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A

dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711
olin.anx

:

A DICTIONARY
OF

ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY

BY

HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD,
LATE FELLOW OF CHE. COLL. CAM.

THOROUGHLY REVISED AND ENLARGED

;

WITH AN INTRODUCTION ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGK,

LONDON
TRUBNER &
CO.,
8

&

60,

PATERNOSTER ROW.

1872.
[All Sights
reserved.']

INTRODUCTION.

ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE.
It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of

Europe
a

to recognise their division into four or five
dialects,

main

classes,

each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have

so

much

in

common

of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the

whom

they are spoken, are the progeny, with

more

or less mixture of foreign elements, of a

common
Swedish,

ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a

common
to

language.

The

relation

between Danish and Swedish

is

of

the closest kind, that between

cannot

fail

Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance

is

found in the other

classes.

The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and

common

common
to leave

to both,

and so

much

identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing

them

as

branches of a

common
as

Celtic stock.

And

so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,
is

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish
life.

so great

argue a

much

longer separation of the national

vi

THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY.
In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries

where

French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,

We

accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and

we

account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the

With

Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to

us,

fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a

as

well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-

common

stock.
tliis

Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be

in

where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sitions
sister, are

equally universal.
signification,

Many
life,

of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the

most

and actions of ordinary

are part

common

property.

Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.

From

this

primeval tribe

it

is

supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their

new

settlements, grtew

up

into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their

own

peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European
speech.

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of
resolves

LIMIT OF ANALYSIS.
men, or
in the

vii

mixture of speech brought about by the

vicissitudes

peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every

way

to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or

The

part

diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the

language.

It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of

we
is

understand the word
as

an enemy, which

felt

the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes
itself

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,
;

we

distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a

noun

in

the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am

tion

with

;

and

in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.
ogist
is

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance

among
is

the founders of Language.

The

speech of

man

in his

mother

tongue

not,

among

children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.

The

expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from
is

whence
inter-

the language of each of us
course of those in

derived.

The

child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-

viii

FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE.
his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which
arises,

was not taught

their

language by their parents.

The

question then

how

did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of

man

spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced

?

Or

is it

possible,
less

among

the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or

abundant

known

language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had

not

command
is

of that great instrument of thought, though, in
?

every natural capacity the same as ourselves

When

the question

brought

to this definite stage, the

same step

will

be
re-

gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the

made

in geology,

when

it

was

phenomena of the

science

powers, such as are

known

to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.

The

investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with

intellectual

powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-

terranean

fires.

A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the
leads
'

origin of language

modern German school of
possibility

philosophers,

whose theory
of mutism.
the

them
is

to

deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state

Man

only

man by

speech,' says

W.

v.

Humboldt,
Professor
'

'

but in order to discover
Miiller,

speech he must already be man.'

And

Max

who

cites

epigram, adopts the opinion

it

expresses.

Philosophers,' he says (Lectures

on

the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that

man

how

the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally

acquired.

DOCTRINE OF MAX MULLER.
It
is

ix

surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the

German

paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that

we

all

are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those

who

are cut off by congenital deafness from

all

opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by

whom
own

they

may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual

signs,

but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage
voice.

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is

wantmg

who

life,

and others

who

never attain

it

at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was
his

in existence at a period

when
is

the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could
beasts,

manage

and maintain
us.

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor

Max

Miiller as a linguist,
to

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes
imitations,

but 'phonetic types produced
in his

nature.

Man
at

neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces

may

be reduced, are

remain

the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as

when

the purpose for which
as in

it

was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate
his

instinct the primitive

Man

was en-

expression to the rational conceptions

of
his

mind.

He

was *

irresistibly

impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called
it

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with
<

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the
it

At

the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an
its

instinct,

an

instinct of the

mind

as in-esistible as

any other
fact.

instinct.

p. 370.

+ The
received

faculty peculiar to

man

in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,

n.

X

NO FOUNDATION
had
its

IN EX;PERIENCE.
ftilfilled

brain a phonetic expression,'

object

in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well
as

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or

desires.

By

other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct

is

retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the
families,
first

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different
It
is

down

to the present day.

practically such an instinct

which

Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.

In

all

the languages of the Indo-European family, he says

'

from the Ganges

to

the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of

standing,

while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.

is

as

widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay

down

the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.
:

The

signification
v.

thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance
boldt,
is

the conception, says
as

W.

Hum-

as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'
It
is

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no
of

distinct experience.

If

it

were true that there
felt

is

in the constitution

man

a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be

by

all

mankind

alike,

and

it

should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.
nection.
I

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is

and

to

an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,

and

speech came in that

way

to primitive
its

Man

is

simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of

acquisition.

A

rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

answer
and do

problem

we

are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

GESTURE NATURAL TO MAN.
himself a system of vocal signs.
'

xi

ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,

'

wonder how man ever began these
around
us,

houses, palaces,

and

some philosopher were to vessels which we see

The

savage

we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'
first

who

first

floated

on the

trunlc

of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be

made

for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we
life.

are required to explain the origin of the

com-

plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human

intfelligence

accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and
is

when

the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed
apprehension,

Now

if

by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,

ing.

Nor

is

there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,
call

'

if

we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven
represent
person.'
it
;

nor voice and wished to
as

attention to something,
?

well

as

we

could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,
iif

we

should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,
as

we

should

by

as

near an approach

we

could

make

to an imitation in our

own

in the case of
lar

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after

The

instinctive

Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.
crying
'

the imitative or symbolical gestures

When

Laura once spoke to

me

of her

own

when

a

little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to

Knowledge,

vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers
tears.'

down

the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would

also

accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural


^"

MAN NATuKALLY

VOCAL.
in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.

which

were

certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive
it

To

to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary

mode
voice,'

to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally
is

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.

Man

then

a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities
as

making

instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.

When
same

it

happened

a prominent feature of the matter
instinct

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.
terrified

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm
his

A person

raw Englishman

as

making known

his

wants

in France.

Moo

!

I cried for

milk

If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set

agoing,

And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom
.

the author wrote.

A jest
therefore

must be addressed

to the

most superficial

capacities

of apprehension, and

may

often

aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

Englishman
dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,

who

being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative
!

was

eating, turned
?

round

to his native

Quack, quack
*
thet

The

servant answered.

Bowwow

intimating as clearly as if he
lovelh,

Me
me

tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet
hateth.

me

and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,

254.

thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. by whom the be understood. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. The syllables moo (mu. and mully or mully cow is the . which are naturally produced by the opening lips. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. with an initial m or I. in other words. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. persons of different tongues at the present day. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. muK) and mae (rfie.NURSERY IMITATIONS. to the syllables which are significant to the child. in language of the present day. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. and where we are seeking. the closer we shall approach to the . The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. the baaing of the sheep. or Mollein. is given to a cow or calf. when we is represent to our children of the cow. name of the cow. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. when neither name for the object to be designated. but nothing she herself knows the animals. the present day. mind of the of the animal. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. Molli. and. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. come Moolls. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. or. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle.

nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. for everything fit to eat.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. and which we might express thus. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. for things. He would now say good. had nim. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. A member of my own new sfop. p. mumm. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. . who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. fiafifi&v (Hesych. schipp. when hungry. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. I had watched the growth of this word. nim. repulsive to eat. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. to eat.). I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. in children's language. and some were very clear and distinct. Gr. hm. 72). by the natural humming sound. to For instance. &c.. Finally an n was placed before it. and nim came to signify everything edible. First. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. . interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. We have. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. he called to to drink. partly from sounds which the child caught. became more perfect. as well as the mind of the utterer. Gradually. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. his nurse adopting the word with him. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. analogous to Magyar mammogni. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. On one occasion he said^e nim. Heinicke. for bad. nineteen years old.' In ordinary speech mump. then. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. family. to work over with the mouth. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time.' he says.

yamming. Primitive Culture. to take. to smack in eat. stolen. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. i8o. or word-making. oves lalare. .minis. food (Tylor. mumpfeln. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. to eat mampfen. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). 1 86). chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. namnam. 130-1. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. agreeing with Ein. clangorqae tubarum. ' id est. nobis vix permittitur. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. aptantes adfectibus vocem. to be pleamind . to move the lips in continued chewing. to Sw. South Jutland hiamsk. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. ' Motherwell. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. savory. memmexen. mumpfen. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. Nimm'd up.' And Diomedes.' — Lersch. eating. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing.' says Quintilian. delicacies. crab nam buckra man. nvrnma. voracious. to mump. at hiamske i sig. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. (in chil- dren's language). buckra man's language the white man. we can call them so. to chew laboriously. and some of them . and thence to be tasteful. A negro proOr. Vei (W. mumble. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . and the fizzing (and Series. aves tinnire. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). i. to eat. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. p.' says the author of Modern Slang. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . jumla. ut tinnitus aeris. nyam nyam. greedy . jamsa (yamsa). as well as the Sw. and the crab — p. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. mujnpa. dial. taken up hastily on the sly. sweet (Koelle). j ing . to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). Africa) nimi. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. Gothic niman. Africa) nimnim. iii. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. nam. on. Galla djam djeda.ONOMATOPCEIA. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. palatable. Swedish dialect gamsa.). it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. to fill the mouth. as to . j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. the Scotch poet. Wolof nahenahe. make djamdjam). to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. snatched (Whitby Gl. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. tidbits nama . lita. to taste . Soosoo (W. jammla. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos).

cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. gobbling of a turkey-cock. do not speak of a bowwow. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. not of a baa. barking. chattering of pies or monkeys. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. 89) with less hesitation. or thoughts of our hearer. 'I doubt. or.' And elsevs^here (p. neighing or whinnying of horses. before the in other words. might be used. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. a lamb. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. might be used as the designation of it.' he says. bleating of sheep. cackling or gaggling of geese. We . yelping. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. Indeed. dove and cooing. p. twittering of swallows. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. croaking of frogs or ravens.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. bumping of bitterns. lowing of oxen. bellowing of bulls. yelping. grunting or squealing of hogs. intended in the instance to represent the cry. not of a moo of Lect. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . sparrow and chirping. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. hooting of owls. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. but of a dog. whether it deserves the name of language. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. that there is When Man. baaing or maeing of lambs. purring or mewing of cats. cooing or crooing of doves. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. snarling of dogs. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. howling. between dog and harking. when circumstances required. chirping of sparrows or crickets. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. snarling. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. anything connected with it. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. ^6^. for the purpose of bringing the animal.' — We speak of a cow. Yet we ing. und growling.

Hungary. in g. KOKKvi. whose sound (Pictet. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. and the sound of that direction. coccolare. Georgian quaki. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket.' kd). British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. kae. Manchu The kaha. layitavya .IMITATIVE NAMES.. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says.). 'Kdka. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. caller. 4th ed. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. 380. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. Sometimes the hoarse i . an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. He to is therefore derives kdka. a bird that is be driven away. a a crier (p. Origines Indo-Europeennes). birds. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. caw kuhii-rava (rava. In Lat. kdka. fi-om apakd- i. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. sound). or quawk. a crow. according to Durga). derived fi-om a root ru or kru. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. lion. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. Barabra koka. crow. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. Kdrava. gackem. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Arabic kdk.' common sense. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. ist ed.). e. kuho. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. Aoo-Aoo. in is Gr. Sauscr. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. Columbia kahkah. is kuM) for the cuckoo. 349. a crow (Pictet). Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. and gaggele or gagkelein. In Basque. Picard cau. Malay gdgak. ghak. kauwe. a daw. Bav. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. We imitate the sound with a modulated. and means a shouter. crow. it announces (Salaberry). and Bavaria respectively. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. having a general predicative power.

a crow lish Lith. Swedish kowipa. uhu.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Albacuculi a dove. kurre. German and Eng- krahen. girre. xi. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. tbrtora. while crouk. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. the name for a crow. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. The crowing of cot in Fr. Heb.Gr. Dutch kievit. to croak.. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. gufo. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. a crow . kraeye. tortbla. and sometimes both together. lulo. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. wood-pigeon. Fr. libufs. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. k. the name of an animal will gen- . lilits. synonymous forms of similar structure). a crow. kruk. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. to crow.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. Magy. krahe. turtle) as the Lat. Mod. The consonants p. Da. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. Du. to croak. Arabic tdtwit. kukko. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. as well as of Sanscr. Sp. It. "Welsh hwan from hwa. coccovaec. 6. kirren. coucouva. p. in the North of England. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. tor. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . kukhuta. kuku. Malay kukuk. to cry loudly. lUyrian kukurekati. and e. kraukti. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. French dishuit. krauklys. Walachian coucouveike. by the verbs gurren or girren. So we have Polish krukac.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. either in the same or in related dialects. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. Scotch peeweip. German luhu. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Yoruba koklo. ghughu. name of its is the bird. to crow. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . to hoot. another. German kielitz. tur. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. koeren. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. yell. t. Ibo akoka. great variety of oKokv^uv. kraeyen. tbrtola. giving turtur (and thence It. Pers. coqueri- Languedoc. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. are represented. reduplicate form. name. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. to howl or Lat. Esthonian kikkas. 219. korren. hibou. teewhoop. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. Hindi.. cock. or Gr. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. Zulu kuku. tuquheit. Du. and e. Lettish kiekuts. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. gugu.

growling. Australian bumberoo. bamba. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. give a faint sound. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. grylhis. from schrick. Corean sirsor. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. whirr). words imitative of humming . bambhara. chirk. a drone. 'The natives call it tanand. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . and yelping cry. representing a short sharp sound. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. a bee. Gaelic dranndan. grillen. of England it is to the b 2 . a small as hawk is . The drone peal. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. a sharp sound as of a 6. there are infinite varieties. PofijivXwg. Albanian tsentsir. We may cite Gr.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. hollow noise. Speaking of a cricket he says. little intermission. thunder.' — i. a fly (Tylor) . of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. din. The name of the cricket indeed. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. skirl. buzzing. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. German dronen. schirke. in allusion to its music. German hummel. to be compared with Sanscr. or a gnat fly. Lat. Lith. oE. Northern Farmer. droning is . ajo. Sc. The Arabic sarsor. — Catafogo. pip-pi-ta. swirplys with 6. schrecke. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. In the N. shrill. Arabic tantanat.or bumble-bee. from the humming. zirken. humming. skryle. g. to sound. (Jieuschrecke) . schwirren.' Amazons.IMITATIVE NAMES.' —Tennyson. which they make in their flight very . dhran. e. glass cracking (Schmeller). ta-na-nd. knetta. and he kong-ko-rong. loud rumour. and probably indicates that g. sirkka. grille. the humble. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. i. to shrill sound sharp. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. Naturalist on the tocano. flight its sting considered as a horn. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. The Welsh chwyrnu. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. horniss and from the buzzing The. resound. g. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano.vf3. 337. Fin. to chirp . common. with or Fr. to chirp J may be compared with . a beetle druna. ' — Pictet . gives rise to chwymores. to creak Bret. schrickel.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. succeeding each other — with noise. Lithuanian tranas. buzzing. to grumble. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. booming. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. resounding of musical instruments. g. ' Sanscr. sound. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. German drohne. the drone or non-working bee . Danish dron. to rustle. a hornet. kong-kong. to hum. cricket is from crick. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. skril with n. as . North of England. bee. and not from E. Sanscr. Danish gnaddre.

a drum . in a imitation of a ringing sound. to beat hard. a bullock. Galla boa. verbal form given to the say. and djeda. biibnas. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. as that of the cow by boo. a heifer. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. forms a. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. mugler. mugire. It. or a z to the imitative syllable. are (with a subsidiary k). Da. to low . loge. to ba-L-are. muJiati. fivKaofiai. to . bae. bue. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. to bellow like a bull. to the uses goda. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. The Galla lilbil. whence baula. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. — ^Tylor. bolt. be-l-er. and thence Lat. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr.XX called booing. Fr. miau-l-er. to make. is inadmissible. Illyr. w. to low. mae. and in Hottentot baa was the . baula. amuse. verb is evidently identical with our shout. to low or bellow. Fr. or with on. bugle. btibleti. From baa. or formed Lat. bubati. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. k or g. (iove. from the imitative moo instead of boo. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. representing the mew of a cat. to weep. to shout. bwla. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. bubenti. a bull. 167. Manx booa. OFr. From the same lioao). as the Illyr. bae. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. has bilbilgoda. lulauti (to hoo-loo). Lat. that the imitative syllable are Lith. to or bark. Gael. p. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). say. the animal. grumble as distant thunder . make to it laugh. bugler. make poo. bullock. bos. to make. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. a Geiger. to make a noise. bo. a cow. a buffalo. The Piedm. to bump as a bittern Illyr. to make a loud deep sound. With these analogies. Piedmontese fi bau. On the same principle. maukati. bullus and e. bull. bucula. Thus from miau. to from bau. His analysis leads cow. bu. to boohoo. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. cattle. w. bovis. boo. to bow- own bawl. to shout. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. shoot . ox. agreeing exactly with Lith. Lat. Cult. bauli. in same way. bukati. the Fr. Lat. buculus. to mew. Norse bu. or bau-l-i. mamoo-heeheek. Zulu lulula. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. or moo. to sound. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. Hottentot bou (Dapper). representmake bow. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. and from to ring.

and thus explains the origin /3^k»). he would hardly. growl. grumble. meil. signifying a snarling. a goat. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. hadg- Magy. Idgge (Rietz). grumble. (iriKov of forms like Sw. a (Hesych. it and e.). grugno. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. a grunt. Fr. goats. hunon. a pig Fin. in Wolof bae. kurre. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. a. hunt (gen. It. and hoc'h. hundi). a goat. with the root ypaipm. and with the subsidiary k or g. Hence Breton hoc ha. knurfisk. meketati. leg-et-ni. kurren. houch. cite as by grunt. hwch. 6. a sheep (Lowe). With gen. to howl. as lou of an ox. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. name. grumpf. sus-sus. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. name of a sheep. to bleat . hund. and of (maelon). meckern. may be identical with Esthon. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. lek-eg-ni. grogner. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. /xj/caScj. hound. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. grunlike a pig in eating. meigeal. oe. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. mutter. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. ^. sheep or goat. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. to themselves. a pig. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. or in any ! way ! persuading. and grumphie. grumbhng. grunt. and Circassian maylley. Kurren und murren. from knurre. corresponding to ohg. From the imitative mae.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. groin. karra. /xijeao/iat. smack and naski. Fr. the snout of a pig. purr). . by which the shingle gives rise to It. a sheep. curmurring. in v. for the voice of the ox). rumbling. a wolf. Magy. And it is true there between hog and grunt. ' In driving. The g. cry). lecco.' Moor's Suffolk words. Welsh and Breton). the designations of a dog the term cur. — . this obstinate race. lambs. lekavica. Moreover. It is probable also that e. Gael. to rumble. we have Sanscr. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. to bleat. Gr. to grunt. to growl. . does not produce a e. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a sheep or ewe. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. a sheep or a goat. / The same Gr. Illyr. to grunt. although the imitation embodied in Lat. nire. Illyr. from hundama. . a sow. Africa laa. to bleat. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. Gr. leknuti. name of the animal itself. guttural tone. meugler. as the proper name of a tame sheep. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. and thence groin. G. sound. Illyr. naskia. mecati. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. and snorke. Da. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. Among dog. Gr. undoubtedly imitative. a dog. grunny. a sow. mekegni. a hog. Manx meilee.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. may with to snarl. a goat firixal^ta. menAda (ndda.

. Esthonian hoibo.). houpy in Craven. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). hobben. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. cockade. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. the cry to stop or back a horse. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. without a — we root. hobin. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. p.' 2nd Series. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. as in Yorkshire highly right. a horse.' — ist Series. Thus we are led to the Fr. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. a mare. like artificial flowers. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. hobby. Sc. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. hottihuh. humma.). hiine. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. to go backwards..' ticular bird. M). So Sanscr. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe.root. hoppe. to the left. when he found peculiarity. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. 91. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. e. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. . But words of this kind are. turn a horse to the is In Finland. a little am- bling horse. such as cuckoo. to whine. (Craven Gloss. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. from the cry animal. g. ^6<. p. coquelicot.. of the character in question. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. animal. If onomatopoeias can . a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. There are of course some names. coquette.

xxiii ginal object. Irieschen. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. . hross. hukkup. lapwing. but whether there kind between them and other words. Fr. hikkd. Bohem. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. hresh. nitrire. wagtail. Pl. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. form corresponding hresh. to Sanscr. Sp. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. ance or habits of the animal. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. moan. runniken. goatsucker. wrenska. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. hennir. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. diver. Lettish sweegt. Sw. titter. nounced with a guttural). horse. as sigh. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. wrena. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. signified It. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown.D. woodpecker. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. rinchar. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. g. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. whitename in in- throat. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Sanscr. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. redpole. creeper. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. ginniken. frenschen. wiehern. hresh. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. little speak for themselves. sol. swift. command of language was attained. fehtati. cough. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. animals or certain kinds of sound. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. giggle. than to the sounds represented. groan. to neigh. e. Du. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source.

shriek. hoo ping ping. aritischane. to throw violently down. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. bang. pump. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. to sneeze.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. for the for the sound of . . beat. snort. thunder (Tylor) . to ham. for a small one. Da. a large bell. &c. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. scream.' it both sides went. the God of thunder . snore. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. on the chops is represented also by pratx. mer. lumm. banke. atchian. bang ' ! trenches. heaven). It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. hoo. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for the sound of a blow. for in such sound of blows. It is represented in e. knack. Zulu bongo. debhes-lungotais (deifies. strippstrapp-stroll. for that of breaking. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. dong Read. banga. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. pit-a-pat. a more expressive than the e.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. the dashing of the sea . Wtb. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . heart tick-tack. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. root kshu. ping came the bullets about their ears. a kind of drum. to drive on. clap ! A smack Puff. an attempt would be made to by the voice. tlirob. fitsche-falsche. hang. plitsch-platsch. DingBang. in a nail Let. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. &c. klatsch. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. 1865. Of a like forma- drum . for the sound of a fall. ting-ting. knarr.' 'Haw. — Sanders. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. snukkup). The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous.' ! ! ! ! — dong. tisio (tisho). From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . haw. Vei gbangba. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. or the w. bangas. for the sound of milking. —Brem. White Lies. oren : Klapp. wheeze. beat of a clock child .' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. atchini. for the creaking of a wheel. to beat. Australian bungbung ween. or tliat is accomit. to knock. to hammer . haitshu. ding. went the cannon. are familiar in ' to every one.' So imac. Mei gbengben. for the report of a musket (Colenso) .^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. for blows with a rod. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp.

The pi. pipegni.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. not- . and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. a fowler's bird call is lost. scream. laugh. and so forth. is of expression. . a or cheep. piou. In cases such as these. pipio. has been un- employed to designate fixity. bleat. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. mobility excavation and hollow ^.sc. calls S. Florio. — . Fr. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. pigione. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. far pipi. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. Gr. as k. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. to cry pi. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. and their relations. is pfeife. of a word will appear supposed to represent. pipe. to peep It. pi. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. chickens (Tylor). to designate cavity and hollow. to cheep like a bird or a young It. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. It seems to him that the teeth t. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. to cry like imrli^u). cry. and whimper.' instead. piou. had been used laugh ? two. part of the What consciousness has the child. as the simplest implement for proFr. cry of young birds . the voice of chickens (Cot. a (young) pigeon. to squeak. pipilo. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. pule. pipio. peep. or a piailler. doubtless. ducing the sound. young child . a chicken or gosling. Lat. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. piccione. He Yet asks. or the uneducated different consonants are man. pipe. a fife or musical pipe. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. which he added to intensify the expression. pu. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. e. pigolare. piauler. pipelni. pipare.) a chick. Mantuan pipiare. a whelp. De Brosses. child. as in other subjects of study. Lat. young bird. peep. pippione. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. G. used as a call to . Magyar pip. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. —Lyndsay. pigiolare.

to growl. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. It. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. tontonare. in German. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . gurren. to clack. to grate the teeth . to creak knirren. Pefuxela. bubble. a short sharp sound. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren.) Mod.. lachachen. borrelen. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. sound of dry breaking. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. tonare. kuruk. chack. . and lugh. creak. to pant bejii- zela. a prolonged sharp sound. to grumble. a drum W. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. to grumble). to gargle . cricli. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . to jar. to hawhaw or laugh loud. Manchu kaka-kiki. pi . Poppopvi^to. or kaka-faka. crash. to rattle. lachen. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to cluck. tintino. to crackle like in boiling .Gr.. where the variation. knaks. is very common. when it force than biscuit. rumble. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. like the noise of a glass breaking . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to fizz like fat in frying. murmur (by . The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. cluck. to thunder. make wood a clinking noise. ioriogliare (to make borbor). murren. the clucking of a j hen . rumble. to laugh. preserved by Kilian. a. karkarana. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. laqfF. crack. Indian chack-chack. kirkirdnd. to gorgogHare rattle.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to gurgle. of a loud strong sound. sound). along with tinnio. i. as the click of a latch or a trigger. along with Du. &c. to ring pipio. kniks. a sharp short one. to cry pi. knurren. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to bubble. u. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. Pacific aka-aka. knuks. as representing the sound made when something breaks. Hindoo tomtom. or springing back. the side of g. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. be cate to go on laughing loud . to pant violently (Colenso). a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. coo. grumble. a closed or obscure sound. girren. garren. thunder oil . there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. of something fine and thin. Hindustani karak is rendered. loud laughter. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. Zulu raraza. turtur. vaake gorgor) . to be compared with Sc. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). kniks. some small vowel or consonantal sound. . {to It. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. rumble (Fl.

muro and e. of keys or tinkling of bells. croaking of frogs. a drum . coughing or clearing the throat. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. fumtu. . Manchu kaka. chuchoter. shout. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. the tingling Ming-Hang. disturbance (F. to beat. halaidlac'h. wail. corresponding in e. as of Tamil muromurmur. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. clink. Magyar csamm-ogni. word. clango. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. a boy's whistle. Calt. Newman). and Gr. to strike. E. to ring or jingle. correspond to e. clank. jingle. and Gr. and the imitative nature of tivgle. especially one who beats. Galla tuma. indicating the origin of Gr. while cacd / used in e. to giggle. quarren. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. for a tTviror). or of bells ringing. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. make djamdjam). Tiie Galla gigiteka. the sound of a stringed instrument. The whispering of the wind I. sound. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. klirren. bent her head. bubble up. and her heart went thump. chinking of coin. tumwata. KaKog. for the Manchu hak for the sound of .' Member for Paris. sound). thump. drops of i. rifiirayov. as Fr. and bilhila. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. Turk. bad. chut. Maori pata. identical with g. or the bubbling up of to a spring. to be compared with g. bulbiil. The syllables lil-bil. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. cry. and e. box on the ear imitation of the . The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. noise. djeda (to say tub). are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. agrees with g. Fr. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. the gingling of glasses. kl'mg-kling. champ. e. hala-hald-faMa (falda. a smith. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. or to Du. at an accelerated note. simmer. call. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. 368). csam-csogni. for the sound of privy whispering. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. borrelen. ding-dong. clash of arms. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. uproar.and e. 192). may be compared with Australian pitapitata. tubh. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. Scotch sough or sooch. to knock. to the purling of a brook. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. 1871. tup. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. spring of water in the a bell. Prim. awater* ' The Mme P. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j .SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES.* the heart. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). a workman. rvir (in tvittio. for the ringing of illustrate bells. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. for chut-chiit-er. for the clinking Lat. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. to whisper. is Manchu tang-tang. Sanscr. kiling-kalang. is based on the same imitation as the e. are applied to the is excrements of children. a nightingale. to say chut. compared with Gr. . koXiw. tumult. caca and Finnish adkkd. brings us to Fr. a nightingale. jangle. rain (Tylor. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water.

creak. twang. gurgle. and soufflet. according to the strictest phonetic rules. thump. souse. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . gargle. smash. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. in e. or v^hether jectional. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. whine. clink. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. it is fallj AS. Fr. slash. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. to fall. mutter. hiss.. ring. report of a gun. So in Fr. rattle. tum-ultus. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. hum. crash. dabble. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. flop. 'pat. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. blow. clack. clap. puff. sputter. rataplan or rantanplan. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. parapatapan. without the intervention of orthodox roots. douse. tingle. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. for (Sanders). whizz. chink. The use of g. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. while e. plump. rumble. flap. the Germans puff. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. blubber. we have buffet or cuff. It. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. rap. a applied as well to the force of the bang. disturbance. bubble. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. crack.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. w. patter. fizz. to dance. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. clatter. squeak. smack. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. The beating of drum is represented in e. Nevertheless. thump. splutter. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. bang. craunch. clank. at a door tarapatan. whack. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots.' — Nohden. crunch. answering to g. splash. boom. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. and Grimm. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. tinkle. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. by rubadub. snap. tymmesll. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. jingle. But although and also found in Lat. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. and Fr. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. squall. swash. din. chatter. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. whirr. to is blow. squeal. and the French pouf. thwack. Humboldt. murmur. ' Der puff. tap. clang. lash. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. thump. paddle. tumbian (to beat the ground). guggle. dash. tomber. pop. brumberum. clash.

hay. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. little who has time to want of her nurseling. an imitation of a sigh . but if we must not complain on the beach. the interj. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. Crying. stractions. that he has taken the step in rational speech. p. and found in the building of be burnt up. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. or of any if wood. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. or any unsatisfied want. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. of horror. wringing the hands. Grimm or Bopp. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant.' . and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. If. every little pain. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . the kind of action that is desired of them. At the first beginning of life.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING.' If chaos. ugh . we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . and uttering plaintive sounds. without a thought of symbolising to them. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. knows them.'. are made known by an instinctive cry. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. because they are spontaneous. or stubble is meaner name. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. the inteij. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. grief. in the rushing waters. is Thus ah!. by the nature of the cry. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. 94. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. xxix on the contrary. formerly cited. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. and thus they become signs of despair. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. in the case of the animal or of the infant.

together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles.' — ist Series. 32. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. or which is of me as suffering pain. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. and the eye. If I wish to make a person of an .XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. may become traditional. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. interjections. One short interjec- tion may fact. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed .' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. the lowing of a cow. be more powerful. more to the point. ^6g And to the same effect 371. groaning. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. of all the mouth. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. which are frequently so toned down cance. more eloquent than a long speech. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. 344. And again. sneezing. he cites from Home Tooke. p. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. as who them spontaneous utterances. Language begins where interjections end. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. coughing. them to exercise it. to solve the I shall call first.. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. shrieking. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. they are involuntary interjections. and some of them the composition of words. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. He says.' p. should be remem- . p. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals.

and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. kahkahah. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . and others from interjections. hohottaa. Koxafw. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. some kind of language might have been formed. Tooke in truth.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. Kayxa^u). and thus. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. interjections. when I arp humming and hawing. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. loud laughter. Lat. I am not hearer. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. hahottaa. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. bered. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. speaking. cachinno. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. Gr. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. and more or less limited . then speech begins. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. but the less am at a loss what to say. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. demolishing here. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. in Fin. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. he says. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. hahota. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. in Magy. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. it them. for example. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others.

and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. What strikes him . a deaf-mute himself. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. And so in the case of language. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. makes them stand and walk upon the table. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. and not. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. of the world. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. But here nature soon conies to his help. Though. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. a Picture-language. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. the critical question should be. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb.' he says. like peewit and cuckoo. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. It as has ing their most striking features. of the nature of this great movement. words receiving the meanings they now bear. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. if taken as a whole. and go where we now say stand. dumb is the language of signs. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. . which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. The following account is given by Kruse. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.

The of sign for left hand. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. the lan- guage cultivates itself. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. but if I depress it instead. that. most striking outline of an object. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. the sorecalling them to his memory. it seems. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. for the agent. and forms further and further. as it now opens out. like a V. nay. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. particular sense in properly so called. such as than the educated man. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. among themselves. walked. and And thus he makes himself a language. the whole secret. letter To hold the two fingers apart. The same sign stands and the act itself. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. becomes roast meat. or To pull and flap with the arms. it means little. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. for single objects. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. called Gesture-language. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. can do better and more easily abstract terms. that air. such objects. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. xxxiii him between one thing and another. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. and with his thought. And is. ' from the circumstances of the into a question.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. that signifies great . he. walker. signs are taught for yet. he. and fully serves to j . and to taste. for child. thou. push it towards the person addressed for thou. for walk. his action. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. or the verb to be. and it is flesh or meat.GESTURE most. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. walkest. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. and we have roast goose. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. thought is already broken. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. to name. many when or but these. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder.' In the Institutions. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and gestures. what more. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas.

of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. depend entirely upon the use. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. or a quality. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. according to the circumstances of the case. putting it into his pocket. whether by additions or otherwise. the garden. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. would be simply beginning of speech. You beaten . the ture of white term pink is and red. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. in other instances sentence. . as in die it is a noun. and the as. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. in fact.xxxiv asking. qualifies the against the wall. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. I say. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. When I say. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. Do not bang the it is a verb. He gave door a bang. to indicate the action of a certain person. Who is has beaten you ? would be. as But when it is meant door. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. a colour red. or something of the kind. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature.' dener's knife. The same word . when I say. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. it called an interjection. and so is an adverb. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. or action. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. or an act. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. as when Bang ! went the gun. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. and thus performs the part of an adjective. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. a number of alternatives are suggested. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. When a verb. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. might be the knife. substantive or adjective. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. or a passive scene of existence. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent.

Thus tafu signifies a great man. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . some outward display of the affection. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. commencement of speech.^ — Miiller I. in the sense of great. but often self-evident.. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. wherefore. or nei. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. and to be great. that admits itself in of audible representation. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. verb nor noun has yet been developed. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. or some relation between it and another object. coalesces with the personal pronouns. wonder. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. greatness. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. middle. in the is indicated by the syllable y. wherehy. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. whereof. pain. and may be used language. the man is great. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. inquiry. or with elements expressing relations of time. a sigh of oppression and . grie^ horror. contempt. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. Latin. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. wherewith. with a stick. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. as cung. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. a noun. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. inside. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. Jii ta. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. a groan. which is an old y ting (use stick). &c. .NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. whereto. that is. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. as kuo cung. 255. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech.

ing action I. och. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . Let. .. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. however. a groan or lamentation vir. It. . is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. guajo. at the close of the radical syllable. to ache. ui. howl. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. oval. ochain. found in g. to make). ochan. och. ahi. e. w^wa. g. ohi. jaoh. xxxvi grief. Thus from springs otjucifw. as. as. to ache. A widespread It. woe. tirr-djeda. . vei-a. djamdjam goda (goda. It. Illyrian vaj. to wail. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. has more kopfweh. weinen. ! ! Goth. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. j. to chirp. to make bow-wow. and cacak djeda (to say crack. axofiai. al. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. wehthun. guaj- or cry out pitifully. oh. to weep. och. w. lament from oimi. grief. and to bark .'). headache. ach. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. oimare. miau-l-is. &. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. lau-l-e. achen. Such are g. to hurt Let. to rriourn. wehen (Schmeller). pain. to gargle. Lat. dchzen. miau-n-is. ah. waiidt. ache. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. die wehen. to bewail oneself. ace. to cry at. to injure. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. to lament. The form corresponding to Lat. wai. probably a deeper groan. Gr. representing Illyr. wd. Gr. la. e. to . mew. wai-l. gwae. ach. wAwa. hei. misfortune. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. . to yell formed e. to cause pain. guaj-ire. cece. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. miau-l-er. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. mostly a ! %. woe. or r. grief] affliction. ochan. Jar lau-lau. to cry n. o'i. are ol-ire. to do woe. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. seen in Gr. on. 6. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. to groan. the pangs of childbirth. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain.ez. suffering. ocAJ. Lat. to sound yapyap. pain. to wail or cry alas . In this way from the root guai. grief. representing a cry of pain. vaj. w. is Ay di me I Gr. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. Bret. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. n. guai. on. Fr.-l-are. vce. Gael. gwe-l-a. oi. lament. ach. is w. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. jao. gwae. It. Gr. oh. aiai^to. . when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. vce. form. ohg. wai. g. I oi[iot. misery. weh schreien. ah. to lament. ai. 6. e. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. weh. to weep. Illyr. It. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). first person. in Gr. pain.

!

; '

!

EXPRESSION OF HORROR.
(Florio)
;

xxxvii

from

Let.

waiman

I

waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to
signification.

lament,

showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same

Now
it

if
is

we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah
let

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer

know

that the speaker

is

in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.

The

interjection in Italian coalesces also
:

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS

!

alas for

him

(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the
first

is

not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.
!

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the

sufferer

cowers together with

his

arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of

which

will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is

which

associated.

Hence,

in the first place, the interjection

ugh!

(in

German uh! Then
form of
the

hu

!

in

French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.
losing
its

ug

or hug, as the root of verbs

and

adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.
in

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence
at.

The

oe.

ug or houge was used

The

rattling

drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout

What

his

kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.

—Jamieson,
how

Sc. Diet.

In

a

passage of

Hardyng

cited

inghame, having cut off her

own

by Jamieson nose and

it is

related

the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,
'

Counselled

al

her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly
right
sight.

Here,

as

Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the

word

ugly as signifying
its

original

what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
Ugh!
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.

xxxviii

ASTONISHMENT.
observed that

It

may be

we

familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the
syllable
is

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-

what

causes horror.
silence of the nycht

The

uffsomeness

and

In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.

—Douglas,

Virgil.

the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.

From

things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.

is

done

which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai

!

LAT. BABjE

!

VA.YM

\

The

manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the

instinctive

opening of the mouth,

is

familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his

hammer

thus,

The

whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,
tailor's

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.

The

physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes
;

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
wonder,
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or
it,

sound that

may

proceed from

the

mouth

instinctfairest

ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.

Now

the exertion of the voice at the
is

moment

of

opening the

lips

produces the syllable ha, which

found

as

the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of
!

The

repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one

who

stares

with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.
;

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)

eshawi.

Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious
tlieir

pomp which

waits

On

princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses

led

Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu

we

find hahaxa,

to astonish.

The

significant syllable

is

;!

ATTENTION, SILENCE.
strengthened by a final d in several of the

xxxix
('

Romance

dialects

the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in

It.

ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto
to

open door

;

Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
ished.
d, gives
;

Breton badalein, to yawn

;

bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final

Old

Fr. baer, baier, beer,

to

be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open
is

mouth

;

bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,

'

^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.

quenti.'

The

adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.

At

sight of her they

sudden
forced

all

arose

In great amaze, ne wist which

way

to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless

them

to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or

transition

from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,
is

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the

mind

to,

and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with

which

is

radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad

hym

sty

on

lofl:,

And

wejiie aftir

our four shippis

aflir

us doith dryve.

As

the vowel of the root

is

thinned
X""''*^'

down from

a to

j

in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,
It.

we

learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.

HUSH

!

HIST

!

A representation
longed sh or
ss,

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of

whisht

!

G.

ps

!

psch 1 pst I husch

!

tusch

!

Da.

tys !

Sw.

tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,

Piedm.

cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,
.sfo
!

silsd,

I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!

Fernandian

sial listen! tush!

Yoruba

pshaw!
all

(Tylor, Prim. Cult.

I.

178.)

The

interjection

seems in

cases to arise
it

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may
as

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the

first

place

it

may be
it is

understood

an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or
;

more

urgently, not to let even a whisper
to

but more generally perhaps

be understood

as

in-

xl

LISTENING.
Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which

purpose

it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly

still.

Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.

Jam.

Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.

The
least

It. %itto is

used exactly
sentirse

in

the same
zitto,
;

way

;

non fare

zitfo,
;

not to

make

the

sound ;

non

un

not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be

silent.

Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;
Fl.

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.
noise,

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing
!

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !

6.

husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through

the

' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that

is

heard in the bushes, or
ai,

as

an intimation to
Fernandian
sileo,

listen to
!

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry
ai,

hush
sia
!

to

The it. command

Gr.

ai'Ci^,

to give

silence,

showing
hush.

that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of
be

Hence must be
l-o,

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or

silent.

In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to

put

to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,

calm.

To keep

a

calm souch

;

to

keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an
like
I

after the initial

w, f, or

h.

Thus

firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I

we

wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.

The
;

primitive

mute

then

falls

away, leaving the
;

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp

Du.

luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)

synon-

ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.
is

The
lips

notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct

^

sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are
;

mot ;

It.

non fare ne motto ne
;

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

SILENCE, CONCEALMENT.
mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.

xli

mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce

Plowman

in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you

may

sooner

Than

get a

mum
way

of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by
Palsgr.

ellipse

of the negative,

mum !

silence
as,

!

Fr.

Mom !

ne parlez plus
!

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

—Trevoux.
With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei
silent,

dumb,

are essentially identical with our

mum,

;

;

;

185.

The
from
E.

ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that

juufo)

we readily pass
mus
est

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.
(Sp.

the representative
to

no decir mus

ui

chus)
;

we

Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,
'

be

silent,
les

and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens
:

musse, a private hoard.

Cil

que

musce

furmens,

escoramenge

qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'

parallel

Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied
is

to

what

done

in secret,

and mucker,

to lay

up

a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.

The
lias

interj.

hem

/

ahem
call

I

hm

t

hum /

represent the sound

made

in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin

it

frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely

another

mode
Here!

of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est
is

when

the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves
as

attention.

Hem! Davum
tam
glabrae,

tibi

:

scabrae sunt,

hem,

manus

:

quam

smooth, see here

!

as this

hand.

When addressed

to a person

xlii

THE PRONOUN ME.
it

going away
is

has the effect of stopping

him

or calling

him

back.

explained by Weiland an eKclamation to

make

a person stand

still:

Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.
hier,

haWol hark

there.

Mr

touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel
to

an

interj.

of prohibition.— Brem.

Wtb.
wbll

Hence hamm

holln,

keep one

in

check, to restrain.
shall stay

Du

sast

mi
do

hamm

holln,

you

shall attend to

my hamm !

where

I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of
I

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,

hammen,

to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'

A

of

a

garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it

out.

The
and
as

point of greatest interest about the interj.

hem

is

that

it

offers a possible,

seems

to

me

a far

shown

in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call

who

utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of
is

in Latin
occidi
see
!

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used
!

Hem
.

misera

Ah wretched me

!

I

am

lost.

Hem
feci,

!

scio jam quid

vis dicere.

Let

me

I

know what you would

say.

In the line
in

Me, Me, adsum qui

me

convertite tela,

we might
The

read the passage without
!

alteration of the
!

meaning.

Hem Hem
speaker himself,
is

adsum qui

feci.

use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of

m

or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this

mode

of

designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.
first

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,

first

person

is

ma, me, mi, man, na,
the

with

m and

n

as

personal prefixes.

And

word

is

formed on the same

plan in almost

all

families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and
*

S.

America,

ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,
interj.

Mr

Tylor

cites the derivation of G.
!

hemmen,

'

to stop, check, restrain,'

from the

hem
in

!

signifying stop

as

an obvious extravagance.

Tliere
it is

is

close a connection

meaning between the

interjection

and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds
inter-

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from
jections.

THE PRONOUN ME.
whoSe pronoun of the
first

xliii

person

is

written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of
kind

the voice within the person of the speaker,
is

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate

way

with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.

:

in other

words,

it

might serve

as

the basis

Nor

is

the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any

means

a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius

(as

quoted by A. Gellius,
first

1.

x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the

person

{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word
presses.

is

naturally adapted to the

meaning
is

it

ex-

He

probably
it

felt

the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of
It
is

which there

certainly

no

hemming
employed

in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that
as

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis

we

have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and

its

correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,

which

is

the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.

The
be

application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,

would

strictly parallel to

the use of

It.

n

and

vi,

properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.

Humboldt

in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.

Thus

Tonga, mei

signifies hither,

motion
to,

towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like
It.

and
e.

d

and

vi)

for

me

or us and you.
i.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell

tell

me

or us

;

tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is
is

to

have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the
suffix
s,

me and

fu, for

which

remarkable
a

Tonga
which

has totally different words, au and coy.
originally

In Armenian there

means

this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a

Thus

hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.

my

father.

man

speaks

of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of
tion,

in the utterance of the

m

or n

may

explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.

The

earliest

type

of rejection

is

the

closing

of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered

breast,

and the inherent

; ;

xliv

NEGATION. ENJOYMENT.
is

propriety of the symbolism

obvious.

De

Brosses observes that the articulations

n and

s,

both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to

sig-

nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples
tunato.

the words infinity and
.s

It. sfor-

He

overlooks the

fact,

however, that

this It.

is

merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,
letter.

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two
is

channels, he says (ch. xiv.
it

§

29),

by which

the voice

emitted, the nose
it

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of
nasals
is

The

expression of negation
ju?;,

by means of
it is

exemplified
erne,

in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,

m-

Vei

ma

;

Haussa

n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea

by

visible signs.-

— Schou.

Mr
a7/7a,

the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
Fernandian
'nt, all

kin,

Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn
Tylor
cites

signifying not.

ENJOYMENT AND DISGUST.
The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life

is

the appe-

food,

and

it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.

The

savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his

lips

or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.

Thus

Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes
at

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads

says,

'

The

astonishment and delight of these people

our

and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired
great,

was

'

our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration

by

a peculiar

smacking or clacking with

their

They expressed mouth and lips.'
the
lips or
in

— Australia,
The
tongue
the

p.

^2^.

syllable smack,

by which
is

we

represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,
taste.

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,
taste
;

the sense of
taste.

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the
ta-ite;

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the
;

lips

;

maisto, taste
.s

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.

The

initial

is

lost also in Fris.

macke, to

kiss.

The

initial

consonant

is

somewhat

varied without impairing the imitative effect in

Bohemian

mlaskati, to

eating

;

mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,

;

and

in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith

the

mouth

showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,
;

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.

ENJOYMENT. DISGUST.
Again,

xlv
as

we

have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the
is

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.

employed

for the

same purpose.
to apply
it

We spsak
smack
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do
derive

not happen
lip),

to the

The Welsh
this

has gwefusglec (gwefus,

a

smack with the
sound of an

From
is

source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl

The
some
say

or gl

readily

confounded with that of
tlick

tl

or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly
click.

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands
;

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the

mouth.

From

smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I
;

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling
at,

to-

gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial
tl

or dl

became

distasteful to Latin ears,

it

would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella
for

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.
in

It

is

true that an intrusive

vowel
garded

such cases

as the

foregoing

is

commonly (though
arisen

not universally) short,

but the long
as

e in these

words may have

from

their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.

The

attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.
in

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-

lators.

I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but
'

Would

to

-

occasionally interrupted their speeches

by

spitting

and uttering a noise
It
is

like

pooh !
this

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that

!

xlvi

OFFENCE.
fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and

like

it,

in-

tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in
!

his African
spitting

'To-o-h!

Tuh

exclaims the

Muzunga,

with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of
;
;

Africa, a. 346.
initial

The sound of spitting
puhwa,
dain
;

is

represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out

;

Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial

t,

t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting

;

Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook

mamook

took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to

make

tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj
;

Arabic
;

tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting
disdain
iTTVd)
;

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English
is

tuff, to spit

Hke

a cat.

In Greek
sounds.

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the

initial

BLURT

!

PET
his

!

TROTZ

The

feelings of

one dwelling on
a

own

merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath
nostril
is

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,

drawn

in

deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.

Her

fairy nostrils out.
is

—Tennyson.
Tiuff,

The sound
whiff,

qf hard breathing or blowing
is

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,
It.

whence a huff

a

fit

of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or
is

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.
;

The

luffa

explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.

—-Melchiori.

we

call shirping.'

Then,

as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or

cheat

;

heffarsi, to

laugh

at

luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used
rision.'

or disdain

is

uttered with exaggerated feeling

it

pro-

duces an explosive sound with the
as

lips,

represented by the syllable Hurt,
'

which

an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of
is
'

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.

a

Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring

it

out with a sudden explosion
is

ting something out of the
crying.

mouth.

A
is

Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
prt,
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I

is
;

explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie

approbation.

— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the

The

It.

petto, a blurt, petteggiare,

mouth

or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!

the

mouth

in
!

contempt (Sadler), explain the
tut
!

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw

nonsense

!

Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.

Decorde.

;

OFFENCE.
From
of anger
;

CONTEMPT.
we
have
e. pet, a fit
;

xlvii

the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,
is

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence
it

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips

Then

as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a
lip
is

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,

in

De-

vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the
lips.

ill-will

by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese
Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;
poutet,

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a
It.

a kiss

;

poutouno, a darling.

Again,

as in the case
ill-will to

of

hvffa, heffa,

above-mentioned,

we

pass

from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts

(to

be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.

The

E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking
lips,

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives

the

provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a
tut,

projecting

underjaw; on.

tota,

snout

;

Sw.

Da.

tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.

A

more

forcible representation of the explosive
r, as

sound

is

given by the introlips
;

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta
;

d

hesta, to

sound with the
snort,

to a horse in

make him go on
well as
is

Sw. pnista, to
sneeze.

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,
at,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not

sneezed

not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.
the

man

— that
Ayens

is

unbuxome
!

all

his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.

And
Hence
are

seyth Prut

I.

3016.

E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the
sullen,

West of E. (with
pout, to
surly,

form of purt,

to

be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.

Then,

from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment
trick
;

we

have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a

trick.

And

as

from the form pet
I

was derived Swiss
lip,

Romance

potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a

and

figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as

The

imitation of the explosive sound with an initial

in

ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's

lip
lips

or

Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-

xlviii

DEFIANCE.
;

DISGUST.
of such a description in driving

courage a horse
animals
Fr.
:

on. trutta, to

make

a noise

vox

est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.
man
make
the

Hence
from
trutas,
is

trut/

(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to

(Cot.);
;

which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the

lips,

a snout

to be out of

temper;

trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.

From

same source

the

6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.
to

;

trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to

of;

trotzig,

haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;

Valencian

trotar,

to deride, to

make

a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen

humour

;

to take the dorts, to

be in a pet

;

dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure

is

to

send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a

mouth,
(Fl.)
;

is

to

be explained

It.

truccare, to send, to trudge or

pack

away nimbly
away.

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of

be

oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same

way.
Lyere

— was nowher welcome,

for his

Over

al

yhonted, and yhote, trusse.

manye

tales
v.

Piers PI. Vis.

1316.

To

hete truss

is

an exact equivalent of g. trotz

bieten.

In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge

.'

all leysare

was

to

long.— Gascoigne.

FAUGH
There
sight
is

!

FIE

!

a strong analogy

and hearing.
air

When we
as

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the
ive

through the
;

nostrils, as

we

eagerly swallow food that

is

agreeable

to the palate

and

we

spit

out a disagreeable morsel, so

we

reject
air

an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected
lips,

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our
protruded

lips

pu.

when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded
'

lips,

a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,
air.

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the
;

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.
;

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced

puh),

Illyr.

puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

OFFENSIVE SMELL.
CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with

xlix

TheSanscrit
lungs,

may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

blow.
like the foregoing

From forms
at a

we

pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains

pu/

as

an

interj.

representing the sound

made by blowing through
'

the barely opened

lips,

and
alte

thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.
mist.'

Ha puh I
iii

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and
(Forcell.),

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !
-b..

disgust at a

bad smell

is

expressed

manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !
like
effect
if

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah

the

utterance

accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.
is

Accordingly
civet
;

we have

Sanscr. pu,
;

pMka,

stinking

;

puti, putrid, stinking matter,
;

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten
stench.
says

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus
;

Jahfals

ist :

by

this

time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad
bitter.

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,

Han
ill

va fal aat

os,

he was

enraged with us.

The

e.

equivalent

is foul,

properly

smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,
life.

underhand

in the transactions

of

ON. Fulyrdi, foul words

;

falmenni, a scoundrel.

From

the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or
foul.

d^le, to make foul

;

and Jllth, that which makes

The

disagreeable impressions of smell produce a
all

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his
in.

And

probably the

earliest

would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the
live.

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language
it

supplies

its

place by

—Farrar,

He

says,

The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him
say,

Where

live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.

d

1

REPROBATION.
interjection fy
it is
!

HATE.
do

The

expresses in the

first

instance the speaker's sense of a bad
is

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That
j

dirty

;

and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that

;

pleased at being touched

by

strangers.
inteij.

When
Thus
in
-e,.

used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the

often

assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in

faugh

I

ovfoh

/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly

employed

in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.
also

Yx.f, I

commonly

expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent
it.

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to

turn

up

one's nose at

it,

to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,

we

shall

easily believe that
it

pu !
it

as

an expression of reprehension,

is

the

source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,

cries

pu

!

on

me

;

pudeo, I

lie

under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the
fie
!

interj.

fu

!

being thus
:

analogous to
ein

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.
ings
;

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus

The

fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,
nostrils
'

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.

'

stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!

foh!

addressed

especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and

;

NURSERY WORDS.
foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave

to

If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.

PAPA,

MAMMA.
all

^ A small class of words
them
(in the sense

is

found in

languages analogous
papa,

to,

and many of

identical with, the e. forms,

mamma,

mammy,

daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,

as

well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-

A

man
Is

in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which
vi.

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.

It

appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,

am,

at, an.

We

find m,a, me, mi,
all

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense
;

moma, mother, and
fafa,fawa,
father
;

less

frequently nearly

the

same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father
be,
b'l,

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,
;

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,

tite,

unina, ananak, mother.
as

common

to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each

other,

'If

we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently

those

which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and

mother.'

—De

Brosses,

i.

215.

The speech
articulate

of the mother

may

form

to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms
ter;

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,
fia/iovKi^ia,

babelen, to babble, mutter

;

mammer,

to

mut-

Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)
to

Mod.Gr.

mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the
term
for

of them.

Thus

Lat.
as

mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,

the

mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

m
and the same
is

NURSERY WORDS.
the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,

breast

;

mammen,

to give suck.

When

one of the imitative

ma had
ta,

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,
e.

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or

nipple

;

Goth, dadd-

The name of
which

the laly himself also

is

gives their designation to so

many

representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs
it

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.

The

nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the

To

the

first

of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna
lull

nanna, to

a child

;

ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language
la

nanna, bed, sleep.
sleep.

Far

In the

Mpongwe

of

nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).
It.

The

imitation

gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a
el

little girl;

Milanese nan,
Sp.

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.

Caro

mi nan,
is

my

darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
ninny
it is

Mod.Gr.

vivlov, a

young

child, a simpleton,

and in

e.

transferred to a person of childish understanding.

From

the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.

is

extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,

From

the

same source

and

e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.
lyu,

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,

whence

lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE.
Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation

may

name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a
will,

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.

The

testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. as it Dieser da (as Lat. But. as. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. a specified were by pointing him out. give me that cheese. der da-ige. ' sees an object. that gratifies me. da. thata (ta-ta). nurseries. and by a variety of expressions besides. In the expression Da. The Fr. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it.' then points to his wife. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. a word of many applications in g. Diet. ToSe (or in Attic E. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. but the truth is. and so on. case.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. when he wants something. Thank you. or carry me thither.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. 'nay. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. Dr Lottner observes. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. that. we may translate this by there (it is). Phil. is we I believe. implying the direction of its good will towards them. Sie. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. more emphatically roSj)j that. I add) . the nursery da-da. when 1859.' this. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. or give me it. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. this here. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. When we pointing.' all is is — their consent. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. Please. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. give. to here . for instance. is-te). da. and may be rendered. child. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). his trowsers' pocket. as to express. or that it is. Sanders (Germ. that is it. Bav. • The child.' person. says da-da-da. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. saying : there the ad- Trans. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. well as Goth.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. indeed. or wants to name something. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. according to Menage. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. . A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired.

to move step by step. of which any one may. to say to oneself.' says Lottner interior. to chatter. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. tasting. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. pay. to beat. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating.^ its ' utters : a cry. or metaphor. speech. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. . — Cot. standing. The da is dodem. tattle. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. to walk. its desire. and shapes it into an . the original is that which he places first. make dadada). beat. sinking. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. then instinctively interest. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. moving. and one in particular must. p. sounds. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. reality. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. to knock. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. childish toying. strike. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. thinking. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. to tion to another. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. which thus exertion. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going.' says Muller.' • liv ANALOGY. dadee. Thus Gr. in every mode of expressing the idea. or dalliance. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. stutter. meanings. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. takes it — as When the soul. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add.

esclat). — 1. beorhtian. properly a clap or explosion. which in ohg. and figuratively. In the case of sparkle. gnittre. brilliancy. prudent. schmecken. to quiver. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. and schmecker. Du. for example. tintelen. ghsten. think. same imitative root with Sw. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. a with kimmaltaa. to ring as a glass willata. to glisten Dan. schiteren. to shine. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. from the . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. the equivalent of g. as. to have Sapiens. sapere (which signifies the nose. to . smell. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. and thence e. to glitter. to resound. kimistd. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. sound. pracht. fiapfiaipw. snudra. noise. a ringing . rattle. Lith. man of nice taste. in popular language. to crackle gnistre. iclat (in Old Fr. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. sprageti. to 5 ghtter. (parallel bilbila. tinkling. knittre. magnificence. So firom Lat. Bavarian bracht. discreet. wise. The 6. to flash. to glitter e. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to shriek with laughter . . unlella. to smack or taste. splendour. wilahtaa. Fr. outcry. while sapere itself. scheteren. then to sparkle. to sparkle. and. snuff the sniiten. wilistd. is used in the origin. to tinkle. snot. may be it explained . Finnish. splendour. may be quoted gUt. bright. as kilind. a rustling sound Gr. to glitter. chime). to sniff. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. in the domain of movement. a dis- cernment. a brilliant light kilid. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. snutrs. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. to be wise. knistre. air. to sniff out. judicious. Heo Du. Again. &c. to glitter. wamara. make a loud noise. bilbilgoda (to make . suspect Bav. scTiateren. on. beam. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. clang. to crackle. to ring. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. sense of brightness. savour. It is The word bright had a similar In as. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. In the same way the Goth. kiimottaa. search . Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. spraka. to snilF. tumult. firom the Gael. 1654. smell. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. . taste. signified a clear sound. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to shine. also wise. snotor. we have and the and beorht. bilbil). to sound clear In Galla.

they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. and vepres. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. in truth. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. wool. Much of the same has been often quoted. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. which The Stoics. rend. 6\tadaveii'. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. he framed the words ivSov. in of his works. accordance with the way in which by touch. \nrap6e. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. &c. fitting the letters to the sense. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. mel. rough to the ear. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. strike. the neighing of horses. itself letters are felt as sofl. the bleating of sheep. tremour. the cross. briars. power of the letter-sounds. eo ut res vol. rough. the clank (stridorem) of chains. extremely loose. discusses the tone of a picture. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. roughness. we hear of screaming colours. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. whirl. flow and flux. soft. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. within. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. pvfi^Civ. v. . sharp. Kpovtiv. 1. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. break. Kep^arl'ieiv. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. kvTOQ. or . of dressing loud. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. ipuKuv. And observing that n kept the voice within. oily. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. then in rpd/xoe. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. as soft by the ear. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. inside. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. is felt Lana. smooth. Tpa)(yg. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. rough both ways. he says. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. gluey. The BpavEiv.' he says. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. to slide. pleasure soft to the ear . rough. KoWiiSije. shatter. crux. Acre.

together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. k. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. for exis ample. a rough and sudden . to reel abruptly from side to side). shag. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. ii. tug. 'and consequently form. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. jig. rug. degree of roughness sound. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. t. dig. cular effort Again. jih. and in the utterance of a high or or low. d. the case of the voice. stag (in stagger. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. shog.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. dag. p. p. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. as when. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. Fr. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. A greater felt. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. jag. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. stab. jog. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. to signify varieties of movement. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. to jogj sac-cade. joli. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. g. sag-oter. corresponding to the ineor. 138). or checks as they are called by Muller.

(mitsati). and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. is lanese toch. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. micare. chiquet. tech-tech. not to utter a syllable. The Mipen or pencil. tock. g. S-panish miga. Fr. zack. an old worthless horse or carriage. to strike It. a stroke with a French toucher. a crum. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. however. a quid of tobacco. schuckeln. tack. used interjectionally to represent a . then. a good piece of road . to have it ticked or marked on the score . Accordingly the g. mot. an infant . &c. is made to signify movement. then. The syllable suk is jerk. a playiug-marble. a jog. foot. Bolognese tocc. Ene olde suksuk. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. to stir. It. The train of . figuratively. a little bit. rough horse. in cases like the foregoing. to mutter. chicoter. and analogous movements. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . a piece or bit of anything. to pulses being knock. to On the same principle j we have g. to say a word . and e.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. to tickle. sound barely audible. it produces Dutch micken.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. a small bodily object. is so frequent a consequence of movement. zigzag. Illyrian migati. To tick a thing off. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to beat or play on a musical instrument. kik. passing to the signification of motion. to utter a slight kick. mica. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. for the sound of knocking at a door. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. kuk. e. to glitter. a . and It.. movement. a cracker. Sukkeln. to take a thing on tick. to touch. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. cica. to mark it with a touch of the pen . toch-toch. or check. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to move rapidly to and fro. The production of sound. chic. lead to Spanish tocar. The analogy then carried a step further. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. mie. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. tecche-tocche. Mucken. Then. chique. so to Italian toccare. Hence Lat. like English tick. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. also to stir. sound Fr. as tot. that we never can be sure. mik. Welsh cicio. schockeln. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. as Italian tocco. to ring a bell. Dutch kicken. Brescian toch. Fr. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. to winkj micati is Lat. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. motion. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Thus we have B. properly a small lump'of . to incite by light touches.

to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. seesaw. to dot. to movement of the pen . or the converse. anything small flax. n. to jog. there (further of!) ao. So. and out there.) . a small lump or pat. To jot. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. to tremble. a lad citta. a small bird. Fr. syllable mot. there '(at a short distance). But the same is language has re Javan. . Pm. to jot down or note with a fro. for the beating of a clock. to whisper (Pr. a certain conception. and a small lump of something. move slightly to . the same organ touched with the man. anything . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. a bit. jot. there. I. at where the order is inverted. you. ticktack. a small horse. totle. . The following table from Tylor (Prim. to e. tot. tottle. ika. neither moit nor an atom. a light quick blow. clay . here (close hand). ri that. tittle. 48) cites from the African Tumale. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. tot. a small kind of lark. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. titilh. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . for the three personal pronouns. the least visible insect. and mite. Then. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. little j to that of a small bodily object. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. (Halliwell) Da. Halliwell. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. iki. small titlark. tot. this. to touch lightly with a pen. a bit. citto. . that. is shown in murmur. lix Sp. zitella. lump of earth. tot. to touch. a. a sparrow). where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. of movement in totter.- a jot or little It. tiny. tit. Cult. eo. chico. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. mut. and dot. a little titty. In a similar the relations of place. little. we have e. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. tit. corresponding to the personal pronouns. . not because the pendulum makes a different left. titter. to make a slight mark. mutter j dust. or the like its It. Du. subdued manner. mot. fait. e. mossche. a morsel girl . . that iku. a tot . and toddle like a child titter. further off. as in e. 199). u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. a e. bunch or flock of wool. or o toi. mutter. e. not to utter a syllable. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. a morsel. zitio. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. a girl. 0. a whisper. small of kind. not an atom .MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. tozzo. This kind. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. gnu. taut. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. . . gni. gno. motte. motta. . the vowel sound. here. titmouse (Du. a small quantity. mote. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. and he. this .n. often entirely arbitrary. fragments It. i. Malagasy to.

Abchasian aSn. 6. qu. km. ndi. there. .. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. . that in the distance. here j abe. . that. me probable that • Vei also little. w. akha. Sahaptin (America) kina. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. as Mr Tylor remarks. there. tiiio. . /mya. . here j ka. . Mm. ^. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. this fi. and origin. there. he. mas cheche. an old . Carib ne. . probably initial of distinction that the k. Gr. that. bi. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). that. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. Fernandian az. femina ama. ojOo. little. I . that. Lat. ulri. is father. Guarani nde. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. j Canarese ivanu. ne. there. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. father. man erne. young one. ofj. ukko.araM. It seems to (fen. child. for the male. /wo. mother. Mutsun ne.. is Here. child. Zulu ajoa. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. there. Tamul i. that.) pronunciation of i or e. uta. mother. to. thou . small (Pott. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. father k . ta to ka. that (intermediate) j wana. this . minution further. ita. that.) nna. this . loo). biii. /e«. that. here . here . he. here 5 Yoruba na. nne. Chilian tva. this . usho. . an old woman chacha. there. thou ni. Botocudo ati. (tt). that. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. here feraa. and a for the female. this ole. that. Japan ko. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. as the act of pointing was ta. Then.e^.. ni. here this . In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. Tarahumara ibe. olo. Ossetic am. there. as in Italian Fin. Dhimas isho. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. mother. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. this <t. no constant rule is observed. Magyar ez. you. thou. respectively. It Carib lala.. ni. this .

sound of bells .) . A little wee face with little. trSpigner. fretful. The Sw. trap. as ding-dong. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. Fr. for instance. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. stairs. just beginning to appear. has tittafrem. a little yellow beard. to begin to appear . for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. while the special nature of the action intended syllable.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood.' — Merrv Wives. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. in old e. nipple. at pippe frem is to spring forth. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. to feet. titta. little To sup up. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. to peep through. wenig. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. the nursery few j Sc. The sound trapp . where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. pepin. to teet. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. a step. is to express simple continuance of action. looking through between obstacles. And perhaps the E. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. Da. to tread. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. trippen.' making the voice as small as possible.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. the principle of reduplication. From cases like the foregoing. knob. or even. i Sw. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. the pip or pippin. repetition It. little. nil. to leap. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. A little weeny thing. wean. to peep. murmur. trappen. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. whence Fr. tion. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. barking of a dog. trippelen. keeh. and in the Pacific dialects. . The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. dance (Kil. of smaller things. lift 8. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. din-din. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. nab. to make its way through the bursting envelope. the idea is called. or chink. Clank represents the sound of something large. &c. — Douglas Virgil. for the . Top. Thus we have Wolof sopa. trappa. don-don. the simplest mode by the g. 401. as j money. for a succession of light blows low-wow. analogous to winy-piny. a child.

The same principle of 196. racket. to talk at to walk. to skip. to or rub. the and clique. calling. kendagenda. to say pooh It is ! to. clamito. and the words express a continued sound of rack. is language. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. And generally. Thus in E. serves to show and in this way. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. to treat with contempt. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. to rock. could readily be conceived. instead of being actually repeated. . in familiar use with ourselves. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. or in Fr. Cult. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. puka. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. a clattering noise. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . a cradle. random . be used as far an echo to hard sounds. the comparative degrees of greatness. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. to vi^alk about for flax. Malay ayun. or a little tee--ny thing. rapidity and strength. or rdtchi. hardness. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. er. tache. the agent in panting . click. repetition or continsignify long. or imitative syllables. kamha-gamla. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. Again. clash of weapons. tach-et-er. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. ding-ding. ratsi-ratsi. sopasopa. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. smallness. very bad. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. to call frequently from Fr. Mandingo ding. and Fr. puka- puka. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). &c. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. little child (p. child . ayunayunan. cliqu-et-is. amusement.. are echoed by the rudimentary et. properly speaking. keep spots. mawhitiwhiti. didi. rack. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. and thus by analogy employed in Lat.Ixii REPETITION. 97). So from clamo. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. very long (Pott. a grasshopper. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. to pant.' expression is — ^Tylor. to love. loloa. a spot. mawhiti. . to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. i. bad . to to call. lololoa. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. child . and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. (to use a to speak. or el. Susa di. rack click. from Maori muka. mpolu is uttered. the lungs. if very young. 99). Thus in the Pacific loa. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. kenda. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to cover e. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. very great. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. or very very great.

are to cry mew and pew . to wail woe . in some applications. to make gug. or omitted. to puff. bub. crack. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. In cases like these. such asjlap. in Fr. joggle. or in e. shuffle. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. the knie-en to E. miauler and beler correspond to E. or Maori puka-puka. dabble. fickle. Jickfacken. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. Ihre remarks under gncella. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. waggle. to make a succession of shoves.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. he who rubs. to move to and fro. a from ayun. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. wancol. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. dab. wankeln. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. to rock. g. to bark like a dog. itself. where all direct connection with sound is lost. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . rynel. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. bubble. which. to make a succession of grabs . guggle. without the intervention of the frequentative element. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. Piedmontese bau-l-S. The Fr.Jicol. The contrivance with any particular noise. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. wankel. to rock or wag. miauler andpiauler. kneel. to continue dragging. draggle. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. the lungs (the puffers of the body). it. syllable clat . mew and baa . to hand-le. by the side of wanken. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. a succession of cracks to rattle. to crackle. others. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. wagas ging. and in as. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to make bau-bau. as to handle. is In e. as mAS. wavering. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to hand. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. smack. or by association. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. jogging. or fi bau. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. compared with g. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. from puka. rubber.

and it is only the where the verb is written houge. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. by a hard body breaking. to cry ugh at. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. it is obviously a mere chance how long. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. or how generally. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. at was more familiarly known. the breach. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. will continue to be felt in daily speech. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. although it is not difficult. and comparatively few easily deceived. Breton. A gull or a dupe same sense. Polish. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. which is the origin of the word. or in aptness to combine with other elements. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. moreover. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. to the separation between the broken parts. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. known in Italian. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. which. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. There is. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. Dupe comes to us from the French. no sort of difference either in outward appearance.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. on a moment's reflection. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. or in mode of use. deceit. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of.

founded in manifest blunder. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. language is . it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. nor any limited of ideas. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and the word is used in a secondary sense. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. life.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. . but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. is. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. Hitl^erto. however. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few.

evique. Naturalist on the Amazons. I think it very probable. French. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. compared with the duration of man. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. unintelligible to other hordes. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. in the course of many years' isolation. i. therefore. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. change. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. If English. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. out.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. guages in South America. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). and vescovo. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. circle perpetrates a new slang term. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. and 'Russian. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. of material things. episcopus. hearing. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. Welsh. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . 330.

Nor is there one of the letters. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. or whatever the proportion may be. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. ao8). is MN. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. Cijlt. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. as shown in the subjoined illustration. which are idenr Figures 5. the actual it which would to represent. i. A key must unlock more doors than this.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. and . are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. The combination of the symbols I and 2. 8. to be taken (Prim. ancient Greek M . Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. 7. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. 6. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. it will leave figures 3 and 4. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. . 9. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m.

many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense." the use of a change of vowel in as. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and the only safe beneficent Creator. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. for instance. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. what comes to the same thing. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. his fellows. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language.' should be discovered. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. in the shape either of direct inspiration. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. known to us as yet. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. had its origin in imitation of sound. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. or. leading him to utterances. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. which either by direct resemblance of sound. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment.

or else. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. and rose towards a higher state of being. and when we look back as far as history will reach. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or beavers. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. of using imitative conduct . as elephants. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. by animal without a trace name of Man. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. race were speaking men or not. the conduct of Ixix life. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. that he started from the lowest grade. for instance. or of their own reflected thoughts . in the course of generations. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period .COMPLETION OF MAN. and sooner or later. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . until the progeny. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. or not. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians.

Diet. 1737. Wtb. English. Elfric's Fl. Baile/sEngl. ^Ifr. Dueange. Biglotton seu Diet. Esth. E. B. Diefeiibach. de la langue Cat. Cimbr. Catalan. Cot. Teutonico-Lat. Carpentier. .. Dief. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. 1768. Sup. Gr. at the end of Somner's Diet. dial. Supplement to Bret. or Dan. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Esthonian. Finnish. 1766. Brem. Dutch. Gothischen 1851. Fr. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Diet. Bremisch. Dn. Romano - Cas- traise. Bigl. Cotgrave. 1857. Supplement to Dueange. Provincial dialect. Infimse Latini- D. Dueange. Grammar Boh. Couzinid. AS. dialect of the Sette Commune. Bavarian.V.-Eng. Bohemian or Czech. Douglas' Virgil.Saehsiches Worterbueh. 1654. Danish. Fin. Carp. Diet. Cimbrisch. Anglo-Saxon. Da. Dief. Bav.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Due. Castr. 1850. Diefenbaeh.Nieder.

TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS.Lat. Mid. .

.

deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. Askance woud r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. baltresca nokkutomax. cti. katowai perairrantr.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.5 ERRATA. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. plowied budowaer. puHti r. Blob plowied r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. yjnaifia r. alUger ahaverie r.. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. kilistaa bugiie r. ^i?^i2! r.percurrunt kimista^x. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. word allagerr. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r.>. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. (/ijtf r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni .nokkutama willekem. woman r. sveritet Asknace r. r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. buque 118 brodiquin r. cruccio deyrie. haverie crtOT r. willekom Blab r.

.

Passing tongues. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. on-bsec . OHG. to subdue. sion of 'an abandoned character. —Bruce. dominion. abaft. particular 1 . orders. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. Parson's Tale. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. said. as. dominion. ab. out of. K . 843. on. away. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. of-dune. to arise. Immediately from Fr. er. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. The word Ban is common orders. iway from. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. in the same sense. power : Than Wallace thing. to hold . an edict or proclamation. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. the er.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. AS. a. Ab-. abs. compounds. be-ceftan. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. AS. onis aback. from a is to wake to abide. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. ar. but now )bsolete). Again. Abaft. erwachen.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. plesyt him. ir. as. command. until the event jlace . bandon in French. Hence on-bceftan. and secondarily in that of command. Jvery man shewid baft. literally. into the Romance ftrseg . In Lat. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. ibandonner. rule. Thus ip N3S. vs. implying a completion of J. Lat. 244. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. A. on. to sauff the king or spill. baftan. ifter. and — Chaucer. Dent posture. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . away from. "rom a height. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. o/j of or . A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. in. a/tan. . Thou spelds of mychty iction. on-lic. state of sleep . a washing off to abstain. from. ur. Abandon. downwards. To abuse is to use iway. in a manner other than it should be ablution. his. off. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. among. us. announcement. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. to awake. behind.he Goth. this word beand Spanish. whatever he be. Abs-.t G. alike. have entire dominion over.

impulse. down. abate. — — . iv. I was abawid for merveille. Milton. law term abatement. baer.— — . where custom (Grandg. to excite admiration. or society of abbots or monks. may be explained. at his own the lips. father. esba. . other. bandon. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. abaundunem-ent. from ravir.) . grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Cotgr.' the surrender of a ' K. Abbot. merely the terminations ons. impetuously. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. with or without a final sh. as ravish. c. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . burny was formerly burnish . Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. to overthrow. to bate something of the price abbatersi.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. esbahissais. On the other in use as well as hand. and sets them all agape. to put to con. 364s. Fr.down. d. esbahissant. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. abbatia. to ruin. to abaw or astonish.— R. 1 1 8. by Wall. Hence the OE. overthrow. R. See Abide. and that from Syrian abba. Originally. abbatis. faire tomber. to strike Froiss. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. to gape. to The . when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. Hence Lat. ais. lish to abaisse orabaish. Baba ! Mod. to hit. — Neccham. thing abbatere le vela.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. See . et prirent terre. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. of wonder. In or. abandonly. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. 1520. his eyen shene. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. . de. It. ant. baba. depress. of fear. to take possession of an estate. Wall. to beat furnish. abbatere dal prezzo. person. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. More correctly written abbat. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. son bandon. an abbey. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. astony. bawi.fournir. of the Fr. And he thereof was all abashed. to astonish. betrash. Abbess. Hart in Jamieson. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. so common in the found in the OFr.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. Beat. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. uncontroUedly. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. his mouth. shame. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. vol.Prov.polir. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. R. to strike sail . burny. Abbey. R. terminedly. Castrais. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. and grooms besmeared with gold. from Lat. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. to diminish the force of any. ne more vermeille. abbatere. adverbial expressions at abandon. Bate. effect of shame. and it that that it — . confound. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. in the active form. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. A. castle. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. abbattre. beer. to happen. astonish. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. To Abate. polish. drink. to make lower. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. esbahir.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. Custom. and the verb was written in Eng.esbawi. or admiration. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. abbas.On princes. weaken. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. to light upon.

1 • . Abele. desire. regarder. to desire earnestly. In We . and alluring to his own destruction. Gloss. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. Du. desirer (Roquef. badigliare. to expect. white. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. compared with (Bosworth). to attend on . baer. expectfamily. in Fr. tenere a bada. gola badada. to desire. bada. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. Thus G. usbeisnei. . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. Guernsey beth. delay. The white poplar. Abie. to deceive.— Chaucer. tity of E. beijen.) abayer. forbearance. and E. Corresponding to keep in suspense. to wait. attendre avec en^pressement. to be intent upon. delay. de Berri) Prov. abeter. we sceolon ON. warten. ne chastised them.. take notice. bouche b^ante. from Halo. K. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. tempting. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. abie. de Champ. in Dan. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. is idenwait. look for another. To Abet. wait To Abide. Fabl. verbeijen Sw. baier compared with It. to abide . badare. beter. aspirer. Prov.to wait. were called Brothers. F. — II. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. to mind. to It. open the mouth. bie. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . intent observation. Cat. abayer. on the one hand. bidan. endurance. badare. to wait. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. bocca badata. house. ' ' . inciting. bialodrze-w. . to In great amaze. or in Fr. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. abSiance. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. to open bader. From abahier. abetter. ^couter avec dtonnement. to deanimer. signifies the direction of tend. and Prov. a bay or opening in the coast. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. tical with It. suspense.was formerly used in the sense of look. See Abide. incite . bie compared with Dan. ne wist what way to chuse.— Roquef. beijen. othres abidan' The effacement expect. Ni engigner ni abiter. badar. bida. with open mouth . abet. (Vocab. which is certainly related to It. lingering. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. ceive. 366. Ducange. bouche bdante. which the mind to an object. abidan. us. says. to wait. baier. take care. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. to look. attendre See Bait. aspire to. Norm. The verb atwaiting. beguile. abaier. E. OFr. to stay. bida. beidan. John. qui iaaille. abiiance. to open the mouth. bana. beijden. to ance. to tarry. to suffer death in Du. the verb of abeyance. guardare. Quant voit le serpent. Goth. trick abetar.— ^richer. pense. beidan. inciter. bhr. Thus we have It. Gloss. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. abie. abeyance. — ABELE Epiphanius. listening. to remain or endure. — . to expect gabeidan. b^er. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. endurArt thou he that should come. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). to gape . Corant sens lui. also to OFr. m Abeyance. expectation. to hook. —Raynouard. abbadare. deceiving. or absorption watching. beguiling on the other. songer. exciter. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. covet. suffer b. . to yawn. listen. or do we AS. have seen abide.' is in AS. wait. abet. — signifies to suspend action. delay. watch. Norm. to attend to. syllable ba. literally white tree. waiting. expectation. to stay. bide of the d endure.Fr. deceit. . with badia. bder. Pol. Cat. while the monks under his control ing. and in E. to be intent upon. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. a right in suspense . . tarrying . baier. badare. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. Q. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. Boethius. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. forms with the d effaced are OFr. gridare. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. speaking of the Holy places.

— e. Cassar. abie to Goth. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. al- be found so some will dear abide it. She shall abie that trespass dere. purpose. Dr. strong. to draw fowls. &c. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. . abilej Prov. at hand). hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. bord. the Sir Tristrem. habilis (from habeo. God tokeneth and assigneth the times.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. 2. R. God — dear. consequences of anything .— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. abide. and the simple buy. fit. It. Mids. For on board. within the ship. to wear away. fault being simply clothing. on board . as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . and death for handsel pay. though sometimes confounded with it. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. —Bacon in R. as E. Merch. Prol. ON. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. AS. L. able. durance in both applications. P. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. convenient. and Cr. from AS. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Boucher. use. to pay the penalty. was often used in the same sense. habilis is closely preserved. must suffer for it. The —Boucher. expert. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. abidge. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. at kasta fyri bord. to pay the purchasemoney. abie. aboleo. If it badare. In this to erase or annul. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. is the verb abie. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. as habiller du chanvre. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. P. Tr. power. F. abycgan. properly abuy. i. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. atling hem to her proper offices. the Pardoner In the original. have-like. abilh. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Chaucer. him with che. to . Innan bords. willing to schewe his wrathe. without special reference to the notion of retribution. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. to redeem. powerful. 2nd Tale. the side of a ship. to have . Fr. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. O If tion. abigg. forbid for mother's children should abye. bidan. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. to dress hemp. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. R. the Fr. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. habile. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. ! ! Cotgr. N. abicgan. — P. in for any special purpose. abolir. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. God. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. from Lat. when compared with Aboard. being disabled in the highest degree. adapted . Lat. bide. Spenser. Milton. or bie. — Able. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. Abie. beidan. suffer the Jul. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. to perish. Wickliff in Richardson. a board. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard.ynes. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. de la volatile. Fr. abeye. within the walls of a ship. Q.^and to make his power knowne. while in later examples As I . sufficient. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge.

as the duty of nourdisposition. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. OE. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. For on broach. heavy. See To Bray. while the verb alleThe root el. and bidden him abregge. Tale. ufan. without. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. Prov.. boven. butan. a portent). Sc. life. Gael alaich. Goth. disastrous portent in some passing oc. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. to grow up. to break off. To abray or abraid. from Fr.1. bufan. above. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. and alere flammain. to main. abutan. to aggravate. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. sec seftre — Chaucer. brood.ger. Lat. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. coalesco. See -und-. and to do something to avert abbreviate. D. OSw. which may God avert. ala. greu. Finnish stock. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. below. Then. Kiittner. Thonne Abroach.) . the idea of breaking about . to beget or give birth to children. outward. by the to bring up. d. abbrechen. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. abominor (from ab and omen. Du. to fatten. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. to cut short. draw out. to AS.— Abbreviate. — . to progress. that greatly agredge their sin. the identity of which with ting. Severe the threatened evil. ol. be-ufan. natural ed direct from the latter language. awaking. vital PI. af-oleii. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. as AS. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. to start. abrcBgdan. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. be-utan. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. to snatch. Above. whence the Fr. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. Quod abominor. nurse Lat. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. abowen. as withotityn and without. from . on high. The radical idea is to feed the flame. is not from G. AS. the OSw. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. AS. Melibaeus. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. progeny. .' Parson's rence.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. — ' — — preceding verb.' Ymb hancred utan. Thence to regard greugetat. Virg. to light a fire the Abraid. Fr. literally. and also. his contemporaries. common in Chaucer and Abominable. ABOMINABLE adolesco. the man dwindles away. titan. gravity. the vital spark. abredan. to nourish. parent. Abrdger itself. s —Casdmon. to feed. agredge. full ofte his words for to Fr. motion. seems aras. to rear. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. snatch In English we speak of away. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. To Abound. AS. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). is a ively. break out. Abray.aboon. about cockcrow. to let sleep. pedigree from brevis.the older form. while the sense of beget.. The primitive idea seems that of beget. alan. or young forth. Abundant. al is growth. Of these synonymous adolescere. abrdger. around on the out. abufan. currence. or cut short. the hair grow. explains soboles Lat. side. but from Lat. nourish.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. the form a&^^. levis to the Romance languages. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. to turn. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. to produce. of any kind . agreujar. ala is made to signify to rear.foda signifies to beget. to feed. nurse. abbreviare. to rear. kindling. to awake. which passed into English under Abominate. So in Lat. giving birth to. In the same brevis .ymbutan. en. abbrechen. way Sw. breaking out in language. to bring up. and also to abridge. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. gravis. onbutan. . to and of giving birth to a litter of young. OE.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. leading immediately to Fr. abracan. oil.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. for ligeth butan. adolere. alan. and in-d-oles. af-oolden. to grow together. hard. alere capillos. becomes leu in Prov. alUger.

;

6

ABROAD
thrust, butt,

ACCOUTRE
In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as

way

the G. stossen, to
is

push with the horns, &c.,

He

who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their

m

Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato
;

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to

own

country.

taught.

But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.

Accede.

—Access. —Accessory.

Lat.

Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,
ill

Fr.

abscez,

humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,
or
;

;

the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.
Cic.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as
:

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the


; ;

;

ACCRUE
vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.
;

AD
Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.

7

sacristan
clesice

Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

Ludwig.
sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem

dium

accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.

The

original

meaning

of

would thus be to perform the
;

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance
is

Grimm

akran,

fruit,

;

;

Achromatic.
free
tive,

Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe
!

and Ache.

A

is

your

joy.

same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the
rest,

Kilttn.

cries of grief.
is

The

Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some
impending

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.

—A

of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion

a.

;:

8

ADAGE
Adage.
Lat.

ADJUST
W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.

OHG

adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be

'

'

swouning,

—to

dawne

that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.
;

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.
9.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs
I

or

com

or

addle

my

ninepence every day.

— Hal.

hay

Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,
:

'

;

A

attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly

satisfactory,

were

it

not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo
its

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run
crease.

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

ADJUTANT
Dte
sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

ADVOCATE
Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.
to

9
puts

that

one

was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and
title

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
to
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival

E.

advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,

'

Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.
from
videri,

;

Captain-general Church.

of

the

Holy Roman with
The
'

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.
Sire,'
'

Hence

In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.
;

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be

wouM

So

that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.

ded

That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to

;

We

flatter.

from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,

Adult.

grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.

Whence

He

Weened

looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,
son,

boy,

lo

ADVOWSON
call for help, to

AJFRAY

to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal

person

ket,

Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded
was
c?i}ii^6.

the cause of another,

who whence
a

patromis.

afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after

Advowson.

From

the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in
affeerers

Due.
Affiance.

—Affidavit.

From_/?ifi?j,

was

formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to
;

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.
like

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.
fil,

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And

putte

hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon

hit

walde him

for-

Adze.

AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.

wSisthetios.
oiT0i)mc,

The

science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —

;

AFFRONT

AGHAST

n

eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under

Tho

in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.

With

The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to

Gower

in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.

The

Jam.

Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.

;

AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose
;

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,
to
irritate;

agga, to
to

irritate,

disturb.

gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

horror.
the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.
.

The French exclaimed
All the whole

vi.

Probably the word

may be

explained

.

;

12

AGISTMENT
Fris.

AIM
dial.

In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-

from

guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.

—Baker.

;

;

Fr.

had ghir,

to

lie

;

whence
;

giste,

a

able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.
;

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan
fits

Ague.

A fever

Journal.

Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.
'1

Si

non qu'une

fiivre

aigue vous presse

les cotds.

Raynouard.

The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.

A

On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue

A

Aid.
tare,

Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-

;

tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,

For

in

swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve

Whan

that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a

Agog.

quagmire.

— Hal.

'

He is

all

agog to

go.'

shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,

To
;

'

A

!

;

AIR
his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.

ALERT
tions.

13

— —

Las.!

Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched

me

!

Alas

M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.

—Raynouard,
me
I

You have how Uttle

it

given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

Alchemy.

The

;

A

;

;

;

;

.

;

;

!

A

;

;

14

ALGATES
som a
fair

ALLAY
gull
saei.'

Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
another.
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was

as

used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.

Always
manner

itself is

Algebra.

From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as
;

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly

Two

&

Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.

Quo

be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran
;

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was
this,

— Catafogo.

To
alienus,

alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,
Lat.
foreign.

Alien.

And

make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
That
shall alegge this bitter blast,

ybore.

To Alight.
(from
lei,

Dan.
light),

lette,

Du.

ligt,

signify to

lift,

ligten to

And

slake the winter sorrowe.

make

from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have
;

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.

Tempest.

;

So

to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other

ever.

tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-

and

continuance
series,

throughout

an

extended

or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.

!

;

;

ALLEDGE
would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour
It

ALLOW

15

AUggid much of my In the original,
I.fi

languor.

—R.

R.

voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf

ma

douleur.

So

in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.
i

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief
'

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

France.
Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-

And

times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular
octals-jord,
;

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.
'

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic
laws,

—an ancient inheritance, from
and
an

Eetas, antiquitas,

allda-vinr,

alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-

from

aller, to go.

Alligator.

The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded
;

Two

i.

'

i6

ALLOT
il

ALMS
week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que

English
This
First

:

And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.

think

age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a
'

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to
tie
;

alligare, to tie to, to unite.

'

The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to
'

Almanack.

'

coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.
It.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to
hire.

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont
'

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare

and

allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the
'

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—
i\iriiio(Tvvri,

Alms.

— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals

'

would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

ALOFT
dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a
fices

AMAY
;

17

were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.

To

Alter.
it is

To make something
;

ot'vr

cupboard.

Almonarimn,

almorietum,

than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,

luft,

ON.

lopt,

loft,

OE.

lift,

the

air,

the

another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,

to

on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
sky.
*
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;

Kil.

eral.

Trop fesoient miex

cortoisie

A

Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and
;

A

toute gent

lonj: cc

que

erent..

Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.

Hence
initial

selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of
place,

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,

A

quell.

and dlugo,

long.

Upon

the walls the Pagans old and
still,

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the

The

Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.

hwom

OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,
dull,
spiritless,
;

to abate,
G.

matt,

faint.

It.

matto,

mad,

foolish

wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.
;

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.
R.

R

1737.

In the original

Derived

—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to
;

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,

&c

To Amay.
dispirit
;

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,

Altar.

The

fire-place

on which

sacri-

despond

;

desmayar
2

se,

to faint

;

OPort.

i8

AMBASSADOR

AMERCEMENT
The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was

And
So

his
all

menye

at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and

for

He

amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms

are,

according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a
ant,
;

serv-

OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,
ambaht,
office.

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time

;

the

word was becoming

obsolete.

Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '

;

'

'

'

'

:

;

'

:

'

A

;

:

;

;

AMNESTY
cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.
First,

AN
for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and
also,

19

an

al

hys ost

An

thogte anon

amorwe

strong batayle do. R. G. 319.

Secondly,

and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.

Which

Affeer.

were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I

man

Amnesty.
fivao/iai,
I

Gr.

aiivijirTHa

{a

priv.

&

remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if

(/"and

and if

or simply

an

I

pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest
sei-vant

my

boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou

dalliest,

then

I

am

thy foe.
in

Ben Jonson

R.

In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.
;

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is

extremely

difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against

evil.

From

Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.

To

give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,
sensible
level.

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as

The

upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand
;

;

;

2 *

;

20
these

ANA
propositions
as

ANGER
equally

thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;

certain,

wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.
;

'

'

'

when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of
ality

— Palsgr.
forth.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,
ing.

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.
AS.

;

See Atom. Ancestor.
Lat.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense
;

;

;

'


;

Pied. Diez.

Sicil.

anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na
That
is

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.

Ancle.

Bruce,

i.

235.

bably

Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,

I

have had.

— R.

R.

Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.

;

;

And.

See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.

andela,

hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the


; ;

;

ANGLE
compression, tightness.
pressed,
tus,
strait,

ANTHEM
G.

21

narrow;

eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the
;

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.
;

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium
;

'

aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
in
odi, hate, disgust
; ;
;

;

'

;

the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.
spirit,

life

Anodyne.

Gr.

avt\ioq,

from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,

oSvvrt,

pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,
Gr.
dvdifioKoe
(a

to blow.

Anomalous.
and
i/iaXbg,

priv.

glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.
fire

To Anneal.

To

level,

fair),

irregular, devi-

And
I

lilce

a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-

tinually.

aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

Answer.
in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,

to

From

AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on

fire,

and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to

engage

for, to

assure.

Marsh.
* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.

The

Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.

What

in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.

A

from in and cudere. Apartment. Pezron fiUist. Prov. should be received. before. anfilts Pl. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Gr. avri^ava. to go in strange disguises. and ig. Hall's Chron. As the browcalled antiques. swaged. panis. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. Lat. part. In like manner. whence anthem. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. separate purpose. af. AS. antifena. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Gr. Mannequin. Aperient. on. Otfried. choke. like a jack-pudding. from Stephanus. one having wealth. a few. Hence the applica. as from as.legacy of given against. white. plenteously with red. to nourish. Lat. which by anvild. to imitate gestures. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College.. bread. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. post. press. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. left as the . Apart. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. antefn. a definite . a puppet or an anti^hona. gabeigs. from ango. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. amboltj Du. i. anticus. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. from ante. from an and — - . . In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. from avTiipoiuia). verberas. Apartment. to strain. to strike G. rich. Antidote. transferred to the grotesque characters. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. E. and devils. to strike. ab. ambeld. separate. three antike pillers. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. — — — . before. of. wealth. were andouiller the second. or in a ridiculous dress. Jorioc. eigs. Percutere. So Lat. in Shakespear. andouillers. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Antler. whence Prov. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. Any. Gr. Ilvtwotov.D. anxius. AS. aside. some one. something ler in R. apatiar. from. strangle. Anvil. panar. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Anxious. incus. G.— . to have. but the expresent day. inAgain from the same author cudis.—Aperture. vex. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. fauns. or antique single chamber. as the Italians. villan Gloss. d<popi(xnbs. Fr. the anticks — behind. Lat. a block to hammer on. apertum. from an. cenig. as posticus. to bring forth. to display pario. burnished. and claret wine. a preventative . stem. to support. aperio. all of gold. To go antiquely. a termination equivalent to Goth. work. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. from. were chiefly of the former class. See Cover. one. Antick. such as savages. anapoz. to sound in answer. a gift. trouble. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. —Spencer.th centuries the recognised models of antic. one at the least. as we call it. a small quantity.made out. : . spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. apanage. Thus from gabe. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. ReApe. Fr.is to be given. AS. Ful- Apanage. d. what Roman civilisation. younger child. finally applied to a whether grotesca. anxi. Aphorism. Fr. To ape. to open. from eigan. Antique. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. surimitation of the ancient models. set aside. Lat. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke.

a thing for one's purpose. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. off. poind. a'^opi'Jw. to assign or grant over unto. appareiller. in commendation. were formed appropiare ejar. to strike down. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. They werin his approvirs privily. to seize. Hence appoind. approver. cepl. — prehendere. plight. preparation. e. Gr.his giving evidence against his principal. Friar's Tale. From Lat. avail. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. and also as appraise. and in the sense of condition. word was specially applied to clothing. apar. Yr. landmark. make a composition between parties. I prise ware. in Chaucer. find Then like Fr. Fr. To praise. xv. when the . i. trim. apprise. peace. to take away or lose the vital powers. En peach.t.—Apprentice. to learn. Sp. appartenir. 'L-zX. piteux poind. d-n-o. From Lat. An old appalled wight. an epistle or letter. H. habilUr. to call. to Lat. proper time came. Fr. to disable oftat. to send to. — Apprise. Cotgr. Gr. (cited by Diez from a late author). to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. aparelhar. Yr. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. allow. apal. apal. mine. appellare. that it outfit. prover. ciously than nede is. seiden of the stones. Fr. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. ON. Appareil. horror. Cent Nouv. A — . to suit. array. to catch hold of. ^wss. S^. obolys. appaiser. aptly. to finish a controversy. consent unto. case. lAfiaam.parecchio.pareil. Apprehend. Fr. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. irpaiKOKiaov. one is in. w. and metaphorically to take the meaning. in good season prendre son d. pertain or belong to. a price. from.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. Nouv. to mark to define a bound. Walach. Palsgr. dress. ai.probare. . — dirondtfiu. a learner.— . decree.parejo. to deem good. to which it is often referred. praise. Epistle. in fact. 'LaX. To Appear. to rate. oVooroXof. Cotgr. corresp. opportunity. appareo. Apo- good time. to make a thing Apparel. to send off. Approach. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. Gr. 11. esteem.prix.propius). in data. to commend. And whanne sum men Lat. The Fr. Fabian in R. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. appris. 5w. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. iwKjToKri. Cotgr. laven is used both as E. To Appraise. to — . to — — . to deter- to strike. APRICOT off. Mod. whence the e. poind. Pliny. to store or put Appal. to understand. —Diez. AS. or E. purpose. like. fit- — ness. N. to deaden. Ir. from paix. kind of action. They were considered To Appoint. For their acquaintance was not come of new . manner. approcher. pragigua or prixcoda. probare. known. From Gr. one the MLat. Fr. peler. to fit. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. Apoplexy. to call for judgment. And among other of his famous deeds. one sent out. It. ar. Fr. Parson's Tale. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. diroTrXriaatii. . Wholly unconnected with/a/^. ap. jabloko. taking. : — — speak 'Lz. apin R. properly to join like to like. —^Apparent. apropid. to set a price on. approcdare. pretium. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Apple. habiliments. pronounce good. Lat. apropchar. to learn. Prov. To cause to pall (see Pall). — Approve. equal. become dizzy . like. Formerly apricock. to approve. to approach. Appease. . a crime. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. whether through age or sudden teiTor. to lose one's senses. to be open to view. the good. value apprdder. The PI. apparecchiare. 23 . one for his defence. par. Hence It. prize. Fr. diroBrjKr}. agree. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. Lith. Prov. to come near. and appoinder (to find fitting. despatch on some service. D. apprendre. Fr. to dress in this fashion. from aTroorlXXu. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. set a price on. of. apprentis. agreeing with "LtA. away. after his mind . he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. Gr. good. apprehendere. prope (comp. diminutive pariculus. pronounce fitting). — Appurtenance. or the like. OFr. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. quoth the frere. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. Apotliecary. rise to \t. to announce. near. to accord. prohts. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. APO sentence opoQ. order. Apostle.

Arbitrate. arbitror arwaaja. — . divining rod. sorcerer. the spelland umpire. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. derived. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. Roquefort. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. aha. sortium ductor. arwelo. and thence fit. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. Flower and Leaf. quod he. to preserve it from stains.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. pracoqua was not an adapt. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. Lat. This path Aqueous. 2. Lat. . or barm-cloth.) E. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. man. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir.shrubs {arbor). arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. hariolus arpelen. Pr. 31. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. fastened close. and taken away before dessert. nected. sestimatio arbitraria. or eft. P. C. as an eye-witness. rofe and all. aro. a lot. Beryn. tion under trial. as ihe diminutive. doubtless is the origin of E. auguror. . most conspicuous situation in the garden . short. 331. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. Gr. J. account for either of these significations. a soothsayer. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. found in Fin. Hall. OE. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. arpa. Thus we have natiger and auger. and a protection of the clothes. conjicio. opinio. nawl and awl. a river.' —About. ughe. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. She made.] in the N. A. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. Aquatic. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. intensitive of nape. to decide by lot. water Which that benchid was. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. Arbour. naperon. la nappe. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . From OFr. OHG. arbiter. conjectura conjec^ra. words derived from arpa. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. wata. Freshly turnid Arable. properly the arwella. Now one of the points — — — . .o. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. ap. garden. arwaus. however. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. aptus.meaning at Shrewsbury.sors. and the one who gives oracles. The loss or addition of n very common. — napkin is Naperon.. Naprun. aestimo. aa. a cloth. aqua. suitable. proper. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Lat. a lot. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. arbiter in re censendS. From OE. P. ear. and sortilegus ation. Maan initial . Albanian. ahva. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. Prol. shortdr. Marsh. scr. herbere. Pm. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. It may be doubted. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. con. delon. It is certain that the apricot oracle. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. to plough. grande nappe. symbol. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. {mies ^=ia3. a lot. and with turfis new Goth. however. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Now we find in Fin. Alban. arbitrium. As is a pretty parlour. a pleasure-ground. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. of of divination arpa-mies. is taken in is a soothsayer. be That it inne groweth. .

arsum. gwyro to bend. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . an arrant rogue. vescovo. a threshing-floor. fabricate). Lat. — Architect. G. and Kpurka. aj-f. raineno. Ardour. armada. difficult to reach. bravest. ardeo. Lat. kpxi- beginning. to demonstrate. Aristocracy. A construct. malicious. ardre. curved line. a rule (princiruler. Alisaunder. — Wtb. signifies chief or principal. Cot. are formed the participial nouns. ardor. Lat. adjective. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. arg. Gr. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. to Arch. arga. weapon. Langobard. AS. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). from areo. arrant Arms. weapon may be simply an application of annus. receptacle where the public acts were kept. It. a branch. troublesome. Gr. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. een erg kind. armee. arm. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. earg. apx^iv. the a brute. ^Argument. 2. And thou as arwe coward. mischievous. . mischievous. and our army. From the verb armare. erz in G. fainthearted. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. arcus. earh. stuff. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. a court yard. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. ' — Argue. archangel. a bare plot of ground. ardIn G. earm. bad. . make clear or prove. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. arrig. an extent of flat surface. as in E.. Arduous. ancient. contemptible. Fr. first. it signifies roguish. i. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. and not with apx. un petit rusd. Dan. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. to rule. to burn . . Area. Fr. shoulder Boh. arch-bishop. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. bad of its kind.is the natural weapon of offence. ramo (pi. From apxeiov was formed Lat. ruling by the nobles. arson. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. ill-tempered. Lat. ramend). armata. Arid. Sp. to be on fire. a bow. There can be no doubt that E. the most arrant trash. argvitugr. . taxed with cowardice. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. Lat. government. high. worker. erz-bischof. un malin enfant.' Lex. argr. burning heat. apxtipfve. especially shoulder-joint. to arm. by Russ. ON. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. arwe. arguo.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. ars. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. patus). from nixa. Arson. an arch boy.' the Gr. Arm. the terminaGael. G. Uo^a^. sluggish. whence the body of the nobles collectively. arduus. * ArchjAiTaxit. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Applied in modern E. area. Perhaps erz-wticherer. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. wretched OE. arcA in e. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. TiKToiv. Gr. Arch in composition. Du. erg. Du. Lat. branch. exercise lordship). morally bad. a noble.. arm'ee.' Paul Warnefrid. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. apxh. apxtlov. ein arger knabe. Lat. Brem. Arcliives. to be in comp. forearm . timid. which is derived from it. ers-betriiger. while the Fr. sly. — degree when appHed to a bad quality.— Army. Ardent. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Arcadia in R. Lat. . W. the court of a magistrate.In E. faint-hearted. rame. wanton. shoulder.4 rir/. arm. as the arch of a bridge. bad. and must be identified with Dan. lofty. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. gwyrek. sly. the best. det arrigste snavs. arma. curved. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. is essentially the same word. man. aridus. in Due. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. apxri. D. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. Gr. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. Sax. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. which has been referred to W. a. a burning or setting on fire. Fr. to dry. an arch-deceiver . a chief builder.aioj. 3340. vocaveris. an arrant usurer. The . et vulgari verbo.

;


; ;

26

AROMATIC
dispose,
see

ARSENAL
prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.

order,
is

The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from

apufia,

sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and

;

;

;

;

;

.^

From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

Jamieson.
orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.
Ptg.

Arrack.

araca,
;

From

Arab.

a7-ac,

sweat

to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize

seems

;

his person.

To Arrive.
come

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming

;

more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the
^

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and

Saga

ciple

It.

Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.
'

To Array.
or

It.

dispose

beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,

and

in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,
is

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament

OFr.

array er,

arrier,

to

of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the

:

:

ARSON
Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

AS
and
thence the modern Fr.
atelier,

27

—Engelmann

a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod

eligantur

duo

vadant

cum

officiali

Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense

Arson.

See Ardent.

Art.

in the production of

;

:

trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.

omnes
of

alias artillarias sibi

com-

A Statute
qui

Edward

II.

was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the

We

of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the

Book

of

bow and

'

'

'

'

'

Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,
;

xii.

795.

word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,
;

xii.

782.

Quod

sit

i.

e.

whom men

held as without equal of
'

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis

dicta.

—Due.

his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er

ist,'

—such a one

28
.

ASCETIC
R. Brunne.

ASSASSIN
synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.
.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.

En

But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.

etclenk-

=

;

;

alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.

^

Askew.
schief,

ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,

schdf,

wry

Hence
Ash.

the idea of exercising rigorous
I.

self-discipline.
2.

The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.
Dust.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.
;

Ashlar.
Sc. aislair.

Hewn
'
:

stone.
le

OFr.

aiseler,

From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put

Entur

temple— fud un

out of

its

place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz

awry.

Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a
the

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam
then,

in centering. in

Aisselier,

carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or
esselier,

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.
;

A

;

— —

;

'

;

;

;

;

; ;

ASSAY
of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.
;

ASSOIL
to fix

29

these behests, the

name

a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—

de

I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,
'
;

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
weight.
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.

OE.

Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it

in

weighing,

a

trial,
;

standard
i^ayiiiZui,

weight.

And

suffice

not for asseth.

—P.

Plowman,

'Efayioj/, pensitatio

examine,
ampu-

p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus
tetur,

And
left to

Pilat willing to

make

aseeth to the people

in

Due.
tit

quoque,

fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,

quemadmodun

vultis ponderate.

—Zeno,
the

ibid.

gio, a proof, trial,
;

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe
'

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.

satis-

facio.

rise

'

;

—Vulgate.

'

simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.
.

From

Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,
Pol.

syt, syty, to satisfy.

satisfied,

full

;

The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.

;

samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as

thai
I

harde say.
in

Wyntown

Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set
;

;

Jam.

day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse

And

iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,

;

Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a

Y

;

;

;

30

ASSUAGE
pour.

ATTAINDER
Atmosphere.
Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges

Atom.

and

Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,

&c.

To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei

Were

wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.
ripe

Mais moult m' assouagea
translated

1'

oingture

—R.

R.

wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,

Lod.

Is

there
?

division

twixt
;

my

Lord and

Cassio

Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult
breathing.

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love

I I

would do much
Othello.

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.

The

idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one

Or

amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.
;

Fab.

et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.

oneden

Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.
;

put

Pm.
Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,
;

stunned.
Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the

Astute.

Asylum.

to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.
;

commence war
;

to

engage in battle
fire

il

on

:

globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or

;

ATTIRE
convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the
attitude.

AUGER

31

ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,

Attorney.

Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed

by

put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est
cil

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.

Auburn.

Now

applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call
hair,

tress.

The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good
navie.

—Ibid.

The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-

By

tores,
isti,

&c.

Men

&c.'

—Due.

Hoc

viderunt et audierunt
is

At the present day the term

confined

Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.

attour.
Polit.

— R. R.
ajuster,

Songs.

OFr.

to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.

atirer,

attirer,

atirier,

See Oaf
holes,

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer
:
:

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.

—Palsgr.

Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible

prima

facie to say

whether an n has


;

;• ;

32

AUGHT
in the

AVER
the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,
;

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.

Avalanche.

A

fall

of

snow

sliding

down from higher ground
Carp.

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a
thing.

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.

A

!

They

left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.
!

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.

A

Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.
!

venire, to

come.
;

Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.

A

and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied
airbc,

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,

.

power.

Automaton.
udoiim,
I stir

Gr.
;

avrSixarot,

self-

moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,

and

noua

Autumn.
times

myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou
averia,

;

AVERAGE

AVOID
mes
avei-s.
I

33

of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.

il

oocist

We

The general meaning damage by accident or

;

'

;

'

'

'

'

3

;

34

AVOIR-DU-POISE
Here the word may be interpreted

AWARD
^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the
:

modern meaning.

So
:

in the following
I

A

passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do

dissuade

Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.

And

my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted
bid
ieria,

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.

Prov.

avoutrador, OE.

avowterer,

an
;

adulterer.

A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):

;

;

-

superior.
Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-

modo

Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.

cabit,

nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.

;

;

AWE

AWK
I

35

—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.
is

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were
three,

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.
reken,
I

barons the wisest that

And
And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look
let

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons

That

hii

and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.
;

To

stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was
this;

lo

1

That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.
;

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.

Ac

is

That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.

—Holland,
of,

Pliny in R.
a/,

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.
lb.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

no.
Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.
;

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;
ofiig-fleiri,
left

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,
terrify,

a

flat-fish

with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo

w

Awgrim.
As

Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri
;

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,
foolish,

mad.
different G.

And no

thing availith.

The
p. 414.

Political

Poems, Cam. Soc.

ous

;

forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *

;

36
sinister
;

AWL
d.
dial,

BABE
abech,
dbicht,

primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
abich,
; ;

The

Awl.

ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,

ever.

alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,

Awn.

A

Esthon. aggan,
*

chaff.

or

Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may
;

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,

by

Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.
:

;

B
To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe

On

this

matere

I

might

Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.

P.

same meaning with
the syllable ma.

babble

was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;

:

;;

BABOON
prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a

BACKET

37

plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age

mamma

or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty

work

There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had

;

any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape
;

;

inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-

backwards,

verted

;

Russ. opako, naopako, wrong

paki

man. Bachelor.
root.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.
girl,

servant,

make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to
;

;

;

;

;

A

;

A

was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,
bachalUer,
;

young

soldier,

;

;

Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j

It.

bacinetto,

a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open

;

38
;

BACKGAMMON

BADGER

Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.

—H^cart.

Baokgammon.
(also bakke-bord),

a

tray,

From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur

(says

Ducange)

doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.
'

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or
;

by Shakespeare
blood.

in the sense of dabbled.
all

Their hands and faces were

—Macbeth.

badged with

ODu.

The

Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.

(insignc)

feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer

Now
les

(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the

sow.

analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the

Bad.

G. base,
I

Du.

boos,

malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus
a
little

perversus, malignus.

Unconnected,

Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et

A

caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on

Bage

signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,

would

The

For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a
;


;

;

BAFFLE
skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie
;

BAGGAGE
man
is

39

and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is

A

We

;

;

;

We

;

:


:

;

f

undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.
;

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Derived
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,
tie,

Baggage.

— —

40.
'

BAIL

BAIT
half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.
'

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.

Bailiwick.

The

vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,
i.

e.

servuli,

Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive

officer

limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.
son
et
d'elle.

hommage

— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam

'

lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,
;

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.

;

'

BAIZE
to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.
signified
ball.

BALDERDASH

41

made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely
;

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,
beta,

beita,

Sw.

spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;

fledged.

Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,
is

.

.

Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white
its

skin above

beak.

The

real identity of the

word bald

in

'

;

;

;

the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.
;

;

en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to
;

His head was hallid and shone as any

glass.

Chaucer.
Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;

bdl,

bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,
;
;

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,

;

;

;

;

;

palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it

or

ceiling

scaffold.

;

chatter,

talk

;

dov-dask, chatter
;

fit

to

Fl.

deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a
;

* Balk. bbllr bulla J. Da. sick. Sw. balka. baloier. Dan. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. grieve . bol. to ail. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. balk. bola. w. TtaKKa a pail or tub . says Ray. from bacquet. pilula. other while. To Bale out water. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . bolyatchka. . to wave. balle. balka hopar. a beam. a dance. 2. pallikka. E. a division of the old laws. Ballot. to speak an un. uveirs bolk. bold. bollr. dial. balk.—Ballad. ball. Goth. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. ON. balken. at giore en balk. Sp. Sw. ball. blister. on the shore. balle. Rouchi ban. sorrow. taich. balk. bielke. to roll. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise.of men . It. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. a But making way for death at large to walke. sickness. balja. balken. AS. a pill. I. Fr. i. probably Lat. on. cka. to grieve . to rock. a globe. to dance. Ball. are applied to a From the same analogy. . Pol. We have then separate dial. ball. bal. to ache. A balk. bjdlki. gen. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. pila. trouble. tum. a dance.Lat. boll. pallo. balva-vesei. to be balker. shouting. wickedtorment ON. ballare. . with the perhaps from balg. the breadth from side to side . a clapping or flapping of wings.' speak gibberish champurrar. The primary sense seems as in G. ball. to dance.— Ballet. ban. floor. bealwes. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). to partition off . bolker. and evil in general. ballotta. to bale out. destruction. a continued noise of waves gently beating . balkr. pallukka. Q. to pack Da. and the dim. a water-skin dim. Du. bacgtteter. to shake or jog. Ballata. as we say. — A — — . separaison. dial. Bohem. a pestilence. to Not sparing wight. N. Fr. Hence Dan. Sw. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. Mid. OFr. calamity.ing. whether of wood or stone. afbalka. F. bolyaf. Sw. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. ache. bal-daed. boleii. ne leaving any balke. a clump . to see-saw. G. wickedness ness . bal. bala. ballar). See Gall. Balloon. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. ballan. balla (with the augm. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. to cause another to miss pustule. hue et illuc inclinare.). a ball or pack. Ugutio in Due. a ball. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. misery Du.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. to plough for a boundary between lands. a ball. It. a balk of foul weather. vcdra bdlkr. It. ing. stage or scaffold. a ball balla. In like manner Fr. a ball. Fr. malefacGower in R. to avoid it. dial. beaten road. a wooden partition . Bowl. OSw. a together in the form of a ball. a pail. . package of goods. pallo. Perhaps on. the ballet of the theatres. baler. a. a separate portion. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. It. on. vacillare.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . hooting. palloilla. palcare. ill. a scene acted in dancmg. to paddle in water . or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. Sw. Wotton. to move. balge. ballone. ' is a piece or confused talking. e. roof. as in a barn or cow-house. balare. a ballad. palla. Sw. Sw. Bale. Sw. Bret. a great ball. ballo. to on Holmedon's plain. a beam. maleficium. Da. from the more general notion of moving up and down. a ball. baalie. mass. baalien. Boll. Venet. .Fr. balle. a washing-tub. Ball. maan pallikka. torment. To baulke the Sir H. balle. to plank. to by beams. heap up. on. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. Gael. globule. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. a bubble. bol. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. . a ballot). weak liquor. bolawy. may exhibit the original development of the signification. a clod of earth water. the beam of a ship. ballare. balk. chapurrar. to signify washy drink. a boil. bdlkr. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. 3. to be ill. to stir. balveins. similar connection is seen in Sp. lealo. plague. balka bunge. Russ. Fin. OHG. the object of his expectation. ballet. It. a partition. . Grief. Gr. (Hesych. pain. ballare. dial. Hence. Baulke of land. Du. balloon. bal. G. a skin.

it is forced to take in stones or sand. the backload. a duty on goods last. because. a fragrant gum. When a ship discharges. a nettle. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. baltresac. curse. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. The Baltic sea. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. To make fun of a person. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. like Fr. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. paid for the right of carriage. baume. 1854. or movement of one who walks. for want of other freight. balsamum. lastra. a battlement . barauste. of balusters. deceiver. Venet. Du.000 tons. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. &c. the flower of the pomegranate. ranked on the outside of cloisters. ^Arbuthnot in R. Ballast. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. bag-las. lastagium signified not only ballast. Fr. But Fr. ^a\Ba\iov. also with flatteries and . lestage. Balluster. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life.). &c. . age. ballast. to enchant. dial. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. If bambocciolare were child of one. baU. galleries.. a rod. endormir par des contes. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. Dan. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. to walk. The Sp. bag-lest. To Bam. puzzled. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Bret. little round and short pillars. in the first place. or ballast of a ship. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. Sc. called Bait. as he says. objects to the foregoing derivation. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. Mr Marsh whether the a load. back of the ship. deceive. i860. Fr. bambocciolo. from Lat. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. more frequently than outward-bound. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. seems the original form of the word.' And Kil. urtica. denounce. terraces. analogous to what is seen in It. make fun of a person. bamboccio. A — — . last. bamein. sorcerer. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. an Old dotard or imbambolare. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. It. lastre. a young babe. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. the act of walking. by met. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. Sp. To Ban. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. astonished. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. to preserve equilibrium. a useless load. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. To Bamboozle. enchanter. Lest.that the going vessels. Sept. inutile onus. To deceive. bambolo. baUa. and Mid. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. more serious objection is . to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. Cotgr. mare Balticun. bertesca. bam.Lat. small railing. balconies.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. Said to be from balaustia. ballustre) is a corruption. Report Pennsylv. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. balustrade barandilla. R. for a load or goods (Roquef. ballustres. lest. — — oltriga. railing around altars. a small balustrade. . Gr. Balm. is in Sweden and Norway. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. 1. It is explained back by Adelung. Bamour. Lat. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. baranda. It. fonts. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. In OSw. explains ballast. command. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. To proclaim. barandado. This is the backload. Baltic. inutilis sarcina. Balsam. from bara or vara. 43 — Cot. bumbazed. Bret. a false tale or jeer. forbid. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. but loadage.

. bann. the ensign or banner. Wyntoun. ba?idare. — To partito d'alcuno. 1. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. to ban. authority. parti. 813. and thence to any proclamation. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. then the signification w. bandon was used in the same sense.—John Villani in Due. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. The to . summoning to serve So in Swiss. Mag. — R. Sw. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. to form parties. i. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. 26. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. he assembled his host. See Abandon. bandi. permission.e. band. From the verb to banda. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. also the band or of marriage. Thus the word is also used in both senses. sostener Torriano. It. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. to unite with a band.is further developed. band. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. Ripuar. ligue Taboada). in Fr. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. —R. from at the Lord's courts. Goth. a coast. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. ex. fahne. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. Fr. border. side.Lat. passing on from proclamation to command. bannum or bandum. . banda. Baud. banns pany of footmen serve. Commun^ment son bandon. region. bande. It. 2. bannire in exercitum. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. admolendinum. flag. &c. to excommunicate {lysa. In a special sense the term company itself. bando. he bannede his ferde. whether by way of injunction or for- command. theodscipe ut abannan. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. Les saiges avait et les fols d. &c. OE. acquired the sense of proclamation. A. To Bandy. G. populum.^ bandy. banda. tener da alcuno. says Muratori. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. Spebifid. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. change to the feminine gender in banda. 'A son bandon.. at his own discretion. hoc est vexillo. Diss. Leg. side. Car. Sp. It. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. biddal. those who side together (bande. power. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. to bring corn to be fahne. bound. R- He Translated by Chaucer. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. is That with which anything AS. and in E. banner marked the place of assembly. to . term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. Bandus. Assises de Jerusalem. to side or to bandy (Florio). bande. Cot. etc. Goth. bande. In Fr. we constantly find the expression. Fr. bannire exercitum. v. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Sp. Band. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. bandon somewhat party. to take one to task. to reprove. faction. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. and It. 19. D. Capitul. to follow a faction. bindan. It seems this signification has arisen. to publish) banna. bandera ground at his mill. 15. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . E. R. a company. Bandear. banda the colour or material. curse. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. margin. to ctide. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. There is some doubt how Fr. in hostem convocare. — excommunication bann-lysa. Se il — Romance languages. eiiseigne. bundun.

When a man fails Lat. band-dog. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. to knock. See Balluster. . whence the mod. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Goth. death-wound. a bench. distinguishes bekkr. Draw. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. pastoralis. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. stir. AS. the same verb the It. bank. in the sense of place of business. Bane. to proclaim. Banner. ruptus. But natheless wife at I bank. desk. See Band. se reunir. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. Bantze. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). outlam came to signify a robber. bana-sott. a table. ON. hricg. beat. to make a stir banke. Bandy legs are crooked legs. The ridge of a hill is AS. Lingua. banca fallita. bow. a bench. forbear this outrage. disturbance banga. shoal. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. destruction . the former Fr. home — Bandog. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. bance. bandi. murderer. ON. Roquefort. Mid. s'associer. Fr. put under the ban of the law. de- party. standard.z. Bang. Lat. Your stool. 45 — — Bandit. at canis peciiarius. banca his creditors. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. de sable. 2. Milton in R. bankruptcy. death-blow . Benchi. Fr. banqueroute. — . . a i. the slope of a hill. Bacon in R. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. among rotta. to work in wood. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . — Paulus drive in a nail. Banister. bander. broken. roupt. Africa. It is in this sense nounce. Tibalt. to knock. bane. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. a bank. to foment factions. from banc. E. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. banka. a sand-bank. bank. and poise Their lighter wings. banditti acquired the like signification. Banditti. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. a rising bank. bakke. many a bang. to join in league with others against Cotgn. . a wound OHG. the back. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. . Diaconus in Due. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. Mercutio. to slay. bannire. to beat. has bang-bang. Benvoglio. bang. a long raised seat. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. b'ang.HG. death-sickness. a bench. — Kil. Du. The child cries bang! fire. bench. bana. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. bank of Dan. —^Vocab. bandear. back of a knife. large dog kept for a guatd. to bend a. g. Bank. beating. bent as a bow. — — whence E. hammering.: . follow a party. and therefore tied up. Sw. bana. bana-sdr. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. canis vinculis assuetus. banc G. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. AS. Fl. language of W. a blow. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. bander. ON. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. was formed the OFr. bench. and OFr. From a desk . to cabal. banc. A Shipman's Tale. Hudibras. dorsum was applied to ject. seat . she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. Ripuar. Fr. From Mid. N. and hence. clouds. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. a counter. eminence. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. panca. and bakki. for shame. eminence. Bankrupt. &c. a bankrupt merchant. rap hatike et som The Susu. tumult bangas. The ing. to hammer in a nail. &c. See Banish. With many a stiff thwack. banco. It. se joindre. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. in the same way that E. benk. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. as of an explosion or a blow. Dan. Brewer. banke. band-hond. bank of a river. Diez. banish. to publicly order one out of the realm. in R. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. of bandying words. bank of river. It. Bandy. To Bandy. bana. in the sense of a pirate. bandire. The word is in E. that the word is used by Romeo. bander tin arc.^ knock. It. counter. — Fr. . banja. a de Vaud.

sparre. probably corSymbol. barbed or trapped as a great horse. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. a bench or table . barre. and even of calling it banter.aTa Kul nest. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. as they call it. E. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. The original import of their own banner in the field. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. brushwood. signuin. would rupted from Fr. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. E. barde. ON. The spar. a bearded or Cot. Hence Fr. the word came to signify rude. chan. inferior to a baron. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. which is surely in barbed arrow. and from ensign or banner Prov. senhal. Banquet. Hence ner. Lat. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Fr. uncivilised.cruel. token. to beckon . sbarra. In a similar manner are formed yearling. himself in Pontus.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. inur. banneret was a higher class of knights. —Cot. sign. 2. nestling. banda hendi. an animal a year old. A It. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. It. barba. Fr. then fell among the foot. banchetto. either in the Gr. a bantling. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. To Banter. from the same source. banne. Fr. in Gr. summit. says. to having that signification. barreau. barriire. barrou-gwez. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. wrapped. a war-beacon or war-signal. manu anto make signs nuere.hinder. out of a wound. or of this bantering. men. According to Diez the It. and with an initial s. banneret. senh. Gael.46 BANNERET . top. senheira. It. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. to wash. ban- Baptise. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. Gr. a barrier or stoppage.8ap6^o)voe. banner. ing term appears in other languages. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. knight Bardd. remarked. barrer. a sign. branch. privileged to raise Barbarous. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Fr. Gr. from reifa. bannereti. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. barbarus. bandva. E. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Duo. heri-pau. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. arineXov. Bret. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. jSa'pjSapoc. G. ON. of banco. . branches of a tree {gwezen. The origin is in all probability Goth. hence a repast.. It. The barb of an arrow is the sign . hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. To mock or jeer one. barbe. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. Flesche barbeUe. period vexillarii. OFr. banda. Lat. ingly very generally known by a name branches. a tree). such as the Roman Eagle. Barbar. Barb. benda. and he would seem to derive Goth. and the work is done. Thus Ovid. Barb. of a sign in general. of wind. to bend.the analogous syllable viur. to wrap. rod of any rigid substance. OHG. then branches. Banneret.— Swift in R.. speaking of battle. merki. dim. milites bannarii. — We A . It may be thing. barrack. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. Celtic bar. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. senhal. a. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. 3. Lat. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. sparro. barra. iandvo. rarii. OHG. a beam or long pole of wood. to dip. a ban. jSdirTO). bar. &c. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. Fr. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. BARBAROUS reiflingr. indeed. banniire. i. a which the barrister addresses the court. Barbe. and it was accord. Bap. that the noise of voices Bantling. Sw. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Leduchat. &c. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Fr. bandiera. ^oTrriKio.

barda. Barde. g. to bubble or spring up. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. Cot. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Hindost. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. borboglio. albarda'ah. Bare. Arab. tattle. Port. in poetic language Bard for poet. Etym. to stammer. Fr. in Fr. border. Mod. dial. tree. horse armour covering the front. Thus the on. Gr. Barbel. a shingle or small board. berries. boil. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. — . coping. Lex. and the word was used in OE. to boil or bubble up . Barber. Bardeau.) to wrangle. a pack-saddle. the flap of a hat. a bardelle. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. to chafbargain. barz. to wash. Festus in Diet. fortia —Strabo. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. albarda. also to bind or tie across. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. brabble in the making of a bargain. as well as thwcEtta. ready money. Barbican. Fr. axilla. the beard. small pack-saddle. guaszare. barbaris. upper chamber. a rumbling. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Etym. OFr. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. grumble (Lowndes. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. skialldar-bard. muttering. to It. on. It. a jetty or outnook in a building. to grunt. An outwork for the defence of a gate. lb. skola. barbar. — . It. Port. Lith. which was of talking. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. bare baskojis. waschen. twcEtta. back. Barberry. Bard. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. . Fr. albardilla. Cotgr. i. barS. murmur . the quilted with. and flanks. and Sc. But Sp.— BARBEL merit of water. Gr. the edge of a shield hval-barct. bardd. barbeter. to make an outcry . as well as the modern twaddle. bhasad. such as houses are covered Bardelle. a long saddle for an ass or mule. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. the nakedness of a woman. barbel. baar. skirmish. barbeau. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. baares geld. and in Flanders to vociferate. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. open. A7 to the and warlike. borborinha. powdered all over. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. to stammer. barefooted Sanscr. Sp. Sp. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. to prattle. quarrel .— — Pm. gibberish. stutter. barboter. also to wallow like a seething pot. berj G. bdla-khaneh. bar. bdsiis. to plash or dabble. border of a garden bed. uproar. w. The Pers. barbarkama.) . to gurgle. is lb. to rumble. jargon. or more properly (says fer. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. guazzolare. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. borbollar. a tumultuous assembly. Hatt-bard. — — Hence. Pr. G. barbacane. barbier. to mumble or mutter words. uncovered. . saddle-cloth. to barbe or trap horses. borbulhar. and foolishly. formerly used in the sense of tattle. barbelin. Cotgr. bdsas. Hall in R. used 2. Diez. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. Applied in E. mutter. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. — — — men. Lucan.' Cot. Russ. Bret. Fl. bds. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. — Cot. /3£pjSepi^w. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. Barder. scouthouse. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . Fr. brim. speak confusedly. barbeum. barguigner. twattle. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. A shrub bearing acid Diet. baragouin. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Bargain. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. to bubble or boil. skirt. unqualified. name Fr.— Fl. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. barda. borbotar. haggle. Mod. in the sense of fight. Exposed to view. bardes. Sp. ala. barbugliare. barbulla. /3opj3opwJu.

the G. Vocab. beer. hemlock. bosom. baaren. From Fr. barmr. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. put to confusion. barone. bern. trouble. a barn. To Bark. contest. berm. E. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. barlys. wine. barlys {bara. we pass to the vert) barguigner. at barka. prominent part of a thing. barretor. — de Berri. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. ber (ace. Leg. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. as baces-ern. barms. barley. to chop. Manx bayrn. barafunda. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. then the bows pectus navis. OSw. a. Prov. entangle. is simply the Bret. the slimy substance brewing of beer. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . meta foeni. aheap. tumult. As Goth. fray. OFr. from an imita- Barley. tion of the sound. berem. bread-corn. Ibid. and hence probably (by a metaphor. barge. a receptacle for barley or corn. skuta. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. a heap . which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. strife. barki. as in the case of Lat. Bailey. plants).. to shufSe. commonly explained from bere. AS. . a place. w. dispute. altercation. It. Originally man. was barlic. to all the barca. OFr. Du. lap. ON. a stack. hay-loft. the rack or manger. baarn. bargain. Camus. disorder. barja. Dan. dispute . as. and ern. barizeins indicates a noun baris. bere. baimeach. barafustar. baralha. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. in Nat. baratta. but the woman for the man. squabble. strife. . as well as Scandinavian tongues. barii. one who stirs up strife. . to strive. bern. beorcan. bard). spectacles. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. Dan. bernac. The Goth. brenig. also a boat . and may therefore be an Eastern word. barlich.) lihtes-ern. Bemiques. Bret. bread. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. (Ihre. It. Bark. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. barnacles. Ripuar.Barum vel feminam. baaring. ON. herbs. Gael. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. dial. am. baragouin. a baking place or oven. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. dregs of oil. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. bosom . . Baron. and is probably a true bartig. quarrel. Sp. berma. contest. * Barnacles. See formed Yeast. quarrel Port. Uzen. adj. border. quant a perdu sa barja. mhg. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Antiq. houbartij fsnile. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. ON. bamagh. and llysiaw. kani. barn. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. Provj bar (ace. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. barahunda. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance.^Voc^. a cap . prasepe . the fore or after end of a boat . Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. barn. — Barnacle. The origin may be throat. —Bark. name being given to spectacles. dispute. Barge. bcerme. So also ON. limpets . Romance barsie. ON. Acervus. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. dispute barattare. Sp. chaffer. barn. baron)^ Fr. husband. baron. corn-shed. barley. Barn. Isidore in Rayn. louzou. and 1. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. bcern.' bardagi. to rout. Leg. giving rise to It. baralhar. W. to wrangle. AS. strife. skutr. berm. dispute . the A — Ihre. Du. limpet. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. berm hoys. Rayn. as. edge. ThS man was not created for the woman. a beak. struggle. bark . to scold. to cheat.. a lap. confusion. charlock. Port. barley. Gl. a load. in the Brim. astringent. varen. Garlick. — Zeuss. So ON. then honoured man. Sw. Cornub. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. limpets. Port. i. Barbour in Jam. Swab. a heap. baratta. and the word. v. beornt. See Barm. barajar. a lantern. hladi. 2. baarm. Alam. Lith. barnis. the or prow of a ship. also to exchange. baniffa. to skin over barkandi. Sp. Kil. hlaSa. The older form in e. borkr. a boat. On the other hand. baerm. Tarn baronem quam feminam. — battle. 2. Spectacles.

a castrated hog . 2. a horse. in Nat. alongside of barrow. calico.. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. over him. AS. especially those killed in battle. gwr. barague. fear. became bidre. or simply bahre. cover. (Schmeller). booth. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. whenever Barrow-hog. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. bahre. to carry. the braw. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. barrique. barchent. Sp. MHG. G. implement for carryAS. gravis et authenticus vir. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. Formed from Fr. E. Joshua vii. man. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Goth. perhaps through Prov. seem to be radically the same with Lat. change of goods seems. barrique. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. branches. which would barragdn. todtenbahre. a barrel. vel pretiosos burellos. Baron andfemme. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. as cavalcade. boar. baracca. were sometimes confounded. See Bar. garment still used in Morocco.— Gibbon. a barrow. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. OE. rolls of Parliament. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. 1. like bargain. a hiU. The feudal tenants next Fr. composed of dry branches ofer. bier. Bamnculus a baronet. barraca. then traffick4 Barrow. from beran. a hut or booth. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. a bar. barril. — — 15th Cent. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. baragan. facture. Barren. baronuU. Spelman found bannereti in the MS.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. litter. heap. beorg. It. sterilis. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Fr. barrila. qui have not much light on the pre. w. barre. squabble. barri. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. whence Barrow. Gael. borov'. from cavallo. baronetti. Antiq. A. Nominale of the from braeckland. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. sepulchre. ibid. bara. and in several instances. The Sp. Bern. This word introduced into Fr.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. Barricade. a man. a word is always used in the plural number. Russ. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. cise formation of the word. bouracan. fortification. baronculi. baraignej Picard. a bier. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. barrack. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. shed. Fr. Barrel. beorh. an obstruction. Gael. Bohem. D. Bret. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. uncultivated. signifying. See Barter. — Kil. habeant. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. Barrack. S. bearg . to * Barragan. — A . Sp. iver. 26. ^Vocab.. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. strife. vair. tomb. Sp. Barrister. barBombicinus. a. semen non accipiens landiEL. berewe. vir. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful.' Op. bara. from a tree to which a man is hanged. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. as. dispute. It should be observed that.have been named from the haggling and gant. the two names. a kind of coarse camlet. also termed bannerets. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. bera.root signifying confused noise. G. fallow. by early examples. man and wife. breinej Du. An ing. It. in the first instance. OFr. to shelter.parchanttuech. StiU he shows conclusively. nobles. On chet — We — — their resemblance. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. hut. a. berwen. ^Barrator. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. baroncelli. braeck. and not from Fr. mound. beorgan. bark&n. brushwood. bredhan. barile. It was not until the time of James I.' that Barrier. AS. It. barrier. Bargus or moreland. staves. Barratry.

a basket masg. barter. pressed down. a bastard. low. Bass. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. See Brattice. to truck. Barbara de pictis veni patch. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. fhe outhouses and yards. chasa. Dan. of the same sense. chasa ogli a bastard. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. bas. the — — to kill those that look upon it. HoUinshed. to stitch .— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. a king. Sw. F. a bass rope. preparatory stitching. bast. n' is n' is bacino. would be. ^Is de bast. Al is dai. as the diadem of the basilisk. besst. baos. inclosure. discourse Nay. a tying. Basket. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Bass. he. The original meaning. exchange. lust. to long — a British word by Martial. to cheat. bds. and Bret. mean . come near. ' He was begetin o bast. from bere. according from Gael. ohg. bestcn. baraet (from Fr. embastir. Dan. oe. BassuS. corn-farm. bast. G. truck. It. Lend me your hands. beretun. to Diez. PaaiKhms. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. hoops of a cask. HaUiweU. baratear. flat. basg. OFr. aiKcig.). tierer. husk bast van koren. to bargain. Bartizan. thick. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . It. mock not. Isidore. binding. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. low note. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. i. submovet omne Lucan. to baste piece of cloth. as It. fornication. basso. fornication.looketh upon his eyes. rope for — . OFr. Sp. Sw. netting. basso. The like property hath the iasilisk. barter. a halter. Sp. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. Kil. cog. him. baratar. . Icegge eeii i baand og bast. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son).' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. leviter consuere. Apparently of Celtic origin. partieren. which sets up its hood when angry. commonly A joined with the word binda. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. or wic. a ftiesh. at basta og binda. God it wot. but he dreth presently. AS.' Gl. to bind. It is mentioned as . Barton. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. bareter. barley. said Base. . bastear. the a wide open vessel. MHG. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. Du. the thin skin Dan. bran. There is not one that. and tun. — in Rich. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. basta. Fris. See Bath. It.' Papias. more noble in blood than notable in learning. Basilisk. Fr. a deceiver. scale in music. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. bassin. berewic. shallow. a ipgli So Turk. found in Turkish . HaU in HaUiwell. over-reaching. also the demesne lands of a manor. It. peel. plaiting of splinters basged. MHG. exchange. Newman. dwelling. Bassus. MS. Sicamb. basgod. It. but born in baste. back. — Bassoon. . low part of the Hickes in Rich. foist in bargaining. To Baste. on a. A fabulous serpent. from /3aR. unrighteous gain. w. besst-u-b£nd&t. to baste. To Bask. Lap. Bast. fraud. Halliwell. baste. ing for profit. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. ' Bosworth. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. Fr. stitch. imbastire. bestan. To stitch. beortun. which covers the grain Ger. court-yard.D. beguile. But according And Dan. Du. humilis. to cheat. bast. cheating. ibid. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. bass-matting. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). — hanging. /«r<fSp. Swed. Sylvester's Dubartas. or running away with the ship. basta. lift me above Parnassus. to deceive. Pl. fits de bas. Sp. baste. Bastard. 516. then cheating. bast-maatte. a court-yard. descended of an honorable lineage. Fr. the manorhousfe itself. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . piiiguis. baxoj w. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. imbastire. to bind. curtus. bdtir. Gr. crassus. Arthur and Merlini. to bind hand and foot. lattice-work. baraand especially teria. also to Cotgr. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. low. baste. pdrdt. mavult dicere Roma suam. It. bast-reb. bark.

2. liiake. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. a pad. to pack a saddle i. blaka. to build. Pr. aftonbakke. ON. to rub gently. blakta.— . as weU as besteau. dial. Sc. a with a stick. niammal. To donjon. 'iJipistreUo. quelqu'un son roulet. frame.baste or knock soundly. a sconce. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. to Due. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. to give him a sound bastingi 3. basa. or implement for 4 * A . It. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. stryk. . bladier. put it together. a. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. Rayn. R. settiilg up. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. compared with blakka. translation to a bat. stryka. Fr. provisions. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . That yche blak y dar wel telle. basto. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat.stick. baston. — — — .probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. bakie-bird . A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. cudgelling. to flap. baston. also the ricado. bastida. blakra. bastine. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. iastir. to lay the Sp. to drub. club. beysta. military term of a bat-horse). ari instruineht for beating. bastione. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. to beat. like the owl and the bat. For the loss of the / in back. bak. is explained by Cot. bastonFr. blows. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. badger. Dan. Cot. to cudgel. disposer. Sw. passage Imbasto. bastear. vledermus. bastonada. business (Altieri). Perhaps baska. to thrash . Sp. Sp.— Bailey. Dieiif. It. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . iinbastire. blatta. bastir. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr.'CaB. 2. batta lucifuga. to whip. contriving. vespertilio. 2. has bastine. I. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. a packsaddle. packsaddle. Fr. contrive. BAT neither. devise. to rub. R. and Cot. — Bakke. and Arabs. Dan. which to rest the load. blakka. bastir. bdion. pre. erect. the E. to spread bread and butter. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. comp. Derived by Diez from iasi. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. and ditches bastion. bastille. a bird which. the bat . boste. from Fr. E. Mid. bast. also to cudgel. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do.fortress or castle furnished with towers. p. flyinge best. Sw. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. Fr.-^ Chaucer. to beat. blacta. the original has corneille. Florio. explains Sp. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. to devise or begin. the night-jar or goat-sticker. guerra bastir. — — Fl. To baste one's hide . * Bat. beating. Supp. set up.. 164). basta. to quilt or stitch wool into it. Bastinado. It. worth (Nat. a blockhouse. Sw. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. in the use of the E. to set on foot a war Bastion. raise. blatta. to build. Antiq. a things prepared for future use. Prov. whence ledrblaka. a blow cloth for dinner. bastia. All from bastir. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. to teach one before. Fr. the winged . a stick. which in the E. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment.Lat. staff. back. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. set up. e. For the origin of baston see Baste. ment. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. the clapper of a bell.stitching in general. bastilde. victuals. a bastion. frotter. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. in the Romance languages. Pm. but this is hardly satisfactory. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. bastimento. vespertilio. natt-blakka. nade. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. dial. a barSp. To beat or bang soundly. Cot. to stroke. to belabour. 11864. bastonnir. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. . a pad or packsaddle. night-bat. bat. Sw. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar.

to toast bread. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. busk. a great seems related to baden as Fr. the heat of the It. to betake oneself. baden. as wood-en. to feed. or break down. also. It. altercation. — — — ' — . to become convalescent. or make debate. howis. Eggs. Jeddris and covering. better. bdda. ON. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Bate.— To Bask. dial. Batyn. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. battle was used beath wood. Battlement. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. on the fire. Pr. adapted for defence. battre. In OE. Sp. Bailey. bdda vidjor. Hence pro. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. Goth. battaglia. quell. Sw. To thrive. bataille. to beat se battre. to cudgel. to foment. baz. a main battle. Fr. 2. w. a washing beetle. From bat in the sense of rod . to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. to foment with hot applica. in the case of a wall. as signifying warm baths. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. trahtr to It. is a simple adoption of Fr. a stirrer-up of strife. a band of armed men arranged basa. E. to thrive. battions. more. bat. remit. Flem. for biia sik. batterie. basa. to fire or in the sun. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Jurgor. gabatnan. water whether warm or cold. In some parts of England it is striking. Sp. to flutter with the wings. lessen. Mgy. To Batten. Sw. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . Battle. badda. to heat. Plkkis. To Bate. dispute. bada. batir. battere. to beat. G. bdhen. Holz bdhen. gebdck. to foment. from on. solen baddar. is in falling. batna. Batten. Fr. It. pak. betten. Chaucer. to be profited. . . gebdcke. dial. solbase. fashes basking in the sun squadron. baka. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. to beak. G. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. a Baiffi. battere. A Bath. Bret. Battalion. badda. Baka sik vid elld. oneself at the A into faggots. to refresh oneself in language. heat. battre. as E. hot. the root of e. a blow. Fr. beat. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. to bathe oneself.' Palsgr. Pm. term in falconry . and as a verb. to beat. dial. Hal. battre las ailes. a stick. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. a from ON. bastille. G. bludgeon. A batch as wood. to dial. Ayenst the sunne. Pr. a staff. The bat with which a brot bdhen. Slav. Battery. then to warm by the application of hot water. cudgel. Florio. — Cot. to beath wood Battledoor. sich bakern. whence the sun burns . by projections or in any licoure. Fr. bake. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. I bathe in water viz. Fr. Pm. I baske. made of bats. to heat . made of — A made by one Batcii. beat down. Gael. abattre. abate. to fight. a blow with a light instrument. to become fat.— . badask. perhaps first used adjectivally. signifying to give repeated blows. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. buask made like a fortress.Bathe. of bread is so much baked zX one time. makebate. Fr. . to warm. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. strife. a battle. batte sig. wet linen in washing. tradire. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. to for fighting. squadron. baeddu. flour. or a dry stick. as E. Strife. bdt. in the sun. baquetazo. on. I. a beating. See Better. batacazo. dial. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. a battalion. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . tagUone. and with staffslyng. to get better. debat. to bathe. PLD. Bat. e. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. allay . The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. from battre.Hence in the augmentative form It. Batter. to beat. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. beat. an arrangement for giving blows. and milk beaten up together.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. and about an inch thick. From OFr. also a sun badfish. to warm oneself. was formed bastilU. Barbour in Jam. certain bend. batador. bet. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. to warm oneself at the fire. Battery. Du. bat-en. — To . to fell. fortress or castle. quhar he suld assaill.

zano. bauch. E. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. baue. spot. filth. horse. the white of his leg or foot. lewd . fooleries or fond To Bawl. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. Beaus^ent. Descript. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). an — — — A — g — — — . Cotgr. baula. From ! an interjection of disgust. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. disgusting. babbole. Zalli. Pm. form with an initial seen in Fr. pie- . also the canopy carried part of his body. the face. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. Batylment of a wall. Cot. a lump. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. ground. Filthy. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. W. The word may perhaps be sticks. Baldrick. Fr. bouaila. — — ' Lydgate. s. to low or bellow as corn. b \% bouala. exactly corresponds Fr. a plot of Chaucer. Prov. Irel. to vociferate. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. It. baban. rotten. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Cot. a horse marked with a procession. ballach. Gael. Swiss Rom. a belt. baw. or Cot. and to-tore also. sorry.guage). bow (as in our nursery Diez. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. dirt. in OE. bablyn or waveryn. obstrepere. dacchino.. as Fr. miauler. to void the bowels. tille. whence the E. dial. Bavin. is Bagdad stuff. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. Pr. or toys. a dog). scarf. to 53 manure the To baw. speckled. E. bal.. Fr. excrement. fagot. a lump or cluster babhaid. Pr. dung. to trifle away ment. divided between black and white. a tassel. bauU. guigaw. to cry. ON. Jam. to bark. Baw — . for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. baudrdj OHG. collar. baudrat. from Fr. a gavel. baffe. sword-belt. P. fe bau. bal.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. an object. OFr. Fr. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. a tassel or hanging bunch . the Swiss baben. Piedm. 8.' ' Pegma. from Baldacca. ! Bauble. Formed from baw.— P. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. nastiness. to make the noise Baudrick. to play the babby. brush faggot. because made of cloth of white. bausan. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. bobine. to the same origin. The It. baubare. fields. —R. whence pouacre. 2. A name of the badger. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. child. Hal. propugnaculum. P. It. expressive of disgust.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. bad. a spot. Sc. instead oi s. Fl. BAWSON Swiss. In like manner Grisons filthy. trifles. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. or the animal so marked. on the face of animals. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . — Pm. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. whimwham. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. librillo. tab. and Sp. Bagdad. dente. ish baubles. javelle. babiole. mew. Ball. c. having a white streak down Bagdad. Bawson. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. also more Bawdekin. Lat. babsmall toy to play withal.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. bau. a zan. to me-wl. OFr. cluster. faisceau. s. to bark .— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. It is all bawdy. dirty. trifle. toys. balGael. R. baugant. or sheaf of Bridel. balbob. bow-wow. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. a horse with white legs. E. filth. vacillo. Cloth of gold. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. balderich. Ball-seirc. and authorities in note. P. is used for a sented by bau. An analogous noisily. i. spotted. an embattled wall. pegma. was simply a field gold. E. ball. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. to talk Lacombe. represented by the syllable miau. It. From Bret. bobbin or cluster of thread. a white mark Bawdy.

—Diez. window-sill. bai. in order to keep the enemy in check. * To Be.c. . is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. To Bay. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. baionette. to iiitent nected PoL white. bioth. Cot. |8i'os. Lat. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. . representing the sound made in opening the mouth. — A At Bay. siege of Bayonne in 1665. &. bajo. . See At Bay. expresr sion tenere a bada. especially beans. See Bawl. It. laurel of the ancients. life. baca. beo. &c. The — Fr. baccello. by the term rendre les abpis. the cod or husk of beans or the like. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. corrupted into Bow-window. 1859. alive. grapes or nuts. so called from its bearing bays. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. Sp. white. bayen-stein. when. to keep one waiting. Prov. from badar. yellow . Feb. to gape. tradire to Fr. —Bay-windo'W. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. house . bahia. From the former verb is the It. to split. baja. berries. aux dehniers abois. or to have been first used at the Cot. stare. husk. to betray. Bay-tree. weary of running. bagaid. Fr. Sp. — Schmid. stood watching him stoop. overture. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. A stag is said to stand at bay. It. Sp. to mark. that from ba. beothach. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. ing-floor. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. open the mouth. beonj Gael. Arts. the laurel-bay. hddhe-dhonn./^ bau. bijel. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare.' Bailey. as gazing. to keep at a bay. —F. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. &c. bate. 1. barn of two bays. large window in a handsome . baher. window . baie. bahia. . Gael. dehiscere . and zndly. or berries. the cod of peas. from an imitation of the sound. badarse. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. It. baier. the world Gr. batibari. badia to Sp.—Journal Soc. AS. bayo. living thing . a cluster of bacon. a mark. a berry. he turns and faces his pursuers. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Vielp. or recess in an apartment in modern times. Mod. bay. is perhaps not directly from Lat. See Bald. w. BE Probably conRuss. bdcr. A hollow in the 'line of coast.. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. Fr. bde. 25. Catalan hadia. buidhe- The ruadh. to open as a blossom. bilyejiti. ist. at his last gasp. bialo. Such Antaeus seemed to me. like a pie. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. The word bay. a beast. Bayonet. desiring. S. abbabayer. Swiss beie. baga. Earth — By Nature made to till. bay. gate. or at bay. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. Gael. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. BAY marked with bjly. and the To bark as a dog. dividere. It has been shown under Abie. badarc. Swab. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. and keeps them in check for a while. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. which however. to stand watching one. the step is the same as from It. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. badius. baer. living Ir. a'uno. as if to signify a window of curved outline. F. Q. Piedm. a dagger. baca. trahir. life. OSp. Gr. baya. bacca. bilyega. baye. Fr. It. Fr. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. berry. baiare. From Cat.' — — 54 bald. to be Bohem. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. watching intently. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. Fr. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. a hole. put to his last shifts. Abide. Fr.— Stalder.. It. arose two forms of the verb. Holland's Pliny in R. to open. to on anything. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. Q. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. Lat. buidhe. Serv. to amuse stare a bada. waiting . BauSfi)/. Bay. Drayton in R. or window ' (in Fortification). to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. Bay.

to have a French origin. on. . into a snjall river. be. was introduced from England sea. beic. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Farrar. — : Beam. tale of prayers or doxologies. beugler. faba is Kvavoq. — Bellenden in Jam..from AS. nokkima. Boom. becco. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. Fr. a single bean. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. salve his hurts. to wait. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. as. ohg. which is. l^ax. a tree. Gael. the part overflowed by the tide. See To Bid.fuis5e. Beak. Trans.' adheres to the root. Lat. To Bear. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. bohnej ON. Beacon. fd or faVf beans. bohne.' Suetonius in Diez. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. fromthe danger. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. bek. Miss Gurney in Philolog. a presage. N. bagms. «va\ioQ. fero. Bear. bar. He says. or however. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Slavon. Beadle. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. as well as f& or fav. bank. Pardoner's Tale. A two-year old nephew of mine p. however. bdkna. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. faba. vol. Gael. like most nautical terms. Fr. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. beck. AS. Gr. to nod the head. prodigy bauhnjan. It. to nod . It. bauhan. according to of Sanscr. —F. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. Beach. or any action done with a pointed thing. or beic. bean. an attendant. to carry.' Hall's Chron. -phxr. bakke. OSax. bM. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. bairan. . Goth. bidan. Du. a prayer. The origin seems preserved in E. signifying individuality. beans. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. bee. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. The immediate shore of the Menage. into France. Beckon. a single bean. as. It is BEAR SI court. vii. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. a sign. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. would say. bydel. Gael. W. and Lat. a beak. — to bow or nod . and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. gebed. bearti. G. A Esthon. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. Bean. Netherlands or North Germany. bokan. to bellow. or breathing. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. to wait-. G. Bret. backe. baun. ffci. ON. Thus the final en. a hill. beacen. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. * Beagle. bakkje. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. AS. Be. Beck. Goth. post. atUndre. Moreover the name. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. baum. E. The wild beast. bidello. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. boom. a curtsey. Catalan becar. ON. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Q wait upon him. The nutu significare. . badmr. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. — bedeau. It forms a. signifying a point. Hackluyt in R. W. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. to produce young. fora-bauhan. Bret. support. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. bob. to beckon. beacnian. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. pig.fui. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven.ad. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. bedm. Sw. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Chapters on Lang. bead. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. g. a nod OHG. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. stock. beic. ffaen. rising ground. 54. pierced for hanging on a string. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living.fer-re j Gr. a tree.

seemly. fitly . Perhaps from Pol. Thus OY. and Fr. while from Shep. the beard.getiman. bekkr. baviire. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. a. G.S6 fero. barba. to carry. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. living. G. whence baveux. den. Lat. bel. ON. Bosworth. if sound of a sharp blow. 1. our taste. bave. Beat. comely. Cal. covered the face. from baver. battere. bcek. to appertain.we call the arrangement becoming. to please. Slav. Boeth.— Kiittner. pretty. ON. riviire. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. to live. proper . It. to arrive at. ting. i. to the good hapHalbard. Prick of Conscience.AS. byrcti. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. border. G. Beauty. fit. to be incumbent upon him. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. tidig. burdr is used in the sense of a car. to hem. E.' ' He became very angry. to fall in with our bavard. G. imitative of the case happen as we would have them.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. R. a bank. The fitting or suitable. Russ. suitable. Fr. venient. byw. . as. taste. perhaps a living thing. it is probable that here also the to become. beauts. a lip. from the same in the sense of bear2. dushmak. g. because made of the fur of the beaver. agreeable. Beckon. chin. Fr. badi. to assume a certain form or Turk. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. See Bat. dress with unbecoming richness . becuman. pens unmixed evU. get J ' He got very angry. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. obtain. limplice. ON. — . To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. decent. tidy. biber. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. fiber. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2.' are equivalent expressions. See Bank. a brook. e. formerly a happen. Lith. receive. or river. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. Do no To It fallith favour. bebrus. slobber. birth. talkative. baurthei. to shore. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. iida. handsome. AS. pleasing. nod or sign. Lat. gebank. to wade through the water like a beaver. o. and to acquire. limpan. boroda. To load with ornament. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. OSw. bobrowai. blast. bett. produce. connected with ripa. babrad. from beau. the latter are derived It. R. See Beacon. bekommen. to attain to the lot of any one. bib or slobbering cloth. suitable. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. behkr. name applied originally to the bank then proper . to the brook itself. Chaucer. i. bave i. gabaurths. In like manner condition. which. — A — A — . place to lie down. Goth. edge. As rivus. rying. bedr. ON. E. bobr. barf. to those goods which endure for ever. the ece thurhwuniath. Bo. AS. to dabble . fallinn. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. gelimplic. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. nothing to thy name make. to fall. brook. dize or dtzen. I do thee pray. bestiaj Gael. or special purpose. He becom on sceathan. E. and on. timan. duty. That thou mayest attain Goth. bach.' every way suited to a prince. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. happening as it ought. baba. Beck. to happen. bard. Thcem. to happen. bearing. The quadruped. beatanj It. to bear children.of being very angry. Lat. Fr. judgment. The OFr. See becymth anfeald yvel. opportune. brook . Diez. Prov. or a feeling to be gratified. e. Beck. 2. The moveable part of a helmet. to fall mode of being.fit. proper. to be a part of his to. to happen. Fr. Beaver. beo. an notion of being convenient. biivre. riviera. to G. bart. bur. befit. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. Lat. brada. gefallen. bello. Fr. agreeable. becuman. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. decorous. when up. to sleep on. Now the Beast. bring forth. bava. and also in that of birth. Dan. to happen. fitanimal. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. W. to happen. convenient. It. to get. now confined To Become. con. to come to or upon. as the babble of the child. G.to clothe to slobber. bequem. ziemen. limpian. On the same principle. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. a bank. godum with ON. Sp.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. bellus. Secondarily applied to a hat. Bedizen. but now a river only. befall. bavec. to be fulfilled.

'La Gl. sela que environna la terra. The beer al for te shenche bate. desert. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. taglio.(paddi. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. turn (a garment). beost. Cot. thick. ^. to become Beech. imperative pi. wedges. from leberen.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. as the milk of a that purpose in London. bedskiissen-bUren. to curdle or lopper. doubtless. poculum. translation beOj. to change . . duplicated form of the root. drink. woman that is newly delivered. turn. Lat. Bethlehem. bove. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Bed-ridden. The honey-producing insect. biest-milch. a pad or cushion). It. prisons Venet. /SXirov. to flatten In OE. water. on. buche. a drink potus. an Beetle. bitela. I dysyn a dystaffe. I put the flax upon it to spin.' the last word corresponds to cofly . or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. cow has calved.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. to fall. from blood. beer.D. batAfter mete in sale. door. Fr. an ox. a mallet.'— GL ^Ifr. bet. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. ' MordiThe Lat. betel. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. thick. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. may be shpped on and off.^ drink.ing of the word is curdled. For that was law of lend. and in driving piles. bletumj Gr. mars betada. to poordma. Beetle. beach-each. G. to beat bossel. beyki. Grimm. bably named from the destructive quali| T. * Beestings. de Fierabras in Diez. the biter. beest. cited by Diez. kiissen-biere. prigione. bibere is a re. Fr. a clapper. Ant. a malsense of drink. calleBedlam. beetle also signified the impiti. Bernese. 1156. from risan. KXlvoTTiT^e. cugino. biiren. a cover. a bed-tick. to knock. AS. of beatmg. qui de lecto surgere non potest . an inhabitant of the desert. in Schmeller. Fr. may be from K. a wasp. comb. . g. bitel. vaar. trees in a forest . bedde-redirj ohg. Pett. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. a horse-fly . ir'm. cousin. In a passage of an Old Fr. Lat. the meat of spinach. beutel. Fr. to colour with lime-wash. by-flugaj G.— JI14. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. pude-vaar. bovis. buk. cushion-cover . a wasp. to coagulate. Confined to bed. Let. in Nat. fagus. . I A pillow-beer. by the analogy of bedaivb. to parget or rough-cast . piwo. biene. bossen. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. GaeL bior.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. from Lat. and lebermer in G. Rom.' So Gr. Esthon. to drink. a agulatum in the original Latin. byst. a pillow case. cozen. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. clog for a dog b'oteln. bbtel. to rough- cast. a pillow-case.). Originally.possible. from the hos. bytl.ON. Dan. paralyticus. 1. a cup or implement for AS. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. AS. AS. to twist poorma. Pl._t from the root pi. Beet. sang vermeilh betatz. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. a paviour's beetle batail. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. knock. erroneously modified in form.— B. kivih. The meanpainting. bos. Gael. briesch-milch. Fr. from jtst-. . to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida.. briest. beta. It. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. boeuf. . Gr. bukva. bette or blettej Lat. pital of St Mary. garden-herb. which also 2. to and ale. a wandering Prov.cz//aj. Fin. boytle. to turn. drink. 1 to drink. as. extant in Bohem. a bee. badigeonner. &c. speach. But possibly bedizen 2. D. also bienst. 1. waarin. Bav. pettiriso. whence familiar. Horn. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. Bedouia. beach. Beef. E. G. a stinging bieUe. a Properly a cover that biiren. Cot. E. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. G. crespir. Arab. tree. Fr. The first milk after a dizen. ProBeer. 57 — Palsgr. the loppered sea. fall. cogionare. Slav. the ox. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. It. case. ris. whose face is clotty. PI. stakes. madhouse. red curdled Arab . buka. curded or beesty.D. Bee. P1. blow or thrust. also the bite or sting of a bees. . i. used for boull. bedawi. as in It. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds.

iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. ' Begone. kind. iv. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. 'ex quo. viii. origin. gigno. y/yvo/iat. but probably erroneously. affected. cans. at geta talad. Political Songs. Barbour. He did alight. 2. in Lat. of Gr. The tother seand the dint cum. image is cleft out of the trunk.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. aginnan. V. appears improbable at first. ' . to reduce him to beggary.n. ytyvwfT'Kw. touched with emotion — . — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. yivwajcw. oppressed with woe. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . to With hire belies & here bagges get children. also called Bigots. beginning. a chisel. P. signifying to conceive. To Beg.bag full of the G. woe-begone. It will . hags. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . and subsequently Down duschit the beist. Fr. one after that other. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. 'Aboutin undern monly. incipere. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. begging. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. It. vir mendi. but in the same language from poc. seizing. to begaan. 168. is com. ornamented phoc.' A. P. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. be^nnan. — Stillingfleet. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. 142. anfangen. on the tramp. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. Into the are D. Du. When Q. 'Dz. &c. chisel. Creed. pose-pilte. Lollards.D. begger. bag {baigean. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Deutsch. yivofiai. to get children . to bear young.3. a scrip euXaiciJoi. can. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. fangen and Lat. Lith. referred gan this Erie alight. to be able. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. can. 1867. beissel. Of brede full ycrammed. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. ken. P. ykvog. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. in D. although it ' the future. a — wedge. & go a begging. AS. whence the E. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. literally. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. gan. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. tale. V. P. to begin. on further examination. genus. P. V. or Of a pure poor man. not began to alight. Cold-begone. to cleve. P. In Luc vi. baigeir. to arise.' about undern he got down. sel. 58 BEG BEGONE G. krapszas.' for ye shall lament and weep. 25. So from Gael. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. beitel. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. To Begin. 1430. a wallet. on the bag. Schm. to be acquire. bertola. a little bag). two betels —a grete oke. yivtrri. beis- plement driven by blows. word. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. gen. is formed pocair. To produce children is to acquire. Du. — yivsaiQ. and Lat. capere. Gr. P. a bag or poke. to know. Du. ' ' . air a . taking up. in E. beutel. from whete G. a stone-cutter's chisel. Beghardus. Goth. steinbosil. to go a begging. From w. P. P. giving in Gr. Si'Xa/coc. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Mundart. ken. Ancren Riwle. covered with gold D. beriolare. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii.— . ysgrepanu. a beggar-boy. to beg. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. P. above quoted to get beaten ON. a beggar.quently used in OE. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . su with gold. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. lapidicinus. Skinner's derivation from bag. a beggar . In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. to be born. Vocab. chap. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. beitel.pose. a bag . ip AS. Nov. onginnan. Mod. it is both to acquire and to beget. a scrip. ysgrepan. 40. &c.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Bruce.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. the fundamental notion of attaining to. a bag. duginnan. yiyvo/uat. Florio. OHG. a wedge for cleaving wood. as alighting is a momentary operation. to take.

keeping. or purpose. take yourself off. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to carry. the equivalent of E. solicitum esse. promise. to behave. AS. according as the * To Behove. healdan. to have. se porter) to fare well or ill. to gehouden. G. to be obliged to one. ge' hatan. gehalten seyn. to lift. the two verbs seem radically the same. To place are most naturally ex. Command. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. to bring forwards. to the equivalent of Du. to be named. at the tail of. To Behave. use. is supported by many analogies. vow. to cast or throw. to meet. exhort. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. behces. OE. habban. hafwa ram. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. to feed. To be expedient. to carry. to heave. portarsi. to lift. bound.for throwing it. G. advantage. hantyri. on. Robert in Warton. to call. the distance of anything. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. G. to be obliged to do a thing. behefe. 17. by the compound observare. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. to lead. and their senses intermingle. heeten willekem.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to raise. injunccommand. to be fit. —Hest. to be well pleased out. commonly expressed.the figure of throwing at a mark. The seyn. invoke. behat. It. G. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. what he wishes another to do . hove. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. promise or a command. Kiittn. At the back of The re. hofwa.' Richardson. G. gehaben. Sw. — Behest. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. is also found in the sense of looking. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to hold. to fit. heeten. to call. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . adjust. hafwa bort. to be suitable or becoming . to regard. heita. have the sense of calling or naming. Plautus. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. To look steadily upon. to hit the mark. to keep. fixed upon any object). taking notice or care of (Gloss. Sw. N. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. heave. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. gehat. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. laborare. furtherance. AS.to vow. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. garder. AS. beperson addressed.— . AS. beholden to him. hafjan. Goth. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. from tragen. Sw. Aan iemand bid one welcome. to R. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. Paladino. to carry corn into the barn . to halten. The It. premi curi alicujus rei. hevja. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. to be be named. as in the case of E. AS. vow. Thus in Finnish the heave. betragen. promise . Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. ward. hafwa. to promise.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. is on the top of or opposite to. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. what is so required. behind. hatan. or necessary. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. K. tion. observe. to follow. name of the head is used to express what hbva. to command. to name. gehouden. guardare. hces. to look upon it as true . R. to bers of the body. behoof. But. hafwa. when the verb will hoof. hcef tig bort. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. hcefwa in seed. habere. ifl fact. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. seeing to. To Behold. behete. behaviour. behatan. zijn. the name adapt. behold. to turn one out . The Lat. hevja. nittaa. right. G. And so from hania.). ufhaban. to tend. a follower. to hold. to take away. holding is originally derived from that of looking. han- — js Kil. take heed of. and the E. servare. to vow. hovast. to command. or the hence advantage. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. obliged. tail. to keep. us-hafjan. to keen or hold. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to look. gecall. and (as Fr. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. keeping. to carry. to vow.

consent. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. . —F. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . mark ON. Fair sir and Fair lady.. To Belch. Another application of the same word is in Pl. bellow. in nautical language. beset.Lat. cela est audessus de votre portde. legsel. and. measure. Bell. gelyfan. AS. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. under the forms belfredum. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. esteemed . moderation. OHG. To Belay. true. Det er ofwer er hofwa. Northamptonshire. to praise. to fix a price upon one's wares. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. . or a sconce. frid. boare. bialla. bylja. is an easy progress. aim. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . are other modifications of the same imitative root. and bergan. honoured. bertefredum. lyfan. pro3. bolken. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. P1. to boke. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. to believe. orloven. to sound loudly . ley/a. to lay be- around. to resound. galaubs. leaf geleafa. to extol the worth of anything. distance to which a piece will carry. erlauben. Goth.D. Du. stand. to praise. to cry out bell. border. esteeming good and valid. a tower. beffroi. for purposes of low estimation . resonare. to to make A Templorum campana boant. In the middle voice hofwas. Pl. tain a certain end. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung.D. to a loud noise. to make it fast. to roar. berfroi. to give leave Dan. locus securitatis Schilter. It. on. behove. precious. — . Fr. beleggen. to protect. peal. met. and Du. laven. a vessel made for dishonour. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to put a high price or value on. Du.alyfan. Du. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. on. 6o BELAY BELL loven. belja. to be required for a certain purpose. and E. belief . Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. lov. reputation. filu-galaubs. properly belonging to the church tower. Pl. a tower for defence . praise. lofa. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. b'ola. bercvrit. a little shed. loven. fitness. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. to praise. were civil terms of address. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. Sw. to befit. bettifredo. to estimate them at a To believe. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. In Mid. glauben. reach. ungalaub kas. praising. ornament. promiser. giving leave or permission. AS. laven. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. OFr. with the consent of the heirs. to believe. then. beffroit. Du. allow. bulken. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. satisfaction. bealcettanj OE. — mankind. The word be- Belfry. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe .D. bounds. permission. Then. appearing in Mid. fringe. laubjan. to hit hafi.Lat. portion. to bolk. To Believe. Fr. verloben. certain rate. to believe. beau sire and bel dame. to der swaren lave. garnish. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. or high estimation. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. then. are innate . ON. to bellow. if a promise. to give leave. bervrit. galaubjan. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman.. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. a watch tower. to express approval. is used in the sense of approving. is (Sternberg). overspread. — Diicange. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. hesfa. To praise is essentially Xo prise. to promise or engage. bell. battefredum. to give leave. bealcan. if a narration. promising.. bellan. turris. See Gain. permitting or giving leave. or house. from mhG. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. Hence to simple approbation. a. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. G. to lay the cable round the bits. to promise. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. From AS. ON. leave . to sanction an arrangement. and E. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. to permit. . to belay. we have Goth. range. Q.D. an implement for making a loud noise. loven. loben.

Javanese perfume. Quoth. I soyle it or araye it. welt of a shoe. . Eenison. Lat. the word. Lat. taken absolutely. bilbil-goda." — — . blister balgan-snamha. bandoir. a blow. skin. wallet. vulgarly the belly. to reach. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. to bless. fens et hie liraus. Lat. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . to come to the crown belangen. OUG. as. belliJ Lat. skin. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. is a kindred form. bellows. well. See Nether. To Benum. Du. Lat. Belt. to concern. To Bend. Fr. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. to hallow. a bellows. Benediction. to attain to. See Bank.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. ' . pertinere. pod. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. bander un arc. is The word balg. are stripped off whole blase-balg.' The term had been previously planation. a blessing. Lat. I say). OFr.. from benedictio. bellows. Benign. benaigon. cod or husk of pulse. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. Bench. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. pino3. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. a benefit. langen. Beneath. Benedico. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). to stretch it on a frame. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. benjoim. To Bequeath. belly. to touch. bendan. was in Mid. a bellows . Fr. welt of a shoe gwald. to ring. belch. the womb. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. se bander. pouch. or sometimes louban. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. G. See Bind. by itself. hem. to do good to one . has assumed a plural form. Bav. balg. . and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. attinere. from Arab. benir. binssen. fyle To dirty. to attain belangen. or fyle with myre. ball.polch. incense of Java. bolg. from another modification of the word for bubble. vulva. bolch. bimaissen.' Palsgr. Benefactor. pertinere. benedicere. bimpsen. on. benejicium. G. to use words of good omen. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. to make bilbil. est matris in lucem editus. — See Numb. ON. rushes. a leather bag. from cwcsthan.videtur. binsen. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. to become one's property . G. gelangen. ^To Beray. Benzoin. belgr. from which is also bulbus. pervenire. beneison. bell. a border. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. G. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. a spring. or a It is times the to signify services. See I . kind. . loubdn djawt. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. to bend a bow . Bent. bolg. becwathan. disposed to oblige. — root consisting of concentric skins. to hold to one. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. wallet Benefit. Benignant. a kindness. border. as concerning that. benedictio {bene^ and dico. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. balg. bendaj as. From OFr. one who does good. Benefice. poX^ri. to concern. benjoin. bless. The ing-skin. bienfait. balteus . gwaldas. Was das belanget.pinuz. bags or bellows. a water-bubble builge. to belong. Kil. a good deed. to.Fr. a speaking well of one. bilbila. or simply djawt. attinere. . Lat. hence with ashes. dirt. benignus (opposed to malignus). . to touch one. J'emboue. Dozy. the skin of those animals that factor. bellows. belt. . Gael. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. blast-bcelg. w. ray. a round or bubble-shaped root. needs no ex. — Ducange. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. a accusative. benehusk. Bret. volva. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members.— Belly. To belong is thus to reach up to. ON. generous. leather sack. belly. to say. benefacere. ' I beraye. In E. an inflated Lat. Sw. I araye. rise against external force . as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. attingere. — ray. Ptg. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. because bcelg. to arrive at. means seeds of plants.' — Hie fimus. I marre a thyng. bene/actum. bag. Fr. to exert force.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Gum benjamin. . bcelg. To Belong'. Gael.

as bouter selle. BETE dirty'. To seek something from a person. to thrust. To Bet. or the space kept clear betan. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. Berry. Ihre. as in growth. — amendment. basjaj Du. baete. Kil. roe.t. AS. Besom. bacca. p. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. R. OE. eld up- On is to be placed A — . seems twigs or rods. So Lat. one who shelter. to amend. * Berth. besmas. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. better. to exercise on a definite object. jnore. Du.irova. in the sense ctf beria. to put on the saddle. So too Yorkshire arf. bdt. Zeitschr. bur-we. The proper meaning of the bale. ^akka. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON.X. BEREAVE Wall. ariierf to 113.fish the other hand. supporting on the one side Lat. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. Fin. E. broom twigs. peto. barthless. bouter. Goth. . bet. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. a place . The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. barth may be for barf. to fall with roisto. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. lewth.ot-i. . place. On the other hand. bestow. supply. to give a place to. Sw. from AS. to kindle the fire. as Du. bat.D. dust rojahtaa. mud. Bestead. See Reave. from grow. noise. person to lie in. roju. bdt. put.• 62 Antiq. botesward. To Bestow. an incendiary. AS. boeten. bal oppbota. baete. Fr.—^fake. ropahtaa. reparation. a fire. roju. advantage. I from lew. When men of mekeness him baet. to mend. 3. to stand one in good stead. berwe. Tusser. sets fire to. To Beseech. AS. preferably. and Du. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. to entreat.bhaksh. So roto rattle down. protect . — . is to perform a serviceable office to him. fearful. Hfence backing. as conversely a besom is called broom. Devon. betan. to defend. a berry. beseech. See Better. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. reparation. Rob. vol. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. amendment. because used for making besoms. might have been . small eatable fruit. To help. arwe. what does it better a man. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. Beit. what does it boot. encouraging. to supply a want. to to deprive of. and also to entreat. but in practice. basya. The dry. R. besIn sen. reafian. * To Bete. dirt . same word with the provincial barth. besnij Pl. think more probable. an incendiary. as. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. Du. stede. fall with sound. Beere. buttafuoco. position. ^•n. making better. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. Du. as.iooA. dung . vi. From abet. — Chaucer. boeten. — bota. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. to be-place. boutefeu. Grose. Beet. to To Bereave. from It. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . earh. to the place boarded off in a. or to bestead one. repair.— VixHsm. the origin of which is to be found in ON. — Biglotton. boteith Goth. rods. berwham. bota.— Hal. to cast. beorgan. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. boeten. Best. compared with bargham. fyrbotare. of ffeed a fire. G. put forth. lay out. dirt. as. dial. solicit. betan. the guardian . het vuur The serise of Boeten. scopse spartis. To Gl. to word is shelter. to make it. barfham. make better . improve. as. earg. to fire a funeral pile of . was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. besje^ Sanscr. besein. berry. and on which the wager is laid. stow. p. Esthon. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. it seems hard to separate as. a horse collar. sweepings. It is the restore fyr betan. sheltered from the wind. To bete his Jam. to seek. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. besen. burrow. brem-bessen. Fr. Du. buttare. to make better. The origin is AS. Tha het he micel fyr betan. E. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. bereafian. hva mannan. G. to light the fire . to strip. Sw. but it is specially applied mister. houseless. profit. advantage. stealth from steal. rubbish. to on the other Goth. to thrust. ship for a make amend. or. the side bhakshya.

is treason. Percy Soc. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. advance. It. The inflections of Fr. Bevy. are there Regt R. e. Best. to fall Some call it a bevel. gesiemen. Fris. to stir. deem suitable. best. to fall. make manifest. and thence twegen. from. find it good: Goth. proficere. bet. to discover. to make forwards. gezimet eines dinges. bibere. said he. trahir. abash j from polir. Hence last G. /alia. to deliver tip. two. to Teem. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. which may be compared as to form with amid. traditor. I approve of beveau. suitable. gatiman. fate. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. G. 88. *Ah. order. progress. Mich self a good glass of wine. Thus from dbahir. verbs in ir with a double ss. of pheasants. by a final sh. Fr. awry. twain. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. — Betwixt. as tlock. dir. — See To Bete. wreia. Fl. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. roja. bat. or with again. bedriegen. to deliver up in breach of trust. beverage. Golding's Ovid in R. tima. G. taemen. a drinking . betray. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. e. from Lat. deign. To Betray. Goth. riigen. In like manner from twain is fothied between. tima. trakir. of quails. amidst. amiddes. zemen. pair of compasses. wrogia.— . find in one's heart. E. — that schickiich. vrohjan. to deceive. dispose (whence schicksal. regen. Fr. in the middle of two. what does It is forward him. not to have the heart to give up a thing. whence beveraggio Fr. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. Bav. traitre. Buveau. his mouth. bevde. Pl. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. A — drink. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. ruogia. obdissais. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. a bevy. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. afford. evidence of life. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. Pl. to drink . Fr. To vouchsafe. from Fr. betwuh. In like manner folissais. kein leben mehrin no signs . It. as one would have it fall.' Dialogue on Witches. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. Chaucer. Sahissais. ON. E. in the same way Lat. G. E. become. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Cot. bevere. treachery. to cheat. better. AS. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. a traitor. roebucks. Du. ziemen. has — In a like sense tanie>i. zimet. R. betweohs. for measuring angles. betweoh. Now the stirring of an object. more. r'ojer dig. tradere. against.D. some attention. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. to Hence It. taemen. Sw. . Goth. i. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. To Bewray. G. To boot in coursing (i. it bewrays itself. be fitting or suitable. Fr. OE. baet.D. as envahir. are commonly to one's lot. Lat. Better. a different form of twa. Dit tungomal rendered in E. Between. to happen. Dii. an instrument opening like a a thing. Ober D. e. trahison. Friar's Prol. batizo. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. batista. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. betest. &c. as trahissons. larks. springs from ON. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. The as. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. fitting. lot). beva. Slant. his eyen sheen. the being pushed to the frbnt. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. — of the authorities. On the same principle ON. polish. x. tweoh. a brood. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. betriigen. better. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. betweox. betaemen. to happen. betera. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. ON. Det sig sjelft. BETEfiM translated. beuvrage. R. suitable. -to appoint. i. from invadere. Tinia eigi at lata eit. moveable and compass branches. bouter davantaige. betwuxt. in the middle of twain. trahissais. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. R. obeish. betst. better. by two. fallinn. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. to accuse. AS. From It. bet. tradire. Car son umbre si le trahit. To Beteem. In the water anon was seen His nose. sloped off. thy speech bewrayeth thee. spritigs from schicken. is used for the — R. Ik tame mi dat nig. as from obdir. From the former of these are AS.

is explained to clatter.{ioin dua. slanting . used in precisely stone . bescompte. bisel. oblique. sbiesso. to tipple. to glide or slip as upon. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. sbrisso. the basil Sc. to be a paring. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. a sloping edge. to well up with Cot. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. in two ways for duis. a slabbering-bib. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. reveal. See Wriggle. —Dozy. bibaculus. in Fr. of the sliced off. pddzahr. beregen. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. expelling or preserving against. Fr. sbiescio. To Bib. wraggeln. sbieco. The It. babbi. to stir. bickel-sieenken. has a singular stone-picker. Sardin. babbefore the eyes. evident. twice.s bellum for duellum. or by any rapid motion. per\'erted belief. a fragment bieco. the papyrus. to shake. An excellent Basil. sloped. to slaver or drivel. to stir. kwijllap. An inferior blue. sbrisciare. It. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking.to drink much. Gr. In Arab. to a fight with stones. sbiscio. to Jam. Sp. . Pers. biberer. convicts thee of being drink. bebble. To bicker in NE. sbias. Schiitze. . biascia. specially in a bottle. dial. . biberen. Misc. biax. it becomes (Jz-. Biseau. a stone-hewer . besanca. the word became bddizahr. bickel. — Bi-.D. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. biais. Mantuan. stock still. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. To Bezzle. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. makes ble. baviere.two. roggle. kwijl-bab. or kwijl-slab. The train of thought is then. Dan. Du. Fr. sbriscio. Lat. To Bibble. bihais. bis. snout. pible. to slaver . wrogen. he is Wtb. bickeler. bavon. which good bibbeler. crooked. slippery. Piedm. Ant. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. Cat. Bib. bes-azur. Bible. bibo. Fr. to it evident to sense. beslei. 78). —Bickering'. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). Cat. Yes. bisdare. bending. petit-lait. biberon. sbrissare. sliding. Hal- — do something aslant. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Bezel. to purl. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. b&zahr. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Bibelsworth in Nat. bickelen. Bias. Bice. two- footed. its clothes. and zahr. tailU en biseau. bark of which paper was first made. in him. though such a change of form would be very unusual. to the stirring of their conscience. one who drinks in excess. kwijlen. notice. bring under ' Thy accuse. aslope sbisciare. a bezle. Fris. Prov. It. to tipple. Oh when shall I bizzle. liwell. to creep or crawl sideling. Diet. from pdd-. Bisect. It is especially applied in Sc. To skirmish. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. sbiasciai. Fr. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. to stir. Lat. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. (according to the Fr. to cut in two.as in Biped. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. ice . to give signs of life. Bezoar. by throwing of stones. biaiser. aslope. Fr. Piedm. presence. inferiority. bible. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . to make tongue Du. Uprogen. whence Du. to stir up .or from obliquus. it were the mouth. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. whey count . le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. ber-laita (for bes-laita). to move. . I Wallon. him. Fr. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant.a. metaphor). Hal. — crooked.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. like guzzle. misFr.D. rogge. a Galilean. bezling or skueing. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. rogt un bogt sik nig. E. Ci^. a bibber. In comp. asure-bice (Early E. bestemps. Sard. Pl. To drink hard. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. Probably. Jamieson.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. OE. bickai. discover. as an eel or a snake. /3i/3Xof a book originally. to dispute. wrangle. love first begins to life signs of him. . To Bicker. 172. or in and out. edge of a plate of looking-glass. sbiagio. biascio. lips. dial. shows the P1. bias-wise. baverole. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. sik beregen. winding or crawling in and out. poison. to sip.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. foul weather.' bibble.

bigan. and yajiBui.uddered len heart. byggan. Compare also Sp. ON. belly. to bid one good day. or bad. W. bog." buque with E. a swelling. to cultivate. Du. verbieten. Two verbs are here confounded. to bulge. who. which is stiU. bulk. bolginn. G. of More ' in Richardson. inhabit. as. rising up. a flexure. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bidjan. as G. swelling. bath. boa. bend of a shore or of a rope. Bigamy. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. The ON. form. to pray one to dinner. may plausibly be derived from Goth. qucero. to pro- command. The ON. bugan. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. abidan. explaining the Sc. beidast. bat . iiQ. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. and the Sw. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. by seek and beseech. R. Big-swol- . praestare. to belly. Bigot. To Big. and consequently ordering or reGoth. repair. Hence Sc. to abide or wait on. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. OSw. to build G. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. With respect to logical pedigree. to ask. bilge or bulge. Wallace in Jam. from bidan. — To Bid. to offer one the wish of a good day. BIGOT beidan. to have one called before him. a chip. or third order of penitence. The 'La. A bjudan in anabjudan. The loss of the / gives Dan. bead. swoln. from seek. build. ' Bug as a Lord. and Gael. the meaning of bid. ten. bidan. biegen.' Pope in R. to bend. inhabit Du. ON.. to curve. AS. bouwen. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. from belgia. bow. P. to look for. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. to swell. porrigere.peto. G. ON. bedun. bis and in comp. Big. belly. related to big or bug. athird class. — prepare. bo. bolga. bug. — — — Halliwell. are also used in the sense of asking for. twice. to solicit.' Addison. to start out. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. bulky. becoming in Lat. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. gebodenj G. pressing on one's notice. to dwell. bolgna). to ask. bend. swaggering. an entire skin. Bickelen. . The original Swollen. to bicker. byggia. cultivate. balg. called the tertiary order. G. bit- bidja. Jam. bidill. ewes. faurbjudan. to forbid . as tears from the eyes. . to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. Einem einen guten tag bieten. ON. a suitor. bauen to cultivate. to look for. To bid the banns. to inflate E. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. bugt. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. to presimpler pare. bieten. bced. It must be observed that the word bidja. Bight or Bought. offerre. be bug. AS.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bidan. anleta. to build. bieden. forwards. beadle. AS. to marry. 2. quiring something to be done. to inhabit. Analogous expressions are G. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. to move quickly. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations.Leta). The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. bag. bulge. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. 1. to build. buga. pray. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. proud. to offer it to public notice. bua. to arrange. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. Palsgrave in Halliwell. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. besides the professedmonks and nuns. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. bi-. bygga. BID of stone. to offer. A pose to one to come to dinner. Kil. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. einen vor Gericht bieten. England for swollen. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. has leta. biddan. From Gr. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. the belly of a ship. consisting both of men and women. to bend. bulge. to forbid . OSw.t. in the sense of ask for. To Bid ' Big . gebeden j G. beodan. or. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. to E. praebere. bugne (answering to ON. spelling seems to used in the N. The . bicker in the sense of throwing stones. bidel.

bighiotto. the nobles to Rienzi. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. and Q. and also unlearned common men. ix. A.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. 15 18.' Matthew Paris. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. begutta. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. corruption would easily creep in. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. Francisci communiter appellabant. aliqui Begardi. Hence the OE. coarse woollen cloth. They wore a similar dress. as well as bizocco. signifying bagmen or beggars. rustical. to adopt a similar course of life. natural grey or sheep's russet. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. absque votorum religionis emissione. In a similar manner from bigello. a dunce. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. 1499. ac labores manuum detestantes.' They were however by no means confined to Italy.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. &c.D. bighellone. D.— Ducange. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. alii de paupere viti.D. 560. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. perch^ i Terziari di S.' says one of of bigio. biso.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. vol. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. clownish. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. all apparently derived from Ital.D. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. bigotta. probably from biso. sed maxim^ in muliebri. beghino. 1243. with reference to A. says. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. author quoted in N. In the same way Fr. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. dark-coloured cloth. homespun cloth. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy.' Chart. borel. From bigio. Bizocco. both men and women. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt.' says an Venet.. bigio.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.a. alii Apostolici.' translated by Muratori. Flor. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. face VIII. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. Beguttce. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . Bighiotti). ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. the other form Per te Tribune. and hence the variations bigutta. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. Bighini. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. grey. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. beghart. A. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. vocati Fraticelli. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. a blockhead. grey. honesti plebeii amictus. xx.— BIGOT bigardo. which must not be confounded with begardo. was formed bigello. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. Bizoccki. G. A. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. Augustini dotarint. S.

names bill-berries. obsolete. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. irons or set in a kind of stocks. person of religion leading a loose life. Sw. To defraud one of expected sinking. Bille. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. . The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. Deutsch. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. a sword. false pretender to reUgious feeling. of boja. symbolum. Langued. from Mid. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. on. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. belgan. a hypocrite. billet. bizocco.' bilio. in the sense of a writing. bigot. Bilberry. Thus we find in It. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. seems to be rather the unda. bui. billard or billart. an axe . horn of an animal. — bigardia. Lat. Sw. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. w. AS. Fr. bisoch. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal.' in Richardson. In English the meaning has received a further development. plog-bill. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. G. bulla. to strike. ferrese quam ligneae. Roquef. buie. the trunk of a tree. however. might be taken to express a hypocrite. beil. See Bulk. 5 * . a short note. bigot. as a bill of indictment. Tartuffe. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. Dan. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. whortle-berries. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. biilge. Du. to swell with rage). a beak. the bill of a bird. a floating log to mark the place of some. Sp. ^Billiard. crowberry. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. bolghe. and a billard. Bilbo. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. a of the sea. an axe. Mundart. Billet. deceit. 2. bwyell. NFris. An instrument for hewing. bile.. from OSw. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. a seal. Ludwig. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. BILBERRY nated. Billette. a negro. Fr. Piedmontese bigot. a hatchet. Bill. is properly a sealed instrument. of E. to pick a millstone. Johansen. See Bull. an axe. b'olja. belghen. and dziobas. Dan. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. dissimulation . as craneberry. Sw.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. fetters. Bigin. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. a shackle. Bilge. abelthe fetter itself. Du. in the same sense. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Kil. to job. genus vincu- Bilboes. tepati. Fr. Bill. The proper meaning bylgia. axe. Kil. boia. a devotee. bill of exchange. bull-berries. . — Cot. bila. bullet. blaa. top. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). bulgja. gleischner (Frisch). the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. Gascoigne in R. bille. 3. buoy [i. bill in parliament. boja. dziob. bulghe. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. billet is the diminutive of this. from the dark colour. The origin of the term is probably from bole. bil. bigardo. Prov. to peck. an ingot of gold or silver. dziobad. Aurelles. gan. Lat. AS. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. I. billard also signified at billyards. to strike. loi. AS. Bojce. The Du. that of swell. the swelling G. the beak of a bird. bla-berry. e. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. OFr. Du. — — ' . Bohem. topor. Billow. e.— — — . Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. and in Lat. a seal. beghart. an axe. an adze . . that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. a man who rests on a stick in walking. To Bilk. A lorum tam in — Diez. procella Kil. billot. the o changing to an i to express diminution. So in Gr.' mariners. to be angry (i. 'tumidi fluctus. clog to a fetter. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. weapon . inscriptum. 2. fluctus maris. used in legal proceedings. a bigot or hypocrite. bill. an ingot. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Gael. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. In the same way are related Pol. A slang term for a sword. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. boeye. blamand. bigotto. a name given to a. at sea Billet. now A Bilboa blade. p. buail. blue . This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for.

admota non Bit. Bine. than vice versi.68 BIN Bio-. To — — —D. pippione. It. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. a bunch. Sw. a bump or knob. See Breed. from Gr. a heap. IV. bundle. pin-ti. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. or petze. a brood or hatch of young. See To Bear. also a stone weight. ge- from AS. Sanscr. bunch. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. AS. G. in Swabia. nodus. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Bitch. expressed by Sw. AS. from \t3\. wine. Thus I suppose the Gr. episcopus. biscuit. earnes brid. Lap. and especially to a small poor horse. bita. to cook). a bitch applied also to other animals. In like manner from knot. overlooker. beize. bhurja. EpisETTiTOOTToe. To Bite.. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. lusciosus et myops. pundas.. where the compass stands. biclie. bindan. bjork. truss. life. propius videre bij sicndc. beran. Fr. poule. Fr. Du. 'tumens sequor. . Bindweed. fowl. We — A Birth. I would derive the verb to knit. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. evigue. forth. See Belly. bunt. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. or baked. pinnii. bundun. to bring Biscuit. e. to build. — Kil. a truss. — — . Lat. hiindiiin. Lat. properly a young pigeon. a female dog hindinn. a heap. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. Goth. to plait. binda nat. Then added division in a granary. — Surrey in R. i. the young of birds ./«idere. a bitch. poultry. to swell.' and the like. E. bij sien. bund. Fr. biscotto. . to hang. a female stag. brid. the young of an animal. terial. a knob. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. while bind-wood. Lat. or ben-wood. Birch. a weight of 48 pounds. G. Bisom. is rendered in ON. Sp. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. Bind. AS. videt. evegue. burt.. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. vescovo. bundt. Bizened. is in Scotland applied to ivy. H. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. piccione. beitan. Bisson. a pig petz. a gallinaceous bird. a corn. from pondus. Dan. bunki. bircej Sw. are commonplaces. from Lat. bikkia. viz. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. Lith. bord. . by binda. which is expressed in E. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. isfiw. sc. The term ON. AS. to bind together. Habitacle. doubtless a stone. Fr. evesgue. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. It. ON. The proper meaning is a heap. Lith. bitacora. or bin. binge. bigne. Bird. AS. Bisen. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. to form a knotted structure. band. beisseii. to twine. by the verb knit or net. When compared with Fr. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. to wreathe. j). pittjo. Bailey. bij sienigh. Sw. Lat. to knot nets for fish. to bear. V. an eagle's young G. pullus. ON. and of Fr. habitacle. an overseer. bunga. v. . biccej ON. Gr. BITTACLE /Siof. a weight. betsel. i. to bind at . qui nisi propius Blind. bund. to bulge. piiiti. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Fr. Bing. . AS. a bitch. bundle. . Bin. berkas (z=:Fr. &c. to net. pinnu. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. copus. bindan. bitill. a little dog. to be derived from Ibfiaq. brut. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. The bitol. G. a house. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. twice cooked. Bittacle or Binnacle. beorth. G. beitsl. bundt. to fasten it together. a bear. a habit- Binnacle. — properly near-sighted. a hind or female stag. — See Bittacle. hith. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. bin-wood. Goth.

whitish. his blacan light. Fr. yellow . as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. whiteness (candor sine It. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured.). night guard. To or he can speake. bitts of Bitts. bird of the heron tribe. I blaber. G. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . cut. ON. Gael. Again. term. Fr. shining. mouth. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. apparently from its biting the tongue. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. G. a continued soft sound. Fr. a stammerer. to loll it out. pale. Mund.D. bleg. round which the cable is made fast. white lead. garrulous. AS. beitr.. a flapping. "uivac. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. bittore. dusky. thoughtlessly . — Hollyband. blakk. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake.' by Gudmund. small guard-house. Sp. It. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. blank. mona mid Dan. Bleak. a tati. indistinctly. synonymous with baber-lip. from whence we have adopted the. blabbern. 156. ' Biovac. iroxafealo. Mag. Nagt huis. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. shine. A a rail. a childe dothe gasouille. to the sharpness of a weapon. discoloured . is apprehension of danger. Hald. Bav. Bittern. biti. light-coloured. pale. Wit hung her mourn. fallow . beuni. gulblakk. — cheeked maid. baboyer. blob. bitr. or water beating gently on the beach . In like manner E. to wax pale or bleaked. faded..' by Haldorsen. a large coarse lip . to speak Dan. white. bitter.— Blabber-lip. leohte . to babble. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. blabhdach. . ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. bites. viz. Bivouac.plab is used to . on the one side.' G. a fluttering noise. v. plappem. brunblakk. an edge is sharpest sword. buft". Sp. pale. ^chops. blanc. So Fr. blabaran. NE. fallow fawn-coloured. black. x. to chops. ^aj'/^r. on. Sp. Black. to let out whai should have been concealed. is placed.. quoted by Ihre. To Blab the anchor. The Gz. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Gael. the palebleff. blob. Hal. In a similar manner Gael. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. to bivouac. Fr. as of a body falling into water. to talk much. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. 'fuscus. as of water gently beating the shore. Sp. babbe. ON.' It would thus acle. Deutsch. a beam in a house or ship. Blabber-lip. /ealo-/or. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking.€i. first. . obscurus. from wachen. The bitas. as is seen in sputter and splutter. —Neumann. a babbler. to babble. Mantuan babbi. Goth. blakki. faded. plabartaich. out the tongue. biacca. things —Palsgr. Hist. an additional watch. beiwache. blob. blunt we say it will not bite. even humour seemed and beuin. pale brown . in contempt. mouth. bitones. 't huisje. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. maculS. Se bleek. Pl. Sw. white. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. chatter babbler . Je N. Du. 332. bleich. Ai-mstrong. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. bittour. blebberis. blobach. Cotgr. corrupted in Fr. . Applied in Hin ON. blepLith. to To blabber blabber with the lips. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). gabble. bihovac. confusedly. stutterer. pins of the capstern. a shelter for the steersman. a* mast . pale yellow. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. as of wings . ON. — Collins in Hal. a large lip. blac-hleor ides. Alex. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. Bohem. Lydgate. AS. In Legrand's Fr. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. as in that of pale and white on the other. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. unintelligible talk plabair. butorj OE. 't kompas huis. yellowish. ON. Why presumest And laam's asse. Percy Soc. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. baitrs. blabbre. blesmer. bleikr. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. whitish. babbling. blake. pale yellow . ' plabraich. quick. dark. blubber-lipped. bitor. Fieldfare. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. Cot. blab. to watch.

a buible. Du. blad. to shine. blame. a boil. bladdra. G. probably ate. Sw. contracted from bladeren. D. from candere. to vocifer- — Cot. &c. pXaatpiiiiHv.— ^o thehotsun. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. candidus. leaf. and the agitation of liquids. blather. and wandering men and women. and Q. waschen. shining. I am degraded from a cook. blister. . PI. as Lat. black. irXariQ. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. blanchir. G. Torriano. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. G. the origin of .TaaVi%^-&\xxi. bladeren. Bav. smore. Fr. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. blatter. the leaf of a tree. Hist. mud. blaere. — — — to jabber. the ON. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. Bacon in R. blister. blein. blad. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. which we . To Blare. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. Blank "verse. blactra. Blank. blanchet. bladder . —We Bladder.— Kil. a bubble. a bubble. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. Du. blatt. vagabonds. pladdern. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. Sw. or blafich. biastner. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. 86. blegen.. plat. blinken. speak impiously.. to make or become white blanc. and he shall be sure to have O. — Sw. mud. as. defame. a bladder or pustule. Blame. cited in N. a leaf. bladre. is identical with Flanders borlen. dripping-pans. to blow. livido . Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. also jabber. But perhaps a more Gr. pallido. blanqne. madder. piatto. See Blubber. p. or as E. a blank ticket. vagrants. roar. white. blether. imbrunire. a pustule . to dabble in water. Dan. revile. in R. Play in Nares. on. blanchet. Fr. most complete example of leafy structure. tattle. 5/^a/^ of colour. It. a. and others engaged in dirty work. 7. name originally given Blackguard. flap of a Du. blatter. Lat. Cot. blather.—Blatter. on. whitish. board. as blader. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. pluddre. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. to disappoint. smother. blanc. with all other loose idle masterless men. Dan. as scullions. and E. Sc. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Du. blena. and G. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blasphemare. to omit. —^Webster. leaves. mus-blackt. and thence to babble. Wott. to —Blaspheme. leaf of a. reproach. whitish. Du. skola and thwatta. Jan. blaeren. also tanned by the sun. pimple. Perhaps from blegen. variable than the signification of words designating colour. to bleak in the sun. blahen. rogues and wanderers. moere. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. Fr. mire.—Blatant. boys. bladder. chatter. Dan. to shine. broad. blank. . The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. a white or unwritten ticket. foolish talk. coat. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. pass over. bladder. Gr. borrelen. The radical bubble. bladra. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. linkboys. biasimare. slush. — rura. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Du. or a mass of bubbles. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. tree. . gabble. branches . chatter. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. bladder. e. blister. his meat burnt. 1854. to To bellow. to purl. sheet of paper. — . image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. to bubble. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. plat. Eadmer. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Blanket. blegne. polished. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. commonly called the Black-guard. or of an oar G. a blanket a bed. to glow. Now. as. dial. Blancli. Fr. Blain. blister. also white woollen cloth . Blade. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. to Hence Ital. Reliqu. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. leafy. to glitter. To blank. The present forms then should be classed with blether. white. to blanch. Sir. plate.

the noisy. on whose behalf the herald appeared. To blast. blcese. blose. to set on fire. .' to fastum . an conium. is used in the sense of manifestatio. clamorous. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. blaodh. live coal .sound a trumpet. blcesett. Fr. Du. the matter incendiary . as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. blcest. a flame . declaratio. To blow AS. thraso. might spring from the same origin by a . fire. Cot. to extol.— . indeed. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. much plausibility. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. kept up. A gust of wind. brasa.whence the Fr. light-coli. — Elazen. to de. braise. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. With inversion of the liquid. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. blys. Kil. an empty and two theories are proposed. to blow. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. Du. a lamp blasere.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. quus. The AS. might And sain. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. a voice Jr. blysa. i. Sc. to bellow. a funeral oration . a MS. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. AS. OE. blis. But now. blase. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. it is manifest. a torch . to spread news. blaodhrach. ing of arms. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. blorach. blasa. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. blasoen. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. baladron. to publish. g. baladrar. noisy blor. Cot. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. To Blaze. Du. Fr. and. shield or surcoat. ther it was erst not knowe. also praeblczse. redness . — ' — stroy.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. blus. Golden Book in R. splendour. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. bawling. loud . as a verb. proclaim the virtues of. is the imme. visui patet. blase. a shining spot. brasa. also blazon or the blazSpenser. a flame. See Blare. to blaze Sp. laudes (Kil. I.' painted or figured . blcEsan. Du. 2. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. abroad. bldsse. besides blesse. used. or to the sound which it produces. and to make him word blaze.). bleis. Blast. She roade at peace through his heraldry. in the same way as we 2. Gudmund. or blazening. a coat of arms. how. pale. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. friend Cornelius. Du. abroad. of an animal. to publish the praises. coloured prints. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. a flame. commendation blason funebre. blaeteren. Du. also only pains and excellent endurance. a loud noise. is from AS. magnilo. a shield. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . . a torch. Troilus and Cressida. e. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. As Kilian. stultd loqui. blaesen. — ^Jam. blesse. Gael. 'op een trompet blaazen. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. whence Blazonry. . boasting. blateroon. blaze. G. AS. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. Blatant. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. magniloquus. Blaze. to proclaim. each of boaster. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. Lye. Blanches illuminies. oured. a whisperer. blason. If armour. to blow . blcEsan. beast. ON. gloriosus. by stripping off a portion of the bark. to blow. a blast. blazen. Sw. like the in English. — — ' : bless. blesse. Dan. Fr. Prov. among other . blossi. blezo. blast. Sw. First from the E. blasonner. proflare tues. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. A strong flame. to cut off prematurely.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. has also blencke. ON. blaser vid. blaterare. The other derivation. G. bliEsan. to trumpet forth. bles. Dan. somewhat different train of thought. and which. blason. ventosus. oron-blasare. biter. ill-speaMng their proper colours . in that of praise. blatero. a shout. blass. A blaze is so intimately Then. senses. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. embraser. The origin of this exSp.

the livid colour of a bruise.P. blot. while the agent ac- From . blister. a red watery eye. a fault. color plumbeus bldma. a spot. to spot . to disgrace one's name. Manuel de Pecch&. a spot. Bailey. sugillatio. to cry or weep. From the OFr. the formal equivalent of English wink. inflamed eyes. from on. bleikr. See Blood. And now are these but mansbond (i. ^Xiixaoftai. blema. souiller. novice. . darkness of vices. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. ' . BLENCH obfusco. As AS. to wink at it. . whitish. c. — — R. Mac. blarren. pier vor den augen eyes. sinen langen tranen. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. bleakness. ' He blarrede or roar. wheal. yet he doeth not for all that Cot.filerren.' the devil makes a vain back. a stain. blemissemeiit. Bleak. ^Blencher. ' — — ' : — — . wan. on. confound him. blench came to be used for a trick. blur before their eyes. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. Blear-eyed j having sore i. And By a similar metaphor Pol. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. Bleb. To Bleat. to blare been weeping. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. . blink. light-coloured. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Palsgr. See Black. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. guenchir.D. blesmir. to humbug. avoid looking it in the face. bloken. splamii!. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. blesmissure. which are blurred with the have shewed you. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. AS. or blemish. to wink the eye. a blemish in one's 2. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. to make him feel blank. in the expression reputation. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. wanness. exposed.v. what blenched him therwith. blcecan.'he cried till the tears ran down. a spot. So in Sw. To salir. dead-coloured Cotgr. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. Richardson. Blemisli. pale Du. Blancher. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. a blotch plerr. spSt. blakna. Pol. Sir J. blot. a boil. to become livid. A stain in a man's reputation. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. livor. 115. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. The term blear. Gower in R. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. Gr. bldmi. To totally different from the foregoing. 242. G. livid. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. to soil. spla7nU sie. Ancren Riwle. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. boggle at something. like one that has long P1.' to deceive one. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. a disgrace. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. B. I chaunge colour. to bleach. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . is Blench. as of dust or mist . Fr. (faith or creaunce) Be war. plama. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie.' God in his wordes. . to blear one's eye. or blemysshen — blaken. p. tutnan is a cloud. ' — — eye. A Blab. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. Bejaune. drop of water. from the than schal I go. tumanid. 419. Schmel. pale . — blink the question is to shrink from it. goda nainn. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. to spot. or to low as oxen. pimple . Blear. tacher. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. a spot. geplerr. Bleed. flack. See Black. a been distinct. to stain one's honour or reputation. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. . a blot or smear blanking one. N. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. paleness. to start away from. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. Sw. to bleat as sheep. start vor den augen. and thence to a bruise. to cast a mist before the eyes.

to shine. blaziti. Kiittner. to blithsian. to flash. lightning sweet blago.Q. to glitter ful . ON. 375. Tany. G. a glance Swiss blenden.nasal. flash of light . glad. . a wink. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . Wtb. in potters' language. blendian. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless.corn. money. blindr. as a vatn i vin. pale. Swab. blogi. AS. to — make it thick and muddy. to rejoice. blinzdugig. doors. lighten. as a blind entry. to churn. blicken. a nounce happy. —Brera. tative source of the word is wholly lost. glimpse. the Slavonic languages. also to wink. blincken. to lighten. blatida. . For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. gladness. as in Du. happy . bliss look . or nettle which does form. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. dazzle . . a dead nettle. Needle. vious one in the order of formation. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. blessed. a gleam. as in the case of blaze. blac. blind. blican. Bliss. blindselen. I hold thee a grote thee. ' Pl. liquid filth to bluther. III.blinze. F. Swiss (obsolete). pearance of the blighted . to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. To Blend. false windows. the verb to bless is some. joyful. ^Jam. AS. and joys of Paradise bliden. a wink With the bletsian. The sound of k before an s. to fall into water with a sudden noise. wink of sleep .' or Dat Koorn verblekket.blunda.' To — blunge clay. cascultare. . be glad flash. a. bluiter. Du. . G. happy . gives blinzen. Du. . to bluiter. Russ. Blight. — A A — . latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. blag. mixing in general. blink. blick. blazeny. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. — Goth. fortunately.blinkard . blind- ON. (=bene dicere). shine. to glitter. Paradises blidnissu. blink-eyed. j). AS. blicken. burn up. plotzen. livid. To blunder water. lovely Bohem. Du. to dazzle . mix from blekken. to consecrate . happy . glance. G. . OHG. to make happy. a blick-ooghen. sung. glitter. — when he — Bailey. to glitter . moment. glitter. riches . good. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. joy . giving (Fr. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. a flash. AS. A . The term then self or others. to be blind.wink . blithe. to shut the eyes G. but by no means therefore a pre. .blinken. make these hands 3. Serv. blissian. blidu. . will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. Dan. tire. blahoslaviti to twinkle. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. blago. Nares.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blund. Blind. to shine. to bless . csecubrandish. well blagaya. From the action of the hand making Sw. riches blajennii blicksem. To Bless. an entry which leads to nothing . to stir or puddle. to pro.eyed. plonsen. to shine. blithe blis. to dash wine with water. blessed. Sc. Biglotton.D. Sw. blent. blotzen. seems the simple netel. Pol. to glance. to bless. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. to bluiter up with water. graceful. happily. although in the in the next article. OHG. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Du. Sc. Thence apblinds. blitzen. Du. wink. to plunge. blinzeln. Blazena Bea. blitz. blanssen. the G. lightning. a glance. blinzler. Blink.. to twinkle. window-blind. bludder. blich-fiur. De Sonne ' verblekken. trix. bleg. weaklaveny. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. to merry. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. with or without the nasal. — . is I shall Gurt. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. to act like a — . . blet. to dabble in water. blende. glitter. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. sweet. The inblissful. blend. blicksem. G. lightning. to mix. Deprived of sight. sertion of the nasal. thou knave. . . a look. blinde fenster. to make a rumbling noise. readily passes into a /. well blahy blick and blink. joy. as taschen. to rejoice. pockets. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blahos. tless —Gamm. goods. to dilute too much . a blessing. a. joy. to shut the eyes.not sting thiiren. blide. Owl and Nightingale.

or the like. blindsehn. Sc. blotfisk. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. to blow. and F. kostia. weak. busten. mild. blaud. blobber. a blister. blad. to desire the male. Gael. Blond. to swell. Bleb. to blow. to breathe hard. and pisg. bloc. blijde. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. in the lump or mass of wood. Boyd in Jam. in gusts. blautr. fish blind person. soft. Bav. soak in water cured fish. mass. bluster. Of sheep. to blow. Egillson. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. to bubble. the unhewn bole of a tree. — Sw. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. — . in the sense of a soft tint. Lat. blister blasan. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. to soak. —Bailey. blot. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. blister. a . G. a blain. fiustula. The blow E. or the mark which it makes. blubber. Langued. a blister . a dirty blister. a bubble.pusta. or bleb. Blob. orbicular. N. Thus we have blab and babble. to dash liquid. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. Mod. B. to cure by smoke. blod. blot. also to set See Bless. Jonson. light yellow. and bouclette. Dan. blide. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. viscid.. a bubble. whence blast. must be referred to AS. ^vaaa. a bubble. puff. swell. — — — — — From blabber. The stem or trunk of a tree. having an unsound swollen look. Goth. bloated. to steep. pausten. Hence. And so from squatter. in Nares. W. speaking rapidly any . ON. . separate portion. frequentative. lagga i blot. in bulk. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. B. any lump or mass of things. as if soaked in water. It may be formed Blithe. blinzel-maus. signifying in the first instance to soak. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Du. blidr. A under this name was imported into England. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. senting the dashing of water. See Blot. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. For this. blesme. blcesma. sloppy dirt. an unformed mass. to to puff and be noisy. To Blissom. merciful ON. to blissom.—Bloater. pods. bleiths. Fr. bubble and blubber. blaustem. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. I believe. Block. Blob. shells. a small lump of anything thick. Gael. kostua. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. bloc. round. while Lat. to block up the way. plub. and easily changes its place. cooking. . Blister. mild. a little blisg. blab. blote. strawclod. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. as a blab of ink. bausen. Sw. taken altogether. boucler. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. expressed by cognate roots. a block or log en bloc. buclde. pustula. a ram. joyful. bluyster. as blinzeln. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. Du. a drop of water. blindman's-buff. it is must be observed. a blot or spot. pusula. blouca and Fr. a See Blot. from blcsr. To a smoking or drying by the fire. Dan. Cotgr. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. like manner the coloured. biota. blot. must be classed with forms like Gr. or blinde-kiih.— Bailey. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. formed spot. like clot. soaked. G. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. as in E. repre- pusula. Hence E. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. Sw. Svt. inde humiditate tumidus. soft. and inarticulately. ON. stone. A solid blouquette blisters. is formed squad. is also used in the sense of swelling . gentle OHG. husks. Fr. to close it with a solid mass. . ^Jam. The roots /.plisg. soft.— Hal. To Bloat. Ibid. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. pimple. — Blob. buckle.—Bloated. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. or is inserted or omitted. Kil. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. blobbes or droppes of water. In Fin. a lumpish head plubach. blithe. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. blond. . noise of liquor in a half-filled cask.

dial. Schwenck. to slap. bloetnsel. Dan. kuh-plader. as the skin or hair. j^ blottir. to strike . blistaf. couleur livide. the bright colour of the cheeks . Sc. blus. Blot. — — . to shine . a. —Barbour. pale. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . . bloutre. to grow pale). Blotcli. bliithe. E. great leaf of cabbage. bit by bit. pladdern. to scribble. Pl. Russ. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. glose. lustre. platz-voll. Stalder. gfyssa. Hatch. a blaze. a cow-dung. — Blotch-paper. Sw. Ir.properly to scatter liquid . .— . lidmr. blosem. skam. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. Du. plot of land is a spot or small rage. platz-regen. kobladde. — gush. to sparkle. to strike with something soft or flat. blaeuw. to dash down. AS. blue. a lump. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to squander. a torch blusse. G. en blau ach. a water ploutsche. Lat. Du. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. ^Bleed. white blatte. from the bright colour which 7'vci. ])erly Du. plet. a flower. bloto. blotting-paper. pale biavo. fall down . blauwel.platter. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Blossom. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. blady. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. Jios. fall to overflowing. colour of the cheeks. blomstr. . a blot or spot. blysa. E. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). Fr. a spot or blot. bloeme. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. Schilter. blooth. probably connected with Pol. blou. It should be of filth blak-blatte. lump of anything soft to blad. to glisten . proto shine with bright colours . It. shine . dirty spot on the cheek. blosen. Fris. to blaze. bloi. biado (of which the evidence plattern. blosma. to dabble in water. light. to dash down Du. bloi. bliise. Du. E. Harmar in R. spots in the sun. blut. wan. spot pletter i solen. E. livid marks. . blosa. to slap. gleam. or the sound of it . the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen.blauschlagen. to patter. bloi. to dirty. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. plattata. Du. fair in en blat vand. a beater. splendour . ' — . Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. dial. blue. mud. . blond is used in blatt. ON. ^lys. E. bldmi. in v. of a blow with something lios. a blow. Dan. to glow. bliihen. blond en blaauw slaan. Wendish blodo. a drop of water or colour. blond. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. 2. redness. ON. cow-dung. livid . to be red. blotte. The G. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. Blood. yellow. blust. lump flower. bletister. — Cot. to spot or blot. to strike with such these objects exhibit. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Prov. blaeuwe ooghe. blotter. splashing full. Sc. plottra. a black eye Du. a deli. bleustern. Ein platsch milch. — Stalder . to blaze . bldts. glus. ON. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. to dabble in water . whence plader. Florio). a gush of milk . a The form platschefz. on. to blush . bloedsd. a Usaae. . . Wflz<^«. soft or flat. See Blow. from G. gloss. D. brilliancy. blawels. blase. Sw. platschern. bloemen. pale tint.' the rain is driving and blue . a Schmid. platsch-voll. Fris. blondheid. Erploten. to squat or lie close. leme. to blot the land was in a leme. blat. straw. bluish. to From . parallel form with ON. PI. E. platt-voll. Blad. bloed. Plots. blue. to exists in biadetto. blose. coloured (Diaz. blois. clod. glasi. sbiadare. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. blowen. . a nature. Schmid. (of cattle) to dung. blad. The bright-coloured part to portion of land.D. glister . plants which prepares the seed. yellowish It's G. Blow. pladern. See Blow. bfys.^ Kil. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. gammon. AS. plotterwis. flower. Bloom. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. a flower. bleistern. Dan. G. blue . blue. OFr. blaeuwen. a pelting shower). S-wiss pladern. glossi. to flame. blatte.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. to be red with blot. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. a Halm a. Sw. blostma. to splash. a flower. the bright to blot paper morsels. blodelsa and blawelsa.

whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. to hard. blebber. P1. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. marking some application from that bladder. cheeks bedabbled with tears. We . Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. plusig. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. gloeyen. And. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. — To blubber. to blow. OFr. bliihen. y\r)yi»v. Blowze. toused. . blau. blodern. a flower. Sik upplustem. Deutsch. G. pale . bldt. blduen. Lat. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. Jla-re. to guggle. bliihen. sound like water. blodyn. In agitation of water. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. bloemen. the red fluid of the body . The radical sense is shown in Gael. to show flower. and closely allied with Du. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. meurtrissure Roquefort. — — Mundart. and thence. These are — Bludder. bliuwan. to bubble up. fqded. — . flower w. glede. closely difference in of blabber. to make blue. 1. to breathe G. glowing coal . . The interchange of an initial gl. blubbern.D. . Gr. Wtb. Prov. plustrig. plubraich. to blurt out. —SchmelIt. in rapid or indistinct utterance. especially with respect to the hair. Notwithstanding the We . The aUied forms. a fat. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. gliihen. bliithe. to inflate. a blow. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. bluther.. bloes. blaw j biavo. ' BLUE or guggling. puff. Blowzy. blodelsa. into flower. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. chatter.xo'»'. to with Bohem. to beat with a mallet. fiubbem. Raynouard. where the word may be compared bliggman. gliihen. v. a Blossom. ler. bluod. glow. bluh. to blow. fem. is very frequent. vi^ound. It. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. OHG. Kil. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. OHG. red-faced bloted wench. Mund. to flap like loose clothes. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. bloi. Her sweet bloderit face. disordered in head-dress. — . a blast. to shine with bright From colours. . piusen. glansj Ir. a herb Gr. foam. plubair. bloom. E. tache. a gurgling . ^Jam. wan. pale. to exhibit bright colours. pale OFr. The primary sense is to shine. to gabble. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. withered. blut. boil. coup. A. E. plodern. pludern. a. Langued. wan. blue. 1292. Pl. Bav. glaodh and blaodh. blezir. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. pale. grow pale. to'disorder. to breathe bouteiUis. — Bluther. blawan. may cite for example G. green. to beat. Bret. or gr. to blow. a continued noise of agitated water. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. Deutsch. Pludern. blazi. disordered. to spot. to bruise Roquef. G. in E. Pl. AS.to blossom. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. to Plodern. dirty. 92. To Blow. to fade. blao. a paddling in wate r. flower OHG. Gael. bludder. It is howbliuwen.nify bubble. |8A)'. heath. to make bubbles in drinking. to glow. jabber. blau. to puff up. like manner Lat. . . w. B. glas. -ii.Jlasa. Du. blosen. Chaucer. grug. plubartaich. gUd. Tumbled. florere. blubonciti. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). fied vowel. Chaucer. To Blow. Danneil. G. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. to fade. blass. a bruise.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. Blue. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. bloeyen.— . — To Blubber. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered.' Hamburgh Archives. and the forms mentioned under Swab. blubbern. /idXavoc. little apparent resemblance. blue . quod bloot et blawe dicimus. is confined to the — . to glow. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. bledniai. bruised Prov. sponds with Sw. to fade. gloeden. blois. bl. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand.' — Palsgr.D. blust. to flourish. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. 51. 2.D. boasting. to gush. sense. grey. G. Du. blazir. bruk. corre. MHG. glas. blow. bloeden. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blady. d in Sc.D. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. blava. br. blahen.

Biada. bloi. plo-wy. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. find accordingly It. pludder. blaf. corn. Kil. I blonder. his business with much noise.//aay. 't — —Hal. to become pale or livid. See Blurt. bullern. blond. as well as biado. blue. to work To blunder out a fronto. Dief. buller-bak. Hence a Slcelton in R. Hence we pass to Prov. superficie plani. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. bUich. verdoyer. like Du. OFr. — Pr. without image or superscription. from the brilliant green of the young E. The Du. It is remarkable however that the E. something. as well as sbiadafe. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. in water dobbelen. planus. fawn-coloured. a boisterous violent man. Palsgr. pale yellow. rustic. and sbiadare. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. biava. is. blave is moreover. liebefactor.in mud or water. from the Lat. je perturbe. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. all representing the — . . a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . .' trouble. to dabble Biglotton E. From G. Roquefort. tradire to Fr. Kiittner. and Du. to become pale. Bluff. Pol. puddle. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. and metaphorically. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Dryden in R. a flounder. speech. segetes virentes. devenir vert blavoie. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Kil. an ill-done job. mistake. — — — . a plain coin herausplatzeu. pale) is provincially used in the. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. applied to green as well as blue. - reddish yellow. to lose colour. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. The word is here synonymous with amplus. tutte le semente ancora in erba.• BLUFF biado. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. sbiavare. originally growing up turf and water. Pm. to confound. trahir. to puddle. or an abrupt manner. to fall suddenly on the ground. Analogous forms are Du. pale straw-coloured. Du. dial. flav-us. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. bluish. to plump into the water. Roquefort. bleu et blanc. Dan. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. polter-hans. to become pale or wan. G. verdure. and biavo (Diez). blavus. Altieri. Bodge. yellowish red. Lat. has donder-bus. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. confusion. sense of yeUow. It then signifies something done at once. non rotunda. G. discoloured {plowiee. poltern. corn. Supp. glundr. Du. and then generally idle talk. herbe. falb. Sw. Flor. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. ploffen. blanssen. which is rendered by Florio. A bluff manner. biada. blunt. Romance bluiter. sloppy drink. polterer. We Blunder. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. blunder. jaune. a fore. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. Hal. a shore abruptly rising.D. yellow. glundra. blue. earth and water mixed together. E. Ditton in R. disturb. Then with the nasal. bawling. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. to mix it up with water. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. And blunders on and staggers every pace. to dabble in the mud. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Bladum. pale. having a bluff forehead. blandum. Pl. Blavoyer. used for the work of an unskilful performer. G. blac. Blunderer or blunt worker. blahir. blunder.. blunderhead. mix It. Bohem. to fade). a blunderbuss. flodderen (Weiland). plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. The Du. See Blunt. G. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. biavo. blue. Blaffart. fallow.make a noise. abrupt. in plur. — . buller-bas. blake (identical with AS. in the same way as from It'.— . from an imitation of the sound. Blunt. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. to blunder water. contrasted with the dle. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. and bustle . To blunder is then. bulmanner. like the Celtic glas. to agitation of liquids. Halma. blutter. to blunge clay. plomp. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country.

pludse. Bluntet. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. naked. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. bare. silly. A light blue colour. Stalder. blunt. blue. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. biosso. plains The large bech. biotto. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. Swab. to make foliage. plump. void. is thrown. and the like. blunsch. as Sw. Dan.plompen. . ineffectual reason. wan. rough. — Kil. blunt. plumbeus. identical with E. obtusus. rudely.to fall into the water. Du. — — pidus. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. it will be observed. nis. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. It is from this notion of suddenness. without preparation. bare. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. blunder. rude. Probably radically hlekit. ang. a thick and will person. and an unintelligent. sheepish. Sir T. inaKil. duU. through which a man is so blont. and. blunt. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. The syllables blot. of a knife which not cut. obtusus. blait. pointless. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. More in Richardson. hebes. Kiittner. V. awkwardly. exactly corresponding to the G. stupid fellow. heavy. is The word dull. but of something soft thrown on the ground. Chaucer. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. Kiittner. blat. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. naked. Then cometh indevotion. clumsy. — blunt. platzen. the absence of sharpness. raw. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. to blurt. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. that the sense of bare. Plump. Q. blout. poor Sc. Blunt. bus. to bring it suddenly out. homo stolidus. blutten. naked. without Maolaich. dull.—D. V.— — — . bald. without horns. plump. in Richardson. heavy. to handle a thing bluntly. used in both senses. Dan. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. a blot. a portion To inquire for slaves. —D. dull. as cow-dung. unceremonious manner. fooUsh. naked. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . thick. united in Gael. dial. bloss. seems to be derived. G. inactive Swiss bluntschi. from the loud report a fire-arm. as in E. blunt. heavy. and hath swiche languor in his soul. or blab out a thing Kiittner . . plotsen. Sc. pale. nature. viz. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. plump. Sc. bleak. blait. unfledged Sw. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. edgeless. G. to plump into the water. azure. —D. plump J to plump out with it. Woddis. bluntschen. Won by degrees. Ford in R. to blunt a thing out. to plump down. pressions. A modification of the same root. without the nasal. a bluntie. It will be seen that the G. blotta sanningen. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Blaitie-bum. Sw. unwrought. maol. with or without the nasal. viz. It. plonsen. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. Molof something wet. massive. V. mit etwas heraus-platzen. down. insensible. Pol. bare or blunt. blockish. and in the same sense. blott. figuratively. clownish. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. blatte. good plump person. platz-regen. fling down . unpolished. plotz. Plontp. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. a simpleton. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. forestis. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. or heraus plumpen. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. Plump mit etwas umgehen. awkward. Now the Swiss bluntsch. Bare and blunt. it will be well to point out a sense. absence of preparation. to make a noise of such a Stalder. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. The blait body. that it not easy to discover the connection. Halma. F. plutz T)\i. like a thing thrown down with a noise. plump. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used.

— — — * Boast. to threaten. Blush. to rumble. Fr. to blow. to dabble. pfludern. to blubber. a torch blusse. bdtr. bora.— . Wright's ed. large. bot. bausen. Slur. is formed Du. a. A large snake. to render indisbhir. both used in the sense of boasting. bhis. Boa.plodem. to jabber. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. pludern. to roar. margin. blodern. blirt of greeting. strong. chicchere. planks or boards. lacerta. imitated by has also In like . beer. Fl. to blush. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. bustuous. a Jam. coarse. to endeavour to terrify. Related to blutter. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. bliise. . cocodrUlus. pausten. Du. my dear.D. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. to make mouths. to puff. short pieces of any filthy mud. then applied to indistinct vision . border. bord. w. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. to make a noise in boiling. bluther. blast. Gael. stellio. blosken. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. e. to give a crack. Hal. geplerr. will fly up. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. to crying. to make a noise with the mouth. a board or plank. crack made by bursting open. on. as in Du. gabble. ground. the Brem. to spurt out. violent G. Du. 9396. It. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. bit. a short thick body. dull. bord. a flurt with one's fingers. Gael. blotch and botch. 156. like the parapets (viggyrdil. boistous. bateau. Fr. To tinct. Boa. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. bladdra. and swimmeth very well. cluster. AS. 1. blunt. G. an ear of corn. The elision of the d is very to chatter. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. boord. To Blurt. a smear. 29. — To Bob. beacon fire. pof. Lat. V. It. blot. berd. an edge. It. a bladder . be a crack or loud sound. to smear.' — Red Riding-hood. a blotch. pustern. a dangling object. flat. eber. a tassel. blurra. Bav. borrar. gabble Sw. cheeks glow. to puff. or blurt with one's mouth. blaste?i. to breke. AS. puffen. Bluster. to disfigure with E. fringe. or backwards and forwards. bobine. Hal. planks raised up outside the roofs.pusten.—Bobbin. swagger. to puff. dial. ader. To blow in puffs. Pl. stupid. a club foot . Board. violent. To splirt. . Schmeller. Swiss blodern. Boost is used for the boast. a mist before the eyes plerren. lindwurm.v. to blurt out. Supp. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. blarra. Pull the bobbin. ever-swin. bdd. rude. bar. Wtb. bot-voet. See Boisterous. literally edge-wood. bakke bleustern. blur. De Boat. margin. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. table. whence bordvidr. To brag and to crack. E. plump. a burst of tears. Comp. a mistiness. to brag grande loqui. an end or stump. eafor. to be out of temper. of the word seems . to dangle.the syllable bot. — a blaze. Wallace. Du. to glow . — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. . baban. and boisterous. c. and E. table. as splurt to splutter. botte. to talk quick and indistinctly . 'Ba. burra. G. Bot zeggen. to say bluntly. blaere. a baU of thread the mud. edge. a small lump. and Du. voce intonare.y. to sound like water boiling. — ' Dief. the sound of a blow poffen. boccheggiare. skin. BLUR Boar. The to radical meaning D. blose. to snuff. margin. baiag. Du. common. P. a tassel. to bounce. brett. Explained by Jam. boot. edge. a blow . To move quickly up and down. bleuster. blader. Dan. to guggle. to bark. Sverris Saga. Du. a blot. primarily signify loud noise. Kil. Sc. — — . and the latch . For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. this root are formed Sc. dial. blusse i ansigtet. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. blot. pluddre. it implies that it is empty sound. OE. Du. batello. As the as. blaustem. bludder. BOB 79 — To Blur. or bog also thread. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. G. mire. bord. outward edge. bludder. Halma. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. to blaze. ON. — From mouth. &c. Fl. board. 274. bdta. aper. . blaffen and baffen. blasen and See Burr. i. puddle. E. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. Sc. a border. to dirty. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. boa. a grows to a great bigness. splurt and spirt. to chatter. hot. and when applied to vaunting language. See Blossom. properly noisy. to blore. . rude. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. blubber. bluter. bur. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. AS. whence bob. to blur.plerr. Du. sudden. bobbin. acre.

The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. the boss of a buckler. busti. to roll. expression hogglin an bogglin. whence Fr. . body of a shirt bol. calf of the leg. We .' A — Sherwood's Diet. is identical with Fr. . corset. The Sp. to fail. toss. Lith. speak of the barrel of a horse. needle. a sting . move. quagmire). the body of a shift gaguejar. bodilo. bodetz. See To Botch. the stem of a tree . anything soft.! . bogadh. bod. to prick. potahha. bog (equivalent to E. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. message boda. — 2. BOGGLE trunk and G. precept. to smack. And waves. Now unskilful action is conmire. bot. It introduced from Ireland. With With this we charged again We bodged again. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. bodnu. to thrust. or a pair of bodies. to stick. . gog in gog-mire. unsteady. Miracle-plays. a spur. bodies. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. Bohem. Wall. To Bode. Shakespear has badged with blood. '£. a dagger. W. bogan. potacha. gebod. arise E. to make. potacha. agitate. AS. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. and the word is well explained by Bailey. whence paUchen. round. daubed or dabbled with blood. a bog or morass. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. . gago. bo tich. gag. Bodkin. goggle. shaking . The signification of the root bot. to waver. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. a ghost . stutter gogmire. Thy i. the belly. Schmel. corset from corps. potig. barrique. mud. ^Jam. Gael. a prickle. Bodice. or bag. woman's stays. to fail. where bogs form Gael. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. so large a feature in the country. point. bodak. barriga. bodene.rabodi. pall. Supp. to stir. Banff. dies. — H. a command. to be uncertain what to do. bole. To make bad work. stitch. gogach. bodig. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . * To Boggle. an announcement. biodag. the thick part of anything. — Grandg. . bayonet . baboyer. AS.a (i\ia. butt. 3. to butt. to be unsteady tich. See Baber-lipped. Reliq Antiq. to scruple. cask bottich. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. as in stammering or staggering. a cask.hollow. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. bothog. stuttering. bodi. gagoula. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. stumpy. corpset. a round body both. a puddle. boll. bagges. ON. Crist. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. Commonly explained as if from Sc. Russ. badyti. bogadaich. — as well as the body of an animal. a cask. To portend good or bad. .\\i\c\iset. nave of a wheel. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Bret. See Bid. wavering. a messenger . represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. fickle . We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. to start start and back as from a bugbear. bogach. strike with the horns. bolr. formerly bodies. nodding.' Bogglie. bod. To Bodge. . as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. e. boftich. to stammer. quakmg. palleg. bodian. bogle. bob. anything protuberant. So BOB To Bob. to dabble or paddle. or stem of a tree. bayonet. swelling. from fitting close to the body. Bog. French bouter. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bog. to make a mow at. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. is a lump. a body. of which the E. VI. to deliver a message. as signifying anything spherical or round. Ptg. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen.gmh:t. Ir. body and G. to blurt a thing out. the body.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. belly. meaning the round part of his body. In like manner E. to bodge. by the syllable patsch. Cot. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. a prick. unsteady. moving backwards and forwards. biodeachan. gagei. to push with the horns. the trunk of the animal body. Gael. waving. exhibit another modification of the root. then from the yielding.. to bob. corpses pot. unsteady nature of a soft substance. Body. a quagsoft. as a horn. shake. bog. bottig. Lap. thrust with something pointed. To mock. moist mire. Gael. a . . bottich are derivatives. to commit a blunder. an awl. bodi. patsche. bodat. . bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. bodhag. gog. and E. Gl. 43. rounded. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. Ptg.

bhster. bout is explained by Kil. 304). the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. Wall. see Boast. to stumble. ^Vocab. bout. This iv. Fr. to be at a loss a shirt. Fr. bolc'h. Me doth awate.D. ON. 374. beule. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bol. bul. the husk of nuts. pustule. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion.' Mrs Baker. baud. trunk of a tree . bog. Magy. Goth. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. brave. Lap.Du. bullire. Bustuous. swelling. In the same way Sc. excellent. bol. a bakazikni. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. which are not used for a similar purpose. to waver or hesitate. bulla. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. to hesitate from doubt. a head . wag. belc'hj. quick. (of Mons) b^guer. . cheerful. capitellum. — ' — tagliare. pall. tomentum. to give a hoUow sound. gerade signifies straight to the mark. strong. as those of nuts. in speaking. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bold. OHG. Chaucer. used. poppy (Bailey). Da. . G. bok. flax-boU. to the belly as the or dislike. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . to stammer. Properly noisy. bolstar. Sc. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bollen (Kil. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. swelling. fiausten. bagaji. bSlstr. treated under Bowl. coarse. free. to puff. a bubble. as. hero. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. animal as distinguished from the limbs. as E. chatter. i. from the branches. pusten. boly. bolle. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Boll. prince. E. proud. pillow. Kit. pimple ON. chaff of corn siliqua. Du. — — which the cushion is stuffed. as.— — . * Boisterous. round the first instance to the materials with . Love. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. ON. furfures.rounded part of the body. G. Lat. . bolzen. Du. 45. G. bolster. rough. courageous. a quaking mire. bolster. Boystous.— D. Lat. the gurgling sound of water rush. bouil. tulum. stutSw. bolleken. hakogni. courageous. a bump. to be prominent.palleg. as baltha. bald. bulla. then violent. the lir. polc'h. bula. bola. bold. sels of flax. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. Du. It.w. bald. a swelling in ice. A.. capiing into a cavity. up of bubbles. bulr. Fr. repagulum. but that Bolt. b^gayer. blow. glass phial. insolent baude. puile. ohg. strong. or the like. and manace for to de. tartalear. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. strong. stud. he will speak out. tartle. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. dint in a metal vessel. Daring. ON. Sp. a fastening for a door. bochken (titubare. scruple. boll. globular bod)'. whence bulla. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. haughty. Boil. folliculus grani. obex. boutpijl. the. puilen. a boil or swelling Du. may be identified with It. buile. also a blister. cows the people from speaking. a bubble. Cot. The round stem of a tree. noise. and then applied to other husks. The term applies in — — impressed . Du. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. Bret. by which it is moved to and fro. Test. boil . merry. a bubble. bolt. bolla. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. Pr. boggle. bold. To Bolter. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. intrepid. 1430 in Deutsch. balder. Kil. Bole. gluma. to stagger. caput scapulse. ON. the body . warlike. biiilen. Mund. stameln vel bochken. . impetuosity. V. bald. Gael. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). from Du. bolr. a cushion. perpendicular. the body of a man or of ter. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. bolzBold. tartajear. roydeur. bolt upright. boss. to tattle. properly represent belly. The bob. — 6 . bul. bola.). OG. styffe or rude . shake. Chaucer seems Dan. huge. To Boil. bal. is probably a modification of boll. Pm. to boil. notes. hollow. to stammer. Swab. bog. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. Westerwald bollern. bealder. bol. buller. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. in the sense of handsome . ^Boistous. balldr. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. confident. boystousnesse. E. Sw. ballr. stramenta. w. to swell. tar. G. Stalder. * Bolster. See Bulk.

2. buideln. crotlar. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. tling or crashing noise. ler. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. bortelen. bolzen. / is transposed in Fr. barutare. to coagulate. mole-hill. a rattling carriage. Champagne burtcau. to start out. grasbulten. Pl. hole. bluter. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. poltern. Hence. zare. bolt-foot. Dan. to make a knocking. crash. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. a . as of a trumpet. to bolt meal barutel. buUire. Lang.noise {brattle of thunner. hammer. beliitea. to E.D. to become lumpy. boss. MHG. G.through a cloth of loose texture.nature of the operation. zen. : ' — — . — — — . representing a rat. btilt. bulio. taratantarum. then to knock. from G. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. a clump of turf. taratarrum. baruta. buletare. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. gebolder. protuberance. Du. to bolter. Fr. rugged.D. Bav. by the representation of a racketing sound. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. Supp. OFr.clack. kloteren. tantara. tar. with E. croler.agitation of the meal in the bolter. Wtb. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. uneven. Dauphiny a sudden movement. to talk pulzen. to knock. barutela. a round glass ending — bultig. as a rabbit from its baritel. bolzauget) Sp. or a racer from the course. In the next place. to significance of the term was overlooked. hump. we have Du. abolter. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. also to curdle. fied bot. Sw. a clod cloth. swelling. Here the radical image is the violent O. a bolter or implement for bolting. as above explained. a small portion. holier poller. projecting eyes pul. . a bunch.Lat. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. . P1. crod. poll. a sod (Schiitze). bultred. hammer. OFr. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. to agitate. a rattle. blotttre. buretter{CQ\. bolting to that of form. . to come rattling downstairs. loud and fast. . rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. bolzaugen. the wheels groaned. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil.i5a//^«. to bolt flour burato. OFr. The ment and the operation. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. jolting. a crashing or racketing noise. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. or the like. I boulte meale in a boulter.as the essential element signifying the talum. we der Brocket).). to form lumps.D. to clack. brattle.. bulstrig. hulter de bulter. and the Thus from So. racket gepolter. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. a clod. Bulte-pook or bulstar. a bolter Prov. bolt head is a retort. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. hulch. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. Hence Palsgr.by forms like G. sestuare. we see that the one consists of a words. in S'W plotter. je bulte. bulla. rugged. ' Holler poller / bulter. and to crash. ' — — ! ! : — . The ulti. die treppe pressed. to shake. bultig. to bolt meal barutel. . we pass to Du. Pm. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. On this account Mid. a millpoltzet augen. a clap of thunnences. poltern. barutela. the sense of right on end. Sanders. buletel. to start with palpitate. pattern..). Pl. Mid. bulk or quantity . bullern. clump. pultare. on the one hand. taraabout. knob. And as the agitation of cream in . to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated.— . small heap. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. lumpy. tumultuari. Prov. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. Du. cruddle. bolt. staff which sounds tar.thump or blow.D. tuft. Brem. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. curdle.fe/2?. beluter. . 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. Schiitze. or ill. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. projections. as Fr. vessel with narrow opening.On the same principle. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. budeln daz mele . Lat. bulk. pull. have Lat. . a club-foot. one after the other. cro. Pr. . indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. ex•wagen.) E. clattering other of a series of projections or emi.u. agitari (Kil. It. So also we pass from Lat. burclct. to spring forth E. uneven.protuberance. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter.

bomba. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. band. tree. . Bonfire. bureau. an implement of binding. — Bombard. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. a string. — AS. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. bombice. breast-bone. and Du.) . It.^Altieri. and in fact we find the and Du. G. the murmuring of the sea. bunden. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. stump. Bomb. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. 155. tie.bast. bande. G. bolting-cloth. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. bureau. Dan. bombasin. produced the Pl. bwmbwry mar. The material called by this name. In E. bombasine. to shake down fruit from a tree. must be explained Fr. silk. or trunk word in W. bindan. a churn for butter. coarse. the Fr.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. Gascoi^e in R. and Mod. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bein. ^o/j. . accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. It. Butterglas. barate. to bolt meal. and also the leg. bongam. stuff. to resound. bone of the . a bone in general. from teu. Du. OE. sijde. bonog. band. bommer. bommen. a hollow sound. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. banitola (Fl. bambacium. to ring bells. basin. bombarda. has repeatedly varied. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. q. derivation. boulenger. achsel bein. sericum arboreum. bambagino. It. a thundering noise bomre. a —Bombasine. to cast to and fro. Need you any ink and bonibase. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. It. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. Fr. . raw silk. biire. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bombdra. bon. been. to shake (as to shake the head. Banstead. bonfras. bambagioj whence It. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. a stock. In legal language. to boult meal. . We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. crook-shanked bondew. Bone.Su?. iuttern. bopin. butteln. brust-bein. a boulter of meal. tie. Bibelesworth in Nat. E. and called in Mid. a stem or base. butteln. . buttel trueb (of liquids). beil'n.). thick-legged. to beat a drum. Antiq. It. booming over the water. tiffany.D. d. cotton stuff. . to bind G. the silk-worm. again. as Banbury. buidelen. PoUitriduare. bombase.Lat. Dan. baum-bast. thick. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. silk-worm. sye. Fr. ODu. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. we speak of a gun to resound. bombe. bombicina. the contracted form of Du. lana lignea. Castrais barato. baun. a drum bombammen. gossipium. bulter from It. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. bras. a ligature. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. bauniwolle. bonds. to thunder. When ture. cotton. Du. borel. a baker. &c. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. and Bond. Moreover. Mid. whence bomme. beuteln. Fl. ties. is supported by the analogy of G. Near 6 * . assuming the of leg : special signification W. however. As cotton was used for padding clothes. beuteln. a word of which we have traces in several English names. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. bombast. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. burato. G. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. to shake. i. rimbombare. the shank the shoulder-bone. term is appropriated in G. as in . band pi. builen. thick from shaking. from boom. bond. and that from Fr. From builen. e. sije. Schm. — having a stem or stalk. the leg. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. gunpowder. . bwmbwr. agreement. also thick-shanked. buidelen. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . HoUybandin R. a beacon. to which the leg. Kil. — bombast came guage. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. 83 Gr. Du. to thump W. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. It.

bene. remedy of evil. Mrs Baker explains bun. the mouth. been. quest. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. bonad. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. gaping hoyden — Cot. swinbusa. a bonfire. a dry stalk. at everything. also called Brecknock Beacons. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. . bommen. ON. netis stall. boten-shoen. a vessel for holding liquids. hu?idbusa. . bid). beiSne. Fr. ty Gael. the scriptures bokareis. bua. Hal. a silly fellow. Bun. babb^o. chaff. the first consonant of the alphabet. to litter bosu.^ —P. baier. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. to dress. whence ban-ffagl. literally cow-house. a scribe G. dog-kennel. to gape. E. OSlav. Fr. comes bondi. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. lofty. bosih. dress. biikui. bonad. busu. The latter is the original AS. botta. by itself for head-dress. Pr. bowwen. boia. Sp. ON. dial. Thus from the syllable ba. the possessor of the farm. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. Trans. a letter Russ. Fr. and fig. Du. The origin of the word is probably the W. Kil. buch-stab. boom. It.—Bootless. botte. Hufwud-bonad. Fr. . boubi^. ben. to aid. often cut for burning and lighting fires.n. Du. Boom.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. Goth. bds. bote. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. bosig. dolt. Bonnefyre. buandi. of wonder On the same principle Sp. feu de behourdis. the name of the letter b. Boot. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. relief from sorrow. tigh. a lofty blaze. A favour. Boor. from beida (E. N. Schm. but stall. bauer. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. help. bobo. pig-sty. wall hangings. G. bauen. . Thin ben Luke i. prayer. 13. bobo ! interj. Gl. Boot of bale. A peasant. till. a good turn or re- meaning. bas. blockhead. Binau Brychyniog. build. boa. wondering signifies not only straw. G. bdn. the alphabet. babau. The character of folly is i860. nachbar. till. badaud. pole. head-dress wai^g. AS. as a lying-place for cattle. — To boot. boubair. G. Gael. But bosg. . It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. pero. from badare. OW. desire. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. b&ber. fool. * Boose. countryman. — From the participle present. 232. and Gael. . to cultivate. however. A stall for cattle.. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. Book. high. tall. ganian. Bonnet. Build. — . babin. beam. to cultivate. bonnet. from Du. where a cross (or a gun. AS. a. . one who dwells nigh. and thence Rouchi baia. short boots. botte. bd. Swab. or Vanns. to yawn. b^er. bua. dial. in Phil. a lying-place for dogs or swine. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. succour Bailey. and Ban in w. to gape. — — . See Bomb. bonaid. — Bailey. Prov. the cultivator. Basa. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. The i. which one gaping and staring about. bolt. the stubble of beans. bos. Mrs Baker. master of the house. See Butt. bose. petition. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. Pm. ON. writing bokos. Palsgr. From bo. inhabit. In nautical language. to strew with straw. to prepare. prayer. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. remnants of hay or straw. . betere thing werse. a head-dress. boutig. a. house. simpleton. without ad- . gawney. as the Brecknockshire Banns. tapestry. to set in order. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. inhabit. boo. boutig. p. Perhaps. Bootless. to ask.Boos. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. set in order. booby. and from AS. — e. ass. boandi. gehyred. letter. bossen. gaby. Busk. Wall. clown. b'ukvdry. Booby. petition. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. from gape. signifying beech. a simpleton. ON. It is commonly explained as identical with It. . bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. although in the OG. litter. are formed Fr. \ais-band. boer. stabulum. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. a letter . w. Hal. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. by arbitours sholde bote the P. a bag of skin or leather. is Du. Boon. Jr. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. bota. in w. build. a stall. dress. a hollow skin. reparation. Kil. Du. . the word may signify merely a fire of buns. To Boot. See Bown. a tree. Ox. foolish. bAkva. E.

exchange or divide. Gael. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . dens mordens vel caninus. The as G. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. bauda. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. to bite. a shelter of branches. bardure. ora. a hut. bottino. a shed. and hence to fine. from bord. boeten het vier. bothag. scsdes-bod. batr. BOOTH vantage. OHG. bdra. • — To Bore. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. Fl. furd. and meta- Fr.par. purra. or the gradual working a hole in anything. struere ignem. furni. tent. or anything pointed. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON.. a great bur. a borer. OSw. wave. cure Sw. Fr. kvit-bara. cup- awl. See To We speak in E. Bete. yfirbdt. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. remedy. Esthon. . to bete the properly to mend the fire. mat-bod. uzboro. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. a booth or shed. . burin. &c. a wave. barn. It. hut. 3. A phorically a drunkard. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. to foam. It. are derived from G. to boot. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. are parret. from deila and skipta. . bohren. Lat. G. . a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. Pol. N. Fin. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). make . is purin. Booth. puras. a shop. Kil. beute. limbus. But probably the E. Alexand. terebra sculptoria purastoa. . bordi. to surge. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. . ON. a word. baete. in Lap. a borer . Fin. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. pi. recovery bata. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. bower. both. extremitas Bore. p. piercer. bothan. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. urboro. budowai. See Bower. to importune. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. The Fin. admovere titiones. AS. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. lappolone. amendment boeten. repair. wine-skin. to bite. a bladder. ON. a bothy. cottage. of an edge that will not bite. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. Booty. comminuted by either kind of action. bud. limbus. puras. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. forare. borracha. The ON. to patch. on. fire. ON. a. biorag. dust. a responding forms . BoracMo. nor E. butin. Fr. a granary . bolino. byte points to the verb byta. bord. pointed. to . bauen. to bore. . To Bore. Fin. Border. fimbria. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. a sharp-pointed tooth. Magy. budka. a chisel. to expiate boeten den dorst. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist.—Burin. sharp. differs only in termination. an engraver's chisel. to pierce. better. And so in ON. abode. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. to restore. cellar. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. as afford a satisfactory explanation. Gael. Compare Manx birrag. . . chewed food for infants. and thence to eat build. 1. In the Fin. to divide. from borra. the . boede. to stick unto as a bur. making good again . to build. Gael. borracha. a borer. to profit Goth. drillen. a tusk. chisel. bite. — ON. See Burgeon. to hut. scalpo. to to . lappalare. Palsgr. 266. margin. Du. pu purro (saha =: saw . terebro. betan fyr. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'.por. puru. The cor. Another derivation from Fin. boeye. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. to repair. and parrets. Mag. in Ihre. amendment. to mend. Esthon. sawroot. purro. to swell.. a hut or tent. to The Sw. a shop budowati. botjan. butin is explained by Flor. a cupboard. a border. It is admitted that Fr. Burke in R. and E.. bdt. aid. rof. borino. edge. baara. reparation. bata. Du. to anything Neither G. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. boards. to build buda. welt. hem or gard of a garment. puru. to profit. swell bara. to quench one's thirst . Bohem. which are probably from the same root. boete. a leather bag or bottle for wine. Sp. bora. purra.— Return from Parnassus I inR. sculpo 05\xiik.

storm. AS. The primi. undyed wool of brown sheep. plain rude fellow. ^o^^flj. brown cloth. knock and a knob . Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Borowholder. It. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. as we speak of a thumping potato. bierge. a boss. bump is used in lump or piece. botch. gesylle. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. The other. cnap. gum vocant. borgese. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. a tower. tempest. formerly used in the sense of knocking. to knock or strike. bosse. a. baurgs. the ordinary a swelling. AS.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. is probably radically Boss. huschen. burgess. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. knocking. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. the Sc. (Bridel). when that system was forgotten. bos. botch. Fr. rustic. to protect. bergen. Borough. Newbury. basse.' or system of bail. to save. Fr. blow on a hollow object. without. AS. boss of the side. borel. a surety. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. a citizen. Gr. coarse cloth made of the Du. bump. . ON. a blow. Russ. the N. Altieri. borealis. one who sticks to you like a bore. hollow. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. less. loan. botsen. to become is emitted by a hollow body. into borsholder. knur. And that unsittynge is to here degre. butsen. cnag signifies both a clergy. whence the burg. unpolished. useCanterbury. pego. Sc. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. bossen. head. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. is used in the sense of bussare. a herb. burh. beorgan. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. to contain. Bunch. ^ma. ' — — . The origin seems to be the Goth. Hence knot. was origin of the term is the OFr. E. bom. in instead of without. G. Lang. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . bundle. bourgeois. from AS. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. boussi. bunch. Boreal. poor. the must have arisen burgensis. burel. bosseu. empty. Jam. . northern. to give bail or answer for an. boss or knob of a buckler . Turk. grey). botse. striking.' every man be under bail. to conceal. viipyoc. agrees with E. . Bosh.mass. a wen. to save Sw. that which biirge. busse. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. an eminence. as if from the verb to hold. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. or because a blow berga. rude. Bos a surety. cormpted. So Du. poor. It. 106. In like manner It. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. a giving rise to It. bosh. a citizen. a city . of bail throughout the country. to strike . A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. pegou. Hence borhes ealdor. clownish. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. bourg. whether from the fact preserve G. bail biirgen. — — — A — . butse. &c.' if thou give money on loan. to give a hollow bizo. empty..vr\.' the chief of the ' borh. tuft.' Vegetius in Diez. to protect. primarily signifying coarse sound . Goth. borough-holder. /3oraMK6f. the North Wind. a bouncing baby . Jam. beorgan. cob. D. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. a little blow. bussa coarse.bucklers. knob. borough or chief constable. Bailey. to strike so as to Bureau.any round sweUing. borg. I. or perhaps it may be See Bury. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. . f graauw. Cot. a knob. See found in Bav. ' pledge. nonsense. destitute. (1867). boss. borg. a pushing or striking out. surety. a bunch or hump. the hollow between the Borsholder.ribs and the side. boss sound. Borrow. projection. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. borgo. and borough in the sense of a town. cnoc. to take in. or head-borough. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. empty. boss. or perhaps also To Borrow. a boor. connected. to save. Swiss Rom. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. tive idea seems to bring under cover. in the body struck. borei. Hal. bos. hollow bucklers. by which of or belonging to plants. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. i. while Gael. pitch. to keep. — ' wind burya. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. bussi. V. secure. which now signifies a knob. byrig. Fr. to pick or cull plants. boschen. from their grey clothing. plant. and thus could not shake off the old burr. Botany. borh. Lat. Du. the sun sets. Du. vain. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. bttssel.

See Bound. to make better. . I. whence the name ol pool to podge. a pit.^Dec. . the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a slop. a. was called a push. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. 212. Hal. knock. A — oba-dwaj Lat. botse. Canut. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. kessel-biisser. to work without order or know. bots. . scuohbuzere.ments of the same root. bund. the science or knowledge of plants. A horses. a bunch. botm. Bouds. noise. ON. a knock. disturbance. we two. — Fl. buazen. for a bud. Lith. a pock. botte. dabble). shoes. OSax. to we have OHG. biissen. a bott . Boa two. On the other hand. tumour. bottom. A bottom depth. to podge. to smack. Fl.D. signify a in OE. a cask. nets. to stir and mix together. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. mutter. Gael. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. poltern. a vessel for holding liquids. botte. oba. buddl. a slop. a bump or swelling. .— . dim. i. podge. j3i/9os. a wisp. to stir and mix together . to simmer. bdt. — Dief. of botta. bluster. to mend (kettles. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. as Fr. ba. a bottle. bozza. pozzanghera. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. a tinker schuhbiisser. to strike . to rage. bativa. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. AS. Fl. Lith. boss. potra. to bcBta. Fr. — Bottom. BOTCH understood). gling piece of work. &c. Again. whisper. N. boute. a depth. botn. a bottle of hay. buideal.— Swift in R. Decorde. to from the root bot. ubhau. Wedu. — . botel. Bottle. to make a make a noise. pother. a bottle. abbi-diwij Slavon. repara- — — See To Bete. a cobbler. gipuozan. is boteau. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. a pit. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. gen. — Jidwi. patch. • Bott. is also a bubble. ixorapudder. See Butt. bouteille. Bouteille. fundus. thing soft batsch. ledge It.foundation. an abyss or bottoniless pit. to froth as beer . To confuse with noise. Prov. batschen. stroke. buddeln. Hal. a cess. Judwi. ON. schuhbosser. H^cart. botola. we have Swiss batscken. to knock. blain. Here the radical image seems a bubble. noise. Jtidu. a bundle of straw or hay. a plague-boil Kil. abbution. and ajSvamg. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. stump. pocciar. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. G. as a push or windgaU. a waterfall. On — Du. mess. bossu. bulderen. dial. The Gr. putra. Botcli. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. E. And so we speak of an eruption. by met. to mend. contusion . pozzo. Podge. bAdtr. Du. both. House-bote. . butwo. ing out.) . boitean. turmoil. See To Bodge. Parmesan poccia. Gael. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. a root. bulder. boiteag. however. to give a sounding blow. a botcher of shoes. AS. a maggot. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. Du. btitse. ' G. fire-bote. boden . an imperfect and bunbutt end. puddle. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. Lat. beggtaj Goth. Kil. bdsser.— Hal. abbi. Fyre to botme. abyss. stock. boccia. bosser. any plain round viol glass bozzo. abbu. in the sense of mend the fire. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. hurly-burly. bodem. blow. * To Bother. e. botel foenn. baiothsj Sanscr. burgi vel pontis refectionem. bile. ambo. bottigUa. bethia. mess. botus. ^kvBoQ. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. Mudu. boiteal. Ancren Riwle. See Boss. botte. Pl. what pushes outwards. the lowest part. bSn. It. empty or hollow. the bud of a flower . Stalder. a bubble. buts. boil. maggots in barley. a patch patschen. . cation of which may be preserved in puddle . Danneil. — — A 2. Butu. To Botch. — — belly-worm. It. butse. botsen. bun. ON. or plague sore . you two. — . From the dim. Fr. to botch or patch. pimple. a boil or swelling Halma. corresponding to . w. Bailey. a cesspool pass. they two. stem or base. G. &c. bozza. Leg. stock. bunch. round lump. — — .of a ball of thread. Bret. Dan. and E. a humpback. — duj Lett. mend. to dip in liquid (to Gael. bundle. bide. butsen. Both. bot. It. botch. to dash about . from the dashing of water. especially in Gael. to fall : with a sound batsch. a lump of somebatschen. the other hand. any round ball or bowl to play withal. to put on a patch. AS. disturbance to .' to the fiery Csedm. blister. Bochu. . Diez. the first rough draught 2. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house.

The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. bugt. the smaller ones. the bay of Benin. nor horn sound. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Bodinare. to knock. the larger kind of pebbles. E. Wtb. boh. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.— Boundary.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. strapping. 136. boss of a buckler. . bouton. and F. a stock. or Bow-pot. bog. a large pebble. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. winding. jungen. iv. buUersten. bamsen. a round body both. boriie. Fr. Dan. a button. Bowlder. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Sw. The branch of a tree. baby. Boulderstone. Bunche. Bought. bondir. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Ni gacha cor bondir. root (see Bottom). Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. language a * Boulder. of thread.' B. To Bounce. Bout. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. signifying in nautical coil of rope. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. to knock at the door. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. Bonny. Bound. p. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. bonna. mere. bunda. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. I assure you. bouncwhen coiled in a circle.— Cot.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. to thunder. nave of a wheel bothel. Halma. from AS. round. The W. bend. bullra. the verb bondir in OFr. bunsen. Nor a centinel whistle. bottom. bugan. pothel. geration. turn. bounbounejha. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. So It. contusi. — strike. the hollow of a bay. Alpine Re- — gions. in contrast to klappersten. Q. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. — No i ausiratz parlar. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . bodina. Brem. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them.. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. Bret. ing. To Boult. Mid. to resound. to spring. a blister. he fell so that it sounded. to make a loud noise. — Take care my house be handsome. volta. a turn or time. Fr. Primarily to strike. has hot. butina. its kind. bumper. an occasion. as that of E. 3. a boss. a bound. bone. knock it sounds again. Probably from the Celtic root bon. AS. The Bight of Benin. to spring. See To Bolt. Pm. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. ni motz brugir. — — leap. like bobbin. from bugan. to bow. Ducange. a boundary stone (men stone). From Sw. gulf. a large stone rounded by the action of water. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. carpet. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. by Bujns or Buns.D. to set out by metes and bounds. and Prov. to turn. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. bun. 2. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. to thundering big one hum. Du." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. to fix limits. tnndo. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. A Langued. a bouncing apple. Raynouard. To Bound. from volgere. . dial. bend. Pr. thumping. bolder. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. came home with his face all to-bounced.— F. jump. to set bounds. boundina. bonndn. to hum. bay. see Boss. dial. a blow.>a bout. Coxcomb. an de dor bunsen. boujtce. See Bunch. mcn-bomi. Fr.' round and round in similar circles. in the absence of actual e. . till The dat et bunsede.— — — - 88 BOUGH . as a bout of fair or foul weather. march. — — Bight. signifies a sliort thick mass. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. bonzen. frequently used in the same sense with bound. botwm. ni frestelar. Bough. a bud. debodinare. Bough-pot. bons. Webster. And the new stools set out. limit. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. whence buj7isen.'— Charter of K. pimple Richards bothog. as a nosegay.

BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. to bulge. crutch. Sw. is. Borden. to hum as a bee. Dan. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. bommen. And there in mourning spend Sw. a go to. belly out. Lat. warbling. puff out. sport. to take deep draughts. Dan. whether by sound or gesticulation. Gael. staff. schenkelbug. the fixed. to mutter. joke. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. Swiss bausen. ready. a from Du. a for New York. bourde in the same sense. bordon. gurgling. saufen. pusta. to take breath. Prov. bogha. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. a cup kroesen. like quaff. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. bend Sw. different modification gives ON. springbiirn. hence musical accompaniment. souf. on. buigen. bugna. bending of a joint knie-bug. a drone of a bagpipe. a bow.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. bordone. bunaiteach. way ba7n. Dan. bending. mockery. steady. G. whence buysen. trick. address. addressed to. borne. A —Cot. brummen. to draw a deep breath. an arch. Du. to tipple. When used alone it . the big end of a club. . — — — A pare. Cot. to indulge in his cups . Du. purra. burdan. spelling the word iox bound. analogous to Fr. Goth. As the Gael. the shoulder of the vessel. burt. to tope W. bausen. ready to pike or spear . bog. cudgel. AS. on the whole. Bounty. bound. Immediately from Fr. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bog. bourdon. cheat. to bow or incline the . . a well. buga. when we speak of. to pre2. ridicule buirte. to trick. a mill-post. from spring. to banter or laugh at. biugan. The meaning of bound. It is bov. must be referred to the same root. Fr. firm. biegen. to draw a deep breath. to tope. pausen. . Spenser in R. beogan. burlare. prepared for. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. bwa. burd. flagon. g. a humming noise Macleod. drunken. ^<7r«i?. Bret. Gael.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. The foregoing derivation seems. fresh* water. a. bovne. a pot. repartee. So Sc. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. language of folly or ridicule. to drink deep. sausen. bonus. bugna. bend. G. to — Hal. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. pot. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. . identical with E. a drone or dor-bee. or of an Gael. jest. bending. a sing-song. ruption of bonne. a jibe Shaw bururus. Fr. also the humming or ON. Bourdon. pre. grumble Sw. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. Gael. deceit. Burden. pared. bov. — — . as was for. Sw. fun of one . schulter-bug. it is probable that the It. tinton. bogna. buzzing of bees. bagna. purlBav. bourdon. ing. a humming noise. bonitas. to swell. that ON. Du. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. G. of the ON. beygja. a brook. bdgi. Comp. in Fr. potio. It is remarkable that we find vary. Burgeon. and that probably from a Celtic root. taunt. hous^ Man in the Moon. lance. explaining Sw. Chaucer in R. . a corToward the garden.. Sc. A water. G. the burden of a song. Cot. burn. Sw. buizen. and not in the sense of curvature in general. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. Bow. bontS. patesten. Du. Gael. are applied to the bow of a ship. the Bourdon. — probably through this latter signification. . burdan. brunna. Bourd. drink deep. brausen. to take one in. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. set out. a — — .which see. It is the participle past buinn. to our bous. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. epaule du vaisseau. bage. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . bow to shoot with. buyse. a. btiga. burreti. bordo. Sp. Bourdon. bourd. Eown. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. bue. Bound. shoulder-blade. to drink deep. bugan. head Fr. limit. . spring. sense durd. game. buzz. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. good. the ting of a bell. sotich. kroes. drone of a bagpipe. a jibe. bugne. has also buirleadh. It. bogen. Fr. their time -With "wailful tunes. bug. Gael. a prop.bass of a stringed instrument. buys. to bow. i. verb bua. curvature. to hum. w. bogr. Dan.

globe or spherical body. bugyani. the barrel of a gun. to guggle. bolla. w. . a pot. cumena-bur. folliculus . zich onder jemand under to him. bolla. &c. Sp. spherical Dan. Hal. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. bwra. in both senses. bola. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . G. anything globular. budel. and on swollen. a box. Sw. a box Lat. head of a cabbage. a. See MHO. bending. bock. Hence. the skull or brainpan . bucka. a box. W. kupula. * Bowels. a bubble. busse. a bubble Fin. bukke. to bow buck. a drop of pullistaa. bossola. lump . spring as water bugya. bwr. bugna. Pol.cup Du. bugyola. Bower. round bead. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. Buckle. to swell. a wardrobe . ^o/a. honse-bur. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. a bubble bolli. bulka. to bend down. a bubble. . tumour. mausbollelein. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. a polla. swell. boucle. the box-tree. kupukka.\s. AS. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. biisse. convex. kupu. Bowl. boss. OFr. to bend. ON. . utibur. buckel. pocket. bubble. bol. bol. intrenchment. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. a sack. polla. purse. round glass phial. a bowl. Bret. koziel. ku^o. . . ne. iri'iaQ. . a separate apartment .). to yield to one. buk. bulge. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. or in e. heafod bolla. PLD. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. . beuz. knob From the former modification we have bolla. acsian. bouzellou. AS. globular. similar shape. bolgna. Boll. a box. box. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. a box. Du. to stoop biickling. at the e. . bow. Bav. belly of a cask. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. an outhouse AS. beutel. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. hiidel. Fr. a ball . Dan.. gut. to make crooked . the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. a bud. ken. make obeisance. a black pudding. a hump on the back rossbollen. swoUei) Lat. fata-bur. a ball. The word may probably be identical with Fris. busskai. kuppelo. bulla in aqua. trestle. Cable. See Crab. . a round glass or bolg. biicken. fyn. bhugna. the bogna. Fr. bulcken. a hen-coop . tumour . to puff up pullakka. belly. buigen. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. bhuj. bosso. budello.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. boudin. biichse. a protuberance. . bulla. . a the other by the loss of the / into ON. and to a coachbox in particular. . guestchamber . to bubble up.flask It. bouge. It is more probably from the G. . bent. boss. prominence. as well as the name of a. puffy. botulus. a boil. a thing of liquid. a little box . of a wooden ball to play with and — . buchsbaum. a wine-can . wisp of straw . in walking appears in a . stream forth bugyogni. bog. then by the loss of the /. . boxtree. as in E. Lat. Thus we have Esthon. water pulli. the crop of a bird. buga. with inversion of the round. ttuJic. belly. pullo. signified by forms like Gael. G. Du. to raise the back boll OHG. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. bowel Box. boxtree pusska. A . bolle. bocka. the head. a parlour. ON. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order..) to incline oneself . The / a bow. Fr. dial. . Du. buello. a swelling or rising up. without the and grits. biiske. OE. bugyni. to stoop. buxus. . (in pass .D. . bug. to buckle G. pusspan. a stud. bugy. compared with Fr. as in AS. . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. painter's easel. bulne. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. Sanscr. different position in ODu. sausage. bogla. crown of a hat. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. peated in Magy. ^o«/«. hollow place Fr. bog. to puff up. . mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. Gr. convexity. bouellou. a sleeping-room . . Sw.). globular body. hollow. In like manner the Pol. bur.a. W. Bret. an inclosure. the box-tree and articles made of it G. hollow wooden case. Dan. to bulge. E. a ball. a buck. bow. the head. . boil. From the other form are G. ON. A Bulk. buis. give in to. buckelig gehen. crooked. boel. bur. a croft by a house. bulk compared with Sw. a iDubble. bollen. See Boil. a bundle. bowl . inclinare se (Kil. . . bowels. bulb of an onion bolleyield. the box-tree It. bubble. a chamber swefnbur. boor. blister. Bohem. bolne. or. is applied to a coach-box. box in both senses. a knot. . ask. hill. passing on stud. Sw.

G. Lat. matter. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . braquet. boussole. brec. a girl. bue.. Du. Swiss bub. It. posh. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. flaw. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. to give a gebrechen. a comworld Rayn. In like manner the It. to fall. by an overflow of sea water. — . wnzC/J. brek. boiste. Gael. the first instancebya physical tie.. Fr. Brackish. Brach. bracke. to give a sounding blow defect. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. wristband. brek. braca. On the same principle from the buksteht. Du. moral or physical. salsus.. brace on and Du. or bracer Cot. salo sive aqua marinS. Swab. compressing. as die Augen plainly an imitative word.with a noise. To fight with the fists. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. brakke grund. break. . to stammer. ' — A — — — . Kil. root). A bracket is properly a scenting dog. Prov.— D. race. armour for the arm. Pl. Prov. foul. a sounding blow. ON. . to is derived brestr. brae. Fr. mud. I sal slyng. 91 the Dan. Ptg. . odorinsecus. defect. boy. To Brabble. bracha. isolated part of the text. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . Cot. pus. . unmarried man . merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Rouchi Then as an adj. BOX To Box. brack. ghebreck. — — . rakki. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. dog Sw. defect Du. — . Heligoneed. braco. pube. clay. Lett. youth. rakke. ratch. OFr. baske. brasselet. a guard to torf. let. brabbelen. a pair of braces. brechen ihm. in R. his eyes are failing him). brassard. Kil.nated by dirt. Hdcart. filth . fault. land spoilt Kil. corruptse. bask. G. in R. land batsken. bube. Sp. brack. a bog or pass Fr. boy bouba. Pr. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. want. to burst. brague. bracco. or defect. then from break. ing from a mixture of salt. damaged board a ship. bracon. brageuses. a bubbling dura del mun. La ville ou y avait Brace. wrack. to slap. ON. bruxula. to want. s. — . OE. a crack. Brack. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. to be wanting. V. Prov. It is B. Swiss Rom. which sigof straining. merely in our mode of considering them. Fr. and then Pl. Fr. a boy pupa. Kil. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. — . Boy.D. mud. . a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. want. Thus brack. . disturb. taneous talking. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. suppuration. Pm. to give a blow with the fists. which has many representatives in the other Europe. brae. a grown youth Cimbr. babble. and F. breach. bresta.. a box. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . . little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. parallel with OK. One girl. breptati. dog in general. See Broker. con. It. braque. To brace is to draw together. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. braecke." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. fuse. See Brake. Brack. to box the ears. brae. baukscheht. bragos. the arm. brechen. to crack. Bracelet. brae. cramp-iron holding things together . fault . It. to smack the hand batschen. buah. bouibo. Brak-goed. is a rope holding G. rakka. brago. an languages. brakke Bracelet. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. dirty. . confining. mud. pupus. and string of his bow. thwack. breuque. rack.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. bray. braco. bracer. s. strike. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. bracket. lalear-eyed Prov. acidus. — . flaw. A — — . as noticed under Box. flap. breach. A to halt between two derivations. MHG. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. to stutter. quarrel Bohem. to Swiss batschen. variation of babble. whelp as. briche. &c. a braceOFr.D. priated to the original sense. Bracket. spaniel. defect. Water rendered boubo. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. Sp.puddle. Prov. need. loud smack. bitch Du. braic. A brace probis. want. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. . refuse. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. dog that hunts by scent. from a root brak. beagle. bracil. brostia. murmur. by the same inversion of J and k. Sp. AS. bou^ba. OFr. jabber. The different meanings of the brageux.

. brave. Sc. bragging. Cot. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. to flaunt. Dan. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. braske. brave. Chaucer. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. or from braie itself. blusterer. the opposite of which. h-avare and Fr. braga. showy bravery. braguer. torture .i5nz^. — Equivalent forms are Gael. breyne. is Cot. From sprouted corn. to swagger. in the sense of the Lat. flaunt in fine clothes . would be to brace. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . brake in the sense of constraining. To Brail. —Spenser in R. See Bray. Bret. vanter une chose. fine. — Chaucer. noisy ostentation. to crack. courageous. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. to rattle. dhbrailler. flaunting. braka. Fr. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. Rom. power. gallant. to cord a bale of tie up. to boast of his own worth. bushy . about the hawk's fundament.^ Sp. . 2. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. hectoring. also insolenter se gerere . Walloon bress. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . drawers. boasting. The meanings included under — Bragget. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. Bret. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. bragaireachd. se donner trop de licence. bully . the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . compressing. fine. braka. used in the sense of force. Langued. to boast or brag. vain glory. gayly dressed. The plant y^r«. Thus we are brought to the OE. bragging of his own valour. well-dressed. to brail up a sail. is identical with Gael. be found. binding anything together. bravache. brails. stately. stout. A — Hal. See Brace. fine. proud. fine. gay. also derived Fr. finery. Bray. Turk bazu are used in both senses. braske. slight modificajoining the two legs. to shout. Brain. &c. crack. gorgeous. — A — . and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. or by gaudy dress and show.hy which this idea is con\eyed. also tion of this was brayeul. boast. splendid. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. crash. se parer de beaux habits. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. Sp. an iron for holding Zalli. braga. 92 Cot. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . swagger. . From Fr. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. Fris. braszketi. handsome. brave. w. to stand upon terms. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. bullying. expensive. braver. spot. It is certain that the word for arm is. in numerous dialects. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. brag or jet it braguard. called by our braggard. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. to sprout malt. gallant (in apparel) also proud. a roisterer. valiant The head are sumptuous. gay. de Vaud. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. se pavaner. . To Brag. in order to prevent its catching the wind. beautiful. breghe. braies. brag. bravo. Brag was then used brisk. bra!. AS. subigere. the arm. bravacherie. Cot. bravado j Fr. be noisy . braw. brag. a noisy talkboasting. and it is very likely that the root brak.^Vocab. Haldorsen Gael. and that from e. strength. as the type of exertion and strength. Hecart.aburst. crash ON. Brail. idle talk. ative fellow. smart. brabhdair. braga. BRAG Piedm. breagh. brao. Lith. . bragio. Faire le brave.. Wallachian bratsou. affront. subduing. — .Shepherd's Cal. excellent. braicli. cry. to unbrace or let down the breeches. Primarily to crack. riches. was formed brayele. — From W. . Brake. to make a noise. Brake. brachittm.%. the feathers ON. To Braid. an inclosure for cattle . brayete. vaunting. that will carry no coals. make a noise . brave. confining. brabhdadh.explosion. Lat. brav. Hence E. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. goods. Fr. empty pride.breeches. . braegenj Du.—— . . breach. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. to Rouchi brMer. Cot. swaggerer. brake is. bragd. The meanings of brake are very numerous. a carriage for breaking in horses . Dan. i. ^Brave. . brazo. breghen. It. brave. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . to strut. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). brae. Thus Bret. From brayel. braggard also valiant. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining.

D. brage. briser. copse-wood. broyer. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . in northern climates. 3. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. to bray in a mortar. brook. brcekke. brook. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum.. thing is brought under control. to knead or mix up in a mortar. broilium. or A A ' . is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. been confounded with the verb break. a swampy Mid. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. gebroge. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. el arco. BRAKE to external force. to stiffen against Taboada). properly braking or subduing them. flachs brechen. brogille. to break. cetur. glebas subigere. Sp. tnurdma. brushwood. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. low wet land bruch. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. braecken het vlasch. bregar. Pl. a harrow. murran. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. brambles.' It. Fr. In like manner Lat. to rub. bredza. marsh. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. broil. quarry from Fin.— . briers. brog. to brush. conSo in G.bracan. braken. breuil. The Fr. any thicket of brakes. brolium. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. iSpsx". OFr. bushes. bush. to row. might come to signify a swamp. break flax PLD. broor bushy place Hal. e. is braukti. broeck. subigere. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). Prov. brog above mentioned. or overthrow of trees by the wind. — — . where from Esthon. to exert force in different ways. for — Due. to subdue. to bend or direct a cannon. brake. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. It. Gael. watered. a thicket. de Vaud. Dan. brambles. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. ing of flax or hemp. cover G. — Fl. thicket. Fr. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. broillet. gebroge. to harrow (Lat. pasture. nemus. gebrUche. as in the case of horse-breaking. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. broken fratta. Lat. We — . Dan. the lever by which the string was drawn up. marsh or swamp. Corrfeze bredgea. breaking in the operation. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. braca. to pound. brage. farinam in mortario subigere. brak is a frame in which strip. and G. braka. bush. brake. Brake. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. game. To the same bend a bow. P&. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. signifying to sweep. is formed murd. gebroge. word. . sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. riguus. gebrUche. it is not surprising that the word has here. In the sense of a thicket. and Lat. break of such a kind. a marsh. brega. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. bregille. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. brego. It may be sus- . braquer un canon. It. to break. referred brake. In the case of the ne. brook. In ON. murtaa. braeken. a spinning-wheel. a brace on board a ship. Gr. to break or fracture. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. the original meaning of G. have thus Du. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. Fr. a fen.D. G. to bend a bow. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. gebiisch. bregar brake. ^raca. to head must be bit. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. dial. and when once thrown down. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. to distinct. as well as in the case of the e. in usus braca. to The ON. Dan. or a wood in a marshy place . 2. to fracture. fratto. gilum. Brake. frangere linum. a horse's a horse's twitch. Voc. Swiss Rom. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. tris). murrokko. —Ovid. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. brog or brake. Biglotton. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. as in Sp. bruch. t° moisten. a stream. as in Du. casser le \va. —Bracken.

ear-wax mud. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. —Ducange. brog. brug). or with It. brem. a bud It. a briery plot. Piedm. pfriemen. bruch. compress. heath. bretnel. brass. brano. brous. a thick bush. breme j Sw. Bramble. brugek. But we find It. a shoot. . Fr. Pl. brang. — . from virga. brein. a single plant of heath. G. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. bren. Brancare. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brambles. sedge burkni. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. a bud. brin (as It brano). as. The naof strain. Thornas and bremelas. also a marshy low ground or fen . it glitters — — . clutch. Then by comparison with claws or arms. thicket of brambles Cot. a shrub . pected that brake. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. titio. Port. as places overgrown with brakes or fern.. excrement. Gael. snotty . and E. broccoli. also pfriemkraut. i. Bret. constrain. . That beareth the red hepe. The same form becomes in It. brenn hesken. heath. braam. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . It. Bret. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. a firebrand.D. brarn. breun. heath ON. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. berneux. bronbo. to -brugen. brenn. a burning fragment of wood. broembel-CBppel. broussaille. wood composed of twigs. Bret. a shrub from Bret. heath (Bret. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. cack. Russ. Thus we have w. bit by bit. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. heath. a small deri\'ation . and waste growths. Sir Topaz. Fr. See Brush. what is cast out as worthless. is the draff or excrement of the com. a bridle or bit . broom. broem. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. Bran. nasty. ground full of briers. Grisons bruch. branco.D. gebriiche. brancas. 2. chaff. Thus in Lat. G. braeme. Bav. piecemeal brindelles. — branca.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. Pl. sawdust. As ON. Broom. burning brennen. brom. Bret. gebroge. Serv. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. pfriem in the sense of an awl. from Servian pnit. bushes. brouskoad. brake. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. . A mark made by burning. w. bruskoad. bracken or fern . Diez. bromboli. . &c. piece of anything. dirt . . a vine twig Bav. E. bruk. or other plants of a like nature. It. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . and thence a shoot. 1 8. bruch. a halter. from Lat. brenna. bran. branche. . &c. prufye. . brughera. w. broust. brandello. heath. a heath. bramble Du. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . G. Rouchi bren d'orMe. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. sweet broom. bro7n. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. brin. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. G." The bmno a • on . that is to say. to or iron. cabbage sprouts Fl. hallier. Gael. brejo. brin d. Dan. brenda. bruk. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. as AS. bren. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. bran. . virgultum. in the same sense. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. the thorn apple or stramonium. to brank. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. to burn. stink . Fr. apiece orbitbrandone. the bull-finch. a roA. Brand. ordure . brank. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. bruk. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. broom. brand. Brank. a shoot or twig. a bud. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. In like hrst. a rod or twig. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brwnt. thorns and Gen. from gaggi. young twig {brom-beisser. brandmurk. brandiiialil. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. Branch. sprouts. or ling.). The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. brok. brandr. brank.G. So Swiss gaggi. pfropf. in the sense oi fern. Fr. brushwood. to gripe. branchia. restrain. may be so called in analogy with Bret. It will be found that shrubs. briars. from brand. brosst. to bridle. young buisson fort epais. breanan. brug. from brug. a dunghill. the branch of a tree. iii. . the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. AS.

59. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them.well. splinter. Diez. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. With top trimbling. spirit distilled from wine. Chron. shake. — . AS. embraser. brus^. weinbrenner. Formerly brandy-wine. bruzi. branler. To brase AS. to burn. eldibrandr. to brustle. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. totter. a To Brandish. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. or in stick. branler. gebrannter wein. braza. flagrans. braise. The corresponding form in Gael. Kil. to bicker 2nd. brouir. briiler. brasa. brausen.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. Brangle. to burn. morsel. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. to brandle or The It. to brandle. to shog. G. distilled wine. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. Jam. to make display . comes from thence. as Fr. to Bailey. to sound of the Fr. Gris. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. put. before the discovery of America in the brandir.^Brandle. Thus the bound up again. make a — . to French brawl or brangle. Sw. live coals. to confuse. Lye. WaUon. not. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. ish. e. Fr. from to vociferate. became ashes Pied. a roaring fire. Du. branla. a fragment. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. braise or hot coals. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to make sense of a bright red dye. Fr. Chron. bum. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. brazeiro. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. incendium. — ting to confusion. to hurl with great force. in Marsh. brazil. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. It. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . De Goes. brasca. bruan. brennen. and bruir. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. In the same way the set on fire . perplex. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. and scold. make an outcry. was in use Fr. to blaze. hot Fr. noise. to dash. braser. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. all. It. bragale\ wood. the spelling to kindle. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. bragia. G. Fr. The tre brangillis. to burn. bryne. apparently very distinct from each other. a brusler. given to the country. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. fire-wood. Brasil. plained by Florio. Bret. brush. Port. to roar. to quarrel. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. bracia. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. braise. Bailey. Fl. to shake The word brisil. to and fro in the hand. V. brand. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. crackle. E. brandiller. — . hoisting to the fall. E. as Jamieson explains it. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. brandolare is exbrandish. Ija. so. from used in dyeing cloths. to distil . brasca. to totter. brangle or brawl in E. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. urens. — . brandigh. to braze or lute. to make shine with shaking. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. Manx bransey. the colour than hitherto known. Fr. bransle. So. brandiller. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. to glisten or flash. bruciare. a stick. N. du Roi et laine. brasa. n. bracea. stake.pan of coals. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. forms brasil. brandende wijn. a round dance. brascct. The name Brandy. a pan of hot coals. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. Milan. to solder iron. brin. Sw.. to shake. To brand. to crackle . to brangle. to murmur. billet. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. d'Angl. It. crackle. bra?ier. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. set on fire. Hume in brand in ON. bruire. brustle. firebrand. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. bransella. as again by well as the blade of a sword. faire fracas. Fr. to shake. and branchis shaiand D. ist. Braser. conbillet. is bntan. Guill. brane-wood. Brase. aqua ardens. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. brastlian. brasil. bresil. firewood. to rustle. De Barros considers vinum ardens. then brandr. glowing embers . prasseln.

Brawl. as criailler of crier. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. breyon d'chaur. frequentative of braire. ON. Dan. especially that used in the working of iron . noise. to braze. branle. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . Jam. bradon. brat. then a parapet. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. cob. brdto (ace. or on the top of a wall. brazen. Sup. cloth. to carbonado. contignatio. It. bred. the calf of the leg. ' A vraale. Brattice. calf of the leg. breyon de kinds of . trul. tasce. apron. brass. braiio. to Gael. to talk at bralle op. a parapet. Kil. ni autres choses sur Due. brett. bran. is The word — uous name for a woman. It. P1. Cot. OHG. at brasa. a plank or board. W. bratdn). OFr. slibro. luncheon. Pisana in Mur. a contemptuous name for a young child. Certainly a little girl. bretesche. bronzacchiare. to scold . braodhlach. a — A from the confused noise. squall. esbraotier. a battle-girdle. Lorraine bravon.walle — Pr. a rag . Bartizan. —-Jam. Pm. Circumeunt cibertesca. I. discord.96 Roquefort. AS. braede. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. . bradlete. a lath. braion.^ — Sverris Saga. Westphal. brces.D. saillies. Betrax of a —^Jam. fraiche. Du. strepitus 2.D. or whether it be from Fr. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. a contempt- banner. braoilich. brailler. Sc.D. and bronzo. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. muscular parts of the body. G. bransle. a. A land of dance. baltresca. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. Paris. ship. Brass. a Lap. calf of the leg. slakker-bortchen. OFr. brat. a lump of flesh. lat'te. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. The same correspondence is seen between It. ^Altieri. slut. See Brandish. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. from branler. neita girl). a mantle. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. Many gambes. a lump. bruir. slibro {neita. bribe de viande. ferruminare. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. equivalent to the Du.' BRASS BRAY et AS. braon. deblaterare. 1156. whether contracted from brabble. Fr. bartising. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. pil. —^Bronze. &c. brat. Brat. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron.' Hal. from Fr. Cot. Brave. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. A. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. braeye. a fortification. bartisan. It . See Bray. solder. boarding being sbranare. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill.brettysing. buttock Sc. bmhon for brado7i. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. frame of laths. braser Fargent. — . a clout. brandillo. as scrawl from scrabble. a loud noise. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. 2. 368. a slabbering-bib.— Diez. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. bronzare. breyon.— Remade. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. Brawn. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. boutures.propugnaculum. The muscular part of the body. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. as rashers upon quick burning coals. Wall. a rag . a wooden tower. a lump of flesh. to solder. in the first instance of boards. Brangle. Mundart. flesh of a leg of pork. KiL Prov. Gael. le repasser un peu sur la braise. to cry. Sp. borderinge. as a brawling brook. A.— Braid. to shake. bretays). a cloak.— Fl. — Deutsch. the buttocks. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. bralle. pan- — Rayn. bras. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. Fr. bretesque. The verb is probably derived from the brase. bratid calf of the leg. brettys. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. Swiss bradle. bratach. bratidone. Math. burning coals. Florio. as lattice. Cologne broden. to copper. So also See Brag. rag. a rag. A dispute or squabble. coassatio. from Sc. Fr. Hist. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Bailey. berd. a patch of cloth.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. any piece. 1224. bronze. roar. to tear piecemeal. breteque. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. For the application to a^child compare Bret. bas morceau de viande brawhng. Fris.

Prov. to rub Fr. augnabragd. gestus. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. to knead. fragor. to scold. i. ing.ch.' To Bray. bregar. bruzir. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. R. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. rustle. &c. and make a hideous noise. bradar. a . a brake for hemp or flax. G. Bread. starts crackling up. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. to resemble. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. brand. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action.^ Fr. paste or dough. broyer.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. ON. to start. to bray like an ass. to bray in a mortar. e. Ppvxia. to smack or the eye. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. fish. father. To rub or grind down Sp. bragr. Breach. Then is simply. with or without a final d. crash. brage. resound . the sound — of arms. on. D. The same He might don us both a villany.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. Prov. to rush. bregda. explaining a very obscure application of the E. . V. a wink. a mill. braa. or wound. yell. as the voice of the ass. weave The ON. and to signify the fracture itself. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. ser.ear rog. roar. cyprinus latus. bru. to pretend. the miller's dog. to braid. &c. a brack. to crash. to tear Bret. paxog. R. brugier. to break Fr. at a braid. turn. to have the lineaments of one's ON. Lat. ON. Cot. crash. a crash. to roar or bellow. imitate or resemble one. at braga eftir euium. — — — explained motus loud noise. iU-favouredly — in Jam. Fr. bragd — ON. rogi. OE. I'll live and die a maid. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. W. to sound very loud and very harshly. Gr. k. to rumble. appearance Hal. Beryn. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. will. to N. D. to break. Bailey. 7 . crackle . Then. braidar. to cry Port. make a disturbance. &c. in Jam. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. brechen.fracas. brikan. riAprjyvvfu. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise.. brice. Fr. bregar. breach. — . instantane. Q. a rag f . is often connected with swiftness of moBream. a breach Cot. regi. as the notion of turning crack. See Brake. at once. To Break. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. braidir. brak. upbraid. to t. bratsche. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. Bret. a rent. is . V. to bellow. F. to break. braid. to The cup was uncoverid. brak. And with a traid I tumyt me about. to resemble. to braid the hair. father. The ON. mos. to bawl. to crash. brot. braa. to break. to roar. D. Wal. roar. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. plait. to roar as the sea. to cry out. vapna-brak. Bread. . to work up in a mortar. relation is seen between Lat. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to cry out. And at a braid he gun it bende. brame. — koa. Goth. which has given much trouble to commentators. bray. From the or brack in a wall.g. to snatch. bragd is also applied nets. verb to break. G. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. E. Fin. ^p&xia. or cry out loudly . braire. to resemble him. as OE. breche. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. the sword was out break. 2. baiyl. twist. Dunbar braessem. rattle. abraid. bruire. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. braea.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. yell. and fracasously. AS. broad. the clash of ai-ms Dan. &c. Du. noise . ybrayid. Cat. Chaucer. to the seijauntes. 145. to braid. kind. crepo and E. Chaucer. The Lat. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. disturbance. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. breuan. to braid acquires the sense of bend. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. fractus j Gr. and frangere. V. Swiss bratschig. soft .y. . rangere.

Du. breost. chillness or shivering. to breech. . a crum Du. brisciare. — Brist. G. The Breech (Prov. brdtschen. de Vaud. crush. briosa. as. AS.). so AS. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. little bits of wood Berri briser. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. broza. Prov. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. brcekur j It. brasiuiii. to burst. . it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. — . but more probably the E. w. and other rubbish dibris. drawers. brew. of trees. breson. broden. scent. Russ. to roast. b}-as. i5r(Z^. singing bone. brisoler. brissle. grill. Bruise. bre- I'os qui bresole. Bret. vapour. Gl. Swiss Rom. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. as the G. to bray. brire. bris. a smack. a cramp-iron for holding things together. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. with It. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. brok. siibligar. Du. braia J OFr. broil. bark Fr. rubbish. simmer. Breeze. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. Fr. . switch. in Schilter. brcEth. grillare. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . a box. point to G./ssus. brustia. &c. Piedm.vare. Breath. to murmur. QNtsterviald) pritschen. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. brise. de bridse geveii. a crum. one on the breech so that (klatschet). Lat. broiiwen. murmur. trusts. breeze. brezzare. Prov. Brize. —Briss. to rattle (as hail). noise. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches.britschen. braies. corresponding to G. met de bridse slaan. bruzir. the soler. Fris. . Hume in Jam. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. from brace. brist. braux. an odour. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. orts. or the blow itself. the bust. to brew. to buzz. brinisa. braca. simmering. Swiss brdtsch. the breech or buttocks. malt. coaldust. G. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. bandage or truss for a rupture. forms analogous to E. Gl. as by the Sc.D. also to chill and shiver with cold. to be misty and cold. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. Fr. The Teutonic verbs. braich. brut. Dev. windy withal. Fr. to resound. brugga. Breeches.t. sprouted corn. binding.'— Gl. brodem. See Brick. to crush to break. Hence the Lat.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. bra. representing the sound of a blow. G. murmur—Vocab. cloven. the dry spines of furze broken off. PI. bryi^ga. Rom. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. xyligogio castigare. as in the case of twitter. from ligare. bruise. Lat. grillen. Du. briiz. OFr. breinse. We bragezj on. briosa. Dan. and brought beneath between the legs. Goth. breme. Biglotton. then to broil. to whip. are related to Prov. bracecs . an into shiver. of E. malt. . brache.98 borst. brisd. burst. brodel. briosat'. bretilles. peitschen. AS. Sw. E. as commonly explained. body brostia. bremse. — — strument for smacking. Originally probably the word signified steam. chilly. bruzun. to hum. their stings draw . are in like manner ' . braga. brijselen. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Compare OE. brciz. — . briste. bresilles. brasiare. bris de charbon. properly to crackle. morsel. subligaculum. britze. braies. polenta. to simmer. fitzen. briig. G. as. /esses. Gael. bratscher. bruc. trembling. brezling. of straining. . to shiver for cold. Dtyden. may be from the wurh fesser. dial. to smack. to fry . braguier. to bind. break. To Brew. clout for a child. brijsen. brison. applied to shivering. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. bridsen. sheep's droppings bruss. brusc. brossi!. braciarc. fail. to crackle. Breeze. So ON. instead of being derived from 'La. bris. Piedm. Du. brasser. a cold and windy mist or frost . Gael. brosame. braucn. G. brumtnen. G^nev. Breeze. It. — See Broth. remains of leaves. griller. Swiss AS. Bret. and E. brimsa. brimme. a cool wind. einem de britze geven. braca. fastening . to brew. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. a twitch for a horse. Isidore and Tatian. bragues. forms. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. a girdle. — Halma. rubbish. zare. Breast. breath. a gadfly. Briss and buttons. from AS. to fry Then from a Gl. to feize or feaze. a horse's twitch. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Bracha. E. to break. braga. a to lay fly-flap. braie. — And blood. brezza.

stone-bridge bnikkoti. ' . a bit. grug. it is applied to the letter to OE. bitill. bidsel. A bribe is A — — arval. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. married. barren land priodas. jetty. a crum. a rogue. a crum. which however is undoubtedly from brace. brar. malt. to press. from the last 99 of which. Flor. the Fr. lipdZu}. as so. brutg. fraoch. berwi. broken victuals. — . . bread.bergantino. sugga. to boil. a sow. OSw. then the marriage itself. from Bridegroom. Cot. bridge. to break.It. In the patois of briccia. breve or brevis. . bruk. brilt. briwo. w. a heath. bretonica. brocaly. conjux. a proprietor. The Sw. brice. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. nurus G. pavement Lith. a boiling. corresponding or letter. httle bit. Hdcart. Du. brahi. to prepare. bricge j G. Neumann. . has briguer. masted vessel. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. and that from It. brug. a Bride. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. groom (mab=:son). to appropriate. Diefenbach com. a beggar. bruith. broosekens.privatus. E. the newly. a cheat. ter-in-law. . The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. a bush. Mid. served (Patois de Bray). bribe de pain. Lang. two-masted vessel. from bit. a lump of bread briber. piece of burnt clay. the equivalent of to the dial. or brizo. fragment. — — — — — — . bygga. remarkable that the Gr. in the sense of OSw. brittil. brygga. Bridge. bryd-gutna. bruarium. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. from Bret. to pave brukkti. AS. to break to pieces bricalio. a rogue . — .rough with brambles and bushes. briw. Ihre. Applied ous words derived from break. bricou. malt. Ducange. AS. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . bribour. In E. bro is applied not only to a bridge. fastningar-ol. of burial. Brick. brigantine. bride. a briole. fervere. crew. to rub. ibrukkti. . feast. brA. ap. to meet together. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. Fr. berwedd. daughheath. privus. Sp. brukkas. Gl. but probably Bricoteau. with transposition of the r. buskins. broken. a bride Brig. briiths. Dan. collect bits of food. to press in. a heath brughera. See Broth. Hence OE. fit. birbone. from the Normans. W. whence berw. Walach. Thom. to circulate. a little king's writs. hlafes brice. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. one's ovin. Gael. So in The Prov. The origin of the word is the w. BRIGADE dead. Bridal. If the foregoing were not so clear. frayer. . to Isrew. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. It. Rouchi brife.Fr. bruskr and buskr. a lump of bread. OHG. bro. bably contracted from brigantine. birbante. and ODu. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. peculiar. a fragment. bruk. brigata. division of an army. . beaten way Dan. pavement brolegge. bridelj OHG. Bridal. E. E. Trovarfor bride-ale. appropriate. brau. Gael.groom. a lump of bread. ment of anything broken. heath. Pro(merch=:maid). Lat. It — is Kil. Bribe. Bridle. a married man guma. E. graf-ol. Grisons bruch. Fr. pavement. bulicame. a quoit of stone. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. brood. a fragment. brughiera. guma. bruyere. to boil.. sponsa. brere. son. buckler J ON. as. AS. brasser. imprint.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede.gfiugga. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a brig or priodor. funeral. twopares Lat. ON. Brief. . brigade. and berweddu. to brew. Pol. AS. pier. boiling up brocoliere. broken bread. Due. jipaaaiii. feast of espousals. . is still used in this sense. ' — . bro. arf-ol. bryd-eale. In the G. briicke. owned also propriate. So It. to tlie brico. especially to a letter or command. brique de pain. bride. thick appropriated. A — A — . a married man or woman Lat. AS. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Brique. gf2o. Priodi. AS. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. to boil. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. company. Fr. betony brulicame. Brewis. bara briw. to pave. Fl. G^n^v. a man. bo. to stamp. Brier. brieden. any jot or crum. the marriage si in brigata. priod. to beg one's bread. betonica. but to a paved road.pritil . Goth. priod-ferch. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. It. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . a bride. troop. braut. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. a wedding priod-fab. Diez. brakes of high-grown ferns. consort with. Brigade.

and. at a later period. So G. the gleeman's song.clare ^tinniens. See Brake. combat. dine. clear. tinkle. Goth. hell. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. brawl. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. Beorktode bene sweg. schateren. Brigand.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Mid. there are many armour. may play the pirate or thief at sea. to reservavit. glir. to piracy. and. riis ' — Chron. the grew high. glamm. Brilliant. briga. willata. pugna. It. Florio. a glittering. dine. a noise. manifest ON. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. Heo — song That AS. 312. It. loo BRIGAND lor. squamma . in the sense of a robber. is easily understood. biartr. to bend a bow It. from hall. glamra. cange has 'Veles. The primary meaning of Sp. clear sound. The Ir. bairhts. Gall.' The passage from the sense of a light. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. A strepere. — Probably then to strive. — brigante. to resound. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. Brigata. kii:'a.' The sense of strife or combat express. that of Fr. inde squammatus. transparent. lay was sung. malandrini. to glitter. brebrigare. and the E. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. — brigante. show the origin of Lat. moment. brigan. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. and hence be explained glampi. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. to make a loud noise. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. — A A .— . braid. to sound. bragen.pracht. representing a sudden noise. briga. splendour. labour. clear. rixa.' torum. sound. tumult. schiteren. Lat. . The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. From ON. kilistua. Wilista. brdgen. to contend with another. AS. beorht. — Due. clare lucens. secondarily. with respect either to sound or colour. clear. It. It. strife. speech. praht. OHG. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . a pirate. to cry. —Capgrave.Lat. Schmeller. Xa/iTTii). — Briganbriga. necessary business.shine. Bav. clang.D. A. to strive for. briegen. and secondly. bryhtm. then. twinkling. 1351. in later times a robber or highway-man. — — . also called briganders. In Fin. wilella. . and to associate with them. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. seems to be to exert force gar el area. tinnitum clarum movco. glbram. himself to serve men of merit. Swab. shriek with laughter. to shine. XafXTTpoQ. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . — Brigantine. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . Owl and beorhtian. Due. brcEhtin. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. to rove. to shift for with care. The E. etincelle. Flor. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. bregar. glitter. the bench-notes resounded. \oice. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. and ner me hit iherde. splcnornd de brigandine. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. bright bearhtm. tuilahtaa. a small light pinnace pro. Bright. in the first instance. 1654.glampa. splendour. clarus. to shine. to glamr. brak. to ring. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. Adelung. and led it away. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. a brigantine.' in Due. on his — own account. bray. splendens . brigant. a spark. clangour. and diligence. rover either by sea or land. a sound. They or brigantini. brigare. tinnitus. brigandare. — Beowulf. to cry 'Schmid OE. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. bracht. noise. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. brigare. Du. tion. In the same way to strive is. Gr.dorem clarum reflecto. to rob. outcry. jurgia.

to glitter distance . from bringe. Sw. the heat of animals. 1. Sc. bresoler (Gloss. sonitum edere bremen. ous. as in Langued. It. brummen : de soge brummet. the sow is brimming. Thus Lat. sprainged. margin. : ' — bone). ardere desiderio. surface of the ocean. greedily to covet Cot. crackle . noise made by meat in broiling. lap. pMiller. to roar. border. brumft.preni. Rayn.' d'etre marie . to creak. breziller. briller. ON. cross-barred in colour. to glitter . G. to sparkle. Subo. griller d'impatience. glit. 754. to crackle. fierce. The expression is now confined to the sow.D. Streaked. E. to broil. bry7ie. In Fr. Brem. is used of raging. kajata. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. to twinkle. to creak. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. To Brim. excited. perent. It. to roar. to glitter. also to reflect. Supp. reecho. s. breziller. barm-cloth or barmskin. briller (related to each other as OFr. spraing. AS. frequently interchange. bremmen. kimista. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. brim Magy. rugire (cervorum. Brindled. Swiss Rom. brdnnsten. brame. — g. The meaning of the Fr. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. 1 1 64.). identical with passion. of the eye. burning. broiled. to fret . voux. to sound deep or hollow. the lap or bosom. brow of a hill. breme. vattubryn. Said of swine when in heat. komista. broil . to burn. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. In the same way Sw. and corresponding to these. os qui bresole. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. bar. shine. to utter cries. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. gresiller. bremas. bramer. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. bramire. to shine. striped or streaked. grdzil. Dief. finds the Fr. as is the case also with Pl. leonum). ling noise and a sparkling light. to make a crackling noise. to shine. the verbs Flor. kimmaltaa. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. komottaa. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. to quaver with the voice. and 1. Tresiller. border. to crackle. lap of a garment . gresiller. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. the edge. brinfire. to make bilbil). chime). griller). hence the bosom. Langtoft. to shine. AS. whether of desire or anger. Brimstone. glisten. coloured in stripes. the eye-brow. — . fringe (Lat. sparkle. border. a rod. Tutschek. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. Lith. vigorHal.' Elyot in Way. breme. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). as of meat in broiling . furious. the meaning is transL' amour. fringe . Fr. to . brama. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. to long for a thing. dial. grisser. Prov. . brimmen. to shake. an apron. rym^. brant. Kil. grisler. which seems identical with rim. or violent action. brommen. — Rim. that the original meaning of the Sc. a borDu.its vent in cries and roaring. Brim. griller. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. Du. 154. greDiet. the singing of Sodom — — . rut. kimina. brennistein. small gravel. barmr. brissle. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. to shimmer. s. the heat of animals. ter. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. bramar. crackle. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. earnestly . brullo.— Brinded. der. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. originally the lap folding over the breast. Fl. The identity of ON. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. brame. rugire. — — So Fr. whence bilbil-goda (literally. . clangor tinniens. brand-krossottr. on. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. The E. ring. Hence with an initial s. brim. It. tience. brandr and Fr. have then in Fr. Sc.— BRIM . fimbria) . — — — . a stick. brastlian. kommata. A . to wish or covet. bramar. a long. to parch. burning stone. post. to storm. a border. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. edge Pol. from brandr. as well as bl and gl. (poet. brillare. Rugere. briller. to resound. grullo. Dan. Wtb. with an initial br instead of gr. brisoler. bray as an ass bramire. fire. Closely connected is OE. ON. bryn. barm. ON. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. brezil. lip of a vessel. bremmen.) brimi. beam.ioTiviS acutus. FJ. brummen. parched. kiimottaa. . a streak. brmdottr. brunft.

angry. briser. bryde. — in Due. britar. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. Du. brandello. brocar. has under It. ' . quick. brichet. Fr. byrst. a belly. to begin upon it. a morsel . or from that of a splinter or small fragment. rash. form bris. briocho. brocco. — A . Hal. fantas'* tical. a shoot or sprig. broche. Bret. p. Brine. as a noun. brich. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael.procio. as unripe fruits. Port.g. Fr. briota. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod.' Nat. It. Prov. brimme. to spur. or — . a button broche. ribrezzoso. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. Commonly explained as from Fr. The Pl. to burn. brocciare. Walach. brisciare. to turn up the point of anything. craw of a bird. shoot. i. wine of a sharp. roar of the sea saltr. to set it a going.D. broccare. of astonishment. sticking up . brote. breidr. Brym. See To Brim. the brisket or . originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. harsh vin brusque. brot. a brooch. borzos (struppig). Fr. the surf. brim (poet. Pectusculum. Brisket. to shiver for Sold or for fear. as. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. Sw. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. briota. to break. Russ. sprouts. Brocade. a bud. to thrust. See Brand. — — . Bristle. . sprout. aculeus. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. as. Boh. breaking of the waves brim sior. a cold and windy mist or frost. Antiq. rude. broca. sprocco. brime. a stormy brimsea . and forms on. 'V^. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. spur. brioshko.. Ptg. to stab Gael. breaking out into growth. Gl. man's throat. Breeze been connected with the Sc. metaphorically. a skewer. Bret. brisk in taste. reburrus. Sp. is called a birssy day. Bohem. whence may be explained the Sc. bronchus. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. eager. Fr. bros. bringe. breast. a crum. ' breast. to break. flame. Du. birstle. Dan. It. brissle. e. brusco. Brisk. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. is to erect the hair. to shoot. to stitch.). or the full • . Fr. b. a projecting tooth It. an awl. Brickie. brocher. bristly . coli. brust. brog. Compare also E. as. to crack. brcit. ruffling. fierce. Berri. to put one in a rage . a peg sbrocco. the twigs of a besom. like the Broad. to goad. smart taste. brockle. . G. to broil. stitch. a bud. Cot. expression. It. brittle. It. bringue. a bit . emotions which produce it. Swiss to stand out . Mid. the surf. braidsj ON. bros. and. bricho (with the diminutives. spricka. Da. a morsel. brezza. to spur. to spit. See Spread. ON. Brooch. . brittle. a fragment. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. lively. to scorch. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Palsgr. to set up one's birse.Lat. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. apt to break. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Sc. rebursiis. brodden. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. brindelles de balai. brusque. from brande. flames. bresk. bryne. birssy. setting the hair on end. chest. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. to bud. hot-tempered. broccata. from AS. from break. crabbed. sour. — bryme. Prov. to roar. Prov. Sc. a deluge. brin. brocco. to broach a business. borst. thick — A elastic hair. Formerly written brotil. humorous. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver.. . Russ. bringe traced through the brano. borstel. setting the hair on end compare It. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. . fiscbryne. Liquamen vel garum. brezzare. rebrousser. brytan. bruskett. Gr. Brittle. brijn (Kil. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. Fr. strong itself. britchet. /3pE^m. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. startling. — . Alfr. brddj Goth. Salte sand is called brimsand. a slip or sprig of an herb .). brim. saulmeure. borzen. a rod or twig. In the N. and Sc. bruckle. brimhliod. Zeuss. Hence ribrezzare. NE. broca. Abroacli. to birstle. bruched (Fr. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. to stick. prick with Sw. birs. brissko). grim. suddenly angry. 222. Lat.'— Vita'abbatum S. brusk.rcendij'i. against the grain . trembling. cK) the . a clasp. britar. a rebours. very salt brimi. brocchus. . are used in the sense of brittle. to break. fragile. a stitch brocher. brim. Then as the effect of shivering. a brad or tack. birse. sharp. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. birsle. broc. brickie. Fris. a spit. of E. and hence. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot.

the line of development has been something different. brucach. whence broccare. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. The Bret. a fallingThe sense has been out. v. broighlich. Here to ornament with needle-work. to embroider. here. brasiller. speckled. brusuole. kled breac. houx. creak. a brecJi. — Fl.tumultuous. — Gower in It. sparks E. broc. to broil. Sp. brouda. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. to scorch. brastlian. to parch or broil. . broil. scorch. blusters. precisely analogous to the Sc. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. — The proper sense is that of Fr. broglio. Grisons brascla. broil. Broker. q. the shoot of corn. Cot. trouble. Fr. brindled. grullo. brod. Compare also AS. trouble. The ON. brerd. A badger. dar seems derived from borde. grislement. broud. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. a badger. spots. AS. broiled. to instigate. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. border. prod. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. or glowing coals broged. Dan. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. a brim. embroidering. noisy. bawling. gresiller. broccato was used to signify stuff . a border. Gael. broice. badger . an edge. a freckle. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. a freckle. stump. to crackle. froco. briefh. parched. a border ornamented with gold. Surrey in R. W. and w.. It. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. from the white. fundamental origin. or salted fish on coals. It. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . broc. ornamented with a raised pile. brooked. to crackle. Contracted from Fr. frocadura. hart of two years old. brasolare. To roast upon hot coals. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. brouFr. bustling. — . and AS. age was termed a pricket. broder. brasbrasciuolare. Icnotty. a mole. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. Cot. Ptg. a flock or Gael. tori shows that. to crackle. brasuole. brusler. Sc. carbonado. streaked. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. frecSee Brawl. bordar. brych. broccuto. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case.. speckled. to stud broccoso. — — . initial . hurly-burlies. briz. B. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. parti-coloured. brullare.— B. ToBroider. Gael. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. From direct imitation of Brock. Fr. with Sc. Fr. confound. braird. storms. Brocket. bordo. rustle.sound. Ihre has guU-bord. Thus brod. knobby . broukit. prasseln. A fried or boiled steaks). to burn. brocart. piebald . freckled. or It. brasiller. or roast on the braise. bmsciare. a confused streaked face of the animal. atoms . because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. a point. embroidery. gold and silver. motes. breard. b?-od. brizen. brodio. Sc. brocach. to prick. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. to burn. bruler. a flake of snow sion. ciare. to knots or loops. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. Hal. . point to an origin in Bret. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. to streaked or speckled in the face. a prick. — brissle. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). that these are themselves modifications of a common original. tumult broighleach. a b?-ustolare. a quarrel. of pointing out their latent defects. brocco. or snag. brucilare. border ornamented with silk. E. Bret. Florio. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. to darn. tufted ornaments. Compare G. silkes-borda. agree in being the extremity of a thing. forming to jumble. a To Broil. noise. to crackle as a shell in the fire. So from Pol. 103 embroidered. brustle. bramowanie. to spur. brychau. to boss. to embroider. shuffle. onbryrdan. spotted. borprick. bram. rinj'. margin. a brouhaha. thread. a peg. has grisser. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. It of br the Fr. birsle. parti-coloured. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. parch. to On the other hand the Sp. sting. bj'oil. R. to crackle. and bord or bred.

brut. brakyne. For the same reason the Kiittner. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. find fault with. to sit on eggs. G. to reject. vile. broiid. spittle . giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. try out. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. refuse Fr. warm. brunds. to hatch. bredan. Pro v. Alb. brak. but from the primary sense of the It. . Pl. e. and to reject the damaged and unsound. from makel. to criticise. matter of blame weak place. See Wreak. a makeln. mediationem quorundam J. In the . to copper. brod. ordure. brokoti. brak. on. embers. Sc. Per manus et old worthless horse. a brood . to spit . to pick and choose. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. vile. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. embers to brund. Abbronzare. a broker. See Brackish. brwd. hot. which E. See Broth. to throw blame upon. Prov. . refuse. in the sense of rejection.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. a chicken. bronzo. brasa. glowing coals. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. sort. hrak. make out. damaged. brack-gut. brumo. bronze. to brew. G. find fault with. want. Bret. 396. Alb. If to vomit . racaille. brot. an outcast or rejected sheep. whnake. It. nounce unsound. refuse wares. criticise (makeln). Pl. designation is indkler. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. fish-spawn broden. briiten. . to braze. — . S.— — . or brascla. to blame. broen. wrak. couratier. screatio Junfus . the spawn of fishes. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. bronce. bronze. dial. rejected. brackefi. tussis. from break. It may be compared with It. Fr. brasa. brass does to Sp. Du. bronze. bring eggs and spawn into active life. brack. pan metal. to garble. wraken. a cough Hal. racher. Brood. i. to nourish. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. — point out the faults. bridde. merchandises de rebut G. . To blame mens ware. refuse. find fault — — — fuse matter. Du. In those countries the term braker. brae. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. — a spark. burning. insects.D. goods damaged by sea-water. correctarius. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. hraki. to sort brakovanie. to pick. slaae vrag paa. sunburnt. cracker. faulty. to . : ' . braeck goed. to roast on the embers. fermenting. dirty. 38. inspection. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. The Langued. OFr. ON. abject. as. to hatch. to emit sparks.D. — broeden. abbronzanchiare. bric-a-brac. et A. damaged. — Fl. refuse brakovat. filth. trumpery. reject. brokas. ODu. a breach or flaw. an . the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. On • tliis principle the G. braken. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. has exactly the force of G. Bronzare. Teutonic class : Du. Lat. • . cherish. Kil. raca. to be hot. an operation performed over hot coals. refuse goods. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. a fault. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. brieden. lack. brydio. tan. spittle. brechen. Adelung. brokers' goods. Tooke's Catherine. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London.D. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. keep warm. selection. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. Jam. . whence the modern courtier. and fishes . Pl. refuse brakowad. The use sunburn. vrage. corrector.— Breed. Grisons brinzla. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. This word shows the same relation to It. Fl. the young of any animal . to pro- to reject . to scorch. try . hot. embers. . to be wanting. analogous to Bohem. brod. to sort goods . raquer. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. inspect. cast Lith. Dan. G. to hatch G. sbrinzlar. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. and as an adj.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. stain. wrack-good. Russ. fault censure. in which sense the OHG. brack-gut (Sanders). term was correcfo^ir. Sp. Bronze. with. progeny of birds. mud. brid.D. To correct an exercise is to Lib. buy and sell by commission. to sparkle.— Lib. rejection Pol. wreak. to — garble. blur. phlegm. bracker. w. brands.

bhratrj Zend. brouter. &c. shoot. broud. and It. sodden. OHG. broccola. brwd. briihe. brun. to scald. b7-un. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. steam from heated bodies. sap. margin. vigour. breg. border. Brothel. from ripa. broem bark. as rhododendrons. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. bryn. useful G. pottage. eye-lid. brocco. brst. wood . Fr. bruich. eat. To digest. brosses. frucius. to boil. surface of Broth. was originally used in the innocent sense of . . iVlanx broogh. The origin is a re.brink. Bret. pour boiling water over. noise. as Fr. brau. . mettle. AS. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . . brew . or shoot. strength. broth is sometimes used . broca. OHG. a sprout. seethe. or broken up . frui. brow. a . Ppim. shrubs. brlgh. brouic. brous. a hut or cottage It. Due. thicket. brd. heat. Brow. It. G. brotar. Bret. to burn. riviera. bruithim. brogues. bank. has briw. fabric consists. braun. riviere. 105 Brook. brue . Pl. to browse. Sc.— Overyssel Almanack. Serv. Gael. brosses. brodo. forms appear related to the Ir. protecting the eye. brdtaj Gael. bruith. broeye. shoots. A — . or bushes and scrubby growths. edge. brov. brouser. enjoy Goth. sprouts . Wtb. as small-pox. 'Lzt. Gr. broth. branches.spross. Celtic. a source Gael. who is steaming with sweat. . from Goth. sprout. It. brmi. — ' . bros. G. brow of a hill. to shoot. .) . to bear patiently. to murmur. a hill. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. . a little house or cottage of timber. signifying twigs. breg. Fr. heath. w. . eye-brow. borde. bryii. — . bregh. to roar. a caldron. break out brewet. brotar. to Pl. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. a hill. (for brodem). and Sc. and Slavonic families. bryn. Du. sordes seu strigmata young branch. . brothas. spirit. broc. bntdien. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. brewis. a bud. Prov. a sprig. to use bruks. bank. Cot. bruddeln. w. in which brinnan. sprout. to use. Catalan brossa. strength Ir. a shrub broust. . Limousin broudi. Lat. hot. to spring . surDu. The softening down of the consonant bud. warmth ch'an. may be connected with Russ. Gael. . edge. Du. a shore. brost. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. plants composed of twigs. brusmalt. Russ. Browse. eye-brow. Prov. Bav. dumetum. waves. brad. brozia. brpuster. simmer from the murmuring AS. broth brothaire. bruitheati. cia. thairj w. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. to browse. brus. Here we find throughout the Romance. Tam de terrS. brudi. the colour of things burnt. bank. bruth. sprot. brink. on. Roquef. thick bush brousta. face.D. Commonly Teutonic. Kil. Bohem. borda. braussa. t— Cot. brouskaol. to boil. brouet. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. briu. G.. low The AS. to boil. shore . grow brossa. spuma. brodem. brstiti. juice of briars. Sp. brouches. sproc. a river. broza. Gris. . bruno. bordel. It is Brother. bruc. brucan. See Bramble. — . brushbroccoli. brukjan. Gael. of plants broust. brawdj Slavon. ceales briw. Russ. bree. broden. G. Fr. a confused noise of winds. &c. kail brose. infusion the barley bree. breg. G. broth Brown. heath. Manx broie. bratrj Lat. broi.' Due. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. ale . brost. Bohem. shore. Fr. the bubbling or springing up of water. Gael. Sp. hut. meal. bruceti. brabruach. awl-plant. dialects is very different. a bruth. to bubble up with noise. circuindedit cum familia. sprocco. fur Broom. juniper. brio. cabbage soup . maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. pfriemkraut. a derived from the boards. Bohem. broieii. of which the variety of forms. house of ill fame. Fr. chen. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. &c. bruich. Pol." Serv. brosst. brennen. and also border. verge. BROOK brook w. OFr. &c. to border. bros. a little . infusion. . It. vigour. broth the ocean Sw. brauwe. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. on. brass. broit. signifying low wet land (Brem. rage. buds. braces. . shrub with leafless pointed edging. . laissent Domunculum. perhaps burnt coloilr. frater. to boil bruithe. eye-brow. eye-lash .D. cabbage water. Dan. a spring. bud. The AS. eminence . bushes. properly boiling water briihen. a bud brous-koad. eye-lid. sense the Sc. bor. rerum decoctarum. bruach. braew. hovel. Sanscr. boiled . augen-braune. . Ger. — exiit et heath. pith. Mid. broth. eye-brow. grow into a bush. . bank. AS. to use.braubiti. But the Walach. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. browys. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. to sprout. brushbrothas) gives the OE. bordeau. broo. heat explaining the Prov. juice of meat.brons. briar. breh. bruscosd quam de arabili.

bruscolo. Piedm.). Cot. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. effort. ca7-bo>i. Fr. brossa. Allit. to make a rumbling. but on whom it schall to brisen him. brustid. a — — (Agea) said. coal See Breeze. Pm. mg Cat. brosst. bruscia. detergere . On the other hand. Hall in R. or sodenly comyn' dust. brist. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. broustia. escousse. as It. quasi twigs. Pr. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. rubbish. fragments. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. or shoot. brus. and sighid therewithal. Bav. sordes. The Bav. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . 174. a little brizal. dust. Bruise. tuft of grass or hay. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. bud. It. crush. borste. — those signifying a sprig. a shrub composed of small twigs . Brunt. to break to bits . insultus. . biirste. broust. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. dust. E. a rumbling. E. Gael. — a bush. borste. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed.). Poems. to strike the foot against an obstacle. OFr. Sw. Pr. Broach. The Lat. brous. * Brunt. brosst. broza. to make brusshes on. . bris. bruskr. also a head-brush. shoot brouskoad. To brush then would be to dust. a bristle. a brush. brik. britar. a bush of hair. a tuft of heath . brossar. wool-card. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. wool-card. ling or heath for brushes. wood composed OE. bruyere. a bud or sprout Bret. Cot. 201. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. brustia. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. chips. it schall be al Sw. fasx . Prov. heath. bris. orts. a brush. —Fabyan. bris. to break or burst. 134. a bud. blow burcar.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. . twig. —Chaucer. brushwood. . splinters. a flax comb. to cleanse.— Palsgr. fescue . brusco. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. Palsgr. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. a horse-brush. In E. Lang. brossa. crum bit . And that best is. Alexander. briiis (in the pi. Fl. insilio. borst. a brush . brist j Port. That in all haste he wouli. bruit. Beryn. . britar. Fr. brosse. ON. Text Soc. dust. brysan. borste. appearin Goth. shivers.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. Port. briketo. brisd. a brush . burt. and in the second place a besoiB. AS. See next article.). to stumble. broken. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. K. brunt. twig. seems named from burst(on. abroncar. Fr. NE. Brunt of a daunger. p. Wicliff. brousso. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. bross. flax-comb brossettes. Brush. brizeto. Lang. of twigs. brit. and actually come in collision. into a multitude of points. to crush. a brush Swiss bruske. briser. G. brottcher. bruscolo. field. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Castr. E. quisquilise. dust. a bristle. Fr. borste. brusc (Diet. a mote. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. B?-usske. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters.— — i. Gael. brikan. break. brise. brous. and . remnants of hay or fodder. bruito. Prov. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. Pm. bruis (sing. . bush. — OE. rubbish. modification of the same root which gives the E. brustia. brusg. Pr. Bruit. to butt. irruo. Sw. OE. borste. It. rubbish. Piedm. desbrisar. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. brusca. bruc. A. brico or brizo. brusca. Pr. to break. Sp. bross. brugir. and also Brush. to break. bruire. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. shock. bris. Gael. to brush. The same relation holds good between G. biirste. and Piedm. a brush . broza. bruise exOFr. wool-card. burs. a noise. tremely. . Diez. brisar. a blow. brusco. G. bruiser. Prov. It. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. Prov. brosse. bruzir. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. rods. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. a brush . Gael. brist. a briser. a crum. brust. Fr. brMt. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. brista) or breaking out . bricalio. bushy ground. — Fr. an enmy. a brush. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. brist. and It. Bret.

to soak. lye. The place of such a 2. maban and baban. it is beuchen. Formerly. buquer. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. buck-ashes. blast or strike with the forehead. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. pokka7na.biiken j Svi. very generally designated by the same puk. as G. tuft. when soap was tion is commonly taken. . Pol. . rap.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. From an imita. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). colada. mote. a. Fr. to a place used for the mouillir. ac. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. wood. Bubble. bog-aske. to bubble. in which the flesh dish. bublati. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. to murmur. boil animals. boucaner. Pref A. News. to butt. tender.steep or soak. a fescue. because bucare does not in Marsh). the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. Cot. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. Fr. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. from weich. A . and exercised their cruelties prin. to soften . as a buck rabbit. a bubble. soft. Bohem. buck-ashes. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. bduclien. to soak. buerj It. the lower soak in lye. Fr. open lath-work. hog dressed whole). also applied Una. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. mieknad. bugada. to wet Pol. This bubette. says Laudon. and Fr.buchen. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. See Dupe. the linen at buck. . hump. Bohem. to which in their language they call bou. bukke. bucata. and the bunch. to strain. to filter. to soften. boc. In G. bubiti. erweichen. — — ' A : ' ' . bwch. a bubble. who resorted to the islands beichen. bugd. Diet. was called bucking the linen. Magy. a hole. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. 1857. bub. Pol. to buck. drying of produce. buchen. bucking. Magy. smokipg meat were called buccaniers.lessiver. It. buborek. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. bouk. . Gael. bifbel. Sp. boc. designation of a knob. moczyd. byge. 17th century. blister. bucaIndies. or projecTo Buck. Bret. tender. w. soft It. buquer. March 28. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. Esthon. Bret. Etym. hump. mollire. boh.tare. . is 1. molle. at a door. caned' Hence those who established them. tap . — . The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. the first wheal. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. a steep for flax. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. bubseti. to butt or jurr Dan. to soften. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. Sp. But see Bristle. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. to butt. The cipally on the Spaniards. to stick. mokry. not so plentiful a commodity. bubauti. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. to soak foul linen before washing. bouc. — . to bump as a bittern. The natives of Florida. soft. It. I. moist. or mok. . top. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. soft. pukkata. different form. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. watery bud. a push. de la Floride. from colar. soft . to knock the type of anything round and swelling. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. BUBBLE bruschetta. .byka. bubbola. Fin. a ashes. the upper for coifee. faire la lessive. set of pirates in the spread. and as a verb.to allow a free current of air. thunder gently . a.boukaat. a to the male deer. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. was called in Fr. bubBuck. It. bub. 1586. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. bokni. bucquer. of wind. and then to other wild tumour Lith.derivation has been much discussed. plied in the W. a bubble . lye. Illust.D.— . from which the ing the bleating of a goat. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. The male goat. The word was very generally Buccanier. knock. The name. to Gael. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. bube. Dan. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. pup. a knock word. does not hold. Sc. w.' Palsgr. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca.-wtt miekki. The term bocan is still ap.wet Lat. .

pwtio. rabodS. bouge. a short thick man..t-le!L{ * Bud. ein. boucler. whom it is still much in use. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. bolgetta. Bav. a ring. bocla. bloquier. bod. don't stir from hence. Buck-bean. Fr. of bouge. a shoot. boiling.stumpy man. A water-plant with leaves and gille. bod. mani. This expression boglire. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. NE. knock. pote. to butt. great pouch. pulga. weich. ble. with a central boss. ' . bulga. boss. to thrust. bulla. Budget. butzen. a boss. bugnir. a tuft. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. — . like a bean. and the reference to It. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. bump. to move. bode. It. bloca. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. Fr. Gael.pode. potz. male or botzen. goat's hoof. a trough). boucle. Mid. Russ./a. bog and G. bulka. a curl. call.r//'. * Bucket. bougette. OFr. dint .poot. Prov. a stump buckle up. The entire train of thought is bucket. a budget. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. ' . bukke-blad. crack. boucaran. Bav. Budge. Dan. bunch .stuff. pwt o Fr. motus creber. Wtb. The dressed fur of lambs. hump. bouger. to un bout d'homme. bouclier. a fold ceilio. in the beginning of to pierce holes. or male of to boil . don't a baby). buachazlle. bloca. and of the Lat.' Hal. water message. a pail or flowers. a navel. . bouter. ON. Prov. — — . boss of a shield. It. Mid. to graft or bud trees. To thrusting part of a long body. inboachen. .) as to soak. swelling. rump of fowls . with which it was ornamented. weichen. dim. bollire. above mentioned. having a boss. boach. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. from Gr. fur.' And this sacrament bus have dial. buckel. budge. clump. a little coffer or turgidus. a bump. and weichen. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. seen in Hesse botz. macero. a buclder or shield budge. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. W. ornamental stud. It. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. bulb. Bucolic. The knob or projection formN. bug. of a surface.' Schm. is to shrivel up. the radical image seems to be a set plants. Lat. Fr. clasp of a book. * Buckle. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. knob . . and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. a leathern sack.chissima. a servant. is doubtless fallacious. . butzen. a budget. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. prick in a target. scion. bouton. gjeit-klauv. a wallet. Swab. probably from the notion of bubbling. where the G.may probably be explained by N. were To Budge. Behoves. brobrocchiere. OHG. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. bullion. Hence quel. bucolicus. boccula. bouljein. noise . jSouKoXiKog. a boss. excrescence. from bugr. stroke. a bud. Bus. soft. blow. bdden. to boss or swell out G. . — — . no business to do that. words is converted into b. sboge. bucherame. bul. to word. w. bunch. imbuere. to budge. See Bulk. boucle. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. set of a plant in bulk. to pen cattle. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. K. knob dwfr yn boglynu.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. built. agreeing with Gael. boglyn. as in Fr. bo. II I'a feru desor I'escu. Hardly identical with Fr. dinted. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. a shield. need. The Fr.. bouk is a pail and with the dim. bucket Fl. call. stud. butz.— . butzen K. Sp. bouprobably identical with inok. Sw.goa. bougette. boaLat. . Port. to 'soak. the root of the Slavonic words gran. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. stir.).anything short of its kind. lump. botzen. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. to line with fur.Lat. It.) . Du. butzen (Du. Bret. push forwards. Fr. to boil. butze. bub. bud butzen. to bud or bocla. to stir. In Lat. bogla. Bret. swelling. Buckler. cattle. wallet. a small shallow and open tub. A buckle or fastening for botch. a boy. . butt . bulais daqui. turgere buczendig. Cot. The word is a ddyn. the word w ' — . explaining Fr. skins pushit'.. So on.' Boccaccio. boulj. case of leather . child. * Bud. also a leather tuft . Pied. Prov. loud Cot. trunk of wood covered with leather. — . . Fr. call bo. botzen. protuberance. belonging to the calling of the chen. bedde. convexity. a pustule bout. bucherare.n. Fr. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. no wheel bogeilio. w. a cowherd. a buckle or protuberance. Dan. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. . It termination is lost. of bac. . Fr. a bubble three thyngis. become bochen. G. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bolgia. to swell. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. weich. pulga. a dumpy gin. boucle. ' . a . put. Du. Pol. thrust. boqueranmis. to poke. from bo. with let.

the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. to bellow . dausinti. buffle-headed. of colours. &c. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. the buffe. mingled with water. wauwau. scarecrow . a hollow sound. bugs. bufogni. human. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. bolgetta. rebuff.— Buflae. sounds. Buff. a clap. — Z. buffle. bw. Teet-bo. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. caupo. as from Lith. colour. le reste emplissant d'eau./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . him but Boyd iugges. bouffer. Gael. from souffler. things in Jam. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. buffeteur. bufHe. bau ! children. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. It. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. Swiss baui. or wild ox. a In . a block-headed noddy. Buffoon. Esthon. to marre often tasting it . such as that conjured up by children in the dark. bo ! an interj. or hath been Cot. Fr. Fl. buffare. duff^ dull. bugle. breath. Hence the E. bufogni. to give benti. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. Mid. bouffer. often blown upon. stupid. A puff with — Fl. to blow souffleU. bugbear. as Diez remarks. thus be translated to tap. popo.' La Crusca. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. often covering his E. buffer. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. a skin. a hobgoblin. Bufetarium. a buffle or a bugle.D. — — — Buffet. buffen. buMagy. to excite terror in Macleod. Fr. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. bubiti. Magy. 265. cuff . pulse . een duffen toon. a budget. tabernarius. Buffeter.D. word other cases. smells . buffet. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. tastes. E. a bugbear. Limousin bobal. while in Sp. bauwi. Lat. From bulga.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. bolgia. botffon. made by a person. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. and in Fr. buffa. — retailing buffeter buffetier. a cuff or buffet. bwg. dial. for this purpose is very widely spread. from It. — thence it has been transferred in E. Fr. a dull BUG From 109 — A . buffetto. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. It. buivol. a goblin). either alone or with various terminations. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. buffets. dull sound. deadened. w. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. senses. boo. Sc. . From buff! of terror. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Cot. baubau. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. the place whence the wine was drawn. Fr. boman. soufflet. W. G. to beat. wine may The verb in taverns. — Bogle. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. btifetarius. Lith. as emblematically making light of an object. Pl. A blow. A — Bug. yar^aa. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. bukow Ikow. — La Crusca. Pl. a jester. also a G. air.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. to puff. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. to blow. to a representation of his voice. mumming. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . The cry made to excite terror is then used. The use of the exclamation children. buff leather. Sc. to give a as of a blow. bubach. a puff. to rePl. ' They rether puffed at him. made to —Bugbear. a side-board. Buffalo. buffet.—Buffet. God's boast seemed feare children. buffalo. —Boggart. Romola. blurt or puff with one's mouth. to blow . by metaphor. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. Fr. It. to puff.' perfield. Buff. It. to strike face to represent the unknown. The children were playing in an oppocomer. bw! It. buffet. bubaRuss. Lat.D. to frighten . Thus buffet would a tapster. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Cot. bumann. site The two — — iii. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. bubus. leathern bucket. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. puff. Lith. dausa. as wine that hath taken wind. buffare. to signify an indefinite object of terror. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. bobaow. to jest or sport. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. also the skin or heck of a buffe. confused.

Manx boa. bukashka. : no BUG . Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. It. hert. to take bug. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. and in Lat. bug dung-beetle. Grose. — — terror. insect. a buffalo. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Illyr. bwg and E. E. to bellow. threatening. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. booggen. poggl. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. Parolone. affright. larva (a bug-bear. bug-bear. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. iv. — . saucy.. of pipes sewn on. b'dgni. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. the buggaboo w. BUGLE Tentennino. threatening. well as the terrific object. bold. Cheval de trombugti. roarHal. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. bugle. Big. Lap. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. pugaf. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. and in child's Magy. rose-bug. bug-bear. according to Coles. Mundart. Bug as a lord. bogil bo (e. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Bible. scarecrow . to frighten scarecrow. Mid. buffle.— . as Buffalo. especially to beetles or winged insects. fierce. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. troll. tion of the beetle tribe. — boogg. pujalo. Swelling. 3. is the dim. a bug-bear. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Hal. roo. An ornament of female dress condread. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. an insect. bugar. 2. w. shepe and gootes. to bellow. a proud overbearing man pujat'. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. Russ. terrifying ward. fette. Magy. baco. a boogg.Lat. Sp. used in the same sense. Same as buffle. — — . The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. disgust. Bugle. bauginti. bogle. any disgusting animal. and bugle. mask ' . to take fright. with more or less modification represents bau. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. insect. Swiss booggen. the word is lin) bbgge. Stalder bog. protuberant. boeuf sauvage. buba. proud. a. oxen. Bogge. thus connected with bug. high. given in Chaucer. 493. bogk. also a baco-baco. Hence bugle-horn. and is Deutsch. bobal. a bug-bear. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. Schmidt. a silk-worm. high-sounding words. a bugbear for children. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. quos what produces dread or disgust. Fl. to take fright. the black a maggot. bug. pugalo. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. vermin. also a bug-bear. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. tumble-bug. The name of bug is — .3uhtii&:. bug-bear. worm. bugler. boo. to origin in the expression bugs words. ghost. It. blustering. Lesachthal. forSc. il brutto Demonio. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Fl. Lett. gad. swollen.loud noise. great or bug words. to creeping things. to roar Aasen. A similar applica. is very common. then a horn for drinking. bogk. . superbire. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. fear.Fr. bau (Pureiglia. W. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. a rabme. also a bug-bear. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. provincially an insect. Sw. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. biignt. a beetle. Magy. bugbear. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. beugler. bogil. bucula. bbgni. . monster. Swiss ing. and a boggarty ing. buculus. See The name terror). (Spurrell). bukati. . but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. — — ' .' In my time at horse is one apt to start. . as an object of dread. long.. an object of terror. Chaucer. The final guttural of W. i. The w. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. coco. Serv. Deut. Grisons bau. banian boube. bwgar. Bug. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. buggabod). boa-peep. bok. a goblin. Lith. of bugabo was given. * 2. dial. Bdronie. I. earwig bau da grascha. big. a misshapen person. 1551. bwgwl. paws the ground . hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. the Devil. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. xiv. language any kind of insect.

— . Pr. chest. bulbe. bolso. In the representation of natural sounds. bauch. compare Da. . bulk or capacity of anything. bulwis. bouge. bed of a river. the carcase.' Fl. belly Sw. ball. . ^ — . w. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. bug. bale. a dint in a metal . nave or body of the church van 't schip. skin bag. To Build. were a habitation. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. to belly out. bulne. villa. Here stand behind this bulk. sedes. bellows builgean. bouk. bwlg. straight will he 2. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bolle. bubbling up. biilken.' Palsgr. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. of an inflated skin. it again. swell. MHG. a tuberous or bulbous root . acervus. bulbe. Palco. . boss of a buckler. tumeo. For the latter sense ' — My . or bear out as a full purse. ne. tumidus. head . vulva. blister. the position of liquids in the word In English. . From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. and bulbukd. bulg. ' . . OSw. snorting on a bulk. knob. bulki. to gather. . Gr. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. boss. . belly Cat. as it was merly written in English to bylle. Lith. a leathern sack or portmanteau. a. buc. van loock. buk. (3oX|8oc. bulk is a partition of boards. to puff up bolginn. He found a country fellow dead drunk. The addition of a dim. body. dial. Lett. I. a bubble Gael. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. belly. boulge. ON. See Bulk. bulle. body of an animal. a bubble. knobby. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. Dan. buhe. inhabit. puff. at riufa bulkann. bo. bulge or bilge. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. a water-bubble). Pr. OSw. gebolgen. belgr. unevenness Sw. Muratori. hull of a ship. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. blister Manx bolg. . Hal. From till. the belly. bulgen.— . It. to bubble up Pol. projection. . bol. Melancholy. balcone.' Cot. boss of shield. bulka. to build. belly. pouch builgeadh. With these must probably be classed ON. The Walach. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. Lat. bubble. cumulus. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. or. bulge or convex part of a cask. to spring. . balco. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. belly. a round bulky body bwlgan. Boss^. a. to swell. wallet. be protuberant. herd^ swarm pulkd. Othello. bolle.' Anat. — — . Hence e. and put it home. G.'— Cot. the potato G. bol. blister. Lith. anything prominent. boss. swollen OE. belly. a straw corn-vessel. to blow. in vessel. Lat. bugue. thorax buick. a protuberance. or feminine termination gives Bav. Pm. domicilium. turgeo bolnyd. womb. bol. Kil. lump. trunk. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). bubble. a bulb Du. bubble {palgan tiisge. See bollekeii next article. swell. G. bilge. formed a farm. 1388. Jno. swollen. a prominence. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. G. a globe. . . Bolke or hepe. globule bolg-lhuingey. principal portion. mass. crowd. to raise a habitation. bukr. trunk. of E. pulkas. the womb. Bulch. bua. . a stage or scaffold. Mister. a lump or mass. . ' . PoXj3a. on. a bunch. jnake bulch. Bulk. bunch or projection. bulkaf. balg. ON. a leather sack or budget Fr. bulked or bumped out. or cargo of a ship. the capacity or burden of a ship. bolg.pulks. bulcke. blow. belly van de kerche. the body Du. Dan. Bourser. pocket. or of what is shaped like a bubble. hold or bilge of a ship. Pm. skin of an animal. balg. to break bulk. the head of an onion. A — ' — Bulk. to swell. hollow. bolgna. skin flayed whole. bladder. Gr. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. The radical sense is shown in Russ. Ptg.d. belly. the contents of the hold. cultivate. pod ON. knot in thread. bulgen. habitaculum. in Sc. whence bylja. Bulge. bubble. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. to undo the cargo.' Festus. has bulbuk. leather sack. trunk of the body. — — .' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. . boa.). lump. . a heap. — — . bauen. Sp. — Bulb. ' . m um Placentiae. . balgs. bole. mass. bolgia. knob. bulbus. Bav. stuffed bag. to bol. body of a ship . — . to throw out a convexity. as water beginning to boil bolg. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. bolnyn. in bulk. beuck. husk. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. byli. See how this tode bolneth. bulk. bolgan. pimple. bolgetta. swell. Mandeville. as well as is very variable. belgja. bag. and N. to bubble up. bullka. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare.

— 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. to tical with Sw. boillon. W. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. also of the tadpole or young frog. bullern. a seal. a bull. — — Bull. bolla. boss. any embossed work. a cow. bulk of a thing. A lace tree. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. coarse. N. bulderen. bubble. Du. stupid . bal. as a mill-dam or the like. is of a class with Pl.. Du. a little fish nearly all head. stamp. I. also a parFl. billoti in Fr. Gold or silver uncoined. poll-cheannach. as the ornanails. Lith. The wild plum. — A tition in a ship. BuUiou.'— ' Palsgr. pwl. . /SouWivu. biitzibau. ba. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . a tadpole . balgeting. of the ox kind. tition of deals instead of a wall. the seal affixed to the document. 2. of Witchcr. bole or trunk of a tree. as geting. Sp. The bullfrog. is called a ball. a noisy violent fellow. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. ON. any great-headed or studded nail. bullos.Gr. Gael. Bullbeggar. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. a bull Swiss bullen.. pollach. but is more probably iden- palchetto. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. a bul-begger. from the noise. it may be observed that a bullet in E. embossed work. bauli. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. large. G. lumpish. Terriculamentum. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. boss or stud. poltern. a beam or rafter. witches. &c. whence Mod. Bullfrog. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. from Lat. 3. Fr. It. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. scarecrow.. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. whence bullire. in the sense of base metal. many to protuberant objects. a blockhead. thick. See Bowl.. See Billet. bulle. — Fl. a bulox polos. baula. stud. Bret. bulla. billon. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. which may probably be the origin of the name. This word is used in several senses. Bullet. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. pimple. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. urchens. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. bouillon. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. a scare-bug. from baula. on the contrary. bollos de relieve. bolli. bollar. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. G. w. bulke. however. bulk. bullocks. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. penbwl. from the Lat. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. round glass phial. from the use of the equivalent terms. from Fr. sloes. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Du. Pm. bulla. a framework of balks. spirits. leraures nocturni nigri.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow.' do not go by the dangerous water. bolli. bietebau. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. brass-headed nail .lle de fusil. bulloi. w. assito. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. Eullrusli. bullus. Pl. The male W. bugbear. a hobgoblin. a tadpole. BulUiead. G. Scot's Deso. bwla. And The word bullerbak. i. the matrix or die . Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. Fr.D. bolos Fr. to emboss . bullebak. a bowl. lumpheaded . signifying roaring. it is boulet de canon. bollon. A papal rescript. as It. a stud. hhint. stamped money. Bullace. b2iggaboo. to seal. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. a hobgoblin. Bully. boulct. to bellow. stud. to bubble. dim. of boule. large of its kind. bellocier. child by the represents the hobgoblin. bwlas. 2. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. Du.D. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. blunt. G.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. It. a seal. in N. a hornet. Cot. beams or boards. poli-cheannan. eth and frighteth. and vellon in Sp. elves. bouillon. The final element tergeist. dial. blister. polten. Dan. bellow. and thence terror. as in E. to boil.D. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. bwbach.Fris. a wasp. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water.

up was termed monnaie de billon. buller-brook. bomtnen. Kiittner.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. to make a noise . biihne. 1305. agrees with e. a bumble-. intonare. to .' Again.' ' mettre au billon. to make a droning Du. ^Bully-rook. ierd-boeyme. bottn. ground. Hence — . to terrify by noise and clamour. to drum Lat. G. — bombam?nen. violent. Du. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. Fris.. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. honunele. Hence bom and ban. a noisy blustering fellow. primarily the ramparts of a town. buller-bas. poltem. BULLY with which coins were stamped. Bum-bailiff. D. buller-bak. &c. propugnaculum.D. provides. From the notion of a humming. 'lega. ON. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. legaggio di metallo. the soil. resonare. a boisterous. To bum. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. — Boom. Miege in Hal. a blunderhead.d. block-werck. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. To Bum. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. on the other hand. bodem. bulderen. botm. minari verbulderen. buller-bas.' reals of standard currency. It. Bum. buller-jaan (bully. bustle. baluarte. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . blunder-buss. bottom. — Bump. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. IV. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. un faux brave. bastion. c. 1687). G. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. Hal. bommele. is called bumping or bells. bol-werck. hum. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. boene. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. — — plate d'argent. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. The decried coin. The Sw. Bully-rock. St. The 27 Ed. argentum and silver.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. furious man. G. to dun. Du. 2. a hectoring. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. Philip le Bel in Due. debacchari. c. John). Kil. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. or work of defence. a stage. and similar restrictions were enforced in France.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. blunder-buss. droning. 4 Hen. Kil. Bailey.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. scaffold. AS. ierd-beame. Sw.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. or a humblebee. Thus ' ble. Fris. buene. 10. 14. bolderen. sound. A. but now is the central part of the town. a floor. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. bombilare.' for the purpose of exchange. boulevard. c. Bully. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. boisterous fellow. III. by corruption boulevart. provides. To bum.the ramparts. ^i^/«.. Fr.' agger. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a.' Stat. 9 E. from boden. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. beat a — Hal. 2. violent overbearing person. a. The Stat. To bully is to bluster. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. and porter au billon. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . — Bumto . For bottom. 2. vallum. Du. perturbare saevis dictis. IIL st. The cry of the bittern. blaterare. is bullion — A — buller. polterer. then in general a rampart. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. noise. Etym. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England.D. clamour.

a pumpion or gourd. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Pl.' Palsgr. . — — de dor bunsen. a. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. Bumboat. BUNCH bum-bailiff. See Bounce. Bump. gibber. trunk. Sc. stalk. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. Radically identical with Dan.-^Fl. to bang down. banga. Bun. bmike. pwmpio. to bang. as in other cases. strapping. Probably from bump. bunt. forms. Hence E. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. A clumsy. . a heap. a boil or blain. bolsa. a knob.— Pr. bugnet. a hump. pumpa. Bums it's hit. pwmp. mto Sp. a tail (Macleod). — round fruit. . to bang ON. a Sp. — — — — ' — knock. . root. from bunsen. bump. bonuach. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. a person employed to dun one for a debt. Ir. boi7ieog. round mass of anything. a large . abrupt manbuns-wise. It. Du. a bump.— Bunnion. Bung^.! . and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. bung. See Bunch. Hal. bottom. Mrs Baker. Kyx or bunne. a heap Wall. Bunch. Pm. a rabbit. Dan. bunan. — stalk . — Marine Diet. hay stubble . 114 BUMBOAT Bun. an old stump of a horse. bugno. . bun eich. a. bunsen. bun with ON. bottom. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. to swell out E. . . pompette. especially girls. a boil (punkos bot. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a bag or sack. butt end. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. bunny. a swelling from a blow. bunki. Daal bu7iseti. . a hemp-stalk. Bony. bunga. bugnone. Bunewand. any round knob or bunch. Gael. awkward. a rabbit. a knotty stick) Sw. Pm. one ever saw the word in that shape. bon. bottom bun feoir. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. a wallet. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. to beat. A Du. or to the mass by which it is given. w.D. —Bunny. To bam. bulse. a into Dan. hdk passing and E. while bulch was traced through Gris. Then. Hal. banke. a dry No . stock. Bumsen. bunnion. bunkc. Moor. stump. a round mass . bu<rnone. bundle. Bunfeaman (stump-tail).D. Again. large. bun. a bud. a knock. a bowl P1. a boss Lith. 1. Bunk. tundo. stock. E. Fr.). dial. so the form btmk. E. Manx bonkan. pumpurras. bumtel. a heap. bunke.pummel. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bungersome. — — Bun. Forby. calamus. pompon. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. — — Bun. a knob. a knob . Probably for bun-boot. pwmpl. il me pousse. botn. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. should probably be a short tail. to ' . To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. a pocket Sw. are dim. w. lenten loaves. strike E. bulscha. to knock . S. stump. bunka. Pl.' Bun. Roding.. and related with ON. to . . gibbus. any round knob or bunch. to . He buncheth me and beateth me. Thus e. stubble of beans. also for taking a pilot to a ship. applied to young persons.P. bamgetroffen. noise. OSw. binge. bumsen. passes Sw. cluster.. bonge. See Boss. inconsiderately. a swelling. Related on the one side to Pl.' he fell with a bang. and signifies consequently a mass. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Hal. . lump. signifying one who does things in a thumping. to beat. Pr. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. dial. a button. . Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. lungeous. H. .S. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. the tail of a hare. a dried hemp-stalk. bune or boon. . knochen. Bang sen. bunch— Hal.D. bulto. a lump on the foot bunny. stubble Manx bun. a bunch. callus. or grete knobbe. to strike so as to give a dull sound. clumsy. Fl. bannock. Hal. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. bunga. knob or heap. ner. Gael. to thump. bum-boot. a bunch Magy. truss E. bmidt. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive.^Cot. Bumpkin. awkward clown. a heap or cluster. explaining E. a purse . blain. a heap OSw.D. Dunchyn or bunchyn. E. Holland and Flanders. Dan. the Pr. Suffolk bonnka. stem or base. poumpi. Li cake. nor would it concern the public if he did. root. as we have seen E. seems to unite Gael. &c. bull. throw down with a bang. bugno. bans. bignet. knuckles. buns. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. bongie. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. from knock) It. Pm. He fult dat et bunsede. bunken. foundation w. Bunch. Fr. bund. poumpido. Sc. . clown. protuberance. bonnock. ! — knocking. Lang.

brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. N.' Festus in Diez. or putting forth of a vine. a boye. the stopper of a cask). Bundle. Rietz. shackles. Kil. bundt. .Fris. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. See Bun. The Italian buio. Johansen. Sp. To bunt. . bourion. of a song. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. the bung of a barrel Lim. or tuft. Russ. buret. tinker . Sp. noise. halm-tapp. a water bubble made by rain. Burly. to shove. to gingle. to kick. See Borel. a cork. Burble. a bung. A load. to knock. driving in the bung. bond. Prov. to bud forth. AS. The stopper for the hole in a boia. or used as a receptacle for papers. modem bummle. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. bundle. the float of an bundle. bang. buret. ho-tapp. to work ineffectually. on. racket. buove. properly a Burgundian helmet. also a piinple in the face. la Borgonota. bon. OG. to hum. A Dan. and van t' vat. Bunny. to work at carpentry bangan. tap. to push ghebondte. bondeau. the noise of drums. that the primitive meaning of shackle . to gingle. Burden. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . Fl. dial. — btiruii. sprig. whence in bure. Fr. A bubble. to stnmi on an instrument. working in wood (especially with an axe). dark grey bura. The Magy. to cobble. To burgeon. bangla. to bear. bui. are from bouscfie. bote. unskilful working. Sw. bongun. boya. whence bunting. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. to stop. the middle part of it. clogs.— . specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. Palsgr. To do anything awk- wardly. G. guggle as water. klempern. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. klimpem. racket . Sw. Cot. dial. and bomme. Hal. to hum. bondel-loos. — — . a botch. Lat. buie. byrthen. Pl. borgonota. G. with the head. ghebundte. a bunch Burbulas. generally known as the material of which bud. something bound together (Mrs Baker). bouchon. — — To Bungle. to botch. to bolt meal. to in to stop the hole. to pype. and Du. bourjon. B. tapp (whence tceppa. shove . a drum . to push with the head del. would be the earliest float for an anchor. Burganet. stiimpeln. punishments for prisoners. bondon. to stop. Sp. boucher. tinkle. So in Pol. bondir. E. OFr. knocking. rumble as the bowels. contignatio. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. the young cloth used for sifting flour. an anchor buoy. borboUar. Fr. loosed from bonds. boj. The Fr. Bret. Cat. Prov. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. to resound. and the Sw. The belly or hollow of a sail. Muratori. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. AS. bouche. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bunta. do a thing bunglingly. stocks or such OSw. the loose open grow big about or gross. banghagr. — Bureau. from beran. however. bounta. bonde. Sp. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. to strum on an instrument. knock. to float. bourgeon. — . . bommen. clumsy performance. colligatio. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. was formerly pronounced buro. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. bindini. bundel. bimge. Banff. bungande. bou^e. See Barbarous. boil or bubble up. bag to catch the wind. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. knocking. and E. Biu'geon. * Buoy. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. coassatio et Du. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. To Bunt. bang. especially in wood.D. a wisp of hay or straw. . fascis. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. bourguignote. a bunch. a bungler. a sort of helmet. anchor or of a net boyar. bongani. dicimus rufum. biirde. burboloti. and now more Bailey. 202. bummle. bonde. dark. bolting-cloth. russet. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. Du. to hum. . byndel. on. bangla. to bungle. ' — work . p. to Somerset is to sift. reddish brown.punt. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. in is Fr. Bunting. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. Burden. boei. Sw. stilmpern. is originally a wisp or bunch . bury. The word is flags are made. bove. Bung. to push. B. burion. Fr. See Bourdon. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. bunsen. Bung of a tonne or Lith. gyves. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. Fr. Bunt. So Du. bondelj bundell. fetters. Compare G. OFr. banga. It. to knock.

A — — . It. Probably a modifica. to ridicule. to grind on a whetstone. Schm. a bubble. purrata.). . to have acquired the sense of polishing.— . big. to swell oneself out as birds borras. Fr. protuberance. to roar 5. brasa.Ps. fires up. Burgher. is an Thus G. to burn. de Vaud. buirleadh. to hum. angular . sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen.— Pr. Burn. Goth. Sw. Gael. &c. explaining Sp. E. tahkoa. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. to roar. bears. like. singe or scorch with fire. with little iron nippers called burling irons. brinii. to burgen or wax big. to bourda. ON. bouril. burgeois. brook. knob. to surge. water. Fl. to effervesce. and the Burin. to polish. brimmen. ii6 BURGESS Gael. warbling. — Han to bruser op. burle of cloth. i5«r4 biiirte. — . to sharpen. tion of the root which gave the OE. See Burgeon. a bud. Cot. condemnentur morti. thence. Bav. A legal term from the Lat. Limousin bourdo. an &c. roguing beggars. brunna. pur (see Burgeon). Supp. Burler. the er is a dresser of cloth. like the wind in trees. grancelli. leo Fin. become big and proud. Pr. A burl. bourd. ^Notk. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. schleiffen. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. burlare. to set on fire. Bouffer. . bruse. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. brim or edge of anything. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. to make a So from Fin. burly. to sharpen on a whetstone. Burgess. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. the flocks. burn. which has given much trouble to etymologists. to fiy. borracka. brunir. de Vaud.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. has also borr. as in cousteau. as of suggests. broil. brandung. is connected with brim.).. pressa puret. — — . a bubble to spring as water. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. to To Bum. brase. a purling hiwe brennen. Fl. sbornoi.. lerre. From Fr. language of folly or ridicule. a lie. a blaze. with Dan. It. must be explained on the same principle from G. 122. It is probable indeed that Fr. a spring a robber. bourou. See Burr. Lang. — — . to polish. Nat. from bryii. to ridicule. to roar. brusler being a faulty spelling. borni. a bladder. a jest. See Berough. from the roaring sound of flame. a whetstone. burgen. Walach. to puff up borr^ . a wine skin. It. born. lorra. Swiss Rom. a jest. to swell with pride. bunch. compared with G. to burn. taunt. borr. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. Sw. ends of thread. and Dan. Burlesque. 56. j. a fountain. brustolare. brausen. to bouronna. Pren7ien. Burly. Burryn. In the same way ON. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. as Diefenbach bud. burgi latro. flocks. In the manu. in Schm. ^ttsa. tahko. sidiary element. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. From the same root E. and the Burnish.' a jibe. Compare also Piedm. fire. brunnr. a margin.or bubbling up. it of the knots.ireui£r:e.). As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. he rustle. Prov. — . Bav. tumentum. joking. to roar.bryna. Sp. to tell lies. The Gael. Hence Bridel. OFr. Antiq. to Gael. ends of thread. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. mockery. to rub. Probably. jest of. the word seems Pm. like straw or small . dial. laer. to give an edge to. BURNISH i5«r/. to puff. sea. occupying much space. boure. bremmen. an edge. The primary origin of the word. purra. blow. N.j'own. Swiss Rom. Todd. barrel. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. to roar. boura. Fr. the roaring surge of the — — — .' Cot. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. OE. abourioner. brustle. — — . OE. the J in OFr. brima. brun. watery. a knob. See under Bore. brAler. brynsten. G. surge or dashing of the sea . as the / in purl. embraser. ridicule. toast. robber. sicut sound. a gurgling ^. briis^. bourglairs. boiirre. borrelen. swell up or strout out. Castrais bourril. Bret. Fr. ample of polishing metal. repartee . is termed burling. . burren. Burglar. a prominent eye borracka. bururus. crackle wood in burning Hal. from Lat. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. . Bestiary. to swell. explaining the E.. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. borujon. brinna. Pm.. bud or sprout forth. bururus. brunnen. brinnen or Also ein roar. Burgh. ' rugiens. burgensis. G. to bud . to roar (as lions. OFr. purling. bruzir.sharpen. to murmur. and OG. a well. Lang. So also Sw.. spring-water bumach. Dief. The in. swelling borr-shuil. to polish helmets.

a sepulchre chreoburgium — . borra. Du. E. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. With a slightly different ghen. prsnuti. borre. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Gael. and met. Dan.' edge grew weak. to hide . foretell great storms at 3. brisd. a harness or collar maker) . A rabbit burmotion. borsa. brickie. bourlet. mentioned under Burgeon. the officer who bears the purse. Fris. Hal. Brun on bane. keep. bourrelet. Burr. brico. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. peluca to Fr. Du. G. impetus. straw. Fr. shearing of cloth. brown. to P'air. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . bourrer. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. a purse. Compare also OE. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. its own protection. any kind of quilting or stuffing. also ' any such trash as chaff. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. britar. bolsa to It. from Fr. brittle. a place of defence. blurra. Fr. OHG. It.Lat. Burial. skin. Fr. and thence flocks 'of wool. Sw. when they spring So in W. 2. iii. a sepulchre. some people in pronouncing the letter r. AS. Jam. Burrow. bourre. cover. Sexy. from whence we pass through Sp.' The same word with burgh. In OE. Burser. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. borra. — Translated by Kemble. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. -Grisons bulscha. stuffing. byrgen. Burr is related to buzz as protect. beorgan. The root forms brik. explained E. 5150. briketo. i5(7&a. birgan. See Bulge. ber•whirr to whizz. OHG. coo. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. shales. appears under the Lang. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. bur. an annular swelling. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. to mutter Sw. preserve. save. and spelling. . buscha.. brast. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. to burst. any rapid whirling biarga. verbergen. See Burgeon. ON. a purse. Sw. Burse. casting bullets. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. brisdeach. preserve. bris. dial. cwning-gaer. from AS. brist. . husks. of a body hurled through the air. to hide. Shelter. a morsel. ultimately resting on the Gael. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. brjota. brizeto. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. the — — castle or fortress. chips or anything else Fl. bolgia. beurs. shelter. a. whirr. a port. To Burst. In a met. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. birigean. whirr and burr. AS. To Bury. dial. a rabbit burrow. burial place. be more in accordance with AS.' Harris in Todd. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. ptcrren. byrgan. root borr. break . karborre. borsa. whence Kil. bourse. I. but it is more probably a development of It. berstan. perruque.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. bourse. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. ON. borrow. to break. idiom if 4. This word seems safety. byrstan. as in Northumberland. briso. to bury . burgisli. byrigels. swell. brist. Hence Fr. bres- — tan. signifying protrude. brista. as it is still pronounced in N. Mid. byrgels. Cot. moss. bergen. It. g. Bursar. of England. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. bris. byrsa. S w.— . burre. borre. Beowulf. bristeach. bur. makes the disbursements of the college. &c. bristen. ' ' — — burren. force. caer is a — — — ' ' : . shuffling. barza. tomb. a wallet or scrip. an exchange. Swiss burren. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. &c. G. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. 225. ' BURR AS. and. . as for the protection of a child's head. Burse. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. borsia. hair.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. leather. to buzz. brest. a pad. fortify. talk fast and indistinctly. bersten. Port. -burse. birr. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. to stuff. pipaa. burra. that birds make their nests with. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. brokil and brotil. brittle. a barn or cupboard. as from Sp. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. — Clare. to save. purr. also all such stuff as hay. briser. brit.

See Bust. . a bunch of twigs. truasc. the idea of knocking. a box. ' . to enclose in a case or box. brake. besom). to sepulchre. bousche. from the ON. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. bausen. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. ch). a hump.) to hide in the ground. bussare. grapes. a gun biichse. rad. a bunch. whente beorg. busk. bustula. knot. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. Brunne.' The buskin is said Bret. So from Fr. Bush. See Box. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bua. projection. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. buxta. diminutives. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. a tuft. Thence byrigean. bustellus. bosta. busse. OFr. Du. buskr. to forest of Eyda. Gr. Du. bulge. a little box Dan. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. borghen. To prepare. In to Brutaine. condere. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. bussel. and not directly (as Du. a clot of phlegm sart.' a box. Fris. gave Lat. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. thicket of thorns . bousIn the other copy ser. bulk. whence at bua sik.— ' ii8 {chreo. hunch Du. to bow. to dress. It. that the lend had lorn thorn. Layamon. Mid. clusprobably Morocco leather. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. . dead. verb. It. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. ieorh. the land. make ready. a wisp. 2. And her ful sone tuft. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. whence bouchon.-^Bushel. a bundle. fiast. the Moors and of Morocco. apparently a secondary verb. barsc in Heimskringla. tuft. 'at bua sik. bundle. a tuft of hair. roquies. bossida. wisp. Prov. R. buxula. at bua sig. bosch (a diminutive ?). Du. They busked and malced them boun. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. ' . bush. —Busk. mount.Lat.fiasc. 410. The bone in a woman's stays. sur une litifere. to swell. van wijnbesien. a -tavern bush. bosc. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. as synonymous with to inake one boun. Le roy Richard mort. in the For Skirnis . BUSH hreaw. boistel.' The word is explained by — — . Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. cluster. a grove bosch van haer. for at buasc.' sheath. Bush. ' . and thence Mid. a corpse). Harold G. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. occultare K.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. we have Fr. OFr. tow. ' —P. AS. Sir Tristram. a been written buasc. signifying to entomb. thicket {buski. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. brodequin tout noir. hjul-bosse. . oneself. to stop. a rampart. a troop. aheap of stones. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. a bush. a bush. Fr.gur bidst austur um EySascog. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. : — . to direct one's course towards. and from the Fr. bundle * Buskin. busken. or — Busk. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft.boisteau. The primary sense of hair . bairgan. The word frequency with which to busk is used. basse. a box. bramble. bo7ich (Fr. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. defence. bos. protect . Malberg. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. . induere vestes . The radical idea is seen in Goth. bouche. To Busk. to keep. to turn. to bury. the past participle of the same verb bua. boxta. bossen. boiste. box wood to bush. which would later have truast. biichse. and he cites wisp bauschen. lump. G. berghen. Thus Froister . Bouchet. in OE. Sibriht that I of told. preserve. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. buysschen. bussellus. bunch. burial mound. or the like. as boun is simply buinn. a tuft. to dress. brodiquin. then a tuft Sp. barst. iriCtf -ifoe. bush. qualster-boscken.P. buxida. a box for measuring corn. basse. boisseau. beorgan. boucher. boissa. -idis. bousse.Lat. . to bend one's steps. AS. il fut couch6 l^jkema). . abdere. at buast. a tuft guini. Ptg. Sc. borcegui. Sw. ' . 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. Brunne. and we actually find bushel. borseof trees. is thus accounted for. to prepare.

of a doublet. 1372. occupied bezigen. the point of a lance. stump. Port. lip. stump. brusc. bu. Du. . With respect to bust. The proceedings of Parliament. work. to make a splash in the water. employment bisgan. Bust. Bulch. Sp. a great billet Cot. Prov. Nained from Proximse iis zia. bysgian. log . Fr. an affair. A great sluggish fowl. Busitiess :c3iVi . in Diaz Gris. bust. I. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. from jnund. small. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat.' ON. lips. To Bustle. Comp. and then with avis again prefixed. a bunch of flowers . its slowness of flight. 10. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. baiser. or avutarda. Fris. Prov. a backstock. . busch. especially of a woman's dress. betarda. stem. as in moharra from harbe. mons. Walach. Bustard. trunk. trunk. a ship of some size. forms morseqiiill. a sleeveless truss or doublet. also a It. a bulk or trunk without a head. lump. Cot. trunk of Cot. ' bistardej It. A wisp. representing a blow. occupation. would explain the G. an ostrich. 119 bi{tr. bruskras well as buskr. Edrtst. body of garment. On the other hand. brostia as well as bostia.— . cata — . buyse. putschen. mohedairova. ship Sp. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. sunt quas Hispania aves . bulk. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. — Thus we should have mocherqui. a fishing vessel. a kiss. the body without arms busque. bisegung. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — .' Plin. but. lip. ottarda. A A busquer (Sigart). besongne. busch. a busk. Xerqui. trunk of a tree.). ON. busche. bist. ' BUSY 2. chest. besoigAe. buz. pussa. Business. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. Lat. worn to make the body straight . biseg. borcegui. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. signifying trunk of a the body. abotarda. a kiss of reverence. Fr. — hardly be distinct from Fr.D. ViM. Bav. Hence probably au-tarda. stir. Lang. inde discurro et operosus sum. says. business. 2. a large cljest or particular applibox. B. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. Sp. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. a blow. love gestures. to knock . thick end. bust. mouth. body of a man. — . I bustle. utarda. forest. buc. a. ON. Prov. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). AS. Fr. mosequin. — — difications of the same word. busc. bussen. basiuin. windbutsch. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. buta. a Mid.Lat. the long. crack . cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. Busy. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. body . Lindenbr. otarda. austarda. kiss. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. buquer. statue of the upper part of Fr. Swiss butschen. Buss. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. bustla. the trunk. Hal.> Also written buskle. bus. 2l box. — clattering about. fe^a. See Boss. knock. a log. arbor ramis trunGloss. and by transposition morchequi. bacio. ^A. Pol. tarda. outard. busta. Namur — Champagne Fr. — — — — It is like the smouldering. Gael. bukr. So Wes- terwald munds. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. bucha. of the human body (Grandg. made stiff. brut. Fr. body. bussa. 1555. body. or chest in which the vitals are contained. vessel employed in the herring fishery. Sw. bnist. busto. plated body or other quilted thing.d. buc. a projection. a kiss. to bustle. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. sera. putta. busy. btcc. hipista. biist. beso. to make use of. 7o\. geidha. bus. bisgung. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. body without arms and legs. a tree. Busk. morsequi. box. kupata. Sp. also a busk. So in Fin. buc. kiss. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. 22. the breast. knock. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. abutarda. a kiss. Rouchi. Bust. a bust. a bush. a mouth. to Swab. To hurry or make a great B. mouth. BUSS Dozy from Arab. mogangas from gonj. and supposes that the common Arab. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. avuDiez. a boat or small vessel . outarde. Cat. tuft. a blow.pjik. bisg. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. or Cherqui. butz. Fl. I go strepo) . Box. snout. bus and Pol. The form brust. busq.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. a stroke of wind. to occupy. as in ON. beezig. bysgje. smack. body of a woman's dress It. The Prov. and also a sounding blow. also a flagon.bezig. I.

inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. Whatever is in addition to Butler. then hoUow trunk. rotundity of the body. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. But In Sc.' — — ' . a goat (and not besides . bocin. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. Tooke's dis. a leathern bag. without care. and with It. bolgia. of the wine and drink. collection of casks. So in Italian from becco. botte. an outlaw from bouche.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. also a hollow vessel . outside that moreover. bole of a tree. a barrel. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. without. butan ce. (children) boc. besides that . But It. Lang. trunk. moreover. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. Du. — we acle for liquors. G. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . and it is essentially the same word with Lat. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. "PLT) . without law. properly a butan wite. bolr. bol. Ben-house. bola. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. original sense of without. bag. mais. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . boccino. wooden receptthing to be done. belly. Fr. ox. As a conjunction but is in every portion. Sp. from boc. ' Besides all that. boteria. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. the trunk or body of an animal. Here the but implies the existence of an. except. . boquier. body of a shirt w. bounds of. bhcciero. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. belly. Sp. bous. the name must have arisen before the within. the store of ten. Where at an earthen jar . besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. calf. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. botija. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. the mouth). which the word corresponds to the Fr. the belly. bouteillier. It. or what in in charge of the pantry. a butcher . a baiTel .The Sp. Fr. beta. my is called the adversative use of but. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. the Perhaps besogne — . large barrel. a butchery. ways. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . plain the conjunction as signifying boot. the body of an animal. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. Butt. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. able. beccaro. barriga. add. bodifie. hollow case. earthen which the debtor has adverted. being wholly unten. Butcher. ont jhi^ton. viz. by the mode in which he is treated.in which his brethren are included. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. . but one thing. and bot. the full expres. we find ben.streets. a goat. OFr._ bitten j biiten door. those in beccaio.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. is well explained by Tooke. the jug and in E. without the house kept in bottles. the servant in charge of the original object. the principal apartment. without punishment . AS. is put in a class by himself. bountifully.jamin. a budget. without buiten-man. as Pantler. slaughter-house.' there is really a negation to be supplied.' Thus Chaucer says. a wooden cask. binnan. bitlga. If that where now we should compiler. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. the bottles. are. The E. boucher. a cask. gives at least two pounds sterling. a butcher. bout. sup- meat and drink.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. beyond the Piedm. viz. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. and the real origin of the and within . bag made of the entire skin of an animal.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. Buttery. — . Prov. bochier. belly. botilla. that which would be translated by Fr. tinction between but. A A . But when will you pay it ? the belly. Sp. rumpf. ' There is leathern bottle. beccaria. bitten dai. the body of a tree or of a man. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. butan. buta. in addition. a bottle. similar train of thought is seen in ON. to-boot. Fr. bouz. from as. equivalent of AS. bute. be out. skin-bag. calf of the ' say.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. Butler. the present day we should say. biitait slaughterer of goats . a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. Wall. hull of a ship. bisgung. Lang.' ' write. young mais. a small winebag. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. the precise correlative of but.

a stroke di animal. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. boter-schijte. The Bavarian potig. to cast. boding. butter. It. Kil. to thrust. Button.thum and not button. ment being supposed to resemble butter. e. a button. Bav. Btetter-schmalz. Du. a little push . bot. a buttress Cot. poke. a wall butor butt on. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. . — A . bouton. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . a thrust the thigh-bone. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . short thick thing pimple. a but in the W. both. bouter. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. boiUer. humble. from bouter. a dle . bot blijven staan. buttock of beef is called butr. Perhaps corrupted Lat. striking end. buttare. of E. lams-bout. — . botwm. submit shaking up salad sauce. to be con. Butter-glass. botte. So in English pimples were fora clod. to strike. any short thick thing. to touch at the end. geboogsaem.arbre. rabodd. a tub. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. bata. having a rotundity . fowl. Kil. a stump or club foot. a leg of mutton. so as to make a sounding blow. Gris. Fr.— BUTT leg . the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. or person Schmeller . of the present day. Grandg. clunis. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. what is kept in a blow. Hal. Buttock. the Butter-fly. fle>(ible. to throw . who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. in the R. bott. butyrum. coxa. W. the edge forwards. Kil. Cot. caput scapula bout van f been. to butt. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. to blad. -ez. Mur-buttant. bocgsuin. to abut a stone roof. an ox. a. put. thick. Du. dripping. bodi'.against another which needs support . or or shore post. Halma. bout. buttals. W. botta. to push earth . thrust. a mound of turf in a field to sup. the rosebud. courtaud. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Butter. bot. a bun. as rejeton. an etwas anstossen. boutoir. large head. hillock . suddenly . obeto shake backwards and forwards. by boE. to abut on. botto. Buttress. From Grisons biitt. boutis. as if from Povg. tress. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. to thrust . the thick end. a boss. oir spike with a k coup . See Butler. a bot.' thick from shaking. &c. nourrisson.rejected thing. Fr. Buttery. boter-vogel. trapu. Lang. pwtiaw. pwt. a bolt. bodi. butte. stump. To strike with the head bags. obedient. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. Bout van het schouderIt. boteria. and the true derivation boar. butt. Buttrice. a flying buttress.putan. the store of while bottich. bocsam. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. bud.. butt. botten. : . stump of a tree Fr. Buttel-triib. To come full butt against a butts. butz. grease that sets by merely standing. butt. Fris. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . nourrissons. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. — — — — . a button. a corner horses' hoofs. a blow. a heap of merly called pushes. An erection built up as a Fr. clumsy . but this is probably from Fr. boter-vliege. from bugan. Fr. thrust forwards. nursling. . a scope. a hill. Du. To Butt. from rejeter. able that Chaucer. Schmell. The word body itself seems identical with G. — . a. Gael. — A . from the large knobbed head of botto. are the strips at the edges of the field. povrvpov. to boult flour. G. gigot. bouton. Gr. butte. to so close to the Fr. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. a cask. bottich.to push. from stossen. Hal. butt of a person. botta. the trunk. buhsom. a ribbed glass for dient. Fr. bouter. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. waste ground. buter. leg of lamb. From Du. a mound. at. butteln. Boutje. then the thigh or leg of an to push . Fr. i. to thrust Fr. signify a cask or tub. to femur. R. aim whence to make a support to a wall. any small projection. the prick in the middle of a target. tout seat or breech. from notirrir. a blow. give way. AS. Schmell. to bow. &c. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. a large belly. Bav. . Boutant. butter un. end . but. a buttrice. is formed the augmentative buttatich. bothog. bottig. the thigh of a goose. a barrel. a button. bout. Du. butter. A — — — . boil. * Buxom. as in G. to thrust. a boss. Fr. buttern. pied. potacha. Fr. to thrust. Du. strike. on. w. From the noise of drinkables in a house.. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. to heap up earth or ihrust. Sp.

buzarg. bohte. bylag. bycgan. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. Verstegan in R. The ON. bauhta.. and it is of good will. ii. big. Cabal. byar-rettr. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. a borough. and would have been lost in E. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . favourable. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. P. byar-log. To Buy. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. lb. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. to stand at his side . frabttg- To Buzz. Originally the law of a particular town. — 122 BUY P. . buzac. Mercy hight that mayde. Many good mological explanation. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. It. A by. a beetle. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. to pass by. AS. gracious. bei. & Q. depends upon a esteem in falconry. p. A A We — — — days' wonder.— Diet. It. to buzz. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. Sw. confusedly. Sw. Lat. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. The sense of buxom.. Etynj. and boxome of speche xviii. Goth. town having separate jurisdiction. harty prayers and God speedes. cow-house. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. to whisper. bar. a by-path is a side path . from whom it was addressed. ON. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. See Abie. 116. AS. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. Du. —gracious of speech. called Cabala or Tradition.— P.P. blessing me with their of side. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. . jus municipii. a buzzard or puttock. tions by one. Then applied to speaking low. good-humoured one. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. A ful benygne buirde. OE. to sell. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. G. bees. from by. bi. lete. indistinctly. CABAL Goth. 3. Dan. abozzago. who makes abigg. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. groat in token of his good heart towards him. a meke thynge with — alle. 519. bylove. as in Da. bi. train of thought which has become obso. farm. to jan. to swear with him by . buso. to wit. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. buteoj Fr. stall.busardj Prov. buzzicare. as heedless as a cock-chafer. a town. byr. leges urbanse ON. to purchase for money. bozzago.in N. village. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). Buzzard. bygge. By-law. son. iii. also say. \s\xy. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. Byre. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. as Fr. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. favourably to a petition. Pecock Repressor. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. bugjan. 200. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. 21. bij. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. . does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall.

ceach / exclamation of guages. disgusting such an engine was exerted. chadabula. accablcr. or cadable. Fr. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. cacare . cabacho. a rope. come the Fr. Fr.. cab. OFr. It. w. Cabbage. — Tarbe. . and as we find stones Mid. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . cadabula. : — from violence without blood. whence Lang. — . . to crush. Ptg. chabla. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. caboche. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. Mid. . as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. band. Cabinet. The Sp. to strain in such a manner . gaban. . would correspond to cable. chaable. nasty. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. a rope. cadabulum. geese. Kil. the bowels. cabuccio. The double a in the OFr. cab lis.Lat. cdble. and Ptg.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. forms indi. an engine for casting stones. a frail. vincially used in E. Cablisb. headed. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. ! — .ticula. serious injury — In like manner It. To Cabbage. OFr. and Finnish lanLat. cabo. Cabin. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. for the origin of which see Carabine. Cot. traboccare. properly windfalls. OFr. overwhelm. Castr.Lat. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas.. a cloak of felt or Cack. . Very generally used. cabbage. caable. wilful). signifying properly a rope's end. hoard together. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. disgust. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . a car- We convasare. cabus. . cacare. whence Fr. caable. caables. case. cabasser. capuccio. Capstan. covering. Etym. as an expression of Gr. cabulus. lactuca capitata. to hurl in Nat. has kabbel. surripere. as Turk. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. agga. agge. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . Sw. akista. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. kabat. Celtic. — Kil. Du. laitue cabusse. To steal or pocket. (ca/coe. Due. cabarino. the Slavonian. Mid. manticuKil. Choux cabus. gatsch. cadabulum. a head (whence cabochard. cabane. origin is the OFr. as it must have stood in French. round or great headed. hut. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. headed or cabbage lettuce. prostratio ad terram.' Due. in which sense are explained The the OFr. form kactal. cabuyskoole. It. originally an Gael. kakaloH. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. It is remarkable that the Esthon. disgust cac. signifies down. from trabocco. vile. Lang. Antiq. caqueter. heady.. to hurl down. a covering. Gaggle. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. 'habl. overwhelm (Diet. or as an interjection of disMod. cadabola. Mid. dirty. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. cable . see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. Didot. From It. capo. Tugurium. a shed. or rush basket. and Or. a cabbage . cadabalum. head. hovel. agge machen (in nurses' language). Brushwood — — B. the Prov. — . stercus. —Diet. main. a rope or cable. Imitative of the cry of hens. maim. havyar to caviare. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. kabas. dirt and the Fr. Neckam — by the wind. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. Fr. Du. Finn. manganare. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Due. cabre. Coticesserint Swiss aa. from manganum. as Diez supposes). secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. a headed cole or cabbage . cables. The name of the engine. su/Furari. kabaSsen. a tunic. especially shepherd's frock. ckaable. a rope.Gr. deponat a store closet. mdhaigner. Katr-iT-aKt. cabre. Cappa in OSp. is probably unconnected. &c. it would seem fundain children's language. to chatter. precisely in the sense of the lari E. a booth or hut.Lat. calabre. caable (in legal language). bad. kabane. Lat. Fr. &c. gaggele. filth. Common to Lat. It. Fr. aakkat'a.. Du. — the ON. cabo. Sp. aak! tandi like Fr. brassica — capitata. capanna. and the Arab. Lith. It. kakla.). E. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. aeggi. dung. name of the projectile engine. dirty. cabaii. cabas. gaggi. string. to put or pack up in a frail. Item habeat vocant. a jacket Fr. giiare. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. chaable. Sp. to keep or Du. E. gabardme. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. OSp. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. — Ibid. Cot.

gaggia. Calendar. wanton. Cage. Sp. To Cajole. a loaf of bread. The young G. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. kolasa. KxiKivh^o^. calx. a caFr. caldarius. calba. * Calibre. Fr. an ugly waggon kolaska. a fever. kaad. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). kolesnitza. a common cart. Turk. prate. a falling. Cot. cadence. ever and anon. captive. Du. from calendcE. N. hot . lime whence calcareous. disease of sailors from tivus). kuchen. whence calash. a vessel for heating water. from Gr. A hooded carriage. kolo. the calf of the leg. Lat. It. master. Calf of the Leg.— . Due. collop. Roman reckoning. a tea-chest. Fr. Cot. dial. loss. principal and interest. * Cade. Russ. pet lamb. Calcialate. on. kukje. kalb. ben- kalf. a dence. A — fall. calendarium. capitetum. It. Cadge*. Perhaps from w. to compute. calentura. Du. a reed. or colpa na coise.— Cot. Cadaverous. calpa. caliche. calessa. Sw. Mrs B. calendrer. a wheel . Gascon capdet. capCalenture. a hollow place. — — — Dan. without loss. In the same way Fin. Lat. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Sw. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. cadaver. calidus. colibro. roller. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. a wheel. Fr. bad . Dan. the bore of a cannon. to treat like lime. Cadence. kolesb. Calandre. rattaat (wheels). kaeckelenj Gr. a wheel . calamus. a corpse. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. Calash. It. kolyaska. gavia. javioler. Calamary.Gr.— Calliper. cauldron. a mischievous dial. ' . G. Calp is riadh. . A cuttle-fish. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. gabberen is identical with E. chaudron. a wheel . a small stone. from calculus. From lerie. koeck. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. kdfich. Cadet. . pith. a waggon . an inkstand . its mother. A . En kaka br'od. desire of land. Fr. Lat. a circle. cage. calibre. cadenza. As Du. kail. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. especially of something soft. &c. a calash . Fr. — in a kiln. kolyasochka. the pi. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Serv. calamitas. of which. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. . Originally from a Slavonic source. kaka. and troublesomely attached to. calentar. caldaria. pen Mod. Calamity. the lump and the increase.uv. cage. chaudiere. Calocli. Lat. Caitiff. whence Lat. calculo. the younger son of a family said to be from . ON. —Atkinson. Arab. just falling. The Calf. (in the augm. Cajol. Sp. Caddy. calf of leg. so gabble corresponds with Fr. or smooth Hnen cloth. Lat. 124 prattle . the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. Pol. to . little chief. hence musical rhythm. limestone. kakulla. It. a wretch. calidus. cykevie. pi. Lat. kolo. kauwe. boy. It. Fr. Lat. gabble. a cylinder. reed-pen. cadet. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. ratas. unruly . to prate much to little purpose. Lat. gabbia. a counter used in casting accounts. calibre. chetif. lord. lindrus. to — Fr. to gabble. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. to cage. Flo. a low note. cha'cmie cadence. frolicsome kaad mund. Tea-caddy. cageoler. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. naXaiidpi. signifies a waggon. It is another form of the E. for green fields. To Calender. Cake. the pith or soft part of wood. is probably delusive. Fr. B. a cake or loaf. caioler. KaKKat. of oxen and similar animals. gabbia. . Sp. to heat. cadere. a roller. Caldron. Lat. G. dead body. An open travelling chariot. calcis. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. kalem. wretched. cavea. babbhng. Lat. calesa. a calesh. from the ink-bag which it contains.warmth . frisky. Cauldron. It. cattivo (from Lat. gaggle. kolo. hot. loss. Fr. form) calderone. Dan. Turk. to throw themselves into the sea. to cackle . cabdillo. Sw. Lat. one unduly indulged by. cuttle-fish. incolumis. chattering. kdtr. Cot. of the nature of lime to calcine. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. kat. coop. kola. safe. . to sleek hence a den. misfortune. Calc-. or prattle. kalfi. coll. kage. marrow. taking it Sp. jabber. from the Chinese catty. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Du. kalfvan hout. a lump or large piece. Du. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. See Kiddier. cake. a car. joyous . when they are said to poor. Gael. The Lat.

to abuse . To call. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. the heat of Now these Du. on. Bi. try. calk. Fr. kahcwe. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. * Callet. serpentina. sclopus. tapulta. to prattle. oldire from audire. Turk. donderbuchs Sp. kal. of a column. faint. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. chatter kallen. skin hardened by labour. Call.position is much less common than the geschut.' But it is hard Du. caliver. nautique). and E. however. or caliever. To Calk. koluvre. ram. NE. by many that the weapon Callous. and dragon. to tread. caillette. the day. Fr. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. water-tight. longior. to call. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. calor. Ca. heat. quA librd. to hear. According to Jal (Gl. calare. Calico. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. . i. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. which has its memory preserved in Du. Ibid. kil-u-kal. Mil. faint. Calm. callus. and sometimes a handgun. voice.. hollaing. Sp. hallottaa. a soldier who the It. alta voce ploro. a. colubraria canna. harden by pressure. calleting. a feathers. couleuvre. Unfledged. Kavfia. B. AS. Heb. calat of leude demeaning. — Fl. piece of bigger circuite. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). Sc. Diet. Ptg. tittle-tattle. calicot. ' rine. ' pert. or mould. hot. calca. KaXka. sestus. to call. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon.piicede Lat. form in the kalib. kael. chatter. a successor. having a thick skin. caluw. the scalp or skull.from Ka'tm. overscalmaccio. Gr. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. cauque. kol. sence of wind. an adder. depreciatory term for a woman. The origin is Gr. whereas in troth it is not. Lat.Lat. scalmato.' Slange. sound. calibre. cotton cloth. coulevrine. khalif. scold. Fin. Lat. calcare. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. the Fr. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. overheated. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. a drab. done with heat Alt. CALICO Calliper-compasses. * Caliver. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . kalla.(jaa= ice). kind heat of the sun. bald. to proclaim. Derived by some from Arab. and heat. The primitive colubrina bombarda. dial. to affirm. of the bore of a firearm met. heat. calibre. dragonder. To century was Squalibre. vulgo Coluvrine. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. klover. licht stuk The change from a. ululo Turk. The word was also written cawme in OE. Caliph. people's remarks. Diez. quiet. saucy. moist. to calk. calgua. whehce it was first brought. drive. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. whence couleuv. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Dief. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. the hard surface of the ground. 125 Prov. calclover. to say. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. to burn. diameter of a ball. trull. It. to rail or scold . Among these were the turn. to callet. to cram. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. or languishing drought is . thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . but is only a jda-kallo. colubrina. callum. from Calicut in the E. word of mouth . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Due. Hard. Fr. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. to be of a good or bad quality. form. calcaich. qAlab. The reference to heat is preserved in.' Winter's Tale.— . Antiq. abto suppose that E. quality. coluber also. kallo. which is as much as to say.' Chaucer. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. the latter of chamber. E. push violently. the Fr. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. calvus. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word.en~ kinds of firearms.meaning of the word. prattle. calma. them &c. can be distinct from ODu. a good calling. calc. Lang. Mid. fistula. cauma. calo. coluber. — — — — — . a last. Callow. . dragoon. 'A callet of boundless tongue. glotton. femme frivole et babillarde. brawny. Kil. Sp. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. So It. gossiping. moso. — — — — — . Fin. bombarda Cauma incendium. Fr. Kil. Du. kal. harquebus or handgun. calme. a round of abuse. Indies. CALM to press or stuff. u to an I in such a colubrum. Sir John Smith in Grose. To drive tow or oakham. Mahn derives it from Lat. cahna.' Whitby Gl. given. calma. Gael. serpens. culverin. Sup.

— B. Properly calver in the field during a war. ckaouma. samon. to bend. It.—Cambrel. to bend. frank and sincandidatus. canis.—Jam. to glow. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. Canibal. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. candela. co7nbar. It. Sp. Fr. crooked. ko/utuXoc. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. to jut. Cann.Gr. campagna. died in 1526. See Canker. having an aquiline nose.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. good. icaSoytipoe. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. Fr. also an eatmg sore. Cambric. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. field . Cambrel. . cambren. Camp. aspirant. callour. the calix. campo.— B. camiscieia. properly good country. Arab. lie level. mg Canister. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. spot for cattle. paign. Pers. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. hooked. or hollow of a flower. bis. Camlet.' Forme of Cury in Way. Canker. a caught. Bret. the bed of a stream. E. — Lat. w. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. cancello. It. chandelle. kanna. the type of a hollow pipe. Lat. crooked. unwater chamelot . fresh. campagne. Lat. crooked. sore. campren. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. canalis. Camel. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Canine. KafivTu. across — Bellenden in Jam. Sanson khanda.— Hackluyt in R. on. cup. Fr. a' Sc. from xaXbg. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. chamold man. campaign. when its substance appears inter. se cameloter. clothed in white. cere : Lat._ kamm. Calver of cane. cambr^.—Candidate. crooked-stick. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. catmneo. to bow. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. cAouma. toile some of whom. water chamlet . had no r in de bric— Cot. Mid. Fr. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. a basket. Fr. camelus. Palsgr. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. camp. Calyx. Canal Channel. arch. a large drinking . to break. Turk. fair. From campus was formed Lat. whence the Fr.Lat. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. Ptg. cup. whence Fr. a may have acquired that signification from plain. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. camafeo. the heat. Cambrav—Cam. candidus. chommer. cam^e. Sp. nia. camaien.' ' Quhen a lattice. ation. brought from Fr. cambrer. Calumny. The Grisons cauina. arched. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. crook. India Islands. Gr. — — — A — — escume de saumon. Caloyer. cainahelus. at the ends. It. a field Greek monk. callar. It. a crab. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. slander. lattice.— Chandelier. campus. lame. a piece. the name being differently From pronounced by nation.. campo. Or the word Lat. Cancer. canistrum. calj'x. a dog. Cameo. camisa. an eating. different sections of the like the Chinese. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. Kakoycpos. camisade. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. An eater of human flesh. the spersed with white flakes like curd. the salmondis faillis thair loup. camiscia. Lat. cancer. to avoid enemy in their shirts. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. Candy. aged. calutmiia. a. Camisade. Lat. canna.conduit-pipe. camber-nosed. chaitcre. It. Mod. white. higher in the middle than Fr. cambre. salmon. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. or Caribs. Lat. from candere. to the force of the wind. B. campagna. to warp. Lat. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. Gr. KafitjUe. is Cambering. Campaign. open and level ground. Fr. a goblet bud. Lat. B. Cot. In a different application It. E. — Cancel. champ. From fluting or furrow in a column . A — the Cannibals. camahutus. Fr. Candid. champagne.who their language. camelot. a. It was distinfrom work. whence the noun signifying an applicant. Fr. sugar. E. Peter Martyr. is Candle. Cambray. the space of false imputation. . and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. arched. would plenier. Sp. and yspiuv. monk.

clqse. territorial hundred. able to receive. cantone. cane. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. cannevo. Of vena cava and of vena porta. capevole. canonici. a hunch of bread. border Dan. a — A — Cannel Coal. pipe. A . It. cape. cappa.. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. or cantell of bread. a reed. properly a large Prov. a side. kynnel. a tube. Prov. from . N. also a measure. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. from Dan. gnat. canonicus. canoa. the heel. signifying cover. From Gr. The meserseum and the mesentericum. coarse hemp. and the sex- &c. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. a straight rod. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. from cant. Coal burning with bright flame. kandt-broodts. Fr. Capari. or hold. he discourseth of dissection. a ruler. from canna. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. a cloak kapali. to shut. a boat. measure for cloth. a torch. To his judicial And trowl the tile. part. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. corner. to contain. a ship canot. Jonson. region. See Chape. contain. a cap. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W.Gr. margo panis diffracta. Lat. coat. cantina. Gael. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. kyndel. A piece of anything. Canton. OFr. Capacious. It. a cane. canteau. the quartile. canvas. being a yard or thereabouts . Gugel. cannone. canton. as. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. . KaTTiram. a rule or standard of excellence. a hundred. Capable. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. quarter . Fr. a reed. cannabis. cannevaccia. cope. hemp. a door . schlapp. Cope. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. Sp. name. has kahn.CANNEL vessel. schlappen. astrology.— Cot. Sp. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. capace. To Canonise. quarter. a cantle of bread. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. call. cantred. a gelding. Cantle. and tref. The word seems to be taken from Gael. canapaccia. like a torch or candle. a scull- — here. Cape. quito curtain. From Lat. Esthon. border. kq. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. a cloak. It. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. caparazon. Diez. Alamannis. kaput. hemp. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Mod. leiwan kanta. to put upon sacred writers. hamlet. tain. canapa. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. to sing. the heel. canevas. W. a drinking glass. that the G. and met. Cannoii. Again we have Lat. It. kanta. KCLvva. the tried list of saints. Fin. Canopy. cannu. canto. It. the part easiest broken off. shut. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. can. Kil. is found languages of very different stocks. cantref. a division of a country. cappe. edge. Swab.n. it would have been found in the continental languages. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. cover . say. a cover Turk.^on. kantr. Germanis kdppen. Mod. hood. lump. chanteau. Canteen. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. cane. a pipe. &c. a horn of the moon . rumme. haitt. as a cantle of bread. ON. and hence a gobbet. canon. Schwab. a Fr. a corner. kwvwxIi. trine. coarse hempen cloth Fr. which is not the case. . chape. The — . cane. side. language. covered. cantle then is a corner of a thing. cainnt. regular. Du. To canvas — . Canoe. It. cappe. a small boat. . But it may be different source. Wtb. capello Italis. . speech. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. kapamak. from a Canter. Hence Lat. Palsgr. was formed Kavtiiv. It. A slow gallop. a wine-cellar or vault. Canvas. Probably only the augmentative of canto.Gr. root cap. Picard. If the word had been from cantherius. kand. cane. Fr. Kavt\. B. Sp. See Capt-. Cot. capax. carcase . to con- rummer. hirnschlapple. chantel. Goldast — in in Schmid. &c. cheese. cover kapi. Canon. Cant. capa. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise.

as Fr. then find the symptoms of shivering. castrated. — to yearne. arricciarsi. the head. caprice.— Fl. Lat. p. according to the Hindoos. rihrczzoso. for which he cites the Comask nucia. hair. or goat's leap (done by a horse). of a tremtdoiis sound. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. Fr. <I>pi'?oe. or. capparis. and his body bristled We to castrate. brisciare. knis. ^piKos. a goat. aggricciare. humorous. a yearning through sudden fear. brisciare. And similarly to yearn. It. upon terms Sp. a buck. Sp. shivering. Hal. Acad. as in Lat. So from Sw. Caprice. gricciare. frort^Lat. and 7tucc. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. rissoler. end. ticchio. It. the head. It. G^' Many words — ' ndv. a . So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. Lat. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. the initial mute of forms like Gr. capitalis.Gr. also the capriole. as the means of earning profit. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. Genevese bresoler. then to shiver or shudder. chief. Hair-like. cappriccio. greziller. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. is either wholly lost. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. frisser {frissement d'un trait. alcaparra. bristling. w. the principal part of the debt. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. arricciarsi. explained by Diez from capra. I have shivered with love. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. Arab. cover of a saddle. or other things. caper j caprio. brisciare. It. to parch. herissonnement. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. brisoler.) grezille marid. fansuddenly angry. It. brezilia. capriola. Unexpected pleasure. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. where Burton adds in a note. Fr. hedge-hog. brissle. frissoner. curling. shivering.). to twitter as birds. and with an initial gr instead of br. abridge amKoTroq. a kid.'— Trev. bristling. to fry. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. compared with Bret. to . Fr. capriol or caper in dancing. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. 75. prickly husk of chestnut. capriole. with joy' Vikram. to crackle. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. — — A a hair. s'hdrisser. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . knis-hujwud . A . capar. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. capitulare. the singing'bone). to chill and chatter with one's teeth. gives rise to brezza. Torriano. frisson- ner . It is probable that Gr. To treat Capitulate. principal. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . to desire earnestly. Capers. grug. to shiver for cold. ziki. Fr. Griller d'im' patience. a chevret. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. capillus. to ruffle the surface of water. gives rise to Sc. airoKOTrrw. curly. of a coach. to broil. a ch illness. roughening of the skin.impressions on the ear. Cot. a little head. a young kid met. the hair to stand on end. Lat. a hedge-hog. brug. toy. . It. shrub. a capriol. caprice It. h^risser. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. kid. belonging to From caput. cut off. to shiver. and OHG. caj)o. eruca compared with It. wriggle. to broil. crackling sound Cape. capro. gricciare. or Lat.) d'etre The It. greziller. horripilation. sault. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. frizzle. See Chief. then to be in a state of vibration. riccio. cut. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. Fl.' — (Supp. Capital. as Fr. a separate division of a matter. chattering of the teeth. a head. bruco. a caterpillar. to crackle.' Cot. Lat. of a fowl. grillcr. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. CAPRICE twittering. curl. The same imitation of Capon. Caper. birsle. erica. horror. It. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. Lang. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. or represented by the syllable e. The true derivation lies in a different direction. II bresole (Gl. ribrezzo.— 128 CAPE a rustling. cApre. grisser. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. Capillary. A headland. to shudder. the hair to stand on end. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. castrated cock.standing on end. heath. Hence capitalis the sum lent. to from capitulum. hi. a caper in dancing. grisser. as Fr. algabr. ericius. they longed extremely to see it. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. It. Mod.

cabestan. accept. tnoschetta. — —Diet. to take to. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. receptus. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. karista. calabrin. at least. OSp. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. crepo. carro. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. -cept. a creaking waggon. capuccio. Fr. fantastic. Kiittner. seize. Castr.s. to load . recipio. It. to creak. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. It.). capio. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. It is a standing crab. was converted into -ceb. -ceive. or the (capo-riccio). Lat. Cart. recibir. It. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. acceptus. charrier. Fr. a fantastical humour. a coffer. Capstern. also tresFl. Fr. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. In cases. Fr. captus. as in OFr. See Caper. cabreia. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. shivering fit (Altieri). Cot. Capuchin. Fl. intercept. concept. case. where it forms a very large class of compounds.). perceive. to creak. i The meaning Car. sels. a she-goat. the -cevofthe Fr. Fr. trestle. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. desire. a hood (dim. kerren. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. deceit. karra. Capriole. and has thus descended unaltered to English. Passing on into E. contain. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. to accept. from head. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. bock. Du. to this is It. -cept. captivate. recipere. and of captus to an e. a sawing-block or trestles. of the Sp. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Lat. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. concipere. crab s. It. a sudden fear apprehended. conceive. Sp. hold. cabra. capitis. Caseneuve in Diet. Fr. — — Capstan. The It. deception.of these compound verbs. a cloke) capuccino. however. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. was a kind of horse soldier.. oisr. Nordfoss. Derivatives are Fr. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. krul.or -cib-. a windlass. Captain. Cot. latterly. Fin. capra. Carabine. to please. Capt-. a head man. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. Du. Carbine. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. a cart. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. decepte. to take baclc. a kind of torture. capitano. concebir. &c. recevoir. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. 129 — receive. cams. charret. It. de- price. also to carry on a car . It. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. a. one odd. chirrion. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. caThe hrestante. calabrino. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. a. . It. a reception. to receive receptio. of capsa. &c. chirriar. an engine for throwing stones. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. Lat. Thus the musket. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. carretta. also a kind of rack. conceit. Sp. carabin. whence capture. a taking back. chevre. Capsule. and has accordingly been lost in E. and tropically. was originally a missile . fancy. karrende waegen. di cappa. charger. Lat. concevoir. In the S.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). capsula. cabestrantej Fr. Carry. to carry . caricare. recepte. a hooded friar. karren. strideo. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. cabrestante (whence e. box. Crab. Carabin. Neumann. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. as the dragoons (Du. commander. precept. captive. a sudden will. caprice. capp%tccio. &c. Etym. Fr.. char. to take. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. dim. G. except. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. as in accipio. a capuchin. caput. verbs gives rise to the element . conception.

carabe. or framework. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. cabrita. carabba. a wool card. properly a siege machine. Gael. Cat. Sp. a quiver. to comb. turning. carquan. Gael. Gr. carbunculus (dim. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. vitriol. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. It. the name might naturally Mod. karri. is the chine. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). The radical meaning . carquasse. is the word used in modern Lat. I. chevre by the name of the goat. Fr. karszti. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. the carcase of a fowl. Exot.Gr. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. to card wool.applied to a battering-ram (G. Fr. a gem resembling a live coal. a thistle. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. carbo. curry-comb. Mod. a ship. cramp. a battering-ram). carduus. Fr. Pers. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a skeleton. garafa. a case or chest . to turn. bend. constraining . and catapulta. Comp. a dead carcase. &c. a firelock. a quiver . fire . a prison.Gr. a he-goat. cardo. «capa'|8i. quilato. Gael. Ptg. It. Sp. krciti. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. tcapKaai. decanter. contract. turn of a horse. carmiiiarc. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. skeleton toise. alia sunt majora. espi7igarda. OHG. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. W. See Carpenter.. confining. Bohem. ' Vasa vitrea. winding carach. . kard boyd. quse vocant karabd. a lock of wool . a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. cdrlag. The Trjg xeXwwac. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. the husk or cod of beans. Cot. Carat. It. case. . eitar. cabra. a coffer. a card or comb . Parmesan cassiron. — seems to be something holding together. carate. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. car. matter. a snail. a ripple for flax.charcoal .. of the same Caravan. Carbuncle. an ulcer. p. military engines made for hurling stones. Sp. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. to ripple flax. Lat. KtpaTwv. It. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . Card. caraffa. From the battering-ram. boch. carere. ON. silique. caraffe. Gael. Arab. card. Lith.z. AS. a goat. cassa.' From the same source are SicU. wool card. the carob bean. Carboy. Carrob. An implement for dressing wool. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. Sp. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. eit. to creak. burning coal. Sp. carcanet. carquois. Fr. carbh. wine- bottle. carcame. designated in the case of G. also a small weight. avSpaS. carcaij. a kind of ship. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. skeleton. a small weight. &c. Caraool. a collar or chain for the neck. Cot. Derived in the first edition from Mod. skeleton. Lat. cabreia. &c. to draw in. the shell of a torcarcasso. Gr. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. bock and Fr. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. a winding staircase. seed of carob. word is only an adoption of the Turk. kerwan. coming to four grains. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Carcax. also (as Gr.. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. the trunk or chest of the body . a machine for casting large darts. shell. poison eiz. carch. . kirat.. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. restraint . . the core of fruit . . a quiver. to card wool. copperas. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. the dead body of any creature. black dye.. a thistle. karra. Venet. to hiss (as gee^e). an engine for hurling stones. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. carcasa. a crane. for a gun. caracal. Caravel. carcanada. a quiver . mural attack. the . ancient springald.— — — . carta. Carcase. cerran. Carbonaceous. the case of the flesh. winding. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. to comb wool . The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . caravela. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. casso. a twist. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. to curry horses karsztuwas. It. in the same way that the Sp. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. of carbo).

For the root of carminare. to clean the bottom of the ship. an endearment. Translated in MS. parched or carled. 8. also a career on horseback. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. stingy. ON. care on. crosier. . immediately before the long fast of Lent. to shake. essere in carena. zanken . chartre. gakaran. carnis. morosus. caricatura. 273. Fin. Venet. rixosus. Cot. to distress growl. W. to lie on its side. the hull of a ship. Groler. strideo. caru. karista. as peas. from caricare. cearig. murista. carminare. quarreG. caresse. OFr. fleshy . appertaining to the flesh. carnavale. . — Carfax. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. four. careless take care of. . charg. or grumbling —Due. act of moaning. Properly a car-road. and G. to whirr (schnurren). Carminative. Cot. W. charnel. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. kummer.— Charter. Cargo.' Slceat. Lat. stridere. from the keel to the water . E. Sp. the flesh of animals . OHG. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. msstus. carrefourg. a turn. surrata. cardo. murren. A place where four roads Mid. camovale. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. de Parthenay. carezza. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. the keel of a vessel. Fr. Peas steeped and fried. caMid. A mod-carag. to comb wool. carcare. Gael. one of those ac- 9 * . charag. Charnel. karantez. tenax. that on wliich the matter hinges. in N. in St Jerome. croller. to love. grolU. Sept. cura intenta. to rumble. sensual. — — — : Cardinal. Caricature. Farewell flesh. It. and sum. principal. G. Fr. Carl. Probably the origin of the word is the . It. carnal. Ptg. bottom. cdrle. sorrow. Trin. is This however Shrove tide. that Fl. car. the old theory of humours. Sp.. kroU-erbser. an overloaded representation of anything. W. karout. kumra. &c. Lat. graller. Fr. record. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Fr. road. carch. Fl. piger. to parch. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. carnasciale. ignarus. from carrus. quaver a lazar's clack. — — — Caress. what is felt as grievous. hoed. ON. a hinge. carcus. meet at a head. love. cardinis. giierlir. wool cards. kargr. solicitous. or street. beans. crowl. the keel. ceorl. It. cargo. & Q. carian. . the load of a ship. From. the several meanings of the words above Rom. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. from carus. grief. male person. Card. at murmuring. the time during which to Rom. cearian. to take Goth. — — Diez. Fin. asper. kurista. Bois crolant d'un ladre. sorrow. Carnage.. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. AS. No ' place there had. carnalis. karl. to fry or broil. to comb flax or hemp. carriire. Bret. Carlings. It. is to say. Carled peas. weyes. winding. karg. in Carp. A quirito ut infans. Cath. murahtaa. cura may be ror. charie. 2. kribina. Mur. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. Roquef. It. place for exercise on horseback. Cot. carriera. Bret. to card wool. Cartel. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. Fr. to eat flesh. Fr. to scratch. charnage. a man. carener. p. Chart. sgritudo animi. Champ. w. to growl. soUicitus OSax. karrig. 1S66. care. niggardly . ress. — — . . see Garble. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. A medical term from line —Boerio. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. caritia. Dan. a highway. to fry. be anxious. — To Careen. as quadrivium from Carnaval. fundamental. compared with Fin. carena. regar. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one.Lat. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. to care unkarja. clown or churl.— CARD karr-kambar. charger. dear. intrasset caro. karry. Cark. It. and thin. tremble. and murhet. carina. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. as carminare. scharren. a card. kara. to load. . carena. Fr. G. astutus. Fr. from Lat.Lat. caricare. like connection may be seen between Fin. affection. cargar. charta (Gr. . crawl. voce strepo stridente. Care. . mutter. AS. carFrom carrus. to scrape . quadrifurcum from quameet. and compare Bret. Carenare. whence carricare. tuorfurcm (Burguy). moeThe Lat. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. combing them out like the knots in wool. It. Properly. to load. to load. morosus sum. charneux. a deed. Carnal. AS. Coll. x'»P'"^s)) paper.

Lat. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Lat. gar aus / all out is correct. The karole of the stones behelde. to reel. was formed Mid. Other names of the sea.D.' Ordo Eccles. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. worker in timber Fr. lint. — . Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. Analogous R. . and Carnem laxare (It.— Neum. a song accompanying a dance then.' Reg.Lat. carpat (Stokes). Bret. zimmerspan. Beggars Bush. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required.' says Motley (United Neth. zimmer. a wheelwright. carpentum.: . Here's to you still my captains friend. on that. as the Lat. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. a car carpentarius. cited by Marsh. course. I drink all out. skraf. Carole. carpo. of Guiana. krapati. tattle. Carnevale. to rustle. a wheelwright. a dance. Pm. Bohem. The word seems of Celtic origin. carduz. balade from It. bier. Fr. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. e. sense.gonnella. charpentier. The ' ' a chariot. carpenter only in the latter sense. carnelascid). at midnight which derivation from kroes. ! Carouse. or loose as a couch without further preparation. chatter skra/a.Lat. Fr. Olr.— Drant in R. pluck. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. W. Carpet. I quaught. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. carpetam (a quilt?). and F. Carpenter. So gone they forthe. 2. charpie. linteamen. Gael. CarTo quaff carouse do use. maker of waggons It. chatter. all aus). carpia. Mid. tymmer. Teut.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. ship. Pr. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. to pull asunder. act of drinking a full Eq. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. 2. In Dominica d'autant. or a carouse fully drunk up. 1 1 30. ON. as E. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. From Lat. in Nat. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. 94). All out B. yede tham about. Templariorum — ' — Due. to gather. chirp. in Carp. Chanson de carole. carpenta. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. Sp. Discov. On this. i. fabulor. quoted by Carpentier. The tippling sots. querole.Why give's some wine then. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. to talk. as carnaval from carnelevamen. used for stuffing mattresses. peta. Palsgr. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. carpetrix. Pref. garrulo. to pluck.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. as Fr. to dance.'— Stat. koroll. The custom. cxciv. Carpitam habeat in lecto. culcitra. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. Shrove Tuesday. a plank. A. i.— Patriarchi. 216. Properly a round dance. a drinking cup. garrire. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Gower in Way. cardos. Dief. vel coopertorio carebit. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. chariot carbad. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. to find fault with. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. pluck at. litter. Sup. in Due. a carder. ballare. 760. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. differing To Carp. Ein we find the signification transferred from . qui sacco. On the other hand bumper to one's health. to dance.Lat. Nomin. krapanj. Carpyn or talkyn. carpita. Mediol. Mid. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. In a MS. ' ' — . carpenticre.' Raleigh. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. carpende fast Carol. carpere. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Alluz (G. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. Cot. To pledge them thou refuse. biheld without.— R.]e bois Carnelevale. carbh. . whence the form carnasciale. Lat. to chatter coroli. is erroneous. . Ant. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Biheld within. gonna. Carnelevale. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric.

Fr. augmentatives of carro. from It.to annul. Casket. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. Cot. casa-maita. hung up in some place and to be removed. Fl. To Cashier. cancel. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. kerven. charrier. a car. It. caro. Fr. Cask. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. The carrying of anything. des rideaux A'carp^ie. CartOTicli. kasseren. from casa. a coffer or small case for jewels. krat. caroach. — Cartridge. hull of a ship. cartone. charogne. It. a car. carreaggio. Fr. empty. carretto. house. casag. Carriage. case. Rouchi carpHe. Lat. the charge of — — Fr. cancelled. from Lat. to slay. See Case. abrogate. from the sound it makes when Alban. the money chest. cartoccio. tion from Sp. hollow. Preparatory drawing of a It. caisse. Fr. discharge It. Fl. kerpu. augm. AS. casacca. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. kerben. corresponding to the G. cascade. annul.' Fl. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. carriaggio. to crack. to break. to hold. Case. to fall. slaughter-house. Fr. to shear. Gael. Lat. cartilage. subject for a picture. an augmentative from Lat. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. To quash an indictment.. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. blotted out. bag and baggage of a camp. and matar. and that apparently from capio.' Bailey. Case-mate. Casuist. coffer. to convey in a cart. afterwards any written challenge. The Sp. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. It. Du. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. cia. casaque. mord-keller. casuelj Fr. made void. — FI. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. fall It. Rouchi carter. Cartoon. Casque. also the carriage. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. to — — also casse. to cut or carve . Cascade. of carro. casso. long man's gown with a close body. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. Fr. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Walach. cascare. Lat. cassus. a chest. Hence a challenge openly hung up. not reaching to the height of the ditch. Fr. something that actually occurs. Sp. It. — — . kirpti. a hut. casser. It. for the security of the defenders. casualis. to bear or carry. casco signifies a skull. dim. To duash. caroche. to notch. discharge. Fr. carroc- carrozza . mata. charrette. carrosse. luggage. cartouche. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. carroccio. cassa. a of water. Cartel. shell or carcase of a house. an act of falling. ' Casa-matta. caisse. cassa. gristle. properly to convey in a car. helmet. Cart. a merchant's cash or counter. Cot. Casual. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. vault hole in a fortified wall. — Cartoose. AS. Ready money. Lat. See Card. cascata. caxa. It. to an- — Kil. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Hence casket. where Fr. carretta. coffin of paper for groceries. Fr. Sp. Probably. Flor. Carrion. Fr. Cash. caisse. and the OE. a long coat.— Fl. Rouchi caroche. Case. a canonry or slaughterhouse. case-maiej Sp. cassere. break to pieces. a fall. It. Lith. one who reasons on cases put. casa. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. It. paper. pasteboard. See Gristle. — — nul the proceeding. packing ' cloth. As defence from shells became more important. to dash. cassette. ceorfan. Carrot. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. Fr. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. void cassare. card. cascar. cartella. like all the names of tendon. OE. Fr. fortuitous. gristle. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . To Carve. casus.' Cot. as we . Du. To Carry. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. It. crush. from It. a loopscale the wall.' — Hdcart. quasser. casitiste. bitten. carota. crown of a hat. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. mord-grube. carogna. of carta. ignominiously exposed. a chance or accident. cashiered. cut with scissors. Cassock. to fire on the enemy. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. quash. G. Rouchi carone. turn out of service. a paper case. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. capsa (Diez).

koshka. stilts. KaTappaKTrjQ. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. The Diet. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. It. castro. . puras E. Pic. and from the castus. dashing it out of the window. to make clean or chaste. castanetazo. kasta. ON. chasser. Others explain it from Kara. crush . quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. klakka. to drive away.out cacciare . Fr. Gr. which has been retained in E. kaJoivad. Lat. To Catch. and tomba. Mid. on. down. the castanets for or implement . to close. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. Hal. a cat . a garment for performing the mass in. to hunt. Sp. It. ating. Gael. of sarabands does Gr. handle of an axe. casser. R. cassa / cry for the same purpose. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. Fr. to Fl. puss / for calling them. Fr. Fr. . cast. punch. kotas. or comba. the ground . Fr. is not satisfactory. to scourge. Lang. . race. probably from an imita. like that of It. Roukind. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. a fortified place. Pm. castello. to turn overturn. drive away. signifying breed. castana. . a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. kat. Fr. to clack. Fr. from the first of Castrate. OFr. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. to cast or beat to tioner . perhaps from which we have E. Thus we have Caste.— Fl. tails. Lat. an enumerlist. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. 'Vaaaw. KaTaarpifm. Etym. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. chasser. kottr. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. to break. being Fin. burst cascare. Pol. kic' kicil are used chasser. a cat koshki.. a chesnut . image accasciare. a vault. the earlier sense of catch. heat . to drive Cat o' nine tails. speak of dashing a thing down. to crack.the / or c respectively. execu. a Cataract. or bruise together. fer toTa. by the loss of with several pitched cords.Lat. catar. cacciuolo. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. V. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. KaraXoyog. Fr. Brunne. to end. casule. To It. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Gr. — We a cavity. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. Yz. rack. &c. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. catch. . a little house or hut. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. 120. the stalk of plants. lance. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. was introduced. to torture.. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. while kiss / Pol. represented by the syllable quash. name. follow after. Isidore — in Diez. down. casulla. ' Catchyn away abigo. In the dialect of Picardy. squash. dashing it to pieces. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. accastiare. kasi. fall. Sp. kotas. ecrevisse. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. cat-o'-nine. Chase. _G. or Rouchi cat. cacciarc. kissa. It. kakka. cojz^/a. Cast. to hurl See Awgrim. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. Fr. So also from It. from water Karappaaaiii. 134 CAST Catacomb. dim. chat.to drive out. Castanets. arpi^m. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. to lash. a thump. to look at. Catalogue. however. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. V Lith. n.'— Pr. of castrum (castra). sue. KarapaKrr]g. squash. Cot. katze. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. away. force j Rouchi equerviche. cat. to bring to an crack given by the joints. Catastrophe. casipola. under chi caleur. and KviilSog.Rouchi Scaches. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. castellum. in the fire. Hence castaneta. to fall as over a precipice. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . first made ordinary Fr. ichasses. to dash. dash. mino. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). coming to us through different dialects of French. cash. to is Essentially the Sp. second chase. to crackle. B. Cat. shaft of a 1 push. cascar. which. chaleur. bot-kotis. Castle. casupola. a whip on the other into latch. same word with break. chasuble. The E. cacciare fuora. torture.

— tinman. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. s. companaige. clatter. Caterer. snatching it with a any one. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. ketsoore. an officer of taxes. Du. Cates. Gael. P. bicho. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie.. a carter's Pat. catch. Tutschek. Guernsey pilleure. chatter . a clap. Sc. clap. Chate peleuse. sound. cache. smack. kletse. catc?u. millecaterpillars. icarrix'Ki^. has both or of charming by sound. worm. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. Gael. chacepol. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. Du. chasse. instruction in forms. a whip Rouchi cachoire. Gr. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. Fr. Rouchi clincailleux. from shutting with a click.P. chassoire. ArbaUte de courte chasse. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. .V. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. resono ictu lash. Sp. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. a little dog). clap with the hand. the the same principle he was Fr. kletsen. Guernsey chafer. Swiss Lombard G. to snap. blow. a. cat is not apparent. predicament. called dog or Galla catchamza. resound. snatching. caker. quincailler. as of the latch of a As ! — . insect. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. ictus resonans. — B. Grandg. Fr. a. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . Cot. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. to crack GATES cache. catch. to chatter with the teeth cake. chink. Diez. Kil. glcu. E. to the crack. compare G. Metivier. in order). . gingle. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. a cornIn the s. fragor kletsoore. a — gatta. Fr. * Cates. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the .j. chase. to chat. flap klatsche.' CATCH Fr. an accusing. 135 — Aasen. whip. a whip. and answer. the distance to which the ball is struck. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. Kil. snatched. children's name for cat . claquer. Ptg. e. to kythe D. which all . Cot. — Catcli-poll. a caterpillar Milanese can. gliong. E. the OE. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. to clap hands. In the XV'e. GaUa catchiza. dainty vic- a form lash. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. pedes. klatsche and Norm. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. — . caucht. latch. to catch strength. from Gr. dainties. klatsch. latch of. apprehend a person. klinke. Claucht. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. c or ^. G. seize. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. bichano (pussy). 'Bxn.s. klatschen. OFr. kaetse. a whip. to take. a smack. — with a whip. catch-flesh. weevils.' ^Jam. woodlice. a pill.) . cagnon (a dog). Du. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. chachara. to A bailiff. . e. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. devouring mite or weevil. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. to harangue. chenille {canicula. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s.V.from Bard and ayopsw. to teach by oral instruction. with and without an / after the c. KaTtix'so. On Catechism. silkworm. the elements of a science. * Caterpillar. happe-chair. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. called in Fr. gattola. wild-beast. Kartiyopta (/cari. E. — explained. formerly called cliket. ' ' word catch. de Bray. klatscherei. to snatch (said of dogs). .yopl(. door when it is shut. ' Fr. a whip or Kuttner. chatter. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. is said that he got a claucht of it. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. 'Horxa. . ecachoire. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. i. head. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. — Kiittner. Wal. verberare kUts.

KaPaWrii. also to pave . apt to burn iron. CATHARTIC sense. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. 2.—— — 136 correct. minon. caple. The word — . Palsgr. a seat. Cavalier. kassije. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. Provider. — Cauterise. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. hot. . despencier. from KaSaipio. Fr. Russ. chaudroii. the stones of a street. Lat. 4. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. kopista. Fr. &c. Gr. hollow. B. Richly she feeds. causa.. Manciple's Tale. kobyla. cabbage). caballus. Lat. . Fin. Jaubert. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. cavaliere. and at the rich man's cost By sea. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. ' Gr. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . kautsije. Lat. kitten kotki. Caution. chaudiire. Mid. accapitare Rouchi acater. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Cave. adcaptare. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Du. Rete. klopfend knallen.p. a The peel. On the other hand. a paved road. a branding from koiio. is Prologue. a road calceata. cal^ar. quire. Pr.' B. chauderon. That he was ay before in his estate. to buy. kin. walnut with the husk on challer. flock. macska. accattare. cabbage. kopano. from chaud. — — cavallo. mudet. Causeway. cauHs. mutz. catons. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Kavrfipiov. flue. katteken. . Ka^afriKOQ. to beware. Wyatt in R. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. by land. puss. Kavrijp. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. a horse. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. primitive is meaning a shale or off. via strata. to ac- — Fr. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. challe was ther of a temple. It. acaptar. catkin mitz. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. catkins . fur. chausser. whence cathedralis. and spareth for no perell. a receptacle for small things. kdtzchen. hazel. calceata. KaHSpa. chaussJe. Fr. a pulpit. cautus). Du. Diez).' Elyot in Way. Jonson in R. capull. cavus. a horse . A warm comforting drink.Lat. caudex . cautis. Bessie of Bednall. is used in the sense of cat-skin. green husk of a calon. but the acates that are sent him. Mid. deyntie meates. cabbage-stalk. calqada. Cavern. rete A — Prov. and hence a skull-cap. . caldo. to sound like a blow . kobuiV. shaled or picked Fr.Lat. Pol. Lat. Catkin. any Fl. Gael.Y\\Xea. cale. Gr. Chaud. cale. puss.willow. Fr. net or caul-work. reticella. Caballus. to burn. a horse . katte. Lat. acater. the. It. Fr. Fr. Caudle. to shoe. Sx. from caveo (p. Boethius. cheval. Cavity. to shale or peel. fur in general. make clean. what . a kettle for heating water. Port. Cattle. . arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. choufleur {choii. Cause. Fr. Fr. . calceta. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat.^ acheter (Lat. Kil. calidus. a horseman. kocie.. Cavalcade. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. calotte. chair. to shoe . dumpf tonen. KiwariKog. Fr.^Hal. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. kaussijde. OE. w. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. It. Gr. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. catkin Magy. cat maczoka. Cathartic. Cathedral. — . kocianki. a pavement. CAVE Caul. having the property of cleansing. chevalier. a kind of skull-cap. from delf^gato. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Lat. Thus Bav. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. chatideau. ce^l. little cat. Delycates. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. a stalk. achepter. Caustic. . Palsgr. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. koparet. otherwise written kell. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. to purge. Fr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Dryden in R rete. Cauldron. little cap is . a mare. lamb. hot. • — — See Chattel. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. It. It. Cavalry. the caul of the liver. catkin Pol. puss. G. catnever sells — — Cauliflower.

32. komo.' Ordinances and Reg. CAVESON kopera or kowera. a halter. an aquiline nose. sky. &c. — . See -cede. &c. and Gol. decessus. to plank ON. ceiling. curved. canopied. komista. B. . a canopy. 5. to cut. lambrisser une chambre seeling. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa.' Marriage of James IV. koppeli. bridle. . to seele or close with boards plancher. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. a boarded floor. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Wore. thiling. syle. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. hollow. cabega. CEILING The kynge to souper is set.'— Z. thilja. with their substantives concession. hung. — . thelu. ceiling. recede. and that from Sp. Plancher. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. a plank. applied to a canopy. and then to gape. a log. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber.). it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. To seele a room. . hollow. cesso.. or of a bed. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. In the same way G. &c. Lat. to plank or floor with planks. excess. selar. cellar. ciel is so unbroken. sus-lambris. thili. cedo. a board. as if from happen. Sp. . VIII. selure. — komo tain). which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. yield. . obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. death. Ceiling. cielo. —Decease. to argue capto tiously.. the deck of a ship at thilja. p. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. augm. caveqon. in Jam. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. pp. step away. a log. also a seeling of boards. -ceed. exceed. thil. dil. in Hal. but hang around at the sides. The It. . Fr. -cede. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. a head. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. menuiserie.). a canopy. Hence concede. deal. a hut.' Cot. of cavezza. H. the roof of a coach. departure from this life. Lat. wainscot thiljar (in pi. . Cede. It. to go forth. Sir 137 pit . sounding as an empty vessel koppa. cessum. Soc. cabegon. heaven. plank. Sherwood. quibble. And seik — Cessation. syl. of E . and zaum. empty. coffer. sill. semely on syll. 43. proceed. — — — toyour soverane. is applied to a canopy. heaven. little house. dayntily diglit. that. departure.' del. flooring E. nailes will begin to cling. Cam. . the bowl of a pipe koppamato. rafter. Cot. &c. a log.' Rutland papers. The importation of Fr. hollow ice . kommata. cavillor. crooked kopio. to canopy siled. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. Cavil. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. dille. a fir-plank. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. wall. E. in Jam. Boyd in Jam.' Hall. seele. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. a planking or boarding tkilian. dScis. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. So from Fin. ciel de lit. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. the inner roof of a room of state. p. Fr. thil. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. cyling (W. cavezzone. the testern of a bed. In the N. . IV. A — A false accommodation produced G. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. Hal. succeed. thel. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. beam. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. cease. -cess. wuoren komo. give place. sill in window-sill. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. jaa. Lat.' — Gawan . it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. lambris. post. door-sill J Sc. a severe bridle. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. plank. tester of a bed. hivtmel. Cease. a beam. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. Lat. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him.j have come from this source. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. . as. were met. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. column E. . board . 7. The line of descent from Fr. The sense of roofing. sybire. kapp-zaum. Fr. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. Fr. . . served in halle Under a siller of sillc. to panel or wainscot MHG. del into English without ' translation gave cele. -cease. Gawaine & Sir Gol.

the officer appointed to take such returns . deceit. syll.ing a room where there is not fire.unmarried. capio. concerner. . become heated with anger. Centurion. to seal a pigeon's eye. pick out. to glow.of the r. celeber certus. crevi. Sherwood. — . eschattffer. a religious observance. receipt. cenio. incense. the hollow the Lat. dchauffer. value. — . judge. centum. to celebrate. festive. judge Lat. to think. . Lat. thronged the participle cretus. goad. See Cede. an eyelash. KsvTpov. chaufferette. to sepap rate. from censeo. calefare. to separate. zens according to their property. -ceive. and thence to conceal. Census Censor. to attend on object with. thence belonging to or connected with corn.). guish. -i^oivre. to be regarded as one celebro. Coehim. and put it through the over eyelydde. a shaft horse. Sc. to incense. sure. Cot. To Incense. camentum. -cepere. (and thence also) to hoodwink. candeo. census.j 138 thill.' Celebritas.— Cellar. is totally distinct from the foregoing. cillier. For sess from assess. &c. his office. hollow. OFr. Fr. Ta^oe. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Fr. Incensum. deceipt. a numerous con. see. in comp. It. concetto. -ceptjun. Take the nedyll and threde. swift. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. — . -cern. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. cretum. It. -ceit. Fr. to burn incendo. in Marsh. To chafe is for wine. to chafe. Assize. to take. and so of that other. Celerity. to set on fire. heaven. much frequented. Gr. keep in It. and — — — possessions. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. to course of people. a hundred centuria.. a prick. quarters for slaves. sting. sile. point. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. rubble.. and thence censer. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Lat. to bury). a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. estimate. siller les yeux. riscaldarsi. -cepire. cigliare. parted sleep. cerealis. Lat. also grave opinion. ceremonia. capturn. make angry. to contend. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. — . tax. -cense. Gr. -ciper. to blindfold. censura.cern. eyelid. -cess. or any bird's.— Chafing-dish. but was gradually lost in conceit. with the eyes. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. to take. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. to -sum. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. a hundred of what- — . with transposition hence (of a day). — — Cenotapli. calefacere. Chafe. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Lat. blind. of heating. observe. -cebre ifoncebre. a storehouse Chafe. to distinguish. the place where the de. Cereal. {cori)cipere. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. sift. in comp. cilibat. is the opposite of disora virum.' Book of St Albans. -oept. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. empty. -cipio. -CEIVE a shaft. celer. Accelerate. to warm. ciglio. to visit in numbers. for building. solemn (of per. -civer {conciver— Roquef. to rub for the purpose a hut. cella. a solemnity. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. cceremonia. irot\oe. Lat. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. Fl. -cevoir. Fr. renown be embodied with. Cess. chauffer. 1. Century. Lat. Certain. Lat. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. Fr. tax. to rate.). stones to the production of heat. or expression of Ennius. Assess. Censer. a solemnity. Fr. Fr. contend. judge. Centre. Lat. abundance. rough from the quarry. Censor. confounded ist from It. mortar. materials It. Ceremony. — A . distinIt. in accordance with the Fr. Gr. decide. to sleep). conceipt. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. sacred show. /ctj/rsw. Censure. to prick. single or unwedded life. from Saa-rw. appertain. assess. to concern. a Cemetery. a tomb. being taken from Fr. To seel or close the eyes. cot. Prov. and met. Celebrity. we have a modified form of (of a place). what to set in a chafe. oil. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. S. oil. The term cilium. Cot. encens. a registration of one's self. the point round which a circle is drawn. as in some places burnt. Lat. &c. to twinkle darkness. then to rub without reference Cement. Cij(fe5j. — . to heat. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. ' . — .Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. the talk of men. age. caber. Cell. decebre) . Lat. K^'ivut. a valuation of every man's estate. to seele or sew up the eyelids . criticism. census. In Celebrate. family. See Celibacy. Gr. ciller. Lat. Fr. concernor. Lat. Lat. cencer.

chaise. calonja. a double operation * Chafer. kahuja. shaIt. thick and short. chamar. Hal. keuchen. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. &c. kuhina. and as this was the beginning of man. kuhuja. that leneth e per I'autra. haggle. much more Genoese sagrind. chaene. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. Fin. care. Du. Du. to ner It. from of the G. kiamta. rustling motion challenge. snort. care. to calumpnjamen. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. muzzle. grief. chafeter. G. also to prattle. snuff. quisquilise offence. kever. to chatter or talk lightly. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Lat. to fret inwardtronfo. Kuttn. From the To Chaff. a pulpit Cot. Cot. to pant.' Rayn. KoBiSpa.. E. P. idle words. a chough. Prov. Fr. as a carriage is a moveable seat. taubes korn oder hafer. ckapfare. Lat. to caw chawer. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. sagrindse. keffen. Camera. matter by combat. cup. a goba rustling . Lat. chayire. have a mind to parley. much blowing. to call. p. Due. chalanger. cadena gives chain. Lat. kahista. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . . Prov. chatter. ceaf. In like manto huff. chambre. — — — — — — . to Latin calumniare. vel susurro. . to buzz. Wall. de Brai. a rustling noise. songe. To buy and sell. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. cathedra. Kaiiapa. Probably from According to Diez. cadera. calice. or puff with snorting. a vault or arched roof. Perhaps Pm. lime. hordeum vel let. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). contestation. preise. chagrin. yap. chaffare. calx. G. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. rustle Challenge. swelling with anger. cadieira. Fr. (ca'e'ra) to chair. — . refuse barley . Fr. Fr. of. as. Fr. to tattle. chaps Chamber. to puff and blow. grief. a chain. to gnaw. Ayenbite. difficulty . vis. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. — — — . rally one. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. 11. dispute. in a cana. kaff. to sit. Pat. chawe. Fl. Fr. clamare. often puffing. fume. in a monstrous fume. to gnaw. from the shark-skin. kdfer. to move the jaws. tattle. any insect of the beetle kind. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. fa sagramen de calompnia. So from dominio. false accusation. now a chair. calonjar. Came. ON. cauvette. calix.— — . jaw. a pulpit. a jackdaw. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. dongio. Prov. OFr. — — ' — — — A . to action arose. havOFr. Fr. Gr. Lat. kuhista. sborfare. Bav. khah. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. Chagrin. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. talkative. chaulx. without chap/are makiinde.nium. Fr. From to go to law. Pr. avena vilior. tattle cheep. Lat. kahu. cam. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. kauchen. calumnia. The jaw chafty. — — — . . kiqfta. crooked. breathe hard. Pers. kedja. limare. to dispute. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Chayire. Chalice. green sagrin. tronfio. lime . gewolb. baras of ants. Cheffern. ing rapidly repeated cries. Gr. signal by drum or P. chaine. to institute anforensic action. B. to claim. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. Chain.. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. rustling corn. fern-chafer. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. from Swiss kafeln. chafing. Fr. with a:n arched roof. Halma. ^Altieri. kiaftr. camera. . call in question for an ley). cathedra. Fr. . Piedm.sure carriage. place See Cheek. and signifies to consume with anger. hiss. a prattling woaction. Bouffard. Chair. ing a hard case to their wings. chicane. 35. breathe KaOa^oiiat. charge with. kdfelen. leviter crepo Then. far lima-lima. refuse. From Port. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. ple^. puffed or ruffled with ly. to babble. on. Adelung. to a seat. to file. cadena. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. De Ir4. to bark. bargain. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. In vulgar language. Cot. Lat. hght Chalk. catena. puff. kaff. ceafer. great chafe. sagri. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. kuhata. chaire.

calidameya. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. . as in It. . camerlengo. to — — champ. slope of a bevelled angle. dial. Fr. Magy. nels. So in e. head armour. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. reusement — fight in single combat. to hang. Meleare. zampettare. as swine. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. from chaud. prize-fighter.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. chajnbellan . an athlete. ing. kampeln. calida et sans aguet. keiiipe. broil. Fr. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. gewolbt. cadere. Ptg. boys speak of capping verses. campar. to tread The sound heavily. Partnership. kimbu. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . . bundle. caer. to paw the ground E. the chafldn. ON. kimpUma. To hollow out in chanPtg. difficulty . ON. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . chamble. rare. top of a borehole. Commonly derived from campus. Gall. to . dial. received the petitions of the suitors.' melleia. Fr. and mesUe. kiammi. — Hal. Lat. to happen {ad and cadere. kabe. to bevel. kinipen. sukibti. to slope. excellent. — masterly Sp. kanip. kriimmen gebogen. tsammogni. divided game. kimppu (Lap. campus partitus . chaude mesUe. a warrior. kampen. The E. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. to Hal. chanfrar. a horse-race. Dief. hamper. fight. to hold . differs only in the transposition of the letter m. Lat. dial. to fasten oneself on to another . surpassing. game campio.' ' Pr. Chancery. Sp. kampa. Chancellor. fighting place.Lat. compound. champ. to talk. accidere. from Fr. The word is preserved in E. or less ignorant. CHANCEL It. camp. to fall). and acted as inofficers of . chanfrein. jocus partitus. dial. ON. Prov. Chancel. a game at football. Champion. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Champaign. Get campers a ball To camf . It will. To Chamfer. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. dispute Hal. contention kappi. a jaw kianisa. bickering. zs jeopardy. to slope out the . to smack the lips in eating. to excel. or player at football. contend or argue G. Chance-n3. mesleiare. Hence (with the nasal) w. to flute as a column. — KiL . M. G. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. . kabintis. kiinp. — ^Tusser. to cample. a bundle. — Ch-amberlain. Fr. cample). is explained by serrarsi. When the to quarrel. champion Du. cameratus. Fr. accident.—Charfron E. contest. Du.' SherI'altro ' ' . kapp. Chamfron. To cope or contend with. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. a hook . chance. to move the jaws kiamt. Lat. kabinti. kempen. kimpustella. to fasten on. champ. at the railings. E. to chew. kempa. dial. cancelli. Fin. s. a feat. camp. certare. Sp.140 CHAMBERLAIN . hero Sw. chanfrein. champ. Pm. to to chew champ. chance. fray. Sup. cahir. chdance. to debate. which seems another form of the root. to groove bevel off a right angle. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. Carpentier. chamfrain. athlete. dricka i kapp. escazenza. Champarty. therewithal. to hollow out.edley. a scufSe. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . kippo. fight. act of falling.—Tutschek. pinch. luctare. a hollow chanfreiner. to quarrel (comp. . E. to wrestle. from cheoir. to fall. to fasten oneself to another . campus. schmatzen s. to stick to. wood. to wrestle. a field of battle. gekrUmmt. campear. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. tsamtsogni. pedilusor. Campar. move the jaws. —Chamfrain. ciamberlano. See Camp. Lith. Champ. i. . to be eminent. kampeln. hot. who stood ad cancellos. cempa. e. . champ parti. The happening of things Chance. to strive at games . champ. cazer. camp. The G. ciambellano. kabMe. kibti. jeu parti. chanfreindre. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Fr. . Prov. kablys. hng. chain. Lat. a court of justice. termediaries between them and the judge. kappd). combat. giving rise to the as.

Cheek. esclapa. Probably from chap. — . Chip. to break . a small metal plate Port. may be compared with ON. from clap. Hence It. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. Chap. surfaces striking together.^. I. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Aasen. cambium. extended to other trades. Prov. is used in the same sense . to cut up into small pieces. cantare. hack . muzzle. to spht a chip. from canna. exchange. chapilla. Chaps or chops. the gutter that runs along a street. kiceft. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. to creak. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. chop. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. changer. Lith. skipta. —Ordericus Vitalis. Chapel. Fr. — — —Marculfus in Due. W. to strike. kjaakaa. Lang. Compare chark. to change. lips of an animal. prune. Hal. a chap is a crack or fissure. to cut off . See Chop. to plate. Chape. chaps. a small plate of flat metal. Fr. ceaplas. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. cambiar. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. to hack. chapa. a jaw. It is also used in the sense of the E. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to strike with a sharp edge. throat of an animal. jaw. as to chap hands. — : Lat. AS. Man of Law's Tale. chiappa. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. as chancery . Hence chantry. to swap. schimbu. Chap. schimbd. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. jaw. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. a money-changer. are kept. 140. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. to chap at a door. ON. chop. canalis. chandelier. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. cheek. as It. 2. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. E. camjar. A fellow. and the modern canal. chap. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. hard bodies. Hal. or the cracking of one. from chandler. kemma. chanter. Chap. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. waterconduit. esclapo. cangiare. chap. any hollow for conveying water. also a clap. wood. debeant conjurare. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. cobio. to put on fresh clothes. a reed. to — cut. ^Jam. Sc. the clappers of the scupper holes. Sp. while the broader vowels a. the chaps . to apply one flat thing to another. leather. Russ. Sp. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. —Chantry. and also to chap or crack. as corn-chandChandry. kvar kjceften. to coat. to truck. kennel. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. to paw like a horse . exchange. as skin chapped hands. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. kappen. chapear. ceaflas. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. Channel. cambiare. Fr. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. to peck. Walach. to strike. the place where candles ler. shift. And N. That wide were sentin their spicery. Da. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. Chop. chapelete de una bomba. Du. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. or the like chapar. chapeta. not a soul. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. flat . a dealer in candles then. . kaupa. chancellerie. Da. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . . to peck. clapet. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. . kiceft as well as kjakje. chapeletas de imbornales. to plate. . like the knocking of hard things together. Commonly derived from capella. Chandler. as those on a trunk. a strip of metal plate. kapoti. In like manner Walach. See Chant. To Change. to deal. . to sing. Bret. exchange schimbatoriu. chancery. the mouth. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. Fr. klepan. a pipe. Molbech. to cut. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. Lat. gab. properly in a hard body.

to turn. hadka. — spell. capitolo. enough. Cot. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. charlar. the turtle pitre. a mark made on a thing. a rhyme. Fr. Boh. to converse. carus. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. from gadai. called kedlock. chatter. creak. eyre. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. cerran. 370. kurkti. It. dear. colliers that charred coal. chara. ghirlanda seor garland. w. pohadka. —— . properly to place — . beloved. as. bler. And damned be he who first cries Hold. a charm. To Char. Chapman. wood to coal. Chirk. Fr. car. in To ness Charity. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. to of the governing body.' Boccaccio in Diez. Justin. AS. burning without consuming the substance. hiss Lith. from capa. Mid.whirr. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. OE. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. to load . chatter. surris seu Lat. decken. Sp. capital.czirksti. czurliwoti. See Cheap. to chirp as sparrows. It. A weed among com AS. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. chapitre. cluck kirklys. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. eapitulo. cher um cher. a mark of a mountebank. a merchant. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. charlatan. a head or division of a book. twitter. — — — turned to coal. es ist mi cheer. chirriar. Yx. Prov. Charlock. kirkti. dim. Charcoal was ciarlare. ject). Charge. as Pol. karout. . to croak as a frog . be- e.. a cricket karkti (schnarren. chat. Chapter. Lay on. The crash. chirk. to dove . to chirp. Sp. of chapel. the nature of a thing. . caritas. from capitulum. prattling quacksalver. a hood. affection. a garland of roses. . to charcoal. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. babdistinction. charade. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. chirlar. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. clack. go. Character. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. jabber. w. condo il volgar francese. Chark. gadka. charitas. cearcian. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. Hence carminare. Lat. to turn Gael. gnash. and in It. Macduff. (eucharistie. Sup. carmen. Chaplet. cluck. Lat. schreien. charge an enemy is to lay on. — a car. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . cha. charcoal burners. . a verse. a turn cerran. which was incantation. Lang. to chirp. keeren. Fr. Chare. dear(in both senses). chapel. canne. charger. Charlatan. Mundart. Sp. Deutsch. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. From Norm. gaggle . seems to be derived charade. See Charlatan. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . twist. return. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal.). Lith. czirbti. Lat.charme. AS. Charade. cabildo. a riddle. from cape or cope. char. from carrus. for the same reason rosario. krachzen). and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. to prattle. used in the sense of magic Fl. It. Fr. turn. to prattle. ceap-man. cam. turn about. a dispute . ciarlatore. to . capella. to sing or chirp as birds. a riddle. siarad (pronounced — sharad). a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. a The OFr. * Charcoal. The G. caricare. tegere. from Charade. Bret. charer. 2. to tattle. babbling. to creak. it is my turn. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Inst. as a beetle. called in Sp. that turned decken . czurksti.Lat. to love. wreath for the head. kurkelis. to talk . chapelet. in turns. grave or make incised marks on an ob. An enchantment. talking. . In that work the verb is written caire. Gr. Swiss. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. occasional turn. Du. carregar. carricare. &c. It. capellare. Fr. carmo. cedeleac. Ptg. corona. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. creak. tattler.

It. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. castus. in Jam. scraps of for fuel. cs E. a yawning. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. Fl. to chatter or prattle . Fr. kastaa. csaterdzni. cassa s. — Palsgrave. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . knatiern. clean. Chamel. to care). a young man . nome and . Cot. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. chits. as we speak of olive branches. the bird is iiown. ferire. to cut and faggoted. sordidus. pure. noise. czysty. chip. used to represent a sharp note. gazzettare. to gape. chip. as purgare Fr. shout OE. also to germinate or spring forth. clean. Chasm. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). . chary. To chit. To talk. chick. g. kata. jackdaw . chick. Kil. D. CHATS fit 143 to name. From carinen was formed It. To Chase.— Chatter. nommer. whistle. from xoAn. — Hal. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. See Cistern. —Chastise. Russ. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. little sticks cudere. chaste. karg. splinters. Fr. Kil. chat. tenax. a churchyard or charnel-house. chit in the latter sense Du. kippen. crackle. a shrine for a relic. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. as in the E. csatora (Magy. chip. discourse. enchasser. i. cearig (from cearian. tittle-tattle. Pol. to separate in morsels. fragments or leavings of food. to enchase it . clean. clap. — Yorkshire chat.a. See Card. or pop. to cry as a chicken . to set a jewel. or the cry of a bird or the like. charm. Fr. noise. root of the Lat. clear. — Fr. niggardly. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. chit-chat. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. to chirp as a bird to cheep. a branch. eclats. gazzerare. carnisj bones kept. pure. carme and Fr. gadu-gadu. gallan or ogan. — The . la chasse d'une rose. To work plate as silversmiths do. a branch and a young female. cyrm. Chary. Chaste. or a bird out of the egg. In like manner Russ. a twig Suffolk chaits. Fl. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. Malay. also a youth. It. from purus. Parallel with E. chykkyn (Pr. a gap. chit. incassare. as turnip-chaits. to talk. a crack or a flaw . V. ch&tier. limpid. talk much . a chatter-box. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. to chirp. occasionally Forby. castus. Lat castigare. to make a noise. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. charmer. converse. to crack. — — . as from nomen It. or equivalent forms. blackthorn-chats. kna. To Chasten. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. to burst open. Fr. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. the calix of a rose. whence a charm of goldfinches. To chitter or chipper. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. Magy. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. Chat. speak . shivers. — = Chats. —Jam. It. schioppare. gazzogliare. Diez. carmen is presented in AS. kata-kata. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. prattle.— Chit. careful. G. make a noise as birds do. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. To chip is then to crack. the noise of birds. to crack. be wide open. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. To Chase. racket . to baptize. chatter. pure. Du. . chikat'. gazeuiller. clack. to chirp. ch). or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object.. warble. The egg is chipped.house. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. germinate . letters p. csacsogni. clatter. fragments. Cot. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. —Charter. karigh. to wet. chisf. Lat. So in Gael. knacken. the handle of a razor . — sharp sound of a crack. prate. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. It t. a plate of metal. Chat-wood. —Bailey. parcus. Pol. Hal.). an enchantress. warble. or suckers on rough borders. to clap. Chart. to which it bears the same relation as chape. gazzolare. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. as. B. — We ornamental work the to signify E. It. csacsogany. %aafi. talk. chaste. also to hatch. is to represent the chamier. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. See Catch. gaddc. snap. a flock of those birds. geug. s. OE. a word. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. the cry of the bat.). An imitative word. Pm. caro.ppen. chair. magpie. from pure. xi'i-'^vui. the young shoots . Gr. flesh.

the face. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. a willing look and unwilling heart. chiere. goods. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Pr. Ek dry and hard. to chop and change. giggling. dchec. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore.. — — —Chowl. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. and hence the E. chapman. . Cheek. Chear. to deal ON. jaw. look. keck. any cheating. — We ' . koopen. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. to coup s. to — . in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. chatel. in widely separated languages by the Lat. force of the word. horse-couper. . Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. . a tavern-keeper. which is used in the to stutter.—Choke. teeth . whence captale. Hence to cheat. laughing. Lat. citello. in Fr. the principal ' colloquial E. kikottaa. chear in the sense of victuals. &c. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. a repulse. stuttering. welcome heartily. cattle.' kezen. to . and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. kek.— . gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur.— Cattle. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. chop. . yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. kaupon. Bav. capitale. the tongue. ceap. a young boy or girl. us. kak. CHEEK zitella. G.— Chole. cita. ceaflas. sale. a piece of moveable property. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. CHATTELS has ciio. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. price. gagkezen. chaptel. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. cattle. ceafl. to negotiate. goods. farm for farm. aspect of a man. kaufen. while it Bret. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. giving or taking in exchange. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. cheeks. entertain kindly.. Then. Cam. exAS. the Confessor. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Chew. tradesman. Chattels. It. It. bon marche. stuttering. to fetch the breath with difficulty. with Dief. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. frown. OFr. lower. with the exception of land. kakaista. KaviiXog.kakot. prattlingchete.ing.. Check. cara. cera. thers. mandibula. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Cot. the Lat. gagkern. to make inarticulate sounds in . where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. ku. to nauseate (to retch). which is the word in ceap. The gutGoth. Bohem. cattle.-^. Fl. chuckle. . Sp. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. a cheater. to clear the throat . to cluck like a hen. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. Modern Slang. See Chess. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. kakkaset. Gr. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. It — Brompton in Due. a dealer in horses.— Chaps. snout. Fin. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. Cheat. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . sense of bargaining. Sc. choule.of the throat in coughing. Fr. NE. Du. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. chavylbone or chawlbone. to buy. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Ingulphus. and. society. kauf. kok. ceahhetan.' to exchange to gasp. to laugh. sob E. kichen. Pro v. 'li^'opa jord i jord. caupo. s. See Cheek. cozener. Fr. from Lat. gig. a rogue or person who used the canting language. changing. sum in a loan. Hal. Pm. entertainment. syllables ^ag-. favour. to act as a rogue. a canting knave. to stutter gigken. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. hawkmann. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. 144 the It. chire. to vomit. to swap goods . are represented piti.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. truffa. a dealer. Slav. Faire bonne chire. e. Soc. kaupa. et juxta catalla sua. chatal. — To check an account. visage. to cough and hence either buying or selling. jaws. upon a checked cloth. countenance. agreeing upon. kik. retching. to coff—Yisi. equiva. OFr. catalliim. the countenance Fr. from AS. kaupiti. to buy. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. cachinnari. lead to OE.

Lat. E. to choke with laughter. like a young chicken. to swallow. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. food. Chef. castaneusj Fr. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. Lith. jaws. chests in OE. . Sw. caru. to boken. caws. clear the throat. gapen.. frame by which the exertion is made. — 10 . a chicken. Lat. by laying it in come to an agreement with. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. gap. X'C&s. kces. to belch. prevail with. . shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. quoka. &c. cheek. geagl. kdke. Lat. as. Fr. Da. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. To make a shrill noise Chest. incaseatus. kastr. Chess. ost. (Kil. cherir. acquisition. Hence chesten-nut.cirieggia. kjcebe. ON. G. kasiiUPr. scacco. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. giffle. cams. gill of fish AS. Chemistry. quok. Fr. — — . Analo. Chekenyd or querkenyd. the palate Chequer. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Cherry. Chevaux de frise. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. . cheken. Chevisance. It would Cheese. kikna. ation. kok. kasa. the neck. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. the throat. suffo. make an end. chops. e. cheek. accomplishment cayed. cufd. From them the plish. See Alchemy. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. to love. Sp. a rafter . Lith. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Prov. rattle in the throat. as meat and butter. mouth kek. Jam. old bread. kdkel. throat. An imitative word. Lat. Kil. equal squares of opposite colours. kikna of dorum coacervatio. chevir. Pm. Hence kikna is identical with OE. king). kastanie. chAtaigne. kirsche. cerise j G. w. kistej Lat.koppen. ichec. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Cherish. dersen . ceac.EP CHEVRON 145 on. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. It. Sp. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. cabrio. a cricket. cese. chiffe. chops. — — . cisty G. cabiron. to kep. cerasus. achever. cista. w. OHG. As the board to gasp i. subjected to this process with that which the throat .peep in the same sense. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. a heap. In these latter forms we see the transIt. hasten. to prevent the attack of cavalry. chesten.G. for cheese itself. AS. geafl. jaws Sw. Fr. by laying up in a covered heap. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. CHE. to gape gab. gabe. See Case. N. to geahl. the mouth. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. AS.' to w. AS. to accomThis they call hdrsk.). practice seems to have been communiChevron. To Cheep. schach. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. jaw. rennet. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. Du. The Sw. Prothroat of an animal . kaecke. to make a noise different word. then end. chaps. Fr.their struggle for independence. E. cheeks. kesten. Fris. Sc. mollium congeries. xaque. ca' — . throat. condition of being taken. . cyse. Achievement. F*-. veluti piscium. Du. chasi. w. gaghel. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. cough. skratt. Fin. ceaflas. G. takes place in the formation of cheese. gullet. treat with affection. to year. E. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. subacidus. rafters in heraldry. jouffle. Fr. The name of creak as shoes. — — . to hold dear. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. kopen. cheek. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. things Da. kjakje. whence czypulas. the final guttural is retained in writing. See Chess. . used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. ceg. Cher. gous forms are G. made rancid koka. ceaplas.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Sw. the The use of the word kcesir. /Ji2^/(W. czypti. dear. Pl. the loose the game of checks. carnium.D. jaw. caseus. to heap up such things for the purchoke. to kasa. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable.D. when the king is put in the Schmeller E.perly head. rupted into chess. kapen. the hke. squeak as a mouse. jowl. nish source. kjceve. to gasp. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . Thus "we are brought din. chevron. whence kasa-leipa. ceocian. cegio. jaw . Tutschek. cireggia. E.Xo belch. schach. to bring to an end. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. to choke.. Sc.

the same principle I regard On birds. to chime.. G. the cry of young . Pm. from little to little. from the first of which is Lith. Sp. a chicken. kibr. or chick. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. antler. to the brim. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. machouere. De finger killet mi for kalte. tremble. to Du. — Du. tiukka. caferu. chol. pole. Fr. captain. 'Among these the G. branchy. the rim or edge of a vase. chimb. It.— Cot. and not vice versd. strideo. rafter . a hen. De chic en chic. Payer chiguet A chiguet. E. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. ultimate origin of the Mite. a chicken. kimme. Du. kieken. to pettifog. to contest about trifles. chill. head. kippa. Chill. Fin. the young of animals in general. a cup. chillrar. To chitter. . chicoter. The loss of the syllable it in Du. chicken. ]). To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. Fin. Pl. Halm. knit the brow cib-led. queror.. a head. Fl. — It. tyuk. to gasp for breath (Hal. tintelen van koude. to raise the rim. a finch. chieftain. cap. deer's horn. . And hence.D. caprioru. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. pi. the throat. Now gan some courage unto him to take. w. tremble with cold. chiler. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa.^ Hal. to scold. A To Chew. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. kidata. to chew. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Walach. Chigue. klagend tonen. Kil. : — a lump. kauchen. and from the third E. in Walach. k'imm s. For the see word Doit. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. a cup. Swiss kiden. the Ptg. to titter is Du. — Fin. cabar beinne. gosling. Da. also the horizon. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. tiukkua. chavel.— Gattel. knirschen. has probably the same origin. Gattel. To Chide. jaw. when the vibrations become very rapid. a jaw. the least imaginable jot. capete. pipio. from the second Lat. term is ssaru fu. — — Mother Hubbard. s. zitterti. ach. greloter is to shiver for cold. kindeken. czypulas. chavel. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. twitter. as pointing out the origin of the E. Chaw. pululo. cebr. . gills of a fish. cabar. Pm. kimista^ . as. signifying properly shivering. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. Fl. Chime. a small cask OFr. the head. or as E. Bret. knarren. to contest. are formed Du. mouth. then as G. while didder is to shiver or citteren. a quid of tobacco. horns of the house. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. 146 brial. kinderen. Russ. kauwe. chicaner. See Chimmer. Magy. chawbone. Fr. cidan. kitista. Fr. chic. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. chillar. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. tiuk. CHJME the radical form is unusual. a chicken. aner. rafter. stake. Imitative of a loud clear sound. pip. ' . tiukkata. chef. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. kaau•wen. Chitter. chikat'. Pr. cabriones. Probably from Fr. chin. mountain top . to use the jaws. E. kopf Du. by driblets. to chirp or peep like a chicken. rafter . pipio. crepo. to go. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. AS. to twitter. killen. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . grelot). sonorous. capo.— . Child. Prov. or the broken noise of birds. then cold. quivering sound which passes. The Pl.^ to resound as a bell. kop. kimia. Chief. choule. CHEW . E. alter. the jole. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. capu. acute. jaws . kilderkin. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. Gael. chew or chaw. Fin. cild. creak. W. cabarach. Pr. killen. Chick. Brezza.).D. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. keichen. kouwe.. kind. chiquei. Du. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. into a continuous shriU sound. Palsgr. to smart. chaps. Chimb. G.' my finger tingles with cold. pipe. jaw. chillness or shivering. horn wood. lead through the synonymous E. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. a cup cibaw. Tintillo.peep. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. kaw. Lat. a little bit.. a young bird. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. kime. caput. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. — .-ill. cib. to crackle. cheek. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. while the Magy. beam. kuwe. cica cica. kauen. or qf people talking rapidly.

a chink or fissure. Du. komia. KinneGr. then to any narrow crack or AS. to sound. which differ from each other only as Chirk.Lat. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. have been used to designate the spine. shiver and the chyver of Pr. cincel. schetteringe. up and down. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. bx-eak the back of schena. backe. spina. all these imitative terms being minata. schetteren. Chimney. Caminatum. disCot. . Fr. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. esquena. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. and the Du. tschirpen.. the chine. tinnire. fissure. caminata. The small entrails of a hog. E. keich husten. bone . to tattle. Pm. Fr. To Chimmer. eschine. to chirp. are In like manner E. eschiner. Lith. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E.to chirp. quavering of the voice. clangor tinniens kummata. or chyFrigutus. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Chit. a crowing sound in recovering breath. from 10 * ' Chia. cisello. . cisaille. kinne. squittire. Chink. i. as the chink of money. j^lf. backBut she withal no worde may soune. a szemrcU. It. a thorn. The desig. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. in the same crack. to prattle . schiena. applied to tremulous motion. Chitter. Bav. sonus the backbone Lat. Gloss. cleft. caperd. chirp. 147 kimina. cinan. Diez de. crepare. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. chick. to simmer. chink. Chintz. et garrire . ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. — . ciarlare. klincken. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. G. and from a similar sound to boil gently. Fr. Lat. hiss Pm. Chin-coug^h. Bret. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. a chap. — . Chip. a fire-place. — . hollow. pare also Walach. quivering or shakyng for colde. fyr. . simmer. dial. in Hal. clashing of weapons. E. the chin . do. a Kuttn. komista. It. sound. name Then.schricken. Hindost. the whooping cough. Pr. zirpen. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. See Chark. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. chin . Chat. Ptg.. esquina. Sp. skina. Chimera.Huloet in Hal.to divide or Du. the cheek (jaw) . CHITTERLING sonus acutus. eschin^e (de pore). representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate.sharp. as the/ is preserved tering. verynge or dyderinge.' Phaer's Virg. Sp. kieck hoest. schina. cheek. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. the mouth (jaws) . in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Cot. cinne. kumista. to sizel. Fr. chits. ykvvQ. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. yivtiov. It. clipping of coin.iron. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. czirszkti. and chim-mer. as a large bell . — — — — — . to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . Prov. to gape. to open chirriar. . Primarily a shrill sound. also vibrans. gen. gena. The change from the sound ter \s. to chirre. genou (pi. Gower in Hal. killed by Bellerophon. schrick. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. genawi. Chisel. kumina. sounding deep. and bodily movement in shimm. the jaw. tremulous motion. In the same sense. It. resonance . Du. to chink. a surkik hosta. a hall Mid. sound on beginning to boil. Sp. to chirp . to squeak in It. caminsects. stridere. Sp. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. Fr. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. tsongeni. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. See Bright. ter.). A . twinkling light. AS. then of a fabulous monster part goat. Kil. rustle. sparkle. kink hoest. Chyrme or chur. to chink with laugh2. Huloet. to chine. chhint. pork) . companied. but or cry as a parrot. G. Chitterling. — . See Chap. the jaw. Magy. to creak. Chink-cough. from the geon's lancet. part lion. vincially used in the sense of a crack. hus. as a bell kommata. chatter . lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. cheminde. as birds the mouth. a thorn. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. ciseau (for cisel). . from Lat. To chirp or twitter. It. Sw. to creak. spina. tsengeni. and light. twitter caminus. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. representing connected together. Gascoigne in Todd. See Chats. To chink with laughter. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. plodere. to prattle czirpti. the cheek. zirken. hiss chirlar. Chine. to murmur.czirbti. To Chitter. epine. to sound deep or the Gr. flaw Hal.er. to tremble. Chymerynge. sonants.

skifa. Cavalry.' Verie coinme Cot. Body and Soul. as with a blow. fine threads of flowers. . kusid. to exchange horses. Lat. the inwards of an animal. G. anger. cape. taste. to strike hands . Choice. to hack. kiusan. taste. shoot . kiusan. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. from kraus. full. 2. a calf's pluck or chaldron . Gr. schiefer. cke.D. of an angry — — — ' ' — . Chivalry. pluck. &c. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. full to overflowing. .freze. chaup. wrath. Fr. chives. Jam. chibble. it is probable that the root kus. and N. To Chop. to taste. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets.vonic languages are Pol. kaup. to chap. gdnse gekrose. &c. developments of the same radical image. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. . chife. wein didder for cold. Warwickshire coff. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. chiffe. kbhren.V)^x. Equivalents in the SlaFr. CHOP kros. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. to try . to wrinkle. — See Cheek. Prov. Chuck-full. Yr. to taste. a young . approve. also calPs. chceur. See try. kor6n. to break off in small shive. and Vf. a chive. G. and in this sense the * small pieces. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . to turn. and in kosten. Swab. 19. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. kalbs gekrose. to tempt. Serv. Boh. in the same language. coup. to Compare also Pol. . Chives. Goth. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. bile. civette. ON. fresure. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. to taste. ON. gekrose. a small slice or slip of anything . In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. wkusit' prikushat. ruffs. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. to ^cleave . Choleric. schevel-steen. Fr. chatter. all seem slate . xiv. kushevati. g'schochet voll.' who shall not taste death. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. a wine taster. . to try. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. kruszki. Chives are also a kind of small onion. shiver. lead us on to Lat. are used in the same sense. Gr. a calf's chaldern of E. to ing is doubtless to taste. crammed Choir. to prove. friller. disposition. Enn Sigridur sem ' . of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. Choice is probably direct from Fr. kustigen. gusten. cepa. Schmid. a ruff or frill. causir. — Chock-full. schoch. from %u\i). a goose's giblets. gustare.ceosan. to clap up Hal. chap hands. Walach. * To Choose. cut up into — See Chats. —Chorus. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. called cMtters in the N. a company of singers or dancers. seallion or unset leek. okusyti. Swiss kust. cive. chorus. kausjan. Gr. a twittering. to try. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. a fragment. kieser. a rag. prove. choppe. signify to kiss. a knight. as green as leeks. scheve. to chap at a door . chippe. whence choleric. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. — — — . %o\ifa. The . Luc. to stop geschoppt voll. or original meaning is preserved in G. of E. whence Lat. haslets. The manners and senti. specially with an application to theatrical performances. a blow. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. an onion. from chevalier.ffrill. a scale or fragment P1. I. then to try. then to shiver. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. keypa.. the ridges prove. Fr. heaped measure. keuren. to shiver. koren. choix. a ruff. to taste. — Cholera. a heap. OHG. G. to choose. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. kushati. ent quarter. propagated. ^S. kiesen. chawdron. i. by the vibrations of sound or motion. the small parts of the roots of plants. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. to palpitate . by which they are Fr. try. x^poc.yEuffM.. ^euw. word is more likely to be from Lat. As kushnuti. krussyi. chock full. chimp. To Choke. and It. The Sc. curly . coro. •- Russ.gust. chattering. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. rare. ments of the knightly class. to taste. try. caperd.— B jag E. select. experience valerie. . The I go to prove them. to taste . Chap.' At last he dwelt . to experience. kiezen. . to try. pieces . arkiusan.

— . to cant. Jam.—Chuokstone. E. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. as Du.' They are forebuyers of quheit. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. cheap. chevin. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. chack. Sp. choucas. See Change. a trafficker in souls. Chub.X. A fish with a thick snout and head. applied to an owl in that language. To coup. ley in Giiford. bearand aits.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. Cot. a messenger or envoy. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. caphatenus. clogs. — Dief. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. that will thank chiaus — you richly. claquer. &c. time ra . or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. Lat. Alchemist. to speak thieves' slang. Gr. cow-couper. Borgoens happen.— Chevin. chouette. quappe. the intestine of an animal. of which such strings are made. kaulhaupt (club-head. civetta.). Sw. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. equivalent to the E. we find the following passage Dap. Peace. dial. prattle . Chough. I bring you the Cloughs. a thick piece. noble Doctor. caker. In the Alchemist. to overturn. XpvaaXic. ' ' What's that? Dap. kauwe. or miller's kaycke . Picard. chronicles. forms are Chrism. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. to chatter. dealing. To Chouse. chevane. Chrysalis. To Chop logick. chub. i. Confounded with the bullhead. an offence against the fitness of times. Wall. 4. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. E. kubb. a bullhead. which was written 27. kubbr. 49. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. If I discover.• — . sent before him a Chiaus.\^s. klopper. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. gold. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. yiSA. p. cambiare. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. high clog. fat. a stump. because she would not endure this husband chopping. gull. capitone. Du. for to defraud. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. slipper . Gr. AS. Gr. the teeth to chatter .sohola. who took in the Turk- clack. — Quabbe. dial. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. chapin. thumb Fl. koppe. whence the Fr. Fr. soul-couper. and we actually find champman for chapman. e. chapma?i. from kloppen. merchant. ON. cauc. kowe. kolbe (club).povucd. chouquette. kaufen. as in Fr. Come. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. chuet.' Jam. . Fr. . Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. in Chaucer. G. short piece kubbug. a small fish with a large head. kowej Sax. syllables chat. chrysalis (Plin. Kil. one who buys and sells horses or cows. The Turk was here As one should say. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. monedula.(. What do you think of me. traffic.— Landnamabok. chevane. a The What dhy ^. E. capita. gull. From the Turkish Chiaus. E. cheviniau. A jackdaw.. Chronicle. Chord. Fr. klompe. a lump or piece chump. chroniques. OE. Nominale in Nat. the string of a musical instrument originally. cob. Chuck. In Sc. whence apparently the Sup. Fr. — Chrisom. cavena. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Gr.. xop5>}. gobio capitatus. to knock. thick-set. capito. That Face. connected with G. caqueter. whence — E. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. plump. kaw. -chron-. Chopino. capitanus. P. Madam. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. by the Robert Shirley.). cauvette j Fr. kaej Lith. overset. chrisme. See Chaff. whence e. to clack. to strike in the hand. chapineria. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Anachronism. Fr. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . chatter . cangiare. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. peace. ceo. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. the same word with the It. e. to turn over. in i6io. xftovoq. — — — . chop. clat. cresmeau. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. Marin. —Shakespeare. xpi'^lia. kobe. Ant. Du.

from Lat.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Probably from It. ceffore. -cis-. pith. kakka. however. cinders used disjunctively. marrow. a resounding object. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. incido. See Ceiling. e.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. thence a belt. comp. a douse on the tores. ON. accido. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). a rustic . . kernjen. log of wood. * Cinder. Lat. whence ON. Cieling. but by way of explan. kerl. a miser. a man. cinctus.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. a cutting round. in the face. 24. Hence -cid-. calx. an old man. as in E. Gr. lamak. to sparkle. calculus. karl. Du. ciuffo. casum (in comp.' he adds. we have to chack. a pebble. . -cise. Lat.for the residue of stone coal. to determine incision. cheeks Cincture. then the on oh StX iv roXt.rendered by Kil. sintel.— . to To Chuckle. to throw out sparks. spuma metalli. Sw. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . cinctura {cingo. chakil. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. Churn. cinis. Du. Lat. to fall at or on. i. sicera. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. to make a rippling noise. or. cado. gffe. dial. to form grains of butter. to make a aiKipa. to jaw chack or snap. klakka. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. — . has been impugned which it has really no connection. KvptaKolg. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. ccedo. cut off. whence deciduous (of trees). chuffy.— Chu%. In Sc. G. a cutting an old chuff. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. or choice part of a thing . See Cheek. a girding on. a man. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . ceaplas. ON. See Cheek. — — A — ' ' — . sindel. swollen or puffed up Cot. jaws. as a board. flower. chack or stane-chacker. The spelling of chider has Chump. sinter. in circumcision. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. Wall. sindr. Gothic nations. kirna. to cut decide. KaxXij?. so as to make the happen . Diss. Fr.^. Sicerawry face ceffata. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. domhnach. cendre. It is certain. kern. Church. with It the Lord's house. in Sc. as Fr. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. . -cide-. kjami. to him a sudden blow. -cisuiri). to fall. to cause the milk to grain. kaerle. ashes. cheek. chops. set kerti. &c. to fall upon decide. joffu. e. Aasen. AS. cidre. ceffo. scoria. ChurL husbandman. . as water running over rocks or stones. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. chife. — of the two words. countryman. ON. blow on the I io6 in Mur. Ka-^aiva. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. G. i. The derivation from Kvpiasov. Chunk. to Newsp. AS. Jennings. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. chack-stone. ceorl. As AS. ceaflas.D. whence church. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. to strike clatter. dust. Chuff. To chuck in the fall from. geaflas. a fellow. that the word is an adoption of Fr. -eris. a man. a pebble . chaps. The origin ation. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. fat-cheeked. residue of burnt coals. to separate the kernel of the milk. . and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. Gr. Ir. joufflu.. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. have given rise. to turn from blossom to fruit. tie about). ladre from Lazare. as Epkema explains it. chofu. sive piratiam facere sciant. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. tindra. Cleland in Jam. a lump. Sc. a husband. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. Cob. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. kiorne. chofe (Grandgagnage). to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. the snout of an animal. OFr. x^^i?. the kernel. pp. Cider. giffle. C^z^j^ churHsh.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. -cido. Du. male person.V//a'6'?. . Lat. to gird. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. &c. Da. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). from Lat. to churn. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder.' And cold. Fris. sindra. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Fr. surly. Wall.

Excite. clack. a citizen . Tlie proper sense is a sucker. circ2tlus. claquer. See Crankle. vociferation. cion. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. . Du. ruin. around. dob. Dan. civis. as in Sp. a split. klemte. . Circle. a for water. a place See place hiddern. and clash. crack. — (Dozy) ing blow. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. kluV. babble . to cleanse. klak. lump. clack. dim. klump. . lump . domern. hringr. glambar. clamare. . Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. clack-dish. rattle . a knob. Lat. Gael. crack. clamer. cito. lash . Lat. cisterna. outcry. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. Hence Incite. lump of wood or with the nasal. claim. klambr. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. prattle. a circle. to make to go. whence cistiti. claquet de moulin. a kind of rattle. clack-box. a whip. the door was slammed J slamem. clapping of klacke. * Cistern. clangor avium . cifra. clamp. clot ON. It. klamp. uproar. Sp. compared with It. lucerna. Arab. kringr. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. clatCot. klap. a block. kringla. sphere gleba. a ball. a'upiav. In Fr. around. a hiding-place. Citron. chupon. from chupar. clobyn. a reservoir Probably from Lat. klappe. . Comp. a block. See -cid-. cit^. cittade. log. rattle. cittd. a lump Lat.' sione. stimulate. to clatter. wasserkasten (water chest).to suck. Gael. So a light. to mention. It. a cistern. CION See Tinder. to chatter. a pop-gun. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. to go. The notion of a lump. or quill to draw waier through Fl. tinnitus . Circum-. to strike. globus. cisterna. noise. klumbr. Lat. sajira. . Sw. ON. suck). Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. circa. and E. Sw. to toll . Dan. klepati. Lat. civitas. a city. ON. City. to clap at a theatre. ball kloben. Fr. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. bunch. Alt. claquer crash. a circle. Lat. clat. to chatter . Hal. Bohem. prattle. gutter. smack. citrus.. a loud uksa slamketi. to cluck. sip. a. sifr. Clamp. as caverna from cavus. castus). cion. circum. scion. klabb. a Lat. a young and tender plant. Cot. . to call by name. klimp. to clack. Du. to chatter. Fr. clap. Fr. clap. to set in motion by means of the voice. a city. and. a cleansing place. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. a mass. accordingly find the roots dab. Fr. To Clack. We . We . Recite. . a kind of pipe. scion or sucker. klekotati. twig. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). -cite. lump. clog. chatter . for Cion. * Ciplier. forms — — — parent plant. to be empty. a ball. to call. 'mass. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. crack. cieo. excite. cry. -cis-. cluster. From Arab. ring. cry out . to gnash the teeth. G. slam. klqb. empty Golius. fall. E. Gr. a Pol. sound- — hands figures. klateren. the place of . civilis. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. clump. Mack. Lat. Lat. parallel root is slam. is traced by Gr. lump. clasp. may cite w. Cite. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. ciste. bunch . a clod Russ. sound. klacke-busse. It. a boss .— . and Sp. mass . to summon or call on. or clap-dish. klopati. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . G. Lap. the tongue. claquer. a ring. klubb. chupon. ter. noise — — a cistern. as. circle. Citadel. sindri. chest. clapper. clamp. ON. a shoot. of citta. Clump. belonging to cities or social life . To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. klacken. a whirlwind. circum. glam. &c. sprig. with an initial s instead of c. . cista. clambar. cittadella. W. to appeal. to bawl. The syllables clap. a rattle . about. klater-busse. sound of blow. KipKog. trunk. area. Scion. a lemon tree. E. creak les dents. a clod. See Circle. . klompe. a lump Du. klammer. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. radical identity of the Fr. —Circuit. KpiKoe. The Gr. Chaste. Gr. Clam. lump. klappen. glamm. city. chijfre. a judgment cern. to knock. ern. a circle. to call. citujn. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. . a rattle Fr. or split with noise. in the frequentative form. —Civil. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . To Claim. to cry out. Du. clamras. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. biw.

da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. dap up. klimmeii. B. klubber. offspring. to do anything with a clap. diver. gripe. hold. dientes. These are imitations of a loud. klem-vogel. a heap of stones.' to take coals to Newcastle. chatter. coagulated cream. a noose . rattle. dem.' klibba. cleave. These words To are closely connected with damp. klopfen. a heap of stones or other things piled up . uproar. and hence to pinch . to hold to pinch. descendants . to clap. strain . resonance klingen. knocking. to climb. gum. to hook things together. to claw oneself up. beat. dapier. to dame. and hence moist. club . B. G. clangor. grasp. Du. klatten. apprehend . G. but perhaps not directly from it. klang. to pinch. klepati. clap. kleppe.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. of the children. E. See Clam. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . a stick. . klammer.. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. as the clapping of hands. clibby. clammy brace. massy. to glue. dam. grimper. cramp. The Fr. kleppe. nature . sound of the trumpet . klam. dee. conceal. klammern. privately. Fr. hook. a burr. strait. tattle. a sound made by a still . The equivalent of Lat. brawl. salafa. dapi^. Bav. klebern. clajnmy. clav\f. G. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. Du. contraction. to cling. Clan. clink. tingle. substances of a stickydam. glambar. as the Lat. klemmen. kleppen. klam7n. — with hunger. clamber. kluppel. run to lumps Clandestine. to glue. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. pinching. Russ. tone. clapas. a sound. Hence the Fr. sound. from the w. who occuG. Dan. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. clear sound. prison. to climb. bond. cream Manx doan. dienklebber. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. . clang. narrow. clann. adopted Lat. Mampe. G. damor. clap. Du. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. Clink. G. E. to starve. a sound made by a lighter clink. dia. The root which gives rise to klibb. Halma. a craCmp. G. take hold of. Dan. Swiss kldbem. a whip. chief. beating. klibber. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. kloben. pressed close or hard together. . or klamp-vogel. OE. a loud tingle. klobber-saen. — — . of money Gael.p correspond- ' without order. — Climb. gliong. to hold fast with the . is a nasalised form of gripper. buckle klamp. to climb. to climb. to climb. to clutch or cling oneself up. Salainen. klappen. to. klynge. originally a heap of large stones. to beat. a trap. sticky Hal. klette. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to daub pinch. &c. c). crowd . klemmen. a rattle . The E. klampen. to stick or glue. klamre. clasp. to climb . to cleave or stick. Sw. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. klynge sig op. damras. Lat. klank. to clamp. Gael. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. klamm. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. for tame conies. to stick conceal. dink Du. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. accent. kleben. to knock. sound . where- A — unto they retire themselves. compression. a place underground where rabbits breed. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. Clap. Clang. from birdlime. . to seize. G. To Clamber. klepel. viscous. To clap in E. — Lat. daver. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . scendants. A i. dank. Clamour. in a hidSen place. solid. dandestinus. ancestor. a bird of prey. yf. Dan. compress. klappen. Lang. celo produces Fin. ney. Du. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. and that from celo. klettern. AS. tenacious. children. anything hidden. tremble . clandestine. holdfast. to hide. bandage. also to clog up. rumour. — . is used in the sense of secretly. to clap on. E. In like manner Du. klamme. dapier. dam. a claw. dam. cramp-iron. a stone See Claim. dial. cluster. ring as metal. tinkle. to patronus.1. of which the locative case. klappre. Dan. stick. Clapper. klemmen. to Hal. seize. the in many languages. Clank. to Sw^. closely analogous to that of the fast. klavre. a claw . E. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. dren. tight. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. children. cling. viscosity . with cramp-irons. sound. salaan. dial. klepanie. Clamp.er. Bohem. . Swiss kletten. to gingle. dam immediate modifications — . a hawk. whence sala. chatter. klippe. to knock. dambar. To sticky. sound object . clapper of conies. . hands or claws to grasp. dang. — Cot.

flap. mass. clair. a club or massy stick. Russ. The collar-bone. From clairet. mass. a clasp. klase. claret win e. klos. pellet . and through v into a.\x\xvn. ansa. dap. to cleave.Z. insularum nexus . compression. Class. rubellum. E. Eya-klasi. cinnamon. to patter. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Serv . chasguear. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. Owl and that by which cleave to. to draw it up into a bunch. klamme. . Claw. buckle. stop of an organ. &c. cluster. vinum helvolum. Mask ! plask ! thwick. to animals Sp. Du. clarin. forms are the Du. a claw. Clatter. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. ivy.It. Nightingale. classis. 269. vin clairet. we pass to the E. —Kil. biichse. Thus from Lat. or as G. clamp.Gr. fibula. Fr. Lang. klatschen. and old red rose-water. to shut. thwack . clew. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. clopa. Nawith stavis. globus. from the resemblance to a key. straight-mouthed. klampe. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. Clew. an on the one hand. a lash. waU. fracas. also a knell for the dead. subrubidum. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. In E. Fr. chiaro clear. &c. somewhat clear. klot. seizes) . assembly. Wyutoun in Jam. an ending. as Mod. clairon of a trumpet— It. fragor . To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. clarinado. chiarino. schnalle. kluczka. a complete sentence. klauw. which signifies a ball in E. locket of a door. a lump . the primary origin clapa. as it is written by Chaucer. Clavicle. chiarello. clump. e. sauna de classes. Claret. to clash as arms. The b readily passes into gleba. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. to ring in such a manner for the dead. kleeven. it is called clamming. a sphere . chatter. thence a definite head of an edict or law. from clinging to the tree which supports it. vin claret. — Clarinet. a claFr. hook. So Pol. bawling. diver. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. he of white and red grapes mingled together. pet. applied in their harness. teren.to cra. kletse. ghespe. a. clavis. klaskad. contraction. with a reddish tint. from scknallen. blab. a bird with powerful talons. In the same way is formed the OE. Kil. ictus resonans. clausum. under three modifications dava. klaequivalent to clack or clap. a kind of small. Lat. Rayn.ck a whip. But clasp or elapse. Du. to knock. Du. klijven. to end. It. G. a key origmally a crooked nail. nawith stanis. The form clew. Clasp. uproar. sound of the foregoing description. puUs. a water made of aquavitse. cloi. to clap . Lat. — Kiittner. clairon. — Clarion. the cracking of a whip. Du. to rattle . klauwe. clausula. to do anything with a . climp. Du. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. sphaera. klouwe. gaspe. Clause. klatschen. Du. a clod. From claudo. klouwe (Kil. to fasten.oi. a distribution of things into groups. claw (what fastens together. as G. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. Identical with ON. glcis. Prov. a lump. rion. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. klaterbusse. clavus.— CLARET clamp. row aii/iaTos. Sp. from its use in fastening things together. It. Klatsch- a pop-gun . is preserved in Lang. in the sense of a claw. biichse. a nail. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. klaeret. Pol. the collar-bone. Fr. K\a. klucz. noise.w or u on the other. clew or fasten upon a thing. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. a buckle. same class with w. skeria-klasi. nail. chiizjj-o. clatter. KXeiSi. to fasten together . and shrill-sounding trumpet. Lat. a key. Gr. — tells us. kleuen. Eau clairette.).. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. klc^i. a key KKtitid. i. Commonly made. a bunch. a. a little hook . Analogous Jam. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . syrtium junctura. To clew. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. crying. whence kleuer. klampvoghel. Sw. klatscha pop-gun. in the sense of a mass or lump. globus. clas. klatsche. hawk. a ball. a heap. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. is used in Sc. and clavis. kiosk bicza. Clash. to snap. Lat. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Dan. Cot. Thus from clamp. . Originally clasis.

glance . Clean. This is probably one of the clean. calm. kloben. G. as the Du.— Clag. a clincher. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. Gael. i. kleverig. a fissure or division See Cleave. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. conserere antklankjan. glan. clay . to separate into parts. words applicable sight. . klieuen. bend in a stream. to 2. it cleave together. hook. to stick to. dag. Dan. to cleave. Du. or from being divided into two parts. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. polish . Fr. to dag ox dog. sticky earth. Die zaak is zS. vice. kleg. glent.— Claggy. kleevig. klinken. kleg. viz. the two parts of Du. klove The Dan. a key. glor-mhor. an object is simply cleft. glatt. B. as ON. loam. and E.). Halma. klinka. klinken. chaps in the skin. to fasten E. klov. sticky . to Brilliant. gentle. clear. Mar. that was a striking proof. pellet. a cleft or fissure. cleave. dial. diquetcr. . Bav. kloue. to sound or make a noise . neat. sleek. Du. kluyte. klutsch. from nitere. a flash. G. glint. clear. klinke. and Dan. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. the fork of the body. Axletree clouts. lump. deot.Q. Omklinken. klouen. a fissure. to fasten. klank. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . Du. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . and. shine. Lat. See Clam. Clear. Sw. Clay. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. celebrated . clean. — : A rivet. Thus from G. is fast and sure. E. Du. cliquet. doggy. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. sticky. the original . G. a latch. Sc. a one end. to stick or adhere . pure. clibby. Clemency. Sw. polished. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to.' was nailed to a rock. ON. doff. to chink. a lump. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. klincke. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . The double signification of the word clack or rattle. glitnir. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. as Fr. explained from the klinken. klieben. gleit. Cleft. provinciaUy termed dout. a claw or talon. . voice. a — — . Probably a modification of the word doitt. dut. glandse. 2. glbram. kluit. A — A Clement. . Da. clear. and Celtic glan. Sw. The Dan. Sc. geklonken. Wilbraham. klinken. See Clog. klijveii. as explained under G. bright. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. to shine. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. G. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. to clinch GB. holding together. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. cloven wood. of iron worn on shoes by country people. to glitter. speech . together . AS. to tear or cleave asunder. glbr. from diquer. klyft. neat. rift. to clench. . found in other cases. clean. famous. clemens. klirren. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. a plate. a bunch of When flax). dags. either by the coherence To Clepe. G. glan. a noise. Du. tongs. dinquet kleeven. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. clink. clean. the latch of a door. From dob. the To Cleave. kluft. split. W. . ON. kluftholz. klinke. clout. kldnkelein. klor. from the clinking of the latch. klinke. a lump. (Cot. This word is used in two business is finished off. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. The word is . klink. klirre. E. Clinch. 154 CLAY dutch. glan. pretty. kloben. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. clean. Da. klag. river. a mass. danche. pure. merciful. or of a tree. rive. a cleft. to clink or sound. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. glitta. splendid pohshed. dams. To call. a mass. as Lat. date is AS. ON. gaklankjan. clash. klafwa. in two ways. vissticky . kla:g. smooth. From clap. to clinch a nail. pure . give a shrill sound Jr. The proper meaning of the word is shining. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. Cleat. door-latch. klceg. bogs cous. To Clench. to fasten. glindse. kloben. klouen. rivet. a in that of sphtting. kleben. The word may be — . to be composed. daggy. a noose. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. radiant. E. seem formed dial. to shine . mud. dedgy. glorious. a cleft. nitidus. gingle. Da. viz. bears nearly the same relation to both senses.— . a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. Kil. that was Torriano. Du. opposite senses. dench. Lat.

dek. 3. crackle. Chaucer. G. 3. to rattle. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. diofian. clack. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. klever. to prate. klikker. derjon. to bend. which in Mid. kleppe. cligner. to snatch. clatter. sonare. call. ravine. on. dergi. icXi/ja?. a clerk . Clerk. one of the clergy. cart that tilts over. a trigger. See AS. dough. chatter. whence Fr. to seize. name. Rouchi cliche.). to catch. a lump. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. deuck. click. sink. rock. stein- kluppen. catching. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. light-fingered. syn. cleft in a rock. agile. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. dial. Cot. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. to cry. Fr. Gr. Clergy. klaiv. Da. has also deik.dergie! Wiclif in R. Du. rock. a hook. crack. with hamarskard. klok klep- crepitare. ized .Lat. would have been derida. Dunbar in Jam. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. cliquer. Cliff. cleke. chat. chatter. kliv. a hold. Now the OE. dook (identical with E. /cXi'fia. deik. globus. in rhetoric. clif- stanas. a lot. a hump. rupes . a latch .— Clicket. KkrifoQ. precipice. &c. as from derido. a clew. glomus. See Clench. a clicket or clapper. as a click with the tongue. Du. a tumbril. clerus. — have the notion of a short quick in E. Happen. Norm. Clever. clever. to sound an alarm to clap. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. to tattle. ginally from dob (extant in W. deuch. that is a clever feUow. cliquet. rugged ascent. an inclination. cliof. diquette. and hence climate. The origin is the Gr. dob. kloof. clypian. cleopian. the knocker of a door. duke. dial. cleft of a hill. . a child's or clack . Click. dichet. corresponding to Fr. Hence Lat. dutch). slope . Claw. dicher. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. But the Dan. Climb. — — A . IS5 Du. Klover i munden. dexterous. clif. CLINCH De . Lat. or an object character- Clerical. to talk as a parrot. klinket. verge). Clew. in precisely the same sense as the E. -Toe (from KXivm. babble. clima. the dick of a latch or a trigger. —Vocab. Sw. seize (Hal. had a form. the clergy. declivity. klinge. a cleft in a rock . said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). derigon. climate. in the sense of active. Lat. clep. G. klikklakken. skard. narrow hollow between precipitous banks .r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. the clergy clericus. a figure mentioned. a latch. pen. kliket. OE. click. gleg.— Clue. it must be observed. temperature. and (with the nasal) — clincher. to stir. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. cleugh. from clifian. . exactly Gr. CLERK sound of a blow. dial. is NE. has kl'dver. region not observe it. to cleave. cautes. as Sc. Det er en Mover kerl. . klouwe. a ladder. dever. duik. clyf. clap. Bav. Climate. Lat. littus. cave .. cliff. Boh. a mill-clack . which is used in Scotch and N. crepare. Jam. nimble. click. a baU of yarn. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. to teU tales. say. deik. abrupta rupes . above the pole. derigo. hamraklif. click it. clever.) Brai. In I Peter v. deudi. a lazar's clicket or clapper. expeditious. a claw or clutch. as Lat. AS. The Sc. klaffen. klev. prattle. and hence deik. a cliff. cleft. Client. to clack. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. from Gael glac. claw or talon to dek or deik. to confess . We movement catch. klippe. Clam. Du. what so men clappe or crie. quick in motion. kleppen. klika. klinke. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. call. See Clamber. .' ii. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . dink. to tattle. highest is attained. a precipice. to move. on. Sp. scar. Commonly derived from deliver. diver. ready of speech. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. rapidus from rapio. frap- per rudement une personne. neither as having lordship in the. chatter. quick of perception. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. Climax. speak. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. corresponding to the Sc. a sphere. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. precipices. e. d See Clan. snatch. to catch. de ripa. derecia. score7i clif. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. to wink. klif. or Sc. a latch. Somner. klippe. a ball of twine. Sc. pulsare. lively. one admitted to the tonsure.

because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. at first probably on a wooden board. rima. to clip. or bagging clothes. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. klik. iissura. E. To stick to. knippen.'— Shaks. G. G. to lean. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. toga muliebris. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. to shrink up. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. as G. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. kldpp. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. quincailler. klincke. brett-glocke. klunker. glocke. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. to wither. Bohem. clog. Serv. klok. N orman clincailler. Sw. hlinen. Ir. ' . Bi klik uti klak. Een kliks bolter. recline. klinka. a bell. acclivis. Sw. hooded . . a lump. in Schmeller) klunk. klocka. &c. — clot. clato make a noise. Gael. club). . Swiss klungele. straits. See Cowl. Walach. met. Pl.' for a dry stick. g. .. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. clips. kleppe. klaka. klippur. a hood. to clap or clack. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood.. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. Fr. klocke. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. to shrink up. to ring. klippa. dial. to snap kneipen. kol- The word . to clink auf. incline. Sw. . outcry. kliks. kluben.und zuk-lippen. klupen. nip. as we now say three or four o'clock. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. hill . cloak. speaks of a ' clung bat. ten. . but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. Ang. Flem. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. sloping forwards. ON. w. to lean backwards. also to form a compact mass. a separate portion. to sound sharp. The E. verklungeln. klungeln. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . a tinman. cochl. klippen. a lump G. claw. to beat on the board. Decline.. as thick or curdled liquids. related to clock. sloping upwards procUvis. clinke. slant. to pinch. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. to strike. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. klungelin.. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. a ball of thread . compress . hluk. gUong. a snare. as to snip in the same sense from snap. fetter. whence E. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. pinch. cloche. and so' to contract. to make a loud noise. to . dial. dial. S w. Du. G. from klepati. a lump of butter. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. Lat. . a fused matter which clogs a furnace. -cliv-. a cluster. chcng. Du. gang. and 'E. Du. klingen. To cut with shears. difficulty . kolbe to E. to cluster. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. 2. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. Cliofue. to cling to a thing. 'Till famine cling thee. a beU. — a mantle. a clock. pinch. disposed to a thing. to resound. . to beat. schnippen. knot klynge. by bits. -atum. * Clod. a bell. to snap or fillip schnippen. clutch. Da. Sw. to clunge. Gr. Bohem.D. klunge. Sussex peasant AS. toga. to knock. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. a clog or fetter for a beast . dial. Hal. Fr. to wither. G. OHG. to crowd together klynge sig ved. klippe. ON. bow. to snap tongs. kluppe.ginglej Fr. Swiss klokken. to pinch klupe. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. hluccti. klicke. clock is a variation of clack. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. kolki-laud. Lat. tuft. like cling. ring clag. E. pallium. klynge. knippe. Esthon. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. a woman's mantle . kukla. glungelin. to AS. klippa. The notion of a loose moveable substance. to bend downwards . klepalo. noise. klak. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. sloping downwards . clique. klipa. also to wink .— KSS. to slope or bend . To Cling. knippchen. clinker. -CLINE make pinch. a faction. klinken. to crowd or squeeze chingy. to form one mass with. hlinian. to snip. G. klocke. clingan. shears. .— Clot. To Clip. clivus. Cloak. . and a similar syllable without the /. incline. parva ruptura. ON. G. Kil. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. declivis. Sw. I. four of the bell. klo^gen. clangere. kXiVu. difficulty.D. dag. globulus' (Gl. See Clang. Du. sticky. a rising ground. clino. 156 -cline. Clock.' From Pl. especially of something soft or clammy. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. kima. Clink.

from Du. lopin. clatk. lumps of butter. dab. spot of dirt. lump of something soft . dial. tuditare. figer. plod. fat. to spill liquids. -clusum. laggery. kloteispaen. . boil. kloster. schlettern. Pl. TZoxapov. to lobberig. a dirty wench claggy. whence klack. to close against one. or drablyn with separate existence. doitre. 3. lobberen. His heart was franlc without a flaw. Lat. tramp in wet or mire.— Clothe. from Fr. kl'dnken. a babbler. a portion of something soft and adhesive. loblolly. g. daggerey. motte. chiudere. .). or E. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. paddle. . lobberen. schlottern. a log. to shut. geschlotter (as E. -cludo. Du. in accordance with It.'^ Palsgr. clotted locks Dan. spatter. klakken. klotz. pludre. enOE. we pass to Schlatter. Bav. to rattle. a skittle-ground klos- sen. bowl . Dan.rge lump. to wabble. clorre. claque. daustrum. without. thick spoon . to dabble. Fr. bespotted with mire E. miry laggerit. Pr. . dirt. loose mud. is connected with pludder. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. He was a man without a dag.1a. Close.' end. Fr. shut up. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. slabberen. schlotter. log. we pass to E. Idppern. clammy loam. G. an imputation. . a clod Swab. to flounder in the wet. to cling locks. a clog. of a body of any kind. klateren. Klak also. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. slops). bloutre. . kleck. chiuso. blot.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. clotted milk klotte. wide bagging clothes. cloth. ! . loppe. slab. to rattle.dial. a trowelful of mortar. clog or overshoe. The origin of clod and clot is to . a blot. Fr. paddle or dabble in the wet. claggy. then liquid or loose substance. the radical sylla.. clausum. a blot. . dangle. Swiss schlott. . and E. I clodde. . clos. in accordance with Pl. Closhe. to sup up liquid food. -close. unctuous. a bal!. je amoncele. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. slobbe. Gr. aspersion. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. Mat. In the same way Dan. is a blot on one's character. to slop or spill liquids. Yule-clog.. forbidden by 17 Ed. To Clog. analogous plan to clod or club. or Sc. bemired. curdled. -clus-. . klag. klottern. in forms like Du. a monastery. Fr. The game called ninepins. lunch. E. pattens G. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. kloteren. E. Pr. kloden. claudo. to bodies. a field inclosed clos. schlattern. klot. Pm. a Christmas log. klac. slop. klod. separate part. to flap as loose clothes. klunkern. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. Lat. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. m&se noch stain. terminate. A — — A Thus from Bav. to bubble. lump of butter. MHG. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. slobber. loose. inclose. paludosus. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. mire. congeler. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. da- . a clod. like G. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. Cloister. It. to dabble. to shut up. . der like whey or blode whan it is colde. to play at bowls. clos. and Du. . a spot. finish . watery. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). . neither spot nor hang loose. lopperig. motzen. with Fr. . closed.D. • lump. lobbig. G. thick sour milk. compared with clump. rattle. to rattle or shake to and fro. to a. shut up. from claudo. klos-bane. clausum. AS. to dash like heavy rain. a lump from Du. slops slodderen. . in comp. laggyn. schlott. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. to claggock. klotzschuh. or loppern. Russ. be&c. klokotat. to shut in. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. lag. wabbling from Du. slob. to paddle in the wet. A . slobberen. fors. lump of mud on the clothes . and thus seem endowed . hanging loose and full. close. klakk. Clog. klos. I clodde. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. Hence inclose. clot. zoccoli. beklakken. splash. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. kloten. dirt. meat from Du. dag. mud klcEg. dunch). kladde. to shut. lob. Klottermelck. tJokok. mud. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. be found rattle. loppered (of milk).D. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. Du. a block. Sc. kleck or lack. gelatinous. zocco. clogs for the feet klakk. loose trowsers. and Gael. foreclose. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. of something clammy or heavy. IV. truncus. shaky. to bedaub. a log. clogs. I doda clod.

of thumping clumsy action. and of a rustic unpolished person. a ball. when something has got into the touch-hole. dabaire. to strike . knob. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. clue. as Fr. ball of thread Russ. Du. klumpfot. the terms expresssplit. a knot of people. clump of a clout on the head. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . G.). ON. matte.D. make warm.D. Clump. kloete. but confounded with cailler. clumhar.). klieven. a clown. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. are also used in the sense of a stopper. eine to slop. esdaboter (Roquef. to curdle. lumps of curd. strike. clump. sticky. shel- kloen. log. I. also homo obtusus. Club. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. Du. a fissure.bar. clammy earth. piece Cot. unpolished. klump. N. To Cluck.D. kluV.). Mabousfrom Lat. group of people Sw. caillebottes. sheltered up warm.158 . clobyn. a ball. a . de Champ. a log. (kruyd =. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. and closely do conspire. from Du.' Sanders. Fr. coarse. lump. nagelein. clothe. Kiittner. formed lump or thick mass. klonte. dys. dial. kluppe. and tapp. The priClout. to cleave. cluster. klubbe. Du. and clout d eudaich. to lump mend clumsily.). tuft. In the same way E. warm. daggy. to cherish. a bunch. to a lump. . lump. motte. little nails. klu77ip. choke or stop up. bunch. warm. knob. a nail. clunch. The significations of a clod or lump. lump of earth aria. klever. Pl. hebes (Kil. dabosser. to stop. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. cludaim. klebek. The radical sense seems to be an unE. a clove of garlick. a lump. klqb. from kloven. Sw. a breach. warm place . rustic. a clod. zolla. mary sense is a blow. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. klubb. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. from OFr. Dan. spice) G. a sky Cot. klotsen. clot. dial. a cover or coverture . aglio. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. Cloud. clod is used in both senses . clunch. dut. of nagel. kldverj P1. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. Das volk hat sich in splitten. a ball of twine . of sloppy materials. klunds. klubb. AS. the air. a boss. klotz. a clot or keeps one warm. mass. kloven. tered . Move. Ir. Gael. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). block. . clod. dump. a ball. to cover Bret. More in R. indispalte knoblauch. klcBdi. klaven. — . signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. Met. clothes). cloud Delfortrie. wisp. chiodo di girofano. E. and clay. cludadh. . zolla dell' . to cleave or the splashing of water.Fris. A division of a root of garlick. Imitative of the note of a society. G. a log. with lout. clotted milk or cream. A kind of spice resembling Du. botsen. warm clothes {dillad. CLOUD an awkward clod . Gael. mud (Pat. clothes ment. So Fr. cluth mhor.clod. mire. klove. a bunch. milk run to lumps. a clubfoot klabb. ON. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. ser. Clover. a clod or clot. to strike. E. clyd. a patch. to beFr. CLUCK rustic. a bunch. clou de girofle. are often connected. To Cloy. Cld. blockish. Du. lie clyd. a bousche. w. botch. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. del mattond. puddle. dial. dob. een klaven kruflook. boucher. . a nail) Fr. AS. a garthas. a curdled sky. clydion. a blabber. probably from daboter. clavo di especias. clot. It. duthaich. and -the word Clove. klumba. a. loggish. to cloy. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. a lump. sheltered . dash (Cot. . Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. cobble. from W. G. cob. E. cobio. From dog. — — — . eene ODu. klubba. Clumpered in balls of clouds. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. Rouchi dapoter. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. Sw. Du. Properly that which covers and Du. nelke (dim. a thick mass. klobbersaen. kUid. lunch). klotzig. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . naegel. davus. in the same sense. of a lump of earth and that figure. nourish . 2.ft. G. a bobbin. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. clog. Then applied to a lump of mate. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. to splash. dote. stock. Sp. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. Clown. kl'dnne. dillad bumkin. Du. a sticky. dirt. lump. clot . clods. . to tramp in the kluyve. w. diboter.

carriage in which you klodset. clook. klos. idle. klumpig. eviratus. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. klunt. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. and klotteren. gelidus. hand to cleuk. koetsDa. -olus-. G. log. to pinch. to stick together . ball as snow. exclude. to collect in lumps.P. enervatus.D. klontet.— — . hooknosed. eviratus. Du. Fris. a claw. The Fr. might be reached from clump. -elude. dial. Fr.D. calling her chickens. klcise. —More. kol. awkward. in comp. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material.D. claws. klampa. dumpse. Sp. an instrument for nasal form e. klikaty. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. from laver. dial. klikonosy. The sense of awkward. inclusive. hondis. See reclusion. . to tramp. A group. dek. klister. In the same way Du. Riwle. to shut. Variation of clatter. G. of Du. klamen. to curdle. properly to do anything Fr. cleik. lavesen. clointer. Du. klunsen. ill-made . ment. Teulazy. to syllable click. ether comelia P. smart motion. kluntfrom KKvKdi. Lincolns. of garlick. klods. are the nasalised forms of klotte. a clod clunter. paste. a lump. dussomed (Wilbrabam).D. cliboter. koetsie. -clus-. Du. dek. Pm. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. verklomen. -cludo. dystere. -close. klonte. Ang. to wash. from klupen. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. 130. to grip. a litter. the word is more probably connected with OE. to paddle or dabble. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . See -elude. duke. lay hold of. unfashioned. Hindust. awkward. Du. Clutch. koetblockish. Champ. close. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. seize. Hence snatching. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. Pl. klompen. differing only in the absence of the duik. .mene tied. OE. a clot klissen.e. Compare Swiss klupe. — Cot. a bunch. klont. cluntClyster. to lie. a couch. benumbed with cold. viscous material. dumps. a nasalised form of club. as clumper. bunch. From the notion of sticking together. Hesse. and klonteren. kichlemmit.forklomme (Outzen). ' Clumper. or from Sw. klimpern. acomelydfor could Pr. also a cluster. Hence cleik. Fr. OHG. with E. crooked inwards . unhandy. Coach. Clump. Beklummen van kelde. MHG. But clunchy. — ' — — tonista. through the senses of lumpish. a clod or The noclot. 159 E. — . klobber in klobbersaen. Muster. thick and clumsy. to curdle. klump. klummklummshandt. lump of soft mate.E. Analogous forms with a tongs. tight — — . plad or plod. or aclommyde. clabosser. wooden sole. Lat. a pinching time. klomen. obstructum. unwieldy Hal. beklommen. koetsen. from ON. ' . clip or pinch. limp. coccolare. Sw. a coach. Com. n. to curdle. G. —To Clumsyd. clotted cream.pare P1. Clutter. strum on an instrument. splash. klocken. heavily. Cath. Sc. klumpern. Pl. a clove Sw. — sen. Gr. Lat. with a quick. may recline. to rinse. havi. hands stiff with cold. a noise. doquear. klamp. beklummen. klonte. dial. pinched. clutch. E. Cluster. as from seken. to gingle. klemmen. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. Isaiah. glocire. claudo. It. pladdern. in v. kohle. -CLUDE hen Du. to tramp or tread heavily. dial. cleuk. a block. xXvariip. coucher became in unhandy. a clod or lump. a clod or lump. wooden shoes. cleche. Ray.Ancr. MHG. — Hence include.D. and make ye strong feeble knees. Fr. to tramp. clopiner. &c. . ' Thou clontsest for cold. unhandy. esclaboter. klette. and koetse. clausum. klummerhdndt. to to snatch. algidus. as Fr. Boh. having the Pl. ON. . COAL dumpish. claw. clutch. eene beklum. conclusion. Graff in Klamjan. * Clump.'— animal. er. dumpers. to klotz. ball of snow on horse's foot . finish. -clusum. G. klemma. ' Uorte (for clogs. Cheshire.' Wycliff. to squeeze. Coal. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. E. a ball . Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. a ball. rial. Sw.. clump. wagen. Du. a lump or compact mass. * Clumsy. to benumb with cold. verkommelen. cluster. conclude. to wash. whence koetse.' Vegecius in Way. glousser. fingers (familiar). to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. clumsy.' Benecke. klisse.' Comfort ye dumsid. a lump. klomje.

to cobble shoes. Dan. a kitchen. a woodlouse. e. and jval. pryf-coppyn. dial. long standing. * To Cobble. Coalition. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. rivation are found in Sw. as shown in dob and cob. used in — . s. dim. are often connected. dial. Coalesce. a crea. caleo. dial. The dirt. staggering or halting. Flem. habble. The contrast between the bee • Cob. to worship. or cobble. It. — — — E. cacd). to wheedle or gull vermin). niais. 3. frock. cluster. top cobio. a darling. pustule. to speak or act confusedly. large stones . is one of thump. bijamie. also a coast. a spider. tempered clay for building. ailina or colina. to kindle jvAla. sweets and the other of poisons. a spider (/r)^=grub. coalesce. walk clumsily. Trevoux. ignem. as in arr.). Sanscr. to stutter. and E. — Pr. of poison. the one of thump. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. unfledged bird. . Formerly written course. a pock mark. s. to glow . cochinilla. of E. numb. united. woman is said to be very ordinary. boil. inflammation. a bungler.— Cobble. When the . to bungle Sc. small pox (pocks) . pockbecility and liability to imposition. CooMneal. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. are round stones or round coals of small size. See Cot. cob. to peck as a hen cobyn. cotte. an egg. in Essex Jow*2c^. . and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. to kindle or cause to burn . to beCoax. and imperfect or unskilful action. E. Fr. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. Colina' the place where a fire is made. glowing embers. Fr. Cocasse. kolna. cokes or fool of him.. flame. that is. of E. gull. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. properly to daub. T' waerkopet. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. dial. broddelen. e. To cobble. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. H^cart. side . to burn. a bunch. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. nursery lang. any kind of coat. meaning that she is plain and coarse. . to form an union with another coalitus. — Cleveland Gl. Sp. a knock. koppe. to knock. according to the ordinary run of events. burning. cob. Lat. quilet.. large coals. a nest. then to work unskilfully . cobble. . It. things.. to stammer. throw a blow. a rib. and fig. of cochina. OE. may be A found in Sw. gull. probably from the Fr. verklomen. a sow. kop.the water boils. a firesteel Lat. — — . a large round nut cobstones. and hobble. pustule. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. dial. niais. cofasse. Fin. says Varro. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. and thence a lump cobnut. spinne-ivebbe. a coat or frock. Coat. v. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. cob is a dumpy horse. to strike. to . give the full meaning of the word. a thumper. to stutter. and the spider as collectors. A plausible origin. klabbsmed. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. kop-ar. koljarn. an old idiot. grown together. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. hakkelen. glow. probably left his home.. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . Du. however.' And colo. cokes was a simpleton. w. Du. klabbare. Coast.). Fr. imbecille. Cobbles in the N. quele. cule cocosse. verkommelen. kylla. a cobweb. to hobble