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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


the present day. with an initial m or I. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. and. come Moolls. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal.NURSERY IMITATIONS. to the syllables which are significant to the child. the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and where we are seeking. the baaing of the sheep. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. in language of the present day. when we is represent to our children of the cow. when neither name for the object to be designated. or Mollein. name of the cow. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. in other words. but nothing she herself knows the animals. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. Molli. by whom the be understood. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. The syllables moo (mu. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). and mully or mully cow is the . is given to a cow or calf. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. the closer we shall approach to the . persons of different tongues at the present day. or. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). muK) and mae (rfie. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. mind of the of the animal.

And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. and some were very clear and distinct. But soon the growing mind began to generalise. to work over with the mouth. for bad. as well as the mind of the utterer. to eat. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. &c. and which we might express thus. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. he called to to drink. mumm. Gr. to For instance. Finally an n was placed before it. On one occasion he said^e nim. schipp. 72). analogous to Magyar mammogni. in children's language. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. and nim came to signify everything edible.' In ordinary speech mump. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. nim. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. Heinicke. . we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. A member of my own new sfop. He would now say good.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. for everything fit to eat. became more perfect.' he says. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. when hungry. had nim. p. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. . for things. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. then. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. Gradually. his nurse adopting the word with him. First. nineteen years old. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. partly from sounds which the child caught. fiafifi&v (Hesych.). hm. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech.. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. family. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. by the natural humming sound. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. I had watched the growth of this word. repulsive to eat. We have.

The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. and the fizzing (and Series. ' Motherwell. agreeing with Ein. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Swedish dialect gamsa. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. jammla. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. savory. mumpfen. and some of them . stolen. to eat. lita. ut tinnitus aeris. to mump. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. j ing . Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. oves lalare. South Jutland hiamsk. jumla. clangorqae tubarum. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. yamming. to be pleamind . voracious. Africa) nimi. ' id est. snatched (Whitby Gl. Vei (W. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. p. to eat mampfen. Soosoo (W. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem.' And Diomedes. namnam. and the crab — p. Wolof nahenahe. (in chil- dren's language). to move the lips in continued chewing. to chew laboriously.ONOMATOPCEIA. Primitive Culture. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. or word-making. Gothic niman. sweet (Koelle). delicacies.' says the author of Modern Slang. to smack in eat. aves tinnire. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. A negro proOr. the Scotch poet. nvrnma. to fill the mouth. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat .). aptantes adfectibus vocem. buckra man's language the white man. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . mumpfeln. palatable. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. iii. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). i. Nimm'd up. i8o. on. mumble. tidbits nama . food (Tylor. and thence to be tasteful. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. Galla djam djeda. dial. as to . mujnpa. at hiamske i sig. to take. 130-1. make djamdjam).minis. to taste . Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. 1 86). Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. nam. nyam nyam. memmexen. eating. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. we can call them so. jamsa (yamsa). And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. Africa) nimnim. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. crab nam buckra man. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. as well as the Sw. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym).' White man eat [or steal] the crab. taken up hastily on the sly. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). Sprach-philosophie der Alten.' says Quintilian. nobis vix permittitur.' — Lersch. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. to Sw. . greedy .

twittering of swallows. whether it deserves the name of language.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. when circumstances required. croaking of frogs or ravens. 89) with less hesitation. Indeed. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. snarling. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. lowing of oxen. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. purring or mewing of cats. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. sparrow and chirping. bleating of sheep. und growling. We . that there is When Man. a lamb.' he says. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. do not speak of a bowwow. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. anything connected with it. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. gobbling of a turkey-cock. grunting or squealing of hogs. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. might be used. intended in the instance to represent the cry. bellowing of bulls. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. snarling of dogs. howling. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. ^6^. Yet we ing. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. p. but of a dog. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . barking. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. or thoughts of our hearer. for the purpose of bringing the animal. not of a baa.' — We speak of a cow. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. chattering of pies or monkeys. yelping. between dog and harking.' And elsevs^here (p.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. neighing or whinnying of horses. baaing or maeing of lambs. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. 'I doubt. chirping of sparrows or crickets. before the in other words. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. dove and cooing. yelping. cooing or crooing of doves. or. hooting of owls. might be used as the designation of it. cackling or gaggling of geese. bumping of bitterns. not of a moo of Lect.

Malay gdgak. a a crier (p. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. kdka. Barabra koka. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Origines Indo-Europeennes). layitavya . derived fi-om a root ru or kru. He to is therefore derives kdka. according to Durga). as which is unmistakeably the source Du. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). fi-om apakd- i. We imitate the sound with a modulated. in is Gr. having a general predicative power. 'Kdka. KOKKvi. ist ed.IMITATIVE NAMES. and the sound of that direction. a crow (Pictet). In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. e. Arabic kdk. Manchu The kaha. Sauscr. lion. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. and Bavaria respectively. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and means a shouter. ghak. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. gackem. a daw. Columbia kahkah. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. kuho. Sometimes the hoarse i . and gaggele or gagkelein. Aoo-Aoo. Bav. a bird that is be driven away. crow.' common sense. In Lat. 349. 4th ed. Georgian quaki.' kd). he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. kauwe. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. In Basque. 380. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. or quawk. Picard cau. kae. in g. is kuM) for the cuckoo. sound). But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Hungary. caw kuhii-rava (rava..). at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. a crow. whose sound (Pictet. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says.). and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. caller. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. crow. Kdrava. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. coccolare. birds. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. it announces (Salaberry).

Lettish kiekuts. name of its is the bird. 6. p. tur. as well as of Sanscr. kraeye. Sp. German kielitz. Magy. or Gr. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. the name for a crow.. ghughu. and e. yell. Fr. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. Esthonian kikkas. uhu. tuquheit.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. kirren. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. hibou. Heb. "Welsh hwan from hwa. libufs. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. kukhuta. Scotch peeweip. a crow. while crouk.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. great variety of oKokv^uv. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. reduplicate form. kruk. another. teewhoop. Malay kukuk. krauklys. to croak. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. tor. 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. to crow. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. Du. lulo. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. Swedish kowipa. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Arabic tdtwit. to cry loudly. Ibo akoka. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. kuku. krahe. coucouva. 219. xi. tortbla. Yoruba koklo. a crow . Da. girre. in the North of England. German and Eng- krahen. gufo. lUyrian kukurekati. a crow lish Lith. kraukti. It.. and e. and sometimes both together. synonymous forms of similar structure). this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . Pers. to hoot. t. Du. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. k. Albacuculi a dove. turtle) as the Lat. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. Mod. Zulu kuku. koeren. kraeyen. Hindi. coqueri- Languedoc. French dishuit. Walachian coucouveike. kurre. gugu. wood-pigeon. name. to howl or Lat. coccovaec. Dutch kievit. korren. So we have Polish krukac. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. by the verbs gurren or girren. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o.Gr. cock. tbrtora. the name of an animal will gen- . cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. either in the same or in related dialects. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. to croak. The crowing of cot in Fr. giving turtur (and thence It.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. German luhu. tbrtola. lilits. to crow. kukko. are represented. The consonants p. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove .

representing a short sharp sound.' —Tennyson. the drone or non-working bee .IMITATIVE NAMES. German drohne. — Catafogo. words imitative of humming . skirl. glass cracking (Schmeller). booming. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. resounding of musical instruments. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. or a gnat fly. 'The natives call it tanand. gives rise to chwymores.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. hollow noise. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. e.or bumble-bee. a hornet. sound. schrickel. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. thunder. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. buzzing. to grumble. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. The name of the cricket indeed. droning is . to chirp J may be compared with . loud rumour. succeeding each other — with noise. grille. Corean sirsor. a fly (Tylor) . schrecke. as . to hum.' Amazons. Danish gnaddre. schirke. Danish dron. Speaking of a cricket he says. horniss and from the buzzing The. Sc. ajo. Northern Farmer. bambhara. 337. bamba. with or Fr. in allusion to its music. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. g. dhran. there are infinite varieties. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. give a faint sound. cricket is from crick. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. little intermission. skril with n. oE. (Jieuschrecke) . The drone peal. We may cite Gr. from the humming. German dronen. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. skryle. g. Australian bumberoo. which they make in their flight very . zirken. grylhis. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . shrill. g. to chirp . growling. Lith.vf3. Naturalist on the tocano. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. Sanscr. resound. Arabic tantanat. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. and yelping cry. ta-na-nd. a bee. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). The Welsh chwyrnu. of England it is to the b 2 . chirk. and probably indicates that g. a drone. a sharp sound as of a 6. bee. buzzing. common. the humble. knetta. humming. swirplys with 6. from schrick. a small as hawk is . flight its sting considered as a horn. and not from E. ' Sanscr. Fin. North of England. The Arabic sarsor. din. PofijivXwg. to shrill sound sharp. grillen. Albanian tsentsir. to sound. whirr).' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. In the N. to creak Bret. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. German hummel. Gaelic dranndan. to be compared with Sanscr. Lat. a beetle druna. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. schwirren. i. to rustle. ' — Pictet . sirkka. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. kong-kong. pip-pi-ta. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. Lithuanian tranas. and he kong-ko-rong.' — i.

mugler. to bow- own bawl. verb is evidently identical with our shout. p.XX called booing. to or bark. biibnas. as the Illyr. bo. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. say. to boohoo. k or g. bue. in same way. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. and thence Lat. 167. bwla. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. whence baula. to make a noise. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. a buffalo. buculus. bae. loge. to sound. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. in a imitation of a ringing sound. On the same principle. lulauti (to hoo-loo). or bau-l-i. verbal form given to the say. shoot . With these analogies. (iove. bugler. bullus and e. Illyr. has bilbilgoda. forms a. Thus from miau. to mew. and in Hottentot baa was the . to . Lat. a bull. are (with a subsidiary k). to make. From the same lioao). amuse. to low . to make. bu. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. bugle. maukati. to low. to bump as a bittern Illyr. Fr. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). or moo. Da. bull. the animal. bovis. to bellow like a bull. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. to make a loud deep sound. bukati. to the uses goda. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. baula. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to beat hard. From baa. — ^Tylor. cattle. a drum . make to it laugh. Manx booa. to from bau. representing the mew of a cat. Lat. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. to shout. fivKaofiai. to weep. The Galla lilbil. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. w. the Fr. mugire. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. or formed Lat. is inadmissible. btibleti. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. bos. bubati. bubenti. muJiati. bullock. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. ox. Fr. or a z to the imitative syllable. and from to ring. The Piedm. to shout. OFr. be-l-er. a bullock. It. that the imitative syllable are Lith. a Geiger. Lat. as that of the cow by boo. Zulu lulula. agreeing exactly with Lith. make poo. a heifer. boo. Gael. to low or bellow. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. and djeda. mamoo-heeheek. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. Hottentot bou (Dapper). the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. from the imitative moo instead of boo. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. His analysis leads cow. bucula. bolt. Piedmontese fi bau. grumble as distant thunder . representmake bow. w. miau-l-er. Cult. bauli. to ba-L-are. mae. or with on. bae. a cow. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. Norse bu. Galla boa.

hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. to bleat. a sheep. goats. Magy. and Circassian maylley. hwch.' Moor's Suffolk words. Kurren und murren. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Da. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. a goat. Illyr. sound. to bleat . lekavica. grunny. And it is true there between hog and grunt. and hoc'h. corresponding to ohg. ^. it and e. groin.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. to rumble. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. in Wolof bae. from hundama. 6. hound. and grumphie. meigeal. The g. G. this obstinate race. lek-eg-ni. a pig Fin. kurre. Gael.). Moreover. the designations of a dog the term cur. /xijeao/iat. cite as by grunt. to grunt. to growl. sus-sus. to howl. a goat firixal^ta. Fr. and thence groin. nire. Welsh and Breton). meketati. — . name of a sheep. a (Hesych. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. ' In driving. Fr. . grunt. grumble. Idgge (Rietz). grugno. Gr. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. From the imitative mae. and with the subsidiary k or g. a grunt. / The same Gr. does not produce a e. we have Sanscr. It. in v. With gen. Gr. mekegni. menAda (ndda. signifying a snarling. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. he would hardly. with the root ypaipm. may with to snarl. mecati. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. to themselves. knurfisk. grumbhng. guttural tone. a sow. a wolf. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. hadg- Magy. hund. a dog. naskia. leknuti. from knurre. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. as the proper name of a tame sheep. as lou of an ox. meil. grumpf. (iriKov of forms like Sw. grogner. a hog. meugler. grunlike a pig in eating. sheep or goat. a sheep or ewe. and snorke. a pig. curmurring. growl. to bleat. hundi). smack and naski. lecco. the snout of a pig. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. undoubtedly imitative. mutter. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. name. a. Illyr.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. name of the animal itself. a goat. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. Africa laa. meckern. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. lambs. cry). a sheep or a goat. for the voice of the ox). hunt (gen. hunon. It is probable also that e. by which the shingle gives rise to It. to grunt. and of (maelon). or in any ! way ! persuading. kurren. may be identical with Esthon. . purr). leg-et-ni. grumble. . /xj/caScj. houch. a sheep (Lowe). Hence Breton hoc ha. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. Gr. rumbling. oe. Illyr. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. Among dog. although the imitation embodied in Lat. Manx meilee. karra. a sow.

hoppe. M). humma. animal. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. If onomatopoeias can . Sc. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal.' — ist Series. So Sanscr. hottihuh. to whine. p. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. the cry to stop or back a horse. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.root. when he found peculiarity. hobby. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. hobin. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da.' ticular bird. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. of the character in question. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. turn a horse to the is In Finland. Thus we are led to the Fr. 91.). like artificial flowers. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. from the cry animal. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. . Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. There are of course some names. coquelicot. to the left. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. without a — we root. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. such as cuckoo. coquette. cockade. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. a little am- bling horse. p. houpy in Craven. as in Yorkshire highly right. to go backwards. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. hiine. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. .. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee.. g. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. But words of this kind are. which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. a horse. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). Esthonian hoibo.' 2nd Series. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock.). (Craven Gloss. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. hobben. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. e. a mare. ^6<. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal.

Sanscr. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. command of language was attained. wagtail. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. Sp. wrenska. frenschen. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. whitename in in- throat.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. hennir. but whether there kind between them and other words. nounced with a guttural). hresh. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. fehtati. to Sanscr. hikkd. giggle. woodpecker. Pl. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. moan. diver. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. nitrire. . from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . to neigh. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. redpole. animals or certain kinds of sound. creeper. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. signified It. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. titter. Bohem. cough. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. wiehern. form corresponding hresh. lapwing. Irieschen. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. hross. little speak for themselves. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. as sigh. goatsucker. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. ance or habits of the animal. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. hukkup. e. wrena. swift. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. Sw. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. sol. xxiii ginal object. rinchar. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. hresh. ginniken. Lettish sweegt. than to the sounds represented. groan. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. g. Du.D. horse. runniken. Fr.

ting-ting. or tliat is accomit. for the sound of a fall. knack. tisio (tisho).^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. White Lies. shriek. clap ! A smack Puff. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. thunder (Tylor) . are familiar in ' to every one. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. snore. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. Australian bungbung ween. the dashing of the sea . It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. snort.' So imac. Mei gbengben. a more expressive than the e. beat of a clock child . went the cannon. lumm. hang. for in such sound of blows. klatsch. to hammer . haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. to throw violently down. —Brem. a kind of drum. wheeze. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. scream. atchian. to sneeze. haw. Da. for blows with a rod. pit-a-pat. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. banke. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. &c. for that of breaking. for a small one. mer. bang ' ! trenches. the God of thunder . Wtb. Zulu bongo. to ham. beat. tlirob. banga. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. heaven). root kshu. oren : Klapp. for the sound of milking.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. ping came the bullets about their ears. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. dong Read. fitsche-falsche. DingBang. plitsch-platsch.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. 1865. a large bell. bang. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. pump. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. to beat. or the w. to knock. on the chops is represented also by pratx. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. for the sound of a blow.' it both sides went. for the creaking of a wheel. in a nail Let. ding. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . Vei gbangba. . And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. strippstrapp-stroll. It is represented in e. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation.' 'Haw. atchini. an attempt would be made to by the voice.' ! ! ! ! — dong. Of a like forma- drum . snukkup). aritischane. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . bangas. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . haitshu. debhes-lungotais (deifies. hoo ping ping. hoo. heart tick-tack. to drive on. for the for the sound of . — Sanders. knarr. &c.

Gr. a fowler's bird call is lost. young child . peep. pigolare. Mantuan pipiare. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. peep. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. piou. In cases such as these. the voice of chickens (Cot. piauler. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. as in other subjects of study. to peep It. and whimper. pipio. . and so forth. to cry pi. chickens (Tylor). Lat. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. to squeak. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. far pipi. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. a chicken or gosling. as k. e. child. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances.' instead. bleat. pi. to cry like imrli^u). pipare. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. ducing the sound. Florio. — . or a piailler. a whelp. pigiolare. not- . pule. pippione. pipe. De Brosses. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. pipelni. a (young) pigeon. pipe. calls S. young bird.) a chick. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. which he added to intensify the expression. and their relations. is pfeife. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. cry. piou. had been used laugh ? two.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. to cheep like a bird or a young It.sc. part of the What consciousness has the child. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. a fife or musical pipe. It seems to him that the teeth t. —Lyndsay. scream. of a word will appear supposed to represent. used as a call to . cry of young birds . mobility excavation and hollow ^. G. has been un- employed to designate fixity. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. Lat. Magyar pip. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. pu. He Yet asks. to designate cavity and hollow. a or cheep. as the simplest implement for proFr. is of expression. pipio. pipegni. The pi. laugh. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. piccione. or the uneducated different consonants are man. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. pigione. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pipilo. doubtless. Fr. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman.

to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. Pefuxela. sound of dry breaking. in German. to cluck. Poppopvi^to. to jar. &c. when it force than biscuit. a short sharp sound. thunder oil . laqfF. a drum W. of a loud strong sound. crash. Pacific aka-aka. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. and lugh. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. kniks. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . make wood a clinking noise. some small vowel or consonantal sound. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. like the noise of a glass breaking . to bubble.. to thunder. gurren. kuruk. knaks. It. u. to fizz like fat in frying. to be compared with Sc. to laugh.Gr. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno.. cluck. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. cricli. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. tontonare. borrelen. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. to grate the teeth . either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. lachachen. or kaka-faka.) Mod. to grumble. vaake gorgor) . The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to creak knirren. garren. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. i. the side of g. turtur. to clack. to hawhaw or laugh loud. is very common. {to It. rumble. a sharp short one. karkarana. crack. along with Du. Zulu raraza. or springing back. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. lachen. pi . to crackle like in boiling . as representing the sound made when something breaks. to pant violently (Colenso). Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. Hindoo tomtom. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. murren. to gargle . loud laughter. be cate to go on laughing loud . tonare. to grumble). along with tinnio. . a closed or obscure sound. knurren. a prolonged sharp sound. to gorgogHare rattle. kirkirdnd. where the variation. coo. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. of something fine and thin. sound). to cry pi. to ring pipio. to gurgle. to pant bejii- zela. to rattle. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. Manchu kaka-kiki. to growl. Indian chack-chack. murmur (by . Hindustani karak is rendered. as the click of a latch or a trigger. kniks. ioriogliare (to make borbor). rumble. tintino. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). rumble (Fl. the clucking of a j hen .' We te he ! quoth Tyb. a. girren. knuks. creak. preserved by Kilian. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . chack. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . . To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. grumble. bubble. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley).

sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. muro and e. . Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. clink. simmer. clango. and Gr. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. hala-hald-faMa (falda. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. ding-dong. . as Fr. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. correspond to e. rain (Tylor. Manchu kaka. Scotch sough or sooch. the sound of a stringed instrument. Maori pata. Galla tuma. kiling-kalang. halaidlac'h. or to Du. and Gr. KaKog. the tingling Ming-Hang. is Manchu tang-tang. or the bubbling up of to a spring. noise. 368). Prim. e. as of Tamil muromurmur. box on the ear imitation of the . witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. to knock. for a tTviror). uproar. The whispering of the wind I. to the purling of a brook. drops of i. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. clank. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. to strike. for chut-chiit-er. to beat. the gingling of glasses. awater* ' The Mme P. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. 1871. champ. of keys or tinkling of bells. and the imitative nature of tivgle. disturbance (F.' Member for Paris. tumwata. or of bells ringing. E. cry. and e. Newman). The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. wail. 192). tup. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. shout. and bilhila. to ring or jingle. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. call. a workman. while cacd / used in e.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. borrelen. bent her head. sound). agrees with g. word. croaking of frogs. csam-csogni. for the sound of privy whispering. a nightingale. to be compared with g. corresponding in e. jingle. fumtu. is based on the same imitation as the e. to giggle. quarren. at an accelerated note. Turk. tumult. for the clinking Lat. bubble up.and e. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. chuchoter. rvir (in tvittio.* the heart. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . The syllables lil-bil. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. a smith. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). clash of arms. to say chut. Sanscr. and her heart went thump. djeda (to say tub). Calt. Tiie Galla gigiteka. bad. jangle. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . coughing or clearing the throat. Fr. a drum . to croak Manchu <juar-guar. Magyar csamm-ogni. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. brings us to Fr. chut. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. koXiw. a boy's whistle. for the ringing of illustrate bells. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. identical with g. tubh. spring of water in the a bell. especially one who beats. compared with Gr. klirren. bulbiil. kl'mg-kling. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. sound. are applied to the is excrements of children. indicating the origin of Gr. rifiirayov. make djamdjam). caca and Finnish adkkd. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. a nightingale. thump. chinking of coin. to whisper.

gargle. rap. crash. tomber. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. ' Der puff. clang. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. tumbian (to beat the ground). in e. tinkle. tum-ultus. But although and also found in Lat. sputter. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. answering to g. Fr. boom. at a door tarapatan. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. gurgle. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. patter. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. souse. The beating of drum is represented in e. splutter. clank. So in Fr. to fall. thump. disturbance. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. chatter. pop. clap. rattle. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. rataplan or rantanplan. lash. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. clatter. clash. dash. tap. Nevertheless. whirr. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. hum. clink. dabble.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. the Germans puff. squall. tymmesll. w. puff. without the intervention of orthodox roots. parapatapan. din. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. The use of g. and Grimm. swash. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. plump. thwack. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. clack. crunch. paddle. twang. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. while e. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. squeal.. douse. for (Sanders). but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. thump. rumble. Humboldt. slash. 'pat. whine. murmur. smash. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. hiss. or v^hether jectional. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. squeak. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. a applied as well to the force of the bang. crack. craunch. brumberum. tingle. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. it is fallj AS. report of a gun. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. whizz. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. blubber. flop.' — Nohden. we have buffet or cuff. creak. bang. and Fr. bubble. mutter. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. ring. snap. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. splash. It. smack. and soufflet. to is blow. thump. flap. to dance. and the French pouf. chink. whack. blow. by rubadub. according to the strictest phonetic rules. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. jingle. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. fizz. guggle.

of horror. because they are spontaneous. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. 94. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. without a thought of symbolising to them. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. but if we must not complain on the beach. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. the kind of action that is desired of them. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. Crying. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . is Thus ah!. that he has taken the step in rational speech. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. an imitation of a sigh . Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. every little pain. xxix on the contrary. grief.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. hay. wringing the hands. knows them. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. the interj. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. and uttering plaintive sounds. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. or stubble is meaner name. If. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. ugh . and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. the inteij.' If chaos. or any unsatisfied want. At the first beginning of life. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. stractions. or of any if wood. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. in the case of the animal or of the infant.'. are made known by an instinctive cry. in the rushing waters. formerly cited. little who has time to want of her nurseling. p. by the nature of the cry. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. and thus they become signs of despair. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves.' . then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. and found in the building of be burnt up. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. Grimm or Bopp. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed.

would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. more eloquent than a long speech.' p. to solve the I shall call first.' — ist Series. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. as who them spontaneous utterances. they are involuntary interjections. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. ^6g And to the same effect 371. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. should be remem- . groaning. which are frequently so toned down cance. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. One short interjec- tion may fact. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage.. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. He says. p. If I wish to make a person of an . and some of them the composition of words. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . be more powerful. or which is of me as suffering pain. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. shrieking. coughing. of all the mouth. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. more to the point. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. 32. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. them to exercise it. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. may become traditional. sneezing.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. And again. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. Language begins where interjections end. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. the lowing of a cow.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. interjections. p.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. and the eye. 344. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. he cites from Home Tooke.

bered. when I arp humming and hawing. then speech begins. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. hahottaa. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. I am not hearer. hohottaa. and thus. loud laughter. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. and others from interjections. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. interjections. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. but the less am at a loss what to say. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. Tooke in truth. and more or less limited . Kayxa^u). by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. for example. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. speaking. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. hahota. Koxafw. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. it them. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. in Magy. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. kahkahah. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. some kind of language might have been formed. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. cachinno. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. demolishing here. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. Gr. Lat. in Fin. he says.

But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. And so in the case of language. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. What strikes him . imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. the critical question should be. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. a Picture-language. a deaf-mute himself. . which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. of the nature of this great movement. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything.' he says. makes them stand and walk upon the table. The following account is given by Kruse. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. words receiving the meanings they now bear. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. dumb is the language of signs. and go where we now say stand. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. like peewit and cuckoo. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. It as has ing their most striking features. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. of the world. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. Though. and not. But here nature soon conies to his help. if taken as a whole. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident.

but if I depress it instead.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. letter To hold the two fingers apart. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. called Gesture-language. becomes roast meat. and we have roast goose. such objects. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. and to taste. the sorecalling them to his memory. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and it is flesh or meat. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . walked. The same sign stands and the act itself. that. and And thus he makes himself a language. for single objects. nay. such as than the educated man. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. and with his thought. his action. and forms further and further. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught.GESTURE most. he. the whole secret. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. The of sign for left hand. xxxiii him between one thing and another. it seems. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. like a V. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. And is. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. and fully serves to j . or To pull and flap with the arms. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. he. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. push it towards the person addressed for thou. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. particular sense in properly so called. or the verb to be. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder.' In the Institutions. thou. walkest. can do better and more easily abstract terms. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. as it now opens out. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. that air. what more. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. many when or but these. walker. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. among themselves. for the agent. for walk. thought is already broken. signs are taught for yet. and gestures. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. most striking outline of an object. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. to name. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. for child. the lan- guage cultivates itself. it means little. that signifies great .

—What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. a number of alternatives are suggested. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. to indicate the action of a certain person. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. and so is an adverb. When a verb. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. Do not bang the it is a verb. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. qualifies the against the wall. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. might be the knife. the garden. He gave door a bang. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. putting it into his pocket. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. when I say. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. The same word . and the as. depend entirely upon the use. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. a colour red. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. I say. would be simply beginning of speech. . and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. or a passive scene of existence. as in die it is a noun.' dener's knife. You beaten . or an act. as But when it is meant door. When I say.xxxiv asking. or a quality. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. in fact. in other instances sentence. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. substantive or adjective. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. the ture of white term pink is and red. and thus performs the part of an adjective. as when Bang ! went the gun. it called an interjection. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. according to the circumstances of the case. or something of the kind. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. or action. Who is has beaten you ? would be. whether by additions or otherwise.

as cung. or with elements expressing relations of time. in the is indicated by the syllable y. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. as kuo cung. a groan. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. and may be used language. a noun. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . or nei. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. wonder. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. inquiry. the man is great. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. Thus tafu signifies a great man. Latin. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. grie^ horror. some outward display of the affection. which is an old y ting (use stick). as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. inside. that admits itself in of audible representation. but often self-evident. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. and to be great. wherefore. or some relation between it and another object. coalesces with the personal pronouns. greatness. pain. whereof.^ — Miiller I. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. a sigh of oppression and . the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. wherewith. 255. &c. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. Jii ta. wherehy. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. contempt. whereto. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. commencement of speech. with a stick. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words.. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. . so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. in the sense of great. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. verb nor noun has yet been developed. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. middle. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. that is.

weh schreien. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. ach. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. I oi[iot. . . oval. axofiai. ochan. representing Illyr. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. och. Jar lau-lau. ochan. a groan or lamentation vir. misery. ohi. In this way from the root guai. ace. &. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. och. miau-l-er. to wail or cry alas . pain. on. al. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp.'). has to cry laa the Piedmontese. djamdjam goda (goda. It. The form corresponding to Lat. at the close of the radical syllable. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. och. w. Gr. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. ocAJ. ach. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. die wehen. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. Gael. to chirp. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. grief] affliction. and cacak djeda (to say crack. A widespread It. to cry at. aiai^to. weh. . It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. lau-l-e. Bret. w^wa. to make bow-wow. jaoh. seen in Gr. form. Fr. g. found in g. to ache. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. ! ! Goth. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. first person. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. the pangs of childbirth. has more kopfweh. to make). 6. however. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. g. gwae. wehthun. suffering. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. ach. hei. ahi. vce. to lament. ache. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. achen. howl. to weep. misfortune. Thus from springs otjucifw. to wail. wd. to injure. Gr. ah.ez. is w. to groan. . to sound yapyap. woe. pain. ohg. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. as. It. woe. wai. jao. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. ah. representing a cry of pain. vaj. Illyrian vaj. to gargle. j. in Gr. 6. e. Let. mew. weinen. e. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. tirr-djeda. . n. ai.. guaj-ire. to yell formed e. Gr. to lament. vei-a. o'i. miau-n-is. mostly a ! %. dchzen. vce. and to bark . ing action I. e. grief. la. probably a deeper groan. to ache. to hurt Let.-l-are. lament from oimi. oh. wAwa. headache. are ol-ire. Lat. waiidt. or r. guai. wai-l. to weep. oh. gwae. wehen (Schmeller). oi. xxxvi grief. gwe-l-a. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. to cause pain. oimare. as. Such are g. ochain. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). pain. Lat. w. It. on. to do woe. cece. ui. to . wai. to cry n. Illyr. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. It. is Ay di me I Gr. guaj- or cry out pitifully. miau-l-is. guajo. to rriourn. grief. lament. to bewail oneself.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

' this. But. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. Dr Lottner observes.' then points to his wife. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. or that it is. according to Menage. or wants to name something. The Fr. ' sees an object. as to express. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. and so on. and may be rendered. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. well as Goth. says da-da-da. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. . Phil. for instance. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. Thank you. Diet. • The child.' all is is — their consent. case. that gratifies me. nurseries. indeed. the nursery da-da. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. when he wants something. Sie. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. that is it. der da-ige. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. thata (ta-ta). more emphatically roSj)j that. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. ToSe (or in Attic E. is we I believe. as. this here. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. to here . implying the direction of its good will towards them. I add) . but the truth is.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. 'nay. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. or carry me thither. a word of many applications in g. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. give me that cheese. Sanders (Germ. or give me it. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. da. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. we may translate this by there (it is). and by a variety of expressions besides. saying : there the ad- Trans. child. Bav. In the expression Da. a specified were by pointing him out. da.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. When we pointing. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. Please. is-te). that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. when 1859. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it).' person. as it Dieser da (as Lat. his trowsers' pocket. give. that.

a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. The da is dodem.' • liv ANALOGY. which thus exertion. takes it — as When the soul. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. to tion to another. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. dadee. in every mode of expressing the idea. Thus Gr. to move step by step. or metaphor. . the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. sounds. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. make dadada). then instinctively interest. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. thinking. to say to oneself. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. to walk. speech. or dalliance. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. reality. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. sinking. to beat. to chatter. beat. strike. tasting. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. standing. to knock. pay. and one in particular must. p.^ its ' utters : a cry. stutter. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating.' says Lottner interior. its desire. of which any one may. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. tattle. meanings. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. — Cot. childish toying. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr.' says Muller. and shapes it into an . the original is that which he places first. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. moving.

for example. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. to smack or taste. fiapfiaipw. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. beam. prudent. which in ohg. suspect Bav. may be it explained . (parallel bilbila. Fr. Heo Du. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. kiimottaa. gnittre. also wise. judicious. wilistd. &c. and. splendour. as kilind. beorhtian. make a loud noise. esclat). splendour. 1654. outcry. signified a clear sound. clang. spraka. to quiver. magnificence. air. and schmecker. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to glitter. to glitter. rattle. snotor. In the case of sparkle. we have and the and beorht. to ring as a glass willata. a dis- cernment. bilbilgoda (to make . bright. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. to resound. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. to shine. while sapere itself. extended to the exercise of the understanding. sprageti. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . knistre. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. pracht. to . wamara. from the . In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. as. Again. to 5 ghtter. to be wise. sound. Du. Bavarian bracht. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to flash. . a with kimmaltaa. the equivalent of g. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. to shine. snudra. Finnish. may be quoted gUt. sense of brightness. snot. on. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. In the same way the Goth. bilbil). and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. to ring. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. and figuratively. kimistd. to snilF. unlella. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. iclat (in Old Fr. scheteren. wilahtaa. scTiateren. schiteren. knittre. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. is used in the origin. tintelen. to have Sapiens. to crackle gnistre. sapere (which signifies the nose. Lith. snutrs. then to sparkle. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. same imitative root with Sw. — 1. properly a clap or explosion. to glisten Dan. taste. So firom Lat. to sparkle. snuff the sniiten. to crackle. noise. man of nice taste. savour. tinkling. . smell. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. a ringing . think. ghsten. It is The word bright had a similar In as. to sniff. brilliancy. to glitter e. schmecken. to sniff out. in popular language. to glitter. firom the Gael. tumult. discreet. wise. The 6. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. in the domain of movement. to sound clear In Galla. to shriek with laughter . search . chime). smell. a brilliant light kilid. and thence e. to tinkle. a rustling sound Gr.

rough. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. kvTOQ. which The Stoics. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. The BpavEiv. he framed the words ivSov. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. rend. briars. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. he says. Kpovtiv. roughness. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. sharp. eo ut res vol. accordance with the way in which by touch. fitting the letters to the sense. in of his works. the bleating of sheep. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. discusses the tone of a picture. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. v. rough. Tpa)(yg. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. wool. . oily. as soft by the ear. soft. the neighing of horses. the clank (stridorem) of chains. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. we hear of screaming colours. pleasure soft to the ear . ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. then in rpd/xoe. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. itself letters are felt as sofl. strike. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. of dressing loud. gluey. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. or . 6\tadaveii'. ipuKuv. mel. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. pvfi^Civ. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. inside. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. rough both ways. whirl. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). And observing that n kept the voice within. rough to the ear. and vepres. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. KoWiiSije. tremour. smooth. extremely loose. flow and flux.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. power of the letter-sounds. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. crux. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. shatter. Much of the same has been often quoted. to slide. is felt Lana. \nrap6e. 1.' he says. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. in truth. within. Kep^arl'ieiv. &c. the cross. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. Acre. break.

Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. 'and consequently form. to jogj sac-cade. 138). as when. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. sag-oter. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. t. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. p. shog. corresponding to the ineor. stab. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. jih. rug. stag (in stagger. ii. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. d. to reel abruptly from side to side). to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. p. g. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. A greater felt. Fr. joli. or checks as they are called by Muller. jag. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. the case of the voice. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. degree of roughness sound. jog. k. to signify varieties of movement. shag.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. cular effort Again. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. and in the utterance of a high or or low. tug. a rough and sudden . jig. for exis ample. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. dag. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. dig. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound.

an old worthless horse or carriage. to take a thing on tick. To tick a thing off. chiquet. chicoter. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. S-panish miga. kuk. and analogous movements. so to Italian toccare. rough horse. Fr. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. properly a small lump'of . lead to Spanish tocar. schuckeln. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. Thus we have B. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. to mutter. to stir. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. mie. then. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. that we never can be sure. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. movement. a little bit. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. figuratively. Ene olde suksuk.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. it produces Dutch micken. passing to the signification of motion. to beat or play on a musical instrument. The Mipen or pencil. to utter a slight kick. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. a small bodily object. The production of sound. to touch. sound Fr. Hence Lat. to mark it with a touch of the pen . then. tick-tack for the beat of a clock .. a . kik. tack. Mucken. as Italian tocco. is lanese toch. tock. Fr. also to stir. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. a piece or bit of anything. Dutch kicken. an infant . tech-tech. a jog. Accordingly the g. and e. Then. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. to glitter. e. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. schockeln. to say a word . a playiug-marble. foot. The syllable suk is jerk. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to move rapidly to and fro. to incite by light touches. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. a good piece of road . used interjectionally to represent a . representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. like English tick. (mitsati). mik. not to utter a syllable. to On the same principle j we have g. Welsh cicio. mot. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. a cracker. as tot. Brescian toch. Sukkeln. zigzag. a quid of tobacco. The analogy then carried a step further. It. a stroke with a French toucher. for the sound of knocking at a door. to have it ticked or marked on the score . Bolognese tocc. and It. Illyrian migati. in cases like the foregoing. to strike It. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. motion. to ring a bell. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. is so frequent a consequence of movement.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. is made to signify movement. g. a crum. mica. however. cica. micare. to tickle. &c. zack. tecche-tocche. sound barely audible. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . to pulses being knock. to winkj micati is Lat. chique. or check. toch-toch. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. chic. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. The train of .

a. This kind. gno. tozzo. the same organ touched with the man. So. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. But the same is language has re Javan. (Halliwell) Da. To jot. taut. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. there. 199). a small horse. to touch lightly with a pen. neither moit nor an atom. often entirely arbitrary. mote. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. we have e. that. n. small titlark. little. to dot. or o toi. to whisper (Pr. fait. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. a bit. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. tot. to jog. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. tot. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. anything small flax. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. fragments It. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . 0. e. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . a certain conception. this.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. mutter j dust. Du. clay . this . . further off. tot. a small lump or pat. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. tittle. 48) cites from the African Tumale. . at where the order is inverted. a small bird. and he. tit. seesaw. anything . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. . iki. titilh. citto. a whisper. a tot . . The following table from Tylor (Prim. to touch. a lad citta. titter. a sparrow). but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. syllable mot. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. to make a slight mark. there '(at a short distance). Cult. lix Sp. a small kind of lark. Pm. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. that iku. gni. a e. a morsel girl . jot. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. totle. ri that. a morsel. lump of earth. ticktack. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. or the converse. not because the pendulum makes a different left. or the like its It. and out there. here (close hand). e. corresponding to the personal pronouns. to movement of the pen . a bit. a light quick blow. a girl. zitio. of movement in totter. . Malagasy to. mutter. and toddle like a child titter. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. you. little j to that of a small bodily object. . titmouse (Du. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. bunch or flock of wool. is shown in murmur. not to utter a syllable. to jot down or note with a fro. tit. tottle. the vowel sound. zitella. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. small of kind. there (further of!) ao.) . subdued manner. I. and mite.n. as in e. to e. ika. for the three personal pronouns. chico. to tremble. mot. . tot. Then. the least visible insect. Fr. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). and dot. . mossche. i. mut. a little titty. Halliwell. motte. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. gnu. move slightly to . not an atom . for the beating of a clock. a small quantity. motta. tiny. and a small lump of something.- a jot or little It. eo. here. In a similar the relations of place. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase.

ukko. . (tt). he. Fernandian az. thou ni.) pronunciation of i or e. child. here j abe. qu. that (intermediate) j wana. here . that.araM. father k . here . is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. Mm. me probable that • Vei also little. Tamul i. there. here feraa. bi. as Mr Tylor remarks. /wo. Tarahumara ibe. tiiio. w. for the male. probably initial of distinction that the k.. thou. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. mother. that.. that. Sahaptin (America) kina. there. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). Zulu ajoa. this <t. Mutsun ne. j Canarese ivanu.e^. . there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. this ole. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. that. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix.) nna. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. ndi. . . while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. minution further. this fi. an old woman chacha. Ossetic am. mother. Gr. Japan ko. this . Then. It seems to (fen. that. to. father. little. that. ita. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. I . is Here. olo. . this . /e«. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner.. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. is father. . km. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. respectively. ne. as in Italian Fin. that in the distance. that. there. mas cheche. he. . loo). ojOo. and origin. ulri. here j ka. this .* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. ofj. Carib ne. . akha. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. ni. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. femina ama. 6. Lat. small (Pott. thou . Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. Magyar ez. this . child. Abchasian aSn. ni. Guarani nde. here this . In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. It Carib lala. uta. biii. that. ta to ka. Dhimas isho. there. Botocudo ati.. there. ^. as the act of pointing was ta. that. man erne. Chilian tva. nne. and a for the female. no constant rule is observed. usho. an old . you. here 5 Yoruba na. young one. there. /mya. there. mother.

trappen. Thus we have Wolof sopa. trap. to begin to appear . The Sw. And perhaps the E. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. of smaller things. dance (Kil. A little weeny thing.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. to leap. to make its way through the bursting envelope. &c. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. for the . It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. Clank represents the sound of something large. trippen. tion. wean. to teet. Top. the nursery few j Sc. From cases like the foregoing. repetition It. i Sw. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. has tittafrem. trappa.) . or chink. a step. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. the principle of reduplication. little To sup up. to tread. to peep. 401. or even. murmur. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. at pippe frem is to spring forth. trSpigner. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. as ding-dong.' — Merrv Wives. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. to peep through. . nab. pepin. din-din. a child. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. A little wee face with little. little. whence Fr. for a succession of light blows low-wow. wenig. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. Fr. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. lift 8. don-don. the idea is called. just beginning to appear. Da. in old e. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. as j money. The sound trapp .' making the voice as small as possible. to feet. barking of a dog. and in the Pacific dialects. nipple. — Douglas Virgil. knob. fretful. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. a little yellow beard. stairs. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. nil. trippelen. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. analogous to winy-piny. keeh. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. the pip or pippin. titta. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. looking through between obstacles. sound of bells . for instance. the simplest mode by the g. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. is to express simple continuance of action.

although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. are echoed by the rudimentary et. So from clamo. mpolu is uttered. tach-et-er. the agent in panting . as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. to rock. kamha-gamla. Malay ayun. and Fr.. &c. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. very great. bad . smallness. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. or very very great. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. to say pooh It is ! to. to vi^alk about for flax. rapidity and strength. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. Mandingo ding. tache. Thus in the Pacific loa. mawhiti. very bad. to to call. little child (p. to pant. puka. Susa di. from Maori muka. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. (to use a to speak. kendagenda. to love. properly speaking. repetition or continsignify long. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. Again. ayunayunan. keep spots. very long (Pott. lololoa. 97). the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. a clattering noise. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. cliqu-et-is. in familiar use with ourselves. . Cult. Thus in E. or rdtchi. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. puka- puka. serves to show and in this way. kenda. sopasopa. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. to or rub. a grasshopper. hardness. a cradle. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. i. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. the comparative degrees of greatness. or el. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. to cover e. didi. child . amusement.Ixii REPETITION. such as the syllable expressed in a more called.' expression is — ^Tylor. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to call frequently from Fr. or in Fr. or imitative syllables. or a little tee--ny thing. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. clash of weapons. calling. if very young. rack. the and clique. is language. to talk at to walk. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. . ding-ding. and the words express a continued sound of rack. to skip. ratsi-ratsi. could readily be conceived. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). to treat with contempt. And generally. rack click. 99). er. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. the lungs. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. loloa. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. instead of being actually repeated. The same principle of 196. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. child . racket. a spot. click. random . clamito. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. mawhitiwhiti.

a succession of cracks to rattle. fickle. draggle. the knie-en to E. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. or by association. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. joggle. or fi bau. or omitted. compared with g. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. from puka. dabble. rubber. in some applications. as mAS. Piedmontese bau-l-S. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. to rock. wankeln. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. wancol. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. The contrivance with any particular noise. to make gug. wagas ging. to continue dragging. to hand-le. syllable clat . wankel. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. kneel.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. such asjlap. bubble. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. to wail woe . by the side of wanken. crack. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. he who rubs. where all direct connection with sound is lost.Jicol. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. to move to and fro. bub. to make bau-bau. itself. to make a succession of shoves. others. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. to bark like a dog. or in e. jogging. guggle. wavering. In cases like these. miauler andpiauler. dab. in Fr. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . Jickfacken. The Fr. miauler and beler correspond to E. or Maori puka-puka. g. and in as. it. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. to rock or wag. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . is In e. shuffle. which. a from ayun. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . Ihre remarks under gncella. to crackle. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. waggle. to make a succession of grabs . without the intervention of the frequentative element. to hand. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. are to cry mew and pew . the part that moves on a hinge up and down. smack. to puff. rynel. as to handle. the lungs (the puffers of the body). mew and baa .

between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. or in aptness to combine with other elements. There is. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. by a hard body breaking. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. Breton. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. on a moment's reflection. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. which is the origin of the word. Dupe comes to us from the French. known in Italian. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. at was more familiarly known. to the separation between the broken parts. which. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. although it is not difficult. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. the breach. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. moreover. Polish. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. A gull or a dupe same sense. will continue to be felt in daily speech. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. it is obviously a mere chance how long. or in mode of use. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. to cry ugh at. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. deceit. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. and comparatively few easily deceived. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. or how generally. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms.

But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. and the word is used in a secondary sense. . That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. however. life. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. language is . it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. is. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. founded in manifest blunder. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. Hitl^erto. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. nor any limited of ideas. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach.

or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. circle perpetrates a new slang term. i. unintelligible to other hordes. Welsh. and vescovo. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. evique. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). guages in South America. therefore. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. episcopus. 330. I think it very probable. and 'Russian. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. French. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. If English. out. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . change. Naturalist on the Amazons. hearing. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. of material things. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. compared with the duration of man. in the course of many years' isolation. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who.

Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. A key must unlock more doors than this. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. it will leave figures 3 and 4. the actual it which would to represent. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. The combination of the symbols I and 2.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. and . and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 7. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. 8. as shown in the subjoined illustration. Nor is there one of the letters. is MN. or whatever the proportion may be. ao8). Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. 6. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. i. ancient Greek M . 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. Cijlt. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. 9. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. . But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. which are idenr Figures 5. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. to be taken (Prim.

many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. in the shape either of direct inspiration. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. leading him to utterances. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. or. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. which either by direct resemblance of sound. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . what comes to the same thing. and the only safe beneficent Creator. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us.' should be discovered. for instance. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day." the use of a change of vowel in as. his fellows. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. known to us as yet. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. had its origin in imitation of sound. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language.

by animal without a trace name of Man.COMPLETION OF MAN. and sooner or later. or of their own reflected thoughts . that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. or not. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. the conduct of Ixix life. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . in the course of generations. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . for instance. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . and rose towards a higher state of being. of using imitative conduct . and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. or beavers. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . that he started from the lowest grade. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. or else. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . as elephants. race were speaking men or not. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. until the progeny. and when we look back as far as history will reach. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage.

Gr. Diefeiibach. Carp.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Douglas' Virgil.. ^Ifr. Grammar Boh. Dief. dialect of the Sette Commune. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. Due. 1766. Romano - Cas- traise. Supplement to Bret. Bavarian. Catalan. Diet. Baile/sEngl. . Brem. Teutonico-Lat. Biglotton seu Diet. Elfric's Fl. Esthonian. de la langue Cat. Dief. Provincial dialect. Castr. Cimbrisch. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany.-Eng. Bigl. Gothischen 1851. Bav. Diet. 1857. or Dan. 1654. Carpentier. at the end of Somner's Diet. English. Cotgrave. Cimbr. Finnish. B. Diet.V. Da. Bohemian or Czech. Diefenbaeh. Anglo-Saxon. Dutch. dial. Fin. 1850. 1768. AS. Wtb. Danish. Dueange. Sup.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Supplement to Dueange. Infimse Latini- D. Cot. 1737. Dn. E. Dueange. Couzinid. Bremisch. Esth.Nieder. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Fr.



7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r.>.5 ERRATA.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. haverie crtOT r.nokkutama willekem. word allagerr.. willekom Blab r. katowai perairrantr. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni . alUger ahaverie r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. yjnaifia r. cti. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. sveritet Asknace r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. buque 118 brodiquin r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. cruccio deyrie. Blob plowied r. woman r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> ." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. (/ijtf r. puHti r. baltresca nokkutomax. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. r. r. ^i?^i2! r. plowied budowaer.percurrunt kimista^x. kilistaa bugiie r. Askance woud r.


as. be-ceftan. state of sleep . As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . among. out of. us. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. from a is to wake to abide. The word Ban is common orders. alike. bandon in French. to subdue. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. a. an edict or proclamation. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. plesyt him. Hence on-bceftan. ir. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. a washing off to abstain. dominion. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. in the same sense. behind. rule. ur. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. off. Ab-. vs. in. Jvery man shewid baft. er. Dent posture. A. and — Chaucer. literally. of-dune. on-lic. until the event jlace . dominion. Thou spelds of mychty iction. In Lat. abs. ifter. Lat. whatever he be. K . in a manner other than it should be ablution. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. Again. AS.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. Immediately from Fr. Passing tongues. Abandon. to hold . "rom a height. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. the er. announcement. to sauff the king or spill. baftan. 843. as. on. said. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. ibandonner. Abs-. from. command. 244. sion of 'an abandoned character. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. have entire dominion over. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor.he Goth. iway from. might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. and secondarily in that of command. erwachen. —Bruce. a/tan. Parson's Tale. AS. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. into the Romance ftrseg . away from. power : Than Wallace thing. particular 1 . onis aback. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. on. o/j of or . ar. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. to arise. but now )bsolete). ab. his. Thus ip N3S. this word beand Spanish. implying a completion of J. abaft. Abaft. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will.t G. away. . compounds.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. orders. OHG. To abuse is to use iway. on-bsec . first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. to awake. downwards.

to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. et prirent terre. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. merely the terminations ons. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. father. baer. from ravir. beer. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. burny. in the active form. so common in the found in the OFr. or society of abbots or monks. See . abate. R.esbawi. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. abbas. Castrais. other. of the Fr. abbattre.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. to excite admiration. 1 1 8. person. or admiration. bawi. baba. Beat. — Neccham. esba. d. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. See Abide. uncontroUedly. astony. to overthrow. And he thereof was all abashed. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. his eyen shene. and grooms besmeared with gold. son bandon. Abbey. Fr.— R.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. castle. law term abatement. at his own the lips. I was abawid for merveille. of wonder. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. More correctly written abbat. Hence the OE. impetuously. de. ant. Hart in Jamieson. to abaw or astonish. abbatia. abbatere dal prezzo. Baba ! Mod. impulse. Abbess. shame. where custom (Grandg. astonish. . abbatis. polish. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. to gape. with or without a final sh.polir. to diminish the force of any. to hit. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. Wall.down. by Wall. to ruin. to put to con. depress. Milton. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. to strike sail . bandon. terminedly. Hence Lat. Custom.' the surrender of a ' K. Abbot. esbahissais. betrash. It. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. abandonly. R. To Abate. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . of fear. Bate. may be explained. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. R. effect of shame. an abbey. to astonish.fournir. ais. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. and sets them all agape. abaundunem-ent. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. his mouth. In or. to bate something of the price abbatersi. adverbial expressions at abandon. to The .On princes. Originally. ne more vermeille. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. esbahir. and the verb was written in Eng. On the other in use as well as hand. as ravish. to beat furnish. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. and it that that it — . It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. and that from Syrian abba. faire tomber. A. — — . Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. to make lower. overthrow. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. thing abbatere le vela. lish to abaisse orabaish. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. . 1520.) . His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to happen. to light upon. burny was formerly burnish . drink. iv. to strike Froiss. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. Cotgr. weaken. abbatere. vol. esbahissant.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. to take possession of an estate. down. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. confound. 364s.Prov. c. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw.— — . from Lat.

' is in AS. ^couter avec dtonnement. expectation. bouche bdante. watch. incite . OFr. To Abet. songer. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. Gloss. badare. syllable ba. signifies the direction of tend. is idenwait. were called Brothers. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. bida. baer. says. From abahier.. Abele. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. Cat. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. Abie. attendre avec en^pressement. badar. while the monks under his control ing. suspense. verbeijen Sw. with badia. pense. tempting. Goth. endurArt thou he that should come. de Champ. othres abidan' The effacement expect. or do we AS. in Fr. Prov. — II. badigliare. covet. bidan. to It. which the mind to an object. In We . desire. abeter. tenere a bada. with open mouth . aspirer.— Roquef. Thus we have It. to deanimer. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). Cat. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. Corant sens lui. bida. to desire. to open the mouth. to be intent upon. badare. to mind. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. Ducange. abie. — . to hook. a right in suspense . attendre See Bait. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. to wait. to stay. a bay or opening in the coast. . aspire to. . exciter. warten. forms with the d effaced are OFr. The white poplar. Corresponding to keep in suspense. abbadare. take notice. See Abide. F. speaking of the Holy places. Q. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. and E. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. abie. Du. compared with (Bosworth).Fr. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. to desire earnestly. listen. abet. Quant voit le serpent. abet. badare. gola badada. to attend on . beguile. delay. The verb atwaiting. gridare. white. to expect.) abayer. have seen abide. on the one hand. endurance. qui iaaille. to look. to abide . droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. deceit. abidan. baier. bouche b^ante. Fabl. (Vocab. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. lingering. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. Boethius. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention.— Chaucer. bocca badata. to deceive. guardare. the verb of abeyance. abayer. and alluring to his own destruction. m Abeyance. from Halo. K.to wait. —Raynouard. b^er. to remain or endure. Thus G. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. bide of the d endure. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . ne chastised them. desirer (Roquef. regarder. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. open the mouth. delay. ceive. beidan. abaier. bhr. and in E. take care. — ABELE Epiphanius. listening. beter. Norm. to In great amaze. to be intent upon. trick abetar. to open bader. inciting. literally white tree. . beidan. forbearance. to suffer death in Du. ne wist what way to chuse. beijen. 366. look for another. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. or absorption watching. delay. expectfamily. expectation. . — signifies to suspend action. bada. inciter. bie. which is certainly related to It. tity of E. beijen. to ance. 1 • . baier compared with It. Guernsey beth. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. tarrying . beijden. abSiance. . It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. intent observation. E. Norm. to stay. or in Fr. beguiling on the other. we sceolon ON. in Dan. to wait. bana. also to OFr. baier. de Berri) Prov. deceiving. to expect gabeidan. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring.was formerly used in the sense of look. bder. Ni engigner ni abiter. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. abeyance. house. wait. to wait. bie compared with Dan. to attend to. and Prov. usbeisnei. waiting.— ^richer. bialodrze-w. to yawn. abiiance. wait To Abide. Gloss. tical with It. to tarry. John. us. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. to gape . suffer b. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. abetter. ' ' . Pol.

fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. If it badare. i. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. the Sir Tristrem. She shall abie that trespass dere. have-like. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. Q. Tr. though sometimes confounded with it. and death for handsel pay. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. Prol. — e. when compared with Aboard. abie to Goth. must suffer for it. L. abie. abicgan. 2nd Tale. Abie. . God. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. in for any special purpose. Mids. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. purpose. strong. The —Boucher. being disabled in the highest degree. as E. and Cr. within the ship. Fr. aboleo. able. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here.ynes. ! ! Cotgr. to wear away. the Fr. was often used in the same sense. to have . suffer the Jul. Boucher. to dress hemp. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. Chaucer. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. atling hem to her proper offices. to draw fowls. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. fault being simply clothing. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. as habiller du chanvre. Fr. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. is the verb abie. abilh. willing to schewe his wrathe. and the simple buy. abilej Prov. bord. Merch. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. For on board. the side of a ship. at kasta fyri bord. him with che. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . R. on board . power.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. while in later examples As I . bidan. to . properly abuy. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. Spenser. to perish. sufficient. Dr. God — dear. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. Wickliff in Richardson. AS. In this to erase or annul. habilis is closely preserved. habile. from AS. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. R. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. al- be found so some will dear abide it. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. O If tion. P. to redeem. at hand). the Pardoner In the original.^and to make his power knowne. expert. Cassar. P. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. abolir. a board. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. Innan bords. to pay the purchasemoney. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. from Lat. N. use. —Bacon in R. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. abide. F. &c. de la volatile. bide. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. to pay the penalty. adapted . It. abigg. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. abeye. durance in both applications. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. Milton. — Able. convenient. abidge. ON. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. beidan. within the walls of a ship. habilis (from habeo. 2. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. — P. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. powerful. consequences of anything . abycgan. fit. or bie. Lat. without special reference to the notion of retribution. forbid for mother's children should abye.

or young forth. nurse Lat.. abbrechen. literally. Tale. af-oleii. to rear. while the sense of beget. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. progeny.1. but from Lat. Lat. to fatten. Abrdger itself. to awake. abbreviare. of any kind .writers in the sense of starting out of rence. ala. around on the out. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. onbutan. which passed into English under Abominate. abrcBgdan. to produce. be-utan. So in Lat. the idea of breaking about . heavy. al is growth. the man dwindles away.— Abbreviate. whence the Fr. to snatch. break out. for ligeth butan. Abundant. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. D. In the same brevis . to cut short. To Abound. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. nurse. to start. alere capillos. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. on high. alan. common in Chaucer and Abominable. by the to bring up. bufan. to progress. natural ed direct from the latter language. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. is a ively. oil. butan. gravity. OE. alUger. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. to feed. explains soboles Lat.' Parson's rence. snatch In English we speak of away. the identity of which with ting. Du. . to rear. af-oolden. abominor (from ab and omen. to nourish. outward. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. life. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. brood.foda signifies to beget. levis to the Romance languages. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to beget or give birth to children.ger. greu. The primitive idea seems that of beget. to let sleep.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. Thonne Abroach. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. Kiittner. seems aras. to turn. that greatly agredge their sin. Melibaeus. Then. AS. and alere flammain. currence. Fr.) . Sc. to AS. to light a fire the Abraid. side.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. abutan.. OSw. nourish. Goth. to bring up. as AS. abracan.ymbutan. and bidden him abregge. to grow together. above. — ' — — preceding verb. Abray. See -und-. abredan. sec seftre — Chaucer. vital PI. For on broach. See To Bray. draw out. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. AS. agreujar. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. Above. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.aboon. to feed. about cockcrow. Finnish stock. is not from G. giving birth to. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. pedigree from brevis. Prov. from Fr. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. agredge. Severe the threatened evil. be-ufan. to aggravate. to main. ufan. coalesco. to break off. the form a&^^. disastrous portent in some passing oc. The radical idea is to feed the flame. and to do something to avert abbreviate. as the duty of nourdisposition. d. breaking out in language. below. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. — . parent. alan. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. the vital spark. Gael alaich. boven. ABOMINABLE adolesco. ala is made to signify to rear. hard. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. to grow up. and also. abufan. from . without. a portent). or cut short. ol. the hair grow. the OSw. en. Thence to regard greugetat. becomes leu in Prov. Of these synonymous adolescere. To abray or abraid. abrdger. kindling. s —Casdmon. while the verb alleThe root el. Virg. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. his contemporaries. full ofte his words for to Fr. and also to abridge. motion. OE.the older form. adolere. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. and in-d-oles. awaking. way Sw. abowen. abbrechen. gravis. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. leading immediately to Fr. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat.' Ymb hancred utan. Quod abominor. titan. . AS. which may God avert. as withotityn and without. so that here also we to deprecate the omen.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


Hall's Chron. verberas. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. apanage. choke. ambeld. eigs. to display pario. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. to strike G. anapoz. whence anthem. a definite . Antler. whence Prov. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. d. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. So Lat. surimitation of the ancient models. To ape. as from as. Prov. AS. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. Antique. fauns. Ful- Apanage. Hence the applica. As the browcalled antiques. were andouiller the second. post. were chiefly of the former class. before. aside. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. to support. from eigan. should be received. gabeigs. anfilts Pl. finally applied to a whether grotesca. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. what Roman civilisation. to open. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler.th centuries the recognised models of antic. incus. .is to be given. Any. from. some one. from in and cudere. swaged. Antidote. separate purpose. press. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. apatiar. such as savages. villan Gloss. of. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. ab. a termination equivalent to Goth. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. as the Italians. Pezron fiUist. bread. a puppet or an anti^hona. strangle. or in a ridiculous dress. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. In like manner. Gr. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. a small quantity. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. and ig. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. from. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. from avTiipoiuia). to go in strange disguises. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. before. a few. white.—Aperture. left as the . from the imitative habits of monkeys. Aphorism. a preventative . anxius. — — — . AS. Aperient. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. Mannequin. cenig. Thus from gabe. anxi. as posticus.legacy of given against. Lat. all of gold. Gr. and claret wine. set aside. to nourish. on. antifena. or antique single chamber. Anvil. one having wealth. : . anticus. to strike. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. amboltj Du. to bring forth. separate. d<popi(xnbs. Anxious. work. aperio. panis. Lat. panar. G. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en.— . Percutere. plenteously with red. vex. but the expresent day. —Spencer. Fr. To go antiquely. trouble. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke.D. younger child. E. rich. Lat. apertum. antefn. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. Ilvtwotov. Apartment. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. transferred to the grotesque characters. Jorioc. which by anvild. af. one at the least. as we call it. like a jack-pudding. Fr. i. the anticks — behind. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. avri^ava. See Cover. AS. Antick. from Stephanus. to sound in answer. Fr. Otfried. to strain. something ler in R. to have. from ante.made out. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. ReApe. stem. a block to hammer on. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. from an and — - . a gift. wealth. in Shakespear. burnished. from ango. from an. and devils. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. part. inAgain from the same author cudis.. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. andouillers. one. three antike pillers. Apartment. Gr. Apart. to imitate gestures. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. Lat.

to approach. quoth the frere. to deaden. e. pronounce fitting). to assign or grant over unto. Fr. Parson's Tale. from aTroorlXXu. prope (comp. when the . diroTrXriaatii. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. (cited by Diez from a late author). Prov. and in the sense of condition. diroBrjKr}. Mod. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. appartenir. and also as appraise. approver. to learn. jabloko. xv. prover. prohts. —^Apparent. a learner. 5w. APO sentence opoQ.—Apprentice. probare. to take away or lose the vital powers. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. apprehendere. — Approve. to — — . to make a thing Apparel.— . The Fr. preparation. that it outfit. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. i. diminutive pariculus. For their acquaintance was not come of new . known. appareo.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. to which it is often referred. or the like. apar. a price. I prise ware. to rate. apal. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. d-n-o. 'LaX. set a price on. ar. To praise. Walach. approcdare. from paix. Hence It. near. and appoinder (to find fitting. like. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. a'^opi'Jw. avail. proper time came.probare. esteem. Prov. Cotgr. to finish a controversy. to catch hold of. agreeing with "LtA. laven is used both as E. — Apprise. Fr. in commendation. OFr. And among other of his famous deeds. agree. oVooroXof. Nouv.t. Gr. to suit. apprendre. one the MLat. 'L-zX. opportunity. pronounce good. to deem good. decree. to approve. one sent out. Friar's Tale.propius). corresp. : — — speak 'Lz. . Apoplexy. one for his defence. landmark. to deter- to strike. To Appraise. allow. to announce. to dress in this fashion. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Cotgr.parecchio. to seize. word was specially applied to clothing. to store or put Appal. to send to. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. taking. make a composition between parties. En peach. Fr. ap. H. ^wss.pareil. Approach. to be open to view. horror. An old appalled wight. to call for judgment. ai. Yr. kind of action. to Lat. Fr. lAfiaam. approcher. Sp. AS. purpose. habiliments. Formerly apricock. aptly. And whanne sum men Lat. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. Fr. like. The PI. a thing for one's purpose. It. They were considered To Appoint. manner. appaiser. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. Yr. 23 . .parejo. become dizzy . to set a price on. whether through age or sudden teiTor. to strike down. iwKjToKri. consent unto. properly to join like to like. ON. to commend. . order. to disable oftat. to come near. good. APRICOT off. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. Appease.his giving evidence against his principal. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. praise. apparecchiare. irpaiKOKiaov. after his mind . were formed appropiare ejar. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. pragigua or prixcoda. Apostle. From Gr. pretium. 11. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. appareiller. find Then like Fr. rise to \t. mine. Apotliecary. Apple. poind. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. in Chaucer. a crime. Fr. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. —Diez. Pliny. or E. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. appris. apprise. apprentis. array. plight. aparelhar. peace. Cent Nouv. piteux poind. apropid. to lose one's senses. D. Gr. N. value apprdder. trim. dress. the good. They werin his approvirs privily. Fr. despatch on some service. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. off. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. From Lat. To cause to pall (see Pall). apin R. peler. to fit. S^. of. Gr. prize. to learn. Hence appoind. in fact. case. — dirondtfiu. Apo- good time. whence the e. w. Lith. equal. ciously than nede is. Gr. Appareil. par. — prehendere. from. To Appear. away. Fabian in R. apal. to send off. Ir. cepl. apropchar. Cotgr. From Lat. one is in. Apprehend. to accord. in good season prendre son d. poind. in data. appellare. — Appurtenance. pertain or belong to. A — . Lat. Fr. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. to mark to define a bound. Palsgr. to — . and metaphorically to take the meaning. an epistle or letter. fit- — ness. seiden of the stones.prix. to understand. obolys. Epistle. to call. habilUr.

But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. delon. 31. conjicio. a cloth. proper. to preserve it from stains. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. however. nected. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. aro. She made. as ihe diminutive. arbitrium.] in the N. a lot. aqua. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve.) E. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. aptus. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Flower and Leaf. derived. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. naperon. grande nappe. From OE. and with turfis new Goth. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. herbere. and thence fit. It will be observed in how large a proportion of . water Which that benchid was. Thus we have natiger and auger. short. and sortilegus ation. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. most conspicuous situation in the garden . Now one of the points — — — . — . arbiter in re censendS. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. Roquefort.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. of of divination arpa-mies. Now we find in Fin. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. sorcerer. a river. sestimatio arbitraria. or barm-cloth. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . J. From OFr. A. ear. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. properly the arwella. P. a soothsayer. aha. C. arbiter. Gr. P. Pr. aestimo.shrubs {arbor). Aquatic. . and the one who gives oracles. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. scr. con. Alban. Marsh. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke.' —About. .. Beryn. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. wata. conjectura conjec^ra. divining rod. found in Fin. to decide by lot. 2. the spelland umpire. ap. words derived from arpa. and taken away before dessert. arwelo. Arbour. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. nawl and awl. Arbitrate. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. rofe and all. As is a pretty parlour. Freshly turnid Arable. It is certain that the apricot oracle. Albanian. Lat. arbitror arwaaja. aa. . a lot. is taken in is a soothsayer. quod he. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. This path Aqueous. sortium ductor. Hall. a lot. a pleasure-ground. opinio. Lat. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. Naprun. {mies ^=ia3. OE. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. be That it inne groweth. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. It may be doubted. . hariolus arpelen. symbol. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. fastened close. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. 331. intensitive of nape. Maan initial . Lat. auguror. ahva. Prol. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. suitable. however. pracoqua was not an adapt. arpa. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. Pm. or eft. la nappe. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. The loss or addition of n very common. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. and a protection of the clothes. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat.meaning at Shrewsbury. arwaus. account for either of these significations. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages.sors.o. shortdr. garden. ughe. as an eye-witness. — napkin is Naperon. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. to plough. doubtless is the origin of E. OHG. man. tion under trial.

the court of a magistrate.In E. bad. while the Fr. wanton. from nixa. apxtlov. archangel. an arch boy. raineno. curved line. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. man. Fr. Lat. arma.. first. as in E. Gr. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. arsum. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. gwyrek. Lat. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. shoulder Boh. Ardour. lofty. an extent of flat surface. And thou as arwe coward. apxri. fabricate). erz-bischof. earm. a court yard. Fr. Arcliives. Lat. Arid. earh. to burn . bravest. adjective. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. een erg kind. arm. arrant Arms. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. arguo. ^Argument. faint-hearted. Du. erg.' the Gr. . though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. a branch. apxh. a bow. D. earg. ill-tempered. From apxeiov was formed Lat. arcus. part of a circle anything of a bowed form. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. the a brute. apx^iv. . Gr. patus). archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). aridus. aj-f. 3340. Perhaps erz-wticherer. arrig. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. which has been referred to W. an arch-deceiver . det arrigste snavs. ers-betriiger. Lat. arson. Arduous. a. weapon. mischievous. arduus. taxed with cowardice. Gr. exercise lordship). signifies chief or principal.' Paul Warnefrid. AS. an arrant rogue. high. arg. is essentially the same word. branch. armata. government. burning heat. Arcadia in R. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. ardor. morally bad. gwyro to bend. to be in comp. ars. a threshing-floor. are formed the participial nouns. mischievous. arwe. troublesome. Sp. It. ardIn G. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . and not with apx. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. weapon may be simply an application of annus. forearm . G. wretched OE. 2. apxtipfve. Applied in modern E. Cot. Aristocracy.. . ardre. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. Langobard.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. vescovo. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. ancient. Sax.is the natural weapon of offence. the best. to dry. i. in Due. stuff. and must be identified with Dan. by Russ. a bare plot of ground. ramend). a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. especially shoulder-joint. Arm. area. ardeo. bad. and our army. * ArchjAiTaxit. armada. Ardent. armee. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. the most arrant trash. vocaveris. arm'ee. un petit rusd. TiKToiv. argvitugr. ' — Argue. Alisaunder. Area. G. .— Army. to be on fire. kpxi- beginning. an arrant usurer. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. W. arcA in e. argr. Lat. Du. arga. sly. arch-bishop. receptacle where the public acts were kept. The . fainthearted. to Arch. et vulgari verbo. which is derived from it. From the verb armare. Fr. un malin enfant. the terminaGael. Brem. malicious. contemptible. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. . sluggish. shoulder. arm. erz in G. bad of its kind. whence the body of the nobles collectively. as the arch of a bridge. ein arger knabe. worker. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. Gr. sly. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. to arm. Lat. to demonstrate. a burning or setting on fire. and Kpurka. make clear or prove. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. There can be no doubt that E. difficult to reach. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. to rule. ON. a chief builder. — Architect. ruling by the nobles. — degree when appHed to a bad quality.' Lex. Arch in composition. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Lat. A construct. Arson. a noble. ramo (pi. Lat. rame. — Wtb. it signifies roguish. a rule (princiruler.4 rir/. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. curved. Uo^a^. timid. Dan. from areo.aioj. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

grieve . pallo.). pila. to rock. to Not sparing wight. TtaKKa a pail or tub . to avoid it. hue et illuc inclinare. on. Sw. to pack Da. taich. whether of wood or stone. — A — — . also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). a division of the old laws. a dance. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. from the more general notion of moving up and down. pallukka. Ballot. Q. says Ray. from bacquet. It. ballet. beaten road. to on Holmedon's plain. with the perhaps from balg. Ball. Fr. a pail. a pill. shouting. maan pallikka. mass. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. ban. the ballet of the theatres. bielke. to dance. A balk. balle. bal. ballone. ball.of men . a ball. a bubble. . a clod of earth water. boll. cka. to partition off . a. Ball. ing. uveirs bolk.' speak gibberish champurrar. Bret. Fin. balloon. trouble. bacgtteter. lealo. gen. Da. balk. to speak an un. to wave. a skin. bbllr bulla J. 2. G. wickedtorment ON. calamity. We have then separate dial. ballotta. destruction. Pol. Boll. on. bal. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . chapurrar. to dance. dial. Goth. a great ball. Du. balkr. probably Lat. to be ill. a ball. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. The primary sense seems as in G. bal-daed. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. pallikka. It. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. 3. dial. and evil in general. misery Du. Venet. pallo.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . Balloon. balle. to shake or jog. to stir. balk. a ballot). balare. Fr. palla. balja. boleii. It. plague.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. to see-saw. Bale. balka hopar. dial. heap up. Sw. ballare. (Hesych. Perhaps on. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. baalie. Wotton. balla (with the augm. ballar). as in a barn or cow-house. a ball. at giore en balk. a ball. a partition. e. OFr. other while. balka. to signify washy drink. floor. to bale out. a beam. See Gall. bolawy. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. ill. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. similar connection is seen in Sp. bala. bold. Grief. may exhibit the original development of the signification. a ball or pack. balva-vesei. It. ballan. Bowl. ball. Sw. a together in the form of a ball. ballare. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. Ballata. Dan. a dance. To Bale out water. It. Rouchi ban. . Da. to move. bealwes. roof. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. vacillare. a boil. balken. a globe. bal. bolyatchka. weak liquor. a water-skin dim. a ballad. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. ballo. to cause another to miss pustule. sickness. Bohem. wickedness ness . afbalka. ball.Lat. . bolyaf. . Mid. bjdlki. pain. a washing-tub. Fr. In like manner Fr. OSw. to plough for a boundary between lands. Ugutio in Due. E.—Ballad.— Ballet. ne leaving any balke. . Sw. a scene acted in dancmg. package of goods. blister. balle. are applied to a From the same analogy. * Balk. the beam of a ship. Sp. and the dim. F. Sw. ballare. a beam. to by beams. Hence Dan. i. w. palloilla. bol. to paddle in water . dial. Gr. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. a balk of foul weather. baler. balge. Sw.Fr. . Du. a ball balla. malefacGower in R. Gael. . on. baalien. Hence. a continued noise of waves gently beating . sick. to grieve . to roll. Sw. a separate portion. AS. ball. stage or scaffold. balka bunge. ON. separaison. Sw. hooting. To baulke the Sir H. as we say. a clapping or flapping of wings. Baulke of land. Russ. baloier. bollr. a wooden partition . a clump . G. ' is a piece or confused talking. balk. the object of his expectation. balken. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. palcare. globule.ing. sorrow. I. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. to be balker. N. vcdra bdlkr. OHG. balveins. balle. to ail. balk. the breadth from side to side . on the shore. bola. to plank. tum. In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. maleficium. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. bdlkr. pilula. a But making way for death at large to walke. to ache. a pestilence. torment. bolker. ache. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. bol.

To make fun of a person. lastre. but loadage. Baltic. dial. bumbazed. To Bamboozle.that the going vessels. curse. lest. make fun of a person. bambolo. bag-lest. To Bam. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. an Old dotard or imbambolare. To proclaim. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast.Lat. more frequently than outward-bound. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. When a ship discharges. as he says. back of the ship. Bret. Lest. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. denounce. The Sp. &c. Lat. bam. a fragrant gum. Fr. balconies. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. bertesca. a rod. and Mid. terraces. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle.. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. Balm. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. also with flatteries and . Venet. the backload. Ballast. To deceive. objects to the foregoing derivation. small railing. a nettle. Bamour. last. i860. ^a\Ba\iov. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. This is the backload. astonished. deceiver. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. In OSw. to walk. ballustre) is a corruption. more serious objection is . Sp. ranked on the outside of cloisters. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. in the first place. command. The Baltic sea. R. enchanter. Dan. from bara or vara. barauste.' And Kil. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. Balluster. baU. a duty on goods last. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. puzzled. endormir par des contes. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. Sept. It. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. baranda. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. Fr. deceive. for a load or goods (Roquef. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. A — — . to preserve equilibrium. Cotgr. by met. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. mare Balticun. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. from Lat. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. barandado. baume. balsamum. because. . inutilis sarcina. bamboccio. 1. If bambocciolare were child of one. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. lastra. or ballast of a ship. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. 1854. seems the original form of the word. Du. Gr. ballustres. galleries. Balsam. a battlement . Report Pennsylv. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. lestage. little round and short pillars. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. is in Sweden and Norway. bag-las. . forbid. a small balustrade. or movement of one who walks. lastagium signified not only ballast. analogous to what is seen in It. 43 — Cot. ^Arbuthnot in R. a useless load. baUa. like Fr. sorcerer. a false tale or jeer. urtica. Said to be from balaustia. bamein. Sc. the flower of the pomegranate. age. fonts. bambocciolo. to enchant. To Ban. It.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. baltresac.000 tons. it is forced to take in stones or sand. — — oltriga. for want of other freight. railing around altars. inutile onus. called Bait. It is explained back by Adelung. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. paid for the right of carriage. of balusters. Mr Marsh whether the a load. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. a young babe. But Fr. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. ballast. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. the act of walking. &c. explains ballast.). balustrade barandilla. Bret.

is That with which anything AS. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. from at the Lord's courts. 26. margin. at his own discretion. Sw. bandon was used in the same sense. curse. bande. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Fr. It. to form parties. OE. In a special sense the term company itself. bannire exercitum. Goth. i. bann. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. From the verb to banda. side. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy.—John Villani in Due. change to the feminine gender in banda. See Abandon. faction. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. In Fr. bandi. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. tener da alcuno. Capitul. 15. — To partito d'alcuno. acquired the sense of proclamation. Thus the word is also used in both senses. to unite with a band. banda the colour or material. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl.e. to ctide. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. band. It. to publish) banna.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. Car. to excommunicate {lysa. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. Bandear. — R. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. border. —R.. banner marked the place of assembly. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. eiiseigne. side. those who side together (bande. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. Wyntoun. Bandus. whether by way of injunction or for- command. &c. bandon somewhat party. bound. permission. bande. bannum or bandum. populum. bande. to ban. we constantly find the expression. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. Commun^ment son bandon. bandera ground at his mill.is further developed. to . ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). the ensign or banner. — excommunication bann-lysa. a coast. To Bandy. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. Spebifid. region. to bring corn to be fahne. Cot. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Goth. &c. 2. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. admolendinum. Baud. It seems this signification has arisen. in Fr. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. bannire in exercitum. v. he assembled his host. Sp. Les saiges avait et les fols d. Band. It. ligue Taboada). 19. power. Assises de Jerusalem. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . . banns pany of footmen serve. passing on from proclamation to command. R- He Translated by Chaucer. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. says Muratori. Sp. Ripuar. biddal.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. a company. G. Se il — Romance languages. to reprove. banda. flag. ba?idare. in hostem convocare. hoc est vexillo. fahne. parti. D. A. authority. R. and in E. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. Mag. Fr.^ bandy. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. E. he bannede his ferde. then the signification w.Lat. also the band or of marriage. 813. The to . sostener Torriano. 1. 'A son bandon. banda. band. bando. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. summoning to serve So in Swiss. . theodscipe ut abannan. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. to take one to task. Diss. There is some doubt how Fr. to side or to bandy (Florio). bundun. etc. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. and It. Leg. and thence to any proclamation. ex. bindan. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. to follow a faction.

participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. disturbance banga. bander. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bank of river. eminence. See Band. dorsum was applied to ject. bander tin arc. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. —^Vocab. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). broken. the back. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. back of a knife. N. a bankrupt merchant. From Mid. to slay. &c. Diaconus in Due. bakke. bankruptcy. outlam came to signify a robber. seat . roupt. Du. bannire. Dan. — Paulus drive in a nail. se joindre. destruction . home — Bandog. to hammer in a nail. bana. beat. Diez. and poise Their lighter wings.HG. to work in wood. See Balluster. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. — Kil. in the sense of place of business. a bench. stir. Fr. to make a stir banke. banca fallita. murderer. de sable. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. AS. bang. bana-sott. The child cries bang! fire. Fr. bench. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. ON. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Mid. and OFr. banc. large dog kept for a guatd. canis vinculis assuetus. beating. de- party. bank of Dan. It is in this sense nounce. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . It. ruptus. banqueroute. of bandying words. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. the former Fr. Africa. distinguishes bekkr. rap hatike et som The Susu. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. — — whence E. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. that the word is used by Romeo. band-dog. many a bang. Benvoglio. bana-sdr. a bench. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. banish. band-hond. counter. The word is in E. a blow. to bend a. Milton in R. banco. Roquefort. clouds. . bandear. from banc. bent as a bow. to beat. Lat. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. bandire. tumult bangas. to knock. bana. g. a sand-bank. — . But natheless wife at I bank. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. language of W. death-sickness. whence the mod. b'ang.^ knock. a rising bank. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. . Mercutio. AS. Bandy. It. Bacon in R. &c. among rotta. death-wound. Fr. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. to cabal. bander. to proclaim. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. Goth. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. When a man fails Lat. bane. benk. shoal. in R. . a bench. Bank. banc G. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. se reunir. a i. banca his creditors. a bank. and bakki. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. to publicly order one out of the realm. eminence. bow. in the sense of a pirate. A Shipman's Tale. See Banish. for shame. Draw. bench. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. a wound OHG. Bane. Tibalt. banke. Banister. Bandy legs are crooked legs. to foment factions. It. ON. has bang-bang. was formed the OFr. Fl. in the same way that E. the slope of a hill. Banditti. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. . Bankrupt. The ing.: . and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. hricg. follow a party. desk. s'associer. at canis peciiarius. Ripuar. forbear this outrage. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. death-blow . Sw. a de Vaud. Benchi. bank. — Fr. a long raised seat. Hudibras. bana.z. banka. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. a table. The ridge of a hill is AS. Lingua. banja. to knock. Bantze. and therefore tied up. Your stool. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. to join in league with others against Cotgn. Banner. bance. With many a stiff thwack. Bang. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. bank. To Bandy. Brewer. pastoralis. a counter. bandi. the same verb the It. . put under the ban of the law. From a desk . 45 — — Bandit. as of an explosion or a blow. 2. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. and hence. ON. E. panca. bank of a river. banditti acquired the like signification. standard. hammering.

barriire. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. to beckon . E. ON. The origin is in all probability Goth. Barbe. senhal. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. probably corSymbol. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. Flesche barbeUe.cruel. E. signuin. OHG. a tree). bandva. ingly very generally known by a name branches. &c. Lat. period vexillarii. a sign. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. banniire. The original import of their own banner in the field. from reifa. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. a beam or long pole of wood. barrer. bar. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. banchetto. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. of banco. senheira. chan. to wrap. arineXov. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. nestling. ing term appears in other languages. and it was accord. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. barrou-gwez. 2. summit. bandiera. barbed or trapped as a great horse. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. sparro. to bend. such as the Roman Eagle. uncivilised. sparre. Barb. Gael. by a repetition of the syllable bar. would rupted from Fr. banda hendi. Fr. banner. Fr. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. Hence ner. men. rod of any rigid substance. banneret. indeed. and from ensign or banner Prov. banda. and even of calling it banter. i. to dip. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. and he would seem to derive Goth. Thus Ovid. privileged to raise Barbarous. Fr. Hence Fr. from the same source. which is surely in barbed arrow. branches of a tree {gwezen. Lat. out of a wound. It may be thing. remarked. Lat. Bap. Gr.8ap6^o)voe.the analogous syllable viur. sbarra. It. a. and the work is done. A It. hence a repast. iandvo. milites bannarii. an animal a year old. dim. barbe. then fell among the foot. —Cot. To mock or jeer one. inferior to a baron. benda. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Duo. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. Barb. To Banter. says. a ban. top. OHG. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. barde. to wash. then branches. banne. rarii. a which the barrister addresses the court. Fr. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. brushwood. senhal. either in the Gr. sign. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi. a bantling. Leduchat. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. as they call it. a bench or table . Sw. OFr. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. wrapped. of a sign in general. and with an initial s. speaking of battle.hinder. barreau. The spar. in Gr. token. G. jSdirTO). barra. ON. Celtic bar. merki. Fr.46 BANNERET .— Swift in R. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. Fr. that the noise of voices Bantling. 3.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. BARBAROUS reiflingr. E. — We A . Banquet. The barb of an arrow is the sign .. ban- Baptise. or of this bantering. It. of wind. manu anto make signs nuere. the word came to signify rude. bannereti. According to Diez the It. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. Gr. It. barrack. banneret was a higher class of knights. senh. Barbar. &c. a barrier or stoppage. to having that signification. barre. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. . barbarus. a war-beacon or war-signal. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. knight Bardd. jSa'pjSapoc.aTa Kul nest. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva.. In a similar manner are formed yearling. Banneret. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. barba. himself in Pontus. inur. branch. a bearded or Cot. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. heri-pau. ^oTrriKio. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. Bret. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language.

guazzolare. Festus in Diet. barbarkama.— Fl. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. to stammer. baragouin. open. bardes. Lucan. Diez. barbeter. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. albarda. as well as thwcEtta. and flanks. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. A shrub bearing acid Diet. skola. bhasad. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. the beard. small pack-saddle. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. barbeum. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. Mod. Cotgr. to prattle. axilla. a long saddle for an ass or mule.' Cot. G. barguigner. barbier. saddle-cloth. dial. berj G. skirmish. bdla-khaneh. berries. barz. But Sp. waschen. Lith. barbel. to plash or dabble. Hindost. guaszare. bdsas. Etym. baar. to gurgle. back. baares geld. to bubble or boil. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. and Sc. the quilted with.) to wrangle. Cotgr. also to bind or tie across. scouthouse. a tumultuous assembly. Bare. upper chamber. quarrel . Barde. a rumbling. Exposed to view. OFr. Etym. barda. ready money. Gr. barbugliare. Mod. twattle. Applied in E. A7 to the and warlike. to rumble.— BARBEL merit of water. to bubble or spring up. The Pers. barbar. — — Hence. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. skialldar-bard. jargon. borbollar. bardd. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. in the sense of fight. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. Bard. on. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. barda. in poetic language Bard for poet. the flap of a hat. Hall in R. to mumble or mutter words. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. also to wallow like a seething pot. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. brabble in the making of a bargain. bds. Bargain. Port. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. border of a garden bed. muttering. murmur . Sp. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . the nakedness of a woman. a jetty or outnook in a building. — Cot. and foolishly. and in Flanders to vociferate. bare baskojis. name Fr. Lex. the edge of a shield hval-barct. Russ. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. fortia —Strabo. albarda'ah. Barberry. . albardilla. Barder. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. borbotar. to stammer. bdsiis. . — . bar. tattle. uncovered. Bardeau. Fr. boil. barbeau. Fr. Bret. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. Arab. Barbel. lb. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. — — — men. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. horse armour covering the front. and the word was used in OE. grumble (Lowndes. Sp. barbacane. which was of talking. Thus the on. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. to grunt. /3opj3opwJu. Fr. Port. stutter. — . Gr. barbelin. loophole in a wall to shoot out at.— — Pm. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. in Fr. powdered all over. Fl. g. brim. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. such as houses are covered Bardelle. haggle. Barbican. twcEtta. barbaris. It. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. gibberish. uproar. i. borbulhar. to wash. to It. Fr. Cot. borborinha. or more properly (says fer. Sp. ala. w. barS. Hatt-bard. unqualified. barboter. Barber. skirt. borboglio. It.) . to boil or bubble up . a shingle or small board. barbulla. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. coping. tree. An outwork for the defence of a gate. Pr. to make an outcry . speak confusedly. a pack-saddle. /3£pjSepi^w. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. formerly used in the sense of tattle. is lb. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. barefooted Sanscr. mutter. a bardelle. to barbe or trap horses. border. used 2. to chafbargain. as well as the modern twaddle.

as. husband. So also ON. we pass to the vert) barguigner. (Ihre. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. a receptacle for barley or corn. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. entangle. and is probably a true bartig. Barge. corn-shed. lap. prominent part of a thing. as well as Scandinavian tongues. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. Barbour in Jam. To Bark. It. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. from an imita- Barley. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. berma. kani. Originally man. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. As Goth. barnacles. to cheat. baralhar. Tarn baronem quam feminam. to all the barca. barki. Sp. beorcan. E. . disorder. dregs of oil. From Fr. bread-corn. barley. commonly explained from bere. to rout. barnis. put to confusion. dispute . The Goth. the G. to scold. Bark. the or prow of a ship. strife. berm hoys. baratta. W. 2. houbartij fsnile. Dan. as in the case of Lat. a barn. in Nat. ON. meta foeni. OFr. to shufSe. dial. barlich. one who stirs up strife. berm. a lantern. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. spectacles. dispute . The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. skutr. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. bargain. barn. adj. baron. barii. baarm. Ibid. baarn. . limpets . Leg. and 1. berm. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. quarrel. bcern. at barka. Port. a boat. altercation. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. a heap . brenig. Ripuar. and hence probably (by a metaphor. Alam. barja. ON. wine. Barn. . AS. skuta. then honoured man. aheap. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. barmr. beornt. barn. Sp. bern. OSw. Dan. Du. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. a heap. Leg. barn. bard). barahunda.. contest. barley. to strive. a place. hemlock. squabble. a baking place or oven. bosom. — Barnacle. barley. OFr. confusion. fray. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. astringent. in the Brim.Barum vel feminam. quant a perdu sa barja. also to exchange. a beak. hay-loft. Uzen. prasepe . Prov. and ern. barafustar. a lap. struggle. berem. . Provj bar (ace. barge. herbs. —Bark. bere. to wrangle. w. hlaSa. Antiq. Bailey. 2. AS. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. is simply the Bret. barone. baragouin. as baces-ern. It. bark . plants). Kil. then the bows pectus navis. baaring. and the word. Gael.. ON. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . trouble.' bardagi. — battle. barretor. giving rise to It. barms. Cornub. — de Berri. Vocab. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. Gl. barajar. i. Manx bayrn. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. Romance barsie. See formed Yeast. contest. dispute.^Voc^.) lihtes-ern. beer. baron)^ Fr. Du. strife. Port. the fore or after end of a boat . — Zeuss. as. On the other hand. charlock. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. the rack or manger. Bret. a stack. ThS man was not created for the woman. barafunda. Spectacles. barizeins indicates a noun baris. limpet. mhg. a cap . tion of the sound. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Sw. barlys. varen. bern. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. louzou. Isidore in Rayn. strife. Bemiques. also a boat . dispute. tumult. Baron. limpets. a load. edge. chaffer. bcerme. Swab. baerm. to chop. v. Acervus. baralha. baaren. dispute barattare. border. * Barnacles. baratta. baniffa. Camus. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. was barlic. So ON. am. bread. and llysiaw. ber (ace. Garlick. but the woman for the man. and may therefore be an Eastern word. bamagh. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. to skin over barkandi. quarrel Port. Lith. the slimy substance brewing of beer. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. barlys {bara. bernac. The older form in e. hladi. The origin may be throat. a. baimeach. borkr. bosom . Rayn. Sp. See Barm. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. ON. the A — Ihre. name being given to spectacles.

' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. Barrack. OFr. Antiq. See Bar. The Sp. bara. Formed from Fr. a hiU. over him. squabble. It. perhaps through Prov. a kind of coarse camlet. bier. nobles. branches. beorgan. AS. a hut or booth. habeant. S. baroncelli. Nominale of the from braeckland. tomb.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. — — 15th Cent. a barrel. 1. and in several instances. by early examples. dispute. barre. 26. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. and not from Fr. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. Bret. baragan.— Gibbon. then traffick4 Barrow. became bidre. It should be observed that. beorg. or simply bahre.. cover. qui have not much light on the pre. borov'. Baron andfemme. The feudal tenants next Fr. braeck. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. in the first instance. berwen. Sp. (Schmeller). mound. a barrow. StiU he shows conclusively. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. barril. sterilis. signifying. An ing. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. Bamnculus a baronet. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. barague. Bargus or moreland. baronculi. ^Barrator. especially those killed in battle. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. D. from beran. barrique. vair. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. baracca. bouracan. beorh. This word introduced into Fr. iver. baraignej Picard. also termed bannerets. bearg . barraca. barrique.parchanttuech. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. Joshua vii. barBombicinus. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. implement for carryAS. barile. G.' Op. MHG. to carry. like bargain. Fr. It. bark&n. heap. Sp. It. fortification. shed. to * Barragan. to shelter. bara.have been named from the haggling and gant. Barrel. a man. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. alongside of barrow. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. whence Barrow. booth. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. See Barter. a word is always used in the plural number. gravis et authenticus vir. as cavalcade.' that Barrier. whenever Barrow-hog. baronuU. sepulchre. baronetti. a bier. bahre. Barrister. It was not until the time of James I. Barricade. gwr. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. Gael. Sp. were sometimes confounded. fallow. from a tree to which a man is hanged. Russ. seem to be radically the same with Lat. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. litter. fear. staves. ^Vocab. an obstruction. which would barragdn. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. breinej Du. semen non accipiens landiEL. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. On chet — We — — their resemblance. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. garment still used in Morocco. E. man. in Nat. barri. a. vir. from cavallo. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. barrack. OE. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. a horse. the braw. composed of dry branches ofer. the two names. barrier. w. boar. change of goods seems. bredhan. cise formation of the word. Bern. A. todtenbahre. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. a. ibid. rolls of Parliament. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. Bohem. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. a bar. AS.root signifying confused noise. — A . hut. brushwood. a castrated hog . berewe. G. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. barrila. Goth. barchent. facture. calico. Barratry. as. strife. Fr. man and wife. vel pretiosos burellos. bera. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. 2. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. — Kil. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth.. Gael. Barren. uncultivated.

bran. fornication. Newman. Sp. husk bast van koren. F. to cheat. which covers the grain Ger. as the diadem of the basilisk.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. binding. Sylvester's Dubartas. baratear. lift me above Parnassus. exchange. submovet omne Lucan. embastir. baos. to stitch . bastear. or wic. from bere. Lend me your hands. Sp. to deceive. baraet (from Fr. low. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. the thin skin Dan. a ipgli So Turk. ' He was begetin o bast. descended of an honorable lineage. A fabulous serpent. Pl. basta. stitch. — in Rich. ^Is de bast. on a. and tun. Gr. to long — a British word by Martial. berewic. ibid. the a wide open vessel. Sw. to truck. him. It. humilis. curtus. mock not.' Gl. basg. and Bret. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . as It. foist in bargaining. Al is dai. over-reaching. basso. but born in baste. inclosure. of the same sense. There is not one that. shallow. i. rope for — . It is mentioned as . bestan. at basta og binda. Basket. plaiting of splinters basged. to cheat. from /3aR. bareter. Barbara de pictis veni patch.looketh upon his eyes. leviter consuere. a deceiver.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. according from Gael. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. imbastire. barter. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. Dan. to bind. MS. then cheating. Arthur and Merlini. /«r<fSp. a bass rope. crassus. baste. to baste. Sp. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. imbastire.D. peel. netting. exchange. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. corn-farm. BassuS. basso. a bastard. a halter. also to Cotgr. Bastard. back. baste. The like property hath the iasilisk. a ftiesh. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. cheating. the — — to kill those that look upon it. Bartizan. Fr. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. Isidore. ohg. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. AS. barter. come near. beretun. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. . Du. commonly A joined with the word binda. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). a basket masg. God it wot. — Bassoon. aiKcig. mean . Halliwell. basgod.). but he dreth presently. bast-maatte. bas. Du. Fr. PaaiKhms. chasa. See Brattice. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. baraand especially teria. bestcn. OFr. lust. HaUiweU. partieren. hoops of a cask. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). HoUinshed. oe. found in Turkish . ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. Bast. Bass. to baste piece of cloth. piiiguis. low note. scale in music. It. a court-yard. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. the manorhousfe itself. Bassus. MHG. Bass. baste. Dan. chasa ogli a bastard. lattice-work. bass-matting. The original meaning. which sets up its hood when angry. to bind. preparatory stitching. Sicamb. ing for profit. a king. flat. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. Fr. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. besst-u-b£nd&t. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. To Bask. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. Swed. . bassin. bast. . fhe outhouses and yards. Apparently of Celtic origin. to bind hand and foot. low part of the Hickes in Rich. bdtir. 516. to bargain. court-yard. Kil. bds. fornication. It. OFr. fits de bas. bast-reb. would be. tierer. bast. truck. dwelling. or running away with the ship. bark. discourse Nay. said Base. low. he. beguile. baratar. n' is n' is bacino. more noble in blood than notable in learning. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. basta. — hanging. besst. Sw. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. HaU in HaUiwell. barley. pressed down. unrighteous gain. G. to Diez. Barton. bast. also the demesne lands of a manor.' Papias. beortun. To stitch. To Baste. Lap. fraud. cog. See Bath. a tying. pdrdt. Fris. It. ' Bosworth. It. MHG. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. mavult dicere Roma suam. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . thick. w. But according And Dan. baxoj w. Basilisk. It.

Pm. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. batta lucifuga. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. has bastine. blatta. blatta. bastir. business (Altieri). to devise or begin. a bird which. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. a sconce. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. 2. to flap. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. blaka. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. Fr. Fr. to stroke. Sp.. blakta. Supp. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. blakka. basta. stryka. bladier. pre. staff. compared with blakka. to rub. disposer. bastida. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. to pack a saddle i. bastille. bastia. — Bakke. in the Romance languages.'CaB. vledermus. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. a with a stick. R. bastilde. a barSp. devise. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. to rub gently. Sc. dial. like the owl and the bat. a pad. I. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. To donjon. p. also the ricado. to set on foot a war Bastion. club. iinbastire. vespertilio. to build. ari instruineht for beating. which in the E. provisions. contrive. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. to teach one before. bdion. worth (Nat. Bastinado. bastear. and Cot. put it together. to thrash . blows. Prov. R. and ditches bastion. To beat or bang soundly. a blockhouse. bastonada. For the loss of the / in back. Dan. 2. but this is hardly satisfactory. a. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. blacta. night-bat. — — — . baston. erect. For the origin of baston see Baste. Dieiif. Perhaps baska. 'iJipistreUo. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis.baste or knock soundly. the original has corneille. liiake. * Bat. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. Derived by Diez from iasi. frame. a stick. All from bastir.fortress or castle furnished with towers. beysta. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. It. E. to beat. the clapper of a bell. to drub. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. to beat. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Sw. 164). military term of a bat-horse). Florio. as weU as besteau. badger. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. aftonbakke. basa. bastione. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . or implement for 4 * A . Sw. settiilg up. ON. to whip. Pr. Dan. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. cudgelling. to Due. the bat . to belabour. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . contriving. frotter. to lay the Sp. iastir. victuals. vespertilio. from Fr. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. bak. It. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. to cudgel. and Arabs. bastir. to spread bread and butter. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. baston. blakra.stick. Sw. bakie-bird . Fr.— .— Bailey. also to cudgel. to build. the E. nade. quelqu'un son roulet. It. e. Sp. to quilt or stitch wool into it. . explains Sp. a blow cloth for dinner. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. natt-blakka. ment. translation to a bat. stryk.-^ Chaucer. a bastion. Antiq.stitching in general. basto. in the use of the E. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . a things prepared for future use. passage Imbasto. Rayn. back. guerra bastir. 11864. whence ledrblaka. bastimento. a pad or packsaddle. which to rest the load. bastonnir. is explained by Cot. bat. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. a packsaddle. set up. to give him a sound bastingi 3. flyinge best. packsaddle. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. To baste one's hide . BAT neither. set up. — — Fl. dial. . the winged . bastonFr. Fr. That yche blak y dar wel telle. comp. Cot. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. the night-jar or goat-sticker. raise. beating.Lat. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. boste. bastine. Cot. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. 2. Sw. bast. niammal. Mid.

and as a verb. gabatnan. adapted for defence. also a sun badfish. dispute. was formed bastilU. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. baeddu. term in falconry . Battle. I. gebdck. to foment. from on. to cudgel. dial. bdt. Jurgor. made of bats. pak. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. batna. Sp. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. altercation. battre. a washing beetle. allay . badda. in the case of a wall. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. a battalion. to warm oneself at the fire. To Bate. a stirrer-up of strife. on the fire. signifying to give repeated blows. or break down. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. basa. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. fashes basking in the sun squadron. water whether warm or cold. abate. Ayenst the sunne. Batyn.— . badda. Florio. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. bat-en. Battery. Batten. beat down. To Batten. batir. sich bakern. baden. batacazo. strife. betten. debat. dial. — Cot. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . a staff. beat. Goth. to beath wood Battledoor. abattre. Fr. to thrive. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . quhar he suld assaill. PLD. gebdcke. I bathe in water viz. bataille. and milk beaten up together. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. In OE. It. to bathe oneself. bludgeon. Fr.— To Bask. battaglia. then to warm by the application of hot water. to beat. the root of e. Jeddris and covering. In some parts of England it is striking. more. for biia sik. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. G. on. to be profited. quell. made of — A made by one Batcii. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. an arrangement for giving blows. to feed. It. bake. a from ON. as E. bdhen. wet linen in washing. From bat in the sense of rod . battere. battle was used beath wood. Bate. Bat. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. G. better. also. battre las ailes. a stick. busk.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. as wood-en. 2. batterie. Hence pro. Fr. oneself at the A into faggots. baquetazo. See Better. bdda vidjor. Barbour in Jam. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. flour. Batter. bet. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. and with staffslyng. from battre. Fr. Gael. tagUone. to foment with hot applica. batador. I baske. is a simple adoption of Fr. to beak. Slav. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. Battery. dial. to beat se battre. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. Sw. battre. Bailey. in the sun. to fire or in the sun. bat. squadron. To thrive. batte sig. whence the sun burns . a great seems related to baden as Fr. Hal. Battalion. the heat of the It. hot. w. to warm oneself. tradire. as signifying warm baths. From OFr. a Baiffi. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. cudgel. fortress or castle. to become convalescent. — — — ' — . buask made like a fortress.' Palsgr. Bret. or a dry stick. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. a battle. . to bathe. baka. to heat. to dial. certain bend. Strife. baz. to flutter with the wings. Pm. a blow. a band of armed men arranged basa. Sp. bada.Bathe. dial. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. to beat. or make debate. to foment. Fr. ON. battions. Holz bdhen. . to fight. is in falling. of bread is so much baked zX one time. Fr. G. solen baddar. Pm. . Battlement. Du. and about an inch thick. to beat. a beating. A Bath. to become fat. solbase. Eggs. A batch as wood. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Flem. beat. to toast bread. to warm. Sw. battere. to refresh oneself in language. badask. a main battle. lessen. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. Chaucer. The bat with which a brot bdhen. remit.Hence in the augmentative form It. Pr. Mgy. Baka sik vid elld. — To . to heat . to fell. howis. makebate. bdda. to betake oneself. bastille. a blow with a light instrument. Plkkis. E. e. to get better. to for fighting. by projections or in any licoure. heat. perhaps first used adjectivally. Pr. trahtr to It. as E.

Cot. Prov. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. filth. bauU.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. P. excrement. vacillo. It. bal. to play the babby. on the face of animals. babiole. 8. Gael. Beaus^ent. spot. fields. Cot.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Piedm. ! Bauble. nastiness. E. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. to me-wl. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. babbole. It. child. OFr. The word may perhaps be sticks. baue. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. to talk Lacombe. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. represented by the syllable miau. — — ' Lydgate. An analogous noisily. Formed from baw. fooleries or fond To Bawl. an — — — A — g — — — . having a white streak down Bagdad. is Bagdad stuff. OFr. to the same origin. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). to 53 manure the To baw. Fr. s. a dog). expressive of disgust.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. or Cot. pegma. and Sp. faisceau. It is all bawdy. Bagdad. mew. from Baldacca. obstrepere. brush faggot. a white mark Bawdy. fagot. the white of his leg or foot. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. speckled. Cotgr. a gavel. the Swiss baben. in OE. to vociferate. the face. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. or sheaf of Bridel.— P. instead oi s. Swiss Rom. balderich. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. Baw — . a horse that hath a white leg or foot. A name of the badger. was simply a field gold. In like manner Grisons filthy. ball. ish baubles. E.. Fl. W. balGael. form with an initial seen in Fr. dung. balbob. a spot. Pm. Pr. to low or bellow as corn. P. The It. Ball. also the canopy carried part of his body. 2. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . trifles. bow (as in our nursery Diez. baugant. javelle. is used for a sented by bau. because made of cloth of white. bauch. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. to bark. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm.. sorry. baula. bau. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. dirty. Batylment of a wall. s. dial. spotted. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. bobine. Jam. miauler. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. collar. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. Filthy. ON. b \% bouala. ground. a zan.guage). and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. E. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. Descript. whimwham. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. It. bow-wow. propugnaculum.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. or toys. —R. a lump. divided between black and white. i. Fr. from Fr. R. baffe. dacchino. Bawson. whence pouacre. From ! an interjection of disgust. a tassel or hanging bunch . baubare. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. bouaila. c. bal. dirt. zano. BAWSON Swiss. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. a tassel. Sc. sword-belt. a belt. Bavin. a horse with white legs. to bark . E. to cry. P. tille. librillo. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. guigaw. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. an embattled wall. fe bau. Hal. pie- . Ball-seirc. Zalli. tab. also more Bawdekin. Cloth of gold. Fr. rotten. disgusting. toys. bad. ballach. or the animal so marked. to make the noise Baudrick. From Bret. an object. a horse marked with a procession. baudrat. horse. baw. babsmall toy to play withal. lewd . scarf. a lump or cluster babhaid. bobbin or cluster of thread. baudrdj OHG. Lat. and to-tore also. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. Pr. bablyn or waveryn. dente. as Fr. to void the bowels. whence the E. exactly corresponds Fr. — Pm. trifle. and authorities in note. baban. cluster. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle.' ' Pegma. a plot of Chaucer. Irel. filth. to trifle away ment. Baldrick. bausan.

bialo. laurel of the ancients. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. AS. Fr. baier.—Journal Soc. ing-floor. Bayonet. Arts. desiring. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. a beast. Gr. |8i'os. that from ba. 1859. —Diez. BE Probably conRuss. stood watching him stoop. F. stare. Prov. w. baga. bioth. &c. barn of two bays. bahia. arose two forms of the verb. to gape. bayen-stein. Vielp. or at bay. waiting . baca. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. a cluster of bacon. so called from its bearing bays. baie. baionette. berries. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. or to have been first used at the Cot. See Bawl. badius.. bate. from badar. hddhe-dhonn. husk. Sp. especially beans. when. to keep at a bay. It. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. A hollow in the 'line of coast. to amuse stare a bada. Bay-tree. See Bald. siege of Bayonne in 1665. baja. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. Lat. Earth — By Nature made to till. To Bay. window .' — — 54 bald. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. Fr. bijel. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. &. living thing ./^ bau. bai. Mod. Fr. See At Bay. . baccello. Feb. Piedm. It. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. bacca. A stag is said to stand at bay. a dagger. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. the world Gr. at his last gasp. 1.' Bailey. as if to signify a window of curved outline. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. grapes or nuts. house . a berry. a mark. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Swiss beie. weary of running. life. 25.c. Such Antaeus seemed to me. Q. the cod of peas. Sp. to betray. Gael. or window ' (in Fortification). to mark. Bay. Fr. overture. to open. badia to Sp. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. bagaid. abbabayer. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. the laurel-bay. trahir. Cot. — Schmid. —Bay-windo'W. to stand watching one. the step is the same as from It. bilyejiti. baye. gate. Lat. bay. Catalan hadia. ist. from an imitation of the sound. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. . which however. watching intently. as gazing. bajo. batibari. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. beothach. . to keep one waiting. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. he turns and faces his pursuers. like a pie. or berries.. Sp. baher. —F. baiare. badarse. It has been shown under Abie. From Cat. dividere. or recess in an apartment in modern times. OSp. in order to keep the enemy in check. is perhaps not directly from Lat. bdcr. Holland's Pliny in R. window-sill. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. to on anything. white. and the To bark as a dog. bayo. Abide. Swab. to iiitent nected PoL white. aux dehniers abois. baya. bde. bilyega. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. It. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. The word bay. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. Fr. Serv. put to his last shifts. It. tradire to Fr. open the mouth. Fr. to be Bohem. to split. the cod or husk of beans or the like. bay. S. a'uno. . Bay. Drayton in R.— Stalder. yellow . and zndly. beo. &c. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. It. — A At Bay. The — Fr. and keeps them in check for a while. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. life. buidhe. a hole. dehiscere . by the term rendre les abpis. buidhe- The ruadh. berry. large window in a handsome . corrupted into Bow-window. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. From the former verb is the It. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. badarc. * To Be. Q. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. BAY marked with bjly. beonj Gael. living Ir. BauSfi)/. to open as a blossom. Gael. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. expresr sion tenere a bada. alive. bahia. baca. baer.

baum. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. a single bean. stock. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. A two-year old nephew of mine p. as well as f& or fav. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. to produce young. Bret. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. bdkna. as.' Hall's Chron. baun. bakkje. «va\ioQ. bar. rising ground. into France. bokan. Q wait upon him. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. Pardoner's Tale.from AS. bob. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. OSax. or beic. a prayer. or any action done with a pointed thing. be. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. atUndre. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. fd or faVf beans. a beak. Fr. AS. beic. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. Catalan becar. Beck. fora-bauhan. beacnian. bauhan. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. A Esthon. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. backe. Miss Gurney in Philolog. Fr. Moreover the name. bidan. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. —F. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. 54. Sw. To Bear. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. — Bellenden in Jam. Boom. ffci. Beckon. a presage. The wild beast. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. * Beagle. or however. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which.fuis5e. ON. tale of prayers or doxologies. Lat. was introduced from England sea. It forms a. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. not applied to the yelping of dogs. a hill. a curtsey. It. salve his hurts. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. Gael. an attendant.to have a French origin.' Suetonius in Diez. ON. as. like most nautical terms. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. into a snjall river. Goth. pig. Hackluyt in R. faba. to wait-. post. a sign.ad. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. to bellow. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. on. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. to beckon. Goth. G. to nod . a nod OHG. bek. Gael. Be. . N. a single bean. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. Netherlands or North Germany. — bedeau. and Lat. bM. faba is Kvavoq. The origin seems preserved in E. g. support. Beak. would say. Du.fer-re j Gr. bee. Farrar. which is. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Trans. Bear. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. ohg. bohnej ON. beans. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Beadle. vol. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. The nutu significare. He says. See To Bid. Chapters on Lang. bedm. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. becco. bank. Bret. to carry. AS. It is BEAR SI court. fromthe danger. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking.fui.' adheres to the root. the part overflowed by the tide. signifying a point. Gael. beacen. bearti.. signifying individuality. G. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. bakke. Beacon. bean. Bean. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. It. -phxr. or breathing. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. bydel. l^ax. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. beck. fero. . badmr. bidello. beic. bead. . — to bow or nod . that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. prodigy bauhnjan. W. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. bohne. a tree. E. The immediate shore of the Menage. Thus the final en. however. according to of Sanscr. — : Beam. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. bairan. beugler. a tree. nokkima. ffaen. gebed. W. pierced for hanging on a string. to nod the head. to wait. Gr. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. Slavon. Beach. bagms. vii. boom. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead.

E. That thou mayest attain Goth. to hem. to happen. den. comely. con. birth. Beaver. formerly a happen. befit. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. to happen. burdr is used in the sense of a car. to assume a certain form or Turk. G. pretty. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. bave. fiber. suitable. bellus. to bear children. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. R. produce. bequem. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. See becymth anfeald yvel. Prick of Conscience.AS. Perhaps from Pol. dress with unbecoming richness . the latter are derived It. baviire. As rivus. convenient. a brook. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. Bedizen. bcek. beauts. See Bank. Beck. covered the face. but now a river only. Goth. G.fit. dushmak. bavec. bekommen. Lith. dize or dtzen. riviera. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. edge. bobr. to arrive at. badi. Russ. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. Cal. fitly . to fall in with our bavard. See Beacon. befall. AS. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. because made of the fur of the beaver. biivre. border. the ece thurhwuniath. and also in that of birth. taste. fit. or a feeling to be gratified. E. from baver. to be a part of his to.we call the arrangement becoming. bett. proper . handsome. bard. e. place to lie down. to sleep on. Fr. He becom on sceathan. baba. limplice. bestiaj Gael. Lat. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. and on. babrad. Diez. Prov. AS. if sound of a sharp blow. perhaps a living thing. bur. fallinn.' are equivalent expressions. Beck. I do thee pray. to please. byw. beatanj It. an notion of being convenient. E. byrcti. See Bat. receive. biber. — . bava. to the brook itself.getiman. Sp.' every way suited to a prince. behkr. to come to or upon.S6 fero. talkative. G. i. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. It. Lat. gelimplic. as the babble of the child. ON. duty. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. bach. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. slobber. e. to appertain. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. It. obtain. gabaurths. baurthei. bel. our taste. ON. bekkr. venient. from the same in the sense of bear2. i. Bosworth. Fr. to attain to the lot of any one. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. or special purpose. living. ON. o. now confined To Become. seemly. bebrus. to carry. nod or sign. The OFr. barba. to G. judgment. to those goods which endure for ever. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. G. ziemen. opportune. while from Shep. and Fr. a bank.to clothe to slobber. Do no To It fallith favour. fitanimal. bello. ON. Chaucer. Slav. bart. suitable. pleasing. blast. Now the Beast. name applied originally to the bank then proper . bring forth. to be fulfilled. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. to wade through the water like a beaver. which. OSw. bave i. whence baveux. happening as it ought. brada. connected with ripa. Beat. becuman. W. beo. boroda. Fr. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. to shore. to happen. becuman.of being very angry. the beard. barf. Beckon. it is probable that here also the to become. Beauty. limpian. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. and to acquire. get J ' He got very angry. bobrowai. The quadruped. battere. a. Lat. a lip. R. decorous. tidig. g. G. To load with ornament. In like manner condition. Fr. to fall mode of being. nothing to thy name make. Thus OY. Dan. to dabble . as. ting. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. gefallen. timan. limpan. to get. Boeth. chin. when up. Thcem. brook . gebank.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. The moveable part of a helmet. to happen. riviire. to fall. pens unmixed evU. — A — A — . iida. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. 2.— Kiittner. The fitting or suitable. agreeable. .' ' He became very angry. to be incumbent upon him. to live. Secondarily applied to a hat. godum with ON.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. proper. Fr. agreeable. or river. bib or slobbering cloth. brook. On the same principle. Lat. a bank. 1. from beau. to happen. bedr. decent. bearing. Bo. to the good hapHalbard. tidy. rying.

briesch-milch.. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. a pillow case. Dan. Pl. a cover. bossen. Bethlehem. which also 2. to fall.^ drink. on. sang vermeilh betatz. Fr. AS. as in It. Esthon. comb.— JI14.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. Bernese. stakes. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. a agulatum in the original Latin. turn. an ox. Horn. cugino. qui de lecto surgere non potest . bukva. in Schmeller. whose face is clotty. kiissen-biere. 1156. Bav. bet. blow or thrust. bedskiissen-bUren. beost. bedde-redirj ohg. from Lat. cogionare. speach.cz//aj. G. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. cushion-cover . poculum. whence familiar. as the milk of a that purpose in London.' So Gr. Fr. mars betada. E. D. desert.' the last word corresponds to cofly .ing of the word is curdled. the loppered sea. as. garden-herb. Gr. to beat bossel. by the analogy of bedaivb. a wasp. also bienst. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. Gael. knock. used for boull. sela que environna la terra. bbtel. to coagulate. E. a horse-fly . Fr. of beatmg. 1. to colour with lime-wash. cozen. I dysyn a dystaffe. In a passage of an Old Fr. Arab. a wasp. Beef. badigeonner. beer.D. batAfter mete in sale. drink. to curdle or lopper. a bee. pettiriso.(paddi. pude-vaar. buk. to parget or rough-cast . to knock. beyki. The honey-producing insect. to change . bove. to turn. ._t from the root pi. boytle. a pad or cushion). Fr. curded or beesty. buka. * Beestings. kivih. Cot. KXlvoTTiT^e. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. Confined to bed. Slav. from blood. AS. fall. Lat. PI. bably named from the destructive quali| T. woman that is newly delivered. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. . Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. crespir. extant in Bohem. and in driving piles. It. vaar. Fr. to poordma. Ant. a paviour's beetle batail. Cot. a cup or implement for AS. clog for a dog b'oteln.). biiren. It. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. tree. GaeL bior. bitela. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. g. AS. cow has calved. Pett. to rough- cast. Bed-ridden. from jtst-. to and ale. to twist poorma. from risan. drink. beutel. The beer al for te shenche bate. 'La Gl. bette or blettej Lat. translation beOj. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds.— B. may be from K.ON. de Fierabras in Diez. the meat of spinach. Bee. Beetle. case. byst. a malsense of drink. I put the flax upon it to spin.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. prigione. bitel. fagus. ir'm. Rom. to flatten In OE. duplicated form of the root. a wandering Prov. Fin. ProBeer. &c. ^. a drink potus. trees in a forest . by-flugaj G. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Beet. . from the hos. prisons Venet. Fr. paralyticus. calleBedlam. water. may be shpped on and off. an Beetle. . The meanpainting. bytl. 57 — Palsgr. a Properly a cover that biiren. waarin. It. a bed-tick. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. G. from leberen. in Nat. erroneously modified in form. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere.D. 1. doubtless. . Lat. imperative pi. taglio. cited by Diez. For that was law of lend. But possibly bedizen 2.'— GL ^Ifr. beach-each. a stinging bieUe. P1. Grimm. thick. a mallet. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. Let. biene. bletumj Gr. I A pillow-beer. beest. a clapper. piwo. ' MordiThe Lat. door. briest. pital of St Mary. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. wedges. bibere is a re. bos. Originally. 1 to drink. cousin. G. beach. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. beta. a pillow-case. and lebermer in G. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater.possible. . thick. boeuf. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. turn (a garment). beetle also signified the impiti. bovis. i. red curdled Arab . the ox. The first milk after a dizen. buche. to become Beech. Bedouia. an inhabitant of the desert. the biter. also the bite or sting of a bees. ris. bedawi. betel. /SXirov.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. to drink. biest-milch. madhouse.

quently used in OE. but in the same language from poc. ytyvwfT'Kw. ip AS. 'Aboutin undern monly. incipere. at geta talad. beitel.' about undern he got down. Mod. He did alight. a little bag). to take. 40. one after that other. baigeir. 1430. ysgrepan. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. P. ken. although it ' the future. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. anfangen. on the bag. in E. 58 BEG BEGONE G. or Of a pure poor man. Schm. The tother seand the dint cum.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. ykvog. y/yvo/iat. covered with gold D. P. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. duginnan. beissel. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. beginning. ' ' . pose-pilte. P.n. yiyvo/uat. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. To Beg. a — wedge. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. ' .' for ye shall lament and weep. yivofiai. capere. origin. gen. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . to bear young. whence the E. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. 2. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. Of brede full ycrammed. beis- plement driven by blows. gigno. ornamented phoc. Si'Xa/coc. When Q. gan. image is cleft out of the trunk. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. Bruce. begger. V. a beggar . giving in Gr. iv. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. yivwajcw. Ancren Riwle. AS. ' Begone. of Gr. krapszas. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. referred gan this Erie alight.— . su with gold. bertola. beutel. a chisel. signifying to conceive. 168. but probably erroneously. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. chap. & go a begging. to go a begging. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. 25. P. Lollards. on the tramp. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one.' A. onginnan. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. it is both to acquire and to beget. In Luc vi. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. to be born. Into the are D. Gr. 142. chisel. steinbosil. a bag. Mundart. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. beriolare. seizing. a scrip euXaiciJoi.D. Vocab. a scrip. P. V. a bag . to With hire belies & here bagges get children. begging. touched with emotion — . Fr. hags. 1867. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. is com. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. To Begin. oppressed with woe. cans. a beggar.3. word. — Stillingfleet.pose. — yivsaiQ. 'ex quo. not began to alight. P. From w. Nov. fangen and Lat. Du. Florio. a beggar-boy. literally. P. tale. to be acquire. vir mendi. To produce children is to acquire. Beghardus. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . beitel. to reduce him to beggary. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. Du. a bag or poke. Deutsch. to know. taking up. in Lat. Du. to beg. to cleve. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . Lith. P.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. be^nnan. a wedge for cleaving wood. a stone-cutter's chisel. air a . sel. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. to get children . Cold-begone. &c. a wallet. Barbour. viii. can. Creed. can. in D. affected. two betels —a grete oke. Skinner's derivation from bag. aginnan. to arise.bag full of the G. bag {baigean. It. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. ken. also called Bigots. V. as alighting is a momentary operation. ysgrepanu. P. genus. to begin. from whete G. is formed pocair. kind. OHG. 'Dz. on further examination. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. lapidicinus. Political Songs. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. P. appears improbable at first. It will . the fundamental notion of attaining to. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. above quoted to get beaten ON. to be able. yivtrri. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. woe-begone. to begaan. &c. So from Gael. and Lat. Goth.

or purpose. AS. to lift. to carry. hces. to look. seeing to. to keep. to be suitable or becoming . to halten. Kiittn. hafwa ram. to cast or throw. tail. vow. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. to follow. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . guardare. garder. behaviour. hevja. N. G. to call. or necessary. to hit the mark. AS. exhort. to bring forwards. behoof. to bers of the body. and the E. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. and (as Fr. Command. to name. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. ge' hatan. behefe. AS. to gehouden. gehat. To Behave. to be fit. to regard. to keen or hold. se porter) to fare well or ill. hafwa. Sw. hofwa. zu etwas gehalten haitan. laborare. OE. hafwa bort. to be well pleased out. to R. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. when the verb will hoof. hcef tig bort. beperson addressed. to the equivalent of Du. fixed upon any object). promise . to be obliged to do a thing. advantage. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. To be expedient. —Hest. to command. a follower. gehouden. beholden to him. promise or a command. to lead. to turn one out . heeten willekem. heave. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. zijn. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. obliged. to heave. Aan iemand bid one welcome. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. what he wishes another to do . to take away. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to feed. To place are most naturally ex. At the back of The re. injunccommand. what is so required. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. hafjan.for throwing it. to hold. keeping. to tend. take yourself off. commonly expressed. from tragen. adjust. ufhaban. to be be named. at the tail of. G. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. heeten. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. G. take heed of. to vow. AS. habere. Sw. use. The seyn. on. hevja. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. to fit. holding is originally derived from that of looking. K. and their senses intermingle. Robert in Warton. the equivalent of E. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. vow. Paladino. gecall. healdan. Sw. G. furtherance.' Richardson. behat. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. But. behete. hove. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. habban. Goth. to meet. the distance of anything. to keep. to hold. right. — Behest. gehaben. portarsi.the figure of throwing at a mark. And so from hania. behold.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. betragen. is on the top of or opposite to. to be named. name of the head is used to express what hbva. hantyri. Plautus. behind. hovast. to carry. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. to call. R. nittaa. ifl fact. bound. is supported by many analogies. 17. observe. the two verbs seem radically the same. hcefwa in seed. have the sense of calling or naming. It. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. to behave. to have. hatan. G.— . hafwa. To Behold. to vow. servare. To look steadily upon. to be obliged to one. according as the * To Behove.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid. promise. behces. han- — js Kil. to look upon it as true . Thus in Finnish the heave. as in the case of E. G. invoke. is also found in the sense of looking. premi curi alicujus rei. behatan. to carry. to raise. to command. The Lat.). BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. solicitum esse. ward. The It. tion. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. to carry corn into the barn . or the hence advantage. keeping. gehalten seyn. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. AS. us-hafjan. by the compound observare.to vow. heita. to lift. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. the name adapt. to promise.

D. for purposes of low estimation . Q. promiser. are other modifications of the same imitative root. Goth. a little shed. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . stand. to boke. bounds. ornament. true. In the middle voice hofwas. aim. To Belch. verloben. overspread. from mhG. praising. galaubs. legsel. to fix a price upon one's wares. to praise. Then. Pl.Lat. boare. laven. Det er ofwer er hofwa. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. resonare. turris. See Gain. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. Northamptonshire. Fr. to give leave. lofa. G. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. to befit. portion. cela est audessus de votre portde. leave . employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. . ungalaub kas. is used in the sense of approving. under the forms belfredum. or house. bialla. consent. are innate . — Diicange. to roar. is (Sternberg). All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. to promise. to belay. Pl. appearing in Mid. if a promise. to give leave. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. to protect. to der swaren lave. to sanction an arrangement. AS. is an easy progress. a tower for defence . — . with the consent of the heirs. loben. to bellow. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. permission. To Belay.D.D. allow. AS. to cry out bell. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. locus securitatis Schilter. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. hesfa. In Mid. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. esteeming good and valid. Another application of the same word is in Pl. fringe. giving leave or permission. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. bell.alyfan. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. then. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . esteemed . and. properly belonging to the church tower. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. praise. to put a high price or value on. —F. 6o BELAY BELL loven. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. bulken. and E. to hit hafi. to give leave Dan. beau sire and bel dame. Sw. beset. precious. satisfaction. to make it fast. moderation. bervrit. ley/a. beffroit.. lyfan. bealcan. to believe. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . were civil terms of address. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. to lay the cable round the bits. promising. measure. gelyfan. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. bettifredo. to resound.. lov. we have Goth. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. on. b'ola. border. on. met. reach. an implement for making a loud noise. Du. a. laubjan. to believe. to praise. Du. glauben. to promise or engage. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to be required for a certain purpose.D. to a loud noise. To Believe. certain rate. if a narration. bylja. to praise. Du. berfroi. behove. Fr. loven.Lat. erlauben. distance to which a piece will carry. to permit. peal. to bolk. Bell. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. ON. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. to estimate them at a To believe. leaf geleafa. bercvrit. Fair sir and Fair lady. bealcettanj OE. Hence to simple approbation. fitness. mark ON. belief . pro3. bellow. P1. orloven. then. To praise is essentially Xo prise. and E. honoured. and bergan. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to lay be- around. a watch tower. beleggen. ON. Du. to believe. bellan. garnish. or a sconce. permitting or giving leave. galaubjan. From AS. . range. a tower. The word be- Belfry. tain a certain end. frid. beffroi. battefredum. OHG. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. or high estimation. belja. in nautical language. laven. bertefredum. and Du. — mankind.. . It. a vessel made for dishonour. OFr. filu-galaubs. reputation. loven. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. to sound loudly . bolken. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. to extol the worth of anything. to express approval. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things.

well. a spring. belliJ Lat." — — . belly. bander un arc. pod. benaigon. gwaldas. to ring. leather sack. Eenison. benir. to say. volva. to attain belangen. to become one's property . expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. welt of a shoe gwald. To Benum. G. bags or bellows. Du. the womb. See I . In E. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. . from benedictio. to concern. are stripped off whole blase-balg. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. Benedico. on. cod or husk of pulse. to make bilbil. ^To Beray. . bless. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. has assumed a plural form. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. because bcelg. Dozy. benjoin. See Nether. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. w. to stretch it on a frame. to bend a bow . bimpsen. a bellows. Gum benjamin. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). To Bequeath. a border. a water-bubble builge. skin. belly. Benignant. is The word balg. from Arab. benefacere. binssen. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. The ing-skin. est matris in lucem editus. G. pertinere. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. or a It is times the to signify services. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. pervenire. to attain to.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. benejicium. Gael. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. to. G. langen. To belong is thus to reach up to. to hallow. incense of Java. Kil. the word. vulva. bienfait. From OFr. belgr. hence with ashes. Commentary on Neccham in Nat.pinuz. I marre a thyng. pertinere. attingere.Fr. Fr. ray. belt.polch. — See Numb. a good deed. wallet. a leather bag. bilbil-goda. . To Bend.' — Hie fimus. benehusk. benedicere. Benefactor. the skin of those animals that factor. bellows. fens et hie liraus. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows.' The term had been previously planation. wallet Benefit. Quoth. a blow. Bav. a bellows . . to touch. to concern. — ray. binsen. bellows. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. bilbila. blister balgan-snamha. . G. to arrive at. Benefice. border. needs no ex.videtur. ON. attinere. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life.' Palsgr. balteus . hem. bcelg. benignus (opposed to malignus). Beneath. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. a accusative. to use words of good omen. benjoim. bolg. Benzoin. by itself. bellows. one who does good. rise against external force . Lat. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. an inflated Lat. Bent. ON. bene/actum. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. or sometimes louban. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. Gael. bimaissen. to hold to one. taken absolutely. a round or bubble-shaped root. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . . ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. — root consisting of concentric skins. balg. blast-bcelg. Fr. J'emboue. fyle To dirty. Lat. to touch one. loubdn djawt. rushes. OUG. ' . See Bind. to come to the crown belangen. Bench. to exert force. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. a kindness. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. Fr. is a kindred form. ball. generous. from which is also bulbus. bendan. Lat. or fyle with myre. kind. Benediction. as. bandoir. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. benedictio {bene^ and dico. se bander. to do good to one . to belong. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. pino3. Bret. Javanese perfume. See Bank. Benign. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. or simply djawt. welt of a shoe. disposed to oblige. was in Mid. attinere. bendaj as. to bless. means seeds of plants. gelangen. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. Lat. I araye. a speaking well of one. I say). belch. To Belong'. skin.. Lat. bolch. a benefit. to reach. bolg. Lat. — Ducange. Belt. ' I beraye. from another modification of the word for bubble. bag. from cwcsthan. bell. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. becwathan.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. beneison. Was das belanget. Sw.— Belly. dirt. a blessing. Ptg. as concerning that. OFr. I soyle it or araye it. pouch. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. poX^ri. . vulgarly the belly. balg.

the origin of which is to be found in ON. reparation.bhaksh. Besom. advantage. repair. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. lewth. encouraging. Ihre. fearful. To Bet. to mend. p. To Gl. ship for a make amend. dung . Beere. sweepings. . to fire a funeral pile of . Bestead. to cast. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. sheltered from the wind. to fall with roisto.— VixHsm. E. berry. 3. — . AS. bdt. to thrust. AS. Beit. Fr.X. roju. To Bestow. ^•n. to exercise on a definite object. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. vi. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. besein. dirt. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. E. On the other hand. because used for making besoms. supporting on the one side Lat. The origin is AS. bota. to make it. besIn sen. eld up- On is to be placed A — . rods. I from lew. preferably. scopse spartis. to word is shelter. stede. place. think more probable. rubbish. — amendment. het vuur The serise of Boeten. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. to thrust. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. Kil. to to deprive of. burrow. to entreat. to To Bereave. See Better. to defend. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. and Du. Du. boeten. as. and also to entreat. Fr. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. Rob. Zeitschr. R. — Chaucer. as. boeten. or the space kept clear betan. reafian. from AS. bouter. arwe.irova. reparation. to supply a want. stealth from steal. compared with bargham. ropahtaa. as. in the sense ctf beria. baete. bacca. bur-we. * To Bete. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. BETE dirty'. besen. Goth. buttare. to put on the saddle. better. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. bat. OE. to the place boarded off in a. as Du. to amend. buttafuoco. G. From abet. . beseech. Du. Hfence backing. roe. what does it better a man. to be-place. amendment. to kindle the fire.• 62 Antiq. same word with the provincial barth. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. besje^ Sanscr. it seems hard to separate as. fyrbotare. or. The dry. improve. So Lat. the guardian . to give a place to. dirt . may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. betan. barth may be for barf. AS. baete.fish the other hand. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. as. Grose. Du. bdt. betan. boteith Goth. To help. bal oppbota. So roto rattle down. basya. one who shelter. besmas. protect . jnore. or to bestead one. a fire. to on the other Goth. Best. as bouter selle. roju. bereafian. person to lie in. to light the fire . a place . basjaj Du. supply. to seek. seems twigs or rods. barfham. botesward. mud. as in growth. but in practice. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. Tha het he micel fyr betan. houseless. an incendiary. — Biglotton. from grow. to stand one in good stead. stow. It is the restore fyr betan. what does it boot. To bete his Jam.iooA. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. So too Yorkshire arf. fall with sound. bet. is to perform a serviceable office to him. noise. peto. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. barthless. R. brem-bessen.—^fake.— Hal. solicit. bestow. dust rojahtaa.t. put forth. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. earh. beorgan. berwe. to strip. vol. berwham. the side bhakshya. but it is specially applied mister. To Beseech. Fin. ^akka. The proper meaning of the bale. position. boeten. of ffeed a fire. and on which the wager is laid. put. as conversely a besom is called broom. besnij Pl. to make better. G. advantage. Esthon. boutefeu. See Reave. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. lay out.D. Sw. Devon. To seek something from a person. a horse collar. ariierf to 113. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. * Berth.ot-i. earg. dial. Berry. an incendiary. hva mannan. small eatable fruit. making better. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. Beet. Sw. might have been . Du. make better . p. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. sets fire to. — bota. Tusser. from It. a berry. When men of mekeness him baet. profit. broom twigs. BEREAVE Wall.

of quails. in the middle of twain. become. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. from invadere. Friar's Prol. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. wreia. twain. A — drink. To Beteem. taemen. amidst. better. Fr. are commonly to one's lot. vrohjan. whence beveraggio Fr. and thence twegen. Sw. e. evidence of life. beva. Goth. To vouchsafe. Pl. beuvrage. afford. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. ziemen. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. to accuse. It. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. betweoh. bevde. ON. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. E. Golding's Ovid in R. to discover. Better. AS. sloped off. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. trahir. i. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. baet. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. more. In the water anon was seen His nose. some attention. of pheasants. an instrument opening like a a thing. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. beverage. Buveau. suitable. e. I approve of beveau. a brood. Car son umbre si le trahit. G. a traitor. Goth. &c. in the middle of two. G. -to appoint. dispose (whence schicksal. deign. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Du. To boot in coursing (i. order. to Teem. treachery. Tinia eigi at lata eit. dir. ON. The as. Mich self a good glass of wine. betriigen. /alia. by a final sh. In like manner folissais. betwuxt. springs from ON. Sahissais. to fall Some call it a bevel. the being pushed to the frbnt. has — In a like sense tanie>i. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. to happen. taemen. roebucks. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. i. as from obdir. lot). a drinking . to happen. said he. to cheat. betest. betera. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. advance. amiddes. roja. deem suitable. betweohs. On the same principle ON. E. Fl. Pl. r'ojer dig. Now the stirring of an object. From It. gezimet eines dinges. to deliver up in breach of trust. not to have the heart to give up a thing. tradere. his eyen sheen. against. for measuring angles. bet. — See To Bete. as envahir. traitre. Hence last G. or with again. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. kein leben mehrin no signs . R. Fr. tima. G.D. batizo. Cot. fate. fitting. — that schickiich. Ober D. betwuh. larks. is treason. bet. polish. are there Regt R. E. R. suitable. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. progress. Dit tungomal rendered in E. Bevy. fallinn. gesiemen. ruogia. trahissais. OE.' Dialogue on Witches. it bewrays itself. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. as tlock. Thus from dbahir. in the same way Lat. Best. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. pair of compasses. spritigs from schicken. two. from. to deceive. to fall. proficere. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Dii. regen. from Lat. as trahissons. Det sig sjelft. x. Fr. zemen. obdissais. Slant. betaemen. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. AS. tima. as one would have it fall. by two. tweoh. . G. moveable and compass branches. tradire. zimet. To Betray. is used for the — R. to deliver tip. abash j from polir. which may be compared as to form with amid. what does It is forward him. awry. a different form of twa. trahison. Fris. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. Lat. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. make manifest. e. Between. bevere. find in one's heart. The inflections of Fr. BETEfiM translated. betray. best. obeish. find it good: Goth. trakir. betst. to stir. Fr.— . wrogia. to Hence It. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. bouter davantaige. better. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. batista. It. Bav. bedriegen. bibere. gatiman. From the former of these are AS. *Ah. Percy Soc. Ik tame mi dat nig. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. R. to make forwards. — Betwixt. betweox. Chaucer. to drink . better. be fitting or suitable. — of the authorities. 88. traditor.D. bat. verbs in ir with a double ss. riigen. To Bewray. his mouth. from Fr. a bevy. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde.

sliding. Fr. sbriscio. to make tongue Du. bickai. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. notice. slippery. sbiesso. Fr. to slaver . To drink hard. Sardin.D. to give signs of life. It. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. or by any rapid motion. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking.{ioin dua. edge of a plate of looking-glass.' bibble. as an eel or a snake. a fragment bieco. . — Bi-.a. used in precisely stone . biais. To Bib. to slaver or drivel. sloped. bible. biax. beslei. Bice. —Dozy. makes ble. aslope sbisciare. dial. reveal. Bezel. to stir up . a stone-hewer . Fr. Fr. sik beregen. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. to tipple. besanca. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. biberon. Gr. Probably. discover. 172. bihais. Piedm. it becomes (Jz-. in Fr. sbiasciai. a bezle. which good bibbeler. bending. crooked. kwijllap. to move. . Bib. dial. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. presence. The train of thought is then. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. E. to creep or crawl sideling. kwijlen. In comp. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. to stir. sbiagio. to glide or slip as upon. lips. it were the mouth. . asure-bice (Early E. like guzzle. Schiitze. or kwijl-slab. (according to the Fr. foul weather. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. sbrisciare. — crooked. Du. Sp. to Jam. The It.s bellum for duellum. shows the P1. . wraggeln. metaphor). To bicker in NE. specially in a bottle. bisel. to purl. biaiser. bibo. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. Bezoar. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). bickelen. to it evident to sense. Diet. Dan. In Arab. To Bezzle. and zahr. tailU en biseau.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. beregen. Jamieson. Lat. To Bibble. sbias. or in and out. bickeler. Biseau. whence Du. biascio.or from obliquus. biascia. Hal- — do something aslant. ice .to drink much. biberer. bring under ' Thy accuse. sbrissare. to stir. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. Prov. It.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. aslope. /3i/3Xof a book originally. per\'erted belief. a Galilean. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. . misFr. by throwing of stones. the basil Sc. sbiescio. has a singular stone-picker. wrogen. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. snout. convicts thee of being drink. though such a change of form would be very unusual. winding or crawling in and out. Misc. bis. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. An inferior blue. evident. bestemps. babbefore the eyes. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. Fr. poison. to be a paring. bescompte. Bias. to cut in two. to tipple. bibaculus. babbi. rogge. twice.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. inferiority. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. a sloping edge. a slabbering-bib. a bibber. expelling or preserving against. bickel. bezling or skueing. Bible. him. petit-lait. To Bicker. slanting . in him. It is especially applied in Sc. Fr. sbieco. Yes.D. Sard. bes-azur. to the stirring of their conscience. stock still. sbrisso. Ci^. baverole. ber-laita (for bes-laita). Mantuan. to stir. bebble. to a fight with stones. Hal. Pl. to shake. of the sliced off. Bibelsworth in Nat. to dispute. b&zahr.two. Lat.as in Biped. bisdare. Oh when shall I bizzle. whey count . bias-wise. the papyrus. to sip. 78). in two ways for duis. two- footed. An excellent Basil. baviere. love first begins to life signs of him. rogt un bogt sik nig. oblique. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. he is Wtb. Pers. liwell. Cat. kwijl-bab. biberen. pible. to well up with Cot. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. Piedm. —Bickering'. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . sbiscio. Uprogen. roggle. To skirmish. Bisect. pddzahr. Fris. bickel-sieenken. from pdd-. is explained to clatter. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. Cat. I Wallon. Ant. bavon. the word became bddizahr. one who drinks in excess. See Wriggle. OE. wrangle. bark of which paper was first made. its clothes.

bit- bidja.' Addison. are also used in the sense of asking for. — prepare. to inflate E. byggan. to curve. an entire skin. from bidan. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. iiQ. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic.. A pose to one to come to dinner. biddan. to bend. The ON. forwards. has leta. Big. Analogous expressions are G. to abide or wait on. gebodenj G.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. from seek. to offer it to public notice. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. ewes. 1. qucero. to marry. The loss of the / gives Dan. beidast. to ask. bidjan. The ON. or. bced. to dwell. as tears from the eyes. bug. A bjudan in anabjudan. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. to bend. bidill. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. Du. To Bid ' Big . From Gr. the meaning of bid. bat . quiring something to be done. to arrange. ON. to cultivate. OSw. to bulge. Palsgrave in Halliwell. form. anleta. Hence Sc. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. bauen to cultivate. ON. Bigamy. bedun. cultivate. faurbjudan.uddered len heart. a swelling. offerre. abidan. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. It must be observed that the word bidja. pray. related to big or bug. . bolginn. to presimpler pare. OSw. a chip. bulge. or bad. G. ' Bug as a Lord. bog. to inhabit. to start out. biegen. beadle. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. a flexure. AS. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. to bid one good day. as. build. P. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. to E. . ten. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. bow. — To Bid. bulk. besides the professedmonks and nuns. to pro- command. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. be bug.t. to swell. beodan. proud. Wallace in Jam. becoming in Lat. by seek and beseech. athird class. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. belly. byggia. to look for. or third order of penitence. to offer. praestare. AS. to forbid . balg.peto. bath. consisting both of men and women. to bicker. called the tertiary order. W. as G. bend. a suitor. to build G. inhabit. Einem einen guten tag bieten. einen vor Gericht bieten. — — — Halliwell." buque with E. bugne (answering to ON. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. who. England for swollen. to look for. ON. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. bidan. verbieten. inhabit Du. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. rising up. of More ' in Richardson. to build. buga. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. bugt. Jam. bis and in comp. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. bouwen. ON. bidan. G. bolga. The original Swollen. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. Bickelen. bi-. to build. to forbid . The 'La. 2.Leta). To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. belly. to solicit. and yajiBui. bieden. swelling. bigan. gebeden j G. pressing on one's notice. to ask. porrigere. to move quickly. bend of a shore or of a rope. Compare also Sp. and consequently ordering or reGoth. The . swaggering. to belly. BIGOT beidan. bieten.' Pope in R. may plausibly be derived from Goth. bo. repair. spelling seems to used in the N. the belly of a ship. bygga. and the Sw. To bid the banns. BID of stone. Bight or Bought. swoln. bulky. bua. Bigot. from belgia. bolgna). to offer one the wish of a good day. bidel. to have one called before him. which is stiU. bulge. bead. to pray one to dinner. R. twice. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. praebere. Kil. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. G. bag. in the sense of ask for. explaining the Sc. bugan. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. To Big. boa. With respect to logical pedigree. Big-swol- . bilge or bulge. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. Two verbs are here confounded. and Gael. AS. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow.

Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. probably from biso. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. sed maxim^ in muliebri. and also unlearned common men. Beguttce.' says an Venet.' Matthew Paris. 560. 15 18. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. the nobles to Rienzi. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. 1499. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. as well as bizocco. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. G. biso. They wore a similar dress.D. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. From bigio. aliqui Begardi. coarse woollen cloth. perch^ i Terziari di S. vol.D. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. and hence the variations bigutta. bigio. Bizoccki. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini.. all apparently derived from Ital. In the same way Fr. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. Bizocco.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. borel.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. the other form Per te Tribune. honesti plebeii amictus. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. Bighiotti). Augustini dotarint. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . vocati Fraticelli.a. absque votorum religionis emissione. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. A. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. beghino. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. xx. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. grey. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. D. was formed bigello.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. dark-coloured cloth. signifying bagmen or beggars. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. corruption would easily creep in. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. with reference to A. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. Hence the OE. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu.' says one of of bigio. face VIII.— Ducange. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. a blockhead. In a similar manner from bigello. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. a dunce. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt. Francisci communiter appellabant. ix. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.' Chart. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. to adopt a similar course of life. homespun cloth. begutta. alii Apostolici. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. S. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. and Q. ac labores manuum detestantes. rustical. alii de paupere viti. natural grey or sheep's russet. 1243. both men and women. A. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. which must not be confounded with begardo. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves.D. bighellone.— BIGOT bigardo.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. grey. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. Bighini. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. bighiotto.' translated by Muratori. Flor. bigotta. A. beghart. &c. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. author quoted in N. says.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. clownish.

to strike. symbolum. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. to pick a millstone. bigotto. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. the trunk of a tree. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. dissimulation . AS. clog to a fetter. b'olja. bigot. The Du. w. and a billard. the swelling G. — — ' . Prov. seems to be rather the unda. Sp. Du. boja. the o changing to an i to express diminution. false pretender to reUgious feeling. gleischner (Frisch). and dziobas. inscriptum. beil. an axe. weapon . an axe. Aurelles. Langued. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. in the sense of a writing. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. to job. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Deutsch. an axe. boeye. In English the meaning has received a further development. an ingot. Sw. dziobad. billard or billart. bill of exchange. bulla. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. blue . To Bilk. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. So in Gr. tepati. . in the same sense. Tartuffe. an ingot of gold or silver. AS. top. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . 5 * . billard also signified at billyards. bigardo. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. bolghe. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . ^Billiard. Sw. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. To defraud one of expected sinking. OFr. Bilberry. might be taken to express a hypocrite. A slang term for a sword. Thus we find in It. topor. a shackle. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). from the dark colour. irons or set in a kind of stocks. 2. Bohem. Piedmontese bigot. a of the sea. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. gan. a negro. Bojce. Gascoigne in R. NFris. Bille. an adze . 3. a hatchet. bila. . a name given to a. plog-bill. An instrument for hewing. bla-berry. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. 'tumidi fluctus. bisoch. an axe . a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. as craneberry. billet is the diminutive of this. loi. See Bulk. a floating log to mark the place of some. beghart. axe. Bill. that of swell. bille. horn of an animal. e. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. a hypocrite. deceit. buoy [i. A lorum tam in — Diez. genus vincu- Bilboes. — bigardia.— — — . Lat. Mundart. abelthe fetter itself. Fr. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. In the same way are related Pol. bulghe. AS. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'.' in Richardson. Du. I. ferrese quam ligneae.. bull-berries. blaa. billet. person of religion leading a loose life. a sword. Lat. to be angry (i. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. a bigot or hypocrite. a short note. Roquef.' bilio. Bilbo. buail. billot. procella Kil. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. bui. from Mid. the beak of a bird. Dan. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. p. belgan. bizocco. the bill of a bird. now A Bilboa blade. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. e. bullet. Billet. bigot. — Cot. a beak. Kil. bil. fluctus maris. bulgja. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. BILBERRY nated. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. The origin of the term is probably from bole. bwyell. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. Fr. of boja. of E. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. to peck. Gael. bill. Fr. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. bile. biilge. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. bill in parliament.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. to strike. blamand. Bill. obsolete. Ludwig. to swell with rage). Kil. used in legal proceedings. at sea Billet. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. a seal. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Bigin. and in Lat. Du. Dan. on. buie. . See Bull. Billow. a seal. names bill-berries.' mariners. a devotee. boia. as a bill of indictment. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. belghen. dziob. The proper meaning bylgia. 2. is properly a sealed instrument. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. from OSw. crowberry. G. however. Billette. Sw. Johansen. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. Bilge. fetters. a man who rests on a stick in walking. whortle-berries.

To Bite. viz. to plait. beitsl. to hang. evegue. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. to fasten it together. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Lat. and especially to a small poor horse. Lat. a bitch. H. hiindiiin. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. isfiw. — properly near-sighted. E. bund. a hind or female stag. To — — —D. bij sienigh. properly a young pigeon. evigue. bircej Sw. a bitch. a female dog hindinn. bitacora. — See Bittacle. to bulge. beorth. The term ON. . to be derived from Ibfiaq. Goth. . pinnu.' and the like. to bind together. bunt. to twine. a pig petz. bindan. See To Bear. hith. the young of an animal. Fr. . expressed by Sw. berkas (z=:Fr. a bitch applied also to other animals. bij sien. wine. Bitch. Bindweed. life. terial. bord. brid. &c. Bisen. e. a weight. copus. Habitacle. an overseer. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. ge- from AS. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. AS. sc. pittjo. The proper meaning is a heap. pundas. Fr. EpisETTiTOOTToe. earnes brid. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. biscuit. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. while bind-wood. bitill. — — . IV. a bear. to form a knotted structure. bunga. pin-ti. piccione. Bine. a heap. a knob. bindan. to bind at . is in Scotland applied to ivy. truss. a bump or knob. AS. AS. in Swabia. ON. to swell. a truss. 'tumens sequor. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. than vice versi. binda nat. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. beize. habitacle. bundun. Lap. bita. Then added division in a granary. from \t3\. i. Thus I suppose the Gr. biccej ON. G. from Lat. an eagle's young G. band. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. Sanscr. vescovo. a habit- Binnacle. to bring Biscuit. BITTACLE /Siof. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Lat. twice cooked. a house. admota non Bit. or baked. bunch. Bizened. bundle. by binda. It. It. Goth.68 BIN Bio-. which is expressed in E. The bitol. bund. G. Lat. to net. See Belly. In like manner from knot. I would derive the verb to knit. bjork. Gr. . Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. poule. to cook).. binge. doubtless a stone. bundle. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. Lith. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. Dan. a gallinaceous bird. bhurja. betsel. Bing. to bear. See Breed. biclie. a weight of 48 pounds. Bisson. poultry. fowl. Bin. Birch. Lith. qui nisi propius Blind.. or ben-wood. a corn. pinnii. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Fr. Du. . beitan. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. lusciosus et myops. the young of birds . which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. bigne. a female stag. a little dog. forth. from Gr. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. bikkia. Sw. pullus. or bin. AS. where the compass stands. j). to build. Bird. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. . a brood or hatch of young. AS. — Surrey in R./«idere.. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. pippione. ON. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. G. evesgue. AS. episcopus. beisseii. When compared with Fr. G. Bittacle or Binnacle. is rendered in ON. We — A Birth. brut. piiiti. bin-wood. v. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. bundt. bunki. Sp. Fr. nodus. — Kil. Bind. to wreathe. beran. overlooker. Fr. are commonplaces. also a stone weight. from pondus. propius videre bij sicndc. V. to knot nets for fish. videt. biscotto. a heap. bundt. i. and of Fr. by the verb knit or net. a bunch. Bailey. Bisom. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. or petze. burt. Sw.

't huisje. —Neumann. Lydgate. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. Sp. . as is seen in sputter and splutter. Sp. iroxafealo. ^aj'/^r. to To blabber blabber with the lips. butorj OE. Hald. bitr. a large lip. Fr. blesmer. whitish.— Blabber-lip. blob. . things —Palsgr. brunblakk. in contempt. It. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. To or he can speake. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. "uivac. In a similar manner Gael. bitts of Bitts. is placed. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. unintelligible talk plabair. a fluttering noise.D. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. to chops. viz. babbling. pins of the capstern. 332. a* mast . Fr. on the one side. to babble.' by Haldorsen. stutterer. Blabber-lip. blanc. blabaran. Fr. bird of the heron tribe. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. babbe. blab. chatter babbler . fallow . Gael. . Pl. Goth. ON. ON. a beam in a house or ship. 't kompas huis. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. quoted by Ihre. is apprehension of danger. ^chops. shining. Cot.' G. blunt we say it will not bite. a shelter for the steersman. — cheeked maid. Alex. beiwache. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. bleich. blob. a stammerer. blabbern.€i. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. whiteness (candor sine It. from whence we have adopted the. Mantuan babbi. Wit hung her mourn. Percy Soc. to the sharpness of a weapon. Nagt huis. — Collins in Hal. pale. leohte . out the tongue. mona mid Dan. pale yellow . v. mouth. bitor. beitr. cut. G. apparently from its biting the tongue. 'fuscus. to babble. obscurus. yellow . gabble. on. as of water gently beating the shore. bites. blobach. Why presumest And laam's asse. as in that of pale and white on the other. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. baitrs. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal.. shine. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. blakk. pale yellow. faded. ON. biacca. discoloured . The Gz. Hal. Gael. — Hollyband. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. an edge is sharpest sword. Bohem. bleg. Mund. buft". bleikr. AS. NE. Hist. Se bleek. indistinctly. baboyer.' by Gudmund. Cotgr. blakki. a continued soft sound. an additional watch. bitter. blob. pale. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). Mag. x. white lead.. Sw. whitish. blake.. confusedly. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. term. The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. ON.' It would thus acle. plabartaich. white. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. small guard-house. blabbre. to wax pale or bleaked. biti. first. a flapping. a childe dothe gasouille. to watch. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. garrulous. Bivouac. blac-hleor ides. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. light-coloured. quick. ' Biovac. ' plabraich. bittore. dusky. as of a body falling into water. beuni. faded. pale. blepLith. Ai-mstrong. blank. as of wings . A a rail. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. bihovac. Applied in Hin ON. to talk much.plab is used to . a large coarse lip . I blaber. blabhdach. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. /ealo-/or. gulblakk. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. Again. or water beating gently on the beach . To Blab the anchor. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. So Fr. In Legrand's Fr. Sp. 156. white. black. Fieldfare. round which the cable is made fast. pale brown . even humour seemed and beuin. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. Bleak. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. his blacan light. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. the palebleff. from wachen. bittour. night guard. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. maculS.). G. mouth. a babbler. to let out whai should have been concealed. Fr. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. a tati. plappem. thoughtlessly . corrupted in Fr. Bav. blebberis. Deutsch. dark. Bittern. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . to speak Dan. blubber-lipped. bitones. to loll it out. Du. In like manner E. yellowish. The bitas. fallow fawn-coloured. Sp. Black. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. AS. synonymous with baber-lip. to bivouac. Je N.

a bubble. a bladder or pustule. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. Torriano. biasimare. reproach. leaves. tattle. —^Webster. board. the origin of . Reliqu. blegne. polished. 5/^a/^ of colour. from candere. blahen. Dan. Bav. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. blanqne. Sc. imbrunire. It. — . blactra.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. . livido . — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. in R. Sw. and E. candidus. and wandering men and women. whitish. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. to make or become white blanc.—Blatter. Dan. to —Blaspheme. a pustule . The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. contracted from bladeren. to glitter. But perhaps a more Gr. p. and Q. revile. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. sheet of paper. blister. D. . and he shall be sure to have O. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. Du. Du. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. white. pass over. a blank ticket. pallido. also jabber. blena. to shine. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. blein. Eadmer. Jan. Du. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. or as E. Sir. dripping-pans. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. on. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. blanchir. roar. waschen. vagabonds. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. blatt.. Play in Nares. the ON. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. blether. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. blad. Blame. branches . commonly called the Black-guard. bladder . to shine. a buible. blasphemare. Bacon in R. pladdern. Cot. G. which we . blinken. broad. leafy. plat. I am degraded from a cook. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. as Lat. Lat. Blanket. a boil. smore. linkboys. foolish talk. to To bellow. and thence to babble. 86. most complete example of leafy structure. blad. The present forms then should be classed with blether. mud. leaf. The radical bubble. blister. To Blare. Perhaps from blegen. rogues and wanderers. to dabble in water. on. Blade. boys. to vocifer- — Cot. tree. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. Fr. name originally given Blackguard. moere. as scullions. blame. plat. Besides the examples of this connection given above. bladder. cited in N. See Blubber. irXariQ. or of an oar G. a bubble. to bleak in the sun. . 7. blatter. as. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. whitish. skola and thwatta. blanchet. the leaf of a tree. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. blank. as blader. Sw. biastner. Fr. &c. to blanch. Blancli. mire. blaere. bladra. with all other loose idle masterless men.— Kil. and G. bladdra. blather. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. mud. slush. blaeren. Wott. also white woollen cloth . flap of a Du. blanc. Now. also tanned by the sun. To blank. and others engaged in dirty work. white. to blow. variable than the signification of words designating colour. Fr. black. or a mass of bubbles. blister. defame.— ^o thehotsun. plate. — Sw. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. Blain. blatter. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. chatter. blister. blather. to Hence Ital. madder. —We Bladder. piatto. Du. Du. shining. to glow. gabble. mus-blackt. to disappoint. pimple. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. to omit. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. borrelen. Gr. bladder. blanchet. a white or unwritten ticket. to bubble. as. pXaatpiiiiHv. his meat burnt. Fr. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way.—Blatant. leaf of a. a leaf. is identical with Flanders borlen. PI. bladeren. speak impiously. e. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Dan. G. dial. a. or blafich. blegen. pluddre. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. Blank "verse. probably ate. chatter. vagrants. coat. 1854. — — — to jabber. Blank. and the agitation of liquids. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. — rura. Hist. to purl. bladre. G. bladder.. a blanket a bed. smother. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard.

commendation blason funebre. e. brasa. i. . is used in the sense of manifestatio. blose. a shout. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. on whose behalf the herald appeared. fire. embraser. Fr. shield or surcoat. Blatant. an conium. blaeteren. Troilus and Cressida. thraso. in that of praise. See Blare. or to the sound which it produces. If armour. bawling. Kil. to set on fire. blus. G. to blow . Blaze. a lamp blasere. To blow AS. blezo. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. braise. or blazening. blys. also blazon or the blazSpenser. As Kilian. might spring from the same origin by a . Du. blasonner. whence Blazonry. beast. a whisperer. each of boaster. 2. among other . has also blencke. biter. live coal . But now. clamorous.whence the Fr. Du. to trumpet forth. also praeblczse. blcEsan. a coat of arms. to spread news. boasting. magnilo.' to fastum . The origin of this exSp. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. ill-speaMng their proper colours . ventosus. a torch .' painted or figured . declaratio. magniloquus. visui patet. somewhat different train of thought. a blast. . abroad. in the same way as we 2. how. kept up. a voice Jr. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. OE. Blast.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. friend Cornelius. blast. ON. Dan. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. stultd loqui. ing of arms. AS. gloriosus. loud . blason. The other derivation. oured. Golden Book in R. The AS. Gudmund. Du. To Blaze. blaodh. Du. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. bleis. blysa. a shield. to blow. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blateroon. blis. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. ON. the noisy. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. blossi. Gael. — Elazen. blcese. bliEsan. blesse. G. to bellow. a MS. to extol. blcEsan. Du. A blaze is so intimately Then. g. — — ' : bless. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blaze. Blanches illuminies. blaser vid. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. 'op een trompet blaazen. blorach. is from AS. and to make him word blaze. Sc. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. brasa. noisy blor. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. blason. coloured prints. Sw. baladron. redness .— . bles. to proclaim. it is manifest. as a verb. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. Lye. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. blase. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. blesse. to de. ther it was erst not knowe. indeed. With inversion of the liquid. blcest.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. I. blaodhrach. light-coli. to blow. Fr. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. to publish the praises. pale.). which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. blase. to publish. besides blesse. Cot. also only pains and excellent endurance. laudes (Kil. She roade at peace through his heraldry. proflare tues. is the imme. AS. Cot. abroad. Du. blcesett. blazen. Fr. To blast. blasa. to cut off prematurely. A strong flame. a funeral oration . quus. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. splendour. senses. by stripping off a portion of the bark. First from the E. a shining spot. blasoen. proclaim the virtues of.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. Prov. a flame. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . Dan. a flame . blaesen. blaterare. a loud noise.sound a trumpet. of an animal. blass. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. . a torch. much plausibility. baladrar. to blaze Sp. might And sain. A gust of wind. Sw. — ' — stroy. a flame. blatero. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. bldsse. used. the matter incendiary . — ^Jam. like the in English. oron-blasare. and. an empty and two theories are proposed. and which.

stain flack pa ens a crying eye. blot. a blemish in one's 2. tacher. The term blear. from the than schal I go. plama. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. ' He blarrede or roar. bleakness. while the agent ac- From . Sw. to cry or weep. boggle at something. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. Fr. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. p. Blemisli. Blear.'he cried till the tears ran down. what blenched him therwith. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. to bleat as sheep. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. start vor den augen. a fault. Blancher. the formal equivalent of English wink. To salir. which are blurred with the have shewed you. wheal. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. blink. a disgrace. as of dust or mist . 1 blenschyn blemysshe. Ancren Riwle. bleikr. Mac. Sir J. confound him. to become livid. is Blench. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. blench came to be used for a trick. to spot. to bleach. To totally different from the foregoing. Blear-eyed j having sore i. bloken. blot. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. light-coloured. a red watery eye. livor. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. blarren. geplerr. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh.v. See Black. — — R. or to low as oxen. Bleed. a boil. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. Palsgr. to disgrace one's name. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. exposed.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. to humbug. . sinen langen tranen. AS. or blemish. and thence to a bruise. A Blab. Bejaune. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. guenchir. N. to blare been weeping. a been distinct. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. ' . blema. Bleb. . 242. Bleak. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe.' God in his wordes. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. pier vor den augen eyes. avoid looking it in the face. to wink at it. B. a spot. Bailey. ' — — eye. Manuel de Pecch&. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. And By a similar metaphor Pol. novice. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. darkness of vices. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. dead-coloured Cotgr. Pol.' to deceive one. bldmi. 419. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. sugillatio. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. to spot . (faith or creaunce) Be war. to soil. From the OFr. So in Sw. ' — — ' : — — . An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. Gower in R. goda nainn. Richardson. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. pimple . tutnan is a cloud. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. flack. blemissemeiit. on. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. paleness. blister. from on. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . the livid colour of a bruise. splamii!. pale . Gr. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. to wink the eye. a spot. a spot. wan. to make him feel blank. tumanid. blakna. spla7nU sie. blesmissure. blur before their eyes. BLENCH obfusco. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson.filerren. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. a blotch plerr. See Blood. a spot. ^Xiixaoftai. blcecan. in the expression reputation. not only pale but livid or dark of hue. . To Bleat. I chaunge colour. or blemysshen — blaken. a blot or smear blanking one. blesmir. a stain. 115. . to cast a mist before the eyes. to stain one's honour or reputation. And now are these but mansbond (i. ^Blencher. A stain in a man's reputation. color plumbeus bldma. spSt. souiller.D. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. drop of water. G. . See Black. c. whitish. wanness. pale Du.' the devil makes a vain back. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. — blink the question is to shrink from it. inflamed eyes. Schmel.P. livid. to start away from. to blear one's eye. like one that has long P1. As AS.

' To — blunge clay. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. lighten. blotzen. bludder. mix from blekken. although in the in the next article. sung. to make happy. pale. — when he — Bailey. — Goth.blinze. blitzen. —Brera. and joys of Paradise bliden. well blahy blick and blink. bliss look . a glance Swiss blenden. to act like a — . make these hands 3. happy . blissian. bluiter. . to bluiter up with water. The term then self or others. sertion of the nasal. The sound of k before an s. a. glitter. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. as in Du. .eyed. blican. joy . to churn. to plunge. . to dabble in water. OHG. lightning sweet blago. blind- ON. as a blind entry. Serv. pockets. The inblissful. moment. blatida. G. Sc. Dan. Paradises blidnissu. wink. blicken. to dazzle . (=bene dicere). Du. glitter. Biglotton. to fall into water with a sudden noise. blund. blithe. dazzle . to glitter. G. a wink With the bletsian. . A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. blinde fenster. Du. Kiittner. AS. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. blithe blis. in potters' language. csecubrandish. lightning. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. blind. Du. G. blende. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. III. blich-fiur.blunda. blahos. to glance. . — A A — . A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. j). lovely Bohem. well blagaya. blindr. happily. fortunately. Blight. be glad flash. thou knave. blitz. gives blinzen. to make a rumbling noise. to be blind. blinzler. blinzeln. the Slavonic languages. goods. 375. to shut the eyes G. . To Bless. From the action of the hand making Sw. glad. trix. blazeny. wink of sleep . with or without the nasal. a gleam. graceful. blend. to glitter ful . . To Blend. lightning. F. window-blind. blendian. blessed. blanssen. happy . a.not sting thiiren. joy. I hold thee a grote thee. . happy . Sc.blinken. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. to shine. blide. mixing in general. blink-eyed. bleg. . plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. to stir or puddle. blac. blindselen. cascultare. sweet. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . plonsen. tire. blicksem. a look.wink . Nares. is I shall Gurt. OHG. as a vatn i vin. ^Jam. to flash. a flash. plotzen. a blessing. ON. shine. Owl and Nightingale. to consecrate . weaklaveny. a nounce happy. a glance. A . Thence apblinds. Swab. Sw. to merry. riches blajennii blicksem. Du. also to wink.. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. livid. an entry which leads to nothing . ' Pl. tless —Gamm. seems the simple netel. blago. to shut the eyes. tative source of the word is wholly lost. riches . glitter. Pol. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. Deprived of sight. Blind. blet. AS. giving (Fr.Q. blaziti. To blunder water. but by no means therefore a pre. the verb to bless is some. flash of light . G. Tany. readily passes into a /. Bliss. blink. to dash wine with water. blahoslaviti to twinkle. to pro. Du. blessed. blogi.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. — . glimpse. or nettle which does form. to rejoice. Needle. .nasal. vious one in the order of formation. Russ.blinkard . to bluiter. blick. to shine. . glance. De Sonne ' verblekken. Swiss (obsolete). gladness. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. to blithsian. as in the case of blaze. pearance of the blighted . joy. blag. to glitter . to mix. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. . false windows. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry.corn. Blazena Bea. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. AS. to bless. Wtb. blicken. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. AS. the sign of the cross while blessing one. a dead nettle. Blink. money. as taschen. blidu. liquid filth to bluther. a wink. blinzdugig. to shine. to lighten. to bless . doors. joyful.D. to dilute too much . to rejoice. burn up. blincken. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. good. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. to — make it thick and muddy. to twinkle. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. blent. the G. a blick-ooghen.

Fr. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. Bleb. In Fin. gentle OHG. blister blasan. like clot.. to dash liquid. mild. blesme. light yellow. — — — — — From blabber. or is inserted or omitted. A solid blouquette blisters. Blond. blond. to blissom. in the lump or mass of wood. Ibid. the unhewn bole of a tree. bluster. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blcesma. a dirty blister. pausten. Kil. blobber. Gael. a block or log en bloc. blaud.plisg. blubber. The blow E. buckle. to block up the way. swell. A under this name was imported into England. — . any lump or mass of things. B. shells. Fr. orbicular. Sw. or bleb. bausen. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. fiustula. blinzel-maus. soaked. Sc. must be classed with forms like Gr. a blister. blod. Hence. The roots /. a little blisg. blot. . soft. like manner the coloured. speaking rapidly any . weak. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. ON. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. as blinzeln. and pisg. Gael. bubble and blubber. husks. blindman's-buff. blithe. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. frequentative. in Nares. to soak. It may be formed Blithe. soft. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. and inarticulately. a See Blot. to close it with a solid mass. Hence E. Dan. blautr.pusta. stone. Mod. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. W. a bubble. Blob. blobbes or droppes of water. Lat.—Bloater. I believe. to to puff and be noisy. busten. in gusts. —Bailey.— Hal. Bav. Cotgr. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. a ram. blab. kostua. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. separate portion. mild. bluyster. mass. strawclod. a bubble. Du. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. ON. Langued. buclde. To Bloat. senting the dashing of water. in bulk. And so from squatter. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. a . G. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. must be referred to AS. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. — Sw. from blcsr. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. inde humiditate tumidus. Of sheep. . expressed by cognate roots. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. — Blob. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. to blow. G. to cure by smoke. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. Thus we have blab and babble. as if soaked in water. blot. it is must be observed. round. soak in water cured fish. or the mark which it makes. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Jonson. Boyd in Jam. Dan. is formed squad. and F. a drop of water. Blister. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. or the like. merciful ON. blindsehn. lagga i blot. See Blot. as in E. a lumpish head plubach. ^vaaa. boucler. pusula. to desire the male. For this. whence blast. blidr. blouca and Fr. B. Sw. having an unsound swollen look. to steep. . is also used in the sense of swelling . to breathe hard. puff. cooking. blote. blotfisk. and bouclette. a small lump of anything thick. a blot or spot. Blob. pustula. taken altogether. to bubble. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus.— Bailey. blide. To a smoking or drying by the fire. to blow. plub. sloppy dirt. soft. Goth. Svt. Egillson. blaustem. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. To Blissom. bloc. an unformed mass. also to set See Bless. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. Du. signifying in the first instance to soak. The stem or trunk of a tree. biota. to blow. formed spot. fish blind person. pimple. or blinde-kiih. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. while Lat. repre- pusula. Block. blijde. . blot. pods. a bubble. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. bloated. to swell. joyful. a blain. as a blab of ink. a blister . in the sense of a soft tint. kostia. bloc. blad.—Bloated. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. N. and easily changes its place. viscid. blister. bleiths. ^Jam.

bloetnsel. ON. — Cot. blady. to dabble in water . ^Bleed. blosem. to dash down. blus. couleur livide. a beater. blosen. bldmi. blysa. to strike with such these objects exhibit. to spot or blot. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. Fris. ])erly Du. Stalder. plot of land is a spot or small rage. OFr. a torch blusse. to glow. to strike with something soft or flat. (of cattle) to dung. a black eye Du. to dash down Du. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. blue. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. bloutre. livid marks. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. kobladde. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. yellowish It's G.— . a Schmid. glose. proto shine with bright colours .platter. bloi. bfys. bloto. Wendish blodo. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. glus. j^ blottir. Blad. platt-voll. blaeuw. a deli. wan. blou. blue. bldts. Sc. E. lustre. blaeuwe ooghe. pale. of a blow with something lios. blostma. Blow. The G. lump of anything soft to blad. fair in en blat vand. Schilter. to From . Dan. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. G. ON. Ein platsch milch. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). blondheid. a Usaae. spots in the sun. a pelting shower). fall to overflowing. yellow. light. to squander. E. a flower. a. Blossom. bleistern. a cow-dung. to slap. a Halm a. Blotcli. to scribble. S-wiss pladern. blosma. the bright colour of the cheeks . Blood. clod. to splash. the bright to blot paper morsels. a spot or blot. blue. gfyssa. en blau ach. AS. Du. bit by bit. lump flower. . or the sound of it . blue . whence plader. E. bliihen. biado (of which the evidence plattern. colour of the cheeks. to blush . bloi. G. to strike . bloemen. E. to patter. . blotter. splendour . It should be of filth blak-blatte. Prov. ON. Fris. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. platsch-voll. bliithe. probably connected with Pol. Plots. It. dial. Blot. gloss. pale tint. Sw. shine . Dan. to flame. blond is used in blatt. D. PI. dial. in v. pale biavo. bluish.D. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. Sc. bliise. — — . Bloom. blond. to blaze . . blauwel.properly to scatter liquid . Jios. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. as the skin or hair. E. Du. skam. fall down . to beat one black bladding on o' weet. great leaf of cabbage. blomstr. plet. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. brilliancy. bloi. coloured (Diaz. Hatch. to glisten . spot pletter i solen. a water ploutsche. Harmar in R. —Barbour. blase. a drop of water or colour. pladern. . a blaze. Fr. See Blow. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. blooth. blond en blaauw slaan. plattata. . blut. E. — Blotch-paper. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. a lump. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. from G. platz-voll. to exists in biadetto. Lat. ' — . blose. Erploten. blust. blad. plottra. to squat or lie close. bloeme. livid . mud. Pl. Sw. to grow pale). bleustern. Du. gleam. to dabble in water. parallel form with ON. to dirty. Schwenck. to blaze. See Blow. gammon. on. glossi. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . — gush.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. blaeuwen. Ir. blat. bloedsd. bloed. . to sparkle. blotte. redness. to blot the land was in a leme. blodelsa and blawelsa. a flower. glister . blosa. a blow. soft or flat. to be red with blot. sbiadare. plotterwis. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. to slap. to be red.^ Kil. AS. Dan. blowen. . a gush of milk . leme. from the bright colour which 7'vci. lidmr. Florio). flower. kuh-plader. glasi. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits.blauschlagen. cow-dung. a The form platschefz. white blatte. a flower. Sw. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. to shine . ^lys. blistaf. Russ. .' the rain is driving and blue . blois. dirty spot on the cheek. a blot or spot. Du. plants which prepares the seed. platschern. Schmid. 2. Wflz<^«. splashing full. blawels. blatte. platz-regen. — Stalder . bletister. blotting-paper. a nature. straw. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. pladdern. blue.

to bruise Roquef. to show flower. blubbern. Deutsch. to blow. To Blow. disordered in head-dress. AS. blue . glow. y\r)yi»v. The radical sense is shown in Gael. ' BLUE or guggling. in rapid or indistinct utterance. to gabble. And. jabber. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. -ii. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. to puff up. grow pale. blass. pale. glede. blodyn. . Her sweet bloderit face. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. — Bluther. blawan. to beat. Blowze. — To blubber. blow. OHG. It. Chaucer. blezir. Prov. a herb Gr. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. like manner Lat. to fade. a continued noise of agitated water. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. P1. and closely allied with Du. /idXavoc. br. — . ler. blady. pale OFr. |8A)'. bluther. MHG. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. blubonciti. gliihen. bloom. gliihen. — . wan. to shine with bright From colours. plustrig. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. plodern. glowing coal . gloeden. boil. Lat. sense. Mund.D. Sik upplustem. or gr. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. glaodh and blaodh. G. red-faced bloted wench. grug. blazi. bliihen. bliuwan. to blurt out.' Hamburgh Archives. B. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. bluh.xo'»'. Notwithstanding the We .' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. coup. ^Jam. boasting. fied vowel. bloi. bludder. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. blue. a Blossom. The interchange of an initial gl. dirty. Jla-re. to beat with a mallet. disordered. G. bruk. fem. to guggle. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . blut. — To Blubber. grey..D. Langued. Pl. to fade. tache. flower OHG. a blow. bl. marking some application from that bladder. to inflate. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. Gael.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. plubraich.D. to breathe bouteiUis. These are — Bludder. to make blue. to with Bohem. Bav.' — Palsgr. to blow. sound like water. Raynouard. Du. a gurgling . bluod. blaw j biavo. a paddling in wate r. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. — — Mundart. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). pale. Tumbled. We . Danneil. blust. to make bubbles in drinking. to bubble up. to'disorder. blau. E. blosen. v. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. flower w. pludern. to hard. and thence. blois. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. bldt. OHG. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. blava. piusen. puff. bloemen. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. plubartaich. to glow. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. .to blossom. gUd. Bret. heath. plusig. the red fluid of the body . bloes. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. . A. is very frequent. a blast. . a. blazir. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. to blow. —SchmelIt. The primary sense is to shine. may cite for example G. 51. fqded. fiubbem. to spot. d in Sc. Wtb. Pl. To Blow. 1292. Pludern. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. 92. In agitation of water. to flap like loose clothes. toused. into flower. especially with respect to the hair. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. where the word may be compared bliggman. blau. cheeks bedabbled with tears. gloeyen. Blowzy. to glow. florere. a bruise. . pale .D. little apparent resemblance. bliihen. to exhibit bright colours. vi^ound. . sponds with Sw. 2. blubbern. Blue. to flourish. bloeden. corre. blduen. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. meurtrissure Roquefort. w. Chaucer. bruised Prov. green. wan. E. foam. a fat. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. bledniai. in E. bliithe. glansj Ir. glas. bloeyen. G. It is howbliuwen. plubair.Jlasa. blodern. to gush. Du. a flower. to breathe G. Kil. Deutsch.nify bubble. chatter. closely difference in of blabber. blebber. and the forms mentioned under Swab. Gr. blahen. withered. G. is confined to the — . to fade. blodelsa. to Plodern. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water.— . OFr. The aUied forms. glas. 1. blao.

Bodge. blue. tradire to Fr. puddle. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. is. Blaffart. G. It is remarkable however that the E. Du. in water dobbelen. to agitation of liquids. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. pale. Blavoyer. as well as biado. pale) is provincially used in the. segetes virentes.D. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. earth and water mixed together. G. blave is moreover. abrupt. fawn-coloured. blahir. plo-wy. G. Kiittner. buller-bak. ploffen. something. Du.' trouble. Pol. Then with the nasal. to fade). in plur. yellow. superficie plani. Sw. The Du. to confound. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Hence a Slcelton in R. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. and then generally idle talk. blunderhead. plomp. polter-hans. a plain coin herausplatzeu. having a bluff forehead. and sbiadare. to dabble in the mud. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. 't — —Hal. Palsgr. trahir. Dryden in R. flav-us. to plump into the water. Pm. herbe. jaune. biada. to blunge clay. his business with much noise. to work To blunder out a fronto. corn. verdoyer. — Pr. liebefactor. I blonder. Bluff. See Blunt. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. blond. Blunderer or blunt worker. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. an ill-done job. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. It then signifies something done at once. bUich. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. Bohem. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. glundr. to blunder water. buller-bas. Kil. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. from the Lat. pale straw-coloured. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water.— . The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. blunder. OFr. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. je perturbe. blunt. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. has donder-bus. And blunders on and staggers every pace. mix It. all representing the — .in mud or water. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . to fall suddenly on the ground. yellowish red. See Blurt. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. — . flodderen (Weiland). a blunderbuss. to mix it up with water. Biada. blutter. falb. without image or superscription. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. bluish. Roquefort. originally growing up turf and water. The Du. to puddle. bulmanner. like the Celtic glas. Ditton in R. bleu et blanc.//aay. Hal. pale yellow. and biavo (Diez). a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. Halma. Romance bluiter. in the same way as from It'. blaf. poltern. devenir vert blavoie. planus. From G. blandum. non rotunda. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. speech. tutte le semente ancora in erba. like Du. To blunder is then. E. bloi. a shore abruptly rising. - reddish yellow. to become pale. glundra. biava. find accordingly It. and Du. dial. sbiavare. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. contrasted with the dle. from an imitation of the sound. Supp. to become pale or wan.make a noise. blunder. a flounder. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. A bluff manner. fallow. Lat. blue. confusion. bawling.• BLUFF biado. biavo. as well as sbiadafe. Dan. Bladum. Dief. Pl. sense of yeUow. sloppy drink. Hence we pass to Prov. — — — . blue. The word is here synonymous with amplus. polterer. .. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. and bustle . rustic. blac. We Blunder. and metaphorically. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. Altieri. G. Analogous forms are Du. pludder. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . which is rendered by Florio. to lose colour. blavus. or an abrupt manner. Blunt. disturb. mistake. Roquefort. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. discoloured {plowiee. to become pale or livid. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. a boisterous violent man. Flor. . blake (identical with AS. from the brilliant green of the young E. verdure. used for the work of an unskilful performer. corn. blanssen. to dabble Biglotton E. Kil. a fore. applied to green as well as blue. bullern.

The blait body. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. fling down . blott. blunder. It. heavy. F. blait. bloss. G. Ford in R. down. nature. Swab. naked. clumsy. to blunt a thing out. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. viz. with or without the nasal. dull. without Maolaich. plonsen. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. exactly corresponding to the G. It will be seen that the G. heavy. viz. without horns. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. like a thing thrown down with a noise. plutz T)\i. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. biotto. plump. as cow-dung. Then cometh indevotion. to plump into the water. figuratively. hebes. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. The syllables blot. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. poor Sc. blockish. to blurt. massive. it will be observed. without the nasal. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. void. blunsch. of a knife which not cut. unfledged Sw. a thick and will person. obtusus. pointless. pressions. awkward. edgeless. Du. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. — blunt. blat. maol. Bare and blunt. platzen. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. Plontp. through which a man is so blont. awkwardly. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. or heraus plumpen. blunt. fooUsh. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. Plump mit etwas umgehen. biosso. More in Richardson. plump. blout. Bluntet. Kiittner.to fall into the water. that it not easy to discover the connection. to plump down. blotta sanningen. identical with E. Blunt. bus. good plump person. ang. blunt. blunt. Blaitie-bum. a portion To inquire for slaves. naked. plotz. dial. plump. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. Stalder. V. is The word dull. that the sense of bare. blutten. Sir T. mit etwas heraus-platzen. pale. Halma. as in E. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. blunt. Sc. insensible. rudely. Won by degrees. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. to make foliage. blue. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. wan. raw. bare. a blot. and hath swiche languor in his soul. without preparation. united in Gael. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. Woddis. . plump. obtusus. bare or blunt. to handle a thing bluntly. bleak. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. bald. unceremonious manner. azure. but of something soft thrown on the ground. and an unintelligent. naked. — — pidus. blait. —D. Dan. A light blue colour. V.—D. used in both senses.plompen. Kiittner. and. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. Plump. blatte. V. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . is thrown. plump J to plump out with it. heavy. —D. inaKil. a simpleton. unpolished. absence of preparation. or blab out a thing Kiittner . naked. plotsen. thick. to bring it suddenly out. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . Chaucer. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. and in the same sense. Sw. a bluntie.pludse. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. Now the Swiss bluntsch. inactive Swiss bluntschi. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. unwrought. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. nis. G. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. Q. It is from this notion of suddenness. clownish. Probably radically hlekit. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. it will be well to point out a sense. forestis. duU.— — — . plains The large bech. as Sw. stupid fellow. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. sheepish. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. dull. . Pol. platz-regen. A modification of the same root. the absence of sharpness. silly. from the loud report a fire-arm. in Richardson. bluntschen. Sc. bare. homo stolidus. rough. rude. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. and the like. seems to be derived. Dan. plumbeus. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. ineffectual reason. to make a noise of such a Stalder. Molof something wet. — Kil.

planks or boards. board. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. this root are formed Sc. Fr. the sound of a blow poffen. voce intonare. 29. baiag. G. — To Bob. to dabble. bluther. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. boistous. To blow in puffs. Du. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr.—Bobbin. to smear.plodem. bdta. a bladder . but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. be a crack or loud sound. bleuster. pustern. whence bordvidr.pusten. pfludern. lacerta. of the word seems . to be out of temper. 9396. imitated by has also In like . e. Wallace. Pull the bobbin. rude. a board or plank. then applied to indistinct vision . short pieces of any filthy mud. to make mouths. to make a noise in boiling. to dangle. to blow. bliise. to guggle. border. brett. edge.' — Red Riding-hood. borrar. a torch blusse. to sound like water boiling. a mistiness. . Du. bdd. Blush. G. pausten.— . to give a crack. To tinct. Schmeller. on. De Boat. The to radical meaning D. berd. stupid. table. 'Ba. to blaze. to snuff. ader. table. a tassel. Du. to jabber. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. to blush. lindwurm. — — — * Boast. Hal. to spurt out. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. AS. Board. to brag grande loqui. bord. See Blossom. It. blosken. Du. an end or stump. dial. a blotch. chicchere. AS. — — . a grows to a great bigness. to breke.y. pludern. Explained by Jam. or bog also thread. Sc. It. Boa. common. Fl. to roar.v. both used in the sense of boasting. a smear. OE. To move quickly up and down. . bobbin. a baU of thread the mud. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. Bot zeggen. whence bob. Gael. bobine. boot. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bluter. bustuous. bhis. blader. Bluster. BLUR Boar. bludder. to blur. To Blurt. properly noisy. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. — a blaze. to rumble. blasen and See Burr. To splirt. dial. Swiss blodern. . and E. violent G. — From mouth. bar. See Boisterous. it implies that it is empty sound. edge. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. and when applied to vaunting language. Boost is used for the boast. pof. P. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. skin. blaere. geplerr. planks raised up outside the roofs. to puff. outward edge. a blow . Comp. blaffen and baffen. blubber. blotch and botch. Sc. to say bluntly. blusse i ansigtet. &c. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. margin. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. a small lump. Lat. large. puddle. splurt and spirt. to bounce. ground. sudden. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. cluster. Dan. eafor. blaste?i. a dangling object. a flurt with one's fingers. Du. an edge. to chatter. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. to puff. . bdtr. a Jam. bit. like the parapets (viggyrdil. Du. a mist before the eyes plerren. fringe. w. rude. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. as splurt to splutter. to dirty. bur. and swimmeth very well. 156. Supp. blaustem. to make a noise with the mouth. Hal. blast. cheeks glow. bord. aper. plump. Wtb. stellio. To brag and to crack. to blore. Pl. primarily signify loud noise.D. blarra. and the latch . Fr. literally edge-wood. eber. blur. will fly up. to glow . the Brem. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. to blurt out. acre. blose. Fl. burra. an ear of corn. batello. Du. V. bateau. — ' Dief. puffen. to threaten. crack made by bursting open. The elision of the d is very to chatter. a short thick body. ON. flat. my dear. boa. a burst of tears. margin. E. bladdra. mire. bord. Related to blutter. gabble. to bark. a border. bausen. Wright's ed. to endeavour to terrify. violent. BOB 79 — To Blur. hot. beacon fire. Slur. ever-swin. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. bludder. blot. bot-voet. a. beer. to render indisbhir. as in Du. cocodrUlus. coarse. gabble Sw. G. to disfigure with E. or blurt with one's mouth. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. blot. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. A large snake. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. to talk quick and indistinctly . 274.the syllable bot. i. Boa. 1. a tassel. bakke bleustern. pluddre. a blot. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. c. and Du. dull. boccheggiare. a club foot . blodern. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. AS. Bav. blirt of greeting. blunt. boord. blurra.plerr. or backwards and forwards. Sverris Saga. bot. swagger. . baban. and boisterous. botte. E. margin. bora. Gael. It. to blubber. to crying. Halma. strong. is formed Du. As the as. Kil. to puff.

message boda. a cask. . anything soft. a bog or morass.gmh:t. bogach. nave of a wheel. nodding. ^Jam. bodak. Wall. a .' But the radical Glanville in Todd. — Grandg. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Bret. Cot. bodilo. '£. Ptg. body and G. meaning the round part of his body. to stir. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. the boss of a buckler. swelling. rounded. bo tich. calf of the leg. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. unsteady. daubed or dabbled with blood. wavering. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. whence paUchen. Body. to fail. bodnu. a prickle. 3. to commit a blunder. Commonly explained as if from Sc. bodig. W. AS.a (i\ia. Bodice. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . stuttering. Ptg. shaking . unsteady. corpset. to thrust. the belly. To portend good or bad. Russ. Bog. busti. Gl. so large a feature in the country. bob. potacha. a messenger . to prick. the body. Now unskilful action is conmire. We . gogach. is identical with Fr. corset from corps. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. See To Botch. to blurt a thing out. the body of a shift gaguejar. ON. to smack. . It introduced from Ireland.. Thy i. The signification of the root bot. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Lap. stitch. arise E. bodene. . . potig. Miracle-plays. a ghost . woman's stays. mud. bottich are derivatives. boftich. bogle. move. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. * To Boggle. to bodge. to push with the horns. to start start and back as from a bugbear. waving. a body. and E. In like manner E. pall. bog (equivalent to E. whence Fr. Ir. to scruple. bodat. or a pair of bodies. baboyer. bole. a spur. . a round body both. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. round. Gael. to be unsteady tich. belly. corset. 43. a sting . speak of the barrel of a horse. gago. Supp. gag. gagoula. To make bad work. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. quagmire). ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. to make. potahha. So BOB To Bob. Bohem. by the syllable patsch. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. toss. bodhag. stumpy. butt. bodian. an awl. an announcement. to dabble or paddle. unsteady nature of a soft substance. the trunk of the animal body. Shakespear has badged with blood. And waves. gog in gog-mire. bayonet . The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. . where bogs form Gael. French bouter. needle. bodi. barrique. To Bode. barriga. bodies. as a horn. the thick part of anything. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. VI. See Bid. to stick. Schmel. a dagger. corpses pot. to be uncertain what to do. shake. is a lump. bod. expression hogglin an bogglin. Crist. to waver. or bag. Reliq Antiq. . the stem of a tree . to fail. bog. strike with the horns. bot. to deliver a message. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. to butt. The Sp. — H. to roll. bottig. to bob. gog. To Bodge.' A — Sherwood's Diet. to make a mow at. then from the yielding. as in stammering or staggering. of which the E. BOGGLE trunk and G. bothog. quakmg. Gael.\\i\c\iset. anything protuberant. bogan. e. dies. Banff. bolr. or stem of a tree. potacha. bagges. badyti. bogadh. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. AS. biodag. .' Bogglie. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. Gael. cask bottich. a puddle. fickle . and the word is well explained by Bailey. moving backwards and forwards. gagei. biodeachan. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R.! . body of a shirt bol. bayonet. thrust with something pointed. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. goggle. bod. — 2. stutter gogmire. a prick. formerly bodies. exhibit another modification of the root. bog. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. as signifying anything spherical or round. bogadaich. to stammer. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. agitate.rabodi. a command. from fitting close to the body. gebod. bodetz. . patsche. a cask. palleg.hollow. point. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. With With this we charged again We bodged again. boll. See Baber-lipped. Bodkin. bodi. a quagsoft. To mock. moist mire. precept. Lith. — as well as the body of an animal.

' Mrs Baker. Lat. buller. — 6 . Daring. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. Sc. bola. bullire. gluma. To Boil. bol. bol. bagaji. up of bubbles. he will speak out. shake. V. This iv. bolster. a fastening for a door. a swelling in ice. bolstar. caput scapulse. excellent. . folliculus grani. to stagger. Bustuous. used. The term applies in — — impressed . as E. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. hakogni. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. Mund. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. free. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. bolle.— — . See Bulk. the gurgling sound of water rush. styffe or rude . 1430 in Deutsch. pall. E. bulr. The round stem of a tree. In the same way Sc. insolent baude. bulla. puile. boystousnesse.D. the. gerade signifies straight to the mark. * Boisterous. biiilen. strong. Pm. treated under Bowl. It. Properly noisy. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. Westerwald bollern. bouil. Fr. bol. intrepid. G. bolzen. hero. stud. sels of flax. pustule. blow. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. obex. is probably a modification of boll. to the belly as the or dislike. Sp. Test. A. courageous. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. bog. w. boutpijl. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt).palleg. the body . tartle. in the sense of handsome . he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. Bole. 45. Me doth awate. a bakazikni. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. Boil. Fr. The bob. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . bolt.rounded part of the body. then violent. chaff of corn siliqua. ^Boistous. courageous. ^Vocab. Cot. bold. coarse. to tattle. E. bald. perpendicular. bald. to boil. a boil or swelling Du. a bubble. bolr. bolc'h. bout. Chaucer. globular bod)'. puilen. flax-boU. from Du. Love. glass phial. . see Boast. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. Kil. pimple ON. bolzBold. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. capiing into a cavity. bold. proud. tomentum. OG. as. a bump. boll. roydeur. b^gayer. bola. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. properly represent belly. Sw. OHG. Stalder. boly. a quaking mire. boil . stameln vel bochken. Gael. baud. to waver or hesitate. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. buile. bold. merry. ON. To Bolter. pusten. swelling. . Bret. bald. Fr.. Swab. Magy. Boll. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. trunk of a tree . by which it is moved to and fro. bog. Du. dint in a metal vessel. to be prominent. Lap. balder. Goth. Du. Kit. boss. Da. bollen (Kil. but that Bolt. ON. polc'h. noise. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. G. 374. bul. tartalear. — — which the cushion is stuffed.w. the lir. G. Chaucer seems Dan.). to be at a loss a shirt. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. ballr. * Bolster. repagulum. pillow. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. which are not used for a similar purpose. beule. in speaking. a cushion. round the first instance to the materials with . is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. huge. swelling. belc'hj. bal. prince. i. cheerful. warlike. bul. bula. rough. ON. tar. to stumble. ohg.Du. bok. bochken (titubare. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. strong. a bubble. 304). bSlstr. stramenta. G. notes. strong. brave. capitellum. fiausten. bealder. Wall. haughty. Pr. a bubble. to give a hoUow sound. stutSw.— D. cows the people from speaking. scruple. the husk of nuts. Lat. to stammer. bolla. bolster. . furfures. and manace for to de. animal as distinguished from the limbs. confident. bhster. balldr. tulum. Du. hollow. bag or bog are derived Piedm. bolleken. to puff. a head . bout is explained by Kil. Du. ON. — ' — tagliare. chatter. Boystous. tartajear. bulla. may be identified with It. or the like. quick. from the branches. impetuosity. bolt upright. poppy (Bailey). (of Mons) b^guer. wag. and then applied to other husks. as those of nuts. to stammer. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . also a blister. as baltha. to hesitate from doubt. boggle. the body of a man or of ter. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. to swell. whence bulla. as.

noise {brattle of thunner. Champagne burtcau. hulter de bulter.— . hump. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. racket gepolter. a rattling carriage. kloteren. small heap. Wtb. Du. . bultig. bultred. gebolder. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. a clap of thunnences. to agitate. beliitea. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller.as the essential element signifying the talum. bortelen. Mid. bolt. a rattle. on the one hand. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. buletel. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. Lat. crod. Schiitze. I boulte meale in a boulter.D. budeln daz mele . ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. with E. barutela. bulk or quantity . bulstrig. The ment and the operation. Sw. and the Thus from So. poll.. to E. a crashing or racketing noise. baruta. a clod cloth. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. knob. — — — . croler. ler. by the representation of a racketing sound. tling or crashing noise. je bulte. a clod. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. to knock. The ulti. . 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. In the next place.D.D. rugged.). projecting eyes pul. Bav. a bolter Prov. agitari (Kil. to bolt meal barutel. fied bot. P1. bluter. to clack.nature of the operation. boss. abolter. a small portion. barutare. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. we have Du. swelling. ' — — ! ! : — .D. sestuare.Lat. : ' — — . buletare. crash. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. . .protuberance. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. burclct. Pl. to shake. Sanders. to form lumps. Dauphiny a sudden movement. Here the radical image is the violent O. to bolt meal barutel. hole. bullern. a millpoltzet augen. a bunch. a round glass ending — bultig. / is transposed in Fr. then to knock. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. as snow balling on a horse's foot. . as Fr.) E. Pr. So also we pass from Lat. tuft. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. buideln. uneven. one after the other. a . from G. It. bolzen. a bolter or implement for bolting. to make a knocking. bulla.fe/2?. rugged. Hence. bolzaugen.u. btilt. pultare. we der Brocket). From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. Bulte-pook or bulstar. poltern. OFr. bolt-foot. G. in S'W plotter. ex•wagen. to become lumpy. taraabout. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. we pass to Du. OFr.i5a//^«. as of a trumpet. tumultuari. curdle. jolting.thump or blow. vessel with narrow opening. have Lat.. we see that the one consists of a words.On the same principle. Prov. as above explained. beluter. projections.by forms like G. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. pattern. a clump of turf. to significance of the term was overlooked.agitation of the meal in the bolter. Dan. On this account Mid. bolt head is a retort. OFr. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. bulk. Lang. as a rabbit from its baritel. Pl. mole-hill. to spring forth E. Brem. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. a sod (Schiitze). tar. zen. holier poller. bulio. or a racer from the course. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . grasbulten. or ill. to bolt flour burato. brattle. crotlar. barutela. also to curdle.through a cloth of loose texture. Supp. buretter{CQ\. pull.clack. representing a rat. Du. clump. to start out. to bolter. bolting to that of form. taratantarum. to coagulate. zare. poltern. hulch. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. uneven. hammer. to start with palpitate. and to crash. hammer. loud and fast. . buUire. to talk pulzen. or the like. ' Holler poller / bulter. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. Pm. the sense of right on end. tantara. Fr. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. 2. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. lumpy. protuberance. taratarrum. bolzauget) Sp. Hence Palsgr. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. And as the agitation of cream in . a club-foot. MHG. blotttre. . cro. die treppe pressed. the wheels groaned. . to come rattling downstairs. cruddle.). staff which sounds tar. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot.

Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. 155. bombasine. bongam. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. to shake down fruit from a tree. bommen.Su?. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . crook-shanked bondew. a string. bras. a bone in general. brust-bein. buttel trueb (of liquids). bambacium. bomba. Castrais barato. thick-legged. G. bwmbwr. bombdra. E. bureau. Gascoi^e in R. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. a stock. a beacon. butteln. stump. As cotton was used for padding clothes. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. assuming the of leg : special signification W. Fl. sye. . we speak of a gun to resound. raw silk. butteln. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. as in . cotton. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act.Lat. baum-bast. a churn for butter. bindan. e. must be explained Fr. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . From builen. and Du. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. ^o/j. achsel bein. band pi. the contracted form of Du. beil'n. to thunder. OE. . to bolt meal. a baker. to shake (as to shake the head. bombe. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. baun. Bone. In legal language. derivation. bone of the . 83 Gr. Antiq. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. a drum bombammen. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. bombarda. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. Du. a boulter of meal. ties. is supported by the analogy of G. bopin. bonog. buidelen. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. In E. or trunk word in W. bauniwolle.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. bombase. to boult meal. &c. gunpowder. sijde. to ring bells. G. has repeatedly varied. the Fr. bein. Bonfire. sije. a ligature. been. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. It. Du. from teu. to beat a drum. bande. It. to thump W. Du. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. bombicina. tiffany. and that from Fr. agreement. band. bureau. a word of which we have traces in several English names. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. beuteln. tree. . the leg. tie. bombasin. — bombast came guage. bombice. Fr. bunden. — AS. a stem or base. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. PoUitriduare. bonfras. It. builen. bwmbwry mar. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. a thundering noise bomre. whence bomme. the murmuring of the sea. band. The material called by this name. gossipium. bon. buidelen. bambagino. Bibelesworth in Nat. . which has given rise to so many false etymologies. basin. Fr. — Bombard. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. . tie. thick from shaking.D. an implement of binding. to bind G. banitola (Fl. biire. Butterglas. silk-worm. to which the leg. as Banbury. and Mod. which requires stuff of a thin open tex.^Altieri. a —Bombasine. It. breast-bone. produced the Pl. — having a stem or stalk. bambagioj whence It. G. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bond. boulenger. the silk-worm. rimbombare. It. also thick-shanked. Need you any ink and bonibase. to shake. ODu. and called in Mid. It. Dan. q. . burato. coarse.) . sericum arboreum. however. Mid. barate. cotton stuff. bonds. Dan. bolting-cloth. stuff. d. and Bond. Schm. to cast to and fro. i. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. to resound. thick. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. and also the leg. silk. Bomb. the shank the shoulder-bone. . beuteln. bommer. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav.). bulter from It. booming over the water. Moreover. again. Near 6 * . When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. HoUybandin R. Banstead. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. iuttern. bombast. from boom.bast. lana lignea. borel. and in fact we find the and Du. Kil. term is appropriated in G. a hollow sound. When ture.

succour Bailey. a head-dress. dial. set in order. been. booby. Ox. a letter Russ. master of the house. boubi^. by itself for head-dress.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. to gape. AS. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. whence ban-ffagl. Hal. remedy of evil. are formed Fr. a vessel for holding liquids. lofty. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. Swab. bauen. Goth. Boot. .. dress. Palsgr. a lying-place for dogs or swine. hu?idbusa. w. bauer. from beida (E. signifying beech. E. bonnet. tapestry. . to yawn. Du. beam. a letter . Perhaps. boten-shoen. G. G. Fr. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. See Butt. often cut for burning and lighting fires. netis stall. bommen. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. Boot of bale.Boos. gawney. a scribe G. Hufwud-bonad. and thence Rouchi baia. Gael. Mrs Baker explains bun. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. but stall. is Du. Sp. Du. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. . ganian. in Phil. boer. But bosg. — e. foolish. — . the cultivator. pero. till. botta. Busk. ON. betere thing werse. dress. 13. G. build. fool. boo. — From the participle present. The latter is the original AS. Boor. to gape. nachbar. ty Gael. and Ban in w. Thus from the syllable ba. remnants of hay or straw. tall. bas. ON. as a lying-place for cattle. bose. help. From bo. Pm. Bun. prayer. to ask. bonaid. p. bobo. which one gaping and staring about. countryman. clown. the stubble of beans. reparation. botte. Fr. head-dress wai^g. a good turn or re- meaning. wondering signifies not only straw. b&ber. from badare. * Boose. a tree. house. bossen. In nautical language. Du. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. bdn. beiSne. from Du. Kil. ass. a. prayer. Gl. a dry stalk. boa. the first consonant of the alphabet. ON. See Bown. OW. The origin of the word is probably the W. . litter. babin. high. dolt. boubair. inhabit. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. A stall for cattle. a hollow skin. boutig. Kil. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. A favour. bos. — — . and Gael. literally cow-house. E. bid). Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. to prepare. dog-kennel. bAkva. of wonder On the same principle Sp.^ —P. to aid. badaud. stabulum. a bonfire. a silly fellow. biikui. simpleton.n. build. Fr. the name of the letter b. the alphabet. to cultivate. bosih. to cultivate. Thin ben Luke i. gaping hoyden — Cot. b'ukvdry. pole. the scriptures bokareis. Schm. as the Brecknockshire Banns. . See Bomb. . also called Brecknock Beacons. bds. quest. chaff. comes bondi. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. boutig. however. The character of folly is i860. Bonnefyre. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. swinbusa. bd. N. wall hangings. in w. AS. bua.—Bootless. writing bokos. bobo ! interj. Fr. The i. To Boot. It. to strew with straw. pig-sty. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. boandi. Basa. baier. a bag of skin or leather. by arbitours sholde bote the P. at everything. bonad. 232. b^er. desire. Mrs Baker. ben. A peasant. babau. Bonnet. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . the mouth. to litter bosu. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. Trans. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. where a cross (or a gun. without ad- . — — — representing the opening of the mouth. . or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. letter. the possessor of the farm. botte. Bootless. — Bailey. a. busu. Build. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. . petition. Boon. to dress. It is commonly explained as identical with It. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. inhabit. a lofty blaze. Prov. a simpleton. one who dwells nigh. and fig. boom. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. bote. . and from AS. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. Jr. relief from sorrow. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. tigh. bua. bonad. petition. a stall. short boots. gehyred. to set in order. or Vanns. blockhead. boia. bolt. OSlav. \ais-band. Pr. . — To boot. bene. bowwen. till. buch-stab. bota. dial. Boom. from gape. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. ON. Book. Hal. feu de behourdis. Wall. Booby. Binau Brychyniog. bosig. babb^o. gaby. buandi. although in the OG.

amendment. The ON. to hut. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. Gael. to build buda. a shelter of branches.. repair. limbus. bauen. to bete the properly to mend the fire. a great bur. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. purra. Bohem. butin is explained by Flor. cottage. to profit. ON. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. making good again . . Magy. swell bara. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. bothan. dens mordens vel caninus. to foam. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. tent. It. chisel. batr. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. . The as G. amendment boeten. a responding forms . to bore. chewed food for infants. wave. to bite. to bite. better. bower. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. to anything Neither G. hem or gard of a garment.por. Mag.—Burin. edge. ON. borino. borracha. It. butin. See Bower. admovere titiones. purro. Fr. exchange or divide. Another derivation from Fin. a borer . bolino. puras. kvit-bara. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. make . a. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. boards. the . And so in ON. It is admitted that Fr. bora. bardure. . pi. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. a hut. to restore. baete. Bete. a tusk. a borer. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. mat-bod. 3. betan fyr. biorag. Sp. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. pointed. are derived from G. To Bore. a granary . abode. bata. which are probably from the same root. Kil. bothag. Fin. Du. 266. Esthon. bud. is purin. forare. aid. a cupboard. puru. bord. yfirbdt. a border. to boot. p. a hut or tent. ora. rof. bottino. lappalare. — ON. remedy. to build.par. on. a shop. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. to quench one's thirst . budowai. and E. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. pu purro (saha =: saw . to surge. barn. from deila and skipta. beute. a wave. Fl. Fin. borracha. or anything pointed. both. nor E. . bdra.— Return from Parnassus I inR. puru. to swell. 1. The Fin. Fr. to . sharp. BOOTH vantage. bordi. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. Lat. Du. and parrets. See To We speak in E. Esthon. budka. to stick unto as a bur. are parret. to mend. in Ihre. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. lappolone. boeye. limbus. OHG. boete. furni. of an edge that will not bite. ON. . boeten het vier. baara. fimbria. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. fire. furd.. bohren. purra. drillen. AS. Gael. wine-skin. • — To Bore. to divide. See Burgeon. margin. hut. N. and hence to fine. to to . a shop budowati. Compare Manx birrag. a bothy. or the gradual working a hole in anything. In the Fin. boede. to repair. uzboro. as afford a satisfactory explanation. to profit Goth. bdt. struere ignem. and meta- Fr. byte points to the verb byta. Pol. puras. . recovery bata. cure Sw. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. cellar. dust. Booty. comminuted by either kind of action. Palsgr. a bladder. welt. . Fin. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). a shed. to patch. and thence to eat build. BoracMo. But probably the E. sculpo 05\xiik. reparation. A phorically a drunkard. piercer. to importune. extremitas Bore. a booth or shed. botjan. bauda. Booth. burin. a sharp-pointed tooth. bite. to expiate boeten den dorst. to The Sw. terebra sculptoria purastoa. a chisel. Alexand. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. The cor. Burke in R. &c. OSw. to pierce. terebro. from borra. Gael. in Lap. cup- awl. urboro. G. from bord. scsdes-bod. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. a leather bag or bottle for wine. an engraver's chisel. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. scalpo. a word. differs only in termination.. . . Border. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. a borer. sawroot.

unpolished. northern. viipyoc. is probably radically Boss. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. borgese. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. ON. Swiss Rom. Bos a surety. So Du. bourg. — — — A — . was origin of the term is the OFr. . Altieri. which now signifies a knob. /3oraMK6f. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. or perhaps also To Borrow. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. knocking. Borough. less. cnoc. boss. Du. a pushing or striking out. bail biirgen. . agrees with E. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. one who sticks to you like a bore. into borsholder. Cot. cnap. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. bos. grey). 106. rustic. (1867). Lat. to protect.bucklers. destitute.ribs and the side. striking. knur. Fr. to take in. the sun sets. burgess. bump. as we speak of a thumping potato. boschen. a citizen. huschen. a boor. Goth. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. Jam.vr\. Hence knot. to contain. Bailey. is used in the sense of bussare. D. Lang. pego. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Hal. the must have arisen burgensis. &c. Turk. to protect. nonsense. primarily signifying coarse sound . ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. loan. pitch. It. plain rude fellow. Botany. to save Sw. i. the Sc. Bosh. boss or knob of a buckler . bunch. bourgeois. borough or chief constable. AS. beorgan. The primi. pegou. bussi.' the chief of the ' borh. a bunch or hump. cob. And that unsittynge is to here degre. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. a blow. boss. burh. without. ^o^^flj. brown cloth. but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. Borrow. the N. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. poor. the North Wind. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. a giving rise to It. gum vocant. from their grey clothing. surety. tempest. f graauw. Words signifying a lump or protuberE.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. . Boreal. E. in the body struck. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. while Gael. the hollow between the Borsholder. tive idea seems to bring under cover. to strike so as to Bureau. ' — — .mass. connected. boss of the side. and borough in the sense of a town. basse. cormpted. a city . botse. a surety.' every man be under bail. a little blow. Sc. as if from the verb to hold. or perhaps it may be See Bury. bosh. of bail throughout the country. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. to save. Jam. borealis. bundle. Newbury. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. bosse. formerly used in the sense of knocking. empty. to give bail or answer for an. hollow. plant. and thus could not shake off the old burr. botch.' or system of bail. or head-borough. It. rude. whence the burg. G. a tower. vain. bergen. cnag signifies both a clergy. Borowholder. empty. Hence borhes ealdor. bttssel. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. a boss. a wen. boss sound. AS. Du. knob. beorgan. empty. Fr. a bouncing baby . boussi. tuft. butsen. bussa coarse. to keep. storm. borgo. a.. hollow bucklers. Gr. borough-holder. head. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. a herb. butse. whether from the fact preserve G. useCanterbury. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. byrig. busse. The other. AS. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. secure. in instead of without. to conceal. Russ. V. ^ma. Bunch. to knock or strike. gesylle. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. knock and a knob . ij |8oraviKi) The — A .' Vegetius in Diez. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. a knob. poor.' if thou give money on loan. burel. to save. See found in Bav. the ordinary a swelling. by which of or belonging to plants. bump is used in lump or piece. projection. a citizen. to pick or cull plants. to strike . or because a blow berga. baurgs. undyed wool of brown sheep. In like manner It. . I. borg.any round sweUing. blow on a hollow object. borh. — ' wind burya. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. when that system was forgotten. botch. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. to give a hollow bizo. Fr. from AS. an eminence. borel. botsen. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. ' pledge. bos. The origin seems to be the Goth. clownish. that which biirge. bom. coarse cloth made of the Du. bosseu. bierge. bossen. borei. borg. (Bridel).

Hal. putra.of a ball of thread. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. a cesspool pass. botsen. butsen. a bott . abbution. nets. butwo. an abyss or bottoniless pit. Du. theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . . to stir and mix together . to stir and mix together. Butu. ON. bosser. bativa. botus. the first rough draught 2. botn. patch. It. an imperfect and bunbutt end. scuohbuzere. botte. Fr. a vessel for holding liquids. botse. Boa two. empty or hollow. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. — . they two. whisper. to smack. signify a in OE. boden . any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Prov. Fl. Bailey. puddle. — Jidwi. Fr. what pushes outwards. bide. From the dim. — Bottom. gipuozan. bulderen. to knock. a cobbler. botel foenn. tumour. the science or knowledge of plants. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. bund. House-bote. Bouteille. mess.— . to give a sounding blow.D. a bubble. we have Swiss batscken. and E. blain. See Butt. boss. mutter. buideal. bozza. to from the root bot. disturbance to . pimple. A bottom depth. N. — — A 2. hurly-burly. both. a pock. On the other hand. ixorapudder. Judwi. stroke. . — Fl. bluster. BOTCH understood). a bump or swelling. bile. to dash about . a boil or swelling Halma. maggots in barley. — . dial. a pit. pother. AS. Danneil. you two. a botcher of shoes.ments of the same root. 212. to work without order or know. I. Diez. to strike . . to rage. turmoil.^Dec. as Fr. — — . Lith. bozza. Bottle. to make a make a noise. dim. It. a depth. See Bound. Jtidu. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. buddeln. a bunch. Fl. ubhau. of botta. buddl. * To Bother. was called a push. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. Canut. for a bud. Here the radical image seems a bubble. beggtaj Goth. a cess. bodem. bouteille. G. blow. gling piece of work. ^kvBoQ. &c. to froth as beer . to fall : with a sound batsch. buts. a plague-boil Kil. Pl. is boteau. bethia. And so we speak of an eruption. gen. Botcli. by met. contusion . round lump. Both. blister. bulder. — duj Lett. disturbance. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. repara- — — See To Bete. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. knock. a. abbi. stock. . botm. botel. pozzo.) . btitse. mend. a cask. H^cart. See Boss. poltern. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Decorde. AS. boute. • Bott. potra.foundation. dabble). batschen. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. whence the name ol pool to podge. Bochu. a bundle of straw or hay. i. To Botch. G. ing out. Bouds. to bcBta. a maggot. bottom. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. a lump of somebatschen. . ON. burgi vel pontis refectionem. the other hand. abbi-diwij Slavon. It. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. we two. bot. Wedu. boiteal. ambo. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. a patch patschen. ledge It. E. baiothsj Sanscr. bots. oba. bun. bunch. is also a bubble. a bottle. especially in Gael. and ajSvamg. the bud of a flower . or plague sore . A — oba-dwaj Lat. to mend (kettles. stem or base. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. botte. Lat.' to the fiery Csedm. Dan. biissen. bdt. boitean. Mudu. noise. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. to mend. stock. shoes. bSn. Gael. Gael. to we have OHG. corresponding to . Bret. A horses. podge. schuhbosser. ON. a pit. Hal. a root. j3i/9os. Parmesan poccia. a waterfall. botte. Podge. Ancren Riwle. boccia. fire-bote. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. botch. Again. On — Du. however. pocciar. Leg. Kil. See To Bodge. Stalder. — — belly-worm. fundus. to simmer. To confuse with noise. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. a bottle. abbu. a slop. a slop. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. AS. to dip in liquid (to Gael. a knock.— Swift in R. w.— Hal. to put on a patch. ba. any plain round viol glass bozzo. a wisp. a tinker schuhbiisser. in the sense of mend the fire. Lith. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. mess. thing soft batsch. Fyre to botme. &c. boiteag. a humpback. botola. — Dief. bAdtr. to botch or patch. bundle. stump. noise. the lowest part. to make better. bdsser. to podge. abyss. as a push or windgaU. . butse. OSax. . The Gr. kessel-biisser. boil. pozzanghera. e. a bottle of hay. buazen. Du. bossu. ' G. bottigUa. from the dashing of water.

The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. ni frestelar. whence buj7isen. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. bonzen.' round and round in similar circles. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. Bunche. bend. to set out by metes and bounds. dial. the bay of Benin. 2. 136. by Bujns or Buns. And the new stools set out. The Bight of Benin. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. language a * Boulder. as a bout of fair or foul weather. buUersten. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. in the absence of actual e. like bobbin. boh. in contrast to klappersten. till The dat et bunsede. boundina. bumper. from AS. a bound. nor horn sound. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. a bouncing apple. bonndn. root (see Bottom). turn. bugt. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. a button. To Bounce. To Bound. bugan. or Bow-pot. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . a bud. p. to turn. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. to thundering big one hum. butina. Robert to a monastery in Poitou.' B.— — — - 88 BOUGH .— Cot. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way.— Boundary. Webster. an de dor bunsen. So It. — No i ausiratz parlar. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. bondir. mcn-bomi. Bowlder. came home with his face all to-bounced. Du. of thread. Bodinare. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . bounbounejha. bend. Ni gacha cor bondir. . Pm. and Prov. contusi. the verb bondir in OFr. jungen. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. E. bolder. Wtb.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. boujtce. strapping. Q. Raynouard.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. tnndo. bouton. a blister. as that of E. bottom." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. to fix limits.>a bout. Bound. See To Bolt. from bugan. bay. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. 3. Fr.'— Charter of K. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. Fr. botwm. geration. bun. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. . Alpine Re- — gions. To Boult. nave of a wheel bothel. a large pebble. A Langued. gulf. frequently used in the same sense with bound. bone. a large stone rounded by the action of water. signifying in nautical coil of rope. Bough-pot. Fr. Dan. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. as a nosegay. knock it sounds again. The W. has hot.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. Primarily to strike. ing. he fell so that it sounded. to make a loud noise. baby. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. Boulderstone. Coxcomb. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. volta. — Take care my house be handsome. to hum. pimple Richards bothog. thumping. ni motz brugir. a blow. to knock. to set bounds. Nor a centinel whistle. the larger kind of pebbles. Ducange. Mid. carpet. signifies a sliort thick mass. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. pothel. I assure you. . a stock.. winding. an occasion. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. AS. to knock at the door. from volgere. and F. Bough. — — Bight. debodinare. Pr. a boss.— F. iv. to bow. Bret. bullra. See Bunch. to spring. mere. the hollow of a bay. jump. boriie. limit. bog. Sw. Halma. Bonny. a boundary stone (men stone). — — leap. boss of a buckler. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. bodina. Bout. march. bunda. dial. The branch of a tree. see Boss. to resound. a turn or time. From Sw. bonna. Probably from the Celtic root bon. bons.D. to thunder. the smaller ones. — strike. Brem. bamsen. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. its kind. a round body both. Bought. bunsen. round. to spring. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper.

a mill-post. to tope W. Fr. burd. from spring. bend. bage. according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. bugan. ruption of bonne. ing. the burden of a song. a drone of a bagpipe. bausen. . bogna. bugna. bov. Dan. bontS. to pre2. whence buysen. puff out. hence musical accompaniment. the ting of a bell. bog. different modification gives ON. bovne. mockery. — probably through this latter signification. as was for. to tipple. the Bourdon. Bourdon. buys. Swiss bausen. language of folly or ridicule. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. — — — A pare. schenkelbug. taunt. pre. drone of a bagpipe. on the whole. analogous to Fr. burdan. buyse. a prop. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. to drink deep. limit. Sw. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. bordo. Chaucer in R. lance. When used alone it . to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. So Sc. Spenser in R. the big end of a club. brausen. to take deep draughts. saufen. ready. It. Prov. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Du. Burgeon. a — — . a. a humming noise Macleod. drunken. beogan. Bow. Sw. Bourdon. . drink deep.which see. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. It is remarkable that we find vary. The foregoing derivation seems. sotich. . bagna. . trick. head Fr. G. are applied to the bow of a ship. shoulder-blade. purlBav. deceit. It is bov. to draw a deep breath. — — . to hum. Goth. i.. biugan. the fixed. in Fr. tinton. Du. bwa. brunna. of the ON. Cot. gurgling. bugne. identical with E. bogr. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. Bound. hous^ Man in the Moon. bow to shoot with. The meaning of bound. to bulge. bonus. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. verb bua. bogen. set out. Dan. . Fr. spring. buga. Fr. flagon. curvature. patesten. bog. to bow. and that probably from a Celtic root. cheat. way ba7n. Comp. spelling the word iox bound. joke. As the Gael. Dan. bordon. sport. A water. an arch. bourde in the same sense. the shoulder of the vessel. a. ridicule buirte. to our bous. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. Gael. firm. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. also the humming or ON. has also buirleadh. potio. Gael. good. their time -With "wailful tunes. on.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. pot. buzzing of bees. It is the participle past buinn. A —Cot. Immediately from Fr. ready to pike or spear . to draw a deep breath. a pot. Bourd. borne. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. burreti. buzz. brummen. and not in the sense of curvature in general. pared. fresh* water. fun of one . bending. addressed to. w. bending of a joint knie-bug. like quaff. a cup kroesen. . Bret. bugna. to trick.bass of a stringed instrument. . buizen. Sp. to mutter. btiga. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. repartee. a from Du. G. Gael. explaining Sw. prepared for. Cot. a go to. bug. Sc. bommen. staff. bending. bdgi. pusta. Eown. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. a humming noise. a corToward the garden. to banter or laugh at. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. bordone. to hum as a bee. bourdon. biegen. Bounty. whether by sound or gesticulation. to take breath. a jibe. belly out. Gael. a sing-song. game. must be referred to the same root. schulter-bug. sense durd. springbiirn. Sw.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. Du. G. bogha. to swell. when we speak of. souf. sausen. ^<7r«i?. grumble Sw. a well. beygja. crutch. steady. burt. kroes. address. cudgel. burdan. to drink deep. bend Sw. to tope. jest. pausen. burn. buigen. a jibe Shaw bururus. G. to take one in. bonitas. to — Hal. a bow. a drone or dor-bee. to indulge in his cups . is. bunaiteach. Du. Lat. to bow or incline the . a for New York. bourdon. g. purra. burlare. that ON. AS. Gael. a brook. Dan. bourd. warbling. bue. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Borden. And there in mourning spend Sw. or of an Gael. epaule du vaisseau. bound. it is probable that the It. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. Burden.

bwr. bwra. bosso. and on swollen. bolne. bulge. prominence. bulla in aqua. pullo. a black pudding. purse. Lat. . intrenchment. Dan. bow. a bud. to raise the back boll OHG. Bret. a box. Sanscr. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. . buckel. a pot. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . a separate apartment . a box. G. tumour . a ball . to bow buck. . pocket. bowels. of a wooden ball to play with and — . Bav. a stud. bouellou. a thing of liquid. the barrel of a gun. fyn. a swelling or rising up. bugyni. similar shape. mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. boss. gut. .a. buk. a croft by a house. ^o/a. to puff up. cumena-bur. botulus. a round glass or bolg. bollen. biicken. globular body. boucle. ^o«/«. sausage. is applied to a coach-box. pusspan. bulne. a box Lat. beuz. a bundle. A . A Bulk. . budel. lump . similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. buello. Boll. kupula. box in both senses. to guggle. crooked. polla. hollow place Fr. Sw. box. mausbollelein.. Gr. a drop of pullistaa. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. spherical Dan. to stoop biickling. a wine-can . The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. bugyola. koziel. or in e. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. a box. to stoop. buckelig gehen. spring as water bugya. ask. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. bolgna. bowl . * Bowels. bulcken. budello. boxtree pusska. at the e. then by the loss of the /. make obeisance. ttuJic. bhuj. or. bock. a polla. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. ON. From the other form are G. in both senses. bol. . G. buchsbaum. bolla. AS. a bowl. bug. anything globular. buga. heafod bolla. convexity. a chamber swefnbur. . . a bubble. a bubble. swell. busse. painter's easel. crown of a hat. honse-bur. . . knob From the former modification we have bolla. with inversion of the round. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. give in to. peated in Magy. biiske. In like manner the Pol. Hal. a sleeping-room . the crop of a bird. to bend. hiidel. a hump on the back rossbollen. head of a cabbage. as well as the name of a. bur. . an outhouse AS. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. iri'iaQ. round bead. guestchamber . OFr. stream forth bugyogni. It is more probably from the G. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. bugyani. bending. boss. buigen. Du. a box. to bubble up. convex. See Crab. Fr. busskai. bolle. belly of a cask. Bowl. . PLD. the box-tree It. biisse. puffy. to make crooked . a iDubble. a boil. &c. bent. boel. blister. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bugna. Fr. buis. bog. See Boil.. a protuberance. tumour. a little box . in walking appears in a . boil. belly. zich onder jemand under to him. bola. The / a bow. See MHO. inclinare se (Kil. water pulli. bouge. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. W. . . Sw. W. . to yield to one. a ball. signified by forms like Gael. globular. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. Sw. Cable. compared with Fr. ku^o. a bubble Fin. folliculus . The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. OE. kupukka. . bossola. Hence.D. . Pol. E. as in AS. globe or spherical body. hollow wooden case. bog. buxus. boor. . as in E. different position in ODu. AS. Bower. the box-tree and articles made of it G. ON. bugy. a hen-coop . then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. bolla. bubble. bulka. Bret. a sack. a bubble bolli. wisp of straw . bouzellou.) to incline oneself . boudin. to bend down. round glass phial. Dan. bol. kuppelo. bulla. dial. bulb of an onion bolleyield. bogla. the skull or brainpan .\s. hollow. . bucka. kupu. the bogna. bubble. bhugna. The word may probably be identical with Fris. . (in pass . beutel. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. boxtree. ne. to puff up pullakka. . Du. Buckle. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. a buck. fata-bur. a. w.cup Du.flask It. and to a coachbox in particular. hill. ken. a wardrobe . much plausibility from the figure of a pul. bowel Box. . passing on stud. acsian. the head. to buckle G. Bohem. a ball. a knot. bow. without the and grits. the head. bocka. utibur. a parlour.). to swell. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. to bulge.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. Sp. Du. bur. . the box-tree. trestle. belly. swoUei) Lat. biichse. bulk compared with Sw. Thus we have Esthon. an inclosure.). . bukke. ON. Fr.

mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. pube. brago. braque. Swiss bub. a sounding blow. Fr. Pl. On the same principle from the buksteht. to give a blow with the fists. or defect. fault . Boy. brae. dirty. bragos. See Brake. Prov. breuque. to Swiss batschen. an languages. bitch Du. rakka. A — — . and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. to crack. a box. G. babble. merely in our mode of considering them. a crack. brae. . brageuses. brasselet. brechen ihm. bracha. &c. Kil. Fr. briche. refuse. to burst. then from break. a grown youth Cimbr. Sp.. Brackish. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . which has many representatives in the other Europe. . a pair of braces. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . brae. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. salsus. One girl. to be wanting. isolated part of the text. A brace probis. ghebreck. . posh.. defect. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. I sal slyng. lalear-eyed Prov. ratch. damaged board a ship." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. mud. need. a comworld Rayn. MHG. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. fault. boussole. is a rope holding G. to give a sounding blow defect. brack. brek. flap. Kil. parallel with OK. a guard to torf. . let. to smack the hand batschen. brec. pupus. spaniel. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . braco. Ptg. OFr. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. Heligoneed. as noticed under Box. A to halt between two derivations.— D. braic. Bracelet. It. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. acidus. brakke grund. — . and string of his bow. pus. . — . which sigof straining. To fight with the fists. — . want. OFr. cramp-iron holding things together . priated to the original sense. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. murmur. brassard. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. Brack. to want. a girl. braca. by an overflow of sea water. brek. — . by the same inversion of J and k. matter. clay. to is derived brestr. 91 the Dan. want. It is B. bresta. OE. rakki. defect Du. brae. breptati. compressing. . mud. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. mud. to box the ears. confining. . corruptse. flaw. to fall. To Brabble. loud smack. bracer. bray. AS. ing from a mixture of salt. disturb. salo sive aqua marinS. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. rack. bracket. bue. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. his eyes are failing him). fuse. break. breach. Lat. a bog or pass Fr. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. dog Sw. brack. rakke. Gael. bracil. brakke Bracelet. Swiss Rom. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. in R. ' — A — — — .D. Cot.D. The different meanings of the brageux. bracon. See Broker. defect. to stammer. — . armour for the arm. V. taneous talking. to slap. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Swab. Du. bracke. Prov. Fr. brague. a bubbling dura del mun. foul. Hdcart. the first instancebya physical tie. want. strike. wrack.. bask. ON. wnzC/J. It. — — . in R. moral or physical. In like manner the It. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. baske. and then Pl. race. youth. boiste.with a noise.. La ville ou y avait Brace. boy bouba.puddle. to give a gebrechen. brechen. bouibo. Sp. Brak-goed. s. flaw. Prov. thwack. Bracket. Sp. suppuration. Brack. variation of babble. and F. braco. braquet. Water rendered boubo. Lett. jabber. bruxula. root). To brace is to draw together. buah. land batsken. a boy pupa. Brach. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. odorinsecus. land spoilt Kil. Pm. . a braceOFr. Du.nated by dirt. baukscheht. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. bou^ba. Pr. from a root brak. whelp as. Prov. ON. braecke. BOX To Box. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. G. boy. dog that hunts by scent. brace on and Du. beagle. brostia.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. . filth . Rouchi Then as an adj. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. bube. dog in general. or bracer Cot. the arm. It. Thus brack. bracco. breach. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. s. to stutter. con. unmarried man . the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. wristband. Fr. brabbelen. Kil. quarrel Bohem.

brachittm. in numerous dialects.aburst. breagh. brag or jet it braguard. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. brav. 2. braicli. brails. 92 Cot. braga. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . courageous. Cot. also tion of this was brayeul. brave. riches. Brag was then used brisk. In like manner to crack is used for boasting. bragaireachd. to boast or brag. Bret. proud. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk..Shepherd's Cal. gallant (in apparel) also proud. as the type of exertion and strength. vaunting. Primarily to crack. — A — . It. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. Chaucer. vanter une chose. goods. idle talk. splendid. See Bray. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. crash ON. . smart. bragging of his own valour. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. fine. subduing. Fr. . well-dressed. to boast of his own worth. h-avare and Fr. Rom. braga. empty pride. stately. ative fellow. The plant y^r«. binding anything together. brabhdadh. brabhdair. braguer. brake in the sense of constraining. gayly dressed. bravacherie. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. noisy ostentation. . to brail up a sail. . BRAG Piedm. breghe. se parer de beaux habits. Thus we are brought to the OE. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . Haldorsen Gael. spot. swagger. to swagger. gay. swaggerer. or from braie itself. . affront. To Brail. Hence E. Walloon bress. se donner trop de licence. a carriage for breaking in horses . From sprouted corn. fine. gorgeous. and that from e. be noisy . also derived Fr. the feathers ON. — Chaucer. power. The meanings of brake are very numerous. . braga. to make a noise. gay. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. flaunt in fine clothes . in order to prevent its catching the wind. valiant The head are sumptuous. To Braid. bravado j Fr. bragio. —Spenser in R. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. compressing. in the sense of the Lat. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries).. &c. bully . Lat. expensive. From brayel. beautiful. boast. to cord a bale of tie up. drawers. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. strength. boasting. brave. the opposite of which. braggard also valiant. Brake. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. The meanings included under — Bragget. hectoring. bushy . to flaunt. brayete. Brain. brave. handsome. . brake is. be found.explosion.i5nz^. brave. bragging. an inclosure for cattle . dhbrailler. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. Sc. Thus Bret. Dan. Brake. — Equivalent forms are Gael. brag. or by gaudy dress and show. It is certain that the word for arm is. braver. bra!. breyne. used in the sense of force. about the hawk's fundament. to sprout malt. is identical with Gael. showy bravery. that will carry no coals. Cot. subigere. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . bravache. brao. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . Hecart. also insolenter se gerere . AS. a roisterer. excellent. Sp. See Brace. A — Hal. — .^ Sp. crack. breach. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. Fr. bragd. Lith. flaunting. to unbrace or let down the breeches. called by our braggard.breeches. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- . Faire le brave. to stand upon terms. brag. to crack. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. blusterer. fine. to strut. vain glory. Bray. stout. Langued. crash. braka. to Rouchi brMer. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. w. a noisy talkboasting. From Fr. To Brag. Brail. bravo. braske. braske. braw. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. bullying. braies. confining. an iron for holding Zalli.^Vocab. cry. the arm. make a noise . slight modificajoining the two legs. ^Brave. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Cot. brae. and it is very likely that the root brak. gallant. braka. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. . fine. breghen. to rattle. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. is Cot. Bret. braegenj Du. brazo. finery. de Vaud. torture . would be to brace.hy which this idea is con\eyed.—— . was formed brayele. i. — From W. braszketi. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. Fris. Dan. to shout.%. se pavaner. brave. Wallachian bratsou.

brambles. bruch. brook. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. is braukti. It may be sus- . or the instrument by which the action is exerted. brake. subigere. bregille. to knead or mix up in a mortar. Brake.. braka. broken fratta. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. to The ON. broor bushy place Hal. the original meaning of G. nemus. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. to harrow (Lat. to subdue. breaking in the operation. fratto. broeck. iSpsx". Corrfeze bredgea. ing of flax or hemp. conSo in G. brog. Dan. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. braca. el arco. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. pasture. brak is a frame in which strip. in northern climates. to brush. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. brega. brook. Dan. de Vaud. bushes. flachs brechen. to head must be bit. thicket. as in the case of horse-breaking. — Fl. word. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. brog above mentioned. breuil. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. cover G. gebroge. a horse's a horse's twitch. brage. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. casser le \va. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. briser. break flax PLD. copse-wood. to pound. It. braecken het vlasch. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. glebas subigere. Fr. brushwood. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. To the same bend a bow. brcekke. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. —Bracken. gilum. been confounded with the verb break. braeken.bracan. brambles. Pl. —Ovid. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. In the sense of a thicket. to bend a bow. Fr. cetur. game. gebrUche. is formed murd. to exert force in different ways. to stiffen against Taboada). Lat. Voc. briers.' It. BRAKE to external force. P&. properly braking or subduing them. to row. . or overthrow of trees by the wind. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. Dan. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. tris). marsh. Biglotton. where from Esthon. We — . Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. farinam in mortario subigere. brogille. as well as in the case of the e. to break. and when once thrown down. t° moisten. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. broil. a brace on board a ship. it is not surprising that the word has here. or a wood in a marshy place . segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. a stream. signifying to sweep. the lever by which the string was drawn up. brolium. braquer un canon. gebroge. tnurdma. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. 3. to bray in a mortar. bregar brake. to distinct. In like manner Lat. quarry from Fin. or A A ' . thing is brought under control. G. In the case of the ne. a marsh. and Lat. Gael. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. braken. to break or fracture. break of such a kind. low wet land bruch. Sp. as in Du. and G.— . bregar. as in Sp. broillet. Fr. frangere linum. riguus. a harrow. to rub. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. brook. e. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. murtaa. broilium. brage. referred brake. brog or brake. 2. — — . Prov. might come to signify a swamp. for — Due. in usus braca. The Fr. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. a spinning-wheel. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . bush. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. watered. murrokko. In ON. It.D. broyer. gebrUche. marsh or swamp. Brake. ^raca. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. Gr. to bend or direct a cannon. murran. gebroge. bush. OFr. brego. gebiisch. a thicket. have thus Du. Swiss Rom. a fen. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. brake.D. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. dial. to fracture. bredza. a swampy Mid. any thicket of brakes. to break.

bramble Du. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. Fr. to gripe. and thence a shoot. &c. Brancare. . a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. iii. It. berneux. — branca. bronbo. branco. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. virgultum. In like hrst. to burn. bran. As ON. G. a dunghill. stink . a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. The naof strain. to bridle. brandello. a shoot or twig. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. G. brenna. sedge burkni. Bret. ground full of briers. brem. bit by bit. Diez. to -brugen. thicket of brambles Cot. . a bud It. bran. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. Brand. snotty . a heath. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. heath. piecemeal brindelles. See Brush. . heath. may be so called in analogy with Bret. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. from virga. Sir Topaz. brandiiialil.G. a burning fragment of wood. branche. bushes. E. a bridle or bit . heath. brarn. broem. gebriiche. pfriemen. sawdust. Fr. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. as AS. excrement. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. to or iron. ordure . bruk. nasty. a vine twig Bav. brandmurk. the bull-finch. broust.). The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. young buisson fort epais. also pfriemkraut. bracken or fern . brano. Rouchi bren d'orMe. breanan. brand. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . burning brennen. the thorn apple or stramonium. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. wood composed of twigs. Bret. heath ON. a shoot. Russ.. . broom. bro7n. brenn. . compress. i. dirt . or ling. brughera. clutch. AS. That beareth the red hepe. sweet broom. . breme j Sw. a thick bush. a bud. constrain. from brug. It. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. brom. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. Then by comparison with claws or arms. piece of anything. Thus in Lat. Thornas and bremelas. brug. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. braam. what is cast out as worthless. a roA. Port. Dan. pfriem in the sense of an awl. Gael." The bmno a • on . bruk. or with It. 2. . Bran. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . brous. a small deri\'ation . a shrub . a rod or twig. and E. braeme. a halter. brenda. that is to say. . sword is called a ^ra«rf because . to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. brambles. brank. brass. restrain. Pl. broembel-CBppel. brin. brok. brin d. A mark made by burning. the leafless plant of which besoms are made.D. bretnel. bromboli. thorns and Gen. from Servian pnit. Bret. also a marshy low ground or fen . Gael. pected that brake. bren. to brank. brejo. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. briars. w. Bav. brang. Bramble. a bud. as. heath. Piedm. brushwood. Fr. a shrub from Bret. cack. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. bren. breun. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. sprouts. It will be found that shrubs. brake. brenn hesken. Bret. and waste growths. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. a firebrand. bruch. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. prufye. in the sense oi fern. brouskoad. Broom. brwnt. in the same sense. broccoli. . hallier. bruskoad. ear-wax mud. bruch. pfropf. The same form becomes in It. gebroge. w. a single plant of heath. Brank. Grisons bruch. it glitters — — . 1 8. branchia. brandr. G. brank. broussaille. But we find It.D. brosst. &c. broom. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. brein. from Lat. brog. —Ducange.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. young twig {brom-beisser. from brand. — . bruk. a briery plot. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. Serv. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. cabbage sprouts Fl. or other plants of a like nature. Fr. from gaggi. brin (as It brano). heath (Bret. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. brugek. Pl. is the draff or excrement of the com. Thus we have w. the branch of a tree. apiece orbitbrandone. Branch. brancas. So Swiss gaggi. G. titio. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. chaff. brug). The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS.

became ashes Pied. ish. Du. bransle. bryne. brandiller. It. Jam. bruzi. bum. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. brandigh. to make sense of a bright red dye. is bntan. and bruir. 59. d'Angl. to quarrel. not. to sound of the Fr. Fl. to brandle. Diez. brazil. to dash. brazeiro. brascct. as again by well as the blade of a sword. put.. — . to burn. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. brane-wood. given to the country. Thus the bound up again. Fr. Sw. De Barros considers vinum ardens. to confuse. embraser. brangle or brawl in E. branler. — . billet. was in use Fr. to murmur. brausen. to shog. Chron. crackle. a stick. make an outcry. n. brin. plained by Florio. shake. to shake The word brisil. Sw. De Goes. braise. Fr. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. a brusler. stake. eldibrandr. With top trimbling. brush. Fr. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. incendium. Lye. Ija. to solder iron. brasca. noise. Brangle. firebrand. apparently very distinct from each other. faire fracas. Kil. to hurl with great force. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. the spelling to kindle. bragia.well. all. the colour than hitherto known. as Jamieson explains it. Chron. a To Brandish. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. to bicker 2nd. Port. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. forms brasil. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. to glisten or flash. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. a round dance. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. morsel. The name Brandy. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. brastlian. fire-wood. ist. bruciare. to roar. briiler. gebrannter wein. Fr. hot Fr. brus^. make a — . And brane-^wod brynt in bailis.pan of coals. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. braise or hot coals. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. Bret. brennen. Hume in brand in ON. branler. In the same way the set on fire . brouir. or in stick. from used in dyeing cloths. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. Guill. Formerly brandy-wine. prasseln. E. It. braza. G. hoisting to the fall. distilled wine. and branchis shaiand D. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. Braser. bracia. to blaze. to make display . set on fire. conbillet. V. comes from thence. perplex. and scold. then brandr. a pan of hot coals. braise. The tre brangillis. The corresponding form in Gael. bresil. live coals. Manx bransey. E. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. to brangle. brasa. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. bransella. in Marsh. — ting to confusion. before the discovery of America in the brandir. to rustle. weinbrenner. Brasil. to French brawl or brangle. to burn. firewood. brasa. brandiller. urens. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. aqua ardens. So. brustle. totter.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. to and fro in the hand. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. to shake. G. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. To brand. branla. braser. splinter. so. AS. spirit distilled from wine.^Brandle. brasil. WaUon. du Roi et laine. bruire. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. Gris. to totter. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. bracea. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . e. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. bruan. to distil . Fr. Brase. to brustle. to brandle or The It. to burn. It. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. flagrans. brandolare is exbrandish. brandende wijn. To brase AS. N. a roaring fire. crackle. to crackle . also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. glowing embers . to braze or lute. bra?ier. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. brasca. a fragment. Bailey. to shake. from to vociferate. to make shine with shaking. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. brand. as Fr. bragale\ wood. to Bailey. Milan. — . In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller.

bronzacchiare.D. braion. calf of the leg. Gael. Sup. bartising. deblaterare. 1156. Paris. Cot. noise. the buttocks. bronze. Jam. G. I. Kil. pan- — Rayn. a Lap.D. Math. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. 1224. a loud noise. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. brailler. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. bralle. breyon de kinds of .propugnaculum. to talk at bralle op. Du. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. —-Jam. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. a lump. braede. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Fr. as criailler of crier. brat. It. breyon.^ — Sverris Saga. a clout. bratidone. Brat. tasce. Brave. brat. a patch of cloth. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. a lump of flesh. neita girl). luncheon. a contempt- banner. to solder. then a parapet. from branler. It . Fr. Swiss bradle. any piece. to Gael. as a brawling brook. &c.96 Roquefort. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. KiL Prov. A dispute or squabble. slut. Mundart. Betrax of a —^Jam. a mantle. bratach. brandillo. bretesche. bratdn). is The word — uous name for a woman.— Braid. a. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. bronzare. The same correspondence is seen between It.— Remade. ni autres choses sur Due. ship. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. braiio. bartisan. bradlete.D.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. Circumeunt cibertesca. Brangle. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. Wall. See Brandish. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. Sp. from Sc. Sc. Lorraine bravon. or whether it be from Fr. whether contracted from brabble. to tear piecemeal. For the application to a^child compare Bret. apron. Certainly a little girl. The verb is probably derived from the brase. burning coals. breyon d'chaur. braon. A. A land of dance. Fris. ON. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water.' BRASS BRAY et AS.brettysing. brdto (ace. le repasser un peu sur la braise. from Fr. a rag. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275.— Diez. squall. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. the calf of the leg. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. as scrawl from scrabble. OHG. 368. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. and bronzo. bran. bretays). ^Altieri. or on the top of a wall. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. brettys. OFr. bratid calf of the leg. Dan. discord. 2. branle. — . P1. at brasa. bretesque. AS. Hist.— Fl. especially that used in the working of iron . was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. bradon. W. berd. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. OFr. calf of the leg. to shake. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. bransle. bmhon for brado7i. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. Pisana in Mur. a cloak. —^Bronze. braodhlach. brces. roar. braser Fargent. boutures. a fortification. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. Brawn. a lath. a wooden tower. Cologne broden. The muscular part of the body. slibro. bas morceau de viande brawhng. equivalent to the Du.' Hal. So also See Brag. Brawl. bruir. . bred. braeye. ' A vraale. Westphal.walle — Pr. A. lat'te. breteque. brat. slakker-bortchen. to cry. coassatio. — Deutsch. pil. muscular parts of the body. Brass. a parapet. a rag . bras. brazen. borderinge. strepitus 2. braoilich. to scold . Florio. It. a plank or board. rag. contignatio. a contemptuous name for a young child. cloth. slibro {neita. fraiche. in the first instance of boards. cob. to braze. Many gambes. a slabbering-bib. a rag . brett. a — A from the confused noise. ferruminare. bribe de viande. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. to carbonado. flesh of a leg of pork. as lattice. Bartizan. Cot. Pm. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. frame of laths. as rashers upon quick burning coals. See Bray. Bailey. solder. trul. boarding being sbranare. Fr. a battle-girdle. frequentative of braire. baltresca. buttock Sc. esbraotier. to copper. Brattice. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. a lump of flesh. brass. saillies.

at braga eftir euium. Bret. a rag f . brak.fracas. yell. resound . ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. a rent. breche. to scold. braa. breuan. ON. or cry out loudly . W. a crash. D. and to signify the fracture itself. From the or brack in a wall.' To Bray. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. D. The ON. at once. kind. the clash of ai-ms Dan. See Brake. broyer. breach. k. gestus. Swiss bratschig. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. a breach Cot. riAprjyvvfu. E. to break. verb to break. bragd is also applied nets. Bread. G. and make a hideous noise.ear rog. paxog. roar. Goth. fractus j Gr. Fin. V. Fr. to snatch. brot. Chaucer. bruire. — . to The cup was uncoverid.y. 7 . to bellow. to bray like an ass. abraid. OE. Lat. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. rustle.^ Fr. to smack or the eye. make a disturbance. to start. fragor. roar. to crash. appearance Hal. brame. relation is seen between Lat. 145. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. a brake for hemp or flax. to rumble. to cry out. braidir. bratsche. V. to cry Port. &c. brand. Dunbar braessem. to break. a brack. augnabragd. to knead. soft . . to sound very loud and very harshly. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. crash. — koa. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. to roar. 2. explaining a very obscure application of the E. V. bregar. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. to the seijauntes. to resemble him. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. Ppvxia.g. brage. to break. Cat. Fr. D.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. bregar.ch. iU-favouredly — in Jam.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. braire. on. to roar or bellow. plait. turn. Bailey. to pretend. weave The ON. braea. brechen. and fracasously. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. regi. a mill. to break Fr. a wink. ybrayid. bragr. crash. bruzir. starts crackling up. crepo and E. Then is simply. rangere.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. yell. Chaucer. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. braidar. father. to braid. ing. G. crackle . at a braid. and frangere. R. To Break. Prov. brice. broad. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. to N. imitate or resemble one. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. as the voice of the ass. Breach. AS. the sword was out break. upbraid. or wound. to resemble. The Lat. Cot. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. cyprinus latus. Prov. braa. &c. Then. And at a braid he gun it bende. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. the sound — of arms. Bread. ser. baiyl. And with a traid I tumyt me about. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. . Wal. Gr. — — — explained motus loud noise. instantane. with or without a final d. is . ^p&xia.. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. to braid. noise . mos. bradar. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. to roar as the sea. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. bru. to bawl. to crash. Q. twist. brugier. to braid the hair. father. to rub Fr. brikan. bregda. to braid acquires the sense of bend. &c. brak. I'll live and die a maid. Beryn. e. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. to work up in a mortar. &c. paste or dough. to tear Bret. disturbance. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. R. vapna-brak. i. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. a . rogi. Du. the miller's dog. to bray in a mortar. to resemble. to t. to cry out. . rattle. will. F. to have the lineaments of one's ON. To rub or grind down Sp. which has given much trouble to commentators. bragd — ON. as the notion of turning crack. braid. fish. The same He might don us both a villany. as OE. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. ON. in Jam. bray. to rush.

to feize or feaze. PI. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. grill. brustia. briste. noise. Brize. See Brick. the dry spines of furze broken off. bre- I'os qui bresole. brise. braca. Gael. a smack. their stings draw . briosat'. chillness or shivering. OFr. — Halma. subligaculum. Hence the Lat. to fry . Lat. a girdle. AS. brusc. brumtnen. or the blow itself. cloven. to breech. a horse's twitch. broil. to break. properly to crackle. breeze. and brought beneath between the legs. to smack. Briss and buttons. malt. Prov. — . brossi!. switch./ssus. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. Bret. brijselen. singing bone. braca. Breeze. Fr. braciarc. Breeches. braie. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . Piedm. murmur. Rom. instead of being derived from 'La. to crackle. b}-as. as commonly explained. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. /esses. to whip. forms. Originally probably the word signified steam. — . G. a box. as the G. in Schilter. G^nev. brinisa. braga. brasiuiii. Isidore and Tatian. braies. to bind. briig. brire. brasiare. . to hum. Breath. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. G. w.98 borst. brezzare. zare. trusts.D. a crum Du. Dan. bark Fr. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. brasser. as. orts. brezza. to brew. bris. dial. bruc. body brostia. braux. as in the case of twitter.'— Gl. to rattle (as hail). brimsa. of straining. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. forms analogous to E. bretilles. bremse. G. fastening . Gl. Bruise. Prov. rubbish. of trees. coaldust. Dev. briosa. The Breech (Prov. from brace. Dtyden. Gl. but more probably the E. G. the soler. a cool wind. morsel. brijsen. remains of leaves. A fierce loud buzzing breeze.). to shiver for cold. fitzen. i5r(Z^. to burst.britschen. To Brew. of E. with It. break. brisoler. simmer. to crush to break. to resound.vare. breme. — — strument for smacking. a to lay fly-flap. murmur—Vocab. &c. bratscher. brimme. brache. to be misty and cold. brezling. then to broil. brodem. Du. brugga. Du. the bust. broden. . Piedm. G. corresponding to G. brut. as. bra. brissle. burst. fail. Swiss Rom. Breeze. so AS. little bits of wood Berri briser. an odour. bris de charbon. Compare OE. de Vaud. AS. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. brist. Lat. peitschen. So ON. Gael. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. Du. from ligare. vapour. drawers. as by the Sc. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. . Fris. The Teutonic verbs. bryi^ga. the breech or buttocks. representing the sound of a blow. one on the breech so that (klatschet). bruzir. a cramp-iron for holding things together. braga. brison. grillare. are related to Prov. siibligar. rubbish. to murmur. Du. bresilles. brisciare. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. brciz. met de bridse slaan. broiiwen. are in like manner ' . Biglotton. polenta. to simmer. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust.t. briosa. —Briss. trembling. a cold and windy mist or frost . to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. bridsen. may be from the wurh fesser. bruise. brosame. Fr. breath. Russ. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. bandage or truss for a rupture. breinse. a twitch for a horse. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. It. and other rubbish dibris. sheep's droppings bruss. brisd. scent. britze. Swiss AS. to buzz. applied to shivering. braia J OFr. binding. chilly. bris. E. brdtschen. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. breson. Bret. E. point to G. Bracha. clout for a child. brok. Breast. — And blood. — Brist. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. . Goth. — See Broth. brcekur j It. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. to roast. bracecs . briiz. QNtsterviald) pritschen. Swiss brdtsch. We bragezj on. bragues. . bruzun. and E. a crum. simmering. . to brew. a gadfly. to bray. from AS. also to chill and shiver with cold. braucn. to fry Then from a Gl. Hume in Jam. sprouted corn. braich. grillen. Sw. an into shiver. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. brcEth. brodel. broza. braguier. Breeze. brew. braies. einem de britze geven. xyligogio castigare.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. windy withal. griller. de bridse geveii. crush. Fr. malt. breost.

betonica. Bridle. bro. Brief. but probably Bricoteau. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. it is applied to the letter to OE. Brier. brar. from the last 99 of which. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. from the Normans. Flor. and that from It. consort with. Brewis. ap. any jot or crum. breve or brevis. bride. So in The Prov. E. a lump of bread. So It. bricou. BRIGADE dead. ter-in-law. . At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. brukkas. brygga. bitill. Bridal. a sow. bidsel. to circulate. buskins. served (Patois de Bray). of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . a proprietor. to break to pieces bricalio. Diefenbach com. sponsa. priod. the marriage si in brigata. a bush. pavement. fit. Ihre. jetty. . a bride Brig. brocaly. Fr. See Broth. appropriate. beaten way Dan. bro is applied not only to a bridge. Gl. a married man or woman Lat. conjux. to pave. Lat. Applied ous words derived from break. If the foregoing were not so clear. a lump of bread. Bribe. to press. son. a married man guma. a heath. httle bit. It. A — A — . and ODu. Trovarfor bride-ale. AS. betony brulicame. pier. from bit. to Isrew. remarkable that the Gr. briicke. E. grug. fraoch. E. buckler J ON. a bit. gf2o. brigata. brique de pain. bruk. a man. birbante. Brique. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. feast of espousals.bergantino. Du. berwi. Gael. to boil. brutg. Fr. corresponding or letter. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. to brew. bread. E. to stamp. a bride. one's ovin. division of an army. guma. graf-ol. priod-ferch. to meet together.pritil . Rouchi brife. brigantine. piece of burnt clay. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. privus. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. — . Mid. bretonica. Hence OE. a beggar. a heath brughera. a crum. It. . barren land priodas. briwo. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Lang. then the marriage itself. In the patois of briccia. ' — . broken victuals. . The original sense thus seems to be to ram. broosekens. brilt. bryd-eale. jipaaaiii. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance.rough with brambles and bushes. malt. AS. . and berweddu. imprint. brittil. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. bygga. is still used in this sense. heath. bricge j G. a rogue . peculiar. Pol. a brig or priodor.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. which however is undoubtedly from brace. Due.It. bride.privatus. a little king's writs. briiths. AS. a quoit of stone. Priodi. ibrukkti. Cot. OSw. Hdcart. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Gael. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. as so. to appropriate. fervere. brice. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. brug. fragment. bro. The Sw. AS. or brizo. bruith. W. Neumann. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. G^n^v. to prepare. Thom. — . nurus G.groom. bribe de pain. frayer. bably contracted from brigantine. married. thick appropriated. a lump of bread briber. to break. Bridge. bribour. — — — — — — . birbone. with transposition of the r. a Bride. a cheat. briw. a wedding priod-fab. owned also propriate. the equivalent of to the dial. a boiling. from Bridegroom. the Fr. brere. Goth. bryd-gutna. .Fr. hlafes brice. bruk. but to a paved road. daughheath. In E. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. Fl. a rogue. bo. to tlie brico. has briguer. Walach. a briole. broken bread. arf-ol. from Bret. funeral. brasser. to boil. malt. in the sense of OSw. of burial. feast. bruskr and buskr. w. brood. bridelj OHG. to pave brukkti. Dan. ment of anything broken. a fragment. groom (mab=:son). the newly. Grisons bruch. A bribe is A — — arval. berwedd. to rub. collect bits of food. bara briw. AS. fastningar-ol. brA. AS. broken. sugga. a crum. pavement Lith. ' . . especially to a letter or command. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. to beg one's bread. crew. boiling up brocoliere. whence berw. bulicame. to press in. lipdZu}.. brau. Ducange. brigade. brahi. brieden. to boil. bridge. troop. OHG. Sp. Fr. as. two-masted vessel. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. masted vessel. brakes of high-grown ferns. In the G. company. brughiera. ON. bruarium. stone-bridge bnikkoti. pavement brolegge. Bridal. . The origin of the word is the w. braut. Pro(merch=:maid). Brigade. twopares Lat. . Diez. Brick.gfiugga. a fragment. bruyere. It — is Kil.

' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. schateren. on his — own account. See Brake. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. Mid. tumult. Bav.' The sense of strife or combat express. . tinkle.' torum. clear.Lat. brcEhtin. manifest ON. brak. to glitter. outcry. brawl. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. and.dorem clarum reflecto. bracht. in the first instance. with respect either to sound or colour. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. hell. to rove. glir. praht. 1351. brigare. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. combat. schiteren. tion. clarus. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. Schmeller. XafXTTpoQ. braid. rixa. clear. a spark. brigandare. Florio. may play the pirate or thief at sea. Beorktode bene sweg. bairhts. AS. splcnornd de brigandine. briegen.' The passage from the sense of a light. transparent. there are many armour. glamra. clear. seems to be to exert force gar el area. tinnitum clarum movco. a sound. to rob. The Ir. clang.clare ^tinniens. It. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. They or brigantini. bright bearhtm. rover either by sea or land. 1654. to strive for. brigare. malandrini. The primary meaning of Sp. glamm. the bench-notes resounded. Wilista. to piracy. beorht. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. to glamr. to shine. wilella. Due. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . Owl and beorhtian.D. necessary business. to cry 'Schmid OE. pugna. speech. jurgia. to make a loud noise. Brigata. secondarily. a pirate. brigant. Flor. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . It. and ner me hit iherde. bray. — Due. sound. and the E. to resound. 312. twinkling. Brigand. also called briganders. —Capgrave. and secondly. Xa/iTTii). similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. shriek with laughter. Heo — song That AS. A. and hence be explained glampi. Swab. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. a brigantine. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. and to associate with them. a noise. etincelle. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. From ON. brigan. squamma . Brilliant. inde squammatus. It. — brigante. In the same way to strive is. dine.pracht. then. — — . splendens . briga.— . — brigante. briga. Bright. the grew high. representing a sudden noise. show the origin of Lat. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass .shine. Gr. to bend a bow It. kilistua. — Beowulf. brdgen. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. to shift for with care. glitter. The E. tinnitus. tuilahtaa. . to cry. — Probably then to strive. Gall. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. to contend with another. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. So G. OHG. It. clangour. labour. a glittering. bregar. brebrigare. — A A . that of Fr.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. clare lucens. to shine. and led it away. — Briganbriga. riis ' — Chron. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur.glampa. Lat. from hall. in later times a robber or highway-man. moment. Goth. loo BRIGAND lor. strife. clear sound. — Brigantine. willata. bryhtm. kii:'a. splendour. biartr. is easily understood. glbram. A strepere.' in Due. cange has 'Veles. noise. to sound. splendour. to ring. bragen. and diligence. Du. lay was sung. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. in the sense of a robber. In Fin. to reservavit. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. and. \oice. the gleeman's song. Adelung. himself to serve men of merit. dine. a small light pinnace pro. at a later period.

' d'etre marie . whether of desire or anger. Lith. barmr. whence bilbil-goda (literally. rugire. greedily to covet Cot. the singing of Sodom — — . bremmen. Hence with an initial s. an apron. bramire. beam. the lap or bosom. E. the edge. sprainged. der. identical with passion. to sound deep or hollow. surface of the ocean. Dan. brim. — . kimina.preni. ring. brdnnsten. to fret . vigorHal. : ' — bone). to glitter. brastlian. breziller. brandr and Fr. a streak. hence the bosom. Du. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. to creak. sonitum edere bremen. brame. AS. to parch.— Brinded. to quaver with the voice. brullo. fringe (Lat. kimmaltaa. to resound. 1 1 64. edge Pol. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. griller). grisler. frequently interchange. Prov. margin. Kil. to make bilbil). to shimmer. ter. on. breziller. to roar. fringe . crackle . The expression is now confined to the sow. Wtb. coloured in stripes. sparkle. to make a crackling noise. brim Magy.). s. brunft. breme. to shake. the heat of animals. to utter cries. bresoler (Gloss. griller. which seems identical with rim. bremas. have then in Fr. to broil. Sc. To Brim. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). bramar. strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. brinfire. small gravel. bramar. of the eye. post. as well as bl and gl. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. to burn. as in Langued. Sc. Brindled. ardere desiderio. brommen. Rugere. brimmen. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. Streaked. briller. tience. lap. komista. earnestly . AS. — g. vattubryn. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. It. grullo. to crackle.D. griller d'impatience. Swiss Rom. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. ous. Brem. is used of raging. the verbs Flor. kajata. Sw. glit. clangor tinniens. a borDu. the eye-brow. brow of a hill. briller. Fr. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer.— BRIM . brezil. spraing. barm-cloth or barmskin. breme. border. brumft. and corresponding to these. that the original meaning of the Sc. lap of a garment . from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. Brimstone.ioTiviS acutus. brame. to sparkle. gresiller. grdzil. pMiller. gresiller. FJ. to crackle. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. or violent action. os qui bresole. Tresiller. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. s. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. from brandr. bry7ie. and 1. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. bryn. the sow is brimming. as is the case also with Pl. burning. bramer. to . to twinkle. the heat of animals. Said of swine when in heat. leonum).' Elyot in Way. fierce. brissle. border. a long. a border. barm. kiimottaa. with an initial br instead of gr. parched. to glitter . The E. noise made by meat in broiling. to wish or covet. from bringe. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. In the same way Sw. rut. brama. glisten. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. brennistein. Closely connected is OE. voux. to shine. It. burning stone. to long for a thing. as of meat in broiling . bar. 754. Dief. Supp. ON. broil . . cross-barred in colour. Subo. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. . dial. komottaa. greDiet. brand-krossottr. grisser. ling noise and a sparkling light. G. broiled. Thus Lat. bray as an ass bramire. Tutschek. It. A . crackle. 154. border. the meaning is transL' amour. lip of a vessel. furious. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. briller (related to each other as OFr. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. ON. finds the Fr. — — — . kommata. a stick. ON. to storm. originally the lap folding over the breast. a rod. rym^. The meaning of the Fr. In Fr. brisoler. to roar. — — So Fr. Brim. perent. to shine. shine. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. excited. rugire (cervorum. The identity of ON. Rayn. Langtoft. fimbria) . . reecho.) brimi. kimista. to glitter distance . — Rim. (poet. Fl. chime). to creak. brant. brmdottr. striped or streaked. to shine. 1. brillare.its vent in cries and roaring. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. fire. brummen. brummen : de soge brummet. also to reflect. bremmen.

suddenly angry. Prov. ruffling. 222. broca. bresk. to thrust. birsle. borstel. Du. crabbed. brissko). brocher. chest. smart taste. See To Brim. brocco. Breeze been connected with the Sc. byrst. — bryme. breaking of the waves brim sior. brickie. See Brand. to stick. brusk. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. borst. whence may be explained the Sc. Salte sand is called brimsand. 'V^. brich. britchet. metaphorically. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. briocho. and. a button broche. fiscbryne. and hence. Bret. brim (poet. as. brockle. fierce. birse. form bris. bruskett. Sw. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. rebursiis. bringe traced through the brano. Sp. breaking out into growth. ON. a deluge. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. to break. britar. saulmeure. brocciare. apt to break. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. a brooch. See Spread. cK) the . brote. G. to birstle. rash. from break. briser. Dan. . very salt brimi. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. to turn up the point of anything. to shiver for Sold or for fear. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. fantas'* tical. birstle. bruckle. p. a shoot or sprig. to set up one's birse. coli. rude. angry. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. Liquamen vel garum. broche. brddj Goth. a stormy brimsea . Brine. bros. a rod or twig. It. Port. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. Gr. to spur. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. b. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. an awl. brimhliod. ribrezzoso. a cold and windy mist or frost. startling. to spit. — — . britar. a spit. birssy. Lat. brezza. setting the hair on end. harsh vin brusque. Du. . to stitch. Brittle. setting the hair on end compare It.). humorous. Fr. brijn (Kil. the surf. — . to broil.Lat. brusco. borzen. Brocade. Swiss to stand out . Bret.' Nat. lively. brandello. to begin upon it. of astonishment. to break. brichet. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. brcit. aculeus. brim. brindelles de balai. the surf.D. Mid. and forms on. spur. i. brog. Cot. and Sc. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. a rebours. sprout. a slip or sprig of an herb . to broach a business. broca. from AS. a brad or tack. Brym. bryne. Abroacli.g. bristly . To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. brusque. sharp. Sc. Fr. sour. ' breast. birs. fragile. a bud.rcendij'i.). Palsgr. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. brisciare. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. craw of a bird. Prov. bryde. the brisket or . hot-tempered. to roar. a clasp. prick with Sw. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. Alfr. shoot. a bud. It. brittle. from brande. braidsj ON. to spur. e. sprouts. /3pE^m. brim. briota. Commonly explained as from Fr. Formerly written brotil. Da. sprocco. rebrousser. brimme. wine of a sharp. flame. trembling. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. to set it a going. to shoot. to goad. bronchus. to burn. Pectusculum. Hal. as. to crack. are used in the sense of brittle. It. brime. a skewer. flames. a morsel . like the Broad. is called a birssy day. against the grain . A similar relation may be observed between Sp. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). Fr. eager. a stitch brocher. to put one in a rage . It. . brocar. thick — A elastic hair. Fr. Bristle. roar of the sea saltr. borzos (struppig). bruched (Fr. brittle. reburrus. is to erect the hair. briota. to stab Gael. a peg sbrocco. Fris. brisk in taste. a fragment. Zeuss. or the full • . brust. Brisk. Hence ribrezzare. brytan. — A . an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. . a morsel. a projecting tooth It. brezzare.'— Vita'abbatum S. a belly. broc. to scorch.. Berri. bringe. brin. — in Due. breidr. Brisket. Compare also E. to bud. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. the twigs of a besom. bricho (with the diminutives. a bit . Prov. Walach. strong itself. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. brioshko. Ptg. The Pl. spricka. Gl. has under It. brocco. . Brooch. bringue. brot. brissle. Antiq. Boh. expression. stitch. of E. Brickie. man's throat.. Bohem. brocchus. Sc. broccata. Fr. Fr. Then as the effect of shivering. breast.procio. as unripe fruits. brodden. broccare. as a noun. sticking up . or — . NE. Russ. grim. In the N. bros. Russ. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. ' . a crum. emotions which produce it. to break. as. . quick.

brouda. to stud broccoso. Florio. broder. margin. or It. — . tufted ornaments. — — . as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. a prick. tori shows that. a mole. brasolare. frecSee Brawl. brerd. bruler. Cot. brastlian. confound. parched. kled breac. agree in being the extremity of a thing. a border. to embroider. freckled. and AS. bordar. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. hart of two years old. and w.. a flock or Gael. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. To roast upon hot coals. storms. W. to broil. Cot. parti-coloured. a brim. broil. streaked. broukit. Broker. Bret. gresiller. spots. to boss. It. broc. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. Thus brod. prasseln. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. bmsciare. briefh. to crackle. or snag. a brecJi. a badger. of pointing out their latent defects. a peg. a To Broil. to crackle. age was termed a pricket. border. brustle. the shoot of corn. fundamental origin. brocach. the line of development has been something different. B. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. ToBroider. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. froco. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. Hal. whence broccare. creak. brusler. a fallingThe sense has been out. brocart. scorch. and bord or bred. — The proper sense is that of Fr. forming to jumble.. Surrey in R. brindled. brasiller. stump. bawling. . a confused streaked face of the animal. broglio. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). parch. embroidery. to burn. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. brucilare. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. a freckle. precisely analogous to the Sc. . blusters. from the white. bram. to knots or loops. broccuto. Icnotty. brusuole. to crackle. It. Gael. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. onbryrdan. q. embroidering.tumultuous. AS. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . Compare G. Contracted from Fr. v. a b?-ustolare. badger . ornamented with a raised pile. a freckle. The ON. atoms . and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. borprick. a point. motes. noisy. houx. point to an origin in Bret. an edge. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. Here to ornament with needle-work. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. bustling. spotted. to embroider. silkes-borda. to parch or broil. Gael. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. brasbrasciuolare. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. to spur. Sp. brucach. brasiller. broccato was used to signify stuff . Compare also AS.— B. with Sc. here. briz. noise. From direct imitation of Brock. The Bret. Fr. to crackle as a shell in the fire. border ornamented with silk. breard. or roast on the braise. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. Brocket. a border ornamented with gold. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. to On the other hand the Sp. dar seems derived from borde. sparks E. broighlich. speckled. to burn. a quarrel. to scorch. It of br the Fr. braird. brychau. shuffle. rinj'. a flake of snow sion. brizen. bordo. brooked. So from Pol. brocco. brullare. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. piebald . to prick. rustle. Fr. thread. brouFr. Ptg. — Gower in It. bramowanie. has grisser. trouble. frocadura. or glowing coals broged. birsle. knobby . to streaked or speckled in the face. broud. R. E. Dan. Grisons brascla. broc. a brouhaha. hurly-burlies. — Fl. broiled. bj'oil. 103 embroidered. gold and silver. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. Ihre has guU-bord. A badger. sting. grullo. tumult broighleach. or salted fish on coals. prod. broil. Sc. brodio. speckled. b?-od.sound. Fr. broice. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. to instigate. initial . Sc. brod. to crackle. — brissle. parti-coloured. ciare. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. to darn. brych. brasuole. A fried or boiled steaks). two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. carbonado. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. grislement. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. trouble.

brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. to garble. to nourish. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. In the . w. a broker. fermenting. bric-a-brac. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. brunds. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. Brood. sbrinzlar. to hatch. Alb. screatio Junfus . to be wanting. an operation performed over hot coals. and fishes . This word shows the same relation to It. an outcast or rejected sheep.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. to hatch. OFr. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. a brood . find fault with. mediationem quorundam J. damaged. to be hot. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. to — garble. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. from break.D. refuse. bronzo. bring eggs and spawn into active life. brod. warm. abbronzanchiare. The Langued. brieden. stain. ordure. Fl. Per manus et old worthless horse. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. to sit on eggs. whence the modern courtier. but from the primary sense of the It. brands.— Breed. See Wreak. brasa. matter of blame weak place. has exactly the force of G. to criticise. an . brack-gut. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. a fault. hrak. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. Dan. inspection. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. brokas. Abbronzare. filth. burning. fish-spawn broden. brydio. . 38. to emit sparks. with. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. On • tliis principle the G. braken. wrak. to throw blame upon. brak. brakyne.D. whnake. Adelung. Bronzare. racher. analogous to Bohem. Pl. brwd. brot. To blame mens ware. brokoti. lack. refuse brakowad. to pro- to reject . vile. briiten. a chicken. brass does to Sp. brechen. embers. to sort goods . want. refuse wares. For the same reason the Kiittner. reject. spittle. correctarius. to copper. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. trumpery. Jam. make out. Lat. : ' . to sort brakovanie. hot. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. dirty. merchandises de rebut G. abject. ODu. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. to braze. • . fault censure. bracker. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. damaged. brid. to spit . brackefi. bronce. ON. from makel. Du. . goods damaged by sea-water. and to reject the damaged and unsound. brak. brack. Sp. on. braeck goed. wrack-good. brack-gut (Sanders). — broeden. Fr. . 396. phlegm. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. the spawn of fishes. Pl. Prov. Pro v. e. rejection Pol. to reject. refuse goods. refuse Fr. bronze. try out. It may be compared with It. to pick and choose. G. dial. selection. a cough Hal. brod.— Lib. G. Alb. brumo. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. — . brae. to pick. cracker. broiid. wreak. a makeln. as. racaille. insects. try . term was correcfo^ir. progeny of birds. rejected. blur. slaae vrag paa. brut. See Broth. to blame. bronze. et A. G. Grisons brinzla. vrage. pan metal. i. in which sense the OHG. mud. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. embers to brund. sunburnt. vile. broen. couratier. find fault — — — fuse matter. wraken. to sparkle. bredan. tussis. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. . corrector. Russ. sort. To correct an exercise is to Lib. cherish. to brew. brokers' goods. brasa. cast Lith. Bronze. the young of any animal . refuse brakovat. to roast on the embers. a breach or flaw. — Fl. Sc. keep warm. to . hot. bronze. raquer. . which E. embers.— — . find fault with. If to vomit . buy and sell by commission. Kil. glowing coals. in the sense of rejection. Bret. tan. — point out the faults. . 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack.D. Pl. It. to scorch. nounce unsound. criticise (makeln). designation is indkler. to hatch G. spittle . refuse. The use sunburn. Tooke's Catherine.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection.D. faulty. S. or brascla. raca. See Brackish. — a spark. bridde. and as an adj. hraki. inspect. Du. Teutonic class : Du. In those countries the term braker.

broth Brown. to boil. to browse. edge. Catalan brossa. G. to boil. to border. brewis. eye-brow. Bohem. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. brouser. noise. bruscosd quam de arabili. juice of briars. Pol. Here we find throughout the Romance. meal. thick bush brousta. To digest. and Sc. and also border. to burn. Brow. brosses. eat. a caldron. brst. sordes seu strigmata young branch. bree. broth. Commonly Teutonic. a . Sp. Russ. heath. iVlanx broogh. . bryii. to use. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. . from Goth. break out brewet. Du. Manx broie. sap.D. Limousin broudi. bregh. brabruach. BROOK brook w. bhratrj Zend. brosses. brus. waves. brosst.braubiti. brocco. to scald. a river. Gael. bruceti. brmi. shrubs. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. bordeau. Ppim. breg. brogues. b7-un. Sc. branches. sodden. brouic. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. or broken up . Gael. . strength Ir. Gael. briu. riviere. G. Gael. Ger. cabbage soup . breg. bank. brozia. . . breh. . brstiti. bank. to use bruks. broth brothaire. and It. Fr. broccola. braces. sproc. cia. braussa. to bear patiently. awl-plant. briihe. eye-brow. may be connected with Russ. to bubble up with noise. — . infusion. Celtic. &c. spuma. a hill. dialects is very different. Prov. Gr. brd. signifying twigs. Sanscr. bruno. Du. simmer from the murmuring AS. bruich. w. . a bud brous-koad. brew . Fr. brauwe. the colour of things burnt. signifying low wet land (Brem. broem bark. to roar. broza. and Slavonic families. grow brossa. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. &c. bros. G. broth. . pottage. mettle. brodo. frui. OHG. breg. — ' . broth is sometimes used . bntdien. The softening down of the consonant bud. bruitheati. shore. Dan. OFr. Bohem. brun. the bubbling or springing up of water. a little house or cottage of timber. frater. AS. — . broeye. borda. (for brodem). brukjan. protecting the eye. bruithim. brouet. bryn. a sprig. . pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. vigour. of plants broust. heat explaining the Prov. sprot. broc. from ripa. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. Sp. surface of Broth. — exiit et heath. vigour. brue . laissent Domunculum. broi. face. bruth. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. seethe. 105 Brook. Lat. broden. as small-pox. margin. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. Serv. brotar. bruddeln. brouter. riviera. brink. borde. a derived from the boards. Bohem. Kil. boiled . G. bratrj Lat. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. bros. broth the ocean Sw. It. of which the variety of forms. to boil. to sprout. bank. AS. brass. to Pl. broieii. brouskaol. Tam de terrS.brons. a little . bud. or shoot. to browse. shoot. to boil bruithe. braew. ceales briw. eminence . deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. a hill.) . kail brose. shoots. G. brwd. sprouts . broud. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . as Fr. bruich. pfriemkraut. buds. &c. Cot. bruith. bor. a bruth. hut. useful G. But the Walach. broca. brotar. strength. Browse. bruc. warmth ch'an. Wtb. house of ill fame. It. The meaning of the word brook in the low G." Serv. sense the Sc. pour boiling water over. verge. broo. hovel. brost. hot. sprocco. was originally used in the innocent sense of . bordel. eye-brow.' Due. brad. Fr. forms appear related to the Ir. Bret. sprout. brous. a sprout. thicket. plants composed of twigs. brusmalt. Gris. brawdj Slavon. bushes. to spring . a shrub broust. w. heath. perhaps burnt coloilr. brlgh. or bushes and scrubby growths. brucan. brau. . pith. fabric consists. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. a hut or cottage It.— Overyssel Almanack. a bud. t— Cot.D. The origin is a re. bruach. Fr. border. to shoot. brow of a hill. brushbrothas) gives the OE.brink. Roquef. . . brodem. . a confused noise of winds. Pl. a spring. brdtaj Gael. See Bramble. thairj w. shrub with leafless pointed edging. spirit. dumetum. briar. . edge. chen. as rhododendrons. fur Broom. juice of meat. Mid. sprout. braun. &c. heat. brushbroccoli. A — . juniper. has briw. It. on. . eye-brow. rerum decoctarum. OHG. Brothel. low The AS. brpuster. shore . . brow.. to murmur. Due. bryn. properly boiling water briihen. It is Brother. browys. Bret. a source Gael. frucius. enjoy Goth. on. Prov. The AS. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. rage. augen-braune.spross. wood . A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. brudi. Russ. in which brinnan. a shore. to use. brouches. grow into a bush. brost. 'Lzt. Fr. eye-lid. cabbage water. bank. infusion the barley bree. brennen. circuindedit cum familia. Bav. brio. brothas. eye-lid. brov. ale . eye-lash . surDu. who is steaming with sweat. steam from heated bodies. broit.

Brunt. to break. splinters. brisd. desbrisar. It. Cot. rubbish. ling or heath for brushes. brosse. E. to make a rumbling. Sw. a brush Swiss bruske. And that best is. but on whom it schall to brisen him. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. and also Brush. borste. field. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Wicliff. brist. and in the second place a besoiB. tuft of grass or hay.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. bross. seems named from burst(on. brico or brizo. insultus. Beryn. brysan. OFr. to make brusshes on. escousse. bruyere. shivers. brousso. Pr. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Gael. bricalio. brustid. borste. briketo. a horse-brush. Brush. and . brosse. brista) or breaking out . borste. and actually come in collision.). twig. In E. brusg. broza. Piedm. bruito. NE. . bruscia. a bristle. brous. burt. Text Soc. See next article. ON. or shoot. Cot. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. brit. wool-card. Port. to crush. Sp. detergere . modification of the same root which gives the E. brosst. bushy ground. Bruise. bris. brossa. bruise exOFr. brust. Hall in R. brus. a blow. Gael. a brush. bruc. a crum. Sw. britar. quisquilise. brusco. brushwood. twig. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. Fr. a brush . and Piedm. brizeto. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. bruire. broza. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. 201. E. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. a bush of hair. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . orts. a brush. quasi twigs. dust. a flax comb. It. Gael. — a bush. . it schall be al Sw. brottcher. K. brik. bross. crum bit . E. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. OE. into a multitude of points. A. to break or burst. remnants of hay or fodder. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. to break. a brush . to butt. blow burcar. To brush then would be to dust. brusca. borst. That in all haste he wouli. AS. B?-usske. a brush . bruzir. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. borste. Bruit. The Lat. brise. brusc (Diet. a brush. a briser. as It. Pr. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. tremely. Lang. also a head-brush. Pm. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. wool-card. a bud. or sodenly comyn' dust. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. dust.). appearin Goth. shock. a little brizal. . insilio. crush. briser. brugir. — OE. brusco. brist. It. Castr. bruit. to cleanse. mg Cat. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. On the other hand. shoot brouskoad. —Fabyan. borste. an enmy. sordes. . — Fr. Alexander. brous. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. a shrub composed of small twigs . chips. Prov.— Palsgr. Allit. irruo. a brush . to strike the foot against an obstacle. bruscolo. Bret. bruscolo. coal See Breeze. . It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. dust. biirste. Fr. Fr. brustia. Pr. G. bruiser. broken. 174. brustia. . break. abroncar. fescue . also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. a — — (Agea) said. Bav. Prov. a mote. brunt. Lang. bruskr. a rumbling. a noise. Pm. brosst. bris. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. and It. wool-card. Diez. brist j Port. rubbish. * Brunt. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. Piedm. Fr.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. rods. dust. a bristle. and sighid therewithal. rubbish. fragments. Prov. heath. Gael. . Poems. effort. Brunt of a daunger. brisar. flax-comb brossettes. biirste. briiis (in the pi. —Chaucer. Prov. wood composed OE. G. Palsgr. — those signifying a sprig. a tuft of heath . All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. to brush. Pr. p. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. bruis (sing. brikan. of twigs. brMt.— — i. Fr. Fl. to break to bits . fasx . bris.). The Bav. broust. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. The same relation holds good between G. bris. a bud or sprout Bret. bud. Broach. brossa. bush. brusca. ca7-bo>i. to stumble. brossar. britar. brist. 134. broustia. burs.

byge. to butt. 17th century. pokka7na. erweichen. bouk. Dan. knock. a hole. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. and as a verb. Bohem. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. boucaner. buck-ashes. pukkata. to soak.steep or soak. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. Illust. was called in Fr. 1586. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. mieknad. tender. colada. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. from weich. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. Fr. bubiti. the lower soak in lye. to buck. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump.-wtt miekki.derivation has been much discussed. bubBuck. buquer. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. to soak foul linen before washing. to soften. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. soft. . wood. to Gael. Bret. different form. March 28. drying of produce. and then to other wild tumour Lith. hump. Etym. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. bduclien. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. the first wheal. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. and exercised their cruelties prin. soft. Formerly. See Dupe. bucquer. buborek. as G. This bubette. hog dressed whole). soft. . Bohem. boc. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. bubauti. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. It. Cot. a ashes. faire la lessive. bugd. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. it is beuchen. who resorted to the islands beichen. a bubble . top. soft . Bret. de la Floride. bog-aske. blast or strike with the forehead. tuft. bucaIndies. very generally designated by the same puk. . the linen at buck. a push. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. maban and baban. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. also applied Una. a. to soften. The term bocan is still ap. plied in the W.buchen. Magy. Sc. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti.to allow a free current of air. In G. Diet. caned' Hence those who established them.boukaat. The word was very generally Buccanier. bugada. It. bwch.— . not so plentiful a commodity.tare. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. News. a knock word. to butt. a bubble. Pref A. BUBBLE bruschetta. — — ' A : ' ' . buquer. Sp. soft It. to murmur. Sp. a bubble. . in which the flesh dish. a. Pol. . to filter. open lath-work. But see Bristle. when soap was tion is commonly taken. It. to soften . to which in their language they call bou. lye. bucking. bube. The name. buchen. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. The place of such a 2. says Laudon. bubseti. set of pirates in the spread. bouc. buck-ashes. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. designation of a knob. to stick. does not hold. a fescue. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. as a buck rabbit. because bucare does not in Marsh). to wet Pol.D. bifbel. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . mote.' Palsgr. The natives of Florida. a to the male deer. at a door. hump. was called bucking the linen. moist. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. the upper for coifee. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. to bump as a bittern. from colar. of wind. w.lessiver. bubbola. Esthon. moczyd. From an imita. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. buerj It. Bubble. A . watery bud. to butt or jurr Dan. . boil animals. Pol. boh. The cipally on the Spaniards. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. a steep for flax. I. blister. thunder gently . molle.wet Lat. Fr. boc. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. or mok. mollire. to a place used for the mouillir. bucata.biiken j Svi. ac. and Fr. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. Magy. or projecTo Buck. w.byka. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). to soak. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. — . — . pup. . bub. Gael. tender. bub. 1857. tap . rap. to strain. bukke. bublati. and the bunch. is 1. Fin. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. bokni. lye. . Fr. The male goat. to bubble. mokry.

) as to soak.t-le!L{ * Bud. call. noise . Prov. bukke-blad. clump. Fr. a pail or flowers. bucherare. brobrocchiere. to poke. put. bunch. hump. to un bout d'homme. to thrust. from bugr. become bochen. Bus.). a ring. to boss or swell out G. ON. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. a stump buckle up. bolgia. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. ' . bouk is a pail and with the dim. bloca. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. were To Budge. rabodS. a short thick man. bugnir. bouprobably identical with inok. motus creber. . swelling. butzen. great pouch. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. buckel. Fr. A buckle or fastening for botch. OHG. knob dwfr yn boglynu. botzen. pote. dint . botzen. blow. a curl. boss of a shield. don't a baby). Bucolic. bedde. Budget. dim. — . — — . pulga. Hardly identical with Fr. bocla. having a boss. Pied. don't stir from hence. Sw. . above mentioned. knob . weich. — .) . loud Cot. II I'a feru desor I'escu. belonging to the calling of the chen. ornamental stud. The Fr. Fr. to budge. butzen. butzen (Du. ' .chissima. bod. swelling. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. a pustule bout. bunch . male or botzen. seen in Hesse botz. The knob or projection formN. and weichen. A water-plant with leaves and gille.goa. a boy. thrust. Fr. * Bud.' Schm. bougette. NE./a. a leathern sack.' Boccaccio. Hence quel. a servant. call bo. set of a plant in bulk. W. — — . bouton. In Lat. stroke. bloca. bollire. bulais daqui. Du. * Buckle. lump. a budget. Bav. bullion. whom it is still much in use. Du. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. Sp. bulka. Fr. to boil. fur. knock. w. to pen cattle. macero. a buclder or shield budge. the word w ' — . bub. words is converted into b. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. Buckler. It. a bubble three thyngis. a tuft. bo. stir. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. of bac. butt . bod. no business to do that. to swell.anything short of its kind. stud. bug.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. OFr. a bud. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. Mid. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. Mid. trunk of wood covered with leather. The word is a ddyn. a cowherd. of a surface. of bouge. probably from the notion of bubbling. pulga. convexity. boucle. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. also a leather tuft . boiling. Lat. . bucherame. budge. It. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. case of leather . Dan. bouge. imbuere. explaining Fr. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. Russ. boaLat. need. from bo. boglyn. sboge. to butt. The entire train of thought is bucket. to graft or bud trees. weich. as in Fr. a shield. pwt o Fr. a trough). clasp of a book. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. Bret. bougette. the radical image seems to be a set plants. a dumpy gin.n. Port. and of the Lat.— . excrescence. bloquier.stumpy man. is to shrivel up. or male of to boil . with a central boss. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. .may probably be explained by N. bouger. a fold ceilio.pode. . prick in a target. bolgetta. bulla. to bud or bocla. ble. butz. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. Bret. jSouKoXiKog. Behoves. boach. in the beginning of to pierce holes. water message.. and the reference to It. bog and G. bump. pwtio. a bump. It termination is lost. bdden. Bav. weichen. butze. The dressed fur of lambs. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. * Bucket. to move. boqueranmis. like a bean. bulb. dinted. It. G. a boss. to 'soak. .' And this sacrament bus have dial. bouljein.. Prov. a budget. scion. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. bode. bogla. Pol.poot. . a buckle or protuberance.' Hal. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. rump of fowls . call. Wtb. crack. boulj. Prov. mani. cattle. It. boss. the root of the Slavonic words gran. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. with let. a little coffer or turgidus. ' . child. agreeing with Gael. wallet. soft. no wheel bogeilio. built. turgere buczendig. a small shallow and open tub. push forwards. boucle. Gael. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. boucler. bouclier. . butzen K. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. This expression boglire. Buck-bean. potz. inboachen. To thrusting part of a long body. where the G. skins pushit'. gjeit-klauv. from Gr. Budge. buachazlle. Fr. bucolicus. protuberance. bul. with which it was ornamented. ein. a navel. bud butzen. Swab. . bucket Fl. . boucle. a shoot. K. So on. a wallet. See Bulk. a boss.stuff. boccula.r//'. boucaran. bouter. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim.. to line with fur. Cot. bulga. Fr. a .Lat. is doubtless fallacious. w. Dan. goat's hoof. to stir. to word.

buffalo. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. leathern bucket. buffen. Sc. buMagy. to puff.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. made to —Bugbear. Lat. a cuff or buffet. to strike face to represent the unknown. a hobgoblin. Buffalo. of colours. bauwi. dausa. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. to marre often tasting it . dausinti. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. A blow. as Diez remarks. 265. the place whence the wine was drawn. thus be translated to tap. buffeteur. bw! It. site The two — — iii. often blown upon. a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. scarecrow . bugs. —Boggart. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. to give benti. G. bubach. A puff with — Fl. — La Crusca. mumming. Teet-bo. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. bubaRuss. baubau. air. bubus. to puff./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . Hence the E. to beat. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. bumann. blurt or puff with one's mouth. a side-board. bolgia. Pl. buffets. as from Lith. buffare. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. popo. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . Che scaccia 1' Ombre. wauwau. wine may The verb in taverns. It. stupid. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. bukow Ikow. boo. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. Buffeter. a hollow sound. bufogni. a block-headed noddy. a bugbear. The cry made to excite terror is then used. W. Lat. bau ! children. yar^aa. — thence it has been transferred in E. breath. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. Buff. — retailing buffeter buffetier. tabernarius. Bufetarium. buffle. to blow souffleU. . a In . things in Jam.D. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. bubiti. to blow . w. — — — Buffet. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. boman. rebuff. Fr. A — Bug. Sc. buffet. Fl. The children were playing in an oppocomer. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. a skin. a budget. also a G. bufHe. soufflet. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. — Bogle. a dull BUG From 109 — A . also the skin or heck of a buffe. Limousin bobal. — Z. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. dull sound. to signify an indefinite object of terror. to jest or sport. a clap.—Buffet. tastes. buffle-headed. bobaow. bugle. word other cases. bo ! an interj. Gael. as wine that hath taken wind. From buff! of terror. puff. buivol. Fr. Buff. Romola. to rePl. confused. It. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. him but Boyd iugges. It. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. deadened. to blow. mingled with water. buffet. From bulga. btifetarius. God's boast seemed feare children. senses. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. Esthon. The use of the exclamation children. E. while in Sp. Pl. bolgetta. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . either alone or with various terminations. Mid. to bellow . Buffoon. dial. buffet. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. een duffen toon. buffetto. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. a jester. to a representation of his voice.— Buflae. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. by metaphor. a goblin). made by a person. Lith. for this purpose is very widely spread. often covering his E. a puff. Magy. bw. Fr.D. Fr. It. from souffler. bouffer. to frighten . buff leather. sounds. or wild ox. duff^ dull. to give a as of a blow. Fr. the buffe. Thus buffet would a tapster. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away.D. bwg. to excite terror in Macleod. Cot. a buffle or a bugle. as emblematically making light of an object. buffer. caupo. smells . Cot. buffare. from It. pulse . to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Lith. bugbear. or hath been Cot. and in Fr.' perfield. cuff . Swiss baui. ' They rether puffed at him. bufogni. human. colour.' La Crusca. bouffer. botffon. &c. buffa. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. le reste emplissant d'eau.

BUGLE Tentennino.. of bugabo was given. bwgar. buffle. the Devil. Cheval de trombugti. Grose. bugler. any disgusting animal. Big. long. used in the same sense. a silk-worm. . and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. Illyr. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Lett. bbgni. is the dim. bwgwl. I. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. fette. to creeping things. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. booggen. Bogge. a misshapen person. Bible. Magy. Lap. vermin. bukashka. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. according to Coles.Fr. bau (Pureiglia.loud noise. iv. It. buculus. roarHal. Fl. boa-peep. larva (a bug-bear. Grisons bau. bucula. proud. (Spurrell). Bdronie. saucy. Bugle. . bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. . quos what produces dread or disgust. Stalder bog. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. shepe and gootes. an insect. a rabme. 1551. pujalo. Lith. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. baco. paws the ground . insect. Lesachthal. . bug-bear. affright. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. scarecrow . to take fright. bug dung-beetle.Lat. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. E. bwg and E. — — . 2. a bug-bear. coco. Serv. and in child's Magy. and in Lat. Sw. then a horn for drinking. of pipes sewn on. language any kind of insect. banian boube. a. to take fright.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. a bugbear for children. Swiss booggen. W. earwig bau da grascha. It. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. boo. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. a boogg. well as the terrific object. threatening. with more or less modification represents bau. hert. 3. Bug. rose-bug. a proud overbearing man pujat'. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. terrifying ward. bukati. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. forSc. Swelling. a bug-bear. to frighten scarecrow. bobal. and bugle. An ornament of female dress condread. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. bold. great or bug words.. a goblin. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. — — terror. bogil. ghost. The w. a beetle. fierce. buggabod). troll. — boogg. Magy. Mundart. mask ' . Manx boa. bogk. blustering. poggl. to bellow.3uhtii&:. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. Sp. See The name terror). Swiss ing. bogle. bogk. Schmidt. biignt. worm. insect. The final guttural of W. threatening. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . bauginti. Parolone. the black a maggot. bug-bear. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. * 2. an object of terror. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. bugbear. tion of the beetle tribe. especially to beetles or winged insects. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. bug. b'dgni. provincially an insect. the word is lin) bbgge. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. 493. fear. and a boggarty ing. to bellow. and is Deutsch. bugle. to origin in the expression bugs words. bogil bo (e. is very common. — . i. pugalo. xiv. Russ. bugar. pugaf. Mid. w. protuberant. A similar applica. as an object of dread. monster. Bug as a lord. Deut. to take bug. big. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. to roar Aasen. gad. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. — — ' . Chaucer. Same as buffle. the buggaboo w. a buffalo. Hal. as Buffalo. thus connected with bug. also a bug-bear. also a bug-bear. Hence bugle-horn. bug-bear. dial. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take. The name of bug is — . high-sounding words. buba. swollen. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. boeuf sauvage. also a baco-baco. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. Fl. tumble-bug.— . oxen. high. : no BUG . bok. disgust. superbire. beugler. given in Chaucer. roo. il brutto Demonio.

habitaculum. crowd. belly. Jno. husk. a leather sack or budget Fr. body of an animal. . bulka. — — . bulcke. belgja. acervus. belly van de kerche. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. balg. the head of an onion. as it was merly written in English to bylle. bo. bulbus. and N. to bubble up Pol. hull of a ship. With these must probably be classed ON.' Cot. Gr. ' . — . snorting on a bulk. bulk or capacity of anything. projection. He found a country fellow dead drunk. Ptg.' Fl. mass.). balg. principal portion. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. van loock. . a dint in a metal . Dan. body of a ship . anything prominent. thorax buick. the belly. G. Gr. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. a straw corn-vessel. byli. Pr. bouge. A — ' — Bulk. a heap. belly Sw. The Walach. trunk. bolg. It. beuck. bulked or bumped out. blister Manx bolg. Palco. leather sack. to break bulk. . .pulks. bug. bolgna. of E. bauen. bilge. nave or body of the church van 't schip. bolgan. to undo the cargo.— . . See bollekeii next article. a bubble Gael. G. bole. as water beginning to boil bolg. bolnyn.' Palsgr. knot in thread. Othello. ON. bag. body. bolgetta. bubble. belly. Dan. ' . boss of shield. the womb. Bolke or hepe. bulge or bilge. bulle. as well as is very variable. villa. bunch or projection. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. bulbe. compare Da. bol. buk. bulg. PoXj3a. a tuberous or bulbous root . Boss^. skin of an animal. To Build. Hence e. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. bauch. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. to bubble up. to gather. knob. pimple. Lett. whence bylja. pod ON. a bubble. Bulk. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. a water-bubble). whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. or bear out as a full purse. unevenness Sw. womb. Mandeville. of an inflated skin. swollen OE. 1388. pocket. bed of a river. on. to swell. Pr. bubble. The addition of a dim. . a. swell. bua. bulk is a partition of boards. or cargo of a ship. boss. . straight will he 2. bulge or convex part of a cask. vulva. . bulgen. . bolso. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. ne. boa. sedes. belgr. bolle. — — . balco. to throw out a convexity. and put it home. tumeo. a lump or mass. chest. belly. in bulk. See how this tode bolneth. cultivate. I. (3oX|8oc. belly. at riufa bulkann. cumulus. a round bulky body bwlgan. hollow. swollen. globule bolg-lhuingey. . to build. . bolgia. bugue. bulkaf. bladder. puff. bubble {palgan tiisge. the contents of the hold. a prominence. swell.' Festus. MHG.d. or feminine termination gives Bav. skin flayed whole. Bav. trunk of the body. ball. has bulbuk. lump. bulne. in vessel. bale. Pm. belly Cat. bulki. Melancholy. G. the capacity or burden of a ship. balgs. OSw. turgeo bolnyd. herd^ swarm pulkd.' Anat. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. . to blow. biilken. the body Du. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. boss. Sp.'— Cot. The radical sense is shown in Russ. tumidus. Bulge. — . to bol. blow. ^ — . trunk.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. a stage or scaffold. OSw. swell. . Kil. bellows builgean. Hal. For the latter sense ' — My . a bulb Du. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. Muratori. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. or of what is shaped like a bubble. In the representation of natural sounds. pouch builgeadh. . bol. See Bulk. to raise a habitation. a. boulge. to swell. head . a leathern sack or portmanteau. belly. From till. Lat. it again. the carcase. mass. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. to spring. bwlg. ' . bulk. lump. bubbling up. Bourser. bulbe. gebolgen. . bulgen. knobby. be protuberant. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. balcone. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. Pm. inhabit. bubble. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). Here stand behind this bulk. . m um Placentiae. jnake bulch. wallet. bouk. — Bulb. bullka. formed a farm. bol. hold or bilge of a ship. or. ON. bolle. skin bag. pulkas. to belly out. bukr. w. bulwis. in Sc. blister. a protuberance. Mister. boss of a buckler. knob. the position of liquids in the word In English. Lith. Bulch. were a habitation. Lat. a bunch. stuffed bag. buc. domicilium. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. Lith. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. blister. . buhe. dial. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. and bulbukd. a globe. the potato G. to puff up bolginn. — — .

— — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. bulla. bulle. sloes. And The word bullerbak. a bulox polos. Eullrusli. a framework of balks. and vellon in Sp. a seal. billon. .D. dim. bulla.lle de fusil. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. bietebau. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. bullebak. pimple. which may probably be the origin of the name. spirits. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument.. bollar. is called a ball. a noisy violent fellow. bulk of a thing. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. bouillon. of boule. bolla. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. as in E. /SouWivu.Gr. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. boss. Pm. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. i. bollos de relieve. whence bullire. it may be observed that a bullet in E.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. See Bowl. a scare-bug. of the ox kind. from Fr. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. stud. beams or boards. It. from Lat. Du. it is boulet de canon. Pl. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. the matrix or die . Sp. to seal. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. from the Lat. and thence terror. round glass phial. to tical with Sw. — A tition in a ship. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. a stud. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. child by the represents the hobgoblin. a wasp. as a mill-dam or the like. in N. ON. bwlas. polten. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. stupid . a hornet. poli-cheannan. Bullet. G.'— ' Palsgr. in the sense of base metal. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. urchens. bulke. elves. bauli. bwla. A lace tree. stud. Bully. witches. bullocks. boillon. bolli. of Witchcr. a bull Swiss bullen. bulloi. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . G.Fris. scarecrow. pollach. the seal affixed to the document. baula. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. to boil. stamped money. a cow. bullern. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. a tadpole. embossed work. Scot's Deso. many to protuberant objects. bullos. A papal rescript. w. poltern. bollon. Du. &c. stamp. eth and frighteth. as the ornanails. coarse. Gold or silver uncoined. a tadpole . The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. This word is used in several senses. from the noise. a beam or rafter. also a parFl. bole or trunk of a tree. G.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. is of a class with Pl. W. Bullfrog. a blockhead. The wild plum. signifying roaring. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna.D. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. b2iggaboo. bwbach. Lith. See Billet. poll-cheannach. a little fish nearly all head. leraures nocturni nigri. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. brass-headed nail . a bowl. w. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. Fr. to emboss . on the contrary. lumpheaded . The bullfrog. bulderen. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. whence Mod. a seal. also of the tadpole or young frog. 2. assito. dial. I. N. bolli. biitzibau. bellow. The male W.. any great-headed or studded nail. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. a bull. It. bugbear. boulct. Bullace. tition of deals instead of a wall. penbwl. Dan. Bret. blister. boss or stud. to bellow. Fr. Du. Terriculamentum.' do not go by the dangerous water. a hobgoblin. from the use of the equivalent terms. bullus. balgeting. but is more probably iden- palchetto. bulk. bolos Fr. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. Du. a bul-begger. 2. from baula. G. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. bellocier. Bullbeggar. any embossed work. pwl. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. large. lumpish... — — Bull. The final element tergeist. bouillon. ba. billoti in Fr. Cot.D. BulUiead. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. thick. large of its kind. hhint. bubble. as geting. bal. BuUiou. blunt. 3. to bubble. however. as It. a hobgoblin. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. — Fl. Gael.

is called bumping or bells. blaterare. 2. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. The Stat. To bum.' reals of standard currency. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. BULLY with which coins were stamped. honunele. minari verbulderen. buller-bas. a floor. Philip le Bel in Due. agrees with e. debacchari.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. provides. noise. Bum. 14. G.the ramparts. to drum Lat. ^Bully-rook. 9 E. Sw. The cry of the bittern. Bully-rock. on the other hand. clamour. IV. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. blunder-buss. Fris. ierd-boeyme. — Boom. The 27 Ed. droning. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. block-werck. Kil. hum. a hectoring. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. The decried coin. buller-brook. For bottom. 2. Du. Du. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. a noisy blustering fellow. John). is bullion — A — buller. to make a noise . and similar restrictions were enforced in France. violent. poltem. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. to dun. propugnaculum. 1687). perturbare saevis dictis. un faux brave. Du. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. c. violent overbearing person. intonare. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden.D. argentum and silver. III. D. c. To bum. a. legaggio di metallo. Bailey. G. by corruption boulevart. AS. the soil. Kil. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . It.' agger. bommele.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. 2. Fr. Bully. ground. 1305. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. then in general a rampart. furious man.. Etym. To bully is to bluster. — Bump.' Stat. — Bumto . boene. A. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. Hence bom and ban. 10. sound. a boisterous. bol-werck. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. Bum-bailiff. bustle. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. scaffold. provides. vallum.' Again. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. ^i^/«. polterer. beat a — Hal. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a.d. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. a bumble-. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. up was termed monnaie de billon. a stage. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. biihne.. or a humblebee. from boden. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. buller-bas. to make a droning Du. buller-jaan (bully. bodem. The Sw. &c. a blunderhead. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. 4 Hen. blunder-buss. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England.' for the purpose of exchange. — bombam?nen. IIL st. bomtnen. boulevard. bombilare. Thus ' ble. bastion. Miege in Hal.D. boisterous fellow. Fris.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. baluarte. Kiittner. bulderen. — — plate d'argent. ON. To Bum. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. bolderen. G. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. or work of defence. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. From the notion of a humming. bottn. ierd-beame. Hal. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. to . buller-bak. primarily the ramparts of a town. Hence — . bottom. resonare.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. but now is the central part of the town. St. c.' ' mettre au billon. 'lega. buene. to terrify by noise and clamour. botm. and porter au billon.

He fult dat et bunsede. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. bunken. bottom. Bung^. calamus. to knock . a hump. blain. especially girls. Sc. or grete knobbe.D. — stalk . knochen. to swell out E. Pr. Kyx or bunne. a wallet. bumsen. a knob . Fr. OSw. round mass of anything. foundation w. protuberance. poumpi. bunkc. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. See Bounce. Bunch. Bang sen. bunga. bune or boon. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. nor would it concern the public if he did. To bam. Pm. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. a button. to strike so as to give a dull sound. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. Lang. See Boss. Related on the one side to Pl. bundle. bu<rnone. while bulch was traced through Gris. truss E. stem or base.— Pr. bottom bun feoir. bonnock. bannock. strapping. bamgetroffen.' Palsgr. &c. bunnion. bun with ON. banke.' he fell with a bang. buns. cluster. 1. S. Dan. boi7ieog. callus. bolsa. . .. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. It. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. E.! . abrupt manbuns-wise. an old stump of a horse. A Du. Bumpkin. .S. bull. to bang ON. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. explaining E. w. poumpido. bunch— Hal. a boss Lith. a lump on the foot bunny. banga. Moor. bonge. bunke. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. knuckles. bon. He buncheth me and beateth me. awkward clown. also for taking a pilot to a ship. . Gael. stump. — — Bun.-^Fl. . knob or heap. a tail (Macleod). a large . bugno. lump. bottom. strike E. a boil or blain. lenten loaves. Ir. stubble of beans. as in other cases. bunt. to . so the form btmk. Forby. a person employed to dun one for a debt. a bowl P1. Bums it's hit. signifying one who does things in a thumping.' Bun. bump. . a knob.— Bunnion. to bang down. Bunewand. Hal. stock. bongie. bans. passes Sw. botn. Radically identical with Dan. BUNCH bum-bailiff. Manx bonkan. a bag or sack. Sc. applied to young persons. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. bugnone. dial. a knock. forms. pumpurras. hay stubble . bulse. —Bunny. ! — knocking. stump. bumtel. bunny. — round fruit. a into Dan. H. Hence E. to . to bang. awkward. Daal bu7iseti. pwmpl. Bumsen. from knock) It. a bunch. a. bugnet. bmike. clown. bung. bunka. bonuach. gibbus.pummel.. a heap or cluster. Hal. Bump.D. Bony. a heap. bulto. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. w. clumsy. a dry No . Fr. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a rabbit. a bud. Again. Thus e. dial. . a Sp. il me pousse. Probably for bun-boot. a bump. bmidt. ner. binge. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. Pm. or to the mass by which it is given. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. any round knob or bunch. Pm. bun. Bunch. Hal.). a heap Wall. as we have seen E. a hemp-stalk. root. bugno. from bunsen. seems to unite Gael. trunk. to beat. bunan. to thump. a bunch Magy. noise. a swelling. the tail of a hare. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). a knob. a round mass . Bunk. a purse . pompon. bungersome. bund. Probably from bump. mto Sp. .D. a knotty stick) Sw. Li cake. Bumboat. bulscha. . to beat. pwmp. Gael. Roding. a rabbit. Hal. should probably be a short tail. — — Bun. any round knob or bunch. Pl. — Marine Diet. Then. A clumsy. — — — — ' — knock. . a heap OSw. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. a pocket Sw. the Pr. Holland and Flanders. Bun. . . the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt.D. 114 BUMBOAT Bun. lungeous. gibber. Fl. to ' . Pl. are dim. pwmpio. See Bunch. E. and signifies consequently a mass. a heap. bun eich. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. . a pumpion or gourd. — — de dor bunsen. Dan. a swelling from a blow. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. bunga.P. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. pompette. hdk passing and E. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. and related with ON. one ever saw the word in that shape. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. butt end. E. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. . stalk. Du. a. large. root. tundo. bignet. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. pumpa. bunsen. inconsiderately. stubble Manx bun. throw down with a bang. Suffolk bonnka. stock. bum-boot. bunki. Dunchyn or bunchyn. a dried hemp-stalk.^Cot. a boil (punkos bot. Mrs Baker.

B. dark. bury. to knock. to bungle. Sp. the middle part of it. bond. burion. bon. So in Pol. and E. whence bunting. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. Bret. to botch. bove. to push ghebondte. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. Sp. an anchor buoy. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. to stop. and the Sw. clumsy performance. fetters. to float. to bolt meal. knock. klimpem. a botch. bunta. byndel. Burganet. do a thing bunglingly. bimge. stiimpeln. Russ. B. noise. A load. bouche. russet. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. halm-tapp. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. to gingle. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. sprig. something bound together (Mrs Baker). whence in bure. dark grey bura. the young cloth used for sifting flour. Fr. Burly. also a piinple in the face. Prov. G. and Du. It. OFr. a bunch. to work at carpentry bangan. buie. See Bun. The word is flags are made. and van t' vat. Sp. Muratori. boucher. racket. on. * Buoy. banga. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. bangla. Sp. bourgeon. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. Bung of a tonne or Lith. of a song. 202. driving in the bung. bondelj bundell. klempern. Bunny. OG. stilmpern. punishments for prisoners. Cot. See Borel. to hum. Bunting. borboUar. Johansen. clogs. bourguignote. a cork. to work ineffectually. bunsen. la Borgonota. OFr. — btiruii. Pl. boya. bangla. shackles. To Bunt. Burble. guggle as water. reddish brown. the noise of drums. . bonde. . bundt. and now more Bailey. to kick. to stop.Fris. To burgeon. bolting-cloth. tinkle. a drum . Lat. byrthen. stocks or such OSw. to knock. bongun. working in wood (especially with an axe). tinker . Palsgr. Banff. buret. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . borgonota. ghebundte. The Fr. to push. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. Fr. with the head. The Italian buio. properly a Burgundian helmet. bouchon. A Dan. . bondir. a sort of helmet. Biu'geon. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. bindini. to resound. anchor or of a net boyar. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. or tuft. Du. coassatio et Du. Kil. The stopper for the hole in a boia. rumble as the bowels. bourion. Rietz. — . burboloti. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. bondon. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. to bud forth. .' Festus in Diez.D. bundel. to pype. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. Fl. however. To do anything awk- wardly. especially in wood. on. racket . G. the bung of a barrel Lim. Prov. . the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. unskilful working. bundle. or used as a receptacle for papers. to bear. was formerly pronounced buro. bourjon. bummle. The Magy. A bubble. and bomme. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. AS.— . Hal. a bungler. dial. shove . to gingle. bongani. or putting forth of a vine. bommen. a boye. to strum on an instrument. to cobble. boj. buove. bungande. N. to in to stop the hole. Sw. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. to push with the head del. banghagr. E. the loose open grow big about or gross. generally known as the material of which bud. boil or bubble up. from beran. — Bureau. to stnmi on an instrument. in is Fr. AS. dial. bondeau. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. to shove. a wisp of hay or straw. knocking. loosed from bonds. — — . Burden. ' — work . So Du. bui. bote. knocking. is originally a wisp or bunch . dicimus rufum. p. Burden. bounta. tapp (whence tceppa. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. gyves. — — To Bungle. Bundle. See Bourdon. Bunt. Sw. the stopper of a cask). fascis. biirde. buret. colligatio. bou^e.punt. Cat. bang. a bung. modem bummle. Compare G. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. to hum. a water bubble made by rain. boei. bondel-loos. the float of an bundle. are from bouscfie. contignatio. Sw. that the primitive meaning of shackle . would be the earliest float for an anchor. Fr. To bunt. a bunch Burbulas. to Somerset is to sift. to hum. Fr. bag to catch the wind. bang. The belly or hollow of a sail. See Barbarous. Bung. ho-tapp. bonde. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. tap.

borujon. — . must be explained on the same principle from G. ridicule. OFr. OFr. to have acquired the sense of polishing. burle of cloth. and OG. Burler. surge or dashing of the sea . is termed burling. bud or sprout forth. to fiy. Cot. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. to ridicule. Prov.. borrelen. burgen. brunnen. robber. from bryii. Burn.' Cot. de Vaud. warbling. knob. brunir. bruzir. mockery. Nat. from Lat.Ps. Hence Bridel.ireui£r:e. tahkoa. explaining the E. has also borr. to swell oneself out as birds borras. to bud . schleiffen. as the / in purl. fire. he rustle. roguing beggars. and the Burnish. joking. sea. A burl. to polish. brynsten. leo Fin.' a jibe. a fountain. Probably. bremmen. with Dan. Lang. in Schm. Fr. ends of thread. embraser. brima. burn. boura. a margin.. a bubble to spring as water. brAler. with little iron nippers called burling irons. The in. purling. to set on fire. de Vaud. 56. a purling hiwe brennen. bourou. Sp. . briis^. crackle wood in burning Hal. tumentum. to make a So from Fin. brunnr. Sw. language of folly or ridicule. tahko. a wine skin. Fl. &c. as in cousteau. to burgen or wax big. Fl. burgi latro. borr. toast. See Burr. to swell. Bav. compared with G. to rub. swelling borr-shuil. bourglairs. purra. Swiss Rom. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. the word seems Pm. angular . to hum. burgensis. lerre. a gurgling ^. . to polish helmets. and the Burin. laer. OE. to To Bum. brandung. — . protuberance. to roar. and Dan. Fr. condemnentur morti. burren. sbornoi. flocks. brustolare. imitation of the sound of bubbling water.— Pr. an &c. A legal term from the Lat. Burryn. brinii. Burglar. ii6 BURGESS Gael. So also Sw. j. Bret. repartee . to Gael. taunt. It. to give an edge to. — — . a prominent eye borracka. jest of. A — — . ^ttsa. Pm. an edge.latus rei angulatas talikoincn. ends of thread. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. born. brunna. bunch. become big and proud. See Berough. burlare. bruse. . The primary origin of the word. 122. brusler being a faulty spelling. brausen. to grind on a whetstone. the J in OFr. brase. See under Bore. it of the knots. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. Burgess. Bav. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. to roar. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. Bestiary. blow. Supp. water.. tion of the root which gave the OE. a blaze. barrel. watery. as Diefenbach bud.— . Castrais bourril. burgeois.or bubbling up. — — . a bud. the roaring surge of the — — — . big. buirleadh. bururus. bourd. ' rugiens. OE. N. Compare also Piedm. to sharpen. boiirre. It. BURNISH i5«r/. pressa puret. which has given much trouble to etymologists. a lie. ^Notk. . Goth. to swell with pride. Pren7ien. lorra. a whetstone. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. from the roaring sound of flame. G. Swiss Rom.bryna. brun. thence. In the same way ON. a bubble. Todd. Gael. to murmur. to effervesce. It is probable indeed that Fr. See Burgeon. to bourda. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. abourioner. Probably a modifica. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. singe or scorch with fire. the flocks. Burgh. a bladder. ample of polishing metal. brinnen or Also ein roar.. Walach. borracka. sicut sound. purrata. swell up or strout out. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou.sharpen. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. to puff. to ridicule. grancelli. to roar (as lions. to burn. brinna.). Pr. like the wind in trees. broil. Sw. a knob. a spring a robber. borni. to puff up borr^ . From the same root E. to roar. The Gael. to sharpen on a whetstone. Burlesque. occupying much space. Burgher. sidiary element. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. boure. is an Thus G. brimmen. to surge.). Lang. to roar 5. a well. spring-water bumach. brasa. brook. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. — — . Bouffer. Dief. G. dial. brim or edge of anything. E. It. pur (see Burgeon). as of suggests. like straw or small . Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. the er is a dresser of cloth. burly. bouril. explaining Sp. — Han to bruser op. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. Antiq. bururus.). bears. fires up. Schm. brustle. to burn. ON. to tell lies. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew.j'own. to bouronna. to roar. like. From Fr. i5«r4 biiirte. is connected with brim. Burly. a jest.. Limousin bourdo. to polish. In the manu. a jest. Fr.

that birds make their nests with. brickie. birr.Lat. byrgan. a wallet or scrip. berstan. — Translated by Kemble. G. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. ' BURR AS. dial. byrsa. idiom if 4. a. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. chips or anything else Fl. husks. when they spring So in W. . a sepulchre chreoburgium — . Fr. an annular swelling. burre. Bursar. . bersten. i5(7&a. bris. bur. 5150. bourlet. Dan. brist. Hal. moss. a purse. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. See Bulge. brokil and brotil. a rabbit burrow. &c. and met. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. brizeto. talk fast and indistinctly. brista. bolsa to It. With a slightly different ghen. shuffling. to hide. beurs. but it is more probably a development of It. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. Fr. brist. a harness or collar maker) . any rapid whirling biarga. E. whence Kil. a barn or cupboard. byrgels. Beowulf. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. to break. Hence Fr. ON. be more in accordance with AS. pipaa. beorgan. Port. Sw. dial. to bury . byrstan. Fris. borsia. blurra.' edge grew weak. . Mid. from Fr. the officer who bears the purse. to P'air. to save. Compare also OE. Swiss burren. appears under the Lang. foretell great storms at 3. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. OHG. bristeach. It. save. &c. force. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. the — — castle or fortress. ptcrren. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. borsa. Burr. ultimately resting on the Gael.. 2. a morsel. Cot. birgan. — Clare. brown. ON. 225. verbergen. ' ' — — burren. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. Burser. bourrelet. bris. borra. borrow. I. briketo. brit. shelter. fortify. of England. karborre. and. Burse. In OE. borre. barza. bristen. brest. of a body hurled through the air. a pad. briso. OHG. shearing of cloth. byrgen. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. brico. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. hair. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. prsnuti. AS. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. from whence we pass through Sp. borra. as it is still pronounced in N. casting bullets. a sepulchre. caer is a — — — ' ' : . briser. birigean. from AS. straw. Sw.' Harris in Todd. buscha. stuffing. impetus. borre.' The same word with burgh. In a met. brittle. iii. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. -Grisons bulscha. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. and spelling. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. cover. g. as from Sp. Burrow. preserve. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. tomb. signifying protrude. G. and thence flocks 'of wool. perruque. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. break . See Burgeon. Brun on bane. bourse. brittle. an exchange. whirr. also all such stuff as hay. bourrer. as in Northumberland. burgisli. a purse. explained E. S w. to buzz. bur. whirr and burr. bourse. Gael. skin. This word seems safety.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. preserve. Sexy. brjota. Fr. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. swell. Jam. root borr. to mutter Sw. A rabbit burmotion. Du. keep. It. as for the protection of a child's head. brisd. purr. brast. To Bury. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. bres- — tan. to stuff. bolgia. a port. shales. a place of defence. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. to hide . mentioned under Burgeon. also ' any such trash as chaff. its own protection. burial place. Du. AS. ber•whirr to whizz. The root forms brik. some people in pronouncing the letter r. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr.— . makes the disbursements of the college. bourre. byrigels. bergen. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. to burst. borsa. To Burst. cwning-gaer. -burse. Burr is related to buzz as protect. peluca to Fr. any kind of quilting or stuffing. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. Burse. burra. britar. leather. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. Shelter. brisdeach. coo. Burial.

buxula. bousche. boiste. boissa.gur bidst austur um EySascog. gave Lat.' sheath. diminutives. ' . verb. . rad. barsc in Heimskringla. protect . a tuft of hair. to direct one's course towards. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. to dress. OFr. It. a corpse). . a bunch of twigs. truasc. buxta.' The buskin is said Bret. —Busk. borcegui. . AS. Brunne. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia. as boun is simply buinn. bramble. bulk. The radical idea is seen in Goth. Ptg. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. ' . Du. 2. Bush. See Box. Fris. Thence byrigean. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. They busked and malced them boun. a grove bosch van haer. then a tuft Sp. as synonymous with to inake one boun. a -tavern bush. a tuft. and thence Mid. in the For Skirnis . at buast. borseof trees. AS. buskr. bundle. Du. bush. bustellus. aheap of stones. burial mound. to stop. busse. R. barst. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. that the lend had lorn thorn. . occultare K. cluster. basse. a been written buasc. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. projection. bunch. and from the Fr. bausen. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. Harold G. knot. So from Fr. Fr. at bua sig. boucher. to bury. boxta. box wood to bush. a wisp. the Moors and of Morocco. bulge. the idea of knocking. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. 'at bua sik. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi.fiasc. Sibriht that I of told. a clot of phlegm sart. Prov. a hump. G. induere vestes . buxida. a gun biichse. Bouchet. bussare. To Busk. bosta. for at buasc. the past participle of the same verb bua. we have Fr. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one.— ' ii8 {chreo. BUSH hreaw. Le roy Richard mort. signifying to entomb. and not directly (as Du. basse. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. and he cites wisp bauschen. beorgan. bouche. to bend one's steps. bo7ich (Fr. busk. brake. to prepare. Layamon. To prepare. lump. a bush. tow. Mid. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. 410. to sepulchre. tuft. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. a box. apparently a secondary verb. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. mount. a tuft guini. iriCtf -ifoe. thicket {buski. Du. a rampart. from the ON. busken. il fut couch6 l^jkema). -idis. bousIn the other copy ser. or — Busk. Malberg. to dress. a bunch. In to Brutaine. roquies. to forest of Eyda. to enclose in a case or box. to swell. fiast. to turn. bosch (a diminutive ?). defence. abdere. a troop. thicket of thorns . the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . berghen. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. Bush. biichse. besom). It is certain that buast must once have Fr. ' —P. and we actually find bushel.' The word is explained by — — . brodiquin.Lat. dead. . the land. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. The primary sense of hair . See Bust. is thus accounted for. borghen. make ready. bustula. a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. bussel. bousse. whence bouchon. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. Sir Tristram. sur une litifere. bossida. oneself. condere. a box for measuring corn. in OE.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. a bush. And her ful sone tuft. OFr. bos. hjul-bosse. . ' . bairgan. ieorh. : — . bossen. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. The word frequency with which to busk is used. qualster-boscken.) to hide in the ground.' a box. bussellus. to keep. whence at bua sik. preserve. Sc. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. boistel. The bone in a woman's stays. a box. Brunne. or the like. bush. buysschen. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. wisp. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. Thus Froister . It. a tuft. Sw. bua.-^Bushel. ch). hunch Du. brodequin tout noir. ' . bosc.P. to bow. van wijnbesien. clusprobably Morocco leather. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump.boisteau. a bundle.Lat. which would later have truast. grapes. boisseau. a little box Dan. whente beorg. bundle * Buskin. Gr.

mouth. morsequi. Fl. and supposes that the common Arab. Port. — — — — It is like the smouldering. Fr. B. a busk.d. hipista. besoigAe. a kiss. the body without arms busque. bust. trunk of a tree. abutarda. love gestures. work. arbor ramis trunGloss.D. the trunk. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk.). inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. A A busquer (Sigart). occupied bezigen. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. Sp. occupation. ON. trunk. Namur — Champagne Fr. stump. from jnund. to occupy. stump. Cot. bist. BUSS Dozy from Arab. employment bisgan. buc. also a It. also a flagon. a bush. kiss. busto. business. beezig. bnist. mogangas from gonj. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). bisegung. I. ViM. Lat. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. Nained from Proximse iis zia. windbutsch. bust. vessel employed in the herring fishery. Bulch. and by transposition morchequi. sera. betarda. outard. Sw. an affair. trunk of Cot. says. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. bysgian. 2. statue of the upper part of Fr. bus. Rouchi. of a doublet. body of a man. buta. tarda. Swiss butschen. Cat. busch. to make a splash in the water. — clattering about. To hurry or make a great B. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. a boat or small vessel . Buss. bacio. 1372. but. outarde. cata — . ON. knock. — hardly be distinct from Fr. Bust. buquer. See Boss. geidha. a great billet Cot. Bav. to knock . log . Pol. mohedairova.— . or avutarda. brut.pjik. buz. bisg. brusc. as in moharra from harbe. 10. Sp. chest. Edrtst. thick end. also a busk. austarda. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. a bunch of flowers . lips.' ON. Business. 1555. 119 bi{tr. its slowness of flight. Comp. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. Du. tuft. Bustard. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . lump. Fr. body without arms and legs. The Prov. body of a woman's dress It. To Bustle. 22. Busk. Fr. basiuin. I bustle. bruskras well as buskr. of the human body (Grandg. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. abotarda. a Mid. Lindenbr. busta. bisgung. Walach. inde discurro et operosus sum. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael.bezig. bussen. ' BUSY 2. biist. to make use of. With respect to bust. 2l box. worn to make the body straight . I. a large cljest or particular applibox. body.> Also written buskle. a bust. buc. putta. bucha. busq. baiser. representing a blow. pussa. ottarda. an ostrich. bus and Pol. The proceedings of Parliament. bussa. or chest in which the vitals are contained. a bulk or trunk without a head. body of garment. Prov. So in Fin. butz. bysgje. as in ON. to Swab. mosequin. a kiss of reverence. Prov. a stroke of wind. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. busch. bulk. a tree. Gael. — Thus we should have mocherqui. bu. stir. sunt quas Hispania aves . plated body or other quilted thing. the point of a lance. lip. kiss. Sp. or Cherqui. a blow. — — difications of the same word. box. a sleeveless truss or doublet. lip. Hal. btcc. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. body. Prov. beso. otarda. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. a log. A great sluggish fowl. I go strepo) . busche. the long. — . snout. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. kupata. Fr.Lat. borcegui. So Wes- terwald munds. stem. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. crack . especially of a woman's dress. forms morseqiiill. forest. ' bistardej It.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. to bustle. buc. mouth. Box. Lang. A wisp. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. . a fishing vessel. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. the breast. made stiff. mons. a ship of some size. and also a sounding blow. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. ship Sp. buyse. Fris. a kiss. signifying trunk of a the body. 7o\. small. trunk. On the other hand. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. bustla. bus. a mouth.' Plin. knock. The form brust. a projection. a. would explain the G. busc. utarda. Bust. biseg. brostia as well as bostia. avuDiez. besongne. putschen. smack. and then with avis again prefixed. in Diaz Gris. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. Busitiess :c3iVi . bukr. body . AS. a kiss. Xerqui. fe^a. a backstock. . Hence probably au-tarda. ^A. Busy. a blow. busy.

boucher. without law. being wholly unten. the body of a tree or of a man. — . the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. is well explained by Tooke. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. a budget. Here the but implies the existence of an. a leathern bag. boquier. hull of a ship. If that where now we should compiler. belly. outside that moreover. Butcher. which the word corresponds to the Fr. Fr. Du. the precise correlative of but. bisgung. bitlga. a small winebag. a bottle. beccaro. Sp. without.' there is really a negation to be supplied.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. the mouth). Lang. the bottles. calf. OFr. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . boteria. (children) boc. skin-bag. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. as Pantler. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. collection of casks. equivalent of AS. trunk. properly a butan wite. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. by the mode in which he is treated. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. viz. Butler. — we acle for liquors. the belly.' Thus Chaucer says. from boc. a cask. gives at least two pounds sterling. As a conjunction but is in every portion. we find ben. Sp. able. G. without punishment . ' There is leathern bottle. an outlaw from bouche. Whatever is in addition to Butler._ bitten j biiten door. bous. buta. bol. also a hollow vessel . bouz. . are. from as. besides that . Coutume d'Alost in Diet. bout.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. botija. a goat (and not besides . a butcher. mais.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. bounds of. the Perhaps besogne — . bolgia. without buiten-man. bochier. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. a baiTel . without the house kept in bottles. beta. bitten dai. "PLT) . plain the conjunction as signifying boot. So in Italian from becco. and bot. bola. slaughter-house. . the present day we should say. bag made of the entire skin of an animal.' ' write. Tooke's dis. boccino. the store of ten. of the wine and drink. bute. Ben-house. a goat. bhcciero.jamin. in addition. the body of an animal. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E.streets.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. the name must have arisen before the within. A A . ways. a barrel. binnan. rotundity of the body. beccaria. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. without care. belly. be out. those in beccaio. the trunk or body of an animal. ox. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. tinction between but. body of a shirt w. Wall. Prov. ont jhi^ton. bodifie. the principal apartment. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . moreover. Sp. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. But It. Where at an earthen jar . bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. or what in in charge of the pantry. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. wooden receptthing to be done. Lang. The E. and the real origin of the and within . then hoUow trunk. is put in a class by himself. It. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. the jug and in E. ' Besides all that. the servant in charge of the original object. add.in which his brethren are included. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. barriga. hollow case. that which would be translated by Fr. sup- meat and drink. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. beyond the Piedm. but one thing. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . large barrel. botilla. bag. a butcher . rumpf. botte. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. butan ce. Fr. and with It. Fr. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. a butchery. earthen which the debtor has adverted. Buttery. young mais. to-boot. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments.' — — ' . original sense of without. viz. bouteillier. the full expres. a wooden cask. bountifully. bocin. bole of a tree. except. Butt. my is called the adversative use of but. belly. But In Sc. similar train of thought is seen in ON. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. calf of the ' say. bolr. AS. But when will you pay it ? the belly. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex.The Sp. butan. biitait slaughterer of goats . but Benjamin has a five-fold But.

both. W. boutoir. from bouter. to throw . An erection built up as a Fr. gigot. &c. butter un. to thrust. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. end . butt. thrust. a blow. Du. povrvpov. an ox. a hill. a dle . w. Button. boter-vliege. to femur. to boult flour. striking end. butt. oir spike with a k coup . a cask. suddenly . a boss. boteria. to so close to the Fr. to strike.. Perhaps corrupted Lat. to be con. Kil. of the present day. R. It. what is kept in a blow. boutis. Fr. Boutje. Bav. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. butte. Kil. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . to abut a stone roof. Gr. ment being supposed to resemble butter. grease that sets by merely standing. boding. tress. So in English pimples were fora clod. Butter-glass. buter. to cast. . signify a cask or tub. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. to bow. potacha. Du. butter. so as to make a sounding blow. a mound. bot blijven staan. The Bavarian potig. Boutant. is formed the augmentative buttatich. to thrust Fr. to thrust. Lang. See Butler. Fr. a button.rejected thing. Bav. to touch at the end. geboogsaem. AS. botto. Cot. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . the edge forwards. a little push . — . buttals. short thick thing pimple. a ribbed glass for dient. any small projection. from rejeter. the Butter-fly. to heap up earth or ihrust. submit shaking up salad sauce. thrust forwards. bottich. bodi'.to push. Du. botwm. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. Fr. Fr. Fr.— BUTT leg . as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. as in G. a mound of turf in a field to sup. hillock . humble.' thick from shaking. at. the trunk. lams-bout. to butt. bot. Btetter-schmalz. stump of a tree Fr. e. nursling. from the large knobbed head of botto. and the true derivation boar. Buttress. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. then the thigh or leg of an to push . nourrissons. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. a. bouton. * Buxom. &c. bocgsuin. Kil. buttare. boter-vogel. a large belly. To strike with the head bags. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. fowl. bud. buttock of beef is called butr. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. Du. pwtiaw. a barrel. — A . Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Fr. pwt. obedient. Du. bout. a leg of mutton. Schmell. buhsom. butter. butyrum. to thrust. aim whence to make a support to a wall. Fris. a tub. but. From Grisons biitt. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. a buttress Cot. a wall butor butt on. bot. the prick in the middle of a target. a bolt. are the strips at the edges of the field. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. having a rotundity . botte. Gris. butt of a person. butt. G. From Du. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. or or shore post. — . a button. stump. . coxa. thick. Fr.against another which needs support . Grandg. of E. botta. a blow. courtaud. botten. strike. large head. boil. to blad. from notirrir. pied. to push earth . botta. bottig. . fle>(ible. bata. put. Butter. To Butt. from bugan. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. i.thum and not button. Hal. as rejeton.. butte. : . to abut on. able that Chaucer. The word body itself seems identical with G. as if from Povg. caput scapula bout van f been. bocsam. a bot. dripping. a stump or club foot. Gael. a boss. a but in the W. an etwas anstossen. butz. on. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. boter-schijte. From the noise of drinkables in a house. obeto shake backwards and forwards. rabodd. clunis. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. a stroke di animal. trapu. a. bott. a scope. give way. nourrisson. but this is probably from Fr. Mur-buttant. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . -ez. tout seat or breech. to thrust . — A . Buttery. Buttock. boiUer. a bun. butteln. — — — — . in the R. waste ground. Schmell. bouton. clumsy . Buttrice. To come full butt against a butts. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. a flying buttress. the thigh of a goose. bothog. Hal.putan. or person Schmeller .arbre. Halma. from stossen. buttern. poke. a button. bouter. W. the rosebud. any short thick thing. A — — — . a heap of merly called pushes. a buttrice. a thrust the thigh-bone. the store of while bottich. the thick end. Bout van het schouderIt. Buttel-triib. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. bout. Sp. a corner horses' hoofs. bouter. leg of lamb. by boE. bodi.

big. bylove. leges urbanse ON. and boxome of speche xviii. bij. & Q. Many good mological explanation. to pass by. bauhta. blessing me with their of side. ON. bei. It. Originally the law of a particular town. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. to wit. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. to jan. A ful benygne buirde. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. to purchase for money. By-law. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. The sense of buxom.P. a buzzard or puttock. Sw. P. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. to stand at his side . OE. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. . Mercy hight that mayde. favourably to a petition. frabttg- To Buzz. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. Verstegan in R. and it is of good will. The ON. buzac. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. bar. as heedless as a cock-chafer. bi. to sell. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. confusedly. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. — 122 BUY P. A A We — — — days' wonder. train of thought which has become obso. to whisper. bohte. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. To Buy. Byre. p. See Abie. bugjan. favourable. buzzicare. Sw. to buzz. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. ii. 116. as Fr. byar-log. A by. 200. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. byar-rettr. AS. Du. lete. a town. —gracious of speech. bycgan. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. to swear with him by . a meke thynge with — alle. good-humoured one. AS. cow-house. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. Dan. farm. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro.. 3. byr. gracious.— Diet. as in Da. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. buteoj Fr. bozzago. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . \s\xy. CABAL Goth. son. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. . bi. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. stall. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. tions by one. a by-path is a side path .busardj Prov. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Pecock Repressor.in N. bylag. Then applied to speaking low. Etynj. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). depends upon a esteem in falconry. Goth. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. . bees. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. called Cabala or Tradition. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. buzarg.— P. harty prayers and God speedes. from whom it was addressed. indistinctly. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. bygge. a borough. a beetle. iii. from by. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. Cabal. G. village. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. and would have been lost in E. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative.. lb. town having separate jurisdiction. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. buso. It. jus municipii. who makes abigg. 21. 519. Lat. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. also say. abozzago. Buzzard.

traboccare. whence Lang. the Slavonian.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. Katr-iT-aKt. vile. Castr. OSp. dirt and the Fr. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. caables. serious injury — In like manner It. agge machen (in nurses' language). a cloak of felt or Cack. aakkat'a. . . filth. &c. as an expression of Gr. It. manticuKil. cabuccio. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. cadabulum. . — the ON. CABBAGE effecting a purpose .. gaban. to hurl in Nat. Kil. aak! tandi like Fr. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. cabane. —Diet. chadabula. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . Imitative of the cry of hens. kabaSsen. disgust.). come the Fr. Mid. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. headed or cabbage lettuce. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. Finn. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. cadabola.Gr.Lat. origin is the OFr. E. The name of the engine. su/Furari. Tugurium. cacare . and a cabal is a conclave of persons. cab. disgusting such an engine was exerted. Choux cabus. is probably unconnected. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. cabo. cabre. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. cabo. mdhaigner. &c. to put or pack up in a frail. a jacket Fr. for the origin of which see Carabine. a rope. Fr. Item habeat vocant. lactuca capitata. — . maim. Etym. Fr. havyar to caviare. agge. Fr. (ca/coe. Cabbage. hovel. Capstan. a car- We convasare. Ptg. caable. It is remarkable that the Esthon. Lang. chaable. a shed. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. Lith. : — from violence without blood. dirty. — . cadabalum. and Or. Cot. cabaii. Antiq. precisely in the sense of the lari E. properly windfalls.ticula. stercus. signifying properly a rope's end. Mid. and the Arab. It. Due. round or great headed. Very generally used. . Sw. as Turk. a booth or hut. Sp. cabbage. bad.Lat. cable . to crush. Fr. kabas. Due. . the Prov. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. To Cabbage. cabuyskoole. Mid. capanna. deponat a store closet. chabla. kakaloH.. w. a rope. gaggi. . main. 'habl. or rush basket. cdble. headed. has kabbel. kabat. disgust cac. agga. an engine for casting stones. — Kil. cab lis. manganare. laitue cabusse. Celtic. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Common to Lat. cabas. cabulus. forms indi. from manganum. Du. surripere. gabardme. overwhelm. Cabin. a head (whence cabochard. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. Cappa in OSp. to hurl down. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. nasty. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. OFr. name of the projectile engine. Fr. caqueter. Cablisb. chaable. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. form kactal. ckaable. or as an interjection of disMod. from trabocco. overwhelm (Diet. cabre. a headed cole or cabbage . to keep or Du. string. in which sense are explained The the OFr. caboche. whence Fr. hoard together. especially shepherd's frock. Du. heady. it would seem fundain children's language. Gaggle. cadabulum. or cadable. ceach / exclamation of guages.Lat. brassica — capitata. capo. accablcr. vincially used in E. The double a in the OFr. a tunic. Cot. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. and as we find stones Mid. as Diez supposes). a frail. a cabbage . aeggi. caable (in legal language). — Tarbe. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. Du. Lat. The Sp. head. giiare. To steal or pocket. OFr. a rope. It. From It. cabarino.' Due. cacare. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. dirty. and Finnish lanLat. hut. akista. gatsch. gaggele. originally an Gael. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. to chatter. Cabinet. OFr. wilful). E. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. geese. Didot. a covering. and Ptg. would correspond to cable. It. kakla. a rope or cable. cables. covering. the bowels. case. cabus. Sp. as it must have stood in French. — Ibid. Coticesserint Swiss aa. caable. to strain in such a manner . signifies down.. cabasser. cabacho. cadabula. ! — . seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. prostratio ad terram. calabre. Neckam — by the wind. kabane. dung. capuccio.. band. Brushwood — — B.

Sp. a small stone. just falling. — in a kiln. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. a low note. the pi. Dan. 124 prattle . Du. a calesh. Originally from a Slavonic source. calf of leg. or colpa na coise. kakulla. Calc-. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. the pith or soft part of wood. is probably delusive. cadere. gabbia. An open travelling chariot. loss. a cake or loaf. Due. Lat. Calamary. kdfich. Fr. principal and interest. to cackle . reed-pen. Calandre. a common cart. from calendcE. Sw. to heat. limestone. gabble. calentar.uv. gaggia. jabber. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. KaKKat. Calf of the Leg. kalb. kuchen. cauldron. ben- kalf. The young G. Cadge*. Flo. Sw. gabbia. . kdtr. calidus. kage. Sp. (in the augm. capCalenture. Cajol. captive. a wheel. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Fr. kalfi. colibro.warmth . Calcialate. form) calderone. caldaria. It. a car. to sleek hence a den. Roman reckoning. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. to . Lat. Russ. —Atkinson. a hollow place. frolicsome kaad mund. gabberen is identical with E. prate. a cylinder. Calendar. It. chaudiere. naXaiidpi. cabdillo. Lat. caldarius. a mischievous dial. caioler. To Calender. lime whence calcareous. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. * Calibre. Serv. A hooded carriage. a wheel . koeck. calibre. A . Cadet. cadet. calx. to cage. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. cake. Fr. cykevie. to — Fr. Cage. Cake. Lat. Cot. kaka. To Cajole. kalem. capitetum. kaeckelenj Gr. . Cadence. an ugly waggon kolaska. Du. dial. Du.— . Cot. its mother. * Cade. to throw themselves into the sea. a counter used in casting accounts. master. little chief. a wheel . from the ink-bag which it contains. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. pen Mod. In the same way Fin. frisky. a reed. calibre. Caddy. joyous . . calendrer. pi. or prattle. gaggle. boy. Arab. Calocli. calcis. Fr. hot. wanton.— Calliper. chetif. chaudron. En kaka br'od. on. signifies a waggon. kola. Lat. kolo. ratas. babbhng. . Sp. . Fr. the lump and the increase. hence musical rhythm. G. calesa. calentura. caliche. A cuttle-fish. taking it Sp. G. The Lat. gavia. Fr. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Mrs B. Cadaverous. Turk. Pol. loss. safe. incolumis. It is another form of the E. Perhaps from w. of the nature of lime to calcine. calidus. cha'cmie cadence. cage. a falling. Caitiff. kolesnitza. See Kiddier. Gascon capdet. It. Fr. an inkstand . ever and anon. N.Gr. a corpse. unruly . cavea. kauwe. a wretch. desire of land. roller. a wheel . the calf of the leg. Calash. From lerie. cadence. kolesb. cage. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. calessa. cadenza. when they are said to poor. wretched. a roller. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. the bore of a cannon. Du. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. a caFr. Calp is riadh. — — — Dan. whence Lat. a vessel for heating water. from Gr. cattivo (from Lat. Lat. calendarium. bad . Caldron. of oxen and similar animals. A — fall. It. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. It. Lat. As Du. ON. to compute. to gabble. Turk. Lat. kolasa. cageoler. a circle. lord. B. a calash . a waggon . of which. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). misfortune. Lat. Cot. Sw. KxiKivh^o^. calamus. without loss. to treat like lime. calamitas. from calculus. &c. Fr. disease of sailors from tivus). The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. kolyasochka. a dence. pith. the younger son of a family said to be from . cadaver. kaad. kalfvan hout. Calamity. Gael. from the Chinese catty. hot . Tea-caddy. kolo. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. calculo. to prate much to little purpose. Cauldron. It. cuttle-fish. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. pet lamb. Lat. The Calf. coll. a lump or large piece. especially of something soft. a fever. calpa. and troublesomely attached to. marrow. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. a loaf of bread. Lat. kukje. kail. dead body. coop. chattering. kat. collop. kolo. javioler. a tea-chest. or smooth Hnen cloth. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. one unduly indulged by. lindrus. kolyaska. ' . calba. rattaat (wheels).— Cot. for green fields. whence calash. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Dan.

longior. Sc.meaning of the word. form. push violently. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). of a column. calma. Fin. donderbuchs Sp. dial. and heat. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. alta voce ploro. a drab. calleting. CALM to press or stuff. vulgo Coluvrine. the Fr. So It. Fin. kallo. kind heat of the sun. moso. kal. given. Indies. bombarda Cauma incendium. khalif. According to Jal (Gl. tapulta. to calk. calcaich. Lang. to burn. brawny. from Calicut in the E. qAlab. which is as much as to say. femme frivole et babillarde. cahna. caillette. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). and E. To call. chatter kallen. whereas in troth it is not. saucy. B. tittle-tattle. glotton. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. which has its memory preserved in Du. caliver. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. caluw. Sir John Smith in Grose. Sup. cauma. Among these were the turn. couleuvre. colubrina. a round of abuse. — Fl. kalla. them &c. calo. Lat. Heb. bald. kal. try. abto suppose that E. to rail or scold . Sp. Turk. quiet. calcare.' Winter's Tale. koluvre. quA librd. coluber. heat. harquebus or handgun. Gael. to cram. to callet. Calm. Mahn derives it from Lat. to be of a good or bad quality. ululo Turk. the Fr. calicot. serpens. kael. overscalmaccio. The origin is Gr. sence of wind.' Whitby Gl. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. a soldier who the It. Diet. to call. licht stuk The change from a. Fr. Caliph. — — — — — . calibre. Call. KaXka.en~ kinds of firearms. u to an I in such a colubrum. calibre. an adder. to prattle. Derived by some from Arab. Fr. depreciatory term for a woman. Du. The word was also written cawme in OE. calclover. to affirm. cotton cloth. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. hallottaa. cauque. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. Kil. Mil. fistula. skin hardened by labour. calc. to hear. coulevrine. Mid. calvus. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. diameter of a ball. Dief. moist. It. Fr. whence couleuv. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. faint. serpentina. Ca. hot. The reference to heat is preserved in. ram.' Chaucer. prattle. drive. a last. hollaing. Bi.from Ka'tm. a successor. faint. 'A callet of boundless tongue. the heat of Now these Du. scalmato. Unfledged. or mould. Diez. by many that the weapon Callous. and sometimes a handgun. ' rine. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. or languishing drought is . the scalp or skull. E. colubraria canna.(jaa= ice). the latter of chamber. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. To drive tow or oakham. Antiq. voice. calat of leude demeaning. Ibid. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. scold. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. coluber also.position is much less common than the geschut. piece of bigger circuite. dragoon. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. kol. Sp. chatter. to say. can be distinct from ODu. NE. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. calgua. ' pert. kil-u-kal. sclopus. . a. calca. and dragon. Fr. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. having a thick skin. Ptg. culverin. gossiping. Hard. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. Gr.. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. nautique). a good calling. calare. The primitive colubrina bombarda. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. whehce it was first brought. to call. calor. AS. people's remarks. * Caliver. or caliever. kahcwe. dragonder. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. sound. calma. oldire from audire. calme. Due.piicede Lat. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. quality. the hard surface of the ground. klover. i. Kil. however. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. sestus. Lat.' Slange. word of mouth . 125 Prov. water-tight. * Callet. form in the kalib. Kavfia. to proclaim. callus. — — — — — . to abuse .— . a feathers. To century was Squalibre. harden by pressure. Callow. trull. heat.Lat. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. overheated.' But it is hard Du. on. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. of the bore of a firearm met. Calico. done with heat Alt. but is only a jda-kallo. calk. to tread. callum. To Calk. the day. . thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is .

Turk. a large drinking . A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. to glow. a piece. callar. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. is Cambering. Mid. . a may have acquired that signification from plain. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. died in 1526. a caught. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. A — the Cannibals. samon. Mod. mg Canister. Palsgr. lie level. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. E. cAouma. aspirant. or hollow of a flower. Lat. Fr. It was distinfrom work. whence Fr. Cann. the spersed with white flakes like curd. See Canker. the type of a hollow pipe. Sp. cam^e. a goblet bud. from candere. open and level ground. clothed in white. a basket. campus. had no r in de bric— Cot. E. co7nbar. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. campagne. ko/utuXoc. to jut. Arab. to bend. — B. Bret. callour. chandelle. to bow. Ptg. Campaign. different sections of the like the Chinese. candidus. a' Sc. Properly calver in the field during a war. Caloyer.' Forme of Cury in Way. ckaouma. lattice. camaien. having an aquiline nose. or Caribs. camafeo. E. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. It. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. crooked. camiscia. a crab. camiscieia. — — — A — — escume de saumon.who their language. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. slander. cambre. Peter Martyr. In a different application It.— B. Camlet. Lat. Camel. chaitcre. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. Fr. Lat. water chamlet . Gr. It. Cambrav—Cam. cere : Lat. bis. cup. frank and sincandidatus. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. to warp. Lat. calutmiia. w.—Candidate. cancer. champagne. a. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. From fluting or furrow in a column . Fr. unwater chamelot . lame. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. toile some of whom. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. also an eatmg sore. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. hooked. Cot. an eating. aged. a dog.—Cambrel. arched. catmneo. crooked. Camp. kanna. Or the word Lat. Fr. Fr. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. field . crooked-stick. spot for cattle. camp. camahutus. cup. se cameloter. canistrum. Camisade. B. the bed of a stream. the salmondis faillis thair loup. fresh.. campagna. the calix. Sp.' ' Quhen a lattice. Cancer. crooked. From campus was formed Lat. Candid. It. Cambray. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. champ. campaign. Pers. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. KafitjUe. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. Sanson khanda. paign. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. KafivTu. to break. sore. crook. at the ends. Cameo. fair. camelus. brought from Fr. higher in the middle than Fr. Kakoycpos.— Hackluyt in R. Lat. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. Calumny. It. to bend. . Canine. sugar. It. to the force of the wind. calj'x. monk. The Grisons cauina. cancello. It. camber-nosed. would plenier. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Fr. arched. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet.— Chandelier. chamold man. campren. when its substance appears inter. chommer. camisa. cambr^. cambrer. ation.Gr. Cambrel. campagna. canis. Canibal. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. is Candle. candela. Lat. canna. to avoid enemy in their shirts. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. — Lat. An eater of human flesh. campo. Calyx. from xaXbg. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Fr. across — Bellenden in Jam. salmon.Lat. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. — Cancel. white. Canker. camelot. the space of false imputation.—Jam. cainahelus. whence the noun signifying an applicant. camisade. nia. the heat. Gr._ kamm. Lat. Cambric. good. Candy.conduit-pipe. Canal Channel. arch. a. cambren. whence the Fr. Fr. India Islands. on. campo. properly good country. and yspiuv. icaSoytipoe. B. Calver of cane. Sp. a field Greek monk. canalis.

Kavutiriiav bed curtain. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. and tref. hamlet. B. rumme. Wtb. But it may be different source. kapamak. the heel. capevole. Esthon. a cover Turk. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. cannevaccia. a rule or standard of excellence. canonici. Cot. canto. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. a cloak. a drinking glass. Canteen. cannu. quarter . . chantel. root cap.Gr. Fr. a cloak kapali. cappa.— Cot. and the sex- &c. lump. speech. kandt-broodts. Picard. quarter. that the G. like a torch or candle. a pipe. pipe. a corner. cappe.n. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. kand. Probably only the augmentative of canto. a reed. a straight rod. capax. cannevo. . Kil. a gelding. cantred. If the word had been from cantherius. To his judicial And trowl the tile. Du. also a measure. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. Fin. to con- rummer. a horn of the moon . and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. a hunch of bread. cappe. The word seems to be taken from Gael. carcase . hirnschlapple. as. KCLvva. cover . to sing. chanteau. kanta. a cantle of bread. &c.CANNEL vessel. from cant.Gr. coarse hempen cloth Fr. canevas. Capari. cane. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. territorial hundred. able to receive. was formed Kavtiiv. a — A — Cannel Coal. Prov. cantone. The — . It. the part easiest broken off. as a cantle of bread. Lat. a Fr. cantina. It. A piece of anything. Swab. kantr. canapa. a hundred. a torch. Canton. the tried list of saints. Mod. Jonson. schlapp. Fr. hemp. a scull- — here. Alamannis. from canna. Of vena cava and of vena porta. From Lat. Capable. the heel.. or hold. Sp. cantref. a cap. Cope. Palsgr. It. language. Sp. he discourseth of dissection. kq. Goldast — in in Schmid. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. properly a large Prov. See Capt-. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. It. cane. a small boat. a ruler. a ship canot. part. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. Coal burning with bright flame. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. Mod. cane. It. coat. canton. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. A . cane. Cannoii. hood. which is not the case. regular. astrology. W. Capacious. call. to put upon sacred writers. a division of a country. caparazon. quito curtain. contain. haitt. and met. Canoe. canapaccia. N. kyndel. cheese. side. . cannabis. Sp. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. measure for cloth. Diez. From Gr. a side. Again we have Lat. capace. Canopy. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. a wine-cellar or vault. tain. to contain. canteau. capello Italis. it would have been found in the continental languages. canonicus. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. Germanis kdppen. Gael. a reed.^on. It. canon. Schwab. chape. and hence a gobbet. Cape. from Dan. cover kapi. say. Cantle. can. signifying cover. border Dan. from a Canter. Canon. cannone. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. capa. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. a cane. has kahn. See Chape. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. The meserseum and the mesentericum. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. KaTTiram. OFr. canvas. name. Cant. It. margo panis diffracta. kwvwxIi. cantle then is a corner of a thing. canoa. cape. a boat. coarse hemp. cope. being a yard or thereabouts . clqse. Fr. shut. A slow gallop. from . hemp. . leiwan kanta. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. edge. To Canonise. kynnel. the quartile. To canvas — . or cantell of bread. cainnt. corner. to shut. schlappen. Kavt\. kaput. border. &c. Canvas. Hence Lat. gnat. a door . Gugel. covered. a tube. ON. is found languages of very different stocks. region. trine.

a hedge-hog. castrated. and also a skittish or humorous tastical.standing on end. of a tremtdoiis sound. as Fr. curly. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . shivering. brezilia. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. I have shivered with love. It. frissoner. to shiver. Arab. roughening of the skin. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. — — A a hair. the singing'bone). <I>pi'?oe. knis. is either wholly lost. as Fr. the principal part of the debt. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. Torriano. with joy' Vikram. Fl. A . Lat. frisson- ner . gives rise to brezza. shivering. or other things. riccio. a little head. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. abridge amKoTroq. Capital. where Burton adds in a note. ribrezzo. belonging to From caput. Griller d'im' patience. And similarly to yearn. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. to twitter as birds. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. curling. brug. frisser {frissement d'un trait. It. ^piKos. knis-hujwud . humorous. A headland. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. kid. curl. to crackle. rissoler. a caterpillar. end. capitulare. as the means of earning profit. p. to parch. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. It. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. the initial mute of forms like Gr. a yearning through sudden fear. a goat. as Fr. s'hdrisser. a kid. caprice It. G^' Many words — ' ndv. frort^Lat. erica. or Lat. cappriccio. Capillary. gives rise to Sc. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. horror. and his body bristled We to castrate. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. a caper in dancing.Gr. hi. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. II bresole (Gl. brisoler. . caprice. Hal. greziller. It. capriola. then find the symptoms of shivering. bruco. Unexpected pleasure. capillus. the head. a ch illness. CAPRICE twittering. to broil. brisciare. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. the hair to stand on end. to tingle {I'os qui bresole.) grezille marid. greziller. ticchio. capitalis. as in Lat.— Fl. of a coach. upon terms Sp. fansuddenly angry. Acad. grillcr. ericius. to crackle. capro. aggricciare. a chevret. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. Lat. grisser. Fr. frizzle. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . grisser. cApre. algabr. to shiver for cold. To treat Capitulate. capparis. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. crackling sound Cape. sault. or goat's leap (done by a horse). heath. Hence capitalis the sum lent. principal. cover of a saddle. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. to . w. Capers. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. brissle. explained by Diez from capra. Sp. castrated cock. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. hair. a buck.' Cot. Lat. Mod. cut off.— 128 CAPE a rustling. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. It. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. to broil. Lang. brisciare. then to be in a state of vibration.) d'etre The It. to shudder. shrub. gricciare. the hair to stand on end. herissonnement. capar. hedge-hog.). capriole. also the capriole. a . It. they longed extremely to see it. a capriol. to from capitulum. grug. chattering of the teeth. wriggle. Cot. bristling. arricciarsi. to desire earnestly. and with an initial gr instead of br. the head. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. then to shiver or shudder. Fr. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. to ruffle the surface of water. compared with Bret. Fr. eruca compared with It. Genevese bresoler. Fr. horripilation. airoKOTrrw. Lat. cut. or. It. So from Sw. according to the Hindoos. a young kid met. h^risser. birsle. a separate division of a matter. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. and 7tucc. Hair-like. to fry. capriol or caper in dancing. caj)o. rihrczzoso. Caper. It. The same imitation of Capon. The true derivation lies in a different direction. chief. for which he cites the Comask nucia. and OHG.impressions on the ear. alcaparra. bristling.' — (Supp. 75. prickly husk of chestnut. gricciare. or represented by the syllable e. brisciare. See Chief. a head. It is probable that Gr. Caprice. caper j caprio. arricciarsi. ziki. — to yearne. of a fowl. toy.'— Trev.

i The meaning Car. Fr. It. -cept. bock. See Caper. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. caput. In cases. receptus. to take to. to accept. to receive receptio. Du. Capt-. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. commander. however. conception. chevre. Cot. Caseneuve in Diet. calabrino. or the (capo-riccio). karra. Capsule. also a kind of rack. — — Capstan. capuccio. except. de- price. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. and of captus to an e. G. decepte. also tresFl. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. one odd. Capstern. box. karista. a cart. crab s. to creak. to load . recipio. cams. where it forms a very large class of compounds. captus. of capsa. deceit. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. a creaking waggon. recevoir. case. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. capio. cabreia. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. — —Diet. chirriar. a sudden fear apprehended. Lat. cabra. -cept. Fr. crepo. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. a capuchin. It. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl.). char. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. di cappa. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. concevoir.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). caricare. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. was originally a missile . and tropically. Carry. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. concept. a sawing-block or trestles. charger. was converted into -ceb. Du. Fr. captivate. Cart. &c. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. to this is It. chirrion.s. of the Sp. contain.or -cib-. Sp. oisr. Fr. a kind of torture. recepte. Lat. as the dragoons (Du. strideo. was a kind of horse soldier. Captain. captive. a head man. fantastic. karren. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. It. recipere. . Etym. a coffer. and has thus descended unaltered to English. charret. to take baclc. capitis. The It. It is a standing crab. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. as in OFr. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. a reception. carretta. desire. It. caThe hrestante. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. Crab. Derivatives are Fr. Carabine. sels. tnoschetta. a cloke) capuccino. Lat. hold. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. also to carry on a car . It. kerren.. Fr. In the S. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. concipere. OSp. as in accipio. cabestrantej Fr. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. Capriole. karrende waegen. krul. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. conceive. Sp. Fl. conceit.). an engine for throwing stones. perceive. dim. latterly. cabestan. recibir. precept. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. carro. caprice. at least. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. a hood (dim. It. concebir. fancy.of these compound verbs. from head. and has accordingly been lost in E. Lat. calabrin. a sudden will. capra. the -cevofthe Fr. capp%tccio. a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. verbs gives rise to the element . Passing on into E. Carbine. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. to take. Fr. capitano. a she-goat. Capuchin. capsula. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. a. &c. Castr. carabin. It. 129 — receive. cabrestante (whence e. Neumann. a taking back. Fr. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. acceptus. Carabin. -ceive. Kiittner. a. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . seize. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. Cot. &c. a hooded friar. shivering fit (Altieri). Nordfoss. to creak. Thus the musket. accept. charrier. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. a windlass. to carry . intercept. deception. a fantastical humour. to please.. trestle. whence capture. Fin.

the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. . and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. quilato. for a gun. eitar. W.. a firelock. Carbonaceous. a gem resembling a live coal. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. turning. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . . and so could not have given its name to the carboy. properly a siege machine. a prison. a thistle. the carob bean. Carrob. to turn. wool card. Bohem. Parmesan cassiron. Sp. to card wool.Gr. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. Lith. Caravel. to card wool. kard boyd. quse vocant karabd. Carcase. Lat. carcame. Cot. a winding staircase. carquan. garafa. bock and Fr. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. also a small weight. . ' Vasa vitrea. silique. Cat. avSpaS. carbunculus (dim. caraffe. It. Gael. Carboy. carta. a quiver. boch. . to comb. decanter. ON. karra. carcasa. krciti. constraining .. the husk or cod of beans. confining. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. Gr. fire . and catapulta. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. a snail. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. eit. From the battering-ram. Carat. carquasse. or framework. Carcax. Lat. skeleton toise. Fr. Gael. shell. cassa. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. a crane. mural attack. the shell of a torcarcasso. Comp. karszti. carbo. cabrita. cardo. Gael.applied to a battering-ram (G. restraint . a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. carabe. case. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. an engine for hurling stones. of the same Caravan.z. a skeleton. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. poison eiz. carbh.. karri. caracal. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. skeleton. to comb wool . half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. of carbo). Fr. a goat. — seems to be something holding together. cerran. to curry horses karsztuwas. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). Carbuncle. a quiver. the . bend. alia sunt majora. Venet. Derived in the first edition from Mod. casso. burning coal. tcapKaai. kirat. Caraool. a case or chest . It. ancient springald. is the chine. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. vitriol. a small weight. a wool card. a card or comb . contract. the carcase of a fowl. carcanada. skeleton. a ripple for flax. caravela. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. carabba. coming to four grains. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. cabra. a ship. copperas. Cot. &c. to hiss (as gee^e). the name might naturally Mod. the core of fruit . Ptg. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. matter. It. The radical meaning . a twist. a lock of wool . It. carcaij. word is only an adoption of the Turk. Exot. turn of a horse. a he-goat. Sp. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. p. carate. I. carch. kerwan. a kind of ship. Sp. wine- bottle. a quiver . &c. espi7igarda. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. to draw in. &c. a collar or chain for the neck.. winding carach. Gael. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . the trunk or chest of the body . Arab. Fr. KtpaTwv. carcanet. AS. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. Sp. winding. cabreia. cdrlag. It. carquois. seed of carob.' From the same source are SicU. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. is the word used in modern Lat. a thistle. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. curry-comb. The Trjg xeXwwac. Gr. designated in the case of G. chevre by the name of the goat. to ripple flax. . Pers. Fr. also (as Gr.Gr. Card. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. car. carduus. the case of the flesh. carere. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. Mod. OHG. in the same way that the Sp. carmiiiarc. to creak. black dye. cramp. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. Sp. military engines made for hurling stones. a battering-ram). the dead body of any creature. caraffa.— — — . card. An implement for dressing wool. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol.charcoal .. a coffer. See Carpenter. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. a quiver . a machine for casting large darts. «capa'|8i. a dead carcase. an ulcer.

ress. . stridere. Peas steeped and fried. Caricature. in St Jerome. from carus. charnel. principal. caricatura. and sum. Carnage. see Garble. weyes. cdrle. Fr. road. . caricare. carminare. Roquef. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. carener. carnal. voce strepo stridente. cargo. carch. charta (Gr. Cot. the old theory of humours. charneux. Fr. . Properly. kumra. scharren. carnis. mutter. — — . caritia. bottom. or street. to fry or broil. and compare Bret. karout. care on. sorrow. car. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. 1S66. A quirito ut infans. AS. Carnal. gakaran. Sept. Properly a car-road. x'»P'"^s)) paper. and thin. carnalis. four. . to care unkarja. is to say. karry. caru. grolU. a man. . essere in carena. intrasset caro. and murhet. quadrifurcum from quameet. a deed. carena. to load. Cartel. fundamental. from the keel to the water . karl. male person. G. to shake. It. carian. Dan. A place where four roads Mid. kroU-erbser. the keel. Fr. Fr. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. an overloaded representation of anything. Sp. carcare. that Fl. It. carina. moeThe Lat. w. to love. From. For the root of carminare. to comb flax or hemp. carena. as peas. cardinis. to card wool. Coll. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. Carled peas. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. Trin. appertaining to the flesh. Farewell flesh. It. carezza. care. to load. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. kribina. Lat. camovale. surrata. OFr. murren. is This however Shrove tide. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. chartre. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. solicitous. like connection may be seen between Fin. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. Carl. Translated in MS. Probably the origin of the word is the . from carrus. carcus. murahtaa. to whirr (schnurren). A medical term from line —Boerio. OHG.— Charter. hoed. carriera. quaver a lazar's clack. — Carfax. to eat flesh. . strideo. what is felt as grievous. tremble. ignarus. Carenare. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. love. Gael. parched or carled. that on wliich the matter hinges. clown or churl. It. as quadrivium from Carnaval. piger. carriire. kargr. to scratch. or grumbling —Due. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. W. msstus. caresse. one of those ac- 9 * . Carminative. p. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. meet at a head. to take Goth. cearig. Bois crolant d'un ladre. to lie on its side. Fr.' Slceat. the hull of a ship. niggardly . ceorl. cura intenta. Charnel. sensual. & Q. as carminare. karg. place for exercise on horseback. winding. record. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. It. graller. charnage. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. a highway. the load of a ship.. caMid. act of moaning. asper. morosus sum. . &c. charg. AS. kummer.. Fr. sgritudo animi. grief. the time during which to Rom. in N. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. W. to rumble. charie. Fin. also a career on horseback. wool cards. compared with Fin. Fl. zanken . karrig. AS. ON. Cot. croller. dear. to load. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. . to scrape . astutus. carnavale. giierlir. Venet. carnasciale. be anxious. Ptg. sorrow. fleshy . an endearment. affection. Mur. careless take care of. Cargo. cura may be ror. crawl. Groler. a turn. to parch. the flesh of animals . Chart. rixosus. Bret. 2. a card. to comb wool.— CARD karr-kambar. Card. 8. Cath. carFrom carrus. G. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. cearian. the several meanings of the words above Rom. Sp. W. murista. combing them out like the knots in wool. Cark. in Carp. stingy. charag. Fin. from caricare. It. to distress growl. — — — : Cardinal. A mod-carag. tuorfurcm (Burguy). crosier. Cot.Lat. de Parthenay. charger. cardo. soUicitus OSax. Fr. Champ. E. Carlings. morosus. to clean the bottom of the ship. Bret. regar. No ' place there had. beans. whence carricare. to fry. carrefourg. cargar. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. kara. tenax. at murmuring. and G. the keel of a vessel. a hinge. quarreG. immediately before the long fast of Lent. It.Lat. Lat. crowl. ON. Care. to growl. kurista. karista. — — — Caress. karantez. — To Careen. Fr. from Lat. — — Diez. 273.

i. The tippling sots. Fr. Carnevale. culcitra. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. a drinking cup. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Pm. — — ' ' — — — I — — . 2. Cot.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin.— Patriarchi. skraf. Carole.' Reg. ballare. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. biheld without. course. charpentier. linteamen. quoted by Carpentier. I drink all out. Gael.' Raleigh. chatter. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. Sp.'— Stat. So gone they forthe. used for stuffing mattresses. maker of waggons It. as Fr. to find fault with. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. of Guiana. lint. a plank. Pref. to pluck. carpat (Stokes). Sup. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. Ein we find the signification transferred from . the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. Lat. garrulo. . pluck at. Analogous R. krapanj. garrire.Lat. Teut. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. to dance. cxciv. i. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. Dief. a wheelwright. at midnight which derivation from kroes. Shrove Tuesday. balade from It. I quaught. a carder. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. carpenta. ' ' — . Mid. zimmerspan. On this. whence the form carnasciale. on that. tattle. koroll. carpia. tymmer. All out B. W. all aus). carpenticre. Templariorum — ' — Due. From Lat. yede tham about. Bohem. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. Discov. carpo. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. The custom. carpere. Mediol. . Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. . each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. is erroneous. to dance. was formed Mid.' says Motley (United Neth. and Carnem laxare (It. In Dominica d'autant. Alluz (G. to chatter coroli. Carnelevale. or loose as a couch without further preparation. carpende fast Carol. carpenter only in the latter sense. to pull asunder.Why give's some wine then. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. ON. Carpenter. chariot carbad. On the other hand bumper to one's health. carpetam (a quilt?). The karole of the stones behelde. bier. charpie. Pr. as the Lat. act of drinking a full Eq. 94). Nomin.Lat. in Carp.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. in Nat. litter. to talk. zimmer.— R. Biheld within. The word seems of Celtic origin. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words.— Neum. 216. a song accompanying a dance then. 2.' Ordo Eccles. querole. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. e.]e bois Carnelevale. in Due. as E. Lat. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. and F. a dance. Carpet. Carpitam habeat in lecto. The ' ' a chariot. 760.gonnella. 1 1 30. carpita. to gather. Mid. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. Beggars Bush. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. carduz. chatter skra/a. Chanson de carole. Lat.— Drant in R. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. Bret. Other names of the sea. carnelascid). qui sacco. CarTo quaff carouse do use.Lat. as carnaval from carnelevamen. carpetrix. gar aus / all out is correct. cardos. cited by Marsh. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. carbh. chirp. — .D. Fr. or a carouse fully drunk up. gonna. sense. to rustle. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. Gower in Way. peta. carpentum. A. fabulor. pluck. Here's to you still my captains friend. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. a wheelwright. vel coopertorio carebit. krapati. to reel. differing To Carp. a car carpentarius. Properly a round dance. ship. In a MS. Olr. Palsgr. To pledge them thou refuse. Ant.: . Carpyn or talkyn. worker in timber Fr. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. ! Carouse.

all manner of carts or carriage by carts. crush. the money chest. cashiered. annul. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. Fr. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. to slay. properly to convey in a car. caisse. to cut or carve . capsa (Diez). casco signifies a skull. Hence casket. a of water. charogne. — Cartoose. from Lat. an augmentative from Lat. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Preparatory drawing of a It. charrier. Sp. To Carve. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . Cash. Casuist. abrogate. Gael. Fr. To quash an indictment. hollow. fortuitous. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. something that actually occurs. from It. and that apparently from capio. The carrying of anything. Fr. turn out of service. To Cashier.' Fl. pasteboard. packing ' cloth.. cascade. subject for a picture. a long coat. kirpti. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. Fl. It. — FI. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. a coffer or small case for jewels. Fr. a chest. Cot. cassette. Carrot. bag and baggage of a camp. Rouchi carone. Rouchi carpHe. Case. carretto. Fr. augm. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Cascade. It. Flor. a fall. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. a merchant's cash or counter. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. cassa. See Case. Sp. caroach. Du. It. cassa. mata. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. discharge. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. bitten. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. dim. Carriage. It. AS. It. To duash. carota. Walach. carroccio. carogna. cia. for the security of the defenders. cascare. cartilage. a car. casag. Fr. CartOTicli. The Sp. Cart.to annul. kasseren. Case-mate. cancelled. the charge of — — Fr. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. not reaching to the height of the ditch. and matar. carroc- carrozza . cartone. to convey in a cart. Hence a challenge openly hung up. of carro. Lat. case-maiej Sp. casa. Lat. cut with scissors. Du.' Bailey. casa-maita. carreaggio. coffer. paper. coffin of paper for groceries. a car. cartoccio. also the carriage. As defence from shells became more important. — — . without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. carretta. Cot. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. from It.' — Hdcart. Casual. Fr. shell or carcase of a house. from casa. a chance or accident. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. casacca. It. cascata. like all the names of tendon. cascar. See Card. See Gristle. Lat. a paper case. house. Rouchi carter. and the OE. to break. to hold. fall It. Fr. gristle. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. afterwards any written challenge. as we . Cask. where Fr. casitiste. crown of a hat. Fr. Lith. caisse. Cartel. casso. cassus. caisse. It. krat. luggage.' Cot. carriaggio. kerpu. a canonry or slaughterhouse. casus. Cassock. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. cartella. carrosse. cartouche. vault hole in a fortified wall. Fr. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. blotted out. charrette. quash. a hut. an act of falling. — Cartridge. Rouchi caroche. Fr. to an- — Kil. ' Casa-matta. to shear. one who reasons on cases put. Carrion. kerven. break to pieces. made void. to crack. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. discharge It. OE. caxa. To Carry. card. augmentatives of carro. to fall. Lat. cassere. caroche. tion from Sp. to fire on the enemy.— Fl. des rideaux A'carp^ie. casaque. gristle. — — nul the proceeding. hull of a ship. case. Fr. to bear or carry. casser. void cassare. casualis. from the sound it makes when Alban. ceorfan. It. It. Probably. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. to dash. helmet. AS. ignominiously exposed. Ready money. slaughter-house. mord-grube. hung up in some place and to be removed. G. caro. Case. Cartoon. mord-keller. empty. a loopscale the wall. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. cancel. casuelj Fr. of carta. Fl. long man's gown with a close body. corresponding to the G. kerben. quasser. Casque. to notch. Casket. to — — also casse.

bot-kotis. . first made ordinary Fr. Chase. The Diet. like that of It. Cat. kotas. squash. chat. dashing it out of the window. Castanets. So also from It. casipola. Pm. the ground . says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. cat-o'-nine. Hal. coming to us through different dialects of French. Pol. race. kotas. kasta. OFr. down. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. a fortified place. a garment for performing the mass in. to break. kic' kicil are used chasser. to make clean or chaste. which has been retained in E. burst cascare. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. to Fl. Brunne. signifying breed. Catalogue. Gr. speak of dashing a thing down. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. to dash. V Lith. R. Lat. Gael. — We a cavity. cacciare fuora. execu. ON. Fr. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. to end. to torture. casser. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. castana. ichasses. Fr. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. in the fire. &c. kaJoivad. from the first of Castrate. under chi caleur. shaft of a 1 push. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . to hurl See Awgrim. _G. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. fall. to look at. castro. crush . dim. To It. from water Karappaaaiii. kissa.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. rack. image accasciare.out cacciare . . Gr.. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. the earlier sense of catch. and from the castus. B. to drive Cat o' nine tails. Yz. It.Rouchi Scaches. was introduced.. dashing it to pieces. to fall as over a precipice. Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. stilts. Fr. puss / for calling them. castanetazo. Others explain it from Kara. to drive away. KaTappaKTrjQ. It. same word with break. It. KarapaKrr]g. is not satisfactory. heat . name. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). klakka. 134 CAST Catacomb. fer toTa. follow after. kakka. catar. In the dialect of Picardy. . catch. represented by the syllable quash. sue. drive away. a vault. cacciuolo.'— Pr. Cast. Pic. to crack. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. a little house or hut. casupola. perhaps from which we have E. chasuble. by the loss of with several pitched cords. and KviilSog. a cat . the stalk of plants. Fr. punch. cacciarc. Mid. dash. of castrum (castra). away. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. Etym. Fr. . cojz^/a. Sp. the castanets for or implement . have before seen under Cape and Cabin. Fr. Thus we have Caste. to close. V. a whip on the other into latch. accastiare. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. being Fin. The E.to drive out. of sarabands does Gr. Lat. or comba. ating. to is Essentially the Sp. koshka. Isidore — in Diez.the / or c respectively. casulla. mino. Fr. castellum. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. chasser. To Catch. a chesnut . The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. castello. which. to scourge. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. to hunt. kat. casule. Roukind. ecrevisse. handle of an axe. kasi. cassa / cry for the same purpose. on. arpi^m. probably from an imita. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. an enumerlist. lance. to turn overturn. second chase. cascar. Fr. KaTaarpifm. Cot. or Rouchi cat. down. to lash. cat. kottr. to crackle. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. Castle. puras E. a cat koshki. KaraXoyog. to bring to an crack given by the joints. tails. chaleur. Fr. however. force j Rouchi equerviche. torture.Lat. n. chasser. Lang. Catastrophe. cash. a thump. 'Vaaaw. and tomba. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. a Cataract. 120. while kiss / Pol. or bruise together.— Fl. Sp. . squash. ' Catchyn away abigo. katze. to cast or beat to tioner . cast. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Hence castaneta. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. to clack.

klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . E. chatter . snatching it with a any one. called in Fr. latch of. On Catechism. klatsche and Norm. Kil. G. Fr. to catch strength. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. as of the latch of a As ! — . an accusing. caucht. to harangue. — explained. flap klatsche. 135 — Aasen. a caterpillar Milanese can. Gael. — B. the elements of a science. door when it is shut. dainty vic- a form lash. to the crack. . speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. bicho. claquer. a whip. blow. . pedes. GaUa catchiza. Cates. KaTtix'so. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. devouring mite or weevil. fragor kletsoore. gattola. called dog or Galla catchamza. cache. chenille {canicula.from Bard and ayopsw. which all . a whip Rouchi cachoire. whip. predicament. Sc. resono ictu lash..) . resound. smack. Ptg. to crack GATES cache. Du. ketsoore. a carter's Pat. woodlice. to teach by oral instruction. Swiss Lombard G. klatschen. ' Fr.s. Cot. s. chink. has both or of charming by sound. Gr. in order). a little dog). . a — gatta. chasse. compare G. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . the the same principle he was Fr. formerly called cliket. gliong. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. 'Bxn. chacepol. to clap hands. Kil. the distance to which the ball is struck. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. catch-flesh. P. weevils. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. Du. ArbaUte de courte chasse. Guernsey pilleure. Claucht. an officer of taxes. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. i. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. latch. . companaige. ecachoire. — Catcli-poll. is said that he got a claucht of it. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. OFr. Caterer.V. chachara. * Caterpillar. klinke. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. millecaterpillars. E. a whip. happe-chair. Fr. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. and answer. to kythe D. to snatch (said of dogs). clap with the hand. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. kletse. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. klatsch. 'Horxa.' CATCH Fr. quincailler. to chatter with the teeth cake. clatter. clap. cat is not apparent. icarrix'Ki^. Cot. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. a pill. verberare kUts. apprehend a person. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Tutschek. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. a. children's name for cat . Chate peleuse. to chat. the OE. — Kiittner. a clap. catch. insect. with and without an / after the c. a. ictus resonans. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. Diez. snatched. e. dainties. Kartiyopta (/cari. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. chassoire. a smack. Grandg. catch. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. Gael.j. to A bailiff. klatscherei.yopl(. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket.V. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. snatching. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. wild-beast.P. de Bray. Guernsey chafer. chase. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). c or ^. bichano (pussy). the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. sound. catc?u. — tinman. glcu. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. worm. caker. or any kind of relishing food tuals. In the XV'e.' ^Jam. to take. from Gr. . to snap. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. kaetse. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . Metivier. from shutting with a click. Wal. cagnon (a dog). Sp. head. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. — . Fr. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. * Cates. e. silkworm. a cornIn the s. ' ' word catch. chatter. E. Rouchi clincailleux. gingle. a whip or Kuttner. Du. instruction in forms. kletsen. seize. — with a whip.

Caustic. Cathedral. what . B. a horse . . to sound like a blow . cautis. challe was ther of a temple. Cavalcade. Caballus. fur in general. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. the stones of a street. capull. Cause. Lat. OE. having the property of cleansing. net or caul-work. kin. to shoe . KaPaWrii. Lat. kobyla. catkins . Richly she feeds. Lat. minon. primitive is meaning a shale or off. a pulpit. Lat. to shoe. cabbage). little cap is . catnever sells — — Cauliflower. calceata. puss. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. otherwise written kell. Provider. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. puss. The word — . It. reticella. Cathartic. to ac- — Fr. cauHs. Cattle. a mare. CATHARTIC sense. a stalk. Fr. — — cavallo. little cat. chausser. Cavern. walnut with the husk on challer. deyntie meates. Thus Bav. mutz. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. a receptacle for small things. a The peel. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. w. Lat. and hence a skull-cap. hot. acater. — . ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. a seat. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. macska. a road calceata. Gael. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. shaled or picked Fr. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. cale. Palsgr. . . hollow. . kopano. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Gr. a horse . dumpf tonen. Cavalier. a branding from koiio. Kil. calotte. catkin Magy. cavus. Sx. caudex . Mid. causa. kdtzchen. Fr.Lat. catons. Dryden in R rete.p. KiwariKog. cal^ar. katte. 2. KaHSpa. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. cale. rete A — Prov. also to pave . Fin. Fr. Du. Lat. Causeway. kocie. flock. mudet. cavaliere. Fr.willow. Jaubert. kobuiV.. chauderon. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net.' Elyot in Way.. Russ. from chaud. a paved road. Diez). the. Fr. calidus. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. acaptar. ' Gr. cat maczoka. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. . Kavrijp. Catkin. &c. to burn. a horseman. make clean. Fr. Cavity. from caveo (p. from KaSaipio. any Fl. hazel. kopista. Cavalry. accattare. catkin Pol. cabbage-stalk. apt to burn iron. CAVE Caul. Chaud. It. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. cautus). and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. Fr. quire. a pavement. On the other hand. Bessie of Bednall. whence cathedralis. Mid. It. chaussJe. Du. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. to shale or peel. from delf^gato. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. fur. Gr. and at the rich man's cost By sea. Fr. catkin mitz. chaudroii. kassije. G. • — — See Chattel. flue. caldo. 4. the caul of the liver.Y\\Xea. A warm comforting drink.Lat. kautsije. kaussijde. a kettle for heating water. to purge. Boethius. chevalier. Fr. chaudiire. It. Wyatt in R. to beware. by land. ce^l. It. also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. koparet. a horse. caballus. hot.' B. via strata. kocianki. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . lamb. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. green husk of a calon. Cave. Port. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. to buy. calceta. . achepter. — Cauterise. calqada. Caudle. accapitare Rouchi acater. Fr.—— — 136 correct. chair. katteken. Pol. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. is Prologue. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Jonson in R. Gr.^Hal. is used in the sense of cat-skin.^ acheter (Lat. caple. but the acates that are sent him. Kavrfipiov. a kind of skull-cap. Ka^afriKOQ. kitten kotki. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. Delycates. Rete. klopfend knallen. Caution. choufleur {choii. chatideau. despencier. Pr. Palsgr. cabbage. Manciple's Tale. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. . puss. cheval. adcaptare. and spareth for no perell. That he was ay before in his estate. Cauldron.

a halter. CAVESON kopera or kowera. dayntily diglit. lambrisser une chambre seeling. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. thil. caveqon. a boarded floor. —Decease. cessum. to plank ON.'— Z. board . -cease. heaven. Cot. sybire. 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. dScis. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. p. to plank or floor with planks. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. Cavil. kommata. as if from happen. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts.. a severe bridle. hollow ice . ciel is so unbroken. a log. but hang around at the sides. cielo. proceed. and that from Sp. also a seeling of boards. Wore. thili.' — Gawan . . . In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. Cede. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. thilja. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. And seik — Cessation. the roof of a coach. ciel de lit. ceiling. column E. a canopy.' Hall. or of a bed. Plancher. in Jam. VIII. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. empty. The sense of roofing. pp. a log. to canopy siled. succeed. of cavezza. a log. Gawaine & Sir Gol. curved. &c. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. thel. and then to gape. crooked kopio. sill. hollow. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. komo. So from Fin. — . obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. with their substantives concession. . From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile.' Rutland papers. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. hung. sill in window-sill. the testern of a bed. koppeli. post. sus-lambris. dille. Lat. It. to panel or wainscot MHG. p. recede. IV. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. — . syle. 32. Fr. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . thil. A — A false accommodation produced G. to argue capto tiously. H. departure from this life. Cease. 5. departure. to seele or close with boards plancher. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. nailes will begin to cling. give place. -ceed. . the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. selar. 43. syl.). thelu. kapp-zaum. See -cede. .' Marriage of James IV. — — — toyour soverane. -cess. menuiserie. cabegon. cellar. cavillor. Sir 137 pit . hivtmel. is applied to a canopy. plank. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. Cam. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. Lat. a head. bridle. E.j have come from this source. flooring E. hollow. cease. an aquiline nose. Sp. tester of a bed. the deck of a ship at thilja. . thiling. rafter. jaa. In the N. &c. applied to a canopy. and Gol. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. Hence concede. quibble. Ceiling. cyling (W.. komista. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. Soc. dil. Fr. &c. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. exceed. wall. excess. plank. wuoren komo. Lat. heaven. a fir-plank. the inner roof of a room of state. . B. &c. a hut. . Sherwood.). semely on syll. of E . step away. . . were met. a plank. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. to go forth. To seele a room. coffer. door-sill J Sc. a canopy. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. beam. . Fr. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew.' Cot. The importation of Fr. cavezzone. — komo tain). a beam. cesso. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. ceiling. The It. cedo. to cut. cabega. seele. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. canopied. selure. in Hal. In the same way G.' del. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. death. . in Jam. little house. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. augm.' Ordinances and Reg. decessus. del into English without ' translation gave cele. . yield. 7. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. -cede. a board. and zaum. wainscot thiljar (in pi. deal. Boyd in Jam. lambris. that. Fr. a planking or boarding tkilian. Lat. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. Hal. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. The line of descent from Fr. sky. as.

the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. to glow. Censure. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. Celerity. the hollow the Lat. sting. cot. See Celibacy. Fr. to sleep). Lat. a religious observance. ciller. To chafe is for wine. Lat. Fr. estimate. Lat. centum. — . &c. Lat. sacred show. It.unmarried. being taken from Fr. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. . rough from the quarry. parted sleep. become heated with anger. cillier. to seele or sew up the eyelids . to attend on object with. observe. contend. incense. conceipt. judge. To seel or close the eyes. to warm. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned.j 138 thill.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Fr.. -ciper. pick out. dchauffer. Gr. to separate. The term cilium. or any bird's. in comp. chaufferette. a storehouse Chafe. /ctj/rsw. Lat. In Celebrate. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. guish. age. the officer appointed to take such returns . Cess. to take. to burn incendo. -civer {conciver— Roquef. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. -cern. to take. oil. thence belonging to or connected with corn. Fr. sile.. family. Fl. to concern. Coehim. to bury). Fr. goad. -oept. to incense. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. of heating. To Incense. a tomb. value. the point round which a circle is drawn. a numerous con. cencer. — . but was gradually lost in conceit. censura. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. a hundred centuria. to be regarded as one celebro. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. as entering largely into the derivative certo. Lat. Lat. judge Lat. rubble. a registration of one's self. in Marsh. to visit in numbers. cerealis. . Cij(fe5j. census. tax.' Book of St Albans. heaven. 1. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. we have a modified form of (of a place). crevi. Accelerate. tax. decebre) . census. See Cede. irot\oe. festive. Cot. and — — — possessions. from Saa-rw. -cipio. concernor. hollow. cenio. solemn (of per. assess. -ceit. OFr. for building. syll. Lat. KsvTpov. Lat. to heat.— Cellar. to distinguish. Assess. Sc. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. — . keep in It. Sherwood. -cense. and so of that other. deceit. For sess from assess. Certain. sure. is the opposite of disora virum. a valuation of every man's estate. is totally distinct from the foregoing. a solemnity. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. to chafe. Lat. to seal a pigeon's eye. materials It. chauffer.cern. -cevoir. Lat. Cot. deceipt. ' . Centurion. to set on fire. and thence to conceal. Lat. a prick. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. Prov. to sepap rate. Gr. swift. criticism. ciglio. a Cemetery. with transposition hence (of a day). with the eyes. a hundred of what- — . -CEIVE a shaft. his office. -cebre ifoncebre. Assize. sift. Censer. encens. much frequented. distinIt. empty. single or unwedded life. then to rub without reference Cement. candeo. cretum. renown be embodied with. siller les yeux. — A . Gr. to celebrate. celeber certus. Cell. eschattffer. Fr. to think. cceremonia. ceremonia. Incensum. a solemnity. — — Cenotapli. as in some places burnt. celer. K^'ivut. to course of people.' Celebritas. point. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. It. abundance. Fr. calefare. Censor. to contend. judge. the place where the de. zens according to their property. mortar. cigliare. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. capio. or expression of Ennius. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. see. decide. the talk of men. — . Chafe. &c. Take the nedyll and threde. oil. quarters for slaves. {cori)cipere. appertain. Ta^oe. caber. camentum. -cepere. — . eyelid. to twinkle darkness. to blindfold. also grave opinion.). -cepire.ing a room where there is not fire. Celebrity.of the r. what to set in a chafe. -ceptjun. Gr. receipt. stones to the production of heat. Census Censor. Centre. -cess. cilibat. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. S. concetto. cella. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. Century. -i^oivre. Cereal. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. in accordance with the Fr. in comp. capturn. confounded ist from It. make angry. Lat. and thence censer. blind. from censeo. to -sum.— Chafing-dish. Ceremony. (and thence also) to hoodwink. calefacere. and met. thronged the participle cretus.). to rub for the purpose a hut. to prick. an eyelash. Fr. to rate. — . a shaft horse. -ceive. and put it through the over eyelydde. concerner. riscaldarsi.

care. clamare. limare. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. to claim. cadieira. to gnaw. tronfio. signal by drum or P. kiqfta. snort. Lat. kaff. lime. to pant. a double operation * Chafer. Adelung. Fr. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. chatter. fa sagramen de calompnia. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. grief. Fr. So from dominio. to action arose. Fr. chicane. chalanger. jaw. chaise. to buzz. bargain. From the To Chaff. ceaf. to dispute. P. havOFr. Cheffern. without chap/are makiinde. calonja. calice. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. chaine. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. . kedja. chaps Chamber. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . a goba rustling . tattle. kaff.nium. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. Lat. in a monstrous fume. kahista. Pers. — . cadena. kiaftr. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. to move the jaws. cadena gives chain. — — ' — — — A . From to go to law. ckapfare. cauvette. sborfare. Chayire. Chagrin. From Port. Pat. de Brai. Perhaps Pm. kuhista. Fr.. G. Kuttn. hiss. quisquilise offence. that leneth e per I'autra. chamar. chambre. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. on. often puffing. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. call in question for an ley). E. camera. place See Cheek. Came. — — — — — — . Fr. Probably from According to Diez. and signifies to consume with anger. kever. a chain. great chafe. sagrindse. to puff and blow.. chaulx. In vulgar language. Chair. kuhuja.sure carriage. a rustling noise. breathe hard. haggle. kuhata. also to prattle. kahu. tattle cheep. gewolb. . chaire. Fr. sagri.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. rally one. matter by combat. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. calix. much blowing. to sit. kiamta. keffen. Lat. Fr. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. to institute anforensic action. dongio. kuhina. chafeter.— — . Lat. rustling motion challenge. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. rustling corn. Lat. leviter crepo Then. chafing. Prov. to tattle. calx. khah. far lima-lima. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. cathedra. Ayenbite. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. kauchen. Wall. calonjar. now a chair. preise. KoBiSpa. to ner It. talkative. charge with. Pr. ceafer. Du. fern-chafer. snuff. from Swiss kafeln. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. refuse. — — — . green sagrin. puff. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. ing rapidly repeated cries.' Rayn. chagrin. In like manto huff. Cot. baras of ants. false accusation. . Fr. kdfer. to gnaw. ple^. a pulpit Cot. to bark. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. Camera. Due. Kaiiapa. much more Genoese sagrind. calumnia. fume. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. to calumpnjamen. a pulpit. vel susurro. Lat. OFr. cup. and as this was the beginning of man. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. &c. 11. To buy and sell. in a cana. De Ir4. to file. muzzle. cadera. Lat. yap. refuse barley . vis. songe. contestation. thick and short. catena. avena vilior. a prattling woaction. swelling with anger. rustle Challenge. a chough. grief. Gr. ^Altieri. a vault or arched roof. Fin. as a carriage is a moveable seat. dispute. as. chawe. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. lime . de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Halma. from of the G. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. ing a hard case to their wings. to chatter or talk lightly. — — — . to caw chawer. taubes korn oder hafer. Bouffard. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. Chain. Piedm. Fl. Prov. or puff with snorting. crooked. . chaene. to a seat. Fr. cathedra. to fret inwardtronfo. care. a jackdaw. from the shark-skin. kahuja. B. ON. idle words. chayire. with a:n arched roof. cam. Chalice. any insect of the beetle kind. Prov. have a mind to parley. chaffare. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. hordeum vel let. to Latin calumniare. . to call. Bav. The jaw chafty. kdfelen. p. of. puffed or ruffled with ly. G. Hal. keuchen. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. 35. Gr. hght Chalk. Cot. to babble. Du. breathe KaOa^oiiat. Fr. (ca'e'ra) to chair. shaIt. difficulty .

kimppu (Lap. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. ON. ciambellano. Sup. kabe. gekrUmmt. So in e. Champ. camp. Dief.Lat. — Hal. jeu parti. calidameya. a hook . Commonly derived from campus. . differs only in the transposition of the letter m. move the jaws. camerlengo. kippo. to fasten on. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. Fr. Lat. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. slope of a bevelled angle. bickering. kabMe. contend or argue G. Get campers a ball To camf . The word is preserved in E. cazer. campus partitus . governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Chancery. Hence (with the nasal) w. top of a borehole. accidere. as swine. kempen. to happen {ad and cadere. dial. accident. . a hollow chanfreiner. is explained by serrarsi. to — — champ. to tread The sound heavily. athlete. ing. kimbu. to stick to. . Magy. at the railings. to move the jaws kiamt. — ^Tusser. to smack the lips in eating. campear. jocus partitus.—Charfron E. The G. To cope or contend with. Chancel. . kabinti. Chamfron. to to chew champ. zs jeopardy. chajnbellan . ON. Fr. mesleiare. received the petitions of the suitors. hng. kiinp. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . cameratus. dial. to hold . to be eminent. reusement — fight in single combat. Ptg. kibti. a horse-race. bundle. a field of battle. schmatzen s. Chance-n3. camp. Sp. Champaign.—Tutschek. sukibti. kiammi. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. a scufSe. chamfrain. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . or less ignorant. to hollow out.' ' Pr. wood. chamble. champion Du. an athlete. pinch. e. from chaud. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. excellent. kriimmen gebogen. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. to slope out the . Chancellor. dispute Hal. kimpustella. to quarrel (comp. chanfrein. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. to flute as a column. champ. chanfreindre. keiiipe. chance. termediaries between them and the judge. kanip. divided game. champ. contention kappi. . to talk. campus. therewithal. The happening of things Chance. ON. to excel. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. Champarty. chanfrar. contest. to strive at games . chance. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. kampeln. kinipen. s. G. Lat. combat. — KiL . to Hal. To Chamfer. dial. kabintis. chain. Partnership. to chew. to fall. boys speak of capping verses. a feat. prize-fighter. to paw the ground E. broil. Prov. Lat. Carpentier. champ. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing.' melleia. camp. hero Sw. chdance. compound. zampettare. Meleare. a jaw kianisa. cempa. chaude mesUe. to slope. — Ch-amberlain. .edley. difficulty . When the to quarrel. ciamberlano. to cample. to wrestle. to groove bevel off a right angle. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). and acted as inofficers of . cample). a bundle. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . to hang. dricka i kapp. Gall. to fall). a warrior. rare. campar. kapp. kimpUma. kempa. Fr. E. kablys.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. Fin. Fr. pedilusor. certare. — masterly Sp. i. fight. giving rise to the as. fray. fighting place. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. cadere. kampeln. surpassing. champ parti. gewolbt. champ. Fr. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. a court of justice. Pm. To hollow out in chanPtg. caer. chanfrein. act of falling. Fr. from cheoir. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. Sp. The E. calida et sans aguet. fight. dial. as in It. Campar. tsammogni. kampen. Champion. Lith. which seems another form of the root. kappd). hamper. game campio. hot. dial. a game at football. . or player at football. to .140 CHAMBERLAIN . Lat.' SherI'altro ' ' . to bevel. and mesUe. CHANCEL It. It will. to fasten oneself to another . escazenza. who stood ad cancellos. cahir. luctare. kampa. the chafldn. to debate. cancelli. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. Du. See Camp. . M. to fasten oneself on to another . Prov. tsamtsogni. from Fr. E. —Chamfrain. nels. head armour. to wrestle.

as those on a trunk. is used in the same sense . Sp. Chapel. —Chantry. or the like chapar. changer. — : Lat. like the knocking of hard things together. Hal. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. exchange. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. skipta. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . cheek. to plate. shift. a small plate of flat metal. cambium. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. to peck. throat of an animal. from canna. a jaw. Compare chark.^. to coat. chanter. Da. from chandler. jaw. Fr. a pipe. Fr. are kept. and also to chap or crack. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. Da. kiceft as well as kjakje. — — —Marculfus in Due. chaps. hard bodies. chapeta. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. to strike. to apply one flat thing to another. A fellow. exchange. Molbech. Sc. to creak. gab. cambiare. any hollow for conveying water. from clap. to strike with a sharp edge. lips of an animal. not a soul. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. I. a reed. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Commonly derived from capella. to truck. to peck. Hence chantry.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Channel. kiceft. Prov. a strip of metal plate. or the cracking of one. Lith. Hence It. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. as to chap hands. to hack. and the modern canal. to break . 140. to paw like a horse . Bret. to cut up into small pieces. kappen. . Chap. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. ^Jam. to cut off . cangiare. . chapeletas de imbornales. AS. the clappers of the scupper holes. waterconduit. In like manner Walach. chop. chandelier. chiappa. ceaplas. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. chapelete de una bomba. to swap. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. leather. . to plate. See Chant. to put on fresh clothes. while the broader vowels a. To Change. a money-changer. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. surfaces striking together. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. Chap. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . chancery. kemma. ON. kaupa. Du. a dealer in candles then. as chancery . kvar kjceften. wood. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. also a clap. esclapo. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. extended to other trades. Man of Law's Tale. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. Fr. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. the gutter that runs along a street. muzzle. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. jaw. . W. Chape. chapear. canalis. Lang. to sing. Chandler. cantare. Chip. to change. esclapa. properly in a hard body. chapilla. chancellerie. to spht a chip. to strike. ceaflas. the chaps . Walach. clapet. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. Cheek. schimbu. exchange schimbatoriu. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. hack . kennel. flat . Russ. Aasen. E. schimbd. Chaps or chops. Sp. And N. That wide were sentin their spicery. kjaakaa. 2. to cut. to deal. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. Fr. prune. as corn-chandChandry. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. cambiar. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. kapoti. —Ordericus Vitalis. chap. a chap is a crack or fissure. It is also used in the sense of the E. a small metal plate Port. chop. cobio. to — cut. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. chapa. as It. the mouth. camjar. Chap. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. See Chop. to chap at a door. chap. Hal. as skin chapped hands. . — . Probably from chap. Chop. klepan. the place where candles ler. debeant conjurare. Lat. may be compared with ON.

2. Chapter. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . capellare. The crash. dear(in both senses). talking. hiss Lith. used in the sense of magic Fl. to prattle. a head or division of a book. Charlock. corona. car. to chirp. cluck. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. to . eyre. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. a riddle. the turtle pitre. caritas. a riddle. Prov. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. Lat.). Inst. cha. to chirp. the nature of a thing. dim.czirksti. in turns. in To ness Charity. a mark made on a thing. hadka. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. from gadai. charlar. Sp. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. Chaplet. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. bler. dear. a charm. a rhyme. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. cedeleac. Chirk. —— . a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. babdistinction. from capitulum. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. Charlatan. AS. to tattle. It. . ghirlanda seor garland. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. A weed among com AS. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. czirbti. &c. Deutsch. It. creak. a dispute . a verse. wreath for the head.Lat. Mid. Sup. to sing or chirp as birds. kurkelis.' Boccaccio in Diez. OE. es ist mi cheer. to chirp as sparrows. karout. as a beetle. w. to converse. Lith. kurkti. burning without consuming the substance. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. cearcian. canne. charcoal burners. and in It. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Fr. carmo. to turn. a merchant. colliers that charred coal. Du. chat. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. charade. Swiss. . And damned be he who first cries Hold. (eucharistie. creak. twist. . Sp. See Charlatan. pohadka. to load . Hence carminare. for the same reason rosario. gaggle . Bret. chapitre. to prattle. cher um cher. AS. clack. To Char. go. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. return. cluck kirklys. charge an enemy is to lay on. surris seu Lat. w. kirkti. Charge. chara. ject). Yx. — spell. Sp. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. siarad (pronounced — sharad). carus. capella. seems to be derived charade. jabber. from capa. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. krachzen). to of the governing body. See Cheap. a cricket karkti (schnarren. Charcoal was ciarlare. An enchantment. caricare. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. gadka. Lat. a mark of a mountebank. Boh. chatter. beloved. occasional turn. Ptg. to croak as a frog . forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. Mundart. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. decken. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. cerran. Character. It. Fr. Fr. called kedlock. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Gr. charitas. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. charger. capital. to turn Gael. Lay on. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. wood to coal. ceap-man. twitter. chirk. chatter. char. turn. affection. chapel. schreien. Lat. of chapel. it is my turn. that turned decken . tegere. cam. Fr. The G. to love. charer. Chapman. carmen. from cape or cope. From Norm. to charcoal. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . condo il volgar francese. a garland of roses. from carrus. * Charcoal. . — a car. a The OFr. cabildo. from Charade. czurliwoti. eapitulo. to creak. carricare. ciarlatore. charlatan. Macduff. tattler. which was incantation. prattling quacksalver. to dove . as. Chark. called in Sp. 370.. chirlar. — — — turned to coal. czurksti. gnash. be- e. Fr. chapelet. turn about. to talk . properly to place — .charme. Lang. as Pol. a hood. carregar. Justin.whirr. It. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. a turn cerran. In that work the verb is written caire. babbling. Cot. Charade. capitolo. . wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. chirriar. Chare. keeren. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. enough. grave or make incised marks on an ob.

Gr. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. to wet. B.house. knacken. a word. csaterdzni. to baptize. Pm. jackdaw . a branch. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). shivers. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. to cut and faggoted. chaste. speak . fragments or leavings of food. chisf. from xoAn. V. csacsogni. . whence a charm of goldfinches. karigh. — We ornamental work the to signify E. OE. to burst open. warble. to gape. clear. Lat castigare. to chatter or prattle . chit in the latter sense Du. geug. Pol. splinters. pure. castus. chikat'. occasionally Forby. cearig (from cearian. Fr. Russ. — Fr. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. chatter. scraps of for fuel. chip. also to germinate or spring forth. D. Diez. enchasser. to separate in morsels. the noise of birds. knatiern. in Jam. the calix of a rose. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. the young shoots . flesh.— Chatter. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. limpid. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. a shrine for a relic. a flock of those birds. Fl. Chaste. used to represent a sharp note. root of the Lat. gallan or ogan.— Chit. warble. cyrm. See Catch. —Bailey. an enchantress. Chat-wood. kata. to talk. chick. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. a plate of metal. gadu-gadu. ch&tier. — — . a chatter-box. as purgare Fr. or equivalent forms. —Jam. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. to chirp. to which it bears the same relation as chape. kippen. racket . as. — Palsgrave. sordidus. la chasse d'une rose. a branch and a young female. to chirp.ppen. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. snap. An imitative word. tittle-tattle. kastaa. chick. noise. It. from purus. pure. . a crack or a flaw . Chamel. to cry as a chicken . i. as turnip-chaits. also to hatch. castus. Fr. incassare. See Cistern. gazzerare. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. Chat. — sharp sound of a crack. g. chit. clean. chykkyn (Pr. From carinen was formed It. as we speak of olive branches. — = Chats. to clap. Malay. clean. In like manner Russ. as from nomen It. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. a young man . caro. G. carme and Fr. blackthorn-chats. magpie. be wide open. little sticks cudere. the bird is iiown. a twig Suffolk chaits. shout OE. talk much . chip. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . Cot. To Chasten. carnisj bones kept. To work plate as silversmiths do. It. clean. See Card. chip. is to represent the chamier. careful. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. whistle. It. The egg is chipped. csatora (Magy. cs E.). To Chase. Du.a. chary. discourse. to make a noise. Kil. chit-chat. a gap. czysty. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. Pol. csacsogany. %aafi. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. crackle. converse. to set a jewel. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. —Chastise. It. or pop. to crack. from pure. — Yorkshire chat. — The . ferire. clack. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. It t. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. gaddc. gazzogliare. chits. charmer. Fr. chair. CHATS fit 143 to name.. clatter. to crack. fragments. make a noise as birds do. pure. or suckers on rough borders. also a youth. Chart. prattle. To chit. ch). nommer. Fl. To Chase. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. to chirp as a bird to cheep. kata-kata. tenax. gazeuiller. letters p. as in the E. prate. a yawning. Chary. or a bird out of the egg. kna. — Hal. Chasm. gazzettare. cassa s. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. gazzolare. noise. parcus. To talk. To chitter or chipper. a churchyard or charnel-house. the cry of the bat. Fr. Magy. talk. the handle of a razor . niggardly. Kil. carmen is presented in AS. Parallel with E. Hal. or the cry of a bird or the like. chat. So in Gael. xi'i-'^vui. to enchase it . s. eclats. —Charter. karg. charm. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. chaste. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. Lat. to care). chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. To chip is then to crack. schioppare. nome and . germinate . clap. Cot.).

to stutter gigken. sale. Pr. OFr. jaw. to buy. — — —Chowl. society. Ingulphus. CHATTELS has ciio. kaufen. to negotiate. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. the Confessor. a repulse. gagkezen. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. entertain kindly. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. sense of bargaining. cozener. a young boy or girl. OFr. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. See Cheek. a tavern-keeper. to coff—Yisi. thers. gig. chavylbone or chawlbone. kik. cachinnari. choule. syllables ^ag-. . to make inarticulate sounds in . Fl. Hence to cheat. changing. . cattle. chatal. keck. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. to chop and change. Modern Slang. Pro v. Fr. from Lat. 144 the It.—Choke. CHEEK zitella. to buy.— Chole. Cot. Slav. whence captale. cara. kak. in Fr. to act as a rogue. kakkaset. capitale. sob E. Then. entertainment. kikottaa. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. chire. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. the principal ' colloquial E. chaptel. ceafl. visage. Bav. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. which is the word in ceap. us. chear in the sense of victuals. a dealer. a cheater. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. Gr. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. koopen. sum in a loan. Fr. to nauseate (to retch). giggling. with Dief.— Chaps.' to exchange to gasp. goods. ceap. countenance. to . to vomit. agreeing upon. kichen. to fetch the breath with difficulty. lead to OE. — We ' . where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. e. look. to coup s. It. Ek dry and hard. Faire bonne chire. It. tradesman. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap.— Cattle. kok. mandibula.ing. hawkmann. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. chop. a dealer in horses. ceahhetan. welcome heartily. Pm. to — . to deal ON. Du. horse-couper. price. a willing look and unwilling heart. caupo.of the throat in coughing.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. Chew. kakaista. to laugh. catalliim. Cheek. The gutGoth. kaupon. a rogue or person who used the canting language. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching.— . force of the word. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. NE. KaviiXog. Soc. Bohem. chiere. stuttering. laughing. truffa. cattle. cera. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. a canting knave. frown. kek. Check. Chattels. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. prattlingchete. upon a checked cloth.. stuttering. snout. exAS. a piece of moveable property. the Lat. the tongue. s. It — Brompton in Due. farm for farm. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. Fin. kaupiti. &c. Hal. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. Chear. from AS. Cam. to cluck like a hen.' kezen. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. jaws. et juxta catalla sua. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. . and hence the E. G. Lat. cattle. chuckle. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes.kakot. bon marche. goods. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. cheeks. with the exception of land. to cough and hence either buying or selling.. kauf. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. any cheating. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage .-^. kaupa. Sp. giving or taking in exchange. aspect of a man. chatel. in widely separated languages by the Lat. ceaflas. cita. favour. retching. — To check an account. teeth . which is used in the to stutter. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. the countenance Fr. dchec. ku. the face. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. are represented piti. while it Bret. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Sc. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. See Chess. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough.. Cheat. and. equiva. to clear the throat . citello. chapman. gagkern. lower. to swap goods . . .

quok. cherir. throat. chests in OE. It would Cheese. Fr. cyse.. — — .. ceaplas. G. cheek. cerise j G. to love. rupted into chess. Lith. Fr. geagl. Analo.peep in the same sense. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. make an end. gullet. geafl. schach. as meat and butter. frame by which the exertion is made. Da. a rafter . to swallow. cista. to choke with laughter. cough. to prevent the attack of cavalry. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. To make a shrill noise Chest. . practice seems to have been communiChevron. kjceve. to bring to an end. cams.their struggle for independence. w. Sp. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. hasten. chiffe.G. cufd. mouth kek. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. whence kasa-leipa. schach. takes place in the formation of cheese. scacco. Cher.D. chasi. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. chAtaigne.koppen. kasiiUPr. ceocian. czypti. for cheese itself. caws. gaghel. rattle in the throat. Fin. kopen. whence czypulas. cabiron. jaw. kaecke. e. To Cheep. ichec. kok. caru. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . dear. throat. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. cheken. G.perly head. kjakje. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. — 10 . Prov. the throat. to heap up such things for the purchoke. Sw. the neck. OHG. Tutschek. AS. cireggia. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. kikna of dorum coacervatio. kistej Lat. dersen . the loose the game of checks. equal squares of opposite colours. ceac. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. Chef. chops. CHE.' to w. kirsche. the hke. accomplishment cayed. veluti piscium. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. ceg. Lith. See Chess. to make a noise different word. cabrio.). From them the plish. treat with affection. cerasus. Chemistry. a heap. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. jowl. to hold dear. ation. gapen. quoka. kces. the mouth. then end. the final guttural is retained in writing. nish source. Lat. kjcebe. The Sw. made rancid koka. cisty G. cheek.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. Sc. Pl. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Fr. Thus "we are brought din. Du. It. jaws Sw. gabe. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. squeak as a mouse. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. jaw . The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. by laying it in come to an agreement with. suffo. cegio. AS. Jam. Lat. . kdkel. a chicken. Sw. Fr. Cherry. Sc. gill of fish AS. E. Hence chesten-nut. rafters in heraldry. Cherish. chesten. to gape gab. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. jaw. Chevaux de frise. ON. to boken. xaque. by laying up in a covered heap. An imitative word. As the board to gasp i. caseus. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. . — — . E. ost. kastr. giffle. condition of being taken. Chess. to accomThis they call hdrsk. Kil. subacidus. See Alchemy. Fris. Achievement. Fr. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. X'C&s. Sp. skratt.D. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. &c. Prothroat of an animal . Du. clear the throat. ceaflas.Xo belch. See Case. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. jaws. food. kikna. carnium. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. E. incaseatus. the The use of the word kcesir. kapen. to gasp. Chekenyd or querkenyd. acquisition. rennet. Pm. to belch. castaneusj Fr. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. kastanie. prevail with. /Ji2^/(W. . mollium congeries.EP CHEVRON 145 on. like a young chicken. cese. . F*-. the palate Chequer. to geahl. kesten. Chevisance. cheeks. to year. to kasa. chaps. king). a cricket.cirieggia. gous forms are G. kdke. N. E. Lat. — — . who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. achever. (Kil. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. kasa. old bread. chevron. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. Lat. w. gap. ca' — . The name of creak as shoes. subjected to this process with that which the throat . as. to choke. In these latter forms we see the transIt. cheek. jouffle. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. w. chops. to kep. things Da. chevir. AS.

ach. pi. lead through the synonymous E. To chitter. the Ptg. choule. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. kimista^ . Pr. or qf people talking rapidly. zitterti. chicoter. Pm. — . and not vice versd. into a continuous shriU sound. knirschen. — It. — — Mother Hubbard. jaws . cap. to contest about trifles. when the vibrations become very rapid. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. the cry of young .. pululo. cidan. chew or chaw. caput. Chigue. a young bird. chavel. head. Da. ' . w. then cold. kopf Du. captain. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. kouwe. The loss of the syllable it in Du. from the first of which is Lith. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. ultimate origin of the Mite. gills of a fish.. by driblets. tiukka. a cup cibaw. greloter is to shiver for cold. a little bit. CHEW . chicken. kimme. Pm. tremble with cold. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. mountain top . Prov. to Du. antler. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. chin.— . or chick. Fin. from little to little. to titter is Du.D. pipio. caprioru. from the second Lat.-ill. deer's horn. cabriones. Child. Chick. Kil. chol. And hence. Chief. s. kime. to chirp or peep like a chicken. Walach. 'Among these the G. to contest. to use the jaws. pip. Gael.. tyuk. Probably from Fr. gosling. or as E. CHJME the radical form is unusual.— Cot. The Pl. tremble. kind. Du. cabar beinne. in Walach. grelot). knit the brow cib-led. kibr. sonorous. AS. are formed Du. Halm. — Du. kippa. a quid of tobacco. Lat. Palsgr. a cup. signifying properly shivering. killen. chillrar. kauchen. chicaner. to chew. to twitter. a chicken. keichen. tiukkata. while didder is to shiver or citteren. cild. term is ssaru fu. jaw. and from the third E. jaw. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. stake. the least imaginable jot. cib. kitista. to raise the rim. tiukkua.peep.^ to resound as a bell. tintelen van koude. De finger killet mi for kalte. Bret. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. chiquei. or the broken noise of birds. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. czypulas. as pointing out the origin of the E. . For the see word Doit. a small cask OFr. Fin. chiler. Chitter. chieftain. chaps. while the Magy. rafter. a finch. capete. chavel. to pettifog. the rim or edge of a vase. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. kauen. a hen. cabar. De chic en chic. cabarach. chillar. kuwe. Fr. horns of the house. Pr. kaw. to chime. Imitative of a loud clear sound. as. kieken. To Chide. the young of animals in general. quivering sound which passes. kilderkin. chawbone. kimia. . W. capu. kindeken. to smart. a cup. the throat. Chill. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. to the brim. G. kidata. branchy. G. capo. E. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. to scold. alter. 146 brial. pipe. A To Chew. kaau•wen. has probably the same origin. chill. then as G. Russ. Chaw. cebr. kinderen. a chicken. rafter . beam. mouth. k'imm s. to go. Gattel. Chimb. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. kauwe. Fr. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. cheek. Now gan some courage unto him to take. — Fin. chillness or shivering. to crackle. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr..D.). Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. . See Chimmer. Pl. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. creak. Fin. queror. caferu. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird.^ Hal. E. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. aner. chef. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. also the horizon. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. cica cica. E. Du. It. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. knarren. : — a lump. killen. Tintillo.— Gattel. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. chikat'. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Fl. Swiss kiden. kop. Fl. the head. tiuk. chimb. crepo. Magy. acute. Fr. pipio. machouere. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Chime. chic. twitter.' my finger tingles with cold. ]). rafter . horn wood. strideo. to gasp for breath (Hal. the jole. pole. klagend tonen. Brezza. the same principle I regard On birds. a jaw. Sp. Payer chiguet A chiguet. a chicken. a head.

— . Magy. as the/ is preserved tering. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. keich husten. Huloet. chatter . sound on beginning to boil. part lion. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. to tattle. chhint. cleft. Sp. do.er. a surkik hosta. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. — . — . chits. Gloss. to prattle czirpti. to chirp.' Phaer's Virg. kumista. sonus the backbone Lat. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. Diez de. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. The small entrails of a hog. cisello. Chimera. also vibrans. chick. to sizel. companied. squittire. esquina. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. a chap. a fire-place. bx-eak the back of schena. Fr. a chink or fissure. to murmur. chirp. from Lat. fissure. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. quivering or shakyng for colde. Chit. . esquena. kieck hoest. epine. E. It. Sp. to chine. and chim-mer. or chyFrigutus. Chine. applied to tremulous motion. sounding deep. i. from the geon's lancet. to chink. Sw. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. gen. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . ter. Chyrme or chur. cinan. the jaw. quavering of the voice. resonance . . E. twitter caminus. It. skina. zirken. kinne. fyr. G. in Hal. hus. Gascoigne in Todd. ykvvQ. to open chirriar. et garrire . the chin . ciarlare. See Bright. all these imitative terms being minata. caminsects.sharp. as birds the mouth. which differ from each other only as Chirk.to chirp. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. eschiner. Sp. kumina. to sound. It. to tremble. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. Chin-coug^h. to squeak in It. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Gower in Hal. cinne. then of a fabulous monster part goat. in the same crack. have been used to designate the spine.czirbti. Chisel. It. representing connected together. from 10 * ' Chia. schina. — . are In like manner E. Hindost. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. G. See Chap.to divide or Du. czirszkti. kink hoest.. The change from the sound ter \s. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. tremulous motion. klincken. Du. rustle. Fr. Du. komia. spina. Fr.schricken. as the chink of money. . AS. genawi. the cheek. spina. See Chats. j^lf. Chimney. ciseau (for cisel). and light. and from a similar sound to boil gently. a Kuttn. to creak. dial. sound. Chitterling. stridere. chink. schiena. genou (pi. tsongeni. a thorn.. Chip. — — — — — . pare also Walach. Lat. to prattle . and bodily movement in shimm. Pr. The desig. . clangor tinniens kummata. a crowing sound in recovering breath. eschine. . to gape. and the Du.). to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. Chitter. killed by Bellerophon. cheminde. Chymerynge. A . originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. the jaw. as a large bell . It. to sound deep or the Gr. hiss Pm. gena. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. To chink with laughter. Chintz. up and down. To Chitter. shiver and the chyver of Pr. the chine. a szemrcU. name Then. disCot. verynge or dyderinge. crepare. flaw Hal. hiss chirlar. the cheek (jaw) . vincially used in the sense of a crack. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. the mouth (jaws) . 147 kimina. chin . backBut she withal no worde may soune. Cot. In the same sense. Chink. sonants. KinneGr. to chirre. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. Lith. komista. See Chark. caminata. Bav. zirpen. Sp. Ptg. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . To Chimmer. Chat. Chink-cough. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. in- — by the syllable clink or chink.iron. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. then to any narrow crack or AS. to simmer. tschirpen. clashing of weapons. Prov. eschin^e (de pore).Lat. cheek. Pm. cincel. tinnire. to chirp . Fr. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. as a bell kommata. a thorn. but or cry as a parrot. the whooping cough. simmer. plodere. Fr. a hall Mid. bone . Bret. cisaille. pork) . sparkle. Kil. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. to chink with laugh2.Huloet in Hal. hollow. to creak. backe. caperd. To chirp or twitter. Caminatum. twinkling light. Primarily a shrill sound. schrick. schetteren. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. tsengeni. clipping of coin. schetteringe. yivtiov.

cepa. prove. schoch. Equivalents in the SlaFr. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . causir. to try. to ^cleave . i. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. kruszki. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. Gr. coup. haslets. Enn Sigridur sem ' . to chap at a door . lead us on to Lat. as green as leeks. to prove. G. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . a small slice or slip of anything . From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. chibble. a blow. a rag. then to shiver. fresure. to chap. &c. cke. 2. from %u\i). the small parts of the roots of plants. an onion. full. to taste. gdnse gekrose. See try. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. . I. . Gr. krussyi. curly . ments of the knightly class. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. friller. OHG. chatter. to Compare also Pol. to palpitate . . kusid. to hack. Gr. Schmid. The Sc. Swab. Chuck-full. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. to experience. To Choke. to strike hands . kustigen. whence choleric. cape. a company of singers or dancers. arkiusan. kausjan. taste. a chive. coro. as with a blow. ON. ^S. — See Cheek. chiffe. schiefer. and N. wkusit' prikushat. gekrose. G. %o\ifa.' Verie coinme Cot. from chevalier. all seem slate .' At last he dwelt .yEuffM. Serv. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. to exchange horses. Goth. chap hands.ffrill. . —Chorus. a scale or fragment P1. to try. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. kieser. kiusan. to stop geschoppt voll. the ridges prove. kbhren. — — — . xiv. of E. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. to break off in small shive. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. or original meaning is preserved in G. chife. Choleric. anger. ent quarter. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. chives. it is probable that the root kus. x^poc. chock full. then to try. to tempt. a twittering. gusten. * To Choose. kiesen. to taste. word is more likely to be from Lat. and in this sense the * small pieces. kaup. disposition. specially with an application to theatrical performances. a young .gust. Chives. taste. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. a ruff. caperd. shiver. okusyti. to try. choix. called cMtters in the N. to taste . chceur. chawdron. to choose. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. full to overflowing. Chivalry. scheve. try. Fr. &c. choppe.vonic languages are Pol. Choice. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. try. Fr. Prov. by which they are Fr. Body and Soul.' who shall not taste death. a ruff or frill. Luc. fine threads of flowers. schevel-steen. ON. shoot . ^euw. chimp. pieces . a fragment. to taste. to taste. The . skifa. cut up into — See Chats.freze. Chives are also a kind of small onion.ceosan. Boh. to shiver. to clap up Hal. As kushnuti. keuren. bile. kalbs gekrose. keypa. a wine taster. cive. to taste. pluck. Lat. also calPs. . Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. koren. propagated. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. gustare. — Cholera. whence Lat.D. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. of an angry — — — ' ' — . Cavalry. The manners and senti. Swiss kust. to ing is doubtless to taste. chippe. •- Russ. kushevati. wrath.— B jag E. 19. Jam.. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. and in kosten. chorus. from kraus. G.V)^x. CHOP kros. Walach. to wrinkle. wein didder for cold.. select. kiusan. ruffs. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. kor6n. seallion or unset leek. crammed Choir. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. civette. Yr. a goose's giblets. to try . chattering. developments of the same radical image. a knight. experience valerie. rare. kiezen. Choice is probably direct from Fr. chaup. to turn. are used in the same sense. in the same language. . and It. Fr. kushati. To Chop. by the vibrations of sound or motion. heaped measure. signify to kiss. the inwards of an animal. — Chock-full. The I go to prove them. a heap. a calf's pluck or chaldron . approve. g'schochet voll. . Chap. and Vf. Warwickshire coff. a calf's chaldern of E.

That Face. cow-couper. kobe. an offence against the fitness of times. E. sent before him a Chiaus. gull. klompe.). in Chaucer. Borgoens happen. —Shakespeare. traffic. See Change. Fr. Madam. one who buys and sells horses or cows. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak.—Chuokstone. Chub. koppe. which was written 27. chrysalis (Plin. that will thank chiaus — you richly. in i6io. fat. as in Fr. cresmeau. dealing. E. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. e. Peace. capitone. chatter . thumb Fl. Confounded with the bullhead. chop. G. Chuck.' Jam. 49.sohola.X. kauwe. The Turk was here As one should say. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. prattle . applied to an owl in that language. syllables chat. to overturn. monedula. a thick piece. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. P. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . gull. Chrysalis. plump. whence e.— Landnamabok. chack. Chopino. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. claquer. chouette. to clack. whence the Fr. Gr. a bullhead. peace. caqueter. Picard. cambiare.' They are forebuyers of quheit.\^s. dial. — Dief. cob. choucas. .). caker. civetta. to knock. cheap. time ra . In the Alchemist. — Quabbe. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. xop5>}. whence apparently the Sup. Gr. as Du. E. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. p. gold. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. or miller's kaycke . a stump. cauvette j Fr. Chord.— Chevin. See Chaff. to speak thieves' slang. to turn over. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. quappe.povucd. — — — . Du. from kloppen. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. connected with G. thick-set. merchant. Gr. -chron-. chapineria. A fish with a thick snout and head. kowe. to strike in the hand. kolbe (club). gobio capitatus. Marin. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og. chronicles. short piece kubbug.. Come. A jackdaw. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. chuet. to cant. To Chop logick. high clog. chevin. In Sc. xftovoq. as in the examples mentioned under Chape. of which such strings are made. chrisme. Du. i. cangiare. cauc. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. we find the following passage Dap. chroniques. soul-couper. e. a small fish with a large head. — . who took in the Turk- clack. I bring you the Cloughs. Sp. to chatter. Fr. Kil. Sw.(. forms are Chrism. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. kowej Sax. To Chouse. dial. whence — E. overset. the same word with the It. — Chrisom. ON. AS. Fr. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. E. yiSA. kaw. chouquette. capitanus. chapma?i. Wall. &c. Chough. clogs. because she would not endure this husband chopping. klopper. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. chub. Alchemist. and we actually find champman for chapman. kaej Lith. the intestine of an animal. noble Doctor. OE. chapin. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. kaulhaupt (club-head. cavena. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. Nominale in Nat. Fr. cheviniau.• — . and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. Jam. kaufen. XpvaaXic. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. a trafficker in souls. capita. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. To coup. the teeth to chatter . equivalent to the E. slipper . From the Turkish Chiaus. Ant. a lump or piece chump. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. What do you think of me. by the Robert Shirley. bearand aits. ley in Giiford. Anachronism. ' ' What's that? Dap. If I discover. Gr. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. chevane. clat. ceo.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. capito. 4. . Lat. xpi'^lia. Chronicle. Cot.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. chevane. a messenger or envoy.. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. Fr. a The What dhy ^. kubbr. kubb. for to defraud. the string of a musical instrument originally. caphatenus.

. to turn from blossom to fruit. to him a sudden blow. * Cinder. or choice part of a thing . chofu. a man. kirna. flower. the kernel. in the face. Sc. -cise. to jaw chack or snap. whence church. Church. from Lat. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. — . . Chunk. log of wood. joffu. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. have given rise. Da. ccedo. — of the two words. kerl. sicera. sintel.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. OFr. a miser. Ka-^aiva. whence ON. ceaplas. Lat. cinctura {cingo. sindr. See Ceiling. a girding on. Cleland in Jam.V//a'6'?. thence a belt. e.for the residue of stone coal. The origin ation. kaerle. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes.— . to Newsp. as Epkema explains it. chife. to cause the milk to grain. karl. -cisuiri). so as to make the happen . casum (in comp. ciuffo. Wall. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. KaxXij?. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. chuffy. Lat. dust. that the word is an adoption of Fr. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). the snout of an animal. KvptaKolg. To chuck in the fall from. comp. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . klakka. spuma metalli. ceorl. Chuff. marrow. Sw. cado. cendre. It is certain. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. sinter. kernjen. Sicerawry face ceffata. Du. Ir. to fall. lamak. scoria. ceffore.— Chu%. to throw out sparks.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. sive piratiam facere sciant.' he adds. to fall upon decide.rendered by Kil. ashes.' And cold. Fris. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. tie about). to sparkle. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). cinis. Gr. joufflu. In Sc. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. cidre. AS. then the on oh StX iv roXt. sindra. a pebble . to make a aiKipa. we have to chack. AS. e. -cide-. to churn. Aasen. Cob. Diss. 24. dial. G. Jennings. to strike clatter. fat-cheeked. Fr. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. Du. Cider. in Sc. in circumcision. accido. incido. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. a cutting round. cut off. cinders used disjunctively. a husband. or. ChurL husbandman. blow on the I io6 in Mur. chops. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. cinctus. calx. G. kjami. &c. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. to gird. male person. with It the Lord's house. as water running over rocks or stones. to determine incision. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. to make a rippling noise. pith. cheeks Cincture. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. Probably from It. a fellow. As AS. has been impugned which it has really no connection. from Lat. Cieling. ON. ON. domhnach. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. i. but by way of explan. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. Lat. Gothic nations. . jaws. kakka. Churn. a pebble. &c. The spelling of chider has Chump. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. C^z^j^ churHsh. i. a man. — — A — ' ' — . giffle. swollen or puffed up Cot. kern. as a board. See Cheek. . Du. . x^^i?. Hence -cid-. residue of burnt coals. Gr. ladre from Lazare. a cutting an old chuff. however. a douse on the tores. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. chack-stone. to cut decide. tindra. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . kiorne. -eris. to fall at or on. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. Fr. calculus. chofe (Grandgagnage). -cido. pp. sindel. ceaflas. See Cheek. Lat. as in E. The derivation from Kvpiasov.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. ON. set kerti. a lump. a resounding object. gffe. ceffo.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. an old man. Wall.^. -cis-. chack or stane-chacker. to To Chuckle. a man. whence deciduous (of trees). as Fr. cheek. to form grains of butter. . a rustic . geaflas. chakil. countryman. surly.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. chaps. to separate the kernel of the milk.D. . IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think.

a clod. tinnitus . a whip. chest. claquer. klateren. klacke-busse. wasserkasten (water chest). Lap. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. cittade. Lat. dim. scion or sucker. . cittd. See Circle. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. a loud uksa slamketi. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. lump of wood or with the nasal. To Clack. — (Dozy) ing blow. sphere gleba. cito. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. klubb. Arab. a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. civitas. stimulate. the door was slammed J slamem. circa. Sw. lump. lump. CION See Tinder. klopati. Lat.— . cisterna. clap. klompe. to toll . Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. sip. or quill to draw waier through Fl. cit^. to call. The notion of a lump. Recite. E. sound of blow. civilis. cieo. Clamp. Du. Alt. a mass. a knob. The syllables clap. Lat. babble . for Cion. a ball. lump. klambr. bunch . Chaste. G. a circle. a shoot. a block.. chatter . . cista. compared with It. E. Mack. claquer. kringr. domern. belonging to cities or social life . In Fr. ring. sprig. klqb. clump. klabb. Fr. —Civil. a hiding-place. ciste. sifr. fall. klump. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. cittadella. Bohem. to strike. from chupar. to go. clangor avium . crack. trunk. Gael. smack. or clap-dish. city. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. To Claim. noise. From Arab. . a circle. kluV. ter. . a Pol. clasp. Scion. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. klemte. clamer. the place of . suck). or split with noise. to clack. sound. about. to clatter. hringr. klamp. to cluck. crack. chupon. a cistern. Lat. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). Lat. slam. City. Circle. clat. circ2tlus. . a pop-gun. Circum-. as caverna from cavus. a citizen . ern. -cite. clamp. rattle . clapping of klacke. the tongue. lucerna. mass . to mention. to summon or call on. to gnash the teeth. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. chupon. Fr. sound- — hands figures. biw. a kind of rattle. of citta. The Gr. circum. It. rattle. to make to go. may cite w. a lump Du. . clack-dish. prattle. circle. to cry out. Clam. ON. See -cid-. kringla. cisterna. Cot. a ball. Du. a reservoir Probably from Lat. scion. and Sp. &c. to appeal. clack-box. Gr. a lump Lat. . with an initial s instead of c. chijfre. Excite. citujn. a circle. creak les dents. KpiKoe. a. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. glam. to call. Sp. clambar. klappe. clot ON. forms — — — parent plant. klak. Cite. to be empty. a block. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. to chatter. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. a Lat. Comp. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . . clack. crack. claim. clatCot. claquer crash. sajira. citrus. a city. klater-busse. . a split. -cis-. lump. KipKog. glambar. vociferation. klammer. Sw. a rattle . twig. Fr. We . To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. circum. civis. to bawl. . around. clamras. Gr. accordingly find the roots dab. klacken. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Hal. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. a clod Russ. ball kloben. to call by name. glamm. klumbr. G. —Circuit. prattle. cion. Gael. claquet de moulin. Lat. Fr. a young and tender plant. Lat. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. dob. cry. It. clapper. ON. clobyn. excite. sindri. cluster. * Ciplier. uproar. a ring. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. castus). klekotati. gutter. to chatter. Dan. Du. area. log. 'mass. outcry. cry out . clap. See Crankle. to knock. lump . klappen. radical identity of the Fr. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. a city. a kind of pipe.to suck. a whirlwind. empty Golius. We . and E. and clash. as in Sp. ON. as. to clap at a theatre. a cleansing place. W. clamp. globus. . a'upiav. noise — — a cistern. around. Dan. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . It. to set in motion by means of the voice. a place See place hiddern. parallel root is slam. bunch. * Cistern. klap. Clump. So a light. cifra. a for water. a boss . in the frequentative form. a lemon tree. whence cistiti.' sione. clamare. klimp. lash . to cleanse. a judgment cern. a rattle Fr. and. clack. clog. ruin. Citron. to chatter . Hence Incite. cion. klepati. Citadel. is traced by Gr.

clapas. from the w. clandestine. dee. resonance klingen. Hence the Fr. Clap. anything hidden. To Clamber. a sound made by a still . a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. a burr. klam. To sticky. ancestor. is used in the sense of secretly. a whip. to climb. kleben. take hold of. Russ. tremble . glambar.er. to climb. strain . to claw oneself up. to clap on.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. Dan. to hook things together. is a nasalised form of gripper. yf. bandage. tinkle. — Climb. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. salafa. — Cot. brawl. The E. klette. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. to climb. klubber. dang. In like manner Du. klappre. of which the locative case. a sound made by a lighter clink. kleppe. klammern. AS. rattle. klappen. B. clapper of conies. bond. clang. klamme. sound. clann. to glue. strait. G. ring as metal. cream Manx doan. These are imitations of a loud. to climb. Lat. hold. diver. klettern. klatten. club . where- A — unto they retire themselves. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. Mampe. dap up. viscous. dia. clasp. Du. also to clog up. compression. conceal. dial. gum. Lang. dandestinus. dam. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. to seize. to. klepati. prison. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. G. celo produces Fin. dink Du. a claw . dapier. cleave. Clapper. The Fr. as the Lat. kleppe. klang. Halma. offspring. klepel. with cramp-irons. chatter. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . but perhaps not directly from it. G. klebern. holdfast. To clap in E. to climb . to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. &c. crowd . klemmen. to cleave or stick. who occuG. a noose . accent. to starve. Clamour. Du. Du. a place underground where rabbits breed. Bav. privately. Dan. of money Gael. beat. compress. klynge sig op. clajnmy. klemmen. Sw. chatter. a heap of stones or other things piled up . klamre. dienklebber. kluppel. to cling. viscosity . cramp. dapi^. klamm. rumour. chief. klobber-saen. OE. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. to glue. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. clibby. klippe. and hence moist. a stick. whence sala. — with hunger. to climb. E. hook. c). run to lumps Clandestine. cramp-iron. dientes. klavre. to knock. Salainen. See Clam. klynge. gripe. damor. E. for tame conies. Gael. sticky Hal. apprehend . a rattle . B. Bohem. sound. a bird of prey. G. — Lat. salaan. and that from celo. scendants. G. Pourta las p^iros as clapas.. pinching. klibber. . pressed close or hard together. to gingle. a hawk. beating. children. Clan. These words To are closely connected with damp. nature . to do anything with a clap. to stick conceal. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . dapier. clap. clear sound. children. clav\f. klappen. cling. clangor. dem. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. to hold fast with the . narrow. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. kleppen. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. massy. of the children. klepanie.' klibba. dam. E. from birdlime. to hide. Swiss kletten. to knock. E. klam7n. to Hal. contraction.p correspond- ' without order. Dan. sound object . dren. Du. dam immediate modifications — . coagulated cream. The equivalent of Lat. a heap of stones. to daub pinch. adopted Lat. klopfen. clap. klem-vogel. dial. klank. to hold to pinch. Clank.1. uproar. daver. to clutch or cling oneself up. kloben. The root which gives rise to klibb. descendants . damras. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. .' to take coals to Newcastle. clamber. G. Clang. originally a heap of large stones. A i. grimper. gliong. a sound. klimmeii. to patronus. to beat. solid. the in many languages. G. dank. seize. — — . clammy brace. . — . to clap. knocking. in a hidSen place. stick. as the clapping of hands. klemmen. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. closely analogous to that of the fast. tight. grasp. to dame. and hence to pinch . Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. ney. dambar. to Sw^. Fr. to clamp. a claw. . Swiss kldbem. sound of the trumpet . . Dan. a craCmp. Clink. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. a trap. clink. to pinch. buckle klamp. tattle. dam. cluster. . sound . klammer. tenacious. hands or claws to grasp. Clamp. substances of a stickydam. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. or klamp-vogel. tingle. tone. a loud tingle. a stone See Claim. to stick or glue. klampen.

fracas. klc^i. assembly. klaequivalent to clack or clap. Rayn. — Kiittner. kiosk bicza. globus. Lat. Clew. Claret. a complete sentence. klase. In the same way is formed the OE. klatsche.Gr. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. — Clarinet. Kil. diver. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. a buckle. Du. Du. klaterbusse. an ending. applied in their harness. biichse.oi. row aii/iaTos. to end.). gaspe. klijven. a ball. Owl and that by which cleave to. Prov. skeria-klasi. hook. cluster. forms are the Du. to patter. sound of the foregoing description. klos. to fasten. Fr. compression. vin claret. schnalle. Commonly made. Russ. . . klatschen. to cleave. waU. cinnamon. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. he of white and red grapes mingled together. — tells us. Du. Gr. fibula. bawling.ck a whip. from scknallen. Mask ! plask ! thwick. and shrill-sounding trumpet. a key origmally a crooked nail. the collar-bone. KXeiSi. Clause. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. clew or fasten upon a thing. Clatter.w or u on the other. thence a definite head of an edict or law. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. clausula. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. chasguear. Analogous Jam. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. klauwe. a clod. ghespe. noise. insularum nexus . K\a. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. to clap . cloi. a club or massy stick. clump. chiarello. as G. climp. hawk. to fasten together . kleuen. globus.— CLARET clamp. syrtium junctura. a heap. clas. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. whence kleuer. — Clarion. a key. puUs. mass. G. dap. Class. also a knell for the dead. to ring in such a manner for the dead. to rattle . fragor . biichse. teren. Wyutoun in Jam. klamme. Thus from clamp. stop of an organ. Clash. Claw. Eau clairette. a lump. a water made of aquavitse. under three modifications dava. claw (what fastens together. nawith stanis. chiarino. clausum. Clasp. rion. Nawith stavis. chiaro clear. to do anything with a . klouwe. an on the one hand. sauna de classes. Fr. with a reddish tint. clamp. Sw. classis. and clavis. Cot. blab. a. somewhat clear. Eya-klasi. The collar-bone. Lang. So Pol. But clasp or elapse. as Mod. to draw it up into a bunch. 269. glcis. a claw. a bunch. Clavicle. klaskad. E. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. To clew. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. klouwe (Kil. klatscha pop-gun. to snap. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. Thus from Lat. the primary origin clapa. It. buckle. chiizjj-o. vinum helvolum. a claFr. clavus. mass. claret win e. a sphere . &c. klauw. ansa. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. Du. a lump . rubellum.. clair. or as G. contraction. kleeven. thwack . sphaera. clarinado. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. clatter. is preserved in Lang. and through v into a. klot. same class with w. —Kil.\x\xvn. a lash. a. &c. a distribution of things into groups. seizes) . Dan. vin clairet. locket of a door.Z. a little hook . The b readily passes into gleba. clarin. Du. Lat. chatter. klampvoghel. a bird with powerful talons. flap. klatschen. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. From clairet. a nail. ictus resonans. we pass to the E.It. Fr. Originally clasis. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. a kind of small. clavis. e. Klatsch- a pop-gun . If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. straight-mouthed. a key KKtitid. In E. Lat. from the resemblance to a key. clairon of a trumpet— It. pet. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. Sp. in the sense of a mass or lump. Identical with ON. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. in the sense of a claw. clairon. a clasp. from its use in fastening things together. as it is written by Chaucer. to clash as arms. clopa. Nightingale. uproar. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. from clinging to the tree which supports it. which signifies a ball in E. klampe. It. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . ivy. The form clew. i. to knock. crying. it is called clamming. klucz. Du. and old red rose-water. From claudo. clew. kletse. to animals Sp. is used in Sc. subrubidum. Pol. kluczka. to shut. Serv . Lat.to cra. pellet . the cracking of a whip. nail. klaeret.

Du. a fissure or division See Cleave. the latch of a door. Thus from G. the fork of the body. sleek. G. klinken. To call. . vissticky . and E. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. Gael. Bav. a one end. pure. kloue. kloben.— Claggy. sticky . clean. to be composed. as Fr. See Clog. kldnkelein. klinke. AS. gleit. G. clear. B. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. kluyte. kluftholz. to tear or cleave asunder. a clincher. The proper meaning of the word is shining. dags. to clink or sound. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. to cleave. voice. kleverig. famous. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. (Cot. glent. provinciaUy termed dout. a fissure. geklonken. Du. The word is . rivet. doggy. to fasten. kleben. G. glint. as the Du. explained from the klinken. klinke. a in that of sphtting. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. A — A Clement. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . sticky. clibby. radiant. Sc. to separate into parts. and. shine. the original . a mass. neat. cliquet. kluft. split. to 2. to shine. to fasten. mud. klinke. W. Sw. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. found in other cases. Du. a — — . and Dan. river. . Wilbraham. a cleft. E. a noose. viz. klouen.— . glan.Q. glor-mhor. kleevig. deot. Du. to glitter. glatt. to stick to. dut. Probably a modification of the word doitt. clean. rive. Mar. 2. Clean. vice. This is probably one of the clean. Da. kleg. pure . an object is simply cleft. opposite senses. Da. Omklinken. neat. klieben. daggy. a cleft. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. a bunch of When flax). glbr. dedgy. klincke. glorious. sticky earth. a lump. klink. pellet. celebrated . speech .— Clag. give a shrill sound Jr. bend in a stream. words applicable sight. as explained under G. E. clear. the two parts of Du. ON. Du. a lump. rift. danche. Clear. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. dams. pure. Halma. Lat. klutsch. polished. as Lat. a plate. a claw or talon. to clinch a nail. from nitere. a noise. clash. viz. as ON. The Dan. klceg. This word is used in two business is finished off. Da. ON. seem formed dial. Kil. kloben. to shine . G. date is AS. splendid pohshed. klag. Lat. clear. . a flash. To Clench. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. From clap. diquetcr. klove The Dan. that was a striking proof. gingle. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. door-latch. clout. nitidus. dial. glandse. clean. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. 154 CLAY dutch. klouen. Clay. to clinch GB.' was nailed to a rock. From dob. glitta. klinken. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. tongs. kluit. gaklankjan. cloven wood. calm. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . klirren. klinken. to sound or make a noise . or from being divided into two parts. glbram. Du. polish . a key. conserere antklankjan. smooth. E. a mass. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Clinch. klinka. cleave. Sc. to stick or adhere . . klor. kleg. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. from diquer. hook. klafwa. chaps in the skin. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. G. glan. to Brilliant. or of a tree. glindse. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. clemens. Die zaak is zS. i. and Celtic glan. . In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. See Clam. the To Cleave. loam. klieuen. Clemency. glan. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. klyft. to clench. either by the coherence To Clepe. Axletree clouts. glitnir. merciful. kloben. pretty. ON. that was Torriano. glance . together . — : A rivet. Cleft. clink. Fr. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. klijveii. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. dag. Cleat. Sw. klov. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. lump. bogs cous. Dan. is fast and sure. . dench. in two ways. kla:g. of iron worn on shoes by country people. Sw. clay . a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. doff. klank. dinquet kleeven. to fasten E. a latch. gentle. holding together. from the clinking of the latch. it cleave together. clean. klirre.). to chink. The word may be — . a cleft or fissure. bright. to dag ox dog.

dough. . Bav. klok klep- crepitare. Clergy. kloof. derjon. Dunbar in Jam. cleft. icXi/ja?. klikklakken. klouwe. as Sc. dial. what so men clappe or crie. in precisely the same sense as the E. a clew. deik. cliquet. to wink. chatter. Now the OE. in rhetoric. glomus. Lat. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. duke. which is used in Scotch and N. cleke. klinket. klif. Du. sonare. See Clench. precipice. as from derido. as Lat. klaiv. name. a hump.' ii. region not observe it. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. to catch. Norm. Gr. to confess . klinge. kliket. catching. clypian. klaffen. cliquer. and (with the nasal) — clincher. click. crepare. in the sense of active. a clerk . The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. derigo. ready of speech. it must be observed. a trigger. dichet. to talk as a parrot. klika. rapidus from rapio. rock. snatch. to tattle. a lot. cleft in a rock. — have the notion of a short quick in E. a clicket or clapper. to tattle. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. Click. temperature. littus. clif. scar.— Clue.— Clicket. IS5 Du. globus. a hook. diver. or Sc. We movement catch.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. syn. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. the clergy. cleopian. dever. a ball of twine. CLERK sound of a blow. clatter. an inclination. diofian. Clerk. quick of perception. click it. cart that tilts over. a sphere. click. crackle. See Clamber. Climate. clever. clep. a figure mentioned. the dick of a latch or a trigger. deuck. cautes. dook (identical with E. Claw. Chaucer. call. Climb. clif- stanas. above the pole. dek. to stir. Du. ginally from dob (extant in W. Lat. cleugh. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . In I Peter v. Commonly derived from deliver. a lazar's clicket or clapper. e. Happen. on. dial. duik. klikker. clerus. a lump. dial. chatter. click. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. neither as having lordship in the. is NE. crack. —Vocab. from Gael glac. Client. The origin is the Gr. Jam. a latch. corresponding to Fr. slope . But the Dan. kleppen. pen. has kl'dver. a tumbril. klippe.Lat. pulsare. would have been derida. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. a ladder. had a form. klever. hamraklif. OE. with hamarskard. cliff. Sp. deudi. Fr. quick in motion. to seize. /cXi'fia. speak. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. climate. one of the clergy. to sound an alarm to clap. dicher. cleft of a hill. 3. derigon. See AS. rock. light-fingered. clever. Boh. Cot. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. lively. Hence Lat. whence Fr. say. dergi. a cliff. chatter. Da. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. Clew. G. deuch. dexterous. to prate. to clack. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. has also deik. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. cliof. to catch. kliv. a cleft in a rock . Klover i munden. corresponding to the Sc. highest is attained. which in Mid. kleppe. from clifian. sink.dergie! Wiclif in R. Somner. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. Du. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. klippe. a latch. stein- kluppen. score7i clif. The Sc. a baU of yarn. claw or talon to dek or deik. abrupta rupes . cave . cligner. de ripa. Clam. . the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. to teU tales. babble. Sw. Cliff. Det er en Mover kerl. precipices. clyf. the knocker of a door. Clever. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. chat. prattle.) Brai. declivity. klev. dink. Sc. gleg. derecia. a hold.). that is a clever feUow. ravine. rugged ascent. and hence deik. or an object character- Clerical. Lat. deik. to cleave. frap- per rudement une personne. the clergy clericus. seize (Hal. to cry. Climax. verge). on. a child's or clack . agile. expeditious. . diquette. -Toe (from KXivm. CLINCH De . AS. rupes . The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. dutch). a mill-clack . nimble. and hence climate. klinke. skard. KkrifoQ. to move. clap. &c. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. to snatch. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). a claw or clutch. ized . call. 3. . clima. — — A . to rattle. one admitted to the tonsure. d See Clan.. dob. G. exactly Gr. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . to bend. as a click with the tongue. a latch . Rouchi cliche. clack. a precipice.

Lat. to cluster. Sw. ' . a rising ground. klo^gen. Sw.. . noise. to pinch klupe. Esthon. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. clino. Du. See Cowl. hlinen. incline. whence E. Clink. difficulty. ring clag. Fr. See Clang. to resound. Swiss klokken. to cling to a thing. four of the bell. to wither. a bell. to lean. toga muliebris. a ball of thread . -atum. kliks. kXiVu. a lump. to snap kneipen. dial. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. klocka. chcng. to beat. gUong.ginglej Fr. pallium. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . Walach. N orman clincailler. klippe. to clink auf. Sw. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. kldpp. kluppe. klepalo.und zuk-lippen. especially of something soft or clammy. klik. klok. clique. in Schmeller) klunk.— KSS. or bagging clothes. sloping forwards. Du. difficulty . like cling. w. klaka. slant. klippur. klunker. . to shrink up. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. knot klynge. klippen. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades.' From Pl. klungelin. a tinman. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. to crowd together klynge sig ved. to lean backwards. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. Ang. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. &c. Sw. disposed to a thing. G. to slope or bend . outcry. incline.D. a beU. at first probably on a wooden board. hluccti. I. 'Till famine cling thee. klinka. to shrink up. Sw. The notion of a loose moveable substance. pinch. clog. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. as to snip in the same sense from snap. speaks of a ' clung bat. klincke. klocke. To Clip. as thick or curdled liquids. Da. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. klak. clivus.D. . OHG. ON. sloping downwards . a faction. klippa. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. to ring. The E. S w. brett-glocke. clangere. parva ruptura. globulus' (Gl. 156 -cline. shears. to snap tongs. E. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. klungeln. Bohem.' for a dry stick. klocke. a woman's mantle . sloping upwards procUvis. Hal. -CLINE make pinch. verklungeln. clutch. and a similar syllable without the /. to sound sharp. Cloak. Bohem. . a bell. -cliv-. knippe. . have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. dial. . fetter. G. Ir. cloche. iissura. to strike. 2. knippen. Du. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. knippchen. to make a loud noise. and 'E. related to clock. kolki-laud. rima. hill . Decline. also to wink . a lump G. met. hlinian. from klepati.. clinke. also to form a compact mass. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. klinken. to AS. G. Lat. hluk.'— Shaks. klicke. pinch. tuft. a cluster. dial. klingen. a separate portion. clips. recline. to clip. sticky. klippa. Sussex peasant AS. Swiss klungele. to pinch. schnippen. straits. nip. kolbe to E. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. a lump of butter. by bits. ON.— Clot. glocke. — a mantle. glungelin. to crowd or squeeze chingy. G. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. kluben. whence the hour of the day was designated as three. * Clod. kleppe. klupen. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. club). Gael. E. g.. G. clato make a noise. ten. toga. Bi klik uti klak. G. clock is a variation of clack. hooded . Cliofue. acclivis. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. as we now say three or four o'clock. cloak. to form one mass with. gang. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. to wither. compress . bow. kol- The word . to bend downwards . Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell.. a hood. Du. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. . a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. declivis. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. and so' to contract. To stick to. quincailler. a clock. . To Cling. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. to . * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. to snap or fillip schnippen. Flem. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. cochl. klunge. Pl. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Gr. clinker. klipa. Serv. as G. . to clap or clack. to knock. to clunge. kima. Kil. Een kliks bolter. kukla. to snip. — clot. klynge. Clock. dag. clingan. a clog or fetter for a beast . ON. claw. dial. Fr. a snare. To cut with shears. to beat on the board. klubben und klicken aufgeloset.

loose. -clus-. to sup up liquid food. loblolly. klunkern. g. zoccoli. to paddle in the wet. kloster. doitre. • lump. clos. klokotat. . without. kloten. dial. is connected with pludder. slops slodderen. pludre. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. we pass to E. kloden. to cling locks.rge lump. Pl. to rattle or shake to and fro. terminate. klottern. . je amoncele. to a. schlottern. chiuso. a trowelful of mortar. slab. lunch. TZoxapov.). a block. fat. a lump from Du. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. Lat. watery. G. lobberen. a bal!. claggy. curdled. and Gael. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. It. lump of mud on the clothes . closed. I clodde. Cloister. cloth. klos. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. inclose. loppe. Klottermelck. . . kleck. clausum. kleck or lack. to bubble. lump of something soft . m&se noch stain. dangle. Hence inclose. a log. clogs for the feet klakk. Klak also. a clog. foreclose. to close against one. analogous plan to clod or club. Clog. and Du. to flap as loose clothes. rattle. loppered (of milk). to claggock. -clusum. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. Russ. . IV. . truncus. lobbig. tJokok. a monastery. Dan. forbidden by 17 Ed. Bav. a log. finish . da- . log. a spot. A . klakk. MHG. lumps of butter. pattens G. an imputation. lob. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. claudo. to dabble. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. slobber. be&c. wide bagging clothes. A — — A Thus from Bav. with Fr. dunch). a clod. slobbe. lobberen. of something clammy or heavy. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). Du. in forms like Du. . miry laggerit. Pm. dag. gelatinous. chiudere. bespotted with mire E. to shut. klag. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. clog or overshoe. meat from Du. kl'dnken. ! . to shut up. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. enOE. a Christmas log. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. Yule-clog. to play at bowls. Idppern. to rattle. kladde. clotted locks Dan. the radical sylla. kloteren. to bodies. slob. to wabble. klac. a babbler. clos. daustrum. lopin. mud. from Fr. to lobberig. to slop or spill liquids. E. klotzschuh. AS. spatter. The game called ninepins. Mat. blot. then liquid or loose substance. clammy loam. shaky. beklakken. mire. Swiss schlott. bowl . His heart was franlc without a flaw. Lat. a blot. daggerey. or loppern. thick spoon . close. whence klack. a skittle-ground klos- sen. . plod. to rattle. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. or drablyn with separate existence. slops). boil. thick sour milk. a portion of something soft and adhesive.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. a blot. . bloutre. be found rattle. lump of butter. Pr. bemired. splash. Gr. . E.. aspersion. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood.— Clothe. I doda clod. clausum. 3. in comp. loose mud. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. geschlotter (as E. kloteispaen. a field inclosed clos. lopperig. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. a dirty wench claggy. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. to dash like heavy rain. from Du. like G. klod. of a body of any kind. Fr. dirt. a clod Swab. schlott. from claudo.' end. klateren. . zocco. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. The origin of clod and clot is to . to shut. . klakken. figer.D. neither spot nor hang loose. we pass to Schlatter. schlettern. or E. klos-bane. klot. unctuous. paddle. congeler. slobberen. dirt. Close. slabberen. separate part. motzen.D. loose trowsers. laggyn. clatk. compared with clump. paddle or dabble in the wet. to spill liquids. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. Fr. -close. I clodde. mud klcEg. . Fr. fors. spot of dirt. Closhe. clogs.. schlotter. claque. clot. shut up. to flounder in the wet. Fr. dab. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. . -cludo. wabbling from Du. shut up. in accordance with Pl. paludosus.dial. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. Du. G. Pr. schlattern. to shut in. klotz. or Sc. hanging loose and full. motte. is a blot on one's character. lag. To Clog.1a. slop. to dabble. clorre.'^ Palsgr. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. clotted milk klotte. In the same way Dan. and thus seem endowed . He was a man without a dag. to bedaub. in accordance with It. laggery. tuditare. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. and E. . Sc. tramp in wet or mire.

Cld. w. clot . Pl. Rouchi dapoter. The significations of a clod or lump. to cloy. G. warm. to lump mend clumsily. when something has got into the touch-hole. but confounded with cailler. w. little nails. Gael. indispalte knoblauch. a breach. dial. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. coarse. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. Das volk hat sich in splitten. to cover Bret. milk run to lumps. and clout d eudaich. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. A kind of spice resembling Du. — — — . dys. kl'dnne. diboter.). a patch. tuft. ON. AS. Clown. clumhar. N. piece Cot. a bunch. E. G. klaven. a clod. CLUCK rustic. cludaim. Clover. sheltered up warm. from kloven. clump. daggy. make warm. davus. esdaboter (Roquef. Kiittner. mary sense is a blow. 2. rustic.ft. kluV. Ir. nagelein. klump. a bobbin. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. mud (Pat. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. eene ODu. from W.D. Mabousfrom Lat. a bousche. klonte. a ball. klubb. The priClout. a nail. naegel. clods. Dan. cludadh. cloud Delfortrie. kldverj P1. a sky Cot. stock. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. puddle. klove. dote. to strike . dial. ball of thread Russ. klubbe.158 . lump. clump of a clout on the head. tered . kUid. So Fr. dabosser. een klaven kruflook. knob. to curdle. the terms expresssplit. a clubfoot klabb. dash (Cot. lump of earth aria. a sticky. block. klotzig. nelke (dim. blockish. klebek. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. klumba. . Then applied to a lump of mate. clobyn. Du.Fris. to cherish. knob. klubb. dial. E. More in R. Sw. Sp. klunds. lump. clunch. . botch. to cleave. lunch). Du. wisp. a log. loggish. matte. . klubba. are often connected. clog. a blabber. a lump. Clumpered in balls of clouds. dirt.clod. . The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. ser.D. clod is used in both senses . Met. dabaire. choke or stop up. hebes (Kil. the air. . as Fr. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . are also used in the sense of a stopper. Clump. G. klcBdi. In the same way E. zolla dell' . clotted milk or cream. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. of sloppy materials. to beFr. warm clothes {dillad. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. bunch. Club. To Cloy. to splash. dut. — . probably from daboter.). from cates the application of the root dab to Du. klotsen. Properly that which covers and Du. clothes). cobble. Sw. klobbersaen. duthaich. a ball of twine . Fr. shel- kloen. cluster. ON. Du.).bar. a cover or coverture . a ball. I. Du. group of people Sw. warm place . It. and closely do conspire. to stop. a clove of garlick. a bunch. (kruyd =. of a lump of earth and that figure. aglio. a. a clot or keeps one warm. a ball. to cleave or the splashing of water. a clod or clot. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. a bunch. Gael. a garthas. a nail) Fr. and -the word Clove. . klqb. clot. to tramp in the kluyve. sticky. de Champ. warm. The radical sense seems to be an unE. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . klu77ip. nourish . a clown. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. a knot of people. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. chiodo di girofano. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. a thick mass.). clammy earth. caillebottes. dillad bumkin. in the same sense. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). E. clavo di especias. log. clunch. clydion. a curdled sky. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. zolla. clot. clod. spice) G. del mattond. klieven. to a lump. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. lump. and tapp. botsen. strike. A division of a root of garlick. from OFr. a lump.' Sanders. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. Move. klotz. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. Du. CLOUD an awkward clod . also homo obtusus. cobio. cluth mhor. a . cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. kloete. of thumping clumsy action. eine to slop. lumps of curd. clothe. From dog. Du.D. to strike. kluppe. formed lump or thick mass. kloven. clyd. AS. of nagel. To Cluck. dob. cob. a boss. Cloud. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. sheltered . clothes ment. lie clyd. Imitative of the note of a society. with lout. a fissure. mass. clue. and of a rustic unpolished person. a log. G. unpolished. clou de girofle. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. mire. klumpfot. dump. from Du. motte. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. klever. boucher. and clay.

klontet. a block. clabosser. klummklummshandt. thick and clumsy. to curdle. See reclusion. dumpers. with a quick. Coal. a lump. conclusion. heavily. or from Sw. to gingle. to stick together . clopiner.P. esclaboter. wooden sole. ball of snow on horse's foot . klumpig. klomje. -close. — ' — — tonista. klont. ill-made . to tramp. pladdern. The Fr. tight — — . glocire. to wash. enervatus. A group.D. awkward. coccolare. the word is more probably connected with OE. But clunchy. Gr. to wash. Muster. clip or pinch. kichlemmit. klemma. of Du. a lump. dek. In the same way Du. klos. Fr. unwieldy Hal. Ray. ' Uorte (for clogs. klods.forklomme (Outzen). —To Clumsyd.' Wycliff. eene beklum.D. klimpern. Com. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise.'— animal. klunsen.pare P1. beklommen. koetsDa. hooknosed. are the nasalised forms of klotte. -clus-. as Fr. Lat. koetblockish. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. klamp. clutch. Clump. claw. hands stiff with cold. klcise. Hence cleik. &c. a bunch. klisse. a ball . awkward. to rinse. to curdle. beklummen. a litter. 159 E. hondis. a clod or lump. . klister. of garlick. ball as snow. dek. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. Riwle. -cludo. claws. in comp. glousser. acomelydfor could Pr. klikaty. and make ye strong feeble knees. log. kohle. unhandy. to grip. to tramp or tread heavily. clointer. havi. paste. wooden shoes. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. lump of soft mate. Cath. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. cleik. having the Pl. in v. dumpse. koetsen. Du.— — . Pl. Pm. * Clumsy. dussomed (Wilbrabam). a ball. might be reached from clump. seize. klemmen. koetsie. conclude. gelidus. a clod or The noclot. . splash. dial. Du. to collect in lumps. and koetse. rial. viscous material. as clumper. Pl. klette. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. calling her chickens. an instrument for nasal form e. ' Clumper. MHG. dial. ON. Isaiah.mene tied. obstructum. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. idle. verklomen. E. kol.. Cluster. a couch. benumbed with cold. klocken. exclude. Du. Boh. to syllable click. Coach. ' . from ON. klomen. -CLUDE hen Du. — . Clutter. cluntClyster. -olus-. dial. cluster. klunt. See -elude. cliboter. may recline. n. klikonosy. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. smart motion. G. Hence snatching.' Benecke. From the notion of sticking together. klompen. ' Thou clontsest for cold. a lump or compact mass. Fr. Hesse. or aclommyde. to lie. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. a clod or lump. The sense of awkward. limp. Lincolns. a nasalised form of club.D. to benumb with cold. xXvariip. cleuk. klummerhdndt. Teulazy. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. to squeeze. Cheshire. Sw. Du. through the senses of lumpish. klampa. It.Ancr. from laver. to pinch. Sp. duke. carriage in which you klodset. G. to shut. G. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. a clove Sw. —More. clook. . whence koetse. plad or plod. OE. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. Clutch. unhandy. hand to cleuk. claudo. clumsy. with E. COAL dumpish. dumps. a claw. clutch. E. strum on an instrument. fingers (familiar). eviratus. Analogous forms with a tongs. a clot klissen. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. — sen.' Comfort ye dumsid. er. MHG.e. a noise. Champ. Du. unfashioned. Beklummen van kelde. to to snatch. algidus. OHG. 130. pinched. from klupen. klumpern. doquear. clausum. — Hence include. klobber in klobbersaen. klonte.' Vegecius in Way. as from seken. Compare Swiss klupe. * Clump. and klonteren. cleche. Hindust. properly to do anything Fr. Fr. verkommelen. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . klump. dial. finish. to paddle or dabble. Fris. . ment. ether comelia P. Variation of clatter. a coach. to tramp.D. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. lay hold of. -elude.D. coucher became in unhandy. eviratus. clotted cream. to klotz. kluntfrom KKvKdi. crooked inwards . -clusum. and klotteren. klonte. inclusive. Sw. Ang. lavesen. — Cot. G.E. wagen. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. Graff in Klamjan. close. also a cluster. klamen. to curdle. Sc. dystere. bunch. a pinching time. differing only in the absence of the duik. a clod clunter. Lat. clump.

boil. pustule. gull. a great falsehood. tuft. and E. dial. from some fancied resemblance. cobcoals. to be hot. Sp. * To Cobble. niais. probably from the Fr. OE. s. a bunch. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. cob. long standing. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. used in — . throw a blow. When the .. meaning that she is plain and coarse. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. — Cobbler. . klabbare. dial. . and thence a lump cobnut. to grow together. Fr. Sanscr. pryf-coppyn. flame. COCHINEAL Cobber. who says or does laughable or ridiculous Cobweb. — — — E. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. cacd). any kind of coat. of E. in Du. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . A spider's web. Du. to knock. niais. to Lett. . The Fris. cluster. cochinilla. however. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. cob is a dumpy horse. as in arr. Dan. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. Pm. klabbsmed. cotte. k'dlla.. glowing embers. glow jvalaya. . also a coast.—Atkinson. dim. glow. give the full meaning of the word. The OE. ON. top cobio. or E. cofasse.. E. dial. viz. cob. one Pr. See Cot. woman is said to be very ordinary. Formerly written course. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . a rib. cokes or fool of him.' — Thus from (Hal. to . Lat. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. probably left his home. large coals. unfledged bird. to kindle or cause to burn . Fin. according to the ordinary run of events. . and hobble. the one of thump. a woodlouse. says Varro. staggering or halting.). to form an union with another coalitus. The dirt. a cobweb. large stones . Cobbles in the N. to cobble shoes. a spider (/r)^=grub. cock or nescock.' Nares. acomelyd or aclommyd. as shown in dob and cob. numb. hakkelen. a bubble. walk clumsily. a spider. w. atter-kop. pockbecility and liability to imposition. side . kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. cotta. verkommelen.the water boils. Colina' the place where a fire is made.a spider. or cobble. a tuft. Pm. caleo. united. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. a bungler. Flem.— Cobble. ignem. of poison. are round stones or round coals of small size. to cob. a similar According to Ihre. bijamie.inflated with air or liquid. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. koppen-gespin. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. from bearing a bag.). quilet. a kitchen. frock. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. cule cocosse. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. The contrast between the bee • Cob.). an old idiot. coste. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. bredouiller. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. blaze. properly to daub. cokes was a simpleton. Coalition. ordinary as in the expression of course. that is. Outzen. then to work unskilfully .' And colo. kolna. Fr. the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. plaisant. cobble. a sow. in Essex Jow*2c^. klabba. It.(pi. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. Du. To cobble. a knock. an egg. Coast. to bungle . ridi. — Pr. grown together. broddelen. v. a pock mark. dial. to strike. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone.. coalesce. kuppa. kop-ar. of E. nursery lang. — — . Coat. dial. a darling. to worship. inflammation. a coat or frock. Fr. koljarn. H^cart. to bungle Sc. A plausible origin. to glow . dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . to wheedle or gull vermin). and jval. Trevoux. e. . may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. to hobble . a large round nut cobstones. pock. haggle. itself is