. To vouchsafe. suitable. best. To Bewray. tweoh. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. betaemen. obdissais. what does It is forward him. &c.' Dialogue on Witches. to deliver tip. fate. to make forwards. as from obdir. bibere. gatiman. wreia. from. a bevy. The as. as tlock. Dii. to Teem. from Fr. Tinia eigi at lata eit. I approve of beveau. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. Percy Soc. Now the stirring of an object. ON. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. R. Goth. Goth. from Lat. has — In a like sense tanie>i. Pl. fallinn. i. dir. trahissais. Cot. /alia. tradire. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. verbs in ir with a double ss. advance. to drink . -to appoint. evidence of life. against. The inflections of Fr. treachery. E. better. is treason. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. Ober D. find in one's heart. Car son umbre si le trahit. beva. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Fr. to fall. find it good: Goth. gezimet eines dinges. trahir. deem suitable. some attention. bat. BETEfiM translated. It. order. wrogia. zimet. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. by two. i. abash j from polir. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. x. trahison. polish. Fl. become. beuvrage. springs from ON. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. spritigs from schicken. — See To Bete. Best. bedriegen. to deceive. dispose (whence schicksal. Bevy. an instrument opening like a a thing. A — drink. larks. the being pushed to the frbnt. in the middle of twain. a traitor. to happen. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. traditor. ziemen. betwuh. In like manner folissais. G. are commonly to one's lot. To Betray. betweoh. make manifest. awry. to deliver up in breach of trust. Sw. betriigen. his eyen sheen. and thence twegen. e.D. tradere. progress. Fris. by a final sh. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. In the water anon was seen His nose. to Hence It. for measuring angles. to discover. On the same principle ON. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. from invadere. obeish. a different form of twa. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. not to have the heart to give up a thing. as one would have it fall. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. whence beveraggio Fr. r'ojer dig. bet. ruogia. be fitting or suitable. Better. as trahissons. Mich self a good glass of wine. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. Thus from dbahir. G. a drinking . sloped off. to accuse. It. twain. bevde. E. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Bav. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. amiddes. — that schickiich. better. or with again. deign. vrohjan. bet. R. Fr. traitre. batista. Slant. ON. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. Ik tame mi dat nig. gesiemen. To Beteem. betray. baet. G. roebucks. moveable and compass branches. Det sig sjelft. more. two. to fall Some call it a bevel. tima. From the former of these are AS. Between. Lat.

to tipple.or from obliquus. Mantuan. wrogen. winding or crawling in and out. babbi. sbiesso. evident. petit-lait. to slaver or drivel. inferiority. sbiescio. Yes. biberon. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. It is especially applied in Sc. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. to a fight with stones. bihais. a bibber. it becomes (Jz-. Oh when shall I bizzle. biais. biberen. wrangle. — Bi-. babbefore the eyes. to well up with Cot. crooked. to it evident to sense. b&zahr. . to move. dial. Ci^. Fr. rogge. kwijllap. bark of which paper was first made. bezling or skueing. sbias. sbrisciare. Bisect. the word became bddizahr. used in precisely stone . the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. bescompte. to make tongue Du. from pdd-. baviere. Bezel. twice. like guzzle. though such a change of form would be very unusual. To Bezzle. in two ways for duis. Bice. makes ble. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. asure-bice (Early E. is explained to clatter. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. The train of thought is then. Misc. aslope sbisciare. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to glide or slip as upon. Biseau. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. specially in a bottle. lips. slippery. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. Hal. besanca. sloped. Lat. to purl. to stir. Bibelsworth in Nat. bible. Pers. which good bibbeler. poison. Hzzle f Deldkar in R.s bellum for duellum. baverole. or by any rapid motion. or in and out. wraggeln. Prov. foul weather. rogt un bogt sik nig. he is Wtb. sbriscio. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. to be a paring. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. snout. In Arab. bickai. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . An excellent Basil. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). I Wallon. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. to shake. biax. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. To drink hard. To skirmish.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense.D. a sloping edge.a. bibaculus. to stir up . The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. Cat. pddzahr. Fr. dial. It. E. Du. To Bicker. sbiagio. kwijl-bab. It. (according to the Fr. the basil Sc. . whey count . a bezle. /3i/3Xof a book originally. and zahr. expelling or preserving against. one who drinks in excess. bebble. Fr. . An inferior blue. to creep or crawl sideling. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. reveal. bending. Sard. to dispute. ber-laita (for bes-laita). Probably. See Wriggle. has a singular stone-picker. . bis. Sardin. whence Du. bibo. bias-wise. a Galilean. Piedm. Bib.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass.as in Biped. bisel. stock still. bavon. The It. Gr. To bicker in NE. aslope. Fris. — crooked.D. to sip. per\'erted belief. Fr. Fr. bestemps. bickel-sieenken. Bible. two- footed. bring under ' Thy accuse. Hal- — do something aslant. a stone-hewer . OE. sbrissare. kwijlen. beslei. a slabbering-bib. to the stirring of their conscience. Fr. Uprogen. the papyrus. Piedm. in Fr. roggle. convicts thee of being drink. biascia. sbiasciai. Lat. biascio.' bibble. To Bibble. Jamieson. beregen. liwell. —Dozy. a fragment bieco. misFr. to give signs of life. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne.to drink much. biaiser. 78). —Bickering'. to slaver . its clothes. Pl. to tipple. bisdare. bickeler. to stir. To Bib. oblique. Sp. 172. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Diet. to cut in two. or kwijl-slab. Schiitze. sbiscio. In comp. Dan. biberer. discover. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. sbrisso. tailU en biseau. sliding. Ant. it were the mouth. as an eel or a snake. slanting . notice. Bezoar. of the sliced off. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. presence. Bias. to stir. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. sbieco. Cat.two. . by throwing of stones. to Jam.{ioin dua. love first begins to life signs of him. in him. shows the P1. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. metaphor). pible. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. him. sik beregen. bickelen. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. bes-azur. bickel. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). ice .

byggia. build. G. ON.' Pope in R. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bidjan. OSw.peto. From Gr. bugne (answering to ON. balg. from seek. bolga. AS. Du." buque with E. bi-. beidast. swaggering. and yajiBui. OSw. biegen.Leta). who. are also used in the sense of asking for. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. gebodenj G. A pose to one to come to dinner. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. einen vor Gericht bieten. bog. The . to look for. bat .' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. explaining the Sc. to inflate E. to presimpler pare. ON. The original Swollen. bieden. England for swollen. — prepare. to curve. repair. to pray one to dinner. to have one called before him. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. These admitted into the ranks of their followers.t. beadle. bidill. belly. bauen to cultivate. from belgia. offerre. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. BIGOT beidan. to bend. Big. to bid one good day.' Addison. bieten. porrigere. bulge. The ON. to dwell. to build. gebeden j G. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to build G. besides the professedmonks and nuns. a chip. abidan. as. rising up. bend. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. an entire skin. to offer. bilge or bulge. AS. To Big. Palsgrave in Halliwell. athird class. R. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. — To Bid. forwards. and consequently ordering or reGoth. to offer one the wish of a good day. Bickelen. bow. and the Sw. Compare also Sp. bug. a swelling. twice. to forbid . Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. ON. as G. qucero. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to swell. proud. a suitor. pressing on one's notice. iiQ. the meaning of bid. ' Bug as a Lord. or bad.. pray. may plausibly be derived from Goth. bidan. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. Bigot. G. spelling seems to used in the N. becoming in Lat. With respect to logical pedigree. The ON. bced. form. The loss of the / gives Dan. Jam. . faurbjudan. bend of a shore or of a rope. cultivate. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. of More ' in Richardson. has leta. Bight or Bought. consisting both of men and women. bo. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. to E. G. ten. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. To Bid ' Big . be bug. A bjudan in anabjudan. swoln. bolgna). to look for. bugt. Hence Sc. 1. AS. belly. Big-swol- .uddered len heart. in the sense of ask for. Bigamy. boa. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bis and in comp. to start out. anleta. bolginn. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. Einem einen guten tag bieten. — — — Halliwell. bugan. bedun. Wallace in Jam. to bicker. praebere. bulge. bit- bidja. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bead. beodan. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. as tears from the eyes. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. buga. byggan. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. a flexure. called the tertiary order. or third order of penitence. bouwen. BID of stone. bua. It must be observed that the word bidja. to solicit. or. inhabit. Two verbs are here confounded. verbieten. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. praestare. to build. to bulge. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. to marry. to forbid . to ask. bygga. Analogous expressions are G. to ask. bulky. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. to cultivate. and Gael. bidel. . to abide or wait on. the belly of a ship. to pro- command. by seek and beseech. quiring something to be done. Kil. P. to bend. To bid the banns. bag. inhabit Du. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. to offer it to public notice. to belly. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bigan. bidan. biddan. which is stiU. The 'La. to arrange. related to big or bug. ewes. from bidan. ON. bulk. to inhabit. W. 2. swelling. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. to move quickly. bath.

' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. to adopt a similar course of life. signifying bagmen or beggars. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt.— BIGOT bigardo. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. says. sed maxim^ in muliebri. beghart. corruption would easily creep in. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. biso. Francisci communiter appellabant.' Matthew Paris. all apparently derived from Ital. They wore a similar dress. and also unlearned common men. perch^ i Terziari di S. author quoted in N. 1243. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. was formed bigello. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. A. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. ix. S. grey. with reference to A. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. homespun cloth. Bizocco. Augustini dotarint. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. natural grey or sheep's russet. &c. bighellone. honesti plebeii amictus.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. grey. alii Apostolici. Bighiotti). From bigio. Hence the OE. a blockhead.D. bighiotto. A.a. 1499. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. begutta. and Q.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. vocati Fraticelli. Flor. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. A. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. ac labores manuum detestantes. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. and hence the variations bigutta.' translated by Muratori.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. clownish. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. Beguttce. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. borel. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. a dunce. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. dark-coloured cloth.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis.D.— Ducange. In the same way Fr. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep.. bigotta.' says an Venet.' Chart. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. 15 18. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. coarse woollen cloth. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. Bizoccki. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. absque votorum religionis emissione. face VIII.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. bigio. xx.' says one of of bigio.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. D. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. rustical. 560. the other form Per te Tribune. aliqui Begardi. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. In a similar manner from bigello. as well as bizocco. beghino. the nobles to Rienzi. alii de paupere viti.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. which must not be confounded with begardo. G. probably from biso. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Bighini. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. both men and women. vol.D. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators.

a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. Bill. a bigot or hypocrite. Tartuffe. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Prov. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. a devotee.' bilio. To defraud one of expected sinking. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. the beak of a bird. buail. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. — — ' . G. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. ferrese quam ligneae. Gascoigne in R. Fr. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. Bohem. an axe. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). bulghe. bui. bulgja. bla-berry. Billette. fetters. Mundart. a negro. . used in legal proceedings. a name given to a. and in Lat. a hypocrite. To Bilk. abelthe fetter itself. Sw. billard or billart. 5 * . dziobad. beghart. and dziobas. — bigardia. bil. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. buoy [i. to pick a millstone. Du. false pretender to reUgious feeling. AS. 2. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. an ingot. Roquef. Bilbo. topor. BILBERRY nated. bigardo. Du. person of religion leading a loose life.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. Sw. an ingot of gold or silver. See Bull. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. bila. now A Bilboa blade. crowberry. 'tumidi fluctus. Aurelles. Lat. e. Ludwig.— — — . The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. a short note. bile. bizocco. an axe. boeye. bisoch. Bille. is properly a sealed instrument. Kil. to peck. I. symbolum. from Mid. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Kil. A slang term for a sword. plog-bill. bill. bull-berries. Billet. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. p. blaa. a of the sea. as a bill of indictment. an adze . Lat. b'olja. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. bullet. at sea Billet. bigot. a shackle. inscriptum. bwyell. from OSw. bigot. w. Sp. So in Gr. axe. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. AS.' in Richardson. Langued. the bill of a bird. however. weapon . Dan. Dan. of boja. Bigin. 3. bolghe. from the dark colour. deceit. beil. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. an axe. . the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. in the same sense. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Deutsch. bill in parliament. a beak. Fr. Billow. the swelling G. procella Kil. blamand. belgan. belghen. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'.' mariners. boia. names bill-berries. Sw. loi. bigotto. to strike. on. a seal. ^Billiard. the o changing to an i to express diminution. Gael. An instrument for hewing. obsolete. a sword. Johansen. billet. a seal. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. The Du. Bilberry. Fr. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. NFris. fluctus maris. genus vincu- Bilboes. Du. Thus we find in It. The proper meaning bylgia. A lorum tam in — Diez. a hatchet. tepati. billot. . top. dissimulation .. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Bilge. bille. gan. as craneberry. AS. whortle-berries. Bojce. in the sense of a writing. gleischner (Frisch). and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. seems to be rather the unda. billet is the diminutive of this. clog to a fetter. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. buie. that of swell. biilge. 2. billard also signified at billyards. e. — Cot. to job. Piedmontese bigot. and a billard. The origin of the term is probably from bole. bulla. might be taken to express a hypocrite. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. of E. blue . the trunk of a tree. bill of exchange. to be angry (i. In the same way are related Pol. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. dziob. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . horn of an animal. boja. a man who rests on a stick in walking. to strike. an axe . In English the meaning has received a further development. irons or set in a kind of stocks. OFr. a floating log to mark the place of some. to swell with rage). Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. See Bulk. Bill.

G. overlooker. a truss. evegue. See To Bear. expressed by Sw. earnes brid. to cook). Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. bundle. bundun./«idere. Bizened. I would derive the verb to knit. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together.68 BIN Bio-. pin-ti. a house. betsel. pullus. a bunch. Bitch. a bump or knob. Bin. truss. Bind. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. is rendered in ON. brid. terial. beitsl. Thus I suppose the Gr. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. bircej Sw. Fr. Fr. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. an eagle's young G. the young of birds . bitacora. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. . a knob. from Gr. bunt. to bind together. It. Sanscr. a heap. beran. while bind-wood. by the verb knit or net. bij sien. bikkia. bij sienigh. hiindiiin. bin-wood. — properly near-sighted. Gr. a gallinaceous bird. BITTACLE /Siof. a bear. beisseii. bitill. Bisom. band. The proper meaning is a heap. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. AS. beitan. a bitch. to bulge. — Surrey in R. where the compass stands.. or petze. When compared with Fr. bundt. Fr. pittjo. to form a knotted structure. biclie. AS. a bitch. burt. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. to be derived from Ibfiaq. Sp. Lat.' and the like. to plait. e. poule. a brood or hatch of young. videt. also a stone weight. See Belly. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. qui nisi propius Blind. To — — —D. brut. a bitch applied also to other animals. ON. bord. admota non Bit. It. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. by binda. a corn. to knot nets for fish. life. Bine. bundle. AS. to fasten it together. beorth. To Bite. binda nat. are commonplaces. piccione. hith. to wreathe. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. to net. a hind or female stag. We — A Birth. v. Lat. from \t3\. biscotto. G. bindan. &c. Bird. Lat. from pondus. and of Fr. Bing. copus. viz. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. is in Scotland applied to ivy. . a little dog. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. to build. properly a young pigeon. a pig petz. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. Dan. fowl. Lith. — Kil. a weight of 48 pounds. i. nodus. Fr. and especially to a small poor horse. IV. evigue. Goth. episcopus. twice cooked. bigne. Birch. H. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. G. wine. evesgue. or ben-wood. sc. a heap. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. an overseer. the young of an animal. a female stag. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. Habitacle. bunga. bjork. to bind at . bita. to bring Biscuit. isfiw. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. AS. pinnii. Bisen. habitacle. Lith. forth. j). bindan. . bunch. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. In like manner from knot. 'tumens sequor. — — . a female dog hindinn. to swell. piiiti. to hang. See Breed. Bindweed. a weight. binge. V. ON. The term ON. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. i. pundas. a habit- Binnacle. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. . or baked. propius videre bij sicndc. doubtless a stone. The bitol. — See Bittacle. . beize. bund. Then added division in a granary. AS. Fr. biccej ON. pinnu. which is expressed in E. Sw. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Du. AS. Lat. vescovo. Sw.. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. poultry. bhurja. lusciosus et myops. Goth. pippione. Bailey. Lap. to twine. EpisETTiTOOTToe. Bittacle or Binnacle. Bisson. bund. or bin. G. biscuit. to bear. than vice versi. in Swabia. Something of the same confusion is seen in G.. from Lat. . E. bunki. ge- from AS. bundt. berkas (z=:Fr.

stutterer. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . Gael. on the one side. 156. term.' G. plabartaich. or water beating gently on the beach . a stammerer. Black. things —Palsgr. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. first. an edge is sharpest sword. blobach. cut. Applied in Hin ON. whitish. Goth. "uivac. Lydgate. pale. a babbler. a childe dothe gasouille. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. AS. shining. apparently from its biting the tongue. mouth. to bivouac. /ealo-/or. Bittern. to speak Dan. to loll it out. ON. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Ai-mstrong.. as is seen in sputter and splutter. the palebleff. Nagt huis. blepLith. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. black. In like manner E. —Neumann. faded. bleg. night guard. pins of the capstern. gabble. The bitas. butorj OE. bitr. It. chatter babbler . baboyer. . AS. a tati. biacca. yellowish. round which the cable is made fast. mouth. Mag. To or he can speake. indistinctly. Hal. quick. fallow fawn-coloured. leohte . Percy Soc. Je N. from wachen. discoloured . The Gz. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. on. is apprehension of danger. a beam in a house or ship. beitr. blob. his blacan light. even humour seemed and beuin.plab is used to . a fluttering noise. bird of the heron tribe. blakk. a large coarse lip . pale. bittore. to babble. Fr. blob. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. . blesmer. unintelligible talk plabair. ^aj'/^r. Bohem. to let out whai should have been concealed. Again. Bleak. a continued soft sound. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. plappem. A a rail. in contempt. as of a body falling into water. ' plabraich. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. blebberis. blabaran. In a similar manner Gael. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. viz. a* mast . bittour. Mantuan babbi. blac-hleor ides. ^chops. white. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. whitish. Wit hung her mourn. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly.— Blabber-lip. garrulous. Gael. iroxafealo. Hald. dusky. baitrs. NE. corrupted in Fr. Bav. Blabber-lip. Hist. Cot. . — Collins in Hal.. — cheeked maid. Why presumest And laam's asse. Se bleek.€i. brunblakk. bitones. ON. yellow . Pepper is bitter and bites hard. Fieldfare. a large lip. ON. gulblakk.' It would thus acle. Sw. to To blabber blabber with the lips. blubber-lipped. Alex. whiteness (candor sine It. v. as of wings . So Fr. light-coloured. shine. quoted by Ihre. to the sharpness of a weapon. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. Fr. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). to chops. 'fuscus.' by Haldorsen. fallow .). is placed. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. Du. Sp. Pl. pale yellow . blabbern. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. Deutsch. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. blabbre. thoughtlessly . blunt we say it will not bite. bitor. — Hollyband. blake. G. as of water gently beating the shore. pale brown . ' Biovac. pale. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. white lead. 't kompas huis. bites. mona mid Dan. x. blank. from whence we have adopted the. blanc. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. babbling. blakki. maculS. Sp. blab. to talk much. to watch.D. buft". biti. beiwache.' by Gudmund. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. Fr. white. to babble. blob. 't huisje. bihovac. I blaber. bitts of Bitts.. a shelter for the steersman. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Sp. a flapping. Bivouac. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. beuni. dark. Fr. obscurus. synonymous with baber-lip. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. babbe. to wax pale or bleaked. pale yellow. bleich. Cotgr. Sp. out the tongue. blabhdach. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. bleikr. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. small guard-house. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. an additional watch. 332. as in that of pale and white on the other. confusedly. bitter. In Legrand's Fr. To Blab the anchor. faded. Mund. ON. G.

Now. . madder. Blanket. which we . to glow. —We Bladder. also white woollen cloth . Du. to bubble. 86. Blank. as blader. . or of an oar G. as scullions. and wandering men and women. blister. Perhaps from blegen. smore. blank. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. blister. G. blister. contracted from bladeren. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. D. white. blanc. gabble. tree. vagabonds. Fr. moere. bladder. See Blubber. to shine. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. to blow. bladder. smother. or blafich. to blanch. irXariQ.—Blatter. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G.—Blatant. pass over. a blank ticket. Bacon in R. probably ate. leaf. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. Blancli. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. biasimare. to To bellow. a bladder or pustule.— ^o thehotsun. blatter. leaf of a. Eadmer.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. Reliqu. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. chatter. blanchet.— Kil. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. on. to Hence Ital. . or a mass of bubbles. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. — — — to jabber. in R. The radical bubble. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. Lat. pallido. bladre. to purl. Du. chatter. a. It. The present forms then should be classed with blether. commonly called the Black-guard. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. to omit. Gr.. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. to make or become white blanc. Fr. whitish. tattle. blad. To blank. and others engaged in dirty work. pXaatpiiiiHv. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. the origin of . polished. blasphemare. blether. But perhaps a more Gr. mire. board. a bubble. whitish. Sw. blatt. 7. a leaf. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Hist. a blanket a bed. vagrants. Wott. blein. a white or unwritten ticket. G. also tanned by the sun. Sir. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. a boil. Blain. as. — Sw. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Play in Nares. rogues and wanderers. leaves. — . imbrunire. roar. 5/^a/^ of colour. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. on. Du. to shine. livido . blister. as Lat. a buible. blaeren. piatto. blatter. and he shall be sure to have O. speak impiously. — rura. dripping-pans. also jabber. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. defame. Blade. and thence to babble. Du. e. linkboys. biastner. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. blanchet. G. reproach. Jan. p. flap of a Du. a bubble. 1854. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. most complete example of leafy structure. and E. to bleak in the sun. plat. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. mud. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. blegne. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. borrelen. To Blare. Dan. skola and thwatta. to —Blaspheme. and G. Cot. bladra. and Q. I am degraded from a cook. blactra.. to glitter. white. shining. leafy. waschen. Dan. blegen. slush. pladdern. blinken. blad. foolish talk. —^Webster. blame. or as E. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. revile. plate. blather. from candere. pimple. Sc. to dabble in water. to disappoint. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. dial. pluddre. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. bladder. broad. boys. cited in N. sheet of paper. the leaf of a tree. Fr. and the agitation of liquids. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. his meat burnt. blahen. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. blena. name originally given Blackguard. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. as. a pustule . to vocifer- — Cot. mus-blackt. Blank "verse. candidus. mud. bladeren. branches . Dan. blather. plat. blaere. is identical with Flanders borlen. variable than the signification of words designating colour. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. with all other loose idle masterless men. Torriano. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. &c. Fr. Sw. bladder . blanchir. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. bladdra. Du. PI. black. Bav. coat. Blame. blanqne. the ON.

oured. to blow . g. also praeblczse. To blow AS. With inversion of the liquid. among other . To blast. blaesen. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. . Du. blason. blason. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. also only pains and excellent endurance. Cot. of an animal. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. Blatant. to spread news. thraso. Sw. visui patet. to blow. embraser. ON. blateroon. fire. oron-blasare. blcest. blasoen. Gael. — Elazen. laudes (Kil. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. a lamp blasere. Du. Du. clamorous. AS. bleis. a coat of arms. also blazon or the blazSpenser. brasa. Prov. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. to publish the praises. pale. a funeral oration . blorach. a shining spot. Sc. to blow. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. to blaze Sp. an conium. First from the E. blysa. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. quus. kept up. bles. indeed. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. stultd loqui. to proclaim. to publish. Du. abroad. how. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. proflare tues. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. Fr. a flame. a MS. bldsse. braise. Troilus and Cressida. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. Dan. See Blare. each of boaster. shield or surcoat. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. Lye. and to make him word blaze. blossi. a shield. ill-speaMng their proper colours . bawling. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. in the same way as we 2. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. The other derivation. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. Blast. bliEsan. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. . a shout. blcEsan. Cot. has also blencke. a voice Jr.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. a torch. blcEsan.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. I. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. ing of arms.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. blast. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . Blanches illuminies. To Blaze. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. to bellow. As Kilian. blazen. Dan. blcesett. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. blasonner. e. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. magniloquus. redness . Fr. ON. to de. blesse. in that of praise. live coal . blys. splendour. blase. used. blatero. an empty and two theories are proposed. G. blesse. as a verb. a torch . might And sain. loud . brasa. boasting. it is manifest. ventosus. ther it was erst not knowe. whence Blazonry. magnilo. a whisperer. and. noisy blor. a loud noise. blase.' to fastum .— . gloriosus. Golden Book in R. on whose behalf the herald appeared. the matter incendiary . blaeteren. G. to trumpet forth. friend Cornelius. proclaim the virtues of. baladron. The AS. a blast. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. blaodhrach.' painted or figured . The origin of this exSp. besides blesse. commendation blason funebre. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. a flame . Blaze. or blazening. Du. to cut off prematurely. to set on fire. to extol. a flame. blezo. blose. AS. She roade at peace through his heraldry. If armour. blasa. blaterare. A blaze is so intimately Then. is from AS.sound a trumpet. abroad. A gust of wind. senses. much plausibility. light-coli. by stripping off a portion of the bark. and which. blaze. blus. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. 2. blaser vid. blcese. Gudmund. Du. blaodh. somewhat different train of thought. beast. like the in English. baladrar. But now. biter. coloured prints. is used in the sense of manifestatio. Fr. Sw. 'op een trompet blaazen. blis. declaratio. — — ' : bless. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. OE. Kil. . or to the sound which it produces. — ' — stroy. A strong flame. is the imme.whence the Fr. might spring from the same origin by a . i. blass. the noisy. — ^Jam.).

color plumbeus bldma. a red watery eye. blcecan. to humbug. Manuel de Pecch&. plama. to make him feel blank. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. souiller. 419. geplerr. blot. AS. livor. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. . c. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. pale .v.P. from on.' to deceive one. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . blink. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. . Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. . pimple . ' — — eye. a blemish in one's 2. A stain in a man's reputation.'he cried till the tears ran down. or blemish. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. Bleb. (faith or creaunce) Be war. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Mac. from the than schal I go. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. the formal equivalent of English wink. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. bleikr. Sir J. B. Schmel. 242. ^Blencher. Fr. drop of water. See Blood. spla7nU sie. in the expression reputation. to become livid. Blancher. paleness.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. Blemisli. Blear. blakna. to blare been weeping. pale Du. And now are these but mansbond (i. 115. darkness of vices. avoid looking it in the face. blur before their eyes. Bailey. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. sinen langen tranen. Gr. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. ^Xiixaoftai. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. BLENCH obfusco. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. light-coloured. to disgrace one's name. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. splamii!. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe.' the devil makes a vain back. which are blurred with the have shewed you. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. novice. spSt. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. . as of dust or mist . to bleach. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Bleak.filerren. a blot or smear blanking one. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. Sw. blema. Richardson. bldmi. wan.D. bleakness. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. to spot. wheal. on. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. to cast a mist before the eyes. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. — — R. ' . From the OFr. See Black. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. wanness. start vor den augen. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. — blink the question is to shrink from it. tumanid. ' He blarrede or roar. like one that has long P1. . a spot. So in Sw. bloken. a spot. See Black. To salir. flack. dead-coloured Cotgr. tacher. And By a similar metaphor Pol. The term blear. to blear one's eye. blarren. livid. blesmir. a fault. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. goda nainn. or to low as oxen. a blotch plerr. exposed. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. a stain. whitish. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. To totally different from the foregoing. Gower in R. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. guenchir. blot. inflamed eyes. to wink at it. while the agent ac- From . sugillatio. what blenched him therwith. and thence to a bruise. to wink the eye. Pol. a disgrace. Bleed. to bleat as sheep. G. Palsgr.' God in his wordes. ' — — ' : — — . To Bleat. tutnan is a cloud. blister. blesmissure. to soil. a boil. Bejaune. a spot. to stain one's honour or reputation. Ancren Riwle. pier vor den augen eyes. blemissemeiit. to start away from. boggle at something. confound him. N. I chaunge colour. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. the livid colour of a bruise. is Blench. p. to spot . to cry or weep. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. or blemysshen — blaken. a spot. a been distinct. Blear-eyed j having sore i. blench came to be used for a trick. A Blab. As AS.

a dead nettle. ^Jam. as a blind entry. burn up. blotzen. To blunder water. sweet. to churn. Dan.blinken. blazeny. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. happy . be glad flash. Blind. Sc. Swab. mix from blekken. tire. blican. blinzler. livid. blissian. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. The inblissful. AS. an entry which leads to nothing . sung. a glance. to twinkle. blund. fortunately. to bluiter up with water. to lighten. liquid filth to bluther. to merry. The sound of k before an s. — when he — Bailey. blend. to glitter . HalliwelL Of this latter the E. lighten. a wink With the bletsian.D. blag. AS. to bluiter. to stir or puddle. blahos. joyful. to bless. to flash. trix. to rejoice. to shut the eyes G. false windows. Thence apblinds. goods. lovely Bohem.corn. readily passes into a /. blind. 375. blithe. to dilute too much . .nasal. Deprived of sight. moment. glitter. wink. bleg. to pro. III. well blagaya. . blick. bliss look . BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. blink-eyed. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . csecubrandish. Biglotton. to bless . as a vatn i vin. blind- ON. . plotzen. blich-fiur. although in the in the next article. graceful. glitter. joy . blende. blinde fenster. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. to rejoice. riches . Kiittner. shine. a look. to glance. To Blend. to dazzle . as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. giving (Fr. blogi. glad. G. a blick-ooghen. gladness. and joys of Paradise bliden. a. the Slavonic languages. blicksem. to shut the eyes. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. blahoslaviti to twinkle. — A A — . G. . a wink. to mix. happy . riches blajennii blicksem. is I shall Gurt.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. or nettle which does form. blessed. . happily. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. AS. Tany. Serv. plonsen. a flash. Du. blidu. to glitter ful . blink. . to blithsian. to — make it thick and muddy. flash of light . in potters' language. A . blendian. Pol. —Brera. good. the verb to bless is some. Du. well blahy blick and blink. . To Bless. to dash wine with water. OHG. bludder. seems the simple netel. also to wink. a nounce happy. tative source of the word is wholly lost. blinzeln. . to act like a — . to dabble in water.not sting thiiren.blunda. glance. blessed. pale. to fall into water with a sudden noise. wink of sleep . glimpse. G. blago. blac.' To — blunge clay. F. make these hands 3. Du. Du. blindselen. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. joy. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. The term then self or others. to make happy. the G. G. — . . ON. . joy. I hold thee a grote thee. Bliss. Blink. pockets. with or without the nasal. happy .. gives blinzen. lightning. to shine.blinkard .blinze. a glance Swiss blenden. blicken. Paradises blidnissu. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blicken. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. blanssen. glitter. ' Pl. pearance of the blighted . mixing in general. the sign of the cross while blessing one. blindr. Blazena Bea. as in Du. Nares. (=bene dicere). cascultare. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. to make a rumbling noise. doors. dazzle . lightning sweet blago. AS. tless —Gamm. Owl and Nightingale.Q. OHG. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. but by no means therefore a pre. as taschen. Swiss (obsolete). lightning. Sw. blatida. . to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. a. to glitter. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. weaklaveny. From the action of the hand making Sw. blet. blent. thou knave. blincken. Wtb. blinzdugig. sertion of the nasal. blaziti. Blight. vious one in the order of formation.wink . to shine. to shine.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. Sc. Russ. blide. to plunge. to be blind. De Sonne ' verblekken. a gleam. j). — Goth.eyed. as in the case of blaze. a blessing. blithe blis. window-blind. . blitz. blitzen. bluiter. Du. to consecrate . Needle. money.

blaustem. taken altogether. fiustula. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. ^Jam.—Bloated. a . blister blasan. a little blisg. also to set See Bless. blab. Gael. swell. merciful ON. Du. Egillson. signifying in the first instance to soak. blinzel-maus. to dash liquid. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. an unformed mass. husks. strawclod. whence blast. and pisg. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. like clot. Dan. soak in water cured fish.. to breathe hard. mass. to blow. to blow. blister. blaud. Ibid. Hence E. —Bailey. For this. speaking rapidly any . Sw. soft. Gael.—Bloater. to blissom. . — Sw. must be referred to AS. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. kostia. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. frequentative. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. The roots /.— Bailey. bloc. formed spot. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. from blcsr. Fr. pimple. blautr. blod. a bubble. fish blind person. See Blot. or bleb. as in E. the unhewn bole of a tree. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Sw. a bubble. G. blote. ON. or blinde-kiih. soft. stone. in gusts. . blithe. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. blide. Blob. Langued. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. pusula. a blister. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. a lumpish head plubach. Cotgr. expressed by cognate roots. Block. Du. pods.— Hal. weak. Blob. bloated. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. to soak. A solid blouquette blisters. Bleb. must be classed with forms like Gr. a blot or spot. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. while Lat. The stem or trunk of a tree. Of sheep. in Nares. or the like. blidr. and bouclette. lagga i blot. round. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. B. bausen. Svt. — — — — — From blabber. The blow E. a drop of water. Jonson. To a smoking or drying by the fire. puff. blot. blindsehn. it is must be observed. . and easily changes its place. blot. Thus we have blab and babble. to cure by smoke. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. Blond. bluster. cooking. like manner the coloured. is formed squad. blad. a dirty blister. sloppy dirt. soaked. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing.plisg. biota. to steep. senting the dashing of water. as blinzeln. blijde. as a blab of ink. bluyster. boucler. viscid. repre- pusula. N. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blond. Boyd in Jam. kostua. blesme. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. — . to desire the male. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. It may be formed Blithe. Kil. Fr. plub. light yellow.pusta. a blain. to bubble. is also used in the sense of swelling . busten. pustula. Sc. in the lump or mass of wood. Blister. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. buclde. ON. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. blubber. to swell. or is inserted or omitted. Dan. or the mark which it makes. to blow. in bulk. mild. a blister . to make oneself wilfully blind to it. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. blotfisk. ^vaaa. To Bloat. a block or log en bloc. To Blissom. and inarticulately. Hence. A under this name was imported into England. Mod. mild. to close it with a solid mass. And so from squatter. in the sense of a soft tint. G. buckle. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. and F. having an unsound swollen look. inde humiditate tumidus. bloc. In Fin. Lat. a See Blot. Bav. a bubble. any lump or mass of things. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. gentle OHG. blcesma. as if soaked in water. separate portion. bleiths. B. — Blob. blouca and Fr. bubble and blubber. blindman's-buff. soft. orbicular. a small lump of anything thick. I believe. pausten. Goth. . a ram. to block up the way. to to puff and be noisy. blobber. blot. W. blobbes or droppes of water. shells. joyful. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it.

Schmid. glossi. AS. It should be of filth blak-blatte. blus. to strike with something soft or flat. blotter. a. pladern. gleam.^ Kil. soft or flat. splashing full. to scribble.— . S-wiss pladern. The G. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. Fr. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. bloed. in v. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Blossom. . ^Bleed. bloto. platz-voll. (of cattle) to dung. a torch blusse. a Schmid. bldts. G. blaeuwe ooghe. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. . to blaze . to slap. Prov. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Russ. kobladde. to strike with such these objects exhibit. bloutre. blue. blawels. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. platz-regen. platt-voll. See Blow. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blose. bfys.' the rain is driving and blue . Fris. to sparkle. Hatch. flower. Blad. blust. ' — . to glow. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. a black eye Du. bletister. pale tint. a cow-dung. to spot or blot. —Barbour. to slap. bleistern. gammon. Wendish blodo. E. straw. Blood. probably connected with Pol. to blush . blodelsa and blawelsa. blatte. to dabble in water. leme. lump of anything soft to blad. blue.platter. blondheid. bloi. Sc. blaeuwen. plotterwis. Stalder. to exists in biadetto. fall down . E. to patter. Bloom. blois. bliise. a deli. bloemen. cow-dung. to grow pale). Du. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. ^lys. bloi. . pale biavo. en blau ach. pladdern. ON. j^ blottir. glister . D. OFr. to be red. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. Fris. a water ploutsche. Ir. Schilter. to dabble in water . . a blaze. 2. Sc. bluish. a beater. lustre. bleustern. Dan. kuh-plader. blue. yellow. — Cot. blase. bloedsd. blowen. to dirty. E. wan. a Halm a.D. blauwel. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . to blot the land was in a leme. blistaf. to blaze. a The form platschefz. ON. bliithe. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. blostma. a pelting shower). skam. Dan. Ein platsch milch. See Blow. Erploten. bloi. bit by bit. Harmar in R.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. gfyssa. Wflz<^«. Dan. Du. spots in the sun. a drop of water or colour. a blow. Plots. or the sound of it . Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. . clod. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). blou. a flower. biado (of which the evidence plattern. to flame. bldmi. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. blotte. blut. from G. — Blotch-paper. — Stalder . blond en blaauw slaan. ON. Schwenck. of a blow with something lios. Sw. to glisten . plattata. coloured (Diaz. colour of the cheeks. G. blat. spot pletter i solen. whence plader. . to squander. platschern. to From . couleur livide. bliihen. ])erly Du. a flower. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. to splash. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. blue . the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. Pl. brilliancy. Jios. glose. the bright colour of the cheeks . splendour . a gush of milk .blauschlagen. to shine . E. . blaeuw. parallel form with ON. Sw. plottra. PI. Blot. Blotcli. to be red with blot. glasi. to squat or lie close. — — . plants which prepares the seed. blond is used in blatt. Du. to dash down Du. blady. E. plot of land is a spot or small rage. E. sbiadare. a Usaae. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. white blatte. Lat. Florio). blosem. mud. glus. Blow. blosen. It. .properly to scatter liquid . fair in en blat vand. blotting-paper. plet. blosma. dial. a spot or blot. to strike . Sw. on. livid marks. a blot or spot. fall to overflowing. — gush. blad. bloetnsel. yellowish It's G. a nature. blysa. shine . great leaf of cabbage. to dash down. from the bright colour which 7'vci. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. gloss. a flower. platsch-voll. proto shine with bright colours . light. blosa. blue. the bright to blot paper morsels. lump flower. lidmr. pale. dirty spot on the cheek. blomstr. as the skin or hair. livid . Du. bloeme. AS. redness. a lump. dial. blooth. blond.

gloeden. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. OFr. to fade. Wtb. Prov. to breathe bouteiUis. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. sense. glowing coal . pale OFr. gliihen. to gabble. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. fiubbem. 1292. a blow. glede. And. The interchange of an initial gl. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. . (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. blue. bruk. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). a Blossom. to puff up. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. tache. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blaw j biavo. to flourish. blosen. plubair. piusen. bldt. bluod. to fade. to shine with bright From colours. These are — Bludder.to blossom. P1. Du. grug. — . Pl. The radical sense is shown in Gael. to blow.D. to hard.' Hamburgh Archives. to make bubbles in drinking. and thence. blau. to Plodern.D.. to fade. foam. to'disorder.xo'»'. Kil. to guggle. bliuwan. ' BLUE or guggling. flower w. Raynouard. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. —SchmelIt. dirty. to make blue. red-faced bloted wench. bluther. a flower. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. A. cheeks bedabbled with tears. blady.— . is confined to the — . to gush. Gr. pale. Gael. Deutsch. pale. to bruise Roquef. to exhibit bright colours. -ii. Tumbled. OHG. fqded. marking some application from that bladder.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. v. or gr. MHG. ler. bl. disordered in head-dress. closely difference in of blabber. boil. blduen. G. glas. a fat. . Her sweet bloderit face. to inflate. Blowze. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. — . disordered. to flap like loose clothes.Jlasa. and closely allied with Du. — Bluther. bloemen. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. — To blubber. to beat with a mallet. bliihen. a blast. vi^ound. — To Blubber. Pludern. blue . Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. sponds with Sw. Pl. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. bledniai. bloeden. y\r)yi»v. to glow. meurtrissure Roquefort. bloes. to bubble up. It. blahen. sound like water. toused. flower OHG. gUd. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. blodyn. like manner Lat. blau. glow. to with Bohem. 1. OHG. bliithe. . fied vowel. florere. a bruise. to blow. to spot. Blue. 2. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. Bav. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . a herb Gr. The primary sense is to shine. blazir. /idXavoc.nify bubble.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. blodelsa. blubonciti. gliihen. a. puff. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. glas. to show flower. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. may cite for example G. chatter. plusig. blow. Chaucer. boasting. to blurt out. w. It is howbliuwen. |8A)'. Blowzy. Lat. Langued. blava. coup. E. heath. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. blezir. blubbern. Deutsch. a paddling in wate r. pale . structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. d in Sc. to beat. into flower. blebber. blawan. 92. grey. Mund. G. blass. br. 51. G. green. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly.' — Palsgr. and the forms mentioned under Swab. Chaucer.D. a continued noise of agitated water. blodern. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. gloeyen. in rapid or indistinct utterance. plodern. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. G. fem.D. in E. bruised Prov. glaodh and blaodh. Jla-re. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. wan. — — Mundart. bliihen. bluh. blazi. a gurgling . jabber. bloeyen. Bret. glansj Ir. bloi. to glow. to blow. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. In agitation of water. to breathe G. is very frequent. Sik upplustem. ^Jam. plustrig. AS. bludder. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. blois. To Blow. blubbern. especially with respect to the hair. Du. blust. The aUied forms. To Blow. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. . blut. plubraich. the red fluid of the body . where the word may be compared bliggman. . bloom. Danneil. plubartaich. little apparent resemblance. withered. Notwithstanding the We . pludern. E. corre. blao. B. grow pale. We . wan. .

blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. mistake. Blaffart. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. flodderen (Weiland). . sbiavare. je perturbe. polter-hans. biada. in plur.. and metaphorically. blunder. We Blunder. G. See Blunt. to work To blunder out a fronto.in mud or water.' trouble. superficie plani. Ditton in R. buller-bas. dial. discoloured {plowiee. sloppy drink. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. from the Lat. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. E. Hence we pass to Prov. I blonder. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. all representing the — . Du. tutte le semente ancora in erba. Hence a Slcelton in R. Sw. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. OFr. falb. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Kil. Pol. From G. bulmanner. - reddish yellow. to lose colour. corn. blunt. in water dobbelen. See Blurt. The Du. disturb. bullern. a fore. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Roquefort. bleu et blanc. Analogous forms are Du. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. blahir. blutter. Lat. earth and water mixed together. Kiittner. to plump into the water. trahir. to mix it up with water. plomp. blue. biavo. blunder. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Blunt. blanssen. yellow. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. bluish. pale yellow. a boisterous violent man. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. contrasted with the dle. The word is here synonymous with amplus. The Du. plo-wy. Dryden in R. segetes virentes. Blunderer or blunt worker. has donder-bus. is. blue. polterer. to blunge clay. Dan. to become pale or livid. to blunder water. to agitation of liquids. — Pr. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . Supp. mix It. poltern. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. confusion. — — — . Du. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. and Du. and sbiadare. bawling. Dief. bloi. corn. Biada. . Blavoyer. herauspoltem or sloping shore. pale. as well as biado. Then with the nasal. Altieri. G. like the Celtic glas. pale straw-coloured. 't — —Hal. And blunders on and staggers every pace. fallow. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. having a bluff forehead.D. applied to green as well as blue. verdure. something. Pl. a flounder. originally growing up turf and water. a blunderbuss. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. blavus. Kil. Roquefort. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. find accordingly It.— . like Du. to dabble in the mud. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. Halma. to puddle. in the same way as from It'. fawn-coloured. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. glundra. puddle. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. blue. which is rendered by Florio. as well as sbiadafe. glundr. abrupt. G. Flor. used for the work of an unskilful performer. sense of yeUow. jaune. to become pale. — . bUich. rustic. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. from the brilliant green of the young E. non rotunda.//aay. Bohem. herbe. without image or superscription. to fall suddenly on the ground. pale) is provincially used in the. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. liebefactor. and bustle . G. flav-us. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Bladum. To blunder is then. and then generally idle talk. biava. his business with much noise. Romance bluiter. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. blaf. a shore abruptly rising. It is remarkable however that the E. blond. yellowish red. A bluff manner. to become pale or wan. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to fade). Bodge.• BLUFF biado.make a noise. blave is moreover. devenir vert blavoie. Hal. Pm. It then signifies something done at once. from an imitation of the sound. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. tradire to Fr. speech. Palsgr. blandum. verdoyer. a plain coin herausplatzeu. an ill-done job. and biavo (Diez). blake (identical with AS. ploffen. Bluff. buller-bak. blunderhead. or an abrupt manner. pludder. to dabble Biglotton E. to confound. planus. blac.

BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Probably radically hlekit. biosso. unpolished. bare. that it not easy to discover the connection. obtusus. dull. V. Dan. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. Q. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. naked. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. plump. A light blue colour. — blunt. to plump down. blockish. platz-regen. G. Sir T. obtusus. wan. bus. rude. as cow-dung. to make a noise of such a Stalder. ang. Sc. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. inactive Swiss bluntschi. heavy. edgeless. Sw. forestis. rudely. Sc. naked. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. that the sense of bare. is thrown. blutten. blunt. plonsen. through which a man is so blont. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. a thick and will person. Blunt. without preparation. united in Gael. blat. blotta sanningen. hebes. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. dull. clumsy. It. of a knife which not cut. —D. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . . massive. fling down . bleak. plotsen. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . in Richardson. viz. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Pol. bluntschen. to handle a thing bluntly. a portion To inquire for slaves. blunder. good plump person. Molof something wet. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. heavy. ineffectual reason. is The word dull. a blot. awkwardly. rough. without Maolaich. Kiittner. bloss. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. to blunt a thing out. inaKil. It will be seen that the G. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. nis. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. bald. Now the Swiss bluntsch. V. clownish. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. unceremonious manner. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. plutz T)\i. pale. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. V. heavy. seems to be derived. Stalder. identical with E. silly. it will be well to point out a sense. and in the same sense. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. Dan. Halma. to blurt. blait. as in E. Woddis. The syllables blot. without horns. stupid fellow. Blaitie-bum. but of something soft thrown on the ground. to bring it suddenly out. absence of preparation. Plump mit etwas umgehen. unfledged Sw. duU. void. with or without the nasal. azure. to make foliage. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. naked. dial. unwrought. poor Sc. or heraus plumpen. G. blue. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. — Kil. —D. viz. blunt. bare or blunt.—D. insensible. — — pidus. and. blait. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. plotz. raw. Chaucer. Swab.— — — . blunt. blout. pressions. maol. plumbeus. and hath swiche languor in his soul. nature. It is from this notion of suddenness. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages.to fall into the water. or blab out a thing Kiittner . plump.plompen. from the loud report a fire-arm. it will be observed. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Then cometh indevotion. Bluntet. blatte. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. plains The large bech. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. Ford in R. without the nasal. plump J to plump out with it. blunt. Won by degrees. blott. awkward. Du. as Sw. and an unintelligent. the absence of sharpness. plump. plump. Kiittner. A modification of the same root. The blait body. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. pointless.pludse. Bare and blunt. a simpleton. naked. and the like. F. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. like a thing thrown down with a noise. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. thick. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. . exactly corresponding to the G. sheepish. figuratively. bare. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. a bluntie. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. blunsch. fooUsh. Plump. platzen. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. homo stolidus. down. biotto. used in both senses. to plump into the water. Plontp. More in Richardson.

Lat. G. skin. splurt and spirt. acre. blur. . both used in the sense of boasting. common. pluddre. properly noisy. an edge. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. Du. pausten. botte. Bot zeggen. Sc. bord. Bluster. Du. bludder. Kil. Halma. baban. bhis. dial. G. cocodrUlus. blasen and See Burr. pustern. To splirt. Bav.D. to jabber. to crying. G. It. AS.y. or blurt with one's mouth. ground. edge. 1. OE. Gael. pof. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. Slur. my dear. blirt of greeting. a small lump. bord. sudden. primarily signify loud noise. The to radical meaning D. berd. to dabble. bluther. puffen. blaere. then applied to indistinct vision . E. flat. bord. Sc. to talk quick and indistinctly . . a flurt with one's fingers. or bog also thread. a mist before the eyes plerren. bit. w. ever-swin. to make a noise in boiling. — a blaze. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. c. bdta. as splurt to splutter. rude. boa. — From mouth. brett. an ear of corn. 274. to make mouths. to guggle. and when applied to vaunting language. Fr. Boost is used for the boast. a torch blusse. and boisterous. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. BOB 79 — To Blur. bluter. coarse. — — . Dan. bleuster. Fl. burra. bustuous. geplerr. blusse i ansigtet. Hal. whence bordvidr. i. crack made by bursting open.plerr. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. eber. 'Ba. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. cheeks glow. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bobbin. lacerta. swagger. it implies that it is empty sound. to glow . bot-voet. Wtb. to say bluntly. to bark. to threaten. AS.—Bobbin. To blow in puffs. the Brem. to blore. edge. will fly up. rude.plodem. to blush. Hal.the syllable bot. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. a mistiness. e. puddle. It. blotch and botch. strong. bludder. a burst of tears. blaffen and baffen. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. lindwurm. to dangle. &c. 156. to chatter. to endeavour to terrify. and swimmeth very well. the sound of a blow poffen. a club foot . a bladder . blunt. . blow vioAn augmentative from lently. a board or plank. bora. board. Pl. beer. to be out of temper. bot. and Du. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. The elision of the d is very to chatter. margin. bdd. cluster. blot. to blaze. a. stupid. to bounce. 29. eafor. or backwards and forwards. imitated by has also In like . See Boisterous. Comp. fringe. Boa. a baU of thread the mud. Du. is formed Du. blosken. bladdra. A large snake. to smear. — — — * Boast. blodern. and the latch . to sound like water boiling. plump. this root are formed Sc. planks or boards. to breke. To Blurt. As the as. Fr. batello. table. Du. It. to snuff. bar. bateau. to blur. a grows to a great bigness. an end or stump.— . bliise. to puff. E. pludern. Supp. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. chicchere. blast. to blurt out. dial. a short thick body. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. a Jam. bakke bleustern. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. beacon fire. boccheggiare. of the word seems . violent G. pfludern. to roar. V. 9396. Blush. to blow. baiag. to rumble.pusten. margin. table. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. to brag grande loqui. Board. blot. gabble. aper. borrar. to blubber. hot.' — Red Riding-hood. — ' Dief. Du. Fl. be a crack or loud sound. margin. boistous. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. blurra. a border. ON. blubber. boord. Wallace. BLUR Boar. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. boot. to give a crack. gabble Sw. blose. large. a dangling object. short pieces of any filthy mud. like the parapets (viggyrdil. a blow . as in Du. bobine. Sverris Saga. to puff. mire. . Du. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. to dirty. AS. to spurt out. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. planks raised up outside the roofs. to make a noise with the mouth. To move quickly up and down. Boa. Explained by Jam. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. Wright's ed.v. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to render indisbhir. blarra. bur. See Blossom. a tassel. border. P. De Boat. Gael. To brag and to crack. to puff. — To Bob. bausen. Swiss blodern. violent. to disfigure with E. a blot. and E. . Related to blutter. blader. blaustem. a blotch. ader. whence bob. dull. a smear. outward edge. stellio. Schmeller. literally edge-wood. blaste?i. Du. Pull the bobbin. To tinct. bdtr. a tassel. on. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. voce intonare.

gogach. bod. as a horn. the body of a shift gaguejar. precept. bolr. stutter gogmire. Gael. Commonly explained as if from Sc. boll. and E. The signification of the root bot. . or stem of a tree. ^Jam. To mock. To make bad work. a sting . 3. Ir. bodilo. . VI. — as well as the body of an animal. potacha. stumpy. daubed or dabbled with blood. so large a feature in the country. bayonet . — Grandg. . — H. Lap. bottich are derivatives. bodetz. toss.a (i\ia. In like manner E. a round body both. anything soft. bog. to start start and back as from a bugbear. Reliq Antiq. bo tich. potacha. Ptg. The Sp. to prick. gagei. bole. . It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. bogle. badyti. to scruple. Supp. Wall. bodnu. Bodice. We . The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. bottig. agitate. a . to bodge. bayonet. Bret. bodies. the trunk of the animal body. W. bod. biodeachan. to stammer. Bohem. . thrust with something pointed. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Now unskilful action is conmire. whence paUchen. then from the yielding. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. a ghost . . body of a shirt bol. an announcement. nodding. Gl. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bot. pall. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. nave of a wheel. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. waving. It introduced from Ireland. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. stitch. bodi. '£.' A — Sherwood's Diet. boftich. a cask. as signifying anything spherical or round. French bouter. potig. corpset. Shakespear has badged with blood. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. bodig. bodak. shake. to stick. butt. expression hogglin an bogglin. to deliver a message. the body. a messenger . a dagger. busti. rounded. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen.! .. . Bog. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. bob. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . by the syllable patsch. to smack. fickle . bogan. gago. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. corpses pot. AS. * To Boggle. bodi. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. gag. gebod. the stem of a tree . round. dies. To Bode. to stir. bodhag. bothog. potahha. to commit a blunder. ON. gog in gog-mire. e. To portend good or bad.\\i\c\iset. So BOB To Bob.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. Schmel. a puddle. wavering. bagges. unsteady. whence Fr. to make a mow at. palleg. bog (equivalent to E. Crist. anything protuberant. meaning the round part of his body. Miracle-plays. — 2. Body.gmh:t. to fail. or a pair of bodies. to push with the horns. corset. to butt. exhibit another modification of the root. mud. strike with the horns.rabodi. unsteady nature of a soft substance. biodag. the thick part of anything. Bodkin. . a spur. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. swelling. shaking . and the word is well explained by Bailey. an awl. move. moist mire. is identical with Fr. to make. woman's stays. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. of which the E. Russ. quagmire). belly. Cot. or bag. where bogs form Gael. barriga.' Bogglie. moving backwards and forwards. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. a bog or morass. point. patsche. bogadh.hollow. 43. a quagsoft. unsteady. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. bogadaich. needle. stuttering. formerly bodies. bogach. a body. baboyer. speak of the barrel of a horse. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. to waver. bog. a prick. BOGGLE trunk and G. Ptg. gagoula. to fail. to thrust. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. from fitting close to the body. as in stammering or staggering. And waves. barrique. a command. a prickle. message boda. Thy i. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. . See Baber-lipped. Banff. to be uncertain what to do. cask bottich. AS. Lith. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. corset from corps. the belly. bodian. gog. to dabble or paddle. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. bodat. To Bodge. the boss of a buckler. See Bid. to blurt a thing out. goggle. See To Botch. arise E. to be unsteady tich. a cask. to roll. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. is a lump. bodene. quakmg. body and G. Gael. Gael. to bob. calf of the leg.

In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. ohg. Goth. bhster. bol. rough. bola. bolster. polc'h. Sw. boystousnesse. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . tartle. Bustuous. bolster. from the branches. Wall. baud. from Du. a boil or swelling Du. bold. Du. to be at a loss a shirt. Pm. . brave. roydeur. chaff of corn siliqua. tulum. Boll. free. Du. a swelling in ice.palleg. he will speak out. merry. Fr. ^Boistous. bolleken. animal as distinguished from the limbs. Bole. bouil. tomentum. bul. trunk of a tree . In the same way Sc. noise. OG. which are not used for a similar purpose. tar. Properly noisy. pimple ON. bold. G. confident.Du. bolr. bollen (Kil. pustule. intrepid. Westerwald bollern. ballr. repagulum. tartajear. Fr. coarse. (of Mons) b^guer. hollow. wag. a cushion. to stammer. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. boutpijl. Sc. insolent baude. bol. by which it is moved to and fro. furfures. buller. bealder. bulla. in the sense of handsome . courageous. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. bolzen. * Bolster. also a blister. see Boast. hakogni. Pr. Stalder. Mund. bolla.w. but that Bolt. * Boisterous. E. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. puilen. may be identified with It. ON. biiilen. globular bod)'. the body of a man or of ter. pusten. .— — . — 6 . round the first instance to the materials with . The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bald. gerade signifies straight to the mark. ON. tartalear. fiausten. to stammer. as. stameln vel bochken. balder. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. stutSw. To Bolter. The round stem of a tree. a bubble. A. whence bulla. the gurgling sound of water rush. bout. G. to be prominent. to stumble. buile. Kit. Lap. cows the people from speaking. ON. V. the lir. The bob. Magy. Chaucer. a quaking mire. gluma. used. capitellum. OHG. caput scapulse. bagaji. cheerful. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. a bump. 304). capiing into a cavity. E. Lat.— D. the husk of nuts. impetuosity. bal.. as E. Boil. Daring.). . Sp. To Boil. bulla. bula. to puff. proud. Swab. as baltha. puile. stramenta. Love. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. Fr. haughty. Bret. shake. Da. bolt. chatter. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. in speaking.' Mrs Baker. perpendicular. 1430 in Deutsch. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. to waver or hesitate. boggle. quick. to give a hoUow sound. is probably a modification of boll.rounded part of the body. strong. the body . Du. to the belly as the or dislike. to boil. a head . bullire. Kil. w. bold. to swell. swelling. bolstar. sels of flax. Test. bald. notes. a bakazikni. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. flax-boU. boss. bSlstr. a bubble. pillow. bog. and manace for to de. The term applies in — — impressed . dint in a metal vessel. poppy (Bailey). sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. strong. bolzBold. bol.D. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. It. bola. i. prince. Chaucer seems Dan. a fastening for a door. boll. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. treated under Bowl. to stagger. Gael. to tattle. ON. as. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. bog. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. bolt upright. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. Du. courageous. hero. excellent. Cot. styffe or rude . See Bulk. bul. huge. strong. properly represent belly. to hesitate from doubt. bok. G. or the like. then violent. as those of nuts. glass phial. — — which the cushion is stuffed. boly. Lat. balldr. a bubble. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . For bost or boist in the sense of crack. bochken (titubare. b^gayer. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. folliculus grani. This iv. . warlike. obex. — ' — tagliare. bolc'h. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. the. bout is explained by Kil. Boystous. swelling. ^Vocab. bag or bog are derived Piedm. G. beule. up of bubbles. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. belc'hj. bulr. scruple. 45. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). 374. Me doth awate. bolle. stud. pall. bald. boil . blow. and then applied to other husks.

noise {brattle of thunner. hulch. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. series of jolts or abrupt impulses.D. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. to start with palpitate. from G. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. as Fr. The ment and the operation. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. Dauphiny a sudden movement. a round glass ending — bultig. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. or a racer from the course. or ill. kloteren. tling or crashing noise. a bunch. to bolt flour burato. hulter de bulter. we have Du. projections. to bolt meal barutel. and the Thus from So. crash. a . beliitea. Hence. buUire. Du.D. buretter{CQ\. So also we pass from Lat.). hammer. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. to spring forth E.On the same principle.. to shake. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller.— . Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. poll. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. burclct. Bav. racket gepolter. by the representation of a racketing sound. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. beluter. budeln daz mele .by forms like G. bortelen. poltern. a sod (Schiitze). Passing from the sense of movement burattare. a crashing or racketing noise. barutela. a clump of turf. grasbulten. On this account Mid. buideln. barutela.agitation of the meal in the bolter. tantara. ler. In the next place. uneven. as a rabbit from its baritel. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig.thump or blow. bulstrig. have Lat. It. a clap of thunnences. tuft. to make a knocking. rugged. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. Brem. clump. Here the radical image is the violent O. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. ' — — ! ! : — . Pl. hump. vessel with narrow opening. brattle.. the sense of right on end. to bolt meal barutel. . as of a trumpet. knob.u. / is transposed in Fr. bolzen. Hence Palsgr. or the like. loud and fast. to clack.). a small portion. bolt. protuberance. Champagne burtcau. baruta. taratantarum. bolzaugen. 2. cruddle. Mid. je bulte. Dan. fied bot. Supp. to become lumpy. uneven. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. agitari (Kil. . Sw. sestuare. bolting to that of form. . Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. a rattle. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. also to curdle. we der Brocket). And as the agitation of cream in . Pm. OFr. Fr. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. holier poller. Du. ex•wagen. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. to bolter. curdle. tumultuari. Bulte-pook or bulstar. bullern. OFr. abolter. to significance of the term was overlooked. with E. bolt-foot. croler. zen. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. boss. then to knock. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. . bulla. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Pl.nature of the operation. to talk pulzen. hole. pull. Wtb. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. ' Holler poller / bulter. taratarrum.protuberance. hammer. to E. . a bolter or implement for bolting. crotlar. bultig. a rattling carriage. a millpoltzet augen. crod. in S'W plotter. we pass to Du. bulk. tar. bulk or quantity . taraabout.D.Lat. we see that the one consists of a words. . projecting eyes pul. staff which sounds tar.clack. I boulte meale in a boulter. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . Prov. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. the wheels groaned. — — — . Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. lumpy. Sanders. to come rattling downstairs. swelling. to agitate. Lang. and to crash. Schiitze.i5a//^«. Lat. a clod. barutare. P1. MHG. . bultred. as snow balling on a horse's foot. as above explained. on the one hand. small heap.as the essential element signifying the talum. a clod cloth. a bolter Prov. .D. bluter. pultare. gebolder. buletare. zare. buletel. jolting. a club-foot. The ulti.through a cloth of loose texture. bolt head is a retort. poltern. G. to knock. Pr. representing a rat.) E. to coagulate. pattern. : ' — — . bulio. OFr. one after the other.fe/2?. bolzauget) Sp. rugged. cro. to form lumps. die treppe pressed. mole-hill. btilt. to start out. blotttre.

bombice. bonfras. From builen. to shake (as to shake the head. It. bambagino. 155. a word of which we have traces in several English names. HoUybandin R. to shake. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bande. band.) . buttel trueb (of liquids). builen. to bolt meal. d. i. bombasine. rimbombare. The material called by this name. tie. bond. to ring bells. coarse. . which has given rise to so many false etymologies. a thundering noise bomre. an implement of binding. and also the leg. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. the leg. stuff. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . sijde. bwmbwr. tiffany. ODu. Dan. bombast. G. boulenger. booming over the water. . to cast to and fro. thick from shaking. . are applied to BONFIRE Bom. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. In E. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. beuteln. G. the shank the shoulder-bone. bomba. G. . When ture. thick. bonds. It. stump. bras. bwmbwry mar. also thick-shanked. Banstead. It. q. tree. and that from Fr. Butterglas. a boulter of meal. PoUitriduare. Fr. bunden. a hollow sound. Moreover. silk. and Du. Need you any ink and bonibase. breast-bone. . In legal language. baum-bast. the silk-worm. beuteln. a beacon. tie. Schm. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. gossipium. bongam. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. bombe. Fr. thick-legged. bauniwolle. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. sije. butteln. OE. butteln. agreement. cotton stuff. a stem or base. Bibelesworth in Nat. from teu. and in fact we find the and Du. — AS. as in . Dan. Mid. As cotton was used for padding clothes. achsel bein. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. biire. a ligature. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. a churn for butter. or trunk word in W. is supported by the analogy of G. e.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. the contracted form of Du. gunpowder. bindan. basin. a string. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. as Banbury.).Lat. and Mod. lana lignea. bombdra. Bonfire. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. cotton. again. to resound. a bone in general. iuttern. whence bomme.bast. has repeatedly varied. produced the Pl. Du. band pi. Greek iSa/iliaiciov.D. It. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. — bombast came guage. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . bopin. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. bureau. must be explained Fr. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. beil'n. E. raw silk. Antiq. ^o/j. sericum arboreum. bonog. brust-bein. to boult meal. Bomb. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. sye. the murmuring of the sea. baun. &c. 83 Gr. bein. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. the Fr. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. silk-worm. Bone. we speak of a gun to resound. crook-shanked bondew. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. to which the leg.^Altieri. bombasin.Su?. to bind G. bambacium. Du. and Bond. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. to beat a drum. bombase. bambagioj whence It. It. a baker. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. a stock. bombicina. . however. bone of the . bureau. buidelen. Near 6 * . It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. band. Castrais barato. . bommen. Fl. and called in Mid. term is appropriated in G. banitola (Fl. to shake down fruit from a tree. — Bombard. assuming the of leg : special signification W. buidelen. bulter from It. from boom. — having a stem or stalk. a —Bombasine. derivation. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. to thunder. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. ties. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. bombarda. It. to thump W. burato. a drum bombammen. Du. Kil. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. been. barate. bon. bolting-cloth. bommer. borel. Gascoi^e in R.

Du. dog-kennel. simpleton. See Bomb. a dry stalk. tigh. Du. to litter bosu. relief from sorrow. of wonder On the same principle Sp. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . literally cow-house. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. Pr. bota. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. whence ban-ffagl. which one gaping and staring about. A stall for cattle. a lofty blaze. dress. from gape. . desire. bose. the possessor of the farm. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. Thus from the syllable ba. Boom. bonad. hu?idbusa. often cut for burning and lighting fires. litter. A favour. Schm. Gael. dial. bas. the mouth. boer. remnants of hay or straw. from beida (E. Goth. Trans. the scriptures bokareis. the cultivator. by itself for head-dress. netis stall. bonaid. boutig. . 232. boubair. busu. the stubble of beans. a. Kil. babb^o. signifying beech. The latter is the original AS. . inhabit. boandi. biikui. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. house. master of the house.^ —P. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. b'ukvdry. Boon. blockhead. Gl. a bonfire. Perhaps. A peasant.n. bommen. \ais-band. build. bauen. G. and from AS. Busk. bonad. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. bobo ! interj. to strew with straw. to dress. ganian. . but stall. Hal. bd. build. short boots. a tree. from Du. Wall. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Binau Brychyniog. Basa. betere thing werse. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. w. to cultivate. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. countryman. boa. b^er. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. . bosig. Du. pole. the first consonant of the alphabet. boubi^. a scribe G. Bonnet. bowwen. stabulum. Boot. See Butt. . the word may signify merely a fire of buns. Kil. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. and thence Rouchi baia. Booby. bdn. head-dress wai^g. tapestry. in w. to cultivate. Ox. to gape. E. badaud. a letter Russ. petition. without ad- . bote. bua. ON. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. gawney. pero. — From the participle present. inhabit. a lying-place for dogs or swine. botte. Mrs Baker. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. however. a silly fellow. . It is commonly explained as identical with It. is Du. to set in order. a good turn or re- meaning. Sp. to yawn. a. boom. buch-stab. dial. tall. boten-shoen. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie.Boos. bos. beam. quest. feu de behourdis. boia. help. the name of the letter b. one who dwells nigh. as the Brecknockshire Banns. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. Boot of bale. or Vanns. Fr. by arbitours sholde bote the P. boutig. — To boot.—Bootless. From bo. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. letter. are formed Fr. a letter . Pm. — Bailey. been. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. The character of folly is i860. pig-sty. Hal. foolish. Fr. lofty. petition. dolt. Build. nachbar. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. Hufwud-bonad. . comes bondi. — — . Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. buandi. to gape. to ask. remedy of evil. Bootless. reparation. gehyred. Swab. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. a vessel for holding liquids. till. babau. at everything. and Gael. Bonnefyre. bosih. high. Mrs Baker explains bun. To Boot. babin. See Bown. bolt. to prepare. Prov. a bag of skin or leather. bua. b&ber. ON. from badare. But bosg. — . Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. The origin of the word is probably the W. 13. bds. — e. Boor. prayer. a simpleton. a head-dress.. ON. . as a lying-place for cattle. p. gaping hoyden — Cot. Palsgr. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. a stall. set in order. chaff. AS. Book. a hollow skin. Fr. ty Gael. gaby. fool. and fig. beiSne. the alphabet. where a cross (or a gun. Fr. bid). It. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. wondering signifies not only straw. although in the OG. writing bokos. OSlav. till. Thin ben Luke i. to aid. G. succour Bailey. OW.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. bonnet. ass. G. botte. Jr. baier. also called Brecknock Beacons. bAkva. * Boose. E. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. wall hangings. ON. The i. Bun. and Ban in w. ben. . boo. bauer. In nautical language. AS. bene. prayer. N. booby. swinbusa. bossen. dress. in Phil. bobo. clown. botta.

but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. exchange or divide. better. Alexand. purra. on. The Fin. repair. a word. Fr. limbus. a border. mat-bod. are parret. See Burgeon. boete. bite. ON. puru. baara. — ON. scalpo. a borer. lappalare. budka. cellar. to pierce. . and meta- Fr. as afford a satisfactory explanation. burin. • — To Bore. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. extremitas Bore. from borra. bothag. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. lappolone. . The ON. piercer. pi. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. bora. wave. Pol. to boot. welt. . to foam. . Bohem. bata. an engraver's chisel. OSw. boede. kvit-bara. It. Gael. amendment. furd. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. BoracMo. to build buda. remedy. bohren. Gael. to build. See To We speak in E. a shop. and hence to fine. purro. pointed. bower. fire. drillen. a sharp-pointed tooth. a wave. bothan. puru. botjan. make . and E. a granary .. Esthon. Magy. abode. to importune. from deila and skipta. Du. sharp. boards. struere ignem. OHG. Esthon. Lat. G. Fl.. boeye. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. bud. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. N. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. It. in Lap. ON. The cor. a cupboard. hut. beute. pu purro (saha =: saw . edge. a bothy. batr. Bete. chisel. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. to hut. recovery bata. a borer .. reparation. puras. amendment boeten. bordi. chewed food for infants. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. a shed. dust. bauen. a booth or shed. To Bore. bauda. urboro. rof. hem or gard of a garment. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . bottino. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. fimbria. bolino. in Ihre. bdt. puras. boeten het vier. to restore.—Burin. &c. furni. a hut or tent. Another derivation from Fin. butin. biorag. aid. But probably the E. of an edge that will not bite. yfirbdt. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. Mag. uzboro. p. to bore. A phorically a drunkard. swell bara. And so in ON. borracha. a tusk. . a great bur. to profit Goth. to bite. a. margin.— Return from Parnassus I inR. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. limbus. byte points to the verb byta. borino. cure Sw. Gael. 1. . sawroot. Fin. budowai.por. the . nor E. ora. to surge. bdra. It is admitted that Fr. a borer. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. Fr. Palsgr. tent. making good again . to patch. to bete the properly to mend the fire. forare. to The Sw. AS. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. to profit. BOOTH vantage. The as G. . to divide. Du. to to . . to expiate boeten den dorst. to quench one's thirst . are derived from G. See Bower. Booty. purra. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. Burke in R. Border. a shop budowati. comminuted by either kind of action. barn. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. butin is explained by Flor. betan fyr. bord. a leather bag or bottle for wine. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection.par. 266. bardure. Booth. terebro. Fin. to stick unto as a bur. sculpo 05\xiik. and parrets. wine-skin. Compare Manx birrag. dens mordens vel caninus. a responding forms . Sp. or anything pointed. to anything Neither G. to mend. Kil. admovere titiones. 3. a shelter of branches. ON. to . bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. a chisel. terebra sculptoria purastoa. a hut. baete. . to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). an ing or biting leads to the application of board. In the Fin. cup- awl. Fin. a bladder. which are probably from the same root. from bord. scsdes-bod. is purin. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. to repair. to bite. to swell. differs only in termination. and thence to eat build. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. or the gradual working a hole in anything. cottage. borracha. both.

beorgan. secure. (1867). empty. — ' wind burya. empty. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. into borsholder. Hal. to pick or cull plants. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. was origin of the term is the OFr. tive idea seems to bring under cover. a boor. busse. . a pushing or striking out. bundle. Borrow. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . undyed wool of brown sheep. to knock or strike. borel. destitute. bos. Swiss Rom. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. less. Newbury. E. byrig. whether from the fact preserve G. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. knock and a knob . boss of the side. unpolished. borg. the sun sets.ribs and the side. a citizen. and borough in the sense of a town.any round sweUing. The primi. agrees with E. bossen. boss. striking. in instead of without. whence the burg.' or system of bail. to contain. . bosh. bierge.' Vegetius in Diez. to protect. Borowholder. is probably radically Boss. blow on a hollow object. useCanterbury. bttssel. projection. hollow. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. to take in. clownish. to become is emitted by a hollow body. bump is used in lump or piece. northern. V. And that unsittynge is to here degre. to save. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. an eminence. f graauw. as if from the verb to hold. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. to save Sw. to conceal. a blow. tuft. Gr. i.mass. a city . I. boschen. burh. baurgs. borg. a citizen. or because a blow berga. Turk. by which of or belonging to plants. Goth. poor.' every man be under bail. Sc. the N. So Du. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. connected. to keep. a wen. the Sc. bump. a little blow. in the body struck. or perhaps also To Borrow. Hence knot. Fr. to give bail or answer for an. It. Boreal. head. from AS.. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. The other. which now signifies a knob. a boss. empty. The origin seems to be the Goth. bourgeois. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. ^o^^flj. AS. knocking. &c. Bosh. as we speak of a thumping potato.' if thou give money on loan. . (Bridel). See found in Bav. bussi. Bailey. a surety. Du. botch. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. bussa coarse. botsen. 106. tempest. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. loan. gum vocant. pegou. knur. borei. a tower. bourg. cnoc. D. Borough. hollow bucklers. to protect. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. /3oraMK6f. while Gael. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. botch. to save. surety. borough-holder. Bunch. to strike . Fr. is used in the sense of bussare. the ordinary a swelling. borh. boss. Altieri. Cot. burgess. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. a knob. a bunch or hump. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. — — — A — . to strike so as to Bureau. gesylle. Jam. primarily signifying coarse sound . when that system was forgotten. butsen. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. plant. that which biirge. coarse cloth made of the Du. beorgan. pego. borealis. formerly used in the sense of knocking. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. pitch. the must have arisen burgensis. borgese. bosseu. G. ON.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. ' pledge. bunch.bucklers. the hollow between the Borsholder. ' — — . huschen. Fr. one who sticks to you like a bore. ^ma. from their grey clothing. Hence borhes ealdor. or head-borough. Russ. rude. a herb. cnap. boss sound. AS. basse. Botany. without. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. bom. AS. bosse. grey). bizocco (from make a hollow sound. knob.vr\. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. cormpted. a. It. rustic. Lat. Jam. bail biirgen. In like manner It. cob. bergen. burel. boss or knob of a buckler . boussi. borough or chief constable. nonsense. borgo. poor. or perhaps it may be See Bury. . storm. botse. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. plain rude fellow. vain. and thus could not shake off the old burr. cnag signifies both a clergy. a bouncing baby . of bail throughout the country. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. to give a hollow bizo. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Du.' the chief of the ' borh. brown cloth. bos. the North Wind. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. viipyoc. Bos a surety. butse. a giving rise to It. Lang.

To confuse with noise. Hal. Fl. A bottom depth. the bud of a flower . the other hand. See Boss. thing soft batsch.ments of the same root. to mend. to dash about . boiteag. Bailey. botel. to make better. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. contusion . nets. bots. the lowest part. noise. to rage. bouteille. butsen. OSax. to dip in liquid (to Gael. tumour. puddle. whisper. bosser. you two. whence the name ol pool to podge. Du. a root. Lat. what pushes outwards. ' G. j3i/9os. a vessel for holding liquids.^Dec. botus. a cask. bAdtr. kessel-biisser. botn. Kil. Parmesan poccia. Jtidu. to stir and mix together. putra. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. a pit. blow.— . or plague sore . podge. Botcli. the first rough draught 2. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. botte. and ajSvamg. abbi. mess. dim. turmoil. AS. an imperfect and bunbutt end. boden . A horses. — duj Lett. bdsser. . H^cart. maggots in barley. to strike .— Hal. mess. botte. from the dashing of water. Stalder. abbi-diwij Slavon. Bottle. Lith. a lump of somebatschen. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. bdt. Decorde. to stir and mix together . . Mudu. both. AS. bozza. a bott . — Jidwi. knock. to knock. a pock. to put on a patch. dabble). mutter. stock. boccia. ON. gling piece of work. Bouteille. bund. Butu. abbution. G. to smack. bossu. buts. patch. — . A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a waterfall. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. a slop. bulderen. an abyss or bottoniless pit. bodem. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Diez. the science or knowledge of plants. 212. a bottle of hay. a maggot. shoes. botch. bSn. It.— Swift in R. botola. botte. — — A 2. botsen. boss. On the other hand. ambo. a patch patschen. e. butwo. a depth. a bottle. stump. bide. Boa two. . Leg. a bubble. ing out. signify a in OE. — — belly-worm. potra. From the dim. to simmer. ledge It. bot. a slop. Fr. blain. boil. poltern. . a cess. bundle. disturbance.D. &c. abbu. Fr. bile. Dan. E. we two. a cobbler. disturbance to . — — . Du. gipuozan. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. ON. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. to bcBta. batschen. to froth as beer . was called a push. btitse. noise. is boteau. round lump. Both. as Fr. scuohbuzere. ubhau. schuhbosser. &c. A — oba-dwaj Lat. AS. Canut. a. a bundle of straw or hay. . hurly-burly. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. we have Swiss batscken. for a bud. . stem or base. N. corresponding to . repara- — — See To Bete. Fl. mend. by met. in the sense of mend the fire. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. Again.) . to make a make a noise. a plague-boil Kil. Here the radical image seems a bubble. stock. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. butse. * To Bother. Judwi. pozzo. to podge. pimple. Ancren Riwle. pocciar. Danneil.foundation. bozza. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. Prov. a botcher of shoes. Bret. especially in Gael. It. ^kvBoQ. bluster. baiothsj Sanscr. bottigUa. a bottle. • Bott. And so we speak of an eruption. bativa. botel foenn. boiteal. however. to we have OHG. buideal. — Dief. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. See Bound. BOTCH understood). Wedu. beggtaj Goth. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. fundus. — Bottom. ON. of botta. See Butt. a bunch. bethia. buddl.of a ball of thread. boute. to fall : with a sound batsch. as a push or windgaU. ixorapudder. To Botch. — Fl. Bochu. See To Bodge. Bouds. bun. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. a knock. a boil or swelling Halma. Hal. Fyre to botme. dial. to work without order or know. Lith. pozzanghera. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. G. ba. abyss. — . w. Gael. they two. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. bulder. biissen. a pit. pother. bunch. It. bottom. On — Du. i. burgi vel pontis refectionem. gen. to from the root bot. any plain round viol glass bozzo. House-bote. stroke. a wisp. to give a sounding blow. and E. Pl. Podge. a humpback. to mend (kettles. oba. botm. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . I. buddeln. empty or hollow. boitean. buazen.' to the fiery Csedm. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. is also a bubble. a cesspool pass. to botch or patch. blister. The Gr. fire-bote. a bump or swelling. a tinker schuhbiisser. botse. Gael. .

bay. language a * Boulder. tnndo. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bouncwhen coiled in a circle.>a bout. Webster. The branch of a tree. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Bound. and Prov. bonna. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. E. Bought.— Boundary. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. 136. mcn-bomi. a boundary stone (men stone). geration. from bugan. — — Bight.— F. to fix limits. to thunder. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. till The dat et bunsede. Primarily to strike. a large stone rounded by the action of water. volta. as a bout of fair or foul weather. bondir. bunda." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. See Bunch. bugt. — No i ausiratz parlar. to resound. of thread. ni frestelar. . baby. a boss.xperience such sounds as the foregoing.D. by Bujns or Buns. Pr. to knock at the door. — strike.'— Charter of K. Pm. Raynouard. nor horn sound. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = .— Cot. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . gulf. whence buj7isen. Bowlder. Mid. an de dor bunsen. . — — leap. march. to turn. a bouncing apple. bog. bend. contusi. To Bound. bottom. So It. boundina. its kind. and F.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. pimple Richards bothog. And the new stools set out. as that of E. bonzen. or Bow-pot. Bret. bodina. a bound. From Sw. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. signifying in nautical coil of rope. bamsen. AS. See To Bolt. as a nosegay. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. thumping. see Boss. the larger kind of pebbles. carpet. bons. round. to set out by metes and bounds. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. Bodinare. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. to knock. a stock. a button. in contrast to klappersten. Probably from the Celtic root bon. debodinare. Wtb.— — — - 88 BOUGH . jump.' round and round in similar circles. Bout. the bay of Benin. I assure you. The Bight of Benin. from AS.' B. bunsen. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. Alpine Re- — gions. boujtce. to hum. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. a large pebble. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Fr. Fr. butina. a blister. bone. Dan. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. iv. Fr. ing. Sw. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. came home with his face all to-bounced. Coxcomb. bolder. buUersten. the smaller ones. ni motz brugir. from volgere. a blow. boriie. to bow. to thundering big one hum. a round body both. bend. boh. turn. an occasion. botwm. Boulderstone. 2. Bonny. boss of a buckler. Nor a centinel whistle. like bobbin. 3.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. — Take care my house be handsome. Q. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. Du. bouton. limit. signifies a sliort thick mass. in the absence of actual e. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. To Bounce. nave of a wheel bothel. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. bonndn. bumper. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. a bud. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. knock it sounds again. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. frequently used in the same sense with bound. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. Halma. Bough-pot. The W. Bough. the verb bondir in OFr. a turn or time. has hot. jungen. bun. to set bounds. To Boult. p. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. root (see Bottom). to spring. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. pothel. Bunche. mere. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. to make a loud noise. dial. Ni gacha cor bondir. bullra. winding. strapping.. dial. bounbounejha. bugan. Ducange. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. . for anything large of Een bunsken appel. Brem. to spring. the hollow of a bay. A Langued. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. he fell so that it sounded.

bogha. G. different modification gives ON. to draw a deep breath. bugna.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. to swell. Dan. As the Gael. analogous to Fr. Dan. a bow. curvature. drink deep. whence buysen. souf. warbling. . burdan. like quaff. to tope W. a. bontS. bend. brummen. And there in mourning spend Sw. brunna. to — Hal. bugan. It is the participle past buinn. address. the fixed. a prop. Du. bage. to take breath. bog. Cot. and not in the sense of curvature in general. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. buizen. of the ON. biugan. a drone of a bagpipe. bow to shoot with. bunaiteach. a from Du. AS. fresh* water. Gael. purlBav. bue.bass of a stringed instrument. Immediately from Fr. belly out. Bow. whether by sound or gesticulation. trick. Spenser in R. a cup kroesen. ing. It is remarkable that we find vary. buga. Bourdon. when we speak of. Sw. Bourdon.which see. It. deceit. . explaining Sw. Du. a go to. taunt. a pot. schulter-bug. mockery. has also buirleadh. schenkelbug. Gael. bend Sw. ruption of bonne. Eown. It is bov. to draw a deep breath. . to take deep draughts. G. bound. bordo. springbiirn. on. prepared for. that ON. Goth. . the big end of a club.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. a corToward the garden. as was for. cheat. set out. a humming noise. Prov. spelling the word iox bound. bordon. a sing-song. identical with E. The meaning of bound. bug. burt. gurgling. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. the Bourdon. bommen. Sc. potio. buyse. saufen. burn. to mutter. bogna. good. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. jest. to bulge. head Fr. Cot. Du. limit. Comp. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. on the whole. So Sc. Bret. bwa. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. ridicule buirte. repartee. to take one in. a well. bourde in the same sense. to our bous. Gael. patesten. bonus. fun of one . must be referred to the same root. A —Cot. sotich. an arch. g. G. ready to pike or spear . sense durd. flagon. to bow or incline the . . it is probable that the It. steady. to trick. purra. pusta. Dan. . to bow. cudgel. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. biegen. to drink deep. Fr. to tope. drone of a bagpipe. borne. the shoulder of the vessel. Bounty. the burden of a song. and that probably from a Celtic root. bogen. Swiss bausen. pot. bdgi. crutch. Gael. bugne. bov. a jibe Shaw bururus. language of folly or ridicule. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. w. in Fr. Burden. brausen. buys. pared. or of an Gael. burlare. bordone. is. Fr.. to drink deep. to tipple. bourd. hous^ Man in the Moon. bourdon. hence musical accompaniment. The foregoing derivation seems. bourdon. epaule du vaisseau. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. bovne. bugna. Burgeon. — — . Bourd. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. way ba7n. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. from spring. i. to indulge in his cups . When used alone it . a — — . a. puff out. Sp. beogan. Fr. bog. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. sport. ready. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. A water. Sw. kroes. grumble Sw. a drone or dor-bee. . G. burreti. a mill-post. Dan. shoulder-blade. lance. bonitas. Chaucer in R. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. addressed to. pre. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . tinton. joke. Lat. drunken. their time -With "wailful tunes. buzz. to pre2. bending. a humming noise Macleod. a jibe. firm. staff. verb bua. bending. bending of a joint knie-bug. buzzing of bees. burdan. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. to hum. Du. burd. Bound. ^<7r«i?. spring. the ting of a bell. to hum as a bee. buigen. bagna. to banter or laugh at. sausen. game. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. also the humming or ON. — — — A pare. btiga. Borden. bogr. Sw. a for New York. a brook. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. pausen. Gael. — probably through this latter signification. bausen. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. are applied to the bow of a ship. beygja.

. a hen-coop . buckelig gehen. bucka. crown of a hat. gut. a chamber swefnbur. . A . dial. utibur. . an inclosure. bugyola. bowel Box. boudin. or in e. kupula. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. a little box . a parlour. ku^o. bhugna. different position in ODu. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. Cable. a sleeping-room . ask. * Bowels. ^o/a. bollen. boxtree. bol. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. G.flask It. Fr. ne. a black pudding. bulla. . iri'iaQ. a swelling or rising up. In like manner the Pol.D. kuppelo. . passing on stud. belly of a cask. busskai. mausbollelein. a box Lat. make obeisance. Hal. Dan. Bret.. convex. . bulge. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. busse. a box. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . bolla. the box-tree. to make crooked . bulne. the bogna. a box. W. ON. w.\s.. &c. . the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. folliculus . a thing of liquid. a ball . ON.). give in to. bola.). containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. buis. or. belly. prominence. bugyani. boss. E. pocket. bol. to bulge. kupu. round glass phial. hill. without the and grits. . Du. bugna. round bead. bowels. bogla. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. boxtree pusska. a round glass or bolg. and on swollen. Du. botulus. to stoop. belly. bow. OFr. polla. cumena-bur. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. bow. . bock. box. a protuberance. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. bouellou. a bubble bolli. bending. the box-tree It. a bubble. Pol. . bolle. bent.) to incline oneself . Sanscr. a knot. hollow place Fr. box in both senses. bur. at the e. to raise the back boll OHG. fyn. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. See Boil. to puff up. globular. bulcken. is applied to a coach-box. buchsbaum. to bend down. budel. a stud. Gr. bog. head of a cabbage. a croft by a house. tumour. Fr. ken. a bud. bugyni. a bowl. Buckle. blister. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a polla. bukke. boil. fata-bur. a bubble Fin. Sw. bug. The word may probably be identical with Fris. bwra. bhuj. bulla in aqua. pusspan. Bret. bur. a sack. AS. . hollow wooden case. peated in Magy. W. compared with Fr.a. koziel. spherical Dan. hiidel. See Crab. a buck. ttuJic. stream forth bugyogni. G. biisse.cup Du. zich onder jemand under to him. OE. as well as the name of a. Bowl. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. . bolgna. of a wooden ball to play with and — . to bow buck. bog. a wardrobe . . tumour . A Bulk. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. similar shape. water pulli. heafod bolla. pullo. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. (in pass . bocka. buk. PLD. bouzellou. buello. an outhouse AS. Du. bolla. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. in walking appears in a . bugy. Fr. a ball. . The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. Lat. a box. puffy. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. guestchamber . to yield to one. wisp of straw . to stoop biickling. See MHO. boss. boor. a ball. and to a coachbox in particular. sausage. a pot. . to bend. inclinare se (Kil. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. the skull or brainpan . bouge. swell. . as in E. The / a bow. lump . in both senses. a wine-can . globe or spherical body. buga. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. . The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. to bubble up. the head. knob From the former modification we have bolla. bowl . spring as water bugya. . a. Sp. buckel. as in AS. budello.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. globular body. . hollow. beutel. bolne. kupukka. swoUei) Lat. boucle. purse. to guggle. Sw. bubble. biiske. a separate apartment . a box. convexity. ^o«/«. biichse. AS. Bower. the barrel of a gun. bulka. a boil. a drop of pullistaa. with inversion of the round. crooked. . boel. trestle. ON. Dan. the box-tree and articles made of it G. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. bubble. bosso. anything globular. beuz. a bubble. acsian. a hump on the back rossbollen. Sw. bossola. to puff up pullakka. intrenchment. painter's easel. . . It is more probably from the G. bulk compared with Sw. buigen. Thus we have Esthon. . signified by forms like Gael. From the other form are G. Boll. Bav. . the head. honse-bur. then by the loss of the /. the crop of a bird. bulb of an onion bolleyield. to swell. buxus. to buckle G. Hence. biicken. a bundle. bwr. Bohem. a iDubble.

See Brake. To fight with the fists. bracer. G. brae. to give a blow with the fists. braca. a guard to torf. youth. . Pm. Prov. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . It is B. and then Pl. fuse. Sp. to stammer. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. confining. bracco. need. In like manner the It. Fr. moral or physical. variation of babble. brechen ihm. brakke Bracelet. bitch Du. Swiss bub. I sal slyng. brago. mud. The different meanings of the brageux. an languages. . . fault . Brach. quarrel Bohem. damaged board a ship. — . armour for the arm. beagle.D. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Pl. which has many representatives in the other Europe. root). odorinsecus. La ville ou y avait Brace. to is derived brestr. thwack. braque. A to halt between two derivations. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. a comworld Rayn.. ON. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . OE. fault. dog Sw. rack. to be wanting. land spoilt Kil. Swiss Rom. brasselet. brechen. boiste. brassard. corruptse. a pair of braces. let. Brak-goed. briche. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. want. baske. Bracelet. Brack. mud. wristband. brae. to smack the hand batschen. Rouchi Then as an adj. breach. To Brabble.. bracon. brek. defect Du. G. priated to the original sense. boussole. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. Fr. cramp-iron holding things together . .. — . Brack. wrack. dog in general. brakke grund. ' — A — — — . — . Kil. strike. — — . is a rope holding G. brageuses. to slap. baukscheht. Heligoneed. bouibo. brec. Swab. Pr.with a noise. to give a sounding blow defect. to stutter. bresta. compressing. pupus. pube. to fall. posh. wnzC/J. flaw. land batsken. s. dirty. BOX To Box. to burst. 91 the Dan. want. A — — . con. suppuration. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. defect. unmarried man . Bracket. On the same principle from the buksteht. brace on and Du. salo sive aqua marinS. dog that hunts by scent. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. or bracer Cot. breach. to crack. filth . Sp. AS. matter. or defect. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. Boy. Prov. brabbelen. braecke. a crack. — . to want. One girl. — ." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. murmur. bask. It. his eyes are failing him). the arm. Du. taneous talking. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. isolated part of the text. See Broker. Ptg. ON. OFr. as noticed under Box. and string of his bow.D. Cot. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. a sounding blow. bou^ba. brae. from a root brak. braco. foul. Lat. breptati. s. in R. Lett.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. Fr. brek.puddle. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. mud. brague. . From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. pus. braic. loud smack. to give a gebrechen. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. Kil. bracil. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. buah. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. MHG. bue. &c. ing from a mixture of salt. It. bray. breuque. a braceOFr. race. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. to box the ears. boy. then from break. brack. jabber. . Water rendered boubo. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation.. It. flap. To brace is to draw together. . A brace probis. and F. ghebreck. boy bouba. a boy pupa. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . Sp. to Swiss batschen. ratch. a bubbling dura del mun.nated by dirt. . a box. bragos. defect. . clay. flaw. bracha. want. brostia. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. Kil. lalear-eyed Prov. babble. rakke. Hdcart. rakka. a grown youth Cimbr. V. brack. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. disturb. parallel with OK. OFr. merely in our mode of considering them. braquet. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. Prov. which sigof straining. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. acidus. Prov.— D. in R. rakki. bracke. spaniel. a girl. Thus brack. braco. salsus. Brackish. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. whelp as. by an overflow of sea water. brae. bracket. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. bube. Du. a bog or pass Fr. bruxula. by the same inversion of J and k. Fr. the first instancebya physical tie. Gael. refuse. break. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU.

and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. brave. an iron for holding Zalli. brave. 92 Cot. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. subduing. boast. Walloon bress. riches. brake in the sense of constraining. braga. to Rouchi brMer. to boast of his own worth. brabhdadh. splendid.aburst. gorgeous. stout. se donner trop de licence. Hecart. empty pride. and it is very likely that the root brak. Sp. to make a noise. bragging. brachittm. Bret. BRAG Piedm. is identical with Gael. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. . used in the sense of force. brag or jet it braguard. to swagger. braw. proud. braske. a noisy talkboasting. stately. and that from e. gayly dressed. bravache. vain glory. gay. ^Brave. braske. finery. noisy ostentation. Brain. Wallachian bratsou. From sprouted corn. bravado j Fr. To Brail. Primarily to crack. From brayel. —Spenser in R. make a noise . in order to prevent its catching the wind. braszketi. compressing. Fris. smart. confining. bragd. gallant (in apparel) also proud. showy bravery. A — Hal. spot. brae. &c. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. se pavaner. to sprout malt. also tion of this was brayeul. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. was formed brayele. braka. Lat. courageous. braga. breach. See Brace. well-dressed. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Thus we are brought to the OE. Dan. Dan. breghe. brails. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). torture . . brayete. . The meanings of brake are very numerous. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . Lith. Faire le brave. Hence E. the opposite of which. to stand upon terms.. beautiful. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood.explosion. bushy . It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. brave. swaggerer. about the hawk's fundament. Fr. . The plant y^r«. — . w. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. See Bray. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . bragging of his own valour. bragio. also insolenter se gerere . Brail. affront. be noisy . to boast or brag. fine. to crack. Sc. boasting. a carriage for breaking in horses . valiant The head are sumptuous. Cot.%. gay. Brag was then used brisk. braga. strength. power. It is certain that the word for arm is. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. goods.Shepherd's Cal. Bret. expensive. breagh. brao. swagger. blusterer. crash ON. ative fellow. slight modificajoining the two legs. — A — . in numerous dialects. or from braie itself. flaunting. . that will carry no coals. handsome. Bray. brake is. dhbrailler. bravo. To Brag. bragaireachd. Langued. h-avare and Fr. is Cot. the feathers ON. Thus Bret. to unbrace or let down the breeches. brag. bullying. It.^ Sp. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . . — Chaucer.breeches. also derived Fr. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. to flaunt. brag. be found. braegenj Du. Brake. fine. bra!. hectoring. — Equivalent forms are Gael. . called by our braggard.^Vocab. or by gaudy dress and show. fine. Fr. to cord a bale of tie up. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. 2. to brail up a sail. to rattle. braguer. would be to brace. braka. cry. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere.—— . gallant. subigere. From Fr. — From W. drawers. braggard also valiant.. as the type of exertion and strength. brave. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. braver. Brake. to shout. Cot. crash. AS. Rom. crack. The meanings included under — Bragget. to strut. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. breyne. an inclosure for cattle . bravacherie. brabhdair. se parer de beaux habits. vaunting. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. To Braid.i5nz^. a roisterer. bully .hy which this idea is con\eyed. idle talk. Cot. fine. in the sense of the Lat. braicli. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. binding anything together. brave. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. Haldorsen Gael. . to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. excellent. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . brav. flaunt in fine clothes . Chaucer. i. vanter une chose. de Vaud. brazo. braies. the arm. breghen.

a thicket. Brake. a horse's a horse's twitch. murran. as well as in the case of the e. tnurdma. might come to signify a swamp. as in the case of horse-breaking. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. pasture. Voc. murtaa. brook. brake. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. to fracture. braka.— . The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. flachs brechen. to distinct. riguus. Prov. farinam in mortario subigere. fratto. bregille.' It. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. a swampy Mid. to pound. to bray in a mortar. 3. or A A ' . properly braking or subduing them. marsh or swamp. is formed murd. Fr. el arco. We — . have thus Du. braeken. or overthrow of trees by the wind. cetur. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. thicket. brog above mentioned. broeck. breaking in the operation. low wet land bruch. glebas subigere. a stream. a fen. Fr. to row. — Fl. to brush. bregar. break of such a kind. dial. and Lat. any thicket of brakes. as in Sp. braecken het vlasch. de Vaud. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. iSpsx". gebiisch. nemus. braquer un canon. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. to break. bruch. brog or brake. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. a spinning-wheel. Gr. brook. a marsh. frangere linum. as in Du. brambles. to head must be bit. briers. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. It. brcekke. to bend or direct a cannon. subigere is used for any kind of dressing.D. briser. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes.D. Biglotton. Brake. gebroge. broil. casser le \va. in northern climates. P&. In like manner Lat. The Fr. broken fratta. gebrUche. 2. In ON. to knead or mix up in a mortar.bracan.. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. break flax PLD. to subdue. broyer. broilium. brego. to break or fracture. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. quarry from Fin. Pl. the original meaning of G. a harrow. copse-wood. . cover G. where from Esthon. To the same bend a bow. brambles. G. to rub. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. conSo in G. in usus braca. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. braca. bregar brake. brushwood. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . Gael. watered. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. bush. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. gilum. Dan. brog. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. broor bushy place Hal. In the sense of a thicket. word. tris). Swiss Rom. brogille. brak is a frame in which strip. game. Dan. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. it is not surprising that the word has here. to harrow (Lat. bushes. In the case of the ne. or a wood in a marshy place . Corrfeze bredgea. gebrUche. brage. Dan. marsh. been confounded with the verb break. to bend a bow. a brace on board a ship. and when once thrown down. OFr. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. —Ovid. gebroge. for — Due. thing is brought under control. ^raca. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. BRAKE to external force. brake. It may be sus- . for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. to break. bredza. braken. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. the lever by which the string was drawn up. is braukti. It. signifying to sweep. gebroge. subigere. t° moisten. brega. brolium. e. brage. —Bracken. breuil. to exert force in different ways. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. ing of flax or hemp. murrokko. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. to stiffen against Taboada). — — . broillet. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). Lat. and G. brook. to The ON. bush. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. Sp. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. Fr. referred brake. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places.

heath. brancas. Bran. to gripe. a vine twig Bav. a briery plot. braam. brosst. brein. what is cast out as worthless. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. brang. bronbo. hallier. Sir Topaz. clutch. thicket of brambles Cot. a bud It. brugek. ordure . Bav. excrement. 2. Pl. cabbage sprouts Fl. compress. or ling. or other plants of a like nature. thorns and Gen. a shoot. bruk. broembel-CBppel.). As ON. bramble Du. gebroge. brom. brank. brem. branco. brandello. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . heath (Bret. the thorn apple or stramonium. sedge burkni. brenna. brous. bruk. brouskoad. dirt . that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places.. also pfriemkraut. and waste growths.D. restrain. wood composed of twigs. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. a rod or twig. broem. as. Grisons bruch. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. bracken or fern . It will be found that shrubs. stink . brug. Rouchi bren d'orMe. pfriem in the sense of an awl. a roA. A mark made by burning. a bud. a thick bush. from Servian pnit. a small deri\'ation . to or iron. Bret. In like hrst. young buisson fort epais. brwnt. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . to brank. branchia. bran. brok. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. Brand. prufye. a dunghill. gebriiche. Bret. Piedm. E. in the same sense. Branch. young twig {brom-beisser. Russ. also a marshy low ground or fen . brand. Thus we have w. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G.G. Fr. from Lat. bruch. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. breun. brano. . sprouts. breme j Sw. The same form becomes in It. Thus in Lat. and thence a shoot. heath. . sawdust. That beareth the red hepe. the bull-finch. heath ON. Bret. piece of anything. Brancare. — branca. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. chaff. a heath. i. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. a shrub from Bret. to -brugen. constrain. Broom. G. a halter. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor.D. apiece orbitbrandone. Serv. sweet broom. may be so called in analogy with Bret. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. AS. &c. But we find It. brin (as It brano). briars. G. bren. brandr. bromboli." The bmno a • on . burning brennen. 1 8. So Swiss gaggi. ground full of briers. . it glitters — — . G. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. Thornas and bremelas. is the draff or excrement of the com. a burning fragment of wood. bit by bit. bushes. to burn. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . and E. to bridle. titio. brarn. broccoli. brass. Diez. braeme. bro7n. cack. the branch of a tree. pfropf.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. from brand. brog. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. ear-wax mud. brughera. brug). . Bret. w. bruskoad. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. Gael. breanan. a single plant of heath. w. from gaggi. See Brush. Dan. Fr. Gael. &c. that is to say. The naof strain. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. a firebrand. Brank. berneux. bretnel. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. from virga. broust. a shrub . from brug. . brin d. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brandiiialil. brambles. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. heath. as AS. pfriemen. brake. Then by comparison with claws or arms. . heath. or with It. piecemeal brindelles. broom. It. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. bruch. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. . Port. virgultum. brenn. Bramble. G. a shoot or twig. Pl. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. iii. Fr. brin. bran. a bridle or bit . pected that brake. snotty . branche. brushwood. brandmurk. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. broussaille. — . brenda. —Ducange. bren. in the sense oi fern. brank. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brejo. nasty. Fr. It. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. . broom. a bud. brenn hesken. bruk. .

to quarrel. put. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Diez. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. as Jamieson explains it. bra?ier. De Goes. to burn. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. prasseln. to braze or lute. to make sense of a bright red dye. It. bruciare. In the same way the set on fire . of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. billet. Milan. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. brandiller.pan of coals. It. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. brane-wood. Sw. as Fr. a To Brandish. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. to totter. Guill. became ashes Pied. to distil . to bicker 2nd. to shake The word brisil. flagrans. E. to burn. as again by well as the blade of a sword. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. to rustle. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. bruan. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. perplex. brangle or brawl in E. De Barros considers vinum ardens. bransle. brastlian. The corresponding form in Gael. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. in Marsh. plained by Florio. d'Angl. from used in dyeing cloths. make an outcry. brascct. all. Bailey. set on fire. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to blaze. firebrand. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. Brasil. noise. hot Fr. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. a roaring fire. To brase AS. brandende wijn. is bntan. not. brazil. Thus the bound up again. brin. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. stake. morsel. Fr. Fr. then brandr. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. brasil. firewood. fire-wood. incendium. brandigh. Gris. and bruir. bracea. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. Brangle. to shake. make a — . a round dance. bryne. to shog. gebrannter wein. bragale\ wood. to murmur. hoisting to the fall. or in stick. bruzi. Kil. from to vociferate. to brustle. — ting to confusion. E. Chron. V. to burn. the colour than hitherto known. to make display . Formerly brandy-wine. Lye. a stick. braise. braise. to solder iron. bragia. crackle. AS. to crackle . aqua ardens. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. To brand. brush. bresil. Chron. briiler. brennen. With top trimbling. braise or hot coals.. a pan of hot coals. to brangle. brustle.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. Jam. spirit distilled from wine. Fr. Brase. ish. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. apparently very distinct from each other. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . bruire. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. shake. a brusler. eldibrandr. and branchis shaiand D. brandolare is exbrandish. was in use Fr. to brandle or The It. to confuse. brausen. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. G. n. faire fracas. Fl. Ija. The tre brangillis. du Roi et laine. branler. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. The name Brandy. 59. brus^. brasa. and scold. N. bum. — . the spelling to kindle. Fr. comes from thence. branla. to French brawl or brangle. braza. e. given to the country. Bret. brasca. G. so. brazeiro. splinter. Sw. to roar. Du. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Hume in brand in ON. It. to shake. WaUon. totter. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. bransella. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. distilled wine. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. brouir. to glisten or flash. live coals. — . branler. a fragment. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. So. urens. conbillet. to brandle. brasca. to and fro in the hand. — . bracia. to hurl with great force. to sound of the Fr. embraser. Fr. weinbrenner. forms brasil. before the discovery of America in the brandir. Port. Braser.well. brandiller. to make shine with shaking. glowing embers . brasa. ist. to dash. braser. Manx bransey. to Bailey. brand. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis.^Brandle. crackle.

frame of laths. It . Brawn. a parapet. brdto (ace. from Sc. Fr. bratid calf of the leg. a lump of flesh. deblaterare.— Fl. 2. flesh of a leg of pork. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. bas morceau de viande brawhng. OFr. a rag . Brat. 1224. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. burning coals. borderinge. braser Fargent. calf of the leg. Mundart. boarding being sbranare.D. whether contracted from brabble. Florio. neita girl). braodhlach. the buttocks. See Bray.D. brces. is The word — uous name for a woman. brett. a contemptuous name for a young child. slibro. noise. slibro {neita. Brattice. brandillo. to Gael.— Diez. brettys. Paris. lat'te. — . Jam. braion. Sup. P1. or whether it be from Fr. braoilich. bartising. Fris. saillies. rag. a clout. —^Bronze. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. See Brandish. brass. a contempt- banner. in the first instance of boards. a mantle. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . Brawl. bmhon for brado7i. Many gambes. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. cloth. Brangle. — Deutsch. muscular parts of the body. bran. slakker-bortchen. roar. strepitus 2. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses.' BRASS BRAY et AS. Circumeunt cibertesca. bras. from Fr. bransle. Cologne broden. a lump. trul. bruir. The muscular part of the body. tasce. It. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. bartisan. a. A. to tear piecemeal. a plank or board. discord. frequentative of braire. Math. bralle. branle. braeye.96 Roquefort. bratdn).' Hal. to cry. 368. A. berd. ON. as rashers upon quick burning coals. slut. a Lap. G. a fortification. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. a — A from the confused noise. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. ferruminare. breyon d'chaur. brat. squall. Swiss bradle. Lorraine bravon. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. a lath. any piece. ni autres choses sur Due.propugnaculum. to carbonado. brat. then a parapet. bronzacchiare. . bratach. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Bartizan. contignatio. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. OFr. Wall. the calf of the leg. or on the top of a wall. fraiche. to shake. a loud noise. Cot. Cot. I. Certainly a little girl. as a brawling brook. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Brave. brailler. bred. Fr. equivalent to the Du.^ — Sverris Saga. bratidone. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. ^Altieri. pil. KiL Prov. The same correspondence is seen between It. as lattice. A dispute or squabble. Betrax of a —^Jam. as criailler of crier. at brasa. esbraotier. Brass. bronzare. bronze. a rag. cob. calf of the leg. W. ship. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Dan. to copper. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. AS. breyon de kinds of . especially that used in the working of iron . Bailey. bradon. boutures. Sp. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. Hist. Gael. bretesque. Westphal. braiio. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). bradlete. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. It. bribe de viande. pan- — Rayn. Pm. and bronzo. A land of dance.— Braid. brazen. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack.D. a patch of cloth. baltresca. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. a lump of flesh. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. braede. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a slabbering-bib. Fr. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. So also See Brag. Pisana in Mur. brat. buttock Sc. breteque.walle — Pr.— Remade. Kil. &c. ' A vraale. a battle-girdle. le repasser un peu sur la braise. to talk at bralle op. luncheon. a wooden tower. apron. bretays). bretesche. 1156. a rag . breyon. —-Jam. a cloak. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. Du. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. The verb is probably derived from the brase. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri.brettysing. to scold . coassatio. Sc. as scrawl from scrabble. OHG. to solder. from branler. braon. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. to braze. solder.

a mill. the sword was out break. braa. brot. to pretend. Du. F. ser. brechen. Fr. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. to braid. to bawl. braire. to bellow. e. to resemble. brage. and frangere. &c.' To Bray. fractus j Gr. to resemble. bregar. k. Gr. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. . as OE. upbraid. G. Bread. &c. a wink. will. to break. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. yell. to t. disturbance. at braga eftir euium. broad. to braid. to start. turn. mos. to resemble him. to have the lineaments of one's ON. See Brake. the sound — of arms. Chaucer. breach. gestus. Then is simply. to cry out. D. braa. to smack or the eye. relation is seen between Lat. to roar.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. Dunbar braessem. baiyl. The same He might don us both a villany. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. AS. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. paxog. broyer. R. to bray in a mortar. a crash. ON. bru. &c. since such are the manners of Frenchmen.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. to roar or bellow. D. to rumble. Bailey. a brack. bregda. Wal. father. at a braid. noise . V. crash. G. and fracasously. or cry out loudly . — . as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. Cot. to break Fr. to braid the hair. The ON. To Break. braid. brikan. vapna-brak. the clash of ai-ms Dan. V. father. rangere. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. ^p&xia. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. yell. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to roar as the sea. brugier. roar. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. to knead. to The cup was uncoverid.^ Fr. to cry out. 145. Cat. to bray like an ass. a brake for hemp or flax. Bret. crepo and E. as the notion of turning crack. twist. with or without a final d.g. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. And at a braid he gun it bende. Prov. rustle. 7 . to sound very loud and very harshly. paste or dough. in Jam. crash. bragr. explaining a very obscure application of the E. regi. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. V. on. appearance Hal. cyprinus latus. to the seijauntes. to N. roar. make a disturbance. or wound. to work up in a mortar. crackle . to rub Fr. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. rattle. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. at once. a rag f . Chaucer. to scold. verb to break. Prov. — koa. breche. bregar. a rent. Then. To rub or grind down Sp. to break.fracas. to crash. I'll live and die a maid. to break. to snatch. and to signify the fracture itself. 2. Goth. iU-favouredly — in Jam. Fr. The Lat. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds.y. bruzir. i. bragd — ON. imitate or resemble one. the miller's dog. bruire. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. and make a hideous noise. &c. . resound . brame. abraid. bratsche. E. a breach Cot. From the or brack in a wall. Ppvxia. braidar. . to cry Port.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. bray. bragd is also applied nets. bradar. ybrayid. a . fragor.ch. rogi. to tear Bret. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. Beryn. W. brand. R. ON. to braid acquires the sense of bend. Breach. starts crackling up. OE. instantane. breuan. brice. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. braidir. as the voice of the ass. kind. brak. is . augnabragd. Lat. fish. Q. Bread. And with a traid I tumyt me about. riAprjyvvfu. weave The ON. plait. which has given much trouble to commentators. to rush. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. D. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. to crash. — — — explained motus loud noise. ing. braea. brak.. soft .ear rog. Fin. Swiss bratschig.

Piedm. brimsa. brcekur j It. to smack. siibligar. briosa. braucn. G. the bust. brinisa. brew. binding. bris. brison. remains of leaves. a smack. brist. Bret. Gael. burst. de bridse geveii. and other rubbish dibris. braies. bre- I'os qui bresole. E. from ligare. bragues. breost. Bracha. to simmer. met de bridse slaan. from AS. brustia. &c. QNtsterviald) pritschen. bratscher. Fr. break. their stings draw . braciarc. brosame. So ON. Gl. windy withal. trusts. braich. Bret. Breast. Russ. grillen. braies. murmur. forms analogous to E. to burst. and brought beneath between the legs. brisciare. Fr. brezling. to feize or feaze. to shiver for cold. brdtschen. brasiuiii. brossi!. rubbish./ssus.D. Breath. chilly. to resound. rubbish. G. brisoler. . morsel. grillare. scent. G. Dev. as in the case of twitter. xyligogio castigare. malt. instead of being derived from 'La. /esses. braia J OFr. . The Breech (Prov. bryi^ga. bresilles. the breech or buttocks. vapour. a crum Du. bandage or truss for a rupture. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr.britschen. bruc.). The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. Lat. with It. briiz. Swiss Rom. brodem. in Schilter. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. Gl. to brew. brezzare. Prov. one on the breech so that (klatschet). . bark Fr. Du. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. G^nev. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. to crush to break. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Breeze. bruzun. Du. polenta. OFr. from brace. or the blow itself. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Fris. braie. cloven. forms. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. To Brew. — Brist. bretilles. applied to shivering. a box. are in like manner ' . PI. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. broil. bra. brisd. fitzen. breath. representing the sound of a blow. G. Gael. briig. Dan. It. to bray.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to buzz. AS. then to broil. simmering. breeze. clout for a child. b}-as. brcEth. properly to crackle. and E. Sw. . sprouted corn. a cool wind. to brew. coaldust. brasser. body brostia. crush. Prov. a cramp-iron for holding things together. — See Broth. The Teutonic verbs. to whip. noise. brire. G. braga. Goth. a to lay fly-flap. brumtnen. bruzir. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. to crackle. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. Hence the Lat. trembling. Swiss brdtsch. are related to Prov. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. a gadfly. an odour. simmer. to roast.'— Gl. but more probably the E. point to G. zare. Breeches. Biglotton. E. a girdle. a crum. the soler. as. brache. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. bris. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. to hum. Du. murmur—Vocab. i5r(Z^. w. braguier. to break. peitschen. brusc. orts. dial.vare. brugga. briosa. may be from the wurh fesser. as by the Sc. a horse's twitch. as the G. singing bone. brissle. little bits of wood Berri briser. as commonly explained. brezza. as. braca. Du. Isidore and Tatian. bremse. — . bris de charbon. the dry spines of furze broken off. einem de britze geven. Bruise. bridsen. See Brick. to murmur. fastening . — Halma. brodel. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. drawers. to rattle (as hail). AS. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. Rom. broden. brise. breson. braux. to breech. — And blood. brimme. briste. britze. to fry Then from a Gl. breme. of E. braca. brok. broza. of trees. briosat'. to fry . subligaculum. . brciz. griller. to bind.t. . and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. We bragezj on. Hume in Jam. Breeze. malt. broiiwen. Lat. de Vaud. Briss and buttons. brut. Originally probably the word signified steam. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. bracecs . of straining. sheep's droppings bruss. a twitch for a horse. — — strument for smacking. bruise. brijselen. brasiare. an into shiver. — . so AS. chillness or shivering. Piedm. —Briss. Dtyden. fail. also to chill and shiver with cold. Fr. corresponding to G. Swiss AS. breinse. braga. a cold and windy mist or frost . twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. to be misty and cold.98 borst. Breeze. Compare OE. switch. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. grill. brijsen. Brize.

brigata. brood. troop. E. one's ovin. to press. Bribe. conjux. remarkable that the Gr. bride. corresponding or letter. brigade. Fl. BRIGADE dead. of burial. The origin of the word is the w. bricou. is still used in this sense. served (Patois de Bray). Fr. Bridge. malt. masted vessel. but to a paved road.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede.It. Gael. brigantine.Fr. to press in. ter-in-law. Applied ous words derived from break. fragDictante legationis suae brevem.. a rogue. brieden. gf2o. broken. fraoch. a quoit of stone. Priodi. piece of burnt clay. feast. Bridal. brukkas. brique de pain. A bribe is A — — arval. son. jetty. bro. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. OHG. arf-ol. AS. which however is undoubtedly from brace. W. pier. . BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. sponsa. broken bread. Grisons bruch. Bridal. brughiera. So in The Prov. brittil. berwi. bruarium. AS. bribe de pain. briicke. sugga. buckler J ON. and berweddu. E. collect bits of food. pavement Lith. Lang. Dan. bribour. to appropriate. from the Normans. buskins. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . httle bit. as. OSw. bro. pavement brolegge. to pave brukkti. to rub. a little king's writs. brA. to tlie brico. priod-ferch. . priod. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. a cheat. guma. a married man or woman Lat. the equivalent of to the dial. to boil. bara briw. brakes of high-grown ferns. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. bo. to stamp. to Isrew. bryd-eale. peculiar. bygga. Pol. Fr. a sow. berwedd. ment of anything broken. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . jipaaaiii. Brief. Diefenbach com. . brocaly. briw. Sp. has briguer. See Broth. bruyere. Thom. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. fit. beaten way Dan. then the marriage itself. ibrukkti. . boiling up brocoliere. Goth. the marriage si in brigata. funeral.groom. a brig or priodor. and that from It. broken victuals. brilt. a beggar. from the last 99 of which. Brique. a bush. graf-ol. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. brahi. bretonica. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. AS. G^n^v. heath. A — A — . two-masted vessel. brug.bergantino. brutg. brau. pavement. broosekens. bruk. daughheath. lipdZu}. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. bidsel. — — — — — — . Neumann. birbante. ap. . . E. in the sense of OSw. to beg one's bread. to boil. company. ' — . Pro(merch=:maid). the newly. . a crum. AS. a lump of bread briber.gfiugga. Fr. Rouchi brife. betonica. brere. It — is Kil. a bride. Du. crew. Gl. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. a man. privus. Brewis. but probably Bricoteau. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. w. bro is applied not only to a bridge. fragment. Trovarfor bride-ale. In the G. Lat. ' . bruskr and buskr. malt. If the foregoing were not so clear. E. brar. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. nurus G.pritil . to prepare. bulicame. fastningar-ol. a bride Brig. hlafes brice. to break to pieces bricalio. Bridle. to meet together. a fragment. ON. bruk. a married man guma. braut. a crum. — . bably contracted from brigantine. Hdcart. especially to a letter or command. stone-bridge bnikkoti. whence berw. and ODu. barren land priodas. — . briwo. a lump of bread. a fragment. thick appropriated. twopares Lat. In the patois of briccia. Mid.rough with brambles and bushes. to circulate. . bread. bridelj OHG. bryd-gutna. a rogue . bitill. . as so. a boiling. brasser. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. to brew. AS. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Ducange. Ihre. Due. a proprietor. Brier. appropriate. a bit. a briole. feast of espousals. with transposition of the r. brice. Brick. frayer. it is applied to the letter to OE. a heath brughera. from bit. a wedding priod-fab. Cot. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something.privatus. consort with. groom (mab=:son). or brizo. It. betony brulicame. a heath. briiths. to boil. Diez. married. the Fr. grug. breve or brevis. AS. birbone. Flor. Hence OE. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. It. So It. from Bret. bruith. Gael. In E. fervere. brygga. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. a lump of bread. Brigade. any jot or crum. bride. a Bride. Walach. The Sw. bricge j G. imprint. owned also propriate. bridge. division of an army. to break. to pave. from Bridegroom.

also called briganders. jurgia. speech. See Brake. a brigantine. and. Bav. manifest ON. clang. at a later period. Swab. glbram. . ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . —Capgrave. It. brigan. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. noise. twinkling. tion. A. seems to be to exert force gar el area. in later times a robber or highway-man.' The sense of strife or combat express. . splcnornd de brigandine. from hall. the grew high. shriek with laughter. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. tinnitus. the bench-notes resounded.D. a small light pinnace pro. brebrigare. to contend with another.' The passage from the sense of a light. with respect either to sound or colour. a sound. It. to shift for with care. squamma . bright bearhtm. to glamr. strife. Brilliant. Flor. to reservavit. praht. brigare. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. 312. may play the pirate or thief at sea. to bend a bow It. representing a sudden noise. Du. to make a loud noise. Brigata. In the same way to strive is. briegen.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. splendens . is easily understood.' torum. AS. loo BRIGAND lor. kilistua.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. pugna. inde squammatus. schateren. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. — brigante. brak. bryhtm. clear. Florio. biartr. transparent. bracht. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. splendour. to cry 'Schmid OE. to resound. beorht. to cry. OHG. Bright. malandrini. brdgen. to sound. to rob. riis ' — Chron. brigant. Mid. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. outcry.shine. show the origin of Lat. It. sound. Gall. to strive for. The Ir. They or brigantini. So G. willata. that of Fr.Lat. — Due. brawl. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. The E. It. dine. \oice. cange has 'Veles. Heo — song That AS. — — .clare ^tinniens. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. bregar. glir. clear.dorem clarum reflecto. From ON. and hence be explained glampi. and. splendour. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. labour. tinnitum clarum movco. in the sense of a robber. In Fin. bragen. Beorktode bene sweg.— . dine.glampa. to shine. Gr. glamra. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound.' in Due. glamm. clangour. Schmeller. schiteren.pracht. a noise. necessary business. hell. secondarily. 1654. tuilahtaa. lay was sung. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. and led it away. briga. rixa. the gleeman's song. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. brigare. briga. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. Adelung. wilella. Brigand. — Brigantine. tinkle. himself to serve men of merit. and the E. then. and diligence. to piracy. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. clarus. — A A . glitter. a spark. rover either by sea or land. — Briganbriga. tumult. in the first instance. moment. clear. a glittering. to ring. — Probably then to strive. and ner me hit iherde. braid. Due. etincelle. to glitter. bairhts. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. to rove. and to associate with them. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. and secondly. The primary meaning of Sp. bray. Goth. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. a pirate. on his — own account. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . 1351. there are many armour. A strepere. Lat. Xa/iTTii). brigandare. Wilista. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. brcEhtin. — Beowulf. — brigante. kii:'a. Owl and beorhtian. to shine. clare lucens. clear sound. XafXTTpoQ. combat. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag.

the heat of animals. G. Tresiller. kimmaltaa. Wtb. noise made by meat in broiling. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. Fr. barm. ling noise and a sparkling light. chime). brame. ON. the singing of Sodom — — . sonitum edere bremen. bray as an ass bramire. brummen : de soge brummet. and corresponding to these. brow of a hill. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. to sparkle. as well as bl and gl. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. reecho. Hence with an initial s. Said of swine when in heat. to crackle. border. the heat of animals. fire. grisler. A . brdnnsten. ter. briller. Brimstone. to glitter . The expression is now confined to the sow. ON. fierce. border. kimina. briller. 754. bramar. . margin. parched. fringe . komottaa. Thus Lat. Sc. brama. . Supp. hence the bosom. FJ. Kil. to shake. ous. a streak. brimmen. 1 1 64. from bringe. an apron.— Brinded. to broil. from brandr. to storm. sparkle. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. — — — . Tutschek. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. : ' — bone). of the eye. striped or streaked. lap of a garment . perent. leonum). crackle. Dief. post. E. to shimmer. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. cross-barred in colour. to sound deep or hollow. grullo. griller d'impatience. to utter cries. greedily to covet Cot. to wish or covet. barmr. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. the verbs Flor. brullo. frequently interchange. identical with passion. It. brillare. Rayn. griller). brastlian. briller (related to each other as OFr. AS. a stick. to crackle. to roar. fimbria) . broil . The identity of ON. sprainged. lip of a vessel. to creak. to shine. bryn. as of meat in broiling .ioTiviS acutus. komista. bramire. brunft. small gravel. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller.— BRIM . brommen. whether of desire or anger. to glitter distance . surface of the ocean.preni. to twinkle. the meaning is transL' amour. finds the Fr. Swiss Rom. 1. have then in Fr. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. It. lap. ring. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. as is the case also with Pl. fringe (Lat. Streaked. The E. greDiet. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. bremmen. rut. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. brumft. — — So Fr. To Brim. to creak. In the same way Sw. brame. earnestly . to quaver with the voice. on. kommata. pMiller. vigorHal. and 1. to make a crackling noise. coloured in stripes. griller. to shine. rym^. to roar. clangor tinniens. which seems identical with rim. Langtoft. the eye-brow. crackle . to shine. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). is used of raging. os qui bresole. brisoler. Du. tience. grisser. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. Brem. kajata. kimista. breziller. . bremas. brant. to burn. spraing.its vent in cries and roaring. the edge. a long. kiimottaa. a borDu. shine. the sow is brimming. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. dial. Dan. breziller. bry7ie. excited. burning stone. a border. furious. The meaning of the Fr. bremmen. der. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. brim Magy. also to reflect. Rugere. Sw. Brindled. to long for a thing. brim. Brim. — . brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde.D. bramer. that the original meaning of the Sc. breme. bar. to . the lap or bosom. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. burning. Lith. whence bilbil-goda (literally. brissle. AS. ardere desiderio.) brimi. voux. glisten. It. In Fr. Fl. edge Pol. brinfire. — Rim.). barm-cloth or barmskin. beam.' d'etre marie . to resound. Subo. Closely connected is OE. a rod. as in Langued. broiled. breme. — g. rugire (cervorum. rugire. ON. bresoler (Gloss. s. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. brummen. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. brmdottr. to glitter. Prov. to make bilbil).' Elyot in Way. with an initial br instead of gr. brand-krossottr. originally the lap folding over the breast. or violent action. to fret . brennistein. (poet. gresiller. s. glit. vattubryn. gresiller. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. 154. grdzil. border. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. to parch. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. Sc. brezil. brandr and Fr. bramar.

brocar. to turn up the point of anything. 222. Brine. brin. brickie. Sc. to spit. borzos (struppig). the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. borstel. the twigs of a besom. brindelles de balai. Ptg. It. to set up one's birse. to shiver for Sold or for fear. a button broche. sprocco. brim. bristly . brissle. spricka.g. a morsel. a crum. from AS. and Sc. brim. form bris.. Hal. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. brusque. a bit . quick. breaking out into growth. brime. Sw. — — . rash. p. harsh vin brusque. a brooch. thick — A elastic hair.'— Vita'abbatum S. to shoot. to put one in a rage . Brisket. /3pE^m. Russ. Boh. borst. rebrousser. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. spur. NE. brocciare. craw of a bird. prick with Sw. . a brad or tack. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. to spur. Zeuss. Brisk. borzen. and forms on. Compare also E. a morsel . as a noun. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. whence may be explained the Sc. fragile. Fr. to break. It. briota. a slip or sprig of an herb . — bryme. brocco. sprout. as. bruckle. britar. brytan. Du. ribrezzoso. bros. to scorch. to bud. Brickie. birsle. Alfr. as unripe fruits. Brittle. Swiss to stand out . a bud. and. Brocade. birse. trembling. It. breast. — in Due. brim (poet. briocho. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. sprouts. to crack. brisk in taste. brddj Goth. birs. apt to break. Breeze been connected with the Sc. has under It. byrst. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. flames. briser. a peg sbrocco. a bud. a rod or twig. is to erect the hair. brissko). Bohem. lively. broche. bringe. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. startling. coli. Formerly written brotil. to broach a business. the surf. briota. of astonishment. to begin upon it. a shoot or sprig. brote. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. . brijn (Kil. birstle. . brog. breidr. brimme. Brooch. the surf. — A . a spit. Abroacli. as. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Cot. cK) the . brodden. brockle. brioshko. bryde. The Pl. Lat. broccare. Commonly explained as from Fr. to stick. shoot. man's throat. humorous. brittle. to break. or — . to be compared with the cold bleak day It. as. e. expression. Prov. Mid. ' breast. bringue. birssy. — . to stab Gael. grim. fiscbryne. Liquamen vel garum. like the Broad. saulmeure. to birstle. to burn. to set it a going. a projecting tooth It. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Bret.' Nat. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Gl. brezza. Russ. an awl. .). roar of the sea saltr. a skewer. sharp. flame. broca. suddenly angry. . bronchus. brocchus. reburrus. b. setting the hair on end. strong itself. brisciare. emotions which produce it. Da. rude. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. Brym. metaphorically. bros. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. It. fierce. a cold and windy mist or frost. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. Du. brichet. Fr. breaking of the waves brim sior. a rebours. Salte sand is called brimsand. stitch. Bret. the brisket or . Port. Dan. broca. angry. a stitch brocher. Fr.Lat. Fr.D. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. Bristle. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. 'V^. or the full • . braidsj ON.rcendij'i. brittle.. See Brand. hot-tempered. Hence ribrezzare. brich. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). fantas'* tical. setting the hair on end compare It. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. . ON. a deluge. and hence. chest. rebursiis. Berri. aculeus. of E. is called a birssy day. brot. See To Brim. very salt brimi. Fr. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. a belly. are used in the sense of brittle. to break. brocher. G.procio. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. Sp. Sc. Prov. a stormy brimsea . broc. britar. Antiq. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. bruched (Fr. bruskett. against the grain . bryne. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. In the N. Palsgr. from brande. ' . brcit. ruffling. eager. i. smart taste. Gr. Prov. a clasp. bricho (with the diminutives. brezzare. to broil. a fragment. Fris. sticking up . britchet. brust. brusk. bringe traced through the brano. sour. to spur. brimhliod. Fr.). brusco. Pectusculum. to thrust. crabbed. Then as the effect of shivering. to stitch. bresk. from break. brocco. to roar. Walach. wine of a sharp. See Spread. to goad. broccata. brandello.

a flock or Gael. dar seems derived from borde. a border ornamented with gold. a flake of snow sion. a freckle. It. the line of development has been something different. frocadura. Icnotty. a brim. silkes-borda. to embroider. brasuole. Fr. trouble. brizen.— B. brucilare. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. here. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. brustle. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. to crackle as a shell in the fire. to prick. a To Broil. bram. broud. badger . or roast on the braise. Here to ornament with needle-work. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. tori shows that. to streaked or speckled in the face.. borprick. to parch or broil. frecSee Brawl. W. gresiller. and bord or bred. — — . whence broccare. 103 embroidered. — The proper sense is that of Fr. to burn. to boss. brocach. to crackle. hurly-burlies. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. Surrey in R. brullare. broighlich. Sc. bmsciare. a brecJi. of pointing out their latent defects. tufted ornaments. sparks E. border ornamented with silk. b?-od. brindled. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. Hal. broil. ornamented with a raised pile. broil. Cot. a peg. an edge. to crackle.sound. spotted. Fr. Grisons brascla. a quarrel. E. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). streaked. Ihre has guU-bord. shuffle. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. braird. bordo. to On the other hand the Sp. stump. with Sc. bustling. and w. spots. speckled. froco. border. point to an origin in Bret. houx. Broker. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. a b?-ustolare. parched. to embroider. a confused streaked face of the animal. embroidery. brod. The Bret. Cot. R. B. . or snag. prasseln. gold and silver. birsle. A badger. creak. confound. margin. a point.tumultuous. trouble. brucach. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. parti-coloured. Fr. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. broccuto. bawling. speckled. brooked. a border. brouFr. broc. brouda. Sp. briz. Dan. to instigate. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. thread. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. ToBroider. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. AS. age was termed a pricket. tumult broighleach. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . knobby . — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. broiled. v. sting. piebald . Gael. scorch. to darn. brasolare.. bramowanie. a freckle. brodio. A fried or boiled steaks). a prick. onbryrdan. Contracted from Fr. brasiller. to crackle. brych. bj'oil. storms. to burn. broglio. To roast upon hot coals. to knots or loops. carbonado. Florio. bruler. or glowing coals broged. from the white. blusters. bordar. The ON. grislement. rinj'. It. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. a badger. precisely analogous to the Sc. brusler. freckled. or salted fish on coals. brastlian. a mole. Compare also AS. brasbrasciuolare. fundamental origin. brychau. noisy. brusuole. rustle. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. broccato was used to signify stuff . Brocket. q. to broil. has grisser. broice. — Fl. ciare. embroidering. atoms . forming to jumble. brasiller. to spur. . kled breac. From direct imitation of Brock. broder. to stud broccoso. and AS. — brissle. briefh. motes. noise. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. Gael. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. It of br the Fr. or It. agree in being the extremity of a thing. Bret. a brouhaha. brocco. a fallingThe sense has been out. Sc. Ptg. grullo. — Gower in It. breard. parti-coloured. initial . — . to scorch. brerd. hart of two years old. broukit. Thus brod. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. So from Pol. to crackle. the shoot of corn. broc. brocart. prod. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. Compare G. parch.

It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. This word shows the same relation to It. . cherish. ON. a broker. and fishes . is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. — a spark. which E. vile. . vrage. sunburnt. to hatch G. to sort goods . to be wanting. spittle . e. to pick. refuse brakovat. G. refuse brakowad. buy and sell by commission. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. criticise (makeln). rejected. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. to brew. brod. brokers' goods. sbrinzlar. — . Tooke's Catherine. bronce. mud. refuse. filth. to hatch.— Lib. to braze. w. raquer. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. Pl. It may be compared with It. screatio Junfus . brod. — broeden. warm. to hatch. Kil.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. Teutonic class : Du. a chicken. designation is indkler. brydio. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. tan. embers. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. an outcast or rejected sheep. to copper. ordure. . a brood . brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. It. merchandises de rebut G. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Per manus et old worthless horse. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. For the same reason the Kiittner. find fault with. to — garble. Lat. faulty. reject. brack-gut (Sanders). to pick and choose. brot.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. See Broth. Alb. See Wreak. embers. spittle. 396. bracker. OFr.— — . If to vomit . brasa. G. S. make out. broen. braeck goed.D. brieden. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. in which sense the OHG. brasa. and as an adj. refuse Fr. brakyne. to criticise. . Dan. mediationem quorundam J. the spawn of fishes. racher. i. Pl. hrak. fish-spawn broden. bric-a-brac. to nourish. keep warm. to roast on the embers. as. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. The Langued. insects. find fault with. to sit on eggs. — Fl. a makeln. . phlegm. To correct an exercise is to Lib. in the sense of rejection. embers to brund. In those countries the term braker. bridde. to sort brakovanie. rejection Pol. brak. a fault. wreak. damaged. stain. matter of blame weak place. brackefi. try out. find fault — — — fuse matter. cracker. to sparkle. to scorch. corrector. to emit sparks. slaae vrag paa. brands.D. briiten. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. bronzo. inspection.D. refuse. whnake. wraken. Grisons brinzla. Brood. Du. or brascla. from makel. glowing coals. Fr. correctarius. Bronze. hot. et A. to spit . a breach or flaw. Prov. couratier. appointed to classify goods according to their quality.— Breed. brwd. damaged. 38. sort. Fl. blur. tussis. on. brack. a cough Hal. selection. Jam. • . to garble. and to reject the damaged and unsound. dial. brumo. bredan. wrak. brokoti. broiid. Sc. — point out the faults. cast Lith. vile. term was correcfo^ir. ODu. Russ. an operation performed over hot coals. want. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. Pro v. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. brae. : ' . bronze. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. In the . an . G. to blame. Bronzare. bronze. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. The use sunburn. fermenting. Du. progeny of birds. whence the modern courtier. has exactly the force of G. to . braken. pan metal. Pl. brut. Bret. analogous to Bohem. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. refuse wares. to pro- to reject . Abbronzare. brack-gut. but from the primary sense of the It. racaille. brass does to Sp. nounce unsound. Alb. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. the young of any animal . hot. bring eggs and spawn into active life. On • tliis principle the G. goods damaged by sea-water. to throw blame upon. to reject. refuse goods. try . inspect. hraki. dirty. trumpery. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. raca. Sp. brechen. See Brackish. brokas. with. brak. wrack-good. to be hot. brunds. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. from break. abbronzanchiare. lack. fault censure. . burning. bronze. To blame mens ware. abject. Adelung. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage.D. brid. And gart Backbiting be a brocour.

to spring . It. eye-lid. brothas. Dan. But the Walach. Bret. brusmalt. a sprout. sodden. Brow. brozia. &c. frater. Kil. Fr. vigour." Serv. boiled . brodo. pottage. . G.brink. pour boiling water over. sprot. brotar. a river. grow into a bush. broem bark. broth. . &c. to burn. cabbage soup . bor.D. thick bush brousta. braces. face. Lat. edge. break out brewet. AS. juniper. grow brossa. a spring. brauwe. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. Cot. low The AS. Wtb. Catalan brossa. a . bros. 105 Brook. from ripa. It. broca. hut. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. eye-lash . To digest. breg. bruith. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. a hill. a little house or cottage of timber. brushbroccoli. bank. ceales briw. Fr. breg. broc. sprouts . (for brodem). bordeau. shore. a shore. thicket. and It. bruth. OHG. noise. breh. broth Brown. brocco. Pl. ale . broi. bruithim. brass. to boil. or bushes and scrubby growths. frucius. Roquef. broden. border. a sprig. Gael. brogues. b7-un. sordes seu strigmata young branch. to browse. dialects is very different. The softening down of the consonant bud. heath. Bohem. bros. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . . Bohem. waves. surDu. spuma. surface of Broth. brous. broieii. shoots. a little .spross. Gael. to browse. to scald. Fr. Brothel. edge. brouet. . a bud. bank. G. broo.. G. to use bruks. bruno. pfriemkraut. verge. &c. as rhododendrons. and also border. Sanscr. wood . the colour of things burnt. — . The origin is a re. bruddeln. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. .D. strength. hot. margin. brad. laissent Domunculum. breg.— Overyssel Almanack. brosses. braew. eye-brow. seethe. as small-pox. Mid. It is Brother. sproc. Pol. brst. Du. to boil. was originally used in the innocent sense of . BROOK brook w. Celtic. of plants broust. Sp. . to use. brow of a hill. sense the Sc. eye-brow. sprout. signifying twigs. to Pl. brstiti. brmi. brudi. from Goth. — exiit et heath. vigour. bruscosd quam de arabili. Commonly Teutonic. strength Ir. signifying low wet land (Brem. brouches. thairj w. frui. meal. forms appear related to the Ir. eat. a hill. &c. infusion the barley bree. brov. mettle. and Slavonic families. — . brd. Ger. kail brose. eye-brow. See Bramble. brio. to murmur. AS. brosses. shrubs. bntdien. a shrub broust. cabbage water. bushes. buds. augen-braune. broud. Bohem. broth brothaire. Here we find throughout the Romance. bruitheati. briu. Limousin broudi. w. fur Broom. has briw. to bear patiently. Russ. brawdj Slavon. borde. Prov. as Fr. heat. . enjoy Goth. eminence . steam from heated bodies. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. bhratrj Zend. bruach. a bud brous-koad. pith. protecting the eye. broth is sometimes used . Serv. . The ridge surrounding and To Brook. broza. house of ill fame. eye-brow. . bryn. warmth ch'an. bruich. to boil. sprocco. Due. to bubble up with noise. branches. OFr. brosst. The AS. a derived from the boards. rage. brlgh. The meaning of the word brook in the low G.braubiti. may be connected with Russ. and Sc. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. Fr. infusion. to use. OHG. braussa. It. heat explaining the Prov. bryn. w.brons. riviere. the bubbling or springing up of water.) . simmer from the murmuring AS. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. bud. A — . Manx broie. shoot. Bav. t— Cot. brus. Prov. brun. broit. briihe. bratrj Lat. brink. broth. . . browys. iVlanx broogh. bregh. braun. juice of briars. brue . (which is barely pronounced in Gael. awl-plant. Du. to roar. to shoot. a source Gael. G. brabruach. brouic. useful G. to border. brost. on. brow. brukjan. of which the variety of forms. broeye. . Sp. Tam de terrS. eye-lid. brpuster. broth the ocean Sw. bank. brennen. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. . brwd. sap. dumetum. to sprout. in which brinnan. bruich. — ' . bree. Bret. . juice of meat. bank. or shoot. chen. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. a caldron. bordel. brotar. 'Lzt. Gael. brouskaol. brushbrothas) gives the OE. shore . plants composed of twigs. . heath. fabric consists. perhaps burnt coloilr. borda. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. broccola. brew . brouser. . to boil bruithe. a hut or cottage It. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. a confused noise of winds. on. circuindedit cum familia. who is steaming with sweat. Browse. riviera. Gael. properly boiling water briihen. briar. bryii. sprout. G. bruc. a bruth. Russ. or broken up . rerum decoctarum. brouter. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. shrub with leafless pointed edging. hovel. brost. cia. brucan. Ppim. bruceti. brau. brewis. Fr. Sc. brodem. spirit.' Due. Gris. Gr. brdtaj Gael.

. a bristle. a rumbling. a noise. brizeto. NE. a bud. Beryn. brisar. 134. Pr. break. quasi twigs. a briser. field. —Fabyan. borste. Lang. Text Soc. bruc. Alexander. In E. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. . Broach. wool-card. brik. fasx . brust. brosse. brist j Port. bushy ground. bruskr. to strike the foot against an obstacle. bruis (sing. Gael. brusc (Diet. Brunt. Pm. wood composed OE. brikan. A. a bud or sprout Bret. brus. brousso. Pm. dust. seems named from burst(on. Poems. OFr. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. to break or burst. broza. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. tuft of grass or hay. to break. brist. bruyere. of twigs. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. brise. and sighid therewithal. a brush . See next article. abroncar. And that best is. brous. brottcher. desbrisar. brossa. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Piedm. That in all haste he wouli. bruit. On the other hand. . while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. sordes. fragments. brosst. Wicliff. — those signifying a sprig. brunt. to break to bits . bud. a bristle.). brustia. to brush. rods. broustia. bruito. a tuft of heath . an enmy. rubbish. . Palsgr. and actually come in collision. Hall in R. brisd. brusca. Cot. a brush. Lang. Pr. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. insultus. Fr. brista) or breaking out . quisquilise. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. broza. effort. bruise exOFr. rubbish. Sw. brit. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. and Piedm. to make a rumbling. remnants of hay or fodder. shock. a — — (Agea) said. borste. bris. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. briser. brusca. Port. briiis (in the pi. It. brossa. . a brush . a horse-brush. Castr. broust. p. To brush then would be to dust. dust. Fr. B?-usske. to butt. Piedm. crum bit . small heath whereof head-brushes are made. coal See Breeze.). . du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. brico or brizo. Bruise. brugir. fescue . chips. wool-card. and . Prov. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . bruscolo. a flax comb. G. — Fr. bross. modification of the same root which gives the E. a brush Swiss bruske. K. Fl. to break. broken. as It. brosse. Fr. brist. OE. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. The Lat. dust.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. brustia. appearin Goth. Pr. wool-card. or sodenly comyn' dust. shivers. brusco.— Palsgr. E. britar. splinters. crush. Prov. biirste. and in the second place a besoiB. Diez. brushwood. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. heath. bricalio. a brush. — OE. brist. brous. Fr. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. E. also a head-brush. borst. Allit. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. a brush . detergere . bruire. brysan. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. Bruit. burs. brusco. to cleanse. bris. AS. insilio. mg Cat. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. Sp. brossar. dust. E. Bret. Pr. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bruscia. a brush . —Chaucer. a brush. 174. bruscolo. borste. — a bush. a bush of hair. The same relation holds good between G. to stumble. a little brizal. a blow. biirste. bruiser. bross. borste. ling or heath for brushes.— — i. bris. Gael. ON. * Brunt. twig. 201. brosst. it schall be al Sw. britar. It. shoot brouskoad. and It. Sw. burt. bush. Cot. Brush. to crush. bris. a shrub composed of small twigs . Brunt of a daunger. It. Prov. Bav. flax-comb brossettes. briketo. rubbish. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. Prov. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. bruzir. Gael. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. tremely. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. or shoot. brusg. brustid. The Bav. irruo. borste. and also Brush. into a multitude of points. blow burcar. orts. ca7-bo>i. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brMt. Gael. to make brusshes on. twig.). a mote. Fr. G. escousse. . a crum.

the linen at buck. BUBBLE bruschetta. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. from colar. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. of wind. Our next illustration represents the Bocan.steep or soak. boucaner. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. bucking. bubBuck. w. a. Dan. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. a to the male deer. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. soft.wet Lat. . to soak.boukaat. The word was very generally Buccanier. a knock word. The natives of Florida. is 1. It. very generally designated by the same puk. bog-aske. buchen. open lath-work. bucaIndies. bubbola. byge. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. it is beuchen. to butt. does not hold. soft. rap. boil animals. Fr. to soften. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. when soap was tion is commonly taken. blister. says Laudon. Illust. hump. pukkata. From an imita. moist. 1586. bukke.-wtt miekki. or mok. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. Magy. Etym. Bubble.derivation has been much discussed. a. and Fr. to soften. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. at a door. a push. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. the upper for coifee. . to soak. Pol. . to soften . The name. bubseti. Fr. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. tap . — . luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. The term bocan is still ap. moczyd. to bump as a bittern. to strain. mieknad. The place of such a 2. to murmur. a fescue. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself).lessiver. tender. mokry. bugd. soft. also applied Una. mollire. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. was called bucking the linen. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. The cipally on the Spaniards. bugada. erweichen. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. a bubble . because bucare does not in Marsh). blast or strike with the forehead. Fr. hog dressed whole). buck-ashes. Sc. Diet. as G. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. Gael. and exercised their cruelties prin. It. the first wheal. A . supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. bucquer.buchen. w. in which the flesh dish. a steep for flax. Esthon. bucata. to stick. . as a buck rabbit. Bret. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. wood.to allow a free current of air. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. bwch. Bret. to bubble. a bubble. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. and then to other wild tumour Lith.biiken j Svi. to which in their language they call bou. maban and baban. March 28. a bubble.byka. tender. I. buck-ashes.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. bifbel. — — ' A : ' ' . to butt or jurr Dan. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. bubiti. to buck. ac. molle. bub. tuft. a ashes. bubauti. colada. lye. . To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. boh. . See Dupe. — . The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. plied in the W. mote. soft . 1857. Pol. hump. Sp. bube. who resorted to the islands beichen. pup. to butt. buerj It. boc. to wet Pol. bduclien. News. buquer. Cot. bouk. buquer. to filter. Sp. and as a verb. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. boc. lye. de la Floride. It. drying of produce. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. This bubette. to a place used for the mouillir. designation of a knob. knock. . bokni. pokka7na.tare. to Gael. 17th century. caned' Hence those who established them. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. was called in Fr. to soak foul linen before washing. The male goat. bub. soft It. Magy. Pref A. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. set of pirates in the spread. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs.' Palsgr. and the bunch. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . or projecTo Buck. the lower soak in lye. faire la lessive. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. buborek. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. But see Bristle. .— . thunder gently . from weich. a hole.D. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. Bohem. Fin. top. bouc. watery bud. not so plentiful a commodity. In G. different form. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. bublati. Bohem. Formerly. and as in and b so often infor cocoa.

no business to do that. Mid.. bucherare. prick in a target. Sp. is doubtless fallacious. Bus. NE. Pied. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. of a surface.t-le!L{ * Bud. to butt. stud. budge. OHG. Dan. ' . Hardly identical with Fr. set of a plant in bulk. Behoves. Cot. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. G. ein. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. clasp of a book. agreeing with Gael. . Mid. Bav. to word. put. a servant. II I'a feru desor I'escu. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. need.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. fur./a. bougette.' Schm. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. The dressed fur of lambs. — . bucket Fl. bedde. buachazlle. ' . a stump buckle up. a navel. bod. a bump. pulga. ON. Fr. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. the word w ' — . boqueranmis. bouger. The Fr. bougette. dint . like a bean. dinted. Fr. great pouch. weich. and of the Lat. having a boss. bode. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. bloca. So on. motus creber. . butze. * Bucket. and weichen. bogla. child. the radical image seems to be a set plants. macero. Prov.chissima. bucherame. Fr. . Bucolic. Swab. seen in Hesse botz. bug. bod.) . w.poot. * Buckle. Prov. w. in the beginning of to pierce holes. Port.anything short of its kind.Lat. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. bouge. butzen K. butt . weich. a buclder or shield budge. a cowherd. Bav. bukke-blad. Fr. a wallet. stroke. boss of a shield. * Bud. bolgia. ble. belonging to the calling of the chen. of bac. a buckle or protuberance. a boss.n. as in Fr. and the reference to It. This expression boglire. where the G. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. boccula. a shield. knob dwfr yn boglynu. Wtb. Buckler. knock. .' Boccaccio. bog and G. no wheel bogeilio. of bouge. bunch. a shoot. a leathern sack. to line with fur. bud butzen. bdden. a trough). A buckle or fastening for botch. to boil. a small shallow and open tub. . pwtio.stumpy man.stuff. from Gr. words is converted into b. bollire. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. Budge. turgere buczendig. a pail or flowers. thrust. above mentioned. Sw. swelling. bouclier. cattle. water message. a budget. to budge. mani. bunch . with let. a tuft. rabodS. botzen. butzen. boach. potz. to boss or swell out G. bulla. inboachen. pote. boglyn. bulka.— . put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. built. Russ. It. ' . crack. explaining Fr. excrescence. don't a baby). boucler. boaLat. a dumpy gin. trunk of wood covered with leather. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. Fr. The entire train of thought is bucket. the root of the Slavonic words gran. botzen. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. a bud. A water-plant with leaves and gille. In Lat. convexity. bouprobably identical with inok. dim.goa.r//'. probably from the notion of bubbling. ornamental stud. bocla. from bo. whom it is still much in use. . wallet. to thrust. — — . Dan. to poke. call. boiling. butzen (Du. is to shrivel up. Bret. to 'soak. loud Cot. skins pushit'. call. blow. It. W. Budget. Buck-bean. with a central boss. It. bolgetta. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. Lat. goat's hoof. bloquier. a boy. Prov. male or botzen. a boss. bucolicus. become bochen. to move. a little coffer or turgidus. — — . In the dialect of the Setti Cem. bloca. bulb.' Hal. Bret. clump. — .). to bud or bocla. . . butz. Hence quel. to un bout d'homme.pode. to graft or bud trees. hump. K. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. pwt o Fr. bub. brobrocchiere. Pol. See Bulk. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. from bugr. knob . case of leather . OFr. also a leather tuft . Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bul. bouter. bouljein. a short thick man.. a pustule bout. It. boulj. to pen cattle. . material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. butzen. buckel. pulga.) as to soak. bouk is a pail and with the dim. scion. were To Budge. . or male of to boil . To thrusting part of a long body. soft. to swell. jSouKoXiKog. noise .' And this sacrament bus have dial. call bo. boss. a ring. bulga. The knob or projection formN. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. a bubble three thyngis. rump of fowls . boucle. push forwards. bouton. boucle. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. weichen. The word is a ddyn. boucle. bo. a fold ceilio. bump. with which it was ornamented. a . Du.. protuberance. Gael. It termination is lost.may probably be explained by N. Fr. Du. don't stir from hence. to stir. sboge. gjeit-klauv. Fr. swelling. bugnir. bulais daqui. lump. a budget. a curl. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. boucaran. stir. bullion. imbuere.

buffare. dial. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. Cot. Esthon. bouffer. as emblematically making light of an object. Swiss baui. Bufetarium. either alone or with various terminations. Lat. A puff with — Fl. a buffle or a bugle. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Hence the E. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. human. to a representation of his voice. — La Crusca. It. Mid. a clap. w. Thus buffet would a tapster. dull sound. or wild ox. often covering his E. cuff . sounds. buffen. blurt or puff with one's mouth. btifetarius. bw. boman. to marre often tasting it . — Bogle. puff. confused. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. bolgia. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. a block-headed noddy. bouffer. bw! It. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. The use of the exclamation children. to blow souffleU. Buffoon.D. buffetto. Buff. Teet-bo. to signify an indefinite object of terror. Cot. bugbear. as Diez remarks. buffer. as wine that hath taken wind. Fl. buivol. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Fr. by metaphor. buffet.' perfield. pulse . and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. — retailing buffeter buffetier. for this purpose is very widely spread. tastes. colour. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. Buffalo. From buff! of terror. bolgetta. From bulga. W. —Boggart. and in Fr. a jester. Romola. bo ! an interj. buffets. wauwau. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . site The two — — iii. buffeteur. Lith. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. duff^ dull. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. thus be translated to tap. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Fr. to excite terror in Macleod. baubau. often blown upon. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. buffet. a skin. a bugbear. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. Buff. to puff. bugle. to frighten . Che scaccia 1' Ombre. leathern bucket. a goblin). Fr. — — — Buffet. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. a In . constitutes the game of Bo-peep. buffare. The cry made to excite terror is then used. a side-board. to puff. him but Boyd iugges. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. a budget. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. buffa. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. a dull BUG From 109 — A . Sc. dausa. bobaow. to bellow . smells . — thence it has been transferred in E. popo. things in Jam. a puff. bubus.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. stupid. G. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. from souffler. &c. bugs. bauwi. Fr. buffle-headed. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. bwg. made to —Bugbear. boo./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . a hobgoblin. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. senses. buMagy. yar^aa. soufflet. .D. ' They rether puffed at him. word other cases. while in Sp. It. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Buffeter. from It. Magy. bubaRuss. breath. tabernarius. Pl. — Z. dausinti. buff leather. to blow. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. buffalo. bubiti. buffle. wine may The verb in taverns. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. bufogni. It.' La Crusca. A — Bug. deadened. to jest or sport. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. also a G. mingled with water. The children were playing in an oppocomer. the buffe. bubach. 265. Limousin bobal.—Buffet. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bufogni. bau ! children. scarecrow . made by a person. air. to give a as of a blow. botffon.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Gael. Fr. of colours. It. a cuff or buffet. to strike face to represent the unknown. Lith. to beat. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Lat. the place whence the wine was drawn. buffet. mumming. Sc. bumann. rebuff. to blow . le reste emplissant d'eau. a hollow sound. bufHe.D. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. bukow Ikow. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. A blow. or hath been Cot.— Buflae. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. E. een duffen toon. to rePl. as from Lith. caupo. to give benti. Pl. God's boast seemed feare children.

mask ' . See The name terror). threatening. a rabme. big. worm. Manx boa. Grose. and in child's Magy. — — ' . Lap. bwgwl. with more or less modification represents bau. bukati. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. bug dung-beetle. also a baco-baco. paws the ground . bwgar. Deut. blustering. 3. Swiss ing. and bugle. to roar Aasen. bwg and E. Schmidt. given in Chaucer. a bug-bear. bukashka. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. an insect. according to Coles. bobal. disgust. bucula. forSc. — — . Sw. Swiss booggen. w. the Devil. roo. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. and in Lat. Hal. Fl. : no BUG . superbire. a bugbear for children. protuberant. a. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. as an object of dread. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. and is Deutsch. 1551. It. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. 493. Stalder bog. high-sounding words. shepe and gootes. saucy. Mundart. a misshapen person. gad. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. scarecrow . In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. to take fright. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. Big.. bogil. E. fierce. insect. bugbear. Mid. Swelling. bold. il brutto Demonio. boeuf sauvage. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. buculus. tumble-bug. biignt. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. is the dim. great or bug words.Fr. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. An ornament of female dress condread. bogle. baco. fette. terrifying ward. bug-bear. bogil bo (e. a goblin. fear. any disgusting animal. earwig bau da grascha. Parolone. high. then a horn for drinking. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. insect.Lat. xiv. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. The name of bug is — . a silk-worm. bug-bear. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. an object of terror. the word is lin) bbgge. Grisons bau. bau (Pureiglia. The final guttural of W. proud. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. . bauginti. Illyr. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bbgni. of pipes sewn on. Hence bugle-horn. also a bug-bear. — boogg. b'dgni. to frighten scarecrow. to take bug. bug. provincially an insect. the buggaboo w. Lesachthal. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. thus connected with bug. Magy. vermin. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. is very common. bogk. monster. Serv. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. a buffalo. poggl. ghost. Russ. . Bug. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. to bellow. pugaf.loud noise. bug-bear. — . — — terror.. Chaucer. pujalo. oxen. Fl. 2. roarHal. well as the terrific object. buffle. to take fright. boo. modern English is appropriated to the OFr.— . Magy. a beetle. Lith. hert. rose-bug. W. a proud overbearing man pujat'. language any kind of insect. tion of the beetle tribe. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. especially to beetles or winged insects. larva (a bug-bear. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited.3uhtii&:. the black a maggot. boa-peep. Bogge. A similar applica. * 2. dial. of bugabo was given. . long. quos what produces dread or disgust. affright. buggabod). Sp. to origin in the expression bugs words. bogk. buba. bok. bugler. bugle. a boogg. a bug-bear. troll. to bellow. bugar. coco. (Spurrell). as Buffalo. The w. Bdronie. It. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. i. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. Cheval de trombugti. iv. Bug as a lord. swollen. and a boggarty ing. beugler. BUGLE Tentennino. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. Bible. pugalo. I. also a bug-bear. Lett. Bugle. booggen. Same as buffle. . banian boube. used in the same sense. to creeping things. threatening.

Hal. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. For the latter sense ' — My . The Walach. bolso. Muratori. bilge. buhe. lump. Bulk. See Bulk. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bulwis. to belly out. knob. Pm. a leather sack or budget Fr. the belly. swollen. belly. bol. a straw corn-vessel. belly van de kerche. dial. OSw. a. stuffed bag. ' . He found a country fellow dead drunk. . Bourser. A — ' — Bulk. bulk or capacity of anything. . the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey.). cumulus. . bubble. pocket. Othello. Boss^. . Dan. to build. bouge. blister Manx bolg. lump. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins.' Fl. a leathern sack or portmanteau. . be protuberant. villa. tumeo. belly Sw. as it was merly written in English to bylle. the potato G. to bubble up. ' . bulle. pulkas. thorax buick. trunk of the body. Here stand behind this bulk. . were a habitation. bunch or projection. Melancholy. the body Du. a. or of what is shaped like a bubble. balg. belgr. jnake bulch. biilken. bullka. anything prominent. mass. ' . bulbus. to throw out a convexity. to break bulk. turgeo bolnyd. pimple. a lump or mass. Hence e. to bubble up Pol. in vessel. also the bunt or hollow of a sail.'— Cot.d. bubble. boss. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. boss of a buckler. boa. . tumidus. domicilium. Bolke or hepe. (3oX|8oc. a dint in a metal . hollow. belgja. the contents of the hold. Dan. a bubble. van loock. bauch. trunk. bukr. trunk. ON. Gr. balco. See bollekeii next article.pulks. bolnyn. Lith. and N. to undo the cargo. Pr. acervus. in bulk. whence bylja. Sp. boss of shield. a round bulky body bwlgan. bubbling up. boss. Kil. blister. bubble {palgan tiisge. puff. projection. or cargo of a ship. Jno. . to spring. has bulbuk. — — . bale. bulked or bumped out. vulva. . Lat. in Sc. belly. chest. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei.' Anat. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. . bladder. bolgetta. wallet. the head of an onion.' Festus. bulgen. a bulb Du. boulge. unevenness Sw. bag. bouk. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. balg. principal portion.' Cot. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. Lat. globule bolg-lhuingey. belly. . swell. See how this tode bolneth. straight will he 2. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). Bulge. Lett. knobby. to puff up bolginn. Lith. I. hull of a ship. body. w. To Build. leather sack. nave or body of the church van 't schip. OSw. . ball. — . bulk. G. PoXj3a. belly. ON. or bear out as a full purse. buc. bo. In the representation of natural sounds. bol. bol. a tuberous or bulbous root . body of an animal. Mandeville. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. — . the carcase. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bua. . bug. a stage or scaffold. womb. a bunch.— . the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. Pr. a water-bubble). hold or bilge of a ship. bulki. Pm. crowd. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. skin flayed whole. bulne. With these must probably be classed ON. bolle. Mister. knot in thread. bulka. balgs. bugue. as well as is very variable. buk. bole. From till. or. G. belly. or feminine termination gives Bav. Bav. the capacity or burden of a ship. balcone. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. bellows builgean. skin bag. cultivate. to raise a habitation. body of a ship . Palco. MHG. bolgna. to gather. a prominence. blow. bolle. — — . we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. . bulg. bulge or bilge. of E. blister. sedes. bulgen. a heap. bolgan. the position of liquids in the word In English. a bubble Gael. gebolgen. beuck. husk. bolgia. The addition of a dim. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. bulbe. and bulbukd. byli. mass. .' Palsgr. a protuberance. The radical sense is shown in Russ. bauen. to bol. skin of an animal. pouch builgeadh. swollen OE. Ptg. to blow. bwlg. It. swell. of an inflated skin. bulbe. m um Placentiae. bed of a river. bubble. bulge or convex part of a cask. . — Bulb. as water beginning to boil bolg. swell. herd^ swarm pulkd. at riufa bulkann. ^ — . it again. Bulch. — — . Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. pod ON. bulcke. 1388.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. to swell. Gr. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. and put it home. inhabit. G. head . ne. on. belly Cat. knob. habitaculum. formed a farm. bolg. snorting on a bulk. bulk is a partition of boards. a globe. bulkaf. the womb. compare Da. . to swell.

bollar.Gr. Fr. Bully. a bowl. Sp. w. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. urchens.. bulloi. whence Mod. in N. poltern. Eullrusli. round glass phial. a noisy violent fellow. stud. a hobgoblin. large.'— ' Palsgr. bubble. a framework of balks. a bull. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water.D. from Lat. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . BuUiou. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. — A tition in a ship. stamp. Pm. as a mill-dam or the like. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. lumpish. The male W. Bullace.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. lumpheaded . Bret. in the sense of base metal. to tical with Sw. bietebau. from baula.lle de fusil. embossed work. billon. billoti in Fr. many to protuberant objects. stud. a blockhead. bolos Fr. a tadpole. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. W. which may probably be the origin of the name. child by the represents the hobgoblin. bullebak. and thence terror. elves. 2. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. however. of boule. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. G. hhint. eth and frighteth. G. a bul-begger. is of a class with Pl. as geting. a bull Swiss bullen.' do not go by the dangerous water. on the contrary. w. assito. bulle. Lith. This word is used in several senses. spirits. bal. from the use of the equivalent terms. bulla. it is boulet de canon. the matrix or die . leraures nocturni nigri. a little fish nearly all head. a beam or rafter. bollos de relieve. bellocier. to emboss . Du. Bullbeggar. The bullfrog. A papal rescript. bollon. Du. polten. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. bwbach. a seal. as the ornanails.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. A lace tree. a bulox polos. &c. witches. pollach.. boss or stud. thick. bullos.D. Dan. from Fr. coarse. bwla. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. from the Lat. bulla. a cow. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. boulct. a hobgoblin. bouillon. The final element tergeist. Fr.. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. of the ox kind. blister. ON. pwl. Du.Fris. any embossed work. dial. N. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. poll-cheannach. i.. Du. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. a stud. bolli. tition of deals instead of a wall. bouillon. signifying roaring. bulderen. a hornet. whence bullire. BulUiead. Bullet. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. baula. See Billet. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. . Gold or silver uncoined. bullocks. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bolla. Bullfrog. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. — Fl. sloes. any great-headed or studded nail. as It. and vellon in Sp. ba. blunt. bulk of a thing. Terriculamentum. dim. The wild plum. It. G. — — Bull. bugbear. brass-headed nail .D. also a parFl. bellow. bole or trunk of a tree. stamped money. but is more probably iden- palchetto. of Witchcr. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. I. bullus. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. Cot. also of the tadpole or young frog. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. biitzibau. as in E. from the noise. It. bauli. 3. balgeting. Scot's Deso. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. pimple. poli-cheannan. large of its kind. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. a tadpole . it may be observed that a bullet in E. stupid . the seal affixed to the document. See Bowl. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. a scare-bug. bulke. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. boillon. bullern. bwlas. beams or boards. /SouWivu. G. scarecrow. 2. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. boss. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. is called a ball. Pl. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. And The word bullerbak. bulk. to bellow. to boil. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. a wasp. penbwl. b2iggaboo. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. to seal. Gael. a seal. bolli. to bubble.

resonare. buller-bas. is called bumping or bells. Bailey. buller-bas. violent. blaterare. perturbare saevis dictis. To Bum. Thus ' ble. to terrify by noise and clamour. from boden. bulderen. honunele. 1687). bodem. &c. c. buller-brook. Du. but now is the central part of the town. The cry of the bittern. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. 10. bombilare. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. — bombam?nen. buller-bak. ^Bully-rook. boulevard.. To bum. Fr. propugnaculum.the ramparts. — Boom. BULLY with which coins were stamped. 4 Hen. minari verbulderen.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. vallum. blunder-buss. III. clamour. by corruption boulevart. and porter au billon. legaggio di metallo. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. argentum and silver. bustle. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. a boisterous. Sw. ierd-beame.' Again. Fris.d. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. Bum. biihne. Du. 14. bolderen. block-werck. A. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king .' reals of standard currency. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . 1305.' ' mettre au billon. Hal. a blunderhead. boene. — Bump. to make a noise . provides. It. Kiittner. ierd-boeyme. Philip le Bel in Due. to . bastion. — — plate d'argent. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet.D. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. poltem. Du. G. buene. to dun. a noisy blustering fellow. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. hum. 9 E. sound.' agger. Hence — . a floor.. beat a — Hal. IV. to make a droning Du. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. The Sw. The 27 Ed. bottn. agrees with e. furious man. droning. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. Kil. Bum-bailiff. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. up was termed monnaie de billon. a bumble-.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. boisterous fellow. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. debacchari. c. un faux brave. ON.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. or a humblebee. violent overbearing person.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. For bottom. a. D. Bully. From the notion of a humming. primarily the ramparts of a town. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. 2. Bully-rock. c. bottom. polterer. provides. a hectoring. Etym. Hence bom and ban. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. is bullion — A — buller. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. To bully is to bluster. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. blunder-buss. G. bommele. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. John). — Bumto . bomtnen. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. a stage. St. G.' for the purpose of exchange. bol-werck. on the other hand. The decried coin.' Stat. intonare. 2. The Stat. buller-jaan (bully.D. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. Kil. noise. Fris. ^i^/«. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. scaffold. botm. IIL st.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. 2. baluarte. To bum. AS. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. then in general a rampart. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. ground. to drum Lat. 'lega. Miege in Hal. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. the soil. or work of defence.

The word is probably to be explained from Gael.S. Gael. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. E. inconsiderately. callus.pummel. . a tail (Macleod). blain. a button. so the form btmk. stump. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. a round mass . See Bunch. bans. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. bunke. bun eich. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. Bumboat.^Cot.' he fell with a bang. bottom bun feoir.D. Daal bu7iseti. Mrs Baker. passes Sw. and related with ON. or to the mass by which it is given. pumpa. pompon. a knob. any round knob or bunch. trunk.' Palsgr. — — Bun. Bunch. stock. as in other cases. Hal. bund. a boss Lith. throw down with a bang. Hence E. bull. Pm. bunki. a. stubble of beans. Then. stem or base. Hal. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Bony. . bum-boot. from bunsen. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . the tail of a hare. awkward. bu<rnone. applied to young persons. strike E. . Probably for bun-boot. a boil (punkos bot. . boi7ieog. Bums it's hit. binge. Radically identical with Dan. A Du. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. pompette. poumpido. bung. Fr. a heap. to thump. a knob. a Sp. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. should probably be a short tail. to swell out E. a heap or cluster. Bumpkin. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. truss E. — — — — ' — knock. Probably from bump. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. bugno. lump. Li cake. . and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bulse. buns. a swelling. bugnone. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Kyx or bunne. to knock . poumpi. Holland and Flanders. a bag or sack. pwmpio. Ir. Roding. He buncheth me and beateth me. bonuach. dial. . E. . Manx bonkan. Bunewand. Dunchyn or bunchyn. w. protuberance. bunsen. seems to unite Gael. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. bugno. Bump. Fl. bunka. an old stump of a horse. a rabbit. bungersome. bunny.D. a knock. pwmpl. bune or boon. to beat.D. a bud. stock. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. He fult dat et bunsede. bunch— Hal. H. — Marine Diet. a person employed to dun one for a debt. a. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. any round knob or bunch. a heap OSw.! . On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. cluster. bun with ON. BUNCH bum-bailiff. stubble Manx bun. a into Dan.— Pr. . a hemp-stalk. are dim.-^Fl. knuckles. a heap. gibbus. bugnet. to bang. Forby. bmidt. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). a lump on the foot bunny. bunnion. Moor. the Pr. to ' . a dried hemp-stalk. E. to . OSw. bamgetroffen. Thus e. awkward clown. one ever saw the word in that shape.). a bump. . See Bounce. bumsen. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. a purse . large. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. ner. while bulch was traced through Gris. bottom. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. as we have seen E. 1. Pl. a bowl P1. . root. . gibber. bmike. from knock) It. bignet. pumpurras. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bunga. a wallet. a boil or blain. — round fruit. a knotty stick) Sw. il me pousse. nor would it concern the public if he did. Lang. botn. See Boss. stalk. Du. to bang ON. Bung^. banke. a bunch Magy. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Hal. lungeous. knob or heap. to . to bang down. Dan.D. bannock. especially girls. a hump. clown. To bam. butt end. dial. lenten loaves. abrupt manbuns-wise. Pm. round mass of anything. forms. . bunt. foundation w. Pl. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a rabbit.. Bumsen. It. pwmp. bundle. hdk passing and E. Bunch. calamus. ! — knocking.. Bunk. . Pr.P. a dry No . Hal. Dan. or grete knobbe. bunkc. stump. mto Sp. explaining E. root. a heap Wall. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff.' Bun. — — Bun. to strike so as to give a dull sound. a bunch. to beat. bulto. Gael. Bang sen. Sc. noise. bonge. bongie. bottom. bun. a pocket Sw. a large . A clumsy. bon. —Bunny. bonnock. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. bumtel. w. a pumpion or gourd. a swelling from a blow. Pm. — — de dor bunsen. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bunga. bunken. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. Again. hay stubble . — stalk . Sc. Related on the one side to Pl. . clumsy. &c. Fr. S. and signifies consequently a mass. bump. knochen. bunan. tundo.— Bunnion. bolsa. bulscha. banga. a knob . Suffolk bonnka. Bun. strapping.

the noise of drums. fascis. OFr. stocks or such OSw. to work at carpentry bangan. modem bummle. bourguignote. bon. or tuft. clumsy performance. bote. Burble. shackles. whence in bure. to kick. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. Fr. biirde. Prov. Kil. Fr. and Du. Burden. bang. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. To burgeon. tapp (whence tceppa. are from bouscfie. knock. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. a cork. To do anything awk- wardly. ho-tapp. generally known as the material of which bud. Hal. Rietz. To Bunt. stilmpern. a drum . bag to catch the wind. — Bureau. to push ghebondte. Sp. to stop. 202. The Magy. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. to float. dark. bondeau. B. to botch. guggle as water. and the Sw. to shove. tinkle. bangla. Cat. to work ineffectually. AS. also a piinple in the face. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. Fr. boei. shove . Prov. AS. bourjon. p. — — . Bung. especially in wood.' Festus in Diez. bondon. OG. the young cloth used for sifting flour. Burden. bourgeon. to stnmi on an instrument. an anchor buoy. a wisp of hay or straw. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. buret. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. bunsen. and van t' vat. banga. So in Pol. boucher. on. to in to stop the hole. Cot. G. So Du. the middle part of it. clogs. Johansen. or putting forth of a vine. the float of an bundle. banghagr. bolting-cloth. The belly or hollow of a sail. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. coassatio et Du. to bud forth. and now more Bailey. bundle. on. bondel-loos. to gingle. bounta. to cobble. the loose open grow big about or gross. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. a water bubble made by rain. burboloti. Bung of a tonne or Lith. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Banff. do a thing bunglingly. Fr. bimge. bongun. properly a Burgundian helmet. To bunt. bondelj bundell. to push. . buove. fetters. gyves. boj. Burly. klimpem. bouchon. buret. The Italian buio. however. to knock. and E. ghebundte. tinker . knocking. Fl. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. punishments for prisoners. to hum. Sw. bond. la Borgonota. N. Bunting. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. contignatio. a bunch. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. to knock. of a song. bou^e. byrthen. colligatio. Sw. bouche. bonde.D. whence bunting. to Somerset is to sift. to bear. G. to resound. A load. . bundel. from beran. to pype. to stop. — — To Bungle. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. noise. bungande. OFr. and bomme. boil or bubble up. knocking. — btiruii. The stopper for the hole in a boia. to bolt meal. bundt. A bubble. * Buoy. racket . the stopper of a cask). Palsgr. rumble as the bowels. to gingle. dark grey bura. bindini. . borboUar. a botch. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . Sp. Pl. or used as a receptacle for papers. to hum. bonde. reddish brown. working in wood (especially with an axe). stiimpeln. bondir. . to strum on an instrument. is originally a wisp or bunch . Bundle. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. bang. borgonota. Muratori. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. a bungler. Sw. dial. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. that the primitive meaning of shackle . Sp. buie. dial. Biu'geon. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. was formerly pronounced buro. bangla. a sort of helmet. to bungle.punt. sprig. Burganet. unskilful working. the bung of a barrel Lim. Bret. ' — work . See Borel. bommen. dicimus rufum. racket. something bound together (Mrs Baker). Sp. byndel. with the head. bury. to hum. — . klempern. Bunt. boya. anchor or of a net boyar. See Bun. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. in is Fr. The Fr. See Barbarous. bourion. a boye. E. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. bui. bove. Russ. It. russet. a bung.— . would be the earliest float for an anchor. a bunch Burbulas. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bongani. . to push with the head del. bunta. A Dan. The word is flags are made. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. Du. Compare G. bummle. Bunny. driving in the bung. Lat. loosed from bonds. B. halm-tapp. tap. burion. See Bourdon.Fris.

laer. j. bears. explaining Sp. Limousin bourdo. to give an edge to. angular . boure. to ridicule. E. boiirre. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. brook. to sharpen. in Schm. thence. Probably a modifica.bryna. ^Notk. a lie.. sea. burren.. to fiy. tumentum. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. swell up or strout out. brustolare. Bestiary. Bav. is an Thus G. burly. bururus. and the Burnish. a jest.ireui£r:e. to swell oneself out as birds borras. BURNISH i5«r/. OE. Fr. brynsten. Lang. to burgen or wax big. It. brimmen. brinna. blow. with little iron nippers called burling irons. bud or sprout forth. bourglairs. to polish. Gael. compared with G.). Swiss Rom.or bubbling up. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. barrel. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. . pressa puret. Lang. as in cousteau. burgen. to sharpen on a whetstone. The in. See Burr. brima. as of suggests.. brase. dial. Burgh. to puff. to burn. borracka. roguing beggars. Sp. a bud. Compare also Piedm. ample of polishing metal. purrata. spring-water bumach. Sw. fire. to swell. flocks. Schm. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. bruzir. is connected with brim. ^ttsa. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. Hence Bridel. water. the J in OFr. a fountain. tahkoa. from the roaring sound of flame. A — — . Goth. to roar 5. Castrais bourril. to set on fire. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. G. robber. brAler. explaining the E. — — . embraser.j'own. toast. From the same root E. Bouffer. boura. It. Walach. brinnen or Also ein roar. bunch. burle of cloth. ii6 BURGESS Gael. Burgher. to make a So from Fin. — . brunna. Bav. to polish. burgeois. ON... mockery. to puff up borr^ . buirleadh. A burl. bururus. See Burgeon. schleiffen. a blaze. borujon. a wine skin. In the same way ON. sidiary element. brausen. to surge. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Burglar. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. to Gael. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. a spring a robber. borni. It. to roar. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. Swiss Rom. jest of. bremmen.sharpen. purling. . to effervesce. swelling borr-shuil. a knob. and the Burin. i5«r4 biiirte. Pm. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. lorra.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. burlare. OFr. to bourda.). . burn. de Vaud. is termed burling. to bouronna. tion of the root which gave the OE. sicut sound. a margin. purra. to polish helmets. to rub. Pr. singe or scorch with fire. a jest. OE. watery. to roar (as lions. to hum. brim or edge of anything. abourioner. a bladder. It is probable indeed that Fr. Prov.— Pr. See under Bore. grancelli. G. which has given much trouble to etymologists. taunt. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. 122. to roar. Burn. &c. Dief. 56. brun. sbornoi. to roar. joking.' a jibe. — — . Burler.' Cot. Pren7ien. borrelen. and Dan. an edge. Fl. Sw. from Lat. ' rugiens. So also Sw. the roaring surge of the — — — . the er is a dresser of cloth. to murmur. — . de Vaud. with Dan. bruse. Supp. OFr. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. brasa. the flocks. brunir. a whetstone. brusler being a faulty spelling. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Antiq. repartee . briis^. Probably. bourd. big. like the wind in trees. like straw or small . a well. become big and proud. See Berough. language of folly or ridicule. tahko. surge or dashing of the sea . it of the knots. The primary origin of the word. to roar. the word seems Pm. to burn. to bud . a bubble to spring as water. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. Burgess. ends of thread. brandung. an &c.— . lerre. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. like. from bryii. ridicule. Bret. fires up. a purling hiwe brennen. brunnr. occupying much space. Fr. The Gael. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. A legal term from the Lat. to swell with pride. ends of thread. crackle wood in burning Hal. to ridicule. Burly. brunnen. Nat. protuberance. to grind on a whetstone. Fr. From Fr. born. pur (see Burgeon). as the / in purl. Burlesque. to have acquired the sense of polishing. bouril. warbling. a prominent eye borracka. — Han to bruser op.). Fl. . brustle. — — . N. and OG. broil. brinii. burgi latro. burgensis. to To Bum. leo Fin. condemnentur morti.Ps. Cot. Todd. Burryn. as Diefenbach bud. a gurgling ^. to tell lies. bourou. he rustle. a bubble. must be explained on the same principle from G. knob. borr. has also borr. In the manu.

break . bourse. as for the protection of a child's head. byrgen. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. bergen. borre. hair. bersten. byrsa. a place of defence. to hide . — Clare. skin. force. ' BURR AS. keep. With a slightly different ghen. bres- — tan. brest. bourlet. fortify. AS. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. — Translated by Kemble.. berstan. a. casting bullets. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. Burr. G. to break. peluca to Fr. Gael. borsa. blurra. to mutter Sw. . Burr or Bur is used in several senses. an annular swelling. ultimately resting on the Gael. byrgan. OHG. its own protection. whirr and burr. OHG. signifying protrude. straw. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . barza. ' ' — — burren.Lat. brist. of England. a purse. a pad. talk fast and indistinctly. E. karborre. brjota. brittle. brast. Burse. of a body hurled through the air. shelter. a harness or collar maker) . makes the disbursements of the college. bur. A rabbit burmotion. bourrer. . Sw. 2. Burser. G. whence Kil. and spelling. also ' any such trash as chaff. from AS. an exchange. bris. husks. a rabbit burrow. a morsel. and met. bourse. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. and thence flocks 'of wool. -Grisons bulscha. brittle. explained E. as from Sp. any rapid whirling biarga. borre. Burr is related to buzz as protect. a purse. preserve. coo. verbergen. byrgels. shearing of cloth. root borr. prsnuti. It. i5(7&a. iii. &c. caer is a — — — ' ' : . birr. whirr. the officer who bears the purse. Jam. AS. dial.— . purr. Brun on bane. Port. perruque. Bursar. beurs. borra. brit. a barn or cupboard. as in Northumberland. &c. Hal. preserve. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. brickie. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. borrow. borra. shuffling. burre. burial place.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. when they spring So in W. To Bury. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . See Burgeon. leather. brista. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. brisd. as it is still pronounced in N. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. Dan. Shelter. brist. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. 225.' Harris in Todd. brico. brisdeach. briser. dial. brown.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. cover. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Du. to save. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. brizeto. and. appears under the Lang. idiom if 4. bristen. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. cwning-gaer. Fr. also all such stuff as hay. bur. burra. to stuff. ON. ptcrren. from whence we pass through Sp. any kind of quilting or stuffing. swell. byrigels. borsa. be more in accordance with AS. Sexy. bolgia. pipaa. tomb.' The same word with burgh. ON. beorgan. Burrow. To Burst. ber•whirr to whizz. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. but it is more probably a development of It. chips or anything else Fl. byrstan.' edge grew weak. Compare also OE. In OE. Hence Fr. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. Beowulf. Mid. britar. mentioned under Burgeon. See Bulge. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. briso. to buzz. Burial. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. moss. bris. impetus. Fr. I. 5150. bristeach. shales. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. This word seems safety. to P'air. some people in pronouncing the letter r. g. a sepulchre. that birds make their nests with. Cot. buscha. borsia. from Fr. a wallet or scrip. foretell great storms at 3. birigean. stuffing. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. The root forms brik. to hide. bourre. S w. a port. brokil and brotil. Du. Fris. -burse. Burse. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. bourrelet. burgisli. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. Swiss burren. to bury . to burst. It. Sw. In a met. bolsa to It. . The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. Fr. birgan. briketo. the — — castle or fortress. save.

bussellus. brodequin tout noir. bulk. buxida. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. OFr. bossen. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. Harold G. bo7ich (Fr. the land. Bush. a corpse). a gun biichse. basse. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. in the For Skirnis . bustula. box wood to bush. brodiquin. bosch (a diminutive ?). to betake ' Haralldur kona box.-^Bushel. besom). thicket {buski. busken. cluster. Sir Tristram. Du. bush. Brunne. hjul-bosse. knot. a bush. bussare. Du. mount. to stop. a bunch of twigs. to forest of Eyda. bouche. busk. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. See Bust. Ptg. lump. AS. berghen.' sheath. Bouchet. So from Fr. Bush. a hump.Lat. and we actually find bushel. ' —P. as synonymous with to inake one boun. dead. borghen. They busked and malced them boun.gur bidst austur um EySascog. roquies. bua.Lat. apparently a secondary verb. 2. van wijnbesien. a box for measuring corn. we have Fr. to turn. qualster-boscken. ' . a tuft guini. Fr. whence bouchon. bramble. fiast. whence at bua sik. a bunch. Le roy Richard mort. It. See Box. The bone in a woman's stays. a bush. barst. And her ful sone tuft. borseof trees. bairgan.— ' ii8 {chreo.fiasc. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. a wisp. to dress. a tuft of hair. borcegui. bousche. and thence Mid. bundle. whente beorg. condere. BUSH hreaw. ieorh. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. for at buasc. buxta. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. projection. bosta. Prov. barsc in Heimskringla. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. il fut couch6 l^jkema). iriCtf -ifoe. at buast. in OE. buxula. and he cites wisp bauschen. the Moors and of Morocco. bulge. or the like. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. and from the Fr. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. is thus accounted for. busse.' The word is explained by — — . a box. truasc. bundle * Buskin. bush. rad. Sw. basse. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. To Busk. to bury. -idis. ' . ' . preserve. to enclose in a case or box. make ready. burial mound. a clot of phlegm sart. to dress. bousse. the past participle of the same verb bua. buskr. boxta. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. Sc.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. Thus Froister . biichse. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. wisp. bustellus. at bua sig. sur une litifere. a tuft. grapes. boissa. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. It. bossida. to prepare. bunch. To prepare. clusprobably Morocco leather. . gave Lat.boisteau. tow. tuft. bussel. . occultare K.P.) to hide in the ground. Thence byrigean.' The buskin is said Bret. The word frequency with which to busk is used. diminutives. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. to keep. and not directly (as Du. the idea of knocking. hunch Du. a tuft. OFr. —Busk. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. protect . . boisseau. a bundle. a little box Dan.' a box. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . a -tavern bush. oneself. or — Busk. as boun is simply buinn. . abdere. bos. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. bousIn the other copy ser. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. boucher. signifying to entomb. defence. to sepulchre. Mid. 'at bua sik. boistel. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. which would later have truast. R. from the ON. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. a been written buasc. verb. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. Layamon. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. Sibriht that I of told. a box. brake. to swell. to bow. 410. Gr. boiste. Brunne. The radical idea is seen in Goth. bosc. Malberg. ch). a troop. bausen. a grove bosch van haer. buysschen. aheap of stones. . a rampart. beorgan. AS. Du. to direct one's course towards. then a tuft Sp. G. thicket of thorns . Fris. induere vestes . In to Brutaine. : — . The primary sense of hair . . that the lend had lorn thorn. ' . to bend one's steps.

' Plin. busch. its slowness of flight. also a busk. brostia as well as bostia. bulk. bisegung. also a flagon. Edrtst. a stroke of wind. crack . putta. the long. putschen. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . stump. Bust. forest. To Bustle. kupata. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. a ship of some size. Prov. 7o\. I bustle.> Also written buskle. utarda. 2l box. the breast. Fr. a backstock. stir. a kiss. ViM. Lang. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. Cot. ship Sp. A great sluggish fowl. A wisp. Business. bust. geidha. — — difications of the same word. of a doublet. to knock . or avutarda. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. body of a man. a kiss of reverence. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. to occupy. bysgje. the trunk. body of a woman's dress It. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. or chest in which the vitals are contained. bist. Busitiess :c3iVi . morsequi. love gestures. . kiss. bysgian. outarde. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. busq. 1555. a great billet Cot. trunk. as in moharra from harbe.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. bu. bus. a bust. mosequin. 1372. With respect to bust. outard. — Thus we should have mocherqui. bustla. I. So Wes- terwald munds.D. mohedairova. to bustle. bussen. body . Port. 119 bi{tr. bruskras well as buskr. btcc. a large cljest or particular applibox. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step.bezig. a bulk or trunk without a head. bisgung. ON. box. Busk. a kiss. chest. Namur — Champagne Fr. Buss. Fr. Rouchi. a blow. hipista. — . Cat. smack. vessel employed in the herring fishery. busto. buquer. betarda. windbutsch. Walach. bacio. — — — — It is like the smouldering. arbor ramis trunGloss. BUSS Dozy from Arab. mouth. borcegui. Bulch. employment bisgan. kiss. ^A. bus and Pol. Lindenbr. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. statue of the upper part of Fr. ottarda. Fris. the point of a lance. Nained from Proximse iis zia. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. avuDiez. ' BUSY 2. buc. log .' ON. inde discurro et operosus sum. knock. stem. buta. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. lip.Lat. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a projection. a fishing vessel. a kiss. Hal. buc. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. Prov. Hence probably au-tarda. biseg. ON. Swiss butschen. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. occupation. and then with avis again prefixed. A A busquer (Sigart). small. also a It. body without arms and legs. in Diaz Gris. trunk of a tree. especially of a woman's dress. stump. I go strepo) . Pol.). buyse. brusc. a bunch of flowers . Gael. I. Sp. Box. pussa. Bust. the body without arms busque. bucha. but. otarda. Du. to make use of. tuft. To hurry or make a great B. The Prov. Sp. an ostrich. made stiff. sera. ' bistardej It. Xerqui. Bav. body of garment. as in ON. lump. Busy. abutarda. signifying trunk of a the body. cata — . abotarda. a. Fl. austarda. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a busk. Bustard. body. a Mid. a log. body. to make a splash in the water. busche. mogangas from gonj. bust. a mouth. Fr. beso. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. a bush. — hardly be distinct from Fr. fe^a. knock. occupied bezigen. butz. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. buz. a boat or small vessel . bukr. busc. bisg. or Cherqui. Comp. Sw. besongne. Prov. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. 22. basiuin. thick end. work. and also a sounding blow. trunk of Cot. says. So in Fin. of the human body (Grandg. baiser. business.d. — clattering about. representing a blow. Fr. 10. sunt quas Hispania aves . an affair. See Boss. mons. and supposes that the common Arab. a sleeveless truss or doublet. Sp. busch. bussa. bus. The proceedings of Parliament. snout. plated body or other quilted thing. a blow. B. and by transposition morchequi. forms morseqiiill.pjik. a tree. The form brust. . These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. AS. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. to Swab. trunk. beezig. lip.— . mouth. buc. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. busta. from jnund. On the other hand. brut. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. would explain the G. Lat. bnist. besoigAe. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. biist. 2. lips. tarda. busy. worn to make the body straight .

Lang. without. wooden receptthing to be done. a barrel. outside that moreover. able. without law. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. bouteillier. bhcciero. . The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. bodifie. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. skin-bag. Here the but implies the existence of an. bisgung. bochier. bola. ont jhi^ton. the body of a tree or of a man. as Pantler. beta. But It. sup- meat and drink. bitten dai. So in Italian from becco. the precise correlative of but. But In Sc. a goat (and not besides . the jug and in E. from boc. Prov. bolr. As a conjunction but is in every portion. properly a butan wite. a wooden cask. a baiTel . tinction between but. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. similar train of thought is seen in ON. then hoUow trunk. AS. the Perhaps besogne — . bolgia. OFr. "PLT) . Lang. bouz. an outlaw from bouche. the principal apartment. hollow case. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. by the mode in which he is treated. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. If that where now we should compiler. — . beccaro. boccino. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. bounds of._ bitten j biiten door. the full expres. Sp. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. botija. — we acle for liquors. slaughter-house. and with It. those in beccaio. Butcher. body of a shirt w. Butler. the name must have arisen before the within. moreover.' — — ' . buta. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . botte. a budget. or what in in charge of the pantry. without the house kept in bottles. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. boquier. rumpf.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. a butcher. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. mais. .jamin. is put in a class by himself. the body of an animal.streets. Fr. bous. also a hollow vessel . a leathern bag. barriga. original sense of without. the servant in charge of the original object. (children) boc.The Sp. young mais. G. the mouth). Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. being wholly unten. It. beyond the Piedm. and the real origin of the and within . bag. Sp. A A . ox. belly. collection of casks. to-boot. that which would be translated by Fr. Butt. bout. Buttery. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. equivalent of AS. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. But when will you pay it ? the belly. Tooke's dis. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. bocin. a cask. Wall. belly.' there is really a negation to be supplied.' or ' there is not but one body of a man.in which his brethren are included. bute. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. a bottle. gives at least two pounds sterling. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. a butcher . I20 la Court BUT du Roi. calf. add. which the word corresponds to the Fr. the store of ten. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. the present day we should say. from as. bole of a tree. Whatever is in addition to Butler. and bot. ways. The E. besides that . ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. large barrel. belly. binnan. be out. hull of a ship. without care. is well explained by Tooke. a goat. rotundity of the body. a small winebag. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. my is called the adversative use of but. without punishment . — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. Fr. boteria. Sp. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh .' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. a butchery. Where at an earthen jar . in addition. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. biitait slaughterer of goats . except. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. without buiten-man. Ben-house. we find ben. bountifully.' ' write. earthen which the debtor has adverted. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. calf of the ' say. the belly. Fr.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. beccaria. Du. the bottles. botilla. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. boucher.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. ' Besides all that. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree.' Thus Chaucer says. bol. ' There is leathern bottle. viz. bitlga. butan. are. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . but one thing. butan ce. viz. of the wine and drink. the trunk or body of an animal. trunk.

from bouter. a button. buttals. — A . or person Schmeller . Bav. Mur-buttant. thrust forwards. ment being supposed to resemble butter. Kil. nursling. nourrisson.' thick from shaking. Fr. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. The word body itself seems identical with G. a little push . boiUer. large head. waste ground. pied. of E. boteria. buttern. so as to make a sounding blow. oir spike with a k coup . courtaud. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Halma. from bugan. Du.to push. bodi'. the prick in the middle of a target. bocgsuin. bouter. to thrust. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. : . any short thick thing. a blow. but. bouter. to abut on. put. by boE. butz. butteln. -ez. botto.arbre. to bow. Schmell. It. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust .against another which needs support . to boult flour. W. a boss. the thick end. a buttrice. Fr. are the strips at the edges of the field. botta. a scope. a bolt. any small projection. but this is probably from Fr. bodi. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. obedient. butter un. butte. * Buxom. Du. an ox. the store of while bottich. a leg of mutton. boter-vogel. from notirrir. Boutant. as if from Povg. boil. bata. Gr. caput scapula bout van f been. boter-vliege.putan. Hal. able that Chaucer. having a rotundity . fle>(ible. W. a stroke di animal. — . bud. dripping. a heap of merly called pushes. a stump or club foot. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. boutis. Buttress. the trunk. leg of lamb. humble. to touch at the end. hillock . buhsom. From the noise of drinkables in a house. a barrel. a tub. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. e. potacha. Hal. tress. coxa. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. to femur. R. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . end . bout. — — — — . Lang. tout seat or breech. a boss. butter. buttock of beef is called butr. short thick thing pimple. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. an etwas anstossen. gigot. to strike. butt. From Du. a thrust the thigh-bone. a bun. to be con. a mound of turf in a field to sup. a bot. &c. — A . an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. To strike with the head bags. Buttel-triib. G. Du. to butt. &c. bouton. rabodd. fowl. botten. a. povrvpov. to thrust. — . used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. To come full butt against a butts. Bav. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. AS. a blow. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . a but in the W. Buttrice. Btetter-schmalz. pwtiaw. stump of a tree Fr. aim whence to make a support to a wall. Gael. So in English pimples were fora clod. grease that sets by merely standing..rejected thing. suddenly . . from rejeter. Button.. from stossen. bothog. obeto shake backwards and forwards. thick. butt of a person. bot. a flying buttress. to so close to the Fr. Buttery. Fr. trapu. clumsy . Boutje. to thrust . To Butt. botta. to heap up earth or ihrust. Fr. nourrissons. Du. boter-schijte. Bout van het schouderIt. The Bavarian potig. as rejeton. Kil. bottich. a ribbed glass for dient. of the present day. Cot. at. a large belly. is formed the augmentative buttatich. or or shore post. the Butter-fly. strike. stump. Fr. a wall butor butt on. Schmell. bottig. the thigh of a goose. the edge forwards. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. a corner horses' hoofs. buter. lams-bout. Perhaps corrupted Lat. in the R. as in G. a. butt. both. submit shaking up salad sauce. Fr. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. signify a cask or tub. to abut a stone roof. botte. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. a dle . to cast. pwt. Buttock. i. Butter-glass. poke. An erection built up as a Fr. Sp. what is kept in a blow. a button. Grandg. From Grisons biitt. a cask. Fris. to thrust. A — — — . Kil. to throw . the rosebud. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. butte. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. . Fr. Butter. buttare. to thrust Fr. . butter. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. bocsam. a mound. a hill. See Butler. bouton. Du.— BUTT leg . bott. botwm. to blad. give way. and the true derivation boar. clunis. then the thigh or leg of an to push . boutoir. butt. bot blijven staan. striking end. Gris. a buttress Cot. bot. from the large knobbed head of botto. w. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. boding. on. geboogsaem. to push earth . thrust. butyrum. bout. a button.thum and not button.

Dan. depends upon a esteem in falconry. called Cabala or Tradition. leges urbanse ON. bei. Then applied to speaking low. & Q. to purchase for money. . as in Da. good-humoured one. to sell. buzarg. a town. a by-path is a side path . OE. byr. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. bylag. village. Sw. train of thought which has become obso. Byre. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. Goth. favourable. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. and it is of good will. groat in token of his good heart towards him. \s\xy. 200. bauhta. to swear with him by . a meke thynge with — alle. confusedly. buzac.P. byar-rettr. Pecock Repressor.in N. to whisper. tions by one. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. AS. and boxome of speche xviii. to buzz.— Diet. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. See Abie. By-law. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. abozzago. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. Lat. to wit. jus municipii. who makes abigg. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. bar. Mercy hight that mayde. bylove. — 122 BUY P. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. p. P. bees. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. . bycgan. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. bij. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. It. bohte. gracious. from by. AS. son. iii. farm. 519. harty prayers and God speedes. G. cow-house. bozzago. a beetle. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. —gracious of speech. . blessing me with their of side. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. lete. bygge. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. 3. also say. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. A ful benygne buirde. lb. bugjan. to pass by. as Fr. frabttg- To Buzz. buteoj Fr. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. a borough. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. as heedless as a cock-chafer. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). CABAL Goth. ii. buso. indistinctly. from whom it was addressed.. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. Many good mological explanation. Du. bi. Sw. town having separate jurisdiction. Cabal. Verstegan in R.busardj Prov. A by. to stand at his side . to jan. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. To Buy. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. stall. 21. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. bi.— P. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. Buzzard. favourably to a petition. big. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. Originally the law of a particular town. The ON. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. A A We — — — days' wonder. and would have been lost in E. buzzicare. Etynj. It. a buzzard or puttock. The sense of buxom. byar-log. ON. 116.. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association.

. cadabulum. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. It. and Ptg. cabas. cabre. name of the projectile engine. Due. signifies down. Du. Fr. w. has kabbel. maim. Mid. and as we find stones Mid. band. headed or cabbage lettuce. it would seem fundain children's language. cable . a rope or cable. overwhelm. gaggele.ticula. hut. traboccare. to put or pack up in a frail. prostratio ad terram. dirty. ! — . OFr. cdble. Coticesserint Swiss aa. is probably unconnected. Item habeat vocant. deponat a store closet. covering. accablcr. heady. Cot. — . a jacket Fr. case. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. cabuyskoole. kabane. forms indi. &c.. cabarino. dirt and the Fr. Tugurium. for discharging mentally to signify shelter..the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. come the Fr. to hurl in Nat. Antiq. signifying properly a rope's end. E. manticuKil. Kil. cabacho. a frail. a cloak of felt or Cack. It is remarkable that the Esthon. overwhelm (Diet. —Diet. ceach / exclamation of guages. or rush basket. cabo. geese. calabre. Cabinet. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre.Lat. kabaSsen. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. cacare . cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. Fr. dirty. chabla. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. to chatter. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. Lat. The Sp. Finn. cab. chaable. properly windfalls. Du. The double a in the OFr. brassica — capitata. Sp. gaban. a cabbage . giiare. Common to Lat. Neckam — by the wind. to crush.). OFr. It. Cabbage. as Diez supposes). from manganum. a rope. havyar to caviare. gatsch. . cadabula. cadabulum. main. agge machen (in nurses' language). to hurl down. in which sense are explained The the OFr. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Fr. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . a head (whence cabochard. string. Cablisb. a shed. and Or. . caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. From It. surripere. — . capanna. to keep or Du. capuccio. the bowels. agga. To Cabbage. as an expression of Gr. The name of the engine. cadabola. form kactal. hovel. a covering. a headed cole or cabbage . a tunic. as it must have stood in French. agge. Fr. akista. cabane. aakkat'a. would correspond to cable. . vile. OFr. Sw. nasty. and Finnish lanLat. Cabin. a booth or hut. caable.Gr. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. Gaggle. Fr. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. — the ON. from trabocco. chaable. cabulus. Due. Lith. kabas. lactuca capitata. the Prov. su/Furari. and the Arab. OSp. filth. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. Cot. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. ckaable. stercus. head. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . (ca/coe. cadabalum. mdhaigner. kabat. Mid. cabasser. Etym. Lang. To steal or pocket. vincially used in E. disgust cac. . headed. cables. Sp. cabus. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. especially shepherd's frock. Katr-iT-aKt. chadabula.' Due. Castr.. round or great headed. capo. : — from violence without blood. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. cabre. a rope. &c. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. Brushwood — — B. bad. Mid. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. gabardme. as Turk. Ptg. manganare. Celtic. Capstan. laitue cabusse. Du. cabaii. gaggi. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. the Slavonian. hoard together. 'habl. dung. cacare. kakaloH. aeggi.Lat. Didot. or as an interjection of disMod. caqueter. Very generally used. disgust. a rope. wilful). It. serious injury — In like manner It. Choux cabus. cabbage. whence Lang. caables. caable (in legal language). precisely in the sense of the lari E. cabo. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. caable. to strain in such a manner . Imitative of the cry of hens. Cappa in OSp. — Kil. an engine for casting stones. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. originally an Gael. — Tarbe. origin is the OFr. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . . cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. or cadable. cabuccio. E. kakla. for the origin of which see Carabine. a car- We convasare. aak! tandi like Fr. whence Fr. disgusting such an engine was exerted. cab lis.Lat. caboche. . It. — Ibid.

To Calender. Cot. is probably delusive. ben- kalf. calentar. cattivo (from Lat. Roman reckoning. Pol. Arab. whence calash. rattaat (wheels). Sp. to . to gabble. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. coll. kage. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. a tea-chest. kdtr. a cake or loaf. wretched. As Du. and troublesomely attached to. Sw. pen Mod. Perhaps from w. marrow. master. Fr. It. hence musical rhythm. kolyasochka. kolo. Turk. chaudron. caioler. a circle. boy. a lump or large piece. Lat. cadet. kolo. Du. cake. kolasa. Sw. Fr. &c. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. gabberen is identical with E.— Calliper. cadence.— Cot. calamitas. a wretch. gabbia. gabbia. roller. cykevie. the lump and the increase. Calash. to heat. a calesh. calf of leg. calibre. Cadence. javioler. calcis. a wheel. one unduly indulged by. (in the augm. pi. It. calesa. Calandre. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. cavea. just falling. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Du. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. cadenza. or colpa na coise. * Calibre. misfortune. Calcialate. Du. Calamity. to cage. Cadet. — in a kiln. chattering. the pith or soft part of wood. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. coop. a low note. —Atkinson. Sw. Calc-. Lat. or prattle. Calf of the Leg. when they are said to poor. G. calendarium.Gr. Cot. to cackle . whence Lat. Dan. G. caldaria. Sp. . Cot. Cajol. A hooded carriage. Lat. Lat. taking it Sp. See Kiddier. Calamary. . Lat. gavia. Tea-caddy. the bore of a cannon. to compute. Cauldron. prate. koeck. Fr. calpa. kdfich. capCalenture. . a cylinder. cadere. calamus. loss. disease of sailors from tivus). frolicsome kaad mund. unruly . naXaiidpi. safe. reed-pen. lord. cabdillo. so gabble corresponds with Fr. a caFr. KaKKat. kalfvan hout. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. KxiKivh^o^. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. It. a fever. ever and anon. It. A cuttle-fish. an ugly waggon kolaska. to sleek hence a den. Fr. cuttle-fish. a calash . a falling. babbhng. N. En kaka br'od. Caldron. cha'cmie cadence.— . Calp is riadh. the younger son of a family said to be from . a roller. Dan. Originally from a Slavonic source. desire of land. Lat. to throw themselves into the sea. of oxen and similar animals. the pi. a loaf of bread. to — Fr. on.warmth . colibro. The young G. B. from Gr. Lat. calidus. It. Cake. captive. a counter used in casting accounts. kolesnitza. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. or smooth Hnen cloth. a wheel . hot . kolesb. its mother. Turk. calx. A . A — fall. Du. Sp. a small stone. bad .uv. Due. principal and interest. chetif. hot. frisky. dial. calba. incolumis. a hollow place. a reed. Caddy. In the same way Fin. from calculus. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. chaudiere. Lat. pith. ' . a wheel . Lat. Calocli. jabber. a common cart. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. an inkstand . of the nature of lime to calcine. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. lime whence calcareous. loss. calentura. cage. kaad. form) calderone. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. The Calf. kaka. Flo. cage. calendrer. kalem. . calibre. to treat like lime. kakulla. collop. especially of something soft. kuchen. Lat. kalb. a dence. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). It is another form of the E. kola. the calf of the leg. a wheel . limestone. of which. kauwe. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. a mischievous dial. caliche. Calendar. * Cade. cauldron. ratas. From lerie. Fr. Caitiff. without loss. caldarius. Serv. a waggon . from the ink-bag which it contains. dead body. gaggia. An open travelling chariot. gaggle. Lat. kat. kolyaska. kail. calidus. cageoler. from the Chinese catty. Fr. calculo. cadaver. It. little chief. Cadaverous. kaeckelenj Gr. Russ. The Lat. to prate much to little purpose. Mrs B. lindrus. gabble. Cadge*. from calendcE. kolo. signifies a waggon. Fr. joyous . Cage. a car. kalfi. a corpse. wanton. pet lamb. kukje. Fr. . 124 prattle . calessa. — — — Dan. a vessel for heating water. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. Gascon capdet. To Cajole. ON. for green fields. Gael. capitetum.

Mid. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. calma. kallo. form in the kalib. Lang. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. vulgo Coluvrine.from Ka'tm. femme frivole et babillarde. So It. to be of a good or bad quality. Mahn derives it from Lat. — Fl. sound. calgua. callum. licht stuk The change from a. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. to abuse . whereas in troth it is not. moist. calleting. kol. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. alta voce ploro. Call. calicot. kalla. * Caliver. or languishing drought is . faint. AS. Heb. KaXka. Fin. tapulta. Lat. whehce it was first brought. to rail or scold . It. quality. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Du. or caliever. Fr. a drab. from Calicut in the E. and dragon. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. Dief. or mould. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. trull. and E. E. Gr. Probably from the sound of one hallooing.meaning of the word. Caliph. calca. . ululo Turk. Turk. scold. ' pert. people's remarks. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. coluber. brawny. a. B. Derived by some from Arab. done with heat Alt. form. a successor. chatter. whence couleuv.en~ kinds of firearms. hallottaa. Indies. to tread. the latter of chamber. calk.Lat. The reference to heat is preserved in.piicede Lat. kael. abto suppose that E. longior. To drive tow or oakham. Kavfia. kahcwe. The origin is Gr. caillette. calclover. a round of abuse. Due. hot. Fin.(jaa= ice). kind heat of the sun. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . culverin. which has its memory preserved in Du. saucy. to call. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. to affirm. kal. and sometimes a handgun. ram. the hard surface of the ground. According to Jal (Gl. nautique). Bi. chatter kallen. Ca. the day. prattle. Sir John Smith in Grose. cotton cloth. can be distinct from ODu. Calico. The primitive colubrina bombarda. on. calc. To call. to call. Sp. Unfledged. to cram. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . calma. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). Fr. the scalp or skull. water-tight. try. dragoon. calme. coulevrine. scalmato. depreciatory term for a woman. to say. serpens. forms are undoubtedly from Lat.. calcare. and heat. To century was Squalibre. Ibid.— .' But it is hard Du. to burn. a last. Kil. given. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. Fr. to prattle. callus. having a thick skin. 125 Prov. ' rine. a feathers. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. klover. 'A callet of boundless tongue. hollaing. Hard. a soldier who the It. oldire from audire. bald. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh).' Whitby Gl. but is only a jda-kallo. caluw. overscalmaccio. fistula.' Chaucer. Diet. The word was also written cawme in OE. Calm. sclopus. bombarda Cauma incendium. Mil. quiet. coluber also. Ptg. an adder. cauma.position is much less common than the geschut. kal. sestus. faint. calvus. a good calling. donderbuchs Sp. which is as much as to say. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. * Callet. i. calcaich. NE. the heat of Now these Du. Fr. word of mouth . — — — — — .' Winter's Tale. harden by pressure. calibre. gossiping. Sc. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. calare. tittle-tattle. calibre. cahna. diameter of a ball. heat. calat of leude demeaning. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. calor. harquebus or handgun. Sup. CALICO Calliper-compasses. calo. of the bore of a firearm met. heat. Callow. dial. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. u to an I in such a colubrum. glotton. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. by many that the weapon Callous. serpentina. couleuvre. Among these were the turn. dragonder. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. To Calk. the Fr. . CALM to press or stuff. — — — — — . the Fr. cauque. khalif. koluvre. drive. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. quA librd. Antiq. moso. Kil. push violently. piece of bigger circuite. overheated. Sp. qAlab. of a column. however. voice. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. kil-u-kal. them &c. Gael. sence of wind.' Slange. colubrina. to callet. skin hardened by labour. to proclaim. caliver. to calk. Lat. to hear. colubraria canna. Diez.

whence Fr. to bow. Calyx. white._ kamm. cup. hooked. properly good country. Bret. Mod. crooked. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. camaien. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day.Gr.' ' Quhen a lattice. ko/utuXoc. from xaXbg. to bend.— Hackluyt in R. India Islands. to warp. Properly calver in the field during a war. — B. It. Calver of cane. brought from Fr. Lat. Sanson khanda. the space of false imputation. In a different application It. at the ends. camahutus. Cambrav—Cam. Cambray. callour. It was distinfrom work. Fr. Cambric. cainahelus. lattice. good.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles.— B. cambre. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. E. camafeo. camelot. camp. Sp. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. the bed of a stream. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. would plenier. candela. cam^e. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Cameo.. a piece. Fr. sore. It. a field Greek monk. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. ation. — — — A — — escume de saumon. canistrum. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Turk. canalis. and yspiuv. is Candle. chommer. An eater of human flesh.Lat. Mid.—Candidate. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. aged. Candy. — Lat. Lat. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. campus. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. water chamlet . the heat. spot for cattle. Cann. Palsgr. crooked. camelus. cambren. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. crooked. w. KafitjUe. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Campaign. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. It. Sp. Candid. Camlet. From fluting or furrow in a column . camelot refuge from the heat of the day. E. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Lat. cambr^. KafivTu. campaign. kanna. arched. champagne. having an aquiline nose. or Caribs. Fr. the salmondis faillis thair loup. cancer. The Grisons cauina. camber-nosed. died in 1526. Canal Channel. Kakoycpos. bis. open and level ground. Gr. a basket. B. Ptg. crooked-stick. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. sugar. Calumny. different sections of the like the Chinese. chaitcre. Sp. Canibal. campo. when its substance appears inter. Cancer. chamold man. co7nbar. crook. Fr. Lat. Cot. slander. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. calutmiia. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. to the force of the wind. From campus was formed Lat. It. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. A — the Cannibals. cup. the spersed with white flakes like curd. toile some of whom. arched.conduit-pipe. samon. ckaouma. It. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. from candere. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat.' Forme of Cury in Way. catmneo. field . The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. candidus. or hollow of a flower. Lat. fresh. mg Canister. Canker. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Canine. Pers. unwater chamelot . across — Bellenden in Jam. a caught. Lat. frank and sincandidatus. Fr. also an eatmg sore. campagne. cambrer. icaSoytipoe. See Canker. Gr. aspirant. campagna. campo. camiscieia. Camisade. champ. is Cambering. monk. on. to glow. a. a crab. a large drinking . lie level. whence the Fr. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. the type of a hollow pipe. to jut. lame. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. Cambrel.— Chandelier. . a goblet bud. callar. calj'x. B. nia. campren. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. a may have acquired that signification from plain. Peter Martyr. to break. a' Sc. Lat. had no r in de bric— Cot. Fr. — Cancel.—Jam.who their language. E. fair. Or the word Lat. Camp. cAouma. . Arab. canna. clothed in white. camiscia. salmon. Camel. arch. cere : Lat. an eating. canis. a dog. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. paign. a. se cameloter. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. the calix. It. chandelle. Fr. to bend. camisa.—Cambrel. Caloyer. higher in the middle than Fr. camisade. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. campagna. cancello. Fr.

the part easiest broken off. Canvas. a cover Turk. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a drinking glass. able to receive. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. See Capt-.n. canoa. and tref. Schwab. a — A — Cannel Coal. a gelding. cannu. astrology. Cope. quarter . trine. being a yard or thereabouts . a Fr. cane. It. ON. a scull- — here. Cant. kanta. a hundred. caparazon. Fr. cannabis. Palsgr. cantle then is a corner of a thing. Canopy. a wine-cellar or vault. pipe. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. cappe. . Cot. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Kil. N. The word seems to be taken from Gael. coat. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. signifying cover.. capa. to put upon sacred writers. coarse hemp. Wtb. margo panis diffracta. the quartile. cappa. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. is found languages of very different stocks. . It. The meserseum and the mesentericum. Prov. Sp. Kavt\. contain. Alamannis. a torch. side. was formed Kavtiiv. canonici. Sp. a reed. Lat. Diez. See Chape. border. speech. &c. . to shut. It. canteau. quarter. Jonson. To Canonise. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. Capable. leiwan kanta.CANNEL vessel. capace. Hence Lat. a cap. from canna. kq. he discourseth of dissection. schlapp. hemp. capax. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a division of a country. cantina. language. Picard. A slow gallop. If the word had been from cantherius. also a measure. Fr. . properly a large Prov. cover . canapa. a boat. Capacious. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. lump. cover kapi. Germanis kdppen. Gugel. carcase . the tried list of saints. a tube. B. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. capello Italis. cane. Fr. a horn of the moon . regular. coarse hempen cloth Fr. Canton. a small boat. Canoe. from a Canter. To his judicial And trowl the tile. name. &c. But it may be different source. chape. Du. Mod. shut. Capari. a rule or standard of excellence. or cantell of bread. canapaccia. edge. From Lat. a reed. as. quito curtain. as a cantle of bread. cane. haitt. a ship canot. root cap. a straight rod. kantr. Canteen. Gael. cappe. hamlet. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. It. can. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. territorial hundred. cainnt. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. kand. hirnschlapple. cantred. hemp. Of vena cava and of vena porta. The — . and met. a hunch of bread. say. corner. cantone. Goldast — in in Schmid. covered. Cantle. tain. kapamak. a cloak. has kahn. a cloak kapali. Mod. Sp. capevole. cope. cannone. Probably only the augmentative of canto. From Gr. or hold. a corner. kynnel. Coal burning with bright flame. canton. a pipe. A piece of anything. it would have been found in the continental languages. from . kandt-broodts. from cant. hood. KaTTiram. cape. Fin. cannevo. cantref. kwvwxIi. To canvas — . Again we have Lat. region. It. part. It. kyndel. and the sex- &c. schlappen. OFr. cannevaccia. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. canto. KCLvva. chanteau.^on. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. W. a door . gnat. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. It. that the G. canvas. to contain. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. canon. canonicus. which is not the case. cheese. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Canon.Gr. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. to sing. to con- rummer. and hence a gobbet.— Cot. measure for cloth. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. Cannoii. clqse. rumme. kaput. a cantle of bread. call. a side. chantel. the heel. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. border Dan. like a torch or candle. cane. a cane. Swab.Gr. from Dan. a ruler. A . the heel. Cape. Esthon. canevas. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves.

Hence capitalis the sum lent. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. chief. compared with Bret. cApre. brezilia. toy. Fr. caper j caprio. Torriano. the head. It. gricciare. ^piKos. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears .Gr. G^' Many words — ' ndv. Genevese bresoler. II bresole (Gl. s'hdrisser. and OHG. greziller. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. — — A a hair. and with an initial gr instead of br. a . a young kid met. Caper. rissoler. gives rise to brezza.' — (Supp. is either wholly lost. It. capillus. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject.). to shiver. capparis. as Fr. Griller d'im' patience. 75. the head. to parch. fansuddenly angry. erica. where Burton adds in a note. and 7tucc. to desire earnestly. of a fowl. riccio. . aggricciare. alcaparra. Unexpected pleasure. brisoler. the singing'bone). It.' Cot. gricciare. Acad. Capillary. explained by Diez from capra. then to shiver or shudder. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. then find the symptoms of shivering. Fr. p. ribrezzo. bruco. So from Sw. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. Lat. frissoner. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. or. or Lat. — to yearne. brisciare. with joy' Vikram. they longed extremely to see it. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul.) d'etre The It. shivering. cappriccio.— 128 CAPE a rustling. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. then to be in a state of vibration. curl. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. knis-hujwud . eruca compared with It. a separate division of a matter. bristling. and his body bristled We to castrate. prickly husk of chestnut. to broil. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. frisser {frissement d'un trait.— Fl. cut. to . abridge amKoTroq. birsle. to fry. Fl. greziller. castrated. as Fr. caprice It. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. grisser. algabr. ticchio. Arab. to chill and chatter with one's teeth.standing on end. hair. capriole. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. horripilation. sault. according to the Hindoos. Cot. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat.impressions on the ear. curling. end. a buck. capar. of a tremtdoiis sound. The same imitation of Capon. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. Mod. to shudder. It. of a coach. hedge-hog. ziki. chattering of the teeth. hi. or goat's leap (done by a horse). horror.) grezille marid. upon terms Sp. frisson- ner . capro. grillcr. humorous. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. for which he cites the Comask nucia. cover of a saddle. a caper in dancing. Hair-like. roughening of the skin. brissle. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . caj)o. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. castrated cock. airoKOTrrw. arricciarsi. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. herissonnement. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. a goat. w. to broil. brisciare. capriola. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . caprice. frizzle. to ruffle the surface of water. h^risser.'— Trev. Fr. capitalis. brisciare. the hair to stand on end. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. It. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. Capital. to crackle. A . brug. shrub. a ch illness. capitulare. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. frort^Lat. To treat Capitulate. as in Lat. Lang. It. a chevret. curly. Hal. the hair to stand on end. rihrczzoso. crackling sound Cape. See Chief. It. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. And similarly to yearn. to from capitulum. also the capriole. Lat. a yearning through sudden fear. to shiver for cold. Fr. Caprice. A headland. as the means of earning profit. a capriol. It. a hedge-hog. It is probable that Gr. belonging to From caput. bristling. arricciarsi. heath. Lat. a caterpillar. wriggle. knis. a little head. a kid. <I>pi'?oe. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. shivering. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. Lat. grisser. cut off. kid. ericius. The true derivation lies in a different direction. Sp. or other things. I have shivered with love. as Fr. the principal part of the debt. Capers. or represented by the syllable e. grug. to crackle. principal. gives rise to Sc. to twitter as birds. capriol or caper in dancing. the initial mute of forms like Gr. CAPRICE twittering. a head.

charrier. Sp. to creak. karra. recipio. a reception. conceive. Carry. acceptus. . was originally a missile . cams. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. a. intercept. crab s. was a kind of horse soldier. See Caper. fancy. to load . a cloke) capuccino. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. a cart. Fl. charret. &c. Castr.). hold. or the (capo-riccio). karren. conception. Du. Lat. Cart. capio. Fr. In cases. receptus. one odd. a sawing-block or trestles. a capuchin. &c.s. to receive receptio. of the Sp. to take baclc. capp%tccio. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. perceive. and of captus to an e. whence capture. calabrin. capsula. Thus the musket. Cot. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. commander. -cept. a hood (dim. capuccio. also a kind of rack. krul. decepte. chevre. It. caprice. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones.or -cib-. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. a kind of torture. cabestrantej Fr. carabin. It. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. to accept. deception.. from head. Kiittner. cabrestante (whence e. a head man. chirriar. Cot. cabreia. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. Carabine. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. and has thus descended unaltered to English. a hooded friar. accept. crepo. — —Diet. at least.). But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. strideo. concebir. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. bock. Fr. shivering fit (Altieri). and tropically. as in OFr. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. calabrino. case. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Fr. a coffer. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. seize. Fr. where it forms a very large class of compounds. recevoir. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Sp. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. chirrion. cabestan. a taking back. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl.. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. It is a standing crab. of capsa. Fr. caricare. recipere. The It. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. It. Capsule. to please. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. to this is It. captive. Lat. sels. carretta. except. Capstern. conceit. It. 129 — receive. also to carry on a car . or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. carro. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. and has accordingly been lost in E. It. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. also tresFl. Fr. captus. &c. desire. dim. a creaking waggon. oisr. capra. OSp. -cept. kerren. Capriole. karista. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. a. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. Carabin. Captain. a she-goat. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. caThe hrestante. capitis. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. Fin. concevoir. concept. captivate. deceit. Fr. an engine for throwing stones. was converted into -ceb. Du. trestle. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. a fantastical humour. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. charger. -ceive. as in accipio. verbs gives rise to the element . to take to. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. to take. karrende waegen. Capuchin. Lat. Caseneuve in Diet. Lat. a sudden will.of these compound verbs. recibir. Passing on into E. recepte. latterly. a windlass. as the dragoons (Du. i The meaning Car. to creak. precept. It. — — Capstan. Nordfoss.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). to carry . contain. Carbine. concipere. Etym. however. tnoschetta. Capt-. fantastic. capitano. Crab. Derivatives are Fr. It. de- price. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. caput. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Neumann. a sudden fear apprehended. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. box. cabra. char. In the S. G. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. the -cevofthe Fr. di cappa.

. kard boyd. . ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. karra. also a small weight. kerwan.applied to a battering-ram (G. cabreia.Gr. a crane. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Gael. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. caravela. to card wool. coming to four grains. carabba. carmiiiarc. burning coal. . carcaij. a snail. a twist. confining. the trunk or chest of the body . cabrita. card. for a gun. skeleton. black dye. alia sunt majora. «capa'|8i. It. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Parmesan cassiron. boch. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . caraffa. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. carch. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . to comb. Arab.Gr. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. Fr. Bohem. Carboy. winding carach. carquois. a ripple for flax. . a quiver. garafa. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . car. mural attack. See Carpenter. a coffer. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. avSpaS. &c. is the word used in modern Lat. winding. eitar. cerran. carbh. matter. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. also (as Gr. cardo. OHG. — seems to be something holding together. p.. to comb wool . carquan. to curry horses karsztuwas. W. It. the name might naturally Mod. quilato. &c. the carcase of a fowl. and catapulta. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. Lat. contract. Sp. to draw in.. cassa. ' Vasa vitrea. Comp. Carrob. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. cdrlag. decanter. of the same Caravan. It. the core of fruit . a lock of wool . Sp. Carcase. shell. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. carabe. carcasa. to creak. properly a siege machine. bend. &c. the carob bean. chevre by the name of the goat. vitriol. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. carate. Gr. a winding staircase. Venet. Carcax. the shell of a torcarcasso. caraffe. kirat. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. a gem resembling a live coal. a ship. a quiver . Gael. Fr. carcanada. Carbuncle. carcame. an engine for hurling stones. a goat. The radical meaning . a small weight.— — — . Gr. to hiss (as gee^e). Ptg. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. constraining . a thistle. carere. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a battering-ram). Exot. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. Cot. a kind of ship. fire . a card or comb . carbunculus (dim. word is only an adoption of the Turk. is the chine. or framework. curry-comb. casso. Lith. the husk or cod of beans. Pers. carcanet. ON. the . The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. a wool card. quse vocant karabd. in the same way that the Sp. a quiver . Sp. a firelock. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. an ulcer. a he-goat. krciti. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. the dead body of any creature. ancient springald. copperas. eit. . Caravel. case. wine- bottle. Sp. a case or chest . silique. Caraool. It. tcapKaai. caracal. a dead carcase. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. KtpaTwv. bock and Fr.charcoal . a quiver. carquasse.z. Gael. Carat. a machine for casting large darts. Cot. cramp. designated in the case of G. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. An implement for dressing wool. seed of carob. karszti. I. Mod.' From the same source are SicU. From the battering-ram. of carbo). a prison. The Trjg xeXwwac. Fr. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. . Carbonaceous. skeleton. turning. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a skeleton. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. carbo. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. AS. turn of a horse. wool card. poison eiz. a thistle. carduus. Lat. It. Card. Derived in the first edition from Mod. Fr. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. carta.. restraint . a collar or chain for the neck. Cat. to turn. Sp. Gael. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. karri.. skeleton toise. espi7igarda. to card wool. military engines made for hurling stones. cabra. the case of the flesh. to ripple flax.

wool cards. It. Coll. from caricare. grief. tremble. Bois crolant d'un ladre. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. careless take care of. carriera. Carminative. Fr. Fr. From. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. combing them out like the knots in wool. parched or carled. It. Lat. murren. x'»P'"^s)) paper.' Slceat. intrasset caro. croller. and sum. charnel. also a career on horseback. surrata. msstus. to shake. A mod-carag. . karout. Cartel. to scrape . kumra. care on. . & Q. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. 2. karantez. Carnage. moeThe Lat. an overloaded representation of anything. charger. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. stingy. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. Ptg. ress. affection. It. cargo. Sp. ceorl. G. Properly a car-road. sensual. cdrle. Fin. kurista. cearig. Venet. grolU. Translated in MS. charneux.Lat. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. AS. kroU-erbser. karl. the hull of a ship. beans. ON. E. like connection may be seen between Fin. carriire. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. immediately before the long fast of Lent. Carnal. as carminare. and G. the time during which to Rom. principal. It. a turn. to fry or broil. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. Properly. record. is This however Shrove tide. — — Diez. charie. the keel. fundamental. AS. to take Goth. solicitous. a card. It. fleshy . and thin. carezza. carch. stridere. karg. Cot. to care unkarja. carnasciale. Bret. Carl. quadrifurcum from quameet. car. Fr. to distress growl. carnavale. Fin. winding. Roquef. kribina. Fr. from the keel to the water . 273. Peas steeped and fried. Fl. rixosus. chartre. Carled peas. charnage. Champ. Charnel. to load. . . a highway. to comb flax or hemp. a hinge. weyes. road. caru. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. to lie on its side. carena. charta (Gr. Caricature. as quadrivium from Carnaval. the load of a ship. to scratch. Trin. ON. caresse. to comb wool. be anxious. kara. sgritudo animi. from carrus. to load. act of moaning. Sept. . to clean the bottom of the ship. carminare. Cath. carina. voce strepo stridente. — Carfax. . For the root of carminare. A quirito ut infans. to rumble. compared with Fin. ignarus. to load. an endearment. carena. is to say. cardinis. murahtaa. that Fl. kargr. A place where four roads Mid. &c. the keel of a vessel. to card wool. Gael. gakaran. caMid. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. OHG. karista. No ' place there had. what is felt as grievous.— Charter. p. camovale. quaver a lazar's clack. Cark. see Garble. to parch. charg.. G. Fr. in N. Carenare. to growl. Lat. to love. Cot. mutter. clown or churl. . Fr. crowl. that on wliich the matter hinges. caricare. cardo. to whirr (schnurren). Fr. A medical term from line —Boerio.— CARD karr-kambar. piger. . morosus. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. in Carp. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. the flesh of animals . carnal. from Lat.. giierlir. Dan. scharren. appertaining to the flesh. crawl. cearian. crosier. Chart. dear. sorrow. W. kummer. male person. zanken . the several meanings of the words above Rom. W. Cargo. OFr. morosus sum. W. cargar. — — — Caress. AS. or grumbling —Due. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. tenax. Groler. to eat flesh. four. carnalis. carcare. It. a man. It. caricatura. and compare Bret. from carus. cura intenta. the old theory of humours. 1S66. whence carricare. quarreG. strideo. karry. or street. bottom. — To Careen. sorrow. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. graller. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. essere in carena. in St Jerome. Card. soUicitus OSax. and murhet. carian. to fry. one of those ac- 9 * . astutus. 8. carener. carFrom carrus. tuorfurcm (Burguy). cura may be ror. Mur. Cot. at murmuring. Farewell flesh. carnis. caritia. niggardly . Care. Bret. meet at a head. carcus.Lat. de Parthenay. hoed. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Sp. love. Fr. — — — : Cardinal. — — . regar. murista. asper. w. charag. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. karrig. Carlings. care. carrefourg. place for exercise on horseback. as peas. Probably the origin of the word is the . a deed.

carpenter only in the latter sense. Biheld within. in Due. differing To Carp. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. Sp. carpenta. ' ' — . worker in timber Fr. yede tham about. Mid. I quaught.— Drant in R. Carpitam habeat in lecto. 216. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. carpende fast Carol. Carnelevale. vel coopertorio carebit. to dance. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. . carbh. ! Carouse. garrulo. carpentum. act of drinking a full Eq.'— Stat. Alluz (G. course. Bohem. to dance. chatter skra/a. a dance. Other names of the sea. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. koroll. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. zimmerspan. Sup.' says Motley (United Neth. or loose as a couch without further preparation.Lat. fabulor.— R. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Shrove Tuesday. to pluck. So gone they forthe. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. lint. pluck at. Here's to you still my captains friend. Dief.' Ordo Eccles. Olr. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. — — ' ' — — — I — — . a wheelwright. cited by Marsh. The ' ' a chariot. Pref. all aus). each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. carpenticre. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Analogous R. a song accompanying a dance then. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. biheld without. carpetam (a quilt?). 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. carpo. sense. whence the form carnasciale. Mid. The karole of the stones behelde.' Raleigh. Gael. pluck. Ein we find the signification transferred from . about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. as the Lat. gonna. litter. krapati. linteamen. 2. Discov. Pr. to find fault with. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. peta. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. . Fr. Carole. charpie. a wheelwright. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. at midnight which derivation from kroes. tattle.Lat. Palsgr. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. as Fr. carpita. was formed Mid. A. carnelascid). to chatter coroli. maker of waggons It. Carnevale. CarTo quaff carouse do use. . The tippling sots. to talk. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Fr. ballare.Lat. chatter. 1 1 30. cxciv. a drinking cup. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. as E. a car carpentarius. The custom. in Carp. Ant. Templariorum — ' — Due. Gower in Way. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. bier. qui sacco. carpat (Stokes).Why give's some wine then. Nomin. I drink all out. carpetrix. Lat. carpia. On the other hand bumper to one's health.: . On this. skraf. on that. charpentier.— Patriarchi. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. a carder. ship. Mediol. ON. culcitra. From Lat. of Guiana. In Dominica d'autant.gonnella. a plank. Properly a round dance.]e bois Carnelevale.D. zimmer.' Reg. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. balade from It. to reel. i. 760. or a carouse fully drunk up. in Nat. querole. e. Lat. carduz. and F. chariot carbad. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Carpenter. gar aus / all out is correct. is erroneous. Beggars Bush. 94). Pm. Lat. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. 2. Bret. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. Carpyn or talkyn. Chanson de carole.— Neum. All out B. To pledge them thou refuse. Cot. i. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. krapanj. W. In a MS. tymmer. Carpet. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. cardos. to gather. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. as carnaval from carnelevamen. Teut. — . chirp. garrire.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. The word seems of Celtic origin. carpere. used for stuffing mattresses. quoted by Carpentier. to pull asunder.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. to rustle. and Carnem laxare (It.

cut with scissors. a loopscale the wall. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Cot. as we . paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. kerven. to — — also casse. to slay. caroche. packing ' cloth. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. to notch. casitiste. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. to crack.' — Hdcart. cassa. cia. ' Casa-matta. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Case-mate. Rouchi carone. caisse. to break. As defence from shells became more important. caro. Cassock. hollow. It. vault hole in a fortified wall. It. casus. mord-grube. — — nul the proceeding. casualis. carretto. Lat. carogna. hung up in some place and to be removed. carota. a hut. a fall. long man's gown with a close body. It. Gael.— Fl. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Sp. — FI. cascar. made void. Casuist. Carrion. a long coat. the charge of — — Fr. slaughter-house. to fall. from It. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Ready money. house. something that actually occurs. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. where Fr. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. casser. casa. crush. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. Case. AS. ceorfan. and matar. dim. cascade. See Case. casso. ignominiously exposed. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. afterwards any written challenge. void cassare. cartone. Hence casket. It. carretta. helmet. capsa (Diez). It. Fr. caisse. Rouchi carpHe. kerpu. See Gristle. carroccio. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. a of water.' Fl. To Carve. kerben. — Cartoose. Casket. and the OE. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. to an- — Kil. caisse.' Bailey. Fr. a chance or accident. It. To Cashier. to convey in a cart. Lith. charrette. Carrot. krat. Cask. des rideaux A'carp^ie. cassette. Fr. the money chest. coffin of paper for groceries. a chest. also the carriage. kirpti. cartouche. To quash an indictment. Preparatory drawing of a It. cancel. — Cartridge. Fr. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. a coffer or small case for jewels. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Lat. from the sound it makes when Alban. an augmentative from Lat. The Sp. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. a paper case. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Lat. casag. Fr. casacca. a canonry or slaughterhouse. Cot. bitten. properly to convey in a car. cartella. Cascade. for the security of the defenders. charogne. gristle. cascare.' Cot. Flor. Fr. discharge It. discharge.to annul.. AS. carroc- carrozza . blotted out. mord-keller. casa-maita. — — . Fr. a car. Fl. card. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. cancelled. Rouchi caroche. Casual. a car. Fr. Case. casuelj Fr. subject for a picture. cartilage. Fr. To duash. an act of falling. cassere. a merchant's cash or counter. cassa. Fr. OE. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Cart. abrogate. Cartoon. quash. See Card. To Carry. empty. bag and baggage of a camp. to cut or carve . augm. carriaggio. to dash. crown of a hat. CartOTicli. fall It. like all the names of tendon. from It. cartoccio. to fire on the enemy. casco signifies a skull. casaque. annul. carrosse. one who reasons on cases put. gristle. Du. caroach. from Lat. Walach. turn out of service. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. case. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Rouchi carter. paper. Casque. Cartel. It. charrier. break to pieces. and that apparently from capio. luggage. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. corresponding to the G. Fr. hull of a ship. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. cashiered. mata. kasseren. to shear. of carro. Fr. quasser. cascata. The carrying of anything. Fl. G. It. It. shell or carcase of a house. caxa. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. Du. not reaching to the height of the ditch. to bear or carry. Sp. coffer. cassus. to hold. Cash. augmentatives of carro. tion from Sp. from casa. pasteboard. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . carreaggio. of carta. fortuitous. case-maiej Sp. Probably. Lat. Carriage.

Pol. and KviilSog. Roukind. 120. castellum. was introduced. puras E. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. to hunt. a cat . to break. shaft of a 1 push. cat-o'-nine. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. klakka. squash.the / or c respectively. to fall as over a precipice. Yz. to close. kakka. kissa. cacciarc. catar. Fr. heat . to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . Fr. Fr. torture. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. Cat. a garment for performing the mass in. from the first of Castrate. away. R. Others explain it from Kara. . the stalk of plants. KarapaKrr]g. OFr. cast. Pm. casulla. race. to drive away.Lat. second chase. ating. Lat. Lang. to scourge. .out cacciare . Isidore — in Diez. ichasses. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. castro. n. Fr. katze. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. Gr. casser. and tomba. 134 CAST Catacomb. Catastrophe. down. catch. on. to bring to an crack given by the joints. from water Karappaaaiii. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. To It. Fr. signifying breed. Gr. It.to drive out. like that of It. kasta. puss / for calling them. Castle. accastiare. which. — We a cavity. name. castello. dash. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. chasser. Fr. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. chaleur. cojz^/a. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. follow after. however. an enumerlist. to dash. to crackle. to hurl See Awgrim.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Brunne. of castrum (castra). Castanets. same word with break. to cast or beat to tioner . probably from an imita. a Cataract. mino. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. the castanets for or implement . tails. squash. to end. Catalogue. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Cot. handle of an axe. a little house or hut. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. while kiss / Pol. _G. cat. a chesnut . ON. being Fin. lance. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. V Lith. to look at. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. in the fire. Hence castaneta. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. To Catch. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. kic' kicil are used chasser. and from the castus. down. Fr. ecrevisse. &c. rack. Pic. . to Fl. The E. burst cascare. kottr. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion.'— Pr.. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . drive away. casule. Cast. to make clean or chaste. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. execu.. 'Vaaaw. cacciare fuora. bot-kotis. In the dialect of Picardy. or bruise together. B. kaJoivad. of sarabands does Gr. kat. cascar. the ground . Etym. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Lat. V. chat. KaTappaKTrjQ. to clack. or Rouchi cat. casupola. . kasi. Thus we have Caste. chasser. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. The Diet. first made ordinary Fr. So also from It. koshka. arpi^m. It. KaraXoyog. a thump. speak of dashing a thing down. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. a cat koshki. dashing it to pieces. KaTaarpifm. to lash. cassa / cry for the same purpose. fall. or comba. Fr. chasuble. Sp. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Gael. Sp. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. punch. to turn overturn. a whip on the other into latch. dashing it out of the window. dim. castanetazo. to drive Cat o' nine tails. represented by the syllable quash. casipola.— Fl. under chi caleur. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. is not satisfactory. by the loss of with several pitched cords. Mid. . fer toTa. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. It. force j Rouchi equerviche. image accasciare. kotas. cash. to is Essentially the Sp. to torture. Hal. ' Catchyn away abigo. crush . sue. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. to crack. castana. stilts.Rouchi Scaches. a vault. cacciuolo. the earlier sense of catch. perhaps from which we have E. Fr. Chase. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. kotas. a fortified place. coming to us through different dialects of French. which has been retained in E.

* Caterpillar. * Cates. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. compare G. — with a whip. E. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. gingle. caucht. fragor kletsoore. resono ictu lash. resound. Tutschek.' ^Jam. worm. — explained. the elements of a science. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. head. Kartiyopta (/cari. Guernsey pilleure. an officer of taxes. pedes. a smack. klatsche and Norm. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. s. Fr. Wal. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. flap klatsche. bichano (pussy). klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . woodlice.) . to harangue. klatschen. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Fr. snatching. e. Gael. . Du. Du. Kil.' CATCH Fr. Caterer. klinke. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. children's name for cat . Kariicatching one a box on the ear. Guernsey chafer. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption.yopl(.s. wild-beast. to chat. glcu. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. a clap. to take. a pill. snatching it with a any one. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. door when it is shut. from Gr. the the same principle he was Fr. called in Fr. clap with the hand. to kythe D. Ptg. clatter. Cates. cagnon (a dog). insect. ketsoore. kaetse. E. chatter . to catch strength. In the XV'e. to snap. from shutting with a click. a whip or Kuttner. — Catcli-poll. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. called dog or Galla catchamza. Grandg.j. a. e. catch-flesh. — tinman. snatched. kletse. gattola. Sc. Gael. Gr. ictus resonans. claquer. an accusing. 'Horxa. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. — . the larva of the cockteufelskatz. a carter's Pat. whip. which all . chasse. the OE. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. . with and without an / after the c. bicho. — B. to snatch (said of dogs). cat is not apparent. KaTtix'so. a little dog). Claucht. catc?u. G. a whip Rouchi cachoire. is said that he got a claucht of it. ecachoire. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). companaige. chassoire. chenille {canicula. catch. happe-chair. latch. chacepol. Kil. Swiss Lombard G. cache. quincailler. i.V. silkworm. sound. caker. ArbaUte de courte chasse. a caterpillar Milanese can. 135 — Aasen. kletsen. chase. c or ^. seize. Du. to A bailiff. gliong. P. . a — gatta. Sp. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. the distance to which the ball is struck. ' Fr. as of the latch of a As ! — .P. apprehend a person. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. Cot. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. to clap hands. On Catechism. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. to the crack. Fr. GaUa catchiza. . a whip. klatsch. OFr.from Bard and ayopsw. de Bray. Cot. to teach by oral instruction. latch of. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. verberare kUts. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. klatscherei. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. smack. has both or of charming by sound. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door.. blow. Metivier. . dainty vic- a form lash. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . to chatter with the teeth cake. Rouchi clincailleux. a whip. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. dainties. a. chink. Diez. E. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. instruction in forms. devouring mite or weevil. millecaterpillars. predicament. — Kiittner. a cornIn the s. chatter. chachara.V. clap. and answer. 'Bxn. ' ' word catch. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. formerly called cliket. Chate peleuse. catch. in order). icarrix'Ki^. to crack GATES cache. weevils.

kaussijde. Cathartic. to purge. chair. a The peel. ce^l. Delycates. cautis. capull. little cat. by land. Thus Bav.Y\\Xea. cavus. Cavalry. That he was ay before in his estate. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. whence cathedralis. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. KaPaWrii. deyntie meates. is Prologue. Kavrijp. puss.Lat. choufleur {choii. cale. a mare. Palsgr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. a horseman. Sx. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Cavity. Kil. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Gr. a pulpit. macska. Cavalier. kitten kotki. flue. is used in the sense of cat-skin. achepter. kopista. Fr. a branding from koiio. Lat. Cattle. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. kocianki. cheval. katteken.p. Jaubert. catons. otherwise written kell. Fr. Lat. calqada. Boethius. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. kassije. G. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Cave. cabbage-stalk. Fr. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Fr. chausser. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. . a horse . The word — . from chaud. Gael. accattare. and spareth for no perell. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. chaudiire. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. chaussJe. Caustic. calceata. the caul of the liver. the. — — cavallo. to sound like a blow . applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. make clean. w. kopano. Lat. from delf^gato. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. Cause. chatideau. hazel. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. 4. to beware. kocie. a horse . acaptar. from caveo (p. Gr.^ acheter (Lat. any Fl. klopfend knallen. the stones of a street. Fr. chevalier. Russ. On the other hand. fur. fur in general. &c. It. quire. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . It. Caudle. . to ac- — Fr.Lat. mutz. Bessie of Bednall. Causeway. 2. Gr. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. also to pave . cal^ar. CAVE Caul. accapitare Rouchi acater.. catkin mitz. apt to burn iron. caldo. It. little cap is . net or caul-work. cauHs. a receptacle for small things. a kettle for heating water. a seat. Fr. kobuiV. kobyla. cautus). dumpf tonen. calidus. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. .—— — 136 correct. Manciple's Tale. Fr. a stalk. puss. a horse. to shoe. challe was ther of a temple. Cavalcade. kdtzchen. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. . primitive is meaning a shale or off. to shale or peel. Wyatt in R. Pol. flock. Diez). Rete. cabbage). Pr. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Caballus. hot. calceta. Palsgr. Ka^afriKOQ. kautsije. despencier. caballus. katte.^Hal. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Cavern. calotte. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. what . caudex . It. reticella. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. from KaSaipio. to shoe . Dryden in R rete. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. Kavrfipiov. cabbage. acater. Fr. Fr. shaled or picked Fr. catkin Pol. Mid. Provider. a paved road. green husk of a calon. ' Gr. Caution. chauderon. lamb. It. to burn.willow. kin. Du. and hence a skull-cap. • — — See Chattel. causa. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. a road calceata. . caple. hot. Du. Fr. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. rete A — Prov. Cauldron. OE. Richly she feeds. having the property of cleansing. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Fin. catkins . minon. . catkin Magy. Cathedral. — Cauterise. cale. but the acates that are sent him.' B. a pavement. Mid. to buy. via strata. B. KaHSpa. Lat. walnut with the husk on challer. chaudroii. — . CATHARTIC sense.' Elyot in Way. Lat. mudet. cat maczoka. Chaud. A warm comforting drink.. puss. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Lat. . Jonson in R. Catkin. cavaliere. hollow. Port. koparet. KiwariKog. a kind of skull-cap. adcaptare.

hollow. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . syle. pp. sus-lambris. beam. proceed. step away. departure. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. Ceiling. coffer. to panel or wainscot MHG. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. exceed. a halter. were met. Gawaine & Sir Gol. Lat. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. Fr. E. Cam. give place. B. rafter. Boyd in Jam. seele. Cede. of cavezza. and Gol. to plank or floor with planks. augm. hollow ice . . 5. komo. Lat. little house.). to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. heaven. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. quibble. the roof of a coach. In the same way G. dil. the inner roof of a room of state. of E . koppeli. cavezzone. in Jam. cease. hung. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. lambris. a canopy. tester of a bed. or of a bed. death. Sp. 7. The It. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. To seele a room. wuoren komo. . sybire. Cease. heaven. dScis. but hang around at the sides. dayntily diglit. — — — toyour soverane. .' del. — komo tain). p. cellar. See -cede. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. sill. Sir 137 pit . a log. sill in window-sill. The importation of Fr. . — . ceiling. wall. and that from Sp. to cut. a plank. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. a log. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. that. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. Fr. ciel is so unbroken. recede. . Wore. a severe bridle. an aquiline nose.' Rutland papers. VIII. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. a hut. bridle. . curved. to seele or close with boards plancher. Soc. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. Lat. IV. cielo. a boarded floor. to plank ON. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. applied to a canopy. menuiserie. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. The sense of roofing.. flooring E. A — A false accommodation produced G. deal. del into English without ' translation gave cele. thil. hollow. to go forth. board . From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile.' Ordinances and Reg. column E. cavillor. thilja. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. decessus. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. cabegon. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. in Hal. selure. thel. post. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. a fir-plank. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. the testern of a bed. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. hivtmel. kapp-zaum. Fr. in Jam. &c. cabega. as. kommata. a canopy. crooked kopio. also a seeling of boards. -cede. a log. a beam. Sherwood.j have come from this source. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. the deck of a ship at thilja. Lat. semely on syll. thil. . obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. yield. jaa. ceiling. cedo. -cease.' — Gawan . wainscot thiljar (in pi. . served in halle Under a siller of sillc.' Hall. empty. .' Cot. cessum. Fr.). syl. —Decease. lambrisser une chambre seeling. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. komista. And seik — Cessation. 43. The line of descent from Fr. . thili. Cot. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Hence concede. &c. canopied. . plank.. cyling (W. In the N.' Marriage of James IV. is applied to a canopy. cesso. -cess. dille. plank. -ceed. Cavil. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. . as if from happen. sky. So from Fin. thelu. to canopy siled. thiling. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. . 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. 32. and zaum. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. excess.'— Z. nailes will begin to cling. p. H. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. to argue capto tiously. caveqon. ciel de lit. door-sill J Sc. Hal. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. with their substantives concession. &c. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. departure from this life. a board. — . in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. CAVESON kopera or kowera. &c. and then to gape. selar. Plancher. It. a head. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. a planking or boarding tkilian. succeed.

with the eyes. swift. parted sleep. Cot. rough from the quarry. judge. For sess from assess.' Book of St Albans.— Chafing-dish. Century. sift. (and thence also) to hoodwink. Cij(fe5j. cigliare. abundance. Lat. cillier. It. Fr. an eyelash. Accelerate. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. to course of people. syll. renown be embodied with. -cess. goad. appertain. in comp. to bury). -CEIVE a shaft. See Cede. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. solemn (of per. OFr. to seal a pigeon's eye. distinIt. celeber certus. encens. Fr. to contend. to take. to -sum. Fr.). judge. Prov. or expression of Ennius. Celerity. It. a numerous con. sure. but was gradually lost in conceit.. empty. Lat. centum. -cense. 1. the point round which a circle is drawn. chauffer. keep in It. a hundred of what- — . to glow. Lat. to concern. a shaft horse. deceit. to be regarded as one celebro. — . zens according to their property. to attend on object with. riscaldarsi. /ctj/rsw. Assize. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Sherwood. Lat. heaven. receipt. calefacere. oil. to sepap rate. -oept. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. to think. Fr. Cess. See Celibacy. to separate. single or unwedded life. make angry. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr.j 138 thill. To chafe is for wine. criticism. to chafe. concernor. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. conceipt. his office. is the opposite of disora virum. KsvTpov. celer. Centurion. contend. &c. Lat. the officer appointed to take such returns . being taken from Fr.— Cellar. -ciper. and thence to conceal. Chafe. also grave opinion. to rate. -civer {conciver— Roquef. from censeo. cencer. to burn incendo. to incense. to set on fire. Lat. festive. judge Lat. decebre) . KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. candeo. — . for building. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. and met. crevi. Lat. much frequented. deceipt. -cebre ifoncebre. thronged the participle cretus. Cot. Census Censor. Certain. Ceremony. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. S. value.unmarried. siller les yeux. Lat. — — Cenotapli. caber. -ceptjun. Fr. -ceit. Censer. age. Lat. tax. to celebrate. &c.ing a room where there is not fire. hollow. -cipio. as in some places burnt. Gr. decide. Gr. Lat. Celebrity. become heated with anger. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. Lat. a hundred centuria. to prick. to distinguish. Coehim. — . censura. to twinkle darkness. Centre. thence belonging to or connected with corn. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. and — — — possessions. Assess. capio. Censor. to rub for the purpose a hut. quarters for slaves. ciglio. Censure. Lat. -cevoir. Cereal. To Incense. cella. {cori)cipere. Fr. or any bird's. -ceive. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. K^'ivut. — . Fr. materials It. in comp. sacred show. mortar. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. we have a modified form of (of a place). incense. a prick. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. capturn. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. to warm. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. census. to seele or sew up the eyelids . a tomb. -cepire. family. calefare. the talk of men. cenio. a solemnity. In Celebrate. point. eyelid. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. with transposition hence (of a day). Gr. rubble. what to set in a chafe. from Saa-rw. The term cilium. to take. a valuation of every man's estate. blind. in accordance with the Fr. a Cemetery. concetto. confounded ist from It.of the r. — . . To seel or close the eyes. sting. a solemnity. the hollow the Lat. -cern. and put it through the over eyelydde. a registration of one's self. observe. . sile. cilibat. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. a storehouse Chafe. cretum. tax. assess. — A . see. is totally distinct from the foregoing. ceremonia. Fr. Sc. a religious observance. ciller.). census. eschattffer.. of heating. oil.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. chaufferette. — . irot\oe. pick out.cern. -i^oivre. in Marsh. guish. to heat. ' . to visit in numbers. the place where the de. cerealis. Cell. Incensum. -cepere. estimate. dchauffer. to sleep). and thence censer. stones to the production of heat. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. Fl. cot. Take the nedyll and threde. concerner. Ta^oe. to blindfold. camentum. Gr. cceremonia. and so of that other. then to rub without reference Cement.' Celebritas. Lat.

much blowing. Chalice. camera. (ca'e'ra) to chair. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. muzzle. Perhaps Pm. snort. Prov. So from dominio. Chagrin. often puffing. cathedra. ceafer. kedja. . Prov. ^Altieri. Lat. Cot. calumnia. keuchen. Fr. now a chair. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. ckapfare. in a monstrous fume. care. chayire. breathe hard. Bouffard. Du. and as this was the beginning of man. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. kahista. G. contestation. Chayire. to sit. puff. to action arose. chaine. to calumpnjamen. kdfelen. green sagrin. Gr. catena. kever. Cot. a jackdaw. signal by drum or P. In vulgar language. place See Cheek. chicane. on. tronfio. to gnaw. Lat. Chain. great chafe.. de Brai. G. rustling motion challenge. in a cana. from Swiss kafeln. to move the jaws. or puff with snorting. chafeter. cadena gives chain. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. ceaf.sure carriage. much more Genoese sagrind. Adelung. to pant. chatter. Chair. The jaw chafty. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. chaulx. kaff. Fr. Hal. hght Chalk. difficulty . ON. swelling with anger. chafing. a pulpit Cot. clamare. from the shark-skin. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. as. a goba rustling . a chough. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. a chain. . breathe KaOa^oiiat. Lat. to chatter or talk lightly. B. to fret inwardtronfo. kuhuja. E. cam. idle words. hordeum vel let. Wall. to dispute. fa sagramen de calompnia. keffen. limare. with a:n arched roof. . Pr. chaise. kiaftr. to puff and blow. grief. to bark. Kaiiapa. hiss. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . gewolb. Lat. fume. calonjar. Fr. kuhata. jaw. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. grief. calx. songe. kahuja. Halma. 11. Lat. that leneth e per I'autra. avena vilior. kahu. rustle Challenge. call in question for an ley). Pers. refuse. In like manto huff. From the To Chaff. From to go to law. a pulpit. P. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. also to prattle. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. far lima-lima. — — — . . taubes korn oder hafer. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. puffed or ruffled with ly.— — . which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Bav. Fr.' Rayn. quisquilise offence. Camera. vis. to tattle. kuhista. charge with.nium. a vault or arched roof. dispute. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. calix. chaene. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. crooked. 35. cauvette. Fr. a prattling woaction. Kuttn. Fl. . ing rapidly repeated cries. Cheffern. matter by combat. calice. to buzz. — — — — — — . Fr. cadena. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. De Ir4. chalanger. Due. chamar. &c. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. from of the G. to Latin calumniare. to file. bargain. To buy and sell. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. shaIt. cadieira. a rustling noise. yap. Fr. — — ' — — — A . to babble. rally one. kdfer. ing a hard case to their wings. havOFr. and signifies to consume with anger. rustling corn. without chap/are makiinde. — — — . de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). kaff. Lat. Probably from According to Diez. Fr. vel susurro. snuff. p. Prov. to call. as a carriage is a moveable seat. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. false accusation. kauchen. to caw chawer. chaffare. cadera. of. Lat. Gr. chawe. care. any insect of the beetle kind. Fin. Piedm. cup. lime . chaire. fern-chafer. haggle. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. KoBiSpa. Ayenbite. — . khah. OFr. Pat. chagrin. kuhina. to institute anforensic action. chambre.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. tattle cheep. From Port. to a seat. to gnaw. dongio. to claim. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. refuse barley .. sagrindse. thick and short. sagri. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. leviter crepo Then. sborfare. lime. Fr. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. ple^. kiamta. tattle. preise. Du. chaps Chamber. talkative. calonja. kiqfta. cathedra. Fr. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Came. to ner It. a double operation * Chafer. baras of ants. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. have a mind to parley.

to fasten on. to slope. kabintis. Dief. kanip. s. to fall. excellent. kempen. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. ciamberlano. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. Champion. . Ptg. contention kappi. dricka i kapp. pinch. bundle. luctare. champ. Prov. champ. a bundle. fight. — Hal. kriimmen gebogen. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. top of a borehole. slope of a bevelled angle. gewolbt. Chancellor. to hold . Lat. or less ignorant. to bevel. to fasten oneself on to another . to fasten oneself to another . compound. or player at football. CHANCEL It. It will. caer. champ. . kabe. hot. kampen. from chaud. kapp. move the jaws. ON. Chancel. hamper. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to wrestle. a court of justice. boys speak of capping verses. received the petitions of the suitors. to paw the ground E. to smack the lips in eating. Lat. keiiipe. wood. which seems another form of the root. dial. cempa. a horse-race.' melleia. ON. to to chew champ. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon.edley. campar. to fall). game campio. a warrior. — Ch-amberlain. sukibti. The happening of things Chance. . chdance. — ^Tusser. to — — champ. kampa. to chew. chaude mesUe. to debate. The word is preserved in E. kinipen. to tread The sound heavily. tsammogni. to wrestle. to excel. who stood ad cancellos. tsamtsogni. Champarty.—Tutschek. kabMe. Fr. schmatzen s. chamble. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. chajnbellan . chanfrar. to talk. to move the jaws kiamt. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. Campar. accident. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. to happen {ad and cadere. is explained by serrarsi.—Charfron E. combat. When the to quarrel. . cazer. therewithal. Get campers a ball To camf . Meleare. chance. a field of battle. Fr. M. to strive at games . Fr. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . Fr. Chance-n3. kiammi. champ. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. To hollow out in chanPtg. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . The E. camp. to slope out the . it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. E. to cample. dispute Hal. Fin. kempa. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. fray. and mesUe. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Sup. from Fr. champion Du. a hook . fighting place. chamfrain. to groove bevel off a right angle. prize-fighter. as in It. zs jeopardy. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. Fr. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. cample). camerlengo. act of falling. nels. calidameya. — masterly Sp. Carpentier. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears.' ' Pr. Chancery. to . . dial. ciambellano. kimppu (Lap. Partnership. divided game. gekrUmmt. zampettare. an athlete. Fr. athlete. a feat. Du. kibti. G. escazenza. a hollow chanfreiner. chain. To cope or contend with. To Chamfer. termediaries between them and the judge. champ parti. — KiL . Lat. Sp. campear. Magy. hng. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. Pm. calida et sans aguet. surpassing. kiinp. kippo. to flute as a column. dial. . camp. kappd).' SherI'altro ' ' . a scufSe. Lith. Commonly derived from campus. . kimpustella. kampeln. cahir. E. —Chamfrain. Champaign. Lat. cancelli. a jaw kianisa. bickering. . accidere. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . chanfreindre. from cheoir. pedilusor. campus partitus . contend or argue G. kimpUma. Chamfron. Hence (with the nasal) w. chance. the chafldn. a game at football.140 CHAMBERLAIN . The G. as swine. ing. mesleiare. contest. Sp. difficulty .be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. broil. to hollow out. dial. chanfrein. kampeln. and acted as inofficers of . kablys. chanfrein. to stick to. to quarrel (comp. See Camp.Lat. Champ. jocus partitus. Gall. to Hal. camp. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. hero Sw. kabinti. campus. So in e. i. fight. giving rise to the as. cameratus. dial. to be eminent. reusement — fight in single combat. at the railings. certare. jeu parti. kimbu. e. ON. cadere. rare. head armour. to hang. Prov.

is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Fr. clapet. chapelete de una bomba. —Ordericus Vitalis. Hal. Lang. any hollow for conveying water. Chape. chop. Hal. to — cut. exchange. ^Jam. AS. to break . In like manner Walach. from canna. canalis. and the modern canal. ceaplas. to swap. Da. the clappers of the scupper holes. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. to apply one flat thing to another. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. lips of an animal. Man of Law's Tale. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. cobio. or the cracking of one. ceaflas. the loose flesh of the cheeks. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. A fellow. kvar kjceften. waterconduit. cantare. chapilla. may be compared with ON. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . chap. . cambium.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. esclapo. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. to peck. leather. Hence It. Molbech. the place where candles ler. throat of an animal. to chap at a door. E. as skin chapped hands. like the knocking of hard things together. Lith. gab. . In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Chandler. a strip of metal plate. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. to coat. hack . and also to chap or crack. It is also used in the sense of the E. chapeletas de imbornales. chancellerie. chop. . chiappa. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. as It. prune. chancery. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. Walach. exchange schimbatoriu. chandelier. Chap. I. hard bodies. to strike. changer. Channel. to cut off . Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. a dealer in candles then. schimbu. as corn-chandChandry. a money-changer. to cut. chap. as chancery . Da. jaw. 2. That wide were sentin their spicery. as those on a trunk. shift. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. properly in a hard body. Du. to strike. —Chantry. as to chap hands. kaupa. while the broader vowels a. Commonly derived from capella. W. cambiare. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. to sing. esclapa. to paw like a horse . Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. exchange. kemma. flat . to plate. cambiar. chapa. from chandler. Bret. Prov. kiceft. kapoti. to hack. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. Sc. a pipe. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. klepan. the gutter that runs along a street. or the like chapar.^. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. cheek. chanter. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. chaps. is used in the same sense . every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. To Change. to truck. . Chip. Fr. Compare chark. And N. wood. a chap is a crack or fissure. debeant conjurare. Sp. Cheek. jaw. to strike with a sharp edge. a small plate of flat metal. Chap. to plate. also a clap. muzzle. Fr. to put on fresh clothes. surfaces striking together. camjar. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. — . a small metal plate Port. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. 140. the chaps . Probably from chap. Chap. ON. to cut up into small pieces. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . schimbd. extended to other trades. not a soul. Hence chantry. Chapel. to change. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. See Chant. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. Lat. the mouth. a jaw. Russ. from clap. cangiare. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. to spht a chip. a reed. to creak. — — —Marculfus in Due. kappen. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to deal. Chop. Sp. — : Lat. Fr. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. are kept. Aasen. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. skipta. See Chop. chapeta. kjaakaa. . Chaps or chops. kennel. to peck. kiceft as well as kjakje. chapear. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services.

capella. a merchant. chapel. to tattle. as. from gadai. from Charade. (eucharistie. charcoal burners. An enchantment. and in It. to chirp as sparrows. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. bler. canne. cam. to prattle. Lat. chatter. chapitre. cluck. Macduff. chirk. char. Chapter. — a car. Mid. tegere. from capitulum. called in Sp. gaggle . Ptg. dim. cluck kirklys. turn. gadka. grave or make incised marks on an ob. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. a verse. charge an enemy is to lay on. for the same reason rosario. Gr. twitter. enough. . chirriar. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. siarad (pronounced — sharad). to load . from capa. burning without consuming the substance. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. Swiss. chapelet. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. caritas. Hence carminare. kurkelis. Sup. Chark. It. surris seu Lat. capitolo. Chirk. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. See Cheap. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. be- e. Boh. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. A weed among com AS. creak. carricare. Fr. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. that turned decken . to turn. corona. charlar. — spell. It. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. a head or division of a book. chara. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. ciarlatore. carmo. &c. caricare. in turns. cearcian. a riddle. Bret.. Sp. colliers that charred coal. return. In that work the verb is written caire. to sing or chirp as birds. go. in To ness Charity. AS. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . hadka. prattling quacksalver. chatter. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. a turn cerran. gnash. seems to be derived charade. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. czurksti. occasional turn. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. to turn Gael. it is my turn. It. as a beetle. Sp. kurkti. w.' Boccaccio in Diez. wood to coal. charade. charlatan. Lat. cerran. the turtle pitre. . capellare. which was incantation. dear. Chare. a mark of a mountebank. hiss Lith. called kedlock. czurliwoti. chat. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. Charcoal was ciarlare. Fr. to charcoal. a rhyme. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. 370. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. carmen. From Norm. Lang. the nature of a thing. ghirlanda seor garland. schreien. jabber. to creak. es ist mi cheer. Chaplet. kirkti. w. pohadka. czirbti. ject). — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Lay on. a garland of roses. . babbling. Charlatan. . but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. Du. from cape or cope.Lat. to converse. cabildo. a dispute . condo il volgar francese. charer. Chapman. to croak as a frog . Prov. to talk . And damned be he who first cries Hold. a The OFr. Charge. affection. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. tattler. wreath for the head. carus. keeren. carregar. beloved.charme.whirr. Lat. to of the governing body. chirlar. to love. used in the sense of magic Fl. Mundart. Character. a mark made on a thing. a cricket karkti (schnarren. krachzen). car. It. dear(in both senses). Charade. to chirp. creak. talking. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed.). decken. Charlock. Yx. Inst. a riddle. Lith. to dove . Cot.czirksti. AS. clack. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . babdistinction. as Pol. from carrus. Fr. cher um cher. Justin. cedeleac. The G. to chirp. See Charlatan. Fr. * Charcoal. —— . to prattle. a hood. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Deutsch. eyre. twist. cha. capital. turn about. To Char. eapitulo. . a charm. to . — — — turned to coal. of chapel. 2. Sp. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. charitas. karout. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. charger. OE. ceap-man. properly to place — . a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. The crash. Fr.

a flock of those birds. Gr. —Charter. speak .). pure. is to represent the chamier. Fr. — Fr. blackthorn-chats. an enchantress. Chasm. — Yorkshire chat. To Chase. schioppare.house. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. as. kata-kata. charm. clap. kastaa. racket . chatter. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. gazzolare. snap. to which it bears the same relation as chape. to wet. —Chastise. chaste. karg. From carinen was formed It. Du. Chart. limpid. Kil. prattle. a young man . Cot. Magy. careful. to crack. also to hatch. the young shoots . It. chits. occasionally Forby. CHATS fit 143 to name. Cot. scraps of for fuel. OE.. converse. the bird is iiown. magpie. tenax. Fl. gadu-gadu. s. to separate in morsels.— Chatter. from pure. — Palsgrave. g. Malay. csacsogany. make a noise as birds do. See Card. It. to cry as a chicken . chick. See Catch. as from nomen It. flesh. chit-chat. Fr. — = Chats. the calix of a rose. To chitter or chipper. To work plate as silversmiths do. warble. castus. It. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. or pop. fragments or leavings of food. csatora (Magy. Chary. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. a twig Suffolk chaits.). chip. to enchase it . as purgare Fr. from purus. to set a jewel. karigh. to chirp. caro. discourse. carmen is presented in AS. Fr. talk much . pure. Chamel. clear.a. Pol. G. See Cistern. — Hal. to talk. to crack. czysty.— Chit. Diez. — The . the handle of a razor . tittle-tattle. talk. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). Kil. to cut and faggoted. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. To Chasten. To chit. as we speak of olive branches. %aafi. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. enchasser. chit. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. eclats. D. cearig (from cearian. gallan or ogan. to care). noise. jackdaw . splinters. letters p. noise. chaste. to gape. — We ornamental work the to signify E. chikat'. Pol. shout OE. prate. in Jam. ch&tier. . or the cry of a bird or the like. pure. or a bird out of the egg. charmer. a chatter-box. nommer. Pm. a branch and a young female. root of the Lat. kippen. csacsogni. to chirp as a bird to cheep. Chat. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. gaddc. be wide open. carme and Fr. Hal. knacken. shivers. a shrine for a relic. clean. ch). xi'i-'^vui. from xoAn. In like manner Russ. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. clean. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . to clap. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. gazeuiller. Lat castigare. clatter. csaterdzni. B. kna. V. to make a noise. little sticks cudere. chip. warble. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. whence a charm of goldfinches. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. to baptize. nome and . knatiern. to chatter or prattle . So in Gael. It t. a crack or a flaw . chit in the latter sense Du. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. castus. parcus. a churchyard or charnel-house. to chirp. chary. chykkyn (Pr. chick. —Bailey. ferire. cyrm. The egg is chipped. Lat. the noise of birds. It. incassare. An imitative word. la chasse d'une rose. a gap. as in the E. to burst open. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. clean. a branch. Fl. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. a yawning. used to represent a sharp note. To talk. — sharp sound of a crack. Russ. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. chat. chair. crackle. To Chase. gazzogliare. To chip is then to crack. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. geug. niggardly. as turnip-chaits. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. gazzerare. sordidus. fragments. Chaste. germinate . a plate of metal. or equivalent forms. the cry of the bat. carnisj bones kept. whistle. chip. also to germinate or spring forth. or suckers on rough borders. . Chat-wood. a word.ppen. cs E. gazzettare. — — . cassa s. chisf. kata. also a youth. Fr. Parallel with E. —Jam. clack. i. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k.

Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. to nauseate (to retch). Cam. a cheater. catalliim. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. Hence to cheat.ing. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. See Cheek.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. welcome heartily. ceaflas. to cluck like a hen. from AS. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. G. KaviiXog. s. It — Brompton in Due. while it Bret. price. Fr. Fr. chavylbone or chawlbone. keck. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. prattlingchete. kaupon. Check. cattle. The gutGoth. bon marche. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. hawkmann. to vomit. a dealer in horses. Ingulphus. the principal ' colloquial E. sum in a loan. to buy. See Chess. and hence the E. chatal. chuckle. teeth . Lat.. et juxta catalla sua. tradesman. a dealer. which is the word in ceap. — — —Chowl. to laugh. Chattels. the face. the countenance Fr. to make inarticulate sounds in . It. koopen. NE. and.of the throat in coughing. . where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. Slav. to cough and hence either buying or selling. farm for farm. whence captale. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . force of the word. It. society.—Choke. Bav. choule. ceap. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. visage. kik. to coup s. chop. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. cattle. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. e. to . The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. cheeks. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. chaptel. to chop and change. retching. with Dief. the Lat. cita. jaws. changing. gagkern. Chear.. dchec. chiere. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. entertain kindly. ceafl. goods. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. stuttering. kikottaa. gagkezen. ceahhetan. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. look. to — . us. truffa. upon a checked cloth. Fin. countenance. chear in the sense of victuals. to negotiate. to act as a rogue. citello. horse-couper. mandibula. a young boy or girl. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Cheat. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. Cheek. . kakaista. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. stuttering.-^. to clear the throat . jaw. kok. Pr.— . a piece of moveable property. CHEEK zitella. aspect of a man. thers. sense of bargaining. — To check an account. kichen. in Fr. Sp.— Chaps. cozener. Hal. Soc. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. &c. gig. to stutter gigken. syllables ^ag-. sob E. Modern Slang. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Bohem. sale. kauf. lead to OE. Pm. favour.— Cattle. kek. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. goods. a canting knave. any cheating. in widely separated languages by the Lat. Chew. caupo. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. — We ' . chatel. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. to coff—Yisi. the tongue. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. a tavern-keeper. agreeing upon. the Confessor. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. which is used in the to stutter. Faire bonne chire. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. Ek dry and hard. OFr. . a repulse.— Chole. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. . kaupiti. capitale. equiva. kaufen. to swap goods . buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. . kaupa. Du. a rogue or person who used the canting language..' to exchange to gasp. chire. Cot. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. are represented piti. 'li^'opa jord i jord. chapman. entertainment. lower. laughing. CHATTELS has ciio. giggling. giving or taking in exchange. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. OFr. with the exception of land. a willing look and unwilling heart. to deal ON. Sc. from Lat.' kezen. kakkaset. 144 the It. cara. to buy. cachinnari. to fetch the breath with difficulty. ku. Pro v. Then. snout. kak. frown. exAS. Fl.kakot. cera. Gr. cattle.

skratt. kopen. Chevisance. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. /Ji2^/(W. (Kil. Du. gullet. jaws. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. schach. mollium congeries. kasiiUPr. subsequently corflesh about the jaws .EP CHEVRON 145 on. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. by laying it in come to an agreement with. hasten. Lat.. From them the plish. cyse. chests in OE. cheek. Pm. . Du. Sp. — 10 . old bread.). chops. accomplishment cayed. AS. jaw.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Thus "we are brought din. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Kil. to make a noise different word. a chicken. ON. food. cista. ceocian. Prov.koppen. It. Fr. the hke. — — . which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. as. a cricket. caseus. Lith. Fr. the neck. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. quoka. things Da. to kep. Fin. Hence chesten-nut. w. As the board to gasp i. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. cabrio. geagl. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. by laying up in a covered heap. king). acquiring a flavour of old cheese. cabiron. kastanie. Chevaux de frise. — — . quok. Sw. castaneusj Fr. condition of being taken. dersen . suffo. Chemistry. the mouth. to prevent the attack of cavalry. To Cheep. kasa. like a young chicken. cerasus. kikna. X'C&s. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. prevail with. cheken. w. AS. kdkel. chesten. N. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. the final guttural is retained in writing. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. rupted into chess. kistej Lat. F*-. kirsche. cheek.G. chiffe. ceg. equal squares of opposite colours. kdke. achever. kaecke. kapen. jaw. caru. cerise j G. practice seems to have been communiChevron. Sp. the palate Chequer. gill of fish AS. ca' — . carnium. &c.' to w. for cheese itself. rattle in the throat. E. jaw . whence czypulas. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. takes place in the formation of cheese. make an end. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. czypti. then end.D. cese. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. cisty G. E. kjcebe. ceaplas. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. cireggia. To make a shrill noise Chest. Chef. The name of creak as shoes. Fr. Achievement. The Sw.their struggle for independence. Lat. to belch. . ation. clear the throat. See Case. Fr. gapen. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. jouffle. kjakje. to choke. Cherish.Xo belch.cirieggia. kikna of dorum coacervatio. G. schach. chAtaigne.peep in the same sense. to boken. to swallow. G. cheeks. mouth kek. chaps. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. See Chess. geafl. xaque. Analo. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. jaws Sw. throat. dear. Lat. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. cough. kjceve. to year. gous forms are G. cegio. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Prothroat of an animal . to love. subacidus. Cher. a heap. Chekenyd or querkenyd. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. to bring to an end. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. . squeak as a mouse. to heap up such things for the purchoke. rennet. veluti piscium. kesten. E. Lith. chops. incaseatus. the loose the game of checks. to gasp. e. Da. gaghel. CHE. scacco. Cherry. to kasa. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. as meat and butter. frame by which the exertion is made. acquisition. kok. cams. cheek. to gape gab. In these latter forms we see the transIt. throat. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. Sc. ceaflas. ceac. . jowl. to hold dear. An imitative word. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. rafters in heraldry. Fris. a rafter . whence kasa-leipa.perly head. It would Cheese. Fr. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. . to geahl. E. made rancid koka. the throat. gabe. Hence kikna is identical with OE. ichec. the The use of the word kcesir. Sc. chevir. Chess.. caws. cherir. to accomThis they call hdrsk. Pl. chasi. w. treat with affection.D. chevron. — — . the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Tutschek. Jam. OHG. ost. kces. nish source. Sw. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. giffle. See Alchemy. Lat. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. kastr. gap. to choke with laughter. cufd. AS.

to pettifog. antler. the jole.' my finger tingles with cold. For the see word Doit. kind. to raise the rim. kindeken. cheek. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. to titter is Du. chicoter. from the second Lat. chiquei. a head. Swiss kiden. A To Chew. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. cap. a chicken. chillar. while the Magy. See Chimmer. keichen. mountain top . Fr. Chaw. Tintillo. and from the third E. from the first of which is Lith. kibr. zitterti. creak. or the broken noise of birds. De finger killet mi for kalte. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. a cup. as. tremble. chavel. — It. pipio. strideo. 146 brial. a cup. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Fr. Chief. term is ssaru fu. a little bit. — — Mother Hubbard. machouere. It. in Walach. a quid of tobacco. to go. cica cica. ' . capo. cib. grelot). as pointing out the origin of the E. tyuk. G. Gattel. Pm. czypulas. beam. quivering sound which passes. the head. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill.. Pr. alter. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa.D. a jaw. signifying properly shivering. chiler. Russ. Fl. crepo. chillrar. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. w. cild.peep. s. to scold. CHEW . E. lead through the synonymous E. CHJME the radical form is unusual. the least imaginable jot. And hence. the rim or edge of a vase. mouth. to contest about trifles. the same principle I regard On birds. ]). a small cask OFr. pululo. are formed Du. The loss of the syllable it in Du. Fr. . or as E. to chirp or peep like a chicken. cabar. Pm. a chicken. a young bird. deer's horn. then as G. twitter. kinderen. kimme. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. tiukkua. chic. knirschen. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. jaw. Chimb. choule. Bret. rafter. Halm. Pl. — Fin. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. horn wood. while didder is to shiver or citteren. cabriones. kauen. sonorous. AS. caprioru. 'Among these the G. Payer chiguet A chiguet. chavel. cabar beinne.. chol. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys.D. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. aner. the Ptg. Prov. tremble with cold. kopf Du. jaws . a hen.^ Hal. to crackle. the cry of young . kippa. E. caput. — Du. Fin. The Pl. capete. Fl. the young of animals in general. kimia. to smart. knit the brow cib-led. by driblets. — . has probably the same origin. kimista^ . chikat'. chieftain. to contest. tintelen van koude. Du. Imitative of a loud clear sound. pipe. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. a chicken. a finch. kouwe. Pr. kauwe. chew or chaw. cabarach. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. chimb. chin. Lat. Magy.— Cot. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. klagend tonen. G. Kil. tiukka. ultimate origin of the Mite. to Du. to chew. cebr. knarren. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. To Chide. kaw. branchy. Child. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . doubtless originally a chicken Lap. also the horizon. greloter is to shiver for cold.-ill. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. To chitter. chawbone. gills of a fish. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Gael. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. chillness or shivering. Probably from Fr. then cold.— . or chick. pipio. kilderkin. to use the jaws. Walach. chicken. . caferu.— Gattel. to twitter. : — a lump. jaw. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano.. W. gosling. tiukkata. or qf people talking rapidly.). hiss as meat on the gridiron. a cup cibaw. to chime. kime. Chime. Fin.^ to resound as a bell. head. killen. De chic en chic. kop. Brezza. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. killen. Chill. . Sp. Du. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. queror. horns of the house. chaps. chicaner. rafter . Palsgr. and not vice versd. Fin. the throat. when the vibrations become very rapid. kieken. kaau•wen. Now gan some courage unto him to take. pi. Chigue. E. capu. acute. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. Da. chill. k'imm s. Chick.. pole. rafter . kitista. kauchen. stake. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. captain. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. kuwe. cidan. to the brim. to gasp for breath (Hal. tiuk. from little to little. kidata. chef. ach. Chitter. into a continuous shriU sound. pip.

do.sharp. the jaw. clangor tinniens kummata. chirp. chits. Huloet. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Fr. pare also Walach. The desig. stridere. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. Ptg. Pm. G. the cheek (jaw) . eschiner. to chine. sound on beginning to boil. et garrire . rustle. shiver and the chyver of Pr. ciseau (for cisel). cinan.' Phaer's Virg. Sp. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. caminsects. Chisel.iron. a szemrcU. to sizel.). chick. To chirp or twitter. schetteringe. sonants. ciarlare. The change from the sound ter \s. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. as the/ is preserved tering. The small entrails of a hog. to prattle czirpti.schricken. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. Diez de. cisello. Du. schiena. to tremble. Chat. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. and chim-mer. .Huloet in Hal. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. caminata. yivtiov. a chap. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. Sw. hiss chirlar. backBut she withal no worde may soune. and from a similar sound to boil gently. — — — — — . cincel. Fr. It. Chyrme or chur. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. from Lat. . Bret. chhint. disCot. E. Sp. Fr. Sp. sound. ter. the chine. from the geon's lancet. a thorn. verynge or dyderinge.. Lith. to murmur. cinne. Magy. Pr. To Chitter. a Kuttn. AS. clashing of weapons. genou (pi. crepare. a chink or fissure. all these imitative terms being minata. To chink with laughter. ykvvQ. quavering of the voice. Chimney. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. which differ from each other only as Chirk. to chirp. Chip. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. It. as the chink of money. chatter . See Chap. a crowing sound in recovering breath. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. the cheek. genawi. resonance . Chit. to gape. clipping of coin. Lat. to simmer. and the Du. or chyFrigutus. Chitter. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Chymerynge. twitter caminus.czirbti. the mouth (jaws) . but or cry as a parrot. . chink. It. chin . czirszkti. Sp. Chink-cough. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. part lion. — . to open chirriar. flaw Hal. kieck hoest. It. schrick. keich husten. to chink. Fr. zirpen. — . quivering or shakyng for colde. sparkle. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Chimera. j^lf. komista. spina. squittire. hollow. kumista. 147 kimina. — . klincken. Hindost. in the same crack. komia. It. to prattle . plodere. . Prov. Chintz. gen. — . up and down. sounding deep. See Chark. . schina. kinne. Primarily a shrill sound. E. Caminatum. and bodily movement in shimm. Gascoigne in Todd. In the same sense. a thorn. as a bell kommata. Chine. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. twinkling light. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses.to divide or Du. See Bright. then of a fabulous monster part goat. to tattle. Fr. Chink. tinnire.er. and light. Gower in Hal. vincially used in the sense of a crack. as birds the mouth. Chitterling. then to any narrow crack or AS. Cot.to chirp. tsengeni. bx-eak the back of schena. tsongeni. the whooping cough. cisaille. from 10 * ' Chia. representing connected together. KinneGr. kumina. Bav. dial. to sound. To Chimmer. kink hoest. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. a fire-place. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. in Hal. to creak. sonus the backbone Lat. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . to creak. to chirp . companied. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. a surkik hosta. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. eschin^e (de pore).Lat. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. bone . schetteren. Du. See Chats. applied to tremulous motion. simmer. esquina. to chink with laugh2. hiss Pm. i. the jaw. spina. backe. gena. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. Kil. to sound deep or the Gr. esquena. name Then. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. Gloss. skina.. to squeak in It. G. the chin . a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. tremulous motion. zirken. pork) . A . epine. cleft. cheminde. cheek. a hall Mid. fyr. caperd. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. as a large bell . fissure. are In like manner E. killed by Bellerophon. hus. eschine. tschirpen. also vibrans. have been used to designate the spine. to chirre. Chin-coug^h.

The . a ruff. Fr.. a small slice or slip of anything . 2. chibble. Enn Sigridur sem ' . G. Gr. a calf's chaldern of E. chock full. chippe. to chap. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. Choleric. to taste. %o\ifa. specially with an application to theatrical performances. Swiss kust. wkusit' prikushat. The I go to prove them. seallion or unset leek. * To Choose. a fragment. Lat. to exchange horses. To Chop. keypa. . . scheve. to choose. try. Body and Soul. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. Fr. schiefer. — — — . signify to kiss. gusten. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. chawdron. to experience. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. kausjan. full to overflowing. coro.D. OHG.freze. from %u\i). &c. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. experience valerie. to palpitate . kushati. chap hands. a ruff or frill. a calf's pluck or chaldron . then to shiver. gdnse gekrose. to chap at a door . keuren. Chuck-full. to clap up Hal. Gr. in the same language. a goose's giblets.' who shall not taste death. taste. of E. Chap. . shoot . The manners and senti. —Chorus. to tempt. kustigen. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. curly . krussyi. choix. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. xiv. whence Lat. by the vibrations of sound or motion. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . pluck. As kushnuti. all seem slate . kusid. the ridges prove. friller. shiver. of an angry — — — ' ' — . to ing is doubtless to taste. as green as leeks. and Vf. G. kalbs gekrose. an onion. Chivalry. kor6n. to ^cleave . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. civette. to try. and in this sense the * small pieces. kiesen. to try . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. to shiver. taste. Goth. propagated. ON. a young . To Choke. — Chock-full. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter.— B jag E. cive. cke. •- Russ. developments of the same radical image. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. kiezen. and N. full. ON. the inwards of an animal. &c. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . ments of the knightly class. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. choppe. caperd. Swab. schevel-steen. kushevati. to break off in small shive. a scale or fragment P1. chives. chceur. pieces . of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. to prove. I. Yr. or original meaning is preserved in G. . to hack. prove. whence choleric. x^poc. a chive. to taste. to taste . are used in the same sense. a blow.ffrill. to taste. chorus. — See Cheek. g'schochet voll. . crammed Choir.' Verie coinme Cot. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. kiusan. a rag. skifa. chimp. . to try. Walach. Jam. and in kosten. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. See try. Equivalents in the SlaFr. to turn. Serv. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. kaup. fine threads of flowers. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. coup. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. a twittering. cut up into — See Chats. select. from chevalier. Cavalry. to taste. G. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. chatter. bile. lead us on to Lat. try. chiffe. a company of singers or dancers. kieser.vonic languages are Pol. the small parts of the roots of plants. gekrose.yEuffM. also calPs. by which they are Fr. CHOP kros. word is more likely to be from Lat. to try. Choice. kbhren. as with a blow. — Cholera. to taste. fresure. ^euw. cepa. a heap. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. cape. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets.ceosan. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. called cMtters in the N. to stop geschoppt voll. gustare.gust. to wrinkle. wrath. Fr. okusyti. Warwickshire coff. a knight. and It. Prov. rare. Luc. from kraus. haslets. heaped measure. kruszki. 19. a wine taster. Chives are also a kind of small onion. Boh. The Sc. koren. causir. kiusan. chaup. to Compare also Pol. schoch. Choice is probably direct from Fr. Schmid. approve. then to try.V)^x. ruffs. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. i. ^S. arkiusan. wein didder for cold. disposition. Gr. ent quarter. . it is probable that the root kus. chife. Chives. to strike hands . anger.' At last he dwelt .. chattering. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one.

X. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. to chatter. Marin. the same word with the It. to cant. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. A jackdaw.• — . See Chaff. Borgoens happen. short piece kubbug. e.— Landnamabok. Lat. as in Fr. kaufen. whence — E. chronicles. peace. applied to an owl in that language. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. chevane. chuet. thick-set. to turn over. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. koppe. That Face. P. — Quabbe. dial. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. cavena. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap.). chub. i. noble Doctor. thumb Fl. cresmeau. klompe. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. the intestine of an animal. kaej Lith. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Du. chop. a thick piece. In Sc. 4. Fr. kobe. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Chopino. ceo. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. sent before him a Chiaus. syllables chat. Madam. capito. kaw. in Chaucer. See Change. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking.. which was written 27. whence e. dial. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. The Turk was here As one should say. . capita. in i6io. Fr. Gr. connected with G. Sw. ON. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. Wall. —Shakespeare. Fr. What do you think of me. gull. 49. cauvette j Fr. A fish with a thick snout and head. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. quappe. cauc. gobio capitatus. ' ' What's that? Dap. bearand aits. traffic.—Chuokstone.(.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. E. civetta.' They are forebuyers of quheit. forms are Chrism. cambiare. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. kaulhaupt (club-head. slipper . whence the Fr. If I discover. E. ley in Giiford. to speak thieves' slang. fat. capitone. for to defraud. soul-couper. Come.. because she would not endure this husband chopping. From the Turkish Chiaus. To coup. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. — — — . chevin. high clog. a stump. I bring you the Cloughs. gold. — . a bullhead. chrysalis (Plin. chatter . p. cheap. we find the following passage Dap. kowej Sax. chrisme. a small fish with a large head. Anachronism. plump. — Chrisom. Jam. yiSA. prattle . Gr. Picard. caqueter. E. Peace. clogs. and we actually find champman for chapman. cow-couper. Nominale in Nat. e. To Chouse. Fr. or miller's kaycke . G. -chron-. overset. xftovoq. chapma?i. cob. chapineria. Du. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. Ant. kubb. time ra . Chord. whence apparently the Sup. E. Chub. monedula. to strike in the hand. — Dief. choucas. by the Robert Shirley. xop5>}. chevane. claquer. To Chop logick. a The What dhy ^. caker.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. Fr. kowe. . chouquette. a trafficker in souls. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. dealing. capitanus. kauwe.— Chevin. Alchemist. Chough. that will thank chiaus — you richly. Chrysalis. gull. xpi'^lia. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. the string of a musical instrument originally. as Du.sohola. Chronicle. Gr. &c. OE. kubbr. to clack. chouette.\^s. a messenger or envoy. In the Alchemist. of which such strings are made. cheviniau. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Sp. chack.' Jam. clat. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. Cot. chroniques. klopper. merchant. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird.). Confounded with the bullhead. a lump or piece chump. AS. to knock. equivalent to the E.povucd. kolbe (club). chapin. cangiare. Chuck. who took in the Turk- clack. from kloppen. to overturn. Gr. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . the teeth to chatter . CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. one who buys and sells horses or cows. XpvaaXic. caphatenus. an offence against the fitness of times. Kil.

cinctura {cingo. Hence -cid-. whence deciduous (of trees). a miser. ceaplas. chakil. Lat. as water running over rocks or stones. from Lat. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. thence a belt. to form grains of butter. Fris. e. Lat. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. to jaw chack or snap. Sw. kirna. a resounding object. cinders used disjunctively. to make a aiKipa. flower. ccedo. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. spuma metalli. to cause the milk to grain. scoria. a man. The derivation from Kvpiasov. Jennings. * Cinder. sindr. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. cado. Churn. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. in the face.— . G. &c. Gr. .' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Fr. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. sindra. AS. we have to chack. -cis-. incido. sindel. It is certain. See Ceiling. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. with It the Lord's house. e. -cide-. . in Sc. C^z^j^ churHsh. joufflu. joffu.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. Fr. chife. Du.for the residue of stone coal. have given rise. to determine incision. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. geaflas. to fall upon decide. a man. to separate the kernel of the milk. As AS. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. 24. whence ON. surly. ChurL husbandman. &c. Da. however. set kerti. Gr. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. -cise. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. klakka. — — A — ' ' — . to sparkle. cinctus. The spelling of chider has Chump. KvptaKolg. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. to gird. Chuff. a girding on. See Cheek. that the word is an adoption of Fr. kjami. Aasen. as a board. kiorne. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. -cido. Lat. pith. in circumcision. or. calx. chuffy. x^^i?. fat-cheeked. sive piratiam facere sciant. cheek. Ir. pp. a lump. Lat. Ka-^aiva. a cutting round. from Lat. swollen or puffed up Cot. a douse on the tores. casum (in comp. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. to fall at or on. Sc. blow on the I io6 in Mur. AS. Chunk. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. chaps.rendered by Kil. The origin ation. Wall. ceaflas. tie about). to turn from blossom to fruit. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). to Newsp.^. chops. Probably from It. a pebble . log of wood. ladre from Lazare.' And cold. ceffo. chack-stone.D. gffe. marrow. i. but by way of explan. an old man. to him a sudden blow. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . chofu. ceorl.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. -cisuiri). sinter. Church. to throw out sparks. a fellow. the snout of an animal. a cutting an old chuff. See Cheek. kaerle. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. ON. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. To chuck in the fall from. In Sc. lamak. to cut decide. kakka. Cleland in Jam. whence church. . ON. ON. countryman. so as to make the happen . chack or stane-chacker. chofe (Grandgagnage). ciuffo. to strike clatter. as Epkema explains it. then the on oh StX iv roXt. a rustic . that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. kernjen. sicera. Cob. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. Cieling. sintel. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. giffle. Gothic nations. ashes. cidre. or choice part of a thing . cendre. . G. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. — of the two words.' he adds. to To Chuckle. KaxXij?. as in E. Du.. OFr. -eris.V//a'6'?. a pebble. karl. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). has been impugned which it has really no connection. a husband.— Chu%. . kern. calculus. Wall. to fall. cinis. kerl. tindra. dial. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. as Fr.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. male person. the kernel. . dust. Diss. a man. ceffore. comp. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. residue of burnt coals. Du. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. cut off. Sicerawry face ceffata. to make a rippling noise. jaws. domhnach. accido. i. — . cheeks Cincture.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. Cider. to churn.

cisterna. -cite. circ2tlus. a split. The syllables clap. Circum-. wasserkasten (water chest). Sw. klqb. around. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). cito. * Cistern. with an initial s instead of c. clack-dish. ring. civitas. . around. Chaste. klamp. . a block. In Fr. chupon. See Circle. Cite. to cleanse. klap. klabb. crack. clap. Du. sphere gleba. scion. klubb. clambar. Lat. civilis. —Civil. smack. to clack. klemte. prattle. sound of blow. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. fall. clobyn. Gr. circle. a hiding-place. Cot. Lat. City. to chatter . Sp. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. of citta. klak. and clash. . Gr. a ball. ciste. a rattle Fr. for Cion. prattle. Circle. Fr. Clamp. Citadel. empty Golius. uproar. to call. lump . klacke-busse. to knock. hringr. to mention. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. Sw. G. Fr. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. cittd. globus. a Pol. forms — — — parent plant. a'upiav. cion. to chatter. W. . chatter . clasp. clamp. ern. klammer. a circle. as caverna from cavus. klepati. Gael. sifr. glamm. crack. clatCot. or split with noise. as. clot ON. klappe. clamare. Scion. tinnitus . latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. a knob. to go. and Sp. castus). So a light. clangor avium . bunch. a city. a. klacken. 'mass. a citizen . Lat. klater-busse. radical identity of the Fr. klappen. a loud uksa slamketi. parallel root is slam. to cluck. a city. Arab. sound. a young and tender plant. lump of wood or with the nasal. It. dim. cit^. to chatter. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. or clap-dish. to make to go. outcry. ON. a judgment cern. klimp. Comp. accordingly find the roots dab. ruin. From Arab. Clam. cry. cluster. lump. and E. dob. Lat. Lap. the tongue. a rattle . naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Gael. Du. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. may cite w. See Crankle. clap. a cistern. belonging to cities or social life . log. to strike. chupon. lump. to call by name. claquer. or quill to draw waier through Fl. clamras. a Lat. cion. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. cittade. creak les dents. Clump. a circle. We . chijfre. to gnash the teeth. area. clamp. circa. lash . suck). often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. ter. Lat. citrus. a lump Lat. a pop-gun. a ring. clat. —Circuit. twig. citujn. klumbr. klopati. scion or sucker. to set in motion by means of the voice. excite. KpiKoe. Fr. babble . Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic.' sione. domern. to clap at a theatre. claim. To Claim. vociferation. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. See -cid-. Excite. gutter. a lemon tree. a kind of pipe. the place of . noise. Mack. Recite. . To Clack. Du. civis. . clack. sip. — (Dozy) ing blow. to call. claquet de moulin. clamer. klateren. trunk. The Gr. sajira. kringr. mass . to clatter. We . biw. to be empty. a block. sindri. clapper. compared with It. the door was slammed J slamem. to cry out. a boss . . city. a mass. about. a whip. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. klump. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. to appeal. cieo. kluV. claquer. . rattle . Fr. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . CION See Tinder. cifra. klompe. ON. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr.. a circle. Dan. It. stimulate. rattle. Citron. sound- — hands figures. as in Sp. E. cista. a lump Du. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. E. Bohem. a shoot. from chupar. * Ciplier. chest. lump. is traced by Gr. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. slam. to toll . . a ball. a for water. . lucerna. ON. Dan. -cis-. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . a reservoir Probably from Lat. Hal. . in the frequentative form. circum. It. to bawl. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. a clod. cry out . bunch . circum. KipKog. and. cisterna. Lat. Hence Incite. clack.to suck. glambar. a kind of rattle. &c. claquer crash.— . clog. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. Alt. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. a clod Russ. ball kloben. to summon or call on. a cleansing place. whence cistiti. The notion of a lump. clapping of klacke. clack-box. a whirlwind. a place See place hiddern. lump. Lat. cittadella. G. klambr. crack. sprig. glam. klekotati. noise — — a cistern. kringla. clump.

a place underground where rabbits breed. to climb . sound of the trumpet . from birdlime. a loud tingle. dam. klobber-saen. who occuG. coagulated cream. tinkle. to glue. where- A — unto they retire themselves. as the clapping of hands. clap. klank. solid. glambar. dank. tone. to gingle. of which the locative case. tattle. stick. knocking. kleppen. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. salafa. bond. klappre. to hook things together. klepati. a craCmp. Clang. clav\f. Clamour. a claw . G. to climb. Clank. accent. as the Lat. Fr. sound . dee. — Cot. is used in the sense of secretly. sticky Hal. resonance klingen. dapier. to cleave or stick. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. klamme. to hide. diver. rattle. chief. sound. Bohem. clajnmy. clapas. gripe. klynge. Clan. cream Manx doan. kluppel. Du. to dame. viscous. Bav. clap. uproar. dia. E. clangor. dem. sound object . brawl. klammer. to clamp. klappen. nature . . dambar. viscosity . take hold of. clann. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. a whip. to climb. See Clam. sound. These are imitations of a loud. dren. Du. AS. E. whence sala.p correspond- ' without order. Du. . dientes. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. privately. dapi^. c). kleppe. klibber. but perhaps not directly from it. to hold fast with the . Lat. of the children. klimmeii. . to stick or glue. to. dang. for tame conies. ney. a heap of stones. dam immediate modifications — . buckle klamp. A i. a sound made by a still . a stick. E. of money Gael. — with hunger. anything hidden. conceal. or klamp-vogel. children. a claw. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. and hence moist. from the w. Swiss kldbem. to pinch. Lang. Clap. . clasp. — Lat. tenacious. grimper. Dan. a hawk. holdfast. in a hidSen place. a sound made by a lighter clink. strait. Clamp. damor. cramp-iron. klamm. &c. a bird of prey. hands or claws to grasp. a burr. the in many languages. to clap on. to do anything with a clap. Du. to seize. cluster. compress. yf. and hence to pinch . kloben. beat. prison. klynge sig op. — . to hold to pinch. These words To are closely connected with damp. hook. klem-vogel. ancestor. offspring. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. contraction. grasp. children. daver. to knock. pressed close or hard together. salaan. to clap. to climb. Clapper. to patronus.er. celo produces Fin. — — . klubber. Halma. clibby. pinching. chatter. In like manner Du. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. klavre. Dan. Salainen. dink Du. klam7n. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. also to clog up. klamre.' to take coals to Newcastle. to starve. klang. From small tribe subject to a single Gael.. dapier. dial. a noose . crowd . G. apprehend . dandestinus. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. The root which gives rise to klibb. B. G. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. The E. hold. to stick conceal. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . klette. tremble . klebern. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . dap up. substances of a stickydam. with cramp-irons.1. Dan. . rumour. Clink. tight. club . to climb. To sticky. klemmen. G. klepel. a trap. To clap in E. E. seize. The equivalent of Lat. a sound. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. to glue. clink. klam. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. cleave. gum. Hence the Fr. to Hal. strain . to Sw^. and that from celo. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. adopted Lat. klepanie.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. a rattle . OE. klettern. cling. — Climb. Dan. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. klatten. klammern. a stone See Claim. dam. . clang. to daub pinch. kleben. originally a heap of large stones. klopfen. dienklebber. compression. clapper of conies. beating. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. run to lumps Clandestine. a heap of stones or other things piled up . descendants . to cling. Sw. G.' klibba. bandage. to claw oneself up. massy. scendants. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. clammy brace. to clutch or cling oneself up. cramp. narrow. kleppe. to knock. klemmen. Swiss kletten. klippe. Russ. G. tingle. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. dam. klemmen. closely analogous to that of the fast. klappen. damras. to beat. Gael. Mampe. to climb. G. To Clamber. B. chatter. is a nasalised form of gripper. ring as metal. dial. clandestine. gliong. clear sound. clamber. The Fr. klampen.

we pass to the E. Rayn. vin clairet. a water made of aquavitse. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. clatter. in the sense of a mass or lump. forms are the Du. ansa. clairon. a club or massy stick. biichse. chiarino. kluczka. dap. Dan. Du. from its use in fastening things together. to clash as arms. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. sauna de classes. buckle. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. straight-mouthed. From clairet. mass. Mask ! plask ! thwick. with a reddish tint. classis. Du. rubellum. flap. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Lat. seizes) . applied in their harness. to do anything with a . Analogous Jam. In E. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. a buckle. under three modifications dava. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. a key. to shut. a heap. i. Eya-klasi. Prov. . Claret. Clash. a claw. Du. clas. clair. a little hook . Kil. and clavis. e. ivy. K\a. clew or fasten upon a thing. an ending. Owl and that by which cleave to. somewhat clear. to patter. chiaro clear. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. hawk. chiizjj-o. Klatsch- a pop-gun . Thus from clamp. E. a claFr.w or u on the other. cloi.ck a whip. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. a nail. sound of the foregoing description. klot. It. klatschen. to rattle . a key origmally a crooked nail. a key KKtitid. klase. Lat. chasguear. and through v into a. a lump . whence kleuer. claret win e. Russ. climp. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. from scknallen. In the same way is formed the OE. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. Nawith stavis. a complete sentence. klauw. Fr. claw (what fastens together. The b readily passes into gleba. a bunch. Serv . thwack . or as G. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. a kind of small.\x\xvn. row aii/iaTos. Clatter. clausum. rion. schnalle. as it is written by Chaucer. to animals Sp. a distribution of things into groups. syrtium junctura. klijven. clopa. klampe. Originally clasis. &c.Gr. globus. clarin. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. a lump. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. which signifies a ball in E. same class with w. a ball.oi. the cracking of a whip. clavus. chatter. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. blab. clarinado. a lash. and shrill-sounding trumpet. From claudo. So Pol. kleeven. he of white and red grapes mingled together. kleuen. fragor . also a knell for the dead. klaterbusse. pet. Clavicle. mass. hook. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. klatschen. as G. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Clause. to fasten together . 269. klamme. Commonly made. Sp. stop of an organ. klaskad. sphaera. klaequivalent to clack or clap. klaeret. kiosk bicza. Fr. cinnamon. klucz.— CLARET clamp. assembly. subrubidum. — Kiittner. To clew. the collar-bone. — Clarinet. Eau clairette. klauwe. a. globus. —Kil. Sw. pellet . Du. Lat. clairon of a trumpet— It. glcis.Z. klouwe. an on the one hand. Pol. a sphere . Nightingale. G.It. to knock. clamp. bawling. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. as Mod. teren. ghespe. Du. It. KXeiSi. gaspe. klatsche. from the resemblance to a key. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Lang. klatscha pop-gun. Claw. is preserved in Lang. kletse. skeria-klasi. compression. insularum nexus . a clasp. vinum helvolum. Wyutoun in Jam. Lat. biichse. Gr. and old red rose-water. &c. a clod. a. to end. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. clavis. clausula. nail. crying. it is called clamming. fracas.to cra. waU. ictus resonans. clew. The form clew. locket of a door. is used in Sc. vin claret. in the sense of a claw. cluster. . klc^i. Thus from Lat. a bird with powerful talons. noise..). the primary origin clapa. puUs. But clasp or elapse. clump. to draw it up into a bunch. to clap . contraction. klouwe (Kil. to snap. klos. chiarello. Fr. Cot. Class. fibula. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Clew. Clasp. to fasten. The collar-bone. uproar. diver. Identical with ON. — tells us. nawith stanis. — Clarion. to cleave. klampvoghel. to ring in such a manner for the dead. Du.

klinken. glindse. give a shrill sound Jr. kla:g. tongs. viz. glan. Die zaak is zS. A — A Clement. Du. Wilbraham. shine. glorious. clemens. conserere antklankjan. to stick or adhere . Du. from nitere. Du. and E. clear. clear. a fissure. a claw or talon. pure. The proper meaning of the word is shining.— . to shine. is fast and sure. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. a clincher. kleg. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . Sw. daggy. provinciaUy termed dout. Lat. Cleat. to fasten. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . Omklinken. Du. klyft. sticky earth. . Da. klinken. klincke. klinke. to clinch GB. — : A rivet. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. From clap. pretty. clash. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. or from being divided into two parts. a noise. W. i. smooth. merciful. rift. glent. Cleft. ON. a key. kloben. G. a flash. Sc. it cleave together. Probably a modification of the word doitt. dial. This is probably one of the clean. either by the coherence To Clepe. kloben. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. klor. as Fr. klijveii. dags. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. as ON. the latch of a door. glatt. Lat. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. that was a striking proof. chaps in the skin. a noose. To Clench. to Brilliant. gentle. to fasten E. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. in two ways. gaklankjan. glitnir. glint. This word is used in two business is finished off. AS. to glitter. glandse. or of a tree. to clinch a nail. loam. to stick to. E. vice. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. cliquet. to tear or cleave asunder. nitidus. The word may be — . viz. klank. clibby. See Clam. the fork of the body. the To Cleave. words applicable sight. klinken. to chink. clay . identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. G. bend in a stream. together . clear. dams. Fr. Da. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. clink. Clay. glbr. klirren. doff. Kil. split. splendid pohshed. E. klafwa. a mass. rive. voice. a in that of sphtting. to cleave. Axletree clouts. the original . The word is . sleek. kleevig. as explained under G. sticky. polished. kluft. Sc. that was Torriano. clean. B. Da. dinquet kleeven. klinke. (Cot. Thus from G. a cleft. kldnkelein. to sound or make a noise . from diquer. hook. neat. Gael. Clean.Q. explained from the klinken. dag. a lump. polish . Clinch. a mass. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. vissticky . to fasten. mud. Clemency. a lump. doggy. pure. Du. Dan. celebrated . to clench. and. dedgy. E. from the clinking of the latch. an object is simply cleft. glor-mhor. radiant. klag. G. to clink or sound. danche. klink. gleit. door-latch. a bunch of When flax). Mar. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. Sw. 154 CLAY dutch. glance . pure . 2. a plate. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer.— Clag. gingle. clean. kleben. klieben. bright. calm. river. holding together. . speech . the two parts of Du.— Claggy. The Dan. opposite senses. G. klinke. cloven wood. ON. klouen. kleverig. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. to be composed. to separate into parts. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. See Clog. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. klieuen. klouen. neat. Sw. kluftholz. glitta. clean. seem formed dial. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. Bav. G. to dag ox dog. From dob.). rivet. and Celtic glan. . bears nearly the same relation to both senses. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. as Lat. kloue. diquetcr. a latch. clout. Du. klutsch. sticky . famous. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. found in other cases. klinka. clean. a cleft or fissure. a — — . geklonken. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. klov. of iron worn on shoes by country people. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. . glan. a fissure or division See Cleave. klove The Dan. glan. deot. klirre. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . Halma. . pellet. kleg. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. bogs cous. dench. and Dan. kluyte. to shine . the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. kluit. ON. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. a one end. To call. lump. dut. . kloben. as the Du.' was nailed to a rock. cleave. klceg. glbram. date is AS. a cleft. to 2. Clear.

G. to stir. Climb. clatter. We movement catch. declivity. Somner. Lat. from clifian. one of the clergy. /cXi'fia. one admitted to the tonsure. a latch. hamraklif. an inclination. prattle. . dutch). de ripa. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. which in Mid. a ladder. Clerk. and hence climate. to teU tales. — have the notion of a short quick in E. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. klever. Happen. seize (Hal. to prate. on. a child's or clack . a lazar's clicket or clapper. rapidus from rapio. as a click with the tongue. to move. click. nimble. a baU of yarn. quick of perception. a clicket or clapper.— Clicket. and hence deik. snatch. chat. klif. click. clif. 3. Clever. is NE. score7i clif. quick in motion. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. . crepare. Rouchi cliche. cleft in a rock. But the Dan. duik. what so men clappe or crie. dek. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. Dunbar in Jam. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. CLINCH De . Klover i munden. verge). said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). dial. skard. clack. dergi. agile. Jam. to catch. sink. CLERK sound of a blow. chatter. scar. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. Boh. a sphere. has also deik. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. dob. . a hook. cligner. cautes. kliv. Climate. derigon. Fr. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. — — A . ball of thread oriTo CUnch. glomus. to tattle. diofian. kleppen. a clerk . ravine. See Clench. to sound an alarm to clap. ginally from dob (extant in W. Click. crack. sonare. a trigger. dink. cleopian. deuch. clever. clep. klaiv. littus. to confess . to clack. temperature. Gr. 3. click it. e. cleft of a hill. derjon. klika. kloof. AS. See Clamber. . a ball of twine. in rhetoric. derecia.Lat. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. Climax. precipice. cliff. a mill-clack . climate. globus. cart that tilts over. with hamarskard. a clew. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. dial. to tattle. in the sense of active. Sw. corresponding to the Sc. crackle. call. clif- stanas. Client. The Sc. to snatch. to rattle. -Toe (from KXivm. Lat. klippe. and (with the nasal) — clincher. or Sc. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . Cot. name. deuck. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. rock. Claw. a lump. dever. Cliff. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . on. highest is attained. dicher. in precisely the same sense as the E. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. G. Bav. to seize. catching. chatter. Norm. Chaucer. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. klinke. Lat. klaffen. See AS. clap. klev. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. Now the OE. clever.dergie! Wiclif in R. diquette. as Lat. cliquet. Commonly derived from deliver. to wink. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. precipices. Det er en Mover kerl. cleugh. claw or talon to dek or deik. The origin is the Gr. a figure mentioned. IS5 Du. dexterous. chatter. cliquer. speak. Clam. klinge. clypian. deik. a latch . call. a claw or clutch. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc.' ii. ready of speech. kliket. region not observe it. above the pole. diver.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv.) Brai. to cry. pen. duke. a latch. rugged ascent. Du. Clergy.— Clue. &c. corresponding to Fr. clyf. babble. ized . kleppe. exactly Gr. the clergy. would have been derida. KkrifoQ. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship.). a lot. icXi/ja?. deudi. Du. or an object character- Clerical. rupes . from Gael glac. it must be observed. klippe. pulsare. stein- kluppen. to talk as a parrot. the knocker of a door. deik. to cleave. the clergy clericus. —Vocab. a cliff. Clew. say. Hence Lat. to catch. whence Fr. dial. dook (identical with E. click. klikklakken. cleft. rock. OE. klinket. Du. klouwe. a hold. cave . a tumbril. syn. clima. which is used in Scotch and N. to bend. that is a clever feUow. has kl'dver. gleg. klikker. a cleft in a rock . had a form. clerus. Sp. slope . klok klep- crepitare. dichet. abrupta rupes . d See Clan. cleke. light-fingered. frap- per rudement une personne. cliof. expeditious.. neither as having lordship in the. the dick of a latch or a trigger. In I Peter v. as from derido. a precipice. as Sc. Da. derigo. lively. Sc. a hump. dough.

a clog or fetter for a beast . kXiVu. Clock. To Cling. Lat. Flem. Walach. klippa. a separate portion. G. hlinian. sticky. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. klocke. rima. to bend downwards . klicke. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. hill . a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. The notion of a loose moveable substance. hooded . parva ruptura. cloak. Sw. sloping downwards . G. to beat. See Clang. See Cowl. acclivis.' From Pl. clique. klunge. to snap kneipen. to shrink up. Hal. to cluster. a lump of butter. claw. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. to strike. toga. 'Till famine cling thee. to clunge. kldpp. knippchen. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. sloping upwards procUvis. incline. fetter. Sussex peasant AS. G. also to form a compact mass. to slope or bend . hluccti. clato make a noise. by bits. kluppe. Ir. klunker. Du. bow. klepalo. to lean backwards. Fr. glocke. cochl. incline. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to AS. Bohem. klippa. Kil.ginglej Fr. clino. pallium. to snap or fillip schnippen. clock is a variation of clack. klungeln. difficulty. to pinch klupe. E. -CLINE make pinch. a cluster. Serv. a ball of thread . Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. difficulty . to form one mass with. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. ON. kliks. clingan. ON. as to snip in the same sense from snap.. as G. straits.' for a dry stick. to crowd or squeeze chingy. klak. in Schmeller) klunk. to . klupen. globulus' (Gl. Sw. to beat on the board. ten. pinch. a rising ground. Clink. cloche. Du. and 'E. to clap or clack. klocka. schnippen.D. G. glungelin. Da. clivus. from klepati. to snip. . Sw. Decline. dial. gang. sloping forwards. Cliofue. Cloak. E. Bi klik uti klak. dial. klingen. chcng. . . clog. klinka. especially of something soft or clammy. tuft. to cling to a thing. klaka. to pinch. iissura. OHG. Sw. declivis. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. klungelin. . pinch. quincailler. knippen. a lump G. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. verklungeln. club). to clip. * Clod. . a tinman. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. to wither. compress . a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. a snare. recline.und zuk-lippen. outcry. to clink auf. met.. to knock. to snap tongs. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. To Clip. klippe. and so' to contract. N orman clincailler. ' . clangere. klynge. to lean. klippur. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. w. klinken. G. like cling. 156 -cline. ON. . Swiss klokken. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. clips. dial. . The E. a beU. clutch. kukla. a faction. and a similar syllable without the /. to crowd together klynge sig ved. Lat. a bell. -atum. four of the bell. Esthon. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . gUong. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. Du.. To cut with shears. speaks of a ' clung bat. clinker. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. to sound sharp.. kolbe to E. I. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. Een kliks bolter. Swiss klungele. klok. Gr. Du. clinke. slant.— Clot. shears. klik. to make a loud noise. whence E. kima. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. as thick or curdled liquids. to shrink up.'— Shaks. dial. Gael. hlinen. klocke. klippen. as we now say three or four o'clock. or bagging clothes. noise. &c. disposed to a thing. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. 2. Sw. — a mantle. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. Fr. kolki-laud. a bell. hluk. .— KSS.D. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. toga muliebris. Pl. dag. ring clag. — clot. -cliv-. g. a hood. at first probably on a wooden board. Bohem. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. a clock. a woman's mantle . klo^gen. related to clock. Ang. to wither. kol- The word . brett-glocke. also to wink . nip. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. knot klynge. S w. G. klipa. to resound. . klincke. knippe. To stick to. kleppe. a lump. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. kluben. to ring. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow.

. Fr. 3. paddle or dabble in the wet. klos-bane. Fr. lobberen. zocco. It. to play at bowls. klotz. IV. with Fr. AS. spatter. dunch). or Sc. I doda clod. clorre. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. dirt. watery. lump of butter. then liquid or loose substance. . to a. to dash like heavy rain. Pr. mud. Mat. paddle. Russ. like G. bemired. schlotter. Lat. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. daustrum. enOE. Klak also.). neither spot nor hang loose. thick sour milk. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. Yule-clog. chiuso. bespotted with mire E. shut up. to shut in. claudo. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). plod. loppered (of milk). hanging loose and full. a clod Swab. da- . claggy. compared with clump. or E. G. to paddle in the wet. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. laggery. Clog. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. slobbe. to lobberig. be&c. terminate. whence klack. a Christmas log. A . we pass to E. slabberen. of a body of any kind. blot. a spot. clogs. an imputation. lump of mud on the clothes .cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. a clod. the radical sylla. boil. to slop or spill liquids. G. from Fr. figer. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. lopin. a field inclosed clos. Pl. -clus-. a log. to dabble. . kloteispaen. Sc. clog or overshoe. loose mud. . -close. analogous plan to clod or club. to rattle. A — — A Thus from Bav. curdled. close. claque. klag. MHG.' end. I clodde. to flap as loose clothes. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. loblolly. from claudo. schlott. klac. a clog. to rattle. slab. paludosus. dangle.dial. The game called ninepins. to shut. . or loppern. Pm. a trowelful of mortar. m&se noch stain. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. to rattle or shake to and fro. . to cling locks. .1a. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. be found rattle. loose trowsers. clot. klakk. -clusum. separate part. -cludo. clos. . in forms like Du. a skittle-ground klos- sen. kloten. Dan. miry laggerit. lunch. to spill liquids. clotted milk klotte. finish . Bav. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. kloster. in accordance with It. . lumps of butter. thick spoon . to sup up liquid food.D. shaky. clogs for the feet klakk. kleck. fat. is a blot on one's character. Lat. geschlotter (as E. kloteren. . Pr. forbidden by 17 Ed. cloth. aspersion. kleck or lack. dirt. Gr. klod. lobbig. bowl . slops slodderen. slob. The origin of clod and clot is to . or drablyn with separate existence. E. a bal!. I clodde. Idppern. • lump. truncus. . clotted locks Dan. pattens G. slop. splash. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. congeler. Close. klos. wabbling from Du. kladde. to claggock. to bedaub. and Du. wide bagging clothes. clausum. slobber. a portion of something soft and adhesive. to shut. loppe. klunkern. inclose. tuditare. pludre. to bubble. beklakken. a dirty wench claggy. schlottern. in accordance with Pl. clammy loam.. kloden. of something clammy or heavy. to shut up. kl'dnken. Fr. mud klcEg. Du. Fr. klokotat. klot. Closhe. fors.. je amoncele. clos. zoccoli. dial. meat from Du. chiudere. Hence inclose. to close against one. a block. and E. log. slops). lag. lobberen. unctuous. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. from Du. .rge lump. doitre. schlettern. to bodies. a babbler. g. ! . slobberen. bloutre. a blot. in comp. a log. closed. to wabble. and thus seem endowed . klateren. dag. to flounder in the wet. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. . motte. mire. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. klotzschuh. His heart was franlc without a flaw. lopperig. a lump from Du. Cloister.— Clothe. a monastery. klakken. laggyn. Swiss schlott. clatk. klottern. E. gelatinous. is connected with pludder. He was a man without a dag. we pass to Schlatter. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. to dabble. daggerey. . TZoxapov. rattle. . tramp in wet or mire. shut up. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. foreclose. Klottermelck. lump of something soft . To hinder by the adhesion Sc. schlattern. motzen.D. lob. a blot. clausum. and Gael. In the same way Dan. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. dab. loose. To Clog. tJokok. without. spot of dirt. Du.'^ Palsgr.

motte. a clove of garlick. del mattond. Gael. Rouchi dapoter. klotzig. Du. to lump mend clumsily. Move. Clown. and tapp. a . botsen. de Champ. when something has got into the touch-hole. a bunch. and clay. block. the air. kloete. dump. dial. tered . kluyfketi loocksj Pl. A kind of spice resembling Du. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. dial. clunch. duthaich. a nail. from OFr. knob. a thick mass. dillad bumkin. strike. to beFr. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. and of a rustic unpolished person. Kiittner. a breach. clump. clotted milk or cream. to cleave or the splashing of water. clothes ment. Du. clavo di especias. a clubfoot klabb. hebes (Kil. little nails. to cover Bret. G. klaven. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a curdled sky. stock. 2. It. daggy.bar. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. clyd. mud (Pat.D. coarse. davus. from kloven. chiodo di girofano. cobio. a blabber. of a lump of earth and that figure. clot . clumhar. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. klonte. clothe. indispalte knoblauch. G. milk run to lumps. a bunch. are also used in the sense of a stopper. choke or stop up. To Cluck. to stop. cludaim. zolla dell' . cluth mhor. warm. of sloppy materials. mass. . clue. clothes).ft. Cloud. klove. klunds. clunch. G. a clown. E. E. lump. diboter. nelke (dim. Clover. klubbe. AS. CLOUD an awkward clod . Dan. klu77ip. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. E. naegel. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. loggish. to cloy. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. tuft. blockish. lump. — . of thumping clumsy action. clog.). — — — . clot. . a bobbin. . from Du. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. a boss. ser. make warm. cobble. cluster. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. Du. a ball. clot. From dog.158 . klumpfot. clobyn. w. klqb. klieven. A division of a root of garlick. In the same way E. ON. of nagel. More in R. . signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. The priClout. matte. kl'dnne. Then applied to a lump of mate. dob. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. Cld. aglio. as Fr. a ball. to curdle. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . from W.D. klotz. Du. a garthas. bunch. kluV. klever. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. sticky. dabosser.). cob. nagelein. with lout. esdaboter (Roquef. a sticky. warm place . whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. to strike . group of people Sw. sheltered .). To Cloy. lumps of curd. a log. and closely do conspire. Sp.' Sanders. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. sheltered up warm. kUid. a. clydion. to a lump. cloud Delfortrie. knob. caillebottes. dash (Cot. a fissure. a clot or keeps one warm. CLUCK rustic. een klaven kruflook. I. ball of thread Russ. cludadh. to strike. mire. dial. a clod or clot. Gael. eene ODu. shel- kloen. klump. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). the terms expresssplit. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. a bunch. mary sense is a blow. klobbersaen. Du. Mabousfrom Lat. warm. dys. G. Imitative of the note of a society. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. clammy earth. a bousche. spice) G. Met. puddle. The radical sense seems to be an unE. a sky Cot. Du. Clumpered in balls of clouds. a ball of twine . a nail) Fr. w. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. kluppe. Club. a lump. eine to slop. Sw. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. a ball.Fris. kldverj P1. clods. wisp. klcBdi. lump. a patch. clump of a clout on the head. dabaire. to cherish. a cover or coverture . Sw. AS. log. rustic. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . ON. lunch). The significations of a clod or lump. boucher. a lump. are often connected.clod. . . to splash. lump of earth aria. Fr. Ir. probably from daboter. formed lump or thick mass. Properly that which covers and Du. So Fr.). and clout d eudaich. to tramp in the kluyve. klubba. dut. Das volk hat sich in splitten. clou de girofle. but confounded with cailler.D. a clod. nourish . lie clyd. warm clothes {dillad. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. (kruyd =. klotsen. kloven. zolla. a log. klumba. clod. Clump. klubb. dote. and -the word Clove. also homo obtusus. unpolished. N. piece Cot. a knot of people. in the same sense. Pl. clod is used in both senses . to cleave. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. klebek. botch. dirt. klubb.

clook. kichlemmit. . to squeeze. a clove Sw. claudo. 130. Pm. klampa. klette. a clod or lump. fingers (familiar). Champ. hand to cleuk. dial. glousser. klummklummshandt. Sw. klos. with E. a clod or The noclot. . Cluster. rial. klunt. ball as snow. xXvariip. clutch. G. havi. E. to klotz. Isaiah. to syllable click. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. er. verkommelen. clump. acomelydfor could Pr. ill-made . kohle. Pl. to lie. Coal. clabosser. glocire. kluntfrom KKvKdi. ' Thou clontsest for cold. lump of soft mate. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. conclusion. clotted cream.D. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. limp. calling her chickens. Coach. and klotteren. Du. duke. koetsen. . strum on an instrument. From the notion of sticking together.D. See reclusion. Analogous forms with a tongs. ' Clumper. Ray. klump. a clod clunter. klikaty. n. claws. esclaboter. of garlick. to collect in lumps. klods. dial. lay hold of. unfashioned. algidus. -close.forklomme (Outzen). klumpern. klont. to stick together . the word is more probably connected with OE. and make ye strong feeble knees. properly to do anything Fr. &c. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. from klupen. paste. bunch. clumsy. clausum. dystere. Riwle. * Clump. a lump.P. to tramp or tread heavily. to wash.E. through the senses of lumpish. wooden sole.'— animal. ether comelia P. exclude. Pl. as Fr. enervatus. claw. viscous material. cleuk. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. -CLUDE hen Du. Muster. Clump. pinched. Lat. as from seken. MHG. -elude. in comp. as clumper. Beklummen van kelde.— — . to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. koetblockish. a clod or lump. finish. to to snatch. Teulazy. klcise. ' . But clunchy. beklommen.' Wycliff. Hesse. hondis. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. clip or pinch. dek. clointer. -olus-. to tramp. to curdle. might be reached from clump. unwieldy Hal. eviratus. pladdern. klumpig. Sp. klisse. clopiner. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. close. E. ball of snow on horse's foot . Hindust. G. OE. awkward.mene tied. coccolare.pare P1. klemma. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. Graff in Klamjan. a clot klissen. with a quick. to grip. from ON. plad or plod. klomje. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. crooked inwards . Fris. beklummen. to curdle. or aclommyde. a ball . * Clumsy. benumbed with cold. to pinch. klonte. a noise. an instrument for nasal form e.' Comfort ye dumsid. klocken. Sc. to curdle. heavily. COAL dumpish. a couch. cluntClyster. Cath. klikonosy. to benumb with cold. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. klonte. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. klomen. unhandy. tight — — . dumps. klemmen. wooden shoes. a ball. inclusive. thick and clumsy. ' Uorte (for clogs. lavesen. from laver. also a cluster. Ang. — sen. a pinching time. klamp. -cludo.Ancr. dumpse. See -elude. coucher became in unhandy. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . It. Hence cleik. klobber in klobbersaen. The Fr. klompen. klontet. klister. a block. klummerhdndt. are the nasalised forms of klotte. in v. wagen. Fr. klamen. —To Clumsyd. hooknosed. hands stiff with cold. whence koetse. ON. differing only in the absence of the duik. A group. The sense of awkward. cleik. G. and klonteren.. cluster. ment. . — . dussomed (Wilbrabam). koetsDa. Du. -clus-. a lump or compact mass. seize. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. Hence snatching. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. clutch. dek. doquear. MHG. Com. to paddle or dabble. awkward. eene beklum. to tramp. Compare Swiss klupe. to wash. Du. a claw. conclude. dial. Lincolns. to gingle. of Du. kol. dumpers. may recline. —More. klimpern. 159 E. In the same way Du. idle. cleche. Sw. verklomen. splash.' Benecke. Gr. and koetse. a nasalised form of club. Clutter. a lump. or from Sw. OHG. koetsie. Du. Fr. to shut.D.' Vegecius in Way.D. — Hence include. smart motion. klunsen. a bunch. eviratus. carriage in which you klodset. dial. Boh. having the Pl. gelidus. a litter. Clutch. — Cot. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. Fr. cliboter. unhandy.D. G. Lat. Cheshire. to rinse. — ' — — tonista. a coach. -clusum.e. log. Variation of clatter. Du. obstructum.

tuft.' — Thus from (Hal. is one of thump. are often connected. klabbsmed. The dirt. to hobble . of poison.. to . Cobbles in the N. according to the ordinary run of events. broddelen. as in arr. a spider (/r)^=grub. cock or nescock. kop-ar. Sp. to stutter. cob. a similar According to Ihre. cokes was a simpleton. Fr. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. itself is Nescock .. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. cluster. a coat or frock. blaze. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. kylla. coste. COCHINEAL Cobber. gull. When the . petrilla. quele. a nest. haggle. flame. the one of thump. .). ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. * To Cobble. and fig. an egg. s. Cocasse. Fr. a bubble. and imperfect or unskilful action. acomelyd or aclommyd. any kind of coat. klabbare. koppe. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. to bungle . CooMneal. cobcoals. are round stones or round coals of small size. pock. sweets and the other of poisons. a darling. Coarse. caleo. to stammer. T' waerkopet. Dan. to grow together. dim. a pock mark. says Varro. Pm. also a coast. bredouiller. united. H^cart. imbecille. probably from the Fr. of cochina. costa. The OE. to peck as a hen cobyn. coalesce. a thumper. in Du. ignem. a bungler. e. properly to daub. an old idiot. cobble. large coals. verkommelen. a rib. a woodlouse. numb. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. gull. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. then to work unskilfully .' And colo. Flem. In the E.. Coast. throw a blow. — Cobbler. and E.. Coalesce. cotte. to form an union with another coalitus. viz. e. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. and hobble. from bearing a bag. niais. a cobweb. cacd). and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. Trevoux. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. bijamie. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. to kindle or cause to burn . large stones . burning.the water boils. dial. tempered clay for building. boil. w. cokes or fool of him. cofasse. ON. however. used in — . The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. Coalition. top cobio. . a sow. Du. s. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. kop. or E. Fin. pockbecility and liability to imposition. habble. to worship. Formerly written course. and the spider as collectors. to be hot. in Essex Jow*2c^. nursery lang. v. a tuft.inflated with air or liquid. small pox (pocks) . universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. niais. grown together. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. inflammation.' Nares. klabba. Sanscr. cule cocosse. glowing embers. 3. Lat. dial. to wheedle or gull vermin). side . poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. staggering or halting. things. dial. hakkelen. — — . a firesteel Lat. koppen-gespin. Coat. The contrast between the bee • Cob. quilet. A spider's web. cob.). from some fancied resemblance. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. and thence a lump cobnut. one Pr. to knock. of E. to cobble shoes. The Fris. probably left his home. k'dlla. To cobble. to burn. Fr. It. See Cot. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. Lat. to strike. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. pustule. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England .). to pdt with We may cite Fr. to cob. to glow . pustule. — Pr. frock. long standing. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. may be A found in