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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. the baaing of the sheep. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. persons of different tongues at the present day.NURSERY IMITATIONS. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. name of the cow. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. when we is represent to our children of the cow. to the syllables which are significant to the child. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. The syllables moo (mu. mind of the of the animal. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. is given to a cow or calf. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. muK) and mae (rfie. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. in other words. and mully or mully cow is the . or. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. when neither name for the object to be designated. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. the present day. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. come Moolls. the closer we shall approach to the . some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. by whom the be understood. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. or Mollein. in language of the present day. and. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. with an initial m or I. Molli. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. and where we are seeking.

I had watched the growth of this word. then. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. nineteen years old. repulsive to eat. fiafifi&v (Hesych. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. by the natural humming sound. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. First. 72).' he says. &c. had nim. schipp. nim. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. for everything fit to eat.' In ordinary speech mump. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. as well as the mind of the utterer. . which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. to eat. p. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. partly from sounds which the child caught. when hungry. to work over with the mouth. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. He would now say good. for things. Heinicke. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. hm. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. Gr. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. and some were very clear and distinct. mumm. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. his nurse adopting the word with him. family. analogous to Magyar mammogni.. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation.). But soon the growing mind began to generalise. Gradually. to For instance. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. he called to to drink. for bad. Finally an n was placed before it. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. . in children's language. became more perfect. We have. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. and nim came to signify everything edible. A member of my own new sfop.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. On one occasion he said^e nim. and which we might express thus. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating.

jumla. clangorqae tubarum. Africa) nimnim. Soosoo (W. aptantes adfectibus vocem. on. to smack in eat. eating. 1 86). snatched (Whitby Gl. buckra man's language the white man. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. j ing . to mump. and the fizzing (and Series. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. namnam. palatable. A negro proOr.' And Diomedes. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. oves lalare. Galla djam djeda. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). to be pleamind . Africa) nimi. Nimm'd up. Primitive Culture.). mumpfen. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. sweet (Koelle). chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen).' says Quintilian. savory. iii. jamsa (yamsa). to eat mampfen. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. and thence to be tasteful. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. voracious.minis. greedy . (in chil- dren's language). mumpfeln. Vei (W. dial. p. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. mumble. crab nam buckra man.' — Lersch. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. and the crab — p.' says the author of Modern Slang. to fill the mouth.ONOMATOPCEIA. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . to chew laboriously. to move the lips in continued chewing. South Jutland hiamsk. . as well as the Sw. ' id est.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. nobis vix permittitur. to take. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. stolen. 130-1. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. nam. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. to eat. or word-making. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. to Sw. i. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. lita. ' Motherwell. aves tinnire. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . mujnpa. taken up hastily on the sly. agreeing with Ein. at hiamske i sig. Wolof nahenahe. the Scotch poet. nvrnma. Swedish dialect gamsa. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). we can call them so. as to . i8o. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. Gothic niman. delicacies. and some of them . nyam nyam. yamming. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). jammla. food (Tylor. to taste . make djamdjam). memmexen. tidbits nama . consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. ut tinnitus aeris. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one.

lowing of oxen. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. howling. when circumstances required. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. but of a dog.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. or thoughts of our hearer. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. cooing or crooing of doves. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world.' — We speak of a cow. twittering of swallows. 'I doubt. chirping of sparrows or crickets. hooting of owls. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. yelping. bleating of sheep. grunting or squealing of hogs. yelping. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. neighing or whinnying of horses. snarling. 89) with less hesitation. sparrow and chirping. dove and cooing. baaing or maeing of lambs. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. Yet we ing. cackling or gaggling of geese. that there is When Man. anything connected with it. or. gobbling of a turkey-cock.' And elsevs^here (p. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . whether it deserves the name of language. between dog and harking. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. chattering of pies or monkeys. might be used. purring or mewing of cats. ^6^. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. croaking of frogs or ravens. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. und growling. do not speak of a bowwow. before the in other words. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. a lamb. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. We . might be used as the designation of it.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals.' he says. not of a baa. p. not of a moo of Lect. bellowing of bulls. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. snarling of dogs. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. for the purpose of bringing the animal. intended in the instance to represent the cry. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. barking. bumping of bitterns. Indeed.

We imitate the sound with a modulated. Columbia kahkah. kauwe. layitavya . roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces.' kd). a a crier (p. and gaggele or gagkelein. Bav. Barabra koka. sound). in g. fi-om apakd- i. In Basque. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. Origines Indo-Europeennes). Arabic kdk. kuho.' common sense. and Bavaria respectively. ist ed. a daw. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. In Lat.. coccolare. according to Durga). Picard cau. Kdrava. 'Kdka. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. Sauscr. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock.). this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. Malay gdgak. 380. e. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. lion. KOKKvi. crow. birds. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). caller. Hungary. a crow (Pictet). derived fi-om a root ru or kru. Sometimes the hoarse i . and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages.).IMITATIVE NAMES. crow. a bird that is be driven away. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. and means a shouter. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. ghak. is kuM) for the cuckoo. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. or quawk. having a general predicative power. caw kuhii-rava (rava. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. kae. Georgian quaki. 4th ed. gackem. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. in is Gr. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. a crow. Aoo-Aoo. 349. it announces (Salaberry). whose sound (Pictet. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. Manchu The kaha. He to is therefore derives kdka. kdka. and the sound of that direction. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name.

Esthonian kikkas. kruk. lulo. korren. kukko. coqueri- Languedoc. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. to crow. to croak. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. kraukti. kukhuta. tor. It. or Gr. cock. gugu. Albacuculi a dove. t. tbrtora. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. 219. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. either in the same or in related dialects. lilits. Scotch peeweip. German and Eng- krahen. Heb. Hindi. Mod.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. giving turtur (and thence It. The consonants p. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. Walachian coucouveike.Gr. krauklys. Zulu kuku. Dutch kievit. "Welsh hwan from hwa. and e. French dishuit. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. another. turtle) as the Lat. name of its is the bird. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. koeren. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . coccovaec.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. lUyrian kukurekati. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. while crouk.. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. So we have Polish krukac. p. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. tuquheit. teewhoop. hibou. uhu. the name for a crow. to hoot. Pers. to croak. xi. Arabic tdtwit. by the verbs gurren or girren. tur. girre. Sp. to crow. Da. k. German luhu. coucouva. tbrtola. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. tortbla. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. and sometimes both together. 6. krahe. a crow. kraeye. Magy. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. kraeyen. synonymous forms of similar structure). yell. kurre. The crowing of cot in Fr. to cry loudly. great variety of oKokv^uv. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. Malay kukuk. German kielitz. Ibo akoka. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. and e. name.. gufo. kuku. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. Lettish kiekuts. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. Yoruba koklo. Du. the name of an animal will gen- . plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. a crow . ghughu. libufs. in the North of England. a crow lish Lith. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Du. Swedish kowipa. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . to howl or Lat. as well as of Sanscr. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. wood-pigeon. Fr. kirren. reduplicate form. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. are represented.

' Sanscr. to rustle. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . Danish gnaddre. kong-kong. from the humming. a bee. e.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. Sanscr. common. swirplys with 6. humming. with or Fr. of England it is to the b 2 . Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. g. a drone. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. sirkka.vf3. as . shrill. the drone or non-working bee . bamba. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. cricket is from crick. Lat. or a gnat fly. resound. loud rumour. ' — Pictet . hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal.or bumble-bee. German drohne. in allusion to its music. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. words imitative of humming . may Thus sharp chirp of the insect.IMITATIVE NAMES. succeeding each other — with noise.' Amazons. g. In the N. g. Northern Farmer. buzzing. 337. i. Albanian tsentsir. a sharp sound as of a 6. The Welsh chwyrnu. schirke. a small as hawk is . growling.' — i. The name of the cricket indeed. dhran. to shrill sound sharp. whirr).' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. and he kong-ko-rong. skryle. and yelping cry. ajo. a beetle druna. PofijivXwg. flight its sting considered as a horn. knetta. from schrick. there are infinite varieties. skril with n. Fin. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. droning is . to hum. ta-na-nd. German hummel. to grumble. to be compared with Sanscr. (Jieuschrecke) . give a faint sound. We may cite Gr. a hornet. to chirp J may be compared with . Lith. which they make in their flight very . Speaking of a cricket he says. gives rise to chwymores. The drone peal. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. Naturalist on the tocano. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. bambhara. oE. grillen. representing a short sharp sound. Australian bumberoo. to sound. Gaelic dranndan. chirk. German dronen. pip-pi-ta. to chirp . little intermission.' —Tennyson. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. and probably indicates that g. to creak Bret. thunder. glass cracking (Schmeller). and not from E. North of England. zirken. 'The natives call it tanand. schrickel. Arabic tantanat. din. schwirren. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. hollow noise. horniss and from the buzzing The. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. Danish dron. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. skirl. buzzing. the humble. booming. — Catafogo. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). a fly (Tylor) . bee. resounding of musical instruments. grylhis. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. grille. The Arabic sarsor. sound. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. Corean sirsor. Sc. schrecke. Lithuanian tranas.

bukati. Thus from miau. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. bull. From baa. to boohoo. or moo. verbal form given to the say. Fr. the animal. buculus. Lat. to shout. to make a noise. Lat. be-l-er. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. Lat. amuse. Gael. bugle. On the same principle. Cult. whence baula. bae. bue. representmake bow. Norse bu. bwla. a bull. bos. btibleti. muJiati. w. make poo. The Galla lilbil. in a imitation of a ringing sound. bu. a bullock. OFr. loge. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. as that of the cow by boo. has bilbilgoda. From the same lioao). representing the mew of a cat. mamoo-heeheek. to low . to the uses goda. a Geiger. mugire. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). mugler. and from to ring. and thence Lat. the Fr. to bow- own bawl. bovis. bo. Fr. and in Hottentot baa was the . as the Illyr. bullock. maukati. 167. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. from the imitative moo instead of boo. to or bark. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. w. that the imitative syllable are Lith. or with on. His analysis leads cow. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. to shout. a heifer. to low. to bump as a bittern Illyr. a drum . The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. Hottentot bou (Dapper). make to it laugh. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. Galla boa. to sound. — ^Tylor. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to make. shoot . to make. The Piedm. say. to . cattle. boo. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. forms a. fivKaofiai. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. bubenti. to ba-L-are. are (with a subsidiary k). in same way. baula. or bau-l-i. bucula.XX called booing. biibnas. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. bauli. bae. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. to bellow like a bull. to weep. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. ox. p. With these analogies. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. a buffalo. bugler. or formed Lat. bolt. bullus and e. lulauti (to hoo-loo). agreeing exactly with Lith. Piedmontese fi bau. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. a cow. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. mae. verb is evidently identical with our shout. to low or bellow. Manx booa. or a z to the imitative syllable. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. and djeda. miau-l-er. Illyr. is inadmissible. to from bau. to make a loud deep sound. It. k or g. bubati. Zulu lulula. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. (iove. grumble as distant thunder . Da. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. to beat hard. to mew.

karra. Magy. meketati.' Moor's Suffolk words. /xj/caScj. a. Manx meilee. And it is true there between hog and grunt. a hog. a dog. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. this obstinate race. ^. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. it and e. to growl. grunny. and grumphie. lambs. a sow. and of (maelon). corresponding to ohg. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. sound. Illyr. sheep or goat. grumble. a goat. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. hundi). mekegni. name of a sheep. in Wolof bae. grumbhng. for the voice of the ox). /xijeao/iat. may be identical with Esthon. With gen. Idgge (Rietz). Welsh and Breton). to grunt. growl. leknuti. (iriKov of forms like Sw. meil. It. Hence Breton hoc ha. a wolf. nire. mecati. and snorke. hadg- Magy. Gael. grumpf. rumbling. a sheep (Lowe). kurre. Gr. and thence groin. lecco. menAda (ndda. we have Sanscr. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. he would hardly. groin. hund. although the imitation embodied in Lat. a goat firixal^ta. goats. Illyr. grunlike a pig in eating. name. signifying a snarling. to howl. by which the shingle gives rise to It. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. Da. a pig Fin. as the proper name of a tame sheep. from knurre. meugler. does not produce a e. and hoc'h. hunt (gen. a grunt. or in any ! way ! persuading.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. to rumble. purr). to grunt. name of the animal itself. hound. leg-et-ni. oe. . Fr. grogner. 6. undoubtedly imitative. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. ' In driving. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. Kurren und murren. lekavica. lek-eg-ni. cite as by grunt. a sheep or ewe. a sheep or a goat. It is probable also that e. in v. cry). Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. knurfisk. meckern. to bleat . and Circassian maylley. / The same Gr. houch. a pig. — . ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a goat. smack and naski. and with the subsidiary k or g.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Illyr. to themselves. a (Hesych. the designations of a dog the term cur. hwch. from hundama. grunt. Gr. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. sus-sus. . showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. guttural tone. G. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter.). Gr. Among dog. kurren. grugno. mutter. Africa laa. a sheep. as lou of an ox. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. Fr. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. . to bleat. to bleat. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. Moreover. The g. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. hunon. curmurring. grumble. the snout of a pig. naskia. meigeal. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. From the imitative mae. may with to snarl. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. a sow. with the root ypaipm.

). without a — we root. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. such as cuckoo. a little am- bling horse. to the left. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). a mare. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal.. coquette. to whine. There are of course some names. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. Thus we are led to the Fr. of the character in question. hobby. hoppe. Sc. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot.. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. M). turn a horse to the is In Finland. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. humma. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. 91. p. the cry to stop or back a horse. But words of this kind are. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. like artificial flowers. coquelicot. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. cockade. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. a horse. . to go backwards. So Sanscr. houpy in Craven. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. ^6<. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. as in Yorkshire highly right. p. hottihuh. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. hiine. from the cry animal. . Esthonian hoibo. g. If onomatopoeias can .). (Craven Gloss. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. when he found peculiarity. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. hobben. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee.root.' 2nd Series. e. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. animal. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt.' — ist Series. hobin.' ticular bird.

With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. form corresponding hresh. wrena. moan. hross. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. woodpecker. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. giggle. xxiii ginal object. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. little speak for themselves. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. rinchar. hresh. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. Sw. nitrire. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. fehtati. as sigh. Sp. Bohem. hukkup. Irieschen. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Indian It is not unlikely that the on. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. hikkd. redpole. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. wrenska. g. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. whitename in in- throat. wagtail. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. hresh. wiehern. diver. but whether there kind between them and other words. to Sanscr. lapwing. cough. creeper. to neigh. frenschen. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. signified It. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. sol. command of language was attained. Pl. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. Sanscr. nounced with a guttural). it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. swift. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. hennir. than to the sounds represented. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. runniken. ance or habits of the animal. goatsucker. e. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. . titter. Lettish sweegt. animals or certain kinds of sound. horse. groan. Fr. ginniken.D. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. Du. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing.

mer. pump. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. beat of a clock child . &c. pit-a-pat. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. lumm. shriek.' it both sides went. . knarr. 1865. strippstrapp-stroll. ting-ting. snukkup). by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. wheeze. went the cannon. Of a like forma- drum . klatsch. for the sound of milking. beat. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. or the w. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . aritischane. ding. a kind of drum.' So imac. Da. debhes-lungotais (deifies. plitsch-platsch. Wtb.' 'Haw. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. for blows with a rod. fitsche-falsche. haitshu. root kshu. It is represented in e. Zulu bongo. snore. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. —Brem. haw. ping came the bullets about their ears. oren : Klapp. atchini. clap ! A smack Puff. to knock. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga.' ! ! ! ! — dong. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. in a nail Let. Australian bungbung ween. tisio (tisho). familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. bang. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. — Sanders. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. to drive on.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. atchian. thunder (Tylor) . to ham. tlirob. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. to sneeze. the dashing of the sea . banga. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. to throw violently down. for the sound of a fall. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. for a small one. snort.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. for the for the sound of . or tliat is accomit. bangas. &c. banke. for that of breaking. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. are familiar in ' to every one. White Lies. hoo. knack. to hammer . hoo ping ping. for in such sound of blows. an attempt would be made to by the voice. on the chops is represented also by pratx. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. heart tick-tack.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . a large bell. for the creaking of a wheel. dong Read. Vei gbangba. heaven). DingBang. the God of thunder . hang. a more expressive than the e. bang ' ! trenches. scream. Mei gbengben. for the sound of a blow. to beat.

At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. as the simplest implement for proFr. a fowler's bird call is lost. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. as k. and their relations. which he added to intensify the expression. pigione. doubtless. laugh. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. as in other subjects of study. is pfeife. a whelp. child. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. has been un- employed to designate fixity. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. a (young) pigeon. to peep It. piccione. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. pippione. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. part of the What consciousness has the child. pipilo. a fife or musical pipe. the voice of chickens (Cot. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. to cheep like a bird or a young It. He Yet asks. pigolare. of a word will appear supposed to represent. Magyar pip.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. piou. bleat. and so forth. young child . being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. cry. G. is of expression. . ducing the sound. In cases such as these. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. pipe. and whimper. Lat. —Lyndsay. Lat. to cry like imrli^u). peep. Mantuan pipiare. Gr. De Brosses. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. pipelni. pigiolare. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. to squeak. pipe.) a chick. cry of young birds . Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. piauler. used as a call to . — . To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. far pipi. Fr. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. young bird. peep. The pi. had been used laugh ? two. piou. pi. pipio. not- . or the uneducated different consonants are man. pule. Florio. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. e. pu. a chicken or gosling. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. It seems to him that the teeth t. pipare. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. pipegni. calls S.' instead. mobility excavation and hollow ^.sc. chickens (Tylor). or a piailler. to cry pi. scream. a or cheep. to designate cavity and hollow. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. pipio.

it is If laugh were written as pronounced. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. Manchu kaka-kiki. to grumble. or kaka-faka. borrelen. murmur (by . In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. rumble (Fl. Zulu raraza. cricli. to jar. kirkirdnd. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. murren.Gr. rumble. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. be cate to go on laughing loud . to hawhaw or laugh loud. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. rumble. as the click of a latch or a trigger. creak. vaake gorgor) .) Mod. Pefuxela. to be compared with Sc. to grate the teeth . Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. chack. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to crackle like in boiling . a sharp short one. along with Du. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham.. It. a. karkarana. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). Pacific aka-aka. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . a closed or obscure sound. coo. Poppopvi^to. to growl. knuks. to pant bejii- zela. {to It. to cry pi. a drum W. bubble. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. crash. laqfF. of a loud strong sound. thunder oil . sound). To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. . Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. kniks. to ring pipio. or springing back. to laugh. to gorgogHare rattle. make wood a clinking noise. when it force than biscuit. crack. to rattle. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. tonare. of something fine and thin. some small vowel or consonantal sound. where the variation. Indian chack-chack. . to gurgle. lachachen. preserved by Kilian. kniks. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. to gargle . loud laughter. the clucking of a j hen . to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. a prolonged sharp sound. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . to grumble). to pant violently (Colenso). Hindustani karak is rendered. like the noise of a glass breaking . xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. grumble. to bubble. to creak knirren. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). along with tinnio. Hindoo tomtom. kuruk. to fizz like fat in frying. girren. lachen.. gurren. turtur. knurren. as representing the sound made when something breaks. tontonare. garren. to clack. i. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . ioriogliare (to make borbor). and lugh.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. sound of dry breaking. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. knaks. to thunder. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. to cluck. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. cluck. pi . u. is very common. a short sharp sound. &c. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. tintino. the side of g. in German.

a nightingale.and e. and bilhila. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . wail. simmer. clank. clash of arms. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. The whispering of the wind I. hala-hald-faMa (falda. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. Tiie Galla gigiteka. to ring or jingle. or the bubbling up of to a spring. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. make djamdjam). jangle. and her heart went thump. borrelen. e. tumult. The syllables lil-bil. champ. Sanscr. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. rvir (in tvittio. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. the sound of a stringed instrument. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. chinking of coin. koXiw. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. sound). at an accelerated note. bad. noise. 1871. cry. for a tTviror). and Gr. klirren. for the clinking Lat. Newman). muro and e. a workman. for chut-chiit-er. identical with g. kiling-kalang. box on the ear imitation of the . has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. especially one who beats. rifiirayov. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. . 192). croaking of frogs. tumwata. while cacd / used in e. for the sound of privy whispering. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . is based on the same imitation as the e. to knock. halaidlac'h. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. thump. of keys or tinkling of bells. as Fr. bubble up. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. tup. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. to be compared with g. or of bells ringing. to beat. and e. Magyar csamm-ogni. Calt. and Gr. rain (Tylor. caca and Finnish adkkd. bulbiil. correspond to e. are applied to the is excrements of children. spring of water in the a bell. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. Prim. Fr. a nightingale. kl'mg-kling. ding-dong. for the ringing of illustrate bells. 368). and the same may be said of Zulu kala. to whisper. the gingling of glasses. sound. chut. csam-csogni. shout.' Member for Paris. to strike. Manchu kaka. chuchoter. Maori pata. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. is Manchu tang-tang. a boy's whistle. to the purling of a brook. jingle. and the imitative nature of tivgle. drops of i. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). fumtu. Turk. uproar. word. coughing or clearing the throat. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. the tingling Ming-Hang. to say chut. disturbance (F.* the heart. corresponding in e. as of Tamil muromurmur. KaKog. clango. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. Hindustani bhadbhad trees.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. brings us to Fr. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. to giggle. awater* ' The Mme P. Galla tuma. agrees with g. quarren. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. a drum . djeda (to say tub). indicating the origin of Gr. E. clink. Scotch sough or sooch. bent her head. tubh. compared with Gr. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. . call. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. a smith. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. or to Du.

crack. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. and Grimm. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. puff. answering to g. whine. murmur. clash. and Fr. smash. snap. ring. while e. chatter. clack. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows.' — Nohden. parapatapan. to dance. creak. splutter. The beating of drum is represented in e. a applied as well to the force of the bang. tinkle. din. brumberum. tingle. The use of g. guggle. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. Humboldt. whack. Nevertheless. for (Sanders). at a door tarapatan. gurgle. twang. crunch. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. So in Fr. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. whirr. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. crash. report of a gun. blow. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. sputter. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. tap. without the intervention of orthodox roots. squeal. rumble. dabble. thump. blubber. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. paddle. w. and soufflet. It. bang. by rubadub. mutter. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. thwack. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. tomber. jingle. tymmesll. whizz. douse. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. rattle. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. boom. bubble. clink. ' Der puff. clatter. tum-ultus. to is blow. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. tumbian (to beat the ground). patter. according to the strictest phonetic rules. plump. craunch. smack. clang. swash. pop. the Germans puff. clank. flop. gargle.. dash. Fr. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. rap. chink. and the French pouf.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. clap. it is fallj AS. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. souse. fizz. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. thump. hiss. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. rataplan or rantanplan. hum. or v^hether jectional. disturbance. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. thump. flap. squall. in e. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. splash. But although and also found in Lat. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. squeak. 'pat. lash. to fall. we have buffet or cuff. slash.

'. little who has time to want of her nurseling. ugh . At the first beginning of life. in the rushing waters. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. Grimm or Bopp. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. are made known by an instinctive cry. and thus they become signs of despair.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. every little pain. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. 94. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. If. the kind of action that is desired of them. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. and uttering plaintive sounds. the interj. the inteij. in the case of the animal or of the infant. that he has taken the step in rational speech. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. because they are spontaneous. p. xxix on the contrary. or any unsatisfied want. hay. or stubble is meaner name. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. Crying. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. by the nature of the cry. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. without a thought of symbolising to them. but if we must not complain on the beach. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. formerly cited. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . and found in the building of be burnt up. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires.' If chaos. wringing the hands. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. is Thus ah!. or of any if wood. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. stractions. grief. knows them. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct.' . but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. an imitation of a sigh . of horror. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair.

and the eye. p. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. may become traditional. groaning. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. they are involuntary interjections. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. as who them spontaneous utterances. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. the lowing of a cow. more eloquent than a long speech. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. interjections. ^6g And to the same effect 371. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed .' — ist Series. If I wish to make a person of an . should be remem- . passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. He says. Language begins where interjections end.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. more to the point.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. to solve the I shall call first. or which is of me as suffering pain. p. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. shrieking.. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. he cites from Home Tooke. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow.' p. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. 32. One short interjec- tion may fact. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. which are frequently so toned down cance. sneezing. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. them to exercise it. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. be more powerful. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. and some of them the composition of words. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. 344. of all the mouth. And again. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. coughing.

because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. and others from interjections. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. he says. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. it them. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. Kayxa^u). I am not hearer. in Fin. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. and thus. hahota. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. hahottaa.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. loud laughter. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. and more or less limited . in Magy. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. cachinno. demolishing here. kahkahah. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. Gr. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. when I arp humming and hawing. speaking. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. Lat. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. but the less am at a loss what to say. bered. Koxafw. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. interjections. some kind of language might have been formed. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. for example. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. Tooke in truth. hohottaa. then speech begins.

have understand them studying as claim to consideration. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. if taken as a whole. the critical question should be. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. ideas by a rude outline-gesture.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. and not. The following account is given by Kruse. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. But here nature soon conies to his help. makes them stand and walk upon the table. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. like peewit and cuckoo. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. Though. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. and go where we now say stand. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. words receiving the meanings they now bear. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. It as has ing their most striking features. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. of the world. And so in the case of language. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. . of the nature of this great movement.' he says. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. What strikes him . their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. a Picture-language. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. a deaf-mute himself. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. dumb is the language of signs. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures.

and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. becomes roast meat. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. and gestures. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and it is flesh or meat. or the verb to be. for child. such as than the educated man. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. and forms further and further. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. can do better and more easily abstract terms. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. for walk. and fully serves to j . for single objects. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. most striking outline of an object. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. The same sign stands and the act itself. and to taste. for the agent. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. nay. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands.GESTURE most. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and we have roast goose. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. xxxiii him between one thing and another. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. to name. it means little. but if I depress it instead. that air. that signifies great . that. as it now opens out. particular sense in properly so called. push it towards the person addressed for thou. The of sign for left hand. like a V. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. he. called Gesture-language. thou. walkest. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. it seems. thought is already broken. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. And is. signs are taught for yet. what more. the whole secret. among themselves. and And thus he makes himself a language. and with his thought. the sorecalling them to his memory. his action. he. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say.' In the Institutions. walked. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. such objects. many when or but these.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. the lan- guage cultivates itself. walker. or To pull and flap with the arms.

He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. it called an interjection. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. a number of alternatives are suggested. When a verb. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. You beaten . in fact. substantive or adjective. or action. or something of the kind. or an act. and the as. He gave door a bang. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. would be simply beginning of speech. might be the knife. according to the circumstances of the case.xxxiv asking. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. and so is an adverb. qualifies the against the wall. . The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. I say. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. as when Bang ! went the gun. as in die it is a noun. whether by additions or otherwise. when I say. or a passive scene of existence. or a quality. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. the ture of white term pink is and red. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. and thus performs the part of an adjective. depend entirely upon the use. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. to indicate the action of a certain person. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. putting it into his pocket. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. Who is has beaten you ? would be.' dener's knife. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. When I say. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. a colour red. as But when it is meant door. Do not bang the it is a verb. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. The same word . in other instances sentence. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. the garden.

as kuo cung. or with elements expressing relations of time.^ — Miiller I. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. Latin. &c. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. which is an old y ting (use stick).. pain. commencement of speech. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. wonder. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. a sigh of oppression and . The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. 255. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. that is. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. inside. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. in the is indicated by the syllable y. that admits itself in of audible representation. verb nor noun has yet been developed. a noun. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. inquiry. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. grie^ horror. contempt. . wherefore. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. the man is great. and may be used language. and to be great. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. whereof. some outward display of the affection. Jii ta. wherehy. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. with a stick. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. Thus tafu signifies a great man. greatness. but often self-evident. or nei. a groan. in the sense of great. coalesces with the personal pronouns. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. as cung. or some relation between it and another object. wherewith. middle. whereto.

wehen (Schmeller). guai. or r. ai. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. pain. e. oh. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. Gr. The form corresponding to Lat. Gael. first person. ! ! Goth. on. w^wa. form. to yell formed e. ochan. is Ay di me I Gr. It. to chirp. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. och. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. It.. dchzen. la. wai-l. oh. Lat. suffering. ohg. Thus from springs otjucifw. . when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. g. Illyr. to gargle. A widespread It. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. woe. is w. achen. miau-n-is. to rriourn. waiidt. g. woe. ochain. to hurt Let. . Bret. mew. guaj- or cry out pitifully. pain. vce. axofiai. ocAJ. ah. wd. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. gwae. the pangs of childbirth. probably a deeper groan.-l-are. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. tirr-djeda. a groan or lamentation vir. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. ach. in Gr. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). oval. djamdjam goda (goda. j. to do woe. found in g. to ache. Jar lau-lau. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. gwe-l-a. and to bark . aiai^to. to weep. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. grief. seen in Gr. die wehen. to bewail oneself. to cause pain. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. wAwa. gwae. o'i. as. has more kopfweh. ache. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. lau-l-e. Gr. to cry n. to make bow-wow. representing a cry of pain. to make). are ol-ire. . och. weh schreien. grief. . hei. w. ach. pain. Lat. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. n. ui.'). on. jaoh. to wail or cry alas . (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. xxxvi grief. grief] affliction. vce. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. It. weh. to injure. miau-l-er. Gr. guaj-ire. och. to groan. to lament. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. vei-a. jao. Such are g. oi. to wail. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. Illyrian vaj. ah. cece. oimare. ing action I. as. ace. ohi. . e. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. Fr. weinen. and cacak djeda (to say crack. to weep. wai. mostly a ! %. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. In this way from the root guai. al. howl. at the close of the radical syllable. misfortune. to lament. misery. &. wehthun. ach. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. 6.ez. vaj. representing Illyr. to ache. w. guajo. miau-l-is. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. lament from oimi. I oi[iot. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. ochan. to . to sound yapyap. ahi. to cry at. headache. however. wai. lament. e. It. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. Let. 6. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

when he wants something. give. nurseries. as it Dieser da (as Lat. for instance. Bav. indeed. a specified were by pointing him out. is-te).* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. thata (ta-ta). properly (give) be compared with by which a g. ToSe (or in Attic E. der da-ige. that is it. his trowsers' pocket. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). the nursery da-da. we may translate this by there (it is). But.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. or that it is.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. When we pointing. and so on. that gratifies me. or give me it. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Sanders (Germ. when 1859. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. well as Goth. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. Sie. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. or carry me thither. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. as to express. but the truth is. or wants to name something. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither.' all is is — their consent. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. In the expression Da. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. give me that cheese. says da-da-da. according to Menage. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. ' sees an object. da.' then points to his wife. . • The child. that. a word of many applications in g. as. child.' this. The Fr. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. case. Phil. Please. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent.' person. Thank you. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. I add) . and by a variety of expressions besides. saying : there the ad- Trans. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. to here . is we I believe.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. implying the direction of its good will towards them. 'nay. this here. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. Diet. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. more emphatically roSj)j that. Dr Lottner observes. and may be rendered. da. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage.

then instinctively interest. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. takes it — as When the soul. make dadada). (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. to chatter.' says Muller. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. to say to oneself. or metaphor. to beat. reality. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. thinking. childish toying. beat. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. tattle. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. sinking. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. — Cot. strike. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. Thus Gr. stutter. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. and shapes it into an . in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. to move step by step. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. moving. .' • liv ANALOGY. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating.' says Lottner interior. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. standing. to tion to another. meanings. The da is dodem. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. to knock. or dalliance. in every mode of expressing the idea. pay. its desire. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. tasting. speech.^ its ' utters : a cry. p. and one in particular must. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. sounds. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. to walk. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. dadee. of which any one may. the original is that which he places first. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. which thus exertion. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going.

may be it explained . to crackle. sprageti. extended to the exercise of the understanding. same imitative root with Sw. on. &c. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. tumult. from the . to snilF. as kilind. Du. search . —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. we have and the and beorht. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. while sapere itself. It is The word bright had a similar In as. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. as. pracht. to sniff out. bilbil). . Lith. for example. knittre. . outcry. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. to sound clear In Galla. clang. Fr. to crackle gnistre. wilistd. to sniff. Finnish. snutrs. to glitter. to ring. schmecken. to ring as a glass willata. think. smell. bright. wamara. smell. a brilliant light kilid. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. and thence e. fiapfiaipw. judicious. tintelen. savour. wilahtaa. which in ohg. tinkling. wise. to flash. In the case of sparkle. to shriek with laughter . and figuratively. snuff the sniiten. man of nice taste. snot. iclat (in Old Fr. splendour. to 5 ghtter. air. a with kimmaltaa. properly a clap or explosion. The 6. to shine. sense of brightness. to glitter. ghsten. beorhtian. sound. Again. to shine. prudent. magnificence. So firom Lat. to resound. to be wise. to tinkle. schiteren. scheteren. splendour. — 1. esclat). and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. discreet. brilliancy. to glisten Dan. to glitter e. unlella. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. sapere (which signifies the nose. Bavarian bracht. a rustling sound Gr. In the same way the Goth. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. to quiver. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. beam. Heo Du. taste. rattle. in popular language. to have Sapiens. and schmecker. signified a clear sound. to sparkle. to smack or taste. 1654. chime). suspect Bav. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. may be quoted gUt. (parallel bilbila. firom the Gael. is used in the origin. scTiateren. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. also wise. snotor.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. to glitter. kimistd. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to . spraka. kiimottaa. and. gnittre. then to sparkle. noise. the equivalent of g. a ringing . Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . in the domain of movement. snudra. knistre. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. make a loud noise. bilbilgoda (to make . a dis- cernment.

rough. extremely loose. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. discusses the tone of a picture. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. as soft by the ear. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. &c. rough. oily. wool. we hear of screaming colours. mel. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. the cross. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. strike. \nrap6e. or . he says. KoWiiSije. gluey. rough to the ear. in of his works. the neighing of horses. smooth. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. crux. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. shatter. Kpovtiv.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. break. to slide. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. . accordance with the way in which by touch. briars. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. which The Stoics. whirl. flow and flux. ipuKuv. within. is felt Lana. fitting the letters to the sense. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. 6\tadaveii'. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. and vepres. rough both ways. the bleating of sheep. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass.' he says. eo ut res vol. the clank (stridorem) of chains. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. Kep^arl'ieiv. inside. Much of the same has been often quoted. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). itself letters are felt as sofl. pleasure soft to the ear . 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. Acre. then in rpd/xoe. 1. sharp. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. pvfi^Civ. soft. in truth. Tpa)(yg. And observing that n kept the voice within. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. power of the letter-sounds. tremour. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. The BpavEiv. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. he framed the words ivSov. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. rend. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. roughness. kvTOQ. of dressing loud. v.

tug. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. corresponding to the ineor. jih. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. ii. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. stab. 'and consequently form. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. joli. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. g. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. and in the utterance of a high or or low. to signify varieties of movement.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. A greater felt. jig. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. dag. p. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. shag. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. sag-oter. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . stag (in stagger. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. a rough and sudden . that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. dig. k. p. jag. rug. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. or checks as they are called by Muller. jog. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. Fr. t. d. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. shog. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. 138). The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. the case of the voice. to jogj sac-cade. cular effort Again. degree of roughness sound. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. to reel abruptly from side to side). for exis ample. as when.

chicoter. The train of . properly a small lump'of . is made to signify movement. is so frequent a consequence of movement. like English tick. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. Welsh cicio. it produces Dutch micken. sound barely audible. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. a cracker. Fr. sound Fr. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to mutter. is lanese toch. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. as Italian tocco. figuratively. Fr. Bolognese tocc. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. mica. passing to the signification of motion. to utter a slight kick. kik. Thus we have B. foot. to incite by light touches. to glitter. motion. mie. tecche-tocche. S-panish miga. an old worthless horse or carriage. kuk. to have it ticked or marked on the score . in cases like the foregoing. a good piece of road . a jog. tech-tech. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. to mark it with a touch of the pen . The production of sound. Dutch kicken. The Mipen or pencil. a little bit. zigzag. so to Italian toccare. a . a quid of tobacco. (mitsati). with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. a crum. to beat or play on a musical instrument. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. cica. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. lead to Spanish tocar. to strike It. rough horse. e. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. or check. g. and It.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. a stroke with a French toucher. micare. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. zack. tack. The analogy then carried a step further. The syllable suk is jerk. to pulses being knock.. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. then. chiquet. Then. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. Hence Lat. to say a word . to stir. Sukkeln. to move rapidly to and fro. Accordingly the g. to ring a bell. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . a small bodily object. as tot. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. Ene olde suksuk. to On the same principle j we have g. movement. To tick a thing off. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. however. chique. that we never can be sure.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. It. tock. not to utter a syllable. to touch. Brescian toch. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to tickle. used interjectionally to represent a . toch-toch. also to stir. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. Mucken. Illyrian migati. a playiug-marble. schockeln. chic. to winkj micati is Lat. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. then. schuckeln. and analogous movements. an infant . mik. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. and e. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . &c. a piece or bit of anything. for the sound of knocking at a door. to take a thing on tick. mot.

The following table from Tylor (Prim. iki. syllable mot. the least visible insect. and toddle like a child titter. not because the pendulum makes a different left. tot. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. motte. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. there '(at a short distance). as in e. So. a little titty. tot. mote. that iku. often entirely arbitrary. 0. or the like its It. not an atom . where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. . mossche. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. to touch. neither moit nor an atom. a small quantity. tittle. for the three personal pronouns. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. mot. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. 199). bunch or flock of wool. clay . mutter. this. Then. totle. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . not to utter a syllable. This kind. jot. a e. or the converse. a bit. to touch lightly with a pen. To jot. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. move slightly to . this . u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. tot. . citto. to jog. and mite. a girl. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. we have e. a tot . a small horse. the same organ touched with the man. taut. there (further of!) ao. a light quick blow. and out there. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. tottle. at where the order is inverted. small of kind.- a jot or little It. Du. further off. and dot. a bit. mut. seesaw. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. eo. a small bird. e. here. here (close hand). lix Sp. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. Cult. to dot. the vowel sound. . i. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. In a similar the relations of place. to tremble. . . But the same is language has re Javan. subdued manner. a morsel. tit. ika. Fr. . small titlark. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . tit. to make a slight mark. a lad citta. titmouse (Du. zitio. I. a certain conception. that. Halliwell. anything . in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. fragments It. lump of earth. anything small flax. a. gni. titilh. to movement of the pen . (Halliwell) Da. little. gno. a whisper. motta. little j to that of a small bodily object. and a small lump of something. there. chico. e. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. tiny. to e. a small kind of lark. mutter j dust. for the beating of a clock. ticktack. Malagasy to. Pm. of movement in totter. ri that. a sparrow). is shown in murmur. tot.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. a morsel girl . corresponding to the personal pronouns. . .) . titter. gnu. zitella. and he. 48) cites from the African Tumale. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. you. n. to jot down or note with a fro. a small lump or pat. tozzo.n. fait. or o toi. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. to whisper (Pr.

usho. there. tiiio. uta. ojOo. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. Tamul i. loo). . here j ka. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. that. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. mother. Chilian tva.. ndi. this . and a for the female. w. child.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. father k . ni. little.) pronunciation of i or e. Guarani nde. ni. mother. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. Mm. /mya. Carib ne. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. an old woman chacha. there. I . ofj. no constant rule is observed. Mutsun ne. that (intermediate) j wana. this <t. Sahaptin (America) kina. he. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. Magyar ez. here this . an old . that. for the male. that. that. this . here feraa. km. child. . you. he. here j abe. minution further. that. /wo. that. thou ni. young one. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he.. femina ama. mother. mas cheche. qu. ta to ka. Abchasian aSn. . akha. It seems to (fen. as Mr Tylor remarks. Tarahumara ibe. 6. olo. that in the distance. there. small (Pott. there. there. . ^. and origin. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). thou. Gr. It Carib lala. this . to. . (tt). ukko. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. that. Then. /e«. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. Fernandian az. man erne. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. that. ne. j Canarese ivanu. this . Lat. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. Ossetic am. here . as the act of pointing was ta. thou . . it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. ulri. Dhimas isho. there. here . here 5 Yoruba na. father. as in Italian Fin.. this fi. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. bi. biii. is father. ita.e^. me probable that • Vei also little. there.araM. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. . and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. this ole.) nna. Zulu ajoa. Botocudo ati.. nne. that. is Here. respectively. . Japan ko. probably initial of distinction that the k.

murmur. trSpigner. and in the Pacific dialects. titta. keeh. A little weeny thing. sound of bells . signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. the simplest mode by the g. 401. And perhaps the E. wenig. lift 8. The sound trapp . in old e. the nursery few j Sc. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. fretful. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat.' — Merrv Wives. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. The Sw. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. don-don. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening.' making the voice as small as possible. barking of a dog. is to express simple continuance of action. stairs. a little yellow beard. trippelen. . for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. analogous to winy-piny. as j money. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. dance (Kil. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. to teet. or even. din-din. a child. pepin. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. little To sup up. whence Fr. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. has tittafrem. wean.) . trappen. at pippe frem is to spring forth. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. to make its way through the bursting envelope. a step. &c. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. to feet. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. or chink. the pip or pippin. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. — Douglas Virgil. to begin to appear . i Sw. just beginning to appear. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. tion. knob. for the . trap. as ding-dong. to leap. for a succession of light blows low-wow. From cases like the foregoing. Thus we have Wolof sopa. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. Fr. Clank represents the sound of something large. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. trippen. to tread. looking through between obstacles. nipple. Da. for instance. little. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. nil.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. nab. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. to peep. repetition It. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. of smaller things. A little wee face with little. the idea is called. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. Top. to peep through. trappa. the principle of reduplication.

expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. er. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. to love. mawhiti. to talk at to walk. properly speaking. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. 97). may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. So from clamo. and the words express a continued sound of rack. Susa di. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. mawhitiwhiti. . smallness. to pant. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. the and clique. from Maori muka. to cover e. ding-ding. Again. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. very bad. ratsi-ratsi. lololoa. or very very great. mpolu is uttered. Malay ayun. kendagenda. bad . Mandingo ding. racket. rack. to call frequently from Fr. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . puka. instead of being actually repeated.Ixii REPETITION. or el. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. kamha-gamla. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. hardness. or a little tee--ny thing. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. Thus in E. didi. a spot. to skip. The same principle of 196. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. ayunayunan. cliqu-et-is. to rock. or imitative syllables. and Fr. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. 99). click. clamito. rack click. to to call. in familiar use with ourselves. Thus in the Pacific loa. very long (Pott. child . uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. or in Fr. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. &c. tache. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. And generally. random .. the agent in panting . for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. if very young. tach-et-er. very great. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. sopasopa. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. loloa. serves to show and in this way. kenda. (to use a to speak. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. child . little child (p. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. rapidity and strength. i. a cradle. to or rub. puka- puka. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. keep spots. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration.' expression is — ^Tylor. could readily be conceived. amusement. Cult. repetition or continsignify long. the comparative degrees of greatness. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to treat with contempt. to vi^alk about for flax. the lungs. a grasshopper. is language. to say pooh It is ! to. clash of weapons. or rdtchi. a clattering noise. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. calling. . are echoed by the rudimentary et.

where all direct connection with sound is lost. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. in Fr. or omitted. bubble. g. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. others. or fi bau. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. wagas ging. or Maori puka-puka. to rock. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. Ihre remarks under gncella. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. as to handle. mew and baa . to move to and fro. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. to hand-le. The Fr. smack. fickle. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. wankeln. he who rubs. to crackle. miauler and beler correspond to E. or in e.Jicol. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . bub. without the intervention of the frequentative element. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. shuffle. which. In cases like these. from puka. dab. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. joggle. rubber. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. is In e. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . a succession of cracks to rattle. wancol. miauler andpiauler. and in as. to rock or wag. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. to make a succession of shoves. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. wavering. to make gug. compared with g. as mAS. Jickfacken. are to cry mew and pew . In like manner crack imitates the sound made . to make bau-bau. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to hand. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. The contrivance with any particular noise. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. syllable clat . The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. or by association. a from ayun. in some applications. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. wankel. to bark like a dog. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. waggle. by the side of wanken. to continue dragging. it. Piedmontese bau-l-S. such asjlap. rynel. to make a succession of grabs . itself. the knie-en to E. dabble. jogging. the lungs (the puffers of the body). to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. draggle. guggle. crack. to puff. kneel. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. to wail woe .

to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. deceit. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. it is obviously a mere chance how long. the breach. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. at was more familiarly known. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. moreover. which. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct).Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. or in aptness to combine with other elements. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. and comparatively few easily deceived. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. Polish. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. A gull or a dupe same sense. There is. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. Dupe comes to us from the French. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. or in mode of use. Breton. on a moment's reflection. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. will continue to be felt in daily speech. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. or how generally. by a hard body breaking. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. to the separation between the broken parts. which is the origin of the word. although it is not difficult. known in Italian. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. to cry ugh at.

and the grounds of lie shortcomings. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. nor any limited of ideas. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and the word is used in a secondary sense. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. however. language is . And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. . But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. Hitl^erto. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. founded in manifest blunder. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. life. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. is. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another.

and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. and vescovo. Naturalist on the Amazons. French.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. change. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . If English. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. I think it very probable. compared with the duration of man. therefore. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). out. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. episcopus. evique. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. hearing. Welsh. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. unintelligible to other hordes. i. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. in the course of many years' isolation. 330. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. circle perpetrates a new slang term. guages in South America. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. and 'Russian. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. of material things.

The combination of the symbols I and 2. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. ao8). ancient Greek M . are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. Cijlt. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. or whatever the proportion may be. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. 9. as shown in the subjoined illustration. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. is MN. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. i. 6. 8. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. which are idenr Figures 5. 7. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. A key must unlock more doors than this. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. and . Greek N from Gesenius e 2 .COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. . Nor is there one of the letters. it will leave figures 3 and 4. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. the actual it which would to represent. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. to be taken (Prim. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «.

or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence.' should be discovered. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. what comes to the same thing. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. leading him to utterances. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. for instance. had its origin in imitation of sound. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. and the only safe beneficent Creator. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. his fellows. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. in the shape either of direct inspiration. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. which either by direct resemblance of sound." the use of a change of vowel in as. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. or. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. known to us as yet. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT.

for instance. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. and sooner or later. race were speaking men or not. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or else. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. until the progeny. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or beavers. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. or not. in the course of generations. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time.COMPLETION OF MAN. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . the conduct of Ixix life. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. that he started from the lowest grade. or of their own reflected thoughts . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. of using imitative conduct . attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . by animal without a trace name of Man. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. as elephants. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and rose towards a higher state of being. and when we look back as far as history will reach.

Sup. Couzinid. Bohemian or Czech. dialect of the Sette Commune. Diefeiibach. Dn.. . Diet. Finnish. Provincial dialect. 1737. Infimse Latini- D. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Fr. Dutch. Supplement to Dueange. Bremisch. English. Anglo-Saxon. Cimbrisch. Biglotton seu Diet. Gr. 1768. ^Ifr. Grammar Boh. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Gothischen 1851. Fin. 1857. Diet. Bigl. dial. de la langue Cat. Due.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Bav. Baile/sEngl. Brem. 1654. Esth. Dueange. Danish. or Dan.V. Wtb. Supplement to Bret.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. E. Da. B.Nieder. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. at the end of Somner's Diet. Cot. Dueange. Catalan.-Eng. Diefenbaeh. Carpentier. Teutonico-Lat. Dief. Douglas' Virgil. Dief. Diet. 1850. Romano - Cas- traise. Bavarian. Esthonian. Elfric's Fl. Carp. Cotgrave. AS. Cimbr. Castr. 1766.



. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. woman r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. willekom Blab r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . alUger ahaverie r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. baltresca nokkutomax. haverie crtOT r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. katowai perairrantr." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. puHti r. r. r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r.percurrunt kimista^x.nokkutama willekem. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> .>. cti. sveritet Asknace r. Askance woud r. buque 118 brodiquin r. kilistaa bugiie r. ^i?^i2! r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. cruccio deyrie. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. (/ijtf r.5 ERRATA. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. plowied budowaer. r. yjnaifia r. word allagerr. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. Blob plowied r.


state of sleep . announcement. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. among. out of. on-lic. us. vs. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. Ab-. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . on. compounds. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. from.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. off. erwachen. OHG.he Goth. To abuse is to use iway. ir. to subdue. and secondarily in that of command. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. to hold . to awake. whatever he be. Thus ip N3S.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. onis aback. alike. in the same sense. said. on-bsec . and — Chaucer. sion of 'an abandoned character. Again. Hence on-bceftan. abaft. . on. Abs-. downwards. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. literally. into the Romance ftrseg . to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. plesyt him. The word Ban is common orders. away from. ur. command. to arise. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. from a is to wake to abide. Abandon. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. dominion. In Lat. —Bruce. Lat. his. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. abs. the er. 244. Passing tongues. Jvery man shewid baft. in. Parson's Tale. behind. orders. but now )bsolete). came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. "rom a height. until the event jlace . as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. Thou spelds of mychty iction. ar. a washing off to abstain. to sauff the king or spill. Dent posture. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. iway from. a. AS. implying a completion of J. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. rule. baftan. particular 1 . away. ifter. power : Than Wallace thing. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. as. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. a/tan. ibandonner. AS. be-ceftan. A.t G. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. o/j of or . K . an edict or proclamation. bandon in French. of-dune. er. this word beand Spanish. Immediately from Fr. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. Abaft. dominion. in a manner other than it should be ablution. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. 843. have entire dominion over. as. ab.

where custom (Grandg. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. to happen. shame. A. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. I was abawid for merveille. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. faire tomber. Cotgr. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. . of the Fr. with or without a final sh. 1 1 8. to The . most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. de. See . et prirent terre. abandonly. beer. drink. betrash. abaundunem-ent. abbattre. abbatia. Custom. baer. abbatere dal prezzo.polir. impetuously. Abbey. Fr. from Lat. c. More correctly written abbat. and sets them all agape. ant. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to make lower. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. d. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. weaken. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. Originally. On the other in use as well as hand. — — . bawi. esba.' the surrender of a ' K.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. to light upon. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. R. lish to abaisse orabaish. Beat. Hence the OE. Abbot. person. adverbial expressions at abandon. and that from Syrian abba. and the verb was written in Eng. of wonder. esbahir. and grooms besmeared with gold. to put to con. to excite admiration. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. impulse. in the active form.— R. to hit. of fear. to take possession of an estate. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. 364s. astonish. And he thereof was all abashed. as ravish. to strike sail . at his own the lips. his eyen shene. ais. vol. R. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. to ruin. effect of shame. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Wall. or society of abbots or monks. polish. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. depress. to strike Froiss. down. to bate something of the price abbatersi. Abbess. to gape.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. an abbey.fournir. may be explained. confound. ne more vermeille. to abaw or astonish. law term abatement. other. overthrow. iv. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say.) . esbahissant.Prov. 1520.esbawi. thing abbatere le vela. abbas. from ravir. abbatere. burny. uncontroUedly. father. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. . to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. by Wall. astony.down. To Abate. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. — Neccham. to astonish. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray.On princes. Hart in Jamieson. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. castle. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. esbahissais. abate. It. In or. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. bandon. R. and it that that it — . to diminish the force of any. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly.— — . Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. terminedly. Hence Lat. Milton. so common in the found in the OFr. baba. merely the terminations ons. his mouth. abbatis. son bandon. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. Bate. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. burny was formerly burnish .More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. or admiration. to beat furnish. to overthrow. Baba ! Mod. Castrais. See Abide.

shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. . Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. covet. tempting. to open the mouth. to attend to. abbadare. tity of E. bhr. John. Fabl. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). to attend on . literally white tree. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. — . bida. Gloss. speaking of the Holy places. baier. to hook. to look. to remain or endure. Norm. incite . ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. songer. which the mind to an object. The white poplar. — II. beidan. Guernsey beth. Du. watch. and Prov. to be intent upon. have seen abide. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. also to OFr. to expect gabeidan. E. and in E. to desire earnestly. to abide . ne wist what way to chuse. de Berri) Prov. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . to suffer death in Du. bocca badata. delay. (Vocab. baier compared with It. abaier. to ance. to deceive. wait To Abide. Thus G. . inciter. inciting. open the mouth. take care. desirer (Roquef. beguile. . to wait. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. othres abidan' The effacement expect. aspire to. warten. waiting. bida. abet. to deanimer. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. is idenwait. us. to expect. abidan.) abayer. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. Quant voit le serpent. listening. delay. Cat. to wait. lingering. b^er. abetter. guardare. gola badada. deceit. beidan. or absorption watching. a right in suspense . Ni engigner ni abiter. Q. listen. endurance. in Dan. m Abeyance. Corant sens lui. with open mouth . abiiance. expectfamily. ' ' . attendre avec en^pressement. deceiving. ceive. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. exciter. and E. Abie. badare. From abahier.. to be intent upon. to gape . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. the verb of abeyance. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. bialodrze-w. Abele. ^couter avec dtonnement. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. abie. beijen. usbeisnei. expectation. In We . beijen. beter. bie. expectation. abeyance. 1 • . atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. house. . qui iaaille. take notice. Thus we have It. —Raynouard. we sceolon ON. to It. pense. to wait. intent observation. Gloss. tical with It. wait. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. badigliare. K. forbearance. Boethius. aspirer. abet. abayer.' is in AS. attendre See Bait. forms with the d effaced are OFr. bouche b^ante. de Champ. Pol. Goth.— Roquef. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. . white. beguiling on the other. bouche bdante. — signifies to suspend action. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. and alluring to his own destruction. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. look for another. to tarry. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring.to wait. F. Corresponding to keep in suspense. Ducange. badar. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to mind. from Halo. bder. — ABELE Epiphanius. gridare. suspense. tarrying . says. in Fr. a bay or opening in the coast. on the one hand. The verb atwaiting. Cat. endurArt thou he that should come. to yawn. with the frequentative gueiile b^e.— Chaucer. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. abSiance. OFr. compared with (Bosworth). the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. bidan. bie compared with Dan. to stay. beijden. bide of the d endure. trick abetar. suffer b. with badia. Norm. while the monks under his control ing. to desire. abie. bana. were called Brothers.— ^richer.was formerly used in the sense of look. abeter. to stay. delay. ne chastised them. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. signifies the direction of tend. badare. Prov. to In great amaze. syllable ba. baier. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. or do we AS. baer. bada. desire. or in Fr. 366. regarder. badare. verbeijen Sw.Fr. to open bader. See Abide. which is certainly related to It. tenere a bada. To Abet. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned.

Fr. to pay the penalty. Chaucer. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. willing to schewe his wrathe. habilis is closely preserved. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. and the simple buy. For on board. abigg. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. convenient. at hand). R. abide. i. on board . and Cr. a board. though sometimes confounded with it. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. to wear away. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. Prol. Tr. Abie. abie to Goth. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. F. abilej Prov. the Fr. use. while in later examples As I . or bie. Innan bords.ynes. fault being simply clothing. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. If it badare. O If tion. expert. habile. Q. as habiller du chanvre. — P. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. Milton. at kasta fyri bord. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Wickliff in Richardson. and death for handsel pay. L. strong. abeye. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. is the verb abie. within the walls of a ship. adapted . power. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. — e. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. atling hem to her proper offices. bord. have-like. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Spenser. Cassar. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. —Bacon in R. Boucher. sufficient.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. — Able. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. to . hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. It. beidan. to dress hemp. properly abuy. the Pardoner In the original. to perish. fit. Merch. Mids. the side of a ship. P. to redeem. bide. abycgan. abie. She shall abie that trespass dere. abicgan. forbid for mother's children should abye. The —Boucher. aboleo. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. when compared with Aboard. R. from Lat. Dr. within the ship. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. al- be found so some will dear abide it.^and to make his power knowne. ! ! Cotgr. God — dear. powerful. N. Lat. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. ON. habilis (from habeo. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. bidan. in for any special purpose. to have . to draw fowls. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. abidge. consequences of anything . must suffer for it. abolir. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. suffer the Jul. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . being disabled in the highest degree. Fr. &c. able. In this to erase or annul. from AS. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. God. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. abilh. de la volatile. 2nd Tale. AS. 2. was often used in the same sense. purpose. without special reference to the notion of retribution. to pay the purchasemoney. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. durance in both applications. P. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. . at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. the Sir Tristrem. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. him with che. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. as E.

showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. af-oleii. to rear. Lat. the hair grow. to awake. as withotityn and without. for ligeth butan. — ' — — preceding verb. Gael alaich. to start. the idea of breaking about . to turn. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. explains soboles Lat. life. kindling. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. abominor (from ab and omen. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. snatch In English we speak of away. greu. to feed. onbutan. that greatly agredge their sin. about cockcrow. Melibaeus. and to do something to avert abbreviate. to bring up. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. ala is made to signify to rear. levis to the Romance languages. to snatch. OE. to break off. Abray. To abray or abraid. to let sleep. . to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). which may God avert. titan. or young forth. to nourish. boven. to beget or give birth to children. Finnish stock. ufan. brood. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. Abrdger itself. abrcBgdan. be-utan. ala. abbrechen. a portent). shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. butan. Kiittner. gravity. from Fr.the older form. to grow up. common in Chaucer and Abominable. s —Casdmon. The primitive idea seems that of beget. way Sw. Then.foda signifies to beget. literally. abowen. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. Fr. . to aggravate. OE. sec seftre — Chaucer. AS. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. and bidden him abregge. the man dwindles away. alere capillos. olet become worthless through gam De manji af.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. abracan. abbrechen. Thence to regard greugetat. awaking. from . signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. Of these synonymous adolescere. progeny. ol. agredge. above. coalesco. or cut short. around on the out. the form a&^^. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to grow together. alan. as the duty of nourdisposition. For on broach. hard. and alere flammain. nourish. abredan. bufan. the identity of which with ting.ger. while the sense of beget. to AS. full ofte his words for to Fr. oil. the OSw.aboon. side. of any kind . Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. his contemporaries. abufan. and in-d-oles. giving birth to. outward. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. breaking out in language. leading immediately to Fr. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. See To Bray. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. Tale. by the to bring up. currence. Abundant. abutan. Du. and also. while the verb alleThe root el. draw out. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. to cut short. parent. heavy. OSw.ymbutan. AS.) . al is growth. alan. abbreviare. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. vital PI. See -und-. adolere. — . en. as AS.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. abrdger. In the same brevis . d. agreujar. below. to feed. nurse Lat. on high. to progress. the vital spark. motion. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. Virg. Prov. which passed into English under Abominate. Thonne Abroach. The radical idea is to feed the flame. to light a fire the Abraid. Sc. is a ively. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. and also to abridge. So in Lat. to rear. to produce. be-ufan. to main. gravis. Quod abominor. nurse. whence the Fr. disastrous portent in some passing oc. natural ed direct from the latter language.1.. Above. ABOMINABLE adolesco. without. Goth.— Abbreviate. alUger.' Ymb hancred utan.' Parson's rence. to fatten. but from Lat.. break out. becomes leu in Prov. af-oolden. pedigree from brevis. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. D. is not from G. To Abound. Severe the threatened evil. AS. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. seems aras. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


Fr. plenteously with red. So Lat. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. set aside. Fr. and ig. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. anticus. from the imitative habits of monkeys. in Shakespear. from avTiipoiuia). work. panis.th centuries the recognised models of antic. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. Lat. d. Thus from gabe. : . See Cover. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. Jorioc. the anticks — behind. a block to hammer on. surimitation of the ancient models. were chiefly of the former class. apertum. AS. and devils. press. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. ReApe. Aperient. verberas. separate purpose. Antler. should be received. wealth. something ler in R. rich. incus.made out. of. antifena. To ape. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. villan Gloss. to bring forth. left as the . Apartment. separate. to go in strange disguises. choke. Any. af. from an. inAgain from the same author cudis. whence Prov. eigs. amboltj Du. from eigan. younger child. from.is to be given. AS. finally applied to a whether grotesca. some one. Otfried. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. aside.legacy of given against. a puppet or an anti^hona. to support. Lat. antefn. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. to imitate gestures. avri^ava. part. — — — . Percutere. aperio. Anvil. on. E. anxi. Hence the applica. one having wealth. strangle. to display pario. a preventative . Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. fauns. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. vex. swaged.D. to strike. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. —Spencer. Gr. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. apatiar. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. panar. were andouiller the second. and claret wine. Gr. burnished. from an and — - . or in a ridiculous dress. one.—Aperture. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. as we call it.. a small quantity. a few. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. which by anvild. Ilvtwotov. Lat. such as savages. but the expresent day. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Gr. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. to open. Prov. Apartment. d<popi(xnbs. a gift. gabeigs. stem. Antick. G. transferred to the grotesque characters. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. apanage. before. ambeld. from ango. To go antiquely. Antidote. Pezron fiUist. what Roman civilisation. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. all of gold. As the browcalled antiques. one at the least.— . as the Italians. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. to sound in answer. . anxius. AS. anapoz. from. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. ab. i. from ante. three antike pillers. before. Hall's Chron. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. trouble. Apart. whence anthem. anfilts Pl. to strain. post. Fr. from in and cudere. a termination equivalent to Goth. andouillers. In like manner. Lat. cenig. from Stephanus. Mannequin. like a jack-pudding. Anxious. or antique single chamber. bread. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. a definite . as from as. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. as posticus. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. Aphorism. Antique. to have. Ful- Apanage. to strike G. to nourish. white.

one sent out. appartenir. diroBrjKr}. to understand. Formerly apricock. and metaphorically to take the meaning. They werin his approvirs privily. off. one for his defence. xv. corresp. to send off. landmark. apprehendere. apal. . ap. rise to \t. to suit. Prov. a crime. apprentis. to assign or grant over unto. good. like. array. an epistle or letter. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. apparecchiare. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. allow. Fr. consent unto. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. in fact. to rate. set a price on. e. appris. known. near. agreeing with "LtA. I prise ware. to lose one's senses. apropid. apal. Lat. 5w. to store or put Appal. approver. d-n-o. habiliments. —^Apparent. A — . to come near. to fit. to Lat. From Lat. to finish a controversy. properly to join like to like. of. to mark to define a bound. approcdare. to commend. Yr. Hence appoind. taking. 'L-zX. and also as appraise.propius). Fr. Ir. apprise. Apoplexy. prohts. 23 .t. Sp. habilUr. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. to deem good. ON. apin R. apprendre. i. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. purpose. and appoinder (to find fitting. probare. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. obolys. En peach.— . to approve. a learner. Epistle. pragigua or prixcoda. OFr. Friar's Tale. in good season prendre son d.prix. poind. 'LaX.parecchio. Cent Nouv. appareiller. N. They were considered To Appoint. : — — speak 'Lz. whence the e. Hence It. Pliny. An old appalled wight. Apostle. prover. preparation. peler. Appease.his giving evidence against his principal. D. Gr. 11. from paix.parejo. like. Apple. For their acquaintance was not come of new . Apprehend. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. Nouv. aptly. H. horror. Fr. agree. and in the sense of condition. — Appurtenance. — dirondtfiu. order. Gr. to take away or lose the vital powers. apropchar. diroTrXriaatii. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. a thing for one's purpose. Mod. To Appear. plight. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. — Approve. ai. Approach. to strike down. fit- — ness. case. to which it is often referred. pronounce good. or the like. to dress in this fashion. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Apo- good time. piteux poind. after his mind . Yr. Gr. a price. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. esteem. APO sentence opoQ. Fr. Fr. whether through age or sudden teiTor. Fabian in R. one the MLat. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. a'^opi'Jw. Apotliecary. avail. w. S^. prize.probare. the good. proper time came. to learn. From Lat. Appareil. (cited by Diez from a late author). — prehendere. The PI. to be open to view. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw.—Apprentice. in data. And whanne sum men Lat. or E. become dizzy . ar. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. And among other of his famous deeds. make a composition between parties. diminutive pariculus. despatch on some service. from aTroorlXXu. to set a price on. APRICOT off. decree. to call for judgment. find Then like Fr. . It. The Fr. Cotgr. when the . were formed appropiare ejar. equal. lAfiaam. irpaiKOKiaov. to catch hold of. that it outfit. kind of action. — Apprise. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to learn. Lith. seiden of the stones. AS. to call. From Gr. Walach. ^wss. to deter- to strike. value apprdder. iwKjToKri. word was specially applied to clothing.pareil. in commendation. quoth the frere. ciously than nede is. to announce. to approach. oVooroXof. jabloko. To Appraise. appellare. par. to — . aparelhar. approcher. praise. to seize. to make a thing Apparel. to accord. to deaden. dress. peace. . Fr. to — — . Wholly unconnected with/a/^. trim. laven is used both as E. cepl. Parson's Tale. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. in Chaucer. appaiser. Fr. pronounce fitting). Cotgr. Gr. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Cotgr. to disable oftat. opportunity. To cause to pall (see Pall). Fr. one is in. from. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. To praise. to send to. Palsgr. manner. Prov. pertain or belong to. away.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. poind. mine. apar. prope (comp. appareo. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. pretium. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. —Diez.

and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Arbitrate. ap. proper. words derived from arpa. a cloth. Thus we have natiger and auger. a soothsayer. As is a pretty parlour. {mies ^=ia3. short. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought.] in the N. herbere. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth.o. sestimatio arbitraria. Hall. Pr. and a protection of the clothes. Now we find in Fin.. a lot. however. Arbour. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. pracoqua was not an adapt. intensitive of nape. Freshly turnid Arable. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. This path Aqueous. conjectura conjec^ra. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. She made. sortium ductor. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. . J. is taken in is a soothsayer. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body.meaning at Shrewsbury. — napkin is Naperon. naperon. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. as ihe diminutive. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. ear. From OFr. It is certain that the apricot oracle. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. . The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. arwelo. properly the arwella. arbitrium. divining rod. 2. tion under trial. or eft.shrubs {arbor). aa. arbiter. nected. aptus. man. arbiter in re censendS. and the one who gives oracles. P. con. and thence fit. quod he. opinio. conjicio.sors. Prol. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. Naprun. shortdr. arpa. and with turfis new Goth. Now one of the points — — — . Roquefort. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . scr. The loss or addition of n very common. Beryn. Lat. a river. OE. garden. Gr. grande nappe. auguror. found in Fin. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Flower and Leaf. aha. 331. account for either of these significations. From OE. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. P. — . ahva. the spelland umpire. fastened close. sorcerer. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. . hariolus arpelen. Maan initial . It will be observed in how large a proportion of . symbol. and sortilegus ation. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Lat. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. arwaus. of of divination arpa-mies.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. most conspicuous situation in the garden . a lot. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. as an eye-witness. aro. C. la nappe. A. nawl and awl. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. however. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. and taken away before dessert. Marsh. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. or barm-cloth. 31.' —About. arbitror arwaaja. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. suitable. to plough. Albanian. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. doubtless is the origin of E. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. Alban. a lot. Lat. derived. to decide by lot. delon. Pm.) E. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. aestimo. ughe. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. It may be doubted. OHG. aqua. rofe and all. water Which that benchid was. Aquatic. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. be That it inne groweth. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. to preserve it from stains. . a pleasure-ground. wata.

are applied only to an armed body of land forces. vescovo. a court yard. to be on fire. a noble. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. Perhaps erz-wticherer. gwyrek. whence the body of the nobles collectively. and must be identified with Dan. signifies chief or principal. i. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. stuff. bad. . sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. lofty.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . et vulgari verbo. wretched OE. which has been referred to W. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. And thou as arwe coward. arcA in e. mischievous. to dry.In E. from areo. from nixa. Du. and not with apx. are formed the participial nouns. armada. Fr. the a brute. an arrant usurer. while the Fr. morally bad. wanton. which is derived from it. * ArchjAiTaxit. Arm. ON. Lat. branch. W. shoulder. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. curved line. in Due. bad of its kind. 3340. the court of a magistrate. arma. arrig. arwe. Arch in composition. malicious. as in E. argr. Langobard. Lat. apxtipfve. gwyro to bend. difficult to reach. forearm . Lat. Fr. weapon. an extent of flat surface. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. especially shoulder-joint. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents.4 rir/. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. weapon may be simply an application of annus. apxri. The . the best. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. un malin enfant. a bow. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. ardIn G. Ardent. det arrigste snavs. sluggish. first. troublesome. receptacle where the public acts were kept. shoulder Boh. bravest.' Paul Warnefrid. AS. taxed with cowardice. From apxeiov was formed Lat. worker. is essentially the same word. Lat. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. arcus. archangel. TiKToiv. . contemptible. Dan. patus). an arch boy. ardor. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. Arcliives. Ardour. fabricate). ramend). a threshing-floor. argvitugr. arguo. — Architect. to be in comp. curved. Aristocracy. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. a burning or setting on fire. ancient. a branch.' Lex. erz-bischof. as the arch of a bridge. burning heat. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. een erg kind. Arduous. Lat. . Du. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. . Uo^a^. and our army. Sax.' the Gr. 2. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. kpxi- beginning. ill-tempered. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. apxh. arch-bishop. a. apx^iv. Gr.. sly. a rule (princiruler. ers-betriiger.— Army. Area. faint-hearted. ars. Applied in modern E. Lat. Cot. to rule. — Wtb. Lat. ^Argument. mischievous. armee. ramo (pi. by Russ. rame. timid. aridus. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. Sp. ardeo. Arid. . vocaveris. a chief builder. arsum. Alisaunder. the terminaGael. Gr. arm. to Arch. ruling by the nobles. raineno. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. an arrant rogue. earm. man. arson. exercise lordship). erz in G. and Kpurka. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. a bare plot of ground. it signifies roguish. erg. G. arm'ee. arga. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. bad. G. un petit rusd. make clear or prove. Brem. Lat. Arson. Gr. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. earh. an arch-deceiver . high. fainthearted. arduus. adjective. arm. area. ardre. ein arger knabe. arrant Arms. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. the most arrant trash. to demonstrate. arg. armata. Arcadia in R.. It. to burn . government. A construct.aioj. Fr. ' — Argue. earg. to arm. From the verb armare. sly. apxtlov. aj-f. Gr. There can be no doubt that E.is the natural weapon of offence. D.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

to wave. to cause another to miss pustule. a dance. pallo. destruction. hue et illuc inclinare. ' is a piece or confused talking. baalien. afbalka. to partition off . a But making way for death at large to walke. plague. N. trouble. bolawy. Bohem. Bale. Fr. a wooden partition . a partition. ballone.). balle. torment. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). a continued noise of waves gently beating . ill. a ballot). similar connection is seen in Sp. from bacquet. Gael. the ballet of the theatres. on. pila. Hence Dan. gen. Goth. a beam. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. G. to stir. To baulke the Sir H. Bowl. bolyatchka. 3. Hence. taich.' speak gibberish champurrar. a ballad. to dance. tum. a separate portion. Balloon. It. baalie. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. on. palcare. A balk. OHG. a clapping or flapping of wings. to ail. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. balk. to move. balle. stage or scaffold. ban. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. ON. pallukka. to shake or jog. e. Q. See Gall. . to by beams. a pail. with the perhaps from balg. Du. Gr. mass. to speak an un. Sp. ballet. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. balken. cka. baler. boll. Fr. ballare. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. pallo. Mid. In like manner Fr. at giore en balk. balk. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. (Hesych. a ball. . Baulke of land. Du. Boll. package of goods.— Ballet. a washing-tub. Pol. Fr. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. bal-daed.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . E. a balk of foul weather. ballare. pain. a beam. palla. on the shore. Ballot. bal. a pestilence. balk. Sw. separaison. a ball balla. a ball or pack. ballar). ball. balla (with the augm. bdlkr. malefacGower in R. wickedtorment ON. Grief. and evil in general. bol. balare. beaten road. bal. balle. ache. — A — — . Ball. palloilla. . heap up. to paddle in water . ballo. . as in a barn or cow-house. 2. balka. Russ. whether of wood or stone. the beam of a ship. To Bale out water. boleii. balja. to roll. Dan. balloon. vcdra bdlkr. baloier. to see-saw. chapurrar. Fin. misery Du. sorrow. G. floor. to bale out. are applied to a From the same analogy. to grieve . globule. to plank. a pill. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. balge. a scene acted in dancmg. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. bolyaf. bolker. weak liquor. dial. bielke.ing. Sw. It. other while. vacillare. shouting. a clump . sickness. a dance. I. as we say. bola. the breadth from side to side . to be balker. ball. may exhibit the original development of the signification. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. . a great ball. balkr. ball. Da. roof. to signify washy drink. Wotton. w. It. balka hopar. It. sick. Ballata. a skin. Bret. the object of his expectation. blister. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. bala. probably Lat. * Balk. to Not sparing wight.Fr. Sw. bold. bjdlki. bal. balk. pilula. calamity. The primary sense seems as in G. i. It. bbllr bulla J. wickedness ness .of men . ball.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. to be ill. to rock.—Ballad. to avoid it. balka bunge. Ball. bacgtteter. Sw. a clod of earth water. bollr. to plough for a boundary between lands. a division of the old laws. a. uveirs bolk. . Sw. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . Sw. Perhaps on. to dance. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. balveins. to ache. ballare. hooting. We have then separate dial. maan pallikka. says Ray. dial. lealo. dial. ballotta. bol. grieve . from the more general notion of moving up and down. TtaKKa a pail or tub . to on Holmedon's plain. a boil. a together in the form of a ball. Ugutio in Due. bealwes. Rouchi ban. a ball. balken. to pack Da. maleficium. Sw.Lat. and the dim. OSw. a ball. a bubble. ne leaving any balke. a water-skin dim. Sw. balva-vesei. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. Da. dial. on. . ing. AS. pallikka. ballan. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. OFr. a ball. balle. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. F. Venet. a globe.

command. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. Sept. is in Sweden and Norway. balsamum. to walk. terraces. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. objects to the foregoing derivation. baume. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. The Sp. &c. called Bait. denounce. To Bam. Bret. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. sorcerer. bumbazed. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. deceive. Baltic. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. inutilis sarcina. When a ship discharges. Venet. galleries. a young babe. bertesca. To make fun of a person. astonished. dial. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. Cotgr. Lest. railing around altars. a fragrant gum. the backload. endormir par des contes. and Mid.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. fonts. lestage. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. &c. it is forced to take in stones or sand. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. baltresac. urtica. or ballast of a ship. seems the original form of the word. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. To proclaim. but loadage.). But because baglast is not found in the written documents. To Ban. Gr. a battlement . But Fr. If bambocciolare were child of one. bag-lest. a false tale or jeer. because. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. barandado. bamboccio.that the going vessels. Dan. . ballustres. Sc. In OSw. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. the act of walking. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. explains ballast. To Bamboozle. little round and short pillars. by met. ranked on the outside of cloisters. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr.Lat. Bret. from bara or vara. balconies. 1854. 1. ^a\Ba\iov. R. like Fr. Report Pennsylv. Fr. To deceive. inutile onus. a nettle. as he says. the flower of the pomegranate. mare Balticun. It is explained back by Adelung. lastagium signified not only ballast. bamein. Lat. Balm. deceiver. It. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. barauste. lastre. baU. enchanter. Mr Marsh whether the a load. This is the backload. lest. Said to be from balaustia. ballustre) is a corruption. analogous to what is seen in It. to preserve equilibrium. ballast. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. It. Fr. make fun of a person. for a load or goods (Roquef. from Lat. Du. back of the ship. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. also with flatteries and . The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. — — oltriga.. Bamour. lastra. The Baltic sea. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. a small balustrade. 43 — Cot. or movement of one who walks. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. an Old dotard or imbambolare. a rod. i860. balustrade barandilla. Balsam. bambolo. age. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. baranda. for want of other freight. Balluster. Sp. small railing. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. ^Arbuthnot in R. a duty on goods last. of balusters.' And Kil. more serious objection is . puzzled. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. bam. a useless load.000 tons. bambocciolo. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. to enchant. baUa. curse. paid for the right of carriage. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. bag-las. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. forbid. last. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. Ballast. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. A — — . . more frequently than outward-bound. in the first place.

however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. Band. in Fr. to ban. i. Leg. side. bundun. etc. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. flag. Car. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion.. Les saiges avait et les fols d. Goth. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. Mag. hoc est vexillo. ligue Taboada). Assises de Jerusalem. From the verb to banda. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. side. A. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority .e. curse. bando. Bandus. banner marked the place of assembly. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. 15. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. he bannede his ferde. bindan. 19. Bandear. change to the feminine gender in banda. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. to side or to bandy (Florio). real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. 813. bandi. bannire in exercitum. eiiseigne. Capitul. margin. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. band.^ bandy. a coast. we constantly find the expression. Thus the word is also used in both senses. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. to excommunicate {lysa.—John Villani in Due. then the signification w. . and in E. 2. In a special sense the term company itself. See Abandon. Cot. whether by way of injunction or for- command. those who side together (bande. faction. to follow a faction. he assembled his host. to bring corn to be fahne. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. Se il — Romance languages. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. summoning to serve So in Swiss. authority. To Bandy. Sw. — To partito d'alcuno. parti. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. The to . at his own discretion. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. In Fr. . 26. OE. banda. biddal. to publish) banna. to unite with a band. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. ex. ba?idare. R- He Translated by Chaucer. admolendinum. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). It. to . Spebifid. region. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. Baud. power. Fr. banda. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. &c. Goth.is further developed. bande. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. bandera ground at his mill. bande. Sp. populum. G. a company. to form parties. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. It. is That with which anything AS. also the band or of marriage. and It. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. border. —R. to reprove. There is some doubt how Fr. bound. bandon was used in the same sense. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. bannire exercitum. Commun^ment son bandon. and thence to any proclamation. It seems this signification has arisen. to ctide. tener da alcuno. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. banda the colour or material.Lat. D. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. bande. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. says Muratori. &c. fahne.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. acquired the sense of proclamation. permission. 'A son bandon. R. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. v. 1. the ensign or banner. from at the Lord's courts. band. banns pany of footmen serve. It. — R. bannum or bandum. bann. Sp. bandon somewhat party. Diss. Ripuar. passing on from proclamation to command. sostener Torriano. theodscipe ut abannan.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. in hostem convocare. E. Wyntoun. — excommunication bann-lysa. to take one to task. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Fr.

come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. a long raised seat. . a bankrupt merchant. a de Vaud. ruptus. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. Bank. Benvoglio. murderer. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. beating. . and OFr. — Fr. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. Banditti. language of W. the back. bance. eminence. Draw. put under the ban of the law. to work in wood. banish. to bend a. to proclaim.^ knock. a bench. banja. Du. tumult bangas. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. banka. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. Lingua. Banner. Fl. The ridge of a hill is AS. a bench. to publicly order one out of the realm. rap hatike et som The Susu. to join in league with others against Cotgn. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. AS. the former Fr. to knock. Bandy legs are crooked legs. dorsum was applied to ject. a table. Brewer. 2. bandire. to cabal. se joindre. bandear. The ing. Roquefort. de- party. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. large dog kept for a guatd. Diaconus in Due. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. banqueroute. bannire. death-wound. g. bakke. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. banca his creditors. When a man fails Lat. Bantze. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. It. Goth. panca. bank. Ripuar. bander. death-sickness. roupt. bench. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. s'associer. From Mid. &c. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. from banc. Bacon in R. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. Bandy. Bankrupt. broken. a blow. band-hond. shoal. beat. a wound OHG. among rotta. bank of river. and hence. outlam came to signify a robber. Tibalt. band-dog. whence the mod. Mid. banke. counter. and bakki. Fr. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). eminence. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . . —^Vocab. bane. Dan. clouds. in the same way that E. Bang. Lat. of bandying words. bana. se reunir. banco. forbear this outrage. Banister. bow. To Bandy. death-blow . that the word is used by Romeo. desk. a bench. . bank. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. The word is in E. the slope of a hill. bandi. distinguishes bekkr. The child cries bang! fire. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. to hammer in a nail. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. bank of a river. From a desk . to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Fr. Bane. a i. banc. See Banish. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. standard. A Shipman's Tale. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. It. bench. bankruptcy. bent as a bow. has bang-bang. bana-sdr. With many a stiff thwack. follow a party. and poise Their lighter wings. hricg. benk. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. But natheless wife at I bank. Africa. It. to make a stir banke. pastoralis. in the sense of place of business. N. Mercutio. Sw. bander tin arc. stir. banca fallita. destruction . was formed the OFr. bana. to foment factions. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. back of a knife. ON. a sand-bank. many a bang. a bank. See Band. a rising bank. a counter. Diez.: . when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. AS. Hudibras. banc G. to knock. hammering. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. Fr. See Balluster. banditti acquired the like signification. Benchi.z. to slay. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. as of an explosion or a blow. . — Kil. in the sense of a pirate.HG. — Paulus drive in a nail. at canis peciiarius. It is in this sense nounce. ON. bander. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. bana. bang. Your stool. — — whence E. ON. and therefore tied up. b'ang. Milton in R. the same verb the It. bana-sott. disturbance banga. &c. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. bank of Dan. 45 — — Bandit. de sable. for shame. — . seat . canis vinculis assuetus. to beat. home — Bandog. E. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. in R.

arineXov. to bend. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. E. brushwood. &c. Banquet. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. OHG. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. a. banchetto. According to Diez the It. branch. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. barriire. OHG. signuin. Barbe. Leduchat. sparro. Bret. in Gr. . to wrap. The origin is in all probability Goth. of wind. speaking of battle. It. senhal. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. senheira. bandiera. Flesche barbeUe. then fell among the foot. Fr. banner.aTa Kul nest. knight Bardd. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. such as the Roman Eagle. the word came to signify rude. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. barba. iandvo. It. E. and with an initial s. from reifa. ON. Barb. bar. of a sign in general. to having that signification. a beam or long pole of wood. a sign. inur. Lat. Bap. ingly very generally known by a name branches.— Swift in R. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. inferior to a baron. sparre. out of a wound.cruel. would rupted from Fr. heri-pau. a tree). by a repetition of the syllable bar. BARBAROUS reiflingr. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. a bench or table . —Cot. either in the Gr. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. banniire. barbe. that the noise of voices Bantling. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. branches of a tree {gwezen. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. Fr. hence a repast. banda. wrapped. privileged to raise Barbarous. The original import of their own banner in the field. and even of calling it banter. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. a ban. senhal. Fr. then branches. ban- Baptise. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Banneret. The barb of an arrow is the sign . rod of any rigid substance. ing term appears in other languages. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. and from ensign or banner Prov. E. himself in Pontus. The spar. sign. uncivilised.hinder. bandva. jSa'pjSapoc. Barbar.46 BANNERET . a war-beacon or war-signal. period vexillarii. benda. Sw. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. Celtic bar. from the same source. banda hendi. of banco. as they call it. Fr. indeed. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. It may be thing. and he would seem to derive Goth. barreau. Hence ner. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. barde. and the work is done. remarked. which is surely in barbed arrow. summit. It. to beckon . a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. senh. &c. a bearded or Cot. chan. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. Fr. G. banneret. Fr. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. to dip. — We A . barrer. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. A It. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. Lat.8ap6^o)voe. barbed or trapped as a great horse. men. manu anto make signs nuere. token. Lat. probably corSymbol. jSdirTO). milites bannarii. ON. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. To Banter. Hence Fr.. In a similar manner are formed yearling. 3. banneret was a higher class of knights. barra. banne. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. an animal a year old. a which the barrister addresses the court. i. rarii. bannereti. Gr. To mock or jeer one. a bantling. barbarus.the analogous syllable viur. Thus Ovid.. a barrier or stoppage. barre. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. dim. top. merki. OFr. 2. barrou-gwez. Duo. Gael. Gr. sbarra. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. ^oTrriKio. or of this bantering. says. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. to wash. and it was accord. nestling. barrack. Barb.

Bardeau. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. jargon. barbier. Barbel. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. waschen. border.— BARBEL merit of water. muttering. barbeau. border of a garden bed. stutter. name Fr. Russ. barbel. upper chamber. — . horse armour covering the front. /3opj3opwJu. and the word was used in OE. lb.) . saddle-cloth. bdsas. grumble (Lowndes. barbacane. also to wallow like a seething pot. Cotgr. A7 to the and warlike. uncovered. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. Etym. dial. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. barda. quarrel . Fr. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Etym. a shingle or small board. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. as well as thwcEtta. Hall in R. Pr. Thus the on. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. haggle. to prattle. to barbe or trap horses. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . a tumultuous assembly. ala. Barde. Mod. barbar. to plash or dabble. Cotgr. used 2. unqualified. . scouthouse. guaszare. borbotar. murmur . boil. gibberish. Festus in Diet. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. bds. speak confusedly. powdered all over.— — Pm. which was of talking. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. a bardelle. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. . bdla-khaneh. Port. the flap of a hat. brabble in the making of a bargain. Lex. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. G. Fl. on. a jetty or outnook in a building. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. bdsiis. the edge of a shield hval-barct.— Fl. Fr. Gr. skialldar-bard. a long saddle for an ass or mule. formerly used in the sense of tattle. albardilla. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. It. Barber. — — Hence. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. brim. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. to It. It. open. Applied in E. bardes. to bubble or boil. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. to stammer. as well as the modern twaddle. Hindost. in poetic language Bard for poet. Gr. Bard. coping. also to bind or tie across. the quilted with. tree. is lb. and flanks. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Fr. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. bare baskojis. to bubble or spring up. Fr. skirt. berries. — — — men. to rumble. bar. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. OFr. Sp. to wash. barz. barbaris. Barbican.) to wrangle. ready money. /3£pjSepi^w. back. Bret. tattle. — Cot. Lith. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. to chafbargain. fortia —Strabo. a pack-saddle. borboglio. barbelin. barboter. the beard. barguigner. to stammer. Bare. to gurgle. — . barbarkama. borbulhar. Barberry. skola. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. albarda'ah. Cot. Exposed to view. or more properly (says fer. Hatt-bard. Bargain. the nakedness of a woman. twattle. g. i. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. and foolishly. berj G. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. baar. axilla. Sp. to grunt. in Fr. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. Mod. w. uproar. barefooted Sanscr. baares geld. in the sense of fight. barda. twcEtta. such as houses are covered Bardelle. bardd. to mumble or mutter words. bhasad. Sp. But Sp. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. The Pers. Diez. barbeter. barbugliare. guazzolare. skirmish. to make an outcry . to boil or bubble up . borborinha. Port. barbeum. barS. and in Flanders to vociferate. and Sc. Arab. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. mutter. albarda. A shrub bearing acid Diet. a rumbling.' Cot. Lucan. borbollar. Barder. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. baragouin. barbulla. small pack-saddle.

tion of the sound. Leg. bosom. mhg. a load. as well as Scandinavian tongues. On the other hand. baratta. Ibid.' bardagi. varen. barn. barn. altercation. the fore or after end of a boat . Port. beorcan. baimeach. also a boat . to wrangle. baron. to cheat. to all the barca. a lantern. as. a boat. baniffa. trouble. Tarn baronem quam feminam. to chop. barahunda. (Ihre.) lihtes-ern. as in the case of Lat. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. herbs. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. beer. 2. bamagh. Port. giving rise to It. bark . a beak. then the bows pectus navis. Leg. 2. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Lith. a heap. houbartij fsnile. skuta. barii. barmr. to rout. v. barn. — Zeuss. w. kani.^Voc^. Barbour in Jam.. hladi. and is probably a true bartig. Vocab. Kil. bread. Manx bayrn. bernac. Sp. squabble. bcern. meta foeni. from an imita- Barley. the slimy substance brewing of beer. AS. a heap . bread-corn. From Fr. astringent. OFr. quarrel Port. as baces-ern. barlys. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. Romance barsie. baarm. ber (ace. As Goth. Cornub. quarrel. at barka. Rayn. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. . Swab. ON. — de Berri. the A — Ihre. dispute barattare. Spectacles. berma. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. Isidore in Rayn. spectacles. quant a perdu sa barja. commonly explained from bere. a. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Prov. put to confusion.. barms. bern. baratta. Ripuar. bern. * Barnacles. ON. name being given to spectacles. Dan. baaren. and hence probably (by a metaphor. Du. Antiq. E. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. barley. limpets. and may therefore be an Eastern word. is simply the Bret. Bark. baralhar. hay-loft. bcerme. dispute . contest. to shufSe. fray. to strive. Gl. So also ON. a lap. OSw. prasepe . Uzen. in the Brim. Dan. Bret. Sw. berm hoys. The origin may be throat. barafustar. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. barley. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. —Bark. barja. Bailey. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. a stack. . skutr. dispute . barlich. barki. in Nat. a receptacle for barley or corn. borkr. barone. limpet. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Du. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. and llysiaw. Bemiques. barajar. aheap. husband. struggle. a barn. baerm. tumult. berm. See formed Yeast. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. the or prow of a ship. baron)^ Fr. So ON. dregs of oil. — Barnacle. and 1. The older form in e. See Barm. and ern. a place. a cap . Sp. Acervus. Baron. corn-shed. brenig. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. barnacles. Originally man. was barlic. Sp. louzou. baragouin. Barge. ThS man was not created for the woman. Garlick. . bere. baralha. Gael. to scold. the G. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. confusion. i. baaring. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. dispute. Provj bar (ace. a baking place or oven. disorder. as. strife. The Goth. hlaSa. barlys {bara. strife. berm. barretor. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. but the woman for the man. limpets . lap. border. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. chaffer. and the word. It. beornt. entangle. barge. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. dispute. bosom . Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. berem. wine. one who stirs up strife. . — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Alam. To Bark. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. barafunda. am. contest. then honoured man. It. Camus. bargain.Barum vel feminam. dial. W. Barn. also to exchange. prominent part of a thing. hemlock. barnis. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. to skin over barkandi. the rack or manger. adj. barley. we pass to the vert) barguigner. OFr. baarn. ON. charlock. strife. plants). representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. — battle. AS. ON. edge. bard).

— Gibbon.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. to * Barragan. in the first instance. boar. booth. qui have not much light on the pre. seem to be radically the same with Lat. gravis et authenticus vir. Barren. to carry. The feudal tenants next Fr. calico. fallow. mound. implement for carryAS. berewe. as. breinej Du. baronuU. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. tomb. OE. bera. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. from beran. fear. barri. A. It. D. On chet — We — — their resemblance. E. an obstruction. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Barrack. 26. barrila.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. bara. or simply bahre.have been named from the haggling and gant. hut. a barrow. whenever Barrow-hog. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. bearg . Barratry. braeck. barrier. Formed from Fr. beorh. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. bredhan. a kind of coarse camlet. as cavalcade. bouracan. 1. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. brushwood. StiU he shows conclusively. Fr. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. berwen. also termed bannerets. nobles. bark&n. Bret.. a bar. barre. Bargus or moreland. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. It should be observed that. bier. barril. barrique. baraignej Picard. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. baronculi. barchent. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. the two names. bahre. perhaps through Prov. staves. baroncelli. strife. Bamnculus a baronet. composed of dry branches ofer. were sometimes confounded. OFr. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. like bargain. Sp. AS. barBombicinus. dispute. by early examples. to shelter. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. baragan. garment still used in Morocco. The Sp. change of goods seems. todtenbahre. Gael. Sp. Baron andfemme. from cavallo. Fr. barrack. — A . a castrated hog . cover. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. in Nat. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. a barrel. G. This word introduced into Fr. barague. shed. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. Bern.' Op. G. It was not until the time of James I. iver. especially those killed in battle. vair. over him. branches. whence Barrow.. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. Sp. Barricade. w. barrique. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. rolls of Parliament. habeant. sepulchre. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. alongside of barrow. An ing. Goth. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu.' that Barrier. — Kil. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. It. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. barile. man. Russ. Gael. then traffick4 Barrow. MHG. Barrel. barraca. semen non accipiens landiEL. 2. and in several instances. borov'. the braw. a bier. S. a word is always used in the plural number. baronetti. (Schmeller). became bidre. cise formation of the word. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. See Bar. Bohem. a. Barrister. Joshua vii. Antiq. from a tree to which a man is hanged. fortification. uncultivated. gwr. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. a. a hut or booth. — — 15th Cent. facture. baracca. ^Vocab. and not from Fr. signifying. It. bara. beorgan.root signifying confused noise.parchanttuech. litter. heap. vel pretiosos burellos. See Barter. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. sterilis. Nominale of the from braeckland. which would barragdn. ibid. vir. squabble. ^Barrator. a horse. AS. beorg. a hiU. man and wife. a man. black woollen words in all the Romance languages.

516. the — — to kill those that look upon it. to Diez. baste. a court-yard. cheating. It. bran. Isidore. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. descended of an honorable lineage. Bast. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. HaU in HaUiwell. a ipgli So Turk. It. leviter consuere.looketh upon his eyes. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). Sp. scale in music. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. to cheat. Newman. to long — a British word by Martial.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. according from Gael. To Bask. cog. See Bath. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Lap. AS. tierer. low. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. he. or running away with the ship. Barbara de pictis veni patch. OFr. stitch. bast. of the same sense. him. oe. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. BassuS. said Base. discourse Nay. crassus. to deceive. baste. a halter. submovet omne Lucan. basso. bassin. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. as It. low part of the Hickes in Rich. besst-u-b£nd&t. Halliwell. low. imbastire. ' He was begetin o bast. Bass. basta. Fr. God it wot. Du. a king. to bind. shallow.' Papias. the a wide open vessel. but born in baste. bds. Sp. Apparently of Celtic origin. to bargain. Fris. barley. the manorhousfe itself. more noble in blood than notable in learning. court-yard. unrighteous gain.D. inclosure. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . The original meaning. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. partieren. and tun. — hanging. a bass rope. ing for profit. Dan. A fabulous serpent. baos. truck. Sw. To Baste. from bere. rope for — . mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . HoUinshed. G. ohg. mock not. barter. bark. to stitch . F. preparatory stitching. beguile. basta. ' Bosworth. also to Cotgr. to baste piece of cloth. baste. peel. fraud. Lend me your hands. back. i. pdrdt. a bastard. basg. come near. then cheating. curtus. corn-farm. Bassus. To stitch. baraand especially teria. Bastard. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. bastear. Basilisk. low note. Bartizan. the thin skin Dan. binding. — in Rich. bdtir. baratear. a deceiver. chasa. to cheat. basso. or wic. over-reaching. ^Is de bast. bas. baraet (from Fr. to truck. It. See Brattice. It. bestan. found in Turkish . But according And Dan. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). would be. lift me above Parnassus. Swed. .' Gl. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. foist in bargaining. but he dreth presently.). It. husk bast van koren. pressed down. which sets up its hood when angry. which covers the grain Ger. It is mentioned as . to bind hand and foot. Sp. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. MHG. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. exchange. Du. It. aiKcig. OFr. . at basta og binda. mean . Al is dai. fits de bas. and Bret. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. piiiguis. There is not one that. — Bassoon. to baste. ibid. basgod. commonly A joined with the word binda. Gr. bast. fornication. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. thick. Barton. mavult dicere Roma suam. beretun. fornication. fhe outhouses and yards. a tying. hoops of a cask.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. bast. a ftiesh. bass-matting. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. netting. lattice-work. embastir. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. barter. as the diadem of the basilisk. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. PaaiKhms. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. from /3aR. Sicamb. MS. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. Sw. flat. Sylvester's Dubartas. lust. beortun. exchange. n' is n' is bacino. imbastire. HaUiweU. Basket. Fr. besst. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. a basket masg. Dan. /«r<fSp. baxoj w. humilis. on a. bast-maatte. Kil. bast-reb. bareter. to bind. w. also the demesne lands of a manor. The like property hath the iasilisk. Fr. bestcn. plaiting of splinters basged. berewic. dwelling. MHG. Bass. . Arthur and Merlini. Pl. chasa ogli a bastard. baratar. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt.

Dieiif. Fr. to Due.-^ Chaucer. has bastine. to pack a saddle i. blatta. to belabour. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. niammal. raise. It. put it together. It. Dan.Lat. stryk. Cot. beysta. guerra bastir. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. — Bakke. badger. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka.'CaB. bastia. settiilg up. back. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. is explained by Cot. to rub gently. also to cudgel. a stick. flyinge best. to devise or begin. as weU as besteau. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. All from bastir. blows. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. To baste one's hide . to rub. which to rest the load. Fr. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. a packsaddle. disposer. Bastinado. liiake. the E. Fr. iastir. ment. Florio. bastonFr. blaka. I. Supp. to stroke. devise. frotter. natt-blakka. bakie-bird . compared with blakka. Sc. e. to cudgel. Sw. 2. club. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. bat. beating. erect. Sw. set up. — — Fl. Antiq. but this is hardly satisfactory. dial. Mid. Dan. and Arabs. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. aftonbakke. frame. blakta. bastimento. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. to beat. comp. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. R. a bird which. Fr. the winged . Pm. vespertilio. business (Altieri). Cot. bladier. to flap. Prov.— . a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. Rayn. set up. bastir. bak. batta lucifuga. or implement for 4 * A . a sconce. bastida. contrive. — — — . bdion. blakka. to drub. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. For the origin of baston see Baste. bastonnir. bastione. the original has corneille.. to build. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. provisions. to lay the Sp. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. nade. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. the clapper of a bell. in the Romance languages. and ditches bastion. a things prepared for future use. to set on foot a war Bastion. p. iinbastire. worth (Nat. Derived by Diez from iasi. passage Imbasto. the bat . and Cot. 164). from Fr. also the ricado. R. Pr. 'iJipistreUo. bastir. 2. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. baston. bastine. packsaddle. bastonada. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . It. to thrash . basta. to beat. a blockhouse. to teach one before. ari instruineht for beating. a with a stick. blacta. a pad. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . 11864. . to spread bread and butter. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. a blow cloth for dinner.— Bailey. which in the E. to quilt or stitch wool into it. Sw.stitching in general. like the owl and the bat. cudgelling.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. bastear. . to give him a sound bastingi 3. bastille. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. * Bat. 2.baste or knock soundly. explains Sp. a pad or packsaddle. vledermus. military term of a bat-horse). To beat or bang soundly. victuals. boste. to whip. night-bat. dial. in the use of the E. basa. blatta.stick. basto. staff. to build. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. contriving. a bastion. Sp. stryka. Sw. vespertilio. pre. baston. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. whence ledrblaka. a. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. bast. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. the night-jar or goat-sticker. ON. For the loss of the / in back. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. blakra. Sp. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. translation to a bat. Perhaps baska. BAT neither. E. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . bastilde. To donjon.fortress or castle furnished with towers. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. a barSp. quelqu'un son roulet. That yche blak y dar wel telle.

dispute. allay . abate. batna. Battle. for biia sik. to cudgel. battere. Strife. I.— To Bask. bdt. a battle. bataille. to bathe oneself. as E. is a simple adoption of Fr. to beat. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. bludgeon. a from ON. to warm oneself. G. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. or a dry stick. Bate. Jurgor. as signifying warm baths. The bat with which a brot bdhen. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. to betake oneself. Batten. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. a beating. to be profited. is in falling. howis. and about an inch thick. to toast bread. beat. a stirrer-up of strife. beat. I bathe in water viz. whence the sun burns . vel seminare discordias vel discordare. Battalion. G. squadron. from on. gebdck. abattre. bdda.Bathe. Fr. tagUone. perhaps first used adjectivally. also a sun badfish. to beath wood Battledoor. term in falconry . Mgy. Sp. a battalion. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. adapted for defence. baeddu. trahtr to It.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. baz. lessen. oneself at the A into faggots. To Batten.— . signifying to give repeated blows. to feed. A batch as wood. It. made of — A made by one Batcii. To Bate. remit. Bret. Jeddris and covering. gebdcke. Fr. quell. dial. Baka sik vid elld. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. . . To thrive. See Better. I baske. buask made like a fortress. w. Plkkis. made of bats. Hal. to become fat. a band of armed men arranged basa. to thrive. to flutter with the wings. Hence pro. the heat of the It. bake. badda. battere. In OE. cudgel. betten. tradire. by projections or in any licoure. battions. to foment. to beak. batterie. battre. or break down. Battery. to for fighting. flour. battre las ailes. . to get better. a Baiffi. or make debate. Bat. PLD. Sw. From OFr. to heat. baka. dial. to bathe. batte sig. as wood-en. busk. gabatnan. in the sun. batador. makebate. to dial. to beat se battre. Pr. A Bath. a great seems related to baden as Fr. — To . battre. Fr. G. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. bat. Holz bdhen. bada. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Batter. sich bakern. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. as E. dial. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. strife. bet. It. then to warm by the application of hot water. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. to refresh oneself in language. Sp. from battre. heat. Battlement. fortress or castle. quhar he suld assaill. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. From bat in the sense of rod . baquetazo. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. to fire or in the sun. solbase. Ayenst the sunne. batir. to fight. Batyn. basa. Flem. the root of e. bdda vidjor. to beat. debat. Battery. Sw. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . on. to foment. E. Goth. battle was used beath wood. better. to warm. Pm. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . more. hot. to become convalescent. Florio. Fr. a staff. altercation. certain bend. an arrangement for giving blows. of bread is so much baked zX one time. dial. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. bdhen. wet linen in washing. to fell. Bailey. to warm oneself at the fire. and milk beaten up together. — — — ' — . batacazo. and as a verb. beat down. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. Barbour in Jam. a stick. ON. Pr.' Palsgr. Pm. 2. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. badask. — Cot. Gael. Fr. to foment with hot applica. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. also. In some parts of England it is striking. Du. in the case of a wall. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. to heat .Hence in the augmentative form It. a washing beetle. battaglia. bastille. on the fire. was formed bastilU. and with staffslyng. bat-en. Eggs. pak. to beat. a main battle. badda. Fr. Slav. Chaucer. solen baddar. baden. a blow. water whether warm or cold. e. fashes basking in the sun squadron. a blow with a light instrument.

Pr. in OE. a dog). baue. W. babbole. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. bobbin or cluster of thread. to play the babby. Fr. expressive of disgust. baban. on the face of animals. balGael. E. OFr. dirty. a tassel or hanging bunch . miauler. sorry. bauU. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. Cotgr. dacchino. an — — — A — g — — — .' ' Pegma. It. fe bau. Bagdad. whence the E.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. rotten. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. and Sp. A name of the badger. Swiss Rom. pie- . spotted. to void the bowels. a horse marked with a procession. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . because made of cloth of white. Irel. baw. ground. an object. and authorities in note. Pm. E. exactly corresponds Fr. to trifle away ment. Ball. having a white streak down Bagdad. mew. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Batylment of a wall. bausan. R. a horse with white legs. form with an initial seen in Fr.guage). Pr. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. an embattled wall. toys. brush faggot. or toys. tab. scarf. In like manner Grisons filthy. It. Cot. a belt. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. baffe. It is all bawdy. From Bret. Baw — . whence pouacre. a plot of Chaucer. a gavel.— P.. Ball-seirc. s. bablyn or waveryn. faisceau. librillo. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. to bark .' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. to the same origin. baula. spot. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. Gael. speckled. Fr. bad. guigaw. dente. Zalli. fooleries or fond To Bawl. lewd . baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. ON. BAWSON Swiss. excrement. Piedm. a white mark Bawdy. Filthy. fagot. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. from Fr. babiole. the face. b \% bouala. filth. 2. Jam. Descript. balderich. divided between black and white. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. Fr. Bavin.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. or Cot. the white of his leg or foot. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. ish baubles. vacillo. bow (as in our nursery Diez. bouaila. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. Formed from baw. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. dung. to make the noise Baudrick. OFr. bobine. Prov. fields. Fl. bal. i. to low or bellow as corn. The It. bauch. a lump. s. a zan. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. babsmall toy to play withal. whimwham. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. baugant. nastiness. balbob. tille. javelle.. or the animal so marked. obstrepere. a tassel. to talk Lacombe. dirt. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. also more Bawdekin. trifles. The word may perhaps be sticks. to me-wl. is used for a sented by bau. child. represented by the syllable miau. Bawson. trifle. From ! an interjection of disgust. baudrat. E. —R. — Pm. ! Bauble. Beaus^ent. Baldrick. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. baubare. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. was simply a field gold. a spot. It. Lat. Sc. bal. a lump or cluster babhaid. cluster. as Fr. filth. the Swiss baben. bau. Cot. 8. propugnaculum. P. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. to 53 manure the To baw. Hal. to bark. and to-tore also. ballach. dial. sword-belt. An analogous noisily. disgusting. zano. pegma. or sheaf of Bridel. from Baldacca. P. P. to vociferate. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. baudrdj OHG. E. horse. also the canopy carried part of his body. ball. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. is Bagdad stuff. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. instead oi s. — — ' Lydgate. c.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. bow-wow. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). collar. Cloth of gold. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. to cry.

or recess in an apartment in modern times. w. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. A stag is said to stand at bay. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. . Fr. living thing . a mark. the world Gr. From Cat. It. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. a berry. siege of Bayonne in 1665. bay. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. to keep at a bay. beo. — Schmid. baiare. Feb.c. bajo. the cod of peas. To Bay. desiring. living Ir. Fr. Such Antaeus seemed to me. laurel of the ancients. baja. — A At Bay. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. put to his last shifts. baca.. 1. by the term rendre les abpis. to gape. or at bay. It. Fr. F. Serv. buidhe. yellow . Lat. Lat. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. baca. bacca. . Arts. bahia. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. as if to signify a window of curved outline. to keep one waiting. to stand watching one. to open as a blossom. See At Bay. The — Fr. to on anything. —F. barn of two bays. grapes or nuts. baye.—Journal Soc. Gr. dehiscere . Fr. stare. to amuse stare a bada. hddhe-dhonn. baya. See Bald. It. Q. It has been shown under Abie. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. baccello. Earth — By Nature made to till. Q. baher. &c. It. weary of running. and the To bark as a dog. the laurel-bay. bialo. baier. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. bagaid. bahia. husk. life. bioth. badius. Fr. expresr sion tenere a bada. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. beothach. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. dividere. stood watching him stoop. * To Be. is perhaps not directly from Lat. the cod or husk of beans or the like. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. Gael. beonj Gael. house . Bay. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Drayton in R. Vielp. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. window . bde. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. a'uno. BauSfi)/. —Diez. overture. bilyejiti. especially beans.' — — 54 bald. bai. large window in a handsome . from an imitation of the sound. abbabayer. bate.' Bailey. bayo. Gael. &. Sp. a cluster of bacon. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. to iiitent nected PoL white. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. waiting . Said to have been invented at Bayonne. in order to keep the enemy in check. ist. the step is the same as from It. or to have been first used at the Cot. &c. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. gate. See Bawl. BE Probably conRuss. watching intently. |8i'os. Swab. arose two forms of the verb. life. aux dehniers abois. when. at his last gasp. or window ' (in Fortification). bilyega. The word bay. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. buidhe- The ruadh. 1859. alive. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. OSp. . baga. that from ba. tradire to Fr. a dagger. bijel. batibari. Piedm.— Stalder. Fr. Bayonet. window-sill. from badar. so called from its bearing bays. berries. to be Bohem. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. . to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. From the former verb is the It. to mark. Mod. 25. he turns and faces his pursuers. BAY marked with bjly. which however. Sp. or berries. Swiss beie. Cot. bdcr. baie. AS. S. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. like a pie. to split. Bay. It. a beast. Catalan hadia. and keeps them in check for a while. Sp. a hole./^ bau. baionette. Abide. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. to betray. Prov. to open. bay. berry. bayen-stein. Holland's Pliny in R. white. as gazing. —Bay-windo'W. baer. badarc. badarse. open the mouth. A hollow in the 'line of coast. trahir.. ing-floor. Bay-tree. and zndly. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. corrupted into Bow-window. badia to Sp.

Q wait upon him. a tree. OSax. bauhan. on. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. signifying individuality. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. a single bean. beacnian. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. tale of prayers or doxologies. a tree. into a snjall river. Goth. — bedeau. bM. —F. — : Beam. Trans. pig. as. Hackluyt in R. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. fero. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. ON. AS. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. bakkje. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. fd or faVf beans. bairan. be. . Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Bear. however.' Suetonius in Diez. Gael. * Beagle. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Moreover the name. signifying a point. ON. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. A two-year old nephew of mine p. fromthe danger. backe. to bellow. A Esthon. Goth. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. faba. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. G. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. to wait-. The nutu significare. To Bear. beacen. bidello. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. bean. N. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Gr. atUndre.fer-re j Gr. Pardoner's Tale. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. prodigy bauhnjan. See To Bid. Thus the final en. Fr. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. It is BEAR SI court. vol.fuis5e. was introduced from England sea. bob.to have a French origin. bedm. fora-bauhan. boom. Miss Gurney in Philolog. W. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. according to of Sanscr. nokkima. Beck. an attendant. beugler. The origin seems preserved in E. 54. bearti. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Beak. -phxr. It. as. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. a sign. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. Boom. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. which is. bakke. g. like most nautical terms. baum. bohne. salve his hurts. It. bagms. post. It forms a. Catalan becar. Farrar.. bokan. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Netherlands or North Germany. bee. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. rising ground. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Du. a single bean. beans. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. Beach. Be. Beadle. . Lat. bydel. The immediate shore of the Menage. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. W. faba is Kvavoq. a curtsey. ffci. bdkna. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. E. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. a presage. The wild beast. to nod . vii. or any action done with a pointed thing. Fr. Bret. bidan. G. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. bar. stock. Beacon.fui. and Lat. — to bow or nod . origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Sw. beic. Beckon. bohnej ON. beck. pierced for hanging on a string. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. beic. — Bellenden in Jam. to nod the head. Bean. a prayer. a nod OHG. Gael. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. Slavon. a hill. baun.ad.from AS. badmr. ohg.' Hall's Chron. into France. to beckon. ffaen.' adheres to the root. l^ax. . bek. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. support. or breathing. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. to carry. as well as f& or fav. He says. becco. Chapters on Lang. would say. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. the part overflowed by the tide. bead. AS. to wait. Bret. to produce young. a beak. gebed. Gael. or however. or beic. «va\ioQ. bank.

Lat. Secondarily applied to a hat. Beaver. Prov. chin. barf. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. G. or a feeling to be gratified. birth. OSw. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. bava. formerly a happen. to the brook itself. Fr. 2. from baver. living. perhaps a living thing. Sp. Russ. Bosworth. a bank. Fr. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. to live. burdr is used in the sense of a car. to please. fiber. E. opportune.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. bobrowai. badi. gebank. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. Slav. becuman. whence baveux. Cal. brada.getiman. con. bestiaj Gael. biber.of being very angry. godum with ON. bavec. beatanj It. receive. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. AS.' are equivalent expressions. to bear children. R. The moveable part of a helmet. Goth. get J ' He got very angry. to assume a certain form or Turk. barba. Beck. nothing to thy name make. to fall. gelimplic. bel. limpian. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. ON. 1. bach. judgment. to get. a lip. battere. Prick of Conscience. bave. brook . to sleep on. to carry. fitly . G.we call the arrangement becoming. . dize or dtzen. bring forth. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. Beat. our taste. covered the face. which. Thus OY. befall. See becymth anfeald yvel. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. beo. biivre. to be incumbent upon him. to be a part of his to. edge. Do no To It fallith favour. timan. Bedizen. The OFr.' ' He became very angry. Lat. It. while from Shep. bart. venient. to happen. It. befit. border. decent. In like manner condition.S6 fero. On the same principle. bedr. fallinn. produce. to G. — . G. bellus.to clothe to slobber. Thcem. pens unmixed evU. to attain to the lot of any one. the latter are derived It. gabaurths. limplice. bobr. Lat. riviera. comely. ting. fit. when up. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. it is probable that here also the to become. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. and to acquire. tidy. beauts. bur. bett. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. pleasing. to happen. bearing. bekkr. Chaucer. e. and Fr. to hem. bib or slobbering cloth. but now a river only. pretty. nod or sign. convenient. an notion of being convenient. to happen. becuman. bello. The fitting or suitable. from the same in the sense of bear2. — A — A — . place to lie down. iida. I do thee pray. obtain. or special purpose. a bank. agreeable. fitanimal. seemly. The quadruped. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. ziemen. dushmak. to happen. to wade through the water like a beaver. As rivus. bebrus. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. suitable. a. Lith. agreeable. to be fulfilled. R. Fr. AS. baurthei. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. and also in that of birth. ON. brook. Dan. to fall mode of being. proper . G. i.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. bard. G. blast. suitable. connected with ripa. Beck. ON. Perhaps from Pol. baviire. rying. Bo. Beckon. as the babble of the child. E. That thou mayest attain Goth. Fr. slobber. See Bat. to come to or upon. or river. as. tidig. To load with ornament. Now the Beast. bekommen. to arrive at.' every way suited to a prince. boroda. and on. Lat. to those goods which endure for ever. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. He becom on sceathan. byrcti. name applied originally to the bank then proper . from beau. bcek. baba. riviire. Boeth. W. e. gefallen. o. talkative.fit. proper. bequem. if sound of a sharp blow. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. to dabble . i. handsome. to happen. Fr. limpan. bave i. ON. decorous. E. behkr.AS. to appertain.— Kiittner. dress with unbecoming richness . a brook. the beard. byw. Diez. den. to shore. to the good hapHalbard. babrad. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. g. taste. the ece thurhwuniath. See Beacon. now confined To Become. duty. Beauty. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. because made of the fur of the beaver. See Bank. happening as it ought. to fall in with our bavard.

beost. ris. de Fierabras in Diez. Let. Fr. ^. extant in Bohem. Arab. beta. woman that is newly delivered. badigeonner. Fr.). as in It. to become Beech. a agulatum in the original Latin. cousin. the loppered sea. beyki. pital of St Mary.(paddi. Fr. bitela. also the bite or sting of a bees. to and ale. . bletumj Gr. Fr. and in driving piles. Fr. It. The meanpainting. the biter. Cot.D. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. betel. I A pillow-beer. Bee. a pad or cushion). Slav. to turn. may be from K. comb. beer. kivih.— B. Dan. Beet. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. waarin. beetle also signified the impiti. Bav. a Properly a cover that biiren. It. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. a drink potus. to fall. Gr. erroneously modified in form. ProBeer. biene. a bee. madhouse. Esthon. bove. tree. desert.'— GL ^Ifr. translation beOj.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. by the analogy of bedaivb. speach. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. Horn. 1. as the milk of a that purpose in London. g. a wandering Prov. drink. beest. 1156. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. bukva. stakes. water. fall. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. of beatmg. bet. bos. a pillow-case. in Nat. Beetle. a wasp. to beat bossel. to change . cozen. bbtel. curded or beesty. a stinging bieUe. vaar. from blood. also bienst. thick. briesch-milch. case.^ drink. garden-herb. Rom. bably named from the destructive quali| T. comprehending both wine let for beating flax.— JI14. prigione. to twist poorma. Ant. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. turn (a garment). The beer al for te shenche bate. from leberen. biest-milch. an Beetle. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. a cup or implement for AS.' the last word corresponds to cofly . &c. biiren. pude-vaar. bedskiissen-bUren. an ox. fagus. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. I put the flax upon it to spin. buka. turn. wedges. a wasp. Bernese. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. /SXirov. . Bed-ridden. a clapper. PI. E. P1. G. bossen. red curdled Arab . the ox. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. Gael. bytl. G. from the hos. from risan. paralyticus. mars betada. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. a mallet. clog for a dog b'oteln. to coagulate. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. * Beestings. boytle. . D. Originally. It. i.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. trees in a forest . to knock. bovis. cugino. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. 1 to drink. thick._t from the root pi. For that was law of lend. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. AS. cushion-cover . may be shpped on and off. AS. Cot. The honey-producing insect. . calleBedlam. a cover. 'La Gl. prisons Venet. to drink.ON. byst. door. cow has calved. kiissen-biere. 1. and lebermer in G. I dysyn a dystaffe. qui de lecto surgere non potest . bette or blettej Lat. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. from Lat. a horse-fly . an inhabitant of the desert. crespir. GaeL bior. duplicated form of the root. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears.D. . doubtless. Lat. Fin. bedawi. ir'm. a bed-tick. a paviour's beetle batail. The first milk after a dizen. cited by Diez. as.possible. the meat of spinach. to flatten In OE. to colour with lime-wash. boeuf.' So Gr. pettiriso. . in Schmeller. on. from jtst-. Beef. to rough- cast. imperative pi. whence familiar. a malsense of drink.ing of the word is curdled. knock. a pillow case. Pl. beutel. KXlvoTTiT^e. briest. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. which also 2. whose face is clotty. bitel. Lat. bedde-redirj ohg. Bethlehem. E. Bedouia. Grimm. G. buche. blow or thrust. piwo. by-flugaj G. to poordma. cogionare. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. drink. to curdle or lopper. taglio. ' MordiThe Lat.cz//aj. sang vermeilh betatz. AS. batAfter mete in sale. beach.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. buk. to parget or rough-cast . Pett.. used for boull. sela que environna la terra. Confined to bed. poculum. bibere is a re. Fr. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. 57 — Palsgr. But possibly bedizen 2. In a passage of an Old Fr. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. beach-each.

a stone-cutter's chisel. lapidicinus. but probably erroneously. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. Gr. P. pose-pilte. begging. iv. bag {baigean.' for ye shall lament and weep. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. P. Du. &c. in E. hags. genus. a beggar.pose. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. gen. from whete G. on the tramp. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. appears improbable at first. tale. but in the same language from poc. Mundart. Beghardus. 'ex quo. a bag or poke. su with gold. to begaan. a beggar . bertola. as alighting is a momentary operation. Goth. V. ' ' . Ancren Riwle. P. is com. gigno. to cleve. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. a wallet. or Of a pure poor man. a beggar-boy. Lith. 40. AS. referred gan this Erie alight. in D. be^nnan. in Lat.quently used in OE. ken. at geta talad. ytyvwfT'Kw. a little bag). deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. P. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar.n. viii. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. beginning. — Stillingfleet. on further examination.— . To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. sel. to be acquire. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . So from Gael. krapszas. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. covered with gold D. a wedge for cleaving wood. beitel. it is both to acquire and to beget. anfangen. of Gr. incipere. baigeir. Mod. ornamented phoc. 142. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. 2.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. Political Songs.D. to take. chap.' A. to get children . is formed pocair. chisel. To produce children is to acquire. beis- plement driven by blows. to beg. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. It. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. a scrip. Deutsch. 1430. — yivsaiQ. ysgrepan. to bear young. y/yvo/iat. Barbour. above quoted to get beaten ON. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . It will . From w. word. a — wedge. To Beg. P. ken. P. Lollards. to be born. literally. beutel. duginnan. affected. vir mendi. to reduce him to beggary. Schm. woe-begone. P. ' Begone.3. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. Of brede full ycrammed. can. to go a begging.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. a bag . ykvog. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. onginnan. beriolare. touched with emotion — . V. giving in Gr. aginnan. steinbosil. 'Aboutin undern monly. cans. not began to alight. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. although it ' the future. to arise.bag full of the G. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . capere. V. 'Dz. Vocab. a scrip euXaiciJoi. Florio. image is cleft out of the trunk. and Lat. Du. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. begger. yiyvo/uat. Into the are D. OHG. one after that other. P. Bruce. whence the E. a bag. P. the fundamental notion of attaining to. two betels —a grete oke. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. Du. Creed. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. to know. yivofiai. yivtrri. gan. He did alight. a chisel. &c. The tother seand the dint cum. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. 58 BEG BEGONE G. fangen and Lat. beissel.' about undern he got down. to be able. 25. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. seizing. taking up. Nov. & go a begging. P. 1867. oppressed with woe. kind. origin. Skinner's derivation from bag. signifying to conceive. to begin. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. In Luc vi. Fr. Cold-begone. also called Bigots. beitel. When Q. ' . yivwajcw. Si'Xa/coc. on the bag. can. 168. To Begin. air a . ip AS. ysgrepanu.

guardare. gecall. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. tion. to be named. hove. to follow.to vow. obliged. behat. gehat. to vow. to vow. hafwa. at the tail of.' Richardson. keeping. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . have the sense of calling or naming. It. Goth. OE. vow. commonly expressed. premi curi alicujus rei. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. vow. to look upon it as true . keeping. advantage. take heed of. bound. or necessary. to be obliged to do a thing. Command. servare. the two verbs seem radically the same. to fit. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. hces. name of the head is used to express what hbva. To Behold. — Behest. hevja. gehouden. N. to tend. promise or a command. han- — js Kil. hafwa bort.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. a follower. habban. what is so required. to keep. Plautus. to hold. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. —Hest. hafwa. to gehouden. hafjan. the name adapt. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. hcef tig bort. se porter) to fare well or ill. G. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to hit the mark. or purpose. injunccommand. to carry. ufhaban. At the back of The re. K. furtherance. Thus in Finnish the heave. promise.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. R. observe. ifl fact. to carry corn into the barn . exhort. heeten. beperson addressed. us-hafjan. AS.for throwing it. laborare. garder. healdan. 17.the figure of throwing at a mark. and the E. Sw. what he wishes another to do . solicitum esse. to keep. to the equivalent of Du. to call. to carry. heita. AS. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. Aan iemand bid one welcome. nittaa. to lift. To Behave. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. adjust. Sw. The It. when the verb will hoof. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. the equivalent of E. and (as Fr. behatan. to keen or hold. to be obliged to one. gehalten seyn. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. The Lat. zijn. hcefwa in seed. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. to heave. to raise. G. to meet. behold. behces. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. gehaben. right. G. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to hold. ward. to promise. To be expedient. But. to look. behaviour. is on the top of or opposite to. to R. to be fit. to carry. Paladino. holding is originally derived from that of looking. is also found in the sense of looking.— . Robert in Warton. behete. To place are most naturally ex. behefe. the distance of anything. to feed. to take away. ge' hatan. to name. G. betragen. hatan. or the hence advantage. Kiittn. The seyn. invoke. To look steadily upon. Sw.). G. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. hafwa ram. to be well pleased out. to behave. to regard. to lead. to be suitable or becoming . it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. hofwa. is supported by many analogies. to halten. to command. promise . heeten willekem. use. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. habere. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. and their senses intermingle. hantyri. zu etwas gehalten haitan. from tragen. on. seeing to. AS. hevja. fixed upon any object). G. behoof. to call. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. to be be named. beholden to him. take yourself off. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to turn one out . to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. according as the * To Behove. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to bring forwards. hovast. heave. to lift. to cast or throw. to command. as in the case of E. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. tail. AS. behind. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to have. to bers of the body. AS. portarsi. And so from hania. by the compound observare.

beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. to lay be- around. to give leave. to der swaren lave. to make it fast. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. reach. distance to which a piece will carry. garnish. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. loben. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to express approval. permission. fringe.alyfan. Northamptonshire. with the consent of the heirs. bialla.Lat. is (Sternberg). employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. bounds. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. if a promise. to promise. to belay.D. esteemed . aim. under the forms belfredum. OHG. appearing in Mid. legsel. to cry out bell. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. To Belch. to praise.. are other modifications of the same imitative root. . From AS. Another application of the same word is in Pl. bercvrit. a tower. gelyfan. — Diicange. on. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. berfroi. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. mark ON. loven. laubjan. bervrit. erlauben. to give leave Dan. to sound loudly . to a loud noise. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. — . boare. esteeming good and valid. belja. cela est audessus de votre portde. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to put a high price or value on. 6o BELAY BELL loven. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. to lay the cable round the bits. consent. orloven. a watch tower. to bellow. leave . Doubtless an imitation of the sound. — mankind. is used in the sense of approving. Q. on. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. beset. Bell. then. were civil terms of address. satisfaction. lofa. to praise. bylja. to believe. praising. to extol the worth of anything. beau sire and bel dame. honoured. Then. to believe. tain a certain end. fitness. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. AS. and Du. loven. to befit. galaubjan. or a sconce. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. giving leave or permission. beffroi. filu-galaubs. true. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to praise. ON. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. turris. measure. AS. to promise or engage. resonare. to roar. portion. to bolk. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to boke. to to make A Templorum campana boant. lyfan. from mhG. . promiser. Pl.D.D. pro3. to estimate them at a To believe. Sw. overspread. laven. To praise is essentially Xo prise. behove. Goth. reputation. or house. in nautical language. an implement for making a loud noise.. verloben. are innate . To Believe. ornament. permitting or giving leave. range. border. properly belonging to the church tower. if a narration. galaubs. OFr.. To Belay. praise. then. a vessel made for dishonour. a. or high estimation. and E. a little shed. Hence to simple approbation. Du. bulken. and. certain rate. ON. bealcan. beleggen. Det er ofwer er hofwa. Pl. Du. to give leave. stand. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. leaf geleafa. is an easy progress. peal. —F. . belief . b'ola. laven. locus securitatis Schilter. The word be- Belfry.Lat.D. allow. to fix a price upon one's wares. to resound. and E. bertefredum. Fr. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. In Mid. moderation. beffroit. ungalaub kas. we have Goth. to hit hafi. bolken. ley/a. bettifredo. to protect. met. See Gain. G. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to believe. Fr. Du. bellow. for purposes of low estimation . and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. bealcettanj OE. lov. frid. to sanction an arrangement. bell. glauben. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . to permit. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. It. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . battefredum. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . Du. promising. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. and bergan. precious. P1. hesfa. In the middle voice hofwas. to be required for a certain purpose. a tower for defence . bellan. Fair sir and Fair lady.

the skin of those animals that factor. pertinere. kind. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. blister balgan-snamha. gwaldas. an inflated Lat. Benign. gelangen. To belong is thus to reach up to. ON. bellows. is a kindred form. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. ray. disposed to oblige. Bret. J'emboue. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. belt. has assumed a plural form. the word. G. to hallow. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. rise against external force . bilbil-goda. to come to the crown belangen. Lat. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla.. Kil. as. benejicium. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). to arrive at. Quoth. one who does good.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. rushes. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. benedicere. bell. fyle To dirty. Fr. because bcelg. langen. belgr. ' . bendaj as. from which is also bulbus. — root consisting of concentric skins. G.pinuz. Javanese perfume. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. a kindness. belch. cod or husk of pulse. loubdn djawt. vulva. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . to ring. To Bequeath. as concerning that. the womb. to bend a bow . to exert force. welt of a shoe gwald. to attain to. was in Mid. a accusative. bilbila. wallet Benefit. are stripped off whole blase-balg. means seeds of plants. to concern. a bellows. border. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. a bellows . applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. See I . benjoin. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. Bent. pino3. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. From OFr." — — . Benzoin. Benignant. benedictio {bene^ and dico. . to bless. skin. bendan. bolch. is The word balg. bless. balg. to become one's property . to stretch it on a frame. belly. Lat. . It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. to touch one. attinere. bcelg. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. bienfait. . See Nether. OUG. Benefice. welt of a shoe. wallet. generous. leather sack.videtur. fens et hie liraus. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. to reach. binssen. Fr. a blessing. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS.' Palsgr. beneison. bander un arc. bellows. To Belong'. from another modification of the word for bubble. Benedico. dirt. to. vulgarly the belly. or fyle with myre. to attain belangen. Lat. G. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. Eenison. to hold to one. taken absolutely. Bench. attinere. pod. Dozy. Gael. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. belliJ Lat. benehusk. ' I beraye. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Bav. a border.' The term had been previously planation. bolg. to say. I araye. to touch. a good deed. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. bag. balteus . balg. skin. ball. To Bend. by itself. from Arab. a speaking well of one. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. benaigon. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. OFr.polch. See Bank. bellows. to belong. Fr. incense of Java. a leather bag. benignus (opposed to malignus). benefacere. to do good to one . bimaissen. on. Du. or simply djawt. to make bilbil. bandoir. — ray. attingere. blast-bcelg. . volva. pouch. — See Numb. Benediction. . Lat. from benedictio. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. to use words of good omen. a benefit. from cwcsthan. or sometimes louban. Was das belanget. ^To Beray. binsen. To Benum. Gael. — Ducange. hem.— Belly. belly. . bene/actum. Gum benjamin. In E. pertinere. Ptg. poX^ri. Belt. benir. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Sw. bimpsen. Lat. needs no ex. a blow. pervenire. to concern.Fr. The ing-skin. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. a water-bubble builge. See Bind. . est matris in lucem editus. G. se bander. w. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. well. a round or bubble-shaped root. benjoim. Beneath. bags or bellows. I soyle it or araye it. ON. Lat. bolg. I marre a thyng. becwathan.' — Hie fimus. hence with ashes. I say). a spring. Benefactor. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. or a It is times the to signify services. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi.

Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. to to deprive of. bouter.• 62 Antiq. AS. I from lew. a place . a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. Du. ship for a make amend. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. brem-bessen. BETE dirty'. make better . To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . seems twigs or rods. roju. Ihre. dirt. repair. barthless. in the sense ctf beria. from grow. profit. Besom. burrow. reparation. . R. Du. From abet. So roto rattle down. Fin. advantage. So Lat. noise. to thrust. — . to To Bereave. or to bestead one. as. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. hva mannan. stede. basya. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. When men of mekeness him baet. preferably. earh. — bota. bdt. to entreat. beorgan. barth may be for barf. or. as. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. because used for making besoms. put forth. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. mud. bur-we. to thrust. to supply a want. the side bhakshya. dirt . ^akka. improve. vol. the guardian .ot-i. berwe. to the place boarded off in a. R. might have been .bhaksh. The proper meaning of the bale. berwham. beseech. The dry. put. to light the fire . Berry. peto. place. to word is shelter. To Bet.—^fake. E. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. as Du. to exercise on a definite object. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. reparation. bacca. besein. what does it boot. making better. to cast. bal oppbota. baete. ropahtaa. bereafian. to on the other Goth. OE. a fire. boutefeu. baete. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. to make it.fish the other hand. one who shelter. Zeitschr. dung . to be-place. * Berth. to stand one in good stead. So too Yorkshire arf. buttare. bestow. Rob. arwe. to make better. to amend. to put on the saddle.irova. Du. eld up- On is to be placed A — . ariierf to 113. besen. betan. bat. vi. dial. To Gl. To help. Grose. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. better. besmas. to defend. is to perform a serviceable office to him. to fall with roisto. ^•n. the origin of which is to be found in ON. AS. Hfence backing. rods. it seems hard to separate as. To Bestow. See Better. lay out. same word with the provincial barth. to mend. barfham. Devon. On the other hand. but it is specially applied mister. Du. to fire a funeral pile of . AS. buttafuoco. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. solicit. from It. stealth from steal. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. and on which the wager is laid. and also to entreat. Best. compared with bargham. — Biglotton. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. basjaj Du. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. position. * To Bete. as in growth. fall with sound. BEREAVE Wall. what does it better a man. besnij Pl. Fr. dust rojahtaa. a horse collar. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. botesward. protect . a berry. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position.X. Beere. — amendment. earg. small eatable fruit. to strip. Fr. besje^ Sanscr. sweepings. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. bota. Bestead. to seek. boeten. 3. Goth. fyrbotare. as conversely a besom is called broom. p. . an incendiary. boeten. roju. bdt. and Du. bet. an incendiary. supporting on the one side Lat. het vuur The serise of Boeten. or the space kept clear betan. sheltered from the wind. besIn sen. p. lewth. Tusser. It is the restore fyr betan. sets fire to. The origin is AS. Tha het he micel fyr betan. boteith Goth. but in practice. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. person to lie in. Beit. betan. as.— VixHsm.D. encouraging. jnore. roe.— Hal. Sw. — Chaucer.iooA. of ffeed a fire. as bouter selle. broom twigs. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. advantage. G. To seek something from a person. berry. reafian. fearful. Esthon.t. Kil. Sw. to give a place to. E. think more probable. scopse spartis. from AS. rubbish. to kindle the fire. supply. Beet. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. stow. See Reave. houseless. amendment. G. as. To bete his Jam. boeten. To Beseech.

Sahissais. x. Better. In like manner from twain is fothied between. ON. gesiemen. as envahir. abash j from polir. polish. traditor. To Beteem. e. From It. *Ah. batizo. beva. To Betray.D. Dii. bevde. Fr. dir. R. to fall. vrohjan. betwuxt. R. fate. some attention. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. — that schickiich. Lat. /alia. i. -to appoint.D. i. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. G. afford. awry. be fitting or suitable. The inflections of Fr. Bav. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. order.' Dialogue on Witches. G. is treason. bet. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. To boot in coursing (i. a brood. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. make manifest. — of the authorities. trahison. taemen. fallinn. trakir. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. Hence last G. kein leben mehrin no signs . From the former of these are AS. To vouchsafe. a different form of twa. from Fr. a drinking . pair of compasses. to happen. beverage. Goth. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. to deliver up in breach of trust. Percy Soc. which may be compared as to form with amid. Fris. to accuse. It. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. spritigs from schicken. Cot. Slant. betera. tradere. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. E. find it good: Goth. proficere. bibere. what does It is forward him. riigen. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. lot). is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. in the middle of twain. to deliver tip. Bevy. Car son umbre si le trahit. 88. wreia. On the same principle ON. Friar's Prol. Ik tame mi dat nig. to deceive. betray. find in one's heart. progress. sloped off. Du. Goth. Between. obeish. bet. Golding's Ovid in R. e. tima. Dit tungomal rendered in E. betst. roebucks. to happen. verbs in ir with a double ss. Chaucer. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. ON. better. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. betweoh. R. become. zimet. thy speech bewrayeth thee. more. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. betriigen. an instrument opening like a a thing. a bevy. E. to drink . — Betwixt. ruogia. has — In a like sense tanie>i. treachery. from Lat. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. moveable and compass branches. In like manner folissais.— . which are from a tradire and totally different' root. deign. as tlock. It. deem suitable. better. &c. to stir. of quails. betweox. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. A — drink. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. from. the being pushed to the frbnt. Sw. BETEfiM translated. AS. are commonly to one's lot. not to have the heart to give up a thing. best. dispose (whence schicksal. are there Regt R. Det sig sjelft. to discover. regen. The as. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. and thence twegen. amidst. suitable. bedriegen. to Hence It. to fall Some call it a bevel. fitting. Thus from dbahir. or with again. his mouth. Pl. for measuring angles. as one would have it fall. E. gatiman. traitre. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. a traitor. betweohs. beuvrage. ziemen. To Bewray. gezimet eines dinges. bat. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. — See To Bete. Buveau. tweoh. trahir. is used for the — R. it bewrays itself. in the same way Lat. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. r'ojer dig. by a final sh. larks. roja. betest. Ober D. his eyen sheen. baet. Mich self a good glass of wine. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. wrogia. AS. tima. as trahissons. I approve of beveau. from invadere. Fr. trahissais. twain. advance. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. as from obdir. Now the stirring of an object. Best. betaemen. zemen. Fl. batista. in the middle of two. to make forwards. e. tradire. amiddes. to cheat. betwuh. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. said he. better. evidence of life. In the water anon was seen His nose. springs from ON. OE. G. suitable. two. . of pheasants. whence beveraggio Fr. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Fr. Fr. against. taemen. G. obdissais. bouter davantaige. to Teem. by two. bevere. Pl.

biberen. kwijllap. It is especially applied in Sc. the word became bddizahr.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. besanca.s bellum for duellum. sbias. twice. stock still. Bias. to make tongue Du. kwijl-bab. to stir up . OE. sloped. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. to dispute. bias-wise.D. biascio. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. aslope.a. lips. convicts thee of being drink. in Fr. Fr. . s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. of the sliced off. wraggeln. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. edge of a plate of looking-glass. dial. misFr. . petit-lait. To Bicker. one who drinks in excess. winding or crawling in and out. sliding. to Jam. sbiescio. though such a change of form would be very unusual. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. sbrisciare. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. a Galilean. Hal- — do something aslant. bring under ' Thy accuse. biais. To bicker in NE. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). oblique. Jamieson. Pl. Mantuan. which good bibbeler. poison. — Bi-. bending. An inferior blue. foul weather. Diet. presence.{ioin dua. aslope sbisciare. To drink hard. a slabbering-bib. biax. Pers. Hal. sbrisso. To Bib. Misc. it were the mouth. Gr.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. Sardin. sbriscio. in two ways for duis. to tipple. To skirmish. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). to tipple. (according to the Fr. The train of thought is then. the basil Sc. shows the P1. to move. expelling or preserving against. to give signs of life. bickai. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. per\'erted belief. rogt un bogt sik nig. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Prov. or by any rapid motion. snout. the papyrus. notice. Yes. bescompte. bible. biascia. from pdd-. a sloping edge. to cut in two. Lat. Bisect. rogge. a fragment bieco. Dan. sik beregen. roggle. to well up with Cot. by throwing of stones. Schiitze. kwijlen. In Arab. I Wallon. is explained to clatter. Ant. two- footed. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. bickel-sieenken. bebble. Fr. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. ber-laita (for bes-laita). slippery. has a singular stone-picker. pible. it becomes (Jz-.or from obliquus. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. to be a paring. crooked. to shake. to stir. a bezle. Uprogen. evident. specially in a bottle. E. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. to slaver . to stir. to purl. —Dozy. to creep or crawl sideling. babbi. Lat. — crooked. slanting . Bice. Ci^. inferiority. To Bibble. as an eel or a snake. bihais. Sp. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. bickeler. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . to the stirring of their conscience.two. bes-azur. baverole. . Fr. him. See Wriggle. To Bezzle. ice . Fr. bibo. Bezel. to stir. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. . Bib. its clothes. An excellent Basil. asure-bice (Early E. sbrissare. tailU en biseau. bezling or skueing. It. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. discover. biberon. Du. reveal. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. love first begins to life signs of him.' bibble. Cat. Bibelsworth in Nat. dial. . the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. bibaculus. a stone-hewer . Sard. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. wrogen. Oh when shall I bizzle. or in and out. Piedm. bisel. bark of which paper was first made. Bezoar. Bible. whence Du. 78).D. bickel. metaphor). a bibber. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. sbiagio. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. like guzzle. bestemps. 172. Fr. b&zahr. in him. to slaver or drivel. —Bickering'. bavon. used in precisely stone . he is Wtb. biberer.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. bisdare. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Biseau. sbiscio. to a fight with stones. bickelen. or kwijl-slab. bis. sbiesso. Piedm. In comp. liwell. beslei. wrangle. baviere. Fris. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping.as in Biped. Fr. beregen. to it evident to sense. makes ble. to sip. pddzahr. Probably. babbefore the eyes. to glide or slip as upon. /3i/3Xof a book originally. sbieco. whey count . The It. Cat. It. and zahr.to drink much. biaiser. sbiasciai.

swelling. to move quickly. inhabit. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. bidan. qucero. to bend. A bjudan in anabjudan. or. BID of stone. beidast. and consequently ordering or reGoth. called the tertiary order. to bulge. einen vor Gericht bieten. the meaning of bid. to swell.peto. to offer it to public notice. repair. A pose to one to come to dinner. has leta. ten. bauen to cultivate. may plausibly be derived from Goth. by seek and beseech. bo. porrigere. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. England for swollen. bced. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. bolga. Big.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. bygga. anleta. which is stiU. spelling seems to used in the N. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. bigan. ewes. Bight or Bought. to E. bidel. AS. build.Leta). bua.. as tears from the eyes. to belly. quiring something to be done. bidjan. Analogous expressions are G.' Pope in R. Palsgrave in Halliwell. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. beodan." buque with E. bath. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. forwards. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. as. 1. to pray one to dinner. bulge. who. balg. to arrange. bugt. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bog. and yajiBui. bieten. praebere.uddered len heart. bidan. bugan. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. the belly of a ship. bulge. related to big or bug. to inflate E. a swelling. pressing on one's notice. rising up. buga. swoln. to solicit. of More ' in Richardson. to bid one good day. iiQ. to pro- command. to start out. belly. swaggering. — prepare. and the Sw. to look for.' Addison. beadle. proud. besides the professedmonks and nuns. Jam. The 'La. to bend. to offer. athird class. ON. Kil.t. belly. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. — — — Halliwell. becoming in Lat. to presimpler pare. be bug. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. to abide or wait on. The ON. bolginn. offerre. in the sense of ask for. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. bat . G. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. praestare. bit- bidja. an entire skin. to bicker. from bidan. a chip. bend. G. to build. bead. byggan. cultivate. bilge or bulge. Wallace in Jam. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. to look for. Hence Sc. or bad. are also used in the sense of asking for. The original Swollen. From Gr. Two verbs are here confounded. to build G. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bolgna). bugne (answering to ON. OSw. boa. . BIGOT beidan. bend of a shore or of a rope. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. ' Bug as a Lord. biegen. abidan. and Gael. Compare also Sp. gebodenj G. a suitor. bulky. To Bid ' Big . ON. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. a flexure. Du. G. to forbid . bouwen. AS. bi-. R. Bickelen. 2. OSw. verbieten. The ON. form. from seek. gebeden j G. faurbjudan. Big-swol- . to forbid . Bigamy. Bigot. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. twice. to ask. Einem einen guten tag bieten. to marry. to curve. to dwell. to offer one the wish of a good day. bag. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. The loss of the / gives Dan. bis and in comp. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. ON. To Big. inhabit Du. consisting both of men and women. from belgia. bedun. as G. bow. bidill. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. — To Bid. to have one called before him. to inhabit. To bid the banns. With respect to logical pedigree. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. bulk. byggia. biddan. bieden. to build. It must be observed that the word bidja. bug. explaining the Sc. . without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. The . pray. to ask. to cultivate. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. P. AS. ON. W. or third order of penitence.

nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. sed maxim^ in muliebri. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.. D. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. A. ix.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. A.— Ducange. From bigio. and also unlearned common men.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. vol. homespun cloth. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. Francisci communiter appellabant. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. bigio. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. bigotta. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. and Q. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. as well as bizocco. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. They wore a similar dress. natural grey or sheep's russet. with reference to A. a dunce. author quoted in N. which must not be confounded with begardo. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. was formed bigello. borel. beghart. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. Bighiotti). E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. face VIII.D.' says an Venet. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. the nobles to Rienzi. 1499. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves.' says one of of bigio. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. ac labores manuum detestantes.' translated by Muratori. In a similar manner from bigello. grey. Beguttce. &c.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. biso. bighiotto. all apparently derived from Ital. both men and women. grey. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders.D. and hence the variations bigutta. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy.a. absque votorum religionis emissione. beghino. alii de paupere viti.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. begutta. a blockhead.' Chart. vocati Fraticelli. says. bighellone. Bizocco.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. Hence the OE. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. honesti plebeii amictus. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. signifying bagmen or beggars. coarse woollen cloth. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. corruption would easily creep in. A.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum.' Matthew Paris.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh.D. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. alii Apostolici. Augustini dotarint. to adopt a similar course of life. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. In the same way Fr. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. perch^ i Terziari di S. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. xx. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. clownish. Bizoccki. the other form Per te Tribune. probably from biso. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. 560. S. dark-coloured cloth. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . 1243. aliqui Begardi. Bighini. Flor. G. rustical.— BIGOT bigardo. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. 15 18.

Sw. 3. ^Billiard. in the same sense. of E. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. belgan. a of the sea. Du. bill. abelthe fetter itself. Bill. an axe. horn of an animal. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. ferrese quam ligneae.. belghen. an ingot. To Bilk. an adze . a hypocrite. Gael. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. Aurelles. 2. Billet. a man who rests on a stick in walking. b'olja. 2. — — ' . buail. Billow. to be angry (i. as a bill of indictment. bille. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. the trunk of a tree. bigotto. symbolum. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. a beak. bulghe. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. procella Kil. I. billet. A slang term for a sword. billard or billart. tepati. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. bizocco. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. In the same way are related Pol. an axe . AS. Sp. Kil. beil. bisoch. the beak of a bird. . BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. fluctus maris. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. AS. crowberry. whortle-berries. bill in parliament. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Dan. . bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. . 5 * . Bilbo. The proper meaning bylgia.' bilio. an axe. in the sense of a writing. blaa. axe. a hatchet. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. bui. to strike. biilge. names bill-berries. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. Ludwig. Fr. on. So in Gr. Johansen. person of religion leading a loose life. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. bigot. is properly a sealed instrument. top.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Deutsch. a bigot or hypocrite. a floating log to mark the place of some. Bill. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. that of swell. Bilberry. p. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. buoy [i. Bigin. blamand. used in legal proceedings. however. Fr. a seal. fetters. Gascoigne in R. Langued.' in Richardson. dissimulation .— — — . or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. The Du. Kil. Billette. from Mid. e. gan. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. buie. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. plog-bill. See Bull. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. inscriptum. genus vincu- Bilboes. a seal. a devotee. might be taken to express a hypocrite. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. dziobad. blue . See Bulk. weapon . G. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . loi. false pretender to reUgious feeling. boeye. the bill of a bird. and dziobas. Lat. to swell with rage). Lat. bwyell. beghart. a name given to a. Sw. Prov. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. and in Lat. deceit. BILBERRY nated. bullet. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. An instrument for hewing. In English the meaning has received a further development. — Cot. an ingot of gold or silver. bulgja. bila. a negro. To defraud one of expected sinking. bill of exchange. at sea Billet. a sword. boia. a short note. Piedmontese bigot. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. boja. the swelling G. bigot. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . now A Bilboa blade. clog to a fetter. bil. to job. The origin of the term is probably from bole. the o changing to an i to express diminution. topor. — bigardia. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. Bille.' mariners. bulla. gleischner (Frisch). 'tumidi fluctus. bigardo. Thus we find in It. Sw. Mundart. NFris. of boja. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. Du. seems to be rather the unda. bolghe. bla-berry. to peck. and a billard. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. billot. a shackle. Fr. Bilge. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. from OSw. dziob. OFr. from the dark colour. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. Bojce. billard also signified at billyards. Roquef. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. to pick a millstone. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. w. as craneberry. bull-berries. A lorum tam in — Diez. billet is the diminutive of this. Du. Tartuffe. to strike. obsolete. Bohem. e. AS. Dan. an axe. bile.

vescovo. It. a female stag. bindan. or petze. Lat. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. AS. a gallinaceous bird. band. to knot nets for fish. a heap. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Birch. bij sien. viz. a corn. in Swabia. Goth. isfiw. Sp. which is expressed in E. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. — Surrey in R. videt. a house. copus. When compared with Fr. the young of an animal. bundle. a weight of 48 pounds. expressed by Sw. bund. ON. to bring Biscuit. — Kil. binda nat. G. Sanscr. Then added division in a granary. properly a young pigeon. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. betsel. bunki. bundle. to hang. berkas (z=:Fr. to swell. a bear. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. and of Fr. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. admota non Bit. bund. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. pittjo. an overseer. V. a truss. by the verb knit or net. . piccione. earnes brid. propius videre bij sicndc. To — — —D. Bittacle or Binnacle. fowl. — See Bittacle. In like manner from knot. bitill. Habitacle. a heap. Lith. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. hiindiiin. . AS. Bizened. pippione. bindan. a bitch. a bunch. bita. a weight. from Lat. are commonplaces. a bitch. E. biscotto. Dan. to bear. bjork. bundt. Bitch. brut.' and the like. beorth. evegue. pinnu. AS. forth. bircej Sw. The proper meaning is a heap. by binda. 'tumens sequor. bij sienigh. to cook). j). or baked. The bitol. beitsl. G. terial. binge. IV. We — A Birth. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. doubtless a stone. is in Scotland applied to ivy. e. from pondus. a brood or hatch of young. the young of birds . Lat. — — . beitan. Fr. G. a knob. or bin. — properly near-sighted. to bind at . Bin. to net. to bulge. Fr. to twine. See Breed. than vice versi. twice cooked. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. lusciosus et myops. beisseii. . or ben-wood. to bind together. bunga. bunch. a hind or female stag. poule. bunt. bord. burt. is rendered in ON. pullus. nodus. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. Fr. a female dog hindinn. from \t3\. Gr. overlooker. biclie. AS. evesgue. Bing. Du. qui nisi propius Blind. bigne. where the compass stands. poultry. AS./«idere. pinnii. ge- from AS. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. from Gr. biscuit. . Fr. Bindweed. Bisen. to plait. wine. episcopus. life. a bitch applied also to other animals. while bind-wood. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. bin-wood. also a stone weight. Sw. It. bitacora. Goth. See To Bear. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. to form a knotted structure. ON.. . Lap. . a little dog. Bisson. bundt. Sw. I would derive the verb to knit. a pig petz. BITTACLE /Siof. Bine.. evigue. truss. hith. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. G. See Belly. Bind. Lat. a habit- Binnacle. Bailey. a bump or knob. Lat. habitacle. bhurja. to build. biccej ON. an eagle's young G. pin-ti. brid. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop.. AS. pundas. Bird. beran.68 BIN Bio-. i. H. to be derived from Ibfiaq. to wreathe. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. The term ON. EpisETTiTOOTToe. to fasten it together. piiiti. sc. &c. Bisom. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. v. Lith. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. Fr. and especially to a small poor horse. To Bite. bikkia. i. Thus I suppose the Gr. beize. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. bundun. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind.

Sp. white lead. ' plabraich. in contempt. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. white. . on the one side. Bleak..). gabble. blakki. first. to chops. Wit hung her mourn. to speak Dan. unintelligible talk plabair.plab is used to . ' Biovac. AS. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. corrupted in Fr. biti. Nagt huis. biacca. . I blaber. blabaran. the palebleff. ON. blake. leohte . blunt we say it will not bite. dusky. obscurus. blac-hleor ides. round which the cable is made fast. a childe dothe gasouille. confusedly. So Fr. bitones. to babble. a stammerer. as in that of pale and white on the other. Blabber-lip. shining. bleich. — Hollyband. to watch. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified.D. from wachen. Se bleek. faded. x. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. a continued soft sound. butorj OE. garrulous. mona mid Dan. beitr. pale. Deutsch. or water beating gently on the beach . blob. indistinctly. babbe. Fr. bitor. Lydgate. It. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. 332. is placed. bleikr. on. To Blab the anchor. Gael. blanc. viz. 't kompas huis. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. In like manner E. . blab.€i. —Neumann. bihovac. black. Fr. blabhdach. Fr. babbling. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. a babbler. as of water gently beating the shore. plabartaich. whitish. G. bitr. Percy Soc.' It would thus acle.' by Gudmund. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. maculS. bird of the heron tribe.. 156. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. Bohem. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. fallow . quick. apparently from its biting the tongue. blepLith. to let out whai should have been concealed. Sp. Mag. even humour seemed and beuin. bleg. shine. a large lip. Alex. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. brunblakk. to loll it out. blob. mouth. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). white. "uivac. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. as of a body falling into water. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. Applied in Hin ON. an edge is sharpest sword. a* mast . Pepper is bitter and bites hard. Mund. A a rail. a fluttering noise. as of wings . — cheeked maid. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . to talk much. blobach. Bav. a flapping. blabbern. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. mouth. to To blabber blabber with the lips. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. v. synonymous with baber-lip. blabbre. In Legrand's Fr. a beam in a house or ship. yellowish. light-coloured. Hal. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. beiwache. Again. Pl. The bitas. pale brown . Cot. Hald. Bivouac. to wax pale or bleaked. Goth. ^chops. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. Ai-mstrong. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. dark. cut. things —Palsgr. blubber-lipped. Black. an additional watch. pale. Fr. Mantuan babbi. 't huisje.— Blabber-lip. bittore. In a similar manner Gael. a large coarse lip . as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. to bivouac. NE. a tati. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. Gael. bitts of Bitts. iroxafealo. Sw. G. yellow . blesmer. /ealo-/or. bittour. — Collins in Hal. discoloured . Sp. gulblakk. buft". The Gz. from whence we have adopted the. plappem. bitter. ON. 'fuscus. blob. chatter babbler . ^aj'/^r. thoughtlessly . pale. Why presumest And laam's asse. stutterer. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. baitrs. Bittern. out the tongue. ON. faded. a shelter for the steersman. To or he can speake. quoted by Ihre. his blacan light. Sp. fallow fawn-coloured. pins of the capstern. AS. pale yellow. small guard-house. Du. baboyer. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. Cotgr. pale yellow . to the sharpness of a weapon. blank. ON.' by Haldorsen. blebberis. Je N.' G. beuni. night guard. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. to babble.. blakk. whitish. is apprehension of danger. term. as is seen in sputter and splutter. bites. Hist. Fieldfare. whiteness (candor sine It. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake.

blahen. blasphemare. pXaatpiiiiHv. Wott. Du. chatter. sheet of paper. broad. whitish. bladder. or as E. polished. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. blister. plat. plate. or a mass of bubbles. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. Perhaps from blegen. most complete example of leafy structure. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. blank. To blank. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. bladdra. to shine. branches . mud. mus-blackt. dial. blad. Sw. blena. bladder. leafy. Reliqu. white. blad. irXariQ. blether.. rogues and wanderers. Blancli. Hist. bladeren. with all other loose idle masterless men. and others engaged in dirty work. imbrunire. Dan. or blafich. to omit. revile. black. blein. a boil. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. to glitter. Sir. &c. to vocifer- — Cot. — rura. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. tattle. and the agitation of liquids.—Blatter. blegne. smother. a buible. a bubble. a. blanc. — Sw. —We Bladder. blaere. to bubble. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. waschen. madder. 86. bladder . on. pluddre. to purl. blatter. Bacon in R. The present forms then should be classed with blether.— ^o thehotsun. — . skola and thwatta. Sc. livido . The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. flap of a Du. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. and Q. which we . blatter. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing.—Blatant. Dan. vagrants. Bav. blather. The radical bubble. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. on. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. biasimare. to Hence Ital.. foolish talk. blegen. defame. blanchet. It. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. Fr. blinken. Eadmer. a bubble. blatt. blactra. 5/^a/^ of colour. reproach. blister. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. speak impiously. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. blanchir. Fr. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. contracted from bladeren. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Gr. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. PI. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. candidus. bladder. leaf. G. Blain. blanchet. gabble. chatter. a white or unwritten ticket. e. Du. tree. the leaf of a tree. and wandering men and women. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. . also white woollen cloth . Now. as scullions. Blank. leaf of a. and thence to babble. board. Lat. Jan. name originally given Blackguard. as. Cot. probably ate. Dan. Torriano. to dabble in water. piatto. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. blaeren. Play in Nares. is identical with Flanders borlen. or of an oar G. leaves. linkboys. commonly called the Black-guard. plat. smore. also jabber. Fr. shining. pass over. biastner. in R. D. to bleak in the sun. also tanned by the sun. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. to blanch. bladra. roar. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. blister. Du. G. as.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. white. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. Blame. coat. Fr. to To bellow. cited in N. To Blare. blanqne. blister. —^Webster. a leaf. G. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. as blader. See Blubber. and G. to blow. and E. Blade. variable than the signification of words designating colour. .— Kil. mud. the ON. dripping-pans. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. mire. Blank "verse. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. as Lat. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. to make or become white blanc. blather. I am degraded from a cook. 7. a blank ticket. to disappoint. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. a pustule . p. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. 1854. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. boys. bladre. blame. to —Blaspheme. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. Du. from candere. moere. whitish. the origin of . pimple. to shine. . to glow. Sw. pallido. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. But perhaps a more Gr. Blanket. vagabonds. Du. borrelen. his meat burnt. a blanket a bed. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. pladdern. slush. — — — to jabber. and he shall be sure to have O. a bladder or pustule.

like the in English. baladron. an empty and two theories are proposed. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. Lye. a coat of arms. 2. or blazening. She roade at peace through his heraldry. a torch . besides blesse. fire. also only pains and excellent endurance. blcest. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. Kil. blaser vid. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blase. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. With inversion of the liquid. Prov. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. on whose behalf the herald appeared. Dan. a shout. a flame. Du. The origin of this exSp. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. to cut off prematurely. blaodhrach. a flame . e. blaeteren. oron-blasare. The other derivation. blateroon. magnilo. a funeral oration . Du. of an animal. commendation blason funebre. G. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. splendour. proclaim the virtues of. To Blaze. AS. — ' — stroy. Blatant. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. blasa. Blast. Fr. to extol. As Kilian. blesse. used. to publish the praises. baladrar. loud . the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. brasa. light-coli. .' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. is used in the sense of manifestatio. blcesett. blysa. .' to fastum . Gudmund. — Elazen. A gust of wind. blossi. blazen. to blow . or to the sound which it produces. a shield. But now. the noisy.— . Fr. Cot. brasa.sound a trumpet. boasting. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Golden Book in R. blaodh. blaesen. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. G. quus. to publish. See Blare. ON. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. is the imme. senses. oured. among other . blis. the matter incendiary . The AS. each of boaster. blcEsan. Troilus and Cressida. Du. abroad. g. in the same way as we 2. blaze.). . laudes (Kil. Sc. If armour. bles. OE. blatero. blasoen. bawling. and. blast. ill-speaMng their proper colours . to de. blaterare. a MS. might And sain. kept up. noisy blor. biter. a loud noise. Dan. and to make him word blaze. blass. to blow. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. blcese. shield or surcoat.' painted or figured . also blazon or the blazSpenser. a lamp blasere. Sw. blcEsan. blase. live coal . Sw. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. declaratio. ON. braise. whence Blazonry. by stripping off a portion of the bark. Du. a flame. blason. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. also praeblczse. to set on fire. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. and which. a whisperer. a shining spot.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. proflare tues. Du. thraso. has also blencke. A strong flame. as a verb. to blow. ing of arms. i. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. Blanches illuminies. Du. blorach. it is manifest. to spread news. 'op een trompet blaazen. how.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. gloriosus. Blaze. a voice Jr. I. beast. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. redness . is from AS. blose. a torch. Fr. — — ' : bless. A blaze is so intimately Then. abroad. AS. to bellow. an conium. bldsse. embraser. To blast. blus. To blow AS. ventosus. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. somewhat different train of thought. friend Cornelius. — ^Jam. blezo. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. pale. indeed. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. First from the E. clamorous. bliEsan. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. might spring from the same origin by a . to trumpet forth. blason. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. in that of praise. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. to blaze Sp.whence the Fr. blys. Gael. bleis. stultd loqui. ther it was erst not knowe. much plausibility. Cot. magniloquus. blesse. to proclaim. a blast. visui patet. coloured prints. blasonner. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings .

' — — ' : — — . p. a boil. and thence to a bruise. a spot. blcecan. (faith or creaunce) Be war. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. See Black. Sw.'he cried till the tears ran down. Bleb. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. livid. bloken. whitish. avoid looking it in the face. So in Sw. which are blurred with the have shewed you. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. The term blear. Fr. Pol. a red watery eye. guenchir. .filerren. to spot. AS. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. Schmel. what blenched him therwith. Gr. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. Blemisli. blarren. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. G. c. to start away from. or to low as oxen. Blear. to soil. a spot. on. — blink the question is to shrink from it. darkness of vices. Bejaune. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. bleikr. pimple . a disgrace. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. And By a similar metaphor Pol. ^Blencher. to stain one's honour or reputation. souiller. 115. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. A Blab. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . a stain. goda nainn. blink. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. As AS. ' . In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. N. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. a blot or smear blanking one.' God in his wordes. Bleak. A stain in a man's reputation. to wink at it. wheal. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. confound him. bldmi. pale Du. is Blench. like one that has long P1. color plumbeus bldma. to cry or weep. To salir. sugillatio. Richardson. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. splamii!. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. in the expression reputation. blemissemeiit. as of dust or mist . the livid colour of a bruise. ' — — eye. to humbug. Ancren Riwle. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. B. BLENCH obfusco. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja.P. blur before their eyes. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. tacher. .' the devil makes a vain back. pale . it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. paleness. blema.v. Palsgr. to cast a mist before the eyes. dead-coloured Cotgr. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. to blare been weeping.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. wan. inflamed eyes. blakna. To totally different from the foregoing. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. blot. blot. spSt. livor. . from the than schal I go. to make him feel blank. ^Xiixaoftai. a fault. bleakness. a been distinct. geplerr. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was.' to deceive one. drop of water. or blemish. Bleed. the formal equivalent of English wink. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. ' He blarrede or roar. And now are these but mansbond (i. to disgrace one's name. Manuel de Pecch&. novice. to bleat as sheep. blesmissure. wanness.D. . Sir J. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. tumanid. flack. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. See Blood. to blear one's eye. a blotch plerr. Mac. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. Bailey. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. start vor den augen. a spot. Blear-eyed j having sore i. a blemish in one's 2. Gower in R. plama. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. to bleach. while the agent ac- From . from on. boggle at something. spla7nU sie. To Bleat. See Black. blesmir. From the OFr. pier vor den augen eyes. to become livid. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. tutnan is a cloud. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. blench came to be used for a trick. 419. to wink the eye. sinen langen tranen. I chaunge colour. a spot. blister. Blancher. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. . — — R. exposed. to spot . or blemysshen — blaken. light-coloured. 242.

a. blinde fenster. trix. shine. blanssen. to blithsian. as in Du. a glance Swiss blenden. a nounce happy. Needle. blicken. To Blend. tire. blahos. gladness. window-blind. to merry. as taschen. blaziti. blatida. . although in the in the next article. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. blogi. and joys of Paradise bliden. . glitter. glitter. the Slavonic languages. blinzeln. G. blind- ON. Sc. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. the verb to bless is some. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. Serv. to glance. to bless . blide. blithe blis. liquid filth to bluther. blazeny. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. giving (Fr. a glance. — . (=bene dicere). blithe. seems the simple netel. blend. Pol. .nasal. Blind. Du. gives blinzen. to glitter . Blight. to dilute too much . Sc. blicksem. The inblissful.D. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. ' Pl. flash of light . riches blajennii blicksem. Dan. pearance of the blighted . blund. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. A . livid. blahoslaviti to twinkle. blac. . — A A — . . readily passes into a /. F. OHG. a. Blazena Bea. fortunately. a gleam. joy. G. . as a vatn i vin. a wink With the bletsian. well blagaya. to pro. a blick-ooghen. blick. to act like a — . blicken. Sw. I hold thee a grote thee. . blago. glitter. to dazzle . csecubrandish. to bluiter up with water. to flash. blinzdugig.. the sign of the cross while blessing one. lighten. to shine. blich-fiur. blende. 375. blinzler.blunda. ^Jam. blindselen. ON. lovely Bohem. blag. tative source of the word is wholly lost. blessed. goods. bliss look .corn. joy. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. false windows. sertion of the nasal. Du. to shut the eyes G. blican. blendian. — Goth. thou knave. glad. to stir or puddle. blidu. Du. to — make it thick and muddy. Nares. to dabble in water.eyed. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. to make happy. to shine. blink. be glad flash. doors. to be blind. Swab. blotzen. . bluiter. with or without the nasal. to churn. a flash. sung. joyful. lightning. tless —Gamm. a blessing. blincken. to dash wine with water. but by no means therefore a pre. pockets. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. To Bless.not sting thiiren. j). blent. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blessed. cascultare. the G. —Brera.blinken. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. weaklaveny. . pale. in potters' language. . Bliss.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. Swiss (obsolete). G. to consecrate . Du. to plunge. wink of sleep . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . to twinkle.blinze. to bluiter. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. burn up. a wink. Du. also to wink. to rejoice. moment.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. happy . Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. G. blissian. happy . to glitter ful . Wtb. Thence apblinds. De Sonne ' verblekken. blink-eyed.' To — blunge clay. The sound of k before an s. to lighten. as in the case of blaze. glimpse. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. Owl and Nightingale. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. lightning. blindr. The term then self or others. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. good. bleg. AS. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. blitzen. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. OHG. an entry which leads to nothing . . Russ. wink. bludder. Deprived of sight. to mix.blinkard .wink . plonsen. or nettle which does form. make these hands 3. mix from blekken. Tany. happily. From the action of the hand making Sw. AS. dazzle . well blahy blick and blink. is I shall Gurt. to glitter. Biglotton. to rejoice. lightning sweet blago. Blink. as a blind entry. money. AS. a dead nettle. . III.Q. Paradises blidnissu. mixing in general. blitz. to fall into water with a sudden noise. to shut the eyes. happy . to bless. a look. AS. vious one in the order of formation. graceful. joy . sweet. riches . to make a rumbling noise. glance. Kiittner. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. to shine. — when he — Bailey. plotzen. To blunder water. blind. blet.

having an unsound swollen look. joyful. soak in water cured fish. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. it is must be observed. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. Jonson. to blow. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. buclde. Egillson. bloated. blister. B. in bulk. fish blind person. in Nares. as if soaked in water. — . blister blasan. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. like manner the coloured. to close it with a solid mass. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. Sw. soft. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. And so from squatter. Dan. swell. pausten. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. whence blast. ^Jam. round. The roots /. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blouca and Fr. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. blote. pimple. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. blot. a blister. G. Bav.—Bloated. bausen. blijde. blobbes or droppes of water. shells. a small lump of anything thick. N. any lump or mass of things. a See Blot. Du. bloc. or the like. orbicular. Blob. bluster. A under this name was imported into England. fiustula. a bubble. . blcesma. and easily changes its place. Gael. or is inserted or omitted. Of sheep. pods. Mod. — — — — — From blabber. a lumpish head plubach. Gael. blobber. blot. cooking. Block. pusula. Boyd in Jam. busten. is also used in the sense of swelling . in imitative an exceedingly movable element. Blond. boucler. blad. pustula. To Blissom. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. to bubble. lagga i blot. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. as blinzeln. Goth. mild. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. and bouclette. blesme. as a blab of ink. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. blab. kostua. mild. bluyster. and F. a ram. taken altogether. soft. Cotgr. a . Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. Ibid. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. Hence. to blow. A solid blouquette blisters.. blaud. and pisg. blot. in the sense of a soft tint. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. stone. soft. plub. Blob. kostia. gentle OHG. formed spot. . puff. Langued. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. to desire the male. sloppy dirt. signifying in the first instance to soak. The blow E. like clot. biota. For this. repre- pusula. I believe. Fr. must be referred to AS. a bubble. Kil. expressed by cognate roots. ON. In Fin. a bubble. to breathe hard. Bleb. while Lat. blidr. Thus we have blab and babble. The stem or trunk of a tree. bleiths. a block or log en bloc. a blister . Blister. Dan. separate portion. . to blow. is formed squad. frequentative. blindman's-buff. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Sc. an unformed mass. W. a blot or spot. . or the mark which it makes. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. from blcsr. in gusts. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. or blinde-kiih. in the lump or mass of wood. also to set See Bless. inde humiditate tumidus. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. a blain. as in E. a dirty blister. must be classed with forms like Gr. to cure by smoke. viscid. blautr. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. senting the dashing of water.—Bloater. ON. B. merciful ON. blinzel-maus. G. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. to swell. husks. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Lat. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. to blissom. the unhewn bole of a tree. to soak. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. To a smoking or drying by the fire. or bleb. strawclod. Sw.— Hal. To Bloat. blond. blotfisk. ^vaaa. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. blithe. Svt. to to puff and be noisy. Hence E. to dash liquid.pusta. mass. and inarticulately. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. to block up the way. blindsehn. It may be formed Blithe. blide. See Blot. a drop of water. weak. blubber. buckle. bloc. — Blob. —Bailey. speaking rapidly any . — Sw. bubble and blubber. to steep. soaked. blaustem. light yellow.— Bailey. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. Fr.plisg. a little blisg. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. blod. Du.

Erploten. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. blotte. bloetnsel. Jios. a deli. a spot or blot. bletister. blysa. mud. blondheid. . a. fall down . gfyssa. bliise. Blood. glus. a Usaae. a torch blusse. blawels. a beater. Blad. Blow. or the sound of it . to strike . Fris. blotting-paper. bloemen. bluish. Schilter. colour of the cheeks. . blotter. Pl. pale biavo. yellowish It's G. cow-dung. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. E. wan. Blot. parallel form with ON. soft or flat. It should be of filth blak-blatte. livid . Blossom. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. pladdern. blut. a flower. blou. splendour . clod. See Blow. gleam. bliihen. plottra. Prov. glose. bleistern. — gush. blois. a The form platschefz. sbiadare. blaeuw. Sc. spot pletter i solen. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. E. Schwenck. dial.D. kobladde. lump of anything soft to blad. plattata. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. a cow-dung. blosma. a water ploutsche. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. to slap. blatte. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. a drop of water or colour. glasi. a blot or spot. to glisten . blus. Sw. redness. blowen. blue. platz-voll. leme. Russ. whence plader. shine . E. D. Du. to squat or lie close. ])erly Du. j^ blottir. blodelsa and blawelsa. bloed. Du. to slap.^ Kil. pale tint. Stalder. biado (of which the evidence plattern. lump flower. flower. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. to strike with such these objects exhibit. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. a black eye Du. blust.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. a nature. couleur livide. Hatch. to flame. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. PI. a flower. a Schmid. platz-regen. gammon. kuh-plader. ^Bleed. Ir. to exists in biadetto. blosa. . — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. blase. plotterwis. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. blosem. white blatte. Du. AS. a blow. AS. en blau ach. blaeuwen. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. bldts. probably connected with Pol. dial. lustre. proto shine with bright colours . — Stalder . bloi. blond en blaauw slaan. . blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. blue . splashing full. . dirty spot on the cheek. . ON. a flower. to blaze . It. E. to From . bldmi. coloured (Diaz. in v. on. Bloom. platt-voll. blady. bit by bit.platter. ' — . Blotcli. S-wiss pladern. to shine . to splash. to dash down. bloi.— . Dan. great leaf of cabbage. Wendish blodo. blostma. to strike with something soft or flat. Wflz<^«. to dabble in water . platsch-voll. Florio). lidmr. blooth. skam. G. glossi. to blot the land was in a leme. Dan. to dabble in water. blomstr. pale. to dirty. to dash down Du. blat. bloeme. livid marks. a pelting shower). The G. brilliancy. E. to scribble. — — . It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . blue. blose. to be red with blot.' the rain is driving and blue . a gush of milk . OFr. Sc. bloedsd. blond. plot of land is a spot or small rage. ON. from the bright colour which 7'vci. fair in en blat vand. bloto. — Blotch-paper. ^lys. blosen. Lat. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. to glow. platschern. blue. pladern. —Barbour. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. as the skin or hair. a lump. gloss. Fr. See Blow. Du. bleustern. blistaf. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. to grow pale). light. Harmar in R. from G. blue. blond is used in blatt. — Cot. to sparkle. blauwel. . to squander. Dan. fall to overflowing. bloutre. ON. to blush . Schmid. a blaze. blad. bliithe. to be red. a Halm a.properly to scatter liquid . yellow. bloi. spots in the sun. blaeuwe ooghe. Sw. plants which prepares the seed. glister . a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). of a blow with something lios. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. Fris. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. to spot or blot. straw. the bright to blot paper morsels. Ein platsch milch. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body.blauschlagen. the bright colour of the cheeks . Plots. plet. bfys. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. 2. to blaze. (of cattle) to dung. G. . Sw. E. to patter.

to gush. a herb Gr. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. bloemen. plodern. — . to blow. blodelsa. blubbern. OHG. boil. G. piusen. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. blass. sound like water. bluh. Sik upplustem. heath. a flower.D. bledniai. /idXavoc. blezir. 1292. E. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. The primary sense is to shine. blawan. blow. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. the red fluid of the body . bliuwan. pludern. vi^ound. and the forms mentioned under Swab. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). plustrig. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. a blast. blust. bliihen. E. glede. plubartaich. coup. to fade. a. a fat. . corre. Danneil. gliihen. to make blue. meurtrissure Roquefort. a Blossom. plubraich. bruk. Du. especially with respect to the hair. glaodh and blaodh. — . disordered in head-dress. Pludern. v. flower OHG. dirty. to with Bohem. pale. to Plodern. plubair. grow pale. Wtb. foam. Notwithstanding the We . to guggle. plusig. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. like manner Lat. to fade.nify bubble. and closely allied with Du. fqded. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to'disorder. 92. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying.Jlasa. red-faced bloted wench. grey. cheeks bedabbled with tears. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. ^Jam. Blowzy. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. Bret. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. bludder. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. fied vowel. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. d in Sc. br. into flower. Pl. blubbern. pale . AS. a continued noise of agitated water.. Bav. blodyn. to glow. .' — Palsgr. blut. wan. sense. y\r)yi»v. flower w. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. Du. to blurt out. closely difference in of blabber. a bruise. pale OFr. bloeyen.to blossom. . Prov. to make bubbles in drinking. bliihen. 1. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. —SchmelIt. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blois. tache. wan. gloeyen. to bubble up. glansj Ir. chatter. to show flower. — Bluther. toused. bruised Prov. Gael. fiubbem. to spot. bloom. boasting. blady. florere. to breathe G. OHG. fem. Blue. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. G. bliithe. glas.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. blubonciti. Chaucer. blduen. blodern. . bldt. green. puff.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. Lat. to flap like loose clothes. G. To Blow. Blowze. These are — Bludder. G. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to glow. in rapid or indistinct utterance. to blow. to hard. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. |8A)'. to flourish. blao. Kil. bluther. 51. glas. Gr. to puff up. to fade. Tumbled. Deutsch. B. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. blahen. blue. P1. . ler. It. or gr. in E. — To blubber. to beat with a mallet. In agitation of water. gUd. The interchange of an initial gl. to blow. blebber. blosen. blue . bluod. Jla-re. a blow.D.D. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. to breathe bouteiUis. To Blow. 2.xo'»'. And. bloi. little apparent resemblance. and thence. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water.D. Her sweet bloderit face. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. to bruise Roquef. gliihen. Mund. withered. — — Mundart. blazir. pale. MHG. to gabble. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. Langued. jabber. a paddling in wate r. blau. bloes. is very frequent. blaw j biavo. w. The aUied forms. glow. where the word may be compared bliggman. OFr. to exhibit bright colours.' Hamburgh Archives. . A. It is howbliuwen. blau. Pl. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. sponds with Sw. blava. gloeden. may cite for example G. We . ' BLUE or guggling. Deutsch. The radical sense is shown in Gael. -ii. Raynouard. marking some application from that bladder. grug. to beat. bloeden. Chaucer. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. — To Blubber.— . a gurgling . to shine with bright From colours. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. disordered. bl. blazi. to inflate. glowing coal . is confined to the — .

trahir. It then signifies something done at once. blunder. Sw. - reddish yellow. bluish. to lose colour. Romance bluiter. a shore abruptly rising. used for the work of an unskilful performer. pludder. flav-us. jaune. It is remarkable however that the E. and then generally idle talk. Pl. mistake. earth and water mixed together. in plur. a flounder. liebefactor. je perturbe. Biada. Blunt. verdure.make a noise. herauspoltem or sloping shore. corn. blave is moreover. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . applied to green as well as blue. to puddle. pale. plomp. Analogous forms are Du. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . from the brilliant green of the young E. poltern. disturb. Flor. buller-bas. segetes virentes. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Hence we pass to Prov. — Pr. and bustle . He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. bullern. Pm. non rotunda. and biavo (Diez). blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. bleu et blanc.• BLUFF biado. We Blunder. Kil. in water dobbelen. a boisterous violent man. Blavoyer.in mud or water. yellowish red. to blunge clay. I blonder. sense of yeUow. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Supp. — — — . sbiavare. buller-bak. E. to become pale or wan. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. to dabble in the mud. A bluff manner. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. without image or superscription. biavo. OFr. blunt. to become pale or livid. to become pale. as well as sbiadafe. Du. Lat. and metaphorically. Hence a Slcelton in R. — . blac. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. a plain coin herausplatzeu. rustic. fallow. . The word is here synonymous with amplus.. tutte le semente ancora in erba. to fade). abrupt. to dabble Biglotton E.//aay. blavus. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Blunderer or blunt worker. to work To blunder out a fronto. something. to fall suddenly on the ground. The Du. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. blue. blond. G. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. And blunders on and staggers every pace. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. a blunderbuss. G. Dief. flodderen (Weiland). the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. like Du. To blunder is then. bawling. bUich. . The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. blunder. speech. Kil. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. polter-hans.— . a fore. G. originally growing up turf and water. pale straw-coloured. bloi. to confound. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. Du. yellow. Then with the nasal. planus. fawn-coloured. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. blake (identical with AS. herbe. Bluff. From G. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Dan. blue. to blunder water. sloppy drink. bulmanner. The Du. biada. puddle. pale yellow.' trouble. Palsgr. polterer. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. biava. Bodge. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. having a bluff forehead. plo-wy. falb. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. tradire to Fr. to mix it up with water. See Blunt. Kiittner. mix It. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. to plump into the water. blue. Roquefort. contrasted with the dle. Bladum. has donder-bus. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. from an imitation of the sound. or an abrupt manner. dial. blandum. and sbiadare. blunderhead. Dryden in R. Hal. which is rendered by Florio. superficie plani. verdoyer. blahir. blaf. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil.D. blanssen. Halma. all representing the — . See Blurt. an ill-done job. find accordingly It. confusion. pale) is provincially used in the. Ditton in R. Blaffart. and Du. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. Altieri. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. blutter. is. like the Celtic glas. ploffen. to agitation of liquids. Bohem. as well as biado. from the Lat. discoloured {plowiee. glundr. Roquefort. glundra. in the same way as from It'. G. devenir vert blavoie. Pol. corn. his business with much noise. 't — —Hal.

but of something soft thrown on the ground. heavy. from the loud report a fire-arm. exactly corresponding to the G. or heraus plumpen. or blab out a thing Kiittner . naked. blat. blait. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. to plump down. Swab. mit etwas heraus-platzen. inactive Swiss bluntschi. V. fooUsh. bus. — blunt. naked. biotto. bluntschen. G. . Probably radically hlekit.—D. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. blait. without horns. blout. insensible. and. plotsen. heavy. The syllables blot. plump J to plump out with it. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. plump. A light blue colour. identical with E. down.— — — . G. wan. Sc. maol. Sir T. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. bald. dull. and in the same sense. ineffectual reason. fling down . biosso. silly. it will be observed. heavy. viz. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. a bluntie. homo stolidus. blatte. viz. with or without the nasal. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. blue. awkward. duU. blott. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. nature. as Sw. Blunt. and the like. pressions. blunt. seems to be derived. bloss. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. azure. Molof something wet. blockish. to blunt a thing out. Plontp. Bluntet. — — pidus. to make foliage. as cow-dung. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. obtusus. Then cometh indevotion. plonsen. Woddis. Plump mit etwas umgehen. clownish. dial. plump. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . plumbeus. like a thing thrown down with a noise. rude. platz-regen. Sc. V. to blurt. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. —D. and hath swiche languor in his soul. a pelting have then the exshower of rain.pludse. obtusus. to make a noise of such a Stalder. unfledged Sw. —D. F. without the nasal. as in E. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. unpolished. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. a simpleton. to plump into the water. blunt. of a knife which not cut. Stalder. Sw. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. Du. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. Pol. and an unintelligent. naked. sheepish. massive. is The word dull. pale. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. that it not easy to discover the connection. blutten. hebes. nis. edgeless. Plump. rudely. plump. The blait body. Halma. it will be well to point out a sense. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. More in Richardson. to bring it suddenly out. through which a man is so blont. It is from this notion of suddenness. poor Sc. united in Gael. clumsy. dull. unceremonious manner. blunt. Dan. absence of preparation. thick.plompen. rough. without Maolaich. Won by degrees. — Kil. V. Kiittner. stupid fellow. Ford in R. Chaucer. Bare and blunt. blunder. Q. Dan. in Richardson.to fall into the water. void. forestis. without preparation. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. bleak. pointless. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. bare or blunt. to handle a thing bluntly. plump. awkwardly. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Blaitie-bum. figuratively. that the sense of bare. is thrown. used in both senses. naked. blotta sanningen. bare. plotz. It. blunsch. a portion To inquire for slaves. plutz T)\i. unwrought. a blot. Kiittner. It will be seen that the G. the absence of sharpness. inaKil. bare. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. A modification of the same root. good plump person. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. ang. Now the Swiss bluntsch. platzen. raw. blunt. a thick and will person. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. . plains The large bech.

common. fringe. bot. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. or bog also thread. dial. Slur. to sound like water boiling. to blurt out. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. to endeavour to terrify. burra. Gael. of the word seems . table.D. Boa. botte. acre. to smear. Du. pof.—Bobbin.the syllable bot. boccheggiare. stellio. The elision of the d is very to chatter.plerr. To Blurt. on. will fly up. blusse i ansigtet. Related to blutter. 274. eafor. to rumble. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. G. bdd. gabble Sw. border. is formed Du. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. a small lump. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. table. Pl. and Du. Supp. crack made by bursting open. a. Hal. a tassel. To move quickly up and down. an edge. Hal. A large snake. Fl. blubber. bdtr. my dear. pluddre. to make mouths. . sudden. The to radical meaning D. margin. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. Du. blot. and the latch . splurt and spirt. Wright's ed. a Jam. to dangle. skin. to puff. . Bot zeggen. whence bordvidr. large. be a crack or loud sound. borrar. batello. to blore. bleuster. blosken. bausen. Sc. berd. lacerta. to bark. Dan. blurra. P. — a blaze. a grows to a great bigness. or backwards and forwards. a tassel. to blush. Boost is used for the boast. outward edge. Du. to make a noise with the mouth. a blotch. swagger. coarse. boistous. to make a noise in boiling. to say bluntly. bustuous. to chatter. a club foot . Du. blot. . to blubber. to puff. to blaze. margin. stupid. Gael. edge. whence bob. mire. — To Bob. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. — From mouth. ader. blur. Board. c. . Lat. and when applied to vaunting language. blose. bluter. bhis. to blur. a burst of tears. to talk quick and indistinctly . or blurt with one's mouth. short pieces of any filthy mud. Du. Blush. — — . e. to brag grande loqui. baban. bliise. E. bobine. Fr.pusten. 156. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. bludder. De Boat. primarily signify loud noise. bora. a flurt with one's fingers. and swimmeth very well. — — — * Boast. It. blader. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. bord. pludern. cluster. flat. bur. bluther. strong. brett. dial. a baU of thread the mud. bakke bleustern.' — Red Riding-hood. a dangling object. blaffen and baffen. puddle. G. blasen and See Burr. to disfigure with E. lindwurm. Sc. Fr. i. chicchere. and E. blaustem. it implies that it is empty sound. 9396. pfludern. both used in the sense of boasting. literally edge-wood. blast. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Schmeller.plodem. to spurt out. E. bot-voet. then applied to indistinct vision . bateau. properly noisy. As the as. rude. To tinct. It. cocodrUlus. Pull the bobbin. bdta. a torch blusse. baiag. to puff. Bluster. planks or boards. Swiss blodern. ON. ground. to dirty. a bladder .— . V. Wtb. to breke. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. ever-swin. Boa. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. the Brem. bladdra. to bounce. the sound of a blow poffen. bord. pausten. Du. blaere. beacon fire. G. Fl. a board or plank. a short thick body. to give a crack. to blow. blirt of greeting. cheeks glow. plump. AS. 29. to dabble. boord. a smear. like the parapets (viggyrdil. . to be out of temper. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. voce intonare. margin. It. eber. violent. boa. geplerr. bit. puffen. Kil. an end or stump. a mist before the eyes plerren. to roar. To blow in puffs. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. bord. AS. To splirt. Comp. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. to render indisbhir. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. a border. blaste?i. Bav. — ' Dief. beer.y. bobbin. gabble. to glow . and boisterous. &c. blotch and botch. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. edge. a blow . hot. OE. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. bar. aper. blarra. a blot. to threaten. board. an ear of corn. See Boisterous. as in Du. BLUR Boar. w. boot. bludder. to jabber. planks raised up outside the roofs. blunt. imitated by has also In like . as splurt to splutter. Wallace. To brag and to crack. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. Explained by Jam. AS. a mistiness. to snuff. dull. 1. to guggle. Sverris Saga. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Du. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. Halma. this root are formed Sc. pustern. 'Ba. BOB 79 — To Blur. rude. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist.v. to crying. violent G. blodern. See Blossom.

. anything soft. daubed or dabbled with blood. a prickle. e. ON. boll. bob. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame.' A — Sherwood's Diet.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. to deliver a message. To make bad work. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. rounded. Reliq Antiq. quakmg. a sting . dies. Banff. to roll. — Grandg. AS. to be unsteady tich. The signification of the root bot. precept. See Bid. So BOB To Bob. Bodice. See Baber-lipped. Schmel. to fail. baboyer. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. is a lump. To Bode. bot. to stammer. as a horn. biodeachan. a command. bottich are derivatives. to scruple. Gael. body and G. anything protuberant. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . round. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. a round body both. a bog or morass. bo tich. speak of the barrel of a horse. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. AS. unsteady. bodian. palleg. shake. 3. the thick part of anything. woman's stays. bodnu. a quagsoft. an announcement.' Bogglie. bodilo. butt. Shakespear has badged with blood. to make. to start start and back as from a bugbear. the body. the stem of a tree . bodhag. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. bole. corpses pot. bod. stuttering. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. boftich. . to push with the horns. bayonet. so large a feature in the country. Commonly explained as if from Sc. and E. is identical with Fr. stumpy. bodies. needle. a spur. wavering. swelling. Ptg. toss. bog. to stick. nave of a wheel. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. unsteady nature of a soft substance. the trunk of the animal body. belly. To portend good or bad. busti. an awl. To mock. to thrust. a cask. bogadh. barrique. Bodkin. a messenger . as signifying anything spherical or round. whence Fr. a . In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. and the word is well explained by Bailey.gmh:t. Thy i. Now unskilful action is conmire. W. then from the yielding. stitch. corset from corps. a prick. gog in gog-mire. To Bodge. Wall. a dagger. bodene. to make a mow at. bog (equivalent to E. gogach. expression hogglin an bogglin. unsteady. bayonet . The Sp. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. goggle. bothog. Russ. Gl. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. . idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bodi. . Ir. 43. potahha. a cask. cask bottich. from fitting close to the body. bogan. potacha. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. bodetz. thrust with something pointed. shaking . In like manner E. the belly. bodat. mud. . Lith. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. badyti. a puddle. bolr. to butt. patsche. to be uncertain what to do. See To Botch.. . calf of the leg. a body. gag. Body. to bodge. bod. corset. point. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. corpset. arise E. Gael. '£. Bret. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. pall. Supp. to fail. gagoula. Cot. the body of a shift gaguejar. * To Boggle.rabodi. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. . to prick. moist mire. Lap. agitate. bodi. message boda. ^Jam. bogadaich. barriga. VI. exhibit another modification of the root. . bogle. body of a shirt bol. gebod. where bogs form Gael. — as well as the body of an animal. meaning the round part of his body. French bouter. strike with the horns. bodak. nodding.a (i\ia. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. — 2. potig. We .\\i\c\iset. Bog. bogach. formerly bodies. as in stammering or staggering. to commit a blunder. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. bodig. gago. or stem of a tree. waving. to waver.! . It introduced from Ireland. BOGGLE trunk and G. And waves. Gael. the boss of a buckler. bottig. to bob. to smack. by the syllable patsch. quagmire). Bohem. potacha. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. to stir. Crist.hollow. fickle . Miracle-plays. — H. bagges. biodag. or a pair of bodies. stutter gogmire. Ptg. gagei. gog. or bag. whence paUchen. a ghost . of which the E. moving backwards and forwards. to blurt a thing out. move. to dabble or paddle. . bog.

is probably a modification of boll. Daring. Du. coarse. bochken (titubare. puilen. . (of Mons) b^guer. Fr. The bob. brave. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. whence bulla. warlike. bola. boystousnesse. bog. pimple ON. bold. bok. bald. bullire. Kit. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. a quaking mire. 304). boil . Chaucer seems Dan. bolster. bollen (Kil. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . OHG. bolzen. This iv. to stammer. b^gayer. bolt. swelling. G. Wall. ballr. capiing into a cavity. courageous. buller. cheerful. to be prominent. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). haughty. excellent. properly represent belly. . globular bod)'. polc'h. strong. pusten. Du. to puff. in the sense of handsome . OG. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. insolent baude. which are not used for a similar purpose. Da. impetuosity. to the belly as the or dislike. strong. Du.Du. Properly noisy. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . intrepid. ^Vocab. * Boisterous. as E. treated under Bowl. 45. 374. Fr. bulr. Boil. the husk of nuts. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. the body . the body of a man or of ter. — 6 . bola. in speaking.' Mrs Baker. bul. bald. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. Test. bolt upright. bolster. bealder. Goth. strong. see Boast. E. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. hakogni. boggle. baud. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bold. a fastening for a door. bolzBold. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. to be at a loss a shirt. balldr. caput scapulse. bol. Magy. Lat. Love. ^Boistous. bolstar. bul. a head . a bubble. to hesitate from doubt. to boil. up of bubbles. but that Bolt. to stumble. perpendicular. and then applied to other husks. G. obex. ON. as those of nuts. folliculus grani. tartle. glass phial. to swell. bolle. puile. huge. Sw. then violent. pillow. tomentum. free.D. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. noise. bold. merry. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bol. also a blister. to stagger. Bret. notes. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. stameln vel bochken. quick. bolleken. . cows the people from speaking.palleg. fiausten. and manace for to de. a bubble. tartalear. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. poppy (Bailey). Pr. the lir. — ' — tagliare. as baltha. Swab. capitellum. Du. from the branches. Stalder. styffe or rude . Gael. The term applies in — — impressed . bol. hollow. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. chatter. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. ON. bSlstr. a bubble. proud. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bolr. roydeur. used. dint in a metal vessel. buile. a boil or swelling Du. a swelling in ice. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. bolla. trunk of a tree . stutSw. stramenta. from Du. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. 1430 in Deutsch. G. boss. sels of flax. may be identified with It. Mund. bagaji. boutpijl. To Boil. pustule. boll. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. tar. confident. G. by which it is moved to and fro. Pm. the gurgling sound of water rush. A. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. furfures. chaff of corn siliqua. a cushion. flax-boU. scruple. bulla. Me doth awate. hero. a bump. bula. Sp. bog. i. he will speak out. V. pall. gluma. a bakazikni. rough. Lat. Boll. Fr. as. stud. bal. Lap. — — which the cushion is stuffed. belc'hj. round the first instance to the materials with .— — .rounded part of the body. to stammer. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. Bustuous. Westerwald bollern. bout. animal as distinguished from the limbs. or the like..w. ON. tulum. swelling. repagulum. E. beule. bald. biiilen. prince. * Bolster. . In the same way Sc. Cot. The round stem of a tree. courageous. gerade signifies straight to the mark. the.— D. It. ON. ohg. balder. bouil. w. Boystous. bolc'h. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. boly. to give a hoUow sound. Chaucer. wag. bhster. Kil. See Bulk. bulla. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. tartajear. bout is explained by Kil. shake. Sc. blow. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. as. to tattle.). to waver or hesitate. To Bolter. Bole.

bluter. to coagulate. Sw. sestuare. : ' — — .noise {brattle of thunner. to agitate. a clap of thunnences. agitari (Kil. a clod cloth.D.D. mole-hill. ' — — ! ! : — . a bunch. poltern. as of a trumpet. as a rabbit from its baritel.). . to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. lumpy.fe/2?. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. bolzen. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . we see that the one consists of a words. uneven. Here the radical image is the violent O. to make a knocking. . hole. Lat. representing a rat. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. je bulte. Bav. barutela. to talk pulzen. a sod (Schiitze). burclct. by the representation of a racketing sound. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. brattle. G. uneven. 2. Pr. Dauphiny a sudden movement. a clod. . to clack. barutare. poltern. or the like. rugged. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. to bolt flour burato. bultred. Mid. Fr. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. baruta. beluter.— . to start out. a rattle. pultare. bulk or quantity . or a racer from the course. tuft.. projecting eyes pul. rugged. bultig. ex•wagen. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. poll. tling or crashing noise. to shake. a rattling carriage. buretter{CQ\. with E. blotttre. Bulte-pook or bulstar.D. hulter de bulter. in S'W plotter. to knock. tantara. cro. ler. . abolter. bolting to that of form. buUire. vessel with narrow opening. buideln. In the next place. we der Brocket). ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. And as the agitation of cream in .). boss. taratarrum. Prov. one after the other. to start with palpitate. have Lat. hulch. Du. then to knock. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. ' Holler poller / bulter.protuberance. to bolt meal barutel. also to curdle. P1. Sanders. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket.u.D. bolt-foot. bulstrig. Schiitze. a clump of turf. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. on the one hand. Pl. Du. to bolter. crotlar. .Lat. gebolder. jolting. Dan. Supp. The ulti. Champagne burtcau. protuberance. bolt head is a retort. OFr. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. holier poller. fied bot.clack. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. Wtb. bolzauget) Sp. So also we pass from Lat. a round glass ending — bultig. the sense of right on end. staff which sounds tar. swelling.thump or blow. It. Hence. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. On this account Mid. OFr. a bolter or implement for bolting.through a cloth of loose texture. projections. Hence Palsgr. as above explained. curdle.by forms like G. cruddle. budeln daz mele . hammer. pattern. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. taratantarum. pull. to come rattling downstairs. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. hammer. small heap. bulla. loud and fast. a small portion. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. to significance of the term was overlooked. bolzaugen. hump. knob. kloteren. a millpoltzet augen. a crashing or racketing noise. a bolter Prov. the wheels groaned. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. as snow balling on a horse's foot. Pl. crash. — — — . to form lumps.nature of the operation.. bullern. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. as Fr. bolt. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. racket gepolter. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. btilt. bortelen. OFr. to bolt meal barutel. and the Thus from So. die treppe pressed. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. buletare. . to spring forth E. croler. and to crash.i5a//^«. The ment and the operation. clump. or ill. . we pass to Du. to become lumpy. beliitea. grasbulten. I boulte meale in a boulter. zare. bulk.as the essential element signifying the talum.On the same principle.agitation of the meal in the bolter. . was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. buletel. we have Du. Pm. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. / is transposed in Fr. a club-foot. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. Brem. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. crod. tar.) E. tumultuari. taraabout. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. Lang. zen. MHG. bulio. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. from G. a . barutela. to E.

Lat. PoUitriduare. brust-bein. agreement. bande. 155. bopin. thick. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. sericum arboreum. to thunder. bone of the . are applied to BONFIRE Bom. to beat a drum. a —Bombasine. to ring bells. bwmbwr. a drum bombammen. As cotton was used for padding clothes. When ture. butteln. to shake. band pi. bombice. a boulter of meal. In E. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. silk. G. buttel trueb (of liquids). E. bombasin. coarse. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. bond. bombdra. basin. In legal language.bast. bunden. The material called by this name. the contracted form of Du. OE. as Banbury. a string. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bomba. bombase. and called in Mid. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. d. to shake down fruit from a tree. gunpowder. however. assuming the of leg : special signification W. the murmuring of the sea. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. ^o/j. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. Castrais barato. ties. the silk-worm. — AS. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. borel. bwmbwry mar. beil'n. boulenger. term is appropriated in G. Need you any ink and bonibase. lana lignea. to resound. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. stump. and in fact we find the and Du. bombe. to bind G. to bolt meal. a bone in general. . to shake (as to shake the head. and Du. q. cotton stuff. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. From builen. is supported by the analogy of G. a ligature. bulter from It.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. whence bomme. as in . — Bombard. tiffany. Banstead. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. It. baum-bast. Butterglas. a baker. a thundering noise bomre.). builen. rimbombare. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. to thump W. a word of which we have traces in several English names. band. raw silk. Bonfire. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. a stem or base. bombasine. Du. Bone. band. sijde. It. 83 Gr. . bonds. also thick-shanked. thick from shaking. .^Altieri. bon. G. achsel bein. &c. bommen. Schm. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . Near 6 * .D. an implement of binding. gossipium. It. bonfras.) . to which the leg. the leg. i. we speak of a gun to resound. Kil. biire. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. iuttern. to cast to and fro. Antiq. and Mod. bureau. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. thick-legged. e. — bombast came guage. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . bombicina. stuff. Fl. and that from Fr. ODu. bombast. butteln. beuteln. — having a stem or stalk. has repeatedly varied. bauniwolle. . bureau. tie. from teu. buidelen. buidelen. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. banitola (Fl. breast-bone. Du. booming over the water. Bibelesworth in Nat. a hollow sound. to boult meal. derivation. burato. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. . HoUybandin R. . sije. Moreover. bein. bolting-cloth. tree. barate. Fr. G. Bomb. bonog. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. Fr. crook-shanked bondew. and Bond. baun. . the shank the shoulder-bone. or trunk word in W. bambacium. Du. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. a beacon. must be explained Fr. sye. beuteln. Gascoi^e in R. Dan. a churn for butter. from boom. been. bras. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. bambagioj whence It. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. tie. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. bambagino. silk-worm. bommer. the Fr. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. and also the leg. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. It. bindan. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. produced the Pl. Mid.Su?. bombarda. bongam. cotton. a stock. again. It. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. Dan. It.

Du. fool. — — . bommen. Wall.Boos. set in order. Busk. bota. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. gawney. buandi. foolish. botta. babin. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. Bun. — From the participle present. dog-kennel. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. simpleton. . baier. The latter is the original AS. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. gehyred. in Phil.n. Swab. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. Fr. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . bossen. which one gaping and staring about. The character of folly is i860. as the Brecknockshire Banns. to yawn. Bootless. . a vessel for holding liquids. boa. Thin ben Luke i. bua. prayer. to aid. Binau Brychyniog. Gl. But bosg. tapestry. wall hangings. to cultivate. a letter Russ. Book. beiSne. and Ban in w. N. swinbusa. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. Fr. by itself for head-dress. Schm. bonad. to strew with straw. build. the alphabet. the scriptures bokareis. pole. tall. Boot of bale. A stall for cattle. G. Boor. Booby. dress. . . clown. master of the house. 232. also called Brecknock Beacons. tigh. ON. bauen. the cultivator. literally cow-house. Hufwud-bonad. inhabit. a scribe G. to ask. to gape. 13. Pr. p. to litter bosu. are formed Fr. See Butt. remnants of hay or straw. Mrs Baker explains bun. boutig. The i. and fig. the stubble of beans. bobo. E. bos. dial. beam. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. of wonder On the same principle Sp. Prov. to set in order. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. See Bown. comes bondi. busu. Goth. ganian. till. boubair. writing bokos. from gape. A favour. pero. a silly fellow. bd. petition. — To boot. E. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. high. To Boot. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. . by arbitours sholde bote the P. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. gaping hoyden — Cot. babb^o. . Trans. although in the OG. buch-stab. boom. Boom. badaud. bolt. bonad. Build. from Du. often cut for burning and lighting fires. succour Bailey. a bonfire. bonnet. booby. and thence Rouchi baia. the mouth. however. or Vanns. petition. a stall. been. bobo ! interj. a letter . a tree. from beida (E. quest. a head-dress. botte. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. gaby. boer. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. ON. till.—Bootless. relief from sorrow. w. bAkva. prayer. lofty. ty Gael.. boia. Boot. and Gael. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. signifying beech. boutig. bosih. Du. Ox. G. countryman. bose. boubi^. reparation. head-dress wai^g. inhabit. bas. help. a lofty blaze. bua. Jr. biikui. Gael. — . Thus from the syllable ba. \ais-band. a good turn or re- meaning. AS. bds. Fr. nachbar. — e. dress. to gape. * Boose. OW. In nautical language. botte. ON. . generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. the first consonant of the alphabet. bonaid. Palsgr. where a cross (or a gun. The origin of the word is probably the W. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. AS. Du. betere thing werse. dolt. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. house. one who dwells nigh. and from AS. boo. OSlav. Mrs Baker. a hollow skin. bauer. G. From bo. . Kil. bosig. Hal. chaff. . build. babau. dial. at everything. a dry stalk. ON. b^er. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. — Bailey. Kil. wondering signifies not only straw. pig-sty. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. bid). Bonnet. hu?idbusa. remedy of evil. feu de behourdis. but stall. desire. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. a. short boots. Hal. in w. Perhaps. is Du. from badare. the name of the letter b. the possessor of the farm. whence ban-ffagl. It is commonly explained as identical with It. to cultivate. a lying-place for dogs or swine. See Bomb. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. litter. Pm. It. Boon. Basa. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. Fr. netis stall. as a lying-place for cattle. a simpleton. to dress.^ —P. bote. b&ber. to prepare. boandi. ben. blockhead. bene. Sp. Bonnefyre. bdn. boten-shoen. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. . a bag of skin or leather. ass. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. without ad- . stabulum. A peasant. letter. b'ukvdry. a. bowwen.

the . purra. to mend. To Bore. beute. cottage. edge. to quench one's thirst . betan fyr. Bete. bite. hem or gard of a garment. a shop. Du. to divide. or the gradual working a hole in anything. puru. bud. scalpo. Mag. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. a bladder. aid. amendment. hut. boede. to bite.por. swell bara. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. differs only in termination. OSw. to profit Goth. a hut. Fin. biorag. repair. to foam. and E. And so in ON. a shed. puru. It is admitted that Fr. margin. recovery bata. a booth or shed. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. limbus. reparation. borracha. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. nor E. In the Fin. . ON. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. Fr. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. . the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. &c. . bolino. a tusk. terebra sculptoria purastoa. It. boards. drillen. to The Sw. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. to boot. bohren. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. The ON. on. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. to profit. and parrets. scsdes-bod.. boeten het vier. pointed. a wave. sculpo 05\xiik. are derived from G. Magy. rof. sawroot. is purin. Fl. Border. chisel. Gael. terebro. It. wave. bothag. Compare Manx birrag. See Burgeon. Esthon. Another derivation from Fin. kvit-bara. fire. bdra. tent. furd. — ON. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. bord. bower. baete. 3. a borer . dust. uzboro. to build buda. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. barn. furni. extremitas Bore. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. to build. better. bdt. BOOTH vantage. butin is explained by Flor. BoracMo. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. boeye. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. mat-bod. make . bora. Du. and hence to fine. a shop budowati. baara.. a cupboard. a borer. a. botjan. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). a leather bag or bottle for wine. to stick unto as a bur. in Lap. bothan. abode. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . urboro. chewed food for infants. cure Sw. pu purro (saha =: saw . to to . wine-skin. a responding forms . OHG. Pol. to bete the properly to mend the fire. . borracha. to . a border. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. A phorically a drunkard. exchange or divide. as afford a satisfactory explanation. The Fin. The as G. lappolone. Booth. puras. Gael. boete. ora. Palsgr. to swell. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. admovere titiones. But probably the E. comminuted by either kind of action. a granary . to importune. . AS. a word. in Ihre. Fin. • — To Bore. from deila and skipta. both. to anything Neither G.— Return from Parnassus I inR. purra. fimbria. Bohem. pi. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. bauda. G. Alexand. butin. to patch. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. cup- awl. remedy. a bothy. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. puras. limbus. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. a borer. budowai. Kil. batr. a sharp-pointed tooth.. Esthon. to repair. a great bur. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. Gael. . welt. ON. . struere ignem. yfirbdt. forare. The cor. to hut. or anything pointed.par. a chisel. 1. cellar. to surge. Fr. Burke in R. dens mordens vel caninus. amendment boeten. a shelter of branches. and meta- Fr. from bord. purro. which are probably from the same root. sharp. of an edge that will not bite. bottino. to bore. to bite. Booty. p. burin. Sp. to pierce. to restore. from borra. and thence to eat build. lappalare. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. . a hut or tent. 266. to expiate boeten den dorst. an engraver's chisel. . Lat. bardure. making good again . See Bower. bauen. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. budka. See To We speak in E. borino. N. are parret. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. piercer. ON. bordi.—Burin. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. byte points to the verb byta. Fin. bata.

byrig. undyed wool of brown sheep. by which of or belonging to plants. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. a surety. Goth. beorgan. nonsense. to protect. knock and a knob . Newbury. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. butse. bos. Bos a surety. to take in.' or system of bail. from AS. pego. busse. butsen. whence the burg. (1867). can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. In like manner It. burh. bourgeois. AS. — — — A — . when that system was forgotten. bosseu. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael.' Vegetius in Diez.mass. botch. to conceal. Borrow. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. borough or chief constable. ^o^^flj. to give a hollow bizo. Borowholder. formerly used in the sense of knocking. gesylle. into borsholder. to knock or strike. destitute. bussa coarse. Fr. Hal. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. borg. . gum vocant. to strike so as to Bureau. The other. poor. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. D. storm. was origin of the term is the OFr. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. hollow bucklers. bosse. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. without. pitch. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages.bucklers. Du. northern. the sun sets. (Bridel). hollow. to contain. clownish. bail biirgen. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. Altieri. a little blow. Du. cnag signifies both a clergy. Hence knot. primarily signifying coarse sound . The primi. loan. beorgan. bos. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. a citizen. See found in Bav. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. which now signifies a knob. or head-borough. a wen. ' pledge. i. borgese. in the body struck. Boreal. a boor. tuft. huschen. knocking. borealis. the North Wind. The origin seems to be the Goth. to save. viipyoc. borel. cnoc. the ordinary a swelling.vr\. Fr. is probably radically Boss. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. to give bail or answer for an. a pushing or striking out.' if thou give money on loan. to save. to pick or cull plants. cnap. while Gael. as if from the verb to hold. of bail throughout the country. Jam. is used in the sense of bussare. empty. a. Lat. bunch. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Turk. Swiss Rom.ribs and the side. Jam. to protect. So Du. agrees with E. cormpted. And that unsittynge is to here degre. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. tive idea seems to bring under cover. to become is emitted by a hollow body.any round sweUing. AS. one who sticks to you like a bore. . useCanterbury. Hence borhes ealdor. plain rude fellow. boss. projection. poor. empty. botch. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. Bosh. tempest. /3oraMK6f. rustic. a citizen. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. unpolished. boss or knob of a buckler . Botany. I. connected. borgo. less. It. botsen. Bailey. a boss. a knob. bergen. knur. borough-holder. that which biirge. V. 106. It. striking. bussi. and borough in the sense of a town. borei. basse. bundle. burel. bossen. bump is used in lump or piece. plant. the Sc. baurgs.' the chief of the ' borh. to keep. knob. boss of the side. ' — — . E. Borough. a herb. a city . coarse cloth made of the Du. in instead of without. secure. pegou. to save Sw. and thus could not shake off the old burr. as we speak of a thumping potato. Russ. a bouncing baby . an eminence. bump. burgess.' every man be under bail. boss. or perhaps also To Borrow. ^ma. bttssel. cob. the N. empty. boschen. whether from the fact preserve G. from their grey clothing. boussi. to strike . the must have arisen burgensis. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. — ' wind burya. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. borh. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. the hollow between the Borsholder. AS. bom. Lang. Fr. or perhaps it may be See Bury. head. G. boss sound. rude. vain. blow on a hollow object. a tower. a bunch or hump. &c. or because a blow berga. borg. bosh. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. surety. f graauw. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. Bunch. bierge. brown cloth. a blow. Gr. . .86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. grey). Sc. bourg.. ON. Cot. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. a giving rise to It. botse.

&c. schuhbosser. to make better. Parmesan poccia. a slop. maggots in barley. mutter. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. bunch. buazen. Fyre to botme. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. to strike . A — oba-dwaj Lat. was called a push. in the sense of mend the fire. a bump or swelling. bdsser. bossu. for a bud. bozza. thing soft batsch. oba. boiteag. bulderen. a humpback. as a push or windgaU. a bottle. E. botch. botel. i. to bcBta. a bottle. boil. bluster. gen. . Bottle. the science or knowledge of plants. a root. G. Both.— Hal. Mudu. — Dief. a bundle of straw or hay. Lith. patch. ing out. ledge It. kessel-biisser. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. empty or hollow. To Botch.) . bun. ON. noise. pocciar. — — belly-worm. boute. to we have OHG. N. House-bote. abbi-diwij Slavon. On the other hand. blister. buts. beggtaj Goth. they two. a plague-boil Kil. signify a in OE. . Diez. a vessel for holding liquids. ON. — . And so we speak of an eruption. buddl. Dan. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. gling piece of work. butsen. Butu. a. is boteau. I. mend. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. To confuse with noise. noise. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. Judwi. Boa two. a botcher of shoes. blain. Danneil. AS. a slop. to knock. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. a wisp. the lowest part. j3i/9os. a pit. Bailey. a knock. abbution. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. bund. &c. A horses. — duj Lett. knock. butse. mess. bdt. the bud of a flower . • Bott. ^kvBoQ. Canut. to stir and mix together . dim. burgi vel pontis refectionem. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. ixorapudder. we have Swiss batscken. gipuozan. buideal. BOTCH understood). Si quis burgbotam sive projection. — — A 2. to mend (kettles. repara- — — See To Bete. a cesspool pass. tumour. to make a make a noise. stock. turmoil. . by met. of botta. botte. btitse. botte. to simmer. poltern. boden . bozza. what pushes outwards. ' G. you two. . a bott . Bochu. See To Bodge. ON. bot. boccia. a patch patschen. baiothsj Sanscr. botse. bAdtr. bottigUa. a maggot. a cobbler. Lith. botus. The Gr. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. both. Fr. or plague sore .' to the fiery Csedm. buddeln. stroke. a tinker schuhbiisser. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . botn. Hal. pozzanghera. Gael. Stalder. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. Again. a pit. Fr. Pl. — . and ajSvamg. Wedu. as Fr. Gael. botsen. It. G. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. a bottle of hay. H^cart. botm. and E. bodem. Decorde.— . a boil or swelling Halma. hurly-burly. to podge. Lat. bile. boss. from the dashing of water. .foundation. fundus. Bouds. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. Jtidu. to from the root bot. batschen. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Botcli. See Butt. we two. a cask. abbi. corresponding to . scuohbuzere.of a ball of thread. potra. boitean.^Dec. Fl. bSn. bottom. boiteal. Podge. a depth. Kil. Prov. botte. bouteille. disturbance to . a bunch. Fl. OSax. 212. to rage. to give a sounding blow. a bubble. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. podge. to work without order or know. From the dim. the other hand.— Swift in R. round lump. pozzo. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. * To Bother. Here the radical image seems a bubble. Du. to fall : with a sound batsch. abbu. Hal. — Fl. stock. bide. pother. Du. A bottom depth. e. stump. dial. nets. to dash about . w. ambo. abyss. a pock. dabble). AS. Ancren Riwle. an imperfect and bunbutt end. however. mess. to dip in liquid (to Gael. stem or base. to botch or patch. bulder. disturbance. shoes. a lump of somebatschen. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. to froth as beer . Bret. whisper. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. ubhau. a waterfall. bosser. butwo. bots. On — Du. Bouteille. It. ba. . AS. to put on a patch. botola. whence the name ol pool to podge. the first rough draught 2. any plain round viol glass bozzo. biissen. It. botel foenn.ments of the same root. blow. . contusion . See Boss. bethia. — Bottom. bundle. puddle. pimple. fire-bote. — — . is also a bubble. to mend. especially in Gael. an abyss or bottoniless pit. bativa. Leg. a cess. to stir and mix together. putra. See Bound. to smack. — Jidwi.D.

being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. thumping. a bud. debodinare. ing. Webster. dial. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. see Boss. A Langued. a bouncing apple. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. its kind. boundina. of thread. bone. — — leap. Fr. Bodinare. To Boult. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. . jump. 2. bun. the hollow of a bay. frequently used in the same sense with bound. has hot. the verb bondir in OFr. E. Coxcomb.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. nave of a wheel bothel. bend. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. bend." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. to spring. p. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. botwm. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. bonndn.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. by Bujns or Buns. geration. boriie. ni motz brugir. See To Bolt. bunsen. a bound. the larger kind of pebbles. — No i ausiratz parlar. nor horn sound. I assure you. Primarily to strike. bumper. bamsen.D. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat.' round and round in similar circles. to knock. 136. Bret. bonna. as a nosegay. Probably from the Celtic root bon. or Bow-pot. round. mcn-bomi. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Ni gacha cor bondir. strapping. Wtb. gulf. to bow. the smaller ones. an occasion. And the new stools set out. To Bounce. Brem. to turn. boujtce. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. Mid. Alpine Re- — gions. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. a boundary stone (men stone). a boss. tnndo. boss of a buckler. Pm. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bondir. knock it sounds again. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. Bough-pot. Halma. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. volta. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. to set out by metes and bounds. a stock. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. So It. The Bight of Benin. he fell so that it sounded. Sw.— — — - 88 BOUGH . bounbounejha. baby. bugt.— Boundary. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. Bound. AS. a large stone rounded by the action of water. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. a large pebble.>a bout. bottom. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Boulderstone. came home with his face all to-bounced. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. a blow. The branch of a tree. turn. to spring. to hum. bullra. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent.' B. contusi. carpet. as that of E. to thundering big one hum. Pr. limit. — strike. mere. bodina. bog. bolder. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. Fr. See Bunch.— Cot. Bought. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. Bunche. Bonny. a button. bonzen. a turn or time. Nor a centinel whistle. to knock at the door. from bugan. like bobbin. pothel. whence buj7isen. Fr. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Ducange. signifies a sliort thick mass. The W. a round body both. to make a loud noise. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . — — Bight. iv. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Q. march. butina. — Take care my house be handsome. buUersten. bugan.'— Charter of K. Raynouard.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. from AS. from volgere. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. boh. dial. Bowlder. in the absence of actual e. bunda. ni frestelar. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. in contrast to klappersten. to thunder. 3. . an de dor bunsen. to resound. jungen. a blister.— F. Dan. language a * Boulder. and F. pimple Richards bothog. bons. Du. winding. From Sw. and Prov. To Bound. the bay of Benin. till The dat et bunsede. Bout. root (see Bottom). bouton. to set bounds. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. to fix limits. . Bough. signifying in nautical coil of rope.. bay.

a for New York. Gael. bourdon. Bourd. Burden. ruption of bonne. Fr. burt. bonitas. to tipple. curvature. limit.which see. Borden. A —Cot. Du. a corToward the garden. drink deep. puff out. sense durd. hous^ Man in the Moon. Chaucer in R. it is probable that the It. to take one in. shoulder-blade. ready to pike or spear . schenkelbug. Immediately from Fr. bog. bue. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. . burreti. Lat. to take deep draughts. So Sc. warbling. drone of a bagpipe. the burden of a song. Sp. purlBav. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. bagna. Bow. prepared for. ready. on the whole. . Bound. Fr. burlare. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. w. taunt. spring. burd. ridicule buirte. kroes. an arch. — probably through this latter signification. bage. buys. bound. joke. A water. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. jest. a from Du. a. buga. bourdon. buzz. to bulge. Gael. patesten. Gael. bunaiteach. bommen. . brausen. are applied to the bow of a ship. bordon. bending of a joint knie-bug.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. beogan. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. brunna. to draw a deep breath. to our bous. Goth. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bogna. bourd. whether by sound or gesticulation. gurgling. bov. potio. when we speak of. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. saufen. the Bourdon. It. to tope. to bow or incline the . and that probably from a Celtic root. to draw a deep breath. a prop. to mutter. Cot. identical with E. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. bending. G. G. buyse. to — Hal. a jibe. way ba7n. to take breath. bog. G. Spenser in R. a drone or dor-bee. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. brummen. a pot. different modification gives ON. a go to. drunken. bordone. of the ON. a bow. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . a humming noise Macleod. bogr. to pre2. borne. flagon.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. pre. Sw. ing. a well. staff. a brook. Bourdon. Burgeon. address. head Fr. also the humming or ON. and not in the sense of curvature in general. tinton. burdan. trick. the big end of a club. Bourdon. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. or of an Gael. a humming noise. on. — — . Du. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. Eown. epaule du vaisseau. Dan. bend Sw. ^<7r«i?. The foregoing derivation seems. purra. Bret. g. repartee. to drink deep. good. like quaff. a mill-post. pausen. bogen. buizen. a sing-song. game. bugna. a jibe Shaw bururus. to tope W. Swiss bausen. bugna. lance.. pared. . Du. Gael. G. It is the participle past buinn. must be referred to the same root. Sw. belly out. a — — . hence musical accompaniment. . bwa. to banter or laugh at. And there in mourning spend Sw. verb bua. Fr. biegen. . sausen. in Fr. language of folly or ridicule. cheat. Prov. beygja. cudgel. to trick. . Du. bogha. AS. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. sport. mockery. the shoulder of the vessel. When used alone it . btiga. to indulge in his cups . burn. bausen. a drone of a bagpipe. bonus. Sw. whence buysen. steady. bontS. spelling the word iox bound. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. The meaning of bound. Gael. i. that ON. to hum. bordo. their time -With "wailful tunes. Dan. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. to bow. sotich. set out. a cup kroesen. springbiirn. firm. grumble Sw. bdgi. schulter-bug. bourde in the same sense. pusta. has also buirleadh. bow to shoot with. — — — A pare. crutch. fresh* water. Cot. the ting of a bell. a. to swell. It is bov. Bounty. buzzing of bees. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. addressed to. bovne.bass of a stringed instrument. deceit. to drink deep. explaining Sw. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. Dan. bend. Dan. is. Comp. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. biugan. bug. souf. bugan. bending. fun of one . pot. It is remarkable that we find vary. as was for. the fixed. buigen. from spring. Sc. to hum as a bee. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. burdan. bugne. As the Gael. analogous to Fr.

horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. anything globular. painter's easel. ON. utibur.cup Du. bog. a knot. OE. (in pass . bouzellou. bulka. buigen. bulne. a box. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. to bend. inclinare se (Kil. The / a bow. to swell. a wine-can . See Boil. convexity. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. Du. W. From the other form are G. biiske. Thus we have Esthon. polla. beutel. round glass phial. as in AS. Bav. to bulge. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. Gr. box in both senses. bocka. ON. botulus. give in to. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. . the box-tree. See MHO. bulb of an onion bolleyield. ne. ttuJic. buello. as well as the name of a. purse. boor. . a box. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. bwr.) to incline oneself . G. &c. busskai. bur. honse-bur. a little box . ^o/a. The word may probably be identical with Fris. w. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. an inclosure. . boil. blister. with inversion of the round. kupula. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . Du. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. a black pudding. a bubble bolli. heafod bolla. bending. intrenchment. buis. a hump on the back rossbollen. .. trestle. zich onder jemand under to him. similar shape. bowel Box. a chamber swefnbur. bouellou. bulla in aqua. hill. PLD.a. globular body. bosso. a parlour. round bead. sausage. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. Sw. bugna. spherical Dan. . . fyn. . . a pot. stream forth bugyogni. bugy. ask.D. in both senses. prominence. Sanscr. a round glass or bolg. bolla. a iDubble. the box-tree It. koziel. pocket. bolne. globular. a hen-coop . bugyola. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. to puff up pullakka. make obeisance.). A . biicken. the crop of a bird. head of a cabbage. is applied to a coach-box. bollen. buxus. the head. dial. to puff up. a ball . a box. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. boxtree. a protuberance. . biichse. bowels. bolgna. to stoop biickling. bukke. a bud. to bow buck. iri'iaQ. belly of a cask. bogla. signified by forms like Gael. . a bubble Fin. bugyani. acsian. a. belly. gut. to bend down. box. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. bhugna. a polla. and to a coachbox in particular. bulge. . * Bowels. Sw. boss. pusspan. a wardrobe . at the e. as in E. Hal. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. the bogna. and on swollen.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. ken. boel. a stud. bucka. bent. . bog. the head. to bubble up. a sleeping-room . much plausibility from the figure of a pul. guestchamber . bouge. budello. bossola. beuz. globe or spherical body. bwra. Bret. fata-bur. bhuj. a bubble. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. an outhouse AS. Lat. a thing of liquid. a box Lat. . Fr. bowl . Bower. tumour. . a drop of pullistaa. boxtree pusska. of a wooden ball to play with and — . Bret. budel. Sp. in walking appears in a . a bowl. compared with Fr. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. spring as water bugya. Bowl. a swelling or rising up. a separate apartment . . Boll. puffy. . Buckle. kupu. tumour . bubble. buchsbaum. crown of a hat. cumena-bur. Pol. pullo. or. bubble. a box. folliculus . ^o«/«. boss. ku^o. Dan. bol. the skull or brainpan . Bohem. biisse. Sw. water pulli. A Bulk. or in e. boucle. . bow. bol. In like manner the Pol. E. hiidel. buckelig gehen. the box-tree and articles made of it G. peated in Magy. a ball. to raise the back boll OHG. a bubble. belly. . bugyni. bur. swell. hollow wooden case. Du. Hence. . mausbollelein. buga. . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. a ball. wisp of straw . G. . to make crooked . bock. ON. Cable. bug. hollow place Fr.. Dan.\s. bulcken. bolle. a buck. . boudin. a boil. a croft by a house. buk. Fr. It is more probably from the G. the barrel of a gun. convex. to buckle G. kupukka. crooked. kuppelo.flask It. to yield to one. OFr. knob From the former modification we have bolla. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. swoUei) Lat. bulla. AS. See Crab. then by the loss of the /. . . W. without the and grits. lump . to guggle. bulk compared with Sw. bow. bolla. AS. hollow. passing on stud. buckel. a bundle. busse. Fr. different position in ODu.). to stoop. a sack. bola.

confining. breptati. brae. wristband. brostia. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. thwack. a girl. suppuration. clay. rack. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . refuse. to smack the hand batschen. break. acidus. babble. Cot. dog that hunts by scent.D. ratch. Sp. to crack. jabber.— D. bray. defect. Gael.nated by dirt. an languages. brague. to stammer. . See Brake. strike. Du. 91 the Dan. brae. Bracelet. Water rendered boubo. breach. to give a gebrechen. brek.. a braceOFr. let. . BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. salo sive aqua marinS. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . The different meanings of the brageux. braco.D. brack. Swiss bub. bracer. One girl. bouibo. fault. bracco. . to box the ears. boy bouba. fuse. rakke. . Kil. brace on and Du. Fr. s. Brack. to burst. It. priated to the original sense. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. disturb. brassard. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. breuque. by the same inversion of J and k." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. OFr. parallel with OK. breach. Pl. murmur. Du. unmarried man . taneous talking. brack. Prov. ghebreck. a guard to torf. ON. defect Du. s. On the same principle from the buksteht. I sal slyng. ' — A — — — . and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. brae. Sp. braic. by an overflow of sea water. brae. cramp-iron holding things together . Hdcart. brechen. wnzC/J. Pr. dog in general. See Broker. odorinsecus. baukscheht. — . ON. damaged board a ship. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. In like manner the It. land batsken. and F. bracon. Prov. OFr. want. — . bracil. quarrel Bohem.. Sp. pus. Kil. mud. mud. bube. braquet. . &c. brasselet. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers.. a pair of braces. is a rope holding G. .. whelp as. a boy pupa. to slap. to give a sounding blow defect. fault . Fr. Lett. which sigof straining. It is B. braco. buah. AS. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Swiss Rom. matter. Heligoneed. bitch Du. a bubbling dura del mun. G. brabbelen. loud smack. isolated part of the text. to give a blow with the fists. to Swiss batschen. to want. lalear-eyed Prov. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. . in R. then from break. foul. which has many representatives in the other Europe. V. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. To brace is to draw together. the arm. braca. a box.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. Fr. pube. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. ing from a mixture of salt. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. wrack. flaw. brageuses. It. — . bask. to fall. con. to stutter. Thus brack. Brak-goed. defect. as noticed under Box. need. want. Brack. spaniel. flaw. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. braque. pupus. in R. want. A — — . To fight with the fists. Kil. and string of his bow. moral or physical. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. . from a root brak. Swab. bracke. a bog or pass Fr. Prov. It. G. Rouchi Then as an adj. OE. brakke grund. race. boussole. a grown youth Cimbr. baske. Pm. bragos. rakki. root). and then Pl. boy. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . bracket. A brace probis. to be wanting. bruxula. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. boiste. posh. brec. beagle. brek. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. bracha. MHG. filth . . dog Sw. Boy. a crack. Ptg. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. the first instancebya physical tie. brago. rakka. bou^ba. Fr. briche. merely in our mode of considering them. salsus. variation of babble. dirty. — . might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. Prov.puddle. bresta. mud. compressing. — . — — . bue. brechen ihm. Brach. youth. brakke Bracelet. land spoilt Kil. to is derived brestr. Brackish. his eyes are failing him). or bracer Cot. armour for the arm. BOX To Box. a sounding blow. braecke. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. La ville ou y avait Brace. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. a comworld Rayn. To Brabble. Bracket. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. or defect. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. Lat. corruptse. A to halt between two derivations.with a noise. flap.

is Cot. . gallant (in apparel) also proud. The meanings of brake are very numerous. braies. braka. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. brave. subduing. bragging. flaunting. Turk bazu are used in both senses. also derived Fr. Primarily to crack. From sprouted corn. to cord a bale of tie up. —Spenser in R. Walloon bress. de Vaud.hy which this idea is con\eyed. Cot. to swagger. also insolenter se gerere .aburst. strength. Bret. vanter une chose. binding anything together. bully . that will carry no coals. braga. Lat. BRAG Piedm. breghen. brake is. braw. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. bravado j Fr. — From W. expensive. Dan. Lith.Shepherd's Cal. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . to boast or brag. to Rouchi brMer. was formed brayele. It. to make a noise. swagger. . vaunting. braka. bravacherie. to unbrace or let down the breeches. &c. . breach. and it is very likely that the root brak. braggard also valiant. a roisterer. brayete. goods. The plant y^r«. brabhdair. be found. Cot. — . bragd. brave. breghe. flaunt in fine clothes . bravache. the arm. to boast of his own worth. Cot. as the type of exertion and strength. crash ON. in the sense of the Lat. bragaireachd. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood.^Vocab. Dan. AS. affront. 2. w. brav. Thus Bret. bushy . dhbrailler. braszketi. brails.—— . slight modificajoining the two legs. 92 Cot. hectoring. stately. Faire le brave. Brag was then used brisk. finery. Fr. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. about the hawk's fundament. fine. Fr. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. fine. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. Hecart. boast. ^Brave. beautiful. . To Braid. brazo. the feathers ON. splendid. braegenj Du. brake in the sense of constraining. brabhdadh. brag. See Bray. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. — A — . spot. braicli. gayly dressed. Sc.. to crack. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. . blusterer. Thus we are brought to the OE.%. Sp. Brake. idle talk. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. a carriage for breaking in horses . se pavaner. brao. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). empty pride. proud. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. breyne. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. excellent. ative fellow. to flaunt. crack. The meanings included under — Bragget. Brain. braske. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . to strut.breeches. or from braie itself. Bray. an iron for holding Zalli. se donner trop de licence. boasting. smart. brachittm.explosion. fine. power. riches. brave. a noisy talkboasting. h-avare and Fr. would be to brace. It is certain that the word for arm is. — Equivalent forms are Gael. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. gorgeous. i. called by our braggard. is identical with Gael. brag or jet it braguard. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- .. bragging of his own valour. gay. torture . breagh. Brail. valiant The head are sumptuous. in numerous dialects. braga. To Brag. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. to rattle. courageous. stout. se parer de beaux habits. bravo. gallant. showy bravery.i5nz^. Hence E. also tion of this was brayeul. braga. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. well-dressed. Chaucer. make a noise . bullying. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage.^ Sp. . in order to prevent its catching the wind. braske. . confining. . brave. drawers. braver. to stand upon terms. Wallachian bratsou. Rom. be noisy . From brayel. To Brail. Langued. the opposite of which. See Brace. handsome. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . brag. bra!. gay. braguer. Fris. Haldorsen Gael. to brail up a sail. to sprout malt. vain glory. fine. used in the sense of force. brae. noisy ostentation. crash. cry. subigere. bragio. From Fr. or by gaudy dress and show. Bret. and that from e. an inclosure for cattle . A — Hal. to shout. swaggerer. compressing. Brake. brave. — Chaucer.

G. brego. broor bushy place Hal. conSo in G. brog above mentioned. fratto. brog or brake. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. Corrfeze bredgea. gebroge. Brake. We — . braka. Dan. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. the lever by which the string was drawn up. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. ^raca. Dan. cetur. Swiss Rom. have thus Du. brushwood.D. murrokko. briser. It. Fr. to head must be bit. brook. the original meaning of G. gebrUche. to bend or direct a cannon. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith.' It. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. brcekke. Prov. a thicket. as in the case of horse-breaking. broeck. In the sense of a thicket. braquer un canon. BRAKE to external force. quarry from Fin. brook. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. brak is a frame in which strip. brambles. as in Du. and G. Gael. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. iSpsx". Pl. brambles. brake. or A A ' . to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. to break. —Ovid. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. e. been confounded with the verb break. braca. In ON. — — . to knead or mix up in a mortar. to pound. copse-wood. gebroge.. 3. el arco. low wet land bruch. Brake. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. a horse's a horse's twitch. It may be sus- . or a wood in a marshy place . marsh. to bend a bow. Biglotton. —Bracken. bush. referred brake. pasture. break flax PLD. Fr. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. bregar brake. to distinct. brog. any thicket of brakes. OFr. to brush. is formed murd. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. — Fl. P&. In like manner Lat. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. murran. brogille. and when once thrown down. might come to signify a swamp. subigere. signifying to sweep. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. braeken. thicket. bruch. broil. Sp. braecken het vlasch. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. gebrUche. brake. casser le \va. where from Esthon. marsh or swamp. to subdue. tris). cover G. game. properly braking or subduing them. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. or overthrow of trees by the wind. as in Sp. bushes. Voc. a swampy Mid. and Lat. gebroge. broyer. a fen.D. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. for — Due. to rub. bregar. to harrow (Lat. broilium. it is not surprising that the word has here. a marsh. bredza. To the same bend a bow. riguus. de Vaud. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. gilum. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. briers. watered. a brace on board a ship. as well as in the case of the e. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. in northern climates. brega. brolium. The Fr. breaking in the operation. to stiffen against Taboada). a harrow. . difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . to exert force in different ways. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. a stream. broillet. to The ON. in usus braca. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. ing of flax or hemp. nemus. 2. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. bregille. to fracture. braken. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. broken fratta. farinam in mortario subigere. glebas subigere. It. thing is brought under control. murtaa. breuil. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. gebiisch. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. In the case of the ne. is braukti.— . to break. to break or fracture. t° moisten. a spinning-wheel. Lat. frangere linum. word. brage. bush. break of such a kind. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. to bray in a mortar. to row. Dan. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. Gr. flachs brechen. brage. Fr.bracan. tnurdma. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brook. dial.

&c. G. brouskoad. &c. broem. Pl. snotty . heath ON. G. a burning fragment of wood. breun. or other plants of a like nature. brugek. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. Brank. apiece orbitbrandone. Fr. Dan. and thence a shoot. bruk. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. excrement.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. Fr. brenda. Branch. sedge burkni. bran. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. brake. brin d. cack. brandr. to or iron. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. —Ducange. heath. brog. young buisson fort epais. broom. gebroge. what is cast out as worthless. Russ. brin (as It brano). the twigs of a besom from brenneti. from brand. bruskoad. Thus we have w. or ling. It. a heath. brushwood. Brand. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. Bret. a single plant of heath. brom. sawdust. from brug. a halter. — branca. broom. See Brush. is the draff or excrement of the com. a firebrand. a briery plot. sprouts. piecemeal brindelles. Grisons bruch. heath. brejo. to gripe. a shoot. a roA. berneux. brosst. to bridle. from virga. . Gael. the branch of a tree. constrain. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . bracken or fern .. a dunghill. dirt . brous. So Swiss gaggi. to burn. young twig {brom-beisser. a bud. brambles. in the sense oi fern. Fr. breanan. brug). that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. w. Sir Topaz. G. AS. brarn. a vine twig Bav. clutch. a rod or twig. cabbage sprouts Fl. thicket of brambles Cot. A mark made by burning. brang. prufye. 2. Broom. a bud It. ear-wax mud. brank. wood composed of twigs. brughera. branco. . Bret. it glitters — — . . bramble Du. brank. also pfriemkraut. brandello. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. as. It. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. breme j Sw. brand. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. sweet broom. bromboli. But we find It. braeme. bro7n. a shrub from Bret. brenna. branche. Serv. In like hrst. restrain. Piedm. ordure . bretnel. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. brano. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. branchia. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. heath (Bret. broembel-CBppel. pfropf. . broccoli. a bud. — . the thorn apple or stramonium. bruk. bushes. Gael. brem. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. It will be found that shrubs. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. As ON. thorns and Gen. brandiiialil. gebriiche. brenn. Thus in Lat. Bret. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. pfriemen.D. titio. brandmurk. in the same sense. bruch. piece of anything. 1 8. Bran. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. virgultum. from gaggi. and E. Fr. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. that is to say. heath. E. Brancare. The naof strain. also a marshy low ground or fen . . may be so called in analogy with Bret. bren. Diez. brin. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. to brank. ground full of briers. That beareth the red hepe. a bridle or bit . bronbo. brok. Thornas and bremelas. nasty. Pl. bruch. Rouchi bren d'orMe. iii. Port. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . compress. chaff. G. .G. brass. bran. from Servian pnit. to -brugen. heath. briars. Bav. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. w. . the leafless plant of which besoms are made. a shrub . Bramble. brancas. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brenn hesken. The same form becomes in It. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. . — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. hallier. the bull-finch. brug. a thick bush. Bret. a small deri\'ation . Then by comparison with claws or arms. braam. bit by bit. pfriem in the sense of an awl. bruk. a shoot or twig. broussaille. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. stink .D. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. from Lat. burning brennen. or with It. brwnt. . as AS.). brein. and waste growths. broust." The bmno a • on . pected that brake. bren. i. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig.

brastlian. brasca. morsel. from used in dyeing cloths. from to vociferate. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. Bailey. E. to crackle . To brand. Milan. comes from thence. braser. to dash. brasil. E. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. conbillet. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. ist. to burn. Jam. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. brandiller. Bret. hoisting to the fall. embraser.^Brandle. n. to shake The word brisil. Diez. make an outcry. and branchis shaiand D. crackle. to brandle. Braser. the colour than hitherto known. bracea. as Fr. crackle. brazil. brush. brustle. The corresponding form in Gael. in Marsh. a fragment. Guill. firebrand. to and fro in the hand. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. live coals. to glisten or flash. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. braise. Brangle. Fr. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . d'Angl. brand. bracia. to bicker 2nd. flagrans. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. distilled wine. So. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. gebrannter wein. splinter. to brangle. G. Manx bransey. Hume in brand in ON. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. du Roi et laine. braise or hot coals. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. to brustle. It. to shake. Thus the bound up again. a stick. Sw. V. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. The name Brandy. brandolare is exbrandish. Brasil. Formerly brandy-wine. bragale\ wood. bransella. braise. brennen. urens. to confuse. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. a To Brandish. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. bruan. bra?ier. Kil. N. spirit distilled from wine. and scold. billet. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to make shine with shaking. brin. make a — . set on fire. brasa. incendium. bum. to make sense of a bright red dye. — . a round dance. brasa. Gris. It. to rustle. or in stick. brazeiro. Fr. braza. It. bryne. eldibrandr. put. G. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. plained by Florio. stake. The tre brangillis. brandiller.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. is bntan. Lye. hot Fr. weinbrenner. so. brus^. Du. brandigh. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. to totter. faire fracas. bruire. totter. to burn. to blaze. — . Chron. Fr. to hurl with great force. to shake. branler. bruzi. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. — ting to confusion. as again by well as the blade of a sword. Ija. to roar. brane-wood. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. fire-wood. Fr. before the discovery of America in the brandir. 59. to make display . WaUon. brandende wijn. firewood. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. glowing embers . brouir. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. branler. Fl. e. to braze or lute. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. Sw. apparently very distinct from each other. Chron. prasseln. then brandr. the spelling to kindle. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. bransle. shake. noise. all. to brandle or The It. to shog. to French brawl or brangle. brausen. Fr. to burn. Port. aqua ardens. was in use Fr. to Bailey. given to the country. brasca. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. and bruir. AS. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. a roaring fire. bruciare. De Goes. With top trimbling. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. In the same way the set on fire . perplex. to murmur. not. brangle or brawl in E. to quarrel. to distil . ish. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. To brase AS. bragia. bresil. brascct. branla. a brusler. to sound of the Fr.pan of coals. — . became ashes Pied. as Jamieson explains it. briiler. Brase. to solder iron. forms brasil.well. a pan of hot coals..

96 Roquefort. ferruminare. Cot. AS. or on the top of a wall. pil. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. as lattice.walle — Pr. Du. a slabbering-bib. to tear piecemeal. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. See Bray. deblaterare. frame of laths. 1224. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. strepitus 2. from branler. For the application to a^child compare Bret. Pisana in Mur. any piece. braser Fargent. to shake. a lath. Bartizan.^ — Sverris Saga. braoilich. equivalent to the Du. burning coals. Brawn. a parapet. discord. —^Bronze. in the first instance of boards. lat'te. boutures. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. flesh of a leg of pork. bratid calf of the leg. — .D. 1156. as rashers upon quick burning coals.D.D. whether contracted from brabble. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood.' Hal. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . esbraotier. braiio. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). to solder. breyon d'chaur. cloth. Kil. Betrax of a —^Jam. Swiss bradle. Brangle. ON. brandillo. The verb is probably derived from the brase.' BRASS BRAY et AS. Sup. solder. brces. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. bribe de viande. a fortification. A. neita girl). calf of the leg. a rag . So also See Brag. Bailey. brett. a battle-girdle. at brasa. bratidone. breteque. to Gael. See Brandish. contignatio. pan- — Rayn. the calf of the leg. the buttocks. a mantle. Math. as a brawling brook. Paris. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. Brawl. trul. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. tasce. breyon de kinds of . a contempt- banner. a cloak. Brat. brat. The same correspondence is seen between It. a patch of cloth. bralle. then a parapet. Dan. cob. and bronzo. G. W. from Fr. — Deutsch. OFr. The muscular part of the body. bartisan.— Diez. braede. Brattice. a contemptuous name for a young child. ' A vraale. as criailler of crier. a rag . ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Fr. Jam. from Sc. a Lap. to scold .brettysing. borderinge. brass. Many gambes. bradlete. Florio. is The word — uous name for a woman. slibro. calf of the leg. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. Cologne broden. brat. to copper. brazen. berd. Westphal. Brave. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. brettys.— Fl. braion. ^Altieri. a lump. apron. bartising. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. Sp. a wooden tower. roar. Lorraine bravon. bas morceau de viande brawhng. ni autres choses sur Due. or whether it be from Fr. KiL Prov. bronzare. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. fraiche. a lump of flesh. Fris. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. bretays). muscular parts of the body. bras. bronze. —-Jam. OFr. a lump of flesh. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. Certainly a little girl. Cot. a rag. 368. I. luncheon. bransle. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. a. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. a plank or board. especially that used in the working of iron . squall. P1. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. braeye. slut. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. baltresca. braodhlach.— Braid. a clout. Mundart.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. slakker-bortchen. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. brdto (ace. bmhon for brado7i. a loud noise. OHG. frequentative of braire. Hist. Wall. rag. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. It. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. ship. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. saillies. bratach. Circumeunt cibertesca. to carbonado. to cry. A. It. bronzacchiare. noise. branle. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Brass. bruir. bradon. It . slibro {neita.propugnaculum. as scrawl from scrabble. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. to braze. to talk at bralle op. Fr. brailler.— Remade. 2. buttock Sc. A dispute or squabble. Fr. &c. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. Sc. Pm. A land of dance. bretesche. bratdn). coassatio. a — A from the confused noise. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Gael. bred. . boarding being sbranare. braon. bretesque. bran. brat. le repasser un peu sur la braise. breyon. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant.

Bread. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. i. bratsche. braea. rangere. at a braid. cyprinus latus.ear rog. brage. to pretend. Dunbar braessem. to snatch. Fin. ON. Fr. ybrayid. crash. a breach Cot. the clash of ai-ms Dan. paste or dough. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. Ppvxia. brice. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. to work up in a mortar. soft . 2. To Break. — — — explained motus loud noise. a rent. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. in Jam. V. Then. to roar. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. 145. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. G.' To Bray. The ON. resound . yell. Bret. to rush. to braid the hair. bregar. To rub or grind down Sp. to crash. And with a traid I tumyt me about. to bawl. imitate or resemble one. to bellow. ^p&xia. augnabragd. to crash. Chaucer. — koa. R. e. bragr. as the voice of the ass. D. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. to braid. the sound — of arms. . Lat. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. ser. crepo and E.^ Fr. a rag f . or wound. twist. rustle. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. braid. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. to break. crackle . to break. to smack or the eye. W. See Brake. a wink. relation is seen between Lat. is . to scold. I'll live and die a maid. instantane. as the notion of turning crack. plait. Goth. The same He might don us both a villany. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray.ch. rattle.fracas. crash. bruire. upbraid. mos. noise . to t. R. to tear Bret. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. a . paxog. to cry Port. bragd — ON. appearance Hal. iU-favouredly — in Jam. the sword was out break. or cry out loudly . 7 . to braid acquires the sense of bend. From the or brack in a wall. to rumble. to roar as the sea. regi. at braga eftir euium. Wal. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. and to signify the fracture itself. on. a mill. bradar. fish. Chaucer. braidar. to break. to bray like an ass. Prov. . is often connected with swiftness of moBream. bray. roar. Du. as OE. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. Q. kind. a brack. Beryn. to braid.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. braa. starts crackling up. AS. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. G. explaining a very obscure application of the E. — . baiyl. bru. weave The ON. to bray in a mortar. to resemble him. to roar or bellow. V. bregar. to N. a brake for hemp or flax. to knead. to cry out. disturbance. riAprjyvvfu. vapna-brak. at once. turn..y. &c. bregda. roar. Bread.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. the miller's dog. F. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. gestus.g. ON. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. brot. and frangere. brak. which has given much trouble to commentators. bruzir. abraid. Breach. to rub Fr. &c. to resemble. to The cup was uncoverid. to have the lineaments of one's ON. ing. and make a hideous noise. breche. and fracasously. to resemble. to start. D. Bailey. make a disturbance. brechen. broyer. braidir. to cry out. &c. Prov. And at a braid he gun it bende. father. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. brame. V. . brand. father. bragd is also applied nets. with or without a final d. The Lat. D. Fr. breach. k. to sound very loud and very harshly. brak. &c. a crash. braire.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. E. fragor. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. brikan. Cat. to the seijauntes. rogi. Then is simply. brugier. braa. to break Fr. verb to break. Swiss bratschig. breuan. Cot. will. Gr. broad. OE. yell. fractus j Gr.

trusts. with It. briiz. Gl. brasiuiii. brinisa. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. corresponding to G.britschen. Swiss Rom. — Brist. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. scent. to burst. brut. brisciare. Du. fail. /esses. crush. subligaculum. binding. forms. to murmur. polenta. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. to roast. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. a cool wind. AS. brcekur j It. We bragezj on. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. switch. b}-as. de bridse geveii. — — strument for smacking. Breath. Swiss brdtsch. malt. little bits of wood Berri briser. brodem. Breeze. Breast. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. to bind. Fr. Dev. bruzun. braca. a crum Du. Briss and buttons. brisd. in Schilter. G. remains of leaves. Piedm. brasser. Fr. Swiss AS. a box. braguier. Dan. Breeze. to shiver for cold. Dtyden. braies. Piedm. brok. Du. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. Prov. bris. rubbish. murmur—Vocab. grill. bark Fr. brisoler. braca. brdtschen. . G. singing bone. to crush to break.D. a cramp-iron for holding things together. to simmer. brossi!. Isidore and Tatian.t. brise. peitschen. the soler. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. The Teutonic verbs. fitzen. chillness or shivering. braciarc. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. and brought beneath between the legs. brijselen. brodel. broil. forms analogous to E. brissle. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. to break. brison. an odour. G^nev. brijsen. braia J OFr. Hence the Lat. a girdle. See Brick. but more probably the E. braich. The Breech (Prov. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. . breme. braga. to hum. braie. Du. of trees. or the blow itself. It. bracecs .'— Gl. — See Broth. as the G. Originally probably the word signified steam. . Bret. Breeches. then to broil. — Halma. bruzir. of straining. point to G. bre- I'os qui bresole. bragues. to resound. Hume in Jam. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. from brace. w. to crackle. brezzare. sheep's droppings bruss. as commonly explained. windy withal. Breeze. a to lay fly-flap. fastening . to rattle (as hail). brimme. bris de charbon. britze. E. bridsen. properly to crackle. bresilles. —Briss. PI. the bust. body brostia. dial. Du. braies. sprouted corn. bandage or truss for a rupture. so AS. AS. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. to bray. their stings draw . as by the Sc. as. simmer. braucn. representing the sound of a blow. So ON. brusc. as in the case of twitter. burst. brasiare. grillare. G. to brew. trembling. coaldust. morsel. brustia.). bruc. bretilles. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. G. drawers. Bret./ssus. to buzz.98 borst. an into shiver. to brew. murmur. and other rubbish dibris. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. &c. Gael. Lat. xyligogio castigare.vare. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. Sw. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Gael. brugga. briste. bratscher. Bruise. a horse's twitch. breath. rubbish. briosa. siibligar. bryi^ga. braga. as. — And blood. and E. bra. clout for a child. briig. break. chilly. broza. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. noise. brciz. to whip. . from AS. bruise. brire. brist. malt. briosa. met de bridse slaan. brezza. to feize or feaze. brache. to fry . from ligare. to fry Then from a Gl. Fr. Compare OE. breinse. E. broiiwen. Biglotton. breson. a twitch for a horse. bris. QNtsterviald) pritschen. de Vaud. may be from the wurh fesser. einem de britze geven. the dry spines of furze broken off. the breech or buttocks. one on the breech so that (klatschet). G. cloven. brew. of E. to breech. OFr. also to chill and shiver with cold. — . Rom. Bracha. brezling. breeze. to smack. brcEth. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. breost. brosame. to be misty and cold. zare. Goth. griller. instead of being derived from 'La. a smack. briosat'. i5r(Z^. a gadfly. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . To Brew. Prov. — . brumtnen. are in like manner ' . bremse. simmering. vapour. Russ. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. broden. Gl. orts. . Lat. brimsa. grillen. Fris. a cold and windy mist or frost . braux. are related to Prov. . applied to shivering. Brize. a crum.

In the G. a rogue. bygga. to tlie brico. Gl. jetty. ' — . being one of the numersummary or any short writing. to Isrew. OHG. Hence OE. — — — — — — . and ODu. bruk. stone-bridge bnikkoti. — .' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. fastningar-ol. to circulate. bruith. briicke. a proprietor. to break to pieces bricalio. Dan. and berweddu. . a crum. AS. bricge j G.privatus. birbante. a briole. brood. graf-ol. Brique. pavement brolegge. to break. Due. the Fr. gf2o. ibrukkti. Neumann. bridge. Ihre. to meet together. crew. The origin of the word is the w. a rogue . a Bride. a bride Brig. brug. company. bricou. bread. to boil. fit. . a lump of bread. . AS. brasser. one's ovin. whence berw. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. a bride. Bridal. brutg. Fr. bribour. It. bride. So in The Prov. Brigade. brittil. to press in. arf-ol. Brewis. birbone. then the marriage itself. Sp. it is applied to the letter to OE. fervere. brieden. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. a lump of bread briber. nurus G. as so. owned also propriate. broken. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . a bush. to appropriate. E. So It. Fl. broken bread. masted vessel. a heath brughera. collect bits of food. Mid. as. berwedd. hlafes brice. a married man or woman Lat. bryd-eale. a quoit of stone. It — is Kil. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. Ducange. brilt. Rouchi brife. Brick. . heath. a beggar. with transposition of the r. breve or brevis. bride. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. brocaly. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. Cot. division of an army. bidsel. bruk. the marriage si in brigata. . a fragment. AS. from the Normans. of burial. briiths. OSw. Flor. brA.bergantino.groom. a crum. served (Patois de Bray). corresponding or letter. E. Pol. In the patois of briccia. the equivalent of to the dial. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a married man guma. broosekens. A bribe is A — — arval. bruskr and buskr. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. malt. lipdZu}. groom (mab=:son). has briguer. fragDictante legationis suae brevem.pritil . brigantine. brere. W. brau. son. the newly. Gael. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. ' . priod-ferch. briw. piece of burnt clay. is still used in this sense. to pave. from Bret. bruarium. bably contracted from brigantine. to beg one's bread.. to brew. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. a lump of bread. buskins. ter-in-law.gfiugga. brigata. in the sense of OSw. conjux.Fr. sponsa. bruyere. brar. Thom. bridelj OHG. Goth. bro. berwi. sugga. remarkable that the Gr. a wedding priod-fab. and that from It. but to a paved road. If the foregoing were not so clear. ap. a little king's writs. fraoch. twopares Lat. beaten way Dan. betony brulicame.rough with brambles and bushes. Bridal. to prepare. to boil. a boiling. Pro(merch=:maid). BRIGADE dead. to pave brukkti. priod. briwo. pavement. Gael. bryd-gutna. frayer. Walach. brukkas. brakes of high-grown ferns. to rub. ment of anything broken. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. bro. brughiera. Brief. pavement Lith. betonica. . a sow. thick appropriated. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. or brizo. any jot or crum. The Sw. AS. bitill. brahi. broken victuals. Trovarfor bride-ale. See Broth. especially to a letter or command. grug. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. troop. peculiar. Fr. bro is applied not only to a bridge. barren land priodas. jipaaaiii. from bit. appropriate. from Bridegroom. to boil. brique de pain. . E. a man. bretonica. daughheath. boiling up brocoliere. E. fragment. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. httle bit. brygga. pier. a fragment. Grisons bruch. privus. consort with. to press. Bridle. Du. funeral. bulicame. married. brigade. a brig or priodor. a heath. Brier. feast. ON. G^n^v. which however is undoubtedly from brace. Lat. imprint. malt. w. A — A — . Applied ous words derived from break. brice. In E. . to stamp. braut. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. buckler J ON. a cheat. Diefenbach com. Bridge. Lang.It. It. . two-masted vessel. but probably Bricoteau. bo. AS. bribe de pain. Bribe. guma. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . AS. Priodi. from the last 99 of which. — . a bit. bara briw. Diez. Fr. feast of espousals. Hdcart.

rixa. bregar. lay was sung. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. at a later period. to glitter. willata. So G. Goth. tinnitum clarum movco. brigare.— . Brigand. a glittering. rover either by sea or land. Schmeller. and led it away. Owl and beorhtian. The E. brcEhtin. also called briganders. splendour. brigare. to shift for with care. The primary meaning of Sp. 1654. to sound.dorem clarum reflecto.D. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. to bend a bow It. moment. Swab. a sound. Beorktode bene sweg. They or brigantini. — Beowulf. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. splcnornd de brigandine. seems to be to exert force gar el area. Brilliant. biartr. It.Lat. \oice. tinkle. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands.pracht. brawl. . the bench-notes resounded. Due. The Ir. glbram. secondarily. — Brigantine. to contend with another. Gr. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. It. bairhts. schateren. Heo — song That AS. schiteren. Brigata. a brigantine.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Lat. shriek with laughter. in later times a robber or highway-man. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. clang. representing a sudden noise. Mid. speech. brigan. the grew high. inde squammatus. to ring. noise. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . twinkling. to shine. to make a loud noise. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. riis ' — Chron. briga. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . may play the pirate or thief at sea. Wilista. bragen. to rob. clear. clear. bryhtm. transparent. briegen.' in Due.shine. glir. A strepere. bracht. and. wilella. a small light pinnace pro. is easily understood. — Probably then to strive. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier.clare ^tinniens. It. the gleeman's song. brak. AS. loo BRIGAND lor. braid. a spark. in the first instance. A. in the sense of a robber. bray. sound. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. brigant. kilistua. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. glamm. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. to reservavit.' torum. and secondly. to cry 'Schmid OE. From ON. to shine. from hall. manifest ON. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. —Capgrave. to rove. 1351. bright bearhtm. Bav. on his — own account. brebrigare. splendens . cange has 'Veles. that of Fr. a noise. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. Du. tinnitus. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. . Gall. and hence be explained glampi. — Briganbriga. tuilahtaa. strife. tion. and diligence. See Brake. with respect either to sound or colour. In Fin. etincelle. dine. necessary business. himself to serve men of merit. a pirate. dine. clarus. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. jurgia. hell. OHG. glitter. — brigante. Bright. tumult. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. brigandare. beorht. Flor. splendour. clear. combat. — brigante. clear sound. outcry. — Due.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. squamma . duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. Xa/iTTii). show the origin of Lat. pugna. and. to glamr. to strive for. to piracy. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. malandrini. brdgen. briga. Florio. 312. — A A . XafXTTpoQ. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. and ner me hit iherde. Adelung. there are many armour. kii:'a. and the E. In the same way to strive is.' The passage from the sense of a light.' The sense of strife or combat express. to resound. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . praht. then. glamra. It. clare lucens. labour. to cry. — — . clangour. and to associate with them.glampa.

fringe (Lat. from bringe. to creak. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. brim. Tresiller. dial. fierce. brant. Rayn. brama. s. os qui bresole. kimina. A . Kil. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. Brimstone.its vent in cries and roaring. — . to shine. breme. broil . the lap or bosom. kimmaltaa. whence bilbil-goda (literally. bray as an ass bramire. brimmen. crackle . grdzil.— Brinded. kiimottaa. to sparkle. that the original meaning of the Sc. a borDu. bremas. briller (related to each other as OFr. tience. frequently interchange. to parch. To Brim. the verbs Flor. beam. with an initial br instead of gr. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. The expression is now confined to the sow. Dan. AS. glit. bremmen. In the same way Sw. 1. Sc. reecho. perent. earnestly . grullo. to roar. brillare. Brindled. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. to shake. to . the heat of animals. grisler. a long. to quaver with the voice. post. from brandr. which seems identical with rim. — g. to sound deep or hollow. to long for a thing. bry7ie.' Elyot in Way. Said of swine when in heat. FJ. bar. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. Tutschek. burning. the sow is brimming. originally the lap folding over the breast. fimbria) . brim Magy. barm-cloth or barmskin. or violent action. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. is used of raging. Fl. bremmen. Rugere. fringe . to broil. kimista. In Fr. of the eye. — Rim. s. lip of a vessel. sparkle. It. noise made by meat in broiling. rut. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. border. (poet. on. Hence with an initial s. margin. brumft. Sw. parched. breziller. burning stone. rugire (cervorum. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. bramar. . gresiller. Closely connected is OE. 154. as is the case also with Pl. shine. clangor tinniens. brummen : de soge brummet. and corresponding to these. furious. 754. voux. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. a border. to fret . spraing. ON. barmr. bryn. ON. to crackle. griller. the heat of animals. brunft. E. : ' — bone). brennistein. to shimmer. striped or streaked. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. Du. edge Pol. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. brinfire. griller).' d'etre marie . Fr. surface of the ocean. brummen. Brem. to make a crackling noise. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). glisten. to crackle. brastlian. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. brand-krossottr. ous. whether of desire or anger. greDiet. and 1. 1 1 64. broiled. ON. brame. Langtoft. The meaning of the Fr. Thus Lat. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. the eye-brow. . kajata. der. rym^. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. border.ioTiviS acutus. lap. komista. brissle. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. brdnnsten. Wtb. a streak. small gravel. to storm. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. to glitter.preni. finds the Fr. Subo. vigorHal. Dief. a rod. The identity of ON. The E. leonum). as in Langued. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. ardere desiderio. an apron. breziller. It. to shine. sonitum edere bremen. komottaa. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. to glitter distance . bramar.D. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. lap of a garment . ter. Supp. have then in Fr.) brimi. brandr and Fr. bramire. It. kommata. to utter cries. AS. excited. to make bilbil). also to reflect. brommen. brmdottr. briller. Streaked. breme. G. brisoler.). . bresoler (Gloss. a stick. hence the bosom. to glitter .— BRIM . border. briller. the singing of Sodom — — . to twinkle. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. brezil. as of meat in broiling . as well as bl and gl. ling noise and a sparkling light. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. the edge. to shine. to roar. ring. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. — — — . coloured in stripes. the meaning is transL' amour. rugire. fire. griller d'impatience. brame. greedily to covet Cot. cross-barred in colour. brullo. gresiller. grisser. vattubryn. pMiller. brow of a hill. Sc. barm. sprainged. identical with passion. — — So Fr. to creak. Swiss Rom. crackle. bramer. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. Prov. Lith. chime). Brim. to wish or covet. to resound. to burn.

Fr.D. trembling. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. to scorch. Abroacli. bryde. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. Fr. spur. ' breast. a brad or tack. — A . byrst. brockle. It. See Brand. Commonly explained as from Fr. craw of a bird. Brickie. britar. Sp. b.rcendij'i. a bit . or from that of a splinter or small fragment. 222. . grim. e. britchet. brime. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. fierce. saulmeure. aculeus. i. a crum. a cold and windy mist or frost. Cot. Du. — in Due. metaphorically. sprocco. breast. brote. a morsel. a skewer. Brisk. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. chest. as a noun. . to be compared with the cold bleak day It. cK) the . to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. a projecting tooth It. the surf. birstle. brim. brijn (Kil. The Pl. Bohem. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. the surf. a button broche. breidr. bresk. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. a deluge. from break. borst. Bret. Fr. brandello. p. to birstle. brust. as. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. wine of a sharp.. bringe traced through the brano. brimhliod. a stitch brocher. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. bringue. bryne. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. — — . ON. brissle. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. as unripe fruits. hot-tempered. breaking of the waves brim sior. sprout. . a morsel . Sw. a slip or sprig of an herb . birssy. Brittle. to spur. a bud. brocar. birse. brim. braidsj ON. Hence ribrezzare. flames. to shiver for Sold or for fear. — bryme. brocchus. brcit. to begin upon it. reburrus. Compare also E. It. . Then as the effect of shivering. Fris. G. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). to stick. a fragment. humorous. brichet. or the full • . like the Broad. from brande. Salte sand is called brimsand. coli. Pectusculum. to crack. Lat. has under It. See Spread. briota. ' . Palsgr. bruskett. It. suddenly angry. brittle. to burn. brusk. setting the hair on end compare It. bristly . to set it a going. to roar. Russ. broc. thick — A elastic hair. Brine. brusque. Bret. shoot.). spricka. is called a birssy day. breaking out into growth. briocho. borstel. borzos (struppig). Mid. the brisket or . an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. rash. /3pE^m. It. stitch. are used in the sense of brittle. a brooch.Lat. and hence. Liquamen vel garum. against the grain . bruckle. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco.'— Vita'abbatum S. 'V^. Brisket. Berri. brot. brin. and. to spur. as. brisciare. roar of the sea saltr. brezzare. very salt brimi. to stitch. startling. a rod or twig. a spit. Sc. In the N. briser. Antiq. man's throat. brimme. brocco. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. Du. to broil. fiscbryne. a rebours. apt to break. bringe. rebursiis.). to break. emotions which produce it. birs. broca. Brym. Fr. Brocade. NE. Hal. rebrousser. brocco.g. birsle. and Sc. expression. Gr. Dan. brocher. broccata. to break. Sc. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Boh. brittle. briota. brytan. as. bros. . Prov. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. brindelles de balai. ruffling. to put one in a rage . Walach. a belly. sharp. to bud.. to shoot. fragile. harsh vin brusque. quick. broche. Da. broca. flame. bronchus.' Nat. setting the hair on end. broccare. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. to spit. brocciare. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. whence may be explained the Sc. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. Breeze been connected with the Sc. strong itself. a clasp. a peg sbrocco. bros. crabbed. to set up one's birse. to goad. Port. ribrezzoso.procio. from AS. — . Brooch. bricho (with the diminutives. Fr. sour. Alfr. brim (poet. smart taste. bruched (Fr. a stormy brimsea . Russ. borzen. eager. a shoot or sprig. brezza. Zeuss. Prov. brioshko. brddj Goth. brusco. rude. Fr. brog. to stab Gael. Ptg. brickie. See To Brim. of astonishment. sprouts. brich. angry. brodden. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. fantas'* tical. form bris. brisk in taste. Prov. a bud. lively. Bristle. Swiss to stand out . the twigs of a besom. of E. to thrust. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. an awl. brissko). to turn up the point of anything. is to erect the hair. Gl. . and forms on. to broach a business. or — . Formerly written brotil. prick with Sw. sticking up . to break. britar.

frecSee Brawl. the shoot of corn. brasuole. broil. noisy. gold and silver. silkes-borda. Brocket. It of br the Fr. brouda. brusler. frocadura. onbryrdan. motes. broud.sound. parti-coloured.. b?-od. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. to broil. From direct imitation of Brock. noise. Fr. Gael. brasbrasciuolare. parti-coloured. broccuto. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. confound. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. Surrey in R. spotted. has grisser. border. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. badger . hurly-burlies. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. broc. rinj'. briz. bawling. parched. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. Thus brod. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. broc. Sc. houx. The Bret. trouble. Gael. ornamented with a raised pile. blusters. a flock or Gael. or glowing coals broged. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. broukit. It. brastlian. a fallingThe sense has been out.. a flake of snow sion. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. 103 embroidered. bruler. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. Broker. creak. brasiller. border ornamented with silk. to prick. brocco. to crackle. to On the other hand the Sp. to spur. thread. with Sc. whence broccare. kled breac. — Fl. or salted fish on coals. a freckle. brusuole. hart of two years old. ciare. brooked. A fried or boiled steaks). Dan. bustling. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. a brouhaha. — — . brindled. Compare also AS. — The proper sense is that of Fr. To roast upon hot coals. ToBroider. Fr. atoms . an edge. brocart. brouFr. bj'oil. to burn. agree in being the extremity of a thing. to scorch. and bord or bred. brodio. a peg. a mole. a badger. stump. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. to crackle. to darn. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. initial . W. grislement. birsle. a point. piebald . speckled. to parch or broil. freckled. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. tufted ornaments. forming to jumble. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. broighlich. brasolare. to crackle as a shell in the fire. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. bram. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. Cot. and AS.— B. to crackle. sparks E. a b?-ustolare. Contracted from Fr. to streaked or speckled in the face. a confused streaked face of the animal. breard. a brim. — . broder. So from Pol. prasseln. to burn. brustle. to knots or loops. . a quarrel. dar seems derived from borde. Icnotty. Ptg. — brissle. or It. bramowanie. spots. a brecJi. broil. point to an origin in Bret. B. Florio. froco. age was termed a pricket. knobby . fundamental origin. parch. from the white. to boss. Ihre has guU-bord. E. broglio. and w. bordo. Fr. A badger. brod. Hal. Here to ornament with needle-work. storms. of pointing out their latent defects. bordar. grullo. a freckle. R. embroidering. brasiller. Grisons brascla. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. or snag.tumultuous. gresiller. Bret. a border. borprick. or roast on the braise. here. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. to crackle. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. AS. sting. tori shows that. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. rustle. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. broice. broccato was used to signify stuff . brychau. prod. embroidery. margin. precisely analogous to the Sc. Sc. trouble. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. to embroider. a To Broil. shuffle. tumult broighleach. v. briefh. to instigate. . braird. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. The ON. a prick. — Gower in It. streaked. carbonado. speckled. It. brerd. brych. brullare. brocach. Sp. broiled. scorch. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . Cot. bmsciare. brucilare. to embroider. the line of development has been something different. brucach. Compare G. a border ornamented with gold. q. to stud broccoso. brizen.

from makel. find fault with. ON. brot. • . bronze. Kil. a broker. to be wanting. Adelung. refuse. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. Alb. brokoti. screatio Junfus . to emit sparks. See Wreak. brumo. on. bracker. Lat. Pl. to nourish. This word shows the same relation to It. dirty. brak. abbronzanchiare. — point out the faults. G. whnake. to brew. bronze. damaged. to — garble. On • tliis principle the G. to garble. OFr. braeck goed. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. lack. Sc. term was correcfo^ir. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. Jam. For the same reason the Kiittner. brokas. bronze. dial. an . In the . bric-a-brac. to throw blame upon. racaille. embers. Sp. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. find fault with. to hatch. — a spark. broen. fault censure. braken. brakyne. has exactly the force of G. to reject. brasa. raca. to spit . hraki. racher. brunds. brack. brae. glowing coals. . . brak. Pl. cracker. spittle . Bronze. bredan.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. brechen. Tooke's Catherine. to sort brakovanie.D.— Breed. insects. a cough Hal. To correct an exercise is to Lib. Per manus et old worthless horse. to pick and choose. Grisons brinzla. a fault. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. filth. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. trumpery. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. stain. Teutonic class : Du. brack-gut (Sanders). 396. to sort goods . which E. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. Bronzare. and fishes . In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. Abbronzare. hot. broiid. wreak. — Fl. brut. sort. brydio. 38. embers to brund. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. abject. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. an operation performed over hot coals. to hatch G. To blame mens ware. spittle. brass does to Sp. Russ. hot. pan metal. fermenting. make out. burning. The Langued. . an outcast or rejected sheep. wrack-good. brod.D. — broeden.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. refuse Fr. the young of any animal . to braze. to pro- to reject . to criticise. It may be compared with It. hrak. Brood. a breach or flaw. to hatch. The use sunburn. briiten. Fl. brasa. correctarius. brid. a makeln. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. in the sense of rejection. sbrinzlar. whence the modern courtier. and as an adj. embers. try out.D. a chicken. in which sense the OHG. merchandises de rebut G. brwd. goods damaged by sea-water. bridde. rejection Pol. blur. — . any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. brokers' goods. to blame. bring eggs and spawn into active life. raquer. try . refuse goods. inspect. analogous to Bohem. to be hot. et A. ordure. brack-gut. refuse brakowad. . designation is indkler. but from the primary sense of the It. cherish.D. mud. warm. and to reject the damaged and unsound. matter of blame weak place. as. the spawn of fishes. to pick. to roast on the embers. to scorch. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. phlegm. to sit on eggs. wrak. : ' . brackefi. tan. Du. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. If to vomit . criticise (makeln). . refuse wares. Du. reject. Alb. mediationem quorundam J. nounce unsound. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. slaae vrag paa. keep warm. G. a brood . S. sunburnt. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. inspection. vile. progeny of birds. Pro v. corrector. or brascla.— — . the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters.— Lib. from break. want. brod. cast Lith. vrage. to sparkle. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. . is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. Prov. G. with. w. See Broth. i. e. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. It. tussis. Pl. Dan. faulty. refuse brakovat. brieden. rejected. wraken. to . bronce. ODu. brands. find fault — — — fuse matter. Bret. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. refuse. to copper. Fr. damaged. In those countries the term braker. buy and sell by commission. selection. bronzo. fish-spawn broden. See Brackish. couratier. vile.

Pl. juice of briars. broca. bruich. a hill. boiled . mettle. Prov. Prov.' Due. broth the ocean Sw. brue . laissent Domunculum. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. brouet. a hut or cottage It. Gael. brosst. briar. to border. brdtaj Gael. a source Gael. to boil bruithe. Pol. brow of a hill. Bohem. the bubbling or springing up of water. brothas. braun. to spring . a river. or bushes and scrubby growths. bruth. Wtb. bryn. a shore. OHG. Kil. grow into a bush. to scald. bratrj Lat. to sprout. ale . The softening down of the consonant bud. cia. shrub with leafless pointed edging. . to murmur. Gael. broud. hovel. to boil. may be connected with Russ. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. &c.D. forms appear related to the Ir. signifying low wet land (Brem. Sc. broc. strength Ir. to boil. Fr. Bret. verge. to use. brukjan. kail brose. ceales briw. b7-un. sense the Sc. &c. shore. circuindedit cum familia. riviere. broieii. low The AS. Bav. breg. broth. brennen. G. brost. braew. . G. Fr. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. bruithim. bor. dialects is very different. a . brushbrothas) gives the OE.— Overyssel Almanack. frucius. eye-lid. brus. AS. It. enjoy Goth. brawdj Slavon. brodem. properly boiling water briihen. pith. eat. It. a derived from the boards. wood . . cabbage water. a caldron. brushbroccoli. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. 'Lzt. brpuster. sprocco. Fr. from ripa. browys. a sprig. Du. a shrub broust. It is Brother. bruceti. Sp. Serv. breg. spuma. brost. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . shoots. to roar. breg. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. The AS. sap. . pfriemkraut. Fr. sprot. to browse. broem bark.brink. branches.. protecting the eye. bntdien. bud. brewis. bregh. bhratrj Zend. bank. . Ppim. heat explaining the Prov. heat. shoot. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. to bear patiently. AS. 105 Brook. on. Sanscr. bank. brmi. break out brewet. a bud brous-koad. bros. bruc. as rhododendrons. bordeau. frater. Brow. bank. broeye. broo. bordel. a sprout. brad. and also border. brogues. useful G. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. . brucan. brio. broth is sometimes used . Russ. awl-plant. grow brossa. brudi. braussa. Gris. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. . broccola. borde. chen. See Bramble. broi. eye-lash . — exiit et heath. Roquef. plants composed of twigs. and Sc. vigour. briihe. Tam de terrS. brotar. thicket. G. juice of meat. broth Brown. brosses. as Fr. brst. A — . Fr. to burn. . brun. a spring. the colour of things burnt. bruscosd quam de arabili. infusion the barley bree. infusion. thick bush brousta. brouser. . a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. breh. face. sprout. house of ill fame. . fabric consists. has briw. brauwe. brink. w. as small-pox. brow. eye-lid. bruach. riviera. bryii. waves. Bohem. Here we find throughout the Romance. surDu. briu. pottage. sordes seu strigmata young branch. Du. shore . ." Serv. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. brstiti. — . bruith.brons. simmer from the murmuring AS. signifying twigs. Brothel.spross. t— Cot. vigour. on. a bruth. Due. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. brass. Gr. Limousin broudi. But the Walach. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. strength. Gael. rage. broth brothaire. &c. bruich. brwd. a hill. augen-braune. brocco. heath. of plants broust. sprouts . pour boiling water over. a confused noise of winds. a bud. bros. hot. Mid.braubiti. brouter. sodden. eminence . noise. — . broden. brodo. from Goth. Commonly Teutonic. . bree. bushes. a little house or cottage of timber. a little . iVlanx broogh. to Pl. in which brinnan. broth. fur Broom. &c. meal. . Bret. and It. brosses. heath. brouches. dumetum. sproc. or shoot. — ' . . cabbage soup . buds. edge. Gael. Russ. Cot. brozia. edge. Dan. hut.D.) . bank. brouskaol. bruddeln. eye-brow. Browse. brov. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. w. eye-brow. Sp. brotar. frui. brouic. to use bruks. surface of Broth. brew . or broken up . bruitheati. of which the variety of forms. to bubble up with noise. . to browse. Bohem. who is steaming with sweat. Catalan brossa. warmth ch'an. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. to boil. and Slavonic families. sprout. thairj w. brusmalt. brd. seethe. BROOK brook w. spirit. It. steam from heated bodies. Lat. . Celtic. to use. broit. rerum decoctarum. The origin is a re. brau. was originally used in the innocent sense of . OHG. shrubs. Ger. eye-brow. perhaps burnt coloilr. G. bruno. (for brodem). Manx broie. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. brlgh. broza. bryn. brabruach. to shoot. borda. border. braces. OFr. eye-brow. G. brous. juniper. margin. To digest.

134. bruiser. brist. Brush. brista) or breaking out . Pm. brosst. G. Wicliff. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. . Pr. brit. Pr. Diez. — OE. broust. bruscolo. and Piedm. a bristle. B?-usske. brisar. a flax comb. quisquilise. rods. That in all haste he wouli. Pm. shivers. brusca. also a head-brush. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. 174. AS. It. and sighid therewithal. Fr. a tuft of heath . bruito. . bruise exOFr. biirste. E. crush. G. Cot. borste. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. a noise. bricalio. briser. a brush . a bush of hair. a crum. Port. and in the second place a besoiB. crum bit . and It. to break. brosst. brustia. — those signifying a sprig. brico or brizo. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. biirste. appearin Goth. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. or shoot. K. brMt. Hall in R. briiis (in the pi. borste. a little brizal. dust. A. In E. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. bruskr. . insilio. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. . bruc. an enmy. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. Poems.). while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Allit. brusc (Diet. Sw. modification of the same root which gives the E. brousso. borste. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. a brush. tuft of grass or hay. wood composed OE. . burs. bris. fragments. a bud or sprout Bret. brist j Port. On the other hand. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. shoot brouskoad.— Palsgr. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. abroncar. bruzir. to crush.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. insultus. Sw. blow burcar. orts. bruscia. brosse. rubbish. or sodenly comyn' dust. twig. and also Brush. detergere . brugir. shock. a brush. It. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. E.). bush. bris. britar. It. Prov. Bruit. escousse. Gael. to break to bits . to brush. Pr. to make a rumbling. The Lat. borste. brossar. to cleanse. desbrisar. —Fabyan. brus. Prov. as It. dust. Castr. a brush. Prov.— — i. * Brunt. a — — (Agea) said. brise. brist. brosse. a blow. dust. into a multitude of points. brist. brizeto. chips. to butt. a bristle. brikan. briketo. Lang. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. to make brusshes on. Brunt. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. bris. bross. field. Cot. . brustid. a briser. See next article. rubbish. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. and actually come in collision. Fl. ON. Gael. brisd. Alexander. britar. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Gael. Prov. — a bush. brust. Beryn. bruscolo. ling or heath for brushes. fescue . borste. flax-comb brossettes. Bret. brossa. broza. Gael. a brush . of twigs. brysan. brusca. a brush Swiss bruske. wool-card. burt. brushwood. Palsgr. Fr. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bruire. 201. rubbish. bris. Fr. to strike the foot against an obstacle. Piedm. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . brossa. bruyere. wool-card. Bav. Pr. And that best is. break. OFr. brusco. Broach. a bud. NE. borst. heath. p. bud. it schall be al Sw. and . Brunt of a daunger. splinters. brustia. twig. dust. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. broza. ca7-bo>i. brunt. —Chaucer. Bruise. coal See Breeze. brusco. The same relation holds good between G. Sp. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. to stumble. sordes. bross. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. Piedm. a horse-brush. brik. To brush then would be to dust. brusg. a brush . mg Cat. OE. a mote. to break or burst. Text Soc. Fr. broustia. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. Fr. . effort. bruis (sing. brous. seems named from burst(on. fasx . The Bav. brottcher. bushy ground. irruo.). Lang. broken. tremely. quasi twigs. a brush . remnants of hay or fodder. brous. wool-card. a shrub composed of small twigs . a rumbling. — Fr. E. to break. bruit. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters.

moczyd. also applied Una. bduclien. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). bifbel. to soften. is 1. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. Fr. at a door. I. buquer. News. Fr. faire la lessive. different form. a. Sp. and Fr. and exercised their cruelties prin. says Laudon. a fescue. designation of a knob. byge. The name. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. bukke. to stick. to bump as a bittern. rap. — . Bohem. bugada.wet Lat. and as a verb. From an imita. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. a steep for flax. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. Formerly. a bubble. or mok. soft.derivation has been much discussed. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . to a place used for the mouillir. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. Fr. soft It. and the bunch. lye. bucata. Etym. bokni. bublati. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. from colar. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. w. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. watery bud. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. buck-ashes. boh. . and uninhabited places in the West Dan.' Palsgr. In G. the first wheal. mokry. pup. as G. a hole. March 28. 17th century. boucaner. See Dupe. to Gael. It. to filter. buborek.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. buquer. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. mote. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. pokka7na. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. to soften. boc. from weich. bube. tuft. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti.to allow a free current of air. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. not so plentiful a commodity. it is beuchen. and then to other wild tumour Lith. buck-ashes. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. smokipg meat were called buccaniers.boukaat. to bubble. a. to buck. bouc. buchen. very generally designated by the same puk. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. bubiti. to which in their language they call bou. a knock word.steep or soak. hump. erweichen. Sc. Pol. who resorted to the islands beichen. bouk. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. boil animals. ac. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. bucking. . of wind. thunder gently .buchen. It. hog dressed whole). A . or projecTo Buck. Esthon.byka. BUBBLE bruschetta. Cot. blast or strike with the forehead. boc. Bret. bucquer. pukkata.-wtt miekki. — . This bubette. The cipally on the Spaniards. But see Bristle. caned' Hence those who established them. Magy. bubBuck. bub. 1857. to butt. buerj It. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. tender. The word was very generally Buccanier. . to butt. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. because bucare does not in Marsh). in which the flesh dish. was called in Fr. mieknad. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. plied in the W. a push. tender. The natives of Florida. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. The place of such a 2.tare. Sp. It. bucaIndies. The male goat. when soap was tion is commonly taken. soft. 1586. the upper for coifee. to butt or jurr Dan. top. . called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. the lower soak in lye. open lath-work. Dan. Bret. wood. colada. does not hold. knock. a ashes. — — ' A : ' ' . . from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. . Illust. lye. Bubble. soft.lessiver. The term bocan is still ap. w. a to the male deer. soft . molle. to murmur. was called bucking the linen. to soak. bubbola. to strain. de la Floride. Magy. to soften . .D. bwch.biiken j Svi. . hump. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. to soak foul linen before washing. set of pirates in the spread. Bohem. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. moist. Fin. bubauti. Diet. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. bubseti. bog-aske. bugd. mollire. a bubble . bub. drying of produce. maban and baban. to wet Pol. tap . Pol. blister. to soak. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. Gael. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. as a buck rabbit. Pref A.— . the linen at buck. a bubble.

from bo. Budge.pode. a curl. a servant. — — . crack. boqueranmis. to stir. bloca. ornamental stud. child. II I'a feru desor I'escu. to line with fur. butz. knob . a bump. a cowherd. butt . a wallet. from Gr. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair.goa. sboge. boss of a shield. Fr. clasp of a book. Mid. to thrust. call. bunch. rabodS. Bus.may probably be explained by N. Du. — . * Bucket. bullion. pwt o Fr. butzen. a buckle or protuberance. bucolicus.' And this sacrament bus have dial. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. bug. a . ein. jSouKoXiKog.Lat. from bugr. excrescence. ' . Bucolic. G. buckel. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. set of a plant in bulk. weich. Hence quel. prick in a target. dinted. a fold ceilio. Buck-bean. seen in Hesse botz. a budget. call bo. . to 'soak. is doubtless fallacious. budge. A buckle or fastening for botch.. bump. with a central boss. motus creber. . bouge. Prov. a boss. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. — — . the word w ' — . bouter. Bav.chissima. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. swelling. boucle. gjeit-klauv. put. Prov. Russ. boucler. Fr.poot. skins pushit'. bouk is a pail and with the dim. wallet. knock. bouclier. blow. OFr. to bud or bocla. Pied. the radical image seems to be a set plants. of bac. bugnir. Fr.) as to soak. It. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. loud Cot. bogla. ON. Sp. also a leather tuft . bouljein. a small shallow and open tub. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. A water-plant with leaves and gille. don't a baby). imbuere. Port. or male of to boil . and of the Lat. a tuft. inboachen. lump. in the beginning of to pierce holes. dint . a bubble three thyngis. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. Swab. a pail or flowers. pulga. where the G. swelling. stud. a short thick man. brobrocchiere. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. need. weichen. Bav. hump. bulais daqui. bougette.' Hal. The dressed fur of lambs. . In Lat. knob dwfr yn boglynu. boucaran. boiling. w. bougette. great pouch. . bloca. ' . . This expression boglire. to budge. to pen cattle. ble. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. push forwards. It. become bochen.t-le!L{ * Bud. having a boss.' Schm. no wheel bogeilio. as in Fr. bulka. a navel. Budget. Cot. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. a buclder or shield budge. . bucket Fl. cattle. no business to do that. butze. a trough). a pustule bout.anything short of its kind. butzen. Mid. a shield. stroke. belonging to the calling of the chen. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. protuberance. pote. trunk of wood covered with leather. bod. call. soft. bod. The entire train of thought is bucket. a boss. boach. bunch . Fr. Du. agreeing with Gael. bocla. to boss or swell out G.) .. botzen. bukke-blad. stir. butzen (Du. buachazlle. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. weich. bucherare. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. boucle. Bret. a budget. Buckler. words is converted into b. bucherame. and weichen. It termination is lost. male or botzen. It. The knob or projection formN. and the reference to It. The word is a ddyn. explaining Fr. Fr. bouton. . material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. potz. with which it was ornamented. of bouge. built. Dan. bdden. bolgia. above mentioned. bul. whom it is still much in use. See Bulk. — . boulj. with let. NE. macero. K. to move. Fr. Hardly identical with Fr. . a ring. Pol. To thrusting part of a long body. w. a boy. the root of the Slavonic words gran. mani. * Bud. a bud. The Fr. to butt. bulla. * Buckle. noise . rump of fowls . bedde. boccula. bulga. bulb. So on.stumpy man. thrust. scion. It. a leathern sack. bouger. to poke. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. clump. bog and G. to un bout d'homme. . Bret. convexity. to graft or bud trees. bub. a stump buckle up. a shoot. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram.stuff. butzen K. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. ' . boglyn. water message. were To Budge. to word. a little coffer or turgidus. pwtio. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. Sw. Prov.' Boccaccio. W. boaLat. bode.— . Gael. turgere buczendig. don't stir from hence. bollire. of a surface. to boil.n. probably from the notion of bubbling. Lat. boucle.r//'. . like a bean.). to swell. bloquier. Behoves./a. bolgetta. bud butzen. goat's hoof. Dan. bouprobably identical with inok. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. boss. is to shrivel up. bo. Fr. a dumpy gin. OHG. case of leather . botzen. fur. Wtb.. dim. pulga.pastoral nations of Slavonic race.

Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Swiss baui. Fr. of colours. The cry made to excite terror is then used. Hence the E. buivol. bufogni. to puff. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. and in Fr. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. air. a skin. duff^ dull. site The two — — iii. Sc. a buffle or a bugle. Bufetarium. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. A puff with — Fl. to signify an indefinite object of terror. dausa. — Bogle. often blown upon.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. bauwi. to a representation of his voice. boman.D. leathern bucket. &c. From buff! of terror. 265. thus be translated to tap. bouffer. soufflet. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. botffon. buffle.D. Lith. Fr. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. bolgia. to jest or sport. buff leather. Mid. E. bubiti. him but Boyd iugges. caupo. bumann.— Buflae. a side-board. Cot. a cuff or buffet. cuff . mingled with water. as from Lith. bugle. Esthon. a block-headed noddy. breath. Buff. made by a person.' perfield. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. Cot. as Diez remarks. Buffalo. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. either alone or with various terminations. baubau. made to —Bugbear. to blow . rebuff. tastes. buffet. dial. A blow. the buffe. — thence it has been transferred in E. scarecrow . Pl. a hollow sound.—Buffet. buffet. Fr. buMagy. It. — La Crusca. to marre often tasting it . bufogni. a In . often covering his E. Pl. sounds. buffeteur. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. the place whence the wine was drawn. The children were playing in an oppocomer. wauwau. bubaRuss. — retailing buffeter buffetier. Romola. dull sound. also a G. to blow. senses. — — — Buffet. or hath been Cot.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. buffets. a clap. also the skin or heck of a buffe. w. buffetto. to blow souffleU. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. to give benti. buffalo. Limousin bobal. Lat. from souffler. while in Sp. a jester. yar^aa. as wine that hath taken wind. buffare. Magy. blurt or puff with one's mouth. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. a dull BUG From 109 — A . bouffer. G. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. Thus buffet would a tapster. to beat. Buff. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bugs. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. bobaow. God's boast seemed feare children. Fl. a bugbear. mumming. wine may The verb in taverns. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. een duffen toon. word other cases. Fr. to strike face to represent the unknown. Fr. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. bwg. to bellow . to give a as of a blow. pulse . a budget. le reste emplissant d'eau. buffa. to rePl. . W. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. The use of the exclamation children. a goblin). bubus. buffare. deadened. Teet-bo. It. From bulga. a hobgoblin. bw. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. bau ! children. —Boggart. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. for this purpose is very widely spread. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. bubach. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. bugbear. or wild ox. bo ! an interj. Lith. bukow Ikow. ' They rether puffed at him. by metaphor. It. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . constitutes the game of Bo-peep. human. Sc. — Z. Buffeter. confused. popo. Lat./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . buffer. bw! It. buffen. as emblematically making light of an object. Buffoon. tabernarius. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. buffet. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. colour. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. boo. to puff. smells . It. a puff. bolgetta.D. things in Jam. stupid. to frighten . dausinti. buffle-headed. from It. puff. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. A — Bug.' La Crusca. to excite terror in Macleod. bufHe. btifetarius. Gael.

bauginti. E. bugler. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. high-sounding words. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. Chaucer.— . used in the same sense. bwgar. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. paws the ground . insect. also a bug-bear. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. mask ' . bwgwl. a proud overbearing man pujat'. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. — — terror. dial. buculus. bold. Bug as a lord. and in child's Magy. (Spurrell). Russ. the buggaboo w. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. bugle. disgust. 3. W. tumble-bug. booggen. . pugalo. as Buffalo. language any kind of insect. swollen. The w. to roar Aasen. A similar applica. a boogg. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. with more or less modification represents bau. biignt. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. il brutto Demonio. Swiss booggen. bukashka.. and is Deutsch. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. The final guttural of W. buba. Grisons bau. bogle. protuberant. to creeping things. Illyr. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. the black a maggot. rose-bug. coco. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. tion of the beetle tribe. Swelling. of pipes sewn on. bukati. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. Lett. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. 2. bug-bear. to take fright. baco. bwg and E. a bug-bear. Serv. big. Bugle. Stalder bog. — — ' . Magy. Sw. blustering. : no BUG . great or bug words. bugbear. Lap. Lesachthal. Bug. bogk. quos what produces dread or disgust. the word is lin) bbgge. roarHal. 493. superbire. I. well as the terrific object. bug dung-beetle. buggabod). poggl. Mid. a bugbear for children. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — .' In my time at horse is one apt to start. * 2. a. to frighten scarecrow. bogil. high. Bdronie. The name of bug is — . boeuf sauvage. bogil bo (e. to origin in the expression bugs words. An ornament of female dress condread. xiv. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. bogk. bau (Pureiglia. an insect. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. 1551. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. pujalo. also a bug-bear. to take fright. Magy. especially to beetles or winged insects. bok. a misshapen person. See The name terror). as an object of dread. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. Mundart. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. ghost. shepe and gootes. . Sp. a bug-bear. long. Hal.Fr. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. Cheval de trombugti. Swiss ing. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. then a horn for drinking. Bogge. banian boube.3uhtii&:. BUGLE Tentennino. any disgusting animal. fear. a goblin. Hence bugle-horn. — . Same as buffle. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn.. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce.Lat. gad. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. terrifying ward. threatening. i. boo. bug-bear. Manx boa. provincially an insect. Parolone. bug-bear. thus connected with bug. a buffalo. vermin. larva (a bug-bear. and in Lat. boa-peep. Big. of bugabo was given. affright. a silk-worm. to bellow. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. an object of terror. a beetle. Lith. the Devil. threatening. given in Chaucer. to bellow. beugler. . according to Coles. fette. hert. Schmidt. fierce. Deut. and bugle. — boogg. saucy. scarecrow . iv. to take bug. and a boggarty ing. proud. troll.loud noise. insect. roo. worm. bbgni. also a baco-baco. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. a rabme. bugar. It. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. monster. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. bobal. Fl. Bible. is the dim. . Fl. Grose. bucula. oxen. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. — — . In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. is very common. forSc. b'dgni. w. bug. buffle. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. It. pugaf. earwig bau da grascha.

belgja. to bol. . bulgen.— . wallet. bulge or bilge. The Walach. Pr. a prominence. the contents of the hold. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bladder. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. . bolgetta. belly. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. bua. unevenness Sw. See Bulk. pouch builgeadh. pocket. Hence e. ' . to puff up bolginn. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. bouge. tumeo. boss. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. Kil. bunch or projection. bulne. — — . biilken. anything prominent. acervus. bubble. a bubble Gael. — — . — . body of an animal. Mister. Bulch. a straw corn-vessel. to swell. to undo the cargo. bulbe. ON. compare Da. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). OSw. a lump or mass. it again. bulbus.' Anat. bol. balg. bol. Melancholy. to build. a bulb Du. bulbe. Gr. Boss^. a bubble. husk. whence bylja. or of what is shaped like a bubble. bug. leather sack. It. sedes. a heap. hold or bilge of a ship. bulk or capacity of anything. I. to belly out. belly van de kerche. Sp. — . domicilium. the womb.pulks. bulk. body. Here stand behind this bulk. bed of a river. the belly. be protuberant. . byli. to throw out a convexity. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. bo. bubble. ON. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. bale. bulka. a tuberous or bulbous root .'— Cot. bouk. to bubble up Pol. bukr. the capacity or burden of a ship.' Festus. Pm. bolgia. to raise a habitation. bolgan. pulkas. From till. a leather sack or budget Fr. inhabit. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. trunk. or feminine termination gives Bav. bag. . In the representation of natural sounds. bolg. herd^ swarm pulkd. knot in thread. in Sc. the potato G. . bole. bolnyn. Bulge. boss of a buckler. the carcase. belly. globule bolg-lhuingey. — — . cumulus. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. or cargo of a ship.' Cot. pimple. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. belly. turgeo bolnyd. swell. bol. a round bulky body bwlgan. tumidus. — Bulb. G. bullka. boss of shield. on. ne. bulked or bumped out. balcone. habitaculum. Othello. See bollekeii next article. OSw. bilge. beuck.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. bulle. knob. mass. bulge or convex part of a cask. m um Placentiae. and put it home. a dint in a metal . bugue. skin flayed whole. a bunch. body of a ship . a globe. . the body Du. Muratori. . the position of liquids in the word In English. ' . Lat. Palco.d. as well as is very variable. Lett. bulcke. nave or body of the church van 't schip. pod ON. . ball. in vessel. Bolke or hepe. belly Sw. a. trunk. buhe. bolso. in bulk. bauen. gebolgen. bulkaf. skin of an animal. swell. boss. ^ — . cultivate. villa. . and bulbukd. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. boulge. G. skin bag. Dan. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. . belgr. a stage or scaffold. balg. 1388. Ptg. bulg. or.' Fl. to spring. . Lith. . bubble. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. crowd. blister. and N. PoXj3a. principal portion. swell. Mandeville. bulwis. jnake bulch. head . Pr. bellows builgean. a. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. Bav. The addition of a dim. buk. or bear out as a full purse. To Build. to blow. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. bauch. dial. . ' . . The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. . van loock. Jno. bubbling up. w. For the latter sense ' — My . bulk is a partition of boards. balgs. bwlg. puff. chest. bubble {palgan tiisge. knob. balco. bolle. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. to swell. belly. MHG. swollen OE. a protuberance. as water beginning to boil bolg. bolgna. belly Cat. Lat. belly. to break bulk. the head of an onion. stuffed bag. to gather. Bulk. at riufa bulkann. womb. (3oX|8oc. of E. blow. With these must probably be classed ON. bulgen. Pm. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. lump. Dan. a water-bubble). A — ' — Bulk. buc. a leathern sack or portmanteau. Gr. . formed a farm. lump. Lith. straight will he 2. were a habitation. mass. Bourser. projection. to bubble up. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins.' Palsgr. hull of a ship. blister. The radical sense is shown in Russ. snorting on a bulk. knobby.). hollow. has bulbuk. as it was merly written in English to bylle. G. blister Manx bolg. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. of an inflated skin. bolle. . He found a country fellow dead drunk. swollen. See how this tode bolneth. boa. Hal. vulva. trunk of the body. bulki. thorax buick.

Cot. a beam or rafter. Pl. and vellon in Sp. bwlas. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. a tadpole . bietebau. poltern. See Billet. — Fl. but is more probably iden- palchetto. stamp. bollon. it is boulet de canon. Gael. ON. a scare-bug. from the Lat. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket.D. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. embossed work. bulla. bolos Fr. beams or boards. w. a bull Swiss bullen. as a mill-dam or the like. Eullrusli. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. bulk of a thing. eth and frighteth. a bul-begger. bollar. as geting. a bowl. any great-headed or studded nail. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. any embossed work. See Bowl. also of the tadpole or young frog.D. a framework of balks. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. to bubble. bulderen. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. in the sense of base metal. from Fr. bullus. which may probably be the origin of the name. &c. of the ox kind. a noisy violent fellow. This word is used in several senses. bouillon. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. stud. is of a class with Pl. child by the represents the hobgoblin. bulk. The bullfrog. bouillon. scarecrow. tition of deals instead of a wall. to tical with Sw. a hornet. G. bugbear. whence bullire. bolla. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. boulct. 2. a wasp. — A tition in a ship. Sp. i. to emboss . 2. a bulox polos. a tadpole. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. Gold or silver uncoined. elves. many to protuberant objects. round glass phial. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. A lace tree. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. balgeting. from Lat. and thence terror. dim. signifying roaring. bal. poll-cheannach. bwla. baula. stupid . lumpheaded . Bullet. the seal affixed to the document.'— ' Palsgr. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. bolli. however.. is called a ball. /SouWivu. Dan. a seal. blunt. The wild plum. Scot's Deso. Pm. to seal. W. from the use of the equivalent terms. bullebak. bullocks. the matrix or die . is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. coarse. Lith. urchens. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. a stud. of Witchcr. . BulUiead. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre.lle de fusil. a hobgoblin. It. also a parFl. bole or trunk of a tree.Gr. bwbach. pollach. bauli. polten. large of its kind. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. bullos. biitzibau. billoti in Fr.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. as It. billon. brass-headed nail .Fris. w. BuUiou. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. blister. And The word bullerbak. G. from the noise. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. Bully. boss or stud. b2iggaboo. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. — — Bull. Bullfrog. to bellow. penbwl. a blockhead. N. assito. bellow. a cow. A papal rescript. it may be observed that a bullet in E. Bullace. Du. a bull. bolli. Fr.. leraures nocturni nigri. ba. spirits. dial. of boule. 3. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. Fr. I. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. a hobgoblin. Du. to boil. Terriculamentum. pwl. in N. a seal. Du. G. boss. as the ornanails. pimple. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers.. Du. from baula. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble.' do not go by the dangerous water. It. bubble. Bret. boillon. bulke. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. bulla. bulle. hhint.D. G. a little fish nearly all head. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. stamped money. bulloi. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. poli-cheannan. bollos de relieve. bellocier. witches. as in E. lumpish. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. large. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. Bullbeggar. The male W. on the contrary. stud. sloes.. bullern. The final element tergeist. whence Mod. thick.' Baret's Alveary in Hal.

bastion. c. 1305. or work of defence. bommele. a noisy blustering fellow. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. polterer. 14. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. Kil. un faux brave. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . BULLY with which coins were stamped. Bailey. Philip le Bel in Due.' agger. ground.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. agrees with e.D. a floor. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. buller-bas. blunder-buss. argentum and silver. St. bomtnen. Thus ' ble. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. bottn. propugnaculum. ^Bully-rook. G. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. beat a — Hal. Kiittner.D. bustle. The 27 Ed. A. III.. Bum.' reals of standard currency. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. honunele. Bully. IV. G. legaggio di metallo. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. To Bum. Miege in Hal. furious man. boulevard. is called bumping or bells. buller-bas. noise. vallum. 9 E. The Sw. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. G. buller-brook. Hence bom and ban.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. hum. — — plate d'argent. to make a noise . In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. D. 10. Bully-rock. c. a boisterous. botm. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of .' Again. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. bodem. block-werck. to . Fr. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. buller-jaan (bully. IIL st. Hence — . perturbare saevis dictis. — Bumto . bol-werck. To bum. and porter au billon. To bum. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. bottom. 'lega. on the other hand. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. 4 Hen. boisterous fellow. — Boom. ierd-boeyme. 1687). biihne. AS. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. 2. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. poltem. debacchari.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Du. ON.. from boden. Du. clamour. blunder-buss. violent. c. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. ierd-beame. resonare. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. Sw. buller-bak. 2.' for the purpose of exchange. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. then in general a rampart. to terrify by noise and clamour. intonare. provides. a blunderhead. It. Bum-bailiff. a bumble-.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. Fris. boene.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. to dun. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. buene. &c. Hal. to drum Lat. is bullion — A — buller. bolderen. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. droning. a hectoring. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. violent overbearing person. John). Kil. up was termed monnaie de billon. by corruption boulevart. scaffold. bombilare.d. but now is the central part of the town. to make a droning Du. Du. The cry of the bittern.' Stat. ^i^/«. blaterare. baluarte. The decried coin. a stage. primarily the ramparts of a town. bulderen. a.the ramparts. — Bump. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. minari verbulderen. Etym. To bully is to bluster. sound. or a humblebee. — bombam?nen. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. 2. provides. Fris. the soil.' ' mettre au billon. The Stat. For bottom. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. From the notion of a humming.

. cluster. a. lenten loaves. H.S. bune or boon. to bang. ! — knocking. stock. Hal. a bunch. binge. —Bunny. . a bowl P1. the tail of a hare. bunke. a bunch Magy. to swell out E. bunka. a pumpion or gourd. gibbus.' he fell with a bang. a heap or cluster. pompette. a knotty stick) Sw. Bony. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. should probably be a short tail. a knob . blain. . whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. botn. A clumsy.pummel. See Bounce. a bump. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. Dan. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. pwmp. Dunchyn or bunchyn. bignet. a swelling. bun. a into Dan. especially girls. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. . a round mass . clown. and related with ON. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . any round knob or bunch. — — Bun. banga. a knob. bun eich. . bun with ON. Manx bonkan. Hal. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. E. Bunch. . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Bumpkin. bonge. pumpa. — — Bun. a boil (punkos bot. to thump. a lump on the foot bunny. a Sp. E. lump. awkward clown. bunkc. bulse.. protuberance. to strike so as to give a dull sound. bonuach. boi7ieog. pumpurras. root. bonnock. dial. bunt. a rabbit. a hemp-stalk. to ' . Radically identical with Dan. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. while bulch was traced through Gris. Bums it's hit. Bunk. to bang down. bum-boot. Ir. throw down with a bang. . w. bumtel. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. Fl. a boss Lith. a bag or sack. lungeous. to . poumpi. as we have seen E. Sc. Bumsen. a heap.— Bunnion. il me pousse. nor would it concern the public if he did. noise. It. signifying one who does things in a thumping. Thus e. a dry No . a hump. . abrupt manbuns-wise. from knock) It. — Marine Diet. . also for taking a pilot to a ship. stubble of beans. A Du. bon. passes Sw. bund. a. bamgetroffen. bunch— Hal. bannock. Sc. bung. Holland and Flanders. Mrs Baker. Bung^.! . bottom. bump. bunny. a heap.. Pm. Bump. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). Bunewand. a purse . bunken. Gael. and signifies consequently a mass.' Palsgr. strapping. BUNCH bum-bailiff. To bam. callus. tundo. butt end. bmidt. a bud. forms. 1. round mass of anything. bugnet. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. large. bunan.— Pr. hay stubble . a swelling from a blow. knochen. bunki. — — — — ' — knock. to .D.^Cot. pwmpio. bunga.P. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. Kyx or bunne. bulscha. Daal bu7iseti. Hal. the Pr. Bun. bottom bun feoir. truss E. stump. Bumboat. Pl. stock. poumpido. bu<rnone. or grete knobbe. Fr. w. dial. foundation w. to knock . a heap Wall. Moor. a dried hemp-stalk. one ever saw the word in that shape. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. hdk passing and E. Then. a large . a knob. Pl.' Bun. gibber. Hence E. stem or base. to beat. as in other cases. bungersome. a pocket Sw. See Boss. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. are dim. Pr. . Dan. bugno. to bang ON. Forby. awkward. He buncheth me and beateth me. to beat. — stalk . a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. Bunch. root. so the form btmk. See Bunch. a person employed to dun one for a debt. Fr. a heap OSw. bull. — — de dor bunsen. stubble Manx bun. Lang. a boil or blain. S. E. trunk. He fult dat et bunsede.D. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. . &c. knob or heap. seems to unite Gael. — round fruit. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Pm. Again. banke. OSw. or to the mass by which it is given. stump. Li cake. Probably for bun-boot. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. bugno.-^Fl. Roding. bunnion. bumsen. inconsiderately.D. bunga. mto Sp. bundle. strike E. Suffolk bonnka. . Du. bolsa. a rabbit. Related on the one side to Pl. explaining E. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. an old stump of a horse. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. Probably from bump. Pm. ner. bottom. a wallet. . stalk. bugnone. clumsy. Bang sen. . buns. pompon.). tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess.D. Gael. bans. bongie. calamus. from bunsen. Hal. any round knob or bunch. pwmpl. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. a button. bunsen. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. bmike. bulto. knuckles. a knock. applied to young persons. a tail (Macleod).

transferred to the wooden log which bonir. Sw. Sp. halm-tapp. See Barbarous. So in Pol. Burble. bundle. bunta. a botch. OFr. tapp (whence tceppa. bummle. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. to bud forth. bote. AS. bunsen. to in to stop the hole. To do anything awk- wardly. 202. N. reddish brown. . bangla. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. Bunting. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. racket . shackles. and E. banghagr. A bubble. Russ. To burgeon. burboloti. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. See Borel. to cobble. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. G. tap. bongun. Cat. So Du. on. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. bag to catch the wind. to resound. B. Fr. Bung. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. The Fr. and Du. Sw. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. Burden. with the head. bonde. to bear. bou^e. Sp. Lat. racket. Bundle. and the Sw. a wisp of hay or straw. bondeau. are from bouscfie. bui. the float of an bundle. To Bunt. burion. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. bourjon. to bolt meal. knocking. E. especially in wood. Cot. Fr. Bunt. noise. to Somerset is to sift. A Dan. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. To bunt. a boye. whence bunting. klempern. — Bureau. to hum. Hal. bondelj bundell. or used as a receptacle for papers. modem bummle. or tuft. to gingle. properly a Burgundian helmet. Rietz. Palsgr. Du. to float. buie. The Magy. bang. borboUar. ho-tapp. ' — work . Biu'geon. OG. working in wood (especially with an axe). something bound together (Mrs Baker). shove . rumble as the bowels. Burden. Kil. * Buoy. Prov. a bunch Burbulas. bond. — btiruii. Sp. Fr. Fr. borgonota. from beran. stiimpeln. to work ineffectually. to stop. a bunch. a drum . to shove. klimpem. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. in is Fr.Fris. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. ghebundte. Johansen. to pype. Burly. Compare G. bourgeon. sprig. B. — — . bolting-cloth.— . unskilful working. contignatio. boya. to botch. loosed from bonds. to push with the head del. Sp. the young cloth used for sifting flour. to work at carpentry bangan. Sw. or putting forth of a vine. biirde. dicimus rufum. The word is flags are made. knock. a bungler. a bung. dark grey bura. to hum. Bunny. bundel. to stnmi on an instrument. the noise of drums. . most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. The Italian buio. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. generally known as the material of which bud. tinker . a sort of helmet. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. on. a cork. gyves. to gingle. however. OFr. the loose open grow big about or gross. The stopper for the hole in a boia. of a song. to push. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. bommen. .punt. boucher. Bret. fascis. to stop. buret. la Borgonota. do a thing bunglingly. and now more Bailey. Pl. It. boj. bongani. to hum. a water bubble made by rain. an anchor buoy. is originally a wisp or bunch . stocks or such OSw. byrthen. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. banga.' Festus in Diez. bouchon. p. bondel-loos. knocking. to push ghebondte. bungande. bounta. russet. dial. to knock. See Bourdon. punishments for prisoners. — — To Bungle. bon. AS. bundt. Fl. clogs. Banff. buret. The belly or hollow of a sail. Burganet. bouche. the middle part of it. to knock. and van t' vat. and bomme. clumsy performance. colligatio. dial.D. the stopper of a cask). bindini. boil or bubble up. to bungle. bangla. bondir. byndel. bove. G. Prov. fetters. to strum on an instrument. was formerly pronounced buro. buove. also a piinple in the face. tinkle. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bonde. would be the earliest float for an anchor. dark. See Bun. bourion. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . Muratori. bimge. guggle as water. . boei. whence in bure. driving in the bung. Bung of a tonne or Lith. A load. coassatio et Du. bang. — . bury. stilmpern. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. bourguignote. the bung of a barrel Lim. anchor or of a net boyar. that the primitive meaning of shackle . bondon. . to kick. court of audience was covered with such a cloth.

water. to burn. Burly. jest of. to polish helmets. a margin. Fr. brimmen. Swiss Rom. burly. borr. occupying much space. Bouffer. crackle wood in burning Hal. ON. Burglar. It. Bav. become big and proud. tumentum. OFr. . bourd. a jest. to have acquired the sense of polishing. a knob. brAler.j'own. In the same way ON. N. bud or sprout forth. with Dan. . to swell oneself out as birds borras. a wine skin. Pr. See Burr. In the manu. Sp. Compare also Piedm.— . So also Sw. From the same root E. burgen. to ridicule. imitation of the sound of bubbling water.). to sharpen on a whetstone. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. singe or scorch with fire. Fr. from Lat. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. to bouronna. watery. Probably. Swiss Rom. Cot. Sw. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. pressa puret. laer. borrelen. j. the er is a dresser of cloth. Antiq. an edge. the word seems Pm. and the Burnish. Castrais bourril.ireui£r:e. to puff. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. tahko. burn. G. to roar. It. brunna. to puff up borr^ . the flocks. brunnr. . roguing beggars. a spring a robber. bourglairs. Pren7ien. mockery. he rustle. to murmur. dial. burren. a prominent eye borracka. a bubble. burgensis. condemnentur morti. surge or dashing of the sea . like. buirleadh. knob. See under Bore. a bladder. brunir. purling. Probably a modifica. thence. Burgess. has also borr. Hence Bridel. protuberance.' a jibe. Burler. bourou. OE. Schm. flocks. The Gael. See Burgeon. to swell with pride. 122. — — . Burgher. — . Fl. sicut sound. leo Fin. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. to To Bum. like straw or small . to bud . bruse. borni. bururus. to give an edge to. Sw. ridicule. to roar (as lions. tahkoa. to polish. it of the knots. — — . a bud. must be explained on the same principle from G. explaining the E. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to sharpen. purrata. BURNISH i5«r/. to bourda. to polish. the roaring surge of the — — — . swelling borr-shuil. a jest.. purra. Burlesque. a blaze. to swell. It. broil. Burn. to effervesce. ^ttsa. and OG. brim or edge of anything. which has given much trouble to etymologists. burgi latro. to make a So from Fin. ^Notk. swell up or strout out. sea. brinna. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. born. to roar 5. OE. big. bunch.bryna. Fr. The primary origin of the word. ends of thread. ends of thread. Todd. Dief. From Fr. Fl. compared with G. to surge. to Gael. abourioner. ample of polishing metal.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. to set on fire. A legal term from the Lat.). robber. i5«r4 biiirte. a well. explaining Sp. to hum. borujon. as the / in purl. Prov. Supp. taunt. lorra. embraser. as Diefenbach bud. to rub. Limousin bourdo. is termed burling. a gurgling ^.' Cot. Gael. pur (see Burgeon). strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. repartee . sidiary element. de Vaud. 56. joking. fire. in Schm. brandung. to roar. warbling. and the Burin. a whetstone. a bubble to spring as water. an &c. grancelli. brustolare. boiirre.). Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. brasa. angular . Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. Nat. See Berough. as of suggests. . briis^. OFr. to roar. boure. to fiy. lerre. brook. ii6 BURGESS Gael. bouril. schleiffen. bruzir. toast. brima. — Han to bruser op. like the wind in trees. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. a fountain. the J in OFr. A burl. bururus. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen.sharpen. with little iron nippers called burling irons. bremmen. — . language of folly or ridicule. is an Thus G. Bav. and Dan. Bret. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. bears. barrel. to ridicule. borracka. de Vaud. Burgh.. is connected with brim. to grind on a whetstone. Lang. brinnen or Also ein roar. burgeois. &c. The in. as in cousteau. from the roaring sound of flame. to tell lies. to burn. from bryii.— Pr. Pm. brynsten. G. Burryn. a lie.Ps. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. Goth.. burle of cloth. brinii. Lang. ' rugiens.. tion of the root which gave the OE. E. brun. spring-water bumach. blow. a purling hiwe brennen. brase. It is probable indeed that Fr.. to roar. brunnen. fires up. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. brausen. boura. Bestiary.or bubbling up. sbornoi. — — . burlare. to burgen or wax big. brustle. brusler being a faulty spelling. Walach. A — — .

shelter. as for the protection of a child's head. The root forms brik. a rabbit burrow. perruque. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. talk fast and indistinctly. brist. root borr. appears under the Lang. . E. byrgels. To Bury. bergen. to break. Beowulf. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. borrow. borsia. Hence Fr. shearing of cloth.' The same word with burgh. bristen. To Burst. bourse. briser. brjota. buscha. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. — Clare. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. Fris. OHG. brico. See Bulge. to save. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. brizeto. This word seems safety. casting bullets. Burse. 225. dial. Burr.. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . brisd. Sw. Fr. bris. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. and spelling. a place of defence. swell. . mentioned under Burgeon. also all such stuff as hay. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . byrigels. bres- — tan. fortify. preserve. to mutter Sw. peluca to Fr. -Grisons bulscha. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. brisdeach. whirr and burr. ber•whirr to whizz. Port. beurs. force. byrgan. bourrer. Bursar. but it is more probably a development of It. a barn or cupboard. -burse. Hal. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. foretell great storms at 3. bourlet. a purse. birgan. bersten. I.Lat. skin. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. Burser. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. i5(7&a. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. makes the disbursements of the college. any kind of quilting or stuffing. burra.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. coo. — Translated by Kemble. the — — castle or fortress. straw. Burial. beorgan. burial place. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. . &c. Gael. ON. a purse. pipaa. as it is still pronounced in N. Burrow. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. &c. ptcrren. It. brickie. It. when they spring So in W. any rapid whirling biarga. cwning-gaer. and met. hair. brokil and brotil. its own protection. to stuff. Compare also OE. bris. preserve. bourrelet. brown. leather. Sexy. briso. bolsa to It. that birds make their nests with. brittle. S w. bourre. a. a sepulchre. bourse. Burse. borre. impetus. 5150. ON. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. berstan. Du. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. stuffing. G. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. bur. brest. iii. brittle. cover. a morsel. 2. borra. Sw. from AS. whence Kil. Fr. bur. Mid. A rabbit burmotion. and. borsa. shuffling. from Fr. birigean.— . Fr. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. Brun on bane. borra. g. from whence we pass through Sp. husks. a harness or collar maker) . byrgen. byrstan. break . With a slightly different ghen. some people in pronouncing the letter r. keep. a wallet or scrip. ' BURR AS. whirr. bolgia. briketo. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. also ' any such trash as chaff. tomb. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. brit. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. caer is a — — — ' ' : . prsnuti. purr. Cot. as from Sp. borsa. Jam. Dan. In a met. birr. moss.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. ultimately resting on the Gael. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. Swiss burren. to buzz. Burr is related to buzz as protect. G. borre. chips or anything else Fl. to hide. AS. to burst. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. brista. an annular swelling.' Harris in Todd. karborre. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. and thence flocks 'of wool. a pad. verbergen. to hide . See Burgeon. to bury . barza. In OE. brast. brist. Du. OHG. ' ' — — burren. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. AS. an exchange. to P'air. dial.' edge grew weak. Shelter. britar. burre. explained E. bristeach. blurra. as in Northumberland. the officer who bears the purse. of a body hurled through the air. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. signifying protrude. of England. shales. save. a port. byrsa. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. be more in accordance with AS. idiom if 4. burgisli.

P. occultare K. to keep. Ptg.' The word is explained by — — . a box for measuring corn. whence at bua sik. fiast. barst. the Moors and of Morocco. then a tuft Sp. at bua sig. the past participle of the same verb bua. thicket {buski. or the like. bousche. Sc. box wood to bush. cluster. —Busk.-^Bushel. .fiasc. AS.Lat. and not directly (as Du. bairgan. which would later have truast.gur bidst austur um EySascog. bustula. borghen. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. ' —P. whente beorg. Sw. sur une litifere. bundle. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bussellus. make ready. to enclose in a case or box. basse. buysschen. See Box. to turn. berghen. brake.boisteau. buxta. boucher. buxida. the land. buskr. to sepulchre. The bone in a woman's stays. Sibriht that I of told. to stop. tuft. AS. thicket of thorns . in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. bua. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. Malberg. Bouchet. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. truasc. . for at buasc. is thus accounted for. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. verb. bussare. To prepare. besom). To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. hjul-bosse. They busked and malced them boun.' The buskin is said Bret. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. The word frequency with which to busk is used. bouche. a little box Dan.) to hide in the ground. -idis. : — . hunch Du. as synonymous with to inake one boun. qualster-boscken. The primary sense of hair . boistel. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. In to Brutaine. busk. knot. Mid. Thus Froister . Bush. bush. a rampart. iriCtf -ifoe. buxula. a bundle. from the ON. ' . as boun is simply buinn.— ' ii8 {chreo. bausen. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. Fr. 410. Du. bos. a bunch. and we actually find bushel. van wijnbesien. bousse. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. . boiste. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. Prov. clusprobably Morocco leather. in the For Skirnis . apparently a secondary verb. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. a bush. So from Fr. wisp. a been written buasc. Brunne. and from the Fr. signifying to entomb. . See Bust. condere.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. brodiquin. bustellus. aheap of stones. G. abdere. to direct one's course towards. borcegui. a hump. grapes. Thence byrigean. a wisp. Du. to prepare. bundle * Buskin. bunch. rad. 2. bulge. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. And her ful sone tuft. we have Fr. beorgan. Brunne. a tuft.' sheath. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. BUSH hreaw. busse. a clot of phlegm sart. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. a tuft of hair. a tuft guini. ' . It is certain that buast must once have Fr. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bussel. roquies. brodequin tout noir. a bush. bossen. a -tavern bush. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. diminutives. bossida. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. mount. to bend one's steps. bosta. preserve. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . boxta. dead. To Busk. It. Bush. Layamon. 'at bua sik. whence bouchon.Lat. bo7ich (Fr. a gun biichse. oneself. in OE. The radical idea is seen in Goth. to bow. a box. and thence Mid. Le roy Richard mort. projection. gave Lat. bush. a grove bosch van haer. ch). or — Busk. bulk. ieorh. to swell. R. Sir Tristram. a corpse). lump. burial mound. to dress. Gr. a box. busken. biichse. to bury. a tuft. that the lend had lorn thorn. boissa. a bunch of twigs. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. tow. bosc. il fut couch6 l^jkema). boisseau. protect . bramble. Fris. defence. borseof trees. the idea of knocking. Du. Harold G. to dress. . basse. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. at buast. OFr. bousIn the other copy ser. ' . OFr. induere vestes .' a box. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. and he cites wisp bauschen. bosch (a diminutive ?). It. . to forest of Eyda. a troop. ' . barsc in Heimskringla.

I bustle. the trunk. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . a kiss. Bust. worn to make the body straight . lump. buc. and by transposition morchequi. Fr. Pol. Nained from Proximse iis zia. 2. I. otarda. plated body or other quilted thing. BUSS Dozy from Arab. Box. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. Bustard. to knock . abotarda. The proceedings of Parliament. body. btcc.D. the body without arms busque. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. stem.' ON. body. Prov. ship Sp. or chest in which the vitals are contained. a fishing vessel. 1372. mohedairova. in Diaz Gris. business. mouth. lip. also a It. lips. representing a blow. from jnund. a blow. Namur — Champagne Fr. body of garment. a blow. Bulch. I go strepo) . or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall.Lat. busch. ' BUSY 2. avuDiez. mosequin. mogangas from gonj. bnist. Fl. occupied bezigen. abutarda. — — difications of the same word. snout. bus. to make use of. employment bisgan. buyse. So in Fin. See Boss. ON. and also a sounding blow. bus and Pol. Sp. log . and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. kiss. Sw. outarde. tarda. ottarda. love gestures. So Wes- terwald munds. forms morseqiiill. buquer. putta. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. trunk. or avutarda. a great billet Cot. to occupy. sunt quas Hispania aves . buc. body of a woman's dress It. Swiss butschen. Gael. B. box. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. or Cherqui. 119 bi{tr. mouth. an affair.> Also written buskle. body without arms and legs. bisgung. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). fe^a. to Swab. basiuin. its slowness of flight. Sp. a backstock. Busk. crack . . small. mons. the point of a lance. thick end. To hurry or make a great B. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. Fris. AS. an ostrich. kupata. as in moharra from harbe. Business. body of a man. The form brust. bysgian. a bush. Comp. Cat. Walach. Edrtst. putschen. utarda. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. a bulk or trunk without a head. baiser. ViM. biist. Du.d. bustla. sera. bulk. bist. ON. — — — — It is like the smouldering. a kiss of reverence. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. the long. occupation. vessel employed in the herring fishery. but. outard. A great sluggish fowl. chest. busch. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. beso. ' bistardej It. would explain the G. bisegung. A A busquer (Sigart). a log. — Thus we should have mocherqui. Rouchi. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. Lindenbr. busta. a Mid. Busy. trunk. a kiss. statue of the upper part of Fr. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. a busk. the breast. tuft. Lang. a tree. forest. bussen. buta. a bust. body . 2l box. smack. a stroke of wind. Buss. Hal. Lat. bisg. 7o\. arbor ramis trunGloss. to bustle. — clattering about. lip. work. On the other hand. of a doublet. a large cljest or particular applibox. Prov. also a busk. Xerqui. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. cata — . trunk of Cot. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. Prov. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. trunk of a tree. stump. bysgje. brusc. austarda. — . stir. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito.pjik. buz. 10. besoigAe. busc. borcegui. geidha. also a flagon. bucha. A wisp. bacio. a kiss.— . brut. bu. kiss. I. knock. a projection. says. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. busche. stump. to make a splash in the water. windbutsch.). 22. bussa. betarda. and supposes that the common Arab. of the human body (Grandg. besongne. Port. a sleeveless truss or doublet. a. bruskras well as buskr. busy. ^A. a boat or small vessel . beezig. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. — hardly be distinct from Fr. a bunch of flowers . a ship of some size. biseg.bezig. bukr. bust. busq.' Plin. Hence probably au-tarda. Bav. pussa. signifying trunk of a the body. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. butz. hipista. Fr. Bust. and then with avis again prefixed. 1555. as in ON. knock. especially of a woman's dress. Fr. The Prov. inde discurro et operosus sum. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. With respect to bust. Busitiess :c3iVi . bust. morsequi. bus. Cot. To Bustle. a mouth. Fr. Sp. buc. busto. made stiff. . brostia as well as bostia.

boteria. from as. young mais. is put in a class by himself. and bot. rotundity of the body. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. is well explained by Tooke. moreover. or what in in charge of the pantry. sup- meat and drink. the bottles. the Perhaps besogne — . bodifie. the present day we should say. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. Du. the servant in charge of the original object. we find ben. But In Sc.in which his brethren are included. beyond the Piedm. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. bol. Fr. Tooke's dis. As a conjunction but is in every portion. the principal apartment. without punishment . binnan. those in beccaio. Sp. Here the but implies the existence of an. calf. Ben-house. and the real origin of the and within . but one thing. Where at an earthen jar . and with It. botte. bole of a tree. bhcciero. the full expres. hollow case. a bottle. which the word corresponds to the Fr. bous. a cask. an outlaw from bouche. bout. a goat. Fr. bitten dai. tinction between but. the body of an animal. equivalent of AS.streets. . bisgung. — we acle for liquors. a butcher.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. ' There is leathern bottle. bute. outside that moreover. viz. But It. from boc. the mouth). If that where now we should compiler. a goat (and not besides . The E. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. Whatever is in addition to Butler. So in Italian from becco. bounds of. "PLT) . ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. ont jhi^ton. a budget. G. a butcher .' ' write. barriga. the body of a tree or of a man. wooden receptthing to be done. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. beccaria. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . by the mode in which he is treated. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. botija.jamin. (children) boc. boccino. body of a shirt w. ox. a barrel.' Thus Chaucer says. original sense of without. skin-bag. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. slaughter-house. Wall. then hoUow trunk. OFr. of the wine and drink. Fr. as Pantler.' — — ' . Butt. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. bolr. without buiten-man. AS. Prov. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. bountifully. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. except. bocin. viz. botilla. that which would be translated by Fr. belly. bag. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . buta. butan ce. biitait slaughterer of goats .' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. bitlga. my is called the adversative use of but. ' Besides all that. earthen which the debtor has adverted. large barrel. mais. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. also a hollow vessel . the store of ten. bolgia. without care. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. Sp. a leathern bag. beccaro. able. besides that . the trunk or body of an animal. a baiTel . Lang. boucher. belly. being wholly unten. without law. Butler. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. the belly. Butcher. calf of the ' say.' there is really a negation to be supplied. beta. . trunk. belly. Lang. But when will you pay it ? the belly._ bitten j biiten door. Buttery. a small winebag. ways. the name must have arisen before the within. a wooden cask.The Sp. without the house kept in bottles. are. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. bouteillier.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. a butchery. bochier. without. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. in addition. properly a butan wite. It. gives at least two pounds sterling. add. rumpf. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. bouz.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. the jug and in E. the precise correlative of but. similar train of thought is seen in ON. collection of casks. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. hull of a ship. — . to-boot. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. boquier. bola. butan. Sp.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. be out. A A . as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body.

to be con. butteln. To strike with the head bags. Btetter-schmalz. botta. from rejeter. a buttress Cot. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. poke. e. G. Lang. It. the trunk. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. grease that sets by merely standing. ment being supposed to resemble butter. From Du. boutoir. to thrust Fr. pwt. a heap of merly called pushes. end . a blow. as in G. suddenly . coxa.— BUTT leg . as if from Povg. i. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. bocsam. what is kept in a blow. both. obedient. trapu. bottich. Du. stump of a tree Fr. a little push . short thick thing pimple. botten. bot. So in English pimples were fora clod. Schmell. bot. Bav. Boutant. Kil. From Grisons biitt. a tub. butter. fowl. Kil. Halma. to touch at the end. so as to make a sounding blow. to thrust. the prick in the middle of a target. clunis.thum and not button. from stossen. an etwas anstossen. boiUer. a. nursling. pied. to cast. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. to heap up earth or ihrust. are the strips at the edges of the field. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. butyrum. from notirrir. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. an ox. thrust forwards. a mound. — — — — . to blad. The word body itself seems identical with G. as rejeton. give way. . clumsy .putan. leg of lamb. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Buttery. boding. dripping.against another which needs support . a but in the W. large head. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. a.' thick from shaking. . rabodd. is formed the augmentative buttatich. to bow. Perhaps corrupted Lat. -ez. botte. Button. Butter-glass. bodi'.rejected thing. and the true derivation boar. from bouter. to thrust. Fr. buttock of beef is called butr. the store of while bottich. a bot. . a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . to butt. Hal. bot blijven staan. thick. a blow. a wall butor butt on. W. a mound of turf in a field to sup. buttare. boteria. thrust. butte. W. butt. to abut a stone roof. butt. bouton. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. lams-bout. Du. povrvpov. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. tress. Butter. boter-vogel. to so close to the Fr. buttern. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. Schmell. Bav. butt. — A . buhsom. stump. a stroke di animal. botta. Hal. Fr. Gael. waste ground. or person Schmeller . caput scapula bout van f been. in the R. to femur. Kil. any small projection. butter un. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. bout. boil. to boult flour.to push. the rosebud. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. by boE. geboogsaem. Du. Boutje. any short thick thing. a large belly. but this is probably from Fr. Sp. &c. bocgsuin. hillock . able that Chaucer. a bolt. the thick end. a boss. Fr. tout seat or breech. boutis. a flying buttress. botto. bout. Grandg. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. from bugan. to thrust . on. Buttock. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. butz. To Butt. Fr. then the thigh or leg of an to push . — A .. nourrissons. striking end. bata. Gr. obeto shake backwards and forwards. A — — — . Bout van het schouderIt. put. fle>(ible. bodi. Buttrice. bouter. Mur-buttant. to abut on. at. a buttrice. Du.arbre. or or shore post. a button. AS. — . a ribbed glass for dient. a dle . but. a thrust the thigh-bone. a corner horses' hoofs. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . submit shaking up salad sauce. butte. butter. pwtiaw. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. oir spike with a k coup . a button. Fr. bottig. gigot.. boter-schijte. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. From the noise of drinkables in a house. R. boter-vliege. to thrust. a leg of mutton. to push earth . the Butter-fly. a stump or club foot. butt of a person. a barrel. The Bavarian potig. buttals. of E. to throw . potacha. bud. from the large knobbed head of botto. w. strike. Buttel-triib. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. nourrisson. signify a cask or tub. buter. Fr. To come full butt against a butts. Du. a boss. Buttress. a hill. humble. &c. An erection built up as a Fr. aim whence to make a support to a wall. Fris. bothog. of the present day. a bun. a button. — . Cot. : . a cask. bouton. a scope. * Buxom. the edge forwards. to strike. Fr. Gris. botwm. See Butler. the thigh of a goose. courtaud. bott. bouter. having a rotundity .

in N. 21. a buzzard or puttock.. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. to stand at his side .— P. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. tions by one. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. . Sw. abozzago. Lat. byar-log. ii.— Diet. Mercy hight that mayde. lb. A A We — — — days' wonder. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. cow-house. indistinctly. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bi. Originally the law of a particular town. It. good-humoured one. p. to pass by. to jan. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. son. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. A ful benygne buirde. buzarg. and boxome of speche xviii. bohte. train of thought which has become obso. See Abie. bylag. byar-rettr.P. frabttg- To Buzz. — 122 BUY P. as Fr. a by-path is a side path . iii. 519.. bar. The ON. Buzzard. depends upon a esteem in falconry. bugjan. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. AS. a borough. buso. . For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. called Cabala or Tradition. Goth. buzzicare. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. and it is of good will. leges urbanse ON. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. favourable. from by. bylove.busardj Prov. The sense of buxom. AS. lete. \s\xy. village. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. By-law. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. from whom it was addressed. jus municipii. To Buy. to purchase for money. buteoj Fr. Verstegan in R. bozzago. buzac. farm. and would have been lost in E. big. Du. 3. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. ON. 200. Sw. town having separate jurisdiction. —gracious of speech. to whisper. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. Dan. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. who makes abigg. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . It. as heedless as a cock-chafer. to swear with him by . groat in token of his good heart towards him. bi. Etynj. G. byr. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. Then applied to speaking low. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. a beetle. stall. OE. a meke thynge with — alle. Byre. bycgan. & Q. Cabal. confusedly. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. to sell. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. harty prayers and God speedes. CABAL Goth. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. bees. P. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. . does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. Pecock Repressor. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. a town. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. bygge. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. also say. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. as in Da. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. gracious. bei. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. bij. A by. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. to buzz. 116. to wit. bauhta. Many good mological explanation. favourably to a petition. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. blessing me with their of side.

forms indi. ! — . caboche. Tugurium. from trabocco. — the ON. chabla. cabre. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. as an expression of Gr. — Kil. surripere. Neckam — by the wind. vile. stercus. Cabinet. or rush basket. filth. Mid. Cabin. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft.. Lith. Brushwood — — B. a covering. . caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. form kactal. would correspond to cable. has kabbel. Fr. signifying properly a rope's end. Antiq. . and Or. kabat. It. chaable. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . Fr. disgusting such an engine was exerted. deponat a store closet. OFr. covering. dirty. headed or cabbage lettuce. to chatter. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. an engine for casting stones. Fr. overwhelm.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. to strain in such a manner . a rope. as Turk. originally an Gael. Castr. and Ptg. &c. Fr. Due. Mid. Sp.. E. havyar to caviare. head. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. . scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. to crush. chadabula. in which sense are explained The the OFr. cabuyskoole. gaggele. It is remarkable that the Esthon. Didot. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. kabas. nasty. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. capanna. cacare . cabo. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. to put or pack up in a frail. kakla. agge. a rope or cable. a frail. Kil. from manganum. The Sp. calabre. . cabre. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. . the Prov. cab. is probably unconnected. manticuKil.. Du. disgust. OSp. cabarino. Coticesserint Swiss aa. case. a booth or hut. string. band. (ca/coe. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. akista. cabo. to hurl down.ticula. agge machen (in nurses' language). ckaable. a cloak of felt or Cack. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. Lat. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. Due. Cabbage. or cadable. serious injury — In like manner It. main. gaggi. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . maim. cab lis. — . rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. chaable. kabane. aakkat'a.Lat. giiare. overwhelm (Diet. Fr. The double a in the OFr. properly windfalls. mdhaigner. capo. dung. dirty. cadabulum. cabas. It. Capstan. agga. Cot.Gr. cabasser. round or great headed. cdble. aak! tandi like Fr. or as an interjection of disMod. Du. hoard together. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. cables. To steal or pocket. OFr. Finn. Cot. cabulus. cadabola. E. cabane. cadabula. The name of the engine. hut. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . wilful). Cappa in OSp. Choux cabus. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. hovel. caqueter. a headed cole or cabbage . gabardme. cabbage. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. w.). magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. Katr-iT-aKt. cabuccio. origin is the OFr. come the Fr. cable . precisely in the sense of the lari E. Gaggle. caable (in legal language). gatsch. headed. gaban. and as we find stones Mid. heady. : — from violence without blood. OFr. Item habeat vocant. caable. as it must have stood in French. it would seem fundain children's language. Imitative of the cry of hens. for the origin of which see Carabine. su/Furari. cacare. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. — Tarbe. Ptg. — Ibid. cadabalum. prostratio ad terram. caables. It. a rope. From It.. geese. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. bad. Lang. a car- We convasare. a jacket Fr. —Diet. as Diez supposes). Common to Lat. Du. dirt and the Fr. aeggi.' Due. to hurl in Nat.Lat. vincially used in E. It. 'habl. and the Arab. the Slavonian. Cablisb. To Cabbage. lactuca capitata. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. . kakaloH. capuccio. cadabulum. a tunic. signifies down. brassica — capitata.Lat. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. laitue cabusse. accablcr. ceach / exclamation of guages. a rope. Mid. traboccare. cabacho. Celtic. — . whence Fr. to keep or Du. a cabbage . whence Lang. a head (whence cabochard. kabaSsen. the bowels. Sp. and Finnish lanLat. Sw. name of the projectile engine. disgust cac. Very generally used. cabaii. &c. cabus. a shed. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. caable. Etym. manganare. especially shepherd's frock.

a circle. coll. a tea-chest. Due. Calandre. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. It. dead body.— Cot. kaad. a fever. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. a cake or loaf. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. javioler. kail. gabbia. to . calpa. a car. kolasa. Cadence. kukje. Cadet. principal and interest. a corpse. of which. gavia. kalem. Sp. gaggle. a counter used in casting accounts. calessa. Perhaps from w. It. An open travelling chariot. chetif. one unduly indulged by. Turk. to prate much to little purpose. of the nature of lime to calcine. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). . kage. to cackle . Tea-caddy. calendrer. kaka. to — Fr. capCalenture. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal.uv. See Kiddier. kalb. an inkstand . eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Calamary. wanton. Lat. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. &c. ON. Mrs B. The Lat. from the Chinese catty. KxiKivh^o^. loss. Calocli. lord. caldarius. Lat. little chief. pen Mod. Cage. a calash . 124 prattle . a cylinder. to sleek hence a den. cake. cadenza. A hooded carriage. cadaver. calf of leg. a wretch. incolumis. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. just falling. its mother. It is another form of the E. calentura. Sw. Lat. Cadge*. to cage. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. cuttle-fish. a wheel . Caitiff. a roller. Cot. Dan. and troublesomely attached to. pet lamb. calidus. form) calderone. lime whence calcareous. taking it Sp. on. gabberen is identical with E. Sp. collop. naXaiidpi. N.warmth . cykevie. chaudron. cadere. kdfich. calamitas. Lat. Fr. kakulla. a wheel . G. prate. the bore of a cannon. Cake. CALIBRE a sea inkstand.— . Cadaverous. kolo. kolyasochka. Originally from a Slavonic source. kolesb. Fr. a hollow place. A cuttle-fish. kolyaska. ratas. Du. It. the calf of the leg. kat. chattering. a small stone. Pol. To Cajole. the lump and the increase. to gabble. Du. chaudiere. Du. when they are said to poor. cha'cmie cadence. coop. limestone. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. unruly . bad . ben- kalf. A . Lat. Cauldron. calentar. Caddy. The Calf. gabbia. From lerie. Calamity. —Atkinson. calidus.Gr. Cot. The young G. (in the augm. Sp. hot . En kaka br'od. frolicsome kaad mund. a mischievous dial. Fr. a reed. Lat. As Du. . Sw. calibre. Serv. safe. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Dan. wretched. Cajol. * Cade. a wheel . * Calibre. cavea. a common cart. ever and anon. Gael. disease of sailors from tivus). whence calash. a caFr. a lump or large piece. caliche. a falling. master. Calp is riadh. to treat like lime. cageoler. to throw themselves into the sea. cabdillo. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Lat. . Lat. Fr. dial. hot. of oxen and similar animals. caldaria. kola. Sw. It. Caldron. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. desire of land. without loss. joyous . . . an ugly waggon kolaska. Fr. Fr. — in a kiln. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. Turk. from calculus. kaeckelenj Gr. — — — Dan. captive. from the ink-bag which it contains. Arab. A — fall. from Gr. calcis.— Calliper. gabble. whence Lat. to heat. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. Flo. frisky. rattaat (wheels). calx. In the same way Fin. a low note. Gascon capdet. colibro. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. reed-pen. cage. G. gaggia. calculo. the pith or soft part of wood. lindrus. misfortune. calesa. kuchen. Roman reckoning. marrow. or prattle. Calendar. or colpa na coise. a waggon . Fr. loss. Calash. Lat. Cot. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. It. cattivo (from Lat. the younger son of a family said to be from . is probably delusive. signifies a waggon. kolesnitza. the pi. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. pi. caioler. To Calender. a dence. babbhng. kdtr. calibre. It. cauldron. Calc-. B. kalfi. KaKKat. or smooth Hnen cloth. Calf of the Leg. Lat. Russ. Lat. roller. ' . kalfvan hout. for green fields. cage. koeck. a loaf of bread. cadet. calendarium. jabber. Fr. Du. a calesh. cadence. from calendcE. calba. a wheel. a vessel for heating water. kauwe. hence musical rhythm. kolo. boy. kolo. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Calcialate. capitetum. pith. especially of something soft. to compute. calamus.

glotton. Fin. calo. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. hollaing. Kil. calat of leude demeaning. to call. a soldier who the It. whereas in troth it is not. tittle-tattle. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. tapulta. to calk.from Ka'tm. Heb. . ' rine. depreciatory term for a woman. the heat of Now these Du. Indies. Call.' Slange. Lat. Fr. a good calling. Antiq. colubraria canna. cauma. or caliever. The primitive colubrina bombarda.Lat. serpens. * Callet. saucy. Fr. the latter of chamber.' Chaucer. Lang. kil-u-kal. Caliph. . caliver. hot. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. to be of a good or bad quality. calma. but is only a jda-kallo. coulevrine. abto suppose that E. Turk. To century was Squalibre. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. koluvre. word of mouth . Sp. kol. an adder. to cram. calme.' But it is hard Du. Fr. moso. whehce it was first brought. and heat. a. calare. Fr. calc. CALM to press or stuff. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. which has its memory preserved in Du. to hear. or languishing drought is . Among these were the turn. cauque.meaning of the word. ' pert. KaXka. caluw. sestus. calcaich. i. gossiping. heat. bald. whence couleuv. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . heat. CALICO Calliper-compasses. quA librd. calibre. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. harquebus or handgun. AS. couleuvre. scold. calma. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. harden by pressure. oldire from audire. to say.' Winter's Tale. qAlab. by many that the weapon Callous. of a column. dragoon. water-tight. kalla. dial. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. to tread. Mid. Sup. and sometimes a handgun. colubrina. to callet. culverin. E. a drab. or mould.. Kavfia. Kil. To call. — — — — — .(jaa= ice). kal. vulgo Coluvrine. nautique). a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. of the bore of a firearm met.position is much less common than the geschut. calor. B. and dragon. to affirm. done with heat Alt. Ca. faint. to burn. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. kael. quiet. calibre. voice. moist. Gr. Ptg. to abuse . cahna. a last. kahcwe. u to an I in such a colubrum. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. kal. calgua. caillette. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. overheated. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). femme frivole et babillarde. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. prattle. the hard surface of the ground. the day. Derived by some from Arab. ram. coluber. licht stuk The change from a. sound. sence of wind. Sp. fistula.en~ kinds of firearms. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. overscalmaccio. them &c. kallo. It. Diet. a feathers. Unfledged. — Fl. on.piicede Lat. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). skin hardened by labour. Gael. Sir John Smith in Grose. serpentina. To drive tow or oakham. the Fr. form. Ibid. calca. sclopus. to rail or scold . from Calicut in the E. chatter kallen. calicot. callum. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . klover. to prattle. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Sc. scalmato. ululo Turk. NE. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. having a thick skin. alta voce ploro. to call. Due. calk. — — — — — . quality. dragonder. can be distinct from ODu. So It. Lat. Calm. Hard. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. however. calleting. The origin is Gr. longior. To Calk. Diez. calcare. 'A callet of boundless tongue. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. people's remarks. The word was also written cawme in OE. hallottaa. trull. form in the kalib. calclover. faint. a round of abuse. given. bombarda Cauma incendium. cotton cloth. 125 Prov. Mahn derives it from Lat. diameter of a ball. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. the scalp or skull. kind heat of the sun. Calico. a successor. push violently. which is as much as to say. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. and E. piece of bigger circuite. callus. Fin. donderbuchs Sp. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Callow. khalif. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. According to Jal (Gl. brawny. to proclaim. try. The reference to heat is preserved in. coluber also.' Whitby Gl. Du. Bi. the Fr. drive. calvus.— . * Caliver. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Dief. chatter. Mil.

Camlet. B. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Gr. to the force of the wind. sore. cere : Lat. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. arched. samon. Lat. aged. ation. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. camber-nosed. calj'x. the spersed with white flakes like curd. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Bret. toile some of whom. to avoid enemy in their shirts. lame. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. cambr^. Lat. Cambrel. campren. India Islands. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Gr. catmneo. lattice. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. Camisade. campo.— B.' Forme of Cury in Way. Canal Channel. the type of a hollow pipe. whence Fr. The Grisons cauina. a.— Chandelier. Lat. is Candle. Fr. good. Candy. icaSoytipoe. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. to bow. fresh. calutmiia.—Candidate. camp. Candid. cambren. Canker. hooked. cam^e. Camp. on. cancello. camiscieia. campagna. crooked. open and level ground. kanna.—Cambrel. KafitjUe. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. when its substance appears inter. campagna. died in 1526. campagne. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. had no r in de bric— Cot. higher in the middle than Fr. crooked-stick. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. to break. Cot. callour. the calix. or Caribs. mg Canister. also an eatmg sore. crooked. a' Sc. Sp. Calyx. the space of false imputation. properly good country. a dog.' ' Quhen a lattice. to warp. Calumny. bis.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. aspirant. It. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. ko/utuXoc. nia. to glow. slander. salmon. paign. Cambray. — Cancel. camisa. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. Calver of cane. Fr. From fluting or furrow in a column . across — Bellenden in Jam. Fr. frank and sincandidatus. . Pers. and yspiuv. Canibal. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. field . camelot. brought from Fr. crooked. In a different application It. arch. Ptg. to jut. from xaXbg. from candere. — — — A — — escume de saumon. spot for cattle. white. an eating.conduit-pipe. chandelle. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. arched. It was distinfrom work. is Cambering. a basket. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. camiscia.. canalis. at the ends. Sp. camelus. w. Sanson khanda. camelot refuge from the heat of the day.—Jam. cancer. chaitcre. Lat. sugar. Fr. Kakoycpos. Caloyer. clothed in white. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. different sections of the like the Chinese. cambre. lie level. Peter Martyr. a goblet bud. Campaign. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. the salmondis faillis thair loup. canistrum. to bend. Palsgr. It. unwater chamelot . It. B. Sp. cAouma.who their language._ kamm. chommer. fair. Camel. campo.— Hackluyt in R. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. cainahelus. It. would plenier. Lat. to bend. Fr. E. whence the Fr. — B. E. camaien. . E. — Lat. ckaouma. crook. See Canker. KafivTu.Lat. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. a large drinking . Or the word Lat. camafeo. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Canine. the heat. It. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. canis. campus. Fr. chamold man. water chamlet . Cann. Properly calver in the field during a war. Lat. candidus. candela. Cancer. the bed of a stream. Fr. cup. champagne. a. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. or hollow of a flower. camisade. camahutus. Arab. Cambrav—Cam. campaign. whence the noun signifying an applicant. a caught.Gr. Turk. Lat. champ. monk. Fr. Cambric. a piece. having an aquiline nose. canna. a crab. cup. a field Greek monk. co7nbar. A — the Cannibals. callar. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. It. From campus was formed Lat. a may have acquired that signification from plain. Mod. cambrer. An eater of human flesh. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. se cameloter. Mid. Cameo.

canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. It. cane.n. cope. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. Kil. cannone. lump. a horn of the moon . which is not the case. kanta. Palsgr. a ship canot. Canvas. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. &c. It. a cloak. The meserseum and the mesentericum. from Dan. kantr. and tref. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. a cane. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. Swab. cantina. N. hood. a corner. being a yard or thereabouts . a — A — Cannel Coal. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. canon. cantred. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. A slow gallop. the tried list of saints.CANNEL vessel. the quartile. &c. a cap. canteau. Cant. canapa. Canon. clqse. territorial hundred. cantle then is a corner of a thing. a ruler. a Fr. to shut. kandt-broodts. Jonson. quarter . name. canvas. a hundred. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. . canonicus. can. Alamannis. the part easiest broken off. Picard. quarter. hamlet. hemp. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. chanteau. cainnt. Sp. ON. See Chape. capax. . schlapp. a gelding. cannu. to put upon sacred writers.Gr. caparazon. . KCLvva. cane. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. was formed Kavtiiv. Capable. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Canteen. corner. a reed. a boat. is found languages of very different stocks. cappe. that the G. trine. side. coarse hempen cloth Fr. as a cantle of bread. Capari. kq. the heel. Canopy.Gr. border Dan. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. coarse hemp. a side. cane. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. a wine-cellar or vault. from canna. kand. Prov. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. cappa. and the sex- &c. Canton. But it may be different source. a straight rod. from a Canter. Schwab. To Canonise. Germanis kdppen. chantel. a door . cape. rumme. kapamak. to sing. capello Italis. to contain. It. coat. B. Diez. a reed. a cloak kapali. cannevo. Wtb. from . A . Fin. haitt. a division of a country. Coal burning with bright flame. It. To his judicial And trowl the tile.^on. region. margo panis diffracta. It. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. canto. call. capace. a small boat. able to receive. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. kynnel. cappe. as. . It. Gugel. and hence a gobbet. leiwan kanta. Mod. edge. cover . Cantle. Fr. a torch. measure for cloth. or cantell of bread. like a torch or candle. from cant. Probably only the augmentative of canto. canonici. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Again we have Lat. The word seems to be taken from Gael. kyndel. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. contain. part. Cot. hemp. cannevaccia. Fr.. capevole. say. Fr. canapaccia. Kavt\. cover kapi. Of vena cava and of vena porta. Sp. kwvwxIi. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. chape. kaput. regular. he discourseth of dissection. Canoe. Mod. capa. carcase . cheese. border. cane. or hold. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. has kahn. shut. If the word had been from cantherius. The — . cantref. KaTTiram. a scull- — here. Lat. To canvas — . to con- rummer. Du. astrology. Goldast — in in Schmid. A piece of anything. tain. OFr. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. the heel. a cover Turk. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. Gael. covered. Esthon. quito curtain. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. properly a large Prov. a rule or standard of excellence. schlappen. also a measure. it would have been found in the continental languages. It. cannabis. and met. See Capt-. Sp. From Gr. signifying cover. a cantle of bread. gnat. language. Capacious. Cope. From Lat. a drinking glass. cantone. hirnschlapple. Cape. Hence Lat. canevas. speech. a hunch of bread. Cannoii.— Cot. a pipe. canton. a tube. pipe. root cap. canoa. W.

Lang. capriole. Sp. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. heath. horror. ericius. birsle. the hair to stand on end. a ch illness. The true derivation lies in a different direction. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. a goat. The same imitation of Capon. ziki. cover of a saddle. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. also the capriole.) d'etre The It. rissoler. curly. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. knis-hujwud . to from capitulum. the singing'bone).' Cot. And similarly to yearn. A . Hair-like. grillcr. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. abridge amKoTroq. herissonnement. to broil. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. chief. kid. gricciare. brissle. So from Sw. aggricciare. is either wholly lost.impressions on the ear. to twitter as birds. the head. Capillary. shivering. to shiver.standing on end. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. airoKOTrrw. Fr. It. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. fansuddenly angry.'— Trev. or. — to yearne. caj)o. the head. frort^Lat. cut off. brisciare. It. capriol or caper in dancing. grisser. to fry. humorous. cut. riccio. to . capparis. Mod. It is probable that Gr. to ruffle the surface of water. a head. bristling. Fl. cApre. h^risser. or goat's leap (done by a horse). or other things. where Burton adds in a note. Arab. and 7tucc. brisoler. explained by Diez from capra. a separate division of a matter. capitulare. capriola. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. and his body bristled We to castrate. castrated. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. Fr. greziller. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. sault. a .). a kid. to crackle. caprice It. or represented by the syllable e. to shudder. G^' Many words — ' ndv. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . as Fr. brisciare.— Fl. curl. to desire earnestly. a buck. Lat. s'hdrisser. capro. It. a hedge-hog. A headland. to crackle. gives rise to Sc. eruca compared with It. arricciarsi. a chevret. frissoner. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. brisciare. <I>pi'?oe. of a fowl. capillus. then to shiver or shudder. bruco. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. roughening of the skin. Unexpected pleasure. grug. ticchio. CAPRICE twittering. and with an initial gr instead of br.' — (Supp. capar. brug. wriggle. greziller. hedge-hog. to parch. a capriol. erica. Griller d'im' patience. grisser. . 75. gricciare. the hair to stand on end. Torriano. To treat Capitulate. It. toy. prickly husk of chestnut. Fr. crackling sound Cape. castrated cock. as in Lat. capitalis. bristling. II bresole (Gl. Capital. Cot. frisson- ner . Fr. a caper in dancing. It. of a tremtdoiis sound. w. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. caprice. with joy' Vikram. compared with Bret. a caterpillar. rihrczzoso. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. Caper. or Lat. gives rise to brezza. then find the symptoms of shivering. — — A a hair. hair. according to the Hindoos. shrub. shivering. Lat. a little head. algabr. they longed extremely to see it. It. as Fr. Hence capitalis the sum lent. alcaparra. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. knis. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. for which he cites the Comask nucia. horripilation. ^piKos. the principal part of the debt. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. to shiver for cold. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. It. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. principal. Capers. Acad.— 128 CAPE a rustling. chattering of the teeth. upon terms Sp. a young kid met. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. caper j caprio. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. Lat. p. as the means of earning profit. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. brezilia. Lat. and OHG. Caprice. It. Hal.Gr. as Fr. of a coach. end. to broil. curling. arricciarsi. Genevese bresoler. frisser {frissement d'un trait. then to be in a state of vibration. cappriccio. ribrezzo. a yearning through sudden fear. the initial mute of forms like Gr. See Chief. belonging to From caput.) grezille marid. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . frizzle. hi. I have shivered with love.

to receive receptio. precept. See Caper. a.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). Lat. conception. a capuchin. Passing on into E. karra. Fr. Sp.s. capsula. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. a she-goat. the -cevofthe Fr. caput. OSp. as the dragoons (Du. Capt-. a head man. — —Diet. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. cabreia. &c. recevoir. charger. Capuchin. It. It. Neumann. captus. and of captus to an e. In cases. Fr. sels. di cappa. as in OFr. a taking back. Fr. G. The It. concipere. conceit. karrende waegen. recipere. captivate. 129 — receive. to take to. of the Sp. to this is It. also to carry on a car . an engine for throwing stones. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. and has accordingly been lost in E. cams. as in accipio. Castr. deceit. desire. cabra. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. a hooded friar. also tresFl. Lat. was converted into -ceb. conceive. capitano. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. and has thus descended unaltered to English. except. recipio. Capriole. It. a sudden fear apprehended. receptus. where it forms a very large class of compounds. caThe hrestante. acceptus. caprice. box. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. charrier. contain. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. capitis. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. Sp.). CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. dim. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. In the S. tnoschetta. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. cabestrantej Fr. bock. -cept. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. Fl. Fr. calabrino. a kind of torture. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. Lat. a hood (dim. karista. Fr. capp%tccio. Cot. Kiittner. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. a fantastical humour. Carbine. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. fancy. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. &c. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. . intercept. Carry. char. Carabine. trestle. capra. i The meaning Car. chirrion. a coffer. concept. hold. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. calabrin. to creak. cabrestante (whence e. Derivatives are Fr. capio. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. a sawing-block or trestles. whence capture. crab s. accept. a windlass. recepte. — — Capstan. strideo. caricare. It. at least. oisr. commander. shivering fit (Altieri). carro. -ceive. It. verbs gives rise to the element . a sudden will. was originally a missile . kerren. however. a. or the (capo-riccio). recibir. to take. to please. de- price. decepte. concebir. concevoir. latterly. seize. Crab. Carabin. carretta.). Cart. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. to carry . a cart. perceive. Captain. case. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. and tropically. Du. Caseneuve in Diet. cabestan. capuccio. to accept.. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Fr. chevre. Thus the musket. was a kind of horse soldier. Etym.. a reception. Capsule. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. carabin. karren. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. a creaking waggon. captive. a cloke) capuccino. to creak. to load . Cot.or -cib-. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. deception. Lat. from head. &c. Du. fantastic. to take baclc. charret. Fr. It. crepo. -cept. Capstern. It is a standing crab. also a kind of rack. of capsa. It. Fin. one odd. Nordfoss.of these compound verbs. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. krul. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. chirriar. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback.

But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. carcasa. Caraool. an engine for hurling stones. Caravel. a card or comb . whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. constraining . . cassa. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. shell. a quiver. a coffer. . carbh. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. card. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. to comb wool . burning coal. to card wool. case. . From the battering-ram.charcoal . contract. of the same Caravan. — seems to be something holding together. a snail. in the same way that the Sp. &c. a prison. also a small weight.. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. Card. alia sunt majora. skeleton. garafa. the trunk or chest of the body . is the word used in modern Lat. ' Vasa vitrea. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. wine- bottle. a lock of wool . tcapKaai. carquan. an ulcer. a thistle. cabrita. to draw in. It. properly a siege machine. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. carabe. to hiss (as gee^e). Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. to curry horses karsztuwas. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. . a kind of ship. carcanet. Gael. seed of carob. a dead carcase. carbo. Cot. carquasse. wool card. I. the carcase of a fowl. a quiver . Carbonaceous.— — — . cerran. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. car. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . the carob bean. bock and Fr. a goat. decanter. quilato. military engines made for hurling stones. turning. eit. a gem resembling a live coal. krciti.applied to a battering-ram (G. confining. carcame. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. a firelock. cabra. karszti. quse vocant karabd. a quiver . ON. a twist. skeleton. a ripple for flax. Carrob. bend. chevre by the name of the goat. Carcax. copperas. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. Derived in the first edition from Mod. KtpaTwv. carabba. avSpaS. It. The Trjg xeXwwac. word is only an adoption of the Turk. is the chine. The radical meaning . to turn. caracal. to ripple flax. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. . carcaij. &c. restraint . the . An implement for dressing wool. cdrlag. carch. carere. a wool card. or framework. Gr. a small weight. Bohem. and catapulta. fire . and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. carduus. kerwan. a ship. for a gun. the case of the flesh. caraffe. boch. to comb.Gr. coming to four grains. karri. cardo. the dead body of any creature. black dye. «capa'|8i. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. carquois. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. Fr. Carcase..Gr. Fr. Sp. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). casso.. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. Ptg. matter. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. Carboy. a collar or chain for the neck.. Parmesan cassiron. designated in the case of G. Carat.z. kirat. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . the husk or cod of beans. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. the name might naturally Mod. a crane. Venet. Lat. Arab. Gr. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. winding. espi7igarda. Gael. vitriol. Sp. a case or chest . a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a he-goat. Lith. Sp. Sp. curry-comb. Cot. silique. mural attack. a machine for casting large darts. eitar. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata.. Pers. AS. carbunculus (dim. It. a battering-ram). calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. Fr. caraffa. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. &c. Cat. a winding staircase. the core of fruit . It. to card wool. kard boyd. carmiiiarc. Lat. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. of carbo). ancient springald. Fr. carcanada. p.' From the same source are SicU. Carbuncle. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. It. turn of a horse. Mod. cabreia. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. carta. to creak. W. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . skeleton toise. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. OHG. caravela. Gael. the shell of a torcarcasso. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Exot. Sp. a quiver. Comp. a thistle. winding carach. cramp. See Carpenter. also (as Gr. a skeleton. karra. carate. poison eiz. Gael.

Bois crolant d'un ladre. A mod-carag. OFr. grolU. wool cards. bottom. to eat flesh. 1S66. karg. one of those ac- 9 * . carnalis. Properly a car-road. to take Goth. to care unkarja. Cot. AS. carriire. to scratch. to fry. — To Careen. be anxious. Fr. — — . carena. quaver a lazar's clack. charg. the old theory of humours. crowl. It. Card. cargo. road. murahtaa. care. see Garble. It. Peas steeped and fried. . to growl. from carus. to clean the bottom of the ship. in St Jerome. ON. or street. carnis. Lat. compared with Fin. Carenare. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. from carrus. Bret. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. regar.Lat. crawl. Chart. Sp. murista. . from caricare. kara. Fr. carener. an endearment. act of moaning. It. carena. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. niggardly . Properly. the several meanings of the words above Rom. Fl. a man. love. Cargo. dear. carFrom carrus. the keel. Carnage. scharren. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. No ' place there had. Caricature. surrata. cargar. 273. caricatura. kargr. stingy. kroU-erbser. solicitous. mutter. W. fundamental. beans. Fr. kurista. record. cura intenta. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. moeThe Lat. G. giierlir. hoed. A medical term from line —Boerio. careless take care of. — — Diez. place for exercise on horseback. p. from the keel to the water . rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Carl. to distress growl. Gael. Sp. Groler. — Carfax. E. to card wool. For the root of carminare. at murmuring. sorrow.. to rumble. to load. karrig. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. from Lat. to load. rixosus. W. and thin. cura may be ror. parched or carled. immediately before the long fast of Lent. morosus. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. quadrifurcum from quameet. four. kumra. carezza. G. . karl. ignarus. charta (Gr. to comb wool. and murhet. charger. caMid. Probably the origin of the word is the . caritia. astutus. Lat. carrefourg. meet at a head. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. in N. that Fl. graller. Fr. weyes. Cath. car. ON. AS. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Cartel. stridere. strideo. tremble. carriera. It. a turn. as quadrivium from Carnaval. the flesh of animals . It. charie. piger. chartre. ress. . . to shake. carch. cardo. Carnal. appertaining to the flesh. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. Farewell flesh. . voce strepo stridente. kribina. a card. charnel. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. Coll. Carlings. the hull of a ship. care on. Cark. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. male person. carina. carcare. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. From. Champ. fleshy . quarreG. W.. crosier. a deed. croller. as peas. Cot. an overloaded representation of anything. w. — — — : Cardinal. cdrle. to whirr (schnurren). Fr. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. . soUicitus OSax. the load of a ship. sorrow. that on wliich the matter hinges. 8. cardinis. caresse. A place where four roads Mid. tenax. also a career on horseback. principal. Roquef. tuorfurcm (Burguy). to parch. intrasset caro. is to say. and sum. sensual. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. sgritudo animi. Dan. clown or churl. zanken . charag. karout. gakaran. A quirito ut infans. asper. OHG. charneux. to scrape . combing them out like the knots in wool. Fin. charnage. Venet. Carminative.— Charter. as carminare. caricare. Fin. It. morosus sum. cearian. to lie on its side. Cot. It. Fr. carian. in Carp.' Slceat. 2.— CARD karr-kambar. Trin. Fr. cearig. msstus. — — — Caress. Translated in MS. Ptg. karry. to love. the time during which to Rom. AS. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. winding. ceorl. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. grief. . is This however Shrove tide. karista. Bret. whence carricare. x'»P'"^s)) paper. Mur. and compare Bret. Charnel. to load. &c. a hinge. or grumbling —Due. Sept. carcus. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. & Q. Care. camovale. what is felt as grievous. karantez. like connection may be seen between Fin. and G. to comb flax or hemp. a highway. carminare. affection. the keel of a vessel. to fry or broil. de Parthenay. carnavale. carnal. caru.Lat. carnasciale. murren. kummer. Fr. essere in carena. Carled peas.

Carpyn or talkyn. is erroneous. carduz. To pledge them thou refuse.Why give's some wine then. Carpet. 760. chirp. maker of waggons It. a wheelwright. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour.— Patriarchi. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur.' says Motley (United Neth. All out B. in Due. krapanj. as E. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence.— R. Bret. culcitra. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. — — ' ' — — — I — — . In Dominica d'autant. Pm. act of drinking a full Eq. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. carpita. Here's to you still my captains friend. to reel. differing To Carp. Biheld within. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. . Chanson de carole. Pref. Lat. to dance. Alluz (G. cardos. Cot. as carnaval from carnelevamen. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. Mediol. carpere. course. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Mid. . Carnevale.— Drant in R. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. was formed Mid. Olr. chariot carbad. Gael. Other names of the sea. fabulor. So gone they forthe. Bohem. skraf. charpie. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. Carpenter. chatter skra/a. Fr. a dance. On the other hand bumper to one's health. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Analogous R.]e bois Carnelevale. cited by Marsh. Mid. 1 1 30. to chatter coroli. to pull asunder.D.' Ordo Eccles. and Carnem laxare (It. a wheelwright. Gower in Way. Nomin. all aus). 94). CarTo quaff carouse do use. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. yede tham about. i.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. Palsgr. i. at midnight which derivation from kroes. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. cxciv. to find fault with. Teut. worker in timber Fr. sense. zimmerspan. as the Lat. The karole of the stones behelde. linteamen. The ' ' a chariot. qui sacco. Templariorum — ' — Due. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. I drink all out.' Reg. chatter. Fr. a song accompanying a dance then. carpenticre. or loose as a couch without further preparation. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. bier.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. The word seems of Celtic origin. a drinking cup. and F. pluck. to gather. carpo. ballare. garrulo. quoted by Carpentier. On this. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. tattle. carpia. Carole. carnelascid). balade from It. carpende fast Carol. Pr. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. carpenta. Ant. ' ' — . . permitted in anticipation of the long fast. 2. koroll. ON. tymmer. Shrove Tuesday. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. From Lat. Properly a round dance. as Fr. Carnelevale. lint. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. gonna. I quaught. vel coopertorio carebit. 2. Lat. to pluck. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. — . garrire. litter. ! Carouse. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Ein we find the signification transferred from . The custom. in Nat. carpenter only in the latter sense. on that. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. A. used for stuffing mattresses. a car carpentarius. Sp. carpentum. Sup. e. ship. Discov. querole. to talk. carpetrix. carbh. In a MS. or a carouse fully drunk up. zimmer. to dance. to rustle.' Raleigh. Dief. carpetam (a quilt?). 216. biheld without. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. gar aus / all out is correct. cariielevamen or carnis levamen.Lat. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. peta. carpat (Stokes).: .'— Stat. Beggars Bush. charpentier. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. W. krapati. whence the form carnasciale. of Guiana. in Carp. pluck at.— Neum.Lat.gonnella. a carder. a plank.Lat. The tippling sots. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. Lat.

kasseren. house. It. slaughter-house. caro. paper. caisse. Fr. cascare. carriaggio. a hut. Fr. Lat. fortuitous. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. fall It. long man's gown with a close body. Fr. of carta. Fr. from the sound it makes when Alban. cassus. coffin of paper for groceries. hung up in some place and to be removed. kerben. Rouchi caroche. a car. shell or carcase of a house. dim. carroc- carrozza . paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. to shear. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. carreaggio. like all the names of tendon. cia. Cartel. Casque. See Case. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Cartoon. Cascade. mord-keller. casus. caxa.— Fl. hollow. to bear or carry. caisse. kerpu. a paper case. properly to convey in a car.' Fl. — — nul the proceeding. pasteboard. Fr. something that actually occurs. not reaching to the height of the ditch. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. vault hole in a fortified wall. Lith. casso. cartouche. and matar. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. CartOTicli. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . It. — — . Rouchi carpHe. abrogate. Lat. It. The Sp. caisse. casag. Cask. and the OE. augmentatives of carro. Fr. To duash. It. to fire on the enemy. Fr. and that apparently from capio. — FI. caroche. Cassock. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Du. carogna. helmet. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. casaque. also the carriage. Rouchi carone. from It. quasser. made void. cassa. kerven. an augmentative from Lat. casa. To Carve. augm.to annul. blotted out. a chance or accident. to hold. Case. afterwards any written challenge. Carrot. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. Casual. an act of falling. Lat. Fr. It. casco signifies a skull. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. where Fr. a of water. It. hull of a ship. kirpti. AS. annul. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. cascata. cancel. void cassare. cartone. packing ' cloth. casacca. the money chest. It. Fl. cartoccio. to — — also casse. gristle. G. to break. card. cassette. cascar. Sp. carretta. Casket. to notch. a canonry or slaughterhouse. Case-mate. to dash. Case. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. a merchant's cash or counter. To Carry. turn out of service. carrosse. to cut or carve . for the security of the defenders. cancelled..' — Hdcart. the charge of — — Fr. — Cartoose. See Card. casuelj Fr. mata. quash. tion from Sp. casualis. Fl. discharge It. from It. To quash an indictment. carretto. See Gristle. mord-grube. casa-maita. break to pieces. as we . which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. a coffer or small case for jewels. Gael. from casa. Preparatory drawing of a It. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. to crack. krat. cascade. bitten. Rouchi carter. to slay. a long coat. empty. capsa (Diez). a car. Flor. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. Cart. discharge. Cash. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. The carrying of anything. Cot. It. charrier. Du. crown of a hat. — Cartridge. Fr. As defence from shells became more important. To Cashier. ' Casa-matta. from Lat. Walach. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. to an- — Kil. a loopscale the wall. corresponding to the G. one who reasons on cases put. subject for a picture. Probably. carroccio. cashiered. casitiste. coffer. cassere. luggage. Fr. cartella. carota. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. Lat. crush. a fall. Casuist. to fall. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. charogne. cut with scissors. ceorfan. AS. OE. It. a chest. caroach. case-maiej Sp. Carriage. gristle. to convey in a cart. Fr. case. of carro. des rideaux A'carp^ie. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle.' Bailey. Cot. ignominiously exposed. casser. cassa. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. Hence casket. Sp. cartilage. Fr. bag and baggage of a camp. Ready money.' Cot. Carrion. charrette.

image accasciare. Fr. however. n. cat-o'-nine. Sp. to clack. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. The E. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. bot-kotis. cacciuolo. cassa / cry for the same purpose. So also from It. a thump. . chat. second chase. Others explain it from Kara. To Catch. name. kic' kicil are used chasser.— Fl.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. KaTaarpifm. 'Vaaaw. to drive away. to is Essentially the Sp. cat. a fortified place. Castanets. puss / for calling them. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . castellum. under chi caleur. cascar. to cast or beat to tioner . Fr. ON. was introduced. Hal. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. casule. Pol. squash. It. stilts. heat . down. an enumerlist. the ground . and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. Roukind. to bring to an crack given by the joints. kissa. signifying breed. to break.the / or c respectively. Gr. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. and tomba. Catalogue. Yz. handle of an axe. Fr. kotas. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. a cat koshki. Mid. to look at. OFr. Pic. to Fl. In the dialect of Picardy. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. to fall as over a precipice. in the fire. V Lith. castana. casulla. Etym. perhaps from which we have E. &c. B. to make clean or chaste.'— Pr. Cat. V. race. 134 CAST Catacomb. Catastrophe. punch. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Sp. castello. lance. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. R. cacciarc. ' Catchyn away abigo. rack. casipola. to turn overturn. a whip on the other into latch. klakka. dashing it to pieces. tails.Rouchi Scaches. — We a cavity. drive away. kotas.to drive out. from water Karappaaaiii. accastiare. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. Cot. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. sue. 120. Fr. katze. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. . mino. kaJoivad. Fr. The Diet. KaraXoyog. crush . speak of dashing a thing down. casser. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. to close. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. execu. the castanets for or implement . Lat. dashing it out of the window. a vault. Isidore — in Diez. . chasser. and from the castus. arpi^m. Fr. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. a garment for performing the mass in. to hurl See Awgrim. koshka. and KviilSog. the stalk of plants. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. first made ordinary Fr. to hunt. Gr. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. Fr. cast. torture. while kiss / Pol. Lat.out cacciare . like that of It. away. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. to scourge. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. cojz^/a. catch. Gael. or bruise together. or Rouchi cat. Pm. by the loss of with several pitched cords. It. cash. which has been retained in E. Hence castaneta. dash. follow after. kottr. It. a chesnut .Lat. same word with break. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. the earlier sense of catch. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. catar. coming to us through different dialects of French. shaft of a 1 push. to crackle. Castle. or comba. ating. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. to end. To It. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. chaleur. down. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. of castrum (castra). Chase. being Fin. on. casupola. is not satisfactory. probably from an imita. kakka. Lang. Brunne. Fr. chasser. from the first of Castrate. burst cascare. . Thus we have Caste. ichasses. to drive Cat o' nine tails. force j Rouchi equerviche. cacciare fuora. puras E. _G. fall. castanetazo. represented by the syllable quash. kasta. to lash. to crack. dim. Cast. to torture. a cat . castro. a little house or hut. ecrevisse. to dash. kat. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. KaTappaKTrjQ.. of sarabands does Gr. . a Cataract. which. squash. Fr. chasuble. fer toTa. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. kasi. KarapaKrr]g..

speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. dainty vic- a form lash. from shutting with a click. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. to teach by oral instruction. with and without an / after the c. in order). Ptg. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . as of the latch of a As ! — . 'Horxa. caucht. Fr. whip. dainties. . an accusing. Cot. to catch strength. GaUa catchiza. a whip. a carter's Pat. called dog or Galla catchamza. a caterpillar Milanese can. — B. a cornIn the s. E. kaetse. apprehend a person. . let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. latch. s. chatter. klatschen. klatscherei. to crack GATES cache. e. ' Fr. predicament. Gael. catch. chenille {canicula. de Bray. klatsche and Norm.V. fragor kletsoore.) . OFr. catc?u. a whip. G. to snap. head. * Caterpillar. gliong. and answer. a. Fr. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D.s. * Cates.from Bard and ayopsw. Caterer. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. to A bailiff. Sc. Gr. bichano (pussy). instruction in forms. a — gatta. gingle. Guernsey chafer. resound. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. silkworm. from Gr. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. — Catcli-poll. Du. flap klatsche. cagnon (a dog).V. snatching it with a any one. — . one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. In the XV'e. to chat.. a whip Rouchi cachoire. chacepol. claquer. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). cat is not apparent. . in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. Du. or any kind of relishing food tuals. to take. kletse. to chatter with the teeth cake. — tinman. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Claucht. happe-chair. Metivier. snatched. clap with the hand. E. companaige. compare G. blow. catch. woodlice. Grandg. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. children's name for cat . In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Gael. wild-beast. Kartiyopta (/cari. gattola. millecaterpillars. a little dog). chasse. P. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry.P. a. chase. a pill. — Kiittner. On Catechism. is said that he got a claucht of it. to harangue.' CATCH Fr. Rouchi clincailleux. chink. glcu. chatter . seize. verberare kUts. 'Bxn. smack. E. a whip or Kuttner. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. . ecachoire. the the same principle he was Fr. Cot. Swiss Lombard G. Tutschek. Sp. door when it is shut. formerly called cliket. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. which all . As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . to the crack. a clap. Kil. Kil. to clap hands. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. the OE. sound. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. KaTtix'so. has both or of charming by sound. clatter. snatching. Du. Fr. catch-flesh. quincailler. caker. ArbaUte de courte chasse. the distance to which the ball is struck. e. to snatch (said of dogs). pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. ictus resonans. worm. latch of. ketsoore. Wal. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Chate peleuse. the elements of a science. resono ictu lash. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. chachara. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . Cates. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. klinke. ' ' word catch. a smack. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. Diez. — with a whip. c or ^. to kythe D. cache. an officer of taxes. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. insect. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. — explained. klatsch. called in Fr.' ^Jam.yopl(. chassoire. . weevils. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Guernsey pilleure. clap. kletsen. bicho. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. 135 — Aasen. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene.j. i. icarrix'Ki^. devouring mite or weevil. pedes.

OE. klopfend knallen.Lat.^ acheter (Lat. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. fur in general. Cavern. hazel. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. chatideau. KaHSpa. chair. Kil. the. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. kocie. kdtzchen. flock. Gael. a horseman. chausser. kopano. ' Gr. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. kocianki. Cathartic. green husk of a calon. otherwise written kell. 4. kobyla. kaussijde. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. a paved road. katteken. apt to burn iron. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Richly she feeds. a horse . w. calqada. caple. Ka^afriKOQ.' Elyot in Way. what . whence cathedralis. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Cattle. On the other hand. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. G. Rete. Caballus. little cap is . from delf^gato. &c. . Gr. . cal^ar. Lat. caldo. the stones of a street. Cavity. deyntie meates. cautis. It. puss. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Fr. hollow. puss. any Fl.. acaptar. Pr. a pulpit. make clean. to shoe . and spareth for no perell. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. having the property of cleansing. hot. Fin. Thus Bav. Du. Pol. rete A — Prov. calceta. It. Bessie of Bednall. koparet. Lat. It. capull. chaudroii. a horse. Mid. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. quire. acater. cautus). in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. catkin mitz. Fr. Fr. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. from chaud. Provider. is Prologue. Cavalcade. net or caul-work. caudex .^Hal. Lat.Y\\Xea. a horse . kobuiV. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe.—— — 136 correct. Fr. a The peel. Fr. Cauldron. . also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. cale. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Gr. cabbage. Lat. accattare. despencier. accapitare Rouchi acater. to shale or peel. Cavalry. achepter. — — cavallo. cavaliere. Fr. catkin Pol. kin.' B. It. Delycates. CATHARTIC sense. to shoe. to beware. Causeway. . Cavalier. . via strata. Caustic. from caveo (p. cheval. cat maczoka. Cave. shaled or picked Fr. calidus. primitive is meaning a shale or off.Lat. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. adcaptare. • — — See Chattel. causa. a pavement. kitten kotki. Lat. a kettle for heating water. a mare. to ac- — Fr. kassije. Mid. and at the rich man's cost By sea. puss. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. Cathedral. challe was ther of a temple. to burn. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Russ. calotte. catkins . — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. KiwariKog. mutz. also to pave . Fr. cabbage). walnut with the husk on challer. a branding from koiio. cale. Catkin. and hence a skull-cap. Fr. kautsije. Fr. KaPaWrii. Jonson in R. B. . calceata. A warm comforting drink. Palsgr. by land. dumpf tonen. choufleur {choii. — Cauterise. Port. 2. from KaSaipio. is used in the sense of cat-skin. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. The word — . a kind of skull-cap. Boethius. macska. Palsgr. Du. a road calceata. chaudiire. kopista. but the acates that are sent him. Caution. Caudle. catkin Magy. cavus. chauderon. to purge. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. It. mudet. flue. Jaubert. little cat. CAVE Caul. . — .p. fur. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. lamb. Diez). is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the .. chevalier. That he was ay before in his estate. Cause. Manciple's Tale. chaussJe. Dryden in R rete. Fr. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. caballus. reticella. cabbage-stalk. cauHs. Wyatt in R. Lat. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. to sound like a blow . a seat. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. katte. Kavrijp. minon. Kavrfipiov. Sx. the caul of the liver. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. hot. to buy.willow. catons. Gr. ce^l. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. a stalk. Chaud. a receptacle for small things.

— . it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. seele. a boarded floor. selure. the testern of a bed. Fr. cavillor. lambrisser une chambre seeling. tester of a bed. a severe bridle. cabega. a beam.. give place. bridle. cyling (W. door-sill J Sc. the deck of a ship at thilja. &c.' Ordinances and Reg. Plancher. nailes will begin to cling. death. thil. A — A false accommodation produced G. a canopy. &c. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde.j have come from this source. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. dayntily diglit. . a head. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. as. excess. that. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. a canopy. to panel or wainscot MHG. to cut. the roof of a coach.' Hall. thili. wainscot thiljar (in pi. kapp-zaum. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. . cease. dScis. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. IV. column E. to canopy siled. komista. sybire. or of a bed. with their substantives concession. hollow. Hal. plank. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. . coffer. H. is applied to a canopy. The sense of roofing. to seele or close with boards plancher. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile.). . but hang around at the sides. heaven. exceed. Cot. CAVESON kopera or kowera. Lat.). a log. p. Lat. And seik — Cessation. dille. Hence concede. caveqon. &c. syle. as if from happen. crooked kopio.' del. semely on syll. Cam. kommata. a log. See -cede. . to argue capto tiously. . and zaum. in Jam. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. a hut. dil. sill in window-sill. recede. The importation of Fr. heaven. cesso. B. To seele a room. thel. plank. — — — toyour soverane. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. decessus. of E . applied to a canopy. Cavil.' Rutland papers. in Hal. thelu. Sir 137 pit . -cede. VIII. komo. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. selar. In the same way G. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. 5. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. little house. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. cielo. Cease. pp. succeed. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. wuoren komo. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. del into English without ' translation gave cele. — . CEILING The kynge to souper is set. . deal. syl. step away. board . it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. flooring E. In the N. were met. cellar. hivtmel. to plank ON. &c. 32. . curved. Ceiling. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. thil. yield. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. and Gol. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. -cease. -ceed. a board. E. also a seeling of boards. The line of descent from Fr. . to plank or floor with planks. cabegon. Lat. hollow ice . ceiling. Soc. departure from this life. a planking or boarding tkilian.' Marriage of James IV. proceed. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. cedo. Sherwood. So from Fin. augm. of cavezza. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. rafter.' Cot. Fr. Cede. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. a fir-plank. thilja. menuiserie. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. It. a plank. Gawaine & Sir Gol. Fr. empty. . The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. ciel de lit. thiling. sky. sill.. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. post. an aquiline nose. koppeli. ciel is so unbroken. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. to go forth. -cess. — komo tain). and then to gape. Lat. cessum. beam. . in Jam. departure. a halter. p. . Wore. The It. Sp. quibble. Boyd in Jam. —Decease. cavezzone.' — Gawan . kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him.'— Z. sus-lambris. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. 43. ceiling. lambris. the inner roof of a room of state. Fr. hung. hollow. and that from Sp. . 7. canopied. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. a log. jaa. wall. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' .

to celebrate. concerner. Fl. sile. to distinguish. the hollow the Lat. -cebre ifoncebre. Fr. cillier. abundance. and — — — possessions. Fr. to prick. Coehim. quarters for slaves. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. Gr. centum. cilibat. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. calefacere.cern. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. hollow. syll. -cess. Gr. tax. confounded ist from It. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. mortar. Lat. deceipt. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices.. — A . being taken from Fr. incense. -cense. a prick. goad. Fr. family. -cepere. -cipio. to set on fire. -ceptjun. Celebrity. Lat. Censor. to -sum. as entering largely into the derivative certo. thence belonging to or connected with corn. from censeo. to take. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. the place where the de. and thence to conceal.— Cellar. cretum. Assess. -ceit. -CEIVE a shaft. festive. . conceipt. in accordance with the Fr. a tomb. KsvTpov. Cereal. Ta^oe. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. siller les yeux. decide. also grave opinion. concetto. materials It. eschattffer. To seel or close the eyes. /ctj/rsw. celeber certus. cigliare. Incensum. — . Cot. K^'ivut. a hundred of what- — . Lat. zens according to their property. to rate.j 138 thill. make angry. as in some places burnt. to heat. Lat. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. ' . Lat. Gr. ceremonia. — . eyelid. Fr. to concern. -cevoir. cella. Fr.). Century. to take. with transposition hence (of a day). assess. an eyelash. value. and so of that other. a solemnity. a numerous con. solemn (of per. In Celebrate. in comp. cceremonia.' Book of St Albans. calefare. — . to burn incendo.unmarried. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. rubble. to contend. Chafe. a shaft horse. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. &c. See Cede. tax. but was gradually lost in conceit. a hundred centuria. Fr. Lat.). to chafe. -oept. a religious observance.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. a storehouse Chafe. to seele or sew up the eyelids . cot. in Marsh. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. we have a modified form of (of a place). to warm. is totally distinct from the foregoing. is the opposite of disora virum. Lat. to blindfold. from Saa-rw. -ceive. 1. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. sure. to incense. to sepap rate. the officer appointed to take such returns . cerealis. observe.ing a room where there is not fire. empty. renown be embodied with. census. his office. swift. appertain. the point round which a circle is drawn. chauffer. sift. Lat. &c. ciller. census. Cell. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. then to rub without reference Cement. to glow. heaven. irot\oe. riscaldarsi. receipt. rough from the quarry. Cot.' Celebritas. To Incense. — — Cenotapli. Sc. Prov. caber. and put it through the over eyelydde. See Celibacy. Take the nedyll and threde. distinIt. a valuation of every man's estate. guish. stones to the production of heat. celer. judge Lat. It. For sess from assess. Lat. -cepire. Accelerate. {cori)cipere. dchauffer. criticism. capio. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. and thence censer. Censure. much frequented. see. cencer. to seal a pigeon's eye. S. estimate. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. parted sleep. Lat. crevi. decebre) . Census Censor. capturn. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. camentum. of heating. thronged the participle cretus. sting. encens. to attend on object with. -i^oivre. Celerity. or expression of Ennius. cenio. to separate. a Cemetery. censura.of the r. -civer {conciver— Roquef. or any bird's. Cess. age. -ciper. and met. To chafe is for wine. contend. Fr. pick out. oil. sacred show.— Chafing-dish. ciglio. to sleep). candeo. — . . the talk of men. (and thence also) to hoodwink. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. to rub for the purpose a hut. Lat. Lat. with the eyes. to course of people. Centre. to think. to visit in numbers. a registration of one's self. Gr.. judge. — . Fr. Assize. to be regarded as one celebro. Censer. deceit. to twinkle darkness. in comp. a solemnity. oil. — . become heated with anger. chaufferette. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. It. Centurion. Lat. to bury). The term cilium. keep in It. OFr. concernor. point. Certain. -cern. judge. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. single or unwedded life. blind. Cij(fe5j. for building. what to set in a chafe. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Ceremony. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Sherwood.

In this application it is the correlative Chaise. . signal by drum or P. chafeter. sagrindse. G. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. Fr. bargain. without chap/are makiinde. Fr. cam. with a:n arched roof. The jaw chafty. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. muzzle. kaff. kiaftr. rustling motion challenge. cadena gives chain. and signifies to consume with anger. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. Wall. from of the G. a pulpit. kuhata. chaise. on. Lat. catena. cauvette. camera. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Cheffern. havOFr. baras of ants. care. Fin. Lat. — — — .nium. ing a hard case to their wings. ing rapidly repeated cries. calix. Gr. sborfare. dispute. Camera. ON. to Latin calumniare. kuhista. — . Ayenbite. Cot. to call.' Rayn. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. jaw. from the shark-skin. Kuttn. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. lime . cadera. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. rustle Challenge. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. difficulty . also to prattle. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. B. calonjar. Prov. to calumpnjamen. calumnia. far lima-lima. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. thick and short. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. yap. P. to puff and blow. kever. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to gnaw. to institute anforensic action. E. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. chaps Chamber. — — ' — — — A . to file. ckapfare. from Swiss kafeln. in a monstrous fume. In like manto huff.sure carriage. ^Altieri. chafing. swelling with anger. gewolb. chagrin. chaire. idle words. tattle cheep. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. a chough. From to go to law. calonja. to chatter or talk lightly. clamare.. Du. shaIt.. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. Prov. quisquilise offence. — — — — — — . Halma. kiqfta. chambre. chaene. Lat. fume. cup. kaff. Pers. kdfelen. Probably from According to Diez. contestation. hght Chalk. preise. chaffare. vel susurro. kahu. chalanger. to tattle. place See Cheek. Pat. leviter crepo Then. care. Hal. kiamta. haggle. now a chair. . a chain. Fl. So from dominio. puffed or ruffled with ly. songe. a jackdaw. calx. often puffing. a vault or arched roof. Chayire. Lat. KoBiSpa. OFr. dongio. a rustling noise.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. Fr. snuff. fern-chafer. in a cana. Fr. limare. or puff with snorting. tronfio. Kaiiapa. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. a pulpit Cot. To buy and sell. talkative. refuse barley . to ner It. a prattling woaction. kuhina. Adelung. chaine. kedja. In vulgar language. de Brai. . Fr. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. to move the jaws. p. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. grief. Perhaps Pm. Fr. De Ir4. . of. chamar. taubes korn oder hafer. as. kuhuja. crooked. false accusation. Lat. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. to buzz. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. matter by combat. Fr. avena vilior. ceaf. G. snort. . Fr. Fr. call in question for an ley). keuchen. much more Genoese sagrind. kahista. khah. lime. charge with. cathedra. a double operation * Chafer. to fret inwardtronfo. vis. hiss. Lat. that leneth e per I'autra. keffen. Chalice. to babble. fa sagramen de calompnia. From the To Chaff. Chair. any insect of the beetle kind. (ca'e'ra) to chair. kdfer. Lat. Bouffard. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. to dispute. puff. Came. chayire. sagri. green sagrin. chawe. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. chicane. cadieira. Du. Piedm.— — . — — — . a goba rustling . to gnaw. as a carriage is a moveable seat. cathedra. ple^. Chain. kahuja. cadena. breathe hard. grief. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. Pr. Chagrin. rally one. chaulx. to sit. to bark. Fr. Cot. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. From Port. 11. tattle. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. to a seat. refuse. to caw chawer. chatter. kauchen. to pant. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). have a mind to parley. &c. and as this was the beginning of man. 35. to claim. rustling corn. hordeum vel let. calice. Bav. Due. great chafe. Gr. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. much blowing. to action arose. ceafer. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Prov.

to be eminent. The G. to hold . . a field of battle. hamper. Pm. kiinp. to hollow out. caer. sukibti. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . kabinti. dial. Campar. E. ing. chamble. and acted as inofficers of . a hook . fighting place. to stick to. jeu parti. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Du. to strive at games . Fr. contest. kampeln. Fr. to excel. Chancellor. champion Du. It will. Carpentier. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. champ. See Camp. calida et sans aguet. fight. to fasten on. kimbu. G. accidere. kriimmen gebogen. mesleiare. Dief. the chafldn. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. — Hal.Lat. or player at football. a court of justice. dial. broil. prize-fighter. fray. kibti. kapp. Prov. campus partitus . kampen. ON. to debate. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. camp. kampa. camp. to bevel. or less ignorant. The word is preserved in E. excellent. slope of a bevelled angle. e. dricka i kapp. ciamberlano. Ptg. as in It. athlete. cancelli. chanfrein. kampeln. a feat. chanfrein. hng. kablys. to fasten oneself on to another . a bundle. act of falling. i. champ. ON. to fasten oneself to another . E. pedilusor. camerlengo. to groove bevel off a right angle. Partnership. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . cample). Champion. s. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. To Chamfer. campus. to wrestle.' ' Pr. chain. kiammi. kappd).140 CHAMBERLAIN . keiiipe. top of a borehole. to fall). — masterly Sp. The E. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. kempa. ciambellano. Commonly derived from campus. Get campers a ball To camf . to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. to Hal. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. to paw the ground E. zampettare. champ. Gall. to wrestle. a jaw kianisa. chance.' melleia. campear. The happening of things Chance. champ parti. ON. Fr. tsammogni. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. chaude mesUe. nels. to fall. divided game. tsamtsogni. cazer. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. kimpustella. Prov. dispute Hal. Champarty. boys speak of capping verses. cameratus. a hollow chanfreiner. . Sp. — Ch-amberlain. camp. chamfrain. at the railings. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. pinch. Lith. chdance.edley. Sup. bickering. escazenza. head armour. chajnbellan . Lat. to cample. Chance-n3. To cope or contend with.—Tutschek. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. Fr. to slope out the . champ. from cheoir. contention kappi. to happen {ad and cadere. as swine. . to talk. to chew. a scufSe. move the jaws. game campio. to move the jaws kiamt. to hang. gekrUmmt. which seems another form of the root. contend or argue G. hot. an athlete. chance. difficulty . cempa. kanip. to quarrel (comp. zs jeopardy. dial. is explained by serrarsi. Sp. dial. fight. surpassing. accident. giving rise to the as. Lat. When the to quarrel. Champ. hero Sw. — ^Tusser. Magy. received the petitions of the suitors. to slope. Chamfron. jocus partitus. to — — champ. . contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. chanfrar. Champaign. rare. kinipen. Meleare. kempen. —Chamfrain. — KiL . kimpUma. a game at football. Fin. kimppu (Lap. therewithal. to . cadere. . to to chew champ. To hollow out in chanPtg. luctare. to smack the lips in eating. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. certare. calidameya. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). termediaries between them and the judge. kabMe. kippo. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. dial. who stood ad cancellos. combat. Chancel. a horse-race. from Fr. reusement — fight in single combat. cahir. So in e. a warrior. Lat. Lat. kabe. Chancery. to tread The sound heavily. M.—Charfron E. Fr. CHANCEL It. and mesUe. Hence (with the nasal) w. kabintis. schmatzen s. bundle. chanfreindre. compound. to flute as a column. campar. . . The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . wood. gewolbt. Fr. .' SherI'altro ' ' . from chaud.

clapet. cangiare. Compare chark. skipta. Sp. may be compared with ON. is used in the same sense . —Chantry. chapilla. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. debeant conjurare. chiappa. — : Lat. a reed.^. Hence It. See Chop. cheek. a money-changer. Du. to peck. That wide were sentin their spicery. also a clap. Hence chantry. to sing. — — —Marculfus in Due. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. chapear. klepan. a chap is a crack or fissure. Lang. are kept. as corn-chandChandry. chapeta. from canna. chop. not a soul. to change. A fellow. extended to other trades. It is also used in the sense of the E. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . ON. camjar. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. as chancery . chancellerie. See Chant. . and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Probably from chap. jaw. kemma. to cut. And N. chap. kjaakaa. Walach. kappen. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. a dealer in candles then. gab. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. Lith. wood. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Bret. the clappers of the scupper holes. flat . jaw. waterconduit. canalis. the place where candles ler. E. Fr. from chandler. exchange schimbatoriu. exchange. cantare.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. as It. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. W. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. —Ordericus Vitalis. the mouth. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . hack . kapoti. kvar kjceften. Sc. . to deal. cambiare. the gutter that runs along a street. Hal. Da. Da. to put on fresh clothes. kennel. chandelier. as those on a trunk. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. a small metal plate Port. . to strike with a sharp edge. Fr. Chap. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. the loose flesh of the cheeks. to paw like a horse . Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. leather. 140. ceaflas. from clap. Aasen. cambiar. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. to swap. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. as skin chapped hands. muzzle. a small plate of flat metal. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. chop. Chap. Lat. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. to spht a chip. to creak. I. or the like chapar. Chandler. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. Fr. AS. schimbu. Chapel. Russ. to chap at a door. lips of an animal. to cut off . a strip of metal plate. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. and the modern canal. any hollow for conveying water. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. Commonly derived from capella. to break . schimbd. Sp. to plate. to apply one flat thing to another. 2. and also to chap or crack. kaupa. to hack. Chap. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. chancery. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. as to chap hands. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. a pipe. chanter. ceaplas. cambium. properly in a hard body. chapa. esclapa. to cut up into small pieces. Channel. In like manner Walach. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. ^Jam. Prov. Fr. chapelete de una bomba. — . the chaps . To Change. exchange. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. to truck. cobio. Chape. changer. while the broader vowels a. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. to peck. to strike. surfaces striking together. like the knocking of hard things together. esclapo. chap. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Chip. Cheek. Hal. or the cracking of one. shift. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. hard bodies. a jaw. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. chapeletas de imbornales. throat of an animal. . kiceft. Molbech. prune. Man of Law's Tale. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. kiceft as well as kjakje. to coat. Chaps or chops. chaps. . to strike. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. to — cut. Chop. to plate.

used in the sense of magic Fl. as a beetle. cearcian. cerran. — spell. Justin. schreien. Charge. Fr. Gr. chapelet. affection. to converse. a mark of a mountebank. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. creak. kirkti. from capitulum. a cricket karkti (schnarren. chirk. charitas. siarad (pronounced — sharad). canne. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. chatter. cabildo. kurkelis. 370. pohadka. From Norm. carricare. keeren. of chapel.charme. eyre. gadka. cluck. Sp. —— . Prov. . a rhyme. caricare. carregar. to tattle. grave or make incised marks on an ob. * Charcoal. — a car. Sup. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. twitter. go. chara. chapitre. Deutsch. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. Chare. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. be- e. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. Du. from carrus. to of the governing body. a charm. gnash. . surris seu Lat. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . char. clack. bler. capella. to love. Fr. Charade. dear(in both senses). Ptg. Fr. It. gaggle . beloved. turn about. a turn cerran.czirksti. Cot. from cape or cope. return. condo il volgar francese. twist. . charer. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. a riddle. to talk . Mundart. dear. And damned be he who first cries Hold. Inst. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. wreath for the head. OE. Character. in To ness Charity. &c. seems to be derived charade. czurksti. karout. It. Yx. caritas. charger. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. from gadai. car. Mid. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. a dispute . charade. as. carmen. carmo. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. corona. burning without consuming the substance. to creak. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. capital. called in Sp. babbling. See Charlatan. Boh. a hood. Lat. a The OFr. Sp. babdistinction. to prattle. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. talking. Swiss. cha. charcoal burners. kurkti. from Charade. . ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. chat. chapel. czurliwoti. to load . Chapman. Lay on. that turned decken . Hence carminare. Lith. called kedlock. . (eucharistie. to chirp as sparrows. It. Charlatan. to chirp. tattler. Fr. A weed among com AS. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation.whirr. dim. as Pol. Fr. w. to chirp. carus. ceap-man. to prattle. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . In that work the verb is written caire. to turn. Lat. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. czirbti. Lat. occasional turn. charlatan. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. cam. To Char. ciarlatore. a riddle. to sing or chirp as birds. es ist mi cheer. krachzen). Charlock.' Boccaccio in Diez. Chark. wood to coal. — — — turned to coal. Chaplet. chatter. AS. from capa. The G. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. decken. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. to dove .. hiss Lith. ject). turn. properly to place — . to charcoal. to . Charcoal was ciarlare. a head or division of a book. chirlar. tegere. ghirlanda seor garland. which was incantation. a verse. creak. a mark made on a thing. An enchantment. capellare. AS.). The crash. charlar. prattling quacksalver. to turn Gael. a garland of roses. Macduff. charge an enemy is to lay on. in turns. and in It. chirriar. the nature of a thing. a merchant. 2. Chapter. Bret. jabber. cedeleac. w. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. the turtle pitre. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. See Cheap. colliers that charred coal. Sp. cher um cher.Lat. for the same reason rosario. hadka. It. Chirk. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. cluck kirklys. eapitulo. Lang. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. capitolo. enough. it is my turn. to croak as a frog .

chat. careful. to clap. It. . pure. to chirp. Fr. an enchantress. gadu-gadu. — sharp sound of a crack. the bird is iiown. g. niggardly. It. a crack or a flaw . the handle of a razor . Kil. It. kna. warble. gazeuiller. chip. carnisj bones kept.). to baptize. chaste. root of the Lat. clack.— Chatter. to wet. s. pure. to chirp. or pop. Chamel. csatora (Magy. The egg is chipped. chaste. cassa s. csaterdzni. csacsogni. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. To chip is then to crack. or suckers on rough borders. B. clean.. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. Parallel with E. as we speak of olive branches. chikat'. chit. charm. flesh. to talk. Fl. Pol.a. castus. From carinen was formed It. chip. to cut and faggoted. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. To talk. limpid. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. talk much . clap. chick. V. or equivalent forms. Cot. It. — Hal. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. chits. the calix of a rose. To chitter or chipper. Lat. is to represent the chamier. sordidus. Chary. whence a charm of goldfinches. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. Chat. kata-kata. parcus. chick. incassare. — Yorkshire chat. a plate of metal. — Fr. To work plate as silversmiths do. —Charter. germinate . chit-chat.house. Chasm. — Palsgrave. fragments or leavings of food. shout OE. knatiern. Chaste. — The . a yawning. prattle. to burst open. converse. Hal. It t. shivers. CHATS fit 143 to name. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. a branch. gallan or ogan. gaddc. Fr. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. occasionally Forby. Du. eclats. to cry as a chicken . Fr. in Jam. castus. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. also to hatch. a churchyard or charnel-house. talk. snap. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. D. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. Fr. kata. magpie. a shrine for a relic.— Chit. Magy. Chart. carme and Fr. to enchase it . clean. to set a jewel. to crack. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . chasse (another form of caissej see Case). used to represent a sharp note. a flock of those birds. to which it bears the same relation as chape. as turnip-chaits. crackle. la chasse d'une rose. . G. also to germinate or spring forth. ch&tier. Fl. chykkyn (Pr. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. xi'i-'^vui. as.). nommer. enchasser. pure. cyrm. carmen is presented in AS. a gap. tenax. little sticks cudere. OE. knacken. Kil. %aafi. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. Diez. a word. also a youth. Russ. caro. geug. ferire. be wide open. to care). clatter. charmer. —Jam.ppen. fragments. from purus. karigh. chair. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. karg. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. See Catch. to gape. chatter. chit in the latter sense Du. nome and . —Chastise. blackthorn-chats. racket . —Bailey. schioppare. To Chase. To Chasten. as purgare Fr. make a noise as birds do. a chatter-box. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. to chatter or prattle . Lat castigare. noise. To Chase. csacsogany. An imitative word. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. to crack. See Cistern. gazzogliare. speak . latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. the young shoots . ch). gazzerare. jackdaw . are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. a twig Suffolk chaits. Chat-wood. chary. chisf. — We ornamental work the to signify E. Cot. In like manner Russ. to separate in morsels. So in Gael. — — . gazzettare. from xoAn. kastaa. kippen. gazzolare. noise. the cry of the bat. i. Pm. as from nomen It. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. — = Chats. discourse. czysty. cs E. splinters. or a bird out of the egg. tittle-tattle. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. the noise of birds. as in the E. prate. cearig (from cearian. To chit. a young man . Gr. to chirp as a bird to cheep. clear. warble. See Card. to make a noise. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. letters p. from pure. a branch and a young female. scraps of for fuel. whistle. or the cry of a bird or the like. chip. clean. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. Malay. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. Pol.

Gr. Pr. to buy. force of the word. a cheater. to — . to nauseate (to retch).. CHEEK zitella. catalliim. the face. — We ' . ceap. syllables ^ag-. welcome heartily. Slav.' kezen. teeth . caupo. Cheat. kakkaset. goods. OFr. to coup s. and. Chear. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. kaupa. lead to OE. prattlingchete. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. any cheating. in Fr. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. from Lat. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes.—Choke. ceahhetan. Du. Sp. chapman. which is used in the to stutter. hawkmann. chear in the sense of victuals. . Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. capitale. agreeing upon. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. sense of bargaining. keck. a tavern-keeper. the countenance Fr. Soc.kakot. gagkern. Sc. sum in a loan. a dealer in horses. . kaufen. G. Chattels. to stutter gigken. et juxta catalla sua. the Lat. cheeks. price. to chop and change. look. mandibula. Fin. cattle. to deal ON. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. NE. &c. kakaista. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. OFr. jaws. to make inarticulate sounds in . aspect of a man. giggling. e. Chew. which is the word in ceap. the principal ' colloquial E. with the exception of land. in widely separated languages by the Lat. cattle. . choule. horse-couper. kauf. kek. chire. The gutGoth. a repulse. snout. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . kaupiti. cachinnari.— Chaps. farm for farm. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. See Chess. chuckle. kikottaa. bon marche. Pm. Faire bonne chire. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. stuttering. and hence the E. chavylbone or chawlbone. to . sob E.ing. Hal. a young boy or girl. Fl. frown. ku. Modern Slang. kak. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. giving or taking in exchange. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. ceafl. changing. countenance. to clear the throat . sale. a rogue or person who used the canting language. to fetch the breath with difficulty. . 144 the It. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. kichen. gagkezen. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. visage.-^. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. Cam. stuttering. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini.. truffa. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. CHATTELS has ciio.. Fr. lower. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. entertainment. tradesman. 'li^'opa jord i jord. the Confessor. a canting knave. It. us. KaviiXog. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. citello. cita. Fr.of the throat in coughing. Cot. Lat. laughing. from AS. whence captale. gig. Check. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. — To check an account. a willing look and unwilling heart. koopen. dchec. ceaflas.— Chole. goods. to act as a rogue. chatel. Bav. Ingulphus.— Cattle. cara. a dealer. chop. cattle. are represented piti. chaptel. entertain kindly. kik. favour. chatal. Cheek. s. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Then. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. society. jaw. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. kok. to coff—Yisi.— . in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. to laugh. upon a checked cloth. exAS. cera. to buy.' to exchange to gasp. with Dief. Bohem. to swap goods . to negotiate. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. See Cheek. while it Bret. It — Brompton in Due. to vomit. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. . chiere. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Hence to cheat. to cluck like a hen. a piece of moveable property. equiva. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. retching. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. the tongue. — — —Chowl. Pro v. Ek dry and hard. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. kaupon. cozener. It. thers.

ost.their struggle for independence. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. schach. cireggia. veluti piscium. jaw . bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. From them the plish. caru. gap. hasten. acquisition. Cher. Fr. kjakje. Jam. cista. See Chess. cerise j G. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Tutschek. jouffle. a heap. castaneusj Fr.D. a chicken. Prov. . giffle. jowl. chesten. to heap up such things for the purchoke. accomplishment cayed. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. Sw.EP CHEVRON 145 on. chevron. To Cheep. ation. — 10 . scacco. skratt. Hence chesten-nut. Sc.peep in the same sense. Lat. condition of being taken. takes place in the formation of cheese. schach. the The use of the word kcesir. kesten. made rancid koka. cheeks. It would Cheese. to boken. squeak as a mouse. to bring to an end. Thus "we are brought din. E. mollium congeries. The name of creak as shoes.. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. kastr. An imitative word. for cheese itself. Chemistry. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. jaws Sw. by laying up in a covered heap. xaque. chests in OE. carnium. Lith. geagl. to year. w. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. to kep. Analo. cegio. chAtaigne. dersen . cese. ceocian. geafl. cams. Fin. rattle in the throat. cufd. as meat and butter. cyse. In these latter forms we see the transIt. Fr. nish source. kapen. gullet. rupted into chess. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion.' to w.. ichec. As the board to gasp i. cabrio. AS. . E. w. Lat. incaseatus. make an end. to geahl. to choke with laughter. Du. to accomThis they call hdrsk. whence czypulas. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. gill of fish AS. whence kasa-leipa. gous forms are G. G. the throat. clear the throat. to make a noise different word. to swallow. then end. jaws. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Sw. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. old bread. ca' — . rennet. Chess. the mouth. kistej Lat. E. caws. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. X'C&s. caseus. frame by which the exertion is made. suffo. . kdke.G. kasiiUPr. Chevisance. throat. Sp. /Ji2^/(W. practice seems to have been communiChevron. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. prevail with. Achievement. the neck. AS. kastanie. Pm. Cherish. chaps. to love. Fr. OHG. kopen. chiffe.).koppen. kjceve. by laying it in come to an agreement with. .cirieggia. AS. to kasa. cheek. throat. &c. a rafter . ON. treat with affection. G. Kil. to gape gab. jaw. (Kil. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. cisty G. food. quok. the hke. Pl. as. to gasp. mouth kek. cheek. cabiron. Sp. It. cough. gapen. See Alchemy. equal squares of opposite colours. gabe. the final guttural is retained in writing. w. cerasus. kjcebe. The Sw. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. czypti. Da. things Da. ceg. — — .perly head. Fr. chops. like a young chicken. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. ceaflas. to choke. Cherry. See Case. . the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Lat.pose of acidifying them kasadr. kasa. quoka. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. cherir. kikna of dorum coacervatio. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable.D. CHE. the loose the game of checks. chasi. chops. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. Lat. kirsche. Chef. Hence kikna is identical with OE. chevir. Lith. — — . jaw. rafters in heraldry. Fris. achever. subjected to this process with that which the throat . breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. the palate Chequer. F*-. — — . Chevaux de frise. To make a shrill noise Chest. to belch. E. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . gaghel. cheken. a cricket. ceaplas. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. cheek. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. Du. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. dear. kaecke. Prothroat of an animal . The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. kok. king). to hold dear. kikna. Sc. to prevent the attack of cavalry. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. subacidus. Fr.Xo belch. Chekenyd or querkenyd. ceac. kdkel. e. kces. N.

captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . to twitter. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. chillness or shivering. cheek.. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. kitista. chawbone. pipio. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. kime. while didder is to shiver or citteren. Palsgr. E. pululo. a head. the Ptg. kibr. cild. to chirp or peep like a chicken. . kauchen. mountain top . Halm. kippa. grelot). Fin. strideo. 'Among these the G. chiquei. or chick. Chimb. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. Chitter. a quid of tobacco. And hence. Fin. tiukkata. kauwe. kidata. Chime. keichen. ultimate origin of the Mite. chew or chaw. deer's horn. Brezza. to titter is Du. to go. crepo. a chicken. chin. To Chide. to scold. Chaw. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. s. gosling. Fin. chiler. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. tiukka. Pm. cap. czypulas. the least imaginable jot. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. Sp. capo. a cup. kouwe. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. kimme. chimb. the young of animals in general. aner. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. rafter. captain. or as E. Lat. to pettifog. Fl. creak. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. stake. hiss as meat on the gridiron. k'imm s. or qf people talking rapidly. The Pl. — Du. The loss of the syllable it in Du.. capu. chillar. term is ssaru fu. Du. then cold. sonorous. branchy. a little bit. kieken. kaau•wen. cidan. greloter is to shiver for cold.D. ach. cica cica. Bret. kimista^ . jaw.' my finger tingles with cold. Probably from Fr. to use the jaws. the same principle I regard On birds. tremble with cold. Payer chiguet A chiguet. has probably the same origin. a jaw. cabarach.— Cot. Pr. zitterti. w. Fl. caput. kuwe. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. ]). from little to little. CHJME the radical form is unusual. — It. tyuk. See Chimmer. chill. a small cask OFr. kilderkin. then as G. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. Fr. AS. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. and not vice versd. mouth. the rim or edge of a vase. twitter. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. chic. pipe. from the first of which is Lith. or the broken noise of birds.. the cry of young . Gattel. tiukkua. antler. Now gan some courage unto him to take. a cup. Chigue. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. chef. Pm.). kimia.^ to resound as a bell. the head. a finch. signifying properly shivering. Fr. CHEW . ' . For the see word Doit.peep.D. De finger killet mi for kalte. killen. chieftain. a hen. to crackle. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. kinderen. 146 brial. in Walach. De chic en chic. Kil. are formed Du. to the brim. caferu. Chick. Swiss kiden. Du. Chill. cib. tremble. choule. — Fin. and from the third E.-ill. — . cabar. pi.. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. to smart. kaw.— Gattel. Fr. horn wood. pole. a cup cibaw. from the second Lat. to Du. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. to raise the rim. the throat. Child. . lead through the synonymous E. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. a young bird. Imitative of a loud clear sound. chikat'. quivering sound which passes. rafter . G. : — a lump. head. while the Magy. kopf Du. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. chavel. as. chicaner. chavel. cebr. G. to chime.— . pipio. knirschen. chaps. Tintillo. chillrar. A To Chew. alter. Da. Russ. E. also the horizon. jaws . W. cabar beinne. chicken. to chew. a chicken. cabriones. gills of a fish. a chicken. chol. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. Magy. Pl. . jaw. tiuk. queror. kindeken. Pr. knit the brow cib-led. chicoter. to contest. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. as pointing out the origin of the E.^ Hal. Walach. knarren. Chief. kop. to gasp for breath (Hal. kind. It. To chitter. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. klagend tonen. capete. machouere. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. into a continuous shriU sound. rafter . kauen. when the vibrations become very rapid. E. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. horns of the house. acute. killen. pip. beam. Gael. Prov. caprioru. to contest about trifles. — — Mother Hubbard. the jole. by driblets. tintelen van koude.

CHITTERLING sonus acutus. Sp. and chim-mer. cleft. komista. Caminatum. eschine. Fr. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . Pm. from 10 * ' Chia. bx-eak the back of schena. Bav. zirken. Lat. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. tsengeni. Chink. companied. representing connected together. Bret. chhint.to divide or Du. Primarily a shrill sound. fissure. vincially used in the sense of a crack. pork) . eschiner. a chink or fissure. Sw. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. dial. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. eschin^e (de pore). cinne. a thorn. cincel. to sound. j^lf. Sp. yivtiov. Du. as a bell kommata. chatter . clangor tinniens kummata. plodere. To chink with laughter. hiss chirlar. to simmer. part lion. Fr. disCot. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. AS. Chimney. sonus the backbone Lat. to prattle . in the same crack. crepare. caperd. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. to sound deep or the Gr. to prattle czirpti. To Chimmer. Chisel. tschirpen. sparkle. A . Sp. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. tremulous motion. to creak. a thorn. Chyrme or chur. . Hindost. also vibrans. chits. tsongeni. E. to chirre. kink hoest. G. caminata. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. — . Lith. the whooping cough. schetteren. ciarlare. . zirpen. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. See Bright. E. kumina. Du. as the chink of money. sound. cisello.' Phaer's Virg.Huloet in Hal. kumista. kinne. . — . have been used to designate the spine. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. all these imitative terms being minata. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. . cisaille. as birds the mouth. Chin-coug^h. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. from Lat. spina. skina. It. and the Du. but or cry as a parrot. a fire-place. It. epine. G. Chat. See Chark. backe. to chirp. a szemrcU. Sp. klincken. See Chats. cheminde. shiver and the chyver of Pr. a Kuttn. to murmur. schiena. esquena. sounding deep. et garrire . clashing of weapons. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. To chirp or twitter. the mouth (jaws) . Fr. are In like manner E. the jaw. Pr. backBut she withal no worde may soune. sound on beginning to boil. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. czirszkti. chirp. then to any narrow crack or AS. twitter caminus. Chitterling. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne.to chirp. schrick. Huloet. keich husten. Chintz. 147 kimina. Chitter. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. or chyFrigutus. and light. the chin . caminsects. a surkik hosta. applied to tremulous motion. hus. pare also Walach. do. the cheek. schina.sharp. sonants. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. spina.). The desig. which differ from each other only as Chirk. It. gena. Chink-cough. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. It. Chip. esquina. Gloss. Cot. to chink with laugh2. stridere. the jaw. from the geon's lancet.er. — — — — — . then of a fabulous monster part goat. Gascoigne in Todd. The small entrails of a hog. It. ykvvQ. and bodily movement in shimm. tinnire. to squeak in It. a chap. as the/ is preserved tering. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. verynge or dyderinge.. squittire. . hollow. Chit. fyr. clipping of coin. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. to chine. gen. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. kieck hoest. to open chirriar. to tattle. schetteringe. Fr. as a large bell . resonance . simmer. to gape. quavering of the voice. Gower in Hal.Lat. to chink. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. bone . flaw Hal. Fr. to tremble.czirbti. twinkling light. the chine. In the same sense. To Chitter. chink. quivering or shakyng for colde. komia. Ptg. Chine. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . See Chap. ter. killed by Bellerophon. hiss Pm. cinan. in Hal.iron. ciseau (for cisel). i. Prov. chick. Chymerynge. the cheek (jaw) . name Then. — . Chimera. up and down. genou (pi. a hall Mid. — . Kil. The change from the sound ter \s.. to sizel. to chirp . rustle. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. chin . and from a similar sound to boil gently. genawi. to creak. a crowing sound in recovering breath. KinneGr. cheek.schricken. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. Magy. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. Diez de.

chives. the inwards of an animal. heaped measure.' who shall not taste death. chibble. To Chop. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. try. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. okusyti. . chaup. Serv. The Sc. To Choke. Enn Sigridur sem ' . crammed Choir. cke. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. Schmid. or original meaning is preserved in G. Swab. G. to try. Gr. G. scheve. a fragment. schevel-steen. . chife. fresure. choix. wrath. Swiss kust. Walach. . chap hands. are used in the same sense. cut up into — See Chats. kausjan. kushati. curly . to strike hands . G. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. to taste. a chive. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to taste. an onion. to wrinkle. by which they are Fr. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. to taste . chiffe.gust. Choice is probably direct from Fr. chorus. called cMtters in the N. i. kbhren. taste. chawdron. causir. a wine taster. to clap up Hal. to taste. try. a knight. %o\ifa. to choose. x^poc. chattering. also calPs. it is probable that the root kus. a company of singers or dancers. Chuck-full. to taste. kalbs gekrose. lead us on to Lat.freze. haslets. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. chock full. . anger. and in this sense the * small pieces. wein didder for cold. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. in the same language. g'schochet voll. seallion or unset leek. CHOP kros. a heap. Boh. chimp. whence Lat. Equivalents in the SlaFr. chippe. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. then to try. to ing is doubtless to taste. word is more likely to be from Lat. Chap. to break off in small shive. taste. to exchange horses. fine threads of flowers. kieser. ruffs.V)^x.' Verie coinme Cot. rare. as green as leeks. Choice. a calf's pluck or chaldron . gusten. Cavalry. — — — . 2. a rag. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. to taste. gustare. from chevalier. to hack. developments of the same radical image. See try. •- Russ. a blow. to stop geschoppt voll. OHG. the small parts of the roots of plants. I. Lat. Gr. kiusan. arkiusan. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. kushevati.. experience valerie. to chap. Luc. and It. Warwickshire coff. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. gekrose. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. to shiver. Fr. full. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. to try. Gr. and in kosten. kustigen. — Cholera. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff.. chceur. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. ON. a calf's chaldern of E. kruszki. kiezen. kiesen. pluck. all seem slate . a goose's giblets.ceosan. prove. to palpitate . As kushnuti. a twittering. propagated. a ruff or frill. Body and Soul.vonic languages are Pol. whence choleric. Chivalry. schoch. ^euw. of an angry — — — ' ' — . In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. cepa. . the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . from %u\i). select. specially with an application to theatrical performances. and Vf. a ruff. ON. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. — Chock-full. The I go to prove them. disposition. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. &c. kaup. and N. Fr. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste.— B jag E.yEuffM. — See Cheek. &c. kusid. The . of E. The manners and senti. wkusit' prikushat. gdnse gekrose. Jam. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . keuren. —Chorus. cape. to experience. a young . shiver. friller. a scale or fragment P1. choppe. to try. Goth. pieces . Yr. coro. from kraus. to try . 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. Fr. as with a blow. schiefer. 19. to Compare also Pol. ments of the knightly class.' At last he dwelt . the ridges prove. bile. kiusan. koren. to prove. to chap at a door .D. a small slice or slip of anything . xiv. kor6n. civette. signify to kiss. Chives.ffrill. ent quarter. full to overflowing. krussyi. to tempt. skifa. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. coup. keypa. caperd. to turn. Chives are also a kind of small onion. chatter. ^S. . * To Choose. Choleric. shoot . cive. Prov. then to shiver. approve. to ^cleave .

See Change. chevin. Chord.). e. bearand aits. To coup. xftovoq. cauc. . chapin. Picard. monedula.• — . cow-couper. chatter . xpi'^lia. merchant. in Chaucer. E. ON. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. whence e. noble Doctor. a The What dhy ^. Fr.' Jam.— Chevin. yiSA. — . Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. traffic. one who buys and sells horses or cows. an offence against the fitness of times. the intestine of an animal. ley in Giiford. E.—Chuokstone. Cot. to clack. short piece kubbug. chack. gold. ceo. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It.\^s.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Marin. Borgoens happen. In Sc. i. forms are Chrism. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. E. clogs. prattle . chrysalis (Plin. —Shakespeare. cangiare. whence apparently the Sup. soul-couper. To Chouse. to knock. to turn over. Du. who took in the Turk- clack.). overset.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . a thick piece. time ra . Fr. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. gull. caker. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. equivalent to the E. Chub. kaulhaupt (club-head.povucd. Nominale in Nat. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. Come. a stump. the same word with the It. chrisme. caqueter. in i6io. we find the following passage Dap. the teeth to chatter . to chatter. whence the Fr. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise.sohola. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. That Face. A fish with a thick snout and head. by the Robert Shirley. applied to an owl in that language. chouette. klopper. gobio capitatus. klompe. civetta. kaufen. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. because she would not endure this husband chopping. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap.. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman.(. — Dief. sent before him a Chiaus. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. plump.— Landnamabok. — Quabbe. caphatenus. cob. xop5>}. capito. dealing. thumb Fl. &c. cavena. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. as in Fr. a bullhead. Jam. high clog. kubbr. cauvette j Fr. kauwe. to strike in the hand. a lump or piece chump.X. From the Turkish Chiaus. fat. Kil. kaw. Sw. to speak thieves' slang. kubb. cambiare. Ant. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. cresmeau. and we actually find champman for chapman. cheap. dial. P. capitanus. Madam. peace. Alchemist. capitone. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. XpvaaXic. — Chrisom. slipper . Fr. or miller's kaycke . Chrysalis. See Chaff. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. gull. Confounded with the bullhead.. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. -chron-. chroniques. Du. Chopino. ' ' What's that? Dap. kowej Sax. Fr. chub. chevane. Gr. choucas. e. What do you think of me. which was written 27. clat. of which such strings are made. kolbe (club). In the Alchemist. from kloppen. chronicles. that will thank chiaus — you richly. E. Fr. capita. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. To Chop logick. to overturn. quappe. Sp. chuet. thick-set. chapma?i. Gr. Chronicle. chapineria. Peace. Gr. A jackdaw. . p. to cant. kobe. AS. chouquette. a messenger or envoy. 49. Chuck. the string of a musical instrument originally. OE. a small fish with a large head. a trafficker in souls. — — — . cheviniau. chevane. I bring you the Cloughs. claquer. If I discover. Wall. Chough. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Anachronism. 4. whence — E. Lat. as Du. for to defraud. syllables chat. G. The Turk was here As one should say. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. kaej Lith. koppe.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Gr. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. kowe. dial. chop. connected with G.

tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. set kerti. pith. Probably from It. tindra. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. a man. Jennings. chaps. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. as in E. — — A — ' ' — . a cutting an old chuff.. pp. Da. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. ccedo. C^z^j^ churHsh. incido. lamak. have given rise. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. kern. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). with It the Lord's house. As AS. residue of burnt coals. or choice part of a thing . to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . to fall upon decide. dial. In Sc. but by way of explan. ON. — of the two words. &c. to cause the milk to grain. Chunk. sindel. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. a lump. sive piratiam facere sciant.— . to throw out sparks. to Newsp. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. KvptaKolg. Gr.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. to fall. kjami. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. an old man. sindr. blow on the I io6 in Mur. — . the snout of an animal. cidre. from Lat. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. calx.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. to form grains of butter. or. a pebble .' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. chack or stane-chacker. Sicerawry face ceffata. It is certain. Du.rendered by Kil. a fellow. to cut decide.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden.— Chu%. Cob. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. to make a rippling noise. ceffo. then the on oh StX iv roXt. .V//a'6'?. Du. to sparkle. chack-stone. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. ceorl. * Cinder. kakka. as a board. sintel. ChurL husbandman. chuffy. Cider. ceffore. to jaw chack or snap. a husband. in the face. Hence -cid-. to gird. AS. ladre from Lazare. chops. so as to make the happen . i. scoria. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre.' he adds. chakil. whence church. Lat. cinctus. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Ka-^aiva. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. whence ON. OFr. dust. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . domhnach. Gothic nations. Gr. fat-cheeked. to To Chuckle. x^^i?.for the residue of stone coal. as Epkema explains it. See Cheek. calculus. a douse on the tores. ciuffo. ON. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. has been impugned which it has really no connection. flower. sinter. -cis-. kiorne. Lat. cendre. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. that the word is an adoption of Fr. kirna. marrow. cinis. ceaflas. log of wood. ashes. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). a girding on. cinctura {cingo. jaws. swollen or puffed up Cot. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. -eris. a man. to separate the kernel of the milk. to turn from blossom to fruit. . e. in circumcision.D. Wall. Sc. surly. Lat. as Fr. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. we have to chack. Sw. Du. cheek. joufflu. . kaerle. . klakka. to him a sudden blow. Cieling. chofe (Grandgagnage). ceaplas. The derivation from Kvpiasov. in Sc. See Cheek. &c. to strike clatter. Fris. a cutting round. The spelling of chider has Chump. -cisuiri). because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. Church. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. See Ceiling. to fall at or on. Aasen. sindra. chofu. from Lat. i. -cise. Wall. -cido. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. Cleland in Jam. a miser. geaflas. tie about). kerl. casum (in comp. cheeks Cincture. to churn. cut off. a pebble. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. cinders used disjunctively. G. e. Fr. thence a belt. accido. countryman. Ir. -cide-. as water running over rocks or stones. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. To chuck in the fall from. Churn. male person. . joffu. . AS. Chuff. the kernel. Fr. kernjen. gffe. The origin ation. however. 24. comp. Diss.' And cold. a rustic . a resounding object. G. to make a aiKipa. KaxXij?. whence deciduous (of trees). chife. karl. cado. giffle.^. to determine incision. sicera.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. a man. spuma metalli. ON. Lat.

to clatter. . to set in motion by means of the voice. It. klabb. klepati. noise — — a cistern. a lemon tree. gutter. ON. a knob. a lump Du. Gael. klak. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). klappe. a reservoir Probably from Lat. dob. is traced by Gr. clasp. clangor avium . to gnash the teeth. to cry out. glamm. KpiKoe. . Hal. clamare. a hiding-place. clog.' sione. We . klekotati. crack. To Claim. . bunch . The notion of a lump. . glam. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. hringr. clack. to chatter . Clamp. clapping of klacke. a young and tender plant. Fr. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. a lump Lat. . lucerna. may cite w. klump. a'upiav. a kind of pipe. Lat. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. klappen. a cistern. a circle. a whip. a citizen . clot ON. clap. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. prattle. circ2tlus. E.— . klamp. globus. civis. Circum-. City. a circle. kringr. to strike. Alt. Gr. Dan. wasserkasten (water chest). and. sajira. klacken. From Arab. Citadel. a clod Russ. kluV. lump. Cot. to toll . a block. kringla. slam. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. a ball. babble . a cleansing place. mass . E. a boss . ciste. Lat. claquet de moulin. Mack. —Circuit. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. tinnitus . cittadella. a loud uksa slamketi.to suck. a city. domern. cito. Arab. . See Crankle. with an initial s instead of c. suck). KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. crack. cista. Dan. as in Sp. 'mass. chest. fall. chupon. from chupar. Bohem. of citta. ring. glambar. a shoot. Cite. So a light. klimp. Clam. cittd. sound. vociferation. sprig. &c. klap. a rattle . citrus. clamp. Excite. G. a circle. or quill to draw waier through Fl. whence cistiti. The Gr. a split. clat. lash . See Circle. Recite. a for water. to be empty. as caverna from cavus. ON. . a block. or clap-dish. to chatter. a mass. Du. Fr. a place See place hiddern. to call. lump. Fr. Lat. a ring. biw. Du. clack. . bunch. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . * Cistern. ON. W. It. trunk. Circle. a pop-gun. for Cion. klubb. clapper. smack. cit^. crack. a Pol. to appeal. sip. castus). uproar. forms — — — parent plant. sindri. chijfre. chupon. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. a kind of rattle. Lat. to go. clamer. empty Golius. In Fr. twig. clambar. and E. . the door was slammed J slamem. Lat. cry out . creak les dents. cry. radical identity of the Fr. a rattle Fr. to knock. Citron. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . clump. G. -cite. cieo. noise. —Civil. around. clobyn. to mention. clack-box. scion or sucker. circa. clack-dish. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. or split with noise. — (Dozy) ing blow. as. cifra. about. . lump. rattle . to chatter. stimulate. claquer. ruin. circum. compared with It. civilis. . Lat. prattle. to make to go. klacke-busse. Scion. dim. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. the place of . to summon or call on. to bawl. parallel root is slam. See -cid-. claquer crash. klammer. rattle. * Ciplier. to clap at a theatre. cittade. lump . cluster. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. klater-busse. lump. sound of blow. a clod. area. Sp. The syllables clap. sifr. clamp. to cleanse. ter. in the frequentative form. It. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. to cluck. cisterna. klumbr. chatter . ball kloben. Lat. Comp. the tongue. sound- — hands figures. and Sp. klopati. excite. We . klompe. a judgment cern. klqb. CION See Tinder. to call by name. accordingly find the roots dab. to call. circle.. circum. a Lat. a city. Chaste. Hence Incite. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. klambr. klateren. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. log. cion. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Sw. clamras. To Clack. KipKog. klemte. outcry. -cis-. clap. clatCot. to clack. a. ern. Clump. Fr. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. belonging to cities or social life . a whirlwind. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. civitas. scion. claquer. sphere gleba. claim. Gr. Gael. cion. Lap. cisterna. city. a ball. citujn. around. Du. and clash. Sw. lump of wood or with the nasal. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock.

yf. dia. hold. cramp-iron. klette. grimper. bond. klammern. clammy brace. cluster. klatten. To sticky. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. chatter. a sound made by a lighter clink. The E. prison. take hold of. salafa. clandestine. dienklebber. klem-vogel. klemmen. is a nasalised form of gripper. knocking. kleben. to. celo produces Fin. to starve. who occuG. clapas. compress. clap. to clap. to hold to pinch. kloben. G. to glue. clear sound. to clutch or cling oneself up. sound . hands or claws to grasp. a bird of prey. The Fr. To clap in E. compression. a trap. Clap. Clamour. cramp. to climb. tattle. to patronus. Mampe. klampen. Clamp. nature . club . dapier. dam. uproar. The root which gives rise to klibb. tingle. Gael. gliong. to Sw^. of money Gael. a sound. viscosity . to daub pinch. stick. klynge sig op. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. damor. Clang. Bav. klettern. viscous. clap. children. dank. hook. . dang. originally a heap of large stones. the in many languages. klappre. — — . klemmen. of the children. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. of which the locative case. klam. and hence moist. coagulated cream. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. daver. clasp. Lang. dapier. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. See Clam. clibby.p correspond- ' without order. klopfen.. from the w. Du. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. klepanie. G. Du. klammer. massy. Russ. tight. apprehend . dam. a stick. E. anything hidden. ney. to pinch. tenacious. a noose . From small tribe subject to a single Gael. sound of the trumpet . adopted Lat. privately.1. a claw . klappen. to cleave or stick. c). klebern. a loud tingle. a hawk. sticky Hal. G. bandage. These are imitations of a loud. clapper of conies. to stick conceal. clink. or klamp-vogel. . with cramp-irons. sound. B. clang. to climb. klynge. G. B. narrow. damras. These words To are closely connected with damp.' to take coals to Newcastle. and that from celo. a place underground where rabbits breed. seize. dambar. beating. is used in the sense of secretly. klamm. buckle klamp. To Clamber. to clap on. E.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. . children. dandestinus. klepati. clann. klippe. from birdlime. to climb. klobber-saen. salaan. to clamp. ancestor. Lat. offspring. pressed close or hard together. . klemmen. strait. to Hal. Dan. klimmeii. as the clapping of hands. beat. Fr. ring as metal. klavre. a sound made by a still . grasp. dientes. tinkle. klang. — Lat. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. a craCmp. descendants . closely analogous to that of the fast. Sw. clangor. to do anything with a clap. to climb . to knock. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. run to lumps Clandestine. but perhaps not directly from it. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . Dan. Clank. to hook things together. klam7n. sound object . klank. to gingle. in a hidSen place. to seize. to hold fast with the . contraction. — Climb. a claw. a heap of stones. clamber. resonance klingen. E. tremble . to glue. cream Manx doan. dial. Clink. diver. to claw oneself up. a stone See Claim. clav\f. Salainen. Halma. dam immediate modifications — . for tame conies. clajnmy. &c. dap up. dapi^. rumour. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. kleppe. Du. klappen. Clapper. sound. Bohem. G. The equivalent of Lat. E. — Cot. klibber. pinching. klubber. cleave. kluppel. whence sala. AS. dem. Swiss kldbem. dial.er. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . accent. glambar. kleppe. A i. Clan. kleppen. rattle. substances of a stickydam. a rattle . cling. klepel. chief. strain . a heap of stones or other things piled up . — . brawl. Hence the Fr. a whip. to dame. Du. tone. chatter. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. In like manner Du. gum. scendants. conceal. dam. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. gripe. to hide. to knock. where- A — unto they retire themselves. Dan. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. solid. crowd . and hence to pinch . also to clog up. klamme. G. to beat. as the Lat. Swiss kletten. — with hunger. klamre. to climb. Dan. to climb. . chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion.' klibba. G. to stick or glue. dee. dren. . to cling. holdfast. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. dink Du. a burr. OE. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief.

to do anything with a . also a knell for the dead. to shut.— CLARET clamp. fibula. from its use in fastening things together. Mask ! plask ! thwick. thence a definite head of an edict or law. hawk. K\a. a key. gaspe. under three modifications dava. chasguear. waU. Sp. Wyutoun in Jam. subrubidum. to animals Sp. klaskad. Kil. to knock. clas. klampe. schnalle. the primary origin clapa. klamme. Clavicle. flap. Cot. Clasp. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. to snap. a little hook . It. the cracking of a whip. Identical with ON. a buckle. somewhat clear. So Pol. klauwe. — Clarion. clairon. Clatter. biichse. Originally clasis. cinnamon. cluster. &c. clatter. rubellum. which signifies a ball in E. Du. a key KKtitid. diver. compression. to rattle . locket of a door. clausum. vinum helvolum. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. glcis. in the sense of a claw. or as G. with a reddish tint. and clavis. clausula. clairon of a trumpet— It. mass. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. and old red rose-water. cloi. from clinging to the tree which supports it. and shrill-sounding trumpet. ictus resonans. klaequivalent to clack or clap.Gr. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. klatsche. klaeret. globus. —Kil. to clash as arms. klc^i. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. a bird with powerful talons. fracas. E. Class. KXeiSi. teren. From clairet. nawith stanis. dap. a key origmally a crooked nail. kiosk bicza. Eau clairette. and through v into a. Nawith stavis. uproar. Du. i. Du. Du. nail. klouwe. globus. a nail. &c. Clash. as it is written by Chaucer. a heap. klijven. kletse. mass. Fr. Lat. klampvoghel. in the sense of a mass or lump. Dan. To clew. whence kleuer. Claret. clamp. bawling. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. from the resemblance to a key. Commonly made. straight-mouthed. klatscha pop-gun. a bunch. skeria-klasi. Nightingale. a clasp. to fasten. hook. . and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. from scknallen. is preserved in Lang. But clasp or elapse. Fr. claw (what fastens together. klouwe (Kil. klaterbusse. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw.ck a whip. The collar-bone. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. chiarello. Lat. — tells us. G. klase. a. Owl and that by which cleave to.). to cleave. a club or massy stick. a distribution of things into groups. — Kiittner. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. assembly. klauw. The b readily passes into gleba. In E. sauna de classes. clew. a lump . rion. to ring in such a manner for the dead. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . a sphere . — Clarinet. blab. klot. classis. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition.\x\xvn. klatschen. to clap . klatschen. crying. noise. vin claret. sphaera. Thus from Lat. vin clairet. Claw. Prov. climp. a clod. Lat. a claFr. a.to cra. clump. From claudo. chiizjj-o. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. an on the one hand. stop of an organ. puUs. sound of the foregoing description. ivy. same class with w. to draw it up into a bunch. is used in Sc. clair. It. as Mod. Serv . pellet . With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. chiarino. claret win e. Klatsch- a pop-gun . Russ. insularum nexus . of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. to fasten together . row aii/iaTos. Lang. to patter. Rayn. a water made of aquavitse. a claw. chiaro clear. thwack . Eya-klasi. a kind of small. seizes) . contraction. 269. ansa. clarin. buckle. syrtium junctura. Analogous Jam. pet. a ball. Du. Sw. we pass to the E. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. he of white and red grapes mingled together. In the same way is formed the OE. kluczka. a lash. klos. chatter. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack.oi. to end. a lump. clopa. e.w or u on the other. ghespe. Thus from clamp. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Gr. Pol. Clew. clavis. klucz..Z. kleeven. biichse. an ending. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. kleuen. The form clew. clarinado. clavus. it is called clamming. Fr. the collar-bone. clew or fasten upon a thing. forms are the Du. applied in their harness. a complete sentence. . Du.It. Lat. Clause. as G. fragor .

a key. polished. klirre. to stick to. a latch. kluft. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. to fasten. To call. — : A rivet.— . The proper meaning of the word is shining. cliquet. kldnkelein. Da. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. klirren. to cleave. klinken. a cleft or fissure. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. kleevig. to clench. E. a one end. lump. . clean. klieben. sleek. a bunch of When flax). mud. . to Brilliant. Halma. pellet. G. glorious. Du. Wilbraham. klor. 2. Fr. to stick or adhere . a fissure. clear. Kil. Sw. glance . rift. Clinch. clay . pure. dut.— Claggy. klutsch. rivet. geklonken. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. a claw or talon. neat. to separate into parts. glbr. The word is . polish .— Clag. glindse. dial. klinke. clean. clemens. clibby. . kloue. as Lat. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. klink. dinquet kleeven. klank. gleit. Cleft. and Dan. that was a striking proof. deot. From clap. kloben. klinke. G. The Dan. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. klov. to shine. vice. dags. Da. B. dag. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . bend in a stream. klouen. door-latch. date is AS. G. celebrated . The double signification of the word clack or rattle. river. Cleat. Dan. This word is used in two business is finished off. klinken. klyft.). merciful. give a shrill sound Jr. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. and. gaklankjan. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. klieuen. viz. bright. klag. found in other cases. it cleave together. explained from the klinken. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. as Fr. Sw. Clay. the two parts of Du. klincke. calm. a fissure or division See Cleave. From dob. together . a plate. klove The Dan. glandse. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. glent. gentle. words applicable sight. ON. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship.Q. smooth. klafwa. to clink or sound. clear. ON. clean. sticky. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. kloben. Thus from G. klinken. doggy. the To Cleave. to dag ox dog. Clean. opposite senses. Du. as the Du. pretty. or from being divided into two parts. Du. G. Clear. To Clench. Sw. and E. to shine . the original . of iron worn on shoes by country people. neat. speech . Die zaak is zS. glan. a clincher. Da. tongs. 154 CLAY dutch. i. provinciaUy termed dout. Axletree clouts. kla:g. to clinch a nail. in two ways. a cleft. W. danche. klouen. to sound or make a noise . a mass. a — — . glor-mhor. clean. Clemency. a lump. a noose. . Du. glan. cloven wood. either by the coherence To Clepe. Lat. voice. kleg. sticky . as ON. kloben. E. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. Mar. gingle. and Celtic glan. . from nitere. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. clink. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. to fasten E. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. to 2. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. to be composed. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. to fasten. See Clam. Gael. dams. Omklinken. This is probably one of the clean. nitidus. loam. or of a tree. conserere antklankjan. glitnir. klijveii. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. a cleft. clash. The word may be — . the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. to glitter. an object is simply cleft. kleverig. to clinch GB. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . rive. as explained under G. Du. famous. bogs cous. dedgy. a flash. split. Probably a modification of the word doitt. doff. vissticky . (Cot. holding together. kluyte. from the clinking of the latch. hook. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. cleave. shine. a lump. Sc. glbram. pure . ON. the fork of the body. kluftholz. diquetcr. klinke. . glitta. a mass. radiant. sticky earth. kleg. klinka. viz. that was Torriano. E. pure. clear. a noise. glint. Bav. G. daggy. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . to chink. Du. A — A Clement. to tear or cleave asunder. dench. kluit. seem formed dial. the latch of a door. glan. AS. kleben. Sc.' was nailed to a rock. Lat. chaps in the skin. a in that of sphtting. clout. glatt. is fast and sure. splendid pohshed. See Clog. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. klceg. from diquer.

which in Mid. highest is attained. cleft in a rock. . Lat. frap- per rudement une personne. as from derido. rugged ascent. to prate. 3. See AS. — — A . to wink. to bend. corresponding to the Sc. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. Somner. KkrifoQ. to talk as a parrot. ravine. klinge. and hence climate. -Toe (from KXivm. diquette. clima. ginally from dob (extant in W. a lump. Boh. a hold. click it. to seize. snatch. deuck. kleppen.dergie! Wiclif in R. . sink. the clergy. globus. click. deik. catching.— Clue. corresponding to Fr. deudi. de ripa. Bav. climate. &c. clif- stanas. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. cave . the clergy clericus. dutch). skard. would have been derida. Client. derigon. klev. a tumbril. verge). Climb. Lat. click. . a sphere. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). Clergy. which is used in Scotch and N. Lat. cleopian. quick of perception. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. dough. diofian. IS5 Du. Claw. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. Det er en Mover kerl. cliff. as Sc. a figure mentioned. a hook. on. to clack. slope . Click. Klover i munden. Du. klever. klouwe. in rhetoric. pulsare. klikker. a ball of twine. G. or Sc.) Brai. say. clack. kleppe. to catch. Chaucer. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. a latch. abrupta rupes . a lazar's clicket or clapper. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. clatter. chatter. to move. cliof. klaffen. dob. e. Fr. a ladder. a mill-clack . narrow hollow between precipitous banks . chatter. Jam. with hamarskard. klif. cart that tilts over. CLINCH De . in precisely the same sense as the E. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. glomus. kliv. to cry. on. a lot. klinke. score7i clif. 3. G. — have the notion of a short quick in E. what so men clappe or crie.' ii. the knocker of a door.— Clicket. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. dexterous. dial. kloof. clyf. ready of speech. from clifian. dek. click. Happen. icXi/ja?. precipices. d See Clan. clever. to confess . or an object character- Clerical. a clerk . name. cligner. a cliff. Sw. Du. Dunbar in Jam. Clew. duik. deik. expeditious. Gr. But the Dan. an inclination. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. had a form. chat. Sp. Commonly derived from deliver. from Gael glac. dook (identical with E. Cot. littus. to sound an alarm to clap. gleg. a claw or clutch. Clever. dever. region not observe it. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. klippe. dichet. a cleft in a rock . a hump. lively. dicher.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. The origin is the Gr. clif. clerus. precipice. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. Climax. OE. Rouchi cliche. clap. a latch. See Clench. dink. cliquet. cleft. —Vocab. a child's or clack . stein- kluppen. seize (Hal. in the sense of active. klika. ized . pen.. rock. clep. a latch . cautes. kliket. exactly Gr. to tattle. whence Fr. chatter. to rattle. speak. Hence Lat. Climate. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. agile. Clam. dergi. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. temperature. one of the clergy. to tattle. call. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. neither as having lordship in the. The Sc. that is a clever feUow. prattle. Sc. Now the OE. In I Peter v. sonare. clever. klok klep- crepitare. and hence deik. quick in motion. the dick of a latch or a trigger. klikklakken. to cleave. klinket. . a clew. Norm. nimble. as Lat. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. a precipice. diver. claw or talon to dek or deik.Lat. as a click with the tongue. declivity. derigo. to snatch. /cXi'fia. derjon. a clicket or clapper. See Clamber. hamraklif. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. We movement catch. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. to catch. Da. to teU tales. it must be observed. crackle. is NE. clypian. crack. klippe. babble. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. has kl'dver. Du. Cliff. dial. cleugh. has also deik. call. light-fingered. rapidus from rapio. scar. crepare. duke. klaiv. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . rock. cleke. above the pole. AS. rupes . CLERK sound of a blow. derecia. dial. to stir.). implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. Clerk. one admitted to the tonsure. cliquer. cleft of a hill. syn. a trigger. deuch. and (with the nasal) — clincher. a baU of yarn.

klepalo. kldpp. glocke. See Cowl. especially of something soft or clammy.D. or bagging clothes. -atum. -CLINE make pinch. hooded . to . at first probably on a wooden board. klungeln. gang. to make a loud noise.— Clot. to slope or bend . klubben und klicken aufgeloset. E. klinken. a bell. also to form a compact mass. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. to snap or fillip schnippen. a lump of butter. and so' to contract. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. klicke. clique. bow. kolki-laud.. kXiVu. Sw. . klungelin. g. kolbe to E. Du. -cliv-. four of the bell. and a similar syllable without the /. To Clip. Sw. Cliofue. dial. by bits. clangere. klynge. cloak. a snare. chcng. a separate portion. a woman's mantle . to form one mass with. klippe. klok. declivis. a lump. I. Serv. . to clink auf. klocke. G. to bend downwards . Sw. sloping upwards procUvis. glungelin. a lump G. . cloche. Sw. schnippen. a clock. G. related to clock. to sound sharp. Bi klik uti klak. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. Bohem. to shrink up. E. See Clang. Ir. klocka. klippen. hlinian. . a hood. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood.' From Pl. knot klynge. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. Kil. whence E. Da. met. recline. as we now say three or four o'clock. a bell. Pl. G. to AS. hluccti. 2. klincke. Bohem. 'Till famine cling thee. to clap or clack. fetter. To Cling. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. G. kukla. to wither. disposed to a thing. — clot. Decline. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. toga muliebris. klupen. sloping forwards.— KSS. Esthon. Swiss klungele. The E. — a mantle. to snap tongs. to ring. klaka. a tinman. Gael. . a rising ground. Du. Ang. to clip. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. klik. slant. clivus. also to wink . difficulty. kol- The word . clog. to snap kneipen. clingan. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. knippen. N orman clincailler. shears. quincailler. dag. verklungeln. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. 156 -cline. to strike. Sussex peasant AS. w. brett-glocke. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. klo^gen.D. knippchen. ' . ON. klingen. to cling to a thing. clips. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . clino. Du. club). being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. . kleppe. hluk. hill . to snip. Lat. to cluster. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. Fr. klippur. . It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. ON. cochl. to shrink up. clinke. clato make a noise. kluppe. to wither. toga. to lean backwards. to crowd or squeeze chingy. a ball of thread . klippa. incline. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. * Clod. clutch. dial. like cling. Een kliks bolter. klunker. klunge. . to lean. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. tuft.'— Shaks. a beU. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. kluben. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. compress .. clinker. Lat. dial. globulus' (Gl. G. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. iissura. S w. parva ruptura. klippa.. hlinen. in Schmeller) klunk. &c. speaks of a ' clung bat. and 'E. kima. . klipa. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. from klepati. klocke. straits.. claw. pallium. difficulty .' for a dry stick. Hal. sloping downwards . clock is a variation of clack. ring clag. ON. Cloak. to beat. as G. rima. klinka. Clink. to pinch klupe. klak. Fr. acclivis. knippe. to beat on the board. a clog or fetter for a beast . To cut with shears. a cluster. gUong. dial. kliks. incline. to clunge. ten. outcry. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. pinch. Gr. sticky. Clock. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. The notion of a loose moveable substance. OHG. noise. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. nip. to knock. pinch. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. G. Walach. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. Du. a faction.ginglej Fr. as to snip in the same sense from snap. Swiss klokken. to pinch. to crowd together klynge sig ved. Flem. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. to resound.und zuk-lippen. To stick to. as thick or curdled liquids. Sw.

G. loose. to rattle. curdled. je amoncele. wide bagging clothes. shaky. Pr. Klottermelck. g. plod.D. . a portion of something soft and adhesive. . be&c. a lump from Du. schlettern. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. dirt. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. compared with clump. to play at bowls. or drablyn with separate existence. lump of something soft . shut up. . dag. congeler. beklakken. ! . . -clusum. clos. to paddle in the wet. separate part. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. and thus seem endowed . figer. to shut. AS. to shut up. bloutre. A . finish . kloden. fors. a block. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. neither spot nor hang loose. slop. tuditare. paddle. loose mud. Bav. without. lopin. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. Lat. unctuous. to lobberig. an imputation. wabbling from Du. klotz. The game called ninepins. to shut in. thick spoon . clot. daggerey. clotted milk klotte. a monastery. I clodde. pludre. zocco. lump of butter. klos. inclose. to close against one. loose trowsers. with Fr. to dabble. . Fr. to spill liquids.dial. geschlotter (as E.'^ Palsgr. To Clog. claggy. blot. gelatinous. to flounder in the wet. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. Gr. His heart was franlc without a flaw. slobber. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. whence klack. IV. Du. klotzschuh. we pass to E. Close. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten.rge lump. Hence inclose. lob. clogs for the feet klakk. Idppern. zoccoli. lumps of butter. dab. and E. boil. klac. of a body of any kind. log. clog or overshoe. lobberen. Yule-clog. aspersion. clammy loam. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. E. like G. laggery. schlotter. klag. pattens G. Swiss schlott. -close. and Gael. slabberen. claque. klakk. to bodies. is connected with pludder.D. motzen. lunch. A — — A Thus from Bav. Lat. . mud. foreclose. slobbe. kleck. Clog. a clog. klos-bane. slops). Fr. a bal!. to bedaub. -cludo. . rattle. clausum.1a. lobberen. klot. TZoxapov. closed. is a blot on one's character. to flap as loose clothes.' end. to shut. and Du. to dabble. a clod. . . da- . we pass to Schlatter. dial. paludosus. miry laggerit. Klak also. kl'dnken. forbidden by 17 Ed. cloth. to slop or spill liquids. kloteren. lopperig. paddle or dabble in the wet. . a blot. loblolly. meat from Du. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. to bubble. . mire. a babbler. to cling locks. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. Fr. a clod Swab. Cloister. schlattern. be found rattle. laggyn. or Sc. In the same way Dan. then liquid or loose substance. loppe. -clus-. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. truncus. schlott. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. watery. kloster. enOE. in comp. dunch). a skittle-ground klos- sen. daustrum. or loppern. to a. Du. a blot. slab. bowl . bemired. in accordance with Pl. . clotted locks Dan. . in accordance with It. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders).). from Du.. a log. clos. analogous plan to clod or club. mud klcEg. I clodde. in forms like Du. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. lag. He was a man without a dag. I doda clod. terminate. dirt. E. thick sour milk.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. spatter. claudo. Fr. or E. shut up. Pl. klakken. . klod. to dash like heavy rain. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. bespotted with mire E. Pm. schlottern. G. Closhe. chiuso. klunkern. clatk. kloteispaen. kladde. • lump. a log. klottern. to claggock. motte. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. Mat. The origin of clod and clot is to . kleck or lack. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. from claudo. klateren. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. a spot. spot of dirt. tJokok. to rattle or shake to and fro. dangle. from Fr. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. .— Clothe. to wabble. to rattle. MHG. Pr. Dan. m&se noch stain. close. a dirty wench claggy. Russ. kloten. a Christmas log. slops slodderen. slob. chiudere. clogs. fat. lobbig. slobberen. of something clammy or heavy. It. a field inclosed clos. klokotat. Sc. splash. lump of mud on the clothes . sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. hanging loose and full. the radical sylla. clausum. loppered (of milk). a trowelful of mortar. clorre.. to sup up liquid food. doitre. tramp in wet or mire. 3.

Das volk hat sich in splitten. From dog. dash (Cot. mary sense is a blow. More in R. and tapp. dirt. esdaboter (Roquef. probably from daboter. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. chiodo di girofano. a cover or coverture . clog. log. — . from W. formed lump or thick mass. a bunch. klumpfot. klever. a thick mass. mire. a. N. Du. caillebottes. a nail) Fr. and clout d eudaich. a bunch. a clown.Fris. rustic. a patch.D.bar. to curdle. when something has got into the touch-hole. Du. kldverj P1. ON. the air. 2. cluster. To Cloy. (kruyd =. klqb. klumba. clunch. cloud Delfortrie. of sloppy materials. stock. E. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. a ball of twine . clobyn. Move. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. klove. Mabousfrom Lat. klobbersaen. . a clod. Ir. clou de girofle. kl'dnne. clydion. kloven. to strike. . choke or stop up. I. Club. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. ON. E. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. a ball. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). of a lump of earth and that figure. a ball. a fissure. a clubfoot klabb. a garthas. A kind of spice resembling Du. a log. clump. a bousche. loggish. klaven. clotted milk or cream. Gael. Properly that which covers and Du. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. Sw. davus.). zolla dell' . sticky. a curdled sky. a ball. klieven. to tramp in the kluyve. clot. warm clothes {dillad. tuft. knob. and of a rustic unpolished person. lump of earth aria. hebes (Kil. Clover. dillad bumkin. to cleave. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. wisp. klubba. cob. .clod. eene ODu. to stop. from OFr. a clove of garlick. a . of nagel. dabosser. klu77ip. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — .158 . blockish. clothes). signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. de Champ. . cluth mhor. A division of a root of garlick. warm. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. tered . a lump. — — — . nagelein. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. clump of a clout on the head. dut. zolla. dote. botsen. Du. block. dial. dys. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. dial. klotsen. To Cluck. The significations of a clod or lump. cludadh. sheltered . Kiittner. diboter. in the same sense. cludaim. with lout. to strike . unpolished. strike. nelke (dim. w. eine to slop. Then applied to a lump of mate. a breach. kluppe. ball of thread Russ. klubb. Fr. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. lump. klotz. matte. Clown. klubbe. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. nourish . Sw. clothes ment. a log. to splash. milk run to lumps. a lump. . klebek. klump. lump. group of people Sw. klonte. Du. to lump mend clumsily. little nails. kloete. to cherish. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. It. een klaven kruflook. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. clod is used in both senses . clunch. Sp. aglio. . are often connected. a bobbin. and clay. to cover Bret. mass. from Du. AS.' Sanders. warm. make warm. The radical sense seems to be an unE.D. cobble. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. G. AS. Pl. In the same way E. Du. Imitative of the note of a society. of thumping clumsy action. a clod or clot. the terms expresssplit.). G. del mattond. from kloven. kluV. a sticky. lie clyd. w. clot . ser.). klcBdi. a bunch. clue. to a lump. puddle. klunds. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. to beFr. shel- kloen. daggy. CLOUD an awkward clod . clumhar. sheltered up warm. and closely do conspire. So Fr. dob. clavo di especias. and -the word Clove. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. clod. boucher. a knot of people. bunch. E. Du. as Fr. mud (Pat. G. The priClout. dump. duthaich. Clumpered in balls of clouds. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. coarse.D. lumps of curd. are also used in the sense of a stopper. Dan. a sky Cot. kUid. also homo obtusus. Cloud. clothe. indispalte knoblauch. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. motte. klotzig. to cleave or the splashing of water. a clot or keeps one warm. clammy earth. lunch). naegel. CLUCK rustic. klubb. Met. G. lump. a blabber. Rouchi dapoter. piece Cot. but confounded with cailler. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. Cld. knob.). to cloy. a boss. Clump. cobio. Gael.ft. clyd. spice) G. dial. botch. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . dabaire. clods. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. a nail. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. clot. warm place .

log. in comp. paste. . klamp. crooked inwards . G. The Fr. -olus-. —More. Pl. doquear. —To Clumsyd. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. klamen. heavily. Du. plad or plod. eviratus. clook. coucher became in unhandy. klister. clump. klemma. Lincolns. klimpern. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. — Cot.— — . -close. hand to cleuk. 130. klummklummshandt. awkward. koetsDa. Coal. benumbed with cold. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. a lump. a claw. verklomen. unwieldy Hal. exclude. hooknosed.D. — Hence include. and klonteren. a clod or The noclot. Hesse. Cath. to rinse.D. to klotz. acomelydfor could Pr.'— animal. to paddle or dabble. Com. dial. — ' — — tonista. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. Ang. klobber in klobbersaen. &c.' Comfort ye dumsid. dek. to gingle. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. to curdle. to lie. klonte. er. to syllable click. Champ.E. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen.. through the senses of lumpish. algidus. wooden shoes. inclusive. to wash. to curdle. G. Teulazy. In the same way Du. cleche. a couch. Du. n. klomen. a clod or lump. to grip. MHG. a coach. may recline. kol. also a cluster. E. a ball . ' Uorte (for clogs. Du. as from seken.D. a noise. a lump. The sense of awkward. finish. of garlick. koetsie. having the Pl. From the notion of sticking together. Sw. Hence snatching.forklomme (Outzen). Fris.Ancr. a clod or lump. from laver. Boh.D. smart motion. to tramp. coccolare. to benumb with cold. a clod clunter. a nasalised form of club. -clus-. seize. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. pinched. obstructum. Fr. Muster. cluntClyster. claudo. koetsen. klampa. beklummen. Du. rial. dial. klunsen. xXvariip. carriage in which you klodset. as Fr. Ray. conclusion. hondis. Cluster. dystere. to to snatch. a clove Sw. from ON. wagen. dial. esclaboter. differing only in the absence of the duik. kohle. claws. cluster. cleuk. -clusum. gelidus. a pinching time. bunch. duke.P. dumpers. clutch. klemmen. enervatus. klcise. to tramp. of Du. lay hold of. a ball. klomje. -elude.e. klummerhdndt. eviratus. the word is more probably connected with OE. It.' Vegecius in Way. close. clip or pinch. Clump. Analogous forms with a tongs. to collect in lumps.mene tied. strum on an instrument. . klos. Hindust. klont. klisse. idle. klunt. thick and clumsy. Cheshire. unhandy. to wash. verkommelen. to tramp or tread heavily. Fr. kluntfrom KKvKdi. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. klocken. Coach. ' Thou clontsest for cold. whence koetse. a lump or compact mass. to squeeze. klods. glocire. See reclusion. clausum. * Clumsy. clumsy. Pl. wooden sole. 159 E. to shut. ball of snow on horse's foot . clutch. ' . pladdern. klette. E. limp. clopiner. klump. cleik. Sc. and klotteren. or aclommyde. G. with a quick. might be reached from clump. a block. Sw. lavesen. A group. Pm. But clunchy. klikonosy. as clumper. are the nasalised forms of klotte. unhandy. Du. G. clointer. Clutch. klompen. beklommen. Compare Swiss klupe.pare P1. tight — — . klumpern. from klupen. to curdle. calling her chickens. klikaty.D. -cludo. lump of soft mate. hands stiff with cold. klumpig. and make ye strong feeble knees. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. dussomed (Wilbrabam). When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. . with E. Hence cleik. Gr. Graff in Klamjan.' Benecke. Riwle. ill-made . dumpse. dial. ether comelia P.' Wycliff. Lat. ' Clumper. unfashioned. in v. conclude. See -elude. clabosser. to pinch. klonte. a clot klissen. OHG. glousser. ball as snow. -CLUDE hen Du. Variation of clatter. viscous material. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. to stick together . kichlemmit. Sp. Fr. MHG. an instrument for nasal form e. eene beklum. a litter. fingers (familiar). and koetse. klontet. Lat. or from Sw. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. claw. koetblockish. . Clutter. dumps. * Clump. properly to do anything Fr. havi. splash. awkward. — . a bunch. cliboter. Beklummen van kelde. Isaiah. ON. ment. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. — sen. OE. dek. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. COAL dumpish. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. clotted cream.

Formerly written course.inflated with air or liquid. or cobble. a rib. frock. pock. however. s. cokes or fool of him. caleo. gull. bijamie. . to form an union with another coalitus. — Cobbler. rivation are found in Sw. pustule. Cobbles in the N. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. probably left his home. It. to . . cobble. kop-ar. inflammation. dim. Coast. properly to daub. to speak or act confusedly. of E. niais. of poison. A spider's web. as in arr. 3. CooMneal. things. dial. Pm. Coat. are often connected. and imperfect or unskilful action. of cochina. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes.. e. klabba. and thence a lump cobnut. tempered clay for building. itself is Nescock . To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. to worship. Fr. Lat. to kindle or cause to burn . from bearing a bag. glow jvalaya.).' Nares. a nest. grown together. to pdt with We may cite Fr. petrilla. used in — .' — Thus from (Hal. a firesteel Lat. long standing. walk clumsily. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. to peck as a hen cobyn. e. united. cotta. says Varro. dial. the one of thump. The form attercop seems to him into doing something.. glow. Du. Du. to stutter. top cobio. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. a woodlouse. a great falsehood. cobcoals. klabbsmed. a cobweb. kylla. a spider. to hobble . The primary sense is doubtless koelA. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. cob is a dumpy horse. .). to grow together. numb. large coals. nursery lang. and E. ailina or colina. quilet. broddelen. staggering or halting. a sow. cob. T' waerkopet. to burn. w. — Pr. blaze. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . The OE. Coalesce. to knock. When the . an old idiot. To cobble. cule cocosse. and the spider as collectors. It. Fr.— Cobble. probably from the Fr. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. See Cot. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. to cob. to bungle Sc. ridi. also a coast. koppen-gespin. sweets and the other of poisons. that is. Lat. woman is said to be very ordinary. tuft. pustule. ON. to wheedle or gull vermin). cob. . of E. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. The Fris. according to the ordinary run of events. small pox (pocks) . one Pr. may be A found in Sw. acomelyd or aclommyd. cotte. a pock mark. spinne-ivebbe. unfledged bird. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . gull. flame. niais. throw a blow. burning. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. dial. Sp. a bubble. any kind of coat. to stammer. in Du.. E. from some fancied resemblance. to bungle . koljarn. a thumper. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . cock or nescock. then to work unskilfully . in Essex Jow*2c^. to Lett. a large round nut cobstones. or upper . a coat or frock. meaning that she is plain and coarse. cochinilla. cluster.. glowing embers. viz. Dan. A plausible origin.' And colo. a bungler. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn.). is one of thump. pockbecility and liability to imposition. and fig. haggle. verklomen. Flem. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. habble. C