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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. or. with an initial m or I. mind of the of the animal. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. the present day. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. The syllables moo (mu. come Moolls (Mrs Baker).NURSERY IMITATIONS. and where we are seeking. name of the cow. and. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. persons of different tongues at the present day. when we is represent to our children of the cow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. muK) and mae (rfie. and mully or mully cow is the . might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. by whom the be understood. come Moolls. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. in language of the present day. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. the closer we shall approach to the . or Mollein. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. the baaing of the sheep. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. but nothing she herself knows the animals. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. is given to a cow or calf. when neither name for the object to be designated. Molli. in other words. to the syllables which are significant to the child.

We have. family. and which we might express thus.' he says. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. then. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes.. nim. to For instance. p. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. hm. his nurse adopting the word with him. in children's language. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. Finally an n was placed before it. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. On one occasion he said^e nim. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. schipp. Heinicke. . Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. Gr. analogous to Magyar mammogni. had nim. nineteen years old. A member of my own new sfop. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. by the natural humming sound. . says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. mumm. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. to work over with the mouth. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. became more perfect. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. when hungry. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. to eat. 72). He would now say good. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. for bad. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. partly from sounds which the child caught. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. repulsive to eat. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. and nim came to signify everything edible. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. for things. First. as well as the mind of the utterer. he called to to drink. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. for everything fit to eat. &c. fiafifi&v (Hesych. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes.). and some were very clear and distinct.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. Gradually.' In ordinary speech mump. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. I had watched the growth of this word. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber.

and the fizzing (and Series. agreeing with Ein. clangorqae tubarum. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to mump. snatched (Whitby Gl. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. at hiamske i sig. to chew laboriously. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. mumpfen.' And Diomedes. crab nam buckra man. to eat. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. nam. to taste . Primitive Culture. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Wolof nahenahe. to take. Gothic niman. eating. taken up hastily on the sly. savory. to move the lips in continued chewing. (in chil- dren's language). on.). In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . and the crab — p. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). buckra man's language the white man. palatable.ONOMATOPCEIA. we can call them so. oves lalare. South Jutland hiamsk. sweet (Koelle). it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. mujnpa. ut tinnitus aeris. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. to be pleamind . Sprach-philosophie der Alten. greedy . i8o. or word-making. mumpfeln. ' id est. 1 86). Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. j ing . ' Motherwell. voracious. Galla djam djeda. aves tinnire. as well as the Sw. stolen. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . djamdjamgoda (to say djam.' — Lersch. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. i. p. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. lita. food (Tylor. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. delicacies. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. and some of them . or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). to eat mampfen. namnam. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). A negro proOr. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim.' says the author of Modern Slang. and thence to be tasteful. Vei (W. nvrnma. Africa) nimi. iii. make djamdjam). To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. yamming. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. 130-1. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. to smack in eat. jammla. jumla. as to . the Scotch poet. Soosoo (W. nyam nyam. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). nobis vix permittitur. jamsa (yamsa). in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. to fill the mouth. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere.minis. . Swedish dialect gamsa. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. to Sw.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. mumble. dial. Africa) nimnim.' says Quintilian. aptantes adfectibus vocem. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Nimm'd up. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. memmexen. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. tidbits nama .

the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. twittering of swallows.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. p. or. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. bleating of sheep. hooting of owls. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. whether it deserves the name of language. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. snarling of dogs. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. bellowing of bulls. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. intended in the instance to represent the cry.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language.' he says. dove and cooing. when circumstances required. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. lowing of oxen. chirping of sparrows or crickets. a lamb. that there is When Man. snarling. might be used as the designation of it. cooing or crooing of doves. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. und growling. neighing or whinnying of horses. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. before the in other words. Yet we ing. bumping of bitterns. for the purpose of bringing the animal. We . or thoughts of our hearer. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. grunting or squealing of hogs. anything connected with it. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. yelping. howling. purring or mewing of cats. not of a baa. baaing or maeing of lambs. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. croaking of frogs or ravens. barking.' And elsevs^here (p. might be used. sparrow and chirping. but of a dog. ^6^. not of a moo of Lect. gobbling of a turkey-cock. chattering of pies or monkeys. do not speak of a bowwow. yelping. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. Indeed. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. 89) with less hesitation.' — We speak of a cow. between dog and harking. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. 'I doubt. cackling or gaggling of geese.

it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). is kuM) for the cuckoo. a bird that is be driven away. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. coccolare. We imitate the sound with a modulated. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. Barabra koka. and Bavaria respectively. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. crow. whose sound (Pictet. crow. In Lat. 'Kdka. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says.. a a crier (p. having a general predicative power. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Picard cau. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. Sauscr. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. a daw. Arabic kdk. birds. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. caw kuhii-rava (rava. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. Manchu The kaha. layitavya . roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven.IMITATIVE NAMES. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. e. sound). KOKKvi. kuho. in g. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. and means a shouter. 4th ed. He to is therefore derives kdka. Columbia kahkah. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. and gaggele or gagkelein. Hungary. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. Kdrava. according to Durga). Georgian quaki. lion. Sometimes the hoarse i . an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Origines Indo-Europeennes). koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and the sound of that direction. 4th century before Christ is earliest times.' kd). kdka. caller.' common sense. 380. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. Aoo-Aoo. ist ed. kauwe.). gackem. fi-om apakd- i. kae. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. it announces (Salaberry). The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. or quawk. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. Bav. 349. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. ghak. In Basque. a crow (Pictet). derived fi-om a root ru or kru. in is Gr. a crow.). and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Malay gdgak.

Walachian coucouveike. Scotch peeweip. Magy. Fr. or Gr. "Welsh hwan from hwa. Zulu kuku. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. Lettish kiekuts. tuquheit. koeren. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. great variety of oKokv^uv. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. the name of an animal will gen- . gufo. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. Dutch kievit. to crow. to cry loudly.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. synonymous forms of similar structure). Sp. tur. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. coqueri- Languedoc. The consonants p. Arabic tdtwit. to croak. a crow . name. Malay kukuk. Swedish kowipa. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. uhu. tbrtola. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. krauklys. k. coucouva. krahe. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. German kielitz. lilits. Da. by the verbs gurren or girren. It. while crouk. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . Du. giving turtur (and thence It. tortbla. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. name of its is the bird. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. German and Eng- krahen. So we have Polish krukac. Du. 6. the name for a crow. tor.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. kurre. to crow. kraeyen. Pers. Hindi. tbrtora. turtle) as the Lat. reduplicate form. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. lulo.. Esthonian kikkas. and e. kruk. yell. to howl or Lat. 219. girre. Mod. gugu. ghughu. lUyrian kukurekati. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. korren. to croak. kraukti. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur.. wood-pigeon. kukko. coccovaec. kuku. are represented. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. German luhu. kirren. libufs. and e. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. kukhuta. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. The crowing of cot in Fr. hibou. in the North of England. Heb. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. French dishuit. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. another. a crow lish Lith.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. and sometimes both together. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . xi. Ibo akoka. teewhoop. t. p. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. to hoot. Albacuculi a dove. Yoruba koklo. cock. a crow. as well as of Sanscr. either in the same or in related dialects.Gr. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. kraeye. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation.

a drone. and not from E. resound. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. bamba. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. Lithuanian tranas. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. skryle. We may cite Gr. grille. in allusion to its music. North of England. a sharp sound as of a 6. ta-na-nd. there are infinite varieties. and he kong-ko-rong. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. humming. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. of England it is to the b 2 . of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. to hum. the drone or non-working bee . to creak Bret. Lat.' Amazons. bee. Northern Farmer. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. or a gnat fly. ajo. skirl. din. to shrill sound sharp. succeeding each other — with noise. to be compared with Sanscr. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. buzzing. bambhara. representing a short sharp sound. Danish gnaddre. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. PofijivXwg. and probably indicates that g. to chirp J may be compared with . pip-pi-ta. 'The natives call it tanand. kong-kong. resounding of musical instruments. booming. skril with n. loud rumour. dhran. — Catafogo. Lith. little intermission.or bumble-bee. Corean sirsor. zirken. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. 337. which they make in their flight very . schwirren. knetta. a fly (Tylor) . buzzing. schrecke. thunder. the humble. The Arabic sarsor. swirplys with 6. g. The drone peal. ' — Pictet . to rustle. flight its sting considered as a horn. German dronen. words imitative of humming . of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. Fin.vf3. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. grillen. from the humming. shrill. sirkka. e. i. as . Arabic tantanat. oE. and yelping cry. a hornet. a bee. Australian bumberoo. glass cracking (Schmeller). may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. to chirp . The Welsh chwyrnu. with or Fr. The name of the cricket indeed. droning is . from schrick. grylhis. common. Sanscr. sound. cricket is from crick. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. chirk. German hummel. Albanian tsentsir. schrickel. g. Danish dron.IMITATIVE NAMES.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. give a faint sound. to sound. Speaking of a cricket he says. horniss and from the buzzing The. Naturalist on the tocano. a beetle druna. to grumble. Gaelic dranndan.' — i. ' Sanscr. Sc. In the N. German drohne. hollow noise. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). growling. (Jieuschrecke) . g. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner.' —Tennyson. whirr). schirke. gives rise to chwymores. a small as hawk is .

Cult. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. make poo. bukati. ox. representmake bow. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. a bullock. From the same lioao). Lat. boo. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. are (with a subsidiary k). to make. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. bullus and e. bubati. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. a buffalo. to bow- own bawl. grumble as distant thunder . Lat. to make a noise. Hottentot bou (Dapper). to shout. Norse bu. to low . has bilbilgoda. Illyr. that the imitative syllable are Lith. bu. forms a. bos. Thus from miau. It. bovis. lulauti (to hoo-loo). verbal form given to the say. or with on. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. agreeing exactly with Lith. be-l-er. btibleti. Galla boa. Piedmontese fi bau. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. a bull. make to it laugh. or bau-l-i. or formed Lat. p. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. Fr. to make. to low. — ^Tylor. and in Hottentot baa was the . representing the mew of a cat. whence baula. bae. Manx booa. baula. to bump as a bittern Illyr. shoot . the animal. from the imitative moo instead of boo. bo. to mew. to bellow like a bull. bucula. to . mae. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. w. The Piedm. to make a loud deep sound. w. Fr. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. loge. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. bubenti. to low or bellow. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). in a imitation of a ringing sound. Lat. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. OFr. and from to ring. fivKaofiai. bullock. to from bau. in same way. a drum . and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to the uses goda. biibnas. as that of the cow by boo. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to or bark. a Geiger. to sound. bugler. buculus. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. bull. and djeda. mugler. to ba-L-are. His analysis leads cow. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. Gael. verb is evidently identical with our shout. bolt. to shout. On the same principle. (iove. bwla. say. bugle. a cow. is inadmissible. bue. 167. With these analogies. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. mugire. bauli. miau-l-er. maukati. and thence Lat. a heifer. From baa. Da. the Fr.XX called booing. The Galla lilbil. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. bae. to weep. as the Illyr. cattle. or a z to the imitative syllable. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. Zulu lulula. k or g. muJiati. to boohoo. mamoo-heeheek. to beat hard. or moo. amuse.

it and e. cry). Welsh and Breton). Africa laa. and hoc'h. G. mutter. to themselves. It is probable also that e. mecati. a sow. from hundama. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. signifying a snarling. to growl. to bleat. he would hardly. a goat firixal^ta. Gr. may with to snarl.' Moor's Suffolk words. from knurre. Illyr. hadg- Magy. lecco. hund. this obstinate race. leg-et-ni. Gael. a goat. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. meketati. and thence groin. to howl. grogner. name. Fr. sheep or goat. Da. a dog. to rumble.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. grunlike a pig in eating. name of the animal itself. /xijeao/iat. 6. does not produce a e. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a hog. corresponding to ohg. a goat. kurre. meugler. — . hunon. Fr. a sheep. Illyr. to bleat . purr). nire. guttural tone. with the root ypaipm. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. the snout of a pig. . grunt. /xj/caScj. meigeal. meil. a (Hesych. as the proper name of a tame sheep. may be identical with Esthon. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. menAda (ndda. a sow. hundi). a sheep or a goat. goats. lekavica. although the imitation embodied in Lat. hound. And it is true there between hog and grunt. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. lambs. Illyr. Hence Breton hoc ha. mekegni.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. ^. Manx meilee. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. hwch. a. grumble. smack and naski. undoubtedly imitative. a sheep (Lowe). as lou of an ox. oe. The g. kurren. name of a sheep. grugno. meckern. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected.). a sheep or ewe. From the imitative mae. growl. in v. sound. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. hunt (gen. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. grumble. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. and of (maelon). (iriKov of forms like Sw. cite as by grunt. Gr. by which the shingle gives rise to It. the designations of a dog the term cur. and snorke. . Idgge (Rietz). to grunt. houch. sus-sus. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. we have Sanscr. Moreover. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. to grunt. and Circassian maylley. grumbhng. grunny. or in any ! way ! persuading. and grumphie. Among dog. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. naskia. curmurring. rumbling. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. lek-eg-ni. ' In driving. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. in Wolof bae. karra. With gen. a wolf. knurfisk. and with the subsidiary k or g. Kurren und murren. / The same Gr. a pig Fin. a grunt. for the voice of the ox). It. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. a pig. leknuti. Magy. groin. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. Gr. to bleat. . grumpf.

to the left. But words of this kind are.. the cry to stop or back a horse. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. when he found peculiarity. So Sanscr. (Craven Gloss. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. like artificial flowers. a little am- bling horse. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock.. a horse. coquette. of the character in question.root. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. ^6<. p. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. houpy in Craven. hobin. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. hottihuh. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). 91. turn a horse to the is In Finland. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. a mare. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. hobben. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language.' ticular bird. animal. coquelicot. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. from the cry animal. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. such as cuckoo. cockade. Sc. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. . Thus we are led to the Fr. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. There are of course some names.). but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. Esthonian hoibo. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. hiine. .' 2nd Series. without a — we root. p. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. g. M). is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. hobby. as in Yorkshire highly right. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. hoppe. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. If onomatopoeias can . as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. e. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse.' — ist Series. to whine.). to go backwards. humma. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil).

horse. goatsucker. lapwing. frenschen. Sw. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. diver. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. little speak for themselves. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. Pl. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. creeper. ance or habits of the animal. hukkup. hresh. signified It. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Du. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. nounced with a guttural). g. hikkd. woodpecker. whitename in in- throat. to neigh. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. hennir. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. Fr. Lettish sweegt. fehtati. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. e. swift. . wiehern. titter. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. redpole. Sp. Irieschen. cough. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . nitrire. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Sanscr. moan. but whether there kind between them and other words.D. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. as sigh. runniken. xxiii ginal object. animals or certain kinds of sound. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. form corresponding hresh. sol. rinchar. wagtail. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. to Sanscr. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. giggle. wrenska. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. command of language was attained. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. than to the sounds represented. hresh. wrena. hross. ginniken. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. Bohem.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. groan.

on the chops is represented also by pratx. —Brem. bang. wheeze. &c. went the cannon. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. beat. lumm. the dashing of the sea . tlirob. for the for the sound of .' it both sides went. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. a kind of drum. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. aritischane. thunder (Tylor) . snore.' So imac. hoo. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . It is represented in e.' ! ! ! ! — dong. haitshu. Da. ping came the bullets about their ears. snukkup). &c. hoo ping ping. 1865.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. to drive on. tisio (tisho). for blows with a rod. plitsch-platsch. atchini. hang. ting-ting. for the sound of a fall. or tliat is accomit. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. klatsch. shriek. in a nail Let. clap ! A smack Puff. are familiar in ' to every one. pump. for a small one. knarr. beat of a clock child . banga. debhes-lungotais (deifies. an attempt would be made to by the voice. root kshu. to ham. haw. oren : Klapp. pit-a-pat. bang ' ! trenches. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. heaven). to throw violently down. Australian bungbung ween. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. a large bell. DingBang. scream. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. for the sound of a blow. a more expressive than the e. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. . for the creaking of a wheel. to sneeze. mer. Wtb. for the sound of milking. the God of thunder . familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. bangas. — Sanders.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. knack.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. atchian. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. banke. for that of breaking. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. to knock. for in such sound of blows. heart tick-tack. Of a like forma- drum . whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. White Lies. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. strippstrapp-stroll. Vei gbangba. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo.' 'Haw. ding. snort. Zulu bongo. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. or the w. fitsche-falsche. to beat. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. dong Read. Mei gbengben. to hammer .

cry. pigione. —Lyndsay. pipio. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. pu. to peep It. to cheep like a bird or a young It. not- . as k. Florio. Lat. the voice of chickens (Cot. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. far pipi. Mantuan pipiare. a whelp. pigiolare. De Brosses. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. to cry pi. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. young child .FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. or the uneducated different consonants are man. G. piou. to designate cavity and hollow. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. bleat. and whimper. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. e. or a piailler. is of expression. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. and so forth.) a chick. mobility excavation and hollow ^. used as a call to .' instead. has been un- employed to designate fixity. pule. peep. pipilo. pipio. as the simplest implement for proFr. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. piou. part of the What consciousness has the child. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. doubtless. calls S. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. cry of young birds . is pfeife. piccione. child. pipe. to cry like imrli^u). a or cheep. and their relations. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. In cases such as these. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound.sc. pippione. — . had been used laugh ? two. chickens (Tylor). peep. Gr. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. as in other subjects of study. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. Magyar pip. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. Lat. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. pipegni. pi. a chicken or gosling. It seems to him that the teeth t. The pi. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. which he added to intensify the expression. of a word will appear supposed to represent. ducing the sound. young bird. Fr. pipare. a (young) pigeon. laugh. piauler. He Yet asks. to squeak. pigolare. . scream. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. pipelni. pipe. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. a fife or musical pipe. a fowler's bird call is lost.

To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. rumble. laqfF. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . murmur (by . of something fine and thin. is very common. a drum W. to gorgogHare rattle. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. kirkirdnd. in German. knuks. as representing the sound made when something breaks. the side of g. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to grumble. to pant bejii- zela. to growl. . tintino. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. as the click of a latch or a trigger. Pefuxela. cricli. It. to hawhaw or laugh loud. a short sharp sound. thunder oil . karkarana. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. or springing back. Zulu raraza. Poppopvi^to. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). Pacific aka-aka. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. u. a. along with Du. to cluck. to grate the teeth . bubble. to clack.Gr. to fizz like fat in frying. like the noise of a glass breaking . . is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to ring pipio. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. kniks. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to gargle . some small vowel or consonantal sound. Hindoo tomtom. gurren. tontonare. or kaka-faka. preserved by Kilian. crack. lachen. rumble. {to It. grumble. pi .. creak. Indian chack-chack. kniks. &c.) Mod. coo. chack. knurren. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . Manchu kaka-kiki. make wood a clinking noise. to grumble). of a loud strong sound. where the variation. Hindustani karak is rendered. to jar. rumble (Fl. to be compared with Sc. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . a sharp short one. tonare. to gurgle. kuruk. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. to bubble. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. turtur. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. borrelen. cluck. knaks. garren. sound). girren. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. to rattle. along with tinnio. i. be cate to go on laughing loud . a closed or obscure sound. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to crackle like in boiling . crash. and lugh. sound of dry breaking. lachachen. murren. when it force than biscuit. to cry pi. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. a prolonged sharp sound.. to laugh.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. the clucking of a j hen . p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. loud laughter. to pant violently (Colenso). vaake gorgor) . to creak knirren. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. to thunder.

shout. chut. for a tTviror). ding-dong. or of bells ringing. E. at an accelerated note. clank. and Gr. of keys or tinkling of bells. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. 192). to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. fumtu. bulbiil. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. cry. 368). call. wail. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. to beat. word. as of Tamil muromurmur. to knock. the gingling of glasses. Maori pata.' Member for Paris. bad. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. identical with g. and bilhila. uproar. csam-csogni. is based on the same imitation as the e. a boy's whistle. to the purling of a brook. Calt. halaidlac'h. corresponding in e. for the clinking Lat. disturbance (F. brings us to Fr. to whisper. agrees with g. and her heart went thump. Prim. hala-hald-faMa (falda. noise.* the heart. 1871. tubh. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. The whispering of the wind I. . for the sound of privy whispering. spring of water in the a bell. Sanscr. chinking of coin. djeda (to say tub). thump. Manchu kaka. the tingling Ming-Hang. Scotch sough or sooch. champ. to strike. clango. and Gr. for chut-chiit-er. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. rvir (in tvittio. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. to ring or jingle. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. muro and e. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. for the ringing of illustrate bells. tumult. to say chut. rain (Tylor. Galla tuma. indicating the origin of Gr. kiling-kalang. a smith. to giggle. Tiie Galla gigiteka. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. a drum . is Manchu tang-tang. bent her head. simmer. tumwata. jangle. and e. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. while cacd / used in e. and the imitative nature of tivgle. as Fr. e. Fr. correspond to e. coughing or clearing the throat. compared with Gr. box on the ear imitation of the .SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. are applied to the is excrements of children. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. quarren. . clash of arms. sound). sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. chuchoter. clink. sound. especially one who beats. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. a nightingale. rifiirayov. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. Magyar csamm-ogni. koXiw. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). klirren. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. caca and Finnish adkkd. a workman. The syllables lil-bil. kl'mg-kling. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. bubble up. the sound of a stringed instrument. Turk. or the bubbling up of to a spring. borrelen. or to Du. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. make djamdjam). corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. drops of i. croaking of frogs. a nightingale. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. KaKog.and e. to be compared with g. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . awater* ' The Mme P. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . Newman). tup. jingle.

squeak. clank. paddle. a applied as well to the force of the bang. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. jingle. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . and Grimm. swash. at a door tarapatan. without the intervention of orthodox roots. tap. douse. splash. disturbance. and Fr. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. rumble. chink. tinkle. and soufflet. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. So in Fr. parapatapan. plump. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. hiss. craunch. crunch. But although and also found in Lat. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. answering to g. rattle. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. bang. dabble. whizz. to fall. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. clack. squeal. fizz. flap. crash. thump. dash. it is fallj AS. thump. gurgle. smack. snap. ' Der puff. clang. din. rataplan or rantanplan. whine. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. puff. according to the strictest phonetic rules. whack. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. chatter. hum. report of a gun. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. gargle. creak. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. to is blow. souse. and the French pouf. squall. tomber. flop. blow. the Germans puff. in e. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. whirr. splutter. brumberum. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. clash. ring. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. to dance. Fr. tum-ultus. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. twang. Humboldt. guggle. boom. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. clap. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. smash. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. thump. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. mutter. crack. 'pat. w. by rubadub. sputter. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. tymmesll. slash.. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. clatter. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. The use of g. patter. tumbian (to beat the ground). } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground.' — Nohden. for (Sanders). blubber. rap. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. pop. bubble. Nevertheless. we have buffet or cuff. The beating of drum is represented in e. tingle. clink. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. It. thwack. while e. lash. murmur. or v^hether jectional. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin.

because they are spontaneous. in the case of the animal or of the infant. of horror. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. that he has taken the step in rational speech. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. At the first beginning of life. p. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. in the rushing waters. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. but if we must not complain on the beach. stractions. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. grief. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother.' If chaos. Grimm or Bopp. and thus they become signs of despair. knows them. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. an imitation of a sigh . If. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. the inteij. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. hay. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant.' . and uttering plaintive sounds. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. or of any if wood. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. by the nature of the cry. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . and found in the building of be burnt up. formerly cited. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. Crying. every little pain. little who has time to want of her nurseling.'. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. or any unsatisfied want. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. or stubble is meaner name. xxix on the contrary. 94. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. wringing the hands. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. are made known by an instinctive cry. ugh . the kind of action that is desired of them. is Thus ah!. the interj. without a thought of symbolising to them. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them.

which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. He says. coughing. they are involuntary interjections. sneezing. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. groaning. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. to solve the I shall call first. and some of them the composition of words. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. be more powerful. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. One short interjec- tion may fact. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. Language begins where interjections end. them to exercise it. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. shrieking. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. If I wish to make a person of an . and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. p. p.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. and the eye. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men.' p. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. he cites from Home Tooke. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. 344. of all the mouth. ^6g And to the same effect 371. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. should be remem- . And again. interjections. as who them spontaneous utterances. more eloquent than a long speech. the lowing of a cow. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second..' — ist Series. may become traditional. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. 32. which are frequently so toned down cance. or which is of me as suffering pain. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. more to the point.

It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. for example. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. demolishing here. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. hahota. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. when I arp humming and hawing. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. and more or less limited . in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . kahkahah. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. interjections. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and thus. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. Koxafw. speaking. in Magy. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. some kind of language might have been formed. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. Kayxa^u). and others from interjections. I am not hearer. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. cachinno. he says. Gr. loud laughter. in Fin. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. but the less am at a loss what to say. it them. then speech begins. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. bered. hohottaa. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. hahottaa. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. Tooke in truth. Lat.

their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. like peewit and cuckoo. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. the critical question should be. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. a deaf-mute himself. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. of the nature of this great movement. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. What strikes him . Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. words receiving the meanings they now bear. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. And so in the case of language. But here nature soon conies to his help. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. a Picture-language. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. The following account is given by Kruse. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. if taken as a whole.' he says. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. and not. It as has ing their most striking features. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. and go where we now say stand. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. Though. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. dumb is the language of signs. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. makes them stand and walk upon the table. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. . whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. of the world. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun.

the lan- guage cultivates itself. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. And is. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. among themselves. walked. it means little. and fully serves to j . or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. nay. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. can do better and more easily abstract terms. many when or but these. such objects. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. most striking outline of an object. thought is already broken. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. and forms further and further. to name. it seems. xxxiii him between one thing and another. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. as it now opens out.GESTURE most. walkest. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. push it towards the person addressed for thou. becomes roast meat. he. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. walker. for the agent. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . for walk. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. and with his thought. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and to taste. and And thus he makes himself a language. for single objects. or To pull and flap with the arms. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. he. The same sign stands and the act itself. or the verb to be. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. and we have roast goose. the whole secret. and it is flesh or meat. that signifies great . are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. such as than the educated man. particular sense in properly so called. that. what more. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. his action. like a V. for child. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. the sorecalling them to his memory. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. signs are taught for yet. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. The of sign for left hand. called Gesture-language. that air.' In the Institutions. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and gestures. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. thou. but if I depress it instead. To seize the is the principal movement of an action.

When a verb.xxxiv asking.' dener's knife. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. the ture of white term pink is and red. . which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. substantive or adjective. according to the circumstances of the case. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. or something of the kind. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. it called an interjection. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. the garden. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. in fact. depend entirely upon the use. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. and the as. Do not bang the it is a verb. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. when I say. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. putting it into his pocket. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. a number of alternatives are suggested. in other instances sentence. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. The same word . to indicate the action of a certain person. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. I say. qualifies the against the wall. a colour red. whether by additions or otherwise. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. would be simply beginning of speech. or action. and thus performs the part of an adjective. as But when it is meant door. or a quality. When I say. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. You beaten . or a passive scene of existence. Who is has beaten you ? would be. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. or an act. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. He gave door a bang. as in die it is a noun. and so is an adverb. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. as when Bang ! went the gun. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. might be the knife. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature.

In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. Thus tafu signifies a great man. pain. that admits itself in of audible representation. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. Jii ta. wherewith. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. wherefore. or nei. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. verb nor noun has yet been developed. and may be used language. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. inquiry. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. as cung. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. a groan. whereto. the man is great. greatness. coalesces with the personal pronouns. Latin. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. middle. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. or some relation between it and another object.^ — Miiller I. grie^ horror. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. &c. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. . wonder. or with elements expressing relations of time. a noun. and to be great. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. that is. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. wherehy. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. but often self-evident. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. inside. contempt. commencement of speech. in the sense of great. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. as kuo cung. with a stick. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. whereof. in the is indicated by the syllable y. a sigh of oppression and . 255. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS.. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. which is an old y ting (use stick). some outward display of the affection.

Illyr. Lat. ahi. dchzen. &. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. Bret. w. al. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. to . to ache. to chirp. to hurt Let. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. wehen (Schmeller). cece. ace. lament from oimi. ocAJ. och. ! ! Goth. wehthun. to make bow-wow. . ochain. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe.'). It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. It. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. ohg. guajo. to wail. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. are ol-ire. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. guai. och. och. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. aiai^to.. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. ach. The form corresponding to Lat. to weep. o'i. g. tirr-djeda. Gael. seen in Gr. wd. headache. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). in Gr. ochan. misery. djamdjam goda (goda. weh. hei. mew. on. miau-n-is. gwe-l-a. as. e. however. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to wail or cry alas . w. Thus from springs otjucifw.ez. achen. suffering. I oi[iot. e. jaoh. pain. to groan. to weep. vce. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. guaj-ire. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . Illyrian vaj. Gr. lament. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. found in g. mostly a ! %. 6. die wehen. Lat. weinen. A widespread It. vei-a. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. misfortune. Let. to cry at. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. grief. is Ay di me I Gr. to cause pain. and to bark . when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. j. ach. weh schreien. Such are g. In this way from the root guai. oval. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. to gargle. probably a deeper groan. Gr. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. grief] affliction. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell.-l-are. to lament. oimare. wai. . pain. Jar lau-lau. wai-l. ai. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. to ache. n. . jao. axofiai. . has more kopfweh. ing action I. grief. is w. ach. representing Illyr. oi. and cacak djeda (to say crack. la. miau-l-er. vce. Gr. It. ah. form. e. to bewail oneself. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. representing a cry of pain. pain. . to rriourn. waiidt. g. ui. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. It. to cry n. to do woe. lau-l-e. as. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. on. woe. It. guaj- or cry out pitifully. to lament. ah. gwae. oh. at the close of the radical syllable. gwae. a groan or lamentation vir. wAwa. Fr. to sound yapyap. to yell formed e. to make). woe. howl. first person. vaj. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. w^wa. miau-l-is. ache. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. or r. the pangs of childbirth. oh. xxxvi grief. to injure. 6. wai. ochan. ohi.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. and may be rendered. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. da. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. is-te). because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them.' this. I add) . Phil. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. when he wants something. Please. that gratifies me. and so on.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. In the expression Da.' then points to his wife. or carry me thither. according to Menage. that is it. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. Thank you. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. case. as to express. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. 'nay. as it Dieser da (as Lat. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. ' sees an object. for instance. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. or wants to name something. The Fr. When we pointing. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. his trowsers' pocket. a specified were by pointing him out. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. that. • The child. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. der da-ige. give me that cheese. says da-da-da.' all is is — their consent. da. But. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. implying the direction of its good will towards them. but the truth is. to here . Sie. well as Goth.' person. give. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. Dr Lottner observes. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. saying : there the ad- Trans. Diet. Sanders (Germ. . as. when 1859. more emphatically roSj)j that. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. and by a variety of expressions besides. indeed. nurseries. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). Bav. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. is we I believe.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. thata (ta-ta). we may translate this by there (it is). or give me it. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. a word of many applications in g. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. ToSe (or in Attic E. the nursery da-da. this here. child. or that it is.

to knock. p. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. which thus exertion. . sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. and one in particular must. dadee. pay. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. meanings. to say to oneself. the original is that which he places first. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. and shapes it into an . Thus Gr.^ its ' utters : a cry. thinking. to walk. sinking. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. to tion to another. standing. make dadada). become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. sounds. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. of which any one may. in every mode of expressing the idea.' says Lottner interior. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. tattle. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. strike. stutter.' • liv ANALOGY. tasting. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. beat. childish toying. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. its desire. takes it — as When the soul. then instinctively interest. moving.' says Muller. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. or dalliance. to beat. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. The da is dodem. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. to move step by step. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. speech. reality. to chatter. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. or metaphor. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. — Cot. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing.

to glitter. . and thence e. a ringing . also wise. schiteren. a dis- cernment. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. to sniff out. scTiateren. Heo Du. knittre. beam. . brilliancy. as. wilahtaa. to glitter. wilistd. bright. to snilF. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. then to sparkle. search . to smack or taste. schmecken. taste. we have and the and beorht. may be it explained . snuff the sniiten. — 1. kiimottaa. bilbil). a brilliant light kilid. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. wamara. beorhtian. splendour. to .TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. scheteren. to ring. So firom Lat. to have Sapiens. to 5 ghtter. magnificence. to resound. knistre. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to be wise. snutrs. sprageti. air. may be quoted gUt. and schmecker. which in ohg. unlella. prudent. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. wise. bilbilgoda (to make . Again. Du. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. snotor. Bavarian bracht. from the . splendour. to flash. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. tintelen. firom the Gael. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. discreet. for example. to crackle. sapere (which signifies the nose. on. smell. savour. sound. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. to crackle gnistre. to glisten Dan. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. Lith. spraka. ghsten. clang. properly a clap or explosion. in the domain of movement. is used in the origin. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to glitter e. to glitter. &c. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. and. chime). noise. tinkling. man of nice taste. 1654. The 6. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to sound clear In Galla. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. to shine. gnittre. fiapfiaipw. to sparkle. same imitative root with Sw. esclat). in popular language. kimistd. to ring as a glass willata. to shine. to quiver. a with kimmaltaa. rattle. make a loud noise. In the same way the Goth. the equivalent of g. a rustling sound Gr. iclat (in Old Fr. to shriek with laughter . outcry. to tinkle. pracht. while sapere itself. snudra. to sniff. Finnish. In the case of sparkle. smell. sense of brightness. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. snot. tumult. think. (parallel bilbila. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. signified a clear sound. and figuratively. Fr. suspect Bav. It is The word bright had a similar In as. judicious. as kilind.

Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. rough. inside. Kpovtiv. \nrap6e. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. wool. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. sharp. briars. accordance with the way in which by touch. the neighing of horses. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. he framed the words ivSov. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. of dressing loud. rough to the ear. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. which The Stoics. break. Kep^arl'ieiv. eo ut res vol. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. itself letters are felt as sofl. . then in rpd/xoe. Acre. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. extremely loose. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. pleasure soft to the ear . tremour. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. rough both ways. the clank (stridorem) of chains. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. and vepres. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). as soft by the ear. KoWiiSije. in of his works. to slide. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. Much of the same has been often quoted. mel. rough. smooth. strike. power of the letter-sounds. v. is felt Lana. pvfi^Civ. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. discusses the tone of a picture. roughness. The BpavEiv. fitting the letters to the sense. And observing that n kept the voice within. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. rend. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. gluey. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. in truth. 6\tadaveii'. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. kvTOQ. whirl. the bleating of sheep. &c. 1. soft. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. the cross.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. crux. shatter. oily. flow and flux. Tpa)(yg.' he says. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. he says. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. ipuKuv. or . within. we hear of screaming colours.

and the limits of the signification would be so vague. or checks as they are called by Muller. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. shog. g. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. jih. 'and consequently form. joli. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. to jogj sac-cade. 138). The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. jag. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. a rough and sudden .' It is on account of the roughness of pain. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. as when. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. stag (in stagger. tug. the case of the voice. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. jog. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. p. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. cular effort Again. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. Fr. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. A greater felt. jig. dig. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. k. for exis ample. p. ii. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. d. rug. and in the utterance of a high or or low. sag-oter. shag. to signify varieties of movement. degree of roughness sound. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. to reel abruptly from side to side). smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. t. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. corresponding to the ineor. stab. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. dag.

S-panish miga. to touch. to strike It. zack. to On the same principle j we have g. Hence Lat. toch-toch. &c. then. a cracker. Brescian toch. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. The train of . thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . a . Illyrian migati. to ring a bell. Accordingly the g. an old worthless horse or carriage. tock. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. The production of sound. to glitter. also to stir. to winkj micati is Lat. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. a stroke with a French toucher. in cases like the foregoing. Fr. Dutch kicken. like English tick. a little bit. g. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. chicoter. a piece or bit of anything. movement. as Italian tocco. rough horse. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. (mitsati). being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck.. a quid of tobacco. is lanese toch. properly a small lump'of . to pulses being knock. mie. an infant . Mucken. then. Then. chic. to incite by light touches. a good piece of road . much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. a crum. a jog. to take a thing on tick. tecche-tocche. motion. figuratively. and e. a small bodily object. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. sound Fr. tack. to move rapidly to and fro. to mutter. Thus we have B. it produces Dutch micken. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. so to Italian toccare. is made to signify movement. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. It. e. cica. passing to the signification of motion. to utter a slight kick. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. lead to Spanish tocar. mot. to mark it with a touch of the pen . used interjectionally to represent a . and analogous movements. that we never can be sure. The Mipen or pencil. foot. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. chique. The analogy then carried a step further. Fr. as tot. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. to say a word . kik. and It. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. micare. The syllable suk is jerk. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. To tick a thing off. Ene olde suksuk. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. zigzag. for the sound of knocking at a door. Sukkeln. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Bolognese tocc. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. to stir. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . schuckeln. tech-tech. is so frequent a consequence of movement. sound barely audible. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. mica. however. schockeln. not to utter a syllable. a playiug-marble. to tickle. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. mik. to beat or play on a musical instrument. kuk. to have it ticked or marked on the score . or check.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. Welsh cicio. chiquet.

The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . e. a morsel. e. n. often entirely arbitrary. . Fr. or the like its It. as in e. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. But the same is language has re Javan. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. I. you. here (close hand). mutter j dust. So. to make a slight mark. little j to that of a small bodily object. taut. a. syllable mot. of movement in totter. to e. and out there. clay . zitio. a little titty. at where the order is inverted. a small quantity. this. and mite. a sparrow). a bit. Halliwell. Cult. that iku. i. jot. to movement of the pen . here. zitella. seesaw. 48) cites from the African Tumale. . . tit. .) . titmouse (Du. tot. a tot . tot. a girl. a morsel girl . The following table from Tylor (Prim. the vowel sound. for the three personal pronouns. a small bird. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. a lad citta. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. . not to utter a syllable. there. chico. and dot. totle. to dot. anything small flax. and he. small of kind. a bit.n. small titlark. tot. . to jog. a certain conception.- a jot or little It. tottle. further off. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. Malagasy to. that. mut. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. ika. a whisper. subdued manner. (Halliwell) Da. corresponding to the personal pronouns. this . gni. mote. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). a small horse. gno. or the converse. the least visible insect. or o toi.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. iki. lix Sp. tiny. citto. motte. to touch. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. to touch lightly with a pen. to jot down or note with a fro. we have e. To jot. there (further of!) ao. mossche. tozzo. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. fragments It. a small lump or pat. anything . little. . not an atom . to whisper (Pr. This kind. Du. not because the pendulum makes a different left. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. for the beating of a clock. and toddle like a child titter. a light quick blow. tit. . mot. titilh. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . gnu. mutter. 0. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. Pm. bunch or flock of wool. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. there '(at a short distance). tot. fait. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. lump of earth. a e. ri that. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. tittle. motta. 199). neither moit nor an atom. titter. the same organ touched with the man. move slightly to . is shown in murmur. and a small lump of something. Then. to tremble. In a similar the relations of place. ticktack. a small kind of lark. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. eo. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture.

an old .araM.) pronunciation of i or e. uta. man erne. Ossetic am. . mother. Guarani nde. Mm. It Carib lala. usho. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. /wo. . no constant rule is observed. ita. thou.. you. Tarahumara ibe. femina ama. akha. biii. Mutsun ne. ofj. /mya. that in the distance. child. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. qu. ojOo. is Here. father. Botocudo ati. ne. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. . here . Japan ko. that. tiiio. that. there. Sahaptin (America) kina.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. thou . here . to. here 5 Yoruba na. thou ni.e^. here j abe. ulri. ni. this . I . by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. Fernandian az. is father. mas cheche. young one. this . little. as the act of pointing was ta. Dhimas isho. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. that. here j ka. Gr. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. . respectively. ukko. probably initial of distinction that the k. that. Zulu ajoa. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). there. mother. ^. mother. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. this . . here this . km. an old woman chacha. small (Pott. j Canarese ivanu. . Abchasian aSn. and origin. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. olo. Carib ne.. this <t. he. loo). to a like principle Ibu (Afr. ndi. that. w. that. as Mr Tylor remarks. Tamul i. . that (intermediate) j wana. this . /e«. there. .) nna. minution further. there. Lat. Then. (tt). as in Italian Fin. that. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. and a for the female. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. Magyar ez. this ole. father k . bi. me probable that • Vei also little. ta to ka.. here feraa. there. this fi. he. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. nne. 6. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. for the male. It seems to (fen. there. that. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. that. ni. Chilian tva. there. child..

just beginning to appear. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. to peep. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. wean. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. a little yellow beard. lift 8. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. for the . analogous to winy-piny. the simplest mode by the g. trippelen. fretful. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. trappen. Da. Thus we have Wolof sopa. the principle of reduplication. stairs. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. trap. wenig. Fr. nil. has tittafrem. dance (Kil. a child. for instance. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip.' — Merrv Wives. in old e. . nipple. the idea is called. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. or chink. Clank represents the sound of something large. looking through between obstacles. pepin. trippen. little To sup up. is to express simple continuance of action. little. to teet. A little wee face with little. sound of bells . for a succession of light blows low-wow. keeh. to feet. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. of smaller things. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. the nursery few j Sc. whence Fr. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. repetition It. trappa.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. Top. trSpigner. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. to tread. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red.) .: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS.' making the voice as small as possible. to leap. &c. The Sw. And perhaps the E. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. — Douglas Virgil. and in the Pacific dialects. at pippe frem is to spring forth. as j money. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. i Sw. don-don. nab. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. din-din. a step. as ding-dong. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. titta. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. the pip or pippin. knob. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. From cases like the foregoing. or even. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. to make its way through the bursting envelope. to begin to appear . 401. barking of a dog. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. tion. murmur. to peep through. A little weeny thing. The sound trapp .

. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. or a little tee--ny thing. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. Thus in E. keep spots. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. to say pooh It is ! to. ayunayunan. 99). to treat with contempt. Again. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. mpolu is uttered. child . are echoed by the rudimentary et. cliqu-et-is. or very very great. rapidity and strength. Thus in the Pacific loa. Susa di. Mandingo ding. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. is language. amusement. to skip. properly speaking. (to use a to speak. tach-et-er. Malay ayun. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. or rdtchi. smallness. little child (p. the lungs. mawhiti. if very young. So from clamo. to cover e. instead of being actually repeated. repetition or continsignify long. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. kendagenda. &c. in familiar use with ourselves. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. serves to show and in this way. to vi^alk about for flax. to love. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. or imitative syllables. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. to or rub. to talk at to walk. calling. from Maori muka. kamha-gamla. a clattering noise. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. a spot. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. very long (Pott. to call frequently from Fr. . bad . kenda. loloa. tache. racket. could readily be conceived. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. and the words express a continued sound of rack. hardness. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. The same principle of 196. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. mawhitiwhiti. the comparative degrees of greatness. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. random . ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. i. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. or in Fr. clamito. to pant. very great. or el. ratsi-ratsi. puka. clash of weapons. to rock. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. ding-ding. and Fr. er. 97). Cult.' expression is — ^Tylor. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. rack click. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). lololoa. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. very bad. a grasshopper. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. didi. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . child . puka- puka. the and clique. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. And generally. a cradle. click. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. rack..Ixii REPETITION. to to call. the agent in panting . sopasopa.

Jickfacken. wankeln. it. syllable clat . then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. or in e. which. to make gug. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. wagas ging. without the intervention of the frequentative element. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. bub. joggle. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to bark like a dog. as mAS. to make bau-bau. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. or fi bau. The contrivance with any particular noise. to continue dragging. kneel. to puff. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to wail woe . draggle. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. to rock. wankel. and in as. waggle. Ihre remarks under gncella. jogging. wancol. The Fr. he who rubs. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. a from ayun. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. wavering. to crackle. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. dabble. mew and baa . Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . where all direct connection with sound is lost. shuffle. guggle. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. from puka. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. such asjlap. rynel. to make a succession of shoves. or by association. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. is In e. to hand. crack. rubber. the knie-en to E. dab. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. g. In cases like these. to make a succession of grabs . in Fr. the lungs (the puffers of the body). or Maori puka-puka. a succession of cracks to rattle. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. in some applications. by the side of wanken. smack. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. others.Jicol. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . miauler andpiauler. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. to rock or wag. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. or omitted. to hand-le. are to cry mew and pew . itself. fickle. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. Piedmontese bau-l-S. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. to move to and fro. bubble. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. miauler and beler correspond to E. as to handle. compared with g. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail.

to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. by a hard body breaking. There is. moreover. deceit. will continue to be felt in daily speech. known in Italian. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. Dupe comes to us from the French. or how generally. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. Breton. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. to cry ugh at. A gull or a dupe same sense. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. which. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. at was more familiarly known. no sort of difference either in outward appearance.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. Polish. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. or in aptness to combine with other elements. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. it is obviously a mere chance how long. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. and comparatively few easily deceived. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. which is the origin of the word. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. or in mode of use. although it is not difficult. on a moment's reflection. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. the breach. to the separation between the broken parts. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown.

I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and the word is used in a secondary sense. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. however. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. life. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. is. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. . And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. Hitl^erto. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. language is .INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. founded in manifest blunder. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. nor any limited of ideas. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also.

When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. circle perpetrates a new slang term. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. of material things.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. therefore. and 'Russian. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. i. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. Welsh. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . I think it very probable. episcopus.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and vescovo. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. unintelligible to other hordes. If English. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. evique. change. guages in South America. Naturalist on the Amazons. French. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. compared with the duration of man. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. in the course of many years' isolation. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. out. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. 330. hearing.

8. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. and . 6. is MN. or whatever the proportion may be. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. 7. as shown in the subjoined illustration. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. ao8). ancient Greek M . a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. Nor is there one of the letters. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. A key must unlock more doors than this. The combination of the symbols I and 2. it will leave figures 3 and 4. to be taken (Prim. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. which are idenr Figures 5. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. 9. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. i. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Cijlt. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. the actual it which would to represent.

are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. and the only safe beneficent Creator. had its origin in imitation of sound. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose.' should be discovered. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. which either by direct resemblance of sound. what comes to the same thing. known to us as yet. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture." the use of a change of vowel in as. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. in the shape either of direct inspiration. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. ready instructed in the arts necessary for .Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. for instance. his fellows. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. leading him to utterances. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. or. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence.

that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. in the course of generations. of using imitative conduct . or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. for instance. or not. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. by animal without a trace name of Man. or beavers. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. race were speaking men or not. and sooner or later. the conduct of Ixix life. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. and when we look back as far as history will reach. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. or else. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. or of their own reflected thoughts . and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. and rose towards a higher state of being. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. until the progeny. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. as elephants.COMPLETION OF MAN. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. that he started from the lowest grade. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man .

Nieder. Dutch. 1850.-Eng. dial. B. . Diefeiibach. Dn. Diefenbaeh. Supplement to Dueange. Finnish. de la langue Cat.V.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Bavarian. Bohemian or Czech. Cimbr. Cimbrisch. Infimse Latini- D. Provincial dialect. Sup. or Dan. Cotgrave. Bigl. Elfric's Fl. Grammar Boh. Esthonian. Esth. Baile/sEngl.. Bav. Catalan. Douglas' Virgil. Bremisch. Fin. Dief. Gr. Carpentier. Supplement to Bret. dialect of the Sette Commune. Diet. 1737. 1768. Dueange. Fr. at the end of Somner's Diet. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Cot. E. Couzinid. AS. Castr. Carp. Da. Gothischen 1851.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Romano - Cas- traise. Diet. 1654. Biglotton seu Diet. Dueange. Due. Wtb. English. 1857. Anglo-Saxon. 1766. Danish. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Teutonico-Lat. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Diet. Brem. Dief. ^Ifr.



" 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r.nokkutama willekem. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. puHti r. baltresca nokkutomax. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. yjnaifia r.>. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. kilistaa bugiie r.. haverie crtOT r. Askance woud r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. plowied budowaer. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . sveritet Asknace r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. Blob plowied r. word allagerr. r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. woman r. (/ijtf r. r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. ^i?^i2! r. buque 118 brodiquin r. willekom Blab r. cti. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r.5 ERRATA. katowai perairrantr. cruccio deyrie.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.percurrunt kimista^x. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . alUger ahaverie r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^.


to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. AS. vs. into the Romance ftrseg . but now )bsolete).DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. ifter. particular 1 . A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. until the event jlace . Thou spelds of mychty iction.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. In Lat. abaft. 244. rule. be-ceftan. ar. dominion. Hence on-bceftan. Abs-. erwachen. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. Immediately from Fr. "rom a height. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. us. Abaft. —Bruce. on-bsec . ir. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. sion of 'an abandoned character. in. downwards. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. AS. dominion. and secondarily in that of command. off. Parson's Tale. from. as. Lat. state of sleep . among. whatever he be. K . in a manner other than it should be ablution. to arise. er. to sauff the king or spill. away. power : Than Wallace thing. behind. iway from. alike. announcement. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. Jvery man shewid baft. baftan. 843. of-dune. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. OHG. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. o/j of or . command. out of. on. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to .he Goth. this word beand Spanish. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. the er. Dent posture. ab. a/tan. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. his. compounds. and — Chaucer. to hold . an edict or proclamation. To abuse is to use iway. abs. from a is to wake to abide. plesyt him. in the same sense. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. on-lic. a. on. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. as. A. to awake. The word Ban is common orders. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. said. Abandon. Thus ip N3S. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. bandon in French. onis aback. to subdue.t G. orders. Again. Passing tongues. away from. ur. have entire dominion over. ibandonner. a washing off to abstain. . literally. implying a completion of J. Ab-.

an abbey. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. Hence the OE. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. down. In or. and it that that it — . More correctly written abbat. abbatere dal prezzo. baer. son bandon. beer. to diminish the force of any. c. 1520.down. father.— — . as ravish. d.fournir. to strike sail . to astonish. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. abaundunem-ent. to gape. abbatia. to ruin. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to put to con. See . Milton. astonish. his eyen shene. esbahissais. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. to overthrow.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. — — . 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr.Prov. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. R. so common in the found in the OFr. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. and the verb was written in Eng. abbattre. adverbial expressions at abandon. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. Abbot. ne more vermeille. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. And he thereof was all abashed. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. burny was formerly burnish . to take possession of an estate. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. effect of shame. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. to light upon. Wall. his mouth. Originally. depress. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. from ravir. On the other in use as well as hand. terminedly. may be explained. and grooms besmeared with gold. merely the terminations ons. in the active form. 364s. bawi. It. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. astony. Hence Lat. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Beat. iv. esba. de. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd.polir. ant. to bate something of the price abbatersi.esbawi. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections.On princes. to abaw or astonish. abbas.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. to strike Froiss. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. Hart in Jamieson. by Wall. of the Fr.' the surrender of a ' K. abbatis. R. impulse. vol. to hit. bandon. impetuously. baba. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. abbatere. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . ais. with or without a final sh. I was abawid for merveille. to make lower. to beat furnish. other. and that from Syrian abba. uncontroUedly. Bate. confound. law term abatement. polish. Baba ! Mod. esbahissant. or society of abbots or monks. et prirent terre.— R. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. burny. abandonly. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. abate. To Abate. esbahir. Abbess. See Abide. A. Custom. 1 1 8. at his own the lips. thing abbatere le vela. overthrow. Abbey. betrash. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. of fear. from Lat. Fr. where custom (Grandg. person.) . must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. . shame. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Cotgr. castle. to excite admiration. weaken. lish to abaisse orabaish. . Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. Castrais. or admiration. of wonder. to The . faire tomber. — Neccham. drink. to happen. and sets them all agape. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. R.

baier. (Vocab. E. baer. Norm. in Fr. to remain or endure. warten. in Dan.was formerly used in the sense of look. expectation. beidan. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. waiting. — . is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. Abele. or absorption watching. guardare. to stay. deceiving. to wait. bouche b^ante. aspirer. abeter. the verb of abeyance. In We . Boethius. — ABELE Epiphanius. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. bder. pense. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. To Abet. . expectfamily. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. to gape . gridare. badare. badar. covet. ' ' . also to OFr.— ^richer. From abahier. ^couter avec dtonnement. bana. ceive. attendre See Bait. Corresponding to keep in suspense. tity of E. to open the mouth. The verb atwaiting. we sceolon ON. speaking of the Holy places. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. abaier. endurance. bialodrze-w. badare.) abayer. take care. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). suffer b. abidan. Cat. from Halo. to be intent upon. bhr. abet. with open mouth . to In great amaze. delay. on the one hand. to wait. syllable ba. expectation. trick abetar. — signifies to suspend action. abet. verbeijen Sw. while the monks under his control ing. deceit. says. beidan. attendre avec en^pressement. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. — II. abayer. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. qui iaaille. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to It. exciter. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. de Berri) Prov. b^er. endurArt thou he that should come. 366.to wait. Cat. to be intent upon. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. m Abeyance. abbadare. abSiance. compared with (Bosworth). ne chastised them. . is idenwait. bouche bdante. John. a bay or opening in the coast. inciting. to stay. OFr. Prov. a right in suspense . were called Brothers. to expect gabeidan. Thus G. Abie. othres abidan' The effacement expect. . to open bader. Pol. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. regarder. look for another. listening. aspire to. baier compared with It. bada. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. songer. bida. ne wist what way to chuse. to attend on . open the mouth. or do we AS. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Gloss. wait.— Chaucer. Thus we have It. us. house. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. baier. listen. and alluring to his own destruction. Du. white. tarrying . to expect. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. bocca badata. Fabl. See Abide. to look. or in Fr. Ducange. to suffer death in Du. suspense. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. lingering. signifies the direction of tend. K. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. gola badada. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. with badia. to ance. to deanimer. bie compared with Dan. Goth. abie. abeyance. to deceive. delay. abiiance. to attend to. and E. Gloss. Corant sens lui. forbearance. Q. Ni engigner ni abiter. to yawn. abetter. beijen. delay. desire.' is in AS. 1 • . to wait. de Champ. to hook. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. desirer (Roquef. F. . beguiling on the other. —Raynouard. and in E. to abide . to desire. badigliare. inciter. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. bidan. The white poplar. badare.— Roquef.. bida. to desire earnestly. tenere a bada. watch. take notice. incite . beter. bide of the d endure. . forms with the d effaced are OFr. usbeisnei. wait To Abide. abie. intent observation. to tarry. tical with It. which is certainly related to It. beguile. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. literally white tree. Guernsey beth. to mind. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. which the mind to an object. bie. tempting. Norm. Quant voit le serpent. beijden.Fr. beijen. have seen abide. and Prov.

Boucher. and the simple buy. — P. God — dear. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. &c. the side of a ship. AS. him with che. to . bord. or bie. as E. habile. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. abilh. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. to wear away. abilej Prov. beidan. Cassar. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. ON. . The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. She shall abie that trespass dere. Mids. at hand). Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. aboleo. and death for handsel pay. to perish. — Able. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . adapted . within the walls of a ship. purpose. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. abide. properly abuy. was often used in the same sense. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. in for any special purpose. R. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. fault being simply clothing. durance in both applications. atling hem to her proper offices. Innan bords. to redeem. Merch. to have . habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. P. being disabled in the highest degree. abeye. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. is the verb abie. Fr. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. on board . In this to erase or annul. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. habilis (from habeo. abycgan. from AS. abie to Goth.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. —Bacon in R. F. a board. at kasta fyri bord. God. Milton. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. strong. willing to schewe his wrathe. abidge. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. 2nd Tale. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. Fr. Dr. It.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. and Cr. the Sir Tristrem. bide. i. convenient. suffer the Jul. use. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here.^and to make his power knowne. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. habilis is closely preserved. consequences of anything . the Pardoner In the original. when compared with Aboard. forbid for mother's children should abye. Lat. de la volatile. al- be found so some will dear abide it. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. without special reference to the notion of retribution. If it badare. Abie. O If tion. — e. powerful. within the ship. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e.ynes. N. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. the Fr. abolir. must suffer for it. 2. abigg. able. expert. abicgan. P. abie. Tr. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. sufficient. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. power. Q. from Lat. have-like. as habiller du chanvre. For on board. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. L. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. fit. to dress hemp. bidan. Wickliff in Richardson. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. The —Boucher. to draw fowls. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. Spenser. ! ! Cotgr. R. Chaucer. though sometimes confounded with it. Prol. to pay the purchasemoney. to pay the penalty. while in later examples As I .

currence. For on broach. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. Of these synonymous adolescere. to awake. abufan. outward. Above. to feed. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. which passed into English under Abominate. bufan. or cut short. is a ively. abbrechen. ol. full ofte his words for to Fr. Prov. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. to fatten. gravity. AS. while the sense of beget. coalesco. to produce. as AS. abowen. . gravis. disastrous portent in some passing oc.ger.) . abbrechen. Then. alere capillos.' Ymb hancred utan.aboon. To Abound. ala is made to signify to rear. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. ala.ymbutan. abrdger. OE. and also. alan. agreujar. OE. Abray. Melibaeus. that greatly agredge their sin. be-utan. his contemporaries. as the duty of nourdisposition. kindling. natural ed direct from the latter language. onbutan. To abray or abraid. side. af-oolden. hard. be-ufan. Tale. Virg. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. and in-d-oles. Du. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. to light a fire the Abraid. parent. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. OSw. breaking out in language. abominor (from ab and omen. So in Lat. ufan. to grow up. heavy.1. without. Severe the threatened evil. to aggravate. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. Gael alaich. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. to turn. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. to let sleep. to break off. literally. and bidden him abregge. becomes leu in Prov. to nourish. The primitive idea seems that of beget. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. butan.— Abbreviate.. d. motion. for ligeth butan. to start. AS. to grow together. to bring up. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. common in Chaucer and Abominable. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. Goth. a portent). AS. the identity of which with ting. abutan. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. while the verb alleThe root el. pedigree from brevis. greu. snatch In English we speak of away. which may God avert. — . to main. giving birth to. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. way Sw. the idea of breaking about .abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain.writers in the sense of starting out of rence.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to rear. to snatch. whence the Fr. In the same brevis . nourish. from . on high. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. the hair grow. oil. explains soboles Lat. and to do something to avert abbreviate. seems aras. from Fr. break out. ABOMINABLE adolesco. Kiittner. adolere. The radical idea is to feed the flame. boven. to beget or give birth to children. progeny. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. alUger. to progress. agredge. awaking. as withotityn and without. below. the OSw. af-oleii. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. Abundant. the form a&^^. but from Lat. — ' — — preceding verb. life. and alere flammain. nurse. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. brood. Finnish stock. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. al is growth. of any kind .foda signifies to beget. to rear. to AS. abredan.' Parson's rence. is not from G. vital PI. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). D. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. leading immediately to Fr. sec seftre — Chaucer. to feed. Quod abominor. Abrdger itself. about cockcrow. Thence to regard greugetat. the vital spark. Thonne Abroach. . Sc.. or young forth. titan. the man dwindles away. around on the out. by the to bring up. abrcBgdan. and also to abridge. Lat. Fr. draw out.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. s —Casdmon. See To Bray. abbreviare. alan. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. abracan.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G.the older form. above. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. nurse Lat. See -und-. levis to the Romance languages. en. to cut short.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


villan Gloss. Jorioc. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. work. d<popi(xnbs. d. Mannequin. anxi. set aside. Anxious. af. part. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. were chiefly of the former class. three antike pillers. —Spencer. separate purpose. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. press. as the Italians. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. wealth. . a definite . Any. like a jack-pudding. separate. Fr. from in and cudere. Apartment.th centuries the recognised models of antic. apanage. In like manner. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Lat. whence anthem. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. incus. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. as posticus. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Ful- Apanage. from ango. AS. on. to strain. one at the least. from an and — - . and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. were andouiller the second. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. Thus from gabe. trouble. to support. before. to open. ReApe. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. to bring forth. i. Lat. Anvil. stem. See Cover.is to be given. or antique single chamber. ab. to nourish. what Roman civilisation. gabeigs. post. white. plenteously with red.legacy of given against. Fr. finally applied to a whether grotesca. Antler. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Apart. eigs. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. to sound in answer. Percutere. or in a ridiculous dress. anapoz. Ilvtwotov. which by anvild. Gr. bread. a termination equivalent to Goth. a few. to strike G. inAgain from the same author cudis. Antique. before.D. anfilts Pl. antifena. something ler in R. but the expresent day. from ante. from eigan. burnished. Hall's Chron. should be received. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. to have. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. anticus. a gift. E. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. choke. apertum. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. amboltj Du. from. swaged. To go antiquely. Antidote. surimitation of the ancient models. As the browcalled antiques. Lat. a puppet or an anti^hona. from Stephanus. from an. cenig.— . Prov. AS. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. verberas. Pezron fiUist. — — — . as from as. anxius. : . Aphorism.. the anticks — behind. and devils. Gr. a block to hammer on. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Lat. AS. panis. to display pario. strangle. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. aside. to go in strange disguises. left as the . antefn. transferred to the grotesque characters. of. panar. as we call it. a small quantity. younger child. one. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels.made out. avri^ava. vex. To ape. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. to strike. rich. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot.—Aperture. G. whence Prov. ambeld. in Shakespear. Antick. such as savages. Aperient. aperio. Fr. andouillers. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. fauns. from the imitative habits of monkeys. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. apatiar. So Lat. Gr. from. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. Apartment. some one. and ig. all of gold. Hence the applica. from avTiipoiuia). one having wealth. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. a preventative . Otfried. to imitate gestures. and claret wine.

Ir. Apoplexy. when the . purpose. avail. apal. And among other of his famous deeds. prize. AS. Sp. Apotliecary. — dirondtfiu. . mine. prover. From Lat. An old appalled wight. to disable oftat. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. seiden of the stones. From Lat. to Lat. to seize. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. despatch on some service. Fr. apparecchiare. Fr. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. rise to \t. a learner. 5w. fit- — ness. probare. A — . pertain or belong to. prohts. array.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. D. decree.propius). The PI. APO sentence opoQ. 11. The Fr. Walach.parejo. aparelhar. a'^opi'Jw. to dress in this fashion. in Chaucer. value apprdder. opportunity. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. agreeing with "LtA. e. like. apal. Fr. diminutive pariculus. word was specially applied to clothing. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. apropid. or E. — prehendere. Fr. apar. taking. habilUr. preparation. ciously than nede is. To praise. —Diez. appaiser. ar.pareil. ^wss. to set a price on. to fit. Apo- good time. S^. Apprehend. to catch hold of. to approach. And whanne sum men Lat. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. lAfiaam. one is in. OFr. a crime. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. and in the sense of condition. proper time came. Fr. and appoinder (to find fitting. Fabian in R. to deem good. order. H. 'L-zX. diroTrXriaatii. apprendre.parecchio. from aTroorlXXu. trim. make a composition between parties. kind of action. find Then like Fr. appareo. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. horror. a price. They were considered To Appoint. pronounce good. Formerly apricock. par. appartenir. that it outfit. oVooroXof. and metaphorically to take the meaning. Hence appoind. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. Fr. appellare. APRICOT off. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. appris. poind. Yr. 'LaX. i. —^Apparent. peace. one the MLat. to be open to view. in data. to lose one's senses. good. to send off. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. from. the good.—Apprentice. Cotgr. pronounce fitting). to approve. to announce. esteem. Friar's Tale. equal. Appareil. Fr. or the like. irpaiKOKiaov. plight. apprentis. consent unto. Gr. one sent out. peler. Apple. cepl. approver. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. to make a thing Apparel. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. in fact. Lith. ON. to learn. to — . For their acquaintance was not come of new .his giving evidence against his principal. To Appear. Cotgr. from paix. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Prov. after his mind . gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. praise. quoth the frere. Mod. whence the e. Appease. pretium. poind. known. dress. Gr. to suit. case. (cited by Diez from a late author). Pliny. to which it is often referred. agree. away. Nouv. near. — Appurtenance. Hence It. allow. — Apprise. pragigua or prixcoda. Apostle. to assign or grant over unto. Yr. approcher. Epistle. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. manner. jabloko. Palsgr. xv. They werin his approvirs privily. Cent Nouv. Gr. 23 . to accord.prix. apprehendere. an epistle or letter. and also as appraise. I prise ware. iwKjToKri. It. ai. aptly. to take away or lose the vital powers. Cotgr. ap. Lat. to store or put Appal. apin R. to strike down. Prov. obolys.t. in good season prendre son d. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. landmark. to learn. appareiller. set a price on. Approach. d-n-o. a thing for one's purpose. properly to join like to like. like.— . to deaden. habiliments. apropchar. to send to. — Approve. to rate. To cause to pall (see Pall). to commend. En peach. Parson's Tale. off. . laven is used both as E. diroBrjKr}. one for his defence. of. w. N. corresp. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. : — — speak 'Lz. become dizzy . Fr. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. to call for judgment. prope (comp. to call. to finish a controversy. approcdare. apprise. to understand. to deter- to strike.probare. to — — . to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. . in commendation. From Gr. were formed appropiare ejar. To Appraise. to come near. piteux poind. to mark to define a bound. Gr.

OHG. . ahva. . — . arwelo. ughe. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. derived. A. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. found in Fin. fastened close. a river. From OFr. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. Maan initial . aptus. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. Albanian. arwaus. account for either of these significations. intensitive of nape. as ihe diminutive. the spelland umpire. nawl and awl. Now one of the points — — — . a pleasure-ground. As is a pretty parlour. wata.o. doubtless is the origin of E. arbiter. to decide by lot. short. 331. Arbour. a soothsayer. Roquefort. Beryn. ear. Freshly turnid Arable. Alban. arbitror arwaaja. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. sorcerer. Pm. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. shortdr. ap. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . It is certain that the apricot oracle. sestimatio arbitraria. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. aha. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. and with turfis new Goth. words derived from arpa. aestimo. and thence fit. and sortilegus ation. nected.sors.] in the N. Lat. naperon. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. rofe and all. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. Arbitrate. conjicio. aro. Naprun. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. la nappe. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. P. It may be doubted. a lot. herbere. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Naperon is explained by Hdcart. scr. is taken in is a soothsayer. Hall. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. to plough. arbitrium. properly the arwella. hariolus arpelen. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. Flower and Leaf. J. aa. 31. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. Thus we have natiger and auger. Prol. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. tion under trial. aqua. most conspicuous situation in the garden . or barm-cloth. She made. and taken away before dessert. however. delon. conjectura conjec^ra. Aquatic. a lot. OE. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. arbiter in re censendS. arpa. This path Aqueous. opinio. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. Lat. a lot. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. {mies ^=ia3. pracoqua was not an adapt. From OE. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. sortium ductor. of of divination arpa-mies. however.. water Which that benchid was. con. .shrubs {arbor). grande nappe. Gr. and a protection of the clothes. Lat. . proper. symbol. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Pr.meaning at Shrewsbury. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. or eft. C. suitable. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. 2. man.) E. answers queswas introduced from Armenia.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. Now we find in Fin. to preserve it from stains. as an eye-witness. P. auguror. and the one who gives oracles.' —About. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. quod he. garden. — napkin is Naperon. be That it inne groweth. divining rod. The loss or addition of n very common. a cloth. Marsh.

branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight.In E. arm. it signifies roguish. while the Fr. i. arch-bishop. a chief builder. There can be no doubt that E. from nixa. AS.4 rir/. Du. a court yard. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. earm. D. Ardour. sluggish. and must be identified with Dan. Lat. rame. the a brute. G. bad. mischievous. earh.' Paul Warnefrid. patus). arrant Arms. raineno. Gr. . ruling by the nobles. Arduous. weapon. the best. an arrant usurer. TiKToiv.' the Gr. contemptible. Lat. a branch. — Wtb. to demonstrate. weapon may be simply an application of annus. sly. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. a burning or setting on fire. ^Argument. the most arrant trash. faint-hearted. arcus. stuff. 3340. in Due. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. ' — Argue. vocaveris. the terminaGael. malicious.. make clear or prove. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. ardor. vescovo. kpxi- beginning. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Lat. Fr. worker. government. argvitugr. Perhaps erz-wticherer.. Applied in modern E. an arch boy. shoulder. Arcliives. arrig. especially shoulder-joint. arguo. From the verb armare.aioj. . and our army. from areo. . Gr. adjective. erz in G. ardeo. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. to be in comp. arga. A construct. Sax. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. Arid. troublesome. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Uo^a^. high. arduus. an arrant rogue. Du. arcA in e. bravest. area. ers-betriiger. Brem. aj-f. sly. Lat. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. is essentially the same word. ardre. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . fabricate). difficult to reach. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. ein arger knabe. apxtipfve. Lat. ancient. et vulgari verbo. to burn . Ardent. man. Area. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. ardIn G. apxtlov. receptacle where the public acts were kept. Fr. forearm . as in E. taxed with cowardice. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Alisaunder. erz-bischof. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. apx^iv. by Russ. The . armada. gwyrek. whence the body of the nobles collectively. exercise lordship). morally bad. branch. arm'ee. gwyro to bend. een erg kind. bad. a threshing-floor. Langobard. which has been referred to W.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. earg. to arm. apxri. Gr. ramend). timid. Cot. shoulder Boh. wanton.is the natural weapon of offence. Arson. Arcadia in R. armata. the court of a magistrate. Lat. Aristocracy. argr. Arch in composition. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. signifies chief or principal. Gr. ars. — Architect. wretched OE. un petit rusd. arwe. . an arch-deceiver . a bow. And thou as arwe coward. G.— Army. a bare plot of ground. a noble. a. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. lofty. arsum. apxh. Sp. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. det arrigste snavs. to Arch. ramo (pi. curved. 2. an extent of flat surface. to rule. Lat. arg. to dry. Lat.' Lex. Dan. * ArchjAiTaxit. curved line. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. to be on fire. ill-tempered. fainthearted. archangel. arm. arson. Fr. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. are formed the participial nouns. aridus. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. Arm. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. erg. . The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. as the arch of a bridge. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. arma. ON. un malin enfant. bad of its kind. first. From apxeiov was formed Lat. a rule (princiruler. mischievous. which is derived from it. burning heat. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. and Kpurka. It. armee. and not with apx. W. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

OFr. ball. on the shore. package of goods. as in a barn or cow-house. bal. bolker. at giore en balk. bal. to on Holmedon's plain. bolyatchka. Gael. Fin. Sw. Wotton. on. It. Du. dial. a globe. globule. to dance. baalien. Dan. Bret. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. Boll.— Ballet. vcdra bdlkr. with the perhaps from balg. N. floor. to shake or jog. bacgtteter. ballare. balveins. to dance. ballone. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. sickness. a scene acted in dancmg. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. wickedness ness . . to partition off . the object of his expectation. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. a wooden partition . probably Lat. sick. baalie. to grieve . torment. a ballad. ballan. a ball.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. tum. destruction. whether of wood or stone. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. ballo. stage or scaffold. Venet. bala. the beam of a ship. (Hesych. bielke. lealo. ballet. i. to be balker. balka hopar. a ball. Hence Dan. pila. a ball. ache. Sw. a partition. from the more general notion of moving up and down. balla (with the augm. Sp. Gr. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. a division of the old laws. — A — — . w. bola. uveirs bolk. bol. from bacquet. cka. 2. hue et illuc inclinare. Sw. balk. pallo. pallukka. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. . balloon. the ballet of the theatres. I. Ball. hooting. Ballata. wickedtorment ON. a water-skin dim.of men . a ball balla. Da. a balk of foul weather. balle. palcare. It. AS. ing. to roll. to stir. TtaKKa a pail or tub . to see-saw. the breadth from side to side . weak liquor. to cause another to miss pustule. afbalka. ' is a piece or confused talking. e. A balk. to plank. Russ. Ballot. pilula. a dance. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. baler. . * Balk. Bohem. to ache. palla. other while. chapurrar. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. a ballot). bealwes. bol. a skin. To baulke the Sir H. Du. heap up. balka bunge. a bubble. Ugutio in Due. balare.ing. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. a But making way for death at large to walke. a beam. a boil. Sw. dial. maan pallikka. to paddle in water . a ball. balge. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. as we say. a pail. Q. ne leaving any balke. may exhibit the original development of the signification. palloilla. The primary sense seems as in G. baloier. a great ball. to move. E. on. ballare. dial. balle. Perhaps on. and the dim. a ball or pack. Pol. Bale. Mid. Da. to avoid it. vacillare. malefacGower in R. to pack Da. Sw. are applied to a From the same analogy. gen.—Ballad. Sw. Ball. to be ill. F. . Grief. Rouchi ban. balle. plague. a together in the form of a ball. See Gall. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Fr. to speak an un. 3. a. Baulke of land. taich. bal-daed. separaison. bollr. Sw.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. a washing-tub. It. boll. balva-vesei. dial. To Bale out water. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. similar connection is seen in Sp. bolawy. Fr. ballar). ban. balk. ball. calamity. to by beams. It. Sw. a dance. roof. bal. balle. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). ill. to Not sparing wight. pallo. balk. blister. mass. bjdlki. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. . on. G. Goth. says Ray. to ail. trouble. It. balk. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. ball. bdlkr. to bale out. . pallikka. balkr. maleficium. a beam. ball. ON. and evil in general. a clapping or flapping of wings. Hence. G. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . beaten road. to plough for a boundary between lands.' speak gibberish champurrar. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. boleii. balka. Bowl. Fr. Balloon. to rock. a continued noise of waves gently beating .). a separate portion. a clod of earth water. bolyaf.Lat. ballotta. misery Du. a clump . pain. sorrow. a pill. balja. to signify washy drink. . bold. ballare. to wave. In like manner Fr. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing.Fr. OSw. balken. grieve . OHG. balken. a pestilence. shouting. bbllr bulla J. We have then separate dial. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie.

.). a small balustrade. Balluster. bertesca. — — oltriga. by met. Ballast. In OSw. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. railing around altars. i860. Gr. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. lastagium signified not only ballast. enchanter. also with flatteries and . Bret. A — — . back of the ship. baltresac. to walk. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. from bara or vara. endormir par des contes. It. Fr. ^Arbuthnot in R. Bret. a rod. inutile onus. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. Sp.Lat. &c. for want of other freight. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. ballustre) is a corruption. It is explained back by Adelung. Lat. barandado. the flower of the pomegranate. To Ban. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Dan. The Baltic sea. Balm. Sept. an Old dotard or imbambolare. balsamum. like Fr. . It..000 tons. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. ballast. ballustres. of balusters. explains ballast. from Lat. The Sp. it is forced to take in stones or sand. To proclaim. 43 — Cot. a duty on goods last. lestage. to preserve equilibrium. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. lastre. Balsam. barauste. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. analogous to what is seen in It. small railing. and Mid. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. baU. bumbazed. as he says. a nettle.that the going vessels. seems the original form of the word. 1854. a battlement . more serious objection is . for a load or goods (Roquef. Bamour. Said to be from balaustia. called Bait. a fragrant gum. Fr. To Bamboozle. denounce. But Fr. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. balustrade barandilla. age. the backload. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. deceiver. Cotgr. make fun of a person. but loadage. curse. or ballast of a ship. bambolo. forbid. inutilis sarcina. astonished. bag-lest. To deceive. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. ^a\Ba\iov. baranda. This is the backload. Mr Marsh whether the a load. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. terraces. a young babe. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. R. To make fun of a person. objects to the foregoing derivation. is in Sweden and Norway. Venet. 1. a useless load. to enchant. galleries. bamein.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. fonts. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. even calls in question last syllable is the Du.' And Kil. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. If bambocciolare were child of one. the act of walking. Report Pennsylv. Baltic. balconies. puzzled. ranked on the outside of cloisters. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. baume. Du. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. mare Balticun. urtica. bag-las. last. deceive. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. in the first place. baUa. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. bam. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. lastra. more frequently than outward-bound. When a ship discharges. bamboccio. To Bam. sorcerer. paid for the right of carriage. or movement of one who walks. bambocciolo. command. lest. a false tale or jeer. Sc. little round and short pillars. &c. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. dial. because. Lest. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast.

See Abandon. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . margin. v. curse.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. 'A son bandon. Band. banda.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Fr. to excommunicate {lysa. admolendinum. to take one to task. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. and thence to any proclamation.. power. The to . banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. to follow a faction. in Fr. region. From the verb to banda. . Sp. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. banda. G. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. A. — To partito d'alcuno. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. to publish) banna. he bannede his ferde. those who side together (bande. at his own discretion. bandera ground at his mill. R. acquired the sense of proclamation. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. 19. he assembled his host. and It. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Assises de Jerusalem. and in E. band. a coast. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. to ctide. ex. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. is That with which anything AS. OE. Spebifid. permission. theodscipe ut abannan. band. to reprove. also the band or of marriage. bandi. i. bundun. faction. banner marked the place of assembly. bindan. Commun^ment son bandon. 26. &c. says Muratori. —R. sostener Torriano. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. &c. . whether by way of injunction or for- command. biddal. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. then the signification w. Les saiges avait et les fols d. a company. bannum or bandum. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. hoc est vexillo.e. passing on from proclamation to command. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. There is some doubt how Fr. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. — excommunication bann-lysa. 813. It seems this signification has arisen. ba?idare. It. bannire exercitum. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. side. Car. Diss. Ripuar. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Bandear.is further developed. banns pany of footmen serve. bando. to unite with a band. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field.Lat. banda the colour or material. It. from at the Lord's courts. 2. In Fr. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. populum.—John Villani in Due. to . bande. Leg. Cot. bannire in exercitum. ligue Taboada). Sp. parti. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. to side or to bandy (Florio). bande. to form parties. E. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. fahne. — R. the ensign or banner. Goth. Baud. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius.^ bandy. Fr. Bandus. to bring corn to be fahne. Se il — Romance languages. flag. change to the feminine gender in banda. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. In a special sense the term company itself. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. 15. border. bande. we constantly find the expression. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. to ban. bann. Goth. Thus the word is also used in both senses. bound. tener da alcuno. 1. To Bandy. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. side. Capitul. Wyntoun. bandon somewhat party. Sw. etc. summoning to serve So in Swiss. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. R- He Translated by Chaucer. D. eiiseigne. bandon was used in the same sense. in hostem convocare. It. authority. Mag.

— Paulus drive in a nail. destruction . To Bandy. counter. Fr. that the word is used by Romeo. a de Vaud. for shame. Bank. to work in wood. a counter.^ knock. 2. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. See Balluster. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. — . prince had forbidden faction fightSp. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Bane. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. has bang-bang. When a man fails Lat. — Kil. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. in R. bench. The ing. Fl. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. bench. se joindre. from banc. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Diaconus in Due. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Africa. banka. b'ang. bandear. and bakki. and hence. to knock. banco. bana-sdr. clouds. and therefore tied up. desk. of bandying words. canis vinculis assuetus. bannire. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. bander. pastoralis. in the same way that E. . A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. a long raised seat. to proclaim.HG. banca his creditors. death-wound. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Fr. in the sense of place of business. Mid. Milton in R. The child cries bang! fire. rap hatike et som The Susu. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. Lingua. It. bank of Dan. See Banish. to publicly order one out of the realm. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. . a bank. to cabal. in the sense of a pirate. Banditti. a blow. and poise Their lighter wings. Sw. bane. ruptus. Mercutio. bandi. bankruptcy. band-dog. . Fr. murderer. distinguishes bekkr. Roquefort. language of W. to foment factions. se reunir. N. to hammer in a nail. bank. to beat. dorsum was applied to ject. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. — Fr. tumult bangas. beating. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. bana. &c. bance. The word is in E. banja. Tibalt. death-sickness. Bankrupt. A Shipman's Tale. disturbance banga. Hudibras. follow a party. Benchi. a bankrupt merchant. whence the mod. Bantze. bang. bana. . large dog kept for a guatd. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). broken. ON. a rising bank. Your stool. hricg. to knock. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. home — Bandog. Draw. many a bang. Du. Benvoglio. bandire. the back. panca. the former Fr. AS. roupt. shoal. But natheless wife at I bank. It. — — whence E. g. The ridge of a hill is AS. de- party. Banister. bank of a river. was formed the OFr. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Banner. banqueroute. forbear this outrage. a bench. 45 — — Bandit. a bench. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions.: . Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. the same verb the It. bow. Lat. standard. a wound OHG. s'associer. bent as a bow. eminence. Bang. ON. ON. banish. banke. to make a stir banke. It. bank. de sable. hammering. See Band. bander. Dan. &c. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . bander tin arc. among rotta. Goth. bana-sott. Ripuar. beat. It is in this sense nounce. banca fallita. —^Vocab. Diez. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. From a desk . bank of river. banc G. and OFr. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Bandy. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. banc. Bandy legs are crooked legs. to slay. back of a knife. banditti acquired the like signification. at canis peciiarius. to bend a. Brewer. seat . With many a stiff thwack. a table. stir. death-blow . a bench.z. benk. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. From Mid. . outlam came to signify a robber. as of an explosion or a blow. bana. the slope of a hill. a sand-bank. AS. bakke. eminence. put under the ban of the law. a i. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. E. Bacon in R. band-hond. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers.

46 BANNERET . arineXov. sign.the analogous syllable viur. Barbar. Hence Fr. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. out of a wound. and from ensign or banner Prov. rarii. sbarra. Banneret. by a repetition of the syllable bar. a beam or long pole of wood. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. barrack. remarked. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. and the work is done. iandvo. to beckon . It. BARBAROUS reiflingr. To Banter. Barb. nestling. barriire.. jSa'pjSapoc. and even of calling it banter. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. — We A . privileged to raise Barbarous.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. senhal. ing term appears in other languages. to having that signification. a tree). to wash. Flesche barbeUe. in Gr. heri-pau. Fr. barrer. barbe. top. barba. The barb of an arrow is the sign . inferior to a baron. ingly very generally known by a name branches. Banquet. It. —Cot. or of this bantering. summit. Duo. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. Lat. a ban. Fr. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Leduchat. bannereti. barre.— Swift in R. banneret was a higher class of knights. A It. from the same source. Gael. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. Hence ner. Fr. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. and it was accord. a barrier or stoppage. barreau. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. sparre. Bap. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. branches of a tree {gwezen. banne. It.. benda. jSdirTO). bandiera. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. the word came to signify rude. of a sign in general. milites bannarii. a. Gr. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. a bearded or Cot. period vexillarii. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. and with an initial s. barra. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. signuin. The spar. a war-beacon or war-signal. himself in Pontus. OFr. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. rod of any rigid substance. bar.aTa Kul nest. senh. barbarus. E. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. E. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. ON. that the noise of voices Bantling. Sw. 3. Barb. Fr. such as the Roman Eagle. barrou-gwez. barde. It may be thing. Celtic bar. and he would seem to derive Goth. manu anto make signs nuere. &c.cruel. wrapped. bandva. In a similar manner are formed yearling. banda. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. barbed or trapped as a great horse. hence a repast. ON. i. G. probably corSymbol. banneret. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. to dip. says. men. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. sparro. senheira. Lat. either in the Gr. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. 2. an animal a year old. a sign. Lat. OHG. a which the barrister addresses the court. indeed. as they call it. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. to bend. from reifa. Bret. knight Bardd. chan. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. token. . branch. Gr. senhal. banda hendi. ^oTrriKio. banniire. then branches. uncivilised. E. The origin is in all probability Goth. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. Barbe. ban- Baptise. banchetto. inur. merki. &c. OHG. speaking of battle. of banco. Fr. of wind. banner. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. To mock or jeer one. Thus Ovid. dim. brushwood. a bench or table . as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose.8ap6^o)voe. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare.hinder. According to Diez the It. The original import of their own banner in the field. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. would rupted from Fr. which is surely in barbed arrow. Fr. then fell among the foot. to wrap. a bantling.

coping. baragouin. open. Cot. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. — . brim. gibberish. to make an outcry . saddle-cloth. barbelin. to rumble. barbeum. to bubble or spring up. tattle. the beard. as well as the modern twaddle. Russ. Sp. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Lucan. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. Bargain. to grunt. to wash. albarda'ah. brabble in the making of a bargain. jargon. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. OFr. in poetic language Bard for poet. /3opj3opwJu. barbacane. barefooted Sanscr. stutter. Gr. a shingle or small board. — — — men. albardilla. Gr. baar. also to bind or tie across. Barbel. formerly used in the sense of tattle. mutter. border. Barde. upper chamber. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. uproar. bardd. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. or more properly (says fer. in the sense of fight. speak confusedly. lb. to prattle. barS. to plash or dabble. axilla. w. Hatt-bard. barbugliare. back. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. — Cot. to boil or bubble up . Thus the on. berries. Sp. Port. fortia —Strabo. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. bar. G. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. twcEtta. grumble (Lowndes. to mumble or mutter words. Cotgr. haggle. Port. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. bare baskojis. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. Barberry. Fl. Lex. barbar. barbaris. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. skola. and Sc. Pr. tree. barbeau. guaszare. Arab. It. Exposed to view. unqualified. and in Flanders to vociferate. But Sp. a jetty or outnook in a building. borbollar. which was of talking. ready money. barda. baares geld. Barber. i. Barder. Diez. boil. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. Lith. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. horse armour covering the front. dial. such as houses are covered Bardelle. Hindost. the flap of a hat. small pack-saddle. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. the nakedness of a woman. powdered all over. to gurgle. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. to stammer. .— BARBEL merit of water. /3£pjSepi^w. skirt. barbeter. quarrel . And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. barbulla. skirmish. borbotar. albarda. An outwork for the defence of a gate. and foolishly. bhasad. also to wallow like a seething pot. Bardeau. as well as thwcEtta. It. Fr. bds. A shrub bearing acid Diet. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. Barbican. a long saddle for an ass or mule. murmur . and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. a tumultuous assembly. Hall in R. Cotgr. barbier. A7 to the and warlike. to bubble or boil. to stammer. skialldar-bard. bdsas. twattle. . Bret. g. a rumbling. name Fr. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. berj G. and the word was used in OE. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON.) to wrangle. uncovered. borbulhar. — . Sp. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. and flanks. border of a garden bed. guazzolare. The Pers. Mod. barda. to It. borborinha. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Applied in E. Bare. barbarkama. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed.' Cot. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. barz. bdla-khaneh. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts.— — Pm. a bardelle. Festus in Diet. used 2. barboter.— Fl. Fr. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. to chafbargain. waschen. bdsiis. barbel. on. borboglio. Etym. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. — — Hence. muttering. Fr. the quilted with. Fr. a pack-saddle. is lb.) . the edge of a shield hval-barct. Bard. barguigner. ala. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. Mod. to barbe or trap horses. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. bardes. in Fr. Etym. scouthouse.

skuta. barafustar. Sw. a baking place or oven. prasepe . barley. So ON.^Voc^. then honoured man. skutr.) lihtes-ern. Isidore in Rayn. struggle. barge. To Bark. and ern. OFr. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. barley. w. spectacles. barnacles. from an imita- Barley. barlys.' bardagi. to rout. a stack. Bailey. and is probably a true bartig. as. barajar. quarrel Port. a load. dispute . Du. i. Leg. ON. berem. Tarn baronem quam feminam. giving rise to It. baaren. Spectacles. Gl. barlys {bara. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. barki. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. Baron. the fore or after end of a boat . These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. ON. a barn. Barbour in Jam. the rack or manger. As Goth. and may therefore be an Eastern word. disorder. barn. OFr. am. Port. Manx bayrn. Gael. but the woman for the man. AS. a heap. hladi. edge. and 1. See Barm. as in the case of Lat. The origin may be throat. quant a perdu sa barja. beer. berm hoys. the slimy substance brewing of beer. The Goth. tion of the sound. strife. confusion. . 2. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Lith. Bemiques. trouble. Port. lap. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. herbs. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. beorcan. barnis. astringent. Provj bar (ace. Rayn. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. barii. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. quarrel. barmr. Acervus. to all the barca. baralha. Uzen. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Sp. bosom. bark . dispute barattare. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. beornt. a. Vocab. strife. a receptacle for barley or corn. bcern. as baces-ern. limpet. Sp. Originally man. a heap . bamagh. adj. limpets . Garlick. Dan. hay-loft. bern. Sp. to skin over barkandi. Cornub. Du. name being given to spectacles. E. kani. the G. Kil. as. . ber (ace. ThS man was not created for the woman.. It. dial. baron. The older form in e. (Ihre.Barum vel feminam. — Zeuss. to shufSe. From Fr. — battle. then the bows pectus navis. — Barnacle. Ibid. and llysiaw. fray. also a boat . varen. to wrangle. bere. Antiq. barlich. plants). have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. houbartij fsnile. a lap. entangle. barms. baaring. bcerme. the A — Ihre. baerm. Camus. borkr. baratta. barretor. a boat. to scold. a beak. It. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. berm. AS. barn. bread-corn. bern. louzou. baniffa. also to exchange. Swab. a lantern. Alam. corn-shed. to chop. charlock. . bernac. barone. chaffer. ON. . conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. the or prow of a ship. Ripuar. Barn. Prov. prominent part of a thing. is simply the Bret. barja. barley. baratta. to strive. ON. a place. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. bargain. OSw. v. Romance barsie. was barlic. hemlock. barn. 2. border. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barizeins indicates a noun baris. limpets. meta foeni. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. contest. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. —Bark. barafunda. a cap . bread. squabble. at barka. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. Leg. in the Brim. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. aheap. baimeach. dregs of oil. altercation. put to confusion. and the word. W.. contest. * Barnacles. brenig. baron)^ Fr. strife. On the other hand. dispute . — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. See formed Yeast. Dan. Bark. and hence probably (by a metaphor. mhg. tumult. bosom . Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. hlaSa. Barge. — de Berri. bard). commonly explained from bere. to cheat. Bret. in Nat. So also ON. one who stirs up strife. baragouin. berma. husband. wine. dispute. baarn. as well as Scandinavian tongues. baarm. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. dispute. barahunda. baralhar. berm.

barague. a hut or booth. barraca. litter. ^Vocab. G. w. bahre. It should be observed that. barchent. branches. Fr. from beran. barre. baroncelli. a barrow. Sp. bera. MHG. bouracan.. S. borov'. man.— Gibbon. Barricade. strife. Barren. mound. a man. brushwood. booth. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. todtenbahre. Gael. On chet — We — — their resemblance. as. by early examples. barril. beorh. (Schmeller). Barratry. Bohem. implement for carryAS. a bier. Russ. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. barrique. rolls of Parliament. were sometimes confounded. to carry. OE. bearg . AS. Bret. over him. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. baraignej Picard. Baron andfemme. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. sepulchre. gravis et authenticus vir. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. especially those killed in battle. gwr.' that Barrier. whenever Barrow-hog. braeck. and not from Fr.. See Barter. a hiU. A. 26. 2.have been named from the haggling and gant. Nominale of the from braeckland. G. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. barrila. Fr. whence Barrow. bredhan. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. barrique. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. Joshua vii. baronetti. black woollen words in all the Romance languages.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. bara. vair. AS. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. from cavallo. fear. hut. squabble. shed. It was not until the time of James I. which would barragdn. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. and in several instances. an obstruction. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. It.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. staves. E. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Barrack. The Sp. boar. to shelter. Sp. baracca. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. like bargain. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. ibid. The feudal tenants next Fr. fallow. baronculi. fortification.' Op. a horse. Sp. also termed bannerets. from a tree to which a man is hanged. facture. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. Gael. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. Barrel. semen non accipiens landiEL. or simply bahre. tomb. a. Bamnculus a baronet. barBombicinus.parchanttuech. beorgan. See Bar. alongside of barrow. It. berewe. seem to be radically the same with Lat. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. beorg. barile. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. habeant. bier. An ing. Bern. Formed from Fr. in Nat. berwen. vel pretiosos burellos. bara. cover. the two names. baragan. D. cise formation of the word. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. man and wife. to * Barragan. a kind of coarse camlet. became bidre. — Kil. sterilis. composed of dry branches ofer. a barrel. dispute. a word is always used in the plural number. Bargus or moreland. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. nobles. barrack. barrier. garment still used in Morocco. a castrated hog . signifying. heap. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. — A . StiU he shows conclusively. OFr. iver. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. in the first instance. calico. 1. bark&n. uncultivated. qui have not much light on the pre. barri. vir. then traffick4 Barrow. a bar. breinej Du. as cavalcade. — — 15th Cent. perhaps through Prov. Goth. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. baronuU. change of goods seems. It. the braw. a. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Antiq. This word introduced into Fr. Barrister. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. ^Barrator. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful.root signifying confused noise.

curtus.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. binding. low part of the Hickes in Rich. to cheat. foist in bargaining. Barton. aiKcig. ohg. baraand especially teria. exchange. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. oe. said Base. from bere. hoops of a cask. a ipgli So Turk. ^Is de bast. according from Gael. stitch. over-reaching. fraud. basso. court-yard. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. lift me above Parnassus. baste. but born in baste. Sicamb. Al is dai. basta. and Bret. descended of an honorable lineage. he. To Bask. Bass. Sp. of the same sense. beguile. discourse Nay. fornication. to bind. baraet (from Fr. bast-maatte. bast. the manorhousfe itself. Fr. corn-farm. baratear. HaUiweU. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. Bast. barley. 516. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. truck. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. humilis. Bass. to deceive. Bastard. to long — a British word by Martial. ing for profit. mock not. To stitch. also to Cotgr. lust. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. But according And Dan. It is mentioned as . Barbara de pictis veni patch. Lap. to truck. fornication. Newman.D. Halliwell. the — — to kill those that look upon it. low. a tying. BassuS. . MS. a bass rope. to stitch . the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. the thin skin Dan. dwelling. a halter. basgod. besst-u-b£nd&t. preparatory stitching. Bartizan. There is not one that. Isidore. submovet omne Lucan. piiiguis. Fr. shallow. or running away with the ship. It. A fabulous serpent. unrighteous gain. Sylvester's Dubartas. Arthur and Merlini. — in Rich. partieren. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. berewic.). baos. chasa. . a deceiver. bark. fhe outhouses and yards. also the demesne lands of a manor. Basilisk. crassus. See Brattice. HoUinshed. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit.looketh upon his eyes. Dan. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. cog. mavult dicere Roma suam.' Gl. Du. inclosure. or wic. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. imbastire. — hanging. beretun. but he dreth presently. bast-reb. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. God it wot. which covers the grain Ger. leviter consuere. F. Du. Sw. netting. basg. PaaiKhms. Basket. a king. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . barter. It. Sw. low note. scale in music. HaU in HaUiwell. The like property hath the iasilisk. OFr. bestcn. baste. Swed. then cheating. OFr. besst. bastear. ' Bosworth. more noble in blood than notable in learning. Sp. would be. baste. It. n' is n' is bacino. rope for — .' Papias. flat. on a. peel. a court-yard. to baste. i. It. back. ibid. G. beortun. AS. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). Fris. — Bassoon. fits de bas. It. lattice-work. a ftiesh. Lend me your hands. plaiting of splinters basged. . Sp. embastir. Kil. pressed down. cheating. low. bestan. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. basso. the a wide open vessel. a bastard. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. w. It. as It. ' He was begetin o bast. Bassus. to bind. mean . thick. commonly A joined with the word binda. imbastire. Apparently of Celtic origin. bassin. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. bast. as the diadem of the basilisk. to bargain. bran. The original meaning. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). /«r<fSp. MHG. barter. come near. Gr. from /3aR. exchange. basta. MHG. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. bass-matting. to bind hand and foot. To Baste.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. husk bast van koren. a basket masg. See Bath. to Diez. to cheat. and tun. bas. Dan. him. bdtir. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. chasa ogli a bastard. which sets up its hood when angry. tierer. bast. at basta og binda. bds. bareter. pdrdt. baxoj w. baratar. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . to baste piece of cloth. Fr. found in Turkish . Pl.

to lay the Sp. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. bastear. comp. set up. batta lucifuga. business (Altieri). baston. Sw.stitching in general. a bastion. ON. to build. 164). E. the night-jar or goat-sticker. BAT neither. — — — . ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. to beat. bastir. vledermus. e. . This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. bastonnir. to beat. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. the clapper of a bell. beysta. guerra bastir. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. erect. bastilde. frotter.-^ Chaucer. Pm. to build. a stick. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. Fr. Supp. 11864. It. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. ment. boste. For the origin of baston see Baste. blatta. the E. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. like the owl and the bat. aftonbakke.baste or knock soundly. natt-blakka. nade. back. R. Dieiif. packsaddle. to rub. contriving. For the loss of the / in back. R. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . which to rest the load. basta. niammal. iinbastire. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. blakra. Fr. provisions. Mid. bastonada. has bastine. to spread bread and butter. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. ari instruineht for beating. Rayn. Sw. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. military term of a bat-horse). and Cot. from Fr. blakka. bastia. — — Fl. Fr. staff. to teach one before. to devise or begin. Pr. — Bakke. . as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. bastida. a pad or packsaddle. bastione. flyinge best. Florio. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. bast. to thrash . It. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. quelqu'un son roulet. but this is hardly satisfactory. the original has corneille. basa. Sc. to give him a sound bastingi 3. to rub gently. contrive. or implement for 4 * A . It. a sconce. compared with blakka. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. Bastinado. stryk. * Bat. To donjon. 2. put it together. cudgelling. blows. Prov. Cot. bastonFr. a barSp. bastimento.Lat. frame. to whip. vespertilio. a with a stick. whence ledrblaka. pre. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. beating. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. translation to a bat. dial. Cot. to belabour. To beat or bang soundly. also the ricado. a bird which. Dan. to drub.. in the Romance languages. a. All from bastir. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat.— Bailey. I. To baste one's hide . iastir. a pad. also to cudgel. Antiq. explains Sp. a blow cloth for dinner. in the use of the E. and ditches bastion. bastir. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. victuals. blakta. bdion. night-bat. blaka. the winged . worth (Nat. blatta. disposer. vespertilio. and Arabs. bastille. dial. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. basto. a things prepared for future use. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. bastine.stick. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. which in the E. set up. to pack a saddle i. baston. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. to quilt or stitch wool into it. bladier. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde.— . a packsaddle. settiilg up. Perhaps baska. passage Imbasto. It seems to me that the sense of stitching.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. liiake. 2. bakie-bird . to cudgel. Sw. is explained by Cot. to Due. That yche blak y dar wel telle. Sp.fortress or castle furnished with towers. blacta. club. badger. Sw. a blockhouse. to flap. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . stryka. Dan. bak. to set on foot a war Bastion. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. as weU as besteau. devise. raise. p. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. Derived by Diez from iasi. the bat . Sp. Fr. bat. 'iJipistreUo. to stroke.'CaB. 2.

on the fire. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. battle was used beath wood. Fr. — To . a blow. gebdcke. to become convalescent. of bread is so much baked zX one time. From OFr. to beat. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Bate. Batter. beat. Bret. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. solbase. Battery. The bat with which a brot bdhen. bastille. also. to fight. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. in the case of a wall. wet linen in washing. Pr. to fell. battaglia. Slav. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. batte sig. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. to warm oneself at the fire. Sp. bat-en. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. Ayenst the sunne. battere. to dial. bada. whence the sun burns . dial. trahtr to It. — — — ' — . battions. as E. battre. the heat of the It. a Baiffi. quell. made of — A made by one Batcii. 2. In some parts of England it is striking. debat. It. sich bakern. Battlement. bat.Bathe. A Bath. a main battle. a blow with a light instrument. Plkkis. beat. to cudgel. to thrive. makebate. Pr. howis. to beat. w. Fr. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. more. batador. term in falconry . the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Batyn. From bat in the sense of rod . Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. water whether warm or cold. a staff. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. a stick. buask made like a fortress. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. dispute. e. A batch as wood. baeddu. badask. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. certain bend. Fr. from battre. Sw. Baka sik vid elld. to warm. adapted for defence. or a dry stick. to foment. and as a verb. then to warm by the application of hot water. to flutter with the wings. is in falling. fashes basking in the sun squadron. or break down. to foment with hot applica. Gael. Hence pro. and about an inch thick. Barbour in Jam. to bathe oneself.— To Bask. Chaucer. bdda vidjor. better. as signifying warm baths. bet. . to refresh oneself in language. to toast bread. Flem. baden. or make debate. gabatnan. See Better. I bathe in water viz. I baske. battre.— . from on. Pm. a band of armed men arranged basa. Holz bdhen. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. Sp. lessen. Jurgor. Fr. also a sun badfish. batterie. tradire. battre las ailes. Bailey. fortress or castle. to beat se battre. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. a washing beetle. . as wood-en. for biia sik. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. was formed bastilU. Battalion. G. gebdck. an arrangement for giving blows. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Battery. betten. perhaps first used adjectivally. Fr. a stirrer-up of strife. baz. to beat. It. to feed. solen baddar. a battle. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. Eggs. basa. heat. to foment. Bat. G. to become fat. bake. as E. pak. bdt. bataille. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. G. to get better.' Palsgr. Battle. baka. on. Strife. to beak. squadron. Batten. a battalion. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . batir. Pm. Jeddris and covering. Mgy. in the sun. Goth. hot. batna. I. E. flour. abattre. Sw. dial. — Cot. To Batten. busk. battere. the root of e. to heat . ON. to betake oneself. to be profited. and with staffslyng. altercation. to bathe. In OE. badda. and milk beaten up together. allay . quhar he suld assaill. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. to beath wood Battledoor. made of bats. to heat. baquetazo. Fr. a great seems related to baden as Fr. Florio. . a from ON. to for fighting. by projections or in any licoure. dial. remit. bludgeon. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . bdhen. abate. batacazo. tagUone. PLD. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat.Hence in the augmentative form It. is a simple adoption of Fr. signifying to give repeated blows. To thrive. bdda.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. badda. Hal. beat down. to fire or in the sun. To Bate. to warm oneself. a beating. oneself at the A into faggots. cudgel. Du. strife. dial.

—R. Hal. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. and to-tore also. babbole. whimwham. Beaus^ent. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. the Swiss baben. propugnaculum. — Pm. bow-wow. s. baugant. toys. having a white streak down Bagdad. baula. the white of his leg or foot. to talk Lacombe. It. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. bau. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. to trifle away ment. The word may perhaps be sticks. or Cot. An analogous noisily. on the face of animals. a zan. also the canopy carried part of his body.— P. dacchino. trifle. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. bal. faisceau. baudrdj OHG. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Piedm. a white mark Bawdy. baudrat. c. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. bow (as in our nursery Diez. sorry.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. a gavel. ! Bauble. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. lewd . P. Gael. dirty. miauler. tille. — — ' Lydgate. whence pouacre. ball. because made of cloth of white. Formed from baw. 8. cluster. divided between black and white. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. mew. Sc.. form with an initial seen in Fr. Pr. to make the noise Baudrick. Fr. is used for a sented by bau. bouaila. to me-wl. From ! an interjection of disgust. R. The It. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. the face. bauch. Irel. child. Lat. dial. bobbin or cluster of thread. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. to vociferate. i. to cry. Pr. spotted. Bavin. P. pie- . or toys. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. zano. nastiness. to bark. Ball-seirc. Jam. Fr. It is all bawdy. Bawson. trifles. fields. tab. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). bablyn or waveryn. E. an object. From Bret. Prov. baw. balbob. pegma. filth. ballach. exactly corresponds Fr. or the animal so marked. guigaw. Descript. Cotgr.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. to play the babby. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. fagot. 2. a lump. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. rotten. bauU. dirt. Baldrick. dente. instead oi s. Bagdad. scarf. or sheaf of Bridel. Fr. is Bagdad stuff.guage). baban. Baw — . b \% bouala. in OE. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. an embattled wall. disgusting. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. bad. dung. It. fe bau. baubare. balGael. balderich. Fl. OFr. was simply a field gold. ish baubles. P. a plot of Chaucer. speckled. a lump or cluster babhaid. fooleries or fond To Bawl. represented by the syllable miau. BAWSON Swiss. an — — — A — g — — — . baue. as Fr. and authorities in note. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. E. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. whence the E. excrement. a spot. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . Pm. javelle. and Sp.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. babiole. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. OFr. bal.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. Swiss Rom. W. a belt. also more Bawdekin.. spot. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. Cloth of gold. a dog). Ball. from Baldacca. to void the bowels.' ' Pegma. E. E. horse. brush faggot. In like manner Grisons filthy. a tassel. sword-belt. baffe. obstrepere.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. A name of the badger. Filthy. Batylment of a wall. to the same origin. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. Cot. bobine. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. expressive of disgust. librillo. collar. to bark . baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. to 53 manure the To baw. It. Cot. from Fr. ground. filth. a tassel or hanging bunch . bausan. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. vacillo. babsmall toy to play withal. a horse with white legs. a horse marked with a procession. s. ON. Zalli. to low or bellow as corn. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards.

one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. Feb. white. the step is the same as from It. F. the cod or husk of beans or the like. badarse. — Schmid. put to his last shifts. like a pie. a hole. Swab. tradire to Fr. bahia. to on anything. a'uno. buidhe- The ruadh. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. badia to Sp. abbabayer. Holland's Pliny in R. It. Gael. Sp. husk. as if to signify a window of curved outline. aux dehniers abois. to be Bohem. and the To bark as a dog. &c. to iiitent nected PoL white. living thing . yellow . . large window in a handsome . Bay. or window ' (in Fortification). buidhe. so called from its bearing bays. baier. —Diez. badarc. bilyejiti.—Journal Soc. bajo. watching intently. to betray. a mark. Bayonet. It. stood watching him stoop. OSp. It has been shown under Abie. 25. to keep at a bay. or at bay. grapes or nuts. dividere. bacca. to stand watching one. berries. laurel of the ancients. Q. expresr sion tenere a bada. bdcr. at his last gasp. 1859.' — — 54 bald. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. batibari. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. from badar. BAY marked with bjly. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. baer. . —Bay-windo'W.. a dagger. —F. to mark. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. beothach. Fr. from an imitation of the sound.c. bahia. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. See Bawl. and keeps them in check for a while. Drayton in R. &. window . bay. or to have been first used at the Cot. bayo. &c. baya. bioth. Serv. bate. stare. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. overture.. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. See Bald. bialo. baga. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. is perhaps not directly from Lat. 1. the laurel-bay. * To Be. It. to keep one waiting. Q. bayen-stein. Arts. baccello. baie. a berry. baca. bde. ist. he turns and faces his pursuers. It. life. baca. to amuse stare a bada. or berries. the world Gr. which however. . that from ba. BauSfi)/. . Vielp. Abide. barn of two bays. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. To Bay. Sp./^ bau. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. Swiss beie. beo. and zndly. The — Fr. Fr. baionette. the cod of peas. badius. bay. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. w. life. Fr. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. bilyega. berry. Lat. Earth — By Nature made to till. to gape. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. house . AS. especially beans. or recess in an apartment in modern times. The word bay. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. From Cat. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. siege of Bayonne in 1665. in order to keep the enemy in check. Piedm. BE Probably conRuss. trahir. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. |8i'os. Sp. corrupted into Bow-window. A hollow in the 'line of coast. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. bijel. Such Antaeus seemed to me. Fr. ing-floor. Gr. Prov. to split. alive. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. baja. waiting . gate. arose two forms of the verb. open the mouth. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. Bay-tree. — A At Bay. by the term rendre les abpis. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. S. baye. See At Bay. as gazing. dehiscere . to open as a blossom. Fr. Cot. bai. From the former verb is the It. when. beonj Gael. living Ir. Lat.' Bailey. Fr.— Stalder. to open. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. desiring. baher. bagaid. a beast. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. window-sill. weary of running. a cluster of bacon. Catalan hadia. A stag is said to stand at bay. Mod. baiare. hddhe-dhonn. Gael. It. Bay.

a curtsey. Moreover the name. bakke. a tree. g. vii. Bret. The wild beast. Beckon.' Suetonius in Diez. gebed. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. 54. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. bearti. It. or beic. Netherlands or North Germany. AS. a single bean.. Beadle. boom. E. — Bellenden in Jam. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. as well as f& or fav. Beacon. Beach. bidello. be. to wait. pierced for hanging on a string. W. — : Beam. W. bee. which is. a sign. fromthe danger. «va\ioQ. N. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. Fr. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. See To Bid. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. bedm. to nod . as. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. the part overflowed by the tide. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. fero. A Esthon.fuis5e. becco. pig. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. signifying a point. Bear. The origin seems preserved in E. Fr. bokan. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Gael. beic. backe. a hill. Sw. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. It is BEAR SI court. Beck. ohg. as. stock. on. l^ax. Bret. however. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. — bedeau. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. support.from AS. A two-year old nephew of mine p. atUndre. bohnej ON. bob. AS. beacen. vol. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. beacnian.fui. Goth. He says. to produce young. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. or however. — to bow or nod . beans. It forms a. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. Thus the final en. G. to bellow. bauhan. Goth. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. beugler. bank. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Lat. an attendant. ON. OSax. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. or breathing. rising ground. It. faba is Kvavoq. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. Chapters on Lang. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. was introduced from England sea. Hackluyt in R. bohne. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. to nod the head. a tree. according to of Sanscr. into a snjall river. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven.to have a French origin. The nutu significare. Be. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. bek. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. a prayer. baun. To Bear. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. bakkje. bidan. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. Du. a nod OHG. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. signifying individuality. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. to carry. bM. Slavon. not applied to the yelping of dogs. faba. Boom. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. beic. * Beagle. prodigy bauhnjan. Miss Gurney in Philolog. . ON. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. or any action done with a pointed thing. Farrar. —F. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. fd or faVf beans.fer-re j Gr. to wait-. bead. salve his hurts. into France. -phxr. Gael. and Lat. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. Gr. bairan. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. Bean. bdkna. Beak. baum. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. fora-bauhan. ffaen. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. a beak. The immediate shore of the Menage. like most nautical terms. Catalan becar.' adheres to the root. badmr. Trans. bagms. post. would say. Pardoner's Tale. a presage. nokkima. beck. a single bean. bydel. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. . bar. . G. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. to beckon.' Hall's Chron. Gael. bean. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. tale of prayers or doxologies. ffci.ad. Q wait upon him.

to happen. to attain to the lot of any one. nod or sign.of being very angry. to carry. as the babble of the child. burdr is used in the sense of a car. bebrus. Beat. bobr. ON. G. while from Shep. limplice. to dabble . e. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. happening as it ought. proper . blast. fitly . bel. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. G. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. OSw. dress with unbecoming richness . From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. biivre. to the brook itself. limpan. as. fallinn. Thus OY. badi. Boeth. It. now confined To Become. — . I do thee pray. the beard. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. pretty. and to acquire. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. obtain. Lat. — A — A — . whence baveux. brook. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. Goth. iida. byw. convenient. Beck. duty. suitable. dize or dtzen. Fr. bett. brook . den. slobber. R. to please. The quadruped. to fall mode of being.' are equivalent expressions. baurthei. or a feeling to be gratified. G. ON. taste.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. As rivus. produce. i. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. when up. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. tidy. Fr. to hem. proper. name applied originally to the bank then proper .S6 fero. Dan. bava. biber. and on. . talkative. To load with ornament. bard. to live. ON. i. place to lie down. bach. a bank. Russ. Beaver. which. to sleep on. That thou mayest attain Goth. to get. Diez. Beckon. a lip. timan. AS.fit. On the same principle. fitanimal. baviire. to be fulfilled. covered the face. 1. ziemen. Prov. See Bat. agreeable. gelimplic. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. The fitting or suitable. an notion of being convenient. bedr. bur. beauts. Bedizen. 2. to the good hapHalbard. He becom on sceathan. beatanj It. beo. a. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. bavec. bib or slobbering cloth. o. pens unmixed evU. it is probable that here also the to become. bearing. comely. g. to wade through the water like a beaver. our taste. connected with ripa. See Bank. Fr. living. bcek. befall. Fr. Prick of Conscience. riviera. Beck. and Fr. Slav. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. agreeable. to happen. to fall in with our bavard. suitable. limpian. E. bequem. to happen. to those goods which endure for ever. from beau. to arrive at. becuman. Thcem. battere. a bank. to assume a certain form or Turk. or river. gefallen. Perhaps from Pol. chin. opportune. Cal. from baver. Sp. birth. bave. handsome. baba. See becymth anfeald yvel. gebank. seemly. if sound of a sharp blow. because made of the fur of the beaver. befit. ON. to happen. W. ting. to G. to be incumbent upon him. to happen. edge. nothing to thy name make. bart. but now a river only. gabaurths. Do no To It fallith favour. bobrowai. AS. R. decent. bekkr. formerly a happen. G. a brook. Lat. becuman. to come to or upon. riviire. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. dushmak. bello. fit. the ece thurhwuniath. byrcti. bring forth. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario.getiman. bellus.— Kiittner. judgment. E. Beauty. The moveable part of a helmet. bave i. The OFr. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. Now the Beast. brada.AS. rying. to be a part of his to.' ' He became very angry.' every way suited to a prince. from the same in the sense of bear2. to bear children. behkr. bestiaj Gael. barba. godum with ON. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. pleasing. to fall. E. G. or special purpose. and also in that of birth. fiber. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. e. Fr. receive. Lith. perhaps a living thing.we call the arrangement becoming. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. Lat. See Beacon. con.to clothe to slobber. venient. the latter are derived It. get J ' He got very angry. decorous. Bo. It. to appertain. Chaucer. border. tidig. babrad. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. Bosworth. In like manner condition. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. to shore. Secondarily applied to a hat. Lat. barf. bekommen. boroda.

^ drink. bitel. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. cousin. doubtless. boeuf.. Beet. cozen. bitela. prigione. a mallet. 1. AS. batAfter mete in sale. trees in a forest . bovis. by the analogy of bedaivb. to fall.D. Bernese. fall. Grimm. a wasp. E. It. to parget or rough-cast . biest-milch. buka. a bed-tick. to turn. I put the flax upon it to spin. . mars betada. tree. cited by Diez. red curdled Arab . whose face is clotty. from jtst-. Bethlehem. biiren. water. cushion-cover .BEDLAM a distaff with flax. Beetle. and in driving piles. bove. ir'm. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. i.— JI14. bibere is a re. also the bite or sting of a bees. ^. buche. It. Fr. PI. beyki. to colour with lime-wash.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. buk. But possibly bedizen 2. to change . bbtel. ris. bytl. Arab. from Lat. bedawi. qui de lecto surgere non potest . madhouse. bet. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. a malsense of drink. clog for a dog b'oteln. cow has calved. to drink. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. from blood.'— GL ^Ifr. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. to poordma. G. AS. Lat. case. beost. . Fr.possible.(paddi. Fr. to flatten In OE. 1 to drink. thick. as the milk of a that purpose in London. prisons Venet. Ant. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen.D. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. wedges. to rough- cast. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. drink. In a passage of an Old Fr. bletumj Gr. betel.ON. Confined to bed. Fin. to become Beech. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. The honey-producing insect. beest. biene. pude-vaar. duplicated form of the root.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. turn (a garment). briest. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. imperative pi. bos. a pillow-case. and lebermer in G. may be shpped on and off. translation beOj. the biter.). calleBedlam. . . beach-each. beetle also signified the impiti. also bienst. thick. Cot. crespir. drink. E. AS. comb. Slav. Pett. Horn. Fr. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. to knock. used for boull. stakes. Fr. a pad or cushion). sang vermeilh betatz. beach. kivih. on. Bav. waarin. a wandering Prov. 1156. pettiriso. g. Let. door. Gr. to and ale. I dysyn a dystaffe. a stinging bieUe. beutel. a drink potus. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. a Properly a cover that biiren. to beat bossel. knock. which also 2. a clapper. woman that is newly delivered. an inhabitant of the desert. sela que environna la terra. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. bedde-redirj ohg. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. 'La Gl. poculum. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. the meat of spinach. a bee. pital of St Mary. from risan. to curdle or lopper. G. extant in Bohem. ProBeer. curded or beesty. . of beatmg. ' MordiThe Lat. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. whence familiar. bossen. taglio. desert. speach. to coagulate. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. by-flugaj G. Bee. an ox. /SXirov. Gael. The meanpainting. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. Pl._t from the root pi. * Beestings. Dan. from leberen. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. badigeonner. Beef.cz//aj.' the last word corresponds to cofly . cogionare. I A pillow-beer. boytle. bukva. GaeL bior. Cot. erroneously modified in form. fagus. the loppered sea. KXlvoTTiT^e. to twist poorma. Esthon. from the hos. beer. as. kiissen-biere.' So Gr. turn. Bed-ridden. G. D.ing of the word is curdled. a pillow case. de Fierabras in Diez. an Beetle. blow or thrust. piwo. a paviour's beetle batail. cugino. Originally. Lat. beta. &c. a agulatum in the original Latin. The beer al for te shenche bate. 57 — Palsgr. briesch-milch. . a horse-fly . beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. The first milk after a dizen. byst. a cup or implement for AS. a cover. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. bedskiissen-bUren. Fr. bably named from the destructive quali| T. may be from K. in Nat. in Schmeller. For that was law of lend. bette or blettej Lat. It. the ox. a wasp. P1. 1. Bedouia. as in It. garden-herb. vaar. paralyticus.— B. Rom.

In Luc vi. appears improbable at first. 25. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. 40. P.3. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. incipere. beitel. To produce children is to acquire. OHG. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. Du. — yivsaiQ. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. iv. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. referred gan this Erie alight. krapszas. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. onginnan. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . fangen and Lat. begging. bag {baigean. to begaan. beissel. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. So from Gael. It will . to be acquire. 'Aboutin undern monly. to go a begging. anfangen. Creed.n. in E. although it ' the future. is formed pocair. chisel. y/yvo/iat. beutel.bag full of the G. From w. P. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries.D. ken. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. to bear young. ' ' . also called Bigots. one after that other. image is cleft out of the trunk. above quoted to get beaten ON. He did alight.— . Florio. woe-begone. Schm. but in the same language from poc. Du. capere. giving in Gr.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. beis- plement driven by blows. Mundart. genus. duginnan. su with gold. Goth. Political Songs. yiyvo/uat. It. it is both to acquire and to beget. on further examination. ken. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. a bag. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . as alighting is a momentary operation. 1430. a — wedge. Lollards. lapidicinus.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. 1867. pose-pilte. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. baigeir. ' Begone. — Stillingfleet. Lith. a wedge for cleaving wood. to be born. kind. 58 BEG BEGONE G. ykvog. P. or Of a pure poor man. Barbour. can. Fr. to get children . a bag . two betels —a grete oke. but probably erroneously. a chisel. P. ysgrepan. P. 168. on the bag. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . a beggar .' A. be^nnan. yivofiai. ytyvwfT'Kw. Ancren Riwle. Gr.pose. hags. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. Mettre quelq'un a la besace.quently used in OE. gigno. sel. touched with emotion — . &c. and Lat. 2.' about undern he got down. P. a stone-cutter's chisel. beitel. to arise. vir mendi. to beg. P. Du. Of brede full ycrammed. to begin. yivtrri. viii. in D. a wallet. ornamented phoc. a little bag). at geta talad. bertola. Skinner's derivation from bag. affected. begger. The tother seand the dint cum. from whete G. P. Beghardus. & go a begging. to know. 'Dz. is com. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. word. cans. yivwajcw. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. to cleve. in Lat. Vocab. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. ' . &c. can. steinbosil. gen. whence the E. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. the fundamental notion of attaining to. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. V. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. Si'Xa/coc. on the tramp.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. to be able. Nov. Bruce. gan. covered with gold D. not began to alight. When Q. to reduce him to beggary. V. beriolare. a beggar. taking up. 'ex quo. chap. To Beg. of Gr. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. Mod. literally. a bag or poke. ip AS. Deutsch. beginning. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses.' for ye shall lament and weep. origin. P. aginnan. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. oppressed with woe. To Begin. P. a beggar-boy. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. ysgrepanu. 142. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. seizing. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. a scrip euXaiciJoi. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. V. a scrip. Cold-begone. signifying to conceive. tale. Into the are D. AS. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. to take. air a .

han- — js Kil. N. vow. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. exhort. to promise. to bring forwards. K. habere. Sw. And so from hania. to command. to raise. to look upon it as true . of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to carry. commonly expressed. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. furtherance. when the verb will hoof. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to command. to keen or hold. hcef tig bort. to keep. Paladino. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. keeping. to halten. to vow. is also found in the sense of looking. Goth. behat. and (as Fr. have the sense of calling or naming. heeten willekem. to carry corn into the barn .to vow.' Richardson. behete. to bers of the body. R. garder. — Behest. behatan. to be be named. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. Command.— . us-hafjan. gehalten seyn. take heed of. is on the top of or opposite to. to tend. to lead. to keep. healdan. by the compound observare. as in the case of E. OE. at the tail of. behefe. to hit the mark. hafwa bort. hafjan. advantage. gehat. to heave. a follower. tail. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. betragen. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to turn one out . ufhaban. to feed. the equivalent of E. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. The Lat. injunccommand. to the equivalent of Du. to be suitable or becoming . To look steadily upon. to take away. on. To be expedient. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. from tragen. tion. Thus in Finnish the heave. to be named. hofwa. hove. promise . gehouden. heave. behaviour. G. to cast or throw. or necessary. holding is originally derived from that of looking. and their senses intermingle. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. hces. gecall. name of the head is used to express what hbva. behces. right. bound. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. AS.). G.the figure of throwing at a mark. the two verbs seem radically the same. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. the distance of anything. to meet. To Behave. 17. Robert in Warton. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to look. G. to follow. It. to regard. observe. to have. laborare. fixed upon any object). promise. to vow. zu etwas gehalten haitan. Sw. portarsi. to carry. to name. To place are most naturally ex. But. seeing to. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. hevja. and the E. what he wishes another to do . take yourself off. hovast. beperson addressed. AS. hantyri. hafwa. to call. to be obliged to one. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. At the back of The re. ge' hatan. AS. obliged. the name adapt.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. behold. to carry. AS. heita. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. to gehouden. to hold. adjust. zijn. taking notice or care of (Gloss. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to lift. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. to be fit. AS. solicitum esse. invoke. or the hence advantage. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. behoof. Kiittn. To Behold. to hold. to be well pleased out. behind. Plautus. servare. to fit. nittaa. se porter) to fare well or ill. ifl fact.for throwing it. according as the * To Behove. to behave. G. hevja. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. to be obliged to do a thing. to lift. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. G. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. Aan iemand bid one welcome. hafwa. G. what is so required. keeping. hcefwa in seed. premi curi alicujus rei. is supported by many analogies. guardare. hatan. beholden to him. gehaben. hafwa ram. The It. heeten. habban. ward. use. or purpose.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. The seyn. Sw. to call. —Hest. promise or a command. to R. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. vow.

esteemed . built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. and bergan. . in nautical language.D. Det er ofwer er hofwa. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. ON. to give leave. galaubjan. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . beleggen. peal. to be required for a certain purpose. permission. allow. Fr. honoured. tain a certain end. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. are other modifications of the same imitative root. to sound loudly . verloben. Pl. praising. precious. laven. to bolk. bercvrit. b'ola. hesfa. are innate .. . To Belch. to bellow. AS. is (Sternberg). bolken. leave . G. is an easy progress. overspread. a little shed. pro3. bealcettanj OE. battefredum. on. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. to resound. satisfaction.Lat. portion. turris. AS. a vessel made for dishonour. —F. and E. to befit. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. to praise.. distance to which a piece will carry. ungalaub kas. fringe. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. and Du. See Gain. to roar. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. esteeming good and valid. berfroi. loven. bertefredum. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. — . to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . It. to lay the cable round the bits. Goth. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. In Mid. moderation. beffroi. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. belja. — mankind. and E. bellan. to to make A Templorum campana boant. if a promise. to give leave. 6o BELAY BELL loven. under the forms belfredum. bounds. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to sanction an arrangement. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. lofa. to praise. promising. consent. To Belay. stand. locus securitatis Schilter. OHG. measure. to promise. Another application of the same word is in Pl. with the consent of the heirs. to make it fast. erlauben. ornament. a watch tower. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. to boke. bellow. loven. Du. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. Northamptonshire. giving leave or permission. to extol the worth of anything. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. laubjan. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to hit hafi. ON. Fr. aim. reach. to give leave Dan. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. The word be- Belfry.. To Believe. promiser. legsel. were civil terms of address.D. orloven. to a loud noise.D. belief . OFr. range. to put a high price or value on. P1. a. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. bervrit. border. Q. we have Goth. to protect. Du. To praise is essentially Xo prise. appearing in Mid. Then. mark ON. leaf geleafa. gelyfan. cela est audessus de votre portde. and. Hence to simple approbation. bialla. bulken. garnish. to estimate them at a To believe. Bell. — Diicange. glauben. a tower. fitness. to believe. to der swaren lave. to lay be- around. bell. an implement for making a loud noise. from mhG. bealcan. praise. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. loben.alyfan. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. boare.D. to believe. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. or house. Pl. if a narration. then. behove. or a sconce. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. reputation. to permit. resonare. to praise. bylja. ley/a. properly belonging to the church tower. permitting or giving leave. Fair sir and Fair lady. galaubs. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. beffroit. or high estimation. true. lov. to express approval. bettifredo. to believe. is used in the sense of approving. for purposes of low estimation . on. In the middle voice hofwas. Du. frid. Sw. From AS.Lat. . to cry out bell. Du. to belay. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. filu-galaubs. beau sire and bel dame. met. lyfan. a tower for defence . to promise or engage. then. to fix a price upon one's wares. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. certain rate. laven. beset.

belliJ Lat. to concern. To belong is thus to reach up to. . I say). benedictio {bene^ and dico. J'emboue. Sw. to arrive at. attinere. bellows. a water-bubble builge. bimpsen. Bav. bags or bellows. pouch. In E. the skin of those animals that factor. or simply djawt. gelangen. Gum benjamin. To Bequeath. bilbila. . From OFr. rise against external force . bilbil-goda. to do good to one . are stripped off whole blase-balg. Ptg. ^To Beray.' — Hie fimus. to attain belangen. benefacere. ON. See I . belly. bendan. fens et hie liraus. to bless. bimaissen. skin. dirt. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. to touch one. because bcelg. benjoin. vulva. pervenire. Fr. volva. benaigon. is The word balg. as. Bent. to say. bolg. to belong. from cwcsthan. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. as concerning that. or a It is times the to signify services." — — . given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. the womb. . and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. means seeds of plants. to bend a bow . bene/actum.. a bellows. — Ducange. w. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. wallet. bag. to use words of good omen. bolch. pino3. Eenison. G. Lat. to concern. langen. Lat. from benedictio. See Bank. G. benir. a round or bubble-shaped root. bless.videtur. Du.' Palsgr. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. from which is also bulbus. generous. is a kindred form. Gael. benejicium. bander un arc. the word. cod or husk of pulse. Benediction. Benignant. benjoim. on. a blow. est matris in lucem editus. Fr. G. to hallow. or fyle with myre. I soyle it or araye it.polch. blast-bcelg. G.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). kind. Belt. Benign. loubdn djawt. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. balteus . welt of a shoe gwald. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. gwaldas. a speaking well of one. pod. I marre a thyng. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. well. — root consisting of concentric skins. se bander. Benefice. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. benedicere. a spring.' The term had been previously planation. bellows. to reach. an inflated Lat. The ing-skin. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. benehusk. from another modification of the word for bubble. to become one's property . leather sack. was in Mid. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. attingere. . Lat. to exert force. taken absolutely. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. disposed to oblige. belch. OUG. See Nether. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. — See Numb. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. beneison. pertinere. a border.— Belly. to hold to one. bellows. pertinere. has assumed a plural form. needs no ex. To Bend. hence with ashes. Benefactor. Lat. a blessing. Bret. — ray. welt of a shoe. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. to ring. To Belong'. Benedico. Bench. belly. Gael. Lat. benignus (opposed to malignus). to attain to. poX^ri. border. balg. a good deed. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. fyle To dirty. . as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. Dozy. binssen. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. to make bilbil. a leather bag. a bellows . bell. I araye. bolg. belt. OFr. To Benum.pinuz. becwathan.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. bendaj as. ON. bcelg. bienfait. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. belgr. Kil. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. wallet Benefit. ray. Javanese perfume. ' I beraye. a accusative. incense of Java. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. by itself. . blister balgan-snamha. Was das belanget. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. Benzoin. ball. hem. one who does good. Beneath. to touch. Quoth. ' . a kindness. balg. to stretch it on a frame. Lat. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. bandoir.Fr. binsen. to come to the crown belangen. . from Arab. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. a benefit. skin. or sometimes louban. See Bind. vulgarly the belly. rushes. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. Fr. to. attinere.

ropahtaa.iooA. or to bestead one. as. eld up- On is to be placed A — . to light the fire . seems twigs or rods. fyrbotare. arwe. beorgan. fearful. dial. barth may be for barf. — Biglotton. barfham. Fin. baete. E. Tusser. To Beseech. or. Beit. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. position. reparation. buttafuoco. a place . place. scopse spartis. small eatable fruit. repair. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. berry. to on the other Goth. besmas. think more probable. dust rojahtaa. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. bur-we. jnore. besen. as.t. as bouter selle. Devon. lay out.irova. one who shelter. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. Esthon. stede. bouter. ^akka. bota. amendment. earg. to supply a want. to put on the saddle. * Berth. what does it better a man.D. het vuur The serise of Boeten. mud. Du. to stand one in good stead. buttare. the origin of which is to be found in ON. To seek something from a person.ot-i. Ihre. bet. what does it boot. besIn sen. it seems hard to separate as. AS. to thrust. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. AS. To Bet. baete. to cast. as. G. bat. roju. but in practice. of ffeed a fire. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . might have been . was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. but it is specially applied mister. barthless. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. or the space kept clear betan. bdt.X. make better . to strip. AS. basjaj Du. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. The dry. the side bhakshya. and on which the wager is laid. boteith Goth. p. Du. solicit. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It.—^fake. to word is shelter. Rob. reafian. dung . Zeitschr. earh. Tha het he micel fyr betan. p. . G. stow. ariierf to 113. put. The origin is AS. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. to be-place. stealth from steal. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. peto. rods. — Chaucer. to seek. dirt. When men of mekeness him baet. compared with bargham. . what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. to fire a funeral pile of . Fr. To help. Sw. to the place boarded off in a. vol. to kindle the fire. preferably. is to perform a serviceable office to him. BETE dirty'. bdt. betan. 3. lewth. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. So roto rattle down. Sw. an incendiary. person to lie in. bacca. Hfence backing. as. berwe. boutefeu. making better. as in growth. Grose. rubbish. encouraging. OE. Berry. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Fr. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. Kil. and also to entreat.— Hal. — . better. supply. See Better. vi. to fall with roisto. So too Yorkshire arf. sheltered from the wind. botesward. basya. to defend. On the other hand. * To Bete. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. E. To bete his Jam. to to deprive of. a horse collar. boeten. besje^ Sanscr.— VixHsm. See Reave. The proper meaning of the bale. burrow. houseless. Beere. as conversely a besom is called broom. the guardian . in the sense ctf beria. R. to thrust. same word with the provincial barth. to make better. — amendment. Goth. a fire. advantage. advantage. hva mannan. to mend. to To Bereave. from grow. fall with sound. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. sets fire to. to give a place to. To Gl. berwham.fish the other hand. ship for a make amend. and Du. So Lat. improve. broom twigs. BEREAVE Wall. put forth. to amend. bal oppbota. It is the restore fyr betan. bestow. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. Beet. because used for making besoms. boeten. roe. from It. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. as Du. ^•n. to exercise on a definite object.• 62 Antiq. an incendiary. supporting on the one side Lat. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. from AS. Best. I from lew. roju. bereafian. to make it. Du. beseech. Bestead. Du. sweepings. to entreat. — bota.bhaksh. besnij Pl. a berry. From abet. R. To Bestow. brem-bessen. Besom. profit. dirt . betan. protect . reparation. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. noise. besein. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. boeten.

ON. against. larks. to happen. tima. To boot in coursing (i. wrogia. which may be compared as to form with amid. E. 88. Sw. as from obdir. by two. To vouchsafe. in the middle of twain. a drinking . to Hence It. — of the authorities. Dit tungomal rendered in E. to cheat. -to appoint. Percy Soc. a bevy. In the water anon was seen His nose. betweohs. Lat. Du. AS. springs from ON. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. The inflections of Fr. Goth. from. Fr. roja. E. to deliver tip. taemen. E. beverage. suitable. bedriegen. r'ojer dig. some attention. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. Tinia eigi at lata eit. sloped off. beuvrage. I approve of beveau. betera. i. *Ah. gatiman. Goth. bouter davantaige. twain. to happen. is treason. tweoh. progress. Chaucer. and thence twegen. of pheasants. It. Thus from dbahir. for measuring angles. better. Now the stirring of an object. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. Fr. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. bevere. be fitting or suitable. Dii. A — drink. an instrument opening like a a thing. betriigen.— . G. amidst. in the same way Lat. Cot. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. bibere. BETEfiM translated. fallinn. Buveau. Hence last G. fitting. R. from Fr. To Betray. Best. his eyen sheen. are there Regt R. Friar's Prol. . to deceive. It. bat. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. dir. tradere. has — In a like sense tanie>i. as envahir. bevde. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Fr.' Dialogue on Witches. Sahissais. as trahissons. x. from Lat. awry. a traitor. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. To Bewray. pair of compasses. deign. two. On the same principle ON. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. advance. more. better. Golding's Ovid in R. OE. spritigs from schicken. trakir. To Beteem. are commonly to one's lot. &c. betaemen. to discover. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. From the former of these are AS. betest. afford. evidence of life. ruogia. tradire. traitre. or with again. e. Between. Det sig sjelft. /alia. betwuxt. trahir. make manifest. to accuse. betray. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. betweoh. Slant. amiddes. to deliver up in breach of trust. Mich self a good glass of wine. gezimet eines dinges. by a final sh. e. Fris. to stir. abash j from polir. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. verbs in ir with a double ss. best. e. to Teem. ziemen. bet. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. AS. it bewrays itself.D. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. Fr. batista. trahissais. i. what does It is forward him. dispose (whence schicksal. zemen. polish. taemen. Ik tame mi dat nig. the being pushed to the frbnt. R. to make forwards. ON. Car son umbre si le trahit. suitable. obeish. bet. a brood. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. — that schickiich. said he. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. In like manner folissais. In like manner from twain is fothied between. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. kein leben mehrin no signs . tima. to fall. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. as one would have it fall. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. trahison. as tlock. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. Ober D. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. G. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. find in one's heart. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. in the middle of two. betst. deem suitable. better. a different form of twa. Better. vrohjan. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. Bav. Pl. Pl. his mouth. lot). wreia. whence beveraggio Fr. R. — Betwixt. fate. G. gesiemen. treachery. become. roebucks. proficere. beva. obdissais. regen. The as. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. From It. betwuh. from invadere. batizo. Fl. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. thy speech bewrayeth thee. moveable and compass branches. find it good: Goth. order. of quails. — See To Bete.D. is used for the — R. to drink . to fall Some call it a bevel. traditor. G. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. zimet. betweox. baet. Bevy. riigen.

sbias. . baviere. to slaver or drivel. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Biseau. Sardin. two- footed. to tipple. lips. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). to purl. to Jam. biaiser. specially in a bottle. Hal- — do something aslant. love first begins to life signs of him. —Dozy. Bezoar. sliding. bark of which paper was first made. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . foul weather. to stir. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. bezling or skueing. to stir. to it evident to sense. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. to give signs of life. wrangle. Bib. per\'erted belief. An inferior blue. a fragment bieco. a slabbering-bib. petit-lait. besanca. slanting . tailU en biseau. and zahr. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. inferiority. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Jamieson. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. which good bibbeler. to the stirring of their conscience. bestemps.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. expelling or preserving against. evident. It. sbiscio. Fr. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Probably. baverole. bickelen. to well up with Cot. slippery. To skirmish. bibaculus. reveal. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. to stir. it becomes (Jz-. presence. a bibber. one who drinks in excess. Bias.s bellum for duellum. —Bickering'. dial. To drink hard. Diet. bis. Dan. Pl. sbrisso. Misc. makes ble. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. Fr. oblique. biascio. Fr.' bibble. discover. In Arab. ice . it were the mouth. The train of thought is then. b&zahr. a Galilean. whey count . sbriscio. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. Ant. See Wriggle. — crooked. Oh when shall I bizzle. or in and out. sbrisciare.D. bescompte. a stone-hewer . stock still. biberen. to move. kwijllap. To Bibble. in two ways for duis. biascia. Sp. to stir up . bavon. sbiasciai. bias-wise. the word became bddizahr. dial.{ioin dua. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. convicts thee of being drink. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. bickeler. . biberer. In comp. Lat. its clothes. bebble. a bezle. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Uprogen. in him. to make tongue Du. roggle.or from obliquus. sloped. a sloping edge. To Bicker. It is especially applied in Sc. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Schiitze. 172. biberon. to a fight with stones. from pdd-. An excellent Basil. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. kwijlen. as an eel or a snake. to shake. winding or crawling in and out. babbi.a. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. notice. OE. sbiagio. Bezel. sbiescio. metaphor). The It. to slaver . has a singular stone-picker. he is Wtb. Hal. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. pddzahr. liwell. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. It. Cat. twice. rogt un bogt sik nig. bending. . Piedm. — Bi-. aslope. like guzzle. To bicker in NE. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Bisect. Piedm. sbrissare. wraggeln. crooked. Pers. Mantuan.D. him. shows the P1. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. in Fr. misFr.two. bring under ' Thy accuse. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. poison. to glide or slip as upon. beregen. used in precisely stone . Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. To Bezzle. rogge. though such a change of form would be very unusual. /3i/3Xof a book originally.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. aslope sbisciare. (according to the Fr. biax. I Wallon. Fr. sik beregen. is explained to clatter. Ci^. or kwijl-slab. beslei.as in Biped. snout. the papyrus. bisel. Fris. bisdare. Bice. to tipple. Cat. biais. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. Prov. sbieco. or by any rapid motion. bible. kwijl-bab. Du. Gr. to dispute. Fr. by throwing of stones. whence Du. Bible. bickel-sieenken. To Bib. 78).to drink much. bes-azur. bickel. sbiesso. Lat.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. bihais. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. ber-laita (for bes-laita). to be a paring. asure-bice (Early E. wrogen. to creep or crawl sideling. to cut in two. edge of a plate of looking-glass. E. to sip. Fr. . . the basil Sc. babbefore the eyes. bibo. Sard. pible. Yes. bickai. Bibelsworth in Nat. of the sliced off.

beidast. Einem einen guten tag bieten. a flexure. — — — Halliwell. . balg. spelling seems to used in the N. gebeden j G. Two verbs are here confounded. ' Bug as a Lord. bilge or bulge. bend of a shore or of a rope. the belly of a ship. 1. bulge. Bigot. bead. bit- bidja. bidan. has leta. A pose to one to come to dinner. to ask. beadle. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. by seek and beseech. Wallace in Jam.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P.. bow. to swell. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. to solicit. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. Bickelen.t. From Gr. abidan. The 'La. praebere. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. bouwen. to start out. to forbid . to look for. of More ' in Richardson. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. inhabit. forwards. explaining the Sc. cultivate. to move quickly. a suitor. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to build. BID of stone. — prepare. bugan. It must be observed that the word bidja. becoming in Lat. verbieten. P. build. iiQ. Compare also Sp. bulk. faurbjudan. a chip. athird class. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. be bug. are also used in the sense of asking for. to marry. OSw. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. To Bid ' Big . bolga. may plausibly be derived from Goth. proud. 2. porrigere. which is stiU. to pray one to dinner.' Addison. Du. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. twice. swaggering. or bad. byggan. from bidan. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. AS. belly. G. England for swollen. Bigamy. bis and in comp. who. biddan. AS. The ON. as tears from the eyes. Analogous expressions are G. consisting both of men and women. R. pressing on one's notice. anleta. bidjan. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. called the tertiary order. and the Sw. offerre. to ask. to E. boa. bygga. inhabit Du. bedun. form. bidill. bug. bi-. praestare. to dwell. — To Bid. to arrange. bigan. quiring something to be done. an entire skin. to presimpler pare. from belgia. .uddered len heart. and consequently ordering or reGoth. besides the professedmonks and nuns. bieden. a swelling. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. to offer one the wish of a good day. bugne (answering to ON. related to big or bug. W. to offer. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. AS. to look for. from seek. and yajiBui. bieten. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. to abide or wait on. qucero. ewes. Big. OSw. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. to offer it to public notice. A bjudan in anabjudan. bolgna). bat . bulge. the meaning of bid. gebodenj G. to pro- command. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. bath. With respect to logical pedigree. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen.Leta). To bid the banns. einen vor Gericht bieten. to forbid . To Big. beodan. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. to bend. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. to belly. repair. to curve. bog. to bulge. bced. bolginn. ON. bauen to cultivate. bidan. swoln. as G. to cultivate. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. biegen. swelling. The loss of the / gives Dan. to build G. buga. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to bid one good day. ON. pray. rising up. or. bo. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. The original Swollen. or third order of penitence. and Gael. byggia. bua. Palsgrave in Halliwell. Jam. to build. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bidel. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. to inflate E. ON. Bight or Bought. G. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to bend. Hence Sc.' Pope in R. ten. ON. bulky. to bicker. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. to inhabit. in the sense of ask for. belly. Kil. bag. bugt.peto. G. as. Big-swol- . The ON. The ." buque with E. BIGOT beidan. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. to have one called before him. bend.

vol. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. bigotta. 15 18. corruption would easily creep in. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. probably from biso. sed maxim^ in muliebri. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. says. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. clownish. A. Bizoccki. to adopt a similar course of life. and Q. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. natural grey or sheep's russet. was formed bigello. absque votorum religionis emissione. and also unlearned common men. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . and underwent much obloquy and persecution. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. homespun cloth. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. author quoted in N. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. D. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. ix.— Ducange. From bigio. They wore a similar dress. bigio. honesti plebeii amictus.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. 1499. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. perch^ i Terziari di S. In the same way Fr. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. vocati Fraticelli. ac labores manuum detestantes. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. A. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.. beghart. 560. In a similar manner from bigello. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. rustical. bighiotto. bighellone. alii de paupere viti. G.' says an Venet. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy.a.' Matthew Paris. as well as bizocco. Augustini dotarint. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience.' Chart. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. &c.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. aliqui Begardi. S. dark-coloured cloth. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. beghino. all apparently derived from Ital. 1243.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. a blockhead. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. begutta. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name.D. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. A. grey. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. Francisci communiter appellabant. both men and women. coarse woollen cloth. biso. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. alii Apostolici. a dunce. face VIII.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. Bizocco. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. Hence the OE.D. with reference to A. and hence the variations bigutta. grey.' translated by Muratori. borel. Bighini. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons.— BIGOT bigardo. signifying bagmen or beggars. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.D. Flor.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. Beguttce. xx. Bighiotti). the nobles to Rienzi. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.' says one of of bigio. which must not be confounded with begardo. the other form Per te Tribune. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves.

A slang term for a sword. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. ferrese quam ligneae.' mariners. Du. Gael. the trunk of a tree. a devotee. buail. an axe. Kil. Bill. to peck. bizocco. Tartuffe. 'tumidi fluctus. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. whortle-berries. Fr. Bilberry. symbolum. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. So in Gr. now A Bilboa blade. biilge. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. from OSw. Gascoigne in R. to swell with rage). boia. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. names bill-berries. Bille. The Du. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. . might be taken to express a hypocrite. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. a seal. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. 3. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. obsolete. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. an adze . from Mid. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. Fr. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. fetters. blaa. Deutsch. to strike. fluctus maris. however. belghen. and dziobas.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. billot. a short note. Dan. Bill. bigot. The proper meaning bylgia. tepati. procella Kil. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave.' bilio. bigot. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. seems to be rather the unda. top. bile. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. The origin of the term is probably from bole. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. billet. OFr. and in Lat. Sp. . and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. — Cot. Langued. In English the meaning has received a further development. Mundart. p. a beak. a negro. and a billard. as craneberry. Piedmontese bigot. a shackle. beil. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Kil. bil. Lat. inscriptum. bui. boeye. bolghe. Lat. an axe . w. Dan. Billette. Du. a man who rests on a stick in walking. beghart. billard also signified at billyards. to pick a millstone. To Bilk. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. genus vincu- Bilboes. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. AS. e. to be angry (i. 5 * . the bill of a bird. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. — — ' . An instrument for hewing. dissimulation . is properly a sealed instrument. crowberry. that of swell. bille. dziob. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. A lorum tam in — Diez.' in Richardson. Sw. on. AS. bwyell. dziobad. bulgja. irons or set in a kind of stocks. an axe. a sword. Bojce. NFris. ^Billiard. blue . bigotto. Fr. Bilge. Ludwig. the beak of a bird.— — — . bullet. an ingot of gold or silver. at sea Billet. G. gan. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . Johansen. in the same sense. weapon . buoy [i. To defraud one of expected sinking. — bigardia. a floating log to mark the place of some. an ingot. a seal. billard or billart. abelthe fetter itself. In the same way are related Pol. the swelling G. in the sense of a writing. Roquef. person of religion leading a loose life. billet is the diminutive of this. Aurelles. See Bulk. a of the sea. Thus we find in It. belgan. a hypocrite. loi. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. AS. a bigot or hypocrite. Bigin. Bilbo. a hatchet. b'olja. Bohem. bila. bull-berries. gleischner (Frisch). a name given to a. topor. of E. BILBERRY nated. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. Billet. boja. plog-bill. bulghe. axe. buie. as a bill of indictment. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. See Bull.. e. . Billow. I. Sw. bla-berry. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Prov. of boja. bill in parliament. bigardo. bill. Du. bulla. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. the o changing to an i to express diminution. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. bill of exchange. an axe. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. horn of an animal. 2. to job. blamand. bisoch. 2. clog to a fetter. deceit. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). to strike. used in legal proceedings. from the dark colour. Sw. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus.

also a stone weight. Lith. beitan. in Swabia. berkas (z=:Fr. piccione. pin-ti. . . evigue. beitsl. nodus. Fr. Fr. H. a weight. Bind. to plait. to knot nets for fish. We — A Birth. Gr. bundun. Bisson. Bindweed. bunga. a gallinaceous bird. forth. To — — —D. while bind-wood. copus. pippione. See To Bear. to net./«idere. to bind at . bikkia. AS. where the compass stands. Du. a female stag. which is expressed in E. brid. — See Bittacle. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. EpisETTiTOOTToe. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. qui nisi propius Blind. G. wine. pundas. When compared with Fr. a truss. . or ben-wood. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. bindan. brut. Habitacle. earnes brid. AS. to hang. to wreathe. videt. to bulge. bindan. lusciosus et myops. G. a weight of 48 pounds. i. poule. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. a bunch. pinnii. fowl. It. a bitch applied also to other animals. viz. biscotto. AS. bita. bircej Sw. from Gr. Sanscr. life. Bird. episcopus. v. I would derive the verb to knit. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. a bitch. Sw. pittjo. In like manner from knot. Fr. pinnu. bundle. Lat. or baked. to fasten it together. G. Lat. The bitol. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. beran. vescovo. Bailey. the young of birds . from Lat. It. E. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. to swell. a habit- Binnacle. Fr. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. &c. Bittacle or Binnacle. band. Lith. sc.. See Breed. Bisen. a heap. to bind together. bund. by binda. beize. Birch. . Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. Dan. bundle. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. binda nat. a hind or female stag. bunt. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. and especially to a small poor horse. biscuit. properly a young pigeon. a pig petz. to build. bij sienigh. ON. bigne. are commonplaces. a bump or knob. BITTACLE /Siof. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. AS. to bear. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. 'tumens sequor. a knob. bundt. hiindiiin. a house. — Surrey in R. i. j). bin-wood. ON. piiiti. poultry. Bine. AS. a heap. G. bitacora. a little dog. Lap. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. an eagle's young G. expressed by Sw. bitill. — — . to twine. burt. terial. twice cooked. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. is in Scotland applied to ivy. a female dog hindinn. a bear. hith. Thus I suppose the Gr.. evegue. . Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. ge- from AS. is rendered in ON. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. and of Fr. to be derived from Ibfiaq. bunki. beorth. by the verb knit or net. Goth. biclie. bundt. Sp. — properly near-sighted. biccej ON. The proper meaning is a heap. Bin. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. overlooker. a corn.68 BIN Bio-.. V. admota non Bit. The term ON. isfiw. Bitch. from pondus. Sw. bund. IV. than vice versi. bhurja. truss. e. habitacle. Bing. Then added division in a granary. propius videre bij sicndc. Fr. to cook).' and the like. from \t3\. AS. a bitch. an overseer. Goth. or petze. the young of an animal. bjork. or bin. pullus. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. doubtless a stone. To Bite. to form a knotted structure. binge. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. Lat. evesgue. . Bisom. — Kil. to bring Biscuit. beisseii. bij sien. Lat. betsel. See Belly. bunch. a brood or hatch of young. bord. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Bizened.

Alex. G. Nagt huis. or water beating gently on the beach . . to speak Dan. Hald. blake. light-coloured. as of wings . first. So Fr. x. Bittern. . blob. Du. a large lip. bihovac. Wit hung her mourn. gabble. bites. a fluttering noise. baboyer. It. blab. to bivouac.. Fr. mona mid Dan. Mag. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. viz. ^chops. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. Bav. bittour. bleich. blabbre. pale. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. "uivac. yellow . But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. G. Deutsch. The bitas. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. NE. is placed. Fieldfare. whitish. 't huisje. blakk. — Hollyband. plappem. bird of the heron tribe. v. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. biti. small guard-house. blanc. shine. on. a shelter for the steersman. blob. indistinctly. the palebleff.plab is used to . to watch. to the sharpness of a weapon. Je N. blabhdach. Sp. in contempt. round which the cable is made fast. blac-hleor ides. Sw. beiwache. things —Palsgr. Why presumest And laam's asse. Fr. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. a childe dothe gasouille. — Collins in Hal. garrulous. night guard. 't kompas huis. The Gz. Goth. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. pale yellow. blobach. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. iroxafealo. bittore.. Mantuan babbi. Bohem. mouth. to loll it out. a flapping. unintelligible talk plabair. fallow . ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. Se bleek. Fr. bitor. synonymous with baber-lip. mouth. dark. AS. is apprehension of danger. bleg. cut. a tati. blabaran. Sp.' G. Gael. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. to To blabber blabber with the lips. to wax pale or bleaked. an edge is sharpest sword. beuni. In like manner E. baitrs. on the one side. dusky. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. blob. to babble. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. bleikr. In Legrand's Fr. confusedly. —Neumann. pale yellow . pale brown . Ai-mstrong. his blacan light. term.' It would thus acle.. Black. Again. blabbern. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. Blabber-lip.— Blabber-lip.' by Gudmund. white. blepLith. Mund. AS. babbe. a stammerer. a continued soft sound. out the tongue. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. a large coarse lip . quick. ^aj'/^r. plabartaich. Pl. stutterer. ' plabraich. as of a body falling into water. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. buft". /ealo-/or. chatter babbler . whiteness (candor sine It. from whence we have adopted the. Sp. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. Cot. to let out whai should have been concealed. babbling. A a rail. blank. faded.D. black. leohte . yellowish. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. bitones. even humour seemed and beuin. In a similar manner Gael. bitter. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. Bivouac. bitts of Bitts. faded. Hal. Bleak. — cheeked maid. 156. as of water gently beating the shore. fallow fawn-coloured. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. quoted by Ihre.' by Haldorsen. corrupted in Fr. ' Biovac. blubber-lipped. Cotgr. Sp. pale. blesmer. 'fuscus. ON. thoughtlessly . pale. Percy Soc. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. an additional watch. from wachen. beitr. brunblakk. ON. . blebberis. obscurus. To Blab the anchor. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. ON. 332. Applied in Hin ON. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . to chops. white.). pins of the capstern. to babble. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. butorj OE. Fr. as in that of pale and white on the other. maculS. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). apparently from its biting the tongue. as is seen in sputter and splutter. biacca. To or he can speake. I blaber. blakki. Lydgate. shining. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. to talk much. a beam in a house or ship. white lead. blunt we say it will not bite. bitr. gulblakk. a* mast . from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. ON. discoloured . Gael.€i. whitish. a babbler. Hist.

probably ate. which we . bladder. white. Fr. Torriano. or as E. is identical with Flanders borlen. Blade. pluddre. Gr. flap of a Du. or blafich. moere. &c. Blancli. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. to vocifer- — Cot. vagrants. mud. mus-blackt. defame. pass over. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. reproach. chatter. to Hence Ital. Dan. borrelen. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. G.— Kil. to bubble. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. a pustule . blame. dial. Cot. to glitter. shining. smore. blatter.—Blatter. Blank. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON.. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. waschen. See Blubber. to disappoint. blanchet. blank. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. — — — to jabber. blatt. to make or become white blanc. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing.— ^o thehotsun. blister. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. blactra. bladder. whitish. Jan. to blow. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. blather. with all other loose idle masterless men. a buible. Fr. blaeren. whitish. also tanned by the sun. blahen. 1854. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. as. black. tree. blad. blather. on. mud. madder. Bacon in R. blena.—Blatant. pladdern. pallido. candidus. irXariQ. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. and E. blad. variable than the signification of words designating colour. Blanket. and he shall be sure to have O. tattle. and Q. slush. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. a bladder or pustule. Dan. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. Blank "verse. to —Blaspheme. —We Bladder. the ON. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. —^Webster. . to dabble in water. to shine. Dan. 5/^a/^ of colour. To blank. blister. biasimare. dripping-pans. foolish talk. plat. his meat burnt. also white woollen cloth . and others engaged in dirty work. The present forms then should be classed with blether. Reliqu. blegne. 7. blanc. on. blanchir. D. blasphemare. Fr. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. — . bladre. vagabonds. blein. and wandering men and women. pXaatpiiiiHv. G. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. PI. commonly called the Black-guard. I am degraded from a cook. to shine. a leaf. Sc. a bubble. bladder. to purl. smother. p. e. and G. a boil.. Play in Nares. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. Du. a blank ticket. white. a bubble. roar. bladder . Fr. Perhaps from blegen. Now. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. boys. from candere. speak impiously. or of an oar G. to To bellow. plate. sheet of paper. — rura. Hist. Du. name originally given Blackguard. bladdra. blanqne. a. blaere. bladra. . that within the space of 24 hours they depart. It. leaves.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. — Sw. To Blare. Sir. imbrunire. Bav. piatto. also jabber. as scullions. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Lat. Sw. blatter. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. . blinken. Du. G. or a mass of bubbles. linkboys. as. and thence to babble. coat. to bleak in the sun. 86. gabble. livido . a blanket a bed. plat. to glow. Sw. to omit. bladeren. as Lat. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. most complete example of leafy structure. polished. biastner. Besides the examples of this connection given above. leaf. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. But perhaps a more Gr. Du. pimple. leaf of a. contracted from bladeren. chatter. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. mire. cited in N. blister. the leaf of a tree. a white or unwritten ticket. Blain. in R. leafy. The radical bubble. Du. Wott. to blanch. the origin of . rogues and wanderers. revile. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. and the agitation of liquids. Eadmer. blether. Blame. broad. board. blister. blanchet. skola and thwatta. branches . as blader. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. blegen. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn.

a flame. baladron. to de. Dan. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. fire. thraso. . by stripping off a portion of the bark. blaser vid. to blaze Sp. G.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. the matter incendiary . an conium. Du. ventosus. To Blaze. proflare tues. But now. ON. in that of praise. noisy blor. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. redness . splendour. blysa. blcEsan. has also blencke. Cot.— . Gudmund. If armour. oured. . blaze. an empty and two theories are proposed.sound a trumpet. Lye. oron-blasare. blesse. blase. ing of arms. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. abroad. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. Fr. blaodh.' painted or figured . to spread news. a voice Jr. blass. to bellow. Fr.). a blast. to publish the praises. blasa. a whisperer. . used. to publish. blast. to proclaim. blaesen. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. 'op een trompet blaazen. blcesett. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. to blow . is from AS. to trumpet forth. OE. G. AS. light-coli. The origin of this exSp. to blow. in the same way as we 2. Du. and.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. blasonner. blateroon. a shield. bles. magnilo. like the in English. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. brasa. blase. baladrar. blason. A gust of wind. Fr. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. — Elazen. a flame. See Blare. is used in the sense of manifestatio. ther it was erst not knowe. e. bliEsan. as a verb. live coal . besides blesse. indeed. Sw. Du. i. among other . Golden Book in R. pale. gloriosus. to blow. how. boasting. blcEsan. a MS. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. As Kilian. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . a shining spot. the noisy. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. loud . Dan. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. blossi.whence the Fr. Du. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. magniloquus. beast. might spring from the same origin by a . Blanches illuminies. a shout. The AS. To blast. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. friend Cornelius.' to fastum . and which. a flame . much plausibility. a torch. blezo. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. to extol. senses. a lamp blasere. on whose behalf the herald appeared. to cut off prematurely. blazen. of an animal. brasa. With inversion of the liquid. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. blcest. visui patet. Blaze. She roade at peace through his heraldry. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. also praeblczse. proclaim the virtues of. — — ' : bless. g. bleis. 2. blasoen. somewhat different train of thought. blcese. bldsse. blaterare. is the imme. quus. blesse. also only pains and excellent endurance.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. commendation blason funebre. — ^Jam. Kil. a funeral oration . blaeteren. blus. A blaze is so intimately Then. First from the E. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. stultd loqui. The other derivation. coloured prints. I. embraser. A strong flame. blason. to set on fire. AS. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blys. kept up. might And sain. — ' — stroy. it is manifest. Troilus and Cressida. ON. Cot. clamorous. braise. or to the sound which it produces. a torch . bawling. Sc. each of boaster. Sw. and to make him word blaze. abroad. laudes (Kil. blose. a coat of arms. blaodhrach. Du. ill-speaMng their proper colours . To blow AS. also blazon or the blazSpenser. Blast. Prov. Du. blorach. Gael. biter. Blatant. whence Blazonry. or blazening. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. blatero. declaratio. shield or surcoat. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. a loud noise. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. blis.

a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. to humbug. blister.' the devil makes a vain back. like one that has long P1. to wink the eye. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. paleness. p. bleakness. exposed. to soil. See Black. Bailey. B. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. a blotch plerr. ' He blarrede or roar. 115. a stain. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. Ancren Riwle. a boil. to spot . blot. what blenched him therwith. souiller. a spot. novice. See Black. See Blood. blur before their eyes. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. From the OFr. to wink at it. darkness of vices. blesmir. BLENCH obfusco. wanness. blesmissure. which are blurred with the have shewed you. Bleak. to become livid. the livid colour of a bruise. geplerr. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. sinen langen tranen. plama. Fr. light-coloured. to stain one's honour or reputation. And By a similar metaphor Pol. or blemysshen — blaken. the formal equivalent of English wink. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. goda nainn. ^Blencher. I chaunge colour. blench came to be used for a trick. whitish. Bleed. c. as of dust or mist . Schmel. As AS. a been distinct. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. to cry or weep. tacher. A Blab.P. blcecan. N. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. from on. A stain in a man's reputation. Palsgr. blakna. a spot. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. or to low as oxen. inflamed eyes. to bleat as sheep. — — R. 242. to bleach. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. Blear. . a fault.'he cried till the tears ran down. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. to disgrace one's name. splamii!. to make him feel blank. livid. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. Bejaune. . one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. bleikr. a spot. from the than schal I go. a blot or smear blanking one. in the expression reputation. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. To Bleat. a disgrace. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. Blemisli. blema. Mac. bloken. blink. ' — — ' : — — . to whiten by exposure to sun and air . . yet he doeth not for all that Cot. to start away from. (faith or creaunce) Be war. tumanid. ' . to blear one's eye. wheal.v. a spot. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. confound him. pimple . . sugillatio. a red watery eye. To totally different from the foregoing. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. dead-coloured Cotgr. Manuel de Pecch&. livor.D. spSt. blemissemeiit. tutnan is a cloud. to cast a mist before the eyes. to blare been weeping. AS.' to deceive one. and thence to a bruise. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. or blemish. blot. to spot. Blear-eyed j having sore i. while the agent ac- From . see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. avoid looking it in the face.' God in his wordes. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. . wan. color plumbeus bldma. flack. Gower in R. Sir J. Gr. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. So in Sw. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. pale Du. G. And now are these but mansbond (i. a blemish in one's 2. boggle at something. spla7nU sie. pier vor den augen eyes. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. start vor den augen. 419. To salir. Sw. bldmi. Blancher. blarren. pale .filerren. Bleb. Richardson. guenchir. ^Xiixaoftai. is Blench. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. drop of water. The term blear. on. ' — — eye. Pol. — blink the question is to shrink from it. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light.

thou knave. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. blent. Blink. blinzeln. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . a glance Swiss blenden. blac. to glitter . is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blendian. G. false windows. Needle. a nounce happy. joy. glimpse. . as in the case of blaze. blinde fenster.. lighten. with or without the nasal. to — make it thick and muddy. blich-fiur. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. . lightning. AS. blinzdugig. AS. happy . (=bene dicere). latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. make these hands 3. burn up. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. to bless . tative source of the word is wholly lost. the G. pockets. sung. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. to make happy. blidu. weaklaveny. To blunder water. .eyed. to stir or puddle. Pol. a gleam. an entry which leads to nothing . riches .Q. mix from blekken. De Sonne ' verblekken. to act like a — . blitz. although in the in the next article. blazeny. Sc.corn. blide. . Thence apblinds. to rejoice. to blithsian. to shut the eyes. also to wink. shine. blicken. a flash. or nettle which does form. in potters' language. — A A — . F. blahoslaviti to twinkle. Du. blund. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. I hold thee a grote thee. bludder. G. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. to merry. lightning sweet blago. blindselen. — . to dash wine with water. to mix. The term then self or others. plonsen. blend. glitter. trix. sertion of the nasal. blessed.blunda. to twinkle. pale. From the action of the hand making Sw. wink. ^Jam. Blazena Bea. a dead nettle. to consecrate . vious one in the order of formation. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blessed. AS. as a vatn i vin. pearance of the blighted . blitzen. . . gladness. goods. money. window-blind. a wink With the bletsian. blende. sweet. is I shall Gurt. to churn. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. a. bliss look . A . giving (Fr. to flash. to bless. wink of sleep . blick. to lighten. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. a. OHG. ON. seems the simple netel. Du. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. joy . Kiittner.blinze. Serv. livid. gives blinzen. to glance. — when he — Bailey. AS. moment. blogi.blinkard . OHG. blind. to bluiter. Wtb. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. Bliss. the Slavonic languages. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. to shine.blinken. glance. happy . riches blajennii blicksem. the verb to bless is some. . blithe blis. Sc. Du. blinzler. Nares. bluiter. to shut the eyes G. Du. to bluiter up with water. Deprived of sight. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. tless —Gamm. To Blend. to fall into water with a sudden noise. blag. blindr. to dabble in water. The sound of k before an s. tire. blicksem. mixing in general. a look. —Brera. to pro.D. csecubrandish. graceful. a glance. well blagaya. blahos. — Goth. Swiss (obsolete). glitter. readily passes into a /. but by no means therefore a pre. fortunately. G. happy .' To — blunge clay. .nasal. cascultare. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. well blahy blick and blink. Russ. j). blink. lovely Bohem. 375. to shine. to be blind. ' Pl. blanssen. glitter. to make a rumbling noise. To Bless. plotzen. Blind. . flash of light . . blink-eyed. Dan.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. be glad flash. to glitter ful . a blick-ooghen. and joys of Paradise bliden. III. Owl and Nightingale. liquid filth to bluther. blissian. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. good. Paradises blidnissu. joy. blatida. blincken. a blessing. as a blind entry. Biglotton. blithe. happily.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight.not sting thiiren. as in Du. to rejoice. joyful. blago. as taschen. blicken. blican. lightning. blet. blaziti. Sw. G. . to plunge. to shine. bleg. Swab. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. to glitter. . a wink. Tany. dazzle . to dazzle .wink . to dilute too much . glad. The inblissful. doors. Blight. blotzen. Du. blind- ON.

buckle. formed spot. blidr. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. taken altogether. blcesma. soft. a See Blot. Sw. gentle OHG. pusula. bluster. husks. blister. Hence E. blesme. G. biota. Block. to dash liquid. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. plub. to breathe hard. senting the dashing of water. separate portion. G. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. Jonson. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. bluyster. a bubble. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. soft. a lumpish head plubach. Blob. fiustula. soaked. blijde. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. . Of sheep. in the sense of a soft tint. to blow. boucler. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. pustula.plisg. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. must be classed with forms like Gr. bloc. stone. Svt. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. strawclod. shells. in bulk. — Sw. weak. to close it with a solid mass. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. — . repre- pusula. bloated. Lat. ^vaaa. expressed by cognate roots. Kil. or the like. For this. any lump or mass of things. blautr. soft. and inarticulately. to block up the way. orbicular. . a blister . In Fin. the unhewn bole of a tree. signifying in the first instance to soak. Thus we have blab and babble. blindsehn. Du. Fr. to soak. a bubble. cooking. blotfisk. W. B. is also used in the sense of swelling . ^Jam. or bleb. blond. Bleb. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. blouca and Fr. to blissom. mild. Ibid. in the lump or mass of wood. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. To a smoking or drying by the fire. blindman's-buff. . and F. blab. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. as blinzeln. a block or log en bloc. and easily changes its place. a blain. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. puff. Egillson. blod. to to puff and be noisy.— Hal. bubble and blubber. to desire the male. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. a bubble. blobbes or droppes of water. Blob. a small lump of anything thick. blad. a blot or spot. Hence. speaking rapidly any . to steep. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. blithe. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. — — — — — From blabber. kostua. blinzel-maus. Gael. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. a blister. viscid. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. buclde. Blister. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. having an unsound swollen look. Gael. a .— Bailey. joyful. and pisg. See Blot. frequentative. To Bloat. to bubble. — Blob. Blond. blister blasan. bloc. blide.—Bloater.pusta. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. light yellow. pods. bleiths. inde humiditate tumidus. To Blissom. Goth. Du. round. or is inserted or omitted. from blcsr. Fr. Mod. —Bailey. Dan. in gusts. blaustem. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. a dirty blister. soak in water cured fish. The blow E. busten. kostia. as in E. blot. a drop of water. blote. to blow. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. The stem or trunk of a tree. pimple. A under this name was imported into England. blot. Sc.. The roots /. lagga i blot. Bav. a little blisg. pausten. Sw. blobber. A solid blouquette blisters. bausen. and bouclette. like clot. to swell. And so from squatter. Dan. to blow. like manner the coloured. merciful ON. must be referred to AS. blubber. ON. in Nares.—Bloated. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. is formed squad. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. as if soaked in water. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. an unformed mass. whence blast. swell. it is must be observed. ON. while Lat. blaud. mass. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Langued. or blinde-kiih. a ram. to cure by smoke. Cotgr. sloppy dirt. N. fish blind person. B. blot. also to set See Bless. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. mild. Boyd in Jam. It may be formed Blithe. as a blab of ink. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. I believe. or the mark which it makes. .

platter. bloetnsel. Hatch. Schilter. a blaze. glossi. plotterwis. a lump. glus. Du. bleistern. Fr. blose. a deli. platz-regen. a Schmid. S-wiss pladern. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. ON. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise .D. blad. to blot the land was in a leme. colour of the cheeks. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. blond en blaauw slaan. pladdern. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. blond. plattata. or the sound of it . The G. blawels. Blossom. yellowish It's G. pladern. . to fall (of liquids) in abundance. blue . leme. a blot or spot. lidmr. plottra. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. Dan. to strike with such these objects exhibit. blut. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. blomstr. E. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. from the bright colour which 7'vci. . bliihen. E. mud. blois. plet. the bright to blot paper morsels. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. of a blow with something lios. — Cot. blase.^ Kil. to slap. . — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. gammon. a Usaae. bloed. Sc. blaeuw. to dash down. spots in the sun. light. Bloom. Sw. probably connected with Pol.properly to scatter liquid . Wflz<^«. from G. Pl. bfys. a beater. . glister . blatte. Dan. as the skin or hair. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. ON. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. sbiadare. dial. blue. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. See Blow. D. blaeuwe ooghe. to dirty. a blow. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. blodelsa and blawelsa. blosma. blosen. to squat or lie close. platz-voll. blaeuwen. . in v. — Stalder . — Blotch-paper. a spot or blot. bloto. skam. Fris. ^Bleed. OFr. bloedsd. coloured (Diaz. Blotcli. Sc. blooth. AS. to blaze. to dabble in water. blou. a Halm a. blond is used in blatt. biado (of which the evidence plattern. en blau ach. bliithe. Fris. dirty spot on the cheek. bleustern. Prov. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. to spot or blot. pale. Blow. splendour . a flower. to shine . to slap. to exists in biadetto. great leaf of cabbage. bit by bit. spot pletter i solen. on. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. blondheid. Sw. Schmid. blowen. bluish. gfyssa. See Blow. G. E. plants which prepares the seed. glose. fair in en blat vand. Blood. . to dabble in water . PI. E. the bright colour of the cheeks . to blush . blus. Erploten. E. bldts. Jios. to grow pale). to flame. blotting-paper. bloi. pale biavo. bloi. blady. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. yellow. bloi. Harmar in R. plot of land is a spot or small rage. wan. Du. Sw. Blad. pale tint. shine . lustre. Ir. Wendish blodo. livid marks. (of cattle) to dung. Dan. to strike with something soft or flat. to From . to blaze .blauschlagen. fall down . blysa. lump flower. parallel form with ON. blotte. a cow-dung. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. gloss. Russ. blust. dial. whence plader. to sparkle. gleam. blistaf. blosem. platschern. platsch-voll. proto shine with bright colours . to be red. clod. It. a The form platschefz. Lat. to scribble. ' — . couleur livide. to be red with blot. livid . a nature. a water ploutsche. straw. to patter. bldmi. a gush of milk . cow-dung. bloutre. . a black eye Du. a drop of water or colour. lump of anything soft to blad. 2. fall to overflowing. to glisten . Schwenck. Du. to glow. blue. AS. white blatte. — gush. blue. bloemen. redness. Plots. blat. j^ blottir. soft or flat.— . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. bletister. blostma. G. blotter. It should be of filth blak-blatte. Ein platsch milch.' the rain is driving and blue . bloeme. a torch blusse. platt-voll. brilliancy. blauwel. ON. . ])erly Du. to strike . a. splashing full. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Blot. to squander. ^lys. flower. kuh-plader. a flower. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). bliise. glasi. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Du. a pelting shower). kobladde. a flower. blosa. E. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. blue. Florio). to dash down Du. to splash. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. Stalder. —Barbour. — — .

plubraich. closely difference in of blabber. to fade. glas. and thence. a Blossom. is confined to the — . 51. gloeden. to with Bohem. to fade. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. to'disorder. heath. Wtb. plubair. blue . blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water.xo'»'. to exhibit bright colours. pale. bloes. 2. . To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . bloeyen. a. pale . Bret. plubartaich. G. gliihen. to inflate. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. Her sweet bloderit face. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. bloom. blust. a bruise. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. gUd. OHG. blue. /idXavoc. into flower. It. to flourish. puff. a blast. Pludern. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. where the word may be compared bliggman. fqded. The aUied forms. . Blowzy. bliihen. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. bliuwan. blois. fem. G. green. corre. fiubbem. It is howbliuwen. bliihen. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. a paddling in wate r. to flap like loose clothes. to gabble. blao. Pl. grey. bruk. P1. to Plodern. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. and closely allied with Du. bluther. to spot. and the forms mentioned under Swab. Jla-re. Chaucer. blaw j biavo. bludder. The interchange of an initial gl. a fat. glow. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. ' BLUE or guggling. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. ^Jam. blubbern. fied vowel. blava. to make bubbles in drinking. bliithe. boil. flower w. wan. blazi. d in Sc. may cite for example G. blut. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. to blow. a herb Gr. — To Blubber. — . plusig. — To blubber. the red fluid of the body . to glow. blduen. |8A)'. sense. to shine with bright From colours.D. blubonciti. chatter. Blue. glaodh and blaodh. bruised Prov. blady. in E. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. to puff up. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. Pl. foam.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Raynouard. G. sound like water.' — Palsgr. blau. blazir. in rapid or indistinct utterance. grow pale. sponds with Sw. E. to breathe G. to guggle.— . pale OFr. bluh.nify bubble. glas. like manner Lat. disordered. toused. to hard. br. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. -ii. is very frequent. glowing coal . Lat. 1292. blawan.to blossom. to bruise Roquef. MHG. bledniai. Chaucer. Du. boasting. Prov. Langued. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). y\r)yi»v. wan. to blow. v. a continued noise of agitated water. . blodyn. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome.D. blow. glansj Ir. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. a gurgling . Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. — — Mundart.D. piusen. The primary sense is to shine. to bubble up. w. . plodern. blau. to blurt out. The radical sense is shown in Gael. bloeden. to beat. meurtrissure Roquefort. blosen. to blow. little apparent resemblance. bl.D. especially with respect to the hair. pludern. 92. cheeks bedabbled with tears. And.Jlasa. to breathe bouteiUis. to gush. ler. OHG. to show flower. Notwithstanding the We . Deutsch. a flower. . 1. These are — Bludder. G. gliihen. Tumbled. to make blue.' Hamburgh Archives. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. Gr. Deutsch. Gael. bloi. bluod. Kil. vi^ound. blezir. Danneil. Du. to glow. bloemen. blebber. blodelsa. glede. flower OHG. a blow. OFr. — Bluther.. coup. marking some application from that bladder. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. gloeyen. To Blow. dirty. bldt. Blowze. We . blodern. pale. Bav. — . To Blow. A. —SchmelIt. plustrig. to beat with a mallet. Mund. B. grug. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. to fade. Sik upplustem. blubbern. AS. . red-faced bloted wench. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. blass. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. disordered in head-dress. jabber. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. florere. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. withered. blahen. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. tache. E. or gr. In agitation of water.

polterer. verdoyer. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . OFr. fawn-coloured. to plump into the water. Du. biava. biavo. verdure. which is rendered by Florio. herauspoltem or sloping shore. mistake. flodderen (Weiland). — Pr. blac. a shore abruptly rising. plomp. blunderhead. as well as sbiadafe. speech. blutter. a blunderbuss. contrasted with the dle. find accordingly It. The word is here synonymous with amplus. sloppy drink. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. It then signifies something done at once. to fade). Kiittner. to become pale or wan. to fall suddenly on the ground. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. poltern. Hal. to puddle. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. to blunder water. Pol. . Roquefort. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. pale yellow. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. a plain coin herausplatzeu. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. blave is moreover. G. dial. G. Supp. Altieri. blanssen. discoloured {plowiee. to mix it up with water. Hence a Slcelton in R. something. in plur. and metaphorically. and Du. blunder. Flor.— . without image or superscription. tradire to Fr. sbiavare. all representing the — . tutte le semente ancora in erba. G. to stir or pudcorn in the spring.make a noise. like Du. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Kil. disturb. Analogous forms are Du. has donder-bus. like the Celtic glas. bulmanner. and biavo (Diez). or an abrupt manner. to dabble in the mud. trahir. ploffen. blake (identical with AS. blond. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. Sw. It is remarkable however that the E. bloi. in water dobbelen. Pl. from an imitation of the sound. And blunders on and staggers every pace. flav-us. Dryden in R. bUich. to work To blunder out a fronto. Kil. polter-hans. applied to green as well as blue. Hence we pass to Prov. earth and water mixed together. bleu et blanc. yellow. je perturbe. plo-wy. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. Romance bluiter. blue.. I blonder. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. The Du. sense of yeUow. From G. devenir vert blavoie.' trouble. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. Blaffart. Bodge. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. corn. . to become pale or livid. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. a fore. glundra. having a bluff forehead. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. pludder. jaune. We Blunder. Palsgr. Bladum.D. a flounder. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. to confound. and sbiadare. To blunder is then. as well as biado. Blunderer or blunt worker. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. segetes virentes. his business with much noise. Roquefort. See Blunt. blaf. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. an ill-done job. yellowish red. biada. from the Lat. corn. See Blurt. and then generally idle talk. Bohem. Pm. abrupt. a boisterous violent man. rustic. from the brilliant green of the young E. used for the work of an unskilful performer. blunt. originally growing up turf and water. E. buller-bak. blunder. puddle. Dief. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground.//aay. Biada. — . Ditton in R. pale) is provincially used in the. to become pale.in mud or water. — — — . The Du. Bluff. G. - reddish yellow. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. liebefactor. in the same way as from It'. A bluff manner. and bustle . is. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. blue. to blunge clay. bawling. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . blavus. bluish. superficie plani.• BLUFF biado. blandum. mix It. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. blahir. falb. Blunt. Halma. herbe. confusion. pale. planus. Then with the nasal. to dabble Biglotton E. to lose colour. non rotunda. fallow. Dan. to agitation of liquids. bullern. pale straw-coloured. Blavoyer. Du. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Lat. glundr. blue. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. 't — —Hal. buller-bas.

stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. awkwardly. bald. Plontp. without the nasal. as Sw. and the like. It. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. blait. plutz T)\i. massive. poor Sc. pale. nature. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. viz. The syllables blot. or blab out a thing Kiittner . blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. maol. inactive Swiss bluntschi. duU. Pol. G. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. biosso. blutten. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. plump J to plump out with it. dull. blunsch. platz-regen. ineffectual reason. bluntschen. rude. plump. blout. G. V. fooUsh. It is from this notion of suddenness. blue. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. pointless. from the loud report a fire-arm. bloss. Bare and blunt. and. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. F. awkward. identical with E. bare. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. and in the same sense. fling down . to handle a thing bluntly. Kiittner. heavy. Plump mit etwas umgehen. a bluntie. naked. bare. seems to be derived. to plump down. and hath swiche languor in his soul. blott. unfledged Sw. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. down. It will be seen that the G. in Richardson. and an unintelligent. blait. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. unpolished. of a knife which not cut. dull. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. blockish. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. that it not easy to discover the connection. — Kil. Plump. Ford in R. clownish. homo stolidus. to blunt a thing out. nis. hebes. Sc. forestis. silly. blatte. blunt. blunt. azure. naked. bare or blunt. plotsen. a thick and will person. like a thing thrown down with a noise. is thrown. plump.pludse. Stalder. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. plains The large bech. without Maolaich. ang. obtusus. . — — pidus. void. blotta sanningen. Chaucer. united in Gael. bus. Blaitie-bum. The blait body. Sir T. A light blue colour. unceremonious manner. —D. as cow-dung. — blunt. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. it will be well to point out a sense. viz. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. the absence of sharpness. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. rudely. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. Halma. Woddis. inaKil. dial. wan. naked. Sw. Blunt. without preparation. to bring it suddenly out. Du. biotto. Bluntet. a portion To inquire for slaves. plumbeus. —D. a blot. Swab. Now the Swiss bluntsch. to make foliage. through which a man is so blont. blat. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. to make a noise of such a Stalder. heavy. obtusus. used in both senses. a simpleton. plotz. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. exactly corresponding to the G. naked. without horns. absence of preparation. insensible. plonsen. V. to plump into the water. blunt. is The word dull. Kiittner. it will be observed. More in Richardson. V. Then cometh indevotion. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Dan. good plump person. that the sense of bare. Won by degrees. Q. sheepish. . thick. blunt. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. as in E. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. pressions. figuratively. raw.— — — . platzen. Probably radically hlekit.—D.to fall into the water.plompen. Dan. Molof something wet. to blurt. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. clumsy. stupid fellow. bleak. unwrought. with or without the nasal. A modification of the same root. rough. or heraus plumpen. edgeless. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. Sc. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. plump. but of something soft thrown on the ground. blunder. plump. heavy.

violent. to make a noise with the mouth. beer. a. a blow . A large snake. to rumble. blaustem. plump. like the parapets (viggyrdil. to bounce. a board or plank. hot. to smear. ader. bot. blur. blader. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. blose. board. To splirt.—Bobbin. outward edge. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. blurra. Fl. to puff. . bliise. and swimmeth very well.plodem. crack made by bursting open. to blurt out. to blubber. to blaze. The elision of the d is very to chatter. bhis. a short thick body. Bluster. primarily signify loud noise. AS. to sound like water boiling. Wright's ed. Sc. brett. Bav. boot. 9396. to snuff. to jabber. geplerr. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. splurt and spirt. w. Swiss blodern. an end or stump. BLUR Boar. to talk quick and indistinctly . to brag grande loqui.D. Halma. — To Bob. a bladder . a mist before the eyes plerren. bdta. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. blirt of greeting. OE. Board. pluddre. a blotch. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. cheeks glow. is formed Du. bord. puddle. a burst of tears. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. as splurt to splutter. ever-swin. It. boccheggiare. stellio. to crying. ON. bakke bleustern. See Blossom. To Blurt.— . to dangle. to dabble. V. the sound of a blow poffen. Bot zeggen. imitated by has also In like . bluter. cluster. To brag and to crack. pof. to threaten. — a blaze. mire.' — Red Riding-hood. to give a crack. this root are formed Sc.pusten. Boost is used for the boast. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. a blot. a flurt with one's fingers. blot. short pieces of any filthy mud. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. dull. dial. bluther. Boa. berd. the Brem. The to radical meaning D. blot. a grows to a great bigness. to disfigure with E. to guggle. violent G. 'Ba. dial. Comp. to dirty. bur. flat. Gael. bar. BOB 79 — To Blur. chicchere. as in Du. Du. To tinct. cocodrUlus. bot-voet. to render indisbhir. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Sc.plerr. — From mouth. bausen. bobine. — — . table. to make a noise in boiling. As the as. bdtr. acre. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. Lat. to blush. . properly noisy. to blur. margin. margin. Sverris Saga. blaste?i. Du. It. to puff. to say bluntly. blubber. a border. of the word seems . common. blunt. table. Related to blutter. botte. blasen and See Burr. fringe. to endeavour to terrify. rude. whence bordvidr. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. lindwurm. Fr. a smear. strong. blaffen and baffen. puffen. Gael. bateau. a club foot . and when applied to vaunting language. blarra. bdd. beacon fire. on. blusse i ansigtet. Wtb. It. Du. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. De Boat. skin. Dan. to breke. voce intonare. margin. a tassel. be a crack or loud sound. to blore. to puff. gabble Sw. 274. then applied to indistinct vision . AS. to roar. will fly up. bleuster. 156. bladdra. bord. Hal. bludder. E. Hal. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. Fl. blaere.y. edge. Blush. Explained by Jam. Du. stupid. Slur. and the latch . bit. a baU of thread the mud. lacerta. Supp. border. coarse. aper. baban. and Du. Pl. pfludern. rude. boistous. To move quickly up and down. or bog also thread. E. batello. Du.v. G. to be out of temper. to blow. a dangling object. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. AS. blast. to make mouths. boa. and E. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. pausten. Boa. to chatter. bustuous. swagger. . . P. a tassel. bora. or backwards and forwards. Du. to spurt out. gabble. G. To blow in puffs. bord. — ' Dief. eafor. borrar. ground. a mistiness. a Jam. planks or boards. a small lump. an edge. c. e. to glow . literally edge-wood. bludder. it implies that it is empty sound. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. Kil. i. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. &c. pustern. Pull the bobbin. . a torch blusse. 1. or blurt with one's mouth. G. and boisterous. 29. blodern. eber. bobbin. blosken. See Boisterous. Fr. blotch and botch.the syllable bot. pludern. planks raised up outside the roofs. boord. large. my dear. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. edge. to bark. burra. baiag. Schmeller. Du. Wallace. sudden. both used in the sense of boasting. an ear of corn. whence bob. — — — * Boast. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth.

bogach. round. So BOB To Bob. . bogan. dies. gogach. is identical with Fr. move. '£. body of a shirt bol. strike with the horns. bottich are derivatives. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. to thrust. to push with the horns. an awl. or a pair of bodies. — H. and E. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. a spur. a prick. agitate. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. quagmire). fickle . 3. Crist. message boda. unsteady. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. to stir. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. to be unsteady tich. as in stammering or staggering. . nave of a wheel. Ptg. Bodkin. — Grandg. meaning the round part of his body. Gael. a ghost . Lap. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. baboyer. to make a mow at. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. stitch. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. swelling. the body. a round body both. a cask. where bogs form Gael. the thick part of anything. bog. In like manner E. And waves. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. potahha. expression hogglin an bogglin. . arise E. goggle. bogadaich. anything protuberant. unsteady nature of a soft substance. daubed or dabbled with blood. Thy i.gmh:t. Commonly explained as if from Sc. palleg. whence Fr. bot. to dabble or paddle. bod. Bret. mud. potig. Bog. belly. gag. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. body and G. bodetz. waving. . bog (equivalent to E. See To Botch. corset from corps. Bohem. The signification of the root bot. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Shakespear has badged with blood. formerly bodies. patsche. — as well as the body of an animal. Wall. a cask. bothog. . — 2. bog. to butt. The Sp. Miracle-plays. to bodge. Gl. shaking . corset. bob. bodig.! . unsteady. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. Supp. to fail. With With this we charged again We bodged again. point. bodhag. needle. bodak. toss. . gog. 43. rounded. then from the yielding. Gael. It introduced from Ireland.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. bottig. gebod. or stem of a tree.a (i\ia. wavering. To mock. W. whence paUchen.rabodi. Schmel. barrique. Cot. to scruple. AS.' A — Sherwood's Diet. the trunk of the animal body. or bag. e. woman's stays. bayonet. corpset. so large a feature in the country. the boss of a buckler. To make bad work. exhibit another modification of the root. to waver. bodian. barriga. a . bole. bodnu. potacha. bagges. To Bodge. biodeachan. to commit a blunder. ON. . to blurt a thing out. to deliver a message. Now unskilful action is conmire. stumpy. To Bode. bogadh. potacha. moist mire.. We . stutter gogmire. as a horn. shake. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. butt. Lith. biodag. bolr. a prickle. bo tich. bayonet . AS. a messenger . BOGGLE trunk and G. to start start and back as from a bugbear. from fitting close to the body. a sting . to fail. a command. bod. a puddle. bodies. speak of the barrel of a horse. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Russ. to prick. as signifying anything spherical or round. precept. to be uncertain what to do. . a dagger. bodi. gagei. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. badyti. nodding. to stick. French bouter. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . To portend good or bad. the stem of a tree . busti. to stammer. bodi.' Bogglie. of which the E. cask bottich. bodat. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. to bob. gagoula. the belly. See Baber-lipped. pall. gog in gog-mire. boftich. boll. the body of a shift gaguejar. is a lump. corpses pot. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. an announcement. Reliq Antiq. bogle. gago.\\i\c\iset. a quagsoft. thrust with something pointed. stuttering. calf of the leg. to roll. bodilo. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. Body. to smack. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. anything soft. bodene. * To Boggle. Bodice. and the word is well explained by Bailey. by the syllable patsch. a body. moving backwards and forwards. ^Jam. Ptg. Banff. Ir. a bog or morass. . quakmg. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. See Bid. Gael. to make.hollow. VI. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun.

quick. bulr. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. pillow. w. tomentum. Sc. bol. folliculus grani. a cushion. Du. proud. intrepid. gluma. Sp. a bubble. the body of a man or of ter. bolc'h. ^Vocab. poppy (Bailey). bouil. up of bubbles. OG. to be prominent. To Boil. hero. animal as distinguished from the limbs. bealder. . E. polc'h. to boil. bolstar. Lat. fiausten. is probably a modification of boll. bold. furfures. bald. bal. bout is explained by Kil. globular bod)'. stud. bul. used. bol. Chaucer. 45. the gurgling sound of water rush. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. as those of nuts. Fr. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — .rounded part of the body. whence bulla. strong. Bole. bolle. as. bolt upright. bullire. gerade signifies straight to the mark. a bakazikni. by which it is moved to and fro. bulla. bog. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. Boll. roydeur. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. Properly noisy. . The term applies in — — impressed . hakogni. bag or bog are derived Piedm. notes. swelling. baud. ON. and then applied to other husks. Du. see Boast. the. bold. or the like. Pr. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. G.— — . caput scapulse. cheerful. 374. bolster. haughty. OHG. buller. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. * Bolster. buile. to swell. in speaking. rough. balldr. Boil. which are not used for a similar purpose. pusten. ON. Bustuous. Kil. capitellum. to stumble. confident. Test. trunk of a tree . to be at a loss a shirt. Kit. bolzBold. huge. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. Stalder. 1430 in Deutsch. puilen. perpendicular. round the first instance to the materials with . 304). bula. bola. . swelling. a bump. cows the people from speaking. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. to the belly as the or dislike. This iv. bagaji. bold. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. coarse. Fr. and manace for to de. warlike. may be identified with It. strong. * Boisterous. belc'hj. bolt. shake. Chaucer seems Dan. to waver or hesitate. Sw. tartle. pimple ON. brave. beule. G. pall. Pm. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. pustule.palleg. E. i. Goth. capiing into a cavity. stutSw. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Swab. G. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). merry. as E. To Bolter. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. Love. boly. a quaking mire. strong. bulla. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. as baltha.D. bollen (Kil.' Mrs Baker. repagulum. to hesitate from doubt. ballr. boggle. It. — ' — tagliare. The round stem of a tree. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . Fr. Da. bochken (titubare. styffe or rude . Bret. a head . to stammer. boss. boil .. Westerwald bollern. (of Mons) b^guer. chatter. then violent. stameln vel bochken. ^Boistous. bola. bolla. tar. b^gayer. also a blister. from Du. to give a hoUow sound. bolzen. a bubble. courageous. the lir. flax-boU. blow. as. ON. he will speak out. ON. bog. glass phial. The bob. to puff. . boutpijl. bul. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. Magy. Mund. a boil or swelling Du. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. excellent. to tattle. — 6 . a fastening for a door. chaff of corn siliqua. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. bolr. prince. bald. bald. sels of flax. Me doth awate. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. bok. to stammer. bol. from the branches. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. a bubble. balder. but that Bolt. stramenta. hollow. In the same way Sc. V. See Bulk. noise. Du. impetuosity.). Du. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bSlstr. a swelling in ice. obex. dint in a metal vessel. tulum. Daring. bolster. boystousnesse. — — which the cushion is stuffed. wag. the body . insolent baude. bout. G. bolleken. Wall. in the sense of handsome . tartajear. free. the husk of nuts. A. tartalear. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. puile. bhster. Lat.— D. to stagger. boll. Boystous. treated under Bowl. courageous.w. Gael. biiilen. scruple. Lap. ohg. Cot.Du. properly represent belly.

D. — — — .i5a//^«. to coagulate. to bolt flour burato. and to crash. to start out. hammer. bolt head is a retort. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. a millpoltzet augen. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. : ' — — . uneven. a clump of turf. poltern. to agitate. . Pl. bolzauget) Sp. bulla. or a racer from the course. hulter de bulter. a . a bunch. crod. projections. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. to knock. I boulte meale in a boulter. holier poller. burclct. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. protuberance. or the like. Dan. Fr. rugged. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. the wheels groaned. as of a trumpet. tumultuari. fied bot. taraabout. a bolter Prov. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. sestuare. swelling. a crashing or racketing noise.thump or blow. buretter{CQ\. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E.noise {brattle of thunner. tling or crashing noise. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. buUire. buletel. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Sw. to become lumpy. OFr. Dauphiny a sudden movement. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. representing a rat. rugged. It. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter.D. also to curdle. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. as a rabbit from its baritel. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. hulch. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. And as the agitation of cream in . The ment and the operation. in S'W plotter. gebolder. bolzaugen. bultred. . to bolt meal barutel. abolter..agitation of the meal in the bolter. Champagne burtcau. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. to talk pulzen. a sod (Schiitze). . Bav. mole-hill. then to knock. . to bolt meal barutel. Lat. cruddle. or ill. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . OFr. have Lat. Mid. crash. bulk or quantity . we pass to Du. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. with E. jolting.protuberance. small heap. ' Holler poller / bulter. buletare.as the essential element signifying the talum.) E.nature of the operation. to spring forth E. beluter.Lat. we see that the one consists of a words. a round glass ending — bultig. to shake. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. tuft. btilt. bluter. lumpy. 2. On this account Mid. Du. as above explained. as Fr. to start with palpitate. taratantarum. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. uneven. bullern. Pl. by the representation of a racketing sound. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. pultare. Hence. poltern. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. to form lumps. So also we pass from Lat. loud and fast. we have Du. a clap of thunnences. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum.u. hump. G. bolt-foot. In the next place. Hence Palsgr. racket gepolter.— . from G. a rattling carriage. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. zare. ler. . a small portion. on the one hand. to bolter.fe/2?. tantara. pull.). buideln. brattle. to make a knocking. crotlar. bulio. a clod cloth. pattern.. Prov. cro. to clack. ' — — ! ! : — . to come rattling downstairs. taratarrum. budeln daz mele . blotttre. a bolter or implement for bolting. one after the other. agitari (Kil. bortelen. . bulk. kloteren. tar. Supp. Brem. ex•wagen. to E. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. bolzen. Bulte-pook or bulstar. OFr. barutela. . / is transposed in Fr. Here the radical image is the violent O. a club-foot. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. boss. poll. a clod. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. clump. baruta. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau.). hole. a rattle. Pm. projecting eyes pul. bolt.clack. Lang. die treppe pressed. hammer. we der Brocket). Sanders.D. je bulte. curdle. zen. bulstrig. knob. barutare. Passing from the sense of movement burattare.by forms like G. . Pr. beliitea.On the same principle. bultig. croler. and the Thus from So. Wtb. vessel with narrow opening. Du.D. the sense of right on end. staff which sounds tar. bolting to that of form. Schiitze.through a cloth of loose texture. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. to significance of the term was overlooked. MHG. grasbulten. barutela. P1. The ulti. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl.

— Bombard. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. It. tiffany. thick from shaking. bon. The material called by this name. banitola (Fl. bombase. and Du. bambagino. Banstead. cotton. a baker. to bind G. term is appropriated in G. been. . the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. bonds. a beacon. It. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. Antiq. G.). bopin. butteln. gunpowder. tree. . produced the Pl. rimbombare. bomba. Moreover. beil'n. bambagioj whence It. silk-worm. bombdra. bombast. basin. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. . an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. Fr. bande. bombicina. barate. It. a stem or base. bein. to boult meal. buidelen. a hollow sound. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. G. is supported by the analogy of G. Bonfire. the shank the shoulder-bone. a —Bombasine. buidelen. . burato. bunden. . Castrais barato. bommen. 83 Gr. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. bolting-cloth. derivation. bureau. bone of the . bombasin. band.D. beuteln. to ring bells. bauniwolle. to cast to and fro. Fr. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. E.bast. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. When ture. bombarda. silk. Schm. Gascoi^e in R.Lat. to bolt meal. a ligature. raw silk. the murmuring of the sea. the Fr. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. — bombast came guage. beuteln. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . It. bombasine. and that from Fr. sye. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. buttel trueb (of liquids). As cotton was used for padding clothes. Near 6 * . undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. bommer. . a bone in general. again. baum-bast. and Mod. bond. bambacium. to thump W. tie. . biire. In legal language. Mid. baun. to shake down fruit from a tree. 155. and Bond. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. G. Bibelesworth in Nat. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. a stock. bwmbwry mar. Bone. Butterglas. PoUitriduare. as Banbury. ties. bonfras. boulenger. e. It. a thundering noise bomre. we speak of a gun to resound. the silk-worm. In E. brust-bein.) . as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. as in . to which the leg. lana lignea. bombice. — having a stem or stalk. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. a string. Du. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. an implement of binding. a drum bombammen. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. builen. stuff. crook-shanked bondew. ODu. the leg. bwmbwr. to thunder. &c. and in fact we find the and Du. and also the leg.^Altieri. to resound. — AS. also thick-shanked. whence bomme. butteln. tie. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. bonog. cotton stuff. Dan. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. booming over the water. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bras. bureau. ^o/j. band pi. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. bulter from It. agreement. stump. a boulter of meal. Dan. Kil. From builen. achsel bein. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. or trunk word in W. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. sije. to shake (as to shake the head. thick-legged. thick. gossipium. from boom. borel. has repeatedly varied. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. Du. however.Su?. It. to beat a drum. iuttern. a churn for butter. bongam. Du. band. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. sijde. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. assuming the of leg : special signification W. a word of which we have traces in several English names. to shake. Fl. HoUybandin R. coarse. the contracted form of Du. breast-bone. must be explained Fr. and called in Mid. OE. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. from teu. sericum arboreum. q. Need you any ink and bonibase. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Bomb. bindan. bombe. i. d.

a letter . . litter. Pr. ty Gael. ganian. Bootless. tigh. to yawn. Bonnet. to ask. Pm. to prepare. boubi^. G. to gape. b'ukvdry. a letter Russ. . in Phil. although in the OG. a hollow skin. — Bailey. Thus from the syllable ba. the mouth. See Butt.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. badaud. botte. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. bua. AS. babin. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. a stall. fool. a good turn or re- meaning. signifying beech. and thence Rouchi baia. . which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. a head-dress. Mrs Baker explains bun. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. wondering signifies not only straw. lofty. by arbitours sholde bote the P. Bun. blockhead. Boon. Binau Brychyniog. The latter is the original AS. dress. bauen. Book. prayer. or Vanns. Fr. A favour.^ —P. . also called Brecknock Beacons. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. Boot of bale. master of the house. and from AS. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. letter. Sp. the scriptures bokareis. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain.Boos. In nautical language. a silly fellow. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. Hufwud-bonad. G. the stubble of beans.. Kil. the possessor of the farm. but stall. Bonnefyre. Hal. stabulum. and fig. a vessel for holding liquids. Palsgr. w. dial. inhabit. The origin of the word is probably the W. E. bosih. as the Brecknockshire Banns. bommen. To Boot. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. 232. the first consonant of the alphabet. clown. dial. from gape. till. a scribe G. to strew with straw. hu?idbusa. quest. A stall for cattle. botta.n. Goth. . to dress. Gael. the cultivator. booby. Basa. boten-shoen. swinbusa. babau. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. pole. Du. bauer. the name of the letter b. Prov. bene. head-dress wai^g. ON. a lofty blaze. busu. build. AS. baier. bds. high. . a dry stalk. dress. ass. ON. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. \ais-band. tall. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. buch-stab. writing bokos. Kil. G. help. gehyred. boia. petition. boa. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. ON. from badare. build. bobo. boer. and Gael. are formed Fr. * Boose. to gape. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . gaby. of wonder On the same principle Sp. foolish. bonad. See Bomb. Boom. bossen. Boor. . Swab. ON. betere thing werse. dolt. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. bAkva. — To boot. to aid. b^er. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. Du. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. remedy of evil. from Du. — From the participle present. a lying-place for dogs or swine. as a lying-place for cattle. nachbar. bd. From bo. boandi. a. Ox. chaff. . boom. botte. beiSne. to cultivate. reparation. relief from sorrow. been. a bag of skin or leather. — . Jr. buandi. by itself for head-dress. bote. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. pig-sty. feu de behourdis. N. — — . in w. boutig. bota.—Bootless. a bonfire. ben. babb^o. Perhaps. from beida (E. pero. countryman. bos. dog-kennel. tapestry. beam. It. boutig. Fr. inhabit. is Du. where a cross (or a gun. OW. Mrs Baker. — e. gawney. Thin ben Luke i. The i. Schm. Build. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. Booby. remnants of hay or straw. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. . which one gaping and staring about. Busk. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. The character of folly is i860. boo. bolt. desire. Du. Gl. comes bondi. whence ban-ffagl. bonad. succour Bailey. Fr. bua. 13. petition. bonaid. to litter bosu. and Ban in w. Fr. bid). set in order. simpleton. . Boot. to cultivate. a tree. often cut for burning and lighting fires. however. Wall. biikui. Hal. to set in order. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. See Bown. short boots. prayer. bose. Trans. literally cow-house. bosig. OSlav. bobo ! interj. gaping hoyden — Cot. boubair. E. b&ber. It is commonly explained as identical with It. bas. bowwen. netis stall. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. But bosg. a. at everything. till. A peasant. wall hangings. p. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. house. without ad- . bonnet. the alphabet. bdn. a simpleton. one who dwells nigh.

purra. amendment. bdra. a chisel. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. puru. See To We speak in E. of an edge that will not bite. piercer. barn. .por. Fl. from bord. boards. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). differs only in termination. a granary . &c. extremitas Bore. 1. rof. dens mordens vel caninus. Compare Manx birrag. a hut or tent. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. nor E. to bite.par. 3. yfirbdt. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. .— Return from Parnassus I inR. welt. betan fyr.. exchange or divide. and thence to eat build. uzboro. Border. a wave. swell bara. is purin. bud. Booth. in Ihre. bothag.—Burin. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. a borer. boede. bordi. furni. both. a. and parrets. to restore. botjan. pointed. Palsgr. amendment boeten. a cupboard. It is admitted that Fr. to repair. repair. Esthon. bdt. The ON. sawroot. an engraver's chisel. a word. lappolone. urboro. to hut. furd. BOOTH vantage. purra. cure Sw. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. a hut. Lat. OHG. and E. bata. borracha. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. bite. lappalare. Gael. byte points to the verb byta. A phorically a drunkard. on. to divide. admovere titiones. to bete the properly to mend the fire. Pol. Booty. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. terebro. . fimbria. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. Bohem. a shed. bora. Another derivation from Fin. fire. See Bower. bottino. borracha. Mag. boete. scalpo. And so in ON. scsdes-bod. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. edge. . a tusk. bohren. Bete. Du. mat-bod. a bothy. a responding forms . margin. burin. But probably the E. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. aid. dust. . abode. are parret. • — To Bore. chewed food for infants. a leather bag or bottle for wine. better. hem or gard of a garment.. reparation. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. a booth or shed. cottage. as afford a satisfactory explanation. to expiate boeten den dorst. and hence to fine. to foam. to mend. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. to pierce. boeye. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. In the Fin. to stick unto as a bur. remedy. Fin. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. The Fin. making good again . Gael. to build. cellar. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. beute. comminuted by either kind of action. budowai. to quench one's thirst . to . from deila and skipta. — ON. G. terebra sculptoria purastoa. limbus. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. to anything Neither G. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . are derived from G. to surge. the . not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. a border. . AS. a shop budowati. a great bur. pi. make . or anything pointed. hut. to build buda. to to . to bite. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. It. borino. puru. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. The as G.. to profit. 266. . from borra. Alexand. Fr. Gael. a sharp-pointed tooth. bauda. wine-skin. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. a bladder. To Bore. Fr. butin is explained by Flor. batr. baara. to boot. puras. N. pu purro (saha =: saw . sharp. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. wave. bauen. . tent. to bore. bower. a shelter of branches. puras. Sp. or the gradual working a hole in anything. See Burgeon. BoracMo. kvit-bara. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. limbus. Esthon. cup- awl. . to The Sw. struere ignem. Fin. bardure. to swell. chisel. to patch. Fin. drillen. sculpo 05\xiik. The cor. recovery bata. to profit Goth. forare. OSw. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. Du. Kil. ON. in Lap. to importune. ora. biorag. budka. purro. butin. baete. bolino. p. Magy. a borer. a borer . bothan. bord. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. ON. Burke in R. boeten het vier. and meta- Fr. It. ON. which are probably from the same root. a shop.

bump is used in lump or piece. Du. Fr. G. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. bourg. bosh. poor. from AS. northern. plain rude fellow. grey). the sun sets. as we speak of a thumping potato. cormpted. bos. ' — — . empty. bundle. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. Jam. Goth. a citizen. bunch. In like manner It. secure. to take in. ' pledge. bussa coarse. See found in Bav. Fr. pitch. which now signifies a knob. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. a knob. borel. a boss. beorgan. a. to give bail or answer for an.' or system of bail. ^o^^flj. when that system was forgotten. head. knur. the ordinary a swelling. tuft. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. V. botch. bussi. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. 106. cnap. a tower. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. to strike so as to Bureau. Bos a surety. or perhaps also To Borrow.vr\. to knock or strike. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. butse. or perhaps it may be See Bury. a bunch or hump. basse. pego. plant. It. borei. borgo. Borowholder. E. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. while Gael. formerly used in the sense of knocking. knock and a knob .' Vegetius in Diez. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. striking. bom. Borrow. bail biirgen. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. ON. Bunch. boussi. bierge. primarily signifying coarse sound . a city . boschen.' the chief of the ' borh. rustic. vain. a boor. in the body struck.' if thou give money on loan. a citizen. (Bridel). by which of or belonging to plants. AS. Gr. to strike . coarse cloth made of the Du. I. clownish. Fr. beorgan. a pushing or striking out. without. /3oraMK6f. boss. one who sticks to you like a bore. boss of the side.ribs and the side. busse. poor. borh. that which biirge. into borsholder. AS. to conceal. AS. .any round sweUing. knocking. burh.mass. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. the hollow between the Borsholder. It. to save. Bosh. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. useCanterbury. to become is emitted by a hollow body. less.. The primi. connected. or because a blow berga. gesylle. boss. So Du. unpolished. butsen. and thus could not shake off the old burr. of bail throughout the country.bucklers. Newbury. surety. an eminence. tempest. empty. knob. nonsense. is probably radically Boss. to pick or cull plants. burel. cnag signifies both a clergy. — ' wind burya. to keep. as if from the verb to hold. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. The origin seems to be the Goth. a surety. . Lat. borough-holder. bump. Russ. empty. borough or chief constable. viipyoc. the North Wind. Turk. and borough in the sense of a town. i. bttssel. cob.' every man be under bail. Hence knot. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . borg. burgess. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. to save Sw. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. destitute. to give a hollow bizo. Bailey. a little blow. loan. a blow. a bouncing baby . rude. a herb. baurgs. Cot. &c. Hence borhes ealdor. And that unsittynge is to here degre. was origin of the term is the OFr. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. whether from the fact preserve G. storm. the must have arisen burgensis. brown cloth. botsen. tive idea seems to bring under cover. . blow on a hollow object. bourgeois. pegou. Du. bos. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. The other. boss or knob of a buckler . borgese. huschen. D. f graauw. bossen. Hal. hollow bucklers. Borough. (1867). gum vocant. the Sc. ^ma. byrig. bergen. a wen. Lang. Altieri. botse. to protect. agrees with E. bosse. to save. Botany. Sc. to contain. the N. Swiss Rom. bosseu. or head-borough. whence the burg. borealis. undyed wool of brown sheep. borg.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. to protect. Boreal. boss sound. a giving rise to It. projection. . ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. — — — A — . The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. hollow. is used in the sense of bussare. in instead of without. Jam. from their grey clothing. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. cnoc. botch.

butwo. AS. Fl. Gael. buddeln. a botcher of shoes. in the sense of mend the fire. ambo. I. botola. buddl. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. a waterfall.— Hal. to dash about . See Boss. repara- — — See To Bete. See Bound. Butu. Wedu. G. Lat. a knock. AS. to stir and mix together. ing out. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bun. however. to mend (kettles. from the dashing of water. botel foenn. whisper. ledge It. bdt. bulderen. &c. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. shoes. disturbance. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. abbution. botel. boccia. boiteal. abbi-diwij Slavon. boden . N. to mend. a cesspool pass. signify a in OE. bile. to dip in liquid (to Gael. A bottom depth. bottigUa. G. a maggot. oba. to make a make a noise. to podge. Decorde. ON. &c. a boil or swelling Halma. Jtidu. a patch patschen. is boteau. an abyss or bottoniless pit. botsen. blow. the lowest part. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. butsen. biissen. bSn. Leg. bozza. Fr. a wisp. ^kvBoQ. a bottle. a cobbler. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. turmoil. Lith. poltern. both. Judwi. 212. bethia. contusion . buazen. bosser. • Bott. noise. Ancren Riwle. botm. abbu. blister. On — Du. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. gen. bide. hurly-burly. ixorapudder. boss. a bubble. btitse. ON. Danneil. to fall : with a sound batsch. H^cart. a cask. j3i/9os. pimple. bulder. ubhau. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . Fyre to botme. Hal. A horses. mess. what pushes outwards. Boa two. scuohbuzere. an imperfect and bunbutt end. a. a slop. ba. . boiteag. kessel-biisser. . they two.^Dec. It. bot. boute. botse. It. Du. Kil. dial. noise. for a bud. burgi vel pontis refectionem. pocciar. Fl. pozzo. round lump. Bret. bdsser. Prov. puddle. to work without order or know. buts. And so we speak of an eruption. bottom. Diez. boitean. bund.ments of the same root. Gael. buideal. stem or base. — — . to strike . fundus. the bud of a flower .D. House-bote. bots. as a push or windgaU. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Pl. by met. bluster. whence the name ol pool to podge. See Butt. a vessel for holding liquids.foundation. a bottle of hay. botus. . you two. to knock. to botch or patch. OSax. From the dim. Bochu. ON. abbi. Parmesan poccia. stroke. patch. bAdtr. to froth as beer . dabble). another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. a bottle. fire-bote. and ajSvamg. stock. potra. a plague-boil Kil. Here the radical image seems a bubble. To Botch. tumour. — Dief. corresponding to . podge. a bump or swelling. putra. a bundle of straw or hay. gling piece of work. abyss. On the other hand. — . The Gr. a pit. — duj Lett. knock. to stir and mix together . any plain round viol glass bozzo. schuhbosser. Dan. a lump of somebatschen. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. botch. Bouds. Mudu. i. — Fl. a pock. to give a sounding blow. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. . bativa. a root. to from the root bot. w. Du. Canut. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. Again. to put on a patch. a bunch. botte. baiothsj Sanscr. or plague sore . bouteille. a bott . maggots in barley. a humpback. Both. BOTCH understood). a slop. a cess. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. botte. bozza. dim. stock. Bailey. bossu. Lith. pozzanghera. AS.' to the fiery Csedm. A — oba-dwaj Lat. botn. to we have OHG. the science or knowledge of plants. beggtaj Goth. a depth. — Bottom. mutter. butse. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. thing soft batsch. gipuozan. is also a bubble. nets. the other hand. Podge. the first rough draught 2. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet.— . stump. See To Bodge. to rage. Botcli. we two. Hal. especially in Gael. . blain. — — A 2.) . mend.— Swift in R. was called a push. to smack. . — . E. — Jidwi. of botta. to bcBta. bundle. bunch. e.of a ball of thread. we have Swiss batscken. to simmer. a pit. Bottle. disturbance to . boil. botte. as Fr. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. * To Bother. It. pother. empty or hollow. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. mess. To confuse with noise. Fr. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. — — belly-worm. a tinker schuhbiisser. ' G. bodem. to make better. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. Bouteille. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. . Stalder. and E. batschen.

is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. And the new stools set out.— — — - 88 BOUGH . A Langued. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Pr. as that of E. Probably from the Celtic root bon. to set out by metes and bounds. 136. — — leap. iv. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. p. bonzen. — strike. see Boss. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. I assure you. ing. to spring. bonna. signifying in nautical coil of rope. a turn or time. See Bunch. a boundary stone (men stone). from AS. boriie. the verb bondir in OFr. The W. pothel. bunda. bounbounejha. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. The branch of a tree. buUersten. — — Bight. boujtce. like bobbin. to set bounds. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. boh. To Boult. Bough. volta. dial. baby. The Bight of Benin. to thundering big one hum. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. language a * Boulder. and Prov. a large stone rounded by the action of water. boundina. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. Q. an occasion. bog. Bought. in contrast to klappersten. bumper. bend. he fell so that it sounded. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. bouton. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. E. Nor a centinel whistle. . nave of a wheel bothel. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. a boss. debodinare. Halma. So It. bottom. winding. to knock at the door. from volgere. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. dial. a bound. strapping. contusi. Bough-pot. bonndn. . bolder. bugan. Dan. a stock. the larger kind of pebbles. jump. the smaller ones. Fr. the bay of Benin.D. 2. Sw. from bugan. bone. to turn. botwm. bamsen. limit. root (see Bottom). bugt. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. by Bujns or Buns.'— Charter of K. Boulderstone. Raynouard. knock it sounds again. Webster. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. Pm. as a nosegay. carpet. bend. an de dor bunsen. boss of a buckler. as a bout of fair or foul weather. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. nor horn sound. to hum. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . To Bound. a bouncing apple. of thread. Ducange. or Bow-pot. Brem. pimple Richards bothog. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. bullra.>a bout. Bret.— Boundary. Bound. to make a loud noise. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. whence buj7isen. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Bunche. bay. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. march. to fix limits. the hollow of a bay. round.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. tnndo. geration. ni frestelar. to knock. a bud. mcn-bomi.' B. its kind. ni motz brugir.— F.— Cot. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. has hot." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. turn. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. See To Bolt. gulf. to thunder. Coxcomb. till The dat et bunsede.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. To Bounce. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl.' round and round in similar circles. Bonny. jungen. to bow. thumping. Alpine Re- — gions. Bodinare. — Take care my house be handsome. From Sw. came home with his face all to-bounced. signifies a sliort thick mass. . butina. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. a button. Fr.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. Primarily to strike. in the absence of actual e. mere. bons. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. bunsen.. to resound. Wtb. a blow. bodina. Mid. Bout. — No i ausiratz parlar. Ni gacha cor bondir. and F. Du. to spring. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . bondir. a blister. Fr. a round body both. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. AS. a large pebble. bun. Bowlder. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. 3.

buys. kroes. . bog. different modification gives ON. burd. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. a drone of a bagpipe. fun of one . As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. cudgel. to drink deep. to bulge. Fr. pausen. verb bua. gurgling. Fr. bend. bov. bog. bugan. brummen. bend Sw.bass of a stringed instrument. patesten. curvature. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. a sing-song. to — Hal. It is remarkable that we find vary. Chaucer in R. bordone. firm. pared. burlare. btiga. Eown. to draw a deep breath. pre. bourd. Bret. language of folly or ridicule. a — — . ridicule buirte. repartee. joke. bovne. grumble Sw. Cot. a bow. steady. sotich. like quaff. sense durd. is. bugna. souf. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Du. to bow or incline the . a cup kroesen. Du. fresh* water. bonus. bogen. way ba7n. as was for. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. Sp. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. addressed to. brausen. to tope. explaining Sw. bontS. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. And there in mourning spend Sw. shoulder-blade. to drink deep. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. Du. hence musical accompaniment. springbiirn. a for New York. to swell. G. a brook. to banter or laugh at. Du. purlBav. to draw a deep breath. sausen. sport. to hum as a bee. Comp.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. — — . bausen. G. to tope W. Bourdon. spelling the word iox bound. a jibe. . Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. Goth. burreti. to take breath. hous^ Man in the Moon. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. bagna. Borden. to bow. Bourdon. ready. saufen. bourde in the same sense. in Fr. w.which see. the Bourdon. buga. ready to pike or spear . buizen. a go to. prepared for. must be referred to the same root. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. When used alone it . beogan. buyse.. Burgeon. bue. cheat. drink deep. . to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. bage. a well. bordo. bommen. jest. Bourd. It is the participle past buinn. a corToward the garden. bug. bourdon. limit. burn. Gael. bending. to hum. Lat. burt. burdan. bourdon. Cot. trick. schenkelbug. pot. a mill-post. tinton. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . G. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Immediately from Fr. Gael.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. belly out. mockery. ing. that ON. buigen. — probably through this latter signification. of the ON. burdan. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. bugna. Bounty. drone of a bagpipe. bdgi. a drone or dor-bee. pusta. borne. Bow. Fr. the shoulder of the vessel. has also buirleadh. Gael. lance. and that probably from a Celtic root. Dan. staff. buzz. their time -With "wailful tunes. It is bov. bunaiteach. . G. identical with E. to mutter. a humming noise. So Sc. the ting of a bell. address. to take one in. Sc. to trick. bogr. bordon. a humming noise Macleod. bonitas. from spring. Dan. a pot. or of an Gael. bugne. head Fr. bwa. crutch. brunna. AS. good. Spenser in R. . whether by sound or gesticulation. potio. an arch. and not in the sense of curvature in general. Sw. whence buysen. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. . The meaning of bound. ^<7r«i?. a. deceit. . on. i. It. the burden of a song. beygja. schulter-bug. to take deep draughts. The foregoing derivation seems. flagon. Gael. are applied to the bow of a ship. Swiss bausen. Burden. bow to shoot with. spring. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. set out. analogous to Fr. the big end of a club. a jibe Shaw bururus. Sw. warbling. puff out. buzzing of bees. bending of a joint knie-bug. a prop. A —Cot. drunken. a from Du. to tipple. bogna. taunt. it is probable that the It. a. when we speak of. to indulge in his cups . biugan. Prov. Dan. g. bogha. Bound. — — — A pare. epaule du vaisseau. ruption of bonne. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. on the whole. Dan. to our bous. biegen. A water. purra. As the Gael. bound. Gael. to pre2. also the humming or ON. the fixed. Sw. game. bending.

a wine-can . bogla. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . a chamber swefnbur. to guggle. . make obeisance. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. biichse. Bret. buxus. bending. bukke. . kupukka. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl.D. a round glass or bolg. Du. buga. a stud. bolla. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. Thus we have Esthon. ^o«/«. a sleeping-room . bulge. to swell. ON. a buck. with inversion of the round. bog. bur. crooked. puffy. stream forth bugyogni. sausage. bouzellou. mausbollelein. a bubble Fin. globular. the box-tree It. Cable. a ball. lump . . Boll. bulla. Gr.) to incline oneself . knob From the former modification we have bolla. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. Lat. painter's easel.. Sw. the box-tree and articles made of it G. beutel. bug. tumour . bur. the barrel of a gun.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. to yield to one. to bend down. bhugna. Fr. to make crooked . Dan. bossola. zich onder jemand under to him. prominence. bocka. PLD. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. boel. compared with Fr. (in pass . Sw. a hump on the back rossbollen. bouge. without the and grits. acsian. a iDubble. a. purse. bolle. G. to bow buck. belly. bolla. hollow. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. a parlour. . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. the bogna. Bret. . ^o/a. bulka. a black pudding. blister. to raise the back boll OHG. utibur.flask It. boss. signified by forms like Gael. boss. The word may probably be identical with Fris. a box. ku^o. pocket. a drop of pullistaa. as well as the name of a. bugyani. A Bulk. a bundle. Bav. bugyni.). polla. peated in Magy. . as in AS. . belly. a hen-coop . Du. beuz. bowel Box. to bend. a separate apartment . bugna. bol. Bohem. give in to. round glass phial. bouellou. belly of a cask. . the crop of a bird. convexity. bulla in aqua. spherical Dan. and to a coachbox in particular. busskai. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. boor. busse. ON. Bower. the box-tree. similar shape. to puff up pullakka. Dan. swoUei) Lat. boxtree. OFr. Sw. ask. bowl . fata-bur. gut. bolne. guestchamber . buello. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. biiske. a bubble bolli. &c. W. Buckle. bwr.. bulcken. See Crab. cumena-bur. a little box . kuppelo. biisse. bhuj. budello. a protuberance. of a wooden ball to play with and — . as in E. the head. . 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. the head. bosso. buk. kupula. bucka. bugy.\s. to puff up. to buckle G. . hollow wooden case. bola. buis. kupu. . bock. From the other form are G. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. A . bowels. the skull or brainpan . ken. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. intrenchment. a swelling or rising up. bubble. a polla. boudin. a box. bow. convex. globular body. bol. In like manner the Pol. boucle. G. Fr. . a boil. wisp of straw . . ON. a bubble. iri'iaQ. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. ttuJic. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. bolgna. bulk compared with Sw. Pol. a sack. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. . bollen. buigen. a ball. honse-bur. anything globular. to stoop biickling. Fr. buckel. heafod bolla. bwra. AS. or. an outhouse AS. passing on stud. bog. to bubble up. buchsbaum. . then by the loss of the /. Hal. boxtree pusska. round bead. Hence. Bowl. is applied to a coach-box.a. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. * Bowels. . hiidel. tumour. OE. . hill. hollow place Fr. and on swollen. buckelig gehen. crown of a hat. . inclinare se (Kil. fyn. a pot. a thing of liquid. or in e. W. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav.). botulus. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm.cup Du. See MHO. koziel. a wardrobe . bent. in both senses. . to stoop. . The / a bow. ne. bow. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. pusspan. bulne. a ball . a knot. water pulli. different position in ODu. Sanscr. to bulge. . budel. biicken. a box. See Boil. in walking appears in a . bugyola. a bud. bubble. . a bowl. a box. a box Lat. at the e. folliculus . globe or spherical body. Sp. box in both senses. swell. an inclosure. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. boil. box. . It is more probably from the G. head of a cabbage. AS. spring as water bugya. a croft by a house. w. Du. bulb of an onion bolleyield. a bubble. trestle. pullo. . E. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. dial.

baukscheht. See Brake. bracket. OFr. bracer. by the same inversion of J and k. . But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. rakka. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. — — . cramp-iron holding things together . G. refuse. rakke. Du. to be wanting.with a noise. I sal slyng. in R. then from break.. acidus. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. It. Sp. corruptse. clay. wristband. bask. bou^ba. flaw. brabbelen. ing from a mixture of salt. fault . babble. a braceOFr. land batsken. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . or defect. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. boy.puddle. dog that hunts by scent. filth . buah. brassard. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . a guard to torf. a sounding blow. matter. rakki. in R. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. bue. Lat. strike. Fr. ON. fault. brack. dog in general. confining. loud smack. parallel with OK. compressing. . To fight with the fists. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. brek. dirty. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. whelp as. to give a sounding blow defect. suppuration. the first instancebya physical tie. On the same principle from the buksteht. braquet. boiste. bresta. to crack.. Water rendered boubo. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . and string of his bow. bracke. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brace on and Du. Thus brack. bitch Du. breach. It is B. &c. bouibo. Kil. brec. A — — . a bubbling dura del mun. Lett. to want. . baske. ratch. To brace is to draw together. defect Du. braca. One girl. bruxula. brague. the arm. . bragos. bracon. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. fuse.nated by dirt. bube. a box. ON. Ptg." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. a grown youth Cimbr. a comworld Rayn. as noticed under Box. It. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. spaniel. Fr. Swiss bub. pube. a girl. need. breuque. AS. to stutter. posh. Kil. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. isolated part of the text. con. murmur. salo sive aqua marinS.D. ' — A — — — . It. defect. to give a gebrechen. Pm. — . quarrel Bohem. Swiss Rom. braque. jabber. variation of babble. defect. bracil. thwack. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. Sp. want. rack. See Broker. brago. dog Sw. mud. . s.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. Brackish. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. breptati. Bracket. wrack. pupus. Hdcart. youth. Swab. beagle. or bracer Cot. wnzC/J. Pl. Pr. BOX To Box. brechen ihm. want. Fr. Du. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. land spoilt Kil. Bracelet. A brace probis. . braic. Prov. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. A to halt between two derivations. OFr. mud. bracco.. merely in our mode of considering them. V. to slap. by an overflow of sea water. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. damaged board a ship. braecke. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. to Swiss batschen. flap. race. brechen. a boy pupa. Kil. to burst. from a root brak. In like manner the It.D. boussole. a pair of braces. Brack. OE. root). braco. brae. MHG.. Brack. an languages. brae. bracha. salsus. breach. brae. and then Pl. priated to the original sense. boy bouba. braco. want. brageuses. Brach. brakke grund. a crack. and F. to is derived brestr. to box the ears. s. Fr. Sp. Prov. armour for the arm. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. To Brabble. — . brae. break. to fall. brostia. G. brack. La ville ou y avait Brace. to smack the hand batschen. 91 the Dan. unmarried man . little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. foul. moral or physical. — . pus. Rouchi Then as an adj. disturb. which sigof straining. The different meanings of the brageux. Brak-goed. . odorinsecus. . Prov. brakke Bracelet. Gael. brasselet. let. brek. his eyes are failing him). bray. is a rope holding G. flaw. — . Boy. taneous talking. to stammer. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Cot. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. briche. a bog or pass Fr. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. ghebreck. Heligoneed. . to give a blow with the fists. — . a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. lalear-eyed Prov.— D. mud. Prov.

brag. affront. Brail. bravado j Fr. — From W. in numerous dialects. h-avare and Fr. Sp. braka. From Fr. riches. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . Wallachian bratsou. flaunting. It. brae. brails. brave. bully . idle talk. The meanings of brake are very numerous. a carriage for breaking in horses . Fris. AS. de Vaud. . gay. Turk bazu are used in both senses. — . Fr. handsome. brag or jet it braguard. strength. To Brail. Bray. bullying. Brag was then used brisk. . bragio. breach. hectoring. It is certain that the word for arm is. brazo. braguer. Faire le brave. as the type of exertion and strength.hy which this idea is con\eyed. w. bragging of his own valour. to stand upon terms. splendid. . valiant The head are sumptuous. fine. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. to boast of his own worth. breyne. . brake is. subigere. to flaunt. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. is Cot.explosion. swaggerer. gay. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . —Spenser in R. to swagger. would be to brace. blusterer. 92 Cot. Cot. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. noisy ostentation. fine. power. an inclosure for cattle . braske. To Brag. Walloon bress. in the sense of the Lat. Fr. is identical with Gael. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . dhbrailler. empty pride. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. to sprout malt. excellent. and it is very likely that the root brak. brave.—— . Bret. crash ON. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. brachittm. called by our braggard. braga. gorgeous. the feathers ON. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. .%. Thus we are brought to the OE. breghe. crack. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. Langued. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. Thus Bret. A — Hal. to strut. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. stout. . be noisy . was formed brayele. braegenj Du. torture . to crack. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. brayete. to cord a bale of tie up. bra!.aburst. Dan. expensive. &c. confining. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. to shout. bravo. an iron for holding Zalli. slight modificajoining the two legs. goods. brabhdair. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. about the hawk's fundament. beautiful. i. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. to make a noise. braszketi. ^Brave.breeches. to unbrace or let down the breeches. vain glory. binding anything together. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. bravacherie. Dan. breghen. Hecart. braga. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. brag. the arm. bragaireachd. smart. Brake. bravache. See Brace. brabhdadh. to brail up a sail. Brain. . braske. The meanings included under — Bragget. be found. flaunt in fine clothes . brav.. Chaucer. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere.. The plant y^r«. also insolenter se gerere . gallant (in apparel) also proud. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. Primarily to crack. vaunting. Sc. to rattle. drawers. stately. Brake. compressing. Bret. the opposite of which. Lat. a roisterer. cry. a noisy talkboasting. braggard also valiant. braies. BRAG Piedm. 2. proud. Hence E. bragging. se pavaner. swagger. brave. or from braie itself. gayly dressed. boast.Shepherd's Cal. ative fellow. Haldorsen Gael. fine. From brayel. gallant. fine. bragd. Cot. . boasting. se donner trop de licence. See Bray. braver. braka. brao. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. subduing. in order to prevent its catching the wind.^Vocab. courageous. — Equivalent forms are Gael. braga. brave. vanter une chose. Lith. also derived Fr. used in the sense of force. and that from e. showy bravery.i5nz^. — Chaucer. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. bushy . expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . From sprouted corn. to Rouchi brMer. spot. se parer de beaux habits. also tion of this was brayeul. brake in the sense of constraining. or by gaudy dress and show. finery. crash. To Braid. braicli.^ Sp. Rom. to boast or brag. Cot. that will carry no coals. breagh. make a noise . brave. braw. well-dressed. — A — .

a horse's a horse's twitch. game. farinam in mortario subigere. riguus. to break or fracture. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. Dan. it is not surprising that the word has here. to rub. for — Due. brambles.D. the original meaning of G. gebrUche. marsh. conSo in G. Voc. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. gebrUche. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss.. bush. braka. to pound. to distinct. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. breuil. In like manner Lat. iSpsx". brolium. and G. brega. subigere. braca. a thicket. a spinning-wheel. tris). quarry from Fin. 2. a stream. braeken. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. brog. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. to break. briser. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. been confounded with the verb break. We — . In ON. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brog above mentioned. frangere linum. It. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. or overthrow of trees by the wind. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. glebas subigere. Pl. in northern climates. to stiffen against Taboada). The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. dial. where from Esthon. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. to row. might come to signify a swamp. properly braking or subduing them. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . Gr. Fr. gebiisch. OFr. e. brage. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. low wet land bruch. To the same bend a bow. broil. watered.D. Fr. a harrow. a brace on board a ship. brage. Sp. t° moisten. P&. pasture. gebroge. braecken het vlasch. bredza. murran. referred brake. cover G. bruch. or a wood in a marshy place . Fr. is formed murd. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum.— . a marsh. broilium. to bend or direct a cannon. thicket. to bend a bow. Gael. as in Sp. to bray in a mortar. broor bushy place Hal. bregille. breaking in the operation. Lat. el arco. broillet. brcekke. bregar brake. casser le \va. marsh or swamp. In the sense of a thicket. de Vaud. word. the lever by which the string was drawn up. It. bush. —Ovid. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. brook. bushes. gilum. nemus. thing is brought under control. to The ON. brego. brogille. broyer. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. gebroge. to brush. to harrow (Lat. brook. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. broken fratta. cetur. break flax PLD. Dan. G. — Fl. murrokko. brog or brake. Brake. Biglotton. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. a fen. or A A ' . this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. brambles. braquer un canon. . tnurdma. —Bracken. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. is braukti. to exert force in different ways. to break. BRAKE to external force. Dan.' It. brake. It may be sus- . as well as in the case of the e. flachs brechen. brushwood. copse-wood. In the case of the ne. Swiss Rom. braken. to fracture. to knead or mix up in a mortar. The Fr. a swampy Mid. — — . Prov. ^raca. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. Corrfeze bredgea. to subdue. break of such a kind. and Lat. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). Brake. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. as in the case of horse-breaking. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. brake. brook. signifying to sweep. brak is a frame in which strip. and when once thrown down. to head must be bit. in usus braca. fratto. have thus Du.bracan. briers. as in Du. murtaa. gebroge. 3. any thicket of brakes. bregar. broeck. ing of flax or hemp.

Brancare. a shoot or twig. bracken or fern . sword is called a ^ra«rf because . Pl. brank. . gebroge. . brein. in the sense oi fern. branco. or other plants of a like nature.D. heath (Bret. brom. bren. clutch. a bud It. ordure . Fr. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. what is cast out as worthless. . is the draff or excrement of the com. and waste growths. to brank. bramble Du. heath. stink . thorns and Gen. Broom. sawdust. burning brennen. See Brush. bro7n. prufye. to or iron. brenda. broembel-CBppel. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. to bridle. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. brenna. or with It. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. the bull-finch. . i. brin. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. pfriem in the sense of an awl.G. brog. wood composed of twigs. a firebrand. heath. brugek. brug. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. a shrub . In like hrst. bruk. brwnt. brandr. a shoot. also pfriemkraut. titio. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. pected that brake. . thicket of brambles Cot. to -brugen. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. . a burning fragment of wood. braam. But we find It. Thus in Lat. bit by bit. breme j Sw. broom. brake. a vine twig Bav. cack. 1 8. iii. bran. So Swiss gaggi. Thornas and bremelas. Bret. brenn hesken. brass. bran. Fr. Serv. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . may be so called in analogy with Bret. Bav. a small deri\'ation . . brin (as It brano). Thus we have w. A mark made by burning. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. — . Branch. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. branchia. Rouchi bren d'orMe. compress. braeme. Sir Topaz. The same form becomes in It. pfropf. brancas. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. brous. piece of anything. Russ.D. Port. bruskoad. Gael. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. Then by comparison with claws or arms. . broom. Brand. brandiiialil. Diez. chaff. pfriemen. brano. a halter. ear-wax mud. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. heath ON. Bret. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. berneux. restrain. it glitters — — . It. from gaggi. That beareth the red hepe. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. brug). 2. branche. bruch. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. hallier. Brank. E. sedge burkni. piecemeal brindelles. As ON. &c. &c. brushwood. apiece orbitbrandone. broccoli. heath. broust. to burn. the branch of a tree. brenn.. breanan. breun. Piedm. bren. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. bruk. a roA. G. sprouts. virgultum. brejo. gebriiche. or ling. sweet broom. as AS. to gripe. AS. nasty. bromboli. from brand. . — branca. w. heath. brandmurk. Bramble. bruch. also a marshy low ground or fen . the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. broussaille. brambles. brandello. a bud. a shrub from Bret. as. from Servian pnit. Pl. brarn. broem. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. brand. a rod or twig. and E. Gael. bretnel. Bran. brem. brin d. a bridle or bit . cabbage sprouts Fl. the thorn apple or stramonium. It. Fr. a heath. w. ground full of briers. constrain. Bret. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. brank. from Lat. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. bronbo. brughera. and thence a shoot. a thick bush. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. brok. Bret. young buisson fort epais. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. G. that is to say. young twig {brom-beisser. snotty . brosst. bruk. a single plant of heath. bushes. brang. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. excrement. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor." The bmno a • on . It will be found that shrubs. brouskoad. Dan. The naof strain. a briery plot. G. a bud. G. a dunghill. from brug. —Ducange. dirt .). in the same sense. from virga. Grisons bruch. briars. Fr.

to make shine with shaking. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. E. to French brawl or brangle. Gris. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. G. De Barros considers vinum ardens. Du. brus^. to distil . du Roi et laine. billet. brin. the spelling to kindle. the colour than hitherto known. apparently very distinct from each other. to dash. Fr. ish. embraser. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. braise. gebrannter wein. noise. braser. Fr. WaUon. 59. It. AS. a stick. to murmur. to solder iron. bruan. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. bragale\ wood. brastlian. fire-wood. brasil. to brangle. V. to roar. to blaze. bra?ier. to glisten or flash. a roaring fire. to brandle or The It. It. or in stick. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. forms brasil. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. Fr. d'Angl. as again by well as the blade of a sword. spirit distilled from wine. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. The tre brangillis. weinbrenner. Diez. plained by Florio. briiler.well. crackle. brasca. morsel. bresil.pan of coals. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. a fragment. shake. bracea. to hurl with great force. e. brazil. so. to burn. Manx bransey. brausen. E. bryne. and scold. brustle. in Marsh. and branchis shaiand D. a round dance. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . ist. — . a brusler. brasa. De Goes. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. to shog. set on fire. to make display . to Bailey. hot Fr. brand. Lye. bransle. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. urens. to bicker 2nd. Bret. branler. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. braza. to totter. Chron. to rustle. faire fracas. braise or hot coals. To brand. brennen. and bruir. eldibrandr. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. a To Brandish. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. then brandr. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. brascct. — . not. glowing embers . which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. Bailey. hoisting to the fall. was in use Fr. The corresponding form in Gael. N. brandiller. became ashes Pied. prasseln. to crackle . brush. Brasil. To brase AS. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. bruciare. Kil. — . a pan of hot coals. to and fro in the hand. Port. incendium. from used in dyeing cloths. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. splinter. Fr. branler. distilled wine. Braser. to shake. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. to confuse. Brangle. G. bum. comes from thence. Sw. as Jamieson explains it. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. is bntan. brandigh. brane-wood. branla. stake. make a — . In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. before the discovery of America in the brandir. given to the country. With top trimbling. to shake The word brisil. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. conbillet. Thus the bound up again. totter. bruire. bragia. braise. put. Sw. all. bracia. n. bruzi. to brandle. as Fr. Chron. bransella. brandolare is exbrandish. brandiller. brouir. Ija. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. brandende wijn. Fl. to brustle. to burn. Guill. to sound of the Fr. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. make an outcry. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. flagrans. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. In the same way the set on fire . Jam. Formerly brandy-wine. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. Brase. brangle or brawl in E.. from to vociferate. Hume in brand in ON. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. aqua ardens. to burn. live coals. Fr. to make sense of a bright red dye. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. The name Brandy. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du.^Brandle. brazeiro. crackle. brasa. firebrand. It. to braze or lute. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. So. to quarrel. brasca. Milan. to shake. — ting to confusion. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. firewood. perplex.

AS. P1. Cot. bradlete. Cot. a. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. OFr. Many gambes. Betrax of a —^Jam. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Gael. ferruminare. bartisan. ' A vraale. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. a mantle.— Remade. especially that used in the working of iron . Math. from Sc. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. brat. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole.— Diez. ON. It . braodhlach. bas morceau de viande brawhng. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. bmhon for brado7i. 1224. For the application to a^child compare Bret. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. calf of the leg. G. to cry. a contempt- banner. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. a plank or board. or on the top of a wall. So also See Brag. brces. Fr. a — A from the confused noise. a rag . bretesche. It. bretays). a parapet. luncheon. slibro. to solder. A. contignatio. Fris. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . esbraotier. brass. Kil. and bronzo. a clout. Pisana in Mur. berd. brdto (ace. The verb is probably derived from the brase. Brawn. boarding being sbranare. tasce. then a parapet. A dispute or squabble. breteque. OHG. flesh of a leg of pork. a contemptuous name for a young child. OFr. —^Bronze. in the first instance of boards. bran. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. Fr. buttock Sc. trul. Bailey. pan- — Rayn. Brattice. a patch of cloth. equivalent to the Du. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. Pm. noise. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. 2. Hist. as scrawl from scrabble.propugnaculum. to talk at bralle op. slakker-bortchen. — Deutsch. ^Altieri. to carbonado. as a brawling brook.D. any piece. brazen. a lump of flesh. Cologne broden. lat'te. Paris. Brave. fraiche. It. I. or whether it be from Fr. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. to scold . to braze. rag.— Fl. bransle.^ — Sverris Saga. boutures. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. braon. as rashers upon quick burning coals. coassatio. Sup. bruir. muscular parts of the body. slibro {neita. brat. bralle. ship. bronze. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). much and high and make a disturbance bawl. A land of dance.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. discord. calf of the leg. bratid calf of the leg. roar. bronzacchiare. Westphal. Mundart. Bartizan. The muscular part of the body. &c. 1156. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. slut. brailler. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. bartising. borderinge. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Swiss bradle. braoilich. at brasa. braser Fargent. a wooden tower. bratach. See Bray. cloth. apron. A. . —-Jam. The same correspondence is seen between It. pil. Sc. Sp. Du. brandillo.walle — Pr. a lump. brat. Brat. the buttocks. is The word — uous name for a woman. Fr. Brass. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. a cloak. whether contracted from brabble. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. breyon. Certainly a little girl. a Lap. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Lorraine bravon. W. squall. a lath.' Hal. — . frequentative of braire. bratidone. brett. a fortification. to copper. a battle-girdle. Jam. to Gael. braiio. Brangle. a loud noise. baltresca. to shake. bribe de viande. bretesque. the calf of the leg. bradon. breyon de kinds of . braede. bratdn). solder.96 Roquefort. to tear piecemeal. a lump of flesh. See Brandish. neita girl).— Braid. Dan. ni autres choses sur Due. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi.D. Wall. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. as criailler of crier. breyon d'chaur. as lattice. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. Florio. a rag . KiL Prov. Circumeunt cibertesca. bronzare. from Fr. Brawl. 368.brettysing.D. braion. branle. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. cob. brettys. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. braeye. from branler.' BRASS BRAY et AS. a slabbering-bib. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. frame of laths. le repasser un peu sur la braise. burning coals. deblaterare. a rag. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. bred. bras. strepitus 2. saillies.

bragd is also applied nets. paste or dough. as OE. bruire. a crash. Then. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. to rush. OE. rattle. riAprjyvvfu. &c. make a disturbance. R. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. noise . to sound very loud and very harshly. bregar. — koa. father.y. crash. to braid. Goth. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. Swiss bratschig. Du. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. upbraid. ing. braidir. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. braea. brak. crackle . at braga eftir euium. . to roar. a wink. D. to smack or the eye. bratsche. bragd — ON. G.ear rog. W. i. Cat. fractus j Gr. Ppvxia. I'll live and die a maid. to roar or bellow. bragr. and make a hideous noise. relation is seen between Lat.. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. abraid. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. resound . &c. e. Prov. The same He might don us both a villany. a rent. to have the lineaments of one's ON. Bread. Bret. AS. ybrayid. instantane. to crash. kind. — . &c. ON.fracas. Wal. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to pretend. to braid acquires the sense of bend. ^p&xia. the miller's dog. to The cup was uncoverid. F. brikan. brage. the clash of ai-ms Dan. weave The ON. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. fragor. to bawl. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. in Jam. to crash. ser. to scold. mos. broyer.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. and to signify the fracture itself. to resemble. And at a braid he gun it bende. to roar as the sea. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. 145. To rub or grind down Sp. Prov. braid. bregar. to rumble. gestus. to braid the hair. a brake for hemp or flax. and frangere. Breach. — — — explained motus loud noise. to rub Fr. bru. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. with or without a final d. breuan. bruzir. or cry out loudly . brand. soft . V. Lat.ch. to cry out. Bread. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. to tear Bret. See Brake. to resemble him. breach. From the or brack in a wall. paxog. V. to bray in a mortar. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to bellow. to t. to N.' To Bray. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. roar. brak. rogi. regi. rangere. bregda. Fr. to break. the sword was out break. is . &c. yell. a . we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. braa. or wound. baiyl. crepo and E. ON. The Lat. to break. to the seijauntes. breche. to cry out. And with a traid I tumyt me about.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. and fracasously. a rag f . to break. 2. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. to bray like an ass. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. G. crash. Beryn. Cot. broad. turn. Then is simply. as the notion of turning crack. the sound — of arms. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. yell. at once. Bailey. Dunbar braessem. . V. Chaucer. augnabragd. to resemble. verb to break. R. The ON. brugier. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. cyprinus latus. imitate or resemble one. k. Q. braa. at a braid. which has given much trouble to commentators. bradar. To Break. father.g. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. Fin. starts crackling up. vapna-brak. as the voice of the ass. D. to knead. to snatch. braire. to start. will. a brack. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. brame. brice. on. Fr. Chaucer. to cry Port. roar. Gr. explaining a very obscure application of the E. disturbance. plait. D.^ Fr. iU-favouredly — in Jam. 7 . rustle. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. . appearance Hal. brot. E. bray. to braid. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. twist. a breach Cot. a mill. to work up in a mortar. brechen. fish. to break Fr. braidar.

one on a bench and strike him flat with a board.D. as. briosa. bark Fr.). forms. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. Du. a cold and windy mist or frost . to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. to rattle (as hail). break. to crackle. Bracha. Gl. Bret. G. Rom. brdtschen. Bret. windy withal. Gael. brumtnen. bruise. Du. switch. or the blow itself. Swiss AS. de Vaud. breeze. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. breost. to burst. to murmur. Swiss brdtsch. rubbish. a horse's twitch. broza. — . brissle. — See Broth. brist. . drive the cattle gadding through the wood. siibligar. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. but more probably the E. G. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. dial. body brostia. bris. with It. broil. Bruise. braich. a box. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. their stings draw . breme. Breeze. G. to buzz. to bind. as by the Sc. the dry spines of furze broken off. Breast. . which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. polenta. bris. and E. Dev. b}-as. Hume in Jam. Briss and buttons. breinse. briiz. britze. Piedm. Originally probably the word signified steam. a cool wind. . brimme. brut. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. It. w. einem de britze geven. brinisa. The Breech (Prov. brcekur j It. braux. simmering. brosame. a girdle. Gael. brasiuiii. to simmer. Fr. as commonly explained. a gadfly. a twitch for a horse. briste. Lat. peitschen. — Brist. bruzir. from AS. brew. little bits of wood Berri briser. bre- I'os qui bresole. bragues. and brought beneath between the legs. brise. morsel. grillare.98 borst. bris de charbon. to fry . to be misty and cold. brustia. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. QNtsterviald) pritschen. brache. AS. bratscher. to fry Then from a Gl. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. braciarc. braca. an odour. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. brire. . Breeches. bresilles. simmer. scent. grillen. Fr. Du. fail. To Brew. to resound. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. braca. bryi^ga. Breeze. to roast. . braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. brison. bruzun. trusts./ssus. braga. The Teutonic verbs. then to broil.britschen. sheep's droppings bruss. brisd. So ON. murmur—Vocab. brijsen. broden.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Breath. as in the case of twitter. briig. briosat'. forms analogous to E. brisciare. — — strument for smacking. bra. Compare OE. —Briss. PI. brugga. G^nev. orts. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. in Schilter. braies. are related to Prov. of E. Biglotton. brok. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. to crush to break. bremse. brcEth. brodel. braia J OFr. to shiver for cold. brijselen. brossi!. griller. remains of leaves. to bray. brezzare. subligaculum. &c. chilly. braucn. OFr.t. Fr. . Breeze. E. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. to breech. brasiare. brimsa. sprouted corn. briosa. Sw. G. may be from the wurh fesser. AS. Gl. to smack. Fris. de bridse geveii. brodem. Du. the bust. murmur. bridsen. representing the sound of a blow. coaldust. vapour. a to lay fly-flap. the breech or buttocks. Dtyden. — And blood. xyligogio castigare. fastening . term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. binding. noise. — Halma. fitzen. brisoler. the soler. one on the breech so that (klatschet). breson. so AS. to hum. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. zare. cloven. malt. Goth. /esses. from ligare. Lat.vare. point to G. brezling. braie. as the G. bretilles. a crum. to whip. of trees. singing bone. Piedm. from brace. a crum Du. bruc. i5r(Z^. breath. a cramp-iron for holding things together. properly to crackle. met de bridse slaan. trembling. chillness or shivering. of straining. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. corresponding to G. Dan. Swiss Rom. Prov. rubbish. brezza. to brew. G. to brew. broiiwen. braies. See Brick. Russ. crush. bracecs . and other rubbish dibris. to feize or feaze. instead of being derived from 'La. braguier. as. clout for a child. braga. also to chill and shiver with cold. drawers. an into shiver. brasser.'— Gl. We bragezj on. are in like manner ' . Isidore and Tatian. a smack. grill. Hence the Lat. malt. Prov. brusc. E. brciz. applied to shivering. Brize. bandage or truss for a rupture. burst. — . to break.

brigantine. but to a paved road. troop. brutg. a cheat. . Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. funeral. a Bride. appropriate. fastningar-ol. graf-ol. Ihre. and that from It. brere. a boiling. buskins. malt. conjux. frayer. E. guma. brood. Hence OE. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. a crum. to boil. brigata. pier. to tlie brico. with transposition of the r. a fragment. briwo. broken. to appropriate. a bride. priod-ferch. Du. to beg one's bread. A — A — . has briguer. So in The Prov. bricge j G. the marriage si in brigata. BRIGADE dead. a heath. Fr. and ODu. Cot. birbante. a brig or priodor. a rogue . to boil. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Brewis. sugga. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. brasser. from Bridegroom. to break. a lump of bread. from bit. ' . whence berw. . brahi. bo. a man. ment of anything broken.privatus. which however is undoubtedly from brace. Mid. remarkable that the Gr. pavement. jipaaaiii.. masted vessel. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. priod. Lat. boiling up brocoliere. breve or brevis. Hdcart. bruarium. as. Thom. ' — . Diez. brA. to Isrew. a bride Brig. pavement Lith. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. E. Sp. especially to a letter or command. fraoch. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. Ducange. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. feast. brigade.gfiugga. ON. brice. — — — — — — . . a little king's writs. E. Dan. AS. In the patois of briccia. bruk. from the last 99 of which. to press. Brique. brakes of high-grown ferns. a bit. grug. Pol.groom. bribe de pain. hlafes brice. two-masted vessel. Bridge. a lump of bread briber. to boil. bidsel. berwedd. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. and berweddu. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . brittil. buckler J ON. Due. to meet together. bruith. Fr. bygga. berwi. Bridle. betony brulicame. Gl. Diefenbach com. bread. birbone. brocaly. Gael. . bruyere. OHG. In the G. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. jetty.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. W. Bridal. Trovarfor bride-ale. bulicame. company. Grisons bruch. OSw. bretonica. It — is Kil. braut. bride. w.Fr. a heath brughera. brilt. E. sponsa. . heath. to circulate. So It. ap. one's ovin. fit. Walach. The origin of the word is the w. division of an army. The Sw. a sow. served (Patois de Bray). brique de pain. — . Lang. a fragment. as so. corresponding or letter. barren land priodas. to pave brukkti. It. a married man guma. gf2o. brughiera. to press in. briiths. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. a married man or woman Lat. briw. bruk. twopares Lat. Neumann. a lump of bread. from Bret. to pave. AS. feast of espousals. ibrukkti. Brier. owned also propriate. — . privus. a crum. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. a bush. a proprietor. to prepare. Gael. daughheath.It. brygga. bryd-eale. the Fr. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. the equivalent of to the dial. fragment. .pritil . AS. broosekens. bridge. peculiar. or brizo. Applied ous words derived from break. broken victuals. bryd-gutna. Bridal. AS. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. crew. If the foregoing were not so clear. malt. to rub. Priodi. to brew. beaten way Dan. broken bread. then the marriage itself. bricou. is still used in this sense. bruskr and buskr. piece of burnt clay. the newly. Bribe. bro is applied not only to a bridge. of burial. betonica. any jot or crum. a beggar. fervere. a briole. Brick. bribour. brukkas. bro. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. to break to pieces bricalio. ter-in-law. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Goth.rough with brambles and bushes. G^n^v. thick appropriated. brar. bro. A bribe is A — — arval. to stamp. . briicke. nurus G. AS. Fl. brieden. Pro(merch=:maid). collect bits of food. See Broth. httle bit. Brigade. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . imprint. Rouchi brife. brau. It. Fr. arf-ol. Brief. in the sense of OSw. from the Normans. In E. but probably Bricoteau. a wedding priod-fab. pavement brolegge. a rogue. groom (mab=:son). . . married. lipdZu}. AS. bably contracted from brigantine. Flor. bride. brug. a quoit of stone. bitill. bara briw. it is applied to the letter to OE. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. bridelj OHG.bergantino. consort with. son.

biartr. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . tumult. dine. speech. squamma . a sound. See Brake. bracht. glamra. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. Gall. It. to piracy. Brigata. splendens . — — . tion. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. and the E. combat. show the origin of Lat. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. briegen. clear. in the first instance. wilella. a noise. to strive for. then. and to associate with them. AS. etincelle. a small light pinnace pro. the gleeman's song. hell. schiteren. tinnitus. Bright. A strepere. a glittering. It. a spark. also called briganders. from hall. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. brak. praht. transparent. brigandare. In the same way to strive is. So G. to contend with another. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. briga. outcry. Brilliant. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Florio. clear. bregar. 312. glamm. willata. to shift for with care.D.' The passage from the sense of a light. Wilista.glampa. splendour. to make a loud noise. to rove. strife. From ON. bray. bright bearhtm. labour. —Capgrave. tuilahtaa. Xa/iTTii). there are many armour. . — A A . noise. malandrini. lay was sung. loo BRIGAND lor. to ring.— . \oice. clear sound. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. Brigand. briga. clangour. A. to cry 'Schmid OE. jurgia. The E. pugna. twinkling. and. — brigante. brebrigare. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. the bench-notes resounded. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. a pirate. braid. moment. on his — own account.Lat. to rob. brdgen. the grew high. It. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. to cry. to resound. splendour. — Briganbriga. bairhts. tinkle. is easily understood. Flor. and. secondarily.' The sense of strife or combat express. Heo — song That AS. brigare. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. 1351. tinnitum clarum movco. to shine. They or brigantini. brigant. in the sense of a robber.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. clare lucens.dorem clarum reflecto. In Fin. clarus. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. Lat. schateren. . inde squammatus. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. that of Fr. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. and led it away. — Beowulf. Due. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. splcnornd de brigandine. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. Gr. The Ir.clare ^tinniens. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. necessary business. a brigantine. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. manifest ON. rixa. to sound. at a later period. clang. Goth. and hence be explained glampi. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. to glamr. The primary meaning of Sp. and ner me hit iherde. riis ' — Chron. and secondly. brigan. Owl and beorhtian. representing a sudden noise. Mid. clear. brawl. — Brigantine. 1654. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. rover either by sea or land. glbram. glitter. to shine. Du. in later times a robber or highway-man. to reservavit. cange has 'Veles. may play the pirate or thief at sea. beorht. OHG. to bend a bow It. dine. shriek with laughter. It. XafXTTpoQ. seems to be to exert force gar el area. and diligence.shine. Swab. to glitter. brigare. Beorktode bene sweg.pracht. — Due. kii:'a. kilistua. Schmeller. Bav. glir.' in Due. brcEhtin. Adelung. himself to serve men of merit. bryhtm. — Probably then to strive.' torum. with respect either to sound or colour. — brigante. sound. bragen.

Supp. ous.' d'etre marie . the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. (poet. greedily to covet Cot. The expression is now confined to the sow. excited. to fret . To Brim. vigorHal. or violent action. AS. a streak. brummen. sprainged. 154. to burn. fire. sparkle. beam. brame. margin. Brim. gresiller. Closely connected is OE. Lith. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. bryn. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. crackle . Dief. a stick. Fl. fringe . In the same way Sw. lip of a vessel. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). brumft. . kiimottaa. noise made by meat in broiling. : ' — bone).ioTiviS acutus. frequently interchange. whether of desire or anger. griller. It. to sparkle. lap of a garment . to glitter. The identity of ON. also to reflect. Kil. E. Sc. voux. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. the singing of Sodom — — . reecho. brame. brama. grdzil. barm-cloth or barmskin. grullo. bramar. cross-barred in colour. to make a crackling noise. to creak. Brem. komista. to roar. griller). Hence with an initial s. Sw. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. the heat of animals. kimista. Brimstone. is used of raging. FJ. to . G. small gravel. grisser. Du. . bramer. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. a border. brummen : de soge brummet. brant. dial. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. Prov.its vent in cries and roaring. pMiller. brillare. that the original meaning of the Sc. — Rim. breme.— Brinded. kimina. bry7ie. fringe (Lat. ON. a rod. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. vattubryn. fierce. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. surface of the ocean. hence the bosom. ling noise and a sparkling light. brand-krossottr. bray as an ass bramire. der. ring.preni. brim. as well as bl and gl. to quaver with the voice. chime). Sc. border. s. to shimmer. Streaked. brisoler.). brmdottr. broiled. brdnnsten. Brindled. It. ON. as in Langued. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. Langtoft. bremmen. brow of a hill. brommen. komottaa. an apron. earnestly . brim Magy. ardere desiderio. to long for a thing. to resound. s. Rayn. rut. as of meat in broiling . must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. as in ing or earnest desire bramare.D.) brimi. os qui bresole. shine. rugire (cervorum. to shine. burning. whence bilbil-goda (literally. brinfire. clangor tinniens.' Elyot in Way. spraing. identical with passion. briller. fimbria) . originally the lap folding over the breast. bremas. Thus Lat. A . greDiet. and corresponding to these. bramar. bar. finds the Fr. the lap or bosom. Rugere. barm. brennistein. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. a long. ON. brezil. perent. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. gresiller. bresoler (Gloss. to shine. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. — — — . It. — — So Fr. post. Swiss Rom. breme. to make bilbil). Subo. — g. kimmaltaa. brastlian. to glitter . parched. In Fr. as is the case also with Pl. edge Pol. to sound deep or hollow. kajata. brissle. a borDu. lap. bramire. border. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. brandr and Fr. Said of swine when in heat. to storm. which seems identical with rim. brullo. rugire. striped or streaked. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. brunft. with an initial br instead of gr. — . Fr. The E. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. to utter cries. to roar. the verbs Flor. breziller. of the eye. The meaning of the Fr. AS. broil . brimmen. 1. to twinkle. 1 1 64. to parch. sonitum edere bremen. ter. griller d'impatience. kommata. to broil. coloured in stripes. crackle. furious. to wish or covet. barmr. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. to crackle. border. and 1. to crackle. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. have then in Fr. glisten. 754. rym^. from bringe. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. the meaning is transL' amour. Tutschek. Dan. tience. Tresiller. the sow is brimming. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. leonum). briller. grisler. bremmen. . to glitter distance . the eye-brow. on. to creak. breziller. to shine. the heat of animals. the edge. briller (related to each other as OFr. glit.— BRIM . seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. Wtb. from brandr. burning stone. to shake.

a morsel. Dan. to put one in a rage . briota. Berri. bringe traced through the brano. Prov. brocciare. In the N. grim. Ptg. humorous. — . to crack. birse. flame. brusco. a crum. whence may be explained the Sc. Pectusculum. borst. fierce. to roar. britar. brim. to stitch. See Spread. sprout. the surf.'— Vita'abbatum S. Brocade. brittle. bryne. stitch. a morsel . or the full • . or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot.procio. Commonly explained as from Fr. brezzare. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Breeze been connected with the Sc. smart taste. 222. a bud. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. breidr. setting the hair on end. brissle. to stick. brocco. Bristle.). fiscbryne. wine of a sharp. a shoot or sprig. The Pl. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). brimhliod. It. Sp. Abroacli. to broach a business. a deluge. hot-tempered. as. brisciare. cK) the . — — . to birstle. bringe. /3pE^m. broccata. G. or — . Prov. Mid. a brad or tack. bros. sprouts. braidsj ON. Liquamen vel garum. the twigs of a besom. broca. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. a bud. brindelles de balai. crabbed. bros. as unripe fruits. chest. ruffling. Fr. Brickie. brusk. . angry. borstel. birsle. Sc. — bryme. Fris. — A . spur. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. a projecting tooth It. to spit. borzos (struppig). a bit . a slip or sprig of an herb . e. from break. brcit. It. apt to break. strong itself. borzen. brijn (Kil. sticking up . brusque. to spur. Fr. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. and forms on. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. 'V^. quick. from brande. a spit. sprocco. bresk. the surf.D. of astonishment. bringue. brezza. brin. breast. Fr. like the Broad. It. brich. brisk in taste. Sc. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. to begin upon it. bruskett. brickie. Brisket. briocho. has under It. . brandello. brichet. ribrezzoso. Zeuss. a clasp. britchet. as a noun. fantas'* tical. brocco. brimme. the brisket or . Antiq. Bohem. from AS. brim. a stormy brimsea . metaphorically. to thrust. brodden. birs. against the grain . Bret. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. a stitch brocher. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. Formerly written brotil. Fr. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. brust. a belly. brddj Goth. It. — in Due. harsh vin brusque. man's throat. Port. to shiver for Sold or for fear. as. Lat. to set up one's birse. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. fragile.rcendij'i. form bris. Walach. brocher. to set it a going. bryde. rash. a rod or twig. brime. brytan. Hence ribrezzare. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. expression. to stab Gael.g. eager. to goad. britar. Prov. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. b. a rebours. and. briser. Palsgr. is called a birssy day. to turn up the point of anything. Brym. to break. Du.. an awl. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Salte sand is called brimsand. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. Russ. ON. Alfr. a skewer. brot. brim (poet. . a button broche. emotions which produce it. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. broc. Swiss to stand out . a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. to burn. to spur. very salt brimi. bronchus. rebrousser. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. broca. Russ. saulmeure. and hence. Cot. breaking of the waves brim sior. to broil. and Sc. rebursiis. Gr. spricka. brote. p. broccare. brittle. Hal. brocar. Da. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. to bud. Brooch. rude. coli. startling. Gl. . i. sharp. to break. Bret. ' breast. ' .. brissko). to shoot. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. prick with Sw. birstle.). bristly . brog.' Nat. Sw. are used in the sense of brittle. suddenly angry. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Brine. brockle. See To Brim. flames. briota. brocchus. shoot. Boh. Fr. craw of a bird. . as.Lat. thick — A elastic hair. bruched (Fr. NE. reburrus. trembling. broche. is to erect the hair. Then as the effect of shivering. lively. sour. aculeus. breaking out into growth. birssy. Brisk. a brooch. Compare also E. setting the hair on end compare It. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. a peg sbrocco. a cold and windy mist or frost. a fragment. byrst. . bricho (with the diminutives. See Brand. Fr. brioshko. of E. to scorch. to break. roar of the sea saltr. bruckle. Du. Brittle.

With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. grullo. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. Florio. of pointing out their latent defects. brasuole.— B. brasbrasciuolare. tufted ornaments. to knots or loops. forming to jumble. sting. motes. frocadura. The Bret. brasolare. hurly-burlies. precisely analogous to the Sc. tori shows that. a brim. to boss. A fried or boiled steaks). a b?-ustolare. Brocket. breard. speckled. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. silkes-borda. brod. spotted. Contracted from Fr. tumult broighleach. carbonado. brychau. Ptg. brusuole. storms. v. parch. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. Gael. brouFr. Sp. Surrey in R. — brissle. or roast on the braise. Compare also AS. point to an origin in Bret. noise. froco. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. Icnotty. Compare G. brullare. freckled. parti-coloured. Gael. to broil. birsle. rustle. brasiller. briefh. to crackle. trouble. broud. to instigate. broder. to crackle. a freckle. bmsciare. Thus brod. — Gower in It. stump. bram. frecSee Brawl. to parch or broil. borprick. Fr. noisy. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. creak. badger . somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. bj'oil. broighlich. brasiller. embroidery. a point. border. Cot. or snag. brastlian. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. From direct imitation of Brock. To roast upon hot coals. bordo. . — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. to scorch. brooked. b?-od. W. a fallingThe sense has been out. brouda. It. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. E. a badger. 103 embroidered. or glowing coals broged. to crackle. Bret. a peg. bruler. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. to spur. broc. brych. and AS. broukit. speckled. It of br the Fr. to burn. a brouhaha. and bord or bred. has grisser. Sc. the shoot of corn. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. streaked. spots. piebald . brocco. whence broccare. bramowanie. confound. embroidering. initial . an edge. brocart. and w. brerd. q. agree in being the extremity of a thing. — — . Fr. . houx. broil. to darn. briz. bustling. — Fl. broiled. sparks E. atoms . a flock or Gael. Here to ornament with needle-work. the line of development has been something different. or It. braird. to burn. Sc. margin. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. ciare. brocach. blusters. from the white. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. gresiller. Ihre has guU-bord. Dan. Broker. prasseln. ToBroider. to stud broccoso. broice. thread. B.tumultuous.. hart of two years old. grislement. brucilare. So from Pol. a prick. knobby . — . to On the other hand the Sp. — The proper sense is that of Fr. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. It. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. age was termed a pricket. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. or salted fish on coals. border ornamented with silk. prod. a freckle. dar seems derived from borde. A badger. AS. Fr. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. The ON. to prick. to crackle. kled breac. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. to streaked or speckled in the face. a brecJi. broglio. brodio. a border. parti-coloured. a mole. a To Broil. Grisons brascla. R. bawling. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. scorch. brustle. a quarrel. parched. with Sc. trouble. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brizen. to embroider. Cot. bordar. brusler.sound. brucach. to embroider. ornamented with a raised pile. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. a confused streaked face of the animal. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance.. brindled. fundamental origin. Hal. a border ornamented with gold. rinj'. broil. broccuto. broccato was used to signify stuff . shuffle. a flake of snow sion. gold and silver. broc. onbryrdan. to crackle as a shell in the fire. here.

vrage. to roast on the embers. reject. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. Russ. to hatch. See Broth. To correct an exercise is to Lib. racher. For the same reason the Kiittner. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. In those countries the term braker. brydio. slaae vrag paa. refuse goods. has exactly the force of G. brass does to Sp. broen. sunburnt. G. brasa. vile. brak. corrector. . • . dial. a brood . bronze. brasa. wreak. to pro- to reject . designation is indkler. but from the primary sense of the It. spittle. bracker.— — . inspect. brokoti. fermenting. hot. — . find fault — — — fuse matter. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. to — garble. make out. bronzo. term was correcfo^ir. to be hot. keep warm. Alb. bric-a-brac. S. Grisons brinzla. mediationem quorundam J. to sort brakovanie. spittle . . refuse Fr. . to hatch G. an outcast or rejected sheep.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. . Bronzare. with. to sparkle. abject. brokas. rejected.— Lib. brid. braeck goed. to garble. merchandises de rebut G. bridde. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. brakyne. find fault with. wrak. Sp. a makeln. and to reject the damaged and unsound. to blame. Du. an operation performed over hot coals. which E. To blame mens ware. burning. brut. to hatch. ordure. G. fault censure. vile. Jam. try . racaille. Du. This word shows the same relation to It. . to scorch. the spawn of fishes. bronze. brack. 38. G. warm. on. progeny of birds. It. to criticise. Teutonic class : Du. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. damaged. See Brackish. find fault with. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. broiid. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. brechen. brak. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. In the .D. selection. Kil. to spit . refuse. correctarius. bredan. to .D.— Breed. in the sense of rejection. hot. i. screatio Junfus . insects. damaged. refuse. to pick. The Langued. brot. Pl. hraki. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. bring eggs and spawn into active life. . brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. raquer. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. sbrinzlar. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. briiten. to be wanting. phlegm. e. — broeden. braken. Brood. sort. or brascla. wraken. — Fl. matter of blame weak place. whence the modern courtier. Lat. cracker. abbronzanchiare. Fr. brumo. buy and sell by commission. See Wreak. inspection. the young of any animal . Pl. If to vomit . Fl. bronze. fish-spawn broden. Prov. brack-gut. to nourish. to brew. faulty. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. and as an adj. to throw blame upon. brands. nounce unsound. Pl. to emit sparks. to sit on eggs. a broker. embers. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. stain. cherish. an . Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. brieden. tan. refuse wares. OFr. Per manus et old worthless horse. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. refuse brakowad. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. dirty. Adelung.D. ODu. Pro v. brokers' goods. w. a fault. Bronze. to pick and choose. brae. It may be compared with It. brod. couratier. bronce. try out. ON. 396. Sc. and fishes . to braze. glowing coals. Bret. et A. embers. a breach or flaw. : ' . trumpery. whnake. brackefi. brunds. mud. Abbronzare. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. brack-gut (Sanders). raca. a cough Hal. want. criticise (makeln). we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. hrak. to copper. refuse brakovat. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. from break. Dan. to sort goods . appointed to classify goods according to their quality. The use sunburn. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering.D. cast Lith. tussis. wrack-good. filth. pan metal. from makel. On • tliis principle the G. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. to reject. brwd. blur. rejection Pol. Alb. as. embers to brund. analogous to Bohem.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. — point out the faults. a chicken. — a spark. brod. lack. Tooke's Catherine. in which sense the OHG. goods damaged by sea-water.

breg. cabbage water. . dumetum. the bubbling or springing up of water. &c. Sp. bros. awl-plant. brstiti. sprocco. Sc. borde. bordel. a caldron. braun. Catalan brossa. a shore. plants composed of twigs. sap. sordes seu strigmata young branch. infusion the barley bree. thick bush brousta. bruich. of which the variety of forms. eye-brow. thicket. fabric consists. iVlanx broogh. bros. G. brusmalt. perhaps burnt coloilr. margin. meal. low The AS. a bud brous-koad. . a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. and Slavonic families. shoot. briihe. It. brd. augen-braune. brost.) . bratrj Lat. shore . Here we find throughout the Romance. braussa. brau.D. Pol. Bohem. Cot. Due. Ger. to roar. warmth ch'an. bntdien. to bear patiently. edge. to boil. a . riviere. who is steaming with sweat. . seethe. a little house or cottage of timber. brothas. or shoot. or broken up . . eye-brow. to border. a shrub broust. Prov. ale . brabruach. bhratrj Zend. Fr. Fr. The origin is a re. Russ. sodden. to boil bruithe. sproc. a river. OFr. on. grow brossa. broud.. sprouts . eye-brow. broc. A — . may be connected with Russ. breg. Bav. brow. brus. Prov. of plants broust. bryii. grow into a bush. broem bark. braces. brew . (which is barely pronounced in Gael. brov. brudi. pith. chen. Gael. OHG. — ' . enjoy Goth. . brink. — . brukjan. Du. a bruth. broth brothaire. hot. brst. eye-brow. . mettle. brouter. bruitheati. branches. bank. shrubs. brucan. . Wtb. rage. Gael. G. hovel. strength. (for brodem). face. brow of a hill. bank. juniper. broth the ocean Sw. bruith. broi. from Goth. Bret. break out brewet. sprout. . bank. to use. juice of meat. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. juice of briars. the colour of things burnt. brwd. wood . brozia. It. frui. thairj w. Fr. breh. t— Cot. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. heat. &c. . a bud. bushes. a spring. brodem. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. bruithim. pfriemkraut. brushbroccoli. brpuster. noise. brauwe. sprot. cabbage soup . broth is sometimes used . brodo. infusion. To digest. . signifying low wet land (Brem. AS. broza. broden. &c. Russ. vigour. to burn. sprout.' Due. brmi. BROOK brook w. . . eye-lid. 105 Brook. brouic. brosses. kail brose. brosst. forms appear related to the Ir. broca. spirit. briu. boiled . edge. brogues. a confused noise of winds. Gr. eye-lid. brosses. eminence . a hill. brotar. riviera. bordeau. a hut or cottage It. brotar. It is Brother. sense the Sc. brass. as rhododendrons. to murmur. to browse. eat. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Gael. to browse. brdtaj Gael. pour boiling water over. bud. bruach. on. surDu. steam from heated bodies. bruddeln. waves. brennen. vigour. brawdj Slavon. useful G. broeye. brouser. simmer from the murmuring AS. to scald. bryn. to boil. bruceti. broieii. Dan. heat explaining the Prov. Lat. broth. pottage.spross. to use bruks. and also border. . a derived from the boards. bor. Fr." Serv. Mid. bruich. frucius. borda. bryn. shrub with leafless pointed edging. brouches. Brothel. brewis. brouet. The softening down of the consonant bud. &c. brun. house of ill fame. a sprout. AS. braew. — exiit et heath. brous. spuma. and Sc. to bubble up with noise. brushbrothas) gives the OE. Browse. Du. broit. The AS. Sp. protecting the eye. Pl. laissent Domunculum. brost. brlgh. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. Sanscr. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. in which brinnan. bree. dialects is very different. But the Walach. cia. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. shore. 'Lzt.— Overyssel Almanack. Bohem. Limousin broudi. Serv. to sprout. Celtic. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. bruth. browys. brad. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. buds.brink. border. bregh. as small-pox. brio. bruno. broo. surface of Broth. OHG. as Fr. to shoot. properly boiling water briihen. . G. eye-lash . to use.brons. rerum decoctarum. signifying twigs. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. shoots.D. — . presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . bruc. . b7-un. G. a hill. Ppim. . Roquef. brocco. to spring . breg. Gris. hut. See Bramble. Commonly Teutonic. or bushes and scrubby growths. to Pl. has briw. to boil. Kil. Bret. a sprig. and It. Tam de terrS. brue . w. It. heath. Fr. brouskaol. Brow. a source Gael. from ripa. Bohem. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts.braubiti. bruscosd quam de arabili. a little . fur Broom. broth Brown. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. heath. Manx broie. w. frater. broccola. ceales briw. Gael. G. broth. verge. strength Ir. circuindedit cum familia. briar. bank. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due.

shock. brushwood. Diez.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. coal See Breeze. brosst. Prov. brysan. It. B?-usske. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. brust. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. OFr. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. See next article. a crum. a brush Swiss bruske. dust. brista) or breaking out . bris. — those signifying a sprig. And that best is. a briser. broza. to butt. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. britar. Brush. to break to bits . brise. Gael. In E. sordes. crush. The same relation holds good between G. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. britar. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. biirste.— — i. —Fabyan. bruskr. Piedm. to make a rumbling. a bristle. brustia. a brush. ca7-bo>i. quisquilise. to cleanse. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. a brush . bruit. bris. borste. Fr. Prov. a brush. and It. modification of the same root which gives the E. bruscia. Piedm. a bud or sprout Bret. brist j Port. Bav. but on whom it schall to brisen him. — a bush. and actually come in collision. broken. Bret. bruis (sing. brusco. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. borste. bruise exOFr. tremely. of twigs. a blow. Alexander. p. Pr. Broach. AS. irruo. Brunt of a daunger. Prov. a brush . a shrub composed of small twigs . orts. Sw. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. to make brusshes on. wool-card. . rods. brossa. twig.). bruyere. mg Cat. bud. and also Brush. G. G. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Sw. . The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . tuft of grass or hay. K. Port. brist. bruiser. to crush. . or shoot. bruscolo. wool-card. brustia. broustia. brMt. Cot. detergere . brossar. biirste. chips. rubbish. brik. Gael. appearin Goth. a noise. brikan. —Chaucer. broust. wood composed OE. brustid. brusca. brusco. brous.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. a mote. to break. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. a little brizal. into a multitude of points. brous. It. bushy ground. brosse. 174. Pm. Gael. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. dust. bricalio. to strike the foot against an obstacle. bruscolo. rubbish. a — — (Agea) said. effort. Pr. briser. Hall in R. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. Beryn. bruzir. and . . It. brunt. a flax comb. brit. brico or brizo. ling or heath for brushes. brosse. insultus. . Lang. desbrisar. bross. borste. brosst. to break or burst. Fr. Palsgr. brusca. shoot brouskoad. Text Soc. That in all haste he wouli. wool-card. field. fasx . 201. a bush of hair. an enmy. E. a rumbling. bross. dust. brisd. The Bav. bruire. bush. a tuft of heath . remnants of hay or fodder. quasi twigs. brisar. 134. * Brunt. burt. fragments. or sodenly comyn' dust. it schall be al Sw. Brunt. On the other hand. to break. brist. bris. brousso. Fr. brusc (Diet. also a head-brush. to brush. Fl. a brush. seems named from burst(on. heath. NE. abroncar. shivers. ON. brottcher. Wicliff. a horse-brush. dust. borste. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. brossa. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. OE. borste. briiis (in the pi. bruito. To brush then would be to dust. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. twig. Gael. a bud. Fr. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. A. brugir. broza. and sighid therewithal.). — Fr. Cot. Pr. splinters. a brush . Fr. brizeto. brus. borst. briketo. rubbish. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. Castr. Sp. — OE. E. and Piedm. insilio. Pm. bruc. crum bit . Bruise. E. fescue . brist. bris. to stumble. a bristle. Bruit. as It. Lang. break. escousse. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment.). brusg. burs. a brush . It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. Prov.— Palsgr. and in the second place a besoiB. blow burcar. . Allit. The Lat. . Pr. Poems. flax-comb brossettes.

tare.-wtt miekki. very generally designated by the same puk. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. Esthon. to wet Pol. Gael. and exercised their cruelties prin. bublati. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. faire la lessive. soft. . Cot. buck-ashes. to soak. Sp. was called in Fr. does not hold. because bucare does not in Marsh). Sp. Bohem. bwch. bouk. soft. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. colada. of wind. bubauti. moist. as a buck rabbit. a bubble. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. and the bunch. moczyd. blast or strike with the forehead. boc. bubseti. boucaner. from colar. Formerly. Magy. mollire. 1586. at a door. The term bocan is still ap. different form. The place of such a 2.— . . a bubble . or projecTo Buck. . pup. to a place used for the mouillir. and Fr.lessiver. to filter. to buck. was called bucking the linen. bokni. to soften . to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . a hole. bub. bifbel. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. buquer. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. thunder gently . when soap was tion is commonly taken. bduclien. boil animals. mokry. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. News. a. bubBuck.wet Lat.D. Fr. BUBBLE bruschetta. a steep for flax. who resorted to the islands beichen. de la Floride. or mok. byge. Bret. But see Bristle. the linen at buck. soft . boc. Dan. Pol. Etym. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. . to bubble. it is beuchen. This bubette. top. the first wheal. 1857. bukke. buborek. a ashes. knock. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. A . tap . set of pirates in the spread. pukkata. — . to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. watery bud. the lower soak in lye. Pref A. from weich.byka. to butt or jurr Dan. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. rap. mote. bucking. In G. a knock word. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. and as a verb. in which the flesh dish. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. It. — . The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. drying of produce. blister. The male goat. tuft. to Gael. ac. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. tender. lye. to butt. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. and then to other wild tumour Lith. . is 1. Bohem. It. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. Bubble.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. . to strain. a to the male deer. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. hog dressed whole). hump. From an imita. bugd. March 28. caned' Hence those who established them.to allow a free current of air. a push.buchen. lye. to murmur. open lath-work. not so plentiful a commodity. says Laudon. bog-aske. buck-ashes. erweichen. See Dupe. also applied Una. Pol. soft. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. Fr. the upper for coifee.' Palsgr. pokka7na. Sc.biiken j Svi. Fr. molle. Fin. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. maban and baban. bub. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. buchen. designation of a knob. plied in the W. to soak. to butt. bubbola.derivation has been much discussed.steep or soak. bubiti. tender. bucquer. w. The natives of Florida. The cipally on the Spaniards. Bret. bucata. as G. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. to which in their language they call bou. to soften. to soften. bugada. soft It. . hump. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). The word was very generally Buccanier. a. bouc.boukaat. to bump as a bittern. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. a fescue. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. Magy. a bubble. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. boh. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. It. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. buerj It. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. bube. bucaIndies. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. Diet. to stick. — — ' A : ' ' . buquer. wood. 17th century. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. w. Illust. The name. to soak foul linen before washing. I. . to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. mieknad.

bolgetta. to bud or bocla. boucle. II I'a feru desor I'escu. pulga. and the reference to It. whom it is still much in use. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. mani. a boy. and of the Lat. push forwards. a servant. So on. Mid. boucle. . a fold ceilio. to thrust. a budget. bollire. motus creber. buachazlle. bod. bud butzen. — . a bud. Bav. to budge. crack. . Buckler. from bo. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. dinted. inboachen. W.t-le!L{ * Bud. a stump buckle up. In Lat. a bump. bullion. bocla. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. dint . child. bucket Fl. It. . ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. Dan. where the G. swelling. weich. of bac.n. Hardly identical with Fr. a dumpy gin./a. clasp of a book. put. butzen (Du. above mentioned. probably from the notion of bubbling. ON. Fr.stuff. bloca. a pail or flowers. bougette. bedde. NE.may probably be explained by N. to swell. Prov. of bouge.' Hal. call. pulga. swelling. or male of to boil . bouge. a cowherd. ' . a small shallow and open tub. It. Gael. bump. Bret. The dressed fur of lambs. skins pushit'. Behoves. butz. turgere buczendig. Du. boach. bug. A water-plant with leaves and gille. bloquier. botzen. bouljein. botzen. brobrocchiere. seen in Hesse botz. Fr. bunch . also a leather tuft . explaining Fr.) . — — . bucherame. A buckle or fastening for botch. It. Pol. hump. prick in a target. butzen K. boulj. Buck-bean. Wtb. OFr. to boss or swell out G. knob dwfr yn boglynu. ornamental stud. don't a baby). bogla. — . pwt o Fr. boss of a shield. trunk of wood covered with leather.' And this sacrament bus have dial. bo. bouger. Swab. pote. male or botzen. no wheel bogeilio. Fr. from bugr. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. ein. and weichen. Cot. bucolicus. blow. like a bean. loud Cot. Du. a navel. call bo. a tuft. to move. knob . butt . bolgia. boiling. Russ.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. gjeit-klauv. boqueranmis. Sw. of a surface. boucle. words is converted into b. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. set of a plant in bulk. stir. rump of fowls . bloca. noise . a ring. ' . . a buclder or shield budge. * Bud. knock. pwtio. . nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. a buckle or protuberance. Budge. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. having a boss. imbuere. ' .chissima. cattle. protuberance. Mid. dim. . as in Fr. fur. built. See Bulk. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. bod. to poke. a budget. — — . to graft or bud trees.r//'. Bret. Lat. a trough). call. clump. .) as to soak. boucler. budge. bukke-blad. Pied. bucherare. bul. is doubtless fallacious. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. bulais daqui. a short thick man. bub. buckel. butzen. macero. bdden. a little coffer or turgidus. The entire train of thought is bucket. Prov. Dan. This expression boglire. scion.— . to un bout d'homme. Prov. bouprobably identical with inok. stroke. bulla. a leathern sack. to boil. lump. with which it was ornamented. bode. a curl. potz. Bav. belonging to the calling of the chen. a shoot. convexity. bunch. . agreeing with Gael. * Buckle. bougette. bouclier. a boss. to word. Budget.. a boss.poot. Fr. a . boss. from Gr. bugnir. . movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. become bochen. Sp. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. Fr. a pustule bout. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair.' Schm. It termination is lost. bulb. no business to do that. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. thrust. is to shrivel up. Bucolic. a wallet. weich. K. It. Port. case of leather . wallet. excrescence.anything short of its kind. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. the radical image seems to be a set plants.goa. The Fr. the end or rise or bear out in the middle.Lat. soft. bouter. The knob or projection formN. * Bucket. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. boccula. goat's hoof. need. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. to 'soak. rabodS. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. OHG. . butzen. don't stir from hence.. sboge. ble. boucaran. a bubble three thyngis. in the beginning of to pierce holes.pode. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bouton. bulga. w. Fr. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. the word w ' — . boaLat. the root of the Slavonic words gran. were To Budge. water message. jSouKoXiKog. to line with fur. bouk is a pail and with the dim.' Boccaccio. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. with a central boss. Bus. a shield. stud. bog and G. to butt. to pen cattle. bulka.).stumpy man. To thrusting part of a long body. to stir. Hence quel. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. butze. weichen. The word is a ddyn. with let.. Fr. great pouch. boglyn. G. w.

bugs. to give benti. to rePl.D. to blow souffleU. rebuff. bufHe. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. btifetarius. bumann. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Lith. wauwau. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. senses. deadened. a jester. him but Boyd iugges. bauwi. buffet. From bulga. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. Teet-bo. buffets. &c. to excite terror in Macleod. air. buMagy. Fr. bugbear. Buffalo. — thence it has been transferred in E. Cot. a In . — La Crusca. yar^aa.' perfield. caupo.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. made to —Bugbear. while in Sp. buffle. From buff! of terror. a bugbear. Lat. bwg. Hence the E. 265. to signify an indefinite object of terror. a hobgoblin. Mid. buffle-headed. a skin. bubaRuss. a block-headed noddy. bau ! children. thus be translated to tap. buffare. It. buffeteur. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. to give a as of a blow. duff^ dull. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. Sc. dull sound. to puff. The cry made to excite terror is then used. a dull BUG From 109 — A . either alone or with various terminations. Romola. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. bo ! an interj. to puff.D. colour.—Buffet. blurt or puff with one's mouth. boo. bubach. bolgetta. breath. or hath been Cot. buff leather. as emblematically making light of an object. Esthon. bugle. —Boggart. Lith. — Bogle. buffer. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft.D. bouffer. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. buffa. Gael. to strike face to represent the unknown. buffare. bufogni. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. w. to marre often tasting it . often covering his E. botffon. Fr. bolgia. a hollow sound. buivol. to blow.— Buflae. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. sounds. or wild ox. bufogni.' La Crusca. of colours. a puff. God's boast seemed feare children. a cuff or buffet. dausinti. also a G. leathern bucket. It. word other cases. a buffle or a bugle. wine may The verb in taverns. mumming. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. from souffler. Buff. W. from It. site The two — — iii. Limousin bobal. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. bubus. Thus buffet would a tapster. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . to blow . as from Lith. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. boman. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. things in Jam. made by a person. smells . Buff. Magy. le reste emplissant d'eau. a side-board. to frighten ./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . Fr. a budget. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. bouffer. Fl. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. buffet. — retailing buffeter buffetier. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. The children were playing in an oppocomer. scarecrow . the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. stupid. A — Bug. to jest or sport. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bw! It. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. The use of the exclamation children. buffetto. dial. buffen. buffet. as wine that hath taken wind. E. to bellow . Lillo covering his head with his skirt. — Z. It. Pl. Buffeter. a clap. baubau. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. to beat. by metaphor. bw. Lat. bukow Ikow. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. buffalo. . the place whence the wine was drawn. soufflet. Sc. ' They rether puffed at him. Buffoon. — — — Buffet. tastes.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. pulse . it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. as Diez remarks. a goblin). to a representation of his voice. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Fr. tabernarius. G. and in Fr. A puff with — Fl. mingled with water. confused. A blow. Pl. Fr. Cot. puff. It. cuff . for this purpose is very widely spread. popo. een duffen toon. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. the buffe. dausa. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. human. often blown upon. bobaow. bubiti. Bufetarium. Swiss baui.

Lith. then a horn for drinking. a boogg. bogle. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. bogk.Fr. used in the same sense. poggl. — — ' . i. worm. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. iv. hert. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. bold. provincially an insect. pugalo. a beetle. buculus. fierce. bugar. a rabme. biignt. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games.. bugbear. to creeping things. It. Bug. the buggaboo w. affright. according to Coles. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. Grisons bau. gad. See The name terror). bug-bear. a silk-worm. The w. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. E. Russ. a misshapen person. * 2. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. paws the ground . earwig bau da grascha. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. of bugabo was given. bauginti. Sw. swollen. The name of bug is — .— . bogil bo (e. to origin in the expression bugs words. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. quos what produces dread or disgust. Grose. Lett. Bdronie. — . buffle. Mundart. bogil. to bellow. insect. given in Chaucer. Magy. Mid. Swelling. pugaf. Bugle. Magy. an object of terror. bug. ghost. bukati. bug-bear. . long. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. bugler. Cheval de trombugti. bwg and E. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. and in child's Magy. high-sounding words. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. to bellow. language any kind of insect. tumble-bug. Schmidt. . bok. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. Chaucer. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. Bogge. Fl. and is Deutsch. Lesachthal. great or bug words. also a bug-bear. a bugbear for children. Swiss booggen. . Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. well as the terrific object. especially to beetles or winged insects. Bug as a lord. a buffalo. as Buffalo. 3. saucy. an insect. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. b'dgni. also a baco-baco.loud noise. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. scarecrow . Swiss ing. xiv. disgust. w. high. Deut. threatening.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. The final guttural of W. A similar applica. also a bug-bear. 2. il brutto Demonio. It. bug-bear. : no BUG . insect. — — terror. tion of the beetle tribe. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. and a boggarty ing. Big. Same as buffle. booggen. Parolone. bug dung-beetle. boeuf sauvage. Hal. An ornament of female dress condread. bukashka. roo. and bugle. the black a maggot. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. any disgusting animal. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. Hence bugle-horn. bwgar. larva (a bug-bear. banian boube. and in Lat. boa-peep. Bible. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. — — . Illyr. threatening. big. as an object of dread. dial. Lap. Fl.Lat. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. forSc. with more or less modification represents bau. to roar Aasen. I. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — .3uhtii&:. a. fear. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. bogk. oxen. buba. the Devil. BUGLE Tentennino. is very common.. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. Manx boa. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. the word is lin) bbgge. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. vermin. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. bau (Pureiglia. . bbgni. a bug-bear. a bug-bear. rose-bug. is the dim. bucula. a goblin. boo. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. terrifying ward. coco. to frighten scarecrow. superbire. protuberant. thus connected with bug. baco. Sp. pujalo. monster. roarHal. a proud overbearing man pujat'. to take bug. shepe and gootes. 493. — boogg. of pipes sewn on. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. bugle. Stalder bog. (Spurrell). proud. W. 1551. Serv. to take fright. beugler. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. to take fright. troll. fette. bwgwl. bobal. blustering. buggabod). mask ' .

bulbus. bolle. husk. a prominence.' Festus. bole. knob. bol. bo. the body Du. as well as is very variable. bulge or convex part of a cask. ^ — . Jno. — . a heap. boa. Bulk. swell. as water beginning to boil bolg. knot in thread. bol. the capacity or burden of a ship. in vessel. a. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). bug. . a. bulk is a partition of boards. puff. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. bolgia. bunch or projection. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. or of what is shaped like a bubble. pulkas. OSw. to swell. buhe. a water-bubble).— . Melancholy. bouge. — . Hal. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. to belly out.' Fl. ' . blister. and bulbukd. bukr. a straw corn-vessel. bulked or bumped out. bulg. bubble. He found a country fellow dead drunk. to blow. G. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. lump. blow. skin of an animal. In the representation of natural sounds. boss of a buckler. boss. gebolgen. as it was merly written in English to bylle. byli. be protuberant. ne. . belly. domicilium. tumeo. . Lat. bolg. the contents of the hold. crowd. bolso. . bale. or feminine termination gives Bav. chest. The radical sense is shown in Russ. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. bolgetta. biilken. Bourser. With these must probably be classed ON. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop.d. belgja. . vulva. Ptg. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. a dint in a metal . buc. bulka. to undo the cargo. bwlg. skin bag. bed of a river. the position of liquids in the word In English. cultivate. and N. swell. . the belly. of E. bladder. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. bubble. . principal portion. skin flayed whole. van loock. to swell. — — . also the bunt or hollow of a sail. to bol. . compare Da. bolnyn. — — . pocket. belly Cat. projection. (3oX|8oc. belly. trunk. balg. a protuberance. For the latter sense ' — My . bullka. swell. a bubble. A — ' — Bulk. Othello. bag. bulkaf. Here stand behind this bulk. of an inflated skin. The addition of a dim. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. . the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. swollen. womb. To Build. See Bulk. hold or bilge of a ship. sedes. to spring. — — . bulki. a bulb Du. in Sc. formed a farm. Lett. Bulch. . Sp. ball. G. Lith. to raise a habitation. pouch builgeadh. boss of shield.). bulne. ' . or bear out as a full purse. knobby. to puff up bolginn. the womb. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. Gr. a globe. dial. pimple. a stage or scaffold. nave or body of the church van 't schip. Bolke or hepe. Bav. mass. globule bolg-lhuingey.'— Cot. The Walach. Pm. Hence e. bouk. buk. body.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. m um Placentiae. 1388. bilge. balcone. See bollekeii next article. the potato G. wallet. villa. belly van de kerche. Dan. bolgan. and put it home. thorax buick. trunk of the body. bellows builgean. belly. acervus. bubbling up. leather sack. snorting on a bulk. to bubble up. at riufa bulkann. mass. balgs. Mister. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. a lump or mass. — Bulb. . to gather. hollow. Palco. the carcase. ON. . herd^ swarm pulkd.' Palsgr. bulge or bilge. OSw. swollen OE. boss. to throw out a convexity. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. body of a ship . bugue. ' . bulcke. bauen. . Bulge. From till. bulle. It. blister Manx bolg. bolgna. to break bulk. trunk. bulk. in bulk. . a leathern sack or portmanteau. Muratori. it again. bulgen. a round bulky body bwlgan. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. beuck. anything prominent. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bauch. PoXj3a. bol. belly. tumidus. boulge. Pr. a bubble Gael. jnake bulch. blister. Kil. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. a leather sack or budget Fr. the head of an onion. belgr. bulgen. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bulbe. knob. Pr. Lat. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. whence bylja. Boss^. head . I. Lith. bua. bolle. belly Sw. ON. Mandeville. Dan. to bubble up Pol. hull of a ship. straight will he 2. bulwis. G.' Anat. bulbe. were a habitation. Pm. . MHG. habitaculum. .' Cot. bubble. See how this tode bolneth. . or. or cargo of a ship. a bunch. a tuberous or bulbous root . outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. w. belly. inhabit. bulk or capacity of anything. bubble {palgan tiisge. unevenness Sw. has bulbuk. Gr. balg. balco. cumulus.pulks. stuffed bag. on. pod ON. to build. body of an animal. turgeo bolnyd. lump.

D. embossed work. a bulox polos. a framework of balks. BuUiou. a hobgoblin. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. bullos. it is boulet de canon. Du. lumpish. of boule. is of a class with Pl. — Fl. on the contrary. bollos de relieve.D. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. boss. spirits.. balgeting. Fr. G. See Billet.'— ' Palsgr. Du. tition of deals instead of a wall. round glass phial. a beam or rafter. from the Lat. billoti in Fr. Du. from Lat. as in E. from baula. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . a cow. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. boss or stud. stud. large of its kind. blister. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. bal. hhint. it may be observed that a bullet in E. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Pm. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. bullebak. many to protuberant objects.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. a seal. Eullrusli. as the ornanails. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. .Fris. from Fr. W.Gr. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. bugbear. 3. Lith. Gold or silver uncoined. which may probably be the origin of the name. thick. scarecrow. Bret. urchens. a bul-begger. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. as It. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. I. bouillon. ba. coarse. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. in N. bellow. penbwl. The wild plum. Bullet. The final element tergeist.' do not go by the dangerous water. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. any embossed work. Cot. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. This word is used in several senses. ON. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. whence bullire. bole or trunk of a tree. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. Scot's Deso. and thence terror. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. Gael. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. a stud. witches. bellocier. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. eth and frighteth. Dan. child by the represents the hobgoblin. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. boillon. bulke. Bullace. It. bullus. G. a tadpole . to emboss . explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. bubble. w. bwla. Fr. dial. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. &c. bulloi. beams or boards.. to boil. a seal. sloes. BulUiead. pollach. bauli. — A tition in a ship. N.. bulle.lle de fusil. See Bowl. large. to bellow. baula. bullocks. boulct. any great-headed or studded nail. of Witchcr. as a mill-dam or the like. dim. a hornet. stud. w. a tadpole. Terriculamentum. bulderen. the matrix or die . while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. A lace tree. a wasp. and vellon in Sp. — — Bull. billon. a bowl. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. a bull. bulla. 2. to tical with Sw. also a parFl. a blockhead. poll-cheannach. but is more probably iden- palchetto. 2. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. also of the tadpole or young frog. It. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. biitzibau. blunt. poltern. of the ox kind. bulla. stupid . — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. pwl. bolla. The male W. is called a ball. bulk. Sp. from the use of the equivalent terms. bolli. whence Mod. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Bullbeggar. in the sense of base metal. stamp. And The word bullerbak. to bubble. lumpheaded . b2iggaboo. bullern. to seal. leraures nocturni nigri. from the noise. assito. stamped money. brass-headed nail . elves. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. a noisy violent fellow. bwlas. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. a little fish nearly all head. /SouWivu.D. Pl. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. bollon. The bullfrog. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. a scare-bug. bouillon. G. Du. a bull Swiss bullen. bwbach. bollar. pimple. G.. the seal affixed to the document. Bullfrog. bulk of a thing. signifying roaring. poli-cheannan.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. A papal rescript. a hobgoblin. as geting. bietebau. Bully. however. bolli. i. polten. bolos Fr.

polterer. legaggio di metallo. boene.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. botm. boisterous fellow. bommele. 2. to .brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. bombilare. To bully is to bluster. 1305.' Stat. Kil. Sw. The decried coin. by corruption boulevart. Bum. buller-bas. bastion. propugnaculum. From the notion of a humming. primarily the ramparts of a town.d. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. buller-bak. provides. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. 2. agrees with e. D. ierd-boeyme. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. to drum Lat. provides. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. biihne. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. &c. Du.D. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. III. 1687). Kil. — Bumto . minari verbulderen. a floor. Hence — . then in general a rampart. ierd-beame. blaterare. a stage. violent. AS. clamour. furious man. c. Philip le Bel in Due. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat.' agger. baluarte. to terrify by noise and clamour. droning. a noisy blustering fellow.' Again. — Boom. c. BULLY with which coins were stamped. a. ^Bully-rook. to make a noise . bottom. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England.D. Bum-bailiff. The cry of the bittern. Kiittner. IV. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. vallum. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . A. a bumble-. bol-werck. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. For bottom. To bum. John).' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. Thus ' ble. beat a — Hal. blunder-buss. c. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. bodem. 'lega. debacchari. blunder-buss. Etym. to make a droning Du. IIL st. G. Du.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. resonare. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. to dun. the soil. a blunderhead. sound. Miege in Hal. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl.' reals of standard currency. or a humblebee. To bum. buller-jaan (bully. G. 10. violent overbearing person. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. — bombam?nen. hum.. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . 14. but now is the central part of the town. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. boulevard. block-werck. Bully-rock. Bully. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. Du. a boisterous. ground. To Bum. Fris. The Sw.' ' mettre au billon. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. noise. Hal. It. intonare. from boden. is bullion — A — buller. honunele. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. buller-bas.' for the purpose of exchange. bustle. The 27 Ed. ON. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. bomtnen.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. scaffold. bulderen. or work of defence. G. — — plate d'argent.. 2. Fr. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. is called bumping or bells. a hectoring. up was termed monnaie de billon. Bailey. on the other hand. — Bump. and porter au billon. buene. 4 Hen. un faux brave. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings.the ramparts. buller-brook. 9 E. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. The Stat. bottn. Hence bom and ban. perturbare saevis dictis. ^i^/«. bolderen. St. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. argentum and silver. poltem. Fris.

bunke. E.^Cot. bunga. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. Bunk. to . Bumpkin. w. . — Marine Diet. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Li cake. cluster. A clumsy. Bump. a pumpion or gourd. Gael. bunan. inconsiderately. a boil or blain. Fl. a heap OSw. Pm. Bums it's hit. a lump on the foot bunny. stem or base. to bang ON. H. from knock) It. pompette. . stump. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. bignet. — round fruit. Bony. bottom bun feoir. pwmp. a bunch. Pm. bmike. a hump. Hal. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. Probably for bun-boot. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. dial. signifying one who does things in a thumping. round mass of anything. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. boi7ieog. Bunewand. bottom.D. — — Bun. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G.' Bun. to thump. Manx bonkan. tundo. Du. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. awkward clown. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. a heap or cluster. Hal. a person employed to dun one for a debt. any round knob or bunch. protuberance. knuckles. stubble of beans. a rabbit. a round mass . seems to unite Gael. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bunki. bunnion. a button. bamgetroffen. Bunch. root. Bun.! . noise. bu<rnone. bon. bun with ON. banga. Thus e. a dried hemp-stalk. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. bonnock. He buncheth me and beateth me. one ever saw the word in that shape. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. bun eich. a. a into Dan. bungersome. Pl. to beat. awkward. gibber. lenten loaves. w. Bang sen. a bag or sack. are dim. bugno. a heap. a rabbit. . to . a knob. Gael. bunga.— Pr. gibbus. trunk. . passes Sw. to knock . to bang down. .). Ir. while bulch was traced through Gris. knochen. bum-boot.. Hal. a boss Lith. from bunsen. Lang. poumpido. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Bung^. . stock. — — de dor bunsen. Pr. Probably from bump. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. E. bung. —Bunny. or to the mass by which it is given. pompon. BUNCH bum-bailiff. Fr. bulto. bugnone. a swelling. calamus. strapping. Dunchyn or bunchyn. a Sp. banke. . See Boss. to swell out E. forms. To bam. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. pwmpio. bunka. knob or heap. bunch— Hal. Again. . To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. Sc. buns. a heap Wall. stubble Manx bun. large.D. — — — — ' — knock. . hay stubble . Dan. also for taking a pilot to a ship. bulse. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bune or boon. bump. bumsen. mto Sp. strike E. . Kyx or bunne. botn. a large .. . bunny. a knob.— Bunnion. pumpurras. ner. bulscha. a heap.P. bongie. Pm. a boil (punkos bot. a knotty stick) Sw. Moor. foundation w. Pl. bolsa. to ' . to strike so as to give a dull sound. poumpi. to bang. bottom. should probably be a short tail. Hence E. bugnet. stump. truss E. root.S. Mrs Baker. a wallet.pummel. E. a hemp-stalk. Radically identical with Dan. bunt. bugno. abrupt manbuns-wise. 1. Bumsen. an old stump of a horse. Related on the one side to Pl. especially girls. explaining E. and signifies consequently a mass. a knob . bonuach. stalk. A Du. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. a. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. bunsen. — — Bun. It. Sc. binge. the tail of a hare.' he fell with a bang. Roding. a dry No . bundle. and related with ON. a bowl P1. . bunkc. hdk passing and E. a tail (Macleod). clumsy. throw down with a bang. See Bounce. Dan. blain. . a bunch Magy. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. as we have seen E. Then.D. bunken. a knock. a bump. stock. a bud. butt end. Hal. See Bunch. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' .D. bull. bannock. or grete knobbe. pwmpl. He fult dat et bunsede. bumtel. applied to young persons. clown. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. pumpa. a pocket Sw. il me pousse. Daal bu7iseti. any round knob or bunch. lump.-^Fl. bmidt. lungeous. dial. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Suffolk bonnka. S. bund.' Palsgr. to beat. bonge. Fr. callus. nor would it concern the public if he did. Holland and Flanders. Bumboat. Forby. . the Pr. a swelling from a blow. bans. — stalk . a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. OSw. &c. ! — knocking. as in other cases. Bunch. so the form btmk. a purse . Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. bun.

To bunt in Burgundian fashion. The word is flags are made. — — To Bungle. . driving in the bung. Palsgr. and E. knock. would be the earliest float for an anchor. the bung of a barrel Lim. bove. bungande. the noise of drums. bondeau. contignatio. Sw. bommen. Biu'geon. to push. the middle part of it. bourguignote. of a song. Russ. to knock. To do anything awk- wardly. and now more Bailey. E. from beran. bondir. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. shackles. a cork. stiimpeln. To bunt. to stop. colligatio. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. a water bubble made by rain. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. Fr. p. boj. To Bunt. something bound together (Mrs Baker). . Sp. la Borgonota. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. Prov. are from bouscfie. reddish brown. B. to bolt meal. generally known as the material of which bud. that the primitive meaning of shackle . fascis. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. bang. See Barbarous. . Bret. the loose open grow big about or gross. bunsen. anchor or of a net boyar. bindini. to cobble. Bunting. Bung of a tonne or Lith. a botch. bangla. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet.' Festus in Diez. See Borel. and Du. an anchor buoy. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. to gingle. banga. G. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. and van t' vat. whence in bure. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. racket . Fr. bou^e. the young cloth used for sifting flour. a bunch Burbulas. to resound. Bung. rumble as the bowels. or used as a receptacle for papers. fetters.D. bang. and the Sw. bunta. The belly or hollow of a sail. to Somerset is to sift.punt. tapp (whence tceppa. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. coassatio et Du. Burden. dial. bundle. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. to hum. tinker . the stopper of a cask). a boye. with the head. * Buoy. tap. The Magy. bonde. or tuft. Sw. Bunny. borgonota. to push ghebondte.— . as it still is in Modena and Bologna. gyves. ghebundte. dial. buret. halm-tapp. knocking. A load. So Du. russet. N. Sw. bote. See Bun. The Italian buio. Burganet. OFr. to shove. . was formerly pronounced buro. however. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. whence bunting. Burble. bourion. Pl. clogs. bangla. loosed from bonds. Sp. burboloti. to pype. OG. — — . bondel-loos. do a thing bunglingly. bury. bag to catch the wind. especially in wood. Hal. . modem bummle. — btiruii. to botch. to knock. on. borboUar. It. ' — work . bui. to bear. buove. bummle. a bungler. properly a Burgundian helmet. Kil. Sp. bongani. to hum. biirde. klempern. bourjon. to push with the head del. the float of an bundle. bondelj bundell. to in to stop the hole. Johansen. — Bureau.Fris. Rietz. The Fr. to bungle. to work ineffectually. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. on. bonde. G. a bunch. Lat. buie. dark. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bundt. unskilful working. clumsy performance. So in Pol. Compare G. — . bouchon. knocking. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Bunt. a bung. sprig. B. A bubble. noise. byndel. byrthen. a drum . — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. Prov. tinkle. bundel. 202. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Cot. bond. Du. to float. is originally a wisp or bunch . Fr. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. to kick. boya. Fr. bimge. bounta. racket. The stopper for the hole in a boia. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. bon. banghagr. Burly. also a piinple in the face. burion. shove . See Bourdon. and bomme. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. a sort of helmet. boil or bubble up. a wisp of hay or straw. stilmpern. dark grey bura. To burgeon. to stop. klimpem. buret. bourgeon. bouche. to work at carpentry bangan. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. in is Fr. bolting-cloth. bongun. A Dan. Fl. Bundle. to strum on an instrument. to bud forth. Cat. dicimus rufum. to hum. to stnmi on an instrument. ho-tapp. or putting forth of a vine. boei. working in wood (especially with an axe). boucher. stocks or such OSw. guggle as water. bondon. Muratori. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. AS. OFr. Sp. punishments for prisoners. Banff. to gingle. Burden. AS.

explaining Sp. schleiffen. repartee . brun. The Gael. burle of cloth. joking.. become big and proud. Fl. ample of polishing metal. a knob. a jest. burgi latro. as in cousteau. the J in OFr..ireui£r:e. From the same root E. de Vaud. bururus. Burler. bears. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. to tell lies. boura. to murmur. buirleadh.j'own. 56. E. to swell. to sharpen. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Lang. ^ttsa. and the Burin. with little iron nippers called burling irons. dial. Sp. burgeois. Hence Bridel. i5«r4 biiirte. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to roar 5. . to bouronna. sbornoi. Antiq. toast. OFr. the roaring surge of the — — — . Dief. fires up. The in. brim or edge of anything. OE. ii6 BURGESS Gael. BURNISH i5«r/. abourioner. a gurgling ^. Bouffer. to burn. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. a bubble. N. big. warbling. to roar. brima. bunch. See Berough. Pr. a blaze. Walach. brook. to roar (as lions.). ON. protuberance. it of the knots. purra. broil. a margin. grancelli. purrata. tahko. Swiss Rom. Burly. &c. Prov. to roar. a purling hiwe brennen. — . — Han to bruser op. to puff up borr^ . strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. Probably a modifica. singe or scorch with fire. Burlesque. to polish. brunnen. OFr. Fr. Supp. is connected with brim. brunna. language of folly or ridicule.— Pr. to burgen or wax big. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. brimmen. — — . The primary origin of the word. sicut sound. explaining the E. Bav. Bestiary. See Burr. bud or sprout forth. brasa. a bud. jest of.). the word seems Pm. bourglairs. laer. to make a So from Fin. taunt. A — — . angular . cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. an edge. a spring a robber.or bubbling up.Ps. Burgher. lorra. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. ' rugiens.). a jest. Burgh. as Diefenbach bud.. briis^. condemnentur morti. burn. crackle wood in burning Hal. burren. brunir. ^Notk. Fr. compared with G. must be explained on the same principle from G. as the / in purl. Lang. swell up or strout out. Burryn. Pm. to ridicule. It. sea. Bav. . thence. Sw. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to swell oneself out as birds borras. In the same way ON. bruzir. ends of thread. brinnen or Also ein roar. Swiss Rom. — — . brAler. A burl. 122. fire. to polish. like. — . OE. From Fr. and Dan. . — — . is an Thus G. has also borr.' Cot. pur (see Burgeon). a bubble to spring as water. See Burgeon. spring-water bumach. G. from Lat. to polish helmets. flocks. tion of the root which gave the OE. barrel. brynsten. Burgess. bourd. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. with Dan. Fr. de Vaud. It is probable indeed that Fr. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. a fountain. from the roaring sound of flame. a prominent eye borracka. swelling borr-shuil. robber. as of suggests. blow. to puff. It. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. borrelen. Schm. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. and the Burnish.' a jibe. an &c. borracka. a bladder. bururus. . tumentum. boure. brustle. bouril. from bryii. brunnr. water. to grind on a whetstone. to ridicule. pressa puret. borr. occupying much space. Fl. to give an edge to. Bret.. It. he rustle. in Schm. Limousin bourdo. watery. to bud . like straw or small . a wine skin. burly. Burglar. to To Bum. A legal term from the Lat. to effervesce. Probably. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. bruse. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. brase. Pren7ien. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. brinna. is termed burling.— . Todd. to swell with pride. Cot. leo Fin. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. brusler being a faulty spelling. In the manu. to rub. the er is a dresser of cloth. purling. j. Gael.. to have acquired the sense of polishing. bourou. to Gael. Castrais bourril. burlare.sharpen. roguing beggars.bryna. burgensis. to fiy. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. tahkoa. See under Bore. to surge. sidiary element. brandung. to set on fire. a well. borni. like the wind in trees. Sw. ends of thread. borujon. mockery. a whetstone. knob. G. Burn. brustolare. born. ridicule. to burn. Nat. the flocks. which has given much trouble to etymologists. embraser. burgen. bremmen. Compare also Piedm. to roar. brinii. to hum. to sharpen on a whetstone. So also Sw. a lie. and OG. to bourda. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. Goth. boiirre. to roar. surge or dashing of the sea . lerre. brausen.

brisdeach. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. See Burgeon. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. a purse. straw. This word seems safety. be more in accordance with AS. and thence flocks 'of wool. borsa. dial. ON. keep. stuffing. byrstan.' Harris in Todd. a place of defence. — Clare. to hide . skin.— . preserve. karborre. impetus. Mid. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. and. &c. Sw. explained E. briketo. bris.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. . Shelter. ptcrren. idiom if 4. bur. burre. blurra. burgisli. brickie. brjota. byrgan. casting bullets. Dan. to buzz. brittle. whence Kil. prsnuti. berstan. fortify. It. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. It. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. whirr and burr. Du. . brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. i5(7&a. bersten. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. appears under the Lang. when they spring So in W. some people in pronouncing the letter r. to bury . a sepulchre. brist. byrgels. hair. bur. 225. any kind of quilting or stuffing. Burrow. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. break . preserve. bolgia. G. bourre. Hence Fr. chips or anything else Fl. AS. borra. beurs. E. Cot. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. Burse. Jam. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. dial. barza. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. byrsa. briser. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. to stuff. ' ' — — burren. to save. . Compare also OE. g. to break. as for the protection of a child's head. also all such stuff as hay. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. A rabbit burmotion. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. shales. iii. brast. caer is a — — — ' ' : . 2. from whence we pass through Sp. The root forms brik. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. bris. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. brista. In OE. Burse. a harness or collar maker) . sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. leather. signifying protrude. brit. Brun on bane. -Grisons bulscha. shearing of cloth. AS. Burr. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. borra. the officer who bears the purse. — Translated by Kemble. makes the disbursements of the college. husks. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. To Bury. Hal. With a slightly different ghen. byrigels. bristen. and spelling. a pad. Beowulf.. save. buscha. Gael. whirr. Fr. and met. bristeach. brizeto. shelter. To Burst. verbergen. Port. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. but it is more probably a development of It. ber•whirr to whizz. to hide. ' BURR AS. root borr. Burr is related to buzz as protect. ultimately resting on the Gael. 5150. to burst.Lat. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. byrgen.' The same word with burgh. shuffling. to P'air. bolsa to It. mentioned under Burgeon. borrow. britar. cwning-gaer. briso. as in Northumberland. bourlet. See Bulge. bergen. Fr. Burser. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. -burse. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. a morsel. brisd. to mutter Sw. Du. bourrelet. that birds make their nests with. brown. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. borre. Burial. as from Sp. bourse. peluca to Fr. OHG. purr. tomb. In a met. burial place. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes.' edge grew weak. birgan. a. force. from AS. a port. borsa. &c. of England. foretell great storms at 3. a rabbit burrow. birr. a wallet or scrip. of a body hurled through the air. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. brest. borsia. brist. brokil and brotil. from Fr. burra. G. beorgan. coo. an exchange. also ' any such trash as chaff. swell. Fr. cover. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . I. bres- — tan. talk fast and indistinctly. the — — castle or fortress. OHG. Fris. bourse. perruque. ON. borre. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. Swiss burren. Bursar. S w. an annular swelling. birigean. Sexy. Sw. brico. its own protection. a barn or cupboard. any rapid whirling biarga. bourrer. a purse. as it is still pronounced in N. brittle. moss. pipaa. a sepulchre chreoburgium — .

a wisp. box wood to bush. and not directly (as Du. truasc. Brunne. besom). boisseau. buxula. -idis. Fris. busken. a troop. to dress. a box. Sibriht that I of told. in the For Skirnis . OFr. bulk. we have Fr. Le roy Richard mort. ieorh.P. the past participle of the same verb bua. a gun biichse. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. a tuft of hair. to enclose in a case or box. protect . Mid. bosc. make ready. Sc. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. hjul-bosse. whence at bua sik. —Busk. to direct one's course towards. and from the Fr. ch). ' —P. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. and he cites wisp bauschen.' sheath. beorgan. They busked and malced them boun. knot.) to hide in the ground. Bush. boxta. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. apparently a secondary verb. tuft. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bossen. Layamon. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. diminutives. boiste. a hump. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. whente beorg. . a rampart. a tuft guini. bausen. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. to bend one's steps. a corpse). verb. a bunch of twigs. busk. a clot of phlegm sart. biichse. bush. bousse. the land. bos. qualster-boscken. berghen. ' . a bush. brake. to keep. Malberg. bustula. bunch. . bussellus. to prepare. burial mound. at buast. in OE. gave Lat. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. In to Brutaine. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. It. to turn. It. fiast. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. : — . tow. Bush. aheap of stones. 2. borseof trees. a -tavern bush. buysschen. to forest of Eyda. Brunne. . preserve. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. The word frequency with which to busk is used. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. . which would later have truast. busse. boistel. Ptg. Gr. borghen. a tuft. a box. at bua sig.Lat. that the lend had lorn thorn. To prepare. . lump. bramble.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. to sepulchre. AS. The bone in a woman's stays. van wijnbesien. roquies. 'at bua sik. Du. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. induere vestes . barst.' a box. bosta. a little box Dan. boissa. bush. dead. grapes. buskr. rad. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. thicket of thorns . bosch (a diminutive ?). and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. bussel. See Box. barsc in Heimskringla.boisteau. to swell. or the like. The primary sense of hair . Sw. and we actually find bushel. Du. basse. as synonymous with to inake one boun. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . cluster. a box for measuring corn. wisp. bundle * Buskin. to bow. Thus Froister . a been written buasc. or — Busk. bustellus. abdere. defence. ' . clusprobably Morocco leather. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. ' . bousche. condere. Bouchet. OFr. Du.fiasc. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp.-^Bushel. a bunch. G. bua. R. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. boucher. mount. thicket {buski. to stop. whence bouchon. borcegui. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. and thence Mid. a bush. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. to dress.Lat. il fut couch6 l^jkema). then a tuft Sp. as boun is simply buinn. Prov. ' . bousIn the other copy ser. bussare. Harold G. sur une litifere. a bundle. The radical idea is seen in Goth. And her ful sone tuft. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. To Busk. buxida. occultare K. a tuft. buxta.gur bidst austur um EySascog. signifying to entomb.' The buskin is said Bret. BUSH hreaw. the idea of knocking. to bury. hunch Du. basse. Fr. bouche. 410. bulge. for at buasc. oneself. bo7ich (Fr. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bossida. Thence byrigean. the Moors and of Morocco. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. See Bust. AS. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. So from Fr. bundle.— ' ii8 {chreo.' The word is explained by — — . bairgan. is thus accounted for. projection. Sir Tristram. from the ON. brodequin tout noir. . a grove bosch van haer. brodiquin. iriCtf -ifoe.

to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. made stiff. morsequi. With respect to bust. a busk. representing a blow. bussa. Lang. — .> Also written buskle. brut. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. btcc. To hurry or make a great B. signifying trunk of a the body.bezig. outarde. bus and Pol. Sp. To Bustle. and by transposition morchequi. Business. bustla. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. a Mid. trunk of a tree. bu. body without arms and legs. Bav. beezig. Comp. occupied bezigen. Namur — Champagne Fr. 10. Gael. So in Fin. of a doublet. ON. busche. . a boat or small vessel . Swiss butschen. to make use of. a blow. The form brust. tarda. bisg. Pol. kiss. hipista. a mouth. betarda. ship Sp. putschen. to knock . Prov. work. a bust. bisgung. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. brusc. bussen. fe^a. a log. Fr. mouth. worn to make the body straight . Hal.— . lip. of the human body (Grandg. says. a kiss. sunt quas Hispania aves . brostia as well as bostia. would explain the G. ottarda. buz. bacio. busch. body. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. especially of a woman's dress. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. abutarda. bnist. putta. Bustard. trunk. Du.d. thick end. stump. — — difications of the same word. sera. also a busk. a ship of some size. basiuin. A A busquer (Sigart). from jnund. log . — hardly be distinct from Fr. Lindenbr. or Cherqui. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. cata — . speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. bus. a great billet Cot. Fl. Bust. Rouchi. but. Lat. So Wes- terwald munds. a tree. to Swab. geidha. I bustle. bucha. outard. 2. buc. a kiss. and also a sounding blow. Sw. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Busy. Box. a kiss. lip. kiss. bust. forms morseqiiill. a large cljest or particular applibox. stump. forest. Prov. crack . BUSS Dozy from Arab. bysgian. busta. — Thus we should have mocherqui. utarda. small. a fishing vessel. stem. Fr. inde discurro et operosus sum. a kiss of reverence. chest. mons. 7o\. — — — — It is like the smouldering. a projection. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. mosequin. kupata. buc. box. austarda. Xerqui. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). also a It. bysgje. as in moharra from harbe. Fr. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. The Prov. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . an ostrich. love gestures. See Boss. bisegung. trunk. Bust. Sp. busto. 1372. as in ON. busy. lump. vessel employed in the herring fishery. 1555. beso.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. a bulk or trunk without a head. AS. Cat. the breast.). buta. I. ViM. pussa. buyse. Fris. smack. — clattering about. baiser. biist. lips. Hence probably au-tarda. buquer. bus. also a flagon. or chest in which the vitals are contained. a. arbor ramis trunGloss.D. busq. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. ' BUSY 2. Fr. the long. I go strepo) . From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. buc. Busitiess :c3iVi . biseg. ON. knock. a stroke of wind. a blow. its slowness of flight. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. body. B. avuDiez. in Diaz Gris. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. tuft. to make a splash in the water. Edrtst. snout.' Plin. busch. statue of the upper part of Fr. Port. body of a man. On the other hand. employment bisgan. . windbutsch. bulk. besoigAe. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. A great sluggish fowl. ^A. occupation. mogangas from gonj. body of garment. Busk. Prov. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. plated body or other quilted thing. business. a sleeveless truss or doublet. stir. and then with avis again prefixed. 119 bi{tr. bruskras well as buskr. The proceedings of Parliament. a bush. a backstock. A wisp. and supposes that the common Arab. bist. the body without arms busque. trunk of Cot. to bustle. Nained from Proximse iis zia. ' bistardej It. besongne. the point of a lance. abotarda. mohedairova. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. knock. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. I. bust. body . Sp. 22. borcegui.Lat. body of a woman's dress It. Bulch. Buss. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. an affair. butz. the trunk. a bunch of flowers . mouth.pjik. busc. to occupy. Cot. otarda. 2l box.' ON. or avutarda. bukr. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. Walach.

— .' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. which the word corresponds to the Fr. properly a butan wite. equivalent of AS. and the real origin of the and within . are. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. The E. the Perhaps besogne — . belly. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. a small winebag. be out. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. bitlga.' there is really a negation to be supplied. we find ben. being wholly unten. Fr. But when will you pay it ? the belly. Prov. the principal apartment. bitten dai. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. bhcciero. AS. If that where now we should compiler. a wooden cask. then hoUow trunk. and with It. from boc. — we acle for liquors. bochier. ont jhi^ton. Butler. ways.' — — ' . a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. bol. ox. Sp. large barrel. without the house kept in bottles. Fr. bolr. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. as Pantler. Butt. botija. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. a cask. is well explained by Tooke. to-boot. similar train of thought is seen in ON. add. belly. Sp. slaughter-house. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. bouteillier. besides that . and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . barriga. Butcher.' Thus Chaucer says. Du. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. the store of ten.jamin. a goat (and not besides . Sp. A A . a butchery. biitait slaughterer of goats . bous.in which his brethren are included. Where at an earthen jar . the servant in charge of the original object. or what in in charge of the pantry. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . a leathern bag. but one thing. skin-bag. from as. belly. (children) boc. Buttery. also a hollow vessel . beccaro. bout. Lang. rotundity of the body. Lang. bole of a tree.streets. a baiTel . gives at least two pounds sterling. OFr. So in Italian from becco. the precise correlative of but. ' Besides all that. bola. beyond the Piedm.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. the body of a tree or of a man. moreover. bocin. Here the but implies the existence of an. a goat. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. bute. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. the mouth). body of a shirt w. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. butan ce.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. an outlaw from bouche. those in beccaio.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. Whatever is in addition to Butler. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. collection of casks. a butcher . bolgia. by the mode in which he is treated. the body of an animal. the trunk or body of an animal. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . wooden receptthing to be done. trunk. rumpf. viz. calf of the ' say. mais. Tooke's dis. my is called the adversative use of but. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. without. boucher. As a conjunction but is in every portion. and bot. ' There is leathern bottle. earthen which the debtor has adverted. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. Wall. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. original sense of without. "PLT) . calf. beccaria. a budget. without buiten-man. buta. without care. G. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. is put in a class by himself. able. boteria.' ' write. the full expres. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. . bisgung. But In Sc. botilla. But It. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. young mais. bouz. bountifully. hollow case. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. botte. viz. Fr. It. boquier. the bottles. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. butan. beta. without punishment . Ben-house. a bottle. . hull of a ship. of the wine and drink. sup- meat and drink. a butcher. binnan. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. boccino. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. the name must have arisen before the within. bodifie. a barrel. bounds of. tinction between but. the jug and in E. without law. except. that which would be translated by Fr.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. in addition. the belly.The Sp. outside that moreover. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. bag._ bitten j biiten door. the present day we should say.

Perhaps corrupted Lat. to strike. or person Schmeller . . — — — — . the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. a thrust the thigh-bone. butter. from bugan. to butt. the rosebud. boutis. — A . Kil. Mur-buttant. rabodd. boteria. bouton. waste ground. an ox. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram.putan. botto. To Butt. It. is formed the augmentative buttatich. to thrust. are the strips at the edges of the field. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. oir spike with a k coup . a bot. Fr. submit shaking up salad sauce. fowl. from stossen. a wall butor butt on. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. and the true derivation boar. buttern. butter un. To come full butt against a butts. bot blijven staan. of E. signify a cask or tub. to bow. W. bouter. butt of a person. Hal. as in G. Button. hillock . e. the store of while bottich. leg of lamb. * Buxom. a mound. a. bocsam. ment being supposed to resemble butter. boding. botta. to thrust. from notirrir. the prick in the middle of a target. pwt. a. bout. botwm. end . a heap of merly called pushes. thrust forwards.— BUTT leg . a dle . what is kept in a blow. from rejeter. pwtiaw. See Butler. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. to throw . bott. Du. at. R. to make him a mark for arc-boutant.rejected thing. bot. .. An erection built up as a Fr. Fr. . w. a blow. as rejeton. a barrel. a blow. Buttrice. bodi. caput scapula bout van f been. having a rotundity . able that Chaucer. large head. to boult flour. Fr. a tub. &c. Fr. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. butyrum. strike. Schmell. — . give way. obeto shake backwards and forwards. buhsom. potacha. humble.arbre. obedient. A — — — . to be con. Butter.against another which needs support . Gris. — A . Du. Du. to blad. a corner horses' hoofs. butt. To strike with the head bags. a leg of mutton.. a buttress Cot. The word body itself seems identical with G. a flying buttress. short thick thing pimple. to cast. Boutant. Du. boter-vliege. boter-schijte. G. Boutje. tout seat or breech. buttare. Gael. a little push . on. any short thick thing. bout. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Cot. So in English pimples were fora clod. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. Buttock. of the present day. from bouter. a mound of turf in a field to sup. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . Du. boil. thrust. a boss. botte. Fris. clunis.' thick from shaking. the thigh of a goose. to push earth . Buttery. as if from Povg. by boE. a bun. Kil. coxa. courtaud. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . bodi'. the thick end. to thrust . fle>(ible. Bav. bouter. botten.thum and not button. from the large knobbed head of botto. a button. thick. nourrissons. pied. lams-bout. tress. to touch at the end. Bout van het schouderIt. bottig. put. &c. butteln. or or shore post. butt. Buttress. a cask. i. butte. bottich. stump of a tree Fr. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. to heap up earth or ihrust. boutoir. W. both. to so close to the Fr. From Du. Fr. — . in the R. a buttrice. trapu. suddenly . bocgsuin. Lang. dripping. nursling. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. Butter-glass. Halma. a stroke di animal. nourrisson. stump. a bolt. butz. poke. buter. butte. a button. bud. to abut a stone roof. butter. then the thigh or leg of an to push . povrvpov. Bav. a but in the W. Grandg. gigot. a stump or club foot. bot. a boss. Hal. but this is probably from Fr. The Bavarian potig. aim whence to make a support to a wall. geboogsaem. bouton. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. boiUer. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. to abut on. butt. the trunk. the edge forwards. to thrust. bata. the Butter-fly. From the noise of drinkables in a house. an etwas anstossen. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to.to push. Buttel-triib. Kil. Sp. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. bothog. Btetter-schmalz. Fr. so as to make a sounding blow. From Grisons biitt. to thrust Fr. -ez. any small projection. but. a scope. buttals. to femur. boter-vogel. a large belly. a hill. grease that sets by merely standing. Fr. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. buttock of beef is called butr. botta. Gr. striking end. AS. a ribbed glass for dient. clumsy . s'arrgter tout ^ coup. : . Schmell. a button.

depends upon a esteem in falconry. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness.. 21. P. as Fr. G. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. . as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. Lat. byar-log. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer.busardj Prov. byar-rettr. Goth. lb. bycgan. Du. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. It. buzac. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). See Abie. who makes abigg. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. abozzago. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. as heedless as a cock-chafer. stall.P. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. and would have been lost in E. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. bees.— Diet. leges urbanse ON. and boxome of speche xviii. A A We — — — days' wonder. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. bij. bygge. tions by one. bugjan. confusedly. \s\xy. —gracious of speech. to whisper. The ON. to jan. to sell. Etynj. to pass by. 116. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. AS. a borough. harty prayers and God speedes. farm. favourably to a petition. CABAL Goth. bar. Verstegan in R. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. a meke thynge with — alle. Pecock Repressor. Originally the law of a particular town. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . to buzz. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. Buzzard. cow-house. also say. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. and it is of good will. as in Da. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. village. gracious. bozzago. to swear with him by . — 122 BUY P. good-humoured one. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. bohte. byr. groat in token of his good heart towards him. train of thought which has become obso. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. lete. town having separate jurisdiction. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. Dan. buso. to purchase for money. bi. OE. AS. jus municipii. The sense of buxom. big. buzarg. bylag. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro.— P. from whom it was addressed. Mercy hight that mayde. Sw. son. a buzzard or puttock. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. Cabal. frabttg- To Buzz. blessing me with their of side. bauhta. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. indistinctly. Byre. p. a by-path is a side path . from by.. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. & Q. called Cabala or Tradition. buzzicare. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. . a beetle. bylove. It. to stand at his side . For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. bei. To Buy. favourable. A ful benygne buirde. Many good mological explanation. ii. to wit. . buteoj Fr. bi. ON. Then applied to speaking low. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard.in N. 3. By-law. 519. iii. 200. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. A by. a town. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. Sw.

&c.' Due. string. E. caable. stercus. laitue cabusse. kabas. Sp. Gaggle. ceach / exclamation of guages. It is remarkable that the Esthon. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. chadabula. Finn. cadabulum. a rope. Brushwood — — B. Cabbage. chaable. (ca/coe. hoard together. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . surripere. havyar to caviare. a rope. maim. Du. Etym. Neckam — by the wind. to hurl in Nat. whence Fr. brassica — capitata. precisely in the sense of the lari E. From It. Coticesserint Swiss aa. To Cabbage. Imitative of the cry of hens. The name of the engine. has kabbel. a car- We convasare. gaban. kakaloH. disgust cac. dirt and the Fr. Fr. serious injury — In like manner It. case. Celtic. in which sense are explained The the OFr. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. OFr. disgusting such an engine was exerted. Didot. signifying properly a rope's end. Common to Lat. cabane. a jacket Fr. a shed. a head (whence cabochard. caables. cabasser. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. cacare. name of the projectile engine. OFr. cabo. geese. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. cabus. Lith. aakkat'a. . deponat a store closet. Capstan. and Or. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. or rush basket. akista.ticula. 'habl. and Finnish lanLat. whence Lang. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni.). come the Fr. a frail. bad. chabla. the Prov. to strain in such a manner . Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. to crush. capo. head. traboccare. vincially used in E. caable. cabas. cabulus. Ptg. . su/Furari. OSp. manganare. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. an engine for casting stones. agga. Fr. mdhaigner. agge machen (in nurses' language). aak! tandi like Fr. to hurl down. cables. — . Cabin. caboche. a rope or cable. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. headed.. nasty. a cabbage . cadabula. and the Arab. capanna. Mid. .Lat. cabuccio. accablcr. especially shepherd's frock.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. a booth or hut. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. — Tarbe. — Ibid. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . E. caable (in legal language). gabardme. form kactal. forms indi. : — from violence without blood. as an expression of Gr. It. disgust. caqueter. kabane. &c. . originally an Gael. main. a headed cole or cabbage . and a cabal is a conclave of persons. vile. kabaSsen. prostratio ad terram. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. or as an interjection of disMod. cabaii. cabacho. Mid. gaggi. wilful). dung. to chatter. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. —Diet. Item habeat vocant. and Ptg. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. giiare.. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. hut. It. Katr-iT-aKt. gatsch. Lang. and as we find stones Mid. for the origin of which see Carabine. it would seem fundain children's language. Cot. It. cab. . cabo. hovel. cab lis. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . from manganum. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. Sp. cabre. Cabinet. as it must have stood in French. as Turk. heady. Due. signifies down. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. Due. the bowels.Lat. cacare . a tunic. a rope. origin is the OFr. cabbage. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui.Lat. Sw. or cadable. Lat. overwhelm. a covering. kabat. cabuyskoole. cabarino. covering. Antiq. band. dirty. The Sp. ! — . Cot. cadabulum. Choux cabus. Very generally used. round or great headed. Cappa in OSp. ckaable. lactuca capitata. chaable. manticuKil. headed or cabbage lettuce. — . Kil. cabre. cadabalum. a cloak of felt or Cack. . kakla. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. overwhelm (Diet. It. would correspond to cable. to keep or Du. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. Du. Castr. Fr. Cablisb. is probably unconnected. cable .Gr. Du. — Kil. filth. cadabola. gaggele. calabre. OFr.. agge. cdble. w.. Tugurium. — the ON. as Diez supposes). the Slavonian. capuccio. Fr. from trabocco. properly windfalls. Fr. aeggi. To steal or pocket. dirty. Mid. The double a in the OFr. to put or pack up in a frail.

from the ink-bag which it contains. Du. a loaf of bread. its mother. on. Sw. KxiKivh^o^. calx. A cuttle-fish. kuchen. a reed. frolicsome kaad mund.— Cot. dead body. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. a cylinder. hot . Gael. taking it Sp. without loss. kalfi. to throw themselves into the sea. coop. Serv. cadaver. Lat. loss. cauldron. Calamary. . Cauldron. Caldron. cadenza. Fr. caldaria. a circle. joyous . a calesh. kolo. It. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). boy. &c. Lat. B. caioler. . cykevie. Flo. Cot. Lat. Caitiff. or colpa na coise. Fr. Fr. cha'cmie cadence. hence musical rhythm. limestone. gaggle. kat. chattering. An open travelling chariot. principal and interest. Caddy. kalb.— Calliper. incolumis. calentar. ben- kalf. kukje. to sleek hence a den. or smooth Hnen cloth. cake. prate. cavea. . cadet. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. a wheel. calidus. To Cajole. lord. A — fall. the pi. lime whence calcareous. captive. Calc-. Lat. Originally from a Slavonic source. kolasa. kolesb. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. (in the augm. . CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. kolo. pi. The Calf. a corpse. or prattle. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. In the same way Fin. to gabble. gabbia. Due. signifies a waggon. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. It. N. loss. to prate much to little purpose. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. a lump or large piece. Dan. reed-pen. Pol. to cackle . colibro. To Calender. Mrs B. The young G. from calculus. cage. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. chaudron. a cake or loaf. From lerie. safe. Sw. whence calash. a tea-chest. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. to cage. G. KaKKat. Calp is riadh. of the nature of lime to calcine. It. A hooded carriage. gabble. ' . Calamity. cattivo (from Lat. — in a kiln. Du. a dence. Cot. ON. It. It. a counter used in casting accounts. chaudiere. See Kiddier. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. calendrer. Turk. cageoler. Turk. to treat like lime. cage. little chief. Roman reckoning. cadence. ratas. caliche. calibre. rattaat (wheels). calba. Cadet. Dan. to heat. Calash. En kaka br'od. and troublesomely attached to. an ugly waggon kolaska. hot. pith. kdtr. babbhng. ever and anon. calessa. gabberen is identical with E. Cage. calamitas. especially of something soft. Calcialate. marrow. of oxen and similar animals. a wheel . Russ. — — — Dan. a hollow place. cuttle-fish. Tea-caddy. Lat. a roller. desire of land. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. when they are said to poor. gabbia. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. calentura. one unduly indulged by. kauwe. Sw. wanton. gaggia. pen Mod. kolyaska. koeck. roller. so gabble corresponds with Fr. disease of sailors from tivus). kolyasochka. Lat. lindrus. . calculo. It is another form of the E.warmth . a car. Fr. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Lat. Cadge*. cabdillo. a calash . Calendar. the bore of a cannon.— . frisky. Calf of the Leg. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. capitetum. the pith or soft part of wood. Calocli. A . calesa. Cadence. calpa. form) calderone. whence Lat. a mischievous dial. to compute. is probably delusive. from calendcE. an inkstand . Cadaverous. Sp. a wheel . kalem. of which. Cot. the younger son of a family said to be from . a low note. dial. Fr. a small stone. caldarius. Fr. a common cart. coll. Sp. Arab. calendarium. chetif. naXaiidpi. Gascon capdet. calcis. Sp. master. kakulla. kaad. javioler. Perhaps from w. —Atkinson. a fever. a wretch. 124 prattle . a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Lat. pet lamb. Du. kdfich. to . * Calibre. a falling.Gr. The Lat. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Du. calidus. kaeckelenj Gr. G. from the Chinese catty. calamus. Fr. bad . jabber. Calandre. collop. kaka. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. the lump and the increase. cadere. * Cade. kolo. for green fields. a wheel . kage. Lat. Lat. Cajol. calf of leg. capCalenture. from Gr. kalfvan hout. a vessel for heating water. It. misfortune. kola. just falling. calibre. a caFr. Fr. kail.uv. a waggon . to — Fr. Cake. gavia. kolesnitza. the calf of the leg. Lat. unruly . wretched. As Du.

According to Jal (Gl. water-tight. qAlab. vulgo Coluvrine. sestus. or mould. The reference to heat is preserved in. quA librd. depreciatory term for a woman. calat of leude demeaning. on.' Slange. to call. CALM to press or stuff. Fr. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. longior.' Chaucer. calvus. kahcwe. calma. drive. Mil. to hear. Caliph. calleting. the hard surface of the ground. hallottaa. Due. quality. Fr. calc. to affirm. the day. a last. harden by pressure. calare. brawny. Ptg. khalif. koluvre. Du. Heb. callum. calk. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . Lang. E. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Kil. given. or languishing drought is . overscalmaccio. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. CALICO Calliper-compasses. dragonder. To century was Squalibre. scold. KaXka. couleuvre. i. an adder.piicede Lat. cauque.position is much less common than the geschut. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. The word was also written cawme in OE. calicot. Ca. bald. Fr. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. harquebus or handgun. kael. kind heat of the sun. ram. faint. the Fr. Gael. hot. kal. a good calling. calcaich. quiet. . Unfledged.' But it is hard Du. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. femme frivole et babillarde. colubrina. caillette. Turk. chatter kallen. Kavfia. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). saucy. coluber. caluw. nautique). having a thick skin. kil-u-kal.' Whitby Gl. to abuse . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). calma. sound. to rail or scold . callus. tapulta. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. skin hardened by labour. NE. which is as much as to say. ' pert. or caliever. try. B.' Winter's Tale. Kil. word of mouth . from Calicut in the E. to prattle. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Hard. 125 Prov.meaning of the word. serpentina. Diet. heat. prattle. to cram. kalla. Antiq. . the Fr. and sometimes a handgun. of the bore of a firearm met. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. to be of a good or bad quality. heat. Indies. Call. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. calo. To Calk. tittle-tattle. whence couleuv. voice. dial. kol.— . Fr. can be distinct from ODu.en~ kinds of firearms. Mahn derives it from Lat. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. but is only a jda-kallo. scalmato. and heat. Ibid. piece of bigger circuite. push violently. Dief. of a column. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. klover. To call. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Sp. — — — — — . lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram.from Ka'tm. calclover. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. So It. * Caliver. oldire from audire. a drab. whereas in troth it is not. kal. gossiping. to tread. moso. them &c. chatter. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . The origin is Gr. u to an I in such a colubrum. to burn. caliver. cahna. ' rine. Gr. Fin. coulevrine. trull. Bi. to proclaim. calcare. colubraria canna. by many that the weapon Callous. Sp. a successor. to call. Mid. abto suppose that E. the heat of Now these Du. overheated. Calico. kallo. a round of abuse. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. The primitive colubrina bombarda. cauma. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. Fin. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. diameter of a ball. whehce it was first brought. Sup. AS. to calk. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. Sc. a feathers. faint. calor. To drive tow or oakham. and dragon. It. Lat.. Lat. calme. cotton cloth. ululo Turk. Diez. alta voce ploro. Callow. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. culverin. a soldier who the It. hollaing. and E. dragoon. fistula. to say. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. — — — — — . calibre. the latter of chamber. a. serpens. done with heat Alt. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. licht stuk The change from a. form. Derived by some from Arab. Calm. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. * Callet. donderbuchs Sp. calgua. glotton. — Fl. Among these were the turn. form in the kalib. sclopus. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. which has its memory preserved in Du. the scalp or skull.(jaa= ice). moist. calca. Sir John Smith in Grose.Lat. to callet. however. people's remarks. bombarda Cauma incendium. coluber also. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. calibre. sence of wind.

an eating. Lat. lattice. Lat. ko/utuXoc. It. sugar. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Gr.—Candidate. catmneo. Sanson khanda. Properly calver in the field during a war. camelot. camaien. Lat. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. a. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. B. from candere. Arab. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. callar. Mid. From campus was formed Lat. Caloyer. a dog. In a different application It. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. campo. whence the Fr. chandelle. Peter Martyr. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. clothed in white. camiscieia. a crab. Sp. Cot. From fluting or furrow in a column . lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. It.—Cambrel. Palsgr. cambren. — B. campaign. a may have acquired that signification from plain. white. had no r in de bric— Cot. — Cancel. Candid. arch. Fr. the calix. Ptg. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. camafeo. The Grisons cauina. crooked. E. B. a. Cambray. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. cancer.conduit-pipe. salmon. fair. w. the space of false imputation. Fr. chaitcre. Cambric. lie level. across — Bellenden in Jam. to break. KafivTu. cancello. Lat. arched. good. It. a goblet bud. aspirant. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. chamold man. It was distinfrom work. cam^e. canis. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. from xaXbg. . Cann. champagne. to bend. a piece. — Lat. open and level ground. An eater of human flesh. Calumny. fresh. co7nbar. whence Fr. Pers. ckaouma. Sp. frank and sincandidatus. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Fr. camisade. Canine. KafitjUe. having an aquiline nose. se cameloter. water chamlet . bis. toile some of whom. a' Sc. the salmondis faillis thair loup. monk. is Candle. . brought from Fr. See Canker. Sp. Lat. or Caribs. Candy. a field Greek monk. Canker. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. crooked. It. A — the Cannibals. Cancer. Fr. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. Lat. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. to warp. and yspiuv. callour. aged. cambre. is Cambering. — — — A — — escume de saumon. arched. campren. when its substance appears inter. higher in the middle than Fr. icaSoytipoe. calj'x. Or the word Lat. It. Camp. Camlet. Cameo. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. campagne. candidus. the type of a hollow pipe. samon. Turk. campagna. calutmiia. Fr. Calyx. mg Canister. paign.who their language. It. field . a large drinking . on. cup._ kamm.— B. lame. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. to the force of the wind. India Islands.' Forme of Cury in Way. camiscia. Camisade. Cambrel. kanna. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. or hollow of a flower. Cambrav—Cam. camber-nosed.' ' Quhen a lattice. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. crooked. different sections of the like the Chinese. at the ends.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles.—Jam. sore. Canal Channel.— Chandelier. Fr. Kakoycpos. nia. champ. canalis. camelus. hooked. Canibal. Campaign. campus. cere : Lat. the spersed with white flakes like curd. ation. cambr^. died in 1526. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. campo. also an eatmg sore. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. slander. to bend. Calver of cane. crook. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Bret. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. campagna. cup. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. cAouma. to bow. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Fr. camahutus.. would plenier. a basket. Mod. crooked-stick. to jut. Camel. Lat. cainahelus. chommer.— Hackluyt in R. to glow. camisa. unwater chamelot . canna. candela. E. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water.Lat. Fr. the bed of a stream. canistrum. cambrer. a caught. properly good country. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. camp.Gr. E. the heat. spot for cattle. Gr.

to con- rummer. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. It. hemp. . Goldast — in in Schmid. canoa. canapaccia. it would have been found in the continental languages. cappa. cannu. Diez. name. kand. Schwab. canon. from canna. Palsgr. shut. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. haitt. a division of a country. kyndel. Fr. canonicus. Kil. cane. margo panis diffracta. Gael. Esthon. capace. Du. as a cantle of bread. From Lat. It. quito curtain. It. able to receive. to put upon sacred writers. Mod. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. canonici. Canoe. chape. a drinking glass. lump. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. a straight rod. a reed. schlappen. rumme. To Canonise. cane. caparazon. a cane. coarse hemp. or hold. a — A — Cannel Coal.Gr. cantred. canvas. clqse. cainnt. the part easiest broken off. See Chape. a tube. Canvas. cane. call. cannone.^on. cantone. astrology. Germanis kdppen. W. kaput. Cannoii. A . territorial hundred. Coal burning with bright flame. Cant. Hence Lat. Capable. from Dan. to sing. chanteau. B. kandt-broodts. Cape. a wine-cellar or vault. kq.— Cot. to contain. can. If the word had been from cantherius. hood. signifying cover. OFr. a ruler. canto. cover . The — . Canon. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Gugel. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Fin. cannabis. a hunch of bread. a cover Turk. Prov. hemp. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. canton. carcase . a small boat. tain. kanta. as. part. chantel. Canopy. gnat. Sp. Picard. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. coat.CANNEL vessel. Fr. a reed. Canton. root cap. the quartile. canapa. Mod. a side. From Gr. KCLvva. canevas. a scull- — here. Kavt\. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. Alamannis. Jonson. cantina. It. from a Canter. the tried list of saints. &c. Cot. To canvas — . applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Lat. a door . canteau. capevole. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. language. a boat. It. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. The meserseum and the mesentericum. regular. was formed Kavtiiv. he discourseth of dissection. Capari. The word seems to be taken from Gael. cantle then is a corner of a thing. border. hirnschlapple. cappe. or cantell of bread. Canteen. cantref. coarse hempen cloth Fr. &c. Again we have Lat. corner. a hundred. a Fr. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids.Gr. It. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. is found languages of very different stocks. capello Italis. . kwvwxIi. ON. a pipe. a ship canot. Wtb. and met. Sp. from . Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a cap. Cantle. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. pipe. and tref. hamlet. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. properly a large Prov. It. from cant. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. Sp. Probably only the augmentative of canto. Cope. To his judicial And trowl the tile. leiwan kanta. cappe. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. border Dan. measure for cloth. cannevaccia. and the sex- &c. trine. capa.n. like a torch or candle. a cantle of bread. kantr. cope. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. the heel. cape. contain. also a measure. a rule or standard of excellence. say. . which is not the case. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. Of vena cava and of vena porta. capax. a cloak kapali. A slow gallop. and hence a gobbet. a cloak. kapamak. a gelding. the heel. a torch. a horn of the moon . cover kapi. quarter . speech. edge. N. kynnel.. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. cannevo. covered. KaTTiram. quarter. has kahn. A piece of anything. schlapp. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. being a yard or thereabouts . region. a corner. Swab. Capacious. See Capt-. side. cheese. to shut. that the G. . Fr. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. cane. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. But it may be different source.

Lat. or Lat. Capers. brisciare. roughening of the skin. fansuddenly angry. chief. riccio. bruco. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. 75. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. hi.— 128 CAPE a rustling. a caterpillar. Mod. cover of a saddle. abridge amKoTroq. frissoner. cappriccio. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner .impressions on the ear. cut off. — to yearne. CAPRICE twittering. Arab. as Fr. rissoler. according to the Hindoos. To treat Capitulate. Unexpected pleasure. castrated. birsle. the principal part of the debt. also the capriole. to shiver for cold. then to shiver or shudder. of a fowl. a caper in dancing. curling. belonging to From caput. Genevese bresoler.) d'etre The It. with joy' Vikram. to ruffle the surface of water. a ch illness. brug. . Lang. grisser. the head.). for which he cites the Comask nucia. Hal. Sp. So from Sw. principal. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. explained by Diez from capra. s'hdrisser. or represented by the syllable e. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. It is probable that Gr. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. compared with Bret. and 7tucc. ribrezzo. castrated cock.' Cot. horripilation. w. a goat. as Fr. horror. to . <I>pi'?oe. upon terms Sp. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. frisser {frissement d'un trait. greziller. A headland. kid.' — (Supp. the singing'bone). Griller d'im' patience. aggricciare. capriol or caper in dancing. Hence capitalis the sum lent. to shiver. brissle. brisciare. Hair-like. And similarly to yearn. chattering of the teeth. gives rise to brezza. caper j caprio. A . to shudder. rihrczzoso. brisciare. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. as in Lat.) grezille marid. eruca compared with It. to desire earnestly. bristling. a buck. of a tremtdoiis sound. the hair to stand on end. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. a head. shivering. or other things. airoKOTrrw. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. capillus. gives rise to Sc. wriggle. arricciarsi. is either wholly lost. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. the initial mute of forms like Gr. crackling sound Cape. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . to broil. The same imitation of Capon. a hedge-hog. Fr. alcaparra. frisson- ner . a little head. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. It. Lat. to twitter as birds. grisser. gricciare. arricciarsi. Capillary. the head. a .— Fl. h^risser. knis-hujwud . Capital.standing on end. ericius. caprice It. a separate division of a matter. curl. capitalis. Fr. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. capro. as the means of earning profit. Torriano. and with an initial gr instead of br.'— Trev. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. or goat's leap (done by a horse). as Fr. II bresole (Gl. Caper. brisoler. erica. end. and OHG. Lat. Lat. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. capitulare. It. gricciare. frizzle. It. hair. to from capitulum. See Chief. caj)o. a kid. they longed extremely to see it. a capriol. capparis. It. shivering. to broil. heath. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. G^' Many words — ' ndv. It. greziller. to crackle. grillcr. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. capriole. a chevret. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. Fr. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. the hair to stand on end.Gr. then to be in a state of vibration. a young kid met. brezilia. shrub. ^piKos. hedge-hog. to parch. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. Fl. knis. and his body bristled We to castrate. humorous. of a coach. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . ziki. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. sault. toy. prickly husk of chestnut. It. where Burton adds in a note. to crackle. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. herissonnement. ticchio. The true derivation lies in a different direction. p. Fr. bristling. — — A a hair. I have shivered with love. curly. frort^Lat. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. Acad. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. grug. capriola. It. or. algabr. then find the symptoms of shivering. cApre. a yearning through sudden fear. Cot. Caprice. It. cut. to fry. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. caprice. capar.

a cart. Cot. a.of these compound verbs. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. a coffer. recibir. deception. recipio. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. to receive receptio. It. strideo. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. chirrion. charger. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. an engine for throwing stones. OSp. calabrin. Fin. Lat. i The meaning Car. conception. carretta. a. hold. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal.or -cib-. Fr. It. to take baclc. Sp. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. capra. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. cams. a hood (dim. Du. Fr. precept. It. -ceive. Du. captivate. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. verbs gives rise to the element . a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. fancy. to please. karrende waegen. -cept. decepte. krul. from head. commander. was converted into -ceb. caprice. the -cevofthe Fr. as in accipio. except. It is a standing crab.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). Lat. Captain. — — Capstan. Etym. intercept. Nordfoss. to this is It. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Fr. to creak. &c. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. kerren. cabra. Lat. shivering fit (Altieri). and tropically. and of captus to an e.). In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. Carbine. G. Capriole. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. capitis. fantastic. also tresFl. Kiittner. however. Crab. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. It. a taking back. Neumann. latterly. char. See Caper. concebir. a creaking waggon. -cept. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. a windlass. oisr. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. capsula. accept. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. capitano. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. was originally a missile . cabestrantej Fr. Thus the musket. cabreia. capio. and has accordingly been lost in E. a sawing-block or trestles. a kind of torture. contain.s. calabrino. Fl. In the S. concept. crepo. deceit. also to carry on a car . a reception. carabin. capuccio. a sudden fear apprehended. karista. to accept. as in OFr. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. It. Fr. bock. Capstern.. desire. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Lat. cabestan. to creak. Fr. perceive. caricare. caThe hrestante. seize. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. receptus. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation.. Cot. or the (capo-riccio). case. &c. karra. Capuchin. Fr. a capuchin. It. Carabine. charret. Sp. Derivatives are Fr. Cart. at least. di cappa. a she-goat. sels. karren. to carry . Capt-. recipere. capp%tccio. &c. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. recepte. Capsule. also a kind of rack. Caseneuve in Diet. captus. of the Sp.). a sudden will. of capsa. Carry. box. — —Diet. . crab s. to take. to take to. captive. concevoir. recevoir. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. as the dragoons (Du. It. 129 — receive. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. dim. was a kind of horse soldier. a fantastical humour. Fr. conceit. chevre. carro. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. trestle. charrier. a cloke) capuccino. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. to load . CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. conceive. caput. Castr. chirriar. and has thus descended unaltered to English. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. The It. one odd. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. tnoschetta. cabrestante (whence e. a head man. a hooded friar. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. whence capture. In cases. Carabin. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. concipere. acceptus. de- price. Passing on into E.

ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata.' From the same source are SicU. also a small weight. Carcase. It. turn of a horse. cdrlag. The Trjg xeXwwac. carcaij. vitriol.. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). &c. espi7igarda. carere. a lock of wool . ancient springald. a collar or chain for the neck. skeleton toise.. for a gun. Ptg. restraint . Gael. carcanet. krciti. the carcase of a fowl. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. From the battering-ram. quse vocant karabd. OHG. winding carach. to comb wool . Cot. &c. coming to four grains. a quiver. Caraool. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . also (as Gr.Gr. The radical meaning . Venet.applied to a battering-ram (G. poison eiz. designated in the case of G. carquois. Fr. decanter. carbh. cramp. Bohem. copperas. seed of carob. cassa. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. caracal. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. turning. Lat. an ulcer. mural attack. to creak. Carbuncle. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. chevre by the name of the goat. karszti. bock and Fr. curry-comb. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. p. the carob bean. Derived in the first edition from Mod. carcame. It. kard boyd. AS. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot.z. a prison. skeleton. cardo. It. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning.. the dead body of any creature. carabba. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. silique. carch. to card wool. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. burning coal. the core of fruit . Fr. matter. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . carate. a dead carcase. case. a thistle. cerran. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. cabrita. a wool card. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. An implement for dressing wool. the name might naturally Mod. Fr. carquasse. constraining . Carcax. a kind of ship. a skeleton. contract. See Carpenter. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . Sp. Gael. the shell of a torcarcasso. Carbonaceous. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. cabreia. Arab. winding. Cot. military engines made for hurling stones. a ship. tcapKaai. a machine for casting large darts. a quiver . carbo. Lith. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. a quiver. to ripple flax. ' Vasa vitrea. of carbo). a coffer. kirat. Cat. KtpaTwv. Gr. bend.Gr. to draw in. . Caravel. to comb. a firelock. black dye. in the same way that the Sp. — seems to be something holding together. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. the . and catapulta. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. W. an engine for hurling stones. skeleton. eitar. Card. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. the case of the flesh. karra. Sp. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. Gr.charcoal . Gael. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. eit. garafa. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a gem resembling a live coal. &c. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. carduus. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. a card or comb . to hiss (as gee^e). card. is the word used in modern Lat. carbunculus (dim. . is the chine. the husk or cod of beans. carta. word is only an adoption of the Turk. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. a crane. a thistle. quilato. the trunk or chest of the body . ON. karri. wool card. carquan. confining. I.— — — . carcanada. «capa'|8i. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. shell. Exot. alia sunt majora. It. Sp. avSpaS. Mod. a winding staircase. carmiiiarc. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. Comp. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. a he-goat.. Carrob. fire . Carat. Pers. a small weight. cabra. Parmesan cassiron. caraffa. Fr. to card wool. . Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. a battering-ram). Lat. Carboy. . Sp. Gael. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. to turn. Sp. . a case or chest . or framework. to curry horses karsztuwas.. It. a quiver . There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. caravela. wine- bottle. properly a siege machine. a ripple for flax. boch. a twist. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. caraffe. carabe. a snail. of the same Caravan. casso. carcasa. kerwan. a goat. car.

rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. tenax.. to comb flax or hemp. Fr. Carlings. For the root of carminare. voce strepo stridente. kribina. carriire. morosus. It.Lat. and compare Bret. hoed. the flesh of animals . tuorfurcm (Burguy). carezza.— Charter. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. sorrow. charnel. an overloaded representation of anything. E. and thin. Care. Groler.' Slceat. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. from carus. Trin. de Parthenay. immediately before the long fast of Lent. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. A mod-carag. p. 2. to parch. caMid. strideo. murista. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. compared with Fin. . karrig. . to fry. one of those ac- 9 * . carnalis. Chart. Sp. Cot. caresse. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Fr. . or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. A place where four roads Mid. &c. the load of a ship. crawl. to rumble.— CARD karr-kambar. principal. It. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. to card wool. Mur. to comb wool. the old theory of humours. Cark. to eat flesh. It. the keel of a vessel. No ' place there had. Bois crolant d'un ladre. zanken . whence carricare. a turn. ress. W. what is felt as grievous. carriera. to scratch. From. . quaver a lazar's clack. from carrus. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. combing them out like the knots in wool. caricatura. stridere. A medical term from line —Boerio. meet at a head. Dan. Farewell flesh. OHG. AS. croller. to love. and G. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. OFr. the keel. W. road. that on wliich the matter hinges. bottom. charag. Champ. four. Roquef. to lie on its side. kummer. like connection may be seen between Fin. carcare. Ptg. as peas. cargo. quarreG. carnasciale. 8. Card. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. It. caricare. intrasset caro. astutus. Carl. beans. karista. also a career on horseback. Gael. msstus. crowl. Fin. cura may be ror. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. carina. to whirr (schnurren). Fl. essere in carena. Lat. kara. sensual. Translated in MS. Cartel. in Carp. and murhet. Carled peas. Sept. Fr. to care unkarja. 1S66. charg. to clean the bottom of the ship. kurista. to take Goth. cargar. Cargo. Probably the origin of the word is the . act of moaning. cardo. Lat. to load. care. Cot. Charnel. moeThe Lat. It. Bret. carnavale. Cot. karantez. — — . gakaran. G. as carminare. the several meanings of the words above Rom. parched or carled. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. an endearment. Coll. to scrape . carena. dear. winding. carian. It. Fr. in St Jerome. stingy. cardinis. carminare. ignarus. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. crosier. is to say. karl. carcus.Lat. Fin. karg. to distress growl. weyes. soUicitus OSax. Bret. . ON. love. & Q. Venet. in N. a man. a deed. Carenare. fundamental. morosus sum. Fr. carnis. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. Fr. — To Careen. Carnal. cearig. rixosus. and sum. a hinge. Carminative. graller. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. be anxious. w. G. scharren. W. . AS. to shake. — — — : Cardinal. kumra. that Fl. fleshy . charta (Gr. kroU-erbser. Carnage. the time during which to Rom. Properly. from caricare. piger. is This however Shrove tide. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. tremble. to load. Properly a car-road. ON. place for exercise on horseback. Fr. grolU. quadrifurcum from quameet. surrata. a card. kargr. sorrow. It. karry. x'»P'"^s)) paper. carnal. see Garble. Cath. carena. ceorl. — — Diez. to load. niggardly . murahtaa. Fr. . from Lat. carch. from the keel to the water . murren. camovale. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. clown or churl. caru. male person. Peas steeped and fried. or grumbling —Due. caritia. affection. wool cards. A quirito ut infans. carener. or street.. as quadrivium from Carnaval. 273. car. charger. — — — Caress. carFrom carrus. a highway. mutter. carrefourg. solicitous. chartre. charnage. cdrle. cura intenta. asper. care on. cearian. to fry or broil. to growl. giierlir. grief. AS. charneux. at murmuring. careless take care of. . regar. karout. Caricature. Sp. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. sgritudo animi. — Carfax. charie. appertaining to the flesh. the hull of a ship. record.

a wheelwright. koroll. tymmer. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. carpenter only in the latter sense.— Drant in R. Discov. carpere. 2. e. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. litter. qui sacco.— Neum. Pm.Why give's some wine then.Lat. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. used for stuffing mattresses. Carnelevale.' Raleigh. carnelascid). peta. Alluz (G. The word seems of Celtic origin. . Teut. cxciv. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. 760. On the other hand bumper to one's health. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. carpende fast Carol. Mediol. . differing To Carp. Properly a round dance.Lat. to rustle. Templariorum — ' — Due. at midnight which derivation from kroes. in Due. and Carnem laxare (It. The tippling sots.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. 216. as carnaval from carnelevamen. chatter. all aus). Fr. whence the form carnasciale. Palsgr. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. act of drinking a full Eq. course. a carder. charpentier. carpia. Chanson de carole. linteamen. Nomin. carpentum. 2. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. quoted by Carpentier.: . — — ' ' — — — I — — .— R. to dance. maker of waggons It. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. krapati. carpo. biheld without. a song accompanying a dance then. To pledge them thou refuse. Carpitam habeat in lecto.' Reg. culcitra. querole. So gone they forthe. Mid. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Lat.' Ordo Eccles. gar aus / all out is correct. carbh. ! Carouse. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. Other names of the sea.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. W. to reel. carpetrix. Gower in Way. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. garrire. Bret. sense. ' ' — . yede tham about. to talk. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat.gonnella. Pref. 94). Shrove Tuesday. All out B. i. Fr. I drink all out. vel coopertorio carebit. as E. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. The karole of the stones behelde. to chatter coroli. tattle. The ' ' a chariot. in Nat.D. to pluck. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. to pull asunder. and F. a car carpentarius. charpie. — . to dance. or a carouse fully drunk up. ship. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required.'— Stat.Lat. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. cardos. CarTo quaff carouse do use. ballare. was formed Mid. Sup. Ein we find the signification transferred from . This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Carole. ON. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. A. cited by Marsh. balade from It. Cot. pluck at. a dance. In Dominica d'autant. as Fr. or loose as a couch without further preparation. zimmerspan. to gather. a drinking cup. Ant. Here's to you still my captains friend. krapanj. carduz. as the Lat. carpat (Stokes). disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. on that. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. In a MS. Carpenter. carpita. chirp. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. Biheld within. gonna. chatter skra/a. . Lat. carpenta. 1 1 30. pluck. in Carp. Carpyn or talkyn. worker in timber Fr. The custom. Lat. On this. chariot carbad. Gael. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. I quaught. Carpet.' says Motley (United Neth. Mid. to find fault with.— Patriarchi. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. skraf. Pr. Dief. carpenticre. zimmer. Beggars Bush. is erroneous.]e bois Carnelevale. a plank. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Carnevale. Sp. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. garrulo. bier. a wheelwright. Analogous R. lint. carpetam (a quilt?). permitted in anticipation of the long fast. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. fabulor. i. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Olr. of Guiana. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. From Lat. Bohem.

fall It. made void. a paper case. a of water. to cut or carve . Cot. Case-mate. afterwards any written challenge. Cascade. — FI. ceorfan. kerben. To Cashier. Fr. Flor. The carrying of anything. hung up in some place and to be removed. Carrot. Probably. for the security of the defenders. a fall. carroccio. It. kerven. cascade. to — — also casse. Ready money. Casket. Fr. casaque. case-maiej Sp. to hold. Fr. ' Casa-matta. Fr. Case. Cart. and that apparently from capio. an augmentative from Lat.' Cot. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. quash. a coffer or small case for jewels. caroach. cut with scissors. carota. turn out of service. to dash. Cartel. See Gristle. to fall. cancelled. caroche. Fr. Hence a challenge openly hung up. It. — Cartoose. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. carretta. the charge of — — Fr. cartoccio. shell or carcase of a house. Fl. carreaggio. AS. pasteboard. hollow. Lat. OE. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. It. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. cia. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. to shear. Casque. It. casa. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Fr. gristle. des rideaux A'carp^ie. charogne. crush. Fl. It. from It. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. caisse. an act of falling. Fr. to notch. break to pieces. Lat. subject for a picture. cashiered. charrette. helmet. paper. to an- — Kil. To Carve. properly to convey in a car. a canonry or slaughterhouse. to break. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. See Case. a long coat. Fr. one who reasons on cases put. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. casus. caisse. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. something that actually occurs. G. charrier. Cot. carogna. Du. Rouchi carpHe. and the OE. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. also the carriage. carrosse. Sp. Case. Preparatory drawing of a It. cassus. kasseren. caxa.' Bailey. cassette. Gael. Rouchi carone. quasser. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. krat. casco signifies a skull. Lith. discharge It. cassa. Fr. where Fr. a hut. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. abrogate.— Fl. carretto.' Fl. Cassock. Hence casket. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. cancel. capsa (Diez). case. Cask. of carta. bitten. cassere. slaughter-house. Carrion. coffer. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. bag and baggage of a camp. card. mord-keller. Walach. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. — — nul the proceeding. CartOTicli. packing ' cloth. Rouchi caroche. casualis. cascare. gristle. from casa.' — Hdcart. casitiste. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. carroc- carrozza . To duash. augmentatives of carro. Rouchi carter. It. ignominiously exposed. casacca. not reaching to the height of the ditch. AS. corresponding to the G. To Carry. Fr. It. casser. kirpti. house. long man's gown with a close body. cartella. and matar. Casuist. a loopscale the wall. Lat. to slay. to fire on the enemy. mata. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Casual. fortuitous. from It. luggage. from Lat. It. augm. The Sp. casa-maita. casso. void cassare. like all the names of tendon. Fr. cartilage. It. Du. a car. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. the money chest. hull of a ship. crown of a hat. coffin of paper for groceries. kerpu. vault hole in a fortified wall. a chance or accident. annul. to bear or carry. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. discharge. Lat. to crack. a chest. a merchant's cash or counter. as we . casag. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. dim. from the sound it makes when Alban. cartouche. caro. — Cartridge. empty. Fr. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. To quash an indictment. caisse. Cash.to annul. — — . tion from Sp.. blotted out. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. cartone. to convey in a cart. See Card. cascar. of carro. Sp. mord-grube. Cartoon. cascata. carriaggio. a car. Carriage. casuelj Fr. As defence from shells became more important. cassa.

Pic. an enumerlist. OFr. Fr. Mid. Hal.'— Pr. KaTaarpifm. a fortified place. of castrum (castra). fall. ichasses. ON. 'Vaaaw. which has been retained in E. away. to make clean or chaste. signifying breed. . Catastrophe. image accasciare. castanetazo. coming to us through different dialects of French. to lash. kakka. . dashing it to pieces. from the first of Castrate. which. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. to scourge. bot-kotis. Fr. and KviilSog. kotas. from water Karappaaaiii. in the fire. castana. stilts. Cot. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. dash. It. to look at. to turn overturn. to close. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Gr. or Rouchi cat. casulla. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. cassa / cry for the same purpose. Cast. kottr. the ground . KaraXoyog. klakka. to dash. 120. The Diet. Pol. Catalogue. handle of an axe. Isidore — in Diez. 134 CAST Catacomb. to drive away. casser. to hurl See Awgrim. to drive Cat o' nine tails. speak of dashing a thing down. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . burst cascare. punch.Rouchi Scaches. Brunne. R. the castanets for or implement . the stalk of plants. race.out cacciare . however. Sp. Etym. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. mino. to fall as over a precipice. Castle. on. a Cataract. To It.the / or c respectively. is not satisfactory. squash. casipola. &c. a thump. kasi. cast. catar.. kasta.. Fr. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. ' Catchyn away abigo. — We a cavity. casule. and from the castus. second chase. It. Lat. So also from It. to hunt. and tomba. castro. like that of It.Lat. KarapaKrr]g. shaft of a 1 push. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. cash. execu. Hence castaneta. to crackle. down. dashing it out of the window. Fr.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. castellum. koshka. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. a cat . This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. . Lat. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. kic' kicil are used chasser. or bruise together. arpi^m. Chase. It. cacciuolo. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Fr. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. kat. tails. crush . chaleur. Gr. Roukind. . B. Gael. while kiss / Pol. . chat. rack. casupola. To Catch. of sarabands does Gr. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. kotas. to cast or beat to tioner . quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. being Fin. V. cat. to clack. a little house or hut. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. Pm. fer toTa. a whip on the other into latch. Lang. Fr. kaJoivad. sue. The E. down. chasuble. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. cascar. puras E. a chesnut . Yz. Castanets. lance. cat-o'-nine. name. Fr. cacciare fuora. Sp. squash. catch. V Lith. puss / for calling them. _G. Fr. follow after. a cat koshki. to bring to an crack given by the joints. to end. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. katze.— Fl. Fr. n. KaTappaKTrjQ. perhaps from which we have E. the earlier sense of catch. Others explain it from Kara. Cat. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. by the loss of with several pitched cords. force j Rouchi equerviche. cacciarc. castello.to drive out. first made ordinary Fr. accastiare. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. chasser. a garment for performing the mass in. ating. or comba. torture. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. under chi caleur. to is Essentially the Sp. kissa. to torture. to break. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. same word with break. chasser. dim. ecrevisse. a vault. to crack. Thus we have Caste. drive away. to Fl. In the dialect of Picardy. represented by the syllable quash. probably from an imita. was introduced. cojz^/a. heat . tion of the sound made by a cat spitting.

caucht. chasse. a pill. Caterer. ictus resonans. a carter's Pat. a caterpillar Milanese can.yopl(. and answer. Gael. chassoire. a whip. a — gatta. gingle. verberare kUts. millecaterpillars. bicho. catch-flesh. an accusing. . e. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. 'Bxn. glcu. Sp. worm. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. . the distance to which the ball is struck. klatsche and Norm. compare G. is said that he got a claucht of it. Sc. to take. — B. . quincailler. 135 — Aasen. — Catcli-poll. gattola. a whip Rouchi cachoire. devouring mite or weevil. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . pedes. a. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. . ketsoore. Ptg. i. — with a whip. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. klatscherei. a whip. claquer. clap. latch. Kil. icarrix'Ki^. * Caterpillar. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. In the XV'e. as of the latch of a As ! — . . clatter. to teach by oral instruction. to clap hands. kaetse. cache. Swiss Lombard G. a. Diez. bichano (pussy). E. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Guernsey chafer. which all . and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. KaTtix'so. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. ecachoire. a smack. OFr. GaUa catchiza. insect. E. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. silkworm. Du. Gr. wild-beast. to harangue. to the crack. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. fragor kletsoore. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. a clap. apprehend a person. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. Chate peleuse. in order). latch of. Rouchi clincailleux. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. Fr. — tinman. snatched. the the same principle he was Fr. Kartiyopta (/cari. happe-chair. blow. such a sound or the stroke which produces it.P. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. clap with the hand. Du. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. Guernsey pilleure. E. flap klatsche.V.j. Cates. G. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. Claucht. from shutting with a click. * Cates. catch. e. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. Fr. smack. to kythe D. an officer of taxes. On Catechism. a whip or Kuttner. Metivier. cagnon (a dog).. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. with and without an / after the c. dainty vic- a form lash. woodlice. Gael. or any kind of relishing food tuals. formerly called cliket. Cot. Grandg. kletsen. Du. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. from Gr. cat is not apparent. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. Kil. a little dog). catc?u. called dog or Galla catchamza. P. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . chink. dainties. Tutschek. weevils.s. snatching. sound. seize. s. predicament. chenille {canicula. a cornIn the s. — explained. resono ictu lash. klinke. called in Fr.) . — Kiittner. resound. ' Fr. Fr. to catch strength. the OE. de Bray. chatter. chase. gliong. kletse. — . to snap. to chatter with the teeth cake. to A bailiff. caker. catch.' ^Jam. snatching it with a any one. klatschen. companaige. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . to snatch (said of dogs). Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. has both or of charming by sound. c or ^. ArbaUte de courte chasse. the elements of a science. chatter . Wal. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. klatsch. door when it is shut. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. 'Horxa. chacepol. ' ' word catch. whip. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. instruction in forms. Cot.V. to crack GATES cache.from Bard and ayopsw. children's name for cat . In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. chachara. head. to chat.' CATCH Fr.

in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped.. Sx. calqada. fur. a receptacle for small things.Lat. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. cale. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Cathedral. CATHARTIC sense. to burn. kobyla. acaptar. Kavrijp. causa. . and hence a skull-cap. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. chaussJe. cabbage-stalk. Gael. kocianki. kassije. choufleur {choii. also to pave . Port. — Cauterise. Cauldron. B. Provider. is used in the sense of cat-skin. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. to shoe . reticella. from chaud. a horse . koparet. a branding from koiio. Manciple's Tale. hazel. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. chaudiire. Wyatt in R. ce^l. Fr. via strata. acater. It. catkin Magy. cale. kopano. G. Cavalier. caballus. Cavity. capull. kin.. hot. chaudroii. . specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. dumpf tonen. kopista. rete A — Prov. Lat. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. flock. challe was ther of a temple. Kil.—— — 136 correct. but the acates that are sent him. Mid. is Prologue. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. KiwariKog. kautsije. green husk of a calon. to purge. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. Pr. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Boethius. little cap is . a road calceata.^ acheter (Lat. Jaubert. to ac- — Fr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. a horse. having the property of cleansing. to shale or peel. catkins . cabbage). cavaliere. Dryden in R rete. Cavern. — . calidus. Caudle. from delf^gato. mutz. Lat. to sound like a blow . catkin Pol. Rete.p. Fr. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. mudet. and spareth for no perell. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. Fr. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Cave. Catkin. Russ. cat maczoka. KaHSpa. It. from KaSaipio. Gr. to beware. a horseman. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. a pavement. Chaud. cautus). net or caul-work. &c. Fr.Y\\Xea. A warm comforting drink. Fr. Fr. Du. lamb. katteken. Caution. a stalk. deyntie meates. . klopfend knallen. 2. little cat. . caul is also a small net to confine the hair. cauHs. It. caldo. puss. a kind of skull-cap.' B. from caveo (p. make clean. KaPaWrii. Du. fur in general. calotte. a The peel. calceta. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. otherwise written kell. by land. chatideau. flue. the stones of a street. catons. chauderon. cautis. • — — See Chattel. cheval.Lat. calceata. Fr. achepter. chevalier.' Elyot in Way. a paved road. macska. apt to burn iron. chair. any Fl. Richly she feeds. kdtzchen. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. Mid. ' Gr. Cavalcade. On the other hand. catkin mitz. whence cathedralis. cavus. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. kitten kotki. Cavalry. Diez). caple. Fr. Jonson in R. Lat. Causeway. Palsgr. kaussijde. Thus Bav. hot. The word — . Kavrfipiov. the caul of the liver. Lat. puss. w. a kettle for heating water. Pol. Palsgr. the. Ka^afriKOQ. Cathartic. adcaptare. accapitare Rouchi acater. to shoe. Caustic. — — cavallo. katte. accattare. Gr. 4. Delycates. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. It. Lat. Cattle. That he was ay before in his estate. puss. hollow. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. cal^ar. kocie. shaled or picked Fr. what . cabbage. a horse . primitive is meaning a shale or off. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Fr. . Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. kobuiV. CAVE Caul. quire. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Lat. It. OE. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Fr.^Hal. Gr. chausser. despencier. . ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Caballus. a mare. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Bessie of Bednall. Cause. Fin.willow. minon. a seat. caudex . walnut with the husk on challer. to buy. a pulpit. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. .

In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. Fr. the inner roof of a room of state. cabegon. 7. bridle. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. a planking or boarding tkilian. ciel de lit. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. E. —Decease. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. CAVESON kopera or kowera. syle. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. Cease. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Gawaine & Sir Gol. and zaum.' Rutland papers. were met. in Hal. yield. It. &c. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. succeed. wall. board . and then to gape. -ceed. a plank. proceed. cavillor.j have come from this source. thil. Lat. . it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. plank. Hence concede.'— Z. . curved. Ceiling. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. VIII. IV. cabega. . of cavezza. little house. that. sill. See -cede. dille. thelu.). in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber.). &c. lambrisser une chambre seeling.. . heaven. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. komo. . quibble. . in Jam. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. but hang around at the sides. B. a board. hollow. — . koppeli. to seele or close with boards plancher. flooring E. syl. caveqon. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. Fr. cease. The importation of Fr. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. cielo. cessum. door-sill J Sc. plank. cyling (W. -cease. step away. thili. So from Fin. is applied to a canopy. departure. give place. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. Hal. del into English without ' translation gave cele. . departure from this life. sybire. sus-lambris. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. sill in window-sill. nailes will begin to cling. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. to argue capto tiously. cavezzone. 43. H. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. Fr. with their substantives concession.. — . thil. deal. wuoren komo. Lat. komista. wainscot thiljar (in pi. thiling. to canopy siled. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. or of a bed. a hut. the deck of a ship at thilja. dil. a log. cedo. hung. a canopy. thilja. . ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . Sherwood. a log. &c. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. also a seeling of boards. Plancher. In the N. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day.' — Gawan . 5. menuiserie. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. of E . as. Cavil. seele. In the same way G. ceiling. — komo tain). p. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. a beam. -cess. to plank ON. . rafter. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. hivtmel. empty. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. a fir-plank. thel. selar. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. applied to a canopy. ciel is so unbroken. The line of descent from Fr. Lat. Fr. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew.' del. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. A — A false accommodation produced G. and that from Sp. . . jaa. a halter. pp. recede. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. semely on syll. heaven. crooked kopio. To seele a room. column E. . the roof of a coach. ceiling. — — — toyour soverane. hollow. The It. decessus. The sense of roofing. Soc. the testern of a bed.' Hall. And seik — Cessation. to panel or wainscot MHG. p. excess. Sp. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. Wore. to go forth. an aquiline nose. beam. Lat. cesso. 32. -cede. a head. Cam. to cut.' Ordinances and Reg. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. exceed. tester of a bed. as if from happen. Cede.' Cot. lambris. a log. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. Sir 137 pit . hollow ice . a canopy. post. dScis. coffer. death. . Boyd in Jam. to plank or floor with planks. dayntily diglit. cellar. augm. canopied. &c. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. kapp-zaum. in Jam. a boarded floor.' Marriage of James IV. a severe bridle. Cot. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. and Gol. kommata. sky. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. selure.

ceremonia. censura. concetto. Gr. caber. point. Lat. ciglio. census. festive. to think. Cereal. Cell. Cot. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. oil. then to rub without reference Cement. See Celibacy. to chafe. from censeo. -cipio. empty. age. sting. — . -cepere. cenio. Lat. renown be embodied with. Fr. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. the officer appointed to take such returns . Lat. blind. thronged the participle cretus. to distinguish. guish. with the eyes. — A . cceremonia. Lat..— Chafing-dish. to glow. to course of people. concerner. Fl.unmarried. cretum. eyelid. OFr. contend. chauffer. swift. heaven. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. tax. Gr. -cern. Century. to seele or sew up the eyelids . to rate. Coehim. riscaldarsi. celer. Lat. to take. Cij(fe5j. The term cilium. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. a shaft horse. receipt. and thence to conceal. goad. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. appertain. assess. to set on fire. a storehouse Chafe. in comp. Incensum. rubble. sift. Lat. to heat. to contend. his office. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. (and thence also) to hoodwink. ciller. Lat. a registration of one's self. Fr. observe. materials It. to warm. become heated with anger. judge. -i^oivre. zens according to their property. -oept. a Cemetery. Sc. Fr. mortar. we have a modified form of (of a place). See Cede. to take.). -cess.). to sleep). to ensile the haukes that ben taken. -CEIVE a shaft. — . For sess from assess. Prov. a tomb. stones to the production of heat. cigliare.' Book of St Albans. abundance. S. To chafe is for wine. ' . KsvTpov. to bury). — — Cenotapli. Lat. see. the hollow the Lat. Gr. Fr. dchauffer. siller les yeux. decebre) . — . — . -ceptjun. Lat. Fr. to -sum. to attend on object with.cern. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. encens. celeber certus. census. quarters for slaves. -cebre ifoncebre. To Incense. cerealis. tax. and — — — possessions. in accordance with the Fr. estimate. to incense. -civer {conciver— Roquef. sile. as in some places burnt. a hundred of what- — . confounded ist from It.ing a room where there is not fire.j 138 thill. to celebrate. Lat. an eyelash. rough from the quarry. /ctj/rsw. Lat. deceit. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. to twinkle darkness. to seal a pigeon's eye. to concern. — . Censure. Assess. or any bird's. calefacere. a hundred centuria. Ta^oe. Fr. irot\oe.— Cellar. to be regarded as one celebro. concernor. a solemnity. much frequented. It. calefare. chaufferette. Celerity. Celebrity. Ceremony. syll. but was gradually lost in conceit. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. K^'ivut. family. Accelerate. camentum. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. make angry. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. and met. oil. Cot. distinIt. to sepap rate. &c. cella.of the r. judge. as entering largely into the derivative certo. capturn. is the opposite of disora virum. sure. capio. a numerous con. To seel or close the eyes. to blindfold. . -cepire. a valuation of every man's estate. conceipt. Centurion. centum. hollow. Cess. criticism. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. to separate. single or unwedded life.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. -cevoir. Lat. {cori)cipere. Census Censor. what to set in a chafe. a prick. — . and put it through the over eyelydde. in Marsh. cencer. keep in It. crevi. eschattffer. It. Sherwood. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. deceipt. to visit in numbers. Censer.. solemn (of per. to burn incendo. to prick. with transposition hence (of a day). Fr. Gr. -cense. Take the nedyll and threde. Fr. -ceive. incense. of heating. candeo. to rub for the purpose a hut. pick out. -ciper. and so of that other. the talk of men. &c. in comp. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. cillier. Centre. cot. . a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. and thence censer. also grave opinion. parted sleep. Certain. Censor. being taken from Fr. Chafe. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. or expression of Ennius. a religious observance. is totally distinct from the foregoing. decide. Lat. the point round which a circle is drawn. 1. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. value. sacred show. cilibat. the place where the de. judge Lat.' Celebritas. for building. In Celebrate. from Saa-rw. -ceit. a solemnity. thence belonging to or connected with corn. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Assize.

Lat. rustling corn. OFr. calix. any insect of the beetle kind. kuhista. now a chair. Lat. baras of ants. . refuse barley . dongio. chaise. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. clamare. puffed or ruffled with ly. — . with a:n arched roof. to chatter or talk lightly. . to call. gewolb. Kuttn. Chain. leviter crepo Then. a chough.' Rayn. 35. to ner It. crooked. chaps Chamber. tronfio. sagrindse. Prov. a pulpit. muzzle. from the shark-skin. Perhaps Pm. Cot. Pat. grief. Due. in a cana. fa sagramen de calompnia. kuhuja. jaw. to sit. vel susurro. haggle. rustle Challenge. — — ' — — — A .— — . KoBiSpa. snort. Prov. cup. have a mind to parley. bargain. de Brai. as a carriage is a moveable seat. ceafer. false accusation. chicane. 11. to claim. — — — — — — . as. to caw chawer. that leneth e per I'autra. Bav. chamar. limare. from of the G. lime. to gnaw. Chalice. From Port. often puffing. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. without chap/are makiinde. sagri. ing a hard case to their wings. snuff. cathedra. to tattle. calonja. In vulgar language. Lat. To buy and sell. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. Chair. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. kauchen. in a monstrous fume. Fr. hght Chalk. Fl. Fr. lime . to pant. a prattling woaction. ple^. chaire. hordeum vel let. talkative. rally one. charge with. kdfelen. chambre. yap. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. Du. thick and short. kahuja. calx. cadera. vis. ^Altieri. kahista. rustling motion challenge. p. to a seat. In like manto huff. to bark. Lat. shaIt. on. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. Fr. signal by drum or P. to buzz. to calumpnjamen. havOFr. ceaf. cadena. contestation. Fr. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. kiqfta. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. calice. cathedra. fume. cadieira. green sagrin. of. Fr. From the To Chaff. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. . to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. a chain. Lat. from Swiss kafeln. Halma. Chayire. to dispute. ON. Cheffern. and signifies to consume with anger. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Gr. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. grief. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E.. a rustling noise. chagrin. So from dominio. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. idle words. chawe. call in question for an ley). Wall. The jaw chafty. Piedm. Pr. tattle. Lat. catena. — — — . E.nium. keuchen. matter by combat. chaine. Kaiiapa. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. fern-chafer. to puff and blow. to Latin calumniare. G. or puff with snorting. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. chayire. Prov. De Ir4. chatter. Hal. B. calonjar. From to go to law. keffen. difficulty . puff. Adelung. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Ayenbite. much more Genoese sagrind. (ca'e'ra) to chair. &c. kdfer. songe. kedja. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). breathe KaOa^oiiat.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. avena vilior. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. Fr. calumnia.sure carriage. also to prattle. refuse. to babble.. quisquilise offence. cadena gives chain. chalanger. Fr. Fin. hiss. a double operation * Chafer. sborfare. ckapfare. P. far lima-lima. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. cam. care. Came. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. chafeter. Probably from According to Diez. to action arose. chaulx. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. to gnaw. to institute anforensic action. kever. kiamta. Cot. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. breathe hard. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. place See Cheek. tattle cheep. chafing. dispute. cauvette. taubes korn oder hafer. chaene. to file. great chafe. . kahu. kuhata. — — — . Pers. to fret inwardtronfo. camera. kaff. swelling with anger. care. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . chaffare. a vault or arched roof. kiaftr. much blowing. Du. Bouffard. Lat. Chagrin. to move the jaws. a goba rustling . kaff. kuhina. G. khah. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. Fr. ing rapidly repeated cries. Camera. Gr. a jackdaw. a pulpit Cot. preise. and as this was the beginning of man. . Fr. Fr.

the chafldn. To hollow out in chanPtg. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. escazenza. kampa. therewithal. as in It. hot. kampeln. cameratus. to — — champ. to quarrel (comp. kimbu. s. a warrior. a feat. to fasten on. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . to . champion Du. broil. — masterly Sp. camp. . luctare. head armour. Commonly derived from campus. tsamtsogni. game campio. contention kappi. Chancellor. to wrestle. cancelli. Prov. chain. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. from chaud. . to fasten oneself to another . —Chamfrain. cahir. kampeln. Champaign. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. chanfrar. Dief. to happen {ad and cadere. a court of justice. to flute as a column. combat. to tread The sound heavily. sukibti. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to chew. — ^Tusser. It will. kempa. Magy. boys speak of capping verses. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . to cample. a horse-race.—Charfron E. bickering. to talk. Fr. dial. Meleare. kabMe. as swine. to debate. kinipen. kimpustella. cadere. jocus partitus. camp. fray. tsammogni. contest. and acted as inofficers of . ciamberlano. Du. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . Carpentier. chaude mesUe. kanip. dial. i. a field of battle. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. Chamfron. to move the jaws kiamt. Fr. keiiipe. excellent. cample). . dispute Hal. E. . to slope out the . cempa. Prov. hamper. kibti. Sup. slope of a bevelled angle. To Chamfer. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). ciambellano. Fr. chance. . a scufSe. a game at football. schmatzen s. to hollow out. kiammi. chajnbellan . is explained by serrarsi. from Fr. The happening of things Chance. who stood ad cancellos. to groove bevel off a right angle. or player at football. to fall). to slope. dial. — Ch-amberlain.140 CHAMBERLAIN . ON. kimpUma. top of a borehole. Fr. zs jeopardy. kippo. gewolbt. Sp. So in e. reusement — fight in single combat. mesleiare. to Hal. chamfrain. a jaw kianisa. jeu parti. Champion. The word is preserved in E. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. kappd). to fasten oneself on to another . wood. The G. e. to fall. campus. hero Sw. CHANCEL It. kablys. — KiL . certare. to bevel. accidere.edley. kampen. difficulty . accident. chdance. Chancel. . pinch. cazer. See Camp. at the railings. which seems another form of the root. Chancery. prize-fighter. — Hal. or less ignorant. ing. chamble. Hence (with the nasal) w. to hold . Lith. act of falling. camp.' ' Pr. Chance-n3. chanfreindre. chanfrein. Ptg. to hang. caer. champ. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. zampettare. Champ.' SherI'altro ' ' . kiinp. Lat. to stick to. Lat. contend or argue G. Fin. campus partitus . Lat. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. calida et sans aguet. kabintis. to to chew champ. campear. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. nels. kabinti. . move the jaws. divided game. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. The E. pedilusor. to wrestle. from cheoir. E. kabe. to smack the lips in eating. termediaries between them and the judge. champ. champ. Campar. Fr.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. . Pm. champ. Sp. ON. campar. To cope or contend with. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. G. compound. chance. rare. kimppu (Lap. fight. fighting place. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. received the petitions of the suitors. chanfrein. to be eminent. kriimmen gebogen. a bundle.—Tutschek. fight.Lat. dricka i kapp. kapp. to paw the ground E. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. a hollow chanfreiner. kempen. ON. an athlete. to excel. camerlengo. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. hng. Partnership. gekrUmmt. surpassing. a hook . Fr. Gall. calidameya. athlete. Champarty. giving rise to the as. M. bundle. champ parti. Get campers a ball To camf . dial. to strive at games . and mesUe.' melleia. Lat. When the to quarrel. dial. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre.

may be compared with ON. . leather. the chaps . kjaakaa. Lat. wood. Cheek. ON. See Chant. Bret. cobio. . — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Man of Law's Tale. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. And N. Molbech. Chaps or chops. skipta. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. Walach. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. Lith. from canna. Channel. Prov. a reed. chandelier. canalis. jaw. Commonly derived from capella. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Fr. to — cut. . but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Chap. E. Chap. chap. to plate. Hence chantry. from clap. Chop. hack . a small metal plate Port. flat . chapilla. chancery. Chap. chanter. debeant conjurare. chaps. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. a strip of metal plate. cantare. to put on fresh clothes. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. Da. to sing. jaw.^. to hack. extended to other trades. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. the clappers of the scupper holes. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. kaupa. to spht a chip. esclapa. chapear. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. the loose flesh of the cheeks. and also to chap or crack. chap. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. 2. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Fr. kemma. gab. cambium. chapa. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . . a dealer in candles then. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. Fr. a money-changer. I. not a soul. waterconduit. from chandler. to break . chop. kvar kjceften. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. kennel. Probably from chap. In like manner Walach. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. as to chap hands. schimbd. to cut. as skin chapped hands. Hal. chapelete de una bomba. camjar. prune. See Chop. as It. any hollow for conveying water. . AS. Chape. and the modern canal. Sc. Hal. Russ. Da. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. kiceft. klepan. chapeletas de imbornales. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Chip. cambiar. lips of an animal. exchange. to plate. while the broader vowels a. — . to cut off . kapoti. Compare chark. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. a chap is a crack or fissure. to cut up into small pieces. — — —Marculfus in Due. clapet. to paw like a horse . kappen. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. to coat. Hence It. ceaflas. to strike. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. is used in the same sense . to apply one flat thing to another. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. as corn-chandChandry. properly in a hard body. to change. surfaces striking together. cangiare. exchange schimbatoriu. throat of an animal. the place where candles ler. It is also used in the sense of the E. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. to swap. to strike with a sharp edge. Chandler. to truck. to strike. to peck. as chancery . to deal. cheek. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. To Change. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. Du. esclapo. ceaplas. chancellerie. to chap at a door. cambiare. chapeta. Sp. are kept. exchange. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. 140. like the knocking of hard things together. chop. That wide were sentin their spicery.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. ^Jam. the mouth. chiappa. Lang. to peck. Aasen. Sp. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. —Ordericus Vitalis. changer. kiceft as well as kjakje. shift. or the cracking of one. as those on a trunk. or the like chapar. schimbu. a jaw. hard bodies. —Chantry. to creak. also a clap. Fr. A fellow. muzzle. W. — : Lat. the gutter that runs along a street. a pipe. Chapel. a small plate of flat metal. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit.

Mundart. — — — turned to coal. carregar. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. return. turn about. Sp.charme. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. beloved. kurkti. Lat. bler. dear. See Cheap. from capa. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. from Charade. twist. from capitulum. It. chirriar. charlar. for the same reason rosario. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. Prov. Chark. pohadka. czurksti.czirksti. kurkelis. cha. dim. — spell. called in Sp. in To ness Charity. . gaggle . the turtle pitre. An enchantment. Fr. to tattle. Deutsch. cedeleac. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. Chapter. as Pol. capitolo. Charge. Lith. Cot. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. tegere. wreath for the head. charade. creak. kirkti. from gadai. twitter. surris seu Lat. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. cluck. It. Chapman. to croak as a frog . enough. Mid. The crash. It. krachzen). to dove . Sup. A weed among com AS. chara. Chirk. babdistinction. dear(in both senses). * Charcoal. . . chirlar. in turns. — a car. be- e. charger. Du. decken. to chirp. (eucharistie. to creak. capella. chat. turn. The G. Charcoal was ciarlare. Charade. Charlatan.' Boccaccio in Diez. to . to chirp as sparrows. Fr. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Lat. to sing or chirp as birds. Hence carminare. and in It. Swiss. See Charlatan. . From Norm. to charcoal. burning without consuming the substance. seems to be derived charade. carmen. 2. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. eapitulo. Inst. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. carmo. capellare. a turn cerran. czirbti. chirk. prattling quacksalver. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. ject). AS. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. colliers that charred coal. wood to coal. jabber. carricare. schreien.. Fr. charlatan. OE. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. Bret. caricare. car.). from cape or cope. w. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . char. babbling. Ptg. as a beetle. hadka. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. affection. carus. Yx. In that work the verb is written caire. go. Character. gadka.whirr. from carrus. chapelet. Lang. to load . And it can hardly be doubted Dief. occasional turn. which was incantation. charitas. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. Fr. cabildo. a riddle. 370. ghirlanda seor garland. And damned be he who first cries Hold. karout. Boh. a merchant. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . ceap-man. a riddle. used in the sense of magic Fl. Macduff. siarad (pronounced — sharad). Fr. of chapel. cerran. a hood. it is my turn. a rhyme. canne. Justin. to talk . caritas. ciarlatore. —— . clack. capital. cam. It. a dispute . eyre. chatter. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. corona. charer. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz.Lat. keeren. cher um cher. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Lat. gnash. to turn. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Charlock. to converse. charcoal burners. a cricket karkti (schnarren. tattler. w. Chare. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. creak. chapitre. a garland of roses. es ist mi cheer. that turned decken . rightly explained by Tooke from AS. condo il volgar francese. to prattle. chapel. a The OFr. AS. Gr. &c. to turn Gael. hiss Lith. Sp. cearcian. to prattle. a mark made on a thing. a verse. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. charge an enemy is to lay on. as. cluck kirklys. the nature of a thing. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. a head or division of a book. to love. a charm. to of the governing body. properly to place — . The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. Chaplet. Lay on. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. czurliwoti. chatter. . a mark of a mountebank. called kedlock. Sp. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. talking. To Char. to chirp.

are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. kna. shivers. kata-kata. enchasser. clap. Kil. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. magpie. geug. charm. Chary. g. To chitter or chipper. csaterdzni. xi'i-'^vui. knatiern. to baptize. as purgare Fr. Chat. clean. Du. chip. the handle of a razor . chip. niggardly. la chasse d'une rose. nommer. noise. used to represent a sharp note. gazzerare. cyrm. the calix of a rose. kata. In like manner Russ. To chit. To Chase. Fl. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. carnisj bones kept. chit-chat. The egg is chipped. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. Chat-wood. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. chit in the latter sense Du. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. as. jackdaw . i. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. to gape. noise. So in Gael. converse. It. —Bailey. as turnip-chaits. — We ornamental work the to signify E. karigh. Fr. chits. See Cistern. It t. ch). s. incassare. csacsogni. eclats. as from nomen It. Pm. knacken. germinate . a hum or low murmuring ijoise. to cut and faggoted. cearig (from cearian. root of the Lat. whence a charm of goldfinches. castus. prate. Cot. scraps of for fuel. gazzogliare. From carinen was formed It.ppen. a shrine for a relic. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. OE. from pure. Fr. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. clean. See Catch. castus. B. clatter. a gap. whistle. kastaa. from xoAn. chaste. fragments. to clap. occasionally Forby. clear. or equivalent forms. to chirp. kippen. caro. Pol. gallan or ogan. nome and . The origin seems preserved in the Fin. To Chasten. discourse. csacsogany. G. to crack. — Fr. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained.house.). Malay. sordidus. clack.— Chit. to set a jewel. racket . talk much . as that made by the crack of a hard substance. chykkyn (Pr. To chip is then to crack. . or a bird out of the egg.— Chatter. Magy. the young shoots . V. — — . an enchantress. To Chase. Gr. also a youth. Chart. chit. schioppare. a chatter-box. make a noise as birds do. a flock of those birds. Lat. ch&tier. limpid. as in the E. Pol. flesh. chikat'. warble. Diez. also to germinate or spring forth. To work plate as silversmiths do. Cot. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. is to represent the chamier. the cry of the bat. It. talk. Lat castigare. chisf. — Hal. in Jam. a branch. czysty. pure.. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. little sticks cudere. to cry as a chicken . pure. gazzettare. to chatter or prattle . — sharp sound of a crack. blackthorn-chats. a yawning. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. to chirp as a bird to cheep. chick. charmer. to enchase it . gadu-gadu. or suckers on rough borders. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . a young man . chair. Kil. chick. See Card. or the cry of a bird or the like. parcus. —Jam. to which it bears the same relation as chape. gazzolare. — = Chats. letters p. Parallel with E. carme and Fr. cs E. to wet. Fr. tittle-tattle. It. a churchyard or charnel-house. prattle. to talk. tenax. speak . %aafi. to care). Hal. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit.). to make a noise. to burst open. Fl. a branch and a young female. —Chastise. to crack. a crack or a flaw . snap. CHATS fit 143 to name. as we speak of olive branches. crackle. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). a twig Suffolk chaits. cassa s. It. D.a. karg. splinters. a word. carmen is presented in AS. chatter. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. To talk. Fr. be wide open. fragments or leavings of food. Chamel. — The . ferire. pure. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. clean. Russ. to separate in morsels. chaste. . An imitative word. shout OE. careful. — Palsgrave. or pop. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. from purus. Chasm. a plate of metal. csatora (Magy. warble. chip. gazeuiller. also to hatch. chat. —Charter. — Yorkshire chat. Chaste. chary. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. the noise of birds. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. to chirp. gaddc. the bird is iiown.

lower.. society. to make inarticulate sounds in . kok. See Cheek. Lat. . a dealer in horses. cattle. CHATTELS has ciio. gagkern. a young boy or girl. kaupon. exAS. the face. citello. to . sale.. ceafl. to fetch the breath with difficulty. horse-couper. farm for farm.— Chaps. catalliim. look. a piece of moveable property. Bav. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. to — . to chop and change. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. Pro v. chavylbone or chawlbone. the countenance Fr. a rogue or person who used the canting language. a tavern-keeper. to act as a rogue.. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. NE. chiere. to vomit. whence captale. from AS. chapman.-^.—Choke. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Cam. chop. cita. and. Cheat. stuttering. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. — To check an account. truffa. Hal. entertain kindly. 144 the It. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. and hence the E. tradesman. prattlingchete. stuttering. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Slav. from Lat. goods. kauf. Then. kaupa. Faire bonne chire. laughing. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. teeth . koopen. the Confessor. Cheek. the principal ' colloquial E. a cheater. kikottaa. kak. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. e. cachinnari. .ing. favour. caupo. giggling. . — — —Chowl. jaws. the Lat. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. giving or taking in exchange. sum in a loan. Hence to cheat. ceahhetan. chatel. Ingulphus. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. to cluck like a hen. are represented piti. with the exception of land. snout. It — Brompton in Due. retching. frown. sense of bargaining. Modern Slang. visage. Du. the tongue. Fin. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. kik. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Fr. ku. cattle. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. It. Ek dry and hard. OFr. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. a willing look and unwilling heart. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. gig. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. agreeing upon. et juxta catalla sua.of the throat in coughing. cozener. hawkmann.— . entertainment. equiva.— Chole. KaviiXog. kichen. cheeks. ceap. jaw. chire. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. lead to OE. to nauseate (to retch). chuckle. dchec. changing. &c. cera. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. with Dief. which is used in the to stutter. countenance. . kaufen. to buy. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. Cot. chaptel. Sc. in Fr. aspect of a man. Chattels. Pm. cara. Pr. force of the word. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. G.' to exchange to gasp. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. to coup s. capitale. to cough and hence either buying or selling. kakkaset. Soc. in widely separated languages by the Lat. Chew. CHEEK zitella. to buy. sob E. cattle. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. Bohem. s. syllables ^ag-. welcome heartily. which is the word in ceap. us. kek. ceaflas. — We ' . OFr. Gr. goods. a repulse. to stutter gigken. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Chear. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini.— Cattle. thers. It. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. to coff—Yisi.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. gagkezen. any cheating. . Check. while it Bret. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. price. a canting knave. to clear the throat . to laugh. to deal ON. chear in the sense of victuals. choule. keck. chatal. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. a dealer. mandibula.kakot. kaupiti. Fl.' kezen. The gutGoth. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . Fr. to swap goods . kakaista. bon marche. upon a checked cloth. See Chess. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. Sp. to negotiate.

cisty G. by laying up in a covered heap. To Cheep. Fris. cese. from the cry of check 1 (Pers.' to w. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. rupted into chess. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. &c. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. caws. It. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. . /Ji2^/(W. cista. veluti piscium. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. frame by which the exertion is made. Kil. It would Cheese. cerise j G. AS. suffo. In these latter forms we see the transIt. Achievement. the The use of the word kcesir. Chevisance. then end. chaps. the loose the game of checks. to love. Fr. gous forms are G. achever. cabiron. chops. kasiiUPr. Cherry. kasa. AS. Fr. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. ceaflas. cireggia. schach. Lat. caseus. chiffe. Fr. mollium congeries. made rancid koka. clear the throat. a heap.cirieggia. dear. Jam. As the board to gasp i. things Da. . From them the plish. to swallow. kastanie. whence czypulas. jaws. . Cher.peep in the same sense. (Kil. chevir. AS. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. Chemistry.pose of acidifying them kasadr. geagl. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. Chess. throat. treat with affection. dersen . practice seems to have been communiChevron. incaseatus. mouth kek. OHG. w. squeak as a mouse. The name of creak as shoes. Prov. w. gap. gullet. xaque. See Case. Lat. cerasus. condition of being taken. rattle in the throat. kjakje. old bread. chasi. castaneusj Fr. Pm.. jowl. ceocian. hasten. chesten. Lat. Du. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. Fr. Sc. Sw. equal squares of opposite colours. whence kasa-leipa. nish source. Sw. Pl. Lat. rafters in heraldry. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. king). Hence kikna is identical with OE. G. to geahl. to kasa. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. by laying it in come to an agreement with. to belch. Chevaux de frise. kikna. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Lith. cherir. gill of fish AS. Du. to bring to an end. a chicken.D. — — . accomplishment cayed.D. throat. gaghel. kdkel. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. w. like a young chicken. to make a noise different word. See Chess. kesten.. to heap up such things for the purchoke.Xo belch. food. jaw. a cricket. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. See Alchemy. ca' — . takes place in the formation of cheese. ost. subacidus. Prothroat of an animal . kikna of dorum coacervatio. cough. to boken. quoka. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. E. Da. cheek. F*-. the neck. skratt. ceg. Lith. cams. cheek. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. the final guttural is retained in writing. czypti. schach. make an end. Tutschek. To make a shrill noise Chest. kapen. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Chekenyd or querkenyd. to year. as meat and butter. Hence chesten-nut. cheek. kastr. ichec. kaecke. the palate Chequer. to choke with laughter. E. cheeks. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. chAtaigne. Chef. Fr. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. kok. to kep. to accomThis they call hdrsk.koppen. carnium. N. Sp. ceac. X'C&s. kdke. Thus "we are brought din. Sp. to gape gab. subjected to this process with that which the throat . a rafter . chevron. kces. E. chests in OE. Sc. ON. The Sw. G. ation. . acquisition. the hke. Cherish. CHE. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. prevail with. gapen. gabe. cyse. to hold dear. cufd. Fin. chops. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. jaws Sw. e. kistej Lat. caru. An imitative word. jaw. kjceve. giffle. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. . to choke. the mouth. to prevent the attack of cavalry. the throat. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. for cheese itself. rennet. cabrio. — — . cegio. jouffle. kjcebe. as. to gasp.G.).their struggle for independence. geafl. jaw . quok. ceaplas. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. — 10 . — — . kirsche. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. cheken. E. kopen. scacco.EP CHEVRON 145 on.perly head. Analo.

Du. to gasp for breath (Hal. Pm. kuwe. a chicken. knirschen.. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Imitative of a loud clear sound. G. a chicken. to contest about trifles. Magy. chol. 146 brial. the jole. the head. creak. chillness or shivering. Walach.— Cot. to raise the rim. 'Among these the G. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. a hen. knit the brow cib-led. pole. czypulas. pi. alter. . Fin. CHEW . deer's horn. Palsgr. cib. kime. to use the jaws. — Fin. from the second Lat. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. chicken. cabar. Fr. chew or chaw. branchy. chiquei. a jaw. while didder is to shiver or citteren. chicaner. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. as pointing out the origin of the E. from little to little. chill. rafter . Kil. kouwe. acute. killen. kauchen. or qf people talking rapidly. — It. Now gan some courage unto him to take.D. Pm. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. kimia. And hence. cheek. kop. killen. E.peep. chimb. tyuk. E. kaw. when the vibrations become very rapid. to go. twitter. chikat'. lead through the synonymous E. into a continuous shriU sound. caput. has probably the same origin. De chic en chic. klagend tonen. tiukkua. chavel. tremble. or the broken noise of birds. a small cask OFr. . capo. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. chicoter. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. For the see word Doit. To chitter. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. signifying properly shivering. Probably from Fr. to crackle. chef. E. tintelen van koude. Fr. as. pipe. chavel. also the horizon. kauen. A To Chew. : — a lump.). Tintillo. hiss as meat on the gridiron. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. jaws .— . jaw. head. kindeken. while the Magy. knarren. kibr. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. pip. — Du. quivering sound which passes. term is ssaru fu. a young bird. a chicken. Chick. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Pr. AS. to chime. rafter. a cup cibaw. a head. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. w. cica cica. tiukkata. capete. in Walach. Sp. ' . doubtless originally a chicken Lap. are formed Du. Swiss kiden. cabar beinne. grelot). greloter is to shiver for cold. the same principle I regard On birds. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. CHJME the radical form is unusual. chiler. then as G. zitterti. queror. strideo. Lat. captain. sonorous. Chitter. machouere. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. a cup. to contest. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. caprioru. Fl. gosling. chin. kaau•wen. tremble with cold. Chimb. cebr. mouth. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. crepo. tiuk. Du. pululo. chaps. G. a quid of tobacco. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. and not vice versd. pipio. Fin. chillar. cabarach. and from the third E. stake. cild. chic. to the brim. Bret. De finger killet mi for kalte. Gael. beam..^ Hal. jaw. . a cup. or as E. Fin. chillrar.D. then cold. It. Fl. kitista. or chick. to titter is Du. k'imm s. kinderen. ach. s. to scold. ultimate origin of the Mite. to twitter. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. to pettifog. rafter . mountain top . kippa. chieftain. cidan.' my finger tingles with cold. Chill. Fr. kauwe. cap. chawbone. horn wood. Chigue. gills of a fish. caferu. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. Brezza. To Chide. the Ptg. kilderkin.. the least imaginable jot. Pl. to Du. Gattel. the chirping of a sparrow Magy.-ill. tiukka. choule. capu. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. Payer chiguet A chiguet. antler. horns of the house. Halm. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. the throat. the rim or edge of a vase. — — Mother Hubbard. the young of animals in general. cabriones. kieken. from the first of which is Lith.. keichen. The loss of the syllable it in Du. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Pr. Chime. kimista^ . aner.— Gattel. Russ. a little bit. to chew. kidata. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. Da. See Chimmer. kimme. The Pl. ]). pipio. Child. Prov. Chief. — . to chirp or peep like a chicken. kind. kopf Du. a finch. the cry of young . W. by driblets. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Chaw. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du.^ to resound as a bell. to smart.

and chim-mer. to creak. Gascoigne in Todd. The small entrails of a hog. and from a similar sound to boil gently. sonus the backbone Lat. It. E. cisello. stridere. kink hoest. . Du. tsongeni. esquina. — . Bret. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. schetteren. and light.. cincel. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. A . or chyFrigutus. tschirpen. Fr. from Lat. tinnire. To Chitter. twitter caminus. See Chap. quavering of the voice. esquena. which differ from each other only as Chirk. Fr. Chink-cough. backe. cinne. kinne. and bodily movement in shimm. in the same crack. ciarlare. yivtiov. clangor tinniens kummata. chhint. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. 147 kimina. Chisel. Lat. verynge or dyderinge. the chine. — . chin . applied to tremulous motion. spina. to chirre. then to any narrow crack or AS. to chink. are In like manner E. to creak. have been used to designate the spine. It. Sp. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. caperd. cleft. Prov. to murmur. pork) . KinneGr. schiena. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. Chin-coug^h. eschine. tsengeni. Pm. hus. clashing of weapons. hollow. spina. shiver and the chyver of Pr. It. to open chirriar. a hall Mid. to prattle . kumista. the mouth (jaws) . to chink with laugh2. Hindost.sharp. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. Pr. kieck hoest. as a large bell . It. ciseau (for cisel). clipping of coin. do. sound. killed by Bellerophon. Chip. sonants. Chintz. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. chits. epine. zirpen. i. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. Ptg. as a bell kommata. Gower in Hal. chirp. Chat. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. Chimera. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. G. a chap. backBut she withal no worde may soune. cheek. disCot.to chirp. The desig. hiss Pm. the whooping cough. eschin^e (de pore). To chink with laughter. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. chatter . pare also Walach. as the chink of money. keich husten. — . Lith. all these imitative terms being minata. Sp. Chink. a szemrcU. chick. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. flaw Hal. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. a thorn. plodere. — — — — — . in- — by the syllable clink or chink. zirken. genou (pi. a Kuttn. twinkling light. simmer.iron. Bav. fissure. then of a fabulous monster part goat. genawi. . fyr. schina. To chirp or twitter. eschiner. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. up and down. the cheek. AS. See Chats. ykvvQ. Sw. in Hal. hiss chirlar. Gloss. to chirp .schricken. to prattle czirpti. squittire. j^lf. Caminatum. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. The change from the sound ter \s. In the same sense. to sound deep or the Gr. Cot. sparkle.er. sounding deep. czirszkti. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. Chymerynge. a crowing sound in recovering breath. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. the jaw. cisaille. the jaw.Huloet in Hal. Magy. caminata. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . to chirp. companied.' Phaer's Virg. from the geon's lancet.Lat. chink. Chimney. Fr. . Diez de. Chine. from 10 * ' Chia. a fire-place. name Then. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. vincially used in the sense of a crack. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Fr. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. E. the chin . a surkik hosta. also vibrans. Chitterling. It. bone . G. Sp. To Chimmer. ter. gena. . to simmer. but or cry as a parrot. kumina. komista. caminsects. to sizel. to squeak in It. to gape. to tattle. Primarily a shrill sound. gen. schrick. representing connected together. quivering or shakyng for colde.). to chine. as birds the mouth. — . to tremble. Kil. crepare. sound on beginning to boil. Sp. skina. bx-eak the back of schena. cinan. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. See Bright. See Chark. Chyrme or chur. tremulous motion. Chitter. resonance . as the/ is preserved tering. cheminde. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. komia. Huloet.to divide or Du. Du. et garrire . the cheek (jaw) . a chink or fissure. schetteringe. dial. to sound. Fr..czirbti. . and the Du. Chit. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . part lion. a thorn. klincken. rustle.

an onion. a ruff. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. G. kausjan. &c. Swiss kust. g'schochet voll. to try . civette. from %u\i). Gr. to try. — Chock-full. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. I. chorus. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. chock full. pluck. kalbs gekrose. . to strike hands . kustigen. to try. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. chatter. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — .' At last he dwelt . In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. to turn. anger. Yr. to ^cleave . of an angry — — — ' ' — . to hack. crammed Choir. ^euw. Prov. and It. OHG. select. to taste. kushati. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. Jam. Chap. a rag. disposition. koren. fine threads of flowers. * To Choose.' Verie coinme Cot. . to chap. taste. Chuck-full. Gr. a chive. skifa.V)^x. a fragment. 2. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. Boh. haslets.. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to shiver. wrath. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. bile.ffrill. Schmid. Enn Sigridur sem ' . G. propagated. cive. To Choke. full. causir. . to choose. — Cholera. seallion or unset leek. a scale or fragment P1. kieser. caperd. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. a twittering. As kushnuti. The I go to prove them. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. — See Cheek. gustare. Walach. ruffs. to Compare also Pol. •- Russ. also calPs. gekrose.ceosan. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. as green as leeks. experience valerie. called cMtters in the N. friller. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. a wine taster. coro. Choleric. Gr. schoch. shiver. ON. a ruff or frill. Equivalents in the SlaFr. a blow. a company of singers or dancers. to taste. pieces . . . kushevati. kiesen. keuren. wkusit' prikushat. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. ON. specially with an application to theatrical performances. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . Body and Soul. a goose's giblets. %o\ifa. to taste. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. . Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Cavalry. chattering. kusid. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. kiusan. ^S. a small slice or slip of anything . Serv. to stop geschoppt voll. lead us on to Lat. curly . kaup. The manners and senti. Choice. of E. —Chorus. Chives. Luc. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. kor6n. keypa. are used in the same sense. try. to palpitate .gust. and Vf. i. and in this sense the * small pieces. the small parts of the roots of plants. from chevalier.D.freze. rare. kbhren. a calf's chaldern of E. — — — . schevel-steen. ments of the knightly class. to break off in small shive. to try. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. Chivalry. . from kraus. and N. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. whence choleric. heaped measure. schiefer. or original meaning is preserved in G. developments of the same radical image. chimp. to taste. CHOP kros. whence Lat. chiffe. Fr. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. to taste . and in kosten. to wrinkle. arkiusan. gusten. a calf's pluck or chaldron . okusyti. coup. a knight.— B jag E. to tempt. a young .yEuffM. shoot . the inwards of an animal. Lat. prove. to prove. The Sc. approve. cepa. gdnse gekrose. Choice is probably direct from Fr. cke. kiezen.' who shall not taste death. &c. chives. the ridges prove. Chives are also a kind of small onion. 19. ent quarter. chife. by which they are Fr. full to overflowing. cape. The . to chap at a door . Fr.. then to try. Swab. to taste. kruszki. chceur. x^poc. taste. word is more likely to be from Lat. chippe. xiv. chibble. then to shiver. To Chop. try. chaup. to ing is doubtless to taste. signify to kiss.vonic languages are Pol. choppe. kiusan. Fr. chawdron. krussyi. to experience. chap hands. Warwickshire coff. See try. all seem slate . scheve. choix. a heap. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. to exchange horses. cut up into — See Chats. it is probable that the root kus. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. to clap up Hal. fresure. G. Goth. as with a blow. wein didder for cold. in the same language.

\^s. chatter . because she would not endure this husband chopping. whence apparently the Sup. Picard. traffic. one who buys and sells horses or cows. we find the following passage Dap. the string of a musical instrument originally. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. ' ' What's that? Dap. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. kobe. Alchemist. to turn over. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. kowe. OE. gull. In Sc. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. ON.— Chevin. syllables chat. cow-couper. xop5>}. e. chuet. overset.(. capita. I bring you the Cloughs. to overturn. Chronicle. noble Doctor. thick-set. gobio capitatus. short piece kubbug. a bullhead. That Face. the intestine of an animal. E. from kloppen. soul-couper. —Shakespeare. P. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. chouquette. to knock. equivalent to the E. Gr. Kil. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. as Du. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. XpvaaXic. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face.. xpi'^lia. E. for to defraud. Cot. To coup. that will thank chiaus — you richly. cresmeau. 49. Chopino. prattle . cauc.' Jam. chapin. peace. Fr. yiSA. a stump. cauvette j Fr. To Chouse. Chord. klompe. Fr. — — — . The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. choucas. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . monedula. to clack. kaw. whence the Fr. Sp. or miller's kaycke . chevin. .. Peace. applied to an owl in that language. connected with G. Fr. Chrysalis. kaulhaupt (club-head. Gr. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. forms are Chrism. e. Sw.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. &c. a lump or piece chump. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. klopper. Madam. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. which was written 27. Fr. chevane. gold. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. bearand aits. chrisme. in i6io. quappe.X. Chuck. Wall. time ra . Nominale in Nat. xftovoq. kubb. capitanus. — . — Dief. a small fish with a large head. caphatenus. Marin. dial. kowej Sax. chouette. kolbe (club). capitone. G. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. ceo. a thick piece. 4. Confounded with the bullhead. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. p.).povucd. E. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. to chatter. a trafficker in souls. Lat. . chop. chronicles. fat. gull. as in Fr.• — . by the Robert Shirley. thumb Fl. an offence against the fitness of times. caqueter. chapma?i. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. The Turk was here As one should say. capito. of which such strings are made. high clog. cavena.' They are forebuyers of quheit. What do you think of me. chapineria. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. — Chrisom. kaufen. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. Chub. slipper . plump. in Chaucer. clat. caker. A fish with a thick snout and head. dial. Anachronism.). dealing. chub. chack. to strike in the hand. Fr. kubbr. — Quabbe. a The What dhy ^. i. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. cambiare. to speak thieves' slang.sohola. whence — E. and we actually find champman for chapman. Du. To Chop logick. Borgoens happen. cheap. kaej Lith. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. Gr. A jackdaw. If I discover. koppe. the teeth to chatter . civetta. See Change. AS.— Landnamabok. chevane. Chough. E. cangiare. cheviniau. chroniques. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. cob. the same word with the It. sent before him a Chiaus. Du. See Chaff. Come. Ant. a messenger or envoy. whence e. From the Turkish Chiaus. ley in Giiford. claquer. kauwe. merchant. who took in the Turk- clack. clogs. chrysalis (Plin. Gr. to cant. -chron-.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Jam. In the Alchemist. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking.—Chuokstone.

qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. — . AS. Ir. kern. kaerle. a fellow. Probably from It. a man.D. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. cidre. a resounding object. Sicerawry face ceffata.— . that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. spuma metalli. a pebble. to fall.. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. as Epkema explains it. chife. The spelling of chider has Chump. to churn. from Lat. Chunk. It is certain. so as to make the happen . kernjen. ceaplas. giffle. cheek. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. log of wood.^. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. cut off. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. to strike clatter. ON. chuffy. ON. tindra.' And cold. chack or stane-chacker. . Du. to fall upon decide. sindr. ceaflas.for the residue of stone coal. cinis. See Cheek. a cutting round. -cis-. sindel. kerl. cendre. &c. Chuff. KvptaKolg. 24. i. to jaw chack or snap. swollen or puffed up Cot. calculus. flower. To chuck in the fall from. to him a sudden blow. ashes. in Sc. scoria. to To Chuckle. Lat. -cide-. set kerti. a cutting an old chuff. ceffo. -eris. Gothic nations. to throw out sparks. G. to cause the milk to grain. as a board. * Cinder. thence a belt. to cut decide. have given rise. a man. Gr. to determine incision. The origin ation. OFr. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. an old man. cheeks Cincture. in the face. comp. . e. Churn. we have to chack. . and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. marrow. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Du. cinctura {cingo. The derivation from Kvpiasov. blow on the I io6 in Mur. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). sive piratiam facere sciant. casum (in comp. incido. ceorl. In Sc. kakka. as in E. whence deciduous (of trees). -cido. fat-cheeked. ON. gffe. to Newsp. Cob. a lump. Sc. a pebble . Diss. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. male person. sinter. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. x^^i?. ladre from Lazare. chack-stone. AS. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). with It the Lord's house. geaflas. — — A — ' ' — . Da. KaxXij?. Cider. or choice part of a thing . as water running over rocks or stones. e. Lat. joufflu. a rustic . to sparkle. . lamak. a douse on the tores. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . i. countryman. however. then the on oh StX iv roXt. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. dust. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. Ka-^aiva. Fris. whence church. Fr. accido. pp. -cisuiri). . ccedo. cinctus. Aasen. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. C^z^j^ churHsh. Jennings. dial. Hence -cid-. to form grains of butter. to make a aiKipa. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. Wall. jaws. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . to fall at or on. to separate the kernel of the milk. sindra. pith. chofe (Grandgagnage). See Ceiling. Lat. chops. as Fr. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. surly. to turn from blossom to fruit. residue of burnt coals. Church. — of the two words. ciuffo. chaps. G. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. to gird. cado. sintel. Du. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. Gr. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. the kernel. the snout of an animal. kirna. tie about). kiorne. -cise. cinders used disjunctively. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. kjami. a girding on.rendered by Kil. a husband. has been impugned which it has really no connection. a man. whence ON. joffu. See Cheek. chakil. Sw. Fr. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. calx.— Chu%. domhnach. ChurL husbandman. Cieling. As AS. in circumcision. but by way of explan.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. karl. Wall. from Lat. . a miser. Lat.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on.V//a'6'?.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. &c. klakka. sicera. ceffore. chofu. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. that the word is an adoption of Fr. or.' he adds. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. Cleland in Jam. to make a rippling noise.

. . Gael. a'upiav. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. G. dob. klekotati.— . clasp. clapping of klacke. E. We . klappe. Lat. prattle. clog. dim. stimulate. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. * Ciplier. klater-busse. to clatter. scion. Dan. klumbr. —Civil. W. a knob. lump. a cleansing place. as in Sp. Sw. creak les dents. So a light. compared with It. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Lat. to make to go. See Crankle. cry out . or split with noise. to mention. around. sound. citrus. klammer. cista. We . See -cid-. a Pol. a hiding-place. chijfre. a lemon tree. Gael. parallel root is slam. To Clack. or clap-dish. excite. cisterna. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. clump. mass . Dan. prattle. klqb. bunch. clat. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. KpiKoe. glambar. area. Lat. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. slam. lash . G. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. civilis. forms — — — parent plant. in the frequentative form. the tongue. cluster. claquer. to toll . clamp. From Arab. or quill to draw waier through Fl. circ2tlus. Clump. and clash. of citta. and. as caverna from cavus. clap. noise — — a cistern. hringr. city. . . domern. cifra. a. to call. globus. to cry out. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. glamm. Clam. to clap at a theatre. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. Lat. Arab. crack. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. biw. a mass. klabb. The syllables clap. to appeal. chest. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). cittadella. a split. Du. a kind of rattle. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. ON. smack. Fr. . and E. Gr. a ring. Citron. a circle.to suck. Chaste. circle. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. to cluck. claquet de moulin. a circle. clobyn. ruin. to cleanse. The Gr. a block. Clamp. suck). klak. to set in motion by means of the voice. uproar. . sip. a block. sindri. rattle. klateren. a ball. sound- — hands figures. a whirlwind. — (Dozy) ing blow. circa. ON. civis. radical identity of the Fr. gutter. wasserkasten (water chest). klemte. to summon or call on. sajira. a city. scion or sucker. Alt. lump . ball kloben. to go. citujn. —Circuit. . trunk. a reservoir Probably from Lat. a whip. cit^. about. &c. Cite. accordingly find the roots dab. the door was slammed J slamem. the place of . Hence Incite. around. Hal. clack. claim. Excite. -cite. whence cistiti. It. babble . ter. clatCot. Du. Recite. a lump Du. a rattle . clambar. to chatter. twig. 'mass. It. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. kringr. Mack. klump. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . cion. sound of blow. to chatter . castus). KipKog. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. Fr. See Circle. clamras. klap. To Claim. klimp. a lump Lat. cittd. a Lat. Sp. a clod Russ. Scion. It. fall. a for water. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . chupon. Du. lump of wood or with the nasal. klubb. a city. ring. clamer. to call. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. with an initial s instead of c. klepati. lump. Sw. In Fr. E. bunch . klamp. to bawl. a rattle Fr. cito. clap. Lat. klambr. a judgment cern. Citadel. a loud uksa slamketi. to be empty. -cis-. belonging to cities or social life . may cite w. Gr. cion. rattle . lucerna. clangor avium . Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. clack. to call by name. Fr. cry. klompe. klappen. crack. circum. cisterna. a clod. a pop-gun. sprig. ON. cittade. claquer. vociferation. a cistern. CION See Tinder. claquer crash. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. crack. to gnash the teeth. clamp. Circum-. to knock. is traced by Gr. Fr. chupon. City. a shoot. Comp. to chatter. . a citizen . to clack. ciste. sifr. log. Lat. kringla. clamare. a boss . for Cion. Circle. clack-dish. lump. tinnitus . a kind of pipe. Cot. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. clot ON. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. klopati. klacken. a place See place hiddern. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. The notion of a lump. a ball. as. . empty Golius. to strike. klacke-busse. . Lap. clapper. noise. sphere gleba. ern. outcry. circum.. . and Sp. Bohem. a young and tender plant. lump. cieo. civitas.' sione. glam. from chupar. clack-box. kluV. chatter . Lat. a circle. * Cistern.

a loud tingle. clandestine. to hold fast with the . chatter. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. a bird of prey. klubber. chief. klette. Lat. for tame conies. klampen. hook. ney. children. To clap in E. kleben. clapas. rumour. dam. sound object . dia. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. a sound made by a still . Dan. to climb. knocking. klepanie. dren. dam.. klippe. These are imitations of a loud. conceal. dap up. a stick. whence sala. — — . seize. to glue. G. klamme. to pinch. run to lumps Clandestine. to beat. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. privately. of which the locative case. clap. gliong. take hold of. klepati. beating. klynge. to clap. sticky Hal. klatten. Clamp. kleppe. The Fr. G.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. club . klibber. . tight. klammer. — Cot. and hence moist. to climb. klappre. clibby. sound. Clapper. compress. cling. E. where- A — unto they retire themselves. clammy brace. a stone See Claim. Clap. to clutch or cling oneself up. anything hidden. salafa. Lang. klimmeii. klammern. to clamp. pinching. klemmen. narrow. dial. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. children. to clap on. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. clang. klettern. damras. a heap of stones. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. klemmen. to climb. kluppel. clap. dapier. scendants. in a hidSen place. to do anything with a clap. to hide. clapper of conies. to knock. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. to hold to pinch. bond. Du. originally a heap of large stones. klam. of the children. klamre. Sw. to cling. klebern. dank. Hence the Fr. contraction.' to take coals to Newcastle. Dan. klynge sig op. rattle. to cleave or stick. klam7n. a claw . dam. a heap of stones or other things piled up . dial. chatter. klepel. G. . klank. Clamour. Clink. klappen. cleave. is a nasalised form of gripper. B. dam immediate modifications — . to seize. kloben. clamber. a hawk. Dan. klemmen. to Sw^. The equivalent of Lat. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. a claw. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. Swiss kldbem. to climb . cream Manx doan. holdfast. — Climb. coagulated cream. Halma. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. dang. daver. to. ancestor. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. klamm. compression. Clan. cramp. G. tingle. dink Du. strait. tenacious. clav\f. strain . but perhaps not directly from it. Fr. AS. clajnmy. Mampe. G. clann. In like manner Du. viscous. salaan. Du. apprehend . . also to clog up. viscosity . resonance klingen. a sound. buckle klamp.1. kleppe. to climb. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . a burr. klavre. klobber-saen. to dame. cramp-iron. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to climb. who occuG. . of money Gael. tattle. dapi^. These words To are closely connected with damp. &c. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. to Hal. Swiss kletten. to stick or glue. to starve. clasp. clear sound. Gael. Du. dambar. c). to stick conceal. crowd . G. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. substances of a stickydam. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. with cramp-irons. E. dapier. pressed close or hard together. Salainen. tone. massy. To sticky. uproar. klang. descendants . B. from birdlime. to claw oneself up. .p correspond- ' without order. dem. prison. brawl. Clang. a craCmp. celo produces Fin. or klamp-vogel. to patronus. dientes. kleppen. a noose . nature . . A i. closely analogous to that of the fast. ring as metal. grimper. from the w. yf. dandestinus. klappen. diver. dee. clangor. tremble . the in many languages. The root which gives rise to klibb. glambar. Bav. OE. E. and hence to pinch .' klibba. stick. cluster. solid. accent. dienklebber. gripe. The E. E. a sound made by a lighter clink. sound . Dan. to knock. sound of the trumpet . to hook things together. — Lat. to gingle. Bohem. as the clapping of hands. — . a trap. to glue. bandage. tinkle. is used in the sense of secretly. a rattle .er. klopfen. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. — with hunger. offspring. adopted Lat. sound. damor. a whip. and that from celo. G. hold. hands or claws to grasp. gum. Du. See Clam. a place underground where rabbits breed. beat. as the Lat. to daub pinch. Russ. grasp. klem-vogel. To Clamber. Clank. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. clink.

— Clarinet. chiarello. assembly. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. Fr. Class. rubellum. Claret. — Clarion. claret win e. klatscha pop-gun. climp. Clatter. and shrill-sounding trumpet. clairon of a trumpet— It. But clasp or elapse. clarinado. a clod. from clinging to the tree which supports it. a water made of aquavitse. it is called clamming. klijven. a key. as Mod. in the sense of a mass or lump. cluster. a kind of small. mass. Prov. with a reddish tint. a clasp. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. vin clairet. It. i.). &c.ck a whip. clopa. hawk. e. a little hook . To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. Du. blab. to rattle .Gr. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Mask ! plask ! thwick. a. the collar-bone. flap. classis. compression. klatschen. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . thwack . row aii/iaTos. Du. clairon. to patter. from its use in fastening things together. Identical with ON. to end. clatter. Lat.— CLARET clamp. KXeiSi. Commonly made. chatter. a lump. Kil. klauw. In E. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. a claw.w or u on the other.\x\xvn. insularum nexus . klauwe. uproar. or as G. under three modifications dava. kluczka. —Kil. So Pol. kleuen. klc^i. cinnamon. Du. nawith stanis. a distribution of things into groups. cloi. he of white and red grapes mingled together. clausula. klamme. Lat. klouwe. dap. Clause. globus. clarin. clavus. a sphere . a. skeria-klasi. bawling. It. fracas. a nail. Dan. sauna de classes. fibula. to clap . clas. to fasten. a heap. Claw. clump. ictus resonans. Russ. . Than thai wald clew upon his banis. a lash. clamp. pellet . — tells us. klampvoghel. a bird with powerful talons. Clasp. to ring in such a manner for the dead. kletse. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. . as it is written by Chaucer. Thus from clamp. stop of an organ. Originally clasis.oi. sphaera. clavis. klatsche. crying. diver. applied in their harness. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. a club or massy stick. Sw. and old red rose-water. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. klaeret. nail. whence kleuer. clair. a bunch. klase. Du. From clairet. is preserved in Lang. In the same way is formed the OE. Du. Gr. Cot. kiosk bicza. from the resemblance to a key. contraction. Lang.Z. subrubidum. K\a. biichse. klaterbusse. Nightingale. as G. rion. to cleave. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. E. G. klatschen. Nawith stavis. which signifies a ball in E. Klatsch- a pop-gun . as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. is used in Sc. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. From claudo. &c. Du.It. The form clew. Fr. pet.. to snap. clausum. Serv . hook. kleeven. The b readily passes into gleba. chiarino. klaskad. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. clew or fasten upon a thing. mass. vin claret. sound of the foregoing description. somewhat clear. a buckle. to animals Sp. klampe. to fasten together . to knock. we pass to the E. in the sense of a claw. schnalle. a key KKtitid. chiizjj-o. To clew. Wyutoun in Jam. globus. buckle. forms are the Du. from scknallen. Lat. to do anything with a . klos. chiaro clear. glcis. Owl and that by which cleave to. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Clash. biichse. ivy. and clavis. ansa.to cra. klaequivalent to clack or clap. vinum helvolum. to shut. klouwe (Kil. an on the one hand. locket of a door. klot. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. same class with w. noise. a ball. chasguear. klucz. waU. to clash as arms. a key origmally a crooked nail. Eya-klasi. clew. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. 269. Pol. Sp. The collar-bone. Rayn. the primary origin clapa. Thus from Lat. a lump . gaspe. fragor . a claFr. also a knell for the dead. a complete sentence. puUs. an ending. claw (what fastens together. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Clavicle. Analogous Jam. straight-mouthed. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. the cracking of a whip. — Kiittner. seizes) . and through v into a. ghespe. syrtium junctura. teren. Clew. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. to draw it up into a bunch. Lat. Fr. Eau clairette.

to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. . or of a tree. Du. viz. a cleft. Bav. a noose. clean. klafwa. Probably a modification of the word doitt. give a shrill sound Jr. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. dut. To Clench. to glitter. bend in a stream. W. daggy. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. klag. kleverig. is fast and sure. glatt. found in other cases. to sound or make a noise . to chink. doggy. glan. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. E. klijveii. an object is simply cleft. clean. G. bright. Fr. sticky . a fissure or division See Cleave. Da. Lat. Gael. from the clinking of the latch. deot. dench. B. radiant. ON. Da. together . of iron worn on shoes by country people. glent. Halma. glindse. shine. river. to 2. a latch. G. E. that was a striking proof. a key. Thus from G. seem formed dial. dams. tongs. klceg. explained from the klinken. klinke. kluit. vissticky . Sc. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. G. clear. Clinch. gingle. voice. — : A rivet. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. kleg. the two parts of Du. i. The word is . dial. as Lat.). kleevig. klieben. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. This word is used in two business is finished off. Du. Omklinken. Die zaak is zS. a cleft or fissure. E. Du. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. a lump. the original . pure. dags. glbram. dinquet kleeven. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. klinken. as Fr. cliquet. clay . clemens. diquetcr. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. G.— Clag. the fork of the body. klink. a mass.— Claggy. clean. to stick or adhere . celebrated . klinke. glint. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. cloven wood. famous. kloben. splendid pohshed. to tear or cleave asunder. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . . . Clean. clean. a in that of sphtting.Q. glitta. The Dan. clear. rivet. split. klinken. to fasten. a clincher. geklonken. clout. as the Du. See Clam. to clinch GB. kleg. Clay. loam. clash. to clench. neat. as explained under G. glor-mhor. Du. dedgy. klouen. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . and. . klieuen. kloben. a one end. neat. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. the latch of a door. Du. See Clog. G. pure. kloben. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. glandse. hook. to stick to. that was Torriano. kluftholz. . to be composed. to cleave. a cleft. kldnkelein. sleek. to Brilliant. viz. Mar. klov. provinciaUy termed dout. Cleft. clear. and Celtic glan. date is AS. gaklankjan. polished. klincke. glan. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. klirren. a plate. clibby. This is probably one of the clean. AS. chaps in the skin. a flash. klirre. Wilbraham. either by the coherence To Clepe. mud. The proper meaning of the word is shining. lump. smooth. door-latch. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. rift. dag. glance . Sw. glbr. glan. Axletree clouts. Dan. merciful. kla:g. gentle. vice. klutsch. The word may be — . . klor. polish . Cleat. doff. rive. Sc. opposite senses. to dag ox dog. Kil. kluft. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. a — — . piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. Lat. From dob. gleit. to shine. a noise. from diquer. a bunch of When flax). and E. calm. holding together. speech . To call. from nitere. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. to fasten. kloue. pellet. a claw or talon. klouen. klank.— . to shine . a fissure. (Cot. Clear. pretty. clink. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. Du. as ON. danche. cleave. in two ways. pure . words applicable sight. to separate into parts. klinka. a mass. to clinch a nail. to clink or sound. sticky earth. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. ON. conserere antklankjan. sticky. Clemency. Da. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. to fasten E. and Dan. ON. Sw. nitidus. the To Cleave. klinke. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. kleben. bogs cous.' was nailed to a rock. it cleave together. glitnir. A — A Clement. From clap. kluyte. 2. Sw. klinken. or from being divided into two parts. glorious. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . klove The Dan. 154 CLAY dutch. a lump. klyft.

exactly Gr. cligner. to talk as a parrot. slope . The Sc. say. syn. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . cautes. clever. click. AS.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. declivity. klippe. Clew. to catch. speak. Client. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . and hence climate. catching. klif. rugged ascent. which in Mid. klinket. a hook. chatter. d See Clan. duke. climate. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. precipice. above the pole. cart that tilts over. to teU tales. region not observe it. the dick of a latch or a trigger. dial. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). in the sense of active. highest is attained. cleke. Climax. Happen. one admitted to the tonsure. CLINCH De . has also deik.— Clue. a ball of twine. klinke. to stir. on. a cliff.— Clicket. The origin is the Gr. Dunbar in Jam. Clam. a hold. Sw. cleopian. Sp. clyf. dough. a baU of yarn. OE. klinge. Du. abrupta rupes . klika. a lump. kleppen. dergi. See AS. cleugh. . dial. a child's or clack . a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. ready of speech. klok klep- crepitare. as Lat. Now the OE. a mill-clack . babble. had a form. prattle. derigo. or Sc. the clergy clericus.Lat. one of the clergy. to sound an alarm to clap. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. or an object character- Clerical. kliket. skard. nimble. dial. quick of perception. rapidus from rapio. clif. rupes . cleft in a rock. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. to cry. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. deuck. diver. dob. a lazar's clicket or clapper. dicher. clif- stanas. that is a clever feUow. chat. a clerk . Cliff. to clack. to seize. pulsare. We movement catch. to cleave. clack. quick in motion. kliv. klev. Da. to bend.' ii. deuch. derjon. clep. frap- per rudement une personne. . which is used in Scotch and N. derecia. dever. Climate. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. globus.. Jam. is NE. a sphere. littus. Lat. KkrifoQ. ized . Lat. a trigger. IS5 Du. the clergy. what so men clappe or crie. Click. klouwe. cleft of a hill. call. verge).) Brai. dink. call. —Vocab. seize (Hal. See Clench. Rouchi cliche. Lat. icXi/ja?. -Toe (from KXivm. it must be observed. dek. on. a claw or clutch. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. a latch. — have the notion of a short quick in E. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. cliof. a hump. click. deudi. to catch. diofian. crack. sonare. clypian. snatch. claw or talon to dek or deik. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. Commonly derived from deliver. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. to wink. Climb. duik. G. click. a tumbril. . Somner. as Sc. deik. to prate. a clicket or clapper. in precisely the same sense as the E. dexterous. Gr. a cleft in a rock . kleppe. lively. dutch). derigon. neither as having lordship in the. pen. diquette. sink. to confess . klikker. and (with the nasal) — clincher. cliquer. a precipice. Clever. Hence Lat. precipices. Clerk. name. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. deik. Boh. See Clamber. to rattle. Bav. score7i clif. klippe. 3. klever. rock. a latch . Fr. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. to tattle. stein- kluppen. clever. &c. a ladder. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. an inclination. de ripa. from Gael glac. a latch. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. gleg. from clifian. crackle. cleft.). scar. click it. cliquet. cave . klaiv. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. agile. Du. /cXi'fia. as from derido. Clergy. chatter. corresponding to Fr. ginally from dob (extant in W. . clerus. e. In I Peter v. a lot. with hamarskard. Claw. ravine. Norm. and hence deik. dichet. light-fingered. the knocker of a door. Det er en Mover kerl. kloof. — — A . cliff. glomus. klikklakken. clap. Chaucer. Klover i munden. has kl'dver. would have been derida. chatter.dergie! Wiclif in R. Cot. CLERK sound of a blow. But the Dan. 3. as a click with the tongue. temperature. klaffen. clatter. rock. G. clima. hamraklif. expeditious. in rhetoric. corresponding to the Sc. to snatch. crepare. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. whence Fr. Du. to tattle. to move. dook (identical with E. a clew. Sc. a figure mentioned.

to beat. a lump of butter. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. nip. 2. to snap tongs. to bend downwards . incline. kima. Gael. dial. klupen. clinke. ' . a bell. kXiVu. E. klunker. to crowd together klynge sig ved. Pl. klippen. . a clock. ring clag. knippe. klocke. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. at first probably on a wooden board. . hlinen. Sw. a lump.. as we now say three or four o'clock. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. dag. Bohem. met. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. Fr. brett-glocke.. a ball of thread . to ring. and so' to contract. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. kleppe. Du. to sound sharp. to make a loud noise. dial. like cling. sloping forwards. Du. klinka. Da. to snap or fillip schnippen. knippen. I. also to form a compact mass. pinch. klungelin. Decline. klungeln. OHG. G. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. clutch.' for a dry stick. a woman's mantle . difficulty . to shrink up. klunge. pinch. To cut with shears. to resound. to snap kneipen. tuft.— Clot. parva ruptura. klippur. gUong. . a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. To stick to. -cliv-. especially of something soft or clammy. a tinman. clock is a variation of clack. incline. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. globulus' (Gl. toga muliebris. Lat. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. club). rima. Gr. -atum. also to wink . cloak. to strike. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. klippa. Bi klik uti klak. See Clang. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. klicke.— KSS.und zuk-lippen. ON. — a mantle. klinken. klocka. Sw. as thick or curdled liquids. schnippen. klepalo. klik. Sw. kluppe. Flem. dial. kol- The word . N orman clincailler. . It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. quincailler. to snip. To Clip. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. clinker. iissura. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. G. klak. kolbe to E. See Cowl. kukla. Kil. noise. The E. ON. glungelin. a beU. a faction. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. clangere. related to clock. Esthon. * Clod. four of the bell. as G. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. Clock. cloche. clivus. — clot. Swiss klungele. The notion of a loose moveable substance. kliks. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. Walach. to clip. w. to beat on the board. Sw. . in Schmeller) klunk. to knock. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. Clink. Sw. E. dial. Du. whence E. klynge. a bell. difficulty. knippchen. Hal. klipa. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. clog. 'Till famine cling thee. to AS. shears. . gang. ten. slant. Een kliks bolter. verklungeln. Cloak. hluccti. klaka. g. S w. . declivis. Lat. hill . by bits. klippe. or bagging clothes. klocke.D. to cluster. sloping upwards procUvis. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. G. kldpp. ON. to pinch. clique. To Cling. to slope or bend . to clap or clack. klingen. clato make a noise. sticky. Sussex peasant AS.. and a similar syllable without the /. clips. kluben. to shrink up.. to crowd or squeeze chingy. acclivis. disposed to a thing. -CLINE make pinch. G. hooded . . Fr. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Ir.ginglej Fr. klincke. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. straits. pallium. speaks of a ' clung bat. a hood. G. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. Ang. cochl. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. knot klynge. klo^gen. clingan. klok. to . In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. toga. 156 -cline. to pinch klupe. clino. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . a clog or fetter for a beast . hlinian. to wither. to clunge. as to snip in the same sense from snap. Cliofue. to wither. fetter. bow. claw. to form one mass with. a snare. Serv. from klepati. to cling to a thing. recline. a lump G. glocke. sloping downwards . Swiss klokken. G. to lean backwards.' From Pl. . klippa. a separate portion. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. chcng.D. to lean. compress . and 'E. hluk. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. to clink auf.'— Shaks. a cluster. kolki-laud. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. &c. Du. outcry. a rising ground. Bohem.

curdled. to dabble. the radical sylla. and Gael. to rattle. to bubble. to shut. clausum. an imputation. separate part. to flounder in the wet. a clod Swab. pattens G.). klakk. G. . schlott. tuditare. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. MHG. kl'dnken. da- . bemired. then liquid or loose substance. klotz. Russ. a skittle-ground klos- sen. of a body of any kind. watery. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. Fr. in forms like Du. Klottermelck. a spot. thick spoon . ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. mire.1a. lunch.— Clothe. truncus. tJokok. kleck. The origin of clod and clot is to . lobberen.'^ Palsgr. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. to shut up. Gr. klac. to shut in. chiuso. klateren. Lat. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). with Fr. dab. to a.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. to spill liquids. geschlotter (as E. . to paddle in the wet. clammy loam. to dabble.dial. shaky. -close. clotted milk klotte. slab. chiudere. IV. in comp. cloth. be found rattle. clot. ! . je amoncele. loblolly. dirt.rge lump. fat. klod. blot. to shut. a block. a blot. lopperig. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. klunkern. dial. schlottern. or E. bespotted with mire E. Yule-clog. zoccoli. like G. Lat. kladde. loose. or loppern. closed. and thus seem endowed . E. claque. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. . to play at bowls. . bloutre. slobber. of something clammy or heavy. Klak also. Fr. Swiss schlott. figer. lump of mud on the clothes . I doda clod. . from Fr. to lobberig. is a blot on one's character. lumps of butter. to sup up liquid food. 3. lump of something soft . schlettern. clos. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. . E. to claggock. A . to flap as loose clothes. Clog. Hence inclose. motzen. • lump. a log. klos. or drablyn with separate existence. splash. kloteren. clos. to slop or spill liquids. . Dan. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. forbidden by 17 Ed. a blot. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. He was a man without a dag. Closhe. m&se noch stain. His heart was franlc without a flaw. A — — A Thus from Bav. is connected with pludder. finish . from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. slobberen. loose trowsers. laggery. meat from Du. paludosus. slops slodderen. klot. to close against one. inclose. Mat. clogs for the feet klakk. -clus-. and Du. doitre. whence klack. a babbler. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. I clodde.D. fors. pludre. kloster. dunch). I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth.' end. G. schlotter. dirt. Pm. g. congeler. Sc. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. paddle or dabble in the wet. mud klcEg. shut up. from claudo. klokotat. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. wide bagging clothes. unctuous. a log. gelatinous. laggyn. slops). TZoxapov. to rattle or shake to and fro. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. and E. bowl . aspersion. plod. clausum. tramp in wet or mire. . loose mud. beklakken. . loppe. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. a clod. from Du. lag. lopin. To Clog. claudo. kleck or lack. to rattle. enOE. Close. . close. in accordance with Pl. paddle.. Pr. a lump from Du. . -clusum. a clog. be&c. klotzschuh. a trowelful of mortar. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. hanging loose and full. to cling locks. clorre. zocco. slop. a portion of something soft and adhesive. It. loppered (of milk). terminate. . or Sc. clog or overshoe. Cloister. to bedaub. kloden. Pl. motte. . mud. lump of butter. shut up. Du. foreclose. a field inclosed clos. daggerey. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. claggy. dangle. a Christmas log. slob. dag. we pass to Schlatter. analogous plan to clod or club. without. klos-bane. Fr. neither spot nor hang loose. spot of dirt. in accordance with It. AS. clogs. Idppern. a bal!. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. clatk. daustrum. In the same way Dan. lobbig.. miry laggerit. log. rattle. lobberen. klag. a monastery. I clodde. to dash like heavy rain. Du. compared with clump. schlattern. . kloteispaen. wabbling from Du. -cludo. klakken. to wabble. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. lob. Pr. clotted locks Dan. slabberen. kloten. klottern. Fr. Bav. The game called ninepins. slobbe. thick sour milk. a dirty wench claggy. spatter. we pass to E. boil. to bodies.D. .

strike. ON. and tapp. So Fr. klubbe. a clubfoot klabb. a nail. klonte. to cloy. a sky Cot. G. klumpfot. In the same way E. w. Then applied to a lump of mate. little nails. knob. the air. nagelein. klobbersaen. warm.). a ball of twine . kluV. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol.). kUid. clammy earth. . lie clyd. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). clumhar.158 . clunch. cob. clot. a bobbin. clot . a ball. nourish . kloete. to strike. clods. wisp. klcBdi.). clod is used in both senses . from OFr. also homo obtusus. dial. From dog. a curdled sky. — . klump. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. nelke (dim. AS. loggish. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. dob. rustic. . sheltered . (kruyd =. dump. clump of a clout on the head. klotsen. to cleave. a clod. clou de girofle. Clover. a log. bunch. a bunch. diboter. a patch. and of a rustic unpolished person. a clot or keeps one warm. choke or stop up. klubba. tuft. a blabber. klove. coarse. clydion. ser. . a sticky. shel- kloen. dillad bumkin. G. milk run to lumps. to a lump. klu77ip. in the same sense.ft. to tramp in the kluyve. dys. clod. To Cloy. a boss. kloven. klubb. dial. a bousche. klotzig. dabosser. to cover Bret. Imitative of the note of a society. Mabousfrom Lat. klumba. a bunch. mass.clod. Sp. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. sheltered up warm. davus. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. klever. The priClout. Du. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. del mattond. aglio. I. klebek. to lump mend clumsily. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. kldverj P1. clot. dial. chiodo di girofano. clyd. Rouchi dapoter. piece Cot. lump. — — — . mud (Pat. probably from daboter. cludadh. a . log. the terms expresssplit. when something has got into the touch-hole. are also used in the sense of a stopper. botch. a clove of garlick. from kloven. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. formed lump or thick mass.' Sanders. caillebottes. cobble. to cleave or the splashing of water. It. and -the word Clove. a. warm. sticky. A division of a root of garlick. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. G. kluppe. puddle. een klaven kruflook. dote. . The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. To Cluck. cludaim. Clown. . cluster. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. Clumpered in balls of clouds. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Du. eene ODu. to splash. More in R. of a lump of earth and that figure. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. mire. from Du. E.). Cld. dabaire. a log. E. Du. klubb. a breach. Du. lumps of curd. klaven. clothes). vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. klunds. dash (Cot. Sw. zolla. a garthas. Pl. knob. Move. dirt. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. to strike . but confounded with cailler. clunch. a clown. are often connected. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. to stop. klotz. unpolished. duthaich. clobyn. to beFr. Sw. eine to slop. Ir. from W. a nail) Fr. of nagel. Fr. AS. botsen. a cover or coverture . This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. a thick mass. of sloppy materials. group of people Sw. dut. as Fr. a clod or clot. ball of thread Russ. Cloud. The significations of a clod or lump. with lout. zolla dell' . make warm. Clump. and clay. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. de Champ. tered . ON. . Das volk hat sich in splitten. clothes ment. of ordnance is said to be cloyed.D. klieven. to curdle. cluth mhor. lump of earth aria. stock. a lump. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for .D. A kind of spice resembling Du. CLOUD an awkward clod . Gael. to cherish. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves.Fris. warm place . blockish. warm clothes {dillad. Gael. clotted milk or cream. Properly that which covers and Du. a bunch. and closely do conspire. Kiittner. and clout d eudaich. cloud Delfortrie. a fissure. Club. a knot of people. daggy. Du.D. E. clog. G. clump. clue.bar. matte. Met. esdaboter (Roquef. The radical sense seems to be an unE. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. spice) G. block. clavo di especias. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. motte. CLUCK rustic. w. Dan. a lump. lump. of thumping clumsy action. lunch). mary sense is a blow. indispalte knoblauch. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . klqb. a ball. N. naegel. kl'dnne. hebes (Kil. lump. a ball. cobio. boucher. 2. clothe. Du.

klonte. a lump or compact mass. to stick together . a clot klissen. Fr. wooden shoes. . From the notion of sticking together. may recline. hooknosed. klobber in klobbersaen. clausum. Sc. A group. Variation of clatter. through the senses of lumpish. klisse. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. 130. klummerhdndt. a clod or lump. * Clumsy. an instrument for nasal form e. klette. a couch. to wash. idle. clook. to tramp. Sw. log. E. — sen. fingers (familiar). Cluster. klummklummshandt. inclusive. beklummen.E. Teulazy. thick and clumsy.P. MHG. to curdle. —More. paste. Hesse. ball of snow on horse's foot . a lump. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl.D. Pl. * Clump. lavesen. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. In the same way Du. clutch. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes.' Wycliff. duke.D. to collect in lumps. unfashioned. wooden sole. OHG. to pinch. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. —To Clumsyd. -cludo. splash. to shut. a clove Sw. clip or pinch.e. kol. a nasalised form of club. conclusion.' Comfort ye dumsid. Pm. koetsDa. coucher became in unhandy. to tramp. a ball . -clusum. lump of soft mate. klikaty. klomje. Compare Swiss klupe. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. dumpers. with a quick. klumpig. might be reached from clump. in comp. doquear. strum on an instrument. Du. acomelydfor could Pr.— — . as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. Lincolns. smart motion. unhandy. crooked inwards . to tramp or tread heavily. eene beklum. . glousser. a ball. Hence snatching. and klonteren. ill-made . as Fr. whence koetse. a clod clunter. enervatus. eviratus. eviratus. hand to cleuk. ment. clumsy. -CLUDE hen Du. limp. Champ. klonte. koetblockish. to klotz. obstructum. carriage in which you klodset. — Cot. a block. Muster. dumps. tight — — . Du. Sp. But clunchy. to rinse. klunsen. Beklummen van kelde. koetsen. also a cluster. Isaiah.D. clopiner. G. Clutter. Lat. pladdern. to wash. Analogous forms with a tongs. with E. claws. klump. and make ye strong feeble knees. in v. — Hence include. cleche. clutch. calling her chickens. glocire. close. viscous material. dial. dystere. klods. to to snatch. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. cleuk. It. of garlick.D.forklomme (Outzen). havi. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. pinched. to curdle. having the Pl. and klotteren. klcise. ether comelia P. kichlemmit. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. a pinching time. -elude. to paddle or dabble. klikonosy. a noise. clabosser. to gingle. Boh. as clumper. Com. klampa. Coal. beklommen.Ancr. hondis. Clump. dial. awkward. a coach. bunch. The Fr. klister. cluster. from klupen. cluntClyster. Gr. ' . finish. differing only in the absence of the duik. Graff in Klamjan. Coach. klamp. Fr.mene tied. Sw. Pl.D. as from seken. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. See reclusion. Du. Hence cleik. ' Clumper. klont. a litter. See -elude. 159 E. from ON. klunt. to curdle. E. Du. klocken. unhandy. to syllable click. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. dussomed (Wilbrabam). a clod or lump. cleik. kluntfrom KKvKdi. klemma. cliboter. lay hold of. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. G. &c. verklomen. plad or plod. dek.