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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. name of the cow. Molli. is given to a cow or calf. when neither name for the object to be designated. come Moolls. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. but nothing she herself knows the animals. in language of the present day. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. mind of the of the animal. with an initial m or I. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. in other words. the closer we shall approach to the . and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. and. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. and mully or mully cow is the . and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. muK) and mae (rfie. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. when we is represent to our children of the cow.NURSERY IMITATIONS. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. or. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. The syllables moo (mu. persons of different tongues at the present day. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. the baaing of the sheep. and where we are seeking. or Mollein. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. by whom the be understood. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). to the syllables which are significant to the child. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. the present day. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures.

by the natural humming sound. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal.' he says. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute..' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. when hungry. for things. Gr. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. 72).' In ordinary speech mump. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. family. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. to For instance. p. fiafifi&v (Hesych. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. We have. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. his nurse adopting the word with him. hm. for everything fit to eat. Gradually. On one occasion he said^e nim. to work over with the mouth. A member of my own new sfop.). he called to to drink. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. for bad. First. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. schipp. became more perfect. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. nineteen years old. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. and some were very clear and distinct. &c. repulsive to eat. then. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. and nim came to signify everything edible. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. partly from sounds which the child caught. analogous to Magyar mammogni. as well as the mind of the utterer. Heinicke. had nim. and which we might express thus. in children's language. to eat. He would now say good. . and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. . as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. Finally an n was placed before it. I had watched the growth of this word. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. mumm. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. nim. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself.

(in chil- dren's language). nobis vix permittitur. and the fizzing (and Series. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. namnam. to eat mampfen. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. to eat. to fill the mouth. as to . buckra man's language the white man. at hiamske i sig. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. to taste . jammla. to smack in eat. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. stolen. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. make djamdjam).' says Quintilian. voracious.' And Diomedes. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. palatable. A negro proOr. 130-1. i8o.' says the author of Modern Slang. aptantes adfectibus vocem. aves tinnire. to Sw. Galla djam djeda. taken up hastily on the sly. and the crab — p. Swedish dialect gamsa. and thence to be tasteful. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. clangorqae tubarum. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. as well as the Sw. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). and some of them . to take. greedy . snatched (Whitby Gl.' — Lersch. . jamsa (yamsa). fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. yamming. to move the lips in continued chewing. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Africa) nimi. the Scotch poet. agreeing with Ein. crab nam buckra man.). lita. or word-making. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . Soosoo (W. mumble. tidbits nama . i. food (Tylor. ' Motherwell. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. Wolof nahenahe. savory. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). Africa) nimnim. 1 86). p. mumpfen. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. j ing . we can call them so. eating. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. memmexen. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. delicacies. jumla. oves lalare. nyam nyam. ' id est. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. sweet (Koelle). mumpfeln. Nimm'd up. iii. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . nam. to be pleamind . South Jutland hiamsk. Gothic niman. to mump. mujnpa.minis. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. dial. to chew laboriously. on. nvrnma. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. Primitive Culture. ut tinnitus aeris.ONOMATOPCEIA. Vei (W.

before the in other words. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. hooting of owls. bleating of sheep. 'I doubt. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. when circumstances required. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. for the purpose of bringing the animal.' And elsevs^here (p. dove and cooing. p. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. Yet we ing. yelping. purring or mewing of cats. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. neighing or whinnying of horses.' he says. whether it deserves the name of language. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. 89) with less hesitation. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. croaking of frogs or ravens. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. cooing or crooing of doves. ^6^.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals.' — We speak of a cow. howling. Indeed. might be used. chattering of pies or monkeys. or. und growling. between dog and harking. chirping of sparrows or crickets. barking. snarling. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. not of a baa. intended in the instance to represent the cry. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. a lamb. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. baaing or maeing of lambs. gobbling of a turkey-cock. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. yelping. bellowing of bulls. grunting or squealing of hogs. sparrow and chirping. might be used as the designation of it. do not speak of a bowwow. lowing of oxen. not of a moo of Lect.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. cackling or gaggling of geese. or thoughts of our hearer. anything connected with it. bumping of bitterns. that there is When Man. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. We . snarling of dogs. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. twittering of swallows. but of a dog.

so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. sound). and Bavaria respectively. kae. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. crow. Malay gdgak. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. a daw. Bav. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. it announces (Salaberry). 380. kdka. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. or quawk. He to is therefore derives kdka. crow. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. a bird that is be driven away. We imitate the sound with a modulated.). coccolare. Columbia kahkah. is kuM) for the cuckoo. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. Barabra koka. caw kuhii-rava (rava. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. Sometimes the hoarse i . gackem. Hungary. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock.).' kd). a crow (Pictet). is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. Aoo-Aoo. In Basque. in is Gr. lion. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). Sauscr. birds. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Manchu The kaha. 'Kdka. a a crier (p. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. Georgian quaki. caller. and means a shouter. ist ed. a crow. KOKKvi. Origines Indo-Europeennes). kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. whose sound (Pictet. and gaggele or gagkelein. 4th ed. fi-om apakd- i. in g.' common sense. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. e. and the sound of that direction. Arabic kdk. layitavya .IMITATIVE NAMES. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. according to Durga). this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. Kdrava. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. having a general predicative power. 349.. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. Picard cau. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. ghak. In Lat. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. kuho. kauwe.

kraukti. wood-pigeon. and e. are represented. Mod. Magy. Du. German luhu. tbrtora. So we have Polish krukac. or Gr. to crow. hibou. to hoot. 6. German and Eng- krahen.. Yoruba koklo. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. coucouva. gugu. girre. Swedish kowipa. synonymous forms of similar structure).xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. in the North of England. to howl or Lat. Pers. tuquheit. Zulu kuku. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Heb. Da. coqueri- Languedoc. lulo. name. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Scotch peeweip. kukko. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. while crouk.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Dutch kievit. The consonants p. to croak. reduplicate form. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. kukhuta. German kielitz. uhu. korren. Albacuculi a dove. 219. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. krauklys. the name of an animal will gen- . lUyrian kukurekati. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. libufs. kraeye. name of its is the bird. a crow. tor. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. lilits. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. kuku. Sp. Lettish kiekuts. koeren. teewhoop. Arabic tdtwit. xi. another. the name for a crow. p. to cry loudly. yell. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. ghughu. It. tbrtola. Ibo akoka. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. coccovaec. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g.Gr. and e. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. to crow. Hindi. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove .' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. by the verbs gurren or girren. a crow lish Lith. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. kirren. a crow . with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. kruk. tur. Fr. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. The crowing of cot in Fr. kraeyen. turtle) as the Lat. French dishuit. Esthonian kikkas. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. to croak. t. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. gufo. k. great variety of oKokv^uv. cock. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. "Welsh hwan from hwa. krahe. Du.. Malay kukuk. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. as well as of Sanscr. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. tortbla. and sometimes both together. Walachian coucouveike. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. either in the same or in related dialects. giving turtur (and thence It. kurre.

skryle. North of England. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. from the humming. in allusion to its music. grille. to be compared with Sanscr. ' — Pictet .' — i. The drone peal. zirken. buzzing. a hornet. — Catafogo. there are infinite varieties. Naturalist on the tocano. Danish gnaddre.' —Tennyson. resounding of musical instruments. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. to grumble. kong-kong. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. as . which they make in their flight very . sound. growling. ajo. the drone or non-working bee . Sanscr. The Welsh chwyrnu. representing a short sharp sound. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. of England it is to the b 2 . Sc. skirl. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. German dronen. and yelping cry. Corean sirsor. with or Fr. PofijivXwg. In the N. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. shrill. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. Albanian tsentsir. The name of the cricket indeed. knetta. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. 337. words imitative of humming . Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. and he kong-ko-rong. to hum. g. Arabic tantanat. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. dhran. schrickel. oE. whirr). a sharp sound as of a 6. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. booming. Lat.' Amazons. hollow noise. loud rumour. (Jieuschrecke) . The Arabic sarsor. a fly (Tylor) . bee. din. cricket is from crick. gives rise to chwymores. little intermission. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. or a gnat fly.vf3. horniss and from the buzzing The. German hummel. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. bambhara. e. Northern Farmer. German drohne. from schrick. common. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. a beetle druna. i. thunder. to chirp . resound. and probably indicates that g. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. ta-na-nd.or bumble-bee.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. to shrill sound sharp. 'The natives call it tanand. schirke. Danish dron. grillen.IMITATIVE NAMES. succeeding each other — with noise. skril with n. humming. schwirren. and not from E. a small as hawk is . swirplys with 6. schrecke. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). to chirp J may be compared with . of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. glass cracking (Schmeller). grylhis. Gaelic dranndan. sirkka. the humble.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. pip-pi-ta. Lith. droning is . Speaking of a cricket he says. a drone. a bee. flight its sting considered as a horn. to creak Bret. chirk. Fin. buzzing. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. Australian bumberoo. We may cite Gr. to sound. ' Sanscr. to rustle. give a faint sound. g. Lithuanian tranas. g. bamba.

to weep. Manx booa. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. bos. a bull. With these analogies. a drum . agreeing exactly with Lith. to or bark. bu. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. and thence Lat. to make. Thus from miau. representing the mew of a cat. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. amuse. From baa. Fr. Norse bu. and djeda. to beat hard. Hottentot bou (Dapper). k or g. Gael. fivKaofiai. are (with a subsidiary k). In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. baula. Illyr. to ba-L-are. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. a heifer. to boohoo. His analysis leads cow. It. in same way. Lat. bukati. Lat. or formed Lat. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. bugle. to sound. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. grumble as distant thunder . to shout. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. buculus. to bow- own bawl. a Geiger. bue. bullock. be-l-er.XX called booing. bauli. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). the Fr. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. or with on. to bump as a bittern Illyr. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. ox. Fr. to shout. has bilbilgoda. mae. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. lulauti (to hoo-loo). On the same principle. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. miau-l-er. forms a. (iove. btibleti. p. w. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. cattle. or bau-l-i. — ^Tylor. a bullock. Cult. to mew. to from bau. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. The Galla lilbil. bolt. mugire. bo. to . boo. the animal. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. bubati. to the uses goda. whence baula. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. w. bae. make poo. to low. loge. from the imitative moo instead of boo. say. and from to ring. OFr. The Piedm. a buffalo. bullus and e. to make. verb is evidently identical with our shout. is inadmissible. Zulu lulula. maukati. in a imitation of a ringing sound. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. as that of the cow by boo. shoot . Lat. make to it laugh. bae. 167. to low or bellow. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. a cow. to make a loud deep sound. muJiati. Piedmontese fi bau. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. to make a noise. as the Illyr. bovis. bugler. biibnas. bucula. From the same lioao). or a z to the imitative syllable. bwla. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. Da. representmake bow. or moo. verbal form given to the say. bubenti. mamoo-heeheek. and in Hottentot baa was the . to bellow like a bull. that the imitative syllable are Lith. bull. mugler. Galla boa. to low .

rumbling. 6. a sheep. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter.). nire. meugler. . hund.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. grumble. lecco. grumbhng. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. houch. a goat firixal^ta. smack and naski. From the imitative mae. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. he would hardly. hunt (gen. and grumphie. mutter. grunt. Welsh and Breton). knurfisk. a pig Fin. Fr. sound. as lou of an ox. from hundama. It. to howl. — . hunon. (iriKov of forms like Sw. oe. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. It is probable also that e. Illyr. and with the subsidiary k or g. to grunt. lekavica. mekegni. leg-et-ni. as the proper name of a tame sheep. and snorke. Illyr. Magy. to bleat. to growl. we have Sanscr. kurre. Hence Breton hoc ha. a sow. grunlike a pig in eating. kurren. With gen. groin. to grunt. this obstinate race. grumble. Gael. ^. Among dog. undoubtedly imitative. with the root ypaipm. signifying a snarling. curmurring. a wolf. a. for the voice of the ox). a pig. The g. . hwch. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. Kurren und murren. or in any ! way ! persuading. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. the designations of a dog the term cur. to bleat . Africa laa. sus-sus. to bleat. leknuti. a sheep or a goat. although the imitation embodied in Lat. a hog. cry). name of the animal itself. G. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. / The same Gr. purr). cite as by grunt. by which the shingle gives rise to It. lambs. and hoc'h. from knurre. in v. hadg- Magy. grunny. ' In driving. a goat. does not produce a e. a sow. a sheep or ewe. sheep or goat. And it is true there between hog and grunt. and of (maelon). menAda (ndda. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. to rumble. to themselves. it and e. grumpf. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. meigeal. a sheep (Lowe). Moreover. naskia. corresponding to ohg. name. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. goats. Gr. grogner. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc.' Moor's Suffolk words. may with to snarl. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. Gr. /xijeao/iat. Illyr. name of a sheep. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Gr. the snout of a pig. hundi). growl. Fr. /xj/caScj. hound. a dog. a grunt. and thence groin. in Wolof bae. meckern. Manx meilee. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. a goat. mecati. meketati. meil. Idgge (Rietz). showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. grugno. karra. a (Hesych. lek-eg-ni. guttural tone. Da. and Circassian maylley. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. may be identical with Esthon. .

a mare. If onomatopoeias can . . to go backwards. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. houpy in Craven. turn a horse to the is In Finland. hiine. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil).). hobby.' — ist Series. Thus we are led to the Fr. of the character in question. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. p. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee.root. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. to the left.. (Craven Gloss. g. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. . coquelicot. Esthonian hoibo. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino.. e. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. p. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall.' ticular bird. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. ^6<. cockade.' 2nd Series. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. Sc. But words of this kind are. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. hobben. hoppe. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe.). hottihuh. There are of course some names. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. like artificial flowers. 91. So Sanscr. when he found peculiarity. to whine. without a — we root. a horse. animal. from the cry animal. such as cuckoo. M). as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. as in Yorkshire highly right. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. a little am- bling horse. hobin. humma. the cry to stop or back a horse. coquette. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot.

g. lapwing. little speak for themselves. woodpecker. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. as sigh. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. titter. Sw. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. moan.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. frenschen. nitrire. command of language was attained. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. redpole. groan. Lettish sweegt. hross.D. ance or habits of the animal. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . wrenska. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. than to the sounds represented. sol. to neigh. fehtati. Sanscr. goatsucker. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. creeper. hresh. form corresponding hresh. cough. hennir. nounced with a guttural). giggle. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. hikkd. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. xxiii ginal object. wagtail. whitename in in- throat. swift. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. but whether there kind between them and other words. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. wiehern. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. Pl. runniken. Fr. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. wrena. Du. hukkup. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. ginniken. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. to Sanscr. animals or certain kinds of sound. Bohem. hresh. diver. signified It. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. rinchar. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. . The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. e. Irieschen. Sp. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. horse.

I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . for the sound of milking.' it both sides went. hoo ping ping. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . hoo. &c. banga. snort. to beat. Wtb. an attempt would be made to by the voice. ding. beat of a clock child . ping came the bullets about their ears. tlirob. for in such sound of blows. Zulu bongo. to drive on. plitsch-platsch. Mei gbengben. scream. the God of thunder . heart tick-tack. a large bell. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. tisio (tisho).xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. on the chops is represented also by pratx. dong Read. atchian. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. or tliat is accomit. knack. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. klatsch. bangas.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. went the cannon. mer. debhes-lungotais (deifies. . bang ' ! trenches. root kshu.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. snukkup). pit-a-pat. White Lies. bang. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo.' 'Haw. — Sanders. to hammer .' So imac. pump. heaven). beat. —Brem. haw. atchini. hang. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. to sneeze. Of a like forma- drum . the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. 1865. for blows with a rod. Da. strippstrapp-stroll. shriek. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . to knock. or the w. Vei gbangba. to throw violently down. oren : Klapp. aritischane. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for the for the sound of . DingBang. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. the dashing of the sea .' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. in a nail Let. wheeze. knarr. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. for the sound of a fall. snore. thunder (Tylor) . for a small one. banke. It is represented in e. for that of breaking. are familiar in ' to every one. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. a more expressive than the e. Australian bungbung ween. a kind of drum. to ham. clap ! A smack Puff. for the creaking of a wheel. ting-ting. for the sound of a blow. fitsche-falsche.' ! ! ! ! — dong. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. haitshu. &c. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. lumm.

Mantuan pipiare. to cry like imrli^u). pu. and their relations. which he added to intensify the expression.) a chick. and whimper. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. pipe. not- . had been used laugh ? two. bleat. mobility excavation and hollow ^. pippione. used as a call to . is pfeife. In cases such as these. a chicken or gosling. pipare. and so forth. piou. pigione. a (young) pigeon. It seems to him that the teeth t. piou. to squeak. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. pipelni.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. pule. Magyar pip. Florio. far pipi. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. Lat. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. the voice of chickens (Cot. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. De Brosses. pi. of a word will appear supposed to represent. a whelp. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. a fowler's bird call is lost. has been un- employed to designate fixity. e. ducing the sound. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. to designate cavity and hollow. piccione. chickens (Tylor). pipe.' instead. calls S. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. young bird. —Lyndsay. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. Lat. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. or the uneducated different consonants are man. pipio. The pi. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. young child . child. to peep It. peep. as the simplest implement for proFr. cry of young birds . . as k. peep. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. pigiolare. pipio. a fife or musical pipe. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. scream. Gr. piauler. — .sc. part of the What consciousness has the child. G. pipilo. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. pipegni. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. pigolare. to cheep like a bird or a young It. laugh. He Yet asks. or a piailler. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. is of expression. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. cry. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. to cry pi. as in other subjects of study. a or cheep. doubtless. Fr.

thunder oil . kuruk. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. make wood a clinking noise. murmur (by . In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to clack. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. to grate the teeth . to rattle. kniks. laqfF. tontonare. or kaka-faka. girren. knurren. to ring pipio. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. knaks. to hawhaw or laugh loud. tintino. a closed or obscure sound. along with tinnio. murren. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. along with Du. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. a short sharp sound. be cate to go on laughing loud . the clucking of a j hen . loud laughter. a. to be compared with Sc. Hindoo tomtom. to cry pi. the side of g. . to gurgle. as the click of a latch or a trigger. borrelen. grumble. and lugh. . Zulu raraza. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. gurren. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. rumble (Fl. to pant bejii- zela. Poppopvi^to. karkarana. to grumble). brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . when it force than biscuit. to jar.) Mod. Pacific aka-aka.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. crash. &c. lachen. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. like the noise of a glass breaking . knuks. turtur. coo. Hindustani karak is rendered. i. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . chack. preserved by Kilian. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). rumble. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. Manchu kaka-kiki. some small vowel or consonantal sound. cricli. a sharp short one. where the variation. Pefuxela.Gr. {to It. to gorgogHare rattle. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. to fizz like fat in frying.. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. It. vaake gorgor) . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. of something fine and thin. to creak knirren. ioriogliare (to make borbor). The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. is very common. to growl. to thunder. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to grumble. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. a prolonged sharp sound. bubble. to cluck. u. to bubble. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . garren. sound). to crackle like in boiling . tonare.. to pant violently (Colenso). of a loud strong sound. as representing the sound made when something breaks. or springing back. pi . crack. to laugh. to gargle . kirkirdnd. a drum W. creak. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. cluck. sound of dry breaking. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. rumble. kniks. Indian chack-chack. lachachen. in German.

is Manchu tang-tang. champ. coughing or clearing the throat. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. Tiie Galla gigiteka. corresponding in e. csam-csogni. Calt. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. compared with Gr. for the ringing of illustrate bells. disturbance (F. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Fr. and Gr. croaking of frogs. a drum . indicating the origin of Gr. koXiw. chinking of coin. the sound of a stringed instrument. are applied to the is excrements of children. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. halaidlac'h. sound). bulbiil. kl'mg-kling. or to Du. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. tup. to ring or jingle. Magyar csamm-ogni. a workman. awater* ' The Mme P. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. a nightingale. while cacd / used in e. at an accelerated note. rvir (in tvittio. KaKog. Sanscr. tumult. sound.' Member for Paris. fumtu. correspond to e. is based on the same imitation as the e. rain (Tylor. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. for chut-chiit-er. as of Tamil muromurmur. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. 368). tubh. word. wail. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). 1871. klirren. box on the ear imitation of the . or the bubbling up of to a spring. E. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . agrees with g. The whispering of the wind I. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. chut. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. shout. make djamdjam). to say chut. especially one who beats. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. simmer. to giggle. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. noise. . to be compared with g. muro and e. clank.and e. and bilhila. djeda (to say tub). call. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. caca and Finnish adkkd. uproar. Turk. brings us to Fr. Newman). Manchu kaka. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. of keys or tinkling of bells. a boy's whistle. . to knock. Galla tuma. and Gr. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. drops of i. a nightingale. 192). borrelen. as Fr. the gingling of glasses. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. clink. spring of water in the a bell. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. for a tTviror). jingle. cry. clango. to the purling of a brook. hala-hald-faMa (falda. Prim. a smith.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. and her heart went thump. kiling-kalang. to whisper. the tingling Ming-Hang. and the imitative nature of tivgle. bubble up. identical with g. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. Maori pata. chuchoter. or of bells ringing. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. bad. tumwata. and e. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. Scotch sough or sooch. jangle. The syllables lil-bil. to strike. for the clinking Lat. quarren. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. for the sound of privy whispering. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. ding-dong. thump. e. bent her head. clash of arms. rifiirayov. to beat.* the heart. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling.

gargle. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS.. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. bubble. But although and also found in Lat. ring. flop. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. disturbance. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. souse. to fall. a applied as well to the force of the bang. clack. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. flap. Nevertheless. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. squeal. snap. answering to g. whine. ' Der puff. boom. while e. to is blow. So in Fr. hum. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. Humboldt. 'pat. jingle. clank. slash. hiss. blow. tingle. bang. din. blubber. lash. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. and soufflet.' — Nohden. pop. clash. whizz. dabble. guggle. in e. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. brumberum. chink. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. by rubadub. patter. for (Sanders). } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. to dance.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. squeak. smash. according to the strictest phonetic rules. crack. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. paddle. rumble. thwack. dash. thump. whack. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . rattle. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. The beating of drum is represented in e. or v^hether jectional. thump. swash. clap. and Grimm. w. douse. tap. splutter. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. tum-ultus. and Fr. it is fallj AS. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. fizz. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. clatter. Fr. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. sputter. tomber. tumbian (to beat the ground). crunch. The use of g. thump. and the French pouf. It. clink. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. report of a gun. rap. craunch. smack. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. parapatapan. squall. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. tinkle. rataplan or rantanplan. at a door tarapatan. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. mutter. splash. chatter. without the intervention of orthodox roots. twang. clang. tymmesll. whirr. puff. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. creak. crash. the Germans puff. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. we have buffet or cuff. gurgle. murmur. plump. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin.

every little pain. xxix on the contrary. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. because they are spontaneous. and uttering plaintive sounds. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. the inteij. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. in the rushing waters. formerly cited. by the nature of the cry. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. or stubble is meaner name. but if we must not complain on the beach. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. little who has time to want of her nurseling. or any unsatisfied want. ugh . that he has taken the step in rational speech. an imitation of a sigh . Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. wringing the hands. are made known by an instinctive cry. and found in the building of be burnt up. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. stractions. the interj. grief. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. is Thus ah!. At the first beginning of life. in the case of the animal or of the infant. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. the kind of action that is desired of them. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. or of any if wood. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. knows them. Grimm or Bopp. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . Henceforth rational beings may produce them. without a thought of symbolising to them. and thus they become signs of despair. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. Crying. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. 94. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. of horror.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct.' . p. attention of the simply to the mother or the master.' If chaos. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. If.'. hay. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain.

or which is of me as suffering pain. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. to solve the I shall call first. as who them spontaneous utterances. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. coughing. 32. p. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. and the eye. he cites from Home Tooke. of all the mouth.' p. them to exercise it. may become traditional. be more powerful. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. the lowing of a cow. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. and some of them the composition of words. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. If I wish to make a person of an . the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. which are frequently so toned down cance. One short interjec- tion may fact. 344. And again. ^6g And to the same effect 371. groaning. should be remem- . it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . interjections. Language begins where interjections end. more to the point. they are involuntary interjections. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. p. sneezing.' — ist Series. more eloquent than a long speech. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. shrieking. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. He says..

over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. interjections. for example. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. cachinno. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. in Fin. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. some kind of language might have been formed. loud laughter. I am not hearer. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. speaking. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. in Magy. hahota. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. and others from interjections. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. then speech begins. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. and thus. kahkahah. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. Koxafw. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. hahottaa. and more or less limited . demolishing here. Tooke in truth. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. he says. Kayxa^u). when I arp humming and hawing. but the less am at a loss what to say. bered. it them. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. Lat. hohottaa. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Gr.

have understand them studying as claim to consideration. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. a deaf-mute himself. of the nature of this great movement. makes them stand and walk upon the table. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. words receiving the meanings they now bear. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. a Picture-language. The following account is given by Kruse. of the world. if taken as a whole. It as has ing their most striking features. and not. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. the critical question should be. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. Though. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. But here nature soon conies to his help. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. like peewit and cuckoo. . and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything.' he says. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. and go where we now say stand. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. dumb is the language of signs. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. What strikes him . signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. And so in the case of language.

and we have roast goose. most striking outline of an object. he. for child. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. to name. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. such as than the educated man. and with his thought. The same sign stands and the act itself. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. his action. The of sign for left hand. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. walkest. nay. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. or To pull and flap with the arms. and to taste. that air. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. what more. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. it means little. signs are taught for yet. walker. many when or but these. among themselves. or the verb to be. for walk. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers.GESTURE most.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. that. xxxiii him between one thing and another. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. thou. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. for the agent. becomes roast meat. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case.' In the Institutions. called Gesture-language. and it is flesh or meat. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. walked. and And thus he makes himself a language. it seems. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. push it towards the person addressed for thou. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. that signifies great . the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. he. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. particular sense in properly so called. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. but if I depress it instead. the sorecalling them to his memory. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. can do better and more easily abstract terms. And is. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. the whole secret. the lan- guage cultivates itself. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. and fully serves to j . and gestures. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. like a V. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and forms further and further. as it now opens out. for single objects. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. such objects. thought is already broken. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say.

whether by additions or otherwise. . substantive or adjective. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. to indicate the action of a certain person. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. when I say. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent.' dener's knife. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. You beaten . bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. qualifies the against the wall. it called an interjection. would be simply beginning of speech. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. according to the circumstances of the case. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. or something of the kind. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. as But when it is meant door. When a verb. or a passive scene of existence. or an act. When I say. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. or action. depend entirely upon the use. and thus performs the part of an adjective. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. in other instances sentence. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. He gave door a bang. in fact. as when Bang ! went the gun. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. and the as. a number of alternatives are suggested. and so is an adverb. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but.xxxiv asking. might be the knife. Do not bang the it is a verb. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. I say. Who is has beaten you ? would be. a colour red. or a quality. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. as in die it is a noun. The same word . or sometimes interjection or adverb also. putting it into his pocket. the ture of white term pink is and red. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. the garden.

pain. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. with a stick. Thus tafu signifies a great man. inside. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. in the is indicated by the syllable y. wherefore. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. wonder. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. and may be used language. but often self-evident. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. which is an old y ting (use stick). as cung. or some relation between it and another object. commencement of speech. &c. wherewith. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. that is. the man is great. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. coalesces with the personal pronouns. middle. as kuo cung. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer.. that admits itself in of audible representation. in the sense of great. grie^ horror. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. verb nor noun has yet been developed. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. greatness. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. a sigh of oppression and . Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. a noun. some outward display of the affection. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. or with elements expressing relations of time. whereof. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. and to be great. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. Latin. wherehy. whereto. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. contempt. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. inquiry. . and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . signifying an attribute of this person or of that. 255. Jii ta. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. or nei. a groan.^ — Miiller I. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action.

6. Bret. och. to make). wai-l. to chirp. e. the pangs of childbirth. at the close of the radical syllable. . to wail. ach. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. jao. weh schreien. gwae. representing a cry of pain. e. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. form. pain. ah. grief] affliction. ahi. w. ah. to do woe. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. to make bow-wow. to bewail oneself. ocAJ. to lament. found in g. to ache. lau-l-e. lament from oimi. as. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. It. axofiai. Let. Thus from springs otjucifw.ez. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). mostly a ! %. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. to weep. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. die wehen. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. vce. woe. ui. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. guaj-ire. Gr. woe. miau-l-is. waiidt. &. Such are g. ing action I. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. oimare. w^wa. to weep. ach. 6. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. is w. to wail or cry alas . and to bark . wehen (Schmeller). plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. I oi[iot. is Ay di me I Gr. . to yell formed e. grief. miau-l-er. guaj- or cry out pitifully. cece. dchzen. pain. Illyrian vaj. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. suffering. oi. ochain. It. to hurt Let. Lat. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. has more kopfweh. achen. to groan. lament. to lament. . to gargle. Jar lau-lau. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. miau-n-is. och. aiai^to. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. to cry n. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. to ache. Lat. mew. a groan or lamentation vir. ochan. ochan. Illyr. gwae. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. ache. . to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. g. vce. ohi. on. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . to rriourn. pain. as. in Gr. headache. to injure. al. guai. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. wd. are ol-ire. vaj. The form corresponding to Lat. to . and cacak djeda (to say crack. weh. weinen. o'i. It. j. probably a deeper groan. e. la. seen in Gr. xxxvi grief. oval. ohg. wai.. oh. w. misfortune. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. representing Illyr. Gr. Gael. vei-a. tirr-djeda. Gr. wehthun. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. oh. och. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ai. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. n. to cause pain. to sound yapyap. ace. jaoh. to cry at. ach. first person. grief. A widespread It. misery. or r. It. ! ! Goth. wAwa. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. . gwe-l-a. wai. In this way from the root guai. g. hei. however. on. Fr. howl.'). guajo. djamdjam goda (goda.-l-are. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

' all is is — their consent. da. is we I believe. Diet. Thank you. case. ToSe (or in Attic E. . this here. Sanders (Germ. and may be rendered. thata (ta-ta). that gratifies me. we may translate this by there (it is). in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. Sie. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it).' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. But. the nursery da-da. or that it is. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. Dr Lottner observes. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. or carry me thither. • The child. and by a variety of expressions besides. child. I add) . He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. a specified were by pointing him out. that is it. more emphatically roSj)j that. his trowsers' pocket. or wants to name something. says da-da-da. a word of many applications in g.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. When we pointing. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. saying : there the ad- Trans.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. as it Dieser da (as Lat. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving.' this. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. Phil. nurseries. to here . Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. is-te). but the truth is. implying the direction of its good will towards them. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. Bav. In the expression Da. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. indeed. well as Goth. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. for instance.' person. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. or give me it. when he wants something. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. and so on. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. as. The Fr. give me that cheese. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money.' then points to his wife. as to express. 'nay. give. when 1859. ' sees an object. according to Menage. der da-ige. da. Please. that.

to say to oneself. The da is dodem. to chatter. to beat. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. pay. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. strike. or metaphor. tasting.^ its ' utters : a cry. tattle. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. then instinctively interest. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da.' says Lottner interior. make dadada). to tion to another. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. and shapes it into an . takes it — as When the soul. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. to move step by step. to walk. its desire. childish toying. the original is that which he places first. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. which thus exertion.' says Muller. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. . then we have a pronoun demonstrative. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. of which any one may. to knock. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. stutter. — Cot. sounds. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. standing. sinking. beat. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. and one in particular must. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing.' • liv ANALOGY. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. thinking. p. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. or dalliance. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. meanings. moving. Thus Gr. speech. in every mode of expressing the idea. reality. dadee. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da.

to sniff out. to crackle. prudent. sapere (which signifies the nose. spraka.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to sound clear In Galla. to glisten Dan. is used in the origin. . to shriek with laughter . to shine. ghsten. to ring. to resound. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to glitter e. a dis- cernment. pracht. splendour. scheteren. on. The 6. magnificence. to smack or taste. clang. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. and figuratively. in the domain of movement. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. also wise. signified a clear sound. which in ohg. snutrs. chime). (parallel bilbila. splendour. to sparkle. — 1. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. snudra. scTiateren. savour. knittre. wise. a with kimmaltaa. sprageti. may be quoted gUt. sound. suspect Bav. &c. fiapfiaipw. tinkling. a ringing . think. Lith. smell. rattle. to 5 ghtter. to glitter. to glitter. then to sparkle. to crackle gnistre. beam. schmecken. unlella. for example. Fr. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. to snilF. wilistd. In the same way the Goth. to ring as a glass willata. and schmecker. extended to the exercise of the understanding. snot. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. man of nice taste. while sapere itself. In the case of sparkle. bilbilgoda (to make . make a loud noise. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. Heo Du. knistre. So firom Lat. kiimottaa. . Finnish. outcry. and thence e. to have Sapiens. tintelen. the equivalent of g. may be it explained . discreet. to sniff. snuff the sniiten. 1654. to tinkle. wamara. snotor. to glitter. Du. kimistd. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. judicious. in popular language. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. we have and the and beorht. wilahtaa. air. taste. esclat). and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. a brilliant light kilid. bright. to quiver. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. and. firom the Gael. to flash. beorhtian. sense of brightness. Again. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. as. same imitative root with Sw. Bavarian bracht. tumult. schiteren. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. a rustling sound Gr. search . while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. bilbil). to be wise. brilliancy. noise. smell. It is The word bright had a similar In as. properly a clap or explosion. as kilind. to shine. from the . is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. to . gnittre. iclat (in Old Fr.

from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. extremely loose. Tpa)(yg. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. the bleating of sheep. . in truth. pleasure soft to the ear . smooth. KoWiiSije. in of his works. sharp. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. \nrap6e.' he says. The BpavEiv. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. Kpovtiv. he framed the words ivSov. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. the cross. Much of the same has been often quoted. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. fitting the letters to the sense. crux. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. strike. gluey. flow and flux. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. break. shatter. or . discusses the tone of a picture. soft. we hear of screaming colours. And observing that n kept the voice within. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. itself letters are felt as sofl. oily. rough. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. roughness. tremour. rough to the ear. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. whirl. the neighing of horses. ipuKuv. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. &c. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. v. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. kvTOQ. eo ut res vol. Acre. is felt Lana. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). as soft by the ear. 6\tadaveii'. accordance with the way in which by touch. mel. then in rpd/xoe. briars. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. rend. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. rough. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. inside. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. wool. of dressing loud. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. within. he says. and vepres. 1. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. power of the letter-sounds. rough both ways. to slide. the clank (stridorem) of chains. pvfi^Civ. Kep^arl'ieiv. which The Stoics.

If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. corresponding to the ineor. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. to jogj sac-cade. degree of roughness sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. p. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. and in the utterance of a high or or low. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. 'and consequently form. stag (in stagger. g. sag-oter. k. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. jih. t. ii. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. p. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. dig. jog. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. jag. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. cular effort Again. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. or checks as they are called by Muller. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . A greater felt. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. tug. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. for exis ample. rug. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. 138). dag. to reel abruptly from side to side). a rough and sudden . as when. the case of the voice. joli. shog. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. jig. Fr. to signify varieties of movement. shag. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. d. stab.

Sukkeln. a stroke with a French toucher. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. to incite by light touches. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. chic. tecche-tocche. a small bodily object. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. mica. as Italian tocco. a quid of tobacco. to pulses being knock. Fr. kuk. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. It. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. tech-tech. a playiug-marble. schuckeln. cica. foot. Brescian toch. kik. g.. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. to take a thing on tick. used interjectionally to represent a . or check. zack. The production of sound. toch-toch. for the sound of knocking at a door. tock. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. to say a word . thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. chiquet. a little bit. mik. and analogous movements. chique. The syllable suk is jerk. &c. (mitsati). that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. to utter a slight kick. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. is made to signify movement. is lanese toch. to tickle. that we never can be sure. and It. S-panish miga. mot. The Mipen or pencil. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. to winkj micati is Lat. a jog. a . micare. tack. then. Fr. a cracker. Bolognese tocc. to stir. in cases like the foregoing. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. schockeln. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. a good piece of road . to touch. The analogy then carried a step further. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. it produces Dutch micken. movement. e. Mucken. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. Accordingly the g. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. however. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. a piece or bit of anything. to ring a bell. an old worthless horse or carriage. to have it ticked or marked on the score . lead to Spanish tocar. To tick a thing off.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to beat or play on a musical instrument. like English tick. not to utter a syllable. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. Ene olde suksuk. to On the same principle j we have g. passing to the signification of motion. figuratively. Thus we have B. Welsh cicio. sound Fr. motion. mie. to strike It. also to stir. a crum. zigzag. to move rapidly to and fro. to mutter. Illyrian migati. so to Italian toccare. Then. Dutch kicken. properly a small lump'of .Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. chicoter. then. Hence Lat. sound barely audible. to glitter. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. an infant . and e. to mark it with a touch of the pen . The train of . is so frequent a consequence of movement. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. as tot. rough horse.

to touch lightly with a pen. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. that. tot. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. motta. a whisper. 199). ri that. further off. lix Sp. a small lump or pat. fait. this. often entirely arbitrary.) . Then. the least visible insect. e. and a small lump of something. mutter j dust. here. This kind. . to movement of the pen . of movement in totter. a girl. In a similar the relations of place. zitella. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. a small horse. a bit. But the same is language has re Javan. citto. to whisper (Pr. The following table from Tylor (Prim. mutter. to jog. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. for the beating of a clock. lump of earth. corresponding to the personal pronouns. fragments It. titter. gnu. a tot . there '(at a short distance). you. tottle. Pm. move slightly to . tozzo. a sparrow). a. the same organ touched with the man. a e. or the converse. to touch. i. and out there. taut. Halliwell. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. n. tit. not because the pendulum makes a different left. little. gno. and he. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. mot. zitio. Du. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . ika. titilh. mut. tot. little j to that of a small bodily object. I. and mite. motte. is shown in murmur.- a jot or little It. neither moit nor an atom. gni. totle. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. anything small flax. a small kind of lark. syllable mot. tiny. tot. a morsel girl . tittle. the vowel sound. there (further of!) ao. a morsel. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). mossche. seesaw. not an atom . or o toi. and toddle like a child titter. jot. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. as in e. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. 0. Malagasy to. (Halliwell) Da. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. anything .MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. subdued manner. not to utter a syllable. . e. a bit. and dot. . this . bunch or flock of wool. Cult. to dot. a small quantity. a small bird. to make a slight mark. . chico. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. eo. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. to jot down or note with a fro. a certain conception. a little titty. So. iki. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. ticktack. . . we have e. for the three personal pronouns. small of kind. a light quick blow. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated.n. mote. that iku. here (close hand). to tremble. To jot. small titlark. Fr. there. . titmouse (Du. 48) cites from the African Tumale. tot. or the like its It. clay . . tit. a lad citta. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. to e. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. at where the order is inverted.

that. that (intermediate) j wana. here . ojOo. that. loo). there. and a for the female. Carib ne. usho. this ole. that. The vowels a and o sound of the voice... that. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. thou . there. Japan ko. as Mr Tylor remarks. mother. uta. as in Italian Fin. ta to ka. mother. j Canarese ivanu. ukko. respectively. as the act of pointing was ta. ofj. . he. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. here 5 Yoruba na. ni. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. Mutsun ne. there. Mm. bi. no constant rule is observed. here j abe. Ossetic am. is father.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name.araM. there. km. . probably initial of distinction that the k. Abchasian aSn. that in the distance. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). Tamul i. thou. Chilian tva. tiiio. father k . Sahaptin (America) kina. ne. this . this . olo. child. here this . akha. an old woman chacha. Gr.. an old . w. that. thou ni. /mya. Dhimas isho. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. this <t. here j ka. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. qu. child. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. 6. Then. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. mas cheche. . biii. little. to. . Lat. Botocudo ati. you. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. for the male. man erne. that. ni. that. this . small (Pott.) pronunciation of i or e. (tt). Zulu ajoa. here . this fi. /e«. /wo. is Here. Tarahumara ibe. there. that. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. father. I . here feraa.e^. nne. young one. me probable that • Vei also little. there. It seems to (fen. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object.) nna. and origin. Fernandian az. femina ama. Guarani nde. he. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. . ulri. ndi. . and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. mother. minution further. ita. that. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. ^. this . there.. It Carib lala. . Magyar ez. .

' — Merrv Wives. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. in old e. wenig. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. barking of a dog. to tread. The Sw. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary.' making the voice as small as possible. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. murmur. trappen. titta. to feet. the idea is called. &c. Top. as j money. little To sup up. tion. A little wee face with little. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. The sound trapp . whence Fr. nipple. dance (Kil. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. From cases like the foregoing. at pippe frem is to spring forth.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. nil. knob. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. din-din. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. to teet. a step. the principle of reduplication. A little weeny thing. wean. the pip or pippin. i Sw. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. and in the Pacific dialects. or chink. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. is to express simple continuance of action. the nursery few j Sc. trap. a little yellow beard. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. for a succession of light blows low-wow. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. sound of bells . little. a child. to make its way through the bursting envelope. to peep. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. fretful. as ding-dong. repetition It. trappa. nab. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. just beginning to appear. of smaller things. pepin. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening.) . of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. lift 8. the simplest mode by the g. Clank represents the sound of something large. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. Thus we have Wolof sopa. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. to peep through. has tittafrem. or even. looking through between obstacles. for instance. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. don-don. And perhaps the E. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. 401. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. for the . trippen. stairs. keeh. — Douglas Virgil. trSpigner. Da. Fr. trippelen. analogous to winy-piny. to begin to appear . . to leap.

repetition or continsignify long. rapidity and strength. . kendagenda. to say pooh It is ! to. or in Fr. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. Cult. racket. to cover e. ayunayunan. or imitative syllables. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. a spot. the lungs. rack click. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. or a little tee--ny thing. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only.Ixii REPETITION. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. Thus in E. kamha-gamla. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. puka- puka. 99). in familiar use with ourselves. to rock. random . to treat with contempt. to or rub. smallness. The same principle of 196. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. to skip. ding-ding. to to call. Malay ayun. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. So from clamo. the comparative degrees of greatness. a clattering noise. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). child . Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. amusement. instead of being actually repeated. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. lololoa. could readily be conceived. Again. (to use a to speak. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. the agent in panting . That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. Mandingo ding. ratsi-ratsi. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. to love. puka. if very young. to talk at to walk. cliqu-et-is. is language. rack. . sopasopa. very bad. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . hardness. mawhiti. clash of weapons. tach-et-er. er. Susa di. mawhitiwhiti. and Fr. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. And generally. to vi^alk about for flax. keep spots. didi. the and clique. to pant. bad .. are echoed by the rudimentary et. mpolu is uttered. very great. to call frequently from Fr. and the words express a continued sound of rack. or very very great. from Maori muka. loloa. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. click. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. or rdtchi. a cradle. or el. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. clamito. Thus in the Pacific loa. a grasshopper. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. kenda. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. serves to show and in this way. calling. little child (p.' expression is — ^Tylor. 97). such as the syllable expressed in a more called. i. child . properly speaking. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. &c. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. very long (Pott. tache.

or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to make a succession of shoves. dab. to rock or wag. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. to make bau-bau. it.Jicol. or Maori puka-puka. shuffle. compared with g. wankeln. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. in Fr. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. or fi bau. In cases like these. syllable clat . fickle. rynel. in some applications. The contrivance with any particular noise. miauler and beler correspond to E. to crackle. to wail woe . to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. to make a succession of grabs . a from ayun. and in as. or by association. is In e. bub. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. crack. kneel. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. bubble. to rock. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. jogging. g. such asjlap. which. others. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. to hand-le. to move to and fro. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. without the intervention of the frequentative element. dabble. the knie-en to E. by the side of wanken. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. Jickfacken. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. he who rubs. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. as to handle. wagas ging. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. wankel. draggle. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. mew and baa . Piedmontese bau-l-S. as mAS. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. Ihre remarks under gncella. joggle. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. a succession of cracks to rattle. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. waggle. wavering. to hand. itself. wancol. or in e. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . or omitted. guggle. rubber. to bark like a dog. the lungs (the puffers of the body). from puka. are to cry mew and pew . to puff. smack. to make gug. The Fr. where all direct connection with sound is lost. miauler andpiauler. to continue dragging.

but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. or how generally. at was more familiarly known. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. and comparatively few easily deceived. will continue to be felt in daily speech. which is the origin of the word. Dupe comes to us from the French. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. on a moment's reflection. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Breton. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. A gull or a dupe same sense. which. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. the breach. to cry ugh at. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. There is. to the separation between the broken parts. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). known in Italian. although it is not difficult. moreover. Polish. it is obviously a mere chance how long. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. deceit. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. or in mode of use. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. or in aptness to combine with other elements. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. by a hard body breaking. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird.

Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. and the word is used in a secondary sense. language is . is the examples given in the foregoing pages. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. Hitl^erto. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. is. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. . the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. however.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. founded in manifest blunder. nor any limited of ideas. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. life.

change. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. Welsh. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. and 'Russian.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. therefore. If English. I think it very probable. compared with the duration of man. out. guages in South America. of material things. circle perpetrates a new slang term. French. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. 330. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. and vescovo. in the course of many years' isolation. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. episcopus. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. evique. i. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. Naturalist on the Amazons. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. unintelligible to other hordes. hearing. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period.

. A key must unlock more doors than this. the actual it which would to represent. or whatever the proportion may be. ao8). we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. Nor is there one of the letters. to be taken (Prim. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. 8. The combination of the symbols I and 2. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. is MN. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. Cijlt. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. it will leave figures 3 and 4. i. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. and . 7. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. which are idenr Figures 5. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. ancient Greek M . 6. 9. as shown in the subjoined illustration. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language.

known to us as yet. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day.' should be discovered. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. what comes to the same thing. for instance. which either by direct resemblance of sound. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. had its origin in imitation of sound. and it has been established in a wide range of examples." the use of a change of vowel in as. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. his fellows. leading him to utterances. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. in the shape either of direct inspiration. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. and the only safe beneficent Creator. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. or. If new 'modes of phonetic expression.

by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or of their own reflected thoughts .COMPLETION OF MAN. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. for instance. in the course of generations. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . and sooner or later. and when we look back as far as history will reach. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. the conduct of Ixix life. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. or else. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. or not. as elephants. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. by animal without a trace name of Man. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and rose towards a higher state of being. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . or beavers. that he started from the lowest grade. until the progeny. of using imitative conduct . by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. race were speaking men or not. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves.

dialect of the Sette Commune. Castr. Cimbr. Supplement to Dueange. Infimse Latini- D. Catalan. Couzinid. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Diefeiibach. Bavarian. Bigl. 1654. Cot. or Dan. Due. Diefenbaeh. 1766.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Fin. 1768. dial. Romano - Cas- traise. Dief. Dn. . Esthonian. Gothischen 1851. Esth. B. Danish. Cimbrisch. Bohemian or Czech. Sup.Nieder. English. Diet.-Eng. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Wtb. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Da.. Teutonico-Lat. Baile/sEngl. Douglas' Virgil. Dueange. Anglo-Saxon. Supplement to Bret. Carp.Saehsiches Worterbueh. AS. Diet. Grammar Boh. Dutch. Bav. Cotgrave. Fr. 1737. Dueange.V. Gr. Finnish. Elfric's Fl. de la langue Cat. 1850. Brem. 1857. at the end of Somner's Diet. E. Diet. Bremisch. Carpentier. Biglotton seu Diet. Provincial dialect. ^Ifr. Dief.



sveritet Asknace r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. katowai perairrantr. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. alUger ahaverie r. (/ijtf r. ^i?^i2! r. haverie crtOT r. woman r.>. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. kilistaa bugiie r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. yjnaifia r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. willekom Blab r. Askance woud r.nokkutama willekem. word allagerr.. r.percurrunt kimista^x. puHti r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . r. r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. buque 118 brodiquin r. Blob plowied r. baltresca nokkutomax. plowied budowaer. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . cruccio deyrie.5 ERRATA. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. cti. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^.


his. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day.t G. ir. Thus ip N3S. on-bsec . bandon in French. iway from. to awake. Abandon. from. Parson's Tale. on-lic. ibandonner. until the event jlace . to sauff the king or spill. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. Abs-. o/j of or . 843. said. this word beand Spanish. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . 244. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. state of sleep . announcement. of-dune. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. away. Ab-. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. dominion. AS. erwachen. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. literally. baftan. K . compounds. A. OHG. to arise. as. in. rule. into the Romance ftrseg . off. Jvery man shewid baft. —Bruce. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. . it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. on. alike. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. plesyt him. abs. us.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. in the same sense. a/tan. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. ifter. a. to subdue. the er. among. dominion. as. Thou spelds of mychty iction. particular 1 . abaft. on. vs. implying a completion of J. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. downwards. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. Lat. The word Ban is common orders. be-ceftan. command. er. Again. Immediately from Fr. To abuse is to use iway. Passing tongues. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. whatever he be. and secondarily in that of command. a washing off to abstain. sion of 'an abandoned character. an edict or proclamation. in a manner other than it should be ablution. In Lat. Abaft. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. Hence on-bceftan. Dent posture. and — Chaucer. ar. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. orders. away from. onis aback. but now )bsolete). have entire dominion over. to hold .he Goth. from a is to wake to abide. ab. behind. power : Than Wallace thing. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. AS. out of. "rom a height. ur.

confound. of fear. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. abbatere dal prezzo.— R. On the other in use as well as hand. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. abaundunem-ent. I was abawid for merveille. or society of abbots or monks. to astonish. to hit. person. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. with or without a final sh. down. overthrow. R.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. And he thereof was all abashed. to bate something of the price abbatersi. Custom. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. his mouth. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. lish to abaisse orabaish. to overthrow. may be explained. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. to gape. from Lat. vol. In or. or admiration.Prov.— — . — Neccham. See Abide. abbas. Wall. esbahir. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. esbahissant. burny. at his own the lips.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. Cotgr. to take possession of an estate. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to strike sail . to abaw or astonish. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. esbahissais. . and that from Syrian abba. son bandon. law term abatement. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. Hart in Jamieson. de. impulse. as ravish. baba. abbattre. ais. depress. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth.fournir. ant. weaken. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. uncontroUedly. faire tomber. to excite admiration. his eyen shene. More correctly written abbat.polir. abbatere. Originally. Milton. adverbial expressions at abandon. Castrais. merely the terminations ons. 1 1 8. Bate. to strike Froiss. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. Abbot. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. to diminish the force of any. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. abbatia. astony. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. baer.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. beer. and the verb was written in Eng. — — . so common in the found in the OFr. polish. to The . and sets them all agape. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. R. 364s. to beat furnish. d. burny was formerly burnish . It. Beat. where custom (Grandg. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. Abbey. to light upon. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. effect of shame. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. astonish. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. . and it that that it — . abandonly. Hence Lat. A. an abbey. castle.down.) . betrash. impetuously. and grooms besmeared with gold. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. bandon. R. Baba ! Mod. Hence the OE. to happen. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. thing abbatere le vela. terminedly. c. of wonder. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. to make lower. See .esbawi. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. bawi. to ruin. drink. from ravir. abbatis. other. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. iv. by Wall. Fr. shame. abate. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. in the active form. To Abate. father. esba. ne more vermeille. et prirent terre. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come .' the surrender of a ' K.On princes. Abbess. of the Fr. to put to con. 1520.

' is in AS.. listen. or in Fr. and in E. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. badigliare. — . — ABELE Epiphanius. Fabl. 366. to hook. bialodrze-w. baier. usbeisnei. wait. to tarry. trick abetar. John. ne wist what way to chuse. deceiving. From abahier. F. which is certainly related to It. lingering. expectation. aspire to. othres abidan' The effacement expect. beter. bida. badar. which the mind to an object.) abayer. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. OFr. to be intent upon. attendre avec en^pressement. bder. beijen. with badia. look for another. — signifies to suspend action. have seen abide. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. aspirer. to look. attendre See Bait. to ance. to attend to. to open bader. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. a bay or opening in the coast. watch. desirer (Roquef. bide of the d endure. The verb atwaiting. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. intent observation. bie. abSiance. Corant sens lui. Cat. house. tical with It. tity of E. to wait. and Prov. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. qui iaaille. abie. tenere a bada. endurance. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. a right in suspense . atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. bouche b^ante. or do we AS. Gloss. Thus we have It. open the mouth. to desire earnestly. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. bhr. abeyance. b^er.— ^richer. The white poplar. to open the mouth. and E. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. endurArt thou he that should come. to wait. Corresponding to keep in suspense. ne chastised them. abayer. to desire. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. to expect gabeidan. verbeijen Sw. baer. bouche bdante. take care. to gape . forbearance. to stay. . forms with the d effaced are OFr. listening. expectation. expectfamily. signifies the direction of tend. Boethius. Q. abetter.— Chaucer. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. syllable ba. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. bocca badata. . inciter. in Fr.Fr. to yawn. —Raynouard. take notice. bida. deceit. bidan. to mind. exciter. or absorption watching. See Abide. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . to remain or endure. to abide . regarder. to wait. abet. delay. Guernsey beth. inciting. abeter. desire. In We . beguile. beidan. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. abet. were called Brothers. suffer b. abbadare. gola badada. Gloss. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. covet. pense. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. ' ' . to expect. gridare. also to OFr. Prov. we sceolon ON. speaking of the Holy places. bada. wait To Abide. Ni engigner ni abiter. Du. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. abiiance. compared with (Bosworth). — II. to deceive. on the one hand. To Abet. 1 • . Abie. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. tempting. in Dan. (Vocab.— Roquef. badare. de Champ. to deanimer. to suffer death in Du. incite . to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. . bie compared with Dan. abidan. to stay. is idenwait. de Berri) Prov. says. literally white tree. Norm. warten. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. to It. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. . with open mouth . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. Cat. baier. beijden. badare. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. beidan. white. guardare. while the monks under his control ing. waiting. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. the verb of abeyance. Goth. ^couter avec dtonnement. m Abeyance. beguiling on the other. songer. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. Abele. us. delay. E. Quant voit le serpent. tarrying . abie. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe).was formerly used in the sense of look. and alluring to his own destruction. Norm. abaier. delay. from Halo. suspense. ceive. Pol. to be intent upon. Ducange. to In great amaze. . baier compared with It. bana. badare. to attend on .to wait. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. beijen. Thus G. K.

P. 2nd Tale. . &c. to wear away. Innan bords. to pay the purchasemoney.^and to make his power knowne. Spenser. al- be found so some will dear abide it. able. i. as habiller du chanvre. Chaucer. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. — e. abeye. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. without special reference to the notion of retribution. being disabled in the highest degree. to pay the penalty. If it badare. fault being simply clothing.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. powerful. purpose. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. bidan. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. durance in both applications. abide. the Fr. to draw fowls.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. at kasta fyri bord. have-like.ynes. at hand). from Lat. P. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. Tr. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. abigg. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. R. willing to schewe his wrathe. Dr. Cassar. expert. ! ! Cotgr. Wickliff in Richardson. F. strong. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. to . was often used in the same sense. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. habilis is closely preserved. to dress hemp. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. For on board. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. It. convenient. de la volatile. 2. within the ship. R. in for any special purpose. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. habilis (from habeo. aboleo. abycgan. Merch. Prol. power. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. forbid for mother's children should abye. bord. atling hem to her proper offices. on board . doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. fit. beidan. Abie. The —Boucher. abolir. the side of a ship. to redeem. the Sir Tristrem. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. abilh. N. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. Fr. though sometimes confounded with it. while in later examples As I . hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. a board. ON. or bie. Q. to have . Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. and the simple buy. adapted . ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. must suffer for it. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. him with che. from AS. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. Milton. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. sufficient. to perish. the Pardoner In the original. Lat. Boucher. L. Mids. and death for handsel pay. as E. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. — P. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. properly abuy. use. Fr. within the walls of a ship. abilej Prov. when compared with Aboard. God. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. abie to Goth. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. God — dear. habile. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. abidge. abie. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. is the verb abie. and Cr. bide. abicgan. O If tion. In this to erase or annul. suffer the Jul. — Able. —Bacon in R. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. She shall abie that trespass dere. AS. consequences of anything .

the man dwindles away. sec seftre — Chaucer. life. abbrechen. to fatten. vital PI. ala. below. and bidden him abregge. and to do something to avert abbreviate. leading immediately to Fr. Melibaeus. to grow up. and alere flammain. So in Lat. gravity. around on the out. while the sense of beget. seems aras. boven. the hair grow. Abundant. — ' — — preceding verb. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. disastrous portent in some passing oc. Tale.) . butan. as the duty of nourdisposition. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. onbutan. abredan. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. breaking out in language. alan. progeny. be-utan. and also to abridge. to start. Sc. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. oil. to progress. is a ively. levis to the Romance languages. Quod abominor.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. Prov. whence the Fr. The primitive idea seems that of beget. to break off. snatch In English we speak of away. ala is made to signify to rear. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. giving birth to. to cut short. Fr. coalesco.ger. AS. See -und-. To abray or abraid. or young forth. Thonne Abroach. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. abbreviare. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. as AS. For on broach.1. or cut short.the older form. nourish. nurse. . be-ufan. to light a fire the Abraid. OE. abracan. Above. from . ABOMINABLE adolesco. gravis. Goth. alere capillos. the vital spark. to main. — . to AS. to produce. and also. to feed. heavy. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. about cockcrow. the form a&^^. way Sw.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. Thence to regard greugetat. See To Bray.' Parson's rence. ufan. without. parent.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. his contemporaries. ol. To Abound. a portent). the idea of breaking about . to turn. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. titan. abbrechen. which passed into English under Abominate. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. hard. to let sleep. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. Lat. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. but from Lat. agredge. pedigree from brevis. bufan.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. from Fr. af-oolden. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. literally. abrcBgdan. Of these synonymous adolescere. AS. while the verb alleThe root el. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. explains soboles Lat. common in Chaucer and Abominable. en. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. Du. to beget or give birth to children. In the same brevis . olet become worthless through gam De manji af. draw out. becomes leu in Prov. above. Kiittner. to bring up. abrdger.ymbutan. Abray. Finnish stock.. is not from G. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. abominor (from ab and omen. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). kindling. which may God avert. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. OE. d. abutan. awaking. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. . as withotityn and without. side. OSw. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. currence.. s —Casdmon. that greatly agredge their sin. alan. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. nurse Lat. to rear. agreujar. motion. Then. to feed. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. brood. to nourish.— Abbreviate. Virg. AS. break out. to rear. Abrdger itself. to snatch. Severe the threatened evil. adolere. al is growth. alUger. on high. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. af-oleii. full ofte his words for to Fr. outward. for ligeth butan. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. to aggravate. greu.aboon. abufan. abowen. Gael alaich. The radical idea is to feed the flame. the identity of which with ting. by the to bring up.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. of any kind . to grow together. D.' Ymb hancred utan. natural ed direct from the latter language. and in-d-oles.foda signifies to beget. the OSw. to awake.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


to open. to strike. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. —Spencer. swaged. before. burnished. AS. from ango. or antique single chamber. to nourish. whence Prov. to support. vex. anapoz. part. To go antiquely. like a jack-pudding. were andouiller the second. stem. panis. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. left as the . Apart. of. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. a termination equivalent to Goth. Mannequin.made out. ab. Jorioc. from an and — - . such as savages. choke. Otfried. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. and devils. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. Lat. to display pario. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. something ler in R. Aperient. AS. Antler. which by anvild. Pezron fiUist. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. apertum. press. transferred to the grotesque characters. ambeld. Thus from gabe. from ante. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. a few. trouble. af. So Lat. separate purpose. fauns. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. aside. to bring forth. aperio. . and claret wine. gabeigs. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. to go in strange disguises. Fr. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. amboltj Du. from. Gr. before. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. Any. the anticks — behind. Fr. In like manner. as posticus. one having wealth. inAgain from the same author cudis. eigs. a small quantity.. from in and cudere. antifena. Hence the applica. : . apanage. AS. from Stephanus. cenig. a gift. panar. a puppet or an anti^hona. anxius. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. some one. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. but the expresent day. or in a ridiculous dress. d<popi(xnbs. from eigan. all of gold. andouillers. Ilvtwotov. Gr. from avTiipoiuia). verberas. set aside. to strike G. avri^ava. Hall's Chron. apatiar. G. from an. Ful- Apanage. post. Prov. what Roman civilisation. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. one at the least. a block to hammer on. to have.legacy of given against. to imitate gestures. antefn. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. i. Lat. Aphorism. and ig. separate. to strain. in Shakespear. should be received. Fr. younger child. ReApe. a preventative . possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Lat. Antick. were chiefly of the former class. from. See Cover. villan Gloss. bread. Apartment. Lat. anfilts Pl. work. whence anthem. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. as we call it. Anxious. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG.is to be given. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. surimitation of the ancient models. Apartment. Antidote. on. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. As the browcalled antiques. white.th centuries the recognised models of antic. To ape. E. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. from the imitative habits of monkeys. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art.— . one. — — — . spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. plenteously with red. wealth. three antike pillers. finally applied to a whether grotesca. anxi. incus. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. anticus.—Aperture. d. Gr. rich. a definite . strangle. Antique. Percutere.D. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. as from as. as the Italians. Anvil. to sound in answer.

5w. Hence It. to deaden. — dirondtfiu.parecchio. decree. apropchar. one is in. habilUr. in Chaucer. appris. one sent out. to finish a controversy.his giving evidence against his principal. Cotgr. trim. They werin his approvirs privily. Prov. Pliny. Cent Nouv. Epistle. Formerly apricock. to dress in this fashion. AS. From Gr.prix. Friar's Tale. to come near. Fr. To Appraise. 'LaX. to accord. Apprehend. to learn. pronounce good. d-n-o. and also as appraise. despatch on some service. En peach. equal. one for his defence. diroBrjKr}. in fact. a price. to catch hold of. and metaphorically to take the meaning. D. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. to seize. Parson's Tale. Apple. Apostle. peler. For their acquaintance was not come of new . apparecchiare. Yr. Gr. cepl. . Fr. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. value apprdder. dress. (cited by Diez from a late author). pertain or belong to. to learn. N.parejo. to deem good. to which it is often referred. Fr. The PI. manner. Apoplexy. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. : — — speak 'Lz. poind. I prise ware. apprehendere. obolys. to announce. 'L-zX. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. It. Walach. e. agree. a learner. And among other of his famous deeds. the good. apal. quoth the frere. esteem. to call. near. prize. preparation. apin R. like. poind. were formed appropiare ejar. and appoinder (to find fitting. APRICOT off. 23 . find Then like Fr. to fit. Fr. Mod. Fabian in R. The Fr. allow. in commendation. from aTroorlXXu. piteux poind. to Lat. to rate. like. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. habiliments. w. irpaiKOKiaov. probare. — Appurtenance. To Appear. Cotgr. array. —^Apparent. apal. that it outfit. opportunity.probare. word was specially applied to clothing. to deter- to strike. appareo. An old appalled wight. apar. ciously than nede is. They were considered To Appoint. one the MLat. diminutive pariculus. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. laven is used both as E. to assign or grant over unto. pronounce fitting). Yr. to store or put Appal. to be open to view. proper time came. apprentis. Ir. jabloko. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. landmark. or the like. rise to \t. Hence appoind. and in the sense of condition. OFr. lAfiaam. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. to make a thing Apparel. pragigua or prixcoda. properly to join like to like. consent unto.pareil. Apo- good time.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. i. ar. Fr. approver. to set a price on. Appareil. case.—Apprentice. agreeing with "LtA. ON. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. H. oVooroXof. Fr. set a price on. — Approve. plight. S^. appartenir. prohts. to — — .propius).t. Sp. Cotgr. Fr. to send to. a'^opi'Jw. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. whether through age or sudden teiTor. kind of action. Appease. known. prope (comp. to suit. appareiller. aparelhar. Fr. . . or E. Nouv. praise. seiden of the stones. ai. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. away. to mark to define a bound. from paix. an epistle or letter. ^wss. to understand. apprendre. From Lat. Apotliecary. to lose one's senses. in data. in good season prendre son d. avail. approcdare. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. to take away or lose the vital powers. Lat. Gr. to commend. appaiser. good. 11. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. —Diez. when the . to call for judgment. prover. — prehendere. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Lith. par. aptly. to strike down. make a composition between parties. to send off. to approve. Gr. From Lat. purpose. whence the e. APO sentence opoQ. pretium. after his mind . he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. a crime. a thing for one's purpose. peace. become dizzy . ap. apropid. approcher. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. iwKjToKri. order. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. A — . to approach. mine. of. And whanne sum men Lat. To praise. corresp. Prov. to — . apprise. xv. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. horror. taking. to disable oftat. diroTrXriaatii. Gr.— . appellare. fit- — ness. off. Palsgr. To cause to pall (see Pall). from. Approach. — Apprise. Wholly unconnected with/a/^.

water Which that benchid was. or eft. naperon. nected. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. garden. conjicio. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. arbiter in re censendS. sorcerer. Beryn. P. Now one of the points — — — . Naperon is explained by Hdcart. herbere. sestimatio arbitraria. Freshly turnid Arable. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. opinio. la nappe. and with turfis new Goth. pracoqua was not an adapt. a river. found in Fin. 2. arpa. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. — napkin is Naperon. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. or barm-cloth. arbitror arwaaja. rofe and all. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. doubtless is the origin of E. words derived from arpa. Lat. A. As is a pretty parlour. and a protection of the clothes. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. arbiter. Aquatic. OHG. . from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. arwelo. C. however. a pleasure-ground. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. man.' —About. derived. From OE. a lot. Alban. Hall. Flower and Leaf. The loss or addition of n very common. hariolus arpelen. OE. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. auguror. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. P. ap. a cloth. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. Now we find in Fin. be That it inne groweth.. a soothsayer. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. most conspicuous situation in the garden . . nompire herbs being no longer apparent. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . sortium ductor. Naprun. grande nappe. suitable. and sortilegus ation. and the one who gives oracles. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. This path Aqueous. . whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. shortdr. It may be doubted.sors. arbitrium. — . or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. Pm. Arbitrate. aqua. proper. Pr. intensitive of nape. . however. wata. delon. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. to preserve it from stains. She made. nawl and awl. aha. aa. Arbour.) E. aestimo. From OFr. Marsh. It is certain that the apricot oracle. tion under trial. ughe. con. Lat.] in the N. Gr. 331. short. as ihe diminutive. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. Prol. quod he. J.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. to plough. to decide by lot. ear. account for either of these significations. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. Roquefort. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. of of divination arpa-mies. and taken away before dessert.o. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. scr. 31. fastened close. Thus we have natiger and auger. a lot. is taken in is a soothsayer. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. aro. Lat. ahva. conjectura conjec^ra. {mies ^=ia3. as an eye-witness. aptus. a lot. Albanian. divining rod. and thence fit. Maan initial . But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. the spelland umpire. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages.shrubs {arbor). symbol. arwaus.meaning at Shrewsbury. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. properly the arwella. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. It will be observed in how large a proportion of .

From apxeiov was formed Lat. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. Lat. et vulgari verbo. from areo. area. the court of a magistrate. arm. exercise lordship). branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. 2. Fr. i. bad. G. AS. by Russ. apx^iv. un petit rusd. armada. to be on fire. make clear or prove. arduus. Applied in modern E. Gr. gwyro to bend. especially shoulder-joint. sluggish. a. Arch in composition. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. a bow. Lat. And thou as arwe coward. faint-hearted. G. ON. Lat. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. arwe. arcA in e. fainthearted. mischievous. an arch boy. arson. ruling by the nobles. un malin enfant. in Due. to demonstrate. Uo^a^. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. high. sly. ein arger knabe. archangel. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. the most arrant trash. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. armata. TiKToiv. Lat. apxri. argvitugr. ardre. aridus. an arch-deceiver . rame. 3340. adjective. ancient. Gr. aj-f. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Sp. Gr. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. Area. a branch. a rule (princiruler. ill-tempered. the terminaGael. ' — Argue. Dan. arsum.In E. curved line. Lat. arrig. The . ^Argument. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . stuff. arrant Arms. bravest. vocaveris.is the natural weapon of offence. receptacle where the public acts were kept. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. Arm. vescovo. Lat. * ArchjAiTaxit. an arrant rogue. government. Brem. erz-bischof. to arm. a court yard. a bare plot of ground. argr. Fr. to Arch. and not with apx. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. fabricate).' Lex. Lat. difficult to reach. a burning or setting on fire. wretched OE. Arduous. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. earm. a threshing-floor. arch-bishop. patus). taxed with cowardice. ars. Cot. Alisaunder. while the Fr. Gr.— Army. ramo (pi. bad of its kind. raineno. earh. gwyrek. arma. weapon may be simply an application of annus. Perhaps erz-wticherer. arguo. shoulder Boh. A construct. to be in comp. morally bad. an arrant usurer. ardeo. Ardent. It. erz in G. een erg kind. apxh. ardIn G. kpxi- beginning. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. Du. erg. ramend). the a brute. arm'ee. bad. Lat. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. to rule. .ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. as in E. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. is essentially the same word. .aioj. arcus. and Kpurka. a noble. as the arch of a bridge. arga. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. Du. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. arm. .. to burn . are formed the participial nouns. ers-betriiger. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. to dry. det arrigste snavs. apxtipfve. — Wtb. Sax. first. Langobard. malicious. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. whence the body of the nobles collectively. Arcadia in R. apxtlov.' Paul Warnefrid. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. an extent of flat surface.4 rir/. man. lofty. earg. which has been referred to W. Fr. Arson. contemptible. armee. branch. — Architect. shoulder. W. from nixa. the best. timid. Arid. Arcliives. Aristocracy. a chief builder. worker. . wanton. arg. weapon. signifies chief or principal. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). which is derived from it. mischievous.. sly. . D. and our army. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc.' the Gr. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. and must be identified with Dan. curved. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. From the verb armare. forearm . it signifies roguish. burning heat. ardor. There can be no doubt that E. Ardour. troublesome.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

Lat. similar connection is seen in Sp. Sw. on. bolker. baloier. vacillare. says Ray. Fin. 2. to partition off . a boil. dial. e. package of goods. probably Lat. a pail. a clod of earth water. floor. bola. to Not sparing wight. ballo. to plank. balge. tum. ball. a beam. balk. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. balka bunge. a pestilence. a dance. balva-vesei. 3. . pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. bala. from the more general notion of moving up and down. a pill.). It. It. pain. In like manner Fr. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. ball. sick. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. bal-daed. balk. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . palcare. sickness. a separate portion. dial. palloilla. bal. malefacGower in R. bbllr bulla J. — A — — . Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. cka. balle. may exhibit the original development of the signification. to speak an un. to paddle in water .— 42 BALE to BALL heap . Goth. to dance. Wotton. a clapping or flapping of wings. wickedtorment ON. Baulke of land. Bohem. ball. palla. a beam. lealo. a scene acted in dancmg. afbalka. a division of the old laws. It. Grief. boll. maan pallikka. balken. on. hooting. I. wickedness ness . boleii. Gr. The primary sense seems as in G. ' is a piece or confused talking. to ail. E. ON. to bale out. To Bale out water. a together in the form of a ball. taich.Fr. the beam of a ship. a great ball. roof. vcdra bdlkr.—Ballad. bdlkr. grieve . . to by beams. (Hesych. balka hopar. F. bielke. at giore en balk. ballare. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. TtaKKa a pail or tub . on the shore. a ball. Sw. pila. blister. misery Du. Bowl. OSw. to avoid it. chapurrar. a clump . . to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. Pol. on. bol. Du. to ache. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. baalie. ing. a But making way for death at large to walke. Fr. G. Ballot. with the perhaps from balg. a skin. ban. uveirs bolk.of men . ballet. pilula. Q. other while. shouting. ballar). Da. We have then separate dial. a dance. ballan. balle. . a ball. Dan. . balle. Ballata. Fr. pallo. balk. bacgtteter. balle. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. are applied to a From the same analogy. See Gall. to pack Da. Hence. AS. bolawy. Sw. balja. Sw. It. the object of his expectation. w. balk. balka. Fr. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. bjdlki. Balloon. to plough for a boundary between lands. to be ill. * Balk. a ball or pack. Sw. Hence Dan. Da. Sw. to roll. plague. maleficium. A balk. a. heap up. ill. Mid. the ballet of the theatres. Sp. to dance. . or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. a ball. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. dial. to cause another to miss pustule. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. balare. destruction. Sw. pallukka. to shake or jog. To baulke the Sir H. a washing-tub. pallikka. balloon. a partition. to rock. It. a balk of foul weather. N. Boll. bold. G. from bacquet. ball. mass.ing. a ball. a ballot). bollr.— Ballet. to move. balken. bealwes. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. bal. Russ. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. a wooden partition . balveins. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. i. a continued noise of waves gently beating . sorrow. bol. a water-skin dim. to see-saw. bal. Venet. Ball. to on Holmedon's plain. and evil in general. gen. Du. ballare. OHG. bolyatchka. whether of wood or stone. Perhaps on. hue et illuc inclinare. and the dim. a globe. ache. dial. the breadth from side to side . to signify washy drink. as in a barn or cow-house. Ugutio in Due. Sw. a bubble. as we say. Bale. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. ne leaving any balke. beaten road. Rouchi ban. Bret. to wave. separaison.' speak gibberish champurrar. to grieve . baler. globule. ballone. to stir. a ballad. Gael. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. trouble. . ballotta. calamity. baalien. stage or scaffold. OFr. balkr. ballare. balla (with the augm. a ball balla. bolyaf. torment. to be balker. pallo. weak liquor. Ball.

a battlement . as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. Dan. Mr Marsh whether the a load. inutile onus. a useless load. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. the flower of the pomegranate. a young babe. This is the backload. bamein. To deceive. balsamum. from Lat. the act of walking. Balluster. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. . to preserve equilibrium. the backload. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. astonished. fonts. bertesca. by met. lastagium signified not only ballast. bumbazed. galleries. Lat. lastra. Venet. sorcerer. in the first place. ballustre) is a corruption. ranked on the outside of cloisters. but loadage. bambocciolo. puzzled. To Bamboozle. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. also with flatteries and . It is explained back by Adelung. Lest. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. It. enchanter. Sept. for a load or goods (Roquef.Lat. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. &c. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. curse. bam. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. back of the ship. a small balustrade. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. railing around altars. i860. Fr. barauste. bambolo. Said to be from balaustia. to walk. R. 1. baU. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. a rod.that the going vessels. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. urtica. a fragrant gum. Balm. and Mid. — — oltriga. Ballast. bamboccio. Report Pennsylv. little round and short pillars.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. small railing. The Baltic sea. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. lest.' And Kil. as he says. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. command. When a ship discharges. forbid. To Ban. 1854. denounce. It. make fun of a person. lestage. Bamour. . an Old dotard or imbambolare. To make fun of a person. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. Du. The Sp. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. balconies. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. If bambocciolare were child of one. objects to the foregoing derivation. Baltic. Bret. Sp. bag-lest. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Bret. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. more frequently than outward-bound. explains ballast. ^a\Ba\iov. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. or ballast of a ship. to enchant. ^Arbuthnot in R. like Fr. analogous to what is seen in It. dial. &c. balustrade barandilla. barandado. ballast. a false tale or jeer. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. it is forced to take in stones or sand. called Bait. Fr. baltresac. more serious objection is . last. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. bag-las. baUa. seems the original form of the word. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. To Bam. deceiver. But Fr. for want of other freight. A — — . baranda. a nettle. ballustres. a duty on goods last. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. endormir par des contes. mare Balticun. age. Balsam. To proclaim. In OSw. of balusters. baume. because. Gr. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. terraces. 43 — Cot. Cotgr.000 tons. paid for the right of carriage. is in Sweden and Norway. lastre. Sc. or movement of one who walks.). inutilis sarcina. from bara or vara.. deceive.

Diss. . margin. band. It. To Bandy. In Fr. Fr. 26. bandi. to ban. border. A. — To partito d'alcuno. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Sp. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. to take one to task. Mag. permission. Leg. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. to unite with a band. to follow a faction. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. 19. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. From the verb to banda. Spebifid. hoc est vexillo. bannum or bandum. See Abandon. 813. and in E. . eiiseigne. biddal. the ensign or banner. Goth. flag. banda the colour or material.e. 'A son bandon. a company. whether by way of injunction or for- command. Ripuar. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. Les saiges avait et les fols d. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. and thence to any proclamation. bandon was used in the same sense. to ctide. acquired the sense of proclamation. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. ex. bann. in hostem convocare. he assembled his host. — R. authority. It seems this signification has arisen. to form parties. passing on from proclamation to command. band. summoning to serve So in Swiss. to side or to bandy (Florio). to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary.^ bandy. in Fr. — excommunication bann-lysa. Bandus. etc. Bandear. banda. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. region. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. to bring corn to be fahne. Goth. &c. side. banns pany of footmen serve. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. at his own discretion. Wyntoun. Band. theodscipe ut abannan. is That with which anything AS. a coast. Fr.is further developed.. Thus the word is also used in both senses. E. &c. D. to publish) banna. change to the feminine gender in banda. bando. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. There is some doubt how Fr. bannire exercitum. from at the Lord's courts. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. bande. bandon somewhat party. i. to reprove. Assises de Jerusalem. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. parti. —R. bindan. Sw. also the band or of marriage. The to . OE. to excommunicate {lysa. bound. bundun. says Muratori.—John Villani in Due. banner marked the place of assembly. and It. Commun^ment son bandon. Sp. he bannede his ferde. It. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. 1. those who side together (bande. Cot. Capitul. 15. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. It. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. to . R- He Translated by Chaucer. ba?idare. R. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Baud. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). power.Lat. side. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. bandera ground at his mill.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. tener da alcuno. bande. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. populum. bannire in exercitum. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. banda. sostener Torriano. fahne. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. bande. Se il — Romance languages. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. admolendinum. we constantly find the expression. Car. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. In a special sense the term company itself. faction. ligue Taboada). v. curse. G. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. then the signification w. 2.

a bank. and therefore tied up. banc G. Ripuar. as of an explosion or a blow. bana-sott. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). counter. eminence. to foment factions. Lingua. bench. Tibalt. a bench. bana. Draw. the same verb the It. a bench. ON. se joindre. that the word is used by Romeo. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. band-hond. AS. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. banka. Fr. clouds. Your stool. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. Bacon in R. de sable. destruction . bench. From a desk . broken. . Brewer. . The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. See Banish. roupt. in the sense of a pirate. was formed the OFr. bana-sdr. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . bang. banja. bana. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Diez. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. bank of river. banca his creditors. Diaconus in Due. Banner. at canis peciiarius. banish. It is in this sense nounce. Bang. to knock. . de- party. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. a blow. dorsum was applied to ject. Roquefort. Milton in R. many a bang. and OFr. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. se reunir. 45 — — Bandit. Banditti. ON. a counter. Fr. canis vinculis assuetus. A Shipman's Tale. of bandying words.^ knock. With many a stiff thwack. &c. in the same way that E. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. hammering. bander tin arc. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. bannire. g. a sand-bank. bana. banc. — Kil. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. Bandy legs are crooked legs. banqueroute. a rising bank. bandire. Sw. band-dog. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. Bantze. pastoralis. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. a de Vaud. bank. Banister. — Paulus drive in a nail.: . But natheless wife at I bank. bent as a bow. It. in R. and hence. bander. The ridge of a hill is AS. a long raised seat. death-sickness. to work in wood. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. stir.HG. Fl. — — whence E. . death-blow . When a man fails Lat. forbear this outrage. to slay. banditti acquired the like signification. to hammer in a nail.z. and poise Their lighter wings. Bandy. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. to join in league with others against Cotgn. See Band. panca. whence the mod. disturbance banga. to beat. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. a bankrupt merchant. follow a party. for shame. To Bandy. Mercutio. Hudibras. N. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. a bench. tumult bangas. bow. It. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. distinguishes bekkr. Fr. to bend a. a i. bandi. Bankrupt. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. from banc. Bank. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. bank. banca fallita. ruptus. rap hatike et som The Susu. &c. benk. to make a stir banke. From Mid. bane. E. Goth. banke. It. bankruptcy. Mid. to knock. a table. the back. Benvoglio. Bane. shoal. Dan. to publicly order one out of the realm. large dog kept for a guatd. the former Fr. to proclaim. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. and bakki. has bang-bang. home — Bandog. bander. desk. death-wound. murderer. — . bance. hricg. seat . the slope of a hill. bank of Dan. Lat. 2. See Balluster. Benchi. bank of a river. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. language of W. The child cries bang! fire. outlam came to signify a robber. standard. bandear. The word is in E. bakke. back of a knife. ON. a wound OHG. eminence. in the sense of place of business. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. The ing. —^Vocab. Africa. . took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. — Fr. beat. Du. banco. s'associer. AS. beating. among rotta. b'ang. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. to cabal. put under the ban of the law.

Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. token. It. a. The original import of their own banner in the field. arineXov. iandvo. sparre. Barb. Hence Fr. ban- Baptise. Hence ner. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. probably corSymbol. &c. banneret. In a similar manner are formed yearling. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. ing term appears in other languages. sparro. and from ensign or banner Prov. says. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. from the same source. rod of any rigid substance. out of a wound. Fr. senhal. a beam or long pole of wood. of wind. privileged to raise Barbarous. BARBAROUS reiflingr. brushwood. banniire. Banquet. barde. banda hendi. Banneret. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. and even of calling it banter. senheira. which is surely in barbed arrow. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. Fr. senhal. To mock or jeer one. E. Sw. Fr. men. branches of a tree {gwezen. as they call it. speaking of battle.46 BANNERET . benda. barbarus. . 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. a ban. jSa'pjSapoc. Fr. would rupted from Fr. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. to beckon . Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. The barb of an arrow is the sign . ingly very generally known by a name branches. chan. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. bandiera. manu anto make signs nuere. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. Gael. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. that the noise of voices Bantling. and with an initial s. of a sign in general. then fell among the foot. barbe. inur. knight Bardd. from reifa. The origin is in all probability Goth. and the work is done. to bend. rarii. ON. Fr. wrapped. OHG. to wrap. in Gr. barreau. G. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. such as the Roman Eagle. Duo. banda. According to Diez the It. a bench or table . to bar or stop the way as with a bar. uncivilised. banneret was a higher class of knights. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. sign. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. milites bannarii. &c. — We A . child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. barrack. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. The spar. nestling. A It. It. inferior to a baron. Thus Ovid. senh. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. signuin. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. heri-pau.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. barrer. ON. summit. by a repetition of the syllable bar. the word came to signify rude. OHG. It. E. remarked.— Swift in R. Lat. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. bandva. 3.. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. a bantling. Bret. i. branch. It may be thing. barba. Barbe. a war-beacon or war-signal.the analogous syllable viur.. hence a repast. Celtic bar. ^oTrriKio. Barbar. 2. barbed or trapped as a great horse. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. OFr. or of this bantering. Barb. top. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. barra. a which the barrister addresses the court. a bearded or Cot. indeed. a tree). To Banter. Gr. period vexillarii. Fr. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. bannereti. —Cot. an animal a year old. banchetto. merki. then branches. to wash. dim. a sign. Lat.aTa Kul nest. Leduchat. of banco. and it was accord. banner.hinder. and he would seem to derive Goth. bar.cruel. Flesche barbeUe. sbarra. Gr. barre. Bap. to dip. either in the Gr. banne.8ap6^o)voe. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. jSdirTO). Lat. to having that signification. himself in Pontus. barrou-gwez. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. a barrier or stoppage. E. barriire.

border of a garden bed. and foolishly. in Fr. coping. a bardelle. guazzolare. Fr. baragouin. A shrub bearing acid Diet. grumble (Lowndes. Cotgr. — . and the word was used in OE. brabble in the making of a bargain. albarda. Fr. OFr. to boil or bubble up . and in Flanders to vociferate. bdla-khaneh. bdsas. on. muttering. to chafbargain. and flanks. barbel. as well as the modern twaddle. barbarkama. and Sc. to bubble or spring up. guaszare. /3£pjSepi^w. border. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. barbugliare. skialldar-bard. used 2. Bardeau. barS. Fr. skirmish. Port. Exposed to view. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. the edge of a shield hval-barct. — Cot. borbulhar. Arab. to wash. quarrel . broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. Sp.— Fl. i. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. Mod. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. to grunt. w. uproar. borboglio. the quilted with. tattle. lb. stutter. unqualified.) . open. a rumbling. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. barefooted Sanscr. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. twattle. such as houses are covered Bardelle. upper chamber. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods.— — Pm. a shingle or small board. to prattle. Barbican. Mod. skola. in the sense of fight. The verb borrelen signifies in Du.' Cot. to It. barbier. borborinha. g. Etym. uncovered. also to wallow like a seething pot. a pack-saddle. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Russ. gibberish. back. berj G. Bard. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. twcEtta. Fr. bhasad. name Fr. is lb. Barberry. Sp. jargon. Thus the on. Barde. murmur . Bargain. also to bind or tie across. to stammer. barbar. Gr. to mumble or mutter words. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. barbeau. scouthouse. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. It. to make an outcry . — — — men. barbelin. The Pers. barda. brim. to rumble. Hall in R. bare baskojis. Applied in E. Barder. Pr. But Sp. the flap of a hat. in poetic language Bard for poet. haggle. dial. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. berries. to gurgle. horse armour covering the front. . powdered all over. Barber.— BARBEL merit of water. Bare. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. A7 to the and warlike. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. bds. or more properly (says fer. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. a jetty or outnook in a building. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. albardilla. Cotgr. speak confusedly. skirt. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. G. bdsiis. to stammer. Lex. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. fortia —Strabo. barbulla. — . barda. small pack-saddle. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Hatt-bard. barbeter. Diez. Lucan. to plash or dabble. formerly used in the sense of tattle. bardes. saddle-cloth. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. It. tree. Bret. bardd. borbotar. boil. Barbel. Port. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Cot. the beard.) to wrangle. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. albarda'ah. baar. Etym. axilla. barz. barbacane. a tumultuous assembly. mutter. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. ready money. Gr. Hindost. — — Hence. barbaris. . is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. /3opj3opwJu. a long saddle for an ass or mule. bar. to bubble or boil. borbollar. which was of talking. Fl. Lith. waschen. ala. barguigner. to barbe or trap horses. Sp. baares geld. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. the nakedness of a woman. barboter. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. barbeum. Festus in Diet. as well as thwcEtta.

one who stirs up strife. altercation. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. the or prow of a ship. OFr. bosom. barley. ON. bard). to skin over barkandi. and may therefore be an Eastern word. bosom . prominent part of a thing. the fore or after end of a boat . 2.. It. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. barn. W. Lith. barley. squabble. See formed Yeast. bark . Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir.Barum vel feminam. Port. Alam. As Goth. as well as Scandinavian tongues. ON. and is probably a true bartig.^Voc^. struggle. skutr. . a lantern. a cap . the G. barahunda. * Barnacles. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. E. the rack or manger. and ern. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. bamagh. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Bark. Prov. Romance barsie. skuta. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. Vocab. Antiq. commonly explained from bere. Garlick. border. So ON. am. barlys. dispute . quarrel Port. a place. trouble. put to confusion. the A — Ihre. baaren. berm. bread-corn. to wrangle. fray. limpet. at barka. strife. Bemiques. baimeach. i. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. From Fr. baratta. tumult. baniffa.. meta foeni. baralhar. a. Tarn baronem quam feminam. and 1. strife. barmr. edge. to cheat. louzou. to scold. Sw. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. as. Dan. a barn. contest. entangle. and the word. barki. a baking place or oven. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. quarrel. barretor. (Ihre. prasepe . Dan. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Gael. beer. barms. barnis. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. The Goth. the slimy substance brewing of beer. kani. — Zeuss. husband. limpets . barja. barafustar. Leg. as in the case of Lat. giving rise to It. and hence probably (by a metaphor. bcerme. . spectacles. barn. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. w. charlock. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. beornt. as. bread. Sp. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. — de Berri. barone. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barii. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. . baarm. astringent. hemlock. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. a stack. to chop. baarn. bernac. barley. strife. Acervus. from an imita- Barley. disorder. baerm. chaffer. Manx bayrn. v. berm. berem. lap. Ibid. a load. in the Brim. houbartij fsnile. a receptacle for barley or corn. Barbour in Jam. hlaSa. Leg.) lihtes-ern. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Sp. beorcan. herbs. dispute. Gl. to rout. dregs of oil. adj. hladi. OFr. baaring. to strive. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Bailey. to shufSe. bern. tion of the sound. but the woman for the man. and llysiaw. baron)^ Fr. Sp. barnacles. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. confusion. a heap . a heap. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Originally man. baralha. Du. barafunda. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. 2. baratta. Uzen. Spectacles. Provj bar (ace. varen. dispute . Baron. a beak. Bret. plants). AS. Isidore in Rayn. berm hoys. a lap. hay-loft. also a boat . ON. Barn. mhg. then honoured man. Ripuar. Swab. — battle. to all the barca. The origin may be throat. It. Barge. baragouin. Kil. So also ON. barlys {bara. contest. brenig. bere. barajar. corn-shed. — Barnacle. . barge. baron. dial. ThS man was not created for the woman. quant a perdu sa barja. The older form in e. bcern. is simply the Bret. berma. To Bark. Du. —Bark. limpets. bargain.' bardagi. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Rayn. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. ber (ace. Camus. Cornub. dispute. then the bows pectus navis. barn. On the other hand. name being given to spectacles. was barlic. AS. borkr. bern. Port. dispute barattare. barlich. OSw. in Nat. See Barm. aheap. wine. also to exchange. a boat. ON. as baces-ern.

S. 2. like bargain. fear. (Schmeller). as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. and in several instances. Barrister. barraca. bearg . to shelter. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. especially those killed in battle. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. barri. a bier. brushwood. or simply bahre. A. alongside of barrow. facture. barril. It. Bamnculus a baronet. Gael. Bohem. w. and not from Fr. semen non accipiens landiEL. MHG. also termed bannerets. became bidre. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. gravis et authenticus vir. sepulchre. barrier.. — A . a castrated hog . a. heap. Barratry. branches. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. staves. baronculi. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. bark&n. to * Barragan. a horse. barrack. It should be observed that. baronetti. tomb. squabble. a barrel. then traffick4 Barrow. a. shed. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. cover. todtenbahre. barrila. nobles. sterilis.root signifying confused noise. were sometimes confounded. Barrack. Barren. litter. from a tree to which a man is hanged. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus.have been named from the haggling and gant. an obstruction. G. OE. the two names. ibid. Goth. boar. StiU he shows conclusively. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. a barrow. strife. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. baroncelli. a word is always used in the plural number. Bargus or moreland. booth. E. Joshua vii. OFr. seem to be radically the same with Lat. fallow. whence Barrow. On chet — We — — their resemblance. mound. garment still used in Morocco. qui have not much light on the pre. over him. Bern. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. Nominale of the from braeckland. barague. barchent. 26. vir. bier. baragan. Sp. breinej Du. ^Vocab. barile. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. It. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. perhaps through Prov. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. bahre. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Bret. baracca. a kind of coarse camlet. beorh. vair. which would barragdn. braeck. cise formation of the word. Fr. as cavalcade. gwr. beorgan. It. See Bar. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. Barrel. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. to carry. hut. as. barre. Fr. bera. Russ. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. in the first instance. G. ^Barrator. baraignej Picard. whenever Barrow-hog. by early examples. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. The Sp. habeant. a hiU. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. barBombicinus. berewe. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. the braw. a man. signifying. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. uncultivated. Sp. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. barrique. baronuU. AS. implement for carryAS. rolls of Parliament. This word introduced into Fr. AS. borov'. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice.parchanttuech. It was not until the time of James I. vel pretiosos burellos.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. An ing. Barricade. bredhan.. berwen. Formed from Fr. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro.' Op. in Nat. man. change of goods seems. D. Sp. — Kil. man and wife. bara. 1. a bar. from beran. Gael. Antiq. — — 15th Cent. barrique. Baron andfemme. fortification. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. a hut or booth.' that Barrier. The feudal tenants next Fr. bouracan. bara. dispute.— Gibbon. iver. calico. from cavallo. beorg. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. composed of dry branches ofer. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. See Barter.

to cheat. basta. Pl. binding. and Bret. flat. See Bath. to bind. fornication. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. God it wot. imbastire. the — — to kill those that look upon it. mock not. barter. To Baste. But according And Dan. Du. Isidore. — hanging. on a. Sp. It. thick. baste. fornication. ibid. to cheat. a court-yard. baos. There is not one that.D. low. lust. cheating. pressed down. fraud. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. to baste. Bartizan. foist in bargaining. which sets up its hood when angry. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). crassus. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. beortun. ing for profit. curtus. tierer. embastir. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . basta. also to Cotgr. then cheating. Bassus. Barton. but he dreth presently.' Papias. unrighteous gain. . Newman. Sicamb. as It. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. to Diez. cog. more noble in blood than notable in learning. ^Is de bast. a bass rope. bastear. preparatory stitching. bast.' Gl. n' is n' is bacino. shallow. a ipgli So Turk. bestcn. ohg. Dan. aiKcig. lattice-work. the a wide open vessel. Arthur and Merlini. or running away with the ship. fhe outhouses and yards. mavult dicere Roma suam. plaiting of splinters basged. hoops of a cask. basg. HaUiweU. Barbara de pictis veni patch. basgod. It. To Bask. dwelling. It. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). i. Lend me your hands. Bass. HaU in HaUiwell. . Dan. to truck. peel. HoUinshed. OFr. Sylvester's Dubartas. It is mentioned as . as the diadem of the basilisk. a bastard. See Brattice. baste. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. The like property hath the iasilisk. AS. but born in baste. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. from /3aR. Gr. corn-farm. bass-matting. bark. MS. the thin skin Dan. bast-reb. a tying.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. from bere. bast. humilis. Sp.). come near. truck. Sw. oe. bast-maatte. Lap. F. would be. bassin. Fris. basso. Kil. Bast. Basilisk. bdtir. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . baxoj w. a basket masg. inclosure. piiiguis. commonly A joined with the word binda. to bargain. It. Du. OFr. baraet (from Fr. baratar. he. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. barter. — in Rich. BassuS. also the demesne lands of a manor. bareter. Sw. baste. low. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. him. ' Bosworth. Basket. a deceiver. to deceive. ' He was begetin o bast. Bass. It. to baste piece of cloth. court-yard. to bind hand and foot. 516. mean . fits de bas. low part of the Hickes in Rich. G. imbastire. Sp. and tun. Swed. w. to bind.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Fr. scale in music. beretun. barley. MHG. leviter consuere. besst-u-b£nd&t. bas. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. submovet omne Lucan. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. stitch. . The original meaning. basso. A fabulous serpent. lift me above Parnassus. bran. beguile. a halter. chasa ogli a bastard. pdrdt. to stitch . To stitch. according from Gael. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. or wic. PaaiKhms. berewic. Al is dai. Bastard. MHG.looketh upon his eyes. bestan. back. /«r<fSp. chasa. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. a ftiesh. baratear. — Bassoon. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. the manorhousfe itself. of the same sense. netting. Fr. which covers the grain Ger. Halliwell. a king. baraand especially teria. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Fr. over-reaching. exchange. It. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. rope for — . husk bast van koren. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. bds. besst. descended of an honorable lineage. at basta og binda. found in Turkish . bast. partieren. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. Apparently of Celtic origin. low note. said Base. to long — a British word by Martial. exchange. discourse Nay.

to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. bastia. bastida.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. set up. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. to build. which to rest the load. batta lucifuga. * Bat. victuals. military term of a bat-horse). may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. badger. disposer. baston. Fr. niammal. To baste one's hide .stick. frotter. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. to cudgel. to teach one before. Cot. is explained by Cot. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. the night-jar or goat-sticker. Rayn. bastear. — — — . a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. For the loss of the / in back. For the origin of baston see Baste. bastonFr. to rub. I. to stroke. business (Altieri). ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. a packsaddle. like the owl and the bat. to spread bread and butter. bdion. to belabour. to set on foot a war Bastion. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. a bastion. vespertilio. guerra bastir. a pad. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. basa. beysta. dial. R. settiilg up. cudgelling. frame. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. a blow cloth for dinner. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. a stick. also the ricado. to beat. a sconce. whence ledrblaka. liiake. bastilde. blacta. Prov. to devise or begin. passage Imbasto. to thrash . a. to pack a saddle i. comp. Supp. Mid. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. aftonbakke. — Bakke. Sw. and Arabs. Antiq. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. a barSp. 2. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . Dan.Lat. Florio. It. flyinge best. pre. All from bastir. nade. staff. Sw. bastille. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. That yche blak y dar wel telle. Cot. stryk. basto.— Bailey. club.baste or knock soundly. a bird which. 2. . to quilt or stitch wool into it. vledermus. which in the E. bastir. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. set up. Pm. put it together. the bat . to beat. bastir. and Cot. bladier. iastir. blakta. to give him a sound bastingi 3. 164). a blockhouse. blaka. to rub gently. worth (Nat. to flap.'CaB. p. baston. It. 'iJipistreUo. . also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. compared with blakka. to whip. bastine. translation to a bat. bastione. stryka. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . Fr. back. vespertilio. to drub. has bastine. to build. raise. bastimento. Fr. 2. bastonada. the winged . blows. R. blakra.— . Sw. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis.stitching in general. ment. iinbastire. in the use of the E. explains Sp. packsaddle. the E. as weU as besteau. To beat or bang soundly. from Fr. contrive. To donjon. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. Perhaps baska. the clapper of a bell. but this is hardly satisfactory. dial. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. bast. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. a things prepared for future use. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. ON.. Fr. E. — — Fl. and ditches bastion. bat. natt-blakka. Dieiif. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. 11864. Derived by Diez from iasi. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. blakka.fortress or castle furnished with towers. e. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. BAT neither. blatta. ari instruineht for beating. Sc. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. in the Romance languages. a with a stick. Sp. Sp. or implement for 4 * A . beating. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. to Due. bastonnir. the original has corneille. Bastinado. a pad or packsaddle. provisions. also to cudgel. basta. Dan. boste. night-bat. devise. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. quelqu'un son roulet. to lay the Sp. contriving. It.-^ Chaucer. erect. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. Sw. blatta. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Pr. bakie-bird . bak.

quhar he suld assaill. the heat of the It. a blow with a light instrument. remit. to heat. Bat. From OFr. sich bakern. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. dispute. for biia sik. an arrangement for giving blows. It. of bread is so much baked zX one time. I bathe in water viz. to cudgel. to beat. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. I. from battre. G. to toast bread. makebate. A batch as wood. to warm oneself at the fire. battre.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. to get better. beat down. howis. as signifying warm baths. Battlement. Battle. bludgeon. Bailey. to foment. batador. is a simple adoption of Fr. to warm oneself. strife. bdda vidjor. badask. certain bend. or a dry stick. a stick. Barbour in Jam. a band of armed men arranged basa. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. tagUone. to become convalescent. to warm. to become fat. from on. a battalion. to thrive. Battery. a washing beetle. altercation. dial. bastille. as wood-en. as E. batna. gabatnan. . representing the noise of trees made up a stick . — Cot. Flem.— . allay . to fire or in the sun. was formed bastilU. then to warm by the application of hot water. to foment with hot applica. Pr. PLD. Sw. Bret. Batten. Hence pro. battre. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. abattre. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. See Better. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. to heat . battaglia. Eggs. and as a verb. battions. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. quell. Ayenst the sunne. on the fire. The bat with which a brot bdhen. Fr. also. Du. a stirrer-up of strife. buask made like a fortress. hot. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. also a sun badfish. Plkkis. debat. water whether warm or cold. batacazo. Fr. bada. fashes basking in the sun squadron. to for fighting. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. trahtr to It. Hal. and milk beaten up together. Gael. batterie. better.' Palsgr. Fr. to betake oneself. dial. baka. G. solen baddar. Pm. baquetazo. — — — ' — . baz. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . Sp. to be profited. to dial. . made of — A made by one Batcii. tradire. Baka sik vid elld. E. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. a beating. Florio. a great seems related to baden as Fr. Batyn. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. baeddu. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. cudgel. Fr. perhaps first used adjectivally. to bathe. e. betten. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to bathe oneself. on. busk. Fr. Holz bdhen. Jeddris and covering. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. and with staffslyng. a staff. batte sig. in the case of a wall. Pm. bdt. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. wet linen in washing. to foment. Pr. to fell. to beath wood Battledoor. gebdcke. beat. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. bat-en. Batter. made of bats. battre las ailes. battere. battle was used beath wood. I baske. Fr. Slav.— To Bask. flour. . to fight. heat. to beat se battre. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. In OE. Mgy. ON. To Bate. 2. Battery. A Bath. a Baiffi. to refresh oneself in language. baden. to beat. dial. bataille. Bate. in the sun. Jurgor. solbase. Goth. as E. lessen. Sp. to flutter with the wings. bdhen. to beak. oneself at the A into faggots. It. Sw. by projections or in any licoure. more. Chaucer. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. whence the sun burns . abate. and about an inch thick.Hence in the augmentative form It. To Batten. To thrive. dial. w. basa. — To .Bathe. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. bet. From bat in the sense of rod . to feed. squadron. Strife. a from ON. badda. term in falconry . G. a main battle. batir. badda. bat. Battalion. fortress or castle. beat. gebdck. signifying to give repeated blows. battere. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. is in falling. bdda. a blow. a battle. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. In some parts of England it is striking. bake. the root of e. or make debate. adapted for defence. or break down. to beat. pak.

also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. a belt. fe bau. a lump. to low or bellow as corn. zano. s. ground.guage). P. filth. also more Bawdekin. was simply a field gold. to make the noise Baudrick. dial. balderich. Baw — . Piedm. scarf. cluster. Pr. mew. nastiness. the Swiss baben. baudrat. OFr. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. bobine. divided between black and white. whence the E. R. — Pm. bow (as in our nursery Diez. Sc. trifles. librillo. ballach. 8. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Zalli. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. baubare. brush faggot. Gael. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. propugnaculum. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). to the same origin. It. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. bal. ball. to me-wl. baffe. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. having a white streak down Bagdad. bow-wow. Descript. Swiss Rom. baudrdj OHG. guigaw. It. from Fr. baugant. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. a white mark Bawdy. sorry. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Bagdad. because made of cloth of white. Bavin. Bawson. a horse with white legs. Cot. vacillo. a tassel. a spot. an object. or Cot. a zan. baban. and to-tore also. the face. Irel. bauch. The word may perhaps be sticks. It is all bawdy. as Fr.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. 2. expressive of disgust. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. a lump or cluster babhaid. to 53 manure the To baw. babbole. or the animal so marked. a plot of Chaucer. P. whence pouacre. c. An analogous noisily. bablyn or waveryn. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . exactly corresponds Fr. faisceau. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. represented by the syllable miau. Fr. Cloth of gold. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. collar. baw. s. Filthy. balbob. pie- . to vociferate. lewd . Prov. miauler. E. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. bauU. — — ' Lydgate. dacchino. It. dung. and Sp. Fr. whimwham. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. to void the bowels. an — — — A — g — — — . tille. speckled. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Pr. tab. pegma. Jam. A name of the badger.' ' Pegma. Hal. fagot. a tassel or hanging bunch . disgusting. obstrepere. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. to bark . From ! an interjection of disgust. to play the babby. or toys. E. Cot. is Bagdad stuff. b \% bouala. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. dirty.— P. Ball-seirc. Pm. to cry. The It. to trifle away ment. BAWSON Swiss. Lat. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. the white of his leg or foot. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. fields. instead oi s.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov.. i. bobbin or cluster of thread. bouaila.. sword-belt. balGael. form with an initial seen in Fr. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. fooleries or fond To Bawl. bad. babsmall toy to play withal. dente. dirt. from Baldacca. on the face of animals. bal. a gavel. to talk Lacombe. P. horse. ON. E. Baldrick. excrement. In like manner Grisons filthy. rotten. also the canopy carried part of his body. E. From Bret. spotted. —R. Ball. Fl.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Fr. ! Bauble. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. a horse marked with a procession. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. OFr. or sheaf of Bridel. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. Batylment of a wall. filth. spot. in OE. bau.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. baula. to bark. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. child. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. a dog). is used for a sented by bau. ish baubles. javelle. an embattled wall. W. toys. Formed from baw. trifle. Beaus^ent. Cotgr. babiole. baue. bausan. and authorities in note.

to amuse stare a bada. ' Tal parve Anteo a me.' Bailey. badius. or at bay. It has been shown under Abie. or recess in an apartment in modern times. . baccello. Bay. to on anything. . to stand watching one. expresr sion tenere a bada. 1859. Vielp. alive. window-sill. to be Bohem. large window in a handsome . living thing . to mark. Earth — By Nature made to till. grapes or nuts. and keeps them in check for a while. like a pie. that from ba. a mark. Drayton in R. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. and zndly. tradire to Fr. dehiscere . weary of running. beonj Gael. A hollow in the 'line of coast. when. bagaid. Lat. baer. to keep one waiting. put to his last shifts. badarse. or berries. badia to Sp. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. or window ' (in Fortification). corrupted into Bow-window.. to gape. . to keep at a bay. window . Bayonet. batibari. Gael. to open. OSp. in order to keep the enemy in check. overture. bacca. to betray.—Journal Soc. arose two forms of the verb. hddhe-dhonn. AS. baca. Gr. — Schmid. he turns and faces his pursuers. berry.— Stalder. siege of Bayonne in 1665. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. Sp. bay. abbabayer. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. to split. Fr. Catalan hadia. at his last gasp. Such Antaeus seemed to me. w. bilyega. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Piedm. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. From Cat. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. the step is the same as from It. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. &c. berries. baya. bayen-stein. bayo. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay.. Fr. Bay. a hole. Fr. —F. ist. See At Bay. Gael. BauSfi)/. waiting . beo. |8i'os. bahia. baiare. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. buidhe. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. Q. &c. &. trahir. beothach. Prov. baie./^ bau. a'uno. life. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. bate. living Ir. to open as a blossom. Sp. A — he brought her to stand listening to him.c. BE Probably conRuss.' — — 54 bald. bajo. badarc. bde. The word bay. Arts. baga. bilyejiti. a dagger. open the mouth. See Bawl. Holland's Pliny in R. a beast. bialo. bay. . aux dehniers abois. especially beans. Bay-tree. See Bald. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. white. a cluster of bacon. bijel. The — Fr. Fr. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. Abide. barn of two bays. It. from badar. Sp. It. ing-floor. baier. watching intently. — A At Bay. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. * To Be. by the term rendre les abpis. S. Lat. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. —Bay-windo'W. a berry. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. buidhe- The ruadh. Fr. stood watching him stoop. F. to iiitent nected PoL white. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. bahia. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Fr. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. It. Swab. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. husk. A stag is said to stand at bay. which however. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. laurel of the ancients. the cod or husk of beans or the like. gate. baher. or to have been first used at the Cot. dividere. the cod of peas. From the former verb is the It. It. BAY marked with bjly. bioth. as if to signify a window of curved outline. Serv. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. Mod. It. house . yellow . stare. desiring. life. baja. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. bai. To Bay. so called from its bearing bays. baca. the world Gr. and the To bark as a dog. Swiss beie. —Diez. 1. as gazing. is perhaps not directly from Lat. 25. Feb. the laurel-bay. Q. baye. Cot. baionette. from an imitation of the sound. bdcr.

. prodigy bauhnjan. Beadle. bakke. to bellow. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. bidan. bM. Bret. He says. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. or however. bar. ON. a presage. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Be. Bean. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Beckon. W. to wait. W. beic. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. bauhan. 54. Farrar. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. It. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. salve his hurts. Gael. a tree. beacnian. or any action done with a pointed thing. bokan. ffaen. — Bellenden in Jam. bee. backe. a single bean. a curtsey. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. to produce young. Trans. — to bow or nod . AS. Gael. -phxr. like most nautical terms. as well as f& or fav. See To Bid. as. a sign. It. Du.ad. signifying individuality. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. bean. Gr. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. beacen. boom. bank. gebed. Beach. Gael. into a snjall river. The nutu significare. badmr. Beacon. fero. The wild beast. bidello. bead. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. and Lat. Moreover the name. «va\ioQ. pig. bdkna. Slavon.. vol. a hill. beugler. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. bohne. And East and West upon the peple I tefke.fui. or breathing. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. to nod . fora-bauhan.' adheres to the root. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. stock. vii. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach.' Suetonius in Diez. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. bakkje. beic. bearti.fer-re j Gr. beans. l^ax. — bedeau. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. faba is Kvavoq. — : Beam. beck. The origin seems preserved in E. which is. g. a prayer. post. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. Fr.from AS. G.' Hall's Chron. bedm. an attendant. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. support. to nod the head. We haled our bark over a bar of beach.fuis5e. fd or faVf beans. to beckon. AS. Miss Gurney in Philolog. It forms a. Thus the final en. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. a beak. ON. would say. Bret. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. fromthe danger. was introduced from England sea. Q wait upon him. according to of Sanscr. Hackluyt in R. Lat. Goth. to carry. A Esthon. —F. Netherlands or North Germany. faba. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church.to have a French origin. Chapters on Lang. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. The immediate shore of the Menage. . or beic. bairan. however. a tree. bohnej ON. to wait-. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. ohg. Goth. into France. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. OSax. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. rising ground. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Beck. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. E. To Bear. bydel. as. Beak. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. Sw. G. signifying a point. be. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. bagms. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. baum. tale of prayers or doxologies. . on. ffci. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. atUndre. Bear. bob. pierced for hanging on a string. It is BEAR SI court. nokkima. a single bean. bek. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. N. Pardoner's Tale. Catalan becar. A two-year old nephew of mine p. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. baun. a nod OHG. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Boom. the part overflowed by the tide. Fr. becco. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. * Beagle.

fit. bavec. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. behkr. to happen. gefallen. ON. Prick of Conscience. receive. because made of the fur of the beaver. whence baveux. It. to be a part of his to. Slav. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. brook . to bear children. fitanimal. Beck. connected with ripa. boroda. bellus. opportune.getiman. pleasing. the latter are derived It. get J ' He got very angry. agreeable. to G. or river. Fr. Diez. to please. ziemen. to dabble . 1. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. becuman. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. to appertain. Fr. produce. judgment. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. to the good hapHalbard. seemly. dushmak. R. bave. decent. Thcem. Beauty. ON. tidig. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. handsome. g. blast. to happen. e. to happen.S6 fero. Lith. Perhaps from Pol. convenient. Chaucer. bart. ON. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. limplice. R. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. dize or dtzen. to shore. AS. bestiaj Gael. To load with ornament. a bank. to assume a certain form or Turk. G. pretty. formerly a happen. biber. bebrus. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. — A — A — . limpian. G. riviera. godum with ON. — . fallinn. proper . from baver. Sp. to those goods which endure for ever. befall. fitly . border. W. The moveable part of a helmet.AS. I do thee pray. to be incumbent upon him. con. place to lie down.' ' He became very angry. Fr. He becom on sceathan. name applied originally to the bank then proper . Fr. byrcti. Lat. while from Shep. Lat. to fall in with our bavard. . edge. bard. fiber. or special purpose. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. beo. As rivus. tidy. baviire. chin. slobber. proper. Beckon. and on. suitable. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. e. befit. birth. from beau. Bo. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. now confined To Become. to hem. barf. Lat. bekkr. Fr. to come to or upon. when up. E. byw. bedr. taste. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. den. as. iida. it is probable that here also the to become. badi. G. decorous. to fall. bett. Bosworth. Prov. baba.to clothe to slobber. See Beacon. That thou mayest attain Goth. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. to attain to the lot of any one. Now the Beast. Boeth. but now a river only. Thus OY. bring forth. bur. barba. Secondarily applied to a hat. nothing to thy name make. E. a. to the brook itself. i. and Fr. to live. our taste. gebank. timan. baurthei. Lat. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. the ece thurhwuniath. beatanj It. G. Do no To It fallith favour. suitable. to get. Beaver. from the same in the sense of bear2. duty. The quadruped. bcek. bekommen. Dan. a bank. Bedizen. as the babble of the child. E. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. bel. battere. bave i. bequem. to wade through the water like a beaver. fit. Beat. OSw. It. Goth. bello. AS. living. if sound of a sharp blow. to happen.— Kiittner.' every way suited to a prince. brada. a brook. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. riviire. i. beauts. to arrive at. babrad. The OFr. and to acquire. Cal. Beck. talkative. 2. venient. covered the face. agreeable. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bach. which. to happen.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. On the same principle.' are equivalent expressions. ON. happening as it ought. limpan. gelimplic. burdr is used in the sense of a car. bava. Russ. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. bobr. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. ting. See Bat. to carry. See becymth anfeald yvel. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. bib or slobbering cloth. gabaurths.of being very angry. The fitting or suitable. the beard. o. bearing. rying. and also in that of birth. See Bank. nod or sign. or a feeling to be gratified. an notion of being convenient. In like manner condition. dress with unbecoming richness . pens unmixed evU. obtain. a lip.we call the arrangement becoming. bobrowai. brook. to sleep on. comely. biivre. becuman.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. to be fulfilled. to fall mode of being. G. perhaps a living thing.

from leberen.ing of the word is curdled. 57 — Palsgr. to rough- cast. turn. in Schmeller. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. cozen. a cover. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. Lat. to twist poorma. by-flugaj G. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. * Beestings. drink. Confined to bed.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. Horn. ^. I A pillow-beer. D. a stinging bieUe. clog for a dog b'oteln. G. to parget or rough-cast . door. buka. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. 1. a wasp. bibere is a re. Cot. extant in Bohem. a agulatum in the original Latin. a drink potus. Fr. The meanpainting.D. mars betada. biene. Fr. a wasp. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. crespir. badigeonner. bytl. i. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. a bee. curded or beesty. to flatten In OE. thick. ProBeer. to knock. cogionare. used for boull. It. Grimm. qui de lecto surgere non potest . The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. bitela. an ox.— B. knock.'— GL ^Ifr.^ drink. bukva. pettiriso. de Fierabras in Diez. also the bite or sting of a bees. to turn.' the last word corresponds to cofly . to drink. an Beetle. Slav. to change . Fr. biiren. ir'm. whence familiar. bbtel. to colour with lime-wash. betel._t from the root pi. a wandering Prov. tree. Originally. pude-vaar. Bed-ridden. comb. in Nat. paralyticus. speach. an inhabitant of the desert. . But possibly bedizen 2. ris. bletumj Gr. woman that is newly delivered. Let. bedskiissen-bUren. 'La Gl. The first milk after a dizen. doubtless. G. a malsense of drink. The honey-producing insect. a clapper. also bienst. buche. a cup or implement for AS. from jtst-. G. Esthon. whose face is clotty.. Beet. from blood. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Rom. I dysyn a dystaffe. buk.— JI14. Bedouia. boytle. Bernese. E. cushion-cover . Fr. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. poculum. may be shpped on and off. sang vermeilh betatz. Bee. AS. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida.' So Gr. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. wedges. and lebermer in G. fall. beyki. beta. blow or thrust. desert. the biter. a mallet. kiissen-biere. a paviour's beetle batail.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. kivih. a horse-fly . and in driving piles. on. bitel. &c. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. thick. AS. beutel. bedawi. E. a pad or cushion). from Lat. erroneously modified in form. I put the flax upon it to spin. to poordma. Beetle. to coagulate. Gael. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. biest-milch. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. beest. as in It. sela que environna la terra. Bethlehem.(paddi. beost. KXlvoTTiT^e. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. Gr. GaeL bior.possible. duplicated form of the root. Cot. beetle also signified the impiti. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Arab.ON. PI. as. a Properly a cover that biiren. stakes. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. byst. ' MordiThe Lat. fagus. madhouse. . red curdled Arab .). bably named from the destructive quali| T. . . Ant. to beat bossel. pital of St Mary.D. . AS. a pillow case. cited by Diez. the loppered sea. /SXirov. In a passage of an Old Fr. taglio. beer. 1. cousin. Bav. the ox. piwo.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. bossen. P1. by the analogy of bedaivb. bet. It. water. . batAfter mete in sale. trees in a forest . 1 to drink. For that was law of lend. imperative pi. vaar. briesch-milch. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. bedde-redirj ohg. Lat. to become Beech. drink. The beer al for te shenche bate. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. a pillow-case. turn (a garment). g. cugino.cz//aj. bette or blettej Lat. case. to and ale. to curdle or lopper. Fr. prigione. 1156. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Dan. boeuf. the meat of spinach. Beef. may be from K. bove. which also 2. bovis. briest. as the milk of a that purpose in London. from the hos. from risan. of beatmg. a bed-tick. Fin. prisons Venet. to fall. translation beOj. waarin. It. beach. garden-herb. beach-each. Fr. Pett. bos. cow has calved. calleBedlam. Pl.

vir mendi. &c. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. Du. pose-pilte. Beghardus. — yivsaiQ. Du. baigeir. AS. tale. to begaan. Nov. beutel. beriolare.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. capere. to get children . above quoted to get beaten ON. iv. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. begging. OHG. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. y/yvo/iat. to know. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. chisel. 40. seizing. on the tramp. one after that other.pose. beitel. to arise. 1430. ' ' . cans. covered with gold D. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. in D. When Q. yivwajcw. Gr. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Into the are D.' A. — Stillingfleet.' for ye shall lament and weep. Lith.' about undern he got down. In Luc vi. P. Skinner's derivation from bag. V. 2. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. yivtrri. on further examination. beis- plement driven by blows. a beggar-boy. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. 'ex quo.D. origin. gen. to begin. 58 BEG BEGONE G. a bag or poke. in E. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. can. Deutsch. Creed. fangen and Lat. P. literally. affected. to be able. a little bag). ken. also called Bigots. a beggar . beginning. lapidicinus.3. Schm. P. air a . 168. woe-begone. kind. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. a bag. although it ' the future. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. touched with emotion — . which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. Bruce. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. signifying to conceive. on the bag. it is both to acquire and to beget. viii. a scrip euXaiciJoi. steinbosil. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. image is cleft out of the trunk. aginnan. To Beg. a wallet. in Lat. referred gan this Erie alight. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. V. Lollards. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. ytyvwfT'Kw. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. taking up. ' Begone. 'Aboutin undern monly. ysgrepan. P. a — wedge. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. is formed pocair. It will . P. as alighting is a momentary operation. hags. can. So from Gael. Si'Xa/coc. to beg. word. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. the fundamental notion of attaining to. to be born. It. ken. 1867. two betels —a grete oke. Vocab.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Mod. a stone-cutter's chisel. and Lat. 142. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Of brede full ycrammed. su with gold. P. Ancren Riwle. onginnan. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . To Begin. anfangen. beitel. P. ' . gigno. appears improbable at first. ysgrepanu. P. oppressed with woe. to reduce him to beggary. to bear young. ykvog. genus. to take. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. from whete G. but probably erroneously. Cold-begone. beissel. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. yivofiai. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. to cleve. The tother seand the dint cum. bertola. V. Political Songs. a chisel. yiyvo/uat. He did alight. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals.bag full of the G. krapszas. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. ornamented phoc. not began to alight. incipere. whence the E. a scrip.— . Du. a bag . P. duginnan. is com. begger. or Of a pure poor man. but in the same language from poc. gan. 25. bag {baigean. giving in Gr. To produce children is to acquire. Mundart. sel. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. to go a begging.n. Fr. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. a wedge for cleaving wood. & go a begging. at geta talad. a beggar. Florio. P.quently used in OE. Goth. to be acquire. ip AS. &c.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. From w. be^nnan. of Gr. 'Dz. Barbour. chap.

or necessary. the two verbs seem radically the same. taking notice or care of (Gloss. behefe. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. vow. us-hafjan. It. Paladino. hevja. to cast or throw. and (as Fr. G. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. zijn. promise. But. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. tion. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to regard. to raise. AS. habere. to be suitable or becoming . —Hest. is supported by many analogies. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. G. as in the case of E. G. vow. heita. hovast. promise .to vow. to fit. to be obliged to one. ge' hatan. to look upon it as true . N. To Behave. to meet. hatan. G. or the hence advantage. hces. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to vow. obliged. to look. to feed. beperson addressed. to keep. heeten willekem. is also found in the sense of looking. what is so required. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. and the E. AS. hafwa. to call.for throwing it. premi curi alicujus rei. to bring forwards. servare. hevja. garder. Sw. to keen or hold. The seyn. to heave. to the equivalent of Du. hcefwa in seed. The It. keeping. hafjan. the equivalent of E. To place are most naturally ex. the name adapt. 17. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. hafwa bort. to hold. At the back of The re. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. take heed of. to carry. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. to hold. habban. hafwa. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. and their senses intermingle. advantage. to be named. have the sense of calling or naming. gecall. AS. keeping. take yourself off. And so from hania. beholden to him. behoof. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to keep. To Behold. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. to vow. laborare. name of the head is used to express what hbva. Sw. to turn one out . when the verb will hoof. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear.' Richardson. to carry. ufhaban. to name. to lift. OE. guardare. on. gehouden. to command. behete. tail. behces. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. behatan. heave. bound. Command. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. a follower. To look steadily upon. ward.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. at the tail of. G. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such.— . K. to be fit. to tend. to call. to carry. se porter) to fare well or ill. to be obliged to do a thing. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. to bers of the body. observe. to behave. heeten. healdan. gehaben. what he wishes another to do . solicitum esse. furtherance. exhort. fixed upon any object). according as the * To Behove. to lift. Robert in Warton. behaviour. zu etwas gehalten haitan. commonly expressed. hove. Kiittn. betragen. — Behest.the figure of throwing at a mark. behat. AS. to R. seeing to. to be be named. or purpose. R. is on the top of or opposite to. gehat. Goth.). to have. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. Plautus. to follow. hafwa ram. hofwa. Sw. to lead. gehalten seyn. to hit the mark. invoke. AS. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. hantyri. to halten. promise or a command. ifl fact. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. The Lat. to command. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to carry corn into the barn . nittaa. to gehouden. to take away. G. To be expedient. hcef tig bort. han- — js Kil. injunccommand. behold. the distance of anything. to promise. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. adjust. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. use. Thus in Finnish the heave. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to be well pleased out. portarsi. right. behind. by the compound observare.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. from tragen.

Fr. ley/a. . lofa. to estimate them at a To believe. under the forms belfredum. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. Then. an implement for making a loud noise. to belay. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to extol the worth of anything.. if a promise. promising. Pl.D. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. Bell. for purposes of low estimation . Northamptonshire. belja. a tower for defence . or high estimation. to promise. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. Fair sir and Fair lady. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. moderation. to give leave. bertefredum. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to believe. giving leave or permission. to permit. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. to befit. to lay be- around. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to .D. appearing in Mid. then.. mark ON. Du. bell. beset. to resound. on. or house. bettifredo. to sound loudly . In Mid. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. bealcettanj OE. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. legsel. belief . In the middle voice hofwas. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. laven. resonare. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. to der swaren lave. beau sire and bel dame. a watch tower. and. is used in the sense of approving. from mhG. — Diicange. distance to which a piece will carry. honoured. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. bylja. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. esteemed . Goth. range. pro3. leaf geleafa. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . beffroit. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. Q. —F. . peal. permission. To Belay. Sw. portion. . Another application of the same word is in Pl. a vessel made for dishonour. P1. to cry out bell. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. Hence to simple approbation. bialla. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. glauben. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . allow. met. — mankind. stand. certain rate. to a loud noise. ON. From AS. loven. promiser. orloven. locus securitatis Schilter. To Belch. lov. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman.D. verloben. to sanction an arrangement. behove. to bolk. true. to lay the cable round the bits. beffroi.D. esteeming good and valid. are other modifications of the same imitative root.Lat. bellow. consent. praising. AS. to be required for a certain purpose. To praise is essentially Xo prise. to give leave. a tower. galaubs. leave . bercvrit. bounds. to boke. laubjan. G. a little shed. border. OHG. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to express approval. we have Goth. Det er ofwer er hofwa. To Believe.. to make it fast. hesfa. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. and bergan. boare. to hit hafi. on. Fr. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. fringe. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. to protect. berfroi. are innate . satisfaction. to praise. cela est audessus de votre portde. bulken. filu-galaubs. AS. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. to roar. is (Sternberg). to believe. bolken. erlauben. loven. Du. measure. turris. tain a certain end. or a sconce. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. lyfan. ON. Du. praise. a. with the consent of the heirs. battefredum. then. 6o BELAY BELL loven. to believe. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. reputation. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. ungalaub kas. laven. Du. to promise or engage. bervrit. beleggen. fitness. in nautical language. It. b'ola. to praise. Pl. overspread. garnish. properly belonging to the church tower. ornament. is an easy progress. loben. to bellow. permitting or giving leave. to put a high price or value on. and Du. if a narration. and E. to praise. were civil terms of address. — . OFr. to fix a price upon one's wares. reach. precious. bealcan. See Gain. The word be- Belfry.Lat. frid. aim. and E.alyfan. to give leave Dan. galaubjan. bellan. gelyfan. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave.

OFr. bolg. blister balgan-snamha. kind. Benign.— Belly. benjoim. attingere. bolg. fens et hie liraus. In E. est matris in lucem editus. langen. benehusk. belly. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. to arrive at. — See Numb. blast-bcelg. a good deed. attinere. to belong. poX^ri. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. to stretch it on a frame. to bless. from cwcsthan. a blow.videtur. to come to the crown belangen. Fr. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. a spring. wallet. incense of Java. I araye. Fr. bandoir. vulva. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. belly. a border. attinere. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. — ray. to use words of good omen. or fyle with myre. welt of a shoe gwald. Commentary on Neccham in Nat.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. Benefice. to do good to one . becwathan. bander un arc. from another modification of the word for bubble. bags or bellows. to touch one. disposed to oblige. To Bend. gwaldas. bilbila. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. pertinere. .. To Benum. to touch. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. bellows. Was das belanget. OUG. Lat. Sw. . se bander. Benediction. belliJ Lat. Bav. ^To Beray. See Bank. loubdn djawt. skin. w. Benzoin. . a leather bag. a benefit. Lat. ' I beraye. bendan. the skin of those animals that factor. to hallow. . as concerning that. an inflated Lat. well. G. bienfait. balg. . means seeds of plants. a round or bubble-shaped root. to exert force. belgr. rise against external force . ray. benedicere. G. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. benejicium. to make bilbil. bcelg. a bellows . a water-bubble builge. hem. to attain to. vulgarly the belly. benedictio {bene^ and dico. bless. to reach. to say. dirt. pino3. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. See Bind. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. benignus (opposed to malignus). bimpsen.' Palsgr. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. J'emboue. from which is also bulbus. welt of a shoe. Dozy. because bcelg. to ring. to concern. pertinere. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. — root consisting of concentric skins. To Bequeath. bellows. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. to concern. bolch. benjoin. Fr. pouch. to hold to one. a kindness. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. to attain belangen. G. bendaj as. ball. Lat. bag. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. The ing-skin. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. Belt. volva. a accusative. benir. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. or simply djawt.' The term had been previously planation. benefacere. Gael. fyle To dirty. Eenison. beneison. generous. See Nether. has assumed a plural form. rushes. Benedico. Javanese perfume.Fr. is a kindred form. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. ' . leather sack. bilbil-goda. G. was in Mid. a blessing. balg. by itself. on.' — Hie fimus. as. binssen. ON. a bellows. bellows. belch. taken absolutely. . Ptg. binsen. Kil. To belong is thus to reach up to. wallet Benefit. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. See I . Benefactor. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. bene/actum. Bret. balteus . I soyle it or araye it. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. Lat. Bench. . To Belong'. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. or sometimes louban. the womb. benaigon. belt. I say). from benedictio. pod. to.pinuz. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . cod or husk of pulse. to bend a bow . border. Gael. is The word balg. Lat. are stripped off whole blase-balg. bimaissen. to become one's property . Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). the word. Du. Lat.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS." — — . Bent. hence with ashes. Beneath. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. ON. From OFr. from Arab. — Ducange. I marre a thyng. a speaking well of one. one who does good. Quoth. gelangen. needs no ex. Benignant. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. skin. Gum benjamin. bell.polch. or a It is times the to signify services. pervenire.

eld up- On is to be placed A — .t. or to bestead one. and Du. in the sense ctf beria. Zeitschr. From abet. to exercise on a definite object. BETE dirty'. Grose. lay out. To seek something from a person. besnij Pl.— Hal. as. make better . roju. to make it. seems twigs or rods. G.—^fake. Du. repair. G. To help. E. See Reave. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. from AS. beseech. . to make better. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. Sw. OE. or the space kept clear betan. to word is shelter. to thrust. 3. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. On the other hand. as Du. but it is specially applied mister. . barth may be for barf.fish the other hand. bestow. Fr. supply. might have been . to supply a want. a berry. to light the fire . p. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. — Chaucer. sweepings. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. BEREAVE Wall. houseless. boeten. to the place boarded off in a. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter.bhaksh. put. as in growth. besje^ Sanscr. as bouter selle. boutefeu. to on the other Goth. boteith Goth. earh. is to perform a serviceable office to him. besIn sen. fearful. same word with the provincial barth. bur-we. to stand one in good stead. protect . to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. Rob. broom twigs. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. Du. the origin of which is to be found in ON. mud. noise. buttafuoco. barfham. Bestead. — bota. Fr. bdt. besmas. Sw.— VixHsm. R. ^•n. Beet. Berry. ropahtaa. advantage. Du. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. to give a place to. encouraging. supporting on the one side Lat. To Gl. earg. profit. and on which the wager is laid. basya. an incendiary. a fire. bereafian. position. but in practice.iooA. rubbish. to thrust. bacca. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. amendment. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . as. Ihre. compared with bargham. think more probable. to strip. reparation. Goth. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. vi. what does it better a man. — . properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. Best. rods. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. Esthon. — amendment.• 62 Antiq. Tha het he micel fyr betan. ^akka. The proper meaning of the bale. To Bestow. scopse spartis. reparation. p. Kil. person to lie in. fyrbotare. because used for making besoms. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. fall with sound. to amend. sheltered from the wind. preferably. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. betan.D. Hfence backing. to fire a funeral pile of . to to deprive of. The origin is AS. as conversely a besom is called broom. Du. AS. I from lew. * Berth. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. To Bet. When men of mekeness him baet. Devon. small eatable fruit. buttare. from grow. to cast. R. lewth.irova. Fin. dung . barth under hedge is a succour to beast. stow. E. one who shelter. it seems hard to separate as. to fall with roisto. a place . and also to entreat. advantage. or. berry. the guardian . ariierf to 113. brem-bessen. a horse collar. to put on the saddle. as. Tusser. stede. boeten. making better. betan. baete. jnore. put forth. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. arwe. baete. to entreat. So too Yorkshire arf. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. to kindle the fire. bal oppbota. To bete his Jam. an incendiary. boeten. from It. berwham. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. So Lat. Besom. of ffeed a fire. bat. ship for a make amend. hva mannan. AS. bdt. roe. besen. bet.X. roju. botesward. basjaj Du. stealth from steal. the side bhakshya. improve. Beere. The dry. het vuur The serise of Boeten. to To Bereave. dirt . So roto rattle down. better. as. to defend. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. * To Bete. beorgan. — Biglotton. AS. to be-place. Beit. peto. sets fire to. place. to seek. what does it boot. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. besein. to mend. dirt. vol. bouter. bota. It is the restore fyr betan. barthless. solicit.ot-i. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. To Beseech. reafian. dust rojahtaa. burrow. dial. See Better. berwe.

bouter davantaige. To Beteem. Hence last G. Slant. Dit tungomal rendered in E. Between. — that schickiich. betaemen. *Ah. BETEfiM translated. dir. as tlock. trahissais. A — drink. i. roja. Det sig sjelft. taemen. a bevy. springs from ON. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. regen. To Bewray. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. e.D. Fl. G. for measuring angles. Fr. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. said he. deign. evidence of life. OE. Better. Goth. betweoh. Buveau. to Hence It. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. G. tradire. fate. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. from invadere. taemen. Sw. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. -to appoint. x. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. from Lat. a traitor. riigen. beva. are commonly to one's lot. batista. betweox. Friar's Prol. or with again. It. Percy Soc. baet. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. find it good: Goth. pair of compasses. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. larks. i. From the former of these are AS. best. to cheat. I approve of beveau. betwuh. are there Regt R. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. more. by two. Ober D. to fall Some call it a bevel. G. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. is used for the — R. abash j from polir. awry. amiddes. — See To Bete. better. tradere. /alia. In like manner folissais. roebucks. The inflections of Fr. gatiman. r'ojer dig. beverage. and thence twegen. be fitting or suitable. Fr. two. as from obdir. amidst. it bewrays itself. Cot. to deliver tip. bevde. betst. To vouchsafe. a different form of twa. fallinn. Bevy. Du. lot). proficere. traitre. Mich self a good glass of wine. It. obeish. The as. as envahir. zemen. from Fr. to happen. Bav. ruogia. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. what does It is forward him. afford. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Pl. tima. thy speech bewrayeth thee.— . betriigen. find in one's heart. Now the stirring of an object. trakir. trahison. Lat. dispose (whence schicksal. to Teem. zimet. become. as one would have it fall. AS. Fr. wrogia. verbs in ir with a double ss. R. ON. to fall. sloped off. to deliver up in breach of trust. Ik tame mi dat nig. Car son umbre si le trahit. To Betray. betweohs. — of the authorities. bibere. bedriegen. better. obdissais. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. Golding's Ovid in R. tweoh.D. treachery. ziemen. to make forwards. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. order. Sahissais. better. suitable. On the same principle ON. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Dii. deem suitable. Fr. betray. his eyen sheen. &c. — Betwixt. spritigs from schicken. of pheasants. to accuse. G. To boot in coursing (i. Best. make manifest. whence beveraggio Fr. by a final sh. his mouth. wreia. bat. Goth. R. 88. in the middle of twain. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. to deceive. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. traditor. some attention. fitting. E. against. tima. betera. moveable and compass branches. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. to drink . R. Chaucer. E. to discover. betest. a drinking . has — In a like sense tanie>i. bevere. to happen. of quails. AS. twain. Fris. from. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. as trahissons. trahir. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. Pl. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. batizo. is treason. In the water anon was seen His nose. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. bet. an instrument opening like a a thing. betwuxt. polish. a brood. bet. e.' Dialogue on Witches. suitable. beuvrage. to stir. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. e. Thus from dbahir. vrohjan. E. which may be compared as to form with amid. in the same way Lat. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. gesiemen. progress. in the middle of two. . gezimet eines dinges. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. ON. the being pushed to the frbnt. kein leben mehrin no signs . advance. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. From It.

rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. ice . Piedm. wrogen. Biseau. Du.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. See Wriggle. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. discover. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. tailU en biseau. bibaculus. of the sliced off. the basil Sc. bible.to drink much. or kwijl-slab. baverole. a stone-hewer . Schiitze. . notice. An inferior blue. Bezoar.{ioin dua. bias-wise. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. sbiescio. love first begins to life signs of him. dial. It. to cut in two. . Cat. Prov. (according to the Fr. /3i/3Xof a book originally. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. b&zahr. Pers. reveal. in Fr. it were the mouth. sbrisso. though such a change of form would be very unusual. evident. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. bickelen. him. to shake. bark of which paper was first made. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. a bezle. biascio. lips. Fr. Uprogen. to slaver or drivel. its clothes. twice. convicts thee of being drink. Sardin. sloped. besanca. asure-bice (Early E. Hal- — do something aslant. E. used in precisely stone . Ant. one who drinks in excess. bebble. to stir. bring under ' Thy accuse. The It. roggle. . slanting .a. 172. to slaver . winding or crawling in and out. stock still. Diet. sbias. oblique. to stir up . by throwing of stones. To Bezzle. bisel. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. rogge. or in and out. biax. Cat. to glide or slip as upon. crooked.' bibble.two. biaiser. biais. sbieco. rogt un bogt sik nig. Bibelsworth in Nat. Ci^. — crooked. bes-azur. —Dozy. snout. To Bib.s bellum for duellum. Fr. makes ble. Yes. the papyrus. to make tongue Du. It. bibo. foul weather. to sip. Lat. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. petit-lait. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. To bicker in NE. Fr. to be a paring. edge of a plate of looking-glass. babbefore the eyes. and zahr. kwijlen. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. it becomes (Jz-. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. Sp. bescompte. pddzahr. to give signs of life. to Jam. It is especially applied in Sc. Fr. Jamieson.or from obliquus. Lat. he is Wtb. Fris. a Galilean. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. sbiesso. a fragment bieco. beregen. beslei. per\'erted belief. which good bibbeler. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. . aslope sbisciare. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. slippery. In Arab. bickeler. sbriscio. specially in a bottle. biberon. bickai. a slabbering-bib. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe.as in Biped. kwijl-bab. An excellent Basil.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. OE. Bezel. a bibber. Oh when shall I bizzle. is explained to clatter. To Bibble. misFr. . to a fight with stones. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. sbiasciai. In comp. 78). Bisect. Bible. bis. to stir. to the stirring of their conscience. Dan. to tipple. metaphor). inferiority. bestemps. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. as an eel or a snake. bavon. Gr. —Bickering'. kwijllap. I Wallon. expelling or preserving against. dial. — Bi-. two- footed. Pl. in two ways for duis. to well up with Cot. biberer. to purl. To drink hard. baviere. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Sard. aslope. to move. bisdare. To skirmish. sbrisciare.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. or by any rapid motion. Piedm. Probably. To Bicker. wrangle. whey count . the word became bddizahr. bickel. Bib. biberen. whence Du.D. sbiscio. like guzzle. liwell. Fr. to dispute. to tipple. bending. has a singular stone-picker. sliding. ber-laita (for bes-laita). stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). babbi. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. sik beregen. shows the P1.D. to creep or crawl sideling. poison. bickel-sieenken. Fr. Bice. biascia. sbrissare. The train of thought is then. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . a sloping edge. Misc. presence. bezling or skueing. to it evident to sense. sbiagio. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. Bias. in him. from pdd-. bihais. wraggeln. pible. Hal. to stir. Mantuan.

To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. pray. bua. to forbid . to bulge. to solicit. and the Sw. a flexure. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. ten. rising up. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bog. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. AS. and Gael. besides the professedmonks and nuns. porrigere. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. balg. Jam. to pro- command. OSw. to offer it to public notice. quiring something to be done. Big. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. A bjudan in anabjudan. G. bouwen. twice. bidan. who. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. Kil. bulky. bidan. BIGOT beidan. P.t. OSw. form. bidill. a swelling. to start out. abidan. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. bced. belly. as. bulge. swoln. bulge. ON. Bickelen. athird class. — — — Halliwell. Bight or Bought. verbieten. The 'La. swelling. G. to move quickly. bieden. ' Bug as a Lord. R. bolginn. A pose to one to come to dinner. bygga. to inhabit. bi-. qucero. to cultivate. bend of a shore or of a rope. bugt. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. bolga. consisting both of men and women. inhabit Du. a chip. The loss of the / gives Dan. related to big or bug.' Pope in R. The . ON. W. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. to swell. 2. Big-swol- . These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to abide or wait on. the belly of a ship. bolgna). byggia. bugan. as tears from the eyes. as G. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. spelling seems to used in the N. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. of More ' in Richardson. faurbjudan. bugne (answering to ON. to arrange. bigan. — To Bid. the meaning of bid. offerre. pressing on one's notice. which is stiU. a suitor. repair. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to pray one to dinner. from seek. biegen. bilge or bulge. proud. England for swollen. and consequently ordering or reGoth. Analogous expressions are G. to build. build. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. — prepare. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. 1. be bug. bead. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. praebere. cultivate.' Addison. to presimpler pare. AS. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. or. to ask. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS.peto. to offer. Two verbs are here confounded. bidjan. AS. to ask. beodan. bath. to bicker. are also used in the sense of asking for. to forbid . to bend. to look for. With respect to logical pedigree. forwards. or third order of penitence. To Bid ' Big . To bid the banns. from belgia. buga. beadle. to inflate E. belly. to belly. . byggan. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. gebodenj G. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. and yajiBui. to build G. bidel. called the tertiary order.uddered len heart. bulk. from bidan. The ON. praestare. Compare also Sp.Leta). BID of stone. bis and in comp. From Gr. swaggering. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. Wallace in Jam. beidast. bag. bow. inhabit. to E. ON. becoming in Lat. The ON. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. It must be observed that the word bidja. to marry. To Big. may plausibly be derived from Goth. or bad. The original Swollen. bieten. boa. to look for. explaining the Sc. to dwell. bauen to cultivate. bo. to bend. an entire skin. bit- bidja. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. Du. einen vor Gericht bieten. in the sense of ask for.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. Palsgrave in Halliwell." buque with E. bug. to have one called before him. Hence Sc. has leta. to build. bend. Bigot. ON. anleta. to offer one the wish of a good day. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bat .. to curve. iiQ. Bigamy. by seek and beseech. G. to bid one good day. gebeden j G. . bedun. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. Einem einen guten tag bieten. ewes. biddan.

dark-coloured cloth. and Q. coarse woollen cloth..— Ducange. which must not be confounded with begardo. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. S. D. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. A. A. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . and also unlearned common men. bigio. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.D. Bighini. a dunce.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. 1499.D. corruption would easily creep in. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto.' Chart. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. as well as bizocco. bighiotto. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. 15 18. absque votorum religionis emissione. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. says. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. beghart. They wore a similar dress. a blockhead. honesti plebeii amictus.' Matthew Paris. In a similar manner from bigello. vocati Fraticelli.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati.D. alii de paupere viti. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. begutta. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. vol. borel. ix. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. with reference to A. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart.' says one of of bigio. face VIII. Bighiotti). clownish. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. rustical. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. From bigio. sed maxim^ in muliebri. was formed bigello. natural grey or sheep's russet. author quoted in N.— BIGOT bigardo. grey. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. probably from biso. all apparently derived from Ital. In the same way Fr. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. perch^ i Terziari di S. bigotta. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. Bizocco. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. the nobles to Rienzi.' says an Venet. 1243. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. Augustini dotarint. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. ac labores manuum detestantes.a. and hence the variations bigutta. 560. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. grey. Beguttce. beghino. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse.' translated by Muratori. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. A. &c. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. Francisci communiter appellabant. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. signifying bagmen or beggars. Hence the OE. aliqui Begardi. xx. the other form Per te Tribune. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. to adopt a similar course of life. bighellone. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. Bizoccki. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. G. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. Flor. homespun cloth. alii Apostolici.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. both men and women.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. biso.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.

In the same way are related Pol. Roquef. bolghe. Tartuffe. Sw. person of religion leading a loose life. and a billard. horn of an animal. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. genus vincu- Bilboes. Sw. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. of boja. — Cot. I. boia. top. topor. an axe. bile. bigotto. To Bilk. Bigin. Fr. now A Bilboa blade. a name given to a. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. as a bill of indictment. Kil. AS. billard or billart. Lat. on. BILBERRY nated. See Bulk. a short note. Du. a bigot or hypocrite. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. beil. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. a floating log to mark the place of some. boeye. ^Billiard. and dziobas. . in the same sense. The Du. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. deceit. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. bisoch. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Bill. 5 * . a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen.' in Richardson. a devotee. e. The origin of the term is probably from bole. A lorum tam in — Diez. bui. belghen. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). to be angry (i. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. an axe. — bigardia. a hatchet. symbolum. fluctus maris. — — ' . Aurelles. loi. 'tumidi fluctus. billard also signified at billyards. a negro. dziob. Fr. a seal. at sea Billet. beghart. b'olja. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. tepati. Bilbo. obsolete. bull-berries. a beak. Kil. from OSw. Bilberry. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. gan. irons or set in a kind of stocks. weapon . So in Gr.' mariners. buoy [i. to peck. p. however. axe. false pretender to reUgious feeling. 2. Sp. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Billet. buie. e. Du. Johansen. clog to a fetter. blaa. ferrese quam ligneae. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. 2. from the dark colour. the bill of a bird. 3. bil. bizocco. Langued. Bilge. to strike. a of the sea. the o changing to an i to express diminution.. NFris. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. abelthe fetter itself. To defraud one of expected sinking. a man who rests on a stick in walking. billet. bulla. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. AS. G. An instrument for hewing. dziobad. bulgja. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . biilge. blamand. an adze . to pick a millstone. . the beak of a bird. Thus we find in It. Lat. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. an axe . a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bille. used in legal proceedings. OFr. Bohem. seems to be rather the unda. a shackle. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. Fr. bullet. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed.— — — . Deutsch. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Gael. plog-bill. of E. procella Kil. to swell with rage). The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. bigardo. bulghe. a hypocrite. bla-berry. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. belgan. bill of exchange. in the sense of a writing. an ingot of gold or silver. crowberry. In English the meaning has received a further development. a seal. gleischner (Frisch). Gascoigne in R. fetters. Bille. dissimulation . that of swell. Bojce. See Bull. buail. Bill. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. bwyell. The proper meaning bylgia. Dan. Dan. boja. bill in parliament. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. blue . Prov. . as craneberry. an ingot. is properly a sealed instrument. to job. billot. Billette. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. w. Piedmontese bigot.' bilio. bill. AS. billet is the diminutive of this. to strike. the trunk of a tree. from Mid. the swelling G. inscriptum. might be taken to express a hypocrite. names bill-berries. bigot. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Ludwig. Sw. a sword. an axe. and in Lat. Billow. Du. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. whortle-berries. bigot. bila. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. A slang term for a sword. Mundart.

a pig petz. pippione. Bisen. Bittacle or Binnacle. bigne. beitan. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. hiindiiin. by the verb knit or net. bunch. beitsl. an eagle's young G. Lith. v. to swell. bund. pittjo. V. bitacora. brid. and of Fr.. brut. twice cooked. or ben-wood. beran. hith. bin-wood. Bizened. a female dog hindinn. When compared with Fr. H. The term ON. pundas. a truss. Bindweed. Habitacle. To — — —D. band. a knob. a little dog. AS. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. a bump or knob. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. in Swabia. viz. bunki. an overseer. pinnii. Fr. Fr. qui nisi propius Blind. We — A Birth. to bulge. i. See Breed. a gallinaceous bird. wine. bindan. admota non Bit. pinnu. BITTACLE /Siof. Bailey. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. e. to fasten it together. betsel. Goth. . bundle. life. See Belly. Birch. Sw. Thus I suppose the Gr.' and the like. a brood or hatch of young. Gr. G. Lat. . Bine. properly a young pigeon. It. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. to bear. is in Scotland applied to ivy. ge- from AS. a heap. &c. It. or petze. Fr. bund. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. bunt. to bring Biscuit. piiiti. are commonplaces. bundle. AS. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Fr. Lat. by binda. Sw. bhurja.. than vice versi. biscuit. Bitch. binge. or bin. G. a hind or female stag. evegue. Goth. pin-ti. — — . evesgue. j). bord. doubtless a stone. bita. a female stag. Du. . G. to be derived from Ibfiaq. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. E. to bind together. Dan. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. videt. IV. a bear. Lat. the young of an animal. bircej Sw. isfiw. AS.. which is expressed in E. . Bind. biccej ON. AS. a bitch applied also to other animals. bikkia. bij sien. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. to form a knotted structure. . Sp. I would derive the verb to knit. EpisETTiTOOTToe. evigue. Lat. The proper meaning is a heap. propius videre bij sicndc. truss. earnes brid. a bitch. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. poule. Lith. to knot nets for fish. from \t3\. nodus. Lap. bjork. The bitol. Bird. where the compass stands. Bing. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. from pondus. a habit- Binnacle. bunga. while bind-wood. lusciosus et myops. fowl. — properly near-sighted. also a stone weight. bindan. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. terial. to bind at . In like manner from knot. 'tumens sequor. To Bite. vescovo. from Lat. pullus. is rendered in ON. a heap. . to net. episcopus. binda nat. — See Bittacle. a corn. Bisom. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. habitacle. i. a weight of 48 pounds. ON./«idere. to hang. from Gr. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. to build.68 BIN Bio-. Bin. sc. Fr. Bisson. to cook). or baked. expressed by Sw. AS. bij sienigh. — Kil. G. a bitch. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. Sanscr. a bunch. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. to wreathe. piccione. beize. beorth. See To Bear. AS. a weight. to plait. to twine. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. ON. bundt. berkas (z=:Fr. beisseii. bundun. a house. poultry. biclie. forth. copus. the young of birds . biscotto. and especially to a small poor horse. — Surrey in R. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. overlooker. bundt. bitill. Then added division in a granary. burt.

Goth. bihovac. maculS. to babble. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. NE. Gael. dusky. plabartaich. is apprehension of danger. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. pale brown . The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. garrulous. shining. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. in contempt. even humour seemed and beuin. bird of the heron tribe. Black. —Neumann. bitts of Bitts. a continued soft sound. 't kompas huis. blubber-lipped. pale. ' plabraich. . fallow . Again. to loll it out. whiteness (candor sine It. bitter. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. Bohem.). Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. the palebleff. a fluttering noise. bittore. out the tongue. yellowish. blabhdach. Hist.' It would thus acle. Nagt huis. Gael.— Blabber-lip. x. Je N. Blabber-lip. I blaber. AS. — cheeked maid. his blacan light. white. blake. a large coarse lip . a* mast . light-coloured. synonymous with baber-lip. blabbern. as of water gently beating the shore. obscurus. Mag. Bittern. gabble. The bitas. mouth. To or he can speake. biacca. Du. is placed. butorj OE. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. To Blab the anchor. beiwache. ON. Wit hung her mourn. pale yellow . AS. ON. Sp. bittour. blesmer. whitish. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Cotgr. Hald. a babbler. In Legrand's Fr. cut. faded. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. discoloured . first. In like manner E. pale. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. on. Cot. Fieldfare. v. babbling. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. /ealo-/or. a flapping. night guard. bleikr. — Hollyband. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . fallow fawn-coloured. blac-hleor ides. white lead. Deutsch. or water beating gently on the beach .. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. 156. Lydgate. bitones. an edge is sharpest sword. . white. G. quick. ON. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. confusedly. to let out whai should have been concealed. faded. blepLith. stutterer. small guard-house. bitor. to babble. The Gz. to the sharpness of a weapon. pins of the capstern. Sp. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). corrupted in Fr. yellow . round which the cable is made fast. So Fr. to talk much. a large lip. to To blabber blabber with the lips. mouth. chatter babbler . a childe dothe gasouille. beitr. from whence we have adopted the. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. buft". Pl. to speak Dan. babbe. dark. pale. Ai-mstrong. Fr. beuni. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Sw. Fr. bleg.' by Gudmund. Bleak. whitish. thoughtlessly . as of wings . blob. black. town guard to keep order at night bivouac.D. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. quoted by Ihre. Percy Soc. to watch. Sp. Fr. blakki. "uivac. blabbre. things —Palsgr. blank. a shelter for the steersman. Alex. bleich. gulblakk. 'fuscus. blunt we say it will not bite. Fr. blob. blakk. ' Biovac. a tati.' G. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. It. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. bitr. indistinctly. a beam in a house or ship. blab. as is seen in sputter and splutter. as of a body falling into water. Hal. to chops. apparently from its biting the tongue. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. pale yellow. blebberis. viz. blanc. baitrs. to wax pale or bleaked. a stammerer. . Sp. Why presumest And laam's asse. to bivouac. shine. brunblakk.€i. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Mund. iroxafealo. as in that of pale and white on the other. Bivouac. 't huisje. In a similar manner Gael. mona mid Dan. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. blobach. Applied in Hin ON. unintelligible talk plabair. ^aj'/^r. biti. plappem. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. Bav. from wachen. ^chops. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure.. 332. baboyer. Se bleek. ON. Mantuan babbi. blob.. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. bites.' by Haldorsen. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. on the one side. blabaran. A a rail. term. G.plab is used to . — Collins in Hal. an additional watch. leohte .

blena. speak impiously. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. contracted from bladeren. bladeren. blather. blanchir. Du. livido . to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. to glow. plat. and G. chatter. Blank. and he shall be sure to have O. with all other loose idle masterless men. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. to vocifer- — Cot. is identical with Flanders borlen. Du. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. and E. candidus. also white woollen cloth . biasimare. blatter. Sw. 1854. It. pladdern. Jan. as scullions. plate. 7. as. revile. polished. p. board. to bubble. pass over. which we . gabble. D. bladre.—Blatant. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. leaves. blether. G. — . mire. blactra. to purl. as Lat. Sw. and wandering men and women. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. Cot. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk.. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. flap of a Du. Perhaps from blegen. Hist. To blank.— ^o thehotsun. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. blank. to omit. Du. mud. or as E. to bleak in the sun.— Kil. pimple. mus-blackt. to Hence Ital. e. foolish talk. to blow. commonly called the Black-guard. blister. Fr. boys. Torriano. and the agitation of liquids. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. Lat. leafy. blame. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. a blank ticket.—Blatter. Du. blasphemare. pallido. broad. bladra. plat. blatt. his meat burnt.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Blank "verse. Wott. Bacon in R. to dabble in water. a bladder or pustule. also jabber. and Q. Sir. blanchet. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. blister. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. slush. the ON. shining. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. on. blanc. waschen. tree. also tanned by the sun. . BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. whitish. and thence to babble. blister. a white or unwritten ticket. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. vagabonds. But perhaps a more Gr. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. or blafich. blister. blahen. Reliqu. to disappoint. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. Dan. Play in Nares. in R. or of an oar G. The radical bubble. a blanket a bed. irXariQ. to glitter. probably ate. . a boil. tattle. roar. imbrunire. bladder. 86. Blade. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. a. to shine. coat. on. . a buible. Blanket. dripping-pans. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. Dan. blegen. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. blad. cited in N. branches . as blader. Dan. 5/^a/^ of colour. reproach. blegne. most complete example of leafy structure.. blinken. madder. blanchet. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. the origin of . Besides the examples of this connection given above. blaeren. biastner. Fr. chatter. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. Gr. G. Blame. Sc. borrelen. smother. pluddre. variable than the signification of words designating colour. piatto. rogues and wanderers. blaere. — — — to jabber. See Blubber. Fr. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. to shine. — Sw. To Blare. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. leaf. bladder. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. a leaf. Bav. moere. G. to To bellow. bladder . —We Bladder. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. and others engaged in dirty work. or a mass of bubbles. a bubble. Fr. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. blatter. black. Blain. I am degraded from a cook. to make or become white blanc. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. whitish. a bubble. name originally given Blackguard. bladder. pXaatpiiiiHv. &c. PI. The present forms then should be classed with blether. —^Webster. white. skola and thwatta. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. Eadmer. bladdra. blad. — rura. as. blather. blanqne. dial. Now. leaf of a. from candere. a pustule . sheet of paper. Blancli. linkboys. defame. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. to —Blaspheme. blein. vagrants. Du. to blanch. smore. mud. white. the leaf of a tree.

But now. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. e. ing of arms. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. Du. redness . blys. pale. blaser vid. Sc. and to make him word blaze. a flame . the matter incendiary . his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. among other . it is obvious shield on which they were painted. bleis. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. To blow AS. proflare tues. Du. Du. oron-blasare. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. i. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. ON. a MS. as a verb. to extol. and which. blasa.' to fastum . and. bawling. blatero. abroad. blase. to de. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. — — ' : bless. OE. kept up. Blast. Cot. on whose behalf the herald appeared. Dan. blezo. biter. Dan. Sw. Fr. a shining spot. blesse. Prov. abroad. blason. proclaim the virtues of. each of boaster. splendour. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. blcEsan.whence the Fr. A blaze is so intimately Then. g. blcEsan. The origin of this exSp.sound a trumpet. blorach. With inversion of the liquid. blcest. coloured prints. Fr. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. might spring from the same origin by a . the noisy. in that of praise. Gael. blazen. to blow . is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. First from the E. blis. Blatant. blaesen. Blanches illuminies. Du. stultd loqui. much plausibility. — ' — stroy. 2. AS. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. fire. G. senses. a shield. blysa. of an animal. The other derivation. a lamp blasere. to blow. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. to trumpet forth. blus. or blazening. used. also only pains and excellent endurance. an conium. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. . blaze. a loud noise. somewhat different train of thought. to bellow. Kil. Troilus and Cressida. might And sain. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. by stripping off a portion of the bark. — Elazen. magniloquus. clamorous. Gudmund. brasa. a shout. Sw. loud . friend Cornelius. blasoen. to blaze Sp. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. A gust of wind. blason. blaterare. bles. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. ill-speaMng their proper colours . in the same way as we 2. how. blasonner. also blazon or the blazSpenser. blateroon. G. thraso. a voice Jr. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. quus. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. a flame.' painted or figured . which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. Du.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. . or to the sound which it produces. to publish the praises. AS. Du. ventosus. If armour. Fr. bliEsan. blesse. shield or surcoat. oured. To blast. blaodh. blaodhrach. To Blaze. She roade at peace through his heraldry. laudes (Kil. baladron. embraser. declaratio. brasa. Golden Book in R. to proclaim. commendation blason funebre. a coat of arms. an empty and two theories are proposed. ON. to cut off prematurely. has also blencke. magnilo. live coal . backPerhaps the expression of blazing. a funeral oration . blcese. Cot. 'op een trompet blaazen. is used in the sense of manifestatio. braise. . Lye. A strong flame. is from AS. ther it was erst not knowe. a whisperer. is the imme. gloriosus. See Blare. blcesett. noisy blor. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. a torch . Blaze. blossi. blase. whence Blazonry. The AS. like the in English. besides blesse. to blow. it is manifest. to set on fire. a blast. beast. — ^Jam. blast. I. blaeteren. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. bldsse. a torch. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound.— . to publish. to spread news. a flame. indeed. visui patet.). light-coli. As Kilian. blass. boasting. baladrar. blose. also praeblczse.

Bleb. Bejaune. bloken. p. So in Sw. B. blcecan.D. 242. — — R. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. a stain. from on.v. plama. to humbug. to make him feel blank. to wink the eye. or blemysshen — blaken. sugillatio. And By a similar metaphor Pol. ' He blarrede or roar. blot. pimple . sinen langen tranen. blench came to be used for a trick. to soil. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Pol. to blare been weeping. blink. . as of dust or mist . In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. Gr. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. to start away from. a spot. tumanid. geplerr. or blemish. or to low as oxen. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. avoid looking it in the face. is Blench. Blancher. goda nainn. ^Xiixaoftai. N. spSt. inflamed eyes.P. color plumbeus bldma. 115. to wink at it. blot. to blear one's eye. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. a spot. a red watery eye. boggle at something. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. . from the than schal I go. to disgrace one's name. blemissemeiit. A Blab. wan. flack. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. livor. confound him. to spot. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. in the expression reputation. tacher. Gower in R. ' — — ' : — — . it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. ' . Bailey. c. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. the formal equivalent of English wink. I chaunge colour. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. (faith or creaunce) Be war. 419. blarren.'he cried till the tears ran down. wheal. bleikr. a blot or smear blanking one. the livid colour of a bruise. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. pale Du.' God in his wordes. AS. paleness. BLENCH obfusco. Sir J. ' — — eye. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. while the agent ac- From . Bleak. a been distinct. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. See Black. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. . And now are these but mansbond (i. The term blear. a blemish in one's 2. to bleat as sheep.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. to become livid. to spot . blesmissure. . to cry or weep. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. dead-coloured Cotgr. blesmir. Palsgr. a spot. Richardson. To Bleat. tutnan is a cloud. blema. blister. spla7nU sie. pale . Fr. See Black. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows.' the devil makes a vain back. livid. wanness. what blenched him therwith. Manuel de Pecch&. to cast a mist before the eyes. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. G.' to deceive one. a fault. Schmel. and thence to a bruise. splamii!. . a boil. light-coloured. Blemisli. — blink the question is to shrink from it. to bleach. See Blood. Ancren Riwle. to stain one's honour or reputation. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. Mac. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. on. Bleed. start vor den augen. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. A stain in a man's reputation. like one that has long P1. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. pier vor den augen eyes. To totally different from the foregoing. Sw. whitish. darkness of vices.filerren. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. novice. drop of water. bldmi. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. To salir. blur before their eyes. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. Blear. exposed. a disgrace. ^Blencher. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . guenchir. souiller. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. As AS. blakna. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. a spot. a blotch plerr. From the OFr. which are blurred with the have shewed you. Blear-eyed j having sore i. bleakness.

Nares. Russ. lightning. Wtb. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. De Sonne ' verblekken. to fall into water with a sudden noise. glitter. is I shall Gurt. gladness. blindr. to bluiter up with water. the Slavonic languages.eyed. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. joy . also to wink. blidu. blincken.' To — blunge clay. blind- ON. j). tative source of the word is wholly lost. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. to — make it thick and muddy. lightning sweet blago. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Swiss (obsolete). riches blajennii blicksem. blinzdugig. to shine. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. From the action of the hand making Sw. Paradises blidnissu. as a blind entry. as in Du. blac. although in the in the next article.blinken. blinzeln. Dan. dazzle . blithe blis. to be blind. the verb to bless is some. to twinkle. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. Sc. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. fortunately. to plunge. a blick-ooghen. blotzen. weaklaveny. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. to shut the eyes. G.blinze. to glitter. blitzen. . Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. a wink With the bletsian. mixing in general. plonsen. burn up. the G. III. blican. plotzen. good. blessed. . Swab. a look. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. ' Pl. Du. . or nettle which does form. A . AS. Du.blunda. blithe. G. as a vatn i vin. Owl and Nightingale. giving (Fr. blago. Du. to blithsian. Biglotton. Needle. to churn. tire.D. a. as taschen. happy . a blessing. I hold thee a grote thee. sung. but by no means therefore a pre. F. ^Jam.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. to lighten. to bless . Kiittner. to bless. to consecrate . happy . blissian. thou knave. blitz. to dilute too much . as in the case of blaze. graceful. Blight. lovely Bohem. to make happy. false windows. moment. well blahy blick and blink. window-blind. — Goth. with or without the nasal. gives blinzen. csecubrandish. blazeny. to glitter ful . To Bless.. blinzler. Du. . to shut the eyes G. AS. blide. lightning. be glad flash. bleg. Sw.Q. a glance Swiss blenden. joy.blinkard . blogi. blicken. to glitter . . pearance of the blighted . a dead nettle. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. Blink. blind. money. blicksem. blink. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. seems the simple netel. ON. OHG. liquid filth to bluther. (=bene dicere). plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. vious one in the order of formation. G. doors. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. make these hands 3. Thence apblinds.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. blatida. to glance. blindselen. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window.corn. Serv. 375. to dazzle . to make a rumbling noise. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. livid. Blazena Bea. The term then self or others. joyful. . For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. well blagaya. to dabble in water. riches . OHG. to rejoice. a. G. blanssen. blink-eyed. . to act like a — . bluiter. blaziti. blendian. . Deprived of sight. to merry. a flash. and joys of Paradise bliden. blend. glance. happy . The sound of k before an s.not sting thiiren. wink of sleep . a nounce happy. glad.wink . blet. readily passes into a /. The inblissful. bliss look . To Blend. a gleam. glimpse. flash of light . in potters' language. Bliss. — A A — . to shine. lighten. . to shine. . trix. blessed. AS. cascultare. blinde fenster. to bluiter. — when he — Bailey. goods. AS. blicken. pockets.nasal. to pro. blag. happily. shine. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. blahos. Sc. blund. blahoslaviti to twinkle. blick. tless —Gamm. joy. Pol. . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . glitter. to rejoice. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. wink. blich-fiur. Blind. To blunder water. to dash wine with water. to stir or puddle. an entry which leads to nothing . to mix. pale. to flash. bludder. blent. mix from blekken. a glance. . a wink. —Brera. sertion of the nasal. blende. sweet. glitter. Tany. — . Du.

whence blast. Langued. orbicular. pimple. like clot. it is must be observed. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. Bav. is formed squad. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. merciful ON. a dirty blister. soft. G. I believe. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. to swell. as if soaked in water. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. Mod. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. a blister. a little blisg. sloppy dirt. soaked. Hence. Jonson. is also used in the sense of swelling . blindman's-buff. mild. blesme. a blain. from blcsr. The roots /. and bouclette. In Fin. signifying in the first instance to soak. blide. pausten. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. and F. blinzel-maus. ^vaaa. Blob. to soak. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Dan. like manner the coloured. It may be formed Blithe. or the mark which it makes. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. N. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Goth. blad. blaustem. or the like. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. and pisg. Sw. Block. Du. Blob. Fr. Gael. . blithe. separate portion. or is inserted or omitted. repre- pusula. blote. The blow E. To Blissom. Boyd in Jam. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. stone.—Bloated. blcesma. blond. To a smoking or drying by the fire. expressed by cognate roots. in bulk. blab. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. blot. Gael. a blot or spot. a block or log en bloc. a lumpish head plubach. to blow. kostua. formed spot. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Egillson. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. a . blijde. Svt. as blinzeln. an unformed mass. pustula. shells. blod. fish blind person. strawclod. or bleb. Blond. the unhewn bole of a tree. ^Jam. bluster. blobbes or droppes of water. a bubble. a See Blot. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. B. speaking rapidly any . Lat. blister blasan. . in Nares. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. frequentative. — . in the lump or mass of wood. a small lump of anything thick.. in the sense of a soft tint. to to puff and be noisy. blobber. B. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. round. bloc. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blidr. ON. buckle.— Bailey. . Bleb. to dash liquid. Du.pusta. joyful. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. bausen. puff. in gusts. blister.— Hal. pusula. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. cooking. . to blow. bloated. Sc. and easily changes its place. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. busten. having an unsound swollen look. to block up the way. a bubble. —Bailey. ON. as a blab of ink. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. blot. a ram. taken altogether. And so from squatter. blaud. Hence E. A solid blouquette blisters. a drop of water. any lump or mass of things. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. blot. Blister. to cure by smoke. to close it with a solid mass. to blow. bluyster. weak. swell. Ibid. mass. Sw. Of sheep. a blister .—Bloater. To Bloat. soak in water cured fish. boucler. must be classed with forms like Gr. Fr. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. to steep. light yellow. bleiths. to desire the male. as in E. Dan. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. blubber. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. buclde. blautr. lagga i blot. Kil. husks. — Blob. fiustula. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. blindsehn. — Sw. soft. and inarticulately. See Blot. The stem or trunk of a tree. blotfisk. or blinde-kiih. For this. Cotgr. pods. bubble and blubber. a bubble. W. plub. to blissom. A under this name was imported into England. viscid. G. to breathe hard.plisg. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. Thus we have blab and babble. blouca and Fr. while Lat. gentle OHG. mild. bloc. to bubble. kostia. must be referred to AS. inde humiditate tumidus. soft. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. biota. also to set See Bless. — — — — — From blabber. senting the dashing of water. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought.

' the rain is driving and blue . Du. yellow. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Schwenck. to dabble in water. a nature. Wendish blodo. ^lys. blysa. to glow. to spot or blot. — Stalder . Florio). . ])erly Du. blauwel. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. bleistern. bluish. kuh-plader. to strike with something soft or flat. glose. blosen. blowen. blois. a The form platschefz. to dash down Du. Sw. clod. soft or flat. Sc. spot pletter i solen. ^Bleed. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . a Usaae. bloed. pale biavo. to sparkle. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON.— . G. Pl. blomstr. splendour . G. It. Du. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. PI. blue. Ir. — Cot. dirty spot on the cheek. a spot or blot. Fris. glasi. parallel form with ON. yellowish It's G. a beater. Dan. fair in en blat vand. lidmr. plotterwis. Du. bliise. blodelsa and blawelsa. E. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. AS.blauschlagen. to squander. blose. bliithe. (of cattle) to dung. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. See Blow. Sw. blawels. blue. j^ blottir. blotter. E. white blatte. dial. to dash down. Lat. flower. to From . gammon. blase. bloetnsel. dial. Sc. AS. Erploten. pale. to be red with blot. platz-regen. livid . to blaze. a flower. pladern. blaeuw. to dirty. bliihen. bfys. bloemen. a deli. Ein platsch milch.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. kobladde. blond is used in blatt. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. leme. Blad. Russ. to exists in biadetto. blaeuwe ooghe. blosa. Bloom. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. coloured (Diaz.D. plet. Harmar in R. wan. E. a black eye Du. probably connected with Pol. ON. a blot or spot. OFr. a pelting shower). gloss. the bright to blot paper morsels. . bloi. . plants which prepares the seed. lustre. bloi. Blot. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. See Blow. glossi. to dabble in water . proto shine with bright colours . Schilter. cow-dung. a drop of water or colour. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. glus. blue. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blotting-paper. livid marks. to grow pale). mud. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. blosem. a cow-dung. to strike . splashing full. gleam. ON. blondheid. great leaf of cabbage. from the bright colour which 7'vci. ON. platz-voll. straw. a gush of milk . Dan. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). glister . lump flower. in v. Fris. to glisten . blad. ' — . blostma. blue. 2. bldts. Blossom. bloto. blady. Du. plottra. platsch-voll. plot of land is a spot or small rage. a torch blusse. to slap. to scribble. Dan. Hatch. a Halm a.properly to scatter liquid . The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. blaeuwen. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blistaf. skam. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. . biado (of which the evidence plattern. — Blotch-paper. a. Wflz<^«. blut. bit by bit. pale tint. shine . fall to overflowing. Stalder. a flower. E. a blow. redness. to be red. to splash. blond. to strike with such these objects exhibit. — — . The G. to squat or lie close. to blot the land was in a leme. blou. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. Jios. whence plader. blus. from G. Blow. a Schmid. as the skin or hair. pladdern. bloedsd. blooth. to flame. .^ Kil. blond en blaauw slaan. of a blow with something lios. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. en blau ach. to shine . The bright-coloured part to portion of land. gfyssa. blat. Prov. sbiadare. bldmi. Blotcli. bletister. It should be of filth blak-blatte. bloi. colour of the cheeks. blue . blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. to slap. . brilliancy. blotte.platter. bloutre. a water ploutsche. a lump. blosma. spots in the sun. on. to patter. the bright colour of the cheeks . Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. a blaze. couleur livide. to blush . bleustern. Blood. fall down . or the sound of it . . E. S-wiss pladern. Fr. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. E. Sw. to blaze . D. blatte. Plots. lump of anything soft to blad. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. light. . —Barbour. plattata. blust. bloeme. platt-voll. a flower. — gush. Schmid. platschern.

Sik upplustem. to inflate. The radical sense is shown in Gael. blau. especially with respect to the hair. ' BLUE or guggling. plodern. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. Prov. and closely allied with Du. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. vi^ound. . Chaucer. blao. to hard. jabber. glaodh and blaodh. 51. marking some application from that bladder. a blow. to blow. Deutsch. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. bliithe. to breathe G. Pludern. Wtb. Raynouard. Notwithstanding the We . to glow. . fied vowel. gloeden. bl.' Hamburgh Archives. blow. bluh. blawan. 1292. is very frequent. to Plodern. blosen. tache. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to glow.Jlasa. blodyn. bliihen. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. MHG. . a flower. The interchange of an initial gl. bluod. withered. sponds with Sw.D. Gr. may cite for example G.. to gabble. 92. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . coup. AS. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. Blowzy. — To Blubber. to spot. a. bledniai. blut. Du. To Blow. |8A)'. bliuwan. It. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping.D. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. glas. to beat. closely difference in of blabber. ^Jam. OHG. glas. and the forms mentioned under Swab. glansj Ir. Tumbled. a fat. v. 1. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. green. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth.nify bubble. A. like manner Lat. sound like water. to blow. florere. y\r)yi»v. a paddling in wate r. to'disorder. or gr. corre. 2. These are — Bludder. blava. flower w. blazir. Deutsch. to show flower. to make bubbles in drinking. little apparent resemblance. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. in E. into flower.xo'»'. bloemen. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. blebber. Blowze. plubraich. to blow. It is howbliuwen.D. B. blubbern. pale. meurtrissure Roquefort. Pl. a herb Gr. to gush. to flap like loose clothes. heath. glede. OHG. flower OHG. blois. blaw j biavo. to exhibit bright colours. to fade. The aUied forms. pale . dirty. blahen. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. in rapid or indistinct utterance. bliihen. to shine with bright From colours. blubonciti. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. .' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. And. to blurt out. gloeyen. br. In agitation of water. blazi. to beat with a mallet. the red fluid of the body . boasting. blau. Pl. blust. bloi. bloeyen. where the word may be compared bliggman. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. gliihen. bloom. grey. . consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. blduen. cheeks bedabbled with tears. gliihen. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. to guggle. fiubbem. a bruise. piusen. d in Sc. bludder. Blue. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. to breathe bouteiUis. Jla-re. E. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. Mund. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner.— . G. blezir. Langued. pale OFr. to flourish. . Du. sense. boil. blue. plusig. is confined to the — . — . plubair. glow. plubartaich. fem. bruk. pale. Kil. To Blow. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). OFr. Bav. disordered in head-dress. wan. wan. — — Mundart. grug. a continued noise of agitated water. — . to bruise Roquef. Her sweet bloderit face. Lat. red-faced bloted wench. Gael. puff. -ii. ler.to blossom. Chaucer. plustrig. to bubble up.D. /idXavoc. E. blue . bloes. G. bluther. grow pale. and thence. foam. Danneil. gUd. chatter.' — Palsgr. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. Bret. G. blodelsa. to with Bohem. blady. a gurgling . fqded. to puff up. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. to make blue. w. P1. pludern. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. toused. a Blossom. to fade. We . in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. The primary sense is to shine. — Bluther. blass. bruised Prov. to fade. bloeden. disordered. —SchmelIt. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. blubbern. blodern. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. G.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. glowing coal . bldt. — To blubber. a blast.

without image or superscription. to plump into the water. having a bluff forehead. confusion. je perturbe. to dabble in the mud. a shore abruptly rising. applied to green as well as blue. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. blue. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. blond. Sw. a blunderbuss. Du. superficie plani. And blunders on and staggers every pace. See Blurt. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. is. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. from the Lat. tutte le semente ancora in erba. bleu et blanc.— . to dabble Biglotton E. G. in the same way as from It'. a fore. 't — —Hal. We Blunder. trahir. planus. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. a boisterous violent man. liebefactor. pale) is provincially used in the. to agitation of liquids. blac. abrupt. See Blunt.in mud or water. Du. Lat. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. bullern. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. Bladum. bloi. Hence a Slcelton in R. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Blunderer or blunt worker. Altieri. plo-wy. The word is here synonymous with amplus. to become pale. blutter. Then with the nasal. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. originally growing up turf and water. G. bulmanner. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. fallow. has donder-bus. blake (identical with AS. used for the work of an unskilful performer. from an imitation of the sound. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. contrasted with the dle. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . fawn-coloured. blave is moreover. blaf. to fade). corn. to confound. Bodge.• BLUFF biado. jaune. segetes virentes. like the Celtic glas. from the brilliant green of the young E. pale. sbiavare. Blunt. puddle. flodderen (Weiland). Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. Dief. buller-bas. to lose colour. biada. poltern. Biada. as well as sbiadafe. mix It. mistake.make a noise. Pm. a plain coin herausplatzeu. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. like Du. From G. blunder. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. blavus. verdoyer. blunderhead. to puddle. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Analogous forms are Du. Blavoyer. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. his business with much noise. sloppy drink. polter-hans. blue. blue. Halma. dial. in plur. tradire to Fr. Kil. to work To blunder out a fronto. E. and metaphorically. pale yellow. devenir vert blavoie. pale straw-coloured. and Du. Kil. ploffen. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Hence we pass to Prov. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. verdure. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. to become pale or wan. or an abrupt manner. disturb. Romance bluiter. Hal. bUich. sense of yeUow. Bohem. Flor. The Du.' trouble. to blunder water. buller-bak. speech. Roquefort. Bluff. blandum. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. Pl. a flounder. which is rendered by Florio. corn. and sbiadare. pludder. something. blunder. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. - reddish yellow. plomp. . yellow. blanssen. as well as biado. G. earth and water mixed together. Roquefort. discoloured {plowiee. find accordingly It. glundr. I blonder. To blunder is then. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. It is remarkable however that the E. G. Palsgr. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. and then generally idle talk. herauspoltem or sloping shore. yellowish red. bawling. Dan. an ill-done job. biavo. and bustle . a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow .//aay. polterer. all representing the — . the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. A bluff manner.D. It then signifies something done at once. Pol. bluish. falb. rustic. Dryden in R. to become pale or livid. blunt. The Du. biava. to mix it up with water. glundra. . blahir. in water dobbelen.. — — — . flav-us. to fall suddenly on the ground. Supp. to blunge clay. Kiittner. non rotunda. and biavo (Diez). a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. — . — Pr. Ditton in R. Blaffart. herbe. OFr.

united in Gael. and hath swiche languor in his soul. without the nasal. blunder. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. unwrought. a thick and will person. hebes. rough. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. viz. to handle a thing bluntly. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — .—D. inactive Swiss bluntschi. a portion To inquire for slaves. V. to blunt a thing out. insensible. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. Halma. it will be observed. plains The large bech. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. Plump mit etwas umgehen. naked. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. It. unpolished. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . it is taken as the type of everything inactive. naked. or blab out a thing Kiittner . nature. blunt. V. Chaucer. blunsch. Plump. plump. as cow-dung. maol. void. blotta sanningen. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. heavy. biotto. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. Probably radically hlekit. A modification of the same root. Molof something wet. —D. blunt. obtusus. ang. heavy. Woddis. Swab. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. bluntschen. pressions. exactly corresponding to the G. unfledged Sw. Now the Swiss bluntsch. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. It is from this notion of suddenness. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. biosso. ineffectual reason. The syllables blot. dull. homo stolidus. fooUsh. nis. and. G. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. blunt. fling down . plump. Ford in R. pale. with or without the nasal. blue. as Sw. without Maolaich. plotz. good plump person. Then cometh indevotion. raw. blutten. clownish. azure. Kiittner. — Kil. Bluntet. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. blott. clumsy. Dan. seems to be derived. bus. G. rude. heavy. poor Sc. bare.— — — . — — pidus. . naked. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. absence of preparation. Plontp. to make foliage. mit etwas heraus-platzen. and in the same sense. platz-regen. bleak. the absence of sharpness. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. bare or blunt. bald. plump.plompen. to make a noise of such a Stalder. thick. Won by degrees. Stalder. down. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. but of something soft thrown on the ground. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. is The word dull. blockish. awkwardly. viz. plonsen. blunt. rudely. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. Pol. F. as in E. . is thrown. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. naked. without horns. a simpleton. The blait body. platzen. or heraus plumpen. blait. and an unintelligent.pludse. figuratively. to plump down. bare. inaKil. plutz T)\i. plump J to plump out with it. forestis. Du. dial. to bring it suddenly out. — blunt. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. without preparation. sheepish. Kiittner. pointless. identical with E. to blurt. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. a bluntie. Sw. like a thing thrown down with a noise. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. blout. obtusus. It will be seen that the G. plotsen. Sc. massive. that the sense of bare. V. and the like. blatte. wan. Blaitie-bum. Dan. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. a blot. bloss. awkward. Bare and blunt. blat. edgeless. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. plumbeus. that it not easy to discover the connection. Blunt. of a knife which not cut. Q.to fall into the water. from the loud report a fire-arm. unceremonious manner. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. blait. it will be well to point out a sense. to plump into the water. through which a man is so blont. —D. Sir T. silly. in Richardson. dull. used in both senses. More in Richardson. stupid fellow. A light blue colour. duU. Sc. plump.

Pl. outward edge. Halma. then applied to indistinct vision . Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. bakke bleustern. to blurt out. and the latch . boot. bora. The to radical meaning D. be a crack or loud sound. E.the syllable bot. cluster. primarily signify loud noise. or blurt with one's mouth. Dan. A large snake. — a blaze. table. large. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. Gael. to talk quick and indistinctly . to puff. cheeks glow. Slur. Du. dial. bord. flat. bustuous. i. coarse. a. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. blaffen and baffen. to glow . e. 9396. Gael. bar. short pieces of any filthy mud. dial. to crying. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. . To splirt. to dangle. . bausen. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. w. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. to roar. margin. blodern. a mistiness.plodem. blubber. boord. edge. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. berd. bhis. to give a crack. to guggle. Bav. bdtr. Du. Boost is used for the boast. eafor. The elision of the d is very to chatter. 274. planks or boards. violent. a blow .D. Du. a smear. — — — * Boast. 29. a tassel. . stellio.y. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. plump. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. — To Bob. a short thick body. Du. Kil. . blur. Fl. skin. . V. Related to blutter. bord. AS. brett. to blore. dull.— . borrar. pludern.' — Red Riding-hood. bur. It. blotch and botch. blunt. bateau. It. will fly up. a dangling object. to be out of temper. bdta. margin. a burst of tears. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly.pusten. a club foot . As the as. Wallace. bleuster. my dear. bobbin. Sc. aper. It. table. to blur. — ' Dief. bluter. Sc. to puff. bliise. bot. as splurt to splutter. ever-swin. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Board. chicchere. Boa. an edge. G. BOB 79 — To Blur. pluddre. to sound like water boiling. blaste?i. eber. to brag grande loqui. — From mouth. hot. to say bluntly. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Du. it implies that it is empty sound. Fl. on. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. whence bordvidr. Supp. botte. Hal. and E. this root are formed Sc. To brag and to crack. of the word seems . Du. — — .v. bit. to chatter. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. mire. to smear. fringe. gabble Sw. Comp. a tassel. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. as in Du. is formed Du. puffen. Fr. See Blossom. baban. blasen and See Burr. ground. puddle. blarra. boccheggiare. whence bob. both used in the sense of boasting. bluther. to puff. gabble. beacon fire. Schmeller. blot. Bot zeggen. imitated by has also In like . strong. bord. baiag.—Bobbin. G. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. literally edge-wood. splurt and spirt. boistous. and Du. border. an ear of corn. blast. To blow in puffs. and when applied to vaunting language. to dirty. OE. bludder. a Jam. AS. a flurt with one's fingers. ON. properly noisy. pfludern. violent G. Fr. acre. and boisterous. to render indisbhir. pof. boa. a small lump. To move quickly up and down. &c. pustern. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. to snuff. to jabber. See Boisterous. P. blaustem. a blot. blirt of greeting. to rumble. a blotch. to bounce. a baU of thread the mud. blaere. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. blot. geplerr. bobine. Boa. to make a noise with the mouth. rude. lacerta. to breke. AS. 156. sudden. To Blurt. blader. Wtb. board. BLUR Boar. stupid. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. burra. blusse i ansigtet. to spurt out. bot-voet. Hal. blose. Pull the bobbin. or backwards and forwards. to blaze. 'Ba. beer. common. to endeavour to terrify. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. to disfigure with E. Swiss blodern. an end or stump. c. to blow. G. to dabble. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. Explained by Jam. the Brem. lindwurm. bladdra. to bark. a grows to a great bigness. a board or plank. and swimmeth very well. batello. the sound of a blow poffen. to blush. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. Bluster. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. E. bludder. a border. voce intonare. margin. a torch blusse. to threaten. Lat. Du. blosken. to blubber. edge. to make a noise in boiling. 1. a mist before the eyes plerren. pausten. To tinct. ader. Wright's ed. Sverris Saga. crack made by bursting open. bdd. De Boat. swagger. rude.plerr. blurra. cocodrUlus. or bog also thread. to make mouths. planks raised up outside the roofs. Blush. a bladder . reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri.

French bouter. W. potacha. . to fail. to make a mow at. a round body both. to start start and back as from a bugbear. to deliver a message. . gago. potig. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. badyti. swelling. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . gebod. Gl. . to be unsteady tich. ^Jam. Russ. Now unskilful action is conmire. We . bogadh. unsteady. To make bad work. gag. a spur. meaning the round part of his body. a cask. to blurt a thing out. Lap. fickle . move. gog in gog-mire. To Bode. AS. . busti. whence Fr. whence paUchen. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. of which the E. a . a quagsoft. baboyer. boll. To Bodge. rounded. expression hogglin an bogglin. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. Bog. daubed or dabbled with blood. nave of a wheel. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. bodak. quakmg. bodhag. . formerly bodies. Ir. the trunk of the animal body.a (i\ia. calf of the leg. See Baber-lipped. bodi. bodene. And waves. — Grandg. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. to fail. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. as in stammering or staggering. to stammer. 43. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Gael. Gael. a messenger . agitate. to commit a blunder. to make. is a lump. The signification of the root bot. shake. . as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. bodat. bayonet . — 2. bogan. then from the yielding. mud. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. anything soft. body of a shirt bol. from fitting close to the body. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. . bottig. a bog or morass. bod. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. or stem of a tree. Crist. bo tich. Banff. woman's stays.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. bagges. Thy i. a puddle. to stick. to scruple. potacha. to bodge. See Bid. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. gagoula. bolr. barriga. the thick part of anything. . a body. Ptg. stuttering. bodies. potahha. e. ON. to push with the horns. . the belly. is identical with Fr. pall. bog. to dabble or paddle. AS. exhibit another modification of the root. to be uncertain what to do. needle. nodding. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. Schmel. In like manner E. corpset. a ghost ..' Bogglie. So BOB To Bob. precept. gagei. palleg. dies. Shakespear has badged with blood. speak of the barrel of a horse. See To Botch. stitch. stumpy. bodilo. quagmire). bayonet. a prick. waving. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. It introduced from Ireland. bodnu. Ptg. Cot. point. an awl. Bret. round. the boss of a buckler. bodi. corset. corpses pot. — as well as the body of an animal. '£. to stir. the body. a prickle. arise E. strike with the horns. bodian. bodetz. a cask. thrust with something pointed. unsteady. Reliq Antiq. Gael. and the word is well explained by Bailey. and E. bole. an announcement. toss. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. patsche. moist mire. 3. wavering. message boda. the stem of a tree . corset from corps. BOGGLE trunk and G. body and G. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. Bohem. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. cask bottich. bot. or bag. to waver. belly. bog. To portend good or bad. — H.hollow. to thrust. bottich are derivatives.gmh:t. bob. butt. or a pair of bodies. bothog. shaking . bogadaich. bodig. bogle. biodeachan.rabodi. Miracle-plays. boftich. Supp. * To Boggle. to roll. Bodice. so large a feature in the country. to prick. gogach. barrique. moving backwards and forwards. bogach. a dagger. to smack. goggle. bod. Bodkin. where bogs form Gael. as a horn. Body. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. To mock. Commonly explained as if from Sc. biodag. a command. Wall. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. to bob. bog (equivalent to E.! . a sting . VI. the body of a shift gaguejar. unsteady nature of a soft substance. The Sp.\\i\c\iset. anything protuberant. Lith. as signifying anything spherical or round.' A — Sherwood's Diet. With With this we charged again We bodged again. gog. by the syllable patsch. to butt. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. stutter gogmire.

as baltha. the body . — 6 . The bob. tartajear. * Boisterous.). If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. . Du. bSlstr. i. is probably a modification of boll. bollen (Kil. Pm. a bakazikni. Kit. Gael. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. bul. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. a bubble. a fastening for a door. bald. to stumble. shake. Stalder. Lat. strong. bul. puile. ON. Properly noisy. caput scapulse. noise. stameln vel bochken. Pr. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. to waver or hesitate. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. gluma. Du. Bole. bolt upright. Sw. Sc. boystousnesse. brave. bal.. to stammer. bold. flax-boU. repagulum. stud. See Bulk. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . or the like. merry. Fr. coarse. OHG. by which it is moved to and fro. bag or bog are derived Piedm. tulum. chaff of corn siliqua. intrepid. glass phial. bolleken. Magy. chatter. also a blister. Love. puilen. — ' — tagliare. warlike. the. poppy (Bailey). ^Vocab. Fr. Swab. Kil. properly represent belly. up of bubbles. Test. capitellum. a quaking mire. to boil. * Bolster. boggle. balldr. Chaucer seems Dan. a cushion.— D. Da. the gurgling sound of water rush. a bubble. This iv. E. free. bol. see Boast. To Bolter. belc'hj. The round stem of a tree. proud. to the belly as the or dislike. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. notes. insolent baude. ON. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. polc'h. Lap. biiilen. swelling. whence bulla. Boystous. a swelling in ice. buile. Daring. a head . G. hero. swelling. prince. to puff. pustule. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. the lir. beule. The term applies in — — impressed . pillow. a bubble. bog. tar. in speaking. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. and then applied to other husks. used. he will speak out. bolt. tomentum. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. ON. cheerful. Chaucer. bolster. in the sense of handsome . pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. bald. to stammer. trunk of a tree . bold. bhster. Westerwald bollern. ^Boistous. boly. to swell. pall. to be at a loss a shirt. styffe or rude . globular bod)'. Sp. (of Mons) b^guer. Me doth awate. G. bealder. pimple ON. bola. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. to give a hoUow sound. cows the people from speaking. stramenta. boss. Bret. In the same way Sc. bout is explained by Kil. animal as distinguished from the limbs. tartalear. bulr. bolla. courageous. quick. boll. bolle. 1430 in Deutsch. the body of a man or of ter. Bustuous. pusten. Lat. may be identified with It. sels of flax. from Du. baud. obex.' Mrs Baker. ohg. Mund.w. boil . It.palleg. confident. buller. bulla. boutpijl. to stagger. courageous. Boil. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. G. Goth. bold. Wall. bolzen. bout. — — which the cushion is stuffed. Du. b^gayer. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). but that Bolt. wag.Du. bochken (titubare. perpendicular. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. bolstar. V. To Boil. hakogni. strong. bok. ON. A. 45. strong. fiausten. bog. Boll. impetuosity. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. Cot. roydeur. gerade signifies straight to the mark. to be prominent. OG. the husk of nuts. excellent. scruple. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. E. 374. bouil. bolzBold. as those of nuts. and manace for to de. w. bolster. furfures. a boil or swelling Du. a bump. then violent. from the branches. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. 304). tartle. folliculus grani. dint in a metal vessel. as. round the first instance to the materials with . to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. to tattle. rough. stutSw. bula. bola. Du. Fr.— — . bulla. as. which are not used for a similar purpose. blow. haughty. to hesitate from doubt. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . bald. capiing into a cavity. as E. bagaji. . ballr. bullire.rounded part of the body. . G. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. bol. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. . bolr. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bolc'h. treated under Bowl. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bol.D. huge. balder. hollow.

' — — ! ! : — . a rattling noise and a jolting motion. a rattling carriage. vessel with narrow opening. hump. bolzauget) Sp.). a bolter Prov. we der Brocket). ler. on the one hand. bluter. OFr. bulk. die treppe pressed. buletare. gebolder. to clack. crod. bullern. hulch. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. a bunch. btilt. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. tuft. bolt head is a retort. to knock. a clap of thunnences.i5a//^«. je bulte. . mole-hill.. hole. bolting to that of form. buUire. buletel. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. hammer. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. loud and fast. to coagulate. the wheels groaned. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. swelling. So also we pass from Lat. a clod cloth. . as above explained. to shake. taraabout. . a rattle. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. to come rattling downstairs. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . G. Schiitze. 2. crash. to start out. OFr.On the same principle. as a rabbit from its baritel. hammer. barutela. tantara. to significance of the term was overlooked. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. barutela. tling or crashing noise. protuberance. budeln daz mele . Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. to talk pulzen. small heap. as Fr. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. bultig. a club-foot. P1. . Pl. rugged. baruta. bultred. Bulte-pook or bulstar. we see that the one consists of a words. On this account Mid.agitation of the meal in the bolter. bulio. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. representing a rat. hulter de bulter.). Du. a small portion. bolzaugen. we have Du. bolt-foot. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief.protuberance. Lang. zen.fe/2?. to become lumpy. OFr. Mid. poltern. taratarrum. Sanders. as of a trumpet.by forms like G. It. or ill. also to curdle. The ment and the operation. from G. Here the radical image is the violent O.D. by the representation of a racketing sound. grasbulten. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. to agitate. abolter. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. with E. to bolter. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. croler.Lat. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. boss. we pass to Du. kloteren. : ' — — . blotttre. a millpoltzet augen. zare. brattle. a bolter or implement for bolting. to E.D. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. to bolt meal barutel. curdle. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. agitari (Kil. and to crash. and the Thus from So. Pm.noise {brattle of thunner. then to knock. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. bolt. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. Lat. Pr. Dan. buideln. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. or the like. Champagne burtcau. uneven. Wtb. .— . taratantarum. racket gepolter. Brem. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. Bav.nature of the operation. the sense of right on end. pultare. tumultuari. to bolt flour burato.. MHG. Sw. uneven.through a cloth of loose texture. bulla. beliitea. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. a crashing or racketing noise. bulstrig. cruddle. fied bot. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. knob. a clod. clump. rugged. to bolt meal barutel. bulk or quantity . From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. In the next place. Prov. I boulte meale in a boulter. Hence.u. to spring forth E. And as the agitation of cream in . barutare. pattern. ' Holler poller / bulter. pull. have Lat. . Fr. cro. Du. . / is transposed in Fr. lumpy. projections. staff which sounds tar.thump or blow. a sod (Schiitze). to make a knocking. buretter{CQ\. beluter. .as the essential element signifying the talum. The ulti. Dauphiny a sudden movement. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. poll. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil.D. Pl. jolting. in S'W plotter. bolzen. to form lumps.) E. ex•wagen. — — — . Hence Palsgr. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. bortelen. tar. a round glass ending — bultig. crotlar. as snow balling on a horse's foot.D. poltern. a . projecting eyes pul. holier poller. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. Supp. or a racer from the course. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. sestuare. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. a clump of turf. to start with palpitate. burclct. one after the other.clack.

bombicina. . — having a stem or stalk. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. bonog. lana lignea. i. Castrais barato. OE. bombice. bras. sye. bonds. rimbombare. to which the leg. G. the contracted form of Du. tree. It. silk-worm. breast-bone. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. Du. buidelen. bonfras. 155. borel. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. a word of which we have traces in several English names.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. Moreover. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bunden. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. Dan. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. — bombast came guage. to boult meal. bein. must be explained Fr. bombasin. In E. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. a stock. silk.^Altieri. E. boulenger. When ture.) . stump. Fl. tiffany. From builen. Dan. It. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour.bast. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. bombe. ^o/j. has repeatedly varied.D. It. banitola (Fl. is supported by the analogy of G. &c. a string. ties. beuteln. In legal language. baun. raw silk. stuff. . the silk-worm. bindan. bulter from It. bureau. basin. to ring bells. butteln. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. beil'n. to thump W. bambagioj whence It. bauniwolle. a beacon. bone of the . and called in Mid. to cast to and fro. and Du. bommer. ODu. bon. It. burato. Antiq. cotton stuff. a bone in general. to shake down fruit from a tree. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. Bibelesworth in Nat. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. also thick-shanked. the murmuring of the sea. PoUitriduare. crook-shanked bondew. to shake. Fr. to thunder. from boom. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. bombarda.Lat. gunpowder. Mid. bomba. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. or trunk word in W. to bolt meal. a baker. Bonfire. bommen. Need you any ink and bonibase. HoUybandin R. buidelen. — AS. bombasine. thick from shaking. Fr. and Bond. 83 Gr. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. and that from Fr. term is appropriated in G. The material called by this name. assuming the of leg : special signification W. bond. butteln. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. Gascoi^e in R. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. brust-bein. — Bombard. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. sericum arboreum. . an implement of binding. . the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. As cotton was used for padding clothes. however. bombase. e. a ligature. a hollow sound. cotton. bwmbwr. been. barate. Banstead. the shank the shoulder-bone. a stem or base. bombast. again. bwmbwry mar. tie. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. produced the Pl. Kil. as in . signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. and in fact we find the and Du. d. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr.Su?. Du. gossipium. coarse. G. It. to resound. G. a drum bombammen. thick. iuttern. sijde. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. It. a boulter of meal. booming over the water. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . band. bambagino. a thundering noise bomre. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. band pi. bureau. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . bolting-cloth. thick-legged. Bomb. Bone. to shake (as to shake the head. bongam. achsel bein. to bind G. . sije. the leg. and also the leg. . biire. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. bambacium. . to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. derivation. q. Schm. bombdra. we speak of a gun to resound. whence bomme. band. baum-bast.). accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. tie. bande. to beat a drum. builen. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. from teu. the Fr. as Banbury. Near 6 * . Butterglas. buttel trueb (of liquids). beuteln. a churn for butter. Du. and Mod. bopin. a —Bombasine. agreement.

bdn. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. a hollow skin. bose. where a cross (or a gun. bota. Boor. boer. Du. buch-stab. the stubble of beans.Boos. Du. inhabit. stabulum. gaping hoyden — Cot. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. till. a scribe G. babau. Fr. from Du. OW. to cultivate. . Prov. Palsgr. dolt. a stall. from badare. It. Bonnefyre. . comes bondi. See Bomb. See Bown. booby. bonnet. to yawn. also called Brecknock Beacons. dog-kennel. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. high. Perhaps. pig-sty. been. short boots. 232. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. tapestry. the scriptures bokareis. as the Brecknockshire Banns. and thence Rouchi baia. to aid. dial. set in order. ty Gael. pole. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. boutig. litter. Bonnet. a letter Russ.. Gael. bossen. From bo. A peasant. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Bun. Boom. without ad- . N. Hal. one who dwells nigh. of wonder On the same principle Sp. bAkva. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. G. is Du. a good turn or re- meaning. a head-dress. swinbusa. The latter is the original AS. AS. simpleton. the possessor of the farm. — To boot. badaud. hu?idbusa. to set in order. wall hangings. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw.n. G. feu de behourdis. boo. E. Du. prayer. till.—Bootless. remnants of hay or straw. Build. Wall. a dry stalk. boutig. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. in w. The i. and Gael. E. remedy of evil. 13. a tree. prayer. to dress. w. wondering signifies not only straw. bote. boa. Goth. boom. to strew with straw. boubair. bonad. boten-shoen. b^er. — Bailey. ON. to ask. dress. The origin of the word is probably the W. desire. Hal. ON. ON. OSlav. Boot. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. Basa. — — . the cultivator.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. — e. inhabit. The character of folly is i860. Schm. . head-dress wai^g. a. bos. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. dial. the word may signify merely a fire of buns.^ —P. bonad. botta. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . — . Swab. To Boot. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. Fr. literally cow-house. help. ON. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. fool. foolish. at everything. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. but stall. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. chaff. a lofty blaze. and Ban in w. bauen. Pr. beam. p. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. bolt. bua. reparation. to prepare. Pm. the alphabet. Busk. tigh. It is commonly explained as identical with It. A favour. . Gl. clown. are formed Fr. Boot of bale. countryman. Binau Brychyniog. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. bonaid. bid). babin. Mrs Baker. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. relief from sorrow. bds. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. boubi^. Mrs Baker explains bun. tall. blockhead. although in the OG. which one gaping and staring about. botte. pero. botte. dress. Book. In nautical language. as a lying-place for cattle. by arbitours sholde bote the P. often cut for burning and lighting fires. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. boia. the first consonant of the alphabet. Trans. from gape. lofty. ganian. Kil. or Vanns. . bommen. Ox. Bootless. writing bokos. build. house. AS. master of the house. whence ban-ffagl. quest. gaby. a lying-place for dogs or swine. letter. Fr. build. bobo ! interj. Sp. by itself for head-dress. in Phil. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. the name of the letter b. a letter . to gape. bauer. b&ber. \ais-band. boandi. — From the participle present. . baier. Jr. . and from AS. and fig. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. But bosg. a. gawney. betere thing werse. from beida (E. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. the mouth. G. * Boose. Fr. biikui. . a vessel for holding liquids. bua. to litter bosu. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Booby. to gape. . a bonfire. a silly fellow. signifying beech. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. busu. See Butt. buandi. however. . a simpleton. a bag of skin or leather. succour Bailey. b'ukvdry. netis stall. A stall for cattle. babb^o. Thin ben Luke i. bas. Boon. ass. bosih. petition. nachbar. bowwen. bobo. gehyred. bd. petition. Thus from the syllable ba. bene. to cultivate. bosig. beiSne. Hufwud-bonad. ben. Kil.

fimbria. Esthon. to build. struere ignem. differs only in termination. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. burin. bora. hem or gard of a garment. tent. from deila and skipta. baete. the . butin is explained by Flor. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. Booth.. aid. cottage. yfirbdt. repair. betan fyr. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. amendment boeten. comminuted by either kind of action. bower. OSw. It is admitted that Fr. BOOTH vantage. Another derivation from Fin. which are probably from the same root. OHG. boete. furni.— Return from Parnassus I inR. dens mordens vel caninus. bothag. a leather bag or bottle for wine. bordi. .par. scsdes-bod. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . wave. abode. Fr. Magy. Du. in Lap. to build buda. budowai. to repair. and E. . Kil. BoracMo. on. Palsgr. uzboro. Mag. borino. and thence to eat build. to foam. to mend. lappalare. and hence to fine. &c. ON. to quench one's thirst . to stick unto as a bur. a booth or shed. a shed. Du. limbus. purra. to profit Goth. A phorically a drunkard. . to to . cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. bottino. a hut or tent. Fin. are parret. to The Sw. from bord. ON.por. boeten het vier. to anything Neither G. to hut. kvit-bara. AS. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. pointed. a word. to . sculpo 05\xiik. Border. swell bara. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. . 266. a responding forms . p. both. a tusk. Esthon. bolino. bdt. a shelter of branches. a great bur. • — To Bore. The Fin. exchange or divide. from borra. cup- awl. baara. cure Sw. to expiate boeten den dorst. bord. purro. scalpo. nor E. boeye. budka. welt. and meta- Fr.. make . It. a border. a bladder. chisel. bdra. to bore. to importune. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. of an edge that will not bite. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. Bete. Compare Manx birrag. . It. boards. Gael. bauda. or the gradual working a hole in anything. a granary . to pierce. sharp. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. recovery bata. to patch. a chisel. furd. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. . dust. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. edge. Burke in R. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. a shop budowati. byte points to the verb byta. bohren. Fin. a hut. a bothy. Fl. See To We speak in E. to boot. bauen. limbus. a cupboard. But probably the E. G. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. to divide. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. an engraver's chisel. purra. N. — ON. fire. chewed food for infants. pi. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. to surge. lappolone. Fin. a sharp-pointed tooth. better. borracha. extremitas Bore. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. admovere titiones. rof. bothan. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. urboro. boede. biorag. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. bud. batr. . The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. To Bore. Booty. Gael. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). and parrets. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. See Burgeon. Gael. to swell. Pol. bite. puru.. Bohem. The as G. to bite. 1. terebro. to bete the properly to mend the fire. . piercer. margin. a shop. puras. See Bower. drillen. forare. bardure. barn. Fr. beute. bata. as afford a satisfactory explanation. or anything pointed. making good again . . 3. wine-skin. to profit. borracha. Alexand. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. cellar. In the Fin. Lat. The cor. amendment. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'.—Burin. a borer. ON. remedy. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. puras. hut. And so in ON. butin. mat-bod. puru. The ON. pu purro (saha =: saw . reparation. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. in Ihre. to bite. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. terebra sculptoria purastoa. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. a borer. a borer . a wave. ora. sawroot. to restore. is purin. a. botjan. are derived from G. Sp.

Altieri. ' — — . Botany. It. a herb. Newbury. &c. a wen. I. i. a blow. butse. Jam. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. Du. northern. Borough. in instead of without. to contain. Fr. Swiss Rom. or head-borough. (Bridel). A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. by which of or belonging to plants. bump is used in lump or piece. primarily signifying coarse sound . and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. See found in Bav. Bos a surety. projection.. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. In like manner It. bundle. gesylle. bos. pitch. knocking. while Gael. baurgs. to strike . (1867). Bunch. that which biirge. butsen. without. was origin of the term is the OFr. Hence knot. rustic. when that system was forgotten. Cot. ' pledge. V. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. bierge. boschen.vr\. nonsense. borough or chief constable. from their grey clothing. a boss. Turk.mass. Gr. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. clownish. cnap. 106. ON. a little blow. plant. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. Jam. boss. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. . tempest. Lang. loan. a knob. a bouncing baby . grey). rude.' or system of bail. Hal. borough-holder.ribs and the side. hollow bucklers. AS. G. The origin seems to be the Goth. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. bttssel. Lat. to protect. /3oraMK6f. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. to become is emitted by a hollow body. or because a blow berga. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. to knock or strike. AS. a giving rise to It. a boor. undyed wool of brown sheep.' Vegetius in Diez. borh. whence the burg. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. burh. a city . plain rude fellow. connected.bucklers. to save. an eminence. boss of the side. a citizen. agrees with E. . to pick or cull plants. Borowholder. to strike so as to Bureau. secure. the sun sets. bossen. from AS. botch. bourg. Bailey. ^o^^flj. which now signifies a knob. is probably radically Boss. to give a hollow bizo. bump. less. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. in the body struck. f graauw. to protect. boussi. burel. Russ. a tower. borgese. Borrow. — ' wind burya. the hollow between the Borsholder. empty.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. And that unsittynge is to here degre. The other. a citizen. or perhaps also To Borrow. and borough in the sense of a town. beorgan. to take in. bom. AS. D. tuft. coarse cloth made of the Du. empty. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. to save Sw. borel. a surety. burgess. knur. destitute. Boreal. boss sound. bos.any round sweUing. ^ma. poor. to conceal. borg. cnoc. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. the N. boss. .' the chief of the ' borh. bosh. borei. botse. . a bunch or hump. The primi. poor. borg. bussa coarse. Sc. huschen. bail biirgen. borgo. useCanterbury. the must have arisen burgensis. Fr. and thus could not shake off the old burr. the ordinary a swelling. the North Wind. into borsholder. head. bizocco (from make a hollow sound.' if thou give money on loan. is used in the sense of bussare. basse. bergen. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. byrig. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. bunch. surety. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. brown cloth. a pushing or striking out. gum vocant. vain. botsen. — — — A — . the Sc. or perhaps it may be See Bury. Goth. viipyoc. bussi. as we speak of a thumping potato. bourgeois. It. a. storm. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. one who sticks to you like a bore. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. Du. to give bail or answer for an. to save. to keep. cob.' every man be under bail. striking. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. borealis. formerly used in the sense of knocking. unpolished. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . bosseu. pego. as if from the verb to hold. bosse. boss or knob of a buckler . of bail throughout the country. beorgan. busse. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. empty. whether from the fact preserve G. knob. botch. blow on a hollow object. Hence borhes ealdor. Bosh. cormpted. E. tive idea seems to bring under cover. So Du. cnag signifies both a clergy. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. hollow. knock and a knob . the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. Fr. pegou.

. is also a bubble. bSn. kessel-biisser. a cobbler. bodem. to simmer. A horses.of a ball of thread. boil. blow. a bunch. Jtidu. abbi. a slop. baiothsj Sanscr. putra. mess. Boa two. boccia. ba. Fl. Du. to stir and mix together. Bouds. dial. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. Again. gipuozan. hurly-burly. a cess. bund. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. butwo. a cesspool pass. stock. ' G. Bottle. to make a make a noise. Canut. nets. It. a root. ON. AS. the first rough draught 2. bethia. — Jidwi. Du. Botcli. bide. a. pimple. Bret. to bcBta. disturbance to . Hal. or plague sore . buideal. noise. boiteag. stump. both. whisper. ambo. And so we speak of an eruption. The Gr. — — A 2. . bottom. pother.D. Lith. what pushes outwards. butsen. Pl. beggtaj Goth. mend. It. abbi-diwij Slavon. repara- — — See To Bete. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. noise. botte. . botola.' to the fiery Csedm. corresponding to . Mudu. blain. Bailey. the science or knowledge of plants. a bott . was called a push. AS. See Butt. Here the radical image seems a bubble. bluster. See Boss. scuohbuzere. to strike . — — belly-worm. — Fl. a bubble. the lowest part. tumour. — . On — Du. a boil or swelling Halma. an imperfect and bunbutt end. Dan. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. fundus. j3i/9os. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. Bouteille. and E. abbu. To Botch. a knock. bouteille. abyss. to mend (kettles. a maggot. they two. botsen. as Fr.^Dec. dim. a wisp. to fall : with a sound batsch. a bump or swelling. Podge. pozzo. From the dim. any plain round viol glass bozzo. patch. gling piece of work. stem or base. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. A bottom depth. potra. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. for a bud. G. BOTCH understood). bun. we two. bulderen. signify a in OE. mess. — Dief. however. ubhau. dabble). a vessel for holding liquids. pozzanghera. a depth. * To Bother. • Bott. to give a sounding blow. botm. podge. blister. E. to froth as beer . batschen. a bottle of hay. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. contusion . Gael. ON. Hal. buazen. &c. to podge. OSax. botn. to dip in liquid (to Gael. Fr. bativa. botus. a plague-boil Kil. an abyss or bottoniless pit. Fr. is boteau. any round ball or bowl to play withal. e. as a push or windgaU. and ajSvamg. burgi vel pontis refectionem. disturbance. to put on a patch. a pit. — duj Lett. boiteal. N. bozza. bottigUa. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. to make better. a humpback. fire-bote. empty or hollow. buddl. bAdtr. Bochu. bossu. bots. Wedu. bundle. botse. bunch. Decorde. to we have OHG. oba. bdt. House-bote. buddeln. biissen. thing soft batsch. botte. I. bot. ledge It. btitse. Fyre to botme. a pit. — Bottom. abbution. Prov. Danneil. On the other hand. Fl. a botcher of shoes. &c. Parmesan poccia. boss. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work.— Swift in R. to stir and mix together . H^cart. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. botte. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . — . iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. ixorapudder. Diez. Kil. we have Swiss batscken. poltern. a bottle. of botta. puddle. maggots in barley. to botch or patch. to dash about . the bud of a flower . Butu. Ancren Riwle. Lat. botel. knock. Gael. bile. Both. See Bound. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. by met. i. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. botch.— . ^kvBoQ. . seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. w. a bottle. especially in Gael.) . It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. whence the name ol pool to podge. a tinker schuhbiisser. botel foenn. ing out. — — . boitean. A — oba-dwaj Lat. a slop. schuhbosser. a cask. bozza. butse. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. To confuse with noise. shoes. boute. turmoil. . Stalder. to work without order or know. to smack. to knock. a lump of somebatschen. the other hand. Judwi. to mend. bosser. from the dashing of water. . to from the root bot. stock.— Hal. a waterfall. G. pocciar. round lump. bulder. buts. a bundle of straw or hay.foundation. See To Bodge. you two. mutter. . boden . It. Lith. Leg. a patch patschen. ON. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. 212. stroke. in the sense of mend the fire. a pock. gen. bdsser.ments of the same root. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. to rage. AS.

— Cot. the bay of Benin. Wtb. carpet. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Probably from the Celtic root bon. pothel. 3. botwm. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. From Sw. p. bun. Du. winding. from volgere. to make a loud noise. root (see Bottom). Brem. 2. AS. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. as that of E. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. of thread. Nor a centinel whistle. bouton. to fix limits.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. and F. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. — Take care my house be handsome. boujtce. like bobbin. — strike. dial. Q. a button. Pm. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Alpine Re- — gions.— F. and Prov. bone.' round and round in similar circles. an occasion. to set bounds. the verb bondir in OFr. ni motz brugir. A Langued.— Boundary. baby. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. bodina. iv. bolder. Mid. thumping. dial. its kind. bend. jungen. a bud. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. in the absence of actual e. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. I assure you. nor horn sound. bamsen. Fr. bugt. turn. bonna. tnndo. boundina. So It. a round body both. nave of a wheel bothel. pimple Richards bothog. an de dor bunsen. bend. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. came home with his face all to-bounced. .. Fr. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. by Bujns or Buns. ing. The Bight of Benin. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. Coxcomb.D. butina. E. bottom. a large pebble. Raynouard. to turn. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. the hollow of a bay. the larger kind of pebbles. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Dan. a boss. see Boss. The W. Halma.>a bout. Bonny.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. bog. Bout. bonzen. to knock. to thunder. whence buj7isen. bumper. in contrast to klappersten. volta. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. to resound. Primarily to strike. boss of a buckler. to bow. Ni gacha cor bondir. Sw. Bought. buUersten. bullra. till The dat et bunsede. bons. bunsen. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. language a * Boulder. bunda. jump. a boundary stone (men stone). to set out by metes and bounds. bondir. to knock at the door. gulf. geration. mere. from AS. to thundering big one hum. bugan. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. . the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . suorum recognoverunt agrorum. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. — — Bight. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.' B. a stock. Bowlder. signifies a sliort thick mass. To Bound. debodinare. a bouncing apple. to spring. bay. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Ducange. To Bounce. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. he fell so that it sounded. And the new stools set out. 136. .'— Charter of K. a bound. a large stone rounded by the action of water. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. See To Bolt. bonndn. signifying in nautical coil of rope. a blister. from bugan. See Bunch. Bough. to hum. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. Boulderstone. — No i ausiratz parlar. Bodinare. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. — — leap.— — — - 88 BOUGH . being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. a turn or time. Bound. boh. Pr. a blow. to spring. the smaller ones. To Boult. strapping. Fr. Bret. Bough-pot. knock it sounds again. Bunche. round. The branch of a tree. or Bow-pot. ni frestelar. mcn-bomi. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. as a nosegay. has hot. limit. contusi." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Webster. boriie. bounbounejha. march.

to bow. Comp. G. sense durd. taunt. bagna. bugna. to our bous. to mutter. Du. lance. Cot. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. Gael. springbiirn. a humming noise. It is the participle past buinn. to tipple. bogna. to hum. patesten. repartee. game. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. biugan. the Bourdon. G. Lat. language of folly or ridicule. bourdon. epaule du vaisseau. Spenser in R. . bausen. crutch. ridicule buirte. bommen. purlBav. Burgeon. Eown. . bound. — probably through this latter signification. purra. identical with E. beogan. the ting of a bell. pusta. a jibe Shaw bururus. sotich. . As the Gael. Bounty. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Swiss bausen. on the whole. beygja. brunna. and not in the sense of curvature in general. the shoulder of the vessel. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . curvature. burdan. from spring. bogen. bovne. Sw. Bound. to take deep draughts. — — — A pare. Dan. pot. address. borne. Immediately from Fr. are applied to the bow of a ship. burlare. Gael. hence musical accompaniment. souf. Du. to tope. to take breath. Prov. explaining Sw. ready. deceit. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. g. Bourdon. head Fr. as was for. Du. burn. Bow. that ON. burdan. different modification gives ON. saufen. to indulge in his cups . an arch. to drink deep. bage. bwa. to trick. to tope W. of the ON.which see. brausen. w. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. . Cot. Gael. a from Du. And there in mourning spend Sw. bogha. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. bending. Fr. Du. bourd. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. bending of a joint knie-bug. and that probably from a Celtic root. steady. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. drink deep. Sc. buga. to bow or incline the . pared. bonitas. buzz. cudgel. Dan. pre. buyse. prepared for. bow to shoot with. drone of a bagpipe. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. a corToward the garden. hous^ Man in the Moon. bordon. to swell. a prop. limit. bunaiteach. belly out. ruption of bonne. bugan. bogr. a — — . sausen. bugne. Sw. Bret. sport. whether by sound or gesticulation. bordo. Fr. It. to banter or laugh at. also the humming or ON. a pot. bourdon. like quaff. Borden. a brook. a for New York. buzzing of bees. has also buirleadh. to — Hal. in Fr. to pre2. . flagon. the burden of a song. ing. brummen. Sw. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. to bulge. analogous to Fr. Fr. buigen. set out. to drink deep. ^<7r«i?. spring. bug. a jibe. jest. staff.bass of a stringed instrument. shoulder-blade. The meaning of bound.. trick. Gael. — — . Chaucer in R. puff out. ready to pike or spear . a. A —Cot. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. pausen. buys. bue. spelling the word iox bound. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. a well. a cup kroesen. bontS. to hum as a bee. a go to. burreti. It is bov. G. Bourd. fresh* water. btiga. addressed to. i. drunken. bog. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. the big end of a club. their time -With "wailful tunes. good. . gurgling. burd. potio. Burden. the fixed. a. bov. Gael. verb bua. AS. schulter-bug. bending. bdgi. a mill-post. whence buysen. is. bordone. or of an Gael. bugna. to take one in. Bourdon. schenkelbug. it is probable that the It. way ba7n. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. mockery.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. Goth. When used alone it . when we speak of. A water. warbling. a sing-song. It is remarkable that we find vary. on. bend. a drone of a bagpipe. G. cheat. biegen. So Sc. . tinton. joke. The foregoing derivation seems. a drone or dor-bee. kroes. fun of one . burt. to draw a deep breath. buizen. a humming noise Macleod. to draw a deep breath.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. bend Sw. must be referred to the same root. Sp. Dan. grumble Sw. firm. bourde in the same sense. bonus. a bow. Dan. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. bog.

bouellou. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. a croft by a house. bolgna. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. (in pass . a box Lat.\s. bolla. biiske. to stoop. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. make obeisance. The / a bow. hiidel. a chamber swefnbur. bouge. to bow buck. bulne. boucle. bwra. . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. Fr. a bud. different position in ODu. budel. bug. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. bur. peated in Magy. a bowl. bola. water pulli. compared with Fr. a bubble. of a wooden ball to play with and — . . trestle. tumour. a box.). Dan. bolle. belly. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. with inversion of the round. buckelig gehen. a ball . Du. mausbollelein. to raise the back boll OHG. bowel Box. globular. box in both senses. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. bouzellou. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. to stoop biickling. the box-tree and articles made of it G. belly of a cask. Thus we have Esthon. a sleeping-room . . hollow wooden case. then by the loss of the /. boil. a drop of pullistaa. boel. to bubble up. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. belly. a black pudding. is applied to a coach-box. to puff up. bolla. bugyani. See Boil. buigen. Du. a parlour. lump . Pol. ^o/a. bur. sausage. round glass phial. biichse. It is more probably from the G. . a bundle. a stud. hill. Bret. . gut. a ball. bulla in aqua. Du. OFr. guestchamber . hollow. bocka. kupukka.cup Du. boxtree pusska. . bock. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. spring as water bugya. . horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. ON. E. a polla. ne. bol. Sw. anything globular. ku^o. boxtree. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bukke. puffy. the barrel of a gun. a sack. bogla. inclinare se (Kil. . fyn. polla. ken. . bhugna. biicken. knob From the former modification we have bolla.). Dan. bosso. The word may probably be identical with Fris. passing on stud. to puff up pullakka. swell. convexity. to buckle G. dial. or. &c. acsian. . a boil. Bower. a buck. beutel. a round glass or bolg. a. W. Cable. bubble. In like manner the Pol. an inclosure. Hal. Bowl. ON. Fr. globe or spherical body. without the and grits. bulb of an onion bolleyield. honse-bur. boor. Boll. bossola. AS. bhuj. signified by forms like Gael. an outhouse AS. See Crab. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. stream forth bugyogni. pullo. prominence. Buckle. boss. and to a coachbox in particular. boudin. . See MHO. bugyola. or in e. . . Fr. . bugy.. a box. a swelling or rising up. bulka.. A . as well as the name of a. Bret. bow. AS. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. similar shape. heafod bolla. globular body. convex. painter's easel. a iDubble. Sanscr.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. wisp of straw . buis. and on swollen. koziel. buga. the crop of a bird. in both senses. buchsbaum. . a wine-can . bog. buk. bulk compared with Sw. bucka. iri'iaQ. bolne. a box. the skull or brainpan . a protuberance. a bubble. . kupula. box. busse. bowl . . G. tumour . swoUei) Lat. ^o«/«. to bend. to yield to one. Bohem.flask It. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. Hence. fata-bur. round bead. . bulcken. w. Sw. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. blister. biisse. . give in to. crown of a hat. crooked. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . W. OE. the box-tree. pusspan. a hump on the back rossbollen. a pot. to swell. PLD. Bav. bubble. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. intrenchment. a ball. buello. in walking appears in a . utibur. ask. A Bulk. the head. ttuJic. kupu. hollow place Fr. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. bending. . a bubble Fin. busskai. at the e. kuppelo. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. the box-tree It. Sw. . . bulla.D. spherical Dan. ON. to bend down. G. bugna. to guggle. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. beuz. bwr. buckel. bent. a box. the bogna. bol. Sp. a hen-coop . a knot. a little box . Lat. bow. a separate apartment . * Bowels. purse. to make crooked . cumena-bur. a wardrobe .) to incline oneself . as in E. a bubble bolli. a thing of liquid. as in AS. bowels. pocket. boss. to bulge. buxus. zich onder jemand under to him. Gr. budello. bulge. bugyni. folliculus . bollen.a. . botulus. . the head. From the other form are G. bog. head of a cabbage.

disturb. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. bracha. by an overflow of sea water. bracer.. compressing. youth. to crack. rakke. Kil. rack. baukscheht. odorinsecus. OE. land batsken.puddle. quarrel Bohem. To fight with the fists. which has many representatives in the other Europe. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. brakke Bracelet. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. and string of his bow. brostia. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . Lett. . con. Fr. a comworld Rayn. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air.. ON. or bracer Cot. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. Brackish. a sounding blow. — . BOX To Box. — . acidus. dog that hunts by scent. Prov. The different meanings of the brageux. wrack. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. his eyes are failing him). . to is derived brestr. brabbelen. Hdcart. dirty. brek. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. Cot. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. — . Swab. s. brechen ihm. Brack. Du. dog Sw. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. V. a boy pupa. Sp. OFr. Boy. bou^ba. loud smack. to stutter. AS. braca. A to halt between two derivations. want. Pr. brae. which sigof straining. to want.D. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . whence a as by a mixture of sea water. Sp. . bracon. or defect. brae. bray. let. ing from a mixture of salt. MHG. foul. bouibo. ghebreck. braic. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. briche. as noticed under Box. beagle. corruptse. is a rope holding G. matter. pupus. A — — . It. refuse. It. Prov. bresta. babble. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. Pl. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. thwack. fault. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. priated to the original sense. variation of babble. braco. braecke. bitch Du. Swiss bub. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. salsus. Bracelet. boiste. Du. A brace probis. flaw.D. boy bouba. Water rendered boubo. brague. pube. unmarried man . to burst. a girl. a guard to torf. ratch. dog in general. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. pus. to fall. isolated part of the text. baske. then from break. brae. Heligoneed. Fr. to Swiss batschen. bube. boussole. brassard. Swiss Rom. bruxula. . damaged board a ship. breach. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. lalear-eyed Prov. brack. a braceOFr. bragos. Bracket. cramp-iron holding things together . Brack. bracil. Kil. salo sive aqua marinS. filth . land spoilt Kil. brae. in R. It is B. Sp. OFr. spaniel. clay. Rouchi Then as an adj. to be wanting. brechen. flap. rakka. want. To brace is to draw together. fault . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. brageuses. ON. bracket. Ptg. brasselet. in R. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . mud. . turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. taneous talking. to smack the hand batschen. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. a bubbling dura del mun. defect Du. In like manner the It. &c. whelp as. wristband. . confining. bracke. brek. Pm. merely in our mode of considering them. bask. strike. murmur. the first instancebya physical tie. bue.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. buah. Brak-goed. I sal slyng. wnzC/J. want. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae.nated by dirt. . a pair of braces. and then Pl. One girl. brack. See Brake. to stammer.. La ville ou y avait Brace. See Broker. Thus brack. Brach. Prov. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. a grown youth Cimbr." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. A bracket is properly a scenting dog.. to slap. braquet. a crack. . breuque. Fr. G. It. an languages. fuse. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. race. Prov. need. To Brabble. armour for the arm. brago. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. root). bracco. to give a gebrechen. Lat. ' — A — — — . suppuration. defect. moral or physical. breach.— D. a box. and F. mud. — . breptati. braque. to give a blow with the fists. braco. — . G. On the same principle from the buksteht. a bog or pass Fr. mud. .with a noise. by the same inversion of J and k. from a root brak. jabber. parallel with OK. boy. brace on and Du. — — . brec. 91 the Dan. rakki. flaw. break. s. to box the ears. Fr. brakke grund. defect. to give a sounding blow defect. posh. Kil. the arm. Gael.

From brayel. boast. vaunting. swagger. Faire le brave. crack. an inclosure for cattle . Brain. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. braske. Primarily to crack. to make a noise. braw. and that from e. to flaunt. to boast or brag. in the sense of the Lat. brag. make a noise . subigere. power. in numerous dialects. called by our braggard. bragaireachd.explosion. Sc. hectoring. the opposite of which. bushy . crash ON. the feathers ON. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. See Bray. Lat. Bret. bragio. brabhdadh. brave.aburst. stout. Hence E. . binding anything together. expensive. gay. and it is very likely that the root brak. . brae. to unbrace or let down the breeches. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. Rom. fine. blusterer. braies. Fr. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . bravo. would be to brace. boasting. braguer. braka. Bret. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. From sprouted corn. AS. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . brayete. brabhdair.%. to brail up a sail. breghe. to stand upon terms. is identical with Gael. brave. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. excellent. bravado j Fr. Dan. valiant The head are sumptuous. Hecart. to cord a bale of tie up. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. flaunt in fine clothes . an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . Fr. or from braie itself. dhbrailler. . finery. Cot. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. bragging. bully . braggard also valiant. Thus Bret.^Vocab. courageous.—— . gorgeous. Chaucer. bra!. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. . in order to prevent its catching the wind. bullying. breghen. to strut. See Brace. to boast of his own worth. brake in the sense of constraining. stately. . to Rouchi brMer. smart. an iron for holding Zalli. From Fr. slight modificajoining the two legs. bravache. It. &c. brake is. fine. to shout. beautiful. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. de Vaud. goods. also derived Fr. confining. Turk bazu are used in both senses. the bridge or part of the breeches ing.Shepherd's Cal. used in the sense of force. brav. The meanings of brake are very numerous. the arm. brag. compressing. affront. or by gaudy dress and show. Brake. ^Brave. Wallachian bratsou. braegenj Du. be found. bragd. brachittm. Cot. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. a roisterer. braga. is Cot. h-avare and Fr. Brag was then used brisk. to crack. drawers. about the hawk's fundament.. 92 Cot. ative fellow. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). . i. breach. Sp. subduing. gay. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. to swagger. splendid. Langued. braver. brag or jet it braguard. brails. riches. that will carry no coals. se donner trop de licence. was formed brayele. Walloon bress. vain glory. gallant (in apparel) also proud. fine. Bray. The meanings included under — Bragget. to sprout malt. —Spenser in R. braga. well-dressed. It is certain that the word for arm is. To Braid.^ Sp. a carriage for breaking in horses . to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes.i5nz^. — . Lith. idle talk. Fris. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3.. Brake. Cot. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. braszketi. also tion of this was brayeul. — A — . In like manner to crack is used for boasting.breeches. . instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . — From W. be noisy . 2. bravacherie. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. — Chaucer. cry. Dan. bragging of his own valour. breyne. .hy which this idea is con\eyed. to rattle. — Equivalent forms are Gael. gayly dressed. proud. brazo. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. To Brag. braka. braicli. handsome. To Brail. a noisy talkboasting. breagh. also insolenter se gerere . se parer de beaux habits. brave. swaggerer. Haldorsen Gael. empty pride. crash. Brail. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . showy bravery. The plant y^r«. as the type of exertion and strength. Thus we are brought to the OE. brao. noisy ostentation. braske. vanter une chose. spot. braga. BRAG Piedm. brave. strength. flaunting. gallant. brave. fine. se pavaner. torture . boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. A — Hal. w.

cetur. a spinning-wheel.— .D. low wet land bruch. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. briers. Sp. braka. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. gebiisch. breuil. subigere. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. in northern climates. brolium. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. bush. it is not surprising that the word has here. brog or brake. properly braking or subduing them. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. broilium. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. as well as in the case of the e. might come to signify a swamp. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. a brace on board a ship. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. brake. brego. tris). murran. frangere linum. to distinct. Pl. broyer. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. broil. cover G. gilum. to bend or direct a cannon. is formed murd. to head must be bit.bracan.. Fr. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. t° moisten. Fr. to brush. It. braca. or overthrow of trees by the wind. or A A ' . as in Sp. to break. gebrUche. ^raca. In ON. the original meaning of G. glebas subigere. bredza. brushwood. iSpsx". thicket. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. ing of flax or hemp. gebrUche. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. as in the case of horse-breaking. . el arco. a stream. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. braeken. bregille. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. brak is a frame in which strip. bregar. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. and when once thrown down. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. Prov. braecken het vlasch. been confounded with the verb break. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). Dan. Lat. watered. the lever by which the string was drawn up. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. broillet. to harrow (Lat.' It. to exert force in different ways. word. In the case of the ne. Gr. OFr. and G. brcekke. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. a thicket. de Vaud. In like manner Lat. Corrfeze bredgea. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. e. P&. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. 3. a fen. is braukti. brog. farinam in mortario subigere. to bend a bow. brogille. to break or fracture. conSo in G. to stiffen against Taboada). to row. —Ovid. brambles. Fr. Biglotton. tnurdma. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. brook. Brake. game. to knead or mix up in a mortar. in usus braca. It may be sus- . brambles. broor bushy place Hal. briser. To the same bend a bow. break of such a kind. gebroge. Brake. brook. We — .D. riguus. to fracture. 2. In the sense of a thicket. to pound. a marsh. thing is brought under control. bruch. murrokko. gebroge. a swampy Mid. The Fr. brog above mentioned. It. to The ON. broken fratta. to subdue. fratto. Voc. brage. quarry from Fin. brake. marsh. any thicket of brakes. murtaa. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. flachs brechen. bushes. marsh or swamp. brega. referred brake. breaking in the operation. break flax PLD. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. a horse's a horse's twitch. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. copse-wood. bush. brage. signifying to sweep. —Bracken. or a wood in a marshy place . multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. as in Du. pasture. Swiss Rom. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. braken. have thus Du. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. and Lat. BRAKE to external force. bregar brake. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. gebroge. dial. braquer un canon. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . casser le \va. a harrow. — — . nemus. broeck. G. — Fl. for — Due. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. to bray in a mortar. where from Esthon. Dan. Dan. brook. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. to break. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. to rub. Gael.

brein. Diez. also a marshy low ground or fen . young twig {brom-beisser. bren. in the same sense. Dan. young buisson fort epais. and E. it glitters — — . titio. . the branch of a tree. . heath. Bret. That beareth the red hepe. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. a halter. hallier. gebroge. heath ON. The naof strain. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. virgultum. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. brenna. sweet broom. the thorn apple or stramonium. . Bav. brake. constrain. a bud. brug). broem. or other plants of a like nature.D. briars. Thus in Lat. It will be found that shrubs. brarn. AS. Grisons bruch. Thus we have w. cabbage sprouts Fl. brouskoad. gebriiche. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. a shrub from Bret. bruk. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. &c. braeme. brwnt. a shrub . We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. wood composed of twigs. sedge burkni. the bull-finch. restrain. brand. brushwood. excrement. Russ. Broom. brank. a thick bush. heath (Bret. Fr. a bud. ear-wax mud. brog. breun. bramble Du. brugek. bren. to brank. It. Gael. brem. may be so called in analogy with Bret. from gaggi. or with It. piecemeal brindelles.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. heath. brang. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. in the sense oi fern. bushes. . . prufye. Brancare. branchia. ordure . a briery plot. brandmurk. from Lat. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. thicket of brambles Cot. brandiiialil. bro7n. bruch. G. But we find It. G. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. pected that brake. a rod or twig. a small deri\'ation . that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. See Brush. bruch. that is to say. as. Branch. brano. . Bret. dirt . brenn hesken. bruk. breanan. — branca. brosst.). brass. brenn. as AS. a shoot or twig. brejo. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. berneux. bruskoad. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. Pl. broom. snotty . —Ducange. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake.. a firebrand. from brand. brom. brancas. Piedm.G. braam. broembel-CBppel. and thence a shoot. It. sprouts. G. iii. Bramble. 1 8. . Bran. bit by bit. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . E." The bmno a • on . branche. a burning fragment of wood. Brand. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described.D. So Swiss gaggi. w. Thornas and bremelas. broom. broccoli. to bridle. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. thorns and Gen. brandr. Rouchi bren d'orMe. what is cast out as worthless. broussaille. Bret. G. i. Serv. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. brughera. or ling. brous. The same form becomes in It. chaff. brenda. from brug. Pl. Bret. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . In like hrst. heath. brok. . — . brin. bronbo. bran. brambles. sawdust. burning brennen. A mark made by burning. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. is the draff or excrement of the com. cack. and waste growths. brin (as It brano). brug. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . to or iron. a vine twig Bav. bromboli. bretnel. Fr. pfropf. broust. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. pfriemen. brin d. Fr. a bridle or bit . bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. brank. stink . pfriem in the sense of an awl. Fr. heath. &c. breme j Sw. from virga. to burn. from Servian pnit. Brank. 2. a single plant of heath. a roA. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. branco. clutch. also pfriemkraut. w. a dunghill. Then by comparison with claws or arms. Gael. to -brugen. nasty. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. a shoot. compress. bruk. Port. piece of anything. bran. Sir Topaz. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. a heath. a bud It. apiece orbitbrandone. brandello. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. ground full of briers. . bracken or fern . to gripe. As ON.

eldibrandr. brasca. to French brawl or brangle. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. e. brasil. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. N. to burn. Bret. to brandle or The It. urens. splinter. brazil. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. embraser. brandigh. live coals. Fr. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. brus^. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. apparently very distinct from each other. comes from thence. to blaze. brasca. stake. to glisten or flash. spirit distilled from wine. the spelling to kindle. crackle. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. became ashes Pied.well. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. totter. It. to dash. from to vociferate. Fr. Du. Brase. forms brasil.. Chron. brandiller. branler. set on fire. Sw.pan of coals. brane-wood. bracia. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. to braze or lute. as Jamieson explains it. glowing embers . Sw. firebrand. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. bruzi. bresil. The tre brangillis. is bntan. Fr. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. a stick. Brangle. to and fro in the hand. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. as again by well as the blade of a sword. G. V. The name Brandy. brandolare is exbrandish. Jam. a fragment. Fr. to murmur. brandiller. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . incendium. make a — . was Commonly explained from the notion found there. — . and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. 59. brandende wijn. a round dance. crackle. Brasil. bragia. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. to confuse. to rustle. bra?ier. to bicker 2nd. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. fire-wood. a roaring fire. Kil. bransle. and scold. gebrannter wein. as a nasalised form of the Piedm.^Brandle. bruire. bruciare. braser. to make shine with shaking. brangle or brawl in E. to shake The word brisil. to make display . to Bailey. Port. Formerly brandy-wine. a pan of hot coals. brasa. brazeiro. bragale\ wood. to make sense of a bright red dye. Thus the bound up again. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. AS. — ting to confusion. — . brascct. to brangle. and branchis shaiand D. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. was in use Fr. brustle. E. then brandr. Fl. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. bryne. ish. To brase AS. Chron. or in stick. weinbrenner. perplex. given to the country. G. firewood. du Roi et laine. Milan. It. brouir. — . Gris. to brandle. WaUon. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. not. brin. to brustle. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. to quarrel. brausen. So. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. braza. a To Brandish. ist. Bailey. Braser. brand. hoisting to the fall. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. to burn. to distil . to shog. bransella. briiler. to shake. aqua ardens. Hume in brand in ON. shake. Guill. faire fracas. to roar. In the same way the set on fire . hot Fr. bracea. bum. to totter. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. billet. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Manx bransey. De Barros considers vinum ardens. the colour than hitherto known. noise. braise or hot coals. brastlian. brasa. With top trimbling. plained by Florio. braise. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. branler. to solder iron. De Goes. prasseln. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. brush. It. branla. conbillet. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. so. distilled wine. Lye. in Marsh. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. as Fr. and bruir. To brand. bruan. all. d'Angl. Diez. E. before the discovery of America in the brandir. morsel. n. from used in dyeing cloths. brennen. Fr. put. to hurl with great force. to shake. Ija. flagrans. braise. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. The corresponding form in Gael. to sound of the Fr. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. a brusler. to crackle . make an outcry. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. to burn.

a contempt- banner. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. trul. a patch of cloth. Lorraine bravon. W. from branler. bras. a lump of flesh. boarding being sbranare. to braze. brat. braoilich. A. boutures. ferruminare. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. brat. bratach. A land of dance. Fr. It . Paris. bretays). A dispute or squabble. borderinge. especially that used in the working of iron . The verb is probably derived from the brase. Betrax of a —^Jam. Brawn. Westphal. Bartizan. a Lap. slut. fraiche. and bronzo. the buttocks. buttock Sc. a clout. to cry. coassatio. brces. OHG. slibro. breyon d'chaur. Swiss bradle. Fris. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. ni autres choses sur Due. a battle-girdle. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. flesh of a leg of pork. bransle. a. solder. bred. Pm. as lattice. noise. braede. breteque. —^Bronze. bran. bratid calf of the leg. to scold . contignatio. as criailler of crier. as rashers upon quick burning coals.walle — Pr. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. bribe de viande. neita girl). esbraotier. Cologne broden. roar. bradlete. a rag . bruir. calf of the leg. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. equivalent to the Du. ON. brass. in the first instance of boards. apron. burning coals. braser Fargent. —-Jam.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. P1. rag. bmhon for brado7i. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. squall. as scrawl from scrabble. luncheon. brdto (ace. a loud noise. OFr. Du. bartisan.^ — Sverris Saga. frame of laths. a fortification. at brasa. Fr. lat'te. bradon. 1156. a — A from the confused noise. Kil. bretesque. braiio. See Brandish. a contemptuous name for a young child. a rag. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. then a parapet. bas morceau de viande brawhng. bronzare. Fr. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. It. a lump of flesh. Brass. . Jam. breyon. Math. bralle. a rag . Hist. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. Brattice. Circumeunt cibertesca. Brave. bratidone. KiL Prov.— Fl. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. slakker-bortchen. braon.D. brettys. Cot. to solder. Sp. from Fr. discord. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . berd.— Braid. breyon de kinds of . It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. — Deutsch. the calf of the leg. whether contracted from brabble. a lath. or on the top of a wall. le repasser un peu sur la braise. Sup. Brawl. So also See Brag. to copper. to shake. Dan. strepitus 2. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. calf of the leg. OFr. deblaterare. braeye. baltresca. brat. brazen.' BRASS BRAY et AS. as a brawling brook. — . Many gambes. pan- — Rayn. to tear piecemeal. bartising. Wall. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. brett. Florio. a parapet.brettysing. Certainly a little girl. G. to talk at bralle op. Mundart. ^Altieri.96 Roquefort.' Hal. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. Bailey. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. cob. I. bretesche. saillies. pil. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. The same correspondence is seen between It. bronze. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi.— Remade.propugnaculum. any piece. The muscular part of the body. brailler. cloth. a lump. from Sc. to carbonado. AS. See Bray. is The word — uous name for a woman.— Diez. a cloak. Brangle. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. a wooden tower. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. Pisana in Mur. a slabbering-bib. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). branle. ' A vraale. tasce. braodhlach. A. bratdn). For the application to a^child compare Bret. frequentative of braire. slibro {neita. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. 2. Brat. Cot. It. a plank or board. Sc. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. &c. brandillo. to Gael. braion.D. 1224.D. or whether it be from Fr. 368. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. a mantle. ship. Gael. bronzacchiare. muscular parts of the body.

to N. braid. verb to break. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. V. to have the lineaments of one's ON. to snatch. paxog. or cry out loudly . to start. brot. bru. to break. brame. braidir. Breach. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. Prov. breach. soft . Ppvxia.^ Fr. to bray in a mortar. Chaucer. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. as the voice of the ass. and make a hideous noise.ch. &c. to cry out. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. OE. The Lat. a brake for hemp or flax. Dunbar braessem.. and to signify the fracture itself. appearance Hal. brand. Fr. with or without a final d. Cot. brechen. braea. a . weave The ON. yell. ybrayid. baiyl. to pretend. R. to The cup was uncoverid.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. a rag f . a crash. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to bellow. And at a braid he gun it bende.ear rog. plait.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. is . QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. turn. Q. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. To Break. ^p&xia. breche. Beryn. The ON. the sound — of arms. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no.fracas. a rent. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. to tear Bret. — koa. bregar.' To Bray. rattle. to rub Fr. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. at a braid. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. — . ON. as OE. ser. bruzir. Swiss bratschig. to the seijauntes. Fr. Du. brak. twist. k. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. . Then. and frangere. See Brake. riAprjyvvfu. Bailey. rangere. Lat. 7 . father. AS. e. V. Bread. Fin. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. bragd — ON. D. bratsche. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. brugier. abraid. Cat. explaining a very obscure application of the E. fish. roar. noise . fractus j Gr. V. W. to roar or bellow. vapna-brak.g. G. as the notion of turning crack. at once. bregar. to resemble him. augnabragd. to braid. to roar. 145. kind. to break. relation is seen between Lat. crash. to smack or the eye. which has given much trouble to commentators. Then is simply. paste or dough. instantane. The same He might don us both a villany. Bread. on. G. to resemble. iU-favouredly — in Jam. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. starts crackling up. imitate or resemble one. a wink. Prov. to sound very loud and very harshly. D. regi. rustle. to braid. to rumble. to braid acquires the sense of bend. Gr. rogi. upbraid. bray. — — — explained motus loud noise. to work up in a mortar. disturbance. braidar. R. braire. a breach Cot. crash. a mill. ing. to rush. . crackle . is often connected with swiftness of moBream. crepo and E. to scold. bregda. to resemble. father. the miller's dog. broyer. &c. To rub or grind down Sp. And with a traid I tumyt me about. cyprinus latus. to crash. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. make a disturbance. fragor. Wal. to break Fr. bragd is also applied nets. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. a brack. to braid the hair. will. Goth. 2. bradar. at braga eftir euium.y. &c. to t. Chaucer. to cry Port. the sword was out break. breuan. to cry out. i. resound . to break. braa. bruire. to bawl. to crash. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. brage. or wound. &c. to knead. I'll live and die a maid. . ON. broad. gestus. D. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. brikan.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. From the or brack in a wall. mos. Bret. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. roar. and fracasously. brak. braa. yell. bragr. E. F. to roar as the sea. to bray like an ass. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. brice. in Jam. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself.

The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. brciz. Breeze. so AS. Hume in Jam. braca. Rom. . breost. braciarc. as commonly explained. bresilles. remains of leaves.). . Bruise. briosa. vapour. —Briss. siibligar. Gl. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. brisoler. brisciare. briosat'. G. fastening . brezza. Fris. polenta. to resound. scent. Breath. G. as the G. G. of trees. bridsen. . brise. grill. PI. Gl. are in like manner ' . It. — . noise. brist. Breast. an into shiver. breinse. Piedm. Bret. Swiss AS. brew. Fr. brezzare. bruzun. an odour. — And blood. braga. morsel. a cramp-iron for holding things together. cloven. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. coaldust. Prov. — — strument for smacking. from ligare. as. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. braies. but more probably the E. braca. bark Fr. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. a smack. braga. from AS. Bret. murmur—Vocab. . grillare. trembling. zare. of E. may be from the wurh fesser. w. Fr. Dev. sheep's droppings bruss. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. in Schilter. a cool wind. brissle. brasiuiii. Goth.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Swiss Rom. applied to shivering.vare. brossi!. malt. their stings draw . malt. Dan. clout for a child. Du. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. brimme. The Breech (Prov. body brostia. broza. breson. griller. representing the sound of a blow. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. bryi^ga. trusts. to rattle (as hail). simmering. the dry spines of furze broken off. brasiare. britze.'— Gl. bremse. brdtschen. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. and other rubbish dibris. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. . brcekur j It. peitschen.98 borst. braux. Fr. a to lay fly-flap. point to G. brumtnen. — Brist./ssus. to whip. So ON. to be misty and cold. bruc. Briss and buttons. binding. brcEth. braguier. breath. brusc. dial. braies. or the blow itself. a crum. Originally probably the word signified steam. Breeze. of straining. to brew. bretilles. braia J OFr. brodem. broil. the bust. i5r(Z^. Gael. fitzen. a cold and windy mist or frost . briig. as in the case of twitter. Breeches. properly to crackle. fail. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. to fry . broiiwen. breeze. subligaculum. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. Russ. to burst. — . G^nev. to shiver for cold. little bits of wood Berri briser. Brize. brosame. one on the breech so that (klatschet). orts. bra. to brew. simmer. bratscher. to fry Then from a Gl. To Brew. AS. brisd. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. to hum. murmur. AS. switch. G. einem de britze geven. bris de charbon. brut. crush. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged.t. brijsen. brison. briste. de Vaud. singing bone. broden. also to chill and shiver with cold. as. to murmur. QNtsterviald) pritschen. rubbish. corresponding to G. bre- I'os qui bresole. from brace. to simmer. bruzir. burst. are related to Prov. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. to bray. briiz. briosa. Gael. chilly. a box. chillness or shivering. bris. Swiss brdtsch. braucn. a horse's twitch. bris. Isidore and Tatian. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . as by the Sc. bruise. forms. OFr. Piedm. a girdle. Lat. and E. — See Broth. a crum Du. Dtyden. sprouted corn. to roast. brugga. brasser. xyligogio castigare.britschen. The Teutonic verbs. a twitch for a horse. break. to smack. grillen. with It. E. Lat. Hence the Lat. to breech. Du. brodel. met de bridse slaan. braich. bandage or truss for a rupture. forms analogous to E. Breeze. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. &c. brustia. to break. to buzz. to feize or feaze. We bragezj on. and brought beneath between the legs. brinisa. E. brire. the soler. brijselen. . /esses. drawers. Du. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. de bridse geveii. Bracha. to bind. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. brezling. Du. Biglotton.D. Sw. windy withal. rubbish. Compare OE. to crush to break. b}-as. the breech or buttocks. a gadfly. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. — Halma. brache. brok. See Brick. Prov. G. bracecs . to crackle. breme. bragues. braie. instead of being derived from 'La. brimsa. then to broil.

Fr. but probably Bricoteau. E. with transposition of the r. . a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . a fragment. Thom. which however is undoubtedly from brace. brasser. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. brahi. Gl. brau. E. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. one's ovin. Bribe. bryd-eale.privatus. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. groom (mab=:son). a little king's writs. nurus G. bridge. sugga.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. bruk. a brig or priodor. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. Mid. Fl. a sow. ON. pavement Lith. a rogue. AS. Fr. ter-in-law. to break. from the Normans. to press. The Sw. Bridal. grug. brug. berwedd. a Bride. privus. Du. two-masted vessel.bergantino. brigata. fit. company. bro. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. Goth. In E. briwo. ' . stone-bridge bnikkoti. Bridal. Gael. and ODu. bridelj OHG. heath. bara briw. graf-ol. a rogue . broken bread. brar. broken victuals. In the patois of briccia. barren land priodas. a bride. . bitill. E. The origin of the word is the w. Pro(merch=:maid). it is applied to the letter to OE. Brigade. Trovarfor bride-ale. Grisons bruch. a fragment. brutg. AS. In the G. to prepare. appropriate. brigantine. Bridge. a quoit of stone. whence berw. A bribe is A — — arval. Due. brique de pain. . fastningar-ol. birbante. betonica. Brick. bryd-gutna. bruarium. to stamp. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. daughheath. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. the equivalent of to the dial. a bush. . piece of burnt clay. funeral. fragment. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. jipaaaiii. the Fr. as. to meet together. betony brulicame. . and berweddu. has briguer. to press in. . twopares Lat. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. corresponding or letter. buskins. bro is applied not only to a bridge. conjux. bricge j G. It. OHG. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. served (Patois de Bray). jetty. See Broth. ment of anything broken. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. Sp. briicke. bo.gfiugga. braut. the newly. ap. brocaly. pavement brolegge. . a heath. Hence OE. pavement. It — is Kil. Applied ous words derived from break. briiths. to brew. a lump of bread. sponsa. Neumann. Diez. Pol. fraoch.groom. Diefenbach com. bruith. brittil. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. to pave brukkti. the marriage si in brigata. ibrukkti.pritil . If the foregoing were not so clear. . Flor.. as so. breve or brevis. broosekens. division of an army. troop. a lump of bread briber. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . a bride Brig. brigade. arf-ol. to circulate. bulicame. brughiera. bruyere. in the sense of OSw. bribe de pain. bride. Brewis. a cheat. OSw. a heath brughera. It. of burial. pier. A — A — . a bit. especially to a letter or command. AS. Brier. Gael. boiling up brocoliere. bribour. imprint. and that from It. a man. brood. thick appropriated. BRIGADE dead. AS. lipdZu}. feast of espousals. bro. to break to pieces bricalio. httle bit. a briole. brilt. is still used in this sense. crew. brice. from Bridegroom. Bridle. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. Brief. to boil. brakes of high-grown ferns. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. AS. Ihre. bruskr and buskr. any jot or crum. So in The Prov. bretonica. from the last 99 of which. w. son. Lat. to pave. peculiar. a married man or woman Lat. E. Dan. then the marriage itself. Brique. Priodi. Hdcart. to tlie brico. — . Cot. a crum. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. malt. hlafes brice. ' — . G^n^v. bably contracted from brigantine. beaten way Dan. briw. or brizo. to boil. brere. to beg one's bread. brukkas. berwi. feast. to appropriate. a crum. a beggar. consort with. bidsel. a wedding priod-fab. priod-ferch. birbone. So It. priod. Fr. gf2o. — . — — — — — — . bread. malt. to boil. guma. Ducange. a married man guma. bride.It. from Bret. married. but to a paved road. bruk. brA. bricou. . Lang. fervere. to rub. masted vessel. frayer.rough with brambles and bushes. Fr. a lump of bread. brieden. collect bits of food. owned also propriate. Rouchi brife. buckler J ON. to Isrew. AS. W. remarkable that the Gr. a boiling. broken. bygga. from bit. Walach. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a proprietor. brygga.

bright itself was formerly applied to sounds.glampa. praht. is easily understood.shine.' The sense of strife or combat express. and secondly. noise.clare ^tinniens. A strepere. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. to resound. manifest ON. Xa/iTTii). were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. a glittering. riis ' — Chron. to make a loud noise. clang. that of Fr. and led it away. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. to bend a bow It. From ON. malandrini. Goth. to rove. Wilista. — Due. bryhtm. splendens . to cry. 1654. inde squammatus. bray. — Beowulf. It. — Briganbriga. etincelle.' torum. 1351. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. schiteren. glitter. and hence be explained glampi. Due. strife. brigan. Florio. a noise. So G. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. in the sense of a robber.D. a small light pinnace pro. himself to serve men of merit. glir. Bright. XafXTTpoQ. also called briganders. loo BRIGAND lor. rover either by sea or land. tinnitum clarum movco. twinkling. \oice. to piracy. It. brigare. Gall. to shine. braid. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . to shift for with care.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. tinkle. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. at a later period. and. representing a sudden noise. Brigand. in the first instance. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. — — . brigandare. speech. kii:'a. Bav. brawl. seems to be to exert force gar el area. willata. beorht. to rob. rixa. — brigante. transparent. may play the pirate or thief at sea. Gr. a pirate. clangour. a spark. . jurgia. and ner me hit iherde. Beorktode bene sweg. splendour. moment. in later times a robber or highway-man. labour. to reservavit. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. briegen. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . . and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. biartr. sound.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. clear. lay was sung. dine. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. bairhts. bregar. pugna.dorem clarum reflecto. clear. dine. They or brigantini. —Capgrave. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. a brigantine. bracht. and to associate with them. then.— . on his — own account. In Fin. brigant. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. and the E. brcEhtin. Flor. cange has 'Veles. glbram. to contend with another. Brilliant. tion. Mid. tumult. splcnornd de brigandine. the gleeman's song. schateren. clear sound. Heo — song That AS. show the origin of Lat. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. a sound. brak. OHG. tinnitus. AS. brebrigare. hell. the bench-notes resounded. glamm. clarus. Schmeller. Du. to glitter. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. from hall. with respect either to sound or colour. The E. necessary business. The primary meaning of Sp. brigare. bragen. briga. to ring. kilistua. A. — A A . corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . secondarily. clare lucens. to cry 'Schmid OE. glamra.pracht. wilella. Owl and beorhtian. The Ir. to sound. See Brake. bright bearhtm.' in Due. combat. tuilahtaa. 312. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. and diligence. Swab. briga. shriek with laughter. the grew high. brdgen. splendour. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. — Brigantine. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. It. there are many armour. Brigata.' The passage from the sense of a light. In the same way to strive is. — brigante. to strive for. clear. to shine. and. It. — Probably then to strive. to glamr. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. Ducange has ' Brigandinou.Lat. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. outcry. Lat. Adelung. squamma .

border. brissle. a stick. kimmaltaa. griller. a border. komista. spraing. brandr and Fr. A . The expression is now confined to the sow. burning. tience. to creak. breziller. excited. finds the Fr. briller. E. on. to broil. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). Rayn. briller (related to each other as OFr. rugire. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. identical with passion. Du. brastlian. lip of a vessel. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. . kajata. striped or streaked. fringe (Lat. bramar. breziller. bryn. breme. Fl. Kil. whence bilbil-goda (literally. brame. brame.— Brinded. sprainged. lap of a garment . vigorHal. ring. the verbs Flor. Swiss Rom. os qui bresole. In the same way Sw. broil . leonum). Brimstone. Brim. to twinkle.' d'etre marie . bray as an ass bramire. komottaa. beam. bremmen. vattubryn. Tresiller. perent. G. (poet. Sw. border. is used of raging. ling noise and a sparkling light. that the original meaning of the Sc. bremmen. — . Supp. ON. fierce. the sow is brimming. hence the bosom. breme. 1 1 64. brumft. grullo. FJ. sparkle. to quaver with the voice. — Rim. gresiller. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. It. bramire. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. brullo. which seems identical with rim. barm. broiled. to make bilbil). small gravel. to sparkle. Brem. ous. shine. to utter cries. to long for a thing. bremas. s. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. It. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. brillare. to glitter . the eye-brow. to resound. to glitter distance . barmr. kimina.) brimi. Hence with an initial s. brim. brommen. ter. to shimmer. ardere desiderio. The identity of ON. the edge. to sound deep or hollow.its vent in cries and roaring. parched. to crackle. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. fire. the meaning is transL' amour. edge Pol. frequently interchange. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. brennistein. the lap or bosom. 154. The E. and 1. to burn. to make a crackling noise. glit. the singing of Sodom — — . uses bresoler (il bresole fir. Rugere. the heat of animals. Sc. as well as bl and gl. Lith. kiimottaa. brinfire.preni. cross-barred in colour. s. griller).' Elyot in Way. grdzil. to parch. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. lap. Fr. rugire (cervorum. to fret . In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. sonitum edere bremen. griller d'impatience. 754. brmdottr. Brindled. as is the case also with Pl. The meaning of the Fr. also to reflect. Sc. dial. 1. AS. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. Dan. brezil. to shine. Prov. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. have then in Fr. brama. brummen.— BRIM . der. To Brim. earnestly . furious. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. Subo. voux. to crackle. as of meat in broiling . Said of swine when in heat. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. bar. the heat of animals. to shake. a streak. Closely connected is OE. a long. glisten.). brant. ON. Tutschek. to glitter. bry7ie. Wtb. — — — . rym^. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. brisoler. noise made by meat in broiling. as in Langued. chime). rut. brunft. margin. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. grisser.ioTiviS acutus. from bringe. pMiller. Streaked. coloured in stripes. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. to wish or covet. to storm. post. kimista. bramar. and corresponding to these. In Fr. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. a borDu. bramer. surface of the ocean. greedily to covet Cot. fringe . brow of a hill. kommata. clangor tinniens. . . burning stone. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. to roar. whether of desire or anger. fimbria) . It. crackle. to shine. bresoler (Gloss. : ' — bone). to shine. a rod. with an initial br instead of gr. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. brummen : de soge brummet. reecho. to creak. gresiller. briller. — g. grisler. barm-cloth or barmskin. ON. crackle . brim Magy. brimmen. brdnnsten. to . brand-krossottr. Dief. Thus Lat. border. Langtoft. AS. or violent action. greDiet. from brandr. of the eye. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. originally the lap folding over the breast. to roar. — — So Fr.D. an apron.

a rod or twig. i. brocco. ribrezzoso. sharp. Then as the effect of shivering. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. spur. to break. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. as. the surf. a skewer. is called a birssy day. Russ. Russ. Antiq. broche. borzos (struppig). britchet. brim (poet. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. Du. brimhliod. Hal. a crum. from brande. briota. brittle. emotions which produce it. sprouts. bricho (with the diminutives. strong itself. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. . to burn. brindelles de balai. to turn up the point of anything. brusco. quick. broca. brocciare. prick with Sw.). sticking up . like the Broad. against the grain . the surf. sprocco. a rebours. shoot. are used in the sense of brittle. . sprout. a cold and windy mist or frost. brisciare. as unripe fruits. britar. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Sc. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Formerly written brotil. lively. a stormy brimsea . coli. setting the hair on end. Palsgr. cK) the . bros. hot-tempered. bruched (Fr. Swiss to stand out . to set up one's birse. brockle. Fr. whence may be explained the Sc. brytan. . See To Brim. Bret. brittle. The Pl. to set it a going. Bohem. brcit. bresk. In the N. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Liquamen vel garum. to break. suddenly angry. a button broche. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. flame. brim. to begin upon it. borst. birssy. Mid. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Dan. crabbed. e. 222. breast. Fr. a slip or sprig of an herb . to spit. a brooch. Du. Brym. brijn (Kil. to bud. brot. rebursiis. NE. bringe. Brittle. It. bringe traced through the brano. Compare also E. Brisk. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. /3pE^m. to crack. b. to thrust. birse. a bud. is to erect the hair. apt to break. brickie. startling. Prov. harsh vin brusque.. Lat. to spur.procio. See Spread. borstel. to goad. brusk. fragile. aculeus. brissle.Lat. breaking out into growth. brich. expression. sour. a clasp. brocar. as a noun. Fr. a bit . Pectusculum. thick — A elastic hair. chest.D. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. Fris. Cot. Da. See Brand.g. briota. brissko). birs. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. a brad or tack. bringue. to birstle. has under It. Salte sand is called brimsand. spricka. Sw. a morsel . brezzare.. of astonishment. — in Due. brocher. roar of the sea saltr. bronchus. and Sc. to shiver for Sold or for fear. fierce. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. to roar. to scorch. eager. grim.'— Vita'abbatum S. — bryme. brichet. rash. from AS. a bud. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. Hence ribrezzare. Berri. to put one in a rage . brodden. to broil.' Nat. smart taste. stitch. to broach a business. a spit. to shoot. It. a projecting tooth It. ' . rebrousser. reburrus. birsle. or the full • . G. brddj Goth. Brine. Alfr. wine of a sharp. bristly . Breeze been connected with the Sc. broc. braidsj ON. Fr. a stitch brocher. borzen. breidr. broca. . Abroacli. broccata. bros. a belly. bruskett. byrst. brocco. or — . Prov. brim. broccare. a deluge.rcendij'i. metaphorically. and forms on. Brisket. to stitch. as. Sp. angry. craw of a bird. Port. Sc. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. brimme. Brooch. the brisket or . which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. an awl. to stab Gael. to spur. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Commonly explained as from Fr. — A . Walach. Gl. setting the hair on end compare It. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. Zeuss. very salt brimi. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. as. birstle. breaking of the waves brim sior. brime. a peg sbrocco. . ON. humorous. to stick. from break. man's throat. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. a shoot or sprig. Boh. Fr. Prov. bruckle. Gr. brandello. ' breast. a morsel. 'V^. p. briser. a fragment. fantas'* tical. — . flames. Bristle. brote. . fiscbryne. rude. trembling. bryde. form bris. and hence. the twigs of a besom. — — .). Brocade. ruffling. brezza. brisk in taste. Brickie. brocchus. and. to break. It. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. Bret. Fr. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. brusque. brioshko. It. Ptg. of E. brust. brog. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. briocho. saulmeure. britar. bryne. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). brin.

and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. a brecJi. Grisons brascla. embroidery. briz. AS. to prick. — — . to parch or broil. and w. onbryrdan. dar seems derived from borde. borprick. a brouhaha. spots. broccato was used to signify stuff . margin. brouda. border. trouble. ciare. frocadura. brocco. hurly-burlies. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. broccuto. parch. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. — brissle. a flake of snow sion. and bord or bred. — The proper sense is that of Fr. q. brasbrasciuolare. tumult broighleach. brasiller. Gael. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. sparks E. a badger. broil. ToBroider. a point. parti-coloured. To roast upon hot coals. birsle. age was termed a pricket. Icnotty. brindled. stump. Fr. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. b?-od. a To Broil. precisely analogous to the Sc. border ornamented with silk.. — Fl. an edge. to broil. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. silkes-borda. rustle. brasuole. brouFr. breard. Florio. scorch. bmsciare. a freckle. brasiller. Sp. initial . to burn. or It. — Gower in It. tufted ornaments. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. brooked. Bret. a prick. a b?-ustolare. Hal. to crackle. to streaked or speckled in the face. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. the shoot of corn. briefh. to crackle. agree in being the extremity of a thing. a confused streaked face of the animal. Fr. and AS. broiled. brucach. Ihre has guU-bord. Fr. broice. brucilare. brustle. trouble. to crackle. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. to embroider. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. has grisser. rinj'. speckled. broil. brocach. a border ornamented with gold. a peg. a brim. spotted. hart of two years old. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. bruler. broud. prod. brullare. a quarrel. brychau. A badger. bram. to boss. or roast on the braise. or snag. v. bordo. badger . Broker. a mole. or salted fish on coals. fundamental origin. R. noisy. broighlich. a flock or Gael. freckled. froco. bordar. thread. Sc. brizen. blusters. brodio. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. brod. bj'oil. Cot. or glowing coals broged. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. Dan. to stud broccoso. Compare also AS. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. to darn. brusuole. Here to ornament with needle-work. broukit. broglio. Ptg.. brastlian. noise. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. knobby . The Bret. motes. . From direct imitation of Brock. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. grislement. . confound. broc. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). storms. parched. of pointing out their latent defects. It of br the Fr. to spur. The ON. to knots or loops. whence broccare. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. houx. brerd. gresiller. to burn. bustling. carbonado. It. to crackle. a fallingThe sense has been out. creak. brusler. parti-coloured. brasolare. to On the other hand the Sp. from the white. Surrey in R. — .tumultuous. embroidering. Thus brod. ornamented with a raised pile.sound. to embroider. point to an origin in Bret. brych. speckled. with Sc. atoms . shuffle. broder. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. piebald . bramowanie. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. tori shows that. B. It. W. broc. to crackle as a shell in the fire. to scorch. streaked. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. bawling. a border. Gael. A fried or boiled steaks). find fault is accordingly recognised To in . frecSee Brawl. Compare G. sting. prasseln. gold and silver. brocart. here. grullo.— B. the line of development has been something different. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. Brocket. So from Pol. kled breac. forming to jumble. to instigate. a freckle. 103 embroidered. braird. Contracted from Fr. E. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Cot. Sc.

For the same reason the Kiittner. want. Pl. Kil. and to reject the damaged and unsound. cherish. to reject. raquer. to spit . to — garble. refuse goods. brasa. wrack-good. It may be compared with It. phlegm. a makeln. the spawn of fishes. hraki. In the . brid. refuse Fr. brokoti. rejection Pol.— Lib. brokers' goods. trumpery. refuse brakovat. correctarius. To blame mens ware.— — . Tooke's Catherine. refuse wares.D. damaged. . refuse. Sp. embers to brund. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. brut. vile. Grisons brinzla. bronzo. ON. Pro v. to nourish. to roast on the embers. with. on. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. hot. Abbronzare. — point out the faults. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. bronze. Du. broiid. buy and sell by commission. an operation performed over hot coals. reject.D. vrage. glowing coals. In those countries the term braker. . G. brands. spittle. • . to . embers. damaged. brack. Pl. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. wreak.D. couratier. designation is indkler. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. abbronzanchiare. to pick and choose. wrak. Pl. to braze. to be hot. to blame. from break. fish-spawn broden. Alb. racaille. to sparkle. selection. braken. blur. tussis. hot. brokas. cast Lith. cracker. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. to hatch G. : ' . racher. brumo. Teutonic class : Du. to pro- to reject . spittle . to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. — a spark. If to vomit . Fl. Brood. to emit sparks. which E. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. S. criticise (makeln). See Wreak. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. sbrinzlar. Bronzare. to sit on eggs. ordure. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. stain. find fault — — — fuse matter. the young of any animal . nounce unsound. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. et A. G. from makel. filth. OFr.— Breed. to scorch. embers. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. wraken. vile. as. dirty. refuse brakowad. merchandises de rebut G. brieden. progeny of birds. a chicken. inspection. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. ODu. bric-a-brac. i. to garble. The use sunburn. brae. inspect. — Fl. a brood . bridde. find fault with. Lat. e. Fr. The Langued. burning. Per manus et old worthless horse. keep warm. brass does to Sp. brack-gut (Sanders). Bret. . an . tan. sunburnt. make out. screatio Junfus . slaae vrag paa. hrak. a cough Hal. 396.D. sort. bring eggs and spawn into active life. find fault with. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. bracker. This word shows the same relation to It. to hatch. bronze. See Brackish. a fault. Jam. broen. to pick. briiten. bredan. On • tliis principle the G. abject. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. brak. brack-gut. brydio. . Russ. bronze. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. rejected. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. brasa. mediationem quorundam J. a breach or flaw. braeck goed. whnake. goods damaged by sea-water. Dan. insects. Sc. in the sense of rejection. Prov. or brascla. refuse. analogous to Bohem. matter of blame weak place. — . Du. try out. but from the primary sense of the It. Bronze. whence the modern courtier. brakyne. to sort brakovanie. See Broth. warm. mud. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. w. bronce. try . brod.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. to be wanting. to criticise. fermenting. brunds. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. term was correcfo^ir. fault censure. brechen. corrector. brod. raca. brackefi. a broker. and as an adj. — broeden. to throw blame upon. brwd. Alb. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. lack. faulty. . to hatch. To correct an exercise is to Lib. an outcast or rejected sheep. brak. to copper. to brew. Adelung. G. . any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. dial. has exactly the force of G. to sort goods . It. 38. and fishes . appointed to classify goods according to their quality. pan metal. in which sense the OHG. brot.

broth the ocean Sw. verge. frater. face. brouet. brukjan. bor. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. riviere. broth brothaire. rage. low The AS. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. See Bramble. Ppim. iVlanx broogh. to boil. Sp.) . brouter. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. eminence . brwd. to boil. thick bush brousta. brdtaj Gael. useful G. a little house or cottage of timber. sap. Mid. thairj w. to boil bruithe. It. cabbage soup . Du. . to border. G. The AS. cabbage water. of plants broust. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. Brothel. thicket. broi. from ripa. pottage. a shore. eye-lid. Browse. to browse. . the colour of things burnt. fabric consists. grow brossa. bruich. Gris. . Bret. wood .braubiti. edge. waves. brotar. . .' Due. &c. as small-pox. heat. Gr. A — . Gael. Brow. boiled . eye-brow. and Sc. a bud. brass. spirit. a spring. a little .D." Serv. a bruth. — exiit et heath. brau. eat. Sc. a hut or cottage It. (for brodem). Sanscr. Russ. braussa. broieii. brink. to murmur. mettle. eye-brow. Here we find throughout the Romance. house of ill fame. brun. 'Lzt. brucan. frucius. brushbroccoli. brothas. brio. brow. brad. brozia. bruitheati. G. bruno. brewis. bruth. and It. properly boiling water briihen. bree. broth Brown. to roar. buds. braew. bros. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. sprot. a hill. brow of a hill. Gael. BROOK brook w. brawdj Slavon. bruith. edge. eye-brow.spross. Fr. pour boiling water over. break out brewet. brous. to browse. sprocco. breg. from Goth. broccola. may be connected with Russ. sprout. Wtb. bushes. noise. brodo. broeye. juice of meat. Celtic. hut. braun. grow into a bush. But the Walach. borde. 105 Brook. bank.brons. seethe. has briw. — . . w. to shoot. border. brue . bordeau. hot. juice of briars. briu. or shoot. brennen. steam from heated bodies. warmth ch'an. to burn. a sprig. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. Tam de terrS. Kil. Catalan brossa. brstiti. Lat. bregh. brogues. Gael. of which the variety of forms. bruich. G. broza. strength. brouser. surface of Broth. brost. Fr. brew . Fr. . to boil. eye-brow. brosses. Prov. Manx broie. on. Pol. in which brinnan. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. . heat explaining the Prov. t— Cot. kail brose. spuma. to use. Sp. to Pl. vigour. Russ. shoots. Bret. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. a caldron.D. &c. Due. OFr. . . Gael. a hill. brudi. heath. to bear patiently. Bohem. Roquef. brouic. brosses. AS. juniper. to sprout. sodden. The origin is a re. bruach. a shrub broust. The softening down of the consonant bud. bruithim. a . bruscosd quam de arabili. to bubble up with noise. frui. sense the Sc. sprout. signifying twigs.. bntdien. margin. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. brst. . Commonly Teutonic. bank. brosst. bud. To digest. It is Brother. chen. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. fur Broom. Bav. meal. broud. cia. broth. infusion. bruddeln. heath. bordel. to use bruks. It. enjoy Goth. as rhododendrons. broc. . Du. breh. Dan. brouskaol. brmi. signifying low wet land (Brem. breg. riviera. shrubs. broit. G. brlgh. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . vigour. a derived from the boards. sprouts . bros. Bohem. to spring . It. Fr. or broken up . brotar. — . was originally used in the innocent sense of . bryii. bryn. broem bark. sordes seu strigmata young branch. forms appear related to the Ir. brouches. AS. pfriemkraut. shrub with leafless pointed edging. bank. eye-lash . to use. circuindedit cum familia. Cot. shore. bratrj Lat. Serv. Limousin broudi. . sproc. broth. to scald. a bud brous-koad. and also border. perhaps burnt coloilr. brus.— Overyssel Almanack. &c. breg. brocco. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. a river. brusmalt. who is steaming with sweat. Prov. bank. strength Ir. bryn. brost. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. brpuster. dialects is very different. bruc. ceales briw. and Slavonic families.brink. brabruach. protecting the eye. briihe. eye-lid. broth is sometimes used . broden. OHG. ale . G. borda. bhratrj Zend. broca. on. browys. . brauwe. infusion the barley bree. awl-plant. simmer from the murmuring AS. . shoot. w. &c. Fr. Ger. Bohem. plants composed of twigs. braces. as Fr. laissent Domunculum. Pl. brodem. . shore . briar. a confused noise of winds. augen-braune. pith. rerum decoctarum. surDu. hovel. the bubbling or springing up of water. b7-un. brd. broo. — ' . or bushes and scrubby growths. dumetum. branches. a source Gael. brov. OHG. brushbrothas) gives the OE. a sprout. bruceti.

borste. wood composed OE. modification of the same root which gives the E. 134. splinters. abroncar. . G. irruo. Lang. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. or shoot. brottcher. rods. flax-comb brossettes. E. Fr. dust. to cleanse. a brush. insilio. — a bush. quisquilise. Broach. brustid. brizeto. brugir. and actually come in collision. . E. biirste. bushy ground. effort. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Pr. and sighid therewithal. Beryn. shivers. —Fabyan. wool-card. broza. bruito. bris.— — i. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. G. appearin Goth. brik. brustia. but on whom it schall to brisen him. Palsgr. brossa. to make a rumbling. brisar. bud. brist. Bret. . brunt. Cot. bruzir. bris.— Palsgr. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Gael. NE. borst. Fr. to break. bruise exOFr. a bristle. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. Bav. brusco. Lang. a brush . See next article. That in all haste he wouli. break. to break to bits . Sw. briketo. brist j Port. a briser. brosst. brusca. of twigs. a noise. — Fr. It. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. a brush. brous. K. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. brysan. it schall be al Sw. bruc. Piedm. Port. into a multitude of points. fragments. brist. crum bit . a flax comb. . dust. The same relation holds good between G. a mote. insultus. quasi twigs. Prov.). * Brunt. brista) or breaking out . . burt. an enmy. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. sordes. ca7-bo>i. AS. dust. brosse. rubbish. brushwood. E. a bud. fasx . The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . . a bush of hair. a brush . Fl. to break or burst. brusco. . dust. Poems. or sodenly comyn' dust. a brush. bruit. shock. bruscolo. chips. britar. Cot. briiis (in the pi. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. to butt. brusca. brisd. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. blow burcar. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. It. Gael. bross. borste. And that best is. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Bruit. Pr. Pr. Castr. brustia. brousso. a tuft of heath . the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brossa. tremely. Fr. brise. wool-card. broustia. 174. broza. brMt. and It. — those signifying a sprig. Diez. a brush Swiss bruske. p. escousse. fescue . Alexander. to brush. bruiser. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. brous. brust. a crum. Brunt of a daunger. bush. bricalio. OE. borste. remnants of hay or fodder. bruscia. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. The Bav. bris.). to make brusshes on. Sw. Gael.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. Brush. to crush. brusc (Diet. a little brizal. briser. a brush . bross. detergere . also a head-brush. and Piedm. bruis (sing. tuft of grass or hay. a bud or sprout Bret. to strike the foot against an obstacle. small heath whereof head-brushes are made.). The Lat. It. bruire. Brunt. Fr. broust. Piedm. field. crush. a brush . to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. a shrub composed of small twigs . a bristle. burs. ON. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. a rumbling. shoot brouskoad. borste. To brush then would be to dust. Fr. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. Text Soc. brossar. and in the second place a besoiB. brikan. brist. britar. to stumble. ling or heath for brushes. On the other hand. wool-card. twig. rubbish. coal See Breeze. borste. bruyere. brosst. twig. In E. brus. brosse. a — — (Agea) said. and also Brush. brusg. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. orts. bris. —Chaucer. Wicliff. a blow. Pm. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. bruskr. Prov. and . Pm. as It. 201. Sp. brico or brizo. Allit. A. Pr. Bruise. Gael. seems named from burst(on. biirste. Prov. mg Cat. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. B?-usske. rubbish. to break. Hall in R. brit. bruscolo. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. — OE.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Prov. desbrisar. OFr. broken. heath. a horse-brush.

Etym.' Palsgr. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. to butt. mote. bukke. BUBBLE bruschetta. Fr. bduclien. . was called bucking the linen. a. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to which in their language they call bou. Magy.wet Lat. a knock word. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. bucaIndies. boucaner.— . This bubette. 1586. to a place used for the mouillir. hump. open lath-work. and as a verb. lye. Sc. and exercised their cruelties prin. says Laudon. 17th century. Pol. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. bubiti. it is beuchen. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. .buchen. a ashes. to soften. bubBuck. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. bucata. buquer. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself).to allow a free current of air. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. plied in the W. pukkata. and then to other wild tumour Lith. Gael. not so plentiful a commodity. different form. a bubble . from colar. . to strain. boil animals. Illust. does not hold. . the lower soak in lye. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. and Fr. Sp. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. in which the flesh dish. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. a hole. tuft.biiken j Svi. — . mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. It. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. colada. who resorted to the islands beichen. thunder gently . bublati. de la Floride. to murmur. buchen. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . bifbel. to buck. Cot. to filter. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. Diet. soft. The term bocan is still ap.byka. mokry. Pref A. See Dupe. Formerly. to bump as a bittern. a to the male deer. to soften . a bubble. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. to soften. From an imita. soft It. the linen at buck. Bubble. hog dressed whole). bog-aske.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. watery bud. to soak foul linen before washing.boukaat. from weich. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. bub. It. buck-ashes. maban and baban. Dan. 1857. mieknad. rap. In G.derivation has been much discussed. wood. tender. Fr. Bret. . bouk. boc. to Gael. designation of a knob. was called in Fr. when soap was tion is commonly taken. boh. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. bube. bouc. Fr. . either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. ac.D. Bret. to butt. to stick. a steep for flax. top. and the bunch. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. bubseti. But see Bristle. The word was very generally Buccanier. is 1. bubbola. very generally designated by the same puk. or projecTo Buck. w. to butt or jurr Dan. Our next illustration represents the Bocan.tare. because bucare does not in Marsh). soft. buquer. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. of wind. soft .-wtt miekki. mollire. to soak. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. bwch. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. moist. March 28. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. as a buck rabbit. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. moczyd. pokka7na. buerj It. bugd. knock. buck-ashes. pup. Pol. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. as G. to wet Pol. the first wheal. Bohem. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun.lessiver. bubauti. The name. bub. molle. boc. caned' Hence those who established them. lye. I. Esthon. also applied Una. a fescue. The cipally on the Spaniards. or mok. bucking. tender. Magy. — — ' A : ' ' . News. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. at a door. blister. Fin.steep or soak. a push. to bubble. set of pirates in the spread. w. It. the upper for coifee. buborek. byge. soft. bucquer. — . chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. The place of such a 2. The male goat. bokni. . tap . . Sp. a. bugada. faire la lessive. erweichen. A . The natives of Florida. hump. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. a bubble. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. blast or strike with the forehead. Bohem. to soak. drying of produce.

a shield. Wtb.stumpy man. botzen. mani. a stump buckle up. bloca. having a boss. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. above mentioned. boccula. macero. goat's hoof. or male of to boil . is to shrivel up. butt . Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram.' And this sacrament bus have dial. It. bunch. become bochen. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. turgere buczendig. call bo. bouge. imbuere. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. like a bean.anything short of its kind. also a leather tuft . bloca. Mid. Russ.poot. ble. put. boulj. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. belonging to the calling of the chen. * Bucket. is doubtless fallacious. OFr. a little coffer or turgidus. from bo. ein. jSouKoXiKog. Behoves. prick in a target.pode. Mid. loud Cot. no business to do that. — — . NE. set of a plant in bulk. a pustule bout. a boy. dint . a servant. budge. words is converted into b. whom it is still much in use. bulga. boss.chissima.) . to un bout d'homme. butzen. boucle. bolgia. K. clasp of a book. Pol. To thrusting part of a long body. bogla. ' . agreeing with Gael. bouprobably identical with inok. bouclier. a wallet. crack. . . cattle. Port. case of leather . arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. don't stir from hence. bo. Sp. dim. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. Buckler.goa.) as to soak. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim.. ON.. The dressed fur of lambs. weich. bukke-blad. bouter. Fr. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. to boil. Bret. a small shallow and open tub. with a central boss. bedde. to thrust. a budget. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. boach. a boss. . Fr. stir. boiling. and weichen. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. knob . bod. pulga. Bus. a trough). with which it was ornamented. scion.). In Lat. . Sw. OHG. bouk is a pail and with the dim. to boss or swell out G. bode. bud butzen. the radical image seems to be a set plants. to line with fur. Pied. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. Cot. a bud. to pen cattle. the word w ' — . material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. weichen. a leathern sack. from bugr. It termination is lost. boucaran. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. push forwards. boaLat. boucle. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. Lat. Gael. .may probably be explained by N. bulla. bouton.r//'. Fr. lump. need. a boss. boqueranmis. buckel. w. * Bud. It. ornamental stud. with let. Fr. built. thrust. were To Budge. It. ' . So on. Bret. . a buclder or shield budge. bollire. a tuft. bdden. bolgetta. bump. a . as in Fr. gjeit-klauv. a fold ceilio. the root of the Slavonic words gran. protuberance. call. Swab. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. explaining Fr. and the reference to It. The Fr. See Bulk. G. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. Bucolic. a shoot. Budget.. to poke. swelling. great pouch. bub. to graft or bud trees. bug. swelling. bunch . butze. . w. bucolicus. bul. to butt. to move. a navel. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. A buckle or fastening for botch. from Gr. Fr. to budge. boss of a shield. a buckle or protuberance. Bav. bugnir. inboachen. boucle.n. to 'soak. blow. to swell. child. Fr. bucket Fl.— . and of the Lat. of a surface. bougette. Prov. rump of fowls .pastoral nations of Slavonic race. bullion.' Hal. Hardly identical with Fr. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. excrescence. — — . in the beginning of to pierce holes. a cowherd. a short thick man. don't a baby). pwtio. to word. a pail or flowers. bloquier. boucler. no wheel bogeilio. botzen. pwt o Fr. It. trunk of wood covered with leather. seen in Hesse botz. Hence quel. Dan. to stir. probably from the notion of bubbling. dinted. — . . Budge. buachazlle. skins pushit'. butz. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. W. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. Dan. a ring. call. Du. stroke. bulb. bod. a bubble three thyngis. fur. of bac. a bump. Du. * Buckle.stuff. hump. bog and G. water message. A water-plant with leaves and gille. Bav. knob dwfr yn boglynu.' Boccaccio. clump. potz. knock. This expression boglire. motus creber. soft.t-le!L{ * Bud./a. of bouge. bouger. stud. convexity. Buck-bean. noise . brobrocchiere. wallet. The word is a ddyn. Prov. weich. pote. . boglyn. pulga. bougette. butzen K. II I'a feru desor I'escu. — . to bud or bocla. sboge.Lat. butzen (Du. bulka. butzen. bouljein. Fr. The entire train of thought is bucket. The knob or projection formN.' Schm. ' . male or botzen. where the G. a budget. bucherame. Prov. bulais daqui. . bucherare. a dumpy gin. bocla. rabodS. a curl.

It. air. confused. breath. dull sound. to rePl. Swiss baui. a bugbear. a buffle or a bugle. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. Pl. Buffeter. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. le reste emplissant d'eau. bubach. also the skin or heck of a buffe. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . constitutes the game of Bo-peep. yar^aa. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . bobaow. Magy. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. buffet. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. Limousin bobal. Mid. to jest or sport. bouffer. to frighten . a dull BUG From 109 — A . boman. bubus. senses. to blow . and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. buffare. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. colour. wine may The verb in taverns. buffet. him but Boyd iugges. Hence the E. to a representation of his voice. bolgetta. buff leather. Fr. a cuff or buffet. — thence it has been transferred in E. Fr./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . w. Buffalo.D. to strike face to represent the unknown. as emblematically making light of an object. duff^ dull. &c. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Sc. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. a goblin). pulse . Teet-bo. dausa. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. Gael. cuff . boo. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. buMagy. a hobgoblin. bubiti. stupid. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. mingled with water. bw. From buff! of terror. Fr. botffon. buffare. bugbear. also a G. a jester. leathern bucket. — La Crusca. tabernarius. bufHe. Buff. buffer. een duffen toon.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. things in Jam. a side-board. bumann. bo ! an interj. by metaphor. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. scarecrow . often covering his E. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. buffeteur. popo. A puff with — Fl. often blown upon. bugs. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. —Boggart. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. as from Lith. to puff. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. Lat. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. as Diez remarks. Thus buffet would a tapster. to give benti. buffets. word other cases. or hath been Cot. as wine that hath taken wind. smells . thus be translated to tap. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. — — — Buffet. to blow. bau ! children. from It. The cry made to excite terror is then used. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. buivol. ' They rether puffed at him. deadened. W. site The two — — iii. Buff. wauwau. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. From bulga. a puff. made by a person. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. Romola. A — Bug. baubau. bugle. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. buffet. caupo. either alone or with various terminations. Sc. It. btifetarius. buffa. and in Fr. the buffe. a skin. buffetto. buffle-headed. dausinti. — Bogle. — retailing buffeter buffetier. G. made to —Bugbear. buffen. dial. Fr. blurt or puff with one's mouth. sounds. to excite terror in Macleod. Cot. Lat. bauwi. Esthon. for this purpose is very widely spread. . Fl. a budget.' La Crusca.— Buflae. to give a as of a blow. human. to beat. or wild ox. soufflet. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. The children were playing in an oppocomer. to bellow . rebuff. Cot. Lith. Bufetarium. bouffer. — Z. bufogni. It. to blow souffleU. bubaRuss.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Fr. bw! It. from souffler. buffle. to marre often tasting it . bwg. Pl. of colours. a block-headed noddy. 265.D. a In . a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to puff. Buffoon. A blow. bufogni. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Lith. bolgia.' perfield. the place whence the wine was drawn. E. to signify an indefinite object of terror. puff. mumming. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. God's boast seemed feare children. The use of the exclamation children.—Buffet. buffalo. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. a clap. tastes. while in Sp.D. It. bukow Ikow. a hollow sound.

Illyr. paws the ground . Grisons bau. the black a maggot. threatening. Stalder bog. Fl. then a horn for drinking. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . insect. threatening. fette. to creeping things. bug. Fl. i. A similar applica.. monster. especially to beetles or winged insects. Lesachthal. Same as buffle. a bug-bear. Swiss ing. to frighten scarecrow. It. Lith. of bugabo was given. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. bugle. and is Deutsch. bwgwl. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. a buffalo. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. bau (Pureiglia. An ornament of female dress condread. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Hal.— . superbire. — boogg. rose-bug. Grose. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. also a baco-baco. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. bogk. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. : no BUG . coco. to take fright. language any kind of insect. earwig bau da grascha.Fr. given in Chaucer. W. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. bogle. — — . affright. is the dim. bobal. any disgusting animal. buba. a goblin. bogk.. iv. . roarHal. a. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. Mundart. and in Lat. (Spurrell). also a bug-bear. a boogg. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. the buggaboo w. Chaucer. bugbear. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. Parolone. bug-bear. bugler. bauginti. . The w. bogil bo (e. the Devil. xiv. The final guttural of W. saucy. larva (a bug-bear. I. well as the terrific object. booggen. pujalo. BUGLE Tentennino. a proud overbearing man pujat'. long. insect. buffle. E. b'dgni. The name of bug is — . bugar. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. is very common. terrifying ward. Bug. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. an object of terror. and a boggarty ing. a bug-bear. bwgar. Lett. bok. to roar Aasen. as an object of dread. to take fright. bold. worm. of pipes sewn on. beugler. Sw. bbgni. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. and bugle. — — terror. buculus. Serv. big. Magy. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. . The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. biignt. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. protuberant. bug dung-beetle. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. bug-bear. baco. forSc. — — ' . the word is lin) bbgge. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. bwg and E. tumble-bug. a rabme. poggl. and in child's Magy. bukashka. pugaf. to bellow. provincially an insect. vermin. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. mask ' . scarecrow . hert. a bugbear for children. 493. troll. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. . shepe and gootes. Sp. boa-peep. 1551. il brutto Demonio. to origin in the expression bugs words. to bellow. banian boube. Manx boa. with more or less modification represents bau. bucula. disgust. bogil. high-sounding words. Cheval de trombugti. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. gad. Big. Schmidt. fear. w. Mid. fierce. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. a silk-worm.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. boeuf sauvage. oxen. — . quos what produces dread or disgust. Swelling. 3. pugalo. boo. dial. according to Coles. Swiss booggen. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. * 2. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. See The name terror). great or bug words. roo. Bible. thus connected with bug. tion of the beetle tribe.Lat. Bug as a lord. blustering. as Buffalo. bukati. Deut. used in the same sense. to take bug. a beetle. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. Magy. ghost. an insect. swollen. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. Bogge. Bdronie. It. also a bug-bear. 2. Lap.3uhtii&:. proud. Hence bugle-horn. Bugle. Russ.loud noise. a misshapen person. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. bug-bear. high. buggabod). For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce.

Pr. principal portion.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. bulg. the belly. Boss^. Here stand behind this bulk. bolso. bulkaf. Palco. projection. Lith. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. of an inflated skin. In the representation of natural sounds. bulwis. Bulk. From till. and put it home. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. the potato G. a bubble Gael. bulka. . Hence e. knob. Lat. stuffed bag. and bulbukd. bed of a river. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. nave or body of the church van 't schip. lump. bol. Bav. buc. a stage or scaffold. domicilium. unevenness Sw. The addition of a dim. the head of an onion. or bear out as a full purse. to build. were a habitation. pimple. van loock. mass. mass. G. Lat. to throw out a convexity. bouk. blister. — . a globe. to bubble up Pol. hold or bilge of a ship. head . bulk is a partition of boards. to bubble up. acervus. Gr. or cargo of a ship. puff. . balgs. or feminine termination gives Bav. ON. swell. be protuberant. trunk of the body. bulgen. Dan. formed a farm. or. belly. bag. Pr.' Anat. Dan. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. m um Placentiae. — — . MHG. whence bylja. in Sc. OSw. bilge. bulk. in vessel. . bolgia. bulked or bumped out. at riufa bulkann. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. of E. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. See bollekeii next article. a tuberous or bulbous root . . bukr. swell.'— Cot. bol.' Festus. Bulge. a. it again. bulne. as it was merly written in English to bylle. crowd. w. balg. knot in thread. belgja. trunk. pod ON. Lett. or of what is shaped like a bubble. to swell. — — . husk. belly Sw. belgr. ne.' Cot. belly van de kerche. Bolke or hepe. the contents of the hold. I. bulle. . PoXj3a. body of an animal. skin flayed whole. belly Cat. lump. snorting on a bulk. blister Manx bolg.— . To Build. in bulk. boa. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. buhe. . tumidus. bolnyn. Ptg. bauen. bwlg. Gr. ' . OSw. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. beuck. . belly. to raise a habitation. The Walach. Hal. bullka. bugue. inhabit. bubble. . cumulus. balg. bulcke. a straw corn-vessel. skin bag. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). bolgan. a bubble. Melancholy. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. knob. Kil. body. Pm. Muratori. bellows builgean. boss of a buckler. ON. ball. has bulbuk. A — ' — Bulk. bua. to gather. blister. habitaculum. bulbe. For the latter sense ' — My . . buk. tumeo. bol. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. to undo the cargo. a bunch. bubble. hull of a ship. bauch. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. hollow. . cultivate. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. See how this tode bolneth. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. bladder. bolg. to break bulk. swollen. With these must probably be classed ON. a prominence. boss of shield.pulks. vulva. He found a country fellow dead drunk. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bulbe. bole.d. Lith. belly. thorax buick. globule bolg-lhuingey. bouge. skin of an animal. bulki. bunch or projection. the womb. bulbus. — — . to spring. leather sack. . chest. belly. knobby. to puff up bolginn. body of a ship . ^ — . the body Du. as well as is very variable. sedes. Mister. bulge or convex part of a cask. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. . bubble. pouch builgeadh. and N. belly. a dint in a metal . byli. pulkas. dial. Bulch. Jno. gebolgen.). bolle. a protuberance. anything prominent. . the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bulk or capacity of anything. boss. Sp. bubble {palgan tiisge. Bourser. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. 1388. trunk.' Fl. jnake bulch. bulge or bilge. G. swell. a bulb Du. pocket. the carcase. on. to swell. bo. swollen OE. bolle. the capacity or burden of a ship. Mandeville. blow. as water beginning to boil bolg. . See Bulk. to belly out. ' . the position of liquids in the word In English. boss. Pm. bubbling up. biilken. bolgna. — . herd^ swarm pulkd. a leather sack or budget Fr. a. G. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. (3oX|8oc. straight will he 2.' Palsgr. a water-bubble). The radical sense is shown in Russ. to blow. villa. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. . bolgetta. bulgen. a lump or mass. bale. turgeo bolnyd. ' . balco. . Othello. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. — Bulb. womb. a heap. a round bulky body bwlgan. wallet. It. to bol. a leathern sack or portmanteau. balcone. bug. compare Da. boulge. .

pollach. blister.lle de fusil. bulk. to seal. And The word bullerbak. scarecrow. bullocks. a tadpole. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. &c. Du. w. — — Bull. also a parFl. from the use of the equivalent terms. a cow. bollos de relieve. which may probably be the origin of the name. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. bouillon. It. blunt. a hornet. bulloi. eth and frighteth. stamped money. is of a class with Pl. Gael. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. bollon. a stud. whence Mod. bullos.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. Du. Bullet. I. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. Bullace. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. elves. — A tition in a ship. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. thick. from baula. witches. bole or trunk of a tree. penbwl. bolli. bollar. bal. round glass phial. Lith. poltern. Dan. bwla. bwbach. also of the tadpole or young frog. of the ox kind. 2. A lace tree. a little fish nearly all head. G. but is more probably iden- palchetto. bullebak. stud. The male W. Fr. a tadpole . to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. The wild plum.. to emboss . — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. boulct. See Bowl. G. sloes. leraures nocturni nigri. N. as It. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. bolos Fr. polten. balgeting. bellocier. Bullbeggar. 3. bietebau. boss or stud. any embossed work.Gr. a hobgoblin. baula. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. bolla. Terriculamentum. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. Eullrusli. bellow. large of its kind. a bul-begger. bulke. The bullfrog. Pl. the matrix or die . spirits. of boule. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. See Billet. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water.'— ' Palsgr. billoti in Fr. A papal rescript. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. it may be observed that a bullet in E. a beam or rafter. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. . Scot's Deso. however. as geting. boillon. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. This word is used in several senses. any great-headed or studded nail. a bulox polos.D. Sp. Fr. W. BulUiead. bolli. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. bouillon. ON. bulle. to boil. boss. a bull. a bull Swiss bullen. a blockhead. Du. /SouWivu. embossed work. a framework of balks. to bellow. poll-cheannach. in the sense of base metal. dial. G. bulla. dim. biitzibau. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. bugbear. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. as a mill-dam or the like.. — Fl. pimple. hhint. a seal. as in E. assito.' do not go by the dangerous water. a bowl. stamp. from Fr. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. poli-cheannan. it is boulet de canon. the seal affixed to the document. large. Du. and vellon in Sp. signifying roaring. 2. brass-headed nail .D.. as the ornanails.Fris. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. BuUiou. stud. bullus. in N. ba. to tical with Sw. pwl.D. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. b2iggaboo. bubble. lumpheaded . a wasp. from the noise. a scare-bug. w. The final element tergeist. a noisy violent fellow. a hobgoblin. of Witchcr. Bully.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. urchens. It. to bubble. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. on the contrary. from the Lat. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. G. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. bulk of a thing.. many to protuberant objects. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Bullfrog. Pm. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. whence bullire. lumpish. bauli. is called a ball. bulla. billon. stupid . bwlas. Gold or silver uncoined. tition of deals instead of a wall. bullern. i. Cot. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. and thence terror. bulderen. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. from Lat. a seal. Bret. coarse. beams or boards.

bulderen. John). Du. scaffold. minari verbulderen. Bully-rock.the ramparts. sound. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl.d. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. argentum and silver. Thus ' ble. baluarte.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. Fris. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. — — plate d'argent. intonare. provides. bol-werck. boisterous fellow. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. to drum Lat. Sw.' Again. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. The decried coin.D. Kil. 'lega. or work of defence. primarily the ramparts of a town. biihne. 9 E. St. bommele. Etym. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. is bullion — A — buller. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . a noisy blustering fellow. is called bumping or bells. from boden. boulevard.' ' mettre au billon. c. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. bustle. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. bottom. 2. Bailey. Hal. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. Du.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. propugnaculum. a blunderhead. Hence bom and ban. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. noise. on the other hand. G. AS. To bum. bottn. ierd-boeyme. III. then in general a rampart. buller-bas.. un faux brave. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. a floor. bastion. buller-bas. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a.' agger. violent overbearing person. perturbare saevis dictis. blunder-buss. ^Bully-rook. 14. legaggio di metallo. hum.' for the purpose of exchange. c. bombilare. 10. The 27 Ed. a bumble-. provides. or a humblebee.' Stat. Kiittner. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. 1687). that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. — Boom. Fr. violent. vallum. Bum-bailiff. &c. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. the soil. agrees with e. to make a droning Du. It. blunder-buss. beat a — Hal. IIL st.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. botm. ON. by corruption boulevart. Hence — . From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. The cry of the bittern. c. Miege in Hal. bolderen. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. bomtnen. block-werck. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. bodem. to make a noise . A. a boisterous. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. Philip le Bel in Due. Bully. polterer. Fris. D. Du. 2. buller-bak. ierd-beame. poltem. BULLY with which coins were stamped. debacchari. and similar restrictions were enforced in France.' reals of standard currency. ground. droning. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin.. To Bum.D. resonare. To bum. furious man. buene. Kil.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. up was termed monnaie de billon. boene. buller-jaan (bully. IV. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. 2. G. a stage. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. and porter au billon. For bottom. The Sw. buller-brook. 1305. to . From the notion of a humming. honunele. G. To bully is to bluster. to terrify by noise and clamour. 4 Hen. — Bump. The Stat. clamour. — Bumto . — bombam?nen. ^i^/«.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. a. Bum. blaterare. but now is the central part of the town. a hectoring. to dun.

to ' . Bunch. botn. Pm. bun eich. from knock) It. bunka. stalk. Sc. H. a knob . poumpi. while bulch was traced through Gris. bottom. a boil (punkos bot. a heap OSw. a bag or sack. a pocket Sw. pwmp. bundle. S. hdk passing and E. bumtel. tundo. to . awkward. any round knob or bunch. . oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. — — — — ' — knock. Probably from bump.' he fell with a bang. as we have seen E. a person employed to dun one for a debt.' Bun. an old stump of a horse. See Bunch. any round knob or bunch. Pr. — — Bun. signifying one who does things in a thumping. pompette. ner. from bunsen. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee.D. bonge.— Bunnion. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bans. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. See Bounce. stump. bull. binge.pummel. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. should probably be a short tail.). large. bunkc. . a. applied to young persons. seems to unite Gael. bulto. . . Bunfeaman (stump-tail). and related with ON. a heap Wall. Bung^. Radically identical with Dan. OSw. hay stubble .S. &c. to knock . the tail of a hare.D. Forby. bmidt. Pl. Mrs Baker. knochen. . Dan. Then. nor would it concern the public if he did. a rabbit. foundation w. . A Du. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. the Pr. E. bunke. or grete knobbe. a heap. w. root. pumpa. strike E. bugnet. a bunch Magy. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. Related on the one side to Pl. bunny. a boil or blain. Probably for bun-boot. bottom bun feoir. Bunewand. He fult dat et bunsede. Hal.D. bun with ON. — Marine Diet. especially girls. a dry No . bung. a dried hemp-stalk. bulse. Holland and Flanders. bund. Suffolk bonnka. Kyx or bunne. bugno. stock. . cluster. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Thus e. to thump. Fl. Lang. a purse . a hump. to beat. Manx bonkan. passes Sw. Pm. to bang. bunsen. . bignet.. dial. He buncheth me and beateth me. Again. lungeous. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. stem or base. — — Bun. a round mass . clumsy. pwmpio. . a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. a wallet. a bud. a. Gael. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. A clumsy. bonnock. bunt. banke. truss E. Bumpkin. awkward clown. bun. 1. Bunch. a Sp. bunan. Hence E. lump. E. clown. to strike so as to give a dull sound. It. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. a knob. a knob. dial. bunki. Dunchyn or bunchyn. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. bum-boot. Bunk. Hal. . bonuach. a heap or cluster. forms. pompon. ! — knocking. also for taking a pilot to a ship. blain. To bam. bunga. are dim. a into Dan. butt end. to bang ON. a pumpion or gourd. a rabbit. a button. Daal bu7iseti. bunga. Pl. Fr. a lump on the foot bunny. —Bunny. bump. Hal. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. noise. bamgetroffen. poumpido. — round fruit. E. gibber. Fr. bungersome. bugno. or to the mass by which it is given. lenten loaves. gibbus. pwmpl. one ever saw the word in that shape. root. a bunch. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. . . Bony. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. See Boss. Bang sen. knuckles. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. bon. protuberance. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. to bang down. mto Sp. abrupt manbuns-wise. a boss Lith. bolsa. bunken. callus.-^Fl. bunch— Hal. bunnion. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Gael.D.! . a swelling. w. stubble of beans. bannock. stump. bmike. Bun. a large . buns. Bumboat. Roding. Sc. a swelling from a blow. trunk. Moor. Bumsen. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a tail (Macleod). Bump. Du. Li cake. Dan. stubble Manx bun. bulscha. bongie. round mass of anything. bune or boon. knob or heap. bumsen. il me pousse. calamus. Hal. bugnone. to swell out E. Bums it's hit. Ir.^Cot. as in other cases. and signifies consequently a mass. bu<rnone. a knock. so the form btmk. a hemp-stalk.— Pr. boi7ieog. a heap. a knotty stick) Sw. stock. explaining E. — — de dor bunsen. 114 BUMBOAT Bun.P. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. pumpurras. . to . .' Palsgr. throw down with a bang. inconsiderately. bottom. strapping. — stalk . to beat. a bowl P1. banga.. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. Pm. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a bump.

Bunting. bangla. to stop. the bung of a barrel Lim. the loose open grow big about or gross. Cat. tap. to bear. Sw. whence in bure. bonde. do a thing bunglingly. buret. to resound. Burganet. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. to work at carpentry bangan. Pl. bourgeon. to in to stop the hole. knocking. and the Sw. on. a bungler. and van t' vat. rumble as the bowels. dark grey bura. bimge. stilmpern. bove. are from bouscfie. reddish brown. p. the float of an bundle. A bubble. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Banff. and E. contignatio. to hum. To do anything awk- wardly. klempern. anchor or of a net boyar. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. to bungle. however. a bung. See Borel. Burble. dial. B. — . Compare G. to knock. bou^e. borgonota. bondeau. sprig. or used as a receptacle for papers. — — To Bungle. bommen. the young cloth used for sifting flour. to botch. shackles. 202. A load. tinker . hence the name would seem to have been boundica. to stop. a bunch Burbulas. bindini. Burly. The Fr. — btiruii. bundel. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. la Borgonota. See Bourdon. with the head. Sp. russet. Fr. to cobble. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. bang. bunsen. Bret. It. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. boil or bubble up. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. to pype. or tuft. the middle part of it. punishments for prisoners. bang.' Festus in Diez. buie. Bunny. bondelj bundell. boucher. To burgeon. to push ghebondte. to kick. also a piinple in the face. or putting forth of a vine. the stopper of a cask). would be the earliest float for an anchor. Cot. The Italian buio. So in Pol. to knock. buret. bondir. OFr. bourguignote. See Bun. to hum. Fr. in is Fr. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Prov. clumsy performance. bonde. to gingle. The word is flags are made. to push. to push with the head del. Kil. to gingle. driving in the bung. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. bongun. halm-tapp. Burden. to Somerset is to sift. Bundle. — Bureau. generally known as the material of which bud. colligatio. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. Sw. bon. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible.D. Johansen. to float. AS. Fr. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. buove. from beran. racket . So Du. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. Sp. Bung. bouche. a cork. gyves. . OFr.punt. Rietz. and bomme. a boye. Palsgr. OG. something bound together (Mrs Baker). is originally a wisp or bunch . bury. a water bubble made by rain. bote. B. The belly or hollow of a sail. bag to catch the wind. G. to stnmi on an instrument.Fris. knock. bundt. Sw. dicimus rufum. shove . tapp (whence tceppa. banga. Muratori. unskilful working. .— . bolting-cloth. bunta. Fr. loosed from bonds. bouchon. to bud forth. borboUar. bourion. was formerly pronounced buro. bondel-loos. Du. burion. that the primitive meaning of shackle . — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. to strum on an instrument. — — . the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. See Barbarous. a wisp of hay or straw. G. ' — work . biirde. Biu'geon. knocking. to work ineffectually. bourjon. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. working in wood (especially with an axe). AS. . noise. N. modem bummle. Fl. a drum . * Buoy. Lat. clogs. E. To bunt. bundle. boya. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. byndel. banghagr. Sp. klimpem. dark. boj. To Bunt. bounta. A Dan. Sp. The stopper for the hole in a boia. bond. fascis. a sort of helmet. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . to bolt meal. The Magy. especially in wood. a bunch. and now more Bailey. burboloti. bui. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. . byrthen. whence bunting. to hum. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. a botch. Prov. dial. bungande. racket. ho-tapp. fetters. bondon. boei. bongani. Russ. Bung of a tonne or Lith. on. and Du. coassatio et Du. bummle. tinkle. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. an anchor buoy. stiimpeln. Burden. ghebundte. Bunt. properly a Burgundian helmet. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. guggle as water. of a song. . to shove. the noise of drums. bangla. Hal. stocks or such OSw. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre.

abourioner.. with Dan. bourou. Hence Bridel. brasa.j'own.)... Pren7ien. a whetstone. watery. a lie. in Schm. A legal term from the Lat. to puff up borr^ . to ridicule. OFr. ON. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. laer. Probably. Burglar. brima. ends of thread. like the wind in trees. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. j. Fr. the word seems Pm. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. Burly. to sharpen. spring-water bumach. bears. borracka. Gael. to puff. Supp. Bret. — — . ^Notk. Bouffer. a bladder. robber. lerre. borni. occupying much space. brunna. buirleadh. thence. Bav. to Gael. pur (see Burgeon). Limousin bourdo. a jest. brinnen or Also ein roar. is an Thus G. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. ii6 BURGESS Gael.or bubbling up. a gurgling ^. to rub. joking. BURNISH i5«r/. taunt. bruse. as in cousteau. to give an edge to. ' rugiens. — Han to bruser op.' Cot. tahko.. See Burgeon. . lorra. burgi latro. condemnentur morti.bryna. with little iron nippers called burling irons.ireui£r:e. to swell oneself out as birds borras. dial. briis^. like straw or small . .). has also borr. broil. Castrais bourril. to burgen or wax big. brook. to ridicule. bururus. and the Burnish. brandung. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. flocks. Pr. Prov. to burn. a purling hiwe brennen. Dief. 122. Nat. Burgess. &c. to sharpen on a whetstone. singe or scorch with fire. brAler. OE. tumentum.Ps. ridicule. is termed burling. 56. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. leo Fin. is connected with brim. It is probable indeed that Fr. Cot. language of folly or ridicule. Walach. Schm. Pm. purrata. See Burr. pressa puret. to make a So from Fin.sharpen. bremmen. become big and proud. It. an edge. In the manu. protuberance. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. See under Bore. to tell lies. de Vaud. A — — . jest of. to effervesce. burgeois. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. roguing beggars. Compare also Piedm. Swiss Rom. ends of thread. warbling. and the Burin. he rustle. brusler being a faulty spelling. to hum. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. — — . borujon. tion of the root which gave the OE. In the same way ON. Probably a modifica. Fl. like. The primary origin of the word. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. brausen. brunnr. It. to polish helmets. Burler. Bestiary. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. to To Bum. bourglairs. swell up or strout out. toast. purling. burgensis. swelling borr-shuil. Sw. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. brustle. burle of cloth. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. OFr.— Pr. — . Fr. — — . explaining the E. to swell. tahkoa. Goth. Burgher. Burlesque. to bouronna. a margin. born. to have acquired the sense of polishing. a bud. Burgh. a jest. water. bourd. a bubble. a fountain. de Vaud. from the roaring sound of flame. to roar 5. to roar (as lions. Bav. G. bud or sprout forth. Todd. bunch. So also Sw. repartee . Lang. bururus. sea.. sicut sound. the flocks. ^ttsa. big.— . Burryn. burn. to roar. surge or dashing of the sea . as the / in purl. It. ample of polishing metal. Lang. The Gael. a bubble to spring as water. Sp.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. From the same root E. brinii. fire. borrelen. to murmur. a well. brim or edge of anything. brunir. boure. burly. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. an &c. to swell with pride. fires up. to polish. crackle wood in burning Hal. grancelli. brimmen. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. which has given much trouble to etymologists. the J in OFr. to polish. a wine skin. Fl. to burn. A burl. mockery. to fiy. to bourda. borr.). as Diefenbach bud. boura. to grind on a whetstone. burlare. explaining Sp. a prominent eye borracka. burgen. the er is a dresser of cloth. must be explained on the same principle from G. to roar. blow. schleiffen. — . to bud . knob. bruzir. bouril.' a jibe. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. Fr. a blaze. as of suggests. The in. to roar. sidiary element. embraser. to surge. OE. G. barrel. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. and OG. the roaring surge of the — — — . purra. . brinna. it of the knots. N. brustolare. angular . burren. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. to set on fire. Burn. from Lat. a knob. boiirre. i5«r4 biiirte. See Berough. E. and Dan. sbornoi. brynsten. Antiq. from bryii. From Fr. brase. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. to roar. Swiss Rom. a spring a robber. brunnen. Sw. brun. . compared with G.

dial. an annular swelling. E. Hal. leather. brickie. brokil and brotil. whence Kil. foretell great storms at 3. to bury . a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. byrstan. appears under the Lang. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. birr. a purse. britar. Mid. brest. peluca to Fr. brown. A rabbit burmotion. bourlet. borre. byrgels. a rabbit burrow. Bursar. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. and met. root borr. explained E. brico. bolsa to It. Jam. brisdeach. shelter. brast. of England. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. Hence Fr. a sepulchre chreoburgium — .' Matrimonial Vanity borough. ptcrren. verbergen. briso. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. beurs. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. coo. g. With a slightly different ghen. moss. brit. 2. of a body hurled through the air. from whence we pass through Sp. to P'air. bersten. prsnuti. buscha. i5(7&a. to hide . -Grisons bulscha. bristen. Burial. Du. karborre. 225. Sexy. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. to break. but it is more probably a development of It. impetus. hair.' The same word with burgh. byrgen. Cot. This word seems safety. from Fr. -burse. brista. — Clare. to burst. to stuff. idiom if 4. swell. AS. to mutter Sw. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. when they spring So in W. Brun on bane. In a met. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. stuffing. briketo. &c.. to save. husks. a place of defence. Du. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. cover. brittle. &c. borre. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Fr. AS. and. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. The root forms brik. a pad. ' ' — — burren. perruque. Burr. whirr and burr. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. force. Port. a port. brist. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. burial place. bourre. burgisli. S w. byrgan. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. casting bullets. bris. Burse. berstan.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. to hide. shales. brist. brittle. as from Sp.Lat. an exchange. a purse. Swiss burren. chips or anything else Fl. makes the disbursements of the college. ON. . bres- — tan. a barn or cupboard. brizeto. bur. birigean. shearing of cloth. from AS. any kind of quilting or stuffing. as in Northumberland. tomb. byrsa. purr. fortify. Fris. borra. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. G. Sw. cwning-gaer. burre. also ' any such trash as chaff. — Translated by Kemble. be more in accordance with AS. bris. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. some people in pronouncing the letter r. . that birds make their nests with. signifying protrude. bourse. briser. bourrer. borsa. Burse. the officer who bears the purse. and spelling. Compare also OE. talk fast and indistinctly. To Burst. G. preserve. ' BURR AS. I. a morsel. Shelter. See Burgeon. OHG. In OE.— . to buzz. the — — castle or fortress. as for the protection of a child's head. its own protection.' edge grew weak. ber•whirr to whizz. blurra. 5150. Gael. and thence flocks 'of wool. a harness or collar maker) . The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. bergen. . birgan. save. borra. brjota. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. any rapid whirling biarga. break . The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. Fr. as it is still pronounced in N. Burrow.' Harris in Todd. bourrelet. Burr is related to buzz as protect. a. preserve. It. bourse. skin. iii. borsia. pipaa. borsa. mentioned under Burgeon. also all such stuff as hay. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . brisd. See Bulge. ON. beorgan. bristeach. Beowulf. borrow. It. barza. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. Burser. Dan. a wallet or scrip. byrigels. Fr. straw. bolgia. whirr. ultimately resting on the Gael. a sepulchre. To Bury. OHG. bur. dial. shuffling. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. keep. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. Sw. caer is a — — — ' ' : . burra. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis.

a rampart. Mid. aheap of stones. as boun is simply buinn. . busken. signifying to entomb. grapes. 2. berghen. biichse. we have Fr. protect . bo7ich (Fr. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . ' .' sheath. ' . a wisp. bussel. a bunch. It. Gr. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. tow. gave Lat.' a box. and from the Fr. bausen. to bury. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. dead. to turn. boistel. bustellus. buysschen. bramble.— ' ii8 {chreo. Bouchet. a gun biichse. bos. a tuft. a little box Dan. brodiquin. a tuft of hair. or — Busk. the land. bundle. bossida. oneself. The primary sense of hair . They busked and malced them boun. basse. Prov. fiast. to bow. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. knot. bulk. is thus accounted for. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. a tuft guini. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. from the ON. rad. busse. buxida. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. Fr. in the For Skirnis . To prepare. projection. Layamon. And her ful sone tuft. a bundle. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. bairgan. to bend one's steps. iriCtf -ifoe. bua. Thus Froister . a -tavern bush. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. then a tuft Sp. occultare K. bundle * Buskin.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. condere. Sibriht that I of told. a bunch of twigs. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. make ready. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. To Busk. mount. il fut couch6 l^jkema). bunch. whente beorg. . In to Brutaine. AS. . boisseau. box wood to bush. Bush.fiasc. bousse. Le roy Richard mort. —Busk. borseof trees. bossen. bussellus. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. ' —P.Lat. bosc. . hunch Du.-^Bushel. hjul-bosse. to forest of Eyda. busk. whence at bua sik. R. boxta. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. to direct one's course towards. .' The buskin is said Bret. lump. Sc. at buast.gur bidst austur um EySascog. bulge. tuft. bosta. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. buskr. Sir Tristram. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. brake. : — . . a bush. as synonymous with to inake one boun.P. Brunne. a box. BUSH hreaw. boucher. Du. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. van wijnbesien. ch). borcegui. ieorh. a bush. to dress. for at buasc. Sw. the past participle of the same verb bua. buxula. to sepulchre. sur une litifere. diminutives. a tuft. to enclose in a case or box. besom). Brunne. boiste. Du. a grove bosch van haer. 'at bua sik. preserve. Harold G. Thence byrigean. bouche. to keep. in OE. a been written buasc. G.Lat. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. bussare. and thence Mid. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. OFr. barsc in Heimskringla. truasc. a troop. defence. The word frequency with which to busk is used. It. and we actually find bushel. a box for measuring corn. ' . thicket {buski. Bush. clusprobably Morocco leather. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. a box. OFr. AS. basse. abdere. which would later have truast. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. cluster. So from Fr. a corpse). apparently a secondary verb. to stop. to swell. buxta. Malberg. a hump. or the like. bush. The radical idea is seen in Goth. beorgan. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. the Moors and of Morocco. whence bouchon. the idea of knocking. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. and he cites wisp bauschen. See Box. thicket of thorns . to dress.' The word is explained by — — . bosch (a diminutive ?). 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. roquies. that the lend had lorn thorn. -idis. Du. ' . barst. bousche. See Bust. boissa. brodequin tout noir. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather.boisteau. Ptg. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. 410. induere vestes . bousIn the other copy ser. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. to prepare. bush. wisp. at bua sig. verb. burial mound. Fris. and not directly (as Du. a clot of phlegm sart. The bone in a woman's stays.) to hide in the ground. qualster-boscken. borghen. bustula.

work. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. a mouth. a projection. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. ship Sp. Prov. beezig. The Prov. Sp. a bulk or trunk without a head. from jnund. 2l box. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. buc. lump. bulk.d. vessel employed in the herring fishery. mouth. AS. geidha. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. brusc. lip. Hence probably au-tarda.). a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. stir. Comp. B. body of a man. arbor ramis trunGloss. bacio. 1372. made stiff. Walach. Port.D. bukr. busch. abutarda. the long. See Boss. or chest in which the vitals are contained. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. knock. and also a sounding blow. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . ViM. a bush. buyse. bruskras well as buskr. small. Business. windbutsch. ottarda. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a sleeveless truss or doublet. says. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. buquer. Prov. the point of a lance.' Plin. thick end. — — — — It is like the smouldering. bysgian. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. snout. body of a woman's dress It. and then with avis again prefixed. a blow. love gestures. bisegung. Du. to knock . to Swab. Bulch. stump. I. ' BUSY 2. to bustle. representing a blow. Fr. BUSS Dozy from Arab. business. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. A great sluggish fowl. — clattering about. and by transposition morchequi. So Wes- terwald munds. of a doublet. signifying trunk of a the body. Lindenbr. Fl. of the human body (Grandg. kiss. Gael. body. would explain the G. statue of the upper part of Fr. a kiss of reverence. ON. To hurry or make a great B. hipista. a tree. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. Prov. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). chest. mogangas from gonj. bisg. occupation. buta. besoigAe. tarda. betarda. sera. bu. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips.bezig. Sp.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. a. 22. To Bustle. a fishing vessel. inde discurro et operosus sum. A wisp. ' bistardej It. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. trunk. a kiss. Nained from Proximse iis zia. lips. a great billet Cot. ^A. biseg. busc. trunk of Cot. Busy. worn to make the body straight . a kiss. box. otarda. . Bust. a Mid. bysgje. kiss. pussa. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. baiser. bucha. btcc. cata — . stump. Rouchi. The proceedings of Parliament. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. Sw. busta. Buss. Fr. Bav. also a busk. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. besongne. especially of a woman's dress. buz. stem. Edrtst. or Cherqui. So in Fin. to make a splash in the water. body without arms and legs. trunk. beso. On the other hand. mosequin. Box. I go strepo) . employment bisgan. outard. the breast. a kiss. a bunch of flowers . Sp. With respect to bust. bus. — . A A busquer (Sigart). Swiss butschen. a ship of some size. busch.Lat. Pol. Bust. body of garment. mons. Bustard. fe^a. I bustle. — — difications of the same word. morsequi. bnist. forms morseqiiill. bussen. bust. a backstock. The form brust. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. avuDiez. Lat. forest. mohedairova. bist. a stroke of wind. Xerqui. busto. I. Busk. occupied bezigen. 10. also a flagon. Lang. buc. a boat or small vessel . borcegui. plated body or other quilted thing. Fr. Fr. 119 bi{tr. or avutarda. . as in ON. basiuin. mouth. and supposes that the common Arab. also a It. a busk. its slowness of flight. outarde. Namur — Champagne Fr. brut. utarda. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Cat. butz. putschen. Busitiess :c3iVi . biist. austarda. bustla. 7o\. bus. the trunk. a bust. kupata. body. lip. smack. a large cljest or particular applibox. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. as in moharra from harbe. ON.> Also written buskle. brostia as well as bostia. crack . to make use of. log . knock. bussa. buc. — Thus we should have mocherqui. bisgung. sunt quas Hispania aves . trunk of a tree. to occupy. Cot. an affair. body . a log. busche. 1555. abotarda. putta. the body without arms busque. in Diaz Gris.' ON.pjik. Hal. an ostrich. bust. tuft. bus and Pol. 2. busq. a blow. but.— . — hardly be distinct from Fr. busy. Fris.

botilla. as Pantler. the precise correlative of but. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. Tooke's dis. bola. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. outside that moreover. properly a butan wite. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. mais. similar train of thought is seen in ON. young mais. . body of a shirt w. the jug and in E. is put in a class by himself. binnan. Here the but implies the existence of an. ' Besides all that. of the wine and drink. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . bous. ' There is leathern bottle. a small winebag. from boc. in addition. equivalent of AS. bocin. Lang. bute. belly. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. a barrel. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. a wooden cask. a cask. a butcher . gives at least two pounds sterling. boquier. and with It. original sense of without. calf of the ' say. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. . — .probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. But In Sc. As a conjunction but is in every portion. the bottles.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. biitait slaughterer of goats . butan ce.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. slaughter-house. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. Lang. bounds of. Prov. AS. moreover. hollow case. hull of a ship. bolr. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. bountifully. also a hollow vessel ._ bitten j biiten door. add. It. Fr. boccino. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. and bot.jamin.in which his brethren are included. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. beta. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. — we acle for liquors. Butler.The Sp. or what in in charge of the pantry. Wall. without buiten-man. earthen which the debtor has adverted. ox. a leathern bag. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . rumpf. a baiTel . without the house kept in bottles. the store of ten. OFr. from as. bout. wooden receptthing to be done. tinction between but. bodifie. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. except. and the real origin of the and within . without law. trunk.' — — ' . beccaria. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. which the word corresponds to the Fr. bolgia. by the mode in which he is treated. bouz. the Perhaps besogne — . bochier. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . But when will you pay it ? the belly. botte. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. bitlga. belly. Butt. ont jhi^ton. a goat (and not besides . collection of casks.' ' write. Butcher. "PLT) . besides that . bol. without. Fr. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. rotundity of the body. bag. those in beccaio. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. boteria. a budget. without care. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. belly. viz. the belly.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. a goat. butan. Sp. but one thing. bouteillier. bhcciero. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. Buttery. bole of a tree. bisgung. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. but Benjamin has a five-fold But.' Thus Chaucer says. Whatever is in addition to Butler. are. skin-bag. the present day we should say. the trunk or body of an animal. barriga. my is called the adversative use of but. is well explained by Tooke. So in Italian from becco. able. the full expres. a butcher. Where at an earthen jar . plain the conjunction as signifying boot. the principal apartment. A A . that which would be translated by Fr. Ben-house. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. The E. we find ben. G. botija. ways. the mouth). to-boot. a bottle. the name must have arisen before the within. a butchery. Sp. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. then hoUow trunk. viz. an outlaw from bouche. be out. (children) boc. being wholly unten. Du. buta. beccaro. the body of an animal.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. calf. Sp. beyond the Piedm. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. But It. boucher. the servant in charge of the original object.' there is really a negation to be supplied.streets. bitten dai. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. without punishment . If that where now we should compiler. large barrel. the body of a tree or of a man. sup- meat and drink. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. Fr.

— A . in the R. geboogsaem. from bugan. tout seat or breech. pied. humble. a little push . to push earth .— BUTT leg . to abut a stone roof. a scope. a boss. a cask. — A . what is kept in a blow. able that Chaucer. to thrust . The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. of the present day. Grandg. Fr. a large belly. bocsam. butt. give way. a. a blow. butyrum. To come full butt against a butts. . buttare. povrvpov. Button.putan. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. Sp. a button. to touch at the end. both. to thrust. is formed the augmentative buttatich. bot. potacha. bouter. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. nourrisson. boutoir. a heap of merly called pushes. Schmell. a but in the W. bothog. to boult flour. clumsy . From Grisons biitt. aim whence to make a support to a wall. Du. a button. submit shaking up salad sauce. any small projection. leg of lamb. stump. a button. a mound. Hal. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram.to push. Fr. See Butler. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. . Du. Butter-glass. Hal. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. then the thigh or leg of an to push . From the noise of drinkables in a house. rabodd. Perhaps corrupted Lat. trapu. fowl.thum and not button. — . always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . waste ground. a flying buttress. a buttress Cot. but. w. Gr. an ox. boil. the rosebud. any short thick thing. bodi'. To Butt. the thigh of a goose. Boutant. from stossen. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. Boutje. bout. put. boteria. stump of a tree Fr. a dle . butz. Mur-buttant. a stroke di animal. to thrust. hillock . Lang. buhsom. botta. thick. botte. buter. botto. i. oir spike with a k coup . or or shore post. So in English pimples were fora clod. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. to heap up earth or ihrust. Fr. large head. pwt. fle>(ible. coxa. — — — — . end . butt. To strike with the head bags. to femur. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. -ez. Butter. AS. striking end. or person Schmeller . by boE. boutis. Buttel-triib. gigot. boter-schijte. butter. a bun. &c. Halma. buttals. grease that sets by merely standing. bouter. bouton. Fr. a leg of mutton. obedient. poke. courtaud. bot. bud. to abut on. lams-bout. bocgsuin. botten. butter. as if from Povg. the store of while bottich. a bolt. bouton. butt of a person. bottich. the prick in the middle of a target. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Du. Du. a stump or club foot. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. a bot. are the strips at the edges of the field. Gris. butter un.' thick from shaking.against another which needs support . bodi.. bata. bot blijven staan. butteln. the Butter-fly. W. * Buxom. botwm. boiUer. as rejeton. e. to be con. an etwas anstossen. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. having a rotundity . Bav. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . — . Bout van het schouderIt. but this is probably from Fr. to butt. on. so as to make a sounding blow. Kil. bott. Fris. a buttrice. butt. a barrel. signify a cask or tub. It. The Bavarian potig. from notirrir. nourrissons. Buttress. to strike. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. : . to bow.rejected thing. to thrust Fr. from bouter. buttock of beef is called butr. &c. of E. short thick thing pimple. From Du. bottig. as in G. Buttock. G. to thrust. Buttery. thrust forwards. obeto shake backwards and forwards. a hill. Schmell. thrust. clunis. caput scapula bout van f been. Du. from the large knobbed head of botto. a boss. Gael. tress. boter-vogel. The word body itself seems identical with G. strike. Kil. a mound of turf in a field to sup. boter-vliege. bout. Fr.arbre. to cast. at. and the true derivation boar. a corner horses' hoofs. boding. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. from rejeter. Cot. to blad. Buttrice. buttern. a thrust the thigh-bone. Kil. the thick end. ment being supposed to resemble butter. to so close to the Fr. W. suddenly . Bav. pwtiaw. dripping. butte. Fr. botta. An erection built up as a Fr. Fr. A — — — . a blow. R. the edge forwards. a ribbed glass for dient. Btetter-schmalz. to throw . butte. a tub. a wall butor butt on. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. nursling. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. . the trunk. a..

to buzz. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. Buzzard. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. bei. to swear with him by . Originally the law of a particular town. To Buy. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). A ful benygne buirde. frabttg- To Buzz. p. as heedless as a cock-chafer. jus municipii. buzac.— P. to stand at his side . P. ii. a buzzard or puttock. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us.. It. AS. good-humoured one.busardj Prov. Byre. tions by one. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. See Abie. Sw. blessing me with their of side. 200. CABAL Goth. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. 116. a beetle. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. also say. bycgan. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. gracious. to wit. abozzago. G. stall. buteoj Fr. bi. to whisper. The ON. Then applied to speaking low. to sell. 519. bygge. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. lb. as in Da. bi. to pass by. son. who makes abigg. AS. a borough. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. a town. \s\xy. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. . bugjan. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Dan. buzarg. confusedly. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious.in N. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. and boxome of speche xviii. bohte. Lat. Cabal.P. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. favourably to a petition. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. —gracious of speech.— Diet. bylag. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. A by. buso. called Cabala or Tradition. to jan. and it is of good will. . byar-rettr. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. Many good mological explanation. bees. OE. train of thought which has become obso. It.. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. harty prayers and God speedes. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. & Q. Mercy hight that mayde. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. A A We — — — days' wonder. bar. to purchase for money. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. Du. The sense of buxom. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. 21. cow-house. Pecock Repressor. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . as Fr. . bylove. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. Etynj. and would have been lost in E. Verstegan in R. Goth. farm. bauhta. indistinctly. village. leges urbanse ON. bij. Sw. depends upon a esteem in falconry. byar-log. buzzicare. big. ON. from whom it was addressed. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. 3. town having separate jurisdiction. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. bozzago. favourable. iii. By-law. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. from by. lete. a meke thynge with — alle. byr. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. — 122 BUY P. a by-path is a side path .

prostratio ad terram. caable. bad. gabardme. To steal or pocket. cabacho. cadabula. cab. . Antiq.' Due. as Diez supposes). for the origin of which see Carabine. to strain in such a manner . it would seem fundain children's language. from trabocco. Cabbage. kakla. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. cadabulum. OFr. cdble. as Turk. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. It. caqueter. or cadable. kabane. OFr. cabasser. manticuKil. calabre. Fr. Sw. gaggi. cadabulum. Due. capo. gaban. disgust cac. caable. accablcr. lactuca capitata. kakaloH. forms indi. cabarino. gatsch. main. precisely in the sense of the lari E. a head (whence cabochard. traboccare. Etym. chaable. geese. The Sp.). cabus. ckaable. hovel. Capstan. a car- We convasare. heady. a rope. brassica — capitata. aakkat'a. overwhelm (Diet. a cabbage . case. dirty. . Didot.ticula. a jacket Fr. serious injury — In like manner It. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. cab lis. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. wilful). round or great headed. &c. dirt and the Fr. origin is the OFr. Gaggle. caboche. cable . Mid. Fr. Common to Lat. manganare. Finn. It is remarkable that the Esthon. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. — Kil. capanna. form kactal. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. and the Arab. chabla. w.. Cablisb. covering. Celtic. capuccio. ! — . head. vile. — Tarbe. caable (in legal language). Ptg. surripere. cables.Gr. disgust. and Or. OFr. Cot. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. cabbage. Very generally used. cadabola. hoard together. cabulus. whence Fr. cadabalum. a frail. Tugurium. would correspond to cable. Kil. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. chadabula. Castr. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Du. kabat. Due. and as we find stones Mid. to crush. a shed. come the Fr. the Prov. stercus. Sp. a tunic. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. cabo. agge machen (in nurses' language). ceach / exclamation of guages. su/Furari. Sp. It. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft.Lat. Du. caables. Cot. . Cabinet. kabas. Fr. The name of the engine. aeggi. a covering. havyar to caviare. kabaSsen. hut. especially shepherd's frock. Du. signifying properly a rope's end.. Mid. chaable. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. Mid. cabuccio. Lat. vincially used in E. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. cabuyskoole. Lang. filth. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. mdhaigner. Choux cabus. to hurl in Nat. is probably unconnected. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. in which sense are explained The the OFr. or as an interjection of disMod. aak! tandi like Fr. E. OSp. maim. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . The double a in the OFr. Neckam — by the wind. Coticesserint Swiss aa. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. — .. &c. cabre. to put or pack up in a frail. 'habl. E. has kabbel. and Finnish lanLat. Katr-iT-aKt. or rush basket. deponat a store closet. giiare. Cappa in OSp. Lith. nasty. From It. as an expression of Gr. to hurl down. as it must have stood in French. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui.. To Cabbage. to keep or Du. and Ptg. dung. . cabaii. a rope or cable. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. a rope. agga. cacare. Item habeat vocant. — Ibid. the Slavonian. Imitative of the cry of hens. an engine for casting stones. band. a rope. overwhelm. a cloak of felt or Cack. the bowels. a headed cole or cabbage . . CABBAGE effecting a purpose . name of the projectile engine. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. agge. cabas. gaggele. cabo. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. disgusting such an engine was exerted. string. Fr. It. cacare . dirty. It. properly windfalls. cabre. headed. —Diet. a booth or hut. Brushwood — — B. akista. headed or cabbage lettuce. : — from violence without blood.Lat. cabane. whence Lang. — the ON. Fr. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . .Lat. from manganum. to chatter. Cabin. — . (ca/coe. signifies down. originally an Gael. laitue cabusse.

hot. gaggle. to heat. taking it Sp. gavia. gabberen is identical with E. A cuttle-fish. cha'cmie cadence. cage. a falling. lord. whence calash. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). calf of leg. Caddy. cattivo (from Lat. kolyaska. Sp. kukje. naXaiidpi. on. cauldron. — in a kiln. a car. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. kail. jabber. roller. . It is more likely a word formed like cackle. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. from the Chinese catty. gabble. calamitas. Russ. calx. for green fields. . Fr. Calandre. Lat. In the same way Fin. kolesb. calentura. kolasa. a lump or large piece. A hooded carriage. calibre. kat. Calamary. It. Turk. ben- kalf. to gabble. calendarium. whence Lat. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. boy. from Gr. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. calpa. to throw themselves into the sea. marrow. of which. Du. KaKKat. just falling. from calculus. to prate much to little purpose. Tea-caddy. Lat. Calp is riadh. when they are said to poor. kage. Dan. Dan. rattaat (wheels). a waggon . cabdillo. Fr. master. See Kiddier. reed-pen. It is another form of the E. Flo. to cackle . signifies a waggon. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. captive. calidus. Arab.— Cot. An open travelling chariot. a circle. Pol. the pi. chaudiere. cadenza. calcis. a roller. It. Perhaps from w. loss. Fr. calibre. Fr. incolumis. Sw. (in the augm. Du. lindrus. cage. a mischievous dial. so gabble corresponds with Fr. frolicsome kaad mund. 124 prattle . loss. cadaver. joyous .— . a fever. without loss. a wheel . G. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. kuchen. cadere. kola. caioler. cake. a hollow place. Lat. Roman reckoning. * Cade. Gael. gabbia. Cake. Gascon capdet. Cot. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. cykevie. an inkstand . CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Cot. Calc-. of the nature of lime to calcine. Lat. frisky. a small stone. Lat. — — — Dan. its mother. and troublesomely attached to. a loaf of bread.— Calliper. Calf of the Leg. Due. caldaria. Cadet. to treat like lime. prate. a low note. Cadence.warmth . Calocli. calentar. Caldron. . As Du. chaudron. Cage. pet lamb. a wretch. caliche. colibro. Sw. gabbia. Serv. hot . a vessel for heating water. chetif. kalem. a tea-chest. G. Calcialate. kolo. Lat. a cylinder. To Calender. dial.Gr. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. ratas. kalb. the lump and the increase. from calendcE. dead body. kauwe. a wheel . kdfich. Lat. coop. to — Fr. one unduly indulged by. Fr. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Lat. a caFr. Fr. Cajol. It. an ugly waggon kolaska. ON. Calash. the younger son of a family said to be from . pi. calendrer. desire of land. calesa. form) calderone. Fr. the calf of the leg. Du. chattering. kolo. pen Mod. to cage. The young G. koeck. unruly . a calesh. Du. kdtr. the bore of a cannon. limestone. kolesnitza. wretched. Lat. hence musical rhythm. KxiKivh^o^. cadence. Caitiff. Calamity. kalfvan hout. to sleek hence a den. a wheel . kalfi. principal and interest.uv. A — fall. a corpse. Mrs B. ever and anon. calamus. bad . or colpa na coise. It. cuttle-fish. Calendar. the pith or soft part of wood. kakulla. &c. a wheel. calba. A . safe. a dence. Turk. kolyasochka. * Calibre. N. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. It. cavea. Sp. B. a calash . En kaka br'od. calculo. Sp. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. a reed. especially of something soft. gaggia. capitetum. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. cageoler. caldarius. It. calidus. or smooth Hnen cloth. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. kaad. a cake or loaf. pith. to . kaeckelenj Gr. . a counter used in casting accounts. Sw. little chief. lime whence calcareous. javioler. of oxen and similar animals. cadet. babbhng. Cadaverous. —Atkinson. is probably delusive. calessa. coll. . wanton. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. The Calf. To Cajole. Cadge*. Originally from a Slavonic source. The Lat. From lerie. disease of sailors from tivus). Cauldron. kolo. Lat. Lat. to compute. kaka. collop. ' . a common cart. Cot. capCalenture. or prattle. from the ink-bag which it contains. misfortune. Fr.

whehce it was first brought. Due. Mahn derives it from Lat. To century was Squalibre.' Winter's Tale. hollaing. a successor. whereas in troth it is not. Among these were the turn. The primitive colubrina bombarda. ululo Turk. i. hot. Kil. Indies. quality. Heb. push violently. form. done with heat Alt. skin hardened by labour. dial. kalla. KaXka. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. ' rine. but is only a jda-kallo. the day. qAlab. from Calicut in the E. Lat. The word was also written cawme in OE. calgua. ' pert. of a column. kal. NE. Ca. Antiq. Sc. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. serpens. Fr. a soldier who the It. Unfledged.(jaa= ice). Bi. — — — — — .position is much less common than the geschut. kol. coluber also. Fin. cahna.' Slange. To Calk. Fr. a good calling. a feathers. To call. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). scold. calare. The origin is Gr. caluw. callus. moist. quA librd.en~ kinds of firearms. can be distinct from ODu. or caliever. colubraria canna. the latter of chamber. calk.Lat. to say. coluber. a drab. brawny. CALM to press or stuff. abto suppose that E. E. diameter of a ball. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). into the seams of vessels to make Lat. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. or languishing drought is . Fin. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. whence couleuv. chatter kallen. or mould. kind heat of the sun. and E. It. to proclaim. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. Calico. having a thick skin. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. the Fr. saucy. tittle-tattle. Lat. harquebus or handgun. calclover. caillette. — — — — — . Fr. to prattle. . coulevrine. calicot. CALICO Calliper-compasses. water-tight. by many that the weapon Callous. heat. calca. caliver. bombarda Cauma incendium. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. glotton. vulgo Coluvrine. a. kael. the heat of Now these Du. which is as much as to say.. AS. sestus. callum. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. tapulta. word of mouth . Mid. gossiping.piicede Lat. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. Kavfia. 'A callet of boundless tongue. to rail or scold . which has its memory preserved in Du. femme frivole et babillarde. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. The reference to heat is preserved in. u to an I in such a colubrum. however. calma. To drive tow or oakham.' Whitby Gl. oldire from audire. chatter. to hear. harden by pressure. to callet. to abuse . ram. given. Sp. Dief. faint. longior. voice. calcare. of the bore of a firearm met. Calm. calme. piece of bigger circuite. calor.from Ka'tm. to call. Fr. to call. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. and sometimes a handgun. * Callet. sence of wind. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. on. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . in which dangerous to place implicit faith. calvus. calc. people's remarks.meaning of the word. a round of abuse. try. Ptg. colubrina. a last. Diez. Caliph. calibre. Turk. Call.' But it is hard Du. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. Lang. koluvre. According to Jal (Gl. the hard surface of the ground. Sir John Smith in Grose. hallottaa. dragoon. Ibid. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. licht stuk The change from a. calo. nautique). khalif. donderbuchs Sp. to tread. 125 Prov. culverin. sclopus. moso. Derived by some from Arab. depreciatory term for a woman. serpentina. the scalp or skull. fistula. to cram. prattle. bald. Diet. Kil. dragonder. overheated. kahcwe. B. Hard.' Chaucer. to be of a good or bad quality. to calk. faint. kallo. Gael. heat. the Fr. Du. kal. them &c. kil-u-kal. to burn. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Gr. trull. klover. alta voce ploro. cauque. cotton cloth.— . sound. Sp. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. So It. Mil. quiet. and heat. form in the kalib. drive. calcaich. couleuvre. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. cauma. overscalmaccio. — Fl. to affirm. . scalmato. calma. Callow. Sup. * Caliver. calat of leude demeaning. calibre. an adder. and dragon. calleting. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where.

hooked. — Lat. when its substance appears inter. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. the space of false imputation. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. slander. died in 1526. canna. cambren. Sp. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. KafivTu. good. water chamlet . the type of a hollow pipe. a goblet bud. crooked. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. chommer. to bow.— B. — B. Canker. is Candle. a caught. India Islands. the salmondis faillis thair loup.—Candidate. Lat. Calumny. cambrer. at the ends. w. champagne. camahutus. Fr. callar. the bed of a stream. would plenier. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Fr. a. cam^e. Camisade. camafeo. a' Sc. canis. crook. Caloyer. arched. Camlet. field . candela. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. also an eatmg sore. samon. Cancer. kanna. properly good country.Lat. campren. different sections of the like the Chinese.Gr. sugar. Fr. to bend. cup. chaitcre. canalis. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. In a different application It._ kamm. bis. had no r in de bric— Cot. camelus. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. It was distinfrom work. cere : Lat. a large drinking . Lat. campagna. Cameo. whence the Fr. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. The Grisons cauina. cainahelus. a crab.who their language. Cann. nia. on. salmon. calutmiia. the spersed with white flakes like curd. Palsgr.— Hackluyt in R. Canal Channel. crooked. a dog. fresh. from xaXbg. canistrum. calj'x. higher in the middle than Fr. camp. Cambric. Candy.—Jam. Bret. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Fr. mg Canister. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. to avoid enemy in their shirts. sore. Cot. — Cancel. Cambray. to warp. campagna. to the force of the wind. whence the noun signifying an applicant. From campus was formed Lat. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. It. It. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Campaign. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. a. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. cambre. Kakoycpos. campo. Mid. co7nbar. se cameloter. callour. to glow. the heat. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t.conduit-pipe. an eating. Lat. brought from Fr. Arab. lattice. Camel. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. or Caribs. camelot. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. crooked. Calyx. Turk. fair. Sp. Gr. spot for cattle. It. A — the Cannibals. Lat. Ptg. icaSoytipoe. camber-nosed. white. It. and yspiuv. whence Fr. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Canine. lame. From fluting or furrow in a column . candidus. champ. to jut. a piece. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Gr. It. camisa. monk. It. chamold man. Fr. paign. E. aspirant. campagne. cancer. Mod. Cambrav—Cam. to bend. camisade. crooked-stick. the calix. Canibal. Calver of cane. ko/utuXoc. or hollow of a flower. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Properly calver in the field during a war. is Cambering. Fr. a field Greek monk. chandelle. Fr. Lat. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing.' ' Quhen a lattice. Or the word Lat. — — — A — — escume de saumon.. camaien. open and level ground. arched. having an aquiline nose. unwater chamelot . lie level. Camp. campus. across — Bellenden in Jam. cup. An eater of human flesh. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Sp. camiscieia. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. to break. a basket. Lat. E. . camiscia. Pers. cAouma. Sanson khanda. frank and sincandidatus. B. Lat. campo. Cambrel.— Chandelier. from candere. catmneo. cambr^. KafitjUe. toile some of whom. a may have acquired that signification from plain. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. clothed in white. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. See Canker. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. cancello. Candid. campaign. Peter Martyr. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. B. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. . and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad.' Forme of Cury in Way. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. E. Fr. ation. arch. aged.—Cambrel. ckaouma.

leiwan kanta. cover kapi. schlappen. cannabis. The meserseum and the mesentericum. canonicus. has kahn. a — A — Cannel Coal. to sing. canto. From Lat. Prov. a tube. Cantle. OFr. signifying cover. It. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. To canvas — . Du. contain. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. Again we have Lat. edge. Kil. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. coarse hemp.— Cot. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. from cant. from Dan. was formed Kavtiiv. capa. measure for cloth. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. speech. It. being a yard or thereabouts . Picard. is found languages of very different stocks. Diez. a scull- — here. Sp. rumme.. Hence Lat. a small boat. kantr. a cover Turk. a gelding.^on. It. Canvas. the heel. Schwab. canonici. carcase . cane. kandt-broodts. A piece of anything.Gr. a cap. Cape. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. It. chape. Cot. It. Germanis kdppen. the quartile. W. cannevo. region. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. Sp. chantel. the part easiest broken off. Esthon. the heel. cappe. canapaccia. &c. Gugel. caparazon. Goldast — in in Schmid. Capari. lump. cover . Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. canon. Cant. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. Fr. also a measure.n. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. canapa. Kavt\. territorial hundred. from a Canter. cappe. &c. quarter. border. border Dan. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. or hold. Lat. To Canonise. See Chape. a horn of the moon . a cloak kapali. a reed. Canoe. . It. corner. kapamak. cane. Canteen. a drinking glass. kynnel. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. canton. quito curtain. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. and tref. To his judicial And trowl the tile. coat. Sp. Alamannis. ON. Capacious. The word seems to be taken from Gael. kyndel. the tried list of saints. tain. pipe. a ruler. root cap. quarter . cane. a wine-cellar or vault. a hundred. capace. cantone. coarse hempen cloth Fr. canvas. and met. from canna. capax. which is not the case. . cape. cannu. canevas. a hunch of bread. a door . Canopy. part. Capable. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap.CANNEL vessel. capevole. and the sex- &c. as a cantle of bread. a straight rod. as. Cannoii. hamlet. cappa. B. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. a cloak. call. If the word had been from cantherius. cantle then is a corner of a thing. regular. a pipe. margo panis diffracta. capello Italis. astrology. a division of a country. cannevaccia. properly a large Prov. cannone. a cantle of bread. hood. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. to put upon sacred writers. chanteau. KCLvva. hemp. canoa. cantred. Coal burning with bright flame. Mod. cantina. to shut. gnat. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community.Gr. Of vena cava and of vena porta. a boat. Gael. cheese. Fr. kaput. cantref. hirnschlapple. From Gr. But it may be different source. a torch. Fr. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. cope. kwvwxIi. name. or cantell of bread. a rule or standard of excellence. Canon. N. Cope. See Capt-. cane. covered. it would have been found in the continental languages. and hence a gobbet. Fin. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. hemp. that the G. can. Probably only the augmentative of canto. A slow gallop. Wtb. like a torch or candle. Mod. kand. a corner. to con- rummer. Palsgr. a reed. The — . he discourseth of dissection. cainnt. It. schlapp. a side. Jonson. clqse. . and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. a cane. haitt. kanta. shut. a ship canot. able to receive. say. from . KaTTiram. a Fr. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. trine. language. Swab. . to contain. canteau. side. A . kq. Canton.

'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. or represented by the syllable e. Torriano. the head. roughening of the skin. capriole. Caper. end. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. knis-hujwud . It.— Fl. capar. gricciare. Hal. frizzle. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn.). the principal part of the debt. And similarly to yearn. to broil. abridge amKoTroq. cApre. toy. or other things. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. upon terms Sp. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . A headland. arricciarsi. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. of a fowl. brissle. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. Lat. caprice. to crackle. hedge-hog. erica. capro. castrated cock. chattering of the teeth. wriggle. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. to crackle. to twitter as birds. as Fr. principal. It.impressions on the ear. G^' Many words — ' ndv. curling. where Burton adds in a note. I have shivered with love. cappriccio. gives rise to Sc. then to shiver or shudder. a capriol. greziller. to shiver. and OHG. brisciare. chief. To treat Capitulate. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. p. Sp. a little head. greziller. riccio. and 7tucc.' Cot. ticchio. a ch illness. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. bristling. Fr. fansuddenly angry. horror. shivering. Acad. of a tremtdoiis sound. Hence capitalis the sum lent. to from capitulum. eruca compared with It. It. birsle. the hair to stand on end. Mod. sault. to parch. frissoner. the singing'bone). frort^Lat. or Lat. Fl. grisser. grillcr. w. It. castrated. to shiver for cold. s'hdrisser. bruco. grug. shivering. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. cover of a saddle. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. Capital. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. Griller d'im' patience. capriola. hair. So from Sw. to . To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. capriol or caper in dancing. Fr. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . ribrezzo. a head. Hair-like. arricciarsi. Fr. horripilation. rihrczzoso. herissonnement. the hair to stand on end. grisser. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. The same imitation of Capon. capitulare. a hedge-hog. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. Caprice. then to be in a state of vibration. It is probable that Gr. a caper in dancing. II bresole (Gl. Unexpected pleasure. and his body bristled We to castrate.) grezille marid. brisciare.standing on end. ziki. capitalis. frisson- ner . to desire earnestly. a young kid met. also the capriole. See Chief. kid. Lat. a . — to yearne. prickly husk of chestnut. crackling sound Cape. Lat. gives rise to brezza. caj)o. for which he cites the Comask nucia. and with an initial gr instead of br. alcaparra. cut. 75. Lat. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. Capers. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. heath. to shudder. frisser {frissement d'un trait. as Fr. Capillary. rissoler. curl. Lang. a separate division of a matter. brezilia. The true derivation lies in a different direction. cut off. a caterpillar. according to the Hindoos. to ruffle the surface of water. aggricciare. a chevret. CAPRICE twittering. to fry. compared with Bret. brisoler. then find the symptoms of shivering. It. as in Lat. of a coach. they longed extremely to see it. as the means of earning profit. h^risser. — — A a hair. bristling. Fr.'— Trev. <I>pi'?oe. caprice It. It. a buck. as Fr. curly. with joy' Vikram. hi. humorous. a kid.— 128 CAPE a rustling. a goat. algabr. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. shrub. is either wholly lost. airoKOTrrw. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. or goat's leap (done by a horse). It. a yearning through sudden fear. brisciare. belonging to From caput. the head. A . Cot. or. . brug. explained by Diez from capra. Genevese bresoler. capillus.Gr. the initial mute of forms like Gr. Arab. ^piKos. the whizzing of an arrow Cot.) d'etre The It. caper j caprio. It. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. ericius. knis. capparis. gricciare. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire.' — (Supp. to broil.

a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. chirrion. cabestrantej Fr. de- price. to load . karrende waegen.. Fr. also tresFl. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. box. Capt-.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). one odd. conceit. recibir. Carry. concipere. Passing on into E. a kind of torture. carretta. chevre. perceive. krul. captus. capio. decepte. and tropically. captivate. a coffer. a. Carbine. was a kind of horse soldier. Cot. Nordfoss. Neumann. desire. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . charger. 129 — receive. and of captus to an e. charret. caprice. The It. however. Lat. capuccio. as the dragoons (Du.or -cib-. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. verbs gives rise to the element . a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end.). -cept. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. a hooded friar. a sudden fear apprehended. In cases. Caseneuve in Diet. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. Lat. a hood (dim. It. a she-goat. case. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. fancy. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. an engine for throwing stones. shivering fit (Altieri). oisr. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. of the Sp. conception. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. at least. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. to creak. Carabin. karren. . and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. cabreia. a head man. Capstern. It. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. commander. caThe hrestante. It. cabrestante (whence e. a. -ceive. kerren. Fr. captive. receptus. Derivatives are Fr. concept. -cept. a cart. deceit. See Caper. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. It. to receive receptio. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. calabrin. Kiittner. G. intercept. &c. latterly. Cart. Carabine. was originally a missile . Capriole. a capuchin. accept. Crab. Captain. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. except. capitano. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. to take to. chirriar. also to carry on a car . whence capture. contain. Fr. recevoir. concevoir.of these compound verbs. i The meaning Car. It is a standing crab. a reception. carro. seize.. conceive. Du. karra. Fr. of capsa. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. was converted into -ceb. to this is It. caput. a fantastical humour. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. capitis. capsula. dim. cabestan. karista. a sawing-block or trestles. recipere. as in accipio. to accept. hold. It. carabin. Fin. strideo. Du. from head. recipio. crab s. a creaking waggon. a sudden will. caricare. di cappa. fantastic. OSp. precept. recepte. It. the -cevofthe Fr. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. charrier. Thus the musket. — —Diet. to please. and has thus descended unaltered to English. deception. to carry . and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. cabra. capp%tccio.s. Fr. capra.). a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. or the (capo-riccio). bock. Capuchin. Fr. and has accordingly been lost in E. a taking back. a cloke) capuccino. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. &c. Lat. cams. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. where it forms a very large class of compounds. as in OFr. Sp. Etym. to creak. It. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. sels. trestle. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. acceptus. Castr. — — Capstan. Capsule. also a kind of rack. a windlass. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. Lat. In the S. Cot. calabrino. to take baclc. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. to take. Sp. crepo. concebir. Fl. tnoschetta. Fr. char. &c.

black dye. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. — seems to be something holding together. to draw in. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. a quiver . military engines made for hurling stones. wine- bottle. Arab. case. Gr. restraint . Fr. to card wool. &c. a twist. It. Pers. &c. Comp. . A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. It. carquois. also a small weight. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. a card or comb .. caraffe. Fr. the core of fruit . poison eiz. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. Ptg. kirat. to curry horses karsztuwas. Sp. . carabe. turning. the dead body of any creature. to ripple flax. . a he-goat. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. a lock of wool . copperas. Lith. Carboy. cardo. «capa'|8i. cabra. quilato. of carbo). carbunculus (dim. karra. to card wool. Card. an ulcer. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. caraffa. quse vocant karabd. eit. and catapulta. Caraool. The radical meaning . Gr. to comb. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . karri. carmiiiarc. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. carbh.. cramp. turn of a horse. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. carbo. coming to four grains. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. also (as Gr. fire .Gr. a gem resembling a live coal. decanter. a ship. krciti. is the word used in modern Lat. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a quiver. AS. a coffer. a thistle. carquan. Lat. a quiver. a quiver . Bohem. confining.. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. tcapKaai. The Trjg xeXwwac. Fr. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. Cat. contract. Carrob. of the same Caravan. Cot. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. eitar. KtpaTwv. vitriol. to creak..— — — . Carbuncle. cabrita. skeleton. carquasse. Exot. cerran. From the battering-ram. cassa. carcasa. Gael. a skeleton. caravela. a prison. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Caravel. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . a case or chest . burning coal.applied to a battering-ram (G. garafa. curry-comb. shell. It. Gael. Carcax. Gael. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. a collar or chain for the neck. is the chine. silique. kard boyd. carere. designated in the case of G. I. Parmesan cassiron. kerwan. a machine for casting large darts. OHG. for a gun. Sp. alia sunt majora. . Lat. carch. Carbonaceous. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. Sp. Carcase. cdrlag. carcanet. chevre by the name of the goat. Mod. the shell of a torcarcasso. a snail. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. card. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. or framework. carcanada.Gr. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. car. avSpaS. the . 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a ripple for flax. the husk or cod of beans.. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Sp. the trunk or chest of the body . skeleton toise. caracal. matter. Fr. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. wool card. bock and Fr. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. ancient springald. boch. Venet. carate. a dead carcase. bend. winding carach. carduus. . karszti. It. in the same way that the Sp. ' Vasa vitrea. An implement for dressing wool. p. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. seed of carob. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. constraining . a battering-ram). Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia).charcoal . cabreia. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. carcame. winding. Gael. carcaij. properly a siege machine. to comb wool .' From the same source are SicU. skeleton. casso. Sp. Carat. carta. a crane. carabba. an engine for hurling stones. the name might naturally Mod. espi7igarda. Derived in the first edition from Mod. mural attack. See Carpenter. W. the carob bean. a firelock. &c. a thistle. a goat. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. the carcase of a fowl. a kind of ship. It. a wool card. ON. a winding staircase. word is only an adoption of the Turk. a small weight.z. the case of the flesh. to turn. to hiss (as gee^e). Cot. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable.

to comb wool. scharren. cargo. Translated in MS. 8. to distress growl. is to say. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam.. It. the flesh of animals . Carl. Fr. — — — : Cardinal.— Charter. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. karl. charger. fundamental. is This however Shrove tide. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. appertaining to the flesh. from Lat. carnis. A mod-carag. Cot. Fr. soUicitus OSax. Bret. carrefourg. love. charie. cura may be ror. cargar. and murhet. four. . W. combing them out like the knots in wool. Gael. cearig. stridere. 273. Fr. car. the several meanings of the words above Rom. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. road. the old theory of humours.— CARD karr-kambar. Fr.. care. astutus. zanken . careless take care of. the load of a ship. to comb flax or hemp. crosier. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. ress. . &c. from carrus. . as peas. Care. caricare. Properly. karrig. as carminare. graller. ON. stingy. Fr. bottom. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. or grumbling —Due. sorrow. . kribina. ignarus. sensual. morosus sum. or street. croller. Bret. to shake. carezza. Carled peas. 2. E. Charnel. cearian. G. OHG. murahtaa. strideo. an endearment. cardo. W. morosus. Probably the origin of the word is the . quaver a lazar's clack. It. carFrom carrus. Carnage. Cartel. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. charag. Bois crolant d'un ladre. mutter. Roquef. place for exercise on horseback. A quirito ut infans. Trin. kargr. It. x'»P'"^s)) paper. as quadrivium from Carnaval. karry. giierlir. care on. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. sgritudo animi. Cath. to growl. caru. charneux. kumra. Fr. that Fl. winding. the keel of a vessel. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. parched or carled. murren. cura intenta. charnel. — — Diez. . what is felt as grievous. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. Carnal. 1S66. de Parthenay. carminare. charnage. a man. essere in carena. grolU. piger. Fin. whence carricare. sorrow. Dan. carcus. in St Jerome. compared with Fin. one of those ac- 9 * . AS. kroU-erbser. Lat. Carlings. a deed. crowl. Cark. grief. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. a card. carriire. that on wliich the matter hinges. Champ. caMid. — Carfax. carnasciale. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. cdrle. to clean the bottom of the ship. carch. msstus. From. . to whirr (schnurren). — — . a hinge. Carenare. caresse. & Q. ON. act of moaning. to fry. crawl. fleshy . For the root of carminare. carena. It. and G. dear. Peas steeped and fried. wool cards. a turn. carnal. record. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. like connection may be seen between Fin. to parch. Coll. to load. the hull of a ship. Farewell flesh. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. to scrape . from the keel to the water . to love. Sept. to load. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. Ptg. principal. and compare Bret. Chart. asper. It. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. the time during which to Rom. niggardly . voce strepo stridente. Sp. Carminative.Lat. gakaran. see Garble. immediately before the long fast of Lent. regar. cardinis. chartre. It. moeThe Lat. . G. AS. Card. to fry or broil. A medical term from line —Boerio. carcare. ceorl. to card wool. AS. Fr. Cot. Fl. be anxious. at murmuring.Lat. affection. and thin. carena. No ' place there had. from caricare. Fr. solicitous. kurista. Venet. to eat flesh. Sp. — To Careen. murista. camovale. a highway. Cargo. charta (Gr. It. karantez. surrata. also a career on horseback. kummer.' Slceat. OFr. to rumble. in Carp. caricatura. charg. male person. p. to take Goth. Cot. the keel. Lat. caritia. Fin. intrasset caro. tenax. and sum. carian. quadrifurcum from quameet. carnalis. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. meet at a head. karout. in N. W. tuorfurcm (Burguy). . weyes. karista. carnavale. Groler. carriera. Caricature. A place where four roads Mid. hoed. to lie on its side. beans. carener. Mur. w. — — — Caress. rixosus. quarreG. Properly a car-road. to scratch. from carus. kara. an overloaded representation of anything. carina. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. clown or churl. tremble. karg. to care unkarja. to load.

cardos. In a MS. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. on that. balade from It. Carpet. Ein we find the signification transferred from . about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Biheld within. vel coopertorio carebit. carpentum. . course. yede tham about. to reel. ' ' — . ON. Teut. Ant. Bohem. as Fr. Alluz (G. The karole of the stones behelde. Pm. lint.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. carpenter only in the latter sense. skraf. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. carpat (Stokes). The word seems of Celtic origin. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Beggars Bush. Mediol. all aus). cariielevamen or carnis levamen. to rustle. I quaught. Carpitam habeat in lecto. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. krapanj. to find fault with. charpentier. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Sp.Lat. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade.gonnella. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. of Guiana. pluck at. in Nat. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat.' Reg. garrulo. 2. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. Templariorum — ' — Due.Lat. zimmer. Lat. 2. to pluck. i. is erroneous. cxciv. So gone they forthe. qui sacco. a wheelwright. Chanson de carole.D. pluck. Gael. Carpyn or talkyn. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. or loose as a couch without further preparation. Lat. carnelascid). I drink all out. chatter skra/a. Carpenter. Pref. a drinking cup. fabulor. gar aus / all out is correct. Cot. differing To Carp. Discov. carpo. Olr.— Neum. chatter. a wheelwright. e. Mid. Fr. W. a dance. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Here's to you still my captains friend. used for stuffing mattresses.: . Sup. — — ' ' — — — I — — . quoted by Carpentier. charpie. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. act of drinking a full Eq. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. carpere. carpende fast Carol. litter. chirp. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. whence the form carnasciale. Bret. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. koroll. as carnaval from carnelevamen. garrire. Palsgr. chariot carbad. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Gower in Way. The custom. Carole.— Drant in R. to dance. Lat. The tippling sots. 94). zimmerspan. On this. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. gonna.— Patriarchi. Other names of the sea. linteamen. On the other hand bumper to one's health. Carnevale. Carnelevale.' Raleigh. a plank. in Due. tymmer. to dance. in Carp. Analogous R. bier. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. carpenticre. . corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. to talk.'— Stat. ballare. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. maker of waggons It. . culcitra. carpetrix. cited by Marsh. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. peta.— R. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. worker in timber Fr. to gather. carpia. Pr. biheld without. at midnight which derivation from kroes.Why give's some wine then. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. — .' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. tattle. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. A. or a carouse fully drunk up. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. to chatter coroli. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. All out B. krapati. 1 1 30. carpita. carpenta. querole. Properly a round dance. sense. to pull asunder. and Carnem laxare (It. carpetam (a quilt?). carbh. Nomin. Dief. carduz. 216. a song accompanying a dance then. The ' ' a chariot.Lat. ship. as E. Shrove Tuesday. ! Carouse. a carder. Mid.' says Motley (United Neth.]e bois Carnelevale. as the Lat.' Ordo Eccles. In Dominica d'autant. To pledge them thou refuse. was formed Mid. From Lat. i. 760. and F. a car carpentarius. Fr.

To Cashier. Rouchi carone. a merchant's cash or counter. Carrion. from the sound it makes when Alban. a chance or accident. Cot. Fr. caroche. Rouchi carpHe. charrette. dim. cassette. to convey in a cart. Fl. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. carrosse. See Gristle. Sp. Casual. Lat. krat. Rouchi caroche. cut with scissors. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. The carrying of anything. kasseren. subject for a picture. a of water. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Sp. carretto. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. discharge. — — nul the proceeding. Lat. Carriage. It. Hence a challenge openly hung up. It. properly to convey in a car. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. to cut or carve . a fall. abrogate. a paper case. long man's gown with a close body. Cartel. to shear. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. quash. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Cash.' Cot. crown of a hat. fortuitous. ' Casa-matta. Fr. It. Walach. of carro. to bear or carry. cassa. and the OE. Fr. cartella. corresponding to the G. cassus. house. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. G. carretta. cascar. for the security of the defenders. cia.' Bailey. Case. caisse. Lat. Fr. carriaggio. discharge It. to crack. casa. card. to hold. to an- — Kil. not reaching to the height of the ditch. a chest. void cassare. to break. slaughter-house. Preparatory drawing of a It. To duash. one who reasons on cases put. a long coat. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Cascade. caroach. mord-grube. Fr. cascata. from Lat. Cart. casag. Cartoon. caxa. shell or carcase of a house.— Fl. cartoccio. Fl. from It. It. carota. cartouche. carroc- carrozza . To Carve. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. It. See Case. cassa. Hence casket. fall It. casacca. tion from Sp. Carrot. cancel. packing ' cloth. AS. OE. and that apparently from capio. annul. crush. gristle. Lat.' Fl. — Cartoose. bitten. the money chest. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. capsa (Diez). caisse. des rideaux A'carp^ie. ignominiously exposed. break to pieces.to annul. Du. to — — also casse. As defence from shells became more important. gristle. the charge of — — Fr. quasser.. casitiste. It. helmet. Fr. Flor. from casa. also the carriage. coffin of paper for groceries. a loopscale the wall. charrier. a canonry or slaughterhouse. casaque. to fire on the enemy. Casque. carreaggio. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. ceorfan. an act of falling. as we . Cassock. Fr. to notch. kerben. of carta. See Card. a car. It. a hut. a car. to dash. and matar. blotted out. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. casa-maita. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. casso. made void. Fr. empty. coffer. turn out of service. afterwards any written challenge. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. where Fr. Fr. an augmentative from Lat. hollow. luggage. Fr. case-maiej Sp. casus. from It. mord-keller. cartone. Cask. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Casket. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. cancelled. like all the names of tendon. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Fr. augm. Case. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Du. cassere. case. kirpti. hull of a ship. hung up in some place and to be removed. cartilage. Fr. a coffer or small case for jewels. kerpu. Cot. cascade. — — . casco signifies a skull. CartOTicli. carogna. charogne. — FI. Ready money. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. — Cartridge. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. To Carry.' — Hdcart. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Probably. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Casuist. kerven. paper. The Sp. Gael. caisse. to slay. AS. It. cashiered. It. something that actually occurs. casser. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Lith. bag and baggage of a camp. carroccio. casuelj Fr. Rouchi carter. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. casualis. cascare. caro. vault hole in a fortified wall. Case-mate. augmentatives of carro. mata. To quash an indictment. pasteboard. to fall.

heat . by the loss of with several pitched cords. Cot. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. n. So also from It. down. fer toTa. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. cat-o'-nine. to close. the stalk of plants.Rouchi Scaches. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. handle of an axe. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. cat. a thump. race. away. Fr. Cat. represented by the syllable quash. Fr. cast. stilts. kasta. 134 CAST Catacomb. chasuble. to scourge. however.'— Pr. catar. fall. Lang.. Pic. ' Catchyn away abigo. Catalogue. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. catch.out cacciare . . ating. to cast or beat to tioner . Fr. KaTaarpifm. cash. Castanets. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. Pm. It. follow after. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. down. 120. ecrevisse. to end. of sarabands does Gr. casipola. OFr.— Fl. execu.the / or c respectively. chasser. puras E. . Hal. or Rouchi cat. dash. to make clean or chaste. klakka. to Fl. dim. chat. and tomba. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Etym. while kiss / Pol. to break. castro. casule. The E. ichasses. in the fire. Hence castaneta. same word with break. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. cacciare fuora. Roukind. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. to lash. In the dialect of Picardy. KaraXoyog. is not satisfactory. kasi. castello. Lat. to bring to an crack given by the joints. kat. signifying breed. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. speak of dashing a thing down. a cat koshki. a vault. Mid. being Fin. . a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. Yz. Gr. to hurl See Awgrim. chaleur. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. which has been retained in E. the ground . of castrum (castra). KarapaKrr]g. Pol. _G. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. first made ordinary Fr. to look at. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. chasser. cassa / cry for the same purpose. from the first of Castrate. Sp. 'Vaaaw. sue. to turn overturn. B. Gael. or bruise together. casulla. which. cascar. V. kissa. perhaps from which we have E. Brunne. and KviilSog. V Lith.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. The Diet. rack. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — .to drive out. squash. kotas.Lat. Chase. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. and from the castus. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Sp. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . a whip on the other into latch. kotas. It. cacciuolo. a fortified place. casupola. accastiare. to drive Cat o' nine tails. the earlier sense of catch. Cast. like that of It. to drive away. a little house or hut. kottr. punch. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. Lat. or comba. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. burst cascare. torture. to is Essentially the Sp. to fall as over a precipice. Isidore — in Diez. castellum. a cat . the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. probably from an imita. lance. koshka. Thus we have Caste. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. dashing it to pieces. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. To It.. an enumerlist. to dash. Others explain it from Kara. to clack. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. to hunt. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. under chi caleur. to crack. kaJoivad. Fr. Catastrophe. dashing it out of the window. arpi^m. KaTappaKTrjQ. to torture. ON. To Catch. crush . Fr. cojz^/a. Castle. was introduced. R. drive away. — We a cavity. force j Rouchi equerviche. to crackle. katze. Fr. Fr. castanetazo. image accasciare. kic' kicil are used chasser. cacciarc. kakka. on. &c. Fr. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. a garment for performing the mass in. . castana. second chase. a Cataract. coming to us through different dialects of French. tails. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. from water Karappaaaiii. Gr. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. puss / for calling them. mino. . It. Fr. bot-kotis. the castanets for or implement . casser. squash. name. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. shaft of a 1 push. a chesnut .

to crack GATES cache. Gael. * Cates. wild-beast. chink. In the XV'e. catch. — with a whip. to take. to A bailiff. 'Horxa. which all .V. cat is not apparent. E. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. ' ' word catch. Metivier. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. Caterer. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. klatsch. . GaUa catchiza. formerly called cliket. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. bicho. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. devouring mite or weevil. apprehend a person. chase. Du. Guernsey chafer. chatter. weevils. de Bray. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. Cot. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. gliong. millecaterpillars. kletsen. a.' CATCH Fr. Cot. 'Bxn. caucht. . chassoire. companaige. to catch strength. blow.' ^Jam. from shutting with a click. and answer. snatching it with a any one. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. an officer of taxes. instruction in forms. called in Fr. latch of.) . fragor kletsoore. cagnon (a dog). children's name for cat . Kil. Du. klatscherei. to snap.s. Guernsey pilleure. catch. — tinman. Gael. . the distance to which the ball is struck. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. — explained. to snatch (said of dogs). On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. chenille {canicula. the elements of a science. catch-flesh. — Kiittner. quincailler. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . a smack. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. Diez. icarrix'Ki^. a caterpillar Milanese can. silkworm. a whip Rouchi cachoire. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. Du. gattola. claquer. Chate peleuse. flap klatsche.V. a clap. to chat. c or ^. or any kind of relishing food tuals. a whip or Kuttner. e. worm. Cates. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. to clap hands. 135 — Aasen. verberare kUts. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Sp. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. bichano (pussy). a carter's Pat. ketsoore. Kariicatching one a box on the ear.yopl(. the OE. E. caker. — Catcli-poll. * Caterpillar. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. clap. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. as of the latch of a As ! — . Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). s. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. Gr. OFr. Sc. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. — B. . a. On Catechism. ' Fr. Wal. dainties. a — gatta. Swiss Lombard G. cache. to kythe D. KaTtix'so. door when it is shut. . to teach by oral instruction. klatsche and Norm. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. from Gr. compare G. insect. G. resound. chachara. Fr. e. kaetse. clatter.P. klatschen. is said that he got a claucht of it.. head. ecachoire.from Bard and ayopsw. woodlice. i. Grandg.j. a whip. seize. ArbaUte de courte chasse. snatching. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Kartiyopta (/cari. chasse. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. resono ictu lash. with and without an / after the c. P. sound. to chatter with the teeth cake. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . the larva of the cockteufelskatz. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. called dog or Galla catchamza. catc?u. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. Fr. the the same principle he was Fr. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. whip. to the crack. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. chatter . Tutschek. pedes. a little dog). Rouchi clincailleux. — . glcu. a pill. Fr. Ptg. happe-chair. Kil. dainty vic- a form lash. a cornIn the s. gingle. latch. chacepol. ictus resonans. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Claucht. has both or of charming by sound. predicament. a whip. kletse. klinke. to harangue. smack. in order). E. an accusing. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. clap with the hand. snatched.

hollow. katte. Pol. kopista. kobuiV. a The peel. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Pr.Lat. a horseman. klopfend knallen. CAVE Caul. chaussJe.' Elyot in Way. Fin. cabbage-stalk. caple. caballus. Lat. OE. kopano. Fr. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. reticella. Gr. and spareth for no perell. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. catkins . Kavrfipiov. a kettle for heating water. Richly she feeds. macska. lamb. fur in general. Bessie of Bednall. Causeway. a mare. A warm comforting drink. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. also to pave . calotte. KiwariKog. kdtzchen. Gr. Fr. catons. caudex . flock. Lat. kobyla. a paved road. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. . a receptacle for small things. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. a branding from koiio. cheval. Boethius. Fr. despencier. a horse. ' Gr. chevalier. whence cathedralis. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Manciple's Tale. Thus Bav. primitive is meaning a shale or off. from KaSaipio. Provider. dumpf tonen. Catkin. hot. Fr. to purge. Dryden in R rete. calidus. catkin mitz. cal^ar. Fr. caldo. chausser. Fr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Palsgr. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. . Lat. what . hot. Cathartic. cale. little cap is . capull. katteken. puss. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. shaled or picked Fr. via strata. Delycates. to shoe. minon. deyntie meates. Port. chatideau. kaussijde. chair.—— — 136 correct. a pavement.Y\\Xea. cabbage. Rete. accapitare Rouchi acater. . the caul of the liver. green husk of a calon. Fr. to sound like a blow . quire. koparet. calceata. but the acates that are sent him.' B. That he was ay before in his estate. Kil. Cavity. Cavalcade. kitten kotki.^ acheter (Lat. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. mudet. make clean. by land. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Caudle. Cavalry. calqada. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. B. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. 4. to shale or peel. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Gael. rete A — Prov. Mid. kocianki. and at the rich man's cost By sea. KaPaWrii. little cat.willow. cat maczoka. It. a pulpit. Palsgr. . otherwise written kell. . having the property of cleansing. On the other hand. is Prologue. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. to burn.. catkin Magy. cautis. . the stones of a street. Gr. kocie. any Fl. to shoe . cautus). Kavrijp. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. from chaud. chauderon. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. chaudiire. a kind of skull-cap. Du. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. from delf^gato. mutz. chaudroii. ce^l. puss. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. achepter. causa. puss. Mid. The word — . the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. cale. Lat. Lat. Cavern. It. to buy. — . a road calceata. Cave. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Caustic. It. KaHSpa. Cattle. Russ. to ac- — Fr. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. adcaptare. a horse . Fr. Sx. apt to burn iron. and hence a skull-cap. Du. choufleur {choii. from caveo (p. &c. to beware. cavaliere. Fr. Lat. a stalk. Fr. w.Lat. Cavalier. Caballus. 2. cabbage). acaptar. — Cauterise. hazel. flue. — — cavallo. It. . shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. fur. Cause. walnut with the husk on challer. CATHARTIC sense. a horse . Jonson in R. kassije. the. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. is used in the sense of cat-skin. • — — See Chattel. Caution. G. calceta. Cathedral. Diez). whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. challe was ther of a temple. cauHs. catkin Pol. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. acater. Cauldron.^Hal. Wyatt in R. Ka^afriKOQ. cavus. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. kin. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Chaud. Jaubert. It. a seat. net or caul-work. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth..p. accattare. kautsije.

' Ordinances and Reg. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. kommata. . Soc. nailes will begin to cling.'— Z. cabegon. or of a bed. in Hal. Fr. cedo. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. &c. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. augm. cavillor. the deck of a ship at thilja. — . . cielo. syl. in Jam. . lambrisser une chambre seeling. bridle. To seele a room. tester of a bed. p. thili. plank. komista. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . menuiserie. deal.j have come from this source. seele. cabega. . ceiling. It. — komo tain).' Marriage of James IV. hollow. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt.' Cot. Gawaine & Sir Gol. but hang around at the sides.). a log. Fr. thiling. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. 7. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. Lat. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. Lat. Cease. decessus. heaven. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. . del into English without ' translation gave cele. Hal. Boyd in Jam. Cede. coffer. as. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. The importation of Fr. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. little house. dil. Wore. applied to a canopy. wuoren komo. and Gol. Fr. sus-lambris. . dayntily diglit. . plank. Fr. jaa. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde.' Hall. thil. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. Lat. ciel de lit. Cam. departure from this life. ciel is so unbroken. heaven. E. H. the testern of a bed. -cede. selure. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. and that from Sp. Cavil. -ceed. were met. a halter. with their substantives concession. excess. A — A false accommodation produced G. wall. curved. to canopy siled. hollow ice . Lat. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. thilja. a boarded floor. p. step away. door-sill J Sc. cavezzone. sill. komo. The sense of roofing. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa.' — Gawan . selar. kapp-zaum. a planking or boarding tkilian. departure. a canopy. proceed. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. . crooked kopio. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. cesso. yield.. pp. lambris. empty. . to panel or wainscot MHG. — — — toyour soverane. sybire. cessum. sky. give place. flooring E. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. thel. Sir 137 pit . So from Fin. . rafter. a canopy. Ceiling. Sherwood. that. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. The It. ceiling. to argue capto tiously. The line of descent from Fr. 43. . dille. post. koppeli. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls.. Sp. cease. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. quibble. beam. semely on syll. hollow. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. IV. In the same way G. —Decease. to cut. VIII. hivtmel.' Rutland papers. to seele or close with boards plancher. caveqon. also a seeling of boards. and then to gape. board . cyling (W. . thelu. recede. CAVESON kopera or kowera. And seik — Cessation. Hence concede. a beam. of E . a fir-plank. to go forth. column E. syle. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. 32. is applied to a canopy. thil. B. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. a log. a board. to plank ON. the roof of a coach. a severe bridle. Plancher. death.). 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. -cease. to plank or floor with planks. a hut. -cess. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. and zaum. of cavezza. a head. . See -cede. sill in window-sill. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. a log. succeed. a plank. — . exceed. cellar. canopied. the inner roof of a room of state. hung. 5. &c. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall.' del. an aquiline nose. &c. wainscot thiljar (in pi. as if from happen. dScis. &c. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. In the N. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. Cot. in Jam.

estimate. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. OFr. Fl. calefare. encens. criticism. from censeo. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. Lat. Coehim. Lat. Fr. to concern. The term cilium. centum. Lat. &c. Lat. an eyelash. blind. Lat. — . census. camentum. tax. cenio. . K^'ivut. Gr.— Cellar. . -cipio.. what to set in a chafe. candeo. to rate. -cebre ifoncebre. to seele or sew up the eyelids . keep in It. much frequented.. empty. chaufferette. to warm. appertain. his office. Sherwood. Gr. to celebrate. sift. deceit. /ctj/rsw. sting. Prov. and thence to conceal. incense. Cij(fe5j. goad. cella. point. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. make angry. Lat. concernor. concetto. Ceremony. Celebrity.ing a room where there is not fire. Census Censor. Censure. and thence censer. oil.' Celebritas. a prick. to contend. judge Lat. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. Certain. In Celebrate. pick out. conceipt. ciglio. — . to blindfold. quarters for slaves. siller les yeux. to prick. To seel or close the eyes. parted sleep.' Book of St Albans. KsvTpov. — . caber. For sess from assess. become heated with anger. the officer appointed to take such returns . a storehouse Chafe. in Marsh. mortar. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. Lat. cilibat. &c. age. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. to incense. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. S. to set on fire. renown be embodied with.). to distinguish. for building. To chafe is for wine. -cepire. we have a modified form of (of a place). Assize. — — Cenotapli. value. Chafe. in comp. chauffer. concerner. -ciper. Fr. is the opposite of disora virum. to course of people. distinIt. to visit in numbers. in accordance with the Fr. riscaldarsi. rough from the quarry. the place where the de. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. a shaft horse. syll. censura. to glow. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. Fr. -i^oivre. cot. Cot. and — — — possessions. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. -CEIVE a shaft. Cell. to seal a pigeon's eye. Censer. Cess. stones to the production of heat. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. Fr. Fr. cigliare. to be regarded as one celebro. sacred show. heaven. contend. to take. a valuation of every man's estate. a hundred centuria. — . and put it through the over eyelydde. 1. -ceptjun. single or unwedded life. then to rub without reference Cement. but was gradually lost in conceit. -cess. the talk of men. Fr. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. swift. to twinkle darkness. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. to burn incendo. deceipt. a religious observance. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Lat. cceremonia. (and thence also) to hoodwink. to heat. Accelerate. cencer. confounded ist from It. in comp. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. See Celibacy. as entering largely into the derivative certo. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. -cern. capturn. the point round which a circle is drawn.of the r. — A . -civer {conciver— Roquef. to sepap rate. cerealis. and so of that other. eschattffer. judge. thronged the participle cretus. Lat. -cepere. family. decebre) . -cevoir. abundance. Take the nedyll and threde. Lat. judge. Sc. It.cern. See Cede. Ta^oe. see. a tomb. eyelid. to bury). To Incense. to attend on object with. assess. {cori)cipere. to take. also grave opinion. — . cillier. of heating. or expression of Ennius. to separate.— Chafing-dish. to sleep).unmarried. Fr. materials It. tax. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. Centurion. It. Cereal. from Saa-rw. receipt. a registration of one's self. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Gr.). sile. -ceive. observe.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. being taken from Fr. a solemnity. ceremonia. Lat. Lat. celeber certus. irot\oe. -oept. Incensum. Cot. Celerity. rubble. ciller. a solemnity. a Cemetery. -cense. Assess. decide. thence belonging to or connected with corn. hollow. Fr. Gr. cretum. Lat. a hundred of what- — . -ceit. Century. dchauffer. as in some places burnt. — . the hollow the Lat. to chafe. with transposition hence (of a day). census. a numerous con. with the eyes. celer. sure. solemn (of per. and met. zens according to their property. calefacere. Censor. festive. crevi. oil.j 138 thill. or any bird's. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. to rub for the purpose a hut. to think. ' . guish. to -sum. capio. Centre.

matter by combat. chicane. to pant. a double operation * Chafer. chamar. dispute. . ing a hard case to their wings. kiamta... chambre. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. rustling corn. to action arose. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. to move the jaws. Lat. far lima-lima. Bouffard. chagrin. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. much blowing. . leviter crepo Then. To buy and sell. kiqfta. Chalice. Fr. P. The jaw chafty. calumnia. camera. kdfer. to buzz. chaine. that leneth e per I'autra. catena. a prattling woaction. Fr. Du.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. cam. from the shark-skin. Halma. shaIt. Piedm. cathedra. chaene. de Brai. a rustling noise. ing rapidly repeated cries. kaff. to gnaw. lime. Chair. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Adelung. to fret inwardtronfo. (ca'e'ra) to chair. chaire. sagri. gewolb. to puff and blow. with a:n arched roof. haggle. of. Du. any insect of the beetle kind. — — — . to sit.sure carriage. calx. — — — . a chough. Lat. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. a jackdaw. breathe KaOa^oiiat. from of the G. Prov. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. Lat. Chain. Due. Fr. as. hordeum vel let. sagrindse. a vault or arched roof. kuhista. chayire. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Cot. kahista. sborfare. chafeter. keuchen. From the To Chaff. B. kuhuja. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . In vulgar language. cadieira. fa sagramen de calompnia. Perhaps Pm. ckapfare. cadena gives chain. Fr. talkative. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. to gnaw. Fr. chatter. have a mind to parley. hght Chalk. crooked. tattle. kever. call in question for an ley). ple^. Cot. Bav. snort. great chafe. dongio. kuhina. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. keffen. breathe hard. jaw. Gr. Camera. chawe. baras of ants.— — . taubes korn oder hafer. Hal. quisquilise offence. khah. ON. chalanger. kdfelen. kauchen. chaffare. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. KoBiSpa. swelling with anger. now a chair. to dispute. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. rally one. often puffing. Wall. G. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. difficulty . dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Prov. idle words.' Rayn. songe. to bark. to claim. — — — — — — . Fr. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. fume. place See Cheek. in a monstrous fume. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. Fr. on. hiss. calix. Kaiiapa. false accusation. also to prattle. Lat. to ner It. care. Lat. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. green sagrin. tronfio. rustle Challenge. contestation. havOFr. without chap/are makiinde. Chagrin. vel susurro. p. to tattle. &c. to file. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. kiaftr. Lat. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. muzzle. from Swiss kafeln. to babble. to caw chawer. cup. cadena. vis. . and signifies to consume with anger. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. 11. Pr. as a carriage is a moveable seat. yap. Fin. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. tattle cheep. a goba rustling . calice. chaps Chamber. charge with.nium. and as this was the beginning of man. cadera. kedja. to institute anforensic action. grief. refuse barley . to call. — . From Port. Pers. Chayire. or puff with snorting. a pulpit. Fl. kuhata. grief. in a cana. Gr. lime . ^Altieri. care. clamare. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. cathedra. chafing. much more Genoese sagrind. signal by drum or P. refuse. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. Pat. 35. kaff. to chatter or talk lightly. cauvette. bargain. Fr. fern-chafer. avena vilior. De Ir4. E. ceafer. chaise. to Latin calumniare. Fr. Prov. rustling motion challenge. — — ' — — — A . Probably from According to Diez. kahu. to a seat. Cheffern. From to go to law. Lat. calonja. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. a chain. Came. chaulx. So from dominio. Fr. . puffed or ruffled with ly. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. a pulpit Cot. kahuja. In like manto huff. puff. ceaf. Ayenbite. thick and short. . snuff. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. G. limare. Kuttn. to calumpnjamen. calonjar. OFr. preise.

accidere. Carpentier. Ptg. champ. escazenza. kriimmen gebogen. See Camp. ON. jocus partitus. Chance-n3. combat. game campio. dial. tsamtsogni. Chancery. Campar. hero Sw. to stick to. mesleiare. to hold . jeu parti. to fall. champ. to fall). Lat. The happening of things Chance. a hollow chanfreiner. to paw the ground E. to quarrel (comp. to groove bevel off a right angle. Champion. campus partitus . kampeln. . pinch. to talk. to to chew champ. dricka i kapp. to wrestle. hamper. kimbu. chaude mesUe. a warrior. s. —Chamfrain. the chafldn. kapp. to flute as a column. bickering. compound. E. — Ch-amberlain. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. chanfrar. Magy. Prov. . kampen. reusement — fight in single combat. kanip.—Charfron E.Lat. kippo. To hollow out in chanPtg. to fasten oneself on to another . ON. kimpUma. to hollow out. Champaign. to fasten on. kabMe. to — — champ. hng. camp. a hook . Lith. chance. The G. M. or less ignorant. head armour.edley. kimpustella. ciambellano. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. move the jaws. boys speak of capping verses. camp. to slope out the . Get campers a ball To camf . G. to smack the lips in eating. — ^Tusser. dial. It will. Fr. at the railings. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. who stood ad cancellos. to tread The sound heavily. a game at football. to cample. campear. calidameya. Chancellor. kabe. Meleare. which seems another form of the root. chanfrein. cazer. to strive at games . kimppu (Lap. kappd). hot. a court of justice. contest. Chancel. chance. So in e. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. kablys. champ. excellent. Champ. a bundle. cadere. Dief. ing. to happen {ad and cadere. to bevel. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. . ciamberlano.—Tutschek. . champ.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. a feat. fray. — KiL . fight. keiiipe. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). cameratus. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. dispute Hal. Fr. Fr. The word is preserved in E. champ parti. . The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. tsammogni. difficulty . surpassing. chain. Lat. termediaries between them and the judge. a scufSe. gewolbt. giving rise to the as. cahir. to Hal. or player at football. ON. contention kappi.' melleia. kibti. schmatzen s. cancelli. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. kabinti. a field of battle. prize-fighter. accident. Sup. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. to hang. Gall. To Chamfer. zs jeopardy. Hence (with the nasal) w. therewithal. and mesUe. Champarty. Partnership. and acted as inofficers of . a horse-race. E. to fasten oneself to another . certare. dial. gekrUmmt. pedilusor. The E. to be eminent. camerlengo. slope of a bevelled angle. Du. campus. Commonly derived from campus. nels. Pm. a jaw kianisa. chamble. e. contend or argue G. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . from chaud. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. kinipen. bundle. chanfreindre. .140 CHAMBERLAIN . kampa. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. to debate. kampeln. broil. chamfrain. to chew. sukibti. cample). an athlete. dial. luctare. — Hal. Fin. athlete. to excel. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . Lat. champion Du. Sp. kiammi. Chamfron. received the petitions of the suitors. is explained by serrarsi. as swine. calida et sans aguet. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. zampettare. act of falling. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. from cheoir. rare. fight. Fr. Prov. chajnbellan . from Fr. kabintis. divided game. CHANCEL It. to . . dial. kiinp. kempen. cempa. caer.' SherI'altro ' ' . — masterly Sp. Fr. kempa. Sp. . top of a borehole. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. Fr. campar. wood. To cope or contend with.' ' Pr. to move the jaws kiamt. chdance. i. as in It. to wrestle. camp. chanfrein. Lat. When the to quarrel. fighting place. to slope.

Lat. to truck. Chandler. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to peck. Man of Law's Tale. chapeta. . And N. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. To Change. Chap. A fellow. to cut off . chapear. See Chop. to deal. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. as those on a trunk. or the cracking of one. changer. Lith. Chip. kaupa. jaw. klepan. . chiappa. chap. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. cambiare. not a soul. to cut. exchange. shift. Hal. Sp. Du. chapa. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. leather. to sing. AS. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. to apply one flat thing to another. a dealer in candles then. Fr. to peck.^. to strike with a sharp edge. Hence It. a small plate of flat metal. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. a money-changer. Commonly derived from capella. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. . a small metal plate Port. ON. See Chant. Fr. cambiar. the mouth. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. waterconduit. Hal. Chaps or chops. kemma. the gutter that runs along a street. clapet. chancery. Russ. W. schimbd. — . The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. . ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. 2. cantare. are kept. lips of an animal. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. to plate. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. Prov. Probably from chap. Fr. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Lang. chop. chanter. esclapo. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. to paw like a horse . to creak. Da. as It. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . may be compared with ON. like the knocking of hard things together. Fr. chop. chap. to put on fresh clothes. Bret. from clap. to strike. Sc. to hack. flat . the clappers of the scupper holes. skipta. to plate. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. cambium. hard bodies. to spht a chip. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. In like manner Walach. schimbu. cangiare. E. . Cheek. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. exchange schimbatoriu. camjar. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. Sp. the chaps . any hollow for conveying water. 140. surfaces striking together. a chap is a crack or fissure. cobio. chaps. a jaw. to swap. Da. canalis. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. jaw. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. extended to other trades. Chapel. kiceft as well as kjakje. —Chantry. chapelete de una bomba. chandelier. chapeletas de imbornales. to strike. throat of an animal. It is also used in the sense of the E. gab. the loose flesh of the cheeks. a pipe. Channel. Hence chantry. to chap at a door. or the like chapar. Chop. —Ordericus Vitalis. to coat. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. kapoti. cheek. Chape. Compare chark. debeant conjurare. esclapa. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. a reed. Molbech. the place where candles ler. and the modern canal. — : Lat. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. That wide were sentin their spicery. Chap. to break . from chandler. Aasen. I. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. prune. a strip of metal plate.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. kennel. Walach. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. hack . A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. kvar kjceften. ceaflas. as to chap hands. ceaplas. from canna. also a clap. to — cut. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. to change. kjaakaa. Chap. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. exchange. while the broader vowels a. as skin chapped hands. is used in the same sense . ^Jam. kappen. and also to chap or crack. kiceft. chancellerie. muzzle. chapilla. properly in a hard body. as chancery . to cut up into small pieces. — — —Marculfus in Due. as corn-chandChandry. wood. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel.

(eucharistie. Character. a verse. Charcoal was ciarlare. cluck. capitolo. go. Charlock. Sp. chat. The crash. eyre. as a beetle. a hood. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Fr. Deutsch. krachzen). Fr. turn. Prov. wood to coal. caricare. czirbti. Sp. surris seu Lat. . AS. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. &c. capella. colliers that charred coal. Fr. a cricket karkti (schnarren. creak. Fr. czurliwoti. to chirp as sparrows. And damned be he who first cries Hold. a charm.czirksti. Charade. condo il volgar francese. Lang. the turtle pitre. Chare. cluck kirklys. es ist mi cheer. Justin. to sing or chirp as birds. . to creak. called kedlock. Sp. to talk . keeren. enough. a riddle. twitter. —— . chara. burning without consuming the substance. pohadka. . forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. from carrus.). to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. the nature of a thing. chapelet. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. a turn cerran. Boh. of chapel. from cape or cope. chirk. jabber. a merchant. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. From Norm. czurksti. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. tattler. wreath for the head. Gr. be- e. clack. called in Sp. * Charcoal. OE. gadka. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. eapitulo. . cedeleac. charlar. ceap-man. In that work the verb is written caire. Ptg. a head or division of a book. caritas. to chirp. to love. carregar. carus. Charge. Macduff. kirkti. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. prattling quacksalver. See Charlatan. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Lay on. carmo. a mark made on a thing. to prattle. charade. cha. kurkti. babbling. Hence carminare. to load . charlatan. Cot. beloved. Fr. Chapman. dim. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. char.charme. It. a rhyme. charcoal burners. — — — turned to coal. kurkelis. as Pol. to chirp. It. that turned decken . return. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. canne. babdistinction. which was incantation. cher um cher. w. — a car. to turn Gael. AS. to of the governing body. car. See Cheap. from Charade. Bret. properly to place — . to croak as a frog . as. a dispute . rightly explained by Tooke from AS. creak. tegere. and in It. Swiss. gnash. capital.' Boccaccio in Diez. talking. cabildo. carmen. to converse. for the same reason rosario. siarad (pronounced — sharad). 2. cearcian. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. — spell. chirriar. It. a garland of roses. Lith. used in the sense of magic Fl. dear(in both senses). a mark of a mountebank. ghirlanda seor garland. Lat. chirlar. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. A weed among com AS. to dove . a The OFr. cerran. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Chaplet. seems to be derived charade. Chapter. charger. corona. gaggle . w. schreien. to tattle. Inst. from capa. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. to . a riddle. chatter. Lat. karout. ciarlatore. charitas. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. Du. An enchantment. ject).Lat. capellare. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. it is my turn. To Char. in turns.. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. Chirk. Lat. Mundart. Yx. from gadai. The G. dear. chatter. occasional turn. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. from capitulum. charer. twist. carricare. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. hiss Lith. hadka. turn about. chapitre. bler. decken. Sup. chapel. charge an enemy is to lay on. to charcoal. affection. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. Chark. in To ness Charity. It. Mid. to turn. 370. to prattle. Charlatan. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head.whirr. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. cam. . And it can hardly be doubted Dief.

Chat. Fl. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). Du. To talk. Cot. kippen. speak . letters p. karg. chit in the latter sense Du. clack.house. — — . nommer. a young man . kastaa. From carinen was formed It. pure. csacsogany. It t. or pop. chair. geug. ferire. racket . carmen is presented in AS. So in Gael.— Chit. a branch and a young female. blackthorn-chats. the noise of birds. csatora (Magy. to talk. parcus. See Card. crackle. —Jam. enchasser. gazeuiller. Diez. make a noise as birds do. czysty. It. is to represent the chamier. Fr. gazzolare. chikat'. as from nomen It. . warble. as. See Catch. Pm. a churchyard or charnel-house. gazzerare. Chat-wood. used to represent a sharp note. gaddc. a gap. Malay. It. To chitter or chipper. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. careful. clear. To chip is then to crack. Russ. chits. In like manner Russ. — Hal. CHATS fit 143 to name. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. from xoAn. Parallel with E. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. shout OE. germinate . Fr. — Yorkshire chat. whistle. chit. flesh. chatter. To work plate as silversmiths do. from purus. —Bailey. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. Kil. or suckers on rough borders. as purgare Fr. To chit. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. — sharp sound of a crack. snap. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. To Chase. Hal. %aafi. niggardly. sordidus. gallan or ogan. to cry as a chicken .ppen. clean. — The . Fr. or the cry of a bird or the like. See Cistern. chykkyn (Pr. chip. It. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. OE. converse. to baptize. chip. root of the Lat. to enchase it .a. the cry of the bat. the bird is iiown. tittle-tattle. gadu-gadu. tenax. csaterdzni. charmer. to wet. csacsogni. occasionally Forby. Chart. from pure. castus. an enchantress. chary. Chamel. clean. s. or a bird out of the egg. To Chase. schioppare. xi'i-'^vui. little sticks cudere. Magy. a twig Suffolk chaits. to gape. carme and Fr. fragments or leavings of food. To Chasten. the young shoots . warble. pure. jackdaw . Chaste. clean. Fr. a crack or a flaw . to crack. pure. scraps of for fuel. to set a jewel. a flock of those birds. — Fr. splinters. a chatter-box. carnisj bones kept. i. nome and . to separate in morsels. to which it bears the same relation as chape. castus. —Charter. — We ornamental work the to signify E. ch&tier. V. a shrine for a relic. kna. chisf. to chirp. An imitative word. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. to burst open. Lat. to crack. kata-kata. knatiern. limpid. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. to cut and faggoted. cs E. to care). chaste. also to hatch. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. noise. a plate of metal. to make a noise. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. chaste. as we speak of olive branches.). chit-chat. . to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. as turnip-chaits. to clap. the calix of a rose. Gr. be wide open. charm. discourse. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. clap. Cot. Lat castigare. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. to chirp as a bird to cheep. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. gazzettare. Pol. Kil. cearig (from cearian. D. Chasm. chick. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. Chary. clatter. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . ch). chip. —Chastise. prate. — = Chats. also to germinate or spring forth. Fl. incassare. a word. shivers. The egg is chipped. gazzogliare.). a yawning. the handle of a razor . magpie. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. Pol. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. a branch. eclats. chat. talk. talk much . to chatter or prattle . caro. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. noise. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir.— Chatter. — Palsgrave. kata. B. G. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. in Jam. la chasse d'une rose. knacken. to chirp. whence a charm of goldfinches.. prattle. also a youth. cassa s. as in the E. karigh. g. cyrm. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. chick. fragments. It. or equivalent forms.

Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. upon a checked cloth. hawkmann. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. visage. horse-couper. kaupa.—Choke. — To check an account. chear in the sense of victuals. Fin. cattle. Hence to cheat. are represented piti. the face.— . chiere. chop. . Then. See Cheek. chapman.-^. countenance.. sum in a loan.— Chaps.kakot. to . kak. a piece of moveable property. cera. jaw. and. kok. e. koopen. frown. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere.of the throat in coughing. the Lat. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. ceap. Bav. chavylbone or chawlbone. a canting knave. Pm. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. which is the word in ceap. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. kaufen. gig. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. force of the word. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. equiva. kakkaset. See Chess. kikottaa. to laugh. Sc. agreeing upon. OFr. Sp. to clear the throat . Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. the principal ' colloquial E. cozener. syllables ^ag-. Ingulphus. Pr. giggling. a willing look and unwilling heart. to nauseate (to retch). — We ' . lead to OE. 144 the It. to act as a rogue. to — . a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. et juxta catalla sua. with Dief. to buy. retching. Chattels. Ek dry and hard. kaupon. snout. to cluck like a hen. to negotiate. any cheating. goods. whence captale. in Fr. citello. laughing. The gutGoth. Fr. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. It. &c. . tradesman. Soc.. farm for farm.. sale.— Cattle. exAS. kichen. price. Cam. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. chatal. cita. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. CHEEK zitella. chuckle. goods. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. society. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. a dealer in horses. with the exception of land. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . It — Brompton in Due. Faire bonne chire. Du. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. aspect of a man. teeth . Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. to coff—Yisi.' kezen. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. Chear. jaws. chatel. CHATTELS has ciio. to buy. — — —Chowl. choule. Cot. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. kaupiti. to make inarticulate sounds in . to vomit. in widely separated languages by the Lat. cattle. which is used in the to stutter. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. Modern Slang. from Lat. thers. sense of bargaining. to coup s. . stuttering. caupo. OFr. It. catalliim. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. giving or taking in exchange. stuttering. KaviiXog. from AS. entertainment. ceahhetan. bon marche. kek. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. cara. kakaista. a cheater. and hence the E. to fetch the breath with difficulty. changing. ceaflas. Gr.' to exchange to gasp. kauf. to chop and change. 'li^'opa jord i jord. lower. Chew. ceafl. Slav. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. sob E. Cheek. prattlingchete. Pro v.ing. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. gagkezen. to deal ON. look. us. . gagkern. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. a dealer. truffa. the Confessor. Lat. kik. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. welcome heartily. s. Hal. NE. keck. Check. favour. cheeks. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Bohem. cattle. Fl. a rogue or person who used the canting language. a young boy or girl. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. cachinnari. mandibula. Fr. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. the tongue. G.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. entertain kindly. a tavern-keeper. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. to cough and hence either buying or selling. the countenance Fr. ku. dchec. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. capitale. to swap goods . to stutter gigken.— Chole. chire. while it Bret. a repulse. Cheat. . chaptel.

e. AS. Chess. czypti. E. kok. Cherry. for cheese itself. kistej Lat. quoka. Jam.their struggle for independence. The name of creak as shoes. rennet. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. jaw. cheeks. rafters in heraldry. by laying it in come to an agreement with. geagl. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. G. gap. kasiiUPr. giffle. Da. Fr. ca' — . To make a shrill noise Chest. Fr. subsequently corflesh about the jaws .koppen. jaws Sw. From them the plish. Tutschek. kdke. squeak as a mouse. cufd. To Cheep. to swallow. Fr. king). accomplishment cayed. whence czypulas. Cher. frame by which the exertion is made. geafl. chAtaigne. An imitative word. subjected to this process with that which the throat .. Prov. X'C&s. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. kaecke. Hence chesten-nut. ceocian. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. throat. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. cabiron. cerasus. Pm. — — . ceg. . cheek. as. caws. ceaflas. castaneusj Fr. kjcebe. to choke with laughter. Thus "we are brought din. schach. throat. subacidus. a rafter . then end. skratt. jouffle.' to w. gous forms are G. make an end. jaw. chaps. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. to make a noise different word. N. old bread. cabrio. chevir. achever. Sw. chops. rupted into chess. to year. nish source. w. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. caru.Xo belch. ation. to prevent the attack of cavalry. The Sw. veluti piscium. — — . schach. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. chesten. Sp.pose of acidifying them kasadr. AS. Chef. gill of fish AS. practice seems to have been communiChevron. to belch. kdkel. cerise j G. chasi. treat with affection. to geahl. Chemistry. Sp. rattle in the throat. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. gaghel. (Kil. caseus. Analo. CHE. . chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. kastr. kjakje. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. incaseatus. to kep. E. Sc. Prothroat of an animal . Chevisance. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. to bring to an end. suffo. &c. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Fris. the The use of the word kcesir. Du. As the board to gasp i. jaws. mouth kek. kesten. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. w. See Alchemy. carnium.). Lith. Fr. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. Lat. Pl. cese. to heap up such things for the purchoke. Chevaux de frise. Kil. scacco. It would Cheese. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. kirsche. OHG. food. xaque. kastanie. — 10 . . Du. things Da. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. cherir. to kasa.G. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. quok. Achievement. F*-. AS. hasten. the loose the game of checks.. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. . the hke.EP CHEVRON 145 on. cheken. /Ji2^/(W. condition of being taken. Fin.D. dear. cheek. ichec. by laying up in a covered heap. kces.perly head. whence kasa-leipa. to accomThis they call hdrsk. cough. the mouth. jaw . made rancid koka. Fr. cista.peep in the same sense. w. as meat and butter.cirieggia. equal squares of opposite colours. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. Cherish. . chops.D. to boken. the throat. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. a chicken. chests in OE. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. G. to gasp. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. to gape gab. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. dersen . Lat. the final guttural is retained in writing. kapen. — — . cams. chevron. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. kjceve. Lith. jowl. In these latter forms we see the transIt. E. cegio. like a young chicken. Sc. ceaplas. takes place in the formation of cheese. cyse. the neck. Lat. to choke. acquisition. kasa. It. kopen. gabe. gullet. prevail with. Sw. to love. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. ceac. E. a heap. Chekenyd or querkenyd. Lat. ON. kikna of dorum coacervatio. mollium congeries. kikna. cisty G. cireggia. cheek. See Case. the palate Chequer. a cricket. ost. gapen. to hold dear. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. clear the throat. See Chess. chiffe.

chillar. to raise the rim. chicaner. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. kauwe. E.. E. caferu. cabriones. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. rafter. kuwe. Sp. to twitter. and not vice versd.. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Da. Payer chiguet A chiguet. To Chide. chiler. Palsgr. chillness or shivering. knirschen. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. Chick. jaw. chavel. Probably from Fr. chol. ]). to chirp or peep like a chicken. ultimate origin of the Mite. chaps. kilderkin. from the second Lat. Pl. G. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. then cold. to gasp for breath (Hal. Child. pipe. also the horizon. De finger killet mi for kalte. term is ssaru fu. hiss as meat on the gridiron. the rim or edge of a vase. Du. Fr. pip. caprioru. the young of animals in general. czypulas.^ to resound as a bell. Now gan some courage unto him to take. kippa. chill. tiukkata. Fl. a jaw. chavel. choule. CHEW . knarren.-ill. kieken. from little to little. lead through the synonymous E. Du. 'Among these the G. creak. capo. 146 brial. cib. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . when the vibrations become very rapid. in Walach. cild. acute. Lat. a hen. rafter . cheek. De chic en chic. knit the brow cib-led. into a continuous shriU sound. to contest about trifles. keichen. a cup. has probably the same origin. . to contest. kouwe. AS. Pr. Chimb. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. twitter. horn wood. kimista^ . Pm. jaw. beam. and from the third E. Chill. tiukkua. Fin. G. tremble. the same principle I regard On birds. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. — Fin. Gattel. . branchy. tiukka. chieftain. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. a young bird. stake. Prov.peep. Chief. a little bit. deer's horn. a small cask OFr. E. gosling. quivering sound which passes. a chicken. machouere. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. are formed Du. See Chimmer. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. A To Chew. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. cica cica. head. captain.— Gattel. a finch. to go. to chime. Brezza. To chitter. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. s. ' . chin. The loss of the syllable it in Du. then as G. kaau•wen. — Du. pole. — . but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. Fr. a quid of tobacco. to titter is Du. It. chikat'. kopf Du. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. klagend tonen. to crackle. mouth. kauchen. — — Mother Hubbard. the throat. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. chef. as pointing out the origin of the E. crepo. or qf people talking rapidly. mountain top . The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. Kil. grelot). strideo.. chew or chaw. to use the jaws. gills of a fish. pululo.. as. chicken. rafter . cabar beinne.' my finger tingles with cold. kimme. by driblets. chawbone. Chaw. w. Chitter. tyuk. Magy. pipio. or the broken noise of birds. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. or as E. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. from the first of which is Lith. antler. to scold. kinderen. kaw. while didder is to shiver or citteren. chillrar. pipio. the Ptg. kimia. Swiss kiden.^ Hal. capu. zitterti. For the see word Doit. kind. cabar. CHJME the radical form is unusual. to pettifog. cebr. chimb. cabarach. Fr. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. killen. Chigue.). kitista. the cry of young . kime. to smart. queror. cidan. W. Fin. chiquei. Imitative of a loud clear sound. the least imaginable jot. a chicken. the jole. Gael.D. tremble with cold. Pr. greloter is to shiver for cold. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Tintillo. horns of the house. cap. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. ach. Bret. The Pl. to Du. sonorous. Russ. k'imm s. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. to the brim. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird.— Cot.— . signifying properly shivering. a cup cibaw. a head. chic. Fl. to chew. pi. or chick. chicoter. Halm. Walach. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. kindeken. capete. — It. . Chime. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. : — a lump. tiuk. kibr. a chicken.D. Pm. while the Magy. And hence. Fin. alter. kop. the head. kauen. tintelen van koude. killen. caput. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. jaws . aner. a cup. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. kidata.

to murmur. as a bell kommata. czirszkti. Chat. Chitterling. skina. Chitter. To Chitter. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Chintz. quavering of the voice. Chimera. bone . to open chirriar. sound on beginning to boil. have been used to designate the spine. tschirpen. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. crepare. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. to chirp .schricken. sounding deep. Hindost. the chine. a fire-place. the cheek. komia. squittire. Fr. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. to chirre. ciseau (for cisel). KinneGr. sonus the backbone Lat. to chink. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. the cheek (jaw) . gen. cleft. schetteringe. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Chisel. chin . to creak. AS. kieck hoest. disCot. cinne. Fr. It. as birds the mouth. kumina. clipping of coin. fyr. Chink. eschin^e (de pore). all these imitative terms being minata. gena. to tremble. verynge or dyderinge. a szemrcU.). It. Chimney. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra.' Phaer's Virg. tremulous motion. Pm. It. to prattle czirpti. to simmer. G. a thorn. a surkik hosta. sound. flaw Hal.to divide or Du. Gower in Hal. . to sound deep or the Gr. name Then.iron. . vincially used in the sense of a crack. do. to prattle . G. cinan. which differ from each other only as Chirk. and light. Kil. hiss chirlar. clangor tinniens kummata. and bodily movement in shimm. yivtiov. pork) . ciarlare. schiena. Lith. a thorn. pare also Walach. plodere. — . We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. — . ter. to chine. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. See Chap. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. Chip.to chirp. ykvvQ. Chymerynge. spina. klincken. cisaille. companied. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. or chyFrigutus. to sizel. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. Ptg.. j^lf. komista. bx-eak the back of schena. as the/ is preserved tering. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. a chap.Huloet in Hal. Bav. Gascoigne in Todd. esquina. It. E. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . in the same crack. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. schrick. i. schina. from the geon's lancet. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. the jaw. In the same sense. cincel. tsengeni. et garrire .czirbti. caminata.Lat. The small entrails of a hog. Sw. chick. resonance . Sp. — — — — — . cisello. chits. rustle. as a large bell .sharp. Bret. are In like manner E. to chirp. then to any narrow crack or AS. Chin-coug^h. chirp. to squeak in It. a hall Mid. Pr. See Chats. Gloss. kink hoest. backBut she withal no worde may soune. zirken. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. quivering or shakyng for colde. chink. applied to tremulous motion. sparkle. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Sp. schetteren. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. to sound. the mouth (jaws) . To Chimmer. eschine. Du. as the chink of money. To chink with laughter. hollow. chhint. Chit. then of a fabulous monster part goat. tinnire. also vibrans. Primarily a shrill sound. a crowing sound in recovering breath. to tattle. to gape. dial. The change from the sound ter \s.. . killed by Bellerophon. representing connected together. 147 kimina. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Chyrme or chur. and from a similar sound to boil gently. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. keich husten. hus. — . spina. twitter caminus. chatter . Sp. and chim-mer. Caminatum. Fr. part lion. to chink with laugh2. kinne. cheminde. Fr. genawi. See Chark. backe. sonants. Du. kumista.er. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. fissure. A . Chine. E. epine. hiss Pm. and the Du. esquena. simmer. up and down. clashing of weapons. stridere. but or cry as a parrot. to creak. eschiner. . Chink-cough. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. — . tsongeni. cheek. To chirp or twitter. the jaw. Diez de. a Kuttn. See Bright. the whooping cough. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. zirpen. Cot. the chin . a chink or fissure. The desig. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . twinkling light. Lat. caperd. from Lat. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. caminsects. from 10 * ' Chia. in Hal. . Fr. It. genou (pi. Magy. Huloet. Sp. Prov.

chiffe. a rag. * To Choose. ent quarter. g'schochet voll. Chap. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. civette. by which they are Fr. Chives are also a kind of small onion. called cMtters in the N. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. chap hands. 19. to break off in small shive. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. okusyti. G. of E. Equivalents in the SlaFr. — Chock-full.' Verie coinme Cot. rare. schevel-steen. whence choleric. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. cepa. a blow.— B jag E. a ruff. 2. to prove. Swab. chife. kausjan.freze. chaup. a heap. word is more likely to be from Lat. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. — — — . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. to palpitate . and Vf. to clap up Hal. to try. schiefer. heaped measure. to tempt.D. Choice is probably direct from Fr. kiusan.. to exchange horses. Luc. OHG. krussyi. schoch. the inwards of an animal. a calf's chaldern of E. try. cive. Yr. G. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. taste. to taste.' At last he dwelt . a twittering. . Jam. The Sc. to taste. to taste. of an angry — — — ' ' — . developments of the same radical image. to taste. •- Russ. — See Cheek. and in this sense the * small pieces. . %o\ifa. As kushnuti. . Gr. skifa. &c. chibble. x^poc. ^euw. Warwickshire coff. propagated. crammed Choir.V)^x. disposition. ON. in the same language. signify to kiss. approve. seallion or unset leek. to Compare also Pol. also calPs. Fr. a scale or fragment P1. CHOP kros. it is probable that the root kus.ffrill. to shiver. scheve. to taste . Fr. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. choppe. specially with an application to theatrical performances. haslets. cut up into — See Chats. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. coro. Fr. all seem slate . coup. chock full. chorus. chimp. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. —Chorus. caperd. causir. a goose's giblets. Cavalry. . chceur. Body and Soul. gekrose. experience valerie. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly.vonic languages are Pol. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. ON. to ing is doubtless to taste.gust. Serv. Choleric. are used in the same sense. — Cholera. gusten. to try. pluck. the ridges prove. to chap at a door . and N. gdnse gekrose. Prov. whence Lat. full to overflowing. kaup. Schmid. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. wrath. to try . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. . and in kosten. Chives. an onion. gustare. pieces . from kraus. from %u\i). G. arkiusan. kushati. keypa. i. I. chawdron. . an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. to taste. Chivalry.. friller. select. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . to experience. a chive. to hack. kieser. curly . the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . as green as leeks. kushevati. the small parts of the roots of plants.ceosan. chatter. a fragment. to ^cleave . to try.yEuffM. prove. a young . cape. xiv. wkusit' prikushat. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. The I go to prove them. bile. kiesen. a wine taster. To Chop. Gr. shiver. a knight. kiezen. kiusan. a ruff or frill. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. to turn. ^S. See try. a small slice or slip of anything . kor6n. as with a blow. a company of singers or dancers. shoot . chives. . fresure. fine threads of flowers. Enn Sigridur sem ' . ruffs. then to try. to wrinkle. or original meaning is preserved in G. ments of the knightly class. try. &c. The . anger. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. keuren. choix. kbhren.' who shall not taste death. wein didder for cold. cke. Choice. lead us on to Lat. kusid. Chuck-full. chippe. from chevalier. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. Boh. kustigen. and It. then to shiver. to stop geschoppt voll. Gr. to strike hands . koren. to chap. Goth. by the vibrations of sound or motion. a calf's pluck or chaldron . To Choke. chattering. to choose. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. Swiss kust. kalbs gekrose. kruszki. The manners and senti. taste. full. Lat. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. Walach.

clat. caphatenus. cheviniau.. Du. 4.' Jam. klopper. . Fr. cob. Alchemist. a bullhead. of which such strings are made. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. merchant. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. who took in the Turk- clack. Fr. ley in Giiford. syllables chat. dial. gull. Chronicle. dial. capita. an offence against the fitness of times. Gr. to chatter. whence — E. one who buys and sells horses or cows. choucas. cauvette j Fr. Fr. — Dief. chrysalis (Plin. claquer. kaulhaupt (club-head. ON. cheap. E.• — . chop. — Quabbe. kolbe (club). kaej Lith. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. to clack. to overturn. thumb Fl. kauwe. Sw. monedula. chapin. 49. Chord. connected with G. short piece kubbug. quappe. time ra . clogs. A fish with a thick snout and head. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. chroniques. See Change. traffic. we find the following passage Dap. a stump. for to defraud. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. chack. Chough. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. A jackdaw. chouette. a The What dhy ^. whence e. To Chouse. slipper . — . What do you think of me.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. caqueter. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. whence the Fr. kubbr. the string of a musical instrument originally. Fr. a lump or piece chump. Fr. as Du. Wall. Madam. fat. E. OE. a messenger or envoy. — Chrisom. In the Alchemist. chevane. I bring you the Cloughs. in i6io. e. ceo.). Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. To coup. AS. chapma?i. kaufen. sent before him a Chiaus. capitanus. a small fish with a large head. The Turk was here As one should say. Picard. koppe. prattle .). happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. Gr. dealing. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . Kil. That Face. cambiare. Chub. the intestine of an animal. a trafficker in souls. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. P. xftovoq.\^s. gobio capitatus. chevane. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. E. Marin. bearand aits. capito. and we actually find champman for chapman. ' ' What's that? Dap. plump. cow-couper. E. forms are Chrism.—Chuokstone. chouquette. kubb.— Chevin. Chopino. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. Nominale in Nat. cauc. a thick piece. Come. chatter . Peace. to speak thieves' slang. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. caker. Du. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. gull. In Sc. the same word with the It. klompe. XpvaaXic.— Landnamabok. G. Chrysalis. in Chaucer. chronicles. peace. as in Fr. Gr. because she would not endure this husband chopping. gold. Cot. to strike in the hand. cresmeau. chuet. chevin. chub. to turn over. kowe. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. Gr. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. Chuck. that will thank chiaus — you richly.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Anachronism. to cant. p. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. cangiare. See Chaff. noble Doctor. thick-set. or miller's kaycke . chapineria. yiSA. the teeth to chatter . civetta. -chron-. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. high clog.sohola. Jam. whence apparently the Sup. i. Borgoens happen. by the Robert Shirley. shop where clogs and pattens are sold.X. equivalent to the E. xop5>}. &c. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened.povucd. kaw. — — — . Sp. chrisme.(. . From the Turkish Chiaus. Ant. If I discover. which was written 27. e. to knock. xpi'^lia. To Chop logick. Confounded with the bullhead. kobe. overset.. capitone. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. applied to an owl in that language. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. soul-couper. Lat. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. kowej Sax. from kloppen. cavena. —Shakespeare. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed.

a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Chunk. It is certain. fat-cheeked. kern. in the face.. . a lump. but by way of explan. ON. Wall. Diss. a man. pp. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Aasen. Fris. chife. to turn from blossom to fruit. set kerti. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . ashes. to separate the kernel of the milk. corresponding term should have made its way among to G.rendered by Kil. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. ceffore. as in E. Hence -cid-. to sparkle. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. to him a sudden blow. Du. as Fr. jaws. chofe (Grandgagnage). ON. as Epkema explains it. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. domhnach. a douse on the tores. thence a belt. to determine incision. Sw. x^^i?. comp. e. to churn. ccedo. Gothic nations. Sc. casum (in comp. lamak. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. dial. . kakka. cinders used disjunctively. The spelling of chider has Chump. kiorne. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. a pebble . chakil. sindel. Cieling. or choice part of a thing . &c. AS. a fellow. to make a rippling noise.for the residue of stone coal. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. have given rise. -cisuiri). sinter. a cutting round. Gr. as water running over rocks or stones. . chack-stone. Cob. accido. to fall. i.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. we have to chack. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. -cide-. to make a aiKipa. KaxXij?. cado. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. a pebble. ciuffo. chack or stane-chacker. Du. ceorl. a man. Lat.' he adds. -cis-. -cido. sindra. from Lat. in Sc. whence deciduous (of trees). e. ON. chuffy.— Chu%. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. joufflu. from Lat. Fr.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. cinis. a husband.V//a'6'?. karl. kjami. blow on the I io6 in Mur. countryman. dust. cendre. pith. See Cheek. sicera. swollen or puffed up Cot. to fall upon decide. the kernel. Lat. Jennings. G. to fall at or on. Ka-^aiva. giffle. kaerle. The derivation from Kvpiasov. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. . to To Chuckle. calx. As AS. the snout of an animal. cheeks Cincture. to throw out sparks. spuma metalli. Cider. ceaplas. — of the two words. 24. a girding on. however. kernjen. flower. ladre from Lazare. Probably from It. with It the Lord's house. cinctus. . — . residue of burnt coals. Gr. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. In Sc. Da. male person.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. a miser. as a board. chofu. Lat. in circumcision. . Chuff. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. to form grains of butter. Cleland in Jam. scoria. * Cinder.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. so as to make the happen . surly. chaps. See Cheek. -cise. has been impugned which it has really no connection. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. to gird. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). ChurL husbandman. Sicerawry face ceffata. to jaw chack or snap. geaflas. tindra. Church.^. tie about). C^z^j^ churHsh. sindr. — — A — ' ' — . whence church. kirna. G. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. whence ON. then the on oh StX iv roXt. an old man. ceaflas. &c. chops. To chuck in the fall from. kerl. i. a cutting an old chuff. incido. gffe. ceffo. klakka. Churn. Fr. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. See Ceiling. The origin ation. OFr. -eris. or. calculus. log of wood. Wall. cheek. cinctura {cingo.' And cold. joffu. sintel. a resounding object. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. sive piratiam facere sciant. to strike clatter. to cause the milk to grain. Du. to Newsp.— . cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. to cut decide. Lat. cidre.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden.D. a man. marrow. AS. that the word is an adoption of Fr. KvptaKolg. Ir. cut off. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . and thence an ugly face far ceffo. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). a rustic .

Lat. clatCot. to summon or call on. Circum-. excite. The notion of a lump. claquet de moulin. Fr. lash . From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. G. . or clap-dish. kluV. It. Cite. cisterna. accordingly find the roots dab. klubb. rattle. to mention. a shoot. compared with It. empty Golius. claquer. to call. a lump Lat. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. and Sp. klamp. cluster. vociferation. bunch. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. glambar. The syllables clap. Sp. See Circle. Chaste. klopati. klemte. citrus. clambar.— . to be empty. cieo. Lat. clat. a ring. clack-box. and E. * Cistern. fall. clamare. a Pol. In Fr. Du. G. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. radical identity of the Fr. to chatter. Recite. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. sindri. the place of . to set in motion by means of the voice. of citta. E. belonging to cities or social life . ON. lump. a reservoir Probably from Lat. gutter. a for water. clap. —Circuit. cifra. Mack. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). clangor avium . the door was slammed J slamem. CION See Tinder. a loud uksa slamketi. clamp. a mass. a cistern. or split with noise. a rattle Fr. cito. a circle. cion. klater-busse. To Claim. . lump. sajira. rattle . ring. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. parallel root is slam. a whip. tinnitus . ruin. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. is traced by Gr. clump. clapper. Du. City. It. Bohem. circ2tlus. may cite w. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . twig. clasp. sound of blow. cista. We . Circle. -cis-. a lemon tree. to cry out. ter. a split. Gael. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. clapping of klacke. scion. Scion. to appeal. a Lat. klammer. lucerna. glam. — (Dozy) ing blow. lump . Lat. klap. to call. cittade. whence cistiti. clamras.' sione. in the frequentative form. circle. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. Fr. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. cry out . —Civil. So a light. to call by name. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. Du. klambr. a city. around. dob. . ern. and clash. 'mass. Dan. clamer. a whirlwind. as in Sp. crack. lump. civitas. * Ciplier. sphere gleba. city. creak les dents. Gr. to knock. Lat. chatter . chijfre. klompe. to bawl. to make to go. . ON. klak. uproar. with an initial s instead of c. to clap at a theatre. to gnash the teeth. crack. Citron. clack. to clack. klappe. as. a young and tender plant. glamm. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. a judgment cern. a hiding-place. Clam. area. outcry. Cot. Clump. See Crankle. . a circle. Sw. Arab. clog. to chatter. Gr. Hal. a block. klekotati. clobyn. -cite. clot ON. Fr. Lap. lump. a knob.. crack. cittd. Hence Incite. Dan. cittadella. a. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Clamp. circum. The Gr. sound. a circle. to clatter. From Arab. klacke-busse. to cluck. ball kloben. cit^. noise. ciste. clack. dim. cisterna. clamp. Lat. a citizen . kringr. . E. Lat. civis. forms — — — parent plant. Comp. sound- — hands figures. a clod Russ. &c. slam. KpiKoe. suck). a lump Du. cion. castus). klepati. chupon. about. circum. for Cion. cry. a kind of pipe. noise — — a cistern. smack.to suck. trunk. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. to toll . a ball. a rattle . chest. Gael. clap. klimp. sip. klabb. biw. . around. ON. a'upiav. a ball. kringla. to cleanse. from chupar. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. KipKog. citujn. Lat. hringr. a block. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. See -cid-. klqb. log. wasserkasten (water chest). klateren. the tongue. It. as caverna from cavus. to go. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. claim. globus. to chatter . . a city. We . a kind of rattle. a cleansing place. scion or sucker. Citadel. sifr. W. klappen. mass . prattle. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. a boss . . Fr. claquer crash. Alt. . prattle. klump. chupon. claquer. clack-dish. babble . to strike. or quill to draw waier through Fl. civilis. a pop-gun. bunch . sprig. domern. and. Excite. Sw. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . klacken. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. klumbr. a clod. lump of wood or with the nasal. circa. To Clack. a place See place hiddern. . stimulate.

An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. klam7n. kleppe. to clamp. Russ. A i. children. Clan. klammer. gum. a loud tingle. a claw . kleben. to climb . rattle. knocking. clajnmy. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . klemmen. klampen. in a hidSen place. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. to knock. klappre. dang. dial. dam. dandestinus. klemmen. cramp-iron. klamm. klemmen. clammy brace. the in many languages. compress. Swiss kletten. clibby. to Sw^. a sound made by a still . a noose . E. to clutch or cling oneself up. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. klamre. dia.p correspond- ' without order.' to take coals to Newcastle. klynge. Clapper. to cling. dem. rumour. dink Du. hook. — . Dan. of money Gael. pinching. prison. klatten. cramp. Swiss kldbem. chatter. who occuG. take hold of. klank. G. In like manner Du. clamber. . with cramp-irons. seize.er. See Clam. G. dank. kleppen. buckle klamp. klepel. to beat. to claw oneself up. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. accent. a craCmp. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. Sw. cleave. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. to clap. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . compression. substances of a stickydam. chief. clann. offspring. OE. a heap of stones. Clank. bandage. to. Halma. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. celo produces Fin. diver. for tame conies. Bohem. klibber. Clap. ancestor.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. ring as metal. to climb. klippe. klang. dee. to hook things together. to Hal. cling. kleppe. gripe. clapas. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. dienklebber. Fr. chatter. hands or claws to grasp. tenacious. uproar. also to clog up. Dan. damor. coagulated cream. Salainen. strait. These are imitations of a loud. clear sound. to climb. Bav. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to seize. privately. to hold fast with the . . to climb. — — . Clamp. dren. grasp. dapier. Du. and that from celo. The E. to stick or glue. klepanie. . B. sound . clap. &c. club . clink. bond. a rattle . Mampe. brawl. klimmeii. salaan. solid. klebern. but perhaps not directly from it. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones.. dapi^. and hence moist. — Lat. where- A — unto they retire themselves. narrow. damras. Clink. dap up. klam. of which the locative case. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. — with hunger. strain . to hide. G. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. a bird of prey. holdfast. klynge sig op. clandestine. . AS. klavre. Du. scendants. and hence to pinch . gliong. nature . c). of the children. to knock. sound. klappen. — Cot. G. dapier. G. to glue.' klibba. run to lumps Clandestine. is a nasalised form of gripper. klubber. a stone See Claim. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. kluppel. to daub pinch. tattle. grimper. massy. a sound made by a lighter clink. klem-vogel. is used in the sense of secretly. klamme. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. pressed close or hard together. Lat. Hence the Fr. salafa. E. clasp. conceal. Clang. closely analogous to that of the fast. dial. Clamour. whence sala. a stick. The equivalent of Lat. to cleave or stick. to patronus. E. apprehend . sticky Hal. a claw. to glue. klammern. viscous. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. . to clap on. Du. from the w. dam. or klamp-vogel. adopted Lat. to stick conceal. Lang. daver. kloben. To clap in E. The root which gives rise to klibb. descendants . tinkle. clap. clang. tremble . from birdlime. to hold to pinch. clav\f. glambar. klettern. to do anything with a clap. clangor. beat. klopfen. sound of the trumpet . to starve. G.1. . tingle. crowd . viscosity . klepati. sound object . Dan. klobber-saen. a hawk. klappen. cream Manx doan. to gingle. contraction. a heap of stones or other things piled up . Gael. yf. To Clamber. a burr. a trap. Dan. To sticky. stick. a sound. tight. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. to pinch. hold. These words To are closely connected with damp. to climb. ney. to climb. anything hidden. G. tone. as the clapping of hands. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. B. as the Lat. to dame. a whip. resonance klingen. klette. E. cluster. Du. The Fr. dam immediate modifications — . clapper of conies. dientes. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. dambar. a place underground where rabbits breed. — Climb. beating. children. dam. originally a heap of large stones. sound.

Thus from Lat. klaterbusse. Prov. klatschen. fragor . Clash. — Clarion. But clasp or elapse. flap. a water made of aquavitse. chiarino. Nawith stavis. is preserved in Lang. an ending. and through v into a. — tells us. ansa. clarinado. ictus resonans. kleuen. klc^i. Du. Clatter. mass. clausum. cinnamon. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. G. a key KKtitid. applied in their harness. a claFr. as it is written by Chaucer. Eya-klasi. klampe.It. chasguear. classis. Nightingale. In E. &c. also a knell for the dead. klouwe. Owl and that by which cleave to. to cleave. klijven. claret win e.— CLARET clamp. a lump. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. kluczka. e. uproar. clairon of a trumpet— It. to fasten together . a buckle. Lang. and old red rose-water. to draw it up into a bunch. Commonly made. a bunch. to patter. klampvoghel. ghespe. Lat. buckle. a bird with powerful talons. stop of an organ. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. assembly. a little hook . So Pol. From clairet. Originally clasis. clopa. klatscha pop-gun. pellet . clausula. Fr. Kil. subrubidum. To clew. the primary origin clapa. i. a ball. whence kleuer. biichse. Lat. Claret. a clod. he of white and red grapes mingled together.w or u on the other. kletse. forms are the Du. nawith stanis. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Clavicle.oi. clavus.to cra. hawk. clairon. in the sense of a mass or lump. Cot.Gr. a key. to shut.Z. clamp. klot. klaskad. pet. klatschen. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. a heap. Du. somewhat clear. klaeret. a claw. from clinging to the tree which supports it. sphaera. kleeven. a. rubellum. — Clarinet. Pol. a lump . In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. klaequivalent to clack or clap. to clap . of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Du. sauna de classes. chiaro clear. thence a definite head of an edict or law. Thus from clamp. a distribution of things into groups. to rattle . E. bawling. dap. In the same way is formed the OE. . to ring in such a manner for the dead. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. and shrill-sounding trumpet. biichse. a club or massy stick. ivy. sound of the foregoing description. claw (what fastens together. Clew. in the sense of a claw. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. thwack . to fasten. vin claret. an on the one hand. Dan. same class with w. chiarello. glcis. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. crying. Lat. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. waU. Russ. climp. skeria-klasi. Sp. —Kil. from the resemblance to a key. a complete sentence. globus. contraction. a kind of small. Identical with ON. teren. Wyutoun in Jam. schnalle. K\a. hook. clump. nail. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition.). compression. clew. klauw. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. Clause. fracas. from scknallen. It. to clash as arms. klauwe. as Mod. a sphere . puUs. Du. Fr. Sw. Lat. Fr. a clasp. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. and clavis. to do anything with a . klase. fibula. clatter. klos. clas. Gr. globus.ck a whip. Mask ! plask ! thwick. from its use in fastening things together. clarin. KXeiSi. clair. chiizjj-o. klamme. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. to snap. .. The collar-bone. &c. row aii/iaTos. klucz. klouwe (Kil. to knock. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up.\x\xvn. vinum helvolum. Du. seizes) . mass. syrtium junctura. a key origmally a crooked nail. It. gaspe. or as G. rion. locket of a door. is used in Sc. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. a lash. a. Class. under three modifications dava. blab. cluster. kiosk bicza. From claudo. to animals Sp. with a reddish tint. The form clew. Du. noise. chatter. clew or fasten upon a thing. klatsche. it is called clamming. Analogous Jam. The b readily passes into gleba. Claw. we pass to the E. the collar-bone. to end. Serv . a nail. insularum nexus . Klatsch- a pop-gun . vin clairet. diver. straight-mouthed. which signifies a ball in E. Eau clairette. the cracking of a whip. 269. clavis. — Kiittner. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. Rayn. as G. Clasp. cloi.

pure. clay . smooth. to fasten E. to clink or sound. to fasten. klink. The word is . diquetcr. (Cot. a mass. kluft. clean. to shine. glitta. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. together . And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. clemens. kloben. to Brilliant. kluftholz. From dob. Sw. Clear. calm. bend in a stream. Lat. clean. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. glor-mhor. clash. to chink. klinke. glent. and E. the original . clink. date is AS. . This is probably one of the clean. E. klirre.— . or from being divided into two parts. kluit. kloben. opposite senses. klincke. cleave. klijveii. klinke. Du. B. to shine . Clinch. viz. and Dan. an object is simply cleft. polish . a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. Probably a modification of the word doitt. to clench. clear. seem formed dial. famous. G. G. ON. pretty. kleverig. doff. Kil. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. Sw.— Clag. dag. klinken. klieben. a mass. nitidus. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. . Wilbraham. kldnkelein. gingle. a clincher. Du. clear. gleit. 2. a one end. glbr. glance . a noose. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. a fissure or division See Cleave. Cleat. klieuen. holding together. bright. See Clog. E. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. is fast and sure. bogs cous.' was nailed to a rock. Fr. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. merciful. to stick or adhere . and Celtic glan. dags. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. hook. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. to clinch GB. as explained under G. celebrated . the fork of the body. gentle. to fasten. to stick to. Lat. Clean. kloben. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. G. — : A rivet. a plate. viz. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. deot. klag. . to separate into parts. to glitter. as Fr. shine. kloue. the two parts of Du. klinka. klor. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. sticky earth. glatt. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. to 2. AS. dut. river. as ON. klov. kleevig. polished. pure. Die zaak is zS. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. cloven wood. to clinch a nail. clear. klutsch. Sc. klyft. kleg. The Dan. A — A Clement. a in that of sphtting. Halma. klceg. from nitere. pure . rive. G. glbram. a — — . voice. Cleft. Sw. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . glint. Du. Gael. G. Sc. either by the coherence To Clepe. klinken. The proper meaning of the word is shining. loam. to dag ox dog. to cleave. . or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. Bav. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. a noise. klirren. Thus from G. a claw or talon. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. Da. clean. . as the Du. kla:g. the latch of a door. Du. vice. klafwa. lump. door-latch. i. Du. sticky. danche. clibby. klove The Dan. dams. neat. Mar. From clap. a cleft. provinciaUy termed dout. See Clam. klinke. Da. daggy. conserere antklankjan. cliquet. klank. found in other cases. to tear or cleave asunder. chaps in the skin. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. a cleft or fissure. dench.). kleben. klinken. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. Dan. sticky . To Clench. neat.Q. glan. geklonken. split. To call. as Lat. Clay. or of a tree. that was Torriano. This word is used in two business is finished off. E. ON. glorious. explained from the klinken. pellet. a fissure. gaklankjan. Du. splendid pohshed. glindse. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . a key. a flash. Da. 154 CLAY dutch. sleek. kluyte. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . of iron worn on shoes by country people. glan. from diquer. in two ways. radiant. tongs. rift. Omklinken. that was a striking proof. dinquet kleeven. klouen. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. W. vissticky . glandse. glitnir.— Claggy. speech . give a shrill sound Jr. klouen. to sound or make a noise . dial. from the clinking of the latch. . glan. a lump. clout. ON. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. mud. doggy. dedgy. clean. to be composed. kleg. The word may be — . a lump. it cleave together. rivet. Axletree clouts. a cleft. the To Cleave. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. Clemency. a latch. and. a bunch of When flax). words applicable sight.

Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. See AS. Clew. neither as having lordship in the. chatter. kliv. chatter. a precipice. klippe. pulsare. Klover i munden. Clever. Dunbar in Jam. a hook. IS5 Du. agile. Norm. crackle. clep. ized . a cleft in a rock . a clerk . The Sc. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . rugged ascent. on. a lot. Sc. to confess . clack. on. or Sc. abrupta rupes . with hamarskard. Climb. to tattle. deuch. call. scar. littus. CLERK sound of a blow. corresponding to the Sc. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. region not observe it. above the pole.— Clue. cleugh. &c. a claw or clutch. a lazar's clicket or clapper. deuck. a clew. AS. G. rapidus from rapio. seize (Hal. CLINCH De . ready of speech. cliquer. Cot. cliff. derigon. cleke. 3. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. to catch. to sound an alarm to clap. dexterous. to rattle. one of the clergy. Bav.' ii. from Gael glac. cliquet. a hump. Now the OE. to cry. that is a clever feUow. We movement catch. clyf. one admitted to the tonsure. as Lat. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. skard. cautes. a baU of yarn. The origin is the Gr. Lat. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . to talk as a parrot. clypian. dever. which is used in Scotch and N. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. . 3. .. klika. klinke. dicher. Somner. kloof. expeditious. Clergy. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. to catch. Fr. a sphere. dial. klif. click. Happen. call. a ladder. a clicket or clapper. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. dob. klever.). derjon. klaiv. snatch. Cliff. clever. klikklakken. the knocker of a door. Du. dichet. precipices. it must be observed. dink. deudi. quick in motion. dough. Rouchi cliche. an inclination. glomus. a latch. rock. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. from clifian. chat.Lat. In I Peter v. But the Dan. to stir. Det er en Mover kerl. e. which in Mid. Jam. declivity. klikker. dial. Du. and (with the nasal) — clincher. to seize. Client. dutch). a figure mentioned.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. kleppen. slope . to prate. diofian. quick of perception. klev. to tattle. Boh. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. or an object character- Clerical. Click. cleft in a rock. cave . See Clench. as from derido. a latch . a cliff. climate. Da. — — A . KkrifoQ. speak. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). cleft.dergie! Wiclif in R. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. duke. is NE. cleopian. claw or talon to dek or deik. a mill-clack . babble. precipice. Climax. click. click. exactly Gr. diver.— Clicket. —Vocab. clatter. Sp. click it. a trigger. crepare. dook (identical with E. dergi. lively. clif- stanas. a latch. name. had a form. and hence climate. OE. whence Fr. what so men clappe or crie. frap- per rudement une personne. -Toe (from KXivm. klippe. Claw. to wink. Commonly derived from deliver. dial. . Gr. syn. to teU tales. a lump. hamraklif. de ripa. to cleave. derecia. clap. to clack. derigo. G. crack. Hence Lat. See Clamber. rock. in precisely the same sense as the E. Climate. would have been derida. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. light-fingered. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. icXi/ja?. a hold. rupes . catching. pen. in rhetoric. verge). — have the notion of a short quick in E. klok klep- crepitare. klouwe. klaffen. sonare. ginally from dob (extant in W. deik.) Brai. Clam. stein- kluppen. the clergy. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. as Sc. gleg. in the sense of active. to bend. Chaucer. has kl'dver. deik. the clergy clericus. cligner. duik. chatter. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. the dick of a latch or a trigger. a tumbril. klinge. dek. . cart that tilts over. clerus. a child's or clack . corresponding to Fr. clever. Lat. say. Sw. Lat. and hence deik. prattle. a ball of twine. klinket. clif. kleppe. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. /cXi'fia. cleft of a hill. has also deik. clima. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. highest is attained. Clerk. nimble. temperature. Du. as a click with the tongue. score7i clif. kliket. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. sink. globus. to move. diquette. cliof. d See Clan. ravine. to snatch.

club). to . knippe. clangere.— Clot. kolki-laud. to lean backwards. . . See Clang. G. Bi klik uti klak. to snip. kXiVu.. . clivus. Sussex peasant AS. klik. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. a bell. kima. to beat on the board. knippchen. — clot. kukla. hluccti. Kil. sloping upwards procUvis. Swiss klungele. klepalo. also to wink . cloche. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. to cluster. compress . Sw. incline. to snap kneipen. cochl. ON. a ball of thread . dial. Lat. or bagging clothes. klippur. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Du. Fr. to snap tongs.ginglej Fr. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. ' . klippa. dial. kluben. clino. Du. and a similar syllable without the /.' From Pl. klipa. E. and 'E. a tinman. klupen. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. a hood. to clap or clack. Lat. hluk. noise. glocke. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals.D. as thick or curdled liquids. to knock. klippen. knippen. difficulty . hooded . to crowd together klynge sig ved. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. S w. G. a lump of butter. . to wither. Sw. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. OHG. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. E. ring clag. See Cowl. hill . to shrink up. klunge. . G.D. To cut with shears. klocke. recline. especially of something soft or clammy. a separate portion. Sw. to cling to a thing. gUong. toga. to resound. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. globulus' (Gl. . dial. speaks of a ' clung bat. Cliofue. To Cling. 156 -cline.' for a dry stick.. Sw. G. — a mantle. to strike. to clink auf. * Clod. klynge. quincailler. sticky. hlinen. -CLINE make pinch. klocka. in Schmeller) klunk. Clock. a lump G. declivis. klincke. whence E. like cling. &c. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel.und zuk-lippen. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. knot klynge. to slope or bend . shears. Ang. to clip. chcng. to lean. to sound sharp. schnippen. as we now say three or four o'clock. kldpp. to bend downwards . kliks. ON. to pinch.— KSS. N orman clincailler. kleppe. klippa. incline.. clato make a noise. clutch. acclivis. from klepati. Clink. to AS. a woman's mantle . to beat. klungelin. dag. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. Hal. four of the bell. a clock. verklungeln. klingen.. . toga muliebris. The notion of a loose moveable substance. kluppe. -cliv-. Cloak. Gael. a rising ground.'— Shaks. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. cloak. kol- The word . klok. Ir. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. To Clip. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . klinka. pinch. clinke. Sw. gang. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. to wither. pinch. to shrink up. a clog or fetter for a beast . CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. to form one mass with. clog. and so' to contract. 2. to clunge. ON. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. to ring. 'Till famine cling thee. bow. Walach. Esthon. Bohem. sloping downwards . brett-glocke. as to snip in the same sense from snap. Du. w. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. nip. -atum. Du. by bits. klocke. at first probably on a wooden board. a faction. to snap or fillip schnippen. a cluster. pallium. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. To stick to. to pinch klupe. iissura. clips. . clinker. straits. clingan. Flem. tuft. klungeln. disposed to a thing. sloping forwards. claw. rima. parva ruptura. to crowd or squeeze chingy. a snare. Da. difficulty. a beU. ten. clique. klippe. met. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. hlinian. G. related to clock. Pl. Bohem. also to form a compact mass. outcry. Decline. . glungelin. g. kolbe to E. a bell. klo^gen. The E. Fr. dial. slant. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. as G. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. I. a lump. klicke. Gr. klaka. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. G. Swiss klokken. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. Serv. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. fetter. to make a loud noise. clock is a variation of clack. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. klunker. klinken. klak. Een kliks bolter.

3. splash. lob. Du. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. a spot. Sc. a babbler. geschlotter (as E. mud. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. forbidden by 17 Ed. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. clot. claudo. Fr. lobbig. a blot. clatk. and Gael. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Fr. . It. an imputation. chiuso. with Fr. of a body of any kind. a clod Swab. Pl. laggyn. lobberen. to shut. kloteispaen.'^ Palsgr. kladde. clotted locks Dan. -clus-. bowl . aspersion. kleck or lack. to shut. mire. Du. lopin. to shut up. m&se noch stain. to rattle or shake to and fro. a bal!. clorre. is a blot on one's character. in comp.). lag. thick spoon . . plod. enOE. miry laggerit. boil.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. close. and thus seem endowed . fors. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. wide bagging clothes. . clos. we pass to E. kloteren. ! . Russ. a log. klot. pludre. daggerey. kl'dnken. meat from Du. Lat. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. dangle. slobberen. watery. -cludo. Cloister. Closhe. lump of mud on the clothes .D. cloth. lump of something soft . to rattle. a log. G. Yule-clog. in accordance with It. to dabble.D. zoccoli. to bubble. to cling locks. paddle or dabble in the wet. dial. lunch. rattle. or E. Pm. we pass to Schlatter. Hence inclose. loose mud. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. blot. Bav. to wabble. I clodde. klotz. to bedaub. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. congeler. MHG. zocco. pattens G. -close. unctuous. A . or loppern. a Christmas log. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. compared with clump. spatter. a monastery. to play at bowls. lopperig. tramp in wet or mire. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. to shut in. slops slodderen. • lump. schlottern. mud klcEg. clogs for the feet klakk. To Clog. then liquid or loose substance. a blot. like G. -clusum.1a. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. klotzschuh. a skittle-ground klos- sen. in forms like Du. Klottermelck. . His heart was franlc without a flaw. slop. E. to rattle. Swiss schlott. slobber. the radical sylla. .' end. bespotted with mire E. shut up. schlettern. to lobberig. . curdled. slops). figer. dunch). klos. doitre. kloten. and E. . to flap as loose clothes. to flounder in the wet. Idppern. klateren. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. in accordance with Pl. dirt. from Du. paddle. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. IV. A — — A Thus from Bav. klakken. clausum. E. kloster. claggy. spot of dirt. . closed.. to sup up liquid food. clammy loam. tuditare. wabbling from Du. In the same way Dan. to paddle in the wet. schlattern. clotted milk klotte. lump of butter. schlotter. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). separate part. Close. finish . slobbe. a lump from Du. log. motzen. a block. to claggock.dial. G. g. whence klack. foreclose. from Fr. Clog. motte. and Du. slob. inclose. I clodde. klod. je amoncele. schlott. thick sour milk. klos-bane. gelatinous. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. . . Pr. kleck. . kloden. of something clammy or heavy. a clog. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. dag. paludosus. . clog or overshoe. da- . loblolly. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. chiudere. a field inclosed clos. Mat. laggery. analogous plan to clod or club. klag. Pr. klottern. The game called ninepins. clogs. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. dirt. loppered (of milk).— Clothe. to a. to dabble. . I doda clod. beklakken. slab. shut up. a dirty wench claggy. loose. loppe. Gr. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. from claudo. Fr. be&c. without. shaky. a portion of something soft and adhesive. Dan. klac. Lat. to close against one.. neither spot nor hang loose. hanging loose and full. a trowelful of mortar. The origin of clod and clot is to . tJokok. dab. lobberen. fat. or Sc. . . AS. loose trowsers. Klak also. He was a man without a dag. Fr. daustrum. to dash like heavy rain. clausum. be found rattle. klunkern. TZoxapov. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. slabberen. or drablyn with separate existence. truncus. klakk. to bodies. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. lumps of butter. klokotat. to slop or spill liquids. terminate. clos. bemired. bloutre. claque.rge lump. is connected with pludder. a clod. to spill liquids. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions.

knob. clavo di especias. klonte. formed lump or thick mass. dump. a knot of people. a cover or coverture . klubbe. a bunch. boucher. group of people Sw. clods. Du. to strike. in the same sense. to splash. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. CLUCK rustic. Clover. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. a ball of twine . To Cluck. Gael. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. aglio. Club. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. clot. when something has got into the touch-hole. are also used in the sense of a stopper. zolla. sheltered up warm. dote. cludadh. klobbersaen. tuft. a log. a nail. mary sense is a blow. choke or stop up. little nails. klebek. as Fr. of a lump of earth and that figure. a bousche. a clubfoot klabb. a bunch. with lout. . dabaire.D. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. Imitative of the note of a society. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. To Cloy. from cates the application of the root dab to Du.D. from OFr. It. G. lump.ft. to cherish.). klubben und klicken aufgeloset. clou de girofle. dabosser. davus. cludaim. a . ON. nourish . lunch). eine to slop. rustic. a sky Cot. klaven. shel- kloen. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. . rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. clue. klotsen. A division of a root of garlick. Met. kldverj P1. caillebottes. a clove of garlick. — . warm. dial. So Fr. dys. klcBdi. The significations of a clod or lump. klubb. clot. dut. to a lump. the air. clump. klubba. a sticky. clothes ment. hebes (Kil. G. . ON. Move. kloven. a blabber. a boss. of thumping clumsy action. clunch. w. mud (Pat. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. G. clumhar. clunch. daggy. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. tered . dillad bumkin. lumps of curd. lump. clothes). dob. to cleave or the splashing of water. klumba. mire. From dog. blockish. lump of earth aria.clod. indispalte knoblauch. clobyn. and tapp. a clot or keeps one warm. and clay. Das volk hat sich in splitten. A kind of spice resembling Du. Clown. Fr. chiodo di girofano. to cleave. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag.D. a garthas. clyd. CLOUD an awkward clod . lie clyd. probably from daboter.Fris. N. a breach. Properly that which covers and Du. make warm. a bobbin. klqb. a lump. dash (Cot. clotted milk or cream. knob. klove. 2. — — — . spice) G. and closely do conspire. een klaven kruflook. Gael. stock. dial. ser. a patch. clammy earth. clod. (kruyd =. Clump. to beFr. ball of thread Russ. block. AS. the terms expresssplit.). a clown. w. klump.bar. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. clot . a clod. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . a bunch. a. .). G. to stop. lump. to curdle. kluppe. klubb. sheltered . log. Du. and clout d eudaich.158 . klever. warm place . Sw. to lump mend clumsily. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. E. but confounded with cailler. to strike .). to cloy. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). Du. cluster. to cover Bret. botch. clothe. klumpfot. warm. cobble. bunch. The radical sense seems to be an unE. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. Du. and -the word Clove. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. Mabousfrom Lat. The priClout. kUid. esdaboter (Roquef. and of a rustic unpolished person. clydion. a thick mass. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. dirt. from W. wisp. klu77ip. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. clod is used in both senses . Then applied to a lump of mate. zolla dell' . a ball. More in R. . —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. In the same way E. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. of sloppy materials. a fissure. Clumpered in balls of clouds. also homo obtusus. klotz. kloete.' Sanders. Du. Dan. cluth mhor. a clod or clot. Sw. a ball. kluV. duthaich. klieven. E. Pl. a nail) Fr. clog. a lump. nagelein. Ir. diboter. to tramp in the kluyve. cob. AS. coarse. puddle. dial. eene ODu. Kiittner. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. from Du. from kloven. warm clothes {dillad. strike. a curdled sky. cloud Delfortrie. nelke (dim. matte. E. sticky. del mattond. Cld. botsen. unpolished. Rouchi dapoter. klunds. a log. milk run to lumps. are often connected. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. . motte. naegel. Du. a ball. of nagel. piece Cot. cobio. mass. kl'dnne. loggish. klotzig. I. clump of a clout on the head. de Champ. Cloud. Sp.

as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. —To Clumsyd. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. conclude. smart motion. dial. inclusive. eviratus. Pm. klikonosy. a clod clunter.— — .D. coccolare. benumbed with cold. might be reached from clump.mene tied. klimpern.D.D. klontet. G. klampa. -close. dumpse. with E. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. clip or pinch. klocken. -elude. unhandy. ON. cleik. paste. from ON. rial. Du. a ball. to benumb with cold. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. clumsy. clabosser. to wash. G. to collect in lumps. a lump. ' Thou clontsest for cold. dussomed (Wilbrabam). Sw. Riwle. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. Du. Fr. a block. er. idle. ball of snow on horse's foot . clointer. plad or plod. Fr. wagen. dumpers. wooden sole. havi. unwieldy Hal. xXvariip. Muster. Coal. of Du. kluntfrom KKvKdi. n. splash. heavily. tight — — . The Fr. to shut. Sp. klister. to curdle. to grip.' Comfort ye dumsid. -clus-. a noise. Graff in Klamjan. Gr. to lie. hands stiff with cold.' Wycliff. a clove Sw. to squeeze. But clunchy. . Ray. and klotteren. OE. limp. a clod or The noclot. ' Uorte (for clogs. — ' — — tonista. Hence cleik. crooked inwards . Fr. fingers (familiar). and make ye strong feeble knees. * Clumsy. —More. unhandy. cliboter. unfashioned. verklomen. clopiner. A group. may recline. in v.D. Hesse.E. klummklummshandt. lump of soft mate. claudo. or aclommyde. Cluster. klos. pladdern. a nasalised form of club. koetsen. verkommelen. a lump or compact mass. Pl. whence koetse. klunsen. clutch. COAL dumpish. In the same way Du. ment. Clutter. an instrument for nasal form e. a couch. pinched. Analogous forms with a tongs. cluntClyster. clutch. klumpern. a coach. Beklummen van kelde. also a cluster. from laver. koetblockish. coucher became in unhandy. strum on an instrument.e. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . Cath. enervatus. — Cot. claws. . — Hence include. &c. 130. properly to do anything Fr. Lincolns. carriage in which you klodset. the word is more probably connected with OE. to paddle or dabble. dial. klikaty. -CLUDE hen Du. * Clump. Sc. hooknosed.D. klompen. Fris. ' . klemmen. Coach. koetsDa. Boh. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. klobber in klobbersaen. as from seken. klunt. klomje. a lump. of garlick. Pl. a claw. dek. Cheshire. From the notion of sticking together. Hindust. klomen. clausum. clotted cream. Sw. — . to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. dial. to rinse. E. ether comelia P. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. to stick together . beklummen. Du. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds.forklomme (Outzen). kohle. The sense of awkward. klisse. MHG. esclaboter. close. klods.' Benecke. klemma. log. G. a clod or lump. dek. See reclusion. eene beklum. Ang. MHG. to wash. Compare Swiss klupe. awkward. cleuk. dumps. to klotz. Variation of clatter. It. to tramp. Lat. klont. seize. to curdle. Lat. Du. gelidus. lay hold of. a litter. as Fr. finish. ' Clumper. in comp. clump.pare P1.. OHG. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. G. clook. with a quick. a clot klissen. doquear. wooden shoes. -cludo. viscous material. klonte. conclusion. Champ. Isaiah. lavesen. klette. 159 E. glocire. hand to cleuk. differing only in the absence of the duik. to tramp.'— animal. and koetse. as clumper. cleche. klummerhdndt. having the Pl. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. kichlemmit. ball as snow. E. a ball . exclude. . klamen. calling her chickens. — sen. to pinch. and klonteren. See -elude.' Vegecius in Way. hondis. awkward. algidus. Du. klumpig. kol. to curdle. bunch. a bunch. beklommen.P. claw. acomelydfor could Pr. ill-made . dial. from klupen. klump. -olus-. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. eviratus. klcise. obstructum.Ancr. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. duke. Teulazy. to syllable click. Hence snatching. are the nasalised forms of klotte. -clusum. thick and clumsy. to gingle. klonte. a clod or lump. . dystere. to to snatch. Clutch. Com. glousser. a pinching time. to tramp or tread heavily. klamp. Clump. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. koetsie. through the senses of lumpish. cluster. or from Sw.

cock or nescock. viz. of E. bijamie. side . or upper . broddelen. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. A spider's web. also a coast. Cocasse. is one of thump.). cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. . haggle. w. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. things. Fr.). from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . to strike. a sow. of poison. may be A found in Sw. E. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. . Dan. glowing embers. a knock. . . tuft. v. as in arr. rivation are found in Sw. pryf-coppyn. a coat or frock. cofasse. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. used in — . quilet. then to work unskilfully . a firesteel Lat. a nest. meaning that she is plain and coarse. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. an egg. to knock. coalesce. Pm. verkommelen.' — Thus from (Hal. dial. gull. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. petrilla. grown together. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. throw a blow. and hobble. . In the E. to stutter. coste. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. It. klabba. cobble. or cobble. Coarse. caleo. niais. kolna.a spider. a spider. hakkelen. s. to peck as a hen cobyn. of E. to speak or act confusedly. and jval. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. Flem. verklomen. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. glow jvalaya. boil.. cobcoals. and fig. cob is a dumpy horse. and E. says Varro. walk clumsily. a large round nut cobstones. e. to kindle or cause to burn . a darling. to bungle Sc. pustule. niais. a rib. of cochina. klabbsmed. cokes was a simpleton. pock. Fin. to pdt with We may cite Fr.' And colo. cochinilla.' Nares. blaze.. staggering or halting. however. probably left his home. itself is Nescock . kop. to beCoax. Sanscr. H^cart. ridi. Trevoux. habble. in Essex Jow*2c^. ignem. Outzen. burning. klabbare. ailina or colina. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . a tuft. cob. large coals. as shown in dob and cob. give the full meaning of the word. a spider (/r)^=grub.inflated with air or liquid. costa.the water boils. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. kylla. OE. and thence a lump cobnut. tempered clay for building. to cob. glow. Lat. When the . Coalesce.. an old idiot. a cobweb. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. and the spider as collectors. gull. spinne-ivebbe. cob. Du. COCHINEAL Cobber. Du. . poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. to form an union with another coalitus. numb. s. e. cokes or fool of him. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. to glow . a kitchen. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. dial. a pock mark. It. T' waerkopet. cule cocosse. Coat. See Cot. a thumper. ordinary as in the expression of course. ON. plaisant. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. properly to daub. to burn. 3. CooMneal. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. to grow together.(pi. any kind of coat. that is. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. To cobble. The dirt. The OE. Fr.). a great falsehood. to worship. are often connected. top cobio. a similar According to Ihre. a bubble. Fr. cluster. to kindle jvAla. woman is said to be very ordinary. to . in Du.—Atkinson. — — — E. sweets and the other of poisons. dim. to Lett. imbecille. dial. a bungler. the one of thump. inflammation.— Cobble. from bearing a bag. a bunch. Coast. atter-kop. to stammer. to be inflamed . flame. from a root signifying Traces of s