original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the


Cornell University Library



dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. by whom the be understood.NURSERY IMITATIONS. or. and where we are seeking. name of the cow. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). in other words. but nothing she herself knows the animals. in language of the present day. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. and. when neither name for the object to be designated. Molli. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. muK) and mae (rfie. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. with an initial m or I. and mully or mully cow is the . without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. come Moolls. is given to a cow or calf. persons of different tongues at the present day. The syllables moo (mu. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. or Mollein. the closer we shall approach to the . the baaing of the sheep. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. the present day. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. mind of the of the animal. to the syllables which are significant to the child. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. when we is represent to our children of the cow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation.

fiafifi&v (Hesych. I had watched the growth of this word. analogous to Magyar mammogni. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. became more perfect. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. had nim. for things. Finally an n was placed before it. to For instance. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. nineteen years old. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. mumm. his nurse adopting the word with him.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. We have. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. then. nim. hm. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. to eat. Heinicke. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. for bad. to work over with the mouth. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. and nim came to signify everything edible. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. On one occasion he said^e nim.. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. family. and some were very clear and distinct. as well as the mind of the utterer. Gradually. p. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound.' In ordinary speech mump. for everything fit to eat. 72). he called to to drink. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. in children's language. He would now say good. schipp. &c. First. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. . says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. and which we might express thus. .). But soon the growing mind began to generalise.' he says. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. Gr. partly from sounds which the child caught. by the natural humming sound. repulsive to eat. A member of my own new sfop. when hungry. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw.

in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. aves tinnire. to smack in eat. Swedish dialect gamsa. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . j ing . mujnpa.minis. and the fizzing (and Series.' And Diomedes. to be pleamind . nyam nyam. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. the Scotch poet. and the crab — p. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. to Sw. Africa) nimi. voracious. jumla. 130-1. to eat mampfen. as to . to mump. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. tidbits nama . delicacies. to chew laboriously. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. food (Tylor.' says Quintilian. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. we can call them so. 1 86). Vei (W. nvrnma. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. yamming. memmexen. to move the lips in continued chewing. mumpfen. palatable. Soosoo (W. (in chil- dren's language). on. p. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym).). Wolof nahenahe. jamsa (yamsa). i. and thence to be tasteful. lita. to take. A negro proOr. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. to taste . or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). Primitive Culture. mumble. make djamdjam). The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. stolen. i8o. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. eating. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. or word-making. crab nam buckra man. nam. at hiamske i sig. oves lalare. ' Motherwell.' — Lersch. buckra man's language the white man. clangorqae tubarum.' says the author of Modern Slang. nobis vix permittitur. . as well as the Sw. Nimm'd up. sweet (Koelle). aptantes adfectibus vocem. Gothic niman. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. mumpfeln. greedy . while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). agreeing with Ein.ONOMATOPCEIA. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. iii. and some of them . namnam. Africa) nimnim. dial. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. snatched (Whitby Gl. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. taken up hastily on the sly. to fill the mouth. savory. ut tinnitus aeris. to eat. ' id est. South Jutland hiamsk. Galla djam djeda. jammla.

hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow.' — We speak of a cow. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. intended in the instance to represent the cry. howling. barking. anything connected with it. 89) with less hesitation. p. bumping of bitterns. bleating of sheep. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . Yet we ing. twittering of swallows. a lamb. gobbling of a turkey-cock.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. for the purpose of bringing the animal. dove and cooing. hooting of owls. between dog and harking. when circumstances required. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. snarling of dogs. sparrow and chirping. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. might be used. ^6^. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world.' he says. might be used as the designation of it. whether it deserves the name of language. not of a moo of Lect. baaing or maeing of lambs. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. und growling. do not speak of a bowwow. neighing or whinnying of horses. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. chirping of sparrows or crickets. but of a dog. Indeed. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. We . yelping. bellowing of bulls. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. that there is When Man. lowing of oxen. snarling. chattering of pies or monkeys. before the in other words. or. or thoughts of our hearer. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. croaking of frogs or ravens. not of a baa. cackling or gaggling of geese.' And elsevs^here (p. cooing or crooing of doves. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. 'I doubt. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. yelping. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. purring or mewing of cats. grunting or squealing of hogs.

village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. coccolare. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. 'Kdka. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. kauwe. e. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. caller. birds. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. a a crier (p. and the sound of that direction. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. is kuM) for the cuckoo. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. gackem. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. caw kuhii-rava (rava. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence.' kd). is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. kae. We imitate the sound with a modulated. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. crow. and gaggele or gagkelein. whose sound (Pictet. a bird that is be driven away. ist ed. lion. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. Bav. Picard cau. 380. fi-om apakd- i. or quawk. a daw. Sauscr. 349. Georgian quaki.IMITATIVE NAMES. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. according to Durga). Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. Manchu The kaha.). Sometimes the hoarse i . Kdrava. it announces (Salaberry). a crow. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. In Basque. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. kdka. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. Aoo-Aoo. a crow (Pictet). and means a shouter. Barabra koka. layitavya . and Bavaria respectively. Columbia kahkah. KOKKvi. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck.' common sense. crow. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. in is Gr. kuho. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. ghak. Arabic kdk.).. 4th ed. In Lat. in g. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. sound). Malay gdgak. Origines Indo-Europeennes). Hungary. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. He to is therefore derives kdka. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. having a general predicative power. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists.

Zulu kuku. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . 6. Walachian coucouveike. kirren. are represented. or Gr. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. teewhoop. German luhu. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . tor. to howl or Lat. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. a crow. Arabic tdtwit. lUyrian kukurekati.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. to croak. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. to crow. krahe. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. t. and e. to croak. by the verbs gurren or girren. Lettish kiekuts. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. while crouk. p. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. It. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. libufs. to hoot. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Sp.. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. French dishuit. k. a crow . tuquheit. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Scotch peeweip. lilits. kraeye. kurre. German kielitz. kukhuta. coqueri- Languedoc. Fr. Malay kukuk. tortbla. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. girre. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. koeren. So we have Polish krukac. giving turtur (and thence It. turtle) as the Lat. to cry loudly. Magy. another. tur. reduplicate form. The crowing of cot in Fr. The consonants p. krauklys. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. in the North of England. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. as well as of Sanscr. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. name. German and Eng- krahen. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. the name for a crow. kraukti. and e. either in the same or in related dialects. lulo. Da. tbrtola. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. Pers. Du. Dutch kievit. gugu.. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. wood-pigeon. cock. tbrtora. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. Mod. uhu. 219. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. kuku. "Welsh hwan from hwa.Gr. and sometimes both together. xi. Albacuculi a dove. kukko.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Swedish kowipa. hibou. Du. yell. coucouva. gufo. to crow. Esthonian kikkas. name of its is the bird. korren. great variety of oKokv^uv. Ibo akoka. the name of an animal will gen- . Yoruba koklo. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. coccovaec. synonymous forms of similar structure). Heb. kraeyen. a crow lish Lith. kruk. Hindi. ghughu. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part.

grylhis. to sound. chirk. We may cite Gr. g. and he kong-ko-rong. (Jieuschrecke) . We may compare the Parmesan tananai. schwirren. e. which they make in their flight very . the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . sirkka. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. growling. and yelping cry. — Catafogo. a sharp sound as of a 6. booming. ' — Pictet .IMITATIVE NAMES. bambhara. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. knetta. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. Northern Farmer. buzzing. pip-pi-ta. a fly (Tylor) . Danish gnaddre. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. give a faint sound.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. Australian bumberoo. in allusion to its music. to rustle. a small as hawk is . horniss and from the buzzing The. Gaelic dranndan. buzzing. representing a short sharp sound. loud rumour. grille. or a gnat fly. zirken.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. sound. Arabic tantanat. of England it is to the b 2 . a bee. kong-kong. German dronen. Speaking of a cricket he says. i. succeeding each other — with noise. to chirp J may be compared with . g.' Amazons. Fin. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. skril with n. Albanian tsentsir. dhran. a drone. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. Lat. to be compared with Sanscr. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. and not from E. German drohne. thunder. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. to chirp . resound. The name of the cricket indeed. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. to shrill sound sharp. gives rise to chwymores. g. German hummel. din. Sanscr.vf3. Corean sirsor. to grumble. to creak Bret. resounding of musical instruments. ajo. skirl. ta-na-nd. glass cracking (Schmeller). bamba. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. ' Sanscr. 'The natives call it tanand. bee. skryle. The drone peal. Lithuanian tranas. The Arabic sarsor. cricket is from crick. flight its sting considered as a horn. and probably indicates that g. hollow noise. PofijivXwg. droning is . North of England. a hornet. to hum.' —Tennyson. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. schirke. shrill. Naturalist on the tocano. oE. words imitative of humming . The Welsh chwyrnu. from schrick.' — i. swirplys with 6. the humble. a beetle druna. common. little intermission. with or Fr. Danish dron. schrecke. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. there are infinite varieties. the drone or non-working bee . as . schrickel. Lith. humming. from the humming. 337. grillen. Sc. In the N. whirr).or bumble-bee.

bovis. to mew. The Galla lilbil. buculus. to ba-L-are. btibleti. to sound. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. muJiati. Thus from miau. from the imitative moo instead of boo. make poo. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. make to it laugh. Lat. to or bark. bubati. has bilbilgoda. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. to the uses goda. forms a. mamoo-heeheek. the animal. to . and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. fivKaofiai. bullock. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. bae. a heifer. Manx booa. Fr. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. Hottentot bou (Dapper). mae. to bellow like a bull. are (with a subsidiary k). w. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. bugler. or with on. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. With these analogies. representing the mew of a cat. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. to make. ox. bucula. (iove. bauli. 167. Zulu lulula. in a imitation of a ringing sound. Fr. verbal form given to the say. Piedmontese fi bau. Gael. in same way. bugle. to make a loud deep sound. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. boo. is inadmissible. bullus and e. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. or bau-l-i. From baa. bubenti. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. bue. to low. bu. to shout. Lat. a buffalo. Norse bu. The Piedm. to make. to make a noise. lulauti (to hoo-loo). be-l-er. as that of the cow by boo. OFr. that the imitative syllable are Lith. bo. shoot . to beat hard. amuse. and djeda. bukati. bolt. — ^Tylor. maukati. a bullock. Galla boa. baula. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to bump as a bittern Illyr. Cult. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. whence baula. mugler. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. a drum . or moo. and from to ring. the Fr. p. It. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. representmake bow. verb is evidently identical with our shout. On the same principle. bwla. His analysis leads cow. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). Lat. miau-l-er. and thence Lat. bos. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. to from bau. to bow- own bawl. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. a bull. Da. From the same lioao). cattle. w. bull. to boohoo. grumble as distant thunder . as the Illyr. agreeing exactly with Lith. and in Hottentot baa was the . mugire. say. bae. to low . k or g. loge. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I.XX called booing. or a z to the imitative syllable. a Geiger. to low or bellow. to weep. Illyr. biibnas. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. to shout. a cow. or formed Lat.

sus-sus. leknuti. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). meckern. the designations of a dog the term cur. It is probable also that e. to bleat . meketati. sound. may be identical with Esthon. name of a sheep. Fr. curmurring. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. Illyr. to bleat. menAda (ndda. grumble. grunny. hunon. cite as by grunt. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. and of (maelon). but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. we have Sanscr.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. hundi). hunt (gen. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. Gr. lambs. to themselves. lek-eg-ni. a sheep or a goat. Moreover. grogner. sheep or goat. grumble. leg-et-ni. a goat firixal^ta. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. as lou of an ox. guttural tone. smack and naski. hound. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. ' In driving. and thence groin. Hence Breton hoc ha. with the root ypaipm. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. Manx meilee. Gr. purr). nire. cry). name. growl. and with the subsidiary k or g. Idgge (Rietz). to grunt. a sheep or ewe. grumbhng. /xijeao/iat. a grunt.' Moor's Suffolk words. hwch. Illyr. lekavica. knurfisk. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. a sow. a sheep (Lowe). meigeal. hadg- Magy. for the voice of the ox). / The same Gr. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. a goat. signifying a snarling. mecati.). lecco. and snorke. a sheep. Gr. Illyr. . In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. may with to snarl. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. a hog. he would hardly. it and e. Fr. to grunt. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. And it is true there between hog and grunt. Kurren und murren. groin. G. does not produce a e. It. — . or in any ! way ! persuading. a pig. goats. hund. grumpf. Among dog. houch. .NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. and grumphie. grunlike a pig in eating. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. grunt. meugler. from knurre. the snout of a pig. a pig Fin. oe. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. naskia. Gael. Welsh and Breton). The g. Africa laa. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. karra. from hundama. ^. a dog. mekegni. this obstinate race. . the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. as the proper name of a tame sheep. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. a goat. a wolf. undoubtedly imitative. to growl. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. a (Hesych. corresponding to ohg. name of the animal itself. From the imitative mae. Da. grugno. although the imitation embodied in Lat. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. kurren. to howl. to rumble. Magy. in Wolof bae. and hoc'h. mutter. With gen. rumbling. kurre. in v. and Circassian maylley. to bleat. meil. a sow. by which the shingle gives rise to It. /xj/caScj. 6. a. (iriKov of forms like Sw.

of the character in question. But words of this kind are. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. hottihuh.root. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock.. (Craven Gloss. So Sanscr.). like artificial flowers. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe.' ticular bird. coquette. from the cry animal. to the left. the cry to stop or back a horse. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. houpy in Craven. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. humma. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. such as cuckoo. as in Yorkshire highly right. animal. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. e. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp.). without a — we root. hobben. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. hobin. turn a horse to the is In Finland. . and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. There are of course some names. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. cockade. hoppe. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. to go backwards. p. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). p. Sc. Esthonian hoibo. Thus we are led to the Fr. hiine. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da.' 2nd Series. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. coquelicot.' — ist Series. If onomatopoeias can . but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. hobby. 91. ^6<. a horse. . g. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. M).. when he found peculiarity. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. a little am- bling horse. a mare. to whine. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall.

wrena. runniken. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. e. wiehern. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. goatsucker.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. Sanscr. lapwing. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. Lettish sweegt. sol. hukkup. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. creeper. wagtail. Irieschen. whitename in in- throat. titter.D. horse. animals or certain kinds of sound. rinchar. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. to neigh. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. groan. nounced with a guttural). g. hross. wrenska. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. little speak for themselves. Sw. fehtati. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. hresh. than to the sounds represented. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. moan. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. ginniken. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. frenschen. xxiii ginal object. giggle. . hikkd. but whether there kind between them and other words. form corresponding hresh. Pl. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. ance or habits of the animal. signified It. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. as sigh. nitrire. woodpecker. Bohem. Du. cough. to Sanscr. hresh. hennir. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. redpole. command of language was attained. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. Fr. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . diver. Sp. swift. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal.

It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. banga. for a small one. hoo ping ping. a kind of drum. tisio (tisho). When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . DingBang. atchian. strippstrapp-stroll. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. banke. Wtb. Australian bungbung ween. atchini. for blows with a rod. &c. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. wheeze. to knock. knarr. &c. Da. knack. to drive on. oren : Klapp.' 'Haw. bang. It is represented in e. hang. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. root kshu. scream. Vei gbangba. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. aritischane. pit-a-pat. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . to ham. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. Zulu bongo. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. White Lies. ting-ting. went the cannon. to beat. bang ' ! trenches.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. thunder (Tylor) . a more expressive than the e. beat. for the for the sound of . on the chops is represented also by pratx. or the w. tlirob. heart tick-tack. a large bell. or tliat is accomit.' ! ! ! ! — dong. shriek. are familiar in ' to every one. dong Read. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. clap ! A smack Puff. debhes-lungotais (deifies. haitshu. ping came the bullets about their ears. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. heaven). pump. 1865. for the creaking of a wheel. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. to hammer . for the sound of a blow.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. for that of breaking. to throw violently down. snore. plitsch-platsch. —Brem. for in such sound of blows. snukkup). . hoo. fitsche-falsche. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. haw. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. to sneeze.' So imac. lumm. ding. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. Of a like forma- drum .' it both sides went. — Sanders. bangas. an attempt would be made to by the voice. snort. for the sound of milking. the dashing of the sea . beat of a clock child . in a nail Let.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. klatsch. for the sound of a fall. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . Mei gbengben. mer. the God of thunder .

Magyar pip. had been used laugh ? two. a fowler's bird call is lost. a fife or musical pipe. — . used as a call to . and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. has been un- employed to designate fixity. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. a (young) pigeon. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. pu.' instead. pule. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. —Lyndsay. or the uneducated different consonants are man. Fr. and whimper. not- . is of expression. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears.) a chick. ducing the sound. pippione. of a word will appear supposed to represent. In cases such as these. piccione. It seems to him that the teeth t. scream. as k. to cry like imrli^u). to cheep like a bird or a young It. calls S. the voice of chickens (Cot. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. chickens (Tylor). to peep It. as the simplest implement for proFr. bleat. De Brosses. part of the What consciousness has the child. e. piauler. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. cry of young birds . pigolare. He Yet asks. pipio. far pipi. to squeak. is pfeife. peep. pipilo. Gr. or a piailler. child. pipelni. cry. pipe. piou. and so forth. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. pigiolare. G. which he added to intensify the expression. pi. laugh. a or cheep. a chicken or gosling. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. doubtless. a whelp. young child .FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. peep. as in other subjects of study. and their relations. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. to designate cavity and hollow. The pi. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. to cry pi. pipegni. pipare. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. Mantuan pipiare. . Florio. Lat. pipio. young bird. piou. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. pipe. mobility excavation and hollow ^. Lat. pigione.sc. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken.

rumble (Fl. the clucking of a j hen . or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. sound). of a loud strong sound. as the click of a latch or a trigger. It.. turtur. bubble. tintino. and lugh. to grate the teeth . a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). to cluck. Pacific aka-aka. pi . borrelen.Gr. a closed or obscure sound. along with Du. chack. . in German. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. along with tinnio. {to It. laqfF. make wood a clinking noise. rumble. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. u. cluck. lachachen. is very common. &c. knaks. as representing the sound made when something breaks. where the variation. the side of g. i. to hawhaw or laugh loud. to crackle like in boiling . to grumble. when it force than biscuit. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. a drum W. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. rumble. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. to gorgogHare rattle. kuruk. sound of dry breaking. coo.. or kaka-faka. or springing back. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. murmur (by . what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. ioriogliare (to make borbor). Manchu kaka-kiki. to be compared with Sc. to clack. to creak knirren. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. to thunder. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. to bubble. to grumble). there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. to laugh. loud laughter. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. gurren. tonare. to gurgle. Indian chack-chack. be cate to go on laughing loud . creak. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. Poppopvi^to. to jar. kniks. kirkirdnd. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. Hindoo tomtom. to cry pi. . grumble. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . karkarana. of something fine and thin. crack. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise .) Mod. preserved by Kilian. to pant bejii- zela. kniks. to fizz like fat in frying. lachen. some small vowel or consonantal sound. vaake gorgor) . a prolonged sharp sound. Hindustani karak is rendered. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). cricli. a sharp short one. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to rattle. like the noise of a glass breaking . crash. to ring pipio. to pant violently (Colenso). The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. Zulu raraza. girren. thunder oil . garren. a. knurren. to growl. murren. a short sharp sound. to gargle . xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. Pefuxela. knuks. tontonare.

bent her head. spring of water in the a bell. champ. Prim.and e. sound). sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . e. E. tup. jingle. ding-dong.* the heart. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. identical with g. a workman. a drum . The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. and her heart went thump. uproar. for chut-chiit-er. Magyar csamm-ogni. and Gr. rvir (in tvittio. muro and e. of keys or tinkling of bells. Fr. is based on the same imitation as the e. awater* ' The Mme P. to giggle. brings us to Fr. rifiirayov. to strike. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. and the imitative nature of tivgle. croaking of frogs. to knock. to the purling of a brook. Galla tuma. for the sound of privy whispering. make djamdjam). Turk. koXiw. disturbance (F. The syllables lil-bil. chinking of coin.' Member for Paris. kl'mg-kling. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. and e. correspond to e. the sound of a stringed instrument. KaKog. Newman). The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. and bilhila. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. tumwata. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. a nightingale. coughing or clearing the throat. to beat. and Gr. or of bells ringing. for the clinking Lat. clango. 1871. noise.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. sound. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. to say chut. while cacd / used in e. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. shout. bad. caca and Finnish adkkd. box on the ear imitation of the . for the Manchu hak for the sound of . and the same may be said of Zulu kala. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). a smith. djeda (to say tub). as Fr. csam-csogni. Manchu kaka. chut. bulbiil. call. or the bubbling up of to a spring. a boy's whistle. Sanscr. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. rain (Tylor. fumtu. drops of i. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. word. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. halaidlac'h. klirren. chuchoter. to whisper. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. especially one who beats. clash of arms. indicating the origin of Gr. or to Du. to be compared with g. are applied to the is excrements of children. clink. borrelen. 368). Hindustani bhadbhad trees. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. clank. Scotch sough or sooch. 192). bubble up. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. as of Tamil muromurmur. is Manchu tang-tang. . jangle. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. tumult. corresponding in e. thump. hala-hald-faMa (falda. the tingling Ming-Hang. Tiie Galla gigiteka. The whispering of the wind I. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. a nightingale. . agrees with g. Maori pata. quarren. kiling-kalang. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. for a tTviror). may be compared with Australian pitapitata. wail. for the ringing of illustrate bells. cry. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. compared with Gr. Calt. simmer. tubh. at an accelerated note. the gingling of glasses. to ring or jingle.

But although and also found in Lat. clack. twang. to dance. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . fizz. paddle. and soufflet. splash. gargle. patter. flop. It. tumbian (to beat the ground). The beating of drum is represented in e. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. plump. boom. tinkle. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. crash. for (Sanders). slash. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. chatter. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. without the intervention of orthodox roots. in e. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. rap. tingle. at a door tarapatan. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. bubble. rattle.. clap. blow. and Fr. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. dabble. rataplan or rantanplan. crack. a applied as well to the force of the bang. hiss. smack. craunch. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. blubber. clang. thump. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. we have buffet or cuff. flap. thump. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. sputter. squeak. it is fallj AS. clatter. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. w. while e. by rubadub. answering to g. puff. bang. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It.' — Nohden. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. creak. clink. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. dash. to fall. tap. Humboldt. mutter. hum. jingle. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. according to the strictest phonetic rules. thwack. rumble. Nevertheless. whack. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. swash. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. snap. whirr. 'pat. din. thump. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. tymmesll. The use of g.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. splutter. or v^hether jectional. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. lash. souse. murmur. gurgle. tum-ultus. the Germans puff. and Grimm. Fr. brumberum. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. clash. douse. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. crunch. smash. to is blow. whine. tomber. guggle. report of a gun. ' Der puff. clank. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. whizz. and the French pouf. So in Fr. squeal. disturbance. squall. parapatapan. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. pop. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. ring. chink.

At the first beginning of life. wringing the hands. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. in the case of the animal or of the infant. stractions. Grimm or Bopp. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. knows them. that he has taken the step in rational speech. because they are spontaneous. xxix on the contrary. an imitation of a sigh . by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. in the rushing waters. Crying. If. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. without a thought of symbolising to them. p. formerly cited. ugh . little who has time to want of her nurseling. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. is Thus ah!. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. the interj.' If chaos. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. and uttering plaintive sounds. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. of horror. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind.'. but if we must not complain on the beach. and thus they become signs of despair. hay. the inteij. grief.' . are made known by an instinctive cry. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation .INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. 94. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. and found in the building of be burnt up. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. every little pain. or stubble is meaner name. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. by the nature of the cry. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. or of any if wood. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. or any unsatisfied want. the kind of action that is desired of them. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair.

which are frequently so toned down cance. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. He says. the lowing of a cow. as who them spontaneous utterances. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. p. ^6g And to the same effect 371. coughing. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. he cites from Home Tooke. Language begins where interjections end. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. may become traditional. or which is of me as suffering pain. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. more to the point. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. If I wish to make a person of an . and some of them the composition of words.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. to solve the I shall call first. sneezing.' — ist Series. 32. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley.. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. be more powerful. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. more eloquent than a long speech. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. of all the mouth. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. One short interjec- tion may fact. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. groaning. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. And again. shrieking. them to exercise it. interjections. they are involuntary interjections. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. 344. p. and the eye. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. should be remem- . and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion.' p.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language.

by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. Tooke in truth. he says. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. some kind of language might have been formed. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. cachinno. in Magy. Gr. demolishing here. I am not hearer. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. then speech begins. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. hohottaa. and thus. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. bered. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and others from interjections. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Koxafw. loud laughter. but the less am at a loss what to say. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. when I arp humming and hawing. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. interjections. for example. kahkahah. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. and more or less limited . in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. it them. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. hahota. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. speaking. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. hahottaa. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. in Fin. Kayxa^u). explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. Lat.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own.

and not. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. the critical question should be. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. of the nature of this great movement. What strikes him . And so in the case of language. words receiving the meanings they now bear. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. It as has ing their most striking features. . tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor.' he says. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. if taken as a whole. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. But here nature soon conies to his help.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. dumb is the language of signs. a deaf-mute himself. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. a Picture-language. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. The following account is given by Kruse. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. Though. like peewit and cuckoo. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. and go where we now say stand. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. of the world.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. makes them stand and walk upon the table.

for single objects. and to taste. to name. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. letter To hold the two fingers apart. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. walked. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. thought is already broken. xxxiii him between one thing and another. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. his action. he. most striking outline of an object. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. as it now opens out. what more.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. push it towards the person addressed for thou. for walk. can do better and more easily abstract terms. walker. and forms further and further. it means little. that. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. it seems. And is. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. or To pull and flap with the arms. becomes roast meat. The same sign stands and the act itself. like a V. many when or but these. called Gesture-language. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking.' In the Institutions. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. the whole secret. and it is flesh or meat. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. nay. The of sign for left hand. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. for child. among themselves. but if I depress it instead. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind.GESTURE most. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. such as than the educated man. walkest. he. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. such objects. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. particular sense in properly so called. thou. that air. or the verb to be. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. for the agent. and we have roast goose. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . the lan- guage cultivates itself. that signifies great . and gestures. signs are taught for yet. and fully serves to j . the sorecalling them to his memory. and And thus he makes himself a language. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. and with his thought. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact.

What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. a colour red. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. Who is has beaten you ? would be. qualifies the against the wall. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. it called an interjection.xxxiv asking. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. You beaten . or a passive scene of existence. or something of the kind. and the as. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. or an act.' dener's knife. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. When a verb. to indicate the action of a certain person. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. When I say. Do not bang the it is a verb. in fact. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. might be the knife. and so is an adverb. in other instances sentence. would be simply beginning of speech. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. a number of alternatives are suggested. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. as But when it is meant door. the garden. whether by additions or otherwise. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. He gave door a bang. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. The same word . . depend entirely upon the use. when I say. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. I say. as when Bang ! went the gun. or action. putting it into his pocket. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. or a quality. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. as in die it is a noun. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. the ture of white term pink is and red. according to the circumstances of the case. and thus performs the part of an adjective. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. substantive or adjective.

it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. 255. commencement of speech. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. which is an old y ting (use stick). and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. middle. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. pain. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. in the is indicated by the syllable y. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. that admits itself in of audible representation. or some relation between it and another object. wherefore. some outward display of the affection. wherehy. . &c. contempt. verb nor noun has yet been developed. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. with a stick.^ — Miiller I. or with elements expressing relations of time. Jii ta. coalesces with the personal pronouns. Latin. whereto. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. the man is great.. wonder. grie^ horror. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. in the sense of great. a sigh of oppression and . Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. or nei. Thus tafu signifies a great man. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. as kuo cung. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. greatness. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. and may be used language. inquiry. wherewith.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. that is. and to be great. inside. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. as cung. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. whereof. a noun. but often self-evident. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. a groan.

mew.'). ach. representing a cry of pain. ui. is w. ah. . guaj- or cry out pitifully. A widespread It. . e. gwe-l-a. djamdjam goda (goda. ach. ochan. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to cry n. Such are g. headache. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). on. miau-l-is. Illyr. ai. In this way from the root guai. al. to make). the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. lau-l-e. and to bark . Lat. ah. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. a groan or lamentation vir. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. in Gr. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. oh. e. . It. die wehen. to cause pain. waiidt. pain. o'i. howl. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. to wail or cry alas . first person. however. is Ay di me I Gr. to do woe. to groan. to make bow-wow. suffering. Fr. to lament. Gr. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. weh. to cry at. guajo. oi. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. as. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. are ol-ire. wai-l. weh schreien. jao. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. to chirp. . guai. ochain. g. Thus from springs otjucifw. 6. or r. woe. at the close of the radical syllable. g. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. wd. grief. &. to sound yapyap. to lament. gwae. och. Let. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . och. Gr. ing action I. hei. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. vaj. ohg. guaj-ire. wAwa. on. the pangs of childbirth. Gael. to rriourn. aiai^to. Illyrian vaj. la. ! ! Goth. Bret. grief] affliction. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. misery. to weep.ez. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. weinen. mostly a ! %. form. Jar lau-lau. oh. 6. w. ache. to wail. It. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. The form corresponding to Lat. gwae. to yell formed e. to bewail oneself. xxxvi grief. dchzen. ahi. Lat. ochan. ocAJ.. to gargle. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. grief. ace. . DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. wai. representing Illyr. to injure. Gr. as. to weep. lament. I oi[iot. jaoh. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. w. It. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. pain. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. to . j. axofiai. probably a deeper groan. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. vce. oimare. misfortune. woe. pain. wehen (Schmeller). och. ohi. to ache. miau-l-er. It. wehthun. to hurt Let. vei-a. achen. to ache. seen in Gr. ach. lament from oimi. and cacak djeda (to say crack. oval. cece. miau-n-is. has more kopfweh. tirr-djeda.-l-are. n. wai. found in g. vce. e. w^wa.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

' all is is — their consent. according to Menage. Dr Lottner observes. as. is we I believe. Sie. or give me it. when he wants something. Thank you. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. But. nurseries. In the expression Da. thata (ta-ta). well as Goth. child. • The child. ' sees an object. da. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. when 1859. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). as to express. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. Phil. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. for instance. Please. a specified were by pointing him out. I add) . and by a variety of expressions besides.' this. 'nay. says da-da-da. but the truth is. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. . case. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. that is it.' person. his trowsers' pocket. more emphatically roSj)j that. Bav. and may be rendered. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. that. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. as it Dieser da (as Lat. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. implying the direction of its good will towards them.' then points to his wife. or wants to name something.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. Diet. give. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. ToSe (or in Attic E. saying : there the ad- Trans. the nursery da-da. When we pointing. give me that cheese. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. that gratifies me. to here . A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. this here. a word of many applications in g. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. and so on. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. The Fr. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. indeed. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. der da-ige. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. Sanders (Germ. we may translate this by there (it is). I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. da. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. or that it is. or carry me thither. is-te). the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.

Thus Gr. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. in every mode of expressing the idea. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. beat. moving. dadee. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. to knock. which thus exertion. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. of which any one may. strike. then instinctively interest. thinking. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. to say to oneself. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. meanings. the original is that which he places first. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. its desire. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. for which Johnson gives seventy taken.' says Muller. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. sinking. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. stutter. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. childish toying. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. takes it — as When the soul. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. or dalliance. or metaphor. to chatter. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. p.' • liv ANALOGY. to move step by step. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. and shapes it into an . to walk. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. standing. — Cot. speech. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add.^ its ' utters : a cry. . reality.' says Lottner interior. make dadada). pay. to tion to another. to beat. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. The da is dodem. and one in particular must. tattle. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. tasting. sounds.

outcry. spraka. kimistd. iclat (in Old Fr. bright. tumult. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. In the case of sparkle. scTiateren. brilliancy. Again. Du. think. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . to crackle. sprageti. to smack or taste. may be quoted gUt. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. to sniff. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. for example. noise. kiimottaa. to crackle gnistre. knistre. may be it explained . a brilliant light kilid. snuff the sniiten. properly a clap or explosion. man of nice taste. make a loud noise. Heo Du. while sapere itself. a rustling sound Gr. bilbilgoda (to make . The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to have Sapiens. to glitter. savour. to shriek with laughter . then which is a modification of the to twinkle. schiteren. esclat). is used in the origin. to resound. In the same way the Goth. firom the Gael. to quiver. taste. &c. snutrs. Finnish. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. which in ohg. snudra. ghsten. to . to sniff out. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. . the equivalent of g. magnificence. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to glisten Dan. It is The word bright had a similar In as. wamara. as kilind. sense of brightness. to sound clear In Galla. splendour. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to sparkle. discreet. So firom Lat. 1654. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. suspect Bav. and. to be wise. signified a clear sound. smell. and thence e. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. wise. knittre. tintelen. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. gnittre. unlella. rattle. — 1. and schmecker. fiapfiaipw. to snilF. to 5 ghtter. a dis- cernment. search . The 6. scheteren. beam. in popular language. a ringing . Lith. tinkling. from the . wilahtaa. clang. sound. to shine. (parallel bilbila. snotor. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. to tinkle. and figuratively. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. prudent. smell. to ring. to glitter. schmecken. as. also wise. to glitter. . chime). while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. air. sapere (which signifies the nose. to flash. same imitative root with Sw. bilbil). Bavarian bracht. Fr. to glitter e. snot.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to ring as a glass willata. we have and the and beorht. on. to shine. wilistd. beorhtian. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. a with kimmaltaa. in the domain of movement. splendour. then to sparkle. judicious. pracht.

in truth. pleasure soft to the ear . Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. the cross.' he says. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. extremely loose. tremour. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. Kpovtiv. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. to slide. the clank (stridorem) of chains. eo ut res vol. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. the neighing of horses. flow and flux. \nrap6e. rough both ways. kvTOQ. ipuKuv. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. KoWiiSije. The BpavEiv. pvfi^Civ. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. then in rpd/xoe. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. fitting the letters to the sense. of dressing loud. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. as soft by the ear. 1. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. briars. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. discusses the tone of a picture. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. gluey. sharp. smooth. power of the letter-sounds. 6\tadaveii'. whirl. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). inside. rough to the ear. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. within. break. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. we hear of screaming colours. or . rough. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. shatter. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. is felt Lana. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. and vepres. rend. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. &c. he framed the words ivSov. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. which The Stoics. rough. accordance with the way in which by touch. wool. itself letters are felt as sofl. he says. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. roughness. v. soft. . It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. Kep^arl'ieiv. crux. mel. in of his works. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. strike. the bleating of sheep. oily. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. Much of the same has been often quoted. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. Tpa)(yg. Acre. And observing that n kept the voice within.

we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. Fr. to reel abruptly from side to side). like the hand passing over is smooth surface. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. or checks as they are called by Muller. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. jig. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. to signify varieties of movement. the case of the voice. for exis ample. k.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. as when. t. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. jag. dig. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. A greater felt. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. p. 138). d. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. sag-oter. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. joli. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. a rough and sudden . stag (in stagger. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. stab. jog. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. rug. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. g. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. to jogj sac-cade. shag. 'and consequently form. shog. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. dag. ii. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. p. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . tug.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. jih. cular effort Again. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. corresponding to the ineor. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. degree of roughness sound. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. and in the utterance of a high or or low.

or check. properly a small lump'of . Mucken. tock. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. then. to tickle. &c. e. to winkj micati is Lat. sound barely audible. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. cica. that we never can be sure. Sukkeln. used interjectionally to represent a . as Italian tocco. is lanese toch. is made to signify movement. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to take a thing on tick. mie. kuk. tech-tech. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. Accordingly the g. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. To tick a thing off. in cases like the foregoing. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. kik. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. mik. schuckeln. to move rapidly to and fro. a jog. foot. to ring a bell. however. not to utter a syllable. to glitter. a cracker. as tot. lead to Spanish tocar. sound Fr. It. The Mipen or pencil. to pulses being knock. like English tick. and It. chic. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. Bolognese tocc. zack. a little bit. to On the same principle j we have g. Fr. so to Italian toccare. chique. zigzag.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. Ene olde suksuk. The train of . to stir. chicoter. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. The production of sound. a small bodily object. schockeln. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. to beat or play on a musical instrument. Illyrian migati. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. motion. and analogous movements. for the sound of knocking at a door. is so frequent a consequence of movement. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. a stroke with a French toucher. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. tecche-tocche. to mark it with a touch of the pen . to utter a slight kick. (mitsati). or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. to say a word . a . Dutch kicken. a quid of tobacco. an old worthless horse or carriage. a piece or bit of anything. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. Then. tack. a playiug-marble. also to stir. then. an infant . to strike It. figuratively. toch-toch. mica. Welsh cicio. S-panish miga.. to touch. Thus we have B. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. Brescian toch. and e. micare. movement. The analogy then carried a step further. a crum. a good piece of road . it produces Dutch micken. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . passing to the signification of motion. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. to incite by light touches. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. chiquet. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. to mutter. mot. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. Hence Lat. rough horse. g. Fr. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . The syllable suk is jerk. to have it ticked or marked on the score .

a bit. syllable mot. a sparrow). a certain conception. bunch or flock of wool. titilh. not an atom . seesaw. This kind. clay . it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. to tremble. Malagasy to. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. mote. further off. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. . subdued manner. . fragments It. and out there. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). to jog. Fr. eo. 199). not to utter a syllable. and a small lump of something. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. a small bird. this. we have e. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. mutter. tot. a morsel. small titlark. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable.- a jot or little It. little. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. taut. as in e. to e. here (close hand). mut. Cult. tottle. . titmouse (Du. . totle. a tot . ika. n. the least visible insect. fait. jot. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. ticktack. a. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . there '(at a short distance). we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. citto. . to dot. But the same is language has re Javan.n. 48) cites from the African Tumale. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. this . a small kind of lark. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. . Halliwell. a small quantity. small of kind. and mite. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. tot. to whisper (Pr. e. little j to that of a small bodily object.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. or the converse. there (further of!) ao. neither moit nor an atom. zitella. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. a small horse. tiny. to movement of the pen . or o toi. gno. tit. that iku. here. To jot. a whisper. lump of earth. a small lump or pat. corresponding to the personal pronouns. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. In a similar the relations of place. to touch lightly with a pen. Du. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. lix Sp. tittle. for the three personal pronouns. the same organ touched with the man. to jot down or note with a fro. to make a slight mark. a morsel girl . In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. tozzo. e. tot. titter. the vowel sound. tot. of movement in totter. anything small flax. a lad citta. and dot. So. or the like its It. 0. mutter j dust. ri that. tit. and he. there. iki. mossche. zitio. that. (Halliwell) Da. Pm. at where the order is inverted. Then.) . gnu. a light quick blow. motte. a girl. mot. you. often entirely arbitrary. a bit. motta. I. chico. gni. anything . not because the pendulum makes a different left. a little titty. a e. . . for the beating of a clock. move slightly to . The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. The following table from Tylor (Prim. is shown in murmur. and toddle like a child titter. to touch. i. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag.

that in the distance. Then. mother. femina ama.) nna. Abchasian aSn. there. no constant rule is observed. this fi. and origin. as the act of pointing was ta. /mya. .. Lat. father. here j abe. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). here 5 Yoruba na. there. thou. mother. Fernandian az. Chilian tva. ojOo. bi. Japan ko. Mutsun ne. Guarani nde. . Magyar ez. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. . mas cheche. . this <t. that (intermediate) j wana. that. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-.. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. that. small (Pott.araM. ndi. It seems to (fen. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. me probable that • Vei also little.. that. as in Italian Fin. . Zulu ajoa. here j ka. father k . j Canarese ivanu. mother. ne. here feraa. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. that. that. qu. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. respectively. he. km. ulri. this ole. . ukko. there. is Here. an old woman chacha. to. tiiio. 6. /wo. an old . olo. Gr. here . you. is father. that. ni. Carib ne. Mm. this . he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. w. child. The vowels a and o sound of the voice.. (tt). that. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. Tarahumara ibe.) pronunciation of i or e. /e«. as Mr Tylor remarks. akha. thou ni. uta. this . that. there. Sahaptin (America) kina. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. there. ni. he. usho. ofj. and a for the female. that. nne. biii.e^. young one. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. ta to ka. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. little. this . here this . thou . Ossetic am. Botocudo ati. here . It Carib lala. Tamul i. probably initial of distinction that the k. man erne. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. this . Dhimas isho. ita. . there. loo). minution further. ^. I . there. for the male. . child.

And perhaps the E. keeh. to tread. nil. a little yellow beard. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. trap. The Sw. looking through between obstacles. lift 8. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. The sound trapp . principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. tion. trappen. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. stairs. trippelen. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. at pippe frem is to spring forth. for instance. Clank represents the sound of something large. nab. don-don. barking of a dog. sound of bells . analogous to winy-piny. Thus we have Wolof sopa. for the . tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. din-din. to peep. the principle of reduplication. to teet. and in the Pacific dialects. a child. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. trippen. wenig. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. the idea is called. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. Da. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. . nipple. as j money. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. a step. the simplest mode by the g. Top. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. trSpigner. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. trappa. &c. pepin. knob. dance (Kil. A little weeny thing. little. i Sw.' making the voice as small as possible. in old e. From cases like the foregoing. as ding-dong. to make its way through the bursting envelope. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du.' — Merrv Wives. titta. Fr. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. murmur. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. the nursery few j Sc. to peep through. has tittafrem. repetition It. wean. or even. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. — Douglas Virgil.) . the pip or pippin. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. fretful. to begin to appear . 401.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. just beginning to appear. little To sup up. to feet. or chink. for a succession of light blows low-wow. whence Fr. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. is to express simple continuance of action. to leap. of smaller things. A little wee face with little. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam.

very bad. kendagenda. child . And generally. to rock. or el. clamito. Malay ayun. ding-ding. bad . rack click. The same principle of 196. and the words express a continued sound of rack. Mandingo ding. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. rapidity and strength. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. lololoa. from Maori muka. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. the lungs. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. properly speaking. very great. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. Thus in E. kenda. to call frequently from Fr. racket. little child (p. or very very great. repetition or continsignify long. kamha-gamla. a spot. &c. to vi^alk about for flax. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r.' expression is — ^Tylor. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed.. a clattering noise. a grasshopper. smallness. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. (to use a to speak. to talk at to walk. in familiar use with ourselves. didi. So from clamo. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . to skip. . wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). are echoed by the rudimentary et. clash of weapons. mawhiti. er. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. . although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. Susa di. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. and Fr. or in Fr. puka. the and clique. child . to say pooh It is ! to. random . Thus in the Pacific loa. sopasopa. to cover e. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. amusement. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. keep spots. mpolu is uttered. click. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. a cradle. or a little tee--ny thing. 99). loloa. puka- puka. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. very long (Pott. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. could readily be conceived. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. or rdtchi. tache. instead of being actually repeated. to or rub. hardness. 97). to to call. if very young. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar.Ixii REPETITION. to treat with contempt. calling. tach-et-er. the comparative degrees of greatness. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. the agent in panting . to pant. to love. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. is language. ratsi-ratsi. serves to show and in this way. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. ayunayunan. rack. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. Cult. or imitative syllables. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. cliqu-et-is. Again. i. mawhitiwhiti.

dabble. to make bau-bau. to rock or wag. to make a succession of shoves. joggle. fickle. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. The contrivance with any particular noise. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. from puka.Jicol. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. a succession of cracks to rattle. syllable clat . has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. which. or by association. shuffle. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. miauler andpiauler.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. itself. by the side of wanken. others. The Fr. g. to move to and fro. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to bark like a dog. Jickfacken. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . in used for dealing with an object by the hand. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. to rock. in some applications. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. crack. a from ayun. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. compared with g. miauler and beler correspond to E. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to hand-le. or omitted. wavering. jogging. the knie-en to E. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. kneel. draggle. waggle. wagas ging. to continue dragging. are to cry mew and pew . either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. or fi bau. and in as. rubber. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. to make a succession of grabs . cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . to make gug. bub. mew and baa . or Maori puka-puka. it. smack. wankeln. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. in Fr. In cases like these. or in e. dab. to wail woe . the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. the lungs (the puffers of the body). then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. as to handle. wankel. where all direct connection with sound is lost. wancol. such asjlap. rynel. without the intervention of the frequentative element. he who rubs. Piedmontese bau-l-S. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. bubble. is In e. to hand. as mAS. Ihre remarks under gncella. to puff. to crackle. guggle. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail.

we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. or in mode of use. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. known in Italian. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. by a hard body breaking. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. which is the origin of the word. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. and comparatively few easily deceived. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . Dupe comes to us from the French. the breach. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. deceit. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. Polish. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. moreover. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. on a moment's reflection. at was more familiarly known. which. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. A gull or a dupe same sense. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. although it is not difficult. will continue to be felt in daily speech. There is. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. Breton. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. or in aptness to combine with other elements. or how generally. to the separation between the broken parts. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. to cry ugh at. it is obviously a mere chance how long. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study.

and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. is. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. Hitl^erto. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. life. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. language is . it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the word is used in a secondary sense. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. founded in manifest blunder. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. however. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. . ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. nor any limited of ideas. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form.

I think it very probable. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. and 'Russian. 330. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. evique. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). French. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. compared with the duration of man. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. and vescovo. guages in South America. therefore. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. If English. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used .' — But even tendency to in civilised life. circle perpetrates a new slang term. out. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. change. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. hearing. of material things. Naturalist on the Amazons. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. i. in the course of many years' isolation. episcopus. unintelligible to other hordes. Welsh. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates.

9. to be taken (Prim. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. 6. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. the actual it which would to represent. Cijlt. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. ancient Greek M . are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. and . A key must unlock more doors than this. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. i. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. which are idenr Figures 5. The combination of the symbols I and 2. 8. it will leave figures 3 and 4. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. as shown in the subjoined illustration. Nor is there one of the letters. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 7.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. . a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. is MN. ao8). or whatever the proportion may be.

The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. or." the use of a change of vowel in as. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. for instance. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. which either by direct resemblance of sound. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive.' should be discovered. had its origin in imitation of sound. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. what comes to the same thing. leading him to utterances. and the only safe beneficent Creator. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. in the shape either of direct inspiration. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. his fellows. known to us as yet.

for instance. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or else. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. until the progeny. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. or of their own reflected thoughts . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . as elephants. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or beavers. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. by animal without a trace name of Man. race were speaking men or not. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. or not. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and sooner or later. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . that he started from the lowest grade. of using imitative conduct .COMPLETION OF MAN. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . the conduct of Ixix life. in the course of generations. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. and when we look back as far as history will reach. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. and rose towards a higher state of being.

Gr. Diet. Dief. E. Supplement to Bret. Bavarian. Supplement to Dueange. Diet. Bigl.Nieder.-Eng. Grammar Boh. Gothischen 1851. 1737. Provincial dialect. . Catalan. 1857. Diet. Cimbrisch. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Due. Castr. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Dn.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Brem. Cot. Romano - Cas- traise. Anglo-Saxon. Cotgrave. B. Dueange. Bohemian or Czech. Infimse Latini- D. Da. Elfric's Fl. Sup. dial. Diefeiibach. Cimbr. Dief. Wtb. Dueange. 1768. de la langue Cat. Couzinid.. Carp. Esth. or Dan. 1850. AS. 1654. 1766. Diefenbaeh. Finnish. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Douglas' Virgil. Esthonian.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Bremisch. Fin. at the end of Somner's Diet. Biglotton seu Diet.V. Carpentier. Teutonico-Lat. dialect of the Sette Commune. Baile/sEngl. Bav. ^Ifr. Fr. Dutch. English. Danish.



tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. woman r. alUger ahaverie r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. Blob plowied r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r.percurrunt kimista^x. yjnaifia r.>. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. cruccio deyrie. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . (/ijtf r. sveritet Asknace r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. r. kilistaa bugiie r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. r. puHti r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. katowai perairrantr. r. baltresca nokkutomax. plowied budowaer.5 ERRATA. word allagerr. willekom Blab r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. haverie crtOT r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r.nokkutama willekem. buque 118 brodiquin r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. cti. Askance woud r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. ^i?^i2! r.


first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. The word Ban is common orders. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. In Lat. AS. 843. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. dominion. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. 244. literally. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. a/tan. Dent posture. downwards. Jvery man shewid baft. to hold . baftan. Parson's Tale. in a manner other than it should be ablution. ir. command. on. as. to sauff the king or spill. power : Than Wallace thing. but now )bsolete). ur. of-dune. rule. ab. compounds. be-ceftan. to arise. abs. on-bsec . The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. implying a completion of J. from a is to wake to abide. out of. To abuse is to use iway. K . to awake. er. —Bruce. his. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. announcement. iway from. . Ab-. Abs-. and — Chaucer. Abandon. Abaft. Passing tongues. particular 1 . and secondarily in that of command. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. said. state of sleep . in the same sense.t G. the er. a washing off to abstain. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. behind. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. this word beand Spanish. A.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. vs. until the event jlace . a. from. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. ar. ifter. bandon in French. AS. off. OHG. away from. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . into the Romance ftrseg . Thou spelds of mychty iction. o/j of or . sion of 'an abandoned character. abaft. in. Lat. "rom a height. Thus ip N3S. alike. Immediately from Fr. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. orders. dominion. as. an edict or proclamation. on. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. ibandonner. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. plesyt him. us. Again. onis aback. have entire dominion over.he Goth. whatever he be. away. Hence on-bceftan. erwachen. on-lic. to subdue. among.

to take possession of an estate. beer. impetuously. to ruin.down. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. and that from Syrian abba. abbatere. and sets them all agape. burny. c. astony. or admiration. Beat. to strike Froiss. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Hence the OE. burny was formerly burnish . Milton. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. to hit. thing abbatere le vela. in the active form. ne more vermeille. polish. esbahissais. merely the terminations ons. uncontroUedly. with or without a final sh. and grooms besmeared with gold. Cotgr. shame. Custom. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. Abbey. castle. his eyen shene. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. an abbey. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. abandonly. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. bandon. de. terminedly. and it that that it — . 1520. or society of abbots or monks. Hence Lat.' the surrender of a ' K. his mouth. effect of shame.esbawi. abate. and the verb was written in Eng. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille.— R. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. d. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. abbatia. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid.On princes. See Abide. depress. other. to bate something of the price abbatersi. by Wall. father. down. abbatere dal prezzo. weaken. person. adverbial expressions at abandon. from Lat. R. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to make lower. to put to con. It. where custom (Grandg. See . from ravir. to diminish the force of any. confound. to happen. Abbot. And he thereof was all abashed. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. overthrow. Bate. . et prirent terre.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. — — . Wall.— — . to beat furnish. at his own the lips. esbahissant.Prov. son bandon. drink. baba. abbatis. baer. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. impulse. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to overthrow. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. esbahir. of the Fr. Abbess. iv. faire tomber. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. 1 1 8. lish to abaisse orabaish. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to abaw or astonish. of wonder. esba.) . abbas. bawi. to astonish. so common in the found in the OFr. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. vol. to strike sail . — Neccham. as ravish. R. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. to The . most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. I was abawid for merveille. ais. . Many English verbs of a similar deriv.fournir. to excite admiration. To Abate. may be explained. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. to gape. betrash. R. of fear. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. Hart in Jamieson. abaundunem-ent. to light upon. law term abatement. astonish. A. ant. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. Baba ! Mod.polir.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. Originally. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. In or. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. On the other in use as well as hand. 364s. More correctly written abbat. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. Fr. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . abbattre. Castrais.

and E. — II. to ance. is idenwait. abidan. . which is certainly related to It. beter. bidan. to yawn. to expect. white. a right in suspense . on the one hand. songer. Goth. badar. beidan. qui iaaille. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. bouche bdante. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). beguiling on the other. take notice. Guernsey beth. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. to attend to. othres abidan' The effacement expect. pense. bida. beijen. abaier. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. John. . the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. to stay. take care. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. Abie. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. — signifies to suspend action. baier. bana. abSiance. In We . to open bader. to deanimer. abayer. lingering. in Dan. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Boethius. with badia. attendre avec en^pressement. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father.) abayer. de Berri) Prov. to stay. to look. have seen abide. compared with (Bosworth). Norm. syllable ba. us. E. baier compared with It. speaking of the Holy places. ^couter avec dtonnement. ' ' . ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. . to tarry. From abahier. delay. 366. (Vocab. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. Q. Gloss. Gloss. deceit. exciter. to It. baer. abeter. to remain or endure. delay. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned.was formerly used in the sense of look. which the mind to an object. expectation. Cat. beijden. bie compared with Dan. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. tity of E. to wait. deceiving. regarder. tenere a bada. and in E. inciter. delay. suffer b. aspirer. bder. Pol. guardare. to desire earnestly. ne wist what way to chuse. to open the mouth. from Halo. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. Corant sens lui. we sceolon ON. literally white tree. trick abetar. says. intent observation. bocca badata. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. beidan. bhr. bada. bouche b^ante. Abele. abeyance. Prov. desire. endurance. the verb of abeyance. warten. —Raynouard. Thus we have It.. in Fr. open the mouth. to suffer death in Du. or in Fr. K. de Champ. also to OFr. ceive. to abide . to hook. suspense. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. abiiance. abet. beguile. abie. wait.' is in AS. tarrying . Ni engigner ni abiter. endurArt thou he that should come. tical with It. to be intent upon. The verb atwaiting. ne chastised them. usbeisnei. to In great amaze. look for another. or absorption watching. listen. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. incite . wait To Abide. baier. Cat. Ducange. to be intent upon. to wait. tempting. — ABELE Epiphanius. to mind. abetter. Quant voit le serpent. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. with open mouth . to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. badare.— Roquef. . a bay or opening in the coast. badigliare. Corresponding to keep in suspense. verbeijen Sw. inciting. badare. To Abet. bida. Thus G. attendre See Bait. to attend on . and Prov. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. or do we AS. abie. and alluring to his own destruction. desirer (Roquef. badare. covet. to desire. to expect gabeidan. to gape . Fabl. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. abet. to deceive.Fr.— Chaucer. — . I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . Du. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. house.to wait. m Abeyance. were called Brothers. bide of the d endure. gola badada. waiting. 1 • . expectfamily.— ^richer. watch. . The white poplar. while the monks under his control ing. F. forbearance. OFr. beijen. to wait. abbadare. forms with the d effaced are OFr. See Abide. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. gridare. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. b^er. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. aspire to. listening. signifies the direction of tend. bialodrze-w. Norm. expectation. bie.

as habiller du chanvre. atling hem to her proper offices. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. abilh. was often used in the same sense. L. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . How dearly I abide that boast so vain. N. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. Q. — Able. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. Boucher. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. and Cr. must suffer for it. the Pardoner In the original. R. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. at hand). from Lat. Abie. suffer the Jul. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. as E. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. power. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. —Bacon in R. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. P. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. being disabled in the highest degree. abie to Goth. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. use. al- be found so some will dear abide it. him with che. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. AS. i. abolir. . the Sir Tristrem. habilis (from habeo. — P. to redeem. Tr. at kasta fyri bord. Prol. O If tion. the Fr. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. when compared with Aboard. ON. within the ship. abide. Spenser. Cassar. in for any special purpose. properly abuy. abie. 2. R. fit. God tokeneth and assigneth the times.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. 2nd Tale. abycgan. Wickliff in Richardson. abigg. bide. abidge. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. For on board. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. the side of a ship. to draw fowls. to dress hemp. F. ! ! Cotgr. is the verb abie. abicgan. Milton. to perish. fault being simply clothing. abeye. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know.^and to make his power knowne. durance in both applications. The —Boucher. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. from AS. Chaucer. to . habilis is closely preserved. a board. Merch. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. habile. If it badare. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. bord. Innan bords. beidan. within the walls of a ship. Lat. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. strong. to wear away. de la volatile. sufficient. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. purpose. to have . God. on board . to pay the penalty. Fr. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. Fr. or bie. powerful. &c. She shall abie that trespass dere. and death for handsel pay. expert. convenient. God — dear. without special reference to the notion of retribution. In this to erase or annul. and the simple buy. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. Dr. able.ynes. Mids. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. forbid for mother's children should abye. It. P. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. — e. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. bidan. willing to schewe his wrathe. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. consequences of anything . to pay the purchasemoney. though sometimes confounded with it. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. have-like. abilej Prov. adapted . aboleo. while in later examples As I .

al is growth.ymbutan. to fatten. to cut short. to break off. Of these synonymous adolescere. or young forth.. Sc. The radical idea is to feed the flame. abowen. and alere flammain. Virg. abracan. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. ala is made to signify to rear. olet become worthless through gam De manji af.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. Then. to produce. to grow together. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man.' Parson's rence. boven. leading immediately to Fr. alere capillos. be-ufan. and in-d-oles. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). to beget or give birth to children. to grow up. which passed into English under Abominate. around on the out. break out. coalesco. to let sleep. while the verb alleThe root el. as withotityn and without. Tale. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. s —Casdmon. gravis. motion. to AS. alan. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. becomes leu in Prov. titan. draw out. Finnish stock. Quod abominor. OSw.. heavy. to rear. seems aras. nurse Lat. abbrechen.aboon. Above. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. Thence to regard greugetat. the OSw. breaking out in language. while the sense of beget. to light a fire the Abraid. parent. abutan. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. Melibaeus. giving birth to. and to do something to avert abbreviate. to rear. the identity of which with ting. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. OE. snatch In English we speak of away. gravity. to bring up. as AS. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. Abray. the hair grow. for ligeth butan. literally. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. from Fr. awaking. abufan. which may God avert. ABOMINABLE adolesco. to progress. AS. to turn. and also. adolere. Prov. Du. a portent). pedigree from brevis. the idea of breaking about . progeny. Kiittner. — ' — — preceding verb. his contemporaries. way Sw. be-utan. Goth. agredge. without. alUger. alan. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. sec seftre — Chaucer. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. the form a&^^. en. outward.) . abredan. To abray or abraid. and bidden him abregge. Thonne Abroach.the older form. to awake. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. side. abominor (from ab and omen. kindling. natural ed direct from the latter language. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. Severe the threatened evil. Lat. abbrechen.' Ymb hancred utan. So in Lat. to feed. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. abbreviare. For on broach. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. Fr. to nourish. hard. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. to snatch. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. disastrous portent in some passing oc. ala. AS. . that greatly agredge their sin. See -und-. ol. the man dwindles away. explains soboles Lat. nourish. to feed. whence the Fr. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. to start. In the same brevis . AS. nurse. levis to the Romance languages. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. on high. but from Lat.ger. abrcBgdan. to aggravate. Abrdger itself. above. about cockcrow. brood. by the to bring up. af-oolden. af-oleii. d. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. and also to abridge. of any kind . the vital spark. Gael alaich. D. as the duty of nourdisposition. below. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. butan. oil. OE. ufan. To Abound. vital PI. greu. common in Chaucer and Abominable. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. agreujar. The primitive idea seems that of beget. or cut short.— Abbreviate. abrdger. is a ively.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat.1. full ofte his words for to Fr. to main. — . is not from G. onbutan. life. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. from . See To Bray. Abundant. . signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. bufan.foda signifies to beget.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. currence.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


whence Prov. choke. should be received. from the imitative habits of monkeys. from ango. were chiefly of the former class. Gr. Ilvtwotov. to strike. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. and ig. . the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. some one. to strike G. from ante. Any. rich. trouble. gabeigs. Lat. from eigan.—Aperture. aperio. Jorioc. Aperient. anticus. Antler. to support. all of gold. a small quantity. and claret wine. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. —Spencer. one having wealth. Percutere. Antick. E. swaged. left as the . But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. eigs. verberas. Fr. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. as from as. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. So Lat. To ape. three antike pillers. to strain. apertum. separate purpose. avri^ava. plenteously with red.th centuries the recognised models of antic. cenig. as posticus. and devils. from in and cudere. As the browcalled antiques. post. amboltj Du. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. Anxious. apatiar. from Stephanus. panis. ReApe. a few. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. See Cover. a block to hammer on. from avTiipoiuia). from an and — - . possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. Gr. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. Gr. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. Thus from gabe. one. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. Fr. finally applied to a whether grotesca. d<popi(xnbs. transferred to the grotesque characters. to nourish. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. a preventative . aside. which by anvild. younger child. andouillers. to have. one at the least. Pezron fiUist. to go in strange disguises. from.— . In like manner. Apartment. To go antiquely. Lat. Aphorism.made out. to open. to imitate gestures. bread. ambeld. a termination equivalent to Goth. villan Gloss. Otfried. Hence the applica. before. Antique.D. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. a definite . anxius. to bring forth. antefn. Prov. to sound in answer. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. apanage. AS.. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. something ler in R. Apartment. to display pario. the anticks — behind. : . or antique single chamber. ab. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. of. stem. or in a ridiculous dress. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Antidote. white. a gift. Ful- Apanage. panar. in Shakespear. anxi. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. inAgain from the same author cudis.legacy of given against. were andouiller the second. whence anthem. as the Italians. part. surimitation of the ancient models. wealth. but the expresent day. Hall's Chron. af. from an. from. like a jack-pudding. strangle. such as savages. before. what Roman civilisation. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. AS. — — — . Fr. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. d. burnished. anfilts Pl. vex. Lat. incus. Anvil. antifena. Apart. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. anapoz. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. G. set aside. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. as we call it.is to be given. a puppet or an anti^hona. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. work. press. on. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. AS. Lat. Mannequin. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. fauns. separate. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. i.

fit- — ness. to take away or lose the vital powers. S^. to deem good. Fr. OFr. Fr. Hence appoind. apprendre. irpaiKOKiaov. Fr. to make a thing Apparel. Pliny.t. apal. away. to set a price on. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. consent unto. 11. — Apprise. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. approcher. aptly. Lat. —^Apparent. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Yr. Palsgr.pareil. Formerly apricock. pertain or belong to. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. AS. And whanne sum men Lat.— . apin R. dress. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. to catch hold of. or E. Apple. known.his giving evidence against his principal. appellare. that it outfit. prope (comp. to lose one's senses. Appease. from. manner. Walach. horror. Cotgr. From Lat. Lith. apprentis. allow. 5w. set a price on. proper time came. and appoinder (to find fitting. appaiser. to deter- to strike. seiden of the stones. to seize. to be open to view. — Approve. 23 . value apprdder. APRICOT off. Yr. Prov. plight. to approach. in commendation. poind. H. to rate. Gr. Apoplexy. The PI. esteem. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. apprehendere. to suit. apprise. : — — speak 'Lz. Gr. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. jabloko. properly to join like to like. a crime. habiliments. array. to approve. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. Appareil. The Fr. taking. xv. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. They were considered To Appoint. to send off. Fr. prover. order. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. Apostle. a thing for one's purpose. Prov. To cause to pall (see Pall). Sp. to dress in this fashion. of. word was specially applied to clothing. one for his defence. — dirondtfiu. to store or put Appal. Approach. and metaphorically to take the meaning. one is in. apar. were formed appropiare ejar.propius). in fact. in data. in Chaucer. ap. despatch on some service. ciously than nede is. whether through age or sudden teiTor. pronounce fitting). oVooroXof. Epistle. Cotgr. habilUr. Ir. Hence It.parecchio. a learner. corresp. to fit. Nouv. decree. . to disable oftat. equal.prix. ^wss. Fr. to commend. to — — . from paix. par. become dizzy . Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. and in the sense of condition. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. — Appurtenance. find Then like Fr. after his mind . diminutive pariculus. An old appalled wight. probare. apropid. like. It. For their acquaintance was not come of new . to which it is often referred. e. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. cepl. To Appraise. to come near. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. prize. from aTroorlXXu. agreeing with "LtA. agree. APO sentence opoQ. approver. poind. From Gr. when the . To Appear. pronounce good. pretium. ai. obolys. —Diez. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. Fr. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. d-n-o. one sent out. trim. the good. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. . Apprehend.probare. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. near. apparecchiare. appartenir. praise. good. En peach. laven is used both as E. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. 'LaX. appareiller. They werin his approvirs privily. to assign or grant over unto. Fr. to call. to mark to define a bound. lAfiaam. purpose. kind of action. iwKjToKri. Apo- good time. Parson's Tale. appris. 'L-zX. one the MLat. prohts. opportunity. ON. Fr.parejo. Mod. Cent Nouv. to finish a controversy. make a composition between parties. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. or the like. and also as appraise. D. Gr. to understand. to send to. piteux poind. Fabian in R. — prehendere. to announce.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. From Lat. to call for judgment. A — .—Apprentice. And among other of his famous deeds. to — . diroTrXriaatii. in good season prendre son d. to accord. N. a'^opi'Jw. peace. i. approcdare. peler. quoth the frere. a price. case. off. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. landmark. preparation. w. To praise. . to Lat. (cited by Diez from a late author). to learn. Cotgr. Gr. to deaden. diroBrjKr}. to learn. appareo. whence the e. ar. apropchar. aparelhar. I prise ware. pragigua or prixcoda. Apotliecary. to strike down. mine. avail. rise to \t. Friar's Tale. apal. like. an epistle or letter.

. be That it inne groweth. a lot. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs.meaning at Shrewsbury. to plough. arpa. to preserve it from stains. suitable. water Which that benchid was. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. OHG. aro. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. aa. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. as ihe diminutive. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. It may be doubted. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. derived. as an eye-witness. wata. tion under trial. Flower and Leaf. Naprun. Pm. Thus we have natiger and auger. arwaus. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. Lat. Pr. nawl and awl. or barm-cloth. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. arbitrium. and thence fit. C. sestimatio arbitraria. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. . herbere. and taken away before dessert. grande nappe. found in Fin. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. It is certain that the apricot oracle. account for either of these significations. con. to decide by lot. OE. {mies ^=ia3. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. Prol. As is a pretty parlour. aptus. J. sortium ductor. pracoqua was not an adapt. or eft. . and sortilegus ation. hariolus arpelen. doubtless is the origin of E. conjectura conjec^ra. garden. delon. Lat. Alban. ughe. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. however. proper. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. Now one of the points — — — . Aquatic. a lot. rofe and all. ahva. is taken in is a soothsayer. 2. . She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. arbiter in re censendS. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. aestimo. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. short. and a protection of the clothes. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . la nappe. Marsh. a lot. Freshly turnid Arable.sors. P. scr.] in the N. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. a soothsayer. Maan initial . conjicio. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. ear. Now we find in Fin.. Albanian. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. intensitive of nape. A. the spelland umpire. nected. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. arwelo. aha. words derived from arpa. 31. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other.o. P. and the one who gives oracles. arbiter. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. a pleasure-ground. man. Lat. She made. properly the arwella.shrubs {arbor). divining rod. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere.' —About. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. and with turfis new Goth. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. — . a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. however. shortdr. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. Arbitrate. of of divination arpa-mies.) E. From OFr. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. Arbour. Gr. Roquefort. This path Aqueous. a cloth. auguror. symbol. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. The loss or addition of n very common. fastened close. — napkin is Naperon. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. sorcerer. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. arbitror arwaaja. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. a river. Beryn. 331. ap. From OE. opinio. naperon. Hall. quod he. aqua. most conspicuous situation in the garden .

gwyro to bend. an extent of flat surface. ON. There can be no doubt that E. Uo^a^. det arrigste snavs. Langobard. arma. wanton. A construct. Lat. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. bad. From apxeiov was formed Lat. arwe. . curved. arch-bishop. from areo. to be on fire. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. wretched OE. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. .4 rir/. a burning or setting on fire. worker. are formed the participial nouns. and must be identified with Dan. aridus. apxtlov. arrig. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. fabricate). whence the body of the nobles collectively. ars. make clear or prove. arguo. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. especially shoulder-joint. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. arrant Arms. weapon. kpxi- beginning. sly. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. apxh. argr. . Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. G. From the verb armare. sly. D. Arcadia in R. Lat. to arm. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. bad of its kind. Fr. ardeo. Arm. the terminaGael. in Due.. Du. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. from nixa. burning heat. TiKToiv. arcA in e. a bare plot of ground. and not with apx. troublesome. the best. as in E. by Russ. un malin enfant. Lat. ' — Argue. un petit rusd. an arch boy. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. Arid. arson. forearm .. the most arrant trash. * ArchjAiTaxit. which is derived from it. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. lofty. mischievous. timid. earg. man. ^Argument. Cot. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. Lat. Fr. The . aj-f. archangel. Lat. arga. apx^iv. — Architect. Arson. and our army. arg. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. Alisaunder. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. Sax. ardre. Gr. Dan.— Army. a noble. a.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. first. an arrant rogue. vocaveris. een erg kind. an arrant usurer. morally bad. which has been referred to W. W. a threshing-floor. signifies chief or principal. difficult to reach. sluggish. curved line. faint-hearted. a court yard. to demonstrate.' Lex. raineno. Ardour. Lat. a branch. Gr. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus.is the natural weapon of offence. — Wtb. exercise lordship). and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. arduus. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. erz-bischof. Arcliives. Perhaps erz-wticherer. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. bravest. AS. arm. Gr.aioj. earm. rame. to be in comp. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. 3340. gwyrek. a bow. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. a chief builder. ardIn G. Gr. ramo (pi. argvitugr. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Area. arcus. ers-betriiger. area. and Kpurka. apxtipfve. malicious. apxri. while the Fr. erg. is essentially the same word. Fr.' the Gr. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. G. to rule. arm. Arduous. the a brute. ardor. ancient. armata. taxed with cowardice. to dry. patus). Arch in composition. erz in G. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. ein arger knabe. Aristocracy. to burn . fainthearted. . bad. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. vescovo. branch. shoulder. an arch-deceiver . It. shoulder Boh. stuff. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. as the arch of a bridge. receptacle where the public acts were kept. adjective. ruling by the nobles. . arsum. contemptible. et vulgari verbo. Ardent. Sp. earh. ramend). 2. ill-tempered. Applied in modern E.' Paul Warnefrid. mischievous. a rule (princiruler. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. high. Lat. government. armada. armee. Lat. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). i. Du. And thou as arwe coward.In E. to Arch. weapon may be simply an application of annus. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . the court of a magistrate. arm'ee. Brem. it signifies roguish.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

on the shore. OHG. blister. ing. balge. . Du. a water-skin dim. to roll. dial. balk. a pestilence. bolker. ballo. Fr. shouting. malefacGower in R. F. . ballare. balka hopar. Bret. floor. and evil in general. a pill. balle. on. . sorrow. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. to paddle in water . Boll.Lat. To Bale out water. Hence. dial. a ball balla. OSw. on. to bale out. balka bunge. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. a ballad. package of goods. to move. vcdra bdlkr. N. Perhaps on. balk. ballare. 3. on. Sw. Wotton. whether of wood or stone. bolyaf. pilula. weak liquor. calamity. bol. baalien. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. a ball. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. bbllr bulla J. stage or scaffold. Russ. globule. It. bollr.' speak gibberish champurrar. bolawy. to Not sparing wight. to avoid it.ing. may exhibit the original development of the signification. Da. ON. Sw. Ball. w. says Ray. beaten road. a balk of foul weather. afbalka. The primary sense seems as in G. (Hesych. baloier. bola. pallukka. to rock. Du. Ballata. balk. destruction.—Ballad. G. pila. bala. AS. wickedtorment ON. Bale. Sw. a scene acted in dancmg. a dance. a. balla (with the augm. * Balk. a skin. . ball. a But making way for death at large to walke. Hence Dan. to ail. Mid. a washing-tub. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. a division of the old laws. maleficium. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing.). to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. to on Holmedon's plain. to signify washy drink. bal. bol. a ball or pack. To baulke the Sir H. a dance. Sw. It. It. Sw. with the perhaps from balg. bjdlki. I. ill. — A — — . Fr. a beam. a continued noise of waves gently beating . ball. baler. E. ball. hue et illuc inclinare. misery Du. balle. and the dim. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. ne leaving any balke. e.Fr. a bubble. ' is a piece or confused talking. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . hooting. It. a globe. a ball. Baulke of land. a beam. Fin. dial. a clump . to by beams. to be balker. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. bold. to be ill. torment. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. balveins. Da. a wooden partition . similar connection is seen in Sp. sickness. ballare. tum. See Gall. Balloon. . i. boleii. a great ball. Ugutio in Due. Fr.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. at giore en balk. wickedness ness . It. Goth. a clod of earth water. a ballot). trouble. Gr. Ballot. pallo. to dance. Grief. Bowl. We have then separate dial. ball. pallo. boll. uveirs bolk. to see-saw. are applied to a From the same analogy. a clapping or flapping of wings. ballet. to cause another to miss pustule. from bacquet. dial. palcare. to partition off . bealwes. Venet. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. to wave. a ball. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). balken. bal. to stir.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. vacillare. to pack Da. lealo. bacgtteter. Sp.of men . balk. a separate portion. a together in the form of a ball. ballone. 2. balva-vesei. a pail. gen. to shake or jog. bdlkr. chapurrar. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. TtaKKa a pail or tub . a boil. balle. bielke. cka. bolyatchka. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. balkr. Q. G. ballotta. other while. pallikka. A balk. as we say. palla. balka. the breadth from side to side . separaison. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. mass. Pol. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to plank. a ball. Sw. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. plague. sick. OFr. Bohem. palloilla. grieve . probably Lat. taich.— Ballet. maan pallikka. to speak an un. bal-daed. baalie. roof. Dan. to dance. ballar). Sw. In like manner Fr. balle. balloon. bal. . to plough for a boundary between lands. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. balken. balare. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Gael. a partition. Rouchi ban. pain. to ache. Sw. Ball. to grieve . as in a barn or cow-house. ballan. the object of his expectation. balja. ban. the beam of a ship. . ache. heap up. the ballet of the theatres.

If bambocciolare were child of one. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. last. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. like Fr. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. Mr Marsh whether the a load. by met. barandado. curse. in the first place. the flower of the pomegranate. In OSw. balconies. Fr. astonished.Lat. Dan. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr.' And Kil. . for want of other freight. This is the backload. a false tale or jeer. Gr. urtica.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. baranda. To make fun of a person. of balusters. from bara or vara. bambolo. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. called Bait. galleries. terraces. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. lestage. or movement of one who walks. To proclaim. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. inutile onus. enchanter. A — — . railing around altars. Du. paid for the right of carriage.that the going vessels. back of the ship. ballustres. deceive. endormir par des contes. a duty on goods last. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. To Ban. Report Pennsylv. bambocciolo. it is forced to take in stones or sand. baUa. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. Cotgr. bamboccio. lastagium signified not only ballast. 1. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. is in Sweden and Norway. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. to walk. make fun of a person. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. the act of walking. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. explains ballast.). bag-las. to preserve equilibrium. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. a useless load. lastra. balsamum. Sc. because. Venet. to enchant. small railing. a battlement . and Mid. — — oltriga. bag-lest. baU. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. dial. more frequently than outward-bound. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. lest. It. 43 — Cot. deceiver. baume. Bret. age. To Bamboozle. Said to be from balaustia. Sp. the backload. It is explained back by Adelung. Balluster. R. from Lat. forbid. balustrade barandilla. bertesca. ^Arbuthnot in R. Baltic. But Fr. ballustre) is a corruption. Fr. puzzled. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. i860. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. To Bam. lastre. seems the original form of the word. little round and short pillars. ^a\Ba\iov. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. It. a nettle. a small balustrade. denounce. as he says. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. bam. 1854. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. also with flatteries and . But because baglast is not found in the written documents. but loadage. fonts. command. Balsam. bamein. mare Balticun. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. analogous to what is seen in It. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. an Old dotard or imbambolare. a rod. Lest.000 tons. inutilis sarcina. Bret. Bamour. To deceive. a young babe. sorcerer.. Ballast. ranked on the outside of cloisters. barauste. &c. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. When a ship discharges. Balm. &c. or ballast of a ship. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. . a fragrant gum. Lat. for a load or goods (Roquef. more serious objection is . baltresac. ballast. bumbazed. Sept. The Sp. objects to the foregoing derivation. The Baltic sea.

sostener Torriano. ba?idare. admolendinum. we constantly find the expression. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. banda. — To partito d'alcuno. to publish) banna. at his own discretion. side. bound. in Fr. Fr. bandi. There is some doubt how Fr. he bannede his ferde. those who side together (bande. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. banner marked the place of assembly. to unite with a band. It. Goth. Bandear. It. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. bando. bande. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. bannire exercitum. summoning to serve So in Swiss. whether by way of injunction or for- command. bandon somewhat party. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. It seems this signification has arisen. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. &c. 'A son bandon. tener da alcuno. theodscipe ut abannan. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. bundun. Spebifid. Bandus. D. and thence to any proclamation. 1. OE. banns pany of footmen serve. banda the colour or material. Sp. to excommunicate {lysa. From the verb to banda.e. Thus the word is also used in both senses. populum. biddal. Se il — Romance languages. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. also the band or of marriage. i. he assembled his host. passing on from proclamation to command. to ban. Sp. to form parties. Baud. 26.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. bandon was used in the same sense. To Bandy. bande. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. bannum or bandum. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. to ctide. It. faction. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. from at the Lord's courts. to bring corn to be fahne. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . bann. hoc est vexillo. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. 2. to reprove. E.. R- He Translated by Chaucer. fahne. G. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Assises de Jerusalem. a coast. In Fr. bandera ground at his mill. change to the feminine gender in banda. parti. etc. power. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. ex. A. a company. border. ligue Taboada). Ripuar. Diss. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. See Abandon. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). the ensign or banner. curse. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. bindan. region. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary.—John Villani in Due. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. band. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. — R. is That with which anything AS. band. bannire in exercitum. eiiseigne. 813. . In like manner we find bannire adplacita. Wyntoun. Goth. 15. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. acquired the sense of proclamation. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. bande. v. in hostem convocare. flag. to follow a faction. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Mag. permission. R. authority. to side or to bandy (Florio). Capitul.Lat. banda. The to . — excommunication bann-lysa. Les saiges avait et les fols d.is further developed. Leg. &c.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. margin. and It. to . side. Sw. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. says Muratori. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. In a special sense the term company itself. then the signification w. Band. and in E. 19. to take one to task. Cot. —R. . were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. Commun^ment son bandon. Car.^ bandy. Fr.

a long raised seat. bandear. Banditti. banka. bank of a river. whence the mod. a rising bank. bang. bander. in the same way that E. large dog kept for a guatd. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). broken. Bankrupt. a sand-bank. — Kil. Bacon in R. To Bandy. ruptus. Du. de- party. banco. to slay. banke. put under the ban of the law. a bankrupt merchant. bander tin arc. banca his creditors. as of an explosion or a blow. seat . among rotta. Fl. death-blow . at canis peciiarius. —^Vocab. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. Bandy. The word is in E. hammering. When a man fails Lat. banja. Bang. Lat. pastoralis. banc G. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. 45 — — Bandit. panca. roupt. Diaconus in Due. Bank. destruction . Hard crabtree and old iron rang. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. bandi. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. E. desk.z. to cabal. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. From a desk . beat. in the sense of a pirate. to publicly order one out of the realm. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. banc. to knock. bana-sdr. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. The ridge of a hill is AS. s'associer.HG. to knock. to join in league with others against Cotgn. to beat. AS. Diez. Africa. bench. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. was formed the OFr. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. eminence. the former Fr. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. . Milton in R. bance. that the word is used by Romeo. Bantze. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. banca fallita. It. many a bang. A Shipman's Tale.^ knock.: . To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. shoal. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. and poise Their lighter wings. clouds. bana-sott. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. the slope of a hill. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. Benvoglio. bench. distinguishes bekkr. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. band-dog. Benchi. death-wound. eminence. Bandy legs are crooked legs. the same verb the It. bakke. Your stool. the back. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. See Band. It. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. . has bang-bang. rap hatike et som The Susu. and OFr. It is in this sense nounce. Sw. a bank. bank. death-sickness. g. From Mid. The ing. to foment factions. banish. counter. a wound OHG. to make a stir banke. canis vinculis assuetus. beating. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. Ripuar. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. Dan. bannire. Fr. a table. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. Hudibras. . bankruptcy. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. It. band-hond. to bend a. and hence. outlam came to signify a robber. a counter. to hammer in a nail. in R. to proclaim. for shame. . bana. Brewer. forbear this outrage. ON. Banister. a bench. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. a bench. language of W. follow a party. standard. Lingua. banqueroute. tumult bangas. bent as a bow. Roquefort. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Mid. se reunir. stir. a blow. disturbance banga. — . Draw. and therefore tied up. bandire. With many a stiff thwack. se joindre. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. in the sense of place of business. bana. home — Bandog. 2. bank of Dan. bana. &c. See Balluster. hricg. to work in wood. Goth. a bench. Bane. — Paulus drive in a nail. &c. from banc. — Fr. — — whence E. Fr. Mercutio. a de Vaud. of bandying words. Tibalt. dorsum was applied to ject. back of a knife. ON. bane. N. de sable. But natheless wife at I bank. The child cries bang! fire. b'ang. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. Fr. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . murderer. and bakki. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. bander. . See Banish. bow. ON. banditti acquired the like signification. benk. a i. bank. bank of river. Banner. AS.

Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. then branches. heri-pau. a barrier or stoppage. nestling. banne. privileged to raise Barbarous. signuin. banda. merki. a bearded or Cot. arineXov. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. rarii. Fr. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. and the work is done. Barb.cruel.aTa Kul nest.. sign. sparre. to wash. E. branch.hinder. A It. ingly very generally known by a name branches. and even of calling it banter. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. senheira. wrapped. &c.— Swift in R. E. Barbar. a war-beacon or war-signal. The barb of an arrow is the sign . jSa'pjSapoc. Fr. period vexillarii. and with an initial s. the word came to signify rude. To mock or jeer one. a which the barrister addresses the court. The original import of their own banner in the field. ing term appears in other languages. a sign. indeed. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. then fell among the foot. branches of a tree {gwezen. ^oTrriKio. inferior to a baron. barbed or trapped as a great horse. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. Hence Fr. knight Bardd. &c. i. such as the Roman Eagle.46 BANNERET . token. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. OFr. out of a wound. In a similar manner are formed yearling. that the noise of voices Bantling. probably corSymbol. iandvo. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. bar. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. It may be thing. It. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. G. a bench or table . from the same source. of wind. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. bandva. ban- Baptise. ON. It. ON. OHG. remarked. from reifa. The spar. in Gr. and it was accord. to wrap. sbarra. Sw. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. inur. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. barriire. Fr. a bantling. barba. Banneret. Celtic bar. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. banneret.the analogous syllable viur. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. says. — We A . Lat. According to Diez the It. Banquet. hence a repast. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Bret. and from ensign or banner Prov. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. banneret was a higher class of knights. either in the Gr. Gr. barrack. —Cot. It. men. senhal. Duo. OHG. The origin is in all probability Goth. of a sign in general. to beckon . to having that signification. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. uncivilised. would rupted from Fr. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. a ban. an animal a year old. Flesche barbeUe. banner. barbarus. benda. Bap. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. senhal. E. Gael. top.8ap6^o)voe. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. To Banter. 2. Hence ner. himself in Pontus. 3. Leduchat. which is surely in barbed arrow. and he would seem to derive Goth. sparro. dim. a. senh. Lat. Lat. Fr. Gr. Barbe. chan. banniire. barrou-gwez. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. milites bannarii. barreau. brushwood. Barb. banda hendi. rod of any rigid substance. summit. barre. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. by a repetition of the syllable bar. barbe. Fr. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. of banco. . barrer. or of this bantering. a tree). a beam or long pole of wood. jSdirTO). of ensign would be a flag or streamer. to bend. barde. banchetto. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare.. to dip. bannereti. manu anto make signs nuere. as they call it. speaking of battle. Fr. barra. Thus Ovid. bandiera.

to rumble. uproar. Barber. Thus the on. Pr. back. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Sp. name Fr. barbeter. is lb. barbugliare. Fr. to barbe or trap horses. Sp. to bubble or spring up.— Fl. i. barbier. ready money. border of a garden bed. It. the flap of a hat. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. . Barbican. Barberry. upper chamber. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. also to wallow like a seething pot. uncovered. Applied in E. w. Cotgr. guaszare. — . barbaris. Bret. Etym. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. the edge of a shield hval-barct. to stammer. Exposed to view. twattle. speak confusedly. stutter. albarda. barbelin. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Sp. It. Barbel. a shingle or small board. boil. to wash. twcEtta. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. the beard. — — — men. barda. Bare. ala. Bardeau. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. small pack-saddle. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation.— — Pm. bardd. guazzolare. barguigner. barz. a rumbling. to mumble or mutter words. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. borbollar. the quilted with. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . to grunt. bar. skirmish. But Sp. g. barbulla. gibberish. which was of talking. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. brim. The Pers. Bargain. barbeum. — Cot. border. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. in the sense of fight. baares geld. to make an outcry . and the word was used in OE. coping. saddle-cloth. a bardelle. OFr. to gurgle. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. mutter.) . to stammer. . lb. baragouin. brabble in the making of a bargain. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. used 2. haggle. to chafbargain.' Cot. as well as thwcEtta. Hatt-bard. axilla. Mod. grumble (Lowndes.) to wrangle. bdla-khaneh. a pack-saddle. Bard. dial. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. tree. to prattle. Gr. barbel. open. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. borborinha. and flanks. horse armour covering the front. Gr. Festus in Diet. baar. on. barboter. albarda'ah. barbacane. G. in poetic language Bard for poet. A7 to the and warlike. borbulhar. powdered all over. to boil or bubble up . — — Hence. Hindost. Cot. barefooted Sanscr. scouthouse. fortia —Strabo. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. bare baskojis. as well as the modern twaddle. unqualified. or more properly (says fer. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. berries. A shrub bearing acid Diet. Lucan. borbotar. skirt. barbar. barbarkama. muttering. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. Fr. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. Cotgr. Diez. to plash or dabble. such as houses are covered Bardelle. formerly used in the sense of tattle. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. barbeau. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. skialldar-bard. Fl. Fr. bdsas. bdsiis. bds. Fr. /3£pjSepi^w. skola. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. quarrel . Barde. Etym. to bubble or boil. also to bind or tie across. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. bhasad. barS. murmur . Port. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. Lex. bardes. Port. Hall in R. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. the nakedness of a woman. Arab. Lith. tattle. /3opj3opwJu. The verb borrelen signifies in Du.— BARBEL merit of water. jargon. in Fr. and in Flanders to vociferate. — . Mod. Barder. albardilla. barda. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. a tumultuous assembly. Russ. to It. berj G. waschen. borboglio. and Sc. and foolishly. a jetty or outnook in a building.

from an imita- Barley. Prov. baragouin. a heap . strife. the fore or after end of a boat . a boat. beorcan. barley. Leg. the or prow of a ship. a heap. — de Berri. beornt. . also a boat . fray.. tion of the sound. ber (ace. Uzen. See Barm. skuta. and ern. baratta. as. barlys {bara. and 1. v. wine. dispute. quarrel Port. Swab. Rayn. So also ON. Barn. in the Brim. OSw. and hence probably (by a metaphor. hlaSa. On the other hand. limpets. a. OFr. berm hoys. Du. i. husband. also to exchange. berma. limpets . Isidore in Rayn. AS. Originally man. barley. beer. Barbour in Jam. to scold. border. barone. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. Sp. mhg. borkr. a place. was barlic. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. as. Romance barsie. at barka. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. name being given to spectacles. baarn. Du. spectacles. corn-shed. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. but the woman for the man. As Goth. limpet. to chop. brenig. Barge. Kil. dregs of oil. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. — battle. and is probably a true bartig. The older form in e. Tarn baronem quam feminam. trouble. the rack or manger. Sw. baratta. squabble. to skin over barkandi. we pass to the vert) barguigner. one who stirs up strife. put to confusion. To Bark. Gl. bard). to all the barca. From Fr. barn. barahunda. barajar. then honoured man. charlock. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. strife. bern. baron. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. dispute barattare. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. and may therefore be an Eastern word. Provj bar (ace. W.' bardagi. adj. . berm. E. and the word. barlys. So ON. the A — Ihre. Baron. quant a perdu sa barja. Port. bernac. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. as well as Scandinavian tongues. and llysiaw.^Voc^. prasepe . struggle. barafunda. hemlock. barnacles. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. varen. ON. bere. baaren. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. AS. Alam. entangle. hay-loft. bargain. disorder. barizeins indicates a noun baris. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. bread. barafustar. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. Gael. barn. lap. 2. baerm. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. The Goth. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. am. berem. bern. Leg. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. baarm. Cornub. a load. Dan. to strive. The origin may be throat. OFr. altercation. houbartij fsnile. barn. w. Lith. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. giving rise to It. herbs. * Barnacles. — Barnacle. a lantern. kani. a barn. bosom . or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. prominent part of a thing. hladi. Sp. baralhar. berm. to shufSe. barki. — Zeuss. Bemiques. meta foeni. louzou. dial. Acervus. barmr. bread-corn. (Ihre. See formed Yeast. barretor. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. —Bark. . contest. Garlick. ThS man was not created for the woman. Spectacles. baralha. Bailey. baron)^ Fr. a cap . But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Sp. skutr. astringent. dispute . confusion. Ripuar. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. commonly explained from bere. is simply the Bret. bcerme. barlich. Bret. contest. a receptacle for barley or corn. in Nat. baaring.. It. barms. to cheat. ON. barii. Manx bayrn. a stack. baimeach. ON. barja. .) lihtes-ern. barley. aheap. bosom. quarrel. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. dispute. edge. Dan. tumult. bcern. dispute . barge. plants). — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . bark . Ibid. Bark. barnis. as baces-ern. strife. the G. a lap. bamagh. chaffer. 2. then the bows pectus navis. Port. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. a beak. to rout. a baking place or oven.Barum vel feminam. Camus. Antiq. It. Vocab. as in the case of Lat. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. ON. to wrangle. the slimy substance brewing of beer. baniffa. Of these meanings the second is probably the original.

^Vocab. an obstruction. change of goods seems. The Sp. a kind of coarse camlet. gwr.. a. E. Bern. and not from Fr. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. to carry. whenever Barrow-hog. ^Barrator. branches. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. sepulchre. cise formation of the word. booth. baronculi. boar. like bargain. Formed from Fr. were sometimes confounded. This word introduced into Fr. Barricade. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. calico. Goth. barrila. became bidre. or simply bahre. barchent. ibid. to shelter. baronuU. 2. Barrister. a word is always used in the plural number. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. by early examples. Bamnculus a baronet. to * Barragan. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare.. Sp. qui have not much light on the pre. See Barter. beorgan. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. todtenbahre. seem to be radically the same with Lat. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. berwen. barri. 1. vir. Bargus or moreland.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. bier. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Bret. in the first instance. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. a. It. w. hut. from cavallo. Sp. vair. baragan. braeck. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. Baron andfemme. garment still used in Morocco. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. barrique. Barrack. It. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. Bohem. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. Sp. vel pretiosos burellos. It should be observed that. bara. litter. barraca. a bier. beorg. bearg . Fr. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. The feudal tenants next Fr. breinej Du. Barrel. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. brushwood. bouracan. — Kil. MHG. as. barrier. bera. squabble. baraignej Picard. borov'. barrack.have been named from the haggling and gant. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Nominale of the from braeckland. fallow. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. man.' that Barrier. which would barragdn. the braw. heap. An ing. G. sterilis. dispute. barril. a bar. especially those killed in battle.— Gibbon. S. — A .' Op. alongside of barrow. barBombicinus. On chet — We — — their resemblance. composed of dry branches ofer. AS. OE. Antiq. berewe. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. perhaps through Prov.parchanttuech. barile. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. baronetti. uncultivated. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. beorh. Gael. fear. AS. D. StiU he shows conclusively. signifying. G. See Bar. Joshua vii. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. Russ. baroncelli. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. Barratry. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. bark&n. implement for carryAS. strife. — — 15th Cent. a hiU. barrique. Gael. a man.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. 26. from beran. barre. Barren. cover.root signifying confused noise. a horse. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. whence Barrow. a hut or booth. as cavalcade. habeant. facture. staves. man and wife. rolls of Parliament. fortification. OFr. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. semen non accipiens landiEL. in Nat. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. a barrow. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. gravis et authenticus vir. (Schmeller). baracca. bredhan. then traffick4 Barrow. and in several instances. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. a barrel. It was not until the time of James I. It. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. nobles. tomb. A. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. iver. barague. the two names. Fr. bahre. bara. mound. shed. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. also termed bannerets. from a tree to which a man is hanged. a castrated hog . over him. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack.

Fr. over-reaching. G. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. Barton. barter. Dan. fraud. Sp. It is mentioned as . basg. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Du. piiiguis. Du. basso. Sw. Dan. unrighteous gain. mock not. mean . plaiting of splinters basged. pressed down. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. Sp. Barbara de pictis veni patch. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. HaUiweU. corn-farm. The like property hath the iasilisk. fhe outhouses and yards. from /3aR. curtus. a deceiver. Lend me your hands. MHG. HaU in HaUiwell. on a. Bastard. baste. leviter consuere. which sets up its hood when angry. imbastire. Bartizan. Fr. berewic. bds. Fris. — in Rich. discourse Nay. lattice-work. bast-reb. crassus. HoUinshed. a king. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. Apparently of Celtic origin. AS. to long — a British word by Martial. to bargain. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). bast. PaaiKhms. barley. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. to Diez. It. embastir. i. commonly A joined with the word binda.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. It. It. Sp. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. But according And Dan. A fabulous serpent. according from Gael. a ipgli So Turk. 516. — hanging. To Baste. chasa ogli a bastard. descended of an honorable lineage. Bassus. oe. a ftiesh. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). hoops of a cask. binding. Basket. dwelling. bassin. would be. to truck. baxoj w. bdtir. preparatory stitching. or running away with the ship.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. bran. court-yard. truck. as It. the thin skin Dan. imbastire. Al is dai. cog. bass-matting. bast. the — — to kill those that look upon it. Lap. but born in baste. /«r<fSp. See Bath. beguile. which covers the grain Ger. To Bask. to stitch . With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. baraet (from Fr. a basket masg. lust. BassuS. Sylvester's Dubartas. Pl. to cheat. netting. to bind hand and foot. fits de bas. to baste piece of cloth. Bast. Gr. mavult dicere Roma suam. Halliwell. . besst-u-b£nd&t. low. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. and Bret. but he dreth presently. to bind.looketh upon his eyes. low part of the Hickes in Rich. Bass. a tying. a bass rope.' Gl. Arthur and Merlini. scale in music. Bass. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. Sicamb. . the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. . Basilisk. bast. baste. exchange. low. the a wide open vessel. thick. lift me above Parnassus. ohg. to deceive. basta. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. bestan. at basta og binda. bestcn. or wic. MS. a bastard. baos. and tun.' Papias. chasa. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. It.). Kil. he. cheating. aiKcig. To stitch. Sw. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. ibid. the manorhousfe itself. See Brattice. OFr. n' is n' is bacino. to cheat. Swed. baratar. humilis. baratear. — Bassoon. back. barter. exchange. God it wot. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. to bind. bas. basso. basgod. husk bast van koren. from bere. submovet omne Lucan. F. come near. Isidore. a halter. fornication. beortun. flat. MHG. OFr. baraand especially teria. ' Bosworth. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . foist in bargaining. of the same sense. Fr. also to Cotgr. also the demesne lands of a manor. ing for profit. bast-maatte. low note. besst. It. partieren. to baste. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. him. as the diadem of the basilisk. beretun. w. more noble in blood than notable in learning. a court-yard. The original meaning. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. baste. stitch. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. pdrdt. rope for — . said Base. peel. ' He was begetin o bast. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. bastear. tierer. then cheating. basta. Newman. bareter. fornication.D. found in Turkish . There is not one that. bark. shallow. It. ^Is de bast. inclosure.

and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. which in the E.— . the bat . in the Romance languages. R. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. settiilg up. basa. whence ledrblaka. bat. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. Fr. vledermus. To donjon. to flap. which to rest the load. to lay the Sp. ari instruineht for beating. victuals. iastir. Sp. put it together.'CaB. Supp. bastione. dial. devise. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. raise.Lat. to set on foot a war Bastion. a pad or packsaddle. contrive. bdion. the original has corneille. Rayn. bastimento. ON. to beat. to thrash . bastir. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. I. military term of a bat-horse). nade. aftonbakke. Pm. basto. 'iJipistreUo. a pad. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. also to cudgel. in the use of the E. bastilde. to rub gently. 164).stitching in general. It. stryka. the E. compared with blakka. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. p. a barSp. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. but this is hardly satisfactory. Sw. to pack a saddle i. bastida.baste or knock soundly. R. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. baston. Dan. blatta. a sconce. cudgelling. To beat or bang soundly. Prov. bakie-bird . — Bakke. Cot. and Cot. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. bastonFr. to teach one before. Sc. worth (Nat. the clapper of a bell. Perhaps baska. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. Sw. like the owl and the bat. blows. bastear. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. a bastion. Bastinado. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. Sp. is explained by Cot. natt-blakka. . and ditches bastion. to beat. Dan. from Fr. blakta. vespertilio. packsaddle. to spread bread and butter. to stroke. and Arabs. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. provisions. blaka. Pr. guerra bastir. explains Sp. to drub. Derived by Diez from iasi. the night-jar or goat-sticker. It. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. to Due. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. batta lucifuga. blatta. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . For the loss of the / in back.-^ Chaucer. ment. to rub. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. staff. frotter. erect. stryk. club. niammal. boste. translation to a bat. Fr. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . to give him a sound bastingi 3. bastonnir. Dieiif. baston. E. quelqu'un son roulet. blacta. e. contriving. dial. Cot. To baste one's hide . vespertilio. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. All from bastir. the winged . passage Imbasto. Florio. a blow cloth for dinner. beysta. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. a with a stick. Sw. a blockhouse. to quilt or stitch wool into it. to build. to devise or begin. — — — . back. 2. a things prepared for future use. a stick. liiake. bastir. to belabour. to cudgel. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. blakra. It. bastia. business (Altieri). basta. iinbastire. to build.stick. 11864. set up. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. as weU as besteau. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. bastine. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. comp. blakka. . Sw. frame. flyinge best. Fr. bastonada. 2. * Bat. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. to whip. a packsaddle. That yche blak y dar wel telle. bak. Antiq. or implement for 4 * A . a.— Bailey.fortress or castle furnished with towers. bastille. For the origin of baston see Baste. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. beating. bast. — — Fl. a bird which. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. Fr. night-bat. bladier. disposer. set up. also the ricado. BAT neither. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde.. pre. has bastine. Mid. 2. badger. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching.

adapted for defence. Batyn. quhar he suld assaill. dispute. Pr. whence the sun burns . and about an inch thick. to beath wood Battledoor.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. G. baka. Ayenst the sunne. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. on the fire. a stick. Pm. and milk beaten up together. Holz bdhen. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense.' Palsgr. to fell. beat. Pr. to betake oneself. to toast bread. as signifying warm baths. battere. I. bataille. oneself at the A into faggots. beat. bat. or make debate. Goth. in the sun. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. PLD. to foment. trahtr to It. to foment with hot applica. beat down. bdt. battaglia. bake. bat-en. I bathe in water viz. dial. Florio. bastille. to fire or in the sun. dial. solbase. tagUone. Bate. to warm oneself at the fire. to fight. To Bate. strife. debat. flour. The bat with which a brot bdhen. batterie. fortress or castle. batte sig. of bread is so much baked zX one time. and as a verb. Fr. term in falconry . to dial. to flutter with the wings. to beak. Jeddris and covering. and with staffslyng. gebdcke. fashes basking in the sun squadron. Sw. . also a sun badfish. the heat of the It. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. was formed bastilU. to for fighting. to foment. Barbour in Jam. gebdck. makebate. howis. To thrive. to beat se battre. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . A batch as wood. an arrangement for giving blows. badda. Batter. squadron. or break down. to bathe oneself. Fr. a blow. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. a great seems related to baden as Fr. It. From OFr. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. — Cot. to feed. to warm. more. abate. wet linen in washing. w. remit. a battle. a band of armed men arranged basa. bdhen. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to bathe. Bailey. e. Strife. then to warm by the application of hot water. as wood-en. a battalion. is in falling. on. Hal. batir. Battle. from on. battre las ailes. Sp. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. or a dry stick. G. Sp. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. I baske. certain bend. to heat. made of bats. quell. Sw. Fr. Du. dial. a beating. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. bdda vidjor. abattre. a from ON. betten. battre. dial. solen baddar. Battlement. It. basa.Hence in the augmentative form It. baz. Slav. Battery.— To Bask. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. buask made like a fortress. Fr. battre. battere. 2. G. bdda. Fr. — — — ' — . lessen. hot. to cudgel. to warm oneself. In OE. by projections or in any licoure. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. A Bath. water whether warm or cold. Bat. signifying to give repeated blows. Baka sik vid elld. to beat. tradire. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. to refresh oneself in language. Eggs. as E. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. badda. Flem. a blow with a light instrument. busk. pak. Fr. cudgel. In some parts of England it is striking. a main battle. batna. made of — A made by one Batcii. to become convalescent. gabatnan. altercation. to be profited. Plkkis. battions. Jurgor. in the case of a wall. a staff. perhaps first used adjectivally. batacazo. the root of e. a Baiffi. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. battle was used beath wood. See Better. baden. Chaucer. better. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . baquetazo.— . Battalion. From bat in the sense of rod . — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. baeddu. also. for biia sik. Mgy. to heat . batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. Battery. from battre. bet. . to thrive. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. allay . The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. sich bakern. E. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. badask. Pm. ON. to become fat. is a simple adoption of Fr. bada. Batten. bludgeon. Gael. To Batten. batador. a washing beetle.Bathe. as E. — To . heat. to beat. to beat. Bret. to get better. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. a stirrer-up of strife. . Hence pro.

obstrepere. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. baubare. filth. babiole. to bark. javelle. balbob. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). baula. to vociferate. Batylment of a wall. because made of cloth of white. baffe. and Sp. a zan. fe bau. baudrdj OHG. and authorities in note. trifles. whence the E. baugant. to make the noise Baudrick. Cloth of gold. or toys. bau. or sheaf of Bridel. or the animal so marked. to the same origin. scarf. Descript. i. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. ballach. Lat. The It. E. babsmall toy to play withal. nastiness. a horse with white legs. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. ball. P. lewd . The word may perhaps be sticks. is used for a sented by bau. is Bagdad stuff. Filthy. a lump or cluster babhaid. tille. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. in OE. ON. E. divided between black and white.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. Gael. faisceau. fagot. propugnaculum. Cot. instead oi s. spot. s. collar. tab. baue.— P. and to-tore also. OFr. bablyn or waveryn. Bagdad. spotted. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. guigaw. to bark .guage). bauU. It. a spot. dung. E. dirty. a plot of Chaucer. from Baldacca. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. An analogous noisily. bauch. c. Fr. miauler. Baldrick. excrement. Zalli. balderich. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. sword-belt. OFr. 8. vacillo. an — — — A — g — — — . Cot. A name of the badger. also more Bawdekin. disgusting. to trifle away ment. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. an object. form with an initial seen in Fr.. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. a tassel or hanging bunch . a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. a dog). equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell.. 2. From ! an interjection of disgust. Pr. P.' ' Pegma. on the face of animals. whimwham. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. pie- . bad. Swiss Rom. fooleries or fond To Bawl. baw. speckled. Baw — . to play the babby. bobine. babbole. mew. bow-wow. —R. an embattled wall. as Fr. Ball-seirc. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. from Fr. E. cluster. Pr. ground. filth. W. was simply a field gold. baudrat. bouaila.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Hal. It. P. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. to void the bowels. Formed from baw. brush faggot. Bavin. the white of his leg or foot. the Swiss baben. or Cot.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. horse. balGael. represented by the syllable miau. a gavel. R. Prov. having a white streak down Bagdad. zano. a belt. Fr. child. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. — Pm. to low or bellow as corn. baban. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. pegma. the face. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. Fl. librillo. bobbin or cluster of thread. a horse marked with a procession.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. to me-wl. From Bret. It is all bawdy. Jam. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. to talk Lacombe. Piedm. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. toys. In like manner Grisons filthy. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. a lump. also the canopy carried part of his body. bausan. s. ish baubles. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. dirt. Irel. ! Bauble. Pm. to 53 manure the To baw. fields. dacchino. Sc. Ball. a white mark Bawdy. a tassel. dial. expressive of disgust. exactly corresponds Fr.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. to cry. sorry. whence pouacre. trifle. bal. bow (as in our nursery Diez. Fr. It. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. b \% bouala. Cotgr. dente. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. BAWSON Swiss. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. rotten. — — ' Lydgate. Beaus^ent. Bawson. bal.

Q. A stag is said to stand at bay. . large window in a handsome . overture. Serv. at his last gasp. Fr. Cot. baer. badarse.—Journal Soc. bdcr. a cluster of bacon. Drayton in R. It.' Bailey. batibari. bioth. weary of running. bay. Bay-tree. baja. Holland's Pliny in R. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. to keep one waiting. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. Q. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. dehiscere . The — Fr. corrupted into Bow-window. From Cat.' — — 54 bald. beonj Gael. baca. bayo. arose two forms of the verb. A hollow in the 'line of coast. or at bay. AS. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. Bay. badius. bilyega. See Bald. baie. a mark. Fr. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. to gape. Fr. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. bagaid. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. BauSfi)/. Prov./^ bau. Fr. grapes or nuts. baionette. dividere. to mark. Gael. I will not keep you waiting with a long story.— Stalder. a'uno. BE Probably conRuss. barn of two bays. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. — A At Bay. It has been shown under Abie. To Bay. bahia. Vielp. a berry. to on anything. waiting . siege of Bayonne in 1665. 1859. BAY marked with bjly. It. husk. Sp. berries. * To Be. See At Bay. window . trahir. baye.. so called from its bearing bays. put to his last shifts. S. Piedm. Mod. house . — Schmid. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. bay. or window ' (in Fortification). Abide. and the To bark as a dog. It. OSp. beo. or recess in an apartment in modern times. he turns and faces his pursuers. expresr sion tenere a bada. Bayonet. From the former verb is the It. w. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. a beast. or to have been first used at the Cot. is perhaps not directly from Lat. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. tradire to Fr. Earth — By Nature made to till. Fr. Such Antaeus seemed to me. abbabayer. hddhe-dhonn. Sp. Gr. Swab. . alive. &c. bahia. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. in order to keep the enemy in check. window-sill. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. bialo. It. Bay. bijel. Lat. bate. 25. as gazing. bacca. the step is the same as from It. gate. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. ist. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. to betray. baier. and keeps them in check for a while. berry. bde. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. See Bawl. stood watching him stoop. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. as if to signify a window of curved outline. &c. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. like a pie. to keep at a bay. watching intently. yellow . baga. and zndly. to be Bohem. to open as a blossom. beothach. white. Sp. stare. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. to iiitent nected PoL white.. . living Ir. buidhe. to split. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. open the mouth. life. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. or berries. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Gael. baiare. the world Gr. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. that from ba. bayen-stein. a dagger. Feb. the cod of peas. Swiss beie. ing-floor. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. buidhe- The ruadh. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. —Bay-windo'W. badarc. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. baccello. life. the cod or husk of beans or the like. bilyejiti. from badar. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. —Diez. a hole. baca. |8i'os. from an imitation of the sound. The word bay. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. . F. living thing . Lat. baher. the laurel-bay. desiring. &. Fr. when.c. by the term rendre les abpis. to stand watching one. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. aux dehniers abois. bai. especially beans. to open. baya. badia to Sp. bajo. —F. to amuse stare a bada. Catalan hadia. It. which however. 1. Arts. laurel of the ancients.

badmr. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. becco. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. bydel. Bean. salve his hurts. —F. bean. and Lat. It.' Suetonius in Diez. bearti. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. to produce young. to nod the head. bakkje. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Beadle. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Goth. Gael. a tree. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. bek. — : Beam.fui. baum.fuis5e. as. ohg. beacen. The origin seems preserved in E. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. Beck. tale of prayers or doxologies. a sign. Chapters on Lang. bee. to wait-. or beic. Beacon. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. AS. The wild beast. into France. Catalan becar. ON. The immediate shore of the Menage. bedm. to bellow.to have a French origin. W. bairan. a curtsey. signifying individuality. bM. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. bagms.ad. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. prodigy bauhnjan. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. -phxr. beugler. — Bellenden in Jam. — to bow or nod . atUndre. Lat. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. bidan. 54. Farrar.' Hall's Chron. pierced for hanging on a string. bauhan. boom. . It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. Beckon. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. fero. support.from AS. fora-bauhan. beic. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. gebed. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. was introduced from England sea. Gr. Netherlands or North Germany. a prayer. according to of Sanscr. It. a single bean. . G. Sw. as well as f& or fav. would say. or breathing. a presage. beacnian. W. like most nautical terms. Bret. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. AS.fer-re j Gr. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Moreover the name. Slavon. nokkima. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. as. Gael. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Beak. Du. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Thus the final en. however. Hackluyt in R. * Beagle. «va\ioQ. bokan. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. ffci. OSax. post. bank. to carry. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. a single bean. To Bear. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. vii. vol. bohne. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. which is. or any action done with a pointed thing. Boom. Fr. A Esthon. It is BEAR SI court. a beak. bohnej ON. signifying a point. He says. bead. baun. N. a hill. stock. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. . E. — bedeau. Beach. to beckon. bdkna. Pardoner's Tale. on. bakke. pig. bidello. ffaen. be. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. l^ax. Bret. into a snjall river. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. beans. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. to nod . that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. It forms a.. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. backe. Q wait upon him. an attendant. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. See To Bid. Be. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. bob. ON.' adheres to the root. faba is Kvavoq. A two-year old nephew of mine p. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Bear. G. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. beic. g. bar. Gael. Fr. beck. Trans. fromthe danger. a nod OHG. fd or faVf beans. The nutu significare. Goth. faba. rising ground. or however. the part overflowed by the tide. a tree. to wait.

byw. Russ. riviire. e. to G. 1. befit. chin. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. den. bestiaj Gael. agreeable. bel. to fall mode of being. becuman. to fall. barf. fit. bach. Cal. W. because made of the fur of the beaver. dushmak.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. He becom on sceathan. See Beacon. border. or river. See becymth anfeald yvel. The fitting or suitable. ON. from baver. G. the beard. — A — A — .' every way suited to a prince. pleasing. and also in that of birth. to dabble . Beck. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. Fr. Thcem. baviire. to come to or upon. pretty. bcek.of being very angry. The OFr. Boeth. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. duty. battere. if sound of a sharp blow. That thou mayest attain Goth. Lat. tidig. Lith. i. which. to hem. byrcti. edge. ON. riviera. as the babble of the child. when up. to attain to the lot of any one. Perhaps from Pol. or special purpose. to bear children. to the brook itself. formerly a happen. to sleep on. it is probable that here also the to become. seemly. and Fr. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. 2. Do no To It fallith favour. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. bur. Beaver. ON. to appertain. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. tidy. covered the face. to be a part of his to. handsome. burdr is used in the sense of a car. obtain. On the same principle. Thus OY. whence baveux. to carry. G. bring forth. as. to be fulfilled. decent. Bedizen. but now a river only. dress with unbecoming richness . as fall itself was sometimes used in E. from beau.we call the arrangement becoming. baba. an notion of being convenient.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. E. name applied originally to the bank then proper . 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. Fr. slobber. to please. As rivus. timan. iida.' ' He became very angry. the latter are derived It. Fr. ziemen. g. now confined To Become. fallinn. I do thee pray.' are equivalent expressions. R. to happen. to arrive at. bedr. proper . limpan.AS. receive. bekommen. our taste.to clothe to slobber. Secondarily applied to a hat. beo. beauts. proper. to happen. ON.S6 fero. nothing to thy name make. Goth. from the same in the sense of bear2. Bosworth. perhaps a living thing. brada. G. fiber. Beck. brook. gebank. comely.fit. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. get J ' He got very angry. G. pens unmixed evU. It. blast. judgment. ting. OSw. babrad. decorous. It. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. happening as it ought. bello. E. See Bat. o. produce. place to lie down. AS. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. birth. bequem. bard. Lat. Fr. godum with ON. a brook.— Kiittner. to the good hapHalbard. venient. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. to those goods which endure for ever. bobrowai. The moveable part of a helmet. R. G. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. i. bekkr. to happen. beatanj It. brook . suitable. bava. bave. to fall in with our bavard. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. . AS. bett. to live. while from Shep. bobr. gabaurths. bellus. con. bart. fitly . agreeable. baurthei. dize or dtzen. taste. — . To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. behkr. barba. and on. e. rying. To load with ornament. gelimplic. See Bank. a lip. to happen. Dan. Beat. a bank. a bank. Lat. Prov.getiman. to get. Fr. Bo. E. Slav. to assume a certain form or Turk. limplice. Prick of Conscience. biivre. living. to happen. connected with ripa. bebrus. gefallen. bib or slobbering cloth. Diez. convenient. Chaucer. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. limpian. fitanimal. a. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. biber. boroda. The quadruped. and to acquire. Now the Beast. to be incumbent upon him. Sp. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. In like manner condition. Beckon. the ece thurhwuniath. opportune. bavec. befall. becuman. bave i. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. Lat. nod or sign. badi. to shore. or a feeling to be gratified. Beauty. suitable. talkative. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. to wade through the water like a beaver. bearing.

G. Dan.' So Gr.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. clog for a dog b'oteln. boytle. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. Lat. cousin. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. curded or beesty. a stinging bieUe. to turn. . Cot.). a malsense of drink. doubtless. erroneously modified in form. a agulatum in the original Latin. Fr. E. a cover. to colour with lime-wash. buk. a paviour's beetle batail. Fin. a wasp. calleBedlam. a horse-fly . Let. Bedouia. to fall. to and ale. briest. desert. a clapper. &c. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. garden-herb. to become Beech. stakes.'— GL ^Ifr. a drink potus. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. whence familiar. a bee. I put the flax upon it to spin. * Beestings. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. i. kivih. from risan. crespir. comb. . door. Grimm. I dysyn a dystaffe. I A pillow-beer. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. an ox. sela que environna la terra. biiren. pettiriso. Pl. also bienst.. in Nat. as the milk of a that purpose in London. drink. beer. case. G. an Beetle. the meat of spinach. bedawi.D. g.(paddi. Ant. a pillow-case. turn. cugino. trees in a forest . cozen. bably named from the destructive quali| T. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. P1. Fr. Slav. a wasp. mars betada.— B. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be.— JI14. bytl. also the bite or sting of a bees. 1. ProBeer. tree.' the last word corresponds to cofly . from leberen. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. buka. AS. 'La Gl. water. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. extant in Bohem. biene. a pad or cushion). in Schmeller. It. which also 2. Bav. beost. de Fierabras in Diez. beyki.possible. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. drink. KXlvoTTiT^e. For that was law of lend. an inhabitant of the desert. beutel. 1156. bovis. bossen. thick. buche. to coagulate. Gr. ir'm. fagus. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. batAfter mete in sale. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. imperative pi. bedde-redirj ohg. from Lat. the loppered sea. to drink. 1 to drink. the ox. Fr. bette or blettej Lat. It. whose face is clotty. poculum. D. on. vaar. a wandering Prov. Confined to bed.D. bove. blow or thrust. pude-vaar. and lebermer in G. a Properly a cover that biiren. from jtst-. to beat bossel. to rough- cast. madhouse. knock. duplicated form of the root. The honey-producing insect. Beef. cited by Diez. badigeonner. . Beetle. beach. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. Beet. Esthon. beetle also signified the impiti. Fr. beta. to twist poorma. bbtel.^ drink. betel. bitel. waarin. to knock. . bitela. by the analogy of bedaivb. qui de lecto surgere non potest . G. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. pital of St Mary. a mallet.cz//aj. kiissen-biere. red curdled Arab . bukva. as. Originally.ON. 57 — Palsgr. Cot. translation beOj. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. Gael. from the hos. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. ' MordiThe Lat. AS. woman that is newly delivered. a cup or implement for AS. biest-milch. Bethlehem. PI. cow has calved. bibere is a re. In a passage of an Old Fr. byst. may be from K. ^. paralyticus. Arab. But possibly bedizen 2. thick. from blood. may be shpped on and off. Lat. bet. the biter.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. boeuf. Rom. cushion-cover . bos. taglio. turn (a garment). fall. sang vermeilh betatz. to parget or rough-cast . briesch-milch. The first milk after a dizen. prigione. beach-each. beest. It. . and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. prisons Venet. AS._t from the root pi. Bernese. and in driving piles. /SXirov. to change . as in It. Fr. The meanpainting.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. Bed-ridden. Pett. wedges. a bed-tick. speach. bletumj Gr. piwo. a pillow case. cogionare. bedskiissen-bUren. by-flugaj G. GaeL bior. of beatmg. . or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. to flatten In OE. used for boull. Horn. Bee. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. to poordma. Fr. The beer al for te shenche bate. ris. E.ing of the word is curdled. to curdle or lopper. 1.

a chisel. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. P. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. Du.' A. in E. woe-begone. ytyvwfT'Kw. Barbour. Goth. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. beutel. viii.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting.pose. V. also called Bigots. literally. Mundart. When Q. of Gr. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. to be born. From w. appears improbable at first. at geta talad. It. to be able. yivofiai. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. can. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. P. 2. taking up. to take. Bruce. Florio. 1867. seizing. Schm. air a . Fr.— . chap. OHG. ' Begone. tale. and Lat. beissel. beis- plement driven by blows. the fundamental notion of attaining to. onginnan.' about undern he got down. So from Gael. He did alight.n. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. duginnan. beitel. ornamented phoc. or Of a pure poor man. oppressed with woe. It will . begging. 40. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. a beggar . be^nnan. to cleve. P. &c. anfangen. a bag or poke. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. P. kind. above quoted to get beaten ON. To produce children is to acquire. P. bag {baigean. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. In Luc vi. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan.quently used in OE. hags. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. signifying to conceive. Lollards. 142. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. a wallet. origin. krapszas. from whete G. ip AS. to arise. to begaan. a beggar-boy. cans. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. is com. beginning. as alighting is a momentary operation. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. pose-pilte.D. to go a begging. in D. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . P. 'Dz. Du. Gr. baigeir. Into the are D. a beggar. image is cleft out of the trunk. Mod. a bag . P. gigno. Deutsch. gen. ' . referred gan this Erie alight. to be acquire. gan. a — wedge. touched with emotion — . yivtrri. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. to reduce him to beggary. giving in Gr. To Begin. ken. iv. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. &c. ykvog. aginnan. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. The tother seand the dint cum. 25. is formed pocair. Nov. Du. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. a bag. V. on further examination. vir mendi. — Stillingfleet. V. although it ' the future. P. on the bag. genus. lapidicinus. a scrip. bertola. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. Beghardus. one after that other. a scrip euXaiciJoi. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. beitel. two betels —a grete oke. capere. begger.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. fangen and Lat. a little bag). Vocab. Skinner's derivation from bag. a wedge for cleaving wood. yivwajcw. incipere. Lith. to begin. to get children . in Lat. 'ex quo. 'Aboutin undern monly. Political Songs. steinbosil. chisel. — yivsaiQ. 58 BEG BEGONE G. yiyvo/uat. ysgrepan. to bear young. beriolare. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. 1430. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Si'Xa/coc. su with gold. P. affected. to know.3.' for ye shall lament and weep. To Beg. but in the same language from poc. ysgrepanu. P. Of brede full ycrammed. a stone-cutter's chisel. Cold-begone. to beg. 168.bag full of the G. word. can. Ancren Riwle. & go a begging. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. not began to alight. sel. it is both to acquire and to beget. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. y/yvo/iat. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . AS. Creed. ' ' . ken. covered with gold D. but probably erroneously. on the tramp. whence the E.

fixed upon any object). to look. Goth. holding is originally derived from that of looking. OE. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. To be expedient. to carry. AS. behaviour. to call. to feed. hcefwa in seed. to meet. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to vow. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. vow. to turn one out . to lift. to carry corn into the barn . ifl fact. to raise. a follower.— . ufhaban. hcef tig bort. bound. on. behind. —Hest. to look upon it as true . commonly expressed. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to bers of the body. betragen. behatan. to bring forwards. to lift. to be well pleased out. AS. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. But. to carry. as in the case of E. hantyri. to be named. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . behold. At the back of The re. to lead. the distance of anything. G. to be obliged to do a thing. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. according as the * To Behove. behete. hevja. observe. to halten. or purpose. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. behces. hces. use. heeten willekem. G. and the E. to be obliged to one. to take away. N. to heave. to command. advantage. what is so required. gehalten seyn. Paladino. at the tail of. to cast or throw. name of the head is used to express what hbva. behat. healdan. behefe.). gecall. hovast. to promise. seeing to. exhort. adjust. se porter) to fare well or ill. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. to regard. guardare. AS. to have. G. to keep. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. heeten. hove.' Richardson. to gehouden. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. hafjan. furtherance. servare. to call. promise . what he wishes another to do . to hold. to tend. han- — js Kil. — Behest. Aan iemand bid one welcome. invoke. to hold. to be be named. The Lat. is also found in the sense of looking. to behave. the name adapt. G. To place are most naturally ex. habere. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. or necessary. tail. ward. to keen or hold. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . To Behave. hevja. or the hence advantage. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. G. It. To Behold. the two verbs seem radically the same. The It. heita.to vow. and (as Fr. ge' hatan. gehouden. habban. Robert in Warton. take heed of. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. obliged. by the compound observare. zu etwas gehalten haitan. keeping. Plautus. heave. hafwa ram. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. when the verb will hoof. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. is supported by many analogies. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. beperson addressed. to R. Sw. Sw. hofwa. take yourself off. AS. hafwa bort. promise or a command. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. portarsi. us-hafjan. to fit. to be fit. to carry. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. hatan. And so from hania. gehaben. AS. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. is on the top of or opposite to. to vow. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. vow. nittaa. Kiittn. gehat. To look steadily upon. The seyn. G. have the sense of calling or naming. promise. garder. Thus in Finnish the heave. behoof. and their senses intermingle. hafwa. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. Command. Sw. laborare. right. to hit the mark. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. to be suitable or becoming . taking notice or care of (Gloss.the figure of throwing at a mark. zijn. hafwa.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. premi curi alicujus rei. to follow. to keep. R. the equivalent of E. from tragen. to name.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. K. to the equivalent of Du.for throwing it. 17. solicitum esse. tion. beholden to him. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. to command. injunccommand. keeping. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of.

Another application of the same word is in Pl. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to a loud noise. verloben. AS. turris. to express approval. to praise. giving leave or permission. In the middle voice hofwas. beffroit. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. beleggen. pro3. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen.D. glauben. a. promising. Northamptonshire.. bercvrit. mark ON. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. or house. Fair sir and Fair lady. to bellow. Du. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to give leave. gelyfan. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . lov. berfroi. to cry out bell. lyfan. . cela est audessus de votre portde. a watch tower. to sound loudly . border. then.Lat. to put a high price or value on. a little shed. leave . esteeming good and valid. to protect. to hit hafi. overspread. under the forms belfredum. ON. bealcan. bellow. satisfaction. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. were civil terms of address. ornament. reputation. consent. battefredum. loven. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to praise. beffroi. bolken. to give leave Dan. are other modifications of the same imitative root. with the consent of the heirs. to believe. to permit. galaubs. loben. aim. to roar. hesfa. To praise is essentially Xo prise. orloven. on. The word be- Belfry. from mhG.D. certain rate. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. behove. Fr. is an easy progress. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . and E. a tower for defence . which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. bialla. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to belay. ungalaub kas. is (Sternberg). legsel. Det er ofwer er hofwa. allow. or a sconce. laubjan. erlauben. met. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. we have Goth. Goth. Fr. filu-galaubs. galaubjan. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . Sw. —F. reach. to lay the cable round the bits. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to bolk.. boare. to give leave.. stand. are innate . To Believe. permission. to boke. 6o BELAY BELL loven. properly belonging to the church tower. Pl. bervrit. praise.alyfan.D. then. ley/a. belief . Pl. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. Bell. to be required for a certain purpose. loven. to resound. for purposes of low estimation . or high estimation. honoured. beau sire and bel dame. — mankind. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. to extol the worth of anything. AS. b'ola. Du. garnish. frid. bertefredum. to believe. and E. true. Then. praising.D. and bergan. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. to make it fast. In Mid. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. fringe. to estimate them at a To believe. to lay be- around. appearing in Mid. range. to der swaren lave. a vessel made for dishonour. . tain a certain end. permitting or giving leave. G. to sanction an arrangement. esteemed . and. precious.Lat. laven. bell. OFr. — . -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. To Belay. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. bylja. See Gain. Q. if a promise. bounds. to befit. . to believe. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. Du. distance to which a piece will carry. bulken. moderation. Hence to simple approbation. To Belch. P1. peal. to promise or engage. measure. From AS. if a narration. a tower. bealcettanj OE. bettifredo. in nautical language. belja. It. to promise. — Diicange. OHG. and Du. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. bellan. lofa. promiser. resonare. is used in the sense of approving. to praise. laven. locus securitatis Schilter. portion. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. Du. leaf geleafa. ON. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. an implement for making a loud noise. on. beset. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to fix a price upon one's wares. fitness.

Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. to say. balg. beneison. incense of Java. Lat. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. to exert force. belch. bolg. to come to the crown belangen.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. G. to make bilbil. Benign. Quoth. bimpsen.polch. pino3. benignus (opposed to malignus). G. Bav. blast-bcelg. pod. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. attingere. ON. — ray. means seeds of plants. vulgarly the belly. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. skin. belliJ Lat. benjoim. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. Was das belanget. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. bienfait. to use words of good omen. bimaissen. to hallow. taken absolutely. pertinere. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. rise against external force . to bend a bow . I soyle it or araye it. se bander. from benedictio. est matris in lucem editus. a border. gelangen. Javanese perfume. bellows. a blessing. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. a accusative. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Lat. to do good to one . and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Bent. a spring. bander un arc. rushes. a good deed. well. bcelg. a leather bag. the womb. hem.. See Bank. Kil. binssen. Ptg. is a kindred form. To Bend. from another modification of the word for bubble. gwaldas. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. benaigon.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. — root consisting of concentric skins. ON.' The term had been previously planation.— Belly. — See Numb. balteus . Benefice. from Arab. I araye. to become one's property . . I marre a thyng. bilbil-goda.' Palsgr. benir. to hold to one. Fr. a benefit.videtur. from cwcsthan. bolg. . The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. to arrive at. . needs no ex. a bellows. Fr. was in Mid. to attain belangen. a water-bubble builge. Bench. bellows. because bcelg. See I . To Bequeath. cod or husk of pulse. Gum benjamin. pervenire." — — . generous. pertinere. Belt. bendaj as. welt of a shoe gwald. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. blister balgan-snamha. Lat. ^To Beray. benehusk. or simply djawt. dirt. to stretch it on a frame. ' I beraye. benedictio {bene^ and dico. langen. vulva. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. fyle To dirty. to reach. benejicium. benefacere. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. attinere. In E. as. welt of a shoe. disposed to oblige. a bellows . belgr. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. kind. has assumed a plural form. bene/actum. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. . To belong is thus to reach up to. .pinuz. w. pouch. volva. bandoir. Eenison. bellows. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. Lat. on. bags or bellows. from which is also bulbus. See Nether. is The word balg. Sw. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. From OFr. bless. See Bind. to ring. bag. to attain to. loubdn djawt. to concern. ray.Fr. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. a kindness. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. OFr. an inflated Lat. Benignant. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. the word. bolch. To Belong'. wallet. — Ducange. Dozy. the skin of those animals that factor. to touch. belly. The ing-skin. wallet Benefit. one who does good. Benedico. bilbila. fens et hie liraus. Bret. G. ball. ' . Lat. to. attinere. becwathan. poX^ri. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . OUG. Benzoin. bell. bendan. border. G. J'emboue. belt. Benefactor. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. to concern. I say). leather sack. Benediction. Beneath. balg. or sometimes louban. to touch one. Lat. by itself. Fr.' — Hie fimus. . To Benum. to belong. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. benjoin. as concerning that. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Gael. or a It is times the to signify services. benedicere. skin. a blow. to bless. hence with ashes. a speaking well of one. Du. or fyle with myre. belly. are stripped off whole blase-balg. Gael. a round or bubble-shaped root. . binsen.

to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. in the sense ctf beria. boutefeu. boeten. Beet. houseless. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. To Beseech. to thrust. seems twigs or rods. as in growth. of ffeed a fire. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. advantage. hva mannan. besje^ Sanscr. sheltered from the wind. sweepings. To help. think more probable. stealth from steal. baete. G. to seek. See Reave. preferably. as. from It. one who shelter. Beit. Beere. roe. the origin of which is to be found in ON. compared with bargham. or the space kept clear betan.ot-i. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. dirt. earg. scopse spartis. — Biglotton. an incendiary. To bete his Jam. BETE dirty'. put. besmas. to put on the saddle. to give a place to. to the place boarded off in a. amendment. berwe. boteith Goth. make better . as. Grose. p.iooA. Best. To Bestow. Esthon. to be-place. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. fall with sound. but in practice. reparation. Hfence backing. barfham. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. to make it. an incendiary. besen.• 62 Antiq. to on the other Goth. fearful. dirt . roju. Du. person to lie in.— VixHsm. bur-we. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. lewth. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. To Bet. AS. So too Yorkshire arf. or to bestead one. put forth. small eatable fruit. to word is shelter. but it is specially applied mister. Fr. broom twigs. might have been . brem-bessen. Berry. to stand one in good stead.bhaksh. advantage. bestow. Du. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. rubbish. beseech. and on which the wager is laid. When men of mekeness him baet. botesward. besnij Pl. because used for making besoms. * To Bete. repair. R. ^akka. bereafian. Fr. supply. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. 3. to mend. OE. ariierf to 113. On the other hand. Fin. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. earh. bota.irova. encouraging. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. better. profit. reafian. bouter. arwe. making better. as conversely a besom is called broom. * Berth. beorgan. barthless. to thrust. as Du. G. — . betan. what does it better a man. improve. Kil.— Hal. p. the guardian . barth may be for barf. Tha het he micel fyr betan. same word with the provincial barth. Bestead. Goth. it seems hard to separate as. To Gl. and Du. E. a horse collar. — bota. to strip. a berry. from AS. and also to entreat. bat. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Rob. place. ship for a make amend. as bouter selle. ^•n. or. sets fire to. bet. vi. to fall with roisto. to defend. bdt. mud. R. AS. boeten.—^fake.X. It is the restore fyr betan. The dry. to light the fire . to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. The proper meaning of the bale. to fire a funeral pile of . — amendment. To seek something from a person. berry.t. AS. . a place . betan. boeten. See Better. as. From abet. basya. what does it boot. to make better. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. Du. Zeitschr. E. Sw. Sw. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. from grow. stow. reparation. bacca. fyrbotare. BEREAVE Wall. — Chaucer. So roto rattle down. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. to amend. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. bal oppbota. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. buttafuoco. baete. to supply a want. to to deprive of. Du. to exercise on a definite object. burrow. dust rojahtaa. a fire. to To Bereave. Devon. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. rods. the side bhakshya. bdt.D. stede. ropahtaa. The origin is AS. So Lat. to entreat. besein. I from lew. eld up- On is to be placed A — . berwham. jnore. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . supporting on the one side Lat. to cast. Besom. protect . peto. is to perform a serviceable office to him. basjaj Du. vol. to kindle the fire. Ihre. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. dung .fish the other hand. buttare. dial. as. roju. position. lay out. besIn sen. noise. het vuur The serise of Boeten. solicit. Tusser. .

said he. Fr. G. suitable. i. deem suitable. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. bedriegen. are commonly to one's lot. be fitting or suitable. betera. spritigs from schicken.D. From the former of these are AS. betest. Fr. some attention. to make forwards. of pheasants. baet. a drinking . batista. larks. E. e. advance. traitre. progress. bevde. The as. /alia. AS. fate. moveable and compass branches. amiddes. gezimet eines dinges. better. in the middle of two. Hence last G. riigen. polish. batizo. ON. treachery. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. G. obdissais. bet. e. as tlock. best. as from obdir. gatiman. regen. e. from Fr. the being pushed to the frbnt. his mouth.' Dialogue on Witches. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. E. 88. abash j from polir. . taemen. roebucks. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. are there Regt R. E. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. a brood. not to have the heart to give up a thing. Sahissais. Pl. make manifest. from invadere. &c. i. G. Ober D. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. — See To Bete. a different form of twa. to accuse. Fl. betwuh. in the same way Lat. find in one's heart. has — In a like sense tanie>i. Best. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. to deceive.D. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. ruogia. In the water anon was seen His nose. Bevy. Golding's Ovid in R. betwuxt. order. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. twain. to drink . against. and thence twegen. betweoh. bet. Tinia eigi at lata eit. thy speech bewrayeth thee. to discover. or with again. betweohs. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. deign. kein leben mehrin no signs . taemen. tradere. by two. ziemen. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. to Hence It. — of the authorities. Friar's Prol. become. Car son umbre si le trahit. as trahissons. a bevy. two. Sw. It. proficere. The inflections of Fr. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. AS. to cheat. A — drink. I approve of beveau. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. from Lat. roja. *Ah. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. vrohjan. whence beveraggio Fr. Pl. evidence of life. trahison. beva. betst. It. From It. wrogia. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. better. verbs in ir with a double ss. to happen. to stir. to Teem. zimet. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. x. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. afford. — that schickiich. by a final sh. obeish. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. lot). his eyen sheen. of quails. To vouchsafe. to fall. as envahir. Det sig sjelft. fitting. which may be compared as to form with amid. bevere. traditor. more. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. G. it bewrays itself. as one would have it fall. Thus from dbahir. bat. Du. zemen. Slant. betaemen. fallinn. Percy Soc. -to appoint. Lat. what does It is forward him. — Betwixt. in the middle of twain. OE. ON. trahir. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. Cot. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. R. Now the stirring of an object. Goth. Goth. wreia. Fris. BETEfiM translated. trakir. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. Mich self a good glass of wine. r'ojer dig. sloped off. bibere. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. to fall Some call it a bevel. pair of compasses. bouter davantaige. betray. awry. from. is treason. dir. for measuring angles. R. Buveau. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. Fr. R. tima. an instrument opening like a a thing. In like manner from twain is fothied between. to deliver up in breach of trust. suitable. dispose (whence schicksal. better. To Beteem. Ik tame mi dat nig. betriigen. springs from ON. Dii. beverage. Bav.— . a traitor. Dit tungomal rendered in E. To Bewray. is used for the — R. beuvrage. tima. On the same principle ON. trahissais. find it good: Goth. In like manner folissais. Fr. tradire. amidst. tweoh. Chaucer. To Betray. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. to deliver tip. Better. To boot in coursing (i. betweox. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. gesiemen. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. to happen. Between.

or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. OE. evident. bibo. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). Mantuan. convicts thee of being drink. Fr. bickai. sloped. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. inferiority. asure-bice (Early E. Sardin. to stir. its clothes. and zahr. bark of which paper was first made. biaiser. babbefore the eyes. it becomes (Jz-. Fr. Probably. — crooked. of the sliced off. To skirmish. which good bibbeler.to drink much. a fragment bieco. To Bib. though such a change of form would be very unusual. . (according to the Fr. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. The train of thought is then. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. sbrissare. to shake. sbiscio. by throwing of stones. liwell. To drink hard. baviere.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. sbiasciai.{ioin dua. Prov. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. wrogen. oblique. to stir up . biascio. per\'erted belief. Diet. An excellent Basil. to dispute. bes-azur. biascia. /3i/3Xof a book originally. bihais. Jamieson.D. In Arab. slippery. he is Wtb. lips. bescompte. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. notice. or kwijl-slab. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. In comp. Yes. bias-wise. sbiagio. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. E.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. beslei. discover. Piedm. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. To Bicker. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . bible. beregen.D. Bezoar. aslope sbisciare. sbiescio. foul weather. or by any rapid motion. is explained to clatter. b&zahr. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. Pl. . makes ble. petit-lait. To Bezzle. wraggeln. has a singular stone-picker. misFr. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. from pdd-. Bib. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Schiitze. biberon. to stir. biax. to tipple. pddzahr. — Bi-. one who drinks in excess. bickel-sieenken. bezling or skueing. like guzzle. to creep or crawl sideling. bring under ' Thy accuse. kwijl-bab. snout. twice. Biseau. him. Hal- — do something aslant. biberen. besanca. —Dozy. Sp.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. Bias. sbiesso. sbias. rogt un bogt sik nig. love first begins to life signs of him. a stone-hewer . the papyrus. sbrisso. Misc. babbi. to well up with Cot. Fr. Fr. tailU en biseau. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. Bible. presence. Ant. bis. to a fight with stones. or in and out. to sip. . the word became bddizahr. expelling or preserving against. to glide or slip as upon.or from obliquus. Bezel. Oh when shall I bizzle. roggle. It. Pers. I Wallon. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. bisel. The It. the basil Sc. specially in a bottle. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. Lat. wrangle. Fr. slanting . The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. —Bickering'. rogge.two. to slaver or drivel. two- footed. Bisect. to be a paring. Bice. in Fr. to move. Cat. 78). bavon. bickelen. bibaculus. whey count . sbrisciare. Gr. sliding. as an eel or a snake. bickel. to give signs of life. to tipple. sbriscio. Bibelsworth in Nat. . Uprogen. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. biais. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. dial. poison. sbieco. reveal. a Galilean. kwijlen. shows the P1. . Fris. to stir. It. To Bibble.as in Biped. Ci^. dial. metaphor). to the stirring of their conscience. ice . aslope. An inferior blue. Hal. Du. to Jam. in him. biberer. kwijllap. bisdare. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). crooked. winding or crawling in and out. See Wriggle. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. to purl. Sard.a.' bibble. It is especially applied in Sc. pible. whence Du. Fr. 172. bickeler. bebble. Dan. it were the mouth. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. bending. a bezle. to it evident to sense. Lat. used in precisely stone . a slabbering-bib. sik beregen. to slaver . stock still. a sloping edge. ber-laita (for bes-laita). a bibber. bestemps. edge of a plate of looking-glass.s bellum for duellum. baverole. To bicker in NE. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. in two ways for duis. to make tongue Du. to cut in two. Piedm. Cat.

to pro- command. to dwell. beidast. balg. porrigere. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. may plausibly be derived from Goth. as tears from the eyes. qucero. repair. gebodenj G. bag. — prepare. Analogous expressions are G. verbieten. swoln. G. anleta. are also used in the sense of asking for. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. byggia. consisting both of men and women. With respect to logical pedigree. praestare. praebere. ON. to E. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. be bug. bugt. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. a flexure. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. The loss of the / gives Dan. bidel. and yajiBui. to arrange. to inflate E. to move quickly. bulge. bieten. Wallace in Jam. pressing on one's notice. AS. bced. bead. G. The ON. to bid one good day. Kil. boa. abidan. the meaning of bid. to build. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bugan.uddered len heart. bidill. To Big. or third order of penitence. forwards. bua. OSw. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. to cultivate. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. twice. bo. einen vor Gericht bieten. gebeden j G. bath. bend of a shore or of a rope. bug. swelling. to start out. buga. bend. ON. R. The . In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. cultivate. from bidan. from seek. and the Sw. The original Swollen. bolga. From Gr. Einem einen guten tag bieten. bulky. to bulge. bolginn. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to offer. bi-. AS. beodan. to curve. ON. bow. from belgia. inhabit. Bigot. quiring something to be done. to pray one to dinner. to bend. proud. becoming in Lat. AS. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. bulge. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. form. bolgna). biddan. to ask. ewes. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic.' Pope in R. Compare also Sp. athird class. ten. to offer it to public notice. Hence Sc. bidan. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. of More ' in Richardson. The ON. . bilge or bulge. or bad. bedun. which is stiU. biegen. Bigamy. BIGOT beidan. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. bulk. belly. A bjudan in anabjudan. as. to offer one the wish of a good day. to forbid . P. belly. bugne (answering to ON. — — — Halliwell. Jam. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bauen to cultivate. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. G. ON. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. Bickelen.Leta). and consequently ordering or reGoth. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. bat . faurbjudan. to build. or. Big. bidan. bidjan. to look for. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. beadle. A pose to one to come to dinner. OSw. to ask. to bicker. bit- bidja.. Big-swol- . build. ' Bug as a Lord. Bight or Bought. W. byggan. to presimpler pare.peto. pray. the belly of a ship. who. BID of stone. The 'La." buque with E. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. England for swollen. to abide or wait on. to look for. an entire skin. bygga. inhabit Du. called the tertiary order. to forbid . bog. related to big or bug. to build G.t. To bid the banns. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. to belly. bigan. a chip. to bend.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. explaining the Sc. 1. offerre. bis and in comp. iiQ. besides the professedmonks and nuns. as G. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. a swelling. to have one called before him. to inhabit. bieden. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. Two verbs are here confounded. spelling seems to used in the N. and Gael. rising up. 2. Du. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to swell. to solicit. a suitor. by seek and beseech. To Bid ' Big . It must be observed that the word bidja. to marry. in the sense of ask for. swaggering. has leta. — To Bid. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. bouwen. .' Addison.

'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. grey. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. grey. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt.' translated by Muratori. probably from biso. Bizoccki. author quoted in N. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. vol. xx. rustical. a dunce. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. biso.D. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. Augustini dotarint. vocati Fraticelli. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . S. was formed bigello. G. Beguttce. Bighini. alii de paupere viti. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi.. coarse woollen cloth. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. D. ix.a. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. beghart. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.' says an Venet.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. From bigio.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. A. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. absque votorum religionis emissione.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. bigio. sed maxim^ in muliebri. and hence the variations bigutta. 15 18. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. a blockhead. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. In the same way Fr. which must not be confounded with begardo. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. both men and women. natural grey or sheep's russet. honesti plebeii amictus. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. borel.' says one of of bigio.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. 560. bigotta. as well as bizocco. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. &c. perch^ i Terziari di S. clownish. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. signifying bagmen or beggars.' Chart. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. dark-coloured cloth. alii Apostolici. Bizocco. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. beghino. and Q. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. A. begutta. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. face VIII. bighiotto.— Ducange. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. They wore a similar dress.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. all apparently derived from Ital. Hence the OE. Francisci communiter appellabant. and also unlearned common men. ac labores manuum detestantes. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep.D.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. Bighiotti). says. bighellone. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. In a similar manner from bigello.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. to adopt a similar course of life. corruption would easily creep in. A.D. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur.' Matthew Paris. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. 1499. Flor. with reference to A.— BIGOT bigardo. the other form Per te Tribune. the nobles to Rienzi. homespun cloth. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. 1243.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. aliqui Begardi. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool.

su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. beil. Ludwig. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. fetters. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. on. whortle-berries. a shackle. symbolum. blamand. Aurelles. buie. ferrese quam ligneae. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Deutsch. tepati. to swell with rage). Bilbo. irons or set in a kind of stocks. In English the meaning has received a further development. 2. Bilberry. boia. Kil. a of the sea. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. BILBERRY nated. false pretender to reUgious feeling. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. inscriptum. AS. weapon . bullet. See Bull. . Billow. bille. gleischner (Frisch). bolghe. dziobad. bigotto. a seal. an axe. crowberry. Thus we find in It. a hypocrite. loi. Bojce. belghen. an axe . AS. b'olja. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. The Du. p. Fr.— — — . billet. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. in the same sense. bile. 'tumidi fluctus. bila. 5 * . bla-berry. So in Gr. an adze . abelthe fetter itself. of E. a floating log to mark the place of some. Bill. in the sense of a writing. to strike. might be taken to express a hypocrite. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. NFris. bulla. 2. a man who rests on a stick in walking. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. to pick a millstone. bull-berries. AS. biilge. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. a bigot or hypocrite. e. a short note. Lat. buoy [i. Mundart. — bigardia. bulgja. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. Gael. is properly a sealed instrument. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. and a billard. names bill-berries. Bohem. used in legal proceedings. as a bill of indictment. OFr. Bigin. ^Billiard. top. Du. . an ingot. the trunk of a tree. Bill. Fr. fluctus maris. a devotee. a name given to a. Fr. deceit. Dan. — Cot. bigot. at sea Billet. . billet is the diminutive of this. an ingot of gold or silver. w. buail. genus vincu- Bilboes. of boja. Piedmontese bigot. Du. bigot. gan. Lat. a negro.. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. an axe.' bilio. Sp. Bille. bizocco. seems to be rather the unda. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). blaa. belgan. G. a beak. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. and dziobas. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. The origin of the term is probably from bole. plog-bill. 3. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . bill of exchange. Tartuffe. Billet. an axe. bisoch.' mariners. Dan. Sw. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Gascoigne in R. the bill of a bird. — — ' . a sword. however. topor. to job. bui. bill. from OSw. Langued. from Mid. dziob. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. boeye. a hatchet. billard also signified at billyards. bigardo. Billette.' in Richardson. boja. as craneberry. dissimulation . obsolete. billard or billart. Sw. that of swell. bwyell. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. to peck. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. and in Lat. billot. now A Bilboa blade. the o changing to an i to express diminution. Roquef. Johansen. e. See Bulk. blue . while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. Sw. the beak of a bird. axe. the swelling G. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. In the same way are related Pol. Kil. procella Kil. from the dark colour. to strike. beghart. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. bil. a seal. Prov. To defraud one of expected sinking. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Bilge. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. I. An instrument for hewing. A lorum tam in — Diez. clog to a fetter. bulghe. A slang term for a sword. to be angry (i. To Bilk. horn of an animal. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. Du. The proper meaning bylgia. bill in parliament. person of religion leading a loose life.

while bind-wood. episcopus. evegue. To — — —D. ge- from AS. wine. bitill. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. pullus. It. than vice versi. a weight. It. a brood or hatch of young. brut. Lith. . binge.' and the like. an overseer. bij sien. Bing. bundun. and of Fr. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England.. ON. Gr. doubtless a stone. When compared with Fr. overlooker. AS. Bailey. a corn. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. ON. beitan. to bind at . from pondus. Dan. Bird. beorth. habitacle. bunt. H. i. to bind together. Sw. pundas. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. AS. a pig petz. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Fr. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. EpisETTiTOOTToe. Sanscr. sc. to net. — Surrey in R. to bear. poule. hith. AS. i. by binda. biccej ON. a female stag. bita. Bind. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. a house. terial. In like manner from knot. bitacora. evesgue. a bitch. to wreathe. Bitch. G. Bisson. lusciosus et myops. bircej Sw. to bring Biscuit. Goth. V. a hind or female stag. v. bindan. vescovo. to twine. bunga. bunki. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. where the compass stands. is in Scotland applied to ivy. piccione. — properly near-sighted. properly a young pigeon. isfiw. bord. See Breed. to cook). bin-wood. a bunch. pittjo. — — . Bisom. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. 'tumens sequor. a heap. also a stone weight. from \t3\. . Goth. AS. Lat. or ben-wood. bund. biscotto.. to be derived from Ibfiaq. . The proper meaning is a heap. copus. qui nisi propius Blind. . poultry. . by the verb knit or net. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. G. BITTACLE /Siof. AS. Then added division in a granary. biscuit. pinnii. Fr. hiindiiin. bunch. viz. evigue. bundt. Bin. berkas (z=:Fr. bij sienigh. IV. to bulge. a bitch. a habit- Binnacle. Lat. G. pin-ti. Fr. bjork. bikkia. pinnu. I would derive the verb to knit. an eagle's young G. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. propius videre bij sicndc. a little dog. The bitol. Bine. brid. or bin. a heap. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. Bindweed. We — A Birth. See To Bear. bund. a gallinaceous bird. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. to build. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. band. the young of birds . The term ON. biclie. to plait. nodus. bundle. Du. truss. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. G. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. beize. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. AS. or petze. See Belly. Lat. in Swabia. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. Bittacle or Binnacle. a bitch applied also to other animals. Birch. to hang. piiiti. expressed by Sw. pippione. twice cooked. Lat. betsel. bindan. the young of an animal. earnes brid. beran. burt. binda nat. admota non Bit. E. is rendered in ON. forth. j). — Kil. beisseii. a truss. e. to knot nets for fish. and especially to a small poor horse. to swell. life. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. are commonplaces. . a bear. bundt. a bump or knob. or baked.. Fr. to fasten it together. beitsl. Lap. a knob. Thus I suppose the Gr. fowl. Sw./«idere. bundle. from Lat. Habitacle. Lith. bigne.68 BIN Bio-. a weight of 48 pounds. To Bite. Fr. Bisen. — See Bittacle. videt. &c. from Gr. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. Bizened. bhurja. to form a knotted structure. which is expressed in E. Sp. a female dog hindinn.

AS.' by Gudmund. yellowish. to To blabber blabber with the lips. Bav. ' plabraich. ON. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. stutterer. NE. is placed. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. /ealo-/or. on the one side. thoughtlessly . pale.. ^chops. blob. Sp. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. G. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. ' Biovac. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. ON. a tati. garrulous. blepLith. blubber-lipped. —Neumann. blank. — cheeked maid. ^aj'/^r. Again. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. blebberis. bites.€i. corrupted in Fr. a beam in a house or ship. faded. v. To or he can speake. bleich. x. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. small guard-house. chatter babbler . to talk much. pale. apparently from its biting the tongue. blac-hleor ides. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim.' by Haldorsen. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. whitish. a stammerer. To Blab the anchor. even humour seemed and beuin. — Hollyband. term. blabbern. pale yellow . is apprehension of danger. biti. pale. It. ON. to babble. beiwache. obscurus. — Collins in Hal. Why presumest And laam's asse. Sp. Cotgr. bittour. blake. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. iroxafealo. bittore. to bivouac. biacca.plab is used to . plappem. blabaran. a babbler. buft". yellow . blabbre. Gael. things —Palsgr. blabhdach. first. discoloured .' G. a flapping. gabble. Hal. Deutsch. Fr. as in that of pale and white on the other. "uivac. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. Bleak. Cot. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. Je N. Ai-mstrong. from whence we have adopted the. bitr. fallow fawn-coloured. beitr. baitrs. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. G. shining. butorj OE. Sw. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. Sp. Fr. Percy Soc. leohte . bitts of Bitts. blakk. A a rail. Mund. .D. viz. blesmer. maculS. ON. Sp. gulblakk. bleikr. mona mid Dan. In a similar manner Gael. Alex. his blacan light. as of water gently beating the shore. Wit hung her mourn. as of a body falling into water. beuni. The bitas. . dusky. In Legrand's Fr. bihovac. quoted by Ihre. a continued soft sound. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. Mantuan babbi. a fluttering noise. white. babbling. confusedly. Fieldfare. a shelter for the steersman. Blabber-lip. In like manner E. bitones. babbe. I blaber.. as of wings . 't kompas huis. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. to wax pale or bleaked. to loll it out. The Gz. Hist. Lydgate. Du. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . blobach. to chops. white lead. Fr. white. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. indistinctly. 't huisje. night guard. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. round which the cable is made fast. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. pale brown . ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). Gael. plabartaich. 156. blob. an additional watch. Bittern. an edge is sharpest sword. Applied in Hin ON. mouth. synonymous with baber-lip. Nagt huis. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. on. pale yellow. black. brunblakk. a large coarse lip . faded. Hald. . a large lip. to speak Dan. whiteness (candor sine It.' It would thus acle. to the sharpness of a weapon. whitish. pins of the capstern.— Blabber-lip. blakki. out the tongue. mouth. to let out whai should have been concealed. baboyer. blab. bitter. to babble. a childe dothe gasouille. dark. bitor. Se bleek. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. unintelligible talk plabair. to watch. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. the palebleff. 'fuscus. Mag. Pl. Black. bleg. Fr. from wachen. in contempt. blob. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. Bivouac. or water beating gently on the beach . light-coloured. as is seen in sputter and splutter. AS. a* mast . Bohem. cut. Goth. bird of the heron tribe. blanc. quick. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. fallow .). shine. So Fr. 332. blunt we say it will not bite..

— ^o thehotsun. 5/^a/^ of colour. — . contracted from bladeren. pladdern. to omit. blister. the leaf of a tree. Cot. Blame. white. on. blister. the ON. borrelen. and G. name originally given Blackguard. as scullions. G. smore.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. to Hence Ital. G. mire. defame. Fr. dripping-pans. blasphemare. pluddre. and Q. broad. from candere. blatter. Besides the examples of this connection given above. Blancli. Lat. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Bav. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. as. leaf. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. commonly called the Black-guard. blad. imbrunire. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. and wandering men and women. to glitter. a pustule . It. The radical bubble. Play in Nares. . blaeren. blatt. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. to dabble in water. a bubble. — rura. blatter. bladre. bladra. blinken. Fr. the origin of . I am degraded from a cook. whitish. waschen. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. leaves. — — — to jabber. PI. 7.—Blatant. To blank. biastner.. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. sheet of paper. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. and others engaged in dirty work. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. smother. Blank. livido . pallido. Perhaps from blegen. plate. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. blad. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. a white or unwritten ticket. —^Webster. to shine. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. bladder. whitish.—Blatter. linkboys. mus-blackt. Du. a blanket a bed. a buible. vagabonds. Eadmer. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. his meat burnt. Blade. See Blubber. to make or become white blanc. to glow. Du. e. blanchet. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. reproach. board. also tanned by the sun. blanc. shining. probably ate. polished. blactra. blaere. Jan. blanqne. Wott. coat. blena. Du. dial. a bubble. mud. — Sw. tree. blame. or of an oar G. revile. a bladder or pustule. as. 1854. branches . to bubble. Blank "verse.— Kil. most complete example of leafy structure. to shine. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. bladdra. is identical with Flanders borlen. to blow. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. skola and thwatta. G. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. also white woollen cloth . p. speak impiously. plat. foolish talk. Reliqu. also jabber.. 86. blanchet. and thence to babble. pXaatpiiiiHv. a boil. bladeren. flap of a Du. on. Hist. cited in N. Gr. boys. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. blegne. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. a blank ticket. irXariQ. and he shall be sure to have O. Sc. which we . in R. to —Blaspheme. mud. to purl. candidus. &c. blather. to blanch. black. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. to bleak in the sun. . chatter. bladder. Sw. leaf of a. pimple. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Dan. bladder. with all other loose idle masterless men. . blegen. rogues and wanderers. bladder . But perhaps a more Gr. as Lat. chatter. tattle. as blader. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. plat. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. to vocifer- — Cot. piatto. D. Blain. Dan. or as E. Du. gabble. roar. The present forms then should be classed with blether. blein. or a mass of bubbles. biasimare. vagrants. madder. Blanket. to disappoint. blister. Fr. pass over. —We Bladder. leafy. To Blare. blank. blister. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. to To bellow. and E. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. moere. a leaf. Du. blanchir. and the agitation of liquids. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. Bacon in R. or blafich. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. Torriano. blahen. Fr. blather. Now. a. variable than the signification of words designating colour. blether. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. Sw. Dan. white. slush. Sir.

thraso. live coal . kept up. G. clamorous. blcest. on whose behalf the herald appeared. loud . blossi. whence Blazonry. has also blencke. a blast. Du. With inversion of the liquid. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. bldsse. Blanches illuminies. A gust of wind. Du. and. brasa. . to extol. The other derivation. oron-blasare.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blis. stultd loqui. Troilus and Cressida. See Blare. A strong flame. Gudmund. to publish the praises. a lamp blasere. to proclaim. AS. bliEsan. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. light-coli. First from the E. a flame. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. redness . blcese. also praeblczse. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. blaze. As Kilian. pale. a loud noise. blesse.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. blaeteren. blason. Fr. ON. blatero. blasonner. boasting. quus. to cut off prematurely. indeed. blast. To blow AS. baladron. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. Gael. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. among other . A blaze is so intimately Then. abroad. blase. Cot.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. a MS. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Blast. bleis. to blow. g. magniloquus. blasa. to publish. blesse. Sw. Golden Book in R. blaodhrach. beast. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. — ^Jam. Fr. blorach. blysa. a coat of arms. a flame. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. how. is used in the sense of manifestatio. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. a shining spot. Cot. blus. visui patet. to spread news. e. the noisy. Dan. AS. bles. somewhat different train of thought. Du. blaodh. used. shield or surcoat. to trumpet forth. blasoen. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. — — ' : bless.— . Fr. ther it was erst not knowe. To blast. in that of praise. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. abroad. blcesett. or blazening. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. each of boaster. The AS. noisy blor. bawling. blateroon. like the in English. braise. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. ventosus. Sc. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. also blazon or the blazSpenser.' painted or figured . blazen. to blow. blaser vid. friend Cornelius. G. or to the sound which it produces.whence the Fr. proflare tues. a shout. splendour. of an animal. in the same way as we 2. a shield. Dan. senses. Du. much plausibility. blcEsan. to blow . commendation blason funebre. brasa. The origin of this exSp. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. Kil. Du. — Elazen. as a verb. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . Sw. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. But now. blaesen. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. . backPerhaps the expression of blazing. Lye. OE. might And sain. an empty and two theories are proposed. 2. blason. might spring from the same origin by a . baladrar. oured. blaterare. blys. ON. coloured prints. 'op een trompet blaazen. by stripping off a portion of the bark. a voice Jr. the matter incendiary . a whisperer. a torch . blase. blcEsan. I. Prov. also only pains and excellent endurance. laudes (Kil. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. embraser. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. Blaze. besides blesse. an conium.' to fastum . is the imme. Blatant. and which. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. fire. . blass. to set on fire. to bellow. proclaim the virtues of. — ' — stroy. If armour. magnilo. She roade at peace through his heraldry.). To Blaze. ill-speaMng their proper colours . gloriosus. biter. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. it is manifest. ing of arms. to blaze Sp. a funeral oration . to de.sound a trumpet. blezo. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. a torch. i. declaratio. a flame . and to make him word blaze. blose. Du. is from AS.

avoid looking it in the face. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. a spot. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. blench came to be used for a trick. a spot. wanness. ' . a stain. p. ^Blencher. 419. — blink the question is to shrink from it. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. to disgrace one's name. to soil. pale . BLENCH obfusco. guenchir. Bejaune. to cast a mist before the eyes.'he cried till the tears ran down. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. darkness of vices. ' — — eye. paleness. tutnan is a cloud. 242. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. Bleed. pier vor den augen eyes. So in Sw. or blemysshen — blaken. . blema. to bleat as sheep. on. a blot or smear blanking one. blot. . And By a similar metaphor Pol. bloken. to start away from. c. N. And now are these but mansbond (i. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. To totally different from the foregoing. Richardson. sinen langen tranen. from on. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. blakna.D. Palsgr. or blemish. tacher. Sir J. See Black. a fault. to cry or weep. Manuel de Pecch&. wheal. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Blear. exposed. . souiller. Gower in R. blot. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. is Blench. a been distinct. livid. Sw. Bleak. Blemisli. like one that has long P1. drop of water. Bailey. confound him. Bleb. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . not only pale but livid or dark of hue. light-coloured. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. Schmel. to wink at it. bldmi. . pale Du. 115. what blenched him therwith. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. (faith or creaunce) Be war. Ancren Riwle. a disgrace. Pol. blarren. as of dust or mist . color plumbeus bldma.' to deceive one. to stain one's honour or reputation. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. a red watery eye. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. to blare been weeping. to make him feel blank. to humbug. G. See Blood. Blear-eyed j having sore i. pimple . start vor den augen. a spot. spSt. plama. spla7nU sie. to wink the eye. geplerr. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. whitish. boggle at something. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. I chaunge colour. bleakness. or to low as oxen. A stain in a man's reputation. wan. — — R. the formal equivalent of English wink. the livid colour of a bruise. tumanid. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. ' — — ' : — — .' the devil makes a vain back. The term blear. to blear one's eye. flack. From the OFr. To salir. Gr. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. blcecan. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. AS. A Blab. B. See Black.P. to spot.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. to become livid. blink.v. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. Fr. Blancher. To Bleat. to bleach. dead-coloured Cotgr. from the than schal I go. inflamed eyes. livor. which are blurred with the have shewed you. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. blemissemeiit. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. bleikr. ' He blarrede or roar. to spot . . As AS. a blemish in one's 2. while the agent ac- From . a boil. blesmissure. a blotch plerr. goda nainn. splamii!. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. blesmir. sugillatio. a spot. novice. blister. ^Xiixaoftai.' God in his wordes. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie.filerren. blur before their eyes. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. and thence to a bruise. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. Mac. in the expression reputation.

. well blahy blick and blink. to stir or puddle. false windows. sung. in potters' language. sertion of the nasal. blican. to bless. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. blotzen. A . tire. . blinzler. wink. weaklaveny. seems the simple netel. Paradises blidnissu. To Blend. csecubrandish. Sw. riches blajennii blicksem. lightning. Tany. a. a look. The inblissful.D. a blessing. . blich-fiur. AS. blanssen. well blagaya. Blind. Du. lightning sweet blago. gives blinzen.blinkard . will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. blithe blis. Du. Swab. to shine. Biglotton. Wtb. — Goth. From the action of the hand making Sw. although in the in the next article. 375. tless —Gamm. glad. thou knave. F. blicken. bludder. blaziti. blago. Bliss. De Sonne ' verblekken. glitter. flash of light . also to wink. To Bless. . a blick-ooghen. Blazena Bea.. a wink With the bletsian. blick.' To — blunge clay.eyed. G. blag. vious one in the order of formation. or nettle which does form. plotzen. III.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. Deprived of sight. giving (Fr. I hold thee a grote thee. be glad flash. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. happily. joy . joy. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. Sc. happy .nasal. blatida. as taschen. blogi. to dash wine with water. to dazzle . . AS. Sc. The term then self or others. bliss look . lightning. blidu. fortunately. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. to shut the eyes. gladness. blazeny. to bluiter. lighten. doors. money. pearance of the blighted . and joys of Paradise bliden. mix from blekken. . to plunge. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. pale. sweet. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. as a blind entry. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. Du. good. dazzle . blind. OHG. Dan. Du. to dabble in water.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. glimpse. as in Du. to consecrate . a. the Slavonic languages. to rejoice. to shine. tative source of the word is wholly lost. blinzdugig. Pol.blunda. joyful. —Brera. blindselen. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. blende. blithe. but by no means therefore a pre. AS. blicksem. wink of sleep . AS. . blitz. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. plonsen. OHG. to shut the eyes G. to mix. To blunder water. liquid filth to bluther. to blithsian. Blink. as in the case of blaze.blinze. blissian. (=bene dicere). a nounce happy. blink-eyed. . Du. to glitter . ON. to make happy. blitzen. readily passes into a /. Needle.Q. Swiss (obsolete). to glitter. window-blind. shine. Russ. Nares. to rejoice. ' Pl. to bless . goods.wink . blessed. G. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blind- ON. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. . a wink. to flash. blinde fenster. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. an entry which leads to nothing . blund. glitter. to act like a — . a gleam. glance. blide. happy . joy. — when he — Bailey. to bluiter up with water.not sting thiiren. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to lighten. to merry. blessed. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. lovely Bohem. blindr. to churn. with or without the nasal. Kiittner. to shine. bleg. glitter. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. mixing in general. blahoslaviti to twinkle. j). Serv. to make a rumbling noise. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. riches . trix. blinzeln. a glance Swiss blenden. ^Jam. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. make these hands 3.corn. Thence apblinds. blendian. to be blind. — A A — . a dead nettle. is I shall Gurt. bluiter. blet. to glance. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. as a vatn i vin. — . to dash cream up and down with a plunger . the G. G. . happy . a flash. to — make it thick and muddy. blac. . blent. to twinkle. to fall into water with a sudden noise. livid. to pro. G. cascultare. blicken. the verb to bless is some. blahos. to dilute too much . blend. Owl and Nightingale. to glitter ful . . blink. The sound of k before an s. graceful. Blight. pockets. burn up. moment.blinken. a glance. blincken. blanda one or prevent one from seeing.

blote. plub. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. fish blind person. a bubble. —Bailey. Cotgr. bluster. Bav. I believe. soft. cooking. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. The roots /. To Bloat. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. pustula. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Mod. ON. mass. blaustem. soft. or the like. blubber. a blot or spot. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blister blasan. It may be formed Blithe. a lumpish head plubach. in the sense of a soft tint. Hence. or blinde-kiih. blinzel-maus. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. or the mark which it makes. blaud. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. signifying in the first instance to soak. N. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. Jonson. senting the dashing of water. . repre- pusula. — Blob. stone. blobber. Egillson. busten. joyful. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. Gael. blod. frequentative. an unformed mass. bubble and blubber. strawclod. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. . to blow. speaking rapidly any .—Bloater. merciful ON. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing.plisg. a dirty blister. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. pausten. while Lat. to block up the way. as a blab of ink. shells. pods. is formed squad. having an unsound swollen look. bausen. — Sw. a bubble. Gael. And so from squatter. and F. blond. Sw. blithe. Block. Blob. Blond.— Hal. — — — — — From blabber. blautr. bloc. mild. a blister. light yellow. to breathe hard. B. Sc. boucler. must be classed with forms like Gr. A under this name was imported into England. a ram. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. . blide. blidr. in bulk. To Blissom. Dan. buckle. fiustula. soak in water cured fish. blcesma. must be referred to AS. viscid. Of sheep. Sw. to soak. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. Kil. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. soft. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. biota. blindman's-buff. Boyd in Jam.. Blister. is also used in the sense of swelling . a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. taken altogether. To a smoking or drying by the fire. mild. and easily changes its place. blot. puff. like manner the coloured. to desire the male. ^vaaa. G. Bleb. pusula. to steep. round. as if soaked in water. Goth. In Fin. gentle OHG. G. a bubble. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. blot. weak. blouca and Fr. to blow. and inarticulately. Du. as blinzeln. soaked.pusta. blot. whence blast. buclde. For this. bleiths. it is must be observed. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. blijde. to blissom. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. a See Blot. to dash liquid. a blister . husks. a little blisg. expressed by cognate roots. blesme. in gusts. a . ^Jam. like clot. Du. from blcsr. or is inserted or omitted. inde humiditate tumidus. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. Langued. Dan. Lat. to bubble. B. Hence E. blister. to cure by smoke. a small lump of anything thick. The blow E. separate portion. . it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. See Blot. as in E. sloppy dirt. in Nares. Svt. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. formed spot.—Bloated. Blob. Ibid. a blain. bloc. any lump or mass of things. bloated. to swell. a drop of water. or bleb. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. A solid blouquette blisters. — . lagga i blot. The stem or trunk of a tree. and bouclette. and pisg. to to puff and be noisy. blobbes or droppes of water. Thus we have blab and babble. orbicular. Fr. blotfisk. bluyster. to blow. swell. blindsehn. in the lump or mass of wood. ON.— Bailey. to close it with a solid mass. blab. blad. Fr. W. the unhewn bole of a tree. a block or log en bloc. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. kostia. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. kostua. pimple. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. also to set See Bless.

pale. blaeuwe ooghe. a blot or spot. bliithe. blauwel. . blaeuwen. ^Bleed. a flower. ])erly Du. . — Cot.blauschlagen. probably connected with Pol. cow-dung. spot pletter i solen. en blau ach. to blot the land was in a leme. splendour . spots in the sun. a torch blusse. blaeuw. — Stalder . shine . blotte. platz-regen. . Blot. blosen. bliihen. a blow. white blatte. Prov. to patter. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . soft or flat. bloemen. the bright to blot paper morsels. — Blotch-paper. or the sound of it . ON. Fris. blue . ON. to squat or lie close. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. a Usaae. skam. a cow-dung. blosa. E. glasi. . bloetnsel. Wendish blodo. blou. to dash down Du. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. blistaf. to From . redness. E. to glisten .platter. The G. a water ploutsche. a pelting shower). BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. Schmid. E. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. lidmr. flower. Dan. Ein platsch milch. D. to dirty. E. bldmi. Dan. Blow. to shine . brilliancy. a Schmid. lustre. Erploten. bldts. to sparkle. biado (of which the evidence plattern. blue. kobladde. blut. blase. E. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. bleustern. to grow pale). in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. dial. dial. bloedsd. to strike . blooth. . to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. It. blus. 2. —Barbour. to blush . AS. to flame. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. plottra. OFr. blue. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. bloeme. bloi. proto shine with bright colours . Fr. mud. gloss. to dash down. pale tint. blois. S-wiss pladern. in v. plet. fall down . plot of land is a spot or small rage. a flower. Du. to be red. Sc. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. See Blow. platt-voll. blostma. a Halm a. blust. Du. kuh-plader. a spot or blot. Sw. lump of anything soft to blad. Blad. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. bloed. to dabble in water . a lump. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. platz-voll. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. blady. Florio). Wflz<^«. yellow. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. Pl. to blaze. couleur livide.D. of a blow with something lios. glister . to beat one black bladding on o' weet. (of cattle) to dung. Du. colour of the cheeks. Schilter. bloi. blat. sbiadare. dirty spot on the cheek. blad. Dan. blowen. blue. blotting-paper. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. bleistern. plants which prepares the seed. blomstr. bloto. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. as the skin or hair. — — . whence plader. Ir. a beater. Lat. Plots. a deli. plattata. pale biavo. blond is used in blatt. to blaze . bliise. j^ blottir. leme. to strike with such these objects exhibit. from the bright colour which 7'vci. a drop of water or colour. light. Schwenck. bletister.^ Kil. . to scribble. blond en blaauw slaan.' the rain is driving and blue . blondheid. a. clod. to squander. platsch-voll. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. plotterwis. to slap. Harmar in R. Bloom. bit by bit.— . to be red with blot. PI. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. blose. blysa. a gush of milk . straw. bluish. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). Jios. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. Russ. Sw. blosma. Sw. bfys. a nature. Du. to glow. yellowish It's G. Fris. to spot or blot. . glus. blond. glossi. Stalder. to splash. E. blosem. from G. fair in en blat vand. . great leaf of cabbage. a The form platschefz. pladdern. blodelsa and blawelsa. gammon. to slap. a black eye Du. to exists in biadetto. Sc. livid . Blood. blue. Blotcli. ^lys. It should be of filth blak-blatte. Hatch. lump flower. a flower. — gush. the bright colour of the cheeks . coloured (Diaz. parallel form with ON. Blossom. gfyssa. ' — . wan. splashing full. livid marks. platschern. glose. G. blotter. bloutre. a blaze. pladern. ON. fall to overflowing. bloi. G. to strike with something soft or flat. See Blow. on. AS. blawels. to dabble in water.properly to scatter liquid . blatte.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. gleam.

bliuwan. grow pale. sound like water. gliihen. blazi. bliihen. blezir. Prov. bliithe. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. toused.nify bubble. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . Tumbled. 51. y\r)yi»v. Blowzy. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. to flourish. plusig. . AS. In agitation of water. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. fiubbem. Notwithstanding the We .— . glas. bluh. to glow. to blow. a flower. blass. a fat. or gr. a continued noise of agitated water. bluod. Sik upplustem. Du. is confined to the — . glaodh and blaodh. blue. ler. blduen. bloemen. OHG. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. bldt. to spot. disordered. MHG. Gael. G. pale OFr. to gush. Danneil. Raynouard. . to make blue. plustrig. sponds with Sw. a herb Gr. bloom. grey. coup. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. sense. wan. v. to'disorder. d in Sc. Chaucer. to fade. blodelsa.to blossom. and the forms mentioned under Swab. where the word may be compared bliggman. — To Blubber. and thence. a gurgling . OFr. to with Bohem. may cite for example G. in rapid or indistinct utterance. blut. marking some application from that bladder. w. jabber. B. — Bluther. blodern. chatter. blosen. 1292. to exhibit bright colours. Deutsch. To Blow. boasting. bliihen. ^Jam. to shine with bright From colours. glas. especially with respect to the hair. A.' — Palsgr. like manner Lat. pale. closely difference in of blabber. Pl. blaw j biavo. to breathe bouteiUis. glowing coal . to beat. to glow. Bav. blazir. Blowze. a. 92. bloeden. flower OHG. little apparent resemblance. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. meurtrissure Roquefort. glede. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. to bubble up. It is howbliuwen. Mund. G. -ii. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. to flap like loose clothes. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). And. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. blahen. blubonciti. gloeyen. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. a blast. blue . blust. glow. bloeyen. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome.. blady. flower w. florere. 1. blois. Lat. To Blow. blau. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. red-faced bloted wench. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. to Plodern. plodern. tache. to inflate. br. . 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. bloes. blao. bl. Pludern. The radical sense is shown in Gael. grug. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. Wtb. . thus identify the Celtic glas with G. withered. These are — Bludder. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. . to gabble. to blow. a bruise. to puff up. blubbern. into flower. fied vowel. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. — . plubair.D. wan. to fade. The aUied forms. P1. in E. a Blossom. blubbern. fem. G. Her sweet bloderit face. foam. blava. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. piusen. blodyn.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. G. blebber.D. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. plubartaich. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. It. fqded. gloeden. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. puff. bluther. to beat with a mallet. boil. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. Bret. and closely allied with Du.D. Du. to hard. — To blubber. to blurt out. to blow. gUd. to guggle. pale. bludder. cheeks bedabbled with tears. the red fluid of the body . The primary sense is to shine. bruised Prov. . a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. glansj Ir.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. ' BLUE or guggling. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. pludern. to fade. Langued.' Hamburgh Archives. to show flower. We . vi^ound. to breathe G. pale . blow.Jlasa. — . I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. Gr. Deutsch. Chaucer. E. a paddling in wate r. /idXavoc. E. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. bledniai. to make bubbles in drinking.D. bruk. Pl. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red.xo'»'. Kil. disordered in head-dress. plubraich. blau. gliihen. The interchange of an initial gl. dirty. to bruise Roquef. green. — — Mundart. a blow. —SchmelIt. 2. is very frequent. heath. Jla-re. OHG. blawan. bloi. Blue. corre. |8A)'.

corn. bullern. pale yellow. to work To blunder out a fronto. Pol. A bluff manner. is. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. The word is here synonymous with amplus. from the brilliant green of the young E. blake (identical with AS. . jaune. G. discoloured {plowiee. Blunt. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. sloppy drink. to fall suddenly on the ground. Pl. herauspoltem or sloping shore. which is rendered by Florio. like Du. The Du. as well as sbiadafe. biavo. blue. a blunderbuss. non rotunda. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. disturb. Romance bluiter. in plur. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. to become pale. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to become pale or wan. to dabble Biglotton E. contrasted with the dle. Biada. It then signifies something done at once. verdure.D. Blaffart. from the Lat. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. devenir vert blavoie. to blunge clay. We Blunder. his business with much noise. bleu et blanc.in mud or water. polterer. plo-wy. buller-bak. rustic. E. Altieri. Pm. Du. abrupt. tradire to Fr. like the Celtic glas. blanssen. Blunderer or blunt worker. Hal. or an abrupt manner. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . has donder-bus. applied to green as well as blue. to puddle. and bustle . a plain coin herausplatzeu. a fore. And blunders on and staggers every pace. Blavoyer. verdoyer. fallow. G. Du. something. From G. having a bluff forehead. to agitation of liquids. bawling. to confound. pale straw-coloured. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. See Blurt. bUich. all representing the — . segetes virentes. a flounder. pale) is provincially used in the. blue. blaf. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. Roquefort. trahir. in the same way as from It'. sense of yeUow. It is remarkable however that the E. To blunder is then. Halma. blue. glundra. to dabble in the mud. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. blunderhead. and sbiadare.' trouble. to plump into the water. falb.make a noise. OFr. flodderen (Weiland). blac. blahir. find accordingly It. as well as biado. Kiittner. blave is moreover. fawn-coloured. from an imitation of the sound. in water dobbelen. liebefactor. blond. Flor. poltern. Roquefort. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. Dan. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. Kil. bloi. blunder. Bladum. earth and water mixed together. glundr. Analogous forms are Du. Sw. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. Kil. je perturbe. Hence a Slcelton in R. confusion. G. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. pale. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to lose colour. plomp. — . to fade). and then generally idle talk. blunder. Ditton in R. yellowish red. — — — . - reddish yellow. to blunder water. and metaphorically. without image or superscription. blunt. biada. Supp. mistake. a boisterous violent man. superficie plani. yellow. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. Hence we pass to Prov. pludder. Lat. a shore abruptly rising. blandum. herbe. corn. I blonder. blutter. Dryden in R. polter-hans. and biavo (Diez). ploffen. planus. sbiavare.//aay. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. to become pale or livid. See Blunt. tutte le semente ancora in erba.. and Du. speech. Then with the nasal. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. — Pr. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. blavus. originally growing up turf and water.— . — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. Dief. an ill-done job. bluish. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. Bodge. Bluff. puddle. bulmanner.• BLUFF biado. Palsgr. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. biava. dial. mix It. used for the work of an unskilful performer. The Du. to mix it up with water. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. 't — —Hal. Bohem. buller-bas. . The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. G. flav-us.

plump. Bluntet. that the sense of bare. to make foliage. rudely. blunt. bleak. Plump. sheepish. bus. from the loud report a fire-arm. without horns. biosso. naked. a blot. Kiittner. Halma. like a thing thrown down with a noise. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. G. — blunt. A light blue colour. used in both senses. forestis. a thick and will person. Dan. V. without Maolaich. to plump down.pludse. — Kil. heavy. blout. plumbeus. blunder. plonsen.plompen. platzen. Sc. bluntschen. blat. it will be observed. dial. a bluntie. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. Blaitie-bum. . figuratively. massive. platz-regen. —D. — — pidus. pressions. Sc. exactly corresponding to the G. unpolished. naked. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. —D. biotto. as in E. blunt. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. is thrown. stupid fellow. bare. as Sw. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. More in Richardson. . plotz. but of something soft thrown on the ground. united in Gael. poor Sc. or heraus plumpen. to make a noise of such a Stalder. absence of preparation. with or without the nasal. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. Plontp. Dan. without preparation. and hath swiche languor in his soul. bare. or blab out a thing Kiittner . blotta sanningen. Swab. Plump mit etwas umgehen. blunsch. F. blue. naked. pointless. Sw. Woddis. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. blutten. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. to handle a thing bluntly. azure. Won by degrees. A modification of the same root. Du. that it not easy to discover the connection. Now the Swiss bluntsch. a portion To inquire for slaves. hebes. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. nature. nis. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. blait. duU. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/.— — — . and the like. It. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. unfledged Sw. Kiittner. Probably radically hlekit. insensible. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. to blunt a thing out. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . obtusus. viz. blait. identical with E. inactive Swiss bluntschi. through which a man is so blont. Ford in R. seems to be derived. rough. It will be seen that the G. unceremonious manner. plump. plump. clumsy. rude. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. plutz T)\i. dull. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. down. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. blott. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. it will be well to point out a sense. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. is The word dull. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. raw. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. clownish. wan. homo stolidus. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Stalder. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. Sir T.—D. awkward. bloss. unwrought. ang. ineffectual reason. V. and an unintelligent. plains The large bech. V. Chaucer. inaKil. maol. blunt. The syllables blot. pale. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. in Richardson. Then cometh indevotion. blatte. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. heavy. It is from this notion of suddenness. The blait body. fling down . without the nasal. and in the same sense. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. viz. of a knife which not cut. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. G. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. heavy. Q. blunt. mit etwas heraus-platzen. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. and. Pol. as cow-dung.to fall into the water. fooUsh. awkwardly. silly. Bare and blunt. a simpleton. good plump person. bald. plump. to bring it suddenly out. to plump into the water. obtusus. plotsen. to blurt. Blunt. the absence of sharpness. naked. plump J to plump out with it. thick. dull. void. edgeless. Molof something wet. bare or blunt. blockish.

a burst of tears. bot-voet. it implies that it is empty sound. Boa. Fr. the Brem. dial. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. — To Bob. violent. or blurt with one's mouth. a short thick body. Hal. and E. Pull the bobbin. bausen. blotch and botch. eber. literally edge-wood. beer. primarily signify loud noise. . to guggle.v. V. plump. Sc. both used in the sense of boasting. a smear. to blush. bur. boot. a blow . this root are formed Sc. Schmeller. batello. to blur. an end or stump. See Boisterous. a board or plank. Comp. G. or bog also thread. Slur. bobine. AS. blast. Fr. short pieces of any filthy mud. be a crack or loud sound. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. A large snake. and when applied to vaunting language. Blush. bdta. a torch blusse. to puff. to dangle. dial. bord. stellio. to make a noise in boiling. or backwards and forwards. Gael. an ear of corn. Boost is used for the boast. outward edge. blusse i ansigtet. planks raised up outside the roofs. a blotch. blasen and See Burr. sudden. Boa. baiag. To brag and to crack. then applied to indistinct vision . Sc. edge. bar. border. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. as splurt to splutter. edge. voce intonare. a tassel. gabble. G. table. P. 1. bhis. boord. to blore. bot. Du. strong. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Hal. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. . bladdra. blaere. bleuster. Kil. blirt of greeting. bdtr. acre. De Boat. a dangling object. blaste?i. Lat. swagger. to rumble. properly noisy. to endeavour to terrify. The to radical meaning D. blaustem. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. 29. ader. and boisterous.the syllable bot. e. Wtb. table. Du. baban. a bladder . 274. board. beacon fire. a. to talk quick and indistinctly . to bounce. blosken. blarra. — — — * Boast. . From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr.plodem. to crying. is formed Du. Fl. boistous. G. a mistiness. w. to breke. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. crack made by bursting open. To move quickly up and down. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. bateau. a baU of thread the mud. blunt. margin. Du. to render indisbhir. AS. cocodrUlus. blur. mire. to disfigure with E. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. gabble Sw. and swimmeth very well. to say bluntly. of the word seems . AS. — — . puffen.—Bobbin. a grows to a great bigness. cluster. pludern. E. violent G. to snuff. to blaze. blader. Fl. to give a crack. pustern. — a blaze. to blubber. to bark. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. to chatter. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. To splirt. to roar. c. a tassel.' — Red Riding-hood. rude. lindwurm. margin. bora. OE. blaffen and baffen. bludder. bludder. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. to spurt out. Sverris Saga. as in Du. Bav. 156. a mist before the eyes plerren. to sound like water boiling. margin. Board. Pl. bluther.pusten. a flurt with one's fingers. on. Explained by Jam. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. It. a border. my dear. fringe. a small lump. BOB 79 — To Blur. — ' Dief. lacerta. coarse. To Blurt. To tinct. 'Ba.y. E. Halma.D. ground. to make mouths. bustuous. brett. . To blow in puffs. a blot. Du. burra. ever-swin. Wallace. whence bob. to puff. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. &c. to puff. a club foot . pof. eafor. i. See Blossom. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. an edge. It. Du. to make a noise with the mouth. a Jam. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. boccheggiare. to brag grande loqui. cheeks glow. Wright's ed. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. boa. aper. It. hot. 9396. berd. As the as. Bluster. Related to blutter. bord. . The elision of the d is very to chatter. whence bordvidr. blose. and Du. to dabble. common. rude. to glow . stupid. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. dull. to jabber. and the latch .plerr. will fly up. skin. puddle. bord. pfludern. Du. to blurt out. blot. to smear. large. Supp. bobbin. Du. the sound of a blow poffen. bluter. pluddre. chicchere. imitated by has also In like .— . blubber. — From mouth. Dan. planks or boards. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. ON. Gael. geplerr. blot. flat. botte. to threaten. pausten. BLUR Boar. borrar. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. to blow. blodern. bakke bleustern. bliise. blurra. bdd. to be out of temper. splurt and spirt. Bot zeggen. bit. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. to dirty. Swiss blodern.

a spur. bot. gag. to push with the horns. of which the E. the body of a shift gaguejar. bodene. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. VI. French bouter. formerly bodies. AS. a ghost . a messenger . round. then from the yielding. bod. — as well as the body of an animal. So BOB To Bob. gago. or bag.hollow. gebod. Bog. goggle. the boss of a buckler. See To Botch.a (i\ia. Bohem. to prick. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. bo tich.gmh:t. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. to make a mow at. speak of the barrel of a horse. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. a command. — 2. bog. Shakespear has badged with blood. And waves. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. bogan. Bret. bod. corpses pot. to bodge. Now unskilful action is conmire. To make bad work. whence paUchen. biodeachan. arise E. a round body both. a sting . stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. Lap. toss. Gael. Reliq Antiq.rabodi. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. Lith. potacha. body and G. anything protuberant. gog. bole. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . bothog. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. palleg. Schmel. from fitting close to the body. move. To Bodge. agitate. anything soft. gogach. as in stammering or staggering. ON. bob. bodnu. bayonet . belly. — H. bottig. Gael. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. daubed or dabbled with blood. as signifying anything spherical or round. the trunk of the animal body.' A — Sherwood's Diet. To portend good or bad. busti. The Sp. 43. strike with the horns. bog. point. unsteady. * To Boggle. dies. the stem of a tree . a cask. boftich. The signification of the root bot. whence Fr. so large a feature in the country. precept.. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. unsteady nature of a soft substance. bodhag. and E. ^Jam. potacha. In like manner E. to blurt a thing out. e. to bob. Ptg. wavering. bagges. . bodian. See Baber-lipped. stuttering. to roll. '£. To Bode. patsche. BOGGLE trunk and G. body of a shirt bol. exhibit another modification of the root. moist mire. barriga. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. a . corset. bodak. Gael. Bodice. to be unsteady tich. nave of a wheel. bogadh. . represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. gagei. quakmg. unsteady. as a horn. needle. to scruple.! . to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Supp. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. to dabble or paddle. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. corpset. Commonly explained as if from Sc. AS. barrique. To mock. . . stumpy. waving. bodetz. a bog or morass. — Grandg. badyti. to fail. Russ. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. to thrust. bodat. bodilo. moving backwards and forwards. a puddle. to fail. to commit a blunder. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. With With this we charged again We bodged again. Gl. a body. pall. to deliver a message. meaning the round part of his body.\\i\c\iset. mud. See Bid. Thy i. Miracle-plays. bog (equivalent to E. . Ir. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. is a lump. to stir. is identical with Fr. the thick part of anything. gagoula. message boda. the belly. a quagsoft. . Wall. to waver. and the word is well explained by Bailey. bodig. Body. . a dagger. potahha. by the syllable patsch. . gog in gog-mire. a prick. or stem of a tree. corset from corps. bayonet. butt. to be uncertain what to do. a prickle. We . to stammer. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. Bodkin. shaking . potig. calf of the leg. or a pair of bodies. bolr. Ptg. Cot. to smack. an announcement. .' But the radical Glanville in Todd. rounded. woman's stays. swelling. bottich are derivatives. shake. bogach. a cask. bodies. cask bottich. bogle. to start start and back as from a bugbear. biodag. boll. bodi. thrust with something pointed. bogadaich. where bogs form Gael. to stick. 3. It introduced from Ireland. fickle . bodi. Crist. stitch. to butt. to make. stutter gogmire. baboyer. nodding. the body. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. expression hogglin an bogglin. W. Banff.' Bogglie. quagmire). an awl.

bald. stud. ON. Love. proud. 45. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — .— D. bochken (titubare. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). See Bulk. ballr. strong. bealder. . the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. excellent. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. Lat. Goth. in the sense of handsome . Magy. Sc. bolt. Chaucer seems Dan. wag. bol. * Bolster. obex. 1430 in Deutsch. Test.. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. i. bolstar. as those of nuts. bullire. poppy (Bailey). bSlstr. round the first instance to the materials with . bok. bagaji. in speaking. bout is explained by Kil. Kit. G.' Mrs Baker. a swelling in ice.D. courageous. up of bubbles. tar. Fr. as. to boil. Me doth awate. baud. This iv. sels of flax. boss. — — which the cushion is stuffed. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. flax-boU. boutpijl. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. — 6 . Gael. whence bulla. to stumble. also a blister. merry. strong. bolle. quick. a boil or swelling Du. confident. blow. pusten. bolr. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. strong.— — . lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. boll. bolt upright. boystousnesse. stameln vel bochken. cheerful. intrepid. he will speak out. as baltha. bolzen. glass phial. shake. noise. prince. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. to waver or hesitate. Lat. Du. bolster. bald. bog. coarse. dint in a metal vessel. boggle. To Boil. 374. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. treated under Bowl. to stammer. To Bolter. balldr. but that Bolt. free. swelling. Pm. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. The bob. to swell. bolster. . Lap. roydeur. pall. ON. . by which it is moved to and fro. styffe or rude . G. capiing into a cavity. OHG. hero. pimple ON. belc'hj. boil . bald. a bubble. to be prominent. Sw. bal. a bubble. to stammer. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. bolleken. gerade signifies straight to the mark. tartle. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. b^gayer. bag or bog are derived Piedm. boly. In the same way Sc. 304). * Boisterous. It. Swab. scruple. biiilen. Chaucer. the husk of nuts. gluma. haughty. A. ON. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. bul. the body . animal as distinguished from the limbs. trunk of a tree . is probably a modification of boll. a bakazikni. Mund. bold. the body of a man or of ter. or the like. and then applied to other husks. to puff. as E. Cot. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. Kil. a bubble. to give a hoUow sound. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren.Du. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. from the branches. G. bollen (Kil. globular bod)'. furfures. tulum. Sp. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. E. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. chaff of corn siliqua. Du. Westerwald bollern. Daring. repagulum. may be identified with It. fiausten.w. impetuosity. Pr. swelling. to stagger. — ' — tagliare. caput scapulse. w. bol. a head . Fr. bola. ^Vocab. warlike. ON. rough. Boystous. tartajear. ^Boistous. Bret. from Du. to the belly as the or dislike.). the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. bold. chatter. the. tomentum. buller. Wall. tartalear. to tattle. insolent baude. Du. buile. stramenta. bul. ohg. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. puile. Bustuous. bula. hakogni. bolzBold. Boll. as. huge. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A .palleg. Da. bouil. perpendicular. to be at a loss a shirt. stutSw. The round stem of a tree.rounded part of the body. to hesitate from doubt. bulr. Boil. bol. folliculus grani. G. properly represent belly. OG. which are not used for a similar purpose. capitellum. balder. bog. polc'h. a bump. bout. used. (of Mons) b^guer. see Boast. a quaking mire. cows the people from speaking. courageous. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. bulla. bold. Bole. and manace for to de. bulla. E. beule. V. bolla. bola. brave. pustule. a cushion. bhster. the lir. then violent. notes. Properly noisy. puilen. the gurgling sound of water rush. a fastening for a door. bolc'h. hollow. The term applies in — — impressed . In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. Du. pillow. Stalder. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. Fr. .

bulio.. racket gepolter. taraabout. we have Du. hump-backed (to be compared A ' .).protuberance.nature of the operation.D. to E. je bulte. buideln. . achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. to agitate. one after the other. pultare. Bulte-pook or bulstar. to talk pulzen. Bav. pull. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. as of a trumpet. bultred. a bunch. beluter. Pr. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. Brem. poltern. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. Pl. with E. brattle. Hence Palsgr. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. to start out. a small portion. a rattle. beliitea.clack. crod. hammer. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. the wheels groaned.D. In the next place. we der Brocket). and to crash. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. sestuare. jolting. 2. a rattling carriage. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. to form lumps. or the like. Mid. abolter. ex•wagen. vessel with narrow opening. to bolt meal barutel. Dauphiny a sudden movement. Dan. Du. lumpy. kloteren. staff which sounds tar. bolzauget) Sp. cruddle. Pl. . buletel. Schiitze. as Fr. hole. the sense of right on end. to significance of the term was overlooked. a round glass ending — bultig. a clod. P1. Du. small heap. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. knob. bolzen. bolt-foot. . The ment and the operation. fied bot. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. Champagne burtcau. bortelen. zare. barutela. . and the Thus from So. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. / is transposed in Fr. a club-foot.— . bulk or quantity . bolting to that of form. Sanders. curdle. Here the radical image is the violent O. rugged. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief.u. pattern. we pass to Du. hulter de bulter. Lat. ' — — ! ! : — . rugged. tuft. to knock. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. agitari (Kil. then to knock. or a racer from the course. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. tling or crashing noise.). a clap of thunnences. a clod cloth. Prov. a bolter or implement for bolting. loud and fast. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. OFr. a millpoltzet augen. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter.On the same principle. poll. G. barutare. a bolter Prov. So also we pass from Lat. btilt. to bolt meal barutel. bolzaugen. also to curdle. hammer. taratantarum. bulk. crash. to bolt flour burato. to shake.thump or blow. uneven. to bolter.. a crashing or racketing noise.i5a//^«. bulla. or ill. barutela. croler. ' Holler poller / bulter. protuberance. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. to spring forth E. a sod (Schiitze). to clack. we see that the one consists of a words. . — — — . a .D. blotttre. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. as a rabbit from its baritel. poltern. buletare. baruta. tantara. projecting eyes pul. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering.through a cloth of loose texture. The ulti. Lang.by forms like G. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. burclct. On this account Mid.noise {brattle of thunner. And as the agitation of cream in . Wtb. as snow balling on a horse's foot. tar. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. . : ' — — .agitation of the meal in the bolter. to coagulate. representing a rat. buretter{CQ\. a clump of turf. bolt.Lat. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. MHG. to start with palpitate. mole-hill. from G. by the representation of a racketing sound. swelling. bullern. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. bulstrig. buUire. on the one hand. tumultuari. Sw. as above explained. Supp. zen. . bolt head is a retort. to come rattling downstairs. crotlar. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil.as the essential element signifying the talum. hump. It. uneven. holier poller.D. to become lumpy. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. gebolder. to make a knocking. ler. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. Hence. OFr. die treppe pressed. in S'W plotter. hulch. Fr. taratarrum. clump. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. bluter. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. budeln daz mele . projections. OFr. boss. I boulte meale in a boulter.) E. have Lat. Pm. cro. grasbulten. bultig. .fe/2?.

from boom. Near 6 * . sericum arboreum. bindan. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. &c. bulter from It. butteln. It. . a ligature. Bomb. OE. Antiq. a —Bombasine. as Banbury. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. HoUybandin R. band. a thundering noise bomre. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. to boult meal. Fr. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. bombasin. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. the Fr. to shake (as to shake the head. and Mod. From builen. baum-bast. It.). Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. tiffany. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. bauniwolle. bunden. a drum bombammen. assuming the of leg : special signification W. cotton. bombarda. to bind G. must be explained Fr. Gascoi^e in R. iuttern. tie.) . a stem or base. to shake. borel. bwmbwr. tie. booming over the water. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. a bone in general. to which the leg. beil'n. ties. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. Dan. and Bond. sije. E. bureau. and Du. bopin. sye. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. Du. bombasine. produced the Pl. to ring bells. breast-bone. Fr. a string. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. bwmbwry mar. derivation. When ture. to cast to and fro. the silk-worm. bonfras. raw silk. builen. bombdra. q. a hollow sound. bongam. to resound. bon. Dan. basin. beuteln. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. bomba. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Castrais barato. an implement of binding. 155. band. G. buidelen. 83 Gr. . G. bombe. bombicina. to thump W. bommer. Banstead. is supported by the analogy of G. a churn for butter. cotton stuff. and that from Fr. i. again. Du. bombast. bureau. — Bombard. e. to shake down fruit from a tree. been. thick-legged. butteln. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. buidelen. bonds. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. achsel bein. stump. — bombast came guage. or trunk word in W. term is appropriated in G. band pi. rimbombare. bambagioj whence It. bombice. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. a beacon. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. sijde. In legal language. lana lignea. tree. Du. bone of the . stuff. bond. Butterglas. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. . boulenger. As cotton was used for padding clothes. also thick-shanked. . coarse. G. thick.bast. to thunder. Bone. — AS. has repeatedly varied. as in . as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn.Su?. It. buttel trueb (of liquids). a stock. gunpowder. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. . It. bombase. the contracted form of Du. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. Schm. bras. d. a baker. bein. and called in Mid. bolting-cloth. and in fact we find the and Du. bonog. PoUitriduare. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. we speak of a gun to resound. It. the shank the shoulder-bone. crook-shanked bondew. bambagino.Lat. Need you any ink and bonibase. — having a stem or stalk. however. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. The material called by this name. barate. silk. Bibelesworth in Nat. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. thick from shaking. the murmuring of the sea. silk-worm. . In E. Kil.D. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. the leg. to bolt meal. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. Bonfire. bambacium. banitola (Fl. brust-bein. . bande. It.^Altieri. biire. gossipium. beuteln. whence bomme. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. bommen. burato. and also the leg. ^o/j. agreement. Mid. baun.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. a boulter of meal. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. to beat a drum. ODu. Fl. from teu. Moreover. a word of which we have traces in several English names.

— From the participle present. set in order. See Bomb. pig-sty. ON. . pero. Goth. prayer. Boor. a bonfire. feu de behourdis. the name of the letter b. It.n. a dry stalk. — e. N. biikui. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. and Ban in w. short boots. ganian. bosih. OSlav. dial. In nautical language. . is Du. ON. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill.. bauen. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. bds. ben. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. simpleton. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. succour Bailey. To Boot. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. Du. Hal. fool. signifying beech. The origin of the word is probably the W. in w. a lofty blaze. often cut for burning and lighting fires. a letter . buch-stab. baier. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. boubair. to strew with straw. — — . booby. swinbusa. by itself for head-dress. bdn.^ —P. or Vanns. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. boutig. a stall. beiSne. Pm. Basa. without ad- . remedy of evil. gawney. a scribe G. 13. from badare. Trans. to dress. It is commonly explained as identical with It. dress. \ais-band. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . Build. a silly fellow. from beida (E. See Butt. countryman. Booby. b^er. botta. lofty. a. . boa. G. the possessor of the farm. high. Du. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. * Boose. the scriptures bokareis. reparation. bonnet. Pr. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. ty Gael. Bonnefyre. bid). from gape. a good turn or re- meaning. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. quest. writing bokos. pole. petition. E. a. bosig. Thus from the syllable ba. dolt. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. netis stall. Hufwud-bonad. bote. Bun. betere thing werse. wondering signifies not only straw. foolish. p. bowwen. boubi^. Book. b'ukvdry. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. Fr. the stubble of beans. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. Jr. Fr. although in the OG. nachbar. to litter bosu. The character of folly is i860. clown. inhabit. AS. A peasant. Schm. . buandi. a letter Russ. botte. babau. boer. ON. Boon. inhabit. . bua. — . Busk. but stall. literally cow-house. Sp. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. tall. a lying-place for dogs or swine. Boom. Gael. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. and thence Rouchi baia. bauer. prayer. G. E. blockhead. bolt. bene. babin. The latter is the original AS. . to aid. at everything. dress. But bosg. Kil. build. the mouth. gehyred. a bag of skin or leather. as the Brecknockshire Banns. a head-dress. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. are formed Fr. hu?idbusa. to gape. relief from sorrow. as a lying-place for cattle. bose. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. bonad. of wonder On the same principle Sp. and fig. boutig. busu. help. Fr. bobo. to yawn. See Bown. stabulum.—Bootless. a vessel for holding liquids. the alphabet. ass. where a cross (or a gun.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. The i. a hollow skin. in Phil. to prepare. bua. Mrs Baker explains bun. Perhaps. gaping hoyden — Cot. . bota. chaff. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. however. — Bailey. to gape. Hal. OW. master of the house. letter. Bootless. to ask. a simpleton. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. and from AS. also called Brecknock Beacons. A favour. Bonnet. Binau Brychyniog. 232. botte. to set in order. dog-kennel. bas. beam. which one gaping and staring about. boom. bd. boten-shoen. one who dwells nigh. Boot. bAkva. dial. bossen. Ox. from Du. the cultivator. wall hangings. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. b&ber. . comes bondi. Prov. litter. babb^o. to cultivate. Du. Mrs Baker. Gl. bos. bobo ! interj. tigh. From bo. G. Thin ben Luke i. . Swab. till. to cultivate. bommen. tapestry. Palsgr. . till. Fr. A stall for cattle. and Gael. whence ban-ffagl. bonaid. AS. — To boot. badaud. been. Wall. by arbitours sholde bote the P. w. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. ON. head-dress wai^g. remnants of hay or straw. boandi. boo. Kil. petition. the first consonant of the alphabet. bonad.Boos. boia. house. desire. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. a tree. gaby. build. Boot of bale.

of an edge that will not bite. butin is explained by Flor.. G. Gael. chisel. margin. a booth or shed. Pol. dust. better. hut. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. baara. piercer. repair. to build buda. Fl. differs only in termination. biorag. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. lappalare. See Bower. baete. hem or gard of a garment. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. bdt. . to divide. nor E. Mag. bud. purro. pi. a hut. bite. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. It. Compare Manx birrag. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. to importune. rof.. limbus. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. Sp. beute. amendment. to bite. to repair. 3. chewed food for infants.— Return from Parnassus I inR. borracha. BoracMo. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. from deila and skipta. kvit-bara. scalpo. Gael. sawroot. and E. Du. Booty. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. a wave. bauen. and meta- Fr. to The Sw. borracha. . To Bore. Esthon. Lat. struere ignem. boards. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. scsdes-bod. aid. to boot. lappolone. from bord. drillen. boeten het vier. make . ON. to swell. bordi. a shop budowati. ON. OSw. bottino. to build. to bite. bata. . is purin. barn.—Burin. sculpo 05\xiik. butin. from borra. puras. It is admitted that Fr. p. admovere titiones. BOOTH vantage. See To We speak in E. to surge. Gael. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. . and thence to eat build. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. 1. The ON. a cupboard. Palsgr. The as G. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. a borer.par. the .por. bothan. See Burgeon. to anything Neither G. It. a responding forms . or the gradual working a hole in anything. a border. budowai. betan fyr. an engraver's chisel. furd. a great bur. Fr. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. as afford a satisfactory explanation. . abode. terebra sculptoria purastoa. burin. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. bardure. to foam. bord. And so in ON. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. a sharp-pointed tooth. exchange or divide. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. a chisel. a granary . bohren. botjan. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). edge. limbus. recovery bata. Bete. cottage. to patch. &c. Border. on. extremitas Bore. Fin. to quench one's thirst . to profit Goth. . the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. both. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. • — To Bore. Another derivation from Fin. boede. Fr. The cor. to profit. a shop. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. furni. in Ihre. comminuted by either kind of action. — ON. purra. welt. batr. forare. 266. ON. cup- awl. Bohem. to hut. reparation. Kil. terebro. and hence to fine. Du. bothag. Booth. bauda. a hut or tent. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. in Lap. Burke in R. puru. to pierce. a shed. wave. bolino. boete. pointed. fimbria. .. to bore. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. to mend. But probably the E. to . bora. are derived from G. N. to stick unto as a bur. Magy. tent. to to . making good again . purra. In the Fin. A phorically a drunkard. are parret. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. The Fin. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. a bladder. swell bara. bdra. uzboro. dens mordens vel caninus. or anything pointed. yfirbdt. Alexand. urboro. Fin. OHG. mat-bod. amendment boeten. fire. remedy. a leather bag or bottle for wine. a tusk. bower. puras. puru. sharp. boeye. pu purro (saha =: saw . a shelter of branches. a. byte points to the verb byta. and parrets. AS. Esthon. cure Sw. to restore. borino. . to expiate boeten den dorst. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. which are probably from the same root. budka. . wine-skin. ora. cellar. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Fin. a borer. a borer . also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. to bete the properly to mend the fire. a word. a bothy.

the sun sets. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. The other. hollow bucklers. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. Hence borhes ealdor. to keep. burgess. AS. from AS. from their grey clothing. basse. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. bussi. a citizen. botch. Fr. or head-borough.ribs and the side. a tower. The primi. knock and a knob . A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. whence the burg. empty. Cot. bergen. butse. bosseu. a blow. formerly used in the sense of knocking. a boor. Bosh. ' pledge. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. It. . a bunch or hump. empty. beorgan. It. (Bridel). pego. cnap. Swiss Rom. burel. V. Du. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. and borough in the sense of a town. the hollow between the Borsholder. nonsense. bourgeois. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. ^ma. borel. bosh. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. that which biirge. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. Sc. So Du. Boreal. &c. plain rude fellow. Hence knot. In like manner It. the ordinary a swelling. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. cnoc. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. The origin seems to be the Goth. to become is emitted by a hollow body. bossen. primarily signifying coarse sound . borei. botse. an eminence. bump.. is used in the sense of bussare. Gr. cob. a giving rise to It. See found in Bav. Bunch. or because a blow berga. plant. surety. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. in instead of without. botsen. Borowholder. 106. butsen. beorgan. burh. borgo. Bailey. busse. secure. rude. a boss. grey). boussi. tempest. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. useCanterbury. borgese. as we speak of a thumping potato. . Altieri. Du. viipyoc. bundle. Fr. . a knob. bunch. to contain. Botany. destitute. D. borealis. to save.bucklers. Jam. Borough. to pick or cull plants. striking. the North Wind. while Gael. borough-holder. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. agrees with E. ij |8oraviKi) The — A .' if thou give money on loan. botch. borg. tuft. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. gesylle. Fr. ON. brown cloth. by which of or belonging to plants. boss or knob of a buckler . AS. a surety. Newbury. cormpted. bail biirgen.' or system of bail. baurgs. boss. E. knocking. Lat. a bouncing baby . vain. Lang. borg. poor. a wen. bosse. to strike . ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. to protect. in the body struck. to save. Borrow. rustic. boss. clownish.' every man be under bail. bos. bierge. storm. coarse cloth made of the Du. northern. Hal. borough or chief constable. Bos a surety. to conceal. And that unsittynge is to here degre. cnag signifies both a clergy. tive idea seems to bring under cover. or perhaps also To Borrow. and thus could not shake off the old burr. to knock or strike. boschen. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. the must have arisen burgensis. bos. knob. — ' wind burya. a city . to strike so as to Bureau. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. . I. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. Jam. (1867). connected. Goth. pitch. without. was origin of the term is the OFr. ^o^^flj. Russ. /3oraMK6f. huschen. pegou. byrig. to give a hollow bizo. boss of the side. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. blow on a hollow object. the N. boss sound. a. poor. a little blow.' Vegetius in Diez. f graauw. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. bom. a citizen. or perhaps it may be See Bury. hollow. i. — — — A — . of bail throughout the country. to take in. unpolished. AS. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. bussa coarse. ' — — . undyed wool of brown sheep. borh. bttssel. whether from the fact preserve G. to give bail or answer for an. projection.vr\. bump is used in lump or piece. as if from the verb to hold. to save Sw. one who sticks to you like a bore. is probably radically Boss. less. knur.mass. Turk. the Sc. to protect. gum vocant. G. a pushing or striking out.' the chief of the ' borh. which now signifies a knob.any round sweUing. head. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. when that system was forgotten. a herb. into borsholder. empty. loan. bourg.

bativa. bile. Lat. repara- — — See To Bete. Bouteille. to bcBta. abyss. Bailey. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. is boteau. to dip in liquid (to Gael. as Fr. . . any round ball or bowl to play withal. to make better.D. bunch. bSn. pother. Mudu. ON. schuhbosser. a humpback. a bunch. bdsser. bots. H^cart. to podge. a pock. A bottom depth. gling piece of work. e. . ing out. a bundle of straw or hay. a wisp. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. boil. boiteal. a cask. gipuozan. from the dashing of water. they two. bdt. Bouds. was called a push. kessel-biisser. to froth as beer . — . boute.foundation. — Bottom. On — Du. a tinker schuhbiisser. G. bozza. See Butt. botch. — — . Bottle. buddeln. ambo. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. bulderen. bundle. blain. Bret. especially in Gael. bulder. Boa two. — — belly-worm. boiteag. Diez. bun. baiothsj Sanscr. pimple. gen. patch. pozzo. — duj Lett. the other hand. a cesspool pass. BOTCH understood). buideal. It. Wedu. To Botch. a cobbler. botm. . * To Bother. shoes. any plain round viol glass bozzo. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. contusion . and ajSvamg. Both. The Gr. bossu.— . bottom. disturbance to . batschen. corresponding to . j3i/9os. Fyre to botme. See Bound. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. a bottle. It. a patch patschen. &c. to mend. ' G. Decorde. to dash about . butse. boitean. From the dim. See To Bodge. stroke. to from the root bot. Kil. bAdtr. Butu. an imperfect and bunbutt end. botus. bozza. a plague-boil Kil. by met. a slop. the science or knowledge of plants. Podge. dial. pocciar. E.ments of the same root. A horses. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. round lump. — Fl. ixorapudder. a cess. we two. botte. hurly-burly. oba. buazen. . bund. A — oba-dwaj Lat. botte. a lump of somebatschen. to knock. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. putra. Hal. a botcher of shoes. bouteille. bethia. pozzanghera. a boil or swelling Halma. noise. however. AS. you two. . Fl. buddl. ledge It.— Hal. fire-bote. to fall : with a sound batsch. a maggot. as a push or windgaU. It. signify a in OE. potra. to simmer. of botta. a bump or swelling. — . On the other hand. • Bott. nets. botte. botel. a pit. the lowest part. bluster. a bottle. Danneil. in the sense of mend the fire. boss. botola. AS. butsen. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . Bochu. — Dief. the bud of a flower . — Jidwi. ON. blister. bosser. Parmesan poccia. i. the first rough draught 2. a bott .— Swift in R. turmoil. podge. Lith. and E. to give a sounding blow. for a bud. disturbance. beggtaj Goth. botn. thing soft batsch. both. abbi-diwij Slavon. Prov. ON. Ancren Riwle. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. N. mess. bot. OSax. abbution.of a ball of thread. stock. Gael. whisper. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. Fl. stump. poltern. — — A 2. stem or base. to rage. to stir and mix together. abbu. mess. Du. to strike . bodem. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. . Pl. is also a bubble. a slop. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. an abyss or bottoniless pit. I. Stalder. a bottle of hay. biissen. AS. boccia. ^kvBoQ.' to the fiery Csedm. w. Gael. Du. Fr. blow. Canut. Judwi. knock. butwo. to work without order or know. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. to put on a patch. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. bide. bottigUa. Jtidu. to make a make a noise. Here the radical image seems a bubble. to stir and mix together . a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. Fr.) . ubhau. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. ba. dim. Botcli. Again. btitse. buts. whence the name ol pool to podge.^Dec. to we have OHG. Hal. botse. noise. See Boss. a. dabble). Dan. mutter. empty or hollow. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. puddle. stock. tumour. G. 212. &c. scuohbuzere. to mend (kettles. abbi. boden . fundus. botel foenn. And so we speak of an eruption. a waterfall. burgi vel pontis refectionem. maggots in barley. what pushes outwards. Leg. we have Swiss batscken. a vessel for holding liquids. To confuse with noise. to botch or patch. House-bote. botsen. or plague sore . mend. to smack. a bubble. a root. a depth. Lith. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a pit. a knock.

>a bout. bone. dial. bunsen. Bret. bend. to thunder. . Probably from the Celtic root bon.' round and round in similar circles. geration. limit. he fell so that it sounded. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. debodinare. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. till The dat et bunsede. bottom. turn. Bough-pot." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. Wtb. Dan. — Take care my house be handsome. bunda. of thread. like bobbin. The branch of a tree. to bow. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Raynouard.D. . Robert to a monastery in Poitou. as a bout of fair or foul weather. AS. see Boss. Alpine Re- — gions. ni motz brugir. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. Bunche. bonndn. Du. to resound. Webster. a turn or time. bog. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Mid. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Boulderstone.' B. bonna. a boundary stone (men stone). mere. in the absence of actual e. bamsen. the verb bondir in OFr. nor horn sound. from volgere. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. From Sw. a stock. the hollow of a bay.— Cot. Halma. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. a blow. 3. jungen. to spring. ing. thumping. p. and F. Bound. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. Bout. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. signifying in nautical coil of rope. . by Bujns or Buns. Q. Bough. — — leap. Nor a centinel whistle. a large pebble. a bouncing apple. ni frestelar. To Bound. bend. A Langued. Fr. And the new stools set out.— Boundary. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. gulf.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. signifies a sliort thick mass. Bowlder. to hum. Pm. to fix limits. bonzen. has hot. to knock. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. Coxcomb. a button. 136. Bodinare. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. jump. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. as that of E. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. a blister. — No i ausiratz parlar. march. volta. 2. carpet. E. Ducange. mcn-bomi. So It. language a * Boulder. bumper. from bugan. Primarily to strike. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. a round body both. To Bounce. See Bunch. The Bight of Benin. bondir. root (see Bottom). to set bounds. the smaller ones. The W. a large stone rounded by the action of water. and Prov.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. — — Bight. an occasion. bay. to spring. butina. See To Bolt. bun.— F. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . strapping. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way.— — — - 88 BOUGH . To Boult. a bud. bodina. boujtce. Bonny. Sw. from AS. to make a loud noise. boriie. bullra. tnndo. knock it sounds again. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. boh. to knock at the door. came home with his face all to-bounced. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. to thundering big one hum. its kind. baby. Ni gacha cor bondir. round. Fr. frequently used in the same sense with bound. bugt. an de dor bunsen. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. — strike. Pr. bouton. or Bow-pot. Bought. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. boundina. iv.'— Charter of K.. as a nosegay. boss of a buckler. dial. the bay of Benin.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. contusi. a boss. nave of a wheel bothel. buUersten. pimple Richards bothog. botwm. a bound. Brem. bons. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. bugan. the larger kind of pebbles. in contrast to klappersten. pothel. bounbounejha. Fr. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. whence buj7isen. to set out by metes and bounds. bolder. winding. I assure you. to turn.

patesten. bogr. set out. Sw.bass of a stringed instrument. that ON. a drone or dor-bee. lance. Bourdon. a for New York. bommen. cudgel. whence buysen. epaule du vaisseau. warbling. a pot. a cup kroesen. beogan. biugan. whether by sound or gesticulation. It. bending. on the whole. Chaucer in R. on. Sw. when we speak of. Lat. gurgling. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. schenkelbug. different modification gives ON. ready to pike or spear . from spring. a. bovne. It is remarkable that we find vary. Bret. steady. like quaff. is. to mutter. a mill-post. souf. Dan. repartee. Sw. to our bous. Cot. taunt. Bow. bov. So Sc. bontS. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Sp. buys. to banter or laugh at. curvature. beygja. spelling the word iox bound. their time -With "wailful tunes. bound. Spenser in R. . jest. Dan. a drone of a bagpipe. burn. AS. ruption of bonne. a sing-song. and that probably from a Celtic root. to hum as a bee. to draw a deep breath. Goth. burreti. bogna. Bounty. spring. burt. bordo. deceit. bage. as was for. to take one in. Borden. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. a brook. Du. brunna. to tope. bunaiteach. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. in Fr. head Fr. sense durd. btiga. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. brummen. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. w. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. purra. buzzing of bees. . G. a go to. fresh* water. potio. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. kroes. bausen. bugna. a jibe Shaw bururus. must be referred to the same root. pared. the shoulder of the vessel. bugna. Dan. firm. . bue. to pre2. . grumble Sw. a humming noise Macleod. to indulge in his cups . buizen. bug. also the humming or ON. Fr. bdgi. The meaning of bound. ready. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. has also buirleadh. Prov. fun of one . pot. to drink deep. bugan. Gael. And there in mourning spend Sw. drink deep. bog. bagna. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. the burden of a song. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. belly out. Burgeon. Gael. Du. hous^ Man in the Moon. a bow. Sc. buzz. to — Hal. Cot. identical with E. bogha. trick. bend. to tipple. address. bending. i. Gael. prepared for. bonus. burdan. way ba7n. Du. bwa. cheat. Swiss bausen. joke. the big end of a club. A —Cot. the ting of a bell. analogous to Fr. — — — A pare. bow to shoot with. puff out. . bog. bourdon. a well. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. explaining Sw. . — — . biegen. burdan. ridicule buirte. addressed to. A water. an arch. schulter-bug. bordon. pusta. buga. limit.which see. the Bourdon. ing. Bourd. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. staff. flagon. to tope W. pre.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. drunken. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bonitas. bordone. or of an Gael. game. crutch. a from Du. to draw a deep breath. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. buigen. drone of a bagpipe. shoulder-blade. Du. Fr. a. G. It is bov. The foregoing derivation seems. Gael. pausen. hence musical accompaniment. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Immediately from Fr. the fixed. sport. G. Gael. saufen. g. burlare. to take deep draughts. language of folly or ridicule. Bound. tinton. to bulge. bourde in the same sense. ^<7r«i?. are applied to the bow of a ship. of the ON. a humming noise. buyse. to swell. good. — probably through this latter signification. mockery. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Fr. borne. bending of a joint knie-bug. It is the participle past buinn. to hum. G. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Burden. a corToward the garden. a jibe. Dan. verb bua. bourd. a — — . sotich. springbiirn. to take breath. a prop. bourdon. burd. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. to bow. brausen. bend Sw. Eown. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. . bugne. to bow or incline the . it is probable that the It. to drink deep. purlBav. bogen. Comp. Bourdon. When used alone it . Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. to trick. sausen. As the Gael..

intrenchment. In like manner the Pol. without the and grits. wisp of straw . of a wooden ball to play with and — . with inversion of the round. boxtree. budel. bol. bow. hollow place Fr. ask. bhugna. koziel. buk. . kupu. to make crooked . Du. to swell.a. bouge. and on swollen. the head. Thus we have Esthon. Bav. the box-tree. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. &c. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling .\s. bock. compared with Fr. a hen-coop . globular body. Sw. convexity. lump . . a ball .ige\y illustrated under Bulk. heafod bolla. Dan. Bret. round bead. convex. a parlour. give in to. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. bubble. a sack. bwra. Bower. bwr. pusspan. bog. an inclosure. ku^o. a bubble. boor. a chamber swefnbur. folliculus . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. a buck. to guggle. a bundle. fyn. ON. biisse. . round glass phial. bow. buxus. then by the loss of the /. belly. similar shape. bugyni. a pot. polla. crooked. Hal. to bubble up. and to a coachbox in particular. bent. globe or spherical body. boucle. signified by forms like Gael. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. a protuberance. water pulli. a hump on the back rossbollen. . boss. biichse. a separate apartment . Fr. the head. ^o/a. a box. Bohem. bol. boxtree pusska. a polla. a box. purse. puffy. a box. ON. OFr. bouzellou. Sw. bowl . The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. a bowl. E. to puff up. a drop of pullistaa. as well as the name of a. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. box. cumena-bur. to bow buck. the crop of a bird. bubble. as in E. bur. to bulge. a croft by a house. buis. belly. From the other form are G. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. crown of a hat. to raise the back boll OHG. bolgna. the box-tree and articles made of it G. . boudin. biiske. . bulb of an onion bolleyield. hollow. Sp. buchsbaum. kuppelo. a wine-can . hollow wooden case. ne. in both senses. swoUei) Lat. Gr. Fr. bossola. . . bulk compared with Sw. a sleeping-room . .) to incline oneself . bolla. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. OE. a box. bolla. a thing of liquid. belly of a cask. different position in ODu. in walking appears in a . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. boil.flask It. . a boil. A Bulk. Hence. . bosso. spring as water bugya. busse. See MHO. bucka. a round glass or bolg. The / a bow. blister. a bud. buga.. . ^o«/«. a ball. boss. passing on stud. ttuJic. box in both senses. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. gut. bollen. fata-bur. Sanscr. AS. to stoop.). . bog. a knot. bulcken. a little box . W. sausage. Boll. a black pudding. buigen. . budello. * Bowels. ON. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. to puff up pullakka. Fr. tumour . witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. bulne. Lat. bogla. bugy. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. mausbollelein. boel. an outhouse AS. . guestchamber . while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. inclinare se (Kil.D. Du. the box-tree It. G. a. bending. globular. as in AS. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a ball. bulla in aqua. to buckle G. . the skull or brainpan . the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. ken. Sw. bukke. a box Lat. to stoop biickling. bocka. or in e. . The word may probably be identical with Fris. (in pass . bug. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. kupukka. Cable. W. Pol. is applied to a coach-box. anything globular. . beuz. painter's easel. buello.. See Crab. Bowl. the bogna. make obeisance. G. stream forth bugyogni.cup Du. acsian. a iDubble. busskai. . bugyola. bouellou. honse-bur. peated in Magy.). . tumour. pocket. buckelig gehen. a swelling or rising up. swell. spherical Dan. Buckle. head of a cabbage. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. bola. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bulge. Du. bur. bulla. bhuj. to yield to one. or. Dan. a wardrobe . bolle. a bubble. a bubble Fin. . bowels. bugyani. to bend down. A . It is more probably from the G. a bubble bolli. dial. knob From the former modification we have bolla. zich onder jemand under to him. . pullo. bowel Box. bulka. prominence. See Boil. hill. beutel. AS. biicken. trestle. PLD. a stud. botulus. . at the e. to bend. kupula. iri'iaQ. w. bolne. Bret. the barrel of a gun. hiidel. buckel. utibur. bugna.

MHG. boy. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. A brace probis. s. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. Brack. and F. The different meanings of the brageux. . turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. A — — . flap. . loud smack. On the same principle from the buksteht. jabber. bracil. ON. let. is a rope holding G. Boy. boussole. want. to give a gebrechen. foul. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. a boy pupa. or defect. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. Fr. &c. con. Pr. bou^ba. Prov. unmarried man . Thus brack. to box the ears. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together.— D. brae. disturb. — . a bubbling dura del mun. brek. matter. to smack the hand batschen. land spoilt Kil. rakka. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . OFr. filth . dog Sw. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. bresta. Water rendered boubo. posh. In like manner the It. Fr. or bracer Cot. briche. mud. defect. lalear-eyed Prov. It is B. ratch. whelp as. bracha. to give a blow with the fists. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. dirty. . one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . Rouchi Then as an adj. Brak-goed.. pupus. OE. See Brake. quarrel Bohem. 91 the Dan. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. Brach. ing from a mixture of salt. refuse. to is derived brestr.with a noise. fault. clay. flaw. braque. baukscheht. Brack. OFr. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. bracket. Pl. Swiss Rom. Swab. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. merely in our mode of considering them. bracco. Brackish. a guard to torf. Fr. suppuration. braecke. brechen. brae. a braceOFr. breuque. breptati. braquet. Kil. G. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Sp. to Swiss batschen. to be wanting. I sal slyng.. bracer. brostia. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. brec. a box. . ghebreck. To Brabble. bragos. breach. in R. brack. Kil. La ville ou y avait Brace. a bog or pass Fr. Swiss bub. AS. baske. defect Du. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag.D. wrack. Lett. fault . his eyes are failing him). brae. to give a sounding blow defect. Fr. need. BOX To Box. . salsus. . brague. It. to stutter. See Broker. youth. dog in general. braic. acidus. rakki. Pm. brasselet. brae. Cot. isolated part of the text. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. pus. Bracket. Du. defect.D. from a root brak. to burst. — . To fight with the fists. bube. Prov.. pube. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . murmur. G. bray. braco.. bask. odorinsecus. then from break. ' — A — — — . flaw. armour for the arm. Bracelet. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. bruxula. . brace on and Du. break. beagle. Kil. brageuses. an languages. fuse. wnzC/J. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. a pair of braces. a grown youth Cimbr. to fall. braco. brakke grund. the arm. Du. mud. thwack. — . as die Augen plainly an imitative word. s. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. a girl. Prov. Prov. braca. parallel with OK. brakke Bracelet. dog that hunts by scent. to stammer. cramp-iron holding things together . bue. To brace is to draw together. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. strike. spaniel. It. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU.puddle.nated by dirt. . brek. land batsken. wristband. V. — . and then Pl. to want. to crack. One girl. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. buah. ON. to slap. as noticed under Box. It. moral or physical. — — . bracon. rakke.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. root). want. Sp. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. babble. brechen ihm. Sp. Gael. brabbelen. Hdcart. breach. in R. taneous talking. bouibo. want. Ptg. race." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. which sigof straining. boiste. boy bouba. variation of babble. brago. a comworld Rayn. bracke. Heligoneed. damaged board a ship. mud. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. priated to the original sense. corruptse. A to halt between two derivations. a crack. compressing. — . and string of his bow. Lat. rack. brack. confining. by the same inversion of J and k. brassard. bitch Du. salo sive aqua marinS. the first instancebya physical tie. which has many representatives in the other Europe. . a sounding blow. by an overflow of sea water.

slight modificajoining the two legs. gallant (in apparel) also proud. . Wallachian bratsou. brave. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . bragd. i. The meanings of brake are very numerous. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. in order to prevent its catching the wind. swaggerer. swagger. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. in numerous dialects. brayete. brave. ative fellow. showy bravery. brachittm. drawers. an inclosure for cattle . Fr. spot. bravacherie. de Vaud. Primarily to crack. ^Brave. vaunting. the arm. Brake. 92 Cot. — . expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . to swagger. well-dressed. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. be noisy . Fris. fine. bravo. torture . to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. From sprouted corn. binding anything together. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. braggard also valiant. BRAG Piedm. Cot. Bret. crash. also tion of this was brayeul. valiant The head are sumptuous. hectoring. crash ON. subduing. to crack. Cot. brave. braszketi. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . as the type of exertion and strength. braw. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. would be to brace. bragaireachd. . . crack. cry. to shout. to flaunt.aburst. bushy . instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . bragio. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. brae. — Equivalent forms are Gael. expensive. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. AS. braguer. brav. excellent. Thus we are brought to the OE. Brag was then used brisk. &c. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). Hecart. brag. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. in the sense of the Lat. to make a noise. se donner trop de licence. riches. breagh. brake is. It is certain that the word for arm is. gorgeous. to brail up a sail. make a noise . brake in the sense of constraining. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. bullying. also derived Fr. Thus Bret. to boast or brag. Fr. used in the sense of force. braver. breghe.Shepherd's Cal. handsome.^ Sp. Lat. braga. . bra!. brabhdair. strength. Hence E. dhbrailler. blusterer. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. Brake.%. power. brave. Sp. Haldorsen Gael. bravado j Fr. breghen. Bret. Dan. that will carry no coals. gay. braga. subigere. . to unbrace or let down the breeches. fine. A — Hal. a roisterer. Lith. braicli. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so.explosion. From Fr. is Cot. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. breach. braka. To Braid. to sprout malt. about the hawk's fundament. to strut. h-avare and Fr.. gayly dressed. w. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. confining. vanter une chose. braske. noisy ostentation. Brail. or by gaudy dress and show. brails. an iron for holding Zalli. — From W. To Brail. empty pride.^Vocab. Rom. —Spenser in R.i5nz^. 2. Faire le brave. finery. flaunt in fine clothes . to stand upon terms. braka. vain glory. stately. se parer de beaux habits. brao. . Turk bazu are used in both senses. brabhdadh. See Brace. proud. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. to Rouchi brMer. the feathers ON. Chaucer. Brain. braske. . also insolenter se gerere . . stout. splendid. brave. See Bray. bragging of his own valour. The meanings included under — Bragget. was formed brayele. bravache. brag or jet it braguard.. The plant y^r«. gallant. braies. affront. From brayel. a noisy talkboasting. a carriage for breaking in horses . the bridge or part of the breeches ing. — A — . the opposite of which. bragging. compressing. be found. Langued. to cord a bale of tie up. courageous. braegenj Du. goods. brag.breeches. Walloon bress. fine. flaunting. breyne. Dan.—— . is identical with Gael. called by our braggard. boasting.hy which this idea is con\eyed. idle talk. se pavaner. bully . Cot. fine. Sc. to boast of his own worth. It. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. To Brag. Bray. boast. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. or from braie itself. braga. brazo. to rattle. — Chaucer. gay. and it is very likely that the root brak. and that from e. smart. beautiful.

Gael. to fracture. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. brego. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. Sp. to bend a bow. tnurdma. Fr. Gr. murran. Lat. gebrUche. to break. Biglotton. braecken het vlasch.. tris). bush. glebas subigere. to subdue. briser. a fen. brog or brake. or overthrow of trees by the wind. flachs brechen. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. breaking in the operation. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . Fr. properly braking or subduing them. in usus braca. Dan. brook. to exert force in different ways. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). it is not surprising that the word has here. conSo in G. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. . frangere linum. copse-wood. referred brake. Dan. broil. broken fratta. braeken. the original meaning of G. brambles. thicket. brog above mentioned. thing is brought under control. to break. In like manner Lat. to The ON. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. brake. broyer. — — . riguus. brolium. Corrfeze bredgea. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. braquer un canon. a marsh. broilium. game. pasture. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. a swampy Mid. We — . murrokko. any thicket of brakes. to break or fracture. gebroge. to distinct. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. braken. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. briers. and G. might come to signify a swamp. to harrow (Lat. casser le \va. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. to rub. Voc. It may be sus- . bredza. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. been confounded with the verb break. Fr. gebrUche. dial. brushwood. break of such a kind. 2. cover G. In the case of the ne. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. brega. to row. to bend or direct a cannon. in northern climates. a stream. braka. watered. cetur. a brace on board a ship. brook. Brake. bregar brake. to head must be bit. bushes. subigere. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. — Fl. gilum. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. brogille. a spinning-wheel. to brush. fratto. G. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. to stiffen against Taboada).D. ^raca.bracan. In the sense of a thicket. broor bushy place Hal. 3. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. a horse's a horse's twitch. It. brak is a frame in which strip. break flax PLD. farinam in mortario subigere. gebroge. brake. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. iSpsx". to pound. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. word. breuil. broeck. marsh. OFr. a harrow. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. el arco. It. marsh or swamp. nemus. Brake. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. as in the case of horse-breaking. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. as in Du. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. BRAKE to external force. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. brambles. the lever by which the string was drawn up. where from Esthon. signifying to sweep. low wet land bruch. is braukti. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. as in Sp. and Lat. or A A ' . Pl. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump.D. braca. brcekke. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. brage. P&. gebroge. Swiss Rom. is formed murd. brook. brog. bregille. The Fr. and when once thrown down.' It. Dan. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages.— . to bray in a mortar. To the same bend a bow. bush. t° moisten. ing of flax or hemp. have thus Du. Prov. —Ovid. brage. murtaa. broillet. to knead or mix up in a mortar. a thicket. bruch. for — Due. de Vaud. gebiisch. bregar. quarry from Fin. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. as well as in the case of the e. e. —Bracken. In ON. or a wood in a marshy place .

brog. heath. to bridle. braam. a single plant of heath. nasty. virgultum. bran. bruk. constrain. also pfriemkraut. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. bracken or fern . Fr. a shrub from Bret. is the draff or excrement of the com. or with It. from Lat. branco. breme j Sw. brandr. the bull-finch. hallier. from gaggi. sprouts. bruk. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. . . the branch of a tree. from brand. G. brenda.. Thus we have w. &c. So Swiss gaggi. to -brugen. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. brughera. &c. bit by bit. clutch. also a marshy low ground or fen . Diez. or other plants of a like nature. Bret. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. Branch. thorns and Gen. AS. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. broem. heath (Bret. a dunghill. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. Brancare.D. brancas. Bret. a vine twig Bav. excrement. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. The naof strain. piecemeal brindelles. brwnt. young buisson fort epais. brom. heath. G. broembel-CBppel. bruch. a bridle or bit . pfriem in the sense of an awl. a briery plot. a shrub . a small deri\'ation . Gael. It." The bmno a • on . And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. Grisons bruch. . the thorn apple or stramonium. Bav. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. branche. Port. snotty . a halter. a burning fragment of wood. in the same sense. bruskoad. Fr. briars. Piedm. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. to brank. As ON. bruch.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. bruk. gebriiche. sedge burkni. cack. stink . broom. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. piece of anything. a bud It. Serv. broussaille. brano. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. and waste growths. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. bren. brenn hesken. titio. as AS. chaff. That beareth the red hepe. broccoli. G. burning brennen. Rouchi bren d'orMe. bromboli. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. compress. . it glitters — — . brok. bretnel. dirt . a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. bran. brang. brass. that is to say. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. a shoot. Sir Topaz. brushwood. ground full of briers. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. broom. . . Fr. and E. a bud. sawdust. E. brenn. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . breanan. brank. brand. brem. It.D. a rod or twig. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. bro7n. Broom. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. w. from brug. bushes. . to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . or ling. brejo. Russ. restrain. In like hrst. brambles. Bran. Then by comparison with claws or arms. brein. a bud. thicket of brambles Cot. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. Brank. 2. brandello. gebroge. w. — branca. broust. Thus in Lat. a thick bush. Pl. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. young twig {brom-beisser. heath. from virga. brandiiialil. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. brandmurk. brake.). brin (as It brano). a heath. Thornas and bremelas. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. A mark made by burning. to or iron. in the sense oi fern. to gripe. breun. Bret. bronbo. Dan. and thence a shoot. Gael. a roA. brous. . brank. iii. ear-wax mud. heath ON. brug. apiece orbitbrandone. cabbage sprouts Fl. It will be found that shrubs. wood composed of twigs. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. branchia. pected that brake. Brand. brenna. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. Fr. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brug). G. ordure . pfriemen. i. what is cast out as worthless. to burn. —Ducange. brouskoad. bramble Du. berneux. brin. braeme. Bret. may be so called in analogy with Bret. from Servian pnit. heath. a shoot or twig. Pl. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. See Brush. brosst. . But we find It. as. 1 8. The same form becomes in It.G. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. a firebrand. pfropf. — . prufye. brin d. sweet broom. brarn. brugek. Bramble. bren.

brandiller. to make display . to distil . bransle. shake. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks.. the colour than hitherto known. brand. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. Chron. to and fro in the hand. a fragment. bresil. E. before the discovery of America in the brandir. brandiller. Fr. to brustle. Ija. firewood. brandolare is exbrandish. and bruir. a stick. became ashes Pied. all. to shog. brastlian. In the same way the set on fire . The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. apparently very distinct from each other. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled.^Brandle. Jam. brouir. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. Bret. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. — . The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. Gris. bryne.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. to braze or lute. to roar. from to vociferate. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. noise. plained by Florio. bra?ier. bracea. weinbrenner. stake. gebrannter wein. or in stick. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. put. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. as Fr. to brangle. bruzi. make a — . — . Thus the bound up again. flagrans. It. So. billet. eldibrandr. faire fracas. splinter. brus^. brausen. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. a pan of hot coals. Bailey. is bntan. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. to murmur. To brase AS. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. branla. brandigh. so. to bicker 2nd. bragale\ wood. brush. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. incendium. to brandle or The It. from used in dyeing cloths. brasca. to make shine with shaking. to Bailey. to quarrel. a To Brandish. Hume in brand in ON. to sound of the Fr. to shake. brangle or brawl in E. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. braise or hot coals. The name Brandy. The corresponding form in Gael. brane-wood. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . N. a brusler. make an outcry. n. Fr. Diez. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. brazeiro. briiler. as Jamieson explains it. a roaring fire. Fr. — ting to confusion. brasa. brasil. De Goes. brennen. G. V. AS. as again by well as the blade of a sword. 59. — . Kil. bruan. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. To brand. Du. to dash. bruciare. firebrand. Milan. not. Sw. to glisten or flash. bracia. du Roi et laine. Fr. and scold. hoisting to the fall. braza. bruire. to make sense of a bright red dye. to shake. De Barros considers vinum ardens.pan of coals. WaUon. crackle. G. Guill. ish. Formerly brandy-wine. embraser. a round dance. to hurl with great force. to French brawl or brangle. urens. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. live coals. glowing embers . to totter. bransella. branler. perplex. brasca. Chron. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. set on fire. bum. to solder iron. given to the country. Lye. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. forms brasil. aqua ardens. E. morsel. spirit distilled from wine. then brandr. Port. was in use Fr. brustle. Braser. Brase. Sw. totter. fire-wood. brascct. to burn. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. brandende wijn. hot Fr. to confuse. The tre brangillis. Brangle. brin. branler.well. to burn. ist. conbillet. comes from thence. braise. Fr. in Marsh. distilled wine. d'Angl. Brasil. to rustle. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. crackle. to crackle . though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. to shake The word brisil. the spelling to kindle. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. to brandle. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. Fl. bragia. With top trimbling. It. braser. Manx bransey. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. to burn. braise. brazil. It. to blaze. prasseln. e. and branchis shaiand D. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. brasa.

a rag. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. solder. cloth. muscular parts of the body. roar. from Sc. braeye. breteque. bralle. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . to braze. The verb is probably derived from the brase. bruir. Gael. Circumeunt cibertesca. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. breyon d'chaur. slut. brandillo. boarding being sbranare. the calf of the leg. braoilich. AS. a lath. ferruminare. to cry. a lump of flesh. a battle-girdle. strepitus 2. Brawl. Certainly a little girl. luncheon. For the application to a^child compare Bret. brat. cob.' Hal.— Remade. Pisana in Mur. squall. Bailey. slibro. braiio. a parapet. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. bretesque.— Fl. Cot. . 368. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. Brat. baltresca. Brave. Brawn. KiL Prov. Brattice. le repasser un peu sur la braise. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. It. bas morceau de viande brawhng.96 Roquefort. 2. Cologne broden. coassatio. the buttocks. boutures. bransle. braion. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. slibro {neita. buttock Sc. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. Many gambes. discord. in the first instance of boards. A dispute or squabble. tasce. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. a slabbering-bib. brces. Fris. from Fr. contignatio. frame of laths. to talk at bralle op. breyon.— Braid. ON. See Bray. I. It . whether contracted from brabble. G. trul. Jam.^ — Sverris Saga. braodhlach.— Diez. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. bred. A. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. brass. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. brazen. rag. bretesche. Brass. Wall. Betrax of a —^Jam. Du. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. bran. borderinge. deblaterare. &c.D. ni autres choses sur Due. a. as rashers upon quick burning coals. 1224. —^Bronze. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. OFr. brett.D. and bronzo. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. bradon. as scrawl from scrabble. brat. The same correspondence is seen between It. Cot. bradlete. pan- — Rayn. calf of the leg. a loud noise. Brangle. to tear piecemeal. branle. frequentative of braire. a fortification. equivalent to the Du. to shake. to copper. a lump. a lump of flesh. P1. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery.brettysing. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. ' A vraale. a wooden tower. bras. saillies. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. slakker-bortchen. fraiche. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. noise. Lorraine bravon. burning coals. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. to scold . brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. neita girl). from branler. to carbonado. See Brandish.' BRASS BRAY et AS. 1156. Fr.D. a clout. bartising. Bartizan. brettys. bronze. a contemptuous name for a young child. —-Jam.walle — Pr. Dan. The muscular part of the body. Florio. braede. braser Fargent. as criailler of crier. a rag . or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. to Gael. ship. bronzacchiare. — . A.propugnaculum. a — A from the confused noise. a patch of cloth. to solder. bratid calf of the leg. Hist. Paris. bmhon for brado7i. lat'te. bretays). Fr. especially that used in the working of iron . Sup. Pm. It. brat. calf of the leg. braon. a contempt- banner. Sc. brailler. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. apron. breyon de kinds of . Math. Westphal. berd. — Deutsch. Swiss bradle. A land of dance.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. bratidone. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Sp. Kil. pil. or on the top of a wall. flesh of a leg of pork. W. a plank or board. is The word — uous name for a woman. bartisan. then a parapet. a Lap. a cloak. OFr. Mundart. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. bratdn). bribe de viande. esbraotier. as lattice. OHG. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. bratach. brdto (ace. at brasa. or whether it be from Fr. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. a rag . bronzare. Fr. as a brawling brook. So also See Brag. a mantle. any piece. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. ^Altieri.

QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. braa. brak. . to the seijauntes. OE. imitate or resemble one. to resemble. Chaucer. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another.. ing. to roar as the sea. &c. &c. V. the sword was out break. Lat. To rub or grind down Sp. Breach. brice. R.' To Bray. upbraid. The ON. bradar. Prov. the sound — of arms. bregar. on. make a disturbance. to cry Port. Then is simply. 2. broad. roar. Fin. father. brikan. to have the lineaments of one's ON. braa. &c. to resemble. to break. braid. bragr. bregar. And at a braid he gun it bende. and frangere. resound . and to signify the fracture itself. at braga eftir euium. to bawl. as the notion of turning crack. with or without a final d. verb to break. cyprinus latus. rattle. D. Ppvxia. to snatch. D. . to cry out. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. to pretend. to knead. soft . to bray in a mortar.y. Dunbar braessem. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. ser. a crash. — — — explained motus loud noise. Bread. brechen. a rag f . Fr. bruire. brage. a breach Cot. noise . Prov. AS. From the or brack in a wall. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. yell. crepo and E. is . and fracasously. twist. which has given much trouble to commentators. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. the clash of ai-ms Dan. i. gestus. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. turn. rogi. Bret. braire. to tear Bret. Bread. bragd — ON. kind. to t. breuan. ^p&xia. explaining a very obscure application of the E. augnabragd. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. And with a traid I tumyt me about. broyer. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. bratsche. the miller's dog. as the voice of the ass. or wound. ybrayid. or cry out loudly . paxog. to rumble. Bailey. to crash. and make a hideous noise.ear rog. E. 7 . crackle . to braid. as OE. baiyl. to break. 145. Cat. Q. k. &c. breach. W. roar. weave The ON. F. brak. fragor. braidir. iU-favouredly — in Jam. bragd is also applied nets. to N. mos. quilibet celerior j at bragdi.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. to sound very loud and very harshly. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. brand. fractus j Gr. to break. brame. Cot. a brake for hemp or flax. to scold.^ Fr. Fr. Then. instantane. a rent. ON. ON. bregda. e. G. brot. to resemble him. bruzir. a brack. plait. crash. D. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. to break Fr. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to work up in a mortar. I'll live and die a maid. crash. G.fracas. a . See Brake. in Jam. breche. Beryn. Goth. abraid. V. at a braid. To Break. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to rub Fr. to braid. fish. . brugier. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. a mill. at once. a wink. Chaucer. to roar. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. disturbance. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. Wal. V. to The cup was uncoverid. bru. Gr.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. braidar. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. relation is seen between Lat. R. to braid the hair. — koa. to roar or bellow. to rush. — . to bellow. to start.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. rangere. to bray like an ass. paste or dough. vapna-brak. starts crackling up. to crash. appearance Hal. Swiss bratschig. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. to cry out. riAprjyvvfu. to smack or the eye. The Lat.ch. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. The same He might don us both a villany. will. Du. regi. yell. bray.g. braea. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. father. rustle.

i5r(Z^. broden. G. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. breost. braies. to brew. to fry Then from a Gl. to breech. breeze. bruzun. a crum. with It. murmur. — — strument for smacking.'— Gl. breinse. brasiuiii. bremse. instead of being derived from 'La. one on the breech so that (klatschet). to bray. and E. fitzen. to be misty and cold. Du. — See Broth. Bret. to burst. and other rubbish dibris. G. polenta. — . body brostia. forms. a to lay fly-flap. bris. little bits of wood Berri briser. /esses. malt. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. brisciare. bratscher. braga. vapour. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. then to broil. Originally probably the word signified steam. brosame. bresilles. bruise. braies. . switch. braucn. grill. to shiver for cold. The Breech (Prov. of trees. bryi^ga. Lat. brodem. rubbish. Breast. Russ. representing the sound of a blow. break. a twitch for a horse. G. E. Compare OE. of E. from AS. brut. binding. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. brossi!. braie. braux. brcEth. Isidore and Tatian. as by the Sc. briig. a horse's twitch. de Vaud. broil. Dtyden. We bragezj on. are in like manner ' . to murmur. their stings draw . Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. It.vare. malt. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. remains of leaves. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. Swiss brdtsch. Breeches. applied to shivering. coaldust. morsel. brasiare. from ligare. brustia. dial. sprouted corn. grillen. are related to Prov. simmering.t. brasser. briiz. G. the soler. OFr. brodel. brisoler. britze. brugga. Breeze. bracecs . AS. QNtsterviald) pritschen. a smack.). cloven. murmur—Vocab. bruc. siibligar. brciz. a cramp-iron for holding things together. also to chill and shiver with cold. rubbish. w. . de bridse geveii. Breath. E. broiiwen. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. Fr. brimsa. brusc. bris de charbon. bre- I'os qui bresole. brdtschen. to whip. breme. See Brick.98 borst. Piedm. Fris. to brew. to hum. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. Prov. &c. chillness or shivering. Fr. scent. — Brist. braia J OFr. brimme. bandage or truss for a rupture. to smack. — And blood. Goth. simmer. brire. braca. zare. the dry spines of furze broken off. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. einem de britze geven. Fr. AS. PI. . drive the cattle gadding through the wood. a cool wind. — Halma. Breeze. properly to crackle. So ON. griller. brinisa. to crackle. met de bridse slaan. brcekur j It. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. briste. the bust. broza. drawers. Prov. Briss and buttons. bragues. and brought beneath between the legs. trusts. brok. The Teutonic verbs. but more probably the E. bark Fr./ssus. to feize or feaze. bridsen. may be from the wurh fesser. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. . braca. bretilles. in Schilter. bra. from brace. .) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to fry . breath. Hence the Lat. briosa. a box. brijsen. forms analogous to E. bruzir. so AS. . b}-as. —Briss. a girdle. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. to break. brache. to simmer. brijselen. Bruise. Biglotton. Gael. Gael. clout for a child. G. to buzz. braguier. or the blow itself. braga. to roast. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Du. to resound. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. — . subligaculum. point to G. fastening . brissle. Piedm. Dev. corresponding to G. briosa. Bret. Rom. as the G. Breeze. brison. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. as.D. xyligogio castigare. breson. Hume in Jam. to bind. Swiss Rom. peitschen. brist. Bracha. Dan. brew. fail. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. the breech or buttocks. To Brew. orts. burst. sheep's droppings bruss. Gl. windy withal. of straining. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. noise. brezling. brezza. a crum Du. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. to rattle (as hail). brezzare. an into shiver. an odour. Lat.britschen. Swiss AS. grillare. as in the case of twitter. a gadfly. brisd. Brize. trembling. as. G^nev. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. to crush to break. brise. brumtnen. Gl. braich. crush. braciarc. bris. Du. chilly. a cold and windy mist or frost . singing bone. Du. Sw. briosat'. as commonly explained.

gf2o. feast. briiths. broken bread. conjux. a heath brughera. Diez. collect bits of food. crew. Bribe. betonica. to circulate. In E. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. to stamp. If the foregoing were not so clear. one's ovin. from Bret. sponsa.rough with brambles and bushes.Fr. httle bit. feast of espousals. served (Patois de Bray). Thom. consort with. brigantine. brigata. Mid. a brig or priodor. to press in. but to a paved road.privatus. in the sense of OSw. — . of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. brasser. to beg one's bread. sugga. brutg. . brood. brA. In the patois of briccia. Lat. brau. bro is applied not only to a bridge. whence berw. to meet together. AS. from Bridegroom. bygga. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . E. . braut. but probably Bricoteau. a lump of bread. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. The origin of the word is the w. to Isrew. Brier. brar. Trovarfor bride-ale. bricou. to boil. from the last 99 of which. So It. then the marriage itself. Gael. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. to break. privus. Walach. bara briw. heath. two-masted vessel. to pave brukkti. Fr. pavement. ' . Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. Du. Hence OE. It — is Kil. to press. a lump of bread. . a proprietor. Brief. graf-ol. brukkas. briicke. — — — — — — .' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. E. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. Lang. Fr. from bit. brique de pain. brug. So in The Prov. imprint. a boiling. brittil.gfiugga. ap. is still used in this sense. hlafes brice. a bride Brig. a heath. BRIGADE dead. Gael. birbone. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. ON. beaten way Dan. as. pier. breve or brevis. E. jipaaaiii. the equivalent of to the dial. to pave. Brewis. brice. and ODu. jetty. AS. birbante. bricge j G. priod-ferch. piece of burnt clay. Neumann. malt. a man. ment of anything broken. brere. . . . Fl. a fragment. funeral. a lump of bread briber. malt. Bridal. Brigade. bably contracted from brigantine. and that from It. buckler J ON. OHG. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. See Broth. briw. bruarium. AS. boiling up brocoliere. ibrukkti. from the Normans. with transposition of the r. to tlie brico. Diefenbach com. berwi. brygga. bruk. and berweddu. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. w. a crum. a bush. lipdZu}. a beggar. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. married. bruith. which however is undoubtedly from brace. company. a briole. . Priodi. buskins. remarkable that the Gr. bryd-gutna. bridge. bidsel. E. to boil. Brique. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Ducange. fastningar-ol. bride. fraoch. the marriage si in brigata. Ihre. to break to pieces bricalio. grug. W. especially to a letter or command. Bridal. bulicame. a rogue . bitill. fit. to rub. bread. barren land priodas. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. Due. Hdcart. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. peculiar. bro. appropriate. OSw. a wedding priod-fab. twopares Lat. troop. Dan. to boil. Grisons bruch. It. a cheat. it is applied to the letter to OE. a little king's writs. as so. daughheath. son. corresponding or letter. broken. bride. fragment. a bride. The Sw. brahi. Goth. AS.groom. — . to prepare. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. brilt. owned also propriate.It. bridelj OHG. Sp. or brizo. brigade. bribour. brocaly. Bridle.bergantino. ' — . brughiera. betony brulicame. fervere. Cot. Flor. priod. In the G. pavement brolegge. a bit. a quoit of stone. Applied ous words derived from break. Rouchi brife. A — A — . berwedd. a rogue. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. thick appropriated.pritil . a married man guma. the Fr. AS. broosekens. . Pro(merch=:maid). guma. groom (mab=:son). AS. broken victuals. has briguer. to appropriate. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Gl. a fragment. frayer. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. division of an army. bruk. nurus G. briwo. bro. brakes of high-grown ferns. bruskr and buskr. a married man or woman Lat. bribe de pain. masted vessel. . It. ter-in-law. G^n^v.. any jot or crum. arf-ol. A bribe is A — — arval. pavement Lith. the newly. bo. bretonica. bruyere. Bridge. Pol. a sow. a Bride. brieden. to brew. a crum. bryd-eale. of burial. Brick. Fr.

riis ' — Chron. rixa. brigant. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds.clare ^tinniens. glbram. Brilliant. combat. squamma . In Fin. — brigante. glamra. the grew high. It. 1654. —Capgrave. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. the bench-notes resounded. and. Lat. clear sound. at a later period. to shift for with care. tion. — Brigantine. — A A . sound. the gleeman's song. shriek with laughter. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . and the E. jurgia. briga. AS. Swab. . cange has 'Veles.' torum. schateren. 312. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. to rove. braid. and to associate with them. and diligence. from hall. praht. tinkle. a glittering. They or brigantini.' in Due. Adelung. to ring. kilistua. brigandare. dine. beorht. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. to cry 'Schmid OE. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. — — . secondarily. to strive for. on his — own account. clang. to make a loud noise. Gr. with respect either to sound or colour. Schmeller. himself to serve men of merit. to reservavit.shine. noise. brcEhtin.' The passage from the sense of a light. kii:'a. to shine. biartr. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . brak. clear. Brigata. See Brake. Heo — song That AS. glamm. The primary meaning of Sp. a spark. Brigand. Goth. a pirate. to glitter. splendens . and hence be explained glampi. . Wilista. clear. clear. a noise. The Ir. \oice. brawl. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. Du. speech. In the same way to strive is. there are many armour. It. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. inde squammatus. in later times a robber or highway-man. — Beowulf. to rob. to glamr. in the first instance. splcnornd de brigandine. representing a sudden noise. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. to resound. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. to contend with another. briegen. brebrigare. bracht. It.— . briga. rover either by sea or land. brigan. to sound. glir. clarus. bright bearhtm. dine. wilella. loo BRIGAND lor. splendour. XafXTTpoQ. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . that of Fr. OHG. necessary business. Owl and beorhtian. bairhts. and secondly. then. tinnitus. So G. pugna. in the sense of a robber. and led it away. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. brigare. labour. to shine. — Briganbriga. A strepere. hell. It. Xa/iTTii).pracht. a small light pinnace pro. schiteren. — Probably then to strive. outcry. bregar. bryhtm.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. Mid. moment. Due. Beorktode bene sweg. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. to piracy. malandrini.D. etincelle. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. clangour. tumult. may play the pirate or thief at sea. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. lay was sung. clare lucens.' The sense of strife or combat express. transparent.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. a sound. Flor. The E. bragen. a brigantine. glitter. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. tinnitum clarum movco. From ON. — Due. manifest ON. also called briganders. 1351. to cry. Bav. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. — brigante. Bright. seems to be to exert force gar el area. and ner me hit iherde. splendour. A. to bend a bow It. brigare. tuilahtaa. show the origin of Lat. willata. brdgen. Florio. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus.glampa. bray. Gall.Lat. and. is easily understood.dorem clarum reflecto. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. strife. twinkling.

to shine. Swiss Rom. reecho. finds the Fr. a stick. to shine. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. To Brim. Sc. cross-barred in colour. shine. pMiller. striped or streaked. frequently interchange. edge Pol. Fr. margin. the sow is brimming. small gravel. kimista. The E. It. (poet. which seems identical with rim. Dief. of the eye. bar. furious. to resound. to long for a thing. brommen. 754. brillare. to roar. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. rut. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. lap. sprainged. Thus Lat. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. ON. to sound deep or hollow. fimbria) . fringe (Lat. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. brennistein. brim. grdzil. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. as well as bl and gl. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. rym^.— BRIM .ioTiviS acutus. to quaver with the voice. Supp. parched. ter. In Fr. It. lip of a vessel. fire. to . a borDu. as is the case also with Pl. bramar. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. brimmen. Wtb. ring. brandr and Fr. greDiet. grisler. briller (related to each other as OFr. — .' Elyot in Way. to glitter. also to reflect. os qui bresole. on. s. and corresponding to these. Kil. earnestly . from brandr. AS.D. brissle. crackle. brame. briller. identical with passion. border. E. bremas. s. to twinkle. barm. gresiller. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. chime). fierce. tience. Subo. brummen : de soge brummet. whence bilbil-goda (literally. Du. brow of a hill. to parch.preni. the heat of animals. broiled. grisser. to creak. that the original meaning of the Sc. to shine. border. kimina. AS. Brindled. broil . have then in Fr. to glitter distance . the verbs Flor. fringe . sonitum edere bremen. burning. the meaning is transL' amour. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. komista. vattubryn. ous. G. the lap or bosom. to broil. brumft. voux. Fl. Rugere. bramer. briller. griller. ardere desiderio. to wish or covet. bramar. bryn. bremmen. from bringe. Sw. sparkle. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. to fret . — — — . . kimmaltaa. der. brinfire. breziller. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). 1. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. with an initial br instead of gr. rugire. hence the bosom. spraing. komottaa. Streaked. — — So Fr. Langtoft. breme. Prov. to crackle.its vent in cries and roaring. originally the lap folding over the breast. . brisoler. 154.) brimi. bremmen. to crackle. The meaning of the Fr. Tresiller. as of meat in broiling . leonum). coloured in stripes.). for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. bramire. ON. Brim. beam. brullo. 1 1 64. we have brimthe Swiss Rom.' d'etre marie . Closely connected is OE. brunft. Lith. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. border. crackle . FJ. glit. excited. an apron. lap of a garment . a rod. rugire (cervorum. dial. is used of raging. brezil. The identity of ON. — Rim. brant. a border. gresiller. as in Langued. vigorHal. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. : ' — bone). clangor tinniens. or violent action. brmdottr. kiimottaa. brim Magy. Tutschek. to shake. to glitter . the edge. Rayn. noise made by meat in broiling. kajata. brummen. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. ON. post. barmr. burning stone. The expression is now confined to the sow. It. the eye-brow. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. to roar. to burn. bresoler (Gloss. a long. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. kommata. A . a streak. surface of the ocean. bry7ie. to shimmer. to storm. brama. bray as an ass bramire. griller d'impatience. to utter cries. the heat of animals. brdnnsten. to sparkle. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. . Hence with an initial s. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. Brem. brame. ling noise and a sparkling light. to creak. whether of desire or anger. glisten. barm-cloth or barmskin. to make bilbil). Sc. breme. brastlian. the singing of Sodom — — . to make a crackling noise. brand-krossottr. Brimstone. — g. breziller. perent.— Brinded. grullo. greedily to covet Cot. In the same way Sw. and 1. Dan. griller). Said of swine when in heat.

Prov. Port. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. — . fierce. birse. an awl. to break. Sc. Bohem. — — . briocho. to shiver for Sold or for fear. borzos (struppig). . aculeus.' Nat. breaking out into growth. Prov. and forms on. brocchus. i. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. Brine. See Spread.D. brimhliod. Bret. birstle.Lat. b. broc. bringue. a projecting tooth It. Brocade. sour. brockle. brissko). against the grain . brin. a rebours. brisk in taste. to set up one's birse. Du. birsle. eager. to spit. brodden. a skewer. broca. saulmeure. 222. Fr. a morsel. to begin upon it.). It. Salte sand is called brimsand. Sc. brittle. Fr. shoot. Du. from AS. . sharp. Mid. brittle. to spur. brim (poet. brcit.g. breaking of the waves brim sior. Gl. Liquamen vel garum. or the full • . . Bret. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Brooch. brindelles de balai. sprout.. Fr. the surf. or — . Formerly written brotil. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together.rcendij'i. wine of a sharp. Da. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. broche. — bryme. and Sc. brytan. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. chest. brog. as a noun. Brittle. to birstle. bryne. bruched (Fr. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. Then as the effect of shivering. harsh vin brusque. Dan. strong itself. bringe. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. brusk. brusque. coli. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. brocco. from break. Alfr. a brad or tack. craw of a bird. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. bresk. a bud. to turn up the point of anything. rebursiis. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. a brooch. flame. brot. Lat. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. like the Broad. — A . brust. prick with Sw. Hal. lively. Russ. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). as. 'V^. p. metaphorically.procio. Brisk. a stormy brimsea . bristly . brandello. ' breast. has under It. sprouts. to broach a business. fantas'* tical. borzen. bryde. of astonishment. Hence ribrezzare. very salt brimi. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. rebrousser. whence may be explained the Sc. the surf. a rod or twig. briota. form bris. a slip or sprig of an herb . as. See To Brim.). cK) the . brusco. Fr. Russ. borst. fiscbryne. a stitch brocher. britchet. rude. a shoot or sprig. brich. a button broche. angry. e. Walach. Antiq. of E. to thrust. to stick. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. setting the hair on end compare It. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. to put one in a rage . brezza. are used in the sense of brittle. brichet. See Brand. britar. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. It. spur. Berri. G. brickie. to burn. . Zeuss. bros. brioshko. brddj Goth. stitch. — in Due. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor.'— Vita'abbatum S. grim. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. bronchus. a spit. the brisket or . Commonly explained as from Fr. the twigs of a besom. spricka. a peg sbrocco. Pectusculum. broccata. to set it a going. . as. crabbed. expression. man's throat. sprocco. a clasp. brijn (Kil. Breeze been connected with the Sc. The Pl. brim. bruskett. birs. Fris. briser. Sw. sticking up . ruffling. Boh. Cot. to shoot. Ptg. as unripe fruits. Compare also E. Palsgr. bricho (with the diminutives. to broil. a fragment. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. thick — A elastic hair. a bud. brime. bruckle. brocher. brimme. Sp. Fr. broccare. brocciare. In the N. to spur. brocco. and. to bud. Brisket. breast. to roar. to break. ribrezzoso. /3pE^m. smart taste. brisciare. NE. briota. bringe traced through the brano. Fr. brim. borstel. and hence. byrst. broca. Brickie. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. Gr. quick. is called a birssy day. Swiss to stand out . a morsel . hot-tempered. ' . setting the hair on end. trembling. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Prov. flames. brissle. bros. a crum. to goad. to scorch. brocar. to crack. brezzare. . or from that of a splinter or small fragment. It. suddenly angry. breidr. a cold and windy mist or frost. to stitch. Abroacli. roar of the sea saltr. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. ON.. brote. from brande. It. fragile. to stab Gael. britar. birssy. apt to break. braidsj ON. startling. reburrus. rash. a belly. humorous. Brym. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. emotions which produce it. a bit . a deluge. to break. is to erect the hair. Bristle. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm.

brod. brocach. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. carbonado. a peg. freckled. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. brasuole. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. motes. Hal. a brouhaha. a prick. to streaked or speckled in the face. has grisser. bram. shuffle. tori shows that. brastlian. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. or roast on the braise. border ornamented with silk. to spur. point to an origin in Bret. Broker. or snag. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . and AS. broc. bordar. margin. broccato was used to signify stuff . Sc. or glowing coals broged. embroidery. streaked. AS. A badger. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. brasiller. to crackle. broighlich. — . .— B. gresiller. broiled. trouble. to boss. broc. — Gower in It. froco. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. bustling. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. brouda. R. brusler. houx. an edge. a flock or Gael. brasolare. bawling.tumultuous. It of br the Fr. gold and silver. to embroider. precisely analogous to the Sc. broil. prod. brocco. Grisons brascla. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. From direct imitation of Brock. bruler. to prick. birsle. a badger. storms. to scorch. hart of two years old. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. a To Broil. Cot. agree in being the extremity of a thing. to stud broccoso. 103 embroidered. It. E. brasiller. to On the other hand the Sp. knobby . to crackle. badger . parched. ToBroider. to broil. a brim. atoms . noise. to burn. brucilare. a freckle. to darn. broukit. to knots or loops. from the white. Cot. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. dar seems derived from borde. speckled. . forming to jumble. brucach. to parch or broil. broccuto. or It. parti-coloured. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. grullo. here. brindled. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. bmsciare. a brecJi. to crackle as a shell in the fire.. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. breard. brooked. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. Ptg. scorch. briefh. brullare. a flake of snow sion. broder. parch. rinj'. brocart. trouble. piebald . a border ornamented with gold. age was termed a pricket. tumult broighleach. speckled. and bord or bred. B. with Sc. silkes-borda. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. — — . W. brusuole. b?-od. Dan. Here to ornament with needle-work. a border. Thus brod. q. Fr. frocadura. the shoot of corn. brustle. of pointing out their latent defects. parti-coloured. tufted ornaments. bj'oil. brych. broglio. brizen. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. brouFr. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. or salted fish on coals. confound. v. and w. brodio. a freckle. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. a mole. to crackle. sparks E. a point. Brocket. Florio. bordo. Compare G. Ihre has guU-bord. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. Gael. bramowanie. broil. creak. to crackle. Surrey in R. the line of development has been something different. Compare also AS. brychau. — Fl. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. It.sound. Icnotty. grislement. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. border. fundamental origin. frecSee Brawl. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. a b?-ustolare. So from Pol. briz. a confused streaked face of the animal. ciare. sting. Sc. Contracted from Fr. Sp. a quarrel. Fr. Gael. a fallingThe sense has been out. spotted. A fried or boiled steaks). to burn. To roast upon hot coals.. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. initial . spots. Fr. The Bret. broice. to embroider. thread. to instigate. stump. rustle. brerd. — brissle. broud. whence broccare. braird. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. prasseln. borprick. The ON. ornamented with a raised pile. brasbrasciuolare. embroidering. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). hurly-burlies. Bret. kled breac. noisy. — The proper sense is that of Fr. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. onbryrdan. blusters.

to be hot. . matter of blame weak place. brass does to Sp. hraki. try . brod. Pro v. Fr.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. to spit . as. inspect. an . nounce unsound. bronze. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. Bronze. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. bracker. to sort goods . brokas. damaged. bredan. i. brak. with. Teutonic class : Du. sunburnt. refuse brakovat. designation is indkler. To correct an exercise is to Lib. brands. hot. to sit on eggs. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. warm. bronzo. which E. refuse. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. brot. rejection Pol. but from the primary sense of the It. Pl. The Langued. wrack-good. brae. pan metal. Du. to . brack. to nourish. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. to reject. G. phlegm. filth. an operation performed over hot coals. or brascla. G. — point out the faults. Alb. . : ' . To blame mens ware. the spawn of fishes. and fishes . the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. Jam. cast Lith. If to vomit . See Wreak. sbrinzlar.D. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. sort. 38. brackefi. to hatch G. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. It may be compared with It. — . braken. Per manus et old worthless horse. try out. vile. to garble. bric-a-brac. embers to brund. to emit sparks. Sc.D. to roast on the embers. a breach or flaw. dirty. — broeden. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. to scorch. to sort brakovanie. Bret. brack-gut (Sanders). a broker. Pl. to hatch. The use sunburn. the young of any animal . from break. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. to be wanting. brwd. screatio Junfus . briiten. brunds. to brew. find fault with. vile. raca. abbronzanchiare. Tooke's Catherine. wraken. 396. brut. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. to pick. brieden. w. bronce. brack-gut. Bronzare. mediationem quorundam J. ordure. a chicken. and as an adj. to pro- to reject . hrak. find fault — — — fuse matter. make out. damaged. • .— Breed. rejected. a brood . Adelung. In the . fish-spawn broden. racher. want. See Broth. spittle. to pick and choose. in the sense of rejection. abject. See Brackish. Kil. to throw blame upon. refuse Fr. S. Dan. buy and sell by commission. an outcast or rejected sheep. tan. progeny of birds. bronze. brid. Prov. find fault with. wreak. braeck goed. from makel. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. corrector. to braze. wrak. couratier. Alb. raquer.D. OFr. Abbronzare. brak. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. Grisons brinzla. . or wracker is used to signify public inspectors.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. brumo. selection. G. cherish. vrage. . term was correcfo^ir. spittle . a makeln. . bridde. embers. racaille. Brood. Fl. analogous to Bohem. to — garble. burning. brod. — a spark. embers. hot. . brydio. blur. lack. a cough Hal. to blame. brasa. refuse wares. keep warm. brokers' goods. cracker. criticise (makeln). Lat. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. whence the modern courtier. correctarius. In those countries the term braker. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brechen. whnake. stain. reject. to copper. a fault. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. refuse. faulty. broen. inspection.— — . This word shows the same relation to It. On • tliis principle the G. fault censure. on. has exactly the force of G. It. refuse goods. For the same reason the Kiittner. et A. Pl. broiid. goods damaged by sea-water. to hatch. Sp. refuse brakowad. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. brakyne. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. bronze. fermenting. brasa. bring eggs and spawn into active life. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. and to reject the damaged and unsound. trumpery. dial.— Lib. in which sense the OHG. ODu. Du. to criticise. Russ. glowing coals.D. e. brokoti. tussis. mud. — Fl. merchandises de rebut G. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. to sparkle. insects. slaae vrag paa. ON.

brun. to browse. and also border. edge. riviere. Wtb. w. eye-brow. eye-lash . brawdj Slavon. and Slavonic families. rage. But the Walach. bud.brink. Dan. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. edge. bruach. buds. brennen. pottage. brabruach. heath. bank. strength Ir. warmth ch'an. useful G. a . The origin is a re. eye-brow. plants composed of twigs. broud. or shoot. shrub with leafless pointed edging. low The AS. infusion the barley bree. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. thicket. Bret. riviera. broc. Fr. BROOK brook w. was originally used in the innocent sense of . Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. who is steaming with sweat. circuindedit cum familia. face. bregh. to use. frui. Catalan brossa. iVlanx broogh. AS. Sc. of plants broust. broit. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. brukjan. bor. steam from heated bodies. broth brothaire. a bruth. heath. brow of a hill. frucius. kail brose. bruth. shoot. brogues.brons. bruno. brushbrothas) gives the OE. Lat. brodo. breg. Gael. G. brothas. Fr. brass. thairj w. Sp. brodem. to sprout. shoots. of which the variety of forms. Bav. bryii. broth Brown. the bubbling or springing up of water. bordeau. Browse. spuma.braubiti. breg. Bohem. brio. browys. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . on. borda. brew . to shoot. Brothel. The AS.' Due. G. bruddeln. to spring . simmer from the murmuring AS. Sanscr. eye-lid. brost. . the colour of things burnt. brosst. Sp. mettle. juice of briars. break out brewet. vigour. bruich. to bear patiently. bank. surface of Broth. properly boiling water briihen.— Overyssel Almanack. Cot. . brmi. brocco. a hill. Du. border. eat. OHG. &c. It. broza. broi. bryn. bros. bntdien. brewis. Ger. bordel. braussa. a hill. brosses. bros. Prov. A — . broca. Due. . brotar. fur Broom. boiled . brouskaol. Pol. hut. spirit. a derived from the boards. brouser. sodden. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. brucan. to burn. Serv. chen. augen-braune. Bret. waves. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. heat. . briar. Gael. . brouic. braun. as small-pox. brouches. brue . 'Lzt. brouter. a bud. OHG. dumetum. frater. Roquef. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. and It. meal. To digest. broth. bruithim. bruc. bryn. hot. to use bruks. . shore . &c. Gr. sproc. .D. cabbage soup . — exiit et heath. a hut or cottage It. brau. to boil. Bohem. b7-un. may be connected with Russ. Fr. ceales briw. OFr. shrubs. — . . in which brinnan. brusmalt. 105 Brook. . heat explaining the Prov. grow brossa. a sprout. Commonly Teutonic. perhaps burnt coloilr. bruich. protecting the eye. broieii. dialects is very different. pour boiling water over. Mid. Gris. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. wood . to murmur. braew. . laissent Domunculum. to browse. Gael. broem bark. pith. to scald. Bohem. a caldron. brosses. briu. eye-brow. or broken up . It is Brother. fabric consists. sordes seu strigmata young branch. brudi. sprot. brouet. brwd. brost. brd. vigour. The softening down of the consonant bud. . sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>.) . . has briw. bruceti. from ripa. eminence . Ppim. brauwe. brstiti. broo. briihe. forms appear related to the Ir. signifying low wet land (Brem. w. brous. G. broth the ocean Sw. juice of meat. sprout. t— Cot. borde. to use. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. .. G. to roar. Tam de terrS. Brow. Russ. broden. a sprig. . a confused noise of winds. broth. It. brow. Here we find throughout the Romance. eye-lid. pfriemkraut. or bushes and scrubby growths. to bubble up with noise. bhratrj Zend. to boil. bank. bank. Limousin broudi. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. thick bush brousta. to boil. brov. (for brodem). to border. breg. grow into a bush. bratrj Lat. broth is sometimes used . brst. bree. shore. to Pl. brlgh. breh. margin. — . braces. brink. brozia. hovel. a little house or cottage of timber. signifying twigs. eye-brow. house of ill fame. sense the Sc. broeye." Serv. verge. sap. See Bramble. a spring. &c. ale . Prov. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. Pl. Gael. bruscosd quam de arabili. infusion. bruith. a shrub broust. surDu.spross. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. brpuster. a river. from Goth. rerum decoctarum. strength. sprout. It. as rhododendrons. as Fr. broccola. a bud brous-koad.D. Kil. . &c. Celtic. brad. enjoy Goth. brus. seethe. bushes. noise. awl-plant. cabbage water. cia. G. sprouts . Manx broie. sprocco. to boil bruithe. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. AS. bruitheati. Fr. a shore. brushbroccoli. . on. brdtaj Gael. branches. Fr. a source Gael. a little . — ' . Du. Russ. juniper. and Sc. brotar.

brosst. Text Soc. briser. OFr. to break to bits . while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Bruise. brousso. brust. fescue . —Fabyan. Hall in R. K. and actually come in collision. bruire. brosst. brosse. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. Poems. it schall be al Sw. Lang. crum bit . irruo. 134. remnants of hay or fodder. broza. brossa. brustia. brusco. Fr. OE. a bush of hair. biirste. to brush. E. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. detergere . And that best is. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. bruito. wool-card. brustid. bruscia. dust. Brunt. broust. bruyere. heath. . Pm. Pr. a rumbling. Fr. brossa. bruiser. Lang. a bud or sprout Bret. brous. brusca. shivers.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde.). wool-card. Gael. to crush. brise. — Fr. . 201. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. NE. Gael. E. brugir. and It. It. ling or heath for brushes. shoot brouskoad. quisquilise. a brush. bud. p. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. tremely. .). * Brunt. britar. . It. escousse. bruc. brous. to make a rumbling. and sighid therewithal. bruscolo. and in the second place a besoiB. biirste. B?-usske. bross. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. chips. brit. insultus. brus. bruzir. brustia. brist j Port.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. broken. appearin Goth. a bud. Alexander. rubbish. brunt. a crum. twig. . or sodenly comyn' dust. a briser. — OE. Palsgr. brusc (Diet. Sp. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. a mote. to butt. bris. briketo. dust. an enmy. brusg. or shoot. Wicliff. E. bris. briiis (in the pi. a brush . Pm. Beryn.). The Lat. That in all haste he wouli. a brush. insilio. fasx . splinters. field. Pr. Cot. brusca. . G. bush. a brush . rods. also a head-brush. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. to break. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brik. Cot. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bruscolo. a brush . to stumble. Fr. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. Sw. to make brusshes on. borste. a brush . are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. burs. Allit. Fl. Bret. Port. bruis (sing. britar. The same relation holds good between G. Diez. To brush then would be to dust. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. abroncar. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. to cleanse. a brush. burt. bruise exOFr. brist. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. as It. bross. Piedm. Piedm. rubbish. borste. See next article. mg Cat. bricalio. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. a bristle. Gael. a brush Swiss bruske. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . of twigs. tuft of grass or hay. Fr. Prov.— Palsgr. and . Prov. a shrub composed of small twigs . brista) or breaking out . borste. wood composed OE. In E. orts. to strike the foot against an obstacle. fragments. It. seems named from burst(on. Castr. borst.— — i. and Piedm. bruskr. brysan. Prov. brist. brushwood. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. 174. On the other hand. Pr. Pr. brikan. — a bush. brossar. Bav. twig. ON. ca7-bo>i. a tuft of heath . effort. a blow. crush. and also Brush. Broach. — those signifying a sprig. Fr. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. to break. Brunt of a daunger. brosse. brist. dust. brico or brizo. broza. A. brottcher. quasi twigs. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. rubbish. flax-comb brossettes. . or from the materials of which it is itself composed. Brush. a horse-brush. a bristle. brusco. dust. coal See Breeze. borste. a — — (Agea) said. brizeto. G. a flax comb. bris. brisar. bris. a noise. bushy ground. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. wool-card. The Bav. modification of the same root which gives the E. borste. brMt. AS. blow burcar. bruit. a little brizal. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. sordes. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. Gael. Sw. —Chaucer. into a multitude of points. brisd. to break or burst. break. desbrisar. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. shock. broustia. Bruit. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. Prov.

It. a hole. a. Magy. a.lessiver. as G. bub. bubseti. From an imita. bucata. to butt or jurr Dan. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. tap . Sp. at a door. moist.tare. Bret. to Gael.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. a fescue. buck-ashes. a knock word.buchen. pup. Sp.byka. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. not so plentiful a commodity. to filter. bucquer. In G. plied in the W. to soften. bukke. . to soak. to butt. 17th century. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. mote. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. a steep for flax. knock. Etym. lye. the lower soak in lye. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. from weich. to which in their language they call bou. to soak foul linen before washing. a to the male deer. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. or projecTo Buck. bugada. in which the flesh dish. Formerly. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. to bubble. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. bouk. says Laudon. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. . I. as a buck rabbit. soft. soft. Pref A. w. Fin. molle. to bump as a bittern. de la Floride. it is beuchen. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. bubiti. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. tuft. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. because bucare does not in Marsh). bugd. It. mokry. tender. and exercised their cruelties prin. March 28. bouc. to wet Pol. pokka7na. Illust. buerj It. to a place used for the mouillir. to soften. and as a verb. different form. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. a bubble . to strain. from colar. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. Esthon. byge. Fr. watery bud. The name. Magy. 1857. It. set of pirates in the spread. Pol. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. designation of a knob. to butt. caned' Hence those who established them. 1586. erweichen. the first wheal. colada. bog-aske. bubbola. a ashes. Gael. . also applied Una. soft It. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. w. blast or strike with the forehead. The place of such a 2. boh.-wtt miekki. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Bohem. . drying of produce. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. Bohem. bubauti. hog dressed whole). Diet. buquer. bucking. This bubette. ac. to soften . Cot. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. was called bucking the linen. the upper for coifee. faire la lessive. or mok. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. BUBBLE bruschetta. soft. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. . does not hold. bduclien. See Dupe.boukaat. and then to other wild tumour Lith. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. Dan.— . Bubble. mollire. bube. Pol. . because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). thunder gently . to murmur. to buck. bokni. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. open lath-work. who resorted to the islands beichen. lye. to stick. bubBuck. soft .derivation has been much discussed. . . the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs.biiken j Svi. — . buck-ashes. and the bunch. moczyd. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. boc. was called in Fr. The male goat. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. — — ' A : ' ' . boil animals. blister. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. The natives of Florida. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. Bret. rap. tender. of wind. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. boc. is 1. mieknad. News. when soap was tion is commonly taken. The cipally on the Spaniards. buquer. a push. buborek. bifbel. The term bocan is still ap.steep or soak. pukkata. bwch. boucaner. bucaIndies. The word was very generally Buccanier. a bubble.D. bub. hump. to soak. top. Fr.to allow a free current of air.wet Lat. very generally designated by the same puk. maban and baban. Sc. wood. bublati. a bubble. — . either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . buchen. A .' Palsgr. and Fr. But see Bristle. the linen at buck. hump. Fr.

butzen.poot. a tuft. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. a boy.anything short of its kind. bucherare. ' .. no business to do that. of bouge. to boss or swell out G.chissima. Mid. ornamental stud.' Schm. The entire train of thought is bucket. crack. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. boiling. This expression boglire. to boil. jSouKoXiKog. bollire. no wheel bogeilio. buckel. boucle. cattle. pwt o Fr. goat's hoof. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. male or botzen. stir. whom it is still much in use. boach. excrescence. K. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. pulga. bouge. boglyn. Lat. — — .' Boccaccio. as in Fr. bulais daqui. were To Budge. great pouch. G.' And this sacrament bus have dial. water message. Fr. botzen. need. to word. W. knob . bud butzen. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. Prov. bul. Sp. call. bougette. Hardly identical with Fr. a curl. a buclder or shield budge. a leathern sack. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. Bav. . Dan. probably from the notion of bubbling. pwtio. * Buckle. OHG. boccula. a shield. bump. become bochen. belonging to the calling of the chen. bog and G. . buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe.. . Bret. bdden. bolgetta.goa. bulla. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. protuberance. knob dwfr yn boglynu. a navel. a trough). a pail or flowers. botzen. rabodS. butt . trunk of wood covered with leather. bloca. boucaran. stroke. dinted. boucle. butz. a budget. bode. Bret. bulga. a small shallow and open tub. — . * Bucket. of bac. a bud. weich. agreeing with Gael. bogla.' Hal. a boss. bunch. to budge. Dan. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. . A water-plant with leaves and gille. a . sboge. Fr. boaLat. to poke. built. with which it was ornamented.stumpy man. put. bulka. turgere buczendig. is doubtless fallacious. butzen K. OFr. rump of fowls . bucolicus. to move. Buckler. loud Cot. boss of a shield. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bulb. Mid. pote. Prov. See Bulk. seen in Hesse botz. It termination is lost. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. Bucolic. bouljein. boqueranmis. like a bean. with a central boss. Gael./a. soft. II I'a feru desor I'escu. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. bloca. a dumpy gin. a little coffer or turgidus. explaining Fr. a stump buckle up. Fr. call.— . and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. with let. bouter. and the reference to It. the word w ' — . bocla. ein. and weichen.). It. a shoot. Pol.) . to graft or bud trees. bullion.stuff. convexity. to pen cattle. bod. above mentioned. fur. Wtb. Bus. a ring. boulj. to thrust. Cot. scion. . a bump. boucle. Fr. So on. prick in a target. Buck-bean. Budge. NE. boss. To thrusting part of a long body. butze. ' . to 'soak. a boss. bouger. a servant. Bav. brobrocchiere. words is converted into b. skins pushit'. a cowherd. bouclier. case of leather . bouton. * Bud.may probably be explained by N. to un bout d'homme. w. — — . ble. the radical image seems to be a set plants. . It. imbuere. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. to bud or bocla. clasp of a book. a short thick man. Du. a buckle or protuberance. having a boss. where the G. push forwards. a wallet. butzen. bucherame. Behoves. a pustule bout. It. potz. inboachen. budge. blow. swelling. the end or rise or bear out in the middle.t-le!L{ * Bud. The knob or projection formN. Pied. bedde. bug. bouprobably identical with inok. weichen. buachazlle. Port. noise .) as to soak. ' . bougette.. Swab. from Gr. The word is a ddyn. bolgia. or male of to boil . . bub. butzen (Du.Lat. bod. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. to swell. bunch . dim. also a leather tuft . Sw. In Lat. wallet. the root of the Slavonic words gran. of a surface. It. dint . . macero. bukke-blad. mani. Fr. Prov. pulga. thrust. A buckle or fastening for botch. stud. call bo. a bubble three thyngis. bugnir. child. don't stir from hence.n. weich. gjeit-klauv. to stir. don't a baby). Budget. The dressed fur of lambs. Fr. motus creber.r//'. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. Russ. bo. ON. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. bouk is a pail and with the dim. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. swelling. Fr. set of a plant in bulk. — . . to line with fur. a budget. bucket Fl. w.pode. a fold ceilio. hump. bloquier. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. from bo. The Fr. from bugr. Du. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. boucler. is to shrivel up. . knock. clump. lump. Hence quel. and of the Lat. in the beginning of to pierce holes. to butt. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair.

Fr. 265. buffets. Thus buffet would a tapster. Sc. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. word other cases. bobaow. W. bukow Ikow. stupid. buffen. Lith. Buffoon. rebuff. to bellow . by metaphor. buff leather. a cuff or buffet. scarecrow . Hence the E. bubach.' La Crusca. bugs. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. Cot. for this purpose is very widely spread. a In . a puff. The cry made to excite terror is then used. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. baubau. wauwau. buMagy. ' They rether puffed at him. dial. blurt or puff with one's mouth. The use of the exclamation children. buffle. a bugbear. to puff.— Buflae. Pl. buffet. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. Sc. Buff. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Lat. site The two — — iii. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. — retailing buffeter buffetier. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. a side-board. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. from It. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. to blow souffleU. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. A puff with — Fl. duff^ dull. a hobgoblin. deadened. Fr. mumming. bolgia. boman./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . From buff! of terror. buffer. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. and in Fr. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. to strike face to represent the unknown. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. Buffalo. A — Bug. — La Crusca. — thence it has been transferred in E. boo. to jest or sport. bubus. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. a block-headed noddy. air.D. often blown upon. bufogni. Buff. bufHe. also a G. bubiti. as emblematically making light of an object. from souffler. a skin. things in Jam. — — — Buffet. to give a as of a blow. a budget. as from Lith. bouffer. It. a clap. tastes. bauwi.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Esthon. It. or wild ox. God's boast seemed feare children. a goblin). A blow. Limousin bobal. mingled with water. bolgetta. buffet. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. cuff . breath. smells . bufogni. bumann. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. Teet-bo. dausinti. to signify an indefinite object of terror. thus be translated to tap. the buffe. made to —Bugbear. the place whence the wine was drawn. botffon. to give benti. to marre often tasting it . Fr. Romola. a jester. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. to puff. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. a hollow sound. buffle-headed. to excite terror in Macleod. of colours. bw! It. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. sounds. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. bwg. senses. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror.—Buffet. soufflet. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor.D. leathern bucket. often covering his E. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Fr. buffa. also the skin or heck of a buffe. —Boggart. From bulga. bubaRuss. Lith. w. buffeteur. Fl. bugbear. dull sound. as wine that hath taken wind. bau ! children. Bufetarium. een duffen toon. yar^aa. — Z. to frighten . Swiss baui. puff. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. tabernarius. pulse . Fr. popo. as Diez remarks. caupo. It. to a representation of his voice. btifetarius. human. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . made by a person. le reste emplissant d'eau. Gael. wine may The verb in taverns.' perfield. bo ! an interj. confused. buffare. a dull BUG From 109 — A . buffare. E. buivol. to beat. dausa. Mid. either alone or with various terminations. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. a buffle or a bugle. to blow . to rePl. G. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. Pl. Magy. Cot. buffalo. Buffeter. or hath been Cot. him but Boyd iugges. while in Sp. bugle. bw. colour. buffet. bouffer. — Bogle. buffetto. . The children were playing in an oppocomer. to blow.D. Lat. It. &c.

ghost. boa-peep. Chaucer. a bug-bear. and a boggarty ing. buba. bugle. to frighten scarecrow. protuberant.. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. . xiv. b'dgni. Bible. baco. bwgar. bukashka. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. I. of bugabo was given. an insect. saucy. bug-bear. buggabod). Grose. high-sounding words. boeuf sauvage. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. earwig bau da grascha. oxen. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. as Buffalo.Fr. Illyr. paws the ground . bogk. Same as buffle. to bellow. a. and bugle. Swiss ing. bok. to take bug. il brutto Demonio. 493. 2. vermin. tumble-bug. the buggaboo w. Fl. Hal. Bug. great or bug words. A similar applica. booggen. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. a proud overbearing man pujat'. Mundart. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. 3. w. threatening. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. is the dim. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. the Devil. to creeping things. — boogg. with more or less modification represents bau. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou.Lat. and is Deutsch. to take fright. proud. a buffalo. The w. according to Coles. troll. a bug-bear. used in the same sense. and in Lat. Serv. pujalo. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. It. 1551. bugler. scarecrow . shepe and gootes. Deut. — — . bobal. worm. bwgwl. Schmidt. bau (Pureiglia. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . bucula. terrifying ward. Russ. bauginti. . bogk. the word is lin) bbgge. to roar Aasen. bugbear. well as the terrific object. swollen. biignt. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. provincially an insect. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. Bdronie. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. The final guttural of W. larva (a bug-bear. a silk-worm. Magy. The name of bug is — . bug. bogle. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. — — ' . a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. bbgni.3uhtii&:. Sw. Big. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. monster. Cheval de trombugti. the black a maggot. bukati. Lap. gad. Hence bugle-horn.loud noise. — . Parolone. It. See The name terror). a bugbear for children. BUGLE Tentennino.— . Magy. of pipes sewn on. dial. Swelling. Grisons bau. a goblin. tion of the beetle tribe. thus connected with bug. especially to beetles or winged insects. . high. An ornament of female dress condread. forSc. also a bug-bear. insect. bogil. banian boube. and in child's Magy. Fl. disgust. : no BUG . also a bug-bear.. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. Manx boa. given in Chaucer. bugar. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. E. coco. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. Swiss booggen. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. Stalder bog. boo. then a horn for drinking. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. pugaf. roarHal. a rabme. Sp. fette. fear. superbire. long. i. Bugle. Lett. . poggl. beugler. Lesachthal. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. hert. an object of terror. bug-bear. buculus. insect. a boogg. a beetle. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. a misshapen person. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. affright. Mid. big.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. bwg and E. language any kind of insect. as an object of dread. threatening. fierce. — — terror. Lith. Bogge. W. iv. bug dung-beetle. blustering. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. rose-bug. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. also a baco-baco. quos what produces dread or disgust. buffle. mask ' . is very common. bold. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. (Spurrell). bug-bear. pugalo. to bellow. Bug as a lord. bogil bo (e. roo. any disgusting animal. to take fright. * 2. to origin in the expression bugs words.

Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. projection. belly. Palco. bulk. the womb. as water beginning to boil bolg. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. balg. PoXj3a. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. head . van loock. Melancholy. lump. a prominence. Mandeville. as well as is very variable. ' . bladder. cultivate. principal portion. buk. bulne. in bulk. or. bulbe. a bunch. Lith. Hal. See how this tode bolneth. at riufa bulkann. bol. gebolgen. Pm. Ptg. belly Sw. boa. body. boss. belgja. bubble. bullka. The Walach. bauen. Gr. bulwis. as it was merly written in English to bylle. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. to belly out.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. With these must probably be classed ON. pimple. Jno. of E. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. swell. — — . on. body of an animal. pulkas. Muratori. to raise a habitation. to bol. to spring.' Festus. belly. to blow.d. OSw. From till.' Anat. bulgen. bulki. turgeo bolnyd. Bulge. a straw corn-vessel. husk. Dan. . G. boulge. whence bylja. swollen OE. . to build. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. hold or bilge of a ship. mass. For the latter sense ' — My . skin of an animal. bwlg. bo. The addition of a dim. Mister. the belly. blister. stuffed bag. Pr. hull of a ship. bug. lump. . for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. a. ball. sedes. G. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. balg. to break bulk. bolgetta. ^ — . were a habitation. skin flayed whole. the carcase. bubble. Kil. bol. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. domicilium. a globe. Lat. bed of a river. — Bulb. tumidus. trunk. to gather. the potato G. bolso. a tuberous or bulbous root . to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. swollen. Pr. or of what is shaped like a bubble. dial. blow. the position of liquids in the word In English. trunk of the body. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. buhe. a round bulky body bwlgan. bulked or bumped out. belly Cat. buc. snorting on a bulk. pouch builgeadh. has bulbuk. — — . bulbe. bulk or capacity of anything. bolle. a leathern sack or portmanteau. to puff up bolginn. . . . knob. bulg. the contents of the hold. anything prominent. In the representation of natural sounds. belly van de kerche. in vessel. in Sc. bulcke. balco.' Fl. knot in thread. bale. compare Da. swell. to undo the cargo. .pulks. pod ON.— . the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. the body Du. bubble {palgan tiisge.' Cot. bag. a leather sack or budget Fr. boss of a buckler. a protuberance.). swell. or bear out as a full purse. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. . See bollekeii next article. He found a country fellow dead drunk. belly. knob. and N. OSw. bulbus. hollow. G. be protuberant. a water-bubble). Lett. a. of an inflated skin. bolg. Hence e. bua. bolnyn. Pm. bugue. villa. ON. balcone. globule bolg-lhuingey. Bolke or hepe. formed a farm. unevenness Sw. chest. The radical sense is shown in Russ. bukr. the capacity or burden of a ship. beuck. a lump or mass. wallet. bulge or bilge. — — . It. habitaculum. thorax buick. belgr. Sp. inhabit. Othello. or feminine termination gives Bav. w. to swell. bulge or convex part of a cask. nave or body of the church van 't schip. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. 1388. herd^ swarm pulkd. bulle. it again. bulkaf. bouk. boss of shield. belly. womb. mass. ' . acervus. and bulbukd. Bav. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). boss. . . trunk. To Build. a bulb Du. Bourser. jnake bulch. belly. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. . Gr. byli. bubbling up. bauch. . Lith. leather sack. bilge. puff. bol. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. vulva. bolgia. (3oX|8oc. cumulus. . to bubble up. bulk is a partition of boards. or cargo of a ship. bole. to throw out a convexity. MHG. m um Placentiae. bellows builgean. bolgna. bulgen. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. .' Palsgr. . to bubble up Pol. and put it home. Boss^. bubble. See Bulk. Dan. Bulk. ON. Lat. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. knobby. . a bubble Gael. straight will he 2. bulka. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. to swell. ' . Bulch. bolgan. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. balgs. a bubble. body of a ship . ne. tumeo. blister. — . pocket. skin bag. A — ' — Bulk. biilken. I. — . a heap. crowd. bolle.'— Cot. the head of an onion. a dint in a metal . a stage or scaffold. blister Manx bolg. Here stand behind this bulk. bouge. . bunch or projection.

lle de fusil. G. bollos de relieve. a seal. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. lumpish. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. stupid . W. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. bubble. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . /SouWivu. Bullbeggar.. penbwl. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. billoti in Fr. billon. embossed work. a framework of balks. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. Cot. bouillon. which may probably be the origin of the name. a hobgoblin. it may be observed that a bullet in E. to tical with Sw. to emboss . — A tition in a ship. bal. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. A papal rescript. poltern. is of a class with Pl. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. and vellon in Sp. bulk of a thing. bauli. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. bollon. beams or boards. It. whence bullire. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. boss or stud. in the sense of base metal. G. a tadpole. N. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. to seal. as geting. bolli. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Terriculamentum. from baula. bwla. bwbach. G. as in E. scarecrow. G. large.. Bully. any embossed work.D. eth and frighteth. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. bietebau. also a parFl. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted.D. pollach. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. — — Bull. a bull. This word is used in several senses. signifying roaring. stud. A lace tree. a blockhead. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. to bubble. Sp. bullern. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. bulke. it is boulet de canon. elves.'— ' Palsgr. tition of deals instead of a wall. from the use of the equivalent terms. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. as It. sloes. Du. Du.' do not go by the dangerous water.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. Bullet. Fr. a cow. 3. however. See Bowl. bellocier. bole or trunk of a tree. poll-cheannach. bolla. bouillon. from the noise. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. Bullfrog. biitzibau. a stud. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. from Lat. balgeting. round glass phial. bulk. is called a ball. boulct. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. in N. pimple. the matrix or die . Bret. BuUiou. brass-headed nail . I. a little fish nearly all head. bulla. It. stamped money. stud. boss. a wasp. See Billet. a seal. Du. bollar.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. a bowl. a beam or rafter. also of the tadpole or young frog. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. and thence terror. Eullrusli. polten. Du. as a mill-dam or the like. thick. leraures nocturni nigri. Pl. the seal affixed to the document. stamp. dim.. a bul-begger. Dan. a hobgoblin. from Fr. Gold or silver uncoined. The male W. large of its kind. dial. from the Lat. as the ornanails. bulderen. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. bulle. of the ox kind. coarse. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. witches. whence Mod. &c. bolli. bullocks. — Fl. bullos. of Witchcr. The bullfrog. to boil. urchens. to bellow. Gael. w. ON. a hornet. a tadpole . bulla. any great-headed or studded nail. Lith. poli-cheannan. boillon. ba. assito. a bull Swiss bullen. The final element tergeist. a bulox polos. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. a scare-bug. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. bullus. on the contrary.Gr. .Fris. blunt. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. Fr. blister. bullebak. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. many to protuberant objects. Bullace. lumpheaded . bulloi. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. spirits. a noisy violent fellow. i. bugbear. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. bwlas. of boule. And The word bullerbak. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows.. w.D. Pm. Scot's Deso. bellow. 2. bolos Fr. hhint. but is more probably iden- palchetto. pwl. baula. The wild plum. 2. b2iggaboo. BulUiead.

up was termed monnaie de billon.' Stat. un faux brave. ierd-boeyme. c. 9 E. block-werck. Miege in Hal. Du. Fr. a bumble-.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. ON. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. 'lega. ground. sound. resonare. Du.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. to drum Lat. a. agrees with e. propugnaculum. For bottom. bol-werck. buller-bas. G. G. Fris. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. A. and porter au billon. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. provides. blunder-buss. to terrify by noise and clamour. Bailey. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. bottn.the ramparts. ^i^/«. Bum-bailiff. Kiittner. ierd-beame. The cry of the bittern. It. — bombam?nen. III. Thus ' ble. The Sw. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. Kil. Fris. bottom. buene. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . c. buller-bak.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. provides. D.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. debacchari.' agger. blunder-buss. — Bump. by corruption boulevart. Bum. a stage. 4 Hen. a blunderhead.. primarily the ramparts of a town. to make a droning Du. c. scaffold. a boisterous. — — plate d'argent. 2. bommele. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. honunele. buller-brook. droning. bastion. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. bustle. The 27 Ed. boene. Du. &c. 1305. bombilare.' ' mettre au billon. Kil. or a humblebee. The Stat. Sw. G. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. Philip le Bel in Due. to dun. To bum. the soil. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value.D. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes.' Again. but now is the central part of the town.D. From the notion of a humming. vallum. poltem. Bully-rock. botm. To bum. intonare. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. bulderen. hum. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. blaterare. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. then in general a rampart. baluarte. 14. Hal. beat a — Hal. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. bodem. IV. boulevard. to make a noise . and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. clamour. argentum and silver. or work of defence. minari verbulderen. furious man. St. John). noise. boisterous fellow. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. polterer. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. To Bum. IIL st. violent. 1687). from boden. Etym. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. 10.' reals of standard currency. a noisy blustering fellow.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking.. bomtnen. 2. AS. The decried coin.' for the purpose of exchange. a floor. violent overbearing person. — Boom. is called bumping or bells. buller-bas.d. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. Hence bom and ban. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. buller-jaan (bully. To bully is to bluster. ^Bully-rook. Bully. on the other hand. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. — Bumto . legaggio di metallo. bolderen. is bullion — A — buller. a hectoring. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. to . biihne. 2. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. Hence — . perturbare saevis dictis. BULLY with which coins were stamped.

also for taking a pilot to a ship. inconsiderately. Bumboat. a dry No . awkward clown. . bongie. bignet. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. forms. a person employed to dun one for a debt. 1. — — — — ' — knock. A clumsy. ! — knocking. Dunchyn or bunchyn. foundation w. dial. throw down with a bang. Suffolk bonnka. bulscha. bung. . nor would it concern the public if he did. and signifies consequently a mass. bungersome. S. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. . bmidt. a bump. bunan. Hal. bmike. a boil or blain. bunga. bu<rnone. a heap. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. It. to bang. To bam. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. any round knob or bunch. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . bunke. Bums it's hit. and related with ON. Probably for bun-boot. a heap OSw. — stalk . a hemp-stalk. bon. Pl. Li cake. bunken. to beat. . protuberance. pwmpl. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. — — Bun. or grete knobbe. a very wide boat used by fishers in S.D. bunki. Bun. Pm.' Palsgr. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. cluster. Fr. knochen. Holland and Flanders. a bowl P1. a knob. lump. poumpido. bottom. stock. . the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. lenten loaves. to bang down. seems to unite Gael. — — de dor bunsen. as we have seen E. . Bunch. See Bounce.^Cot.— Pr. bugnone. any round knob or bunch.).D. bunka. Pm. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). bune or boon. a.S. . Dan. Fl. especially girls. bump. bunga. pwmpio. tundo.D. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. bottom. while bulch was traced through Gris. strapping. w. E. Mrs Baker. a knock. explaining E. a heap or cluster. stump. stalk. Roding. pumpa. a lump on the foot bunny. Bony. round mass of anything. signifying one who does things in a thumping. awkward. a pocket Sw. to ' . a swelling. a. pompette. callus. Hal. &c. banga. a bunch. H. stubble of beans. bumsen. . bum-boot. the Pr. Fr. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a boil (punkos bot. a tail (Macleod). pumpurras. a round mass . strike E.— Bunnion. abrupt manbuns-wise.' Bun. Dan. — round fruit. are dim. Pl. stubble Manx bun. pompon. a rabbit. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bonge. A Du. a knotty stick) Sw. root. to swell out E. See Boss. root. stem or base. bugno. Bung^. a knob . bugno.P. Gael. truss E. binge. He fult dat et bunsede. noise. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. from bunsen. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. a boss Lith. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Probably from bump. E. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. hay stubble . Bang sen. botn. a button. See Bunch. bunnion. to knock . Moor. to . bolsa. OSw. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. mto Sp. Ir. —Bunny. bun with ON. Lang. or to the mass by which it is given. ner. Forby. clown. — Marine Diet. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Du. bumtel. Hence E. bugnet. Hal. a wallet. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. trunk. Daal bu7iseti.' he fell with a bang. a purse . w. Kyx or bunne. bottom bun feoir. from knock) It. passes Sw. a heap Wall. Bumpkin.. bunch— Hal. Bunch. pwmp. knob or heap. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. Bunewand. bunny. — — Bun.-^Fl. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. blain. a dried hemp-stalk. stump. banke. bulse.! . stock. Hal. to . bunkc. Gael. to thump. butt end. lungeous. bundle. dial. a bag or sack. bulto. a large . Sc. bunt. a rabbit. Pr. . as in other cases. Bunk. bull. a hump. Again. il me pousse. a bud. He buncheth me and beateth me. gibbus.. E. Radically identical with Dan. clumsy. . bunsen.D. the tail of a hare. a bunch Magy. an old stump of a horse. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. should probably be a short tail. bonnock. a heap. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. applied to young persons. Pm. gibber. to beat. so the form btmk. a Sp. bund. . Thus e. Related on the one side to Pl. calamus. poumpi. to bang ON. a knob. Manx bonkan.pummel. a into Dan. one ever saw the word in that shape. bamgetroffen. hdk passing and E. . Then. BUNCH bum-bailiff. . bannock. knuckles. Sc. large. buns. bun. Bumsen. bans. a swelling from a blow. bonuach. . Bump. a pumpion or gourd. bun eich. boi7ieog.

It. would be the earliest float for an anchor. The belly or hollow of a sail. boei. — — . buove.Fris. bondon. bondel-loos. and now more Bailey. or tuft. Hal. Pl. do a thing bunglingly. a wisp of hay or straw. knocking. byndel. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. a bunch. bote. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. whence in bure. AS. to bungle.— . halm-tapp. So Du. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. shackles. a bunch Burbulas. ' — work . Muratori. burion. clogs. Burden. bindini. guggle as water. Johansen. loosed from bonds. See Barbarous. working in wood (especially with an axe). dial. bunta. bommen. — — To Bungle. especially in wood. Burden. bui. A Dan. to push with the head del. to work at carpentry bangan. to stop. also a piinple in the face. in is Fr. Cat. See Bourdon. la Borgonota. AS. Fr. generally known as the material of which bud. Sw. Bunting. to strum on an instrument. See Bun. . whence bunting. Bunt. boj. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. that the primitive meaning of shackle . Banff. Sp. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . dial. — . bove. to cobble. bondeau. — Bureau. B. B. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to kick. fetters. A load. borboUar. gyves. bongun. to Somerset is to sift. klempern. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. bongani. boucher. bummle. . Rietz. bondir. tapp (whence tceppa. on. to gingle. racket.punt. the noise of drums. bouche. a drum . to in to stop the hole. was formerly pronounced buro. fascis. bouchon. bundt. the bung of a barrel Lim. anchor or of a net boyar. klimpem. OG. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. . biirde. rumble as the bowels. Burganet. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. bimge. properly a Burgundian helmet. coassatio et Du. bonde. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. and van t' vat. Sw. a bung. a botch. a boye. to gingle. russet. To burgeon. to knock. Sw. To Bunt. boya. is originally a wisp or bunch . sprig. . The Italian buio. burboloti. the middle part of it. G. Lat. bang. or putting forth of a vine. to work ineffectually. bonde. bury. Bundle. shove . Fr. punishments for prisoners. unskilful working. the loose open grow big about or gross. OFr. to resound. buret. and bomme. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. The Magy. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. G. Prov. of a song. the float of an bundle. See Borel. or used as a receptacle for papers. to shove. stocks or such OSw. To bunt. racket . driving in the bung. bounta. a sort of helmet. to bolt meal. to botch. Fr. dark grey bura. byrthen. Cot. Fr. bang. N. bon. an anchor buoy. to push. bond. So in Pol. Fl. bourguignote. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. bourjon. bourion. and the Sw. The Fr. tinkle. to bear.D.' Festus in Diez. Bung of a tonne or Lith. stilmpern. * Buoy. — btiruii. from beran. bungande. to pype. bag to catch the wind. E. bourgeon. knocking. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. a cork. Compare G. The word is flags are made. modem bummle. bundle. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. ho-tapp. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. Biu'geon. knock. OFr. the stopper of a cask). banghagr. To do anything awk- wardly. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. Sp. borgonota. tinker . dicimus rufum. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. contignatio. bunsen. 202. reddish brown. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. Bung. clumsy performance. Kil. colligatio. A bubble. however. Prov. . Bunny. Sp. bangla. bou^e. bolting-cloth. dark. to bud forth. to stnmi on an instrument. to hum. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. to stop. Bret. to knock. to push ghebondte. to hum. with the head. tap. buie. Du. Burly. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. stiimpeln. bondelj bundell. Burble. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. and Du. on. to hum. ghebundte. a water bubble made by rain. and E. noise. the young cloth used for sifting flour. are from bouscfie. bundel. Russ. a bungler. to float. boil or bubble up. bangla. p. buret. Sp. banga. Palsgr. The stopper for the hole in a boia.

to Gael. the roaring surge of the — — — . to surge. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. burren. brasa. explaining Sp. borni. is connected with brim. in Schm. Burler. brustolare.. Lang. borracka. to fiy. A burl. the er is a dresser of cloth. Fr.. The Gael. to polish. a bladder. In the manu. to swell. Burgh. brim or edge of anything. brausen. a fountain. protuberance. Fl. brAler. a wine skin. pur (see Burgeon). which has given much trouble to etymologists. bouril. to effervesce. compared with G. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. From the same root E. briis^. Lang. Swiss Rom. as Diefenbach bud. and the Burnish. to bourda. Nat. it of the knots. toast. ON. It. is termed burling. boiirre. Limousin bourdo. E.' Cot. Antiq. to bouronna. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. from the roaring sound of flame. OFr. to rub. abourioner. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Pren7ien.). OE. has also borr. Bouffer. to grind on a whetstone. borr. mockery. brandung. Castrais bourril. j.j'own. a lie. lerre. burly. a knob.— Pr. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. condemnentur morti. ends of thread. — — . like the wind in trees. bud or sprout forth. Probably. brinii. Fr. embraser. sea. i5«r4 biiirte. Burgess. Bav. Burlesque. Bav. to bud . Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. In the same way ON. Todd. as in cousteau. and Dan. bears. It. to sharpen on a whetstone.or bubbling up. to polish. bunch. repartee . with Dan. 56. brustle. to swell oneself out as birds borras.' a jibe. — — . burlare. brimmen. See Burgeon. and the Burin. surge or dashing of the sea . sbornoi. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. It is probable indeed that Fr. lorra. ends of thread. brinnen or Also ein roar. warbling. Burglar. to burn. de Vaud. to puff. sidiary element. as the / in purl. knob. Probably a modifica. blow. to roar. Bestiary. bruzir. angular . to roar 5. Cot. a margin. like. So also Sw. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. sicut sound. Sw. to hum. Dief. to have acquired the sense of polishing. bourd. watery. is an Thus G.. . Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. burn. a jest. swelling borr-shuil. from Lat. brun.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. — Han to bruser op. Walach. to make a So from Fin. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. boure. to murmur. flocks. borrelen. language of folly or ridicule. ^ttsa. to set on fire. brusler being a faulty spelling. tumentum. a whetstone. The primary origin of the word. bruse. borujon. Burly. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. to sharpen. a well. swell up or strout out. OE. with little iron nippers called burling irons. Pm. to polish helmets. robber. explaining the E. a spring a robber. purra. spring-water bumach. a bud. See Burr. dial. occupying much space.ireui£r:e. brynsten. ample of polishing metal. to roar (as lions. — — .. as of suggests. burle of cloth. born. Pr. thence. burgi latro. It. schleiffen. ii6 BURGESS Gael. brunnen. to burn. Supp. become big and proud. 122. Prov. burgeois. Goth. a purling hiwe brennen. fire. to roar. boura. See Berough. ' rugiens. a jest. A — — . Burryn. burgensis. he rustle. A legal term from the Lat. water. to swell with pride. — . Compare also Piedm. brinna. like straw or small . bourglairs.). broil. roguing beggars. tahkoa. pressa puret. Gael. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. must be explained on the same principle from G. BURNISH i5«r/. the J in OFr. brunna. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. bremmen. N. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. taunt. laer. &c. to tell lies. big. purrata. to puff up borr^ . joking. See under Bore. and OG. . Hence Bridel.. a prominent eye borracka. fires up. a bubble to spring as water. to burgen or wax big. buirleadh. brook. an edge. Sp. — . bururus. the word seems Pm. to give an edge to. to To Bum.Ps. a blaze. bururus. Sw. OFr. burgen. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. brunnr. brase. purling. to ridicule. brunir. tahko. Bret. The in. jest of. a bubble. bourou. barrel. crackle wood in burning Hal. singe or scorch with fire. an &c. G. the flocks. ^Notk. Burgher.). brima. Swiss Rom. . word would thus signify water springing To Burl.— . Schm. .sharpen. de Vaud. Fl. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. to roar. ridicule. from bryii. G. leo Fin.bryna. Burn. From Fr. a gurgling ^. Fr. tion of the root which gave the OE. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. grancelli. to ridicule. to roar.

force. preserve. to mutter Sw. iii. beorgan. and spelling. brist. borsia. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. to P'air. beurs. Fris. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . to break. break . a. shearing of cloth. impetus. i5(7&a. birr. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. brast. ' ' — — burren. brittle. g. &c. dial. byrsa. brokil and brotil. and. byrstan. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. byrgels. perruque. a sepulchre. Shelter. bergen. In a met. OHG. borsa. Swiss burren. also ' any such trash as chaff. caer is a — — — ' ' : . karborre. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. a wallet or scrip. In OE. brit. shelter. cover.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. OHG. coo. keep. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. pipaa. an exchange. byrigels. S w. Port. borra. brist. a place of defence. makes the disbursements of the college. of England. ptcrren. britar. &c. a harness or collar maker) . The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. tomb. See Bulge. leather. casting bullets. husks. Mid. brico. borrow. to burst. berstan. explained E. whirr and burr. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. bourre. Gael. peluca to Fr. bourrer. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. to hide. a purse. the officer who bears the purse. Burr is related to buzz as protect. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. shales. brown. an annular swelling. ultimately resting on the Gael. Beowulf. the — — castle or fortress. burra. Hence Fr. birgan.' edge grew weak. from Fr. brista. Dan. as from Sp. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. Burse. to hide . Sw. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. but it is more probably a development of It. To Bury. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. bourlet. See Burgeon. borra. ON. Burr. bris. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. Jam. as in Northumberland. bristeach. a barn or cupboard. ber•whirr to whizz.— . to save.' Harris in Todd. bersten. swell. talk fast and indistinctly.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. burial place. I. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. moss. any kind of quilting or stuffing. Du. . Du. G. appears under the Lang. brittle. any rapid whirling biarga. stuffing. a morsel. verbergen. 225. to bury . Bursar. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. a port. Compare also OE. bris. save. fortify. bourse. Fr. signifying protrude.' The same word with burgh. bolgia. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. a rabbit burrow. brisdeach. Burser. ON. — Translated by Kemble. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . preserve. — Clare. from whence we pass through Sp. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. birigean. barza. bur. brickie. byrgan. shuffling. briketo. chips or anything else Fl. -Grisons bulscha. that birds make their nests with. To Burst. Burrow. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. Fr. a pad. 5150. straw. byrgen. E. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. skin. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. borre. some people in pronouncing the letter r. Sw. Burse. buscha. brisd. AS. Fr. burgisli. whence Kil. With a slightly different ghen. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. It. as it is still pronounced in N. It. 2. bres- — tan. brjota. bolsa to It. borre. root borr. purr. a purse. briser. AS. bourrelet. to buzz. and thence flocks 'of wool. . bristen. bur. . blurra. G. Sexy. prsnuti. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. as for the protection of a child's head. dial. cwning-gaer. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. and met. its own protection. idiom if 4. Burial. Hal. brest.Lat. mentioned under Burgeon. The root forms brik. from AS. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. Brun on bane. briso. of a body hurled through the air. A rabbit burmotion. brokenharpstringed-like cattle.. foretell great storms at 3. brizeto. to stuff. Cot. borsa. when they spring So in W. ' BURR AS. This word seems safety. -burse. be more in accordance with AS. whirr. bourse. hair. burre. also all such stuff as hay.

oneself. the past participle of the same verb bua. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. in the For Skirnis . . a tuft of hair. They busked and malced them boun.' sheath. Prov. bosc. the land. as boun is simply buinn. clusprobably Morocco leather. to turn. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. to prepare. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. a rampart. Malberg. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. as synonymous with to inake one boun.' a box. a troop. to bow. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. The primary sense of hair . sur une litifere. Sc. ' . diminutives. from the ON. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. and from the Fr. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. a box. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . bustula. that the lend had lorn thorn. preserve. Harold G. brodequin tout noir.' The word is explained by — — . Bush. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. or the like. berghen. to stop. bossen. make ready. to bend one's steps. OFr. Sibriht that I of told. abdere. mount. Bush. 'at bua sik. Fr. Du. Le roy Richard mort.Lat. See Box. beorgan. Sw. bos. BUSH hreaw. burial mound. So from Fr. G. lump. bulk. and not directly (as Du. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. And her ful sone tuft. a bunch. The bone in a woman's stays. bustellus. a bush. OFr. to forest of Eyda. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. dead. fiast. to direct one's course towards. and we actually find bushel. busk. hunch Du. bousse. R.' The buskin is said Bret. a box for measuring corn.P. a bush. Thus Froister . borseof trees. To prepare. thicket {buski. ieorh. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. bussel. brake. Brunne. grapes. a grove bosch van haer. biichse. and thence Mid. bo7ich (Fr. Mid. whente beorg. then a tuft Sp. bua. aheap of stones. boxta. to dress. whence bouchon. borghen. bundle. brodiquin. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. to enclose in a case or box. condere. and he cites wisp bauschen. protect . tow. . bosch (a diminutive ?). . a box. buskr. It. box wood to bush.fiasc. whence at bua sik. is thus accounted for. to sepulchre. Fris. bussellus. barst. defence. 410. bramble. buysschen. bairgan. boisseau. cluster. occultare K. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. In to Brutaine. for at buasc. barsc in Heimskringla. ' . besom).) to hide in the ground. tuft. boistel. See Bust. -idis. a bundle. : — . bush. we have Fr. to swell. bouche. a -tavern bush. Brunne. a little box Dan. . or — Busk. bausen. at buast. signifying to entomb. rad. a tuft. hjul-bosse. the idea of knocking. bousIn the other copy ser. a corpse). busse. boiste. Du.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. a clot of phlegm sart. boissa. Sir Tristram. bulge. apparently a secondary verb. buxta. ' . bundle * Buskin. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. at bua sig. projection. induere vestes . Ptg. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. truasc. verb.gur bidst austur um EySascog. buxida. . bossida. borcegui. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. roquies.boisteau. gave Lat. bussare. . AS. —Busk. a wisp. Gr. van wijnbesien. Thence byrigean. bosta. a been written buasc. basse. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bush. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. bunch. Du. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. in OE. 2. ch). a tuft guini. The radical idea is seen in Goth.— ' ii8 {chreo. a gun biichse. ' . ' —P. il fut couch6 l^jkema). bousche. knot. busken. to bury. To Busk. buxula. which would later have truast. Bouchet. boucher. thicket of thorns . The word frequency with which to busk is used. Layamon. qualster-boscken. It. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. the Moors and of Morocco. iriCtf -ifoe. a tuft. basse. a hump.-^Bushel. AS. to dress. wisp. to keep. a bunch of twigs.Lat.

of a doublet. B. kiss. body. says. stump. mosequin. tuft. Lang. employment bisgan. With respect to bust. also a busk. knock. also a flagon. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. love gestures. Hence probably au-tarda. a stroke of wind. . Nained from Proximse iis zia. Sp. bukr. a kiss. a. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. Cot. — Thus we should have mocherqui. a fishing vessel. box. kiss. Bust. to knock . 119 bi{tr. buz. AS. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. tarda. beezig. buquer. So in Fin. Box. See Boss. smack. bysgje. forms morseqiiill. windbutsch. the trunk. Lindenbr. So Wes- terwald munds. geidha. ship Sp. busta. bisgung. Bav. buc. to bustle. a bush. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. stem. body of a man. — . bnist. a bulk or trunk without a head. busch. — clattering about. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. The form brust. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. to occupy. Comp. Gael. brut. vessel employed in the herring fishery. as in moharra from harbe. and supposes that the common Arab. On the other hand. I. — hardly be distinct from Fr. lip. a blow. a bunch of flowers . statue of the upper part of Fr. biseg. To hurry or make a great B. fe^a. ViM. a kiss. its slowness of flight. . stir. Bust. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). made stiff. bist. knock. borcegui. lip. buc. Sp. I. bisegung. busy.d. The Prov. Walach. bust. mons.' Plin. bysgian.Lat. ottarda. to Swab. ^A. would explain the G. buyse. and then with avis again prefixed. abutarda. but. a kiss. Pol. to make a splash in the water. Namur — Champagne Fr. and also a sounding blow. 1372. utarda.> Also written buskle. worn to make the body straight . A A busquer (Sigart).— .fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. ON. trunk of a tree. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. bus and Pol. a blow. 7o\. the breast. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. Fr. a sleeveless truss or doublet. btcc. bust.pjik. thick end. forest. The proceedings of Parliament. Prov. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . an ostrich. Port. Rouchi. Fr. crack . lips. a bust. otarda. A great sluggish fowl. BUSS Dozy from Arab. body. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. Hal. a ship of some size. outard. busto. ' bistardej It. busc. a tree. busch. a backstock.bezig. or chest in which the vitals are contained. a mouth. from jnund. stump. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. Edrtst. as in ON. cata — . or avutarda. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. bus. 1555. I bustle. an affair. trunk of Cot. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. bucha. a kiss of reverence. Fl. baiser. Sp. austarda. snout. 10. outarde. Du. Busy. ON. Swiss butschen. Busitiess :c3iVi . I go strepo) . also a It. ' BUSY 2. of the human body (Grandg. in Diaz Gris. — — — — It is like the smouldering.). putschen. A wisp. Buss. Busk. signifying trunk of a the body.' ON. bussen. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. abotarda. especially of a woman's dress. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. body . a Mid. butz. bus. brusc. Cat. kupata. or Cherqui. mouth. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. to make use of. brostia as well as bostia. sunt quas Hispania aves . mohedairova. Fr. bussa. the long. Fris. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. arbor ramis trunGloss. bisg. busq. busche. avuDiez. the point of a lance. besongne. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. — — difications of the same word. biist. mogangas from gonj. and by transposition morchequi. mouth. sera.D. work. a busk. Business. body without arms and legs. Bulch. bacio. Lat. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. Prov. 2l box. bruskras well as buskr. To Bustle. morsequi. buta. occupation. lump. bu. Bustard. buc. a log. betarda. beso. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. plated body or other quilted thing. the body without arms busque. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Prov. bulk. trunk. chest. hipista. occupied bezigen. putta. a great billet Cot. a large cljest or particular applibox. business. besoigAe. representing a blow. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. body of a woman's dress It. Sw. 2. a boat or small vessel . inde discurro et operosus sum. Fr. basiuin. small. 22. log . a projection. Xerqui. pussa. bustla. body of garment. trunk.

the trunk or body of an animal. Here the but implies the existence of an.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. — . original sense of without. Lang. — we acle for liquors. OFr. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour.in which his brethren are included. an outlaw from bouche. As a conjunction but is in every portion. in addition. But It. a barrel. wooden receptthing to be done. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. belly. the name must have arisen before the within. being wholly unten. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . able. butan. the present day we should say. add. a bottle. Fr. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. bolgia. bolr. G. ways. bag. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. AS. bisgung. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. my is called the adversative use of but. is well explained by Tooke. Where at an earthen jar . a butchery. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. But In Sc. a goat. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . tinction between but. Sp. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. bola. be out. also a hollow vessel . by the mode in which he is treated. bout._ bitten j biiten door. slaughter-house. Whatever is in addition to Butler. Butt.streets. a cask. without buiten-man. we find ben. and with It. a baiTel . botija. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. boquier. . Sp.The Sp. buta. Fr. botte. bouteillier. beta. which the word corresponds to the Fr. or what in in charge of the pantry. skin-bag. then hoUow trunk. biitait slaughterer of goats . bitlga. trunk. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. plain the conjunction as signifying boot.' Thus Chaucer says. without law. Du. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. bute. Fr. So in Italian from becco. But when will you pay it ? the belly. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. mais. properly a butan wite. the body of a tree or of a man. a goat (and not besides . the jug and in E. to-boot. Prov. besides that . belly. bous. and bot. from boc. a wooden cask. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. a leathern bag. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. boccino. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. A A . without punishment . bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. the precise correlative of but. rumpf. but one thing. bodifie. similar train of thought is seen in ON. the belly. the Perhaps besogne — . the principal apartment. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. Buttery. calf of the ' say. young mais. body of a shirt w. equivalent of AS. earthen which the debtor has adverted. Butcher. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . a small winebag. botilla. barriga. the body of an animal. Butler. binnan.jamin. without care. the store of ten.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. that which would be translated by Fr. . from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. beccaro. bole of a tree. beyond the Piedm. a budget. ' Besides all that. a butcher. (children) boc. is put in a class by himself. of the wine and drink. are. rotundity of the body. bochier. ox. as Pantler.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. the full expres. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. calf. without the house kept in bottles. from as. moreover. gives at least two pounds sterling. butan ce. boucher. bhcciero. ont jhi^ton. outside that moreover. the mouth). The E. ' There is leathern bottle. bocin. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. collection of casks. bitten dai. Sp. sup- meat and drink.' — — ' . "PLT) . ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. belly. beccaria. viz. without. hull of a ship. Wall. the servant in charge of the original object. boteria. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson.' there is really a negation to be supplied.' ' write. a butcher . It. except. If that where now we should compiler. bol. large barrel. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. bouz. Lang. bountifully. and the real origin of the and within . bounds of. hollow case. those in beccaio. Ben-house. the bottles. viz. Tooke's dis.

nourrisson. the thick end. Hal. a button. from bugan. Du. bott. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning.putan. boter-vogel. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. trapu. bottich. The word body itself seems identical with G. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram.' thick from shaking. -ez. Buttrice. To strike with the head bags. poke. but this is probably from Fr. bata. bodi. a. then the thigh or leg of an to push . clunis. from notirrir. To come full butt against a butts. Boutant. . a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Fr. butter un. put. caput scapula bout van f been. botten. to touch at the end. butter. a leg of mutton. to cast. a ribbed glass for dient. of the present day. buttern. the Butter-fly. to thrust . a buttrice. boutis. to femur. pwt. to blad. from stossen. Fr. by boE.arbre. botta. butt. Fr. Buttock. to push earth . bouton. W. as rejeton. humble.rejected thing. a flying buttress. bottig. botte. obeto shake backwards and forwards. is formed the augmentative buttatich. to throw . boding. signify a cask or tub. Du.. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. to so close to the Fr. bodi'. a hill. : . Fr. butt. a corner horses' hoofs. a blow. strike. * Buxom. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. W. thrust forwards. a. From Grisons biitt. as in G. boiUer. to thrust Fr. See Butler. pwtiaw. butte. or person Schmeller . bout. a but in the W. a large belly. a boss. a stump or club foot. the edge forwards. the store of while bottich. Bout van het schouderIt. a scope. boil. an ox. bud. gigot. from rejeter. Mur-buttant. from bouter. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Halma. rabodd. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly.— BUTT leg . and the true derivation boar.against another which needs support . Grandg. a wall butor butt on. lams-bout. Du. a bot. Lang. To Butt. at. to butt. tress. Schmell. boutoir. buter. e. the rosebud. thrust. Kil. from the large knobbed head of botto. bot blijven staan. to be con. dripping. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. butter. Buttel-triib. — A . bot. to thrust.thum and not button. a bolt. hillock . Du. bouton. fle>(ible. From Du. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. nursling. A — — — . clumsy . the thigh of a goose. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . boter-vliege. w. the prick in the middle of a target.. a thrust the thigh-bone. Boutje. butt. buttals. &c. nourrissons. Btetter-schmalz. Fr. G. butte. Perhaps corrupted Lat. a button. having a rotundity . s'arrgter tout ^ coup. as if from Povg. a little push . Du. what is kept in a blow. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. Fris. bouter. boteria. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. an etwas anstossen. fowl. to boult flour. a boss. buhsom. Kil. Schmell. — A . bocgsuin. stump. are the strips at the edges of the field. a blow. leg of lamb. Gr. Fr. The Bavarian potig. Bav. or or shore post. — . buttock of beef is called butr. to heap up earth or ihrust. a bun. waste ground. butz.to push. potacha. suddenly . Butter. — — — — . Gael. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. end . Kil. to thrust. a mound. — . &c. a buttress Cot. botto. both. botta. bout. i. to abut on. butyrum. povrvpov. Sp. so as to make a sounding blow. Gris. a heap of merly called pushes. to abut a stone roof. stump of a tree Fr. pied. Hal. a barrel. a dle . . a tub. to bow. on. submit shaking up salad sauce. R. ment being supposed to resemble butter. large head. boter-schijte. grease that sets by merely standing. striking end. give way. An erection built up as a Fr. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. bocsam. a stroke di animal. any small projection. Buttery. butt of a person. short thick thing pimple. to thrust. Cot. any short thick thing. From the noise of drinkables in a house. butteln. geboogsaem. in the R. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. So in English pimples were fora clod. courtaud. tout seat or breech. botwm. oir spike with a k coup . AS. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. thick. Butter-glass. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. bothog. to strike. buttare. aim whence to make a support to a wall. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . Button. the trunk. obedient. Buttress. able that Chaucer. . Bav. a cask. bot. but. coxa. a mound of turf in a field to sup. bouter. of E. a button. It. Fr.

When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. abozzago. buzzicare. depends upon a esteem in falconry. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. byar-rettr. Mercy hight that mayde. a by-path is a side path . 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. called Cabala or Tradition. byr. Verstegan in R. The ON. . AS. — 122 BUY P. bohte. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. A ful benygne buirde. AS. P. Pecock Repressor. to buzz. 3. to wit. Sw. train of thought which has become obso. bees. Du. Then applied to speaking low. The sense of buxom. also say. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. Dan. groat in token of his good heart towards him. byar-log. Goth. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. See Abie. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. bar. 21. bi. p. from whom it was addressed. It. Cabal. Many good mological explanation. 116. favourable. blessing me with their of side. indistinctly. Sw.P. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. to jan. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience.busardj Prov. to pass by.in N.— Diet. a buzzard or puttock. buzarg.— P. who makes abigg. frabttg- To Buzz. good-humoured one. to whisper. bylove. farm. a town. as in Da. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. OE. bauhta. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. A A We — — — days' wonder. Byre. bi. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. Lat. A by. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. leges urbanse ON. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. iii. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . from by. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. . ON. a borough. a meke thynge with — alle. bylag. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. 519. cow-house. a beetle. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. By-law. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. and boxome of speche xviii. & Q. tions by one. It. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. \s\xy. G. To Buy. lb. bycgan. to purchase for money. harty prayers and God speedes. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. lete. Buzzard. and it is of good will. gracious.. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. buso. jus municipii. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. —gracious of speech. and would have been lost in E. to stand at his side . favourably to a petition. confusedly. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. bugjan. as Fr. village. Originally the law of a particular town. town having separate jurisdiction. to swear with him by . as heedless as a cock-chafer. to sell. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. son. . buzac. 200. Etynj. stall. ii. buteoj Fr. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. bei. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bij. CABAL Goth. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. bygge. bozzago.. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. big.

. Cappa in OSp. agge machen (in nurses' language). rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. a covering. head. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. It. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. a rope or cable. vincially used in E.. a booth or hut. caables. whence Lang. a tunic. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. overwhelm.). whence Fr. ckaable. the Prov. it would seem fundain children's language. wilful). hut. cacare . Tugurium. surripere. Due. a frail.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. cabaii. and as we find stones Mid. or as an interjection of disMod. the bowels. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. Ptg. as Diez supposes). Katr-iT-aKt. E. originally an Gael..' Due. cabo. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . Mid. cabus. Item habeat vocant. is probably unconnected. Lith. has kabbel. signifying properly a rope's end. cadabalum. dirty. The name of the engine. su/Furari. and Ptg. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. accablcr. forms indi. string. aakkat'a. to keep or Du. Cabin. maim. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. origin is the OFr. to chatter. The Sp. Etym. vile. Fr. Cot. disgust cac. Fr. cable . cabuccio. overwhelm (Diet.Gr. gabardme. . &c. agga. dung. OFr. a rope. lactuca capitata. prostratio ad terram. chaable. Gaggle. headed. gaban. cacare. disgusting such an engine was exerted. heady. properly windfalls. Sw. and the Arab. traboccare. Fr. case. chaable. deponat a store closet. Celtic. cadabulum. —Diet. main. a cloak of felt or Cack. capanna. capo. and Or. — Kil. cabre. cab. nasty. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. a rope. calabre. the Slavonian. form kactal.. Imitative of the cry of hens. Sp. to crush. brassica — capitata. aak! tandi like Fr. an engine for casting stones. 'habl. from manganum. It. to hurl in Nat. disgust. Choux cabus. Very generally used. especially shepherd's frock. in which sense are explained The the OFr. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. for the origin of which see Carabine. cabo. OFr. Du. hovel. cabulus. geese. Fr. Castr. Common to Lat. bad. w. signifies down. cabuyskoole. a headed cole or cabbage . a head (whence cabochard. cabasser. aeggi. kabaSsen. caable. Brushwood — — B. kakla. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . giiare. ! — . and Finnish lanLat. (ca/coe. hoard together. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. manticuKil. capuccio. Sp. E. Du. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. From It. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. — Ibid. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Due.Lat. — the ON. gatsch. Mid. cdble. would correspond to cable. cabane. To steal or pocket. come the Fr. cabbage. caable. Finn. &c. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. headed or cabbage lettuce. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. a cabbage . . serious injury — In like manner It. cabre. from trabocco. chabla. Didot. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. gaggi. kabane. a jacket Fr. chadabula. Antiq. Capstan. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. or cadable. Lat. a car- We convasare. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. precisely in the sense of the lari E. It. cabacho. as an expression of Gr. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. as Turk. filth. OFr. cadabulum. dirt and the Fr. It is remarkable that the Esthon. . . cabarino.Lat. Coticesserint Swiss aa. akista. Du.ticula. cadabola. cables. stercus. Lang. — Tarbe. Neckam — by the wind. cadabula. — . an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. a rope. Fr. as it must have stood in French. kakaloH. Cabinet.Lat. caboche. Cot. Mid. The double a in the OFr. laitue cabusse. Cablisb. band. manganare. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. It. cabas. ceach / exclamation of guages. . — . Kil. . gaggele. To Cabbage. havyar to caviare. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. to put or pack up in a frail. mdhaigner. kabat. or rush basket. to strain in such a manner . — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . caqueter. caable (in legal language). a shed. round or great headed. Cabbage. kabas. dirty. cab lis. agge. covering. name of the projectile engine. OSp. : — from violence without blood. to hurl down.

limestone. gaggia. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. pi. a common cart. form) calderone. incolumis. Due. — — — Dan. In the same way Fin. from calculus. is probably delusive. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. Cadaverous. Calf of the Leg. kakulla. to prate much to little purpose. . Fr. From lerie. Calamary. to . * Calibre. calf of leg. kolesb. coop. kalfvan hout. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. It. calx. from Gr. kage. a falling. calendrer. Cake. Calash. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. kolasa. Du. a lump or large piece. caioler. kat. caliche. kolo. Cajol. Calandre. kukje. a tea-chest. a circle. chaudron. cadere. calessa. gaggle. Cauldron. the pith or soft part of wood. a corpse. lime whence calcareous. the bore of a cannon. signifies a waggon. to heat. kdfich. or smooth Hnen cloth. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. cageoler. to cackle . a hollow place. collop. Calendar. hot. coll. kalb. Cage. a loaf of bread. an inkstand . calibre. calculo. kolo. * Cade. cake. ratas. KxiKivh^o^. Sw. See Kiddier. The Calf. Sp. cuttle-fish. disease of sailors from tivus). bad . dial. reed-pen. Flo. G. koeck. calamus. A — fall. The Lat. calidus. to compute. N. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Du. Cot. Lat. boy. cadenza. to gabble. An open travelling chariot. Cot. naXaiidpi. To Cajole. from the Chinese catty. especially of something soft. Russ. wretched. a fever. As Du. Lat. . pen Mod. G. Perhaps from w. It. cykevie. kolo. Sp. kalem. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. to — Fr. kolyaska. a wretch. frisky. kaeckelenj Gr. A cuttle-fish. a cylinder. wanton. A . Fr. kalfi. calibre. desire of land. dead body. ON.warmth . It. Du. Sp. calendarium. a waggon . principal and interest. for green fields. cadaver. Sw. En kaka br'od. Turk. Lat. Sw. from the ink-bag which it contains. Cadge*. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. the younger son of a family said to be from . Originally from a Slavonic source. when they are said to poor. cage. taking it Sp. — in a kiln. just falling. Fr. a car. B. calamitas. ben- kalf. gabbia. . the lump and the increase. caldaria. . to throw themselves into the sea. caldarius. captive. To Calender. so gabble corresponds with Fr. loss. Fr.uv. Arab.— Cot.— . gabbia. Turk. cha'cmie cadence. Caldron. calba. chattering. calesa. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. gabble. Calocli. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. kaka. without loss. Lat. pet lamb. kolesnitza. A hooded carriage. of which. gabberen is identical with E. calidus. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. kuchen. Cadence. cadet. a cake or loaf. Mrs B. (in the augm. Gael. little chief. Lat. chetif. kola. Cot. The young G. a small stone. lindrus. or colpa na coise. Dan. . CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. It. Fr. It. unruly . ' . calentura. a mischievous dial. a calesh. It is another form of the E. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. lord. to cage.Gr. of oxen and similar animals. marrow. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Caddy. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. a reed. calpa. Pol. joyous . cavea. the calf of the leg. a wheel . —Atkinson. to treat like lime. on. an ugly waggon kolaska. Caitiff. Lat. misfortune. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. &c. colibro. a wheel . Lat. whence calash. calentar. Lat. of the nature of lime to calcine. Calc-. capCalenture. Dan. Fr. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. from calendcE. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. hence musical rhythm. It. Cadet. cabdillo. Calp is riadh. Lat. Lat. cadence. Serv. kolyasochka. cauldron. a dence. or prattle.— Calliper. frolicsome kaad mund. 124 prattle . cage. loss. Roman reckoning. cattivo (from Lat. pith. a wheel . capitetum. roller. kail. javioler. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). calcis. prate. kdtr. Calamity. gavia. one unduly indulged by. a counter used in casting accounts. and troublesomely attached to. safe. a caFr. Fr. its mother. KaKKat. Calcialate. Gascon capdet. a roller. a calash . hot . kaad. jabber. master. chaudiere. kauwe. Fr. Lat. to sleek hence a den. babbhng. Du. the pi. rattaat (wheels). a low note. Tea-caddy. a vessel for heating water. whence Lat. a wheel. ever and anon.

kael. to tread. a good calling. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. . couleuvre. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. trull. and E. sclopus. to cram. however. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. harden by pressure. dial. calor. whence couleuv. Fin.' Slange. Fr. oldire from audire. a drab. Fr. i. KaXka.piicede Lat. bald. To drive tow or oakham. caliver.from Ka'tm. calk. Kavfia. sence of wind. word of mouth . saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. longior. to say. kol. and dragon..' Chaucer. quiet. Unfledged. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Lat. kil-u-kal. Derived by some from Arab. Indies. Fin. overscalmaccio. ram. The primitive colubrina bombarda. — — — — — . u to an I in such a colubrum. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. donderbuchs Sp. cauque. Kil. drive. calat of leude demeaning. nautique). into the seams of vessels to make Lat. a last. to abuse . culverin. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. quA librd. calvus. Kil.' Whitby Gl. calibre. overheated. Mahn derives it from Lat. to affirm. whereas in troth it is not. abto suppose that E. diameter of a ball. Fr. them &c. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. Hard. dragoon. the latter of chamber. So It. Lat. prattle. cotton cloth. can be distinct from ODu. on. a round of abuse. which has its memory preserved in Du. but is only a jda-kallo. heat. CALICO Calliper-compasses. a feathers. tittle-tattle. caluw. Call. having a thick skin. heat. calclover. Due. to call.— . brawny. ululo Turk. Mil. of the bore of a firearm met. chatter. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. callus. scalmato. to burn. To call. try. kalla. licht stuk The change from a.Lat. CALM to press or stuff. klover. which is as much as to say. form. To Calk. people's remarks. moist. hot. calibre. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. The word was also written cawme in OE. glotton. * Callet. calc.(jaa= ice). cahna. 'A callet of boundless tongue. the scalp or skull. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. kallo. The origin is Gr. done with heat Alt. Ptg. a soldier who the It. calca. To century was Squalibre. Sc. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. Diet.meaning of the word. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. NE. scold. * Caliver. quality. hallottaa. to calk. to hear. femme frivole et babillarde. a. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. gossiping. coulevrine. — Fl. Antiq. Lang. Turk. to call. Sp. calo. It. Bi. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. faint. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. or languishing drought is . calma. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. the hard surface of the ground. Fr. AS. colubraria canna. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. Callow. — — — — — . khalif. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . Sp. Sup. cauma. calme. to proclaim. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). Among these were the turn. calma. sestus. of a column. Gael. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. depreciatory term for a woman. to be of a good or bad quality.' Winter's Tale. or mould. bombarda Cauma incendium. to rail or scold . Dief. alta voce ploro. caillette. serpentina. push violently. Calico. skin hardened by labour. form in the kalib. Diez. Ibid. whehce it was first brought. an adder. hollaing. water-tight. coluber. serpens. the heat of Now these Du. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. saucy. E. Caliph. to callet. B. moso. Mid. ' rine. Sir John Smith in Grose. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. calcare. coluber also. colubrina. qAlab. Ca. the Fr. voice. to prattle. fistula.' But it is hard Du. 125 Prov. given. faint. Gr. The reference to heat is preserved in. the Fr. calare. ' pert. kahcwe. and heat. and sometimes a handgun. from Calicut in the E. chatter kallen. harquebus or handgun. calleting. koluvre. Calm. calcaich. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. the day. kind heat of the sun. dragonder. According to Jal (Gl. a successor. calgua. piece of bigger circuite. calicot. . vulgo Coluvrine. Du.en~ kinds of firearms. sound. tapulta. by many that the weapon Callous. kal. kal. callum. or caliever. Heb.position is much less common than the geschut.

a. open and level ground. It. E. Campaign. E.. water chamlet . Lat. It was distinfrom work. E. campren. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. mg Canister. the heat. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. to break. or Caribs. a dog. It. to warp. had no r in de bric— Cot. toile some of whom. samon. KafitjUe. Canibal. Fr. at the ends. camiscia. the spersed with white flakes like curd. the space of false imputation. an eating. from candere. An eater of human flesh. Calumny.' ' Quhen a lattice. lame. It. canis. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. camaien. Fr. camahutus. sore. Candy. Fr. the bed of a stream. hooked. Or the word Lat. It. Cambray. chaitcre. calj'x.—Jam.Gr. ko/utuXoc.—Cambrel. cambr^. chommer. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Canal Channel. crooked-stick. clothed in white. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. candidus. canalis. camisade. cancello. champagne. camp. crooked. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. Cambric. canna. the salmondis faillis thair loup. camber-nosed. Cameo. on. India Islands. to avoid enemy in their shirts. Mid. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. icaSoytipoe. Bret. . the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. chamold man. a crab. whence the noun signifying an applicant. frank and sincandidatus. a piece. to bend. cere : Lat. aspirant. arch. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. From campus was formed Lat. Fr. to the force of the wind. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Canine. Camlet. bis. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface.— B. campagne. Sp. callar. unwater chamelot . camelot. Canker. from xaXbg. arched. ckaouma. nia. Sp. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. . and yspiuv. Arab. Camisade. a basket. Caloyer. B. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind.Lat. Cambrel. camisa. whence the Fr. is Candle. — Lat. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. It. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. slander. Sanson khanda.' Forme of Cury in Way. Lat. campaign. Calyx. field . Fr. champ. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. brought from Fr. se cameloter. a large drinking . KafivTu. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Lat. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. a caught. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. a. arched. In a different application It. campo. to glow. Fr. Peter Martyr. the type of a hollow pipe. Camp. fair. A — the Cannibals. having an aquiline nose. The Grisons cauina. camafeo. Cann. Turk. Gr.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles.—Candidate.who their language. a' Sc. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. See Canker. ation. the calix. Ptg. cainahelus. Lat. Calver of cane. Cot. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. cup. across — Bellenden in Jam. camiscieia. campus. Properly calver in the field during a war. cambren. Fr. cup. monk. Sp. cambrer. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Camel. Cancer. cam^e. — Cancel. would plenier. lattice. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. Fr. Lat. aged. catmneo. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. calutmiia. Mod. also an eatmg sore. paign. It. callour. a may have acquired that signification from plain. cAouma. to bow. cambre. is Cambering. Gr. — B. spot for cattle. died in 1526. crook. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. good. w. Palsgr. Candid. campagna. higher in the middle than Fr. whence Fr._ kamm. to bend. crooked. chandelle. Pers. sugar. when its substance appears inter. campagna. cancer. fresh. B. Cambrav—Cam. Kakoycpos. canistrum. camelus.— Hackluyt in R. a field Greek monk. salmon. co7nbar. lie level. different sections of the like the Chinese. kanna. campo. to jut. Lat. — — — A — — escume de saumon. properly good country.— Chandelier. a goblet bud. Lat.conduit-pipe. From fluting or furrow in a column . camelot refuge from the heat of the day. candela. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. or hollow of a flower. crooked. white. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes.

cover . to put upon sacred writers. kandt-broodts. The meserseum and the mesentericum. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. the heel. hemp. quarter. capa. Palsgr. the heel. caparazon. canevas. quito curtain. Canton. to contain. capello Italis. can. It. carcase . cappe. cheese. It. It. from cant. cappe. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. side. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. has kahn. a cover Turk. Kil. &c. Probably only the augmentative of canto. a horn of the moon . the tried list of saints. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. hamlet. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. kwvwxIi. Canoe. corner. or hold. a Fr. canton. Alamannis. a wine-cellar or vault. canoa. from . Fr. a boat. shut. Sp. a side.Gr. Again we have Lat. Swab. Wtb.Gr. or cantell of bread. hirnschlapple. Capable. lump. Capari. cane. See Capt-. To Canonise. . Fr. A piece of anything. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. It. and the sex- &c. Canopy. regular. Cot. root cap. a small boat. cane. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. A . was formed Kavtiiv. KCLvva. Cant. a cloak kapali. Sp. Kavt\. Prov. cannone. canteau. leiwan kanta. canto. Cope. a corner. Esthon. a scull- — here. cantone. capax. cantina. a straight rod. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Hence Lat. coat. kand. clqse. cane. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. pipe. a drinking glass. a torch. trine. also a measure. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. kaput. kanta. region. canapa. properly a large Prov. cappa. a door .— Cot. cannabis. OFr. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. It. Cantle. . cover kapi. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. It. cane. If the word had been from cantherius. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. territorial hundred. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. canonici. border. a tube. border Dan. coarse hemp. Canon. See Chape. W. kq. is found languages of very different stocks. edge. part. Canvas. Fr. margo panis diffracta. language. Capacious. a gelding. cannevaccia. kantr. from Dan. a cap. To canvas — . An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. Gugel. Goldast — in in Schmid. To his judicial And trowl the tile. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. to shut. as. a cantle of bread. rumme.n. a cloak. that the G. Du.^on. hemp. kapamak. . a hundred. and tref. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. kyndel. ON. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. chanteau. call. the part easiest broken off. Schwab. cainnt.CANNEL vessel. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. The word seems to be taken from Gael. The — . Cannoii. Canteen. hood. It.. haitt. speech. Gael. canonicus. cantred. canvas. gnat. cannevo. as a cantle of bread. tain. a cane. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. a ruler. to con- rummer. covered. and met. name. from a Canter. capevole. Mod. Lat. canon. canapaccia. being a yard or thereabouts . schlappen. a reed. chantel. quarter . a pipe. contain. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. say. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. from canna. Picard. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. he discourseth of dissection. Germanis kdppen. A slow gallop. But it may be different source. kynnel. Mod. signifying cover. From Gr. a hunch of bread. Fin. capace. coarse hempen cloth Fr. cantle then is a corner of a thing. Coal burning with bright flame. astrology. a — A — Cannel Coal. the quartile. and hence a gobbet. it would have been found in the continental languages. able to receive. cantref. B. a division of a country. which is not the case. Jonson. cape. a rule or standard of excellence. a reed. chape. like a torch or candle. From Lat. Cape. &c. Of vena cava and of vena porta. cope. KaTTiram. measure for cloth. Diez. a ship canot. N. schlapp. to sing. . cannu. Sp.

upon terms Sp. a little head. Fr. w. hair. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. Genevese bresoler. cut. Arab. . a caper in dancing. brisciare. for which he cites the Comask nucia. rihrczzoso. horror. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. to shiver. alcaparra. greziller.) d'etre The It. Lat.) grezille marid. gives rise to Sc. capar. herissonnement. heath. frisson- ner . capillus. shivering. to parch. grug. the head. To treat Capitulate. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. with joy' Vikram. Hence capitalis the sum lent. h^risser.— Fl. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. arricciarsi. a separate division of a matter. as Fr. then to shiver or shudder. brisciare. shrub. of a coach. and his body bristled We to castrate. capitalis. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. curly. the principal part of the debt. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. gricciare. to crackle. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. capriol or caper in dancing. humorous. Lat. then to be in a state of vibration. to fry. Capers. ^piKos. curl. ziki. a caterpillar. knis-hujwud . eruca compared with It. as the means of earning profit. Torriano. prickly husk of chestnut. according to the Hindoos. ericius. horripilation. they longed extremely to see it. a young kid met. and 7tucc. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. castrated. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. bruco. wriggle. aggricciare. capro. CAPRICE twittering. It. Hal. cappriccio. to desire earnestly. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. castrated cock. ribrezzo. 75. as Fr. algabr. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . Griller d'im' patience. I have shivered with love. or goat's leap (done by a horse). also the capriole. brisciare. A . It. fansuddenly angry. kid.' Cot.standing on end. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. crackling sound Cape. the head. and OHG. to . Caper. The same imitation of Capon. the hair to stand on end. toy. to broil. Sp. and with an initial gr instead of br.' — (Supp. as Fr. brug. So from Sw. Lat. greziller. grillcr. And similarly to yearn. grisser. caj)o. or Lat. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. Capital. Unexpected pleasure. bristling. It. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. Fr. of a tremtdoiis sound. frizzle. cApre. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. to from capitulum. caprice. caper j caprio. curling. A headland. the hair to stand on end. brissle. to ruffle the surface of water. cut off. roughening of the skin. caprice It. to shiver for cold. Hair-like. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. brisoler.— 128 CAPE a rustling. then find the symptoms of shivering. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. where Burton adds in a note. Capillary. belonging to From caput. p. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. It. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . grisser. riccio. ticchio. bristling. Fl. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. hi. end.'— Trev. capriole. or other things.impressions on the ear. capriola. a chevret. a yearning through sudden fear. — to yearne.Gr. to shudder. frort^Lat. birsle. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. to twitter as birds. the singing'bone). principal. gives rise to brezza. a capriol. chattering of the teeth. arricciarsi. of a fowl. to crackle. the initial mute of forms like Gr. to broil. a ch illness. gricciare. It is probable that Gr. frissoner. See Chief. or represented by the syllable e. frisser {frissement d'un trait. — — A a hair. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . knis. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. Fr. Lat. a kid. G^' Many words — ' ndv. airoKOTrrw. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. Mod. a . capitulare. Lang. cover of a saddle. It. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. Caprice. The true derivation lies in a different direction. shivering. or. hedge-hog. It. <I>pi'?oe. It. as in Lat. chief. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. a hedge-hog. brezilia. Fr. capparis. a buck.). explained by Diez from capra. is either wholly lost. a head. sault. II bresole (Gl. abridge amKoTroq. rissoler. It. erica. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. compared with Bret. s'hdrisser. Cot. Acad. a goat. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses.

a. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Carbine. commander. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. Caseneuve in Diet. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. It. Lat. Du.. de- price. Lat. Capriole. Kiittner. a sawing-block or trestles. however. one odd. perceive. latterly. Neumann. a sudden fear apprehended. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. concept. the -cevofthe Fr. i The meaning Car. Fr. shivering fit (Altieri). &c. di cappa. trestle. a capuchin. It. a fantastical humour.. capsula. a cloke) capuccino.or -cib-. Carabin. Carabine. capitis. captivate. Etym. karista. &c. recipio. to receive receptio. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. capuccio. Crab. as the dragoons (Du. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. cabra. The It. Thus the musket. dim. capra. from head. caput. a creaking waggon. -cept. calabrino. at least. to take. as in accipio. charger.s. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. concipere.). cabrestante (whence e. of capsa. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. concebir. to accept. In cases. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. whence capture.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). conception. deceit. -ceive. capitano. Capuchin. recipere. deception. Capt-. contain. Passing on into E. desire. Cot. an engine for throwing stones. to take to. crepo. Lat. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. See Caper. cabreia. was originally a missile . to creak. Sp. case. Castr. Nordfoss. and has thus descended unaltered to English. G. It. karra. hold. a reception. also to carry on a car . caThe hrestante. capp%tccio. -cept. to load . calabrin. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. box. charrier. Carry. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . — — Capstan. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. concevoir. caprice. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. also tresFl. a cart. captive. to this is It. to please. a taking back. to carry . It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. recevoir. kerren. a windlass. OSp. cabestrantej Fr. It.). strideo. Derivatives are Fr. recepte. It. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. a kind of torture. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. captus. 129 — receive. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. cabestan. Capstern. to creak. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. of the Sp. a she-goat. precept. chevre. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. conceit. Cart. cams. accept. sels. conceive. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. and tropically. In the S. was a kind of horse soldier. krul. fantastic. Lat. acceptus. bock. or the (capo-riccio). tnoschetta. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. . it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. Capsule. oisr. intercept. chirriar. char. — —Diet. Fr. fancy. Fr. also a kind of rack. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. carabin. Fr. Cot. capio. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. a sudden will. crab s. except. chirrion. Captain. verbs gives rise to the element . where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. Fl. It is a standing crab. karrende waegen. and of captus to an e. receptus. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. It. a hood (dim. It. Sp. Fr. carro. a head man. caricare. Fr. seize. &c. a. charret. Du. and has accordingly been lost in E. a hooded friar. to take baclc. carretta. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. karren. Fr. recibir. a coffer. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. was converted into -ceb. Fin. the p was commonly not pronounced in French.of these compound verbs. decepte. as in OFr.

wool card. the dead body of any creature. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. . coming to four grains. carere. a ripple for flax. a quiver . the carcase of a fowl. the case of the flesh. case. a crane. casso. Carbuncle. Gael. Lith. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. restraint . a lock of wool . 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. to comb wool . winding. caraffa. black dye. a thistle. of carbo). silique. AS. Carat. Pers. cabrita. a kind of ship.. ' Vasa vitrea. the . a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . a collar or chain for the neck. ON. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. Gr. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. The radical meaning . caravela. karri. KtpaTwv. carch. a coffer. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. carbunculus (dim. a quiver. matter. a gem resembling a live coal. a goat. the name might naturally Mod. shell. krciti. «capa'|8i. fire . garafa. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. curry-comb. Ptg. Parmesan cassiron. Lat. carabe. to ripple flax. is the chine. Gr. Gael. is the word used in modern Lat. It. karra. . decanter. turning. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. Lat. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Fr. vitriol. a machine for casting large darts. the trunk or chest of the body . to card wool. winding carach. — seems to be something holding together. . a dead carcase. carcanet. cardo. for a gun. cerran. to creak. car. karszti. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. . bock and Fr. &c. a he-goat. Carrob. an ulcer. espi7igarda. carduus. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. Caraool. cabra. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. It. carate.. Carboy. boch. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). cassa. An implement for dressing wool. the husk or cod of beans. carmiiiarc. carbo. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. It. carquois. Sp. cdrlag. cabreia. kirat. wine- bottle. burning coal. a battering-ram). and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. It.z. a skeleton. a prison. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Sp. a winding staircase. and catapulta.— — — . to hiss (as gee^e). a firelock. carta. also (as Gr.. From the battering-ram. card. a small weight. a case or chest . a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. a thistle. Gael. See Carpenter. the carob bean. ancient springald. to draw in. avSpaS. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. properly a siege machine. Derived in the first edition from Mod. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. Fr. mural attack. Sp. skeleton. carquan. caraffe. Comp. Arab. carbh. The Trjg xeXwwac. of the same Caravan. I.applied to a battering-ram (G. Carcase. Fr. Venet. confining.Gr. Card. Fr. . constraining . Sp. p. to card wool. to curry horses karsztuwas. chevre by the name of the goat. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. &c. poison eiz. carquasse. contract. bend.. kard boyd.' From the same source are SicU. a snail. also a small weight. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. quse vocant karabd. Sp. Gael. kerwan. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. Exot. in the same way that the Sp. Mod. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Carbonaceous. eitar. the shell of a torcarcasso. It. carcaij. a quiver. skeleton toise. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. Cat. carcame. carcasa. eit. quilato. to comb. carabba. cramp.charcoal . tcapKaai. Cot. a quiver . a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal .Gr. carcanada. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. alia sunt majora. Carcax. caracal. W. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . a wool card. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. turn of a horse. Cot. designated in the case of G. a ship. the core of fruit . seed of carob. or framework. copperas.. Caravel. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. &c. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. a twist. a card or comb . Bohem. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. an engine for hurling stones. OHG. skeleton. word is only an adoption of the Turk. military engines made for hurling stones. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. to turn.

It. tuorfurcm (Burguy). in Carp. to scrape . the time during which to Rom. and compare Bret. Fr. Groler. that on wliich the matter hinges. Bret. and thin. principal. tenax. . The object of carminatives is to expel wind. Care. kargr. kummer. Lat. to parch. x'»P'"^s)) paper. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. hoed. to load. sorrow. kroU-erbser. grolU. record. Bret. charag. affection. G. what is felt as grievous. a highway. Sept. It. E. Carnage. It. gakaran. care. It. asper. Caricature. and murhet. charneux. Cartel. karry. carnis. Carenare. cura intenta. crosier. is to say. karrig. to load. AS. to fry or broil. carrefourg. A place where four roads Mid. caMid. Cot. karl. to card wool. W. be anxious. sensual. A quirito ut infans. weyes.— Charter. male person. from the keel to the water . to comb wool. giierlir. mutter. carina. carian. . graller. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. Sp. de Parthenay. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Fr. kurista. to comb flax or hemp. carnalis. Coll. wool cards. cearig. Charnel. morosus. to growl. Properly a car-road. W. Fr. grief. cdrle. surrata. carminare. astutus. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. as quadrivium from Carnaval. Probably the origin of the word is the . Carminative. kribina. Fr. A mod-carag. car. Cot. Cargo. Chart. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. Fr. Lat. Fr. like connection may be seen between Fin. as peas. Farewell flesh. soUicitus OSax. and G. cura may be ror. to clean the bottom of the ship. or grumbling —Due. caru. charnage. quadrifurcum from quameet. It. carena. . charger. and sum. Carlings. chartre. to lie on its side. carnasciale. regar. croller. rixosus. to whirr (schnurren). Carnal. stridere. caresse. carFrom carrus. to distress growl. morosus sum. to love. essere in carena. carener. . Champ. W. ceorl. the load of a ship. carriera. quarreG. cearian. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. murren. also a career on horseback. carriire. parched or carled. G. Carled peas. 2. 273. an endearment. as carminare. p. — Carfax. the keel of a vessel. compared with Fin. place for exercise on horseback. Properly. to fry. Fr. Fin.. moeThe Lat. see Garble. sgritudo animi. charg. carezza. stingy. AS. Card. murahtaa. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. a man. . camovale. .. careless take care of. or street. A medical term from line —Boerio. carcare. — — Diez.Lat. cargo. 1S66. charta (Gr. carnal. to scratch. bottom. No ' place there had. at murmuring. from carus. a hinge. kara. carena. ress. karista. Translated in MS. crawl. intrasset caro. four. carnavale. Peas steeped and fried. carch. ON. is This however Shrove tide. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. the keel.— CARD karr-kambar. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. Cark. OFr. murista. piger. cardo. — — — : Cardinal. whence carricare. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. quaver a lazar's clack. Carl. — — . carcus. It. love. sorrow. immediately before the long fast of Lent. meet at a head. AS. Dan.Lat. Fin. Sp. ignarus. act of moaning. that Fl. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. 8. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. care on. a card. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. dear. scharren. to eat flesh. Mur. Fr. from Lat. the old theory of humours. kumra. to shake. a turn. the hull of a ship. in N. Cath. one of those ac- 9 * . . charnel. to load. road. Cot. combing them out like the knots in wool. the flesh of animals . Gael. — To Careen. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. fundamental. a deed. to take Goth. appertaining to the flesh. msstus. OHG. caricatura. caricare. karout. karg. clown or churl. karantez. zanken . the several meanings of the words above Rom. Bois crolant d'un ladre. cargar. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Trin. ON. tremble. For the root of carminare. w. from caricare. niggardly . & Q. . charie. to care unkarja. It. Ptg. winding. in St Jerome. From. fleshy . an overloaded representation of anything. cardinis. &c. crowl. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. caritia. voce strepo stridente. beans. Fl. Roquef. solicitous. to rumble. strideo. from carrus. — — — Caress.' Slceat. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. Venet.

sense.Lat. Carnelevale. a dance. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. CarTo quaff carouse do use. In Dominica d'autant. The ' ' a chariot.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. krapati. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. to pull asunder. skraf. Here's to you still my captains friend. carpenta. Ein we find the signification transferred from .' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. I quaught. Mediol. or a carouse fully drunk up. Olr. Sup. to pluck. in Carp. carpentum. as Fr. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. used for stuffing mattresses. Carnevale. In a MS. Pr. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. to gather. fabulor. On this. maker of waggons It. ballare. worker in timber Fr.gonnella. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. a plank. Cot. a wheelwright.' Raleigh. 2. a car carpentarius. in Due. 94). The custom. Gower in Way. Alluz (G. Dief.Why give's some wine then. Bret. On the other hand bumper to one's health. carpetam (a quilt?). chirp.' Reg. as the Lat. So gone they forthe. zimmerspan. . . Carpitam habeat in lecto. Chanson de carole. Templariorum — ' — Due. Palsgr. Carpenter.' Ordo Eccles. yede tham about. Shrove Tuesday. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. 1 1 30. carpere. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. a carder.— R. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. of Guiana. carnelascid). to chatter coroli. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. tattle. tymmer. pluck. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Fr. and Carnem laxare (It. i. Discov. Properly a round dance. chariot carbad.Lat. Bohem. Mid. 2.: . Pm. qui sacco. Lat. as E. garrire. is erroneous. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. carpita. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. to dance. linteamen. chatter skra/a. cxciv. Nomin. and F. to find fault with. Mid. Gael. Analogous R.— Patriarchi. balade from It. carpende fast Carol. cited by Marsh. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Lat. lint. or loose as a couch without further preparation. ship.D.'— Stat. . e. charpie. W. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. To pledge them thou refuse. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis.— Neum. The tippling sots. as carnaval from carnelevamen. a song accompanying a dance then. Teut. litter. Fr. peta. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. I drink all out. act of drinking a full Eq. on that. krapanj. to dance. garrulo. to reel. carpetrix.— Drant in R. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. to rustle. cardos. Carole. Sp. querole. whence the form carnasciale. pluck at. carpenter only in the latter sense. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. carbh. Other names of the sea.]e bois Carnelevale. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. zimmer. The karole of the stones behelde. carpenticre.Lat. a drinking cup. bier. Carpyn or talkyn. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. was formed Mid. a wheelwright. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. i. 760. Carpet. From Lat. ' ' — . gar aus / all out is correct. Lat. The word seems of Celtic origin. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. All out B. charpentier. biheld without. quoted by Carpentier. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. chatter. to talk. differing To Carp. Biheld within. This Bretons renged about the felde to E.' says Motley (United Neth. course. ON. gonna. Beggars Bush. carpat (Stokes). carpo. carduz. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. ! Carouse. 216. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. in Nat. Ant. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. vel coopertorio carebit. all aus). A. — . Pref. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. culcitra. carpia. koroll.

Cot. Fr. carroccio. cascade. Carrot. a coffer or small case for jewels. helmet. charrier. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. case-maiej Sp. from Lat. slaughter-house. card. one who reasons on cases put. and the OE. — Cartoose. and that apparently from capio.to annul. to slay. AS. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. Cash. annul. kerven. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. hollow. gristle. — Cartridge. Casque. casser. Lat.' — Hdcart. Cassock. casag. casaque. a of water. Sp. mord-keller. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. Rouchi caroche. to convey in a cart. cassa. a car. to bear or carry. kerben. to notch. cassette. coffer. break to pieces. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. casa. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. Lith. corresponding to the G. Case. as we . discharge. cartoccio. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Case. As defence from shells became more important. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. to fall. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. carogna. Carrion. casus. Hence casket. caroach. of carro. caisse. properly to convey in a car. charrette. Casual.' Bailey. a long coat. Fr. house. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. casa-maita. cancelled. Fr. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. discharge It. mord-grube. cascare. carroc- carrozza . Casket. a loopscale the wall. ' Casa-matta. empty. to crack. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. Preparatory drawing of a It. a chance or accident. the charge of — — Fr. It. ceorfan. fortuitous. It. — — nul the proceeding. and matar. vault hole in a fortified wall. to break. also the carriage. It. It. Cot. Fr. paper. bag and baggage of a camp. krat. cancel. cassus. a chest.' Fl. to — — also casse. It. It. Cascade. casso. carriaggio. Flor. cia. from the sound it makes when Alban. Case-mate. where Fr. the money chest. casacca. Cask. To Carry. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. abrogate. Cart. turn out of service. Lat. Fr.' Cot.. a hut. cartouche. to hold. See Case. Lat. coffin of paper for groceries. It. Fr. crown of a hat. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. quasser. It. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. See Gristle. capsa (Diez). CartOTicli. — FI. for the security of the defenders. kasseren. ignominiously exposed. Du. Fr. from casa. Fr. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Fl. carota. cassere. — — . CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. an act of falling. Rouchi carter. cartella. hung up in some place and to be removed. AS. carretta. Fr. Fr. augmentatives of carro. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. like all the names of tendon. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Du. augm. Carriage. It. caro. made void. cartone. To Carve. to fire on the enemy. Lat. crush. Ready money. a car. To duash. carreaggio. cartilage. casitiste. caisse. a paper case. Sp. Fr. from It. cascar. a canonry or slaughterhouse. The carrying of anything. carrosse. blotted out. Walach. to shear. caisse. charogne. an augmentative from Lat. not reaching to the height of the ditch. OE. The Sp. something that actually occurs. caxa. caroche. packing ' cloth. void cassare. luggage. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. Cartoon. See Card.— Fl. cassa. gristle. quash. Probably. To quash an indictment. hull of a ship. kirpti. a fall. casuelj Fr. cascata. Fl. to cut or carve . of carta. To Cashier. long man's gown with a close body. casco signifies a skull. Fr. fall It. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. cashiered. des rideaux A'carp^ie. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. bitten. Hence a challenge openly hung up. Rouchi carpHe. case. mata. Gael. from It. Casuist. G. Cartel. casualis. tion from Sp. afterwards any written challenge. kerpu. to dash. a merchant's cash or counter. subject for a picture. pasteboard. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. shell or carcase of a house. dim. carretto. to an- — Kil. Rouchi carone. cut with scissors.

to Fl. dashing it out of the window. to clack. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Castanets. an enumerlist. rack. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. . . Cast. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. Brunne. ecrevisse. castanetazo. to torture. It. from the first of Castrate. of castrum (castra). Roukind. puss / for calling them.Lat. perhaps from which we have E. down. &c. a cat koshki. dashing it to pieces. Sp. castellum. the castanets for or implement .— Fl. _G. Cat. which. Sp. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. being Fin. . like that of It. Fr. V. — We a cavity. casule. dash. a whip on the other into latch. accastiare. represented by the syllable quash. KaTappaKTrjQ. execu. of sarabands does Gr. cascar. cojz^/a. cat-o'-nine. Fr. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. burst cascare. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). sue. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. image accasciare. Pic. to drive away. . catar. Isidore — in Diez. squash. chasser. kissa. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. race. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. to drive Cat o' nine tails. to close. down. stilts. castana. torture. and tomba. klakka. Gael. Lat. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. Fr. or comba. Castle. chasuble. kaJoivad. punch. bot-kotis. a garment for performing the mass in. the earlier sense of catch. So also from It. Hence castaneta. kottr. Lang. n. a Cataract. casipola. cacciuolo. castello. Thus we have Caste. To It. to look at. KarapaKrr]g. lance. It. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. Fr. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. Gr.to drive out. shaft of a 1 push. kakka. KaraXoyog. kotas.. Yz. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Hal. probably from an imita. cat. was introduced. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. chasser. catch. to turn overturn. Fr. mino. to is Essentially the Sp. dim. Chase. drive away. and from the castus. V Lith.out cacciare . Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. name. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. The Diet. Etym. crush . a cat . Others explain it from Kara. Lat. in the fire. a little house or hut. ichasses. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. B. It. a vault. while kiss / Pol. 120. or bruise together. koshka. kat. Fr. by the loss of with several pitched cords. arpi^m. squash. R. to bring to an crack given by the joints. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. kasta. casupola. away.'— Pr. from water Karappaaaiii. Catastrophe.the / or c respectively. casulla. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. first made ordinary Fr. kic' kicil are used chasser. chaleur.. cast. on. which has been retained in E. cassa / cry for the same purpose. to hunt. ' Catchyn away abigo. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. same word with break. . the stalk of plants. is not satisfactory. fer toTa. cacciarc. ating. or Rouchi cat. Fr. to crackle. a fortified place. kotas. to scourge. to make clean or chaste. Fr. to cast or beat to tioner . 134 CAST Catacomb. the ground . a chesnut . to hurl See Awgrim. katze. to lash. cash. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . to fall as over a precipice. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. Pm. OFr.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. heat . casser. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. a thump. under chi caleur. second chase. to crack. fall. and KviilSog. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. Gr. Mid. 'Vaaaw. chat. In the dialect of Picardy. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. cacciare fuora. To Catch. Pol. tails. KaTaarpifm. handle of an axe. Cot. Fr. however. force j Rouchi equerviche. kasi. follow after. puras E. castro. Catalogue. signifying breed. to dash. The E.Rouchi Scaches. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. to break. coming to us through different dialects of French. speak of dashing a thing down. ON. to end.

Rouchi clincailleux.from Bard and ayopsw. gingle. a — gatta. a caterpillar Milanese can. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. icarrix'Ki^. catch. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . — with a whip. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. glcu. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. catch-flesh. Guernsey pilleure. smack. chatter . klinke. * Cates. c or ^. children's name for cat . the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. chacepol. Claucht. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Kil. a little dog). called in Fr. apprehend a person. seize. chatter. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. snatching. the distance to which the ball is struck. klatsch. cagnon (a dog). as of the latch of a As ! — . For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. quincailler. fragor kletsoore. resound. klatsche and Norm. wild-beast. de Bray. a carter's Pat. to snatch (said of dogs). let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. Du. a whip Rouchi cachoire. companaige. latch. Gael. In the XV'e. * Caterpillar. clap with the hand. Fr. chink. Du. E. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. in order). and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. caker. Grandg. catch. Kartiyopta (/cari. to crack GATES cache. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. Cot. KaTtix'so. e. a whip or Kuttner. or any kind of relishing food tuals. an accusing. kletsen. 'Bxn. latch of. Wal. to A bailiff. bichano (pussy). resono ictu lash. Swiss Lombard G. Gael. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. a whip. Cates. instruction in forms. snatching it with a any one. worm. gliong. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). . which all . with and without an / after the c. woodlice. — . clatter.. to catch strength. and answer.V. to the crack. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. claquer. compare G. blow. devouring mite or weevil. a smack. a whip. OFr. s. silkworm. Fr.) . door when it is shut. Ptg. the elements of a science. catc?u. Du. ecachoire. to chatter with the teeth cake. . e.' ^Jam. a. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. — explained. cat is not apparent. from shutting with a click. i. Metivier. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. to teach by oral instruction. chasse. verberare kUts. — Kiittner. called dog or Galla catchamza. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. a. Tutschek. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Sp. to kythe D. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. is said that he got a claucht of it. . in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. sound.P. happe-chair. chachara. an officer of taxes. the OE. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. head. dainty vic- a form lash. Sc. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. to snap. chassoire. millecaterpillars.s. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. Diez. weevils. a pill. snatched. Gr. On Catechism. E. E. kletse.j. from Gr. a clap. chase. a cornIn the s. gattola. ArbaUte de courte chasse. to chat. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. pedes. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. GaUa catchiza. dainties. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. caucht. ictus resonans. — Catcli-poll.V. has both or of charming by sound. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. flap klatsche. Kil. ' ' word catch. whip. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . predicament. formerly called cliket. ' Fr. Fr. to take. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. bicho. insect. G. cache. Caterer. . chenille {canicula. the the same principle he was Fr. ketsoore. . kaetse. Guernsey chafer. clap. Chate peleuse.' CATCH Fr. 'Horxa. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. to clap hands. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. P. klatscherei. Cot. to harangue. — B. — tinman.yopl(. klatschen. 135 — Aasen.

Fr. CATHARTIC sense. and at the rich man's cost By sea. hollow. catkins . and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. make clean. . reticella. B. despencier. Pr. puss. Kil. to burn. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. It. Catkin. chauderon. choufleur {choii. Caudle. to purge. Cavalier. what . caul is also a small net to confine the hair.willow. little cat. chaudroii. cavus. dumpf tonen. Fr. whence cathedralis. Fr.p. Fin. kassije. acater. Chaud. quire. — — cavallo. Lat. Jaubert. mudet. &c. On the other hand. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. cale. a branding from koiio. Lat. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. Provider. hot. Ka^afriKOQ. Gr. hazel. . klopfend knallen. to ac- — Fr.. a stalk. cheval. little cap is . walnut with the husk on challer. a pulpit. It. 2. kopano. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Thus Bav. Fr. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Lat. cavaliere. from delf^gato. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. 4. KaPaWrii. kautsije. kobuiV. Palsgr. kdtzchen. to sound like a blow . Port. flock. catons. accapitare Rouchi acater. primitive is meaning a shale or off. by land. chaussJe. koparet. Gr. a The peel. Cavern. acaptar. a horseman. Boethius.^ acheter (Lat. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound.' B. Lat. Cavity.^Hal. Fr. rete A — Prov. from chaud. a kind of skull-cap. accattare. Causeway. Lat. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. CAVE Caul. deyntie meates. chair. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. Cathedral. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. flue. Fr. a paved road. Fr. kin. Mid. the. a seat. Cavalry. also to pave . kitten kotki. katteken. a horse. Cavalcade. fur in general. — Cauterise. Cause. . Cattle. G. catkin Magy. w. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. It. KaHSpa. Jonson in R. . a pavement. but the acates that are sent him. calceta. green husk of a calon. catkin Pol. net or caul-work. minon. calqada. and spareth for no perell. lamb. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Bessie of Bednall. cabbage-stalk. . katte. cat maczoka. a receptacle for small things.Lat. It. cautis. catkin mitz. kaussijde. Lat. Caustic. to buy. Cauldron. A warm comforting drink. any Fl. a kettle for heating water. — . puss. Palsgr. capull. having the property of cleansing. caldo. Gr.Y\\Xea. cabbage). Fr. apt to burn iron. Caution. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. Mid. Du. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. Manciple's Tale.Lat.. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. to beware. a mare. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. chevalier. is used in the sense of cat-skin. to shoe. Rete. Sx. Pol. ce^l. kobyla. is Prologue. hot. caudex . a road calceata. chausser. chatideau. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. Du. . in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. calotte. cale. calceata. the caul of the liver. Cave. chaudiire. ' Gr. Kavrijp. and hence a skull-cap. adcaptare. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. calidus. Kavrfipiov. mutz. a horse . • — — See Chattel. via strata. That he was ay before in his estate. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. causa. kopista. shaled or picked Fr. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. caballus. cal^ar. from KaSaipio. It. to shale or peel. OE. Wyatt in R. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. cauHs. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. kocie.' Elyot in Way. macska. The word — . otherwise written kell. caple. Russ. Cathartic. from caveo (p. a horse . fur. Fr. KiwariKog. puss. cautus). the stones of a street. Delycates.—— — 136 correct. Richly she feeds. . arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. achepter. challe was ther of a temple. Fr. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . Gael. Dryden in R rete. cabbage. kocianki. to shoe . Caballus. Diez).

a log. . of cavezza. recede. empty. exceed. step away. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. A — A false accommodation produced G. crooked kopio. augm. . kapp-zaum. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. —Decease.j have come from this source. in Hal. ceiling. canopied. . 43. — — — toyour soverane. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. applied to a canopy. &c. little house. a severe bridle. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. pp. dil. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. . 32. column E. &c. &c. quibble.' Rutland papers. Gawaine & Sir Gol. heaven. to go forth. Lat. . Cease. hung. and then to gape. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. -cess. Boyd in Jam. thil. So from Fin. also a seeling of boards. .. a halter. that. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls.' Hall. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Hal. cabegon. a log. lambris. selar. See -cede. thilja. Lat. to panel or wainscot MHG. In the same way G. succeed. The It. the deck of a ship at thilja. 5. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. -cede. CAVESON kopera or kowera. Plancher. excess. cessum. And seik — Cessation. . cedo.). or of a bed. B. sill. ciel de lit. a log. -cease. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. semely on syll. cielo. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. Soc.). In the N. The line of descent from Fr. E. . The importation of Fr. the inner roof of a room of state. thil. with their substantives concession. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. departure. caveqon. as if from happen. hollow. to canopy siled. cease. p. . bridle. a planking or boarding tkilian. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. lambrisser une chambre seeling. hollow. dille. but hang around at the sides. selure. in Jam. 7. -ceed. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. heaven. board . 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. koppeli. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. as. H. Fr. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. cabega. sybire. thiling. Cavil. seele. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. thel. a board. a head. — . an aquiline nose. The sense of roofing. Lat. Cam. cesso. dScis. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. Wore. syle. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings.' Marriage of James IV. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. cavezzone. dayntily diglit. p. . IV. to argue capto tiously. thelu. — komo tain). plank. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. wuoren komo. cavillor.'— Z. a canopy. a plank. cellar. Cot.' del. yield. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. del into English without ' translation gave cele. To seele a room. It. . komista. Sir 137 pit . &c. Cede. . and that from Sp. ceiling.. nailes will begin to cling. a cavern in a mountain {wuora.' Cot. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . proceed. Hence concede. and Gol. . to cut. departure from this life. VIII. coffer. wall. sill in window-sill. in Jam. jaa. a canopy. beam. a hut. death. decessus. flooring E. a boarded floor. and zaum. a beam. curved. post. Ceiling. Sp. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. Sherwood. Fr.' — Gawan . cyling (W. Fr. to plank ON. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. sky. komo. sus-lambris. the testern of a bed. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. kommata. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. door-sill J Sc. thili. deal. Lat. syl. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. the roof of a coach. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. rafter. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. were met. tester of a bed. Fr. ciel is so unbroken. is applied to a canopy. hollow ice . wainscot thiljar (in pi. menuiserie. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson.' Ordinances and Reg. a fir-plank. to plank or floor with planks. — . hivtmel. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. of E . give place. to seele or close with boards plancher. plank. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. 'A celler to hange in the chamber.

of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. from Saa-rw. -cern. to glow. Lat. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. Censer. Cess. to sleep). but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. To Incense. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. — . Incensum. decide.). — . Cot. &c. Lat. concernor. Take the nedyll and threde. riscaldarsi. See Cede. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Gr. Gr. of heating. make angry. heaven. calefare. capio. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. Chafe.j 138 thill. OFr. to seele or sew up the eyelids . sift. encens. census. age. tax. deceipt.— Chafing-dish. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. but was gradually lost in conceit. to incense. eyelid. Sherwood. centum. renown be embodied with. Cereal. empty. the point round which a circle is drawn. -oept. Censor. see. to visit in numbers. sile. Celebrity. It. cerealis. judge Lat. to separate. censura. Fr. being taken from Fr. observe. to rub for the purpose a hut. his office. as in some places burnt.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai.of the r. goad. stones to the production of heat. is the opposite of disora virum. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Sc. to -sum. contend. — . sting. festive. parted sleep. cretum. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. to prick. to take. See Celibacy.. or any bird's. Centre. Century. the officer appointed to take such returns . To seel or close the eyes. capturn. assess. and put it through the over eyelydde. to be regarded as one celebro. ciglio. a storehouse Chafe. receipt. Censure. a solemnity. thence belonging to or connected with corn. a solemnity. — A . Certain. -cess. Lat. -ciper. to rate. Lat. Lat. (and thence also) to hoodwink. to burn incendo. concetto. caber. Lat. to attend on object with. value. criticism. Fr. a numerous con. tax. It. solemn (of per. in accordance with the Fr. and so of that other. an eyelash. Assess. in Marsh. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. Fr. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. -cipio. guish. Lat. conceipt. and thence censer. pick out. To chafe is for wine.ing a room where there is not fire. with the eyes. Coehim. Celerity. swift. Cij(fe5j. 1. oil. to bury). celeber certus. rough from the quarry. to blindfold. to sepap rate. Lat. the place where the de. crevi. materials It. cigliare. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. abundance. cceremonia. mortar. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. ' . Ceremony. in comp. we have a modified form of (of a place). to distinguish. sacred show. cillier. incense. much frequented. to warm. for building. to contend. quarters for slaves. cella. dchauffer. sure. to celebrate. is totally distinct from the foregoing. to course of people. chauffer. thronged the participle cretus. Prov. Fr. to think. judge. decebre) . what to set in a chafe. a hundred of what- — . /ctj/rsw. judge. appertain. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. Fr. The term cilium. to seal a pigeon's eye. ceremonia. -civer {conciver— Roquef. cot. Accelerate. KsvTpov. In Celebrate. from censeo. become heated with anger. Lat. blind. chaufferette.' Book of St Albans. candeo. single or unwedded life. -cevoir. K^'ivut. cilibat. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. to twinkle darkness. to take. {cori)cipere. Fr. Assize. -cepere. estimate. rubble. Centurion. -ceit. point. and met. Cot. cenio. calefacere. confounded ist from It. eschattffer.unmarried. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. — — Cenotapli. to heat. concerner. a tomb. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Fr. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. census. Lat. hollow. then to rub without reference Cement. to set on fire. celer. and thence to conceal. Ta^oe. distinIt. a valuation of every man's estate. S. -ceive. Fr. deceit. camentum.). a shaft horse. Lat. a hundred centuria. -cense. also grave opinion. Census Censor. keep in It. -ceptjun. zens according to their property. Gr. siller les yeux. -cepire. — . a registration of one's self. -CEIVE a shaft.— Cellar. to concern.' Celebritas. — . Fl. the hollow the Lat. -i^oivre. and — — — possessions. oil. syll. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. ciller.cern. family. Cell. Gr. &c. or expression of Ennius. a Cemetery. -cebre ifoncebre. For sess from assess. in comp. a religious observance. Lat. . to chafe. with transposition hence (of a day). . — . The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE.. a prick. the talk of men. irot\oe. cencer. Lat.

kdfelen. false accusation. as a carriage is a moveable seat. clamare. chatter. Fr. chayire. Pr. Lat. Lat. grief. cadieira. Fr. kuhista. Lat. . Fin. to dispute. Camera. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. from the shark-skin. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Fr. calx. calumnia. — — — . calonjar. Probably from According to Diez. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. — . In like manto huff. Fr. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. tronfio. kuhuja. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. chambre.' Rayn. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Ayenbite. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. Fl. tattle cheep. refuse. kiqfta. Cheffern. a vault or arched roof. Halma. De Ir4. Prov. preise. chaps Chamber. Fr. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Lat. taubes korn oder hafer. Chalice. . &c. to chatter or talk lightly. Du. fa sagramen de calompnia. ceaf. Wall. to caw chawer. 35. sborfare. Pers. to fret inwardtronfo. dispute. — — — . care. de Brai. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. Cot. Fr. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. dongio. Cot. a jackdaw. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. quisquilise offence. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. From to go to law. to calumpnjamen. — — ' — — — A . There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. keffen. hordeum vel let. songe. much more Genoese sagrind. great chafe. leviter crepo Then.. camera. rustling corn. OFr. green sagrin. chicane. fern-chafer. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. KoBiSpa. often puffing. Gr. Came. p. vis. The jaw chafty. bargain. puffed or ruffled with ly. chagrin. So from dominio. cam. as. ^Altieri. Lat. kiamta. ON. tattle. crooked. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. contestation. ing rapidly repeated cries. a chain. hght Chalk. chaine. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. in a cana. Chair. cathedra. kuhata. Fr. Bav. To buy and sell. Fr. avena vilior. to claim. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. . on. any insect of the beetle kind. P.sure carriage. calice. a chough. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Due. to institute anforensic action.— — . place See Cheek. lime . far lima-lima. charge with. or puff with snorting. . to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . refuse barley . lime. idle words. kauchen. of. gewolb. kaff. have a mind to parley. From the To Chaff. a goba rustling . to gnaw. Fr. chaene. sagri. to action arose. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Pat. havOFr. chaffare. B. muzzle. swelling with anger. and signifies to consume with anger. kahuja. call in question for an ley). signal by drum or P. shaIt. kaff. to gnaw. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. ceafer. chamar. much blowing. Lat. to a seat. Hal. Kuttn. chawe. Kaiiapa. grief. Prov. ple^. puff. G. Gr. Du. Bouffard. chaire. catena. Chagrin. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. (ca'e'ra) to chair. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. E. Chayire.nium. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. yap. G. — — — — — — . kdfer. sagrindse. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. 11. khah. to pant. Prov. ing a hard case to their wings. with a:n arched roof. jaw. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. snort. now a chair. breathe hard. kuhina. to Latin calumniare. in a monstrous fume. rustle Challenge. a prattling woaction. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. a pulpit Cot. chafing. rally one. haggle.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. Adelung. In vulgar language. matter by combat. Lat. kahu. keuchen. hiss. snuff. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. that leneth e per I'autra. chaise. to buzz. without chap/are makiinde. talkative. to ner It. cadera. chafeter. kedja. and as this was the beginning of man.. rustling motion challenge. chaulx. to tattle. kever. ckapfare. fume. to bark. from of the G. cup. Perhaps Pm. care. From Port. limare. kahista. to sit. calonja. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. also to prattle. vel susurro. chalanger. a rustling noise. from Swiss kafeln. a double operation * Chafer. cauvette. to babble. kiaftr. difficulty . a pulpit. cadena. to puff and blow. cathedra. Fr. baras of ants. Chain. to file. calix. . to move the jaws. to call. thick and short. Piedm. cadena gives chain.

a game at football. cameratus. champ. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. keiiipe. Lat. s. Lat. chance. to smack the lips in eating. Fr. is explained by serrarsi.edley. to — — champ. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. chamfrain. i. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. excellent. kimpustella. Chancery. to fasten oneself to another . contest. to flute as a column. fight. kampen. prize-fighter. Meleare. to Hal. kempa. chanfrein. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. wood. therewithal. kimpUma. a horse-race. gekrUmmt. to wrestle. schmatzen s. cempa.' SherI'altro ' ' . as swine. to . calida et sans aguet. jocus partitus. See Camp. Lat. Gall. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. champion Du. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . dial. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. to fasten oneself on to another . ciamberlano. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). contention kappi. campus partitus . to fall). So in e. kampeln. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. The word is preserved in E. as in It.Lat. Du. at the railings. Get campers a ball To camf . to tread The sound heavily. to happen {ad and cadere. kippo. Chancel. . fighting place. Champ. Magy. hng. dial. e. Prov. Fr. Sp. Fr. and acted as inofficers of . received the petitions of the suitors. When the to quarrel. Dief. chanfrar. to excel. calidameya. chanfreindre. zampettare. Champaign. Sp. dial. head armour. tsammogni. —Chamfrain. a court of justice.' melleia. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. ON. to quarrel (comp. hamper. fight. chdance. bickering. ing. to hold . a jaw kianisa. Carpentier. kriimmen gebogen. accident. kimbu. caer. Chance-n3. The happening of things Chance. game campio. Sup. kapp. an athlete. to bevel. Champarty. move the jaws. which seems another form of the root. champ. Campar. to slope out the . zs jeopardy. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Chamfron. camp. . . to hollow out. bundle. Champion. a bundle. ciambellano. jeu parti. . Lat. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . Lith. a feat. top of a borehole. combat. from Fr. G. difficulty . E. Fin. or less ignorant. rare. chaude mesUe. to to chew champ. to talk. kabinti. cadere. kiinp. kempen. to strive at games . ON. dispute Hal.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. kabe. a hook . act of falling. Ptg. luctare. to hang. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. dial. compound. cancelli. champ. tsamtsogni. to cample. chain. to be eminent. — Ch-amberlain. sukibti. kabintis. CHANCEL It. kanip. kiammi. escazenza. giving rise to the as. To Chamfer. Prov. broil. to paw the ground E. surpassing. kampeln. campear. Partnership. to stick to. camp. to chew. kimppu (Lap. kampa. chamble. a hollow chanfreiner. hero Sw. ON. athlete. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. Hence (with the nasal) w. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . dial. cahir. accidere. to wrestle. cazer. chanfrein. divided game. kabMe. chance. reusement — fight in single combat. campar. from cheoir. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. a scufSe. fray. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. mesleiare. Fr. termediaries between them and the judge. It will. to fall. The G. Commonly derived from campus. chajnbellan . . kibti. hot. a field of battle. certare. slope of a bevelled angle. pinch. champ. kappd). pedilusor. the chafldn. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. E. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. kinipen. or player at football. The E.' ' Pr. — masterly Sp. to move the jaws kiamt.140 CHAMBERLAIN . from chaud. — Hal. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. contend or argue G. Chancellor. a warrior. boys speak of capping verses. . To cope or contend with. . — ^Tusser. nels. to fasten on. To hollow out in chanPtg. camp. to debate. — KiL . camerlengo. gewolbt. and mesUe. champ parti. kablys. Pm.—Charfron E. M. Fr. who stood ad cancellos. campus. to slope.—Tutschek. to groove bevel off a right angle. . cample). Fr. dricka i kapp.

exchange. Walach. Sp. are kept. and also to chap or crack. as chancery . chancery. cantare. Probably from chap. to coat. Chaps or chops. chapa. kennel. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. a pipe. Hal. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. chanter. the mouth. Hal. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. kiceft. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. to spht a chip. surfaces striking together. chapilla. throat of an animal. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. to strike. Chap. hard bodies. esclapo. AS. klepan. Chop. from canna. while the broader vowels a. like the knocking of hard things together. chop. extended to other trades. or the cracking of one. to cut up into small pieces. Lat. chaps. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Da. — — —Marculfus in Due. Fr. to deal. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. Lang. jaw. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. to creak. —Chantry. chapeta. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. chapear. Man of Law's Tale. leather. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. cambium. 2. jaw. — . lips of an animal. to cut off . Channel. to hack. ^Jam. . prune. flat . kappen. skipta. not a soul. to swap. Cheek. See Chop. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Da. hack . kvar kjceften. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Hence chantry. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. to plate. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. kjaakaa. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . properly in a hard body. esclapa. Commonly derived from capella. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. ON. to change. a small metal plate Port. changer. . The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. chancellerie. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. cambiar. Hence It. to paw like a horse . from chandler. cobio. schimbd. the place where candles ler. chap. chandelier. . Chapel. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. as those on a trunk. kaupa. wood. a chap is a crack or fissure. A fellow. as It. any hollow for conveying water. chapeletas de imbornales. Aasen. Sc. Chap. to put on fresh clothes. Chandler. kemma. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. cangiare. is used in the same sense . to peck. exchange schimbatoriu. exchange. That wide were sentin their spicery. to strike. Compare chark. to chap at a door.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Chape. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. to sing. to plate. debeant conjurare. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. kiceft as well as kjakje. to break . the cape or little cloke of St Martin. See Chant. schimbu. to strike with a sharp edge. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. as to chap hands. chop. — : Lat. Lith. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. chap. Chap. Fr. Sp. Prov. waterconduit. Fr. To Change. or the like chapar. also a clap. I. chiappa. Du. It is also used in the sense of the E. a small plate of flat metal. and the modern canal. cheek. to apply one flat thing to another. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. to cut. In like manner Walach. chapelete de una bomba. ceaplas. to peck. camjar. a dealer in candles then. Fr. the clappers of the scupper holes. a money-changer. muzzle. as corn-chandChandry. ceaflas. Molbech. a jaw. 140. the gutter that runs along a street. Russ. a reed. gab. clapet. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. to truck. from clap. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . Chip.^. canalis. —Ordericus Vitalis. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. . kapoti. a strip of metal plate. W. to — cut. the chaps . shift. And N. . may be compared with ON. cambiare. as skin chapped hands. E. Bret.

cher um cher. eyre. turn. charlatan. See Charlatan. Lat. as a beetle. Boh. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. chapelet. dear. In that work the verb is written caire. Fr. enough. It. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Deutsch. ciarlatore. the nature of a thing. to creak. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. a charm. The crash. clack. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. a riddle. a riddle. colliers that charred coal. caritas. . 370. Chapman. charge an enemy is to lay on. talking. w. a mark of a mountebank. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. from capa. gadka. Sp. charitas. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . babbling. decken. carus. capital. carmen. It. go. to converse. 2. chatter.czirksti. charger. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt.Lat. chapitre. chatter. to turn Gael. Sup. a verse. hadka. to prattle. Fr. carricare. gnash. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. to dove . Lat. a hood. in To ness Charity. creak. Bret. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. prattling quacksalver. charcoal burners. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. Mid. bler. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. dim. to sing or chirp as birds. in turns. To Char. tattler. * Charcoal. wreath for the head. Yx. charade. siarad (pronounced — sharad). Fr. Inst. twitter. a turn cerran. canne. capitolo. An enchantment. . tegere. Ptg. AS. charlar. Charcoal was ciarlare. a dispute . corona. to of the governing body. czirbti. babdistinction. dear(in both senses). caricare. occasional turn. cedeleac. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. called in Sp. creak. A weed among com AS. karout. jabber. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Lang. turn about. to turn. cearcian. Du. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. — a car. . pohadka. to chirp as sparrows. beloved. kurkelis. used in the sense of magic Fl. char. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. chirk. for the same reason rosario. wood to coal. Character. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. which was incantation.). a mark made on a thing. Hence carminare. Sp. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . kurkti. be- e. properly to place — . From Norm. Charge. w. twist. (eucharistie. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. a merchant. &c. schreien. czurliwoti. OE. Chaplet. ghirlanda seor garland. capella. Chare. to chirp.whirr. Swiss. grave or make incised marks on an ob. chapel. to charcoal. Gr. keeren. cluck. surris seu Lat. from carrus. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. . ceap-man. a head or division of a book. as Pol. Chapter. Fr. it is my turn. to croak as a frog . Macduff. chara. cha. to love. Cot. affection. —— . Lay on. Sp. Justin. es ist mi cheer. Fr.' Boccaccio in Diez. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. from Charade. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Chirk. gaggle . cluck kirklys. czurksti. a rhyme. ject). a garland of roses. Chark. car. charer. Charlatan. seems to be derived charade. to talk . return. to load . that turned decken . kirkti. cerran. Charlock. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. of chapel. the turtle pitre. cam. . Lat. to tattle. The G. krachzen). from capitulum. — spell. AS.charme. carmo. from cape or cope. from gadai. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. Charade. It. — — — turned to coal. hiss Lith. carregar. a The OFr. See Cheap. Mundart. cabildo. Lith. eapitulo. chirriar. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. burning without consuming the substance. chirlar. to chirp. It. And damned be he who first cries Hold. to prattle. capellare.. called kedlock. Prov. and in It. as. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. to . a cricket karkti (schnarren. condo il volgar francese. chat.

as from nomen It. To Chasten. kna. charmer. Hal. discourse. noise. fragments. nome and . to separate in morsels. Chasm. the calix of a rose. — Fr. Malay. It. ch). chick. clear. clack. carmen is presented in AS. to make a noise. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). It. the cry of the bat. Fl. clean. See Cistern. —Chastise. speak . warble. pure. czysty. a yawning. racket . make a noise as birds do. a gap. To chit. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. to which it bears the same relation as chape. castus. as purgare Fr. prattle. to cut and faggoted. gadu-gadu. a young man . g. chit. a churchyard or charnel-house. limpid. or suckers on rough borders. or pop. a word. To Chase. charm. chair. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. fragments or leavings of food. eclats. prate. a twig Suffolk chaits. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. To chip is then to crack. To chitter or chipper. scraps of for fuel. little sticks cudere. from purus. converse. to talk. flesh.. occasionally Forby. also to germinate or spring forth. to set a jewel. magpie. — We ornamental work the to signify E. incassare. carme and Fr. clatter. Du. cs E. Fl. chaste. a branch. See Card. sordidus. to gape. chit-chat. — The . clap. to chirp as a bird to cheep. Fr. See Catch. in Jam. blackthorn-chats.a. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. to crack. snap. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . Cot. the noise of birds. — Hal. CHATS fit 143 to name. clean. The egg is chipped. to chatter or prattle .— Chit. or a bird out of the egg. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. used to represent a sharp note. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. as in the E. —Jam. chisf. to baptize. . whistle. Kil. noise. karigh. — Yorkshire chat. OE. to wet. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. chip. cassa s. In like manner Russ. as we speak of olive branches. letters p. Chamel. geug. Cot. a branch and a young female. to chirp. To work plate as silversmiths do. kippen. Chat. It. . also a youth. csacsogni. is to represent the chamier. kastaa. Chat-wood. the handle of a razor . to clap. be wide open. carnisj bones kept. cearig (from cearian. To talk. Lat. gazzettare. Magy. gallan or ogan. castus. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. nommer. chip. csacsogany. schioppare. ferire. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. the young shoots . csatora (Magy. —Charter. from pure. Kil. s. careful. a plate of metal. D. Russ.). Chart. csaterdzni. Chary.house. Fr. gazzerare. the bird is iiown. whence a charm of goldfinches. caro. kata-kata. parcus. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. enchasser. an enchantress. B. Chaste. as. to cry as a chicken . — sharp sound of a crack. — — . Pol. knacken. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. xi'i-'^vui. chykkyn (Pr. Fr. G. pure. root of the Lat. cyrm. to burst open. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. chary. warble. splinters. From carinen was formed It. also to hatch. chikat'. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. — Palsgrave. V. It t. tenax. ch&tier. pure. chat. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. clean. Gr. talk much . then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. la chasse d'une rose. chip. a crack or a flaw .). shivers.— Chatter. to chirp. kata. An imitative word. from xoAn. a chatter-box. as turnip-chaits. Fr. gazeuiller. chatter. to enchase it . chit in the latter sense Du. It. to care). Pol. Parallel with E. —Bailey. gaddc. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. a flock of those birds. Pm. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. So in Gael. tittle-tattle. i. Diez. crackle. knatiern. or equivalent forms. gazzolare. karg. %aafi. Lat castigare. chits. talk. niggardly. shout OE.ppen. gazzogliare. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. chaste. jackdaw . Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. To Chase. or the cry of a bird or the like. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. to crack. germinate . — = Chats. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. chick. a shrine for a relic. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red.

in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. kak. Bohem. to buy. et juxta catalla sua. horse-couper. &c.. with Dief. caupo. chuckle. chaptel. kaupon. farm for farm. changing. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. gagkezen. jaw. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. countenance. bon marche. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Fr. cattle. Gr. laughing. koopen. Chattels. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. while it Bret. a repulse. the countenance Fr. Ek dry and hard. sale. giggling. force of the word. lower. Faire bonne chire. It — Brompton in Due. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. . sense of bargaining. hawkmann. to coup s. truffa. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. Hence to cheat. a canting knave. capitale. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. mandibula. us. which is used in the to stutter. to negotiate.— . kakkaset. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. a cheater. . dchec. aspect of a man. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. with the exception of land. any cheating. gig. agreeing upon. giving or taking in exchange.. . goods. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap.kakot. — We ' . a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. kaupa. choule. to laugh. Slav. See Chess. visage. price. sum in a loan. OFr. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. jaws. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. chop. to coff—Yisi. to make inarticulate sounds in . kichen. lead to OE. Check. entertain kindly. chapman. cita. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Fr. kikottaa. a young boy or girl. cera. Pr. to chop and change. the Lat. and hence the E. a dealer in horses. kek. ku. kauf. citello. cachinnari. keck. Sc. to . G. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. chatel. cara. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. entertainment. to fetch the breath with difficulty. teeth . a willing look and unwilling heart.-^. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. — — —Chowl. kaufen. KaviiXog. to buy. whence captale. ceafl. cozener. cattle. catalliim. Cot. ceap. from Lat. It. ceahhetan. chiere.— Chole. Lat. a piece of moveable property.' kezen. frown. exAS. The gutGoth. Cheek. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. in Fr. . 144 the It. snout. chear in the sense of victuals. cheeks.of the throat in coughing. stuttering. the principal ' colloquial E.— Cattle. Bav. to — . Chear. tradesman. Fl. to deal ON. Soc. chatal. kok. a dealer. CHATTELS has ciio. a tavern-keeper. are represented piti. Cam. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. society. cattle. the face. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap.—Choke. Cheat. goods. It. a rogue or person who used the canting language. CHEEK zitella. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. e. Modern Slang. and. NE.' to exchange to gasp. chire. to act as a rogue. retching. to nauseate (to retch). . ceaflas. kaupiti. kik. Sp.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. the tongue. prattlingchete. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. Then. kakaista. to cluck like a hen. Fin. from AS. Chew. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. in widely separated languages by the Lat. sob E. See Cheek. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. OFr. Pro v.— Chaps. to vomit. — To check an account. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. Hal. to stutter gigken. to clear the throat . The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. Pm. gagkern. syllables ^ag-. upon a checked cloth. thers. equiva.ing. chavylbone or chawlbone. the Confessor.. Ingulphus. stuttering. look. favour. welcome heartily. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. to swap goods . Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. which is the word in ceap. s. Du.

Chess. Lat. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. accomplishment cayed. E. gullet. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. nish source. Cher. kjceve. chAtaigne. the palate Chequer. hasten. when the king is put in the Schmeller E.peep in the same sense. xaque. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase.koppen. cireggia. An imitative word. w. caws. squeak as a mouse. chiffe. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. kdkel. Sc. whence kasa-leipa. subjected to this process with that which the throat . Thus "we are brought din. king). clear the throat. The Sw. jouffle. w. cams.EP CHEVRON 145 on. kopen. the neck. ichec. kdke. Sw. by laying it in come to an agreement with. to bring to an end. Jam. the The use of the word kcesir. things Da. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B.perly head. kasiiUPr. E. . cufd. equal squares of opposite colours. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. cisty G. geafl. From them the plish. rupted into chess. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. whence czypulas. the loose the game of checks. carnium. to geahl.). giffle. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. for cheese itself. kok. old bread. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. kces. E. kikna of dorum coacervatio. AS. to heap up such things for the purchoke. castaneusj Fr. Fr. quok. gaghel. ceaflas. cherir. veluti piscium. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. kikna. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. Lat. as. cheken. cabrio. geagl. To Cheep. Prothroat of an animal . prevail with. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. chevir. to accomThis they call hdrsk. jaws Sw. ceocian. jaw.their struggle for independence. Cherry. cheek. Fr. Kil. rennet. Tutschek. ca' — . dersen .D. treat with affection. a heap. cheek. Chef. chaps. kesten. Analo. throat. N. jaws. Fr. See Alchemy. kastanie. — — . the mouth. OHG. jaw . Fin. ON. rafters in heraldry. as meat and butter. ceac. /Ji2^/(W. chops. gill of fish AS. kastr. the hke. to choke with laughter. gapen. kapen. scacco. made rancid koka. Sp. schach. the final guttural is retained in writing. acquisition. like a young chicken. AS. — — . skratt. . Cherish. — 10 . jowl. gap. jaw. Du. chevron. chops. to swallow.. cheeks. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. quoka. F*-. G. Achievement. subacidus. suffo.cirieggia. caru. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall.. chesten. cabiron. condition of being taken. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. gabe. (Kil. See Case. cheek. Chevisance. a rafter . cegio. practice seems to have been communiChevron. kjcebe. chests in OE. w. to year. Lat. the throat.pose of acidifying them kasadr. veteris casei sapore Ancatus.Xo belch. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. dear. food. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Lith. czypti. cyse. E. e. by laying up in a covered heap. As the board to gasp i. to kasa. to make a noise different word. cough. kjakje. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. to gape gab. Sc. to hold dear. a chicken. caseus. Chekenyd or querkenyd. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. In these latter forms we see the transIt. to belch. to gasp. Chevaux de frise.D. The name of creak as shoes. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. schach. Sp. to love. ost. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. gous forms are G. See Chess. It. Fris. mollium congeries. ceaplas. ceg. — — . chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. to boken. kasa. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . . chasi. incaseatus. Lat. &c. Pm. X'C&s. ition from a guttural to a labial termin.G. Hence chesten-nut. cese. Chemistry. to choke. then end. achever. Du. kistej Lat. G. mouth kek. Da. cista. Prov. ation. CHE. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. frame by which the exertion is made. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Pl. cerasus. . to kep. Sw. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. AS. Fr. takes place in the formation of cheese. Fr. To make a shrill noise Chest. It would Cheese. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. kaecke. Lith. kirsche. a cricket.' to w. rattle in the throat. . throat. make an end. cerise j G.

a finch. Chigue. To Chide. Pr. alter. branchy. — — Mother Hubbard. chill. the same principle I regard On birds. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. G. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. chiler. to gasp for breath (Hal. stake. kimme. crepo. chicken. kauen. kuwe. ]). Fr. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. to titter is Du.— . Fl. in Walach. horn wood. Chaw. into a continuous shriU sound. chiquei. greloter is to shiver for cold. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip.^ Hal. pole. Gael. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. to chew. chillrar. Lat. a cup cibaw. Fin. tremble. caput. De chic en chic. the throat. Fin. cabar beinne. ach. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. rafter . pipio. capo. Palsgr. kaau•wen. De finger killet mi for kalte. gosling. a head.-ill. to raise the rim. Chitter. tremble with cold. to contest about trifles. strideo. Now gan some courage unto him to take. klagend tonen. kauchen. knarren. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. to the brim. while didder is to shiver or citteren. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. chin. . AS. kop. Fl. czypulas. cica cica. the least imaginable jot. Kil. has probably the same origin. twitter. to chime. — . keichen. the cry of young . a chicken. Walach. kaw. E. . chew or chaw. E. knirschen. chicoter. Pl. chavel. hiss as meat on the gridiron. cidan. and from the third E. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. pululo. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. caprioru. capete. tiuk. kilderkin. ' . as. rafter. W. killen. chillar. when the vibrations become very rapid. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . 'Among these the G. sonorous. to use the jaws. Tintillo. To chitter. deer's horn. Halm. or as E. kibr. Chief. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. choule. or chick. chillness or shivering. killen. See Chimmer.— Gattel. kinderen. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. caferu. antler. Swiss kiden.. CHJME the radical form is unusual.D. Sp. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. tiukkua. and not vice versd. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. from the first of which is Lith. kippa. kopf Du. or the broken noise of birds. gills of a fish. chimb. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. to pettifog. chef. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. kindeken. a chicken. Magy. The Pl. kind. ultimate origin of the Mite. the Ptg. the rim or edge of a vase. head. a jaw. mouth. machouere. rafter . acute. It. then cold. w. tiukkata. Chimb. to Du. a cup. Du. cebr. a young bird.peep. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. G. horns of the house. Russ. Du. the head.D. from the second Lat. a little bit. The loss of the syllable it in Du. to contest. s. to smart. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. Pr. kime. creak. to twitter. aner. kimia. cild. Chime. from little to little. And hence.^ to resound as a bell. A To Chew. pip. a small cask OFr. kidata. the young of animals in general. chol. Gattel.— Cot. jaw. to crackle. chic. For the see word Doit. — It. while the Magy. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. kouwe. : — a lump. chavel. to go. Imitative of a loud clear sound. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. tintelen van koude. to chirp or peep like a chicken. cap. are formed Du. chicaner. grelot). Fr. chikat'. Prov. also the horizon. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. pi. a hen. kieken. queror. Fin. Fr. kauwe. cib. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. or qf people talking rapidly. cheek. pipe. to scold. term is ssaru fu. by driblets. cabar. chaps. — Du. Bret. Probably from Fr. the jole. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam.' my finger tingles with cold. chieftain. captain. Pm. capu.. cabriones. Brezza. zitterti. — Fin. k'imm s. jaw. kimista^ . chawbone. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. quivering sound which passes. tiukka. 146 brial. beam. Pm. E. Payer chiguet A chiguet. mountain top . then as G. signifying properly shivering. as pointing out the origin of the E. Chick. a chicken. a cup. jaws . Chill. CHEW . tyuk. Da. knit the brow cib-led. pipio.). a quid of tobacco. lead through the synonymous E. Child. cabarach.. kitista. ..

schiena. spina. the cheek (jaw) .to divide or Du. squittire. simmer. Hindost. backe. Fr. is applied to the separation of the broken parts.sharp. schetteringe. chin . kumista. It. to murmur. name Then. crepare. To chink with laughter. — . Kil. plodere. It. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. The small entrails of a hog.to chirp. but or cry as a parrot. fissure. Du. clangor tinniens kummata. G. Huloet. sounding deep. AS. The desig. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. czirszkti. pare also Walach. as a large bell . tsongeni. It. to tremble. See Chats. gena. up and down. komia. representing connected together. shiver and the chyver of Pr. genawi. in Hal. the jaw. Chisel. See Bright. flaw Hal. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. and from a similar sound to boil gently. Chin-coug^h. in the same crack. and bodily movement in shimm. to chirp. G. Chitter. Cot. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . i. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. a thorn. skina. ykvvQ. 147 kimina. kumina.er.schricken. a surkik hosta. yivtiov. caperd. cisaille. et garrire . caminsects. Chintz. quavering of the voice. Bret. Caminatum. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. the jaw.. chirp. Bav. zirpen. as the/ is preserved tering. to sizel. klincken. See Chark.Lat. gen. . Prov. a fire-place. chits. to prattle czirpti. To chirp or twitter. Fr. a hall Mid. a crowing sound in recovering breath. — — — — — . Chyrme or chur. cincel. Sp. then to any narrow crack or AS. Lith. Ptg. Gower in Hal. . tremulous motion. . fyr. kinne. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. the cheek. to sound deep or the Gr. and chim-mer. sparkle. cisello.' Phaer's Virg. to sound. zirken. sound. twitter caminus. from Lat. bone . to open chirriar. genou (pi. chhint. Chink-cough. Sp. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke.). hiss Pm. Sp. caminata. eschin^e (de pore). Valentian charrarj Norman charer. Gascoigne in Todd. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. or chyFrigutus. as the chink of money. killed by Bellerophon. also vibrans. to simmer.. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. the whooping cough. Sp. to chine. to creak. . dial. eschine. To Chimmer. kink hoest. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. disCot. the chine. are In like manner E. hiss chirlar. the chin . tschirpen. to chink. to squeak in It. clipping of coin. and the Du. Fr. E. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. cheminde. Chink. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac.Huloet in Hal. cinan. tinnire. spina. Chimney. E. Chymerynge. Primarily a shrill sound. sonants. Fr. to chirre. In the same sense. to chink with laugh2. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. to gape. keich husten. kieck hoest. schetteren. A . It. the mouth (jaws) . lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. quivering or shakyng for colde. — . KinneGr. Du. To Chitter. clashing of weapons. rustle. a chap. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. hus. Gloss. verynge or dyderinge. to creak. See Chap. Chitterling. all these imitative terms being minata. Chit. sonus the backbone Lat. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. Magy. to chirp . ciarlare. tsengeni. cheek. Chat. and light. a Kuttn. — . Fr. a chink or fissure. from 10 * ' Chia. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. Chip. companied. vincially used in the sense of a crack. to tattle. It. which differ from each other only as Chirk. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. hollow. chick. Lat. stridere. Chine. cinne. to prattle . twinkling light. cleft. have been used to designate the spine. chatter . a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. from the geon's lancet. esquina. as birds the mouth. backBut she withal no worde may soune. The change from the sound ter \s. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Pm. komista. chink. — . a thorn. a szemrcU. .iron. Chimera. ter. epine. resonance . the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. schrick. as a bell kommata. part lion. esquena. bx-eak the back of schena. Diez de. do. sound on beginning to boil. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. pork) . — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . j^lf. ciseau (for cisel). eschiner. schina. then of a fabulous monster part goat.czirbti. Sw. applied to tremulous motion. Pr.

a knight. i. select. Warwickshire coff. gustare. civette. xiv. chaup. a chive. curly . to try. ^euw. to shiver. haslets. choix. Prov. a blow. cive. from kraus. Gr. to break off in small shive. chattering. The I go to prove them. then to try. to exchange horses.D. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . taste. cke. and in kosten. of an angry — — — ' ' — . chiffe. pieces . Fr. schoch. Serv. Body and Soul. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . Fr. okusyti. a ruff or frill. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. ON. called cMtters in the N. propagated. choppe.ffrill. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. chock full.' At last he dwelt . coup. ments of the knightly class. a young . Cavalry. all seem slate . G. taste. The . to taste . lead us on to Lat. chippe. a calf's pluck or chaldron . CHOP kros. Chives. are used in the same sense. in the same language. and in this sense the * small pieces. to turn. anger. %o\ifa.ceosan. causir. heaped measure. a wine taster. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. and Vf. kiusan. or original meaning is preserved in G. to palpitate . chap hands. crammed Choir. to clap up Hal. to chap. a fragment. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. a heap. Chivalry. an onion. kbhren. try. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. the small parts of the roots of plants.vonic languages are Pol.' who shall not taste death. the ridges prove. Gr. also calPs. The Sc. * To Choose. approve. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. to chap at a door . kiesen. to taste. Swiss kust. caperd. See try. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. &c. —Chorus. to try. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. ON. developments of the same radical image. ^S. — — — . whence choleric. kieser. wein didder for cold. friller. schevel-steen. G. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. to ^cleave . kusid. Choice is probably direct from Fr. ent quarter. seallion or unset leek. arkiusan. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging.. try. to taste. . from %u\i). kustigen. As kushnuti. . then to shiver. x^poc. cape. 19. Chives are also a kind of small onion. as with a blow. to experience. a small slice or slip of anything . full. cut up into — See Chats. signify to kiss. 2. Luc. chorus. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. &c. Choice. kausjan. to wrinkle. kushevati. chife. Chap. a scale or fragment P1. kushati. a company of singers or dancers. of E. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. to stop geschoppt voll.. and It.V)^x. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. as green as leeks. it is probable that the root kus. to hack. whence Lat. disposition. Jam. gusten. to try. prove. full to overflowing. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. chatter. Equivalents in the SlaFr. chceur. kalbs gekrose. — Chock-full. a twittering. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. to strike hands . a ruff. Boh. experience valerie. I. to tempt. . kiezen.yEuffM. Fr. g'schochet voll.' Verie coinme Cot. a rag. specially with an application to theatrical performances. to choose. fine threads of flowers. skifa.freze. kaup. shoot . also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. gekrose. to try . the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. to taste. word is more likely to be from Lat. pluck. keypa. To Chop. by which they are Fr. chives. The manners and senti. Schmid. the inwards of an animal. to Compare also Pol. to ing is doubtless to taste. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. cepa. keuren. scheve. To Choke. wkusit' prikushat. G. chawdron. . . a calf's chaldern of E. a goose's giblets. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. schiefer. kruszki. bile. kor6n. Lat. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. OHG. to prove.gust. shiver. from chevalier. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. . krussyi. chibble. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. Walach. by the vibrations of sound or motion. to taste. — Cholera. Enn Sigridur sem ' . to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. rare. — See Cheek. and N. Choleric. . Swab. •- Russ. wrath. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. chimp. fresure.— B jag E. koren. Goth. Gr. kiusan. coro. ruffs. Yr. Chuck-full. gdnse gekrose. to taste.

overset. Anachronism. from kloppen. plump. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. cob. to speak thieves' slang. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. Fr. a bullhead. of which such strings are made. as in Fr. kowe. merchant. the same word with the It. Marin. kauwe. to chatter. Borgoens happen.). sent before him a Chiaus.sohola. to clack. — Chrisom. —Shakespeare. for to defraud. capitone. xop5>}. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. gold. Gr. a small fish with a large head. Madam. cauc. If I discover. 49..• — . From the Turkish Chiaus. short piece kubbug. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. chevane. whence apparently the Sup. kobe. yiSA.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. Du. chuet. fat.). klompe. XpvaaXic. kaulhaupt (club-head. kaufen. to knock. a messenger or envoy. syllables chat. xftovoq. in i6io. cheap.(. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. That Face. — — — . cheviniau. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. high clog. Fr. traffic. Chopino. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. i. G. Chrysalis.. Jam. capitanus. cangiare. A fish with a thick snout and head. P. Alchemist. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. caphatenus. whence e. cresmeau. slipper . and we actually find champman for chapman. Chough. capito. thumb Fl. clat. a thick piece. chapineria. I bring you the Cloughs. In Sc. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. kowej Sax. &c. a stump. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. bearand aits. in Chaucer. to overturn. gull. chroniques.X. — Dief. claquer. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. choucas. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. To Chouse. dial. E. gobio capitatus. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. quappe. kubb. caqueter. p. chack.' Jam.\^s. applied to an owl in that language.—Chuokstone. Peace.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. . civetta. Come.povucd. Ant. The Turk was here As one should say. to strike in the hand. klopper. E. kubbr. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . Gr. gull. A jackdaw. clogs. Lat. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. who took in the Turk- clack. chronicles. peace. Chuck. Picard. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. ley in Giiford. we find the following passage Dap. e. chub. cavena. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Confounded with the bullhead. 4. What do you think of me. Du. to cant. AS. Chub. Fr. noble Doctor. kaw. whence the Fr. chapma?i. one who buys and sells horses or cows.' They are forebuyers of quheit.— Chevin. -chron-. ON. dealing. See Change. ceo. equivalent to the E. In the Alchemist. Gr. by the Robert Shirley. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. prattle . Wall. — . cambiare. xpi'^lia. to turn over. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. monedula. To Chop logick. cow-couper. soul-couper. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. kolbe (club).— Landnamabok. chevane. caker. chouette. Nominale in Nat. because she would not endure this husband chopping. Gr. Chord. Cot. which was written 27. Kil. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. whence — E. capita. the string of a musical instrument originally. Chronicle. an offence against the fitness of times. cauvette j Fr. Sw. dial. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. To coup. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. as Du. a trafficker in souls. . chapin. time ra . or miller's kaycke . e. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. the intestine of an animal. koppe. ' ' What's that? Dap. See Chaff. Sp. OE. kaej Lith. chatter . a The What dhy ^. the teeth to chatter . a lump or piece chump. chrysalis (Plin. thick-set. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. chevin. Fr. Fr. E. E. chop. — Quabbe. that will thank chiaus — you richly. chrisme. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. connected with G. forms are Chrism. chouquette.

Lat. Cider. kaerle. ceffo. tie about). to him a sudden blow. chops.' And cold. chuffy. have given rise. See Cheek. blow on the I io6 in Mur. . Church. ciuffo. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. ceaflas. from Lat.for the residue of stone coal. residue of burnt coals. i. an old man. -eris. ON. ceffore. we have to chack. chofu. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . 24. Fris. kern. a man. . ChurL husbandman. kirna. to form grains of butter. kerl. surly. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. tindra. . sindr. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. to To Chuckle. -cide-. to make a aiKipa. flower. to throw out sparks. Da. lamak. Lat. but by way of explan. to strike clatter. kjami. male person. dial. to sparkle. to fall upon decide. Cob. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. cheeks Cincture. cinctura {cingo. ceorl. as in E.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. In Sc. a pebble. cut off. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Jennings. ccedo. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. x^^i?.— Chu%. a cutting round. gffe. to cause the milk to grain. G. e. giffle.rendered by Kil. a resounding object. &c. G. in circumcision. — of the two words. Diss. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). AS. Cieling. a man. joffu. It is certain. casum (in comp. thence a belt. ladre from Lazare. ON. Gothic nations. cidre. AS. in Sc. sive piratiam facere sciant. Chuff. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. See Ceiling. * Cinder. a cutting an old chuff. chack or stane-chacker. log of wood. swollen or puffed up Cot. so as to make the happen . tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. The derivation from Kvpiasov. i. KaxXij?. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed.D.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Sicerawry face ceffata.V//a'6'?. a rustic . IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. incido. See Cheek. a pebble . Wall. Du. cendre. Hence -cid-. -cise. . OFr. klakka. to Newsp. kiorne. Sc. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. fat-cheeked. sindel. however. . Du. Wall. a girding on. to separate the kernel of the milk. pith. KvptaKolg. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. a miser. geaflas. in the face. a fellow. Lat. -cis-. Gr. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. To chuck in the fall from. cinders used disjunctively. to determine incision. dust. C^z^j^ churHsh. the kernel. or. chack-stone. — — A — ' ' — . kakka. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. to gird. Chunk. whence church. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. Fr. has been impugned which it has really no connection. to make a rippling noise. chakil. Probably from It. — . cheek.^. whence deciduous (of trees). countryman. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. Cleland in Jam. to churn. to cut decide. to jaw chack or snap. marrow. -cido. cado. pp. Du. to turn from blossom to fruit. chife. as water running over rocks or stones. then the on oh StX iv roXt. a husband. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. whence ON. sinter. sindra. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). cinctus. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. a man.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. spuma metalli. sintel. e. The origin ation. ceaplas. a douse on the tores. a lump. from Lat. calculus. as a board. or choice part of a thing . that the word is an adoption of Fr. &c. comp. scoria. jaws. as Fr. Ka-^aiva. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. As AS. . calx. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Gr. ON. Churn. Ir.. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. chaps. the snout of an animal. kernjen.' he adds. karl. joufflu. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. to fall at or on. Sw. cinis. sicera. ashes. domhnach. and thence an ugly face far ceffo.— .is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. set kerti. chofe (Grandgagnage). to fall. with It the Lord's house. as Epkema explains it. -cisuiri). Lat. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. accido. Fr. Aasen. The spelling of chider has Chump.

The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . Cite. So a light. lump. ter. lucerna. sound of blow. around. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. From Arab. a pop-gun. klacke-busse. See Crankle. Gr. klater-busse. klemte.. -cis-. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. Excite. See -cid-. Alt. Citadel. to be empty. cion. circum. circ2tlus. rattle . klump. cisterna. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. clump. to bawl. clack. cista. clamp. clog. Arab. We . cifra. Bohem. trunk. Gael. Recite. about. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. glamm. to make to go. to clap at a theatre. circle. —Circuit. biw. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. . klap. bunch . stimulate. . clambar. klammer. a split. klompe. is traced by Gr. klappen. . a'upiav. citrus. a city. sound- — hands figures. whence cistiti. ON. wasserkasten (water chest). claquer. a young and tender plant. Du. to chatter. dim. domern. klekotati. a citizen . To Claim. It. prattle. Fr. hringr. ruin. * Cistern. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. kluV. circa. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. clamras. claquer crash. cluster. civitas.to suck. a whirlwind. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. as in Sp. a circle. castus). with an initial s instead of c. Hal. clack. city. The syllables clap. ball kloben. a rattle Fr. to cluck. —Civil. prattle. clamer. a lemon tree. Clump. cittade. for Cion. empty Golius. lump. clap.' sione. Citron. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. clangor avium . Sp. clack-box. ring. glam. clack-dish. a Lat. circum. lash . the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. or clap-dish. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. clat. ciste. clamare. clapper. and E. to go. clasp. E. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. We . lump. Lat. lump . The notion of a lump. a place See place hiddern. Circum-. kringr. area. a loud uksa slamketi. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. a city. may cite w. to summon or call on. a ring. belonging to cities or social life . to mention. Lat. . The Gr. to strike. klak. to gnash the teeth. vociferation. smack. chupon. suck). klumbr. a rattle . a block. scion. to appeal. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . to call. fall. clatCot. compared with It. mass . tinnitus . sindri. &c. klappe. It. creak les dents. klabb. Lap. a shoot. Circle. the door was slammed J slamem. klqb. Dan. sip. or quill to draw waier through Fl. cito. Lat. the place of . slam. It. a boss . sprig. KpiKoe. a clod Russ. or split with noise. Chaste. a circle. glambar. citujn. klambr. clamp. globus. sajira. KipKog. a mass. . gutter. sound. cit^. klepati. Du. claim.— . chest. a lump Lat. of citta. excite. -cite. to set in motion by means of the voice. a. Gr. cisterna. chatter . a clod. to chatter. 'mass. G. kringla. to cry out. chupon. Sw. Comp. to chatter . a ball. babble . — (Dozy) ing blow. outcry. CION See Tinder. Clamp. cieo. accordingly find the roots dab. Fr. to toll . a cleansing place. uproar. noise. claquet de moulin. Mack. clobyn. Hence Incite. and Sp. To Clack. clapping of klacke. Fr. a kind of rattle. from chupar. clap. rattle. E. lump. to clatter. to cleanse. crack. cry. . claquer. cittadella. a whip. Dan. dob. a for water. W. City. a lump Du. G. to call by name. lump of wood or with the nasal. Du. as caverna from cavus. Sw. civilis. ON. a cistern. Lat. as. Gael. klopati. a block. sphere gleba. forms — — — parent plant. cion. noise — — a cistern. In Fr. . Scion. . Lat. cittd. to clack. . a judgment cern. the tongue. to call. Lat. a reservoir Probably from Lat. ON. cry out . See Circle. klimp. * Ciplier. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). clot ON. klacken. klamp. a ball. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. . around. to knock. and clash. ern. crack. and. a hiding-place. civis. in the frequentative form. bunch. chijfre. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. a kind of pipe. klubb. klateren. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. parallel root is slam. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. Cot. a circle. Fr. crack. a Pol. twig. Clam. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. log. a knob. radical identity of the Fr. sifr. . Lat. scion or sucker.

to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. a sound. a heap of stones or other things piled up . da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. E. G. yf. a sound made by a lighter clink. klemmen. G. sound object . Lang. as the clapping of hands. dapier. klank. dam. klepanie. tattle. cling. cramp-iron. sticky Hal. Dan. dambar. The equivalent of Lat. Du. descendants . cluster. dam. clammy brace. klang. klemmen. salaan. to. to cling. tenacious. klebern. — Lat. pinching. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. to hold to pinch. To Clamber. hook. clapas. adopted Lat. apprehend . sound of the trumpet . to hide. — . to glue. clap. to climb .152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. privately. for tame conies. dapier. to stick conceal. Clang. klette. to daub pinch. klynge sig op. to hold fast with the . Clapper. pressed close or hard together. sound . In like manner Du. clav\f. dientes. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. clajnmy. B. whence sala. dia. scendants. a whip. To clap in E. Swiss kletten. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. accent. kleppe. The Fr. sound. kleppe. clangor. daver. klippe. klampen. a heap of stones. rattle. as the Lat. klamme. to knock. clann. a stick. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. where- A — unto they retire themselves. See Clam. of the children. Clink. . klem-vogel. children. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. to pinch. AS. damor. Salainen. dam. dren. to cleave or stick. solid. — Climb. to dame. is used in the sense of secretly. Du. Du. rumour. kleben. klappen. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. Gael. cramp. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. dienklebber. klappen. to knock. ancestor. a noose . buckle klamp. c). or klamp-vogel. a loud tingle. to Sw^. Clamour. Fr. a hawk. ring as metal. resonance klingen. — with hunger.' klibba. to starve. massy. OE. a sound made by a still . celo produces Fin. salafa. with cramp-irons. diver. strain . hold. cream Manx doan. clamber. Sw. to do anything with a clap. klavre. to climb. tremble . of money Gael. beating. Du. klimmeii. damras. klepel. run to lumps Clandestine. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. E. kleppen.er. klopfen.. to patronus. dang. clibby. These words To are closely connected with damp. anything hidden. to clap. to seize. dank. Swiss kldbem. knocking. . of which the locative case. also to clog up.p correspond- ' without order. . compress. hands or claws to grasp. to claw oneself up. is a nasalised form of gripper. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. klatten. klappre. a claw . to beat. the in many languages. tone. Lat. bandage. substances of a stickydam. but perhaps not directly from it. clink. dapi^. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. — — . dial. clap. take hold of. bond. and hence moist. To sticky. to Hal. compression. G. to hook things together. and that from celo. closely analogous to that of the fast. to climb. who occuG. Clan. . conceal. children. a trap. — Cot. dam immediate modifications — . dial. stick. dandestinus. . to clap on. strait. contraction. G. originally a heap of large stones. The E. klepati. E. klam7n. Dan. tingle. to clutch or cling oneself up. from the w.1. tight. clang. a burr. G. Dan. coagulated cream. dem. glambar. kluppel. seize. brawl. clapper of conies. in a hidSen place. a claw. to climb. Bohem. tinkle.' to take coals to Newcastle. a craCmp. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. holdfast. klammer. uproar. klemmen. Bav. to climb. to gingle. klibber. cleave. a bird of prey. Clap. a stone See Claim. clear sound. dap up. gripe. B. E. ney. Russ. klam. to glue. offspring. chief. G. Hence the Fr. Halma. crowd . from birdlime. a rattle . A i. chatter. beat. klamre. klubber. clasp. clandestine. sound. chatter. klamm. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. kloben. viscous. klammern. klobber-saen. . The root which gives rise to klibb. club . to stick or glue. dee. grimper. prison. Dan. gliong. klynge. Clamp. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. to climb. to clamp. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. dink Du. Clank. nature . Mampe. These are imitations of a loud. and hence to pinch . gum. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . narrow. viscosity . clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . &c. G. a place underground where rabbits breed. klettern. grasp.

clausula. clew or fasten upon a thing. clatter. the primary origin clapa. a claFr. a key origmally a crooked nail. It. . ghespe. Clause. klijven. and through v into a. seizes) . from clinging to the tree which supports it. mass. applied in their harness. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. klaterbusse. a bird with powerful talons. vinum helvolum. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. a lump . Klatsch- a pop-gun . fragor . a little hook . clairon. dap. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. In the same way is formed the OE. E. —Kil. under three modifications dava. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. a. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. teren. vin clairet. sauna de classes. Eau clairette. Kil. assembly. cluster. Identical with ON. Du. Commonly made. as Mod.oi. and clavis.). an ending. sound of the foregoing description. syrtium junctura. vin claret. — tells us. bawling. crying. Dan. row aii/iaTos. But clasp or elapse. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. The b readily passes into gleba. Lat. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. nail. insularum nexus . . clas. from its use in fastening things together. glcis. Nightingale. clamp. klouwe (Kil. fibula. Nawith stavis. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe.. whence kleuer. to clap . as it is written by Chaucer. somewhat clear. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. to patter. Du. Eya-klasi. KXeiSi. Clasp. or as G. kleuen. from scknallen. a key KKtitid. Clash. Claret. a claw. biichse. In E. chiarello. klot. clarinado. kluczka. climp. klaequivalent to clack or clap. skeria-klasi. clavis. mass. ansa. the cracking of a whip. we pass to the E. kleeven. the collar-bone. globus. clarin. kiosk bicza. chiizjj-o. i. he of white and red grapes mingled together. to snap. Sw. classis. a buckle. chatter. a lump. forms are the Du. stop of an organ. rion. a key. Lat.\x\xvn. waU. in the sense of a claw. Du. a water made of aquavitse. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. clairon of a trumpet— It. Du. in the sense of a mass or lump. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Gr. locket of a door. Claw. schnalle. kletse. gaspe. with a reddish tint. Mask ! plask ! thwick. — Clarion. From clairet. to knock. Pol. klase. Thus from clamp. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. to animals Sp. clavus. &c.Gr. klouwe. sphaera. klos. to ring in such a manner for the dead. So Pol. hook. klatsche. a clasp. From claudo. klatschen.Z. Lat. klauwe. chasguear. Prov. — Clarinet. clew. biichse. compression. a clod. Clew. klatscha pop-gun. clair. which signifies a ball in E. to do anything with a . contraction. klatschen. &c. chiaro clear. — Kiittner. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Fr. Du. K\a. a ball. as G. a distribution of things into groups. to fasten. a lash.ck a whip. and old red rose-water. to clash as arms. a club or massy stick. klampvoghel. nawith stanis. thwack . clump. klampe. pet. Class. 269. to shut. also a knell for the dead. klauw. to rattle . to draw it up into a bunch. hawk. rubellum. a bunch. noise. ictus resonans. The form clew. same class with w. a. Cot. diver. Wyutoun in Jam. klaskad. Lat. ivy.w or u on the other. claret win e. The collar-bone. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. e. a complete sentence.— CLARET clamp. Analogous Jam. a heap. to cleave. Fr. straight-mouthed. a nail. to end. klc^i. klaeret. To clew. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. blab. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. clausum. Serv . is preserved in Lang. Rayn. pellet . Clavicle. puUs. chiarino. klamme. clopa. to fasten together . globus. Lang. and shrill-sounding trumpet. thence a definite head of an edict or law. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. from the resemblance to a key. Owl and that by which cleave to. Thus from Lat. buckle. is used in Sc. cloi.It. Originally clasis. Du. Fr. fracas. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. subrubidum. uproar. Clatter. an on the one hand. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. klucz. a sphere . Sp.to cra. Russ. a kind of small. claw (what fastens together. it is called clamming. G. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. It. flap. cinnamon.

gingle. to shine . Da. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. sticky earth. as ON. explained from the klinken. bogs cous. to fasten. to 2. river. to Brilliant. Clear. from diquer. as explained under G. kleevig.). celebrated . splendid pohshed. klinken. neat. polish . klinken. Lat. glorious. to stick to. kloben. Da. that was Torriano. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. doff. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . conserere antklankjan. or from being divided into two parts. G. klinke. pellet. . klov. to fasten. Clay. dinquet kleeven. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. a clincher. E. Du. a cleft or fissure. to sound or make a noise . glatt. G. klijveii. clean. nitidus. glint. . doggy. is fast and sure. to separate into parts. to glitter. date is AS. 2. to be composed. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. klirre. klag. and Celtic glan. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. sticky. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. opposite senses. Kil. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. cloven wood. kluyte. kluftholz. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. kloue. a latch. danche. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. gaklankjan. viz.— Claggy. klieben. a mass.— . door-latch. Du. to fasten E. . Wilbraham. split. clear. in two ways. it cleave together. the latch of a door. klank. together . a bunch of When flax). glan. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink.— Clag. . deot. glitta. found in other cases. an object is simply cleft. famous. Mar. bright. glan. either by the coherence To Clepe. gentle. The word may be — . To Clench. as the Du. as Lat. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. sleek. a cleft. kleverig. dut. pure . Sw. . speech . smooth. cleave. dial. clean. vice. dedgy. seem formed dial. Bav. a cleft. kluft. from the clinking of the latch. clink. Gael. a flash. clay . that was a striking proof. klinke. the fork of the body. Du. a — — . Sw. lump. See Clog. Axletree clouts. See Clam. to clinch a nail. Thus from G. voice. klor. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. radiant. gleit. sticky . to stick or adhere . Die zaak is zS. klirren. to tear or cleave asunder. a lump. This word is used in two business is finished off. B. glbr. of iron worn on shoes by country people. to cleave. The proper meaning of the word is shining. a lump. Du. Halma. klincke. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. klinke. Fr. ON. klouen. G. a key. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . and E. tongs.' was nailed to a rock. Cleat. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. klieuen. merciful. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. — : A rivet. rift. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. glitnir. mud. a fissure or division See Cleave. vissticky . pure. The Dan. klinka. (Cot. clibby. Dan. This is probably one of the clean. kluit. klink. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. a claw or talon. clear. From dob. to clinch GB. or of a tree. kleg. To call. a fissure. clash. and Dan. Da. pure.Q. to dag ox dog. dams. a noise. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. neat. klafwa. provinciaUy termed dout. klyft. chaps in the skin. 154 CLAY dutch. Du. E. ON. clout. a plate. glance . bend in a stream. Du. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. E. glandse. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. the original . to clench. a one end. to chink. Lat. give a shrill sound Jr. klove The Dan. klouen. rive. loam. diquetcr. kleben. Clean. Sw. Omklinken. shine. clear. From clap. Probably a modification of the word doitt. klinken. and. daggy. G. cliquet. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. Sc. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. calm. dags. ON. clean. kloben. to shine. a noose. i. holding together. Sc. the two parts of Du. as Fr. a in that of sphtting. Clemency. kloben. AS. Cleft. polished. the To Cleave. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. kldnkelein. klceg. to clink or sound. pretty. glindse. a mass. words applicable sight. G. dench. clemens. A — A Clement. rivet. glor-mhor. glbram. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. glent. . Clinch. klutsch. hook. from nitere. dag. clean. viz. kleg. geklonken. The word is . glan. W. kla:g.

which in Mid. or an object character- Clerical. dink. a claw or clutch. to rattle. crack. kliket. a trigger. dicher. Hence Lat. klinke. call. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. a ladder. — — A . cleke. climate. rock. littus. a figure mentioned. dial. 3. and (with the nasal) — clincher. . one of the clergy. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. as from derido. is NE. one admitted to the tonsure. a lazar's clicket or clapper. or Sc. in rhetoric. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. rugged ascent. has kl'dver. Sw. Clergy. diquette. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. dek. clack. G. click it. frap- per rudement une personne. chat. ized . to teU tales. Fr. deudi. an inclination. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. Du.Lat. and hence deik. to catch. declivity. catching. ravine. to cleave. the clergy. Klover i munden. click. klippe. klikklakken. a hump. a lump. from Gael glac. dever. cliff. But the Dan. corresponding to Fr. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. to tattle. dial. clever. CLERK sound of a blow. say. verge). . sonare. Climate. a sphere. deuch. Clam. deik. a tumbril. quick in motion. click. gleg. cart that tilts over. which is used in Scotch and N. precipices. In I Peter v. Client. Chaucer. Cliff. rapidus from rapio. a hook. glomus. a clew. cliof. clypian. temperature. clep. agile. Claw. klouwe.— Clicket. a ball of twine. babble. highest is attained. a latch. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. rock. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). klaffen. dob. cligner. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. cleft of a hill. a child's or clack . the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. corresponding to the Sc. had a form. kleppen. cliquet. klaiv. klever. The origin is the Gr. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. Lat. cleft. Commonly derived from deliver.' ii. from clifian. We movement catch. cleugh. klika. syn. Now the OE. has also deik. pulsare. name. cave . precipice. neither as having lordship in the. claw or talon to dek or deik. derjon. Gr. region not observe it. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. OE. to catch. prattle. chatter. as Sc. dichet. deik. Dunbar in Jam. &c. to confess . to snatch. klikker. snatch. a baU of yarn. Happen. whence Fr. The Sc. chatter. See Clamber. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. CLINCH De . kloof. rupes . Norm. —Vocab. icXi/ja?. a cleft in a rock . lively. e. a hold. dial. the knocker of a door. crackle.). Jam. derigo. derecia. to bend. clif- stanas. Clerk. Det er en Mover kerl. to cry. a cliff. to sound an alarm to clap. cliquer. a lot. hamraklif. score7i clif. abrupta rupes . exactly Gr. pen. dergi.dergie! Wiclif in R. skard. would have been derida. nimble. derigon. to move. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. kliv. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. slope . ginally from dob (extant in W. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. Climax. a latch . click.) Brai. clever. ready of speech. dutch). to wink. call. klinge. AS. speak. cautes.. de ripa. d See Clan. Click. IS5 Du. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. . Lat. clima.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. Sp. to clack. to stir. Rouchi cliche. it must be observed. cleopian. with hamarskard. clatter. duik. in the sense of active. Du. klok klep- crepitare. clerus. to talk as a parrot. clyf. KkrifoQ. a mill-clack . what so men clappe or crie. to tattle. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. 3. in precisely the same sense as the E. on. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . chatter. cleft in a rock. -Toe (from KXivm. dexterous. above the pole. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . scar. the clergy clericus. Clew. — have the notion of a short quick in E. diofian. and hence climate. . klev. Da. deuck. kleppe. stein- kluppen. light-fingered. the dick of a latch or a trigger. See Clench. clap. seize (Hal. Clever. a clerk . globus. klif. dook (identical with E. to seize. Du. G. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. Boh. Bav. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. a clicket or clapper. crepare. clif. Somner. Cot. that is a clever feUow. See AS. expeditious.— Clue. sink. a latch. /cXi'fia. klippe. diver. quick of perception. a precipice. to prate. Lat. klinket. Sc. on. dough. as Lat. duke. as a click with the tongue. Climb.

rima. and so' to contract. to clink auf. to make a loud noise. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. klunker. kolbe to E. Clock. bow. a bell. to AS. to ring. klocka. to pinch. a lump. -CLINE make pinch. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. difficulty. E. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. kXiVu. quincailler. G. To cut with shears. kleppe. a beU. incline. schnippen. Sw. pinch. iissura. . knippe. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. toga. g. difficulty . disposed to a thing. nip. hluk. gUong. hlinen. Clink. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel.D. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood.D. ON. acclivis. a snare. klak. dial. knot klynge. I. four of the bell. . Sw. to strike. See Cowl. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. klocke. klippa.und zuk-lippen. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches.. Du. Hal. clog. glungelin. especially of something soft or clammy. klippe. ring clag. to crowd together klynge sig ved. kluben. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. Da. ON. glocke. to wither. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. kukla. G. kldpp. a separate portion. sticky. to beat on the board. klippen. like cling. 2. to crowd or squeeze chingy. chcng. Sw. Fr.'— Shaks. — a mantle. shears. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. globulus' (Gl. met. G. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. a lump G. related to clock. E. klippa. klepalo. See Clang. . slant. The E. clock is a variation of clack. clato make a noise. to cluster. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. &c. -cliv-. to sound sharp. Sussex peasant AS. to . a lump of butter. to slope or bend . clips. klungeln. by bits. claw. pinch. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. cloak. klaka. brett-glocke. verklungeln. to shrink up. klupen.' for a dry stick. klynge. 156 -cline. kolki-laud. to form one mass with. whence E. ON. klicke.' From Pl. N orman clincailler.. klincke. also to wink . to clunge. Cloak. hlinian. from klepati. Bohem. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. gang. klinken. klingen. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. clivus. . Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. a faction. as thick or curdled liquids. to beat. or bagging clothes. kluppe. incline. . Du. To stick to. and a similar syllable without the /. sloping downwards . cochl. ten. clino. klunge. G. fetter. Bohem. a cluster. declivis. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. at first probably on a wooden board. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Pl. to snap tongs. a bell. Swiss klungele. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. a ball of thread . knippen. to snap or fillip schnippen. parva ruptura. clinker. Du. klungelin. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. klo^gen. Gael. a rising ground. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. ' . Flem. S w. Walach. Lat. to shrink up. Sw. -atum. sloping upwards procUvis. clique. OHG. a hood. clinke. * Clod. to lean. a clock. a tinman.ginglej Fr. clangere. Ang. straits. to resound. klinka. to snip. also to form a compact mass.— Clot. sloping forwards. hill . clutch. to clip. The notion of a loose moveable substance. Sw. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg.— KSS. To Clip. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. knippchen. Esthon. as we now say three or four o'clock. recline. To Cling.. as G. — clot. w. hooded . speaks of a ' clung bat. . Lat. a clog or fetter for a beast . outcry. . noise. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . 'Till famine cling thee. tuft. dial.. to wither. klocke. . Cliofue. to knock. kol- The word . Decline. to bend downwards . clingan. Swiss klokken. . Fr. a woman's mantle . Gr. and 'E. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. in Schmeller) klunk. kima. toga muliebris. Serv. pallium. Kil. klipa. G. hluccti. Ir. to snap kneipen. to clap or clack. cloche. as to snip in the same sense from snap. dial. to pinch klupe. klik. G. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. dag. Du. dial. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. klok. club). to cling to a thing. klippur. Een kliks bolter. kliks. to lean backwards. compress . Bi klik uti klak.

Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. klotzschuh. kloten. Fr. to play at bowls. clorre. . In the same way Dan. . G. a spot.rge lump. lopin. lobberen. to dash like heavy rain.. and Du. in forms like Du. klakken. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. clatk. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. to a. to rattle. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. congeler. lump of mud on the clothes . thick spoon . to paddle in the wet. paddle. thick sour milk. to claggock. geschlotter (as E. claudo. -close. a clod Swab. . . je amoncele. slobber. I clodde. clogs for the feet klakk. Russ. loppered (of milk). without.'^ Palsgr. lobbig. klateren. the radical sylla. gelatinous. kl'dnken. Lat. neither spot nor hang loose. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. we pass to E. a clog. mire. fors. -clus-. a portion of something soft and adhesive. boil. . klac. daggerey. IV. to rattle. clos. a log. like G. lopperig. to shut. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. dial. slabberen. His heart was franlc without a flaw. dirt. klunkern. dunch). laggery. clotted milk klotte. . klos. a monastery. klotz. I clodde. ! .. -cludo. figer. finish . to flap as loose clothes. truncus. rattle. slab. bemired. . to slop or spill liquids. G. a blot. claque. lag. slobbe. closed. loppe. kloteispaen. Gr. tJokok. compared with clump. a field inclosed clos. MHG. with Fr. klottern. Pr. kloster. -clusum. whence klack. plod. meat from Du. Bav. Close. Pr. clausum. zocco. Fr. enOE. tramp in wet or mire. lumps of butter. to bedaub. clos. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. clot. klakk. Clog.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. curdled. loose mud. to wabble. to shut up. kleck or lack. . schlott. shut up. zoccoli. klot. To Clog. pludre. clammy loam. bespotted with mire E. is a blot on one's character. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. wabbling from Du. lump of butter. Fr. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. schlotter. and thus seem endowed . splash. analogous plan to clod or club. Lat. to dabble. to shut in. shut up. paddle or dabble in the wet. . klag. dag. Dan. a Christmas log. TZoxapov. shaky. cloth. a clod. klod. of a body of any kind. in accordance with It. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. spot of dirt. paludosus. Du. . clausum. motzen. • lump. from claudo. fat. to sup up liquid food. a log. pattens G. schlottern. forbidden by 17 Ed. to rattle or shake to and fro. chiuso. . hanging loose and full. from Fr. kladde.D. Pl. terminate. . be&c. klos-bane. Klottermelck. slobberen.D. A . bowl . lunch. or E. Idppern. a babbler. motte. a trowelful of mortar. to spill liquids. Hence inclose. to close against one. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. to bodies. . inclose. close. bloutre. 3. of something clammy or heavy. chiudere. a skittle-ground klos- sen. is connected with pludder. a block. . kloteren.1a. kleck. The game called ninepins. a dirty wench claggy. or loppern. Swiss schlott. daustrum.' end. Mat. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. Klak also. separate part. I doda clod. a blot. loblolly. claggy. and Gael. Closhe. laggyn. loose. miry laggerit. Cloister. E. He was a man without a dag. dangle. slob. schlettern. loose trowsers. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. Pm. A — — A Thus from Bav. dirt. log. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. tuditare. clotted locks Dan. we pass to Schlatter. then liquid or loose substance. Yule-clog. . a lump from Du. from Du. slops). an imputation. beklakken. Sc. or drablyn with separate existence. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). mud klcEg. in comp. to lobberig. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general.— Clothe. wide bagging clothes. to bubble. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. slops slodderen. Du.). dab. da- . kloden. E. lobberen. foreclose.dial. aspersion. lob. slop. to dabble. to cling locks. m&se noch stain. AS. to shut. a bal!. clog or overshoe. blot. and E. klokotat. or Sc. lump of something soft . schlattern. clogs. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. be found rattle. mud. spatter. unctuous. Fr. to flounder in the wet. watery. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. g. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. It. The origin of clod and clot is to . in accordance with Pl. doitre.

lumps of curd. a lump. klieven. and clout d eudaich. clammy earth. clavo di especias. wisp. to a lump. Clumpered in balls of clouds.). dote. The priClout. nagelein. a clove of garlick. with lout. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. a nail. caillebottes. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. botsen. klever. kldverj P1. clue. clods. It. cluster. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. . mire. clotted milk or cream. I. knob. dabosser. clyd. to curdle. a bunch. are often connected. log. to cloy. klubba. Sw. piece Cot.D. a patch. clothe. the terms expresssplit. little nails. zolla. Kiittner. Met. Du. kloven. klaven. aglio. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). tuft. eine to slop. More in R.bar. Cld. Dan. daggy.' Sanders. cludaim. lie clyd. coarse. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. Sp. a cover or coverture . of nagel. warm clothes {dillad. a thick mass. sticky.D. from Du. to strike . clot. klu77ip. a ball. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. to cover Bret. spice) G. cobble. A kind of spice resembling Du. a breach. a clod or clot. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. AS. to strike. blockish. clod is used in both senses . in the same sense. esdaboter (Roquef. clump. lump. a nail) Fr. the air. klubb. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. clothes ment. choke or stop up. dirt. clothes). a ball. Fr. From dog. to cleave or the splashing of water. kloete. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. clot. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. also homo obtusus. milk run to lumps. sheltered . Then applied to a lump of mate. a ball. probably from daboter. kluV. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. klubbe. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. E. clumhar. dillad bumkin. clod. Imitative of the note of a society. — . warm. . a ball of twine . but confounded with cailler. a clubfoot klabb. when something has got into the touch-hole.). to cherish. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. lunch). dys. — — — . 2. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. loggish. Ir. diboter. The radical sense seems to be an unE. kl'dnne. CLUCK rustic. E. a clot or keeps one warm. boucher. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. a clown. cluth mhor. . Clown. klunds. del mattond. a clod. E. and of a rustic unpolished person. puddle. hebes (Kil. a blabber. mass. ser.D. clump of a clout on the head. Rouchi dapoter. clobyn. of a lump of earth and that figure. and tapp. chiodo di girofano. Clump. Move. ON. warm. matte. and -the word Clove. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. . signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. N. to cleave. Cloud. a bousche. Club. klonte. and closely do conspire. clunch. nourish . Du. Du. to splash. klobbersaen. cob. dabaire. clot . klumpfot. a knot of people. of thumping clumsy action. klove. dut.Fris. Gael. klotsen. formed lump or thick mass. strike. w. are also used in the sense of a stopper. Pl. stock. motte. botch. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. klubb. from kloven. unpolished. . shel- kloen. klumba. warm place . duthaich. In the same way E. So Fr. rustic. G. from OFr. lump. to beFr. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. Properly that which covers and Du. Mabousfrom Lat. a garthas. cloud Delfortrie. tered . The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. as Fr. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. davus. . klqb. a bunch. make warm. een klaven kruflook. dob. To Cluck. a curdled sky.). lump of earth aria. dash (Cot. klotz. indispalte knoblauch. G. Du. group of people Sw. kluppe. dump. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . kluyfketi loocksj Pl. klebek. block. clog. To Cloy. nelke (dim. a bunch.clod. lump. klotzig. klump. clou de girofle. Sw. mud (Pat. a . The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. a. ON. dial. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. to lump mend clumsily. a fissure.). Gael. to tramp in the kluyve. a log. Clover. dial. cobio. to stop. zolla dell' . bunch. a sticky. a sky Cot. cludadh. Du. Du. klcBdi. G. a boss. A division of a root of garlick. dial. a lump. mary sense is a blow. from W. CLOUD an awkward clod . AS. eene ODu.158 . a bobbin. Das volk hat sich in splitten. de Champ. The significations of a clod or lump. clunch. ball of thread Russ. G. (kruyd =. kUid. w. a log. and clay. sheltered up warm. clydion. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — .ft. naegel. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. knob. of sloppy materials.

koetblockish. Lincolns. See reclusion. ball as snow. . klummerhdndt. fingers (familiar). ball of snow on horse's foot . to pinch. G. klamp. cliboter. to paddle or dabble. dial. glocire. hands stiff with cold. Du.' Benecke. -olus-. to curdle. * Clumsy. G. to gingle. a clot klissen. Coal. and make ye strong feeble knees. klobber in klobbersaen. -close. ' Thou clontsest for cold. -cludo. Graff in Klamjan. It. The sense of awkward. Fr. paste. a block. thick and clumsy. -CLUDE hen Du. — Cot. esclaboter. dumpers. klcise. to shut. klompen. conclusion. or aclommyde.' Wycliff. properly to do anything Fr. — ' — — tonista. From the notion of sticking together. havi. bunch. klunt. to lie. a couch. OHG. Ang. koetsie. a clove Sw. of Du. as clumper. coccolare. a nasalised form of club. dumps. klontet.— — . as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. kichlemmit. G. and koetse.D. wagen. Du. koetsen. Champ. glousser. klummklummshandt. Pl. Cheshire.Ancr. or from Sw. pinched. See -elude.mene tied. ' . klemma.P. 130. But clunchy. seize. duke. klos. Variation of clatter. klods. with E. ' Uorte (for clogs. Pm. wooden sole. Coach. might be reached from clump. a coach. an instrument for nasal form e. klemmen. klikonosy. — Hence include. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. Sp. kol. Hesse. are the nasalised forms of klotte. G. ill-made . clook. klimpern. claudo. klamen. . clumsy. Sw. Fr. hand to cleuk. clump. as Fr. clausum. COAL dumpish. klonte. cluster. close. the word is more probably connected with OE. unwieldy Hal. clutch. idle. — . klette.. Clutch. to curdle. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. inclusive. claw.D. limp. to stick together . kohle. to syllable click. In the same way Du. Isaiah. kluntfrom KKvKdi. Teulazy. Ray. also a cluster. klomen. A group. Analogous forms with a tongs. —More. Compare Swiss klupe. beklummen. Sc. clointer.pare P1. xXvariip. MHG. E. acomelydfor could Pr. a bunch. obstructum. klampa. calling her chickens. rial. ON. klumpern. cluntClyster. Du. to tramp or tread heavily. dial. MHG. klocken. dek. coucher became in unhandy. of garlick. n. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. — sen. unhandy. a noise. Fris. &c. to curdle. Com. verklomen. to grip. pladdern. Du. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. * Clump. a clod or lump. clutch. Lat. E. a lump. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. hondis. awkward. cleuk. klumpig. klister. wooden shoes. Lat. er. dial. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . crooked inwards . and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. dial. clopiner. Riwle. Fr. to wash. Clump. to tramp. whence koetse. doquear. eviratus. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. may recline. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. Muster.forklomme (Outzen). lump of soft mate. eviratus. gelidus.' Comfort ye dumsid. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. conclude. to rinse.D. klomje. The Fr. klikaty. algidus. tight — — . Gr. to squeeze. . having the Pl. log. with a quick. dumpse. Cluster. -clusum. koetsDa. a claw. from klupen. clotted cream.E. a clod or The noclot. Hence snatching. -clus-. dek. . smart motion. verkommelen. to benumb with cold. Du. OE.' Vegecius in Way. unhandy. —To Clumsyd. enervatus. -elude. klump. heavily. Clutter.D. cleik. eene beklum. lavesen. viscous material. claws. Sw. cleche. hooknosed. ment. in comp. klonte. to tramp. unfashioned. Beklummen van kelde. and klonteren. klunsen. as from seken. carriage in which you klodset. clabosser. awkward. a ball. Hence cleik. to klotz. from laver. in v. Pl. a clod clunter. a pinching time. klisse. 159 E. Hindust. dystere. differing only in the absence of the duik.D. ether comelia P. through the senses of lumpish. to to snatch. splash. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. ' Clumper. dussomed (Wilbrabam). a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. clip or pinch. a lump or compact mass. plad or plod. klont. benumbed with cold. to collect in lumps. to wash. strum on an instrument.e. and klotteren. lay hold of. Cath.'— animal. finish. a clod or lump. a litter. Boh. beklommen. exclude. a lump. from ON. a ball .

. v. — Cobbler. gull. from some fancied resemblance. cokes was a simpleton. Trevoux. ridi. flame. to Lett. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble.—Atkinson. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. cotte. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. In the E. or upper . Fin.' And colo. k'dlla. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. glowing embers. properly to daub. Lat. . cochinilla. dial. ordinary as in the expression of course. cobble. Cobbles in the N. petrilla. costa. and hobble. Pm. to strike. in Du. and the spider as collectors. Coat. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . The form attercop seems to him into doing something. dial. cule cocosse. Du. Coarse.. cacd). T' waerkopet. to be inflamed . a firesteel Lat. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. top cobio. When the . a pock mark. are often connected. are round stones or round coals of small size. any kind of coat. coalesce. of cochina. . however. tempered clay for building. large stones . long standing. klabba. Coalition. * To Cobble. koppen-gespin. E. COCHINEAL Cobber. e. that is. bijamie. large coals. It. kop-ar. to peck as a hen cobyn. staggering or halting. inflammation. atter-kop. to wheedle or gull vermin). cluster. Lat. CooMneal. dim. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. It. to cob. meaning that she is plain and coarse. of E. a cobweb. to cobble shoes. a kitchen.— Cobble. from bearing a bag. kop. dial. glow jvalaya. To cobble. nursery lang. Sp. to speak or act confusedly. spinne-ivebbe. dial. habble. and fig. cokes or fool of him. may be A found in Sw. to kindle jvAla. a knock. to worship. kolna. Sanscr. Pm. pockbecility and liability to imposition.). 3. to bungle Sc. pryf-coppyn. cob is a dumpy horse. then to work unskilfully . . bredouiller. Du. to grow together.a spider. and thence a lump cobnut. imbecille. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. quilet. Outzen.). burning. H^cart. as in arr. a darling. Formerly written course. niais. a coat or frock. viz. as shown in dob and cob. to . woman is said to be very ordinary. to bungle . a great falsehood.' Nares. klabbsmed. kuppa. koppe. OE. united. a rib. coste. a similar According to Ihre. pustule. a thumper. w. Dan. glow. Coast. to hobble . probably left his home. cob. a large round nut cobstones. to burn. of E. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. . the one of thump. in Essex Jow*2c^. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. — Cleveland Gl. cofasse. give the full meaning of the word. gull. quele. The Fris. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . pustule. Fr. walk clumsily. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. blaze. .inflated with air or liquid. a nest.. Flem. also a coast.' — Thus from (Hal. Colina' the place where a fire is made. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. is one of thump. s. — — — E. ON. a sow. probably from the Fr. rivation are found in Sw. to kindle or cause to burn . to beCoax. broddelen. e. ignem. ailina or colina. cobcoals. itself is Nescock . of poison. to stammer. cock or nescock. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. hakkelen. and E. a woodlouse. The OE. a tuft. A plausible origin. tuft. an old