original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the


Cornell University Library



dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


to the syllables which are significant to the child. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. in other words. in language of the present day. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. but nothing she herself knows the animals. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. mind of the of the animal. name of the cow. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation.NURSERY IMITATIONS. persons of different tongues at the present day. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. with an initial m or I. Molli. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. come Moolls. or Mollein. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. and mully or mully cow is the . when neither name for the object to be designated. the present day. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. and where we are seeking. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. and. the baaing of the sheep. The syllables moo (mu. the closer we shall approach to the . without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. or. muK) and mae (rfie. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). by whom the be understood. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. is given to a cow or calf. when we is represent to our children of the cow.

his nurse adopting the word with him. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. for things. p. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. Gradually. analogous to Magyar mammogni. fiafifi&v (Hesych. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. hm. then. &c. mumm. when hungry. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. He would now say good. and which we might express thus.. to For instance. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. family. had nim. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber.' In ordinary speech mump. for everything fit to eat. and some were very clear and distinct. Gr. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. he called to to drink.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. as well as the mind of the utterer.' he says. 72). . A member of my own new sfop. . so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. partly from sounds which the child caught. Finally an n was placed before it. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. in children's language. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. for bad. and nim came to signify everything edible. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. schipp. First. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. became more perfect. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. to eat. nim. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. Heinicke. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. I had watched the growth of this word. We have. repulsive to eat. nineteen years old. to work over with the mouth. On one occasion he said^e nim. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. by the natural humming sound.).

of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. to mump. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. A negro proOr. crab nam buckra man. jumla. nam. to chew laboriously. savory.' says the author of Modern Slang. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa.' says Quintilian. iii. and the fizzing (and Series. clangorqae tubarum. and thence to be tasteful. aptantes adfectibus vocem. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. to be pleamind . Africa) nimi. to smack in eat. namnam. greedy . Galla djam djeda. nyam nyam. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt.' — Lersch. jamsa (yamsa). ' Motherwell. as to . consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. or word-making. snatched (Whitby Gl.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. agreeing with Ein. yamming. sweet (Koelle). we can call them so. on. 130-1. dial. p. mumpfen. to eat mampfen. nobis vix permittitur. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. Africa) nimnim.' And Diomedes. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). oves lalare. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. 1 86). South Jutland hiamsk. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. food (Tylor. to take. Gothic niman. memmexen.). nvrnma. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. Vei (W. eating. jammla. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. i. Soosoo (W. taken up hastily on the sly. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. mujnpa. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. and the crab — p. mumble. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. ' id est. palatable. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. buckra man's language the white man. to taste . And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). at hiamske i sig. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . j ing . fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. ut tinnitus aeris. voracious. make djamdjam). In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . mumpfeln. lita. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). Swedish dialect gamsa. stolen. to Sw. the Scotch poet. (in chil- dren's language). Nimm'd up. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. and some of them . aves tinnire. as well as the Sw. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. . delicacies. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. to eat. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Wolof nahenahe. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. Primitive Culture. to fill the mouth. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. tidbits nama . to move the lips in continued chewing.minis.ONOMATOPCEIA. i8o.

p. not of a moo of Lect. bellowing of bulls. cackling or gaggling of geese. howling. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . a lamb. or thoughts of our hearer. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. dove and cooing. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. neighing or whinnying of horses.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. cooing or crooing of doves. 'I doubt. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. or. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. not of a baa.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. bumping of bitterns. for the purpose of bringing the animal. barking. purring or mewing of cats. before the in other words. yelping. intended in the instance to represent the cry.' he says. but of a dog. might be used. snarling of dogs. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. grunting or squealing of hogs. 89) with less hesitation. croaking of frogs or ravens. baaing or maeing of lambs. Indeed. when circumstances required. between dog and harking. lowing of oxen. chattering of pies or monkeys. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. bleating of sheep. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. anything connected with it. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. und growling. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. We . sparrow and chirping. snarling. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. do not speak of a bowwow.' And elsevs^here (p. yelping.' — We speak of a cow. ^6^. gobbling of a turkey-cock. twittering of swallows. hooting of owls. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. Yet we ing. whether it deserves the name of language. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. might be used as the designation of it. that there is When Man. chirping of sparrows or crickets.

In Lat. Hungary. having a general predicative power. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. e. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. In Basque.. and gaggele or gagkelein. birds. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. according to Durga). gackem. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo.' kd). and Bavaria respectively.' common sense. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. lion. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. 'Kdka. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. a crow. KOKKvi. caw kuhii-rava (rava. whose sound (Pictet. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. is kuM) for the cuckoo. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. Sauscr. it announces (Salaberry). so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages.). Bav. in g. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo.IMITATIVE NAMES. caller. ghak. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. or quawk. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. We imitate the sound with a modulated. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. kdka. Malay gdgak. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. and the sound of that direction. 380. Picard cau. a daw. and means a shouter. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Columbia kahkah. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. kauwe. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. crow. Origines Indo-Europeennes). coccolare. 349. Arabic kdk. Georgian quaki. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). a bird that is be driven away. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. sound). Barabra koka. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. kae. He to is therefore derives kdka. a a crier (p.). fi-om apakd- i. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Kdrava. kuho. Manchu The kaha. crow. in is Gr. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. layitavya . 4th ed. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. Sometimes the hoarse i . a crow (Pictet). Aoo-Aoo. ist ed.

cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. gugu. great variety of oKokv^uv. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. to croak. as well as of Sanscr. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we .. a crow. kraeyen. kuku. name of its is the bird. a crow lish Lith. the name for a crow. to hoot. synonymous forms of similar structure). Malay kukuk. kruk. tortbla.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. and sometimes both together. Fr. tur. Albacuculi a dove. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. hibou. while crouk. tor. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. kraukti. Lettish kiekuts. It. krahe. reduplicate form. kurre. German and Eng- krahen. kukko. The consonants p. French dishuit. kirren. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. tbrtola. to croak. Zulu kuku. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. tbrtora.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. The crowing of cot in Fr. another. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. ghughu. Swedish kowipa. krauklys. Arabic tdtwit. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. 6. Sp. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. k. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Du. to howl or Lat. are represented. kukhuta. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. korren. teewhoop. Mod. coccovaec. girre.Gr. wood-pigeon. libufs. Walachian coucouveike. uhu. xi. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. and e. German luhu. giving turtur (and thence It. lulo. to cry loudly. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. lilits. Magy. either in the same or in related dialects. Dutch kievit. in the North of England. turtle) as the Lat. yell. Hindi. kraeye. the name of an animal will gen- . tuquheit. Ibo akoka. t. koeren. Scotch peeweip. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. p. So we have Polish krukac. and e. "Welsh hwan from hwa. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. name. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. a crow . Yoruba koklo.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. Esthonian kikkas. cock. coqueri- Languedoc. to crow. or Gr. Du. by the verbs gurren or girren. gufo. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. coucouva. to crow. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove .. lUyrian kukurekati. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. German kielitz. Da. 219. Pers. Heb.

schirke. flight its sting considered as a horn.' — i. buzzing. oE. g. shrill. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. German hummel. a small as hawk is . North of England. 337. The name of the cricket indeed. a beetle druna. to creak Bret. The Welsh chwyrnu. resound. i. common. German drohne. hollow noise. Lat. pip-pi-ta. sirkka. a drone.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. to sound. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. humming. grillen. Corean sirsor. sound. ajo. from the humming. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. to rustle. to grumble.vf3. bambhara. PofijivXwg. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. of England it is to the b 2 . which they make in their flight very . as . and probably indicates that g. grille. gives rise to chwymores. thunder. — Catafogo. bamba. from schrick. 'The natives call it tanand. to shrill sound sharp. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd.IMITATIVE NAMES. and not from E. chirk. knetta. Sanscr. skirl. din. Danish gnaddre. Lithuanian tranas. little intermission. We may cite Gr. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). Naturalist on the tocano. bee. and he kong-ko-rong. a fly (Tylor) . give a faint sound. to chirp . Speaking of a cricket he says. dhran. loud rumour. Albanian tsentsir. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. the humble. ta-na-nd. growling. schrecke. ' Sanscr. cricket is from crick. kong-kong. in allusion to its music. skryle. buzzing. Gaelic dranndan. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. The drone peal. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. representing a short sharp sound. the drone or non-working bee .' —Tennyson. The Arabic sarsor. booming. Arabic tantanat. horniss and from the buzzing The. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. to hum. whirr). a sharp sound as of a 6. swirplys with 6. In the N.' Amazons. droning is . German dronen. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. ' — Pictet . schrickel. g. with or Fr. Northern Farmer. Danish dron. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. or a gnat fly. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. to chirp J may be compared with . succeeding each other — with noise. to be compared with Sanscr.or bumble-bee. schwirren. and yelping cry. skril with n. Sc. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . Fin. Lith. g. Australian bumberoo. (Jieuschrecke) .y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. zirken. e. glass cracking (Schmeller). a bee. a hornet. words imitative of humming . grylhis. resounding of musical instruments. there are infinite varieties.

bugle. or a z to the imitative syllable. a cow. w. bo. to low or bellow. bubenti. w. shoot . Manx booa. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. to low . are (with a subsidiary k). and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. bukati. Thus from miau. bullock. Illyr. Fr. From baa. and djeda. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. to bow- own bawl. agreeing exactly with Lith. a Geiger. to bump as a bittern Illyr. mugler. bos. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. mae. in a imitation of a ringing sound. Lat. The Piedm. verbal form given to the say. buculus. to sound. His analysis leads cow. be-l-er. btibleti. a heifer. has bilbilgoda. and from to ring. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). representing the mew of a cat. On the same principle. to bellow like a bull. and thence Lat. With these analogies. the Fr. to the uses goda. OFr. is inadmissible. a bullock. maukati. p. to mew. bugler. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. Lat. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. verb is evidently identical with our shout. say. bucula. bu. to ba-L-are. bae. It.XX called booing. to or bark. Hottentot bou (Dapper). to weep. baula. as the Illyr. grumble as distant thunder . cattle. (iove. muJiati. Gael. a buffalo. The Galla lilbil. a bull. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. whence baula. 167. to make a loud deep sound. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Galla boa. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. bull. Piedmontese fi bau. to shout. miau-l-er. Da. to shout. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. representmake bow. bwla. make to it laugh. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. and in Hottentot baa was the . to . biibnas. mamoo-heeheek. bae. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. to beat hard. to from bau. bolt. or moo. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. loge. lulauti (to hoo-loo). Norse bu. Lat. to low. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. amuse. in same way. as that of the cow by boo. to make a noise. bubati. forms a. Fr. bauli. ox. the animal. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. From the same lioao). and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. mugire. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. boo. Cult. — ^Tylor. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. bue. k or g. to boohoo. bovis. or with on. or formed Lat. a drum . fivKaofiai. that the imitative syllable are Lith. or bau-l-i. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. Zulu lulula. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. to make. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. make poo. from the imitative moo instead of boo. to make. bullus and e.

may with to snarl. a sheep. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. a dog. karra. a goat firixal^ta. this obstinate race. From the imitative mae. grumbhng. mutter. grumble. Idgge (Rietz). a sheep (Lowe). a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. hundi). applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. to growl. the snout of a pig. to bleat . Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. for the voice of the ox). sound. may be identical with Esthon. grunny. Gr. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. to grunt. Illyr. rumbling. as lou of an ox. menAda (ndda. a wolf. meigeal. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. to howl. although the imitation embodied in Lat. a sow. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). he would hardly. cite as by grunt. grogner. does not produce a e. It is probable also that e. meil. ' In driving. and grumphie. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. hunon. grunlike a pig in eating. a pig Fin. grunt. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. a sheep or ewe.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. and of (maelon). leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. The g. and thence groin. 6. or in any ! way ! persuading. purr). lecco. meckern. to bleat. it and e. to rumble. in v. guttural tone. grumpf. /xj/caScj. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. Hence Breton hoc ha. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. Fr. . corresponding to ohg. a pig. mekegni. sus-sus. lek-eg-ni. name of the animal itself. leg-et-ni. hwch. to grunt. undoubtedly imitative. oe. And it is true there between hog and grunt. grumble. with the root ypaipm. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Fr. in Wolof bae. lekavica. smack and naski.' Moor's Suffolk words. hund. a hog. the designations of a dog the term cur. It. a grunt. knurfisk. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. and snorke. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. Welsh and Breton). we have Sanscr. Africa laa. and with the subsidiary k or g. naskia.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. hadg- Magy. goats. name. kurren. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea.). a goat. signifying a snarling. houch. sheep or goat. and hoc'h. Moreover. from knurre. cry). If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. Among dog. to bleat. (iriKov of forms like Sw. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. growl. groin. as the proper name of a tame sheep. hound. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. a sow. Illyr. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. hunt (gen. Da. kurre. mecati. from hundama. to themselves. With gen. lambs. Manx meilee. / The same Gr. . a (Hesych. Kurren und murren. a goat. — . Gael. Gr. ^. by which the shingle gives rise to It. Illyr. Gr. leknuti. G. a. . name of a sheep. meugler. meketati. grugno. nire. Magy. /xijeao/iat. and Circassian maylley. curmurring. a sheep or a goat.

hiine. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. (Craven Gloss. animal.' ticular bird. Thus we are led to the Fr. . when he found peculiarity. If onomatopoeias can . There are of course some names. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. to the left. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.). to go backwards. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. p. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. hoppe. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. like artificial flowers. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil)..' 2nd Series. turn a horse to the is In Finland. of the character in question. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. a mare. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. houpy in Craven. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. without a — we root. coquette. as in Yorkshire highly right. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. such as cuckoo. the cry to stop or back a horse. humma. hobben. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. But words of this kind are. hobin. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. a little am- bling horse. hottihuh.).. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. to whine. e. hobby. g. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. .' — ist Series. ^6<. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. p. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. 91. a horse. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. coquelicot. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. Sc. from the cry animal. M). which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. cockade. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. So Sanscr.root. Esthonian hoibo. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee.

frenschen. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. hross. nounced with a guttural). runniken. cough. Irieschen. goatsucker. redpole. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. Fr. than to the sounds represented. giggle. sol. horse. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. as sigh. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. Du. woodpecker. moan. to neigh. lapwing. groan. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. creeper. g. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. wagtail. signified It. swift. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. Pl. e. fehtati. hukkup. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. titter.D. Sw. command of language was attained. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. diver. Sp. Lettish sweegt. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. but whether there kind between them and other words. wrena. rinchar. ginniken. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. little speak for themselves. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. hennir. . wrenska. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. Sanscr. nitrire. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. hresh. whitename in in- throat. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. wiehern. xxiii ginal object. hikkd. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. animals or certain kinds of sound. form corresponding hresh. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. hresh. Bohem. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. ance or habits of the animal. to Sanscr. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal.

heaven). to sneeze. pump. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. White Lies. klatsch.' ! ! ! ! — dong. or tliat is accomit. Da. beat of a clock child . tlirob. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. for the creaking of a wheel. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. bang. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. thunder (Tylor) . for the for the sound of . fitsche-falsche. in a nail Let. knack. strippstrapp-stroll. root kshu. to drive on. . atchian. for that of breaking. hoo. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. are familiar in ' to every one. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. knarr. plitsch-platsch. hoo ping ping. 1865. wheeze. on the chops is represented also by pratx. a kind of drum. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. shriek. for the sound of a blow. ping came the bullets about their ears.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. haw. Of a like forma- drum . bang ' ! trenches. scream. DingBang. beat. snore. — Sanders. banga. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. Zulu bongo. for the sound of milking. for the sound of a fall. to beat. the dashing of the sea . acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. —Brem. for blows with a rod. ding. to throw violently down. pit-a-pat. ting-ting. to knock. or the w.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. clap ! A smack Puff. banke.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. the God of thunder . aritischane.' it both sides went. Vei gbangba. Wtb. tisio (tisho). dong Read. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. a large bell. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. for in such sound of blows. went the cannon. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. Mei gbengben. an attempt would be made to by the voice. haitshu. hang. mer.' So imac. snukkup). snort.' 'Haw.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. oren : Klapp. a more expressive than the e. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. Australian bungbung ween. heart tick-tack. It is represented in e. lumm. bangas. atchini. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. to ham. &c. debhes-lungotais (deifies. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . to hammer . &c. for a small one. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga.

Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. pipio. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. not- . piauler. piccione. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. The pi. Mantuan pipiare. pipegni. scream. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. In cases such as these. Fr.) a chick. and whimper. pipare. piou. — . is of expression. De Brosses. young bird. piou. young child . used as a call to . to peep It. ducing the sound. peep. pipio.sc. to designate cavity and hollow. He Yet asks. Lat. —Lyndsay. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. had been used laugh ? two. as the simplest implement for proFr. G. a chicken or gosling. chickens (Tylor). pu. is pfeife. a (young) pigeon.' instead. pigiolare. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. calls S. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. far pipi. a fowler's bird call is lost. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. has been un- employed to designate fixity. a fife or musical pipe. child. mobility excavation and hollow ^. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. Florio. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. as k.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. a or cheep. to cry pi. or a piailler. It seems to him that the teeth t. of a word will appear supposed to represent. to cheep like a bird or a young It. pipelni. peep. and so forth. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. pigione. Gr. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. a whelp. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. pipe. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. cry of young birds . pipe. pigolare. the voice of chickens (Cot. laugh. . as in other subjects of study. pipilo. cry. doubtless. to squeak. Lat. part of the What consciousness has the child. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. or the uneducated different consonants are man. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. which he added to intensify the expression. pippione. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. e. bleat. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. to cry like imrli^u). is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. pule. Magyar pip. and their relations. pi. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson.

crash. to fizz like fat in frying. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. vaake gorgor) . bubble. to ring pipio. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . or kaka-faka. like the noise of a glass breaking . Pefuxela. cluck. make wood a clinking noise. chack. crack. gurren.. to jar. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. {to It. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. rumble.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. as the click of a latch or a trigger. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. Indian chack-chack. kuruk. to hawhaw or laugh loud. borrelen. along with tinnio. to gurgle. i. loud laughter. sound of dry breaking. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. kirkirdnd. u. to cry pi. be cate to go on laughing loud . tontonare. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. grumble. of something fine and thin. a short sharp sound. Zulu raraza. Hindoo tomtom. thunder oil . to bubble. pi . Manchu kaka-kiki. along with Du. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. to cluck. and lugh. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. tonare. to be compared with Sc. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. murren. is very common. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. It. kniks. &c. to gargle . Poppopvi^to. laqfF. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley).) Mod. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. sound). . to crackle like in boiling . lachen. coo. a sharp short one. kniks. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . to gorgogHare rattle. of a loud strong sound. murmur (by . susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. turtur. ioriogliare (to make borbor). or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. garren. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. . a. Pacific aka-aka. Hindustani karak is rendered. creak. knuks. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. in German. a prolonged sharp sound. karkarana. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to grumble. tintino.. some small vowel or consonantal sound. girren. to laugh. as representing the sound made when something breaks. to rattle. the side of g. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to pant violently (Colenso). to creak knirren. a drum W. to thunder. knurren. rumble. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . to growl.Gr. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. knaks. where the variation. to grate the teeth . rumble (Fl. lachachen. the clucking of a j hen . to clack. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. preserved by Kilian. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . when it force than biscuit. a closed or obscure sound. to grumble). cricli. to pant bejii- zela. or springing back.

rvir (in tvittio. Newman). the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. Prim. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. the tingling Ming-Hang. champ. halaidlac'h. The syllables lil-bil. to giggle. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). at an accelerated note. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E.' Member for Paris. to be compared with g. to ring or jingle. clango. the gingling of glasses. Sanscr. coughing or clearing the throat. shout. Galla tuma. while cacd / used in e. call. sound. and e. hala-hald-faMa (falda. caca and Finnish adkkd. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. for a tTviror). or to Du. and the imitative nature of tivgle. Manchu kaka. Scotch sough or sooch. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . a boy's whistle. croaking of frogs. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. bulbiil. 368). in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. as of Tamil muromurmur. clank. a drum . corresponding in e. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. .and e. a smith. djeda (to say tub). bent her head. to strike. simmer. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. chuchoter. bubble up.* the heart. 1871. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. for the ringing of illustrate bells. wail. quarren. klirren. chut. tumult. e. kl'mg-kling. indicating the origin of Gr. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. for chut-chiit-er. . rifiirayov. is Manchu tang-tang. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. the sound of a stringed instrument. identical with g. to the purling of a brook. a nightingale. cry. csam-csogni. bad. 192). chinking of coin. uproar. or the bubbling up of to a spring. box on the ear imitation of the . tup. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. and Gr. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. correspond to e. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. jingle. spring of water in the a bell. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. E. borrelen. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. tumwata. ding-dong. The whispering of the wind I. and bilhila. agrees with g. disturbance (F. Maori pata. make djamdjam). Fr.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. to beat. Turk. are applied to the is excrements of children. muro and e. jangle. noise. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. word. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. to say chut. brings us to Fr. koXiw. Magyar csamm-ogni. a nightingale. for the clinking Lat. of keys or tinkling of bells. especially one who beats. Tiie Galla gigiteka. sound). thump. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. drops of i. as Fr. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. fumtu. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . KaKog. to whisper. rain (Tylor. kiling-kalang. tubh. and her heart went thump. awater* ' The Mme P. clash of arms. and Gr. or of bells ringing. Calt. is based on the same imitation as the e. clink. compared with Gr. to knock. a workman. for the sound of privy whispering.

The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. tymmesll. swash. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. mutter. dabble. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. ' Der puff. by rubadub. jingle. tomber.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. disturbance. splutter. and soufflet. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. gurgle. it is fallj AS. in e. to dance. chatter. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. twang. boom. answering to g. clack. The use of g.' — Nohden. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. while e. ring. It. But although and also found in Lat. paddle. Humboldt. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. craunch. clang. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. blow. smash. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. fizz. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. and the French pouf. thump. So in Fr. and Fr. crash. gargle. bubble. hum. tum-ultus. parapatapan. or v^hether jectional. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. whine. crunch. Fr. without the intervention of orthodox roots. at a door tarapatan. w. tingle. tumbian (to beat the ground). thump. snap. according to the strictest phonetic rules. clash. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. a applied as well to the force of the bang. clap. guggle. squall. blubber. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. plump. lash. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. murmur. report of a gun. clank. 'pat. creak. crack. slash. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. squeak. rataplan or rantanplan. douse. thump. to is blow. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. Nevertheless. sputter. squeal. we have buffet or cuff. to fall. hiss. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. smack. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. splash. clink. the Germans puff. clatter. bang. rattle. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. dash. whack. whirr. tinkle. rap. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. pop. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. flop.. chink. whizz. and Grimm. for (Sanders). patter. flap. tap. thwack. The beating of drum is represented in e. souse. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . puff. brumberum. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. din. rumble.

then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. If. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. formerly cited. knows them. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. stractions. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. and found in the building of be burnt up. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. of horror. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. wringing the hands. are made known by an instinctive cry. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. that he has taken the step in rational speech. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. is Thus ah!. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. or of any if wood. because they are spontaneous. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. and uttering plaintive sounds. by the nature of the cry. in the rushing waters. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman.'. little who has time to want of her nurseling. hay. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. p. 94. without a thought of symbolising to them. xxix on the contrary. or stubble is meaner name. the kind of action that is desired of them.' .' If chaos. grief. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . every little pain. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. At the first beginning of life. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. Grimm or Bopp. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. the interj. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. but if we must not complain on the beach. ugh . Crying. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. and thus they become signs of despair. or any unsatisfied want. the inteij. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. in the case of the animal or of the infant. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. an imitation of a sigh .

XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. He says. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. or which is of me as suffering pain. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. of all the mouth. shrieking. and the eye. they are involuntary interjections.' p. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. p. them to exercise it. to solve the I shall call first. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. may become traditional. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. coughing. groaning. interjections. the lowing of a cow. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion..' — ist Series. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. more eloquent than a long speech. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. If I wish to make a person of an . ^6g And to the same effect 371. as who them spontaneous utterances. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. p. which are frequently so toned down cance. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. Language begins where interjections end. should be remem- . or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. and some of them the composition of words. One short interjec- tion may fact. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. 344. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. 32. sneezing. And again. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. be more powerful. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. he cites from Home Tooke. more to the point.

Tooke in truth. some kind of language might have been formed. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. Koxafw. hahottaa. I am not hearer. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. Gr. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. then speech begins. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. it them. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and more or less limited . have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. loud laughter. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. when I arp humming and hawing. hahota. and others from interjections. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. demolishing here. for example. in Magy. cachinno. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. Lat. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. Kayxa^u). We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. interjections. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. kahkahah. and thus. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. speaking. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. he says. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. hohottaa. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. but the less am at a loss what to say. bered.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . in Fin.

The following account is given by Kruse. What strikes him . imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. But here nature soon conies to his help. makes them stand and walk upon the table. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. words receiving the meanings they now bear. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. dumb is the language of signs. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. and go where we now say stand. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. of the world. if taken as a whole.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. of the nature of this great movement. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and not. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. the critical question should be. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. a Picture-language. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. It as has ing their most striking features. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. a deaf-mute himself. . and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. Though. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. And so in the case of language. like peewit and cuckoo.' he says.

such as than the educated man.GESTURE most. most striking outline of an object. what more. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. like a V. that. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. called Gesture-language. thou. to name. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. The of sign for left hand. can do better and more easily abstract terms. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. and it is flesh or meat. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. for walk. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. but if I depress it instead. xxxiii him between one thing and another. and fully serves to j . particular sense in properly so called. thought is already broken. or the verb to be. and to taste. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. The same sign stands and the act itself. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. letter To hold the two fingers apart. push it towards the person addressed for thou. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. among themselves. he. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. nay. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. that air. walker. as it now opens out. walkest. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. or To pull and flap with the arms.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. his action. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and we have roast goose. many when or but these. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. it means little. and forms further and further. for single objects. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. for child. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . And is. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and And thus he makes himself a language. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. the sorecalling them to his memory. signs are taught for yet. walked. he. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. it seems. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and gestures. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. and with his thought. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. the whole secret. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. that signifies great . for the agent. such objects.' In the Institutions. becomes roast meat. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands.

When a verb. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. Who is has beaten you ? would be.xxxiv asking. . or action. or a passive scene of existence. and the as. in fact. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. and thus performs the part of an adjective. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. I say. according to the circumstances of the case. as when Bang ! went the gun. it called an interjection. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. You beaten . —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. whether by additions or otherwise. The same word . when I say. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. might be the knife. qualifies the against the wall. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. or an act. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. He gave door a bang. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. to indicate the action of a certain person. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. in other instances sentence. putting it into his pocket. or a quality. the ture of white term pink is and red. and so is an adverb. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. a colour red.' dener's knife. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. or something of the kind. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. as But when it is meant door. substantive or adjective. a number of alternatives are suggested. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. would be simply beginning of speech. as in die it is a noun. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. When I say. the garden. depend entirely upon the use. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. Do not bang the it is a verb. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim.

pain. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. commencement of speech. and to be great. that admits itself in of audible representation. and may be used language. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. whereto. coalesces with the personal pronouns. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing.^ — Miiller I. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer.. but often self-evident. . a noun. Thus tafu signifies a great man. wherefore. a groan. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. wherewith. as cung. wonder. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . some outward display of the affection. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. or with elements expressing relations of time. verb nor noun has yet been developed. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. that is. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. grie^ horror. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. inquiry. 255. &c. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. wherehy. inside. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. or nei. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. Latin. greatness. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. in the sense of great. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. in the is indicated by the syllable y. whereof.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. a sigh of oppression and . lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. or some relation between it and another object. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. middle. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. the man is great. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. contempt. with a stick. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. as kuo cung. which is an old y ting (use stick). Jii ta. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection.

w. cece. headache. to make bow-wow. has more kopfweh. pain. to weep. representing a cry of pain. jaoh. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. woe. vei-a. ocAJ. to cause pain. guaj-ire. weh schreien. as. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. to groan. to lament. Gael. suffering. jao. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to . oh. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. and to bark . djamdjam goda (goda. och. o'i. lament from oimi. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. Fr. ing action I. &. Illyrian vaj. guai. ach. ochain. ache. on. to chirp. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. j. Illyr. n. e. In this way from the root guai. oi. It. gwae. axofiai. grief. is w.-l-are. form. 6. to do woe. ohi. e. ochan. pain. . It. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. vaj. wai-l. weh. to lament.'). guaj- or cry out pitifully. och. w. Lat. pain. ah. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. to wail. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated.. die wehen. to cry n. seen in Gr. . oh. to ache. Gr. dchzen. to hurt Let. . is Ay di me I Gr. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. grief] affliction. ace. probably a deeper groan. to gargle. oimare. to sound yapyap. ach. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. and cacak djeda (to say crack. misfortune. Lat. as. achen. at the close of the radical syllable. mew. misery. Thus from springs otjucifw. It. to ache. w^wa. g. g. wAwa. ach. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. oval. ahi. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. 6. however. Bret. hei. to weep. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. found in g. vce. weinen. e. vce. ah. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. the pangs of childbirth. gwae. lament. ! ! Goth. to rriourn. guajo. miau-l-er. a groan or lamentation vir. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. waiidt. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. to make). ohg. woe. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. . al. or r. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. xxxvi grief. howl. representing Illyr. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. och. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). ochan. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. aiai^to. la. It. Such are g. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve.ez. Gr. ai. gwe-l-a. I oi[iot. wehen (Schmeller). miau-l-is. tirr-djeda. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. Jar lau-lau. to injure. to yell formed e. are ol-ire. to wail or cry alas . miau-n-is. The form corresponding to Lat. on. lau-l-e. Let. to bewail oneself. grief. A widespread It. to cry at. wehthun. ui. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. wai. in Gr. Gr. mostly a ! %. . first person. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. wai. wd.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

we may translate this by there (it is). When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. In the expression Da. thata (ta-ta). properly (give) be compared with by which a g. Bav. and may be rendered. as. nurseries. when 1859. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. according to Menage. Please. da. or wants to name something. When we pointing. the nursery da-da. his trowsers' pocket. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. a word of many applications in g. I add) . ' sees an object. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. says da-da-da. a specified were by pointing him out. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g.' then points to his wife. . seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether.' all is is — their consent. that. Diet. and by a variety of expressions besides. to here . is we I believe. when he wants something. give. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. The Fr.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. case. Dr Lottner observes. but the truth is. implying the direction of its good will towards them. more emphatically roSj)j that.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. Thank you. saying : there the ad- Trans. that is it. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. and so on. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. that gratifies me. or that it is.' this. as to express. 'nay. Phil. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. as it Dieser da (as Lat. for instance. give me that cheese. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. But. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. this here. Sie. well as Goth. child. da. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. ToSe (or in Attic E. • The child. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. is-te).THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. Sanders (Germ.' person. indeed. der da-ige. or carry me thither. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. or give me it.

idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. stutter.' says Muller. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. to chatter. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. or dalliance. standing. and shapes it into an . and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. p. its desire. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. to move step by step. of which any one may. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. which thus exertion. . to tion to another. thinking. meanings. sounds. Thus Gr. moving. to say to oneself. dadee. to walk. the original is that which he places first. sinking.^ its ' utters : a cry.' • liv ANALOGY. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. or metaphor. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. make dadada). The da is dodem. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. strike. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. reality. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy.' says Lottner interior. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. pay. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. and one in particular must. to beat. — Cot. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. childish toying. speech. in every mode of expressing the idea. tasting. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. takes it — as When the soul. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. to knock. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. beat. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. tattle. then instinctively interest.

The 6. Finnish. is used in the origin. knittre. Bavarian bracht. tintelen. . suspect Bav. wise. sprageti. rattle. discreet. to sparkle. and schmecker. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. to resound. to glisten Dan. firom the Gael. snutrs. in the domain of movement. to sniff out. to quiver. to crackle gnistre. fiapfiaipw. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. to shine. snuff the sniiten. snot. smell. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. magnificence. to . bilbil). air. to be wise. man of nice taste. In the case of sparkle. to glitter. scTiateren. Again. also wise. then to sparkle. a with kimmaltaa. In the same way the Goth. &c. make a loud noise. bright. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. kiimottaa. to tinkle. properly a clap or explosion. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. as kilind. spraka. sense of brightness. splendour. to sound clear In Galla. noise. in popular language. to sniff. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. beorhtian. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. may be it explained . splendour. to snilF. . to flash. from the . snudra. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. for example. beam. as. and thence e. 1654. wamara. snotor. judicious. brilliancy. wilahtaa. may be quoted gUt. knistre. which in ohg. taste. think. to shriek with laughter . to ring as a glass willata. to 5 ghtter. while sapere itself. bilbilgoda (to make . a brilliant light kilid. ghsten. kimistd. to glitter. extended to the exercise of the understanding. to crackle. sound. to shine. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. a dis- cernment. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . same imitative root with Sw. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. It is The word bright had a similar In as. Du. on. tinkling. search . unlella. iclat (in Old Fr. signified a clear sound. Heo Du. to smack or taste. and. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to have Sapiens. schiteren. chime). to ring. tumult. we have and the and beorht. and figuratively. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. a ringing . a rustling sound Gr. So firom Lat. Lith. smell. clang. prudent. gnittre. to glitter. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. to glitter e. schmecken. wilistd. esclat). the equivalent of g. sapere (which signifies the nose. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. outcry. — 1. pracht. (parallel bilbila. Fr. scheteren. savour.

strike. in truth. itself letters are felt as sofl. the cross. kvTOQ. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. pleasure soft to the ear . 6\tadaveii'. 1. wool. and vepres. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. Much of the same has been often quoted. Acre. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. in of his works. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. soft. whirl. flow and flux.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. rend. shatter. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. of dressing loud. mel. v. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. oily. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. break. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. rough to the ear. the bleating of sheep. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. rough. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. Tpa)(yg. The BpavEiv. within. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. is felt Lana. &c. power of the letter-sounds. gluey. we hear of screaming colours. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. accordance with the way in which by touch. the neighing of horses. pvfi^Civ. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. the clank (stridorem) of chains. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. to slide. he framed the words ivSov. as soft by the ear. extremely loose. roughness. smooth. rough both ways. fitting the letters to the sense. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. then in rpd/xoe. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. discusses the tone of a picture. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. inside. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. \nrap6e. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. or . sharp. which The Stoics. . And observing that n kept the voice within.' he says. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. Kpovtiv. ipuKuv. crux. eo ut res vol. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. Kep^arl'ieiv. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. KoWiiSije. tremour. he says. briars. rough.

138). Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. to jogj sac-cade. dig. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. 'and consequently form. as when. A greater felt. corresponding to the ineor. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. a rough and sudden . shog. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. or checks as they are called by Muller. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. jig. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. k. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. g. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. for exis ample. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. the case of the voice. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. joli. p. stag (in stagger. jog. like the hand passing over is smooth surface.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. degree of roughness sound.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. to signify varieties of movement. dag. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. d. stab. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. and in the utterance of a high or or low. sag-oter. cular effort Again. jih. ii. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. p. Fr. t. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. jag. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. tug. rug. shag. to reel abruptly from side to side). The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle.

and It. to mutter. a piece or bit of anything. Hence Lat. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. to tickle. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . Sukkeln. Accordingly the g. to have it ticked or marked on the score . rough horse. as Italian tocco. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. however. mik. zack. Dutch kicken.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. chiquet. to On the same principle j we have g. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. a small bodily object. to glitter. a stroke with a French toucher. to move rapidly to and fro. is so frequent a consequence of movement. to strike It. so to Italian toccare. motion. Ene olde suksuk. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. a jog. foot. to mark it with a touch of the pen .. cica. to winkj micati is Lat. g. to say a word . movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. Then. not to utter a syllable. Brescian toch. mica. as tot. e. and analogous movements. in cases like the foregoing. Bolognese tocc. to take a thing on tick.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. sound Fr. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to utter a slight kick. is lanese toch. a good piece of road . to incite by light touches. to ring a bell. passing to the signification of motion. a . zigzag. mot. also to stir. an old worthless horse or carriage. is made to signify movement. lead to Spanish tocar. to touch. a playiug-marble. an infant . The analogy then carried a step further. mie. to beat or play on a musical instrument. like English tick. chique. micare. for the sound of knocking at a door. properly a small lump'of . To tick a thing off. then. figuratively. The train of . Welsh cicio. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. kuk. a crum. to stir. it produces Dutch micken. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. toch-toch. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . that we never can be sure. chic. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. (mitsati). and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. tock. kik. then. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. The Mipen or pencil. a little bit. sound barely audible. tecche-tocche. The production of sound. chicoter. &c. a quid of tobacco. movement. Illyrian migati. and e. a cracker. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. or check. to pulses being knock. used interjectionally to represent a . It. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. schuckeln. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. Fr. Fr. schockeln. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. S-panish miga. tech-tech. Thus we have B. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. tack. The syllable suk is jerk. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. Mucken. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse.

mote. the vowel sound. tot. a e. So. there '(at a short distance). a light quick blow. . This kind. Cult. to e. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. e. of movement in totter. and out there. e. a morsel. small titlark. and mite. a small horse. as in e. to make a slight mark. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. anything . To jot. jot. and he. we have e. In a similar the relations of place. tiny. ri that. . a bit. bunch or flock of wool. But the same is language has re Javan. little. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. a small quantity. a little titty. motta. tittle. lump of earth. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. . to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. a morsel girl . a small kind of lark. Pm.) . a. titter. little j to that of a small bodily object. neither moit nor an atom. often entirely arbitrary. n. or o toi. . or the like its It. to movement of the pen . tit. to dot. motte. mutter j dust. you. fait. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. a bit. a certain conception. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. mutter. there. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. there (further of!) ao. Then.- a jot or little It. eo. citto. totle. corresponding to the personal pronouns. that iku. not because the pendulum makes a different left. a girl. here (close hand). a lad citta. to tremble. a small lump or pat. the same organ touched with the man. the least visible insect. to whisper (Pr. ticktack.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. not to utter a syllable. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. 199). tot. this. ika. iki. Malagasy to. mot. Halliwell. further off. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. at where the order is inverted. move slightly to . The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. . The following table from Tylor (Prim. for the beating of a clock. to touch lightly with a pen. mut. . to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). gnu. titmouse (Du. and a small lump of something. a small bird. zitio. taut. titilh.n. Fr. i. tot. seesaw. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . . to jog. clay . chico. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. to touch. 48) cites from the African Tumale. not an atom . tot. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. I. or the converse. anything small flax. tozzo. that. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. (Halliwell) Da. syllable mot. a whisper. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. tit. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. gni. a tot . lix Sp. 0. fragments It. and dot. subdued manner. small of kind. is shown in murmur. gno. for the three personal pronouns. and toddle like a child titter. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. tottle. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. to jot down or note with a fro. . Du. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. this . zitella. mossche. a sparrow). here.

mother. ulri. Mutsun ne. here 5 Yoruba na. Mm. is father. and a for the female. for the male. . little. here j ka. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. that. father. Japan ko. to. Gr. Fernandian az. this . he. olo. probably initial of distinction that the k. an old . Tamul i. ndi. . Botocudo ati. Carib ne. thou ni. there. that. . this ole. km. Tarahumara ibe. there. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. small (Pott. tiiio. this . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. this <t. ^. 6. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. respectively. man erne. you. here j abe. as the act of pointing was ta. this fi. here . . qu. Abchasian aSn..araM. that. young one. loo). It Carib lala. bi. thou. (tt). he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. akha. that. It seems to (fen. ni. femina ama. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. that. minution further. no constant rule is observed. is Here. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). Zulu ajoa. /e«. ta to ka. /wo. that. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. this . from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. ita. an old woman chacha. thou . . . here feraa. ukko. ofj. that.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. there. /mya. there. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family.) pronunciation of i or e. father k . by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. as in Italian Fin. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. I . there. . that in the distance. me probable that • Vei also little. uta. Guarani nde. Ossetic am.. that (intermediate) j wana. Magyar ez. j Canarese ivanu. that. Dhimas isho. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. ni. mas cheche. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE.e^. here .. and origin. mother. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. usho. that. Chilian tva. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object.) nna. nne. . Then. child. ne. he. mother. as Mr Tylor remarks. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. Sahaptin (America) kina.. there. biii. ojOo. w. child. Lat. this . there. here this .

by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. wean. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape.' — Merrv Wives. The Sw. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. nil. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. — Douglas Virgil. repetition It. trippen. whence Fr. just beginning to appear. a child. and in the Pacific dialects. to teet. is to express simple continuance of action. knob. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. From cases like the foregoing. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. . tion. A little wee face with little. to tread. i Sw. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. has tittafrem. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. trappa. lift 8. to make its way through the bursting envelope. 401. the pip or pippin. nab. The sound trapp . little To sup up. as j money. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. wenig. the simplest mode by the g. din-din. little. of smaller things. fretful. stairs. as ding-dong. barking of a dog. trSpigner. analogous to winy-piny. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. at pippe frem is to spring forth. &c. A little weeny thing. Fr. to peep. pepin.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. for the . a step. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. to peep through. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. dance (Kil. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. nipple. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. Da. titta. trappen. in old e. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. Clank represents the sound of something large. trippelen. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g.' making the voice as small as possible. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. And perhaps the E. or even. murmur. to leap. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. don-don. a little yellow beard. or chink. for instance. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. looking through between obstacles. to feet. the idea is called. sound of bells . keeh. the principle of reduplication. Thus we have Wolof sopa. trap. the nursery few j Sc. Top.) . to begin to appear . of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. for a succession of light blows low-wow.

the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. tache. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. mawhiti. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. kamha-gamla. didi. Thus in the Pacific loa. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. Malay ayun. serves to show and in this way. &c.. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. or a little tee--ny thing. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. 97). to cover e. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. puka- puka. calling. rapidity and strength. random . i. ding-ding. a spot. to love. and Fr. amusement. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. mawhitiwhiti. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . a grasshopper. Mandingo ding. 99). on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. from Maori muka. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. kendagenda. rack click. to say pooh It is ! to. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. ratsi-ratsi. The same principle of 196. the lungs. if very young. to skip. very great. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. or el. . the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. to talk at to walk. bad . properly speaking. clash of weapons. repetition or continsignify long. very long (Pott. Thus in E. a clattering noise. is language. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. instead of being actually repeated. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. er. clamito. or in Fr. ayunayunan. child . rack. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. And generally. are echoed by the rudimentary et. to rock. mpolu is uttered. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. tach-et-er. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. and the words express a continued sound of rack. cliqu-et-is. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). puka. .' expression is — ^Tylor. could readily be conceived. a cradle. keep spots. Again. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. to or rub. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. kenda. child . (to use a to speak. racket. smallness. sopasopa. the agent in panting . while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. or very very great. in familiar use with ourselves. So from clamo. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. very bad. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. the and clique. hardness. click. to treat with contempt. Susa di. to to call. to call frequently from Fr. or imitative syllables. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. loloa. little child (p. to pant. or rdtchi. lololoa. the comparative degrees of greatness.Ixii REPETITION. to vi^alk about for flax. Cult.

to make a succession of shoves. wagas ging. wankeln. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. Jickfacken. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. draggle. to rock. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. where all direct connection with sound is lost. wancol. or by association. miauler andpiauler.Jicol. to make bau-bau. or fi bau. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. mew and baa . is In e. from puka. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . The contrivance with any particular noise. smack. to make a succession of grabs . Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. a succession of cracks to rattle.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. rubber. such asjlap. as mAS. dab. the lungs (the puffers of the body). then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. to hand-le. waggle. which. he who rubs. compared with g. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to move to and fro. are to cry mew and pew . guggle. and in as. In cases like these. kneel. syllable clat . without the intervention of the frequentative element. fickle. or Maori puka-puka. Piedmontese bau-l-S. as to handle. rynel. to crackle. to bark like a dog. in some applications. joggle. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. in Fr. The Fr. crack. bubble. it. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. to rock or wag. dabble. jogging. to hand. Ihre remarks under gncella. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. by the side of wanken. wavering. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. g. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. or in e. or omitted. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. others. wankel. itself. to make gug. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . to continue dragging. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. bub. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. to wail woe . a from ayun. to puff. shuffle. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. the knie-en to E. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. miauler and beler correspond to E.

to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. A gull or a dupe same sense. or in aptness to combine with other elements. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. to cry ugh at. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. and comparatively few easily deceived. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . which. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. Breton. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. moreover.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. known in Italian. deceit. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. by a hard body breaking. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. to the separation between the broken parts. or in mode of use. or how generally. Polish. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. Dupe comes to us from the French. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. the breach. There is. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. it is obviously a mere chance how long. although it is not difficult. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. which is the origin of the word. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. at was more familiarly known. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. on a moment's reflection. will continue to be felt in daily speech. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate.

and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. nor any limited of ideas. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. language is . life. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. Hitl^erto. and the word is used in a secondary sense. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. . and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. founded in manifest blunder. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. is. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. however.

Welsh. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . guages in South America. I think it very probable. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. circle perpetrates a new slang term. evique. of material things. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. hearing. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. unintelligible to other hordes. i. If English. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and 'Russian. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. compared with the duration of man. and vescovo. in the course of many years' isolation. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. change. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. 330. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. out. therefore.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. Naturalist on the Amazons. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. French. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. episcopus. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become.' — But even tendency to in civilised life.

but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. is MN. which are idenr Figures 5. The combination of the symbols I and 2. or whatever the proportion may be. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. i. A key must unlock more doors than this. 8. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. ao8). occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. . 7. the actual it which would to represent. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. to be taken (Prim. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. as shown in the subjoined illustration. 6. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. 9. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. ancient Greek M . and . Cijlt. Nor is there one of the letters. it will leave figures 3 and 4. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs.

and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . for instance. leading him to utterances. and the only safe beneficent Creator. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. had its origin in imitation of sound." the use of a change of vowel in as. what comes to the same thing. or. which either by direct resemblance of sound. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. in the shape either of direct inspiration. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. his fellows. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. known to us as yet. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart.' should be discovered. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race.

and when we look back as far as history will reach. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. as elephants.COMPLETION OF MAN. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. in the course of generations. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . or beavers. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. of using imitative conduct . race were speaking men or not. for instance. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. or of their own reflected thoughts . of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. and rose towards a higher state of being. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. the conduct of Ixix life. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. that he started from the lowest grade. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. or else. and sooner or later. until the progeny. or not. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. by animal without a trace name of Man.

Romano - Cas- traise. dial. Cimbr. Dief. de la langue Cat. or Dan. Diefeiibach. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Fr. Diefenbaeh. Diet. Catalan. Bigl. Carpentier. 1857. ^Ifr. Cotgrave. Gr.V. . 1654. Fin. Couzinid.. Provincial dialect. English. Castr. Grammar Boh.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Danish. Esthonian. 1850. Dief. Infimse Latini- D. Dueange. Due. Cot. Da.Nieder. Finnish. Bohemian or Czech. Dueange. B. dialect of the Sette Commune. Sup. Cimbrisch. AS. Douglas' Virgil. Brem. Anglo-Saxon. Bremisch. Esth. Bav. Elfric's Fl. Carp. Diet. Gothischen 1851. Supplement to Dueange. E. Supplement to Bret. at the end of Somner's Diet. Teutonico-Lat. Dn. Biglotton seu Diet.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. 1766. Baile/sEngl.-Eng. Dutch. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Bavarian. Wtb. 1768. Diet. 1737.



Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom.>. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . ^i?^i2! r." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. Blob plowied r. yjnaifia r. (/ijtf r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. Askance woud r. sveritet Asknace r. r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^.percurrunt kimista^x. woman r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. cruccio deyrie. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. buque 118 brodiquin r. kilistaa bugiie r.nokkutama willekem. r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r.. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. puHti r. willekom Blab r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. katowai perairrantr. plowied budowaer. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . brodequin 134 141 katowai r. baltresca nokkutomax.5 ERRATA. haverie crtOT r. cti. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. r. alUger ahaverie r. word allagerr. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr.


to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. on-lic. The word Ban is common orders. on. ab. Lat. have entire dominion over. dominion. until the event jlace .' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. power : Than Wallace thing. alike. K . that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. among. from. away from. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. a. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. "rom a height. onis aback. AS. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. as. away. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. announcement. Thou spelds of mychty iction. said. in. command. sion of 'an abandoned character. orders. from a is to wake to abide. state of sleep . as. Abs-. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. Thus ip N3S. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. 843. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English.he Goth. vs. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. behind. AS. abaft. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . ur. to hold . a washing off to abstain. Ab-. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. a/tan. Jvery man shewid baft. 244. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. er. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. but now )bsolete). o/j of or . us. on. Abaft. and secondarily in that of command.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. and — Chaucer. out of. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. erwachen. on-bsec . ibandonner. Passing tongues. Parson's Tale. OHG. bandon in French. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. abs. —Bruce. implying a completion of J. to subdue. Abandon. Again. the er. dominion. this word beand Spanish. To abuse is to use iway. iway from. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. in the same sense. ir. his. . The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. A. ifter. in a manner other than it should be ablution. to arise. Dent posture. plesyt him. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. an edict or proclamation. into the Romance ftrseg . In Lat. compounds. particular 1 . Hence on-bceftan. off. to sauff the king or spill. to awake. downwards. Immediately from Fr. literally. baftan. rule. of-dune. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some.t G. ar. be-ceftan. whatever he be.

Abbot.Prov. merely the terminations ons. abbatere. depress. bandon. abbatis. of fear. In or. beer. or admiration. to overthrow. Hence the OE. thing abbatere le vela. of wonder. astony.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth.On princes. his mouth. ne more vermeille. Baba ! Mod. abbattre. at his own the lips. ais. 1520. On the other in use as well as hand. faire tomber.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. R. polish.— R. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. And he thereof was all abashed. betrash. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. esbahissant. to happen. de. to make lower. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. overthrow. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. confound. baba. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. to ruin. See . Abbey. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. in the active form. by Wall. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. weaken. an abbey. to astonish.down. iv. down. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. R. with or without a final sh. abate. Beat.polir. to excite admiration. to The . from Lat. To Abate. Hart in Jamieson. d. and grooms besmeared with gold. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. father. to put to con. esbahir. and sets them all agape. Wall. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. esbahissais. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to abaw or astonish. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. See Abide. effect of shame. vol. burny was formerly burnish . Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . Abbess. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to bate something of the price abbatersi. abbas. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. R. terminedly.esbawi. Fr. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. to gape. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator.) . lish to abaisse orabaish. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. drink. to light upon. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. bawi. Custom. baer. . Originally. his eyen shene.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. may be explained. astonish. where custom (Grandg. impetuously. as ravish. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. other. Castrais. to take possession of an estate. law term abatement. so common in the found in the OFr. It. person. adverbial expressions at abandon. Cotgr. abbatia. c. uncontroUedly. burny. esba. or society of abbots or monks. of the Fr. and the verb was written in Eng. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise.' the surrender of a ' K. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. from ravir.fournir. — — . son bandon. to diminish the force of any. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. More correctly written abbat. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. and it that that it — . abbatere dal prezzo. Hence Lat. to beat furnish. abandonly. — Neccham. to strike sail .— — . and that from Syrian abba. to hit. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. impulse. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. ant. . Bate. 1 1 8. 364s. shame. castle. Milton. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. A. abaundunem-ent. I was abawid for merveille. et prirent terre. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. to strike Froiss.

to open the mouth. to stay. us. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. syllable ba. to remain or endure.. delay. covet. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. to attend to. —Raynouard. . . from Halo. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. attendre avec en^pressement. Quant voit le serpent. badare. wait To Abide. house. compared with (Bosworth). take care. m Abeyance. Thus we have It. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. The verb atwaiting. abaier. ne chastised them. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. abbadare. bouche bdante. to attend on .— ^richer. bie. Thus G. to suffer death in Du. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. abiiance. aspire to. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. ' ' . listen. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. See Abide. to gape . with badia. abie. signifies the direction of tend. to mind. From abahier. endurance. . Ni engigner ni abiter. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). gola badada. watch. Goth. othres abidan' The effacement expect. Gloss. to be intent upon. regarder. to open bader. Norm. listening. b^er. in Dan. qui iaaille. Pol. expectation. bida. F. intent observation.' is in AS. tenere a bada. to deanimer. to expect gabeidan. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. desire. ne wist what way to chuse. bidan. and in E. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. tarrying . the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. To Abet. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. bana. Abele. beguiling on the other. and alluring to his own destruction. In We . while the monks under his control ing. 366. on the one hand. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. badare. to look. de Champ. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. John.) abayer. inciting. bder. gridare. bide of the d endure. Gloss. abidan. or in Fr. or do we AS. and Prov. baier. desirer (Roquef. bhr. beijden. K. Corresponding to keep in suspense. attendre See Bait. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. abie. suspense. a bay or opening in the coast. white. exciter. beguile. look for another. also to OFr. to It. bada. baer. baier compared with It. tempting. to ance. endurArt thou he that should come. Abie. forms with the d effaced are OFr. delay. Du. a right in suspense . Cat. tity of E. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. beijen. to wait. bialodrze-w. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. trick abetar. to deceive. badar. beidan. Ducange. Cat. inciter. bie compared with Dan. — signifies to suspend action. to desire. expectfamily. ^couter avec dtonnement. abayer. deceit. Prov. to wait. . bida. verbeijen Sw. incite . badigliare. abeyance. tical with It. and E. (Vocab. abSiance. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. is idenwait. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. with open mouth . abetter. waiting. baier. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. take notice. in Fr. usbeisnei. beter. abet. wait. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. aspirer. bocca badata. pense. beijen. speaking of the Holy places. or absorption watching. — II. abeter. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. open the mouth.— Roquef. to abide . — ABELE Epiphanius. abet. to expect. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. which is certainly related to It. to be intent upon. ceive. to tarry. literally white tree. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. songer.— Chaucer. to wait. . 1 • . — . The white poplar. OFr. Guernsey beth. forbearance.was formerly used in the sense of look. Boethius. we sceolon ON. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . guardare. have seen abide. says. Fabl. the verb of abeyance. E. to stay. Norm. delay. were called Brothers. expectation. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. deceiving. bouche b^ante. beidan. to hook.to wait. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. which the mind to an object. to desire earnestly. warten. Q. to yawn. Corant sens lui.Fr. suffer b. badare. lingering. to In great amaze. de Berri) Prov.

properly abuy. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. willing to schewe his wrathe.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. —Bacon in R. on board . as habiller du chanvre. as E. God. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. to pay the penalty. For on board. abie to Goth. to dress hemp. abolir. al- be found so some will dear abide it. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. In this to erase or annul. convenient. Prol. powerful. Cassar. him with che. at kasta fyri bord. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. was often used in the same sense. R. P. habile. Wickliff in Richardson. L. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. Milton. P. in for any special purpose. to wear away. fault being simply clothing. consequences of anything . seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. use. to . and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. Chaucer. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr.ynes. Q. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. Lat. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. a board. habilis is closely preserved. — P. durance in both applications. to pay the purchasemoney.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. the side of a ship. R. Tr. bide. while in later examples As I . If it badare. atling hem to her proper offices. Mids. adapted . to perish. i. suffer the Jul. Fr. and the simple buy. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. ON. Fr. from Lat. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. abycgan. aboleo. from AS. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . AS. &c. . must suffer for it. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. abide. the Sir Tristrem. abeye. and Cr. 2nd Tale. 2. O If tion. able. Boucher. to have . Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. abigg.^and to make his power knowne. abie. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. It. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. at hand). de la volatile. ! ! Cotgr. She shall abie that trespass dere. abidge. Merch. or bie. Abie. though sometimes confounded with it. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. is the verb abie. beidan. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. within the walls of a ship. the Fr. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. bord. Spenser. abilej Prov. God — dear. Dr. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. — e. habilis (from habeo. strong. — Able. to redeem. within the ship. bidan. The —Boucher. without special reference to the notion of retribution. power. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. Innan bords. have-like. purpose. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. fit. and death for handsel pay. to draw fowls. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. abicgan. being disabled in the highest degree. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. abilh. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. when compared with Aboard. F. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. forbid for mother's children should abye. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. the Pardoner In the original. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. N. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. expert. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. sufficient. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat.

on high. as AS. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. Gael alaich. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. oil. natural ed direct from the latter language. to nourish. which may God avert. life. The primitive idea seems that of beget. to progress. OSw. awaking. to let sleep. AS. and alere flammain. to rear. side. agredge. abrdger. or cut short. without. levis to the Romance languages. D. progeny.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. the identity of which with ting. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.. ABOMINABLE adolesco. currence. is not from G. leading immediately to Fr. Then.ger. greu. the man dwindles away. Fr. common in Chaucer and Abominable. Kiittner. to aggravate. to rear. full ofte his words for to Fr. whence the Fr. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. coalesco. boven. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. hard. OE. . See -und-. to produce. Virg. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. while the verb alleThe root el. olet become worthless through gam De manji af.the older form. way Sw. which passed into English under Abominate. gravis. adolere. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to turn. is a ively. or young forth. In the same brevis . Of these synonymous adolescere. Severe the threatened evil. heavy. but from Lat. to cut short.ymbutan. the idea of breaking about .. to awake. below. from . so that here also we to deprecate the omen.1. to bring up. seems aras. nurse.' Parson's rence. gravity. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. the hair grow. snatch In English we speak of away. from Fr. Finnish stock. To Abound. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. pedigree from brevis. onbutan. See To Bray. about cockcrow. OE. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. en. to feed. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. becomes leu in Prov. ufan.) . Thence to regard greugetat. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. Quod abominor.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. to grow up. alUger. Tale. Abray. that greatly agredge their sin. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. as withotityn and without. sec seftre — Chaucer.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. kindling. abominor (from ab and omen.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons.' Ymb hancred utan. while the sense of beget. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. as the duty of nourdisposition. Melibaeus. d. abredan.foda signifies to beget. and in-d-oles. alan. abutan. ol. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). to snatch. by the to bring up. abowen. Du. nourish. explains soboles Lat. — . So in Lat. abbreviare. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. and also. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. above.aboon. s —Casdmon. around on the out. abrcBgdan. af-oleii. a portent). be-ufan. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. be-utan. abbrechen. for ligeth butan. alere capillos. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. Thonne Abroach. agreujar. and also to abridge. the OSw. af-oolden. Goth. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. literally. titan. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. disastrous portent in some passing oc. ala is made to signify to rear. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. the form a&^^. vital PI. abracan. to AS. butan. The radical idea is to feed the flame. AS. abufan. to start.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. and bidden him abregge. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. to main. to light a fire the Abraid. Abundant. Prov. to feed. break out. brood. For on broach. To abray or abraid. outward. to grow together. to fatten. alan.— Abbreviate. parent. motion. ala. to beget or give birth to children. al is growth. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. bufan. abbrechen. and to do something to avert abbreviate. nurse Lat. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. . breaking out in language. Abrdger itself. giving birth to. Above. of any kind . to and of giving birth to a litter of young. his contemporaries. Lat. Sc. — ' — — preceding verb. draw out. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. AS. the vital spark. to break off.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


Lat. to strain. before. Lat. anxi. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. Gr. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. Otfried. left as the . Pezron fiUist. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. d<popi(xnbs. swaged. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. or in a ridiculous dress. a preventative . on. inAgain from the same author cudis. to sound in answer. —Spencer.made out. strangle. To ape. Gr. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. E. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. such as savages. which by anvild. post. and ig. separate purpose. whence Prov. AS. As the browcalled antiques. Anvil. from. Fr. a definite . andouillers. Thus from gabe. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. a block to hammer on. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. See Cover. Lat. should be received. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. from eigan. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. from Stephanus. were chiefly of the former class.legacy of given against. Fr. In like manner. from an and — - . AS. Ilvtwotov. what Roman civilisation. Antidote. verberas. surimitation of the ancient models. to display pario. ReApe.th centuries the recognised models of antic. work. whence anthem. anxius. ab. fauns. to open. three antike pillers. a small quantity. antifena. burnished. cenig. as the Italians. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. to nourish. were andouiller the second. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. one at the least. like a jack-pudding. Antick. Percutere. — — — . of. Hall's Chron. before. Apartment. a few. Aphorism. and devils. avri^ava. AS. transferred to the grotesque characters.— . from avTiipoiuia). press. aside. anticus. something ler in R. separate. gabeigs. Anxious. wealth. trouble. as from as. anapoz. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. younger child. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. to have. Gr. the anticks — behind. from ango. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. choke. from in and cudere. plenteously with red. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. Mannequin. white. some one. apatiar. all of gold. Antique. ambeld. to strike. but the expresent day. Lat. panis. to bring forth. rich. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. Hence the applica. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. So Lat. one. a termination equivalent to Goth. apanage. from. stem. vex. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Apartment. incus. or antique single chamber. from an. finally applied to a whether grotesca. to go in strange disguises. To go antiquely. Fr.is to be given. eigs. : . to support. Jorioc. anfilts Pl. Ful- Apanage.D. panar. part. apertum. G. d. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. amboltj Du. to imitate gestures. Apart. Aperient. aperio. and claret wine. af. . shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. a puppet or an anti^hona. antefn. i. Prov. as we call it. one having wealth. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. in Shakespear.. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. set aside.—Aperture. from ante. villan Gloss. as posticus. Antler. from the imitative habits of monkeys. bread. Any. to strike G. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. a gift.

to seize. 'LaX. AS. were formed appropiare ejar. equal. or the like. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. poind. aparelhar. diminutive pariculus. —Diez. corresp. to catch hold of. appareiller. in data. to which it is often referred. Palsgr. Cotgr. to approach. of. Yr. despatch on some service. Fabian in R. apprendre. an epistle or letter. fit- — ness. Fr. laven is used both as E. approcher. The Fr. To cause to pall (see Pall). (cited by Diez from a late author). avail. from. pronounce fitting). to disable oftat. Cotgr. to understand. approver. ^wss. known. prohts. when the . preparation. apin R.prix. They werin his approvirs privily. — prehendere. —^Apparent. to call. and metaphorically to take the meaning. prize. 5w. to mark to define a bound. APRICOT off. consent unto. from aTroorlXXu. and in the sense of condition. e. a learner. one sent out. diroTrXriaatii. rise to \t. that it outfit. like. 'L-zX. to deaden. Gr. : — — speak 'Lz. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. apropchar. Fr. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. cepl. pretium. Fr. to learn. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. Prov. From Gr.pareil. away. decree. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. order. agree.parejo. To praise. taking. to finish a controversy. d-n-o. habilUr. Mod. From Lat. Fr. An old appalled wight. appellare. a'^opi'Jw. to deter- to strike. Apple. whether through age or sudden teiTor. ai. par. allow. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. Cent Nouv. appaiser. apprise. And among other of his famous deeds. apar. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. to — — . appartenir. whence the e. ON. peace. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. esteem. — Appurtenance. one for his defence. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. It. to — . in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Friar's Tale. off. dress. to be open to view. Formerly apricock. value apprdder. apal. . Walach. To Appraise. A — . The PI. array. apprentis. ar. . Hence It. Nouv. to strike down. trim. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. agreeing with "LtA.—Apprentice. and appoinder (to find fitting. Apostle. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. 23 . to store or put Appal. in good season prendre son d. properly to join like to like. oVooroXof. Parson's Tale. to send to. Ir. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. pronounce good. Apotliecary. to dress in this fashion. Apo- good time. probare. purpose. 11.his giving evidence against his principal. to call for judgment. in Chaucer. habiliments. apprehendere. I prise ware. apropid. praise. irpaiKOKiaov. a price. to assign or grant over unto. to Lat. appris. make a composition between parties. For their acquaintance was not come of new . iwKjToKri. to accord. OFr. Gr. Fr. peler. mine. seiden of the stones. They were considered To Appoint. Cotgr. word was specially applied to clothing. Epistle. Pliny. to approve. approcdare. in fact. to rate. a thing for one's purpose. landmark. ap. proper time came. near. a crime. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. xv. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Appease. good. poind. Yr. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. jabloko. Fr. H. manner. case. pertain or belong to. Apoplexy. Lat.t. find Then like Fr. Apprehend. Hence appoind. from paix. after his mind . S^. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. Prov. to commend.probare. become dizzy . to set a price on.propius). to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. Sp. apparecchiare. prope (comp. And whanne sum men Lat. in commendation. plight. Gr. to make a thing Apparel. — dirondtfiu. one the MLat. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. one is in. i. kind of action. Fr. obolys. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. Fr. piteux poind. the good. prover. to suit. to take away or lose the vital powers. diroBrjKr}. and also as appraise. set a price on. to come near. . like. Approach. ciously than nede is. From Lat. To Appear. — Approve. — Apprise. to send off. to learn. N. aptly. D. lAfiaam. En peach. to deem good. quoth the frere. pragigua or prixcoda.parecchio. to lose one's senses. horror. or E. Appareil. apal. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. to announce. APO sentence opoQ. Gr. appareo. opportunity. w.— . to fit. Lith.

Maan initial . a cloth. proper. however. words derived from arpa. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. {mies ^=ia3. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. arbitror arwaaja. nawl and awl. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. found in Fin. fastened close. P. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. . conjectura conjec^ra.) E. J. however. Freshly turnid Arable. or barm-cloth. and thence fit. aestimo. Flower and Leaf. Beryn. hariolus arpelen. or eft.o. A. Aquatic. la nappe. As is a pretty parlour. 331. shortdr. divining rod. OHG. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. arbiter. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. a soothsayer. aqua. as ihe diminutive. quod he. be That it inne groweth. intensitive of nape. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery.meaning at Shrewsbury. From OE. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. a lot. Now one of the points — — — .gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. is taken in is a soothsayer. The loss or addition of n very common. Pm. to plough. Albanian. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. and with turfis new Goth. the spelland umpire. tion under trial. opinio. a lot. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. most conspicuous situation in the garden . It may be doubted. doubtless is the origin of E. arbiter in re censendS. grande nappe. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. aro. and the one who gives oracles. pracoqua was not an adapt. sorcerer. short. Naprun. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. . Arbitrate. of of divination arpa-mies. It is certain that the apricot oracle. scr. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. properly the arwella. wata. herbere. conjicio. ughe. — napkin is Naperon. to decide by lot. nected. Lat. arwelo. ear.' —About.] in the N. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. a river. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. Gr. Prol. C. aha. 31. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn.shrubs {arbor). . naperon. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. ap. auguror. con. Marsh. symbol.. 2. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. as an eye-witness. Thus we have natiger and auger. Alban. Lat. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . water Which that benchid was. . From OFr. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. Roquefort. This path Aqueous. suitable. garden. sortium ductor. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. and a protection of the clothes. Arbour. account for either of these significations. Now we find in Fin. derived. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. — . and sortilegus ation. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. delon. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. OE. Pr. a pleasure-ground. aptus. rofe and all. She made. aa. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. arwaus. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. sestimatio arbitraria. Lat. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. P. arbitrium. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. arpa. to preserve it from stains.sors. ahva. a lot. man. Hall. and taken away before dessert. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner.

a. Lat. the a brute. it signifies roguish. un malin enfant. Lat. burning heat.. And thou as arwe coward.. i. ill-tempered. arg. shoulder. arson. Arch in composition. earg. apx^iv. Alisaunder. It. sly. which is derived from it. gwyro to bend. Lat. det arrigste snavs.' Paul Warnefrid. rame. arrant Arms. Arson. bad. signifies chief or principal. Gr. to burn . Area. arga. an arch boy. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. earh. morally bad. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. arrig. Du. difficult to reach. contemptible. Sp. to be on fire. arduus. . ancient. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. man. Arcadia in R. ardre. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). mischievous. to arm. which has been referred to W. apxh. erz-bischof. Brem. From the verb armare. Applied in modern E. a court yard. AS. ars. From apxeiov was formed Lat. apxri. un petit rusd. a threshing-floor. a chief builder. especially shoulder-joint. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. arm'ee. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag.4 rir/. Fr. Ardour. ein arger knabe. the best. are formed the participial nouns. ramend). ON.aioj. armee. . and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. a rule (princiruler. gwyrek. to demonstrate. arcus. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. argr. earm. government. troublesome. 2. mischievous. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. a burning or setting on fire. sly.— Army. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. W. an extent of flat surface. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Langobard. sluggish. stuff. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. make clear or prove. weapon. kpxi- beginning. bravest. G. a branch. receptacle where the public acts were kept. weapon may be simply an application of annus. . Lat. shoulder Boh.In E. Sax. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. area. faint-hearted. by Russ. from nixa. wanton. — Architect.is the natural weapon of offence. Lat. an arrant rogue. et vulgari verbo. Uo^a^. ers-betriiger. arm. timid. Fr. Gr. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. bad of its kind. to Arch. a noble. Aristocracy. Du. TiKToiv. argvitugr. Ardent. as the arch of a bridge. the court of a magistrate.' Lex. arcA in e. and not with apx. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. vocaveris. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. wretched OE. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. Gr. first. arsum. ramo (pi. Cot. fabricate). to dry. There can be no doubt that E. in Due. curved line. vescovo. Arid. een erg kind. . worker. bad. erz in G. exercise lordship). to rule. as in E. curved. Lat. 3340. fainthearted. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. * ArchjAiTaxit. to be in comp. Arduous. branch. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. Perhaps erz-wticherer. the most arrant trash. arma. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. a bow. arguo. ardeo. Gr. arwe. Lat. the terminaGael. apxtipfve. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. Dan. taxed with cowardice. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. whence the body of the nobles collectively.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. is essentially the same word. from areo. Arm. while the Fr. Lat. arm. ruling by the nobles. ^Argument. a bare plot of ground. patus). aridus. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. aj-f. erg. lofty. and our army. ' — Argue. Fr. ardor. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . armada. ardIn G. The . Arcliives. and Kpurka. — Wtb. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. G. malicious. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. A construct. and must be identified with Dan. adjective. D. raineno. archangel. an arch-deceiver . apxtlov.' the Gr. . armata. high. forearm . arch-bishop. an arrant usurer.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

In like manner Fr. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. Sw. taich. bol. vcdra bdlkr. balk. balle. To Bale out water. ache. (Hesych. Du. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. and the dim. and evil in general. a clod of earth water. . globule. Sw.' speak gibberish champurrar. . a continued noise of waves gently beating . sorrow. bolker. baalie. G. at giore en balk. . to avoid it. hooting. It. to speak an un. ball. a ballad. ill. Boll. Bohem. gen. Wotton. package of goods. Balloon. palloilla. bol. to move. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. to ache. Q. Pol. Sw. a beam. palcare. a separate portion. ballet. dial. pallo. bolyatchka. sick. a ball. Ball. ballare. Rouchi ban. balveins. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. calamity. pallo. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. boleii. It. balle. w. on the shore. similar connection is seen in Sp. ban. bjdlki. to be balker. ball. I. It. ballar). Goth. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. To baulke the Sir H. baler. to by beams. heap up. palla. maan pallikka.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . with the perhaps from balg. ballare. a boil. balloon. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. Da. from the more general notion of moving up and down. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. hue et illuc inclinare. a scene acted in dancmg. as in a barn or cow-house. The primary sense seems as in G. to stir. probably Lat. Russ. a balk of foul weather. may exhibit the original development of the signification. a pestilence. bal. tum. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. to dance. bdlkr. torment. balka bunge. Sw. a bubble. bollr. bolawy. wickedtorment ON. misery Du. a wooden partition . stage or scaffold. It. Sw. a clump . balk. E. mass. the breadth from side to side . OSw. malefacGower in R. Sw. pallukka. bold. Bowl. dial. other while. Ball. balle. a partition. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing.). balge. Fin. a ballot). a ball balla. ' is a piece or confused talking. ballotta. . vacillare. bal. Grief. Hence Dan. shouting. We have then separate dial. Bale. Baulke of land. ballare. separaison. Perhaps on. a skin. . Ballot. balk. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . a pail. Ballata. ne leaving any balke. to be ill. on. bolyaf. floor. ballo. beaten road. Fr. G. pila. balk. pain. the beam of a ship. Sw. the object of his expectation. a clapping or flapping of wings. a ball.Fr. a But making way for death at large to walke. Dan. baloier.of men . a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. a. cka. Gr. * Balk. to cause another to miss pustule. a ball. N. bala. to rock. to Not sparing wight. balken. — A — — . Fr. uveirs bolk. dial. Hence. whether of wood or stone. to see-saw. to plough for a boundary between lands. balka hopar. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. afbalka. Fr. the ballet of the theatres. to grieve . plague. bielke. It. to wave. as we say. boll. . OFr. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. a division of the old laws. wickedness ness . Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. bbllr bulla J. . to on Holmedon's plain. AS. balva-vesei. a together in the form of a ball. sickness. bacgtteter. 2. Da.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. Mid. ball. on. a beam. a ball. ballone. balka. to partition off . to dance. balle. balja. balare. to signify washy drink. Venet.— Ballet. a dance. from bacquet. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. See Gall. ball. pallikka.Lat. Gael. trouble. TtaKKa a pail or tub . balken. to paddle in water . A balk. Sw. balla (with the augm. to bale out. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. bal-daed. to shake or jog. a washing-tub. e. chapurrar. bealwes. a dance. weak liquor.ing. grieve . Ugutio in Due. a water-skin dim. baalien. bola. ballan. a ball or pack. pilula. to roll. Sp. lealo. on. blister. dial. a great ball. Du. says Ray. Bret. a pill. ON. bal.—Ballad. ing. to ail. OHG. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. balkr. maleficium. a globe. destruction. i. are applied to a From the same analogy. F. 3. roof. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). to plank. to pack Da.

Balluster. Sc. by met. bertesca. To Bamboozle. from bara or vara. command. Said to be from balaustia. ballustres. inutile onus. Balsam. balsamum. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. Report Pennsylv. Gr. In OSw. bamboccio. a young babe. as he says. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. The Baltic sea. Balm. Dan. &c. Bamour.' And Kil. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. back of the ship. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. bambocciolo. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. &c. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. for want of other freight. ranked on the outside of cloisters. To deceive. a fragrant gum. To make fun of a person.000 tons. and Mid.Lat. or movement of one who walks. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. To proclaim. bag-las. baU.that the going vessels. a duty on goods last. the flower of the pomegranate. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. also with flatteries and . forbid. age. a nettle. the act of walking. mare Balticun. enchanter. Cotgr. more frequently than outward-bound. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. lastre. puzzled. Sept. It. a false tale or jeer. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. . Fr. baranda. in the first place. small railing. the backload.. explains ballast. bamein. astonished. bam.). deceive. is in Sweden and Norway. Mr Marsh whether the a load. from Lat. Ballast. curse. Bret. because. lastra. Fr. denounce. lestage. The Sp. of balusters. ^a\Ba\iov. baUa. bag-lest. 1. It is explained back by Adelung. Venet. i860. 1854. a small balustrade. to preserve equilibrium. make fun of a person. bambolo. Du.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. Lat. barauste. This is the backload. an Old dotard or imbambolare. inutilis sarcina. fonts. but loadage. R. . terraces. But Fr. Bret. Sp. baume. or ballast of a ship. deceiver. 43 — Cot. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. seems the original form of the word. When a ship discharges. balconies. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. last. galleries. a useless load. analogous to what is seen in It. To Ban. ballast. for a load or goods (Roquef. railing around altars. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. It. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. If bambocciolare were child of one. it is forced to take in stones or sand. barandado. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. baltresac. — — oltriga. more serious objection is . a rod. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. objects to the foregoing derivation. to walk. sorcerer. ballustre) is a corruption. lest. ^Arbuthnot in R. dial. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. A — — . But because baglast is not found in the written documents. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. paid for the right of carriage. to enchant. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. a battlement . and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. To Bam. Baltic. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. bumbazed. lastagium signified not only ballast. balustrade barandilla. urtica. little round and short pillars. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. called Bait. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. endormir par des contes. Lest. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. like Fr.

and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard.—John Villani in Due. curse. Thus the word is also used in both senses. bande. then the signification w. Fr. banner marked the place of assembly. banns pany of footmen serve. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. a coast. Diss. v. The to . tener da alcuno. —R. Capitul. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. Wyntoun. G. bandon was used in the same sense. It. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. Bandus. Goth.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. admolendinum.e. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. parti. to ban. bande. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. to follow a faction. side. Se il — Romance languages. — R. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. to excommunicate {lysa. Car. Les saiges avait et les fols d. &c. summoning to serve So in Swiss. populum. 813. faction. bann. It. bandi. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. in hostem convocare. to unite with a band. 15. etc. R. bandon somewhat party. Band. bando. border. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. those who side together (bande. and in E. Bandear. to take one to task. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. is That with which anything AS. In Fr. banda the colour or material. bande. to ctide. a company. A. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. permission. bannum or bandum. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. bundun. biddal. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. says Muratori. See Abandon. . From the verb to banda. OE.. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. i. and thence to any proclamation. Mag. To Bandy. R- He Translated by Chaucer. passing on from proclamation to command. Leg. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . Assises de Jerusalem. . whether by way of injunction or for- command. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. to form parties. margin. Commun^ment son bandon. D. to . also the band or of marriage. 26. to publish) banna. ba?idare. Goth. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). eiiseigne. band. power. he assembled his host. 1. 19. — excommunication bann-lysa. &c. region. Spebifid. to side or to bandy (Florio). authority. to bring corn to be fahne. There is some doubt how Fr. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard.Lat. bannire in exercitum. Cot.is further developed. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. flag. the ensign or banner. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. banda. sostener Torriano. — To partito d'alcuno. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. Sw. E. side. banda.^ bandy. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. In a special sense the term company itself. Fr. ex. acquired the sense of proclamation. bandera ground at his mill. 2. band. It seems this signification has arisen. Sp. Baud. fahne. change to the feminine gender in banda. from at the Lord's courts. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. bound. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Sp. bindan. at his own discretion. bannire exercitum. he bannede his ferde. It. Ripuar. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. hoc est vexillo. theodscipe ut abannan. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. to reprove. ligue Taboada). and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. we constantly find the expression. 'A son bandon. in Fr. and It. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It.

banca his creditors. Milton in R. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. a bench. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bana. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. Bandy. tumult bangas. standard. 2. It. benk. banco. Ripuar. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. It is in this sense nounce. bank. a bank.: . to publicly order one out of the realm. beat. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. Fr. bench. a bench. of bandying words. language of W. It. bander. death-wound. N. to knock. Benchi. Lingua. . to foment factions. seat . &c. bench. banc. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish.z. bana-sott. ON. — Paulus drive in a nail. Bacon in R. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . a bankrupt merchant. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. rap hatike et som The Susu. Fr. ON. to hammer in a nail. to proclaim. &c. eminence. and poise Their lighter wings. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. bandire. bandear. and therefore tied up. eminence. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. in the sense of place of business. banca fallita. Bandy legs are crooked legs. bank of a river. banditti acquired the like signification. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. —^Vocab. se joindre. Africa. de sable. With many a stiff thwack. disturbance banga.HG. in the sense of a pirate. E. for shame. Draw. Fl. From Mid. among rotta. hricg. banke. distinguishes bekkr. Dan. A Shipman's Tale. From a desk . to make a stir banke. banc G. Lat. bana. bang. Mercutio. Fr. clouds. Mid. The ing. has bang-bang. put under the ban of the law. Diaconus in Due. . 45 — — Bandit. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. bance. to knock. stir. Diez. bakke. pastoralis. whence the mod. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. the slope of a hill. from banc. a blow. Bantze. hammering. follow a party. band-dog. — Kil. To Bandy. bent as a bow. back of a knife. — Fr.^ knock. bander. Bankrupt. It. bank of river. The ridge of a hill is AS. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. Your stool. the former Fr. and OFr. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. a table. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. destruction . — — whence E. the back. forbear this outrage. a counter. — . Du. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. bandi. banish. counter. banka. bank of Dan. se reunir. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. de- party. band-hond. a de Vaud. Banditti. banqueroute. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. and bakki. ruptus. . . to bend a. See Banish. bana-sdr. Bane. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. panca. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. a wound OHG. s'associer. as of an explosion or a blow. a bench. shoal. b'ang. that the word is used by Romeo. Roquefort. broken. AS. bane. . Hudibras. Banister. See Balluster. The child cries bang! fire. death-sickness. bana. g. a long raised seat. ON. murderer. bankruptcy. to work in wood. and hence. bannire. Benvoglio. bow. death-blow . canis vinculis assuetus. See Band. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. But natheless wife at I bank. When a man fails Lat. AS. desk. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. in the same way that E. to slay. bander tin arc. Brewer. bank. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. The word is in E. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. Banner. Sw. the same verb the It. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). many a bang. dorsum was applied to ject. Tibalt. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. to beat. at canis peciiarius. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. in R. home — Bandog. was formed the OFr. a sand-bank. to join in league with others against Cotgn. roupt. large dog kept for a guatd. a i. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. beating. to cabal. Goth. banja. a rising bank. outlam came to signify a robber. Bang. Bank.

Bap. 3. to dip. period vexillarii. chan. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. Hence Fr. — We A . sparre. heri-pau. To Banter. Gael. banchetto. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. barbed or trapped as a great horse. benda. speaking of battle. a which the barrister addresses the court. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. ing term appears in other languages. Lat. to wrap. a barrier or stoppage. bannereti. a bench or table . The original import of their own banner in the field. of a sign in general. an animal a year old. banneret. that the noise of voices Bantling. &c. a war-beacon or war-signal. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. either in the Gr. The origin is in all probability Goth. A It..Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. nestling. G. uncivilised. and the work is done. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. —Cot.. OHG. The barb of an arrow is the sign . signuin. Banquet. jSa'pjSapoc. barre. a ban. barrack. a bantling.cruel. branch. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. Barb. as they call it. Leduchat. BARBAROUS reiflingr. and it was accord. a tree). To mock or jeer one. Barb. &c.— Swift in R. i. . It. and he would seem to derive Goth. manu anto make signs nuere. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. It may be thing. banneret was a higher class of knights. knight Bardd. top. Thus Ovid. an intimation made by bending the head or hand.8ap6^o)voe. Hence ner. inferior to a baron. Fr. then branches. to wash. hence a repast. wrapped. According to Diez the It. Flesche barbeUe. Gr. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Fr. to bend. merki. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. banda. dim. ON. brushwood. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. Fr. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. It. Bret. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. sparro. barrer. Sw. probably corSymbol. banniire. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. Barbe. iandvo. senhal. inur. Barbar. Fr. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. a beam or long pole of wood. Lat. privileged to raise Barbarous. remarked. men. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. Banneret. E. ingly very generally known by a name branches. senheira. and with an initial s.hinder. of wind. senh. barde. then fell among the foot. barba. says. sign. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. rod of any rigid substance. barbe. from reifa. banner. banne. E. to beckon . would rupted from Fr. jSdirTO). bandiera. and even of calling it banter. barriire. bar. Duo. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. Lat.the analogous syllable viur. and from ensign or banner Prov. sbarra. Fr.aTa Kul nest. Fr. In a similar manner are formed yearling. bandva. such as the Roman Eagle. the word came to signify rude. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. of banco. from the same source. OFr. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. out of a wound. summit. a. senhal. It. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. banda hendi. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. Celtic bar. OHG. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. barbarus. barrou-gwez. barreau. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. ban- Baptise. indeed. which is surely in barbed arrow. ON. ^oTrriKio. The spar. to having that signification. a bearded or Cot. arineXov. a sign. E. branches of a tree {gwezen. rarii. or of this bantering. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. Gr. milites bannarii. token. in Gr. 2. himself in Pontus. barra.46 BANNERET .

Gr. — — — men. a bardelle. borbotar. barbeter. twcEtta. Barbel. open. bar. baragouin. to wash. waschen. barbarkama. fortia —Strabo. to gurgle. bardes. A7 to the and warlike. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Bargain. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. skialldar-bard. barboter. Thus the on. barbeum. bds. brabble in the making of a bargain. borboglio.' Cot. in Fr. Lith. barS. Bardeau. to bubble or boil. a jetty or outnook in a building. a shingle or small board. to barbe or trap horses. Barber. coping. which was of talking. Fl. to It. — Cot. borbollar. Barberry. The Pers. to plash or dabble. Port. bdsiis. albardilla. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Cot. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . Bard. Cotgr. skirmish. bhasad. i. formerly used in the sense of tattle. Hindost. scouthouse. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. in the sense of fight. barda. Barder. in poetic language Bard for poet. barda. Gr. speak confusedly. bdsas. Barde. dial. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. the edge of a shield hval-barct. . brim. barz. borbulhar.— BARBEL merit of water. uproar. barguigner. berj G. Fr. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. barbier. barefooted Sanscr. /3£pjSepi^w. albarda'ah. Port. twattle. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. saddle-cloth. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. to mumble or mutter words. ready money. stutter. used 2. also to bind or tie across. boil. small pack-saddle. — . axilla. baar. to make an outcry . Applied in E. Mod. to chafbargain. Cotgr. borborinha. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. haggle. the nakedness of a woman. and flanks. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. Fr. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. and foolishly. name Fr. lb. barbulla. A shrub bearing acid Diet. But Sp. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. albarda. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. . quarrel . or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. and Sc. murmur . Bare. jargon. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. a rumbling. It. mutter. back. /3opj3opwJu. Bret. barbaris. the flap of a hat. ala. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. Etym. bare baskojis. baares geld. or more properly (says fer. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. G. as well as thwcEtta. a pack-saddle. unqualified. Exposed to view. barbar. Etym. barbugliare. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. horse armour covering the front. Hall in R. grumble (Lowndes. to rumble. skirt. bardd. Sp. to prattle. to stammer. OFr. Fr. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. a long saddle for an ass or mule. Hatt-bard. Lucan. on. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. barbeau. and the word was used in OE. such as houses are covered Bardelle.— Fl.) . and in Flanders to vociferate. also to wallow like a seething pot. barbelin. berries. muttering. Arab. upper chamber.— — Pm. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. Lex. Fr. — — Hence.) to wrangle. Barbican. skola. Diez. barbacane. Pr. powdered all over. Russ. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. guaszare. tattle. border. Sp. gibberish. to grunt. Festus in Diet. guazzolare. Sp. to stammer. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. barbel. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. It. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. the beard. — . bdla-khaneh. w. g. Mod. the quilted with. a tumultuous assembly. as well as the modern twaddle. tree. to bubble or spring up. is lb. to boil or bubble up . When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. border of a garden bed. uncovered.

The Goth. to chop. . charlock. i. As Goth. bern. barki. quarrel. . Leg. to shufSe. Bret. the or prow of a ship. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. From Fr. — battle. E. as. barafustar. bargain. — Barnacle. — de Berri. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. giving rise to It. the fore or after end of a boat . baralhar. bread-corn. Antiq. bernac. baaren. and is probably a true bartig. contest. prasepe . barley. See Barm. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. spectacles. Sp. barja. a beak. at barka. bard). am. to strive. OFr. Garlick. Bark. bamagh. bere. astringent. and 1. bcern. Dan. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. Barbour in Jam. dregs of oil. altercation. hladi. ON. lap. barii. was barlic. The older form in e. trouble. Uzen. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. It. fray. strife. Sp. AS. and llysiaw. Du. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. berma. also a boat . have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. hemlock. herbs. a baking place or oven. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. entangle. a barn. then the bows pectus navis. skutr. v. barge. baron)^ Fr. baratta. barms. beornt. then honoured man. wine. AS. in Nat. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. confusion. limpets. (Ihre. So ON. baron. barone. as. ThS man was not created for the woman. barley. —Bark. a boat. beer. OSw. berm. squabble. Leg. a. limpet. strife. Baron. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. a lantern. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. dispute barattare. Tarn baronem quam feminam. baimeach. Rayn. a stack. one who stirs up strife. dial. a heap. 2. Du. Ripuar. barizeins indicates a noun baris. husband. to scold. baragouin. baarm. as well as Scandinavian tongues. Cornub. Lith. Romance barsie. quant a perdu sa barja. a receptacle for barley or corn. edge. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. Barn. Port. Dan. a heap . or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. dispute . struggle. a load. See formed Yeast. berem. dispute. baerm. the G. It. tumult. barn. The origin may be throat. ON.^Voc^. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues.' bardagi. baaring. barn. a cap . So also ON. barlys {bara. Vocab. limpets . adj. Alam. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. name being given to spectacles. prominent part of a thing. commonly explained from bere. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. barajar. is simply the Bret. dispute . Camus. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . Ibid. . barnacles. beorcan. a place. barley. plants). To Bark. barmr. Manx bayrn. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. bosom . Sw. * Barnacles. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. bcerme. hlaSa. — Zeuss. and hence probably (by a metaphor. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. from an imita- Barley. Bailey.) lihtes-ern. border. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. the slimy substance brewing of beer. hay-loft. bern. baarn. bread. tion of the sound. to rout. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. and ern. to all the barca. and may therefore be an Eastern word. skuta. berm.Barum vel feminam. to skin over barkandi. contest. . ber (ace. strife. ON. barlich. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. to cheat. barahunda. OFr. baniffa. Barge. chaffer. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. kani.. varen. disorder. baratta. Acervus. Sp. Bemiques. barafunda. the rack or manger. corn-shed. the A — Ihre. quarrel Port. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. in the Brim. and the word. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. Swab. Gael. Gl. as baces-ern. but the woman for the man. Originally man. houbartij fsnile. barretor. Port. mhg. to wrangle. barn. W. brenig. also to exchange. ON. Prov. bosom. as in the case of Lat. On the other hand. 2. barnis. Provj bar (ace. borkr. berm hoys. Kil. put to confusion.. baralha. meta foeni. a lap. Isidore in Rayn. aheap. dispute. louzou. bark . Spectacles. w. we pass to the vert) barguigner. barlys.

perhaps through Prov. This word introduced into Fr. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. from beran. w. Barrack. Barricade. Joshua vii. Sp. S. a man. cover. bera. fallow. baracca. Baron andfemme. an obstruction. to carry. E. then traffick4 Barrow. borov'. bark&n. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. gravis et authenticus vir. fortification. An ing. dispute. also termed bannerets. bara. barraca. bredhan. Nominale of the from braeckland. from cavallo. Sp. a barrow. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. were sometimes confounded. OE. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. Russ. Barren. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. It. ^Vocab. ibid. Barrel. gwr. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. bara. booth. brushwood. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. StiU he shows conclusively. litter. rolls of Parliament. OFr. mound. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. to shelter. Bargus or moreland. baroncelli. On chet — We — — their resemblance. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. especially those killed in battle. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Bamnculus a baronet. AS. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. a bar. a. and in several instances. which would barragdn. habeant. and not from Fr. MHG. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. Bohem. as cavalcade. Bern. Goth. in Nat. breinej Du. The Sp. Barrister. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. barrier. A. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. iver. barre. over him. composed of dry branches ofer. The feudal tenants next Fr. bouracan. barrique. man. vair. from a tree to which a man is hanged. sterilis. semen non accipiens landiEL. man and wife. the two names. D. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. G. barrack. the braw. berewe.. facture. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. 2. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. See Barter. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. — Kil. Barratry. whence Barrow. braeck.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. barrila.have been named from the haggling and gant. berwen. became bidre. tomb. a kind of coarse camlet. garment still used in Morocco. signifying. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. squabble.— Gibbon. a castrated hog . strife. heap. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. to * Barragan..aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. qui have not much light on the pre. G. branches. change of goods seems. a bier. beorh. as.' Op. Gael. baronuU. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful.' that Barrier. 1. like bargain. todtenbahre. 26. calico. implement for carryAS. baronetti. a word is always used in the plural number. in the first instance. bier. a barrel. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. fear. Bret. It should be observed that. cise formation of the word. boar. See Bar. whenever Barrow-hog. a hut or booth.root signifying confused noise. barile. AS. It was not until the time of James I. or simply bahre. sepulchre.parchanttuech. Antiq. Fr. staves. bahre. vel pretiosos burellos. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. shed. barrique. baragan. Gael. barague. seem to be radically the same with Lat. It. by early examples. baronculi. a horse. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. Fr. beorg. — A . pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. (Schmeller). Sp. It. nobles. barri. Formed from Fr. vir. baraignej Picard. barril. a hiU. ^Barrator. — — 15th Cent. bearg . uncultivated. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. beorgan. barBombicinus. hut. alongside of barrow. barchent. a.

said Base. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. on a. the manorhousfe itself. basgod. back. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. him. The like property hath the iasilisk. commonly A joined with the word binda. To Baste. Arthur and Merlini. Bast. bdtir. besst-u-b£nd&t. beretun. OFr. a halter. Du. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. cog. G. as the diadem of the basilisk. of the same sense. F. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. /«r<fSp. baraand especially teria. crassus. husk bast van koren. a ipgli So Turk. from /3aR. chasa. ohg. he. Pl. berewic. See Bath. Basilisk. low. bark. basta. over-reaching. bran. .). n' is n' is bacino. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. Gr. beortun. preparatory stitching. bas.' Papias. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. embastir. low part of the Hickes in Rich. See Brattice. low note. court-yard.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. according from Gael. hoops of a cask. bareter. ^Is de bast. foist in bargaining. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. It. ing for profit. thick. tierer. corn-farm. basg. ' He was begetin o bast. to truck. MHG. bast-maatte. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. stitch. a tying. to long — a British word by Martial. more noble in blood than notable in learning. a basket masg. a bass rope. a king. — hanging. . baos. curtus. OFr. also to Cotgr. also the demesne lands of a manor. to baste piece of cloth. humilis. fhe outhouses and yards. aiKcig.D. Bastard. Sp. basso. fornication. PaaiKhms. partieren. ' Bosworth. then cheating. Bartizan. to bind. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. exchange. A fabulous serpent. bast. Sylvester's Dubartas. Bass. Al is dai. bast-reb. baratar. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). Lend me your hands.' Gl. peel. cheating. barter. baraet (from Fr. and Bret. baste. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. shallow. Isidore. BassuS. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. mean . Lap. pressed down. 516. inclosure. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). God it wot.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. a bastard. and tun. or wic. unrighteous gain. leviter consuere. Apparently of Celtic origin. Sicamb. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. . besst. would be. bass-matting. lift me above Parnassus. HaUiweU. rope for — . Newman. a ftiesh. chasa ogli a bastard. baste. imbastire. flat. MHG. Fr. But according And Dan. oe. Sw. AS. barter. lattice-work. which covers the grain Ger. To stitch. fraud. Kil. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. to baste. Sp. ibid. baxoj w. bast. mavult dicere Roma suam. but born in baste. to Diez. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. Sw. It. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. HaU in HaUiwell. as It. The original meaning. barley.looketh upon his eyes. a court-yard. Fris. Du. Sp. Barton. HoUinshed. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. piiiguis. It. the a wide open vessel. a deceiver. netting. mock not. discourse Nay. Fr. beguile. imbastire. — in Rich. basta. bestcn. Swed. come near. fornication. Fr. Halliwell. to bargain. bestan. pdrdt. to stitch . It. w. It is mentioned as . scale in music. baste. bast. basso. Dan. Barbara de pictis veni patch. baratear. bastear. lust. — Bassoon. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. MS. or running away with the ship. Dan. to bind hand and foot. Basket. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . the — — to kill those that look upon it. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. dwelling. There is not one that. i. plaiting of splinters basged. truck. It. to bind. submovet omne Lucan. which sets up its hood when angry. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . to cheat. bds. bassin. Bass. To Bask. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Bassus. the thin skin Dan. exchange. but he dreth presently. It. found in Turkish . fits de bas. descended of an honorable lineage. low. to deceive. at basta og binda. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. to cheat. binding. from bere.

BAT neither. to teach one before. comp. which to rest the load. back. bastida. It. a with a stick. bak.'CaB. set up. Sp. which in the E. E. to Due. bastione. dial. p. to drub. blakta. flyinge best. to build. Dan. bastia. beysta. vledermus. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. a pad or packsaddle. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . niammal. R. aftonbakke. beating. to beat. blacta. to stroke.-^ Chaucer. a barSp. provisions.baste or knock soundly. a pad. To baste one's hide . . — Bakke. and Arabs. compared with blakka. Pm. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive.stitching in general. I. Antiq. devise. iinbastire. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Rayn. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. a things prepared for future use. quelqu'un son roulet. vespertilio. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. To beat or bang soundly. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. iastir. vespertilio. Sp. Sw. worth (Nat. put it together. the E. nade. basa. the night-jar or goat-sticker. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. 2. Sw. to rub gently. blatta. Mid.stick. passage Imbasto. Fr.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. 'iJipistreUo. ment. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. to pack a saddle i. or implement for 4 * A . Dan. a bird which. to lay the Sp. also the ricado. liiake. translation to a bat. bastilde. baston. Fr. bastine. the bat . bastonFr.Lat. batta lucifuga. Dieiif. to rub. a stick. frotter. blaka. bastear. settiilg up. Supp. dial. baston. a blockhouse. business (Altieri). bdion. a sconce. and Cot. a blow cloth for dinner. It. — — — . basta. Fr. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. staff. Cot. as weU as besteau. boste. to flap. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. bastonada. to cudgel. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. blakka. a bastion. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. night-bat. 164). stryka. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. Cot. guerra bastir. Florio. contriving. explains Sp. in the Romance languages. to quilt or stitch wool into it. club. to beat. . — — Fl.— Bailey. to build. also to cudgel. contrive. 11864. Bastinado. blatta. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. has bastine.— . also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose.fortress or castle furnished with towers. bastir. raise. whence ledrblaka. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . Pr. bladier. R. to spread bread and butter. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. bastir. but this is hardly satisfactory. bastonnir. from Fr. the original has corneille. blows. Sc. blakra. That yche blak y dar wel telle. ari instruineht for beating. For the loss of the / in back. victuals. Prov. bast. to belabour. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . is explained by Cot. frame. Fr. It. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. erect. like the owl and the bat. bastille. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. to give him a sound bastingi 3. disposer. a. the winged . natt-blakka. Sw. bat. For the origin of baston see Baste. 2. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. * Bat. to devise or begin. cudgelling. to whip. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. Derived by Diez from iasi. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. To donjon. to set on foot a war Bastion. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush.. military term of a bat-horse). seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. All from bastir. Sw. ON. badger. to thrash . packsaddle. pre. stryk. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. bakie-bird . bastimento. Perhaps baska. set up. 2. basto. the clapper of a bell. and ditches bastion. a packsaddle. e. in the use of the E.

hot. Ayenst the sunne. Plkkis. to get better. To thrive. Baka sik vid elld. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. better. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. bataille. Battery. basa. In OE. and with staffslyng. lessen. to feed.— To Bask. sich bakern. — To . the heat of the It. to become fat. to beak. Mgy. Battalion. to foment. to betake oneself. to beath wood Battledoor. an arrangement for giving blows. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. Batter. for biia sik. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. a battle. bastille. and as a verb. Jeddris and covering. allay . a stirrer-up of strife. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. To Bate. dispute. PLD. E. bake. From bat in the sense of rod . to foment with hot applica. to warm oneself. Florio. to be profited. a main battle. and milk beaten up together. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. quell. a battalion. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. a from ON. pak. bdda vidjor. batacazo. Gael. bada. bludgeon. To Batten. also a sun badfish. a washing beetle. Strife. cudgel. remit. from on. Barbour in Jam. to thrive. made of — A made by one Batcii. a stick. from battre. In some parts of England it is striking. or break down. wet linen in washing. a staff. fashes basking in the sun squadron. gebdcke. — — — ' — . busk. I bathe in water viz. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. buask made like a fortress. to warm. Goth. battre. to refresh oneself in language. Fr. From OFr. in the case of a wall. battre las ailes. to bathe. on the fire. abate. Battlement. The bat with which a brot bdhen. . Hence pro. tradire. — Cot. Fr. Jurgor. to flutter with the wings. dial. heat. is a simple adoption of Fr. to heat. batir. then to warm by the application of hot water.' Palsgr. to beat. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. was formed bastilU. Fr. strife. to warm oneself at the fire. to beat se battre. a blow. also. I. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. signifying to give repeated blows. to heat . Eggs. Slav. Bret. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . Pm. howis. dial. Holz bdhen. Fr. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. to foment. Sp. G. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. Batten. whence the sun burns . badda. battere. ON. fortress or castle. Du. a Baiffi. water whether warm or cold. Battle. to dial. beat. Sw. to toast bread. in the sun. to cudgel. by projections or in any licoure. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. of bread is so much baked zX one time. to beat. Pr.Bathe. and about an inch thick. made of bats. It. squadron. Fr.Hence in the augmentative form It. to fight. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. . gabatnan. baquetazo. Chaucer. baeddu. Flem. bdt. trahtr to It. Sp. Fr. to fire or in the sun. debat. tagUone. batna. quhar he suld assaill. bet. Bat. w. battre. abattre. battions. a great seems related to baden as Fr. solbase. the root of e. 2. on. badda. baka. A Bath. perhaps first used adjectivally. to fell. . baz. solen baddar. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. betten. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. It. a band of armed men arranged basa. Pm. Batyn. battere. dial. flour. Bate. bat-en. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. bdhen. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. a beating. e. batterie. Battery. gebdck. Bailey. to for fighting. Pr. altercation. Sw. G. certain bend. batador. as E. badask. A batch as wood. or make debate. bat. Hal. as E. See Better. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . dial. as signifying warm baths. term in falconry . baden. adapted for defence. to beat. bdda. oneself at the A into faggots. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. a blow with a light instrument. beat down. makebate. is in falling.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. as wood-en. more. battaglia. beat.— . or a dry stick. G. to bathe oneself. battle was used beath wood. to become convalescent. I baske. batte sig.

balbob. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. the Swiss baben. Pr. Pm. obstrepere. E. a tassel or hanging bunch . from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. collar. the face. It is all bawdy. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. having a white streak down Bagdad.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. bad. It. fagot. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. bablyn or waveryn. scarf. a dog). Descript. W. or toys. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. From Bret. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). balderich. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. form with an initial seen in Fr. to bark . b \% bouala. filth. disgusting. from Fr. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. a plot of Chaucer. Baldrick. in OE. nastiness. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. dirt. and authorities in note. bauch. to play the babby. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. and to-tore also. propugnaculum. Filthy.' ' Pegma. Bagdad. Fr. Prov. a lump. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. bal. The It. baugant. horse. a tassel. dacchino. s. s. tab. expressive of disgust. guigaw. dial. bal. to talk Lacombe. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. an object. Sc. librillo. E. P. OFr. faisceau. zano. javelle. Cot. was simply a field gold. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. to make the noise Baudrick. baudrat. A name of the badger. bauU. exactly corresponds Fr. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. 8. i. Lat. Hal. Jam. Cotgr. Swiss Rom. bow-wow. The word may perhaps be sticks. whence pouacre. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. bobine. a gavel. balGael. Irel. a spot. or sheaf of Bridel. ON. cluster. spotted. lewd . — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. fooleries or fond To Bawl. An analogous noisily. because made of cloth of white. to the same origin. Formed from baw. — — ' Lydgate. Zalli. Ball. on the face of animals. the white of his leg or foot. fields. filth. miauler. babbole.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. dung. Fr. sorry. R. speckled. P. baula. a lump or cluster babhaid. ground. Cloth of gold. baffe.— P. excrement. brush faggot. pegma. or the animal so marked. E. whimwham. to low or bellow as corn. a white mark Bawdy. It. Gael. Pr. ballach. OFr. as Fr. instead oi s. From ! an interjection of disgust. a belt. baw. also more Bawdekin. bow (as in our nursery Diez. rotten. babiole. to bark. Fl. bau. to void the bowels. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. baue. to cry. Piedm. It. to 53 manure the To baw. tille. In like manner Grisons filthy. bouaila. trifle.. baubare. child. c. fe bau. toys. vacillo. bobbin or cluster of thread. Fr. to me-wl. Cot. mew. bausan. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. ball. to vociferate. —R. Baw — . BAWSON Swiss. or Cot. dente. babsmall toy to play withal. a horse marked with a procession. to trifle away ment. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. baban. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. Batylment of a wall.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. a zan.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. and Sp. ! Bauble. also the canopy carried part of his body. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. spot. baudrdj OHG. Bavin. E. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. represented by the syllable miau. an embattled wall. P. from Baldacca. whence the E. dirty. is used for a sented by bau. sword-belt. trifles. pie- . divided between black and white. an — — — A — g — — — . leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . Ball-seirc. is Bagdad stuff. a horse with white legs.guage). — Pm. Bawson. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Beaus^ent.. 2. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. ish baubles.

a mark. to keep one waiting. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. to be Bohem. expresr sion tenere a bada. Fr. It. hddhe-dhonn. &c. bijel. trahir. to keep at a bay. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. A hollow in the 'line of coast. bahia. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. or to have been first used at the Cot. large window in a handsome . stare. Serv. baja. to open as a blossom. dehiscere . —Diez. so called from its bearing bays. bate. Q. badia to Sp. a cluster of bacon. to gape. Bay.. as gazing. Lat. bagaid. and the To bark as a dog. bahia. the cod or husk of beans or the like. bayen-stein. Sp. &. BAY marked with bjly. or at bay. From the former verb is the It. baher. baya. and zndly. —F. that from ba. |8i'os. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. and keeps them in check for a while. badarse. to open. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. aux dehniers abois. bilyega. 1. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. It. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. like a pie. * To Be. life. white. Abide. Bayonet. or recess in an apartment in modern times. badarc.' — — 54 bald. &c. OSp. Fr. laurel of the ancients. Bay-tree. Fr. he turns and faces his pursuers. Fr. baccello.—Journal Soc. See Bawl. by the term rendre les abpis. desiring. baiare. Earth — By Nature made to till. Mod. tradire to Fr. the world Gr.' Bailey. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. batibari. —Bay-windo'W. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. house . Fr. in order to keep the enemy in check. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. baga. or berries. at his last gasp. ing-floor. berries. put to his last shifts. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. to mark. bai./^ bau. siege of Bayonne in 1665. the step is the same as from It. buidhe. Lat. overture. Q. weary of running. To Bay. Bay. a dagger. BauSfi)/. grapes or nuts. Sp. — A At Bay. is perhaps not directly from Lat. Fr. bialo. From Cat. A stag is said to stand at bay. bilyejiti. F. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. Sp. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. stood watching him stoop. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. to iiitent nected PoL white. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. Cot. baye. living thing . Holland's Pliny in R. a beast. the laurel-bay. bdcr. AS. open the mouth. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. to on anything. It.— Stalder. A — he brought her to stand listening to him.c. ist. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. which however. husk. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. life. Arts. . one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. See Bald. — Schmid. beo. Catalan hadia. from an imitation of the sound. bay. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Such Antaeus seemed to me. the cod of peas. to stand watching one. w. to amuse stare a bada. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr.. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. corrupted into Bow-window. living Ir. The word bay. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. window-sill. Swiss beie. barn of two bays. Swab. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. Gael. or window ' (in Fortification). beonj Gael. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. window . as if to signify a window of curved outline. 25. a hole. waiting . and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. to split. Piedm. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. . yellow . bioth. a berry. . bay. when. It. Gael. It has been shown under Abie. abbabayer. BE Probably conRuss. gate. bajo. S. berry. arose two forms of the verb. Feb. . Drayton in R. baer. beothach. Prov. buidhe- The ruadh. watching intently. bde. from badar. baie. Vielp. baca. alive. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. baca. baionette. dividere. badius. bayo. a'uno. See At Bay. Gr. 1859. The — Fr. It. bacca. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. especially beans. baier. to betray.

bagms. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. 54.fer-re j Gr. to produce young. Beacon. Gael. beacnian. bank. Fr. and Lat. post. a curtsey. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Moreover the name. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. beic. bauhan. -phxr. Trans. . however. bidan. —F. according to of Sanscr. ON. baum. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. beugler. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. The origin seems preserved in E. signifying individuality. bohnej ON. like most nautical terms. bead. Hackluyt in R. bidello. Q wait upon him. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. It. or beic. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. bM. A Esthon. beic. faba. AS. to carry. would say. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. It is BEAR SI court. See To Bid. bohne. W. bar. to beckon. baun. Farrar. bee. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. Slavon. Bret. a presage. Lat.' adheres to the root. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. Gr.fui. not applied to the yelping of dogs. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. bydel. vii. a prayer. nokkima. Miss Gurney in Philolog. or breathing. a tree. pig. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. as. l^ax. He says. ffci. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. . salve his hurts. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. It. the part overflowed by the tide. to wait-.fuis5e. G. Beak. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Thus the final en. to nod the head. Beck. on.from AS. into a snjall river. Beach. Be. E. support. ffaen. G. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. a nod OHG. tale of prayers or doxologies. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. Sw. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. as well as f& or fav. — Bellenden in Jam. Netherlands or North Germany. into France. fora-bauhan. vol. Chapters on Lang. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. Du. to wait. be. bean. — : Beam. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Goth. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Beadle. bakke. bearti. N. a single bean. Pardoner's Tale. which is. Goth.' Hall's Chron. becco. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. fero. a sign. ohg. a tree. The nutu significare. — bedeau. bakkje. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. * Beagle. prodigy bauhnjan. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us.. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. as. backe. bek. badmr. a hill. — to bow or nod . . OSax. signifying a point. rising ground. bdkna. AS. an attendant. a single bean. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. «va\ioQ. The immediate shore of the Menage. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan.' Suetonius in Diez. The wild beast. pierced for hanging on a string. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Gael. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. Bean. A two-year old nephew of mine p. It forms a. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. g. gebed. was introduced from England sea. to nod . Catalan becar. fromthe danger. atUndre. boom. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. bairan. ON. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. Bear. bob. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. beans. To Bear. beacen. to bellow. fd or faVf beans. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life.ad. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. Boom.to have a French origin. faba is Kvavoq. Bret. Gael. a beak. W. Beckon. Fr. stock. or any action done with a pointed thing. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. bokan. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. beck. bedm. or however.

that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. birth. i. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. bebrus. ON. perhaps a living thing. now confined To Become. Beckon. It. Chaucer.AS. Dan. which. a lip. obtain. Fr. ziemen. living. to G. bave i. Fr. handsome. biivre. to those goods which endure for ever. decorous. The fitting or suitable. or river. bib or slobbering cloth. while from Shep. Beauty. to happen. G. E. Lat. to happen.' ' He became very angry. ON. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. brook. bur. opportune. because made of the fur of the beaver. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. get J ' He got very angry. fallinn. the beard. to appertain. gelimplic. baurthei.getiman. biber. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. limplice. — . and Fr. happening as it ought. limpian. Diez. boroda. to the brook itself. from baver. to sleep on. Sp. The moveable part of a helmet. proper . Beck. tidy. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. G. i. Now the Beast. receive. R. bedr. bach.fit. bavec. Goth. Thcem. OSw. suitable. bave. Prick of Conscience. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. to the good hapHalbard. agreeable. Russ. That thou mayest attain Goth. See Bank. to come to or upon. from the same in the sense of bear2. to bear children. limpan. chin. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. e. proper. dize or dtzen. bearing. brook . to carry. I do thee pray. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. edge. to live. to hem. battere. dushmak. bello. becuman. or a feeling to be gratified. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. bobrowai. godum with ON. or special purpose. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. bobr. nothing to thy name make. befit. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. blast.we call the arrangement becoming. to be incumbent upon him. judgment. Bo. See becymth anfeald yvel. to get. burdr is used in the sense of a car. den. and also in that of birth. See Beacon.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. to be fulfilled. slobber. the ece thurhwuniath. pleasing. Fr. comely. our taste. pretty. fiber.to clothe to slobber. to fall in with our bavard. Thus OY. baviire. In like manner condition.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. rying. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one.S6 fero. a bank. a bank. Perhaps from Pol. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. barba. He becom on sceathan. con. formerly a happen. to shore. if sound of a sharp blow. Bosworth. tidig. barf. taste. bekkr. Fr. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. Bedizen. beatanj It. byw. Prov. E. decent. to arrive at. venient. e. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. when up. dress with unbecoming richness . an notion of being convenient. to fall mode of being. Beck. to be a part of his to. to happen. bekommen. seemly. AS. bart. from beau. ting. G.of being very angry. On the same principle. to happen. but now a river only. 2. gebank. The OFr. bel. behkr. connected with ripa. Lat. bett. Lat. bcek. babrad. o. to dabble . . produce. bava.— Kiittner. as the babble of the child. fitly . byrcti. to assume a certain form or Turk. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. nod or sign. to fall. whence baveux. ON. — A — A — . Slav. covered the face.' are equivalent expressions. g. as. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. G. the latter are derived It. suitable. talkative. ON. timan. to wade through the water like a beaver. riviera. gabaurths. baba. becuman. riviire. It. and on. The quadruped. Cal. agreeable. G. beauts. bard. befall. bequem. fit. bring forth. and to acquire. bestiaj Gael. a. beo. Lat. See Bat. AS. Boeth. Beat. Do no To It fallith favour.' every way suited to a prince. iida. border. to attain to the lot of any one. Fr. brada. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. Lith. gefallen. pens unmixed evU. convenient. fitanimal. 1. badi. it is probable that here also the to become. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. duty. to please. As rivus. W. place to lie down. R. Beaver. E. a brook. to happen. name applied originally to the bank then proper . as fall itself was sometimes used in E. bellus. Secondarily applied to a hat. To load with ornament.

erroneously modified in form. badigeonner.D. batAfter mete in sale. bedde-redirj ohg. as in It. madhouse. speach. curded or beesty._t from the root pi. bibere is a re. beach. waarin. beost. a cup or implement for AS. 1.possible. bukva. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Fr. biene. clog for a dog b'oteln. Fr. a malsense of drink. buche. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. a wandering Prov. biest-milch.D. to knock.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. briesch-milch. to curdle or lopper. beach-each. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. It.ing of the word is curdled. a pillow-case. to twist poorma. It. Rom. prisons Venet. wedges. The meanpainting. cozen. cited by Diez. also the bite or sting of a bees. to fall. to coagulate.(paddi. tree.cz//aj. garden-herb. Fr. knock. calleBedlam. bbtel. buka. the loppered sea. Bav. bedawi. Beef. and lebermer in G. to drink. a drink potus. may be from K. bletumj Gr. comb. trees in a forest . beest. Bethlehem. 1 to drink. from Lat. E. The beer al for te shenche bate. Bernese. drink. bably named from the destructive quali| T. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. Lat. by the analogy of bedaivb. a mallet. an ox. imperative pi. kiissen-biere.— JI14. Gael. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. I dysyn a dystaffe. drink. pettiriso. woman that is newly delivered. piwo. biiren. to flatten In OE. &c.'— GL ^Ifr. i. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. D. to colour with lime-wash. a pad or cushion). . kivih. 1156. from leberen. betel. Cot. PI. desert. red curdled Arab . and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. P1.. ir'm. to beat bossel. an Beetle. bovis. AS. Cot. . to and ale. fall. bos. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. water. Slav. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen.' So Gr. Beetle. turn. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. a bed-tick. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. crespir. Pl. bossen. case. to become Beech. bitela.— B. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. ris. Grimm. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. fagus.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. translation beOj. G. from jtst-. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. Dan. cousin. Esthon. Fr. 'La Gl. bet. a pillow case. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. KXlvoTTiT^e. bitel. Confined to bed. beyki. beta. sela que environna la terra. thick. prigione. from risan. beer. thick. Pett. extant in Bohem. But possibly bedizen 2. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. of beatmg. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. the meat of spinach. The first milk after a dizen. doubtless. by-flugaj G. cogionare. * Beestings. sang vermeilh betatz. a wasp. a paviour's beetle batail. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. taglio. cow has calved. on. to poordma. from blood. the biter. g. ProBeer.^ drink. pude-vaar. de Fierabras in Diez. mars betada. briest. as. It. . I put the flax upon it to spin.).' the last word corresponds to cofly . blow or thrust. In a passage of an Old Fr. used for boull. a wasp. . The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. duplicated form of the root. bove. 57 — Palsgr. bytl. in Nat. vaar. whose face is clotty. bette or blettej Lat. /SXirov. whence familiar. to parget or rough-cast . E. AS. Bee. The honey-producing insect. the ox. Fr. stakes. from the hos. Fr. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. I A pillow-beer. door. qui de lecto surgere non potest . as the milk of a that purpose in London. an inhabitant of the desert. ' MordiThe Lat. AS. boeuf. cugino. a stinging bieUe. beutel. 1. cushion-cover . Fin. Let. boytle. to turn. . Arab. G. to change . turn (a garment). beetle also signified the impiti. buk. Beet. pital of St Mary. G. and in driving piles. to rough- cast. a Properly a cover that biiren. byst. paralyticus. may be shpped on and off. Lat. For that was law of lend. bedskiissen-bUren. which also 2. ^. a horse-fly . a clapper. Horn. Originally. . Bed-ridden. a agulatum in the original Latin. Ant.ON.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. a cover. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. in Schmeller. a bee. GaeL bior. Gr. also bienst. poculum. Bedouia.

ip AS. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. beginning. Vocab. origin. Mod. on the tramp. to cleve. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. appears improbable at first. Fr. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. a wedge for cleaving wood. — Stillingfleet. or Of a pure poor man. a stone-cutter's chisel. 'Aboutin undern monly. In Luc vi. to beg. yivwajcw. gan. ' ' . Barbour. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . taking up. is formed pocair. but probably erroneously. yivtrri. Gr. can. in Lat. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. To Begin. not began to alight. begger.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Du. a beggar. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . lapidicinus. 168. ' Begone. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. 1867. ' . on further examination. ornamented phoc. fangen and Lat. 'Dz. anfangen. Of brede full ycrammed. P.n. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. Cold-begone. ysgrepan. yivofiai. word. From w. kind. P. Skinner's derivation from bag. 2. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. ytyvwfT'Kw. bag {baigean. sel. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. the fundamental notion of attaining to. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. from whete G. It. P. duginnan. a beggar . Creed. Schm. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE.— . genus. gigno. 142. of Gr. V. beriolare. whence the E.quently used in OE. and Lat. a bag or poke. OHG. To Beg. giving in Gr.' about undern he got down. woe-begone. touched with emotion — . chap. air a . to arise. Ancren Riwle. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. to be acquire. at geta talad. signifying to conceive. image is cleft out of the trunk. Nov. yiyvo/uat. 40. although it ' the future. a scrip.' for ye shall lament and weep. oppressed with woe. y/yvo/iat. P. to bear young.' A. baigeir. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. above quoted to get beaten ON. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. ysgrepanu. on the bag. ken. onginnan. to begin. a — wedge. The tother seand the dint cum. chisel. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. to get children . ykvog. Beghardus. P. 25. to reduce him to beggary. a chisel. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. Lollards. Du. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . Florio. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. vir mendi. affected. Goth. literally. beitel. Lith. seizing. He did alight. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. a scrip euXaiciJoi. be^nnan. So from Gael. it is both to acquire and to beget. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. tale. V. two betels —a grete oke. 'ex quo. to know. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. a bag. V. pose-pilte. aginnan. beissel. bertola. Bruce. Du.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. begging. in E. to take. beutel. beis- plement driven by blows. Political Songs. Mundart. iv. gen. To produce children is to acquire. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. 1430. P. steinbosil. to begaan. also called Bigots. 58 BEG BEGONE G. Si'Xa/coc. referred gan this Erie alight. a little bag). P. — yivsaiQ. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. P. When Q.bag full of the G. It will . Deutsch. AS. & go a begging. su with gold. a bag . deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. incipere. beitel.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. krapszas. hags. to be able. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. can. &c. one after that other. &c. ken. to be born. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. P. to go a begging. Into the are D. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. but in the same language from poc. cans.3. a wallet. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. capere. is com. P. in D.D. covered with gold D. viii. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries.pose. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. as alighting is a momentary operation. a beggar-boy.

adjust. heeten. taking notice or care of (Gloss. behind. tail. is on the top of or opposite to. to take away. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. to lift. to lift. zijn. to cast or throw. ge' hatan. fixed upon any object). to hold. gehaben. betragen. Kiittn. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. hantyri. solicitum esse. To look steadily upon. to name.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. to keep.to vow. guardare. have the sense of calling or naming. to command. G. to bers of the body. to heave. seeing to. To place are most naturally ex. take heed of. garder. ifl fact. or necessary. And so from hania. to be obliged to one. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. to look upon it as true . to carry. behefe. as in the case of E. to carry. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. furtherance. hevja. The Lat. At the back of The re. G. what is so required. holding is originally derived from that of looking. to lead. by the compound observare. AS. to raise. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. to behave. AS. to bring forwards. It. behatan. premi curi alicujus rei. —Hest. to call. behoof. hatan.for throwing it. to be suitable or becoming . The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to have. use. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . heeten willekem. to vow. AS. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. gecall. laborare. behete. vow. the equivalent of E. to be well pleased out. beperson addressed. vow. to halten. keeping. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian.). to carry corn into the barn . hove. to be named. Paladino.— . hafwa. commonly expressed. is also found in the sense of looking. to keen or hold. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. behold. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . The It. gehouden. and the E. Robert in Warton. or purpose. hafwa ram. advantage. habere. to look. promise . BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. obliged.the figure of throwing at a mark. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to command. at the tail of. gehat. To Behave. according as the * To Behove. hofwa. hafwa. to be be named. han- — js Kil. to gehouden. promise. the name adapt. hces. to keep. R. ward. gehalten seyn. habban. observe. To be expedient. to R. But. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. on. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. tion. to carry. exhort. invoke. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. us-hafjan. to turn one out . The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to follow. Plautus. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. Goth. name of the head is used to express what hbva. Sw. hafwa bort. the distance of anything. To Behold. se porter) to fare well or ill. when the verb will hoof. to meet. portarsi. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. to vow. a follower. take yourself off. is supported by many analogies. Aan iemand bid one welcome. injunccommand. G. healdan. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. Thus in Finnish the heave. or the hence advantage. to tend. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. right. keeping. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. to feed. to promise. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. the two verbs seem radically the same. to be obliged to do a thing. bound. AS. hovast. nittaa. G. behat. to hold. servare. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. — Behest. to be fit. to the equivalent of Du. N. to fit. promise or a command. heita. Sw. what he wishes another to do . To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. hcefwa in seed. and their senses intermingle. from tragen. hcef tig bort.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. to regard. and (as Fr. ufhaban. OE. G. hafjan. behces. Sw. Command. hevja. K. to call. heave. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of.' Richardson. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. AS. behaviour. to hit the mark. 17. G. The seyn. beholden to him.

bell. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. Pl. or high estimation. To Believe. to make it fast. to resound.D. bellan. bervrit. . Du. border. laubjan. a. verloben. to bolk. To Belay. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . bertefredum. In the middle voice hofwas. AS. Du. galaubs. a tower for defence . Fair sir and Fair lady. bealcan. if a promise. to fix a price upon one's wares. glauben. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . OFr. — . esteeming good and valid. Another application of the same word is in Pl. allow. to sound loudly . Du. hesfa. to bellow. Bell. praise.D. —F. aim. Du. laven. locus securitatis Schilter. a little shed. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. ON. ungalaub kas. to belay. to give leave.D. to believe. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it.. beffroit. bolken. bylja. to promise. legsel. bealcettanj OE. turris. is an easy progress. The word be- Belfry. Then. lofa. moderation. overspread. is used in the sense of approving. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. to believe. OHG. mark ON. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. laven. — Diicange. G. true. and E. to der swaren lave. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. loven. In Mid. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. on. bercvrit. Sw. galaubjan. range. beau sire and bel dame. fitness. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. praising. promising. to protect. to hit hafi. erlauben. giving leave or permission. reach. bellow. properly belonging to the church tower. Det er ofwer er hofwa. . Fr. to sanction an arrangement. to promise or engage. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. garnish. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. to befit. orloven. to estimate them at a To believe. bulken. and. or house. to express approval. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. frid. under the forms belfredum. AS. bounds. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. Northamptonshire. belja. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. are innate . esteemed . and Du. in nautical language. to lay the cable round the bits. to praise.D. to cry out bell. a watch tower. were civil terms of address. beset. P1. boare. . appearing in Mid. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. ornament. pro3. tain a certain end. Q. and bergan. filu-galaubs. Pl. distance to which a piece will carry. reputation. on. From AS. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. to praise. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. Hence to simple approbation. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to be required for a certain purpose. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. to give leave Dan. portion. we have Goth. Goth. 6o BELAY BELL loven. are other modifications of the same imitative root. bialla. a tower. to put a high price or value on. leave . certain rate. if a narration. to roar. measure. To praise is essentially Xo prise. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . See Gain. promiser. to a loud noise. to give leave. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to to make A Templorum campana boant. beleggen. berfroi. to permit. to believe. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. lov. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. loben. It. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to praise. belief . from mhG. bettifredo. permitting or giving leave. or a sconce. consent. then. ley/a. fringe. to extol the worth of anything.. behove. peal. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl.alyfan.Lat. permission. precious. and E. — mankind. beffroi. lyfan. gelyfan. cela est audessus de votre portde. to lay be- around. satisfaction. met. Fr. is (Sternberg). loven. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. with the consent of the heirs. To Belch. resonare. an implement for making a loud noise. a vessel made for dishonour. honoured. ON. leaf geleafa.Lat. to boke. b'ola. for purposes of low estimation . stand.. battefredum. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. then. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt.

' Palsgr. to hold to one. generous. belt.' — Hie fimus. to become one's property . a border. ball. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. . Du. Lat.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. kind. to concern. bell. bag. Gael. a bellows . blister balgan-snamha. J'emboue. ' I beraye. as concerning that. vulva. to bless. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. bellows. . to touch. bcelg. welt of a shoe. from cwcsthan. OFr. the word. blast-bcelg. bolg. benejicium. to attain to. G. bellows. . fens et hie liraus. pod. — ray. was in Mid. Ptg. binsen. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. incense of Java. bilbila. pino3. bellows. Bav. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . volva. pouch. Belt. a kindness. Was das belanget. OUG. attinere. well. a bellows. Fr. bimaissen. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. See Nether. Bench. as. rushes. benir. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. to touch one. I marre a thyng. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. to. to reach. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. gelangen. balg. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. . Benign. loubdn djawt. est matris in lucem editus. Gael. to use words of good omen. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. leather sack. cod or husk of pulse. bander un arc. needs no ex. Fr. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. Bent. Lat. on. binssen. Bret. to come to the crown belangen. has assumed a plural form. benaigon. Benedico. I say). from another modification of the word for bubble. a speaking well of one. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. to bend a bow . to hallow." — — . to exert force. attinere. or sometimes louban.videtur. skin. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. From OFr. Gum benjamin. to ring. means seeds of plants. To Bend. belgr. bendan. bless. a blessing. Kil. a leather bag. G. — See Numb. dirt. To Bequeath. welt of a shoe gwald. The ing-skin. one who does good. a benefit. attingere. Fr. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). I araye. taken absolutely.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. or simply djawt.Fr. . to do good to one . belly. the womb. hem. wallet. pertinere. or fyle with myre. bandoir. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. bendaj as. beneison. a round or bubble-shaped root. because bcelg. ON. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. border. a accusative. to belong. benefacere. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. pervenire. benignus (opposed to malignus).polch. fyle To dirty. vulgarly the belly. Lat. ^To Beray. the skin of those animals that factor. Beneath. . Benignant. poX^ri. See Bank.pinuz. — Ducange. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. benjoim. balg. to arrive at. se bander. In E. to make bilbil. an inflated Lat. To belong is thus to reach up to. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. bienfait.' The term had been previously planation. Benzoin. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. ' . Dozy. benedicere. is The word balg. bags or bellows. ON.. bolg. a spring. belch. balteus . bene/actum. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. a water-bubble builge. from which is also bulbus. Lat.— Belly. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. gwaldas. I soyle it or araye it. To Belong'. are stripped off whole blase-balg. benjoin. Benefactor. Javanese perfume. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. by itself. w. Eenison. bimpsen. or a It is times the to signify services. See Bind. to stretch it on a frame. from Arab. to say. a good deed. benedictio {bene^ and dico. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. — root consisting of concentric skins. from benedictio. . benehusk. is a kindred form. G. bilbil-goda. to attain belangen. disposed to oblige. Lat. Lat. belly. skin. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. See I . belliJ Lat. to concern. wallet Benefit. hence with ashes. Benefice. becwathan. langen. bolch. a blow. Sw. Benediction. Quoth. rise against external force . applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. pertinere. To Benum. ray. G.

what does it boot. besnij Pl. as Du. R. barfham. The dry. solicit. basya. a fire. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. ^akka. baete. broom twigs. G. supply. a horse collar. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. beseech. is to perform a serviceable office to him. — Biglotton. peto. BETE dirty'. to the place boarded off in a. houseless. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. besje^ Sanscr. AS. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. het vuur The serise of Boeten. to To Bereave. — amendment. AS. sweepings. To seek something from a person. stow. R.— Hal. roju. Du.D. To bete his Jam. boutefeu. as conversely a besom is called broom.iooA. advantage. brem-bessen. Ihre. to strip. Grose. lewth. burrow. bestow. it seems hard to separate as. The proper meaning of the bale. to to deprive of. boeten. ^•n. to fall with roisto. a place . . Bestead.• 62 Antiq. Best. in the sense ctf beria.bhaksh. * Berth. . bacca. think more probable. to thrust. and also to entreat. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. See Better. put. rubbish. to be-place. — . bereafian. dirt. reparation.ot-i. dust rojahtaa. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. arwe.fish the other hand. Hfence backing. bet. improve. To Gl. bdt. From abet. dial. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. to put on the saddle. might have been . from It. Fr.X. to kindle the fire. protect . Sw. bal oppbota. Goth. or the space kept clear betan. Beere. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. berwham. Beet. Sw. besein. put forth. as bouter selle. I from lew. the side bhakshya. profit. earg. ariierf to 113. noise. So Lat. supporting on the one side Lat. to entreat. eld up- On is to be placed A — . — Chaucer. position. fyrbotare. botesward. but in practice. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. basjaj Du. E. betan. to amend. advantage. scopse spartis. vol. Du. beorgan. bat. Kil. Esthon. reafian. seems twigs or rods. ship for a make amend. roe. bota. jnore. one who shelter. encouraging. ropahtaa. E. reparation. Zeitschr. because used for making besoms. lay out. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. but it is specially applied mister. Du. to thrust. as in growth. * To Bete. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. To Bestow. bdt. make better . Tusser. mud. preferably. as. The origin is AS. OE. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . p. earh. roju. to fire a funeral pile of . and Du. to exercise on a definite object. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. stealth from steal. sheltered from the wind. buttafuoco. from grow. to stand one in good stead. to cast. to give a place to. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. place. to supply a want. berry. On the other hand. an incendiary. Rob. fearful. berwe. See Reave. betan. the guardian . besmas. as.t. from AS. buttare. to defend. Besom. boteith Goth. to on the other Goth. It is the restore fyr betan. as. of ffeed a fire. Devon. fall with sound. 3. or to bestead one. making better. Du. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. person to lie in.— VixHsm. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. an incendiary.—^fake. to make it. Beit. To Bet. barthless. to make better. and on which the wager is laid. Berry. — bota. Fr. small eatable fruit. what does it better a man. compared with bargham. a berry. When men of mekeness him baet. sets fire to. dung . The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. bouter. amendment. To help. better. as. stede. AS. rods. boeten. So roto rattle down. boeten. bur-we. or. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. to light the fire . hva mannan. BEREAVE Wall. dirt . barth may be for barf. vi. Fin. To Beseech. to word is shelter. to mend. baete. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. same word with the provincial barth.irova. So too Yorkshire arf. besIn sen. p. besen. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. Tha het he micel fyr betan. G. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. repair. to seek. the origin of which is to be found in ON.

to Hence It. Chaucer. larks. G. fate. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. Goth. evidence of life. as trahissons. betera. spritigs from schicken. Thus from dbahir. A — drink. in the middle of twain. proficere. &c. batizo. ON. . tradere. zimet. AS. to fall. or with again. as from obdir. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. -to appoint. as envahir. said he. Slant. beva. progress. — that schickiich. are commonly to one's lot. against. gezimet eines dinges. taemen. Between. Pl. amiddes. Du. not to have the heart to give up a thing. betest. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. be fitting or suitable. betweox. riigen. From It. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. in the same way Lat. trahir. fallinn. by a final sh. better. order. abash j from polir. find in one's heart. are there Regt R. dir. Bevy. deign. to deliver tip. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. suitable. treachery. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Sw. E. Ober D. bet. gatiman. Tinia eigi at lata eit. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. to deliver up in breach of trust. betweoh. bet. roja. moveable and compass branches. betray. Fris. ziemen. Fr. traitre. To vouchsafe. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. G. Fl. x. betwuxt. R. and thence twegen. bedriegen. To Beteem. betriigen. whence beveraggio Fr. bevere. i. deem suitable. a traitor. trakir. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. taemen. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. Cot. trahison. bouter davantaige. beuvrage. has — In a like sense tanie>i. tweoh. lot). Buveau. better. sloped off. ON. better. is used for the — R. betweohs. his mouth. polish. To Betray. his eyen sheen. verbs in ir with a double ss. betst. tima. regen. Best. betaemen. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. AS. to make forwards. obeish. fitting. To Bewray. Now the stirring of an object. Golding's Ovid in R. as one would have it fall. of pheasants. tima. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. to cheat. Percy Soc. two. the being pushed to the frbnt. springs from ON. On the same principle ON. awry. r'ojer dig. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. Car son umbre si le trahit. From the former of these are AS. in the middle of two. Sahissais. a bevy. which may be compared as to form with amid. Pl. bat. twain. a different form of twa. advance. an instrument opening like a a thing. E. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. for measuring angles. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. *Ah. wreia. batista. to accuse. e. what does It is forward him. wrogia. bevde. Fr. Det sig sjelft. Ik tame mi dat nig. by two. G. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. It. as tlock. to happen. of quails. bibere.D. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage.— . ruogia. become. E. 88. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. e. to happen. best. — of the authorities. Fr. from Lat. beverage. some attention. BETEfiM translated. a drinking . obdissais. /alia. kein leben mehrin no signs . Dit tungomal rendered in E. thy speech bewrayeth thee. roebucks. betwuh. it bewrays itself. from. R. The inflections of Fr. zemen. find it good: Goth. In like manner folissais. afford. e. Mich self a good glass of wine. Goth. R. The as. to stir. gesiemen. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. from invadere.D. pair of compasses. vrohjan. to drink . a brood. In like manner from twain is fothied between. trahissais. traditor. Friar's Prol. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. Better. To boot in coursing (i. — See To Bete. to discover. OE. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. to Teem. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. to deceive. i. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. suitable. In the water anon was seen His nose. Fr. from Fr. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. tradire. Bav. amidst. G. is treason. Lat. Dii. to fall Some call it a bevel. more. Hence last G. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. dispose (whence schicksal. baet. — Betwixt.' Dialogue on Witches. I approve of beveau. It. make manifest.

rogge. Bib. Prov. has a singular stone-picker. Mantuan. lips. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. to well up with Cot. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. (according to the Fr. Diet. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). to the stirring of their conscience. See Wriggle. Yes. An inferior blue. babbi. wrogen. or kwijl-slab. him. edge of a plate of looking-glass. bending. to tipple. evident. is explained to clatter. discover. misFr.D. sbriscio. bible. 172. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . sliding. Pers. Pl. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Biseau. convicts thee of being drink. to slaver . Fr. aslope sbisciare. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. it becomes (Jz-. Jamieson. a sloping edge. a bezle. bis. Lat. winding or crawling in and out. dial. to creep or crawl sideling. besanca. biax. to move. per\'erted belief. . whence Du. sbieco. a Galilean. /3i/3Xof a book originally. bickel-sieenken. which good bibbeler. whey count . bark of which paper was first made. as an eel or a snake. The It. a fragment bieco. expelling or preserving against. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. I Wallon. to slaver or drivel. the basil Sc. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. the word became bddizahr.s bellum for duellum. Cat.{ioin dua. Du. bias-wise. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. oblique. Uprogen. Fr. sbrisciare. Bisect.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. To Bezzle. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. —Bickering'. To Bicker. It. specially in a bottle. metaphor). to stir. foul weather.as in Biped.or from obliquus. makes ble. crooked. Fr. bibo. in two ways for duis. sbiagio. . to sip. wraggeln. kwijllap. inferiority. biascia. Ant. bebble. to be a paring. he is Wtb. biais. 78). The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. Lat. In comp. pible. wrangle. to stir. biberon. . s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. to stir. bickeler. The train of thought is then. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. kwijl-bab. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. bestemps. To Bib. twice. It. Bice. Fr. to shake. its clothes. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. to a fight with stones. Misc. biascio. Sp. Bias. bring under ' Thy accuse. Piedm. or in and out.a. sloped. —Dozy. Probably. bavon. presence. love first begins to life signs of him. Hal- — do something aslant. Bezel. one who drinks in excess. bisel. Bezoar. rogt un bogt sik nig. In Arab. Fr. to tipple. Bibelsworth in Nat. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. like guzzle. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. To skirmish. bescompte.two. bezling or skueing.' bibble. Piedm. asure-bice (Early E. beregen. bisdare. in Fr. liwell. biberen. To drink hard. biberer. — Bi-. kwijlen. sbrisso. to stir up . Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. or by any rapid motion. Oh when shall I bizzle. petit-lait. bickai. aslope. sbiscio. a slabbering-bib. To bicker in NE. sbias. sbiasciai. Hal. to purl. slanting . bickel. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. bickelen. biaiser. ber-laita (for bes-laita). beslei. E. Ci^. Sard. Bible. poison. notice. to give signs of life. — crooked.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. two- footed. to it evident to sense. It is especially applied in Sc. bibaculus. pddzahr. stock still. of the sliced off. Cat. Gr. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. and zahr. roggle. sbiesso. from pdd-. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. To Bibble. it were the mouth. sbiescio. by throwing of stones. though such a change of form would be very unusual. An excellent Basil.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. to Jam. to cut in two. dial. a stone-hewer . . OE. baverole. used in precisely stone . Fr. shows the P1. to glide or slip as upon. Schiitze. .to drink much. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). slippery. sik beregen. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. in him. Sardin. reveal. tailU en biseau. Dan. baviere. Fris. a bibber. the papyrus. to make tongue Du. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. bihais.D. b&zahr. ice . to dispute. sbrissare. bes-azur. babbefore the eyes. snout.

inhabit Du. bead. called the tertiary order. — — — Halliwell. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. . for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. to start out. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. Bigot. the belly of a ship. bugan. to forbid . Two verbs are here confounded. to forbid . A pose to one to come to dinner. P. or bad. buga. to have one called before him. to bend. bend. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. build. pray. consisting both of men and women. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen.peto. porrigere. to cultivate. from bidan. bouwen. from belgia. an entire skin. biddan. swoln. to marry. to presimpler pare. AS. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. bugt. . 1. which is stiU. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. forwards. as tears from the eyes. to build G. To Big. bulge. to swell. abidan. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. a chip. and Gael. byggan. bug. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. The ON. bis and in comp. bag. bo. to move quickly. boa.' Addison. It must be observed that the word bidja. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. To bid the banns. bidan. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. in the sense of ask for. bidill. inhabit. beodan. to offer. bugne (answering to ON. athird class. bygga. With respect to logical pedigree. bulk. or. praebere. gebodenj G. bulge. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. bath. spelling seems to used in the N.t. Compare also Sp. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. bidan. related to big or bug. belly. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. to pro- command. iiQ. England for swollen. by seek and beseech. Bigamy. has leta. becoming in Lat. bigan. Wallace in Jam. BIGOT beidan. bolgna). bog. verbieten. bieden. form. and the Sw." buque with E. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. Bickelen. bieten. twice. to bulge. Analogous expressions are G. bolga. swelling. qucero. the meaning of bid. to bend. and yajiBui. may plausibly be derived from Goth. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. from seek. bolginn. bua. A bjudan in anabjudan. praestare.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. Hence Sc. quiring something to be done. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. The . balg. a flexure. of More ' in Richardson. belly. Einem einen guten tag bieten.. to abide or wait on. as. or third order of penitence. besides the professedmonks and nuns. beidast. be bug. The 'La. Du. faurbjudan. byggia. OSw. The ON. explaining the Sc. ON. bulky. bedun.uddered len heart. Bight or Bought. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. to dwell. bat . Jam. R. a swelling. who. beadle. — prepare. and consequently ordering or reGoth. ON. to bicker. bit- bidja. ewes. as G. bend of a shore or of a rope. to belly. Big. ten. to arrange. to look for. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. AS.' Pope in R. repair. rising up. anleta. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bilge or bulge. — To Bid. OSw. G. bced. are also used in the sense of asking for. to build. G. to curve. einen vor Gericht bieten. ON. proud. to build. to ask. to inflate E. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. to ask. bow. biegen. From Gr.Leta). ON. swaggering. bidel. offerre. a suitor. Kil. The loss of the / gives Dan. to offer it to public notice. to inhabit. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. bi-. to look for. pressing on one's notice. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. ' Bug as a Lord. To Bid ' Big . to bid one good day. G. W. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. 2. to E. The original Swollen. to offer one the wish of a good day. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bidjan. cultivate. bauen to cultivate. Big-swol- . gebeden j G. BID of stone. to pray one to dinner. AS. to solicit. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow.

and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. In a similar manner from bigello. 1243. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. author quoted in N. homespun cloth. 1499. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. a blockhead. In the same way Fr. G.' Matthew Paris. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. grey. ac labores manuum detestantes. the nobles to Rienzi. and also unlearned common men. xx. bigotta.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. Augustini dotarint. A.a. the other form Per te Tribune.D.— Ducange. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati.. with reference to A. face VIII. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis.' says an Venet. vocati Fraticelli. corruption would easily creep in. both men and women. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • .' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. signifying bagmen or beggars. bighellone.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. honesti plebeii amictus. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. and Q. a dunce. Francisci communiter appellabant. A. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. &c. dark-coloured cloth. was formed bigello. biso. begutta. natural grey or sheep's russet. 15 18.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. sed maxim^ in muliebri. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. Bighiotti). Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. ix. as well as bizocco. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. absque votorum religionis emissione. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. aliqui Begardi. Bizoccki. bighiotto. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. which must not be confounded with begardo. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. coarse woollen cloth. A. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. D. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. probably from biso. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. They wore a similar dress. all apparently derived from Ital. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. says. perch^ i Terziari di S.D.' Chart.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores.' translated by Muratori. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. Flor.— BIGOT bigardo. From bigio. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. 560. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. clownish. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. S. bigio. Beguttce.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. beghino. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. Bizocco. rustical. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. borel. Bighini. beghart. grey. to adopt a similar course of life. and hence the variations bigutta. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.D. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. alii de paupere viti. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. vol. Hence the OE. alii Apostolici.' says one of of bigio.

Sp. an axe. an adze . and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. bill of exchange. an ingot of gold or silver. a floating log to mark the place of some. that of swell. in the same sense. bigotto. a name given to a. a hypocrite. beghart. — Cot. To Bilk. a sword. 3.— — — . bull-berries. I. bigardo. to strike. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. to strike. A lorum tam in — Diez. Johansen. to peck. b'olja. now A Bilboa blade. billet is the diminutive of this. Prov.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. billard also signified at billyards. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Du. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. and dziobas. a short note. from Mid. an axe . buie. 5 * . belghen. horn of an animal. Fr. bila. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. e. bla-berry. of boja. fetters. a of the sea. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Sw. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. p. beil. To defraud one of expected sinking. Billet. to job. plog-bill. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . bizocco. the trunk of a tree. In English the meaning has received a further development. A slang term for a sword. bile. Bille. Kil. loi. boja. bigot. might be taken to express a hypocrite. Dan. a seal. crowberry. Piedmontese bigot. person of religion leading a loose life. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. as craneberry. and a billard. buail. blue . an ingot. Deutsch. and in Lat. an axe. w. bulghe. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Bojce. Billette. Bill. Tartuffe. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. OFr. at sea Billet. genus vincu- Bilboes. used in legal proceedings. a shackle. axe. symbolum. biilge. AS. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. Gascoigne in R. buoy [i. So in Gr. AS. boia. ferrese quam ligneae. Bohem. whortle-berries. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. billot. Bilberry. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. 2. as a bill of indictment. inscriptum. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. a man who rests on a stick in walking. fluctus maris. In the same way are related Pol. to swell with rage). a devotee. the o changing to an i to express diminution. in the sense of a writing. NFris. names bill-berries. G. bisoch. bill. gan. topor. a hatchet. irons or set in a kind of stocks. bigot. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Langued. a beak. Kil. — bigardia. Roquef. Fr. bui. Dan. billard or billart. dissimulation . the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. clog to a fetter. dziob. 2. blaa. from the dark colour. an axe. BILBERRY nated. belgan. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. blamand. See Bulk. top. dziobad. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. Sw. to pick a millstone. Aurelles. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bulgja. 'tumidi fluctus. abelthe fetter itself. the bill of a bird. deceit. Billow. . on. Bill. from OSw. billet. the swelling G. boeye. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. procella Kil. See Bull. Mundart. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. bill in parliament. . bulla. The Du. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. Lat. bolghe. bil. ^Billiard. The proper meaning bylgia. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). Gael. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. The origin of the term is probably from bole.' bilio. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. e. Du. bullet. a seal. a negro. An instrument for hewing. AS. Bilbo. the beak of a bird. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. bwyell. however. Bigin. Fr.' in Richardson. of E. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Du. a bigot or hypocrite. Ludwig. . weapon . Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. to be angry (i. — — ' .. tepati. gleischner (Frisch). Sw. Lat. seems to be rather the unda. is properly a sealed instrument.' mariners. Thus we find in It. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. Bilge. obsolete. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. bille.

similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. We — A Birth. beisseii. AS. biccej ON. betsel. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. biscotto. Fr. i. to bring Biscuit. pinnu. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. bjork. a heap. a corn. piccione. properly a young pigeon. . bindan. a gallinaceous bird. evigue. from Lat. bircej Sw. a bitch applied also to other animals. bord. doubtless a stone. — Kil. poultry. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. EpisETTiTOOTToe. expressed by Sw. See Breed. piiiti. It. bitill. beorth. from Gr. to bind at . brut. Sp. a bitch. . Lat. burt.. — properly near-sighted. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. The term ON. ON. lusciosus et myops. overlooker. Habitacle. v. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. a bump or knob. the young of birds . Sanscr. videt. nodus. admota non Bit. to hang. Lat. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. a bunch. To Bite. . . where the compass stands. fowl. Lat. The proper meaning is a heap. G. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. &c. bij sien. are commonplaces. to form a knotted structure. wine. Bisson. episcopus. hiindiiin. pittjo. i. to build. by the verb knit or net. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. bundun. a weight of 48 pounds. e. bitacora. a knob. Birch. E. bundt. To — — —D. bundle. a hind or female stag. beitan. beize. Then added division in a granary. viz. a brood or hatch of young. than vice versi.. When compared with Fr. a truss. bunki./«idere. Sw. a little dog. See Belly. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. or ben-wood. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. — See Bittacle. earnes brid. Thus I suppose the Gr. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. bund.' and the like. Bisen. and of Fr. bij sienigh. bhurja. The bitol. berkas (z=:Fr. or petze. pullus. bundle. IV. by binda. Bird. or bin. the young of an animal. Lith. — Surrey in R. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth.. to fasten it together. qui nisi propius Blind. AS. pundas. It. bund. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. a bitch. pin-ti. to bulge. a heap. Bizened. Goth. a female stag. a habit- Binnacle. Lat. pippione. — — . Bittacle or Binnacle. in Swabia. AS. to cook).68 BIN Bio-. life. bikkia. to twine. an eagle's young G. habitacle. a bear. ge- from AS. bundt. to plait. . Fr. Bind. Goth. a weight. hith. bigne. is in Scotland applied to ivy. forth. Sw. Fr. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. H. a female dog hindinn. V. Bailey. I would derive the verb to knit. j). while bind-wood. isfiw. terial. Dan. Bing. to knot nets for fish. Bindweed. bindan. Bisom. a pig petz. Bin. AS. from pondus. biclie. twice cooked. band. G. Bine. ON. biscuit. to be derived from Ibfiaq. Du. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. sc. Fr. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. to bear. bunga. bita. from \t3\. See To Bear. bunt. Lith. G. or baked. is rendered in ON. bunch. to bind together. pinnii. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. to wreathe. Bitch. bin-wood. beran. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. and especially to a small poor horse. an overseer. brid. Gr. propius videre bij sicndc. also a stone weight. vescovo. 'tumens sequor. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. . Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. to net. AS. a house. poule. evegue. evesgue. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. binda nat. beitsl. which is expressed in E. to swell. Lap. copus. BITTACLE /Siof. In like manner from knot. AS. binge. Fr. truss. G.

Bivouac. a shelter for the steersman. faded. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). brunblakk. chatter babbler . NE. beiwache. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. It. bitor. whiteness (candor sine It. indistinctly. Fr. whitish. . mouth. bleikr. blepLith. quick. whitish. x. Mag. ^aj'/^r. on the one side. to talk much. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. — Hollyband. G. 332. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. to the sharpness of a weapon. a beam in a house or ship. white. viz. I blaber. a tati. /ealo-/or. Bohem. Wit hung her mourn. 't huisje. blunt we say it will not bite. pale. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. ^chops. biti. Again. blobach. a continued soft sound. as is seen in sputter and splutter. "uivac. shine. — Collins in Hal. pale.plab is used to .D. G. to loll it out. The bitas. bitts of Bitts.' by Haldorsen. Nagt huis. Mantuan babbi. blakk. bitr. to speak Dan. is placed. ' plabraich. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. light-coloured. is apprehension of danger. corrupted in Fr. v. Sp. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. unintelligible talk plabair. baboyer.. blakki. a childe dothe gasouille. Bleak. pale brown . bihovac. leohte . as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. shining. In Legrand's Fr. a fluttering noise. confusedly. white lead. Fr. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. as of wings . Gael.— Blabber-lip. blebberis. out the tongue. the palebleff.). bites. dusky. garrulous. a* mast . pale. buft". from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. dark. night guard. blesmer. ON. ' Biovac. a stammerer. Sp. ON. Alex. maculS. AS. blank. blabaran. Fr. Cot. obscurus. Mund. blab. . To Blab the anchor. blubber-lipped. 't kompas huis. Deutsch. discoloured . Du. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. small guard-house. Cotgr. 'fuscus. So Fr. Gael. cut. things —Palsgr. babbe. Hald. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. Applied in Hin ON. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. gulblakk. on. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. blob. as of water gently beating the shore. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale.. iroxafealo.. term. quoted by Ihre. Why presumest And laam's asse.' G. Fieldfare. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. ON. —Neumann. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. yellowish. blake. beitr. to babble. first. bittour. faded. ON. blac-hleor ides. blob. Se bleek. pale yellow . Black. a babbler. to wax pale or bleaked. Bittern. Bav. Hal. a large coarse lip . a flapping. Blabber-lip. from wachen. biacca. or water beating gently on the beach . Sw. Je N. beuni. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. blob. fallow fawn-coloured. Pl. an edge is sharpest sword. as of a body falling into water. The Gz. yellow . gabble. Hist. apparently from its biting the tongue. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. — cheeked maid.€i. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . blabbre. pins of the capstern. fallow . black. Sp. white. To or he can speake. to chops. baitrs. pale yellow. bitter. plappem. mouth.' by Gudmund. A a rail. Fr. synonymous with baber-lip. to bivouac. babbling. AS. Percy Soc. Goth. to let out whai should have been concealed. butorj OE. thoughtlessly . Lydgate. Ai-mstrong. . mona mid Dan. blabhdach. Sp. even humour seemed and beuin. blanc. bird of the heron tribe. to babble. plabartaich.' It would thus acle. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. blabbern. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. an additional watch. 156. In like manner E. from whence we have adopted the. stutterer. his blacan light. round which the cable is made fast. to To blabber blabber with the lips. In a similar manner Gael. bitones. bittore. as in that of pale and white on the other. bleg. bleich. in contempt. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. a large lip. to watch. town guard to keep order at night bivouac.

polished. linkboys. pXaatpiiiiHv. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. broad. Sw. to glow. —We Bladder. Du. or of an oar G. or blafich. Blanket. cited in N. Sw. borrelen. to shine. reproach. To blank. blaere. To Blare. dial.— ^o thehotsun. Du. Eadmer. bladeren. Blame. probably ate. to bleak in the sun. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. white. The radical bubble. speak impiously. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. also tanned by the sun. leafy. bladder. pluddre. to blow. plate. Du. gabble. mus-blackt. to shine. as. Dan. slush. candidus. G. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G.. mire. roar. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. whitish. skola and thwatta. a pustule . to dabble in water. Play in Nares. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. &c. . waschen. pass over. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. G. Sc. blanchet. blister. blasphemare. a white or unwritten ticket. plat. blanqne. to vocifer- — Cot. mud. bladder. leaf. bladdra. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. 86. blanchet. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. leaf of a. to blanch. Blancli. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. See Blubber. shining. foolish talk. blactra. blad. a bubble. Perhaps from blegen. a blank ticket. Dan. —^Webster. to bubble. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. plat. blad. and Q. . G. smother. pimple. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. tattle. as Lat. Cot. Du. blanc. as blader. blather. commonly called the Black-guard. chatter. — rura. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. Bav. revile. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. and thence to babble. Fr. Lat. defame. But perhaps a more Gr. branches . blister. bladra. and the agitation of liquids. blister. Blade. irXariQ. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. blegen. 5/^a/^ of colour. PI. which we . and G. a bubble. imbrunire. the leaf of a tree. blein. blather. Sir. . dripping-pans. Fr. bladder .. also white woollen cloth . do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. sheet of paper. blahen. blatter. and he shall be sure to have O. leaves. blether. chatter. a blanket a bed. vagrants. — . a boil. black. Now. as scullions. mud. livido . with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. biastner. Gr. with all other loose idle masterless men. or as E. 7. The present forms then should be classed with blether. piatto. a bladder or pustule. or a mass of bubbles. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. tree. — Sw. D. on. to glitter. his meat burnt. as. to —Blaspheme. Reliqu. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. to disappoint. boys. most complete example of leafy structure.—Blatter. Fr. blister. smore. pladdern. Blank "verse. I am degraded from a cook. name originally given Blackguard. blatt. white. blegne. from candere. Fr. Dan. blank. variable than the signification of words designating colour. vagabonds. also jabber. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. Wott. to To bellow. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. in R. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. blatter. a. and wandering men and women. the origin of . who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. blena. Torriano. e. pallido. Blain. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. on. blame. coat. to purl. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. board. Hist. to Hence Ital. It. bladder.—Blatant. the ON. a buible. moere. to make or become white blanc. contracted from bladeren. 1854. p. flap of a Du. bladre. blanchir. Du. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. a leaf. Besides the examples of this connection given above. blinken. blaeren. Bacon in R. madder. — — — to jabber. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. biasimare. and others engaged in dirty work. to omit. and E. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. is identical with Flanders borlen. Blank.— Kil. rogues and wanderers. Jan. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. whitish.

as a verb. pale. or blazening. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. is used in the sense of manifestatio. blesse. live coal . blass. Kil. much plausibility. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. in that of praise. Dan. OE. proflare tues. Du. to proclaim. Gudmund. friend Cornelius. Du. is the imme. bles. The origin of this exSp. blasoen. blazen. ing of arms. With inversion of the liquid. blcEsan. of an animal. Cot. noisy blor. might spring from the same origin by a . brasa. to publish the praises. to blow. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. — Elazen. AS. baladrar.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. it is manifest. Troilus and Cressida. clamorous. e. If armour. shield or surcoat. how. blasa. visui patet. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. . and which. blaodhrach. a funeral oration .' to fastum . ON. kept up. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. Du. Fr. A blaze is so intimately Then. bawling. blis. brasa.sound a trumpet. light-coli. First from the E. oured. blcese. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind.— . ther it was erst not knowe. like the in English. 'op een trompet blaazen. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. But now. declaratio. bliEsan. See Blare.whence the Fr. boasting. AS. also only pains and excellent endurance. to publish. Blatant. blysa. a voice Jr. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. to blaze Sp. Dan. blesse. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. has also blencke. To blast. Sc. on whose behalf the herald appeared. senses. to set on fire. blase. to spread news. blaterare. redness . abroad. Fr. the matter incendiary . a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . indeed. whence Blazonry. blast. in the same way as we 2. fire. blcEsan. a flame. biter. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. abroad. blcesett. besides blesse. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. blatero. 2. to trumpet forth. a whisperer. a shining spot. a torch. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. As Kilian. . Blaze. an empty and two theories are proposed. each of boaster. a torch . proclaim the virtues of. To blow AS. I. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. to blow . G. Lye. To Blaze. She roade at peace through his heraldry. Du. blaodh. Blast.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. Du. ON. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blezo. Cot. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. blaeteren. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. Fr. embraser. also blazon or the blazSpenser. a shout. blaser vid. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. — — ' : bless. A gust of wind. blcest. commendation blason funebre. A strong flame. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. gloriosus. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. beast. a MS. G. blus. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. Sw. — ' — stroy. Blanches illuminies. Prov. blossi. Sw. blys. bleis. magniloquus. ventosus. or to the sound which it produces. i. to cut off prematurely. braise. oron-blasare. a shield. blateroon. also praeblczse. a loud noise. blason. The AS. and. bldsse. the noisy. blaesen. quus. Gael. to bellow. loud . coloured prints. blaze. Golden Book in R. a flame. a flame . . somewhat different train of thought.). among other . to blow. — ^Jam. an conium. laudes (Kil. blose. g. magnilo. ill-speaMng their proper colours . splendour. blorach. by stripping off a portion of the bark. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. stultd loqui. and to make him word blaze. to extol. it is obvious shield on which they were painted.' painted or figured . blason. baladron. a blast. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. to de. blase. a coat of arms. used. a lamp blasere. Du. blasonner. might And sain. thraso. is from AS. The other derivation.

confound him. Bejaune.' to deceive one. bldmi. AS.' the devil makes a vain back. blakna. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. blench came to be used for a trick. geplerr. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. — blink the question is to shrink from it. BLENCH obfusco. on. is Blench. drop of water. paleness. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. wanness. Blear-eyed j having sore i. a blotch plerr. Manuel de Pecch&. a spot. a blot or smear blanking one. As AS. pier vor den augen eyes. tumanid. . In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. like one that has long P1. plama. tacher. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Blemisli. blot. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. in the expression reputation. a stain. what blenched him therwith. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. or blemysshen — blaken. I chaunge colour.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. to blear one's eye. blemissemeiit. pale . while the agent ac- From . Ancren Riwle. To Bleat. spla7nU sie. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. Pol. B. ' — — ' : — — . from the than schal I go. boggle at something. a spot. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. color plumbeus bldma. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. pimple .P. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. start vor den augen. a spot. blur before their eyes. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. to spot. A Blab. wan. Blear. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. Gr. See Blood. Palsgr. livor. light-coloured. a blemish in one's 2. souiller. tutnan is a cloud. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. ^Blencher. blink. a been distinct. And By a similar metaphor Pol. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. dead-coloured Cotgr. See Black. . Sw. bleakness. 115. to start away from. exposed. novice. as of dust or mist . one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly.D. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . 419. to spot . See Black. flack. c. So in Sw. Bailey. and thence to a bruise. to wink at it. And now are these but mansbond (i. to bleach. To salir. to become livid. blcecan. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. to cast a mist before the eyes. Sir J. Bleak. the formal equivalent of English wink. or to low as oxen. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. avoid looking it in the face. p. sugillatio. or blemish. spSt. to cry or weep. From the OFr. to disgrace one's name. from on. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. darkness of vices. a fault. the livid colour of a bruise. ' — — eye. Bleed.v. to soil. A stain in a man's reputation. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. pale Du. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. . Bleb. G. ^Xiixaoftai. — — R. sinen langen tranen. . Gower in R. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. (faith or creaunce) Be war. N. a red watery eye. to stain one's honour or reputation. Schmel.' God in his wordes. inflamed eyes. blister.filerren. ' . Mac. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. a boil. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. blema. to humbug. 242.'he cried till the tears ran down. livid. The term blear. bleikr. to bleat as sheep. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. blesmir. blarren. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. . splamii!. a disgrace. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. ' He blarrede or roar. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. Fr. To totally different from the foregoing. Blancher. to wink the eye. blesmissure. bloken. wheal. goda nainn. to blare been weeping. blot. guenchir. to make him feel blank. whitish. which are blurred with the have shewed you. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. a spot. Richardson.

Sw. blitz. a flash. and joys of Paradise bliden. blahoslaviti to twinkle.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. blican. a wink With the bletsian. tless —Gamm. to twinkle. Paradises blidnissu. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. wink. Du. bleg. j). to bless . will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. to plunge. vious one in the order of formation. or nettle which does form. trix. Wtb. blissian. glimpse. dazzle . blahos.D. gladness. Du. Swiss (obsolete). an entry which leads to nothing . Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. sweet. glitter. well blagaya. Biglotton. blende. Tany. —Brera. III. to shine. lovely Bohem. (=bene dicere). plonsen. moment. De Sonne ' verblekken. goods. ^Jam. ON. doors. flash of light .nasal. To Blend. ' Pl. pockets. to dilute too much . plotzen.Q. AS. joy. a blessing. blinzeln. to churn. the G. Du. blogi. blessed. false windows. . OHG. blent. pale. . riches blajennii blicksem. also to wink. the verb to bless is some. bludder. to glitter . blanda one or prevent one from seeing. blanssen. weaklaveny. the Slavonic languages. Deprived of sight.' or Dat Koorn verblekket.not sting thiiren. Needle. to mix. a. Blind. window-blind. to consecrate . AS. a wink. . Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. G. blinzdugig. to flash. To Bless. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. to make a rumbling noise. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. blaziti. make these hands 3. to bluiter up with water. well blahy blick and blink. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. mix from blekken. The term then self or others. seems the simple netel. a blick-ooghen. to bluiter. . G. blicken.corn. AS. tire. a. Blight. blindr. sung. bliss look . blidu. giving (Fr. bluiter. fortunately. lightning. to stir or puddle. as in Du. shine. pearance of the blighted . Nares.blunda. to dash wine with water. graceful. as taschen.' To — blunge clay. blincken. burn up. blendian. Du. money. is I shall Gurt. blund. a dead nettle. . to act like a — . glad. thou knave. blac. blicken. lightning. The inblissful. glance. happy . lighten. blatida. to glitter ful . wink of sleep .. as a vatn i vin. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. to blithsian. blazeny. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. blago. blick.eyed. Blink.blinze. to shine. to make happy. blicksem. as in the case of blaze. glitter. riches .blinken. the sign of the cross while blessing one. to bless. to shine. G. to fall into water with a sudden noise. blindselen. although in the in the next article. good. a look. . happy . Pol. . sertion of the nasal. blag. Du. . . A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted.wink . livid. lightning sweet blago. From the action of the hand making Sw. to pro. happily. as a blind entry. — when he — Bailey. — Goth. G. to rejoice. gives blinzen. but by no means therefore a pre. blind- ON. to merry. blessed. a glance Swiss blenden. 375. — . joy . . blithe blis. . to rejoice. a gleam. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. blend. to glance. readily passes into a /. liquid filth to bluther. A . a glance. Dan. Sc. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. Kiittner. Blazena Bea. tative source of the word is wholly lost. be glad flash. blink-eyed. Sc. glitter. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. joy. to be blind. to dabble in water. blet. blinde fenster. — A A — . OHG. blich-fiur. csecubrandish. To blunder water. to lighten. blithe. . blind. Serv. to shut the eyes G. The sound of k before an s. I hold thee a grote thee. blinzler. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. with or without the nasal. F. in potters' language. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. Bliss. a nounce happy.blinkard . Russ. happy . Swab. blotzen. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. mixing in general. Thence apblinds. blitzen. joyful. to shut the eyes. to glitter. blide. cascultare. blink. to — make it thick and muddy. to dazzle . AS. Owl and Nightingale.

like clot. expressed by cognate roots. strawclod. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. and easily changes its place. In Fin. husks. or is inserted or omitted. and bouclette. boucler. kostua. senting the dashing of water. soft. in bulk. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. blesme. Bleb. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. Langued. blot. blithe. Mod. Sc. blaustem. bubble and blubber. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. merciful ON. blouca and Fr. stone. blotfisk. swell. — Blob. bloated. Cotgr. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. soft. to desire the male. is also used in the sense of swelling . blautr. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. For this. must be classed with forms like Gr. a dirty blister. ^vaaa. ^Jam. Bav. ON. bluster. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. And so from squatter. Blob. blab. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. It may be formed Blithe. Du. blobber. to steep. N. to blow. it is must be observed. to swell. must be referred to AS. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Sw. as in E.— Hal. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. See Blot. signifying in the first instance to soak. —Bailey. blcesma. like manner the coloured. busten. Ibid. Hence E. inde humiditate tumidus. Blister. blot. light yellow. to close it with a solid mass.—Bloater. a bubble. speaking rapidly any . in Nares. joyful. — Sw. a blister. Gael. pausten. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. — . — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. blister blasan. to soak. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. Of sheep. blijde. shells. round. soft. or bleb. blindsehn. in the sense of a soft tint. sloppy dirt. B. blobbes or droppes of water. A under this name was imported into England. is formed squad. . a ram. blindman's-buff. Dan. Sw. taken altogether. Block. any lump or mass of things. a drop of water. to bubble. blond. The blow E. biota. while Lat. a little blisg. a See Blot. blote. mild.pusta. buckle. puff. B. to blissom. lagga i blot. Fr. . Lat. The roots /. — — — — — From blabber. blidr. Dan. Blond. Svt. repre- pusula. bloc. Thus we have blab and babble. Hence. and inarticulately. Gael. a block or log en bloc. blubber. to blow. Fr. or the like. . blad. having an unsound swollen look. viscid. as blinzeln. Boyd in Jam. Goth. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. and F. a small lump of anything thick. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. Du. pustula. Kil. Jonson. blod. ON. bleiths. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. W. Blob. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. To Bloat. To Blissom. or the mark which it makes. and pisg.plisg. weak. an unformed mass. pods. or blinde-kiih. A solid blouquette blisters. blaud. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. a bubble. pimple. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. as if soaked in water. cooking. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. to cure by smoke. G. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. fiustula. kostia. orbicular. as a blab of ink. I believe. blinzel-maus. in the lump or mass of wood. to blow. the unhewn bole of a tree. pusula. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. frequentative. formed spot. a blister . bausen. mild. also to set See Bless. a bubble. blide. bluyster.—Bloated. to breathe hard. from blcsr. soaked. a lumpish head plubach. plub. bloc. fish blind person. G. whence blast. . buclde. a . a blot or spot. The stem or trunk of a tree. to dash liquid. Egillson. in gusts. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. mass. to to puff and be noisy. soak in water cured fish.— Bailey. to block up the way. blister. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. gentle OHG. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. To a smoking or drying by the fire. separate portion.. a blain. blot.

tions of sound similar representaare formed G. to glisten . blauwel. splashing full. — Stalder . blus. Blood. kobladde. blawels. Blotcli. . Schwenck. blue. blodelsa and blawelsa. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. . blowen. blosem. flower. a nature. Du. ^lys. platt-voll. to sparkle. It. —Barbour. cow-dung. a flower. Blow. Bloom. blondheid. platz-regen. to squat or lie close.D. plants which prepares the seed. blomstr. fall down . Wflz<^«. bldmi. Hatch. blut. OFr. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. bluish. Fris. a pelting shower). in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. or the sound of it . glister . blooth. a. bloetnsel. to exists in biadetto. blond en blaauw slaan. wan. pale tint. yellowish It's G. from the bright colour which 7'vci. bleistern. to be red with blot. to dirty. blond is used in blatt. to spot or blot. Stalder. Jios. spot pletter i solen. glossi. blatte. glus. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. to blush . blysa. bloi. pladern. D. blose. Sw. bletister. Schmid. bloi. to From . gloss. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Du. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. glasi. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. See Blow. skam. j^ blottir. blou. to blot the land was in a leme. whence plader. (of cattle) to dung. straw. Schilter. glose. couleur livide. to fall (of liquids) in abundance.— . Prov. brilliancy. dirty spot on the cheek. a blaze. E. a water ploutsche. blust.' the rain is driving and blue . the bright to blot paper morsels. livid marks. Blot. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. bliihen. to dash down. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. a gush of milk .^ Kil. fair in en blat vand. bloutre. plottra. bldts. coloured (Diaz. plotterwis. Dan. probably connected with Pol. a cow-dung. blosma. to grow pale). to flame. to blaze. to dash down Du. gleam. Lat. E. a torch blusse. to splash. Fr. as the skin or hair. a black eye Du. E. ^Bleed. blosen. blotting-paper. blois. bfys. dial. — Blotch-paper. to be red. livid . to glow. blad. to slap. mud. Du. to slap. Plots. blue. bloeme. Ir. leme.properly to scatter liquid . let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. to dabble in water . fall to overflowing. plattata. — gush. Sc. . Du. yellow. a flower. 2. Blad. — — . parallel form with ON. to squander. a beater. AS. Sc. . E. to strike with such these objects exhibit. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). to patter. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. plet. proto shine with bright colours . platsch-voll. lidmr. blue. a deli. lump of anything soft to blad. of a blow with something lios. Erploten. a blot or spot. biado (of which the evidence plattern. lump flower. . in v. from G. platz-voll. PI. shine . Harmar in R. to strike with something soft or flat. white blatte. Sw. Ein platsch milch. light. Dan. a blow. the bright colour of the cheeks . Pl. to shine . ' — . G. clod. Wendish blodo. to strike . bloedsd. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. spots in the sun. blaeuw. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. bliithe. Russ. AS. blond. splendour . S-wiss pladern. It should be of filth blak-blatte. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. Fris. blotte. to dabble in water. blady. ON. blaeuwe ooghe. G. sbiadare. blistaf. bloto. See Blow. platschern. on. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. Dan. blaeuwen. bit by bit. redness. blase. E. ON. bloed. a flower. pladdern. blue . The G. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. blostma. . a spot or blot. to scribble.blauschlagen. a Schmid. colour of the cheeks. a Halm a. a Usaae. soft or flat. great leaf of cabbage. en blau ach. Blossom. gammon. Sw.platter. kuh-plader. bleustern. blat. a The form platschefz. — Cot. . gfyssa. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. bloemen. ON. blosa. . bliise. a drop of water or colour. lustre. pale biavo. to blaze . ])erly Du. blue. dial. plot of land is a spot or small rage. a lump. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. E. bloi. Florio). blotter. pale.

puff. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . to make bubbles in drinking. fqded. or gr. to breathe G. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. 2. to beat. a flower. blava. glow. and closely allied with Du. B. sound like water. br.' — Palsgr. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. where the word may be compared bliggman. to make blue. to fade. P1. E. — To blubber. pale OFr. disordered. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. to hard. to'disorder. AS. gliihen. fem. blduen. withered. glede. to beat with a mallet. sense. Mund. gloeyen. . one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. blust. Pl. corre. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. bliihen. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. w. green. red-faced bloted wench. vi^ound. Wtb. Sik upplustem. blow. glansj Ir.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. Du. foam. blahen. ' BLUE or guggling. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. plubair. jabber. . especially with respect to the hair. in rapid or indistinct utterance.to blossom. blawan. closely difference in of blabber. pale. blodyn. blau.xo'»'. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. heath. grug. bloes. bliuwan. bloemen. We . gloeden.D. bluod. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. bledniai. wan. blut. Blue. tache. bloom. fiubbem. Gael. . bliihen. Pludern. sponds with Sw. Her sweet bloderit face. The aUied forms. pale. plusig. Du. . Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. bloeden. to blow. blezir. The interchange of an initial gl. bl. bloeyen. to fade. Chaucer. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. y\r)yi»v. Chaucer.D. — . (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. boasting. blodern. glas. 1. G. to glow. blao. Gr. to fade. and the forms mentioned under Swab. |8A)'. is very frequent. bruised Prov. blue . OHG. The radical sense is shown in Gael. to puff up. bluther. a Blossom. and thence.Jlasa. little apparent resemblance. Danneil.— . a blow. MHG. pale . wan. glowing coal . Jla-re. a blast. meurtrissure Roquefort. blubbern. to inflate. — To Blubber. Bav. In agitation of water. Tumbled. a herb Gr. like manner Lat. Kil. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. boil. gliihen. Raynouard. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. gUd. toused. grow pale. plubraich. Pl. G. ^Jam. to Plodern. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). Blowze.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. A. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. —SchmelIt. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. to gabble. — — Mundart. The primary sense is to shine. blosen. Lat. to flourish. to bubble up. G. disordered in head-dress. a fat. E. bluh. pludern. to blow. 51. fied vowel. is confined to the — . ler. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. blebber. . marking some application from that bladder. glas. into flower. to blow. blazi. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. a paddling in wate r. to flap like loose clothes. blady. OFr. plustrig. flower w. 92. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. to show flower. piusen. -ii.. 1292. bruk. may cite for example G. a. cheeks bedabbled with tears. to guggle. to with Bohem. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. to shine with bright From colours. — . OHG. blubbern. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. Notwithstanding the We . Prov.' Hamburgh Archives. to exhibit bright colours. Langued. To Blow. d in Sc.D. . blodelsa. to gush.nify bubble. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. to bruise Roquef. blaw j biavo. — Bluther. blue. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. /idXavoc. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. flower OHG. to breathe bouteiUis. Deutsch. To Blow. a bruise. bldt. florere. It is howbliuwen. a gurgling . blubonciti. plubartaich. blau. Deutsch. These are — Bludder. the red fluid of the body . It. to blurt out. to spot. blois. glaodh and blaodh. to glow. bliithe. Bret. v. coup. bludder. And. blass. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. Blowzy. dirty. plodern. G. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. blazir. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. grey. in E. chatter. a continued noise of agitated water. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. bloi.D.

Bluff. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. 't — —Hal. to fall suddenly on the ground. Blaffart. And blunders on and staggers every pace. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. Pl. having a bluff forehead. See Blunt. buller-bak. to dabble Biglotton E. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. polterer. blue. Then with the nasal. Romance bluiter. verdoyer. G. pale) is provincially used in the. verdure. mix It. from the Lat. to dabble in the mud. a shore abruptly rising. sbiavare. glundra. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. blunder. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. pale straw-coloured. originally growing up turf and water. Bodge. planus. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . The Du. bawling. used for the work of an unskilful performer. bleu et blanc. — . bulmanner. From G. sense of yeUow. and then generally idle talk. and biavo (Diez). blond. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. to work To blunder out a fronto. E.— . to become pale. yellowish red. to lose colour. To blunder is then. Bohem. blahir. in water dobbelen.' trouble. — Pr. bloi. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. liebefactor. an ill-done job. Pm. A bluff manner. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. pludder. It then signifies something done at once. biava. herauspoltem or sloping shore. to become pale or wan. corn. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. tutte le semente ancora in erba. flodderen (Weiland). contrasted with the dle. biada. falb. Kiittner. buller-bas. Dief. yellow. Hal. blavus. in the same way as from It'. or an abrupt manner.make a noise. biavo. G. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. a boisterous violent man. discoloured {plowiee.//aay. a blunderbuss. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Kil. Flor.D. has donder-bus. to blunge clay. corn. Halma. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. pale yellow. abrupt. — — — . a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. in plur. blutter. which is rendered by Florio. blanssen. The Du. It is remarkable however that the E. a fore. See Blurt. sloppy drink. from an imitation of the sound. non rotunda. dial. blue. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. and Du. Analogous forms are Du. Hence a Slcelton in R. to blunder water. a plain coin herausplatzeu. OFr. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place.• BLUFF biado. without image or superscription. to mix it up with water. devenir vert blavoie. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. to become pale or livid. to fade). Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. G. jaune. Blavoyer. all representing the — . earth and water mixed together. disturb. find accordingly It. bUich. flav-us. plomp. herbe. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. je perturbe. . pale. We Blunder.in mud or water. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. applied to green as well as blue. poltern. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. blave is moreover. blunt. polter-hans. bullern. - reddish yellow. Blunt. superficie plani. . to confound. blunderhead. like Du. Ditton in R. Hence we pass to Prov. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. a flounder. to plump into the water. Bladum. bluish. Roquefort. Du. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. Lat. segetes virentes. like the Celtic glas. Blunderer or blunt worker. Dryden in R. trahir. Roquefort. puddle. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. confusion. Biada. to agitation of liquids. his business with much noise. ploffen. The word is here synonymous with amplus. plo-wy. Kil. blunder. Supp. fallow. Sw. as well as biado. to puddle. I blonder. mistake. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. blue.. glundr. Palsgr. is. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. speech. tradire to Fr. blac. from the brilliant green of the young E. Pol. and bustle . as well as sbiadafe. fawn-coloured. and sbiadare. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. blaf. Du. blandum. G. Altieri. rustic. blake (identical with AS. Dan. something. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. and metaphorically.

Now the Swiss bluntsch.to fall into the water. G. Sw. to blurt. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. blait. V. to blunt a thing out. mit etwas heraus-platzen. like a thing thrown down with a noise. inaKil. Then cometh indevotion. Sc. identical with E. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. a thick and will person. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. V. sheepish. —D. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. duU.—D. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Plump.— — — . Blaitie-bum. as Sw. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. fooUsh. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. united in Gael. to plump into the water. rough. pressions. plotsen. bluntschen. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. Molof something wet. exactly corresponding to the G. insensible. blout. blunt. is thrown. heavy. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. viz. stupid fellow. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. naked. obtusus. plains The large bech. unfledged Sw. a bluntie. awkwardly. ang. blotta sanningen. a simpleton. Bluntet. Pol. blait. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. naked. Halma. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. bus. blatte.plompen. . blott. without Maolaich. dull. — blunt. nature. bare. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. bare or blunt. plump J to plump out with it. blunsch. poor Sc. homo stolidus. Chaucer. Woddis. and in the same sense. biotto. to handle a thing bluntly. plump. inactive Swiss bluntschi. or blab out a thing Kiittner . — Kil. but of something soft thrown on the ground. is The word dull. dial. heavy. it will be observed. wan. viz. unwrought. and hath swiche languor in his soul. to bring it suddenly out. plutz T)\i. pale. Won by degrees. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. biosso. that the sense of bare. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . maol. of a knife which not cut. platz-regen. heavy. blunder. plump. It. in Richardson. seems to be derived. void. . Sir T. to make a noise of such a Stalder. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. — — pidus. —D. clownish. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. platzen. to make foliage. figuratively. good plump person. as in E. rude. dull. The syllables blot. plotz. or heraus plumpen. unpolished. without preparation. blat. bleak. Q. Kiittner. that it not easy to discover the connection. The blait body. edgeless. without horns. A light blue colour. Dan. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. naked. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. nis. obtusus. fling down . V. blunt. and. unceremonious manner. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. a blot. blutten. plump. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. bald. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . plonsen. rudely. Blunt. naked. massive. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Bare and blunt. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. Probably radically hlekit. blue. from the loud report a fire-arm. used in both senses. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. plumbeus. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. it will be well to point out a sense. thick. a portion To inquire for slaves. It will be seen that the G. raw. to plump down. the absence of sharpness. Dan. absence of preparation. blunt. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. It is from this notion of suddenness. with or without the nasal. bare. G. down. ineffectual reason. A modification of the same root.pludse. Du. awkward. without the nasal. hebes. F. pointless. clumsy. silly. bloss. and the like. Sc. Kiittner. through which a man is so blont. More in Richardson. Ford in R. Stalder. as cow-dung. Plump mit etwas umgehen. forestis. azure. and an unintelligent. blockish. Plontp. blunt. Swab. plump. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife.

' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. The to radical meaning D. a blotch. a border. Bot zeggen. margin. a mist before the eyes plerren. a board or plank. or backwards and forwards. to puff. pfludern. . along the town preparations were made up on the houses. pluddre. To splirt. flat. of the word seems . — — . blodern. Wright's ed. primarily signify loud noise. margin. to dangle. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. to dabble. To tinct. boord. sudden. bluter. to guggle. blot. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. as splurt to splutter. whence bob. ON. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. or blurt with one's mouth. Boost is used for the boast. bora. imitated by has also In like . BOB 79 — To Blur. Dan. ader. cluster. voce intonare. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. to snuff. stupid. bluther. stellio. Boa. to blurt out. to be out of temper. blaere. Du. . It. common. a club foot . a flurt with one's fingers. planks raised up outside the roofs. to chatter. a short thick body. violent. &c. Blush. blot. edge. blunt. eafor. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. puffen. w. Sverris Saga. to bounce. cocodrUlus. pof. to brag grande loqui. strong. to puff. blarra. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. bdta. Sc. as in Du. to dirty. Supp. AS. Du.plodem. a smear. the Brem. to say bluntly. bobbin. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. bobine. Du. blotch and botch. a bladder . blubber. to roar. 156. dial. V. blur. blasen and See Burr. to blaze. properly noisy. my dear. bord. be a crack or loud sound. a grows to a great bigness. G. whence bordvidr. borrar. a tassel. OE. to blush. 9396. to glow . the sound of a blow poffen. BLUR Boar. baiag. crack made by bursting open. to threaten. Schmeller. beer. bleuster. baban. on. To Blurt. botte. Slur. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. bdtr. bot. bustuous. blose. burra. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to smear. Hal. Du. bausen. to blow. 29. to spurt out. As the as. gabble Sw. to blur. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. fringe. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. bladdra. See Boisterous. — a blaze. — From mouth. cheeks glow. dial. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Fl. to jabber. a baU of thread the mud. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. puddle. boa. to talk quick and indistinctly . E. Gael. Fl. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. coarse. E. aper. to make mouths. Wallace. — To Bob. Board. blaustem. eber. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. and swimmeth very well. To blow in puffs. an ear of corn. 274. blast. a tassel. lindwurm. a small lump. chicchere. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. Hal. It. . a burst of tears. it implies that it is empty sound. margin. bludder. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. — ' Dief. both used in the sense of boasting. bhis.pusten. a torch blusse. De Boat. to render indisbhir. bur. Pl. will fly up. c. bord. Bav. 'Ba. Sc. Comp. a dangling object. border. and when applied to vaunting language. to crying. a blow .plerr. P. a blot. literally edge-wood. Swiss blodern. and the latch . Du. Wtb. large. lacerta. Fr. ground. e. bdd. G. pustern. bludder. blosken. bateau. an end or stump. splurt and spirt. Kil. skin. boistous. to blore.the syllable bot. violent G. table. berd. Bluster. is formed Du. i. edge. blirt of greeting. A large snake. bar. It. blaste?i. acre. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. gabble. pausten. G. Boa. blurra. To brag and to crack. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. Explained by Jam. bot-voet. an edge. to sound like water boiling. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G.—Bobbin. To move quickly up and down. brett. swagger. to blubber. then applied to indistinct vision . The elision of the d is very to chatter.— . Pull the bobbin. boccheggiare. boot. blusse i ansigtet. . blaffen and baffen.v. bit. a. ever-swin. Fr. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. 1. board. plump. Lat. rude. Halma. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. to bark.' — Red Riding-hood. this root are formed Sc. or bog also thread. beacon fire. short pieces of any filthy mud. batello. to give a crack. a Jam. AS. mire. See Blossom.D. table. dull. and Du.y. a mistiness. to breke. geplerr. to disfigure with E. Gael. planks or boards. Du. hot. to endeavour to terrify. pludern. outward edge. — — — * Boast. to make a noise in boiling. to rumble. blader. and E. bord. Du. to puff. bakke bleustern. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. rude. to make a noise with the mouth. Related to blutter. bliise. . and boisterous. AS.

To make bad work. barrique. And waves. biodag. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. arise E. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. butt. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. BOGGLE trunk and G. stuttering. a round body both. The signification of the root bot. goggle. — as well as the body of an animal. stutter gogmire. French bouter. bogle. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. by the syllable patsch. quagmire). So BOB To Bob.gmh:t. bogan. gago. as signifying anything spherical or round. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear.rabodi. Bodice. Ptg. to blurt a thing out. bothog. swelling. precept. stumpy. toss. is a lump. bogach. potacha. meaning the round part of his body. bodetz. as in stammering or staggering. pall. Now unskilful action is conmire. — Grandg. bodian. expression hogglin an bogglin. a ghost . or bag. to start start and back as from a bugbear. a bog or morass. a . bog (equivalent to E. .a (i\ia. a puddle. bod. belly. calf of the leg. * To Boggle. to scruple. bolr. Bodkin. . formerly bodies. To portend good or bad. bottich are derivatives. Bret. a body. an awl. whence paUchen. potacha. fickle . To Bode. W. the belly. To Bodge. potig. corpses pot. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. '£. 3. to commit a blunder. a cask. anything protuberant. the trunk of the animal body. to thrust. woman's stays. so large a feature in the country. See Bid. gebod. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. thrust with something pointed. from fitting close to the body. to butt. Gael. strike with the horns. Bog. unsteady nature of a soft substance. Gael. Body. to smack. a cask. corpset. gag. gagei. Russ. round. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . to bodge. nodding. gog in gog-mire. corset from corps. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. bodhag. the body. message boda. stitch. wavering. With With this we charged again We bodged again. Banff. bayonet. nave of a wheel. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. . Ptg. body of a shirt bol. the stem of a tree . Lith. ^Jam. . a sting . patsche. rounded. moist mire. bodak. See To Botch. exhibit another modification of the root. agitate. where bogs form Gael.' A — Sherwood's Diet. bodene. It introduced from Ireland. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. or stem of a tree. potahha. to waver. To mock. badyti. a prick. a prickle. daubed or dabbled with blood. Gael. See Baber-lipped. We . Miracle-plays. a quagsoft. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips.! . gogach. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. needle. Cot. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. 43. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. to dabble or paddle. Commonly explained as if from Sc. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. AS. bog. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. to fail. In like manner E. then from the yielding. Thy i. ON. to roll. a spur. waving. to push with the horns. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. Ir. bodig. bogadaich. bottig. AS. and the word is well explained by Bailey. Schmel. bayonet . as a horn. barriga. quakmg. Shakespear has badged with blood. anything soft. e. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. baboyer. The Sp. bodat. mud. whence Fr. corset. boll. bole. to deliver a message.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. move. gog. Lap. — H. dies. to prick.\\i\c\iset. to make. bogadh. to stir. biodeachan. bot. a command. to be unsteady tich. bodilo. to stick. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. of which the E. unsteady. palleg. to be uncertain what to do. the body of a shift gaguejar. to bob. a messenger . bob. . to make a mow at. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. — 2. Bohem. or a pair of bodies. an announcement. gagoula. body and G. . . shake. bodi. bog. bodi. busti. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. VI. boftich. and E. bod. Crist. cask bottich. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. bagges. bodies. shaking .hollow. . bo tich. unsteady.' Bogglie. Gl. the thick part of anything. to fail. Reliq Antiq. the boss of a buckler. point. a dagger. Supp. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. speak of the barrel of a horse. to stammer.. Wall. is identical with Fr. bodnu. . moving backwards and forwards.

poppy (Bailey). to waver or hesitate. . ^Boistous. pall. boll. . ON. baud. and manace for to de. tomentum. he will speak out. impetuosity. chatter. tulum. as. E. globular bod)'. It. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . Da. bol. Sw. and then applied to other husks. a fastening for a door. gerade signifies straight to the mark. a bump. Fr. bald. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. folliculus grani.. used. bolr.palleg. as baltha. Lat.D. Du. In the same way Sc. repagulum. bald. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. Goth. Fr. to tattle. the. Bret. boystousnesse. Sp. also a blister. OHG. bulr. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). brave. Kit. to swell. scruple. — — which the cushion is stuffed. up of bubbles. bal. the body . — 6 . warlike. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. bhster. hakogni. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Wall. blow. 1430 in Deutsch. bullire. polc'h.). tartalear. notes. Gael.— D. to stagger. The bob. furfures. bolzBold. courageous. a boil or swelling Du. ^Vocab. a swelling in ice. Me doth awate. bog. caput scapulse. bola. shake. styffe or rude . lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. G. w. bolster. Lat. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. bochken (titubare. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. pusten. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bulla. to be prominent. * Boisterous. free. — ' — tagliare. boly. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. round the first instance to the materials with . Bole. stameln vel bochken.w. in the sense of handsome . boil . 45. bolstar. balder. animal as distinguished from the limbs. capitellum. treated under Bowl. Bustuous. in speaking. Pm. bolster. fiausten. to hesitate from doubt. tartajear. cheerful. hollow. then violent. bol. strong. a head . obex. bolla. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. G. Du. The round stem of a tree. Chaucer. stud. a bakazikni. bolc'h. bolt upright. See Bulk. Swab. * Bolster. wag. courageous. insolent baude. cows the people from speaking. a bubble. pimple ON. to puff. bealder. Du. glass phial. the body of a man or of ter. proud. swelling. to boil. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. boggle. . G. The term applies in — — impressed . or the like. as E. bout. rough. gluma. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. Lap. buller. Kil. bok. bog. bolt. bold. swelling. Pr. bagaji. a bubble. bold. but that Bolt. quick. Love. strong. Chaucer seems Dan. bul. ballr. bSlstr. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. to stumble. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. which are not used for a similar purpose. biiilen. Cot. hero. Stalder. perpendicular. To Boil. a quaking mire. ON. Westerwald bollern. chaff of corn siliqua. beule. prince. merry. Test. G. . from the branches. bout is explained by Kil. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. Fr. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. excellent. to stammer. buile. as those of nuts. to give a hoUow sound. a cushion. haughty. 374. ON. OG. puilen. V. This iv. whence bulla. see Boast. b^gayer. stutSw. bolzen. boss. bulla. Magy. sels of flax. pillow. bul. tar. ON. bol. A. Du. ohg. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. confident. may be identified with It. bouil. to the belly as the or dislike. bold.' Mrs Baker. roydeur. trunk of a tree . balldr. 304). from Du. a bubble. bald. the gurgling sound of water rush. puile. Boil. coarse.Du. capiing into a cavity. (of Mons) b^guer. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. pustule. Properly noisy. stramenta. properly represent belly. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. bolle. huge. flax-boU. as.— — . to be at a loss a shirt. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. dint in a metal vessel. intrepid. Sc. noise. belc'hj. Boystous. bolleken. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . the husk of nuts. to stammer. bula. is probably a modification of boll. strong. Mund. E. by which it is moved to and fro. tartle. the lir. Boll. To Bolter. Daring. bollen (Kil. i.rounded part of the body. bola. boutpijl.

to come rattling downstairs.agitation of the meal in the bolter. to knock. buletel. and to crash. knob. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. hulch.clack. Dauphiny a sudden movement. cruddle. Pr. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. . pattern. bulla. hulter de bulter. then to knock. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff.D. On this account Mid. The ment and the operation. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. on the one hand. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . in S'W plotter. In the next place. So also we pass from Lat. btilt. protuberance. taratantarum. croler. The ulti.protuberance. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. crotlar. or ill. tar. projections. barutela. barutela. Du. a bolter Prov. a clump of turf. as Fr. loud and fast. sestuare. OFr. crash. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig.— .). hammer. tling or crashing noise.. fied bot. we have Du. to clack. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E.). we see that the one consists of a words. bluter. or a racer from the course. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. Here the radical image is the violent O. to talk pulzen. I boulte meale in a boulter. projecting eyes pul. burclct. a rattling carriage. buUire. tantara. bulstrig. je bulte. Pl. a rattle. . mole-hill. or the like. bulk. bulk or quantity . blotttre. we pass to Du. crod. to make a knocking. bultred. to shake. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. to spring forth E. gebolder. . holier poller. to significance of the term was overlooked. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. a club-foot. poll. agitari (Kil. a . MHG. Prov. budeln daz mele . .thump or blow. baruta. to start with palpitate.On the same principle. staff which sounds tar. a clod cloth.D. to bolter. kloteren. Dan. abolter. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. Lang. as of a trumpet. OFr.Lat. It. . from G. to start out. cro. Fr. to bolt meal barutel. die treppe pressed. uneven. as above explained.by forms like G. jolting. also to curdle. bullern. OFr. buretter{CQ\. Sw. boss. by the representation of a racketing sound. have Lat. a small portion. ex•wagen. ' Holler poller / bulter. bolt-foot. Champagne burtcau. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. zare.through a cloth of loose texture. hole. a millpoltzet augen. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. G. bolt head is a retort. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. a bolter or implement for bolting. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. clump. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. racket gepolter. to E. Brem.u. Hence Palsgr. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. and the Thus from So. brattle. to become lumpy. a clod. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack.noise {brattle of thunner. buideln.. buletare. . by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. uneven. Hence. pultare.nature of the operation. to bolt flour burato. : ' — — . hammer. as a rabbit from its baritel. small heap. ' — — ! ! : — . Sanders. Wtb. taraabout. the wheels groaned. to form lumps. swelling. rugged. tumultuari. rugged. representing a rat. bolzauget) Sp. poltern. bolt. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. Lat.) E. bolting to that of form. a sod (Schiitze). to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. bultig.D. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. one after the other. lumpy. bolzaugen. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. to coagulate. hump. Mid. pull. And as the agitation of cream in . a crashing or racketing noise. Pm. to agitate. a round glass ending — bultig. tuft. Du. a clap of thunnences. as snow balling on a horse's foot. zen.i5a//^«. . — — — . . to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. bolzen. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. beliitea. Supp. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. beluter. with E. Bav. the sense of right on end. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. vessel with narrow opening. a bunch.fe/2?. grasbulten. 2. we der Brocket). curdle. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. poltern. taratarrum. Bulte-pook or bulstar. to bolt meal barutel. Schiitze. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. Pl. barutare. bortelen. P1.D.as the essential element signifying the talum. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. ler. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. / is transposed in Fr. bulio.

Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. E. bonog. Moreover. — AS. bombe. bommer. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. raw silk. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. band pi. Near 6 * . i. butteln. term is appropriated in G. baun. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. the Fr. It. PoUitriduare. sijde. however. thick-legged. bureau. beuteln. band. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. the silk-worm. breast-bone. bombast. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. iuttern. bande. Bonfire. burato. rimbombare. bombarda. as in . whence bomme. has repeatedly varied. to ring bells. to resound. bongam. . It. bombdra. Kil. When ture. stuff. must be explained Fr. Fl. sye. and Du. a beacon.D. banitola (Fl.) . a hollow sound. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. also thick-shanked.). to shake. G. gunpowder. Bibelesworth in Nat. borel. tie.^Altieri. from boom. achsel bein. bambagioj whence It. been. Dan. brust-bein. to bolt meal. an implement of binding. bambagino. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. bindan. lana lignea. coarse. crook-shanked bondew. buidelen. It. bone of the . Schm. Need you any ink and bonibase. bommen. tie. . bolting-cloth. a thundering noise bomre. . barate.Lat. ^o/j. to shake (as to shake the head. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. a stem or base. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. — having a stem or stalk. Dan. or trunk word in W. we speak of a gun to resound. Banstead. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. the contracted form of Du. a string. ODu. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . Fr. G. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. . to which the leg. a word of which we have traces in several English names. As cotton was used for padding clothes. . sericum arboreum. bras. Gascoi^e in R. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bambacium. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . a churn for butter. bon. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. The material called by this name. bonfras. cotton stuff. &c. stump. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. 155. bureau. — Bombard. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. agreement. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. It. cotton. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. gossipium. e. ties. the shank the shoulder-bone. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. to thunder. a ligature. a baker. bunden. thick from shaking. booming over the water. G. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. From builen. buidelen. assuming the of leg : special signification W. produced the Pl. It. bwmbwry mar. and that from Fr. bombasin. basin. and in fact we find the and Du. bomba. to shake down fruit from a tree. bond. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bwmbwr. to beat a drum. Mid. boulenger. silk. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. d. to thump W.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. In E. as Banbury. a boulter of meal. baum-bast. In legal language. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. — bombast came guage. the murmuring of the sea. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. from teu. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. beil'n. bombasine. It. to cast to and fro. the leg. bonds.Su?. buttel trueb (of liquids). is supported by the analogy of G. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. silk-worm. a bone in general. band. Bomb. and also the leg. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. Du. bombicina. bombice. and Bond. to boult meal. beuteln. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. . 83 Gr. a —Bombasine. bein. Butterglas. derivation. bombase. bulter from It. a drum bombammen. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. Fr. Antiq. q. OE. tree. HoUybandin R. to bind G. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. Du. thick. again. a stock. builen. tiffany. bauniwolle. and Mod. . sije. Bone. bopin. biire. and called in Mid. Du. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. butteln.bast. Castrais barato.

bosih. signifying beech. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. as a lying-place for cattle. bAkva. betere thing werse. gaby. often cut for burning and lighting fires. G. To Boot. wondering signifies not only straw. short boots. a bag of skin or leather. to litter bosu. dog-kennel. Gael. high. clown. Fr. stabulum. succour Bailey. bommen.n. dress. relief from sorrow. quest. to cultivate. . bene. feu de behourdis. . simpleton. and from AS.^ —P. bossen. . bua. a vessel for holding liquids. countryman. bua. Mrs Baker explains bun. tall. boten-shoen. the alphabet. pole. The character of folly is i860. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. beiSne. to gape. boo. desire. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. at everything. Thin ben Luke i. E. The i. tapestry. dial. . . . Bonnefyre. Sp. AS. a tree. whence ban-ffagl. * Boose. a good turn or re- meaning. comes bondi. the scriptures bokareis. a letter Russ. prayer. bolt. from Du. to dress. letter. Binau Brychyniog. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. Boot. inhabit. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. lofty. Swab. calceus rusticus e crudo corio.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. Thus from the syllable ba. where a cross (or a gun. to gape. bowwen. bonaid. babau. — To boot. a silly fellow. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. biikui. Build. A peasant. Fr. ass. ON. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. swinbusa. — e. gaping hoyden — Cot. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. a head-dress. Kil. bauer. however.. gawney. \ais-band. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. Bootless. prayer. in w. It. It is commonly explained as identical with It. bota. Trans. although in the OG. boer. by itself for head-dress. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . in Phil. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. a letter . Busk. 232. badaud. dial. house. Palsgr. A stall for cattle. to cultivate. See Butt. E. ty Gael. netis stall. See Bown. botta. bosig. the cultivator. baier. bonad. A favour. N. litter. a lying-place for dogs or swine. the name of the letter b. to strew with straw. head-dress wai^g. ben. bas. and fig. as the Brecknockshire Banns. set in order. Pr. But bosg. p. Boon. also called Brecknock Beacons. Bonnet. buandi. Hal. boubi^. bid). w. boutig.Boos.—Bootless. Du. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. booby. ON. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. Hufwud-bonad. ON. bd. to set in order. Mrs Baker. to ask. or Vanns. a bonfire. tigh. bauen. Hal. are formed Fr. Prov. OSlav. chaff. a scribe G. From bo. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. foolish. literally cow-house. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. to prepare. from beida (E. OW. boom. one who dwells nigh. boandi. a hollow skin. without ad- . one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. — . — From the participle present. Du. Goth. — Bailey. petition. G. Booby. . of wonder On the same principle Sp. bos. from badare. been. Ox. bdn. dress. botte. Gl. bobo ! interj. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. Basa. the first consonant of the alphabet. . which one gaping and staring about. Kil. build. master of the house. ON. Du. the possessor of the farm. a simpleton. inhabit. bobo. Fr. and Gael. Wall. pero. b^er. pig-sty. Boot of bale. buch-stab. busu. See Bomb. boutig. from gape. 13. In nautical language. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. gehyred. Bun. a. bose. babin. beam. the mouth. b'ukvdry. The origin of the word is probably the W. hu?idbusa. remedy of evil. till. by arbitours sholde bote the P. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. ganian. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. to yawn. . help. boa. a dry stalk. b&ber. nachbar. and thence Rouchi baia. petition. AS. the stubble of beans. Perhaps. Schm. Jr. Pm. Boor. a stall. bonnet. remnants of hay or straw. boubair. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. writing bokos. The latter is the original AS. — — . generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. bote. Book. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. fool. to aid. build. boia. till. botte. but stall. bds. babb^o. a. and Ban in w. a lofty blaze. is Du. G. bonad. wall hangings. . reparation. dolt. blockhead. Boom. Fr.

butin is explained by Flor. Palsgr. puru. an engraver's chisel. Fr. Pol. edge. furd. bolino. and parrets. a granary . the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. to . a shelter of branches. in Lap. Burke in R. both. of an edge that will not bite. Fin. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. to stick unto as a bur. bud. wave. bottino. recovery bata. BoracMo. . drillen. pu purro (saha =: saw . betan fyr. bord. to to . ON. bordi. chewed food for infants. &c. Esthon. . to hut. to build buda. . 266. • — To Bore. making good again . to divide. admovere titiones. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. to boot. limbus. boete. cup- awl. bardure. or the gradual working a hole in anything. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. And so in ON. pointed. are parret. chisel. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. hem or gard of a garment. See Burgeon. borracha. from deila and skipta. a shop. bothag. Alexand. amendment boeten. — ON. and E.. purra. borracha. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. . to foam. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood).. to bite. make . wine-skin. to build. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. a leather bag or bottle for wine. barn. fire. cottage. Booth. . See Bower. remedy. and hence to fine. boeye. scsdes-bod. sharp. nor E. to repair. boeten het vier. abode. Du. a booth or shed. p. Gael. to pierce. yfirbdt. AS. Fr. which are probably from the same root. scalpo. Du. Bohem. butin. in Ihre. as afford a satisfactory explanation. a border. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . Another derivation from Fin. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. Lat. extremitas Bore. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. a responding forms . a word. or anything pointed. bora. a hut. aid. The ON. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. to The Sw. Mag. repair. forare. uzboro. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. batr. to swell. terebra sculptoria purastoa. baete. G. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. a shed. differs only in termination. biorag. A phorically a drunkard. are derived from G. It. fimbria. a borer .. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. a wave. . welt. amendment. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. It is admitted that Fr.—Burin. to profit Goth. reparation. The cor. The Fin. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. byte points to the verb byta. Fl. to importune. It. mat-bod. from borra. to expiate boeten den dorst. a great bur.— Return from Parnassus I inR. baara. to quench one's thirst . puras. 3. a borer. hut. a sharp-pointed tooth. from bord. The as G. a. OHG. lappalare. Gael. to patch. tent. kvit-bara. ON. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. pi. bothan. to surge. Compare Manx birrag. a cupboard. boede. budka. swell bara. margin. OSw. limbus. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. . to mend. ora. puru. a borer. BOOTH vantage. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. burin. Fin. purra. better. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. to profit. bdt. Gael. botjan. In the Fin. cellar. bauda. But probably the E. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. a hut or tent. terebro. bata. ON. Magy. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. rof. a bladder. Fin. beute. boards. to anything Neither G. Sp. sawroot. bohren. and meta- Fr. puras. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. borino. furni. to bite. to restore. piercer. bower. sculpo 05\xiik. a chisel. bauen. budowai.por. Bete. To Bore. struere ignem. a bothy. purro. Booty. urboro. 1. and thence to eat build. the . The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. Esthon. lappolone. Kil. Border. . See To We speak in E. comminuted by either kind of action.par. to bore. . bite. on. a tusk. exchange or divide. bdra. a shop budowati. to bete the properly to mend the fire. dust. dens mordens vel caninus. N. cure Sw. is purin.

whether from the fact preserve G. Lat. to strike . to contain. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. or head-borough. as if from the verb to hold. AS. or perhaps also To Borrow. unpolished. borgo. to become is emitted by a hollow body. without. Borough. by which of or belonging to plants. Jam. tempest. Sc. plain rude fellow. baurgs. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. Swiss Rom. secure. a pushing or striking out. to knock or strike. a boor.. Bos a surety. clownish. cob.bucklers. . borh. the Sc. from AS. bussi. to protect. to conceal. a bunch or hump. It. a bouncing baby . ^o^^flj. brown cloth. f graauw. Goth. ' — — . . a city . bump. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. i. Hal. AS.any round sweUing. The other. vain. Altieri. busse. northern. /3oraMK6f. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. Russ. knur. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. — ' wind burya. poor. gum vocant. a little blow. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. to keep. empty. AS. rustic. Du. a surety. surety. Cot. the N. rude. to save. G. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. a knob. gesylle. and borough in the sense of a town. and thus could not shake off the old burr.ribs and the side. which now signifies a knob.' or system of bail. coarse cloth made of the Du. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . borough or chief constable. to take in. formerly used in the sense of knocking.vr\. E. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. of bail throughout the country. in instead of without. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. tuft. from their grey clothing. bossen. Fr. I. when that system was forgotten. 106. borg. useCanterbury. a. . as we speak of a thumping potato. Hence knot. borg. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. borealis. is probably radically Boss. nonsense. grey). pego. And that unsittynge is to here degre. bergen. the sun sets. viipyoc. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. The origin seems to be the Goth. Borrow. to pick or cull plants. Hence borhes ealdor. a herb. bom. into borsholder. or perhaps it may be See Bury. hollow. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben.' if thou give money on loan. an eminence. — — — A — . V. destitute. knob. bosse. less. Jam. boussi. bundle. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. bierge. a tower. poor. the North Wind. bunch. to give a hollow bizo. botch. to save. boschen. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. Newbury. plant. the ordinary a swelling. butse. Du. byrig. a citizen. (Bridel). ' pledge. It. boss sound. botch. or because a blow berga.' every man be under bail. a wen. primarily signifying coarse sound . knocking. boss or knob of a buckler . bos. Bosh. bosh. projection. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. bourg. burgess. connected. a boss. blow on a hollow object. to strike so as to Bureau. bos. The primi. Bailey. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. Bunch. burh. hollow bucklers. boss of the side. whence the burg. empty. boss. cnag signifies both a clergy. in the body struck. loan. In like manner It. borei. the must have arisen burgensis. . undyed wool of brown sheep. D. bourgeois. cnap. bttssel. cormpted. striking. a citizen. boss. pitch. pegou. So Du. to save Sw. is used in the sense of bussare. basse. See found in Bav. Botany. ^ma. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. Fr. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. that which biirge. bussa coarse. while Gael. butsen. cnoc. ON. storm. burel. huschen. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. agrees with E. bump is used in lump or piece.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. beorgan. was origin of the term is the OFr. (1867). Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. a giving rise to It. bail biirgen. to protect. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. Boreal. borgese. botsen. head. borough-holder. botse. beorgan. to give bail or answer for an. knock and a knob . Turk. bosseu. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. the hollow between the Borsholder. Borowholder. empty.' Vegetius in Diez. Lang. Gr. &c.' the chief of the ' borh. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. one who sticks to you like a bore. borel.mass. tive idea seems to bring under cover. Fr. a blow.

of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. boiteal. fundus. to stir and mix together. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. botus. And so we speak of an eruption. to knock. — — belly-worm. contusion . Judwi. or plague sore . bot. AS. bund. any round ball or bowl to play withal. as Fr. . whence the name ol pool to podge. mutter. to mend. corresponding to . the bud of a flower . Botcli. dial. Bailey. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. botel. w. to smack. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. botm. BOTCH understood). Boa two. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. shoes. pimple. Hal. . G. Both. * To Bother. bunch. a cess. oba. nets. Bottle. hurly-burly. bodem. the other hand. Gael. Again. what pushes outwards. Fl. biissen. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. On — Du. bottom. . Bouds. Decorde. Lith. . Du. Danneil.of a ball of thread. botte. a maggot. buazen. boden . boil.— Hal. botte. of botta. a root. j3i/9os. a depth. however. noise. signify a in OE. bSn. a cobbler. we two. — . — Dief. a bottle. a humpback. to from the root bot. btitse. burgi vel pontis refectionem. ON. See Bound. the first rough draught 2. to dash about . bosser. from the dashing of water. pocciar. Bret. bethia. tumour. maggots in barley.foundation. a bottle. bouteille. bulder. It. &c. round lump.D.^Dec.ments of the same root. bdsser. Ancren Riwle. the science or knowledge of plants. by met. kessel-biisser. pozzanghera. To confuse with noise. puddle. buddeln. to work without order or know. to strike . both. — — . Dan. abyss. Butu. abbution. stem or base. to fall : with a sound batsch. Lith. fire-bote. abbi-diwij Slavon. bdt. • Bott. bots. as a push or windgaU. to podge. a bundle of straw or hay. botte. bativa. butwo. To Botch. Parmesan poccia. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. 212. to make a make a noise. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. buddl. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . beggtaj Goth.' to the fiery Csedm. an imperfect and bunbutt end. a bump or swelling. bun. gipuozan. — Bottom. to stir and mix together . E. a pit. Pl.) . to dip in liquid (to Gael. batschen. Stalder. stroke. OSax. especially in Gael. a patch patschen. to mend (kettles. Wedu. Bouteille. to froth as beer . seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. a wisp. podge. a tinker schuhbiisser. bozza. you two. mess. AS. Bochu. bide. to botch or patch. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. A horses. Lat. . ON. bottigUa. Fl. bundle. whisper. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. a bott . A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a botcher of shoes. Gael. mend. — . mess. From the dim. Du. botel foenn. pother. the lowest part. boiteag. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. butse. ^kvBoQ. boccia. H^cart. AS. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. in the sense of mend the fire. to make better. ambo. See Boss. i. A bottom depth. bossu. — Jidwi. Podge. bulderen. potra. disturbance. botsen. to bcBta.— . a waterfall. See Butt. Leg. botse. butsen. . theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. It. was called a push. e. an abyss or bottoniless pit. gen. a knock. a. buts. blister. Mudu. ' G. It.— Swift in R. bozza. — Fl. dim. to rage. a lump of somebatschen. &c. dabble). N. a cesspool pass. abbi. any plain round viol glass bozzo. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. schuhbosser. blain. The Gr. poltern. See To Bodge. turmoil. patch. Here the radical image seems a bubble. bluster. I. — — A 2. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. — duj Lett. ing out. bile. is boteau. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. blow. botola. they two. G. a bunch. Jtidu. a slop. botn. baiothsj Sanscr. ixorapudder. Fr. repara- — — See To Bete. buideal. to put on a patch. ubhau. a slop. putra. a boil or swelling Halma. empty or hollow. boss. Kil. stock. Canut. boitean. is also a bubble. a bubble. to simmer. ON. a pit. House-bote. bAdtr. disturbance to . and E. a bottle of hay. knock. Fr. pozzo. boute. ledge It. and ajSvamg. A — oba-dwaj Lat. On the other hand. stock. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. to we have OHG. Diez. a pock. a cask. stump. Fyre to botme. we have Swiss batscken. a vessel for holding liquids. . scuohbuzere. gling piece of work. Hal. a plague-boil Kil. botch. thing soft batsch. for a bud. ba. Prov. noise. to give a sounding blow. abbu.

bondir. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. ing. — Take care my house be handsome. Nor a centinel whistle. Bound. to set out by metes and bounds. to thunder. volta. bamsen. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . root (see Bottom). ni frestelar. nor horn sound. Dan. Bought. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or .' round and round in similar circles.'— Charter of K. 3. . Q. knock it sounds again. to turn. he fell so that it sounded. like bobbin.— Boundary. Probably from the Celtic root bon. Bunche. 2. gulf. See To Bolt. to make a loud noise. a large stone rounded by the action of water. Raynouard. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. Ni gacha cor bondir. buUersten.— — — - 88 BOUGH . is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. as a nosegay. bunsen. boundina. mcn-bomi. bonzen. Boulderstone. to knock at the door. march. a bouncing apple. to set bounds. frequently used in the same sense with bound. round. Bough. an de dor bunsen. a bound. see Boss. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. thumping. mere. bolder. to bow. to fix limits. the bay of Benin. in the absence of actual e. — — leap.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. Primarily to strike. and F. pimple Richards bothog. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. boujtce. has hot. geration. Bodinare. bumper. 136. p. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant.D. strapping. The branch of a tree. bodina. The Bight of Benin. of thread. as that of E. boriie. To Bound. . till The dat et bunsede. bonna. the smaller ones. to knock. to hum. From Sw. Pm. an occasion. in contrast to klappersten. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. And the new stools set out. Fr. Fr. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. bog. bend. to resound. To Bounce. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. So It. butina. I assure you. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bonndn. its kind. carpet.' B. a stock. a boundary stone (men stone). ni motz brugir. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. a blow. Bough-pot. bone. bun. a button. Wtb. Brem. tnndo. Ducange. Fr. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. bounbounejha. AS. and Prov. by Bujns or Buns. E. Webster. bugt. boh. Alpine Re- — gions.— Cot. jump. dial. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. botwm. — strike. bay. debodinare." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. bons. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. turn. Sw. bullra. pothel. from volgere. to spring. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. a bud. Halma. — — Bight. whence buj7isen. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. the hollow of a bay. language a * Boulder. or Bow-pot. . to thundering big one hum. Bowlder. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. to spring. jungen.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. Du. To Boult. bugan.>a bout. Pr. Bout. Bret. as a bout of fair or foul weather. the verb bondir in OFr. Mid. the larger kind of pebbles. bottom. See Bunch. a turn or time. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. a blister. boss of a buckler. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. Bonny. from bugan. The W. limit. a large pebble. signifies a sliort thick mass. dial. bunda. winding. — No i ausiratz parlar. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. from AS. nave of a wheel bothel. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. signifying in nautical coil of rope. Coxcomb. iv.— F. a round body both. baby. a boss. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. bend. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. bouton. came home with his face all to-bounced. contusi. A Langued.

See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. sense durd. Gael. ready to pike or spear . bordon. to tope W. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. bourdon. It. grumble Sw. ing. bend. — — — A pare. bugna. their time -With "wailful tunes. to trick. head Fr. Immediately from Fr. . and that probably from a Celtic root. — — . to take breath. is. Bound. a. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. . . shoulder-blade. bovne. . a go to. buzzing of bees. bugan. trick. a humming noise Macleod. the burden of a song. A water. buizen. identical with E. firm. to hum as a bee. lance. buigen. g. and not in the sense of curvature in general. bordone. a sing-song. bogen. bage. language of folly or ridicule. bogha. ^<7r«i?. it is probable that the It. ridicule buirte. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. a drone of a bagpipe. i. G. limit. buys. bog. Bourd. Sw. drunken. G. It is the participle past buinn. burn. fun of one . brausen. burreti. sausen. belly out. Du. from spring. prepared for. It is remarkable that we find vary. to take deep draughts. gurgling. Fr. Dan. Sw. that ON. btiga. Sc. cudgel. bausen. G. verb bua. bunaiteach. When used alone it . taunt. epaule du vaisseau. brummen. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. Comp. bugna. w. deceit. has also buirleadh. purra. bagna. pot. the big end of a club. the ting of a bell. . bov. a pot. buzz. to — Hal. biegen. to hum. The foregoing derivation seems. way ba7n. a drone or dor-bee. to drink deep. beogan. addressed to. to draw a deep breath. burt. joke. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. Burgeon. sotich. a prop. crutch. Du. Prov. fresh* water. a jibe. on the whole. buyse. pusta. whether by sound or gesticulation. steady. Du. drone of a bagpipe. Gael. as was for. different modification gives ON. Swiss bausen. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. the shoulder of the vessel. in Fr. to bow or incline the . a. burdan. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. spring. — probably through this latter signification. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. bommen. AS.which see. purlBav. to draw a deep breath. bue. burdan. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. potio. bonitas. explaining Sw. patesten. buga. bourd. analogous to Fr. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. a humming noise. Borden. The meaning of bound. Lat. burlare. pre. Fr. hous^ Man in the Moon. staff. a cup kroesen. warbling. the Bourdon. saufen. ruption of bonne. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . a — — . flagon. jest. Gael. a well. Sp. bug. cheat. pausen. to drink deep. when we speak of. a from Du. bending. Sw. to tope. brunna. Bounty. kroes. to pre2. It is bov.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Gael. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. bog. So Sc. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. a for New York. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. to indulge in his cups . curvature. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. schenkelbug. As the Gael. a bow. bugne. bow to shoot with. mockery. borne. Cot. game. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. bwa. Gael. Fr. of the ON. to mutter. to tipple. A —Cot. on. a jibe Shaw bururus. bound. hence musical accompaniment. bonus. biugan. Dan. to bow. repartee. Bow. pared. And there in mourning spend Sw. set out. sport. Dan. . drink deep. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. bordo. puff out.bass of a stringed instrument. bend Sw. Dan. whence buysen. good. or of an Gael. a corToward the garden. souf. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. tinton. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. bogr. Eown. Spenser in R. address. to swell. to our bous. bending of a joint knie-bug. a mill-post. spelling the word iox bound. bogna. must be referred to the same root. Bourdon. G. an arch. are applied to the bow of a ship. Burden. to bulge. the fixed. Bret. springbiirn. bourdon. schulter-bug. also the humming or ON. burd. Goth. Du. bourde in the same sense. . bontS.. like quaff. bending. ready. bdgi. to banter or laugh at. to take one in. a brook. Chaucer in R. Cot. beygja. Bourdon. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root.

an outhouse AS. . stream forth bugyogni. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. ^o/a. at the e. . bugyni. swoUei) Lat. bogla. bolle. A Bulk. pusspan. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. . . kupu. guestchamber . Fr. ON. kuppelo.) to incline oneself . box. a. a round glass or bolg. sausage. ken.. Bav. the skull or brainpan . budel. belly of a cask. . Bower. an inclosure. to make crooked . . bulla. a bubble. anything globular. bossola. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. cumena-bur. bog. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. kupula. buchsbaum. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. to puff up pullakka. fyn. tumour . different position in ODu. blister. a pot. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. the box-tree. the bogna. or in e. belly. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. passing on stud.). The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box.a. Lat. ON. bosso. a drop of pullistaa. . to yield to one. trestle. a sack. boss. biichse. in both senses. Bohem. From the other form are G. . or. bubble. a stud. a bundle. OFr. &c. bulka. G. a box Lat. In like manner the Pol. a bubble Fin. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. ku^o. of a wooden ball to play with and — .. a ball . to stoop biickling. koziel. a hump on the back rossbollen. the head. Du. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. Thus we have Esthon. See Boil. bouzellou. buis. to stoop. boudin. spherical Dan. signified by forms like Gael. bugy. . a boil. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. Du. bugyani. bocka. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. a bubble bolli. water pulli. boor. folliculus . bow. pocket. bulne. a knot. E. a protuberance. bog. Sanscr. buga.flask It. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. ON. boel. ^o«/«. Buckle. . bulla in aqua. bukke. mausbollelein. bulk compared with Sw. biiske. ttuJic. . a iDubble. a separate apartment . w. prominence. to swell. buk. a hen-coop . boucle. . boxtree. inclinare se (Kil. buxus. Sw. knob From the former modification we have bolla. Cable. a ball. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. boss. OE. bwra. . bowel Box. boil. a wardrobe . The word may probably be identical with Fris. buello. bug. . a bud. Fr. See Crab. bolla. wisp of straw . to guggle. Dan. buckelig gehen. Hal. round bead. the barrel of a gun. compared with Fr. bent. peated in Magy. PLD.cup Du. with inversion of the round. crown of a hat. to bend. heafod bolla. Dan. botulus. the box-tree It. a swelling or rising up. . AS. AS.\s. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. bouge. W. as in AS. bock. head of a cabbage. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . .). budello. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. bulge. bolne. (in pass . polla. zich onder jemand under to him. and to a coachbox in particular. a bowl. bowl . biisse. gut. to bubble up. make obeisance. hollow. busse. See MHO. . the box-tree and articles made of it G. hollow wooden case. utibur. bouellou. Sw. hiidel. to bulge. . the crop of a bird. . Pol. Boll. to bend down. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bowels. a chamber swefnbur. a ball. bucka. round glass phial. kupukka. . crooked. Bowl. bhuj. bulb of an onion bolleyield. a black pudding. tumour. intrenchment. painter's easel. iri'iaQ. swell. A . lump . to puff up. without the and grits. convexity. boxtree pusska. It is more probably from the G. as in E. Gr. . a croft by a house. a thing of liquid. . purse. acsian. dial. to bow buck. a parlour. busskai. bolla. fata-bur. a bubble. the head. pullo. bur. biicken. a buck. bol. . globular. globular body. Bret. a sleeping-room . bugna.D. a polla. similar shape. then by the loss of the /. hill. a box. a wine-can . box in both senses. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. a box. buckel. bending. Sw. bolgna. a little box . ask. to raise the back boll OHG. as well as the name of a. Sp. bubble. The / a bow. bollen. a box. convex. hollow place Fr. beutel. Hence. Du. bur. W. bwr. spring as water bugya. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. bugyola. buigen.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. honse-bur. bow. beuz. and on swollen. is applied to a coach-box. to buckle G. give in to. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. in walking appears in a . bola. * Bowels. Fr. bhugna. . bulcken. bol. belly. Bret. G. globe or spherical body. ne. a box. puffy.

. a comworld Rayn. brechen. G. clay. rakka. a bog or pass Fr. G. damaged board a ship. In like manner the It. It. — . flaw. and F. pube. Brack. an languages.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. Prov. to slap. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. land spoilt Kil. bracon. in R. foul. a pair of braces. It is B. isolated part of the text. dog Sw. buah. Brack. suppuration.. to give a blow with the fists. a braceOFr. odorinsecus.. fault. Brackish. rakke.. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. Swiss bub. or defect. a box. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. ratch. Hdcart. break. dog that hunts by scent. Kil. cramp-iron holding things together . . breach. . bask. ghebreck. land batsken. Prov. bracke. Rouchi Then as an adj. Fr. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. — . Brach. a crack. to stammer. babble. braque. quarrel Bohem. or bracer Cot. Heligoneed. bracil. want. Du. Ptg. Lett. his eyes are failing him). unmarried man . by an overflow of sea water. brasselet. Bracelet. brec. to want. brague. Fr. braco. race. brae. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing.nated by dirt. a bubbling dura del mun. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. boiste. salo sive aqua marinS. Boy. strike. rack. It.— D. to crack. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. V. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . boy. variation of babble. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. To fight with the fists. to is derived brestr. braic. La ville ou y avait Brace. con. breuque. — . bresta. One girl. to burst. Du. the first instancebya physical tie." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. matter. The different meanings of the brageux. A to halt between two derivations. bracco. See Broker. beagle. mud. disturb. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. defect Du. brae. to box the ears. root). Fr. Cot. Brak-goed. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. briche. bouibo. . in R. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. thwack. A — — . a sounding blow. bragos. s. brack. as noticed under Box. brakke grund. Fr. &c. — . turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael.. breach. . brechen ihm. youth. ' — A — — — . from a root brak. defect. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. OE. rakki. to be wanting. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. See Brake. — . brae. armour for the arm. ON. brakke Bracelet. defect. bube. jabber. refuse. brabbelen. a girl. It. salsus. brek. a grown youth Cimbr. pupus. parallel with OK. Pr. — — . spaniel. the arm. flaw. need. ON. whelp as. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . baukscheht. brassard.D. bracha.puddle. boussole. fault . and then Pl. brago. lalear-eyed Prov. Lat. corruptse. baske. then from break. Thus brack. brace on and Du. is a rope holding G. want. dog in general. braca. moral or physical. Kil. compressing. boy bouba. which has many representatives in the other Europe. mud. I sal slyng. Sp. let.D. . Water rendered boubo. taneous talking. a guard to torf. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. want. . brek. ing from a mixture of salt. breptati. loud smack. dirty. bray.with a noise. bou^ba. to fall. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. murmur. Swab. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Kil. priated to the original sense. OFr. A brace probis. s. Bracket. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. Gael. . little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. On the same principle from the buksteht. by the same inversion of J and k. wrack. OFr. Pl. Sp. to smack the hand batschen. brae. brageuses. pus. bue. filth . to give a sounding blow defect. To Brabble. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. Sp. a boy pupa. merely in our mode of considering them. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. to stutter. to Swiss batschen. BOX To Box. 91 the Dan. brack. Prov. brostia. acidus. Swiss Rom. mud. braquet. To brace is to draw together. wristband. bitch Du. to give a gebrechen. MHG. braco. bracer. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. wnzC/J. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. confining. bruxula. braecke. . Pm. fuse. posh. bracket. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . Prov. which sigof straining. flap. and string of his bow. AS.

From sprouted corn. empty pride. See Brace. Langued. brachittm. bragaireachd. de Vaud. Walloon bress. torture . crash ON. be noisy . finery. noisy ostentation. Fr. also insolenter se gerere . and it is very likely that the root brak. It is certain that the word for arm is. brag. to flaunt. — From W. brave. brave. is identical with Gael. &c. se pavaner. brake in the sense of constraining. idle talk. breagh.explosion. bragd. Fris. bragio. spot.%. The meanings of brake are very numerous. excellent. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . power. bullying. fine. crash. gallant (in apparel) also proud. to cord a bale of tie up. a roisterer. brabhdadh. Brake. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . bravado j Fr. Faire le brave. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. strength. cry. bragging of his own valour. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. braicli. affront. vaunting. flaunt in fine clothes . h-avare and Fr. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. To Brag. — Equivalent forms are Gael.Shepherd's Cal. braka. braga. braga. be found. brav. to strut. bragging. . braguer. subigere. boasting. Cot. subduing. used in the sense of force. make a noise . Fr. in numerous dialects. to unbrace or let down the breeches. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. in order to prevent its catching the wind. braka. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. a noisy talkboasting. . Brail. also tion of this was brayeul. gay. bushy . Sc. braies. in the sense of the Lat. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. Dan. — .^Vocab. goods. brave. brave. the feathers ON. also derived Fr.hy which this idea is con\eyed. boast. braske. brao. se parer de beaux habits. i. stout. se donner trop de licence. braszketi. Primarily to crack. drawers. . a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. gorgeous. binding anything together. as the type of exertion and strength. hectoring. — A — . Lat. an inclosure for cattle . swagger. breach. . confining. expensive.aburst. See Bray. to swagger. is Cot. smart. brake is. and that from e. brails. —Spenser in R. bully . Thus Bret. vain glory. the opposite of which. It. flaunting. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. vanter une chose. AS. valiant The head are sumptuous.. swaggerer. To Brail. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. brabhdair. Dan. was formed brayele. Hecart. Hence E. From brayel. — Chaucer. breghen.. an iron for holding Zalli. called by our braggard. braw. breyne. beautiful. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. BRAG Piedm. or by gaudy dress and show. crack. Cot. Lith. gallant. compressing.breeches. to boast of his own worth. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . courageous. bra!. to shout. Bret. . proud. . the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. Cot. brayete. Thus we are brought to the OE. A — Hal. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. to stand upon terms. The meanings included under — Bragget. From Fr. slight modificajoining the two legs. bravo. ^Brave. brae. fine.—— . expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . to crack. Brag was then used brisk. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). to boast or brag. brazo. The plant y^r«. to brail up a sail. braggard also valiant. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. that will carry no coals. brag. showy bravery. fine. would be to brace. Chaucer. Sp. well-dressed. braegenj Du. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. ative fellow. about the hawk's fundament. bravacherie. To Braid. to Rouchi brMer. Brake. braver. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. . the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . Wallachian bratsou. gay. handsome. splendid. 92 Cot. riches. a carriage for breaking in horses . to rattle. blusterer. braske. Bray. w.i5nz^. brag or jet it braguard. to sprout malt. to make a noise. or from braie itself. stately. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. breghe. Rom. Bret.^ Sp. Brain. 2. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. brave. braga. gayly dressed. Haldorsen Gael. the arm. Turk bazu are used in both senses. bravache. fine. dhbrailler. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. .

to distinct. in northern climates. Gr. Sp. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. 3. frangere linum. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. as in the case of horse-breaking. a harrow. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. to exert force in different ways. or overthrow of trees by the wind. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. brake.bracan. to break. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. To the same bend a bow. brage. broilium. casser le \va. and when once thrown down. The Fr. braeken. brook. OFr. as well as in the case of the e. watered. thicket. glebas subigere. bredza. braken. as in Du. BRAKE to external force. gebroge. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. —Bracken. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . ^raca. bushes. to The ON. murrokko. brak is a frame in which strip. word. briers. cover G. flachs brechen. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brega. Prov. a fen. Brake. broor bushy place Hal. Fr. gebrUche. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted.D. broyer. gebiisch. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae.' It. a stream. —Ovid. gebroge. brushwood. brcekke. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. . In the sense of a thicket. marsh or swamp. braka. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. t° moisten. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. bregar. Swiss Rom.D. is formed murd. to bend or direct a cannon. riguus. braquer un canon. bruch. Dan. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. for — Due. as in Sp. brog or brake. brook. brambles. P&. el arco. ing of flax or hemp. gebroge. In ON. and Lat. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. It. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. Fr. We — . In the case of the ne. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. farinam in mortario subigere. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. dial. brolium. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. copse-wood. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. a horse's a horse's twitch. game. brego. the original meaning of G. brage. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. conSo in G. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). gilum. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Pl. might come to signify a swamp. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. — — . iSpsx". a swampy Mid. to fracture. bush. to head must be bit. murtaa. to rub. de Vaud. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. been confounded with the verb break. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. G. fratto. is braukti. 2. — Fl. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. quarry from Fin. or A A ' . referred brake. Gael. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. brambles. bregille. It may be sus- . brook. the lever by which the string was drawn up. a spinning-wheel. nemus. a brace on board a ship. to bend a bow. to brush. to break. broillet. broeck. any thicket of brakes. properly braking or subduing them. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. gebrUche. brog. in usus braca. murran. Brake. It. low wet land bruch. Lat. a marsh. Dan. Dan. break flax PLD. braca. breaking in the operation. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. bregar brake. a thicket. to stiffen against Taboada). thing is brought under control. tnurdma. cetur. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. signifying to sweep.. to break or fracture. and G. bush. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. marsh. to harrow (Lat. have thus Du. In like manner Lat. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. broken fratta. brake. to bray in a mortar.— . subigere. broil. pasture. to row. it is not surprising that the word has here. breuil. break of such a kind. briser. brogille. e. Biglotton. Fr. to pound. Corrfeze bredgea. braecken het vlasch. Voc. tris). brog above mentioned. or a wood in a marshy place . to subdue. where from Esthon.

gebroge. heath (Bret. brandiiialil. pfriemen. a shrub from Bret. brank. a halter. a single plant of heath. briars. . may be so called in analogy with Bret. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. Bret. bronbo. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. brem. . brosst. But we find It. breanan. that is to say. from Servian pnit. ear-wax mud. broom. to brank. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. brouskoad. or with It. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. bren. Sir Topaz.D. nasty. brin (as It brano). bruch. brenn. Broom." The bmno a • on . constrain. brughera. young twig {brom-beisser.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. or ling. brein. . — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. to or iron. Pl. bruk. brenda. compress. Fr. Thus in Lat. bruch. Gael. also pfriemkraut. excrement. sweet broom. and E. ordure . Russ. young buisson fort epais. brog. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. a heath. a bridle or bit .G. heath. Thornas and bremelas. bren. the branch of a tree. cabbage sprouts Fl. E. a shoot. Piedm. Bret. brom. brous. a roA. braeme. brin. So Swiss gaggi. and waste growths. Dan. as AS. It. — . Branch. Bramble. ground full of briers. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. Fr. w. from brand. sawdust. a shoot or twig. brug). brenna. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. a burning fragment of wood. a thick bush. . hallier. It will be found that shrubs. See Brush. brenn hesken. a rod or twig. iii. brugek. w. brano. virgultum. bromboli. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. Bav. cack. Then by comparison with claws or arms.. That beareth the red hepe. Fr. branchia. brass.D. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . pfropf. piecemeal brindelles. in the same sense. clutch. . The same form becomes in It. thicket of brambles Cot. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. a small deri\'ation . to burn. also a marshy low ground or fen . Pl. bro7n. AS. the bull-finch. brandmurk. berneux. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. a bud It. is the draff or excrement of the com. The naof strain. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brandr. . bramble Du. bit by bit. brank. brand. apiece orbitbrandone. Gael. broom. — branca. and thence a shoot. G. i. brake. A mark made by burning. It. 2. Thus we have w. Fr. bruk. &c. from virga. 1 8. pfriem in the sense of an awl. burning brennen. stink . to -brugen. breun. As ON. what is cast out as worthless. to bridle. brarn. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. dirt . broust. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. gebriiche. restrain. prufye. breme j Sw. a shrub . heath. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brang. to gripe. broccoli. broem. a briery plot. Brand. in the sense oi fern. G. bushes. chaff. brandello. branco. . Bret. bruk. Brancare. brambles. or other plants of a like nature. brejo. it glitters — — . titio. heath. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. brug. Diez. from brug. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. bruskoad. bracken or fern . from Lat. Grisons bruch. bretnel. G. snotty . . G. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. bran. Bret. brok. thorns and Gen. sprouts. brancas. from gaggi. &c. . the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. bran. piece of anything. a bud. Serv. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . Port. as. Bran.). sword is called a ^ra«rf because . heath. —Ducange. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. a dunghill. a bud. Rouchi bren d'orMe. In like hrst. wood composed of twigs. broembel-CBppel. brin d. Brank. brushwood. a firebrand. heath ON. broussaille. brwnt. pected that brake. the thorn apple or stramonium. sedge burkni. branche. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. a vine twig Bav. braam.

de Don Emanuel in Marsh. to brustle. The tre brangillis. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. Brangle. briiler. bracia. or in stick. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. crackle. crackle. 59. bruire. eldibrandr. Diez. braza. branler. Bret. WaUon. to sound of the Fr. in Marsh. E. to shog. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. live coals. bransle. It. forms brasil. stake. from to vociferate. It. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. perplex. firewood. set on fire. Brasil. Sw. to make display . — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. to bicker 2nd. the spelling to kindle. make a — . brangle or brawl in E. — . to quarrel. bryne. bragia. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brin. bransella. fire-wood. — . weinbrenner. ist. De Barros considers vinum ardens.well. and branchis shaiand D. AS. to shake. to French brawl or brangle. braise. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. to rustle. brandende wijn. brastlian. noise. to shake. brasca. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . Chron. to totter. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. to burn. put. Milan. brausen. bra?ier. to roar. brennen. Fr. to distil . V. embraser. In the same way the set on fire . to burn. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. The name Brandy. brus^. n. to blaze. brasil. to crackle . brasa. bragale\ wood. to braze or lute. Brase. to confuse. the colour than hitherto known. Fr. Guill. was in use Fr. to brandle. brush. firebrand. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. to solder iron. Gris. brasa. to dash. distilled wine. is bntan. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. N. prasseln. Lye. Manx bransey. to glisten or flash. — ting to confusion. as again by well as the blade of a sword. bresil. Jam. To brase AS. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. brandigh.. brandolare is exbrandish. e. ish. as Fr. comes from thence. before the discovery of America in the brandir. brustle. splinter. a pan of hot coals. to brangle. bruzi. Thus the bound up again. a roaring fire. and scold. bruan. brasca. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. braise. Fr. not. a To Brandish. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. braser. billet. to Bailey. To brand. a stick. morsel. brandiller. the name of that holy wood should have Kil.pan of coals. brouir. totter. Fr. brane-wood. to make sense of a bright red dye. from used in dyeing cloths. apparently very distinct from each other. flagrans. Bailey.^Brandle. became ashes Pied. as Jamieson explains it. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. so. So. brand. d'Angl. hot Fr. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. G. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. a brusler. a round dance. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. branla. brandiller. bruciare. Hume in brand in ON. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. Port. With top trimbling. shake. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. spirit distilled from wine. to burn. bum. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. then brandr. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. Sw. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. Du. urens. Braser. a fragment. Ija. Chron. De Goes. brazeiro. given to the country. brascct. and bruir. plained by Florio. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. faire fracas. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. to hurl with great force. Formerly brandy-wine. to and fro in the hand. — . G. Fl. aqua ardens. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. The corresponding form in Gael. make an outcry. bracea. conbillet. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. to murmur. gebrannter wein. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. du Roi et laine. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. all. to brandle or The It. to shake The word brisil. to make shine with shaking. incendium. Kil. branler. glowing embers . hoisting to the fall. brazil. E. It. braise or hot coals. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. Fr.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling.

discord. Certainly a little girl. Du. to talk at bralle op. brettys. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. brazen. a Lap. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. It. Fr. brces. ship. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins.— Remade. Fris. bronzacchiare. as rashers upon quick burning coals. brett. a mantle. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. baltresca. breyon d'chaur. bretesque. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). ni autres choses sur Due. trul. bradlete. bradon. For the application to a^child compare Bret. ^Altieri. to copper. breyon. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. coassatio. Pisana in Mur. rag. Paris. from branler. and bronzo.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. — Deutsch. slibro. OFr. A. especially that used in the working of iron . much and high and make a disturbance bawl. bratidone. A dispute or squabble. equivalent to the Du. It. ON. 368. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. from Fr. to carbonado. a lump of flesh. bartising. a patch of cloth. The muscular part of the body. bratid calf of the leg. It . 1156. a rag . Cot.^ — Sverris Saga. Cologne broden. noise. a rag. Sc.— Fl. calf of the leg. P1. . bartisan. saillies. cloth. a cloak. OHG.— Braid. a clout. breyon de kinds of . bribe de viande. bmhon for brado7i. KiL Prov.96 Roquefort. Wall. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. Jam. a loud noise. squall. le repasser un peu sur la braise. any piece. 1224. bras. ferruminare. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. The same correspondence is seen between It. to cry. Mundart. braser Fargent. pan- — Rayn. 2. Brat. as lattice. apron. solder. G. A land of dance. AS. contignatio. a — A from the confused noise. is The word — uous name for a woman. bruir. in the first instance of boards. So also See Brag. — . deblaterare. flesh of a leg of pork. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. Swiss bradle. brdto (ace. to braze. Brass. Sup. a wooden tower. Brangle. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. See Bray. berd. boarding being sbranare. &c. See Brandish. Fr. I. braiio. frame of laths. to Gael. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. the buttocks. —-Jam. Math. frequentative of braire. braeye. slibro {neita. breteque. roar. a rag . a plank or board. Bailey. Kil.— Diez. brat. a parapet. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. bretesche. Pm. at brasa. strepitus 2. Hist. or whether it be from Fr. as a brawling brook. to scold . ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. Betrax of a —^Jam. bretays). as scrawl from scrabble. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. slut. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. braodhlach. bratach. lat'te. OFr. Brawn. cob. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. branle. a lath.' Hal.' BRASS BRAY et AS. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . esbraotier. bred. Many gambes. ' A vraale. bronze. braede. borderinge. brandillo. neita girl).brettysing. then a parapet. bas morceau de viande brawhng. slakker-bortchen. a contempt- banner. muscular parts of the body. brass. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. a slabbering-bib. as criailler of crier. luncheon. bran. A. from Sc. to shake. Brattice. W. braon. a lump. braoilich. Lorraine bravon. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. bronzare. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. Brawl. Cot. the calf of the leg. a battle-girdle. The verb is probably derived from the brase. a lump of flesh. Florio. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. pil. Dan. to tear piecemeal. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. Gael. fraiche. bratdn). bralle. brat. a fortification. a contemptuous name for a young child. braion.walle — Pr. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. tasce. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. burning coals. Brave. Circumeunt cibertesca. Westphal. to solder. or on the top of a wall.D. bransle. buttock Sc.D.D. boutures. calf of the leg. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. whether contracted from brabble. —^Bronze. a. Sp. brailler.propugnaculum. brat. Bartizan. Fr.

baiyl. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it.ear rog. Ppvxia. to break. a breach Cot. Bailey. to roar as the sea. Then is simply. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. braid. fractus j Gr. The same He might don us both a villany. Q. to rumble. AS. explaining a very obscure application of the E. regi. to resemble. i. &c. to cry Port. appearance Hal. E. a wink. brand. to work up in a mortar. Then. gestus. D. breach. V. Dunbar braessem. and make a hideous noise. mos. V. braea.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. — . to rush. to bawl. a brake for hemp or flax. bray. . Chaucer. OE. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to the seijauntes. fish. father. resound . bragr. the clash of ai-ms Dan. 2. to snatch. crepo and E. to t. will. 7 . braire. crash. W. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. to bray like an ass. rustle. brikan. vapna-brak. To Break. Bread. Prov. fragor. yell. riAprjyvvfu. Prov. on. brage. to cry out.y. to break. crackle . to braid acquires the sense of bend. brechen. G. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. verb to break. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. to braid. brak. — koa. a rent. to cry out. D. — — — explained motus loud noise. bregar. the sound — of arms. Du. to break. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. k. weave The ON. or cry out loudly . bragd is also applied nets. to start.. Bret. cyprinus latus. at once. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. and fracasously. to The cup was uncoverid. to knead.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. Fin. &c. brot. the sword was out break. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. I'll live and die a maid. the miller's dog. to smack or the eye. braa. e. 145. Chaucer. plait. R. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. ing. as OE. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. From the or brack in a wall. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. a brack. R. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. Breach. broyer. braidir. Swiss bratschig. to resemble him. twist. starts crackling up. kind. roar. a crash.fracas. braidar. brugier. rogi. The Lat. instantane. and frangere. paste or dough. G. a rag f . roar. Beryn. broad.^ Fr. make a disturbance. as the notion of turning crack. Cat. upbraid. to braid. paxog. . Gr. &c. brice. Cot. is . Goth. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. which has given much trouble to commentators. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. Bread. father.' To Bray. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. bruzir. V. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. bru. iU-favouredly — in Jam. Lat.ch. . to bellow. abraid. a mill. Fr. F. soft . to roar. bregar. to have the lineaments of one's ON. to roar or bellow. relation is seen between Lat. in Jam. to break Fr. &c. ON. Wal. to bray in a mortar. bragd — ON. ser. to braid the hair. brak. imitate or resemble one. and to signify the fracture itself. breuan. to crash. bradar. to scold. braa. rattle. as the voice of the ass. to sound very loud and very harshly. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. bruire. or wound. bratsche. See Brake. The ON. bregda. ON. a . to rub Fr.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. disturbance. To rub or grind down Sp. to tear Bret. ybrayid. noise .g. at a braid. And with a traid I tumyt me about. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. yell. D. And at a braid he gun it bende. rangere. breche. augnabragd. to resemble. turn. with or without a final d. to pretend. brame. crash. Fr. ^p&xia. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. at braga eftir euium. to crash. to N.

remains of leaves. Prov. brumtnen. brise. to brew. of trees. bruzir. a crum Du. as. to rattle (as hail). an odour. rubbish. . Sw. Gael.98 borst. are in like manner ' . and brought beneath between the legs. brugga. OFr. breost. brew. zare. brcekur j It. instead of being derived from 'La. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. It. simmer. to crush to break. to bind. switch. brodem. Isidore and Tatian. polenta. so AS. braca. to smack. a horse's twitch. then to broil. braga. to resound. applied to shivering. brciz. bridsen. — Halma. grill. brezza.britschen. Compare OE. a crum. Lat. vapour. braca. break. bark Fr.D. as in the case of twitter. as. Du. Breeze. subligaculum. AS. broiiwen. the breech or buttocks. Bruise. representing the sound of a blow. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. murmur—Vocab. Piedm. burst. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. from AS. i5r(Z^. forms analogous to E.t. briig. We bragezj on. brijselen. briiz. G. a box. to burst. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. bre- I'os qui bresole. Dtyden. chilly. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. braies. — See Broth. Breath. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. . G^nev. brimme. brijsen. fitzen. Gael. morsel. to buzz. binding. Gl. drawers. met de bridse slaan. PI. bracecs . breson. brisoler. — . an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Originally probably the word signified steam. fastening . cloven. breme. brezling. brimsa. a twitch for a horse. as commonly explained. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. Du. bris de charbon. a cold and windy mist or frost . Fr. corresponding to G. a gadfly.). term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. Swiss AS. are related to Prov. to fry . britze. the bust. braucn. brache. brossi!. . term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. to bray. malt. Fr. fail. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. malt. body brostia. — — strument for smacking.'— Gl. Biglotton. grillen. forms. braich. Rom. Lat. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. briosa. —Briss. Du. — Brist. brdtschen. braie. — . A fierce loud buzzing breeze. brusc. Du. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. a smack. point to G. Fr. brissle. — And blood. See Brick. but more probably the E. to be misty and cold. . also to chill and shiver with cold. siibligar. xyligogio castigare. to simmer. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. Goth. Bret. braciarc. trembling. crush. grillare. simmering. brok. scent. a girdle. Swiss brdtsch. a cramp-iron for holding things together. /esses. and E. an into shiver. Piedm. murmur. The Breech (Prov. brosame. . braia J OFr. briosa. de Vaud. bratscher. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. Breast. G. of E. AS. brut. a cool wind. Dan. braux. brist. may be from the wurh fesser. G./ssus. bandage or truss for a rupture. breinse. properly to crackle. QNtsterviald) pritschen. or the blow itself. einem de britze geven. de bridse geveii. in Schilter. clout for a child. Briss and buttons. Fris. from ligare. Breeze. windy withal. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. To Brew. . brustia. to roast. So ON. &c. rubbish. orts. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. Bracha. to fry Then from a Gl. G. bresilles. breeze. braies. the dry spines of furze broken off. bragues. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. Breeches. brasiuiii. as the G. Bret. singing bone. coaldust. dial. brasiare. braguier. E. w. Russ. The Teutonic verbs. brire. Gl. briste. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. to break. to hum. bryi^ga. little bits of wood Berri briser. Brize. brasser. from brace. brodel. peitschen. as by the Sc. a to lay fly-flap. bris. chillness or shivering. brisd. sprouted corn. brisciare. with It. braga. bruzun. their stings draw . broil. and other rubbish dibris. to brew. Swiss Rom. bretilles. to crackle. noise. bra. the soler. broden. to shiver for cold. of straining. Hume in Jam. Breeze. to feize or feaze. briosat'. brcEth. Prov. Dev. to murmur. bruise. brezzare. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. bris. trusts. griller. to breech. G. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Hence the Lat. sheep's droppings bruss. bruc. one on the breech so that (klatschet). brinisa.vare. to whip. breath. broza. E. bremse. brison. b}-as.

piece of burnt clay. Diez. a quoit of stone. arf-ol. In E. to break. A bribe is A — — arval. and ODu. a heath. graf-ol. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. married. fraoch. a boiling. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. as. AS. a little king's writs. a wedding priod-fab. bribour. conjux. to press in. a bride Brig. Walach. Diefenbach com. consort with. funeral. Dan. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. beaten way Dan. Brief. guma. ' . a lump of bread. to pave. — . E. owned also propriate. Brigade. If the foregoing were not so clear. E. from Bridegroom. whence berw. Due. So in The Prov. a fragment. OSw. stone-bridge bnikkoti. Ihre. especially to a letter or command. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Pol. to prepare. . BRIGADE dead. Fr. W. betonica. Pro(merch=:maid). Fr. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. barren land priodas. pavement Lith. a brig or priodor. a bit. priod-ferch. company. brughiera. groom (mab=:son). broken victuals. a Bride. gf2o. from the Normans. brA. peculiar. Applied ous words derived from break. briiths. imprint. to circulate. division of an army. Goth. bruyere. lipdZu}. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. to beg one's bread. Brique. . hlafes brice. a beggar. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. ment of anything broken. priod. to break to pieces bricalio. but probably Bricoteau. bro.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. A — A — . two-masted vessel.It. bo. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. braut. feast. a rogue. a sow. but to a paved road. to boil. ap. a bush. The Sw. to Isrew. AS. Bridge. brasser. Sp. bridelj OHG. to appropriate. has briguer. httle bit. son. to rub. bruith. jipaaaiii. to boil. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. Lat. bruarium. ON. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. corresponding or letter. grug. Ducange. a lump of bread briber. birbone. bride. briwo. w. as so. pier. a rogue . bruk. Du. brood. bro. sugga. the marriage si in brigata. brieden. sponsa. troop. it is applied to the letter to OE. betony brulicame. served (Patois de Bray). Lang. bruskr and buskr. then the marriage itself. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. fragment. which however is undoubtedly from brace. masted vessel. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. a man. brigata. a bride.rough with brambles and bushes. a briole. nurus G. In the patois of briccia. AS. bricou. Rouchi brife. bread. . to pave brukkti. buskins. a fragment. bryd-gutna. E. Priodi. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. AS. Trovarfor bride-ale. brilt. collect bits of food. .groom. broken. a lump of bread. with transposition of the r. Bridal. broken bread. Bribe. Gl. Cot. brahi. AS. any jot or crum. bably contracted from brigantine. and berweddu. a cheat. OHG. thick appropriated.Fr. bara briw. . Neumann. frayer. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. to tlie brico. malt. daughheath. E. brocaly. berwi. Bridal. pavement brolegge. bitill. brittil. birbante. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . bro is applied not only to a bridge. buckler J ON.privatus. Grisons bruch. or brizo. malt. remarkable that the Gr. bricge j G. . . bulicame. bride. It. to boil. is still used in this sense. boiling up brocoliere. fervere. feast of espousals. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. Brier. brigade. one's ovin. twopares Lat. ibrukkti. the newly. brice. brere. G^n^v. Brewis. In the G. a crum. bygga. a married man or woman Lat. Fl. breve or brevis. Bridle. to stamp. crew. briw. the Fr. . Gael. brug. Flor. ter-in-law.. of burial. fastningar-ol. appropriate. berwedd. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. jetty. and that from It. brukkas. So It. to meet together. pavement.pritil . Fr. brique de pain. ' — . bryd-eale. a crum. from bit. Mid. broosekens. from the last 99 of which. brau. bribe de pain. fit. bruk. It. the equivalent of to the dial. — — — — — — . It — is Kil. Thom. bretonica. briicke.bergantino. brygga. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a heath brughera. to brew. to press. See Broth. Gael. AS. brigantine. brakes of high-grown ferns. a married man guma. brar. . Hdcart. a proprietor. The origin of the word is the w. Hence OE. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . from Bret. in the sense of OSw. bridge. bidsel.gfiugga. heath. — . brutg. Brick. privus.

to reservavit. bregar. Gall. labour. loo BRIGAND lor. and the E. tinnitus. to glitter. sound. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. glitter. bray. Du. brigan. brigare. So G.' The sense of strife or combat express. inde squammatus. splendour. the bench-notes resounded. that of Fr. Goth. rixa. seems to be to exert force gar el area. Heo — song That AS. splendour.— . lay was sung. bracht. Flor. Beorktode bene sweg. pugna. clarus. squamma .pracht. and diligence.dorem clarum reflecto. to shift for with care. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. A strepere. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. biartr. tinnitum clarum movco. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. himself to serve men of merit. etincelle. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. a noise. schiteren. — brigante. in the sense of a robber. to rove. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. and. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . willata. It.Lat. and hence be explained glampi. a pirate. Gr. rover either by sea or land. Swab. clear. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. clear. brigandare. tumult. praht. brigare. — Brigantine. outcry. noise. from hall. the grew high. hell. glamm. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. In Fin. clangour. bairhts. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren.clare ^tinniens. necessary business. Florio. and secondly. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. . OHG. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. Bav. glamra. Schmeller. \oice. representing a sudden noise. .' torum. glbram. strife. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. brcEhtin. to strive for. bryhtm.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. From ON. — Probably then to strive. tuilahtaa.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. to rob. briga. and to associate with them. 1654. secondarily. to cry. briegen. They or brigantini. XafXTTpoQ. to ring. show the origin of Lat. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. to glamr. It. brawl. to resound. schateren. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. It. clare lucens. dine. The primary meaning of Sp. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. Bright. — Due. clear sound. twinkling. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. — A A . wilella. there are many armour. and ner me hit iherde. clang. It. a glittering. and. to contend with another. In the same way to strive is. with respect either to sound or colour. combat. Lat. 1351. moment.D. in later times a robber or highway-man. brdgen. braid. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. glir. shriek with laughter.shine. 312. Xa/iTTii). it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. kilistua. manifest ON. cange has 'Veles. to shine. tinkle. to make a loud noise. jurgia. on his — own account. brigant.glampa. —Capgrave.' The passage from the sense of a light. — Beowulf. kii:'a. malandrini. to sound. a small light pinnace pro. splendens . brebrigare. splcnornd de brigandine. See Brake. — — . frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. clear. in the first instance. to shine. then. also called briganders. a sound. beorht. to cry 'Schmid OE. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. the gleeman's song. AS. transparent. Mid. A. Wilista. The E. tion. Due. to piracy. riis ' — Chron. dine. Brigand. a spark. — Briganbriga. is easily understood. may play the pirate or thief at sea. speech. Owl and beorhtian. Brigata. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . Adelung. Brilliant.' in Due. at a later period. briga. a brigantine. bright bearhtm. — brigante. and led it away. The Ir. to bend a bow It. bragen. brak.

post. as is the case also with Pl. margin. greDiet. bremas. ous. cross-barred in colour. noise made by meat in broiling. edge Pol. to twinkle. a borDu. Sc. burning stone. sprainged. to shine. brummen. grullo. breziller. brant. is used of raging. chime). to broil. to sound deep or hollow. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. kajata. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. bramar. Fr. . vattubryn. originally the lap folding over the breast. breme. perent. komottaa. brullo. to glitter. striped or streaked. to glitter distance . In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. the edge. a rod. the meaning is transL' amour. to creak. hence the bosom. brim. kommata. The identity of ON.its vent in cries and roaring. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. It. ON. Sw. brennistein. ter.D. of the eye. rut. fire.— BRIM . To Brim. breziller. bry7ie. and 1. the sow is brimming. rym^. shine. spraing. brimmen. identical with passion. Rayn. to wish or covet. border. G. the heat of animals. It. Thus Lat. bremmen. brumft. Closely connected is OE. griller. which seems identical with rim. The meaning of the Fr. . to fret . and corresponding to these. s. voux. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer.preni. Streaked. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. Brindled. from brandr. have then in Fr. brunft. whence bilbil-goda (literally. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. ling noise and a sparkling light. bramer. brissle. glisten. brinfire. to roar. sparkle. Fl. Brem. fimbria) . bremmen. griller d'impatience. brame. border. surface of the ocean. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. Hence with an initial s. to roar. (poet. brama. excited. grisler. as in Langued. Supp. Dan. to parch. bramire. coloured in stripes. AS. Langtoft. the lap or bosom. to creak. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. burning. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. 1. as well as bl and gl. a stick. border. a streak. Sc. barm-cloth or barmskin. brezil. ON. to sparkle. the heat of animals. Subo. 1 1 64. grisser. the verbs Flor. to resound. to crackle. brommen. Prov. — Rim. brame. Kil. It. brisoler. an apron. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. small gravel. Tutschek. bramar. Du. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. pMiller. briller (related to each other as OFr. — — — . from bringe. bar. on. The expression is now confined to the sow. ardere desiderio. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. to make bilbil). AS. whether of desire or anger. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. — g. breme. lap. lip of a vessel. E. to shake. brand-krossottr. ON. that the original meaning of the Sc. ring. brandr and Fr. sonitum edere bremen. vigorHal. der. Brimstone. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion.ioTiviS acutus. to utter cries.) brimi. to shimmer. 754. brim Magy. crackle . fringe . greedily to covet Cot. grdzil. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). Lith. crackle. broiled. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. kimmaltaa. gresiller. : ' — bone). kimista. briller. the singing of Sodom — — . or violent action. broil . The E. briller. with an initial br instead of gr. A . — — So Fr. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. to storm.). to quaver with the voice. a border. Wtb. dial. as of meat in broiling . the eye-brow. Said of swine when in heat. glit. lap of a garment . Brim. fringe (Lat. kimina. gresiller. Rugere. to shine. brow of a hill. . leonum). frequently interchange. bray as an ass bramire. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. to crackle. os qui bresole. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. to long for a thing. barmr. furious. brummen : de soge brummet. also to reflect. Tresiller. kiimottaa. In Fr. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. rugire (cervorum. to burn.' d'etre marie . uses bresoler (il bresole fir. reecho. to make a crackling noise. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. brastlian. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. earnestly . seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. clangor tinniens. to shine. beam. FJ. — . bryn. griller). fierce.' Elyot in Way. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. Dief. a long. brillare.— Brinded. Swiss Rom. brmdottr. barm. finds the Fr. komista. s. bresoler (Gloss. rugire. 154. to . tience. brdnnsten. parched. In the same way Sw. to glitter .

brusco. Sc. Lat. . to broil. brittle.g. emotions which produce it. brocar. broc. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. a rebours. to set up one's birse. form bris. brissko). broche. broccata. sprouts. brindelles de balai. flames. Boh. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. the twigs of a besom. man's throat. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. bros. cK) the . The Pl. brog. brocher. breidr. humorous. quick. borstel. ruffling. Formerly written brotil. of E. to roar. — A . which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. Zeuss. Bret. braidsj ON. fierce. a peg sbrocco. suddenly angry. brocco. ' breast. briser. /3pE^m. crabbed. bros. from break. metaphorically. bruched (Fr.). Brine. to break. 222. breaking of the waves brim sior. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. broca. to put one in a rage . Swiss to stand out . a cold and windy mist or frost. brimhliod. Palsgr. Du. sticking up . as. brandello. brisk in taste. Du. brddj Goth. bricho (with the diminutives. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. brodden. briocho. Bret. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. a bud. and. Brym. briota. to shoot. borst. startling. like the Broad. . to stab Gael. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. britar. brittle. brichet. brocchus. borzos (struppig). Ptg.. Berri. breast. brocciare. Prov. to bud. a rod or twig. rebrousser. a skewer. saulmeure. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. It. Commonly explained as from Fr. against the grain . trembling.Lat. bringe traced through the brano. Cot. Breeze been connected with the Sc. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. sour. Walach. fragile. Sp. as unripe fruits. Fr. a bud. spur. is to erect the hair. 'V^. brime. a morsel. prick with Sw. to shiver for Sold or for fear. brin. are used in the sense of brittle. stitch. Fr. britar. Bristle. — in Due. to goad. a shoot or sprig. — . ribrezzoso. britchet. whence may be explained the Sc. a crum. to scorch. an awl. the surf. is called a birssy day. and hence. . a button broche. In the N. apt to break. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. lively. i. from brande. Fr. brimme. See Spread. birstle. eager. Alfr. to set it a going. setting the hair on end compare It.. Brooch. a spit. a clasp. Brisk. birse. a brooch. It. reburrus. sprocco. hot-tempered. bringe. Sw. to stitch. Salte sand is called brimsand. G. craw of a bird. Russ. a fragment.). Fr. expression. byrst. to turn up the point of anything. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. brocco. — — . originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Antiq. Dan. bronchus. brioshko.' Nat. a slip or sprig of an herb . enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. to break. birs. has under It. breaking out into growth. bruckle. angry. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. roar of the sea saltr. ON. aculeus. Pectusculum. Brisket. brezzare. b. spricka. from AS. to spur. as. coli. Da. brim. It. a brad or tack. wine of a sharp. Bohem. Sc. birssy. bringue. Brittle. Gr. Port. Brocade. brote. Prov. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). the surf. shoot. to spit. brusque. brissle. rude. Fris. flame. rash. sprout. brcit. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. a morsel . Hence ribrezzare. and Sc. harsh vin brusque. very salt brimi. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. sharp. Prov. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. to stick. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. brot. as. brim (poet. to burn. to spur. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. Liquamen vel garum.rcendij'i. brusk. to birstle. and forms on. or the full • . birsle. a stormy brimsea . borzen. p. chest. brisciare. brim. to begin upon it. brickie. of astonishment. brich. — bryme.procio. a bit . strong itself. bristly . Abroacli. . to break. NE. brust. to broach a business. brijn (Kil. . a projecting tooth It. setting the hair on end. thick — A elastic hair. Mid. broccare. Hal. .'— Vita'abbatum S. broca. See To Brim. a stitch brocher. brezza. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. Compare also E. to thrust. a deluge. grim. rebursiis. Brickie. fiscbryne. as a noun. the brisket or . Fr. briota. It. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. Then as the effect of shivering. brockle. bruskett. to crack. or — . bryde. fantas'* tical. e. smart taste. See Brand. a belly. bresk. bryne. Gl. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. Fr.D. Russ. brytan. ' .

broc. piebald . brocart. broukit. badger . because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. to scorch. storms. Florio. brasolare. bawling. a peg. broc. ciare. a flake of snow sion. point to an origin in Bret. agree in being the extremity of a thing. brasiller. to crackle. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. Hal. brasuole. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. trouble. The ON. dar seems derived from borde. trouble. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. braird. noisy. or It. to embroider. to broil. — — . to streaked or speckled in the face. silkes-borda. to knots or loops. E. gresiller. brouFr. whence broccare. Grisons brascla. B. or salted fish on coals. Sp. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. onbryrdan. to darn. to crackle. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. a freckle. margin. a border ornamented with gold. tori shows that. to stud broccoso. 103 embroidered. — Fl. Contracted from Fr. brooked. breard. borprick. Gael. parti-coloured. Compare G. brindled. a brim. brasiller. brych. and w. to embroider. — Gower in It. or roast on the braise. of pointing out their latent defects. Dan. bram. brullare. ToBroider. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. spotted. embroidery. Fr. broice. Here to ornament with needle-work. From direct imitation of Brock. motes. a flock or Gael. b?-od. to burn. . Sc. a border. Brocket. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. broglio. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). brasbrasciuolare. blusters. Cot. Icnotty. a fallingThe sense has been out. hart of two years old. age was termed a pricket. from the white. a brecJi. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . knobby . two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. houx. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. broud. broder. speckled. Sc. brerd. Fr. brouda. Surrey in R. border ornamented with silk. brod. q. sparks E. briz. a brouhaha. a confused streaked face of the animal. hurly-burlies. to crackle as a shell in the fire. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. broil. ornamented with a raised pile. bmsciare. It of br the Fr. bruler. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. brastlian. to burn. border. broiled. briefh. noise. to crackle.. v. brizen. bj'oil. or snag. a badger. The Bret. scorch. to On the other hand the Sp. Broker. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. rinj'. confound. to instigate. the line of development has been something different. brustle. broccuto. a freckle. carbonado. Cot. brucilare. a To Broil. Thus brod. brodio. parch. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. the shoot of corn. a quarrel. to prick. birsle. embroidering. initial . speckled. A fried or boiled steaks). here. brucach. froco. thread. frocadura. gold and silver. brusler. bustling. bordo. W. brocco. Compare also AS. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. brychau. It. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. forming to jumble.. to boss. an edge. to crackle. and bord or bred. streaked. — The proper sense is that of Fr. broccato was used to signify stuff . Gael. Fr. parched. AS. a point. Ptg. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. a b?-ustolare. grullo. and AS.— B. grislement. tufted ornaments. R. rustle. It. — . perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. freckled. stump. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. with Sc. frecSee Brawl. spots. a mole. bramowanie.tumultuous. bordar. has grisser. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. broighlich. prasseln. brusuole. precisely analogous to the Sc.sound. prod. to parch or broil. To roast upon hot coals. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. A badger. a prick. sting. or glowing coals broged. creak. to spur. kled breac. tumult broighleach. So from Pol. fundamental origin. shuffle. parti-coloured. . Ihre has guU-bord. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. brocach. Bret. — brissle. broil. atoms .

vile. and fishes . has exactly the force of G. to sparkle. racher. brack. keep warm. fermenting. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. refuse brakowad. bridde. In those countries the term braker. wraken. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. Du. progeny of birds.— Lib. . brokas. to spit . Alb. . reject. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. pan metal. whence the modern courtier. Per manus et old worthless horse. find fault with. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. as. phlegm. et A. hot. Alb. refuse Fr. Grisons brinzla. Russ. brae. tussis. Bret. sort. a fault. ON. brasa. to emit sparks. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. to pick. sunburnt. merchandises de rebut G. lack. Pl. ordure. to nourish. to hatch. stain. rejected. spittle . refuse wares. brands. See Broth. damaged. refuse goods. to — garble. bric-a-brac.D. find fault with. to pro- to reject . — a spark. sbrinzlar. . : ' . tan. the young of any animal . damaged. to be hot. hot. bronze. from break. In the . cast Lith. brod. to brew. a chicken. braken. and as an adj. If to vomit . Teutonic class : Du. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. criticise (makeln). — . Sc. refuse. want. warm. to reject. bracker. Bronze.— Breed. analogous to Bohem. G. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. ODu. a cough Hal. It. a makeln. brak. For the same reason the Kiittner. glowing coals. e. brechen. an outcast or rejected sheep. Fl. embers. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. to copper. embers. fault censure. and to reject the damaged and unsound. mediationem quorundam J. brieden. to sort brakovanie. with. to scorch. cracker. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. burning. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. vile. i. screatio Junfus . And gart Backbiting be a brocour. It may be compared with It.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. designation is indkler. wrack-good. the spawn of fishes. The Langued. Prov. hraki. brass does to Sp. mud. Sp. Pl. nounce unsound. on. rejection Pol. from makel. See Wreak. insects. w. . a breach or flaw. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. to criticise. Adelung. inspect. brokoti. brumo. — Fl. broen. to roast on the embers.D. to sit on eggs. G. make out. brack-gut (Sanders). refuse. bredan. vrage. which E. brut. raquer. Brood. dial. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. brak. Du. blur. S. to garble. wreak. inspection. wrak. This word shows the same relation to It. • . fish-spawn broden. broiid. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. try . bronze. selection. find fault — — — fuse matter. The use sunburn. Pro v. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. OFr. brot. bronzo. trumpery. Kil. . To correct an exercise is to Lib. to throw blame upon. Tooke's Catherine. buy and sell by commission. an operation performed over hot coals. . raca. Pl. to hatch G. cherish. whnake. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. refuse brakovat. brid. Lat. matter of blame weak place. brakyne. brack-gut. dirty. abbronzanchiare. bronze.— — . of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. brasa. but from the primary sense of the It. See Brackish. bring eggs and spawn into active life. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. to be wanting. brod. embers to brund. 38. braeck goed. brwd. To blame mens ware. brydio. slaae vrag paa. faulty. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. Abbronzare. spittle. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. brackefi. On • tliis principle the G. an . racaille. — point out the faults. a brood . a broker. brunds. filth. Bronzare. to . to pick and choose. in the sense of rejection. couratier. Jam.D. Fr. to sort goods . bronce. in which sense the OHG. goods damaged by sea-water. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. correctarius. try out. 396. G. to braze. term was correcfo^ir. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. to blame.D. Dan. abject. or brascla. hrak. briiten. — broeden. brokers' goods. to hatch. corrector.

deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. bank. brodo. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. on. who is steaming with sweat. strength Ir. eye-lash . brouter. Ger. bank. brouskaol. brad. on. broi.' Due. bryii. Browse. Lat. bruith.brink. to boil. or broken up . or shoot. and Slavonic families.spross. meal. . Mid. brow. &c. G. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. broc. . 'Lzt. to bear patiently. borde. bruc. rage. simmer from the murmuring AS. Sc. a sprout. heath. Ppim. It. G. brstiti. wood . juice of meat. brawdj Slavon. circuindedit cum familia. breg. bushes. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. broth. briar. Pl. or bushes and scrubby growths. bruich. &c. Sp. bordel. brosses. to scald. brouic. Dan. a little . broza. vigour. brothas. to browse. bor. G. to boil. brass. bruscosd quam de arabili." Serv. broca. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. Prov. bruceti. dialects is very different. OFr. iVlanx broogh.D. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. brow of a hill. juniper. to boil. brotar. . broth Brown. pfriemkraut. vigour. It. bros. brodem. hot. grow into a bush. waves. Bohem. juice of briars. Bret. briu. Fr. the bubbling or springing up of water. buds. border. eminence . A — . broud. infusion the barley bree. shore. noise. forms appear related to the Ir. brd. Here we find throughout the Romance. braew. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . . Wtb. brosses. eye-lid. Fr. to shoot. brst. brewis. broden. brpuster. bratrj Lat. as rhododendrons. frater. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. Brothel. to sprout. brauwe. Kil. a bud. Pol. Prov. braces. Brow. to border. sordes seu strigmata young branch. steam from heated bodies. bree. But the Walach. signifying twigs. shrubs. cia. useful G. bruich. perhaps burnt coloilr. shrub with leafless pointed edging. of plants broust. . ale . bud. broth brothaire. broem bark. Serv. OHG. spuma. To digest. as Fr. shore . brucan. Bav. breh. boiled . Celtic. sense the Sc. breg. fur Broom. brouches. — . brouet. to use. brabruach. brue . sodden. brio. a little house or cottage of timber. Fr.D. a caldron. brocco. brushbroccoli. broeye. brouser. a sprig. brost. to use bruks. . sprot. and also border. warmth ch'an. brogues. dumetum. . margin. Sp. brau. broieii. brotar. augen-braune. — ' . Russ. thairj w. briihe. G. broth. to boil bruithe. to bubble up with noise. shoot. bryn. brudi. may be connected with Russ. brun. branches. chen. ceales briw. a hill. a bruth. brov. awl-plant. fabric consists. AS. eye-lid. broth the ocean Sw. a derived from the boards. seethe. — . browys. was originally used in the innocent sense of . AS. bregh. to use. hut. brosst. rerum decoctarum. . cabbage soup . G. from ripa. kail brose. brdtaj Gael. brew .— Overyssel Almanack.braubiti. brennen. (for brodem). w. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. thicket. &c. sproc. The origin is a re. BROOK brook w. eye-brow. face. frui. a shore. shoots. borda. braun. — exiit et heath. edge. It is Brother. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. brukjan. Bohem. surDu. . sprocco. of which the variety of forms. Gris. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. . heath. OHG. hovel. properly boiling water briihen. riviera. has briw. t— Cot. a river. a hill. Russ. Bohem. mettle. bruth. bruithim. low The AS. plants composed of twigs. bruno. Commonly Teutonic. Du. brlgh. sprout. pottage. a bud brous-koad. bank. protecting the eye. to burn. Tam de terrS. . The softening down of the consonant bud. Due. infusion. Roquef. to spring . sprout. Fr. It. in which brinnan. eat. eye-brow. Gael. house of ill fame. and It. laissent Domunculum. strength. bruddeln. Gr. . Sanscr. brusmalt. to roar. pour boiling water over. bank.brons. Gael. sap. broccola. enjoy Goth. bordeau. breg. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. brous. and Sc. broit. Manx broie. brushbrothas) gives the OE. See Bramble. brus. 105 Brook. Catalan brossa. eye-brow. a . brink. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. grow brossa. surface of Broth. to Pl. bruitheati. a confused noise of winds. Du. . brost. eye-brow. b7-un. Cot. spirit. broth is sometimes used . The meaning of the word brook in the low G. brozia. The AS. heat. to murmur. frucius. Limousin broudi. Bret. the colour of things burnt. bryn. Gael. to browse. pith. . &c. braussa.) . thick bush brousta. bntdien. edge. signifying low wet land (Brem. w. brwd. a source Gael. brmi. .. heat explaining the Prov. Gael. break out brewet. from Goth. riviere. bhratrj Zend. Fr. broo. . bruach. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. as small-pox. a shrub broust. bros. a hut or cottage It. a spring. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. verge. cabbage water. sprouts .

Fr. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. fragments. The same relation holds good between G. rubbish. bruito. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. 201. — a bush. . a briser. Sw. brist. Piedm. AS. brikan. Gael. field. . brousso. broken. brugir.). to break or burst. brusca. abroncar. to break to bits . are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. to make a rumbling.). a brush . bruscolo. mg Cat. effort. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. ON. Hall in R. E. borste. crush. and . Brunt. brico or brizo. orts. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. Pr. Bav. It. to stumble. detergere . brise. bud. seems named from burst(on. a — — (Agea) said. Wicliff. Beryn. tremely. brist. quasi twigs. flax-comb brossettes. NE. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. Gael. Lang. brusca. G. dust. The Lat. wool-card. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface.— Palsgr. and Piedm. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. remnants of hay or fodder. a bush of hair. —Fabyan. or sodenly comyn' dust. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Fr. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . That in all haste he wouli. — those signifying a sprig.). a brush . a mote. bruire. a brush. Gael. bris. biirste. quisquilise. of twigs. brustid. OE. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bris. brosse. tuft of grass or hay. It. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. dust. insultus.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. twig. bricalio. brust. briser. K. brossa. To brush then would be to dust. a brush. fescue . break. a little brizal. . to brush. sordes. wool-card. . A. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. bruzir. shivers. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. B?-usske. into a multitude of points. an enmy. 174. escousse. bruise exOFr. bruscolo. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. It. Prov. dust. fasx . brus. Piedm. also a head-brush. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. Prov. and sighid therewithal. britar. Gael. a brush . It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. borste. to break. Poems. brysan. Prov. broza. E. brous. * Brunt. to strike the foot against an obstacle. Fr. ling or heath for brushes. —Chaucer. broustia. a bristle. brossa. chips. a crum. brustia. briiis (in the pi. crum bit . to break. a brush . a bristle. brosst. bruyere. brous. In E. borste. And that best is. . bross. wool-card. See next article. burt. bruc. blow burcar. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. a brush. Bret. bush. a bud. dust.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Pr. appearin Goth. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. heath.— — i. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. brustia. splinters. to make brusshes on. brusco. Castr. to cleanse. brosst. a rumbling. OFr. Alexander. rods. bruis (sing. Brush. twig. to butt. shock. brossar. brushwood. brosse. Pr. brusg. and also Brush. Cot. Port. britar. and in the second place a besoiB. modification of the same root which gives the E. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. burs. bruscia. brunt. 134. On the other hand. brista) or breaking out . brisar. Sp. . rubbish. Palsgr. bris. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. bruit. a horse-brush. a flax comb. coal See Breeze. Brunt of a daunger. Prov. desbrisar. brMt. ca7-bo>i. Lang. The Bav. brottcher. bruiser. bushy ground. to crush. a brush Swiss bruske. insilio. briketo. biirste. brik. bruskr. a shrub composed of small twigs . Text Soc. Cot. Bruise. borste. brit. irruo. Sw. Diez. broust. broza. Broach. and It. shoot brouskoad. Fr. brizeto. a tuft of heath . or shoot. a bud or sprout Bret. p. wood composed OE. a blow. brist. . as It. Pr. a noise. bris. Pm. borste. brisd. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. brusco. it schall be al Sw. bross. Fl. G. — OE. Fr. Pm. Bruit. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. E. and actually come in collision. brist j Port. — Fr. borst. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. Allit. brusc (Diet. rubbish.

supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. Sp. to which in their language they call bou. bokni. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. colada. — — ' A : ' ' . buck-ashes. is 1. boh. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. Formerly. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw.buchen. March 28. tap . maban and baban. not so plentiful a commodity. hump. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. the linen at buck. tuft. mokry. moczyd. bucaIndies. Magy. But see Bristle. molle. hump. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. Bubble. soft It. soft. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. lye. to soften. . the upper for coifee. a to the male deer. a steep for flax. Sc. was called bucking the linen. Gael. and exercised their cruelties prin. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. lye. Bohem. a knock word. it is beuchen. bouk. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. also applied Una. It. to butt. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. Illust. top. soft. the first wheal. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. tender. boc.tare. bduclien. a bubble . because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). . as G. and Fr. a bubble. wood.-wtt miekki.derivation has been much discussed. From an imita. A . Fr. at a door. a hole. hog dressed whole). either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. Esthon. does not hold. bubauti. It. tender.lessiver. bifbel. to filter. 1857. ac. and as a verb. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. .boukaat. BUBBLE bruschetta. Pref A. buquer. bwch. 1586. to stick. . a bubble. Diet. thunder gently . boucaner. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. to butt or jurr Dan. Etym. bucking. mieknad. was called in Fr. to strain. very generally designated by the same puk. rap. mote. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. But the analogy nih-e (Hist.wet Lat. Magy. caned' Hence those who established them. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. Fin. to butt. bubseti. bugada. It. pukkata. boil animals. See Dupe. pup. or projecTo Buck. to bubble. This bubette. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Fr. bog-aske. bube. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time.D. Pol. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. The natives of Florida.byka. buchen. Cot. plied in the W. byge.biiken j Svi. . designation of a knob. or mok. boc. and then to other wild tumour Lith. — . buerj It. soft . to buck. bouc. bubBuck. a push. w. bucata. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. . blast or strike with the forehead. bubiti. set of pirates in the spread. Fr.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. to soak foul linen before washing. from weich. a fescue. The name. says Laudon. w. Sp. bugd. buck-ashes. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. to soak. blister. knock. the lower soak in lye. a ashes. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. Pol. and the bunch. to soften . to a place used for the mouillir.to allow a free current of air.' Palsgr. bublati. moist. Bohem. The male goat. News. The word was very generally Buccanier. because bucare does not in Marsh). to wet Pol. In G. Dan. mollire. to soften. a. bukke.— . bucquer. de la Floride. — . The place of such a 2. faire la lessive. of wind. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. bubbola. I. a. buborek. . to murmur.steep or soak. buquer. . who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. to soak. to bump as a bittern. as a buck rabbit. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . and uninhabited places in the West Dan. soft. Bret. The cipally on the Spaniards. pokka7na. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. Bret. open lath-work. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. erweichen. who resorted to the islands beichen. drying of produce. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. 17th century. in which the flesh dish. bub. from colar. to Gael. different form. The term bocan is still ap. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. when soap was tion is commonly taken. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. bub. watery bud.

bog and G. Dan. bucherame. seen in Hesse botz. need. a leathern sack. blow. stud. boss. bolgia. lump. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. bode. become bochen. ' . crack.' And this sacrament bus have dial. trunk of wood covered with leather. Hence quel. Buckler. built. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. to poke. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. dint . to pen cattle. . to move. It.) .stumpy man. butzen (Du. — — . boucle. skins pushit'. Mid.goa. boccula. is doubtless fallacious. II I'a feru desor I'escu. Fr. boach. Bret. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. * Buckle. and of the Lat. child. Bav. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. — — . to boss or swell out G. Fr. It termination is lost. bukke-blad. Gael. ' . a cowherd. having a boss. boglyn. boucle. imbuere. a short thick man. * Bud. This expression boglire.' Boccaccio. protuberance. bulla. from bugr. gjeit-klauv. botzen. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. ein. .chissima. ' . to word. bloquier. See Bulk.. a buclder or shield budge. bump. to budge. fur. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. as in Fr. call bo. rabodS. weich.r//'. to 'soak. . to line with fur. to butt. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch.' Schm. bedde. Port. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. bougette. swelling. with a central boss. also a leather tuft . Swab. a boy. . push forwards. motus creber. a small shallow and open tub. a budget. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. turgere buczendig. bul. The Fr. butzen. weichen. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. bo. to boil. a little coffer or turgidus. inboachen. K. mani. and weichen. ON. brobrocchiere. . butzen K. boiling. bud butzen. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. to thrust. were To Budge. Lat. a trough). movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. a shoot. male or botzen. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. in the beginning of to pierce holes.pode. pote. from Gr. bolgetta. sboge. bucherare.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. The word is a ddyn. a wallet.stuff. NE. to swell. wallet. Sw. Fr. Cot. words is converted into b. a buckle or protuberance. no business to do that. So on.anything short of its kind. a shield. a bubble three thyngis. It. bunch . a curl. where the G. . the root of the Slavonic words gran. G. bougette. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. bunch.— . Prov. a servant. . Pol. Fr. A water-plant with leaves and gille. bulb. butzen. bouljein. a navel. bouk is a pail and with the dim. prick in a target. The knob or projection formN. buachazlle. Budge. Du. boucle. To thrusting part of a long body. . Pied. noise . knock. bdden. to un bout d'homme. convexity. swelling. agreeing with Gael. bloca. * Bucket. Bret. Prov. butze. The dressed fur of lambs. or male of to boil . the radical image seems to be a set plants. belonging to the calling of the chen. Budget. a dumpy gin. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. botzen. pulga. to bud or bocla. pwt o Fr. a fold ceilio.Lat. OFr. Fr. a bump. — . Du. Bucolic. Fr. In Lat. ornamental stud. scion.poot. bollire. boaLat. boqueranmis. bod. bucolicus.) as to soak. bug. a . Dan. a tuft. of bac. pwtio. Bus. bub. bloca. clasp of a book. Buck-bean. budge. ble. The entire train of thought is bucket. dim. set of a plant in bulk. bullion. potz. w. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. thrust. Russ. bulga. Wtb. case of leather . A buckle or fastening for botch.may probably be explained by N. Bav. bod. to stir. stir. jSouKoXiKog.. whom it is still much in use. a pail or flowers. — . Mid. with let. and the reference to It. probably from the notion of bubbling. bouge. of bouge. a ring. clump. explaining Fr. a stump buckle up. Prov. goat's hoof. soft. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. Fr. knob dwfr yn boglynu. Hardly identical with Fr. OHG. don't a baby). with which it was ornamented.n. rump of fowls . a pustule bout. ./a. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. a boss. It. bocla. stroke. bouprobably identical with inok. call. a bud. is to shrivel up. like a bean. to graft or bud trees. butt . macero. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. dinted. bugnir. bulka. bucket Fl. the word w ' — . great pouch. pulga. knob . bulais daqui. a boss. hump. water message. Sp. loud Cot.. from bo. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. w. W. call. bouter. above mentioned.t-le!L{ * Bud. buckel. cattle.). put. bogla. boucaran. butz. no wheel bogeilio. a budget. boss of a shield. boucler. bouclier. weich. Behoves.' Hal. boulj. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. of a surface. . bouger. don't stir from hence. excrescence. It. bouton.

or wild ox. yar^aa. Lat. buff leather. The cry made to excite terror is then used. by metaphor. bouffer. Cot. Esthon. buffer. Fr. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. dial.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. Gael. also a G. to blow souffleU. often covering his E. een duffen toon. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. It. Lat. scarecrow . sounds. for this purpose is very widely spread. soufflet. to blow . Limousin bobal. of colours. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. bugs. a dull BUG From 109 — A . Che scaccia 1' Ombre. a puff. — Bogle. —Boggart. a goblin). Fl. pulse . to beat. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . as from Lith. thus be translated to tap. to bellow . from It. Fr. Fr. w.D. bukow Ikow. to signify an indefinite object of terror. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. a hobgoblin. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. bubiti. to puff. a skin. W. also the skin or heck of a buffe. duff^ dull. — Z. botffon.—Buffet. to excite terror in Macleod. Pl. senses. a budget. buffare. as Diez remarks. A blow. from souffler. bo ! an interj. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. Pl. breath. buffen. bwg. or hath been Cot. bobaow. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. ' They rether puffed at him. &c. Buff. Fr. boo. buffet. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. buffeteur. to puff. a jester. — retailing buffeter buffetier. bubaRuss. It. to strike face to represent the unknown. air. Lith. the buffe. bufogni. bolgetta. Romola. dausinti. buffetto. From buff! of terror. to give benti. buffare. Sc. Buffoon. to give a as of a blow. 265. to jest or sport. bauwi. bw! It. site The two — — iii. Fr. Mid. bugle. bolgia. buffle-headed. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. From bulga. It./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. buffet. dull sound. tastes. Hence the E. colour. often blown upon. Lith.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. Teet-bo.' perfield. rebuff. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. bufogni. Cot. buffet. the place whence the wine was drawn. stupid. Buffeter. buffa. a side-board. while in Sp. buffalo. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi.D. human. wine may The verb in taverns. a hollow sound. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. a cuff or buffet. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . Buff. baubau. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. as wine that hath taken wind. bouffer. a block-headed noddy. smells . him but Boyd iugges. Swiss baui. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. Buffalo. The use of the exclamation children. tabernarius. A — Bug. buMagy. and in Fr. deadened. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. Sc. blurt or puff with one's mouth. . it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. a buffle or a bugle.' La Crusca. a clap. leathern bucket. buffle. to rePl. to a representation of his voice. A puff with — Fl. made to —Bugbear. Bufetarium. confused. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. made by a person. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. to blow. popo. bubus. btifetarius. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. The children were playing in an oppocomer. to frighten . bumann. as emblematically making light of an object. things in Jam. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. — thence it has been transferred in E. dausa.D. wauwau. bufHe. puff. buivol. buffets. a bugbear. to marre often tasting it . caupo. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. mumming. E. either alone or with various terminations. boman. bau ! children. word other cases. cuff . Magy. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. bugbear. bubach. le reste emplissant d'eau. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. bw. mingled with water. Thus buffet would a tapster. It. a In . constitutes the game of Bo-peep. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed.— Buflae. G. — La Crusca. — — — Buffet. God's boast seemed feare children.

An ornament of female dress condread. . proud. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. paws the ground . worm. language any kind of insect. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . gad. Lith. ghost. also a baco-baco. high-sounding words. vermin. The final guttural of W. disgust. pugaf. used in the same sense. bold. bobal. especially to beetles or winged insects. the Devil. bbgni. il brutto Demonio. Lesachthal. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. swollen. Cheval de trombugti. Bug. bogle. Deut. E. and in Lat. Fl. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Serv. quos what produces dread or disgust. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. a bug-bear. the black a maggot. earwig bau da grascha. buggabod). shepe and gootes. Manx boa. The w. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. b'dgni. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. : no BUG . Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. fear. bugler. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. insect. Same as buffle. Russ. It. buculus. bogil bo (e. as an object of dread. banian boube. bukati. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. big. and is Deutsch. 3. i. a silk-worm. mask ' . It. roo. tion of the word signifying an object of 2.loud noise. protuberant. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. bugle. terrifying ward. Parolone. Big. bug-bear. fierce. Hal. Stalder bog. bogil. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. threatening. buba. superbire. Lap. a proud overbearing man pujat'. pugalo. Sw.— . a goblin. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. a bug-bear.Lat. is the dim. dial. tion of the beetle tribe. 2. tumble-bug. I. Bible. Mid. and bugle. to creeping things. baco. Illyr. of bugabo was given. bucula.3uhtii&:. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Swelling. and a boggarty ing. troll. the word is lin) bbgge. bugbear. Bug as a lord. insect. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. also a bug-bear. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Chaucer.. bug dung-beetle. beugler. blustering. bogk. then a horn for drinking. any disgusting animal. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. to roar Aasen. to take fright. buffle. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. of pipes sewn on. Magy. hert. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. a bugbear for children. pujalo. Bugle. an insect. a misshapen person. larva (a bug-bear. given in Chaucer. forSc. boo. a. A similar applica. poggl. a boogg. Bogge. long. bwgar. a beetle. to bellow. an object of terror. w. bogk. Swiss booggen. rose-bug. 1551. — . bugar. booggen. Sp. Swiss ing.Fr. 493. Fl. oxen. . bug. high. Grose. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. monster. Hence bugle-horn. coco. a rabme. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. . biignt. — — ' . Mundart. The name of bug is — . boa-peep. provincially an insect. BUGLE Tentennino. boeuf sauvage. thus connected with bug. Bdronie. is very common. fette. — — . to take bug. Grisons bau. bug-bear. bok. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. W. to bellow. xiv. bauginti. roarHal. saucy. See The name terror). scarecrow . beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. bwg and E. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. to take fright. according to Coles. threatening. the buggaboo w. bwgwl.. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. with more or less modification represents bau. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. bug-bear. great or bug words. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. (Spurrell). Schmidt. to frighten scarecrow. — boogg. bukashka. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. Magy. affright. — — terror. * 2. iv. well as the terrific object. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. Lett. also a bug-bear. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. bau (Pureiglia. as Buffalo. to origin in the expression bugs words. . a buffalo. and in child's Magy.

Bourser.' Festus. to spring. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. to puff up bolginn. bukr.'— Cot. belgja. Dan. The Walach. snorting on a bulk. a bunch. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bubble {palgan tiisge. and put it home. bulne. blister Manx bolg. bug. body of a ship . . mass. the position of liquids in the word In English. tumeo. skin of an animal. swollen OE. a round bulky body bwlgan. bulcke. the contents of the hold. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. unevenness Sw. a prominence. to throw out a convexity. the capacity or burden of a ship. the potato G. boulge. pouch builgeadh. or bear out as a full purse. Lith. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. sedes. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. trunk of the body. Pr. bulk or capacity of anything. whence bylja. bolgna. or.' Cot. — Bulb. boss. swell. Bav. ' . or cargo of a ship. buk. to blow. Ptg. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. balgs. swell. boss. belly Cat. body. m um Placentiae. a bubble. belgr. a heap. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bulge or convex part of a cask. Palco. trunk. boss of shield. body of an animal.d. bwlg. . head . belly. has bulbuk.— . . bolnyn. in bulk. a bubble Gael. skin flayed whole. PoXj3a. a lump or mass. womb. formed a farm. anything prominent. ^ — . at riufa bulkann. hull of a ship. the head of an onion. jnake bulch. The radical sense is shown in Russ. to belly out. bolso. a tuberous or bulbous root . Here stand behind this bulk. . A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. buc. as it was merly written in English to bylle. a straw corn-vessel. bo. belly. . — . Bulk. To Build. . domicilium. bua. on. a water-bubble). Melancholy. to build. lump. swollen. . bauch. pimple. bolgia. or feminine termination gives Bav. . From till. Lith. G. in vessel. . puff. bubbling up. thorax buick. balg. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. . and bulbukd.' Anat. knob. belly Sw. . van loock. crowd. belly. bulki. bilge. ball. balco. With these must probably be classed ON. Lat. knob. See how this tode bolneth. bol. He found a country fellow dead drunk. globule bolg-lhuingey. to bubble up. — — . bolle. G. balcone. were a habitation. bolgetta. bag. to bubble up Pol. the belly. bubble. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. It. a. Jno. ON. bulk is a partition of boards. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. . Kil. skin bag.' Fl. of an inflated skin. a stage or scaffold. husk. Pm. a. balg. belly. Lett. Sp. bulkaf. as water beginning to boil bolg. lump. to undo the cargo. The addition of a dim. bulwis. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. trunk. — — . wallet. bulbe. bulbe. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. habitaculum. boa. Othello. to gather. swell. byli. (3oX|8oc. as well as is very variable. knot in thread. it again. of E. bunch or projection. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). also the bunt or hollow of a sail. vulva. Bulch. pod ON. or of what is shaped like a bubble. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bulka. Mister. buhe. bolg. bouk. compare Da. bulge or bilge. bulle. bulgen. ON. G. to break bulk. dial. projection. a leathern sack or portmanteau. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. . a globe. Pm. principal portion. Gr. See Bulk. . to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. beuck. blow. herd^ swarm pulkd. in Sc. acervus. be protuberant. bolgan. tumidus. Gr. Lat. w. A — ' — Bulk. inhabit.pulks. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. the carcase. MHG. leather sack. bolle. For the latter sense ' — My . Dan.). stuffed bag.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. the body Du. bulked or bumped out. bubble. gebolgen. pocket. bole. bed of a river. chest. turgeo bolnyd. a leather sack or budget Fr. Pr. Mandeville. and N. ' . Hal. bol. a bulb Du. hollow. bulg. blister. 1388. Boss^. cumulus. biilken. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. Hence e. boss of a buckler. to swell. hold or bilge of a ship. Muratori. OSw. ' . Bolke or hepe. bladder. villa. bol. a dint in a metal . blister. to bol. OSw. the womb. — . . bugue. to swell. straight will he 2. . the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. knobby. mass. . bulbus. bellows builgean. cultivate. I.' Palsgr. a protuberance. bauen. In the representation of natural sounds. bulk. See bollekeii next article. — — . Bulge. bouge. belly. bullka. ne. belly van de kerche. pulkas. to raise a habitation. bubble. bale. bulgen.

as a mill-dam or the like. The male W. Fr. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. a beam or rafter. from the Lat. bubble. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. Bullbeggar. Gael. child by the represents the hobgoblin. polten. Cot. a tadpole. whence bullire. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. in N. a bowl. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. The final element tergeist. as geting. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. G. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. to boil. Pm. a hobgoblin. ba. stud. is of a class with Pl. The bullfrog. bouillon.lle de fusil. from Fr. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. — — Bull. stupid . however. as It. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. The wild plum. bullos. to seal. boss or stud. bullus. 2. balgeting. the seal affixed to the document. Terriculamentum. bulderen.D. urchens. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. bollos de relieve. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. Du. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. as the ornanails. ON. boulct. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. assito. G. w. signifying roaring.. and thence terror. a bul-begger. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. Du. and vellon in Sp. thick. Gold or silver uncoined. sloes. bellocier. blister. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. bulla. G. baula.Gr. bietebau. it is boulet de canon. round glass phial. witches. to bubble. embossed work. I. a noisy violent fellow.'— ' Palsgr. leraures nocturni nigri. bulla. bolli. Scot's Deso. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. from baula. Bullfrog. bwla. N. It. the matrix or die . This word is used in several senses. 3. bauli.' do not go by the dangerous water. bulle. also of the tadpole or young frog. bullocks. a blockhead. blunt.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. BulUiead. spirits. Du. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. tition of deals instead of a wall.. pollach. many to protuberant objects. on the contrary. a seal. boss. . ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. bolos Fr. of the ox kind. /SouWivu. to emboss . bulloi. bal. bwlas. a bulox polos. a seal. a wasp. beams or boards. i. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. to bellow. of Witchcr. from the noise. bole or trunk of a tree. poli-cheannan. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. scarecrow. bulke. is called a ball. bellow. dim. A papal rescript. bouillon. brass-headed nail .Fris. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. Dan. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. poll-cheannach. coarse. also a parFl. elves. 2.' Baret's Alveary in Hal.. W. BuUiou. Bret. lumpheaded . in the sense of base metal. Lith. Sp. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. pwl. whence Mod. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. stamp. w. It. large of its kind. b2iggaboo. pimple. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil.. bolla. See Billet. bwbach. but is more probably iden- palchetto. Du. any embossed work. bulk of a thing.D. G. A lace tree. a bull. stud. biitzibau. from Lat. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. a little fish nearly all head. Pl. stamped money. a hobgoblin. Bullace. hhint. bollar. poltern. &c. Bully. Bullet. to tical with Sw. from the use of the equivalent terms. bulk. bollon. penbwl. bullebak. bullern. a cow. bugbear. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Fr. — A tition in a ship. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. See Bowl. a framework of balks. — Fl. bolli. dial. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. And The word bullerbak. a stud.D. Eullrusli. any great-headed or studded nail. large. a tadpole . a scare-bug. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. it may be observed that a bullet in E. which may probably be the origin of the name. eth and frighteth. billon. of boule. billoti in Fr. as in E. a hornet. a bull Swiss bullen. boillon. lumpish.

Thus ' ble. Bum. to dun. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. &c. botm. Bum-bailiff. sound. Etym.D. but now is the central part of the town. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . From the notion of a humming. to . To Bum. a bumble-. primarily the ramparts of a town. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. For bottom. or a humblebee. boene. 'lega. The cry of the bittern. The 27 Ed. propugnaculum. G. 14. Du. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. a stage. Du. blaterare. The Stat. debacchari. then in general a rampart. Kil. scaffold.' Stat. beat a — Hal. Hence bom and ban. ierd-boeyme. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. bodem. buller-bas. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. to make a droning Du. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver.' ' mettre au billon. and porter au billon. to make a noise . ^i^/«. a noisy blustering fellow. ^Bully-rook. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. 2. 4 Hen. a. Hal. III. provides. blunder-buss. — bombam?nen. ON. Philip le Bel in Due. — Boom. bombilare.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. St. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. bustle. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate.' for the purpose of exchange. polterer. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. violent overbearing person. by corruption boulevart. boisterous fellow. 1305. baluarte. buller-jaan (bully. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. 9 E. bastion. Sw. clamour. c.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. IIL st. is bullion — A — buller. Fris. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl.D. bommele. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. Fr. resonare. ierd-beame. boulevard. noise.d. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. Fris. a blunderhead. biihne. droning. — — plate d'argent. c. furious man. Hence — . ground. or work of defence. bomtnen. Bully-rock. argentum and silver. violent. The Sw. buller-bak. to terrify by noise and clamour. to drum Lat. To bum. IV. A. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. buller-brook. Bully. D. intonare. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. G. BULLY with which coins were stamped. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. G. 1687). and similar restrictions were enforced in France. It. Miege in Hal. agrees with e. buller-bas. bottn. a hectoring. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of .. Kil. Kiittner. the soil. is called bumping or bells. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. bulderen. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. a floor. c. To bum. 2. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. bottom. legaggio di metallo. minari verbulderen. AS. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. un faux brave. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. bolderen. block-werck. buene. John).' Again. The decried coin. a boisterous.. Du. up was termed monnaie de billon. — Bumto . hum.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. Bailey.' reals of standard currency. on the other hand. 10. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. — Bump. vallum. provides. blunder-buss.' agger. honunele. from boden. perturbare saevis dictis. bol-werck. 2.the ramparts. poltem. To bully is to bluster.

a bud. Holland and Flanders. w. to knock . clumsy. seems to unite Gael. S.' he fell with a bang. Bunk. bulscha. a rabbit. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. bu<rnone. Daal bu7iseti. bamgetroffen. lungeous. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). strike E. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Dan. A Du. large. a bowl P1. one ever saw the word in that shape. applied to young persons. bundle. pumpurras. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. nor would it concern the public if he did. — round fruit. Li cake. w. . Fl. . to . pwmpl. dial. Probably from bump. from knock) It. mto Sp. a purse . Roding. bump. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. 1. bunkc. bum-boot. He buncheth me and beateth me. E. — — — — ' — knock. bunki. a boil (punkos bot.-^Fl. binge. bun with ON. a person employed to dun one for a debt. pompon. root. cluster. botn..^Cot. knochen. E. bunnion. See Boss. to ' . Bunch. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Bumboat. — Marine Diet. a. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. should probably be a short tail. to swell out E. awkward clown. Bony. bottom. . . to bang. bung. also for taking a pilot to a ship. stump. bungersome. See Bunch.S. bolsa.— Pr. Bumsen. Suffolk bonnka. stem or base. any round knob or bunch. Again. callus.D. stock. a bunch Magy. especially girls. See Bounce. bmidt.D. bumsen. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. foundation w. bonuach. lump. . to thump.D. gibbus. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. bunken. Gael. Probably for bun-boot. a into Dan. passes Sw.P. calamus. a boss Lith. bunke. bunga. . pwmp. root. &c. Moor. a wallet. bottom bun feoir. ! — knocking. as in other cases. Pm. bugnet. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. while bulch was traced through Gris. a bump. bignet. poumpi. a knob . trunk. Dan. Hal. a rabbit. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. to beat. as we have seen E.pummel. a tail (Macleod). bugno. Forby.. Pm. — — Bun. bugno. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot.— Bunnion. pumpa. bonnock. . and signifies consequently a mass. bulto. a. ner. dial. a bag or sack. gibber. a large . — — de dor bunsen. bonge. tundo. bull. so the form btmk. a heap or cluster. bunan. bune or boon. to beat. Then. strapping. bmike. banga. bunka. bannock. a knock. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bunny. bulse. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . stump. — stalk . Du. to bang down. abrupt manbuns-wise. a button. are dim. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. It. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. protuberance. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. lenten loaves. bottom. Pr. Pl. A clumsy. clown. banke. a dried hemp-stalk. . bunsen. a heap OSw. round mass of anything. signifying one who does things in a thumping. pompette. . . Bums it's hit. Bung^. Hence E. throw down with a bang. Bun. truss E. Fr. Bunch. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. . to bang ON. hdk passing and E. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. a pocket Sw. Mrs Baker. Ir. a heap. a Sp. Bumpkin. Kyx or bunne. . stubble Manx bun. H.' Bun. a knob. an old stump of a horse. Fr. Bunewand. Sc. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. hay stubble . bunch— Hal. Bang sen. pwmpio. Gael. — — Bun. Manx bonkan. or to the mass by which it is given. any round knob or bunch. —Bunny. from bunsen. a dry No .). a hump. Hal. bund. a round mass . bumtel. to . a hemp-stalk. a bunch. bon. Bump. To bam. Related on the one side to Pl. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. Hal. il me pousse. a boil or blain. bans. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. and related with ON. knob or heap. bugnone. stock. bun eich. knuckles. bunga. a lump on the foot bunny. Hal. . bunt. poumpido. He fult dat et bunsede. stalk. boi7ieog. awkward. a swelling. Lang. Sc. a heap Wall. a heap. noise. forms. bongie. stubble of beans. BUNCH bum-bailiff. OSw. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. the Pr. inconsiderately. or grete knobbe. a knotty stick) Sw. buns. butt end. Pl. a swelling from a blow. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Radically identical with Dan. blain. E.' Palsgr. a knob. a pumpion or gourd. bun. a very wide boat used by fishers in S.D. explaining E. the tail of a hare. Thus e. .! . Pm.

knock. Bunting. bummle. to work at carpentry bangan. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. AS. to in to stop the hole. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. — — . byrthen. Burly. boj. buret. bourion. a bungler. B. generally known as the material of which bud. 202. in is Fr. gyves. bove. Pl. and now more Bailey. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. The belly or hollow of a sail. B. with the head. unskilful working. punishments for prisoners. to push. is originally a wisp or bunch . Fr. burboloti. Burganet. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. bongun. Prov. buie. Sw. however. to bolt meal. buove. ' — work . to knock. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. a water bubble made by rain. bonde. to resound. knocking. bimge. Bundle. OG. to bud forth. — — To Bungle. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to work ineffectually. burion. bourjon. boil or bubble up. Johansen. or used as a receptacle for papers. bondel-loos. loosed from bonds. shackles. A Dan. bondelj bundell. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. bond. dark. to pype. bondir. banga. borgonota. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. bangla.D. dial. bui. So Du. that the primitive meaning of shackle . to shove.— . See Bourdon. byndel. bondon. would be the earliest float for an anchor. bungande. russet. colligatio. to cobble. The Fr. to botch. tinker . biirde. and bomme. Sp. To Bunt. bondeau. bouchon. la Borgonota. See Borel. rumble as the bowels. the stopper of a cask). It. — btiruii. So in Pol. Palsgr. Prov. bang. the middle part of it. . Muratori. clumsy performance. . banghagr. N. and van t' vat. bundle. borboUar. modem bummle. the young cloth used for sifting flour. sprig. Sp.punt. G. Cot. * Buoy. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . Sw. a bunch. bunta. Du. The word is flags are made. See Barbarous. bon. boei. especially in wood. the float of an bundle. do a thing bunglingly. The Italian buio. bou^e. bury. the bung of a barrel Lim. boucher. an anchor buoy. The stopper for the hole in a boia. halm-tapp. OFr. on. reddish brown. a wisp of hay or straw. bourgeon. knocking. See Bun. of a song. dicimus rufum. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. whence bunting. guggle as water. on. working in wood (especially with an axe). dial. Lat. stiimpeln. to stop. Bung.' Festus in Diez. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. shove . Burden. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. driving in the bung. . Fr. Bung of a tonne or Lith. and the Sw. a bunch Burbulas. boya. Fr. Burden. a cork. a boye. . a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. tapp (whence tceppa. bommen. To bunt. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. and E. or tuft. AS. a bung. are from bouscfie. from beran. to knock. Bret. stilmpern. and Du. klimpem. ho-tapp. Biu'geon. bindini. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. to strum on an instrument. bundel. contignatio. bonde. to gingle. A bubble. Fl. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. Rietz. fetters. to gingle. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. to bear. Fr. to push with the head del. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. whence in bure. To burgeon. bag to catch the wind. Kil. to stop. bundt. Sp. bongani. Compare G. Bunny. bounta. to Somerset is to sift. to hum. bourguignote. racket . to bungle. tap. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. G. p. a botch. bolting-cloth. to kick. to hum. clogs. A load. — Bureau. to stnmi on an instrument. The Magy. bote. bouche. stocks or such OSw. To do anything awk- wardly. Burble. Hal. was formerly pronounced buro. the loose open grow big about or gross. OFr. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. to hum. klempern. Bunt. buret. bunsen. ghebundte. noise. the noise of drums. a drum . tinkle. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. E. Banff. anchor or of a net boyar. to float. bang. or putting forth of a vine. — .Fris. Sw. coassatio et Du. . a sort of helmet. dark grey bura. Sp. also a piinple in the face. racket. fascis. Russ. to push ghebondte. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. Cat. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. bangla. properly a Burgundian helmet. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. as it still is in Modena and Bologna.

a well. an &c. Burgher. warbling. a knob. must be explained on the same principle from G. a gurgling ^. Burn. and OG. boura.). Limousin bourdo. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. It.. the flocks. to surge. a wine skin. burn. briis^. flocks. to swell.j'own. Burryn. schleiffen. A — — . fire. Nat. and the Burnish. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. to fiy. a jest. bouril. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. It is probable indeed that Fr. the roaring surge of the — — — . broil. bourou. Fl. boiirre. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. to swell with pride. Goth. burly.' a jibe. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. borrelen. like straw or small . explaining the E. from Lat.sharpen. to roar. pressa puret. fires up. protuberance. Schm. burgensis. Hence Bridel. to tell lies. Bouffer. A burl. is an Thus G. to have acquired the sense of polishing. to set on fire. See Berough. brustle. bears. to burgen or wax big. to bouronna. he rustle. as of suggests. borracka. Probably a modifica. brinnen or Also ein roar. brustolare. ii6 BURGESS Gael. language of folly or ridicule. Sp. bremmen. robber. . Swiss Rom. G. tion of the root which gave the OE. become big and proud. purrata. with Dan. to burn. Castrais bourril. ^Notk. 56. brunir. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. jest of. Lang. crackle wood in burning Hal. a bubble to spring as water. ^ttsa. Bret. to roar 5. j. — — . Lang. to polish. abourioner. a spring a robber. . burle of cloth. from the roaring sound of flame. to swell oneself out as birds borras. Probably. purling. burgeois. OE. to To Bum. Swiss Rom. OFr. spring-water bumach. See Burr. bud or sprout forth. water. toast. Fr. Burlesque. Fr. boure. mockery. to effervesce. ON. So also Sw.). Pren7ien. to puff up borr^ . singe or scorch with fire.. brinna. sea. swelling borr-shuil. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. Bestiary. sbornoi. sicut sound. Compare also Piedm. with little iron nippers called burling irons. blow. ample of polishing metal. like the wind in trees. purra. From the same root E. the er is a dresser of cloth. explaining Sp. brusler being a faulty spelling. to give an edge to. It. Todd. a blaze. See under Bore. from bryii. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. occupying much space. a bud. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. an edge. Dief. i5«r4 biiirte. which has given much trouble to etymologists. a lie. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. the J in OFr. grancelli. to roar. pur (see Burgeon). to sharpen on a whetstone. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. brun. See Burgeon.. to grind on a whetstone. to roar. as the / in purl. angular . Burglar. Cot. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. to sharpen. bruzir. to ridicule. 122.. Fr. Sw. brima. to bourda. condemnentur morti. — . a margin. to hum. Burler. ends of thread. and the Burin. a purling hiwe brennen. bourd. like. to roar. brook. a whetstone. burgen.. The Gael. taunt. Walach. The primary origin of the word. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. a jest. bururus. swell up or strout out. E. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. is termed burling. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. bruse. ' rugiens. born. in Schm. borr. a bladder. OFr. BURNISH i5«r/. repartee . brunnr. Burgess. embraser. big. to polish. .Ps. — . lerre. In the manu. joking. to murmur. to roar (as lions. . Pm.or bubbling up. bunch. to ridicule. ends of thread. The in. it of the knots. ridicule. compared with G. OE. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. From Fr. Fl.— . Gael. roguing beggars. de Vaud. brinii. to rub. Supp. burren. to burn. brausen. Sw. brandung. — — . burlare. is connected with brim. N. laer. to puff. brunna. to Gael. — Han to bruser op. knob. Burly. — — . Bav. A legal term from the Lat. &c. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. to bud . brunnen. Pr. brynsten. dial. Prov. brimmen. as Diefenbach bud. de Vaud. tumentum. borni. thence.' Cot. brAler. to make a So from Fin.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. and Dan. as in cousteau. borujon. barrel. It. brim or edge of anything. sidiary element.). brasa. tahkoa. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. lorra. Burgh.— Pr. burgi latro. leo Fin.bryna. Antiq. the word seems Pm. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. a prominent eye borracka. surge or dashing of the sea . a bubble. tahko. to polish helmets. Bav. bururus. brase. a fountain.ireui£r:e. bourglairs. watery. has also borr. G. buirleadh. In the same way ON.

a purse. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. burre. It. Mid. any rapid whirling biarga. brit. chips or anything else Fl. to mutter Sw. a pad. a sepulchre. to save. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. as it is still pronounced in N. Fr. to P'air. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. save. also all such stuff as hay. birigean. to bury . a wallet or scrip. britar. moss. bris. Cot. from Fr. from whence we pass through Sp. iii. a purse. keep. Dan. brist. With a slightly different ghen. its own protection. AS. a port. blurra. brisdeach. foretell great storms at 3. when they spring So in W. a barn or cupboard. explained E. shelter. Du. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. barza. brist. preserve. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. Burrow.Lat. Burial. the — — castle or fortress. . borrow. Swiss burren. burial place. The root forms brik. and met. — Translated by Kemble. to hide . tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . as in Northumberland. See Bulge. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. idiom if 4. Bursar. byrstan. bourre. This word seems safety. whence Kil. G. Burse. ptcrren. bolsa to It. straw. brest. an annular swelling. buscha. bres- — tan. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. . brown. Sw. karborre. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. Compare also OE. stuffing. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. 225. also ' any such trash as chaff. byrgels. as for the protection of a child's head. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. Beowulf. an exchange. Hal. bersten. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. AS. brista. shuffling. makes the disbursements of the college. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. fortify. ' ' — — burren. ON. ' BURR AS. See Burgeon. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. Burr. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. bourlet. In a met. &c. i5(7&a. byrsa. 5150. brittle. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Jam. burgisli. husks. -Grisons bulscha. . to to buzz like a beetle chatter. force. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. Port. a place of defence. skin. G. ON. borra. Sexy.' The same word with burgh. dial. talk fast and indistinctly. briser. byrgan. OHG. any kind of quilting or stuffing. borsa.' edge grew weak. bergen. bristeach. Hence Fr. leather. borre. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. -burse. break . byrgen. some people in pronouncing the letter r. to buzz. bur. mentioned under Burgeon. Du. swell. borsa. brjota. the officer who bears the purse. bristen. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. and spelling. hair. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. to break. dial. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . purr. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. It. a harness or collar maker) . cwning-gaer. impetus. berstan. prsnuti. 2. bourse. brast. In OE. bur. — Clare. preserve. bourrelet. beurs. borsia. tomb. Sw. root borr. to burst. brizeto. a rabbit burrow. To Bury. Fris. coo. brisd. borre. briso. as from Sp. of England. A rabbit burmotion. and. bolgia. but it is more probably a development of It. to hide. a morsel. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. borra. I. signifying protrude. brico. Burr is related to buzz as protect. cover. perruque. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. shales. caer is a — — — ' ' : . brickie. g. whirr. whirr and burr. ultimately resting on the Gael. Burse.' Harris in Todd. birr. S w. to stuff. brokil and brotil. verbergen. byrigels. appears under the Lang. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. Fr.— . Burser. Brun on bane. bourse. from AS. pipaa. birgan. brittle. OHG. be more in accordance with AS. bris. Shelter. Gael. bourrer. briketo. shearing of cloth. casting bullets. that birds make their nests with. E. To Burst. burra. peluca to Fr.. beorgan. ber•whirr to whizz. a. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. Fr. &c.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. of a body hurled through the air. and thence flocks 'of wool.

Le roy Richard mort. a box.) to hide in the ground. It. bramble. hjul-bosse. rad. bush. tow. apparently a secondary verb. a box for measuring corn. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. bundle * Buskin. we have Fr. bustellus. a bush. knot. brodiquin. AS. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. bulge. a box. Brunne. to stop. borghen. a little box Dan. defence. barst. to direct one's course towards. Ptg. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. clusprobably Morocco leather. AS.boisteau. a tuft.fiasc. boxta. boissa. besom). That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. Bush. buxida. from the ON. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. OFr. box wood to bush. which would later have truast. bussare. beorgan. bairgan. to swell. to prepare. busken.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. a hump. . bustula. or the like. burial mound. Fr. make ready. to forest of Eyda. brodequin tout noir. barsc in Heimskringla. dead. in OE. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. qualster-boscken. Sc. . bousche. a rampart. cluster. thicket {buski. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. condere. Mid. mount. ' . dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. bush. abdere. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. bausen. . wisp. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. ' . bussel. boistel. the idea of knocking. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. bossen. as boun is simply buinn. verb. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. —Busk. a clot of phlegm sart. roquies. and from the Fr. for at buasc. buxula. basse. or — Busk. preserve. Gr. the land. protect . gave Lat. the past participle of the same verb bua. buysschen. as synonymous with to inake one boun. whente beorg.' sheath. whence bouchon. a wisp. Sw. a grove bosch van haer.-^Bushel. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. And her ful sone tuft. then a tuft Sp. The primary sense of hair . bunch. busk. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . to dress.' The buskin is said Bret. occultare K. boisseau. buxta. ' —P. whence at bua sik. a troop. Fris. induere vestes . It.' a box. bousIn the other copy ser. to bend one's steps. G. bosc. See Bust. Bush. to turn. a bunch. bosch (a diminutive ?). bouche. . fiast. They busked and malced them boun. sur une litifere. a bush. and not directly (as Du. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. the Moors and of Morocco. to enclose in a case or box. lump. to keep. 'at bua sik. The radical idea is seen in Goth. ch). and he cites wisp bauschen. to bow. The word frequency with which to busk is used. at buast. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him.gur bidst austur um EySascog. -idis. buskr. . hunch Du.' The word is explained by — — . tuft. a tuft of hair. diminutives. to dress. boucher. borcegui. to sepulchre. Prov. il fut couch6 l^jkema). To Busk. 2. projection. truasc. bos.Lat. grapes. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. berghen. in the For Skirnis .P. ieorh. to bury. bussellus. Sibriht that I of told. So from Fr. Sir Tristram. Du. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. . and we actually find bushel. brake. bua. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. borseof trees. boiste. Thus Froister . bousse. Layamon. ' . The bone in a woman's stays. a been written buasc. a tuft. Thence byrigean. that the lend had lorn thorn. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. iriCtf -ifoe. Bouchet. a bunch of twigs. Du. a tuft guini. aheap of stones. Malberg. Harold G. a gun biichse. bulk. R. In to Brutaine. at bua sig. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. bo7ich (Fr. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. is thus accounted for. Brunne. 410. and thence Mid. OFr.— ' ii8 {chreo. BUSH hreaw. bossida. a -tavern bush. biichse. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. signifying to entomb. : — . bundle. thicket of thorns . a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. See Box. a bundle. a corpse).Lat. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. To prepare. busse. van wijnbesien. oneself. ' . bosta. basse. Du.

bussen. an affair. knock. geidha. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. its slowness of flight. trunk of a tree.pjik. buta. ' bistardej It. Bust. smack. statue of the upper part of Fr. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. a stroke of wind. a kiss. to bustle. Bust. a log. Bav. — Thus we should have mocherqui. avuDiez. bussa. pussa. bukr. busche. a tree. fe^a. bus. a bunch of flowers . bisgung. and then with avis again prefixed. trunk. basiuin. To Bustle. busc. body of garment. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. Sp. a kiss of reverence. bus. bysgian. a large cljest or particular applibox. buc. abutarda. baiser. a blow. — . work. putschen. a busk. A great sluggish fowl. Business. putta. I. mouth. — — difications of the same word. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . Lindenbr. busto. betarda. Du. love gestures. bucha. Buss. Box. body of a man. signifying trunk of a the body. Fr. bysgje. body without arms and legs. Bustard. ^A. business. mouth.' Plin. to make use of. of the human body (Grandg. brusc. small. Namur — Champagne Fr. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. an ostrich. buc. to Swab. buz. would explain the G. says. a boat or small vessel . or Cherqui. Busk.> Also written buskle. beezig. Prov. employment bisgan. A A busquer (Sigart). busch. the breast. biist. 10. Cat. and by transposition morchequi. The form brust. outarde. The Prov. AS. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. bu. forms morseqiiill. bnist. bustla. lip. and supposes that the common Arab. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. stump. Sp. bus and Pol. vessel employed in the herring fishery. beso. — — — — It is like the smouldering. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. of a doublet. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. Sp. buyse. ottarda. to make a splash in the water. See Boss. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. occupation. also a flagon. Prov. besongne. a backstock. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Xerqui.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. Swiss butschen. bisegung. busch. a fishing vessel. butz. thick end. bust. lip. snout. the long. cata — . kupata. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. and also a sounding blow. Nained from Proximse iis zia. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. busy. stir. Prov. a mouth. arbor ramis trunGloss. the trunk. log . morsequi. a ship of some size. sera. brostia as well as bostia. body . I go strepo) . Pol. 1372. abotarda. bacio. — hardly be distinct from Fr. biseg. to occupy. a projection. 119 bi{tr. BUSS Dozy from Arab. a kiss. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a Mid. ship Sp. btcc. a sleeveless truss or doublet. utarda. Cot. or avutarda. I. Lat. brut. but. a great billet Cot. buc. austarda. mogangas from gonj. a bush. borcegui. bist. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. So Wes- terwald munds.D. stump. otarda. in Diaz Gris. kiss. sunt quas Hispania aves . especially of a woman's dress. crack . tuft. worn to make the body straight .— . a blow. as in ON. Hal. ON. besoigAe. Edrtst. 2. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. mosequin. chest. Busitiess :c3iVi . mons. B. lump. bust. a bulk or trunk without a head. windbutsch. Fr. 7o\. ON. trunk of Cot.). made stiff. bulk. So in Fin. body. Busy. body. The proceedings of Parliament. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. Fr. bruskras well as buskr. Sw. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. from jnund. stem. ViM. Gael. Walach. tarda. I bustle. 22. hipista. inde discurro et operosus sum. bisg. a.' ON. forest. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. With respect to bust. to knock . occupied bezigen. Hence probably au-tarda. 1555. Bulch. representing a blow. Port. also a busk. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. a kiss. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. mohedairova. buquer. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). also a It.d. Lang. 2l box. .bezig. — clattering about. trunk. A wisp. box. Fris. ' BUSY 2. busta. On the other hand. as in moharra from harbe. Fr. plated body or other quilted thing. body of a woman's dress It. a bust. outard. lips. the point of a lance. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. To hurry or make a great B.Lat. kiss. or chest in which the vitals are contained. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. knock. Fl. the body without arms busque. Rouchi. Comp. . busq.

belly. a butcher. rumpf.' there is really a negation to be supplied. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. original sense of without. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. bol. bitlga. the mouth). hull of a ship. a barrel. a goat. without.in which his brethren are included. Fr.' Thus Chaucer says. from boc. a butchery. bole of a tree. skin-bag. As a conjunction but is in every portion. that which would be translated by Fr. . mais. Sp. hollow case. Fr. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. beccaria. without buiten-man.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. sup- meat and drink. botilla. which the word corresponds to the Fr. . The E. an outlaw from bouche. the bottles. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. gives at least two pounds sterling. OFr. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. able. as Pantler. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. bolgia. a wooden cask. a baiTel . and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . except. belly. the name must have arisen before the within.The Sp. Butt. without law. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. So in Italian from becco. bag. of the wine and drink. — we acle for liquors. Where at an earthen jar . a leathern bag._ bitten j biiten door. a butcher . as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. ' Besides all that. are. ont jhi^ton. without punishment . biitait slaughterer of goats . the trunk or body of an animal. binnan. viz. be out. boteria. being wholly unten.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. bitten dai. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. the servant in charge of the original object. bisgung. is well explained by Tooke. Here the but implies the existence of an. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. belly. from as. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors .probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. collection of casks. rotundity of the body. butan.streets. and bot. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. buta. barriga. a bottle. Lang. large barrel. Buttery.jamin. ox. bous. the precise correlative of but. without care. the body of an animal. — . It. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. young mais. besides that . to-boot. without the house kept in bottles. bouz. the principal apartment. If that where now we should compiler. wooden receptthing to be done. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. the Perhaps besogne — . calf. and the real origin of the and within . bout. a small winebag. those in beccaio. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. butan ce. Wall. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. beccaro. Du. tinction between but. moreover.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. AS. by the mode in which he is treated.' — — ' . Butler. botija. equivalent of AS. But It. Sp. or what in in charge of the pantry. But In Sc. the body of a tree or of a man. Ben-house. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. outside that moreover. body of a shirt w.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. boquier. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. is put in a class by himself. similar train of thought is seen in ON. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. Lang. Prov. bouteillier. bolr. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. and with It. a goat (and not besides . But when will you pay it ? the belly. Sp. the full expres. "PLT) . bochier. Butcher. a cask. bola. add. then hoUow trunk. in addition. calf of the ' say. properly a butan wite. bhcciero. ' There is leathern bottle. beta. the belly. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . Whatever is in addition to Butler. A A . of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. trunk. (children) boc. bountifully. viz. also a hollow vessel . then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. beyond the Piedm. a budget. the jug and in E. earthen which the debtor has adverted. boccino. G. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. bodifie. bounds of. ways. the present day we should say. Tooke's dis. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin.' ' write. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. bocin. the store of ten. my is called the adversative use of but. bute. but one thing. Fr. we find ben. boucher. botte. slaughter-house.

of the present day. Hal. Du.' thick from shaking. Gris. strike. Fr. botte. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. botta. the Butter-fly. bud. Hal. -ez. bot blijven staan. bottig. a flying buttress. W. give way. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. to butt. i. The Bavarian potig. bot. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. boiUer. boter-schijte. to thrust. Schmell. the store of while bottich. Bav. Butter-glass. botwm. a buttress Cot. bout. — A . butter. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . poke. botto. to push earth .— BUTT leg . Fris. as rejeton. Du. Button. a dle . what is kept in a blow. Mur-buttant. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . striking end. bouter. a hill. Du. From Du. It. Gr. butt. grease that sets by merely standing. See Butler. To come full butt against a butts. from stossen. a button.. tress. G. to femur. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. butter. to thrust. to thrust Fr. boter-vliege. Lang. bouton. buttock of beef is called butr. humble. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. a blow. coxa. Grandg. bot. nourrissons. clunis. to bow. to strike. a button. pied. thrust. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. short thick thing pimple. to heap up earth or ihrust. to so close to the Fr. any small projection. a barrel. the trunk. put. bocsam. so as to make a sounding blow. bodi'. waste ground. lams-bout. bouton. leg of lamb. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. butter un. butyrum. — — — — . aim whence to make a support to a wall. from rejeter. pwt. a heap of merly called pushes. submit shaking up salad sauce. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. an ox. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. — A . nourrisson. The word body itself seems identical with G. are the strips at the edges of the field. butte. bodi. caput scapula bout van f been. stump of a tree Fr. then the thigh or leg of an to push . a tub. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. but this is probably from Fr. boteria. having a rotundity . is formed the augmentative buttatich. oir spike with a k coup . An erection built up as a Fr. of E. . boter-vogel. a cask. Boutje. signify a cask or tub. obeto shake backwards and forwards. w. Butter. a little push .arbre. a leg of mutton. a corner horses' hoofs. Btetter-schmalz. fle>(ible.against another which needs support . a but in the W. suddenly . So in English pimples were fora clod. butz. Buttery. Gael. the thick end. the prick in the middle of a target. butt. both. and the true derivation boar. a stroke di animal. nursling. courtaud. Boutant. a. — . from notirrir. butt. Cot. thick. a ribbed glass for dient. as if from Povg. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. To strike with the head bags. able that Chaucer. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. gigot. Du. buhsom. hillock . . a mound. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. geboogsaem. to thrust. Buttrice. povrvpov. any short thick thing. Sp. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. From Grisons biitt. Buttress. in the R. buter. butte.rejected thing. Kil. or or shore post. the rosebud. a buttrice. Fr. clumsy . W. Bout van het schouderIt. or person Schmeller . botta. Perhaps corrupted Lat. Schmell. to abut on. a button. boutoir. bata. Kil. Du. from bouter. the edge forwards. thrust forwards. to cast. fowl. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . a mound of turf in a field to sup. the thigh of a goose. .to push. Fr. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. pwtiaw. — . a blow. &c. a thrust the thigh-bone. buttare. bothog. boil. an etwas anstossen.putan. Buttock. on. dripping. boutis. a bolt. to be con. Halma. botten. tout seat or breech. obedient. a boss. large head. end . Fr. to throw . to abut a stone roof. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. a scope. * Buxom. potacha. by boE. A — — — . a bot. but. stump. from bugan. a wall butor butt on.. Fr. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. a large belly. ment being supposed to resemble butter. AS. Fr. to boult flour. to touch at the end. at. to thrust . R. Bav. a stump or club foot. rabodd. bottich. To Butt. from the large knobbed head of botto. Buttel-triib. bott. buttals. e. a bun. &c. a boss. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. butt of a person. : . From the noise of drinkables in a house. a. boding. trapu.thum and not button. butteln. Kil. bocgsuin. buttern. Fr. as in G. bout. to blad. bouter.

& Q. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. blessing me with their of side. bylove. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. Buzzard. bugjan. favourably to a petition. and would have been lost in E. Byre. abozzago. also say. bi. gracious. son. from by. ON. . as Fr. from whom it was addressed. to swear with him by . and it is of good will. — 122 BUY P. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. lete. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. G. buzarg. Sw. groat in token of his good heart towards him. OE. Mercy hight that mayde.P. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. Dan. Etynj. . AS. byr. bees. 3. Many good mological explanation. jus municipii. A ful benygne buirde. a meke thynge with — alle. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. A A We — — — days' wonder. Goth.. To Buy. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. a buzzard or puttock. to wit. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us.— P. See Abie. a borough. A by. Originally the law of a particular town.— Diet. It.in N. village. The ON. Verstegan in R. It. Pecock Repressor. bylag. bar. 200. bygge. and boxome of speche xviii. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe.busardj Prov. to purchase for money. depends upon a esteem in falconry. big. good-humoured one. to sell. buzzicare. Du. —gracious of speech. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. Cabal. town having separate jurisdiction. farm. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. Sw. who makes abigg. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. confusedly.. to stand at his side . to jan. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. bozzago. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . By-law. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. \s\xy. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. harty prayers and God speedes. byar-log. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. 519. bei. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. cow-house. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. tions by one. Then applied to speaking low. bycgan. stall. p. favourable. buteoj Fr. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. CABAL Goth. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. bi. to buzz. AS. bauhta. train of thought which has become obso. buzac. 21. indistinctly. . lb. Lat. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. a beetle. called Cabala or Tradition. leges urbanse ON. to whisper. ii. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. a town. a by-path is a side path . P. to pass by. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bij. as in Da. The sense of buxom. iii. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. byar-rettr. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. buso. as heedless as a cock-chafer. 116. frabttg- To Buzz. bohte.

aakkat'a. prostratio ad terram. Finn. Antiq. OFr. kabas. It.' Due. cadabula. Fr. . accablcr. laitue cabusse. OFr. : — from violence without blood. It. The name of the engine. maim. — the ON. OSp. gaggi. Ptg.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum.Lat. especially shepherd's frock. headed. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. geese. Cablisb. Capstan. capanna. It is remarkable that the Esthon. Brushwood — — B. wilful). as Turk. Due. calabre. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. disgusting such an engine was exerted. Etym. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Imitative of the cry of hens. would correspond to cable. an engine for casting stones. disgust. Common to Lat. brassica — capitata. chabla. cabulus. It. Sp. cabre. . chaable. agga. and Finnish lanLat. manganare. properly windfalls. Cabin. cabre. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. hut. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. surripere. a shed. Cabinet. hovel. nasty.. to hurl in Nat. Du.. gatsch. Kil. agge. Fr. Fr. a rope. dirty. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. . cables.. caqueter. a rope or cable. cabane. ckaable. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. su/Furari. Lith. overwhelm (Diet. giiare. caables.. gabardme. w. . Du. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. hoard together. cabo. or rush basket. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. Castr. cabus. Fr. dirt and the Fr. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. caable (in legal language). and Ptg. 'habl. lactuca capitata. cabuccio. it would seem fundain children's language.Lat. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni.ticula. kabane.Gr. — Tarbe. aeggi. Tugurium. Item habeat vocant. or as an interjection of disMod. main. and Or. form kactal. Very generally used. . traboccare. as it must have stood in French. origin is the OFr. cacare. &c. is probably unconnected. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. a booth or hut. Choux cabus. to put or pack up in a frail. forms indi. to crush. signifies down. string. Lat. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. capuccio. caable. overwhelm. cabaii. —Diet. from manganum. round or great headed. as Diez supposes). serious injury — In like manner It. Sw. Didot. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. capo. deponat a store closet. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . a tunic. cacare . akista. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. signifying properly a rope's end. a covering. headed or cabbage lettuce. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. a rope. cable . cabas. Mid. kakaloH. a jacket Fr. The Sp. &c. (ca/coe. — . cabo. for the origin of which see Carabine. caboche. chaable. — Kil. or cadable. the bowels. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. chadabula. caable. cabasser. Cot. a headed cole or cabbage . cabuyskoole. in which sense are explained The the OFr. E. — Ibid. the Prov. cadabulum. a head (whence cabochard. cadabulum. a cabbage . E. gaggele. To Cabbage. whence Fr. to chatter. Coticesserint Swiss aa. come the Fr. kabat. From It. dung. OFr. band. ! — . whence Lang. Sp. The double a in the OFr. head. heady. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. cadabola. vincially used in E. stercus. mdhaigner. ceach / exclamation of guages.). manticuKil. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. a frail. a rope. Neckam — by the wind. Katr-iT-aKt. . disgust cac. cabbage. filth.Lat. and the Arab. Du. and as we find stones Mid. dirty. It. case. Mid. has kabbel. — . as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. havyar to caviare. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. Lang. Mid. cab. Cot. name of the projectile engine. Celtic. to hurl down. cadabalum. originally an Gael. aak! tandi like Fr. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. Fr. gaban. Due. precisely in the sense of the lari E. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . To steal or pocket. kakla. a car- We convasare. to strain in such a manner . cabacho. agge machen (in nurses' language). covering. the Slavonian. as an expression of Gr. Gaggle. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. a cloak of felt or Cack. cdble. kabaSsen. vile. cabarino. Cabbage. Cappa in OSp. cab lis. bad. from trabocco. to keep or Du.

Lat. Cajol. Tea-caddy. so gabble corresponds with Fr. cabdillo. It. a tea-chest. * Calibre. or prattle. a wheel . kail. a dence. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. whence Lat. calpa. the lump and the increase. Lat. naXaiidpi. Sp. cake. Caitiff. for green fields. (in the augm. Lat. The Calf. especially of something soft. Fr. javioler. kolyaska. . of the nature of lime to calcine. jabber. It is another form of the E. calendarium. reed-pen. Caldron. * Cade. gavia. It. from the ink-bag which it contains. incolumis. the calf of the leg. a small stone. cadence. from calendcE. Fr. Fr. cage. chetif. Turk. colibro. calba. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. hence musical rhythm. Cot. En kaka br'od. lord. kukje. ' . calamitas. a wheel . Lat. caliche. a vessel for heating water. cadenza. Fr. ON. The Lat. calendrer. babbhng. when they are said to poor. a circle. Cadge*. lindrus. principal and interest. a calash . To Calender. kolyasochka. A hooded carriage. N. cattivo (from Lat. roller. chaudron. Sp.— Cot. wretched. to — Fr. of which. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Calf of the Leg. kolo. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Sw. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. caioler. calidus.— Calliper. a low note. to throw themselves into the sea. cageoler. kaka. a mischievous dial. koeck. pi. Lat. Cadaverous. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. gabbia. calibre. disease of sailors from tivus). the pith or soft part of wood. calamus. a loaf of bread. a caFr. calesa. a calesh. wanton. An open travelling chariot. to treat like lime. caldaria. frisky. cadere. cha'cmie cadence. and troublesomely attached to. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. kolesb. caldarius. a waggon . Russ. kolo. Roman reckoning. a corpse.Gr. As Du. the bore of a cannon. loss. dial. a cylinder. gabberen is identical with E. Lat. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. calidus. Serv. cauldron. marrow. is probably delusive. Lat. Fr. desire of land. Cadet. lime whence calcareous. a wheel . kauwe. — in a kiln. bad . unruly . from calculus. hot . cadaver. a common cart. Flo. It. its mother. It. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. a falling. to . Sw. rattaat (wheels). to prate much to little purpose. — — — Dan. Fr. kage. Du. calf of leg. Gascon capdet. Calash. a wheel. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. cavea. a hollow place. calibre. Sw. pen Mod. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. a cake or loaf. without loss. A . prate. Perhaps from w. coop. a roller. . cuttle-fish. See Kiddier. kalfvan hout. &c. Due. calentar. Cot. a counter used in casting accounts. dead body. to heat. kaeckelenj Gr. . 124 prattle . Mrs B. loss. calcis. . collop. chaudiere. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. chattering. from the Chinese catty. kalb. Calp is riadh. a wretch. Calendar. to cage. to compute. G. calculo. Du. ben- kalf. calentura. Calocli. Dan. KxiKivh^o^. one unduly indulged by. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. capCalenture. form) calderone. a car. Calamity. of oxen and similar animals.uv. Pol. captive. kdtr. kolesnitza. gaggia. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Cake. or smooth Hnen cloth.warmth . prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). Caddy. Calcialate. A — fall. a lump or large piece. coll. kalem. From lerie. It. kola. hot. an inkstand . kdfich. kakulla. pet lamb. In the same way Fin. signifies a waggon. kolo. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. cadet. Fr. Fr. The young G. on. —Atkinson. kuchen. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. master.— . safe. Turk. . whence calash. Sp. Lat. little chief. boy. the pi. taking it Sp. ratas. Lat. ever and anon. just falling. capitetum. kolasa. Cadence. frolicsome kaad mund. Du. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. cage. kaad. B. to cackle . from Gr. a fever. KaKKat. Arab. gaggle. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. To Cajole. misfortune. It. Calandre. kalfi. calx. to gabble. A cuttle-fish. the younger son of a family said to be from . Du. Lat. Cot. Cauldron. Gael. gabble. Cage. calessa. an ugly waggon kolaska. kat. or colpa na coise. to sleek hence a den. limestone. cykevie. Calc-. Lat. Dan. Originally from a Slavonic source. G. a reed. gabbia. joyous . pith. Calamary.

a successor. to rail or scold . calclover. Ibid. faint. kallo. calcare. koluvre. nautique). dragonder. Bi. serpentina. calleting. Turk. the scalp or skull.meaning of the word. The reference to heat is preserved in.piicede Lat. dragoon. colubrina. . or mould. calgua. and E. cahna. KaXka. Kavfia. Fr. It. B. moso. calibre. To century was Squalibre. chatter. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . push violently. Derived by some from Arab. sence of wind. the latter of chamber. to proclaim. Caliph. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. Heb. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. kol. To drive tow or oakham. calat of leude demeaning. cotton cloth. sound.position is much less common than the geschut. couleuvre. klover. to affirm. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Sp. u to an I in such a colubrum. To call. the heat of Now these Du. Diet. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. brawny. heat. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. Mahn derives it from Lat. — — — — — . calme. whehce it was first brought. calma. of the bore of a firearm met. — — — — — . Sp. Kil. To Calk. quality. to say. done with heat Alt.Lat. and heat. to tread. The origin is Gr. Fin. prattle. a last. form. abto suppose that E. form in the kalib. kind heat of the sun. heat. Callow. Sir John Smith in Grose. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. So It. hot. skin hardened by labour. whereas in troth it is not. Gael. — Fl. calare. on. NE. The word was also written cawme in OE. calicot. or caliever. or languishing drought is . quA librd. callum.en~ kinds of firearms. by many that the weapon Callous. Fin. qAlab. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. cauma. bombarda Cauma incendium. tapulta. to cram. glotton. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. femme frivole et babillarde. licht stuk The change from a. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. whence couleuv. Lat. calma. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. saucy. tittle-tattle. a round of abuse. dial.' But it is hard Du. coulevrine. to call. faint. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). a.' Chaucer. cauque. ' rine. calor.(jaa= ice). kal. to callet. ululo Turk. coluber also. Call. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . however. having a thick skin. and dragon. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. piece of bigger circuite. caliver. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. can be distinct from ODu. Antiq. hallottaa. longior. The primitive colubrina bombarda. try. the Fr. harden by pressure. to be of a good or bad quality. an adder. quiet. which is as much as to say. a soldier who the It. donderbuchs Sp. Ptg. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. drive. overheated. them &c. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. culverin. the day. khalif. Due. Fr. * Caliver. trull. hollaing. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. a feathers. CALICO Calliper-compasses. from Calicut in the E. callus. caluw. According to Jal (Gl. gossiping. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. calk. but is only a jda-kallo.' Whitby Gl. scold. moist. sclopus. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. a drab. calca. kalla. to calk. Kil. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. serpens. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). calc. chatter kallen. Diez.. AS. to call. CALM to press or stuff. to abuse . Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. voice. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. alta voce ploro. water-tight. Calm. Dief. 125 Prov. ' pert. Fr. sestus. Ca.' Slange. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. coluber. vulgo Coluvrine. and sometimes a handgun.— . ram. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. calibre. overscalmaccio.' Winter's Tale. calo. given. Sc. kahcwe. Lat. fistula. calcaich. oldire from audire. scalmato. Indies. Fr. calvus. * Callet. Mid. Mil. kal. harquebus or handgun. colubraria canna. to prattle.from Ka'tm. to hear. word of mouth . not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. Sup. to burn. caillette. kil-u-kal. Hard. . the Fr. Lang. a good calling. Calico. kael. Unfledged. which has its memory preserved in Du. depreciatory term for a woman. Among these were the turn. E. people's remarks. i. of a column. diameter of a ball. Gr. bald. Du. the hard surface of the ground.

camp. unwater chamelot . Cambray. a crab. Gr. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. the type of a hollow pipe. campren. paign. B. champagne. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. whence the Fr. Sp. good. Candy. had no r in de bric— Cot. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. Cameo. Properly calver in the field during a war. a field Greek monk. camisade. the calix. or hollow of a flower. w. Peter Martyr. the salmondis faillis thair loup. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Fr. catmneo. co7nbar. Lat. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. Sanson khanda. properly good country. . crooked.' ' Quhen a lattice. is Cambering. . Gr.—Candidate. cambren. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. cainahelus._ kamm. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. Palsgr. Calyx. Cann. A — the Cannibals. aspirant. campo.' Forme of Cury in Way.— Hackluyt in R. at the ends.—Cambrel. Ptg. cere : Lat. From campus was formed Lat. cam^e. the spersed with white flakes like curd. Turk. kanna. Calver of cane. Lat. field . is Candle. candela. to break. Cambrav—Cam. It. It. cAouma. white. — Lat. a dog. Kakoycpos. Pers. arched. canis. lattice. Fr. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. an eating. whence the noun signifying an applicant. KafivTu. a large drinking . would plenier. fresh. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon.— Chandelier. across — Bellenden in Jam. camaien. candidus. E. Cancer. brought from Fr. E. Cambrel. a' Sc. In a different application It. spot for cattle. chandelle.who their language. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. crooked-stick. and yspiuv. Candid. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. whence Fr. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. to glow. campagna. cambrer. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. to jut. It. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. to warp. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. died in 1526. samon. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. campagna. the heat. icaSoytipoe. to bend. calutmiia. camafeo. See Canker. calj'x. Lat. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Lat. Canibal. to bend. a. campo. lame. — Cancel. Mod. a goblet bud. cup. B. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. frank and sincandidatus. on. camisa. — B. Camp. nia. Camisade. ko/utuXoc. cancer. canna. Cot. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. lie level. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. toile some of whom. crooked. campagne.. se cameloter. Bret. Lat. It was distinfrom work. Fr. champ. Sp. cambr^. the bed of a stream. canistrum. Sp. Camel. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. also an eatmg sore. open and level ground. It. callar. cancello. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat.— B. to the force of the wind. clothed in white. when its substance appears inter. aged. different sections of the like the Chinese. Canine.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. campus. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. campaign. crook. arch.Gr. Fr. Cambric. — — — A — — escume de saumon. water chamlet . Fr. crooked. Fr. Lat. Or the word Lat. sugar. bis. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. ation. mg Canister. monk. Campaign. Mid. Fr. fair.Lat. a caught. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. ckaouma. India Islands. cup. higher in the middle than Fr. Fr. or Caribs. a piece. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Caloyer. From fluting or furrow in a column . canalis. cambre. Lat. camelot. callour. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. Camlet. to bow. sore. arched.conduit-pipe. It. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. camahutus. KafitjUe. chamold man. Canker. chommer. It. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. camelus. The Grisons cauina. Calumny. camiscieia.—Jam. the space of false imputation. to avoid enemy in their shirts. from xaXbg. from candere. chaitcre. salmon. slander. a basket. a. Canal Channel. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. having an aquiline nose. camber-nosed. An eater of human flesh. hooked. camiscia. E. Arab. a may have acquired that signification from plain.

If the word had been from cantherius. cantref. The word seems to be taken from Gael. Canvas. corner. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. canonicus. Canteen. canoa. trine. a cantle of bread.CANNEL vessel. cane. also a measure. a drinking glass. kq. from a Canter. name. and met. and the sex- &c. Capable. hood. call. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. a small boat. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. cane. regular. a horn of the moon . cantred. KCLvva. a cloak kapali. It. to shut. being a yard or thereabouts . to sing. a corner. cape. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. lump. Canton. margo panis diffracta. is found languages of very different stocks. gnat. cope. a ruler. clqse. border Dan. a scull- — here. canapa. like a torch or candle. the heel. the quartile. schlapp. a rule or standard of excellence. hemp. kwvwxIi. shut. was formed Kavtiiv. Palsgr.^on. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. Mod. pipe. Gugel. See Chape. quarter. hamlet. hirnschlapple. a pipe. It. speech. canapaccia. a cap. a door . or hold. canevas. to put upon sacred writers. &c. he discourseth of dissection. able to receive. capevole. can. W. cainnt. Diez. kand. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. To his judicial And trowl the tile. OFr. has kahn. quarter . part. rumme. Wtb. from canna. border. Prov. Goldast — in in Schmid. Fr. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Fr. Kavt\. It. . Cannoii. It. a gelding. quito curtain. capello Italis. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Capari. leiwan kanta. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. kanta. cane. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Cape. . tain. Coal burning with bright flame. chanteau. capa. that the G. the heel. which is not the case. kandt-broodts. a wine-cellar or vault. Esthon. Picard. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Canoe. cantle then is a corner of a thing. a Fr. edge. canvas. capace. Germanis kdppen. From Gr. Alamannis. kyndel. From Lat. covered. To canvas — . A . chantel. cannu. or cantell of bread. from Dan. cantina. kantr. coat. Cant. Cot. chape. Lat. signifying cover. region. and tref. Capacious. Fin. a side. &c. canon. a division of a country. coarse hempen cloth Fr. hemp. B. cannabis. cannevo. The — . a reed. Hence Lat. astrology.Gr. Probably only the augmentative of canto. cantone. a cover Turk. kaput. Of vena cava and of vena porta. Canon. the part easiest broken off. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. It. Cantle. . the tried list of saints. The meserseum and the mesentericum. capax. canton. side. properly a large Prov. a straight rod. a cloak. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. Kil. A slow gallop. Gael. a hunch of bread. a boat. and hence a gobbet. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. a torch. Sp. haitt. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. a — A — Cannel Coal. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. Du. coarse hemp. cappa. a hundred. to contain. cannevaccia. Sp. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. from . Sp. It. Cope. say. from Yet it is remarkable the native term.n. canto. Fr. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. a ship canot. contain. territorial hundred. Canopy. a tube. cane. cover .— Cot. carcase . canteau. root cap. Jonson. caparazon. it would have been found in the continental languages. cappe. as a cantle of bread. Mod. ON. kapamak. See Capt-. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. KaTTiram. from cant. To Canonise.Gr. measure for cloth. schlappen. cover kapi. as. Swab. to con- rummer. . Schwab. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. kynnel. Again we have Lat. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. a reed. cappe. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne.. canonici. cannone. It. cheese. language. N. But it may be different source. A piece of anything. a cane.

— Fl. ericius. to shiver for cold. capriola. also the capriole. s'hdrisser. the initial mute of forms like Gr. greziller. Lat. So from Sw. according to the Hindoos. heath. as Fr. knis. then to shiver or shudder. arricciarsi. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. It is probable that Gr. ziki. where Burton adds in a note. castrated. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. shivering. It.) grezille marid. a . 75. gricciare. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. cut. fansuddenly angry. aggricciare. with joy' Vikram. and 7tucc. grillcr. a chevret. to parch. castrated cock. arricciarsi. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. bristling. kid. a kid. <I>pi'?oe. capitalis. frisser {frissement d'un trait. Lat. shrub. It. a caterpillar. the principal part of the debt. . frisson- ner . ribrezzo. a young kid met. G^' Many words — ' ndv. a ch illness. knis-hujwud . the head. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears .Gr. crackling sound Cape. hi. for which he cites the Comask nucia. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. Cot. Hence capitalis the sum lent. frissoner. ticchio. p. a capriol. grisser. Caprice. as the means of earning profit. brissle.' — (Supp. algabr. Unexpected pleasure. It. Sp. a hedge-hog. a little head. A headland. upon terms Sp. or goat's leap (done by a horse). capitulare. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying .— 128 CAPE a rustling. erica. or represented by the syllable e. It. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. as Fr. abridge amKoTroq.' Cot. to twitter as birds. of a coach. they longed extremely to see it. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. a yearning through sudden fear. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. w. or other things. brezilia. Arab. prickly husk of chestnut. and his body bristled We to castrate. curling. brisciare. brug. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. herissonnement.). then find the symptoms of shivering. the singing'bone). a head. compared with Bret. birsle. Fl. Genevese bresoler. Fr. bristling. a caper in dancing. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. hedge-hog. capriole. chattering of the teeth. to shiver. to crackle. horripilation. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. cappriccio. And similarly to yearn. wriggle. capar. Mod. riccio. I have shivered with love.impressions on the ear. grug. and with an initial gr instead of br. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. a buck. of a tremtdoiis sound. Fr. It. alcaparra. rissoler. to broil. gives rise to brezza. grisser. brisciare. rihrczzoso. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. Griller d'im' patience. cover of a saddle. toy. Caper. caper j caprio.'— Trev. to crackle. capro. gricciare.standing on end. of a fowl. the head. To treat Capitulate. as Fr. gives rise to Sc. as in Lat. Lang. Acad. Fr. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. a goat. then to be in a state of vibration. caprice It. Capers. hair. capparis. ^piKos. explained by Diez from capra. brisoler.) d'etre The It. It. chief. roughening of the skin. A . II bresole (Gl. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. Capillary. greziller. to desire earnestly. The same imitation of Capon. Lat. capillus. shivering. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. is either wholly lost. curly. sault. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . or. frizzle. cApre. end. principal. airoKOTrrw. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. brisciare. to broil. — to yearne. humorous. capriol or caper in dancing. It. to from capitulum. to shudder. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. horror. See Chief. CAPRICE twittering. cut off. h^risser. It. Fr. curl. caprice. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. the hair to stand on end. or Lat. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. the hair to stand on end. belonging to From caput. Hal. and OHG. The true derivation lies in a different direction. Capital. to ruffle the surface of water. to . and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. a separate division of a matter. — — A a hair. eruca compared with It. to fry. Hair-like. frort^Lat. Lat. caj)o. bruco. Torriano. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent.

Fr.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). a cloke) capuccino. Passing on into E. caThe hrestante. Capsule. to carry . G. hold. as in accipio. . a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. In the S. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. a. contain. capp%tccio. Cot. Fr. di cappa. a hooded friar. cabestan. cabrestante (whence e. -cept. deception. -ceive. to creak. crepo. Fr. a cart. -cept. capitano. a reception. seize. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. latterly. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute.). 129 — receive. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. In cases. bock.s. of the Sp. capio. de- price. a hood (dim. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Cart. Kiittner. concebir. as the dragoons (Du. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. sels. fancy. captivate. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. capra. Du. char. Derivatives are Fr. krul. a kind of torture. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. caricare. chirriar. OSp. Lat. strideo. a fantastical humour. Crab. Nordfoss. karista. captive.. Carabin. Caseneuve in Diet. perceive. charger. It. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. recipio. Fr. and has thus descended unaltered to English. and tropically. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. It. Capt-. carro. to please. charret. was originally a missile . and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. conceive. Neumann. Capuchin. Cot. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. Fin. calabrino.of these compound verbs. It. trestle. to creak. It is a standing crab. to take. and has accordingly been lost in E. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. It.). conception. Castr. cabestrantej Fr. a taking back. a windlass. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. See Caper. Etym. a creaking waggon. &c. The It. karra. as in OFr. capsula. to take baclc. kerren. chirrion. concept. except. It. Lat. cams. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. an engine for throwing stones. a she-goat. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . a sudden will. karrende waegen. shivering fit (Altieri). &c. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. Fl. calabrin. from head. Fr. of capsa. and of captus to an e. also to carry on a car . Capriole. capuccio. carabin. one odd. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. acceptus. decepte. or the (capo-riccio). accept. charrier. recevoir. to this is It. dim. Du. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. to receive receptio.. conceit. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. — — Capstan. cabra. deceit. a. Thus the musket. precept. fantastic. It. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. karren. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. &c. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Carabine. box. Sp. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. Fr. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. cabreia. Lat.or -cib-. concipere. tnoschetta. concevoir. a sawing-block or trestles. recipere. captus. carretta. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Fr. desire. Lat. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. to accept. case. intercept. however. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. also a kind of rack. Carry. to take to. also tresFl. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. — —Diet. a head man. a sudden fear apprehended. to load . was converted into -ceb. commander. capitis. i The meaning Car. Capstern. was a kind of horse soldier. recibir. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. a coffer. crab s. verbs gives rise to the element . Sp. recepte. the -cevofthe Fr. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. at least. Carbine. caprice. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. caput. receptus. a capuchin. oisr. whence capture. Captain. It. chevre.

carere. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . chevre by the name of the goat. also a small weight. It. carabe. carcame. carduus. a quiver .. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. Derived in the first edition from Mod. carate. a skeleton. car. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. a wool card. to comb. a collar or chain for the neck. kirat. bock and Fr. Cot. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). a lock of wool . a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. or framework. carcaij. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. the case of the flesh. Lat. Sp. Venet. ON. Lith. a thistle. the shell of a torcarcasso. casso. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. . caravela. a twist. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. an ulcer.. also (as Gr. shell. contract. properly a siege machine. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. Cot. matter.. a dead carcase. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. Gael. avSpaS. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. carquan. Fr. cdrlag. the carcase of a fowl. case.. in the same way that the Sp. cramp. copperas. cabra. Gael.z. a snail. Arab. turn of a horse. to card wool. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . cerran. Exot. carmiiiarc. boch. is the word used in modern Lat. a winding staircase. tcapKaai. «capa'|8i. poison eiz. a ripple for flax. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. for a gun. the core of fruit . Fr. coming to four grains. and catapulta. caracal. a kind of ship. Carboy. of the same Caravan. Carat. kerwan. It. is the chine. . the name might naturally Mod. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. a goat. It. quse vocant karabd. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. a machine for casting large darts. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. . be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. restraint . carcasa. Carrob. a gem resembling a live coal. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. a quiver. cardo. eitar. a small weight. alia sunt majora. eit.charcoal . decanter. to curry horses karsztuwas. ancient springald. Gr. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata.. karra. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. burning coal. a thistle. of carbo). krciti. cabreia. curry-comb. It. carquasse. garafa. winding carach. a card or comb . skeleton. karri. to turn. skeleton. a case or chest . Ptg. Sp. Caraool. carbo. to comb wool . to creak. carabba. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. Caravel. &c. It. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. black dye. a ship. Carcax. Carbuncle. carbh. wool card. to draw in. Sp. caraffe. the dead body of any creature. Bohem. The Trjg xeXwwac. card. Carcase. the . to hiss (as gee^e). a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . Pers. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. fire . &c. carcanada. the carob bean. turning. a crane. seed of carob. a coffer.applied to a battering-ram (G. designated in the case of G. carcanet. From the battering-ram. Mod.Gr. to card wool. winding. military engines made for hurling stones. wine- bottle. a quiver. &c. OHG. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. KtpaTwv. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann.Gr. — seems to be something holding together. espi7igarda. The radical meaning . Sp. Lat. word is only an adoption of the Turk. constraining . silique. cabrita. the husk or cod of beans. AS. a battering-ram). I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. cassa. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. a prison. the trunk or chest of the body . carta. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. See Carpenter. caraffa. Gael. ' Vasa vitrea. a quiver . Fr. I. to ripple flax. Card. Gael. confining. kard boyd. Fr. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. An implement for dressing wool. bend. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. karszti. Comp. Cat. Carbonaceous. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. Sp. mural attack. . a he-goat. skeleton toise. carch. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. . vitriol. p.— — — . W. a firelock. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable.' From the same source are SicU. Parmesan cassiron. an engine for hurling stones. carbunculus (dim. quilato. Gr. carquois.

appertaining to the flesh. that Fl. niggardly . Carnage. cdrle. Bois crolant d'un ladre. giierlir. in Carp. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. what is felt as grievous. carcus. wool cards. kurista. immediately before the long fast of Lent. to fry or broil. Roquef. caricatura. from carrus. fleshy . w. croller. or street. Caricature. combing them out like the knots in wool. Bret. Lat. voce strepo stridente. kara. Lat. care. carnasciale. Trin. Charnel. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. caMid. Card. It. solicitous. a highway. astutus. Carled peas. sorrow. cearian.Lat. Properly. and sum.Lat. an endearment. It. ON. . murren. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. to distress growl. It. the hull of a ship. cura intenta. & Q. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. charta (Gr. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. parched or carled. to whirr (schnurren). . that on wliich the matter hinges. Fr. murahtaa. compared with Fin. Cot. to care unkarja. four. at murmuring. record. carezza. kroU-erbser. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. 8. Champ. Ptg. Fr. Venet. Care. Cartel. Cath. . and G. as quadrivium from Carnaval. a turn. bottom. de Parthenay. camovale. It. karl. gakaran. weyes. Fr. carnal. surrata. Fr. Translated in MS. kribina. 2. as carminare. Fr. or grumbling —Due. Bret. sgritudo animi. . cargo. stingy. car. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. to parch. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. carena. a man. 273. For the root of carminare. affection. charg. intrasset caro. Dan. to rumble. It. meet at a head. carena. as peas. regar. W. Carlings. road. male person. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. carian. . From. A mod-carag. tenax. charnage.' Slceat. to card wool. to eat flesh. the several meanings of the words above Rom. &c. asper. moeThe Lat. to load. crawl. cura may be ror. — Carfax. G. carnavale. W. and thin. to take Goth. cargar. Mur. the keel. charneux. be anxious. zanken . to shake. carener. karrig. morosus sum. Sp. carina. — To Careen. karout. x'»P'"^s)) paper. a card. to load. clown or churl. Carl. grolU. Carminative. Carenare. Fin. to comb wool. graller. tremble. caru. caricare. kummer. carminare. kargr. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. charnel. in St Jerome. carriire. hoed. to comb flax or hemp. love. kumra. the old theory of humours. p. from carus. Fr. quarreG. quaver a lazar's clack. ceorl. Chart. whence carricare. cearig. the time during which to Rom. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. Farewell flesh. crowl. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. dear. sorrow. to clean the bottom of the ship. A medical term from line —Boerio.. Cark. in N. Cot. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. morosus. Fin. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. charag. from the keel to the water . crosier. Carnal. W. Probably the origin of the word is the . also a career on horseback. E. stridere. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. principal. karista. to scrape . mutter. . A place where four roads Mid. carrefourg. to load. is to say. care on. Fr. place for exercise on horseback.. Fr. quadrifurcum from quameet. G. Coll. Groler. charger. to lie on its side. — — . Properly a car-road. piger. winding. to love. ON. Sept. karantez. carch. carFrom carrus. from caricare. ignarus. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. carnis. . essere in carena. rixosus. to scratch. caresse. carriera. AS. AS. tuorfurcm (Burguy). Cot. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. . like connection may be seen between Fin. — — — Caress. OHG. AS. soUicitus OSax. Peas steeped and fried. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. the flesh of animals . act of moaning. It. an overloaded representation of anything. Gael. cardo. careless take care of. msstus. to fry. beans. charie. grief. sensual. and murhet. chartre. carnalis. is This however Shrove tide. It.— Charter. 1S66. a deed. — — Diez. karry. a hinge. from Lat. cardinis. to growl. one of those ac- 9 * . murista. strideo.— CARD karr-kambar. ress. — — — : Cardinal. and compare Bret. No ' place there had. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. fundamental. caritia. karg. see Garble. OFr. the keel of a vessel. scharren. A quirito ut infans. Sp. carcare. Cargo. Fl. the load of a ship.

Mid. I drink all out. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. 94). carpetam (a quilt?). koroll. Discov. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Carpet. Pm. pluck at. to talk. krapanj. to find fault with. chariot carbad. Fr. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. carpende fast Carol. ! Carouse. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. Lat. as carnaval from carnelevamen. at midnight which derivation from kroes. All out B. Alluz (G. skraf. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. chatter.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. to pull asunder. or loose as a couch without further preparation.— Neum. A. Analogous R. Mid. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. 1 1 30. ship. to dance. Here's to you still my captains friend. Templariorum — ' — Due. carpere. to dance. querole. To pledge them thou refuse. carpia. maker of waggons It. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Cot. carpentum. or a carouse fully drunk up. yede tham about. CarTo quaff carouse do use.' Reg. Gower in Way. . as the Lat. to pluck. Pref.Lat. Chanson de carole. as Fr. Palsgr. Ein we find the signification transferred from . vel coopertorio carebit. Shrove Tuesday. zimmer. Carole. carpenticre.gonnella. I quaught. The custom. and Carnem laxare (It. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. linteamen. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Bohem. a drinking cup. sense. Lat. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. qui sacco. carpetrix. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat.D. carpo.' Raleigh.Lat. charpie. gar aus / all out is correct. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. Dief. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. Pr. lint. chatter skra/a. a song accompanying a dance then. The word seems of Celtic origin. In Dominica d'autant. W. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. Beggars Bush. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. In a MS. bier. garrire. 2. to chatter coroli. a plank. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur.' Ordo Eccles. gonna. quoted by Carpentier. is erroneous. ballare.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. worker in timber Fr. peta. garrulo. was formed Mid. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. i. a wheelwright. tattle. course. . Carnevale. Other names of the sea. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. litter. Nomin. Carpenter. Gael. — — ' ' — — — I — — .— Drant in R. to reel. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. whence the form carnasciale.]e bois Carnelevale. — . carpenter only in the latter sense. in Due.Why give's some wine then. of Guiana. carpita. in Carp. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. The karole of the stones behelde. carpat (Stokes). fabulor. carduz. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. to rustle.' says Motley (United Neth. From Lat. tymmer. zimmerspan. a wheelwright. On the other hand bumper to one's health. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. i. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Properly a round dance. Teut. cardos. So gone they forthe. cxciv. balade from It. act of drinking a full Eq. a car carpentarius. e.— R. pluck. Mediol. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Bret. all aus). culcitra. a carder. Sup. on that. krapati. a dance.— Patriarchi. The tippling sots. On this. 2. biheld without. Sp. carpenta. Lat. and F. ' ' — . to gather. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. carbh. Ant. Carpyn or talkyn. 760. carnelascid). in Nat. 216. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Carnelevale. Olr. as E. .'— Stat. differing To Carp. used for stuffing mattresses.: . ON. Fr. The ' ' a chariot. chirp. charpentier. Biheld within.Lat. cited by Marsh.

something that actually occurs. cassa. — Cartoose. Cartel.' Cot. card. Fl. caroche. To Carry. a long coat. Fr. to crack. Rouchi carone. from It. Cassock. Case. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. cut with scissors. Fr. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. Preparatory drawing of a It. afterwards any written challenge. fall It. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . It. hull of a ship. a car. Case-mate. to — — also casse. to shear. It. coffer. ceorfan. properly to convey in a car. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. casacca. to fire on the enemy. a paper case. casitiste. Fr. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. cassa. See Gristle. To Cashier. casa-maita. fortuitous. carota. crown of a hat. the charge of — — Fr. long man's gown with a close body. To quash an indictment. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. for the security of the defenders. Cascade. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. OE. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. — — . The Sp. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Carriage. of carro. corresponding to the G. tion from Sp. Rouchi caroche. Lith. Lat. where Fr. one who reasons on cases put. It. caroach. casus. case-maiej Sp. Casual. shell or carcase of a house. a merchant's cash or counter. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. See Card.' Bailey. Fl. to convey in a cart. discharge It. Sp. annul. Du. kerven. kerben. Casket. a loopscale the wall. from the sound it makes when Alban. cassette. To duash. It. paper. helmet. not reaching to the height of the ditch. dim. a chest. carretto. kerpu. vault hole in a fortified wall. a canonry or slaughterhouse. kirpti. charrier. empty. carrosse. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. G. a of water. Carrot. Cask. caro. cartone. Casque. casser. Walach. an act of falling. Cartoon. blotted out. cartouche. Lat. gristle. Fr. hollow. gristle. Fr.— Fl. case. like all the names of tendon. ' Casa-matta. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. packing ' cloth. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. quasser. to cut or carve . ignominiously exposed. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. carriaggio. house. — Cartridge. It. hung up in some place and to be removed. cartella. also the carriage. carreaggio. a fall. charrette. to fall. coffin of paper for groceries. kasseren. break to pieces. It. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. caisse. Carrion. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Case. slaughter-house. carretta. to slay. — — nul the proceeding. caisse. to an- — Kil. cascata. cascare. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. augm. casag. As defence from shells became more important. Cot. Cart. a hut. subject for a picture. des rideaux A'carp^ie. Du. cartoccio. See Case. bitten. cassus. casco signifies a skull. caisse. Gael. quash. casualis. — FI. Fr. Hence a challenge openly hung up. mata. Fr. It. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. to hold. Fr. Lat. of carta. crush. from It. from Lat. It. from casa. cascar. a chance or accident. Hence casket. casuelj Fr. cancelled.' Fl. an augmentative from Lat. Eune tapisserie dicarpite.' — Hdcart. discharge. Rouchi carpHe. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. casa. pasteboard. cascade. bag and baggage of a camp. Probably. casaque. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. turn out of service. as we . coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. Cot. To Carve. and the OE. mord-grube. AS. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. a car. Fr.. made void. and matar. to dash. abrogate. luggage. charogne. Casuist. a coffer or small case for jewels. Flor. Fr. to notch. void cassare. Fr. carogna. augmentatives of carro. to break. carroccio. carroc- carrozza . Sp. and that apparently from capio. The carrying of anything. AS. Cash. Rouchi carter. krat. It. mord-keller.to annul. cassere. caxa. the money chest. Fr. capsa (Diez). casso. cashiered. cancel. to bear or carry. cartilage. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Lat. cia. CartOTicli. Ready money.

cascar. KarapaKrr]g. a whip on the other into latch. casipola. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Yz. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. or Rouchi cat. OFr. perhaps from which we have E. Thus we have Caste. kasta. a vault. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Gr. ' Catchyn away abigo. kottr. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. shaft of a 1 push.. ating. So also from It. punch. Fr. a garment for performing the mass in. Roukind.to drive out. &c.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ.the / or c respectively. to end. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers.. castana. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. to dash. under chi caleur. . . second chase. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. handle of an axe. Cast. kakka. ichasses. . drive away. a little house or hut. same word with break. Catastrophe. which. on. V Lith. dim. first made ordinary Fr. mino. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. Cot. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. a fortified place. however.Lat. to drive Cat o' nine tails. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. cacciare fuora. Pm. casupola. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. Cat. down. away. fall. kaJoivad. Fr. chasuble. like that of It. squash. rack. or bruise together. cast. dashing it to pieces. race. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis.out cacciare . V. to crack. klakka. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Castanets. Sp. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. a cat . chasser. Brunne. Lang. kat. .'— Pr. arpi^m. cacciarc. to clack. force j Rouchi equerviche. to make clean or chaste. n. Mid. to hurl See Awgrim. have before seen under Cape and Cabin.— Fl. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. crush . and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. dashing it out of the window. and from the castus. follow after. Lat. casser. dash. . Hal. down. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. to break. puras E. Fr. to bring to an crack given by the joints. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. chat. cojz^/a. _G. B. a cat koshki. Chase. torture. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. Pol. name. Hence castaneta. KaraXoyog. to look at. Gr. The Diet. koshka. castellum. signifying breed. to drive away. accastiare. sue. kic' kicil are used chasser. a chesnut . Lat. the castanets for or implement . Pic.Rouchi Scaches. burst cascare. The E. It. To It. cacciuolo. the ground . katze. 'Vaaaw. of sarabands does Gr. stilts. casule. was introduced. image accasciare. and KviilSog. and tomba. the stalk of plants. an enumerlist. Fr. Fr. the earlier sense of catch. bot-kotis. cat. kotas. coming to us through different dialects of French. tails. Fr. a Cataract. castanetazo. KaTaarpifm. to torture. cat-o'-nine. by the loss of with several pitched cords. to close. catar. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . chasser. Isidore — in Diez. in the fire. from water Karappaaaiii. to turn overturn. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. In the dialect of Picardy. lance. to Fl. to cast or beat to tioner . the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. squash. a thump. Others explain it from Kara. cassa / cry for the same purpose. probably from an imita. kissa. to is Essentially the Sp. casulla. or comba. represented by the syllable quash. Gael. Castle. Fr. 120. to fall as over a precipice. heat . catch. of castrum (castra). which has been retained in E. castello. to hunt. castro. KaTappaKTrjQ. to scourge. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. puss / for calling them. cash. — We a cavity. Sp. while kiss / Pol. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. speak of dashing a thing down. Fr. To Catch. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. It. is not satisfactory. execu. ecrevisse. Catalogue. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. to lash. It. kasi. R. fer toTa. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. to crackle. Etym. Fr. 134 CAST Catacomb. being Fin. kotas. ON. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. from the first of Castrate. chaleur.

a pill. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. has both or of charming by sound. klinke.' CATCH Fr. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. KaTtix'so. compare G. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). Gr. companaige. Gael. latch of. Sc. klatschen.V. formerly called cliket. Guernsey chafer. On Catechism. Grandg. — explained. dainty vic- a form lash. Metivier.V. P. E. a carter's Pat. seize. to catch strength. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. — tinman. klatsche and Norm. klatscherei. ecachoire. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. ' ' word catch. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . with and without an / after the c. a whip or Kuttner. . ArbaUte de courte chasse. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. to kythe D. to snap. gattola. sound. Cot. Guernsey pilleure. E. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. instruction in forms. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. resound. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. to chat. to teach by oral instruction. e. chatter . a whip Rouchi cachoire. devouring mite or weevil. Fr. ketsoore. called dog or Galla catchamza. — Catcli-poll. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. E. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. * Cates. . the the same principle he was Fr. . Chate peleuse. as of the latch of a As ! — . to snatch (said of dogs). children's name for cat . clap with the hand. predicament. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. Wal. such a sound or the stroke which produces it.' ^Jam. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. the distance to which the ball is struck. Ptg. chachara. is said that he got a claucht of it. Diez. clatter.) .from Bard and ayopsw. apprehend a person. kletsen. pedes. to A bailiff. a whip. in order). the larva of the cockteufelskatz. Fr. bichano (pussy). cagnon (a dog). Du. chenille {canicula. catch. dainties. a little dog). klatsch. smack. Tutschek. verberare kUts. e. a. In the XV'e. catc?u. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. silkworm. latch. Cates. gliong. fragor kletsoore. to harangue. chatter. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. cat is not apparent. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. insect. — B. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Fr. flap klatsche. cache. quincailler. to chatter with the teeth cake. an officer of taxes. gingle. kaetse. — . * Caterpillar. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door.P. ' Fr. i. Rouchi clincailleux. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. snatching it with a any one. the elements of a science. clap.s. wild-beast. kletse. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. ictus resonans. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. to take. c or ^. claquer. a caterpillar Milanese can. bicho. worm. blow. Du. a whip. from Gr. a smack. chink. a cornIn the s. 'Bxn.. . snatched. head. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . catch-flesh. or any kind of relishing food tuals. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . Claucht. OFr. chacepol. Gael. s. resono ictu lash. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries.yopl(. an accusing. snatching. Du. caker. 'Horxa. a — gatta. GaUa catchiza. millecaterpillars. a clap. catch. de Bray. . Caterer. whip. from shutting with a click. — Kiittner. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. Kartiyopta (/cari. a. happe-chair. chase. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. Kil. called in Fr. door when it is shut. to clap hands.j. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. and answer. to crack GATES cache. — with a whip. woodlice. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. G. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. the OE. glcu. to the crack. weevils. chassoire. which all . Swiss Lombard G. Sp. caucht. icarrix'Ki^. chasse. Kil. Cot. 135 — Aasen.

. Chaud.Y\\Xea. Du. a horse . Gael.—— — 136 correct. what . All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. caldo. G. It.willow. a The peel. Cavalier. cale. cautis. Causeway. CATHARTIC sense.^Hal. Bessie of Bednall. a paved road. catkin Magy. rete A — Prov. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. reticella. dumpf tonen. Cavalcade. Lat. the caul of the liver. a branding from koiio. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. Kavrijp. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Cavalry. acater. Cathartic. Lat. klopfend knallen. adcaptare. Russ. kaussijde. Fr. a mare. Cattle. puss. catons. . — — cavallo. . is used in the sense of cat-skin. Cathedral. ce^l. shaled or picked Fr. 4. A warm comforting drink. Fr. calceta. a horseman. a receptacle for small things. Cavern. a stalk. Cauldron. chaudroii. cabbage-stalk. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. a kettle for heating water. lamb. Wyatt in R. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. calotte. walnut with the husk on challer.^ acheter (Lat. otherwise written kell. having the property of cleansing. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. acaptar. hazel. Palsgr. — . caul is also a small net to confine the hair. to shoe . specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. Gr. is Prologue. It. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. cabbage). — Cauterise. 2. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. &c. choufleur {choii. to beware. little cap is . achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. cale. a kind of skull-cap. hot. cabbage. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. accattare. Lat. Palsgr. chauderon. Catkin. Mid. Delycates. chevalier. caudex . OE. Du. Fr. Provider.Lat. Sx. to buy. minon. Lat.p. a pavement. Fr. cat maczoka. chair. Gr. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. catkin mitz. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. net or caul-work. a seat. Fr. kopano. Richly she feeds. quire. Boethius. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. catkins . a horse. calidus. KaPaWrii.' Elyot in Way.Lat. kopista. ' Gr. Mid. katteken. primitive is meaning a shale or off. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. CAVE Caul. chatideau. and at the rich man's cost By sea. . macska. B. from chaud. Caudle. from KaSaipio. cheval. a road calceata. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. Manciple's Tale. caple.' B. accapitare Rouchi acater. to ac- — Fr. Fr. Fr. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. It. That he was ay before in his estate. On the other hand. chaussJe. Jaubert. w. any Fl. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. flock.. capull. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. deyntie meates. kobyla. kautsije. Caustic. Lat. Cave. make clean. kobuiV. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. despencier. Thus Bav. Ka^afriKOQ. Kil. It. • — — See Chattel. Cavity. Diez). KaHSpa. cautus). kin. KiwariKog. Kavrfipiov. from caveo (p. and spareth for no perell. kocianki. to burn. the. to shale or peel. to shoe. . puss. cauHs. katte. catkin Pol. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. Caution. a pulpit. Pol. to purge. mutz. Fr. a horse . causa. calqada.. hot. fur. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. whence cathedralis. the stones of a street. hollow. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . to sound like a blow . Cause. by land. kassije. fur in general. cavus. little cat. apt to burn iron. kitten kotki. challe was ther of a temple. . Dryden in R rete. and hence a skull-cap. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. mudet. Port. caballus. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. puss. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. from delf^gato. via strata. also to pave . calceata. Fin. flue. kocie. chausser. Lat. Jonson in R. Fr. Gr. Caballus. Rete. Pr. The word — . koparet. . but the acates that are sent him. cal^ar. chaudiire. green husk of a calon. Fr. It. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. kdtzchen. achepter. cavaliere.

Lat. empty. — — — toyour soverane. . cesso. rafter. selure. -cess. hollow. as. cease. komista. coffer.' — Gawan . and then to gape. crooked kopio. syl. Sir 137 pit . H. thil. thilja. departure from this life. VIII. with their substantives concession. recede. a planking or boarding tkilian. to canopy siled. and zaum. -ceed. cyling (W. Fr.' del. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. proceed. —Decease. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Boyd in Jam. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. excess. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. semely on syll. 7. a canopy. sill. kapp-zaum. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling.'— Z. the testern of a bed. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. succeed. a board. cellar. a boarded floor. komo. the roof of a coach. . del into English without ' translation gave cele. . in Jam. column E. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught.. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. To seele a room. to plank ON. seele. were met. to argue capto tiously. to cut.' Cot. of cavezza. but hang around at the sides. tester of a bed. a halter. that. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. augm. &c.. E. Sp. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. and Gol. &c. B. death. kommata. deal. p. exceed. an aquiline nose. to plank or floor with planks. — . plank. little house. wuoren komo. is applied to a canopy. give place. In the same way G. The sense of roofing. 5. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. thiling.' Rutland papers. . a hut. a log. Sherwood. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. heaven. lambrisser une chambre seeling. &c. thil. in Jam. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. pp. nailes will begin to cling. cavillor. p. . dayntily diglit. dScis. &c. It. yield. . to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. a log. post. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. syle. Soc. See -cede. ceiling. dil. hollow. So from Fin. in Hal. dille. Cede. cavezzone. Cease. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. departure. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. menuiserie. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. cielo. curved. of E . The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. a fir-plank. The importation of Fr. a beam. 43. Wore. caveqon. thili. also a seeling of boards. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. hung. CAVESON kopera or kowera. to panel or wainscot MHG. . a plank. sus-lambris. cabegon. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. Hal. board . In the N. IV. . 32. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. decessus. . a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. Fr. cedo. — komo tain). thel. step away. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS.' Marriage of James IV. a canopy. . a head.j have come from this source. . and that from Sp. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. selar. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. Lat. Cam. cabega. Gawaine & Sir Gol. -cease. heaven. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. to go forth. hivtmel. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. wall. Lat. applied to a canopy. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Cavil. cessum. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. thelu. or of a bed. a log. The It. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. to seele or close with boards plancher. lambris. Fr. -cede. The line of descent from Fr. Ceiling. jaa. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. quibble. sill in window-sill. ceiling. Plancher. sky. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. door-sill J Sc. Fr. beam. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. wainscot thiljar (in pi. Cot. plank.' Hall.). ciel is so unbroken. sybire. canopied. the deck of a ship at thilja. bridle.). a severe bridle. hollow ice . as if from happen. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. koppeli. . ciel de lit. And seik — Cessation. the inner roof of a room of state. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. flooring E. — . the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. A — A false accommodation produced G. Hence concede.' Ordinances and Reg. . Lat.

materials It. eschattffer. -ciper. a hundred centuria. and — — — possessions. judge Lat. to separate. -cebre ifoncebre. parted sleep. estimate. caber. to heat. In Celebrate. Cess. a shaft horse. Gr. to attend on object with. Fr. to think. as entering largely into the derivative certo. rubble. the officer appointed to take such returns . censura. Lat. zens according to their property. criticism. for building. cella. to take. Take the nedyll and threde. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. Fr. — . K^'ivut. a solemnity. -cense. &c. a registration of one's self. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Lat. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Ceremony. decide. a numerous con. of heating. or expression of Ennius. the talk of men. is the opposite of disora virum. heaven. -CEIVE a shaft. Lat. is totally distinct from the foregoing. cceremonia. to burn incendo. Sc. to incense. become heated with anger. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. concetto.). ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. Incensum. celeber certus. to set on fire. cilibat. to seele or sew up the eyelids . — . irot\oe. then to rub without reference Cement. -civer {conciver— Roquef. what to set in a chafe. concernor. Celebrity. conceipt. centum. but was gradually lost in conceit.. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. candeo. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing.ing a room where there is not fire. -cevoir. Fr. a hundred of what- — . To chafe is for wine. we have a modified form of (of a place). being taken from Fr. single or unwedded life. Coehim. Censer. calefacere. confounded ist from It. Cereal. a Cemetery. Cot. Gr. -cess. goad. abundance. to course of people. keep in It. chaufferette. sile. to sleep). — — Cenotapli. a prick. Fr. It. Lat. a tomb. a storehouse Chafe. an eyelash. and met. and thence to conceal. swift. For sess from assess. also grave opinion. quarters for slaves. stones to the production of heat. receipt. &c. to blindfold. deceit. crevi. with transposition hence (of a day). his office. ' . Century. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. assess. the hollow the Lat. cigliare. age. with the eyes. decebre) .). Fr. to -sum. Celerity. . and so of that other. Censure.— Chafing-dish. -cepere. make angry. ciller. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. Fr. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. Lat. OFr. Lat.cern. syll. 1. from Saa-rw. Lat. judge. concerner. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. a religious observance. oil. Sherwood. — . calefare. S. in Marsh. to visit in numbers.unmarried. hollow. Cell. or any bird's. in accordance with the Fr. observe. — A . Fl. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. Accelerate. sure. Certain. to celebrate. rough from the quarry. camentum. to distinguish. to prick. (and thence also) to hoodwink. cencer. tax. renown be embodied with. guish. chauffer. siller les yeux. deceipt. sacred show. to glow. Assess. contend. — . cillier. appertain. Fr. empty. mortar. tax. cenio. to sepap rate.of the r. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. Fr. to twinkle darkness. /ctj/rsw. The term cilium. to bury). cerealis. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. -i^oivre. value. Lat. see. See Cede. oil. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. Centre. Gr. sift. cretum. ciglio. Chafe. judge. celer. to chafe.j 138 thill. to seal a pigeon's eye. Prov. — . solemn (of per. eyelid. pick out. Lat. to warm. Lat. -cipio. capturn. -cepire. Centurion. — . and put it through the over eyelydde. to be regarded as one celebro. census. -ceptjun. a valuation of every man's estate. much frequented. dchauffer. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend.' Book of St Albans. sting.. Ta^oe. in comp. as in some places burnt. ceremonia. It. Census Censor. thence belonging to or connected with corn. -ceit. {cori)cipere. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. and thence censer. Assize. Lat. from censeo. distinIt. Cij(fe5j. the point round which a circle is drawn.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. -ceive. the place where the de. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. to contend. a solemnity. Cot.' Celebritas. cot. -cern. to take. To Incense. Censor. to rate. blind. See Celibacy. in comp. -oept. . properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. incense. family. Lat. To seel or close the eyes. KsvTpov. festive. Gr. capio. thronged the participle cretus. census.— Cellar. to concern. encens. Lat. riscaldarsi. point. to rub for the purpose a hut. anger two distinct words are probably Lat.

The jaw chafty. a pulpit Cot. From to go to law. From Port. G. to Latin calumniare. Chalice. ing a hard case to their wings. cathedra. thick and short. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. Kuttn. Chain. calonjar. as a carriage is a moveable seat. from the shark-skin. chamar. chawe. kuhina. chagrin. Lat. a pulpit. charge with. Gr. Lat. kdfer. ple^. B. and signifies to consume with anger. Camera. Bouffard. with a:n arched roof. to dispute. rustling corn. — — ' — — — A . — . OFr.' Rayn. khah. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. keffen.nium. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. chaps Chamber. kuhuja. have a mind to parley. Lat. grief. Chayire. kahu. tattle. Kaiiapa. care. much more Genoese sagrind. a rustling noise. Fr. Lat. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. So from dominio. taubes korn oder hafer. yap. breathe KaOa^oiiat. talkative. rally one. Halma. cup. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. kiaftr. — — — . p. vel susurro. in a cana. refuse. snort. to claim. gewolb. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . Fin. sborfare. snuff. ^Altieri. kauchen. From the To Chaff. Cot. &c. sagrindse. from of the G. to action arose. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. calx. — — — — — — . Probably from According to Diez. Cheffern. call in question for an ley). Fr. Ayenbite. . vis. care. of. chaire. havOFr. kever. to fret inwardtronfo. haggle. rustle Challenge. hiss. to buzz. muzzle. Lat. Fr. place See Cheek. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. cadieira. also to prattle. jaw. a vault or arched roof. to institute anforensic action. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. false accusation. green sagrin. to bark. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. ON. fern-chafer. Piedm. a double operation * Chafer. G. — — — . a jackdaw. In vulgar language. any insect of the beetle kind. to gnaw. calix. ceaf. ing rapidly repeated cries. calonja. catena. Pat. cam. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. chaene. or puff with snorting. great chafe. . much blowing. a goba rustling . cathedra. camera. chaise. Du. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. Lat. avena vilior. signal by drum or P. a chough. Gr.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. chicane. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. cadera. bargain. P. Pr. to caw chawer. . swelling with anger. fa sagramen de calompnia. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. limare. in a monstrous fume. Fr. clamare. cadena gives chain. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. far lima-lima. kdfelen. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. breathe hard. kiqfta. dispute. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. to ner It. to file. difficulty . crooked. lime . de Brai. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Due. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). to sit. E. Prov. In like manto huff. Chagrin. Chair. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. contestation. puffed or ruffled with ly. and as this was the beginning of man. baras of ants. cadena. Fl. Lat. Wall. kiamta. Perhaps Pm. Fr. to chatter or talk lightly. chambre. lime. a prattling woaction. chalanger. leviter crepo Then. tronfio. kuhista. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. . now a chair. Cot. kedja. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. chafeter. often puffing. Pers. chaffare. chatter. Bav. 11. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. without chap/are makiinde. Fr. to move the jaws. to tattle. To buy and sell. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. preise. ckapfare.— — . the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. Fr. songe. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Du. calumnia. De Ir4. keuchen. tattle cheep. a chain.. Fr. to pant. on. to a seat. to calumpnjamen. puff.sure carriage. Came. chaulx. rustling motion challenge. quisquilise offence. Fr. idle words. 35. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. hordeum vel let. kuhata. shaIt. dongio. Adelung. Hal. grief. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. chafing. Prov. to gnaw. that leneth e per I'autra. chayire. cauvette. sagri. . matter by combat. kaff. as. to babble. refuse barley . to puff and blow. to call. calice. kahuja. Prov. kaff. Fr. KoBiSpa. hght Chalk. chaine. (ca'e'ra) to chair.. from Swiss kafeln. ceafer. kahista. fume.

kabinti. . Lat. chamble. to Hal. from Fr. dial. chanfrein. Fr. kinipen. to slope out the . ON. campar. Pm. camp. luctare. accident. to fasten oneself on to another . to tread The sound heavily. tsammogni. pinch. . to happen {ad and cadere. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. Lat. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. zampettare. divided game. The E. the chafldn.edley. . and mesUe. Prov. Fr. athlete. bickering. Carpentier. excellent. Commonly derived from campus. act of falling. head armour. boys speak of capping verses. bundle. to be eminent. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. . hamper. fighting place. . dial. schmatzen s. cample). a horse-race.' ' Pr. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. to debate. The G. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. difficulty . kampen. to strive at games . Fr. Fin. received the petitions of the suitors. calida et sans aguet. champ parti. campear. s.' melleia. move the jaws. keiiipe. to slope. kimppu (Lap. as swine. ing. hng. champ. fight. kempen. champ. cancelli. kappd). So in e. kibti. kimpUma. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. — ^Tusser. camp. jeu parti. a court of justice. a warrior. chance. surpassing. kampeln. ciambellano. champion Du. Chancery. pedilusor. — Ch-amberlain. to wrestle. zs jeopardy. To hollow out in chanPtg. compound. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. to move the jaws kiamt. to quarrel (comp. to to chew champ. — KiL . Campar.140 CHAMBERLAIN . The word is preserved in E. dial. to excel. cempa. See Camp. Chance-n3. kabMe. to flute as a column. camp. Lat. CHANCEL It. game campio. Magy. ON. dricka i kapp. to groove bevel off a right angle. Fr. to fasten oneself to another . contend or argue G. kempa. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. contest. dispute Hal. kiinp. campus partitus . . Get campers a ball To camf . — masterly Sp. hot. an athlete. champ. G. a field of battle. cameratus. E. tsamtsogni. Champ. ciamberlano. a jaw kianisa. . kippo. kiammi. hero Sw. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. a hollow chanfreiner. Meleare. to stick to. kampeln. Fr. It will. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . top of a borehole. jocus partitus. sukibti. to — — champ. chance.—Tutschek. — Hal. To cope or contend with. Sp. a feat. dial. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. Champion. E. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. who stood ad cancellos. prize-fighter. certare. to chew. combat. Sup.—Charfron E. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. and acted as inofficers of . Champarty. kabe. Dief. to wrestle. accidere. chain. at the railings. M. is explained by serrarsi. chdance. e. i. a game at football. cahir. kimbu. to fall. rare. Champaign. chanfrar. cazer. dial. a bundle. nels. escazenza. to hollow out. Lith. reusement — fight in single combat. chanfreindre. fray. or player at football. Partnership. termediaries between them and the judge. Du. Prov. Gall. chaude mesUe. chanfrein. to paw the ground E. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. gewolbt. calidameya. ON. to . Hence (with the nasal) w. as in It.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. kablys. When the to quarrel. Chancellor. To Chamfer. Chancel. to talk. broil. Sp. caer. slope of a bevelled angle. kampa. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). giving rise to the as. contention kappi. fight. kabintis. champ. to hold . Chamfron. from chaud. to fall).' SherI'altro ' ' . to bevel. cadere. camerlengo. Fr.Lat. or less ignorant. to fasten on. which seems another form of the root. gekrUmmt. kapp. therewithal. kriimmen gebogen. to hang. . a scufSe. kimpustella. to smack the lips in eating. mesleiare. chamfrain. kanip. The happening of things Chance. campus. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. Lat. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . to cample. chajnbellan . Ptg. a hook . wood. from cheoir. —Chamfrain. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — .

kiceft as well as kjakje. while the broader vowels a. chapeta. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. cambium. Probably from chap. camjar. Fr. to strike with a sharp edge. a chap is a crack or fissure. It is also used in the sense of the E. W. Chape. That wide were sentin their spicery. as skin chapped hands. Russ. flat . a jaw. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. to peck. to deal. wood. kappen. Fr. — . supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. any hollow for conveying water. to hack. clapet. ON. — : Lat. AS. chandelier. from chandler. extended to other trades. cambiar. kemma. properly in a hard body. 140. 2. Commonly derived from capella. Sp. Walach. exchange. Hal. . These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Hence It. chancellerie. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. cambiare. Channel. the mouth. exchange. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. not a soul. Lat. chapilla. ceaplas. a pipe. chaps. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. a money-changer. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. to plate. to chap at a door. I. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. chapa. to cut up into small pieces. to break . debeant conjurare. See Chant. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. cheek. Compare chark. to spht a chip. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. also a clap. or the cracking of one. skipta. jaw. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Da. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. are kept. chap. the chaps . chap. jaw. to swap. —Ordericus Vitalis. to apply one flat thing to another. kvar kjceften. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Aasen. Chap. cangiare. a small plate of flat metal. changer. like the knocking of hard things together. from clap. leather. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. schimbd. to cut. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Molbech. . Fr. Da. from canna. to change. To Change. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . gab. muzzle. Du. surfaces striking together. to creak. exchange schimbatoriu. chapear. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. Prov. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. esclapa. to cut off . or the like chapar. to — cut. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. to strike. hack . chapeletas de imbornales. kapoti. throat of an animal.^. to strike. chapelete de una bomba. the gutter that runs along a street. Bret. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. Chandler. Chapel. chop. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Chop. as those on a trunk. chanter. a small metal plate Port. lips of an animal. chop. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. . the clappers of the scupper holes. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. See Chop. kiceft. schimbu. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. waterconduit. to paw like a horse . . chiappa. ceaflas. cantare. to peck. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. as to chap hands. Lang. a strip of metal plate. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. klepan. shift. is used in the same sense . the place where candles ler. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. And N. to plate. Fr. as chancery . In like manner Walach. Chap. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . canalis. kennel. a dealer in candles then. —Chantry. a reed. Sc. as It. Hal. chancery. Cheek. Chaps or chops. Sp. Man of Law's Tale. Chip. to coat. as corn-chandChandry. and also to chap or crack. Hence chantry. . ^Jam. may be compared with ON. Chap. to sing. cobio. — — —Marculfus in Due. prune. E. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. and the modern canal. esclapo. to put on fresh clothes. to truck. Lith. A fellow. kjaakaa. hard bodies. kaupa.

gaggle . to load . a turn cerran. A weed among com AS. Mid.. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. carregar. occasional turn. Fr. burning without consuming the substance. chirlar. charcoal burners. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. carus. Justin. Charcoal was ciarlare. to chirp. enough. chat. * Charcoal. a riddle. Fr. caricare. Chare. chapel. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. cabildo. czirbti. Inst. In that work the verb is written caire. dear(in both senses).Lat.). xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. chapitre. Chirk. jabber. kurkti. capital. and in It. to . babbling. Chaplet. Mundart. canne. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. condo il volgar francese. the nature of a thing. See Cheap. chirk. Bret. cluck kirklys. twist. dear. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Sp. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. caritas. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. wreath for the head. clack. a cricket karkti (schnarren. — spell. It. Swiss. of chapel. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. carmen. Sup. to prattle. ghirlanda seor garland. in To ness Charity. An enchantment. Charge. carricare. AS.czirksti. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. to converse. to chirp as sparrows. kurkelis. grave or make incised marks on an ob. czurliwoti. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. charlar. It. which was incantation. ceap-man. Fr. to dove . wood to coal. Fr. To Char. a mark of a mountebank. creak. decken. capellare. . colliers that charred coal. twitter. charer. ject). it is my turn. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. — — — turned to coal. charlatan. turn. to talk . . a verse. charger. Lang. And damned be he who first cries Hold.charme. a charm. Lat. Charade. From Norm. to chirp. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Charlatan. chirriar. char. called in Sp. as a beetle. to sing or chirp as birds. Chark. siarad (pronounced — sharad). bler. eyre. carmo. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. tegere. dim. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. cerran. be- e. eapitulo. seems to be derived charade. creak. a rhyme. —— . Macduff. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. a dispute . And it can hardly be doubted Dief. pohadka. hiss Lith. capitolo. It. beloved. to tattle. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. to turn. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . — a car. car.' Boccaccio in Diez. chapelet. The G. It. Deutsch. a riddle. a The OFr. the turtle pitre. ciarlatore. Gr. hadka. . to turn Gael. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. from capa. a garland of roses. karout. gadka. Yx. go. OE. kirkti. See Charlatan. cluck. to love. for the same reason rosario. from capitulum.whirr. to croak as a frog . Sp. from Charade. from cape or cope. chatter. &c. Lay on. . called kedlock. chatter. AS. to creak. . affection. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. 2. surris seu Lat. 370. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. charitas. capella. cearcian. Lat. Du. as. Character. cha. used in the sense of magic Fl. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. Boh. talking. Chapter. in turns. properly to place — . a hood. Lat. The crash. to of the governing body. w. Charlock. Chapman. cam. gnash. Ptg. turn about. a mark made on a thing. return. Hence carminare. charge an enemy is to lay on. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. to prattle. keeren. schreien. (eucharistie. Lith. charade. tattler. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. from gadai. babdistinction. corona. es ist mi cheer. to charcoal. Cot. prattling quacksalver. cher um cher. that turned decken . chara. a head or division of a book. w. from carrus. Fr. cedeleac. as Pol. Prov. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. czurksti. Sp. krachzen). a merchant.

The origin seems preserved in the Fin. Parallel with E. chip. Fr. chick. chit. Magy. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. tenax. CHATS fit 143 to name. carnisj bones kept. An imitative word. from xoAn.. — Fr. clack. nome and . limpid. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. a yawning. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. to baptize. The egg is chipped. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. speak . gazeuiller.). It t. karg. clatter. Chary. also a youth. as we speak of olive branches. gaddc. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. castus. la chasse d'une rose. chat. %aafi. ch&tier. g. or the cry of a bird or the like. to enchase it . gazzolare. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . i. as in the E. incassare. a branch. carmen is presented in AS. pure.ppen. ferire. See Cistern. Kil. a word. — The . cs E. to talk. to clap. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. chaste. to crack. clean. Diez. karigh. a crack or a flaw . — — . Chart. chatter. splinters. castus. OE. kippen. a gap. Pol. to chatter or prattle . letters p. gazzerare. kastaa. charm. pure. to wet. clear. is to represent the chamier. To Chasten. From carinen was formed It. Chat-wood. the cry of the bat. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. It. cassa s. as from nomen It. as purgare Fr. chit-chat. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. Malay. chykkyn (Pr. cyrm. ch). Cot.— Chit. Chaste. knatiern. — Hal. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. — = Chats. talk. xi'i-'^vui. from purus. parcus.house. So in Gael. to chirp. to burst open. in Jam. chair. Russ. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. —Bailey. as. crackle. Lat. .). warble. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). noise. to chirp. noise. or a bird out of the egg. a young man . chick. be wide open. chary. Chamel. prate. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. shout OE. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. Chasm. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. To chitter or chipper. gallan or ogan. an enchantress. tittle-tattle. whence a charm of goldfinches. Hal. To chip is then to crack. scraps of for fuel. or suckers on rough borders. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. to which it bears the same relation as chape. germinate . pure. snap. cearig (from cearian. the noise of birds. —Chastise. . To Chase. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. to care). to gape. Chat. To Chase. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. make a noise as birds do. to crack. chikat'. s. shivers. the bird is iiown. Pol. B. enchasser. a churchyard or charnel-house. V. clean. occasionally Forby. a shrine for a relic. csacsogni. sordidus. Du. clap. kna. little sticks cudere. the young shoots . Pm. — Palsgrave. a plate of metal. chip. jackdaw . careful. a branch and a young female. chip. chisf. root of the Lat. —Charter. niggardly. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. kata-kata. to make a noise. — Yorkshire chat. a chatter-box. racket . fragments. schioppare. blackthorn-chats.a. — We ornamental work the to signify E. csacsogany. discourse. — sharp sound of a crack. —Jam. Kil. Fr. chits. geug. Lat castigare. to cut and faggoted. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. chit in the latter sense Du. csatora (Magy. flesh. to set a jewel. It. To talk. warble. knacken. czysty. charmer. or pop. It. It. or equivalent forms. Fl. chaste. used to represent a sharp note. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. kata. Gr. carme and Fr. also to germinate or spring forth. See Catch. csaterdzni. magpie. eclats. fragments or leavings of food. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. whistle. gadu-gadu. as turnip-chaits. D. to cry as a chicken . gazzettare. converse. from pure. the handle of a razor . a flock of those birds. to separate in morsels. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. Cot. caro. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. Fr. a twig Suffolk chaits. G. talk much . See Card. clean. In like manner Russ. the calix of a rose. nommer. To chit. prattle. Fr. To work plate as silversmiths do.— Chatter. also to hatch. Fl. to chirp as a bird to cheep. gazzogliare.

the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin.of the throat in coughing. The gutGoth. syllables ^ag-. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Du. to cough and hence either buying or selling. to — . Ingulphus. to swap goods .. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. a dealer. OFr. Cam. . to stutter gigken. ceaflas. any cheating. gig. Pm. the face. agreeing upon. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness.. look. Fr. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. stuttering. exAS. welcome heartily. 'li^'opa jord i jord. farm for farm. society. caupo. with Dief. keck. Gr. sense of bargaining. a canting knave. et juxta catalla sua. e. giggling. . Cot. to coup s. OFr. price. kaupon. gagkezen. to negotiate. cera. equiva. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. chuckle. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. kikottaa. chapman. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. lead to OE. It. a willing look and unwilling heart. force of the word. CHATTELS has ciio. entertainment. Ek dry and hard. aspect of a man. Faire bonne chire. gagkern. with the exception of land. to deal ON. . from Lat. lower. chaptel. . Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. cita. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. chatel. changing. us. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. kakaista. truffa. ceap.— . ceafl. Cheek. ceahhetan. kak. to buy. cattle. See Cheek. which is used in the to stutter. Check. Chew. to vomit. and. choule. Pro v. in widely separated languages by the Lat.kakot. snout. cattle. Chear. prattlingchete. the tongue. hawkmann. to fetch the breath with difficulty. whence captale. sale. visage. thers. Soc. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. a tavern-keeper. chatal. kaupa. a cheater. kok. Then. jaw. Fin. koopen. in Fr.-^. to make inarticulate sounds in . bon marche. Pr. a metaphor taken from the game of chess.' kezen. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop.— Chaps. jaws. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. goods. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. Bav. upon a checked cloth. to buy. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. &c. the countenance Fr. Slav. Modern Slang.—Choke. countenance. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Bohem.— Chole. stuttering. to laugh. citello. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. chear in the sense of victuals. the Confessor. which is the word in ceap. and hence the E. . sum in a loan. entertain kindly. Lat. KaviiXog. capitale.. Fl. Fr. cheeks. kakkaset. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. a piece of moveable property. cara. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. NE. frown. cachinnari.— Cattle. giving or taking in exchange. dchec. CHEEK zitella. to .' to exchange to gasp. Sp. teeth . The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. kauf.ing. cozener. the principal ' colloquial E. while it Bret. ku. — To check an account. a young boy or girl. tradesman. from AS. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. a repulse. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. It — Brompton in Due. a dealer in horses. chop. Chattels. chiere. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. to clear the throat . catalliim. See Chess. to nauseate (to retch). chavylbone or chawlbone. to coff—Yisi. s. — — —Chowl. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. retching. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. favour. kik. cattle. goods. chire. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. It. kaufen. to cluck like a hen. G. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. the Lat. to chop and change. Sc. Cheat. laughing. 144 the It. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. kek. Hence to cheat. mandibula. Hal. kaupiti. — We ' . sob E. to act as a rogue. horse-couper. are represented piti. kichen.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr.

AS. cerise j G. Du. gill of fish AS. . In these latter forms we see the transIt. ceaplas. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. kasa. ceac. jaws. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Lat. cerasus. to belch. chiffe. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. to swallow.D. xaque. Prov. to kep. to make a noise different word. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. Cherish. G. squeak as a mouse.peep in the same sense. chAtaigne.their struggle for independence. It would Cheese. kikna. old bread. nish source. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. cough. . mollium congeries. kikna of dorum coacervatio. to kasa. Hence kikna is identical with OE. chevir. G. kopen. cheeks. caws. whence czypulas. Kil.). . as meat and butter. kces. veluti piscium. Chevisance. for cheese itself. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. See Case. chaps.EP CHEVRON 145 on. cabrio. Sc. quok. to bring to an end. gabe. by laying up in a covered heap. — — . bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. ceaflas. rennet. cheek. the final guttural is retained in writing.' to w. ceocian. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. gaghel. Sw. the mouth. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. to gasp. /Ji2^/(W. rafters in heraldry. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. the neck. dersen . Prothroat of an animal . a heap. geagl. The name of creak as shoes. &c. takes place in the formation of cheese.G. equal squares of opposite colours. Lat. Fr. cams. Chemistry. made rancid koka. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. w. cufd. Fin. The Sw. AS. acquisition. kistej Lat. geafl. Thus "we are brought din. chests in OE. cabiron. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. It. (Kil. Du. Lat. frame by which the exertion is made. To make a shrill noise Chest. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. caseus. like a young chicken. CHE. cista. a chicken. AS. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. From them the plish. jowl. ceg. ost. — 10 . — — . food. cherir. jaw. kasiiUPr. chesten. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. suffo. carnium. a rafter . Fr. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Lith. Fris. e. Lith. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. jouffle. gap. then end. to gape gab. subacidus. things Da. F*-. kok. to choke with laughter. E. An imitative word. ichec.. treat with affection. a cricket. gous forms are G. subjected to this process with that which the throat . the loose the game of checks. to accomThis they call hdrsk. gapen.Xo belch.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Pl. To Cheep. as. to love. to year. Jam. kapen. kdkel. cheken.koppen. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. E. See Alchemy. jaws Sw. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. castaneusj Fr. Chekenyd or querkenyd. Lat. kjcebe. Hence chesten-nut. mouth kek. skratt. chops. . Achievement. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Fr. N. Tutschek. dear. chasi. Sp. to geahl. the The use of the word kcesir. OHG. achever. to boken. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. practice seems to have been communiChevron. w.D. throat. king). to choke. prevail with. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. the hke. scacco. E. kjakje. See Chess. chops. hasten. jaw . cheek. condition of being taken. whence kasa-leipa. cegio. accomplishment cayed. caru. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. w. ca' — . cireggia. make an end. rattle in the throat. ation. clear the throat. by laying it in come to an agreement with. . jaw. — — . Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. As the board to gasp i. E. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. kjceve. chevron. Cher. cheek. kaecke. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. kastr. the throat. Chess. quoka. Fr. throat. Sp. Analo. Sw. kirsche. Pm.perly head. rupted into chess. to heap up such things for the purchoke. cese. giffle. kdke. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. the palate Chequer. czypti. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. Da. Fr. kesten. Sc. ON. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . ition from a guttural to a labial termin. incaseatus. to hold dear. X'C&s. gullet. Cherry. Chef. cyse. kastanie.. schach. schach. Chevaux de frise. cisty G.cirieggia.

or chick. by driblets. Gattel. Fr. W. tintelen van koude. chill. tremble with cold. crepo. E. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. Chick. or qf people talking rapidly. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. Child. : — a lump. kime.D. chol. term is ssaru fu. as pointing out the origin of the E. the throat. in Walach. w. to Du. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. pole. Chimb. and from the third E. deer's horn.. alter. knit the brow cib-led. capo.. from the first of which is Lith. a hen. the Ptg. G. knarren. also the horizon. cidan. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Walach. Fl. captain. ]). chillar. horn wood. the least imaginable jot. cabarach. gosling. Swiss kiden. Chigue. a cup. Chime. to crackle. a chicken. or the broken noise of birds. kidata. k'imm s. Fr. killen. tremble. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. a chicken. stake. And hence. branchy. Gael. gills of a fish. jaw. caprioru. De finger killet mi for kalte. to pettifog. capete. a finch. G. Kil. cheek. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. cebr. chin. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. signifying properly shivering. Fin. hiss as meat on the gridiron. ' . then as G. E. to gasp for breath (Hal. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. pi. tiuk. kieken.' my finger tingles with cold. kindeken. Sp. pipe. chic. 146 brial. when the vibrations become very rapid. capu. acute. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. chillness or shivering. chavel. Probably from Fr. zitterti. cica cica. beam. kimista^ . kitista. the cry of young . E. the jole. to smart.— . kaau•wen. Fin. kauchen. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating.peep. to chew. chikat'. kimme. tiukkua.^ Hal. cild.— Gattel. — Du. queror. Palsgr. keichen. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. chef. De chic en chic. Du. Halm. kauwe. to contest about trifles. into a continuous shriU sound. a cup cibaw.D. pipio. chiler. cib. kippa. Bret. cap. 'Among these the G. choule. kouwe. a quid of tobacco. caput. rafter . from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. jaws . rafter. Magy. kimia. chillrar. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. twitter. creak. tiukkata. to go. See Chimmer. chew or chaw.). cabar. chaps. while the Magy. a young bird. kibr. a cup. chieftain. while didder is to shiver or citteren. kauen.. grelot). to use the jaws. chicoter. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. Now gan some courage unto him to take. a jaw. aner. — Fin. rafter . Chill. Fl. to contest. kinderen. The Pl. kop. Du. . jaw. Pr. Chief. chicken. — It. CHEW . Payer chiguet A chiguet. Pm. mouth. quivering sound which passes. Brezza. Prov. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. killen. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. antler. to twitter. klagend tonen. to chirp or peep like a chicken. knirschen. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. cabriones. Chitter. tiukka. are formed Du. kind. A To Chew. For the see word Doit. sonorous. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. It. pululo. AS. Russ. chiquei. — — Mother Hubbard. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. s. to raise the rim. Pl. a head. to chime. . but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. or as E. The loss of the syllable it in Du. the young of animals in general. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. then cold. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. chicaner. a small cask OFr. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. kilderkin. a little bit. Tintillo.-ill. chimb. to scold. Imitative of a loud clear sound. caferu. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. strideo. To chitter. pipio. head. has probably the same origin. cabar beinne. Chaw. lead through the synonymous E. To Chide. chawbone. a chicken. — . Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. Fr. chavel. and not vice versd. the rim or edge of a vase. Fin. to the brim. machouere. from little to little. from the second Lat. tyuk. kopf Du.— Cot. kaw. Lat. kuwe.^ to resound as a bell. ach. Pr. the head. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. Da. to titter is Du. the same principle I regard On birds. Pm.. mountain top . horns of the house. czypulas. pip. as. CHJME the radical form is unusual. greloter is to shiver for cold. ultimate origin of the Mite. .

It. a chap. yivtiov. caminata. to chirre. hiss chirlar. kieck hoest. schetteren. Chitter. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. the cheek (jaw) . Gower in Hal. Fr. but or cry as a parrot. to chink with laugh2. ter. Magy. chin . Chine. It. crepare. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. E. genawi. zirpen. as a bell kommata. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. The small entrails of a hog. . do. companied. to sound. — . Prov. part lion. Sp. chick. klincken. ykvvQ. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. cheminde. . czirszkti. and bodily movement in shimm. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. or chyFrigutus. to squeak in It.er. To chink with laughter. Fr. et garrire . — . To Chimmer. from the geon's lancet. Gascoigne in Todd. Sp. applied to tremulous motion. sound. Pr. then to any narrow crack or AS.. and from a similar sound to boil gently. Lith. eschin^e (de pore). all these imitative terms being minata. to gape. a thorn. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. in the same crack. and chim-mer. cisello. to sound deep or the Gr. Fr. See Chark.iron. also vibrans. bx-eak the back of schena. hiss Pm. quivering or shakyng for colde. name Then. twitter caminus. to simmer. hollow. to prattle czirpti. Chimera. Primarily a shrill sound. bone . kumina. . as a large bell . sonus the backbone Lat. representing connected together. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. tsengeni. See Chats. Du. a crowing sound in recovering breath. chhint. skina. tsongeni. Sp. schrick. a fire-place.Huloet in Hal. — . Ptg. In the same sense. spina. the jaw. kink hoest. backBut she withal no worde may soune. flaw Hal. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. cinan. komista. Huloet. backe. It. simmer. plodere. zirken. verynge or dyderinge. Chink-cough. eschine.to chirp. cleft. E.. to creak. to prattle . Pm. The desig. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. clipping of coin. to chirp. chink. a hall Mid. from 10 * ' Chia. Caminatum.Lat. the chin . To Chitter. esquina. fissure.schricken. schina. Chisel. the jaw. gena. Cot. have been used to designate the spine. j^lf. a chink or fissure. komia. eschiner. The change from the sound ter \s.). Chyrme or chur. which differ from each other only as Chirk. i. pare also Walach. To chirp or twitter. twinkling light. in Hal. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Chit. schiena. kumista. hus. — . sounding deep. Fr. chits. keich husten. and the Du. quavering of the voice. vincially used in the sense of a crack. Chip. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. shiver and the chyver of Pr. to tremble. Lat. as the/ is preserved tering. epine. then of a fabulous monster part goat. cisaille. the mouth (jaws) . killed by Bellerophon. Chimney. schetteringe. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. a Kuttn. to murmur. Chitterling. to tattle. clashing of weapons. Bret. It. Sw. to chirp . — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . chatter . spina. See Chap. a szemrcU. A . . and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. tremulous motion. sparkle. cinne. sound on beginning to boil. the whooping cough. Du. Diez de. Bav.sharp. are In like manner E. and light. to chine.to divide or Du. KinneGr. disCot. Chink. chirp. clangor tinniens kummata. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. cincel. It. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. tinnire. resonance . to sizel. Chat. gen. esquena. dial. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. squittire. AS. Chintz. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. kinne. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk.' Phaer's Virg. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . . fyr. pork) . genou (pi. Fr. a surkik hosta. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. 147 kimina. ciseau (for cisel). Hindost. Gloss. tschirpen. stridere. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. the chine. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. to open chirriar. the cheek. as birds the mouth. cheek. to creak. Sp. Kil. G. from Lat. Chymerynge. ciarlare. Chin-coug^h. See Bright. up and down. — — — — — .czirbti. a thorn. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. caminsects. rustle. caperd. sonants. to chink. G. as the chink of money.

of an angry — — — ' ' — . friller. word is more likely to be from Lat. a goose's giblets. to Compare also Pol. to taste. kiusan. a company of singers or dancers. to exchange horses. heaped measure. Boh. shoot . ^euw. chawdron. chimp. it is probable that the root kus. Gr. to try. keypa. anger. Choice is probably direct from Fr. kiezen. chatter. coup. to taste . ON. a wine taster. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. OHG. Warwickshire coff. kusid.ceosan. Enn Sigridur sem ' . ON. to prove. a twittering. developments of the same radical image. signify to kiss. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. %o\ifa. a small slice or slip of anything . and in this sense the * small pieces. kushati.freze. Cavalry. chaup. curly . ^S. To Chop. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio.ffrill. CHOP kros.. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. chife. a knight. cut up into — See Chats. — Chock-full. to wrinkle. &c. a fragment. Chap. to ing is doubtless to taste. disposition. cepa. gdnse gekrose. The . Jam. approve. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . Chuck-full. schoch. The manners and senti. x^poc. as with a blow. kausjan. chap hands. kruszki. cape. Swab. chorus. . Chives are also a kind of small onion. a scale or fragment P1. the inwards of an animal. Fr. to taste. choix. a calf's pluck or chaldron . Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. * To Choose. to break off in small shive. shiver. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. to palpitate . Gr. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. chibble. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. or original meaning is preserved in G. from chevalier. to hack. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. Yr. Prov.yEuffM. gekrose. by which they are Fr. caperd. then to try. to choose.vonic languages are Pol. to try. kor6n. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. koren. okusyti. Fr. a blow. scheve. kiesen. . keuren. a calf's chaldern of E. propagated. Choice. also calPs.D. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. wrath. to turn. the small parts of the roots of plants. try. whence Lat. are used in the same sense. to strike hands . schevel-steen. prove. ments of the knightly class. — See Cheek. &c. coro. Schmid. a ruff. to stop geschoppt voll. . to try. As kushnuti. and N. gustare.. ent quarter. The I go to prove them. a heap. kushevati. taste. — — — . — Cholera. ruffs. and Vf. of E. as green as leeks. to clap up Hal. G. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. to shiver. arkiusan. all seem slate .' Verie coinme Cot. from %u\i). chattering. kaup. chippe. kalbs gekrose. rare. To Choke. then to shiver. a chive. . Walach. to taste. Body and Soul. taste. kiusan. crammed Choir. Goth. . try. Swiss kust. lead us on to Lat. fresure. The Sc. chock full. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Chivalry. full to overflowing. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. choppe. to try . wkusit' prikushat. wein didder for cold. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. from kraus. pluck. xiv.' who shall not taste death. skifa. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. Serv. pieces . schiefer.gust. called cMtters in the N.' At last he dwelt . Equivalents in the SlaFr. —Chorus. i. a ruff or frill. and It. a young . stone which splits off in shives or shivers. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. fine threads of flowers. civette. kbhren. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. to experience. an onion. I. Choleric. a rag. 19. g'schochet voll. G. chceur. seallion or unset leek. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. by the vibrations of sound or motion. Gr. the ridges prove.— B jag E. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. 2. specially with an application to theatrical performances. Chives. krussyi. to chap. and in kosten. gusten. whence choleric. cive. to tempt. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. full. kustigen. kieser. to chap at a door . select. G. cke. .V)^x. to taste. experience valerie. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. See try. chiffe. Fr. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . bile. Lat. causir. chives. to taste. to ^cleave . •- Russ. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. in the same language. Luc. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. haslets. .

Sw. gull. cauvette j Fr. chevin. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. ON. chronicles.sohola. whence e. Ant. Chronicle.povucd. in Chaucer. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. and we actually find champman for chapman. gold. Confounded with the bullhead. chevane. That Face. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. a lump or piece chump. forms are Chrism. Fr. to chatter. G. E. A fish with a thick snout and head. E. as Du. an offence against the fitness of times. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. xpi'^lia. or miller's kaycke . klopper. gull. i. fat. choucas. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. Fr. chapineria. To Chouse. Chord. Gr. In Sc. short piece kubbug. Marin. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. the intestine of an animal. xftovoq. cow-couper. capitanus.—Chuokstone. — Quabbe. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. e. dealing. 4. Fr. ceo. Chough. A jackdaw. a trafficker in souls. Chuck. from kloppen. merchant. a The What dhy ^. Du. AS. -chron-. Fr. koppe. sent before him a Chiaus. . Picard. whence apparently the Sup. The Turk was here As one should say. &c. that will thank chiaus — you richly. Alchemist. cavena. cheap. caphatenus.). because she would not endure this husband chopping. Du. In the Alchemist.' They are forebuyers of quheit. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. in i6io. Fr. caqueter. — Dief. Lat. Chub. capito. whence the Fr. Gr. To Chop logick. which was written 27.• — . prattle . chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. chrysalis (Plin.\^s. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. equivalent to the E. Gr. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. soul-couper. a messenger or envoy. high clog. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. kaej Lith. e. dial. to overturn. clat. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. Madam. — — — .' Jam. we find the following passage Dap. Come. chack. Wall. See Change. ley in Giiford. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. to cant. chuet. the teeth to chatter . chevane. See Chaff. time ra . What do you think of me. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. to knock.. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. capitone. — . to strike in the hand. chroniques. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. noble Doctor. klompe. to turn over. by the Robert Shirley. thumb Fl. chouette. kobe. kaufen. P. peace. Anachronism. chrisme. Nominale in Nat. capita. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. OE. XpvaaXic. to clack. connected with G.— Landnamabok. of which such strings are made. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. a thick piece. kaulhaupt (club-head. kowe. quappe. cauc. p. Chrysalis.— Chevin. xop5>}. —Shakespeare. kubb. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. cob. kubbr. the same word with the It.(. one who buys and sells horses or cows. the string of a musical instrument originally. I bring you the Cloughs. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. slipper . Peace.X. To coup.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. thick-set. chouquette. a stump. clogs. yiSA. cambiare. traffic. kaw. E. Borgoens happen. E. chapma?i. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. as in Fr. for to defraud. cheviniau. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. overset. kauwe. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. — Chrisom. Sp. a small fish with a large head. claquer. 49. chapin. chatter . bearand aits. Kil. dial. Gr. cresmeau. civetta. whence — E. who took in the Turk- clack. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. Jam. kolbe (club). caker. to speak thieves' slang. cangiare. gobio capitatus. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . Chopino.. If I discover. ' ' What's that? Dap. monedula. chub. . a bullhead. From the Turkish Chiaus. chop.). syllables chat. kowej Sax. plump. Cot. applied to an owl in that language.

kernjen. a cutting round. a pebble. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. swollen or puffed up Cot. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. Gothic nations. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. G. as Fr. -cis-. whence ON. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. blow on the I io6 in Mur. to Newsp. . ceffore. whence deciduous (of trees). casum (in comp. from Lat. calx..black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. in the face. Lat. Du. marrow. kerl. OFr.' he adds. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. cidre. to turn from blossom to fruit. The derivation from Kvpiasov. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). KvptaKolg. from Lat. cinis. male person. as a board.— Chu%. . set kerti. joffu. kirna. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. to separate the kernel of the milk. Churn. lamak. The spelling of chider has Chump. the snout of an animal. i. It is certain. klakka. e. -cide-. ChurL husbandman. Cider. kern. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . chofe (Grandgagnage). kjami. cado. a cutting an old chuff. a pebble . Jennings. however. to To Chuckle. ceffo. sindel. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. chops. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). See Ceiling. calculus. a man. to fall at or on. Cob.— . Fr. Ir. . to cause the milk to grain. or choice part of a thing . sive piratiam facere sciant. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. Gr. giffle. — of the two words. to fall. a fellow. ceaflas. AS. C^z^j^ churHsh. To chuck in the fall from. to fall upon decide. ashes. kiorne. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. . and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. an old man. jaws. cheek. Gr. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. Sw. See Cheek. cut off. chaps. Chuff. residue of burnt coals. as water running over rocks or stones. ON. sintel.' And cold. log of wood. chuffy. Aasen. whence church. that the word is an adoption of Fr. thence a belt. KaxXij?. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Church. flower. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. a girding on. Chunk. karl. to jaw chack or snap. domhnach. Lat.rendered by Kil. to gird. Cleland in Jam.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on.D. ceaplas. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. a miser. to make a aiKipa.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. cheeks Cincture. a lump. to strike clatter. As AS. Fris. so as to make the happen . to throw out sparks. comp. or. pith. -cido. accido. to him a sudden blow. x^^i?. 24. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. cendre. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. chack-stone. spuma metalli. as Epkema explains it. a man. See Cheek. with It the Lord's house. in circumcision. ON. to cut decide. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. Wall. the kernel. Lat. a resounding object. Hence -cid-. ccedo. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. sindra. we have to chack. fat-cheeked. Ka-^aiva. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. have given rise. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. cinders used disjunctively. to make a rippling noise. dial. chofu. Diss. cinctus. &c. tie about). to sparkle. ladre from Lazare. sindr. Da. ceorl. kaerle. joufflu. a husband. cinctura {cingo. Fr. Lat. geaflas. ciuffo. Du. Du. chakil. Probably from It. Sicerawry face ceffata.V//a'6'?. — . dust. surly. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. has been impugned which it has really no connection. ON. tindra. G. incido. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. e. -cise. pp. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. * Cinder. chife. sicera. chack or stane-chacker. kakka. i. — — A — ' ' — . as in E. Sc. In Sc. a douse on the tores. AS. . Wall. in Sc. to determine incision. to form grains of butter. gffe.for the residue of stone coal. sinter. scoria. countryman. sindel is although only this canon directly dis.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church.^. to churn. -eris. Cieling. a man. . -cisuiri). &c. then the on oh StX iv roXt. a rustic . but by way of explan. The origin ation. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone.

ter. and. sound- — hands figures. sound of blow. a reservoir Probably from Lat. a loud uksa slamketi. ern. E. a whip. See -cid-. to clack. civitas. circum. ON. stimulate. klubb. Gr.' sione. ON. a mass. of citta. a ball. to go. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. claim. tinnitus . cry out . Alt. to clap at a theatre. Du. castus). circum. gutter. Cite. clack-dish. sprig. around. cifra. It. clack. sip. It. compared with It. fall. klepati. bunch. to summon or call on. to make to go. klemte. to set in motion by means of the voice. glam. cry. ciste. klopati. a for water. clobyn. We . klateren. Gr. clat. a kind of rattle. Gael. So a light. Excite. lump. clambar. -cite. a whirlwind. clack. . a lump Du. klacken. biw. klumbr. Lat. klater-busse. klompe. clatCot. to strike. outcry. smack. Comp. the place of . sajira. kluV. to call. cluster. a rattle . klap. scion. . chest. a ring. E. a. dob. claquet de moulin. crack. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. and E. Scion. clamare. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. Mack. clamp. a kind of pipe. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . hringr. in the frequentative form. KpiKoe. trunk. lash . glambar. . civis. citrus. ruin. empty Golius. -cis-. dim. domern. cito. a block. We . The Gr. ring. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. to mention. chupon. Fr. clog. from chupar. lump. a ball. City. Sw. Lat. sound. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. to bawl. klamp. clap. creak les dents. Sw. civilis. a Pol. rattle. Recite. klump. a circle. Lat. cittade. is traced by Gr. a Lat. . the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. klekotati. From Arab. clasp. klqb. a citizen . * Ciplier. CION See Tinder. Lat. See Crankle.. Bohem. Dan. chatter . and clash. Lap. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. a circle. clamras. lump . cisterna. W. To Clack. accordingly find the roots dab. whence cistiti. Hal. klambr. a pop-gun. clamp. may cite w. klammer. Circum-. cion. In Fr. uproar. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. scion or sucker. to chatter . cit^. . with an initial s instead of c. clump. ON. a circle. . cittadella. a lemon tree. clapping of klacke. claquer crash. log. twig. to appeal. forms — — — parent plant. cisterna. the tongue. The notion of a lump. a city. klappen. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . claquer. globus. . mass . a cistern. circ2tlus. radical identity of the Fr. city. vociferation. clot ON. noise. Fr. . circle. —Civil. noise — — a cistern. circa. for Cion. belonging to cities or social life . a shoot. prattle. —Circuit. Gael. sindri. as caverna from cavus. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). a clod. KipKog. klappe.— . as. to gnash the teeth. as in Sp. a block. Circle. a boss . Du. clamer. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Chaste. to chatter. rattle . ball kloben. a young and tender plant. bunch . glamm. Citadel. kringr. cion. to cleanse. clack-box. about. sphere gleba. and Sp. lump. lump. cittd. a hiding-place. klak. Cot. To Claim. around. to call by name. a knob. Du. parallel root is slam. clapper. cieo. klacke-busse. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. Dan. It. wasserkasten (water chest). or quill to draw waier through Fl. the door was slammed J slamem. klimp. excite. clap. lucerna. slam. klabb. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. babble . From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. a city. to be empty. kringla. a judgment cern. Fr. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. chijfre. Hence Incite. — (Dozy) ing blow. * Cistern. a clod Russ. to clatter. to cluck. chupon. . Lat. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. Sp. G. Lat. crack. G. or split with noise. &c. to call. to toll . Clump.to suck. Fr. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. suck). Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. to knock. citujn. claquer. area. to cry out. a'upiav. Citron. See Circle. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. Lat. . cista. a lump Lat. a split. sifr. a rattle Fr. crack. The syllables clap. a cleansing place. to chatter. prattle. clangor avium . lump of wood or with the nasal. . Clamp. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. Clam. Arab. a place See place hiddern. or clap-dish. 'mass.

to knock. a sound made by a lighter clink. klamm. clandestine. sound of the trumpet . Pourta las p^iros as clapas. sound. originally a heap of large stones. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. kloben. strain . Fr. AS. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. To Clamber. See Clam. a craCmp. The equivalent of Lat. G. Bav. cramp-iron. glambar. cream Manx doan. c). to hide. klamre. kluppel. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. klepati. klettern. for tame conies. sticky Hal. compression. Clan. Russ. Clamour. cluster. gum. anything hidden. klem-vogel. gripe. dial. seize. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. stick. to patronus. and that from celo. G. In like manner Du. hold. massy. klam. dam. To clap in E. solid. dank. clav\f. Clank. Clink. from the w. klavre. — . tremble . klatten. clapper of conies. clamber. of the children. where- A — unto they retire themselves. a stick.1. offspring. to hold fast with the . children. — with hunger. Dan. dem. chatter. in a hidSen place. bandage. klibber. substances of a stickydam. club . dial. clammy brace. of which the locative case. G. . kleben. daver. damor. a loud tingle. to do anything with a clap. accent. kleppe. klubber. Clapper. a hawk. to gingle. tight. is used in the sense of secretly. Dan. klippe. bond. dam. as the clapping of hands. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. rattle. B. klappen. ney. ancestor. . cramp. Halma. Swiss kletten. E. crowd . hook. klynge sig op. to glue. Lat. Du. contraction. clapas. Bohem. tone. tattle. ring as metal. rumour. Clang.. chief. Gael. The E. Salainen. to seize. adopted Lat. is a nasalised form of gripper. as the Lat. sound object . &c. to clap on. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. compress. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. to Sw^. dandestinus. klemmen. a burr. to hook things together. E. Du. descendants . who occuG. dapier. G. but perhaps not directly from it. apprehend . klank. klamme. take hold of. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. G. or klamp-vogel. privately. beat. with cramp-irons. to hold to pinch. clibby. beating.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. children. . scendants. to climb . sound . klebern. . a trap. klampen. tenacious. to clutch or cling oneself up. dang. to stick or glue. klam7n. dienklebber. a rattle . Dan. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . to beat. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. resonance klingen. klappen. to climb. klette. to cleave or stick. a place underground where rabbits breed. cling. strait. klepel. clink. to clap. a sound. dink Du. Mampe. coagulated cream. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. kleppen. buckle klamp. to knock. cleave. klynge. to daub pinch. G. and hence to pinch . Du. a whip. run to lumps Clandestine. dambar. to pinch. sound. to climb. klimmeii. a noose . klang.er. The Fr. — Climb. dientes. grimper. conceal. grasp. Lang. . the in many languages. to stick conceal. clear sound. a heap of stones. of money Gael. salaan. E. These words To are closely connected with damp. The root which gives rise to klibb. klammern. Sw. gliong.' to take coals to Newcastle. holdfast. dam immediate modifications — . to glue. clasp. A i. yf. klappre. to climb. klammer. pressed close or hard together. to. Swiss kldbem. klopfen. G. clap. clann. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. dapi^. also to clog up. dren. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. uproar. dam. Dan. OE. — Cot. nature . Clamp. klepanie. a claw. E. to climb. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. to claw oneself up.' klibba. viscosity . to starve. dia. — Lat. clap. clajnmy. Clap.p correspond- ' without order. a stone See Claim. Du. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. klemmen. celo produces Fin. to cling. prison. klobber-saen. tinkle. whence sala. . a claw . tingle. dapier. and hence moist. a bird of prey. from birdlime. clangor. to dame. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. chatter. closely analogous to that of the fast. to Hal. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . damras. to climb. pinching. salafa. These are imitations of a loud. a heap of stones or other things piled up . klemmen. to clamp. Hence the Fr. a sound made by a still . hands or claws to grasp. narrow. dap up. viscous. To sticky. kleppe. knocking. dee. brawl. — — . diver. clang. B.

with a reddish tint.. clavis. Identical with ON. to snap. fracas. &c. a club or massy stick. KXeiSi. fibula. Wyutoun in Jam. klatschen. syrtium junctura. buckle. K\a. klampe. — tells us.ck a whip. to do anything with a . It. a lash. clew. kleeven. fragor . to draw it up into a bunch. Clasp. clarinado. a buckle. clatter. a clasp. klucz. is used in Sc. clair. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. Du. klaeret. Eya-klasi. —Kil. klase. bawling. teren. hook. a. to cleave. clump. Sw. thwack . nawith stanis. Claw. From claudo. a bunch.oi. cluster. Sp. chasguear. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. The form clew. from scknallen. Claret. skeria-klasi. to ring in such a manner for the dead. E. a complete sentence. crying. klaequivalent to clack or clap. clarin. Kil. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. Class. clopa. klaskad. a ball. a key. he of white and red grapes mingled together. seizes) . a bird with powerful talons. hawk. G. a heap. mass. Du. ansa. Nawith stavis. stop of an organ. an on the one hand.w or u on the other. it is called clamming. klauwe. a sphere . uproar. sound of the foregoing description. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. in the sense of a claw. a key origmally a crooked nail. biichse. So Pol. klouwe. — Clarion.Gr. chiarello. The collar-bone. flap. assembly. pellet . Pol. kleuen. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. a claw. Prov. But clasp or elapse. . Thus from clamp. we pass to the E. and clavis. globus. Commonly made. locket of a door. Eau clairette.). contraction. to clash as arms. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. klamme. pet. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Du. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. ghespe.— CLARET clamp. clairon of a trumpet— It. The b readily passes into gleba. klaterbusse. clairon. clas. Fr. as it is written by Chaucer. Fr. — Kiittner. ictus resonans. Lat. clamp.Z. klouwe (Kil. — Clarinet. Clatter. klatsche. to patter. Lat. a key KKtitid. subrubidum. klatscha pop-gun. a water made of aquavitse. from its use in fastening things together. to clap . of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. To clew. a nail. a distribution of things into groups. chiaro clear. to end. compression. dap. to knock. to fasten. the collar-bone. ivy. Lang. klc^i. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. klampvoghel. vin clairet. from the resemblance to a key. forms are the Du. klauw. sauna de classes. clew or fasten upon a thing. a claFr. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. cinnamon. applied in their harness. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. Dan. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Lat. Nightingale. mass. Owl and that by which cleave to. 269. schnalle. . rion. and old red rose-water. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Clause. Gr. the cracking of a whip. Clash. a clod. and shrill-sounding trumpet. Cot. waU. to fasten together . a kind of small. klijven. It. kletse. vin claret. a lump. Du. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. In the same way is formed the OE. cloi. Analogous Jam. insularum nexus . From clairet. and through v into a. Du. nail. a lump . With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. Lat. an ending. biichse. Rayn. claret win e. klos. glcis.\x\xvn. to shut. clausum. the primary origin clapa. same class with w. gaspe. Klatsch- a pop-gun . as G. Serv .to cra. rubellum. Originally clasis. &c. row aii/iaTos. climp. which signifies a ball in E. In E. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Fr. a. classis. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. puUs. i. to rattle . claw (what fastens together. chiizjj-o. a little hook . Thus from Lat.It. straight-mouthed. kluczka. klot. Du. to animals Sp. vinum helvolum. blab. Clavicle. somewhat clear. in the sense of a mass or lump. clausula. noise. Russ. diver. is preserved in Lang. e. thence a definite head of an edict or law. kiosk bicza. clavus. Clew. Mask ! plask ! thwick. sphaera. chiarino. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. whence kleuer. globus. as Mod. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. chatter. or as G. also a knell for the dead. under three modifications dava. klatschen.

to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . klinke. loam. provinciaUy termed dout. the latch of a door. clean. kldnkelein. to fasten. A — A Clement. to clinch GB. to chink. klinke. neat. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. kluft. to separate into parts. Du. to glitter. glan. and Celtic glan. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. clear. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. . to tear or cleave asunder. klouen. Da.Q. . 154 CLAY dutch. to shine. celebrated . vice. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. kleben. Mar. The word may be — . Wilbraham. rivet. klouen. a latch. as Fr. a cleft. klink. bogs cous. Kil. glan. a fissure or division See Cleave. a clincher. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. This is probably one of the clean. gaklankjan. The word is . a noose. a — — . G. glbram. Du. klutsch. Clinch. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. glandse. a flash. Da. an object is simply cleft. G. conserere antklankjan. E. sticky . either by the coherence To Clepe. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. klove The Dan. Halma. klincke. to fasten. . tongs. cliquet. found in other cases. glance . glor-mhor. neat. klceg. as ON. glorious. to shine . loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. Sw. Dan. hook. To Clench. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. clout. B. opposite senses.— Claggy. mud. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. kloue. sticky earth. Sc. The proper meaning of the word is shining. door-latch. E. diquetcr. Lat. as the Du. Axletree clouts. klinken. clay . dut. Clear. kleverig. klov. the fork of the body. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. cleave. seem formed dial. ON. together . of iron worn on shoes by country people. klijveii. explained from the klinken. pretty. Du. or from being divided into two parts. clink. To call. Lat. clemens. polished. Omklinken. that was Torriano. a in that of sphtting. From clap. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. clear. pure. shine. klirren. to fasten E. . to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. — : A rivet. klinken. gleit. to Brilliant. and Dan. to cleave. a key. daggy. the two parts of Du.— Clag. gentle. ON. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. words applicable sight. glitnir. vissticky . pure. klinke. from the clinking of the latch. to clink or sound. a noise. a fissure. 2. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. from diquer. sleek. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. ON. kluftholz. Clay. Bav. Gael. is fast and sure. voice. i. kloben. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Sc. klirre. dams. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. clean. klinka. Fr.— . a one end. E. klag. from nitere. See Clog. to sound or make a noise . bend in a stream. calm. Du. G. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching.' was nailed to a rock. a mass. a lump. chaps in the skin. it cleave together. glent. kleg. clean. kloben. kla:g. glan. Cleft. bright. kluyte. gingle. Da. smooth. Sw. cloven wood. split. clear. radiant. give a shrill sound Jr. Cleat. AS. klinken. G. to clinch a nail. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. Thus from G. a mass. and E. The Dan. See Clam. a cleft or fissure. kluit. clean. From dob. dench. nitidus. kleevig. klank. holding together. viz. danche. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . and. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. doggy. rive. a bunch of When flax). to stick or adhere . Du. Du. or of a tree. doff. This word is used in two business is finished off. dags. sticky. a lump. W. dinquet kleeven. klieben. geklonken. klyft. klieuen. famous. the To Cleave. glatt. a claw or talon. as Lat. the original . deot. a plate. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. . to clench. Sw. kleg. kloben. glint. merciful. pellet. G. klor. to 2. date is AS. dag. klafwa. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. speech . In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. clash. Clean. Die zaak is zS. to dag ox dog. as explained under G. in two ways. glindse. Probably a modification of the word doitt. (Cot. clibby. a cleft. that was a striking proof. dedgy. pure . Clemency. splendid pohshed. glitta. rift. . dial. to be composed. viz. lump.). to stick to. glbr. river. polish . to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard .

as Sc.' ii. from clifian. cleft. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. globus. chatter. IS5 Du. a tumbril. klaffen. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. Lat. what so men clappe or crie. a ladder. kloof. dook (identical with E. precipices. and hence deik. Du. Click. claw or talon to dek or deik. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. to bend. to rattle. Commonly derived from deliver. exactly Gr. Hence Lat. klika. dutch). crepare. Sw. the clergy clericus. score7i clif. a hold. klever. frap- per rudement une personne. Dunbar in Jam. say. -Toe (from KXivm. crack. to confess . to prate. it must be observed. click. kleppe. a clerk .) Brai. has kl'dver. dek. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. declivity. prattle. Somner. Du. The origin is the Gr. that is a clever feUow. dink. cautes. a figure mentioned. cliff. OE. dial. stein- kluppen. dial. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. clack. a latch. — have the notion of a short quick in E. KkrifoQ. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. to clack. hamraklif. clep. pulsare. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . Clam. sonare. Climax. snatch. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. The Sc. rock. temperature. chatter. Climate. rugged ascent. klok klep- crepitare. Climb. Claw. skard. a baU of yarn. AS. a cleft in a rock . corresponding to the Sc. Norm. kleppen. clever. G. Client. rock. deik. is NE. sink. pen. nimble. derigo. dergi. a hump. a latch. Sp. derigon. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. slope . whence Fr. Klover i munden. Boh. on. the dick of a latch or a trigger. a cliff. CLINCH De . But the Dan. speak. a mill-clack . call. deuck. highest is attained.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. abrupta rupes . babble. klev. region not observe it. littus. deuch. clima. syn. chatter. as from derido. /cXi'fia. Clever. deudi. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. call. cleopian. quick in motion. to cleave. with hamarskard. to talk as a parrot. kliket. See Clamber. —Vocab. cleugh. Clerk. Da. klinke. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. to cry. or Sc. clatter. in precisely the same sense as the E. a clicket or clapper. scar. cliquet. Cliff. ready of speech. gleg. cave . a ball of twine. dicher. clypian. dob. klikklakken. 3.dergie! Wiclif in R. diquette. click. which in Mid. — — A . from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. a child's or clack . The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing.). would have been derida. derjon. has also deik. a hook. a trigger. Clergy. dial. Bav. . precipice. 3. Happen. Det er en Mover kerl. Gr. chat. clyf. an inclination. as a click with the tongue. . In I Peter v.. verge). Fr. to tattle. cligner. neither as having lordship in the. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. corresponding to Fr. to move. a latch . cart that tilts over. Chaucer. See Clench. Cot. klaiv. Lat. name. and (with the nasal) — clincher. in rhetoric. de ripa. a claw or clutch. a lump. klippe. ravine. ized . above the pole. the clergy. kliv. clerus. cleke. Clew. dichet. one of the clergy. dexterous. seize (Hal. Now the OE. one admitted to the tonsure. ginally from dob (extant in W. duik. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. clif. klif. rapidus from rapio. derecia. cliquer. from Gael glac. klinket. cliof. duke. to sound an alarm to clap. klikker. to catch.— Clicket. on. had a form. dever. dough. diofian. d See Clan. Rouchi cliche. to snatch. rupes . climate. a sphere. cleft in a rock. Jam. the knocker of a door. e. . G. to catch. crackle. cleft of a hill. icXi/ja?.— Clue. CLERK sound of a blow. clif- stanas. . a clew. klippe. or an object character- Clerical. See AS. catching. klouwe. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). lively. Du. to seize. to teU tales. &c. in the sense of active. klinge. to tattle. Lat. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. a lot.Lat. glomus. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. and hence climate. clever. diver. to wink. Sc. expeditious. to stir. a precipice. deik. light-fingered. click it. agile. quick of perception. click. a lazar's clicket or clapper. which is used in Scotch and N. We movement catch. clap. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. as Lat.

claw. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. klok. — clot. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. to ring. gang. Serv. klinken. to resound. related to clock. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. schnippen. To cut with shears. 2. toga muliebris. four of the bell. klicke. To Clip. knippen. outcry. klippur. . Swiss klokken. club). rima. . kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. to lean. klingen. speaks of a ' clung bat. 'Till famine cling thee. brett-glocke. to lean backwards. a snare. to . Da. like cling. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. Decline. ON. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. to snip. pinch. Du. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. to sound sharp. kukla. to clink auf. Bohem. Cliofue. kleppe. Du. a separate portion. Swiss klungele. dial. clivus. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. kolki-laud. Bi klik uti klak. globulus' (Gl. clutch. I. recline.. a tinman. as we now say three or four o'clock. E. clinker. Kil. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. a cluster. chcng. disposed to a thing. klupen. g. kima. gUong. Sw. to cling to a thing.— KSS. Walach. ON. to strike. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. G. knippe. to bend downwards .D. kliks. as G. klynge. a clock. E. klak. to AS. a faction. iissura. a bell. 156 -cline. pinch. difficulty . glocke. shears. clique. to clip. pallium. . as to snip in the same sense from snap. Hal.. Bohem. ring clag. to wither. . klipa. a lump. kolbe to E. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. To stick to. also to wink . hill . S w. G. kluppe. G. clips. to wither. Cloak. or bagging clothes. a woman's mantle .und zuk-lippen. nip. dial. quincailler. hlinen. kldpp. glungelin. kXiVu. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. &c. to shrink up. a rising ground. . Sw. sloping downwards . klunge. The notion of a loose moveable substance. sloping forwards. tuft. . hlinian. to pinch. Ir. a ball of thread . a lump G. Een kliks bolter. Ang. Sussex peasant AS. to cluster. toga. klincke. klocke. Sw. To Cling. ON. cloche. Lat. w. clingan. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. to knock.. knot klynge. a bell.. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. klungelin. klungeln. to snap kneipen. G. Pl. clog. -atum. to pinch klupe. Sw. cochl. N orman clincailler. Esthon. Du. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. See Cowl. declivis. G. a lump of butter. difficulty. bow. clinke.' for a dry stick. straits. by bits. dial. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. incline. noise. to shrink up. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. to slope or bend . G. as thick or curdled liquids. dag. kluben. hluccti. to beat on the board. to clap or clack. klinka. whence E. clato make a noise. to crowd or squeeze chingy. Sw. ten. to crowd together klynge sig ved. to clunge. ' . met. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. slant. Lat.ginglej Fr. knippchen.— Clot. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail.'— Shaks. and so' to contract. klunker. a hood. verklungeln. . Du. incline. -CLINE make pinch. parva ruptura. OHG. a clog or fetter for a beast . klippa. also to form a compact mass. cloak. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . hluk. klocka. . * Clod. from klepati. sloping upwards procUvis. klik. and 'E. Flem. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. in Schmeller) klunk. dial. klepalo. clino. acclivis. hooded . Clock. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. Gr. Fr. klippen. especially of something soft or clammy. to snap or fillip schnippen. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. Gael. klippa. a beU. klippe. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. at first probably on a wooden board. fetter. Fr. — a mantle. and a similar syllable without the /.D. . klocke. See Clang. kol- The word . to beat. The E. clock is a variation of clack. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. to form one mass with. clangere. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. klaka. to snap tongs. klo^gen. to make a loud noise. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. compress . sticky. Clink. -cliv-.' From Pl.

to a. inclose. meat from Du. Pr. close. clatk. I clodde. Fr. a blot. klotz. bespotted with mire E. g. loppe. lopin. with Fr.D. lunch. to sup up liquid food. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. lag. or drablyn with separate existence. Klottermelck. beklakken. we pass to Schlatter. -cludo. from Du. clotted milk klotte. clog or overshoe. closed. a log. bloutre. to shut. lumps of butter. fors. tJokok. watery. thick sour milk. .1a. motzen. dial. m&se noch stain. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. MHG. klokotat. klunkern. Yule-clog.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd.'^ Palsgr. without. je amoncele. unctuous. congeler.D. Close. A — — A Thus from Bav. Sc. and Du. loose. to slop or spill liquids. The origin of clod and clot is to . daustrum.. klac. G. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. schlotter. It. G. dunch). to rattle. kloden.— Clothe. I doda clod. kloster. to rattle. clorre. He was a man without a dag. kl'dnken. da- . klateren. chiudere. to shut in. His heart was franlc without a flaw. in accordance with Pl. a skittle-ground klos- sen. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. plod. a field inclosed clos. a bal!. boil.' end. in forms like Du. to cling locks. schlott. • lump. kloten. Lat. neither spot nor hang loose. mire. slob. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. of a body of any kind. Hence inclose. Idppern. kladde. Pr. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. geschlotter (as E. To Clog. a babbler. kloteispaen. clogs for the feet klakk. fat. analogous plan to clod or club. in accordance with It. E. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. rattle. The game called ninepins. splash. slabberen. compared with clump. to close against one. a spot. pludre. we pass to E. kloteren. Klak also. . -close. or Sc. clos. forbidden by 17 Ed. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. to bubble. Cloister. mud. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. lump of something soft . chiuso. . loblolly. dag. foreclose. cloth. loppered (of milk). klos. to paddle in the wet. clammy loam. to bodies. to play at bowls. slobber. lobberen. -clusum. tramp in wet or mire. to rattle or shake to and fro. TZoxapov. to flap as loose clothes. to shut up. to bedaub. shaky. lump of mud on the clothes . CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. Gr. separate part. slobbe. spatter. Du.. blot. clotted locks Dan. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. dirt. a trowelful of mortar. a Christmas log. dab. lump of butter. finish . . be found rattle. loose trowsers. . of something clammy or heavy. a clog. klotzschuh. enOE. to flounder in the wet. a clod. Fr. kleck. bemired. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. Du. figer. thick spoon . klod. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. . daggerey. slops slodderen. a clod Swab. kleck or lack. Russ. klag. Fr. a monastery. then liquid or loose substance. Closhe. from Fr. to shut. A . shut up. mud klcEg. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. slop. ! . a dirty wench claggy. klos-bane. to wabble. laggyn. and Gael. Dan. slobberen. tuditare. klot. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. Bav. . to dash like heavy rain. like G. . laggery. . clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. wabbling from Du. be&c. a blot. . a portion of something soft and adhesive. -clus-. whence klack. Mat. claudo. The word is probably formed on an Cloth.). in comp. clausum. lob. Swiss schlott. a log. from claudo. dirt. to claggock. bowl . spot of dirt. hanging loose and full. the radical sylla. aspersion. paludosus. slops). truncus.rge lump. to dabble. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. is connected with pludder. AS. . . Lat. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. and E. or E. a lump from Du. Pl. schlottern. paddle or dabble in the wet. lobbig. klakk. . schlattern. schlettern. clos. is a blot on one's character. pattens G. . slab. shut up. clausum. claque. to lobberig. zoccoli. gelatinous. to spill liquids. log. miry laggerit. clogs. In the same way Dan. or loppern. motte.dial. claggy. to dabble. 3. klottern. Clog. . clot. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). a block. lobberen. E. zocco. an imputation. and thus seem endowed . IV. doitre. loose mud. Fr. curdled. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. Pm. klakken. paddle. lopperig. wide bagging clothes. dangle. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. terminate. I clodde.

.clod. klump. a ball. AS. when something has got into the touch-hole. a clod or clot. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. puddle. A kind of spice resembling Du. diboter. clothe. a thick mass. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). a . clothes ment. More in R. formed lump or thick mass. kluV. the terms expresssplit. as Fr. klubb. clot. Gael. Mabousfrom Lat. I. A division of a root of garlick. .D. Properly that which covers and Du. of sloppy materials. milk run to lumps. to lump mend clumsily. lump. klobbersaen. G. a bunch. klubba. mary sense is a blow. E. Rouchi dapoter. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. clump. dabaire. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. little nails. warm clothes {dillad. ball of thread Russ. lie clyd. Du. clotted milk or cream. clavo di especias. clyd. . botch. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. kUid. a sky Cot. cobio. The priClout. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. sticky. dirt. klotzig. with lout. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . w. clydion. to stop. cludadh. nagelein. of a lump of earth and that figure. choke or stop up. Ir. sheltered . klqb. of thumping clumsy action. klaven.158 . a ball. naegel. of nagel. klieven. a lump. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. clue. davus. lumps of curd. eene ODu. sheltered up warm. clou de girofle. to cover Bret. G. Clump. een klaven kruflook. Pl. a clove of garlick. a bousche. . duthaich. a breach. a log. clot . Du. a knot of people. lunch). a ball. klove. 2. warm. esdaboter (Roquef. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . klunds. . In the same way E. a curdled sky. coarse. a clown. cob. make warm. clumhar. clobyn. mass. Sw. are also used in the sense of a stopper. kluppe. To Cluck. clothes). Then applied to a lump of mate. CLOUD an awkward clod . N. wisp. de Champ.Fris. hebes (Kil. from Du. caillebottes.D. Dan. warm. probably from daboter. lump. dob. a bobbin. are often connected. a sticky. a clubfoot klabb. dillad bumkin. klu77ip. dump. zolla. clot. cludaim. a bunch. group of people Sw. eine to slop. ON. unpolished.). klubbe. Imitative of the note of a society. to cleave or the splashing of water. klotz. a lump. to splash. loggish. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. from kloven. and -the word Clove.). Clowfull of small curdled clouds. a boss. piece Cot. ser. and clout d eudaich. to cloy. Kiittner. mud (Pat. to cherish. Clown.D. and clay. Du. lump. block. clod is used in both senses . The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. Met. boucher. tuft. clog. Du. a clot or keeps one warm. a nail. a ball of twine . AS.bar. shel- kloen. cluth mhor. to beFr. log. dash (Cot. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. It. . mire. Sw. tered . a fissure. a cover or coverture . From dog. — . a blabber. — — — . cloud Delfortrie. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. Club. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. dut. a garthas. a clod. E. a log. from W. Du. CLUCK rustic. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. spice) G. dial. Du. nourish . to strike . knob. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. and closely do conspire. dys. klonte. also homo obtusus. clod. a. kloete. dote. to a lump. strike. Cld. clammy earth. ON. Move. but confounded with cailler. Clumpered in balls of clouds. knob. Sp.' Sanders. warm place . Gael. klumpfot. kloven. to curdle. a bunch. The radical sense seems to be an unE. Fr. motte.). zolla dell' . chiodo di girofano. botsen. to cleave. stock. klebek. klubb. klumba. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. matte. clods. a nail) Fr. a patch. to strike. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. to tramp in the kluyve. in the same sense. aglio. clunch. w. cluster.). G. kl'dnne. blockish. The significations of a clod or lump. klever. Cloud. rustic. cobble. nelke (dim. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. Das volk hat sich in splitten. To Cloy. the air. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. So Fr. del mattond.ft. from OFr. (kruyd =. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. klotsen. dial. Clover. dial. E. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. indispalte knoblauch. G. clump of a clout on the head. daggy. kldverj P1. klcBdi. bunch. dabosser. and of a rustic unpolished person. and tapp. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. lump of earth aria. clunch.

G. A group. a litter. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. dial. klonte. clumsy. klomje. esclaboter. Gr. See -elude. limp. obstructum. in v. klocken. — . . a block. cluster. to gingle. ON. Cheshire. dial. close. klampa. Sp. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. The Fr. 130. and klonteren. Lincolns. may recline. klunt. plad or plod. crooked inwards . clausum. Graff in Klamjan. also a cluster. klumpern. as Fr. wagen. ment. Clutch. klompen. ' Uorte (for clogs. or aclommyde. from klupen. kol. calling her chickens. Com. acomelydfor could Pr. in comp. G. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. ill-made . finish. claw. Beklummen van kelde. a claw.' Benecke. or from Sw. koetblockish. to lie. a lump. . — ' — — tonista. eviratus. klumpig. eviratus. pladdern. Lat. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. ' Clumper. dussomed (Wilbrabam).D. OE.pare P1. to to snatch. claws. klette. koetsen. ball of snow on horse's foot . might be reached from clump. Ang. -clusum. to squeeze. ' Thou clontsest for cold. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes.D. clip or pinch. cluntClyster.D. Fris. dumps. beklummen. paste. hooknosed. Du.' Comfort ye dumsid. to curdle. Pl.E.mene tied. unhandy. MHG. fingers (familiar). In the same way Du. Riwle. tight — — . xXvariip. viscous material. -cludo. COAL dumpish. Variation of clatter. enervatus. verkommelen. an instrument for nasal form e. clopiner. 159 E. See reclusion. klont.— — . a couch. Compare Swiss klupe. unwieldy Hal. -olus-. n. to wash. klods. to curdle. klcise. and klotteren. dek. to wash. awkward. dial. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. from ON. to collect in lumps. klamen. to syllable click. dek. klummerhdndt. seize. as clumper. whence koetse. having the Pl. E. Du. The sense of awkward. dial. to shut. carriage in which you klodset. klunsen. — sen. unhandy. clointer. a clod or The noclot. OHG. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. to grip. coucher became in unhandy. heavily. benumbed with cold. conclusion. Clump. Sc. Hence snatching. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. Sw. dumpse. — Hence include. * Clumsy. to rinse.' Wycliff. MHG. a coach. hondis. a clod or lump. wooden sole.e. —To Clumsyd. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. klimpern. G. Coach. lump of soft mate.'— animal. Champ. hands stiff with cold. Hindust.Ancr. lay hold of. kluntfrom KKvKdi. a ball. pinched. beklommen. hand to cleuk. klister. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. rial. glocire. klobber in klobbersaen. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . Fr. log. from laver. . cleche. of garlick. a clod clunter. Analogous forms with a tongs. splash. coccolare. er. — Cot. thick and clumsy. It. duke. ' . &c. a noise. Ray. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. to tramp. klomen. through the senses of lumpish. clabosser. Boh. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. glousser. to tramp or tread heavily. cliboter. From the notion of sticking together. and make ye strong feeble knees. Hesse. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. as from seken. —More. verklomen.. klontet. Du. clutch. clook. koetsDa. cleuk.forklomme (Outzen). . clutch. kohle. klikaty. klemmen. Pm. a nasalised form of club. Clutter. klummklummshandt. G. the word is more probably connected with OE. Fr. Muster. and koetse. klemma. a clove Sw. klump. ether comelia P. strum on an instrument. -close. differing only in the absence of the duik. Teulazy. klonte. with a quick. dumpers. to tramp. inclusive.' Vegecius in Way. kichlemmit. conclude. koetsie. claudo. a bunch. -elude. doquear. a ball . with E. Hence cleik. a clod or lump. Fr. bunch.P. Cath. properly to do anything Fr. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. But clunchy.D. -clus-. a clot klissen. to benumb with cold. to pinch. Coal. gelidus. are the nasalised forms of klotte. clotted cream. unfashioned. Du. idle. Sw. to stick together . havi. klos. -CLUDE hen Du. Isaiah. a pinching time. a lump. eene beklum. dystere. klisse. lavesen. algidus. smart motion. clump. Cluster. klamp. to klotz. wooden shoes. * Clump. Du. ball as snow. a lump or compact mass. awkward. to curdle. E. cleik. klikonosy. Pl.D. Lat. to paddle or dabble. exclude. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. of Du.

Dan. Pm. . or cobble.(pi. koppen-gespin. COCHINEAL Cobber. bredouiller.). coste. . — — . The Fris. large stones . to kindle or cause to burn . cofasse. any kind of coat. a cobweb. glow. Fr. used in — . from some fancied resemblance. Coat. to peck as a hen cobyn. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. koljarn. gull. a bubble. cluster. Du. CooMneal. spinne-ivebbe.). a spider. viz. and hobble. 3. to speak or act confusedly. Lat. E. klabbare. a spider (/r)^=grub. Fr. dim. to cobble shoes. that is. cob is a dumpy horse. plaisant. itself is Nescock . dial. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. cacd). bijamie. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. cotta. to beCoax. See Cot. It. Coalition. pockbecility and liability to imposition. niais. of E. from bearing a bag. sweets and the other of poisons. Flem. a large round nut cobstones. Outzen. rivation are found in Sw. — Cleveland Gl. Du. ON. Coarse. e. cochinilla. broddelen. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. i6o COALESCE on in lumps.. a thumper. also a coast. . a knock. a nest. to stutter. a pock mark. dial. an old idiot. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. — Pr. cokes was a simpleton.a spider.. are often connected. things. cock or nescock. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. a woodlouse. When the . a kitchen. inflammation. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . .— Cobble. as in arr. are round stones or round coals of small size. In the E. v. imbecille. or upper . costa. of E. — — — E. Coast. blaze. haggle. to glow . a great falsehood. glow jvalaya. Pm. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. klabbsmed. to .). to wheedle or gull vermin). a sow. Fin. and jval. ridi. and thence a lump cobnut. H^cart. gull. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. Sp. an egg. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . The OE. ignem.—Atkinson. pock. s. side . — Cobbler. to hobble . kop-ar. cob. as shown in dob and cob. Colina' the place where a fire is made. large coals. Coalesce. to bungle . frock. a crea.' — Thus from (Hal. to knock. petrilla. meaning that she is plain and coarse. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. a darling. the one of thump. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. A spider's web. hakkelen. tuft. quele. ailina or colina. one Pr. It. of cochina. to stammer. glowing embers. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. cob. cule cocosse. woman is said to be very ordinary. verkommelen. to stutter. unfledged bird. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. * To Cobble. according to the ordinary run of events. nursery lang. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. properly to daub. dial. to bungle Sc. to worship. kylla. numb. w. verklomen. cobble. pryf-coppyn. and E. give the full meaning of the word. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. is one of thump. Fr. of poison. kop.. atter-kop. coalesce. to cob. dicta ab eo q