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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. name of the cow. mind of the of the animal. when we is represent to our children of the cow.NURSERY IMITATIONS. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. The syllables moo (mu. the closer we shall approach to the . and where we are seeking. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. muK) and mae (rfie. with an initial m or I. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. come Moolls. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). and in imitates the cry are used withitself. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. in other words. the present day. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. Molli. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. or. to the syllables which are significant to the child. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. in language of the present day. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. and mully or mully cow is the . persons of different tongues at the present day. but nothing she herself knows the animals. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. is given to a cow or calf. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. by whom the be understood. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. or Mollein. and. the baaing of the sheep. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. when neither name for the object to be designated.

and some were very clear and distinct. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. had nim. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. First. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. and which we might express thus. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. became more perfect. by the natural humming sound. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. for bad. p. fiafifi&v (Hesych. mumm. to work over with the mouth. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer.' In ordinary speech mump.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. nineteen years old.' he says. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. when hungry. &c. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time.. and nim came to signify everything edible.). an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. schipp. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. On one occasion he said^e nim. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. 72). to eat. nim. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. his nurse adopting the word with him. as well as the mind of the utterer. family. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. he called to to drink. for things. for everything fit to eat. . But soon the growing mind began to generalise. We have. I had watched the growth of this word. A member of my own new sfop. Heinicke. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. in children's language. then. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. partly from sounds which the child caught. Finally an n was placed before it. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. . had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. repulsive to eat. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. Gr. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. to For instance. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. hm. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. analogous to Magyar mammogni. He would now say good. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. Gradually.

Galla djam djeda. palatable. to taste . we can call them so. yamming. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. to move the lips in continued chewing. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. Swedish dialect gamsa.ONOMATOPCEIA. nobis vix permittitur. to fill the mouth. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. namnam. 1 86). memmexen. savory. agreeing with Ein. p.' And Diomedes. on. voracious. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. i8o. ' id est. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. . Wolof nahenahe. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. buckra man's language the white man. i. and the crab — p. eating. to Sw. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. to smack in eat. nvrnma. to eat mampfen. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. nam. the Scotch poet. Nimm'd up. food (Tylor. crab nam buckra man.' — Lersch. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). and the fizzing (and Series. South Jutland hiamsk. tidbits nama . mumpfen. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. make djamdjam). words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. mumble. aptantes adfectibus vocem. to mump. aves tinnire. mujnpa. j ing . or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). ' Motherwell. 130-1.minis. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. as well as the Sw. Africa) nimi. snatched (Whitby Gl. nyam nyam. jamsa (yamsa). as to . to take. at hiamske i sig. Soosoo (W. The Chinese child uses nam for eat.' says the author of Modern Slang.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. Gothic niman. oves lalare. lita. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. taken up hastily on the sly. dial. and thence to be tasteful. mumpfeln. Africa) nimnim. delicacies. sweet (Koelle). it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Primitive Culture. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. greedy . j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. to eat. clangorqae tubarum. ut tinnitus aeris. iii. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . jumla. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). or word-making. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes.). In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . and some of them .' says Quintilian. Vei (W. (in chil- dren's language). while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. stolen. A negro proOr. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. to chew laboriously. jammla. to be pleamind .

'I doubt. howling. do not speak of a bowwow.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER.' — We speak of a cow. before the in other words. neighing or whinnying of horses. but of a dog. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. a lamb. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. cackling or gaggling of geese. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. dove and cooing. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow.' he says. bleating of sheep. purring or mewing of cats. intended in the instance to represent the cry. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. or. hooting of owls.' And elsevs^here (p. We . twittering of swallows. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. when circumstances required. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. might be used as the designation of it. grunting or squealing of hogs. chattering of pies or monkeys. yelping. bellowing of bulls. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. und growling. might be used. sparrow and chirping. cooing or crooing of doves. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. snarling of dogs. chirping of sparrows or crickets. Yet we ing.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. baaing or maeing of lambs. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. p. that there is When Man. not of a baa. lowing of oxen. gobbling of a turkey-cock. croaking of frogs or ravens. snarling. Indeed. not of a moo of Lect. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. 89) with less hesitation. between dog and harking. bumping of bitterns. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. for the purpose of bringing the animal. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. or thoughts of our hearer. ^6^. barking. anything connected with it. whether it deserves the name of language. yelping.

Manchu The kaha. Sometimes the hoarse i . and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. Malay gdgak. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. is kuM) for the cuckoo. and means a shouter. e. Georgian quaki. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. birds. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces.' common sense. lion. 'Kdka. We imitate the sound with a modulated. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. a crow (Pictet). 349. layitavya .' kd). this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. 4th ed.). and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. and gaggele or gagkelein. KOKKvi. sound). harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket.. a daw. kae. crow. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. kauwe. a bird that is be driven away. caller. Sauscr. Kdrava. in g. caw kuhii-rava (rava. 380. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. Columbia kahkah. Barabra koka. it announces (Salaberry). Hungary. In Basque.).IMITATIVE NAMES. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Origines Indo-Europeennes). He to is therefore derives kdka. Bav. fi-om apakd- i. and Bavaria respectively. Arabic kdk. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. a crow. in is Gr. having a general predicative power. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. ist ed. according to Durga). kdka. gackem. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. ghak. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. whose sound (Pictet. kuho. and the sound of that direction. Picard cau. or quawk. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. crow. Aoo-Aoo. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. coccolare. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. a a crier (p. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. In Lat.

. in the North of England. Magy. Albacuculi a dove. Pers. p. Swedish kowipa. to hoot. lulo. 219. yell. tur. German luhu. Ibo akoka. German and Eng- krahen. tuquheit. uhu. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. Heb. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. Zulu kuku. a crow lish Lith. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. lilits. Hindi. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. turtle) as the Lat. libufs. synonymous forms of similar structure). coccovaec. to crow. kuku. Lettish kiekuts. kruk. lUyrian kukurekati. the name for a crow. tortbla.Gr. great variety of oKokv^uv. wood-pigeon. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. kraukti. 6. are represented. either in the same or in related dialects. name. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. a crow . in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. giving turtur (and thence It. tbrtola. kukhuta. Walachian coucouveike. gufo. Du. another. koeren. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. Arabic tdtwit. kukko. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. Fr. krauklys. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. Malay kukuk. kurre. and e. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove .' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. It. korren. teewhoop. as well as of Sanscr. The consonants p. Sp. kraeyen. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . So we have Polish krukac. to howl or Lat. krahe. Yoruba koklo. Scotch peeweip. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. tor. The crowing of cot in Fr. Esthonian kikkas. the name of an animal will gen- .xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. to croak. Dutch kievit. hibou. Mod. German kielitz. cock. while crouk. or Gr. French dishuit.. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. Da. to cry loudly. Du. by the verbs gurren or girren. to crow. gugu. and e. and sometimes both together. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. xi. coucouva. reduplicate form. t. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. kraeye. "Welsh hwan from hwa. ghughu. kirren. to croak. a crow. coqueri- Languedoc. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. girre. name of its is the bird. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. tbrtora. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. k.

hollow noise. knetta. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). e. bambhara. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. skryle. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face.' Amazons. to rustle. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. — Catafogo. shrill. growling. horniss and from the buzzing The. grille. glass cracking (Schmeller). Naturalist on the tocano.or bumble-bee. schwirren. or a gnat fly. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. g. kong-kong. grylhis. Lith. German hummel.' — i. PofijivXwg. Sanscr. gives rise to chwymores. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. and probably indicates that g. Sc. dhran. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. Northern Farmer. droning is . and not from E. bamba. The drone peal. ' — Pictet . ajo. booming. 337. (Jieuschrecke) . din. a fly (Tylor) . whirr). of England it is to the b 2 . The Arabic sarsor. in allusion to its music. Danish dron. Speaking of a cricket he says. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. sirkka. We may cite Gr. a sharp sound as of a 6. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. grillen. skirl. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. The Welsh chwyrnu. Gaelic dranndan. as . resound. a small as hawk is . to sound. the humble. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. swirplys with 6. a drone. schirke. from the humming. bee. which they make in their flight very . words imitative of humming .' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. skril with n. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . Arabic tantanat. humming. ta-na-nd. a hornet.vf3. ' Sanscr. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. sound. North of England. chirk. common. to shrill sound sharp. with or Fr. schrecke. The name of the cricket indeed. and he kong-ko-rong. Lat. loud rumour. German drohne. a bee. Australian bumberoo. and yelping cry. a beetle druna. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. representing a short sharp sound. give a faint sound. In the N. oE. buzzing. from schrick. to creak Bret. 'The natives call it tanand.IMITATIVE NAMES. buzzing. zirken. i. little intermission. the drone or non-working bee . cricket is from crick. to grumble. German dronen. resounding of musical instruments. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. to be compared with Sanscr. Fin. Albanian tsentsir.' —Tennyson. Lithuanian tranas. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. there are infinite varieties. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. to hum. thunder. schrickel. to chirp . Danish gnaddre. Corean sirsor. succeeding each other — with noise. flight its sting considered as a horn. g. to chirp J may be compared with . pip-pi-ta. g.

it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. to low . a buffalo. bauli. to weep. bullus and e. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. bucula. to make. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. bull. ox. be-l-er. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. bullock. From baa. Thus from miau. make poo. to shout. a heifer. fivKaofiai. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. shoot . Cult. w. Gael. It. bovis. On the same principle. forms a. and in Hottentot baa was the . bubati. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Fr. mugire. w. make to it laugh. Lat. verb is evidently identical with our shout. Da. cattle. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. representmake bow. loge. bukati. bugler. bubenti. k or g. mugler. The Galla lilbil. to make a noise. Zulu lulula. to bump as a bittern Illyr. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. or with on. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. to beat hard. OFr. or moo. to make. and from to ring. bugle. boo.XX called booing. maukati. bu. bos. as the Illyr. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. amuse. a Geiger. to or bark. agreeing exactly with Lith. to sound. Illyr. Piedmontese fi bau. or bau-l-i. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. to make a loud deep sound. verbal form given to the say. bolt. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. to low or bellow. bo. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. whence baula. and thence Lat. to from bau. Hottentot bou (Dapper). is inadmissible. bwla. and djeda. the Fr. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. Norse bu. the animal. are (with a subsidiary k). plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. that the imitative syllable are Lith. to mew. to shout. Fr. Lat. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. to the uses goda. muJiati. His analysis leads cow. btibleti. (iove. — ^Tylor. to low. p. in a imitation of a ringing sound. to boohoo. Manx booa. to bellow like a bull. mamoo-heeheek. has bilbilgoda. grumble as distant thunder . in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. bue. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. Lat. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. to . lulauti (to hoo-loo). From the same lioao). With these analogies. or a z to the imitative syllable. or formed Lat. 167. mae. from the imitative moo instead of boo. representing the mew of a cat. say. a cow. to bow- own bawl. buculus. to ba-L-are. a bull. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. The Piedm. in same way. Galla boa. miau-l-er. biibnas. a drum . a bullock. baula. bae. as that of the cow by boo. bae.

but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. a grunt. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. to grunt. it and e. menAda (ndda. karra. Kurren und murren. to themselves. growl. a goat. Illyr. . lambs. to bleat . and snorke. grogner. a. grumbhng. rumbling. Hence Breton hoc ha. a hog. guttural tone. . name. corresponding to ohg. and of (maelon). leg-et-ni. a sheep (Lowe). a dog. cry). hund.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. ' In driving. Gael. a sheep or a goat. Fr. a pig Fin. does not produce a e. Moreover. Fr. From the imitative mae. kurre. a sheep or ewe. to bleat. by which the shingle gives rise to It. lecco. to howl. The g. hound. Idgge (Rietz). a wolf. as the proper name of a tame sheep. signifying a snarling. grumble. goats. a sheep. name of the animal itself. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. may with to snarl. in Wolof bae. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. grumble. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. lek-eg-ni. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. and hoc'h. to rumble. the designations of a dog the term cur. purr). and thence groin. hundi). The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. (iriKov of forms like Sw. kurren. or in any ! way ! persuading. sound. / The same Gr. ^. the snout of a pig. meketati. a sow. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. sheep or goat. Da. Illyr. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. mecati. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. 6. grumpf. meugler. in v. a (Hesych. hwch. mutter. undoubtedly imitative. nire. /xijeao/iat. to bleat. a sow. grugno. meil. houch. and Circassian maylley. with the root ypaipm. Gr. knurfisk. oe. naskia. a goat firixal^ta. leknuti.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. meckern. With gen. a pig. G. Illyr. It is probable also that e. sus-sus. as lou of an ox. Africa laa. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. name of a sheep. this obstinate race. and grumphie. Manx meilee. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. to growl. from knurre. It. hunt (gen. /xj/caScj. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. groin. for the voice of the ox). Gr. lekavica. mekegni. Gr. Welsh and Breton). and thus explains the origin /3^k»). hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. meigeal. hadg- Magy. a goat. hunon. and with the subsidiary k or g. curmurring. Among dog. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. And it is true there between hog and grunt.' Moor's Suffolk words. we have Sanscr. — . to grunt. from hundama. grunt. he would hardly. cite as by grunt. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. . grunlike a pig in eating. smack and naski.). grunny. Magy. may be identical with Esthon. although the imitation embodied in Lat.

xxii MULLER ANSWERED.). while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. p.root. to whine. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). Thus we are led to the Fr. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. cockade. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. of the character in question. hottihuh. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. humma.. Sc. to go backwards. from the cry animal. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee.). but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. coquette. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. a horse.. without a — we root. to the left. M). hobin. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. Esthonian hoibo. . a little am- bling horse. e. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. hoppe.' 2nd Series. If onomatopoeias can . So Sanscr. as in Yorkshire highly right. . coquelicot. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold.' — ist Series. turn a horse to the is In Finland. ^6<. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. like artificial flowers. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. the cry to stop or back a horse. But words of this kind are. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. p. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. hobben.' ticular bird. hiine. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. (Craven Gloss. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. such as cuckoo. hobby. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. There are of course some names. g. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. houpy in Craven. when he found peculiarity. a mare. 91. animal.

frenschen. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. sol. but whether there kind between them and other words. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. animals or certain kinds of sound. goatsucker. fehtati. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. groan. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. ance or habits of the animal. Lettish sweegt. hikkd. Du.D. diver. Irieschen. form corresponding hresh. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. creeper. wrena. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. runniken. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. titter. Fr. hross. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. giggle. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. e. wrenska. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. to neigh. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. . nounced with a guttural). nitrire. command of language was attained. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. lapwing. than to the sounds represented. ginniken. as sigh. hennir. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. Bohem. rinchar. hresh. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. to Sanscr. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. hresh. wiehern. Sw. wagtail. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. redpole. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . woodpecker. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. whitename in in- throat. xxiii ginal object. Sp.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. g. swift. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. signified It. little speak for themselves. moan. hukkup. cough. Pl. Sanscr. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. horse.

acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. bang. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. for the sound of a fall. for in such sound of blows. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. Da. for blows with a rod. to throw violently down. knack. debhes-lungotais (deifies. snukkup). To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. Mei gbengben. snore. beat of a clock child . bang ' ! trenches.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. 1865.' 'Haw. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. ping came the bullets about their ears.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. heaven). pump. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. clap ! A smack Puff. Australian bungbung ween. wheeze. bangas. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. DingBang. for a small one. ding. Of a like forma- drum . White Lies. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. a kind of drum. pit-a-pat. hoo. haitshu. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . for the sound of a blow.' it both sides went. hang. ting-ting. plitsch-platsch. the dashing of the sea . thunder (Tylor) . in a nail Let. the God of thunder . a large bell. hoo ping ping. aritischane. went the cannon. to beat. to knock. root kshu. shriek. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. atchini. &c. lumm. or the w. Vei gbangba. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. for that of breaking. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. fitsche-falsche. banke. snort. Wtb. banga. knarr.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. &c. — Sanders. to drive on. strippstrapp-stroll. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. an attempt would be made to by the voice. a more expressive than the e. . oren : Klapp. to sneeze. on the chops is represented also by pratx. for the for the sound of . to ham.' So imac. heart tick-tack. scream. to hammer . are familiar in ' to every one. mer. beat.' ! ! ! ! — dong. or tliat is accomit. klatsch. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Zulu bongo. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. for the sound of milking. haw. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. —Brem. dong Read. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . It is represented in e. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. atchian. tlirob. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . tisio (tisho). for the creaking of a wheel.

is pfeife. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. young bird. chickens (Tylor). pigolare. —Lyndsay. e. pipare. piou. cry of young birds . as in other subjects of study. pu. It seems to him that the teeth t. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. mobility excavation and hollow ^. is of expression. pipio. Florio. Gr. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. of a word will appear supposed to represent. and so forth. or the uneducated different consonants are man. peep.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. to cry like imrli^u). had been used laugh ? two. part of the What consciousness has the child. — . and whimper. calls S. a fife or musical pipe. pigiolare. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. to peep It. piou. peep. pule. Fr. to squeak. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. G. a whelp. Magyar pip. pi. and their relations. child. pipio. In cases such as these. a or cheep. He Yet asks. pipilo. laugh. which he added to intensify the expression. to cheep like a bird or a young It. or a piailler. pipelni. piccione. pipe. pigione. doubtless. De Brosses. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. young child . . piauler.sc. as k. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. ducing the sound. has been un- employed to designate fixity. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. bleat. pippione. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. the voice of chickens (Cot. to designate cavity and hollow. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. The pi. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. used as a call to . scream. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. a fowler's bird call is lost. Lat. Mantuan pipiare. far pipi. pipe. Lat.) a chick. to cry pi. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. as the simplest implement for proFr. a (young) pigeon.' instead. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. cry. a chicken or gosling. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. not- . pipegni. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word.

bubble. tonare. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. knaks. murmur (by . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. garren. to pant bejii- zela. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . Manchu kaka-kiki. coo. make wood a clinking noise. cricli. a short sharp sound. laqfF. some small vowel or consonantal sound. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. when it force than biscuit. borrelen. of something fine and thin.. to creak knirren. kuruk. tintino. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). to rattle. to thunder. in German. to be compared with Sc. the clucking of a j hen . karkarana. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to laugh. to gargle . sound of dry breaking. . u. to grumble). to grate the teeth . or kaka-faka. where the variation.. to gorgogHare rattle. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to bubble. kniks. ioriogliare (to make borbor). knurren. vaake gorgor) . gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . Pefuxela. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. like the noise of a glass breaking . kniks. kirkirdnd. to hawhaw or laugh loud. or springing back. to pant violently (Colenso). turtur. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. be cate to go on laughing loud . tontonare. murren. lachen. It. along with tinnio. to jar. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. Indian chack-chack. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. pi . cluck. sound). {to It. chack. to growl. rumble (Fl. Pacific aka-aka. a sharp short one. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. a prolonged sharp sound. . yapyapii^to (to make gargar). The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. a closed or obscure sound. Hindustani karak is rendered. to gurgle. along with Du. crash.Gr. is very common. crack. as representing the sound made when something breaks. preserved by Kilian. to grumble. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. loud laughter. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. lachachen. to crackle like in boiling . knuks. the side of g. of a loud strong sound. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. rumble. to fizz like fat in frying. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to cry pi. a. rumble. creak.) Mod. grumble. to clack. Poppopvi^to. as the click of a latch or a trigger. Zulu raraza. to ring pipio. i. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. Hindoo tomtom. a drum W. gurren. and lugh. girren. to cluck. &c. thunder oil .

for the sound of privy whispering. agrees with g. corresponding in e. jangle. Fr. for a tTviror). tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. chut. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. rvir (in tvittio. to strike. or to Du. uproar. Magyar csamm-ogni. a boy's whistle. clash of arms. fumtu. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. bulbiil. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. champ. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. and e. and Gr. 192).and e. to giggle. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. clango. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. is based on the same imitation as the e. csam-csogni. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. tubh. and bilhila. and Gr. Manchu kaka. bent her head. djeda (to say tub). cry. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. 368). may be compared with Australian pitapitata. is Manchu tang-tang. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. and her heart went thump. especially one who beats. compared with Gr. or the bubbling up of to a spring. . sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . Newman). to whisper. caca and Finnish adkkd. indicating the origin of Gr. of keys or tinkling of bells. Sanscr. klirren.' Member for Paris. the sound of a stringed instrument. are applied to the is excrements of children. coughing or clearing the throat. quarren. for the ringing of illustrate bells. Maori pata. for the clinking Lat. while cacd / used in e. a drum . ding-dong. tup. to beat. box on the ear imitation of the . noise. borrelen. the gingling of glasses. to say chut. Galla tuma. sound. Turk. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. thump. bubble up. The syllables lil-bil. rain (Tylor. disturbance (F. The whispering of the wind I. bad. 1871. chinking of coin. simmer. clank. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. a nightingale. koXiw. croaking of frogs. a smith.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. hala-hald-faMa (falda. correspond to e. the tingling Ming-Hang. spring of water in the a bell. KaKog. shout. wail. tumwata. kl'mg-kling. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). at an accelerated note. halaidlac'h. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. make djamdjam). E. Prim. to the purling of a brook. a nightingale. Scotch sough or sooch. jingle. to knock. . as Fr. e. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. or of bells ringing. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. clink. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. rifiirayov. as of Tamil muromurmur. sound). repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. call. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together.* the heart. to be compared with g. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . to ring or jingle. Tiie Galla gigiteka. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. awater* ' The Mme P. brings us to Fr. identical with g. a workman. Calt. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. word. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. drops of i. chuchoter. kiling-kalang. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. for chut-chiit-er. muro and e. and the imitative nature of tivgle. tumult.

douse. thump. jingle. 'pat. ring. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. gurgle. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. pop. and Grimm. swash. blow. tum-ultus. tinkle. chink. thump. murmur. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. splutter. rataplan or rantanplan. rap. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. snap. answering to g. flap. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. ' Der puff. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. disturbance. crunch. bubble. squeak. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. bang. Nevertheless. clatter. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. hum. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. tumbian (to beat the ground). slash. whack. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . twang. souse. patter. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. whizz. The use of g. mutter. But although and also found in Lat. It. and the French pouf. Humboldt. dash. to is blow. guggle. gargle. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. smash. blubber. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. creak. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. clap. at a door tarapatan. clang. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. puff. tomber. clink. crack. or v^hether jectional. to fall. crash. sputter. brumberum. the Germans puff. flop. for (Sanders). clank.' — Nohden. So in Fr. lash. din. The beating of drum is represented in e. according to the strictest phonetic rules. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. clash. in e. tingle. while e. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. we have buffet or cuff.. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. fizz. rattle. thump. squeal. parapatapan. smack. w. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. squall. Fr. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. a applied as well to the force of the bang. and soufflet. without the intervention of orthodox roots. whirr. tymmesll. report of a gun. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. it is fallj AS. paddle. rumble. craunch. by rubadub. to dance. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. chatter. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. thwack. and Fr.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. tap. dabble. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. hiss. splash. clack. whine. boom. plump.

and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. by the nature of the cry. the kind of action that is desired of them.'. Grimm or Bopp. is Thus ah!. are made known by an instinctive cry. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. little who has time to want of her nurseling. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it.' If chaos. and found in the building of be burnt up. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. 94. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. or any unsatisfied want. or of any if wood. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. p. If. but if we must not complain on the beach. the inteij. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. At the first beginning of life. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. in the case of the animal or of the infant. and thus they become signs of despair. hay. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. that he has taken the step in rational speech. and uttering plaintive sounds. or stubble is meaner name. stractions. an imitation of a sigh . but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. because they are spontaneous. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. xxix on the contrary. wringing the hands. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . in the rushing waters. ugh . of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. Crying. the interj. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. of horror. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. every little pain. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. grief. without a thought of symbolising to them.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. knows them. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . formerly cited.' . it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections.

they are involuntary interjections.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. more to the point. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. as who them spontaneous utterances. ^6g And to the same effect 371. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. and some of them the composition of words. the lowing of a cow. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering.. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. shrieking.' p. groaning. 32. should be remem- . He says. p. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . of all the mouth. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. may become traditional. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. And again. and the eye. which are frequently so toned down cance. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. coughing.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. One short interjec- tion may fact. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. If I wish to make a person of an . interjections. them to exercise it. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. sneezing.' — ist Series. or which is of me as suffering pain. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. p. be more powerful. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. Language begins where interjections end. more eloquent than a long speech. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. he cites from Home Tooke. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. 344. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. to solve the I shall call first. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections.

the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. and others from interjections. and more or less limited . as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. hahottaa. then speech begins. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. Tooke in truth. some kind of language might have been formed. interjections. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. demolishing here. but the less am at a loss what to say. kahkahah. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. he says. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. Koxafw. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. Gr. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and thus. when I arp humming and hawing. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. hohottaa. in Fin. Lat. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. in Magy. loud laughter. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. it them. hahota. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. bered. Kayxa^u). speaking. I am not hearer. cachinno. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. for example. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle.

and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. makes them stand and walk upon the table. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. like peewit and cuckoo. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. dumb is the language of signs. if taken as a whole. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. and go where we now say stand. words receiving the meanings they now bear. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. It as has ing their most striking features. a Picture-language.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. The following account is given by Kruse. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. of the world. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. And so in the case of language. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men.' he says. and not. Though. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. . But here nature soon conies to his help. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. the critical question should be. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. a deaf-mute himself. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. of the nature of this great movement. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. What strikes him . Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done.

the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. but if I depress it instead. among themselves. the lan- guage cultivates itself. push it towards the person addressed for thou. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. or the verb to be. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. for the agent. and it is flesh or meat. as it now opens out. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. and forms further and further. the whole secret. many when or but these. and we have roast goose. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. such as than the educated man. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. walkest. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. or To pull and flap with the arms. called Gesture-language. and to taste. The same sign stands and the act itself. for single objects. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. he. like a V. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. becomes roast meat. particular sense in properly so called. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. letter To hold the two fingers apart. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. for child. walker. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. signs are taught for yet. it means little. and with his thought. it seems. most striking outline of an object. And is. that air. such objects. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. that. his action. xxxiii him between one thing and another. for walk. thought is already broken. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. The of sign for left hand. that signifies great .GESTURE most. and fully serves to j . the sorecalling them to his memory. he. thou. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. to name. and And thus he makes himself a language. and gestures.' In the Institutions. can do better and more easily abstract terms. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. what more. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. walked. nay.

He gave door a bang. qualifies the against the wall. and thus performs the part of an adjective. When I say. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. You beaten . whether by additions or otherwise. putting it into his pocket. Who is has beaten you ? would be. the ture of white term pink is and red. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. or a quality.xxxiv asking. and the as. Do not bang the it is a verb. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. might be the knife. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. depend entirely upon the use. I say. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. or something of the kind. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. to indicate the action of a certain person. . as But when it is meant door. it called an interjection. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. When a verb. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. The same word . according to the circumstances of the case. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. or action. the garden. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. in fact. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. as in die it is a noun. and so is an adverb. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. when I say. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. or an act. substantive or adjective. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. a number of alternatives are suggested.' dener's knife. or a passive scene of existence. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. as when Bang ! went the gun. a colour red. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. in other instances sentence. would be simply beginning of speech. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent.

the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. that is. and to be great. whereto. inquiry. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. which is an old y ting (use stick). Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. with a stick. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. contempt.^ — Miiller I. in the sense of great. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. greatness. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. the man is great. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. inside. and may be used language.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. as kuo cung. a noun. Latin. wherefore. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. wherehy. Thus tafu signifies a great man. wherewith. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. in the is indicated by the syllable y. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. . or with elements expressing relations of time. 255. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. some outward display of the affection. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. middle. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. Jii ta. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. that admits itself in of audible representation. coalesces with the personal pronouns. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. commencement of speech. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. wonder.. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. whereof. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. or nei. as cung. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. verb nor noun has yet been developed. grie^ horror. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. pain. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. but often self-evident. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. &c. a sigh of oppression and . a groan. or some relation between it and another object.

to ache. misfortune. to yell formed e. miau-l-is. ochan. ocAJ. as. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. ace. It. djamdjam goda (goda. in Gr. n. Such are g. gwae. miau-l-er. tirr-djeda. Bret. seen in Gr. ache. g. to cause pain. achen. guai. is Ay di me I Gr. ahi. woe. wai. pain. In this way from the root guai. first person. ! ! Goth. to wail or cry alas . suffering. The form corresponding to Lat. has more kopfweh.-l-are. aiai^to. Gr. . when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. wAwa. Let. vei-a. It. ing action I. are ol-ire. mew. wai. to rriourn. ach. oval. cece. oh. It. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. o'i. I oi[iot. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. vce. miau-n-is. Gael. ochain. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. headache. Jar lau-lau. la. the pangs of childbirth. woe. to lament. grief] affliction. oi. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. vaj. representing a cry of pain. lament. w. . guajo. Illyrian vaj. to injure. at the close of the radical syllable. to lament. . Thus from springs otjucifw. 6. to make). misery.'). ohg. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. mostly a ! %. to wail. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). to chirp. Gr. pain. j. howl. weinen. pain. A widespread It. weh. Gr. to gargle. guaj-ire. Fr. and cacak djeda (to say crack. probably a deeper groan. to ache. och. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to weep. to bewail oneself. to cry n. hei. w^wa. to . toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to sound yapyap. wehthun. gwe-l-a. grief. found in g. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly.ez. to hurt Let. ach. Lat. to weep. to do woe. a groan or lamentation vir. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. g. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. lau-l-e.. vce. oh. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. lament from oimi. is w. e. e. Lat. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. weh schreien. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. die wehen. oimare. 6. ach. wai-l. gwae. as. representing Illyr. ah. to cry at. xxxvi grief. jaoh. dchzen. axofiai. or r. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. och. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. grief. . jao. &. al. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. ohi. wd. ai. to groan. however. waiidt. . form. och. e. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. on. ui. to make bow-wow. It. wehen (Schmeller). ochan. ah. on. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. w. Illyr. and to bark . the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. guaj- or cry out pitifully.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

' then points to his wife. But. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. a specified were by pointing him out. that gratifies me.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. Diet. that is it. his trowsers' pocket. this here.' person. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. the nursery da-da. and may be rendered. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. and by a variety of expressions besides. indeed.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. da. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. ToSe (or in Attic E. well as Goth. Dr Lottner observes. Bav. a word of many applications in g. give me that cheese. child. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. or wants to name something. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). or that it is. thata (ta-ta). when 1859. 'nay. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. . I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. case.' this. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. Sanders (Germ. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. as. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. or give me it. Phil. more emphatically roSj)j that. that. saying : there the ad- Trans. Sie. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. but the truth is. to here . ' sees an object. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. When we pointing. is-te). that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. says da-da-da. Please.' all is is — their consent. as it Dieser da (as Lat. nurseries. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. as to express. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. implying the direction of its good will towards them. Thank you. for instance. • The child. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. In the expression Da. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. we may translate this by there (it is). and so on. der da-ige. give.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. da. I add) . is we I believe. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. The Fr. according to Menage. when he wants something. or carry me thither.

Thus Gr. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. The da is dodem. the original is that which he places first. in every mode of expressing the idea. of which any one may. takes it — as When the soul. make dadada). strike. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. to tion to another. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. to beat. childish toying. dadee. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. speech. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence.' says Muller. thinking. sinking. or dalliance.^ its ' utters : a cry. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. to move step by step. tasting. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89.' says Lottner interior. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. beat. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. to say to oneself. to chatter. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. — Cot. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. and shapes it into an . ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. pay. p. to walk. stutter. moving. meanings. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. or metaphor. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. .' • liv ANALOGY. tattle. reality. its desire. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. then instinctively interest. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. and one in particular must. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. which thus exertion. standing. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. sounds. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. to knock.

a ringing . snudra. to flash. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. a with kimmaltaa. In the case of sparkle. to resound. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. to crackle gnistre. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. noise. properly a clap or explosion. search . ghsten. Lith. from the . The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. splendour. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. to be wise. snotor. in popular language. to . Heo Du. discreet. brilliancy. to sniff out. The 6. to tinkle. gnittre. we have and the and beorht. sprageti. bilbil). suspect Bav. while sapere itself. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. to crackle. So firom Lat. beorhtian. pracht. rattle. It is The word bright had a similar In as. spraka. magnificence. as kilind. tumult. think. schiteren. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. to shine. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. sapere (which signifies the nose. a rustling sound Gr. wilahtaa. to glitter. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . make a loud noise. to glitter. also wise. smell. may be quoted gUt. to shine. wamara. is used in the origin. savour. to snilF. chime). and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. . to ring as a glass willata. &c. (parallel bilbila. extended to the exercise of the understanding. Again. may be it explained . fiapfiaipw. snutrs. 1654. scheteren. Du. splendour. kimistd. Fr. unlella. sound. in the domain of movement. then to sparkle. outcry. the equivalent of g. to sniff. as. man of nice taste. to quiver. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. to sparkle. same imitative root with Sw. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. schmecken. to glitter e. a brilliant light kilid. air. taste. to sound clear In Galla. to shriek with laughter . bilbilgoda (to make . a dis- cernment. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. and thence e. prudent. In the same way the Goth. judicious. knittre. to 5 ghtter. — 1. to glitter. signified a clear sound. and schmecker. Finnish. to glisten Dan. sense of brightness. on. iclat (in Old Fr. tinkling. esclat). to ring. snot. clang. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. and figuratively. bright. smell. Bavarian bracht. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. wilistd. knistre. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. scTiateren. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. which in ohg. wise. to have Sapiens. snuff the sniiten. and. to smack or taste.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. tintelen. firom the Gael. kiimottaa. beam. . for example. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing.

as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. then in rpd/xoe. oily. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. rough. rend. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. flow and flux. Acre. within. in of his works. of dressing loud. Kpovtiv. the cross. and vepres. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). extremely loose. v. or . kvTOQ. accordance with the way in which by touch. the neighing of horses. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. discusses the tone of a picture. eo ut res vol. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. rough both ways. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. Tpa)(yg. &c. in truth. pleasure soft to the ear . \nrap6e. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. which The Stoics. roughness. the clank (stridorem) of chains. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. strike. he framed the words ivSov. inside. tremour. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. rough to the ear. to slide. 1. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. as soft by the ear. KoWiiSije. fitting the letters to the sense. sharp. he says. rough. smooth. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. power of the letter-sounds. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. briars. shatter. ipuKuv. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. we hear of screaming colours. And observing that n kept the voice within. itself letters are felt as sofl. 6\tadaveii'. mel. the bleating of sheep. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. is felt Lana. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. wool. whirl. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. Much of the same has been often quoted. The BpavEiv. gluey. .' he says. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. crux. break. Kep^arl'ieiv. soft. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. pvfi^Civ. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse.

the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. p.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. cular effort Again. jog. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. degree of roughness sound. the case of the voice. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . stag (in stagger.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. to reel abruptly from side to side). joli. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. jig. to signify varieties of movement. or checks as they are called by Muller. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. dag. ii. 138). as when. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. stab. a rough and sudden . t. A greater felt. tug. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. dig. rug. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. and in the utterance of a high or or low. for exis ample. d. corresponding to the ineor. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. g. shag. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. to jogj sac-cade. shog. Fr. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. sag-oter. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. 'and consequently form. jag. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. jih. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. p. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. k. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat.

tech-tech. an old worthless horse or carriage. a good piece of road . (mitsati). schuckeln. schockeln. for the sound of knocking at a door. Bolognese tocc. Ene olde suksuk. The analogy then carried a step further. and e. cica. tack. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. kik. tecche-tocche. to ring a bell. tock. chique. to stir. in cases like the foregoing. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. to touch. chic. The train of . and It. not to utter a syllable. used interjectionally to represent a . to mark it with a touch of the pen . g. The production of sound. a piece or bit of anything. like English tick. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. a playiug-marble. Then. To tick a thing off.. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . The syllable suk is jerk. It. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. or check. Fr. passing to the signification of motion. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. micare. as Italian tocco. zigzag. however. to mutter. chiquet. also to stir. that we never can be sure. mica. to have it ticked or marked on the score . thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit .'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. Hence Lat. lead to Spanish tocar. chicoter. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. a quid of tobacco. Mucken. a jog. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. to winkj micati is Lat. to tickle. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. as tot. Accordingly the g. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. to take a thing on tick. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to say a word . then. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. an infant . a stroke with a French toucher. to move rapidly to and fro. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. Dutch kicken. to On the same principle j we have g. a small bodily object. kuk. motion. it produces Dutch micken. to incite by light touches. Thus we have B. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. and analogous movements. Sukkeln. is made to signify movement. S-panish miga. to pulses being knock. toch-toch. to utter a slight kick. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. rough horse. mie. a cracker. a crum.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. &c. Fr. to glitter. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. foot. to beat or play on a musical instrument. mik. figuratively. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. mot. movement. sound barely audible. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. Welsh cicio. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. sound Fr. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. Illyrian migati. then. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. e. so to Italian toccare. zack. a . is so frequent a consequence of movement. The Mipen or pencil. to strike It. Brescian toch. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. a little bit. properly a small lump'of . is lanese toch.

The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. the vowel sound. eo. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. this. or the like its It. citto. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. and dot. titter. a e. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. But the same is language has re Javan. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. neither moit nor an atom. a tot . a little titty. the least visible insect. here. mut. motta. . a morsel. motte. Then. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. subdued manner. 48) cites from the African Tumale. ticktack. So. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. for the beating of a clock. a girl. jot. to tremble. small of kind. this . not an atom . and out there. tottle. a light quick blow. syllable mot. a whisper. anything . little j to that of a small bodily object. a small bird. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. (Halliwell) Da. not because the pendulum makes a different left. to jot down or note with a fro. tozzo. taut. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. titmouse (Du. e. iki. and a small lump of something. for the three personal pronouns. zitella. a small kind of lark. here (close hand). gni. tit. to touch. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. move slightly to . and he. ika. to make a slight mark. lix Sp. . little. This kind. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. fait. to whisper (Pr. clay . that iku. Halliwell. not to utter a syllable. of movement in totter. a lad citta. tot. a bit. to touch lightly with a pen. .n. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. Du. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. to jog. . mossche. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. Cult. mutter j dust. titilh. 199). u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. and mite. In a similar the relations of place. mutter. The following table from Tylor (Prim. n. To jot. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . you. small titlark. there (further of!) ao. tit. e. often entirely arbitrary. that. . totle. a small lump or pat. gnu. there. Fr. mote. a sparrow). Pm.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. tot. gno. is shown in murmur. the same organ touched with the man. a morsel girl . to dot. as in e. fragments It. Malagasy to. tot. zitio. tiny. a bit. a small quantity. corresponding to the personal pronouns. to e. 0. to movement of the pen . further off. there '(at a short distance). or the converse. . The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. anything small flax. tot. chico. a. tittle. . . and toddle like a child titter. i. at where the order is inverted. we have e.- a jot or little It. seesaw. bunch or flock of wool. ri that. a certain conception. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. mot. I. lump of earth. or o toi.) . a small horse.

Tamul i. /wo.. nne. tiiio. man erne. mother. thou... Dhimas isho. young one. Zulu ajoa. here j ka. ukko. probably initial of distinction that the k. . child.e^. ndi. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. as Mr Tylor remarks. thou . father. for the male. here 5 Yoruba na. that. I . that.. respectively. Fernandian az. small (Pott. this fi. /mya. mother. j Canarese ivanu.araM. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. he. thou ni. that. . Carib ne. is father. there. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. mas cheche. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. he. ni. (tt). Gr. and a for the female. . . mother. here j abe. here this . there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. ni. here . father k . Chilian tva. loo). this . he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. Lat. Magyar ez. there. ^. that in the distance. that. ulri. . Botocudo ati. Abchasian aSn. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. qu. olo. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. is Here. Then. It seems to (fen. this ole. . minution further.) nna. Guarani nde. there. as the act of pointing was ta. no constant rule is observed. there. that. you. ita. there. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). that. biii. Sahaptin (America) kina. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size.) pronunciation of i or e. ofj. ojOo. femina ama. child. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. akha. uta. ne. /e«. that. usho. me probable that • Vei also little. bi. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. and origin. 6. w. Mutsun ne. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. this . here . there. as in Italian Fin. Tarahumara ibe. Japan ko. ta to ka. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Ossetic am. that. . an old woman chacha. this . that (intermediate) j wana. here feraa. Mm. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. . It Carib lala. this . this <t. an old . that. km. to. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. little. there.

The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. the pip or pippin. Da. titta. The Sw. i Sw. trSpigner. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. looking through between obstacles. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. The sound trapp . Clank represents the sound of something large. knob. just beginning to appear. the nursery few j Sc. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. Fr. wenig. repetition It. trippen. a child.' — Merrv Wives. nab. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. trippelen. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. for the .: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. and in the Pacific dialects. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. keeh. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. analogous to winy-piny. the simplest mode by the g. to tread. fretful. 401. barking of a dog. as ding-dong. to feet. for instance. sound of bells . &c. wean. to teet. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. a step. And perhaps the E. as j money. the idea is called. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. din-din. — Douglas Virgil.' making the voice as small as possible.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. to begin to appear . tion. A little weeny thing. stairs. . by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. has tittafrem. trappen. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. lift 8. don-don. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. in old e. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. to leap. to peep through. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. little. to peep. murmur. pepin. A little wee face with little. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. or chink. little To sup up. for a succession of light blows low-wow. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. trappa. trap. to make its way through the bursting envelope. or even. nipple. From cases like the foregoing. is to express simple continuance of action. Thus we have Wolof sopa. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. a little yellow beard. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening.) . at pippe frem is to spring forth. the principle of reduplication. Top. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. dance (Kil. whence Fr. of smaller things. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. nil. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. speaking in a pipy tone of voice.

as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. kenda. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. the lungs. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. to love. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. bad . 99). and Fr. click. Malay ayun. to talk at to walk. smallness. or a little tee--ny thing. could readily be conceived. to vi^alk about for flax.' expression is — ^Tylor. to to call. kendagenda. rapidity and strength. very long (Pott.Ixii REPETITION. and the words express a continued sound of rack. to skip. the agent in panting . er. sopasopa. . ayunayunan. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. to rock. . lololoa. clash of weapons. So from clamo. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. or very very great. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. hardness. The same principle of 196. didi. Again. a clattering noise. to or rub. to say pooh It is ! to. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. mpolu is uttered. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. is language. the comparative degrees of greatness. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. very bad. the and clique. puka. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. a cradle. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. properly speaking. mawhitiwhiti. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. keep spots. repetition or continsignify long. Cult. rack. Thus in the Pacific loa. Thus in E. random . cliqu-et-is. calling. very great. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. ratsi-ratsi. i. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. loloa. little child (p. from Maori muka. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. kamha-gamla. to pant. serves to show and in this way. child . to express repetition or continuance in a general way. in familiar use with ourselves. to treat with contempt. mawhiti. tach-et-er. rack click. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. puka- puka. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . Susa di. child . ding-ding. a grasshopper. or imitative syllables. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). or el. if very young. 97). or in Fr. to call frequently from Fr. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. to cover e. &c. tache. And generally. Mandingo ding. racket. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. are echoed by the rudimentary et. or rdtchi. clamito. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. (to use a to speak. a spot. amusement.. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. instead of being actually repeated. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages.

joggle. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . is In e. wancol. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. fickle. to hand. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. to make a succession of grabs . he who rubs. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. as mAS. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. in Fr. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. a from ayun. or by association. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. In cases like these. as to handle. mew and baa . bubble. by the side of wanken. The Fr. Jickfacken. g. draggle. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . or fi bau. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. jogging. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. to continue dragging. a succession of cracks to rattle. to bark like a dog. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . smack. in some applications. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. are to cry mew and pew . the part that moves on a hinge up and down. to make gug. where all direct connection with sound is lost. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. from puka. or Maori puka-puka. the knie-en to E. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. the lungs (the puffers of the body). or in e. to hand-le. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. and in as. kneel. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. waggle. wagas ging. wankeln. Piedmontese bau-l-S. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. compared with g. guggle. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. to move to and fro. such asjlap. The contrivance with any particular noise. which. dabble. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. rubber. dab.Jicol. to puff. or omitted. to rock or wag. others. without the intervention of the frequentative element. syllable clat . By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. rynel. miauler andpiauler. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to rock. to crackle. shuffle. wankel.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to make bau-bau. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. crack. to wail woe . bub. to make a succession of shoves. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. Ihre remarks under gncella. miauler and beler correspond to E. wavering. itself. it.

and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. on a moment's reflection. deceit. and comparatively few easily deceived. to cry ugh at. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or how generally. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). or in aptness to combine with other elements. Breton. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. Dupe comes to us from the French. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. moreover. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. the breach. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. or in mode of use. Polish. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . to the separation between the broken parts. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. will continue to be felt in daily speech. which. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. at was more familiarly known. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. by a hard body breaking. although it is not difficult. known in Italian. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. A gull or a dupe same sense. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. There is. which is the origin of the word.

as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. is. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. nor any limited of ideas. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. language is . and the grounds of lie shortcomings. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. Hitl^erto. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. however. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. . life. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. founded in manifest blunder. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. and the word is used in a secondary sense. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another.

unintelligible to other hordes. i. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. compared with the duration of man. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. and 'Russian. Welsh. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. If English. guages in South America. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. I think it very probable. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. circle perpetrates a new slang term. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). of material things. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. evique. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. in the course of many years' isolation. therefore. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. change. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. 330.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. out. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. Naturalist on the Amazons. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. French. episcopus. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. and vescovo. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . hearing.

and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. A key must unlock more doors than this. ancient Greek M . as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. as shown in the subjoined illustration. and . ao8). Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. 6. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. i. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. is MN. the actual it which would to represent. or whatever the proportion may be. The combination of the symbols I and 2. Cijlt. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. Nor is there one of the letters. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. 7. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. . are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. 9.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. 8. which are idenr Figures 5. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. to be taken (Prim. it will leave figures 3 and 4.

and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. what comes to the same thing. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. had its origin in imitation of sound. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. in the shape either of direct inspiration. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. leading him to utterances. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. known to us as yet. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. which either by direct resemblance of sound." the use of a change of vowel in as. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. or. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. for instance. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. and the only safe beneficent Creator. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. his fellows. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence.' should be discovered.

or else. the conduct of Ixix life. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. that he started from the lowest grade. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or beavers. or not. in the course of generations. race were speaking men or not. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and when we look back as far as history will reach.COMPLETION OF MAN. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and rose towards a higher state of being. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. by animal without a trace name of Man. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. of using imitative conduct . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. until the progeny. for instance. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and sooner or later. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. as elephants. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. or of their own reflected thoughts . live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life.

TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Dueange. Grammar Boh. Douglas' Virgil. Diet. Elfric's Fl.V. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Dueange. Carpentier. Diefeiibach. dial. Teutonico-Lat. . Danish. de la langue Cat. 1850. Dief. B. E. Infimse Latini- D. 1654.Saehsiches Worterbueh. English. Diet. Finnish. Cotgrave. Sup. Esth. Bav. AS. Fin. Cot. Due. Dief. Dutch. Bohemian or Czech. Supplement to Bret. Couzinid. Diefenbaeh.Nieder. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Esthonian. Cimbrisch.. Anglo-Saxon. 1766. Bigl. Baile/sEngl. Dn. Brem. dialect of the Sette Commune. 1737. ^Ifr. Gr. Diet. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Bavarian. Provincial dialect. Gothischen 1851. Wtb. Cimbr. Romano - Cas- traise. or Dan. Supplement to Dueange. Biglotton seu Diet. at the end of Somner's Diet. Castr. Da. 1857.-Eng. Carp. Catalan. Fr. Bremisch. 1768.



brodequin 134 141 katowai r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. (/ijtf r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . baltresca nokkutomax.5 ERRATA. buque 118 brodiquin r. word allagerr. plowied budowaer. katowai perairrantr. r. alUger ahaverie r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r.nokkutama willekem. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. Askance woud r. r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. woman r. haverie crtOT r.percurrunt kimista^x. kilistaa bugiie r. ^i?^i2! r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr.>.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. cruccio deyrie." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.. sveritet Asknace r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. r. cti. willekom Blab r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. puHti r. yjnaifia r. Blob plowied r.


Parson's Tale. the er. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. us. ar. downwards. to hold . to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. orders. Jvery man shewid baft. The word Ban is common orders. "rom a height. sion of 'an abandoned character. Thou spelds of mychty iction. in the same sense. Again. . announcement. compounds. from. 244. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. off. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . whatever he be. into the Romance ftrseg . Thus ip N3S. bandon in French. from a is to wake to abide. ifter. but now )bsolete). dominion. out of. power : Than Wallace thing. to sauff the king or spill. to subdue. and — Chaucer. ir. a washing off to abstain. a. Dent posture. er. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. away. said. AS. K . The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i.he Goth. as. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. ibandonner. Abs-. in. —Bruce. until the event jlace . I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. Lat. onis aback. dominion. on-bsec . that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. an edict or proclamation. particular 1 . An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. implying a completion of J. Ab-. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. among. away from. of-dune. erwachen. alike. ur. Hence on-bceftan. a/tan. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. vs. abs. to awake. in a manner other than it should be ablution. state of sleep . as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. Immediately from Fr. ab. command.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. AS. on. literally. iway from. his. this word beand Spanish. to arise. abaft. rule. 843. be-ceftan. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. behind. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. baftan. Abaft. Abandon. o/j of or . and secondarily in that of command. In Lat.t G. as. A. on-lic. OHG. have entire dominion over. Passing tongues. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. To abuse is to use iway. on. plesyt him.

confound. or society of abbots or monks. his eyen shene. Abbess. may be explained.' the surrender of a ' K. R. c. law term abatement. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. at his own the lips. to put to con. bandon. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. burny. R. On the other in use as well as hand. overthrow. lish to abaisse orabaish. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. with or without a final sh. of fear.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. Hence Lat. And he thereof was all abashed. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to diminish the force of any. to overthrow. Milton. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. to bate something of the price abbatersi. bawi. Originally. shame. . beer. or admiration.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. Abbot. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. so common in the found in the OFr. to take possession of an estate. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. Abbey. adverbial expressions at abandon. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say.down. effect of shame. Baba ! Mod. an abbey. to excite admiration. of the Fr. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. astonish. to The . 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. vol. A. It. polish. Hart in Jamieson. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . to ruin. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. ant. to astonish. betrash. abandonly. as ravish. Wall. to strike Froiss. Bate. uncontroUedly. . It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. 1 1 8. baba. Castrais. castle. abbas. where custom (Grandg. weaken. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. 1520. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. et prirent terre. person.— R. baer. depress. esbahissant. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. terminedly. esbahir. to beat furnish. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. to abaw or astonish. Fr.fournir. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. 364s. burny was formerly burnish . by Wall. abate. in the active form. and that from Syrian abba. to hit. to strike sail . to gape. I was abawid for merveille. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. and grooms besmeared with gold. of wonder. abbattre. Hence the OE. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. and the verb was written in Eng. Many English verbs of a similar deriv.) . into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. — Neccham. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. Custom. father. To Abate. faire tomber. See . son bandon. In or. down. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. More correctly written abbat. impulse.— — .Prov. d.esbawi. abaundunem-ent. R. drink. his mouth. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. impetuously. de. abbatere dal prezzo. Cotgr.On princes. astony. to light upon. — — .polir. abbatis. abbatere. See Abide. and sets them all agape. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. iv. esba. thing abbatere le vela. from Lat. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. merely the terminations ons. and it that that it — . to make lower. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. abbatia. from ravir. to happen. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. other. esbahissais. ais. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. ne more vermeille. Beat.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons.

beguiling on the other. bhr. tarrying . were called Brothers. Cat. . .— Chaucer. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. K. endurArt thou he that should come. badare. beijen. wait. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. 366. trick abetar. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. beijden. to attend to. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. gola badada. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. to wait. regarder. abbadare. the verb of abeyance. — signifies to suspend action. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. Quant voit le serpent. Fabl. bialodrze-w. exciter. to wait. qui iaaille. to deanimer. — II. guardare. forms with the d effaced are OFr.to wait. tical with It. aspire to. F. bida. and E. or do we AS. de Champ. beguile. 1 • . expectation. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. songer. Abie. to mind. Pol. a right in suspense . to abide . aspirer. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. Thus we have It. which is certainly related to It. bidan. baier compared with It. signifies the direction of tend. to be intent upon. delay. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. to desire earnestly. Guernsey beth. Goth. abet. expectation. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. deceit. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). — . listening. to tarry. to attend on . attendre See Bait. compared with (Bosworth). us. Gloss. abie. bder. Gloss. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. to expect. warten. abidan. endurance. to desire. in Dan. to open the mouth.— Roquef. From abahier. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. bouche b^ante. Norm. incite . chaand either from feelings of such a nature. suffer b. inciting. we sceolon ON. to wait. bocca badata. Abele. look for another. gridare. usbeisnei. to expect gabeidan. bie.' is in AS. bada. badare. Ni engigner ni abiter. Thus G. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. pense. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . OFr. syllable ba. abiiance. abeyance. abaier. with open mouth . on the one hand. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. take care. beidan. forbearance. to ance. inciter. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. attendre avec en^pressement. — ABELE Epiphanius.) abayer. delay. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. bie compared with Dan. covet. to gape . baier. The verb atwaiting. abayer. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. ceive. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. m Abeyance. suspense. bouche bdante. Boethius. verbeijen Sw. baier. badar. have seen abide. and Prov. expectfamily. to remain or endure. Ducange. Prov. ne wist what way to chuse.was formerly used in the sense of look. and in E. b^er. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. tenere a bada. (Vocab. Du. bida. abeter. speaking of the Holy places. ne chastised them. waiting. badare. E. —Raynouard. bana. says. white. to be intent upon.Fr. with badia. a bay or opening in the coast. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. to In great amaze. and alluring to his own destruction. abSiance. literally white tree. de Berri) Prov. To Abet. or absorption watching. abetter. is idenwait. intent observation. to stay. badigliare. beijen. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. to hook. ' ' . bide of the d endure. In We . beidan. to stay. to It. ^couter avec dtonnement. also to OFr. to deceive. The white poplar. desirer (Roquef. . .— ^richer. which the mind to an object. delay.. Norm. See Abide. while the monks under his control ing. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. othres abidan' The effacement expect. tempting. open the mouth. listen. to suffer death in Du. Corresponding to keep in suspense. . beter. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. abie. John. from Halo. or in Fr. house. baer. Q. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. desire. in Fr. wait To Abide. Cat. Corant sens lui. lingering. to yawn. to open bader. abet. take notice. to look. watch. tity of E. deceiving.

habile. — e. the Fr. Mids. powerful. P. as habiller du chanvre. R. Dr. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. — P. &c. have-like. abigg. to pay the penalty. fit. willing to schewe his wrathe. i. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. abycgan. atling hem to her proper offices. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. abeye. aboleo. abolir. and death for handsel pay. as E. to wear away. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. without special reference to the notion of retribution. though sometimes confounded with it. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. purpose. The —Boucher. from Lat. O If tion. forbid for mother's children should abye. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. convenient. suffer the Jul. abilej Prov. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. bidan. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. was often used in the same sense. to draw fowls. P. abie to Goth. to pay the purchasemoney. in for any special purpose. bide. or bie. Prol. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. abide. when compared with Aboard. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Lat. It. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Milton. use. God — dear. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. Cassar. 2nd Tale. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. being disabled in the highest degree.ynes. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. to dress hemp. at hand). fault being simply clothing. N.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. strong. de la volatile. In this to erase or annul. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. from AS. Spenser. Merch. him with che. 2. at kasta fyri bord. on board . — Able. Fr. while in later examples As I . R. able. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. AS. If it badare. and the simple buy. Wickliff in Richardson. within the walls of a ship. Chaucer. habilis is closely preserved. adapted . properly abuy. must suffer for it. is the verb abie. a board. the Pardoner In the original. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . ON. consequences of anything . Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. . to . expert. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. ! ! Cotgr. She shall abie that trespass dere. For on board. abie. God. Boucher. Tr. the side of a ship. F. beidan. —Bacon in R. sufficient. bord. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. God tokeneth and assigneth the times.^and to make his power knowne. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. Q.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. Fr. to redeem. abilh. Abie. power. the Sir Tristrem. and Cr. within the ship. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. abidge. to perish. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. to have . habilis (from habeo. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. durance in both applications. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. abicgan. L. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. Innan bords. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering.

ufan. way Sw. alUger.) . af-oleii. — . is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. and bidden him abregge. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. or young forth. the man dwindles away. d. to rear. whence the Fr. breaking out in language. The radical idea is to feed the flame. ala. ol. a portent). that greatly agredge their sin. to fatten. to main. Of these synonymous adolescere. For on broach. Then. ala is made to signify to rear. Tale. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. to aggravate. abowen. Quod abominor. as the duty of nourdisposition. and in-d-oles. as withotityn and without.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. abominor (from ab and omen. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. sec seftre — Chaucer. from Fr. to nourish. adolere. to AS. agreujar. below. Fr. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. abracan. Du. break out. progeny. to produce. life. the idea of breaking about . nurse Lat. outward. gravis. leading immediately to Fr. butan. AS. becomes leu in Prov. giving birth to. natural ed direct from the latter language. the form a&^^. titan. abbreviare. nourish. is not from G.the older form. but from Lat. side. literally. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. al is growth. to cut short. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. the hair grow. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. nurse. from . Abray. kindling. boven. heavy. to bring up. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). abutan. the vital spark. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. OE. Severe the threatened evil. Melibaeus. agredge. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. the identity of which with ting. parent. common in Chaucer and Abominable. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. Lat. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. See -und-. . — ' — — preceding verb. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. Abrdger itself.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. as AS. to grow together. so that here also we to deprecate the omen.. which may God avert. abrdger. snatch In English we speak of away. abbrechen. gravity. about cockcrow. coalesco. AS. to feed. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. or cut short. be-utan. Prov. To abray or abraid. alan. to beget or give birth to children. to snatch. vital PI. s —Casdmon. levis to the Romance languages. bufan. be-ufan. and alere flammain. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. to start. to progress.' Parson's rence. motion.ymbutan. and to do something to avert abbreviate. onbutan. above.ger. Above. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. Finnish stock. alere capillos. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. pedigree from brevis. Goth. See To Bray. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow.. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. around on the out. So in Lat. and also. to break off. by the to bring up. oil. AS. abufan. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. draw out. abbrechen. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. Thence to regard greugetat. In the same brevis .' Ymb hancred utan. to turn.— Abbreviate. to feed. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. currence. to light a fire the Abraid. Kiittner. awaking. alan. OSw. . greu.1. af-oolden. brood. D. to grow up. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. abrcBgdan. en. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. while the verb alleThe root el. his contemporaries. Thonne Abroach. disastrous portent in some passing oc. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. Abundant. full ofte his words for to Fr. to let sleep. for ligeth butan. explains soboles Lat. hard. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to rear. which passed into English under Abominate. Sc. Virg. The primitive idea seems that of beget.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. the OSw. Gael alaich. seems aras. and also to abridge. OE.foda signifies to beget.aboon. on high. of any kind .plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. To Abound. abredan. while the sense of beget. without. to awake. is a ively. ABOMINABLE adolesco.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


is to be given. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. in Shakespear. from avTiipoiuia). as the Italians. wealth. Fr. work. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. Antick. aside. from Stephanus. vex. Jorioc. Lat. such as savages. to nourish. andouillers. separate. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. Otfried. panis. As the browcalled antiques. and claret wine. a preventative . one having wealth. inAgain from the same author cudis. from the imitative habits of monkeys. surimitation of the ancient models. left as the . shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. Lat. younger child. trouble. what Roman civilisation. apanage.. to have. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. To ape. AS. G. and ig. Anxious. plenteously with red. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. Anvil. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. cenig. See Cover. Mannequin. aperio. from an and — - . on. panar.legacy of given against. anticus. Apartment. anxi. a termination equivalent to Goth. before. d. To go antiquely. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. strangle. Gr. antefn. ambeld. swaged. Apartment. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. whence anthem. burnished. and devils. Percutere. of. finally applied to a whether grotesca. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. Pezron fiUist. transferred to the grotesque characters. set aside. like a jack-pudding. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. a puppet or an anti^hona. post. rich. the anticks — behind. bread. but the expresent day.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Antidote. anfilts Pl. some one. from eigan. Gr. eigs.made out. all of gold. Apart. before. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. anapoz. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. Gr. gabeigs. ab. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Lat. —Spencer. villan Gloss. Thus from gabe. Ilvtwotov. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. In like manner. af. E. or antique single chamber. Prov. Any. a block to hammer on. as from as. press. antifena. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. ReApe. to display pario. So Lat. Fr.—Aperture. a gift. fauns. from. separate purpose. Fr. Ful- Apanage. incus. amboltj Du. Antler. choke. as we call it. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. Aperient. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. . apertum. one at the least. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. — — — . to sound in answer. Hall's Chron. which by anvild. one. white. a definite . Lat. three antike pillers. whence Prov. Hence the applica. or in a ridiculous dress. a small quantity. d<popi(xnbs.D. to strike G. from an. from ango. part. from. : . a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. to strain. to bring forth. Antique. something ler in R. Aphorism. should be received. stem. to open. a few. AS. from in and cudere. to imitate gestures. anxius. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner.— . to strike. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. were andouiller the second. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. to support. were chiefly of the former class. AS. as posticus. apatiar. verberas. to go in strange disguises. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. from ante. avri^ava. i. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices.

apprise. to which it is often referred. And whanne sum men Lat. one the MLat. — Approve. (cited by Diez from a late author). dress. to learn. i. to send to. purpose. An old appalled wight. apal. prope (comp. manner. Approach. mine. Nouv. — Apprise. cepl. in Chaucer. To praise.—Apprentice. allow. in good season prendre son d. piteux poind. were formed appropiare ejar. Walach. appareiller. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. proper time came. like. to lose one's senses. to dress in this fashion. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. APRICOT off. in fact. poind. pretium. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. approver. a thing for one's purpose. Apoplexy.propius). to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. pertain or belong to. ap. They were considered To Appoint. OFr. probare. apal. diminutive pariculus. apar. Fr. praise. : — — speak 'Lz. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. From Lat. avail. to deaden. For their acquaintance was not come of new . iwKjToKri. to mark to define a bound. approcher. and appoinder (to find fitting. in data. to fit. taking. And among other of his famous deeds. apropchar. Pliny. to approach. to take away or lose the vital powers.parejo. The Fr. to be open to view. order. from aTroorlXXu. away. to Lat. after his mind . to suit. one is in. — Appurtenance. equal. Friar's Tale. to seize. poind. to — . Sp.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. whence the e. value apprdder. From Gr. peler. apprehendere. En peach. or the like. habiliments. agreeing with "LtA. apin R. to rate. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. from paix. trim. to store or put Appal. word was specially applied to clothing. Palsgr. 'L-zX. case. Fr. apprendre. prohts. — prehendere. N. make a composition between parties. d-n-o. of. preparation. oVooroXof. e. array. appris. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. to — — . to make a thing Apparel. —Diez. kind of action. set a price on. in commendation. It. Gr. Fr. Gr. w. ON. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Cotgr. to set a price on. 5w. Parson's Tale. 23 . 11. Fr. obolys.pareil. properly to join like to like. horror. Formerly apricock. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. from. an epistle or letter. diroTrXriaatii. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. Yr. like. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr.t. become dizzy . — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. Yr. opportunity. known. To Appear. to deter- to strike.parecchio. . a learner. prover. Apostle. .probare. a crime. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. Prov. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime.— . good. seiden of the stones. The PI. Cent Nouv. aptly. —^Apparent. decree. to announce. to catch hold of. to learn. Apo- good time. one for his defence. jabloko. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. lAfiaam. ai. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. AS. Appareil. irpaiKOKiaov. to deem good. ^wss. pronounce good. that it outfit. to assign or grant over unto. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. Fabian in R. a'^opi'Jw. Apotliecary. From Lat. Ir. D. Hence It. to strike down. par. landmark. Gr. . ar. apprentis. appellare. to accord. fit- — ness. to understand.his giving evidence against his principal. quoth the frere. approcdare. to send off. pragigua or prixcoda. off. one sent out. appaiser. S^. Lith. and in the sense of condition. to call for judgment. Fr. aparelhar. consent unto. habilUr. when the . APO sentence opoQ. Fr. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. appartenir. to commend. H. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. To Appraise. Fr. apparecchiare. xv. Appease. appareo. laven is used both as E. and also as appraise.prix. near. Lat. They werin his approvirs privily. diroBrjKr}. Epistle. I prise ware. or E. Fr. Hence appoind. peace. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Gr. despatch on some service. find Then like Fr. apropid. — dirondtfiu. rise to \t. Apprehend. corresp. Cotgr. a price. ciously than nede is. Prov. A — . prize. plight. Mod. esteem. to approve. the good. pronounce fitting). whether through age or sudden teiTor. Cotgr. to disable oftat. to come near. Apple. to call. to finish a controversy. 'LaX. agree. To cause to pall (see Pall).

aestimo. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. is taken in is a soothsayer. Lat. 31. From OFr. Arbour. a pleasure-ground. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. sorcerer. Roquefort. con. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. man.' —About. aro. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Lat. derived. the spelland umpire. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. conjicio. Prol. arwaus. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Pr. symbol. and thence fit. Freshly turnid Arable. ughe. doubtless is the origin of E. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. delon. Flower and Leaf. shortdr. Beryn. Albanian. Arbitrate. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. suitable. Thus we have natiger and auger. 2. ap. properly the arwella. 331. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. tion under trial. . This path Aqueous. sortium ductor. conjectura conjec^ra. a river. and with turfis new Goth. and taken away before dessert.shrubs {arbor). and a protection of the clothes. rofe and all. a lot. pracoqua was not an adapt.o. From OE. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. P. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. account for either of these significations. arbitror arwaaja. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. to decide by lot. Aquatic. It is certain that the apricot oracle. Now one of the points — — — .meaning at Shrewsbury. . sestimatio arbitraria. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. arbiter in re censendS. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. opinio. ear. found in Fin. to plough. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. OHG.. scr. quod he. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. aptus. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. arbitrium. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. water Which that benchid was. The loss or addition of n very common. and sortilegus ation. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . short.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. however. ahva. C.] in the N. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. wata. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. . aqua. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. arpa. and the one who gives oracles. {mies ^=ia3. J. Now we find in Fin. A. auguror. Maan initial . hariolus arpelen. Hall. a lot. It may be doubted. fastened close. be That it inne groweth. a soothsayer. . to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. aha. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. nected. divining rod. naperon. P. as an eye-witness. Lat. Marsh. proper. as ihe diminutive. — . arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. of of divination arpa-mies. to preserve it from stains. Gr. She made. a lot. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. herbere.) E. — napkin is Naperon. Naprun. intensitive of nape. As is a pretty parlour. or eft. words derived from arpa. garden. Alban. a cloth. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin.sors. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. Pm. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. arwelo. however. grande nappe. arbiter. nawl and awl. or barm-cloth. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. aa. OE. la nappe.

and not with apx. malicious. Lat. AS. arm. earg. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Brem. Langobard. a noble. i. From the verb armare. forearm . arrig. curved line. an arrant usurer. to be in comp.' Paul Warnefrid. are formed the participial nouns. arguo. apxtlov. Arson. bad. arduus. a branch. an extent of flat surface. a court yard. burning heat. especially shoulder-joint. det arrigste snavs. And thou as arwe coward. faint-hearted. un malin enfant. armata. Lat. kpxi- beginning. gwyrek. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. W. archangel. arsum. Fr.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. shoulder. from areo. a chief builder. to rule. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight.4 rir/. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. ars. Gr. ruling by the nobles. wretched OE. ill-tempered. lofty. timid.. Alisaunder. . particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. Lat. Sp. . is essentially the same word. arg. D. ardeo. branch. A construct. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. G. an arch-deceiver . From apxeiov was formed Lat. arcA in e. gwyro to bend. curved. apx^iv. a rule (princiruler. Lat. Ardour. to demonstrate. the a brute. 3340. . arm'ee. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. weapon may be simply an application of annus. Area. apxri. by Russ. ardor.aioj. G. sly. exercise lordship). Du.— Army. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. arson. ramo (pi. The . erg. ardIn G. whence the body of the nobles collectively. raineno. and our army.. difficult to reach. an arrant rogue. a bare plot of ground. troublesome. contemptible. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. argr. erz in G. apxtipfve. aridus. armee. armada. patus). apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. from nixa. It. bad of its kind. while the Fr. un petit rusd. Arm. a bow. government. ramend). adjective. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. ardre. to be on fire. mischievous. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. TiKToiv. fainthearted. There can be no doubt that E. bad. the best. Fr. — Architect. — Wtb. Arid. Arch in composition. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. first. wanton. * ArchjAiTaxit. . exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. bravest. to dry. shoulder Boh.' Lex. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. Lat. to arm. Lat. taxed with cowardice. to burn . Sax. the terminaGael. Du. Aristocracy.is the natural weapon of offence. ers-betriiger. arwe. ein arger knabe. ' — Argue. 2. a. arma. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. Arcadia in R. een erg kind. rame. Lat. Lat. Gr. an arch boy. earm. arcus. stuff. erz-bischof. ancient. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. weapon. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. Fr. as the arch of a bridge. in Due. vocaveris. the court of a magistrate. arrant Arms. sly. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. . the most arrant trash. argvitugr. part of a circle anything of a bowed form.' the Gr. high. a threshing-floor. et vulgari verbo. which has been referred to W.In E. which is derived from it. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. Arcliives. Ardent. make clear or prove. worker. Uo^a^. mischievous. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. Dan. apxh. a burning or setting on fire. Perhaps erz-wticherer. arm. arga. receptacle where the public acts were kept. it signifies roguish. sluggish. Gr. and Kpurka. to Arch. vescovo. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. fabricate). earh. as in E. ON. signifies chief or principal. Applied in modern E. man. morally bad. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. aj-f. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . ^Argument. Arduous. Gr. and must be identified with Dan. Cot. area. arch-bishop. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot).


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

to shake or jog. the ballet of the theatres. balkr. baler. to signify washy drink. ban. vcdra bdlkr. may exhibit the original development of the signification. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to speak an un. bolyaf. ON. similar connection is seen in Sp. to dance. balveins. ' is a piece or confused talking. a pail. balk. a division of the old laws. pallo. palloilla. a bubble. Sw. to rock. bal.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . a pestilence. to plank. to grieve . The primary sense seems as in G. a ball. Ball. . chapurrar. ballar). . calamity. probably Lat. Russ. bola. It. a beam. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. w. Dan. a clod of earth water. Fr. Boll. malefacGower in R. Gr. Sw. to by beams. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Fin. ballan. wickedtorment ON. pallukka. says Ray. a separate portion. palcare. balken. ball. Wotton. ball. a ball. ballo. balle. bjdlki. to bale out. to paddle in water . gen. on. balle. to see-saw. Sw. torment. . Ballata. ballare. whether of wood or stone. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. ballare. to stir. from bacquet. a great ball. the breadth from side to side . bala. A balk. Balloon. a ball or pack. package of goods. ballet. To Bale out water. to avoid it. a globe. a. and evil in general. stage or scaffold. palla. a boil. uveirs bolk. Venet. a But making way for death at large to walke. on the shore. to plough for a boundary between lands. are applied to a From the same analogy. pila. tum. vacillare. balla (with the augm. wickedness ness . It. It. balja. a dance. a water-skin dim. a skin. Ugutio in Due. E. balva-vesei. mass. floor. Sp. globule. to Not sparing wight. sorrow. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). bealwes. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. In like manner Fr. to ail. to be balker.). Perhaps on. balk. . (Hesych. on. a together in the form of a ball. G. TtaKKa a pail or tub . bol. at giore en balk. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. bal. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. shouting. hooting.of men . baloier. ne leaving any balke. To baulke the Sir H. G. a washing-tub. hue et illuc inclinare. See Gall. bolker. sickness. dial. I. Fr. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense.—Ballad.Lat. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. a partition. to be ill. Da. to roll. Hence Dan. to cause another to miss pustule.— Ballet. heap up. a balk of foul weather. 3. as in a barn or cow-house. ballone. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. plague. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. to pack Da. ing. Bowl.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Fr. beaten road. the object of his expectation. maan pallikka. Sw. Mid. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. a ballad. baalie. destruction. balka hopar. to ache. Q. to move. pallikka. a clump . bold. balken. bollr. a ball. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape.' speak gibberish champurrar. bolyatchka. balare. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. ballare. Grief. bacgtteter. a beam. Da. a ball. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. roof. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. weak liquor. bal-daed. cka. the beam of a ship. We have then separate dial. a continued noise of waves gently beating . on. balk. lealo. OSw. maleficium. balloon. a scene acted in dancmg. balka. ballotta. It. e. a dance. . sick. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. to dance. trouble. balle. Bret. bbllr bulla J. OHG. N. other while. AS. Baulke of land. grieve . Goth. with the perhaps from balg. Bohem. * Balk. Bale. balka bunge. Du. a pill. bolawy. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. ball. bal. boll. dial. taich. Rouchi ban. i. ball. ill. Sw. misery Du. .Fr.ing. 2. as we say. ache. to wave. separaison. It. Pol. and the dim. pain. a wooden partition . a clapping or flapping of wings. bol. Sw. . a ball balla. dial. afbalka. baalien. balle. pilula. Sw. Gael. — A — — . bdlkr. OFr. Sw. balge. Du. F. pallo. dial. blister. to partition off . a ballot). boleii. Hence. bielke. Ball. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . balk. to on Holmedon's plain. Ballot.

mare Balticun. bag-las. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. The Baltic sea.). bamein. also with flatteries and . baU. Fr. little round and short pillars. a fragrant gum. Bret. analogous to what is seen in It. in the first place. more frequently than outward-bound. to enchant. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. an Old dotard or imbambolare. bam. a small balustrade. bag-lest. from bara or vara. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. Fr. objects to the foregoing derivation. To proclaim. deceiver. denounce. galleries. &c. The Sp. i860. To Bamboozle. bambocciolo. Bamour. Baltic. ^a\Ba\iov. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. inutilis sarcina. enchanter. because. fonts. last. bertesca. a battlement . or movement of one who walks. by met. ballast. This is the backload. baume. is in Sweden and Norway.000 tons. balsamum. inutile onus. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. a useless load. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance.' And Kil. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. urtica. like Fr. to walk. but loadage. barauste. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. Gr. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. deceive. lastre. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. barandado. Balm. a young babe. It. balustrade barandilla. called Bait. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. puzzled. It is explained back by Adelung. for a load or goods (Roquef. Balsam. lestage. Lat. terraces. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. If bambocciolare were child of one. explains ballast. of balusters. Said to be from balaustia. To deceive. forbid. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Du. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. a nettle. astonished. age. sorcerer. dial. endormir par des contes. 43 — Cot. baranda. from Lat. To make fun of a person. command. baUa. for want of other freight. to preserve equilibrium. as he says. To Ban. a false tale or jeer. if it fails to obtain a return cargo.that the going vessels. Cotgr. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. lastagium signified not only ballast. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. — — oltriga. the flower of the pomegranate. Mr Marsh whether the a load. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. a rod. &c. lastra. more serious objection is . In OSw. make fun of a person. bumbazed. 1854. 1. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. ranked on the outside of cloisters. seems the original form of the word.Lat. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. ballustres. Lest. and Mid. A — — . while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. the backload. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. it is forced to take in stones or sand. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. Sc. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. bambolo. . Dan. a duty on goods last. or ballast of a ship. curse. Ballast. R. Sept. paid for the right of carriage. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Balluster. Venet. Sp. baltresac. back of the ship. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. It.. Bret. small railing. When a ship discharges. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. ^Arbuthnot in R. bamboccio. . ballustre) is a corruption. lest. To Bam. But Fr. the act of walking. balconies. Report Pennsylv. railing around altars.

Lat. ba?idare. Wyntoun. bandon was used in the same sense. theodscipe ut abannan. bannire exercitum. Mag. 19. bandi. Car.. flag. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. to take one to task. says Muratori. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. E. bandon somewhat party. to reprove. to . —R. bannum or bandum. curse. to unite with a band. is That with which anything AS. A. banda the colour or material. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Diss. 'A son bandon. hoc est vexillo. Assises de Jerusalem. &c. 26. v. passing on from proclamation to command. 1. a coast. to ctide. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. to form parties. a company. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. fahne. to ban. banns pany of footmen serve. he assembled his host. bound. to follow a faction. bando. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. It. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. It. bann.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. ligue Taboada). 2. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. R- He Translated by Chaucer. D. In Fr. acquired the sense of proclamation. power. region. In a special sense the term company itself. and It. bundun. Commun^ment son bandon. Leg. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. — R. 813. Band. Fr. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. 15. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise.e. Baud. parti. sostener Torriano. to publish) banna. those who side together (bande. biddal. From the verb to banda. authority. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. Sw. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. bindan. to side or to bandy (Florio). bannire in exercitum. Goth. then the signification w. at his own discretion. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. Fr. Sp. It seems this signification has arisen. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. summoning to serve So in Swiss. &c. banda. Se il — Romance languages. banda. Bandus. tener da alcuno. bande. admolendinum. and in E. we constantly find the expression. Spebifid. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS.is further developed. Goth. banner marked the place of assembly. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. — To partito d'alcuno. Les saiges avait et les fols d.^ bandy. whether by way of injunction or for- command. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. bande. in Fr. to excommunicate {lysa. . Bandear. side. populum. side. he bannede his ferde. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. i. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). bande. from at the Lord's courts. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. ex. to bring corn to be fahne. It. Cot. the ensign or banner. border. margin. To Bandy. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. band. There is some doubt how Fr. G. band.—John Villani in Due. . change to the feminine gender in banda. Capitul. permission. R. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. eiiseigne. OE. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. faction. bandera ground at his mill. in hostem convocare. and thence to any proclamation. etc. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. — excommunication bann-lysa. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. Sp. The to . Ripuar. also the band or of marriage. See Abandon.

tumult bangas. and hence. beating. See Band. follow a party. destruction . home — Bandog. roupt. Dan. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. panca. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. Bandy legs are crooked legs. The word is in E. Your stool. banca fallita. . ON. to bend a. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. banco. back of a knife. and bakki. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Africa. to beat. To Bandy. Goth. to publicly order one out of the realm. hricg. beat. was formed the OFr. a bank. band-hond. With many a stiff thwack. the same verb the It. a blow. bana. ON. Mid. Bang. a table. g. death-blow . ruptus. to knock. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. to slay. E. Fl. the former Fr. that the word is used by Romeo. bankruptcy. Banister. a bench. bent as a bow. to proclaim. a de Vaud. Fr. de- party. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. — Fr. N. a bankrupt merchant. bana. whence the mod. put under the ban of the law. Bandy. A Shipman's Tale. When a man fails Lat. in the sense of place of business. banc G. Sw. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. . A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. the slope of a hill. bank of river. at canis peciiarius. &c. banditti acquired the like signification. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner.z. Ripuar. rap hatike et som The Susu. of bandying words. benk. bana. a bench. among rotta. It. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. bang. bandear. eminence. — . Mercutio. distinguishes bekkr. banqueroute. 2. bana-sdr. as of an explosion or a blow. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Du. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. bander. for shame. Fr. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. murderer. — Kil. to work in wood. and therefore tied up. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. broken. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. death-wound. forbear this outrage. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. See Balluster. dorsum was applied to ject. Lingua. Roquefort. counter. It. bandire. a bench. death-sickness. a sand-bank. seat . when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. Banner. Draw. See Banish.^ knock. From a desk . banke. Bankrupt. Benchi. and poise Their lighter wings. Lat. pastoralis. b'ang. It is in this sense nounce. from banc. a long raised seat. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. se reunir. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. a rising bank. to make a stir banke.: . 45 — — Bandit. eminence. Bacon in R. banka. large dog kept for a guatd. the back. standard. in R. to cabal. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. outlam came to signify a robber.HG. . bow. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. Fr. clouds. and OFr. in the sense of a pirate. . she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bank. stir. to knock. disturbance banga. The ing. in the same way that E. Benvoglio. bannire. Tibalt. bana-sott. has bang-bang. canis vinculis assuetus. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. banja. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Bantze. From Mid. Banditti. to foment factions. a wound OHG. shoal. — Paulus drive in a nail. —^Vocab. AS. to join in league with others against Cotgn. desk. Hudibras. banish. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . bank. bench. — — whence E. Bane. &c. The ridge of a hill is AS. a counter. language of W. bander tin arc. bank of a river. Bank. bander. bandi. bance. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. It. s'associer. de sable. banc. band-dog. a i. bank of Dan. But natheless wife at I bank. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. banca his creditors. se joindre. ON. Diaconus in Due. many a bang. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. bench. Milton in R. bakke. to hammer in a nail. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. The child cries bang! fire. bane. . Brewer. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Diez. hammering. AS.

Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. banneret was a higher class of knights. and the work is done. uncivilised. Lat. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. as they call it. Gr. a bench or table . Sw. barbe. a beam or long pole of wood. branches of a tree {gwezen.aTa Kul nest. 3. barbarus. Celtic bar. barreau. Banneret. men. The original import of their own banner in the field. period vexillarii. in Gr. or of this bantering. milites bannarii. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. Bap. sparre. a bearded or Cot. bandiera. from reifa. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. Duo. says. Barbe. nestling. Barb. rod of any rigid substance. To Banter. to dip. Fr. ON. Fr. 2. a ban. Hence Fr. Flesche barbeUe. sparro. OHG. OHG. Fr. barriire. banniire. barde.. Fr. heri-pau. Lat. to beckon . BARBAROUS reiflingr. A It. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. bar. barba. himself in Pontus. OFr. banchetto. benda. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. which is surely in barbed arrow. out of a wound. Banquet. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. senheira. Leduchat. It. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. and even of calling it banter. that the noise of voices Bantling. banda hendi. wrapped. top. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. banneret. privileged to raise Barbarous. and it was accord. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. barbed or trapped as a great horse. ON. senhal. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves.the analogous syllable viur. banda..hinder. Bret. a tree). Fr. chan. and he would seem to derive Goth. probably corSymbol. to bend. banner. either in the Gr. senhal. jSa'pjSapoc. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. brushwood. sbarra. hence a repast. ban- Baptise. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. Hence ner. Barb.cruel. bannereti. E. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. barrou-gwez. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. inferior to a baron. rarii. &c. Fr. and from ensign or banner Prov. The spar. . of banco. Lat. i. then branches. ^oTrriKio. manu anto make signs nuere. The barb of an arrow is the sign . Gael. then fell among the foot. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. an animal a year old. dim. ing term appears in other languages. knight Bardd. signuin. a war-beacon or war-signal. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. such as the Roman Eagle. G. would rupted from Fr. token. speaking of battle. sign. arineXov. In a similar manner are formed yearling. the word came to signify rude. It may be thing. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. to having that signification. ingly very generally known by a name branches. According to Diez the It. It. a bantling. — We A . to bar or stop the way as with a bar.46 BANNERET . from the same source. by a repetition of the syllable bar. merki. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. barrack. Thus Ovid. and with an initial s. —Cot. summit. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. bandva. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. The origin is in all probability Goth. to wash. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. banne. &c. Gr. inur. remarked. of a sign in general. To mock or jeer one. It. barra. branch. E. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification.8ap6^o)voe. a which the barrister addresses the court. a. indeed. Barbar. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. jSdirTO). E. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. a sign. to wrap. a barrier or stoppage. iandvo. of wind. barrer. barre. senh.— Swift in R.

the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. as well as thwcEtta. which was of talking. barboter. Gr. name Fr. Festus in Diet. bdla-khaneh. the flap of a hat. /3opj3opwJu. to bubble or spring up. muttering. is lb. Bargain. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Gr. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. in the sense of fight. a pack-saddle. berries. bardes. to chafbargain. berj G. bdsiis. border of a garden bed. Sp. the quilted with. Sp. twattle. albardilla. w. G. Lucan. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling.— BARBEL merit of water. in Fr. borborinha. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. in poetic language Bard for poet. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. uncovered. guaszare. lb. to prattle. and in Flanders to vociferate.— Fl. Cot.) . baares geld. to bubble or boil. Barberry. Hatt-bard. also to bind or tie across. bardd. Fl. a jetty or outnook in a building. small pack-saddle. Cotgr. and flanks. Fr. barS. brabble in the making of a bargain. stutter. Mod. It. barbeau. border.' Cot. barbier. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. haggle. bar. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Cotgr. boil. jargon. formerly used in the sense of tattle. g. to rumble. Applied in E. powdered all over. quarrel . gibberish. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. Etym. barbarkama. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. Fr. barbugliare. upper chamber. borboglio. barbacane. bhasad. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. barbar. Russ. to wash. /3£pjSepi^w. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. to stammer. on. a bardelle. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. . and foolishly. An outwork for the defence of a gate. — . the beard. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. tattle. also to wallow like a seething pot. But Sp. brim. mutter. dial. bds. Fr. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. The Pers. to barbe or trap horses. ala. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. horse armour covering the front. skirmish. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. the edge of a shield hval-barct. to gurgle.— — Pm. bdsas. twcEtta. to make an outcry . unqualified. a shingle or small board. barbeter. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. Fr. baar. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Barder. the nakedness of a woman. a rumbling. borbotar. axilla. Bare. borbulhar. Pr. a tumultuous assembly. Barbican. albarda. to mumble or mutter words. ready money. borbollar. barbelin. — — Hence. to It. waschen. or more properly (says fer. Bardeau. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. fortia —Strabo. open. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. tree. speak confusedly. Hall in R. barbel. — . bare baskojis. albarda'ah. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Barbel. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . Barde. Lith. Barber. as well as the modern twaddle. — Cot. barbeum. . albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. Sp. barz. to boil or bubble up . Etym. murmur . skola. Thus the on. to plash or dabble. to grunt. barbulla. Hindost. A7 to the and warlike. to stammer. Bard. Bret. saddle-cloth. Port. baragouin. barefooted Sanscr. used 2. Lex. barda. barguigner. Exposed to view. OFr. coping. barbaris. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. back. and the word was used in OE. guazzolare. barda. such as houses are covered Bardelle. skialldar-bard. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. A shrub bearing acid Diet. i. It. Arab. and Sc. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. Port. scouthouse. Mod. skirt.) to wrangle. grumble (Lowndes. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. — — — men. uproar. Diez.

bread. . quant a perdu sa barja. (Ihre. and hence probably (by a metaphor. barone. AS. bard). Garlick.) lihtes-ern. baaring. Uzen. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. barahunda. barii. adj. i. herbs. Port. — Barnacle. the or prow of a ship. to rout. squabble. berm. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Baron. a place. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . See formed Yeast. Kil. dispute barattare. ON. Sp. to scold. dial. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. houbartij fsnile. beornt. barlys {bara. commonly explained from bere. barafunda. bosom . barlys. in the Brim. barn. bernac.Barum vel feminam. a cap . Provj bar (ace. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. hay-loft. ON. the rack or manger. a lantern. wine. Bailey. confusion. Acervus. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. W. berma. bern. berem. Prov. Cornub. am. barizeins indicates a noun baris. baralhar. — Zeuss. strife. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. On the other hand. hemlock. a heap . Dan. and 1. skuta. in Nat. The older form in e. . Dan. a boat. fray. kani. to all the barca. baarn. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. name being given to spectacles. bcerme. quarrel Port. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. and llysiaw. hladi. a. tumult. to cheat. So ON. and is probably a true bartig. OSw. Romance barsie. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. Originally man. barnacles. barja.^Voc^. Swab. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. Rayn. Sp. baron)^ Fr. ON. OFr. louzou. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. barge. Ripuar. the fore or after end of a boat . Antiq. Vocab. the G. * Barnacles. borkr. a stack. barretor. dispute . The Goth. contest. So also ON. Sp. v. . beorcan. —Bark. . bere. Du. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. bargain. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. to skin over barkandi. hlaSa. baarm. bread-corn. Port. barley. as. berm. and ern. from an imita- Barley. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. ON. a beak. dregs of oil. barn. See Barm. Bark. one who stirs up strife. a barn. baimeach. was barlic. barajar. a lap. strife. Bret. at barka. to shufSe. Gl. limpet. Leg. w. altercation. then the bows pectus navis. contest. barnis. chaffer. then honoured man. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Leg. prasepe . Barbour in Jam. barki. baratta. barley. meta foeni. Ibid. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. barn. as in the case of Lat. AS. as. barley. berm hoys. barmr. ber (ace. beer. — battle. astringent. — de Berri. struggle. Gael. dispute. trouble. limpets . brenig. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. barafustar. we pass to the vert) barguigner. plants). and the word. baaren. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. corn-shed. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Manx bayrn. dispute.' bardagi. baniffa. baerm. 2. strife. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. tion of the sound. the slimy substance brewing of beer. husband. The origin may be throat.. OFr.. It. also to exchange. bosom. a receptacle for barley or corn. quarrel. border. aheap. limpets. the A — Ihre. bcern. disorder. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. spectacles. to chop. To Bark. Spectacles. bark . prominent part of a thing. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. Alam. It. As Goth. baragouin. giving rise to It. baron. dispute . Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Barge. as well as Scandinavian tongues. as baces-ern. edge. baratta. baralha. put to confusion. skutr. Lith. a baking place or oven. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Bemiques. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. is simply the Bret. bamagh. a load. bern. also a boat . barms. varen. a heap. Barn. E. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. but the woman for the man. 2. mhg. entangle. Isidore in Rayn. to strive. Du. From Fr. charlock. barlich. to wrangle. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Camus. lap. ThS man was not created for the woman. Sw.

an obstruction. branches. See Barter. brushwood. barague. berewe. change of goods seems. beorgan. barril. also termed bannerets. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. G. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. See Bar. The feudal tenants next Fr. a. Formed from Fr. signifying. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. It. perhaps through Prov. An ing. bier. squabble.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. gwr. garment still used in Morocco. Joshua vii. barBombicinus. ^Vocab. beorg. then traffick4 Barrow. Gael. OFr. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. vel pretiosos burellos. It should be observed that. braeck. gravis et authenticus vir. — Kil. shed. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. habeant. from cavallo. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. by early examples. Gael. the two names. Sp. — — 15th Cent. qui have not much light on the pre.parchanttuech. litter. calico. cise formation of the word. sepulchre. like bargain. as. Bern. facture. barile. ibid. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. bera. beorh. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. a castrated hog . especially those killed in battle. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. baronetti. a. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter.. seem to be radically the same with Lat. heap. barrier. mound. were sometimes confounded. E. fear. cover. S. borov'. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. booth. a kind of coarse camlet. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. barrack. On chet — We — — their resemblance. in the first instance. Sp. implement for carryAS. w. a hut or booth. breinej Du. which would barragdn. baracca. (Schmeller). black woollen words in all the Romance languages. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. baraignej Picard. bara. Barratry. vair. fortification. bark&n. whenever Barrow-hog. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. fallow. a hiU. AS. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. Goth. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. to * Barragan. a barrel. hut..—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante.root signifying confused noise.— Gibbon. barri. bara. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. barrila. bredhan. Russ. ^Barrator. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. boar. Barrack. a word is always used in the plural number. Nominale of the from braeckland. strife. barrique. baronculi. StiU he shows conclusively. as cavalcade. sterilis. The Sp. barchent. berwen. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body.' Op. became bidre. Barrister. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. tomb. a bier. baragan. a bar. 26. composed of dry branches ofer. Barren. It. This word introduced into Fr. man and wife. baronuU. or simply bahre. It. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. Baron andfemme. Barrel. barraca. A. Antiq. in Nat. Fr. Bret. whence Barrow. uncultivated. — A . the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. It was not until the time of James I. MHG. vir. D. over him. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu.' that Barrier. Bargus or moreland. dispute. AS. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. from a tree to which a man is hanged. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. nobles. 1. bahre. Fr. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. a barrow. bouracan. barre. bearg . alongside of barrow. OE. rolls of Parliament. Bohem. baroncelli.have been named from the haggling and gant. to carry. Bamnculus a baronet. to shelter. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. barrique. 2. G. Sp. from beran. a man. and not from Fr. Barricade. the braw. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. and in several instances. a horse. staves. iver. man. todtenbahre. semen non accipiens landiEL.

baraand especially teria. him. barley. leviter consuere. — in Rich. It is mentioned as . Lend me your hands. Barbara de pictis veni patch. cog. humilis. stitch. imbastire. Lap. Arthur and Merlini. It. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . the thin skin Dan. but he dreth presently. Fr. plaiting of splinters basged. pressed down. MHG. to cheat. bast. . G. OFr. netting. unrighteous gain. HaU in HaUiwell. shallow. to deceive. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. from bere. to cheat. Du. fornication. bast. Newman. from /3aR. peel. mean . MS. cheating. scale in music. It. baxoj w. n' is n' is bacino. a basket masg. Apparently of Celtic origin. Isidore. dwelling. There is not one that. crassus. Sp. of the same sense. imbastire. . to baste. fits de bas. fornication. Dan. which sets up its hood when angry. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. ohg. Bass. flat. truck. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. Basket. bast-reb. as It. the a wide open vessel. The original meaning. But according And Dan. PaaiKhms. or running away with the ship. — Bassoon. bestan. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Sicamb. BassuS. a bass rope. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn.). commonly A joined with the word binda. basgod. to bind. barter. baste. Bastard. The like property hath the iasilisk. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). Sylvester's Dubartas. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . descended of an honorable lineage. at basta og binda. baratar. 516. to truck. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. Bassus. lattice-work. curtus. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. court-yard. besst. Basilisk. husk bast van koren. — hanging. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. he. hoops of a cask. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. preparatory stitching. as the diadem of the basilisk. basta. bast. barter. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). Al is dai. partieren. baste. It. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. also the demesne lands of a manor. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. the manorhousfe itself. which covers the grain Ger. To stitch. corn-farm. but born in baste. said Base. baraet (from Fr. Du. Sw. basg. low note. low part of the Hickes in Rich. bassin. and tun.' Papias. lust. beortun. baratear. It. Halliwell. HoUinshed. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. low. To Baste. Bartizan. a tying. mock not. aiKcig. Kil. To Bask. MHG.D. exchange. a halter. on a. ^Is de bast. Fr. according from Gael.' Gl. fraud. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. more noble in blood than notable in learning. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. a ftiesh. i. binding. a bastard. baste. Bass. bass-matting. thick. Sw. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. the — — to kill those that look upon it. HaUiweU. ing for profit. low. inclosure. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. discourse Nay. A fabulous serpent. ' Bosworth. bas. embastir. tierer. Swed. /«r<fSp. to Diez. Barton. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. would be. bareter. exchange. a ipgli So Turk. over-reaching. mavult dicere Roma suam. to long — a British word by Martial. piiiguis. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. to baste piece of cloth. back. submovet omne Lucan. berewic. ibid. bast-maatte. bdtir. besst-u-b£nd&t. rope for — . a king. to bargain. Bast. oe. ' He was begetin o bast. chasa ogli a bastard. OFr. Fr. also to Cotgr. foist in bargaining. beretun. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. chasa. bestcn. then cheating. basso. baos. Gr. . beguile. basso.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. lift me above Parnassus. found in Turkish . bastear. bark. It. a court-yard. w. to bind hand and foot. God it wot. Dan. F. bran. to bind. See Brattice. AS. Sp. Fris. a deceiver. Pl. Sp.looketh upon his eyes. pdrdt. fhe outhouses and yards. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. come near. basta. It. bds. or wic. to stitch . See Bath. and Bret. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore.

. to spread bread and butter. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. liiake. bastimento. whence ledrblaka. bast. comp. R. ON. from Fr. to pack a saddle i. blaka. the bat . like the owl and the bat. baston. to build. erect. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. Sp. put it together. a packsaddle. to teach one before. passage Imbasto. niammal.— . To donjon. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. set up. Rayn. which in the E. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . worth (Nat. blacta. a blockhouse. a stick. also to cudgel. basto. to give him a sound bastingi 3. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. bastonada. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. e. the clapper of a bell. blatta. Pr. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. flyinge best. business (Altieri). bastir. translation to a bat. and ditches bastion. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. Cot. to set on foot a war Bastion. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. the original has corneille. To baste one's hide . basa. Derived by Diez from iasi. to beat. beating. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. Fr. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak .Lat. in the Romance languages. bastida. Fr. raise. Mid. Fr. is explained by Cot. E. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. a with a stick. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. a bird which. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. a pad. and Arabs. 'iJipistreUo. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. Fr. nade. For the loss of the / in back. a bastion. bastear. a sconce. 164). blakra. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. Dieiif. aftonbakke. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. provisions. Antiq. to stroke. to belabour. Dan. to rub gently. bastilde. a blow cloth for dinner. devise. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. bak. . to quilt or stitch wool into it. set up. to lay the Sp. but this is hardly satisfactory. to rub. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. a barSp. to drub. * Bat. Bastinado. a pad or packsaddle. 2. disposer. blatta. badger. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. night-bat. the winged . bastille. — — Fl. iastir. 2. explains Sp. cudgelling.fortress or castle furnished with towers. Dan. vledermus. bakie-bird . Sp. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. bastir. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. packsaddle. For the origin of baston see Baste. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire.'CaB. which to rest the load. military term of a bat-horse).probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It.-^ Chaucer. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do.stick. bladier. contriving. bastine. bastione. to whip. Prov. That yche blak y dar wel telle. batta lucifuga. Sw. Sw. to thrash . victuals. natt-blakka. back. dial. I. Sc. Sw. Cot. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . a things prepared for future use. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. 11864. — — — . the night-jar or goat-sticker. To beat or bang soundly. 2. beysta. in the use of the E. and Cot. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. blakta. stryka. basta. — Bakke. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. vespertilio. ari instruineht for beating. bastonnir. pre. staff.baste or knock soundly. the E. blows. contrive. It. Perhaps baska. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. compared with blakka. guerra bastir. to beat. to cudgel. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. Pm.stitching in general. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. BAT neither. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. frotter. a. has bastine. iinbastire. vespertilio. to devise or begin. to flap. bat. or implement for 4 * A . to Due. Supp.— Bailey. . ment. as weU as besteau. stryk. quelqu'un son roulet. bastonFr. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. also the ricado. All from bastir. to build. It. baston. club. R. p. blakka. It. settiilg up. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. bdion. frame. Florio. bastia. boste. dial. Sw.

beat. signifying to give repeated blows. Fr. from battre. better. to foment. Fr. Battalion. and with staffslyng. made of bats. See Better. a battalion. to beak. basa. is in falling. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. to become fat. adapted for defence. Plkkis. Bailey. Bat. Strife. flour. baz. Florio. hot. in the case of a wall. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. also. fortress or castle. to flutter with the wings. Battery. made of — A made by one Batcii. to beat se battre. more. G. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. to foment with hot applica. bataille. Battle. solbase. Batyn. batterie. on the fire. Pr. Du. A batch as wood. bake. to bathe oneself. Batter. dial. to warm. as E. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. bastille. Jeddris and covering. wet linen in washing. tagUone. or make debate. sich bakern. badask. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. was formed bastilU. Mgy. Battlement. by projections or in any licoure. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle.' Palsgr. to thrive. to heat . betten. I baske. battre. dial. Batten. badda. bludgeon. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. to refresh oneself in language. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. a staff. squadron. Slav. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. oneself at the A into faggots. to fire or in the sun. badda. and as a verb. w. quell. Hal. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. bet. In OE. abate. From bat in the sense of rod . Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. to become convalescent. Bate. to cudgel. perhaps first used adjectivally. to beat. a stick. baquetazo. as signifying warm baths. To thrive. To Bate. to beat.Hence in the augmentative form It. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Holz bdhen. I bathe in water viz. fashes basking in the sun squadron. remit. to get better. allay . . howis. battere. a main battle. a blow. to warm oneself at the fire. dial. or break down. Gael. the heat of the It. cudgel. to toast bread. battions. It. a blow with a light instrument. baeddu. Fr. battre. and about an inch thick. to fell. of bread is so much baked zX one time. then to warm by the application of hot water. beat. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. a washing beetle. A Bath. and milk beaten up together. Sw. to beath wood Battledoor. I. e. to feed. on. Pm. a Baiffi. batte sig. bdda vidjor. The bat with which a brot bdhen. battle was used beath wood. Fr. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. a stirrer-up of strife. to beat. pak. batador. battere. also a sun badfish. Sw. a band of armed men arranged basa. to be profited. G. . quhar he suld assaill. Barbour in Jam. Jurgor. lessen. PLD. To Batten. altercation. term in falconry . The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. Battery. from on. Eggs. busk. for biia sik. an arrangement for giving blows. a beating. bdhen. bdt. dispute. to warm oneself. gabatnan. to fight. beat down. ON. batacazo. bada. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. in the sun. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Pm. — Cot. or a dry stick. battre las ailes.— . Sp. tradire. certain bend. batna. batir. From OFr. Pr. to foment. to bathe. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. solen baddar. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . heat. 2. the root of e. baden. Baka sik vid elld. is a simple adoption of Fr. Fr. — — — ' — . It.Bathe. debat. abattre. Sp. to betake oneself. whence the sun burns .— To Bask. a great seems related to baden as Fr. Goth. trahtr to It. makebate. gebdcke. bat-en. bdda. baka. Ayenst the sunne. E. gebdck. In some parts of England it is striking. to for fighting. buask made like a fortress. G. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . a from ON. Bret. a battle. as wood-en. dial. battaglia. Fr. Hence pro. . strife. as E. to heat. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. Flem. to dial. water whether warm or cold. — To . bat. Chaucer.

nastiness. bad. Ball-seirc. bouaila. baugant. from Fr. Descript. Fr. 2. It is all bawdy. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. baubare. whence pouacre. to play the babby. The It. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. sorry. Lat. Bavin. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. balderich. an — — — A — g — — — . scarf. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. spot. balbob. whence the E. Pm. bau. a white mark Bawdy. pie- . sword-belt. i. vacillo. also more Bawdekin. guigaw. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. ! Bauble. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. toys. Cot. Formed from baw. P. a plot of Chaucer. the Swiss baben. E. E. because made of cloth of white. bablyn or waveryn. to 53 manure the To baw. bow-wow. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. bal. fagot. Irel. the white of his leg or foot. dacchino. a zan. E. speckled. a gavel. filth. Pr. divided between black and white. s. having a white streak down Bagdad. and authorities in note. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. the face. to talk Lacombe. ON. W. Gael. filth. Bawson. Fr. ballach. In like manner Grisons filthy. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. to me-wl. bauU. or the animal so marked. a tassel or hanging bunch . E. The word may perhaps be sticks. collar. a spot. a tassel. to void the bowels. s. b \% bouala. baffe. is used for a sented by bau. to bark . ball.' ' Pegma. Ball. bobine. dirt. an object. in OE. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. a lump or cluster babhaid. a dog). to vociferate. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. propugnaculum. It. trifle. and Sp. tille.— P. Cot. or sheaf of Bridel. Fr.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. fields. rotten. whimwham. baue. horse. ground. Batylment of a wall.. Baw — . faisceau. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. Beaus^ent. Jam. Prov. an embattled wall. baudrdj OHG. Cotgr. P. to cry. A name of the badger. —R. baudrat. bow (as in our nursery Diez. bauch. excrement.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . From ! an interjection of disgust. dirty. also the canopy carried part of his body. fe bau. or toys. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. pegma. to make the noise Baudrick. Zalli. lewd . From Bret. babiole. bausan. tab.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. as Fr. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. Hal. dente. It. Bagdad. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. An analogous noisily. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. disgusting. dial. — Pm. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. babbole. baula. Baldrick. Piedm. obstrepere.. child. baban. cluster. OFr. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. a belt. was simply a field gold. to bark. dung. trifles. a lump. from Baldacca. spotted. to low or bellow as corn. BAWSON Swiss. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. and to-tore also. instead oi s. to the same origin. — — ' Lydgate. is Bagdad stuff. javelle. It. 8. on the face of animals.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. babsmall toy to play withal. Cloth of gold. mew. to trifle away ment. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. expressive of disgust. Sc. zano. form with an initial seen in Fr. Swiss Rom. a horse marked with a procession. Fl. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. or Cot. baw. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. exactly corresponds Fr. OFr. Pr. P. R. bal. librillo.guage). c. bobbin or cluster of thread. fooleries or fond To Bawl. balGael. Filthy. represented by the syllable miau. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. ish baubles. miauler. a horse with white legs. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). brush faggot.

house . Swiss beie. tradire to Fr. It has been shown under Abie. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Fr. a mark. and zndly. or recess in an apartment in modern times. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. baja. The word bay. Serv. corrupted into Bow-window. To Bay. in order to keep the enemy in check. to mark. See At Bay. the cod or husk of beans or the like. From Cat. overture. to keep one waiting. he turns and faces his pursuers. bay. bagaid. desiring. window . It. when. 1859.' Bailey. bate. to be Bohem. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. that from ba. husk. a dagger.. white. to split. &c. F. living Ir. dehiscere . bilyega. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. Bay. badarc. large window in a handsome .c. Sp. 1. &c. especially beans. w. beonj Gael. the step is the same as from It. Catalan hadia. bacca. bijel. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. beothach. bilyejiti. representing the sound made in opening the mouth./^ bau. from badar. life. Lat. baga. a beast. badia to Sp. Holland's Pliny in R. Bayonet. The — Fr. or window ' (in Fortification). Such Antaeus seemed to me. bialo. baier. 25.—Journal Soc. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. Arts. laurel of the ancients. —Diez. alive. baher. Q. and keeps them in check for a while. Fr. Q. baer. Piedm. — A At Bay. life. Fr. bayo. to gape.' — — 54 bald. to keep at a bay. ist. bioth. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. by the term rendre les abpis. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. put to his last shifts. Bay-tree. Mod. watching intently. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. stare. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. arose two forms of the verb. grapes or nuts. the cod of peas.— Stalder. . trahir. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. bay. to betray. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. hddhe-dhonn. berry. baccello. weary of running. — Schmid.. a hole. baiare. waiting . Abide. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. or berries. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. Prov. Fr. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. bdcr. dividere. It. and the To bark as a dog. AS. A hollow in the 'line of coast. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. to open. Gr. bajo. so called from its bearing bays. From the former verb is the It. Fr. BauSfi)/. Sp. beo. It. baye. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. as if to signify a window of curved outline. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. berries. bai. aux dehniers abois. the laurel-bay. . at his last gasp. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. Swab. bayen-stein. Fr. Earth — By Nature made to till. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. stood watching him stoop. to stand watching one. Feb. baca. bahia. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. window-sill. living thing . As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. &. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. like a pie. It. to open as a blossom. See Bawl. |8i'os. to on anything. is perhaps not directly from Lat. baionette. barn of two bays. bde. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. buidhe- The ruadh. S. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. or to have been first used at the Cot. —Bay-windo'W. See Bald. or at bay. expresr sion tenere a bada. Vielp. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. a berry. a'uno. abbabayer. baya. gate. It. badius. buidhe. yellow . garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. open the mouth. Lat. to iiitent nected PoL white. to amuse stare a bada. Cot. ing-floor. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Drayton in R. as gazing. Gael. * To Be. baie. . which however. baca. OSp. A stag is said to stand at bay. badarse. Bay. BAY marked with bjly. from an imitation of the sound. Gael. siege of Bayonne in 1665. . a cluster of bacon. BE Probably conRuss. —F. batibari. the world Gr. bahia. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. Sp.

. ffaen. backe. Bret. Bret. Gael. beacnian. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G.fui. AS. beic.from AS.' Hall's Chron. to wait-. signifying individuality. bean. post. bairan. E. Catalan becar. a presage. N.to have a French origin. Thus the final en. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. salve his hurts. or any action done with a pointed thing. bohnej ON. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. a tree. Beckon. bohne. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. a sign. bedm. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. fd or faVf beans. signifying a point. as well as f& or fav. Goth. ffci. faba. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. which is. . a single bean. —F. -phxr. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. 54. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. It is BEAR SI court. Netherlands or North Germany. bead. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. beans. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. like most nautical terms. fero. Bear. l^ax. Miss Gurney in Philolog. bidello. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. — to bow or nod . Fr. rising ground. pig. Beck. or however. and Lat. tale of prayers or doxologies. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead.' adheres to the root. a tree. . g. baun. to wait. See To Bid. to nod . bakke.fer-re j Gr. Trans. — bedeau. Sw. prodigy bauhnjan. an attendant. nokkima. ohg. into France. The origin seems preserved in E. To Bear. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. G. ON. or beic. It. bokan. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. W. The immediate shore of the Menage. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. Chapters on Lang. bauhan. the part overflowed by the tide. be. to beckon. fromthe danger. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. a beak. gebed. to carry. Moreover the name. beic. a hill. bydel. Gael. vol. beck. bagms. Fr. as. a nod OHG. bee. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. * Beagle. Slavon. bidan. Beadle. Gael. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. to nod the head. would say. Beach. a single bean. bank. bar.fuis5e. G. It. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. vii.ad. becco. The wild beast. a curtsey. — : Beam. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. — Bellenden in Jam. badmr. Goth. not applied to the yelping of dogs. stock. Gr. Hackluyt in R. to produce young. to bellow. however. baum. Farrar. bob. bdkna. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. «va\ioQ. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. a prayer. A Esthon. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. pierced for hanging on a string. Du. He says. beugler. W. The nutu significare. OSax.. on. atUndre. according to of Sanscr. as. bearti. Be. bM. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. boom. Boom. AS. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. A two-year old nephew of mine p. faba is Kvavoq. Bean. bek. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Beacon. fora-bauhan. Pardoner's Tale. Beak. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. Lat. bakkje. into a snjall river.' Suetonius in Diez. or breathing. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. ON. was introduced from England sea. beacen. support. It forms a. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. Q wait upon him. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey.

because made of the fur of the beaver. Russ. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. which. Beck. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. To load with ornament. E. It. to fall in with our bavard. riviire. ON. decorous. 2. and on. a brook. bavec. befit. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. bib or slobbering cloth. bestiaj Gael. obtain. seemly. baviire. to be a part of his to. beo. It. while from Shep. timan. badi. As rivus. and Fr. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing.to clothe to slobber. Fr. opportune. fiber. dize or dtzen. to wade through the water like a beaver. W. He becom on sceathan. iida. limplice. den. e. to appertain.fit. to be fulfilled. G. or a feeling to be gratified. to happen. gelimplic. Prick of Conscience. . bobrowai. That thou mayest attain Goth. bequem. dushmak. Fr. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. Beaver. OSw. connected with ripa. to carry. con. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. ON. Thcem. i. Fr. limpan. if sound of a sharp blow. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. an notion of being convenient. it is probable that here also the to become. to shore. Diez. — . fitly . bach. a bank. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. to happen. E. a bank. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. becuman. barf. now confined To Become. from the same in the sense of bear2. to be incumbent upon him. pleasing. perhaps a living thing. but now a river only. decent.AS. behkr. brook. produce. rying. bel. fitanimal.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. Bo. covered the face. bava. ziemen. Bedizen. becuman. Lat. as the babble of the child. to bear children. Perhaps from Pol. See becymth anfeald yvel. bello. to the good hapHalbard. Beck. riviera. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. to the brook itself. suitable. Chaucer. beauts. our taste.of being very angry. baba. nothing to thy name make. Lat. chin. birth. happening as it ought. agreeable. byw.we call the arrangement becoming. suitable. i. barba. proper. Do no To It fallith favour. to please. Cal. or special purpose. bave. Secondarily applied to a hat. See Beacon. battere. G. fit. I do thee pray. g. to happen. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. R. bur. Slav. The OFr. get J ' He got very angry. pens unmixed evU. bett.S6 fero. The moveable part of a helmet.— Kiittner. bart. bcek. Beckon. G. Thus OY. AS.' are equivalent expressions. Lat. blast. taste. to fall. to come to or upon. edge. godum with ON.' ' He became very angry. the beard. o. formerly a happen. dress with unbecoming richness . The quadruped. to attain to the lot of any one. Lat. Beauty. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. The fitting or suitable. bave i. and to acquire. or river. See Bank. limpian. slobber. G. and also in that of birth. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. a lip. baurthei. See Bat. to fall mode of being. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. as. Bosworth. AS. to dabble . bedr. biivre. to hem. burdr is used in the sense of a car. to G. from beau. bobr. to assume a certain form or Turk. pretty. name applied originally to the bank then proper .' every way suited to a prince. gabaurths. byrcti. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. Sp. to live. to sleep on. to happen. gefallen. a. judgment. bard. convenient. bekommen. proper . when up. to arrive at. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. bebrus. living.getiman. Fr. tidig. E. Boeth. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. the ece thurhwuniath. Fr. bearing. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. 1. biber. Goth. Lith. e. to happen. place to lie down. babrad. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. bellus. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. ting. ON. beatanj It. handsome. to those goods which endure for ever. venient. bekkr. tidy. R.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. the latter are derived It. boroda. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. from baver. befall. whence baveux. Prov. brada. gebank. Beat. to get. bring forth. fallinn. border. duty. receive. comely. On the same principle. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. talkative. ON. brook . Now the Beast. In like manner condition. agreeable. — A — A — . nod or sign. Dan. G.

It. garden-herb. as in It. beetle also signified the impiti. beer. Fr. ^. knock. in Schmeller. beest. beach-each. a paviour's beetle batail. It. bedawi. trees in a forest . ris. E. cugino. sela que environna la terra. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. Bee. For that was law of lend. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. to parget or rough-cast . by-flugaj G. G. 1156. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. beyki. as the milk of a that purpose in London. vaar. to turn. The beer al for te shenche bate. bos. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. beost. The meanpainting. from risan. from blood. In a passage of an Old Fr. a bed-tick.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. to fall.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. bbtel. Fr. P1. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. which also 2. a stinging bieUe. kivih. clog for a dog b'oteln. tree.— B. Beef. Esthon. cogionare. to poordma. Originally. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. cow has calved. thick. Dan. fagus. pettiriso. Horn. bitela. the loppered sea. prisons Venet. bukva. bet. a cup or implement for AS. . The first milk after a dizen. Slav. to colour with lime-wash. to change . and in driving piles. bytl. whence familiar. Bav. /SXirov. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. AS. briesch-milch. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. to twist poorma. the biter. a wasp.— JI14. to flatten In OE. bletumj Gr. paralyticus.BEDLAM a distaff with flax.' the last word corresponds to cofly . biene. an ox. ' MordiThe Lat.. calleBedlam. GaeL bior. i. Pett. Bedouia. &c. de Fierabras in Diez. Beet. badigeonner. briest. bedde-redirj ohg. to curdle or lopper. Beetle. a bee. doubtless. buche. . crespir. a pad or cushion). fall. buk. . blow or thrust. the meat of spinach. biest-milch. to rough- cast. a mallet. Arab. a wasp. 1. on. and lebermer in G. door. the ox. a malsense of drink. speach. But possibly bedizen 2. 1. KXlvoTTiT^e. E. to knock. a horse-fly . Gael. madhouse. a pillow case. cushion-cover . duplicated form of the root. Lat. beutel. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale.D.ing of the word is curdled. cousin. 'La Gl. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. whose face is clotty.). pital of St Mary. Grimm. of beatmg. G. from the hos. may be from K. Let. boeuf. an inhabitant of the desert. stakes. ir'm. Lat. case. erroneously modified in form. from Lat. to and ale. 1 to drink. kiissen-biere. as. pude-vaar. . ProBeer. batAfter mete in sale. beach. red curdled Arab .ON. woman that is newly delivered. cited by Diez. an Beetle. Fr. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. mars betada.(paddi. a cover. water. Cot. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. bette or blettej Lat. Rom. imperative pi. to beat bossel. bitel. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr.possible. poculum. also the bite or sting of a bees. I A pillow-beer. Cot.' So Gr. used for boull. biiren.D. byst. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. comb. bossen. from leberen. . bibere is a re. I dysyn a dystaffe. betel. may be shpped on and off. waarin. It. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs.cz//aj. Fin. AS. Fr. taglio. piwo. Gr. AS. bovis. 57 — Palsgr. a agulatum in the original Latin. boytle. a clapper. Bernese. G. Fr. buka. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. bedskiissen-bUren. I put the flax upon it to spin. turn. sang vermeilh betatz. The honey-producing insect.'— GL ^Ifr. Confined to bed. Ant. beta. bove. drink. . g. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. curded or beesty. Fr. desert. prigione. to drink. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. to coagulate. also bienst._t from the root pi. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. to become Beech.^ drink. cozen. PI. wedges. translation beOj. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. in Nat. a pillow-case. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. bably named from the destructive quali| T. drink. * Beestings. Bed-ridden. thick. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. Pl. a Properly a cover that biiren. a drink potus. turn (a garment). from jtst-. extant in Bohem. qui de lecto surgere non potest . Bethlehem. D. by the analogy of bedaivb. a wandering Prov.

a wedge for cleaving wood. 168. V. Lith. ' . be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. krapszas. From w. Political Songs. kind. also called Bigots. yiyvo/uat. Florio.' A. ysgrepan. Bruce. signifying to conceive. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. referred gan this Erie alight. P. touched with emotion — . a beggar . When Q. to know. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Schm. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. iv. in E. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. It will . capere. beriolare. To produce children is to acquire.3. to be born. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. begging. P. it is both to acquire and to beget. a stone-cutter's chisel. of Gr. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. In Luc vi. He did alight. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. cans. begger. yivtrri. P. ip AS. It. bertola.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. ytyvwfT'Kw. Barbour. to be acquire. in D.pose. 'ex quo. a bag . 1430. at geta talad.D. to begaan. &c. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. to arise. OHG. one after that other. a little bag). Fr. Gr. &c. taking up. su with gold. & go a begging. beitel. ' ' . two betels —a grete oke. incipere. is formed pocair. tale. to take. gan. fangen and Lat. to cleve. AS. a beggar-boy. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . to beg. beitel. ykvog. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. — yivsaiQ. a — wedge. a bag. anfangen. to begin.quently used in OE. bag {baigean. ornamented phoc. chisel. y/yvo/iat. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. but probably erroneously.n. chap. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . ' Begone. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. P. 'Dz. and Lat. woe-begone. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. vir mendi. Mod. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. V. P. Creed. as alighting is a momentary operation. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. to go a begging. hags. So from Gael. 2. although it ' the future. aginnan. duginnan. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. in Lat. a wallet. 25. 40. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. V. Into the are D. ken. onginnan. Si'Xa/coc. a scrip euXaiciJoi. seizing. be^nnan. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Of brede full ycrammed. steinbosil. lapidicinus. 58 BEG BEGONE G. not began to alight. P. literally.' about undern he got down. from whete G. to be able. covered with gold D. the fundamental notion of attaining to. Ancren Riwle. affected. can. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven.— . Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. Du. or Of a pure poor man.bag full of the G. pose-pilte. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. beis- plement driven by blows. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. P. 'Aboutin undern monly. word.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. Du. giving in Gr. yivofiai.' for ye shall lament and weep. a scrip. gigno. a bag or poke. Skinner's derivation from bag. Deutsch. beissel. on the tramp. P. sel. Lollards. on the bag. Vocab. To Beg. air a . Du. Mundart. appears improbable at first. origin. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. beutel. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. oppressed with woe. can. P. a chisel. Beghardus. ken. ysgrepanu. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. beginning. to bear young. on further examination. a beggar. gen. but in the same language from poc. genus. Cold-begone. P. yivwajcw. is com. The tother seand the dint cum. Goth. 1867. to get children . to reduce him to beggary. Nov. image is cleft out of the trunk. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. 142. baigeir. whence the E. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. viii. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. To Begin. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. above quoted to get beaten ON. — Stillingfleet.

The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. Plautus. at the tail of.the figure of throwing at a mark. Thus in Finnish the heave. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to meet.to vow. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. hces. by the compound observare. Goth. hafwa bort. gehaben. to cast or throw. ward. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. behold. Robert in Warton. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. hevja. when the verb will hoof. to keep. behind. seeing to. 17. And so from hania. AS. guardare. K. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to look. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. — Behest. the equivalent of E. To be expedient. or purpose. nittaa. commonly expressed. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to raise. to be obliged to do a thing.— . to command. to be suitable or becoming . and their senses intermingle. AS. healdan. hove. observe. to behave. to vow. zijn. garder. hafjan. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. The seyn. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. on. is supported by many analogies. to heave. is on the top of or opposite to. furtherance. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. hcefwa in seed. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. according as the * To Behove. to be fit. to carry corn into the barn . to fit. betragen. promise or a command. invoke. to hold. hatan. to promise. to bers of the body. to carry. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. Aan iemand bid one welcome. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to .' Richardson. premi curi alicujus rei. tail. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. to turn one out . to be be named. G.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to name. to take away. adjust. to halten. to lift. heita. obliged. G. gehouden. behat. exhort. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to be obliged to one. behoof. to keen or hold. to have. hevja. have the sense of calling or naming. behaviour. what he wishes another to do . to tend. and the E. solicitum esse. beperson addressed. At the back of The re. to regard. vow. habere. Sw. name of the head is used to express what hbva. G. to vow. to bring forwards. to call. Sw. To look steadily upon. to hit the mark. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. G. to look upon it as true . Kiittn. gehat. keeping. fixed upon any object). gehalten seyn. advantage. the name adapt. or the hence advantage. se porter) to fare well or ill. —Hest. To Behave. is also found in the sense of looking. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. and (as Fr. take heed of. R. behatan. portarsi. AS. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. holding is originally derived from that of looking. han- — js Kil. to hold. to lead. behete. hafwa. to carry. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to the equivalent of Du. heave. us-hafjan. tion. take yourself off. ge' hatan. habban. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. promise. to be named. hovast. Sw. from tragen. To place are most naturally ex. hantyri. to lift. to call. It. to follow. what is so required. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. injunccommand. to carry. heeten willekem. ifl fact. to R. to keep. vow. OE. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. to be well pleased out.for throwing it. To Behold. use. The Lat. AS. beholden to him. to feed. laborare. promise . G. behefe. heeten. to gehouden. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. ufhaban. taking notice or care of (Gloss. AS. as in the case of E. zu etwas gehalten haitan. bound. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. N. the two verbs seem radically the same. hcef tig bort. servare. the distance of anything. right. Paladino. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. The It. a follower. G. hafwa ram.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. Command.). behces. gecall. to command. But. hofwa. keeping. or necessary. hafwa.

From AS. locus securitatis Schilter. to bellow. with the consent of the heirs.D. bervrit. b'ola. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. bylja. to lay be- around. to sanction an arrangement. to put a high price or value on. were civil terms of address. properly belonging to the church tower. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. leave . we have Goth. certain rate. Pl. To Belch. filu-galaubs. to promise or engage. Du.alyfan. resonare. Du. frid. to be required for a certain purpose. —F. to hit hafi. Fr. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. — mankind. ornament. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . honoured. . and Du. reputation. Pl. tie itnfimv nKixioQ.D. bercvrit. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to estimate them at a To believe. portion. to resound. beffroi. and bergan. to bolk. to protect. beffroit. to praise. G. praising. is an easy progress. OFr. permission. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. permitting or giving leave. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. mark ON.. on. to a loud noise. Hence to simple approbation. to believe. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. Du. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . or house. to roar. berfroi. ON. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. laubjan. ungalaub kas. galaubjan. satisfaction. orloven. bell. beleggen.. verloben. bulken. moderation. turris. ley/a. or high estimation. legsel. lyfan. to boke. to belay. bettifredo. is (Sternberg). for purposes of low estimation . then. bertefredum. a tower for defence . overspread. ON. is used in the sense of approving. border. leaf geleafa. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. hesfa. cela est audessus de votre portde. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen.. gelyfan.D. to give leave. under the forms belfredum. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. Then. on. distance to which a piece will carry. lov. bellow. tain a certain end. to cry out bell. — Diicange. bolken. laven. to promise. peal. measure. and. true. if a promise. or a sconce. — . Another application of the same word is in Pl. then. to believe. loven. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . laven. behove. . Q. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. loven. Goth. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. To Believe. glauben. 6o BELAY BELL loven. beset. are innate . Fr. consent. appearing in Mid. met. To Belay. beau sire and bel dame. to praise. aim. pro3. battefredum. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. galaubs. to praise. to sound loudly . which has been shown to be derived from laudare. to believe.Lat. . erlauben. praise. an implement for making a loud noise. from mhG. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. lofa. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. are other modifications of the same imitative root. belja. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to express approval. To praise is essentially Xo prise. Bell. a. and E. esteemed . to befit. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. precious. if a narration. boare. a watch tower. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. allow. to lay the cable round the bits. promiser. In Mid. OHG. promising. fringe. bialla. Northamptonshire. to give leave.D. Du. bealcan. in nautical language. Fair sir and Fair lady. P1. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. and E. giving leave or permission.Lat. See Gain. reach. It. AS. The word be- Belfry. Det er ofwer er hofwa. belief . a vessel made for dishonour. fitness. esteeming good and valid. bellan. range. to fix a price upon one's wares. to permit. to give leave Dan. garnish. stand. a tower. bealcettanj OE. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to make it fast. bounds. a little shed. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to extol the worth of anything. Sw. loben. In the middle voice hofwas. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to der swaren lave. AS.

Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. . fyle To dirty. bene/actum. a bellows. Gael. to become one's property . to exert force. a round or bubble-shaped root. benir. Commentary on Neccham in Nat.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. taken absolutely. to attain belangen. belliJ Lat. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. — ray. bandoir. to bend a bow .pinuz. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Benign. . binssen. wallet. the skin of those animals that factor. I soyle it or araye it. bander un arc. from benedictio. an inflated Lat. or sometimes louban. pertinere. Kil. rise against external force . bell. bolch. Benignant. bellows. Benzoin. ON. bellows. Du. a kindness. To Benum. Eenison..— Belly. the word. belgr. to concern. Fr. I marre a thyng. Benefice. by itself. a spring. bolg. a blessing. ' I beraye. belly. est matris in lucem editus. generous. To Belong'. benejicium. ' .' Palsgr. bilbil-goda. to. Bench. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. benjoin. ^To Beray. or simply djawt. Fr. well. bilbila.videtur. See Bind. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. disposed to oblige. skin. benjoim. bienfait. The ing-skin. a water-bubble builge. one who does good. Lat. See Nether. pervenire. as. bcelg. a leather bag. belch. .' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. to attain to. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. I say). benedictio {bene^ and dico. hem. Bav. to say. Fr. Dozy. benehusk. to ring. I araye. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. from another modification of the word for bubble. to arrive at. to belong. or a It is times the to signify services. From OFr. Sw. . The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture." — — . a blow. fens et hie liraus. bellows. poX^ri. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. ray. pod. kind. wallet Benefit. balg. cod or husk of pulse. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. means seeds of plants. hence with ashes. to hallow. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. gwaldas. Belt. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. border. to come to the crown belangen. bolg. a accusative. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. to touch one.' — Hie fimus. to bless. To Bequeath. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. Lat. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). Beneath. skin. — Ducange. Quoth. Javanese perfume. See I . G. G.Fr. In E. G. balg. benefacere. bimpsen. from Arab. See Bank. — root consisting of concentric skins. attinere. the womb. from which is also bulbus. Ptg. to touch. blast-bcelg. has assumed a plural form. or fyle with myre. Was das belanget. because bcelg. . applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. — See Numb. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. OUG. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. pino3. vulgarly the belly. a speaking well of one. Benefactor. Lat. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. Bret. OFr. to stretch it on a frame. becwathan. bags or bellows. balteus . to reach. as concerning that. beneison. bendaj as. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. ball. needs no ex.' The term had been previously planation. loubdn djawt. Bent. to hold to one. bag. blister balgan-snamha. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Benedico. to use words of good omen. on. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. . bimaissen. To belong is thus to reach up to. langen. G. Lat. to do good to one . the ipsi Caddono concessimus. w. a bellows .polch. bendan. Lat. is The word balg. Benediction. a border. benaigon. volva. leather sack. . belt. incense of Java. welt of a shoe gwald. J'emboue. gelangen. bless. vulva. attinere. benignus (opposed to malignus). To Bend. belly. a good deed. dirt. Gael. was in Mid. are stripped off whole blase-balg. a benefit. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. to concern. from cwcsthan. ON. Gum benjamin. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. rushes. Lat. binsen. se bander. pouch. welt of a shoe. pertinere. benedicere. attingere. is a kindred form. to make bilbil. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and .

to entreat.bhaksh. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. basjaj Du. reparation. Grose. to be-place. boeten. beseech. in the sense ctf beria. So Lat. besein. baete. Hfence backing. dirt . bdt. might have been . Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. R. from AS. person to lie in. On the other hand. berwham. rods. but in practice. bal oppbota. Best. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. as in growth. solicit. betan. position. eld up- On is to be placed A — . It is the restore fyr betan. bdt. To Gl. burrow. * Berth.— VixHsm. making better. peto. See Reave. seems twigs or rods. Tusser. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. BETE dirty'. to stand one in good stead. arwe. noise. * To Bete. from grow. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. To seek something from a person. is to perform a serviceable office to him. as. Du. to seek. the side bhakshya. Ihre. to strip. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . — bota. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. Beere. When men of mekeness him baet. small eatable fruit. p. improve. compared with bargham. vol. To bete his Jam.t.X. to To Bereave. reparation. besnij Pl. repair. to fall with roisto. Devon.D. jnore. to to deprive of. supply. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire.ot-i. mud. See Better. roju. to defend. put. better. fall with sound. Fin. a fire. — Biglotton. boeten. stealth from steal. as conversely a besom is called broom. AS. boeten.irova. — . The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. bat. as. because used for making besoms. Tha het he micel fyr betan. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. scopse spartis. a place . to on the other Goth. The origin is AS. to supply a want. fyrbotare. So roto rattle down. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. Sw. protect . mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. as Du. OE. barth may be for barf. To Bestow. Esthon. beorgan. AS.fish the other hand.—^fake. or the space kept clear betan. to put on the saddle. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. Rob. besen. . p. think more probable. place. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. what does it better a man. bota. preferably. ship for a make amend. I from lew. Goth. to thrust. . ariierf to 113. ^akka. advantage. Du. to amend. bur-we. baete. amendment. Du. 3. a horse collar. besIn sen. So too Yorkshire arf. and also to entreat. roju. or to bestead one. rubbish. fearful. sheltered from the wind. one who shelter. E. a berry. to give a place to. to thrust. bestow. To Beseech. earg. make better . basya. Beit. advantage. To help. it seems hard to separate as. bet. From abet. to mend. from It. the guardian . broom twigs. G. or. lay out. AS. botesward. an incendiary. hva mannan. an incendiary. to kindle the fire. reafian. stede. to word is shelter. het vuur The serise of Boeten. Beet. Fr. supporting on the one side Lat. dung . buttare.• 62 Antiq. encouraging. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. BEREAVE Wall. ^•n. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. sets fire to. of ffeed a fire. roe. but it is specially applied mister. to exercise on a definite object. betan.— Hal. as. bereafian. to the place boarded off in a. and Du. as bouter selle. boutefeu. Du. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. — Chaucer. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. berwe. the origin of which is to be found in ON. Bestead. The dry. besje^ Sanscr. To Bet. brem-bessen. to make it. — amendment. bouter. as. dirt. Sw. dust rojahtaa. Kil. to light the fire . earh. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. houseless. and on which the wager is laid. barfham. to make better. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. to fire a funeral pile of . lewth. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. Besom. what does it boot. Fr. buttafuoco. boteith Goth. vi. E. bacca. berry. Zeitschr. Berry. put forth. stow. ropahtaa. The proper meaning of the bale. to cast. sweepings. besmas. R.iooA. profit. G. same word with the provincial barth. dial. barthless.

roebucks. On the same principle ON. i. against. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. make manifest. Goth. bedriegen. betweohs. be fitting or suitable. as from obdir. The as. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. Fr. awry. Now the stirring of an object. polish. betwuh. betriigen. bat. ziemen. to discover. Mich self a good glass of wine. ON.D. E. a traitor. &c. I approve of beveau. Lat. a different form of twa. larks. abash j from polir. not to have the heart to give up a thing. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. obeish. order. Pl. deign. To Betray. betest. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. from. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. suitable. vrohjan. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. tradire. beuvrage. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. twain. In like manner folissais. In the water anon was seen His nose. It. E.D. better. to deliver tip. kein leben mehrin no signs . traitre. roja. verbs in ir with a double ss. are there Regt R. are commonly to one's lot. two. to Teem. evidence of life. afford. has — In a like sense tanie>i. some attention. Golding's Ovid in R. or with again. trahir. more. R. bevde. *Ah. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. BETEfiM translated. to drink . -to appoint. a bevy. To Bewray. beva. Det sig sjelft. traditor. Buveau. by two. bet. Chaucer. G. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. find in one's heart. wrogia. In like manner from twain is fothied between. moveable and compass branches. it bewrays itself. From It. Slant. as one would have it fall. is used for the — R. what does It is forward him. to fall Some call it a bevel. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille.' Dialogue on Witches. pair of compasses. ruogia. whence beveraggio Fr. AS. R. fitting. dispose (whence schicksal. Goth. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. Bav. betst. batizo. tweoh. betwuxt. thy speech bewrayeth thee. zemen. tradere. suitable. i. From the former of these are AS. lot). ON. To boot in coursing (i. trahissais.— . OE. for measuring angles. his eyen sheen. — that schickiich. Fr. 88. Fris. Ik tame mi dat nig. progress. to deceive. from Fr. bevere. as trahissons. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. beverage. dir. gatiman. Between. A — drink. sloped off. G. Dit tungomal rendered in E. to make forwards. regen. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. find it good: Goth. betweoh. to deliver up in breach of trust. The inflections of Fr. Du. Pl. best. tima. springs from ON. . was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. better. his mouth. betweox. Fr. baet. a brood. Best. e. r'ojer dig. AS. become. Ober D. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. and thence twegen. amidst. — See To Bete. Percy Soc. amiddes. obdissais. e. advance. gesiemen. bibere. Fl. to stir. Thus from dbahir. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. bet. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. — of the authorities. to accuse. better. said he. Sw. Better. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Tinia eigi at lata eit. in the middle of two. Fr. betera. which may be compared as to form with amid. Bevy. Cot. to happen. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. deem suitable. a drinking . treachery. trakir. e. in the middle of twain. betray. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. spritigs from schicken. wreia. to happen. Friar's Prol. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. to cheat. — Betwixt. Hence last G. of pheasants. zimet. by a final sh. riigen. It. To Beteem. is treason. of quails. E. Dii. betaemen. fallinn. as tlock. as envahir. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. fate. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. from invadere. Sahissais. to Hence It. /alia. to fall. Car son umbre si le trahit. To vouchsafe. tima. the being pushed to the frbnt. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. bouter davantaige. from Lat. taemen. proficere. in the same way Lat. trahison. G. taemen. x. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. R. gezimet eines dinges. G. batista. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. an instrument opening like a a thing.

The It. a sloping edge. foul weather. to creep or crawl sideling. sbriscio.to drink much. Bezoar. Bisect. To bicker in NE. bibo. dial.D. . 172. metaphor). Probably. to dispute. bihais.s bellum for duellum. two- footed. rogge. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. though such a change of form would be very unusual. beregen. Sp.as in Biped. bezling or skueing. I Wallon. Bible.' bibble. sbiagio. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. bias-wise. bebble. discover. to give signs of life. Gr.two. inferiority. Lat. sbrisso. baviere. It. ber-laita (for bes-laita). petit-lait. sbiescio. rogt un bogt sik nig. wrogen. pible. An excellent Basil. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. bible. — crooked. kwijllap. a bibber. . a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. to make tongue Du. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. to shake. biax. kwijlen. of the sliced off. makes ble. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. to be a paring. biaiser. bestemps. It is especially applied in Sc. from pdd-. aslope. edge of a plate of looking-glass. kwijl-bab. to purl. Yes. Bibelsworth in Nat. Ant. Cat. poison. Hal. bisdare. bring under ' Thy accuse. convicts thee of being drink. biberon. —Bickering'. bescompte. Misc. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. aslope sbisciare. to sip. bickai. . to cut in two. or kwijl-slab. or by any rapid motion. snout. to a fight with stones. Fris. — Bi-. Biseau.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. To Bibble. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). sbieco. Pers. bickelen. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. the papyrus. to stir. notice. whey count . winding or crawling in and out. to tipple. . sbiasciai. in him. its clothes. to glide or slip as upon. it becomes (Jz-. Uprogen. In comp. the basil Sc. slippery. An inferior blue. sbiesso. wraggeln. tailU en biseau. love first begins to life signs of him. bisel. Oh when shall I bizzle. biberer. The train of thought is then. liwell. beslei. he is Wtb. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. bibaculus. used in precisely stone . Sardin. —Dozy. expelling or preserving against. to well up with Cot. Piedm. bending. babbefore the eyes. as an eel or a snake. to stir. sloped. To Bicker. bark of which paper was first made. one who drinks in excess. Fr. To Bib. biberen.a. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Hal- — do something aslant. it were the mouth. Pl. babbi. Schiitze. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to slaver . 78). bickel-sieenken. to stir. misFr. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . Jamieson. baverole. bickel. besanca. a slabbering-bib. the word became bddizahr. sliding. and zahr. See Wriggle. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. dial. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. sbrisciare. Du. to it evident to sense. biais. a stone-hewer . whence Du. Prov. Mantuan. /3i/3Xof a book originally. presence. roggle. to slaver or drivel. E. a bezle. per\'erted belief. OE. him. bis. Fr. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Bias. shows the P1. by throwing of stones. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. a Galilean. Sard. Fr. slanting . in Fr. biascio. crooked.D. in two ways for duis. or in and out. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. Cat. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Piedm. Ci^. bes-azur. b&zahr. twice. It. bavon. is explained to clatter. Bezel. reveal. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. Bib. wrangle. To Bezzle. a fragment bieco. sbias. Lat. Diet. In Arab. to the stirring of their conscience. ice . to Jam. lips. . To drink hard. oblique. (according to the Fr. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. has a singular stone-picker. to move. which good bibbeler. Fr. To skirmish. Fr.{ioin dua. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. stock still. Fr.or from obliquus. bickeler. asure-bice (Early E. biascia. pddzahr. specially in a bottle. to tipple. to stir up . sbiscio. evident. Bice. sik beregen. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. like guzzle. Dan. sbrissare.

R. To bid the banns. beodan. bieten. or. bow. explaining the Sc. rising up. besides the professedmonks and nuns. as tears from the eyes. G. bigan. or third order of penitence. bolga. iiQ. bolgna). The 'La. 1. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. With respect to logical pedigree. ON. gebodenj G. to ask. to bicker. to look for. related to big or bug. AS. bced. which is stiU. W. Wallace in Jam. Bight or Bought. bit- bidja. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. to offer one the wish of a good day. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. The . To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. 2. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. spelling seems to used in the N. cultivate. Big-swol- . Compare also Sp. Jam. beadle. bidel. biddan. boa. belly. G. Hence Sc. to forbid . bugan. beidast. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. bua. Palsgrave in Halliwell. The ON. as. Analogous expressions are G. to abide or wait on. ON. balg. to look for. to dwell. praestare. a chip. swaggering. or bad. — — — Halliwell. pray. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. bend of a shore or of a rope. to build G. to start out. einen vor Gericht bieten. buga. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. to pro- command. to forbid . abidan. A pose to one to come to dinner. and yajiBui. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. biegen. England for swollen. forwards. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. consisting both of men and women. anleta. and consequently ordering or reGoth. to bid one good day. bat . bidill. to E.Leta). The original Swollen. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. To Big. ON. bath.' Addison. G. to ask. bo. and the Sw. who. bead. to marry. to build. bulge. the meaning of bid. bend. Bigot. Du. bi-. in the sense of ask for. from bidan. bedun. OSw. to solicit. To Bid ' Big . of More ' in Richardson. from seek. build. and Gael. Kil. — To Bid. praebere.. to offer. to arrange. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to cultivate. bygga. bugt. bidjan. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. are also used in the sense of asking for. a swelling. bolginn. twice. has leta. called the tertiary order. offerre. to inhabit. an entire skin. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. the belly of a ship. to presimpler pare. bugne (answering to ON.peto. bidan. Bigamy. repair. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond.' Pope in R. gebeden j G. to offer it to public notice. ON. swoln. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. Einem einen guten tag bieten. bag. to pray one to dinner. to belly. Big. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. to bulge. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. ten. quiring something to be done. faurbjudan. bulk. bilge or bulge. OSw. inhabit Du. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. porrigere. to bend. The ON. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. ' Bug as a Lord.t. bog. belly. as G. bieden. a flexure. . From Gr. bidan. from belgia. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bouwen. swelling. AS. AS. byggia. . a suitor. P. to curve. BIGOT beidan. BID of stone. to build. to have one called before him. Bickelen. ewes." buque with E. by seek and beseech. inhabit. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. Two verbs are here confounded. These admitted into the ranks of their followers.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. pressing on one's notice. to move quickly. athird class. bis and in comp. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. be bug. A bjudan in anabjudan.uddered len heart. bauen to cultivate. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to bend. verbieten. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. form. qucero. byggan. bulge. — prepare. to swell. to inflate E. may plausibly be derived from Goth. The loss of the / gives Dan. bug. proud. bulky. becoming in Lat. It must be observed that the word bidja.

absque votorum religionis emissione. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. grey. borel. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. Bizocco. 1243. bighiotto. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. beghart.' translated by Muratori.a.. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. xx. A. beghino. begutta. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. ac labores manuum detestantes.D. Bighini. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. says. S. face VIII. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. which must not be confounded with begardo. alii Apostolici. dark-coloured cloth. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. a dunce. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. In the same way Fr. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. From bigio. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. honesti plebeii amictus. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. the other form Per te Tribune. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. as well as bizocco.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini.D. and also unlearned common men. G. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. vocati Fraticelli. Bizoccki. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. rustical. homespun cloth.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. a blockhead.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. sed maxim^ in muliebri. In a similar manner from bigello.' Chart.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. was formed bigello. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. vol. bighellone. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. 15 18. natural grey or sheep's russet. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. both men and women. Augustini dotarint. grey. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. &c. aliqui Begardi. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. and Q. A. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • .— Ducange. author quoted in N. 1499. biso.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. alii de paupere viti. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. with reference to A. the nobles to Rienzi. and hence the variations bigutta. clownish. perch^ i Terziari di S. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. all apparently derived from Ital.— BIGOT bigardo. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. 560.' says one of of bigio.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. Bighiotti). signifying bagmen or beggars. They wore a similar dress. corruption would easily creep in. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Flor.' Matthew Paris. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. Francisci communiter appellabant. coarse woollen cloth. bigio. bigotta. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Beguttce. ix. A. Hence the OE. probably from biso. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.' says an Venet. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. to adopt a similar course of life.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. D.D. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.

while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. bigardo. bullet. the swelling G. is properly a sealed instrument. p. w. horn of an animal. bisoch. the o changing to an i to express diminution. A lorum tam in — Diez. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. an ingot of gold or silver. Bilge. Fr. Gael. false pretender to reUgious feeling. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. Gascoigne in R. bile. bill in parliament. an ingot. beil. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. — — ' . Bilbo. the bill of a bird. to swell with rage). a stick to tighten the cord of a package. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). 3. and dziobas. bill of exchange. 2. Fr. gleischner (Frisch). Bilberry. as a bill of indictment. gan. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. bil.— — — . an axe. bigotto. obsolete.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. AS. plog-bill. e. a shackle. as craneberry. beghart. Sw. A slang term for a sword. a man who rests on a stick in walking. billot. a seal. ^Billiard. now A Bilboa blade. belgan. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. boeye. and a billard. Du. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. crowberry. fluctus maris. 'tumidi fluctus. bui. whortle-berries. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Thus we find in It. bolghe. a hypocrite. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. a seal. the trunk of a tree. boia. tepati. See Bulk. Lat. used in legal proceedings. a negro. belghen. billard also signified at billyards. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Sw. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . — bigardia. Kil. to strike. — Cot. bulghe. billet is the diminutive of this. in the same sense. Sw. dziob. procella Kil. to strike. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . a devotee. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. person of religion leading a loose life. blue . The origin of the term is probably from bole. The Du. top. Du. . 2. blamand. Aurelles. Billette. axe. e. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. BILBERRY nated. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. NFris. an adze . Johansen. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. to job. Piedmontese bigot. a short note. buoy [i. Bigin. from OSw. an axe. In English the meaning has received a further development. Bojce. . weapon . and in Lat. clog to a fetter. Prov. . Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. Billow. on. that of swell. an axe . b'olja. deceit. buail. Bille. An instrument for hewing. G. might be taken to express a hypocrite. Langued. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. AS. bizocco. a sword. bla-berry. bila. Dan. ferrese quam ligneae. fetters. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. See Bull. Sp.' bilio. Ludwig. at sea Billet. billet. bille. from Mid. bull-berries. Bill. Mundart. bulla.' mariners. dziobad. bill. In the same way are related Pol. Fr. So in Gr. a beak. a hatchet. genus vincu- Bilboes. dissimulation . inscriptum. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. Billet. Bohem. to be angry (i. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. a floating log to mark the place of some. a of the sea. however. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. the beak of a bird. abelthe fetter itself. a bigot or hypocrite. names bill-berries. bulgja.' in Richardson. seems to be rather the unda. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. loi. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. To defraud one of expected sinking. Dan. The proper meaning bylgia. AS. from the dark colour. billard or billart. Deutsch. of E. biilge. of boja. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. in the sense of a writing. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. bigot. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. I. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Du. OFr. a name given to a. topor. bwyell. blaa. boja. Tartuffe. buie. To Bilk. 5 * . bigot. Roquef. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. an axe. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. to pick a millstone. to peck. Kil.. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Lat. symbolum. Bill.

Sp. Bind. beorth. and of Fr. to bind together. is rendered in ON. in Swabia. bij sienigh. — Surrey in R. Fr. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. a gallinaceous bird. an eagle's young G.. a truss. bund. to swell. . or bin. Lith. Lat. To — — —D. to be derived from Ibfiaq. AS. a bitch applied also to other animals. bitill. or petze. biscuit. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. beran. Bisom. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. doubtless a stone. sc. fowl. 'tumens sequor. vescovo. bij sien. The proper meaning is a heap. to fasten it together. Birch. Bing. burt. It. expressed by Sw. is in Scotland applied to ivy. To Bite. bunki. The term ON. Du. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. — — . When compared with Fr. pittjo. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. a heap. also a stone weight. an overseer. and especially to a small poor horse. ge- from AS. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. hith. life. ON. hiindiiin. episcopus. bikkia. Fr. pinnii. to cook). a female stag. biscotto. AS. qui nisi propius Blind. IV. BITTACLE /Siof. Bittacle or Binnacle. Lith. ON. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. isfiw. Lat. Goth. evegue. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. AS. pin-ti. bundun. the young of birds . poultry. from pondus. Bin. to form a knotted structure. a corn. Sw. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. or ben-wood. properly a young pigeon. evesgue. beize. than vice versi. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. AS. lusciosus et myops. Bitch. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. to bring Biscuit. a heap. a pig petz. from \t3\. Sw. Sanscr. Lat. a house. evigue.68 BIN Bio-. H. . a bunch. G. bindan. AS. biclie. to net. bundle. See Breed. . Fr. the young of an animal. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. to bear. while bind-wood. band. a bitch. forth. See To Bear. to build. admota non Bit. bunga. viz. binda nat. a knob. earnes brid. videt. pundas. Dan. where the compass stands. berkas (z=:Fr.. bundt. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. pinnu. v. a habit- Binnacle. bita. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Lap. piiiti. In like manner from knot. a weight of 48 pounds. G. binge. Fr. by the verb knit or net. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bindan. betsel. from Lat. or baked. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. piccione. Bindweed. copus. Bailey./«idere. Lat. AS. to knot nets for fish. bircej Sw. a bear. poule. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. beitsl. bundt. Bisson. truss. to bulge.' and the like. bitacora. beisseii. twice cooked. See Belly. terial. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. i. a weight. by binda. bunch. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. pullus. It. wine. brut. e. bjork. to bind at . to hang. Goth. i. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. pippione. a hind or female stag. bunt. a bitch. The bitol. bord. . to wreathe. to twine. V. beitan. . — Kil. &c. a little dog. propius videre bij sicndc. Bizened. nodus. Bird. bhurja. are commonplaces. a brood or hatch of young. brid. biccej ON. bundle. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. Then added division in a granary. a female dog hindinn. G.. Bine. overlooker. bigne. — See Bittacle. . I would derive the verb to knit. Thus I suppose the Gr. Fr. bund. from Gr. EpisETTiTOOTToe. G. Habitacle. We — A Birth. j). — properly near-sighted. to plait. habitacle. Bisen. a bump or knob. Gr. bin-wood. which is expressed in E. E. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space.

yellow . Blabber-lip. In a similar manner Gael.. pale. 'fuscus. even humour seemed and beuin. are two strong posts standing up on the deck.' It would thus acle. to talk much. beuni. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. faded. blabbre. . then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. biti. a large lip. I blaber. to watch. white lead. Again. to let out whai should have been concealed. mouth. "uivac. It. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . ON. blob. dark. Gael. quick. blesmer. faded. beitr. blabaran. blabbern. pale. 't huisje. bites. Bivouac. To Blab the anchor. Sp. Mund. to chops. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. bitts of Bitts. G. ' plabraich. a stammerer. So Fr. plappem. /ealo-/or. round which the cable is made fast. a continued soft sound. Fr. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. pale yellow. Lydgate. AS. pale brown . Alex. from wachen. term. is placed. bleg. things —Palsgr. ON. blebberis. butorj OE. — Hollyband. Why presumest And laam's asse. bitones. indistinctly. blanc. blabhdach. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus.' G. synonymous with baber-lip. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). Wit hung her mourn. cut. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. to loll it out. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. thoughtlessly . Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. garrulous. pale. Fr. Bav. to wax pale or bleaked. AS. white. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Sp. to the sharpness of a weapon. maculS. babbling. x. on. as of water gently beating the shore. . G. ON. baboyer. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. beiwache. Mag. bihovac. Du. Hald. Hal. ^chops. v. NE.D. pins of the capstern. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. bitor.. a* mast . ^aj'/^r. bird of the heron tribe. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. to speak Dan. viz. blobach. the palebleff. from whence we have adopted the. as is seen in sputter and splutter. on the one side.€i. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. to To blabber blabber with the lips. yellowish. apparently from its biting the tongue. confusedly. Applied in Hin ON. Gael. Fr. Cot. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. leohte . blob. a flapping.' by Gudmund. Percy Soc. Cotgr. In Legrand's Fr. blunt we say it will not bite. ' Biovac. stutterer. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Goth. a childe dothe gasouille. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. out the tongue. obscurus. blac-hleor ides. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. —Neumann. to babble. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. bleikr. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. blake. blubber-lipped. Bittern. gulblakk. The bitas. light-coloured. blob.. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. gabble. Black. a large coarse lip . Deutsch. unintelligible talk plabair. Pl. whiteness (candor sine It. fallow fawn-coloured. bleich. shining. bitter. ON. Bleak. blab. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. blepLith. Je N. as in that of pale and white on the other.plab is used to . night guard. mona mid Dan. is apprehension of danger. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. whitish. a babbler. babbe. as of wings . to bivouac. to babble.— Blabber-lip. baitrs. Se bleek. pale yellow . . — cheeked maid. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. Ai-mstrong. an additional watch. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. Sw. or water beating gently on the beach . a tati. mouth. A a rail. a beam in a house or ship. 332.). black. 156. a shelter for the steersman. as of a body falling into water. Fr. To or he can speake. discoloured . first. bittour. blakk. Bohem. shine. in contempt. The Gz. quoted by Ihre. Sp. Mantuan babbi. In like manner E. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. small guard-house. Hist. — Collins in Hal. an edge is sharpest sword. Fieldfare. dusky. Sp. iroxafealo. whitish. bittore. blank. Nagt huis. his blacan light. brunblakk. plabartaich.' by Haldorsen. corrupted in Fr. chatter babbler . fallow . buft". bitr. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. 't kompas huis. a fluttering noise. white. blakki. biacca.

blasphemare. Fr. biastner. to purl. pladdern. blister. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. bladder. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. blanqne. revile. Du. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Blame. tattle. gabble. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. as Lat. chatter. 1854. to shine. or a mass of bubbles. leafy. and the agitation of liquids. plat. bladder. vagrants. to blanch. p. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. to shine. Fr.—Blatter. also jabber. to bleak in the sun. bladra. blactra. blather. blein. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. biasimare. G. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. as. Blancli. Cot. the origin of . do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. or as E. the ON. to make or become white blanc. Du. . a bubble. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. e. Bacon in R. blad. bladeren. piatto. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. dial. bladre.— Kil. Dan. Blade. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683.. &c. to vocifer- — Cot.— ^o thehotsun. Sir. Bav. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. is identical with Flanders borlen. blatter. broad. slush. and thence to babble. Sw. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. foolish talk. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. the leaf of a tree. leaf of a. or of an oar G. with all other loose idle masterless men. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. his meat burnt. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. — rura. But perhaps a more Gr. name originally given Blackguard. — — — to jabber. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. Besides the examples of this connection given above. rogues and wanderers. in R. plate. Play in Nares. bladder . pluddre. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. and G. pimple. Du. a. See Blubber. Fr. blinken. Reliqu. blame. to glow. mus-blackt. Du. . coat. chatter. Fr. I am degraded from a cook. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. G. Now. Gr. blegne. as scullions. blanchet. Du. to glitter. Perhaps from blegen. and wandering men and women. . a white or unwritten ticket. to omit. Lat. Blanket. also white woollen cloth . It. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. a bubble. madder. moere. 7. shining. 5/^a/^ of colour. skola and thwatta. white. which we . probably ate. and others engaged in dirty work. Dan. as. pallido. or blafich. linkboys. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. black. a leaf. blank. G. livido . blanc. plat. boys. on. — Sw. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. irXariQ. pass over.—Blatant. flap of a Du. contracted from bladeren. whitish. to —Blaspheme. and he shall be sure to have O. a boil. leaf. blather. a bladder or pustule. Blain. to bubble. a pustule . PI. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. bladder. blatt. mire. blad. blister. variable than the signification of words designating colour. blegen. dripping-pans. The present forms then should be classed with blether. candidus. Hist. to disappoint. mud. —^Webster. to To bellow. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. — . blister. 86. D. to blow. and Q. to Hence Ital. smore. to dabble in water. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. Torriano. To Blare. mud. blister. as blader. also tanned by the sun. roar. Wott. whitish. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. and E. Dan.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. blaeren. cited in N. blaere. waschen. Eadmer. on. a blanket a bed. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. vagabonds. a buible. Blank "verse. defame. branches . bladdra. To blank. smother. leaves. Blank. blanchet. reproach. sheet of paper. white.. borrelen. pXaatpiiiiHv. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. —We Bladder. The radical bubble. commonly called the Black-guard. board. tree. blena. blahen. a blank ticket. Jan. blether. from candere. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. imbrunire. Sw. Sc. polished. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. speak impiously. most complete example of leafy structure. blatter. blanchir. The old Dutch form of the word is blader.

blesse. a shield. coloured prints. much plausibility.whence the Fr. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. Dan. a loud noise. a flame. visui patet. g. a shining spot. blossi. ill-speaMng their proper colours . The other derivation. Golden Book in R. baladrar. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. Du. blaser vid. As Kilian. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. To Blaze. in the same way as we 2. to publish. G. blys. blose. Troilus and Cressida. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. friend Cornelius. also only pains and excellent endurance. blaodh. First from the E. But now. how. like the in English. to bellow. I. splendour. proclaim the virtues of. Lye. Gael. stultd loqui. is the imme. . Blanches illuminies. blaesen. to blow . blaodhrach. braise. as a verb. whence Blazonry. — ' — stroy. and which. to publish the praises. a MS.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. blcese. Du. AS. Gudmund. blase. an empty and two theories are proposed. blus.). shield or surcoat. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. a torch .the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. Kil. . blcest. blatero. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. each of boaster. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. indeed. used. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. Dan. blesse. A blaze is so intimately Then. the noisy. pale. the matter incendiary . Prov. brasa. blaeteren. G. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blateroon. blezo. ON. a funeral oration . a flame . to set on fire. it is manifest. and.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blysa. declaratio. a shout. Du. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. blaze. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. a lamp blasere. ON. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. kept up. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. See Blare. Du. e. a coat of arms. to blow. Fr. beast. bleis. blase. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast.— . ing of arms. Blatant. has also blencke. A strong flame. or blazening. gloriosus. a voice Jr. The origin of this exSp. blasonner. Cot. blis. laudes (Kil. redness . to de. boasting. bliEsan. OE. Sc. Sw. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. of an animal. a flame. might spring from the same origin by a . oron-blasare. brasa. live coal . Du. embraser. To blast. fire. Blast. baladron. also blazon or the blazSpenser. blcEsan. Blaze. to spread news. The AS. noisy blor. on whose behalf the herald appeared. blcesett. besides blesse. is used in the sense of manifestatio. bawling. an conium. in that of praise. ther it was erst not knowe. also praeblczse.' to fastum . Fr. Cot. to cut off prematurely. blaterare. — Elazen. to proclaim. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason.sound a trumpet. AS. magnilo. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. somewhat different train of thought. blass. quus. oured. blast. and to make him word blaze. — — ' : bless. 2. clamorous. blorach. . blason. She roade at peace through his heraldry. Du. to blaze Sp. or to the sound which it produces. abroad. a blast. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. proflare tues. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. bles. loud . to trumpet forth. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. — ^Jam. A gust of wind. thraso. might And sain. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. If armour. ventosus. senses. With inversion of the liquid. i. To blow AS. magniloquus. a whisperer. to blow. blcEsan. by stripping off a portion of the bark. is from AS. blasa. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. Sw.' painted or figured . blasoen. a torch. abroad. 'op een trompet blaazen. blason. among other . light-coli. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . bldsse. commendation blason funebre. blazen. to extol. biter. Fr.

Richardson. is Blench. a spot. to wink the eye. to humbug. to make him feel blank. to disgrace one's name. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. 419. wanness. Sir J. To Bleat. while the agent ac- From . The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. pimple . yet he doeth not for all that Cot. Fr. blema. A Blab. And now are these but mansbond (i. . bleikr. to blear one's eye. blot. Bejaune. or blemish. flack. Mac.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. tutnan is a cloud. avoid looking it in the face. to spot. boggle at something. p. bldmi. Bailey. a spot. to cast a mist before the eyes. Bleb.D. the formal equivalent of English wink. blarren. The term blear. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. blister. on. blakna. Blear. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. plama. . . souiller. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. livor. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. and thence to a bruise. ' . in the expression reputation. to wink at it. to soil. blot. a been distinct. light-coloured. wheal. Bleed. Gower in R. from on. sugillatio. confound him. to spot . Ancren Riwle. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. as of dust or mist . a blemish in one's 2. A stain in a man's reputation. c. Blear-eyed j having sore i. inflamed eyes. Blancher. to stain one's honour or reputation. from the than schal I go. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. color plumbeus bldma. tacher. sinen langen tranen. spSt. pale . to whiten by exposure to sun and air . shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. start vor den augen. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. to start away from. I chaunge colour. ^Blencher.v. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. AS. 242. wan. livid. Palsgr. Blemisli.filerren. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. a red watery eye. BLENCH obfusco. a blotch plerr. . a blot or smear blanking one. (faith or creaunce) Be war. or blemysshen — blaken. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. tumanid. exposed. blink. See Black. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. geplerr. drop of water. goda nainn. bloken. a boil. See Blood. 115. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. paleness. From the OFr. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. bleakness. the livid colour of a bruise. dead-coloured Cotgr. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. novice. spla7nU sie. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. darkness of vices. to bleach. ' — — ' : — — . Sw. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. which are blurred with the have shewed you. a stain. Schmel. a disgrace. to blare been weeping.'he cried till the tears ran down.P. to become livid. Bleak. To salir. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. . ' — — eye. splamii!. See Black. or to low as oxen. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. guenchir. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. ' He blarrede or roar. pale Du. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. As AS. blench came to be used for a trick.' God in his wordes. ^Xiixaoftai. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. a spot. a fault. To totally different from the foregoing. to cry or weep. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. like one that has long P1. B. Gr. whitish. G. to bleat as sheep. — blink the question is to shrink from it. N. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. blemissemeiit. blesmissure. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. a spot.' to deceive one. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. And By a similar metaphor Pol. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. So in Sw. Manuel de Pecch&. blcecan. Pol. — — R. blesmir. what blenched him therwith.' the devil makes a vain back. pier vor den augen eyes. blur before their eyes.

blinkard . plonsen. gives blinzen. to plunge. happy . to pro. blican. OHG. blessed. Blazena Bea. Du. Needle. to glitter ful . blinzdugig. bleg. but by no means therefore a pre. tire. to churn. a. happy . make these hands 3. to twinkle. to lighten. blink. to dash wine with water. thou knave. Swab. pockets. as in Du. is I shall Gurt. graceful. . and joys of Paradise bliden. glitter. the G. a blick-ooghen. j). blicksem. well blahy blick and blink. . . a look. blogi. G. Wtb. OHG. . trix. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. Sc. doors. to glitter. F. weaklaveny. a wink With the bletsian. to act like a — . burn up. to merry. ^Jam. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. To Blend. . blithe blis. be glad flash. lightning sweet blago. blind. Blink. a dead nettle. wink. Swiss (obsolete). a gleam.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. blac. a blessing. to be blind. Tany. blazeny. an entry which leads to nothing . a nounce happy. to consecrate . Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. giving (Fr. G. blinde fenster. blide. livid. glance. AS. 375. to dabble in water. cascultare. happily. blicken. tative source of the word is wholly lost. . with or without the nasal. To blunder water. wink of sleep . latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. . mixing in general. the Slavonic languages. a flash. Sc. a. riches blajennii blicksem. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. lightning. bliss look . to dilute too much . money. Blind. Blight. blink-eyed. a wink. false windows. to glitter . blithe. lighten. blend.blinken. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. to shine. joyful. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. to blithsian.wink . AS.blinze. bluiter. flash of light . blinzler. goods. or nettle which does form. glitter. tless —Gamm.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. sweet. in potters' language. blidu.nasal. well blagaya. blitzen. AS. blahos. to make a rumbling noise. Biglotton. blitz. blicken. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Du.Q. Du. blatida. Russ. The inblissful. Deprived of sight. pearance of the blighted . I hold thee a grote thee. blind- ON. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. . seems the simple netel. The term then self or others.D. to flash. blag. AS. . For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. blindr. ON. Nares. glitter. sertion of the nasal. lightning. as a vatn i vin. vious one in the order of formation. Dan. to bless. to stir or puddle. Thence apblinds. to fall into water with a sudden noise. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. a glance. . joy.eyed. a glance Swiss blenden. to glance. (=bene dicere). to bless . blanssen. blindselen. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . sung. liquid filth to bluther. blich-fiur. Kiittner. glimpse. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. Du. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. A . lovely Bohem. — . plotzen. To Bless. good. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. csecubrandish. blende. gladness.corn. to shut the eyes G. joy . representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. blaziti.' To — blunge clay. joy. — Goth. Bliss.blunda. dazzle . to bluiter up with water. to shine. Du. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. to rejoice. also to wink.not sting thiiren. Owl and Nightingale. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. as a blind entry.. to dazzle . — when he — Bailey. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. although in the in the next article. From the action of the hand making Sw. blund. fortunately. glad. Serv. shine. blotzen. Sw. — A A — . blendian. blessed. as taschen. to make happy. . III. ' Pl. moment. to shine. mix from blekken. blahoslaviti to twinkle. Paradises blidnissu. . to bluiter. De Sonne ' verblekken. bludder. G. G. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. to rejoice. —Brera. pale. riches . blinzeln. blet. happy . window-blind. blissian. blick. blago. as in the case of blaze. blincken. to — make it thick and muddy. Pol. to shut the eyes. to mix. The sound of k before an s. the verb to bless is some. readily passes into a /. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blent. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink.

a blister . Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. a bubble. blister. it is must be observed. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. buckle. a little blisg. — — — — — From blabber. in Nares. weak. and easily changes its place. kostua. blinzel-maus. blide. blobber. A solid blouquette blisters. and bouclette.—Bloater. bloated. — Sw. pausten. in the sense of a soft tint. senting the dashing of water. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. blindsehn. — . a . as if soaked in water. The roots /. to dash liquid. as a blab of ink. . soaked. ON. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. boucler. as blinzeln. a blister. or the like. ^Jam. In Fin. gentle OHG. a See Blot. to block up the way. blaud. while Lat. to blissom. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. soft. any lump or mass of things. is formed squad. soft. Blister. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. or blinde-kiih. in bulk. separate portion. plub. Du. bausen. blot. a small lump of anything thick. must be referred to AS. biota. Sw. blab. and F. to blow. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. a bubble. . The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. like clot. —Bailey. ON. cooking. a blot or spot. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. G. and inarticulately. Dan. mass. sloppy dirt. having an unsound swollen look. I believe. formed spot. in the lump or mass of wood.pusta. signifying in the first instance to soak. mild. blotfisk. bloc. or the mark which it makes. soak in water cured fish. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. blaustem. giving a sound of the foregoing nature.. in gusts. Sc. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. See Blot. blindman's-buff. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. blautr. fish blind person. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. It may be formed Blithe. to soak. blobbes or droppes of water. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. blcesma. blithe. N. Dan. repre- pusula. inde humiditate tumidus. expressed by cognate roots. To Bloat.—Bloated. busten. A under this name was imported into England. B. The blow E. mild. to swell. puff. blote. fiustula. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. blesme. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Block. Langued. blister blasan. shells. Hence. a ram. pods. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. Sw. Lat. strawclod. joyful. stone. Egillson. Blob. buclde. blubber. blot. blad.plisg. blijde. Hence E. For this. To Blissom. Gael. to desire the male. to to puff and be noisy. whence blast. and pisg. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. Fr. blod. to steep. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. lagga i blot. to bubble. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. Of sheep. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. a bubble. to breathe hard. or bleb. bluster. must be classed with forms like Gr. pimple. To a smoking or drying by the fire. a drop of water. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. Bleb. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. Goth. soft. pusula. bleiths. frequentative. also to set See Bless. a block or log en bloc. bluyster. Blond. like manner the coloured. from blcsr. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. Bav. Blob.— Bailey. merciful ON. a lumpish head plubach. husks. Fr. or is inserted or omitted. speaking rapidly any . viscid. is also used in the sense of swelling . . Gael. an unformed mass. blond. Svt. pustula. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. a blain. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. bloc. Kil. taken altogether. the unhewn bole of a tree. Boyd in Jam. Jonson. blidr. Cotgr. to close it with a solid mass. kostia. And so from squatter. . orbicular. to blow. blot. ^vaaa. Thus we have blab and babble. B. to blow. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. The stem or trunk of a tree. a dirty blister. bubble and blubber. swell. round. light yellow. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blouca and Fr. W. — Blob.— Hal. G. Du. Ibid. to cure by smoke. as in E. Mod.

glose. platz-voll. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. platz-regen. blysa. to blaze . straw. Blotcli. to squander. blotte. splendour . to slap.^ Kil. platsch-voll. blust. a deli. a cow-dung. PI. pladdern. blase. Schwenck. The G. to blaze. to glow. blat. pale. a Halm a. bloi. a spot or blot. to scribble. ON. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. proto shine with bright colours . of a blow with something lios. AS. blosa. plot of land is a spot or small rage. bleistern. — Blotch-paper. blond. a Usaae. pale tint. . bit by bit.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. to grow pale). . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. 2. coloured (Diaz. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. E. gfyssa. . mud. blondheid. ON. Sw. a lump. plattata. . — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. blond is used in blatt. a. parallel form with ON. Florio). spots in the sun. to slap. to dabble in water. wan. Ir. bloemen. Erploten. Fris. to blush . blus. It. — gush. ^Bleed. bluish. bldmi. soft or flat. brilliancy. OFr. platschern. in v. gammon. a flower. Harmar in R. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. . a water ploutsche. Blood. glossi. to splash. Lat. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. a drop of water or colour. Wflz<^«. blotter. blad. a blow. bleustern. blawels. Blad. bloetnsel. Stalder. bloed. whence plader. as the skin or hair. glasi. to strike with such these objects exhibit. livid . bloeme. plants which prepares the seed. S-wiss pladern. Fris. a nature. couleur livide. Sw. blue. Schilter. livid marks. — Cot. bliihen. Blot. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). Du. —Barbour. a flower. to From . Prov. to flame. white blatte. blaeuw. Du. Blow. sbiadare. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. shine . Dan. — Stalder . E. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. plotterwis. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. probably connected with Pol. to sparkle. Pl. fall down . platt-voll. blomstr. Du.platter. to patter. blaeuwe ooghe. blue . Blossom. blosem. plottra. a beater. Fr. G. bloto. Sw. blou. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. or the sound of it . — — .— . blatte. E. blond en blaauw slaan. blostma. blauwel. blue. a The form platschefz. colour of the cheeks. on. to dash down. (of cattle) to dung. kobladde. clod. yellowish It's G. bletister. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. Plots. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. bloedsd. to glisten . blodelsa and blawelsa. G. the bright colour of the cheeks . bloi.blauschlagen. Russ. Bloom. fall to overflowing. fair in en blat vand. to be red. Sc. to squat or lie close.properly to scatter liquid . skam. a black eye Du.D. Schmid. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. pale biavo. blaeuwen. blut. blosma. a gush of milk . to spot or blot. blotting-paper. It should be of filth blak-blatte. blose. blady. dirty spot on the cheek. from the bright colour which 7'vci. pladern. plet. blowen. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . a flower. lump of anything soft to blad. Jios. AS. blosen. . dial. blue. to dirty. kuh-plader. Hatch. ^lys. light. bloutre. . ])erly Du. lidmr. bfys. splashing full. great leaf of cabbage. lump flower. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. to strike . flower. bliithe. See Blow. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. glus. to blot the land was in a leme. to dabble in water . tions of sound similar representaare formed G. Dan. cow-dung. Du. glister . from G. en blau ach.' the rain is driving and blue . leme. to strike with something soft or flat. biado (of which the evidence plattern. yellow. spot pletter i solen. the bright to blot paper morsels. to dash down Du. to be red with blot. lustre. a blot or spot. bliise. blue. a blaze. a torch blusse. blois. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. E. E. See Blow. dial. j^ blottir. Ein platsch milch. a pelting shower). blooth. gleam. Dan. Wendish blodo. blistaf. Sc. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. redness. to exists in biadetto. gloss. E. bldts. a Schmid. D. bloi. to shine . ON. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. . ' — .

the same root which gives the designation of the blood. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. pale OFr. G. fem. a bruise. glede. in E. dirty. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. disordered in head-dress. blazi. Danneil. Pludern. — — Mundart. blubbern. Chaucer. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. Mund. bliithe. /idXavoc. It. to gabble. plubraich. to'disorder.. — . bliihen. grey. chatter. blodern. coup. pale . Prov. bluod. blduen. fiubbem. blodelsa. Blowze. bludder. foam. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. gloeden. br. — To blubber. G. Lat. In agitation of water. blodyn. . heath. and the forms mentioned under Swab. disordered. closely difference in of blabber. sound like water. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. blava. bruised Prov. toused. to with Bohem. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. puff. withered. glowing coal . E. to blow. fied vowel. v. . The primary sense is to shine. glow. a herb Gr. to glow.D. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. bloeden. to blow. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. boil. bliuwan.to blossom. The interchange of an initial gl. boasting. to bruise Roquef.' — Palsgr. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. . 1. Pl. green. glas. wan. plubartaich. Bret. gliihen. MHG. a continued noise of agitated water. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blao. blubonciti. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. bloom. bluh. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. bl. B. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. gUd. blau. a paddling in wate r. AS. to fade. a blow. bldt. a blast. Deutsch. |8A)'. a gurgling . A. to gush. grow pale. glas. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. blebber. -ii. Gr. We . blahen. blau. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. where the word may be compared bliggman. Pl. The aUied forms. vi^ound. And. d in Sc.D. flower OHG. to breathe G. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. Gael. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. These are — Bludder.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. pale. cheeks bedabbled with tears. like manner Lat. bloi. pludern. OHG. plustrig. blaw j biavo. Du. Her sweet bloderit face. the red fluid of the body .D. ler. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. to hard. is very frequent. a. . Blowzy. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. OFr.Jlasa. —SchmelIt. blady. — Bluther. to inflate. glansj Ir. to blurt out. to bubble up. bledniai. bliihen. Tumbled. to fade. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. especially with respect to the hair. The radical sense is shown in Gael. Jla-re. bloeyen. fqded. is confined to the — . to flourish. Bav. to exhibit bright colours. blust. blosen. or gr. P1. to beat with a mallet. G. bloes. — To Blubber. a Blossom. Du. Notwithstanding the We . to show flower. 92. sponds with Sw. blois. to Plodern. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. plusig. to beat. Raynouard. Kil.xo'»'. florere. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. bluther. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. and thence. It is howbliuwen. blut. 1292. to make blue. marking some application from that bladder. — .— . red-faced bloted wench. E. y\r)yi»v. ^Jam. glaodh and blaodh. blubbern.nify bubble. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker).D. grug. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. in rapid or indistinct utterance. sense. a flower. little apparent resemblance. to blow. . blezir. blazir. wan. Deutsch. to glow. w. to spot. to guggle. may cite for example G. and closely allied with Du. jabber. To Blow. gloeyen. ' BLUE or guggling. blass. plodern. Wtb. Chaucer. piusen. 2. bruk. to make bubbles in drinking. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. G. into flower. a fat. 51. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. gliihen. flower w. OHG. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. tache. pale. blue. blow. to breathe bouteiUis. To Blow. . Langued. to puff up. blawan. to shine with bright From colours. Blue. blue . blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water.' Hamburgh Archives. meurtrissure Roquefort. bloemen. to fade. to flap like loose clothes. plubair. corre. Sik upplustem.

applied to green as well as blue. earth and water mixed together. bulmanner. It is remarkable however that the E. a shore abruptly rising.in mud or water. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. Bodge. to confound. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. planus. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. pale yellow.• BLUFF biado. blandum. a boisterous violent man. glundr. bloi. I blonder. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. which is rendered by Florio. And blunders on and staggers every pace. See Blurt. pale. Bohem. to become pale. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Blaffart. G. Roquefort. originally growing up turf and water. blutter. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. flodderen (Weiland). Biada. je perturbe. . for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. A bluff manner. confusion. biava. like Du. polter-hans. G. blunder. from the Lat. to dabble Biglotton E. The Du. The Du. blunderhead. tutte le semente ancora in erba. Kil. in water dobbelen. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Pol.D. buller-bas. a fore. Then with the nasal. to become pale or wan. Palsgr. Kiittner. sbiavare. rustic. and bustle . and biavo (Diez). In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. flav-us. puddle. pale straw-coloured. Analogous forms are Du. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. dial. mistake. fallow. bUich. 't — —Hal. Bluff. Lat. Hence a Slcelton in R. to plump into the water. mix It. G. yellow. poltern. E. G. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Altieri. to blunge clay. jaune. Hence we pass to Prov. Roquefort. — Pr. Hal. abrupt. to mix it up with water. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. ploffen. blunder. Du. pludder. to fade). a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . Blunderer or blunt worker. herbe. Dief. something. and Du. — . to work To blunder out a fronto. blunt. from an imitation of the sound. blake (identical with AS. herauspoltem or sloping shore. is. verdure. blue. having a bluff forehead. Dryden in R. Kil. disturb. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla.— . Blavoyer. glundra. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. and metaphorically. blue. corn. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Romance bluiter. Du.//aay. to fall suddenly on the ground. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. fawn-coloured. blave is moreover. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. plo-wy. bawling. To blunder is then.make a noise. plomp. bullern. corn. sense of yeUow. superficie plani. blaf. - reddish yellow. from the brilliant green of the young E. OFr. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. as well as biado. trahir. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. as well as sbiadafe. Pl. Dan. liebefactor. an ill-done job. We Blunder. Blunt. Halma.' trouble. — — — . a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. non rotunda. Pm. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. contrasted with the dle. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. biada. blahir. all representing the — . a blunderbuss. polterer. to dabble in the mud. Supp. From G. bluish. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. in the same way as from It'. to blunder water. . See Blunt. to agitation of liquids. It then signifies something done at once. blue. Sw. Ditton in R. verdoyer. The word is here synonymous with amplus. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. blond. tradire to Fr.. falb. bleu et blanc. and sbiadare. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. in plur. yellowish red. without image or superscription. discoloured {plowiee. and then generally idle talk. a flounder. used for the work of an unskilful performer. or an abrupt manner. his business with much noise. devenir vert blavoie. buller-bak. Bladum. blanssen. to lose colour. biavo. speech. a plain coin herausplatzeu. segetes virentes. to become pale or livid. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. sloppy drink. find accordingly It. like the Celtic glas. blavus. has donder-bus. pale) is provincially used in the. Flor. blac. to puddle. It is a nasal form of such words as blother.

appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. but of something soft thrown on the ground. blockish. bleak. It is from this notion of suddenness. inaKil. blout. blott. to make a noise of such a Stalder. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. azure. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson.plompen. to blunt a thing out. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . Pol. rude. biotto. naked. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. figuratively. Probably radically hlekit. plumbeus. dull. identical with E. Ford in R. and hath swiche languor in his soul. Blunt. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. Stalder. Molof something wet. to handle a thing bluntly. united in Gael. Chaucer. in Richardson. bluntschen. mit etwas heraus-platzen. awkward. plotsen. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. of a knife which not cut. and the like. viz. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. . plotz. heavy. Plump. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. a simpleton. it will be well to point out a sense. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. . without the nasal. Halma. V. without preparation. Sc. pointless. is thrown. massive. pressions. insensible. thick. naked. bare or blunt. plump. or blab out a thing Kiittner . wan. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other.— — — . G. The blait body. V. rudely. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. sheepish. A light blue colour. Sc. plump. heavy. unwrought. blatte. Sir T. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. Swab. as cow-dung. clownish. fooUsh. plonsen. plump. A modification of the same root. bus. a blot. Plump mit etwas umgehen. a bluntie. V. heavy. void. blunt. to bring it suddenly out. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. Dan. as in E. and in the same sense. awkwardly. homo stolidus. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. obtusus. bare. naked. clumsy. Plontp.to fall into the water. G. Du. —D. Now the Swiss bluntsch. maol. hebes. to plump down. Then cometh indevotion. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. that it not easy to discover the connection. Kiittner. bare. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. It. plains The large bech. edgeless. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Bare and blunt. unfledged Sw. viz. poor Sc. unceremonious manner. duU.pludse. stupid fellow. Dan. The syllables blot. — — pidus. obtusus. without Maolaich. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. Bluntet. — Kil. exactly corresponding to the G. or heraus plumpen. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. F. blait. silly. dull. from the loud report a fire-arm. It will be seen that the G. plump. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. Sw. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. with or without the nasal. plutz T)\i. blait. Blaitie-bum. good plump person. —D. as Sw. blunt. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. — blunt. is The word dull. blunsch. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. platzen. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. to blurt. More in Richardson. nature. blunt. Q. unpolished. blue. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. Won by degrees. inactive Swiss bluntschi. bloss. rough. blotta sanningen. blat. without horns. pale. nis. blunder. forestis. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. absence of preparation. fling down . a thick and will person. blutten. naked. Woddis. to plump into the water. through which a man is so blont. to make foliage. ang. Kiittner. ineffectual reason. and an unintelligent. used in both senses.—D. platz-regen. raw. bald. like a thing thrown down with a noise. blunt. a portion To inquire for slaves. dial. down. that the sense of bare. biosso. plump J to plump out with it. the absence of sharpness. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. seems to be derived. it will be observed. and.

a Jam. a board or plank. Pl. The to radical meaning D. Du. To tinct. bdta. puffen. a blotch. Slur. violent. botte. Du. and the latch . Fl. voce intonare. Blush. ader. lacerta. Dan. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. coarse. Du. Sc. a grows to a great bigness. skin. Swiss blodern. edge. pludern. Supp. bludder. boa. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. blunt. Wright's ed. to blur. bludder. Wtb.y. to bark. boord. to blaze. G. 9396. margin.the syllable bot. a blow . an edge. a bladder . Fl. blaere. blosken. pfludern. to puff. See Blossom. blusse i ansigtet. blaffen and baffen. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. to smear. boistous. bhis. blasen and See Burr.— . BLUR Boar. will fly up. blur. margin. common. AS. To splirt. bur. Gael. De Boat. chicchere. pausten. Wallace. batello. blotch and botch. the Brem. a dangling object. it implies that it is empty sound. to sound like water boiling. and swimmeth very well. blarra. bot-voet. and when applied to vaunting language. to dirty. as splurt to splutter. to give a crack. table. 1. bit. baban. baiag. bleuster. Du.plodem. to spurt out. — ' Dief. to blush. an ear of corn. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. to brag grande loqui. Related to blutter. crack made by bursting open. to threaten.v. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. a flurt with one's fingers. literally edge-wood. swagger. and boisterous. G. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. beacon fire. a border.—Bobbin. both used in the sense of boasting. this root are formed Sc. Hal. to blore. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. blast. bustuous. flat. whence bordvidr. Du. to snuff. is formed Du. to talk quick and indistinctly . blot. short pieces of any filthy mud. like the parapets (viggyrdil. bar. 274. sudden. c. fringe. . bluther. Gael. lindwurm. AS. bot. of the word seems . boccheggiare. . primarily signify loud noise. to be out of temper. a. a baU of thread the mud. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. To Blurt. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Fr. to glow . margin. a torch blusse. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. bausen. to chatter. a small lump. blirt of greeting. a mist before the eyes plerren. Sverris Saga. to endeavour to terrify. strong. to blubber. cluster. pluddre. BOB 79 — To Blur. ON. aper. . pustern. to bounce. to crying. a tassel. Board. dial. — To Bob. bakke bleustern. then applied to indistinct vision . planks or boards. Boa. — From mouth. geplerr. See Boisterous. gabble. E. violent G. to breke. outward edge. a short thick body. P. Boa. stupid. — — . to disfigure with E. to make a noise with the mouth. stellio. bora. bord. 'Ba. to guggle. to dabble. blot. cheeks glow. to rumble. large. puddle. planks raised up outside the roofs. Bav. a club foot . and E. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. a tassel. ground. Bluster. G. a burst of tears. To blow in puffs. to dangle. ever-swin. bord. burra. blose. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. mire. or blurt with one's mouth. bluter. bladdra. Hal. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. to puff. eafor. to puff. bdd.' — Red Riding-hood. 29. It. hot. and Du. brett. bliise. Comp. to blurt out. Du. — a blaze. bobbin. acre. 156. It. splurt and spirt. blaste?i. Pull the bobbin. my dear. To move quickly up and down. blubber. to blow. — — — * Boast. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. cocodrUlus. dull. Boost is used for the boast. boot. a blot. The elision of the d is very to chatter. as in Du. on. edge. and wrapped round a little piece of wood.pusten. w. AS. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. to make mouths. beer. blaustem. or bog also thread. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. Du. table. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. bdtr. border. eber. Sc. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. Halma. gabble Sw. rude. As the as. to roar. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. or backwards and forwards. imitated by has also In like . blurra. A large snake.plerr. Kil. e. OE. . to make a noise in boiling. to jabber. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. the sound of a blow poffen. &c. rude. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. bord. properly noisy. to say bluntly. a smear. V. an end or stump. pof. dial. . to render indisbhir. Bot zeggen. be a crack or loud sound. a mistiness. plump. blodern. Fr. E. It. bobine. Schmeller. berd.D. board. i. blader. Lat. To brag and to crack. borrar. bateau. Explained by Jam. whence bob.

nave of a wheel. . arise E. bodig. thrust with something pointed. gag. baboyer. an awl. to push with the horns. bodilo. bodene. to butt. To Bodge. bod. bodnu. bole. exhibit another modification of the root. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. mud. unsteady nature of a soft substance. to fail. then from the yielding. bogle. a spur. corpset. bo tich. badyti. bot. See To Botch. * To Boggle. goggle.! . boll. gagoula. a puddle. stuttering. bodak. bogach. moving backwards and forwards. Lap. bagges. Lith. a body. quakmg. to blurt a thing out. the trunk of the animal body. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. 3. toss. rounded. bogadh. potahha. nodding. a round body both. . Ir. corset. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. Ptg. to make a mow at. Ptg. to prick. pall. and the word is well explained by Bailey. gagei. ^Jam. is identical with Fr. bayonet . swelling. or stem of a tree. cask bottich. the stem of a tree . to dabble or paddle.gmh:t. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. patsche. — Grandg. dies. bob. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. bodat. belly. a messenger . agitate. strike with the horns. of which the E. a prick. To portend good or bad. the thick part of anything. Thy i. point. AS. expression hogglin an bogglin. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. anything soft. Banff. To mock. to stammer. or bag. And waves. fickle . bogadaich. to deliver a message.\\i\c\iset. daubed or dabbled with blood. quagmire). butt. To Bode. to waver. to make. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . the boss of a buckler. a . gog in gog-mire. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. busti. gago. With With this we charged again We bodged again. See Baber-lipped. stumpy. bodetz.' Bogglie. bodhag. Russ. unsteady. to roll. where bogs form Gael. to bodge. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. precept. To make bad work. move. needle. 43. and E. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. bottich are derivatives.. to thrust. Crist. Schmel. Bohem. biodeachan. message boda. e. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. as in stammering or staggering. speak of the barrel of a horse. formerly bodies. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. to fail. The Sp. Now unskilful action is conmire. Bodkin. Bodice. as a horn. shaking . . gogach. bogan. by the syllable patsch. BOGGLE trunk and G. ON. to start start and back as from a bugbear. . . wavering. Gael. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. is a lump. potacha. a quagsoft. gebod. stitch. . to scruple. bog. a ghost . the belly. the body of a shift gaguejar.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. whence Fr.hollow. — as well as the body of an animal. — H. barrique. an announcement. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. meaning the round part of his body. Bret. a prickle. anything protuberant. Supp. stutter gogmire. to commit a blunder. bolr. biodag. potacha. the body. moist mire. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. AS. W. palleg. Body. Gael. to stick. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. bodian. bothog. a cask. waving. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R.rabodi. bodi. Gael. a command. Reliq Antiq. bodies. Miracle-plays. The signification of the root bot. Wall. body of a shirt bol. shake. bod. corpses pot. bodi. bog. French bouter. unsteady. See Bid. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. or a pair of bodies. a dagger. bottig. to be uncertain what to do. '£. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. gog. bayonet. from fitting close to the body. a bog or morass. bog (equivalent to E. So BOB To Bob. woman's stays. corset from corps. Commonly explained as if from Sc. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. a sting . to be unsteady tich. whence paUchen. body and G. boftich. In like manner E. . VI. Shakespear has badged with blood. Gl. Cot. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. as signifying anything spherical or round. potig. calf of the leg. round. to stir. barriga. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. so large a feature in the country. It introduced from Ireland. — 2.a (i\ia. to smack. We .' A — Sherwood's Diet. . . Bog. to bob. a cask.

bog. a bakazikni. biiilen. bold. boystousnesse. free. buile. pusten. bolle. A. stutSw. which are not used for a similar purpose. OG. bolr. bag or bog are derived Piedm. to waver or hesitate. G. by which it is moved to and fro. caput scapulse. bagaji. ^Boistous. Westerwald bollern. In the same way Sc. pustule. proud. Boil. The term applies in — — impressed . bealder. the lir. bollen (Kil. pall. as. see Boast. bout. bhster. properly represent belly. bola. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. scruple. a bubble. 1430 in Deutsch. ON. the husk of nuts. bolt upright. Magy. balder. hollow. tulum. Swab. bald. confident. puile. poppy (Bailey). bout is explained by Kil. to stagger. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. capiing into a cavity. strong. wag. bula. This iv. ballr. boggle. Daring. perpendicular. Chaucer. sels of flax. i. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. from Du. chatter. bolzBold. glass phial. strong. in the sense of handsome . he will speak out. Da. It. a cushion. ohg. OHG. baud. Du. Goth. used. boll. a head . the. bal. hero. stameln vel bochken. boutpijl. Properly noisy. courageous. bald. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. notes. . brave. bolster. Bole. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. but that Bolt. Du. ^Vocab. * Bolster. Boystous. bol. bolster. To Bolter. Stalder. bolleken. ON. Gael. prince. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. and manace for to de. bold.' Mrs Baker. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . folliculus grani. dint in a metal vessel. then violent. bol. ON. bolla. boss. bolstar. — 6 . G. boil . hakogni. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. coarse. * Boisterous. Fr. to be at a loss a shirt.Du. a bubble. impetuosity. a boil or swelling Du. cheerful. treated under Bowl. Fr. trunk of a tree . (of Mons) b^guer. globular bod)'. Cot. pillow. to stumble. to tattle. to give a hoUow sound. E. the body . as those of nuts. whence bulla. Test. as E. ON. Lap. Pm. Bustuous. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. repagulum. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. as. bul.— D. bola. bochken (titubare. Mund. bald. boly. to swell. and then applied to other husks. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. bolc'h. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. to the belly as the or dislike. furfures. The bob. to be prominent. balldr. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. Pr. is probably a modification of boll. — ' — tagliare. puilen. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . a swelling in ice.palleg. insolent baude. may be identified with It. Kit. . Chaucer seems Dan. E. styffe or rude . to stammer. Lat. animal as distinguished from the limbs. bog. Lat. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). warlike. Bret. swelling. Du. in speaking. Sc. huge. tar. bulla.rounded part of the body. roydeur. G. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. tartle. tomentum. flax-boU. to puff. rough. gluma. a bubble. excellent. bouil. buller. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. a fastening for a door. tartajear. cows the people from speaking. 374. belc'hj. To Boil. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. Sp. Fr. Love. beule. the body of a man or of ter. obex. haughty. Boll. bolzen. swelling. tartalear. shake. also a blister. Du. the gurgling sound of water rush. fiausten. a quaking mire. chaff of corn siliqua. pimple ON. bulla. a bump. bSlstr. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. quick. to hesitate from doubt. round the first instance to the materials with . w. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. strong. bok. bolt. from the branches. stud.). noise. bol. up of bubbles. capitellum. courageous. bold. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. 304).— — . Wall. to boil. 45. as baltha. V. polc'h. — — which the cushion is stuffed. Me doth awate. . bulr. bul. Sw. intrepid. stramenta. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. merry. Kil. G.D.w. bullire. b^gayer. to stammer. The round stem of a tree. or the like. See Bulk.. blow. gerade signifies straight to the mark. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. .

The ulti. Pl. . bullern. beluter. hammer. Du. a rattling carriage.through a cloth of loose texture. . or the like. a bolter Prov. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. — — — . bolt-foot. bulstrig. then to knock. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. . ler. and to crash. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. bulk. hulter de bulter. a bunch. ' Holler poller / bulter. representing a rat. as snow balling on a horse's foot. beliitea. Hence. bortelen. have Lat. je bulte. kloteren. protuberance. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. Hence Palsgr. barutare. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du.D. pultare. to knock.nature of the operation. Pl.. hammer. mole-hill. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. Schiitze. fied bot. tar. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. grasbulten. to talk pulzen. holier poller. Dan.). : ' — — . buretter{CQ\. tumultuari. cruddle. a small portion. or ill. rugged. blotttre. a clump of turf. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface.). taratarrum. to agitate. Pm. we see that the one consists of a words. die treppe pressed. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting.Lat. a bolter or implement for bolting. bultig. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. hole. a club-foot. buUire. on the one hand. curdle. to bolt flour burato.u.as the essential element signifying the talum. The ment and the operation. a round glass ending — bultig. projecting eyes pul. agitari (Kil. uneven. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. cro. Lang. Du. zen. to bolt meal barutel. barutela. burclct. a clod cloth.thump or blow. OFr.D. uneven. hump. crash. rugged. lumpy. in S'W plotter. bluter. tantara. to form lumps. to spring forth E. tuft. small heap. brattle. taratantarum. we der Brocket).On the same principle. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. OFr. pull. buletare. poltern.fe/2?. Brem. Supp. Lat. bolzaugen. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. Mid. . bolzen. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. MHG. Here the radical image is the violent O. a . a sod (Schiitze). with E. swelling. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. the sense of right on end. series of jolts or abrupt impulses.clack. budeln daz mele . Wtb. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. I boulte meale in a boulter. bulio. one after the other. racket gepolter. to clack. It.protuberance. Champagne burtcau. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. to shake. a crashing or racketing noise. or a racer from the course. bolt. to become lumpy. and the Thus from So. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. a rattle. bulk or quantity . knob. to bolter. bolt head is a retort. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. zare. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. baruta. Bulte-pook or bulstar. crotlar.by forms like G. sestuare. by the representation of a racketing sound. In the next place. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . Pr.D. poll. . crod. buletel. bolzauget) Sp. bulla. . to come rattling downstairs. as above explained. bolting to that of form.agitation of the meal in the bolter. . the name of bolter mixed flour and water. to significance of the term was overlooked.) E. as of a trumpet.noise {brattle of thunner.i5a//^«. as a rabbit from its baritel. ' — — ! ! : — . loud and fast. a clap of thunnences.D. we pass to Du. barutela. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. boss. gebolder. to bolt meal barutel. projections. And as the agitation of cream in . the wheels groaned. clump. btilt. tling or crashing noise. P1. we have Du. So also we pass from Lat. On this account Mid. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. / is transposed in Fr. jolting. G. also to curdle. to start out. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. a clod. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. Dauphiny a sudden movement. to coagulate. staff which sounds tar. 2. OFr. from G. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. abolter. taraabout. Sw. croler. pattern. Fr. buideln. a millpoltzet augen. to make a knocking. ex•wagen. to E. hulch.— .. poltern. as Fr. vessel with narrow opening. Sanders. to start with palpitate. bultred. Bav. . Prov.

The material called by this name. butteln. buidelen. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . breast-bone. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. thick. Antiq. the silk-worm. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. G. bulter from It. butteln. as in . to bind G. baum-bast. bopin. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. as Banbury. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. the Fr. Bonfire. E. a boulter of meal. It. lana lignea.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. and called in Mid. Greek iSa/iliaiciov.). band. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. bombarda. Fr. Schm. a —Bombasine. a hollow sound. to beat a drum. . When ture. Du. to bolt meal. brust-bein. band. from teu. Gascoi^e in R. It. cotton stuff. bwmbwry mar. bone of the . It. bongam. the shank the shoulder-bone. bonog. bambacium. a string. cotton.^Altieri. From builen. . burato. . Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. to resound. whence bomme. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. and that from Fr. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . a material quite unfit for bolting meal. and Du. sye. bonfras. has repeatedly varied. ^o/j. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. buttel trueb (of liquids). e le furfre (of bren) demor^. a thundering noise bomre. &c. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bombast. It. baun. gossipium. Kil. Fl. bambagino. to ring bells. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. PoUitriduare. a drum bombammen. OE. and Bond. tiffany. Dan. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter.D. bombicina. however. raw silk. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. bunden. must be explained Fr. . rimbombare. Fr. Near 6 * . bolting-cloth. therefore fairly identify bone with the W.bast. borel. . — having a stem or stalk. bombase. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. bambagioj whence It. bande. e. Moreover. been. band pi. to thunder. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. to shake. sijde. It. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. to thump W. basin. stuff. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. barate. and also the leg. ODu. Du. from boom. 83 Gr. crook-shanked bondew. ties. tie. a bone in general. bureau. to boult meal. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. Bibelesworth in Nat. bwmbwr. a baker. Bone. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. or trunk word in W. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. a ligature. an implement of binding. bombasine. to which the leg. G. bon. to cast to and fro. As cotton was used for padding clothes.) . again. In legal language. 155. Dan. we speak of a gun to resound. silk. a word of which we have traces in several English names.Lat. bindan. Mid. . Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. HoUybandin R. sije. Butterglas. Castrais barato. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. bauniwolle. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. beil'n. iuttern. i. assuming the of leg : special signification W. the murmuring of the sea. Need you any ink and bonibase. It. — bombast came guage. q. boulenger. and in fact we find the and Du. a stem or base. sericum arboreum. silk-worm. — Bombard. buidelen. a beacon. . Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. coarse. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. to shake (as to shake the head. In E. the contracted form of Du. banitola (Fl.Su?. bommer. derivation. bras. beuteln. a churn for butter. thick-legged. bombasin. G. a stock. — AS. bombice. stump. bonds. beuteln. gunpowder. bureau. the leg. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bomba. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. thick from shaking. tie. bombe. bond. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. tree. and Mod. Bomb. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. booming over the water. agreement. produced the Pl. is supported by the analogy of G. also thick-shanked. bommen. term is appropriated in G. biire. Banstead. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bombdra. d. to shake down fruit from a tree. achsel bein. bein. builen. Du.

bosih. bas. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. — e. build. bose. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. dolt. A stall for cattle. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. but stall. bote. Schm. remedy of evil. botte. busu. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. boubi^. Palsgr. till. — From the participle present. Book. to set in order. a bag of skin or leather. boia. E.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. a simpleton. b^er. Boot of bale. \ais-band. a vessel for holding liquids. — Bailey. baier. Sp. and from AS. and Ban in w. where a cross (or a gun. dress. signifying beech. house. hu?idbusa. netis stall. Hufwud-bonad. It is commonly explained as identical with It. bd. pig-sty. * Boose. to yawn. ty Gael. bdn. pole. babb^o. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. a. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. bonnet. writing bokos. tapestry. ben. the stubble of beans. pero. ganian. Boom. babau. bene. or Vanns. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. to dress. prayer. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. master of the house. boten-shoen. a bonfire. bauen. bobo ! interj.—Bootless. reparation. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. a dry stalk. a head-dress. bowwen. remnants of hay or straw. to ask. Fr. set in order. from Du. dial. AS. although in the OG. boutig. The i. without ad- . — To boot. . badaud. boa. Gael. wall hangings. Hal. petition. which one gaping and staring about. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. a lying-place for dogs or swine. often cut for burning and lighting fires. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. . . . as a lying-place for cattle. is Du. Bun. stabulum. A peasant. Bootless. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. It. ON. been. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. nachbar. biikui. Mrs Baker explains bun. the possessor of the farm. Boor. boandi. Du. N. a good turn or re- meaning. . the scriptures bokareis. Boot. The origin of the word is probably the W. dial. a. litter. gaby. G. Fr. fool. a stall. bonaid. Binau Brychyniog. G. babin. also called Brecknock Beacons. a lofty blaze. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . are formed Fr. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. boubair. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Hal. Bonnet. petition. a letter . Pr. wondering signifies not only straw. feu de behourdis. E. the name of the letter b. Goth. bosig. desire. however. comes bondi. . clown. as the Brecknockshire Banns. swinbusa. bid). a scribe G. lofty. ON. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. A favour. to litter bosu. gaping hoyden — Cot. bua. w. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. in Phil. Thus from the syllable ba. to gape. Trans. prayer. tigh. bossen. Du. short boots. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. and fig. letter. G. Wall. — — . simpleton. See Bown.^ —P. Busk. the mouth. ON. From bo. The latter is the original AS. gehyred. a tree. bos. in w. and thence Rouchi baia. bobo. Bonnefyre. from gape. Fr. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. bonad. help. inhabit. a hollow skin. botta. p. one who dwells nigh. — . beiSne. dress. . 232. OSlav. Booby. build. bommen. from beida (E. In nautical language. botte. Perhaps. whence ban-ffagl. till. ass. to gape. quest. literally cow-house. buch-stab. boom. dog-kennel. to cultivate. to aid. b'ukvdry. The character of folly is i860. bAkva. OW. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. bua. To Boot. Build. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Jr. Thin ben Luke i. the alphabet. bauer. Pm. to prepare. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. boo. Prov. chaff. See Bomb. by arbitours sholde bote the P. Swab. boer. Mrs Baker.n. boutig. 13. Kil.. inhabit. tall. AS. a silly fellow. . betere thing werse. from badare. succour Bailey. gawney. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. to cultivate. But bosg. . relief from sorrow. bds. Fr. by itself for head-dress. high. Boon. and Gael. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. beam. . head-dress wai^g. booby. Kil. b&ber. foolish.Boos. Du. to strew with straw. a letter Russ. bonad. at everything. blockhead. Basa. bota. buandi. See Butt. Gl. Ox. countryman. the cultivator. of wonder On the same principle Sp. ON. bolt. the first consonant of the alphabet.

Kil. recovery bata. . drillen. welt. aid. biorag. urboro. 266. boards. Esthon. To Bore. a borer. pi. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. borracha. betan fyr. bora. yfirbdt. bolino. a responding forms . bordi. The Fin. to patch. piercer. and hence to fine. dens mordens vel caninus. Lat. butin is explained by Flor. bardure. ON. See To We speak in E. to importune. a great bur. Booty. The ON. The as G. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. bord. In the Fin. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. And so in ON. &c. a shop. N. baete. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. making good again . mat-bod. 1. a bothy. struere ignem.par. Gael. Fin. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. sharp. and E. in Ihre. to bite. Booth. furd. a. to mend. Fin. It. boeten het vier. margin. to to . bothan. scalpo. to boot. puru. . bothag. nor E. beute. baara. Border. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. are derived from G. Fr. Sp. to build buda. on. ON. wave. remedy. ON. Du. in Lap. the . which are probably from the same root. fimbria. . p. a bladder. hem or gard of a garment. See Bower. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. to quench one's thirst . a tusk. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. a borer . also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. a cupboard. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. batr. cup- awl. butin. Bohem. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. to surge. . bower. boede. to bite. Fl. sawroot. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. AS. and meta- Fr. scsdes-bod. Fin. OSw. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. boete. Alexand. puru. budowai. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. Burke in R. Gael. and parrets. make . to expiate boeten den dorst. botjan. differs only in termination. is purin. to pierce. a leather bag or bottle for wine. bite. bdt. bohren. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. a word.. amendment boeten. limbus. But probably the E. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. sculpo 05\xiik. a granary . are parret. cottage. to divide. to swell. byte points to the verb byta. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . . bdra. lappolone. chisel. Fr. a hut. or anything pointed. Palsgr. to hut. BoracMo. furni. and thence to eat build. See Burgeon. of an edge that will not bite. bud. bauen. bauda. a chisel. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). to bete the properly to mend the fire. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. amendment. G. exchange or divide. uzboro. Mag. Esthon. hut. ora. to build. swell bara. puras. Magy. boeye. barn. fire. from deila and skipta. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. puras. 3. a border. terebro. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. a sharp-pointed tooth. admovere titiones. a booth or shed. borracha. terebra sculptoria purastoa. borino. purra. comminuted by either kind of action. • — To Bore. abode. purra. edge. a hut or tent. to The Sw. to restore. It. . from borra. Gael. dust. chewed food for infants. from bord. BOOTH vantage. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. to profit. forare. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument.. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. Another derivation from Fin. OHG. cure Sw. reparation. tent. kvit-bara.—Burin. — ON. pointed. A phorically a drunkard. Du. to repair. burin. to bore. pu purro (saha =: saw . . to . Compare Manx birrag. extremitas Bore. a borer. to foam. a shop budowati. cellar. limbus. bottino. better. It is admitted that Fr. purro. to stick unto as a bur. repair.. to profit Goth. rof. .— Return from Parnassus I inR. Bete. wine-skin. bata. both. budka.por. a shelter of branches. to anything Neither G. a wave. or the gradual working a hole in anything. Pol. lappalare. . as afford a satisfactory explanation. The cor. an engraver's chisel. a shed.

northern. a. striking. Gr. to give bail or answer for an. hollow bucklers. knur. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. without. bos. a citizen. a knob.' Vegetius in Diez. to keep. to protect. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent.any round sweUing. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. bail biirgen. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. head. bourgeois. a citizen. burgess. tive idea seems to bring under cover. a city . to strike . byrig. a pushing or striking out. knocking. borg. bundle. baurgs.' or system of bail. of bail throughout the country. bosse. bunch. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. to save. useCanterbury. boss sound. plain rude fellow. coarse cloth made of the Du. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. (1867). Borowholder. as we speak of a thumping potato. the sun sets. to give a hollow bizo. The other. whether from the fact preserve G. to become is emitted by a hollow body. I. Goth. viipyoc. borel. Lat. gesylle. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . is used in the sense of bussare. is probably radically Boss. a bouncing baby . Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. pitch. loan. knob. Newbury. a giving rise to It. Turk. the North Wind. Bailey. rude. botse. ' pledge. Hence knot. a surety. and borough in the sense of a town. It. or perhaps also To Borrow. projection. a blow. tuft. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. botch. to save. a herb. brown cloth. . bierge. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. Bos a surety. was origin of the term is the OFr. gum vocant. empty. storm. burh. botsen. Swiss Rom. to protect. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. to take in. butse. beorgan. knock and a knob . basse. Borrow. huschen. boss of the side. into borsholder. and thus could not shake off the old burr. cnap. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. one who sticks to you like a bore. bos.' if thou give money on loan. that which biirge. a little blow. Jam. to conceal. poor. busse. the Sc. bourg. cob. So Du. bosh. See found in Bav. Fr. . and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. nonsense. bom. ON.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. — ' wind burya. Fr. . Words signifying a lump or protuberE. boussi. boschen. Altieri. i. from AS. poor.vr\. bussi. ' — — . Russ. borgese. Bosh. Borough. rustic. bump is used in lump or piece. by which of or belonging to plants. clownish. botch. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. agrees with E. from their grey clothing. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. the ordinary a swelling. bussa coarse. or because a blow berga. borough or chief constable. borealis. plant. bttssel. as if from the verb to hold. boss. less. cnag signifies both a clergy. And that unsittynge is to here degre. pego. &c. Botany. to pick or cull plants. primarily signifying coarse sound . burel. ^ma.bucklers. — — — A — . the must have arisen burgensis. G. or perhaps it may be See Bury. vain. borough-holder. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. which now signifies a knob. an eminence. hollow. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. The origin seems to be the Goth. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. Du. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. bergen. undyed wool of brown sheep. a bunch or hump. whence the burg. a boor. bump.' every man be under bail. f graauw. cormpted. In like manner It. AS. bossen. in instead of without. empty. formerly used in the sense of knocking. to strike so as to Bureau. Fr. Lang.' the chief of the ' borh. Cot. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. pegou. a wen. ^o^^flj. butsen. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. V. secure. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. Jam. AS. borg. destitute. blow on a hollow object. the hollow between the Borsholder. Bunch. Boreal. borei. borh. E. connected. (Bridel). 106. to save Sw. a tower. AS. unpolished.ribs and the side. boss or knob of a buckler . bosseu. borgo. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. Hence borhes ealdor.mass. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. /3oraMK6f. . surety. boss. while Gael. grey). in the body struck.. to knock or strike. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. beorgan. D. It. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. tempest. or head-borough. Du. The primi. a boss. empty. Hal. the N. when that system was forgotten. Sc. to contain. cnoc.

corresponding to . potra. bdt. Gael. It. a cask. a pock. A bottom depth. we have Swiss batscken. a botcher of shoes. a cess. any round ball or bowl to play withal. mess. abbi-diwij Slavon. putra. a slop. ledge It. .of a ball of thread. AS. cation of which may be preserved in puddle .foundation. noise. botte. bativa. pother. — — A 2. any plain round viol glass bozzo. botm. — duj Lett. they two. i. ambo. mess. mutter. pozzo. See Butt. both. we two. . Diez. pozzanghera. dial. butwo. gipuozan. stump. however. boute. contusion . bouteille. bossu. a bunch. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. botus. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. botte. empty or hollow. G. buideal. the science or knowledge of plants. oba. ubhau. 212. to mend (kettles. Pl. bund. patch. buddl. I. bodem. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. a waterfall. butse. boccia. stock. stem or base. — — belly-worm. Fyre to botme. poltern. . baiothsj Sanscr. . bozza. botch. j3i/9os. hurly-burly. bot. and ajSvamg. Danneil. a humpback. buts. Lith. bulder. to stir and mix together. a pit. a wisp. bSn. bethia. or plague sore . Stalder. — Jidwi. fire-bote. to podge. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. of botta. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. to bcBta. abbu. ba. the first rough draught 2. G. — Bottom. bile. Bailey. ^kvBoQ. Parmesan poccia. From the dim. bun. bundle. burgi vel pontis refectionem. Kil. butsen. blow. scuohbuzere. disturbance. a bubble. bosser. It. Fl. as a push or windgaU. a patch patschen. what pushes outwards. Boa two. Bouds. Canut. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. Hal. an abyss or bottoniless pit. bottom. Podge. bulderen. ixorapudder. to simmer.) . Both. bluster. to make a make a noise.ments of the same root. . a slop. buddeln. ' G. to stir and mix together . botte. &c. BOTCH understood). ON. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. to fall : with a sound batsch. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. a depth. an imperfect and bunbutt end. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. to put on a patch. botse. nets. to we have OHG. a bott . a bundle of straw or hay. pocciar. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. e. ON. a root. botsen. — . mend. signify a in OE. bAdtr.— Hal. bozza. Gael. a vessel for holding liquids. — Dief. in the sense of mend the fire. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. Lith. from the dashing of water. a cobbler. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. a bottle of hay. Fl. beggtaj Goth. is boteau. a knock. and E. bide. Lat. pimple. AS. a pit. Decorde. shoes. On — Du. The Gr. Ancren Riwle. btitse.D. to make better. — . blain. Jtidu. OSax. stroke. a tinker schuhbiisser. Hal. batschen. A — oba-dwaj Lat. to from the root bot. the other hand. Fr. a plague-boil Kil. round lump. bdsser. for a bud. a boil or swelling Halma. Bottle. disturbance to . Mudu. Bochu. to work without order or know. ON. gen. Du. Du. a maggot. boiteal. . bots. a cesspool pass. abbi. Bret. House-bote. And so we speak of an eruption. to rage. knock. botn. noise. Leg. thing soft batsch. boiteag. E. to knock. &c. kessel-biisser. schuhbosser. by met.^Dec. Fr. bottigUa. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. a bump or swelling. whisper. dim. to dip in liquid (to Gael. w. • Bott. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. — — . to strike . Dan. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. Bouteille. See Bound. is also a bubble. whence the name ol pool to podge. puddle. H^cart. On the other hand. turmoil. gling piece of work. A horses.— . ing out. repara- — — See To Bete. Butu. to dash about . See To Bodge. to froth as beer . a lump of somebatschen. boss. It. AS. * To Bother. to give a sounding blow. boden . boil. podge. as Fr. biissen. Botcli. was called a push. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet.— Swift in R. Again. fundus. — Fl. stock. a bottle. maggots in barley. botola. Wedu. bunch. to smack. to mend. To confuse with noise. a bottle.' to the fiery Csedm. the lowest part. boitean. the bud of a flower . abbution. to botch or patch. To Botch. . With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. N. botel foenn. blister. dabble). tumour. abyss. botel. you two. See Boss. Prov. Judwi. a. buazen. especially in Gael. Here the radical image seems a bubble.

turn. The branch of a tree. march. a boss. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. nor horn sound. mere. bamsen. boriie. Bowlder. a blow. bottom. bugt. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Coxcomb. The Bight of Benin.D. to fix limits. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. Brem.— Cot.>a bout. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. limit. its kind.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. like bobbin. To Boult. the verb bondir in OFr. to spring. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Mid. bun. bolder. ni motz brugir. thumping. an de dor bunsen. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Nor a centinel whistle. Probably from the Celtic root bon. or Bow-pot. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. Bonny. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Pm. a bouncing apple. Fr. boss of a buckler. bonndn. bodina. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. See To Bolt. a bound. knock it sounds again. whence buj7isen. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. he fell so that it sounded. bend. bugan. jungen. signifies a sliort thick mass. from bugan. winding. bunda. pothel. to spring. bunsen. Bough. Ni gacha cor bondir. 136. iv. To Bounce. Alpine Re- — gions. a stock. Bodinare. ing. I assure you. to bow. and F.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. baby.' B. Bought. bonna. an occasion. to thundering big one hum. to set out by metes and bounds. Bunche. of thread. a turn or time.— Boundary. debodinare. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. tnndo. frequently used in the same sense with bound. — strike. Raynouard. see Boss. See Bunch. To Bound. signifying in nautical coil of rope. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. — Take care my house be handsome. . butina.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. A Langued. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . gulf. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. Wtb. to turn. a button. from AS. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = .. — No i ausiratz parlar.— — — - 88 BOUGH . — — Bight.— F.' round and round in similar circles. and Prov. the larger kind of pebbles. volta. AS. Dan. bondir. Bout. 3. dial. in the absence of actual e. bog. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. by Bujns or Buns. from volgere. to resound. — — leap. And the new stools set out. bay. bumper. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. botwm. From Sw. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Pr. dial. jump. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Webster. bouton. Sw. Ducange. Fr. came home with his face all to-bounced. geration. bonzen. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. mcn-bomi. boujtce. a bud. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. carpet. round. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. ni frestelar. Q. to hum. Boulderstone. 2. Bound. Du. to thunder. till The dat et bunsede. E. bone. Bough-pot. buUersten. So It. . Fr. p. bons. to knock. to make a loud noise. nave of a wheel bothel. strapping. as that of E. a blister. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. . to knock at the door. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. bend. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. Bret. boundina. the hollow of a bay. a round body both. as a nosegay. in contrast to klappersten." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. Primarily to strike. bullra. a large pebble. a boundary stone (men stone). has hot. pimple Richards bothog.'— Charter of K. boh. bounbounejha. The W. root (see Bottom). a large stone rounded by the action of water. Halma. to set bounds. language a * Boulder. the bay of Benin. the smaller ones. contusi. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.

See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. w. bourdon. btiga. springbiirn. taunt. or of an Gael. and not in the sense of curvature in general. ^<7r«i?. Sw. G. a jibe. crutch. Du. bend. an arch. brummen. a mill-post. bending. Lat. bordone. spelling the word iox bound. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. a. Sw. to drink deep. a bow. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Bound. ready to pike or spear . bov. it is probable that the It. to draw a deep breath. bogha. bonus. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. Du. prepared for. Bourd. from spring. puff out. to tope W. Sc. bourde in the same sense. to tipple. fun of one . Fr. As the Gael. gurgling. bontS. Prov. bogna. Bourdon. also the humming or ON.bass of a stringed instrument. pausen. bend Sw. bound. beygja. saufen. must be referred to the same root. a from Du. When used alone it . their time -With "wailful tunes. in Fr. hous^ Man in the Moon. . language of folly or ridicule. a corToward the garden. kroes. bage. It is the participle past buinn. Swiss bausen. Dan. bogr. explaining Sw. And there in mourning spend Sw. game. a humming noise. Burden. buzz. burn. tinton. purlBav. the burden of a song. fresh* water. a drone or dor-bee. on. bunaiteach. Borden. It is bov. A —Cot. a sing-song. bending. pre. trick. Gael. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. a humming noise Macleod. shoulder-blade. sport. drone of a bagpipe. bourdon. a. pared. sausen. . to pre2. different modification gives ON. belly out. repartee. Immediately from Fr. AS. Burgeon. to mutter. Gael. bdgi. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. verb bua. ruption of bonne. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. Cot. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. epaule du vaisseau. the fixed. sense durd. G. bovne. buga. burd. to indulge in his cups . to banter or laugh at. bug. deceit. bausen. bog. spring. biegen. buzzing of bees. bonitas. a — — . address. to draw a deep breath. to bow. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. schenkelbug. ing. a go to. . a pot. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. Gael. grumble Sw. Gael. pusta. to trick. ridicule buirte. — probably through this latter signification. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. to our bous. Fr. way ba7n.which see. bow to shoot with. G. purra. bog. i. burreti. — — — A pare. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. limit. to swell. bugna.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. the shoulder of the vessel. Sw. schulter-bug. to hum as a bee. Dan. lance. brausen. to — Hal. sotich. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. a drone of a bagpipe. a cup kroesen. cheat. bugne. Eown. buyse. a for New York. to take deep draughts. a jibe Shaw bururus. . to bulge. It. as was for. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. to hum. G. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. of the ON. The foregoing derivation seems. Bounty. Sp. addressed to. burdan. warbling. the Bourdon. Du. identical with E. is. and that probably from a Celtic root. beogan. the big end of a club. Bow. Goth. that ON. like quaff. bourd. patesten. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. to take one in. staff. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. a prop. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. mockery. analogous to Fr. to take breath. biugan. to tope. . good. a well. Cot. head Fr. borne. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention.. burdan. bugna. bwa. buizen. to drink deep. set out. on the whole. . buigen. Gael. Comp. bogen. flagon. bommen. Fr. It is remarkable that we find vary. a brook. ready. bending of a joint knie-bug. drink deep. A water. when we speak of. Spenser in R. So Sc. buys. whether by sound or gesticulation. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. bue. whence buysen. Du. hence musical accompaniment. . are applied to the bow of a ship. The meaning of bound. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. firm. burlare. bordo. steady. souf. Bret. pot. bagna. the ting of a bell. Chaucer in R. Bourdon. g. drunken. bugan. curvature. burt. cudgel. Dan. bordon. Dan. — — . jest. brunna. has also buirleadh. to bow or incline the . potio. joke.

a the other by the loss of the / into ON. a bubble. ON. . bowel Box. to yield to one. boss. . ttuJic. a black pudding. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. the box-tree and articles made of it G. Bret. buis. a box. Bav. make obeisance. Bret. or in e. boor. Fr.. globular. give in to. painter's easel.a. bow. Pol. bur. heafod bolla. polla. a box. dial. boudin. folliculus . bent. bur. biisse. kupukka. hollow wooden case. and on swollen. boxtree pusska. a croft by a house. the box-tree. the bogna. bugna. bwr. buchsbaum. . a drop of pullistaa. bowels. . bow. a buck. a. Bohem. Sw. a separate apartment . a bubble bolli. a sack. bending. buello. buga. a box. bog. convexity. signified by forms like Gael. belly of a cask. bulb of an onion bolleyield. busse. the head. E. Sp. is applied to a coach-box. or.D. sausage. bugyani. bulla. bhugna. a ball .). while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. . a thing of liquid. a stud. bolne. . . a parlour. bog. boss. &c. bulge. belly. ken. a swelling or rising up. . guestchamber . . inclinare se (Kil. bolla. . buckelig gehen. at the e. bock. bwra. Du. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. ^o«/«. blister. bola. an inclosure. kupula. a ball. . witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. as in AS. as well as the name of a. boucle. swell. intrenchment. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. the crop of a bird. bulcken. bugyni. biiske. Thus we have Esthon. bulk compared with Sw. gut. . PLD. fata-bur. bugy. a pot. bossola. of a wooden ball to play with and — . ne. acsian. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. to bubble up. to bend down. In like manner the Pol. bowl .\s. . in walking appears in a . A . AS. Hence. . . a bubble Fin. boel. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. different position in ODu. boil. without the and grits. stream forth bugyogni. * Bowels. a bud. round bead. bogla. bol. anything globular. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. OE. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. and to a coachbox in particular. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. fyn. koziel. ask. w. hill. an outhouse AS. to make crooked . to puff up pullakka. compared with Fr. bouzellou. . Sw. bucka. bulla in aqua. a wine-can . . iri'iaQ. the box-tree It. . as in E. G. ON. bhuj. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. tumour. ku^o. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. the barrel of a gun. a bowl. boxtree.flask It. a chamber swefnbur. bubble. a wardrobe . to stoop biickling. Dan. pusspan. a little box . beutel. From the other form are G. bol. budel. W. to puff up. to bend. to raise the back boll OHG.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. kupu.cup Du. convex. kuppelo. bolla. OFr. a box. bolle.) to incline oneself . pullo. Bowl. bugyola. buckel. a box Lat. . a sleeping-room . a bubble. bubble. AS. botulus. Lat. bukke. biicken. . much plausibility from the figure of a pul. Du. Hal. to swell. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. Fr. bulne. mausbollelein. a round glass or bolg. bolgna. puffy. . bug. ^o/a. globular body. honse-bur. crown of a hat. similar shape. W. bouellou. a hump on the back rossbollen. wisp of straw . G. spherical Dan. bollen. water pulli. a knot. belly. Du. a ball. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. to guggle. (in pass . Sanscr. buxus. knob From the former modification we have bolla. See MHO. cumena-bur. ON. then by the loss of the /. Gr. a hen-coop . round glass phial. beuz. Dan. a polla. Buckle. Boll. purse. the skull or brainpan . pocket. It is more probably from the G. budello. lump . in both senses. to bulge. spring as water bugya. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. . box in both senses.. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. Sw. the head. utibur. tumour . The word may probably be identical with Fris. biichse. buigen. box. Bower. See Boil. trestle. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. . swoUei) Lat. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . to bow buck. to stoop. hollow. crooked. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. See Crab. hollow place Fr. to buckle G. a iDubble. hiidel. passing on stud. bocka. A Bulk. a bundle. a protuberance. bouge. zich onder jemand under to him. busskai. . bosso. The / a bow. bulka.). a boil. buk. Cable. head of a cabbage. Fr. with inversion of the round. prominence. globe or spherical body. peated in Magy.

bracer. Lat. Hdcart. The different meanings of the brageux. Bracket. brace on and Du. to is derived brestr. a crack. Fr. which has many representatives in the other Europe. to give a blow with the fists. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. boussole. brae. It. whelp as. cramp-iron holding things together . whence a as by a mixture of sea water. isolated part of the text. G. braquet. mud. to stammer.nated by dirt. rack. to stutter. to want. G. to slap. defect. as noticed under Box. corruptse. bube. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. ghebreck. wnzC/J. brae. bracke. a guard to torf. to smack the hand batschen. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. 91 the Dan. and F. Kil. defect Du. Sp. which sigof straining. Pr. taneous talking. want. murmur. clay. &c. Pl. ON. A — — . a boy pupa. bitch Du. to box the ears. brakke grund. boy. suppuration. parallel with OK. fault.D. brague. Fr. Swab.with a noise. s. Kil. — . baske. a box. Bracelet. moral or physical. from a root brak. fuse. Prov. break. let. priated to the original sense. .D. . braecke. pupus. beagle. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. brek. disturb. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. his eyes are failing him). Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Lett. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . To fight with the fists. a sounding blow. bragos. bou^ba. root). fault . It. youth. OFr. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. Kil. or bracer Cot. need. race. rakka. It is B. is a rope holding G. brago. AS. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. BOX To Box. mud. In like manner the It. the first instancebya physical tie. wrack. flap. . . bouibo. refuse. — . brageuses. bresta. by an overflow of sea water. land batsken. defect. Prov. variation of babble. brechen ihm. want. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. MHG. OE. braco. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. braic. breach. Prov. Brackish. a girl. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. bracket. On the same principle from the buksteht. thwack. foul. To brace is to draw together. ON. merely in our mode of considering them. quarrel Bohem.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. — . brakke Bracelet. braco. — .— D. A brace probis. posh.. boiste. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. confining.. loud smack. Thus brack. Prov. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. A to halt between two derivations. Brack. . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. bracon. flaw. salsus. brack. briche. matter. Brach. La ville ou y avait Brace. . the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. the arm.puddle. Gael. Ptg. Du. braque. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. brassard. breach. Pm. Water rendered boubo. a braceOFr. a grown youth Cimbr. odorinsecus. dirty. flaw. mud. I sal slyng. rakki. ratch. want. . . lalear-eyed Prov. bue. dog that hunts by scent. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. acidus. dog Sw. con. brack. Fr. . brostia. and string of his bow. salo sive aqua marinS. spaniel. brechen. pube. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. or defect. Brack.. — — . a bubbling dura del mun. To Brabble. to fall. brec. ing from a mixture of salt. by the same inversion of J and k." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. an languages. Swiss Rom. damaged board a ship. brae. pus. Heligoneed. unmarried man . little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. to crack. Du. to give a gebrechen. to Swiss batschen. to burst. Sp. It. Swiss bub. bracha. See Brake. OFr. land spoilt Kil. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. Cot. strike. bracil. brasselet. dog in general. to be wanting. Rouchi Then as an adj. compressing. breptati. in R. a bog or pass Fr. to give a sounding blow defect. baukscheht. boy bouba. a comworld Rayn. then from break. braca. bask. buah. filth . breuque. jabber.. wristband. Brak-goed. ' — A — — — . rakke. Sp. brae. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . bauksch represents the sound of a blow . V. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. s. bruxula. Fr. armour for the arm. a pair of braces. babble. See Broker. bracco. and then Pl. in R. brek. Boy. bray. One girl. — . brabbelen.

i5nz^. valiant The head are sumptuous. From brayel. braske. se pavaner. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. splendid. bragd. swaggerer. brachittm. is Cot.%. fine. cry. braegenj Du. . the feathers ON. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. Thus Bret. hectoring. to unbrace or let down the breeches. well-dressed. to boast or brag. vain glory. an iron for holding Zalli. bushy . flaunting. is identical with Gael. Hecart. goods. brao. gallant. Fris. Chaucer. breghe. a noisy talkboasting. also derived Fr. See Brace. strength. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. . to swagger. in the sense of the Lat. or by gaudy dress and show. To Braid. fine. bragaireachd. The meanings of brake are very numerous. used in the sense of force. handsome. braszketi. The meanings included under — Bragget. bragging. the arm. be found. excellent. brag. braguer. to shout. courageous. brae. power. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. . instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . braicli. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. expensive. and that from e. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). Turk bazu are used in both senses.. Hence E. brave. would be to brace. bravacherie. To Brail. brave. brake in the sense of constraining. — A — . BRAG Piedm. flaunt in fine clothes . dhbrailler. — From W. .Shepherd's Cal. Brake. brave. breagh.^ Sp. h-avare and Fr. i. crash. 92 Cot. to rattle. &c. also insolenter se gerere . It.. se donner trop de licence. . in order to prevent its catching the wind. Faire le brave. Rom. braske.aburst. finery. Dan. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. bully . or from braie itself. ^Brave. showy bravery. Dan. braga. to brail up a sail. affront. w. Lith. 2. brabhdair. — . Bret. The plant y^r«. noisy ostentation. brails. . From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow.—— . ative fellow. — Chaucer. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. fine. beautiful. braga. Sc. Primarily to crack. — Equivalent forms are Gael. Lat. stately. braga. brag or jet it braguard. . brave. brazo. gayly dressed. . breyne. brabhdadh. Brail. Langued. braver.^Vocab. the opposite of which. bravado j Fr. Thus we are brought to the OE. to Rouchi brMer. in numerous dialects. as the type of exertion and strength. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. brag. Brag was then used brisk. Fr. riches. Fr. be noisy . 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . to sprout malt. braka.breeches. See Bray. spot. smart. bullying. and it is very likely that the root brak.explosion. braggard also valiant. Cot. brake is. Brain. subduing. Cot. fine. to make a noise. bragio. crack. vaunting. to crack. brayete. make a noise . to flaunt. braw. an inclosure for cattle . idle talk. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. Wallachian bratsou. swagger. breach.hy which this idea is con\eyed. vanter une chose. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . boasting. From sprouted corn. called by our braggard. gallant (in apparel) also proud. Cot. binding anything together. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . to strut. gay. gay. Bray. slight modificajoining the two legs. Sp. Bret. breghen. It is certain that the word for arm is. Brake. that will carry no coals. blusterer. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . se parer de beaux habits. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. was formed brayele. From Fr. crash ON. about the hawk's fundament. Haldorsen Gael. AS. braies. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. compressing. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. de Vaud. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. confining. boast. bravo. to cord a bale of tie up. subigere. bragging of his own valour. bravache. to boast of his own worth. brave. gorgeous. drawers. proud. —Spenser in R. stout. Walloon bress. a roisterer. a carriage for breaking in horses . a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. also tion of this was brayeul. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. empty pride. braka. To Brag. bra!. to stand upon terms. brav. torture . A — Hal.

In like manner Lat. word. riguus. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. — — . and when once thrown down. in northern climates. e. to break or fracture. watered. It. to distinct. murrokko. iSpsx". dial. tris). to brush. conSo in G. brogille. a thicket. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. broeck. a spinning-wheel. brega. game. It. casser le \va. P&. flachs brechen. braken.— . broilium. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. a swampy Mid. a marsh. as in the case of horse-breaking. or a wood in a marshy place . OFr. murran. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. —Ovid. thicket. is formed murd. to head must be bit. bruch. Dan. bush. and G. brushwood. brage. broken fratta. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. for — Due. and Lat. Swiss Rom. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. BRAKE to external force. gebrUche. break of such a kind. braquer un canon. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes.. nemus. braeken. Fr. a fen. Gr. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. fratto. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. to break. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. To the same bend a bow. low wet land bruch. In the sense of a thicket. braka. glebas subigere. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. as in Du. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. is braukti. Fr. —Bracken. the original meaning of G. to bray in a mortar. a brace on board a ship. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. brog above mentioned. G. to bend or direct a cannon. to harrow (Lat. brake. braecken het vlasch. subigere. brook. bregar brake. . a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. briers. properly braking or subduing them. Voc. brage. briser. gebroge. brog. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. broor bushy place Hal. brego. broyer. quarry from Fin. to stiffen against Taboada). brambles. braca. brcekke. been confounded with the verb break. to fracture. frangere linum. gebiisch.bracan. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. de Vaud. Biglotton. gebroge. to row. any thicket of brakes. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. Dan. cover G. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. to The ON. brak is a frame in which strip. el arco. Sp. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). tnurdma. broil. Brake. Lat. broillet. — Fl. 2. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. t° moisten. as well as in the case of the e. ing of flax or hemp. breaking in the operation. copse-wood. in usus braca. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. to break. 3. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. In the case of the ne. Pl. Fr. it is not surprising that the word has here. to knead or mix up in a mortar. brambles. brook. bregille. referred brake. bush. to pound. bushes. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. ^raca. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. thing is brought under control. bredza. brook. signifying to sweep. murtaa. The Fr. might come to signify a swamp. a stream. breuil. the lever by which the string was drawn up. It may be sus- . sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. to subdue. marsh. gilum. bregar. We — . break flax PLD. In ON. or overthrow of trees by the wind. gebroge. as in Sp. cetur. Dan. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead .' It. Corrfeze bredgea. where from Esthon. to bend a bow. Gael. Prov. or A A ' .D. to rub. marsh or swamp. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. farinam in mortario subigere. brolium. Brake.D. to exert force in different ways. brake. brog or brake. a harrow. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. gebrUche. a horse's a horse's twitch. have thus Du. pasture. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation.

sedge burkni. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. a single plant of heath. ordure . Pl. i. breme j Sw. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. Bav. AS. gebroge. and E. from gaggi. Diez. from brand. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. 2. Branch. brenda. . But we find It. breun. E. sawdust. may be so called in analogy with Bret. a briery plot.). brein. heath. berneux. . to or iron. bruch. brwnt. cabbage sprouts Fl. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. snotty . Rouchi bren d'orMe. a bridle or bit . salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. w. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. It will be found that shrubs. —Ducange. a shrub from Bret. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. constrain. Serv. brank. brok. to brank. heath. G. a firebrand. — . and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. Broom. from brug. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. brug). the branch of a tree. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. . or other plants of a like nature. Dan. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. a bud. ear-wax mud. from Servian pnit. young twig {brom-beisser. ground full of briers. bran. Bramble. Gael. G. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. brouskoad. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio." The bmno a • on . brom. stink . virgultum. Gael. brenn hesken.D. The naof strain. Grisons bruch. or ling. Thus we have w. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. branche. wood composed of twigs. nasty. also pfriemkraut. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. in the same sense. a rod or twig. a dunghill. bretnel. bro7n. a burning fragment of wood.G. a heath. pfropf. bit by bit. Pl. chaff. briars. brugek. a bud It.D. a thick bush. broccoli. brank. . brandiiialil. brin. brin (as It brano). is the draff or excrement of the com. that is to say. Piedm. restrain. to gripe. heath. brake. a shoot or twig. branchia. braam. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . bren. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. to burn. a vine twig Bav. brog. a bud. pfriemen. Fr. Bret. hallier. the thorn apple or stramonium. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. cack. brenna. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. brass. to bridle. breanan. a shrub . sweet broom. &c. Port. — branca. w. brejo. pected that brake. brandello. bramble Du. Bret. broembel-CBppel. brin d. brang. compress. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren.. also a marshy low ground or fen . as AS. brancas. 1 8. from Lat. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . Brancare. Fr. bran. bruk. So Swiss gaggi. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. brandr. it glitters — — . titio. Sir Topaz. Thornas and bremelas. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. dirt . bruch. and thence a shoot. heath ON. broom. heath. brug. bruk. to -brugen. brarn. heath (Bret. G. excrement. bruk. . clutch. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. apiece orbitbrandone. . As ON. piece of anything. bruskoad. Brand. pfriem in the sense of an awl. brous. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. . bronbo. gebriiche. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. brem. broem. It. bracken or fern . bren. brambles. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. a halter. what is cast out as worthless. That beareth the red hepe. &c. burning brennen. The same form becomes in It. brughera. . the bull-finch. Bran. Brank. branco. Thus in Lat. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . broussaille. broust. piecemeal brindelles. a small deri\'ation . thorns and Gen. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. thicket of brambles Cot. a shoot. brushwood. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. brano. and waste growths. brand. from virga. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. sprouts. It. or with It. G. In like hrst. in the sense oi fern. Russ. . Bret. as. iii. brosst. prufye. Bret. brenn. bushes. young buisson fort epais. bromboli. See Brush. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. Then by comparison with claws or arms. A mark made by burning. broom.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. braeme. a roA. brandmurk. Fr. Fr.

Braser. brasil. as Jamieson explains it. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. d'Angl. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. billet. brascct. forms brasil. brustle. conbillet. — . urens. to crackle . a roaring fire. bracia. Milan. to shog. bracea. or in stick. to rustle. eldibrandr. G. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. brasca. before the discovery of America in the brandir. 59. put. to shake. not. To brand. to solder iron. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. bragale\ wood. Port. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. incendium. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. to French brawl or brangle. Sw. brasca. brazeiro.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. It. then brandr. bum. to brangle. to quarrel. totter. The name Brandy. as again by well as the blade of a sword. a brusler. The tre brangillis. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. and bruir. brennen. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. gebrannter wein. given to the country. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. WaUon. to totter. branler. to dash. brangle or brawl in E. a fragment. Manx bransey. bresil. brane-wood. firebrand. to distil . to make display . The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. brin. Guill. a round dance. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . the colour than hitherto known. a pan of hot coals. brouir. brandiller. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. Diez. — . braser. To brase AS.well. Sw. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. It. du Roi et laine. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. make a — . Hume in brand in ON. hoisting to the fall. to murmur. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. Kil. So. Fl. comes from thence. braza. briiler. Lye.. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. With top trimbling. to Bailey. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. to shake. shake. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. e. Ija. stake. to make shine with shaking. a To Brandish. brandigh. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. bruire. braise. was in use Fr. to burn. to bicker 2nd. is bntan. AS. Chron. splinter. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. to blaze. — ting to confusion. brandolare is exbrandish. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Thus the bound up again. brandiller. Fr. to burn. N. to roar. and scold. De Barros considers vinum ardens. V. Chron. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. In the same way the set on fire . weinbrenner. perplex. bransella. Bret. fire-wood. so. noise. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. faire fracas. brasa. — . brastlian. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. brand. to make sense of a bright red dye. branla. glowing embers . Gris. live coals. ish. morsel. E. bryne. set on fire. De Goes. bruzi. to hurl with great force. crackle. crackle. Brangle. bruan. to glisten or flash. brausen. Fr. to sound of the Fr. embraser. bruciare. It. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. as Fr. to burn. to brandle. to confuse.pan of coals. spirit distilled from wine. in Marsh. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. n. all. to braze or lute. Fr. Bailey. hot Fr. brandende wijn. the spelling to kindle. ist. bra?ier. firewood. Brasil. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Formerly brandy-wine. to shake The word brisil. to brandle or The It. from used in dyeing cloths. E. Fr. a stick. brazil. to brustle. branler. distilled wine. brus^. aqua ardens. braise or hot coals. Fr. apparently very distinct from each other. Jam. Du. prasseln. to and fro in the hand.^Brandle. braise. became ashes Pied. bragia. brush. G. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. from to vociferate. make an outcry. flagrans. plained by Florio. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. bransle. Brase. The corresponding form in Gael. and branchis shaiand D. brasa.

bretesche. as rashers upon quick burning coals. It. Many gambes. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. a fortification. bronzare. AS. Mundart. Brawl. a parapet. bribe de viande. breyon.' Hal. calf of the leg. Pm. braodhlach. braion. a lump. a clout. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. bratid calf of the leg. bronzacchiare. braon. Brangle. bran. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. a slabbering-bib. the buttocks. muscular parts of the body. tasce. a. to cry. saillies. the calf of the leg. deblaterare. Math. branle. 1156. a patch of cloth. Fris. A. to scold . burning coals. lat'te. bronze. Cot. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. brailler. Fr. bred. brazen. See Bray. brat. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. a cloak. a rag . Paris. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. discord. Betrax of a —^Jam. brdto (ace. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Hist. breyon de kinds of . breteque. a Lap. a mantle. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. bretays). coassatio. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. —^Bronze. frame of laths. borderinge. bransle. buttock Sc. to copper. — . A bretise or bretage is linguarum. bradon.^ — Sverris Saga. ferruminare. slibro. 368. braser Fargent. brat. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. Lorraine bravon. a contempt- banner. apron. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. braiio. pil.D. Cot. ' A vraale. and bronzo. Sc. &c. Swiss bradle. KiL Prov.— Diez. bas morceau de viande brawhng. Brass. It. OFr. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. . Dan. to solder. slakker-bortchen. A dispute or squabble. The muscular part of the body. to shake. braeye. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. a lump of flesh. ni autres choses sur Due. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. le repasser un peu sur la braise. Pisana in Mur. bruir. brettys. Fr. So also See Brag. any piece.— Fl. G. boutures.D. Brat. slut. cob.96 Roquefort. brett. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. slibro {neita. P1. See Brandish. calf of the leg. a contemptuous name for a young child. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Brave. OFr. contignatio. Bartizan. or on the top of a wall. braoilich. frequentative of braire. bratdn). bralle. a battle-girdle. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. Du. bratidone. or whether it be from Fr. The verb is probably derived from the brase. roar. Brawn. to tear piecemeal. Circumeunt cibertesca. Sup. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. to braze. ^Altieri. to talk at bralle op. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. equivalent to the Du. brass. fraiche. a lath. a rag.D. as a brawling brook. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. W.propugnaculum. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. breyon d'chaur. noise. Sp. whether contracted from brabble. OHG. luncheon. 2. trul. brat. A land of dance. cloth. a rag . then a parapet. to carbonado. is The word — uous name for a woman. a lump of flesh. at brasa. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. A. especially that used in the working of iron . a plank or board. berd. esbraotier. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. —-Jam. Jam. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. It .— Braid. rag. bartising. bartisan. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). brces.brettysing. from Fr. Bailey. ship. Florio.' BRASS BRAY et AS. strepitus 2.walle — Pr. brandillo. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. from Sc. Certainly a little girl. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. bretesque. bratach. boarding being sbranare. braede. Gael. Kil. as criailler of crier. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . pan- — Rayn. Brattice. as lattice.— Remade. Fr. solder. I. baltresca. The same correspondence is seen between It. squall. as scrawl from scrabble. Cologne broden. Wall. bmhon for brado7i. a — A from the confused noise. 1224. to Gael. neita girl). flesh of a leg of pork. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. from branler. a loud noise. bradlete. in the first instance of boards. — Deutsch. bras. a wooden tower. Westphal. ON.

F. Q. to resemble. AS. 7 . e. yell. a breach Cot. Du. as the voice of the ass. V. to braid. and to signify the fracture itself. G. a wink. bruzir. rustle. Fr. paxog. brame. crepo and E. Cat. at braga eftir euium.. rattle. the miller's dog. D. upbraid. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to tear Bret. to resemble. iU-favouredly — in Jam. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion.ear rog. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. brak. — koa. bragd — ON. to roar as the sea. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. &c. appearance Hal. ON. to rumble. Prov. to snatch. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. k. i. braire. starts crackling up. Chaucer. with or without a final d. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. augnabragd. abraid. is . to start. a brack. explaining a very obscure application of the E. broad. plait. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to t. father. Cot. a . crash. fish. roar. E. imitate or resemble one. ing.' To Bray. to cry Port. Dunbar braessem. to roar or bellow. baiyl. brand. G. &c. fractus j Gr. which has given much trouble to commentators. bregda. gestus. or cry out loudly . to sound very loud and very harshly. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. make a disturbance. Breach. Goth. to the seijauntes. brugier. mos.fracas. Swiss bratschig. bregar. D. to break Fr. Then. ON. bradar. to bellow. on. brikan. W. 145. to bray in a mortar. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. To Break. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. Prov. to rush. ybrayid. to bawl. paste or dough. to break. a brake for hemp or flax. breche. breuan. to smack or the eye. to braid. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to braid acquires the sense of bend. the sound — of arms. braa. bruire. to break. . verb to break. And with a traid I tumyt me about. rangere. yell. crackle . brage. Bailey. — . Lat. to knead. I'll live and die a maid. Beryn. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. will. to roar. R. breach. ser. to crash. To rub or grind down Sp. braidar. Then is simply. braa. braidir. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. to pretend. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. and frangere. in Jam. kind. Bread. bratsche. a crash. twist. at once. to cry out. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. to rub Fr.g. the clash of ai-ms Dan. brechen. D. Fr. See Brake. disturbance. cyprinus latus. &c. to work up in a mortar. to have the lineaments of one's ON. regi. father. to break. bregar. a mill. Wal. bray. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. — — — explained motus loud noise. V. and make a hideous noise.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. instantane. braid. The same He might don us both a villany. and fracasously. Fin. brak. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. at a braid. soft . ^p&xia. The Lat. to The cup was uncoverid. a rent. as OE. riAprjyvvfu. bragr. to bray like an ass. as the notion of turning crack. to crash. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov.^ Fr. fragor. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. Bread.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. bru.ch. to resemble him. &c. OE. vapna-brak. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. to scold. 2. turn.y. weave The ON. to braid the hair. V. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. bragd is also applied nets. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. rogi. Gr. R. brice. relation is seen between Lat. or wound. roar. Bret. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. Ppvxia. . broyer. noise . braea. The ON. to N. resound . crash. . Chaucer. From the or brack in a wall. the sword was out break. a rag f . And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. brot. to cry out. And at a braid he gun it bende.

Du. . fastening . brimsa. to buzz. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. broza. G. &c. to fry . or the blow itself. Sw. grillen. braich. then to broil. Bruise. windy withal. To Brew. griller. brezza. briosat'. bark Fr. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. to fry Then from a Gl. bragues. . to bind. bruzir. noise.D. a horse's twitch. w. brossi!.britschen. bracecs . Gl. fail. braca. to crackle. and E. PI. crush. clout for a child. brezling. de Vaud. . switch. brezzare. and other rubbish dibris. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. bremse.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. See Brick. Breeze. a cold and windy mist or frost . their stings draw . Originally probably the word signified steam. an odour. to shiver for cold. rubbish. Swiss Rom. as the G. AS. bandage or truss for a rupture. as in the case of twitter. briig. the dry spines of furze broken off. briosa. Dev. Russ. also to chill and shiver with cold. breme. . peitschen. Du. in Schilter. brut. of trees. bruc. Dan. — Halma. — . Fr. from brace. Gael. brisciare. brcekur j It. G. point to G. siibligar. braies. — See Broth.98 borst. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. drawers. broil./ssus. trusts.t. sheep's droppings bruss. G. to smack. briosa. to murmur. bruzun. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. to whip. brodel. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. brise. brdtschen. Compare OE. an into shiver. bra. instead of being derived from 'La. fitzen. singing bone. G^nev. breson. Briss and buttons. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. brciz. a gadfly. bruise. a girdle. Gl. Fr. . morsel. The Teutonic verbs. Hence the Lat. brist. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. bre- I'os qui bresole. breath. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. — And blood. Bracha. Breeze. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech .). Piedm. — Brist. brasiuiii. xyligogio castigare. Gael. to rattle (as hail). murmur—Vocab. polenta. Bret. bryi^ga. a smack. braga. AS. the soler. brire. brisoler. little bits of wood Berri briser. /esses. dial. OFr. brison. forms analogous to E. brijselen. the bust. Isidore and Tatian. It. a cool wind. a to lay fly-flap. to burst. to hum. burst. a twitch for a horse. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Piedm. brew. properly to crackle. breeze. E. G. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. briiz. chilly. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. braie. Fris.'— Gl. Breeze. brasser. We bragezj on.vare. breinse. bresilles. brosame. i5r(Z^. forms. bridsen. braia J OFr. to breech. Hume in Jam. bris. brodem. as. orts. subligaculum. break. vapour. Du. malt. brache. as by the Sc. met de bridse slaan. Goth. applied to shivering. brisd. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. einem de britze geven. Dtyden. Lat. may be from the wurh fesser. Swiss brdtsch. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. with It. to brew. a cramp-iron for holding things together. the breech or buttocks. simmer. a box. Du. — — strument for smacking. Lat. so AS. brok. braga. Rom. but more probably the E. brustia. Breeches. representing the sound of a blow. Prov. to resound. are related to Prov. of E. breost. broiiwen. Breath. to break. to bray. to feize or feaze. one on the breech so that (klatschet). braca. Fr. brasiare. coaldust. of straining. — . term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. Bret. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. brusc. briste. malt. as commonly explained. So ON. to roast. corresponding to G. Breast. cloven. to brew. trembling. Swiss AS. bris de charbon. grillare. braux. chillness or shivering. murmur. to crush to break. E. braucn. from AS. to be misty and cold. Biglotton. scent. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. sprouted corn. brissle. braciarc. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. from ligare. Brize. brinisa. The Breech (Prov. bretilles. b}-as. braguier. bris. bratscher. a crum Du. rubbish. brimme. binding. brugga. grill. Prov. as. brumtnen. de bridse geveii. to simmer. broden. a crum. QNtsterviald) pritschen. body brostia. and brought beneath between the legs. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. are in like manner ' . brcEth. britze. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. . braies. brijsen. remains of leaves. —Briss. simmering. zare. G.

Thom. . son. and ODu. a man. of burial. ap. . Applied ous words derived from break. brittil. bruk.It. bribour. piece of burnt clay. httle bit. with transposition of the r. to pave brukkti. Bribe. a beggar. the newly. beaten way Dan.privatus. in the sense of OSw. from the last 99 of which. — .rough with brambles and bushes. brocaly. Brewis. feast of espousals. to break. OSw. bruyere. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. broken. bricou. Priodi. bribe de pain. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. any jot or crum. bruk. a heath brughera. a married man or woman Lat. Bridle. one's ovin. So It. daughheath. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. a little king's writs. Diez. feast. . a bride.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. arf-ol. crew. pavement.. a married man guma. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. then the marriage itself. from the Normans. brilt. which however is undoubtedly from brace. thick appropriated. the Fr. AS. brukkas. brakes of high-grown ferns. brahi. hlafes brice. to appropriate. Flor.Fr. and berweddu. bulicame. E. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. w. Ducange. gf2o. from bit. Neumann.gfiugga. Hence OE. . . AS. to press in. sugga. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. married. The Sw. malt. Dan. a lump of bread briber.bergantino. to prepare. as so. as. bridelj OHG. brigantine. brieden. remarkable that the Gr. to break to pieces bricalio. bride. — . it is applied to the letter to OE. barren land priodas. Brique. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. pier. a quoit of stone. So in The Prov. a lump of bread. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. AS. AS. buckler J ON. brygga. especially to a letter or command. has briguer. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. a boiling. . bro. Goth. to meet together. Bridal. brug. to rub. Due. and that from It. funeral. Bridge. a fragment. collect bits of food. a proprietor. Grisons bruch. broken bread. jipaaaiii. imprint. Fr. Brier. a Bride. Brigade. a bride Brig. a sow. from Bridegroom. bricge j G. to beg one's bread. Bridal. to boil. ON. pavement brolegge. a crum. In the patois of briccia. Ihre. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. A bribe is A — — arval. a rogue. priod-ferch. masted vessel. berwi. It — is Kil. Diefenbach com. boiling up brocoliere. pavement Lith. ' . Cot. bruarium. served (Patois de Bray). Pro(merch=:maid). brasser. W. brere. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. graf-ol. troop. conjux. a bit. a brig or priodor. to brew. heath. birbante. a crum. A — A — . a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . If the foregoing were not so clear. briicke. broosekens. Fr. to press. Trovarfor bride-ale. owned also propriate. AS. bara briw. breve or brevis. bidsel. guma. brique de pain. Brief. to boil. birbone. brood. stone-bridge bnikkoti. fit. briw. brice. Mid. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. OHG. ibrukkti. brau. a lump of bread. fastningar-ol. to circulate. the marriage si in brigata. brigade. to stamp. Fl. is still used in this sense. berwedd.pritil . broken victuals. Gl. See Broth. ment of anything broken. Rouchi brife. to tlie brico. Pol. . bro. Brick. corresponding or letter. The origin of the word is the w. — — — — — — . bably contracted from brigantine. a heath. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. bretonica. a wedding priod-fab. AS. sponsa. betonica. bryd-eale. nurus G. or brizo. priod. betony brulicame. bruith. Gael. the equivalent of to the dial. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. Sp. bro is applied not only to a bridge. a rogue . to Isrew. bridge. brar. Fr. bryd-gutna. jetty. whence berw. It. brA. bygga. consort with. twopares Lat. It. grug. Du. malt. a bush. briwo. G^n^v. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. briiths. fervere. lipdZu}. fragment. bo. E. a cheat. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. buskins. two-masted vessel. to pave. Walach. E. groom (mab=:son). peculiar. braut. to boil. Lat. Gael. bread. a fragment. frayer. In E. company. privus. division of an army. fraoch. bitill. a briole. ter-in-law.groom. Hdcart. but to a paved road. ' — . brutg. bruskr and buskr. but probably Bricoteau. Lang. brughiera. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . from Bret. In the G. BRIGADE dead. . E. appropriate. bride. brigata. .

bregar. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. praht. brigant. Bav. to sound. 1351. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. to ring. bragen. and. a glittering. — — . to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. — Brigantine.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. 312. bray. The primary meaning of Sp. Xa/iTTii). clear. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. pugna. seems to be to exert force gar el area. Swab. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound.glampa. wilella. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. clear sound. A strepere. schateren. hell. brcEhtin. bryhtm. that of Fr. then. to glamr. schiteren. kii:'a. to shine. brigandare. — Beowulf. tuilahtaa. representing a sudden noise. cange has 'Veles. himself to serve men of merit. It. glitter. briga. The E. is easily understood. clear. rixa. and the E. briegen. to rob. Lat.' in Due. Brigand. The Ir. sound. to piracy. bright bearhtm. brigare. secondarily. Bright. splendour. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. on his — own account. dine. glir. tinnitus. speech. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. brawl. In the same way to strive is. brigan. tinkle.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. and. show the origin of Lat. to strive for. braid. in the first instance. From ON. tinnitum clarum movco. XafXTTpoQ. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. to shine. tumult. in later times a robber or highway-man. and secondly. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. . malandrini. Brilliant. — A A . — brigante.dorem clarum reflecto. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. clear. rover either by sea or land.' The sense of strife or combat express. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. Schmeller. a sound. to cry. AS.pracht. glbram.Lat. \oice. So G. to make a loud noise. a small light pinnace pro. necessary business. — brigante. Gr. loo BRIGAND lor. to contend with another. also called briganders. clarus.' torum. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. to shift for with care. See Brake. manifest ON. the gleeman's song. It. and ner me hit iherde. glamra. a noise. — Probably then to strive. . Wilista. briga. biartr. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . transparent. A. Gall. Flor. riis ' — Chron. They or brigantini. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. beorht. —Capgrave.shine. etincelle.' The passage from the sense of a light. to resound. clare lucens. Due. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. the bench-notes resounded. squamma . brak. Du.D. — Due. and hence be explained glampi. 1654. inde squammatus. Adelung. OHG. strife. in the sense of a robber. twinkling. splendens . noise. to cry 'Schmid OE. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . a pirate. tion. kilistua. at a later period. splcnornd de brigandine. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. and diligence. It. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. to glitter. brebrigare. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. moment. clang. Brigata. lay was sung. and to associate with them. In Fin. dine. brdgen. bracht. shriek with laughter. outcry. combat. Heo — song That AS. to reservavit. Florio. the grew high. from hall. with respect either to sound or colour. Owl and beorhtian. and led it away. glamm. brigare. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. labour. willata. a spark. — Briganbriga. jurgia. there are many armour. Goth.clare ^tinniens. to bend a bow It. bairhts. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. a brigantine. It. Mid. clangour. may play the pirate or thief at sea. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur.— . splendour. Beorktode bene sweg. to rove.

the meaning is transL' amour. and 1. Brindled. gresiller. briller. to sound deep or hollow. fringe . Brimstone. s. Supp. fimbria) . bray as an ass bramire. barmr.preni. finds the Fr. Said of swine when in heat. with an initial br instead of gr. glisten. to long for a thing. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. bryn. cross-barred in colour. brama. fringe (Lat. to make a crackling noise. brunft. Wtb. kimmaltaa. ter. AS. brimmen.— Brinded. noise made by meat in broiling. to glitter. Lith. clangor tinniens. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. edge Pol.) brimi. to creak. fire. as of meat in broiling . : ' — bone). leonum). furious. to shine. whence bilbil-goda (literally. post. 154. to crackle. Thus Lat. Closely connected is OE. brame. as well as bl and gl. breziller. the edge. kommata. bramire. 1 1 64. ON. to shine. the lap or bosom. sonitum edere bremen. to shine. greedily to covet Cot. Hence with an initial s. to roar. Swiss Rom. crackle. broil . grisler. — — — . The meaning of the Fr. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. to broil. kajata. breziller. bramar. brand-krossottr. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. AS.— BRIM . In the same way Sw. border. brummen. vattubryn. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). — Rim. To Brim. to wish or covet. griller d'impatience. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. A . brant. brezil. ous.' Elyot in Way. to sparkle. griller). Dief. In Fr. chime). Brim. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. brim Magy. originally the lap folding over the breast. crackle . seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. a stick. tience. to quaver with the voice. bry7ie. to burn. as is the case also with Pl. margin. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. earnestly . verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. Kil. Prov.its vent in cries and roaring. brillare. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. The E. The expression is now confined to the sow. a rod. to crackle. lap of a garment . identical with passion. Subo. G. voux. to parch. brdnnsten. an apron. komista. rugire (cervorum. broiled. brisoler. surface of the ocean. shine. to glitter distance . frequently interchange. to storm. briller. Langtoft. excited. Du. hence the bosom. It. a streak. It. the singing of Sodom — — . brullo. beam. breme. s. a long. kiimottaa. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. rugire. brim. to twinkle. Sw. small gravel. kimista. brommen. griller. kimina. perent. from brandr. rut. It. to resound. coloured in stripes. bremmen. Dan. bramar. breme. which seems identical with rim. burning. to make bilbil). Fr. to fret . brame. . to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. komottaa. spraing. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. of the eye. dial. to creak. to . brummen : de soge brummet. to shimmer. barm-cloth or barmskin. — — So Fr. bramer.' d'etre marie . Tresiller. Sc. FJ.ioTiviS acutus. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. the sow is brimming. Streaked. brissle. Sc. bresoler (Gloss. or violent action. — . border. also to reflect. is used of raging. 1. rym^. glit.). grdzil. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. grullo. Tutschek. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. — g. lip of a vessel. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. brow of a hill. bar. barm. brastlian. striped or streaked. brinfire. ring. and corresponding to these. Rayn. have then in Fr. to shake. der. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. reecho. brumft. os qui bresole. that the original meaning of the Sc. gresiller. the eye-brow.D. 754. pMiller. bremas. grisser. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. to utter cries. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. a border. vigorHal. lap. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. ON. border. from bringe. burning stone. Brem. the heat of animals. whether of desire or anger. the heat of animals. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. fierce. bremmen. E. ardere desiderio. as in Langued. a borDu. ling noise and a sparkling light. The identity of ON. on. . brandr and Fr. brmdottr. Fl. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. ON. (poet. . brennistein. sprainged. to glitter . greDiet. to roar. sparkle. Rugere. briller (related to each other as OFr. the verbs Flor. parched.

very salt brimi. Du. Zeuss. shoot.). or the full • . to turn up the point of anything. Bret. brocchus. broca. the surf. braidsj ON. to set up one's birse. brusque. broccata. a projecting tooth It. a shoot or sprig. Prov. /3pE^m. ON. Sw. Brisket. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. is to erect the hair. man's throat. to stick. . to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Abroacli. hot-tempered. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. birstle. Boh.Lat. Bristle. brindelles de balai. brytan. brddj Goth. — in Due. a cold and windy mist or frost. as. brimhliod. fantas'* tical. brijn (Kil. In the N. Cot. and.procio. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. — A . Du. birs. to spur. e. Russ. are used in the sense of brittle. fierce. flame. from break. i. broche. brusco. to break. from AS. . brickie. The Pl. broccare. It. Sc. bringue. or — . bros. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. grim. brote. birsle. brin. to thrust. Brym. setting the hair on end. It. sour. brime. Hence ribrezzare. an awl. rash. bruckle.D. ' breast. . and forms on. a crum. chest. a brooch. a bud. Breeze been connected with the Sc. brcit. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. brandello. to scorch. Port. Formerly written brotil. to stab Gael. the surf. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. startling. bristly . metaphorically. bronchus.'— Vita'abbatum S. to roar. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Sp. like the Broad. Prov. suddenly angry. Fr. Da. 'In sua to stand up of Corn.). ' . bryde. a brad or tack. bruskett. borzos (struppig). briota. Lat. a bit . as. 'V^. Fris. Bret. Fr. sprocco. p. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Hal. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. humorous. britar. brimme. brim. bresk. apt to break. trembling. . a peg sbrocco. to broil. rebrousser. from brande. NE. Antiq. brim (poet. broc. a clasp. to broach a business. bros. Gr. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. a slip or sprig of an herb . a spit. brusk. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. reburrus. brodden. to break. brezza. brocco. to begin upon it. brittle. as a noun. to spit.' Nat. eager. Walach. Fr. See Spread. Ptg. to birstle. a skewer. cK) the . brioshko. brisk in taste. flames. a belly. brot. a morsel. briota. of astonishment. spur. roar of the sea saltr. brissko). brich. brissle. sprout. breaking of the waves brim sior. harsh vin brusque. Russ. Liquamen vel garum. expression. Then as the effect of shivering. a button broche. brittle. to shiver for Sold or for fear. brog. Fr. to shoot. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. setting the hair on end compare It. against the grain . borstel. rude. has under It. . Berri. a rod or twig. fiscbryne. breidr. breaking out into growth. bringe. to goad. coli. brim. byrst. — — . ribrezzoso.. Compare also E. brocco. — . Fr. breast. Gl. the brisket or . a fragment. bringe traced through the brano. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. Palsgr. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. crabbed. sharp. Commonly explained as from Fr. brust. b. bricho (with the diminutives. to break. and Sc. craw of a bird. quick. Pectusculum. brocar. emotions which produce it. ruffling. Swiss to stand out . Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. Brine. to put one in a rage . to stitch. a bud.g. britar. Fr. prick with Sw. to spur. saulmeure. broca. See Brand. sticking up . brocciare. See To Brim. thick — A elastic hair. Salte sand is called brimsand. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. wine of a sharp. borzen. smart taste. 222. whence may be explained the Sc. bryne. brichet. stitch. britchet. Brooch. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned.. Brittle. Dan. briocho. to crack. — bryme. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. bruched (Fr. It. It. strong itself.rcendij'i. as. spricka. brocher. sprouts. Brocade. form bris. to bud. a rebours. a deluge. a morsel . Sc. birssy. to set it a going. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. Mid. brockle. briser. G. brezzare. Brisk. and hence. Brickie. Prov. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. brisciare. to burn. angry. of E. a stormy brimsea . birse. lively. . aculeus. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. as unripe fruits. the twigs of a besom. is called a birssy day. borst. Alfr. fragile. rebursiis. Bohem. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. a stitch brocher.

carbonado. a brouhaha. a fallingThe sense has been out. brusuole. from the white. here. parched. To roast upon hot coals. breard. or roast on the braise. a border. brasuole. noise. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. broc. brizen. R. bruler. b?-od. Surrey in R. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. brastlian. to embroider. embroidery. Fr. blusters. agree in being the extremity of a thing. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. A badger. Gael. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. brindled. bram. W. spotted. briefh. kled breac. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. spots. and w. frecSee Brawl. brerd. Dan. broil. to burn. q. freckled. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. tori shows that. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. Contracted from Fr. frocadura. rustle. bordar. — The proper sense is that of Fr. a flock or Gael. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. — Gower in It. Bret. broud. Grisons brascla. age was termed a pricket. to scorch. broice. to On the other hand the Sp. brullare.. brocco. 103 embroidered. speckled. bordo. Thus brod. knobby . a freckle. to broil. Fr. Cot. AS. Brocket. sparks E. It. brouFr. It of br the Fr. to prick. parch. — brissle. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. froco. brasiller. brasolare. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . brustle. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). embroidering. initial . a brecJi. brod. to crackle. brych. ToBroider. brasbrasciuolare. forming to jumble. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. broccuto. broccato was used to signify stuff . a quarrel. Icnotty. a prick.sound. bramowanie.. prasseln. with Sc. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. Cot. and AS. to darn. tumult broighleach. brucilare. briz. to burn. to crackle. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. tufted ornaments. prod. a To Broil. precisely analogous to the Sc. to embroider. the line of development has been something different. brooked. bj'oil. Sc.— B. Sp. confound. to instigate. B. to streaked or speckled in the face. to crackle. hurly-burlies. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. to crackle. brychau. to boss. . v. broder. onbryrdan. to knots or loops. Broker. a mole. It. to spur. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. — — . because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. to crackle as a shell in the fire.tumultuous. dar seems derived from borde. to parch or broil. or glowing coals broged. rinj'. Florio. shuffle. a badger. Gael. broc. point to an origin in Bret. a confused streaked face of the animal. ciare. scorch. noisy. sting. Hal. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. The ON. a point. trouble. A fried or boiled steaks). E. houx. Sc. From direct imitation of Brock. an edge. fundamental origin. a border ornamented with gold. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. grullo. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. hart of two years old. of pointing out their latent defects. a flake of snow sion. brusler. Ptg. The Bret. storms. to stud broccoso. border. Ihre has guU-bord. silkes-borda. trouble. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. thread. atoms . Compare G. So from Pol. gold and silver. Here to ornament with needle-work. Compare also AS. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. parti-coloured. broil. ornamented with a raised pile. streaked. border ornamented with silk. braird. motes. broukit. . stump. broglio. creak. birsle. a b?-ustolare. broiled. speckled. the shoot of corn. brodio. — . In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. piebald . margin. brucach. and bord or bred. whence broccare. brouda. brocach. brocart. a brim. gresiller. Fr. bmsciare. bustling. borprick. or snag. parti-coloured. grislement. or It. bawling. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. badger . broighlich. or salted fish on coals. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. a freckle. has grisser. brasiller. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. — Fl. a peg.

embers. to throw blame upon. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. Per manus et old worthless horse. Lat. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. ON. from makel. brasa. abject. braken. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. abbronzanchiare. brod. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. find fault with. Adelung. brot. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. It. racher. brumo. buy and sell by commission. an outcast or rejected sheep.D. • . rejection Pol.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. See Broth. Pl. Brood. warm. on. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. . On • tliis principle the G. to scorch. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker.D. embers. to blame. brands. braeck goed. refuse. damaged. bring eggs and spawn into active life. phlegm. find fault with. Du. inspection. racaille. an operation performed over hot coals. brae. blur. to hatch. 396. a chicken. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. vile. to copper. Pl. Teutonic class : Du. i. analogous to Bohem. bridde. refuse brakovat. wreak. hraki. from break. brieden. damaged. stain. the spawn of fishes. to sparkle. matter of blame weak place. pan metal. but from the primary sense of the It. brak. This word shows the same relation to It. If to vomit . hot. bronze. Bret. — a spark. fault censure. lack. sbrinzlar. brokers' goods. For the same reason the Kiittner. Tooke's Catherine. bronze. to pick. vile. bronze. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. Kil. refuse Fr. nounce unsound. brunds. The use sunburn. OFr. cracker.D.— Breed. tussis. as. brokas. whnake. — broeden. ODu. . spittle . couratier. and fishes . brydio. to criticise. raca. w. bric-a-brac. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. . To blame mens ware. to spit . mud. designation is indkler. insects. embers to brund. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. brwd.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. want. trumpery. reject. Du. brokoti. with. — point out the faults. brak. to sit on eggs. to emit sparks. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Abbronzare. try out. Russ. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. to reject. Pl. — . brasa. G. Bronze. brod. : ' . try . progeny of birds. G. Fr. dirty. to braze. or brascla. broiid. refuse. brut. Sc. brack. burning. to pick and choose. to be hot. To correct an exercise is to Lib. goods damaged by sea-water. sunburnt. Dan. which E. brass does to Sp. refuse goods. a breach or flaw. — Fl. selection. Alb. make out. bronzo. a makeln. to nourish. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. and to reject the damaged and unsound. brack-gut (Sanders). has exactly the force of G. vrage. to garble. brakyne. to . inspect. cherish. brid. Fl. corrector. a brood . dial. to roast on the embers. raquer. Sp. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. whence the modern courtier. refuse wares. find fault — — — fuse matter. to hatch. sort. Pro v. fermenting. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. tan. It may be compared with It. in which sense the OHG. spittle. to pro- to reject . brack-gut. bracker. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. filth. In the . Prov. refuse brakowad. e. to hatch G. bredan. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. to sort goods . to be wanting. to sort brakovanie. a broker. S. wraken. an . . cast Lith. See Brackish. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. criticise (makeln). wrak. Bronzare. merchandises de rebut G. . term was correcfo^ir. The Langued. to — garble. Grisons brinzla. a fault. rejected. brechen.D. glowing coals. to brew. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. 38. mediationem quorundam J. hrak. the young of any animal . bronce. ordure. wrack-good. in the sense of rejection. G. Jam. In those countries the term braker. broen. . fish-spawn broden. a cough Hal. faulty. Alb. correctarius. et A. See Wreak. brackefi. slaae vrag paa. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. hot. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo.— Lib. screatio Junfus . keep warm. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. and as an adj. briiten.— — .

protecting the eye. heat. bruith. bros. brusmalt. margin. a derived from the boards. broud. infusion.' Due. or shoot. awl-plant. a bud. to browse. a hut or cottage It. bushes. waves. Celtic. broth. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. frui. brogues. infusion the barley bree. borda. — . brew . a . bruithim. . eminence . Catalan brossa. house of ill fame. who is steaming with sweat. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. plants composed of twigs. vigour.brink. t— Cot. Sp. . AS. to Pl. brushbrothas) gives the OE. G. brudi. bruitheati. bruach. — . broth brothaire. Fr. Gael. eye-brow.brons. brow. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. the colour of things burnt. steam from heated bodies. a sprout. in which brinnan. shore. Serv. to border. Dan. Gael. eye-lash . brlgh. cabbage water. a hill. b7-un. Bohem. from ripa. brawdj Slavon. eye-brow. break out brewet. braun. broca. a source Gael. Gael. spuma. Cot. &c. juice of briars. brous. broccola. breg. — ' . enjoy Goth. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>.. a shore. OHG. braces. to bear patiently. eye-lid. A — . brad. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. breh. brodo. brink. Brothel. Prov. bryii. ." Serv. sprout. Bohem. brun. a spring. kail brose. Limousin broudi. broth Brown. brau. brass. . to spring . brouches. sense the Sc. useful G. broi. frater. w. warmth ch'an. borde. brov. breg. brue . riviere. to scald. bruddeln. of plants broust. Ger. brodem. See Bramble. Browse. dialects is very different. Sc. sprot. The AS. bruth. Tam de terrS. broit. eye-lid. eat. shrubs. Manx broie. 'Lzt. (for brodem). forms appear related to the Ir. grow brossa. signifying low wet land (Brem. thicket. heath. thick bush brousta. chen. bank. Bret.spross. may be connected with Russ. grow into a bush. pith. OHG. brio. Gris. to use. sproc. brus. Gr. brost. Russ. It. rage. a hill. pfriemkraut. sap. verge. brosses. heat explaining the Prov. to boil bruithe. Ppim. brozia. branches. . brennen. frucius. Commonly Teutonic. briihe. to browse. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. Fr. surface of Broth. eye-brow. brothas. augen-braune. . ale . as rhododendrons.braubiti. bruceti. broden. cabbage soup . surDu. briar. heath. and It. Mid. to roar. brewis. a river. shore . broeye. Bav. vigour. thairj w. Due. hovel. a caldron. as small-pox. Prov. on. . strength Ir. brstiti. noise.D. or bushes and scrubby growths. properly boiling water briihen. bruscosd quam de arabili. &c. to boil. broth. a bud brous-koad. . The softening down of the consonant bud. brpuster. meal. dumetum. sordes seu strigmata young branch. wood . seethe. signifying twigs. fur Broom. spirit. brouic. rerum decoctarum. G. to shoot. Sanscr. mettle. bregh. bordel. . shoots. and also border. . bruich. bruc. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. pottage. bryn. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . bruno. a shrub broust. laissent Domunculum. bordeau.— Overyssel Almanack. brotar. brukjan. browys. &c. a little . brosses. briu. brouet. brocco. strength. brst. . Fr. buds. Brow. hot. brabruach. simmer from the murmuring AS. broc. to murmur. brucan. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. broth is sometimes used . Du. Pol. G. bree. as Fr. Gael. juice of meat. It is Brother. to boil. shrub with leafless pointed edging. To digest. bank. on. w. and Sc. broem bark. was originally used in the innocent sense of . bryn. juniper. broth the ocean Sw. Roquef. broo. — exiit et heath. It. Lat. brouter. a confused noise of winds. edge. shoot. breg. bros. riviera. It. bruich. Here we find throughout the Romance. boiled . brow of a hill. broieii. to sprout. Bret. sprout. to use bruks. brost. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. border.D. Pl. . to boil. G. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. edge. brotar. bank. or broken up . BROOK brook w. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. fabric consists. ceales briw. brouser. broza. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. circuindedit cum familia. . to burn. . brwd. bor. brdtaj Gael.) . hut. brouskaol. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. &c. G. and Slavonic families. of which the variety of forms. Sp. Russ. braussa. has briw. The origin is a re. brosst. AS. bratrj Lat. perhaps burnt coloilr. Du. . brushbroccoli. bntdien. sprouts . low The AS. Kil. bhratrj Zend. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. from Goth. brd. pour boiling water over. Wtb. to use. eye-brow. sprocco. braew. . brauwe. cia. Fr. brmi. a bruth. the bubbling or springing up of water. But the Walach. a little house or cottage of timber. bank. bud. a sprig. sodden. OFr. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. Bohem. to bubble up with noise. 105 Brook. Fr. iVlanx broogh. face.

to butt. wool-card. burt. Fl. to break or burst. shoot brouskoad. brusca. break. a mote. a crum. shivers. 174. bruyere. — a bush. blow burcar. Text Soc. Beryn. shock. insilio. rubbish. dust. broust. britar. brushwood. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. G. Fr. also a head-brush. brusc (Diet. a tuft of heath . bruis (sing. modification of the same root which gives the E. Poems. a rumbling. To brush then would be to dust. brist j Port. NE. borste. bris. brugir. brizeto. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. and . remnants of hay or fodder. brisar. abroncar. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. bruito. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. ON. a brush. to break to bits . Sw. wool-card. brysan. Allit. wool-card. biirste. Fr. and sighid therewithal. Brunt of a daunger. A. a brush . and It. a bud or sprout Bret. a little brizal. . brusg. as It. brista) or breaking out . The Bav. Gael. effort. and Piedm. to break. borste. bruiser. appearin Goth. rods. tremely. * Brunt. . Piedm. an enmy. a shrub composed of small twigs . p. briiis (in the pi. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. a brush. a brush . OFr. It. bruit. a bristle. seems named from burst(on. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. bruzir. or sodenly comyn' dust. brico or brizo.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. brousso. it schall be al Sw. bross. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . fasx . heath. Gael. brustid. brosst. of twigs. a blow. dust. and in the second place a besoiB. — those signifying a sprig. or shoot. to crush. desbrisar. ca7-bo>i. And that best is. quasi twigs. bruscolo. dust. but on whom it schall to brisen him. burs. Lang. field. irruo.— — i. Brush. Pr. Prov. E. quisquilise. bruire. Brunt. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. flax-comb brossettes. brosst. bruise exOFr. brist. Gael. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. a noise. brist. . orts. brossar. brusco. . brosse.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. — Fr.). into a multitude of points. rubbish. brusco. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brunt. Sp. a flax comb. Alexander. Bav. crum bit . brist. a briser. The Lat. britar. a bud. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Piedm. bris. Port. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. See next article. Cot. a — — (Agea) said. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. coal See Breeze. escousse. brit. to strike the foot against an obstacle. Cot. broza. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. dust. Pr. The same relation holds good between G. to brush. brustia. Pm. a brush Swiss bruske. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. mg Cat. bruskr. to stumble. bushy ground. borste. It. bruc.). twig. brikan. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. brisd. a brush . chips. It. Lang. broza. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. borste. . a brush. Prov. On the other hand. E. Gael. a bush of hair. That in all haste he wouli. 134. OE. Palsgr. bush. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. and also Brush. Fr. broustia. Bruit. brMt. bud. Castr. brusca. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. bris. bruscolo. detergere . K. —Fabyan. Broach. insultus. Bruise. to make brusshes on. a horse-brush. briser. Pr. Sw. . biirste. bris. brise. Pr. Pm. brust. G. 201. broken. brossa. briketo. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. brosse. brik.— Palsgr. bricalio. Prov. Hall in R. bruscia. a bristle. tuft of grass or hay. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. fragments. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. to break. brous. a brush . Prov. wood composed OE. In E. AS. and actually come in collision. to cleanse. rubbish. brottcher. borste.). brus. Fr. bross. ling or heath for brushes. E. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. fescue . Fr. twig. Bret. brustia. brossa. to make a rumbling. — OE. sordes. B?-usske. Wicliff. brous. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. Diez. splinters. . crush. borst. —Chaucer.

buborek. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. does not hold. Bubble. to soften. Diet. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. soft. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. at a door. a fescue. . mokry. to soak. a hole. bouk. Sp. a steep for flax. . to Gael.buchen. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. w. Sc. But see Bristle. erweichen. boc. bifbel. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. to wet Pol. wood. Fin. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. bub. open lath-work. a bubble.derivation has been much discussed. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. 1857. I. bduclien. . soft. mote.boukaat. . boucaner. as a buck rabbit. Fr. soft. pukkata. says Laudon. molle. Formerly. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. BUBBLE bruschetta. The place of such a 2. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. and Fr. and as a verb. because bucare does not in Marsh). hog dressed whole).byka. Bret. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. a ashes. buck-ashes. and exercised their cruelties prin. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. bubseti.— . But the analogy nih-e (Hist. rap. bub. Magy. to knock the type of anything round and swelling.lessiver. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . bubBuck. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. to butt. hump. de la Floride. buck-ashes. bugada. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. Magy. also applied Una. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. bugd. set of pirates in the spread. . knock. 1586. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. buquer. as G. News. The cipally on the Spaniards. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. Pol. ac. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. of wind. It. was called bucking the linen. from weich. a. bucking. was called in Fr. the first wheal.tare. bucaIndies. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors.wet Lat. a to the male deer. tender. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. the upper for coifee. to which in their language they call bou. not so plentiful a commodity. watery bud. — . The natives of Florida. tap . to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. to butt.to allow a free current of air. a bubble . bubauti. Pol. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. Bohem. boil animals. bukke. bwch. faire la lessive. drying of produce. maban and baban. thunder gently . lye.D. bucquer. soft It. colada. and the bunch. a. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. . to soften . to strain. Dan. From an imita. mieknad. plied in the W. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. from colar. the lower soak in lye. lye.' Palsgr. The name. different form. bucata. The word was very generally Buccanier. to filter. Fr. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. when soap was tion is commonly taken. The male goat. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. to a place used for the mouillir. In G.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. Fr. Illust. buchen. mollire. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. the linen at buck. pup. tender. soft . is 1. to butt or jurr Dan. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. boh. 17th century. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. to bubble. bubbola. Bret. A . it is beuchen. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). . Bohem. Esthon. to soak. bog-aske. The term bocan is still ap. or projecTo Buck. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. to stick. to bump as a bittern.biiken j Svi. to buck. top. See Dupe. very generally designated by the same puk. a bubble. This bubette. byge. to soften. in which the flesh dish. It. bublati. Etym. blast or strike with the forehead. . caned' Hence those who established them. moist. hump. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. pokka7na. Sp. — . moczyd. who resorted to the islands beichen. a knock word. bubiti. to soak foul linen before washing. blister. to murmur. bouc. It. March 28. buquer. and then to other wild tumour Lith. a push. designation of a knob.steep or soak. Gael. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. buerj It. — — ' A : ' ' . bube. bokni. boc.-wtt miekki. Cot. w. Pref A. or mok. tuft.

Cot. dint . mani. a small shallow and open tub. stud. G. motus creber. butt . . in the beginning of to pierce holes. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. of bac. bucket Fl. turgere buczendig. OHG. probably from the notion of bubbling. brobrocchiere. ble. knob dwfr yn boglynu. Bus. — . call bo. the root of the Slavonic words gran. bunch . bucherame. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. to line with fur. dinted.) . Du. Fr. Lat. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. where the G. a bump. Dan. Wtb. hump. to boil. a bud. set of a plant in bulk. stir. It. — — . The entire train of thought is bucket.pode. Budge. . boucaran. bud butzen. The knob or projection formN. a ring. male or botzen. a shield. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bolgetta.may probably be explained by N. bulga. bouk is a pail and with the dim. jSouKoXiKog. stroke. * Bud. Dan. * Bucket. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. To thrusting part of a long body. W. a boy. buckel. whom it is still much in use. . a boss. no wheel bogeilio. convexity. protuberance. to word. a buclder or shield budge. ' . OFr. So on. butzen. pulga. Bret. It termination is lost. rabodS. a servant. and the reference to It.) as to soak. is to shrivel up. . to boss or swell out G. inboachen. child. bouljein. is doubtless fallacious. boach. bogla. Pol. butzen.' Schm. gjeit-klauv. water message. bunch. Hence quel. a .chissima. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. . the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. and of the Lat. NE. as in Fr. boss of a shield. also a leather tuft . In Lat. boccula. boucle. It. to stir. . Port. lump. prick in a target. were To Budge. This expression boglire. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. boqueranmis. boucler. macero. Bret. Russ. A buckle or fastening for botch. knob . with which it was ornamented. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. fur. ' . to bud or bocla. butz. bod. of a surface. bukke-blad. Mid. potz. bulb. . sboge. . to 'soak.' Boccaccio. Pied. See Bulk. boss. Fr.. knock. buachazlle. belonging to the calling of the chen. trunk of wood covered with leather. Bav. pwtio. Buck-bean. botzen. butzen (Du. . don't stir from hence. bog and G. boucle. pote. w. call. bulla. bougette. bouter. boglyn. a budget. bo. botzen. bollire. to pen cattle.' And this sacrament bus have dial. butze.anything short of its kind. words is converted into b. boucle. Hardly identical with Fr. imbuere. no business to do that. excrescence. a buckle or protuberance. a boss. agreeing with Gael. bucherare. clasp of a book. clump. bloca.stumpy man. bub. and weichen. bulais daqui. need.— . weich. a fold ceilio. like a bean. ON. great pouch. Sp. put. to poke. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bode. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. Fr. wallet.' Hal. the word w ' — . dim.t-le!L{ * Bud.r//'. a shoot. built. a pail or flowers.poot. a leathern sack. skins pushit'. pwt o Fr. Bucolic. Fr. a stump buckle up. bouge. bouclier.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. a pustule bout. The word is a ddyn. boaLat. rump of fowls . ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. It. bdden. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. Fr. a bubble three thyngis. budge. swelling.n. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. butzen K. bucolicus. . bocla. a tuft. a short thick man. a little coffer or turgidus. blow./a. K. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. or male of to boil . a trough). ' . goat's hoof. of bouge. The Fr. It. Sw. the radical image seems to be a set plants. Prov. bouton. swelling. thrust. soft. bulka. Du. become bochen. from bugr. to graft or bud trees. Fr. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. * Buckle.). — — . bouprobably identical with inok. to thrust. with a central boss.. with let. to butt. having a boss. bolgia. — . above mentioned. Prov. bod. bougette. Swab. Fr. II I'a feru desor I'escu. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. Buckler. weich. to un bout d'homme. Budget. bloca. w. scion.stuff. case of leather . bullion. a navel. a wallet. boiling. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. from bo. A water-plant with leaves and gille. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. Gael. a curl. bouger. push forwards. bedde. Mid. a budget. ein. to budge. pulga. explaining Fr. a cowherd.Lat. from Gr. boulj. to swell. Behoves. The dressed fur of lambs. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. noise . bugnir. bloquier. don't a baby). loud Cot. bump. Bav. seen in Hesse botz. to move. a dumpy gin. crack. ornamental stud. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. bul. weichen. call. cattle. bug.goa.. Prov.

Bufetarium. bw! It. buffet. caupo. a bugbear. to bellow . also a G. him but Boyd iugges. buffa. to rePl. dausinti. Limousin bobal. bukow Ikow. for this purpose is very widely spread. It. a hollow sound. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . — retailing buffeter buffetier. bolgetta. a clap. Pl. a budget. a block-headed noddy. to blow. as emblematically making light of an object. to beat. to excite terror in Macleod. bugbear. buffen. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. by metaphor. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. buffeteur. The cry made to excite terror is then used. buffare. to give benti. dausa. buffare. Buffeter. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. a buffle or a bugle. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. colour. often covering his E. a goblin). Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. as from Lith. a jester. Cot. Lith. buff leather. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. Gael. btifetarius. thus be translated to tap. a skin. wine may The verb in taverns.' La Crusca. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. yar^aa.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Fr. A — Bug. a hobgoblin. buffle-headed. confused. bufogni. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. It. Romola.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. or hath been Cot. bubiti. A puff with — Fl. wauwau.' perfield. to marre often tasting it . Teet-bo. breath. Lith. Buff. From bulga. word other cases. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. bubaRuss. bouffer. bolgia. to puff. The children were playing in an oppocomer. leathern bucket. deadened. made to —Bugbear. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. Lat. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Fl. buffalo. Esthon. tabernarius.D. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. mumming. A blow. een duffen toon. to blow souffleU. senses. buivol. stupid. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. a puff.—Buffet. smells . Swiss baui. ' They rether puffed at him. the place whence the wine was drawn. boo. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. W. buffets. Fr. while in Sp. a cuff or buffet. tastes. Magy. dull sound. things in Jam.D. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Thus buffet would a tapster. to frighten . &c. Cot. scarecrow . sounds. buffer. Pl. Fr. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Fr. buffet. to blow . It. Buffoon. air. to jest or sport. buffet. Buffalo. to give a as of a blow.D. dial. —Boggart. From buff! of terror. buMagy. from It. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. to signify an indefinite object of terror. baubau. — Z. the buffe. site The two — — iii. G. bau ! children. Lat. w. and in Fr. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. rebuff. — — — Buffet. made by a person. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. Mid. to strike face to represent the unknown. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. to a representation of his voice. blurt or puff with one's mouth. le reste emplissant d'eau. boman. human. bobaow. duff^ dull. Hence the E. as wine that hath taken wind. Fr. bugle. a dull BUG From 109 — A . God's boast seemed feare children. or wild ox. botffon. — Bogle. popo. soufflet. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. a In ./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . bubus. pulse . bugs. bufHe. cuff . buffle. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. E. a side-board. mingled with water. bumann. Sc. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. The use of the exclamation children. often blown upon. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Sc. either alone or with various terminations. . bw. of colours. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. as Diez remarks. bouffer. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bo ! an interj. bubach. bauwi. It. 265. Buff. — thence it has been transferred in E. puff. from souffler. bwg. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. buffetto. — La Crusca. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. bufogni.— Buflae. to puff.

bwgwl. Fl. boo. 1551. vermin. and in Lat. the word is lin) bbgge. w. buba. well as the terrific object. affright. Fl. great or bug words. gad. bugle.. bobal. buculus. fear. swollen. to take fright. bug dung-beetle. . a silk-worm.Fr. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. dial. a goblin.— . Bdronie. bwgar. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. biignt. troll. then a horn for drinking. a misshapen person. a bug-bear. and a boggarty ing. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. — — ' . terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. It. rose-bug. according to Coles. hert. to roar Aasen. Swiss booggen. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. scarecrow . roarHal. bogil bo (e. booggen. Mundart. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. disgust. E. as Buffalo. a bugbear for children. bug-bear. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. W. An ornament of female dress condread.. to take bug. oxen. bwg and E. fierce. Bugle. with more or less modification represents bau. buffle. to frighten scarecrow. Stalder bog. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. insect. Lith. a beetle. to bellow. proud. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. The final guttural of W. used in the same sense. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. Illyr. of bugabo was given. Bug. high. insect. 3. 493. bbgni. bok. Sp. A similar applica. : no BUG . In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. Bogge. language any kind of insect. long. beugler. paws the ground . iv. Sw. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. Hal. bugar. to creeping things. a boogg. an object of terror. bogle. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. a. bogil. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. Hence bugle-horn. bold. fette. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Schmidt. bugbear. Cheval de trombugti. — — . — — terror. Bug as a lord. Grisons bau. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. Deut. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. to bellow. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. — . bucula. bug-bear. of pipes sewn on. and in child's Magy. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Manx boa. Swelling. The w. tumble-bug. forSc. threatening. a bug-bear. ghost. coco. . ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. to take fright. Grose. bukashka. worm.3uhtii&:. is very common. Parolone. Serv. * 2. Bible. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. Magy. b'dgni. earwig bau da grascha. I. Swiss ing. Russ. the Devil. It. . saucy. Lesachthal. bug. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . and is Deutsch. (Spurrell). pujalo. given in Chaucer. BUGLE Tentennino. the buggaboo w. a rabme. is the dim. as an object of dread. bukati. bauginti. shepe and gootes. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. thus connected with bug. — boogg. Lap. mask ' . any disgusting animal. quos what produces dread or disgust. bugler. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. especially to beetles or winged insects. Big. also a bug-bear. to origin in the expression bugs words. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. . pugaf. superbire.' In my time at horse is one apt to start.Lat. bogk. Chaucer. bug-bear. buggabod). high-sounding words. 2. larva (a bug-bear. poggl. bau (Pureiglia. xiv. il brutto Demonio. roo. also a bug-bear. boa-peep. i. and bugle. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. terrifying ward. monster. tion of the beetle tribe. Magy. threatening. banian boube. the black a maggot. The name of bug is — .loud noise. a buffalo. protuberant. See The name terror). also a baco-baco. baco. an insect. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. a proud overbearing man pujat'. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. big. provincially an insect. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. pugalo. bogk. Mid. Same as buffle. Lett. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. blustering. boeuf sauvage. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror.

blow. bol. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. buhe. A — ' — Bulk. — — . To Build. (3oX|8oc. swell. or feminine termination gives Bav. Bav. blister. projection. on. . sedes. body of an animal. hollow. swollen. mass. trunk. wallet. the womb. hold or bilge of a ship. the position of liquids in the word In English. villa. in bulk. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. Kil. body of a ship . lump. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. w. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. Othello. From till. to break bulk. boss of shield. Ptg. See Bulk. balgs. and N. Mandeville. bol. . ne. — Bulb. of E.— . For the latter sense ' — My . ON. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. the belly. were a habitation. . Boss^. . balg. to undo the cargo. bubble. knobby. swollen OE. to raise a habitation. unevenness Sw. a globe. leather sack. a tuberous or bulbous root . The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. a water-bubble). a round bulky body bwlgan. blister Manx bolg. as well as is very variable. G. tumidus. as it was merly written in English to bylle. The addition of a dim. as water beginning to boil bolg. gebolgen. balcone. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. boulge. . a protuberance. bulka. Bulch. bullka. See how this tode bolneth. . a. Here stand behind this bulk. The radical sense is shown in Russ. compare Da. blister. bulk is a partition of boards. cultivate. bolgan.' Cot. the body Du. trunk of the body. bulk. belly. bukr. . . Pr. Lith. bulgen. bulwis. Gr. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. boa. bolle. belly van de kerche. pocket. bouk. the capacity or burden of a ship. bubble {palgan tiisge. and put it home. bellows builgean. a bunch. principal portion. pulkas. cumulus. belgr. at riufa bulkann. to swell. nave or body of the church van 't schip. or. a leather sack or budget Fr. thorax buick. snorting on a bulk. whence bylja. . pouch builgeadh. beuck. boss. Sp. domicilium. formed a farm. be protuberant. . a bubble Gael. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. pimple. and bulbukd. . bulle. stuffed bag. the potato G. swell. Bourser. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. to bol. bulgen. belly. bulge or bilge. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bolso. . the contents of the hold. Muratori. bulked or bumped out. trunk. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. biilken. to gather. bulkaf. van loock. in Sc. pod ON. Dan. swell. or of what is shaped like a bubble. bulg. With these must probably be classed ON. belly Sw. The Walach. ' . . bed of a river. Dan. to throw out a convexity. to blow. a dint in a metal . a lump or mass. bulki. it again.' Festus. to build. bulge or convex part of a cask. bolgetta. Pr. husk. to bubble up. G. to bubble up Pol. inhabit. Pm. womb. balco. to belly out. bilge.' Anat. ON. bag. a prominence. bubbling up. knot in thread. Hence e. a bulb Du.' Palsgr. bulne. belgja. globule bolg-lhuingey. bulbe. ^ — .pulks. bolnyn. or bear out as a full purse.d. bole. bulbus. bubble. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. belly Cat. belly. tumeo. skin flayed whole. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. — — . a. PoXj3a. Lith. bauen. . . bulbe. body. Palco.'— Cot. acervus. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. It. bol. bale. turgeo bolnyd. bulcke. head . bwlg. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. OSw. a heap. belly. Bulge.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. m um Placentiae. to swell. Bulk. bug. hull of a ship. Pm. a bubble. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out.). or cargo of a ship. ' . a stage or scaffold. bubble. bauch. In the representation of natural sounds. Jno. Lett. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bunch or projection. He found a country fellow dead drunk. the head of an onion. a straw corn-vessel. has bulbuk. ' . jnake bulch. bo. chest. balg. Hal. vulva. in vessel. lump.' Fl. skin of an animal. 1388. crowd. bouge. anything prominent. Bolke or hepe. I. bladder. . OSw. a leathern sack or portmanteau. — — . belly. the carcase. Gr. bolgia. bolg. Lat. to spring. Mister. . knob. herd^ swarm pulkd. knob. bua. See bollekeii next article. buk. Lat. bolgna. puff. — . of an inflated skin. bulk or capacity of anything. ball. mass. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. skin bag. habitaculum. straight will he 2. bugue. boss of a buckler. bolle. buc. — . byli. to puff up bolginn. MHG. Melancholy. G. dial. boss. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb).

in N. brass-headed nail . a blockhead. sloes. urchens. a scare-bug. A lace tree. to tical with Sw. bolos Fr. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. bouillon. billoti in Fr. Bullbeggar. poli-cheannan. Gold or silver uncoined. whence bullire. which may probably be the origin of the name. Bullet. bellow. a seal. spirits. The bullfrog. boillon. witches. assito. bal. round glass phial. hhint. a bull Swiss bullen. A papal rescript. Terriculamentum. bietebau.Gr. from Fr. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. embossed work. bullus. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. a hobgoblin. bollos de relieve. Fr. scarecrow. a wasp. BulUiead. The male W. I. from the use of the equivalent terms. bulla.. pwl. Eullrusli. billon. poll-cheannach. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. from Lat. of Witchcr. biitzibau. many to protuberant objects. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. w. a bulox polos. bolla. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. a stud. Pm. bollar. bulke.D. The wild plum. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. It. it is boulet de canon. 2. Scot's Deso. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. a little fish nearly all head. to boil. bollon. Du. stamped money. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. w. stud. to bubble. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. i. This word is used in several senses. it may be observed that a bullet in E. to seal. is called a ball. a bull. a hobgoblin. ON. G. bulk of a thing.. and thence terror. from baula. as the ornanails. bubble. &c. penbwl. a framework of balks.lle de fusil. balgeting. — A tition in a ship. bwbach. thick. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. from the noise. Du. stupid . as geting.D. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. a noisy violent fellow. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. Gael. bulk. poltern. bulla. also a parFl. lumpish. beams or boards. and vellon in Sp. bwlas. Lith.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. large of its kind.. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. Bullace. Sp. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. whence Mod. a hornet. a tadpole. — Fl. ba. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. to emboss . boss. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. to bellow. Bret. also of the tadpole or young frog. is of a class with Pl. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. G. boulct. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. leraures nocturni nigri. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. bwla. bulle. bellocier. as in E.. a beam or rafter. eth and frighteth. but is more probably iden- palchetto.D. W. a seal. It.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. Fr. Dan. BuUiou. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. Cot. bulloi. elves. from the Lat. tition of deals instead of a wall. any embossed work. blunt. G. signifying roaring. on the contrary. as a mill-dam or the like. however. in the sense of base metal. pimple. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. N. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. bolli. bullebak. the matrix or die . 2. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug.Fris. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. dial. See Bowl.'— ' Palsgr. of the ox kind.' do not go by the dangerous water. stamp. bulderen. pollach. bullern. bullos. a cow. the seal affixed to the document. baula. Pl. Du. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. boss or stud. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. bole or trunk of a tree. blister. — — Bull. a bowl. a tadpole . of boule. The final element tergeist. any great-headed or studded nail. child by the represents the hobgoblin. . as It. And The word bullerbak. G. Bullfrog. coarse. bullocks. 3. /SouWivu. large. bauli. bolli. b2iggaboo. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. polten. See Billet. Du. a bul-begger. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. stud. Bully. bugbear. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. dim. bouillon. lumpheaded .

from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. boulevard. The decried coin. scaffold. BULLY with which coins were stamped. To bully is to bluster. G. The Stat.. beat a — Hal. or a humblebee.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. — Boom. ON. a blunderhead. To bum. G. bottn. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. sound. G. ground.D. buller-jaan (bully. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. a bumble-. biihne. The 27 Ed. — — plate d'argent. poltem. Etym. 2. 1687). Philip le Bel in Due. IV. a floor. legaggio di metallo. from boden. propugnaculum. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. c. Kil. a stage. polterer. a noisy blustering fellow.' for the purpose of exchange. boene. To Bum. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. buene.' Stat. bodem. provides. Sw. Du. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. to make a droning Du. c. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. Fris. — bombam?nen. violent. to .' Again. III. 2. to dun. un faux brave.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. blunder-buss. D. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. bustle. Kiittner. It. From the notion of a humming. bombilare. or work of defence. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. provides. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage.' reals of standard currency. The Sw. 'lega. bottom. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat.D. by corruption boulevart. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. John). hum. &c. ^i^/«. debacchari. on the other hand. Hal.' ' mettre au billon. block-werck. Thus ' ble. bomtnen. 2. Fris. clamour. Bully-rock. c. Miege in Hal. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. bolderen. is bullion — A — buller.. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. primarily the ramparts of a town. but now is the central part of the town.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. IIL st. noise. bastion. violent overbearing person. AS. St. botm. a hectoring. ^Bully-rook. agrees with e. 9 E. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king .the ramparts. a boisterous. Bum.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. to make a noise . 1305. furious man. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. Fr.' agger. Du. 14.d. — Bumto . or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. blaterare. To bum. ierd-beame. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. to terrify by noise and clamour. Du. baluarte. bommele. minari verbulderen. Kil. buller-bas. vallum. argentum and silver. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. boisterous fellow. 4 Hen. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. A. bulderen. ierd-boeyme. then in general a rampart. blunder-buss. intonare. Bully. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . droning. perturbare saevis dictis. Bailey. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. Hence — . to drum Lat. Bum-bailiff. resonare. 10. bol-werck. buller-bak. The cry of the bittern. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. and porter au billon. buller-bas. For bottom. Hence bom and ban. buller-brook. up was termed monnaie de billon. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. a. — Bump. honunele. the soil. is called bumping or bells.

knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. a knob. Moor. Bony. bulto.S. any round knob or bunch. bottom. . w. bmidt. — round fruit. also for taking a pilot to a ship. the Pr. a rabbit. bamgetroffen. lump. S. bulscha. He fult dat et bunsede. bon. lenten loaves. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. bunsen. knuckles. Roding. protuberance. bumtel. to bang. bun with ON.-^Fl. w. to beat. a large . cluster. stock.^Cot. Then. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. a hump. poumpido.' Palsgr. a bunch Magy. round mass of anything. . bu<rnone. awkward clown. Related on the one side to Pl. a pumpion or gourd. Dunchyn or bunchyn. banga. Bumpkin. Du. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. seems to unite Gael. a boss Lith. Suffolk bonnka. a bud.D. Bang sen. pwmp. — — de dor bunsen. a knob. bungersome. Bums it's hit. It. a wallet. Bung^. Daal bu7iseti. BUNCH bum-bailiff.— Pr. bune or boon. See Bunch. — Marine Diet. — — — — ' — knock. pompon. strike E.— Bunnion. tundo. He buncheth me and beateth me. ! — knocking. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. ner. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. bundle. Bunk. lungeous. and signifies consequently a mass. boi7ieog. a rabbit. knob or heap. from knock) It. Thus e. Lang. pumpa. Hal. stump. are dim. Pm. a round mass . poumpi. bonge. forms. to . to . inconsiderately. pompette. a dried hemp-stalk. awkward. bun. a knob . a lump on the foot bunny. a bump. Probably for bun-boot. . — — Bun. a button.). Pm. Pl. an old stump of a horse. to ' .. Hal. bunga. bumsen. clumsy. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. stock.' Bun. bung.pummel. callus. . a boil or blain. bun eich. hay stubble . gibber. stubble of beans. . Probably from bump. Pr. bugno. Hal. clown. a. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). applied to young persons. or to the mass by which it is given. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . a knotty stick) Sw. il me pousse. root. a swelling from a blow. to bang down. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. a. to beat. bunch— Hal. a purse . A Du. Sc. Radically identical with Dan. bignet. bans. bolsa. Dan. Sc. Dan. . hdk passing and E. bottom. dial. bund. Fr. Kyx or bunne. calamus.. Holland and Flanders. Again. bottom bun feoir. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. . abrupt manbuns-wise. foundation w. pumpurras. bunken. or grete knobbe. bump. bunan. Bumsen. To bam. banke. — stalk . a person employed to dun one for a debt. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. a bunch. mto Sp. bunka. to knock . Hal. dial. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. a knock. signifying one who does things in a thumping. . Bunewand. as in other cases. bull. from bunsen.D.P. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. Bumboat. Fr. bum-boot. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. butt end. . to strike so as to give a dull sound. . Bump. Forby. E. should probably be a short tail. a heap Wall. bunt. stubble Manx bun. Mrs Baker. any round knob or bunch. bonuach. gibbus. large. bunki. so the form btmk. . E. binge. root. Bun. pwmpio. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. a heap. a Sp. blain. Gael. a bag or sack. A clumsy. nor would it concern the public if he did. . one ever saw the word in that shape. truss E. OSw. and related with ON. a bowl P1. bmike. to bang ON. a into Dan. E. especially girls. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. strapping. See Boss. a hemp-stalk. stem or base. bunnion. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a swelling. bongie. Hence E. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. botn. to thump. noise. pwmpl. See Bounce. stump. passes Sw. Bunch. Fl.D. to swell out E. bugno. while bulch was traced through Gris. buns. &c. a heap. a pocket Sw.' he fell with a bang.D. a boil (punkos bot. H. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. bugnone. Li cake. knochen. the tail of a hare. bunkc. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. 1. bonnock. bunga. throw down with a bang. . bugnet.! . explaining E. Manx bonkan. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Pm. a tail (Macleod). Ir. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. . trunk. Gael. bunke. bulse. a dry No . as we have seen E. Bunch. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. Pl. a heap or cluster. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. a heap OSw. —Bunny. bannock. bunny. stalk. — — Bun.

fetters. burboloti. also a piinple in the face. and van t' vat. buie. — Bureau. to Somerset is to sift. a sort of helmet. tinker . to strum on an instrument. klimpem. clumsy performance. See Borel. It. bourguignote.punt. Burly. bongani. to cobble. A Dan. do a thing bunglingly. bonde. bungande. — — . to stnmi on an instrument. B. bangla. or used as a receptacle for papers. to hum. bimge. unskilful working. gyves. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. the stopper of a cask). la Borgonota. stiimpeln. klempern. Prov. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. to work at carpentry bangan. sprig. Hal. To Bunt. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bunta. Fr. bouche. — . stilmpern. and the Sw. B. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. bondon. are from bouscfie. See Bun. clogs. The belly or hollow of a sail. 202. shove . to in to stop the hole. bang. bonde. Fr. byrthen. bummle. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. russet. Banff. Palsgr. to gingle. . fascis. generally known as the material of which bud. stocks or such OSw. bangla. banga. To bunt. bundt. So Du. with the head. working in wood (especially with an axe).— . boucher. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Burganet. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bundle. Bret. something bound together (Mrs Baker). a bunch Burbulas. of a song. on. AS. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. to bear. Sw. a bunch. Sw. to bolt meal. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. Bunting. a bung. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. a wisp of hay or straw. a cork. borboUar. G. guggle as water. bundel. to kick. the float of an bundle.' Festus in Diez. the bung of a barrel Lim. The stopper for the hole in a boia. to bud forth. OFr. N. Burble. a bungler. knocking. Compare G. See Barbarous. bondelj bundell. boj. tapp (whence tceppa. contignatio. the young cloth used for sifting flour. racket . dark. bommen. and E. biirde. racket. The Magy. bondeau. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bury. Cot. halm-tapp. Prov. burion. to shove. bui. borgonota. Lat. the loose open grow big about or gross. byndel. Russ. banghagr. A load. buove. however. Sw. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. Kil. or tuft. Bung of a tonne or Lith. would be the earliest float for an anchor. to pype. to hum. to stop. OFr. in is Fr. to push. bondel-loos. . the middle part of it. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Sp. noise. Sp. Du. knock. to bungle. Bunny. a boye. See Bourdon. an anchor buoy. anchor or of a net boyar. to knock. bou^e. Burden. bote. bolting-cloth. dial. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. tinkle. and now more Bailey. bourion. Bunt. Johansen. on. So in Pol. — btiruii. bongun. coassatio et Du. dial. The Italian buio. a water bubble made by rain. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. bourgeon. to gingle. from beran. Burden. is originally a wisp or bunch . ghebundte. bourjon. that the primitive meaning of shackle . From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. dicimus rufum. . loosed from bonds. G.Fris. Muratori. reddish brown. to botch. punishments for prisoners. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. a botch. Rietz. bouchon. . Biu'geon. whence bunting. ho-tapp. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. was formerly pronounced buro. OG. ' — work . colligatio. buret. rumble as the bowels. E. bove. bag to catch the wind.D. To burgeon. and bomme. boya. A bubble. knocking. . buret. to work ineffectually. tap. To do anything awk- wardly. * Buoy. and Du. driving in the bung. whence in bure. The word is flags are made. bang. shackles. properly a Burgundian helmet. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. bon. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. to push ghebondte. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. to knock. AS. dark grey bura. Sp. Fr. Fr. to stop. Sp. Bung. to resound. especially in wood. bondir. — — To Bungle. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. the noise of drums. to push with the head del. Fl. Cat. Bundle. p. bindini. boil or bubble up. bond. boei. The Fr. modem bummle. to hum. a drum . to float. bounta. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. bunsen. Pl. or putting forth of a vine.

lerre. to grind on a whetstone. burren. burlare. broil. blow. like the wind in trees. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. flocks. condemnentur morti. to swell. tion of the root which gave the OE. . b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. a wine skin. Fl. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. to fiy. ends of thread. an &c. brim or edge of anything. to give an edge to. a lie. a fountain. bourglairs. surge or dashing of the sea . A — — . Bestiary. Sw. sea. like. a prominent eye borracka. Lang. to hum. boura. briis^. . roguing beggars. the er is a dresser of cloth. it of the knots. brunir. ridicule. bouril. See Burgeon. watery. big. N. j. from the roaring sound of flame. to To Bum. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. sbornoi. abourioner. barrel. brima. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. to bouronna. BURNISH i5«r/. purra. Fl. The in. Fr. toast. burgi latro. Sp.). Bav. Nat. brusler being a faulty spelling. ' rugiens.. lorra. to swell with pride. must be explained on the same principle from G. Prov. a jest. the J in OFr. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. de Vaud. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. to murmur.).— Pr. bourd. Goth. OE. schleiffen.. and Dan. to set on fire. Fr. brinii. bururus. explaining the E. the roaring surge of the — — — . Burgh. leo Fin. A burl. Probably. mockery. A legal term from the Lat. to rub. — — . Todd. singe or scorch with fire. to polish helmets. borrelen. — . to burn. Burn. crackle wood in burning Hal. de Vaud. Compare also Piedm. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. to sharpen on a whetstone. robber. bremmen. Bret. brynsten.' Cot. Pren7ien. Bav. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. a blaze. brustolare. — — . a spring a robber. is an Thus G. Burglar. Fr.or bubbling up. laer. Lang. bears. fire. From Fr. to puff up borr^ . embraser. is connected with brim. to surge. Burler. Burgher. an edge. protuberance. to roar. spring-water bumach. borr. from Lat. sicut sound. brunna. to roar (as lions. a jest. become big and proud. Limousin bourdo. a bubble. a bladder. jest of. from bryii. to bud . to ridicule. burn. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. brinnen or Also ein roar. OFr. boiirre. which has given much trouble to etymologists. explaining Sp. dial. brunnen. pressa puret. OFr. Schm. like straw or small . in Schm. See Burr. water. Antiq. to polish. to effervesce.' a jibe. bururus. occupying much space. Cot. sidiary element. bunch. . repartee . ^Notk. a bud. joking. bruzir. to bourda. Gael. ii6 BURGESS Gael. brun. It. ^ttsa. ample of polishing metal. brasa. Probably a modifica. . 56. and the Burnish. brimmen. as the / in purl. brase. — Han to bruser op. E. Supp. Dief. to roar. See under Bore. Sw. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. — . to sharpen. tahko. thence. a gurgling ^. a bubble to spring as water. In the same way ON. Walach. and OG. borni. burle of cloth. burgensis. borracka. to roar. It. as Diefenbach bud. has also borr. brinna. Burgess. a purling hiwe brennen. The primary origin of the word.. ON.ireui£r:e. So also Sw. burly.bryna. grancelli.j'own. with Dan. the flocks. bourou.. swelling borr-shuil. Bouffer. to roar. borujon. warbling. compared with G. taunt. and the Burin.). to have acquired the sense of polishing.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. burgeois. to make a So from Fin. brausen. &c. Pm. born. language of folly or ridicule. knob. tahkoa.sharpen. In the manu. imitation of the sound of bubbling water.. 122. It is probable indeed that Fr. to swell oneself out as birds borras. brook. Burryn. brAler. is termed burling. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. a margin. fires up. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. OE.— . to Gael. i5«r4 biiirte. Burly. to burn. the word seems Pm. tumentum. The Gael. to ridicule. bud or sprout forth. as in cousteau. Pr. Swiss Rom. brustle. It.Ps. buirleadh. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. burgen. a knob. angular . See Berough. G. From the same root E. swell up or strout out. to tell lies. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. a well. brunnr. boure. he rustle. pur (see Burgeon). Burlesque. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. to burgen or wax big. purrata. with little iron nippers called burling irons. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. — — . a whetstone. Castrais bourril. to puff. ends of thread. Hence Bridel. G. to roar 5. as of suggests. to polish. purling. bruse. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. brandung. Swiss Rom.

Burse. casting bullets. G. brizeto.' The same word with burgh. root borr. and thence flocks 'of wool. appears under the Lang. to burst. leather. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. shelter. stuffing. &c. a barn or cupboard. briketo. coo. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. shearing of cloth. makes the disbursements of the college. whirr and burr. brist. to to buzz like a beetle chatter.Lat. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. some people in pronouncing the letter r. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. borsia.' edge grew weak. borre. britar. as from Sp. that birds make their nests with. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . beurs. Sw. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. bourre. Compare also OE. Burr is related to buzz as protect. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. idiom if 4. brokil and brotil. Du. dial. .of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. tomb. borre. brisd. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. bourrer. To Bury. a sepulchre. skin. a place of defence. bristen. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. bourse. Port. briso. of a body hurled through the air. birr. OHG. brit. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. With a slightly different ghen. Burial. blurra. Swiss burren. &c. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. mentioned under Burgeon. verbergen. bolsa to It. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. caer is a — — — ' ' : . chips or anything else Fl. birgan. to mutter Sw. Burser. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. shales. be more in accordance with AS. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. — Translated by Kemble. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. borsa. to bury . swell.— . berstan. byrgan. preserve. Burr. OHG. to hide. 2. Sw. talk fast and indistinctly. a. ' ' — — burren. — Clare. Bursar. bourrelet. ON. A rabbit burmotion. . It. an exchange. See Burgeon. -Grisons bulscha. Dan. bergen. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. Beowulf. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. birigean. bres- — tan. In OE. Mid. Hence Fr. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. This word seems safety. 5150. explained E. Brun on bane. fortify. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . byrigels. See Bulge. burial place. and. Hal. buscha. bourlet. brjota. The root forms brik. as in Northumberland. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. byrgels. brown. brittle. to break.. ON. ultimately resting on the Gael. Gael. beorgan. -burse. to hide . I. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. Shelter. a port. preserve. brest. bris. when they spring So in W. bur. hair. bris. to P'air. bristeach. byrsa. any kind of quilting or stuffing. Jam. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. Cot. a harness or collar maker) . a wallet or scrip. To Burst. to save. burgisli. karborre. borra. also all such stuff as hay. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. cover. but it is more probably a development of It. brittle. 225. an annular swelling. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. keep. from whence we pass through Sp. G. Fris. Fr. brisdeach. E. brickie. Burse. from Fr. In a met. foretell great storms at 3. barza. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. brist. straw. prsnuti. Fr. borrow. burre. and spelling. bur. brista. a purse. Sexy. save. a rabbit burrow. a pad. dial. bolgia. briser. purr. force. AS. i5(7&a. borra. husks. of England. S w. ber•whirr to whizz. whirr. g. signifying protrude. the officer who bears the purse. also ' any such trash as chaff.' Harris in Todd. ' BURR AS. ptcrren. a purse. from AS. its own protection. to buzz. brast. cwning-gaer. Du. the — — castle or fortress. burra. byrstan. a morsel. borsa. whence Kil. impetus. perruque. Fr. moss. brico. AS. as it is still pronounced in N. as for the protection of a child's head. bersten. It. iii. any rapid whirling biarga. and met. to stuff. Burrow. break . pipaa. byrgen. bourse. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. . shuffling. peluca to Fr.

busken. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. thicket {buski. whence at bua sik. roquies. Thence byrigean. See Box. besom). berghen. bush. bouche. a bundle. a grove bosch van haer. Bush. 410. Ptg.gur bidst austur um EySascog. The bone in a woman's stays. bussellus. ' . defence. Le roy Richard mort. and not directly (as Du. Bouchet. boissa. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. to swell. boxta. bustula. brake. van wijnbesien. . basse. rad. to turn. Fr. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. to dress. bossen. as boun is simply buinn. It. To prepare. iriCtf -ifoe. bo7ich (Fr. buskr. diminutives. Thus Froister . for at buasc. The radical idea is seen in Goth. truasc. bramble. ' —P. brodequin tout noir. boiste. a clot of phlegm sart. bossida.) to hide in the ground. The primary sense of hair . at buast. . to enclose in a case or box. borcegui. : — . bussel. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. wisp. Du. il fut couch6 l^jkema). .— ' ii8 {chreo. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. fiast. Fris. Gr. Du. 'at bua sik. a corpse). bua. a bunch of twigs. cluster. whence bouchon. apparently a secondary verb. that the lend had lorn thorn. from the ON. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. abdere. Bush. oneself. bush. to keep. signifying to entomb. bussare. Sw. Brunne. or the like. hunch Du. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. and we actually find bushel. a tuft of hair. a box for measuring corn. a troop. barst. bousche. the past participle of the same verb bua. boistel. a tuft. is thus accounted for. Prov. as synonymous with to inake one boun. protect . a tuft guini. bundle. borseof trees. Layamon. which would later have truast. bulk. They busked and malced them boun. OFr.fiasc. To Busk. Sc. borghen. sur une litifere. Harold G. G. bosch (a diminutive ?). basse.P. and he cites wisp bauschen. and from the Fr. verb. 2. we have Fr. bunch. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. a bunch. then a tuft Sp. barsc in Heimskringla. ' . with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. AS. It. a wisp. grapes. R. BUSH hreaw. condere. the land. bousIn the other copy ser. boucher. And her ful sone tuft. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. a hump. the deponent form of which is represented by the E.-^Bushel. dead.' a box. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. bos. preserve. tuft. busse. bustellus. a -tavern bush. Sir Tristram. ' . and thence Mid. to sepulchre. to direct one's course towards. busk. In to Brutaine. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . burial mound. projection. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. Mid. to forest of Eyda. ieorh. buxula. bosta.Lat. —Busk. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bairgan. aheap of stones. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. knot. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. a bush. or — Busk. Sibriht that I of told. at bua sig. occultare K. buxida. gave Lat. The word frequency with which to busk is used. to bury. whente beorg. to bow. a little box Dan. thicket of thorns . Malberg. hjul-bosse. clusprobably Morocco leather. qualster-boscken. to betake ' Haralldur kona box.' sheath. ' . a tuft. See Bust. So from Fr. buysschen. to bend one's steps. a box. buxta. boisseau. . in the For Skirnis . induere vestes . a bush. ch). AS. to prepare. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. to dress. make ready. -idis. OFr. a gun biichse. a box. bulge. in OE. a been written buasc. box wood to bush.boisteau. bausen. to stop. . pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. bousse. . a rampart. the Moors and of Morocco. bosc. beorgan. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. the idea of knocking. Brunne.Lat. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. brodiquin.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. mount. Du. biichse.' The word is explained by — — .' The buskin is said Bret. bundle * Buskin. tow. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. lump.

log . bus. business. Namur — Champagne Fr. body. busche. body of garment. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. putschen. trunk of a tree. Cat. a kiss. crack . chest. signifying trunk of a the body. Comp. the point of a lance. its slowness of flight. buta. mohedairova. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. windbutsch. Swiss butschen. . bucha. a kiss. body . bisgung. brostia as well as bostia. Fr.— . I.pjik. ON. Box. a sleeveless truss or doublet. Fl. buc. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. I go strepo) . fe^a. cata — . Hence probably au-tarda. btcc. a mouth. abutarda. A wisp. to bustle. tuft. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). Hal. bu. Rouchi. borcegui. 1555. mouth. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. outarde. lips. Busy. A A busquer (Sigart). body. inde discurro et operosus sum. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. Prov.d.D. kupata. bust. stump. So Wes- terwald munds. Lang. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. or avutarda. 22. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. biseg. in Diaz Gris. hipista. . snout. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. Bust. lip. I bustle. Fr. stump. busta. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. austarda. the long. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. of the human body (Grandg. a tree. biist. 1372. and supposes that the common Arab. abotarda. bruskras well as buskr. Sp. sera. the trunk. 2l box. plated body or other quilted thing. also a It. sunt quas Hispania aves . a projection. bisegung. basiuin. a large cljest or particular applibox. — clattering about. beso. to knock . but. — .' ON. from jnund. BUSS Dozy from Arab. kiss. AS. occupation. ON. otarda. 119 bi{tr. a stroke of wind. kiss. Prov. mosequin. to occupy. Walach. worn to make the body straight . especially of a woman's dress. body of a woman's dress It. bysgje. Fr. also a flagon. — hardly be distinct from Fr. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. The Prov. bust. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . tarda. bnist. the breast. Sw. an affair. bisg. trunk. With respect to bust. knock. representing a blow. busch. says. Sp. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. box. Buss. a blow. forms morseqiiill. Cot. a busk. trunk of Cot. besoigAe. ' BUSY 2. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. a bust. besongne. a blow. trunk. geidha. Fr. mons. Fris. Port. On the other hand. to Swab. So in Fin. Lindenbr. bist. lip. a fishing vessel. Business. or chest in which the vitals are contained. bussa. To hurry or make a great B. Nained from Proximse iis zia. an ostrich. a bulk or trunk without a head. arbor ramis trunGloss.). 2. bysgian. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Bulch. a backstock. a kiss. bulk. Edrtst. busq. employment bisgan. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. forest. thick end. occupied bezigen. bus and Pol.' Plin. would explain the G. buc. baiser. Du.bezig. work. bustla. made stiff. stir. a bunch of flowers . Busk. smack.> Also written buskle. vessel employed in the herring fishery. Sp. a.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. morsequi. statue of the upper part of Fr. — — — — It is like the smouldering. brusc. ViM. as in ON. bacio. beezig. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. Prov. busto. ship Sp. bukr. B. stem. Bav. a ship of some size. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Lat. The proceedings of Parliament. or Cherqui. outard. and also a sounding blow. Gael. to make a splash in the water. 10. — — difications of the same word. a Mid. knock. See Boss. body without arms and legs. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. busch. The form brust. buc. I. Xerqui. a kiss of reverence. to make use of. the body without arms busque. love gestures. avuDiez. putta. ^A. mouth. ottarda. busc. body of a man. A great sluggish fowl. also a busk. busy. — Thus we should have mocherqui. pussa. Pol. a log. buz. mogangas from gonj. and then with avis again prefixed. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. a great billet Cot. small. bussen. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. betarda. buyse. a bush. To Bustle. of a doublet. a boat or small vessel . 7o\. butz. and by transposition morchequi.Lat. as in moharra from harbe. Bustard. ' bistardej It. utarda. brut. lump. bus. Busitiess :c3iVi . buquer. Bust.

but Benjamin has a five-fold But. the body of an animal. boucher. in addition. ways. the servant in charge of the original object. bhcciero. Fr. skin-bag. a butcher. hull of a ship. similar train of thought is seen in ON. — we acle for liquors. a bottle. slaughter-house. But when will you pay it ? the belly. from boc. without care. bounds of. without the house kept in bottles. bouz. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. ox. the Perhaps besogne — . ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. tinction between but. viz. the full expres. . Sp. AS. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. beccaria. Fr. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. a goat (and not besides . buta.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. rotundity of the body. OFr. beccaro. able. butan. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. Du. but one thing. the mouth). to-boot. (children) boc. collection of casks. a wooden cask. Here the but implies the existence of an. Lang. calf. that which would be translated by Fr. Lang. from as. then hoUow trunk. we find ben.' Thus Chaucer says. bag. wooden receptthing to be done._ bitten j biiten door. "PLT) . barriga. — . Sp. the belly.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. be out. trunk. body of a shirt w. boccino. ont jhi^ton. botilla. bountifully. boquier. biitait slaughterer of goats .' ' write. beyond the Piedm. the bottles. is well explained by Tooke. besides that . belly. Sp. bolr. a goat. without law. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. a small winebag. bodifie. belly. the store of ten. also a hollow vessel . a butchery. large barrel. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. a baiTel . Fr.in which his brethren are included. a cask. the trunk or body of an animal. the body of a tree or of a man. sup- meat and drink. gives at least two pounds sterling. a leathern bag. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. butan ce. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . earthen which the debtor has adverted. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. a budget.streets. the principal apartment. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. Tooke's dis. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. those in beccaio. bolgia. and with It. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. Whatever is in addition to Butler. original sense of without. the present day we should say. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. beta. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. properly a butan wite. The E. . is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. boteria. young mais. my is called the adversative use of but. as Pantler. the name must have arisen before the within. of the wine and drink. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. which the word corresponds to the Fr. being wholly unten. Ben-house. Wall. without punishment . viz. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. bute. or what in in charge of the pantry. an outlaw from bouche. bouteillier. a barrel. without buiten-man. belly. except. But In Sc.' there is really a negation to be supplied. a butcher . Butcher. botija. binnan. bitten dai. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. bocin. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. As a conjunction but is in every portion. So in Italian from becco. G. bola. bout. A A . the precise correlative of but. and bot. without. Where at an earthen jar . Butler. and the real origin of the and within . by the mode in which he is treated. calf of the ' say. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . hollow case. moreover. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. equivalent of AS.' — — ' . Prov.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. is put in a class by himself.The Sp. bol. rumpf. outside that moreover. It. are. bisgung. bitlga. mais. bole of a tree.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. add.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. the jug and in E. Buttery.jamin. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . Butt. bochier. ' Besides all that. If that where now we should compiler. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. bous. ' There is leathern bottle. But It. botte.

.to push. botwm. butteln. as rejeton. an etwas anstossen. Fris. boding. and the true derivation boar. botten. Du. It. bata. From Grisons biitt. To Butt. boutis. to so close to the Fr. i. geboogsaem. butyrum. butter un. stump. buter. bout. w. pwt. Butter. butter. Gris. From the noise of drinkables in a house.' thick from shaking. Bout van het schouderIt. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. a barrel. AS. R. any small projection. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Halma. to thrust. Btetter-schmalz. or person Schmeller . a hill. a boss. then the thigh or leg of an to push . bot. — — — — . as if from Povg. aim whence to make a support to a wall. to push earth . Bav. See Butler. boil. bud. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a heap of merly called pushes. boter-vliege. waste ground.arbre. to be con. a blow. ment being supposed to resemble butter. W. Kil. a bolt. a button. bouter. bocsam. to cast.against another which needs support . caput scapula bout van f been. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. bodi'. to throw . a thrust the thigh-bone. butte. G. a wall butor butt on.putan. from bouter. nourrisson. a. To strike with the head bags. Buttrice. grease that sets by merely standing. — A . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. bothog. Buttery. Fr. a cask. a blow. Fr. Fr. butter. of the present day. clunis. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. an ox. to bow. a large belly. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. fle>(ible. To come full butt against a butts. Lang. signify a cask or tub. to strike. bottig. a stump or club foot. short thick thing pimple. . &c. to touch at the end. courtaud. Bav. From Du. able that Chaucer. Buttel-triib. to femur. Grandg. Fr. Buttock. boteria. a scope. Du. what is kept in a blow. Sp. — . stump of a tree Fr. a buttress Cot. to butt. bouter. to blad. a little push . Hal. bouton. a buttrice. to thrust .rejected thing. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . Boutant. butte. butt of a person. Du. is formed the augmentative buttatich. Du. leg of lamb. a. a tub. in the R. Button. boiUer. striking end. oir spike with a k coup . Kil. having a rotundity . on. Schmell. a corner horses' hoofs. boutoir. bout. buttern. bouton. a bot. The word body itself seems identical with G. the edge forwards. but. povrvpov. a button. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. : . suddenly . butt. the thick end. poke. buhsom. submit shaking up salad sauce. end . nursling. from rejeter. a flying buttress. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. — A . a mound. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. butt. buttock of beef is called butr. A — — — . boter-schijte. at. Buttress. any short thick thing. buttals. but this is probably from Fr. pwtiaw. thrust forwards. bott. botta. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. botta. lams-bout. butz. a button. the prick in the middle of a target. both. coxa. strike. the thigh of a goose. to abut on. Fr. or or shore post. from bugan. from notirrir. the rosebud. bot. — . thick. bottich. dripping. thrust. botte. humble. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. Gael. trapu. bocgsuin. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. a but in the W. the store of while bottich. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . butt. by boE. of E. obedient.. the Butter-fly. tress. bot blijven staan. . to thrust. Perhaps corrupted Lat. Gr. from the large knobbed head of botto. Cot. obeto shake backwards and forwards. Mur-buttant. W. pied.— BUTT leg . bodi. large head. Du. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. Boutje. Fr.. a bun. The Bavarian potig. to thrust. a leg of mutton. so as to make a sounding blow. a dle . the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. * Buxom. a boss. Schmell. a stroke di animal. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. rabodd. give way. clumsy . So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. gigot. tout seat or breech. a mound of turf in a field to sup.thum and not button. Butter-glass. Fr. An erection built up as a Fr. -ez. to heap up earth or ihrust. are the strips at the edges of the field. fowl. &c. to thrust Fr. Hal. as in G. boter-vogel. potacha. to abut a stone roof. put. So in English pimples were fora clod. e. nourrissons. from stossen. Kil. to boult flour. buttare. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. botto. the trunk. a ribbed glass for dient. hillock .

ON. P. iii. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. to pass by.in N. bauhta. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bij. Cabal. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. Du. bi. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association.— P. train of thought which has become obso. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. frabttg- To Buzz. byr. To Buy. bei. —gracious of speech. A by. blessing me with their of side. AS.busardj Prov. to wit. CABAL Goth. bygge. Dan. Pecock Repressor. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. bar. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. 200. AS. and boxome of speche xviii. bi. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. Byre. byar-log. Buzzard. leges urbanse ON. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. harty prayers and God speedes. depends upon a esteem in falconry. as in Da. buso. from by. called Cabala or Tradition. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. cow-house. as heedless as a cock-chafer. Sw. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. buzac. Mercy hight that mayde. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside.. Originally the law of a particular town. and would have been lost in E. gracious. indistinctly. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. OE. confusedly. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. Goth. ii. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. 21. Lat. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. It. town having separate jurisdiction. abozzago. . groat in token of his good heart towards him. Sw. bohte. It. a buzzard or puttock. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. bylove. Then applied to speaking low. to whisper. See Abie. buzzicare. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. tions by one. and it is of good will. village. G. p. & Q. Verstegan in R. jus municipii. bylag. 116. as Fr. from whom it was addressed. a beetle. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. farm. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. a by-path is a side path . The sense of buxom. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. The ON. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. bozzago. By-law. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. bugjan. buzarg. Etynj. a borough. byar-rettr. to buzz. good-humoured one. to sell. lete. \s\xy. to purchase for money. 3. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight.— Diet. big. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. bees. also say. 519. who makes abigg. favourably to a petition. son.. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . Many good mological explanation. buteoj Fr. . A ful benygne buirde. — 122 BUY P. A A We — — — days' wonder. a meke thynge with — alle. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. favourable. . For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. a town.P. bycgan. to jan. to stand at his side . lb. to swear with him by . stall.

stercus. traboccare. cabaii. an engine for casting stones. vincially used in E. lactuca capitata. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. It. chabla. hut. cabbage. Fr. calabre. agge. a booth or hut. manganare. cab. as Diez supposes). cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. from manganum. Cot. form kactal. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. . headed or cabbage lettuce. Cot.. . cables. — Tarbe. covering. Ptg. to strain in such a manner . hovel. signifying properly a rope's end. OFr. Choux cabus. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. caable. cabus. for the origin of which see Carabine. to hurl down. the Slavonian. Tugurium. It. capanna. maim. laitue cabusse. name of the projectile engine. disgust. —Diet. — Kil. come the Fr. cadabulum. OFr. the Prov. &c. Mid. Cappa in OSp. Capstan. wilful). whence Fr. Lat. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. as Turk. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. cabuyskoole. cacare . Du. to chatter. Item habeat vocant. a headed cole or cabbage . capuccio. to hurl in Nat. a shed. as an expression of Gr. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. chaable. a jacket Fr. head. cabacho. Sp. a rope or cable.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. band. Finn. Lith. . Due.' Due. mdhaigner. prostratio ad terram. Castr. overwhelm (Diet.. kabas. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . a rope. round or great headed. a head (whence cabochard. to crush. it would seem fundain children's language. precisely in the sense of the lari E. kabat. and the Arab. a car- We convasare. overwhelm. capo. Fr. a rope. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Lang. cabane. surripere. To steal or pocket. cadabalum. Common to Lat. cadabulum. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . or cadable. cabo. w. Imitative of the cry of hens. Katr-iT-aKt. cadabola. especially shepherd's frock. whence Lang. Cabbage. Brushwood — — B. kakla. gabardme. Didot. agga.Lat. to keep or Du. as it must have stood in French. Cablisb. hoard together. manticuKil. geese. dung.. Antiq. Sw. case. agge machen (in nurses' language). originally an Gael. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. &c. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. in which sense are explained The the OFr. . Very generally used. Fr. signifies down. origin is the OFr. E. OSp. a covering. or as an interjection of disMod. Du. Mid. headed. dirty. serious injury — In like manner It. cabuccio. chadabula. havyar to caviare. The double a in the OFr. cable . akista. The name of the engine. It. cabre. (ca/coe. aak! tandi like Fr. su/Furari. — Ibid. a rope. gaggele. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. a cabbage . 'habl. cabo. cadabula. main.ticula. caables. cabre. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. Du. — . E. is probably unconnected. cabulus. : — from violence without blood. cabasser. Coticesserint Swiss aa. a frail. and Or.Gr. chaable. Etym. and Ptg. giiare. to put or pack up in a frail. Cabin. and as we find stones Mid. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. — the ON. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. OFr. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. — . Cabinet.). ckaable. kakaloH. accablcr. from trabocco. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. cab lis. ceach / exclamation of guages.. It is remarkable that the Esthon. a tunic.Lat. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. gaggi. bad. Due. caboche. . disgusting such an engine was exerted. kabaSsen. filth. cdble. a cloak of felt or Cack. cacare. aeggi. the bowels. would correspond to cable. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Sp. cabas. deponat a store closet. brassica — capitata. Gaggle. dirt and the Fr. Neckam — by the wind. forms indi. It. Kil. aakkat'a. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. ! — . The Sp. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. To Cabbage. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka.Lat. cabarino. Mid. vile. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. . and Finnish lanLat. disgust cac. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . Celtic. gatsch. heady. or rush basket. Fr. caable. caqueter. string. From It. kabane. Fr. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. dirty. caable (in legal language). properly windfalls. has kabbel. nasty. gaban.

when they are said to poor. a wheel. pith. calentura. Cauldron. Gael.— Cot. cadet. gaggle. cageoler. a circle. ON. It. a lump or large piece. or colpa na coise. calcis. a waggon . calculo. Calf of the Leg. B. incolumis. chaudron. wretched. for green fields. Flo. Originally from a Slavonic source. a loaf of bread. Dan. Calcialate. cadenza. calibre. kolo. Tea-caddy. calidus. to . From lerie. a roller. calx. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. Du. &c. Cake. kolasa. kakulla. kauwe. calpa. kolyasochka. the pith or soft part of wood. taking it Sp. misfortune. dead body. kolesb. and troublesomely attached to. the younger son of a family said to be from . calamus. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). a corpse. form) calderone. kolo. a fever. Perhaps from w. calessa. G. ' . Mrs B. the lump and the increase. kalem. signifies a waggon. to heat. to cage. master. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. KxiKivh^o^. . little chief. kolyaska. kdtr. or smooth Hnen cloth. safe. kola. Cadge*. to gabble. chattering. a wretch. It. Fr. on. Cot. G. Fr. marrow. The Lat. It. from calendcE. Pol. lindrus. A cuttle-fish. kaeckelenj Gr. kdfich. Fr. joyous . kukje. Du. Calendar. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. The Calf. javioler. chaudiere. Gascon capdet. Sp. Fr. Lat. calamitas. wanton. cuttle-fish. kolesnitza. an inkstand . Fr. hot . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Lat. is probably delusive. from Gr. gabble. a caFr. caliche. to treat like lime. Lat. so gabble corresponds with Fr. a wheel . The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. unruly . N. a car. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. loss. ever and anon. cadere. or prattle. calf of leg. Du. cha'cmie cadence. * Cade. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. the calf of the leg. A — fall. a hollow place. Calc-. Sw. a reed. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. the bore of a cannon. (in the augm. cage. whence calash. gabberen is identical with E. capCalenture. kat. boy. Du. Fr. a calash . Caldron. prate. loss. Sp. gabbia. cauldron. gaggia. a dence. just falling. Cadence.— . frolicsome kaad mund. Turk. jabber. a low note. The young G. calba. caldaria. calentar. reed-pen. * Calibre. pen Mod.uv. Cadaverous.— Calliper. Calocli. lord. cattivo (from Lat. kolo. cage. Lat. captive. cykevie. ratas. .Gr. a calesh. Due. a cake or loaf. It. from the ink-bag which it contains. Sw. a counter used in casting accounts. one unduly indulged by. . its mother. An open travelling chariot. . from calculus. Sp. to prate much to little purpose. In the same way Fin. —Atkinson. a mischievous dial. gabbia. kage. kaad. Russ. roller. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. to throw themselves into the sea. frisky. ben- kalf. desire of land. a wheel . the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Turk. Dan. caldarius. Caddy. En kaka br'od. limestone. It. the pi. Lat. colibro. lime whence calcareous. caioler. pet lamb. dial. to cackle . hot. . CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. a vessel for heating water. to compute. a small stone. an ugly waggon kolaska. rattaat (wheels). Calandre. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. 124 prattle . A . analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. — in a kiln. Calamity. koeck. from the Chinese catty. calidus. especially of something soft. cavea. Arab. Calash. kuchen. — — — Dan. whence Lat. of oxen and similar animals. chetif. coop. a wheel . kaka. Lat. Caitiff. Sw. a common cart. calendarium. Cot. To Cajole. cabdillo. Cot. kalfi. calendrer. kalb. Fr. Lat. to sleek hence a den. Cajol. Roman reckoning. a falling. Fr. babbhng. capitetum. calibre. Cage. a tea-chest.warmth . As Du. Cadet. Lat. pi. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. To Calender. calesa. cake. cadaver. collop. Calamary. principal and interest. Lat. Calp is riadh. KaKKat. coll. Lat. See Kiddier. hence musical rhythm. a cylinder. A hooded carriage. naXaiidpi. Lat. disease of sailors from tivus). gavia. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. kalfvan hout. Serv. of which. It. It is another form of the E. kail. cadence. bad . to — Fr. without loss. of the nature of lime to calcine. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot.

' rine. sclopus. push violently. tittle-tattle.' Chaucer. The primitive colubrina bombarda. brawny. kael. Lang. or mould. to say. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. kahcwe. depreciatory term for a woman. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. calvus. callus. the hard surface of the ground. diameter of a ball. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. scold. kal. a good calling. colubraria canna. chatter. qAlab. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. Due. khalif. calat of leude demeaning. Calm. calicot. glotton. Mil. Sc. dial. Callow. Sup. the Fr. Lat. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse.Lat. to abuse . try. licht stuk The change from a. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. AS. kalla.' Winter's Tale. abto suppose that E. to prattle. whence couleuv. Gael. harquebus or handgun. calca. ' pert. by many that the weapon Callous. ram. Hard. the day. couleuvre. donderbuchs Sp. Diez. klover. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. — Fl. done with heat Alt. calcaich. prattle. To call. The word was also written cawme in OE. bombarda Cauma incendium. longior.' But it is hard Du. i. moist.piicede Lat. calcare. vulgo Coluvrine. According to Jal (Gl. people's remarks. Sp. Indies. sestus. a successor. kind heat of the sun. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. to callet. * Caliver. Turk. serpens. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Kil.en~ kinds of firearms. coluber. word of mouth . a soldier who the It. koluvre. quiet. Fin. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. calc. overheated. quA librd. heat. them &c. alta voce ploro. heat. hollaing. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). dragonder. calare. caluw. a round of abuse. scalmato. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. It. of a column. however. and dragon. saucy. Derived by some from Arab. E. callum. Fr. to rail or scold . calleting. voice. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. form. whehce it was first brought. Fr. fistula. femme frivole et babillarde. . To drive tow or oakham. kil-u-kal. a. calclover. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . an adder. the scalp or skull. but is only a jda-kallo. the heat of Now these Du. NE. faint. Unfledged. oldire from audire. Caliph. calk. Kavfia. a drab. to hear.' Slange. moso. which is as much as to say. Sir John Smith in Grose. and E. Du. KaXka. Fin. Sp. kallo. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. sence of wind. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). Antiq. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. Bi. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. and sometimes a handgun. given. Mahn derives it from Lat. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. calor. nautique). Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. and heat.from Ka'tm. So It. caillette. coulevrine. or languishing drought is . thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . whereas in troth it is not. calibre. a feathers. Dief. — — — — — . Calico. the Fr. which has its memory preserved in Du. calibre.position is much less common than the geschut. cahna. bald. can be distinct from ODu. calo. trull. 'A callet of boundless tongue. gossiping. CALM to press or stuff. on. Among these were the turn. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. sound. serpentina. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. hot. to call. calme. chatter kallen.meaning of the word.' Whitby Gl.(jaa= ice). Diet. cauque.. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. from Calicut in the E. culverin. Heb. of the bore of a firearm met. harden by pressure. to call. — — — — — . coluber also. to affirm. ululo Turk. hallottaa. to burn. To Calk. overscalmaccio. tapulta. B. having a thick skin. Call. Lat. cauma. calgua. cotton cloth. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. quality. calma. To century was Squalibre. * Callet. Ca. calma. water-tight. The reference to heat is preserved in. to proclaim. Mid. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. . dragoon.— . to cram. 125 Prov. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. colubrina. Fr. to tread. kol. Ptg. a last. The origin is Gr. Gr. kal. drive. u to an I in such a colubrum. to be of a good or bad quality. faint. form in the kalib. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. piece of bigger circuite. Fr. skin hardened by labour. caliver. Kil. to calk. or caliever. Ibid. the latter of chamber.

— Hackluyt in R. campren.— Chandelier. calutmiia. the heat. a crab. fresh. camelus. Fr. Gr. also an eatmg sore. Calyx. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Fr. It. Cambrav—Cam. brought from Fr.Lat. Camel. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. whence the noun signifying an applicant. — — — A — — escume de saumon. co7nbar. callour. cAouma. frank and sincandidatus. cup. camisa. is Cambering.who their language. campus.— B. cam^e. hooked. a caught. lattice.' ' Quhen a lattice. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. cambr^. Lat. Mid. good. It. camisade. From fluting or furrow in a column . B. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. to bend. lame. campagna. Ptg. chaitcre. bis. ko/utuXoc. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens._ kamm. Properly calver in the field during a war. E. the bed of a stream. — Lat. to warp. cancer. It. field . Sp. canistrum. to bend. a. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. would plenier. Lat. calj'x. campo. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. properly good country. cere : Lat. Lat. arched. to the force of the wind. It. toile some of whom. unwater chamelot . crook. an eating. se cameloter. E. the type of a hollow pipe. fair. nia.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. It. the salmondis faillis thair loup. campaign. Mod. a' Sc. Pers. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. lie level. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. cancello. aspirant. a basket. cambre. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. camiscia. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. a goblet bud. camber-nosed. Or the word Lat. It. on. a dog. Canibal. Lat. camafeo. Sp. to jut. spot for cattle. a. to glow. the calix. candidus. had no r in de bric— Cot. campo. crooked. paign. Cambric. Lat. Sanson khanda.conduit-pipe. Palsgr. — B. — Cancel. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. campagne. Sp. KafitjUe. is Candle. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Camp. sore. Bret. arch. Lat. ation. crooked. and yspiuv. Camlet. ckaouma. From campus was formed Lat. canna. Caloyer. Canine. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Calumny. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. Lat. or hollow of a flower. Peter Martyr. chommer. died in 1526. Cancer. Canal Channel. camelot. catmneo. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. a large drinking . aged. chamold man. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. whence Fr. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. when its substance appears inter. canis. the spersed with white flakes like curd. Campaign.—Jam.' Forme of Cury in Way. crooked-stick. champ. champagne. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Fr. Kakoycpos. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. samon. a piece. Canker. cambren. cup. open and level ground. See Canker. a field Greek monk.. Gr. Fr. Arab. w. cambrer. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. water chamlet . to bow. Cambrel. The Grisons cauina. Fr. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. Candy. Turk. clothed in white. Fr. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. slander. at the ends. Cann. Fr. Fr. E. . white. having an aquiline nose. camiscieia. higher in the middle than Fr. from candere. callar. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. It was distinfrom work. candela. cainahelus. camaien. Camisade. chandelle. Candid. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. kanna. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. arched. camahutus. In a different application It. Calver of cane. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. icaSoytipoe. An eater of human flesh. crooked. camp. sugar. different sections of the like the Chinese. A — the Cannibals.—Candidate. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. from xaXbg. or Caribs. to break. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Cambray. mg Canister. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. across — Bellenden in Jam. a may have acquired that signification from plain. . B. the space of false imputation.Gr. Cot. Cameo. campagna. canalis.—Cambrel. whence the Fr. salmon. monk. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. India Islands. KafivTu.

clqse. Schwab. cantina. kynnel. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. kyndel. a Fr. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. To his judicial And trowl the tile. margo panis diffracta. a cloak kapali. canevas. and the sex- &c. It. signifying cover. astrology. properly a large Prov. Canvas. hood. Mod. quarter . Cape. kaput. Canon. It. the part easiest broken off. carcase . measure for cloth. as. root cap. from canna. also a measure. From Lat. cappa. canoa. leiwan kanta. or hold. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. the tried list of saints. cheese. Coal burning with bright flame. Esthon. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. KCLvva. cappe. regular. the heel. KaTTiram. a pipe. pipe. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. cannevaccia. kq. kantr. a straight rod. coat. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. a rule or standard of excellence. to contain. a tube. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. canteau. caparazon. N. hemp. OFr. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. It. capax. canapa. B. To canvas — . Lat. language. Cannoii. cope. to sing. hemp. . has kahn. Fr. Kil. a cloak. canvas. like a torch or candle. region. Swab. and met. cainnt. canon. a side. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. From Gr. Fr. Capari. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. schlapp. The meserseum and the mesentericum. able to receive. Canton. to con- rummer. Capacious. a reed. cappe. that the G. he discourseth of dissection. cannabis. To Canonise. hamlet. Kavt\. side. a scull- — here. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. Germanis kdppen.CANNEL vessel. a door . cane. It. canapaccia. and hence a gobbet. is found languages of very different stocks. Again we have Lat. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. capace. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Prov. A . cantle then is a corner of a thing. can. corner. lump. gnat. border Dan. a reed. Picard. chanteau. canonicus. See Capt-. capa. name. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a corner. the quartile. a small boat. covered. tain. edge. capello Italis. it would have been found in the continental languages. a gelding. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. &c. a division of a country. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Capable. quito curtain. cover kapi. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. . &c. rumme. canton. a torch. Du. a cover Turk. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Wtb. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Cantle. say. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. contain. Mod. hirnschlapple. The — . cover . a hunch of bread. Gael. was formed Kavtiiv. Cope. or cantell of bread. Goldast — in in Schmid. cane. cantref.. a cap.n.Gr. cantone. shut. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. canto. Alamannis. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. . territorial hundred. coarse hempen cloth Fr. a cane. canonici. . a drinking glass. kanta. But it may be different source. a ruler. Sp. a — A — Cannel Coal. to put upon sacred writers. Hence Lat. a wine-cellar or vault. See Chape. from cant. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. It. from Dan. Of vena cava and of vena porta. chape. trine. Fr. from . If the word had been from cantherius. a horn of the moon . W. A piece of anything. capevole. cane. quarter. chantel. a boat. cape. Palsgr. Canteen. Jonson. Sp. speech. cannone. the heel. a ship canot. The word seems to be taken from Gael. and tref. Cot. Cant. ON. Diez. kwvwxIi. a cantle of bread. being a yard or thereabouts . call. to shut. a hundred. schlappen. as a cantle of bread. which is not the case. Fin. part. cane. It.Gr. It. from a Canter. Sp. kandt-broodts. cantred. Probably only the augmentative of canto.— Cot. cannu. haitt. border. kand. cannevo.^on. Canopy. A slow gallop. Canoe. kapamak. coarse hemp. Gugel. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted.

). w. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. then find the symptoms of shivering. Hence capitalis the sum lent. cApre. cut. or Lat. to fry.' — (Supp. hedge-hog. brisciare. rihrczzoso. bristling. capar. II bresole (Gl. they longed extremely to see it. a separate division of a matter. and with an initial gr instead of br. birsle. end. castrated. the singing'bone).) d'etre The It. belonging to From caput. Capers. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. a . a young kid met. to parch. a goat. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. crackling sound Cape. of a tremtdoiis sound. ^piKos. Lat. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. of a coach. greziller. frort^Lat. and OHG. shivering. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. horror. caprice It. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. 75. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. eruca compared with It. according to the Hindoos. toy. rissoler. a chevret. Torriano. shrub. Fr. Lang. to broil. humorous. caper j caprio. where Burton adds in a note. Fr. It.— Fl. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. capro. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. aggricciare. to ruffle the surface of water. gives rise to brezza. cappriccio. Lat. Caprice. ziki. — — A a hair.— 128 CAPE a rustling. brisciare. Fr. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. cut off. explained by Diez from capra. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. capitulare. gricciare. curling. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. as Fr. curly. bruco. grug. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. It. a hedge-hog. brezilia. of a fowl. alcaparra. as the means of earning profit. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. a head. Mod. It. caprice. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. principal. The same imitation of Capon. knis. ribrezzo. To treat Capitulate. prickly husk of chestnut. a capriol. brug. p. capriola. Fl. to . See Chief. kid. grisser. a buck. capriole. and his body bristled We to castrate. Cot. the hair to stand on end. to twitter as birds. So from Sw. and 7tucc. It. brisciare. chief. I have shivered with love. frisser {frissement d'un trait. The true derivation lies in a different direction. gives rise to Sc. frisson- ner . Hal. then to be in a state of vibration. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. capitalis. riccio. curl. Griller d'im' patience. the head. as Fr.) grezille marid. Capital. to desire earnestly. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. for which he cites the Comask nucia. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. Arab. — to yearne. airoKOTrrw. compared with Bret. to crackle. frissoner. Caper. Sp. ticchio. a kid. Fr. fansuddenly angry. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. to shudder. the initial mute of forms like Gr. upon terms Sp. wriggle. a caper in dancing.standing on end. as in Lat. brissle. Capillary. heath. It. bristling. capriol or caper in dancing. greziller. chattering of the teeth. s'hdrisser. shivering. hi. cover of a saddle. arricciarsi.Gr. And similarly to yearn. capillus. erica. a little head. A . algabr. A headland. or goat's leap (done by a horse). to shiver. grillcr. G^' Many words — ' ndv. or represented by the syllable e. a yearning through sudden fear. or. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . horripilation. Unexpected pleasure. Hair-like. Genevese bresoler. then to shiver or shudder. grisser.'— Trev. as Fr. also the capriole. It. sault. h^risser. to broil. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. gricciare. It.impressions on the ear. to crackle. the hair to stand on end. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. herissonnement. to shiver for cold. abridge amKoTroq. hair. frizzle. is either wholly lost. <I>pi'?oe. or other things. brisoler. . Lat. with joy' Vikram. roughening of the skin. a caterpillar. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. castrated cock. the whizzing of an arrow Cot.' Cot. the principal part of the debt. CAPRICE twittering. Lat. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. knis-hujwud . to from capitulum. arricciarsi. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . capparis. a ch illness. the head. caj)o. ericius. Acad. It is probable that Gr. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . It.

a reception. It. caricare. tnoschetta. Fr. bock.. to take. conception. Fin. Etym. caput. karrende waegen. crepo. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip.s. calabrino. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. where it forms a very large class of compounds. and has thus descended unaltered to English. was originally a missile . captivate. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. Carabine. It. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. Lat. the -cevofthe Fr. recevoir. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. Fr. accept. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . In cases. char. dim. a capuchin. Du. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. fantastic. captive. from head. caThe hrestante. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. cabestan. Cot. to accept. however. trestle. charrier. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. Nordfoss. karren. cabreia. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. was a kind of horse soldier. Fr. Carabin. intercept. Cart. receptus. It.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). a sawing-block or trestles. latterly. as the dragoons (Du. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. commander. . karra. a cart. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. See Caper. a. It. contain. charret. capra. deception. cabra. -ceive. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. except. a head man. a hood (dim. kerren. Fl. Capstern. Carbine.. or the (capo-riccio). and has accordingly been lost in E. &c. a kind of torture. a fantastical humour. a coffer. desire. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. an engine for throwing stones. conceit.of these compound verbs. Fr. to creak. capitis. captus. -cept. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. oisr. Capsule. box. of capsa. Capriole. acceptus. to load . one odd. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. recibir. In the S. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. -cept. chevre. was converted into -ceb. a taking back. Fr. precept. Neumann. also a kind of rack. Capuchin. to take baclc. concevoir. Lat. karista. Caseneuve in Diet. of the Sp. charger. Lat. krul. at least. &c. Du. Captain. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. also tresFl. Crab. recipere. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. also to carry on a car .). capuccio. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. Lat. a she-goat. capp%tccio. chirriar.). i The meaning Car. seize. capio. Thus the musket. case. G. It. 129 — receive. capitano. Sp. to carry . carabin.or -cib-. concipere. Fr. to receive receptio. Kiittner. and of captus to an e. a hooded friar. a sudden will. perceive. It. Passing on into E. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. capsula. chirrion. It. deceit. to take to. concebir. a creaking waggon. verbs gives rise to the element . to creak. whence capture. The It. decepte. sels. shivering fit (Altieri). Sp. — —Diet. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. as in OFr. a cloke) capuccino. recepte. — — Capstan. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. Capt-. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. cams. fancy. a sudden fear apprehended. Derivatives are Fr. a. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. carretta. It is a standing crab. to please. Carry. conceive. caprice. concept. OSp. hold. a windlass. calabrin. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. recipio. to this is It. strideo. di cappa. as in accipio. de- price. cabestrantej Fr. and tropically. Cot. cabrestante (whence e. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. &c. Fr. Castr. crab s. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. carro.

cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. matter. the carcase of a fowl. caracal. cabra. Cat. to hiss (as gee^e).. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. cardo. cabreia. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. p. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. espi7igarda. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase.applied to a battering-ram (G. AS. a twist. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. Cot. for a gun.— — — . It. Sp. Ptg. Derived in the first edition from Mod. carabba. ..Gr. garafa. to draw in. Venet. and catapulta. a ripple for flax. winding. &c. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. carbh. contract. Card. or framework. Lith. I. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. a battering-ram). Gael. Carboy. From the battering-ram. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . carcanada. Cot. a prison. carcaij. cassa. Carbuncle. a thistle. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching.Gr. Fr. properly a siege machine. a goat. black dye. to curry horses karsztuwas. a snail. eitar. It. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. carbo.. cerran. a wool card. a he-goat. decanter. to comb wool . a gem resembling a live coal. word is only an adoption of the Turk. skeleton toise. a quiver . of the same Caravan. shell. carta. . . case. restraint . carere. also (as Gr. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. Sp. is the word used in modern Lat. Lat. An implement for dressing wool. Carcase. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. a dead carcase. skeleton.charcoal . Carbonaceous. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . karra. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. to turn. cabrita. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. Lat. seed of carob. Gael. quse vocant karabd. carquan. the core of fruit . W. caraffe. a quiver. a card or comb . a collar or chain for the neck. Arab. caraffa. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. Comp. KtpaTwv. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. car. ' Vasa vitrea. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. of carbo). carquasse. Sp. karri. the trunk or chest of the body . ancient springald. «capa'|8i. military engines made for hurling stones. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. bock and Fr. Caravel. — seems to be something holding together. Carcax. to card wool. designated in the case of G.z. curry-comb. Fr. silique. the dead body of any creature. tcapKaai. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. winding carach. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. Fr. to ripple flax. Gael. poison eiz. in the same way that the Sp. kirat. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. the carob bean. The radical meaning . to comb. an engine for hurling stones. a winding staircase. a lock of wool . an ulcer. to card wool.' From the same source are SicU. carbunculus (dim. carmiiiarc. chevre by the name of the goat. a kind of ship. fire . Gael. . &c. the . a crane. ON. the shell of a torcarcasso. copperas. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent.. kard boyd. bend. carduus. is the chine. karszti. Exot. turning. krciti. casso. boch. Sp. &c. caravela. also a small weight. vitriol. the case of the flesh. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. a machine for casting large darts. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Caraool. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. carate. eit. avSpaS. Sp. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. a thistle. Gr. alia sunt majora. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. card.. Parmesan cassiron. confining. It. Mod. mural attack. OHG. wine- bottle. It. a coffer. burning coal. carcasa. carcame. skeleton. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . a small weight. Pers. carabe. cramp. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. The Trjg xeXwwac. See Carpenter. a quiver. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). kerwan. the husk or cod of beans. a skeleton. a ship. a firelock. cdrlag. a case or chest . to creak. a quiver . Fr. coming to four grains. the name might naturally Mod. turn of a horse. It. carch. constraining . Bohem. quilato. Gr. carquois. carcanet. wool card. Carat. Carrob. .

and thin. Card. It. tuorfurcm (Burguy). careless take care of. Fr. affection. charneux. intrasset caro. msstus. — — . ignarus. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. in Carp. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. AS. from the keel to the water . Mur. carch. what is felt as grievous. a deed. is This however Shrove tide. the time during which to Rom. the keel. de Parthenay. to scratch. record. to comb flax or hemp. — To Careen. w. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. from carus. regar. Fr. parched or carled. carFrom carrus. whence carricare. Carlings. a turn. to comb wool. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. W. AS. Venet. car. dear. Ptg. Fr.' Slceat. Bret. like connection may be seen between Fin. moeThe Lat. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. . 1S66. karout. that Fl. charie. sorrow. ON. W. 8. Carenare. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. the keel of a vessel. caritia. to care unkarja. A place where four roads Mid. . cura may be ror. cardinis. Cot. to take Goth. and murhet. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero.. to load. carena. . principal. It. 273. & Q. carnavale. caMid. From. piger. Cot. or grumbling —Due. Lat. rixosus. carrefourg. Chart. kurista. crawl. camovale. a hinge. ceorl. the several meanings of the words above Rom. kara. cearian. an endearment. Carnage. beans. and sum. Charnel. and compare Bret. p. caru. sgritudo animi. ON.— CARD karr-kambar. fundamental. Cark. and G. &c. carina. surrata. a card. in N. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. cdrle. gakaran. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. . . stridere. A mod-carag. Fr. Cartel. Cargo.— Charter. solicitous. sorrow. Cath. It. sensual. ress. be anxious. A quirito ut infans. Carminative. to load. wool cards. carriera. the load of a ship. graller. the hull of a ship. charg. asper. Carl. appertaining to the flesh. — Carfax. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. niggardly . morosus sum. weyes. . carcus. that on wliich the matter hinges. Probably the origin of the word is the . Groler. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Dan. carian. to fry or broil. . Coll. karantez. It. stingy. to card wool. karl. Fin. A medical term from line —Boerio. caricare. Carled peas. carnis. compared with Fin. Fr. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. charnage. Sp. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. the flesh of animals . karg. murren. to clean the bottom of the ship. road. in St Jerome. carena. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. cardo. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. carminare. W. Champ. carnal. — — Diez. Carnal. tenax. combing them out like the knots in wool. Care. care. carriire. karrig. as carminare. — — — : Cardinal. Properly. OHG. charta (Gr. kargr. quadrifurcum from quameet. E. male person. Translated in MS. Fr. one of those ac- 9 * . cargar. Trin. grolU. to eat flesh. Fr. also a career on horseback. 2. . quaver a lazar's clack. crosier. or street. quarreG. cearig. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. cargo. winding. Fl. charnel. caricatura. Sept. act of moaning. to fry. carener. Gael. to distress growl. carcare. AS. see Garble. mutter. to whirr (schnurren). Cot.. love. chartre. kroU-erbser. a man. cura intenta. kummer. to rumble. Fr. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. fleshy . essere in carena. meet at a head. karry. from caricare. G. It. clown or churl. — — — Caress. crowl. grief. zanken . immediately before the long fast of Lent. croller. to love. OFr. kribina. caresse. murahtaa. to lie on its side. strideo. Roquef. Sp. place for exercise on horseback. to scrape . from Lat. to shake. soUicitus OSax. scharren. carnasciale.Lat. murista. Lat. Caricature. to growl. to parch. the old theory of humours. karista. is to say. care on. as peas. bottom. tremble. hoed. It. Bois crolant d'un ladre. an overloaded representation of anything. G. kumra. from carrus. charger. at murmuring. carnalis. For the root of carminare. voce strepo stridente. morosus. x'»P'"^s)) paper. as quadrivium from Carnaval. to load. Peas steeped and fried. four.Lat. charag. carezza. astutus. giierlir. Bret. It. Farewell flesh. a highway. Fin. No ' place there had. Properly a car-road.

carduz. So gone they forthe. Dief. chatter skra/a. Gael.' Reg. to reel. a wheelwright. ship. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Lat. A. On this. to dance. bier. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. Alluz (G. koroll. to dance. ' ' — . This Bretons renged about the felde to E. ballare. CarTo quaff carouse do use.Lat. or loose as a couch without further preparation. . a plank. carpende fast Carol. Carpenter. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz.— R. Fr.— Patriarchi. To pledge them thou refuse. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. chariot carbad. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. — . Ant. . Biheld within. act of drinking a full Eq. in Due. as E. carpetam (a quilt?). Mid. at midnight which derivation from kroes. differing To Carp. 94). Olr. carpentum. Gower in Way. balade from It. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Fr. Mid. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. course. Discov. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. i. Carnelevale. 216. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Carpet.Lat. carnelascid). Beggars Bush. biheld without. chirp. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. I drink all out. Bret. to pull asunder. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. as the Lat. pluck. sense. I quaught. Pr.' Raleigh. as Fr. lint. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. linteamen. was formed Mid. Chanson de carole. charpie. krapanj. Pref. Analogous R. Teut. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Ein we find the signification transferred from . properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. carpenta. charpentier. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. The custom. Mediol. to gather. 1 1 30. Properly a round dance. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. The ' ' a chariot. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. W. carpita.: . QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. carpat (Stokes). In Dominica d'autant. zimmer. a wheelwright. culcitra. yede tham about. carpia. whence the form carnasciale. Bohem. fabulor. Carole.'— Stat.gonnella. carbh. to pluck. Templariorum — ' — Due. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. used for stuffing mattresses. Carnevale. ! Carouse. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. worker in timber Fr. a drinking cup. i. krapati. gar aus / all out is correct. in Carp. Sp. qui sacco. From Lat. and Carnem laxare (It. to rustle. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. carpenter only in the latter sense. quoted by Carpentier.]e bois Carnelevale. or a carouse fully drunk up. querole. All out B. Other names of the sea. a carder. peta. Lat. The word seems of Celtic origin.— Neum. carpere. chatter. e. The tippling sots.Why give's some wine then. Palsgr. — — ' ' — — — I — — . ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Here's to you still my captains friend. gonna. cited by Marsh. pluck at. maker of waggons It.' says Motley (United Neth. on that. carpo. to find fault with. skraf. of Guiana. On the other hand bumper to one's health. Cot. all aus). 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. garrire. cardos. a dance. The karole of the stones behelde. 760. carpetrix. Lat. 2. a car carpentarius. tattle. ON.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. vel coopertorio carebit.— Drant in R. to talk. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Shrove Tuesday. 2. as carnaval from carnelevamen. litter. to chatter coroli. Pm.' Ordo Eccles. In a MS. Sup. Carpyn or talkyn. a song accompanying a dance then. garrulo. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive.Lat. in Nat.D. and F. cxciv. . Nomin. is erroneous. zimmerspan. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. tymmer. carpenticre.

a loopscale the wall. Lith. caxa. house. a merchant's cash or counter. to fall. Probably. See Card. ' Casa-matta. Fr. Walach. charrier. — — . to bear or carry. It. Lat. cartone. Rouchi carter. G. caroach. casitiste. Fr. caro. discharge It. shell or carcase of a house. carogna. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. casag. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. carreaggio. cascare. to crack. slaughter-house. to an- — Kil. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. from Lat. Fr. Fr. and matar. luggage. kerben. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. and that apparently from capio. cut with scissors..— Fl. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. turn out of service. a car. casaque.' Fl. carota. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. a fall. Gael. Cartel. — Cartoose. Fr. cancel. blotted out. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. and the OE. an act of falling. hung up in some place and to be removed. Casual. Preparatory drawing of a It. carrosse. It. void cassare. AS. to shear. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. carretto. fall It. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. of carta. afterwards any written challenge. like all the names of tendon. Fl. cartoccio. cascar. OE. of carro. Cascade. packing ' cloth. a paper case. break to pieces. cascade. Fl. Cart. to dash. The Sp. Fr. kirpti. as we . a canonry or slaughterhouse. cassa. The carrying of anything. pasteboard. augmentatives of carro. Rouchi carpHe. To Carry. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. cartilage. paper. cartella. from the sound it makes when Alban. the money chest. mata. mord-keller. carriaggio. Casket. to fire on the enemy. to cut or carve . To Carve. hull of a ship.' Cot. carroc- carrozza . Fr. card. casus. cassus. to — — also casse.' — Hdcart. a coffer or small case for jewels. charogne. casco signifies a skull. Lat.to annul. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. a long coat. a chest.' Bailey. not reaching to the height of the ditch. gristle. also the carriage. tion from Sp. To duash. Fr. discharge. Lat. It. crush. Flor. one who reasons on cases put. casso. — — nul the proceeding. carretta. quasser. cashiered. To Cashier. fortuitous. — Cartridge. gristle. Cask. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. an augmentative from Lat. cancelled. krat. Cartoon. cassette. caisse. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . where Fr. It. Cot. bitten. kasseren. Case-mate. vault hole in a fortified wall. casacca. cascata. subject for a picture. case. from casa. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Cot. See Case. ceorfan. Carriage. It. It. empty. caisse. casser. a of water. something that actually occurs. quash. As defence from shells became more important. CartOTicli. It. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. Carrion. Du. AS. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. Fr. Rouchi caroche. Rouchi carone. ignominiously exposed. casa. annul. carroccio. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. a car. kerpu. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. dim. corresponding to the G. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. crown of a hat. capsa (Diez). cartouche. the charge of — — Fr. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. a hut. bag and baggage of a camp. Hence a challenge openly hung up. casa-maita. cia. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Case. Casque. Fr. hollow. mord-grube. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Cash. kerven. to convey in a cart. casuelj Fr. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. casualis. helmet. cassere. cassa. Fr. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. It. Fr. to hold. a chance or accident. to slay. to break. coffer. from It. augm. Sp. — FI. Sp. Case. See Gristle. Lat. abrogate. Casuist. made void. Carrot. case-maiej Sp. Du. Cassock. charrette. to notch. for the security of the defenders. It. Ready money. caisse. Hence casket. long man's gown with a close body. caroche. coffin of paper for groceries. properly to convey in a car. from It. To quash an indictment.

. like that of It. a garment for performing the mass in. an enumerlist. Fr. ecrevisse. Fr. casser. of castrum (castra). Isidore — in Diez. It. ON. Hal. probably from an imita.. burst cascare. kat. It. chasuble. to drive away. to is Essentially the Sp. bot-kotis. chat. catar. the earlier sense of catch. The E. Sp. In the dialect of Picardy. V. a Cataract. dim. squash. _G. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. or comba. Fr. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). punch. KaTaarpifm. on. Cot. drive away. same word with break.out cacciare . arpi^m. . To Catch. to cast or beat to tioner . or bruise together. handle of an axe. koshka. casulla. and KviilSog. cash. dashing it to pieces. to break. klakka. represented by the syllable quash.. kic' kicil are used chasser. Castle. Roukind. &c. being Fin. V Lith. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. Gr. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. stilts. cat. from the first of Castrate. cat-o'-nine. second chase. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. KaraXoyog. from water Karappaaaiii. to scourge. to hunt. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. puras E. dashing it out of the window. B. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. the stalk of plants. a little house or hut. was introduced. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. which. force j Rouchi equerviche. Castanets. cacciuolo. a whip on the other into latch. and tomba. to crackle. the castanets for or implement . and from the castus. 134 CAST Catacomb. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. chasser. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. To It.Rouchi Scaches. Brunne. Etym. to crack. So also from It. a cat koshki. R. kottr. a thump. castro. kakka. while kiss / Pol. first made ordinary Fr. . Catalogue. casule. casupola. 'Vaaaw. a cat . ating. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. shaft of a 1 push. kissa. Fr. to drive Cat o' nine tails. kasi. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . cojz^/a. n. tails. puss / for calling them. down. kotas. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. Fr. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. however. of sarabands does Gr. image accasciare. to make clean or chaste. KarapaKrr]g. ichasses. to Fl. to clack. It.— Fl. to dash. Catastrophe. to bring to an crack given by the joints. to fall as over a precipice. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. execu. Chase. cacciarc. dash. to look at. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. cassa / cry for the same purpose. by the loss of with several pitched cords. cacciare fuora. Cat. Mid. The Diet. to end. Fr. OFr. Fr. speak of dashing a thing down. castello. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. to lash. race. to close. crush . to hurl See Awgrim. or Rouchi cat. Pic. kotas.the / or c respectively. heat . To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Fr. . cascar. Yz. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . name. . follow after. Cast. katze. Sp. a vault. Fr. rack. Lang. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. squash. castanetazo. to torture. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. casipola. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Gael. kaJoivad. which has been retained in E. down. torture. Pol. to turn overturn. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. castellum. 120. catch. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Others explain it from Kara. accastiare. cast. perhaps from which we have E. lance. a fortified place. castana. fer toTa. kasta. away. mino. Hence castaneta. KaTappaKTrjQ. chasser. Lat. a chesnut . is not satisfactory. sue. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. fall. in the fire. the ground . This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. Gr. chaleur.to drive out. signifying breed. under chi caleur. Lat. coming to us through different dialects of French. — We a cavity. ' Catchyn away abigo. Thus we have Caste.Lat.'— Pr. Pm.' ' Catchyn or The Fin.

On Catechism. devouring mite or weevil. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. resound. cache. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. — Catcli-poll. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. — with a whip. which all . Gael.from Bard and ayopsw. the elements of a science. e. . snatched. Rouchi clincailleux. a. E. a cornIn the s. Claucht. a pill. smack. Gr.j. formerly called cliket. glcu. whip. — Kiittner. weevils. catch. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. chacepol. fragor kletsoore. the distance to which the ball is struck. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. OFr. the OE. 'Bxn. a little dog). caker. clatter. Guernsey pilleure. caucht. Cot. compare G. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. Sp. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. Swiss Lombard G. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. a caterpillar Milanese can. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . a whip Rouchi cachoire. bichano (pussy). worm. latch of. Cot. Du. to catch strength. * Caterpillar. cagnon (a dog). i. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. claquer. silkworm. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. 135 — Aasen. and answer. wild-beast. catch. the the same principle he was Fr. happe-chair. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. dainties. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. to kythe D. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. chase. ketsoore. chenille {canicula. a whip.' ^Jam. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. an officer of taxes. — . an accusing. kletse. head. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. * Cates. a whip or Kuttner. children's name for cat . catc?u. to snap. called in Fr. icarrix'Ki^. G. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho.V. insect. to teach by oral instruction. has both or of charming by sound.' CATCH Fr. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. klatsche and Norm. Grandg. chatter. with and without an / after the c. snatching. klatscherei. dainty vic- a form lash. as of the latch of a As ! — . let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Fr.V.s. Kil. Du. Chate peleuse. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. clap. latch. to crack GATES cache. apprehend a person. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). GaUa catchiza. a whip. E. companaige. KaTtix'so. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. from shutting with a click. to take. — tinman. sound. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. blow. chachara. to chat. millecaterpillars. 'Horxa. Du. Ptg. snatching it with a any one. e. ' Fr. E. clap with the hand. a — gatta. quincailler. or any kind of relishing food tuals. instruction in forms. kaetse. ArbaUte de courte chasse. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. bicho. resono ictu lash. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. in order). kletsen. de Bray. ecachoire. — explained. called dog or Galla catchamza. Caterer. a carter's Pat. catch-flesh. a smack. to A bailiff. Diez. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. Fr. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. . Guernsey chafer. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. gingle. s. flap klatsche. Kartiyopta (/cari. Sc. — B. to harangue. to clap hands. to snatch (said of dogs). in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. ictus resonans.yopl(. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . pedes. gliong. to chatter with the teeth cake. . from Gr. predicament. P. door when it is shut. klinke. chatter . a clap. klatsch. a. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. . Wal. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. is said that he got a claucht of it.. Kil. cat is not apparent.P. chasse. verberare kUts. Gael. ' ' word catch. woodlice. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. Tutschek. In the XV'e. chassoire. Fr. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. Metivier. c or ^.) . seize. . to the crack. chink. Cates. gattola. klatschen.

choufleur {choii. to buy.Y\\Xea. caldo. Caution. from KaSaipio. Palsgr. Lat. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth.Lat. from delf^gato. Kavrijp. cavus. 4. puss. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. a seat. KaPaWrii. the. whence cathedralis. hazel. fur. Boethius. cautis. Bessie of Bednall. Pol. Diez). cal^ar. Fr. and spareth for no perell. what . Cause. KiwariKog. cale. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. a receptacle for small things. . Cavalry. Palsgr. It.' B. a kettle for heating water. to beware. Mid. kdtzchen. . to burn. . It. little cap is .p. Gr. reticella. ce^l. Caudle. B. flue. 2. a horse .^ acheter (Lat. Lat. . the caul of the liver. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. a pulpit. w. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. Causeway. chaudroii. caudex . chausser. primitive is meaning a shale or off. Port. — — cavallo. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. is Prologue. chevalier. despencier. mudet. Cathartic. acater. minon. Cavity. Fr. also to pave . A warm comforting drink. a The peel. Dryden in R rete. Wyatt in R. shaled or picked Fr. and hence a skull-cap. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. Mid. Cattle. That he was ay before in his estate. It. calceata. calidus. catkin Magy. to shale or peel. quire. Lat. kocianki. calqada. kin.willow. cauHs. a mare. catkin Pol. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Provider. Fr.' Elyot in Way. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. green husk of a calon. dumpf tonen. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Fr. fur in general. hot. koparet. katte. Thus Bav. acaptar. kassije. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Cathedral. flock. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. adcaptare. kopano. kaussijde. hot. Fr.. chaudiire. otherwise written kell. Sx. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Ka^afriKOQ. . the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. cheval. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Rete. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Gr. a pavement. Cauldron. walnut with the husk on challer. rete A — Prov. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone.. from caveo (p. puss. a horseman. a horse. to ac- — Fr. calotte. via strata. a paved road. • — — See Chattel. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. kautsije. Fr. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. accapitare Rouchi acater. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds.^Hal. to shoe. It. challe was ther of a temple. Lat. to shoe . chatideau. a road calceata. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. caballus. achepter. a horse . catnever sells — — Cauliflower. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. make clean. catkin mitz. kopista.Lat. Pr. CATHARTIC sense. cabbage-stalk. Manciple's Tale. any Fl. lamb. Cave. mutz. to purge. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. cale. macska. CAVE Caul. is used in the sense of cat-skin. It. a kind of skull-cap. Fr. Fr. kocie. Du. The word — . Chaud. little cat. net or caul-work. . the stones of a street. Kavrfipiov. Lat. G.—— — 136 correct. puss. Fin. Gael. OE. ' Gr. apt to burn iron. Delycates. catkins . kobyla. hollow. Cavalier. caple. Gr. Catkin. catons. a stalk. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Russ. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. — Cauterise. deyntie meates. cabbage. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. KaHSpa. causa. but the acates that are sent him. Du. Fr. kobuiV. kitten kotki. Cavalcade. a branding from koiio. &c. cat maczoka. Jaubert. On the other hand. by land. Richly she feeds. Kil. cavaliere. capull. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. cabbage). Cavern. to sound like a blow . katteken. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. . calceta. accattare. chaussJe. Lat. cautus). Jonson in R. chauderon. having the property of cleansing. — . Caustic. from chaud. chair. Caballus. klopfend knallen. Fr.

the deck of a ship at thilja. hollow ice .' Rutland papers. of cavezza. in Hal. dayntily diglit. coffer. Lat. a board. B. hollow. with their substantives concession. Hal. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. . sybire. decessus. column E. sill in window-sill.' del. koppeli. . rafter. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. cyling (W. that. Lat.). -cess. deal. -cease. ciel de lit. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. ciel is so unbroken. ceiling. Sp. thili. an aquiline nose. p. thelu. crooked kopio. of E . a fir-plank. semely on syll. selure. cellar. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. excess. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. cavezzone. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. to plank or floor with planks. cease. — komo tain). to argue capto tiously. Sir 137 pit . step away. thiling. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Soc. &c. Boyd in Jam. &c. and zaum. VIII. wall. Cede. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. plank. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. lambrisser une chambre seeling. 32. succeed. See -cede. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. lambris. augm. is applied to a canopy. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. canopied. Ceiling. . komo. to cut. hung. Cam. cavillor. beam. — . to panel or wainscot MHG. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. . or of a bed. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. . &c. recede. a head. The importation of Fr. wuoren komo. dil.j have come from this source. . Fr. cabegon. a hut.' Cot. . cessum. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Cease. Sherwood. pp. . CEILING The kynge to souper is set. death. menuiserie. empty. —Decease. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. a log. departure. syl. syle. wainscot thiljar (in pi. So from Fin. tester of a bed. a log. In the same way G. In the N. thel. kommata. kapp-zaum. yield. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. hollow. jaa. . H. -cede. . and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. Fr.' — Gawan . E. plank. nailes will begin to cling. The sense of roofing. as. curved. to plank ON.' Ordinances and Reg.). and Gol. give place. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. IV. Wore. and that from Sp. a canopy. Fr. Hence concede. cielo. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. Lat. The line of descent from Fr. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. 5. to go forth.' Marriage of James IV. quibble. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. a planking or boarding tkilian. The It. were met. little house.' Hall. cedo. sus-lambris. To seele a room. as if from happen. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. seele. a log. a canopy. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. Lat. a boarded floor. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. &c. hivtmel. dille. It. and then to gape. . departure from this life. Plancher. 7. board . a cavern in a mountain {wuora. And seik — Cessation. selar. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. . a beam. a halter. a severe bridle. sill. heaven. but hang around at the sides. sky. proceed. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . del into English without ' translation gave cele. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. ceiling. exceed. 43. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. thilja. Cot. also a seeling of boards. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. to canopy siled. p. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. a plank. the testern of a bed. — . CAVESON kopera or kowera. Fr. the inner roof of a room of state. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. dScis. flooring E. thil. door-sill J Sc. in Jam. Cavil. bridle. caveqon.'— Z. applied to a canopy. thil. to seele or close with boards plancher. the roof of a coach. cabega. heaven. post. -ceed.. . 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew.. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. cesso. komista. in Jam. Gawaine & Sir Gol. A — A false accommodation produced G. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. — — — toyour soverane.

single or unwedded life. Lat. sting. cenio. Ceremony. Celebrity. S. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. encens. value. to distinguish. with the eyes. in comp. to concern. to sleep). stones to the production of heat. Assess. The term cilium. See Cede. an eyelash. to be regarded as one celebro. to glow. Cij(fe5j. Fr. and put it through the over eyelydde. to take. to chafe. or expression of Ennius. Lat. -ceptjun. a shaft horse. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. Celerity. assess. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Lat. to think. censura. sift. eyelid. To chafe is for wine. Lat. cella. Lat. the place where the de. is the opposite of disora virum. criticism. -i^oivre. cigliare. a religious observance. Fr. Accelerate. a hundred centuria. -cepire. the point round which a circle is drawn. Gr. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. distinIt. and met. to take. ciglio. Cell. Lat. Censer. to prick. — . to rub for the purpose a hut. to set on fire. Lat. — . {cori)cipere. to course of people.— Chafing-dish. 1. centum. a valuation of every man's estate. decebre) . . or any bird's. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. deceipt. festive. cilibat. zens according to their property. eschattffer. thence belonging to or connected with corn. decide. in comp. census. Cot. swift. Century. /ctj/rsw. -cern. Sherwood. in Marsh. sacred show. Fr. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. of heating. -cipio. Fr. cerealis. being taken from Fr. what to set in a chafe. to seal a pigeon's eye. is totally distinct from the foregoing. guish. become heated with anger. Assize.' Celebritas. calefacere. with transposition hence (of a day). cceremonia. conceipt. dchauffer.j 138 thill. but was gradually lost in conceit. crevi. from censeo. we have a modified form of (of a place). Lat. chaufferette. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. much frequented. &c. and thence censer. to twinkle darkness. incense.. To seel or close the eyes. tax. and so of that other. to warm. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. heaven. -cepere. cretum. camentum. Fr. receipt. to celebrate. the hollow the Lat. ciller. contend. — . to blindfold. Census Censor. as in some places burnt. also grave opinion. OFr. Ta^oe.ing a room where there is not fire. rubble. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. Cess. capio. concetto. the officer appointed to take such returns . Cot. to sepap rate. to visit in numbers. appertain. In Celebrate. Cereal.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Lat. and thence to conceal. goad. in accordance with the Fr. Chafe. To Incense. See Celibacy. a registration of one's self. -cense. calefare. Fr. Fl. rough from the quarry. Centurion. materials It. his office. Censor. celeber certus. judge. Censure. to burn incendo. Fr. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it.). — . to attend on object with. -ceit. renown be embodied with.. a prick. solemn (of per. . a Cemetery. -CEIVE a shaft. ' . — A . ceremonia. a numerous con. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. a solemnity. -cess. judge Lat. — . abundance.' Book of St Albans. Lat. make angry. oil. a storehouse Chafe. confounded ist from It. chauffer. cot. to bury). -ceive. mortar. hollow. It. observe. for building. census. cencer. Incensum. empty. the talk of men. Certain. -cevoir. -civer {conciver— Roquef. Gr. K^'ivut. Gr. -oept. judge. to contend. KsvTpov. parted sleep. — . estimate. blind. irot\oe. cillier. and — — — possessions. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. family. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. see. a hundred of what- — . — — Cenotapli. sure. riscaldarsi. as entering largely into the derivative certo.of the r. Prov. a tomb. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Lat. to incense. Lat. oil. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Take the nedyll and threde. -ciper. to -sum. deceit.unmarried. to heat. &c. Centre.— Cellar. age. tax. -cebre ifoncebre. (and thence also) to hoodwink.cern. syll. It. point. siller les yeux. sile. then to rub without reference Cement. celer. Coehim. For sess from assess. keep in It. to seele or sew up the eyelids . pick out. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend.). a solemnity. concerner. Gr. concernor. candeo. from Saa-rw. to separate. thronged the participle cretus. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. Sc. Lat. caber. to rate. quarters for slaves. Fr. capturn.

chayire.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. care. chamar. dongio. Cot. kuhata. false accusation. to file. Fr. as a carriage is a moveable seat. Lat. kahuja. Lat. camera. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. have a mind to parley. Lat. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. muzzle. on. de Brai. tattle cheep. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. Fr. a prattling woaction. and signifies to consume with anger. In like manto huff. Fr. to caw chawer. ple^. leviter crepo Then. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Halma. a vault or arched roof. haggle. chaps Chamber. vis. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. breathe hard. fa sagramen de calompnia. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. much blowing. Fr. cadena gives chain. quisquilise offence. a pulpit Cot. Ayenbite. cadera. as. kiqfta. chaulx. from Swiss kafeln. catena. 35. kuhina. chawe. kuhista. care. clamare. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. p. charge with.. E. a goba rustling . in a cana. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. &c. From the To Chaff. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. Chagrin. to Latin calumniare.. Due. Fr. to a seat. often puffing. kauchen. cathedra. puffed or ruffled with ly. Du. The jaw chafty. idle words. to sit. keuchen. Lat. with a:n arched roof. rustling motion challenge. From to go to law. calumnia. Lat. ing a hard case to their wings. havOFr. chicane. much more Genoese sagrind. to chatter or talk lightly. to call. Hal. — — — — — — . yap. P. a rustling noise. cadieira. — — ' — — — A . swelling with anger. cup. Kaiiapa. baras of ants. Pers. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Chain. hiss. tattle. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. kdfer. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . Kuttn. a chough. of. Camera. — — — . KoBiSpa. to gnaw. fume. chaise. cam. G. to tattle.' Rayn. Lat. chaire. to fret inwardtronfo. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. kdfelen. far lima-lima. calonja. chagrin. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. rally one. cadena. fern-chafer. Fl. — — — . lime . snort. cauvette. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. . sagri. refuse barley . kaff. or puff with snorting. chatter. Lat. to babble. a jackdaw. Fr. difficulty . De Ir4. Chalice. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. limare. Fr. jaw. chafeter. In vulgar language. a pulpit. talkative. chaene. . signal by drum or P. keffen. kaff. in a monstrous fume. kahista. grief. calice. Fr. — . to gnaw. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. snuff. call in question for an ley). chalanger. gewolb. any insect of the beetle kind. rustle Challenge. from of the G. So from dominio. and as this was the beginning of man. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. ing rapidly repeated cries. Fr. sborfare. hordeum vel let. without chap/are makiinde. lime. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. ceaf. Chair. ceafer. thick and short. . Adelung. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. that leneth e per I'autra. Cheffern.sure carriage. calix. chaine. taubes korn oder hafer. Chayire. to action arose. Came. Pr. kahu. kiaftr. now a chair. Bouffard. sagrindse. chaffare. to buzz. place See Cheek. matter by combat. Prov. chafing. Du. bargain. green sagrin. songe. a chain. crooked. to move the jaws. Fin. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). to calumpnjamen. Wall. from the shark-skin. ^Altieri. Prov. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. OFr. Probably from According to Diez. Gr. ckapfare. 11. To buy and sell. kuhuja. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. Cot. to bark. Gr. chambre. refuse. kedja. Fr.nium. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. . movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. contestation. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Prov. to puff and blow. Piedm. Perhaps Pm. rustling corn. a double operation * Chafer.— — . kever. to dispute. . ON. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. to ner It. From Port. calx. puff. hght Chalk. also to prattle. great chafe. shaIt. Pat. kiamta. calonjar. cathedra. vel susurro. Bav. to claim. G. grief. to institute anforensic action. preise. tronfio. to pant. khah. avena vilior. B. dispute. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. (ca'e'ra) to chair.

or less ignorant. fray. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. Gall. who stood ad cancellos. top of a borehole. to move the jaws kiamt. — masterly Sp. to excel. campus. to wrestle. e. cancelli. The E. Lat. game campio. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. Lat. — Hal. cempa. calida et sans aguet. Partnership. Sp. or player at football. chance. from chaud. a jaw kianisa. cadere. — Ch-amberlain. See Camp. champ parti. kampeln. kinipen. to bevel. at the railings. giving rise to the as. Fr. to strive at games . hero Sw. — KiL . kampeln. bickering. a horse-race. Commonly derived from campus. camp. camp. . to wrestle. and acted as inofficers of . . chain. a field of battle. to cample. Get campers a ball To camf . The G. Chancellor. kappd). champ. kiammi. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. jocus partitus. . campar. a feat. to fasten oneself to another . hamper. caer. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. an athlete. as in It. termediaries between them and the judge. cazer. to fall. sukibti. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. to . contend or argue G. Dief. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. divided game. . Chance-n3. Sp. Meleare. which seems another form of the root. slope of a bevelled angle. zampettare. dial. a warrior. a hook . ON. Lith. keiiipe. M. To hollow out in chanPtg. chanfrar. Champaign. Campar. to debate. E. a bundle. Carpentier. champ. to smack the lips in eating. Du. received the petitions of the suitors. Champion. .edley. a court of justice. kimppu (Lap. Fr. to flute as a column. chanfreindre.140 CHAMBERLAIN . Prov. E.' ' Pr. to Hal. fighting place. fight. to fall). Fr. to stick to. Sup. kriimmen gebogen. Chancel. dricka i kapp. chanfrein.—Charfron E. Fin. zs jeopardy. hng. is explained by serrarsi. kimpUma. certare. kampen. cahir. dial. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. i. Champ. gewolbt. kabinti. kempa. champion Du. chamfrain. excellent. ON. gekrUmmt. kapp. hot. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . champ. contest. surpassing. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. campus partitus . fight. kabintis. escazenza. dispute Hal.' SherI'altro ' ' . prize-fighter. It will. kempen. to quarrel (comp. to fasten oneself on to another . Ptg. Magy. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. act of falling. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. and mesUe. to groove bevel off a right angle. rare. kibti. cameratus. to be eminent. Champarty. to talk. as swine. a game at football. chajnbellan . chance. dial. The happening of things Chance. kimbu. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . ing. Lat. kablys. kampa. to fasten on. athlete. from cheoir. chanfrein. schmatzen s. nels. camerlengo. pinch. reusement — fight in single combat. wood. luctare. To Chamfer. the chafldn.—Tutschek. head armour. Fr. contention kappi. So in e. boys speak of capping verses. Hence (with the nasal) w. to chew. kippo. tsamtsogni. ciambellano. . Pm.Lat. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. chamble. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. chaude mesUe. —Chamfrain. Chamfron. Lat. Fr. dial. from Fr. To cope or contend with. champ.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. kabe. kimpustella. . calidameya. dial. to to chew champ. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). mesleiare. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . to hold . . bundle. broil. jeu parti. to happen {ad and cadere. pedilusor. to slope out the . move the jaws. compound. The word is preserved in E. camp. kabMe. When the to quarrel. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. CHANCEL It. difficulty . chdance. accident. Fr. to — — champ. kanip.' melleia. Prov. to hang. to slope. Chancery. ON. a scufSe. combat. to hollow out. kiinp. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. s. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. a hollow chanfreiner. ciamberlano. to tread The sound heavily. campear. G. tsammogni. therewithal. — ^Tusser. cample). to paw the ground E. accidere.

The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . ON. like the knocking of hard things together. chapa. to peck. . chop. as corn-chandChandry. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. Hal. to plate. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. from chandler. . flat . In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. debeant conjurare. jaw. to creak. ceaplas. Chape. Sp. kiceft as well as kjakje. ceaflas. to cut up into small pieces. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. 140. to truck. a small metal plate Port. leather. Walach. Da. — : Lat. ^Jam. Chaps or chops. also a clap. In like manner Walach. Fr. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. chancellerie. to put on fresh clothes. AS. or the cracking of one. kappen. See Chant. Hence chantry. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. changer. . the gutter that runs along a street. Chop. esclapa. Chap. And N. cambiar. to spht a chip. the mouth. shift. to swap. to apply one flat thing to another. as to chap hands. muzzle. Russ. or the like chapar. camjar. waterconduit. A fellow. It is also used in the sense of the E. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. jaw. Chapel. Du. a money-changer. Sp. and also to chap or crack. cambiare. cambium. is used in the same sense . to coat. from clap. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. not a soul. Prov. to paw like a horse .^. chapilla. Cheek. chop. are kept. to hack. a strip of metal plate. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. a dealer in candles then. and the modern canal. as It. the clappers of the scupper holes. Channel. properly in a hard body. chiappa. Lang. Hence It. kennel. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. chap. lips of an animal. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. . to peck. Chip. E. chanter. the loose flesh of the cheeks. as chancery . a chap is a crack or fissure. to plate. hack . and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Probably from chap. as those on a trunk. the place where candles ler. surfaces striking together. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. 2. to strike. Molbech. to break . The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. Hal. W. Lat. Da. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. wood. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. Chap. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. from canna. Man of Law's Tale. kemma. clapet. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. to deal. to strike. to chap at a door. esclapo. a jaw. chapear. schimbu. to sing. to cut. a pipe. —Chantry. to change. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. the chaps . I. Sc. skipta. chapelete de una bomba. To Change. klepan. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. a reed. Lith. kjaakaa. kaupa. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. chapeta. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. canalis. exchange. any hollow for conveying water. while the broader vowels a. —Ordericus Vitalis. to strike with a sharp edge. kapoti. prune. Compare chark. kiceft. See Chop. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. throat of an animal. a small plate of flat metal. schimbd. cangiare. exchange. may be compared with ON. extended to other trades. Bret. Fr. Chap. chap. Commonly derived from capella. Fr. as skin chapped hands. exchange schimbatoriu. Chandler. cantare.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Fr. kvar kjceften. — . gab. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. chapeletas de imbornales. hard bodies. Aasen. cobio. chancery. That wide were sentin their spicery. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . to cut off . the cape or little cloke of St Martin. cheek. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. — — —Marculfus in Due. chaps. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. chandelier. to — cut. . supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept.

cedeleac. czirbti. Fr. Lat. caricare. Mid. to prattle. to talk . chapelet. ghirlanda seor garland. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. Du. capital. carus. tattler. the nature of a thing. — spell. corona. to love. to . to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. a verse. colliers that charred coal. eyre. To Char. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation.. properly to place — . a cricket karkti (schnarren. carmen. wood to coal. to of the governing body. capitolo. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. creak. Lang. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. carregar. cam. chirk. return. a hood. kurkti. Character. the turtle pitre. Charade. to load . It. See Charlatan. cabildo. in turns. surris seu Lat. Inst. Charlock. It. Lat. Fr. to chirp as sparrows. turn. The G. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . be- e. beloved. to converse. carmo. Macduff.czirksti. charitas. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. cha. eapitulo. Prov. called in Sp. to dove . See Cheap. charer. jabber. dim. a riddle. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. gadka. as. . to sing or chirp as birds. to croak as a frog . grave or make incised marks on an ob. czurksti. chatter. babbling. chara. and in It. a riddle.' Boccaccio in Diez. Chark. . Sp. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. capellare. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . to tattle. * Charcoal. karout. burning without consuming the substance. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. chirlar. Bret. which was incantation. from Charade. a head or division of a book. Sp. Swiss. cluck. clack. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. wreath for the head. chirriar. in To ness Charity. schreien. to turn. Chirk. turn about. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. An enchantment. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. czurliwoti. siarad (pronounced — sharad). creak. hiss Lith. as Pol. dear. Justin. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. enough. — — — turned to coal. &c.whirr. Gr. AS. go. a garland of roses. Deutsch. chat. talking.Lat. —— . that turned decken . caritas. charlatan. AS. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. cluck kirklys. babdistinction. Chaplet. Sup. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. pohadka. gaggle . Fr. charlar. It. a merchant. Lat. called kedlock. ceap-man. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. cearcian. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. used in the sense of magic Fl. charade. it is my turn. . from gadai. A weed among com AS. charge an enemy is to lay on. twitter. bler. to prattle. from carrus. From Norm. Charge. krachzen). to chirp. Fr. a charm. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. . of chapel. prattling quacksalver. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. from capa. to chirp. keeren. charger. a The OFr. seems to be derived charade. w. Chare. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. condo il volgar francese. It. gnash. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. w. a mark made on a thing. Lith. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. es ist mi cheer. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. to charcoal. from cape or cope. occasional turn. chatter. In that work the verb is written caire. Sp. ciarlatore. The crash. Boh. char. 2. Chapter. cher um cher. decken. Hence carminare. to creak. charcoal burners. a rhyme. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. cerran. ject). canne. from capitulum. Ptg. twist. carricare. Charcoal was ciarlare. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. OE. kurkelis. kirkti. tegere. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. capella. as a beetle. — a car. affection. chapitre. Yx. Chapman. Fr. Lay on. for the same reason rosario. a turn cerran. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. Cot. a mark of a mountebank. car. Charlatan. . (eucharistie. chapel. hadka. dear(in both senses). to turn Gael. Mundart. a dispute . 370.charme. And damned be he who first cries Hold.).

to baptize. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. s. csaterdzni. to chirp. karigh. from xoAn. pure. clean. parcus. See Cistern. chip. letters p. D.ppen. To Chasten. shout OE. chary. %aafi. noise. converse. be wide open. Fr. warble. to crack. to which it bears the same relation as chape. Chamel. also to germinate or spring forth. Chaste. czysty. to talk. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. little sticks cudere. eclats. CHATS fit 143 to name. Diez. to wet. OE. or suckers on rough borders. talk. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. to burst open. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. chick. schioppare. chits. — sharp sound of a crack. — Palsgrave. Du. B. g.. karg. — The . as from nomen It. a young man . Parallel with E. Fr. csatora (Magy. It. to crack. fragments. or a bird out of the egg. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. or pop. chit-chat. a branch. the bird is iiown. To Chase. warble. chip. cassa s. or equivalent forms. knacken. geug. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. a word. to set a jewel. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). Fr. snap. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal.— Chatter. a yawning. G. chaste. Lat. an enchantress. from purus. clack. It. kata. speak . and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . —Jam. xi'i-'^vui. niggardly. to clap. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. is to represent the chamier. carnisj bones kept. flesh. The egg is chipped. fragments or leavings of food. — Hal. occasionally Forby. the noise of birds. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. prattle. in Jam. chykkyn (Pr. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. clean. whence a charm of goldfinches. make a noise as birds do. chaste. See Catch. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. Fr. caro. to chirp. ferire. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. talk much . To chitter or chipper. blackthorn-chats. Russ. gallan or ogan. a shrine for a relic. clatter. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Cot. chit. chisf. ch). used to represent a sharp note. a flock of those birds. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. tenax. gazeuiller. cyrm. scraps of for fuel. a twig Suffolk chaits. to separate in morsels. ch&tier. to cry as a chicken . a crack or a flaw . nommer. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. from pure. noise. To talk. to care). racket . as turnip-chaits. to gape. An imitative word. nome and . — Yorkshire chat. careful. chair. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. the calix of a rose. as we speak of olive branches. la chasse d'une rose. a churchyard or charnel-house. gazzerare. to chirp as a bird to cheep. to enchase it . . from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. tittle-tattle. cearig (from cearian. Kil. shivers. magpie. enchasser. chikat'. i. To Chase. clean. csacsogni. a gap. kastaa. Pol. Fl. gazzogliare. the cry of the bat. Chat. discourse. In like manner Russ. charmer. the young shoots . Magy. also a youth. Gr. jackdaw . Kil. chat. — — . kna. See Card. Pol. carme and Fr. chick. Hal. Chart. Fl.). Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. root of the Lat.a. crackle. to cut and faggoted. the handle of a razor . —Chastise. pure. as in the E. . chit in the latter sense Du. also to hatch. —Charter. To work plate as silversmiths do. a branch and a young female.). clear. to make a noise. a plate of metal. pure. incassare. — We ornamental work the to signify E. knatiern. cs E. clap. whistle. castus.house. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. kippen. To chit. kata-kata. charm. sordidus. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. as. gadu-gadu. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. It. gaddc. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. Chary. So in Gael. to chatter or prattle .— Chit. gazzolare. Cot. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. castus. Lat castigare. carmen is presented in AS. chatter. csacsogany. — Fr. Pm. To chip is then to crack. It. —Bailey. splinters. Chat-wood. a chatter-box. chip. germinate . or the cry of a bird or the like. Chasm. — = Chats. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. as purgare Fr. prate. From carinen was formed It. V. Malay. gazzettare. It t. limpid.

. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Modern Slang. gagkezen. frown. thers. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as.kakot. to cough and hence either buying or selling. mandibula. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. to fetch the breath with difficulty. upon a checked cloth. Cot. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. cara. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. Bav. to cluck like a hen.. lead to OE. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. exAS. ku. a piece of moveable property. snout. Chew. retching. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Cheek. are represented piti. a repulse. Hal. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. bon marche. et juxta catalla sua.—Choke.' to exchange to gasp. entertain kindly. chiere. welcome heartily. in Fr. It. prattlingchete. Ingulphus.-^. Pm. to nauseate (to retch). Hence to cheat. a dealer. It — Brompton in Due. giggling. kaupon. giving or taking in exchange. CHATTELS has ciio. goods. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. See Chess. chear in the sense of victuals. 'li^'opa jord i jord. — We ' . choule.' kezen. to make inarticulate sounds in . Du. hawkmann. s. citello. kaufen.ing. kek. us. a willing look and unwilling heart. Pro v. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. to deal ON. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. to vomit. the principal ' colloquial E. OFr. sum in a loan. in widely separated languages by the Lat. Fr. to coup s. sense of bargaining. G. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. kaupa. the tongue. to negotiate.. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter.of the throat in coughing. cozener. to act as a rogue. a canting knave. Slav. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. chop. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. cachinnari. goods. See Cheek. chaptel. any cheating. the Lat. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse.— Chaps. to swap goods . CHEEK zitella. look. cattle. kik. to stutter gigken. &c. Lat. to — . kichen. gig.— Chole. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Check. tradesman. whence captale. OFr. chatel. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. koopen. Faire bonne chire. the countenance Fr. kaupiti. with the exception of land. which is the word in ceap. Fin. a tavern-keeper. ceap. which is used in the to stutter. — To check an account.— . to laugh. kauf. 144 the It. farm for farm. jaw. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. a dealer in horses. kikottaa. e. visage. kakkaset. ceafl. countenance. Chattels. the Confessor. lower. to coff—Yisi. NE.— Cattle. kok. stuttering.. from AS. changing. cheeks. sob E. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. Ek dry and hard. Fl. . catalliim. keck. cattle. stuttering. caupo. Cheat. and. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Pr. entertainment. favour. chapman. Chear. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. to chop and change. kakaista. and hence the E. jaws. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. Then. truffa. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. Bohem. horse-couper. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. agreeing upon. kak. KaviiXog. dchec. cattle. The gutGoth. price. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. aspect of a man. . teeth . to buy. force of the word. Sp. to clear the throat . cita.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. . It. while it Bret. laughing. ceahhetan. a cheater. a young boy or girl. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. chatal. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. with Dief. from Lat. Soc. — — —Chowl. the face. Sc. society. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. . Cam. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. ceaflas. a rogue or person who used the canting language. chire. to buy. to . sale. cera. syllables ^ag-. Fr. capitale. Gr. gagkern. equiva. chuckle. chavylbone or chawlbone. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage .

w. squeak as a mouse. E. cisty G. as meat and butter.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Chevisance. cheek. whence kasa-leipa. gap. . cheek. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. to love. to swallow. Lith. the neck. old bread. Sw. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. Jam. E. ichec. caru. rafters in heraldry. Chemistry. Cherish. to kep. by laying it in come to an agreement with. dersen . It would Cheese. Prov. for cheese itself. the final guttural is retained in writing. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. chasi. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. jouffle. accomplishment cayed. kopen. quoka. Da. To make a shrill noise Chest. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. See Chess. treat with affection. kikna of dorum coacervatio. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. gapen. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade.their struggle for independence. cufd. G. hasten. kjcebe. ation. chests in OE. the hke. Du. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. cams. F*-.. jaws Sw. caws. things Da. acquisition. cegio.). identity of the process going on in viands chouks. OHG. w. condition of being taken. geagl. rattle in the throat. E. to belch. Fr. X'C&s. AS. achever. Chess. kistej Lat. ceaflas. Sc. practice seems to have been communiChevron.koppen. ca' — . to choke with laughter. incaseatus. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. castaneusj Fr.peep in the same sense. ceac. kjceve. ON. the mouth. jowl. to hold dear. — — . Chef. — — . — — . nish source. a rafter . make an end. It. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. Fin. w. suffo. See Case. Hence chesten-nut. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. Lat. cyse. Kil. Cher. equal squares of opposite colours. Chevaux de frise. chops. cista.cirieggia. cheek. to year. giffle. like a young chicken. the throat. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. The Sw.D. takes place in the formation of cheese. ceocian. the palate Chequer. jaw. kaecke. . mollium congeries.' to w. to accomThis they call hdrsk. chevir. gullet. Chekenyd or querkenyd. Fr. kastr. the The use of the word kcesir. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Lith. subacidus. czypti. From them the plish. cheeks. Tutschek. jaw. Lat. skratt. Fris. subjected to this process with that which the throat . An imitative word. ceg. to make a noise different word. to gasp. rupted into chess. Fr. throat. ceaplas. CHE. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Hence kikna is identical with OE. a heap. In these latter forms we see the transIt. kasa. schach. to kasa. Prothroat of an animal . proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de.G. cough.. food. veluti piscium. . chiffe. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. kirsche. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. gill of fish AS. then end. cheken. a cricket. chAtaigne. The name of creak as shoes. G. kastanie. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Analo. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. cese. . to choke. prevail with. rennet. cabiron. Sc. kjakje. clear the throat. carnium. e. Pl. kdkel. to boken. chesten.D. to gape gab.perly head. kdke. throat. to geahl. kasiiUPr. chops.EP CHEVRON 145 on. Sp. . Pm. a chicken. cerise j G. AS. Du. — 10 . subsequently corflesh about the jaws . frame by which the exertion is made. Fr. Sp. cireggia. scacco. cerasus. N. As the board to gasp i. as. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. chaps. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. made rancid koka. whence czypulas. ost. Fr. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. kapen. AS. quok. Lat. by laying up in a covered heap. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. king). to heap up such things for the purchoke.Xo belch. See Alchemy. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. to bring to an end. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. Thus "we are brought din. kesten. To Cheep. cherir. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. &c. gous forms are G. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Achievement. kces. Cherry. gabe. (Kil. schach. kok. E. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. cabrio. gaghel. geafl. jaws. caseus. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. dear. kikna. mouth kek. the loose the game of checks. xaque. Sw. chevron. jaw . Lat. /Ji2^/(W.

alter. capete. s. pipio. to contest. rafter . in Walach. chavel. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. to Du. kindeken. 146 brial. jaw. : — a lump.D. Now gan some courage unto him to take. cica cica. the throat. kimme. Russ. acute. Prov. a quid of tobacco. and from the third E. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask.peep. kaw. greloter is to shiver for cold. czypulas. AS. chol. or qf people talking rapidly. ' . kilderkin. cib. kidata. Pm. Fr. To chitter. W. kopf Du. hiss as meat on the gridiron. a little bit. term is ssaru fu. grelot). tiuk. captain. chiler. a chicken. to crackle. zitterti. k'imm s. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter.^ Hal. to gasp for breath (Hal. pi. chawbone. deer's horn. a small cask OFr. chic. a cup. Chigue. a cup. Fl. kinderen. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Du. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. cabar. kieken. or the broken noise of birds. Child. the cry of young . The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Fin. Fin. Bret. into a continuous shriU sound. branchy. chicoter. Magy. the head. cild. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. kippa. to use the jaws. cidan. a finch. to go. G. then cold. also the horizon. head. Chill. chillar. then as G. It. the rim or edge of a vase. killen. chicken. rafter . from the second Lat. a chicken. De chic en chic.— Cot. the Ptg. chef. chillrar. lead through the synonymous E. sonorous. Tintillo. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. kind. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. to titter is Du. kauwe. cabar beinne. keichen. 'Among these the G. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. Brezza. CHJME the radical form is unusual. . creak. . the jole. tiukkua. klagend tonen.— . — . chimb. has probably the same origin. tremble with cold. a chicken. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. the same principle I regard On birds. the young of animals in general. w. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. mouth. gills of a fish. tremble. Chitter. while the Magy. the least imaginable jot. kouwe. chin. quivering sound which passes. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. Chief. horn wood. pole. Chick. rafter. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. Pr. or as E.^ to resound as a bell. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. jaws . A To Chew. as pointing out the origin of the E. or chick. horns of the house. chaps. knarren. capu. tiukka. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Gattel. Probably from Fr. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. to smart. when the vibrations become very rapid. a head. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Kil. capo. beam. Lat. Sp. cap. kime. mountain top . knit the brow cib-led.D. to chime. chill. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib.— Gattel. as. CHEW . to raise the rim. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Imitative of a loud clear sound. to the brim. Walach. jaw. For the see word Doit. Fr. a jaw. tyuk. chikat'. queror. kop. kimia. G. chillness or shivering. E. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. Chimb. choule. chieftain. kauen. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. to twitter. caprioru. and not vice versd. aner. — It. kitista. kaau•wen. are formed Du. cheek. twitter. kauchen. signifying properly shivering. E. cabarach. pipe. Fin. caferu. ach. ultimate origin of the Mite. cabriones. chavel. a cup cibaw. — Du. kibr. Chime. Gael. See Chimmer. Du. Palsgr. antler. chew or chaw. pip. chicaner. pipio. De finger killet mi for kalte. to scold.. — — Mother Hubbard. The Pl. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. stake.' my finger tingles with cold.-ill. from little to little. knirschen. cebr. Da. To Chide. to chew. tintelen van koude. from the first of which is Lith. Halm. killen. Fl. Pl. chiquei. strideo. Pm. pululo. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. caput. E. — Fin. Pr.)... ]). crepo. Fr. by driblets. The loss of the syllable it in Du. kimista^ . And hence. machouere. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Swiss kiden. a hen. kuwe. gosling. while didder is to shiver or citteren. to chirp or peep like a chicken. Chaw. to contest about trifles. Payer chiguet A chiguet.. a young bird. to pettifog. . Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. tiukkata.

Chat. zirken. Huloet. as birds the mouth. kumista. to chirre. gen.' Phaer's Virg.er. sparkle. vincially used in the sense of a crack. — .. to prattle . ciarlare. chirp.to divide or Du. It. — . Sp. to squeak in It. Chitter. backe. fyr. Primarily a shrill sound. the cheek (jaw) . . schiena. et garrire . to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . is applied to the separation of the broken parts. Chimney. Diez de. skina. to creak. eschine. verynge or dyderinge.Huloet in Hal. then of a fabulous monster part goat. Caminatum. a chap. tremulous motion. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. — . zirpen. clangor tinniens kummata. pork) . keich husten. to murmur. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. the cheek. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. .. sounding deep. Chyrme or chur. cheek.to chirp. cincel. a thorn. sound on beginning to boil. To Chitter. kink hoest. See Bright. cheminde. the whooping cough. Bret. AS. ykvvQ. A . the mouth (jaws) . hiss chirlar. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. and chim-mer. tinnire. To chirp or twitter. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. a szemrcU. as the/ is preserved tering. fissure. chhint. E. the jaw. are In like manner E. Chink-cough. Chit. bone . komia. tsengeni. pare also Walach. to open chirriar.schricken. as a large bell . the chin . to chine. i. to chirp. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. then to any narrow crack or AS. to chirp . Chitterling. eschin^e (de pore). .iron. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. a chink or fissure. klincken. j^lf. Cot. as the chink of money. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. yivtiov. Chip. clipping of coin. sonus the backbone Lat. hollow. — . Hindost. czirszkti. also vibrans. spina. crepare. caminata. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. cisaille. esquena. 147 kimina. Pr. G. stridere. hus. Chine. Chisel. a Kuttn. quivering or shakyng for colde. tschirpen. tsongeni. to sizel. to chink. Ptg. Gower in Hal. the jaw. schetteren. part lion. epine. Prov. plodere. to gape. representing connected together. In the same sense. hiss Pm. chick. backBut she withal no worde may soune. resonance .Lat. Fr. Magy. cisello. The desig. esquina.). komista. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. a hall Mid. Du. Gloss. up and down. KinneGr. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. Chin-coug^h. Gascoigne in Todd. Chink. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. schina. or chyFrigutus. spina. shiver and the chyver of Pr. E. and from a similar sound to boil gently. to sound. Lat. and the Du. cinne. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. squittire. chits. but or cry as a parrot. a crowing sound in recovering breath. To Chimmer. and light. to sound deep or the Gr. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. in Hal.sharp. a fire-place. schetteringe. disCot. a thorn. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac.czirbti. in the same crack. It. schrick. bx-eak the back of schena. from the geon's lancet. as a bell kommata. to tattle. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. have been used to designate the spine. applied to tremulous motion. The small entrails of a hog. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . We make of a French niff an English chitterling. to chink with laugh2. to prattle czirpti. Lith. See Chark. chink. ter. twitter caminus. Sw. do. cleft. To chink with laughter. It. It. See Chats. Fr. killed by Bellerophon. The change from the sound ter \s. all these imitative terms being minata. Fr. cinan. rustle. caperd. Chimera. simmer. Kil. genawi. See Chap. Chymerynge. gena. Chintz. to tremble. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. the chine. Du. It. genou (pi. sound. clashing of weapons. . kumina. and bodily movement in shimm. to simmer. companied. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. Fr. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. Pm. flaw Hal. sonants. G. Bav. to creak. a surkik hosta. chin . lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Sp. chatter . kinne. caminsects. twinkling light. from 10 * ' Chia. from Lat. Fr. . Sp. kieck hoest. dial. name Then. eschiner. Sp. quavering of the voice. — — — — — . ciseau (for cisel).

full. try. kbhren. a young . Choice is probably direct from Fr. rare. bile. causir. from chevalier. anger. a ruff or frill. gustare. Chives are also a kind of small onion. all seem slate . coup. to strike hands . to chap. Warwickshire coff.. haslets. propagated. cepa. To Chop. or original meaning is preserved in G. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir.ffrill. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Fr. the inwards of an animal. ent quarter. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. word is more likely to be from Lat. scheve. by which they are Fr. Lat. ruffs. Body and Soul. kor6n. chap hands.D. to choose. G. fine threads of flowers. cke. arkiusan. kiusan. crammed Choir. lead us on to Lat. — Cholera. Schmid. chattering. select. ON. okusyti. To Choke.freze. cape. skifa. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . kushati. choppe. 2. to break off in small shive. a small slice or slip of anything . ^S. chaup. Swab. Walach. to turn.vonic languages are Pol. a scale or fragment P1. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. OHG. G. as with a blow. kushevati. Chives.— B jag E. to try. a calf's chaldern of E. .' Verie coinme Cot. the ridges prove. coro. wein didder for cold. Serv. Fr. experience valerie. to taste. of E. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. Boh. chife. G. kiesen. to ing is doubtless to taste. shoot . 19. taste. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. to taste. to Compare also Pol. to palpitate . taste. kalbs gekrose. See try. to tempt. a ruff. Choleric. Fr. Luc. heaped measure. pluck. and N. chimp.' who shall not taste death. to taste. to chap at a door . &c. developments of the same radical image. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. from %u\i). caperd. from kraus.V)^x. a rag. as green as leeks. and in this sense the * small pieces. then to try. —Chorus. to wrinkle. CHOP kros. a fragment. Choice. ON. it is probable that the root kus. wkusit' prikushat. Prov. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. to stop geschoppt voll. chatter. kaup. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. chock full. The manners and senti. Goth. . a company of singers or dancers. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. and in kosten. by the vibrations of sound or motion. The .gust. chives. schiefer. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. i. Jam. Cavalry. . to taste . the small parts of the roots of plants. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. are used in the same sense. kieser.' At last he dwelt . — — — . to try. The Sc. koren. Chivalry. specially with an application to theatrical performances. an onion. * To Choose. of an angry — — — ' ' — . — Chock-full. Yr. to taste. g'schochet voll. chippe. cut up into — See Chats. &c. kausjan. to shiver. try. prove. a heap. wrath. kruszki. I. chibble. to try. approve. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. xiv. krussyi. a knight. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. chceur. to experience. called cMtters in the N. a twittering. gekrose. a blow.. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. whence Lat. choix. to clap up Hal. ments of the knightly class. Gr. Swiss kust. shiver. schevel-steen. keypa. full to overflowing. a goose's giblets. The I go to prove them. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. As kushnuti. seallion or unset leek. kiusan. chiffe. Enn Sigridur sem ' . Gr. whence choleric. curly . Equivalents in the SlaFr. gusten. Gr. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. friller. and It. signify to kiss. chorus. and Vf. in the same language. civette. . The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. •- Russ. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. also calPs. a wine taster. fresure. pieces . kustigen. to taste. a chive. . — See Cheek. ^euw. %o\ifa. then to shiver. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging.ceosan. to exchange horses. Chuck-full. gdnse gekrose. . chawdron. . keuren. disposition. x^poc. kusid. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. a calf's pluck or chaldron . to hack. schoch.yEuffM. to try . cive. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. kiezen. Chap. to prove. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. to ^cleave . of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus.

whence e. bearand aits.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. a stump. high clog. to strike in the hand. I bring you the Cloughs. AS.povucd. Nominale in Nat. gobio capitatus. kobe. To Chop logick.— Landnamabok. Du. Sp. capito. chub. prattle . to overturn. E. chapin. kaw. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Come. chapma?i. thick-set. What do you think of me. Peace. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. Chrysalis. Cot. slipper . That Face. A fish with a thick snout and head. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. Chopino. To coup. chouquette. A jackdaw. koppe. Chuck. which was written 27. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. xop5>}. chroniques. the intestine of an animal. See Change. cauvette j Fr. choucas. whence — E. kowej Sax. Jam.' They are forebuyers of quheit. cauc. syllables chat. chevin. soul-couper. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. kauwe. time ra . gull. in Chaucer. kubbr. quappe. chop. Borgoens happen. yiSA. capitanus. equivalent to the E. xpi'^lia. cavena. kaulhaupt (club-head. noble Doctor. a small fish with a large head.). Gr. capitone. for to defraud. Wall. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. The Turk was here As one should say. &c. dial. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. thumb Fl. peace. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. Fr. kaej Lith. G. forms are Chrism. plump. Gr. Chronicle. we find the following passage Dap. chuet. Du. — Quabbe. civetta. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. dealing. chrysalis (Plin. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. chack. Chub. to chatter. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. to cant. In Sc. E. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. one who buys and sells horses or cows. chevane. See Chaff. from kloppen. Marin. i. a messenger or envoy. ley in Giiford. 49. klompe. overset. the string of a musical instrument originally. to turn over. cob.sohola. ceo. Picard. connected with G. merchant. chouette. the same word with the It. dial. XpvaaXic. — — — . —Shakespeare. and we actually find champman for chapman. P. — Dief.' Jam.(. sent before him a Chiaus.X. caqueter. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. e. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. e. cow-couper. From the Turkish Chiaus. Fr. kowe. fat. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. cheap. that will thank chiaus — you richly. whence apparently the Sup. a lump or piece chump. E. chapineria. kolbe (club). Gr. an offence against the fitness of times. Lat.\^s. monedula.• — . . — Chrisom.—Chuokstone. cambiare. by the Robert Shirley. short piece kubbug. kubb. or miller's kaycke . Anachronism. traffic. applied to an owl in that language. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. whence the Fr.).— Chevin. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. ' ' What's that? Dap. a bullhead. because she would not endure this husband chopping. gull. kaufen. Alchemist. — . To Chouse. to knock. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. clat. Fr. as Du. cangiare. claquer. Confounded with the bullhead. Gr. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. Fr.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. xftovoq. caker. cheviniau. chronicles. Chough. -chron-. klopper. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. who took in the Turk- clack. a trafficker in souls. clogs. OE. as in Fr. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. ON. in i6io. a thick piece. chatter . In the Alchemist. to speak thieves' slang. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Sw. of which such strings are made.. Kil. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . capita. . If I discover. p. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. chevane. Madam. E. the teeth to chatter . copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. Ant.. to clack. Chord. gold. chrisme. cresmeau. a The What dhy ^. Fr. caphatenus. 4.

Church. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. KaxXij?. then the on oh StX iv roXt. ladre from Lazare. flower. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. a man. to fall at or on. calx. or choice part of a thing .^. * Cinder. ciuffo. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. giffle. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. -cise. ON. joufflu. To chuck in the fall from. cheeks Cincture. e. &c. kakka. e. ceffo. to To Chuckle. a fellow. tindra. as Fr. sindra. blow on the I io6 in Mur. the kernel. Fr. Probably from It. to throw out sparks. Lat. sintel. male person. Wall.rendered by Kil. kerl. Lat. to form grains of butter. kern. — of the two words. to fall upon decide.V//a'6'?. The origin ation. fat-cheeked. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. spuma metalli. in circumcision. a cutting round. to gird. jaws. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. to jaw chack or snap. ON. cinders used disjunctively. . to separate the kernel of the milk. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. a man. Ir.— Chu%. a rustic . and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). Gr. ceaplas. to cut decide. Cob. . chaps. whence deciduous (of trees). IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. ceffore. gffe. Sw. ccedo. Wall. accido. As AS. cinctura {cingo.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. swollen or puffed up Cot. pp. chack or stane-chacker. The derivation from Kvpiasov. Fris. chofu. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. a pebble . and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. cidre. -cido. Lat. See Ceiling. In Sc. as water running over rocks or stones. to churn. C^z^j^ churHsh. chack-stone. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. a cutting an old chuff. chakil.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. log of wood. AS.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Ka-^aiva. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. to sparkle. — . Sicerawry face ceffata. calculus. chuffy. with It the Lord's house. to determine incision. -cisuiri). chofe (Grandgagnage). sindel is although only this canon directly dis. we have to chack. cut off. Aasen. Gothic nations. cado. from Lat. set kerti. Fr. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. whence ON. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . a man. Du. as in E. sive piratiam facere sciant. OFr. to him a sudden blow. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. See Cheek. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. countryman. to make a rippling noise.D. karl. 24.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. Chunk.. kaerle.— . cendre. cinis. kjami. a miser. Gr. so as to make the happen . ceorl. but by way of explan. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. that the word is an adoption of Fr. dial. — — A — ' ' — . to fall. sinter. thence a belt. whence church. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. It is certain. tie about). -cis-. as a board. ashes. AS. surly. See Cheek. chife. a douse on the tores. Diss. The spelling of chider has Chump.' And cold. comp. in Sc. as Epkema explains it. chops. joffu. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. a girding on. G. to turn from blossom to fruit. Hence -cid-. -cide-. i. Du. an old man. ON. geaflas. Churn. to Newsp. klakka. casum (in comp. a pebble. KvptaKolg.for the residue of stone coal. Du. Sc. dust. a resounding object. incido. ceaflas. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. sicera. . Cider. Cleland in Jam. in the face. from Lat. cinctus. x^^i?. sindr. kiorne. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Chuff. sindel. a husband. kernjen. has been impugned which it has really no connection. Cieling. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. &c. the snout of an animal. to make a aiKipa. domhnach. i. have given rise. -eris. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . lamak. pith. kirna. . To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). cheek. marrow. a lump. . Da. G. or. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk.' he adds. ChurL husbandman. to cause the milk to grain. Lat. however. to strike clatter. Jennings. residue of burnt coals. . scoria.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden.

vociferation. See -cid-. Gael. prattle. clatCot. clamp. In Fr. a judgment cern. . to call by name. 'mass. a cleansing place. clamp. From Arab. city. a reservoir Probably from Lat. clap. klemte. The notion of a lump. Lat. claquer crash. G. . klater-busse. -cite. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. circa. klqb. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. klepati. -cis-. a rattle . empty Golius. ter. chijfre. to go. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. Lap. outcry. . the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. . hringr. the tongue. Arab. chatter . a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. to clatter. Citron. a circle. citujn. clack-box. dim. We . glambar. klak. a shoot. a lump Lat. circ2tlus. claquer. Lat. to gnash the teeth. clat. Bohem. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. civilis. a circle. to cry out. about. to chatter. belonging to cities or social life . claquer. — (Dozy) ing blow. a boss . clap. noise — — a cistern. a Pol. a loud uksa slamketi. chupon. Lat. ON. in the frequentative form. Sw. or split with noise. clamer. . cifra. wasserkasten (water chest). claim. to clap at a theatre. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). klopati. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. creak les dents. clack. G. to chatter. ruin. KipKog. —Circuit. * Ciplier. circle. sajira. clump. to clack. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. Alt. Excite. klompe. prattle. civitas. to call. may cite w. and clash. a whip. clapper. rattle. Du. clambar. Du. a ball. klambr. . sindri. domern. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. sprig. uproar. to chatter . Recite. or clap-dish. Fr. parallel root is slam. clapping of klacke. cisterna. Fr. crack. from chupar. dob. . Lat. as in Sp. as caverna from cavus. a cistern. ball kloben. sip. civis. The Gr. klacke-busse. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. for Cion. CION See Tinder. See Circle. a clod Russ. is traced by Gr. Dan. a kind of rattle. lump . cittd. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. To Clack. . forms — — — parent plant. Mack. a knob. It. a place See place hiddern. claquet de moulin. and Sp. Lat. klabb. cisterna. . Scion. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. lump. a citizen . Hal. bunch . rattle . * Cistern. kluV. around. to strike. a kind of pipe. &c. Fr. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. compared with It. Clump. Fr. scion or sucker. to toll . a'upiav. klappen. to bawl. Lat. a Lat.' sione. —Civil. W. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. ern.. Gr. cion. to call. cry out . cion. E. to appeal. klacken. scion. to summon or call on. cittadella. chupon. sound- — hands figures. It. Clamp. clasp. ring. to cluck. mass . to mention. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . to be empty. klamp. clamras. suck). a city. smack. So a light. Clam. glam. castus). To Claim. and. fall. Lat. area. lump of wood or with the nasal. and E. noise. biw. clamare. Cite. Citadel. a circle. a for water. clog. the place of . with an initial s instead of c. clobyn. clack. trunk. klumbr. E. circum. citrus. The syllables clap. ciste. City. tinnitus . circum. cittade. . whence cistiti. Sp. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. Comp. klekotati. a ball. Circle. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. Gr. a city. twig. sound. a lemon tree. radical identity of the Fr. cito. a block. a lump Du. a hiding-place. ON. a rattle Fr.to suck. . sifr. crack. KpiKoe. crack. klappe. klimp. klateren. to knock. Circum-. a pop-gun. lucerna. a mass. cit^. accordingly find the roots dab. cieo. stimulate. as. lump. to cleanse. cista. glamm. bunch. sound of blow. to set in motion by means of the voice. clack-dish. See Crankle. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. a clod. a young and tender plant. around. Sw. a. a split. babble . Du. clot ON. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. Gael. a ring. It. klubb. Dan. slam. or quill to draw waier through Fl. excite. to make to go. klap. gutter. lash . cluster. globus. klump. cry. Chaste. a whirlwind. sphere gleba. a block. lump. Hence Incite. lump. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. klammer. kringla. chest. ON. of citta. We . clangor avium .— . kringr. log. the door was slammed J slamem. Cot.

. a heap of stones or other things piled up . a burr. clandestine. cramp-iron. privately. Hence the Fr. klappen. stick. a place underground where rabbits breed. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. Du. glambar. Dan. buckle klamp. of money Gael. klemmen. dang. Clap. to climb. ring as metal. and hence to pinch . dee. klang.' klibba. B. klamre. strain . from birdlime. to do anything with a clap. G. rattle. klammer. bond. sound. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. These are imitations of a loud. hook. tremble . to climb. gum. viscous. ney. G. dem. to hide.p correspond- ' without order. to clamp. chief. AS. a bird of prey. salaan. knocking. . with cramp-irons. . hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. descendants . tone. to knock. to climb. damor. clap. . children. klobber-saen. dandestinus. G. Mampe. clapas. The Fr. kleben. crowd . To Clamber. but perhaps not directly from it. to hook things together. clibby. to claw oneself up. a sound. clammy brace. to stick conceal. clangor. to starve. who occuG. tinkle. a loud tingle. dia. — Lat. children. to climb. to glue. Lang. klem-vogel. to Sw^. yf. adopted Lat.er. a stick. klynge. — — . whence sala. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. clav\f. of which the locative case. Salainen. &c. clamber. cluster. klamme. klappen. gripe. a noose . klamm. Dan.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. Du. OE. dren.' to take coals to Newcastle. offspring. of the children. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . rumour. klepel. To sticky. klebern. to gingle. klam7n. in a hidSen place. klimmeii. c). E. bandage. clang. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . to Hal. klette. to. to seize. dap up. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. scendants. dam. massy. to clap on. klampen. a claw.1. a craCmp. dienklebber. a sound made by a still . dapier. klynge sig op. chatter. a sound made by a lighter clink. viscosity . compression. where- A — unto they retire themselves. klopfen. hands or claws to grasp. Dan. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. to hold to pinch. grimper. gliong.. sound of the trumpet . B. resonance klingen. to hold fast with the . klettern. celo produces Fin. narrow. tattle. apprehend . klemmen. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. Clang. to knock. to stick or glue. sticky Hal. Lat. to clap. chatter. the in many languages. pinching. salafa. to clutch or cling oneself up. clapper of conies. Clamp. klam. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. brawl. and hence moist. tenacious. Swiss kletten. Sw. pressed close or hard together. dapier. to climb . kloben. sound object . to climb. . Clamour. G. nature . kleppe. klank. A i. klavre. clink. The E. coagulated cream. dam. uproar. dial. contraction. anything hidden. G. klepati. daver. Du. dam. G. kluppel. to beat. is a nasalised form of gripper. dientes. a stone See Claim. Clapper. seize. — Cot. — Climb. to patronus. cleave. klemmen. dambar. Dan. dam immediate modifications — . take hold of. beat. or klamp-vogel. substances of a stickydam. sound. Clan. Swiss kldbem. solid. to daub pinch. . dapi^. Gael. also to clog up. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. originally a heap of large stones. Fr. — with hunger. a rattle . holdfast. hold. a whip. cramp. — . a heap of stones. E. Du. is used in the sense of secretly. grasp. Russ. klippe. dink Du. conceal. These words To are closely connected with damp. klubber. kleppen. to glue. prison. damras. To clap in E. Clank. beating. tight. cling. klatten. and that from celo. clajnmy. clap. to cleave or stick. tingle. klepanie. The root which gives rise to klibb. diver. klammern. clear sound. Bohem. dial. closely analogous to that of the fast. cream Manx doan. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. G. to cling. kleppe. accent. See Clam. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. from the w. a claw . In like manner Du. a trap. klappre. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. a hawk. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. Clink. club . run to lumps Clandestine. compress. to pinch. clann. dank. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. sound . E. klibber. strait. to dame. The equivalent of Lat. ancestor. as the Lat. clasp. E. Halma. Bav. as the clapping of hands. for tame conies. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump.

ck a whip. it is called clamming. and through v into a. a claFr. a lump. bawling. . clausum. and old red rose-water. klaterbusse. from its use in fastening things together. klot. klaskad. Owl and that by which cleave to. KXeiSi.w or u on the other. Du. rubellum. Fr. classis. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Thus from Lat. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. a water made of aquavitse. Mask ! plask ! thwick. Wyutoun in Jam. clairon of a trumpet— It. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Clause. klamme. —Kil. skeria-klasi. Clavicle. uproar. we pass to the E. klijven. Du. — Clarion. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Prov. ghespe. — tells us. sphaera. Nightingale. syrtium junctura. Nawith stavis. E. klatschen. Commonly made. Analogous Jam. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Rayn. clavus. in the sense of a claw. thwack . clarinado. forms are the Du. Du. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. klouwe.). with a reddish tint. kleuen. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. a key origmally a crooked nail. assembly. But clasp or elapse. insularum nexus . a clod. to fasten together . klucz. a little hook . chatter. klampe. klouwe (Kil. a distribution of things into groups. a. So Pol. a key KKtitid. Du. chiarello. buckle. and clavis. — Clarinet. claret win e. from clinging to the tree which supports it. subrubidum. klc^i. klauw. The collar-bone. sauna de classes. gaspe. klatschen. Clatter. schnalle. ansa. ictus resonans. clopa. In the same way is formed the OE. diver.\x\xvn. klaequivalent to clack or clap. or as G. a kind of small. Fr. Lat. an on the one hand. klatsche. biichse. a ball. teren. crying. as it is written by Chaucer. he of white and red grapes mingled together.It. a bird with powerful talons. kiosk bicza. clairon. Lang. Lat. — Kiittner. seizes) . a sphere . klampvoghel. Russ. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . to ring in such a manner for the dead. clew or fasten upon a thing.. sound of the foregoing description. blab. to fasten. the primary origin clapa. an ending. climp. vin clairet. clew.Gr.Z. Clew. hook. claw (what fastens together. clas. klase. flap. cinnamon. &c. Du. globus. biichse. fibula. to rattle . Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. stop of an organ. clamp.— CLARET clamp. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Class. same class with w. chasguear. is used in Sc. whence kleuer. Identical with ON. mass. Dan. vin claret. klaeret. Sw. kletse. Eau clairette. kleeven. and shrill-sounding trumpet. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. to do anything with a . as Mod. . dap. is preserved in Lang. a heap. Serv . &c. somewhat clear. K\a. nawith stanis. From clairet. a club or massy stick. Fr. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. to cleave. to shut. from the resemblance to a key. klatscha pop-gun. Gr. In E. It. a bunch. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. G. klos. From claudo. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. applied in their harness. puUs. Lat. to draw it up into a bunch. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Klatsch- a pop-gun . also a knell for the dead. Cot. noise. a lash. fracas. to patter. cloi. from scknallen. waU. nail. a. globus. straight-mouthed. i. a nail. Thus from clamp. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. fragor . Sp. a lump . but not the full red of ordinary red wine. kluczka. Eya-klasi. to clap . With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. a complete sentence.to cra. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. Clash. the cracking of a whip. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. a buckle. The b readily passes into gleba. Du.oi. Claret. It. glcis. to clash as arms. rion. 269. mass. locket of a door. chiizjj-o. clarin. cluster. Claw. under three modifications dava. clatter. To clew. as G. Lat. to knock. the collar-bone. Pol. in the sense of a mass or lump. The form clew. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. a key. vinum helvolum. ivy. pellet . Clasp. e. chiarino. chiaro clear. a clasp. compression. to animals Sp. hawk. to end. contraction. Originally clasis. clausula. Kil. clair. pet. to snap. which signifies a ball in E. row aii/iaTos. a claw. klauwe. clavis. clump.

Da. clean. sticky . klag. Mar. rivet. pretty. Clay. E. Omklinken. glitnir. nitidus. klafwa. glbram. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. and Dan. Sc. doff. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . smooth. kluftholz. From clap. See Clam. celebrated . to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. klirren. gingle. to clinch GB. voice. This is probably one of the clean. klincke. as ON. E. polished. klirre. — : A rivet. klinken. pure . kloben. a key. to cleave. hook. the latch of a door. klov. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. ON. words applicable sight. glint. together . Bav. diquetcr. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. to fasten E. a lump. glitta. a lump. glatt. splendid pohshed. gentle. viz. a claw or talon. kleevig. Clear. klink. cliquet. sticky earth. clean. rive. as explained under G. kleben. dag. opposite senses. to fasten. G. G. a latch. Clemency. clean. The word is . Sc. kleg. Sw. kla:g. speech . is fast and sure. from diquer. danche. Probably a modification of the word doitt. a cleft or fissure. The Dan. dags. doggy. or from being divided into two parts. klyft. to dag ox dog. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. the To Cleave. glent. mud. to clink or sound. bend in a stream. Du. B. Die zaak is zS. kluit. W. from nitere. clemens. Da. glor-mhor. . glance . either by the coherence To Clepe. clean. to Brilliant. a cleft. Fr. glan. 2. geklonken.— Claggy. loam. explained from the klinken. The word may be — . that was Torriano. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. as Fr. Sw. to separate into parts. deot. bright. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. clay . glindse. Clinch. clink. klinka. pellet. a fissure or division See Cleave. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. glorious. G. klceg. shine. clibby. the original . seem formed dial. daggy. . This word is used in two business is finished off. calm. a noise. to shine . Lat. kldnkelein. dial. found in other cases. to stick or adhere . famous. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. split. Du. Thus from G. . give a shrill sound Jr. clout. The proper meaning of the word is shining. to chink. glbr. clear. klutsch. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. a one end. a in that of sphtting. Du. viz. Cleft. a plate. G.). Halma. gaklankjan. klouen. klank. Dan. i. the fork of the body. to be composed. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. pure.— . neat. sticky. pure. or of a tree. lump. Gael. kloben. cleave. klouen. from the clinking of the latch.' was nailed to a rock. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. a — — . chaps in the skin. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. dinquet kleeven. Kil. AS. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. to clinch a nail. vissticky . in two ways. rift. G. Du. a cleft. klinken. date is AS. cloven wood. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. a mass. provinciaUy termed dout. klijveii. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. (Cot. and E. Sw. sleek. neat. klieuen. From dob. to tear or cleave asunder. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. to 2. that was a striking proof. Du. a clincher. dedgy.— Clag. door-latch. glan. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. . clear. a bunch of When flax). kleverig. klinken. as the Du. E. Axletree clouts. to sound or make a noise . of iron worn on shoes by country people. to shine. Du. Lat. dut. to stick to. Wilbraham. klinke. clash. river. glandse. klinke. to clench. ON. dams. to glitter. and. merciful. gleit. A — A Clement. . an object is simply cleft. Da. kluyte. ON. klove The Dan. See Clog. klinke.Q. kloben. bogs cous. Clean. kleg. dench. To Clench. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. glan. tongs. vice. it cleave together. conserere antklankjan. Cleat. holding together. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . a fissure. and Celtic glan. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. To call. a noose. clear. klieben. . radiant. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . a flash. kloue. klor. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. polish . to fasten. 154 CLAY dutch. the two parts of Du. a mass. as Lat. kluft.

clif. clep. globus. Du. crack. region not observe it. is NE. Lat. highest is attained. dial. Clergy. chatter. —Vocab. a child's or clack . dook (identical with E. to prate. as from derido. a precipice. corresponding to Fr. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. would have been derida. klev. click. rock. pulsare. See Clench. skard. Now the OE. click it. -Toe (from KXivm. pen. dicher. dial. to wink. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. to talk as a parrot. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. diquette. babble. from clifian. Sp. to confess . clif- stanas. which is used in Scotch and N. quick of perception. and (with the nasal) — clincher. the knocker of a door. Jam. Somner. klok klep- crepitare. e. klouwe. We movement catch. to catch. Bav. a hump. Click. dek. expeditious. rock. that is a clever feUow. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. derjon. dever. Boh. Sc. deudi. Clever. klippe. a clew. icXi/ja?. clerus. to snatch. clyf. Cot. chat. Hence Lat. a tumbril. hamraklif. dichet. stein- kluppen. Norm. with hamarskard. dial. Sw. Climax. seize (Hal. declivity. an inclination. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. AS. catching. See AS.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. click. click. prattle. name. Lat. speak. d See Clan. klikklakken. cautes. to tattle. a claw or clutch. The Sc. a cliff. ready of speech. or Sc. clypian. &c. glomus. a lump. a clicket or clapper. neither as having lordship in the. cave . Clerk. derecia. clima. to cleave. a lot. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. klippe. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. and hence climate.— Clue. cleft of a hill. . Du. clever. chatter. which in Mid. the clergy clericus. exactly Gr. from Gael glac. IS5 Du. dough. clever. one admitted to the tonsure. to sound an alarm to clap. clap. scar. nimble. derigon. cart that tilts over. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). Lat. 3. klinge. quick in motion. a hook. precipices. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. CLERK sound of a blow. has also deik. crackle. Klover i munden. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. Climate. above the pole. it must be observed. score7i clif. a ladder. as Lat. klif. a lazar's clicket or clapper. Claw. call. chatter. crepare. kliket. slope . a latch. Clew. light-fingered. deik. in the sense of active.' ii. . dexterous. diver. KkrifoQ. klaiv. to clack. deuck. clack. . — have the notion of a short quick in E. and hence deik. ized . kleppen. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du.) Brai. cleugh. on. to seize. dob. duke. to rattle. 3. snatch. Da. as a click with the tongue. G. rugged ascent. diofian. ginally from dob (extant in W. a latch . Du. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. had a form. a latch. See Clamber.). a ball of twine. In I Peter v. to move. derigo. rupes . to stir. or an object character- Clerical. . a sphere. CLINCH De . deuch. klinket. say. cleft. Fr. lively. klever. a trigger.. cliquet. agile. sink. a baU of yarn. cliof. kloof. to tattle. OE. ravine. precipice.dergie! Wiclif in R. abrupta rupes . cleopian. one of the clergy. dutch). klikker. G. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Happen. rapidus from rapio. cliff. temperature. a figure mentioned. Commonly derived from deliver. cleft in a rock. whence Fr. Clam. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. de ripa. But the Dan. duik. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. sonare.Lat. a mill-clack . to catch. a hold. klinke. cliquer. corresponding to the Sc. dink. clatter. Cliff. claw or talon to dek or deik. Gr. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. syn. verge). in precisely the same sense as the E. kliv. Chaucer. the clergy. Dunbar in Jam. a clerk . Det er en Mover kerl. cligner. littus. The origin is the Gr. Client. klika. on. to teU tales. to cry. the dick of a latch or a trigger. deik. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . ball of thread oriTo CUnch. frap- per rudement une personne. call. in rhetoric. Rouchi cliche. as Sc. what so men clappe or crie. Climb. klaffen. kleppe. climate. a cleft in a rock . dergi.— Clicket. gleg. /cXi'fia. cleke. has kl'dver. to bend. — — A .

clivus. Sw. Gael. hill . declivis. compress . Du. dial. to shrink up. Clock. ON. Sw. See Cowl. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. G. To cut with shears. E. kXiVu. to beat on the board. dial. to snap tongs. klynge. a separate portion. Bohem. clutch. parva ruptura. klinken. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. sloping downwards . klippa. kluppe. to slope or bend . G. to lean backwards. a lump of butter. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. klak. related to clock. toga muliebris. a clock. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. . to snap kneipen. glungelin. knot klynge. to wither. -cliv-. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. a bell. straits. globulus' (Gl. to clunge. Cloak. klippen.D. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. a lump G. a faction. noise. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to form one mass with. Pl. knippen. to snip. knippe. a cluster. a rising ground. G. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. Esthon. kluben. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. a hood. . — clot. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . a clog or fetter for a beast . klungeln. cloak. a ball of thread . Du.und zuk-lippen. Ir. 2. kukla. to resound. as to snip in the same sense from snap. ten. Kil. to snap or fillip schnippen. klepalo. or bagging clothes. Bohem. ' . Sw. a woman's mantle . G. 'Till famine cling thee. incline. hlinian. G. klincke. w. at first probably on a wooden board. klaka. Du.. to crowd together klynge sig ved. See Clang. klungelin.. sloping forwards. Swiss klokken. dial. dial. Ang. as thick or curdled liquids. in Schmeller) klunk. klocke. klingen. sticky. to AS. klunge. 156 -cline. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. bow. Cliofue. klo^gen.. clips. Walach. to cling to a thing. Sw.' From Pl. kleppe. ON. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. To Clip. outcry. tuft. pinch. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. E. slant. to . Fr. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. Fr. gUong. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. to beat. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. Een kliks bolter. g. and 'E. pallium. to cluster. Decline. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. iissura. four of the bell. klippe.— KSS. OHG. The E. Swiss klungele. also to wink .— Clot. Sw. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. to clink auf. kol- The word . whence the hour of the day was designated as three. To Cling. kldpp. clino. to lean. difficulty. knippchen. . — a mantle. toga. a beU. also to form a compact mass. . klok. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. &c. kolki-laud. ON. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. to bend downwards . The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. schnippen. sloping upwards procUvis. to shrink up. claw. S w. gang. Da. G. brett-glocke. to wither. and a similar syllable without the /. . to pinch klupe. difficulty . -CLINE make pinch. like cling. klicke. fetter. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. clinker. Clink. especially of something soft or clammy. met. to knock. The notion of a loose moveable substance. Bi klik uti klak. kliks.'— Shaks. Serv. pinch. hlinen. to clap or clack. rima. to strike. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. incline. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. To stick to. recline. acclivis. nip. clog. . to pinch. speaks of a ' clung bat. to clip. clingan. Lat. ring clag. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. klupen. shears. a bell. * Clod. as we now say three or four o'clock. klunker. verklungeln. to sound sharp.ginglej Fr. club). klik. N orman clincailler. a tinman. as G.D. to make a loud noise. klipa. kolbe to E. I. to crowd or squeeze chingy. glocke. klocka. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. a snare. clock is a variation of clack. by bits. quincailler. to ring. clinke. chcng. clato make a noise. dag. klocke. cochl. clangere. cloche. hluk. klippur. kima. Lat. . from klepati. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. whence E. . a lump. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. and so' to contract.' for a dry stick. hooded .. Gr. -atum. clique. hluccti. klippa. disposed to a thing. klinka. Sussex peasant AS. . Du. Flem. Hal.

g. log. hanging loose and full. lopperig. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. laggyn. Fr. to rattle. Lat. chiudere. of a body of any kind. terminate. schlattern. klot. G. doitre. beklakken. a clod Swab. spatter. . klos. . lobbig. without. . tJokok. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. da- . slob. loblolly. Bav. or E. foreclose. -close. lump of something soft . to shut up. klunkern. . a log. is connected with pludder. Fr. kloten. from claudo. clot. Pr. klottern. dirt. Hence inclose. an imputation. Close. Pr.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. A . The origin of clod and clot is to . watery. tramp in wet or mire. Fr.D. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground.1a. His heart was franlc without a flaw. be found rattle. I doda clod.). cloth. to wabble. a lump from Du. a dirty wench claggy. . meat from Du. a portion of something soft and adhesive. or drablyn with separate existence. separate part. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. clausum. mud. dag. finish . a blot. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. wabbling from Du. a block. a bal!. a blot. In the same way Dan. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. with Fr. klotz. gelatinous. loose trowsers. He was a man without a dag. spot of dirt. to spill liquids. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. to flounder in the wet. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. analogous plan to clod or club. slop. lumps of butter. lump of mud on the clothes . chiuso. fors. plod. to shut. clotted locks Dan. schlott. to rattle. G. clos. clorre. clausum. I clodde. figer. dangle. fat. -cludo. E. a monastery. 3. or Sc. zoccoli. Clog. kloster. and Gael. paddle. in accordance with Pl. like G. MHG. loose mud. lobberen. paddle or dabble in the wet. a spot. and E. closed. lob. pattens G. dirt. klotzschuh. inclose. clogs. and thus seem endowed . Cloister. to close against one. the radical sylla. congeler. to claggock. . paludosus. . . to shut. slabberen. kleck. -clusum. Pl. kladde. clatk. m&se noch stain. clotted milk klotte. kloteispaen. dab. dunch). . lunch. a babbler. miry laggerit. laggery. bowl . The word is probably formed on an Cloth. TZoxapov. daustrum. of something clammy or heavy. lag. to bedaub. mud klcEg. neither spot nor hang loose. loppered (of milk). Swiss schlott. klag. from Du. clog or overshoe. slops). I clodde. claudo. . slab. Du. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Idppern. in accordance with It. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. we pass to Schlatter. Dan. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. . or loppern. claque. to slop or spill liquids. . truncus. be&c. klod. klokotat. Lat. To Clog. loose. Pm. motzen. clammy loam. to rattle or shake to and fro. and Du. slobber. loppe. schlotter. lobberen. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. Fr. then liquid or loose substance. klakk. forbidden by 17 Ed. splash. to cling locks. thick sour milk. Klak also. boil. lopin. to shut in. Sc. a Christmas log. kl'dnken. ! . to sup up liquid food. E. bemired. is a blot on one's character. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. shut up. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. a clog. shut up. klos-bane. kloteren. claggy. to paddle in the wet. a trowelful of mortar. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. to bubble. . The game called ninepins. to flap as loose clothes. Gr. unctuous.' end. • lump.rge lump. to dabble. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. pludre. kleck or lack.. schlettern. bespotted with mire E. Du. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. a skittle-ground klos- sen. -clus-. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). clos. slobberen. zocco. to play at bowls. It. rattle. and thence to clot or curdle as milk.— Clothe. . to dash like heavy rain. AS. daggerey. compared with clump. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. to dabble.'^ Palsgr. klakken. Klottermelck. geschlotter (as E. klateren. from Fr. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. mire. dial. A — — A Thus from Bav. slobbe. a field inclosed clos. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. to bodies. schlottern.. je amoncele. Yule-clog. whence klack. Mat. a log. in comp. in forms like Du. shaky. a clod. to a. curdled. enOE. close. blot. bloutre. thick spoon .D. wide bagging clothes. slops slodderen. we pass to E. Closhe. IV.dial. lump of butter. kloden. motte. . Russ. klac. clogs for the feet klakk. to lobberig. aspersion. tuditare.

kluyfketi loocksj Pl. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. Du. a lump. klumba. milk run to lumps. dash (Cot. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. from OFr. Club. a garthas. clue. clotted milk or cream. klove. Kiittner. a bobbin. clump of a clout on the head. E. lump. to cleave or the splashing of water. klotzig. w. to tramp in the kluyve. sheltered up warm. a clod or clot. nelke (dim. piece Cot. daggy. cobble. lump. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass.D. Clumpered in balls of clouds. a . klu77ip. klebek. sheltered . clot . bunch. . dillad bumkin. The significations of a clod or lump. a boss. when something has got into the touch-hole. of a lump of earth and that figure. knob. a bunch. CLUCK rustic. nagelein. from Du. warm clothes {dillad. clunch. dote. clod. a ball of twine . clump. To Cluck. cob. a log. Du. from W. to cover Bret. clyd. klumpfot. cluster. klubb. a ball. a. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. sticky. wisp. . caillebottes. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. but confounded with cailler.Fris. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. dabaire. dabosser. mud (Pat. kloete. clothes ment. and of a rustic unpolished person. Cloud.' Sanders. a clove of garlick. Clover. a lump. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. indispalte knoblauch. to cloy. clydion. a clot or keeps one warm. The radical sense seems to be an unE.D. ON. with lout. More in R. (kruyd =. warm. From dog. Sw. a breach. and clout d eudaich. a knot of people. lump of earth aria. dial. a bunch. also homo obtusus. . klieven. the terms expresssplit. G. Gael. . a ball. clavo di especias. puddle. Fr. lumps of curd. little nails. klobbersaen. coarse. — — — . vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. and closely do conspire. Then applied to a lump of mate. Met. block. of thumping clumsy action. to a lump. A kind of spice resembling Du. chiodo di girofano. dump. warm. clot. to strike. of nagel. clammy earth.). cludaim. in the same sense. clobyn. klump. klubba.158 . it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. choke or stop up. ball of thread Russ. a nail) Fr. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a clubfoot klabb.clod. It. a thick mass. a bousche. So Fr. lump. and clay. Du. clothe. a sticky. are also used in the sense of a stopper. ser. botch. rustic. Pl. boucher. and -the word Clove. a sky Cot. Du. to beFr. Sw. Dan. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. nourish . G. dial. botsen. as Fr. clunch. Rouchi dapoter. kluV. klonte. lie clyd. E. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. ON. tered . the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . I. klubb. zolla. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. . spice) G. a bunch. kluppe. klubbe. a log. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. de Champ. . Clump. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. G. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). To Cloy. kldverj P1. a patch. to cherish. eine to slop. cobio. Move. of sloppy materials. Gael. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . a nail. clod is used in both senses . strike. cluth mhor. E. clods. cludadh. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. to strike . blockish. del mattond. klotz. dut. lunch). zolla dell' .). to stop. Cld. aglio. a fissure. kUid. hebes (Kil. mary sense is a blow. matte. dirt. unpolished. Clown. klever. Imitative of the note of a society.ft. diboter. clumhar. Das volk hat sich in splitten. klcBdi. In the same way E. AS. a cover or coverture . w. the air.). klotsen. to cleave. davus. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. cloud Delfortrie. clothes). a clown. kl'dnne. CLOUD an awkward clod . kloven. G. motte. warm place . clou de girofle.). klqb. dob. AS. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. naegel. klunds. klaven. N. knob. Sp. from kloven. clot. 2. stock. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. log. to curdle. shel- kloen. a curdled sky. Ir. mire. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. A division of a root of garlick. Du. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. a blabber. are often connected. to splash. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. clog. een klaven kruflook. Du. esdaboter (Roquef. a clod. probably from daboter. group of people Sw. Mabousfrom Lat. dys. make warm. formed lump or thick mass.bar. mass. Properly that which covers and Du. to lump mend clumsily. loggish.D. tuft. eene ODu. a ball. duthaich. and tapp. dial. The priClout. — .

Du. a coach. dek. Ray. or aclommyde. klonte. Muster. cleche.D. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. plad or plod. 130. strum on an instrument. klummklummshandt. seize. klumpern. The sense of awkward. cluntClyster. Pl. doquear. ball as snow. . klonte. klompen. G. to shut. hand to cleuk. ment. pinched. dial. to to snatch. koetblockish. — sen. — ' — — tonista. a bunch. with E. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. Fr.P. klamen. But clunchy. in v. kluntfrom KKvKdi. log. Clutter. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. klobber in klobbersaen. klomen. to syllable click. hooknosed. Sw. — Hence include. a clod or lump. —More. Sw. klods. lump of soft mate.D. claudo. awkward. dial. -elude. a clod or The noclot. G. klump. verkommelen. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen.. Boh. Hence snatching. from ON. klocken. The Fr. Lincolns.forklomme (Outzen). Compare Swiss klupe. tight — — . Coach. the word is more probably connected with OE. eene beklum. an instrument for nasal form e.mene tied. to gingle. obstructum. gelidus. of garlick. klontet. klamp. to grip. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. -olus-. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. 159 E. . -CLUDE hen Du. smart motion. koetsDa. to curdle. klimpern. hands stiff with cold. clabosser. klisse. Fr. clook. splash. verklomen. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. Analogous forms with a tongs. viscous material. Hindust. to paddle or dabble. klos. bunch. claw. OE. kol. ill-made . * Clump. Teulazy. In the same way Du. properly to do anything Fr. From the notion of sticking together. eviratus. a clove Sw. Lat. whence koetse. as Fr. -close. Cheshire. as clumper. carriage in which you klodset. clopiner. clumsy. eviratus. a nasalised form of club. dumpse. Clutch. klette. — Cot. beklommen. to tramp. also a cluster. Riwle. a clod or lump. to squeeze. idle. Cluster. Isaiah. in comp. benumbed with cold. to collect in lumps. MHG. A group. It.e. Hence cleik.— — . a lump. to tramp. claws. Fris. . a couch. E. and make ye strong feeble knees. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. klemmen. ball of snow on horse's foot . hondis. of Du. Graff in Klamjan. acomelydfor could Pr. dystere. differing only in the absence of the duik. and klonteren. Fr. wagen. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed.' Comfort ye dumsid. crooked inwards . and klotteren. Du. dumpers. a litter. Sc. -clus-. to curdle. klampa. —To Clumsyd. klumpig. dussomed (Wilbrabam). n. kohle. dial. a clot klissen. unwieldy Hal. finish. koetsie. clausum. G. See -elude. duke. Pl. cluster. through the senses of lumpish. Du. Cath. * Clumsy. a noise.'— animal. Hesse.' Vegecius in Way. to wash. klont. conclusion. klemma. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . ON.D. to tramp or tread heavily. to klotz. Gr. See reclusion. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. rial. klunt. to rinse. klcise. Variation of clatter. clump. &c. having the Pl. unhandy. a lump.' Benecke. a claw. to lie. Pm.E. with a quick. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound.' Wycliff. as from seken. Clump. to pinch. a ball . Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. a lump or compact mass.D. to stick together . dumps. to benumb with cold. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. ' Uorte (for clogs. may recline. beklummen. cleuk. COAL dumpish. cleik. kichlemmit. coucher became in unhandy.pare P1. glousser. klikaty. ' Thou clontsest for cold. MHG. from laver. Du. and koetse. clotted cream. -cludo. -clusum. calling her chickens. clutch. . Ang. Coal. coccolare. xXvariip. klummerhdndt. havi. fingers (familiar). glocire. unhandy. Champ. klomje. awkward. OHG. to curdle. cliboter. ' .Ancr. limp. Sp. or from Sw. klunsen. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. clutch. dek. — . ether comelia P. a ball. Du. Lat. ' Clumper. thick and clumsy. might be reached from clump. klister. close. to wash. koetsen. unfashioned. er. pladdern. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. wooden shoes. dial. a pinching time. G. a block. paste. inclusive. algidus. Com. lavesen. are the nasalised forms of klotte. clointer.D. heavily. exclude. enervatus. klikonosy. esclaboter. wooden sole. clip or pinch. from klupen. lay hold of. E. a clod clunter. conclude. Beklummen van kelde.

bijamie. Colina' the place where a fire is made. however. a pock mark. itself is Nescock . ailina or colina. an old idiot. pryf-coppyn. woman is said to be very ordinary. hakkelen. cobble. costa. to glow .. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. to pdt with We may cite Fr. Outzen. coalesce. k'dlla.).a spider. Fin. meaning that she is plain and coarse.. sweets and the other of poisons. glow. pustule. cokes was a simpleton. to grow together.(pi. or E. a kitchen. H^cart. Pm. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. as shown in dob and cob. to kindle or cause to burn . a coat or frock. Fr. dial. ordinary as in the expression of course. a firesteel Lat. bredouiller. klabba. to cobble shoes.' — Thus from (Hal. a bunch. of cochina. koljarn. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. and imperfect or unskilful action. to hobble . unfledged bird. to Lett. or cobble. to knock. from some fancied resemblance. to be hot. cobcoals. Fr.' And colo. as in arr. also a coast. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. In the E. are round stones or round coals of small size. and hobble. to worship. Coat. . E. The Fris. Coalesce. w. and jval. or upper . quilet. to strike. coste. to stutter. COCHINEAL Cobber. The OE. a darling. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. pock. and thence a lump cobnut. cluster. give the full meaning of the word. ridi. a sow. large stones . broddelen. Formerly written course. and E. probably from the Fr. . . The primary sense is doubtless koelA. top cobio. small pox (pocks) . any kind of coat. a rib. verklomen. cochinilla. Trevoux. kop. A plausible origin. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. a similar According to Ihre. frock. pockbecility and liability to imposition. s. To cobble. then to work unskilfully . niais. a spider. a spider (/r)^=grub. Lat. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. to stutter. — — . says Varro. haggle. walk clumsily. . Sp. Coarse. to peck as a hen cobyn. OE. to cob. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. a cobweb. in Du. in Essex Jow*2c^. See Cot. A spider's web. a bubble. When the . cotta. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. kylla. v. plaisant. of poison. to stammer. the one of thump. 3. a woodlouse. Pm. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . dim. e. — — — E. habble. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. dial. T' waerkopet. nursery lang. Cocasse. gull. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. Cobbles in the N. may be A found in Sw. to . Sanscr. Flem. to be inflamed . to bungle Sc. caleo. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth.). CooMneal. kuppa. a large round nut cobstones. throw a blow. to form an union with another coalitus. e. Du. cob is a dumpy horse.the water boils. according to the ordinary run of events. glow jvalaya. niais. one Pr.. a crea. The contrast between the bee • Cob. kop-ar. of E. a tuft. * To Cobble. It. s. and the spider as collectors. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. cob. flame. a bungler. imbecille. burning. are often connected. ignem. kolna. tuft. to kindle jvAla. to burn. dial. properly to daub. dial. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider.—Atkinson. quele. who says or