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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


when neither name for the object to be designated. persons of different tongues at the present day. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. The syllables moo (mu. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. with an initial m or I. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. or Mollein. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. and where we are seeking. in other words. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). and. the closer we shall approach to the . which are naturally produced by the opening lips. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. is given to a cow or calf. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. in language of the present day. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. the present day. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. or.NURSERY IMITATIONS. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). Molli. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. the baaing of the sheep. come Moolls. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. when we is represent to our children of the cow. to the syllables which are significant to the child. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. mind of the of the animal. and mully or mully cow is the . or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. by whom the be understood. muK) and mae (rfie. name of the cow. but nothing she herself knows the animals.

. &c. First.). partly from sounds which the child caught. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. in children's language. On one occasion he said^e nim. family. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. p. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. analogous to Magyar mammogni.' he says. when hungry. . for bad. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. Gradually. hm. to work over with the mouth. Heinicke. and nim came to signify everything edible.. He would now say good. to eat. and some were very clear and distinct. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. We have. mumm. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. his nurse adopting the word with him. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. fiafifi&v (Hesych. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. had nim. for things. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. A member of my own new sfop. and which we might express thus. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. I had watched the growth of this word. it changed to the more articulate wn and im.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. to For instance. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. nineteen years old. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. nim. became more perfect. by the natural humming sound. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal.' In ordinary speech mump. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. then. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. Finally an n was placed before it. Gr. repulsive to eat. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. for everything fit to eat. he called to to drink. as well as the mind of the utterer. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. schipp. 72). so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time.

Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos).minis. clangorqae tubarum. sweet (Koelle). lita. nobis vix permittitur. to chew laboriously. voracious. aptantes adfectibus vocem. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. we can call them so. tidbits nama . aves tinnire. agreeing with Ein. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. buckra man's language the white man. crab nam buckra man. to Sw. food (Tylor. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). 130-1. to fill the mouth. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. South Jutland hiamsk. dial. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. eating. Swedish dialect gamsa. palatable. jammla. delicacies. and the crab — p. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. to eat. memmexen. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab.' says Quintilian. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. Vei (W. (in chil- dren's language). and thence to be tasteful. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. to eat mampfen. Gothic niman. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . yamming. nvrnma.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. as well as the Sw. Africa) nimnim. Soosoo (W. i8o. i. 1 86). taken up hastily on the sly. j ing . to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. jumla. nyam nyam. mujnpa. A negro proOr. ' id est. p. Sprach-philosophie der Alten.' And Diomedes. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. or word-making. make djamdjam). chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln.' — Lersch. mumpfeln. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. Primitive Culture. and the fizzing (and Series. mumble. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. savory. at hiamske i sig. ' Motherwell. oves lalare. to be pleamind . snatched (Whitby Gl. the Scotch poet. Africa) nimi. namnam. Wolof nahenahe. to smack in eat. to taste . nam.' says the author of Modern Slang. iii. to move the lips in continued chewing. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. greedy . stolen. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. and some of them . . on.). Nimm'd up. jamsa (yamsa). djamdjamgoda (to say djam. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam.ONOMATOPCEIA. as to . Galla djam djeda. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. ut tinnitus aeris. mumpfen. to take. to mump. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem.

not of a baa. neighing or whinnying of horses. bleating of sheep. intended in the instance to represent the cry. yelping. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. We . baaing or maeing of lambs. 89) with less hesitation. before the in other words. grunting or squealing of hogs. chirping of sparrows or crickets. might be used as the designation of it. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. sparrow and chirping. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. that there is When Man. und growling. dove and cooing. bellowing of bulls. lowing of oxen. cooing or crooing of doves. not of a moo of Lect. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. hooting of owls. between dog and harking. a lamb. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. Yet we ing. purring or mewing of cats. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. croaking of frogs or ravens. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. snarling of dogs. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. but of a dog. or thoughts of our hearer.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. cackling or gaggling of geese. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. p. do not speak of a bowwow. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. gobbling of a turkey-cock. bumping of bitterns. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. yelping. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. ^6^. whether it deserves the name of language. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. Indeed. might be used. when circumstances required. chattering of pies or monkeys. for the purpose of bringing the animal. snarling.' — We speak of a cow. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. howling.' And elsevs^here (p. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. twittering of swallows. 'I doubt.' he says.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. barking. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. anything connected with it. or.

He to is therefore derives kdka.IMITATIVE NAMES. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck.' kd). a a crier (p. ist ed. In Lat. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. in is Gr. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. 380. kae. or quawk. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. a bird that is be driven away. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. according to Durga). and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo.' common sense. caller. having a general predicative power. In Basque. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. coccolare. and gaggele or gagkelein. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. kdka. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. lion. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. crow. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. Picard cau. caw kuhii-rava (rava. kauwe. layitavya . at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. KOKKvi. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. birds.. a crow (Pictet). I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii.). Origines Indo-Europeennes). and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. whose sound (Pictet. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Hungary. Sauscr. and Bavaria respectively. fi-om apakd- i. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. it announces (Salaberry). kuho. and means a shouter. Sometimes the hoarse i . e. sound). as which is unmistakeably the source Du. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. Barabra koka. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. Manchu The kaha. Georgian quaki. in g. Aoo-Aoo. Malay gdgak. crow. a crow. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. 349. and the sound of that direction. gackem.). Kdrava. Columbia kahkah. a daw. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. ghak. We imitate the sound with a modulated. 4th ed. is kuM) for the cuckoo. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. Arabic kdk. Bav. 'Kdka.

coucouva. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. Ibo akoka. Magy. wood-pigeon. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. name. kukko.Gr. tur. tbrtora. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. kruk. another. Du. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Esthonian kikkas. k. kirren. and sometimes both together. a crow lish Lith. a crow. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. krauklys. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. lUyrian kukurekati. are represented. reduplicate form. Lettish kiekuts. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. giving turtur (and thence It. 6. German luhu. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. the name of an animal will gen- . 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. xi. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare.. Swedish kowipa. tortbla. French dishuit. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. gugu. The consonants p. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. to croak. Walachian coucouveike. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. Fr. as well as of Sanscr. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. Scotch peeweip. to hoot. Heb. the name for a crow. uhu. German and Eng- krahen. tbrtola. while crouk. So we have Polish krukac. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. kuku. and e. coccovaec. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . Pers. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . by the verbs gurren or girren. Dutch kievit. Zulu kuku. Sp. tor. Da. name of its is the bird. teewhoop. koeren. to crow. kraeyen. Hindi. yell. lilits. Malay kukuk. Du. and e. girre. to howl or Lat. libufs. kraukti. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. "Welsh hwan from hwa. p. cock. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. Mod. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. kurre. t. kukhuta. korren. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. a crow .. 219. to cry loudly. Albacuculi a dove. German kielitz. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. ghughu. to croak. tuquheit. The crowing of cot in Fr. great variety of oKokv^uv. kraeye. to crow. or Gr. It. turtle) as the Lat. Arabic tdtwit. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. coqueri- Languedoc.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. gufo.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. krahe. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. synonymous forms of similar structure). lulo. Yoruba koklo. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. in the North of England. either in the same or in related dialects. hibou.

PofijivXwg. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. schrecke. droning is . representing a short sharp sound. Gaelic dranndan. grillen. a sharp sound as of a 6. skirl. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. bee. loud rumour. horniss and from the buzzing The. whirr). zirken. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). Naturalist on the tocano. a fly (Tylor) . in allusion to its music. g. German dronen. humming. din. i. common. ta-na-nd.vf3. schrickel. Australian bumberoo. and not from E. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. Northern Farmer. a small as hawk is . The drone peal. from the humming. The name of the cricket indeed. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. a beetle druna. sirkka. Lith. resound. skryle. to chirp J may be compared with . No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. flight its sting considered as a horn. ajo. or a gnat fly. and yelping cry. In the N. to grumble. sound. The Welsh chwyrnu. to shrill sound sharp. words imitative of humming . (Jieuschrecke) . and probably indicates that g.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. Fin. g. cricket is from crick. dhran. to be compared with Sanscr. The Arabic sarsor. Speaking of a cricket he says. Arabic tantanat. which they make in their flight very . 337. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. pip-pi-ta. a drone. little intermission. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. — Catafogo. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. from schrick. Albanian tsentsir. kong-kong. German hummel.IMITATIVE NAMES.or bumble-bee. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. a bee. e. North of England. to rustle. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. 'The natives call it tanand. to creak Bret. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. oE. give a faint sound. succeeding each other — with noise.' —Tennyson. Danish gnaddre. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. grille. schwirren. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. buzzing. to sound. glass cracking (Schmeller). skril with n. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . thunder. ' Sanscr. there are infinite varieties. resounding of musical instruments. knetta. swirplys with 6. bambhara. booming. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. as .' Amazons. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. hollow noise. Danish dron. with or Fr.' — i. chirk. German drohne. of England it is to the b 2 . the humble. We may cite Gr. schirke. grylhis.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. Sc. the drone or non-working bee . growling. bamba. Lithuanian tranas. Sanscr. gives rise to chwymores. to hum. shrill. buzzing. g. Lat. to chirp . Corean sirsor. a hornet. and he kong-ko-rong. ' — Pictet .

verbal form given to the say. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. w. to shout. Lat. k or g. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). 167. p. to make. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. With these analogies. the animal. to shout. Manx booa. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. make to it laugh. Lat. boo. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. bauli. — ^Tylor. bubenti. be-l-er. Piedmontese fi bau. w. bos. Illyr. that the imitative syllable are Lith. to . forms a. as the Illyr. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. and thence Lat. btibleti. to low or bellow. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. bull. lulauti (to hoo-loo). representing the mew of a cat. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to boohoo. fivKaofiai. or a z to the imitative syllable. the Fr. to low . From the same lioao). mae. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. to make a noise. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. to the uses goda. a bullock. a heifer. (iove. make poo. bu. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. bugler. Da. to mew. bae. say. bucula. grumble as distant thunder .XX called booing. Norse bu. or moo. to from bau. representmake bow. Cult. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. biibnas. a bull. Hottentot bou (Dapper). OFr. Fr. The Piedm. buculus. to weep. a drum . The Galla lilbil. cattle. to or bark. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. On the same principle. are (with a subsidiary k). and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. bae. to bump as a bittern Illyr. in a imitation of a ringing sound. and djeda. or bau-l-i. bovis. to make a loud deep sound. from the imitative moo instead of boo. maukati. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. From baa. bolt. to ba-L-are. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. mugler. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. miau-l-er. is inadmissible. bullock. Lat. or with on. bugle. It. to make. verb is evidently identical with our shout. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. muJiati. bullus and e. bue. or formed Lat. agreeing exactly with Lith. to sound. bo. a Geiger. has bilbilgoda. Fr. His analysis leads cow. Thus from miau. shoot . ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. ox. a buffalo. to beat hard. mamoo-heeheek. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. bwla. bubati. and in Hottentot baa was the . bukati. a cow. amuse. to low. Galla boa. and from to ring. Gael. as that of the cow by boo. loge. Zulu lulula. whence baula. baula. to bow- own bawl. to bellow like a bull. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. mugire. in same way.

lambs. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. he would hardly. hwch. a pig. grumble. groin. And it is true there between hog and grunt. Africa laa. hadg- Magy. Fr. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. It. a sow. . Illyr. knurfisk. mecati. grumpf. this obstinate race. grunny. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. Gr. Da. Fr. kurren. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. lekavica. although the imitation embodied in Lat. purr). sheep or goat. a sheep (Lowe). and thus explains the origin /3^k»). hunon. from knurre. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. grunt. sus-sus. Welsh and Breton). meketati. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. a hog. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. a goat. karra. meugler. G. may be identical with Esthon. to themselves. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. sound. as the proper name of a tame sheep. the designations of a dog the term cur. It is probable also that e. signifying a snarling. to bleat . and with the subsidiary k or g. it and e. meigeal. 6. a pig Fin. a sheep. grumbhng.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. meckern. a (Hesych. leg-et-ni. naskia.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Manx meilee. a. mutter. The g. from hundama. a goat. kurre. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. hund. leknuti. grogner. and Circassian maylley. grumble. name of the animal itself. oe. by which the shingle gives rise to It. guttural tone. curmurring. to bleat. hound. Hence Breton hoc ha. mekegni. Magy. From the imitative mae. cite as by grunt. and thence groin. smack and naski. a sheep or ewe. and snorke. menAda (ndda. Idgge (Rietz). to growl. and hoc'h. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. a grunt.' Moor's Suffolk words. or in any ! way ! persuading. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. undoubtedly imitative. we have Sanscr. cry). as lou of an ox. to rumble. . nire. with the root ypaipm. Gr. houch. in v. corresponding to ohg. lecco. name. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. — . Gr. name of a sheep. goats. grunlike a pig in eating. Gael. a dog. a sheep or a goat. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. hundi). the snout of a pig. meil. a goat firixal^ta. to howl. in Wolof bae. hunt (gen. (iriKov of forms like Sw. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. rumbling. ' In driving. Illyr. ^. does not produce a e. With gen. /xijeao/iat. / The same Gr. lek-eg-ni. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. to grunt. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. grugno. growl. . to bleat. Among dog. for the voice of the ox). ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. a sow. to grunt. may with to snarl. Illyr. and of (maelon). Moreover. and grumphie. Kurren und murren. a wolf. /xj/caScj. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation.).

(Craven Gloss. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. Esthonian hoibo. houpy in Craven. . hoppe. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. to the left. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. coquette. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. There are of course some names. 91. So Sanscr. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. g. Sc. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. a little am- bling horse. as in Yorkshire highly right. . the cry to stop or back a horse. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). Thus we are led to the Fr. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. a horse. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. hottihuh. turn a horse to the is In Finland. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. e. coquelicot. xxii MULLER ANSWERED.' — ist Series... and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. when he found peculiarity. humma.). to whine. such as cuckoo.' 2nd Series. animal. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. of the character in question. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. to go backwards. like artificial flowers. M). and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal.). The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. hiine. ^6<. hobin. without a — we root. If onomatopoeias can . Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). p. from the cry animal.root.' ticular bird. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. But words of this kind are. cockade. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. p. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. hobby. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. hobben. a mare.

Irieschen. creeper. xxiii ginal object. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. hresh. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. Pl. rinchar. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. hennir. lapwing. wrena. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. hikkd. hukkup. g. to neigh. whitename in in- throat. titter. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. woodpecker. Sw. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. Fr. cough. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. groan. moan. sol. Sp. Du. ance or habits of the animal. Bohem. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. diver. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. e. fehtati. than to the sounds represented.D. giggle. signified It. form corresponding hresh. frenschen. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. horse. hross. Sanscr. goatsucker. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . wrenska. wagtail. swift. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. command of language was attained. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. as sigh. wiehern. nounced with a guttural). . Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. but whether there kind between them and other words. runniken. ginniken. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. animals or certain kinds of sound. nitrire. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. little speak for themselves. to Sanscr. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. redpole. hresh. Lettish sweegt. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost.

&c. to throw violently down. plitsch-platsch. scream. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. to ham. snukkup). knarr. Mei gbengben. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. atchini. hoo ping ping. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. for blows with a rod. ting-ting. bang. Vei gbangba. Australian bungbung ween. haw. Wtb. for that of breaking.' 'Haw. heart tick-tack. for the sound of a fall. knack. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. the God of thunder . Of a like forma- drum . an attempt would be made to by the voice. pump. fitsche-falsche. for the creaking of a wheel. a large bell. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. Zulu bongo. are familiar in ' to every one. ping came the bullets about their ears. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. snort. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. clap ! A smack Puff. atchian. for the sound of milking. thunder (Tylor) . tisio (tisho). for the for the sound of . pit-a-pat. to drive on. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. lumm. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . or tliat is accomit. strippstrapp-stroll. to sneeze. haitshu. snore. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . went the cannon. in a nail Let. beat. hoo. a kind of drum. bangas. for a small one. on the chops is represented also by pratx. debhes-lungotais (deifies. bang ' ! trenches. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. aritischane. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. ding.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. wheeze. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. shriek. root kshu. hang. to beat. to hammer . White Lies. heaven). dong Read. beat of a clock child . banga. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. klatsch. a more expressive than the e. for in such sound of blows.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. — Sanders. —Brem. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. or the w. mer. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. to knock. . banke. for the sound of a blow. oren : Klapp. DingBang.' So imac.' ! ! ! ! — dong. &c.' it both sides went. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. 1865. tlirob. It is represented in e. Da. the dashing of the sea .

pipe. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. to peep It. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. Florio. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. piou. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. peep. —Lyndsay. a chicken or gosling. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. a or cheep. of a word will appear supposed to represent. which he added to intensify the expression. as in other subjects of study. pippione. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. pi. to designate cavity and hollow. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. chickens (Tylor). doubtless. the voice of chickens (Cot. pu. as k. It seems to him that the teeth t. Magyar pip. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. Gr. e. and whimper. young child . to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. and their relations. bleat. cry of young birds . cry. not- . De Brosses. scream. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. a (young) pigeon. or a piailler.' instead. calls S. piauler. Lat. pigiolare. . G. has been un- employed to designate fixity. peep. pipilo.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. laugh. is pfeife. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. pigolare. a fife or musical pipe. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. or the uneducated different consonants are man. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. to squeak. Lat. pipe. and so forth. mobility excavation and hollow ^. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. to cry pi. — . ducing the sound. pule. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. far pipi. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. to cheep like a bird or a young It.) a chick. pipio. to cry like imrli^u). used as a call to . Fr. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. The pi. as the simplest implement for proFr. pipare. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. a whelp.sc. a fowler's bird call is lost. young bird. had been used laugh ? two. pipelni. pigione. is of expression. part of the What consciousness has the child. piou. In cases such as these. child. pipio. Mantuan pipiare. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. He Yet asks. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. piccione. pipegni.

to grumble. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). u. garren. and lugh. make wood a clinking noise. to grate the teeth . some small vowel or consonantal sound. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. in German. to cry pi. to jar.. preserved by Kilian. sound). . bubble. to gargle . brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . it is If laugh were written as pronounced. of a loud strong sound. along with tinnio. vaake gorgor) .Gr. Hindoo tomtom. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. turtur. to gorgogHare rattle. along with Du. to be compared with Sc. knurren. rumble. where the variation. a short sharp sound. . to creak knirren. to pant bejii- zela. the side of g. Manchu kaka-kiki. laqfF. {to It. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . Hindustani karak is rendered. or kaka-faka. kniks. borrelen. as the click of a latch or a trigger. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). girren. rumble. a sharp short one. creak. crash. Poppopvi^to. crack. to gurgle. a. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. as representing the sound made when something breaks. to grumble). tonare. kirkirdnd. &c. to thunder. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. murren. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. to clack. tintino. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. Indian chack-chack. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. Pefuxela. to ring pipio. of something fine and thin. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. tontonare. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. sound of dry breaking. thunder oil . the clucking of a j hen . to rattle. lachen. a closed or obscure sound. karkarana. to bubble. pi ..) Mod. chack. coo. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. i. Zulu raraza. Pacific aka-aka. to growl. kniks. a drum W. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. It. when it force than biscuit. to hawhaw or laugh loud. like the noise of a glass breaking . cluck. kuruk. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. cricli. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. to crackle like in boiling . knaks. to laugh. or springing back. lachachen. to pant violently (Colenso). either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. knuks. is very common. murmur (by . there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. be cate to go on laughing loud . rumble (Fl. loud laughter. ioriogliare (to make borbor). to fizz like fat in frying. a prolonged sharp sound. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . to cluck. gurren. grumble.

SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird.' Member for Paris. to strike. bubble up. Newman). rvir (in tvittio. klirren. or the bubbling up of to a spring. kl'mg-kling. Fr. Turk. corresponding in e. croaking of frogs. wail. are applied to the is excrements of children. . of keys or tinkling of bells. drops of i. make djamdjam). is based on the same imitation as the e. noise. Tiie Galla gigiteka. call. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . cry. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. fumtu. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. hala-hald-faMa (falda. for chut-chiit-er. muro and e. box on the ear imitation of the . Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. ding-dong. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. . hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. compared with Gr. halaidlac'h. a smith. KaKog. Sanscr. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. Prim. the gingling of glasses. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. djeda (to say tub). is Manchu tang-tang. while cacd / used in e. and her heart went thump. to beat. or to Du. as of Tamil muromurmur. to whisper. or of bells ringing. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. Manchu kaka. jingle. 192). a nightingale. bulbiil. Maori pata. Galla tuma. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. uproar. tup. kiling-kalang. coughing or clearing the throat. a nightingale. for a tTviror). the sound of a stringed instrument. for the sound of privy whispering.and e. at an accelerated note. awater* ' The Mme P. Calt. a drum . and bilhila. to ring or jingle. clink. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together.* the heart. identical with g. bent her head. rifiirayov. to say chut. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). brings us to Fr. spring of water in the a bell. 1871. clango. The syllables lil-bil. simmer. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. champ. indicating the origin of Gr. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. shout. as Fr. especially one who beats. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. borrelen. chut. for the clinking Lat. and the imitative nature of tivgle. agrees with g. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. thump. the tingling Ming-Hang. a workman. word. clank. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. csam-csogni. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. sound. Magyar csamm-ogni. and Gr. bad. sound). to giggle. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. jangle. tubh. to knock. correspond to e. The whispering of the wind I. and Gr. for the ringing of illustrate bells. caca and Finnish adkkd. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. tumwata. chinking of coin. 368). Hindustani bhadbhad trees. quarren. to the purling of a brook. rain (Tylor. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . a boy's whistle. tumult. clash of arms. disturbance (F. e. to be compared with g. Scotch sough or sooch. and e. koXiw. E. chuchoter.

may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. w. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. hiss. squeal. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. splutter. tum-ultus. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. rumble. to dance. report of a gun. brumberum. murmur. tomber. whine. flap. for (Sanders). parapatapan. mutter. dabble. whack. Nevertheless. patter. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. jingle. thwack. ' Der puff. and soufflet. flop. slash. So in Fr. squeak. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. rattle. clash. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. lash. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. dash. it is fallj AS. gargle. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. squall. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. clatter. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. The beating of drum is represented in e. to fall. boom. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. fizz.' — Nohden. blubber.. splash. swash. crunch. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. tap. while e. and Fr. guggle. ring. hum. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. gurgle. craunch. smack. disturbance. at a door tarapatan. douse. paddle. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. whizz. tingle. creak. tumbian (to beat the ground). The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. the Germans puff. clap. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. whirr. 'pat. thump. to is blow. in e. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. sputter. bubble. and the French pouf. Fr. chatter. rap. we have buffet or cuff. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. clank. souse. answering to g. crash. din. twang.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. bang. according to the strictest phonetic rules. blow. chink. thump. by rubadub. smash. clink. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. It. or v^hether jectional. and Grimm. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. a applied as well to the force of the bang. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. clack. The use of g. without the intervention of orthodox roots. pop. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. clang. puff. But although and also found in Lat. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. rataplan or rantanplan. tymmesll. snap. thump. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . Humboldt. tinkle. crack. plump.

hay. or any unsatisfied want. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. and thus they become signs of despair. and found in the building of be burnt up. xxix on the contrary. because they are spontaneous. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. in the rushing waters. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. Crying. wringing the hands. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . If. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. the inteij.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. At the first beginning of life. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort.' If chaos. by the nature of the cry. but if we must not complain on the beach. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. of horror. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. or of any if wood. are made known by an instinctive cry. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. in the case of the animal or of the infant.' . cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. ugh . and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. little who has time to want of her nurseling. formerly cited. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. an imitation of a sigh . is Thus ah!. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. or stubble is meaner name. every little pain. the kind of action that is desired of them. stractions. knows them. without a thought of symbolising to them. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. Grimm or Bopp. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. p. and uttering plaintive sounds. the interj. 94. grief.'. that he has taken the step in rational speech. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build .

which are frequently so toned down cance. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. interjections. p.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. ^6g And to the same effect 371. and the eye. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. them to exercise it. 344. of all the mouth. groaning. they are involuntary interjections. or which is of me as suffering pain. as who them spontaneous utterances. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. more to the point. p. and some of them the composition of words. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. shrieking. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion.' p. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. to solve the I shall call first. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat.' — ist Series.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. One short interjec- tion may fact. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. If I wish to make a person of an .' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. be more powerful. he cites from Home Tooke. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. He says. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. coughing. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. more eloquent than a long speech. should be remem- . Language begins where interjections end. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. 32. sneezing. the lowing of a cow. And again. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language.. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. may become traditional.

cachinno. loud laughter. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. it them. Koxafw. demolishing here. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. when I arp humming and hawing. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. he says. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. speaking. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. and more or less limited . in Fin. then speech begins. but the less am at a loss what to say. Lat. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. for example. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. and others from interjections. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. hahota. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. bered. kahkahah. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. I am not hearer. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. Tooke in truth. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. Kayxa^u). by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. Gr. in Magy. hahottaa. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. and thus. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. some kind of language might have been formed. interjections. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. hohottaa. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging.

It as has ing their most striking features. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. . their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. Though. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. like peewit and cuckoo. of the nature of this great movement. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. a deaf-mute himself. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. the critical question should be. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. And so in the case of language.' he says. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. The following account is given by Kruse. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. and not. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. words receiving the meanings they now bear. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. if taken as a whole. of the world. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. dumb is the language of signs. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. What strikes him . "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. But here nature soon conies to his help. and go where we now say stand. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. a Picture-language. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. makes them stand and walk upon the table.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is.

to name. To seize the is the principal movement of an action.GESTURE most. can do better and more easily abstract terms. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. that air. and fully serves to j . and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. called Gesture-language. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. thought is already broken. for walk.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. The of sign for left hand. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. it means little. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. signs are taught for yet. such objects. and And thus he makes himself a language. push it towards the person addressed for thou. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. or the verb to be. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. walkest. that signifies great . the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. xxxiii him between one thing and another. particular sense in properly so called. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. his action. like a V. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. it seems. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and to taste. among themselves. for the agent. and forms further and further. nay. that. but if I depress it instead. and with his thought. and gestures. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. such as than the educated man. the sorecalling them to his memory. he. becomes roast meat. And is. what more. or To pull and flap with the arms. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. he. walker.' In the Institutions. walked. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. the lan- guage cultivates itself. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. the whole secret. thou. for child. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. as it now opens out. most striking outline of an object. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. and it is flesh or meat. for single objects. The same sign stands and the act itself. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. and we have roast goose. many when or but these.

as in die it is a noun. Do not bang the it is a verb. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. might be the knife. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. I say. in fact. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. would be simply beginning of speech. a colour red. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. qualifies the against the wall. Who is has beaten you ? would be.' dener's knife. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. to indicate the action of a certain person. and so is an adverb. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. the ture of white term pink is and red. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. putting it into his pocket. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. as when Bang ! went the gun. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. You beaten . whether by additions or otherwise. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. it called an interjection. The same word . as But when it is meant door. depend entirely upon the use. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. When I say. or an act. a number of alternatives are suggested. and the as. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. He gave door a bang. in other instances sentence. and thus performs the part of an adjective. or sometimes interjection or adverb also.xxxiv asking. the garden. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. or a passive scene of existence. when I say. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. When a verb. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. substantive or adjective. . or a quality. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. according to the circumstances of the case. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. or something of the kind. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. or action. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object.

but often self-evident. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. wherehy. coalesces with the personal pronouns. as cung. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. Latin. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. &c. a sigh of oppression and . the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. in the is indicated by the syllable y. or nei. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds..^ — Miiller I. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. and to be great. Thus tafu signifies a great man. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. wherewith. the man is great. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. or with elements expressing relations of time. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. Jii ta. pain. wonder. whereto. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. wherefore. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. greatness. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. verb nor noun has yet been developed. that is. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. or some relation between it and another object. inside. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. some outward display of the affection. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. with a stick. which is an old y ting (use stick). and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. middle. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. that admits itself in of audible representation. 255. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. in the sense of great. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. commencement of speech. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. a noun. grie^ horror. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. contempt. inquiry. a groan. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. whereof. as kuo cung. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. and may be used language. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. . signifying an attribute of this person or of that.

to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. representing Illyr. al. ah. guaj- or cry out pitifully. weinen. ohi. to cry at. to make). representing a cry of pain. . and cacak djeda (to say crack. found in g. pain. Illyrian vaj. grief. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. mostly a ! %. vce. is Ay di me I Gr. to . oh. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. ing action I. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. tirr-djeda. guai. probably a deeper groan. ohg. ache.. as. Gr. to cause pain. djamdjam goda (goda. ach. headache. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. It. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . form. weh. miau-n-is. Gael. seen in Gr. It. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. xxxvi grief. ! ! Goth. g. ai. to injure. la. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). Lat. to rriourn. gwae. &. to lament. wai. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. miau-l-er. in Gr. ochain. are ol-ire. e. grief. w. vei-a. is w. o'i. wai. e. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. ocAJ. hei. The form corresponding to Lat. dchzen. howl. to ache. misery. wehthun. w.-l-are. axofiai. I oi[iot. to bewail oneself. cece. to sound yapyap. In this way from the root guai. as. mew. misfortune. ace. wd. lament. . but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. ach. 6. suffering. weh schreien. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. aiai^to. guajo. . ochan. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. It. to groan. lau-l-e. Jar lau-lau. ui. wAwa. och. A widespread It. on. och. ah. ach. Gr. pain. 6. Let. jao. to chirp. gwae. j. to do woe. wai-l. however. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. to make bow-wow. guaj-ire. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. Lat. ochan. woe. . e. to hurt Let. Illyr.ez. oimare. to weep. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. ahi.'). oh. wehen (Schmeller). die wehen. achen. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. to ache. pain. Thus from springs otjucifw. first person. w^wa. or r. gwe-l-a. Such are g. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. to gargle. g. jaoh. has more kopfweh. the pangs of childbirth. Fr. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. and to bark . vaj. to lament. to wail. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. to weep. miau-l-is. to yell formed e. on. Bret. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. . lament from oimi. at the close of the radical syllable. och. to cry n. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. oval. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. to wail or cry alas . as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. a groan or lamentation vir. oi. waiidt. Gr. grief] affliction. woe. It. vce. n. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

when he wants something. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. that is it. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. ' sees an object. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. thata (ta-ta). implying the direction of its good will towards them. Phil. der da-ige. that gratifies me. Thank you. that. The Fr. the nursery da-da. a word of many applications in g. child. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. or wants to name something. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. as to express. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. da. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. when 1859.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. • The child. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. more emphatically roSj)j that. da.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. as. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. 'nay. Dr Lottner observes. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted.' person. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). is-te). ToSe (or in Attic E. according to Menage. but the truth is. nurseries.' then points to his wife. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. When we pointing. as it Dieser da (as Lat. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. and by a variety of expressions besides. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. In the expression Da. give. saying : there the ad- Trans.' this. well as Goth.' all is is — their consent. says da-da-da. a specified were by pointing him out. Bav. this here. indeed. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. case. or carry me thither. Sanders (Germ. is we I believe. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. give me that cheese. . and so on. his trowsers' pocket. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. Please. or that it is. we may translate this by there (it is). Diet. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. I add) . or give me it. to here . Sie. and may be rendered. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. But. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. for instance.

sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. then instinctively interest. its desire. to chatter. to move step by step. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. reality. the original is that which he places first. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. tattle. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. tasting. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. pay. to knock. sinking. to walk. takes it — as When the soul. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. The da is dodem. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. or dalliance. and shapes it into an . . make dadada). thinking. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food.' • liv ANALOGY. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating.' says Lottner interior. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. p. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. speech. in every mode of expressing the idea. of which any one may. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. strike. beat. meanings. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. to beat.' says Muller. childish toying.^ its ' utters : a cry. standing. to tion to another. Thus Gr. which thus exertion. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. sounds. to say to oneself. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. — Cot. and one in particular must. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. dadee. moving. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. or metaphor. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. stutter.

The 6. on. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. in popular language. a with kimmaltaa. signified a clear sound. iclat (in Old Fr. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. bilbilgoda (to make . splendour. brilliancy. to snilF. discreet. to ring. to sound clear In Galla. man of nice taste. snuff the sniiten. firom the Gael. and schmecker. to resound. — 1. to crackle. smell. may be it explained . . Heo Du. judicious. sound. to tinkle. snutrs. Finnish. beam. to glitter. then to sparkle. think. noise. knittre. to glitter. while sapere itself. to sniff. snudra. 1654. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. to shine. same imitative root with Sw. smell. wamara. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. make a loud noise. for example. wilahtaa. outcry. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. sapere (which signifies the nose. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. &c. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. a ringing . a dis- cernment.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. So firom Lat. Fr. wilistd. unlella. It is The word bright had a similar In as. wise. to glitter e. scheteren. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. properly a clap or explosion. search . which in ohg. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. sprageti. extended to the exercise of the understanding. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. kiimottaa. a rustling sound Gr. clang. to ring as a glass willata. In the same way the Goth. Again. from the . . Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . spraka. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to sparkle. bright. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. to be wise. bilbil). and. as. to crackle gnistre. to 5 ghtter. to quiver. scTiateren. may be quoted gUt. also wise. rattle. and thence e. esclat). beorhtian. the equivalent of g. we have and the and beorht. tinkling. Lith. sense of brightness. a brilliant light kilid. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. to shine. prudent. ghsten. taste. is used in the origin. splendour. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. Bavarian bracht. as kilind. gnittre. to have Sapiens. to . air. pracht. to smack or taste. fiapfiaipw. tintelen. savour. snot. chime). to flash. schmecken. to glitter. in the domain of movement. kimistd. In the case of sparkle. tumult. knistre. suspect Bav. to glisten Dan. to shriek with laughter . to sniff out. (parallel bilbila. schiteren. snotor. Du. magnificence. and figuratively.

we hear of screaming colours. or . rough to the ear. then in rpd/xoe. sharp. as soft by the ear. he says. rough. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. which The Stoics. he framed the words ivSov. Much of the same has been often quoted. inside. eo ut res vol.' he says. power of the letter-sounds. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. of dressing loud. within. the bleating of sheep. smooth. in of his works. discusses the tone of a picture. accordance with the way in which by touch. is felt Lana. flow and flux. The BpavEiv. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. . so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. pvfi^Civ. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. in truth.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. itself letters are felt as sofl. 6\tadaveii'. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. soft. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. pleasure soft to the ear . crux. the neighing of horses. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. fitting the letters to the sense. kvTOQ. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. Tpa)(yg. briars. to slide. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. Kpovtiv. gluey. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. wool. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. v. 1. break. tremour. \nrap6e. mel. rough. shatter. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. Kep^arl'ieiv. and vepres. And observing that n kept the voice within. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. strike. rend. the clank (stridorem) of chains. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. whirl. the cross. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. roughness. KoWiiSije. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. extremely loose. oily. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. &c. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. Acre. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. ipuKuv. rough both ways. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one.

in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. shog. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. p. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. 'and consequently form.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. tug. stab. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. jig. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. dag. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. joli. rug. jog. for exis ample. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. t. to jogj sac-cade. as when. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. corresponding to the ineor. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. p. d. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. or checks as they are called by Muller. 138). If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. a rough and sudden . smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. k. stag (in stagger. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. degree of roughness sound. jag. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. dig. A greater felt. sag-oter. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. g.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. the case of the voice. and in the utterance of a high or or low. cular effort Again. jih. to reel abruptly from side to side). Fr. ii. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. to signify varieties of movement. shag. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves .

Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. passing to the signification of motion. as tot. for the sound of knocking at a door. Dutch kicken. to say a word . a stroke with a French toucher. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. Mucken. Illyrian migati. Then. as Italian tocco. movement. rough horse. zigzag. e. tech-tech. to ring a bell. to winkj micati is Lat. sound barely audible. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds.. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. To tick a thing off. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. also to stir. Fr. to glitter. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. Brescian toch. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. a jog. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. Ene olde suksuk. a cracker. an infant . it produces Dutch micken. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. mica. a . S-panish miga. The syllable suk is jerk. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. mot. Sukkeln. kuk. to strike It. &c. to mutter.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. tecche-tocche. to move rapidly to and fro. to utter a slight kick. properly a small lump'of . an old worthless horse or carriage. to stir. schuckeln. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. (mitsati). to take a thing on tick. sound Fr. then. or check. to incite by light touches. used interjectionally to represent a . with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. and It. cica. The analogy then carried a step further. so to Italian toccare. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. that we never can be sure. chicoter. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. Thus we have B. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. foot. a quid of tobacco. schockeln. then. like English tick. chique. Welsh cicio. and e. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. is lanese toch. Fr. to beat or play on a musical instrument. not to utter a syllable. to tickle. tack. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . to mark it with a touch of the pen . mik. chiquet. a playiug-marble. is so frequent a consequence of movement. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. g. a small bodily object. a crum. The production of sound. a piece or bit of anything. kik. zack. toch-toch. tock. in cases like the foregoing. chic. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . Accordingly the g. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. mie. is made to signify movement. a good piece of road . figuratively. Hence Lat. to touch. micare. The Mipen or pencil. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to pulses being knock. It. and analogous movements. to have it ticked or marked on the score . to On the same principle j we have g. The train of . lead to Spanish tocar. Bolognese tocc. however.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. a little bit. motion.

In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. anything small flax. gni. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. .MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. The following table from Tylor (Prim. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. small of kind. to jog. 199). often entirely arbitrary. subdued manner. jot. seesaw. and dot. further off. to e. at where the order is inverted. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. a small horse. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. zitella. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. a light quick blow. tit. the vowel sound. a bit. this. i. or o toi. Then. this . light — to note a thing hastily on paper . and out there. iki. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. totle. as in e. you. and mite. lump of earth. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . motte. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). we have e. chico. tot. a morsel. to movement of the pen . neither moit nor an atom. Fr. . a tot . to dot. fragments It. move slightly to . e. In a similar the relations of place. . n. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. Cult. mut. I. syllable mot. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. tot. not an atom . and he. or the like its It. anything . for the beating of a clock. fait. that. a lad citta. mote. ika. tot. there '(at a short distance). here.n. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. not because the pendulum makes a different left. little j to that of a small bodily object. to whisper (Pr. Malagasy to. mutter j dust. mot. the least visible insect. a whisper. a morsel girl . gno. . ticktack. mossche. tozzo. tottle. This kind.- a jot or little It. tit. mutter. of movement in totter. . to touch lightly with a pen. and a small lump of something.) . titilh. for the three personal pronouns. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. a sparrow). a small lump or pat. little. titter. ri that. bunch or flock of wool. Pm. is shown in murmur. (Halliwell) Da. a small quantity. lix Sp. But the same is language has re Javan. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. to jot down or note with a fro. . The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. here (close hand). the same organ touched with the man. a e. titmouse (Du. corresponding to the personal pronouns. motta. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. . 0. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. there. small titlark. there (further of!) ao. e. a certain conception. . The vowel changes from to tick-tack. or the converse. to tremble. Halliwell. a. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. a little titty. taut. citto. tot. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. eo. So. tiny. Du. clay . and toddle like a child titter. gnu. a bit. 48) cites from the African Tumale. tittle. zitio. a small bird. to make a slight mark. not to utter a syllable. a girl. to touch. To jot. a small kind of lark. that iku. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E.

owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). this ole. he. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. The vowels a and o sound of the voice.araM. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. father.e^. ni. Zulu ajoa. no constant rule is observed. to. Dhimas isho. me probable that • Vei also little. nne. Lat. an old woman chacha. ofj. qu. I . In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. that. (tt). Magyar ez. this . Tarahumara ibe. ni.) pronunciation of i or e. here j abe. child. . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. 6. Guarani nde. w. there. this . you. here feraa. father k . . j Canarese ivanu. Sahaptin (America) kina. Then. for the male. ne. Carib ne. there. small (Pott. respectively. there. Botocudo ati. . Ossetic am. ^. that (intermediate) j wana. ulri. here . It seems to (fen. minution further.. he. an old . ta to ka. /e«. as the act of pointing was ta. mas cheche. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. ndi. thou ni. here . ojOo. .. is father. ita. femina ama. ukko. Mutsun ne. Gr. that. biii. .. here j ka. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. there. as Mr Tylor remarks. that. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. young one. and origin. that. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. It Carib lala. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. man erne. mother. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. uta. Japan ko. that.) nna. loo). mother. and a for the female. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. little. there. Mm. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. .* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. /mya. that in the distance. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. is Here. akha.. Fernandian az. olo. that. this fi. tiiio. mother. there. probably initial of distinction that the k. that. km. here this . . Chilian tva. thou . that. here 5 Yoruba na. that. child. . thou. Abchasian aSn. Tamul i. there. /wo. this . this <t. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. this . bi. usho. as in Italian Fin.

weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. trippelen. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. just beginning to appear. a child. And perhaps the E. titta. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. The sound trapp . this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. in old e. knob. i Sw. of smaller things. nab. as j money. trSpigner. looking through between obstacles. barking of a dog. to peep through. the idea is called. or even. for instance. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. lift 8. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to make its way through the bursting envelope. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. trappa. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. to teet. to tread. fretful. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. to begin to appear . for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. to leap. 401. din-din. The Sw. Clank represents the sound of something large. or chink. Fr. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. the nursery few j Sc. tion. — Douglas Virgil. murmur. &c. Thus we have Wolof sopa. A little wee face with little. Da. trappen. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. and in the Pacific dialects. little To sup up. pepin. to peep. whence Fr. Top. nil. From cases like the foregoing. sound of bells .' making the voice as small as possible. repetition It. analogous to winy-piny. as ding-dong. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. at pippe frem is to spring forth. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. to feet. little. don-don. dance (Kil. wenig. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. nipple. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. A little weeny thing. for a succession of light blows low-wow. is to express simple continuance of action. the pip or pippin. has tittafrem. a little yellow beard. trippen.' — Merrv Wives. wean. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. keeh. trap. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. the germ from whence the plant is to spring.) . for the . a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. the simplest mode by the g. .: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. a step. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. stairs. the principle of reduplication.

calling. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. kamha-gamla. the and clique. kendagenda. serves to show and in this way. didi. or el. (to use a to speak. random . but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. . repetition or continsignify long. a grasshopper. or rdtchi. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. Cult. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. &c. keep spots. Malay ayun. or a little tee--ny thing. sopasopa. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). Again. loloa. tache. are echoed by the rudimentary et. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. amusement. puka. Mandingo ding. mpolu is uttered. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. er. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only.. lololoa. rack click. click. the agent in panting . That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. to talk at to walk. or very very great. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. clash of weapons. ding-ding. bad . the comparative degrees of greatness. And generally. if very young. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. 97). very bad. to say pooh It is ! to. to skip. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. ayunayunan. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. So from clamo. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. to rock. to treat with contempt. racket. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. to call frequently from Fr. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. very long (Pott. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. to pant. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. kenda.' expression is — ^Tylor. 99). to cover e. Susa di. ratsi-ratsi. a spot. to to call. mawhitiwhiti. rack. and Fr. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. The same principle of 196. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. instead of being actually repeated. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. to vi^alk about for flax. very great. Thus in the Pacific loa. a cradle. to love. little child (p. properly speaking. to or rub. is language. clamito. or imitative syllables. a clattering noise. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. smallness. tach-et-er. the lungs. hardness. mawhiti. and the words express a continued sound of rack. child . could readily be conceived.Ixii REPETITION. rapidity and strength. or in Fr. Thus in E. in familiar use with ourselves. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. cliqu-et-is. i. . puka- puka. from Maori muka. child . In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb.

wagas ging. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. dabble. miauler andpiauler. to bark like a dog. in some applications. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . or Maori puka-puka.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. it. guggle. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. a from ayun. as mAS. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. g. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. dab. Ihre remarks under gncella. from puka. the lungs (the puffers of the body). such asjlap. is In e. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. in Fr. or omitted. The Fr. to hand. to hand-le. syllable clat . although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. to puff. smack. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface.Jicol. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. and in as. jogging. waggle. The contrivance with any particular noise. In cases like these. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. the knie-en to E. wankeln. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. which. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to wail woe . to move to and fro. mew and baa . and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. to rock or wag. are to cry mew and pew . the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. crack. to continue dragging. Jickfacken. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to crackle. bub. wavering. to make bau-bau. by the side of wanken. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. to make gug. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. or in e. bubble. without the intervention of the frequentative element. itself. compared with g. miauler and beler correspond to E. joggle. shuffle. where all direct connection with sound is lost. rubber. to rock. wancol. others. he who rubs. to make a succession of grabs . as to handle. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. a succession of cracks to rattle. fickle. draggle. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . to make a succession of shoves. rynel. kneel. wankel. Piedmontese bau-l-S. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. or by association. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. or fi bau.

or in aptness to combine with other elements. known in Italian. to cry ugh at. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. There is. moreover. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. will continue to be felt in daily speech. it is obviously a mere chance how long. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. the breach. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. or how generally. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. and comparatively few easily deceived. which. to the separation between the broken parts. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. at was more familiarly known. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. A gull or a dupe same sense. although it is not difficult. by a hard body breaking. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. on a moment's reflection. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. deceit. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. Breton. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. Polish. which is the origin of the word. or in mode of use. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. Dupe comes to us from the French. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning.

And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. . wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. is. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the word is used in a secondary sense. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. however. life. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. nor any limited of ideas. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. Hitl^erto. founded in manifest blunder. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. language is . ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. and the grounds of lie shortcomings.

as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. and 'Russian. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. I think it very probable.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. hearing. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. unintelligible to other hordes. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. French. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. and vescovo. compared with the duration of man. circle perpetrates a new slang term. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. out. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. in the course of many years' isolation. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. Naturalist on the Amazons. therefore. Welsh. If English. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. change. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. of material things. episcopus. guages in South America. 330.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. evique. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. i. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used .

A key must unlock more doors than this. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. 9. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. Nor is there one of the letters.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. i. Cijlt. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. or whatever the proportion may be. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . as shown in the subjoined illustration. The combination of the symbols I and 2. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. ancient Greek M . it will leave figures 3 and 4. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. 7. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. which are idenr Figures 5. to be taken (Prim. 8. and . the actual it which would to represent. . tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 6. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. is MN. ao8). that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «.

Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. which either by direct resemblance of sound. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. had its origin in imitation of sound. known to us as yet. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence.' should be discovered. for instance. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us." the use of a change of vowel in as. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. or. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. his fellows. what comes to the same thing. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. leading him to utterances. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. in the shape either of direct inspiration. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . and it has been established in a wide range of examples. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. and the only safe beneficent Creator.

or of their own reflected thoughts . and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. or beavers. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. or else. or not. as elephants. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. in the course of generations. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. for instance. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. by animal without a trace name of Man. the conduct of Ixix life. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. and sooner or later. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. and when we look back as far as history will reach. and rose towards a higher state of being. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. until the progeny. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man.COMPLETION OF MAN. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. race were speaking men or not. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. that he started from the lowest grade. of using imitative conduct . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives.

Diefenbaeh. Fin. Wtb. 1737. Sup. 1850. Bremisch. Esthonian. Fr. dial. . Carp. Bav. Carpentier. Gothischen 1851. Castr.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Dutch. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. or Dan.. 1857. Dueange. Supplement to Bret. Danish. 1768. ^Ifr. Da. Gr. Cotgrave. Dief. Due.Nieder. Bavarian. Dn.V. Esth. Diet. Diet. 1766. dialect of the Sette Commune. AS.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Finnish.-Eng. Baile/sEngl. Provincial dialect. Douglas' Virgil. at the end of Somner's Diet. Anglo-Saxon. Couzinid. 1654. Cimbrisch. Infimse Latini- D. Biglotton seu Diet. B. English. Teutonico-Lat. Cimbr. Diefeiibach. de la langue Cat. Catalan. Grammar Boh. E. Diet. Bigl. Supplement to Dueange. Dueange. Elfric's Fl. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Cot. Dief. Bohemian or Czech. Romano - Cas- traise. Brem.



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to arise. bandon in French. orders. power : Than Wallace thing. ar. Ab-. onis aback. Lat. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. off.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. said. Parson's Tale. as. on-bsec . and secondarily in that of command. and — Chaucer. Thus ip N3S. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. Dent posture. 843. baftan. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. The word Ban is common orders. Abaft. a/tan. Thou spelds of mychty iction. behind. K . rule. in a manner other than it should be ablution. To abuse is to use iway. 244. ir. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. an edict or proclamation. until the event jlace . In Lat. A. Again. ur. command. iway from. vs. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. Passing tongues. his. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . to sauff the king or spill. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. as.he Goth. . "rom a height. o/j of or . whatever he be. but now )bsolete). from.t G. from a is to wake to abide. ab. Hence on-bceftan. ibandonner. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. be-ceftan. ifter. to hold . downwards. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. on. erwachen. us. among.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. Abs-. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. to awake. announcement. in. the er. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. sion of 'an abandoned character. abaft. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. away. into the Romance ftrseg . his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. on-lic. particular 1 . Abandon. a. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. this word beand Spanish. AS. in the same sense. state of sleep . abs. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. plesyt him. out of. have entire dominion over. alike. —Bruce. dominion. to subdue. away from. OHG. implying a completion of J. literally. er. Jvery man shewid baft. dominion. AS. Immediately from Fr. a washing off to abstain. on. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. compounds. of-dune.

impetuously. astonish. 1520. where custom (Grandg. R. Abbot. See Abide. to ruin. To Abate. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. lish to abaisse orabaish. to gape. to abaw or astonish.down. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. thing abbatere le vela.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. drink. In or. baba. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. or society of abbots or monks. to strike sail . and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. It. with or without a final sh. depress. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. shame. vol. 364s. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. down. abandonly. et prirent terre. abbatere dal prezzo. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. Wall. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. from Lat. to take possession of an estate.' the surrender of a ' K. overthrow. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Originally. merely the terminations ons. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. abbatia. and grooms besmeared with gold. A. or admiration. to beat furnish. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. iv. abbatis. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. beer. On the other in use as well as hand. castle. person.— R. Custom.fournir. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. may be explained. burny. ais. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . Fr. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. other. and sets them all agape. See . as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. polish.— — . R. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. Castrais. esbahissant. to bate something of the price abbatersi. d. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. his eyen shene. Cotgr. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. de. adverbial expressions at abandon. c. I was abawid for merveille. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. esbahissais. law term abatement. of fear. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. bawi.Prov. so common in the found in the OFr.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. impulse. Hence the OE. faire tomber. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr.polir. to happen. . Milton. as ravish. from ravir. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. to make lower.On princes. Baba ! Mod. to light upon. at his own the lips. betrash. baer. in the active form. to hit. to astonish. effect of shame. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. to overthrow. by Wall. Bate. More correctly written abbat. to put to con. . son bandon. abate. to The .) . father. — Neccham. ant. abbattre. And he thereof was all abashed. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. abbas. and that from Syrian abba. Beat. his mouth. esbahir. terminedly. Hence Lat. to strike Froiss. Abbey. astony. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. of wonder. to excite admiration. R. 1 1 8. of the Fr. Abbess. confound. uncontroUedly. ne more vermeille. bandon. to diminish the force of any.esbawi. weaken. Hart in Jamieson. and it that that it — . — — . Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. abaundunem-ent. and the verb was written in Eng.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. burny was formerly burnish . abbatere. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. esba. an abbey. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray.

E. Ducange. in Dan. beguiling on the other. a right in suspense . deceiving. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. 366. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. literally white tree. take care. delay. to look. incite . gola badada. also to OFr. F. house. bie. to be intent upon. Fabl. abie. abeyance. suffer b. delay. — ABELE Epiphanius. — signifies to suspend action. to be intent upon.— Roquef. aspire to. guardare. Gloss.— Chaucer. a bay or opening in the coast. is idenwait. to hook. K. attendre See Bait. bida. to wait. tical with It. warten. abaier. listening. to It. Thus we have It. ^couter avec dtonnement. Norm. Abie. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. wait To Abide. songer.) abayer. In We . ' ' . and E. The verb atwaiting. Q. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. gridare. with badia. to deanimer. — . . to stay. desire. abet. take notice. to expect. ne chastised them. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. beijen. baier. we sceolon ON. othres abidan' The effacement expect. badare. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). abet. to open bader. badigliare. speaking of the Holy places. from Halo. bouche bdante. Quant voit le serpent. or do we AS. beidan. The white poplar. Cat. abbadare. beidan. . tarrying . (Vocab. m Abeyance. abiiance.— ^richer. bhr. trick abetar. verbeijen Sw. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns.to wait. and alluring to his own destruction. watch. have seen abide. To Abet. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. Thus G. Du. —Raynouard. forbearance. Gloss. to wait. covet. bada. Boethius. endurance. . ceive. which the mind to an object. badar. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. or in Fr. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. or absorption watching. abie. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. abeter. abayer. which is certainly related to It. baer. says. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. deceit. bocca badata. b^er. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. to attend to. white. to wait. to remain or endure. to tarry. abSiance. . bouche b^ante. regarder. delay. beter. look for another. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. bder. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. bida. badare. wait. Abele. listen. to mind. beijen. tenere a bada. beijden. Ni engigner ni abiter. on the one hand. and in E.' is in AS. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching.was formerly used in the sense of look. bie compared with Dan. to desire earnestly. and Prov. to attend on . Guernsey beth. attendre avec en^pressement. bialodrze-w. de Champ. lingering. while the monks under his control ing. to desire. baier. Corant sens lui. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. John. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. Cat. Goth. to yawn. badare. endurArt thou he that should come. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. See Abide. Corresponding to keep in suspense. . expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. Pol. desirer (Roquef. to expect gabeidan. OFr. abidan. to stay. 1 • . shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. beguile.. de Berri) Prov. bana.Fr. pense. compared with (Bosworth). waiting. bide of the d endure. abetter. tity of E. — II. signifies the direction of tend. baier compared with It. with open mouth . Norm. to In great amaze. Prov. tempting. expectation. in Fr. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. to open the mouth. syllable ba. qui iaaille. ne wist what way to chuse. From abahier. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. forms with the d effaced are OFr. to abide . inciter. were called Brothers. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. usbeisnei. expectation. suspense. open the mouth. intent observation. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. aspirer. us. bidan. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . the verb of abeyance. exciter. to suffer death in Du. to ance. expectfamily. to gape . to deceive. inciting.

If it badare. Merch. without special reference to the notion of retribution. — Able. from AS. being disabled in the highest degree. AS. in for any special purpose. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. habilis is closely preserved. L. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. while in later examples As I . Boucher. de la volatile. to redeem. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. strong. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. consequences of anything . abie. abilh. . durance in both applications. abigg. abie to Goth. the side of a ship. She shall abie that trespass dere. — e. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. R. have-like. N. R. abicgan. the Pardoner In the original. 2nd Tale. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. P. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. God. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. adapted .^and to make his power knowne. — P.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. In this to erase or annul. within the walls of a ship. to draw fowls. habile. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. must suffer for it. at kasta fyri bord. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . or bie. Dr. For on board. purpose. Abie. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. Milton. It. abycgan. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. abeye. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. is the verb abie. ! ! Cotgr. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. fault being simply clothing. to wear away. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. from Lat. when compared with Aboard. the Fr. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. ON. sufficient. use. al- be found so some will dear abide it. i. suffer the Jul. Fr. Tr. Innan bords. bord. F. properly abuy. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. Mids. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. abilej Prov. Lat. willing to schewe his wrathe. aboleo. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. abidge. and the simple buy. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. to pay the penalty. fit. expert. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. was often used in the same sense. convenient.ynes. though sometimes confounded with it. the Sir Tristrem. Q. to perish. bidan. to . The —Boucher. and Cr. power. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. Fr. Chaucer. at hand). —Bacon in R. forbid for mother's children should abye. and death for handsel pay. able. to dress hemp. atling hem to her proper offices. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. him with che. abide. Wickliff in Richardson. 2. powerful. beidan. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. habilis (from habeo. as habiller du chanvre. Prol. O If tion. to have . within the ship. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. abolir. as E. &c. to pay the purchasemoney. Cassar. bide. a board. Spenser. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. on board . P.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. God — dear. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt.

to snatch. to cut short. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. nurse Lat. abutan. as AS. The radical idea is to feed the flame. to progress. which may God avert.. to feed. Sc. and also.ymbutan. nurse. becomes leu in Prov. progeny. abominor (from ab and omen. be-utan.the older form. AS. side. Du. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. leading immediately to Fr. abufan. below. to grow up. gravis. to fatten. to beget or give birth to children. Then. agreujar. the vital spark.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. Kiittner. Lat. abredan. ufan. that greatly agredge their sin. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. alan. af-oleii. giving birth to.aboon. OSw. above. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. to break off. of any kind . is not from G. .plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. for ligeth butan. In the same brevis . adolere. breaking out in language.' Ymb hancred utan. without. Virg. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. bufan. as the duty of nourdisposition. or cut short. D. to let sleep. hard. af-oolden. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. alan. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. the OSw.' Parson's rence. explains soboles Lat. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). abbreviare. boven. way Sw. ala. sec seftre — Chaucer. ala is made to signify to rear. abracan. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. disastrous portent in some passing oc. abbrechen. draw out. The primitive idea seems that of beget. which passed into English under Abominate. or young forth. by the to bring up. while the sense of beget. the form a&^^.— Abbreviate. outward. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. awaking. onbutan. See -und-. from . natural ed direct from the latter language. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. to rear. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. Goth. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. a portent).. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. life. s —Casdmon. For on broach. and to do something to avert abbreviate. gravity. levis to the Romance languages. Thonne Abroach. to AS. oil.ger. AS. from Fr.foda signifies to beget. on high. be-ufan. as withotityn and without.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. — . to aggravate.writers in the sense of starting out of rence.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. Of these synonymous adolescere. around on the out. Abrdger itself. al is growth. alere capillos. ABOMINABLE adolesco. coalesco. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. See To Bray. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. motion. to light a fire the Abraid. and bidden him abregge. abrcBgdan. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. whence the Fr. and also to abridge. OE. literally. greu. to produce. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. ol. OE. while the verb alleThe root el. is a ively. pedigree from brevis. snatch In English we speak of away. abbrechen. common in Chaucer and Abominable. To abray or abraid. To Abound. his contemporaries. Fr. Tale. to turn. — ' — — preceding verb. titan. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. Finnish stock. agredge. d. nourish. but from Lat. to main. currence. to nourish. to start. abrdger. about cockcrow. seems aras.) . heavy. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. Above. and in-d-oles. the idea of breaking about . breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. the man dwindles away. So in Lat. so that here also we to deprecate the omen. parent. Quod abominor. to grow together. the identity of which with ting. Abray. Melibaeus. the hair grow. vital PI. brood.1. butan. full ofte his words for to Fr. alUger. to bring up. AS. to feed. Thence to regard greugetat. Abundant. to rear. to awake. Severe the threatened evil. abowen. Gael alaich. break out. Prov. kindling. and alere flammain. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. en. .



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


ab. and claret wine. but the expresent day. as the Italians.. Apartment. Ful- Apanage. bread. AS. from eigan. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. gabeigs. —Spencer. Gr. the anticks — behind. or antique single chamber. anfilts Pl. E. were chiefly of the former class. one at the least. to have. Fr. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. part. to support. to bring forth. aside. inAgain from the same author cudis. to strain. such as savages. Mannequin. swaged. cenig. Aphorism. Apartment. vex. from an and — - . a termination equivalent to Goth. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. antefn. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Gr. post. d<popi(xnbs. something ler in R. avri^ava. surimitation of the ancient models. and ig. amboltj Du. anapoz. from. from. to go in strange disguises. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. before. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler.made out. strangle. Lat. transferred to the grotesque characters. one. In like manner. So Lat. anticus. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. To ape. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Pezron fiUist. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. ambeld. Fr. Fr. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Gr. Ilvtwotov. finally applied to a whether grotesca. to display pario. eigs. plenteously with red. Apart. of.—Aperture. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. i. af. Lat. to strike. before. Antick. a puppet or an anti^hona. in Shakespear. To go antiquely. Lat. rich. anxi. Anvil. from ante. trouble. anxius. The Fr: form antienne stcfn.— . As the browcalled antiques. a few. as from as. See Cover. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. whence anthem. — — — . choke. separate purpose. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. as posticus. Percutere. Lat.D. AS. from the imitative habits of monkeys. Otfried. from ango. stem. whence Prov. to strike G. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. and devils. Hence the applica. from Stephanus. wealth. from avTiipoiuia). any is that which partakes of the nature of one. to open. like a jack-pudding.th centuries the recognised models of antic. a block to hammer on. villan Gloss. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. one having wealth. from an. d. Antique. aperio. all of gold. to nourish. were andouiller the second. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. as we call it. white. AS. Anxious. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. left as the . a preventative . Hall's Chron. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. burnished. G. Antler. antifena. which by anvild. Any. press. ReApe. fauns. incus. panar. panis. should be received. Thus from gabe. from in and cudere. to sound in answer. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. verberas. a definite . younger child. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes.legacy of given against. apertum. work. a small quantity. apanage. separate.is to be given. . or in a ridiculous dress. on. Jorioc. three antike pillers. apatiar. andouillers. a gift. what Roman civilisation. some one. set aside. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. : . Prov. Aperient. to imitate gestures. Antidote.

from paix. Sp.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. trim. to lose one's senses. The PI. to deter- to strike. in good season prendre son d. approver. make a composition between parties. prize.propius). in Chaucer. oVooroXof. to — — . i. approcher. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. word was specially applied to clothing. to disable oftat. Fr. mine. (cited by Diez from a late author). allow. to Lat. to deaden. one sent out. order. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. pretium. Parson's Tale. to approve. Fabian in R. praise. aparelhar. e. a thing for one's purpose. For their acquaintance was not come of new . to seize. appaiser. Nouv. to accord. the good. to dress in this fashion. good. to call for judgment. Prov. off. Lith. Hence appoind. corresp. Lat. like. that it outfit. to finish a controversy. array. prope (comp. apropid. apparecchiare. opportunity.pareil. Yr. apprise. Apotliecary. agree. from aTroorlXXu. quoth the frere. to rate. apin R.parejo. appris. Fr. Cotgr. Apo- good time. seiden of the stones. like. apal. to set a price on. whence the e. To Appear. avail. ^wss. appartenir.parecchio. D. consent unto. Gr. to mark to define a bound. kind of action. obolys.t. dress. laven is used both as E. to come near. horror. away. appareiller. appellare. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. and in the sense of condition. APRICOT off. 'L-zX. xv. value apprdder. to fit. appareo. purpose. From Gr. — Approve. Apprehend. d-n-o. to send to. 5w. apropchar. Apostle. of. ai. to suit. to call. Cotgr. probare. En peach. diroTrXriaatii. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. to learn. Appareil.—Apprentice. to commend. cepl. To Appraise. Gr. Prov. whether through age or sudden teiTor. fit- — ness. in data. Ir. And among other of his famous deeds. Pliny. Fr. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. ap. H. and metaphorically to take the meaning. AS. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Apoplexy. after his mind . despatch on some service. The Fr. proper time came. — prehendere. Fr. pragigua or prixcoda. a'^opi'Jw. iwKjToKri. To cause to pall (see Pall).— . par. in fact. habiliments. Friar's Tale. Mod. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. Formerly apricock. Palsgr. Epistle.probare. manner. rise to \t. Approach. to take away or lose the vital powers. APO sentence opoQ. one is in. Gr. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. — Appurtenance. when the . to — . prover. to understand. ON. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. were formed appropiare ejar. to deem good.his giving evidence against his principal. Appease. peler. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. an epistle or letter. agreeing with "LtA. poind. . habilUr. from. w. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. To praise. They were considered To Appoint. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. to store or put Appal. to announce. Fr. Cotgr. —Diez. decree. esteem. piteux poind. set a price on. 23 . . to which it is often referred. Fr. diminutive pariculus. to assign or grant over unto. — dirondtfiu. pertain or belong to. Fr. approcdare. Apple. to catch hold of. near. jabloko. —^Apparent. to make a thing Apparel. landmark. find Then like Fr. a crime. to learn. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. and appoinder (to find fitting. plight. lAfiaam. Yr. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. 'LaX. ar. Gr. and also as appraise. aptly. to strike down. apprendre. peace. a learner. irpaiKOKiaov. or the like. Fr. taking. become dizzy . or E. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. S^. : — — speak 'Lz. . equal. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. properly to join like to like. a price. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. prohts. Walach. poind. to send off. known. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. pronounce good. An old appalled wight. OFr. preparation. apprentis.prix. From Lat. in commendation. Hence It. ciously than nede is. — Apprise. case. A — . to approach. N. It. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. one the MLat. one for his defence. apal. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. to be open to view. Cent Nouv. apar. From Lat. pronounce fitting). in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. apprehendere. And whanne sum men Lat. I prise ware. 11. diroBrjKr}. They werin his approvirs privily.

Marsh. con. ughe. fastened close. OE. Gr. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. as an eye-witness. Roquefort. a pleasure-ground. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. sorcerer. to plough. pracoqua was not an adapt. arbiter. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Now we find in Fin. opinio. rofe and all. It is certain that the apricot oracle. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. account for either of these significations. arwaus. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. 2. She made. to preserve it from stains. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. — napkin is Naperon. aestimo.shrubs {arbor). hariolus arpelen. and with turfis new Goth. Prol. scr. arwelo. Arbitrate. aqua. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. This path Aqueous. and sortilegus ation.' —About. . aro. tion under trial. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. words derived from arpa. sortium ductor. doubtless is the origin of E. The loss or addition of n very common. A. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. la nappe. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. Aquatic. Thus we have natiger and auger. — . 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. Alban.) E. ahva. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. aptus. From OFr. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit.. a lot. conjectura conjec^ra. Maan initial . Albanian. Lat. be That it inne groweth. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. Pr. intensitive of nape. the spelland umpire. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. From OE. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un.meaning at Shrewsbury. found in Fin. or barm-cloth. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. a soothsayer. Freshly turnid Arable. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. It may be doubted. delon. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. is taken in is a soothsayer. aha. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. wata. and thence fit. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . OHG. .gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. of of divination arpa-mies. Hall. . arpa. garden. Beryn. suitable. nawl and awl. 331. Flower and Leaf. ear. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. As is a pretty parlour. to decide by lot.o. arbitrium. divining rod. or eft. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. J. a lot. derived. shortdr. Naprun. Lat. short.sors. grande nappe. nected. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. proper. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. water Which that benchid was. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . P. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. 31. naperon. arbitror arwaaja. conjicio. arbiter in re censendS. Lat. P. symbol. and the one who gives oracles. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. quod he. and a protection of the clothes. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. auguror. aa. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. {mies ^=ia3. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Pm. properly the arwella. and taken away before dessert. man. . ap. C. a cloth. Arbour. as ihe diminutive. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. however. Now one of the points — — — . sestimatio arbitraria. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron.] in the N. however. a lot. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. herbere. a river.

vocaveris. shoulder. whence the body of the nobles collectively. faint-hearted. Fr. arcA in e. The . bad. Sax. arm. Dan. signifies chief or principal. apxri. to rule. lofty. — Wtb. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. And thou as arwe coward. Fr. the court of a magistrate. Du. ars. armata. to demonstrate. erz-bischof. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. Applied in modern E. aj-f. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. in Due. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. a branch. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. armada. i. Lat. aridus. arson. . apxtipfve. bad of its kind. to arm. a bare plot of ground. the best. erz in G. make clear or prove. Lat. an extent of flat surface. as in E. to Arch. arg. Gr. AS. Lat. . arduus. . contemptible. ardor. ON. Arduous. an arch boy. un petit rusd. receptacle where the public acts were kept. a court yard. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. det arrigste snavs. worker. apx^iv. mischievous. taxed with cowardice. Arid. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. raineno. a chief builder. arrant Arms. Gr. fainthearted. 3340. gwyro to bend. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. bad. a threshing-floor. adjective. Perhaps erz-wticherer. From the verb armare. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb.. Brem. Lat. D. bravest. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. is essentially the same word. wanton. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. erg. gwyrek. an arrant rogue. armee. Cot. burning heat. arm'ee.is the natural weapon of offence. and Kpurka. arch-bishop. vescovo. exercise lordship). Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. Sp. ardeo. area. Arcadia in R. which is derived from it. ein arger knabe. Arm. arm. it signifies roguish. Arcliives. un malin enfant. There can be no doubt that E. a. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. man. morally bad. especially shoulder-joint. Uo^a^. malicious. branch. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. 2. ramo (pi.' the Gr. It. ruling by the nobles. ardre. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Du. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. een erg kind. and not with apx. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. W. to be on fire. forearm . et vulgari verbo. G. * ArchjAiTaxit. timid. mischievous. while the Fr. arsum. from nixa. ramend). This particle takes the form of arcz in It. arguo. arga. apxtlov. sly. .ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. Gr. From apxeiov was formed Lat. shoulder Boh. kpxi- beginning. to dry. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . Lat. — Architect. G. a bow. an arch-deceiver . branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. Alisaunder. Ardent. high. Aristocracy. curved. a burning or setting on fire. archangel. argvitugr. earm. argr. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. Area. ardIn G. Ardour. weapon may be simply an application of annus. troublesome.. earg. curved line. Lat. sly. a rule (princiruler. ill-tempered. arma. arcus.aioj. ^Argument. as the arch of a bridge.' Lex. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. arwe. Gr. the terminaGael.' Paul Warnefrid. first. Fr. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed.— Army. ancient. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. ers-betriiger. Arch in composition. to be in comp. earh. fabricate). patus). A construct. from areo. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. and must be identified with Dan. wretched OE. a noble. Langobard. and our army. the a brute. arrig. TiKToiv. stuff. ' — Argue. difficult to reach. the most arrant trash. to burn . sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. which has been referred to W. weapon. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. sluggish. Arson. Lat. by Russ. . are formed the participial nouns.4 rir/. government. rame. an arrant usurer. Lat.In E. apxh.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

OFr. a ballad.Fr. to avoid it. Mid. wickedtorment ON. cka. . and the dim. sickness. to rock. Sw. a ball. pallo. balle. to stir. Pol. w. ban. To Bale out water. (Hesych. to on Holmedon's plain. the object of his expectation. the beam of a ship. Sw.— Ballet. bala. OHG. destruction. We have then separate dial. balkr. from the more general notion of moving up and down. Bale. balle. a pail. to Not sparing wight. N. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. on. to shake or jog. bolawy. 2. Ball. bollr. Bohem. a great ball. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. afbalka. Fr. It. balle. a ball. i. a ballot). Hence. balge. Sw. Grief. balle. pallo. Da. to signify washy drink. palla.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . may exhibit the original development of the signification. as in a barn or cow-house. heap up. balken. a beam. to partition off . a ball balla. Fin. Ball. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. bal. It. beaten road. . * Balk. to pack Da. a continued noise of waves gently beating . 3. Sw. a ball or pack. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. boleii. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. hue et illuc inclinare. bol. a ball. to paddle in water . It. a skin. balla (with the augm. ballet. a clapping or flapping of wings. pila. Du. Du. ballare. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. bealwes. to be balker. bolyatchka. malefacGower in R. balva-vesei. at giore en balk. probably Lat. chapurrar. Gr. on. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. sick. bal-daed.of men . To baulke the Sir H. with the perhaps from balg. maan pallikka. a bubble. ing. to cause another to miss pustule. package of goods. ballone. maleficium. on the shore. a pestilence. Sw. bolyaf. a dance. a partition. and evil in general. Rouchi ban. a globe. to dance. ache. ballar). to roll. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). dial. ballo. to by beams. to see-saw.' speak gibberish champurrar. pain. to ail. . Ballot. bacgtteter. ball. ballare. palloilla. e. dial. G. ballotta. a clump . Ballata. from bacquet. ball. ball. Balloon. . Gael. bdlkr. bielke. a scene acted in dancmg. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. a clod of earth water. balka hopar. Fr. — A — — . a together in the form of a ball. plague. bjdlki. F.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. mass. a But making way for death at large to walke. Ugutio in Due. bal. Bret. balloon. baloier. ballare. a beam. other while. a balk of foul weather. sorrow. balk. Wotton. the ballet of the theatres. Baulke of land. to speak an un. to plank. a washing-tub. grieve . on. balka bunge. Venet. a water-skin dim. Fr. bola. boll. ' is a piece or confused talking. Bowl.Lat. whether of wood or stone. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. vacillare. A balk. . a separate portion. palcare. pallikka. shouting. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape.—Ballad. Hence Dan. blister. hooting. misery Du. balk. ill. to wave. separaison. E. are applied to a From the same analogy. a ball. The primary sense seems as in G. bbllr bulla J. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. Dan. bolker. to be ill. Sw. to grieve . uveirs bolk. wickedness ness . It. says Ray. Perhaps on. balare. a pill. vcdra bdlkr. ballan. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . a. balken. to ache. baalie.ing. as we say. balka. the breadth from side to side . balk. OSw. I. See Gall. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. weak liquor. similar connection is seen in Sp. It. to bale out. tum. Sp. . ball.). ON. taich. Boll. Goth. Q. globule. a division of the old laws. Da. a wooden partition . Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. bold. to dance. to move. bol. trouble. . G. pilula. floor. balk. bal. a boil. balja. roof. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. ne leaving any balke. dial. stage or scaffold. baler. a dance. Sw. TtaKKa a pail or tub . lealo. to plough for a boundary between lands. Sw. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. Russ. balveins. pallukka. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. In like manner Fr. baalien. dial. gen. torment. AS. calamity.

barauste. bertesca.000 tons. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble.. Balm. To Bamboozle. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. lastagium signified not only ballast. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. ballustres. bag-lest. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. a useless load. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. Lest. a battlement . Mr Marsh whether the a load. lastre. a small balustrade. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. sorcerer. It. Report Pennsylv. from bara or vara. paid for the right of carriage. to walk. ^a\Ba\iov. R. in the first place. astonished. bamein. curse. a fragrant gum. of balusters. If bambocciolare were child of one. The Baltic sea. Bamour. . objects to the foregoing derivation. Balsam. it is forced to take in stones or sand. bambolo. balustrade barandilla. or movement of one who walks. for a load or goods (Roquef. Bret. galleries. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. baume. a young babe. ranked on the outside of cloisters. terraces. barandado. . To proclaim. is in Sweden and Norway. from Lat. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. Balluster. as he says. by met. Baltic. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. When a ship discharges. the flower of the pomegranate. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. railing around altars. baU. lastra. bamboccio. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. The Sp. inutile onus. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. command. fonts. bambocciolo. denounce. more frequently than outward-bound. Sc.' And Kil. lest. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. a nettle. and Mid. seems the original form of the word. baltresac. baranda. To Bam. called Bait. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. Gr. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. To deceive. bag-las. To Ban. or ballast of a ship. Sept. small railing. explains ballast.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. &c. ballast. — — oltriga. Du. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. Lat. puzzled. ballustre) is a corruption. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. because. lestage. the act of walking. analogous to what is seen in It. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. This is the backload. Fr. A — — . Ballast. inutilis sarcina. forbid. 43 — Cot. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. Sp. balconies. little round and short pillars. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. ^Arbuthnot in R. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. a duty on goods last. deceiver. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. Cotgr. bumbazed. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. urtica. deceive. also with flatteries and . an Old dotard or imbambolare.that the going vessels. baUa.). more serious objection is . bam. To make fun of a person. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. endormir par des contes. make fun of a person. age. enchanter. Dan. Bret. for want of other freight. In OSw. to enchant. But Fr. i860. to preserve equilibrium. Venet. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. &c. It is explained back by Adelung. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle.Lat. dial. a false tale or jeer. mare Balticun. 1854. a rod. last. like Fr. 1. Fr. It. but loadage. the backload. Said to be from balaustia. balsamum. back of the ship. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast.

bannum or bandum. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. To Bandy. G. — To partito d'alcuno. bandon was used in the same sense. admolendinum. Baud. and It. hoc est vexillo. Commun^ment son bandon. R- He Translated by Chaucer. 2. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. and in E. to form parties. Fr. In a special sense the term company itself. to . Les saiges avait et les fols d. he assembled his host. Leg. and thence to any proclamation. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. &c. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. also the band or of marriage. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. to reprove. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. In Fr. to side or to bandy (Florio). &c. to ban. side. margin. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. to take one to task. is That with which anything AS.is further developed. bando.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. OE. to bring corn to be fahne. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. D. bande. . bindan. biddal. in hostem convocare.. a company. faction. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. It seems this signification has arisen. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. curse. fahne. Se il — Romance languages. It. to follow a faction. summoning to serve So in Swiss. from at the Lord's courts. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays.e. banda.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. Band. 813. banda.—John Villani in Due. Capitul. — excommunication bann-lysa. sostener Torriano. authority. eiiseigne. The to . — R. R. a coast. Spebifid. Sp. says Muratori. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. populum. permission. Cot. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. 1. to excommunicate {lysa. whether by way of injunction or for- command. at his own discretion. i. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. bann. bande. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. v. acquired the sense of proclamation. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. See Abandon. Bandus. change to the feminine gender in banda. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. bannire exercitum. to ctide. Wyntoun. band. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. 26. power. to publish) banna. bundun. tener da alcuno. 19. Car. Goth. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. ex. bound. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Sw. region. band. we constantly find the expression. he bannede his ferde. banner marked the place of assembly. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). Assises de Jerusalem. bande. Bandear. There is some doubt how Fr. theodscipe ut abannan. etc. 15. Fr. in Fr. bandera ground at his mill. then the signification w. A. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. flag. side. banda the colour or material. —R. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. E. Mag. to unite with a band. passing on from proclamation to command. It. Goth. Diss. 'A son bandon. the ensign or banner. bandon somewhat party. Ripuar. parti. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. banns pany of footmen serve. ligue Taboada).Lat. those who side together (bande. bandi. Sp. It. ba?idare. bannire in exercitum. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil.^ bandy. border. . From the verb to banda.

Bacon in R. and bakki. banke. Fr. bank. that the word is used by Romeo. Tibalt. bench. banco. a bench. Lat. . 2. large dog kept for a guatd. Lingua. death-blow . to publicly order one out of the realm. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. counter. benk. eminence. to beat. to bend a. Bandy legs are crooked legs. Hudibras. With many a stiff thwack. beat. Brewer. Bank. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. Milton in R. ON. a table. . language of W. a blow. b'ang. dorsum was applied to ject. banca fallita. bakke. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . prince had forbidden faction fightSp. hammering. Du. Bane. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. standard. se reunir. a wound OHG. a bench. From Mid. ruptus. a bench. The ridge of a hill is AS. banc G. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. a de Vaud. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. was formed the OFr. has bang-bang. banca his creditors. Bang.: . banka. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. s'associer. bana. bandi. bank of Dan. desk. See Balluster. a rising bank. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. de- party. When a man fails Lat. to foment factions. Banner. Fr. in the sense of a pirate. rap hatike et som The Susu. From a desk . to proclaim. panca. The ing. death-wound. se joindre. back of a knife. bank. bow. Sw. bench. a long raised seat. for shame. It. banqueroute. banc. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. death-sickness. banish. Fr. band-hond. bandear. Africa. a bank. But natheless wife at I bank. bander. seat . Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. The child cries bang! fire. to make a stir banke. bana-sott. AS. bandire. many a bang. broken. . g. of bandying words. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. bana. — . disturbance banga. bank of river. in the same way that E. in the sense of place of business. stir. from banc. eminence. a sand-bank. among rotta. and hence. a i. murderer. ON. whence the mod. the same verb the It. bance. . the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. and OFr. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. bana.^ knock. Diaconus in Due.z. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. Bankrupt. tumult bangas. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. to hammer in a nail. bander tin arc. Ripuar. band-dog. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. bang. forbear this outrage. destruction . AS. shoal. bank of a river. — — whence E. It. hricg. as of an explosion or a blow. Draw. The word is in E. in R. Banditti. &c. clouds. It. to join in league with others against Cotgn. — Fr. — Kil. A Shipman's Tale. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. —^Vocab. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Benvoglio. bane. to slay. See Banish. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Your stool. banja. the former Fr. canis vinculis assuetus. Roquefort. de sable. to work in wood. ON. It is in this sense nounce. beating. Banister. bander. the slope of a hill. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. bent as a bow. and therefore tied up. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. To Bandy. Mercutio. Mid. a bankrupt merchant. follow a party. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. bankruptcy. See Band. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. Diez. bana-sdr. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. distinguishes bekkr. Bandy. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. bannire. banditti acquired the like signification. N. Benchi. to cabal. roupt. — Paulus drive in a nail. to knock. at canis peciiarius. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. and poise Their lighter wings. E. Goth. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. the back. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. Bantze. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). 45 — — Bandit.HG. Dan. put under the ban of the law. to knock. Fl. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. outlam came to signify a robber. home — Bandog. pastoralis. a counter. . Forbannitus is used in the Leg. &c.

jSa'pjSapoc. period vexillarii. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. The spar. or of this bantering. a bench or table . a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. probably corSymbol. a barrier or stoppage. banchetto. A It. ON. would rupted from Fr. Leduchat. remarked. chan. a. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. ban- Baptise. bandiera.cruel. hence a repast.— Swift in R. such as the Roman Eagle. by a repetition of the syllable bar. Hence ner. To Banter. the bar at which a criminal enseigne.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. iandvo. the word came to signify rude. barba. barrer. banneret. Barbar. either in the Gr. and he would seem to derive Goth. barrack. bannereti. barbe. Banneret. a beam or long pole of wood. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. which is surely in barbed arrow.. barbed or trapped as a great horse. as they call it. a sign. jSdirTO). sparro. of banco. Lat. Hence Fr. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. The barb of an arrow is the sign . —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. barre. to wrap. Barbe. i. banneret was a higher class of knights. To mock or jeer one. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. Lat. token. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. barbarus. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. of wind. a tree). Banquet. In a similar manner are formed yearling. and even of calling it banter. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. privileged to raise Barbarous. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. then branches. top.8ap6^o)voe. to having that signification. banda. merki. a which the barrister addresses the court. ing term appears in other languages. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. to beckon . a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. banne. barrou-gwez. uncivilised. then fell among the foot. E. G. banner. —Cot. Flesche barbeUe. Gael. inur. Lat. himself in Pontus. It.. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. and it was accord. dim. senh. Fr. summit. Sw. According to Diez the It. Barb. E. The original import of their own banner in the field. sparre.aTa Kul nest. barde. sbarra. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. that the noise of voices Bantling. — We A . to dip. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. ingly very generally known by a name branches. rarii. a war-beacon or war-signal. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. men. Fr. inferior to a baron. Duo. bandva. The origin is in all probability Goth. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. OFr. banniire. of a sign in general. says. 3. bar. It may be thing. barreau. to wash. in Gr. senheira. sign. manu anto make signs nuere. Gr. . ON. It. Fr. It. milites bannarii. OHG. nestling. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. &c. from reifa. Fr. benda. indeed. branch. rod of any rigid substance. heri-pau. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Gr. a ban. &c. OHG. BARBAROUS reiflingr. Bret. senhal. and with an initial s. senhal. wrapped. barra. banda hendi. signuin. Fr. from the same source. Thus Ovid. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. E.hinder. and from ensign or banner Prov. Barb. Celtic bar. out of a wound. 2. is to virtue of the number of their retinue.the analogous syllable viur. knight Bardd. Fr. to bend. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. Bap. a bantling. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. and the work is done. a bearded or Cot. an animal a year old. brushwood. branches of a tree {gwezen.46 BANNERET . arineXov. ^oTrriKio. speaking of battle. barriire.

Mod. skola. Lith.— BARBEL merit of water. bar. to boil or bubble up . broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich.) to wrangle. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. name Fr. and Sc. Gr. the nakedness of a woman. to prattle. the flap of a hat. barz. Sp. to bubble or spring up. Barde. to mumble or mutter words. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. skirt. Bargain. Cotgr. berries. bdla-khaneh. w. muttering. barbier. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. . tattle. jargon.— Fl. to plash or dabble. bdsas. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. powdered all over. Mod. — . An outwork for the defence of a gate. a long saddle for an ass or mule. barboter. Bardeau. barbaris. /3opj3opwJu. and foolishly. Sp. in poetic language Bard for poet. OFr. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. grumble (Lowndes. brabble in the making of a bargain. Pr. barda. boil. Diez. Barber.' Cot. Cotgr. Hindost. upper chamber. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. to chafbargain. murmur . And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. and flanks. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. Bret. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. The Pers. Hall in R. Port. Barder. twattle. Cot. back. as well as the modern twaddle. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Thus the on. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. guazzolare. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. Exposed to view. such as houses are covered Bardelle. barS. /3£pjSepi^w. Fr. barefooted Sanscr. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. dial. barguigner. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. to barbe or trap horses. and the word was used in OE. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. bare baskojis. g. barbugliare. speak confusedly. Fr. A7 to the and warlike. Festus in Diet. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. uncovered. skialldar-bard. a shingle or small board. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. ala. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. twcEtta. Barbel. bdsiis. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. coping. albarda'ah. baares geld. barbacane. bds. barbelin. as well as thwcEtta. baragouin. Fr. Fr. barbeter. Barbican. barda. or more properly (says fer. also to bind or tie across. axilla. in the sense of fight. scouthouse. border. stutter. which was of talking. barbulla. — Cot. Gr. to rumble. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. bardd. . made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. to stammer. borbotar. a pack-saddle. to wash. Port. Arab. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. baar. Bard. — — Hence. is lb.) . barbarkama. a bardelle. bhasad. Sp. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. in Fr. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. to It. small pack-saddle. Applied in E. a rumbling. lb. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. i. formerly used in the sense of tattle. It. ready money. berj G. barbar. a jetty or outnook in a building. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. albardilla. Lex. uproar. It. Etym. saddle-cloth. borboglio. bardes. quarrel . to gurgle. barbeum. to bubble or boil. borbollar. borbulhar. tree. to stammer. Fl. Barberry. to make an outcry .— — Pm. Russ. barbeau. Etym. brim. — . the beard. and in Flanders to vociferate. albarda. border of a garden bed. haggle. Bare. the quilted with. on. open. guaszare. But Sp. mutter. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. — — — men. used 2. gibberish. to grunt. Lucan. borborinha. horse armour covering the front. fortia —Strabo. unqualified. skirmish. waschen. G. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Hatt-bard. a tumultuous assembly. barbel. also to wallow like a seething pot. A shrub bearing acid Diet.

a barn. in the Brim. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. The older form in e. we pass to the vert) barguigner. a beak. a boat. also a boat . Manx bayrn. The origin may be throat. baarm. one who stirs up strife. Kil. bere. baralhar. put to confusion. hladi. berma. Ripuar. fray. barki. contest. i. To Bark. baaring. ThS man was not created for the woman. giving rise to It. and hence probably (by a metaphor. the slimy substance brewing of beer. ber (ace. confusion. and is probably a true bartig. — battle. On the other hand. in Nat. as baces-ern. a lantern. Dan. a heap. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. . Sp. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. Rayn. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. Barbour in Jam. also to exchange. tion of the sound. as. ON. w. border. plants). strife. Bret. AS. barmr. skuta. barlich. See Barm. dispute . the or prow of a ship. and may therefore be an Eastern word. barafustar. limpet. ON. barizeins indicates a noun baris. barajar. Leg. Ibid. barafunda. ON. dispute . Uzen. Of these meanings the second is probably the original.^Voc^. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. dregs of oil. So also ON. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles.. to cheat. and 1. barlys. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. varen. adj. bread. OSw. quarrel Port. So ON. bcern. . am. baratta. W. dispute barattare. Barn. * Barnacles. corn-shed. baron. bosom . bern. — Barnacle. dispute. strife. quant a perdu sa barja. dispute. baimeach. prasepe . and the word. was barlic. — de Berri. as in the case of Lat. barn. chaffer. OFr. barone. a lap. a heap . The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. charlock. struggle. but the woman for the man. kani. limpets. . Barge. hay-loft. and llysiaw. hemlock. a baking place or oven.Barum vel feminam. Isidore in Rayn. berm. barnis. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. Cornub. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. quarrel. dial. Gael. beer. louzou. baerm. bernac. Dan. a place. berm. commonly explained from bere. then the bows pectus navis. Swab. to wrangle. Bark. Port. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. as. baarn. to strive. Port. limpets . contest. bamagh. strife. bern. from an imita- Barley. Vocab. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. entangle. Provj bar (ace. meta foeni. It. a. name being given to spectacles. spectacles. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. baratta. tumult. to rout. baralha. the rack or manger. barge. mhg. houbartij fsnile. Sp. As Goth. The Goth. barley. bark . Garlick. a load. to shufSe. bard). the G. barn. skutr. trouble. to skin over barkandi. beornt. altercation. beorcan. lap. is simply the Bret. Du. —Bark. Tarn baronem quam feminam. barley. Antiq. Spectacles. borkr. barahunda. bargain. ON. barn. the A — Ihre. Leg. . v. baaren. bcerme. (Ihre. baron)^ Fr. hlaSa. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. edge. From Fr. squabble. berm hoys. barja.) lihtes-ern. astringent. wine. a stack. barii. bread-corn. Lith. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. aheap. Romance barsie. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. then honoured man. OFr. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. husband. disorder. barley. Du. Acervus. to all the barca. prominent part of a thing. 2. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. barms. Baron. — Zeuss. 2.' bardagi. See formed Yeast. Prov. Originally man. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Sp. herbs. to chop. E. Bailey. as well as Scandinavian tongues. bosom. AS. baragouin. Alam. a receptacle for barley or corn. Sw. Camus.. the fore or after end of a boat . barlys {bara. and ern. to scold. baniffa. a cap . at barka. berem. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. barretor. Bemiques. brenig. It. barnacles. Gl.

were sometimes confounded. a bier. sterilis. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. On chet — We — — their resemblance. especially those killed in battle. seem to be radically the same with Lat. a hut or booth. signifying. a hiU. borov'. cise formation of the word. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. composed of dry branches ofer. Fr. from a tree to which a man is hanged. Barricade. strife. from beran. barril. facture. fallow. G. fortification. beorg. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. This word introduced into Fr. became bidre. baronculi. to carry. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. the two names. Barrister. baracca. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw.' that Barrier. ^Vocab. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. D. The feudal tenants next Fr. barri. Gael. garment still used in Morocco. w. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. vair. brushwood. 1. It was not until the time of James I. It. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. which would barragdn. alongside of barrow. then traffick4 Barrow. a castrated hog . baronuU. bearg . Gael. semen non accipiens landiEL. mound. in the first instance. whenever Barrow-hog. a horse. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. hut. beorgan. It. and not from Fr. The Sp. implement for carryAS. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. bier. Joshua vii. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. a man. barBombicinus. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. over him. booth. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. An ing. See Bar. nobles. Barren. Bohem. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. AS.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. baragan. Antiq. OFr. berwen. — A . boar. E. staves. a word is always used in the plural number. todtenbahre. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. S. a barrel.parchanttuech. or simply bahre. branches. Nominale of the from braeckland. Russ. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. in Nat. baraignej Picard. ibid. bera. Sp.. G.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. vel pretiosos burellos. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. bark&n. barrila. rolls of Parliament. It. shed. Goth. as. also termed bannerets. 26. dispute. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. A. uncultivated. qui have not much light on the pre. bouracan. a. iver. by early examples. Bern. barre. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. calico. change of goods seems. beorh. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. to * Barragan. barrique. as cavalcade. bahre. heap. braeck. barrier. Bret. (Schmeller). barrack. squabble.. It should be observed that. Formed from Fr. Barrel. from cavallo. man. barchent. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. man and wife. gwr. perhaps through Prov. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. bara. Sp. StiU he shows conclusively. fear. barraca. the braw. barague. a. Barratry. breinej Du. ^Barrator. Bargus or moreland. cover. baroncelli. barile. 2. barrique. Bamnculus a baronet. Baron andfemme. like bargain. See Barter. — Kil. Fr. gravis et authenticus vir. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. a kind of coarse camlet.— Gibbon.root signifying confused noise. to shelter.have been named from the haggling and gant. litter. sepulchre. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. bredhan. tomb. MHG. berewe. AS. bara. an obstruction. Sp. vir. Barrack. whence Barrow. baronetti. — — 15th Cent.' Op. and in several instances. OE. habeant. a bar. a barrow.

shallow. baste. low. MS. Swed. bestcn. A fabulous serpent. flat. from /3aR. tierer. — Bassoon. Du. mock not. It. to deceive. The original meaning. To Baste. said Base. netting. to cheat. Du. commonly A joined with the word binda. cheating. basg. Dan. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. bastear. bast. but born in baste. to bind hand and foot. as It. OFr. to truck. . It. To stitch. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. It. barter. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. to baste. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). baraet (from Fr. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. hoops of a cask. Bass. God it wot. F. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. unrighteous gain. i. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . peel. as the diadem of the basilisk. besst-u-b£nd&t. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. and tun. Fr. chasa. low. It is mentioned as . descended of an honorable lineage. Apparently of Celtic origin. Fris. to cheat. over-reaching. But according And Dan. baratar. Barton.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. baste. berewic. HaU in HaUiwell. thick. pressed down. bran. which covers the grain Ger. or running away with the ship. embastir. binding. basso. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. a tying. w. low part of the Hickes in Rich. basgod. chasa ogli a bastard. Al is dai. baste. the — — to kill those that look upon it. then cheating. a bastard. to baste piece of cloth. him. partieren. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery).' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. or wic. back. beortun. Sicamb. to Diez. exchange. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. mavult dicere Roma suam. bds. aiKcig. Kil. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. Fr. truck. Basilisk. to bind. pdrdt. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. ' Bosworth. preparatory stitching. basta. bast. a bass rope. piiiguis. bast. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. It. a ipgli So Turk. ^Is de bast. to bargain. come near.looketh upon his eyes. bassin. fornication. barter. Isidore. The like property hath the iasilisk. humilis. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis.' Papias. bark. See Bath. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . imbastire. fornication. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. MHG. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. fits de bas. OFr. It. oe. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. Sw. low note. Sylvester's Dubartas. stitch. the manorhousfe itself. on a. from bere. barley. ibid. Bassus. he. plaiting of splinters basged. Arthur and Merlini. of the same sense. dwelling. discourse Nay. found in Turkish . Lend me your hands. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. also the demesne lands of a manor. would be. which sets up its hood when angry. bestan. lattice-work. a halter. crassus. beguile. . lift me above Parnassus. Basket. Fr. bas. fhe outhouses and yards. fraud. AS. corn-farm. ' He was begetin o bast. leviter consuere. curtus. PaaiKhms. 516. baraand especially teria. bareter. also to Cotgr. n' is n' is bacino. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. mean . Barbara de pictis veni patch. Newman. Sp. basso. the a wide open vessel. HaUiweU. scale in music. to bind. basta.D. Bartizan. husk bast van koren. Pl. submovet omne Lucan. to stitch . a court-yard. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. — in Rich. baratear. Bast. Bass. Sw. baxoj w. cog. court-yard. It. . — hanging. a basket masg. and Bret. MHG. To Bask. HoUinshed. /«r<fSp. Sp. exchange. ing for profit. bast-maatte. bass-matting. foist in bargaining. besst. Bastard. G. according from Gael.' Gl. BassuS. ohg. imbastire. a ftiesh. more noble in blood than notable in learning. Gr. lust. a king. a deceiver. the thin skin Dan. Lap. at basta og binda.). See Brattice. bast-reb. to long — a British word by Martial. baos. but he dreth presently. Sp. beretun. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. rope for — . Dan. There is not one that. bdtir. Halliwell. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. inclosure.

bdion. military term of a bat-horse). For the origin of baston see Baste. to rub. blatta. victuals. bastir. to devise or begin. night-bat. from Fr. the original has corneille. a blockhouse. to set on foot a war Bastion. boste. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. vespertilio. bastine. bast. basta. Cot. a pad. liiake. bastonnir. Sp. a bird which. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . staff. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. Florio. a bastion. Perhaps baska.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. Sp. BAT neither. 'iJipistreUo.— Bailey. to lay the Sp. frotter. the night-jar or goat-sticker. bastida. passage Imbasto. in the Romance languages. a with a stick. To donjon. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. a things prepared for future use. which in the E. a packsaddle. nade. 164). disposer. also the ricado. bak. dial. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. blows. bladier. business (Altieri). Bastinado. to Due. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. worth (Nat. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. flyinge best. Sw. translation to a bat. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. whence ledrblaka. bastione. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. 2. For the loss of the / in back. Mid.fortress or castle furnished with towers. a blow cloth for dinner. in the use of the E. to pack a saddle i. set up. That yche blak y dar wel telle. beating. — Bakke. Dieiif. R. guerra bastir. bat. back. provisions. packsaddle. and Cot. batta lucifuga. stryka. ment. It. Supp. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . 11864. To baste one's hide . to beat. raise. contriving. and Arabs. basa. baston. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. Fr. 2. bastonada. * Bat. to drub. the clapper of a bell. which to rest the load. or implement for 4 * A . devise. put it together. and ditches bastion. natt-blakka. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. is explained by Cot. Rayn. to thrash . It.'CaB. p. — — Fl. Fr. explains Sp. to belabour. blakta. to spread bread and butter. erect. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. vespertilio. to cudgel. niammal. set up. ON. badger. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. aftonbakke. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. Cot.baste or knock soundly. beysta. contrive. Derived by Diez from iasi. bastille. a sconce. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. Pm. iastir. to teach one before. basto. bakie-bird . : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. blakka. a stick. compared with blakka. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. a barSp. dial. to build. but this is hardly satisfactory. bastia. frame. It.-^ Chaucer. . the E. . as weU as besteau. vledermus. baston. bastir. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. I. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. has bastine. Fr. ari instruineht for beating. bastilde. To beat or bang soundly. Sw. Antiq. to beat. club. Dan. bastear. the winged . bastonFr. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. bastimento. blaka. the bat .stick. R. E. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. settiilg up. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. Pr. to rub gently. to build. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. like the owl and the bat. quelqu'un son roulet. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. blakra.Lat. Sw. blatta. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. iinbastire. a pad or packsaddle. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. a. Sw. Prov.stitching in general.. stryk. to give him a sound bastingi 3. e. to stroke. pre. — — — . to quilt or stitch wool into it. to flap. Fr. blacta. also to cudgel. cudgelling. All from bastir. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion .— . pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. comp. to whip. 2. Sc. Dan.

whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. Batter. to heat . bdhen. to beak. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. I baske. better. for biia sik. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. baz. Sw. . was formed bastilU. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. See Better. whence the sun burns . dial. made of — A made by one Batcii. Ayenst the sunne. Baka sik vid elld. as E. In OE. ON. betten. to toast bread. battle was used beath wood. to beat. Battalion. E. a stirrer-up of strife. bet. a washing beetle. hot. Bret. Batten. gebdck. made of bats. abate. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. abattre. beat down. Holz bdhen. then to warm by the application of hot water. a band of armed men arranged basa. Slav. Fr. Bate. . battions. to beat. to feed. bat-en. Jurgor. dial. is in falling. to warm. batir.' Palsgr. flour. battere. Batyn. fashes basking in the sun squadron. solbase. The bat with which a brot bdhen. to fight. gabatnan. buask made like a fortress. bdda. e. Goth. debat. bdt. I. howis. Battlement. to fire or in the sun. altercation. to bathe oneself. Sp. To Batten. battre las ailes. and as a verb. a great seems related to baden as Fr. in the case of a wall. Fr. Pr. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. Gael. term in falconry . trahtr to It. dispute. dial. fortress or castle. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. baeddu. — To . a staff. on. allay . adapted for defence.Bathe. tradire. to foment with hot applica. remit. — Cot. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Pm. water whether warm or cold. to dial. to heat. bludgeon. G. an arrangement for giving blows. gebdcke.Hence in the augmentative form It. Battery. also. baden. Barbour in Jam. quell. makebate. dial. A Bath. to bathe. G. on the fire. 2. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. From bat in the sense of rod . to become fat. battre. Chaucer. to betake oneself. and milk beaten up together. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. battere. Hence pro. or make debate. a blow. Jeddris and covering. to fell. badda. to beat. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. In some parts of England it is striking. basa. . vel seminare discordias vel discordare. as E. from battre. Bailey. busk. From OFr. Sw.— To Bask. Florio. tagUone. badask. battre. also a sun badfish. to cudgel. and with staffslyng. or break down. to foment. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. It. more.— . sich bakern. bake. bdda vidjor. to warm oneself. It. batte sig. in the sun. Pm. to get better. to refresh oneself in language. certain bend. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . I bathe in water viz. to thrive. batador. Mgy. of bread is so much baked zX one time. — — — ' — . baka. Fr. a from ON. cudgel. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. Flem. lessen. or a dry stick. a battalion. beat. to be profited. a Baiffi. to flutter with the wings. Pr. Bat. as wood-en. by projections or in any licoure. A batch as wood. to for fighting. quhar he suld assaill. bada. bat. Hal. the root of e. badda. heat. and about an inch thick. Fr. strife. Sp. bataille. to beat se battre. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . a main battle. oneself at the A into faggots. the heat of the It. G. batna. to become convalescent. as signifying warm baths. Fr. a stick. pak. perhaps first used adjectivally. from on. a battle. Strife. a beating. solen baddar. Battle. beat. signifying to give repeated blows. Eggs. Du. batterie. To Bate. baquetazo. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. Plkkis. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. batacazo. bastille. squadron. wet linen in washing. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. battaglia. a blow with a light instrument. Fr. to beath wood Battledoor. w. To thrive. to foment. to warm oneself at the fire. is a simple adoption of Fr. PLD. Battery.

Prov. dirt.. baudrdj OHG.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. spotted. and Sp. — — ' Lydgate. because made of cloth of white. From ! an interjection of disgust. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. also more Bawdekin. Bagdad. baffe. represented by the syllable miau. also the canopy carried part of his body. expressive of disgust. tille. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. balbob. the Swiss baben. In like manner Grisons filthy. divided between black and white. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. dung.. a white mark Bawdy. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. OFr. to 53 manure the To baw. Swiss Rom. s. Cloth of gold. Formed from baw. bobbin or cluster of thread. bal. Bawson. Pr. whence pouacre. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. dacchino. filth. E. cluster. horse. —R. a tassel. miauler. From Bret. a dog). Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. Cotgr. bow-wow. fooleries or fond To Bawl. The It. to make the noise Baudrick. 2. tab. pie- . fields. baban. Filthy. lewd .generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. javelle. the white of his leg or foot. in OE. bausan.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. an embattled wall. ish baubles. Piedm. BAWSON Swiss. toys. Sc. a gavel. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. i. to vociferate. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. babbole. a belt. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. It is all bawdy. baubare. instead oi s. Baw — .guage). baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. dirty.— P. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. an — — — A — g — — — . bau. or Cot. OFr. and to-tore also. bauch. Pm. pegma. an object. A name of the badger. child. vacillo. baugant. from Baldacca. or sheaf of Bridel. brush faggot. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. nastiness. baue. Cot. to play the babby. librillo. The word may perhaps be sticks. dente. Fr. babsmall toy to play withal. and authorities in note. on the face of animals. E. Fr. Hal. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. whence the E. a lump or cluster babhaid. sorry. bow (as in our nursery Diez. a zan. Pr. or toys. ON. An analogous noisily. to trifle away ment. s. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. a spot. sword-belt. a lump. bal. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. a tassel or hanging bunch . Jam. a horse with white legs. obstrepere. form with an initial seen in Fr. c. ! Bauble. having a white streak down Bagdad. ball. Cot. Descript. babiole. bauU. from Fr. Gael. speckled. scarf. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. trifles. spot.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. It. E. exactly corresponds Fr. as Fr. fagot. baula. propugnaculum. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. balderich. to bark . It. Fr. Ball-seirc. bobine. E. guigaw. b \% bouala. Batylment of a wall. P. mew. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. the face. P. whimwham. baw. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). to me-wl. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. collar.' ' Pegma. Fl. Baldrick. Lat. balGael. Irel. excrement. faisceau. to bark. zano. 8. — Pm. bad. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. is used for a sented by bau. or the animal so marked. Bavin. W. ground. to talk Lacombe. Beaus^ent. ballach. to void the bowels. bablyn or waveryn. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. disgusting. a horse marked with a procession. to cry. rotten. It.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. to the same origin. fe bau. Zalli. a plot of Chaucer. is Bagdad stuff. baudrat. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. dial. to low or bellow as corn. filth. bouaila. was simply a field gold. Ball. P. R. trifle.

or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. OSp. Cot. badia to Sp. Lat. to keep one waiting. arose two forms of the verb. husk. to stand watching one.— Stalder. or at bay. badius. Gael. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. See Bald. &c. Q. trahir. Feb. berries. white. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. especially beans. Catalan hadia. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. siege of Bayonne in 1665. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. yellow . he turns and faces his pursuers. to split. overture. BauSfi)/. that from ba. or to have been first used at the Cot. expresr sion tenere a bada. It. by the term rendre les abpis. Holland's Pliny in R. to be Bohem. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. is perhaps not directly from Lat. Fr. Gr. baga. 1. house . F. baye. It has been shown under Abie. to gape. * To Be. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr.' — — 54 bald. a mark. baca. at his last gasp. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. gate. baiare. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. tradire to Fr. large window in a handsome . As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. bay. AS. to mark. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. Fr. — Schmid. Swiss beie. corrupted into Bow-window. living Ir. Fr. Serv. —Diez. Sp. &. buidhe- The ruadh. watching intently. BE Probably conRuss. which however. See Bawl. bajo. w. stood watching him stoop. 1859. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. as gazing. S. baher. Such Antaeus seemed to me. as if to signify a window of curved outline. from an imitation of the sound. From Cat. The word bay. BAY marked with bjly. so called from its bearing bays. —F. dehiscere . to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. To Bay. bilyejiti. buidhe. dividere. bagaid. living thing . beo. from badar. Earth — By Nature made to till. when. and keeps them in check for a while. .' Bailey. bay. bijel. like a pie. or window ' (in Fortification). Arts. and the To bark as a dog. baer. . having the primary signification of opening the mouth. baionette. to open as a blossom. the world Gr. a cluster of bacon. life. put to his last shifts. Bay-tree. waiting . —Bay-windo'W. alive. Mod. weary of running. abbabayer. bacca. bialo. Sp. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. bahia.c. the laurel-bay. Fr. bde. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. ing-floor. Sp. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. |8i'os. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare.—Journal Soc. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. A stag is said to stand at bay. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. bayen-stein. A hollow in the 'line of coast. stare. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. baja. to open. bayo. or berries. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. bate. Fr. grapes or nuts. baca. a dagger./^ bau. baya. bilyega. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. hddhe-dhonn. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. baie. desiring. a'uno. life. ist. badarse. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought.. &c. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. . batibari. It. bdcr. Bay. and zndly. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. open the mouth. bahia. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. Fr. a beast. in order to keep the enemy in check. berry. Q. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. It. — A At Bay. or recess in an apartment in modern times. Drayton in R. It. Gael. Bayonet. Swab. Bay. bai. window . to betray. It. a hole. beothach. . Prov. badarc. Abide. to on anything. bioth. beonj Gael. Lat. a berry. to keep at a bay. barn of two bays. From the former verb is the It. window-sill. to iiitent nected PoL white.. The — Fr. Vielp. Piedm. baccello. the step is the same as from It. the cod of peas. See At Bay. baier. laurel of the ancients. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. aux dehniers abois. 25. to amuse stare a bada. the cod or husk of beans or the like.

The origin seems preserved in E. backe. A two-year old nephew of mine p. Farrar. like most nautical terms. baun. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. a single bean. bokan. stock. and Lat. bydel. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. faba. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Beak. salve his hurts. Gael. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. Netherlands or North Germany. N. rising ground. fd or faVf beans. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. which is. Bean. It forms a.ad. faba is Kvavoq. vol. atUndre. W. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Thus the final en. — to bow or nod . or breathing. nokkima. tale of prayers or doxologies. Beck. Gael. G. signifying a point. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. a presage. Gr. G. or beic. Moreover the name. Bear. beacen. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Q wait upon him. bairan. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. E. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. to produce young. bedm. support.fer-re j Gr. a curtsey. beugler. baum. however. bM. It is BEAR SI court. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. beans. beacnian. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. — bedeau. as well as f& or fav. Gael. Miss Gurney in Philolog. vii. The immediate shore of the Menage. bohne. as. to beckon. — : Beam. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. —F. the part overflowed by the tide. Bret. AS. was introduced from England sea. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. to wait-. bearti. fromthe danger.. pig. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. beic. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. bead. on. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. a tree. . bob. Fr. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. . prodigy bauhnjan.fuis5e. boom. bakkje. Du. Boom. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Beadle. a single bean. bagms. Slavon. He says. A Esthon.' Suetonius in Diez. a hill. The wild beast. AS. Lat. to carry. Trans. post. into France. or however. a nod OHG. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. g. Beach. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. according to of Sanscr. a sign. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. or any action done with a pointed thing. a beak. bee. Fr. bakke. — Bellenden in Jam. W. a tree. See To Bid. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. bar.' adheres to the root. Catalan becar. fora-bauhan. ffci. ON. . ohg. OSax. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. would say. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. bauhan. Beckon. to wait. Hackluyt in R. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. to nod . as. be. Pardoner's Tale. It. To Bear. ffaen. «va\ioQ. l^ax. Sw. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. * Beagle. -phxr. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. bohnej ON. becco. Goth.to have a French origin.' Hall's Chron. bidan. Chapters on Lang. an attendant. gebed. to bellow. Bret. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. bank. a prayer. It. bean. signifying individuality. ON. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. badmr.fui. The nutu significare. Goth. bek. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. Beacon. 54. fero. bdkna.from AS. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. into a snjall river. pierced for hanging on a string. bidello. not applied to the yelping of dogs. beic. beck. Be. to nod the head.

of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. when up. battere. bel.S6 fero. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. riviera. fiber. Prov. tidig. slobber. befit. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. nod or sign. to happen. to be incumbent upon him. The fitting or suitable. if sound of a sharp blow. which. to dabble . I do thee pray. byrcti. covered the face. burdr is used in the sense of a car. See becymth anfeald yvel. rying. agreeable. and Fr. our taste. Lat. Beckon. handsome. g. See Beacon. to hem. gabaurths. to carry. to bear children. As rivus. Diez. Thus OY. but now a river only. Beaver. bett. . to fall mode of being.getiman. babrad. a. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. The OFr. from baver. to sleep on.of being very angry. den. bavec. behkr. beatanj It. dress with unbecoming richness . Now the Beast. baurthei. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. it is probable that here also the to become. Perhaps from Pol.' are equivalent expressions. to the brook itself. duty. opportune. to shore. e. venient. suitable. get J ' He got very angry. a brook. as the babble of the child. beauts. taste. He becom on sceathan. connected with ripa. from beau. bave i. because made of the fur of the beaver. agreeable.' every way suited to a prince. E. edge. fitly . Slav. bib or slobbering cloth. tidy. fitanimal. decorous. That thou mayest attain Goth. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. to live. AS.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. e. and also in that of birth. to happen.AS. obtain. Lat. birth. gebank. name applied originally to the bank then proper . gefallen. godum with ON. pretty. a bank. G. brook.' ' He became very angry. The quadruped. o. living. See Bat. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. to come to or upon. bach. to happen. byw. to happen.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. W. to arrive at. pens unmixed evU. to please.to clothe to slobber. becuman. bring forth. ting. To load with ornament. proper. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. Do no To It fallith favour. formerly a happen. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. bava. 2. bellus. G. proper . and on. brada. to assume a certain form or Turk. Thcem. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. Sp. The moveable part of a helmet. perhaps a living thing. It. bave. Beck. E. Lat. happening as it ought. to fall in with our bavard. to appertain. boroda. Prick of Conscience. fallinn. Fr. Beauty. limplice. limpian. baba. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. bearing. brook . an notion of being convenient. to wade through the water like a beaver. bestiaj Gael. as. the beard. to get. Secondarily applied to a hat. convenient. bart. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. to attain to the lot of any one. biivre. Lat. 1. i.— Kiittner. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. — . a bank. pleasing. bello. chin. or a feeling to be gratified. comely. Lith.we call the arrangement becoming. produce. to be a part of his to. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. ON. bekkr. to the good hapHalbard. Bedizen. Beck. while from Shep. G. bur. befall. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. See Bank. con. ON. It. Russ. ON. Fr. bequem. beo. ziemen. Beat. Bosworth. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. blast. Goth. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. Dan. Boeth. to be fulfilled. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. to fall. dushmak. Cal. now confined To Become.fit. whence baveux. bekommen. In like manner condition. riviire. suitable. G. or river. bobrowai. border. timan. place to lie down. biber. Fr. E. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. G. badi. seemly. nothing to thy name make. barba. gelimplic. On the same principle. OSw. talkative. barf. bard. bobr. iida. fit. becuman. judgment. to G. dize or dtzen. bebrus. ON. Fr. Chaucer. the ece thurhwuniath. or special purpose. — A — A — . to happen. limpan. a lip. baviire. bedr. the latter are derived It. from the same in the sense of bear2. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. decent. and to acquire. AS. Bo. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. bcek. Fr. R. receive. R. to those goods which endure for ever. i.

as the milk of a that purpose in London. Bethlehem. GaeL bior. beutel. ir'm.D. ' MordiThe Lat. Rom. briesch-milch. It. Dan. Fr. the biter. to rough- cast. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. in Nat. 57 — Palsgr. may be from K. The meanpainting. a cover. thick. Fr. biest-milch. bletumj Gr. 'La Gl. beta. For that was law of lend. a mallet. bedskiissen-bUren. blow or thrust. AS. and in driving piles. pettiriso. G. cugino. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. erroneously modified in form.— JI14. bably named from the destructive quali| T. case. a paviour's beetle batail. waarin. from risan. on. from leberen. fagus. doubtless. sang vermeilh betatz. to beat bossel. in Schmeller. cited by Diez. Gr. Gael. knock. extant in Bohem. * Beestings. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji.' the last word corresponds to cofly . kiissen-biere. I dysyn a dystaffe. bukva.ON. and lebermer in G. de Fierabras in Diez. bitel. bbtel. I A pillow-beer. buka. bedde-redirj ohg. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. betel. cozen. to parget or rough-cast . may be shpped on and off. stakes. drink. Pett. whose face is clotty. boytle. briest. calleBedlam. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. biiren. door. a pad or cushion). which also 2. G. bossen. pital of St Mary. used for boull. boeuf. i. It. bovis. Cot. Grimm. Lat. of beatmg. E. Bed-ridden. whence familiar. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. buche. ris. comb. tree.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. Fr. . to coagulate. to curdle or lopper.— B. a clapper. beach._t from the root pi. the meat of spinach. ProBeer. cushion-cover . Fr. vaar. a drink potus. garden-herb. . Cot. woman that is newly delivered. fall. bibere is a re. bette or blettej Lat. Arab. . Confined to bed. ^. drink.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. Esthon. /SXirov. to drink. a wasp. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. Bav. the ox. to become Beech. E.(paddi. cousin. Beef. an inhabitant of the desert. a wandering Prov. Bernese. In a passage of an Old Fr. the loppered sea. imperative pi. thick. 1156. mars betada. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen.cz//aj. qui de lecto surgere non potest . also bienst. AS. Bedouia.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. to colour with lime-wash. to poordma. beost. The honey-producing insect. PI. a bed-tick. trees in a forest . by-flugaj G. The beer al for te shenche bate. from blood. Lat. from the hos. Fr. Beetle. g. a cup or implement for AS. Slav. cogionare.. sela que environna la terra.possible. beest. to twist poorma. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. bedawi. cow has calved. But possibly bedizen 2. Fr. beetle also signified the impiti. paralyticus. . bytl. kivih. Originally. bos. as in It. to turn. also the bite or sting of a bees. crespir. 1.). beer. clog for a dog b'oteln. Let. madhouse. KXlvoTTiT^e. to fall. The first milk after a dizen. taglio. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. speach.ing of the word is curdled. &c. batAfter mete in sale. turn. P1. biene. byst. wedges. beyki. prisons Venet. duplicated form of the root. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. Ant. Horn. D. a stinging bieUe. beach-each. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. an Beetle.D.'— GL ^Ifr. buk. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. desert. 1. prigione. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. badigeonner. 1 to drink. red curdled Arab . to change . to flatten In OE. a agulatum in the original Latin. by the analogy of bedaivb. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. a malsense of drink. Pl. a pillow case.' So Gr. a Properly a cover that biiren. as. I put the flax upon it to spin. AS. bove. to knock. water. Bee. . The same metaphor is seen in Fr. curded or beesty. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. Fin. from jtst-. It. Beet. bet. . a bee. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be.^ drink. from Lat. turn (a garment). bitela. G. piwo. poculum. to and ale. a pillow-case. an ox. translation beOj. a horse-fly . pude-vaar. a wasp. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale.

to arise. Goth. Du. to be acquire. P. a beggar .bag full of the G. Schm. beutel. as alighting is a momentary operation. on further examination. the fundamental notion of attaining to. 'Dz. but probably erroneously. a bag . be^nnan. 'ex quo. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. in E. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. — Stillingfleet. P. one after that other. appears improbable at first. woe-begone. &c. to cleve.' A. krapszas. a — wedge. Into the are D. a stone-cutter's chisel. tale. beitel. 142. & go a begging. He did alight. lapidicinus.' about undern he got down. P. cans. Ancren Riwle. beis- plement driven by blows. referred gan this Erie alight. can. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. from whete G. whence the E. It will . a bag or poke. Gr. to beg. and subsequently Down duschit the beist.' for ye shall lament and weep. 'Aboutin undern monly. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. a wallet. P. on the bag. Florio. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. Lith. to begin. air a . a scrip euXaiciJoi. capere. iv. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. chap. vir mendi. V. signifying to conceive. duginnan. ' Begone. a bag. Political Songs. bag {baigean. It. 2. To Beg. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. P. Beghardus.3. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. a little bag). The tother seand the dint cum.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. a beggar-boy. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. is formed pocair. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. ysgrepan. V. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. affected. baigeir. fangen and Lat. To Begin. ykvog. Barbour. V. giving in Gr. Bruce. origin. at geta talad. word. Si'Xa/coc. P. OHG. In Luc vi. in D. AS. Vocab. Fr. also called Bigots. to be able. a scrip. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. or Of a pure poor man.pose. yiyvo/uat. su with gold. a wedge for cleaving wood. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. seizing. beginning. bertola. Creed. gigno. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. ornamented phoc. but in the same language from poc. a chisel. above quoted to get beaten ON. to reduce him to beggary. ken. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. Mod. — yivsaiQ. beriolare. although it ' the future. beissel. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . not began to alight. anfangen. ken. 58 BEG BEGONE G. yivofiai. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. begging. Du. oppressed with woe. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. a beggar. to be born. kind. 25. taking up. begger. is com. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. incipere. chisel. P. to begaan. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. viii. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. 1430. in Lat. and Lat. to take. to get children . onginnan. sel. yivtrri. ysgrepanu. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. covered with gold D. aginnan. on the tramp.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. y/yvo/iat. genus. Of brede full ycrammed. it is both to acquire and to beget. ' . Deutsch. steinbosil. 168. to know. When Q. image is cleft out of the trunk. 1867. Lollards.n.D.quently used in OE.— . pose-pilte. P. Skinner's derivation from bag. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. yivwajcw. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. gen. of Gr. Nov. beitel. Cold-begone. literally. From w. can. 40. touched with emotion — . ytyvwfT'Kw. Du. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. So from Gael. two betels —a grete oke. hags. P. ' ' . To produce children is to acquire. P. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. Mundart. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. to go a begging. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — .Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. to bear young. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. &c. ip AS. gan.

The Lat. heeten. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . se porter) to fare well or ill. It. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. to promise. to vow. to be suitable or becoming . adjust. beperson addressed. injunccommand. a follower. keeping. guardare. exhort. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. But. vow. Command. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. or the hence advantage. 17. to feed. seeing to. to command. from tragen. to have. habere. to carry. promise . K. to behave. heeten willekem. To place are most naturally ex. to halten. to meet. hevja. solicitum esse. furtherance. to call. to hold. is also found in the sense of looking.for throwing it. observe. keeping. At the back of The re. zijn. hafjan. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. To be expedient. hofwa. advantage. betragen. to hit the mark. To look steadily upon. G. The seyn. portarsi. to be obliged to do a thing. to gehouden. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. beholden to him. hafwa bort. the name adapt. gehaben. to fit. G. promise or a command. use. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. what is so required. commonly expressed. to bring forwards. Sw. take heed of. to vow. according as the * To Behove. ward. G. holding is originally derived from that of looking. zu etwas gehalten haitan. to look. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. when the verb will hoof. han- — js Kil. —Hest. gehouden. to carry corn into the barn . Sw.the figure of throwing at a mark. fixed upon any object). hafwa. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. AS. gehat. N. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to heave. G. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. gehalten seyn. ufhaban. to R. to keep. and their senses intermingle. gecall. G. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. to carry. Robert in Warton. To Behave. to the equivalent of Du. what he wishes another to do . behaviour. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. to lift. AS. to take away. to be be named.— . heave. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to hold. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. healdan. to regard. hevja. to raise. laborare. ifl fact.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. OE. is on the top of or opposite to. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. hces. obliged. right.' Richardson. AS. Aan iemand bid one welcome. tail. Kiittn. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. as in the case of E. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. to be well pleased out. G. to follow. the equivalent of E. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. And so from hania. to bers of the body. to name. the distance of anything. to look upon it as true . to be fit. nittaa. on. have the sense of calling or naming. behoof. behefe. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. by the compound observare. AS. take yourself off. at the tail of. AS. to call. to tend. to carry. is supported by many analogies. tion.to vow. behatan. to lift. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. to turn one out . behold. hafwa ram. hcef tig bort. to be named. or purpose.). to lead. to command. bound. Paladino. behete. hatan. promise. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. Goth. R. — Behest. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. ge' hatan. hovast. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. hantyri. To Behold. The It. Thus in Finnish the heave. Plautus. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . the two verbs seem radically the same. or necessary. to keep. behces. and the E. vow. to be obliged to one. premi curi alicujus rei. behat. garder. hove. behind. hcefwa in seed. us-hafjan. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. servare. hafwa. name of the head is used to express what hbva.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. habban. to cast or throw. to keen or hold. invoke. and (as Fr. heita. Sw.

hesfa. loven. bellow. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. or high estimation. Fr. ON. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. resonare. to give leave Dan. esteemed . Du. range. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. stand.. to praise. if a promise. peal. to protect. ornament. battefredum. Pl. laven.D. P1. See Gain. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. border. with the consent of the heirs. Hence to simple approbation. beau sire and bel dame. to befit. Q. a vessel made for dishonour. giving leave or permission. laven. permission. praising. laubjan. lov. and Du. . a. Det er ofwer er hofwa. bercvrit. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. It. to be required for a certain purpose. to sanction an arrangement. orloven. bialla. appearing in Mid. to believe. erlauben. promiser. ungalaub kas. to hit hafi. belja. are innate . bellan. and E. satisfaction. Du. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. glauben. behove. bounds.alyfan. consent. . bettifredo. distance to which a piece will carry. pro3. to promise or engage. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. Then. to give leave. to roar.D. boare. leave . bolken. honoured. to express approval. is an easy progress. reach. OHG. ley/a. and E.. — . then. leaf geleafa. on. to bolk. Bell. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. is (Sternberg). bervrit. measure.D. to praise. bealcettanj OE. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. properly belonging to the church tower. . to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. esteeming good and valid. allow. to fix a price upon one's wares. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. —F. Sw. Fr. under the forms belfredum. portion. certain rate. loven. fitness. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . to belay. To praise is essentially Xo prise. Pl. to praise. if a narration. 6o BELAY BELL loven. permitting or giving leave. reputation. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. met. The word be- Belfry. to cry out bell. Du. a tower for defence . those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. bertefredum. filu-galaubs. bulken. to permit. on. OFr. To Belch. To Believe. to extol the worth of anything. Du. overspread. lyfan. cela est audessus de votre portde. we have Goth. In the middle voice hofwas. bealcan. frid. legsel. bylja. Fair sir and Fair lady. locus securitatis Schilter. for purposes of low estimation . fringe. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. were civil terms of address. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. is used in the sense of approving. to to make A Templorum campana boant. a watch tower. to lay be- around. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . in nautical language.Lat. to sound loudly . Goth. precious. to resound. to der swaren lave. berfroi. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. and bergan. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. AS. From AS. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. Northamptonshire. to make it fast. verloben. ON. from mhG. beffroit. true. loben. a little shed. gelyfan. to lay the cable round the bits. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. praise. garnish. aim. to boke. belief . tain a certain end. or house. to a loud noise. and. promising. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. galaubs. turris. to estimate them at a To believe. lofa. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. b'ola. or a sconce.. to promise. moderation. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. AS. an implement for making a loud noise. bell. then. beleggen. — Diicange. to give leave. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. mark ON. galaubjan. to believe. — mankind. The principles which all mankind allcrw for .Lat. beset. In Mid. to believe. to put a high price or value on. To Belay. a tower. are other modifications of the same imitative root. G. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it.D. to bellow. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. beffroi. Another application of the same word is in Pl. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws.

Javanese perfume. to bless. ^To Beray. G. benejicium. Lat. rise against external force . balteus . to. attinere. bolg. welt of a shoe. pod. To Bequeath. bandoir. bellows. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi.' The term had been previously planation. a blessing. blister balgan-snamha. se bander. ON. bcelg. Fr. From OFr. Quoth. See Nether. G. an inflated Lat. bilbila. hem. belt. Kil. wallet. est matris in lucem editus. leather sack. to make bilbil. blast-bcelg. — See Numb. Gum benjamin. to concern. To Bend. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. Bav. G. to touch one. gelangen. . The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. w. Fr. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. to belong. one who does good. vulva. to bend a bow . pouch.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. I marre a thyng. skin. benaigon. from Arab. means seeds of plants. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. Benefactor. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. pertinere. the skin of those animals that factor. benjoin. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge.— Belly. bellows. pertinere. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. bene/actum. from another modification of the word for bubble. by itself. — Ducange. fyle To dirty. Benefice. bendan. The ing-skin. to hallow. to use words of good omen. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. J'emboue. Gael. as concerning that. See Bind. binsen. attingere. benir. In E. to ring. to hold to one. a round or bubble-shaped root. to attain to. bienfait. the ipsi Caddono concessimus.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. Benedico. benedicere.pinuz. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. bags or bellows. a benefit. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. is a kindred form. to reach. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. border. a speaking well of one. benehusk. bimaissen. skin. or a It is times the to signify services. hence with ashes. to do good to one . Belt. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. Du. belly. Lat. are stripped off whole blase-balg. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. ' I beraye.videtur. Benign. balg. Eenison. to attain belangen.polch. poX^ri. has assumed a plural form. OUG. ' . The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. a kindness. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). Lat. disposed to oblige. loubdn djawt. becwathan. kind. from which is also bulbus. bolg. Lat. cod or husk of pulse. a leather bag. gwaldas. as. the word. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. — root consisting of concentric skins. . incense of Java. langen. . Benediction. benjoim. Bent. Was das belanget. dirt. Fr. To belong is thus to reach up to. . bell. to touch. To Belong'. generous. volva. bilbil-goda. was in Mid. welt of a shoe gwald. pervenire. bander un arc. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. beneison. because bcelg. . Bench. Gael. a water-bubble builge. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . needs no ex. to arrive at. See I . belch. to exert force. Beneath. Benignant. a bellows . . bendaj as. benignus (opposed to malignus). Lat. ray. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. pino3. OFr. benefacere. to say. a good deed. to become one's property . yards of the vessel to bend cloth. bolch. bless.' — Hie fimus. to come to the crown belangen.Fr. vulgarly the belly. a accusative. belliJ Lat. attinere. to concern. I araye. belly. a spring." — — . Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. a blow. To Benum. I say). Lat. or simply djawt. or sometimes louban. See Bank. taken absolutely. is The word balg. from cwcsthan. — ray. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. I soyle it or araye it. binssen. fens et hie liraus. a border. from benedictio. G. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. the womb. rushes. belgr. . which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. Dozy. to stretch it on a frame. ON. balg. Benzoin. well. Sw. or fyle with myre. Ptg. bellows. on.' Palsgr. benedictio {bene^ and dico. wallet Benefit.. ball. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. bag. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. a bellows. Bret. bimpsen.

to defend. The dry. to to deprive of. Tha het he micel fyr betan. AS. peto. roe. botesward. to the place boarded off in a. dirt . Goth. Du. a place . to thrust. fearful. Du. or. boeten. Beit. stow. buttafuoco. same word with the provincial barth. betan. baete. lewth. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. but in practice. berry. eld up- On is to be placed A — . dial. brem-bessen.irova. besmas. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. dirt. to stand one in good stead. basjaj Du. To Bestow. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. an incendiary. rubbish. — amendment. ^•n. make better . To seek something from a person. AS. bdt. betan. but it is specially applied mister. reparation. better. boeten. sets fire to. to put on the saddle. improve. G. burrow. to To Bereave. The origin is AS. lay out. the side bhakshya. besnij Pl. On the other hand. put. — Biglotton. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. bur-we. E. het vuur The serise of Boeten. rods. ship for a make amend. seems twigs or rods. Hfence backing. profit. bat.— VixHsm. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. as bouter selle. making better. vi.t. amendment. or to bestead one. vol. stede. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. I from lew. Fr. See Better. — bota. Beere. supply. bdt. Tusser. to seek. baete. protect . may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. So too Yorkshire arf. Ihre. to entreat. repair. from grow. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. noise. as. bacca. Kil. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. one who shelter. To Beseech. to fall with roisto. bereafian. from It. reafian. Grose. Rob. besen. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. . Berry. what does it boot. besIn sen. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. dung . encouraging. Best. Besom. to cast.D. to light the fire . small eatable fruit. to on the other Goth. from AS. might have been . to mend. bouter. to be-place. boteith Goth. houseless. bestow. fall with sound. barth may be for barf. reparation. is to perform a serviceable office to him. as conversely a besom is called broom. Fin. ropahtaa. R. the origin of which is to be found in ON. Fr. BEREAVE Wall. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. of ffeed a fire. and also to entreat. barth under hedge is a succour to beast.• 62 Antiq. dust rojahtaa. earh. as Du. Devon. think more probable. To Gl. as. Beet. roju. a berry. * Berth. Du.—^fake. From abet. basya.iooA. berwham. E. Sw. See Reave. sweepings. position. To help. — Chaucer. advantage. and Du. scopse spartis. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. a horse collar. roju. buttare. earg. as in growth. put forth. to make better. to exercise on a definite object. * To Bete. to word is shelter. bota. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in.ot-i. G. hva mannan. barthless. to give a place to. besein. p. Sw. It is the restore fyr betan.— Hal. AS. R. the guardian . To Bet. beorgan. compared with bargham. ^akka. in the sense ctf beria. bet. to strip. Du. boutefeu. So roto rattle down. To bete his Jam. to fire a funeral pile of . as. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. The proper meaning of the bale. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. fyrbotare. preferably. stealth from steal. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. to kindle the fire. p. Zeitschr. as. besje^ Sanscr. to supply a want. arwe. because used for making besoms. . a fire.X. Bestead. ariierf to 113. place. BETE dirty'. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. boeten. person to lie in. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. mud. to amend. berwe. or the space kept clear betan. 3. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. — . sheltered from the wind. to make it. OE.fish the other hand. solicit. it seems hard to separate as. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. beseech. Esthon. When men of mekeness him baet. barfham. jnore.bhaksh. broom twigs. and on which the wager is laid. So Lat. an incendiary. to thrust. what does it better a man. advantage. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . bal oppbota. supporting on the one side Lat.

as tlock. a brood. Fris. springs from ON. Sw. /alia. G. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. proficere. AS. lot). From the former of these are AS. trahir. Hence last G. betaemen. his mouth. in the middle of two. bevere. and thence twegen. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. gezimet eines dinges. Fr. better. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. to fall Some call it a bevel. Lat. 88. ON. Ik tame mi dat nig. not to have the heart to give up a thing. said he. Golding's Ovid in R. e. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. to deliver tip. Percy Soc. twain. obdissais. Det sig sjelft. beuvrage. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. for measuring angles. x. progress. pair of compasses. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. awry. The inflections of Fr. bevde. obeish. verbs in ir with a double ss. tradire. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. of quails. from invadere. A — drink. bouter davantaige. thy speech bewrayeth thee. in the same way Lat. betst. To Betray. . betwuh. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. — of the authorities. has — In a like sense tanie>i. whence beveraggio Fr. In like manner folissais. to fall. or with again. to happen. E. bedriegen. to make forwards. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. better. trahison. Bevy. in the middle of twain. a different form of twa. Dii. Fr. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. two. Best. is treason. fitting. beverage. spritigs from schicken. On the same principle ON. ziemen. by a final sh.D. fallinn. which may be compared as to form with amid. BETEfiM translated. ON. are commonly to one's lot. fate. Mich self a good glass of wine. Cot. batista. best. betray. as trahissons. &c. a traitor. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. *Ah. Friar's Prol. — See To Bete. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. larks. Ober D. r'ojer dig. Chaucer. beva.' Dialogue on Witches. suitable. R. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. I approve of beveau. baet. bet. as envahir. wreia. roebucks. find it good: Goth. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. Now the stirring of an object. To vouchsafe. Car son umbre si le trahit. From It. traitre. Buveau. amiddes. — Betwixt. to deceive. Goth. to discover. riigen. To Bewray. of pheasants. To boot in coursing (i. more. ruogia. find in one's heart. a bevy. Fl. sloped off. zimet. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. an instrument opening like a a thing.— . The as. dispose (whence schicksal. bet. deem suitable. what does It is forward him. Pl. i. taemen. -to appoint. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. against. from. by two. betest. advance. Goth. roja. become. betwuxt. to happen. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. G. dir. G. trakir. tradere. kein leben mehrin no signs . Sahissais. R. to deliver up in breach of trust. i. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. gesiemen. R. polish. is used for the — R. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. abash j from polir. evidence of life. Fr. e. to accuse. to Hence It. as from obdir. trahissais. OE. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. AS. afford. Better. e. from Lat. betweohs. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. to stir. the being pushed to the frbnt.D. it bewrays itself. treachery. Tinia eigi at lata eit. Slant. better. a drinking . traditor. his eyen sheen. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. suitable. taemen. tima. be fitting or suitable. In like manner from twain is fothied between. betera. Bav. from Fr. are there Regt R. Pl. to cheat. amidst. make manifest. tweoh. as one would have it fall. to Teem. wrogia. Between. batizo. betweoh. vrohjan. Fr. betweox. moveable and compass branches. betriigen. G. order. It. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. deign. zemen. some attention. to drink . In the water anon was seen His nose. E. Dit tungomal rendered in E. bat. regen. tima. Du. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. Thus from dbahir. It. E. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. To Beteem. bibere. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. gatiman. — that schickiich.

sik beregen. bring under ' Thy accuse. To Bibble. wrangle. slippery. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. to tipple. asure-bice (Early E. the word became bddizahr. to cut in two. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. bavon. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. wrogen. its clothes. the papyrus. Bice. bebble. edge of a plate of looking-glass. Uprogen. love first begins to life signs of him. in two ways for duis.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. sbriscio. biaiser. twice. Piedm. to tipple. Bias. rogge. though such a change of form would be very unusual. Cat. a bibber. Biseau. . to stir. sbiesso. bisdare. 172. aslope sbisciare. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. dial. biberon. Piedm. liwell. to move.or from obliquus. expelling or preserving against. Hal. to slaver . — Bi-. Dan. /3i/3Xof a book originally. presence. — crooked. Lat. Ci^. a Galilean. Cat. Fr. bible. bis. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. to be a paring. sbrisso. which good bibbeler. An inferior blue. to purl. The train of thought is then. (according to the Fr. sbieco.{ioin dua. crooked. evident.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. Bibelsworth in Nat. Fr. bezling or skueing.two. b&zahr.s bellum for duellum. tailU en biseau. sloped. to shake. foul weather. kwijllap. lips. beslei. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. kwijlen. Fris. to stir. a fragment bieco. bias-wise. Mantuan. . it becomes (Jz-. To bicker in NE. in Fr.a. Pers. a slabbering-bib. besanca. Du. To Bicker. notice. to sip. sbiagio. bisel. roggle. Sp. To skirmish. Diet. . aslope. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. bes-azur. Bible. beregen. stock still. See Wriggle. Misc. biais. It is especially applied in Sc. or by any rapid motion. —Bickering'. convicts thee of being drink. from pdd-. or kwijl-slab. has a singular stone-picker. to give signs of life. sbrissare. to stir up . to glide or slip as upon. oblique. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Lat. baverole. I Wallon. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. Hal- — do something aslant. him.as in Biped. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. In comp. It. as an eel or a snake. pible. bickeler. Fr. or in and out. two- footed. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. poison. biberer. to creep or crawl sideling. to dispute. Fr. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Bisect. a stone-hewer . OE. sbias. rogt un bogt sik nig. used in precisely stone . ber-laita (for bes-laita). wraggeln. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. bickelen. by throwing of stones. petit-lait. Bib. discover. in him. bestemps. metaphor). bending. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. Pl. 78). sliding. bickel. snout. babbi.D. In Arab. per\'erted belief. misFr. babbefore the eyes. dial. Probably. To drink hard. the basil Sc. . ice . shows the P1. to make tongue Du. Bezel. Yes. To Bib. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. sbiescio. to the stirring of their conscience. slanting . Gr. biascio. specially in a bottle. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. When the edge of a joiner's trickle.to drink much. Schiitze. he is Wtb. sbrisciare. The It. it were the mouth. It. An excellent Basil. E. whey count . of the sliced off. whence Du. biberen. Bezoar. To Bezzle. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. bibaculus. inferiority. Fr. sbiasciai. a bezle.' bibble. Sardin. bescompte. a sloping edge. to Jam. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . bibo. and zahr. kwijl-bab. Prov. sbiscio. bihais. bickel-sieenken. —Dozy. Fr.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. pddzahr. to stir. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. Ant. makes ble. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. is explained to clatter. to well up with Cot. . one who drinks in excess. bickai. winding or crawling in and out.D. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Sard. biax. to a fight with stones. to it evident to sense. baviere. bark of which paper was first made. reveal. to slaver or drivel. biascia. like guzzle. Oh when shall I bizzle. Jamieson.

For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. The ON. ten. to belly. bulge. which is stiU. or. swelling. bulk. from seek. to solicit. — prepare. anleta. bedun. gebodenj G. cultivate. to move quickly. BID of stone. build. belly.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. Wallace in Jam.uddered len heart. Bigot. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. AS. called the tertiary order. to cultivate. to E. Kil. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. bygga. by seek and beseech. to abide or wait on. bieden. The 'La. Compare also Sp. ON. bouwen. The . bit- bidja. bend of a shore or of a rope. Palsgrave in Halliwell.t. gebeden j G. to offer it to public notice. to inflate E. . Einem einen guten tag bieten. to ask. bidan. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. ON. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to offer one the wish of a good day. P. Bight or Bought. With respect to logical pedigree. to offer. to presimpler pare. bidan. related to big or bug. AS. to start out. bugne (answering to ON. pressing on one's notice. inhabit Du. a flexure. as G. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. iiQ. R. has leta. OSw. consisting both of men and women. AS. England for swollen. bidel. bead. to forbid . praebere. to bend. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. G. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. to curve. abidan. bieten. from bidan. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. besides the professedmonks and nuns. G. forwards. of More ' in Richardson. a suitor. to build G. Analogous expressions are G. are also used in the sense of asking for. balg. bend. Bigamy. Bickelen. W. to have one called before him. biddan. Hence Sc. becoming in Lat.' Pope in R. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen.peto. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. to pro- command. the meaning of bid. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. swaggering. To Big. ' Bug as a Lord. . be bug. The original Swollen. may plausibly be derived from Goth. bow. quiring something to be done. The loss of the / gives Dan. bag. G. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. as. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. From Gr. Two verbs are here confounded. form.' Addison. einen vor Gericht bieten. beodan. faurbjudan. OSw. to build. 1. bilge or bulge. to dwell. byggan. to forbid . to bicker. bulge. twice. to swell. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. to marry. a swelling. bolga. bolginn. bi-. bidill. from belgia. buga. a chip. bis and in comp. to pray one to dinner. offerre. bat . bolgna). ON. rising up. To Bid ' Big . to look for. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. in the sense of ask for. to arrange. 2. pray. as tears from the eyes. ewes. bauen to cultivate. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. beadle. to ask. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. — — — Halliwell. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. bced. to bend. and the Sw. byggia. boa. bog. bidjan. and consequently ordering or reGoth. porrigere. to bid one good day. or third order of penitence. spelling seems to used in the N. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. repair." buque with E. Jam. bigan. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. beidast. It must be observed that the word bidja. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. qucero. verbieten. To bid the banns. Big. bulky. — To Bid. Du. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. to inhabit. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb.Leta). who. The ON. A bjudan in anabjudan. belly. and Gael. inhabit. swoln. bugan. to look for. ON. bath. the belly of a ship. an entire skin. athird class. bug. bugt. and yajiBui.. BIGOT beidan. bua. or bad. to bulge. Big-swol- . praestare. bo. to build. proud. biegen. A pose to one to come to dinner. explaining the Sc.

which must not be confounded with begardo. signifying bagmen or beggars. Beguttce. was formed bigello. probably from biso. beghart. says. D. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. A. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. clownish. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. Bizocco. bighiotto. natural grey or sheep's russet. 1499. From bigio. Bizoccki. biso. to adopt a similar course of life. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. Flor.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. G. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. homespun cloth. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.' says one of of bigio. ac labores manuum detestantes. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience.— Ducange. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. Hence the OE. the other form Per te Tribune.D. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. rustical. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. 560. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. 1243. 15 18. In a similar manner from bigello. the nobles to Rienzi. grey. grey.a. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. They wore a similar dress. aliqui Begardi. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. bighellone.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. Bighini. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. beghino. xx. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. perch^ i Terziari di S. sed maxim^ in muliebri. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. all apparently derived from Ital.D. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. honesti plebeii amictus. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10.. dark-coloured cloth. alii Apostolici. begutta. alii de paupere viti. with reference to A. and Q. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. A. absque votorum religionis emissione. face VIII. as well as bizocco.' Chart. bigio. vocati Fraticelli. ix. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. bigotta. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.' says an Venet. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. borel. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. corruption would easily creep in.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. In the same way Fr. coarse woollen cloth. A.D. Augustini dotarint. a dunce. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. Bighiotti).— BIGOT bigardo. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. S.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. and hence the variations bigutta. &c.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.' translated by Muratori. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. a blockhead. and also unlearned common men. Francisci communiter appellabant. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur.' Matthew Paris. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. vol. author quoted in N. both men and women.

bwyell. A slang term for a sword. as a bill of indictment. See Bulk. gleischner (Frisch). while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. a floating log to mark the place of some. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Sw. Bojce. Bigin. billard also signified at billyards. I. plog-bill. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. bui. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. in the sense of a writing. irons or set in a kind of stocks. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. . Gael. blamand. See Bull. bill of exchange. of E. clog to a fetter. bigardo. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. NFris. billard or billart. 5 * . Bill. e. 3. bigot. the bill of a bird. beghart. Bilbo. a devotee. Fr. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. boeye. p. Bilge. the trunk of a tree. Ludwig. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. bill. to job. an ingot of gold or silver. a hatchet. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . a hypocrite. Fr. bla-berry. however. false pretender to reUgious feeling. tepati. Thus we find in It. names bill-berries. bull-berries. Bill. Tartuffe. Bilberry. blue . a negro. from OSw. a of the sea. to strike. AS. — — ' . horn of an animal. — Cot. . a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. To Bilk. boja. an adze . Dan. — bigardia. Bohem. bulla. Lat.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. fluctus maris. a short note. to swell with rage). bill in parliament. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. a man who rests on a stick in walking. The proper meaning bylgia. bile. bulgja. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. Johansen. ferrese quam ligneae. Billet. In the same way are related Pol. the beak of a bird. Du. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. bulghe. billot. bila. Du. e. symbolum. G.' in Richardson. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. w. to peck. Sw. AS. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. a bigot or hypocrite. person of religion leading a loose life. and in Lat. abelthe fetter itself. OFr. Aurelles. Billow. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). crowberry. A lorum tam in — Diez. might be taken to express a hypocrite. belgan. ^Billiard. inscriptum. Roquef. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Kil.' mariners. gan. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. fetters. Kil. buail. buoy [i. Dan. 2. on. Bille. Billette. topor.— — — . a sword. as craneberry. dissimulation . to be angry (i. to strike. deceit. procella Kil. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. is properly a sealed instrument. whortle-berries. the o changing to an i to express diminution. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. bille. bolghe. So in Gr. bullet. of boja. and dziobas. to pick a millstone. at sea Billet. genus vincu- Bilboes. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. To defraud one of expected sinking. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. The origin of the term is probably from bole. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . Langued. an axe. billet. . bisoch.' bilio. b'olja. Sw. An instrument for hewing. from Mid. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. dziobad. blaa. 'tumidi fluctus. bil. Piedmontese bigot. billet is the diminutive of this. Sp. obsolete. now A Bilboa blade. Gascoigne in R. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. belghen. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. Mundart. dziob. a seal. 2.. BILBERRY nated. buie. an ingot. boia. Du. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. top. an axe. weapon . Deutsch. in the same sense. seems to be rather the unda. AS. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. axe. and a billard. In English the meaning has received a further development. Lat. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. The Du. an axe . beil. used in legal proceedings. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. bizocco. a beak. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. an axe. biilge. that of swell. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. a name given to a. bigotto. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. a shackle. a seal. loi. from the dark colour. Fr. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. bigot. Prov. the swelling G.

twice cooked. 'tumens sequor. from pondus. bund. a bear. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. . betsel. a heap. to knot nets for fish. The proper meaning is a heap. a pig petz. fowl. ON. Fr. V. a hind or female stag. doubtless a stone. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. Bisen. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth.' and the like. nodus. a weight. G. bjork. Gr. from Gr. bhurja. bircej Sw. e. Fr. a gallinaceous bird. The bitol. bord. to fasten it together. bundt. Thus I suppose the Gr. IV. to bind together. Then added division in a granary. Goth.68 BIN Bio-. bij sienigh. is rendered in ON. a habit- Binnacle. also a stone weight. It. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. truss. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow.. E. the young of birds . similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. a weight of 48 pounds. See Breed. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. a corn. to be derived from Ibfiaq. burt. pundas. Bisson. Bin. — properly near-sighted. bundun. beisseii. to bind at . and especially to a small poor horse. overlooker. ON. episcopus. by the verb knit or net.. binge. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification.. AS. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. biscotto. to twine. . Bitch. beran. to plait. to hang. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. to cook). the young of an animal. v. is in Scotland applied to ivy. beitan. Bisom. viz. Lat. bund. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. band. to build. In like manner from knot. biccej ON. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. Bittacle or Binnacle. propius videre bij sicndc. copus. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. The term ON. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. a bunch. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. pin-ti. G. I would derive the verb to knit. to bulge. than vice versi. Fr. and of Fr. ge- from AS. berkas (z=:Fr. a female dog hindinn. It. a bump or knob. — See Bittacle. evegue. forth. Bailey. Lat. We — A Birth. brut. wine. bundle. bitill. expressed by Sw. Sp. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. Birch. i. which is expressed in E. Fr. Habitacle. bin-wood. Lat. — Surrey in R. vescovo. terial. . See Belly. AS. Lith. bundle. hiindiiin. a brood or hatch of young. BITTACLE /Siof. evesgue. biscuit. Bing. See To Bear. beize. . To — — —D. Sanscr. or baked. videt. sc. bunga. a bitch. bunt. a house. Bind. or ben-wood. habitacle. Goth. a bitch. earnes brid. admota non Bit. G. lusciosus et myops. by binda. brid. . a knob. while bind-wood. EpisETTiTOOTToe. j). Du. or bin. bita. To Bite. bij sien. evigue. AS. bindan. pullus. Bindweed. pippione. poule. properly a young pigeon. a truss. to swell. qui nisi propius Blind. poultry. a female stag. bigne. to bear. pittjo. Dan. Sw. pinnii. &c. piiiti. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. hith. Lap. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. a bitch applied also to other animals. bunch. bundt. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. from \t3\. or petze. binda nat. — — . i. bitacora. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. Fr. piccione./«idere. from Lat. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. When compared with Fr. an eagle's young G. . isfiw. a heap. bikkia. to form a knotted structure. where the compass stands. are commonplaces. pinnu. Sw. to bring Biscuit. to wreathe. beorth. AS. H. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. G. AS. — Kil. beitsl. bindan. to net. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Bizened. in Swabia. life. an overseer. bunki. Bird. a little dog. Bine. Lith. AS. Lat. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. biclie. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw.

Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. ' plabraich. biacca. blac-hleor ides. blabbre. a shelter for the steersman. thoughtlessly . bitts of Bitts. in contempt. to watch. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. — Collins in Hal. beiwache. ON. round which the cable is made fast. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. v. . Nagt huis. ON. apparently from its biting the tongue. whitish. ON. Mantuan babbi. term.— Blabber-lip. In Legrand's Fr. blakk. yellowish. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. to babble. gabble. Se bleek. Hal. A a rail. In like manner E. 332. ^chops. 't huisje. Sp. bird of the heron tribe. buft". bleikr. a childe dothe gasouille. I blaber. Blabber-lip. from whence we have adopted the. even humour seemed and beuin. Fieldfare. black. shining. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. ON. pale. Mag. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. blebberis. confusedly. from wachen. bittore. the palebleff. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. x. AS. as in that of pale and white on the other. Hald. blabaran. 't kompas huis.. blakki. pale brown . pale. Je N. chatter babbler . whiteness (candor sine It. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. mouth. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. whitish.€i. 156. white. a beam in a house or ship. To or he can speake. beitr. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. to the sharpness of a weapon. Deutsch. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. bleich. "uivac. Sp. to loll it out. bitr. bittour. as of water gently beating the shore. ^aj'/^r. plappem. babbe. a flapping. a continued soft sound. to To blabber blabber with the lips. . To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. obscurus. discoloured . The Gz. Wit hung her mourn. fallow . blab. fallow fawn-coloured. blabbern.' G. quick. So Fr. white lead. ' Biovac. Sp. blunt we say it will not bite. G. light-coloured. a large lip. In a similar manner Gael. on the one side.. Bohem. a stammerer. blanc. Sp. Gael. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. The bitas. Bittern. as of wings . to babble. garrulous. mouth. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). things —Palsgr. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. a tati. is placed. blake. a babbler. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. leohte . — Hollyband. baboyer. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. bitter. Bav. Pl. Alex. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. unintelligible talk plabair.plab is used to . Goth. Fr. corrupted in Fr. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. Applied in Hin ON. out the tongue. — cheeked maid. bihovac. babbling. a* mast . town guard to keep order at night bivouac. Hist. blobach. indistinctly. Fr. blob. biti. bitones. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. a large coarse lip . to chops. blank. mona mid Dan. white. Mund. bites. small guard-house. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. Fr. Gael. Sw. brunblakk. baitrs. his blacan light.). 'fuscus. Percy Soc. It. Du. to bivouac. viz. Ai-mstrong. to let out whai should have been concealed. quoted by Ihre. blepLith. blabhdach. dark. Black. synonymous with baber-lip. dusky. to talk much. shine. —Neumann. pale yellow. cut. gulblakk.' by Haldorsen. blubber-lipped. as of a body falling into water. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. faded. to wax pale or bleaked. maculS.' by Gudmund. to speak Dan. bleg. on. AS. is apprehension of danger. pale. plabartaich.' It would thus acle. pins of the capstern. Cot. Cotgr. Fr. yellow . and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. or water beating gently on the beach . night guard. blob. an edge is sharpest sword. /ealo-/or. Bleak. blesmer. . Again.D. Bivouac. first. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. Lydgate. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense.. pale yellow . G. faded. beuni. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . iroxafealo. an additional watch. NE. butorj OE. stutterer. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. bitor. blob. as is seen in sputter and splutter. a fluttering noise. Why presumest And laam's asse. To Blab the anchor.

—Blatter. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. madder. to bubble. to vocifer- — Cot. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. Blank "verse. blasphemare. the leaf of a tree. Eadmer. blein. D. Blancli. Dan. or of an oar G. e. blatter. to glow. skola and thwatta. to bleak in the sun. plate. blanchet. 1854. Dan. roar. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. moere. probably ate. Lat. To blank. 5/^a/^ of colour. as blader. Blain. smore. blena. flap of a Du. a white or unwritten ticket. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. as. whitish. with all other loose idle masterless men. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. mud. blanchir. See Blubber. on. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. Fr.— Kil. his meat burnt. pimple. leafy. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. name originally given Blackguard. bladeren. Besides the examples of this connection given above. plat. to —Blaspheme. on. chatter. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. a. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. blegen. is identical with Flanders borlen. a blanket a bed. vagabonds. Perhaps from blegen. Reliqu. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. PI. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. also jabber. to make or become white blanc. blister. waschen. . concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. variable than the signification of words designating colour. most complete example of leafy structure. Sw. blad. to shine. revile.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. G. Sw. biastner. board. But perhaps a more Gr. Blade. blatt. G. white. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. broad. as. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. to shine.—Blatant. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. from candere. a buible. the ON. blegne. as Lat. p. 7. a bubble. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. contracted from bladeren. shining. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. pass over. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. . polished. Now. blanqne. and E. Bacon in R. also white woollen cloth . leaf. gabble. to To bellow. Jan. candidus. blather. 86. blaeren. a boil. bladder. chatter. blanchet. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. a pustule . Cot. foolish talk. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. and wandering men and women. to purl. a leaf. livido . imbrunire. leaves. The radical bubble. irXariQ. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. Gr. a bubble. dial. bladder. Fr. or as E. to omit. the origin of . Du. or blafich. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. Dan. coat. pluddre. Torriano. as scullions. It. tree.. plat. — . blaere. Sir. a bladder or pustule. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. to blow. blinken. blad. white. blahen. speak impiously. to disappoint. Fr. which we . blister. G. defame. whitish. biasimare. and G. cited in N. to Hence Ital. Blanket. branches . bladder. Bav. rogues and wanderers. a blank ticket. I am degraded from a cook. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. &c. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez.— ^o thehotsun. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. or a mass of bubbles. leaf of a. Du. tattle. Play in Nares. borrelen. bladdra. pladdern. —We Bladder. To Blare. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. —^Webster. reproach. blether. and Q.. blanc. to blanch. mire. and others engaged in dirty work. in R. blame. and thence to babble. Wott. — rura. bladre. blank. Du. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. blatter. Du. mud. pXaatpiiiiHv. boys. piatto. bladra. mus-blackt. vagrants. blather. pallido. blister. blactra. slush. Du. and he shall be sure to have O. Sc. Fr. blister. to dabble in water. Blame. and the agitation of liquids. — — — to jabber. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. black. Blank. Hist. smother. also tanned by the sun. linkboys. to glitter. dripping-pans. The present forms then should be classed with blether. commonly called the Black-guard. — Sw. bladder . image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. sheet of paper. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. .

the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. a shining spot. live coal . backPerhaps the expression of blazing. blesse. brasa. blasonner. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. much plausibility.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him.). i. brasa. blis. blezo. bleis. . AS. in the same way as we 2.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. an conium. Gael. bles. blaeteren. or blazening.whence the Fr. of an animal. blase. to bellow. Du. blatero. If armour. Du. blysa. She roade at peace through his heraldry. a lamp blasere. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. — ^Jam. among other . Dan. ON. to publish. proclaim the virtues of. To Blaze. on whose behalf the herald appeared. to blow. might And sain. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. G. commendation blason funebre. abroad. g. 'op een trompet blaazen. splendour. somewhat different train of thought. and which. Du. a whisperer. blaze. With inversion of the liquid. to blow . Or the word shining like a blaze or flame.' to fastum . a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. blaterare. it is manifest. magniloquus. indeed. to blaze Sp. is used in the sense of manifestatio. Fr. oron-blasare. and. as a verb. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. ON. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. a flame . Dan. blaser vid. pale. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. AS. thraso. blateroon. loud . blaesen. 2. bawling. or to the sound which it produces. biter. is from AS. blcese. To blow AS. blase. Sw. — ' — stroy. Cot. Fr. blaodh. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. Sc. abroad. a torch. ill-speaMng their proper colours . blesse. baladrar. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. to blow. also praeblczse. ventosus. whence Blazonry. clamorous. A gust of wind. has also blencke. proflare tues. visui patet. a MS. also blazon or the blazSpenser. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. As Kilian. kept up. Prov. a shield. a funeral oration . . braise. and to make him word blaze. blcEsan. bldsse. embraser. an empty and two theories are proposed. senses. blason. a blast.— . a coat of arms. to extol. I. Sw. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. The origin of this exSp. The AS. besides blesse. First from the E. — Elazen. redness . See Blare. Troilus and Cressida.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. a shout. Lye. Blast. Kil. Golden Book in R. Cot. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. blose.' painted or figured . blys. to publish the praises. stultd loqui. to cut off prematurely. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blast. A blaze is so intimately Then. in that of praise. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. to set on fire. the noisy. to proclaim. light-coli. blcesett. each of boaster. blaodhrach. by stripping off a portion of the bark. boasting. a flame. like the in English. OE. blorach. Du. friend Cornelius. to de. blasoen. a torch . ther it was erst not knowe. a flame. ing of arms. the matter incendiary . also only pains and excellent endurance. a voice Jr. Du. used. beast. fire. . bliEsan. But now. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. Fr. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. e. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. Blaze. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. G. to spread news. baladron. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. oured. might spring from the same origin by a . gloriosus. blus.sound a trumpet. A strong flame. Blatant. Blanches illuminies. blason. blcest. Gudmund. laudes (Kil. coloured prints. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . blcEsan. blazen. quus. blossi. Du. To blast. The other derivation. magnilo. how. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. declaratio. — — ' : bless. a loud noise. blasa. to trumpet forth. noisy blor. is the imme. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. blass. shield or surcoat.

AS.D. As AS. blesmir. confound him. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. Pol. to spot. Blear. to cast a mist before the eyes. tumanid. on. to cry or weep. wan. So in Sw. And By a similar metaphor Pol. to blear one's eye. to spot . Ancren Riwle. the livid colour of a bruise. blcecan. a spot. To salir. pimple . bloken. Blancher. bleakness. N. B. blemissemeiit. to make him feel blank.' to deceive one. to wink at it. livor. Gr. wanness. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light.v. is Blench. Sir J. tacher. a blot or smear blanking one. . a spot. the formal equivalent of English wink. a spot. Bleed. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. flack. a disgrace. p. start vor den augen. To Bleat. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. inflamed eyes. BLENCH obfusco. to humbug. ' — — ' : — — . Blemisli. while the agent ac- From . I chaunge colour. or blemysshen — blaken. a red watery eye.' the devil makes a vain back. darkness of vices. From the OFr. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. Gower in R. to disgrace one's name. whitish. blink. blema. See Black. blench came to be used for a trick. to wink the eye.'he cried till the tears ran down. sinen langen tranen. sugillatio. ' — — eye.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. plama. A stain in a man's reputation. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. boggle at something. spSt.filerren. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. pale . goda nainn. blarren. bldmi. dead-coloured Cotgr. And now are these but mansbond (i. ^Blencher. Bailey. blister. to bleach. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. . to concealing something that had originally discomfit. or blemish. The term blear. 419. blesmissure. wheal. Manuel de Pecch&. what blenched him therwith. geplerr. spla7nU sie.' God in his wordes. splamii!. novice. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. Bejaune. paleness. or to low as oxen. from on. c. to bleat as sheep. livid. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. See Blood. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. Fr. as of dust or mist . So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. . a stain. light-coloured. to stain one's honour or reputation. a blemish in one's 2. A Blab. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. a blotch plerr. exposed. — — R. ' . see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. blot. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. souiller. Bleb. Mac. blur before their eyes. bleikr. and thence to a bruise. like one that has long P1. To totally different from the foregoing. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. color plumbeus bldma. pier vor den augen eyes. a spot. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. avoid looking it in the face. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. Blear-eyed j having sore i. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. to soil. a been distinct. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. ' He blarrede or roar. See Black. Palsgr. — blink the question is to shrink from it. a boil. ^Xiixaoftai. Bleak. to start away from. . . drop of water. (faith or creaunce) Be war. tutnan is a cloud. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. in the expression reputation. guenchir. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. 115. blakna. pale Du. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. to blare been weeping. from the than schal I go. a fault. Schmel. G. to become livid. which are blurred with the have shewed you. blot. 242. Sw.P. Richardson. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale.

. Blind. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window.wink . blahoslaviti to twinkle. to shut the eyes. j). lighten. To Blend. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . Biglotton. OHG. a dead nettle. . Paradises blidnissu. as in Du. to glitter ful . seems the simple netel. Serv. tire. Needle. to plunge. 375. blindr. the verb to bless is some. riches blajennii blicksem. — . glitter. To Bless. is I shall Gurt. blahos. blide. glad. a flash. as a vatn i vin. graceful. shine. joyful. wink.. to dabble in water. blinzdugig.not sting thiiren. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. Du. blinzeln. to be blind. To blunder water. A . the Slavonic languages. a nounce happy. lovely Bohem. make these hands 3. good. blicken.blunda. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. — Goth. a gleam. happily. blicken. goods. to mix. moment. Owl and Nightingale. with or without the nasal. blithe. . . blicksem. to twinkle. happy . Dan. weaklaveny. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. Du. blican. (=bene dicere). a glance. blund. as a blind entry. tative source of the word is wholly lost. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. Russ. blinzler. also to wink. pearance of the blighted . a blick-ooghen. glitter. dazzle . to het dat Koorn is verblekket. to blithsian. to stir or puddle. pale. ON. blende.blinken. to bless. blidu. to dilute too much . AS. blend. glance. blich-fiur. to make happy. readily passes into a /. gives blinzen. money. The term then self or others. sweet. . blac. the sign of the cross while blessing one. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. to glitter. bleg. blendian.' To — blunge clay. burn up. G. fortunately. to dazzle . . whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. blogi. blitz. blatida. G. well blagaya. blanssen. to bluiter. — A A — . Swiss (obsolete). tless —Gamm. pockets. blago. to shut the eyes G. Du. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blessed. bluiter. Kiittner. sung. to shine. — when he — Bailey. plotzen. . to consecrate .nasal. happy . blitzen. ' Pl.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. a wink. —Brera. liquid filth to bluther. happy . to flash. ^Jam. or nettle which does form. to bluiter up with water. well blahy blick and blink. blotzen. blissian. glitter. to fall into water with a sudden noise. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. mix from blekken. bliss look . plonsen. lightning sweet blago.eyed.D. to rejoice. The inblissful. but by no means therefore a pre. Tany. Deprived of sight. . blessed. Wtb. to merry. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. blick. . Bliss. an entry which leads to nothing . vious one in the order of formation. AS. . a. window-blind. to act like a — . will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. cascultare. glimpse. mixing in general. as taschen. giving (Fr. Du. to churn. csecubrandish. G. blinde fenster. false windows. to — make it thick and muddy. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. a wink With the bletsian. F. joy.Q. III. Thence apblinds. a blessing. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. Du. thou knave. lightning. joy . a glance Swiss blenden. . blindselen. to shine. Nares. the G. blink. AS. blaziti. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blag. joy. blink-eyed. to pro. The sound of k before an s. Blazena Bea. blind. Sc. doors. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. trix.corn. From the action of the hand making Sw. blet. Sw. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blincken. Blink. I hold thee a grote thee. to glance. . gladness. be glad flash. although in the in the next article. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. to dash wine with water. as in the case of blaze. OHG. flash of light . riches . is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. bludder. to make a rumbling noise. wink of sleep . and joys of Paradise bliden. Swab. a look. to glitter . blazeny.blinkard . AS. to bless . to shine. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. livid. Sc. a. sertion of the nasal. De Sonne ' verblekken.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. Pol. in potters' language. Blight. blent. to lighten.blinze. lightning. G. blithe blis. blind- ON. to rejoice.

which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. pusula. merciful ON. whence blast. and F. cooking. a See Blot. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. Langued. Cotgr. Egillson. — — — — — From blabber. shells. to blow. Sc. to steep. The stem or trunk of a tree. in the lump or mass of wood. a little blisg. blouca and Fr. a blister . bausen. soft. in bulk. a blister. in Nares. separate portion.—Bloater. Bleb. Svt. a bubble. I believe. blister blasan. to block up the way. from blcsr. a block or log en bloc. blautr. in the sense of a soft tint. Goth. a bubble. is also used in the sense of swelling . — Sw. Jonson. expressed by cognate roots. N. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. blide. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. bloc. a . Gael. Lat. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. fiustula. gentle OHG. also to set See Bless. blot. orbicular. blad. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. ON. busten. blot. blot. . and bouclette. a lumpish head plubach. to blissom. blobber. Mod. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. swell. round. . repre- pusula. fish blind person. a blain. blesme. senting the dashing of water. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. pustula. —Bailey. blubber. bloc. to breathe hard. bluyster. To Blissom. boucler. weak. buclde. Blister. mass. or the mark which it makes. It may be formed Blithe. the unhewn bole of a tree. G. to blow. as a blab of ink. like manner the coloured.—Bloated. . Fr. In Fin. Blob. kostua. blab. a dirty blister. mild. blindsehn. formed spot. buckle. while Lat. Hence. like clot. and easily changes its place. to to puff and be noisy. The blow E. bluster. signifying in the first instance to soak. Du. speaking rapidly any . stone. Sw. bubble and blubber. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. For this. Hence E. — . a ram. must be referred to AS. must be classed with forms like Gr.plisg. blinzel-maus. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. bloated. sloppy dirt. lagga i blot. ^Jam. a bubble. blindman's-buff. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. puff. blidr. joyful. mild. to soak. Blob. as blinzeln. Thus we have blab and babble. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. or bleb. Dan. blod. as in E. Blond. To a smoking or drying by the fire. See Blot. pods. Bav. blote. soft. is formed squad. Boyd in Jam. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. bleiths. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. blaustem. blotfisk. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. B. kostia. a blot or spot. or blinde-kiih. blithe. A under this name was imported into England. to blow. pimple. taken altogether. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. soak in water cured fish. any lump or mass of things.— Hal. inde humiditate tumidus. an unformed mass. a drop of water. frequentative. blijde. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. ON. viscid. or is inserted or omitted. to dash liquid.— Bailey. G. blister. To Bloat. A solid blouquette blisters. . to bubble. Of sheep.pusta. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. husks. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. blond. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything.. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. to desire the male. blobbes or droppes of water. Sw. Fr. a small lump of anything thick. Dan. strawclod. plub. W. Gael. having an unsound swollen look. soaked. Block. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. The roots /. blaud. to cure by smoke. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. in gusts. blcesma. soft. Du. biota. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. ^vaaa. and inarticulately. pausten. and pisg. B. to swell. to close it with a solid mass. — Blob. or the like. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. light yellow. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. And so from squatter. Ibid. Kil. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. it is must be observed. as if soaked in water.

to flame. in v. G. Dan.blauschlagen. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. plet. — Blotch-paper. glasi. as the skin or hair. Du. E. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. ])erly Du. to sparkle. Wflz<^«. Erploten. spot pletter i solen.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. pladern. Pl. proto shine with bright colours . to slap. gloss. a Halm a. coloured (Diaz. bldts. a flower. of a blow with something lios. whence plader. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. a drop of water or colour. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. lustre. blust. kobladde. blotter. a The form platschefz. dial. bliise. from the bright colour which 7'vci. Sw. bloutre. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. to strike . —Barbour. E. blosen. fair in en blat vand. colour of the cheeks. from G. gfyssa. to dash down Du. blady. blauwel. flower. blond en blaauw slaan. blosa. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. bloemen. .^ Kil. white blatte. platschern. Blood. Dan. Ein platsch milch. bldmi. a nature. to blaze . j^ blottir. AS. AS. blysa. blond is used in blatt. blondheid. Jios. blomstr. It. sbiadare. to be red. Wendish blodo. See Blow.D. to patter.platter. bliithe. a water ploutsche. blad. blois. to spot or blot. to be red with blot. plot of land is a spot or small rage. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Du. to dirty. — gush. to scribble. to From . plants which prepares the seed.properly to scatter liquid . bit by bit. Blossom. — Stalder . blue. blus. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. to squat or lie close. E. glister . Fris. plottra. to slap. a Usaae. — Cot. Lat. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. blue. on. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. a torch blusse. a beater. Hatch. Sw. soft or flat. clod. blond. 2. yellowish It's G. . a blow. . a blaze. bfys. blodelsa and blawelsa. ON. kuh-plader. S-wiss pladern. bloi. Fris. shine . E. . a pelting shower). G. couleur livide. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. to dash down. blooth. Russ. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. to exists in biadetto. blose. bloeme. glus. Blot. . to dabble in water. bleistern. Stalder. leme. straw. to splash. ' — . The G. the bright to blot paper morsels. a flower. Schwenck. blosem. Sc. Prov. Schilter. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. bliihen.— . The bright-coloured part to portion of land. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. blistaf. blut.' the rain is driving and blue . a blot or spot. D. livid marks. to glow. — — . It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . a flower. platz-regen. fall to overflowing. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. a cow-dung. bleustern. en blau ach. to blaze. Plots. Sw. pladdern. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. to squander. Schmid. bloto. ON. pale biavo. OFr. (of cattle) to dung. to strike with such these objects exhibit. or the sound of it . glossi. brilliancy. to blot the land was in a leme. platt-voll. pale tint. a lump. wan. platsch-voll. blaeuwen. blue. blaeuw. Ir. to grow pale). Blow. ON. plotterwis. Harmar in R. PI. biado (of which the evidence plattern. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. blase. lump flower. blawels. light. gammon. Bloom. . blostma. the bright colour of the cheeks . E. lidmr. Blad. See Blow. yellow. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. . Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. Blotcli. lump of anything soft to blad. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. ^lys. platz-voll. Sc. blosma. spots in the sun. a spot or blot. to glisten . splendour . fall down . Florio). probably connected with Pol. blou. glose. splashing full. great leaf of cabbage. blaeuwe ooghe. bloi. blowen. bloed. bluish. skam. Du. bloedsd. blue. E. cow-dung. blue . dirty spot on the cheek. redness. bletister. to dabble in water . a deli. bloi. Du. to shine . . a Schmid. blotting-paper. to strike with something soft or flat. parallel form with ON. dial. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. plattata. blatte. Fr. blotte. ^Bleed. a. livid . pale. mud. Dan. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). blat. gleam. bloetnsel. to blush . a gush of milk . It should be of filth blak-blatte. a black eye Du.

where the word may be compared bliggman. bloes. Kil. to gush. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. piusen. to fade. fqded. OHG. Prov. Wtb. 1292. It. —SchmelIt. a flower. d in Sc. bruk. Lat. blady. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. blubonciti. a herb Gr. a Blossom. G. Pl. to breathe G. 2.' — Palsgr. plodern. blezir. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. . to fade. ' BLUE or guggling. Chaucer. in rapid or indistinct utterance. ^Jam. to guggle. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. to with Bohem. glowing coal . In agitation of water. P1. fem. flower w. plubraich. heath. The interchange of an initial gl. a blast. blodyn. puff. to flourish. little apparent resemblance. E. Blowzy. to exhibit bright colours. to make blue. To Blow. to make bubbles in drinking. Bret. pludern. blau. MHG. corre. Deutsch. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . boil. plubair. gUd. — — Mundart. thus identify the Celtic glas with G.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. .. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. a. blazi. Du. in E.D. to glow. And. especially with respect to the hair. 92. boasting. blao. Gr. a fat. Bav. wan. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). v. . foam. grug. Tumbled. -ii.D. meurtrissure Roquefort. blue. Pl. bloeyen. bloeden. G. or gr. Mund. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. blazir. glow. bloom. We . gloeyen. Du. A. bldt. bruised Prov. bloi. gliihen. blust.Jlasa. jabber. Jla-re. . when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. blosen. gliihen. blaw j biavo. blawan. to Plodern. cheeks bedabbled with tears. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth.D. a paddling in wate r. G. blois. Pludern. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. Chaucer. /idXavoc. to'disorder. blebber. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. to spot. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. to hard. pale . G. to bubble up. 1. glansj Ir. The aUied forms. — Bluther. bluther.— . to fade. Blue. and the forms mentioned under Swab. a gurgling . The primary sense is to shine. to beat. gloeden. bluod. to blow. pale OFr. . pale. blue . To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. red-faced bloted wench. disordered in head-dress. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. coup. B. disordered. glas. bledniai. wan. E. marking some application from that bladder. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. ler. y\r)yi»v. to bruise Roquef. a continued noise of agitated water. toused. blduen. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. like manner Lat. Danneil. to puff up. into flower. plustrig. and closely allied with Du. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. is very frequent. OFr. grey. Langued. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. blava. glaodh and blaodh. glas. bludder. — To blubber. sponds with Sw. to blow. OHG. a bruise. glede. to beat with a mallet. to blurt out. sound like water. These are — Bludder. vi^ound. fied vowel. tache. bliihen. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. to breathe bouteiUis.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. Raynouard. dirty. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. florere. blahen. chatter. to blow. To Blow. AS. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. sense. w. a blow. to inflate. is confined to the — .D.' Hamburgh Archives. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. Notwithstanding the We . bliuwan. blubbern. flower OHG.to blossom. pale. — . closely difference in of blabber. green. |8A)'. the red fluid of the body . as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. blow. blubbern. bluh. blass.nify bubble. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. Blowze. to gabble. and thence. Gael. Sik upplustem. br. to shine with bright From colours. to glow.xo'»'. Deutsch. — To Blubber. fiubbem. Her sweet bloderit face. bliithe. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. bloemen. to show flower. plubartaich. . It is howbliuwen. 51. to flap like loose clothes. — . blut. grow pale. may cite for example G. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. The radical sense is shown in Gael. blau. blodern. bl. blodelsa. withered. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. bliihen. plusig.

a flounder. to fade). to plump into the water. . to become pale or wan. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . flodderen (Weiland). bulmanner.D. And blunders on and staggers every pace. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. a shore abruptly rising. pale. Roquefort. yellow. blave is moreover. verdoyer. blunder. biavo. pale yellow. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. Pol. an ill-done job. poltern. sense of yeUow. polterer. I blonder. To blunder is then. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. discoloured {plowiee. verdure. trahir. blutter.//aay. The Du. to fall suddenly on the ground. Kil. It then signifies something done at once. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. Bladum. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. buller-bak. in plur. something. G. devenir vert blavoie. bloi. Altieri. dial. tradire to Fr. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. Dan. Du. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. Analogous forms are Du. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. originally growing up turf and water. falb. . Bluff. A bluff manner. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. bawling. Hence we pass to Prov. Blunderer or blunt worker. and then generally idle talk. without image or superscription. blond. blake (identical with AS. herauspoltem or sloping shore. segetes virentes. blue. used for the work of an unskilful performer. has donder-bus. blue. in the same way as from It'. blunt. biada. yellowish red. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. applied to green as well as blue. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. — . Blaffart. glundr. Hence a Slcelton in R. Blavoyer. G. to blunder water. From G. non rotunda. blandum. Bodge. blahir. and sbiadare. like the Celtic glas. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. OFr. to work To blunder out a fronto.. Supp. Bohem. blanssen. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. flav-us. to lose colour. Kiittner. Pl. pale) is provincially used in the. and Du. Hal. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. E. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. a fore. bleu et blanc. biava. is. to become pale. and bustle . blaf. Flor. from an imitation of the sound. bullern. a blunderbuss. pale straw-coloured. plomp. confusion. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. Blunt. to dabble Biglotton E. which is rendered by Florio. all representing the — . asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. jaune.make a noise. a plain coin herausplatzeu. plo-wy. blunder. having a bluff forehead.— . 't — —Hal. sloppy drink. to puddle. like Du. herbe. from the Lat. Roquefort.• BLUFF biado. It is remarkable however that the E. corn. Kil. Palsgr. planus. mistake. in water dobbelen. a boisterous violent man. liebefactor. blunderhead. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. from the brilliant green of the young E. G. disturb. puddle. fawn-coloured. speech. as well as sbiadafe. to agitation of liquids. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. superficie plani. bUich. Then with the nasal. The Du. blue. ploffen. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. buller-bas. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . Du. pludder. and biavo (Diez). mix It.' trouble. glundra. - reddish yellow. Ditton in R. as well as biado. his business with much noise. The word is here synonymous with amplus. to mix it up with water. je perturbe. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. tutte le semente ancora in erba. earth and water mixed together. bluish. and metaphorically. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. to become pale or livid. to blunge clay. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. polter-hans. to confound. sbiavare. Biada. corn. Romance bluiter. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. — Pr. to dabble in the mud. rustic. fallow. Lat. blavus.in mud or water. abrupt. We Blunder. Sw. G. or an abrupt manner. Halma. contrasted with the dle. Pm. find accordingly It. Dryden in R. — — — . Dief. blac. See Blunt. See Blurt.

is thrown. A light blue colour. Plontp. plump. It. Plump. the absence of sharpness. a portion To inquire for slaves. Sir T. fling down . nis. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. blotta sanningen. Then cometh indevotion. clownish. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. plotsen. Dan. forestis. blott. sheepish. it will be well to point out a sense. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. naked. plump. absence of preparation. dull. united in Gael. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. and hath swiche languor in his soul. rough. Bare and blunt. as in E. is The word dull. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. Dan. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. blait. biosso. and an unintelligent. like a thing thrown down with a noise. viz. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. and.to fall into the water. naked. or heraus plumpen. bleak. V. Plump mit etwas umgehen. to blunt a thing out. pointless. blunsch. Sc. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. biotto. blatte. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. hebes. in Richardson. Ford in R. good plump person. blutten. . Du. Kiittner. rude. plump. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Kiittner. down. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. thick. platz-regen. homo stolidus. it will be observed. but of something soft thrown on the ground. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. plumbeus. Bluntet. seems to be derived. duU. — — pidus. G. without horns. a thick and will person. a simpleton. Now the Swiss bluntsch. mit etwas heraus-platzen. A modification of the same root. insensible. — blunt. V. bare. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. without Maolaich. bald. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch.pludse. to make a noise of such a Stalder. plonsen. as cow-dung. Blunt. —D. Sw. blunt. obtusus. clumsy. Woddis. blout. bare.— — — . raw. Pol. with or without the nasal. Blaitie-bum. blockish. blunder. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. of a knife which not cut. without preparation. Sc. —D. that it not easy to discover the connection. unceremonious manner. blunt. ang. Halma. dull. to make foliage. as Sw. poor Sc. and the like. More in Richardson. . that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . F. plotz. azure. figuratively. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. bare or blunt. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. awkward. used in both senses. plutz T)\i. The syllables blot.plompen. blunt. fooUsh. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. awkwardly. viz. unpolished. Won by degrees. plump J to plump out with it. a blot. Chaucer. V. inactive Swiss bluntschi. G. Swab. bus. silly. nature.—D. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . inaKil. Molof something wet. wan. rudely. Q. to handle a thing bluntly. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. edgeless. plump. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. and in the same sense. that the sense of bare. maol. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. unwrought. identical with E. Probably radically hlekit. plains The large bech. It will be seen that the G. to plump down. — Kil. heavy. bloss. from the loud report a fire-arm. a bluntie. heavy. naked. through which a man is so blont. naked. void. pressions. blat. to plump into the water. obtusus. ineffectual reason. or blab out a thing Kiittner . exactly corresponding to the G. The blait body. blunt. to blurt. massive. blue. Stalder. blait. bluntschen. It is from this notion of suddenness. pale. stupid fellow. heavy. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. without the nasal. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. platzen. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. unfledged Sw. to bring it suddenly out. dial. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni.

plodem. The to radical meaning D. bhis. to disfigure with E. Bluster. bit. to breke. Du. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. or blurt with one's mouth. properly noisy. blodern. pustern. puddle. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. both used in the sense of boasting. BOB 79 — To Blur. Board. will fly up. It. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. ever-swin. eber. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. blubber. to brag grande loqui. border. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. geplerr. Sc. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. pof. to be out of temper. rude. a smear. of the word seems . 9396. as splurt to splutter. Boa. E. then applied to indistinct vision . bliise. flat. bladdra. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. acre. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. to smear.v. bludder. a blot. cluster. Gael. outward edge. a small lump. to puff. bleuster. Du. to blubber. blarra. G. Boost is used for the boast. It. to make a noise with the mouth. stellio. to dangle. strong. to blur. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. lacerta. Du. dial. blot. to dirty. the sound of a blow poffen. beacon fire. or backwards and forwards. chicchere. — From mouth. boa. and the latch . splurt and spirt. whence bordvidr.the syllable bot. ader. Dan. Supp. blotch and botch. to endeavour to terrify. Bot zeggen. Comp. is formed Du. to snuff. Wright's ed. &c. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. common. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. primarily signify loud noise. To blow in puffs. plump. a mistiness. 'Ba. Related to blutter. this root are formed Sc. an end or stump. a torch blusse. bar. mire. skin. bur. planks or boards. to rumble. a tassel. blast. To brag and to crack. Swiss blodern. bustuous. beer.D. to blush. bateau. bdtr. botte. to make mouths. Kil. to roar. bord. burra. Explained by Jam. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. and swimmeth very well. and when applied to vaunting language. dull. Lat. literally edge-wood. a club foot . bora. Du. Wallace. to render indisbhir. — a blaze. batello. De Boat. pfludern. E. table.pusten. puffen. Blush. Boa. blosken. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. blunt. a mist before the eyes plerren. 274. — — — * Boast. a Jam. bobine. a dangling object. V. gabble Sw. ground. whence bob. . 29. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. a flurt with one's fingers. to blaze. my dear. AS. and boisterous. baiag. to guggle. coarse. To move quickly up and down. P. be a crack or loud sound. bord. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. an edge. to talk quick and indistinctly . bakke bleustern. to bounce. It. — ' Dief. . c. Fl. Du. A large snake. blaffen and baffen. cheeks glow. bord. blusse i ansigtet. to glow . a board or plank. blot. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. as in Du. eafor. the Brem. to chatter. hot. to give a crack. To Blurt. to blow. Sverris Saga. or bog also thread. violent G. Fl. pluddre. to bark. a border. pausten. Sc. Hal. Wtb. edge. blur. boccheggiare. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. a blow . . the red colour of the cheeks Dan. As the as. and E. margin. . blow vioAn augmentative from lently. large. a burst of tears. gabble. blaste?i. stupid. AS. Du. swagger. — — . Pl. bluter. i. The elision of the d is very to chatter. to say bluntly. pludern. and Du. Schmeller. boot. boistous. edge. 156. G. voce intonare. — To Bob. fringe. aper. bdd. dial. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. Gael. margin.plerr. rude. bot. blirt of greeting. boord. a grows to a great bigness. violent. to sound like water boiling. to jabber. Slur.y. blose. an ear of corn. to puff. a tassel. bot-voet. like the parapets (viggyrdil. imitated by has also In like . on. w. to make a noise in boiling. See Blossom. To splirt. margin. BLUR Boar. To tinct. short pieces of any filthy mud. blurra. a bladder . brett. AS.' — Red Riding-hood. 1.— . blaustem. . Pull the bobbin. OE. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. to blurt out. to puff. to spurt out. baban. sudden. ON. Du. a baU of thread the mud. it implies that it is empty sound. planks raised up outside the roofs. bobbin. bludder. blasen and See Burr. table.—Bobbin. to blore. bluther. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. bdta. bausen. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. berd. e. crack made by bursting open. board. Fr. a short thick body. to dabble. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. Halma. a blotch. a. Hal. blaere. to threaten. blader. See Boisterous. to crying. borrar. cocodrUlus. lindwurm. Fr. Bav. G.

. bayonet . So BOB To Bob. . 3. bogadh. a round body both. corpset. bob. gag. bodat. Gael. Gl. agitate. or a pair of bodies. anything protuberant. from fitting close to the body. bodnu. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. BOGGLE trunk and G. the boss of a buckler. — Grandg. as I bootless labour swim against the tide.! . ^Jam. Commonly explained as if from Sc. nave of a wheel. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. bole. meaning the round part of his body. precept. . boftich. expression hogglin an bogglin. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. We . potacha. barriga. the thick part of anything. to smack. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Miracle-plays. palleg. an announcement. corset from corps. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. bog. swelling.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. the belly. a .a (i\ia. . as in stammering or staggering. is a lump. whence Fr. bogan. so large a feature in the country.' A — Sherwood's Diet. mud. body of a shirt bol. to butt. a cask. bo tich. to waver. and the word is well explained by Bailey. to make a mow at. Ir. gagei. Now unskilful action is conmire. a spur. a puddle. Schmel. bodak. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. nodding. — H. AS. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. butt. belly. the trunk of the animal body. a messenger . formerly bodies. Reliq Antiq. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. the body. to stammer. or stem of a tree. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G.rabodi. baboyer. by the syllable patsch. moist mire. wavering. bayonet. Cot. corpses pot. a quagsoft. bogadaich. To portend good or bad. See Baber-lipped. to fail. bodetz. to commit a blunder. waving. needle. bogle. a sting . to prick. where bogs form Gael. bodi. Ptg. to roll. to make. message boda. as a horn. bottig.hollow.. shaking . as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. With With this we charged again We bodged again. bod. to start start and back as from a bugbear. To mock. Wall. * To Boggle. Ptg. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. stutter gogmire. unsteady nature of a soft substance. bod. rounded. to be uncertain what to do. to be unsteady tich. The Sp. To Bodge. See Bid. gogach. French bouter. a body. as signifying anything spherical or round. It introduced from Ireland. e. The signification of the root bot. to deliver a message. . moving backwards and forwards. AS. bog (equivalent to E. bog. Lap. Gael. Supp. a command. to bodge. a cask. barrique. gagoula. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. of which the E. whence paUchen. . gog. And waves. potacha. bottich are derivatives. In like manner E. move. Bret. to fail. toss. VI. or bag. to scruple. busti. biodeachan. bolr. goggle. patsche. bodene. then from the yielding. a prickle. to push with the horns. gog in gog-mire. woman's stays. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. To Bode. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. bodi.\\i\c\iset. the stem of a tree . quagmire). W. is identical with Fr. . to bob. a bog or morass. Crist. biodag. stuttering. to stir. body and G. Bohem. Gael. calf of the leg. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr.gmh:t. strike with the horns. . Lith. gago. bothog. a prick. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. dies. to stick. — 2. exhibit another modification of the root. 43. ON. bagges. pall. the body of a shift gaguejar. daubed or dabbled with blood. bodilo. Bodice. bogach. bodies. — as well as the body of an animal. thrust with something pointed. to blurt a thing out. Bog. to thrust. shake. potig. unsteady. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. To make bad work. . an awl. Shakespear has badged with blood. unsteady. speak of the barrel of a horse. quakmg. to dabble or paddle. anything soft. Thy i. round. bodhag. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. a dagger. Bodkin. corset. Body. and E. arise E. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . bot. Russ. See To Botch. badyti. bodian. fickle . potahha.' Bogglie. cask bottich. stumpy. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. stitch. point. gebod. '£. bodig. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. Banff. a ghost . boll.

pillow. scruple. 45. roydeur. trunk of a tree . Daring. boil . wag. noise. See Bulk. G. bochken (titubare. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. as baltha. swelling. bouil. to boil. pustule. courageous. chatter. Swab. . Du. bolt upright. The round stem of a tree. stramenta.palleg. used. treated under Bowl. a bubble. * Bolster. to swell. bok. buile. pimple ON. confident. swelling. proud. polc'h. and then applied to other husks. impetuosity. The term applies in — — impressed . brave. ballr. G. stutSw. Magy. ON. Fr. biiilen. tartalear. a cushion. tulum. Sp. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up.rounded part of the body. Boil. Lat. pall. boly. bulla. ^Boistous. a bubble.Du. Pr. to stagger. which are not used for a similar purpose. a head . furfures. ON. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . 304). bhster. in speaking. strong. bulla. puile. shake. OHG. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. Da. prince. bealder. boystousnesse. bol. to stammer. up of bubbles. as E. bolt. (of Mons) b^guer. i. dint in a metal vessel. balder. Pm. bulr. bog. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. OG. bolr. capiing into a cavity. Fr. tar. bolstar. To Boil. bald. to be prominent. Gael. cheerful. stud. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. hollow. in the sense of handsome . and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. A. Du. Me doth awate. bolle. bog. gluma. G. beule. quick. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. baud. tartajear. E. bolla. haughty. to tattle. huge. Wall. ON. boutpijl. folliculus grani. hero. bSlstr. from the branches. as. chaff of corn siliqua. bolc'h. to stammer. Sw. a boil or swelling Du. Lat. Bole. tomentum. Bret. glass phial. bola. warlike. Test. the body . styffe or rude . Du.. — — which the cushion is stuffed. is probably a modification of boll.— D. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. animal as distinguished from the limbs. free. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. 374. to give a hoUow sound.w. Lap. he will speak out. intrepid. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. Cot. see Boast. Goth. hakogni.). It. Fr. bald. rough. buller. then violent. bula. a bubble. bold. flax-boU.— — . Stalder. pusten. — 6 . sels of flax. puilen. tartle. notes. fiausten.D. obex. bul. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. courageous.' Mrs Baker. caput scapulse. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. ^Vocab. capitellum. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. as. bolzen. round the first instance to the materials with . The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. insolent baude. to be at a loss a shirt. bul. the gurgling sound of water rush. a bump. a fastening for a door. a quaking mire. Properly noisy. by which it is moved to and fro. perpendicular. or the like. bal. strong. cows the people from speaking. . bold. strong. and manace for to de. properly represent belly. poppy (Bailey). — ' — tagliare. The bob. Kit. to hesitate from doubt. whence bulla. . Kil. a swelling in ice. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. stameln vel bochken. to stumble. ohg. bolster. Boll. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. the lir. blow. bout. bola. bag or bog are derived Piedm. To Bolter. to the belly as the or dislike. bol. coarse. bollen (Kil. the. as those of nuts. belc'hj. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. ON. but that Bolt. balldr. bagaji. bold. bullire. boll. This iv. . Du. * Boisterous. may be identified with It. also a blister. b^gayer. boss. w. to waver or hesitate. E. Westerwald bollern. boggle. Love. a bakazikni. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. globular bod)'. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). bald. to puff. gerade signifies straight to the mark. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. bol. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. bout is explained by Kil. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. G. Boystous. from Du. the body of a man or of ter. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . repagulum. Chaucer. bolster. excellent. V. Chaucer seems Dan. Mund. bolzBold. bolleken. Sc. the husk of nuts. In the same way Sc. Bustuous. merry. 1430 in Deutsch.

2. The ulti. beluter.Lat. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. a round glass ending — bultig. Supp. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. barutare. to significance of the term was overlooked. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. abolter. Pl. gebolder. to knock. Sw.by forms like G. the wheels groaned. Bulte-pook or bulstar. grasbulten.).— . we pass to Du. croler. So also we pass from Lat.agitation of the meal in the bolter. or the like. to bolt flour burato. budeln daz mele . polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. bolzen. rugged. . a clod cloth. Here the radical image is the violent O. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap.). have Lat. and to crash. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. by the representation of a racketing sound. to make a knocking. curdle. bulstrig. die treppe pressed. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. poll. . hammer. buretter{CQ\. loud and fast. tar.On the same principle.. from G. bulla. taraabout. to bolt meal barutel. OFr. OFr. bulio. tumultuari. In the next place. rugged. to agitate. crash. fied bot. a bolter Prov. poltern. and the Thus from So.protuberance. brattle. jolting. je bulte. on the one hand. boss. Lat. to spring forth E. bolzaugen. a clump of turf. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. zen. And as the agitation of cream in . also to curdle. a crashing or racketing noise. hump.) E. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. bolt. as above explained. to form lumps. Lang. Schiitze. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. Dan. bolting to that of form. protuberance. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. racket gepolter. Hence. bluter. Dauphiny a sudden movement. we der Brocket). a rattle.thump or blow. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. ' — — ! ! : — . a . holier poller. poltern. vessel with narrow opening. clump. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . Bav. hulch. to clack. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. taratarrum. Pr. Du. Hence Palsgr. tling or crashing noise. a small portion. or a racer from the course. a sod (Schiitze). buUire. as snow balling on a horse's foot. representing a rat. tuft. to talk pulzen. Prov. then to knock. to coagulate. knob. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. hole. G. uneven. Pl. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. a club-foot.D.noise {brattle of thunner. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. ex•wagen. pattern. a clod. with E. bolt-foot. a bolter or implement for bolting. as Fr. we see that the one consists of a words. Mid. barutela. cro. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil.u. . blotttre.as the essential element signifying the talum. — — — . cruddle. Wtb. zare. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. agitari (Kil. Pm. as of a trumpet. It. kloteren. a millpoltzet augen. bultig. lumpy. crotlar. tantara.D. MHG.nature of the operation. a rattling carriage. burclct. : ' — — . Sanders.fe/2?. P1. . On this account Mid.D. bullern. bulk or quantity . to E. or ill. to bolter. to start with palpitate. pull. buletel. I boulte meale in a boulter. . small heap. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil.D. . crod. a clap of thunnences. . bultred. buideln. bortelen. to bolt meal barutel. sestuare. mole-hill.through a cloth of loose texture. uneven. to shake. bulk. one after the other. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. btilt. hulter de bulter. ' Holler poller / bulter. bolzauget) Sp. projections. taratantarum. hammer. The ment and the operation. to start out. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. staff which sounds tar.i5a//^«. . Brem.clack. the sense of right on end. beliitea. a bunch. OFr. Fr. to come rattling downstairs. projecting eyes pul. / is transposed in Fr. we have Du. swelling. ler. as a rabbit from its baritel. bolt head is a retort. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. Du. in S'W plotter. to become lumpy. buletare. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. barutela. pultare. baruta. Champagne burtcau.. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr.

to ring bells. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. gunpowder. and called in Mid. agreement. Mid. barate. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. the leg. — having a stem or stalk. and Bond. G. bonds. . band pi. As cotton was used for padding clothes. band. bureau. buidelen. bombase. an implement of binding. rimbombare. bauniwolle. to resound. a stock. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. to shake. thick. bein. In E. It. bombasin. bwmbwr. stuff. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . or trunk word in W. is supported by the analogy of G. stump. i. the murmuring of the sea. sije. silk-worm. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. OE.) . Bibelesworth in Nat. breast-bone. gossipium. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. to thump W. booming over the water. buidelen. Butterglas. It. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. achsel bein. . accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. bombice. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. 83 Gr. from teu. . a thundering noise bomre. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. . been. the silk-worm. bambacium. biire. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. bopin. to boult meal. however. tiffany. and Mod.). bwmbwry mar. again. bambagino. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. term is appropriated in G. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. Du. bras. bongam. baun. ties. has repeatedly varied. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. .— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. baum-bast. Du. and that from Fr. basin. as in .Lat.Su?. sye. bombast. E. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. bambagioj whence It. beil'n. produced the Pl. a boulter of meal. bombarda. beuteln. HoUybandin R. cotton stuff. bond. tie. to beat a drum. to shake (as to shake the head. bommer. boulenger. bon. The material called by this name. bombdra. sijde. Need you any ink and bonibase.bast. It. a drum bombammen. d. tie. lana lignea. Schm. a bone in general. bande. derivation. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. whence bomme. must be explained Fr. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. a ligature. silk. to shake down fruit from a tree. Dan. bunden. the Fr. Dan. the contracted form of Du. assuming the of leg : special signification W. a —Bombasine. It. bonfras. Antiq. From builen. as Banbury. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. a word of which we have traces in several English names. Bonfire. &c. — Bombard. It. bonog. Fr.^Altieri. to bind G. In legal language. Fr. bombicina. PoUitriduare. bureau. e. a baker. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. . bombasine. — AS. a hollow sound. burato. banitola (Fl. Near 6 * . a material quite unfit for bolting meal. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. we speak of a gun to resound. and in fact we find the and Du. crook-shanked bondew. bolting-cloth. It. Bone. tree. thick from shaking. the shank the shoulder-bone. bomba. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . borel. from boom. Bomb. sericum arboreum. ^o/j. G. q. a string. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. Fl. a stem or base. raw silk. coarse. ODu. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. Banstead. bombe. cotton. also thick-shanked. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. When ture. bindan. to which the leg. brust-bein. buttel trueb (of liquids). to bolt meal. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. builen. Gascoi^e in R. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. Castrais barato. bommen. thick-legged. butteln. butteln. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. a beacon. and also the leg. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. bulter from It. . Kil. Du. iuttern. Moreover. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. bone of the . G. to thunder.D. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. — bombast came guage. 155. a churn for butter. and Du. band. to cast to and fro. beuteln.

a lofty blaze.n. 232. petition. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. beiSne. See Bown. Fr. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. lofty. Bonnefyre. — . gawney. and from AS. a tree. a scribe G. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. AS. Prov. dog-kennel. babb^o. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. baier. G. bas. desire. It. simpleton. . to cultivate. boo. to set in order. boom. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. bosih. of wonder On the same principle Sp. bota. botte. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. Trans.Boos. prayer. Hal. a hollow skin. dress. and Ban in w. pig-sty. To Boot. to cultivate. without ad- . babau. From bo. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. N. Gael. a good turn or re- meaning. Binau Brychyniog. beam. botte. gaping hoyden — Cot. boubi^. hu?idbusa. A peasant. from beida (E. Palsgr. . quest. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . buandi. The latter is the original AS. The i. whence ban-ffagl. a letter . Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. \ais-band. inhabit. — From the participle present. Fr. litter. relief from sorrow. bene. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. boutig. OW. E. Bonnet. wondering signifies not only straw. to gape. Ox. the scriptures bokareis. signifying beech. to aid. Kil. A stall for cattle. See Bomb. is Du. dolt. boia. chaff. Perhaps. . It is commonly explained as identical with It. But bosg. bos. booby. tall. gehyred. Du. bAkva. bds. — Bailey. G. bdn. . in w. writing bokos. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. wall hangings. ON. . betere thing werse. till. Pm. by arbitours sholde bote the P. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. . — To boot. Boom. a vessel for holding liquids. . by itself for head-dress. the mouth. set in order.—Bootless. to litter bosu. as a lying-place for cattle. babin. bobo ! interj. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. fool. and Gael. clown. b^er. ben. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. p. prayer. E. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. nachbar. Fr. Booby. from badare. a lying-place for dogs or swine. in Phil. boubair. to dress. Mrs Baker explains bun. a simpleton. boten-shoen. till. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. Pr. bua. A favour. ass. stabulum. are formed Fr. which one gaping and staring about. . netis stall. ON. bote. short boots. swinbusa. a silly fellow. the possessor of the farm. Jr. Schm. . build. . bobo. Gl. biikui. dial. although in the OG. and thence Rouchi baia. blockhead. the stubble of beans. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. as the Brecknockshire Banns. Fr. b&ber. literally cow-house. gaby. foolish. reparation. OSlav. a bonfire. high. tigh. Build. Busk. to prepare. The character of folly is i860. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. to yawn. a bag of skin or leather. boa. w. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. from gape. dress. Du. bonad.. bonnet. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. See Butt. b'ukvdry. Du. ON. badaud. a. comes bondi. Sp. build. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. and fig. botta. In nautical language. where a cross (or a gun. bauer. the alphabet. bowwen. Thin ben Luke i. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. ty Gael. Boot. a. inhabit. remnants of hay or straw. 13. help. one who dwells nigh. Wall. bua. letter. from Du. bosig. Thus from the syllable ba.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. to ask. — — . busu. bd. however. boer. ON. Kil. bommen. The origin of the word is probably the W. head-dress wai^g. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. buch-stab. — e. G. Swab. Hal. feu de behourdis. Hufwud-bonad. bid). petition. dial. Mrs Baker. bauen. a letter Russ. Boon. master of the house. remedy of evil. Basa. also called Brecknock Beacons. the name of the letter b. Boot of bale.^ —P. bossen. house. pole. bonad. or Vanns. bose. boutig. tapestry. a stall. AS. ganian. often cut for burning and lighting fires. Bootless. boandi. a dry stalk. but stall. succour Bailey. Boor. a head-dress. the first consonant of the alphabet. Book. been. * Boose. Bun. to strew with straw. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. pero. bonaid. at everything. Goth. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. the cultivator. countryman. bolt. to gape.

cure Sw. bothan. forare. furni. The ON. to bore. rof. puru. bdra. reparation. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. Fr. struere ignem. hem or gard of a garment. bite. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. bolino. boeten het vier. mat-bod. Du. cup- awl. . to quench one's thirst . in Lap. puru. See To We speak in E. bottino. beute. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). remedy. biorag. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. to patch. . and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. from bord. botjan. a borer .. furd. batr. to bete the properly to mend the fire. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. are derived from G. to divide. boards. sculpo 05\xiik. recovery bata. to . BoracMo. exchange or divide. scsdes-bod.. The Fin. drillen. bud. puras. But probably the E. to bite. of an edge that will not bite. bord. a borer. dust. &c. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. amendment boeten. a shelter of branches. uzboro. fimbria. kvit-bara. and thence to eat build. Burke in R.—Burin. Esthon. Fin. . . The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. to importune. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. dens mordens vel caninus. to build. Gael. comminuted by either kind of action. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. • — To Bore.por. . scalpo. to stick unto as a bur. 266. Another derivation from Fin. to swell. bauda. Fin. And so in ON. yfirbdt. a cupboard. To Bore. borracha. It. . and hence to fine. a word. bordi. wave. to expiate boeten den dorst. or the gradual working a hole in anything. and meta- Fr. to repair. piercer. to The Sw. cottage. baete. bauen. ON. bora. a tusk. Gael. a border. urboro. tent. a responding forms . swell bara. baara. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. bdt. See Bower. pu purro (saha =: saw . the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. better. a wave. ON. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. bohren. a. p. OSw. It. Du. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. amendment. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. Fr. betan fyr. are parret. . The cor. Pol. The as G. Lat. A phorically a drunkard. admovere titiones. to mend. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. G. a granary . to boot.— Return from Parnassus I inR. — ON. hut. to restore. making good again . a hut or tent. nor E. puras. as afford a satisfactory explanation. lappolone. limbus. 1. Booty. purra. a shop. Esthon. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. margin. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. bothag. bardure. from deila and skipta. a great bur. extremitas Bore. welt. to to . to bite. AS. 3. which are probably from the same root. on. the . boede. to profit Goth. or anything pointed. Fl. chisel. barn. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. burin. It is admitted that Fr. terebra sculptoria purastoa. a booth or shed. to foam. ON. and parrets.. a bothy. budowai. borino. pi. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. to pierce. Bohem. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. Bete. a leather bag or bottle for wine. a sharp-pointed tooth. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. from borra. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. boete. Mag. to hut. terebro. sawroot. sharp. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. boeye. BOOTH vantage. to surge. a borer. Gael. butin is explained by Flor. ora. a chisel. a hut. lappalare. . Fin. Magy. chewed food for infants. differs only in termination. in Ihre. byte points to the verb byta. Border. fire. a bladder. Booth. make . bata. edge. In the Fin. bower. Sp. See Burgeon. budka. to build buda. borracha. Palsgr. limbus. abode. is purin. purro. to profit. . OHG. a shed. an engraver's chisel. Compare Manx birrag. Kil. wine-skin.par. pointed. aid. and E. butin. Alexand. N. cellar. to anything Neither G. purra. both. repair. a shop budowati.

that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. bourgeois. bundle. the hollow between the Borsholder. bump is used in lump or piece. a citizen. Du. tive idea seems to bring under cover. when that system was forgotten. AS.ribs and the side. Swiss Rom. 106. . Lat. Sc. a bunch or hump. in the body struck. bos. Borough. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. — — — A — . ON. bos. storm. — ' wind burya.mass. bierge.' every man be under bail. butse. boss. an eminence.bucklers. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. pegou. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . cob. Borowholder. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. to protect. Bos a surety. In like manner It. the N. knock and a knob . unpolished. botch. cnag signifies both a clergy. i. loan. f graauw. Jam. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. primarily signifying coarse sound . Words signifying a lump or protuberE. poor. Fr. to protect. So Du.' or system of bail. bttssel. tempest. burgess. borel. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. ^ma. or because a blow berga. ' — — . can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. northern. &c. I. or head-borough. AS. a knob. See found in Bav. boussi. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. . bizocco (from make a hollow sound. basse. bunch. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. and borough in the sense of a town. E. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. of bail throughout the country. a pushing or striking out. in instead of without. whether from the fact preserve G. empty. ^o^^flj. undyed wool of brown sheep. Du. the ordinary a swelling. and thus could not shake off the old burr. vain. into borsholder. Hence borhes ealdor. knur. to keep. or perhaps also To Borrow. plant. Bunch. the Sc. agrees with E. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. borg. from AS. rude. to save. to take in. /3oraMK6f. is probably radically Boss. destitute. useCanterbury. a city . which now signifies a knob. knocking. boss sound. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben.any round sweUing. baurgs. without. Fr. butsen. a bouncing baby . from their grey clothing. borh. beorgan. while Gael. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. coarse cloth made of the Du. . And that unsittynge is to here degre. surety. borgo. blow on a hollow object. to knock or strike. (Bridel). burh. Hal. a tower. head. botse. It. a little blow. Fr. a giving rise to It.. to pick or cull plants. cormpted. to save Sw. The other. . empty. plain rude fellow. empty. bom. a boss. botsen. bourg. poor. viipyoc. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. boss. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. beorgan. bosse. the must have arisen burgensis. pego. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. to strike so as to Bureau. whence the burg. Boreal. a boor.vr\. connected. Altieri. one who sticks to you like a bore. D. to conceal. to give bail or answer for an. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. byrig.' if thou give money on loan. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. that which biirge. Turk. cnoc. to save. huschen. knob. by which of or belonging to plants. Russ. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. Gr. boss or knob of a buckler . a surety. rustic. bussi. hollow. borough-holder.' the chief of the ' borh. It. a. bossen. hollow bucklers. bosh. brown cloth. bail biirgen. to become is emitted by a hollow body. a herb. a citizen. less. bergen. bussa coarse. Borrow. botch. borgese.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. cnap. busse. Jam. a wen. is used in the sense of bussare. boschen. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. a blow. The origin seems to be the Goth. to contain. borough or chief constable. Bailey. Newbury. Lang. to give a hollow bizo. gum vocant.' Vegetius in Diez. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. Goth. bump. grey). Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. formerly used in the sense of knocking. as we speak of a thumping potato. striking. borealis. The primi. secure. bosseu. borei. Hence knot. Bosh. burel. ' pledge. projection. the sun sets. Botany. nonsense. pitch. V. or perhaps it may be See Bury. tuft. borg. Cot. the North Wind. (1867). as if from the verb to hold. boss of the side. AS. gesylle. to strike . G. clownish. was origin of the term is the OFr.

bot. bide. the lowest part. to give a sounding blow. And so we speak of an eruption. See To Bodge. stroke. bativa. bund. especially in Gael. AS. abbution. . an imperfect and bunbutt end. an abyss or bottoniless pit.ments of the same root. Kil. kessel-biisser. — . It. bulderen. whence the name ol pool to podge. botus. gipuozan. you two. stem or base. turmoil. to simmer. a humpback. fire-bote. a cask. buddeln. buazen. a botcher of shoes. BOTCH understood). scuohbuzere. A — oba-dwaj Lat. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. bottigUa. a bottle. gling piece of work. boden . mess. — Fl. a bott . Hal. was called a push. to rage. noise. &c. whisper. bile. butwo. AS. empty or hollow. to make a make a noise. a boil or swelling Halma. blow. blister. Ancren Riwle.D. a bundle of straw or hay. burgi vel pontis refectionem. bozza. — .— Swift in R. as a push or windgaU. a wisp. . Here the radical image seems a bubble. abyss. bSn. abbi-diwij Slavon. e. bossu.foundation. a lump of somebatschen. bozza. a cobbler. oba. of botta. Butu. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. a pock. putra. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. Botcli. thing soft batsch. A bottom depth. . to dip in liquid (to Gael. to strike . signify a in OE. stock. to smack. a plague-boil Kil. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. . the first rough draught 2. OSax. we have Swiss batscken. See Bound. boiteag.of a ball of thread. — Jidwi. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. as Fr. bouteille. to fall : with a sound batsch. to make better. is boteau. butse. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. Bottle. On the other hand. N. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. poltern. a tinker schuhbiisser.^Dec. potra. ambo. biissen. ledge It. Bouds. Bailey. to bcBta. a bump or swelling. to botch or patch. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. pocciar. is also a bubble. See Butt. Parmesan poccia. however. we two. Prov. pother. buddl. Bret. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. boitean. the other hand. to stir and mix together . • Bott. To confuse with noise. or plague sore . Wedu. . Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. abbu. stock. To Botch. Du. batschen. botte. Gael. Bouteille. botsen. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. pimple. Fr. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. Pl. Danneil. ON. — duj Lett. what pushes outwards. to stir and mix together. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. H^cart. bunch. bulder. to podge. stump. beggtaj Goth. i. hurly-burly. I. fundus. boiteal. Again. and ajSvamg. a vessel for holding liquids. It. . a cesspool pass. blain. tumour. a bubble. G. any plain round viol glass bozzo. a knock. * To Bother. knock. to froth as beer . butsen. nets. patch. corresponding to . bdsser. by met. botse. G. It. Judwi. Hal. to knock. maggots in barley. a waterfall. to mend (kettles. Canut. to from the root bot. Decorde. botola. mess. buideal. Jtidu. Gael. A horses. boss. botch. a maggot.— . Bochu. round lump. 212. mutter. AS. baiothsj Sanscr. podge. Both. bottom. Du. botn. disturbance. a slop. Leg. abbi. boute. Lat. The Gr. they two. — — . E. and E. any round ball or bowl to play withal. ubhau. a pit. bundle. . Lith. a. botte. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. — — A 2. ON. bAdtr. bodem. a depth. bluster. pozzo. gen. botte. Fr. &c. Fyre to botme. to mend. w. ing out. a bottle. dial. a root. ba. bun. bdt. — — belly-worm.' to the fiery Csedm. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. buts. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a bunch. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . j3i/9os. btitse.) . a cess. botm. in the sense of mend the fire. to we have OHG. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. bosser.— Hal. ixorapudder. from the dashing of water. a slop. From the dim. to put on a patch. Fl. Podge. puddle. mend. boccia. boil. Boa two. dabble). On — Du. pozzanghera. Dan. botel. a bottle of hay. bethia. repara- — — See To Bete. to work without order or know. noise. the bud of a flower . ^kvBoQ. a patch patschen. ON. Lith. See Boss. botel foenn. bots. the science or knowledge of plants. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. dim. both. contusion . disturbance to . House-bote. Stalder. to dash about . Mudu. shoes. Diez. Fl. for a bud. — Dief. schuhbosser. ' G. a pit. — Bottom.

to resound. suorum recognoverunt agrorum.' round and round in similar circles. to knock. to make a loud noise. till The dat et bunsede. a large stone rounded by the action of water.— F. its kind. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Wtb. bog. — No i ausiratz parlar. root (see Bottom). bun. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. 3. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. signifying in nautical coil of rope. Bout. as a nosegay. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. bodina. bonna. bonzen. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. mere. the verb bondir in OFr. p. bunsen. and F. To Bound. language a * Boulder. by Bujns or Buns. like bobbin.' B. Nor a centinel whistle. See Bunch. Bodinare. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. 2. bounbounejha. in contrast to klappersten. nor horn sound. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. — — Bight. whence buj7isen. Bound. has hot. limit. a button. to spring. Pm. a round body both. bamsen. boh. an occasion. in the absence of actual e. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. nave of a wheel bothel.— Boundary. Boulderstone. signifies a sliort thick mass. bolder. an de dor bunsen. geration. or Bow-pot. bonndn. bullra. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. Sw. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. from AS. Alpine Re- — gions. Bowlder. debodinare. Fr. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. a blow. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Fr. from volgere. Probably from the Celtic root bon.'— Charter of K. the larger kind of pebbles. tnndo. — strike. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . Webster. bouton. contusi. . Coxcomb. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. . Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. boriie. bend. bone. To Boult. of thread. to spring. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. Bunche. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. Dan. to turn. round. bunda. to fix limits. the hollow of a bay. boss of a buckler. a blister. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. to knock at the door. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. So It. ing. Bough. gulf. Bough-pot. ni motz brugir. From Sw. Q. Bret. boujtce. ni frestelar. Ni gacha cor bondir. a turn or time. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Ducange. a boundary stone (men stone). Primarily to strike. turn. A Langued. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. volta. jungen.D.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. bugt. Halma. knock it sounds again. pothel.— — — - 88 BOUGH . dial. to bow. Du. bugan. a bound. Brem. carpet. from bugan. bay.>a bout. see Boss. . a boss. buUersten. mcn-bomi. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. march. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. the smaller ones. I assure you. to thundering big one hum. The W. jump. bons. Fr.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. strapping. 136. a large pebble.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. and Prov. dial. he fell so that it sounded. Bonny. boundina. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. To Bounce. a bouncing apple. — — leap." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. iv. butina. And the new stools set out. Raynouard. to set out by metes and bounds. to hum. See To Bolt. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . winding.. E. came home with his face all to-bounced. AS. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. bondir. thumping. Bought. Pr. a bud. The branch of a tree. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound.— Cot. bottom. bend. as that of E. Mid. — Take care my house be handsome. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. The Bight of Benin. pimple Richards bothog. baby. to thunder. the bay of Benin. a stock. bumper. to set bounds. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. botwm.

Burgeon. Immediately from Fr. to tipple. — probably through this latter signification. to drink deep. buyse. . game. tinton. And there in mourning spend Sw. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. bue. — — — A pare. language of folly or ridicule. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. biegen. Dan. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . a humming noise Macleod. bunaiteach. verb bua. sotich. a cup kroesen. Du. ^<7r«i?. to bow. btiga. brunna. bagna. must be referred to the same root. a corToward the garden. that ON. bourdon. a jibe Shaw bururus. Dan.which see. puff out. has also buirleadh. a well. to our bous. The meaning of bound. bogna. whether by sound or gesticulation. bog. Bow. to drink deep. burreti. So Sc. Eown. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. Gael. bugna. Comp.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. curvature. epaule du vaisseau. whence buysen. schenkelbug. staff. Spenser in R. brummen. . bogr. addressed to. a sing-song. steady. on the whole. of the ON. like quaff. purlBav. bending. Gael. Sw. the shoulder of the vessel. . bontS. joke. When used alone it . biugan. pared. bordo. cheat. good. to bulge. to draw a deep breath. . BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. deceit. in Fr. Cot. is. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. AS. bordon. to take one in. analogous to Fr. bending of a joint knie-bug. buga. spelling the word iox bound. mockery. brausen. . Sp.bass of a stringed instrument. purra. Du. trick. from spring. bovne. It is bov. burdan. hence musical accompaniment. head Fr. burlare. firm. cudgel. bonus. Dan. it is probable that the It. buzzing of bees. jest. drink deep. to bow or incline the . the burden of a song. as was for. bonitas. Borden. buys. Swiss bausen. bend. bdgi. patesten. ing. bommen. It. bausen. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. g. buigen. sport. an arch. bugna. It is the participle past buinn. Prov. a for New York. Fr. Burden. Fr. As the Gael. identical with E. ridicule buirte. Du. a from Du. Bourdon. pausen. are applied to the bow of a ship. explaining Sw. a bow. a pot. to take breath. bend Sw. schulter-bug. when we speak of. spring. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. bog.. bound. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Sw. to draw a deep breath. Bourdon. prepared for. hous^ Man in the Moon. their time -With "wailful tunes. crutch. drunken. address. Gael. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. potio. bordone. the ting of a bell. burd. to tope W. — — . repartee. kroes. a mill-post. bending. springbiirn. Cot. souf. bogen. the Bourdon. a drone or dor-bee. burdan. to hum. a drone of a bagpipe. . a jibe. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. grumble Sw. also the humming or ON. ruption of bonne. bourd. warbling. bov. set out. a humming noise. to — Hal. to take deep draughts. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. a brook. Gael. bugne. . G. the big end of a club. bugan. w. to trick. burn. bug. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. bage. Lat. Bret. and that probably from a Celtic root. G. saufen. way ba7n. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. fresh* water. lance. gurgling. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. It is remarkable that we find vary. bourdon. a — — . bourde in the same sense. drone of a bagpipe. A —Cot. buizen. to indulge in his cups . Du. to pre2. Goth. ready. flagon. belly out. G. different modification gives ON. bwa. a go to. Bounty. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. Chaucer in R. ready to pike or spear . Sw. taunt. a prop. to hum as a bee. bogha. i. pusta. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. to tope. Fr. beogan. fun of one . borne. sausen. bow to shoot with. and not in the sense of curvature in general. A water. shoulder-blade. limit. or of an Gael. Dan. G. to mutter. Bourd. burt.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. pot. buzz. pre. to swell. sense durd. Bound. Sc. Gael. on. to banter or laugh at. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. beygja. a. a. the fixed. The foregoing derivation seems.

a buck. heafod bolla. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. Du. boxtree. water pulli. AS. bugna. to yield to one. . Bret. buckel. OE. bossola. bol. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. wisp of straw . then by the loss of the /. a box. a box. passing on stud. bubble. a separate apartment . See Boil. . signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. swell. bwra. bock. Cable. boucle. Buckle. A . In like manner the Pol. globular. Sp. utibur. of a wooden ball to play with and — . zich onder jemand under to him. bocka. the head. an inclosure. in both senses. to raise the back boll OHG. bog. . the box-tree and articles made of it G. . A Bulk.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. buis. beutel. acsian. iri'iaQ. a wardrobe . spherical Dan. a box. the box-tree. a knot. botulus. a box Lat. . painter's easel. hollow. Bret. a ball . an outhouse AS. bwr. to stoop biickling. bending. a. boor. . buxus.. to bend. G. . bolla. Hence. a round glass or bolg. Boll. give in to. dial. Pol. bouellou. Dan. to stoop. boudin. honse-bur. W.). a wine-can . bollen. koziel. G. . ask. hollow wooden case. . fyn. crown of a hat. bol. Fr.. E. the bogna. . a bud. bow. a thing of liquid. to bend down. to make crooked . . fata-bur. Sw. a bundle. Dan. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. a bubble bolli. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. boss. to swell. and on swollen. . a croft by a house. a sack. head of a cabbage. Sanscr. . a ball.\s. boil. a hen-coop . a parlour. Bower. bulb of an onion bolleyield. convex.a. tumour . boel. &c. and to a coachbox in particular. buchsbaum. bowl . gut. at the e. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. mausbollelein. boxtree pusska. Sw. biiske. . make obeisance. bucka. w. a ball. a box. * Bowels. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. biisse. hill. a bowl. bulka. bug. intrenchment. bhugna. the skull or brainpan . buk. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. a black pudding. as in AS. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. or. bulla in aqua. W.cup Du. with inversion of the round. bulcken. cumena-bur. box in both senses. a iDubble. stream forth bugyogni. as in E. AS. kupu. convexity. ^o/a. Fr. to bow buck. round glass phial. bouge. ku^o. kuppelo.). (in pass . pocket. or in e. . kupukka. bulla. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. bulge. beuz. the crop of a bird. a bubble Fin. in walking appears in a . prominence. a sleeping-room . budel. crooked. Du. . bog. Sw. ^o«/«. biicken. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. compared with Fr. bouzellou. a drop of pullistaa. Bav. bubble. bosso. ON. a hump on the back rossbollen. to guggle. the barrel of a gun. a swelling or rising up. anything globular. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. similar shape. to bulge. to puff up pullakka. Fr. ON. bolla. ON. signified by forms like Gael. different position in ODu. buigen. without the and grits. . — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. pusspan. a chamber swefnbur. . Thus we have Esthon. bulne. bow. box. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. .) to incline oneself . to buckle G. pullo. round bead. to bubble up. a bubble. hiidel. globular body. polla. boss. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. busse. bulk compared with Sw. biichse. puffy. guestchamber . peated in Magy. belly. ken. the head. . Bohem. bowel Box. a stud. a bubble. the box-tree It. bur. a protuberance. bolne. bugyola. ttuJic. Du. a pot. belly of a cask. buckelig gehen. OFr.D. See MHO. purse. The word may probably be identical with Fris. blister. It is more probably from the G. Lat. ne. Hal. folliculus . tumour. busskai. buga. a polla. to puff up. kupula. PLD. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav.flask It. bent. budello. a boil. trestle. bowels. sausage. bugyani. swoUei) Lat. . bugy. buello. a little box . . Bowl. See Crab. . spring as water bugya. Gr. belly. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. bola. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. as well as the name of a. bolle. . inclinare se (Kil. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. bukke. bolgna. bur. From the other form are G. knob From the former modification we have bolla. globe or spherical body. bugyni. is applied to a coach-box. bogla. bhuj. hollow place Fr. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. lump . The / a bow.

— D. s. refuse. bube. spaniel. want. wristband. flap. brago. Brackish. bouibo. braic. to Swiss batschen. Bracket. . Swiss Rom. wnzC/J. rakke. odorinsecus. fault. or bracer Cot. ON. The different meanings of the brageux. Lett. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. braco. bracco. breuque. A brace probis. Fr.. a grown youth Cimbr. to is derived brestr. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. need. BOX To Box. braquet. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. and F. Fr. beagle. break. brec. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. to stammer. thwack. parallel with OK. braco. to box the ears. to be wanting. strike. ON. a sounding blow. &c. boiste. braque. Brak-goed. land spoilt Kil. brek. bou^ba. which has many representatives in the other Europe. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life .with a noise. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. See Broker. Thus brack. boussole. brechen ihm. Kil. 91 the Dan. breach. from a root brak. bracket. unmarried man . clay. filth . Pr. V. Brack. To brace is to draw together.. bragos. OFr. — . compressing. Heligoneed. . a crack. let. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. babble. brack. . . Du. youth. breptati. s. to give a gebrechen. to burst. Sp. OFr. moral or physical. bruxula. I sal slyng. lalear-eyed Prov. Boy. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. rack. brakke grund. a girl. OE. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. taneous talking. rakka. salsus. salo sive aqua marinS. matter. A — — . The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. boy. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. whelp as. corruptse. mud. to fall. brostia. G. G. and then Pl. to give a sounding blow defect. ' — A — — — . root). an languages. To Brabble. La ville ou y avait Brace. brae. . In like manner the It. defect Du." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. Bracelet. . brakke Bracelet. Prov. fuse. flaw. ghebreck. want. A to halt between two derivations. bue. bask. priated to the original sense. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. suppuration. brechen. brabbelen. bracon. murmur. confining. — . baske. Fr. buah. by the same inversion of J and k. Prov. a bog or pass Fr. Kil.nated by dirt. as noticed under Box. to smack the hand batschen. . a braceOFr. merely in our mode of considering them. acidus.. con. variation of babble. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. Lat. in R. Pm. dog that hunts by scent. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. or defect. isolated part of the text. briche. to want. bray. brae. brasselet. pus. a pair of braces. mud. boy bouba. a comworld Rayn. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. braca. Sp. pupus. flaw. braecke. to crack. One girl. brae. — . mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. then from break. brageuses. Pl. brace on and Du. bitch Du. loud smack. pube. a guard to torf. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. a boy pupa. in R. Water rendered boubo. Prov. brague. . to slap. armour for the arm. — — . Swiss bub. is a rope holding G. Kil. bracer. dirty. Prov. ing from a mixture of salt. See Brake. the first instancebya physical tie. It. Brach. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . quarrel Bohem. Cot. mud. Du. It. damaged board a ship. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. dog Sw. rakki. Swab. — . cramp-iron holding things together . ratch.D. brassard. a bubbling dura del mun. defect. bracha. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation.. AS. brek. dog in general. to give a blow with the fists. On the same principle from the buksteht. To fight with the fists. bracil. Ptg. . putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. baukscheht. Brack. fault . It. his eyes are failing him). bauksch represents the sound of a blow . land batsken. a box.puddle. breach. race. and string of his bow. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. which sigof straining. Fr. foul. defect. posh. It is B. brack. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael.D. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. bracke. Hdcart. jabber. Rouchi Then as an adj. by an overflow of sea water. brae. — . But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. to stutter. the arm. Gael. MHG. wrack. want. bresta. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. disturb. Sp. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers.

brave. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . dhbrailler. to cord a bale of tie up. braver. gayly dressed. brabhdair. The plant y^r«. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. braggard also valiant. breghe. Fr. an iron for holding Zalli. affront. strength. gorgeous. beautiful. Brake. bravacherie. fine. Hence E.^ Sp.. well-dressed. in the sense of the Lat. excellent. slight modificajoining the two legs. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . Chaucer. brae. Rom. Wallachian bratsou. Langued. brazo. cry. se donner trop de licence. to make a noise. or by gaudy dress and show. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. blusterer. Thus we are brought to the OE. to flaunt. showy bravery. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). expensive. bragaireachd. BRAG Piedm. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. . Brake. &c. a carriage for breaking in horses . brayete. braga. to rattle. — Chaucer. power. crash. Dan. in order to prevent its catching the wind. swagger. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. Bret. . bravo. brake in the sense of constraining. From sprouted corn. Faire le brave. braegenj Du. is identical with Gael.^Vocab. To Brail. idle talk. braka. bushy . is Cot. ^Brave. to crack.hy which this idea is con\eyed. h-avare and Fr. to stand upon terms. brag. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. de Vaud. bragging. noisy ostentation. to strut. gay. Bray. binding anything together. brao. . i. . Brail. gallant. flaunt in fine clothes . the bridge or part of the breeches ing. braga. . Sc. to sprout malt. brag. bragging of his own valour. confining. braszketi. drawers. Lat. Hecart. brabhdadh. Dan. brave. bragd. 2. and that from e. the feathers ON. bullying. empty pride. to Rouchi brMer. courageous. . breyne. goods. bra!. be noisy . make a noise . to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. Brag was then used brisk.i5nz^. The meanings of brake are very numerous. se pavaner. braicli. hectoring. be found. subduing. To Braid. It. was formed brayele. proud. braske. finery. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. smart. brave. Sp. From Fr. Cot. brails. brav. to boast or brag. It is certain that the word for arm is. vanter une chose. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . Thus Bret.. breghen. Haldorsen Gael. crash ON. the opposite of which. se parer de beaux habits. flaunting. as the type of exertion and strength. Walloon bress. to shout. a roisterer. to brail up a sail. would be to brace. also derived Fr. to unbrace or let down the breeches. Bret. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . the arm. brave. valiant The head are sumptuous. AS. . In like manner to crack is used for boasting. Cot. braw. compressing. stout. boasting. The meanings included under — Bragget.%. bully . braguer. gay. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. — A — . torture . See Bray. . But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. also insolenter se gerere . that will carry no coals. riches. and it is very likely that the root brak. brachittm. A — Hal. used in the sense of force. also tion of this was brayeul. w. brag or jet it braguard. stately. handsome. fine. in numerous dialects. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. — From W. braka. See Brace. ative fellow. Cot. to swagger. brave. Fris. breach. or from braie itself. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage.—— . called by our braggard. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood.Shepherd's Cal. braies. braske. crack. swaggerer. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. spot. From brayel. bravache. about the hawk's fundament. —Spenser in R. subigere. brake is. — .aburst.explosion. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. vaunting. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . bravado j Fr. fine. fine. Lith. breagh. a noisy talkboasting. bragio. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Primarily to crack. boast. vain glory.breeches. Fr. — Equivalent forms are Gael. an inclosure for cattle . 92 Cot. Brain. splendid. To Brag. to boast of his own worth. gallant (in apparel) also proud. braga.

braquer un canon. a thicket. Swiss Rom. a brace on board a ship. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. a fen. P&. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. broillet. the lever by which the string was drawn up. G.bracan. to break. in usus braca. to knead or mix up in a mortar. broeck. to brush. might come to signify a swamp. Pl. briers. 2. Gr. where from Esthon. brook. bush. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses.. is formed murd. murran. Gael. and G. to stiffen against Taboada). de Vaud. any thicket of brakes. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). braca. bushes. a stream. referred brake. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. t° moisten. bregar brake. in northern climates. Brake. To the same bend a bow. for — Due. ^raca. bregille. bredza. gilum. braka. brogille. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. Voc. brog or brake. to head must be bit. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. In ON. —Bracken. cetur. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. or a wood in a marshy place . — Fl. cover G. broor bushy place Hal. quarry from Fin. break of such a kind. gebroge. broken fratta. casser le \va. gebroge. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. to exert force in different ways. to bend a bow. It. as in the case of horse-breaking. brega. brog. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. tnurdma. properly braking or subduing them. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. glebas subigere. as in Sp. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions.— . and when once thrown down. brushwood. a marsh. breuil. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. riguus. a horse's a horse's twitch. Prov. game. bregar. Sp. brambles. to harrow (Lat. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. a swampy Mid. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. bruch. brego. Biglotton. been confounded with the verb break. subigere. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. brog above mentioned. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. broyer. — — . braecken het vlasch. to The ON. to break or fracture. the original meaning of G. braken. e. breaking in the operation. tris). a spinning-wheel. brcekke. iSpsx". and Lat. marsh. a harrow. to break. copse-wood. dial. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. word. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. signifying to sweep. murrokko. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. OFr.' It. brook. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. It. farinam in mortario subigere. In the case of the ne. to distinct. brak is a frame in which strip. BRAKE to external force. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. In like manner Lat. as well as in the case of the e. to row. 3. Brake. brook. flachs brechen. conSo in G. Fr. or overthrow of trees by the wind. gebiisch. Dan. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. to bray in a mortar. thicket. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. brage. to rub. ing of flax or hemp. low wet land bruch. bush. broil. frangere linum. In the sense of a thicket. It may be sus- . to pound. watered. it is not surprising that the word has here. thing is brought under control. brambles. briser. —Ovid. to subdue. Fr. have thus Du. brake. gebrUche. The Fr. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. or A A ' . Lat.D. as in Du. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. to bend or direct a cannon. gebrUche. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . to fracture. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. murtaa.D. pasture. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. braeken. marsh or swamp. Dan. el arco. Dan. fratto. nemus. gebroge. is braukti. . break flax PLD. Fr. broilium. brolium. brage. We — . brake. Corrfeze bredgea.

piece of anything. brambles. burning brennen. ordure . bran. Fr. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. . bracken or fern . i. See Brush. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. bren. pfropf. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. or other plants of a like nature. heath. In like hrst. the thorn apple or stramonium. .G. from brand. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. bromboli. braam. brandello. brughera. Brank. to -brugen. snotty . bran. Sir Topaz. 1 8. breun. to or iron. a bud. branche. brin (as It brano). ear-wax mud. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. and thence a shoot. brarn. brwnt. heath ON.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. brin. brenn. or ling. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. &c. from virga. sweet broom. branchia. bruk. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. brous. brog. a roA. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . braeme. Then by comparison with claws or arms. thorns and Gen. from brug. dirt . . bit by bit. Brand. bruk. Gael. a briery plot. and waste growths. AS. 2. broom. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. brenn hesken. brake. a bud. Branch. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. cack. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. brosst. brin d. Thornas and bremelas. the bull-finch. It. nasty. brouskoad. G. brug. . also a marshy low ground or fen . or with It. is the draff or excrement of the com. as AS. bren. a burning fragment of wood. Pl. from gaggi. stink . It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. gebroge. virgultum. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. That beareth the red hepe. a vine twig Bav. gebriiche. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. Fr. bruch. titio. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. bruch. Grisons bruch. A mark made by burning. from Lat. that is to say. brenna. Piedm. a dunghill. brand. constrain. G. brein. . . broom. a shrub . bronbo. It. brug). &c. The same form becomes in It.D. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. As ON. sprouts. may be so called in analogy with Bret. a bridle or bit . all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. brancas. bruskoad. Thus we have w. But we find It. in the sense oi fern. The naof strain. . a shoot or twig. Bav. cabbage sprouts Fl. apiece orbitbrandone. — . clutch. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. as. a small deri\'ation . Serv. iii. a bud It. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. Diez. bretnel. w. it glitters — — . from Servian pnit. thicket of brambles Cot. Dan. pfriemen. brandmurk. in the same sense. Bramble.. a shoot. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. chaff. restrain. branco. Fr. brang. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. bro7n. Brancare. breanan. brank.D. heath. brass. heath. brandiiialil. brenda. sedge burkni. brandr. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . —Ducange. Rouchi bren d'orMe. bushes. to gripe. a shrub from Bret. E. brano. a firebrand. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. to brank. a thick bush. brem. a heath. excrement. Bret. also pfriemkraut. pected that brake. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. Bret. prufye. Bran. — branca. It will be found that shrubs. berneux. hallier. G. breme j Sw. heath. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. a single plant of heath. brok.). to bridle. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. piecemeal brindelles. Port. brugek. and E. . Russ. Pl. bramble Du. young twig {brom-beisser. brank. So Swiss gaggi. broussaille. briars. Bret. ground full of briers. broust. brom. Bret. young buisson fort epais. Broom. a halter." The bmno a • on . to burn. Fr. what is cast out as worthless. w. a rod or twig. broem. sawdust. broembel-CBppel. . brushwood. bruk. broccoli. brejo. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. the branch of a tree. G. compress. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. heath (Bret. wood composed of twigs. Gael. pfriem in the sense of an awl. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. Thus in Lat.

Fr. a fragment. comes from thence. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. to make shine with shaking. Brasil.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. distilled wine. a roaring fire. to distil . to dash. stake. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. crackle. all. bragia. Hume in brand in ON. to quarrel. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. G. So. N. bruciare. a To Brandish. n. 59. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. fire-wood. bresil. d'Angl. ist. a stick. brandigh. — ting to confusion. Fl. brus^. to hurl with great force. Ija. to French brawl or brangle. brandende wijn. Sw. brascct. brandiller. bransella. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. is bntan. noise. AS. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to glisten or flash. With top trimbling. Braser. It. spirit distilled from wine. billet. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. embraser. Bailey. Fr. to burn. to brangle. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. to totter. Bret. faire fracas. Chron. Brangle. In the same way the set on fire . crackle. before the discovery of America in the brandir. brush. It. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . to brustle. Port. not. to burn. Lye. make an outcry. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. became ashes Pied. weinbrenner.. to brandle. flagrans.well. perplex. to and fro in the hand. gebrannter wein. Thus the bound up again. plained by Florio. brasa. To brand. Fr. forms brasil. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Fr. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. eldibrandr. put. G. bum.pan of coals. Brase. braser. apparently very distinct from each other. the colour than hitherto known. to roar. to braze or lute. to burn. ish. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. set on fire. to confuse. brangle or brawl in E. firebrand. from to vociferate. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. as Jamieson explains it. Manx bransey. a round dance. brastlian. brasca. brandolare is exbrandish. bruire. The name Brandy. urens. Jam. splinter. then brandr. a pan of hot coals. to shake. brasa. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. branler. totter. Gris. bransle. to bicker 2nd. bracia. hoisting to the fall. — . brazeiro. to Bailey. The tre brangillis. brustle. to sound of the Fr. — . the name of that holy wood should have Kil. — . de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Diez. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. so. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. live coals. du Roi et laine. brennen. to solder iron. and branchis shaiand D. in Marsh. glowing embers . to make display . braise. Sw. the spelling to kindle. to crackle . from used in dyeing cloths. braise or hot coals. as again by well as the blade of a sword. conbillet. E. braise. to shake. braza. e. De Goes. aqua ardens. WaUon. It. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brane-wood. bragale\ wood. brazil. bruzi. shake. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. Kil. brandiller. hot Fr. to shake The word brisil. bruan. brouir. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. brausen. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. brasil.^Brandle. Milan. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. bra?ier. Du. branler. Formerly brandy-wine. E. to make sense of a bright red dye. brasca. to murmur. bracea. Chron. brand. De Barros considers vinum ardens. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. and scold. given to the country. as Fr. to blaze. V. make a — . To brase AS. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. or in stick. to brandle or The It. to rustle. Guill. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. to shog. and bruir. The corresponding form in Gael. incendium. bryne. was in use Fr. brin. a brusler. morsel. prasseln. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. branla. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. briiler. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. firewood. Fr.

la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. slibro {neita. bred. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. discord. —^Bronze. . It . — Deutsch. whether contracted from brabble. frequentative of braire. to tear piecemeal. ferruminare. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. brett. brat. — . or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . bratidone. slut. a Lap. pil.walle — Pr. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. neita girl). &c. burning coals.D. saillies. squall. boutures. a. Jam. 2. solder. bras. reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. the calf of the leg. equivalent to the Du. Sup. brandillo. For the application to a^child compare Bret.D. and bronzo. bratdn). It. Brat. braon.— Diez. to talk at bralle op. a rag . Many gambes. a slabbering-bib. as rashers upon quick burning coals. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. esbraotier. brdto (ace. from Sc. a clout. trul. Wall. branle. or whether it be from Fr.— Fl. to copper. to solder. brass. rag.propugnaculum. especially that used in the working of iron . berd. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). bratach. 1156. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. cloth. Brawn. brettys. bartising.' Hal. a — A from the confused noise. G. OHG. bronzare. fraiche. a cloak. a lump. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. braoilich. Fr. to braze. Brangle. breteque. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. a rag. braion. The verb is probably derived from the brase. 368. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. I. bratid calf of the leg. to carbonado. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. Lorraine bravon. to cry. P1. Cot. cob. Sc. Du. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. slakker-bortchen. braodhlach. a plank or board. deblaterare. strepitus 2. ^Altieri. baltresca. noise. calf of the leg. a parapet. Brawl. in the first instance of boards.— Remade. braede. bas morceau de viande brawhng. Fris. a lump of flesh. as scrawl from scrabble. or on the top of a wall. luncheon. from branler. as criailler of crier. is The word — uous name for a woman. a contemptuous name for a young child. A land of dance. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. OFr. braeye. bronze. a contempt- banner. Sp. a loud noise. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. borderinge. OFr. A. to scold . a battle-girdle. It. breyon. apron. brces. —-Jam. braiio. a patch of cloth. a lump of flesh. a lath. any piece. Pm. brailler. a mantle. The same correspondence is seen between It. Cologne broden. tasce. Westphal. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. bradon. breyon de kinds of . child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. A dispute or squabble. ' A vraale.brettysing. a wooden tower. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. The muscular part of the body. So also See Brag. Certainly a little girl. to shake. the buttocks. pan- — Rayn. bran. Brass. KiL Prov.^ — Sverris Saga. Florio. ON. coassatio. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. Fr. contignatio. a rag . See Bray. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275.' BRASS BRAY et AS. bransle. AS. as a brawling brook. a fortification.— Braid. Dan. to Gael. brat. calf of the leg. buttock Sc. Mundart. then a parapet. Kil. Fr.96 Roquefort. Math. slibro. boarding being sbranare. bretays). le repasser un peu sur la braise. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. at brasa. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. breyon d'chaur. bralle. bronzacchiare. lat'te. W. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water.D. Cot. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. Paris. bmhon for brado7i. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. A. as lattice. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. Pisana in Mur. Gael. bradlete. braser Fargent. Brave. bretesque. Betrax of a —^Jam. Circumeunt cibertesca. brazen. roar. frame of laths. brat. bartisan. bribe de viande. Brattice. Swiss bradle. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. ni autres choses sur Due. Hist. bruir. muscular parts of the body. from Fr. ship. bretesche. Bartizan. flesh of a leg of pork. Bailey. See Brandish. 1224.

or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. the sound — of arms. bruzir.g. bregar. — . to roar or bellow. instantane. I'll live and die a maid. appearance Hal. Fr. . as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. starts crackling up. OE. twist. Fr. ^p&xia.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX.ear rog. e.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. cyprinus latus. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. to pretend. fish.' To Bray. bragd is also applied nets.fracas. G. crepo and E. fractus j Gr. and frangere. bratsche. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. to roar. braa. Fin. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. plait. Bread. breach.. bragr. to the seijauntes. bragd — ON. to tear Bret. to sound very loud and very harshly. D. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. rattle. to t. The Lat. to bray in a mortar. vapna-brak. F. Cot. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. breche. father. to resemble. D. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. the miller's dog. &c. &c. crackle . as the notion of turning crack. a mill. Dunbar braessem. imitate or resemble one. to knead. Cat. relation is seen between Lat. Chaucer. kind. gestus. Then. brugier. a . Prov. rustle. braidir. to smack or the eye. ON. Then is simply. a breach Cot. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. V. to rub Fr. mos. rogi. broyer. Wal. the sword was out break. And with a traid I tumyt me about. brice. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. riAprjyvvfu. brot. Ppvxia. to snatch. roar.^ Fr. make a disturbance. disturbance. AS. upbraid. a brake for hemp or flax. to cry out. Lat. To rub or grind down Sp. yell. braidar. iU-favouredly — in Jam. ser. will. 145. — — — explained motus loud noise. which has given much trouble to commentators. to braid. — koa. brand. to bray like an ass. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. abraid. From the or brack in a wall. to cry out. brak. augnabragd. to break Fr. braire. bruire. W. or wound. is . soft . See Brake. a rag f . to The cup was uncoverid. paxog. rangere. brage. to break. with or without a final d. The same He might don us both a villany. Bret. verb to break. to roar as the sea. V. or cry out loudly . father. ON. R. D. to crash. bru. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. to cry Port. roar. brak. in Jam. . a wink. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. on. ing. to rumble. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. &c. braid. Bread. to have the lineaments of one's ON. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to break. i. to crash. noise . Prov. weave The ON. breuan. to resemble. a brack. V. Beryn. braea. at braga eftir euium.y. and to signify the fracture itself. Chaucer. baiyl. Du. . a rent. brame. at a braid. as the voice of the ass. To Break. to start. to N. bradar. 7 . fragor. k. And at a braid he gun it bende. Gr. Goth. resound . and fracasously. &c. to bawl. paste or dough. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. to break. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. a crash. G. ybrayid. The ON. yell. as OE. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. explaining a very obscure application of the E. bray. crash.ch. brechen. to resemble him. and make a hideous noise. bregda. regi. E. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. R. brikan. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. to braid the hair. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. to bellow. Breach. Bailey.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. Q. 2. to work up in a mortar. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. broad. bregar. to scold. to rush. braa. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. turn. crash. the clash of ai-ms Dan. to braid. Swiss bratschig. at once.

peitschen. Dtyden. brezling. E. chillness or shivering. burst. as. Breeze. bresilles. Breeches. brasiuiii. braich. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. but more probably the E.t. sprouted corn. broiiwen. Du. bretilles. bruzun. . little bits of wood Berri briser. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches./ssus. Breeze. forms. of trees. brisd. QNtsterviald) pritschen. Sw. or the blow itself. bris de charbon. Prov. as by the Sc. Rom. brciz. Dev. /esses. a crum. E. Swiss brdtsch. Dan. to murmur. briosa. to crackle. Briss and buttons. to whip. brustia. polenta.98 borst. brasser. braca. brew. Fris. siibligar. braciarc. brison. britze. Bret. bryi^ga. brijsen. broil. also to chill and shiver with cold. Piedm. braca. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. brdtschen. may be from the wurh fesser. the bust. to smack. G. to fry Then from a Gl. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. binding. a cold and windy mist or frost . — Halma. einem de britze geven. AS. We bragezj on. breinse. brut. braies. then to broil. a gadfly. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. — See Broth. briste. — — strument for smacking. forms analogous to E. a cramp-iron for holding things together. Breast. properly to crackle. Originally probably the word signified steam. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. as in the case of twitter. brache. So ON. trusts. to brew. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. grillare. scent. from AS. i5r(Z^. an odour. bandage or truss for a rupture. brist. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. brissle. briiz. a girdle. de bridse geveii. brodem. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. to break. an into shiver. brimsa. trembling. grill. The Teutonic verbs. singing bone. bracecs . a box. Du. Brize. brumtnen. Swiss Rom. bris. — And blood. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. Du. the breech or buttocks.vare. one on the breech so that (klatschet). &c. brusc. to fry . to be misty and cold. Hume in Jam. in Schilter. G^nev. windy withal. breson. braga. Compare OE. braga. — Brist. Breeze. G. clout for a child. to rattle (as hail). bra. point to G. broden. are in like manner ' . Breath. braux. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. . brossi!. braguier. briosa. Du. vapour. brugga. so AS. a smack. to brew. bris. to breech. bremse. brok. bratscher.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack.'— Gl. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. to crush to break. crush. briosat'. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. broza. fail. Prov. brosame. G. OFr. a crum Du. Goth. to hum. G. Lat. from brace. to buzz. grillen. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. are related to Prov. subligaculum. The Breech (Prov. a twitch for a horse. from ligare. breme. bridsen. malt. morsel. switch. Gael. the dry spines of furze broken off. b}-as. noise. bruc. as commonly explained. Piedm. braies. breath. Swiss AS. simmering. instead of being derived from 'La. with It. as the G.britschen. their stings draw . to feize or feaze. a to lay fly-flap. and brought beneath between the legs. rubbish. fastening . from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. and E. de Vaud. breeze. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . body brostia. coaldust. chilly. sheep's droppings bruss. to bind. G. fitzen. to bray. murmur—Vocab. Lat. . of E. brinisa. rubbish. malt. bruzir. — . bragues. griller. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. breost. See Brick. to resound. as. and other rubbish dibris. brimme. zare. braucn. bre- I'os qui bresole. the soler. brisoler. . the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. PI. Gl. bruise. — . orts. brire. . murmur. met de bridse slaan. Isidore and Tatian. bark Fr. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. remains of leaves. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. Bracha. simmer. brisciare. w. Fr. brezza. Hence the Lat. brodel. To Brew.D. Fr. AS. applied to shivering. Biglotton. —Briss. Fr. cloven. to simmer. brise. Bret. brasiare. briig. to burst. break. brcEth. corresponding to G.). to roast. to shiver for cold. xyligogio castigare. Gl. braie. braia J OFr. Gael. brezzare. representing the sound of a blow. . drawers. dial. a cool wind. brijselen. of straining. brcekur j It. a horse's twitch. It. Bruise. Russ.

Brique. AS. brukkas. a lump of bread. E. httle bit. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. ON. a married man guma. Bridle. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. Ihre. sugga. — . Du. Mid. to boil. bruskr and buskr. a lump of bread. to press in. and berweddu. broken. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. brughiera. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one.bergantino. fraoch. collect bits of food. owned also propriate. — — — — — — . E. bribe de pain. berwedd. with transposition of the r. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. bulicame. the newly. a crum. nurus G. twopares Lat. It. bruk. malt. Flor. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. Rouchi brife. bidsel. G^n^v. a crum. brere. ment of anything broken. daughheath. broosekens. breve or brevis. masted vessel. Trovarfor bride-ale. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. betony brulicame. brakes of high-grown ferns. E. crew. priod-ferch. brieden. Lang. ter-in-law. brau. brygga. priod. Gael. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. OHG. Gl. bro. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. bitill. Ducange. Fr. ' — . A bribe is A — — arval. from Bridegroom. a beggar. pier. stone-bridge bnikkoti. . brigata. boiling up brocoliere. the marriage si in brigata. feast of espousals. division of an army. . a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. from the last 99 of which. brar. Due. brood. birbone.It. a briole. brocaly. from Bret. Brigade. to break. AS. bruarium. brahi. In the patois of briccia. but probably Bricoteau. The Sw. So It. corresponding or letter. . frayer. fit. a boiling. A — A — . broken victuals. AS. to Isrew. lipdZu}. It — is Kil. to pave. briiths. a man. . malt. . w. ' . from bit.. brittil. bara briw. ap. AS. So in The Prov. brigade. If the foregoing were not so clear. birbante. a heath. any jot or crum. a proprietor. sponsa. The origin of the word is the w. to boil. Sp. bridelj OHG. Fr. a quoit of stone. buskins. Priodi. Cot. AS. a wedding priod-fab. OSw. as so. Brewis. son. a heath brughera. ibrukkti. a married man or woman Lat. a bush. brique de pain. briw. a brig or priodor. Brier. Diez. graf-ol. berwi. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. served (Patois de Bray). pavement. to break to pieces bricalio. . to tlie brico. brilt. appropriate. pavement Lith. a rogue . and ODu.pritil . Hdcart. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. a sow.privatus. the Fr. Neumann. but to a paved road. . In the G. funeral. bread. Brief. bride. E. to appropriate. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. fervere. Grisons bruch. bruk. See Broth. betonica. bryd-eale. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . brug. . a lump of bread briber. grug. in the sense of OSw. briicke. privus. barren land priodas. or brizo. Applied ous words derived from break. two-masted vessel. a fragment. a little king's writs. consort with. to beg one's bread. bretonica. troop. to brew. Hence OE. brasser. as. Fr. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . brutg. a bride Brig. bride. Goth. Gael. groom (mab=:son). bryd-gutna. fragment. has briguer. peculiar. especially to a letter or command. to meet together. AS. bridge. broken bread. Bribe. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. from the Normans. of burial. company. Thom. to pave brukkti. bro is applied not only to a bridge. hlafes brice. feast.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. married. whence berw. brice. it is applied to the letter to OE. It. the equivalent of to the dial. bro. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. Diefenbach com. Dan. conjux. Lat. braut. bribour. and that from It. Bridal. pavement brolegge.rough with brambles and bushes. thick appropriated. . piece of burnt clay. bo. arf-ol.gfiugga. In E. bygga. to rub. — . to boil. a bride. bruyere. beaten way Dan. jetty. bricou. imprint. Fl. BRIGADE dead. Pol. heath. a rogue. bricge j G. guma. to press. Walach. a cheat. fastningar-ol. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Pro(merch=:maid). buckler J ON. then the marriage itself. Bridge. brigantine. W. remarkable that the Gr.groom.Fr. briwo. a bit. one's ovin. brA. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. which however is undoubtedly from brace. a Bride. Brick. gf2o. to prepare. to stamp. a fragment. is still used in this sense. to circulate. jipaaaiii. Bridal. bruith. bably contracted from brigantine.

Flor. — — .' The passage from the sense of a light. So G.' torum. tinnitum clarum movco. briga. riis ' — Chron. Bright. noise. on his — own account. — brigante. clarus. inde squammatus. pugna. to shift for with care. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. etincelle.' The sense of strife or combat express. splcnornd de brigandine. OHG. glamra. AS.pracht. speech. to sound. Swab. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. and ner me hit iherde. manifest ON. bragen. a noise. clear. Florio. and led it away. willata. in later times a robber or highway-man. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. and diligence. the gleeman's song. bracht. dine. outcry. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. glamm. to piracy. brigan. rover either by sea or land. tion. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. — Brigantine. malandrini. Brigata. brcEhtin. A. — Briganbriga. Ducange has ' Brigandinou.clare ^tinniens. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . .' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. in the first instance. to ring. is easily understood. shriek with laughter. A strepere. glir. kii:'a. to cry 'Schmid OE. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. Schmeller.glampa. a small light pinnace pro. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. kilistua. It. Wilista. to rob. XafXTTpoQ. From ON. seems to be to exert force gar el area. They or brigantini. Du. dine. may play the pirate or thief at sea. and. 312. cange has 'Veles. brak. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. in the sense of a robber. also called briganders. to glitter. biartr. brebrigare. and the E. clear. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. clear sound. The Ir. and.D. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. briga. brigant. In Fin. himself to serve men of merit. Mid. wilella. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. splendour.' in Due. tinnitus. tuilahtaa. Due. —Capgrave. Xa/iTTii). a glittering. from hall. Beorktode bene sweg. It. a spark. transparent. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. sound. — A A . braid. — Beowulf. to shine. brigare. Heo — song That AS. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. necessary business. to contend with another. In the same way to strive is. clear. strife. beorht. Gall. — Due. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. labour. squamma . Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. at a later period. It. clangour.— . and hence be explained glampi.dorem clarum reflecto. schiteren. a pirate. jurgia. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. 1654. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. bregar. the grew high. rixa. show the origin of Lat. brdgen. the bench-notes resounded. moment. clare lucens. glbram. to bend a bow It. tinkle. splendour. tumult.Lat. clang. bright bearhtm. bryhtm. representing a sudden noise. combat. brawl. to cry. Adelung. Goth. Gr. praht.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. Brilliant. and secondly.shine. glitter. Brigand. a sound. Owl and beorhtian. twinkling. to glamr. The primary meaning of Sp. splendens . to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. bairhts. — Probably then to strive. to make a loud noise. to shine. to resound. secondarily. hell. to strive for. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. \oice. a brigantine. there are many armour. . schateren. Bav. then. The E. lay was sung. with respect either to sound or colour. briegen. Lat. brigandare. brigare. and to associate with them. loo BRIGAND lor. — brigante. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. to rove. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . that of Fr. See Brake. bray. 1351. to reservavit. It.

Fl. brullo. is used of raging. Brindled. fimbria) . Rayn. bremas. identical with passion. brand-krossottr. gresiller. In the same way Sw. burning. small gravel. dial. The identity of ON.its vent in cries and roaring. briller. to fret . Streaked. ON. — . leonum). whence bilbil-goda (literally. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. lap. 154. and corresponding to these. breziller. noise made by meat in broiling. or violent action. breziller. rugire (cervorum. the heat of animals. griller. to long for a thing. kommata. brissle. griller d'impatience. komista. to resound. to parch. the sow is brimming. grisser. The E. burning stone. have then in Fr. as well as bl and gl. to wish or covet. ON. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. bramar. whether of desire or anger. It. der. of the eye. bar. griller). the edge. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. ous. an apron. lap of a garment . to shimmer. Subo. vattubryn. voux. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash.preni. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. It. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. the singing of Sodom — — . we have brimthe Swiss Rom. to . Closely connected is OE. 1 1 64. Du. fringe . ring. brame. to sparkle. grdzil. To Brim. brummen : de soge brummet. bramar. brezil. bryn. spraing. to glitter distance . It. glit. Sw. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer.— Brinded. barm-cloth or barmskin. chime). to sound deep or hollow. Wtb. s. A . Lith. the eye-brow. AS. Kil. the lap or bosom. G. the heat of animals. sonitum edere bremen. ON. s. barmr. a long. a border. Supp. os qui bresole. beam. to roar. rugire. brimmen. fire.— BRIM . and 1. brummen. AS. a rod. from bringe. komottaa. to twinkle. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. : ' — bone). brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. brant. sparkle. brinfire. bry7ie. that the original meaning of the Sc. brim Magy. barm. kiimottaa. Said of swine when in heat. Sc. brumft. crackle. to quaver with the voice. glisten. 1. as is the case also with Pl. a borDu. to roar. border. Hence with an initial s. bresoler (Gloss. fierce. — — — . to crackle. ling noise and a sparkling light. Brem. reecho. to creak. border. earnestly . Tresiller. with an initial br instead of gr. briller (related to each other as OFr.' Elyot in Way. sprainged.D. frequently interchange. rym^. crackle . lip of a vessel. as of meat in broiling . — — So Fr. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. brama.ioTiviS acutus. vigorHal. breme. pMiller. Rugere. post.). bray as an ass bramire. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. Langtoft. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. to utter cries. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. brillare. ardere desiderio. the verbs Flor. clangor tinniens. breme. surface of the ocean. to burn. . 754. Thus Lat. ter. kimina. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. edge Pol. to make bilbil). Sc. The meaning of the Fr. furious. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. brennistein. E. to storm. gresiller. to shake. originally the lap folding over the breast. brastlian. bramer. Brimstone. Dief. shine. — Rim. finds the Fr. to glitter. from brandr. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). excited. also to reflect. brmdottr. parched. greDiet. brdnnsten. Swiss Rom. margin. — g. greedily to covet Cot. Fr. striped or streaked. (poet. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. cross-barred in colour. kajata. Dan. kimista. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. brommen. briller. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. which seems identical with rim. The expression is now confined to the sow. rut. grisler. bremmen. FJ. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. kimmaltaa. on. Brim. . to broil. tience. broil . broiled. border. to shine. to creak. to glitter . brisoler. a streak.) brimi. to shine. to shine. fringe (Lat. the meaning is transL' amour. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. perent. a stick. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. Prov. brunft. coloured in stripes. brame. bramire. hence the bosom. In Fr.' d'etre marie . brim. to make a crackling noise. as in Langued. brow of a hill. . bremmen. Tutschek. brandr and Fr. to crackle. grullo.

an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. as unripe fruits. man's throat. Palsgr. to stick. broca.procio. sharp.rcendij'i. to turn up the point of anything. to set up one's birse. — in Due. Sc. quick. brijn (Kil. to break. from AS. See To Brim. to roar. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. Salte sand is called brimsand. humorous. to crack. Brickie. stitch. breaking of the waves brim sior. to stab Gael. a morsel. metaphorically. of E. sprouts. to goad. ON. briota. a bit . . G. Alfr. the twigs of a besom. birssy. aculeus. a bud. brich. Bohem. brot. Prov. Boh. a projecting tooth It. lively. to stitch. brandello. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). to begin upon it. Prov. brin. an awl. 222. to break. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. Abroacli. brioshko. Da. Formerly written brotil. smart taste. suddenly angry. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. to spur. breast. Brisk. The Pl. broca. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. is to erect the hair. has under It. flame. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. or — .. Russ. brim (poet. sour. brickie. expression. bryne. Brocade. Prov. britar. coli. to burn. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. birse. startling. of astonishment. braidsj ON. . Mid. broccata. brindelles de balai. a rod or twig. bryde. rash. chest. wine of a sharp. birs. a crum. Ptg. bricho (with the diminutives. Sw. fantas'* tical. birstle. from brande. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. brust. emotions which produce it. borzen. and hence. brcit. are used in the sense of brittle. It. — A . a shoot or sprig. a spit. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. sticking up . brittle. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. In the N. britar. borst. Pectusculum. brocco. brim. the brisket or . Breeze been connected with the Sc. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. a belly. sprout. Swiss to stand out . briocho. to shiver for Sold or for fear. Fr. broc. from break. against the grain . brimhliod. as. Bristle. flames. bresk. Fr. briser. a button broche. a brooch.g. brisciare. thick — A elastic hair. to put one in a rage . whence may be explained the Sc. Walach. brddj Goth. to spur. as. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. brimme. brocar. broche. rebursiis. angry. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. — bryme. crabbed.' Nat. brusk. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Du. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. Commonly explained as from Fr. brichet. Liquamen vel garum. cK) the . brime. bros. a brad or tack. fragile. . It. a peg sbrocco. ruffling. Lat. brog. spur. NE. strong itself. breaking out into growth. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. byrst. to bud. hot-tempered. Sc. and. Fr. bruckle. a deluge. It. roar of the sea saltr. a stormy brimsea . a bud. a fragment. brusque.). harsh vin brusque. Hence ribrezzare. is called a birssy day. Brooch. to scorch. bringe. saulmeure. and Sc. fierce. to break. Cot. Then as the effect of shivering. e. brote. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. to spit. p. spricka. Antiq.Lat. Dan. reburrus. 'V^. borstel. birsle. a stitch brocher. Berri. . Du. to birstle. trembling. eager. as. craw of a bird. bros. as a noun. Gl.). like the Broad. brocco. setting the hair on end compare It. a cold and windy mist or frost. sprocco. Port. a clasp. breidr. brittle. to thrust. brockle. See Brand. brim. very salt brimi. brodden. brusco. to broach a business. brocher. the surf. Zeuss. Brym. a slip or sprig of an herb . prick with Sw. brocciare. It. See Spread. brisk in taste. to broil. Russ. grim. bringe traced through the brano. bristly . to be compared with the cold bleak day It. or the full • . Sp. Fr. Fr. b. briota. — — . Brisket. borzos (struppig). britchet. and forms on.'— Vita'abbatum S. rebrousser. Bret. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. setting the hair on end. Hal. bruskett. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. to set it a going. Bret. Brine. Fris. brocchus. ' . a skewer. bronchus. brissko). Fr. brytan. bringue. the surf.. brezza. fiscbryne. brezzare. bruched (Fr. i. apt to break. brissle. to shoot. form bris. ribrezzoso. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. . a morsel . Gr.D. /3pE^m. shoot. a rebours. broccare. — . originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. . ' breast. Brittle. Compare also E. rude.

Contracted from Fr. rustle. a badger. stump. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . froco. brasiller.— B. Gael. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. has grisser. an edge. and bord or bred. borprick. brasuole. frecSee Brawl. to instigate. parched. to crackle as a shell in the fire. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. or roast on the braise. storms. carbonado. a brouhaha. From direct imitation of Brock. hart of two years old. bram. Icnotty. spotted. It of br the Fr. a flake of snow sion. broder. bmsciare. It. parch. brucilare. to streaked or speckled in the face. or glowing coals broged. atoms . somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. to crackle. — The proper sense is that of Fr. forming to jumble. a border ornamented with gold. W. broukit. broglio. brodio. grislement. confound. sting. or snag. brustle. a flock or Gael. bordo. a mole. ornamented with a raised pile. parti-coloured. — . whence broccare. Cot. broice. or It. bordar. . thread. Sp. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). — brissle. houx. a confused streaked face of the animal. brychau. B. knobby . brastlian. age was termed a pricket. a peg. speckled. to On the other hand the Sp. To roast upon hot coals. prasseln. Sc. braird. here. kled breac. a prick. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. bawling. to stud broccoso. Grisons brascla. blusters.. A fried or boiled steaks). grullo. a point. breard. embroidery. hurly-burlies. Dan. trouble. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. shuffle. precisely analogous to the Sc. brych. point to an origin in Bret. briefh. — — . Fr. It. scorch. Brocket. Thus brod. a brecJi. gold and silver. Ihre has guU-bord. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. brasiller. that these are themselves modifications of a common original.tumultuous. Surrey in R. brooked. parti-coloured. silkes-borda. to scorch. to broil. broighlich. to darn. or salted fish on coals. badger . broil. brocart. R. A badger. The ON. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. frocadura. to spur. bustling. broc. ciare. noise. ToBroider. bj'oil. Hal. prod.sound. AS. sparks E. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. embroidering. — Gower in It. broccuto. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. broccato was used to signify stuff . 103 embroidered. Here to ornament with needle-work. a To Broil. broc. to burn. b?-od. border ornamented with silk. v. brouFr. Fr. rinj'. the line of development has been something different. briz. brusuole. to embroider. to parch or broil. a b?-ustolare. Fr. motes. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. broud. noisy. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. broiled. a fallingThe sense has been out. Sc. tori shows that. trouble. . and AS. streaked. with Sc. Ptg. a quarrel. brocco. E. to boss. brucach. Compare G. bramowanie. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. of pointing out their latent defects. border. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. Compare also AS. q. broil. brullare. The Bret. Bret. birsle.. and w. bruler. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. Florio. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. the shoot of corn. to embroider. a freckle. brusler. brindled. spots. speckled. a border. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. brasolare. brasbrasciuolare. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. So from Pol. brocach. brouda. — Fl. piebald . dar seems derived from borde. tumult broighleach. initial . to burn. gresiller. creak. a freckle. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. brerd. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. margin. brizen. fundamental origin. to crackle. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. to knots or loops. freckled. to crackle. a brim. brod. Broker. to prick. onbryrdan. from the white. Gael. agree in being the extremity of a thing. tufted ornaments. Cot. to crackle.

cracker. brasa. 38. to reject. refuse. correctarius. wrack-good. ODu. See Broth. in the sense of rejection. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. Du. In the . faulty. bronze. To blame mens ware. try . screatio Junfus . brot. braken.— — . whnake. brechen. refuse Fr. to — garble. — broeden. to blame. on. Bret. progeny of birds. See Wreak. brack-gut. damaged. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. criticise (makeln). phlegm. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. w. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass.D. to garble. — . brut. to hatch.— Lib. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. brakyne. to sort brakovanie. filth. If to vomit . embers. — Fl. but from the primary sense of the It. pan metal. brack-gut (Sanders). inspection. from makel. to be hot. in which sense the OHG. term was correcfo^ir. racher. goods damaged by sea-water. Pl. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. brieden. brokers' goods. rejected. to hatch G. broiid. bric-a-brac. broen. which E. find fault with. tan. to pro- to reject . blur. brod. to be wanting. fish-spawn broden. vrage. OFr. keep warm. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. to sort goods . slaae vrag paa. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. wrak. Bronzare. find fault — — — fuse matter. to pick and choose. a breach or flaw. to criticise. . to braze. Sp. Adelung. to sparkle. mediationem quorundam J. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. mud. fermenting. bracker. or brascla.— Breed. reject. rejection Pol. bronzo. Fr. wraken. i. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. See Brackish. Brood. bronze. to emit sparks. with. try out. Prov. G. briiten. merchandises de rebut G. This word shows the same relation to It. to pick. brack. burning. refuse goods. refuse brakovat. embers. to sit on eggs. inspect. Alb.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. refuse wares. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. want. For the same reason the Kiittner. the spawn of fishes. bredan. brid. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. Russ. : ' . with which much of our early commerce was carried on. Lat.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. to . tussis. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. ordure.D. braeck goed. hot. S. matter of blame weak place. insects. Grisons brinzla. sort. bridde. In those countries the term braker. Pro v. brackefi. G. to brew. to spit . find fault with. couratier. brokoti. . from break. brasa. abject. hrak. an outcast or rejected sheep. 396. brokas. Fl. Alb. selection. a cough Hal. a broker. to copper. a fault. has exactly the force of G. sunburnt. hraki. designation is indkler. Du. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. a chicken. a makeln. spittle. brak. spittle . brass does to Sp.D. a brood . giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. — point out the faults. abbronzanchiare. brwd. and as an adj. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. Dan. glowing coals. Bronze. an operation performed over hot coals. buy and sell by commission. Abbronzare. to hatch. cherish. dial. refuse brakowad. to nourish. Tooke's Catherine. . G. embers to brund. The use sunburn.D. brunds. sbrinzlar. It may be compared with It. . analogous to Bohem. to scorch. as. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. Pl. e. Per manus et old worthless horse. Pl. bronze. brae. stain. wreak. brumo. bronce. brydio. dirty. brands. raquer. . corrector. raca. ON. cast Lith. whence the modern courtier. bring eggs and spawn into active life. to throw blame upon. to roast on the embers. and to reject the damaged and unsound. make out. Kil. an . The Langued. the young of any animal . It. hot. racaille. Sc. lack. and fishes . — a spark. refuse. vile. Jam. trumpery. Teutonic class : Du. • . brak. . fault censure. On • tliis principle the G. et A. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. damaged. To correct an exercise is to Lib. vile. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. nounce unsound. warm. brod.

properly boiling water briihen. sense the Sc. broo. brennen. bros. borde. cia. brow. ceales briw. buds. brue . eye-lid. to use. Sc. shore. dialects is very different. broit. Catalan brossa. to sprout. bregh. vigour. brucan. Bohem. It. infusion. A — . broem bark. bree. Gr. G. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. . . . bruach. Fr. breh. &c. thairj w. a hill. to burn. from ripa. in which brinnan. bryii. to spring . broca. laissent Domunculum. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . AS. bud. brosses. to murmur. . ale . brdtaj Gael. To digest. thicket. simmer from the murmuring AS. bushes. broth is sometimes used . frucius. brouic. G. bank. Gael. AS. a spring. sprout. juniper. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. to boil. The AS. or shoot. sproc. eat. heat explaining the Prov. cabbage soup . mettle. and also border. as Fr. rage. riviere. waves. G. Browse. Wtb. a hill. Bret. brost. pour boiling water over. sap. a sprig. brouskaol. bruno. to use. a . spuma. Ger. eye-lid. brothas. a sprout. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. a river. BROOK brook w. Lat. bryn. hut. . . It is Brother. as rhododendrons. eminence . borda. and Slavonic families. fabric consists. on. bor. sprouts . or bushes and scrubby growths. the bubbling or springing up of water. Prov. brewis. house of ill fame. a hut or cottage It. brawdj Slavon. eye-brow. thick bush brousta. shrub with leafless pointed edging. bratrj Lat. shrubs. to bear patiently. Commonly Teutonic.brons. a shrub broust. heat. to use bruks. Du. Russ. brauwe. browys. a bud brous-koad. OFr. sodden. breg. broeye. brotar. brouser. and Sc. to browse. the colour of things burnt. a shore. brmi. 'Lzt. margin. . pith. Bohem. . . BROWSE The diminutive cottage. Sp. brosst. brov. eye-lash . . who is steaming with sweat. vigour. branches. signifying twigs. brozia. . brudi. break out brewet. Du. (for brodem). juice of meat. iVlanx broogh. rerum decoctarum. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. kail brose. — . brun. to browse. infusion the barley bree. . to border. broth. braces. Serv. to scald. w. brink. brocco. Dan. brodo. brous. strength.. bruceti. a derived from the boards. grow brossa. 105 Brook. steam from heated bodies. briu. broth. sordes seu strigmata young branch. protecting the eye. forms appear related to the Ir. hovel. bank. sprocco. Gael.spross. brabruach. Roquef. b7-un. has briw. Mid. briar. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. to boil. broth brothaire. to roar. sprot. awl-plant. augen-braune. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. sprout. The origin is a re. Brow. was originally used in the innocent sense of . bntdien. brushbroccoli. grow into a bush. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. riviera. brau. brstiti. bordeau. border. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. Gael.— Overyssel Almanack. t— Cot. Cot. &c. boiled . Here we find throughout the Romance. But the Walach. Prov. brew . heath. . bruithim. broccola. briihe. brd. frater. It. broth Brown. verge. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. surface of Broth. to boil bruithe. fur Broom. OHG. to bubble up with noise. bank. perhaps burnt coloilr. to shoot. surDu. . edge. or broken up . a confused noise of winds. w. brio. Bret.brink. a little . Limousin broudi. bros. from Goth. enjoy Goth. Pol. bruich.' Due. brouter. Kil. braun. brogues. brouches. signifying low wet land (Brem. of which the variety of forms. pfriemkraut. frui. strength Ir. cabbage water. brodem. broieii. brushbrothas) gives the OE. bruitheati. spirit. G. noise. braussa. juice of briars. brusmalt. brus. Gris. &c. seethe. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. Fr. on. hot. bank. bruith. &c. broden.D. a source Gael. eye-brow. Manx broie. OHG. shoots. of plants broust. — . Gael." Serv. plants composed of twigs. bordel. chen. may be connected with Russ. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. . Bav. brst. pottage. brost. heath. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. dumetum. shoot.) . broza. Sanscr. broth the ocean Sw. to boil. circuindedit cum familia.D. Fr. face. brukjan. broi. bruth. — exiit et heath. . Ppim. meal. Bohem. bruscosd quam de arabili. edge. Brothel. breg. bruich. brow of a hill. brad. bhratrj Zend. brpuster. See Bramble. Russ. and It. warmth ch'an. eye-brow. brosses. broc. brouet. a little house or cottage of timber. wood . broud. Fr. a bruth. G. bruc. useful G. It. as small-pox. brass. brotar. brlgh. Fr. bryn. to Pl. eye-brow. Sp. bruddeln. shore . low The AS. brwd. — ' . Tam de terrS. The softening down of the consonant bud. a caldron. a bud.braubiti. breg. Celtic. Due. Pl. braew. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel.

the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. brossa. ca7-bo>i. to break or burst. brist.). a noise. bross. brit. Fr. Beryn. a bristle. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. That in all haste he wouli. a bristle. modification of the same root which gives the E. a brush . heath. Brunt of a daunger. a flax comb. brottcher. as It. blow burcar. a horse-brush. to make a rumbling. Pr. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. OE. Gael. Text Soc. brustia. to butt. brossar. into a multitude of points. biirste. . A. shivers.). The Bav. twig. E. broza. crum bit . Piedm. a little brizal. Gael. 174. brico or brizo. Fl. G. brousso. and Piedm. and It. broustia. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. bruc. brosse. broza. Poems. remnants of hay or fodder. dust. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . a — — (Agea) said. brise. abroncar. quasi twigs. also a head-brush. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. Prov. brushwood. to stumble. a bud. To brush then would be to dust. brusc (Diet. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. Bav. bruise exOFr. It. — OE. seems named from burst(on. borst. wood composed OE. fasx . It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. Brunt. 134. brossa. or sodenly comyn' dust. Alexander. bris. brusca. effort. Prov. brist. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. bruzir. brugir. It. insilio. —Fabyan. Pm. bross. a shrub composed of small twigs .). desbrisar. — a bush. Piedm. brous. bruscia. And that best is. brusco. tuft of grass or hay. . she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. bruscolo. brus. borste. Castr. a bud or sprout Bret. a bush of hair. . an enmy. —Chaucer. Prov. borste. a briser. rubbish. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. bruis (sing. Wicliff. The Lat. bricalio. On the other hand. to break to bits . Fr. bruit. Sp. ling or heath for brushes. chips. bushy ground. briiis (in the pi. irruo. and actually come in collision. a brush Swiss bruske. Hall in R. briketo. to make brusshes on. flax-comb brossettes. a brush. to brush. brist j Port. dust. to cleanse. . or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. Lang. broken. detergere . shoot brouskoad. and in the second place a besoiB. brosse. to crush. borste. a mote. Fr. Gael. ON. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. tremely. Cot. B?-usske. Broach. wool-card. biirste. bruscolo. rubbish. shock. brizeto. dust. appearin Goth. brist. brusg. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. brust. K. Bret. Port. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. brosst. field.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. E. Sw. brustia. break. orts. 201. brusco. NE. and also Brush. to break.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. In E. Palsgr. bush. borste. OFr. a brush. brysan. Bruise. splinters. twig. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. It. brosst. See next article. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. bruire. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. escousse. and sighid therewithal.— Palsgr. . a brush. fragments. britar. wool-card. bruiser. insultus. and . or shoot. Cot. Fr. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. E. Sw. brous. sordes. broust. mg Cat. AS. of twigs. coal See Breeze. Prov. a tuft of heath . bud. Bruit. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. a blow. Diez. bris. . brunt. britar. crush. burs. bruskr. brista) or breaking out . bruyere. fescue . p. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. a crum. rods. Brush. wool-card. — Fr. quisquilise. G. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. Pr. brik. bris. a brush . borste. . Gael. dust. Pr. Pr. Lang. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. brisd. brustid. burt. Allit. Pm. Fr. to strike the foot against an obstacle. a brush . a brush . bris. brusca. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. brikan. briser. — those signifying a sprig. rubbish. to break. brisar. brMt. * Brunt.— — i. The same relation holds good between G. bruito. but on whom it schall to brisen him. a rumbling. it schall be al Sw.

watery bud. w. bucking.wet Lat. The place of such a 2. boc. pokka7na. March 28. moist. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. The name. very generally designated by the same puk. hump. to soak foul linen before washing. a fescue. to strain. of wind. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. From an imita. and exercised their cruelties prin. to soak. the first wheal. hump. bubbola. bugd. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. Magy.— . See Dupe. who resorted to the islands beichen. designation of a knob. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. or projecTo Buck. faire la lessive. boucaner. soft . bube. w. Formerly. Pref A. bouc. The male goat. Illust. byge. as G. bucata. It. does not hold. drying of produce. boc. from colar. or mok. the linen at buck.boukaat. Diet. to soak. to bump as a bittern. de la Floride.biiken j Svi. bokni. buchen. soft It. Bohem. bubauti. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. bub. . to bubble. maban and baban. bucaIndies. to filter. mollire. Fr. blast or strike with the forehead. blister. from weich. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. a to the male deer. Sp. colada.buchen. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. It. The natives of Florida. bubBuck. to Gael. a hole. Magy. Fin. a bubble. 1586. bugada. a. buquer. and then to other wild tumour Lith. ac. tuft. bwch. set of pirates in the spread. A . to knock the type of anything round and swelling. — . Esthon. to buck. boh. top. In G.derivation has been much discussed. to butt. in which the flesh dish. — — ' A : ' ' . a bubble . bog-aske. caned' Hence those who established them. erweichen. bub. . — . little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. . to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick .D. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). hog dressed whole). .to allow a free current of air. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. This bubette. tender. bubseti. to soften . tender. to stick. was called bucking the linen. not so plentiful a commodity. rap. to murmur. bduclien.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. tap . . also applied Una. Fr. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. bukke. pukkata. I. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing.-wtt miekki. to butt. and the bunch. because bucare does not in Marsh). buck-ashes. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. a. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. mokry.byka. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. to wet Pol. Sc. 1857. when soap was tion is commonly taken. lye. It. knock. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. buck-ashes. Pol. buborek. The cipally on the Spaniards. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. it is beuchen. at a door. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. lye. the lower soak in lye. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. a bubble. 17th century. bucquer. Bret. open lath-work. The term bocan is still ap. . soft. a ashes. wood. Cot. pup. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. different form. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. the upper for coifee. was called in Fr. Etym. to soften. But see Bristle. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. and Fr. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. as a buck rabbit. Bret. The word was very generally Buccanier. soft. buerj It. Bubble. a knock word. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. Fr.lessiver. Pol. . Gael.steep or soak. to which in their language they call bou. to a place used for the mouillir. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. a steep for flax. to butt or jurr Dan.tare. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. bublati. mieknad. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. bifbel. Bohem. BUBBLE bruschetta. molle. buquer. is 1. thunder gently . boil animals. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. mote. plied in the W. News. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. says Laudon. Dan. moczyd. a push. bubiti. .' Palsgr. to soften. soft. Sp. bouk. and as a verb.

to pen cattle. boucler. Wtb. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. ' . put. stroke. probably from the notion of bubbling. bullion. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. loud Cot. — . pote. a ring. no business to do that. bug. bucherame. bukke-blad. imbuere. budge. K. as in Fr. bolgia. butzen (Du. A buckle or fastening for botch. a buckle or protuberance. goat's hoof. to stir. skins pushit'. . Hence quel.). to poke. Fr. bo. clasp of a book. seen in Hesse botz. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. convexity.. butt . boach. It. — — . boss of a shield. Port. . . Fr. bucolicus. Bucolic. bloca. also a leather tuft . Du. Dan. knob .— . The Fr. Bus. ON. . bunch. boglyn. boulj. where the G. Prov. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. a wallet. motus creber. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn.anything short of its kind. Hardly identical with Fr. So on. case of leather . stud. Sp. bouljein. the root of the Slavonic words gran. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. — — .stumpy man. A water-plant with leaves and gille. blow. having a boss. w. II I'a feru desor I'escu. To thrusting part of a long body. It is explained by Miiller (MHG.chissima. a trough). bloquier. Fr. water message. potz. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. Prov. a buclder or shield budge. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog.stuff. above mentioned. bul. bub. ornamental stud. See Bulk. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. cattle./a. to move. bouk is a pail and with the dim.' Hal. Fr. sboge. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. * Bud. turgere buczendig. In Lat. rabodS. a pustule bout. to boss or swell out G. the radical image seems to be a set plants. agreeing with Gael. to line with fur. to word. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. bulka. Buckler. bdden. weich. bougette. a boy. bocla. boucle. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. scion. bolgetta.r//'.. . weichen. a curl. the word w ' — . It. Behoves. bulais daqui. of a surface. OFr. a shoot. Budget. inboachen. stir. It. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence.' Schm. bouge. Mid. clump. to 'soak. don't a baby). . to butt. bougette. Russ. like a bean. — . brobrocchiere. great pouch. botzen. and weichen. don't stir from hence. push forwards. This expression boglire. in the beginning of to pierce holes. bucherare. Bav. from Gr. crack. or male of to boil . butzen. protuberance. knock. excrescence. bouprobably identical with inok.Lat. bog and G. boiling. child. from bugr. bunch . Sw. to thrust. The word is a ddyn. dint . In the dialect of the Setti Cem. pwtio. to bud or bocla. ein. prick in a target. to graft or bud trees. bogla. butz. to un bout d'homme. bod. Buck-bean. Cot. OHG. Pol. butzen K. a . Du. Bav. pulga. weich. a tuft. butze. noise . Bret. buckel. set of a plant in bulk. Budge. a navel. a pail or flowers. with let. lump. built.poot. whom it is still much in use. a fold ceilio. bucket Fl. bouclier. call. Gael. pwt o Fr. and of the Lat. thrust. Mid. fur. explaining Fr. bollire. of bac. . to budge. ' . So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. hump.. with which it was ornamented. Pied. mani. The knob or projection formN.t-le!L{ * Bud.may probably be explained by N. macero. Dan. W. a stump buckle up. a boss. Lat. belonging to the calling of the chen. Fr. call bo. Fr. boqueranmis. soft.' Boccaccio. need. Prov. a cowherd. It termination is lost. Swab.n. a budget. dinted. no wheel bogeilio. a bud. a leathern sack. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. boss. bouton. to boil. of bouge. a boss. * Buckle. buachazlle. swelling. ble. and the reference to It. bulga. boucle. bloca. bedde. bump. Bret. . jSouKoXiKog. The entire train of thought is bucket. swelling. a budget. from bo. The dressed fur of lambs. is doubtless fallacious. bouger. gjeit-klauv. wallet.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. It. a dumpy gin. a shield. bugnir. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. botzen. call. boccula.pode. dim. bode. rump of fowls . boucle. become bochen. bouter. a small shallow and open tub. ' . pulga. a little coffer or turgidus. G. words is converted into b. * Bucket. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. boucaran. bod. trunk of wood covered with leather. a bubble three thyngis. to swell. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. bud butzen. bulla. NE. butzen. a bump. knob dwfr yn boglynu.) .) as to soak. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. with a central boss. bulb. boaLat. is to shrivel up. were To Budge.goa. w. a short thick man. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. . male or botzen.' And this sacrament bus have dial. Fr. . a servant.

bufogni. dausa. bouffer. Buffeter. tabernarius. dausinti. bufogni. while in Sp. Cot. to blow souffleU. buffet. a side-board. w. 265. bw! It. bau ! children. Lith. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. wauwau. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. to bellow . smells . Pl. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. dull sound. deadened. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. a block-headed noddy. to blow. wine may The verb in taverns. sounds. to give a as of a blow. things in Jam. Buffoon. buffa. Buffalo. —Boggart. bumann.' La Crusca. buffle. blurt or puff with one's mouth. Fr. E. Fr. duff^ dull. le reste emplissant d'eau. to puff. as from Lith. Buff. buffalo. cuff . pulse . Fl./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . such as that conjured up by children in the dark. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. Sc. to marre often tasting it . tastes. G. Magy. dial. made to —Bugbear. — thence it has been transferred in E. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. as wine that hath taken wind. a hollow sound. ' They rether puffed at him. a hobgoblin. confused. Lith. Gael. boman. Hence the E.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. bukow Ikow. The children were playing in an oppocomer. soufflet. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. yar^aa. bubiti. — La Crusca. from souffler. btifetarius. . to blow . ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. a jester. to signify an indefinite object of terror. a bugbear. also a G. puff. It. buff leather. The cry made to excite terror is then used. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . — Bogle. bugbear. een duffen toon. Fr. also the skin or heck of a buffe. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. as emblematically making light of an object. a skin. Limousin bobal. to strike face to represent the unknown. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. or wild ox. colour. a buffle or a bugle. buffetto. buMagy. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. caupo. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. From buff! of terror. Fr. buivol. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. buffare. buffets. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. by metaphor. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. Sc. botffon. often blown upon. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi.D. The use of the exclamation children. mumming. for this purpose is very widely spread. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. God's boast seemed feare children. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. buffer. Romola. It. the buffe. bo ! an interj. from It. Thus buffet would a tapster. a budget. the place whence the wine was drawn. bubaRuss. Cot. to give benti. or hath been Cot. and in Fr. stupid. Esthon. to jest or sport. scarecrow . — retailing buffeter buffetier. bubus. &c. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. to beat. senses. human.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. Mid. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . A — Bug. bouffer. Lat. It. popo. as Diez remarks.D. to rePl. air. Swiss baui. From bulga. Fr. It. Pl. — Z.D. to a representation of his voice. buffen. bauwi. W. leathern bucket.—Buffet. a In . Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. him but Boyd iugges. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. bugle. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. bugs. A blow. rebuff. Bufetarium. baubau. mingled with water. bolgetta. buffare. to puff. Buff. a puff. bubach. Lat.— Buflae. boo. buffet.' perfield. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. A puff with — Fl. thus be translated to tap. bobaow. made by a person. of colours. a dull BUG From 109 — A . site The two — — iii. buffeteur. to excite terror in Macleod. breath. often covering his E. a goblin). — — — Buffet. word other cases. buffle-headed. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. either alone or with various terminations. to frighten . a clap. bolgia. bw. buffet. bufHe. bwg. a cuff or buffet. Teet-bo.

. monster. then a horn for drinking. beugler. See The name terror). bug dung-beetle. swollen. bau (Pureiglia. as an object of dread. Russ. big. gad. Grose. pugalo. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. and in Lat. larva (a bug-bear. threatening. W. a buffalo. booggen. w. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening.Fr. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. to take fright. . 493. Swiss booggen. Mundart. Parolone. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. bogil bo (e. to frighten scarecrow. — — . protuberant. Grisons bau. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. 1551. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. . provincially an insect. xiv. a goblin. forSc. a. BUGLE Tentennino. worm. a bug-bear. long. Fl. Chaucer. Swiss ing. to take fright. disgust. great or bug words. scarecrow . to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. I. thus connected with bug. and a boggarty ing. affright. iv. : no BUG . a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. well as the terrific object. The name of bug is — . properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. bug-bear. given in Chaucer. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. baco. Lesachthal. A similar applica. fette. of pipes sewn on. also a bug-bear. a beetle. according to Coles. il brutto Demonio. buggabod). the black a maggot. to take bug. to roar Aasen. as Buffalo. quos what produces dread or disgust. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. — . bobal. banian boube. high-sounding words. superbire. bwg and E. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. bold. an object of terror. Schmidt. Magy. to origin in the expression bugs words. Cheval de trombugti. Same as buffle. bogil. 2. An ornament of female dress condread. Manx boa. — boogg. dial. and in child's Magy. Swelling. bugler. a rabme. bug-bear. biignt. The final guttural of W. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. Fl. any disgusting animal. terrifying ward. is very common. and is Deutsch. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably.— . paws the ground . bug. saucy. pugaf. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile.3uhtii&:. poggl. bogle. hert. Deut. and bugle. a silk-worm. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. bugbear. buffle. Sw. ghost. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. Hence bugle-horn. bugle. Mid. Serv. Big. buba. rose-bug. Magy. the buggaboo w. (Spurrell). — — ' . with more or less modification represents bau. The w. bug-bear. Bogge. Lett. E. vermin. Hal. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . an insect. bugar. Bug. 3. . Bible. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. Stalder bog. also a bug-bear. a bugbear for children. a misshapen person. boa-peep. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. pujalo. boeuf sauvage. especially to beetles or winged insects. — — terror. of bugabo was given. the Devil. roarHal.. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. threatening. language any kind of insect. Sp. bwgar. used in the same sense. tion of the beetle tribe. bok. Bdronie. coco. a boogg. blustering. bucula. bwgwl. bogk. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. bukashka. earwig bau da grascha. to bellow. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. to bellow. Bugle. Lith. insect. b'dgni. insect. Bug as a lord. boo. a proud overbearing man pujat'. to creeping things. bbgni. roo. fierce. the word is lin) bbgge. It. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. mask ' . proud. * 2. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. bogk. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. i. buculus. bauginti. a bug-bear. also a baco-baco. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. high.Lat. It. troll.. shepe and gootes. bukati.loud noise. Lap. oxen. Illyr. fear. tumble-bug. is the dim.

chest. the belly. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. to puff up bolginn. a straw corn-vessel. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. villa. Jno. See how this tode bolneth. knob. knob. blister Manx bolg. Gr. bulbe. projection. belly Cat. a tuberous or bulbous root . crowd. compare Da.' Anat. in bulk. . skin of an animal. it again. cultivate. of an inflated skin. a bubble. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. a protuberance. G. Othello. skin flayed whole. bulge or bilge. Hence e. or bear out as a full purse. pulkas. w. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. leather sack. a bubble Gael. bubble. to bubble up Pol. In the representation of natural sounds. jnake bulch. Pr. knobby. trunk. bolgna. m um Placentiae. Dan. boa. (3oX|8oc. I. to break bulk. belly. ON. beuck. Ptg. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. OSw. G. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. belly. to undo the cargo. Lat. globule bolg-lhuingey. The radical sense is shown in Russ. MHG. trunk of the body. a bunch. bulbus. — — . ne. balcone. nave or body of the church van 't schip. boss. a water-bubble).' Fl. the carcase. bubble {palgan tiisge. vulva. knot in thread. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare.' Palsgr. a bulb Du. bulgen. anything prominent. Bourser. or feminine termination gives Bav. the potato G. stuffed bag. Bav. thorax buick. bol. bubble. to raise a habitation. mass. body. trunk. blow. Mister. bo. — — . A — ' — Bulk. swell. bulki. wallet. Lith. bauen. To Build. Sp. a leathern sack or portmanteau. Melancholy. bol. 1388. Bolke or hepe. Pr. .). as water beginning to boil bolg. ' . lump. . ON. Dan. bole. bulka. inhabit. Hal. boulge. belly. on. . BUILD supra dictos bugolos. He found a country fellow dead drunk. . bukr. bladder. . snorting on a bulk. bulgen. straight will he 2. bulwis. . ^ — . to spring. bug. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. bulked or bumped out. in Sc.'— Cot. Lett. pod ON. gebolgen. womb. bolle. domicilium. bulg. buc. See bollekeii next article. . bellows builgean. G. bugue.— . a round bulky body bwlgan. balgs. hold or bilge of a ship. dial. It. to throw out a convexity. the body Du. to bol. whence bylja. bed of a river. has bulbuk. Bulge. bunch or projection. bolle. were a habitation. belly. bol. belly. buhe. From till. the position of liquids in the word In English. the capacity or burden of a ship. a stage or scaffold. the womb. tumidus. in vessel. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. to blow. bulk or capacity of anything. belgja. bulbe. a. acervus. . . — Bulb. bauch. pimple. bale. herd^ swarm pulkd. bubbling up. bullka. bulcke. bilge. Kil. formed a farm. mass. blister. Bulk. balco. cumulus. The addition of a dim. to build. bulkaf. Boss^. as it was merly written in English to bylle.d. to swell. a heap. bulk. a lump or mass. pouch builgeadh. ' . byli. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bulge or convex part of a cask. van loock. the contents of the hold. belgr. For the latter sense ' — My . belly Sw. bolgia. Lith. a prominence. swollen OE. ' . bag. and put it home. and N. — . The Walach. OSw. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. a. See Bulk. head . boss of a buckler. as well as is very variable. Here stand behind this bulk. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. balg. bwlg. bouk. bouge. balg. bolgetta. tumeo. bua. of E. bulk is a partition of boards. Bulch.' Cot. — . bubble. puff. bolgan. bulne. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. pocket. a leather sack or budget Fr. Gr. With these must probably be classed ON.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. body of a ship . a dint in a metal . principal portion. . husk. — — . bolnyn. bulle. to swell. to belly out. buk. swollen. Pm. or cargo of a ship. Mandeville. or of what is shaped like a bubble. ball. blister. unevenness Sw. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). to gather. .pulks. boss. Pm. hull of a ship. or. sedes. body of an animal. a globe. . boss of shield. Palco. bolg. to bubble up. swell. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. biilken. .' Festus. belly van de kerche. . habitaculum. . Lat. at riufa bulkann. hollow. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. and bulbukd. . skin bag. the head of an onion. swell. turgeo bolnyd. bolso. lump. be protuberant. PoXj3a. Muratori.

' do not go by the dangerous water. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. a bulox polos. G. lumpheaded . bouillon. bwbach. — Fl. bulloi. it is boulet de canon. stamp. w. i. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. as It. Bullbeggar. of the ox kind. it may be observed that a bullet in E. This word is used in several senses. bulke. b2iggaboo. from Fr. a hobgoblin. the matrix or die . meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. whence Mod. but is more probably iden- palchetto. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. Du. sloes. spirits. bulk. poltern. a tadpole .' Baret's Alveary in Hal. biitzibau. Gold or silver uncoined. 2. a little fish nearly all head.. from the use of the equivalent terms. a cow. It. bulle. bwlas.Fris. and thence terror. bwla. a beam or rafter. . a bull. 3. as a mill-dam or the like. Bullfrog. Du. hhint. of boule. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. a blockhead. to bubble. child by the represents the hobgoblin. from Lat. thick. to boil. bolli. a seal. Bullace. W. is of a class with Pl. poli-cheannan. Bullet. stud. bolli. penbwl. the seal affixed to the document. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. billoti in Fr. — — Bull. Bully. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn.'— ' Palsgr. beams or boards. bulla. The wild plum. also a parFl. boillon. from the Lat. to emboss . and vellon in Sp. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. large. elves. And The word bullerbak. any embossed work. Fr. Lith.. bullus. brass-headed nail . Dan. a bowl. a hornet. G. however.D. as geting. baula. many to protuberant objects. A lace tree. pwl. to seal. See Billet. tition of deals instead of a wall. is called a ball. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. to bellow. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. G. witches. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. Terriculamentum. Fr. Du. in the sense of base metal. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. whence bullire. a scare-bug. Cot. &c. N. a hobgoblin. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . from the noise. bal. bolla. lumpish. eth and frighteth. bulderen. bubble. bollos de relieve. bellocier. bulk of a thing.D. to tical with Sw. boss. in N. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. large of its kind.Gr.. balgeting. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. a seal. Eullrusli. stamped money. bullocks. urchens. a framework of balks. — A tition in a ship. bellow. of Witchcr. which may probably be the origin of the name. BulUiead. Pm. signifying roaring. a stud. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. embossed work. leraures nocturni nigri. bolos Fr. bullebak. /SouWivu. G. coarse.D. assito. Pl. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. a wasp. bole or trunk of a tree. a bull Swiss bullen. a bul-begger. bauli. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. It. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. bietebau. bugbear. bollon. poll-cheannach. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. boulct. Sp. on the contrary. polten. blunt. pimple. round glass phial. boss or stud.. any great-headed or studded nail. I. The male W. from baula. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. stud. The bullfrog. 2. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. The final element tergeist. also of the tadpole or young frog. Scot's Deso. bollar. a noisy violent fellow. billon. bulla. a tadpole. bullern. as the ornanails.lle de fusil. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. scarecrow. blister. pollach. stupid .' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. Du. as in E. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. ON. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. bullos. w. BuUiou. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. See Bowl. Bret. dim. Gael. A papal rescript. ba. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. bouillon. dial.

buene. Sw. buller-bas. blaterare. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. 2.D. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. — Bumto . Hal. A. up was termed monnaie de billon. To Bum. IV. to drum Lat. 1305. bombilare. buller-bak. Fris. Bum-bailiff. John). from boden. legaggio di metallo. to make a droning Du.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. argentum and silver. To bum. baluarte. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. is called bumping or bells. 9 E. agrees with e. a noisy blustering fellow. — Boom. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. or a humblebee. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . buller-jaan (bully. a bumble-. ^Bully-rook. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. Philip le Bel in Due. 'lega. polterer. Miege in Hal. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. violent overbearing person. III. Bully. then in general a rampart..' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. Du. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. The 27 Ed. D. droning. G.' Again. — Bump. hum. sound. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . G. a boisterous. Hence bom and ban. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. — — plate d'argent. buller-brook.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. ^i^/«. propugnaculum. Bully-rock. 14. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. It. bulderen. and porter au billon. IIL st. boulevard. bodem. buller-bas. is bullion — A — buller. by corruption boulevart. 2. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. resonare. AS. ON. provides. a. Hence — . and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. biihne. or work of defence. bomtnen. boene. G. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. Du. poltem. bol-werck. ierd-boeyme. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England.D. debacchari. BULLY with which coins were stamped.' for the purpose of exchange. bottn. minari verbulderen.' agger.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. Kil. but now is the central part of the town. Fr. scaffold. blunder-buss. In England the fortunes of the word have been different.. bastion. 10. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. violent. intonare. a hectoring. ground. Bailey. The Stat. 4 Hen. noise. The decried coin. bolderen. clamour. The cry of the bittern. boisterous fellow. For bottom. primarily the ramparts of a town. to dun. to . perturbare saevis dictis. &c. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. honunele. Kiittner. — bombam?nen. un faux brave. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. provides. Kil. the soil. 2. Fris. beat a — Hal. on the other hand. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. The Sw. a stage. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat.' ' mettre au billon. furious man. bommele. ierd-beame.' Stat. botm. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. a floor. Du. blunder-buss. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. vallum. To bum. c. To bully is to bluster. Etym. From the notion of a humming. bottom.the ramparts. 1687). Thus ' ble.' reals of standard currency. Bum. St. c.d. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. c. to make a noise . to terrify by noise and clamour.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. block-werck. a blunderhead. bustle.

Bunch. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. Thus e. abrupt manbuns-wise. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. Li cake. awkward clown. He buncheth me and beateth me. a boil or blain. — — Bun. E. Related on the one side to Pl. an old stump of a horse. especially girls. —Bunny. Bumboat. butt end. bignet. signifying one who does things in a thumping. bump. Radically identical with Dan. pumpa. gibber. a round mass .S. from bunsen. bunkc. and related with ON. a dry No . Bumpkin. bundle. noise. pwmpio. strapping. Lang. a into Dan. Moor. — — de dor bunsen. bamgetroffen. a swelling from a blow. a rabbit. Then. bumtel. bunch— Hal. to knock . bon. a tail (Macleod). knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^.— Pr. Bunewand.! . also for taking a pilot to a ship. bongie. banga. large. Sc. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a rabbit. Bums it's hit. binge. Hal. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. or grete knobbe. a heap Wall. bulse. bmidt. . to ' . bunt. knuckles. throw down with a bang. a pumpion or gourd. Mrs Baker. bung. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. stalk. . bans. stem or base. Dan. — — Bun. w. hay stubble . — stalk . bu<rnone. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. Again. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. are dim. bunka. .D. a pocket Sw. a knob . It. awkward. Ir. OSw. stubble of beans. bulto. Probably for bun-boot. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. calamus. lungeous. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. a knob. il me pousse. . Probably from bump.. buns. bunga. Holland and Flanders. bottom. knochen. a bunch. bugno. while bulch was traced through Gris. truss E. lenten loaves. to . inconsiderately. Hal. to beat. a dried hemp-stalk. a hemp-stalk. nor would it concern the public if he did. the tail of a hare. bunke. A clumsy. a bump. or to the mass by which it is given. — — — — ' — knock. to swell out E. should probably be a short tail. Bunk. . banke. w. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. bolsa. one ever saw the word in that shape. Hal. Bumsen.. bugnone. Fr. a lump on the foot bunny. Bang sen. He fult dat et bunsede. Gael. bungersome. cluster. bonge. . bunan. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. — round fruit. Kyx or bunne. the Pr. lump. a bowl P1. passes Sw. Dunchyn or bunchyn. bannock.P. bugno. strike E. protuberance. stock. pompette. bulscha.^Cot. a. 1. blain. bunnion. stump. a purse . . pumpurras. .). a swelling. forms. See Bounce. applied to young persons. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. a heap OSw. a. bmike. bun eich. seems to unite Gael. E. Du. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. gibbus. so the form btmk. poumpido. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. . a knotty stick) Sw. . a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. bottom. See Boss. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. ! — knocking. . BUNCH bum-bailiff. a knob. Dan. to strike so as to give a dull sound. pompon. a boss Lith. A Du. bun. explaining E. bun with ON. ner. Bun. H. poumpi. bunki. as in other cases. to bang.D. root. trunk. stump.' Bun.D. a boil (punkos bot.-^Fl. and signifies consequently a mass. foundation w. a heap. a knock. a large . a bud. a wallet. bunga. round mass of anything. stubble Manx bun. bund. to bang ON. Bony. from knock) It. Bunch. Hal. stock. Pm. boi7ieog.' Palsgr. knob or heap.— Bunnion. . the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated.' he fell with a bang. as we have seen E. mto Sp. Bump.D.pummel. a heap. to . a bunch Magy. a hump. bunsen. bottom bun feoir. . clown. to beat. Hence E. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. See Bunch. clumsy. Bung^. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). a person employed to dun one for a debt. Pl. dial. Pm. Pl. a Sp. . The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. bonuach. pwmpl. Daal bu7iseti. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. any round knob or bunch. root. pwmp. dial. any round knob or bunch. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Fl. bum-boot. tundo. a bag or sack. Fr. callus. Forby. &c. bunken. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Gael. to bang down. Suffolk bonnka. bull. a button. bune or boon. botn. Roding. S. Pr. hdk passing and E. Sc. To bam. to thump. — Marine Diet. Manx bonkan. E. Pm. bonnock. a heap or cluster. bunny. bugnet. bumsen.

tinkle. Biu'geon. — — . colligatio. G. bongun. Burden. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. Bunting. byrthen. however. fetters. a bunch. to knock. boya. Sw. Prov. was formerly pronounced buro. that the primitive meaning of shackle . — Bureau. bote. . to push ghebondte. halm-tapp. boj. bummle. a wisp of hay or straw. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. borgonota. Prov. Bunny. AS. and now more Bailey. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. buret. to hum. to gingle. Fr. bondel-loos. bondelj bundell. guggle as water. to push. bourion. reddish brown. Bret. bou^e. dicimus rufum. bangla.— . . properly a Burgundian helmet. whence bunting. unskilful working. boucher. the middle part of it. or tuft. bouche. dial. to kick. It. and Du. rumble as the bowels. knocking. to stnmi on an instrument. Kil. Du. gyves. to gingle. or used as a receptacle for papers. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. do a thing bunglingly. tinker . to strum on an instrument. Muratori. burboloti. bondeau. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. bommen. to cobble. bag to catch the wind. banga. to hum. la Borgonota. Fr. whence in bure. on. to hum. are from bouscfie. bunta. bourjon. klimpem. See Borel. especially in wood. Burble. Cat. the noise of drums. Cot. contignatio. clogs.D. klempern. Burly. boei. the young cloth used for sifting flour. buie. The Italian buio. p. Pl. buove. — btiruii. Fr. from beran. to in to stop the hole. To Bunt. shackles. Burden. . the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. Rietz. to work at carpentry bangan. stocks or such OSw. B. to shove. OG. See Barbarous. A Dan. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. The Magy. Johansen. noise. bundt. bourgeon. * Buoy. bui. a bunch Burbulas. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. Sw. sprig.punt. an anchor buoy. dial. russet. Burganet. bon. bungande. Fl. N. the bung of a barrel Lim. and van t' vat. bond. See Bun. would be the earliest float for an anchor. banghagr. punishments for prisoners. bouchon. The belly or hollow of a sail. bounta. the float of an bundle. E. The stopper for the hole in a boia. . the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. bondir. A bubble. and E. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. bongani. OFr. a sort of helmet. to bud forth. to push with the head del. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. Sp. bindini. Hal. See Bourdon. — — To Bungle. Sp. to Somerset is to sift. bolting-cloth. Sp. A load. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . bimge. dark. to bolt meal. G. Banff. borboUar. clumsy performance. Compare G. loosed from bonds. bonde. or putting forth of a vine. bundle. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. To burgeon. to botch. to work ineffectually. stiimpeln. a bung. OFr. boil or bubble up. a water bubble made by rain. and bomme. bury. knocking. dark grey bura. Bung. — . bang. coassatio et Du. working in wood (especially with an axe). byndel. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to resound. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. Fr. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. is originally a wisp or bunch . Bunt. to knock. Lat. bang. to bungle. stilmpern. The Fr. To bunt. racket. a cork. and the Sw. shove . driving in the bung. fascis. So in Pol. a boye. ghebundte. to stop. racket .' Festus in Diez. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. of a song. bonde. the loose open grow big about or gross. Bundle. on. anchor or of a net boyar. generally known as the material of which bud. burion. ho-tapp. in is Fr. To do anything awk- wardly. also a piinple in the face. to stop. Sp. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. 202. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. tap. ' — work . knock. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. bunsen. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. So Du. to bear. the stopper of a cask). bourguignote. bondon. with the head. to float. to pype. biirde. a botch. AS. bangla. The word is flags are made. . buret. Bung of a tonne or Lith. Palsgr. modem bummle. tapp (whence tceppa.Fris. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. a drum . a bungler. Sw. bove. Russ. B. bundel.

Lang. a jest. Cot. to swell oneself out as birds borras. From the same root E. In the same way ON. a blaze. brook. brimmen. watery. big. Fr. to hum. fires up. It. ridicule. angular . Todd. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. de Vaud. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. to roar. broil. the flocks. G. See Berough. — — . A burl. with little iron nippers called burling irons. Hence Bridel. Castrais bourril. Bestiary. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. E. Burryn. must be explained on the same principle from G. Pm. to roar (as lions. brusler being a faulty spelling. brAler. See under Bore. to grind on a whetstone. . As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. tion of the root which gave the OE. Burglar. boura. burgeois. an edge. and OG. It. from Lat. Pren7ien. tahkoa. he rustle. to polish. bouril. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. bruzir. OFr. brun. j. jest of. G. Antiq. schleiffen. crackle wood in burning Hal. The Gael. Schm. bourd. leo Fin. borrelen. OE. tumentum. — — . burgen. brunnr.Ps. ends of thread. repartee . to roar. briis^. taunt. and the Burin. borni. a wine skin. a bud. the J in OFr. Pr. Compare also Piedm. compared with G. embraser. a lie. borujon.). brima. condemnentur morti. — .). from bryii. to effervesce. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. ' rugiens. Burgh. borracka.— . Burlesque. like the wind in trees. to make a So from Fin. sicut sound. to puff up borr^ . bears. de Vaud. purra. grancelli. to sharpen on a whetstone.' Cot. to swell with pride. So also Sw. Probably a modifica. swell up or strout out. sidiary element. bururus. occupying much space. is termed burling. A — — . Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Burgher.). a jest. the er is a dresser of cloth. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. Burler. to puff. Fl. sbornoi. Fr. ample of polishing metal. The in. to set on fire. burle of cloth. brim or edge of anything. a spring a robber. has also borr. brandung. Sp. bruse. blow. . burren. toast. become big and proud.. 122. a prominent eye borracka. bud or sprout forth. lorra. . burgi latro. BURNISH i5«r/. — — . sea. pressa puret. brinii. 56. with Dan. See Burr.. singe or scorch with fire. i5«r4 biiirte. . and the Burnish. an &c. borr. to roar 5. bunch. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. Bouffer. burlare. Burgess.bryna. fire. to ridicule. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. brinna. to have acquired the sense of polishing. Sw. to Gael. abourioner. Sw. in Schm. Goth. to burn. brase. ^Notk. laer. robber. buirleadh. it of the knots.latus rei angulatas talikoincn.. a gurgling ^. bremmen. Bret. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael.sharpen. ON. like straw or small . to polish helmets. OE. to burn.or bubbling up. ends of thread. ii6 BURGESS Gael. It. the roaring surge of the — — — . and Dan. Lang. Dief. explaining Sp. OFr. to bud . Prov. knob. to give an edge to. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to To Bum. brasa. Limousin bourdo. to murmur. to fiy. Burly. ^ttsa. swelling borr-shuil. Nat. bururus. — Han to bruser op. barrel. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. pur (see Burgeon). which has given much trouble to etymologists. a bladder. to sharpen. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. Gael. to surge.ireui£r:e. water. Probably. Supp. N. is an Thus G. flocks. joking. a margin. to burgen or wax big. From Fr. burly. explaining the E.. to roar. In the manu. as in cousteau. to bouronna. brynsten. purling. to tell lies. a whetstone. lerre. brausen. as the / in purl. as of suggests. protuberance. brunnen. roguing beggars. spring-water bumach. See Burgeon. Fl. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. &c. brustolare. bourou. The primary origin of the word. boiirre. burgensis. the word seems Pm. surge or dashing of the sea . purrata. to bourda. a well. — . to swell. a fountain. brunna. warbling. as Diefenbach bud.' a jibe. a purling hiwe brennen. brinnen or Also ein roar. to polish. Fr. to ridicule.j'own. thence. like. Bav.— Pr. It is probable indeed that Fr. to rub. brustle. bourglairs. to roar. Burn. Swiss Rom. is connected with brim. brunir. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. mockery. from the roaring sound of flame. A legal term from the Lat. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. a knob.. a bubble to spring as water. dial. Bav. language of folly or ridicule. Walach. a bubble. born. boure. tahko. burn. Swiss Rom.

AS. brittle. an annular swelling. britar. Sw. brist. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . foretell great storms at 3. The root forms brik. to burst. whence Kil. signifying protrude. whirr. borra. prsnuti. blurra. save. ' ' — — burren. OHG. Port. shuffling. as from Sp. 5150. coo. birgan. brokil and brotil. a wallet or scrip. an exchange.. 2. To Bury. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. appears under the Lang. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. briso.' Harris in Todd. 225. bourlet. to P'air.— . break . verbergen. brest. cwning-gaer. bur. Du. to buzz. force. caer is a — — — ' ' : . a pad. husks. bourse. Fr. With a slightly different ghen. Bursar. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. byrgan. brisd. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. brjota. brokenharpstringed-like cattle.Lat. ' BURR AS. bres- — tan. byrgen. Hal. Burrow. brizeto.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. borsa. of England. casting bullets. Gael. bris. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. brown. hair. &c. bristen. mentioned under Burgeon. the officer who bears the purse. talk fast and indistinctly. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. -burse. Fr. -Grisons bulscha. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. to break. stuffing. as it is still pronounced in N. bolsa to It. Hence Fr. borsa. ptcrren. also all such stuff as hay. and spelling. any kind of quilting or stuffing. Compare also OE. Sexy. a purse. brit. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. some people in pronouncing the letter r. AS. g. bur. explained E. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. byrsa. byrigels. from whence we pass through Sp. a. S w. burre. tomb. Burr is related to buzz as protect. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. that birds make their nests with. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. pipaa. birr. Sw. also ' any such trash as chaff. i5(7&a. a purse. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. borre. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. any rapid whirling biarga. bolgia. fortify. Fris. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. dial. perruque. — Translated by Kemble. It. when they spring So in W. skin. root borr. briser. be more in accordance with AS. G. borre. bergen. burial place. shales. from AS. bris. Swiss burren. berstan. briketo. and met. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. It. whirr and burr. Fr. borra. . dial. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. to hide . Dan. brista. — Clare. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. shelter. to hide. beorgan. Burse. borsia. barza. a rabbit burrow. a morsel. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. ON. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. I. moss. Du. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. ultimately resting on the Gael. shearing of cloth. from Fr. See Bulge.' edge grew weak. brico. bersten. Shelter. preserve. and. E. byrstan. preserve. burra. a place of defence. &c.' The same word with burgh. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. keep. to bury . . brisdeach. makes the disbursements of the college. ber•whirr to whizz. birigean. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. brittle. and thence flocks 'of wool. brist. purr. In OE.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. Beowulf. impetus. . bristeach. straw. OHG. but it is more probably a development of It. This word seems safety. Burse. Burser. ON. peluca to Fr. brickie. Burial. iii. of a body hurled through the air. the — — castle or fortress. A rabbit burmotion. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. a barn or cupboard. bourrelet. chips or anything else Fl. to mutter Sw. a sepulchre. Brun on bane. To Burst. swell. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. bourrer. buscha. its own protection. Mid. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. G. burgisli. a harness or collar maker) . bourre. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. cover. idiom if 4. karborre. borrow. leather. as for the protection of a child's head. In a met. as in Northumberland. Burr. See Burgeon. beurs. bourse. to stuff. Jam. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. brast. to save. Cot. byrgels. a port.

qualster-boscken. burial mound. lump. defence. diminutives. protect . and not directly (as Du. whente beorg. bossida. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. Bush.— ' ii8 {chreo. BUSH hreaw. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. brake. wisp. boiste. a little box Dan. buskr. Du. —Busk. borghen.-^Bushel. a grove bosch van haer. buxta. and he cites wisp bauschen. barst. to bury. See Bust. to bend one's steps. a been written buasc. to dress. AS. beorgan. Sibriht that I of told. bulk. bairgan. thicket {buski. to stop. a wisp. aheap of stones. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. bustula. busse. bush. buxula. Fris. bo7ich (Fr. a tuft. tuft. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. bush. It. the land. basse. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. dead. a box. In to Brutaine. a box for measuring corn. to dress. To Busk. or — Busk. whence bouchon. sur une litifere. to turn. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. knot. whence at bua sik. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. induere vestes . a corpse). iriCtf -ifoe. The primary sense of hair . bossen. apparently a secondary verb. : — . truasc. Brunne. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. bustellus. then a tuft Sp. the past participle of the same verb bua. berghen.' sheath. that the lend had lorn thorn. So from Fr. a bush. ' . brodequin tout noir. . The bone in a woman's stays. ' . To prepare. . See Box. box wood to bush. Bush. Harold G. or the like. Malberg. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. And her ful sone tuft. biichse. bussare. boisseau. is thus accounted for. basse. ' . as synonymous with to inake one boun. boxta. in OE. The word frequency with which to busk is used. bundle * Buskin. bousIn the other copy ser. . to forest of Eyda. a bunch of twigs. Le roy Richard mort. -idis. gave Lat. to keep. abdere. verb. G. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. busken. Thence byrigean. at buast. as boun is simply buinn. a troop. fiast. the Moors and of Morocco. and from the Fr. bousche. OFr. oneself. bosta. preserve. Du. rad. 410.P. bunch. . a tuft. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. Sc. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. busk. to bow. grapes. bussellus. ieorh. hunch Du. . occultare K. ' . and we actually find bushel.' The word is explained by — — . Bouchet.gur bidst austur um EySascog. make ready. boistel. bussel. Fr. brodiquin. a bunch. boucher. 'at bua sik. thicket of thorns . OFr. hjul-bosse. Gr. R. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. to sepulchre. 2. a -tavern bush. ' —P. borseof trees. van wijnbesien. Layamon. to swell. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON.' The buskin is said Bret.boisteau. a bush. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . cluster.' a box. AS. Brunne. bousse. bramble. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia.fiasc. il fut couch6 l^jkema). a rampart. to enclose in a case or box. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. a clot of phlegm sart. Prov. Du. besom). bausen. bouche. a gun biichse. bosch (a diminutive ?). which would later have truast. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. They busked and malced them boun. a box. bosc. at bua sig. buysschen. bundle. a tuft guini. to prepare. barsc in Heimskringla.Lat. roquies. bulge. bos. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. . a bundle. from the ON. signifying to entomb. a hump. Sw. to direct one's course towards. buxida. condere. Ptg. we have Fr. clusprobably Morocco leather. boissa. projection. in the For Skirnis . Mid. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. for at buasc. The radical idea is seen in Goth. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. tow. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. the idea of knocking.Lat. Thus Froister . To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps.) to hide in the ground. It. and thence Mid. Sir Tristram. mount. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. borcegui. ch). bua. a tuft of hair.

The form brust. — Thus we should have mocherqui. an ostrich. utarda. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. morsequi. kiss. — . an affair. tuft. brostia as well as bostia. I bustle. Bulch. I. buquer. worn to make the body straight . speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. baiser. On the other hand. besongne. bustla. bysgje. mouth. lips. arbor ramis trunGloss. forest. bussen. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. chest. Bustard. To hurry or make a great B. but. bisgung. Namur — Champagne Fr. ' bistardej It. Nained from Proximse iis zia. Busy. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Buss. a log. a kiss. would explain the G. busch.> Also written buskle. outard. Business.bezig. a stroke of wind. a Mid.Lat. a ship of some size. as in ON.d. of the human body (Grandg. body .D. bisg. Xerqui. 1372. abotarda. a busk. a bush. I. bus. abutarda. 22. a projection. to knock .pjik. Sp. forms morseqiiill. mons. buc. Fr. brut. body of a man. biseg. borcegui. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. occupied bezigen. ship Sp. Busk. small. stump. busto. So in Fin. bussa. busch. plated body or other quilted thing. trunk. Fris. stump. fe^a. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. 7o\. Comp. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. to make use of. a mouth. a great billet Cot. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. from jnund. brusc. or Cherqui. bysgian. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Cot. as in moharra from harbe. employment bisgan. statue of the upper part of Fr. . bust. Sp. windbutsch.— . A great sluggish fowl. Fr. snout. stem. Fr. sera. lip. bus. vessel employed in the herring fishery. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. to make a splash in the water. mouth. also a busk. putta. body of a woman's dress It. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. a fishing vessel. Lat. Pol. bust. AS. busq. inde discurro et operosus sum. bus and Pol. work. cata — . putschen. . ON. Walach. the trunk. kiss. and also a sounding blow. says. Busitiess :c3iVi . Sw. Hal. busy. the long. 10. a bunch of flowers . To Bustle. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. or avutarda. trunk. and then with avis again prefixed. A A busquer (Sigart). buc. 119 bi{tr. stir. Fl. lump. occupation. biist. butz. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. The Prov. bu. bacio. a sleeveless truss or doublet. the body without arms busque. busc. body of garment. ON. bukr. Gael. With respect to bust. — — difications of the same word.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. or chest in which the vitals are contained. a bust. austarda. smack. a large cljest or particular applibox. box. knock. 2l box. mohedairova. kupata. tarda. I go strepo) . bist. Bust. 1555. mogangas from gonj. Edrtst.' ON. — — — — It is like the smouldering. the breast. and supposes that the common Arab. signifying trunk of a the body. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. the point of a lance. knock. made stiff. — hardly be distinct from Fr. ViM. geidha. also a flagon. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. ' BUSY 2. Bav. mosequin. especially of a woman's dress. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael.). a kiss of reverence. Fr. Prov. avuDiez. The proceedings of Parliament. busche. lip. So Wes- terwald munds. Rouchi. a blow. love gestures. Lang. bnist. body. basiuin. besoigAe. trunk of Cot. Swiss butschen. beso. btcc. beezig. bisegung. bucha. log . a tree. body without arms and legs. Cat.' Plin. Prov. Prov. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). BUSS Dozy from Arab. to occupy. a kiss. to bustle. betarda. representing a blow. and by transposition morchequi. bruskras well as buskr. of a doublet. busta. Lindenbr. ottarda. See Boss. Port. B. crack . otarda. also a It. body. Bust. outarde. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. — clattering about. Sp. bulk. 2. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. a kiss. business. pussa. buc. a backstock. hipista. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. buyse. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. Hence probably au-tarda. Du. a boat or small vessel . buta. a. sunt quas Hispania aves . to Swab. buz. its slowness of flight. Box. a blow. a bulk or trunk without a head. A wisp. trunk of a tree. in Diaz Gris. ^A. thick end.

bute. a butchery. bounds of. trunk. young mais. moreover. rotundity of the body. but Benjamin has a five-fold But.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. beyond the Piedm.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. a wooden cask. sup- meat and drink. a goat (and not besides . equivalent of AS. the precise correlative of but. Sp. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. So in Italian from becco. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. without care. bodifie. (children) boc. the mouth). Buttery. bitlga. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. the trunk or body of an animal. Fr. large barrel. of the wine and drink. the Perhaps besogne — . a butcher. Prov.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. being wholly unten. the body of an animal. the bottles. viz. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. hull of a ship. and with It. the store of ten. Tooke's dis. the belly. also a hollow vessel . as Pantler. bolr. then hoUow trunk. botija. Ben-house. Butcher. butan ce. Sp. bouz. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. be out.streets. Butler. a baiTel . add. ' Besides all that. to-boot. a leathern bag. besides that . bag made of the entire skin of an animal. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. are. — . similar train of thought is seen in ON. "PLT) . ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. the servant in charge of the original object. or what in in charge of the pantry. from boc. my is called the adversative use of but. boteria. viz. Whatever is in addition to Butler. from as. bitten dai. But In Sc. the name must have arisen before the within. Fr. except. ox. botilla. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. collection of casks.jamin.The Sp. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. body of a shirt w. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. the jug and in E. A A . an outlaw from bouche. able. a small winebag. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . boccino. bolgia. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. Lang. by the mode in which he is treated._ bitten j biiten door.in which his brethren are included. in addition. belly. If that where now we should compiler. butan. It. a goat. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. without buiten-man. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. bisgung. Butt. tinction between but. boquier. ways. but one thing. is put in a class by himself.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. bountifully. those in beccaio. gives at least two pounds sterling. without punishment . is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. belly. bole of a tree. a budget.' — — ' . besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. a barrel. Sp. G. wooden receptthing to be done. calf of the ' say. earthen which the debtor has adverted. beta. the principal apartment. a bottle. properly a butan wite. Wall.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. botte. Where at an earthen jar . ' There is leathern bottle. without the house kept in bottles. we find ben. outside that moreover. beccaria. AS. a butcher . But when will you pay it ? the belly. ont jhi^ton. buta. boucher. bochier. bout. a cask. binnan. Lang. the full expres. bous. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. bola. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. biitait slaughterer of goats . bouteillier. Here the but implies the existence of an. without law. and the real origin of the and within . bag. barriga. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. and bot. Du. bol. the present day we should say. hollow case. . But It. that which would be translated by Fr. OFr. bhcciero. is well explained by Tooke. the body of a tree or of a man. bocin. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. The E. skin-bag. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt.' Thus Chaucer says. rumpf. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . belly. . which the word corresponds to the Fr. beccaro. without. slaughter-house. — we acle for liquors.' ' write. As a conjunction but is in every portion. mais. Fr. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. calf. original sense of without. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben.' there is really a negation to be supplied.

so as to make a sounding blow. put. any short thick thing. coxa. W. R. Gael. Btetter-schmalz. bout. courtaud. a wall butor butt on. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . — . boter-schijte. W. Hal. a bolt. as rejeton. &c. The word body itself seems identical with G. a thrust the thigh-bone. boter-vliege. to bow. a.arbre. gigot. Kil. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. from rejeter. buhsom. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . a but in the W. as in G. It. bouton. botwm. striking end. boter-vogel. nourrissons. bouton. Buttery. So in English pimples were fora clod. boutoir. Perhaps corrupted Lat. butte. G. To strike with the head bags. stump of a tree Fr. . Du. the prick in the middle of a target.putan. Boutant.. to thrust . the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. to strike. To Butt. a boss. the store of while bottich. butteln. Cot. : . . e. both. pwt. but. Buttock. the Butter-fly. any small projection. Grandg. Kil. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. butt. potacha. thick. bottich. a buttress Cot. a ribbed glass for dient. or or shore post. botte. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. bocgsuin. fowl. butter. See Butler. the thigh of a goose. boteria. a corner horses' hoofs. boding. bottig. Du. Fr. by boE. is formed the augmentative buttatich. a mound. Du. hillock . Boutje. ment being supposed to resemble butter. Bav. rabodd. to femur. &c.against another which needs support .rejected thing. a blow. Fr. bot blijven staan. butter un. short thick thing pimple. Button. aim whence to make a support to a wall. bud. to boult flour. then the thigh or leg of an to push . stump. give way. butt. Buttel-triib. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. a little push . a large belly. fle>(ible. to be con. — — — — . obedient. having a rotundity . bouter. leg of lamb. a leg of mutton. buttals. bott. humble. from stossen. from bouter. bocsam. a hill. caput scapula bout van f been. Buttrice. from the large knobbed head of botto. w. Bout van het schouderIt. the edge forwards. To come full butt against a butts. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. Fr. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. the thick end. to blad. buttare. to abut on. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. or person Schmeller . and the true derivation boar. suddenly . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. an etwas anstossen. waste ground. butt. Du. Du. Hal. a flying buttress. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. * Buxom. a stump or club foot. From the noise of drinkables in a house. trapu. strike. Butter. at. Fr. of E. the trunk. a mound of turf in a field to sup. a stroke di animal. The Bavarian potig. thrust. From Grisons biitt. a dle . — A . Fr. a scope. butter. -ez. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. i. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. on. obeto shake backwards and forwards. butt of a person. but this is probably from Fr. Buttress. — A . nourrisson. clumsy . Mur-buttant. a tub. boil. signify a cask or tub. tress. able that Chaucer. thrust forwards. buttern. to push earth . the rosebud. AS. boiUer. butz. poke. Bav. dripping. geboogsaem. botten. buttock of beef is called butr. to throw . bodi. as if from Povg. a bot. to so close to the Fr. botta. Fr.to push.— BUTT leg .. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . clunis. large head. lams-bout. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. Fr. a button. pied. Kil. bouter. botto. butte. A — — — . From Du. oir spike with a k coup . to butt. . botta. a button. bot. tout seat or breech. a heap of merly called pushes. to thrust. are the strips at the edges of the field. Gr. end . an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. bodi'. to thrust. Lang. to touch at the end. a buttrice. Schmell. a bun. from bugan.thum and not button. bothog. nursling. — . to thrust Fr. a boss. what is kept in a blow. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. to cast. bata. Halma. bot. in the R. Butter-glass. to thrust. Fris. grease that sets by merely standing. Schmell. povrvpov. An erection built up as a Fr. to heap up earth or ihrust. a barrel. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. pwtiaw. Gris.' thick from shaking. a cask. an ox. from notirrir. boutis. of the present day. bout. a button. buter. a. Sp. to abut a stone roof. a blow. butyrum. submit shaking up salad sauce.

Byre. 21. a meke thynge with — alle. 3. a by-path is a side path . favourably to a petition. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. . to pass by. gracious. bees. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. P. bohte. G. — 122 BUY P. village. tions by one. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. buzarg. The ON. It.P. AS. A ful benygne buirde. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. See Abie. Du. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. confusedly. —gracious of speech. To Buy. as heedless as a cock-chafer. byar-rettr. Many good mological explanation. 200. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. son. town having separate jurisdiction. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. 519. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. Dan. ii. farm. blessing me with their of side. also say. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. bei. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. buso. big. jus municipii. . and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. favourable. Verstegan in R.. bi. A by. from whom it was addressed. OE. Buzzard. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. bylove. bi. The sense of buxom. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bij. buteoj Fr. bauhta. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. and would have been lost in E. iii. lb. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. a town. buzzicare. \s\xy. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. good-humoured one. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. indistinctly.in N. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. as Fr. Then applied to speaking low. leges urbanse ON. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . byar-log. It. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. byr. who makes abigg. and boxome of speche xviii. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. AS. bozzago. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. harty prayers and God speedes. Lat. cow-house. to wit. bar. to jan. to whisper. to swear with him by .. from by. a beetle. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. bygge.busardj Prov. Etynj. By-law. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. and it is of good will. a borough. called Cabala or Tradition. a buzzard or puttock. Sw. lete. 116. to sell. frabttg- To Buzz. p. groat in token of his good heart towards him. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. Pecock Repressor. as in Da. Originally the law of a particular town. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. stall. buzac. CABAL Goth. Sw. depends upon a esteem in falconry. Mercy hight that mayde. to purchase for money. abozzago. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. to buzz. A A We — — — days' wonder. Cabal. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m.— P. bylag. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law.— Diet. . ON. & Q. train of thought which has become obso. bugjan. Goth. bycgan. to stand at his side .

for discharging mentally to signify shelter. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. cabo. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. wilful). caqueter. a frail. chadabula. string. Etym. round or great headed. — Kil. Gaggle. Fr. dirty. Cablisb. mdhaigner. geese. Imitative of the cry of hens. Sp. hovel. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. —Diet. Katr-iT-aKt. caboche. dung. akista. covering. hut. . Du. Cot. gaggi.' Due. cadabalum. . a booth or hut. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. — the ON. Sp. Kil. Item habeat vocant. cacare. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. the Slavonian. would correspond to cable. and Or. maim. kabas. to put or pack up in a frail. caables. It. havyar to caviare. a headed cole or cabbage . Common to Lat. cab lis. — . Cot. Fr. cables.. the Prov. a rope. origin is the OFr. chabla. The Sp. &c. Mid. capanna. has kabbel. cadabulum. cabre. name of the projectile engine. a car- We convasare. or rush basket. overwhelm. and the Arab. vincially used in E. cabacho. The double a in the OFr. aakkat'a. calabre. ckaable. su/Furari. Lat. as Diez supposes). From It. a tunic. Coticesserint Swiss aa. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . cabarino. Due. deponat a store closet. cabuyskoole. Cappa in OSp. kabaSsen. OSp. or as an interjection of disMod. — Tarbe. Finn. . a jacket Fr. the bowels. . caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. CABBAGE effecting a purpose . cadabulum. — Ibid. To steal or pocket. to chatter. cacare . lactuca capitata. capuccio. cab. cabre. To Cabbage. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. stercus. — . secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. (ca/coe. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft.Gr. vile. Ptg. disgust. : — from violence without blood. main. OFr. Lang. gaban. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. Cabbage. headed or cabbage lettuce. E. filth. cabaii. laitue cabusse. Cabinet. The name of the engine. a covering. cadabula. gaggele. originally an Gael. hoard together. Brushwood — — B. Didot. for the origin of which see Carabine. especially shepherd's frock. Sw. and Ptg. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. and Finnish lanLat. cadabola. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. dirt and the Fr. agge. Fr. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . caable. and as we find stones Mid. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. Fr. a rope or cable. a cloak of felt or Cack.ticula. Very generally used. form kactal. kakaloH. cabane. it would seem fundain children's language.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. serious injury — In like manner It. Du. . band. head. is probably unconnected. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. caable (in legal language). in which sense are explained The the OFr. cabbage. to strain in such a manner .. Neckam — by the wind. cabulus. case. &c.). Celtic. E. a rope. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. Du. Antiq.Lat. properly windfalls. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. Tugurium. Due. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. to hurl down. Castr. disgust cac. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. from trabocco. nasty. to crush.. whence Lang. kabat. cabas. a head (whence cabochard. Choux cabus. Mid. Cabin. chaable. chaable. ! — . ceach / exclamation of guages.. to keep or Du. giiare. prostratio ad terram. surripere. traboccare. Fr. aak! tandi like Fr. OFr. gabardme. . caable. forms indi. kabane. bad. cabuccio.Lat. It. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. It is remarkable that the Esthon. a cabbage . headed. brassica — capitata. Mid. as it must have stood in French. an engine for casting stones. gatsch. from manganum. manganare. agge machen (in nurses' language). kakla. as Turk. capo. agga. as an expression of Gr. OFr. Capstan. precisely in the sense of the lari E. heady. dirty. It. w. Lith. aeggi. a shed. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. cdble. disgusting such an engine was exerted. or cadable. cabasser. a rope. overwhelm (Diet. signifies down. cabo. manticuKil. come the Fr.Lat. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. whence Fr. 'habl. to hurl in Nat. signifying properly a rope's end. It. accablcr. cable . scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. cabus.

a waggon . wanton. a low note. to prate much to little purpose. a counter used in casting accounts. cadenza. Lat. calamitas. cadet. Fr. Calash. calibre. (in the augm. * Cade. of the nature of lime to calcine. Cadge*. lindrus. calidus. Russ. N. kola. cadere. form) calderone. taking it Sp. Pol. dead body. the bore of a cannon. master. It. limestone. From lerie. lord. kolo. an ugly waggon kolaska. caldarius. calessa. kuchen. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. cattivo (from Lat. kolesb. a fever. its mother. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). cykevie. It. frolicsome kaad mund. a circle. a wretch. Dan. Turk.uv. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. capitetum. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. roller. The Calf. kalfvan hout. — in a kiln. As Du. gabberen is identical with E. of oxen and similar animals. caldaria. calpa. Lat. Fr. It. the younger son of a family said to be from . a hollow place. Perhaps from w. calculo.Gr. kat. kdfich. kaad. Caitiff. calibre. kalem. caliche. gabbia. chetif. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. cavea. Lat. Calamary. the calf of the leg. ben- kalf. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. or smooth Hnen cloth. cauldron. hot. calendarium. Roman reckoning. En kaka br'od. calentura. of which. kauwe. calendrer. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. kakulla. In the same way Fin. capCalenture. Sp. joyous . Fr. Du. loss. pith. kolyasochka. a wheel . kail. principal and interest. boy. KxiKivh^o^. just falling. Cot. cadence. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. chattering. pet lamb. without loss. a tea-chest. Gael. cake. lime whence calcareous. Calp is riadh. frisky. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. kolo. a car. bad . Cake. ' . Lat. a small stone. little chief. A . The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. rattaat (wheels). — — — Dan. Gascon capdet. ON. kaka. Sw. a lump or large piece. Tea-caddy. prate. desire of land. chaudiere. Fr. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. A — fall. B. a dence. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. wretched. kolyaska. a caFr. gaggle. safe. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Cadaverous. kolasa. a reed. cage. a falling. Calc-. Cadence. a wheel . calx. loss. * Calibre. G. and troublesomely attached to. calamus. kdtr. a cylinder. caioler. dial. It. calba. Calocli. kalfi. Du. A cuttle-fish. hence musical rhythm. Fr. javioler. It. to gabble. Cauldron. kukje. . an inkstand . Due. whence Lat. or colpa na coise. A hooded carriage. An open travelling chariot. a common cart. collop. To Cajole. Calendar. captive. babbhng. It. gabbia. Du. Turk. especially of something soft. coll. Cot.— . to cage. when they are said to poor. Calcialate. for green fields. &c. . on. G. kaeckelenj Gr. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. kalb. Arab. Flo. a calesh. Cajol. unruly . gavia. gabble. See Kiddier. to — Fr. signifies a waggon. koeck. Lat. naXaiidpi. The young G. Du. —Atkinson. Originally from a Slavonic source. Caddy. Fr. cageoler. Calf of the Leg. to . to heat. Mrs B. is probably delusive. gaggia. calidus. a loaf of bread. one unduly indulged by. to sleek hence a den. . disease of sailors from tivus). ever and anon. Sw. from the ink-bag which it contains. ratas. Calandre. a roller. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Cage. cha'cmie cadence. a cake or loaf. . a wheel . a mischievous dial. a calash . a vessel for heating water. Lat. to cackle . cadaver. Cadet. kolo. from the Chinese catty. calcis. cabdillo. Sw. the pi. marrow. or prattle. It is another form of the E. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. kage. The Lat. . 124 prattle . hot . to compute. To Calender. Lat. Dan. pen Mod.— Cot. jabber. reed-pen. whence calash. Cot. cage. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. Fr. the pith or soft part of wood. pi. incolumis. misfortune. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Sp. a corpse. a wheel.warmth . Lat. kolesnitza. coop. Serv.— Calliper. from calculus. from Gr. to treat like lime. calentar. Lat. calf of leg. the lump and the increase. cuttle-fish. KaKKat. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. colibro. Sp. to throw themselves into the sea. Caldron. Fr. Lat. from calendcE. chaudron. Lat. Calamity. calesa.

which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. to calk. Calm. to hear. Kil. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. Lang.from Ka'tm. 125 Prov. hollaing. the latter of chamber. harden by pressure. kal. khalif. a round of abuse. Fr. kind heat of the sun. Due. of the bore of a firearm met. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. Diet. Gael. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. coluber also. B. kael. to tread. NE. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. on. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse.' Winter's Tale. drive. nautique). Sc. To call. calibre. coulevrine. people's remarks. prattle. Diez. depreciatory term for a woman. saucy. CALM to press or stuff. calme. Turk. Bi. faint. Ibid.' Slange. Hard. longior. of a column. whehce it was first brought. and E. which is as much as to say. heat. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. serpentina. a drab.' But it is hard Du. calc. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . chatter. calicot. To Calk. kallo. qAlab. and heat. the heat of Now these Du. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. To century was Squalibre.en~ kinds of firearms. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Indies. It. to abuse . by many that the weapon Callous. donderbuchs Sp. skin hardened by labour. . dragonder. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. Lat. fistula. Calico. calclover. or mould. Kil. to prattle. kol. i. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). licht stuk The change from a. them &c. cauque. moso. — — — — — . ' pert. Caliph. the Fr. brawny. tapulta. to cram. Lat. a. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. or languishing drought is . The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. Mahn derives it from Lat. seems to donrebusse vel be heat.' Whitby Gl. colubraria canna. Kavfia. faint. hot. word of mouth . — Fl. to rail or scold . try. heat. to call. and dragon. the scalp or skull. quA librd. Sir John Smith in Grose. harquebus or handgun. sclopus. ram. Ca. The origin is Gr. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. a soldier who the It. — — — — — . calk. Fr. and sometimes a handgun. culverin. push violently. callum. oldire from audire. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. Ptg. * Caliver. abto suppose that E. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. to affirm. given. sence of wind. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. femme frivole et babillarde. voice. colubrina. a successor. cotton cloth. Sup. The reference to heat is preserved in. vulgo Coluvrine. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Du. calibre. calleting.piicede Lat. Mid. water-tight. Dief. Antiq. bald. overheated. ' rine. chatter kallen. caillette.' Chaucer. Mil. overscalmaccio. E. kil-u-kal. cauma. however. whereas in troth it is not. can be distinct from ODu. coluber. or caliever. calma. to callet. form in the kalib. to say. calca. to burn. Sp. calvus.(jaa= ice). diameter of a ball. a good calling. 'A callet of boundless tongue. whence couleuv. form. callus. quality. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. koluvre. trull. To drive tow or oakham.— . kal. to proclaim. an adder. couleuvre. the Fr. moist. which has its memory preserved in Du. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. tittle-tattle. calcaich. calat of leude demeaning. dial. The word was also written cawme in OE. kalla. calare. gossiping. bombarda Cauma incendium. having a thick skin. hallottaa. a feathers. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. done with heat Alt. but is only a jda-kallo. piece of bigger circuite. alta voce ploro. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. The primitive colubrina bombarda. According to Jal (Gl.Lat. Derived by some from Arab. calo. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. cahna. kahcwe. Callow.. scold. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . calor. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. Heb. to be of a good or bad quality. Call. u to an I in such a colubrum. Unfledged. Sp. glotton. Fr. . Fr. * Callet. to call. the hard surface of the ground. scalmato. calcare. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). AS. KaXka. Fin. calgua. caliver. serpens. calma.position is much less common than the geschut. caluw. sound. a last. Gr. the day. dragoon. from Calicut in the E. So It. sestus. Fin. quiet.meaning of the word. klover. ululo Turk. Among these were the turn.

camaien. fair. campagna. Properly calver in the field during a war. would plenier. Bret. salmon. B. lattice. Kakoycpos.. cam^e. a' Sc. Mid. It. Mod. the spersed with white flakes like curd. monk.—Candidate. camiscia. callour. brought from Fr. a goblet bud. cancer. campagna. campagne. Lat. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Fr. camber-nosed. whence Fr. to bend. canna. slander. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Camisade. Camlet. It. crooked. a crab. crooked. a may have acquired that signification from plain.who their language. co7nbar. campo. chamold man. Cambrel. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. From campus was formed Lat. calj'x. From fluting or furrow in a column . camelus. campaign. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. clothed in white. Gr. a piece. nia. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. camiscieia. Arab. ckaouma. calutmiia. chaitcre. Fr. Sanson khanda. — Lat. Candy. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. Or the word Lat. camelot. lame. whence the noun signifying an applicant.—Jam. Cambray. from candere. Camp. paign. Fr. It. a basket. lie level. on. Calumny.— B. Lat. Canal Channel. Lat. cAouma. bis. cambrer. cup. arch. higher in the middle than Fr. to avoid enemy in their shirts. champagne. ko/utuXoc. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. camisa. to the force of the wind. and yspiuv. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. Campaign.conduit-pipe. camafeo. spot for cattle. crook. Sp. Canibal. died in 1526. aged. the space of false imputation. Lat. field . across — Bellenden in Jam. See Canker. hooked.' Forme of Cury in Way. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. cup. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. toile some of whom. or Caribs. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. India Islands. different sections of the like the Chinese.— Hackluyt in R.— Chandelier. Lat. KafitjUe. ation. campren. Cancer. catmneo. camahutus. to bow. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. to warp. chommer. It. sugar in pieces or lumps khand.' ' Quhen a lattice. cere : Lat. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. — B. the salmondis faillis thair loup. whence the Fr. having an aquiline nose. Palsgr. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Fr. to bend. a caught. An eater of human flesh. kanna. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. E. B. the heat. properly good country. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand._ kamm. campo. Pers. Ptg. canalis. — Cancel. cainahelus. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. water chamlet . Camel. The Grisons cauina. a large drinking . unwater chamelot . at the ends. camisade. A — the Cannibals. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. Peter Martyr. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. a. Canker. Canine. or hollow of a flower. In a different application It. Fr. cambren. Cambric. open and level ground. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. canistrum. Calyx. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. an eating. the type of a hollow pipe. to glow. Candid. candela. is Cambering. Gr. the calix. cambre. arched.Gr. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. cancello. . se cameloter. is Candle. It was distinfrom work. crooked-stick. also an eatmg sore. Cameo. Fr. champ. arched. sugar. a dog. Sp. callar. — — — A — — escume de saumon. Cambrav—Cam. cambr^. white. . the name being differently From pronounced by nation. E. Sp. had no r in de bric— Cot. Calver of cane.—Cambrel. campus. Turk. a.Lat. to jut. chandelle. when its substance appears inter. to break. canis. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. good. It. crooked. icaSoytipoe. Lat. candidus. E. samon. Fr. fresh. from xaXbg. It. w. Caloyer. KafivTu. sore. Cot. the bed of a stream. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. Cann. aspirant. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. mg Canister. camp. Lat. Fr. a field Greek monk. frank and sincandidatus.

. canton. . Schwab. chantel. a small boat. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. language. cheese. The — . It. Capacious. a hunch of bread. a cloak kapali. cantred. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. as. from canna. margo panis diffracta. cane. schlappen. rumme. a rule or standard of excellence. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. If the word had been from cantherius. or cantell of bread. cannone. Coal burning with bright flame. Diez. kwvwxIi. A piece of anything. say. Cantle. also a measure. a division of a country. &c. cover kapi. cape. edge.— Cot. A slow gallop. clqse. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. Fr. cantone. cannevo. Germanis kdppen. hirnschlapple. border. kandt-broodts. the tried list of saints. the heel. See Capt-. KCLvva. the part easiest broken off. Sp. It. regular. Jonson. tain. Capable. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. lump. canon. canonici. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. cane. canvas. a cap. was formed Kavtiiv. . able to receive. To his judicial And trowl the tile. the quartile. can. Swab. territorial hundred. signifying cover. The word seems to be taken from Gael. capa. Picard. Capari. Kil. leiwan kanta. cover . a scull- — here.^on. a cloak. and hence a gobbet. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. a horn of the moon . To canvas — . a tube. quito curtain. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. Of vena cava and of vena porta. a Fr. quarter . the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. Cant. border Dan. cane. N. and tref. KaTTiram. a door . a gelding. and met. kaput. Gael. kapamak. trine. Hence Lat. cappa. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. canapaccia. to sing. ON. name. corner. canto. a cane. contain. a wine-cellar or vault. coarse hemp. Lat. coarse hempen cloth Fr. kyndel. a reed. or hold. being a yard or thereabouts . a hundred. cantina. from cant. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. To Canonise. cannabis. shut. It. &c. It. which is not the case. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. pipe. to con- rummer. Sp. B. Probably only the augmentative of canto. hood. properly a large Prov. it would have been found in the continental languages. Canopy.Gr. Fr. Mod. Prov. Palsgr.CANNEL vessel. But it may be different source. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. canoa. a reed. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. kynnel. has kahn. Esthon. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Alamannis. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. a cover Turk. as a cantle of bread. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. Fr.Gr. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. and the sex- &c. a side. Du. is found languages of very different stocks. capevole. canteau. that the G. caparazon. Cannoii. Canvas. From Gr. See Chape. cannu. Cot. from . Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. like a torch or candle. kand. cainnt. Gugel. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. Goldast — in in Schmid. to contain. cantle then is a corner of a thing. carcase . It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. Cape. Wtb. hamlet. capace. capello Italis. Canteen. Kavt\. kq. W. a drinking glass. root cap. Canton. chanteau. cappe. haitt. Mod. cantref. capax. Fin. from Dan. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. coat. region. Cope. It. Sp. . covered. from a Canter. he discourseth of dissection. measure for cloth. kantr. canevas. Again we have Lat. to put upon sacred writers. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. side. Canoe. quarter. hemp. a — A — Cannel Coal. a ruler. a corner. to shut. chape. cappe. cope. a torch. the heel. speech. . OFr. From Lat. cane. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. astrology. a boat. call. canapa. schlapp. A . hemp. kanta. a cantle of bread. a ship canot. It. It. a pipe. canonicus. gnat. part. The meserseum and the mesentericum. cannevaccia. a straight rod. Canon.n.

Genevese bresoler. It. capillus. compared with Bret. a hedge-hog. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn.) d'etre The It. Arab. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. and his body bristled We to castrate. w. brissle. then find the symptoms of shivering. grisser. capriol or caper in dancing. frissoner. shivering. as in Lat. Fr. the singing'bone). or. curling. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. to from capitulum. is either wholly lost. to parch. frort^Lat. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . to broil. rissoler. kid. bristling. to shiver. roughening of the skin. to shudder. And similarly to yearn. as Fr. with joy' Vikram. arricciarsi. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. rihrczzoso.'— Trev. s'hdrisser. castrated cock. herissonnement. of a coach. Fr. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . a caper in dancing. principal. birsle. prickly husk of chestnut. according to the Hindoos. a chevret. the hair to stand on end. <I>pi'?oe. Capers. ribrezzo. humorous. curly.' Cot. to broil. algabr. the hair to stand on end. to shiver for cold. Capillary. riccio. It. or goat's leap (done by a horse). — — A a hair. ticchio. capriole.standing on end. It. bristling. a separate division of a matter. brug. cut off. aggricciare. as the means of earning profit. to desire earnestly. as Fr. Caper. the principal part of the debt. greziller. frisson- ner . hedge-hog. gricciare. crackling sound Cape.Gr. Acad. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. Mod. 75. Fr. ericius. greziller. of a tremtdoiis sound. chief. upon terms Sp. cApre. h^risser. of a fowl. Lat. gives rise to Sc. Torriano. or represented by the syllable e. Lat.— 128 CAPE a rustling. they longed extremely to see it.— Fl. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. a goat. and OHG. CAPRICE twittering. a head. the head. gives rise to brezza. It. end. Unexpected pleasure. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . A headland. wriggle. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. erica. arricciarsi. horripilation. . the whizzing of an arrow Cot. To treat Capitulate. The same imitation of Capon. to twitter as birds. hi. knis. frizzle. a ch illness. Lat. heath. castrated. It. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. capitalis. a caterpillar. abridge amKoTroq. explained by Diez from capra. caprice. cut. capparis. airoKOTrrw. Cot. alcaparra. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. It. curl. or other things. gricciare. ziki. then to be in a state of vibration. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. A . as Fr. G^' Many words — ' ndv. also the capriole. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. Fl. capar. brisciare. Lang. and 7tucc. then to shiver or shudder. caprice It. to fry. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. a capriol. Caprice. Sp. Hence capitalis the sum lent. belonging to From caput. shivering. brisoler. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. knis-hujwud . or Lat. ^piKos. I have shivered with love. capro. sault. It. capitulare.impressions on the ear. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. The true derivation lies in a different direction. cover of a saddle. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. capriola. where Burton adds in a note. chattering of the teeth. brisciare. bruco. brezilia. frisser {frissement d'un trait. horror. and with an initial gr instead of br. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. caper j caprio. cappriccio. It. fansuddenly angry. to . the head. for which he cites the Comask nucia. So from Sw. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. See Chief. brisciare. to crackle. II bresole (Gl. eruca compared with It. a kid. Hair-like. a yearning through sudden fear. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. to crackle. Griller d'im' patience. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action.' — (Supp. caj)o. grillcr. to ruffle the surface of water. p. grisser. Fr. Lat. toy. a young kid met.). Hal. grug. a . shrub. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. It is probable that Gr. hair. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. a buck. the initial mute of forms like Gr. a little head.) grezille marid. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. Capital. — to yearne.

— —Diet. Passing on into E. to this is It. Fr. cabestan. of capsa.or -cib-. Cot. recibir. case. and has accordingly been lost in E. and has thus descended unaltered to English. kerren. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. G. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. to creak. a hooded friar. chirriar. Cot. a head man. as the dragoons (Du. karrende waegen. conception. however. -cept. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. as in OFr. &c. It. an engine for throwing stones. concipere. Kiittner.). Sp. box. the -cevofthe Fr. Fl. capitano. Carbine. a sudden will. &c. from head. -ceive. Du. carretta. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. It. to creak. cabestrantej Fr. cabreia. Lat. capra. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. karren. 129 — receive. Thus the musket. precept. oisr. a taking back. a sawing-block or trestles. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. fantastic. recepte. krul. capp%tccio. Castr. a reception. di cappa. cams. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . Fr. deceit. Fr. It. to please. caricare. Carabin. contain. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. or the (capo-riccio). a sudden fear apprehended. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. accept. and of captus to an e. charger. to accept. Fr. caprice. captus. capio. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. concept. calabrino. . In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. a fantastical humour. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Crab. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. chirrion. a cloke) capuccino. to load . also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. sels. chevre. Etym. concebir. cabrestante (whence e. charrier. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. Fin. Derivatives are Fr. Carabine. It is a standing crab. decepte. also to carry on a car . dim. a kind of torture. crab s. Fr. conceit. and tropically. — — Capstan. -cept. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. In cases. charret. Lat. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Captain. Nordfoss. a creaking waggon. intercept. OSp. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. caput. recipio. It.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). a capuchin. captive. latterly. carro. whence capture. karra. bock. carabin. one odd. fancy. It. commander. was converted into -ceb.of these compound verbs. to take baclc. strideo. &c. was originally a missile . — crab or instrument to wind up weights. also tresFl. verbs gives rise to the element . capitis. crepo. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones.. Lat. Fr. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. a windlass. Sp. to carry . calabrin. cabra. shivering fit (Altieri). i The meaning Car. Carry. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. It. It. capsula. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. char. also a kind of rack. a. to take to. Capsule.). except. seize. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. captivate. to receive receptio. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Du. capuccio. Capt-. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. where it forms a very large class of compounds. recevoir. recipere. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. was a kind of horse soldier. tnoschetta. perceive. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. a cart. concevoir. Capriole. a she-goat. Neumann. to take. of the Sp. deception. a coffer. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. a. In the S. de- price. acceptus. The It. at least. karista.. Capstern. Cart. receptus. Lat. caThe hrestante. trestle. Capuchin. See Caper. hold. Caseneuve in Diet.s. Fr. a hood (dim. conceive. desire. as in accipio.

caravela. carquasse. a quiver. vitriol. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. a case or chest . Fr. cdrlag. the name might naturally Mod. the husk or cod of beans. carabe. a thistle. Carboy. wool card. Carrob. to curry horses karsztuwas.. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Carat. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . Lith. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. ' Vasa vitrea. Fr. carmiiiarc. matter. «capa'|8i. Gr. cabrita. Derived in the first edition from Mod. AS. skeleton.— — — . Cot. a firelock. a thistle. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. the carcase of a fowl. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. word is only an adoption of the Turk. designated in the case of G. Sp. . ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. It. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. to card wool. car. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. Ptg. kard boyd. a card or comb . the shell of a torcarcasso. or framework. to hiss (as gee^e). It. . Gael. Gael. carere. The radical meaning . cramp. coming to four grains. poison eiz. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. cardo. OHG. to turn. a coffer. also (as Gr. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). kerwan. a gem resembling a live coal. Exot. carch. Sp. Sp. an ulcer. Sp. card. . KtpaTwv. — seems to be something holding together. winding. cabra. Fr. military engines made for hurling stones. a kind of ship. Carbuncle. shell. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. karri. eitar. burning coal. winding carach. skeleton toise. chevre by the name of the goat. Cat. Arab.. a twist. Caraool. quilato. to comb wool . Card. to comb. constraining . wine- bottle. is the chine. caracal. p. ancient springald. Gr. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. garafa. espi7igarda. quse vocant karabd. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. a crane. Bohem. a quiver . An implement for dressing wool. Lat. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. contract. carquan. Cot. a collar or chain for the neck. a goat. See Carpenter. fire . eit.charcoal . a quiver . cassa. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. the dead body of any creature. . Caravel. carbunculus (dim. copperas. Gael. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. I. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. krciti. a small weight.. a prison. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. turn of a horse. From the battering-ram. and catapulta. a he-goat. curry-comb. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. Carcase. casso. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. carcasa.z. Mod. bock and Fr. an engine for hurling stones. Gael. karszti. Fr. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. confining. in the same way that the Sp. for a gun. cabreia. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. the core of fruit . a snail. the case of the flesh. mural attack. is the word used in modern Lat. carbh. Venet. the . The Trjg xeXwwac. . to draw in. turning. carduus. &c. It. a dead carcase. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. a lock of wool . W. carcaij. decanter. skeleton. a skeleton. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. carcame. to ripple flax. &c. karra. bend. Comp. boch.. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Lat. carate. also a small weight. a battering-ram).applied to a battering-ram (G. avSpaS. the carob bean.' From the same source are SicU. Pers. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. kirat. Parmesan cassiron. Carbonaceous. of the same Caravan. to card wool. tcapKaai. cerran. to creak. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . ON. properly a siege machine. carquois. black dye. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. carcanet. case. a quiver. Carcax. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. carcanada. &c.Gr. carbo. carabba. a machine for casting large darts. a ripple for flax. alia sunt majora. restraint . caraffa. a wool card. carta. caraffe. a ship. a winding staircase. Sp. of carbo). silique. It. the trunk or chest of the body . the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . It.Gr.. seed of carob.

voce strepo stridente. . see Garble. cura may be ror. Cath. to rumble. clown or churl. kumra. Fr. and murhet. murahtaa. Fr. zanken .. from carrus. weyes. carezza. chartre. Cot. AS. karl. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. quarreG. Fr. E. from carus. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. kargr. It. to whirr (schnurren). Fr. in St Jerome. that on wliich the matter hinges. caMid. an endearment. karrig. care on. kara. A mod-carag. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. . caricare. carnavale. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. A place where four roads Mid. dear. . karg. morosus sum. kroU-erbser. cdrle. carnalis. charie. Farewell flesh. It. cargar. in N. Cot. Lat. as carminare. to fry or broil. surrata. carnal. to card wool. Care. Bret. piger. cardinis. — — .. male person. place for exercise on horseback. karista. grief. karout. No ' place there had. — To Careen. tenax. w. tuorfurcm (Burguy). Sept. at murmuring. 1S66. A quirito ut infans. in Carp. love. and compare Bret. cearig. Coll. OFr. the time during which to Rom. to take Goth. croller. Charnel. and G. Carlings. Carnal. carch. a man. AS. care. Fin. Fin. cardo. to growl.— CARD karr-kambar. Caricature. combing them out like the knots in wool. It. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Fr. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. to load. Fl. Carled peas. from caricare. essere in carena. is This however Shrove tide. Translated in MS. car. giierlir. the keel of a vessel. carcare. carrefourg. wool cards. de Parthenay. Carl. Sp. murista. graller. & Q. sorrow.— Charter. It. caricatura. four. fleshy . kribina. It. a highway. Properly a car-road. ON. regar. quaver a lazar's clack. record. Cot. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. a turn. Chart. gakaran. charag. also a career on horseback. to load. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. p. Lat. charg. principal. act of moaning. bottom.' Slceat. ress. the several meanings of the words above Rom. affection.Lat. karantez. to fry. Fr. crowl. carnasciale. Mur. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. kurista. an overloaded representation of anything. Card. to eat flesh. soUicitus OSax. x'»P'"^s)) paper. or grumbling —Due. carcus. Fr. Carenare. that Fl. to shake. Dan. Bret. camovale. charneux. sgritudo animi. as peas. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. cargo. carriera. to scratch. compared with Fin. a card. quadrifurcum from quameet. tremble. intrasset caro. — — — : Cardinal. charta (Gr. 273. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. For the root of carminare. Cark. moeThe Lat. Bois crolant d'un ladre. carian. parched or carled. caru. — — Diez. carminare. to clean the bottom of the ship. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. W. carina. is to say. to lie on its side. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. strideo. from Lat. charger. carena. Trin. to load. appertaining to the flesh. to distress growl. hoed. grolU. cura intenta. caritia. Carnage. careless take care of. astutus. scharren. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. — — — Caress. solicitous. Sp. niggardly . crawl. and sum. OHG. the load of a ship. carFrom carrus. mutter. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Cargo. Carminative. ceorl. Ptg. Gael. crosier. what is felt as grievous. caresse. asper. charnel. to love. to scrape . Groler. to care unkarja. karry. or street. &c. to comb wool. Properly. It. 2. . charnage. ON. AS. Fr. . sensual. Venet. the keel. Cartel. like connection may be seen between Fin. meet at a head. Probably the origin of the word is the . a deed. the flesh of animals . stingy. a hinge. one of those ac- 9 * . . morosus. From. beans. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. to parch. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. whence carricare. as quadrivium from Carnaval. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. stridere. . fundamental. carriire. be anxious. Peas steeped and fried. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. W. to comb flax or hemp. .Lat. carena. the old theory of humours. kummer. 8. It. sorrow. rixosus. ignarus. the hull of a ship. carnis. Champ. immediately before the long fast of Lent. road. from the keel to the water . carener. murren. A medical term from line —Boerio. cearian. W. Roquef. G. winding. — Carfax. msstus. and thin. G.

' Raleigh. gar aus / all out is correct. whence the form carnasciale. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. lint. and Carnem laxare (It. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. The custom. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. biheld without. Lat. Carpyn or talkyn. I quaught. course. Templariorum — ' — Due. Bret. Fr. Here's to you still my captains friend. as the Lat. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. i. A. krapanj. Fr. On the other hand bumper to one's health. ' ' — . Alluz (G. The karole of the stones behelde. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. zimmerspan. quoted by Carpentier. or a carouse fully drunk up. act of drinking a full Eq. peta. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Chanson de carole. ! Carouse.— Drant in R. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. Carole. a wheelwright. 2. Carnelevale. to dance.: . carpenta. Lat. 760. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. in Due. to gather. i. ship. Gower in Way. Mid. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. I drink all out. skraf. e. Biheld within. To pledge them thou refuse. carpita. In Dominica d'autant. yede tham about. was formed Mid. pluck at. Other names of the sea. Ant. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. in Nat. Carpenter. a dance. Ein we find the signification transferred from . carpende fast Carol. koroll. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. cited by Marsh. carpat (Stokes). qui sacco. From Lat. cxciv. The ' ' a chariot. or loose as a couch without further preparation. gonna. On this. and F.D. on that. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. — . bier.— Neum. chariot carbad. So gone they forthe.Lat.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. linteamen. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. a wheelwright. . charpentier. 2. garrulo.— R.gonnella. cardos. carpentum. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. Dief. all aus). fabulor. The tippling sots. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. garrire. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. Carpitam habeat in lecto.Why give's some wine then. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor.Lat. carpenter only in the latter sense. pluck. Olr. 94). to pluck. as carnaval from carnelevamen.' Reg. carpere. a drinking cup. krapati. carbh. 1 1 30. Lat. Cot. used for stuffing mattresses. carpia. Mid. 216.— Patriarchi. a car carpentarius.' says Motley (United Neth. is erroneous. as Fr. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. worker in timber Fr. carpetam (a quilt?). a plank. . carpenticre. ON.]e bois Carnelevale. Teut. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. to rustle. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. W. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. at midnight which derivation from kroes. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. querole. to dance. ballare. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. Carnevale.Lat. to find fault with. as E. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. to talk. CarTo quaff carouse do use. Discov.' Ordo Eccles. to pull asunder. The word seems of Celtic origin. .' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. a song accompanying a dance then. Sp. carpo. sense. In a MS. carpetrix. in Carp. Palsgr. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. charpie. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Pm. chirp. Beggars Bush. chatter skra/a. tymmer. Shrove Tuesday. chatter. to chatter coroli. differing To Carp. a carder. litter. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. of Guiana. Sup. All out B. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. Analogous R. carduz. Mediol. Bohem. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Nomin. culcitra. Carpet. zimmer. carnelascid). Gael. vel coopertorio carebit. balade from It.'— Stat. maker of waggons It. to reel. Pr. tattle. Properly a round dance. — — ' ' — — — I — — . Pref.

discharge It. Fr. Gael. cassa. carroccio. cia. G. tion from Sp. Lat. Cot. Casque. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. to cut or carve . cassa. ignominiously exposed. and the OE. Casket. Flor. kasseren. a fall. where Fr. to hold. cassus.. The Sp. dim. house. hung up in some place and to be removed. mata. Sp. krat. to — — also casse. to break. caroach. Cartel. casaque. shell or carcase of a house. from casa. pasteboard. a car. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. Carrion. Rouchi caroche. gristle. cancelled. a loopscale the wall. a canonry or slaughterhouse. carretta. properly to convey in a car. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. from It. cartone. casacca. caisse. Rouchi carpHe. from It. augm. cascare. casser. kerven. coffer. an act of falling. caisse. capsa (Diez). Lith. It. case-maiej Sp. Fr. bag and baggage of a camp. Fr. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. It. quasser. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. caroche. from the sound it makes when Alban. Case. It.' Cot. slaughter-house.' Bailey. a long coat. caro. casag. to fire on the enemy. from Lat. a of water. cancel. a coffer or small case for jewels. case. Du. Fr. See Card. blotted out. cartilage. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. CartOTicli. Fr. carroc- carrozza . Casual. not reaching to the height of the ditch. OE. packing ' cloth. casuelj Fr.— Fl. casitiste. It. made void. break to pieces. and matar. des rideaux A'carp^ie. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. cascade. Case-mate. Lat. carota. a paper case. casa-maita. — Cartoose. Fr. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. Fl. Cart. an augmentative from Lat. ceorfan. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. bitten. — Cartridge. cartouche. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. Lat. — — nul the proceeding. To Carry. annul. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. coffin of paper for groceries. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. ' Casa-matta. It. charrier. Fr. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. to dash. also the carriage. quash. to crack. cassette. carretto. To Carve. To quash an indictment. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. carreaggio. As defence from shells became more important. caxa. and that apparently from capio. cashiered. Cask. for the security of the defenders. See Gristle. Ready money. Preparatory drawing of a It. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. casso. Carrot. a chance or accident. to bear or carry. empty. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. to shear. like all the names of tendon. charrette. augmentatives of carro. to notch. Du. Lat. mord-keller. Fr. crush. fall It. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Probably. helmet. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. of carro. turn out of service. cascata. casualis. caisse. hollow. to slay. Fl. Case. Rouchi carter. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. to fall. as we . To duash. — FI. kerpu. Walach. cartoccio. the charge of — — Fr. Cash. Cot. casus. vault hole in a fortified wall. cascar. The carrying of anything. It. the money chest. long man's gown with a close body. a car. luggage. void cassare. to convey in a cart. abrogate. carrosse. card. charogne. cut with scissors. Rouchi carone. Fr. carogna. hull of a ship. — — . kerben. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. See Case. cassere. casa. carriaggio. something that actually occurs. mord-grube. Cassock. gristle. afterwards any written challenge. Fr. Hence a challenge openly hung up. kirpti. a merchant's cash or counter. Casuist. corresponding to the G. Cartoon. kertselig I cranch with the teeth.' — Hdcart. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress.to annul. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. It. a chest. Carriage. to an- — Kil. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. a hut. crown of a hat. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . of carta. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. paper.' Fl. It. fortuitous. It. Fr. Cascade. Hence casket. subject for a picture. AS. Fr. To Cashier. cartella. discharge. Sp. casco signifies a skull. AS. one who reasons on cases put.

being Fin. to lash. It. sue. of sarabands does Gr. to fall as over a precipice. cascar. Chase. or comba. cacciare fuora. The E. a chesnut . or bruise together. Fr. Thus we have Caste. away. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). Mid. arpi^m. is not satisfactory. chasser. casule. represented by the syllable quash. rack.'— Pr. It. Fr. to crack. bot-kotis. castellum. fer toTa.the / or c respectively. chasuble. torture. 134 CAST Catacomb. coming to us through different dialects of French. image accasciare. dashing it to pieces. Fr. to dash. Fr. probably from an imita. to end. ON. signifying breed. cat. second chase. tails. castanetazo. KaTappaKTrjQ. Pol. to drive Cat o' nine tails. ichasses. however. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. Brunne. to Fl. It. castana. crush . Cat. Pic. Etym. Cot.Rouchi Scaches. execu. kotas. on. katze. handle of an axe. 120. puras E. Yz. follow after. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. puss / for calling them. kat. shaft of a 1 push. catar. Castanets.. race. chaleur. Hal. a thump. castro. cat-o'-nine. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. cassa / cry for the same purpose. burst cascare. to make clean or chaste. Fr. Sp. — We a cavity. . chasser. Cast. to drive away. Gael. &c. B. R. chat. Isidore — in Diez. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. a fortified place.Lat. drive away. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. to clack. in the fire. Gr. the ground . Catastrophe. to break. . kaJoivad. So also from It. kakka. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. ecrevisse. Sp. Fr. ' Catchyn away abigo. under chi caleur.to drive out. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. To Catch. casupola. to is Essentially the Sp. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. to scourge. cast. kic' kicil are used chasser. kasi. a garment for performing the mass in. Lang. to bring to an crack given by the joints. Catalogue. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. . lance. koshka. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. kotas. ating. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. to crackle. of castrum (castra). which has been retained in E. or Rouchi cat. first made ordinary Fr. Pm. was introduced. . perhaps from which we have E. name. Roukind. a vault. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. catch. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Fr. Others explain it from Kara. by the loss of with several pitched cords. to close. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. to turn overturn. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. a cat . and KviilSog. speak of dashing a thing down. same word with break. down. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. Gr.— Fl. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. kottr. 'Vaaaw. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. _G. a little house or hut. a cat koshki.out cacciare . squash. to hunt. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. mino. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . Fr. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. . Castle. In the dialect of Picardy. dash. castello. the earlier sense of catch. and from the castus. fall. casser. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. stilts. klakka. kissa. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. cacciarc. Lat. the castanets for or implement . to look at. KaTaarpifm. Hence castaneta. the stalk of plants. a whip on the other into latch. Fr. To It. The Diet. casipola. dashing it out of the window. V Lith. accastiare. to hurl See Awgrim. OFr. a Cataract. an enumerlist. cash. n. heat .. squash. kasta. from water Karappaaaiii. to torture. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. cojz^/a. down. dim. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. V. and tomba. which. cacciuolo. to cast or beat to tioner . This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. KaraXoyog. from the first of Castrate. punch. KarapaKrr]g. casulla. like that of It. while kiss / Pol. Lat. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. force j Rouchi equerviche.

Kil. a cornIn the s. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing.V. Cot. to clap hands. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. KaTtix'so. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. kletsen. to harangue. Fr. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. from Gr. pedes. dainty vic- a form lash. klatscherei. Caterer. snatching it with a any one. . chenille {canicula. ' ' word catch. Metivier. to teach by oral instruction. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall .j. Fr. bichano (pussy).) . latch of. a whip Rouchi cachoire. chatter. catch-flesh. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. — Kiittner. insect. s. cache. head. klinke. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. instruction in forms. a pill. Chate peleuse. GaUa catchiza. resound. gingle. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. snatching. predicament. gliong. clap. as of the latch of a As ! — . catc?u.. millecaterpillars. a carter's Pat. — Catcli-poll. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Diez. the distance to which the ball is struck. klatsch. * Caterpillar. Tutschek. formerly called cliket. a. — . to the crack. E. G. 'Bxn. a little dog). chink. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. chatter . E.yopl(. latch. to snap. with and without an / after the c. companaige. OFr. Kil. a smack. chachara. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. in order). glcu. which all . Kartiyopta (/cari. — tinman. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. i. bicho. wild-beast. snatched. cagnon (a dog). ArbaUte de courte chasse. called dog or Galla catchamza. Du. — explained. catch. to crack GATES cache. Du. a clap. Claucht. catch. compare G. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. icarrix'Ki^. In the XV'e. claquer. a whip. ketsoore. On Catechism. kaetse. smack. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. Sp. e. has both or of charming by sound. whip. — with a whip. to snatch (said of dogs). — B. called in Fr. weevils. or any kind of relishing food tuals. de Bray. chacepol. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. seize. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. happe-chair. Guernsey pilleure. Fr. the OE. and answer. Sc. is said that he got a claucht of it.' ^Jam. to take. 'Horxa. clatter. apprehend a person. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. klatsche and Norm. resono ictu lash. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. cat is not apparent. verberare kUts. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the .' CATCH Fr. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. klatschen. to A bailiff. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . caucht. . Ptg. . a whip or Kuttner. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). Du. blow. . to kythe D. a caterpillar Milanese can. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way.from Bard and ayopsw. to chat. woodlice. kletse. chasse. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. c or ^. sound. chase. caker. gattola. an accusing. a. Cates. Cot. door when it is shut. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. 135 — Aasen. Rouchi clincailleux. quincailler. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. Grandg. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. the the same principle he was Fr. to chatter with the teeth cake. Swiss Lombard G. Gr. * Cates. the elements of a science.P.s. flap klatsche. from shutting with a click. P. a — gatta. chassoire. devouring mite or weevil. ictus resonans.V. worm. dainties. an officer of taxes. clap with the hand. children's name for cat . but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. Wal. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. ' Fr. Guernsey chafer. silkworm. e. Gael. Gael. fragor kletsoore. E. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. ecachoire. . a whip. to catch strength. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho.

' B. Cathartic. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . cautus). chausser. kopista. Fr. Sx. 2. rete A — Prov. Delycates. Cathedral.. cabbage. mutz. Pr. minon. Palsgr. a horse . Hence achates or acates signified purchases. ce^l. to ac- — Fr. and at the rich man's cost By sea. dumpf tonen. A warm comforting drink. kobuiV. Caustic. Fr. Fr. Fr. It. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. kocie. Lat. catkins . fur. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. via strata. to beware. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. Kavrfipiov. It. calotte.^ acheter (Lat. Caution. acater.Lat. what . Diez). chevalier. catkin mitz. cal^ar. caballus. Manciple's Tale. It. hollow. macska. .Y\\Xea. chaussJe. a road calceata. deyntie meates. from chaud. Caballus. Boethius. a receptacle for small things. caldo. to shoe . OE. also to pave . challe was ther of a temple. but the acates that are sent him.p. .' Elyot in Way. any Fl. and spareth for no perell. Provider. Cauldron. walnut with the husk on challer. capull. kin. Fr. cale. hot. otherwise written kell. KaHSpa. .. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. Causeway. green husk of a calon. . a mare. puss. puss. Kavrijp. from delf^gato. &c. chauderon. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. Mid. caple. hot. cabbage). quire. 4. Lat. Fin. Catkin. despencier. catons. cavaliere. Port. Ka^afriKOQ. is Prologue. Gr. Fr. to sound like a blow . Jaubert. CAVE Caul. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. causa. Cause. calqada. to shoe. Palsgr. Kil. Cave. • — — See Chattel. Thus Bav. flue. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. reticella. calceata. choufleur {choii. On the other hand. accapitare Rouchi acater. a seat. and hence a skull-cap. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. . mudet. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. a horseman. flock. a paved road. klopfend knallen. caudex . w. Lat. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. little cat. cavus. cabbage-stalk. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. kaussijde. a kind of skull-cap. Wyatt in R. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Cavity. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. chaudiire. to buy.Lat. catkin Magy. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. cale. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. katte. It. Caudle. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. puss. accattare. KaPaWrii. ' Gr. That he was ay before in his estate. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Du. Lat. . Cavalry. Bessie of Bednall. apt to burn iron. catkin Pol. Rete. Fr. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. to purge. Fr. a branding from koiio. kobyla. calidus. kdtzchen. Fr. Cavalcade. Gael. Cattle. Mid. Pol. the. kautsije. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. acaptar. little cap is . cautis. . a pavement. Jonson in R. katteken. cauHs. Gr. the caul of the liver. Du. cheval. whence cathedralis. B. — . Richly she feeds. Dryden in R rete. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. chair. The word — . kitten kotki. kopano. to shale or peel. from caveo (p. make clean. a stalk. having the property of cleansing. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. shaled or picked Fr. primitive is meaning a shale or off. adcaptare. calceta. chaudroii. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. a horse . KiwariKog.—— — 136 correct.willow. — — cavallo. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. a kettle for heating water. CATHARTIC sense. cat maczoka. Lat. Fr. chatideau. by land. the stones of a street. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. a pulpit. Cavern.^Hal. koparet. Russ. lamb. G. kassije. from KaSaipio. kocianki. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. fur in general. net or caul-work. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. Chaud. achepter. — Cauterise. a The peel. Cavalier. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. a horse. It. Lat. to burn. hazel. Gr.

' Marriage of James IV. Lat. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. syl. CAVESON kopera or kowera. &c. —Decease. the roof of a coach. . selure. -cease. 5. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. a log. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. And seik — Cessation. column E. The line of descent from Fr. thelu. tester of a bed. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. thel. augm. excess. sybire. The sense of roofing. semely on syll. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. Cot. -cede. Wore. thil. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. empty. Ceiling. curved. applied to a canopy.' Ordinances and Reg. plank. proceed. In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. death.' del. to plank or floor with planks. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. with their substantives concession. . to panel or wainscot MHG. Soc. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. cease. So from Fin. wall. . in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. B. a hut. or of a bed. ceiling. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. &c. as if from happen. ceiling. The importation of Fr. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. VIII. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. a head. also a seeling of boards. a planking or boarding tkilian. &c. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. kapp-zaum.' Hall. of cavezza. — .' — Gawan . hollow. that. in Hal. Lat. Cease. and that from Sp. — . p. menuiserie. as. is applied to a canopy.. give place. step away. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. IV. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. Cavil. jaa. . Hal. Fr. kommata. thiling. hollow. Lat. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. . sill in window-sill. the testern of a bed. the deck of a ship at thilja. lambrisser une chambre seeling. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa.). CEILING The kynge to souper is set. cavillor. H. a halter. to go forth. cessum. hollow ice . -cess. pp. 32. in Jam. dScis. Cam. to canopy siled. a canopy. thili. To seele a room. cyling (W. Cede. Sherwood. Boyd in Jam. a boarded floor. &c. wainscot thiljar (in pi. and zaum. ciel is so unbroken. Fr. The It. plank. a log. komo. cabega. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. dil. 7.'— Z. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. hung. in Jam. departure from this life. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. a severe bridle. cedo. . komista. but hang around at the sides. seele. dayntily diglit. wuoren komo. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. 43. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. exceed. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. rafter. cielo. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. yield. . thil. . beam. departure. p. deal. . a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. selar. E. and Gol. cavezzone. lambris. to argue capto tiously. Sir 137 pit . decessus. an aquiline nose. sus-lambris. cabegon.' Cot. . A — A false accommodation produced G. thilja. canopied. . In the same way G. door-sill J Sc. Hence concede. Gawaine & Sir Gol. — komo tain). — — — toyour soverane. nailes will begin to cling. -ceed. In the N. and then to gape. It. ciel de lit. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. . heaven. a fir-plank. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. Plancher. Sp. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. koppeli. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. to seele or close with boards plancher. cellar.j have come from this source. a plank. sill. coffer. sky. . recede. See -cede. caveqon. succeed. syle. were met. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. Fr. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. the inner roof of a room of state. crooked kopio. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. little house. board . bridle. Lat.). to plank ON. a beam. cesso. a canopy.' Rutland papers. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . dille. a board. Fr. heaven. a log. del into English without ' translation gave cele.. post. to cut. hivtmel. quibble. of E . flooring E.

to ensile the haukes that ben taken. mortar. Accelerate. To chafe is for wine. — . siller les yeux. -i^oivre. cot. Sherwood. what to set in a chafe. a solemnity. — A . K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. to be regarded as one celebro. Fl. Celebrity. but was gradually lost in conceit. or any bird's. Lat. contend. &c. Fr. capio. deceipt. to rate. to take. judge. concetto. Cot. census. from Saa-rw. riscaldarsi. decide. hollow. &c. a registration of one's self. to seal a pigeon's eye.ing a room where there is not fire.unmarried. Chafe. concernor. rubble. Census Censor. to rub for the purpose a hut. sacred show. to think. Lat. Incensum. -oept. to attend on object with. chauffer. celer. Lat. censura. thronged the participle cretus. {cori)cipere. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. — . thence belonging to or connected with corn. Censure. calefare. Lat. S. as entering largely into the derivative certo. — — Cenotapli.— Chafing-dish. see. Lat. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. to incense. Take the nedyll and threde. Cij(fe5j. in accordance with the Fr. Centre. Censer. make angry. for building. Celerity. to take. Ta^oe. -cern. the hollow the Lat. — . (and thence also) to hoodwink. to glow. to bury). ceremonia. KsvTpov. to -sum. to chafe. 1. sift. to celebrate. Sc. -cevoir. the officer appointed to take such returns . Lat. For sess from assess. ciller. to course of people. cigliare. -cepire. a Cemetery. candeo. cillier. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. To seel or close the eyes. guish. Lat. Cess. of heating. cceremonia. -cense. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. to sepap rate. to warm. Century. his office. to separate. -cess. point. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. Assess.' Celebritas. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. .. decebre) . renown be embodied with. in comp. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. chaufferette. -ceive.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. materials It. keep in It. Centurion. Gr. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. we have a modified form of (of a place). to set on fire. a tomb. Lat. the talk of men. stones to the production of heat. to burn incendo. distinIt. to prick. cenio. rough from the quarry. from censeo. heaven. become heated with anger. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. sure. -CEIVE a shaft. tax. Fr.' Book of St Albans. Certain. Fr. Assize. appertain. cerealis. to sleep). — . camentum. blind. festive. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. swift. and so of that other. cilibat. -cebre ifoncebre. assess. sting. and make them faste und the becke that she se not.). observe. -ciper. parted sleep.of the r.. as in some places burnt.cern. eschattffer. value. the place where the de. solemn (of per. The term cilium. age. a hundred centuria. a shaft horse. receipt. Cereal. with transposition hence (of a day). with the eyes. to blindfold. eyelid. an eyelash. In Celebrate. to heat. Gr. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. — . Fr. confounded ist from It. a religious observance. Fr. a hundred of what- — . Cot. OFr. K^'ivut. cencer. See Cede. and put it through the over eyelydde. and — — — possessions. much frequented. Lat. Lat. judge. dchauffer. Prov. is totally distinct from the foregoing. Fr. a numerous con. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. ciglio. to contend. family. to visit in numbers. capturn. and thence to conceal.j 138 thill.). /ctj/rsw. being taken from Fr. cella. deceit. -cepere. -ceit. Fr. -ceptjun. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. criticism. Fr. calefacere. to twinkle darkness. to seele or sew up the eyelids . Lat. oil. single or unwedded life. also grave opinion. conceipt. Ceremony. or expression of Ennius. in comp. Coehim. goad. See Celibacy. It. oil. incense. a solemnity. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. in Marsh. a valuation of every man's estate. a prick. to concern. celeber certus. — . It. -civer {conciver— Roquef. Gr. -cipio. and met. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. estimate. then to rub without reference Cement. pick out. and thence censer. concerner. Lat. zens according to their property. encens. empty. Lat. irot\oe. sile. caber. abundance. Cell. tax. the point round which a circle is drawn. To Incense. crevi. Gr. cretum. a storehouse Chafe. anger two distinct words are probably Lat.— Cellar. judge Lat. . Censor. syll. ' . to distinguish. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. is the opposite of disora virum. quarters for slaves. centum. census.

far lima-lima. snort. and signifies to consume with anger. refuse barley . Probably from According to Diez. crooked. kahuja. Perhaps Pm. KoBiSpa. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. rally one. — . calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. Fr. to file. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. cadera. — — — — — — . preise. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. sagrindse. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. cathedra. kdfelen. taubes korn oder hafer. chatter. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. chamar. — — — . Du. hordeum vel let. in a monstrous fume. dispute. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. kever. hght Chalk. Lat.— — . Due. to bark. tattle cheep. of. Halma. kiqfta. chaffare. OFr. puff. contestation.nium. much blowing. to dispute. khah. chayire. calix. 35. kuhata. kahista. 11. Wall. kuhina. keuchen. baras of ants. a pulpit Cot. Pr. care. to call. Cheffern. p. a chough. kaff. snuff. chicane. cauvette. chaulx. muzzle. havOFr. to caw chawer. . kaff. songe. chaire. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. rustle Challenge. to sit. with a:n arched roof. leviter crepo Then. talkative. a jackdaw. Kuttn. jaw. Lat. chaine. thick and short. kiaftr. grief. shaIt. Prov. cadena. idle words. fern-chafer. B. green sagrin. chalanger. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. as a carriage is a moveable seat.' Rayn. Chalice. and as this was the beginning of man. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Gr. Fr. also to prattle. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. any insect of the beetle kind. to gnaw. . cadena gives chain. Chain. have a mind to parley. to gnaw. Chagrin. great chafe. to claim. catena. camera. Fr. haggle. to buzz. calonja. to calumpnjamen. rustling motion challenge. tronfio. limare. to action arose. swelling with anger. keffen. In vulgar language. ^Altieri. as. Pat. kiamta. Fl. — — ' — — — A . . matter by combat. dongio. E. grief. sagri. to Latin calumniare. a pulpit. cathedra. Lat. In like manto huff. in a cana. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. to puff and blow. false accusation. (ca'e'ra) to chair. P. charge with. kuhista. hiss. ceafer. From the To Chaff. vis. kdfer. from of the G. kauchen. to tattle. Gr. To buy and sell. Kaiiapa. puffed or ruffled with ly. ceaf. calonjar. ON. Fr. rustling corn. vel susurro. Hal. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. clamare. Cot. breathe hard. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. much more Genoese sagrind. now a chair. a double operation * Chafer. Fr. sborfare. Cot. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. Du. to fret inwardtronfo. ckapfare. chaise. The jaw chafty. lime. without chap/are makiinde. a goba rustling . that leneth e per I'autra. from Swiss kafeln. a chain. chambre. Chair. Adelung. to move the jaws. to a seat. Camera. calx. or puff with snorting. gewolb. Bav.sure carriage. . the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. to ner It. G. bargain. Piedm. — — — . breathe KaOa^oiiat. place See Cheek. Fr. chaps Chamber. call in question for an ley). Prov. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to pant. a rustling noise. a prattling woaction. Lat. cadieira. &c. cup. calice. difficulty . From Port. Fr. So from dominio. ing rapidly repeated cries. on. From to go to law. Fin. . kuhuja. fume. de Brai. to chatter or talk lightly. fa sagramen de calompnia. Lat. signal by drum or P. kedja. chafing. yap. chagrin. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. G. care. quisquilise offence. Fr. chawe. Fr. tattle. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. Lat. from the shark-skin. ing a hard case to their wings. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Lat. to babble. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. Chayire. Prov. Came. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. Pers. cam. Ayenbite. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Fr. avena vilior. chaene. to institute anforensic action. chafeter. kahu. calumnia. refuse. lime .. De Ir4. a vault or arched roof. Bouffard. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. often puffing.. ple^.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain.

a scufSe. Commonly derived from campus. When the to quarrel. the chafldn. act of falling. to slope out the . which seems another form of the root. kabe. Lat. kabinti.' ' Pr. cample). Ptg. Chancel. . to fasten oneself on to another . and mesUe. received the petitions of the suitors. ciamberlano. head armour. cempa. camp. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. ON. cazer. pinch. E. to strive at games . difficulty . a horse-race. Champ. champ. at the railings. kabMe. fight. The happening of things Chance. — ^Tusser. ON. Get campers a ball To camf . Sp. jeu parti. to fasten on.' SherI'altro ' ' . cameratus. to be eminent. Magy.—Charfron E. ciambellano. to to chew champ. an athlete. cancelli. surpassing. kimpustella. kapp. to quarrel (comp. to hang. divided game. chanfreindre. Hence (with the nasal) w. to talk. hero Sw. Champion.Lat. Prov.—Tutschek. Chancery. chanfrein. to wrestle. gekrUmmt. champ parti. chdance. as in It. See Camp. Fr. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. accident. dial. chance. dial. . kiinp. bundle. as swine. To Chamfer. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. dispute Hal. boys speak of capping verses. to — — champ. to move the jaws kiamt. broil.edley. Campar. kappd). sukibti. champ. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. luctare. Carpentier. M. hot. to wrestle. a hook . attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. Fr. kampa. prize-fighter. champ. Meleare. gewolbt. to hollow out. kimpUma. kablys. wood. —Chamfrain. mesleiare. to cample. champion Du. . Gall. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. Sup. fray. ON. a hollow chanfreiner. a warrior. slope of a bevelled angle. It will. Fr. to smack the lips in eating. from Fr. hamper. rare. a game at football.140 CHAMBERLAIN . G. a court of justice. reusement — fight in single combat. kempen. calidameya. pedilusor. and acted as inofficers of . to stick to. therewithal. to fasten oneself to another . to Hal. move the jaws. to happen {ad and cadere. i. chanfrein. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . Prov. campar. . camp. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. dial. athlete. to .be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. Lat. e. calida et sans aguet. kampeln. caer. kampen. to tread The sound heavily. game campio. chamfrain. chance. Fr. a feat. Chamfron. CHANCEL It. to chew. kabintis. to hold . Dief. excellent. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. — KiL . The word is preserved in E. nels. to fall. to fall). chajnbellan . camp. jocus partitus. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. giving rise to the as. s. to paw the ground E. or less ignorant. Pm. . Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. fighting place. contend or argue G. kippo. . camerlengo. to flute as a column. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. to bevel. schmatzen s. a field of battle. To hollow out in chanPtg. Champaign. champ. kimppu (Lap. ing. — masterly Sp. bickering. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . who stood ad cancellos. cadere. Chance-n3. hng. keiiipe. kempa. Partnership. Lith. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. from cheoir. to slope. Fin. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. Lat. chain. fight. E. dial. Fr. from chaud. campus. . kinipen. Sp. kanip. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. contest. dial. campus partitus . dricka i kapp. zampettare. campear. The E. to excel. Lat. a jaw kianisa. kibti. kriimmen gebogen. a bundle. To cope or contend with. combat. is explained by serrarsi. contention kappi. Champarty. to debate.' melleia. Fr. . zs jeopardy. accidere. tsamtsogni. Du. to groove bevel off a right angle. The G. cahir. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. chaude mesUe. top of a borehole. Chancellor. tsammogni. So in e. compound. kampeln. chamble. — Hal. certare. kimbu. chanfrar. kiammi. escazenza. or player at football. termediaries between them and the judge. — Ch-amberlain.

gab. chaps. from clap. to plate. a small plate of flat metal. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Chaps or chops. Fr. to peck. esclapa. a chap is a crack or fissure. chiappa. as chancery . Man of Law's Tale. kapoti. chancellerie. muzzle. cheek. Lang. Da. chapeta. a pipe. See Chop. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. chancery. a reed. See Chant. to break . the place where candles ler. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. to sing. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Fr. chandelier. to swap. Hence chantry. may be compared with ON. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . changer. kvar kjceften. to peck. any hollow for conveying water. to plate. Cheek. to put on fresh clothes. the clappers of the scupper holes. shift. to cut off . . supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. To Change. from canna. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. to paw like a horse .^. to change. a dealer in candles then. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. Hence It. is used in the same sense . cambium. a money-changer. jaw. hack . a jaw. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. Aasen. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. It is also used in the sense of the E. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. schimbu. W. schimbd. . ceaflas. exchange. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. like the knocking of hard things together. to — cut. 2. — : Lat. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. chop. as It. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. . skipta. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. I. throat of an animal. extended to other trades. the loose flesh of the cheeks. kiceft. Chapel. chanter. a strip of metal plate. Commonly derived from capella. surfaces striking together. to spht a chip. Chip. cambiare. as those on a trunk. Sc. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. or the like chapar. In like manner Walach. ON. to deal. chop. chapelete de una bomba. hard bodies. —Chantry. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . jaw. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. from chandler. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. the chaps . cangiare. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. and also to chap or crack. Chap. klepan. Chap. as to chap hands. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. kjaakaa. to hack. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. to apply one flat thing to another. — . Russ. cambiar. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. kaupa. A fellow. ^Jam. and the modern canal. debeant conjurare. Chandler. clapet. AS. to strike. Fr. exchange. waterconduit. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. —Ordericus Vitalis. to coat. to chap at a door. And N. E. lips of an animal. chap. Bret. Fr. to cut up into small pieces. wood. exchange schimbatoriu. to strike with a sharp edge. properly in a hard body. to strike. Chap. chapear. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. Chape. Lat. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. cobio. the mouth. . Prov. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. chapeletas de imbornales. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. also a clap. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. a small metal plate Port. to creak. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. Walach. Da. the gutter that runs along a street. 140. while the broader vowels a. flat . to cut. . not a soul. leather. ceaplas. kennel. kiceft as well as kjakje. cantare. to truck. canalis. Chop. Compare chark. — — —Marculfus in Due. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Channel. Lith. kemma. Sp. Du. camjar. Hal. as skin chapped hands. That wide were sentin their spicery.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. esclapo. Sp. or the cracking of one. chapilla. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. are kept. as corn-chandChandry. prune. Hal. Probably from chap. chap. Molbech. chapa. kappen.

dim. Lang. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. capellare. OE. as Pol. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. Sp. a hood.). carricare. czirbti. cam. to load . from capitulum. Lat. Lith. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. . Charade. carmo. chirriar. Bret. Chirk. to tattle. . burning without consuming the substance. — spell. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. dear. It. a charm. decken. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. occasional turn. talking. beloved. from gadai. And damned be he who first cries Hold. Chare. Fr. Fr. enough. — — — turned to coal. To Char. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. AS. kurkti. go. A weed among com AS. from capa. Charcoal was ciarlare. Hence carminare. AS. w. called in Sp. charade. charlar.. The G. as a beetle. to converse. as. to .' Boccaccio in Diez. &c. chirk. gnash. twitter. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . ceap-man. Lay on. charger. tegere. turn about. to charcoal. of chapel. In that work the verb is written caire. Yx. charge an enemy is to lay on. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. clack. used in the sense of magic Fl. canne. to turn Gael. czurliwoti. prattling quacksalver.whirr. to sing or chirp as birds. in To ness Charity. cearcian. Macduff. from cape or cope. a turn cerran. . From Norm. caricare. to dove . which was incantation. Sp. cabildo. char. cha. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. Charlock. creak. properly to place — . jabber. to love. affection. Inst. to croak as a frog . to talk . capital. The crash. a riddle.czirksti. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. chat. a cricket karkti (schnarren.Lat. Chark. Fr. capella. to prattle. chapitre. to chirp. to chirp as sparrows. a The OFr. . creak. It. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Du. Sup. Gr. a mark of a mountebank. charitas. it is my turn. hiss Lith. Fr. carregar. gadka. czurksti. chatter. chapel. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. to turn. Boh. return. charcoal burners. charer. . Chapman. Chaplet. a mark made on a thing. pohadka. babbling. eyre. See Charlatan. for the same reason rosario. It. eapitulo. that turned decken . from carrus. Deutsch. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. Justin. and in It. condo il volgar francese. Fr. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. Swiss. Ptg. ject). turn. chara. kirkti. the turtle pitre. a garland of roses. hadka. wood to coal. An enchantment. It. charlatan. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . es ist mi cheer. to creak. chapelet. Sp. keeren. a dispute . — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. to chirp. a rhyme. tattler. corona. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. 2. colliers that charred coal.charme. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. — a car. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. the nature of a thing. Cot. kurkelis. surris seu Lat. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. carus. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. chatter. dear(in both senses). w. karout. gaggle . siarad (pronounced — sharad). called kedlock. babdistinction. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. See Cheap. a head or division of a book. * Charcoal. cedeleac. cluck kirklys. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. seems to be derived charade. caritas. Character. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. (eucharistie. cluck. krachzen). chirlar. Mundart. —— . Chapter. car. Mid. Lat. a merchant. from Charade. be- e. to of the governing body. Charlatan. to prattle. in turns. carmen. wreath for the head. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. cher um cher. twist. bler. ghirlanda seor garland. Charge. ciarlatore. capitolo. cerran. 370. schreien. Lat. a riddle. a verse. Prov.

clear. Cot. sordidus. to burst open. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. to gape. to chirp. germinate . fragments. in Jam. the bird is iiown. xi'i-'^vui.— Chit. ferire. CHATS fit 143 to name.). to crack. It t. G. clack. Chart. cassa s. V. carnisj bones kept. clean. . In like manner Russ. To Chase. kata. castus. to talk. Fl. crackle. Diez. also to germinate or spring forth. It. parcus. chip. chatter. to cut and faggoted.— Chatter. knatiern. Russ. csaterdzni. chip. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. letters p. It. — Yorkshire chat. chit. kastaa. Gr. converse. splinters. Lat. Chaste. chikat'. — Hal. Lat castigare. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. to clap. D. from pure. as purgare Fr. Hal. whistle. chick. ch&tier. little sticks cudere. clean. Malay. to baptize. Pol. charmer. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . Kil. To Chasten. or the cry of a bird or the like. cearig (from cearian. an enchantress. nommer. B. tenax. a word. incassare. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. See Cistern. Chary. kata-kata. whence a charm of goldfinches. is to represent the chamier. gazeuiller. Fr. To work plate as silversmiths do. i. clean. chits. Fl. caro. noise. as. cyrm. a young man . charm. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. gadu-gadu. — sharp sound of a crack. warble.house. a churchyard or charnel-house.ppen. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. — Palsgrave. eclats. karigh. the noise of birds. Chat. —Charter. as in the E. %aafi. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. pure. To chitter or chipper. to chirp. chaste. discourse. See Card. chat. csacsogni. kippen. To Chase. . prattle. It. to wet. to make a noise. as we speak of olive branches. Magy. a twig Suffolk chaits. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. careful. scraps of for fuel. talk. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. to chatter or prattle . as from nomen It. —Bailey. the young shoots . make a noise as birds do. — Fr. — We ornamental work the to signify E. la chasse d'une rose. blackthorn-chats. —Chastise. To talk. g. cs E. Pol. prate. chaste. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. a plate of metal. Cot.. tittle-tattle. magpie. or equivalent forms. carme and Fr. to cry as a chicken . or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. To chit. talk much . chair. a flock of those birds. Chasm. or a bird out of the egg. gaddc. to which it bears the same relation as chape. the cry of the bat. Chat-wood. castus. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. Parallel with E. Fr. occasionally Forby. or pop. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. to chirp as a bird to cheep. ch). — — .). OE. From carinen was formed It. shivers. chick. So in Gael. — = Chats. chit in the latter sense Du. chisf. be wide open. root of the Lat. chykkyn (Pr. — The . chit-chat. enchasser. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. to separate in morsels. kna. clap. fragments or leavings of food. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. geug. used to represent a sharp note. schioppare. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. chip. a branch. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. csacsogany. jackdaw . or suckers on rough borders. a chatter-box. limpid. as turnip-chaits. Kil. To chip is then to crack. to crack.a. gazzettare. Pm. a branch and a young female. noise. niggardly. racket . chasse (another form of caissej see Case). gazzerare. pure. also to hatch. pure. a crack or a flaw . a shrine for a relic. chary. from xoAn. the handle of a razor . gallan or ogan. flesh. See Catch. a gap. a yawning. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. An imitative word. the calix of a rose. gazzogliare. warble. czysty. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. snap. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. knacken. csatora (Magy. karg. Chamel. carmen is presented in AS. to care). Fr. Du. s. Fr. to set a jewel. gazzolare. shout OE. The egg is chipped. —Jam. nome and . also a youth. to enchase it . speak . CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. It. clatter. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. from purus. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot.

-^. upon a checked cloth. lower. chapman. in Fr. exAS. See Cheek. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. Fin. chatel. 'li^'opa jord i jord. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. Lat. cera. Hence to cheat. jaw. et juxta catalla sua. a canting knave. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme.. and hence the E.. . a willing look and unwilling heart. cattle. a tavern-keeper.. bon marche. cheeks. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. kaupa. citello. aspect of a man. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. Sc. a dealer in horses. to stutter gigken. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. kik. to laugh. stuttering. The gutGoth. goods. cattle. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . KaviiXog. which is the word in ceap. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Fr. . The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. jaws. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. agreeing upon. ceap. chiere. catalliim. — We ' . changing. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. NE. cita. chire. goods. It — Brompton in Due. laughing. Chew. any cheating. Ingulphus. OFr. Slav. 144 the It. Bav. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. ceahhetan. cachinnari. equiva. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. the Confessor. ku. kaupon. Cam. chatal. frown. hawkmann. to fetch the breath with difficulty.kakot. Hal. mandibula. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. tradesman. Cheek. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. . sob E. Modern Slang. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. a piece of moveable property. in widely separated languages by the Lat. See Chess. thers. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. . Fl. to buy. to . kakaista. CHEEK zitella. are represented piti. G.' to exchange to gasp.of the throat in coughing. chaptel. kauf. syllables ^ag-. Chattels. a dealer. chop. — — —Chowl. It. to negotiate. cara. Cheat. Sp. entertainment. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. Bohem. kok. to coup s. gagkern. farm for farm. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. horse-couper. e. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. . caupo. cozener. to deal ON.— Chaps. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. s. favour. to — . entertain kindly. ceaflas. kaupiti. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king.—Choke. It.— Chole. dchec. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. to make inarticulate sounds in . truffa. retching. cattle. a cheater. to coff—Yisi. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. the Lat. teeth . giving or taking in exchange. Fr. Then. lead to OE. a young boy or girl. sale. force of the word. stuttering.' kezen. ceafl. price.— . — To check an account. kek. to nauseate (to retch). chear in the sense of victuals. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. prattlingchete. Du. while it Bret. Soc. the countenance Fr. welcome heartily. which is used in the to stutter. countenance. to clear the throat . visage. to act as a rogue. Pro v. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. and. Faire bonne chire. to cough and hence either buying or selling. from Lat. capitale. kichen. giggling. kikottaa.— Cattle. us. snout. to cluck like a hen. to vomit. Chear. to buy. koopen. OFr. gig. the tongue.ing. to chop and change. Gr. choule. to swap goods . with the exception of land. kak. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. keck. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. the face.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. kakkaset. from AS. whence captale. chavylbone or chawlbone. &c. gagkezen. the principal ' colloquial E. sense of bargaining. with Dief. Pr. society. Pm. kaufen. Ek dry and hard. a repulse. chuckle. Check. look. Cot. CHATTELS has ciio. sum in a loan.

Fr. frame by which the exertion is made. kdkel. condition of being taken. See Chess. Lat. giffle. Fr.Xo belch. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Pm. Du. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. kopen. the final guttural is retained in writing. chops. veteris casei sapore Ancatus.. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. The Sw. kikna of dorum coacervatio. The name of creak as shoes. gabe. accomplishment cayed. quok. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. cheek. (Kil. Lat. — — . The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. Chevaux de frise. the hke. acquisition. to gape gab. throat.D. Kil. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. kastanie. equal squares of opposite colours.D. jouffle. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. G. chasi. gap. to kep. chests in OE. cyse. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. gaghel. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. jaw . xaque. a heap. cherir. Chevisance. chops. kasiiUPr. to accomThis they call hdrsk. E. to belch. chiffe. As the board to gasp i. e. Chess. like a young chicken. Sw. gapen. Sc. to year. kasa. subacidus. to gasp. cough. Sp. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. a cricket. cabiron. to bring to an end. It. old bread. Sc. . by laying it in come to an agreement with. Fr. a chicken. caru. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. ceaplas. ation. cegio. Fr. cufd. w. Jam. From them the plish. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. achever. takes place in the formation of cheese. /Ji2^/(W. kapen. .their struggle for independence. cerise j G. things Da. &c. the neck.G. carnium. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. E. cheken. cireggia. the mouth. N. for cheese itself. Fr. X'C&s. Prov. king). gous forms are G. food. ca' — . to love. Sp. the The use of the word kcesir. — — . kok. to boken. jowl. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. jaw. cisty G. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. ON. ceac. Prothroat of an animal . the loose the game of checks. cerasus.perly head. Chemistry. schach. To make a shrill noise Chest. Hence kikna is identical with OE. See Case. w. rattle in the throat. Fris. Cherry. Lith. suffo. . Thus "we are brought din.). to choke. clear the throat. jaws Sw. rafters in heraldry. kaecke. Analo. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. chAtaigne. kastr. Du. . to choke with laughter. whence czypulas. kjcebe. then end. jaws. Tutschek. throat. E. OHG. to heap up such things for the purchoke. quoka..cirieggia. kjceve. kikna. hasten. Lat. practice seems to have been communiChevron. kirsche. AS. cabrio. geagl. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. Achievement. Cherish. gullet. cista. chevron. kistej Lat. ost. Da. as.peep in the same sense. Lat. incaseatus. jaw. kjakje. scacco. to kasa. by laying up in a covered heap.' to w. treat with affection. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. veluti piscium. squeak as a mouse. Lith. E.EP CHEVRON 145 on. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. kesten. Chekenyd or querkenyd. cheek. ichec. An imitative word. chevir. castaneusj Fr. mouth kek. to hold dear. rennet. AS. to make a noise different word. a rafter . caws. kces. cheeks. In these latter forms we see the transIt. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. See Alchemy. to swallow. rupted into chess. chesten. subjected to this process with that which the throat . ceaflas. Fin. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. To Cheep. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. schach. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. chaps. the throat. CHE. geafl. w. F*-. Sw. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. Cher. AS. whence kasa-leipa. It would Cheese. prevail with. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. as meat and butter. mollium congeries. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. G. czypti. cams. caseus. made rancid koka. dear. to geahl. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Pl.koppen. make an end. kdke. cheek. ceocian. cese. the palate Chequer. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. dersen . ceg. nish source. Hence chesten-nut. skratt. Chef. — — . gill of fish AS. . — 10 . to prevent the attack of cavalry.

klagend tonen. . Chimb. a little bit. capo. Palsgr. caferu. a finch. and not vice versd. in Walach. Fl.). Russ. w. kuwe. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. kime. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E.— Cot. a chicken. creak. or chick. G. kieken. signifying properly shivering. twitter. knit the brow cib-led. Pr. pipe. jaws . alter. E. into a continuous shriU sound. tiukka. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. Halm. The loss of the syllable it in Du. capu. killen. pululo. ultimate origin of the Mite. the throat. greloter is to shiver for cold. the head.^ Hal. tremble. chol. while didder is to shiver or citteren. 'Among these the G. the jole. chavel. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. chillrar.. cidan. And hence. Sp. 146 brial. kimme. chillness or shivering. tiuk. G. Child.' my finger tingles with cold. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. to smart. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. tiukkata. — — Mother Hubbard. from little to little. horns of the house. Chick. to crackle. De chic en chic. kauwe. jaw. acute. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. kind. or as E. mouth. a quid of tobacco. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. to chime. kopf Du. kauen. CHJME the radical form is unusual. Du. Imitative of a loud clear sound. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. and from the third E. E. as pointing out the origin of the E. See Chimmer. kidata. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. cap. then cold.D. Fr. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. chicken. killen. grelot). cebr. Gael. Tintillo. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. the least imaginable jot. kop. cild. keichen. are formed Du. pipio. cib. to chew. caput. Pm. strideo. to gasp for breath (Hal. Bret. to the brim. kauchen. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. Chime.D. pip. — It. antler. Now gan some courage unto him to take. kilderkin. . to go. To chitter. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. rafter . The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. Fin. Du. Chief. Prov. chillar. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. by driblets. pole. deer's horn. knirschen. Chill. Fin. chavel. tyuk.. a cup cibaw. sonorous. cica cica. — . ]). to use the jaws. to Du. branchy. aner. stake. To Chide. a young bird. tintelen van koude. rafter. pipio. the cry of young . but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. a small cask OFr. lead through the synonymous E. chikat'. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. chieftain. Magy. Fr. to scold. to contest about trifles. Gattel. kaw. head. De finger killet mi for kalte. knarren. chin. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. chaps. — Du. AS. chic. a hen. tremble with cold. Fin. Walach. chawbone. machouere. gills of a fish. Da.-ill. kindeken. as. Chigue. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. caprioru. capete. Lat. ' . Chaw. kibr. queror. chef. The Pl. a cup. jaw. then as G. cabarach. Fl. mountain top . tiukkua. .^ to resound as a bell. the young of animals in general. kimista^ . quivering sound which passes. doubtless originally a chicken Lap.. W. beam. hiss as meat on the gridiron. — Fin. or qf people talking rapidly. from the first of which is Lith. has probably the same origin. the rim or edge of a vase. to pettifog. E. Probably from Fr. choule. when the vibrations become very rapid. kippa. to chirp or peep like a chicken. also the horizon. Pm. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. Pr. Fr. czypulas. chill. cheek.. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. the same principle I regard On birds. cabar beinne. a chicken.— . ach. a head. chiquei. while the Magy. s. the Ptg. Pl. A To Chew. Payer chiguet A chiguet. kaau•wen. CHEW . or the broken noise of birds. chicaner. kouwe. gosling. to contest. term is ssaru fu. rafter . kitista. to titter is Du. chimb. horn wood. Chitter. a jaw. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. pi. k'imm s. captain. : — a lump. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. a chicken. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. crepo. chew or chaw. Kil. from the second Lat. to raise the rim. kimia. cabar. Brezza. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice .peep. chiler. For the see word Doit. It. cabriones. zitterti. a cup. chicoter. Swiss kiden.— Gattel. kinderen. to twitter.

We make of a French niff an English chitterling. fyr. clangor tinniens kummata. sonants. kumina. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E.to chirp. Chat. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. to sound deep or the Gr. — . fissure. or chyFrigutus. tinnire. It. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. as the chink of money. Caminatum. Ptg. applied to tremulous motion. bx-eak the back of schena. Diez de. esquina. a chink or fissure. To Chimmer. . esquena. To chink with laughter.. a surkik hosta.Lat. eschiner. as a bell kommata. sound on beginning to boil. crepare. as birds the mouth. Chimney. part lion. up and down. the mouth (jaws) . Sp.' Phaer's Virg. hiss Pm. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. Cot. eschin^e (de pore). cleft. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. and the Du. to open chirriar. schina. as the/ is preserved tering. The small entrails of a hog. all these imitative terms being minata. schetteren. skina.czirbti. and light. kieck hoest. spina. Huloet. i. et garrire . to sizel. cincel. a thorn. in Hal. quivering or shakyng for colde. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. Pm. See Bright. and chim-mer. to simmer. clashing of weapons. It.to divide or Du. name Then. Fr.sharp. gen. backe. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. keich husten. Gascoigne in Todd. from Lat. — . kink hoest.Huloet in Hal. — . We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. are In like manner E. zirken. squittire. Valentian charrarj Norman charer.iron. tschirpen. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Chip. simmer. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. See Chark. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. the jaw. disCot. caperd.. the jaw. a thorn. Chyrme or chur. then to any narrow crack or AS. a hall Mid. a fire-place. in the same crack. companied. chirp. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. sonus the backbone Lat. Magy. . Chitter. chatter . kinne. Pr. To chirp or twitter. to sound. A . and bodily movement in shimm. It. backBut she withal no worde may soune. Chintz. . killed by Bellerophon. cinne. gena. stridere. which differ from each other only as Chirk. to squeak in It. The change from the sound ter \s. Chink-cough. a szemrcU. Sp. To Chitter. bone . the chin . zirpen. a Kuttn. Sp. Chisel. do. Hindost. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. the whooping cough. rustle. Lat. tsongeni. E. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. resonance . the cheek (jaw) . eschine. Chimera. caminsects. KinneGr. schetteringe. Chink. but or cry as a parrot. Bav. a crowing sound in recovering breath. It. chink. Chine. G. to murmur. yivtiov. to chine. kumista. to tremble. plodere. and from a similar sound to boil gently. to chirre.). twinkling light. . pare also Walach. then of a fabulous monster part goat. Sp.er. to chink. ter. It. representing connected together. tsengeni. Fr. In the same sense. ykvvQ. dial. to creak. to tattle. chhint. to chirp . sounding deep. a chap. komista. to prattle czirpti. . ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. sparkle. — . to chink with laugh2. Du. cisello. ciseau (for cisel). epine. komia. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. as a large bell . to prattle . Gloss. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . genawi. verynge or dyderinge. czirszkti. Kil. vincially used in the sense of a crack. chick. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. cheminde. to gape. schiena. Bret. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. caminata. pork) . Du. cisaille. twitter caminus. AS. also vibrans. Fr. chits. the cheek. klincken. Gower in Hal. have been used to designate the spine. ciarlare. G. quavering of the voice. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. cheek. Chymerynge. hiss chirlar. to chirp. flaw Hal. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. 147 kimina. Chitterling. Fr. sound. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. — — — — — . lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. Prov. chin . Primarily a shrill sound.schricken. See Chap. genou (pi. Fr. the chine. Chin-coug^h. schrick. Sw. j^lf. cinan. The desig. tremulous motion. clipping of coin. hus. spina. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. See Chats. from the geon's lancet. Lith. hollow. from 10 * ' Chia. to creak. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Chit. E. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat.

a blow. of E. a heap. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . to experience. Gr. to wrinkle. OHG. wrath. skifa. a fragment. Cavalry. civette. Equivalents in the SlaFr. heaped measure. from %u\i). scheve. try. to tempt. kruszki. pluck.' who shall not taste death. koren. chiffe. Lat. gusten. curly . kiesen. to chap. caperd. as with a blow. bile. To Choke. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. to taste . gustare. Swab. i. cape. from chevalier. an onion. rare. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . Walach. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. shiver. to strike hands . word is more likely to be from Lat. chaup. Body and Soul. called cMtters in the N. and N. to taste. also calPs. the inwards of an animal. Warwickshire coff. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers.gust. gekrose. kieser. to hack. kausjan. chap hands. kbhren.— B jag E. Chivalry. schoch. to taste. . keypa. to break off in small shive. from kraus. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. Chap. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. chives. chibble. to turn. in the same language. ent quarter. cepa. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. Boh. to shiver. Fr. a small slice or slip of anything . wein didder for cold. Yr. See try. Swiss kust. then to try. kaup. to try. it is probable that the root kus. a twittering. propagated. •- Russ. and It. Prov. to Compare also Pol. ments of the knightly class. Chives. and in kosten. Goth. to try .D. to stop geschoppt voll. full to overflowing. all seem slate . ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. The I go to prove them. The Sc. x^poc. to palpitate . cke. as green as leeks. %o\ifa.yEuffM. are used in the same sense. taste. chceur. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. a ruff. a calf's pluck or chaldron .V)^x. causir. —Chorus. choppe. taste. to ing is doubtless to taste. choix. arkiusan. Choleric. ^euw. full. to taste. approve. Serv. Chuck-full. to try. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. kushati. a ruff or frill. Choice. signify to kiss. or original meaning is preserved in G. cut up into — See Chats. Fr. G. 19.freze. cive. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. to clap up Hal. chorus. a goose's giblets. schiefer. and in this sense the * small pieces. — See Cheek. As kushnuti. to exchange horses. of an angry — — — ' ' — . wkusit' prikushat. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. lead us on to Lat. G.' At last he dwelt . chawdron. . * To Choose. by the vibrations of sound or motion. To Chop. fresure. whence Lat. kiusan. Fr. gdnse gekrose. fine threads of flowers. kor6n. Enn Sigridur sem ' . kustigen. . a chive. chattering. Gr. Schmid. . a calf's chaldern of E. pieces . disposition. schevel-steen. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. kalbs gekrose. . shoot . a young . chock full. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. and Vf. by which they are Fr.vonic languages are Pol. specially with an application to theatrical performances.ceosan. try. Gr. . ruffs. a knight. CHOP kros. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Luc. whence choleric. to ^cleave . Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. coup. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. the small parts of the roots of plants. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. to taste. — Chock-full. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. krussyi. the ridges prove.. I. &c.. coro. ON. a scale or fragment P1. prove. haslets. chatter. keuren. to choose. &c. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. developments of the same radical image. 2. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. to chap at a door . — — — . . The . crammed Choir. chippe. ^S. kiezen. to try. friller. kushevati. chife. to prove. — Cholera. chimp. then to shiver. a wine taster. Choice is probably direct from Fr. The manners and senti. xiv. Jam. kiusan. to taste. a company of singers or dancers. okusyti. select. kusid. g'schochet voll. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. a rag. G. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. ON.' Verie coinme Cot. anger.ffrill. seallion or unset leek. experience valerie. Chives are also a kind of small onion.

Du. chevane. chrisme. merchant. Madam. who took in the Turk- clack. Sp. to chatter.' They are forebuyers of quheit. Gr. — — — . A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. or miller's kaycke . and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. cauc. Marin. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. and we actually find champman for chapman. Nominale in Nat. OE. kaej Lith. gobio capitatus. chronicles. slipper . To Chouse. in i6io. chrysalis (Plin. Fr. Fr. chroniques. Chord. a The What dhy ^. claquer. thick-set. Cot. . of which such strings are made. A jackdaw. dial. a lump or piece chump.' Jam. we find the following passage Dap. thumb Fl. Jam. clat. whence the Fr. Peace. cavena. monedula. Du. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. prattle . In the Alchemist. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. plump. chapineria.(. chapma?i. AS. —Shakespeare. Chronicle. a bullhead. kauwe. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. by the Robert Shirley. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. koppe.). See Change. e. applied to an owl in that language. xpi'^lia. to strike in the hand. sent before him a Chiaus. cauvette j Fr. Fr. Wall. Borgoens happen. cresmeau. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. — Quabbe. as Du. chouette. a small fish with a large head. P. whence apparently the Sup. one who buys and sells horses or cows. Fr. What do you think of me. Chub. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. soul-couper. dealing. overset. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E.— Landnamabok. The Turk was here As one should say. kowe. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. gull. — . chouquette. XpvaaXic. A fish with a thick snout and head. cambiare. kubbr. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin.. 4. E. capitone. Confounded with the bullhead. I bring you the Cloughs. choucas. — Dief. high clog. E. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. bearand aits. the intestine of an animal. Fr. whence — E.• — .. Chough. caker. yiSA. 49. E. from kloppen. as in Fr. caphatenus. whence e. kaufen. . consecrated oil to be used in baptism .\^s. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. klompe.—Chuokstone. kubb. If I discover. See Chaff. capito. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. Ant.).sohola. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. ley in Giiford. That Face. cob.— Chevin. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. to clack. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. E. peace. Chuck. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. capitanus. xop5>}.X. cangiare. kolbe (club). chub. chapin. &c. ceo. a thick piece. chuet.povucd. chop. because she would not endure this husband chopping. cheviniau. gold. a stump. the string of a musical instrument originally. the same word with the It. cow-couper. for to defraud.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. chatter . — Chrisom. connected with G. To coup. a trafficker in souls. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. Lat. Gr. dial. Chrysalis. equivalent to the E. cheap. chack. the teeth to chatter . klopper. clogs. Chopino. that will thank chiaus — you richly. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. -chron-. To Chop logick. to speak thieves' slang.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. e. gull. to overturn. an offence against the fitness of times. capita. short piece kubbug. In Sc. civetta. kaw. traffic. ' ' What's that? Dap. quappe. to cant. chevane. G. time ra . caqueter. From the Turkish Chiaus. forms are Chrism. Kil. Come. in Chaucer. to turn over. kobe. Gr. xftovoq. kaulhaupt (club-head. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. ON. fat. syllables chat. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. a messenger or envoy. chevin. i. to knock. Alchemist. p. which was written 27. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. noble Doctor. Picard. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. Gr. Anachronism. kowej Sax. Sw.

AS. cinctura {cingo. calx. e. to strike clatter. we have to chack. a man. to make a rippling noise. thence a belt. ceorl. to Newsp. then the on oh StX iv roXt. kjami. the snout of an animal. chops. dust. jaws.' he adds. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. sindr. Du. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. a rustic . a girding on. KaxXij?. spuma metalli. whence ON. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. Cob. ceffo. so as to make the happen . kiorne. calculus. cidre. residue of burnt coals. to gird. Lat. accido. ciuffo. Du. log of wood. joufflu.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. -cido. ceaflas. to separate the kernel of the milk. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). Fr. a pebble. a miser. * Cinder. ChurL husbandman. gffe. In Sc. flower. that the word is an adoption of Fr.D. to make a aiKipa. a cutting round. a douse on the tores. -cisuiri). Gr. kerl. Wall. Hence -cid-. — of the two words. Du. blow on the I io6 in Mur. chofu. in circumcision. &c. lamak. Church. to sparkle. The derivation from Kvpiasov. joffu. i. Sw. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk.. See Ceiling. As AS. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. to fall upon decide. See Cheek. kaerle. Diss. scoria. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . ceaplas. To chuck in the fall from. in the face. Da. . or. . qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A.— . See Cheek. kakka. Cider. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. to determine incision. sindel. chofe (Grandgagnage). Lat. tindra. ccedo. to churn. ashes. Chuff. chaps. Fr. ON. as water running over rocks or stones. as Fr. chack-stone. The spelling of chider has Chump. whence deciduous (of trees). tie about). geaflas. Lat. ceffore. Cieling. the kernel. Gr. fat-cheeked. Churn.for the residue of stone coal. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. x^^i?. to him a sudden blow. C^z^j^ churHsh. Cleland in Jam. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them.— Chu%. Probably from It. from Lat. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. comp. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. to fall. countryman. -cis-. a resounding object. pp. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. ON. chakil. or choice part of a thing . a pebble . sindra. casum (in comp. dial. with It the Lord's house. . whence church. Aasen.rendered by Kil. Ir. — — A — ' ' — . i. set kerti. The origin ation. karl. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. sive piratiam facere sciant. as in E. marrow. cado. a husband. to form grains of butter. to throw out sparks. sintel. Sc. to jaw chack or snap. ladre from Lazare. chife. however. Gothic nations. It is certain. to To Chuckle. sinter. -cise. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. but by way of explan. cinctus. giffle. G. cut off. have given rise. to turn from blossom to fruit. Sicerawry face ceffata. AS.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. incido. as a board. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. a fellow.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. kernjen. domhnach. Wall. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. a cutting an old chuff. male person. to fall at or on. e. cinis. kern. — . Fris. klakka. Ka-^aiva. . a man. from Lat. pith. . &c. sicera. cinders used disjunctively. as Epkema explains it. cheek. cheeks Cincture. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. Lat. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. Jennings. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. has been impugned which it has really no connection. in Sc. an old man.^. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. chuffy. surly.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. a man. 24. ON. G.V//a'6'?. -cide-. cendre. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. to cut decide. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . kirna. OFr. a lump. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. Chunk. chack or stane-chacker. -eris. .black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. swollen or puffed up Cot. KvptaKolg. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. to cause the milk to grain.' And cold.

Lat. Lat. the place of . radical identity of the Fr. a circle. klacken. fall. ter. Excite. Gael. klemte. a rattle . clack-box. to chatter. to cleanse. Recite. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). Clam. prattle. . civitas. sound. with an initial s instead of c. . 'mass. CION See Tinder. cry out . to toll . a cistern. as caverna from cavus. circ2tlus. circle. clack. It. clamare. dim. lump. citujn. outcry. to be empty. or quill to draw waier through Fl. —Circuit. or clap-dish. lump . It. klekotati. glambar. To Claim. creak les dents. . The syllables clap. clot ON. cisterna. to go. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . Du. mass . clambar. sifr. or split with noise. a cleansing place. Hence Incite. log. to mention. claquer. clobyn. — (Dozy) ing blow. Fr. Gr. kluV. whence cistiti. a Lat. cifra. . and E. a block. is traced by Gr. bunch. to summon or call on. claquer. twig. Lat. vociferation. cit^. G. E. klompe. prattle. lucerna. a mass. lump. -cis-. clamp. From Arab. klater-busse. claquer crash. a. a block. a shoot. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. a kind of rattle. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. to call. kringr. around. to clatter. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. —Civil. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. KpiKoe. .. in the frequentative form. trunk. clack. klappe. E. to call. wasserkasten (water chest). klambr. ON. klimp. excite. to make to go. a loud uksa slamketi. a ball. klabb. cry. clap. a rattle Fr. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. around. Clamp. cittade. Fr. . Gr. area. chupon. chupon. City. to clap at a theatre. about. sound of blow. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. a kind of pipe. empty Golius. G. biw. to gnash the teeth. Du. Du. rattle . cluster. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. belonging to cities or social life . to appeal. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. a hiding-place. cion. cion. to bawl. The Gr. gutter. klump. ern. globus. ON. to call by name. Dan. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. klap. a circle. stimulate. clatCot. klumbr. cieo. Sw. as. as in Sp. ball kloben. a circle. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. citrus. the door was slammed J slamem. Clump. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. klak. Hal. a judgment cern. circa. sindri. civilis. &c. Mack. hringr. domern. and. Comp. clangor avium . Citadel. clat. klacke-busse.' sione. Lat. chest. Circum-. lump. cittadella. kringla. the tongue. to cluck. a city. babble . for Cion. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam.— . a ball. KipKog. a knob. city. from chupar. a reservoir Probably from Lat. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. Lat. chatter . klubb. W. to knock. . a citizen . to clack. parallel root is slam. Sp. crack. Circle. Chaste. clamer. clamp. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . cisterna. tinnitus . To Clack. klappen. a pop-gun. of citta. . a clod Russ. lump. a clod. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. cista. We . klepati. crack. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. noise. -cite. clasp. sip. Gael. So a light. See Crankle. Cot. klamp. to cry out. a lump Lat. civis. See -cid-. sajira. crack. lump of wood or with the nasal. ruin. glam. to set in motion by means of the voice. a whirlwind. . claim. Lat.to suck. scion or sucker. Fr. smack. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. klqb. a for water. noise — — a cistern. sprig. chijfre. . glamm. a young and tender plant. suck). klopati. clapper. Lat. klammer. circum. * Cistern. It. lash . a lump Du. Scion. a lemon tree. clamras. We . rattle. See Circle. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. a split. a ring. Sw. a'upiav. clog. and Sp. klateren. clack-dish. to chatter. a Pol. Arab. Alt. . clap. ring. castus). Citron. claquet de moulin. Dan. and clash. forms — — — parent plant. clump. clapping of klacke. a whip. a boss . cittd. sphere gleba. a place See place hiddern. bunch . In Fr. uproar. dob. compared with It. Fr. Lap. a city. cito. ciste. may cite w. slam. The notion of a lump. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. * Ciplier. to chatter . circum. sound- — hands figures. Cite. to strike. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. scion. ON. accordingly find the roots dab. Bohem.

Du.p correspond- ' without order. to climb. klampen. tremble . kloben. a whip. The equivalent of Lat. clapper of conies. Sw. Clang. to seize. . to clutch or cling oneself up. Swiss kldbem. and that from celo. to climb. strait. a rattle . dial. The Fr. a stick. who occuG. To sticky. daver. contraction. dapier. the in many languages. cream Manx doan. dam. a stone See Claim. Mampe. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . klemmen. a loud tingle. These words To are closely connected with damp. accent. cramp. prison. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. — Cot. to hide. but perhaps not directly from it. to glue. privately. Clap. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. clann. of the children. to cling. run to lumps Clandestine. — — . rumour. kleppen. a craCmp. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. gripe. sound. In like manner Du. to stick or glue. damras. E. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. cling. to gingle. clang. to do anything with a clap. clap. a sound made by a still . klammern. tingle. klettern. a burr. tight. c). rattle. Clapper. to glue. clav\f. clibby. anything hidden. of which the locative case. also to clog up. narrow. to clap on. a claw . to knock. pinching. dambar. Hence the Fr. from the w. to hold fast with the . a sound made by a lighter clink. sound object . beating. clink. to stick conceal. klemmen. To clap in E. to knock. Clamour. dia. coagulated cream. Clank. klatten. cramp-iron. Du. dientes. Du. is a nasalised form of gripper. dam. to claw oneself up. a place underground where rabbits breed. resonance klingen. grasp. a heap of stones. klynge sig op. a heap of stones or other things piled up . To Clamber. substances of a stickydam. gliong. kleppe. klavre. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. Dan. dank. a hawk. E. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . diver. of money Gael. descendants . kleben. and hence to pinch . celo produces Fin. G. sticky Hal. Clamp. . and hence moist. dial. klam. Clink. sound . klem-vogel. as the clapping of hands. The root which gives rise to klibb. klepati. G. brawl. hold.' klibba. to patronus. closely analogous to that of the fast. from birdlime. G. G. clajnmy. dienklebber. dink Du. klynge. a bird of prey. nature . beat. dap up. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. originally a heap of large stones. A i. knocking. klimmeii. clasp. is used in the sense of secretly. klubber. chatter. OE. uproar.' to take coals to Newcastle. to climb. sound. ney. hook. cluster. Bav. to daub pinch. offspring. salaan. klamm. to beat. to climb. klepel. apprehend . ancestor. — Climb. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. seize. — . klang. Lat. AS. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. glambar. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. — with hunger. clear sound. B. Halma. children. conceal. a noose . as the Lat. . dee. clapas. Du. kleppe. Dan. to hook things together. klobber-saen. clamber. klette. to starve. klamre. clandestine. to Sw^.1.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. dang. to pinch. buckle klamp. with cramp-irons. compress. tinkle. compression. . bandage. B. chief. G. klemmen. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. bond. klammer. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. — Lat. to clap. Bohem. for tame conies. These are imitations of a loud. kluppel. club . holdfast. to hold to pinch. adopted Lat. dapier. dam. klamme. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. The E. crowd .er. children. a claw. Salainen. solid. to clamp. dam immediate modifications — . a sound. klappen. G. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. klappre. massy. gum. tone. where- A — unto they retire themselves. yf. viscous. klank. or klamp-vogel. grimper. dem. See Clam. strain . &c. Dan.. klopfen. Gael. E. whence sala. . Swiss kletten. G. to. clap. a trap. klepanie. sound of the trumpet . stick. clammy brace. klippe. Clan. dren. hands or claws to grasp. . to cleave or stick. scendants. Dan. Russ. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. klappen. damor. ring as metal. Lang. to climb . dapi^. in a hidSen place. cleave. klam7n. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. Fr. tenacious. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. clangor. salafa. tattle. klibber. to Hal. klebern. take hold of. chatter. to dame. dandestinus. E. pressed close or hard together. to climb. viscosity .

kleeven. Eya-klasi. clarin. he of white and red grapes mingled together. Thus from clamp. syrtium junctura. Analogous Jam. Lat. fibula. bawling. a bird with powerful talons. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. klatschen. under three modifications dava. claw (what fastens together. klatschen. to clap . blab. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. Clatter. Commonly made. Rayn. klampvoghel.Z. Nawith stavis. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. clairon. from the resemblance to a key. we pass to the E. Sw. from its use in fastening things together. klatsche. Thus from Lat. — Clarinet. insularum nexus . Cot. chiarello. clew. a bunch. to ring in such a manner for the dead. waU. dap. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. clamp. Clasp. Serv . forms are the Du. a buckle. klc^i. The form clew. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Fr. to clash as arms. clavis. — tells us. teren. with a reddish tint. to do anything with a . From claudo. from scknallen. assembly. and clavis. klouwe. vin clairet. clairon of a trumpet— It. and shrill-sounding trumpet. Lang.. chiarino. globus. Identical with ON. kluczka. somewhat clear.Gr. compression. Claret. noise. Du. — Kiittner. a key origmally a crooked nail. crying. climp. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. gaspe. to animals Sp. as Mod. classis. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. and through v into a. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. K\a. But clasp or elapse. a claFr. clopa. same class with w. 269. a lump. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Du. Clause. to knock. thwack . of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. Dan. klos. Clew. in the sense of a mass or lump. ictus resonans. to snap. nail. Nightingale. ivy. clavus. klauwe. klaterbusse. clatter. clair. Clavicle. kleuen. to rattle . The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp.ck a whip. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. clarinado. &c. Lat. Lat. flap. fracas. The b readily passes into gleba. In the same way is formed the OE. the cracking of a whip. So Pol. an ending. pellet . to cleave. Du. vin claret. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. Sp. the primary origin clapa. a key. to patter. rion. chatter. KXeiSi. klaeret. Prov. hook.— CLARET clamp. in the sense of a claw. mass. From clairet. chiizjj-o. fragor . i. vinum helvolum. chiaro clear. &c. clump. uproar. Russ. which signifies a ball in E. a clod. klot. puUs. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. clew or fasten upon a thing. a sphere . a lash. seizes) . applied in their harness. rubellum. to fasten together . cluster. diver. hawk. Lat. It. Pol. Eau clairette. a clasp. Fr. klatscha pop-gun. cloi. is used in Sc. In E. ghespe. a club or massy stick. or as G. — Clarion. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . cinnamon.It. mass. biichse. clausum. to shut. —Kil. sound of the foregoing description. nawith stanis. a ball. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. as it is written by Chaucer. stop of an organ. a lump . Mask ! plask ! thwick. To clew. Du. clas. a key KKtitid. Clash. biichse. Class. a nail. locket of a door. klouwe (Kil.w or u on the other. e. subrubidum. to draw it up into a bunch. a. sphaera. pet. klamme. row aii/iaTos. to end. klijven. .oi. Owl and that by which cleave to. skeria-klasi. glcis. Kil. whence kleuer. klase. to fasten. is preserved in Lang. chasguear. a kind of small. Du. ansa. a heap. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. G. a claw. Gr. a. klaskad. klucz. an on the one hand. It. kiosk bicza. Claw. Klatsch- a pop-gun . it is called clamming. klampe. Du. buckle. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. a water made of aquavitse. globus. thence a definite head of an edict or law. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. the collar-bone. sauna de classes. Wyutoun in Jam. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. Originally clasis. as G. straight-mouthed. kletse. a little hook . Fr. and old red rose-water. claret win e. klauw. The collar-bone. klaequivalent to clack or clap. a distribution of things into groups. . also a knell for the dead. schnalle. clausula.to cra. contraction.). a complete sentence.\x\xvn. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. E.

— : A rivet. . Du. rift. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. to Brilliant. as the Du. tongs. as Lat. give a shrill sound Jr. kloben. Du. from the clinking of the latch. klijveii. glindse. sleek. Lat. glance . Cleft. Omklinken. klov. Du. glan. a mass. i. A — A Clement. W. hook. This word is used in two business is finished off. dag. the fork of the body. a flash. clemens. clear. rive. pure. a — — . klinka. clink. . cloven wood. kleevig. . dags. either by the coherence To Clepe. G. klieuen. Halma. rivet. This is probably one of the clean. klceg. kleverig. to glitter. river. From clap. kluit. nitidus. Da. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. lump. klor. glandse. cliquet. doggy. kluft. to chink. a one end. dinquet kleeven. glbram. klinke. to clinch GB. mud. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. words applicable sight. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. clash. Sc. clay . that was Torriano. kloben. glan. and. Du. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. kloben. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. an object is simply cleft. Sc. a in that of sphtting. G. . dut. sticky . and Celtic glan. speech . klutsch. celebrated . to clinch a nail. a key. a noise. doff. klinken. klafwa. Da. kldnkelein. a lump. See Clam. a cleft or fissure. seem formed dial. sticky. clean. to be composed. glan. dench.— Claggy.). kluftholz. Sw. Wilbraham. to stick or adhere . pellet. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. Thus from G. a mass. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. Fr. Mar. glatt. that was a striking proof. klieben. The word may be — . gentle. a cleft. it cleave together. to fasten. to cleave. viz. glent. shine. pure . to separate into parts. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. sticky earth. AS. provinciaUy termed dout. klyft.Q. and E. From dob. is fast and sure. bright. merciful. glint. polished. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. The Dan. door-latch. bend in a stream. famous. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. the latch of a door. cleave. bogs cous. the two parts of Du. G. together . Sw. klinken. or of a tree. E. klirre. kleg. klinken. . gingle. ON. klink. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. daggy. viz. conserere antklankjan. glbr. Kil. voice. klove The Dan. glor-mhor. glitnir. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. Die zaak is zS. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . a noose. clean. splendid pohshed. kleg. clear. holding together. gleit. a bunch of When flax). also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. kla:g. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . To Clench. clout. vissticky . kloue. to dag ox dog. klinke. polish . from nitere. as Fr. a fissure. Dan. as explained under G. as ON. calm. klank. to shine. ON. to sound or make a noise . Du. glorious. a claw or talon. found in other cases. neat. E. dial. a cleft. To call. a lump. radiant. pretty. Lat. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Axletree clouts. gaklankjan. Du. The word is . smooth. Clear. dams. Sw. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. klirren. the original . and Dan. klag. to clench. to clink or sound. the To Cleave. a plate. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. . identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. opposite senses. 2. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. Clean. 154 CLAY dutch. clean. Gael. loam. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. Clemency.' was nailed to a rock. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. split. (Cot. G. of iron worn on shoes by country people. klouen. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. Clay. diquetcr. B. clean. Bav. klouen. Clinch. Cleat. to tear or cleave asunder.— . vice. See Clog. kluyte. from diquer. klinke. or from being divided into two parts. to 2. kleben. The proper meaning of the word is shining. to fasten. chaps in the skin. danche. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. klincke. neat. Probably a modification of the word doitt. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. geklonken. in two ways. deot. to fasten E. Da. date is AS. to shine . E. glitta.— Clag. a clincher. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . explained from the klinken. dedgy. to stick to. clibby. a latch. G. pure. a fissure or division See Cleave. clear. ON.

— Clue. rupes . is NE.. to cleave. to prate. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. scar. Boh. score7i clif. klikker. klippe. littus. diquette. derigon. duke. a hold. Cot. Now the OE. claw or talon to dek or deik. deuch. cart that tilts over. crackle. CLINCH De . hamraklif. to catch. In I Peter v. name. say.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. a claw or clutch. lively. ginally from dob (extant in W. to teU tales. on. it must be observed. to tattle. . a ball of twine. dook (identical with E. Hence Lat. deik. corresponding to Fr. derjon. pulsare. Jam. has kl'dver. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. a lazar's clicket or clapper. a sphere. click it. dial. as from derido. to catch. IS5 Du. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). duik. Du. sink. ready of speech. cleugh. e. -Toe (from KXivm.' ii. as Sc. verge). dob. klever. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. clever. or Sc. See AS. The origin is the Gr. klinge. to bend. globus. a latch . chat. rugged ascent. to clack. a cliff. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. dough. klinke. would have been derida. Norm. and hence deik. Clew. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. the clergy clericus. has also deik. Client. a child's or clack . — have the notion of a short quick in E. to cry. above the pole. clima. abrupta rupes . a baU of yarn. klippe. a cleft in a rock . Du. from Gael glac. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. Chaucer.). click. a mill-clack . klaffen. expeditious. had a form. klok klep- crepitare. clyf. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. and hence climate. cliquer. to confess . clack. and (with the nasal) — clincher. kliv. to move. call. See Clench. G. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. pen. dever. exactly Gr. d See Clan. a trigger. dutch). chatter. a latch. rapidus from rapio. OE. click. dergi. region not observe it. Lat.Lat. in the sense of active. frap- per rudement une personne. derecia. Climate. a clew. as Lat. crack. clypian. a lump. klinket.— Clicket. Gr. kloof. a latch. . deudi. clerus. Happen. one admitted to the tonsure. that is a clever feUow. derigo. a tumbril. icXi/ja?. declivity. ized . dexterous. stein- kluppen. which is used in Scotch and N. dink. Lat. CLERK sound of a blow. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. Clever. prattle. AS. from clifian. cligner. Fr. The Sc. snatch. 3. to sound an alarm to clap. klif. Sp. dek. klouwe. one of the clergy. precipices. &c. gleg. Clerk. with hamarskard. dichet. Commonly derived from deliver. Climb. Cliff. a hump. klev. sonare. deik. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. babble. quick in motion. — — A . corresponding to the Sc. as a click with the tongue. in precisely the same sense as the E. a figure mentioned. precipice. clep. to tattle. de ripa. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. Bav. glomus. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. clap. cleopian. agile. clatter. crepare. deuck. a lot. dicher. KkrifoQ. cave . —Vocab. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . See Clamber. klika. cliff. . But the Dan. rock. syn. seize (Hal. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. to snatch. cleke. clif- stanas. klikklakken. 3. highest is attained. to seize. a hook. to talk as a parrot. the dick of a latch or a trigger. clif. to stir. or an object character- Clerical. Click. what so men clappe or crie. ravine. call. /cXi'fia. kleppen. Clergy. nimble. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. speak. quick of perception.dergie! Wiclif in R. Klover i munden. dial. . Sc. cliquet. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. cleft. to rattle. climate. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. catching. cliof. diver. chatter. Det er en Mover kerl. Claw. kliket. skard. Somner. click. neither as having lordship in the. cautes. Sw. a precipice. an inclination. light-fingered. the clergy. G. clever. cleft in a rock. kleppe. Rouchi cliche. which in Mid. the knocker of a door. slope . Da. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. to wink. a clicket or clapper. diofian. rock. klaiv. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . on. whence Fr. cleft of a hill. We movement catch. a clerk . Dunbar in Jam. dial. Climax. Du. Lat. a ladder. temperature. Clam.) Brai. in rhetoric. chatter.

pinch. Ang. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. dag. klaka. hlinen. klocka. a hood. kluppe. to crowd or squeeze chingy. a beU. Een kliks bolter. to shrink up. to beat. klocke. Cliofue. klunker. Esthon. klynge. ' .. -atum. parva ruptura. to clink auf. compress . clato make a noise. kluben. Sw. The E. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. Fr. and so' to contract.D. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. kima. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. klippa. and 'E. difficulty . clique. especially of something soft or clammy. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. G. clips.— Clot. klok. Du. Sw. . — clot. Hal. to clap or clack. knippchen. disposed to a thing. a bell. Serv. sloping upwards procUvis. toga. slant. to wither. g. Da. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. Cloak. * Clod. -CLINE make pinch. . where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. -cliv-. hooded . as thick or curdled liquids. To cut with shears. &c.. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. difficulty. ON. to shrink up. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. to sound sharp. I.ginglej Fr. kolbe to E. clinke. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. Clock. klipa. to resound. Bi klik uti klak. klippe. dial. w. to slope or bend . clog. four of the bell. clutch. to lean. a tinman. at first probably on a wooden board. 156 -cline. klupen. G.D. to form one mass with. hill . klippa. klik. To Clip. knippen. E. . Lat. See Cowl. chcng. like cling. . Pl. dial. also to form a compact mass. and a similar syllable without the /. to lean backwards. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. kliks. kukla. glungelin. by bits. glocke. klunge. a clock. a woman's mantle . to snap kneipen. Swiss klungele. Bohem. gUong. N orman clincailler. clivus. clock is a variation of clack. G. bow. . a snare. noise. a lump. to pinch klupe. dial. to cling to a thing. acclivis. as we now say three or four o'clock. a ball of thread . to . kolki-laud. a cluster. Sw. a rising ground. klippen. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . .. globulus' (Gl. Bohem. speaks of a ' clung bat. ring clag. fetter. Sw. Lat. recline. in Schmeller) klunk. klepalo. to ring. as G. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. knot klynge. klungeln. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. a bell. klincke. kXiVu.' From Pl. G. rima. club). Fr. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. klicke. gang. Walach. . a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. a separate portion. also to wink . It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. quincailler. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. nip. clino. kleppe. Gr. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. verklungeln. to clunge. to cluster. toga muliebris. brett-glocke. a lump G. to strike. to bend downwards . from klepati. related to clock. — a mantle. To stick to. ON. Ir. sloping downwards . klingen. See Clang. to wither. Kil. Swiss klokken. kldpp. outcry. ten. a faction. to pinch. Flem. Decline. to make a loud noise. as to snip in the same sense from snap. G.' for a dry stick.. Du. 2. klungelin. OHG. claw. klippur. pallium. klo^gen. clinker. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. pinch. hluccti.'— Shaks. schnippen.— KSS. clangere. tuft. 'Till famine cling thee. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. klinka. G. ON. shears. to snap tongs. cloak. kol- The word . leads to the notion not always of complete separation. met. dial. cloche. hlinian.und zuk-lippen. straits. The notion of a loose moveable substance. sticky. incline. to crowd together klynge sig ved. iissura. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. sloping forwards. Sussex peasant AS. a lump of butter. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. . to snap or fillip schnippen. Sw. Gael. clingan. whence E. to clip. klocke. Du. or bagging clothes. . to snip. hluk. incline. cochl. Du. to knock. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. to beat on the board. knippe. to AS. S w. Clink. a clog or fetter for a beast . klinken. declivis. E. klak. To Cling. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood.

slop. aspersion. klot. clot. to dabble. Lat. to bedaub. paddle. plod. closed. and Du. tuditare. we pass to Schlatter. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). dab. loose mud. schlotter. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. . to spill liquids. and E. gelatinous. slobbe. chiuso. Closhe. a spot. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. we pass to E. kloteren. of a body of any kind. laggyn. . to bubble. wabbling from Du. Cloister. in comp. Klottermelck. lopperig. to shut. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. beklakken. He was a man without a dag. . from claudo. g. -clusum. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. motzen. His heart was franlc without a flaw. lump of butter. thick spoon . clorre. clammy loam. curdled. chiudere. Clog. klakk. motte. Russ. .dial. schlott. pludre. kladde. cloth. bemired. A . klokotat. clausum. kleck. lobberen. a clog.'^ Palsgr. to shut in. Close. whence klack. miry laggerit. -close. klakken. dunch). to paddle in the wet. Swiss schlott. congeler. lag. Bav. shut up. Dan. to slop or spill liquids. The origin of clod and clot is to . to dash like heavy rain. a Christmas log. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. a lump from Du. a monastery. Hence inclose. mud klcEg. klod. Klak also. a log. to rattle. schlattern. rattle. forbidden by 17 Ed. to lobberig. bloutre. Fr. klunkern. Fr. unctuous..). clausum. slops). or drablyn with separate existence. from Fr. to claggock. kl'dnken. slobber. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. a portion of something soft and adhesive. loose. foreclose. fors. zocco. -clus-. daggerey. to close against one. be found rattle. dangle. to shut up. and thus seem endowed . CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. da- .D. . mud. claggy. to rattle or shake to and fro. to flap as loose clothes. claudo. slops slodderen.. thick sour milk. a blot. the radical sylla.— Clothe. to shut. fat. tJokok. bowl . compared with clump.D. paludosus. ! . to sup up liquid food. Pr. shaky. slab. clog or overshoe. klos-bane. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. Yule-clog. . splash. schlottern. clos. in accordance with It. bespotted with mire E. geschlotter (as E. paddle or dabble in the wet. lopin. clotted locks Dan. mire. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. TZoxapov. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. . tramp in wet or mire. lobbig. to bodies. Idppern. or E. log. and Gael. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. Fr. a trowelful of mortar. to a. lumps of butter. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. boil. . or Sc. slob. klac. IV. to dabble. figer. Fr. clos. loose trowsers. daustrum. E. Sc. m&se noch stain. Gr. klotzschuh. dirt. loblolly. be&c. kleck or lack. The game called ninepins. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. shut up. lump of mud on the clothes . lunch. zoccoli. terminate. a skittle-ground klos- sen.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. -cludo. Lat. laggery. • lump. analogous plan to clod or club. schlettern. kloteispaen. truncus. kloster. enOE. a clod. is a blot on one's character. doitre. spot of dirt. je amoncele.' end. without. Mat. from Du. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. klottern. a clod Swab. Du. pattens G. then liquid or loose substance. an imputation.rge lump. is connected with pludder. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. . of something clammy or heavy. klateren. inclose. A — — A Thus from Bav. clotted milk klotte. a field inclosed clos. dirt. . a bal!. a babbler. klos. neither spot nor hang loose. finish . MHG. . . hanging loose and full. AS. To Clog. kloden. meat from Du. G. a dirty wench claggy. kloten. dial. Du. to flounder in the wet. 3. clatk. loppered (of milk). Pm. in forms like Du. klotz. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. I clodde. dag. loppe. slabberen. to rattle. blot. It. I clodde. Pl. to play at bowls. wide bagging clothes. to cling locks. a log. separate part. . a blot. klag. G. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. spatter. Pr. close. slobberen. a block. clogs. E. with Fr. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. lob. . lobberen. or loppern. in accordance with Pl. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. clogs for the feet klakk. In the same way Dan.1a. . to wabble. claque. I doda clod. like G. lump of something soft . watery.

tered . the terms expresssplit. Du. sheltered up warm. G. clump of a clout on the head. ball of thread Russ. a. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . klcBdi. knob. cobble. Sw. diboter. clot. puddle. a nail) Fr. Then applied to a lump of mate. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. . Club. a bunch. a . clothe. clog. warm clothes {dillad. The priClout. Clover. Ir. are often connected. shel- kloen. and clay. Properly that which covers and Du. cluster. coarse. Met.). Clowfull of small curdled clouds. een klaven kruflook. Clump. loggish. mire. CLOUD an awkward clod . . and tapp. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. to tramp in the kluyve. a clod. clobyn. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. a patch. clavo di especias. lump. kloete. nourish . dut. to splash. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. . I. zolla. to strike .). also homo obtusus.). kluV. dial. ON. klieven. as Fr. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. to lump mend clumsily. to cleave. a cover or coverture . vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. lumps of curd. clot. (kruyd =. klotzig. in the same sense. . clumhar. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. cludadh. little nails. clothes ment. a sky Cot. klumba. a garthas. block. duthaich. ser. warm. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. A division of a root of garlick. rustic. dillad bumkin. AS. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). klump.D. nelke (dim. mud (Pat. dial. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. a thick mass. esdaboter (Roquef. . G. E.bar. group of people Sw. wisp. clydion. a log. hebes (Kil. of a lump of earth and that figure. to cloy. Gael. of nagel. klaven. dial. Cloud. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. w. probably from daboter. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. from kloven. from W. cluth mhor. to beFr. to a lump. naegel. Imitative of the note of a society. a sticky. spice) G. when something has got into the touch-hole. warm. a ball. dabosser. clunch. a bobbin. klonte. cob. dump. a curdled sky. Sw. klever. klotsen. clump. daggy. del mattond. de Champ. mary sense is a blow. Sp. Cld. More in R.ft. botch. strike. milk run to lumps. a boss. E. klobbersaen. chiodo di girofano. Du. Clumpered in balls of clouds. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. log. clot . from Du. eine to slop. piece Cot. a bousche. kloven. G. from OFr. Rouchi dapoter. clothes). To Cluck.' Sanders. sticky. lunch). klove. and closely do conspire. nagelein. klu77ip. blockish. dob. lump. E. klubb.D. AS. bunch. Du. unpolished. botsen. and clout d eudaich.D. cobio. the air. . a lump. klunds. To Cloy. klumpfot. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. The significations of a clod or lump. a blabber. From dog. knob. but confounded with cailler.Fris. sheltered . clou de girofle. clod. A kind of spice resembling Du. clods. CLUCK rustic.clod. Gael. a lump. a clove of garlick. a clod or clot. klubbe. G. of sloppy materials. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. to cover Bret. a fissure. to strike. klubba. formed lump or thick mass. zolla dell' . Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. kUid. In the same way E. caillebottes. with lout. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. choke or stop up. a bunch. clammy earth. davus. and of a rustic unpolished person. klotz. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. are also used in the sense of a stopper. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. make warm.). w. — . klebek. dash (Cot. a clot or keeps one warm. Fr. Pl. lie clyd. N. warm place . clod is used in both senses . Dan. boucher. clyd. indispalte knoblauch. tuft. of thumping clumsy action. clue. Du. Du. Das volk hat sich in splitten. — — — . Clown. cloud Delfortrie. So Fr. a bunch. clotted milk or cream. a knot of people. kldverj P1. a nail. mass. stock. ON. cludaim. a log. Kiittner. a breach. The radical sense seems to be an unE. to cherish. 2. kl'dnne. motte. to curdle. matte. clunch. a clubfoot klabb. lump. It. dys. dirt. klqb. Move. kluppe. klubb. lump of earth aria. eene ODu. aglio. dabaire. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. a ball. and -the word Clove. a ball of twine . Mabousfrom Lat. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. Du. to cleave or the splashing of water. to stop. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . dote. a clown. a ball. kluyfketi loocksj Pl.158 .

Pl. dial. algidus. klomje. ' Thou clontsest for cold. klomen. coccolare.' Wycliff. Hence cleik. The Fr. duke. rial.' Comfort ye dumsid. Hesse. hands stiff with cold. through the senses of lumpish. to lie. -CLUDE hen Du. klonte. Fr. glocire. a clove Sw. acomelydfor could Pr. ' . Cheshire. From the notion of sticking together. Hence snatching. having the Pl. —More. G. an instrument for nasal form e. Lat. splash. a couch. hand to cleuk. the word is more probably connected with OE. to curdle. klette. klampa. Cluster. Beklummen van kelde. a clod or lump. close. claw. clumsy. heavily. klont. a clod or The noclot. ON. The sense of awkward. thick and clumsy. havi.D. Sw. klocken. to stick together . eviratus. crooked inwards . to pinch. as clumper. clutch. klcise. kichlemmit. dial. Du. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. Ray. koetsen. wagen.forklomme (Outzen). But clunchy. pladdern. klamp.e. E. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. MHG. Variation of clatter. beklommen. conclude. gelidus. bunch. Hindust. dial. —To Clumsyd. clip or pinch. &c. It.— — . to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. Coach. strum on an instrument. Champ. . cleuk. klemmen. to tramp. benumbed with cold. Pm. Muster. verklomen. a litter. as Fr. er. a noise. Cath. Riwle. to collect in lumps. Du.Ancr. esclaboter. koetblockish. log. G.. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. Du. or aclommyde. Clutter. finish. a claw. cleche. unfashioned. Sc. COAL dumpish. paste. whence koetse. Teulazy. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. of Du. In the same way Du. hondis. E. Ang.E. ball as snow. ill-made . eviratus. to squeeze. awkward. idle. Com. koetsDa. klamen. and koetse.pare P1. inclusive. MHG. fingers (familiar). . hooknosed. Sp. klonte. kohle. klummklummshandt. Fr. a clod clunter. kluntfrom KKvKdi. differing only in the absence of the duik. — Hence include. glousser. klods. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. a bunch. klisse. klikonosy.D. Lat. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. — . tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. awkward. Coal. clotted cream. or from Sw. clopiner. calling her chickens. klompen. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. ' Clumper. dumpers. Graff in Klamjan. from laver. to tramp. clook. tight — — . to shut. claudo. — sen. to wash. as from seken. cluntClyster. are the nasalised forms of klotte. . a lump or compact mass. klontet. plad or plod. from ON. with E. Sw. clointer. lavesen. -close. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . clutch. klikaty. -clusum. to tramp or tread heavily.D. klumpig. and klonteren. to benumb with cold.' Benecke. cliboter. unhandy. -cludo. verkommelen. of garlick. clabosser. with a quick. conclusion. in v. cleik. See -elude. ' Uorte (for clogs. obstructum. to syllable click. claws. Analogous forms with a tongs.mene tied. lay hold of. enervatus. klunsen. xXvariip. ether comelia P. klemma. Du. lump of soft mate. ball of snow on horse's foot . to rinse. wooden shoes. kol. . pinched. also a cluster. coucher became in unhandy. to grip. dek. to gingle. a pinching time. Fr. dumps.D. exclude. to klotz. -olus-. dumpse.D. klump. Boh. Fris. to curdle. Isaiah. carriage in which you klodset. a ball. a clod or lump. might be reached from clump. koetsie. dystere. doquear. klunt. cluster. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. smart motion. Gr. G. clump. -clus-. Clump. eene beklum. to paddle or dabble. * Clumsy. dek. and make ye strong feeble knees. * Clump. unwieldy Hal. a clot klissen. ment. OHG.'— animal. beklummen. in comp. to curdle. klister. a block. klobber in klobbersaen. wooden sole. a nasalised form of club. a lump. dial. 130. Compare Swiss klupe. Clutch. 159 E.P. OE. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. klos. properly to do anything Fr. A group. klimpern. — ' — — tonista. n. klummerhdndt. from klupen. -elude. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. may recline. viscous material. a lump. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. dussomed (Wilbrabam). See reclusion. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. limp.' Vegecius in Way. to to snatch. a coach. unhandy. seize. Du. a ball . and klotteren. to wash. Lincolns. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. clausum. Pl. klumpern. G. — Cot.

kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble.—Atkinson. acomelyd or aclommyd. a darling. boil. kolna. When the . may be A found in Sw. large stones . to hobble . to kindle or cause to burn . used in — . and thence a lump cobnut. Fr. s. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. niais. Outzen. then to work unskilfully . Pm. Pm. are often connected. staggering or halting. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant .' And colo.. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. a tuft. Fin. and fig. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. — — — E. a firesteel Lat. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. dim. kop. a knock. habble. pryf-coppyn. give the full meaning of the word. flame.' Nares. E. broddelen.' — Thus from (Hal. a bungler. It. woman is said to be very ordinary. blaze. COCHINEAL Cobber. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . The OE. kylla. dial. a sow. to wheedle or gull vermin). to cob. burning. throw a blow. and hobble. a thumper. pock.. that is. . viz. a similar According to Ihre. cotte. cob. w.a spider. . of cochina. Coalesce. verklomen. — Cobbler. Coalition. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. To cokes or coax one then is to make a w. or cobble. cule cocosse. properly to daub. ignem. quilet. or E. verkommelen. coalesce. as shown in dob and cob. to beCoax. koppe. — — . imbecille. a kitchen. e. Colina' the place where a fire is made. to kindle jvAla. meaning that she is plain and coarse. of E. are round stones or round coals of small size. small pox (pocks) . rivation are found in Sw. is one of thump. sweets and the other of poisons. Du. k'dlla. coste. pustule. unfledged bird. to grow together. Cocasse. and jval. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. probably left his home. a pock mark. frock. side . a nest. in Du. Fr. united. probably from the Fr. * To Cobble. — Pr. to strike. cofasse. The dirt. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. cobble. T' waerkopet. To cobble. gull.. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. pockbecility and liability to imposition. niais. Sanscr. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. to peck as a hen cobyn. tempered clay for building. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. to be inflamed . koljarn. also a coast. Lat. a bubble. hakkelen. A plausible origin. to Lett. dial. to stammer. according to the ordinary run of events. of poison. cochinilla. to speak or act confusedly. inflammation. top cobio. a crea. to bungle . The Fris. See Cot.).the water boils. caleo. ailina or colina. walk clumsily. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. in Essex Jow*2c^. and the spider as collectors. to glow . one Pr. H^cart. haggle. ordinary as in the expression of course. a spider. . Fr. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. e. The contrast between the bee • Cob. cob. cock or nescock. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. from bearing a bag. ridi. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. tuft. CooMneal. . numb. ON. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. as in arr.). a large round nut cobstones. itself is Nescock . dial. Sp. atter-kop. large coals. to be hot. a cobweb. cobcoals. — Cleveland Gl. Formerly written course. an egg. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. glowing embers. the one of thump. long standing. a great falsehood. OE. pustule. v. to burn. to bungle Sc. to pdt with We may cite Fr. Du. kop