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dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


persons of different tongues at the present day. Molli. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. but nothing she herself knows the animals. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. when neither name for the object to be designated. and mully or mully cow is the . The syllables moo (mu. come Moolls. spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. and. by whom the be understood. name of the cow. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. is given to a cow or calf. with an initial m or I. in language of the present day. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. and where we are seeking. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. the closer we shall approach to the . mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. mind of the of the animal. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. to the syllables which are significant to the child. muK) and mae (rfie. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid). The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. or Mollein. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. in other words. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. the present day. the baaing of the sheep. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. or.NURSERY IMITATIONS. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. when we is represent to our children of the cow.

72). for everything fit to eat. On one occasion he said^e nim. gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. I had watched the growth of this word. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. partly from sounds which the child caught. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. &c. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. Heinicke. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. ..' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. schipp. nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. his nurse adopting the word with him. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. fiafifi&v (Hesych. We have. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. had nim. and which we might express thus. for bad. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. Finally an n was placed before it. mumm. He would now say good. and nim came to signify everything edible. to work over with the mouth. to eat. . then. by the natural humming sound. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. when hungry. p. to For instance. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. analogous to Magyar mammogni. in children's language. family. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. he called to to drink. became more perfect. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. hm. Gr.' In ordinary speech mump.' he says. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. and some were very clear and distinct.). which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. nineteen years old. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. First. repulsive to eat. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. as well as the mind of the utterer. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. Gradually. A member of my own new sfop. for things. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children. nim. But soon the growing mind began to generalise.

food (Tylor. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. mumpfeln. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. mumpfen. aptantes adfectibus vocem. ut tinnitus aeris. sweet (Koelle). mujnpa. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). jumla. Gothic niman. and the crab — p. dial. (in chil- dren's language).' White man eat [or steal] the crab. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim.' — Lersch. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one. oves lalare. to mump. to Sw. Galla djam djeda. Vei (W. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. snatched (Whitby Gl. as well as the Sw. .).ONOMATOPCEIA. as to . nam. stolen. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. at hiamske i sig. namnam.' And Diomedes. to take. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. j ing . Swedish dialect gamsa. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. i8o. 1 86). make djamdjam). The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period. South Jutland hiamsk. and the fizzing (and Series. greedy . Africa) nimi. taken up hastily on the sly. voracious. crab nam buckra man. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. and some of them .' says the author of Modern Slang. Nimm'd up. tidbits nama . to chew laboriously. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . to eat. the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. A negro proOr. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). p. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. iii. and thence to be tasteful. eating. buckra man's language the white man. savory. aves tinnire. Africa) nimnim. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. Primitive Culture. to eat mampfen. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). to fill the mouth. clangorqae tubarum. or word-making. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. nvrnma. agreeing with Ein. palatable. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam. memmexen. yamming.' says Quintilian. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. delicacies. 130-1. ' id est. to smack in eat. i. ' Motherwell. jamsa (yamsa). to taste . lita. mumble. Wolof nahenahe. to be pleamind . the Scotch poet. nyam nyam. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. djamdjamgoda (to say djam. jammla. to move the lips in continued chewing. nobis vix permittitur.minis. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . Soosoo (W. we can call them so. on. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa.

snarling of dogs.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. bumping of bitterns. cackling or gaggling of geese. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. chattering of pies or monkeys. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. for the purpose of bringing the animal. und growling. neighing or whinnying of horses. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. howling. sparrow and chirping. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. or thoughts of our hearer. might be used as the designation of it. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. might be used. yelping. not of a baa. that there is When Man. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. Indeed. lowing of oxen. bellowing of bulls. before the in other words. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. Yet we ing. whether it deserves the name of language. 'I doubt. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. a lamb. dove and cooing. listen in vain for between goose and cackling. purring or mewing of cats. We .' he says. p. bleating of sheep. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. or. not of a moo of Lect. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . cooing or crooing of doves. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. barking. anything connected with it.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. intended in the instance to represent the cry. grunting or squealing of hogs. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. between dog and harking. hooting of owls. when circumstances required.' — We speak of a cow. snarling. gobbling of a turkey-cock.' And elsevs^here (p. chirping of sparrows or crickets. 89) with less hesitation. baaing or maeing of lambs. do not speak of a bowwow. twittering of swallows. yelping. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. ^6^. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens. croaking of frogs or ravens. but of a dog. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow.

in is Gr. this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. and the sound of that direction. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted.' common sense. lion. Malay gdgak. 'Kdka. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. Barabra koka. 349. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. Kdrava. Aoo-Aoo. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. a daw. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. Hungary. kdka. Columbia kahkah. gackem. coccolare. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven. and gaggele or gagkelein. He to is therefore derives kdka. crow. kuho. Picard cau. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. caller. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. crow. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. 4th ed. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. ghak. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). a a crier (p. according to Durga). ist ed. 380. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. a crow (Pictet). Sometimes the hoarse i . Arabic kdk. We imitate the sound with a modulated. Sauscr. a crow. birds. an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Bav. fi-om apakd- i. having a general predicative power. caw kuhii-rava (rava. or quawk. in g. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. is kuM) for the cuckoo. In Lat. Manchu The kaha. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. whose sound (Pictet. a bird that is be driven away. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. In Basque. e. kauwe. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects.).). kae. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. Georgian quaki. sound). 4th century before Christ is earliest times. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka.. Origines Indo-Europeennes). layitavya . KOKKvi. it announces (Salaberry). is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect.' kd). and Bavaria respectively. and means a shouter.IMITATIVE NAMES.

the name for a crow. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. either in the same or in related dialects. while crouk. kuku. uhu. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we . coqueri- Languedoc. the name of an animal will gen- . 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. ghughu. to cry loudly. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. Hindi. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. Scotch peeweip. It. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. tuquheit. synonymous forms of similar structure). 219. Mod. kraeyen. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. a crow lish Lith. Heb. reduplicate form. another. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. kruk. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. koeren. to croak. Arabic tdtwit.. gugu. The consonants p. cock. teewhoop.Gr. coucouva. Du. great variety of oKokv^uv. p. to howl or Lat. girre. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. "Welsh hwan from hwa. kukhuta. by the verbs gurren or girren. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. name. 6. Du. lulo. tortbla. as well as of Sanscr. Magy. in the North of England. tbrtora. coccovaec. tur. Fr. yell. kraukti. k. Lettish kiekuts. wood-pigeon. libufs. tor.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift.xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. kirren. to hoot. are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. korren. a crow. kraeye. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. a crow . Sp. to croak. The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. krauklys. Yoruba koklo. Walachian coucouveike. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. hibou. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects. German kielitz. tbrtola. lilits. and e. Ibo akoka.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. or Gr. Da. t. kurre. Dutch kievit. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. Malay kukuk. and sometimes both together. and e. giving turtur (and thence It. So we have Polish krukac. gufo. to crow. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . The crowing of cot in Fr. German and Eng- krahen. name of its is the bird. Esthonian kikkas. Swedish kowipa. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. turtle) as the Lat. Zulu kuku. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. Pers. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. are represented. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. xi. krahe. German luhu. to crow.. lUyrian kukurekati. French dishuit. kukko. Albacuculi a dove. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound.

e.IMITATIVE NAMES. schrecke.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. swirplys with 6. which they make in their flight very . bee. glass cracking (Schmeller). a bee. hollow noise. German drohne. with or Fr. there are infinite varieties. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. 'The natives call it tanand. Danish dron. — Catafogo. and he kong-ko-rong. a sharp sound as of a 6. and yelping cry. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. skril with n. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. whirr). Lith. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. little intermission. ' Sanscr. Sc. grille. booming. Fin. Northern Farmer. German hummel. gives rise to chwymores. grillen. Naturalist on the tocano. din. flight its sting considered as a horn. a beetle druna. German dronen. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. Corean sirsor. of England it is to the b 2 . n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). knetta. from schrick. Danish gnaddre. ta-na-nd. resound. ajo. to sound.' — i. succeeding each other — with noise. PofijivXwg. representing a short sharp sound. or a gnat fly. Lat. from the humming. give a faint sound. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing. i. The Arabic sarsor. to be compared with Sanscr. droning is . humming. common. cricket is from crick. The Welsh chwyrnu. The drone peal. schwirren. pip-pi-ta. skryle. dhran.' Amazons.or bumble-bee. to shrill sound sharp. Gaelic dranndan. to chirp J may be compared with . Speaking of a cricket he says. a hornet. The name of the cricket indeed. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. Australian bumberoo. oE. to rustle. Sanscr. to hum. skirl. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. Lithuanian tranas. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . zirken. growling. and not from E.' —Tennyson. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi.vf3. chirk. a drone. North of England. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. the drone or non-working bee . Arabic tantanat. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. sirkka. which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. to chirp . buzzing. the humble. g. a small as hawk is . schrickel. words imitative of humming . g. schirke. bamba. thunder. 337. kong-kong. (Jieuschrecke) . sound. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. We may cite Gr. buzzing. to grumble. as . g. loud rumour. bambhara. grylhis. horniss and from the buzzing The. and probably indicates that g. shrill. in allusion to its music. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. resounding of musical instruments. a fly (Tylor) . Albanian tsentsir. to creak Bret. ' — Pictet . In the N.

bugler. to low or bellow. muJiati. Hottentot bou (Dapper). to bow- own bawl. bu. It. to make a loud deep sound. Manx booa. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. representing the mew of a cat. to shout. bubati. w. boo. p. Illyr. or formed Lat. has bilbilgoda. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. biibnas. miau-l-er. From the same lioao). Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. and thence Lat. amuse. to ba-L-are. a buffalo. Fr. baula. make to it laugh. a Geiger. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. bull. representmake bow. as that of the cow by boo. bo. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. to make. bae. (iove. to bellow like a bull. bullock. say. the animal. buculus. a drum . Gael. make poo. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. verbal form given to the say. mugire. a bullock. Lat. 167. maukati. w. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. Galla boa. loge. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. His analysis leads cow. from the imitative moo instead of boo. a heifer. to weep. or bau-l-i. to make. to boohoo. bubenti. bukati. — ^Tylor. bue. Thus from miau. bauli. mugler. Piedmontese fi bau. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. to bump as a bittern Illyr. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. is inadmissible. to shout. From baa. forms a. k or g. to or bark. shoot . Zulu lulula. a cow. On the same principle. bolt. to sound. btibleti. grumble as distant thunder .XX called booing. be-l-er. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. bugle. to from bau. Lat. or with on. With these analogies. in same way. fivKaofiai. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). Lat. OFr. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. as the Illyr. bovis. bos. cattle. that the imitative syllable are Lith. Cult. bucula. to mew. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. and from to ring. mae. to low. bae. The Galla lilbil. Da. The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. are (with a subsidiary k). in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. whence baula. or moo. Norse bu. ox. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. agreeing exactly with Lith. to low . or a z to the imitative syllable. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to the uses goda. bullus and e. and in Hottentot baa was the . and djeda. verb is evidently identical with our shout. bwla. a bull. The Piedm. lulauti (to hoo-loo). mamoo-heeheek. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. to . ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. to make a noise. Fr. to beat hard. the Fr. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. in a imitation of a ringing sound.

as lou of an ox. for the voice of the ox). ^. to bleat. and hoc'h. leknuti. mecati. Welsh and Breton). kurre. from hundama. meugler.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. lekavica. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. Illyr. grumble. karra. to rumble. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. groin. we have Sanscr. lambs. sound. although the imitation embodied in Lat. Gr. purr). ' In driving. oe. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. (iriKov of forms like Sw. hunon. corresponding to ohg. meketati. undoubtedly imitative. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. . Fr. may be identical with Esthon. a goat. Moreover. a goat firixal^ta. Africa laa. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. Kurren und murren. a sheep. knurfisk. to bleat . Hence Breton hoc ha. by which the shingle gives rise to It. naskia. a pig. grumbhng. It. as the proper name of a tame sheep. menAda (ndda. Fr. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. G. sheep or goat. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. kurren. to growl. meil. And it is true there between hog and grunt. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. Gr. in v. grumpf. Illyr. Da. does not produce a e. a dog.). goats. Magy. from knurre. he would hardly. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. grugno. Gr. to themselves. meckern. a wolf. and grumphie. the designations of a dog the term cur. it and e. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. signifying a snarling. meigeal. a sow. — . / The same Gr. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). hund. a (Hesych. /xijeao/iat. to howl. Manx meilee. a sow. a sheep (Lowe). a grunt. a sheep or a goat. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. a sheep or ewe. and with the subsidiary k or g. grunt. name of a sheep. Gael. It is probable also that e. cite as by grunt. mekegni. is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. hound. name. . And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. houch. hunt (gen. From the imitative mae. nire. hundi). grumble. cry). to grunt. and thence groin. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. and snorke. may with to snarl. a hog. to bleat. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal. . /xj/caScj. lecco. the snout of a pig. lek-eg-ni. leg-et-ni. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. 6. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. hwch. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. grunlike a pig in eating. with the root ypaipm.' Moor's Suffolk words. a pig Fin. or in any ! way ! persuading. Illyr. in Wolof bae. a. curmurring. The g. guttural tone. With gen. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. a goat. hadg- Magy. name of the animal itself. grunny. Among dog. smack and naski. grogner. and Circassian maylley. to grunt.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. rumbling. sus-sus. and of (maelon). growl. this obstinate race. Idgge (Rietz). mutter. showing the origin of Scotch Mailie.

but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. hottihuh. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. Esthonian hoibo. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. to whine. ^6<. houpy in Craven. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. hobby.' — ist Series. Sc. a mare. So Sanscr. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. as in Yorkshire highly right. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. Thus we are led to the Fr. There are of course some names. hiine. when he found peculiarity. and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp.' ticular bird. without a — we root. like artificial flowers. to the left. hobin. a little am- bling horse. the cry to stop or back a horse.. coquelicot. cockade. If onomatopoeias can . p. to go backwards. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil).root. . whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold. hobben. g. such as cuckoo. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased. hoppe. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho.' 2nd Series. p. from the cry animal.). 91. animal. as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. But words of this kind are. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. e. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. turn a horse to the is In Finland. of the character in question. (Craven Gloss. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. M). coquette.). which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. humma. a horse.. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. .

to neigh. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. Fr. to Sanscr. sol. ginniken. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. nitrire. creeper. redpole. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. nounced with a guttural). There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. animals or certain kinds of sound. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. wagtail. goatsucker. than to the sounds represented. signified It. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own. titter. moan. as sigh. but whether there kind between them and other words. rinchar. ance or habits of the animal. wrena. little speak for themselves. hresh. e. hennir. Irieschen. diver. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. horse. Bohem. hross. laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner.D. Sw. xxiii ginal object. hukkup. fehtati. groan. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. g. hresh. . whitename in in- throat. woodpecker. form corresponding hresh. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. lapwing. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. giggle. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. wiehern. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Sp. Sanscr. Lettish sweegt. wrenska. runniken. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. cough. Pl. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. Du. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. hikkd. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. command of language was attained. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. swift.IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. frenschen. and if there all knowledge of the Lat.

the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. Mei gbengben.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. for the report of a musket (Colenso) . — Sanders. pit-a-pat. heart tick-tack. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. pump. to sneeze. to drive on. tisio (tisho). or the w. lumm. ding. strippstrapp-stroll. scream. for the for the sound of .xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. tlirob. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description. mer. a large bell. White Lies. for in such sound of blows. klatsch. hoo ping ping. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. dong Read. haw. —Brem. for blows with a rod. Da. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . to hammer . ping came the bullets about their ears. hoo. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . aritischane. for that of breaking. It is represented in e. hang. banke. . on the chops is represented also by pratx. clap ! A smack Puff. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. snort. Zulu bongo. bangas. snore. DingBang. thunder (Tylor) . or tliat is accomit. wheeze. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow.' ! ! ! ! — dong.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. for the sound of a fall. banga. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. are familiar in ' to every one. &c. to throw violently down. shriek. haitshu. Of a like forma- drum . the dashing of the sea . Vei gbangba. The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. debhes-lungotais (deifies. oren : Klapp. &c. a more expressive than the e. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. to ham. Australian bungbung ween. by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. beat of a clock child . and the smoke rolled over the Hoo.' So imac. bang ' ! trenches. heaven). snukkup). for the sound of a blow. Wtb. for a small one. knarr.' it both sides went. the God of thunder . for the creaking of a wheel. knack. 1865. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. ting-ting.' 'Haw. plitsch-platsch. an attempt would be made to by the voice. bang. a kind of drum. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. fitsche-falsche. for the sound of milking. beat. atchian. in a nail Let.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. to beat. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. to knock. root kshu. atchini. went the cannon.

to cheep like a bird or a young It. e. has been un- employed to designate fixity. to peep It. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. a fife or musical pipe. pi. pipare. and so forth. G. or a piailler. pipegni. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. pipilo. Florio. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. Mantuan pipiare. a whelp.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. a (young) pigeon. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. a or cheep. and their relations. which he added to intensify the expression. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language. To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. pipio. used as a call to . Magyar pip. The pi. cry of young birds . part of the What consciousness has the child. not- . De Brosses. and whimper. to cry like imrli^u). being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. pippione. is pfeife. pigolare. In cases such as these. doubtless. is of expression. to designate cavity and hollow. a chicken or gosling. peep. . bleat. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. piou. child. pipe. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. scream. young bird. pipe. piou. the voice of chickens (Cot. pipelni. Gr. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. chickens (Tylor). young child . ducing the sound. Fr. pigione. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. —Lyndsay. as in other subjects of study. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. calls S. pu. as k. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat. cry. piccione.' instead. Lat. far pipi. to squeak.sc. to cry pi. He Yet asks. It seems to him that the teeth t. laugh. of a word will appear supposed to represent. Lat. pigiolare. — . or the uneducated different consonants are man. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. peep. pule. piauler. mobility excavation and hollow ^. a fowler's bird call is lost. pipio. had been used laugh ? two. as the simplest implement for proFr.) a chick. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew.

tontonare. cluck. along with tinnio. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . a short sharp sound. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. crack. to ring pipio.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. Pefuxela. Hindustani karak is rendered.. gurren. lachen. and lugh. to creak knirren. Pacific aka-aka. lachachen. a. Poppopvi^to. kniks. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. to bubble. as representing the sound made when something breaks. murren. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. preserved by Kilian. laqfF. Manchu kaka-kiki. to gargle . cricli. It. to thunder. kniks. u. . thunder oil . kirkirdnd. pi . murmur (by . garren. kuruk. to clack. tintino. like the noise of a glass breaking . Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . sound). rumble. along with Du. knaks. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. when it force than biscuit. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. karkarana. &c. to hawhaw or laugh loud. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. creak. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. in German. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). be cate to go on laughing loud . to rattle. of a loud strong sound. to gurgle. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. vaake gorgor) .. to grumble.) Mod. loud laughter. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. to crackle like in boiling . or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. the clucking of a j hen . i. . or kaka-faka. to cry pi. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . of something fine and thin. sound of dry breaking. to gorgogHare rattle. or springing back. a prolonged sharp sound. to jar. Zulu raraza. knuks. to grumble). The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. bubble. tonare. grumble. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. chack. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. a closed or obscure sound. to laugh. as the click of a latch or a trigger. Hindoo tomtom. to pant violently (Colenso). to pant bejii- zela. girren. {to It. some small vowel or consonantal sound. borrelen. rumble (Fl. In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. is very common. turtur. Indian chack-chack. The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. make wood a clinking noise.Gr. rumble. where the variation. a drum W. crash. to be compared with Sc. to grate the teeth . ioriogliare (to make borbor). like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. to growl. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . knurren. a sharp short one. coo. yapyapii^to (to make gargar). to fizz like fat in frying. the side of g. to cluck.

or to Du. compared with Gr. clink. is Manchu tang-tang. for chut-chiit-er. to ring or jingle. spring of water in the a bell. for the clinking Lat. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). tup. shout. kl'mg-kling. hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. make djamdjam). a boy's whistle. drops of i. Manchu kaka. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. tumult. Turk. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. 192). and Gr. Magyar csamm-ogni. bent her head. borrelen.and e. fumtu. for the sound of privy whispering. . klirren. as of Tamil muromurmur. for a tTviror). witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. rifiirayov. to say chut. especially one who beats. the tingling Ming-Hang. and her heart went thump. tumwata. csam-csogni. and Gr. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. a workman. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. thump. and e. word. cry. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. sound). bad. chuchoter. as Fr. chinking of coin. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. and bilhila. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling. rvir (in tvittio. Sanscr. croaking of frogs.* the heart. and the imitative nature of tivgle. a smith. awater* ' The Mme P. tubh. The syllables lil-bil. Prim. clash of arms. quarren. KaKog. e. halaidlac'h. or of bells ringing. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . of keys or tinkling of bells. koXiw. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. is based on the same imitation as the e. kiling-kalang. while cacd / used in e. hala-hald-faMa (falda. Maori pata. a nightingale. correspond to e. jingle. the gingling of glasses. disturbance (F. wail. to be compared with g. The whispering of the wind I. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. Scotch sough or sooch. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . jangle. uproar. clank. to strike. chut. for the ringing of illustrate bells. simmer. or the bubbling up of to a spring. coughing or clearing the throat. Galla tuma. a nightingale. to the purling of a brook. the sound of a stringed instrument. muro and e. caca and Finnish adkkd. E. the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. to whisper. . to knock. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. noise. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. bulbiil. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. at an accelerated note. brings us to Fr. identical with g. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. box on the ear imitation of the . champ. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. ding-dong. a drum . are applied to the is excrements of children. Fr. Newman). clango. corresponding in e.' Member for Paris. 368). 1871. sound. rain (Tylor. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. bubble up. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. Tiie Galla gigiteka. indicating the origin of Gr. same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. call. Calt. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. to giggle. agrees with g. djeda (to say tub). to beat.

ring. the Germans puff. bubble. whack. crash. douse. brumberum. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. a applied as well to the force of the bang. chink. souse. snap. thump. murmur. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. by rubadub. fizz. answering to g. report of a gun. tymmesll. boom. tum-ultus. rattle. sputter. lash. flap. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . creak. we have buffet or cuff. crack. mutter. tingle. The use of g. w. swash. whirr. to fall. splutter. clack. twang. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. smash. paddle. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. gurgle. thwack. tomber.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. according to the strictest phonetic rules. 'pat. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. chatter. Nevertheless. and Fr. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. to dance. clash. while e. plump. thump. blow. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin.. smack. patter. dabble. disturbance. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. thump. gargle. or v^hether jectional. hum. clatter. and Grimm. But although and also found in Lat. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. bang. So in Fr. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. The beating of drum is represented in e. Fr. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. squeak. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. tinkle. clink. the derivation of words from • direct imitation.' — Nohden. clap. rap. blubber. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. squall. and soufflet. it is fallj AS. and the French pouf. crunch. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. rumble. clang. splash. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them. dash. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. hiss. craunch. in e. for (Sanders). tap. without the intervention of orthodox roots. din. guggle. whizz. to is blow. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. ' Der puff. jingle. slash. puff. at a door tarapatan. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. Humboldt. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. clank. It. flop. parapatapan. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. rataplan or rantanplan. whine. squeal. pop. tumbian (to beat the ground).

without a thought of symbolising to them. are made known by an instinctive cry. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. the interj. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. but if we must not complain on the beach. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. the kind of action that is desired of them. little who has time to want of her nurseling. stractions. or any unsatisfied want. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. knows them. wringing the hands. 94. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. hay. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. If. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it.' .' If chaos. and thus they become signs of despair. the inteij. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. p. ugh . or stubble is meaner name. in the case of the animal or of the infant. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. in the rushing waters. Crying. and found in the building of be burnt up.'. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. every little pain. and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. is Thus ah!. that he has taken the step in rational speech. and uttering plaintive sounds. of horror. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. At the first beginning of life. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. xxix on the contrary.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. by the nature of the cry. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. or of any if wood. an imitation of a sigh . It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . grief. formerly cited. Grimm or Bopp. because they are spontaneous.

One short interjec- tion may fact. them to exercise it. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . groaning.. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. If I wish to make a person of an . assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. ^6g And to the same effect 371. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. 344. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. interjections. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. which are frequently so toned down cance. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. and the eye. ' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections.' — ist Series. Language begins where interjections end. and some of them the composition of words. as who them spontaneous utterances. and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. sneezing. coughing. to solve the I shall call first. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. should be remem- . be more powerful. the lowing of a cow. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh.' p. he cites from Home Tooke. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. p. p. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. or which is of me as suffering pain. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language. may become traditional. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings. of all the mouth. shrieking.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. more to the point. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. more eloquent than a long speech. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. they are involuntary interjections. He says. And again. 32.

have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. speaking. hahottaa. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. for example. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. bered. and thus. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. Tooke in truth. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. in Fin. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. cachinno. Kayxa^u). It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. kahkahah. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. when I arp humming and hawing. Lat. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. I am not hearer. he says. demolishing here. then speech begins. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . hahota. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. Gr. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. loud laughter. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. some kind of language might have been formed. in Magy. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. Koxafw. but the less am at a loss what to say. and more or less limited . interjections. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. and others from interjections. it them. hohottaa. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects.

with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. like peewit and cuckoo. makes them stand and walk upon the table. of the world. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. a Picture-language. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. the critical question should be. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. ideas by a rude outline-gesture. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. a deaf-mute himself. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. The following account is given by Kruse. Though. and not. . It as has ing their most striking features.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. of the nature of this great movement. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. What strikes him . But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done.' he says. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. And so in the case of language. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. dumb is the language of signs. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. and go where we now say stand. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. But here nature soon conies to his help. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. words receiving the meanings they now bear. if taken as a whole.

and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. such as than the educated man. he. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. the sorecalling them to his memory. many when or but these. what more. becomes roast meat. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. like a V. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. for child. as it now opens out. thought is already broken. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. but if I depress it instead. the whole secret. and And thus he makes himself a language. can do better and more easily abstract terms. he. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. letter To hold the two fingers apart. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. for single objects. among themselves. and we have roast goose. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. thou. most striking outline of an object. The of sign for left hand. called Gesture-language. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. that air. particular sense in properly so called. push it towards the person addressed for thou. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. And is.GESTURE most. that. and it is flesh or meat. or the verb to be. and fully serves to j . point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. and gestures. walkest. and with his thought. xxxiii him between one thing and another. walked. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. it means little. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. that signifies great . The same sign stands and the act itself. nay. and forms further and further. for walk. it seems. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. such objects. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. or To pull and flap with the arms.' In the Institutions. for the agent. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. and to taste. walker. to name. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. his action. whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. signs are taught for yet. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself.

it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. qualifies the against the wall. it called an interjection. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. . the garden. or an act.' dener's knife. as in die it is a noun. or a passive scene of existence. according to the circumstances of the case. and thus performs the part of an adjective. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. and so is an adverb. the ture of white term pink is and red. Who is has beaten you ? would be. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. or something of the kind. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. He gave door a bang. whether by additions or otherwise. to indicate the action of a certain person. I say. An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. or a quality. as But when it is meant door. as when Bang ! went the gun. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. depend entirely upon the use. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. a colour red. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. in other instances sentence. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. When a verb.xxxiv asking. putting it into his pocket. would be simply beginning of speech. Do not bang the it is a verb. When I say. this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. The same word . Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. a number of alternatives are suggested. substantive or adjective. putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. You beaten . which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. when I say. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. might be the knife. and the as. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. or action. in fact. In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun.

whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. grie^ horror. and may be used language. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. a noun. wonder. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself.. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. as kuo cung. in the sense of great. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. wherewith. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. whereof. or with elements expressing relations of time. that is. wherehy. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. which is an old y ting (use stick). whereto.^ — Miiller I. a groan. contempt. inquiry. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. and to be great. Latin. commencement of speech. the man is great. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. or nei. a sigh of oppression and . with a stick. coalesces with the personal pronouns. verb nor noun has yet been developed. inside. greatness. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. pain. 255. wherefore. in the is indicated by the syllable y. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation . by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. Jii ta. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. some outward display of the affection. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. &c. Thus tafu signifies a great man. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. but often self-evident. . It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. that admits itself in of audible representation. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. or some relation between it and another object. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. middle. as cung. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer.

I oi[iot. on. vaj. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. and cacak djeda (to say crack. . vce. ai. to ache. ah. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. at the close of the radical syllable. as. Illyr. to chirp. vei-a. to yell formed e. to lament. oi. A widespread It. g. g. gwae. ochain. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. however. ochan. misery. Fr. but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. in Gr. In this way from the root guai. o'i. misfortune. waiidt. ache. miau-n-is. to do woe. . guajo. ach. to groan. jao. Lat. is Ay di me I Gr. The form corresponding to Lat. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. to make bow-wow. It. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. to bewail oneself. och. . wehthun. ui. howl. form. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. . ocAJ. found in g. pain. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . Gr. ah..'). headache. to wail. grief. is w. to wail or cry alas . to cause pain. .-l-are. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. ohg. probably a deeper groan. die wehen. It. vce. cece. weh. grief. to .ez. seen in Gr. woe. are ol-ire. miau-l-er. to weep. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. e. Jar lau-lau. woe. w^wa. lament. pain. hei. oval. the pangs of childbirth. ing action I. to cry n. 6. It. to cry at. wd. grief] affliction. ohi. dchzen. och. aiai^to. Bret. e. guai. wAwa. guaj-ire. och. Gr. gwe-l-a. miau-l-is. axofiai. ace. e. representing Illyr. or r. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. wai. to hurt Let. tirr-djeda. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. Thus from springs otjucifw. weh schreien. weinen. xxxvi grief. Gr. w. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. guaj- or cry out pitifully. Illyrian vaj. It. al. mew. w. ahi. ach. 6. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. gwae. ach. and to bark . jaoh. n. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. as. to rriourn. wehen (Schmeller). Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. on. to ache. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). Let. djamdjam goda (goda. representing a cry of pain. Lat. oh. to lament. achen. to make). to weep. oh. ! ! Goth. has more kopfweh. wai-l. he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. to sound yapyap. lament from oimi. mostly a ! %. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. la. pain. wai. a groan or lamentation vir. lau-l-e. oimare. to injure. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. first person. Gael. to gargle. suffering. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. Such are g. &. ochan. j.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

da. as. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. or carry me thither. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. When we pointing. child. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. da. give me that cheese. ToSe (or in Attic E. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. Sanders (Germ.' this. the nursery da-da. that gratifies me. more emphatically roSj)j that.' person. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. that.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. saying : there the ad- Trans. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. but the truth is. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another. as it Dieser da (as Lat. I add) .' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. or wants to name something. . because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. thata (ta-ta). a word of many applications in g. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether.' all is is — their consent.) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them. that is it.' then points to his wife. indeed. as to express. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. well as Goth. give. • The child. for instance. when he wants something. this here. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. we may translate this by there (it is). that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. and may be rendered. according to Menage. to here . or give me it. is we I believe. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. a specified were by pointing him out. implying the direction of its good will towards them. when 1859. and so on. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. case. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr. nurseries. and by a variety of expressions besides. The Fr. Phil. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. 'nay. Thank you. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. In the expression Da. ' sees an object. der da-ige. his trowsers' pocket. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. or that it is. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. But. Bav. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. Please. Dr Lottner observes. Diet. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). is-te). the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. says da-da-da. Sie. Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this.

of which any one may. make dadada). Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. in every mode of expressing the idea. and one in particular must. thinking. — Cot. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. stutter. Thus Gr. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. to knock. standing. beat. The da is dodem. or metaphor. to chatter. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da.' • liv ANALOGY. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. the original is that which he places first. speech. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. tattle. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. sinking. becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen.' says Muller. strike. takes it — as When the soul. meanings. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. childish toying. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand. to move step by step. p. to beat. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence. reality. then instinctively interest. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. which thus exertion. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. to tion to another. for which Johnson gives seventy taken.^ its ' utters : a cry. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. to walk. sounds. its desire. dadee. to say to oneself. pay. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. . and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. moving. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. or dalliance. tasting. and shapes it into an .' says Lottner interior.

pracht. savour. a rustling sound Gr. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. Fr. to 5 ghtter. Again. tintelen. to resound. bilbil). sense of brightness. fiapfiaipw. sprageti. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to glitter. smell. suspect Bav. outcry. to snilF. smell. discreet. scTiateren. a with kimmaltaa. snutrs. to ring. to sniff out. magnificence. Bavarian bracht. wise. firom the Gael. brilliancy. sound. snuff the sniiten. splendour. kimistd. schmecken. kiimottaa. and. snotor. bright. snot. search . Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. spraka. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. to have Sapiens. to glitter. tinkling. Lith. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. from the . knistre. beam. may be quoted gUt. may be it explained . and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. to crackle gnistre. a brilliant light kilid. — 1. and figuratively. gnittre. iclat (in Old Fr. to glitter e. The 6. to be wise. air. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. noise. Du.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. is used in the origin. a dis- cernment. on. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. to shriek with laughter . and thence e. to ring as a glass willata. So firom Lat. (parallel bilbila. . is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. properly a clap or explosion. 1654. to . to crackle. beorhtian. It is The word bright had a similar In as. for example. &c. snudra. to shine. unlella. to tinkle. prudent. man of nice taste. to sniff. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . extended to the exercise of the understanding. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. to glisten Dan. In the same way the Goth. to shine. chime). as. knittre. as kilind. wilistd. to smack or taste. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. same imitative root with Sw. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia. Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. in the domain of movement. ghsten. splendour. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. while sapere itself. judicious. also wise. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. a ringing . to sparkle. In the case of sparkle. we have and the and beorht. Heo Du. scheteren. schiteren. wilahtaa. esclat). the equivalent of g. which in ohg. taste. wamara. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. to flash. then to sparkle. and schmecker. rattle. think. tumult. to glitter. to quiver. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. . to sound clear In Galla. in popular language. bilbilgoda (to make . signified a clear sound. make a loud noise. Finnish. clang. sapere (which signifies the nose.

But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. within. in truth. the neighing of horses. Kpovtiv. gluey. inside. and vepres. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. &c. we hear of screaming colours. eo ut res vol. whirl. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. ipuKuv. the bleating of sheep. then in rpd/xoe. rough both ways. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. pvfi^Civ. kvTOQ. or . oily. so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. break. Tpa)(yg. sharp. rough. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. accordance with the way in which by touch. 1. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. pleasure soft to the ear . is felt Lana. The BpavEiv. rough. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. Kep^arl'ieiv. KoWiiSije. flow and flux. as soft by the ear. of dressing loud. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. rend. the cross. extremely loose. briars. . so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. rough to the ear. fitting the letters to the sense. Acre. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. mel. tremour. which The Stoics. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. \nrap6e. to slide.' he says. v. he framed the words ivSov. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. wool. he says. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. crux. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. discusses the tone of a picture. shatter. smooth. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. power of the letter-sounds. 6\tadaveii'. Much of the same has been often quoted. the clank (stridorem) of chains. strike. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. itself letters are felt as sofl. And observing that n kept the voice within. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. soft. in of his works. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. roughness.

for exis ample. or checks as they are called by Muller.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. degree of roughness sound. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. rug. A greater felt. t. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. k. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. the case of the voice. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. jih. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. jog. smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. shag. and in the utterance of a high or or low. cular effort Again. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. stab. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. ii. as when. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. Fr. joli. p. to jogj sac-cade. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. dig. to signify varieties of movement. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. shog. d. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. jag. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. dag. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. 'and consequently form. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. tug. 138). p. stag (in stagger. to reel abruptly from side to side). we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. g. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . corresponding to the ineor. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. jig. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. a rough and sudden . sag-oter.

used interjectionally to represent a .'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. sound barely audible. zack. to beat or play on a musical instrument. Hence Lat. The Mipen or pencil. The syllable suk is jerk. Fr. is made to signify movement.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. (mitsati). kik. and analogous movements. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. zigzag. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. to tickle. passing to the signification of motion. to mark it with a touch of the pen . with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. to On the same principle j we have g. motion. S-panish miga. tech-tech. to take a thing on tick. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom. to winkj micati is Lat. lead to Spanish tocar. to have it ticked or marked on the score . is lanese toch. rough horse. It. to glitter. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. to touch. Ene olde suksuk. to incite by light touches. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . mot. to utter a slight kick. foot. a quid of tobacco. as tot. toch-toch. to pulses being knock. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. schockeln. Mucken. To tick a thing off. to strike It. a playiug-marble. to ring a bell. also to stir. cica. and e. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. tick-tack for the beat of a clock . chicoter. Brescian toch. Bolognese tocc. Illyrian migati. mica. a small bodily object. movement. a . then. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. like English tick. The train of . a good piece of road . transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. to say a word . it produces Dutch micken. schuckeln. chique. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. in cases like the foregoing. micare. representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. so to Italian toccare. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. to stir. &c. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. The production of sound. Fr. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. a little bit. e. and It. mik. properly a small lump'of . then. an infant . mie. to mutter. The analogy then carried a step further. tock. a crum. not to utter a syllable. that we never can be sure. g. however. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. a jog. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. figuratively. Sukkeln. to move rapidly to and fro. chic. for the sound of knocking at a door. Thus we have B. an old worthless horse or carriage. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. sound Fr. tack.. a stroke with a French toucher. or check. Accordingly the g. chiquet. a cracker. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. a piece or bit of anything. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. as Italian tocco. tecche-tocche. Then. is so frequent a consequence of movement. Dutch kicken. kuk. Welsh cicio.

there. to whisper (Pr. to jog. to tremble. . . citto. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. to make a slight mark. you. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. 0. tottle. tot. mutter. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. a bit. Malagasy to. lump of earth. Cult. a small lump or pat. anything . there (further of!) ao. . a light quick blow. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit. eo. . further off. a certain conception. I. to touch lightly with a pen. small titlark. tot. mot. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. mote. gnu. the vowel sound. e. (Halliwell) Da. gni. for the three personal pronouns. syllable mot. tittle. . a e. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. to e. light — to note a thing hastily on paper . . zitio. that iku. ri that. anything small flax. gno. a morsel.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). is shown in murmur. tozzo. This kind. a little titty. and he. that. a girl. move slightly to . of movement in totter. ika. subdued manner. a morsel girl . not an atom . or the like its It. sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. tit. to jot down or note with a fro. this . mut. the least visible insect. But the same is language has re Javan. Halliwell. lix Sp. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. 48) cites from the African Tumale. a small horse. To jot. here (close hand). a whisper. fragments It. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. i. totle. for the beating of a clock. chico. motta. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. mutter j dust. motte. The following table from Tylor (Prim. tiny. to movement of the pen . and out there. at where the order is inverted. . Fr. this. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. often entirely arbitrary. or o toi. little j to that of a small bodily object. a lad citta. and a small lump of something. a small bird. clay . and toddle like a child titter. the same organ touched with the man. zitella. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. a. 199). or the converse. Pm. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . not to utter a syllable. a small quantity. ticktack. little. tit. we have e. a tot . to excite by slight touches or movenjents. mossche. neither moit nor an atom. titter. to touch. fait. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. In a similar the relations of place. there '(at a short distance). to dot. but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. a sparrow). here. Then. a bit. not because the pendulum makes a different left. n. titmouse (Du. jot. bunch or flock of wool. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. corresponding to the personal pronouns. seesaw. and mite. e. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. tot. . tot.) . and dot. taut. titilh. So. small of kind.- a jot or little It. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. iki.n. as in e. Du. a small kind of lark.

is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. here . that. here feraa. there. nne. . is father. Chilian tva. ni. no constant rule is observed. minution further. ojOo. . that. father. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. mas cheche. young one. Lat. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. bi.. ukko. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family.e^. ni. here .araM. that. Tamul i. here j ka. mother. there. here j abe. you. . thou ni.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner.) nna. Mutsun ne. child. probably initial of distinction that the k. that. Gr.. uta. biii. olo. ndi. there. to a like principle Ibu (Afr. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. an old . Then. ofj. /e«. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). he. and origin. little. Dhimas isho. It Carib lala. mother. Carib ne. father k . man erne. as the act of pointing was ta. akha. to. here 5 Yoruba na. Sahaptin (America) kina. me probable that • Vei also little. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. for the male. he. Mm. qu. tiiio. I . but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. . .. Zulu ajoa. ita.) pronunciation of i or e. . that. loo). child. j Canarese ivanu. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. there. that. and a for the female. Fernandian az. there. w. this . It seems to (fen. . Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. this . km. Ossetic am. ne. as in Italian Fin. 6. as Mr Tylor remarks. respectively. usho. that (intermediate) j wana. (tt). /mya. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. . that. thou . this . there. /wo. Botocudo ati. this ole. Magyar ez. this . ulri. Japan ko. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. that. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing. this <t. an old woman chacha. that. is Here. Guarani nde. Abchasian aSn. that in the distance. mother. Tarahumara ibe. thou. here this . femina ama. this fi.. by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. there. ^. ta to ka. small (Pott.

nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. to teet. to begin to appear . of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. fretful. to leap. looking through between obstacles. trappa. a step. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. the principle of reduplication. tion. to peep. And perhaps the E. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. repetition It. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. keeh. Fr. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. trippen. A little wee face with little. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. barking of a dog. nil. to make its way through the bursting envelope. dance (Kil. — Douglas Virgil. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. lift 8. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. sound of bells . to feet. i Sw. wenig. &c. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. Thus we have Wolof sopa. Top. nipple. at pippe frem is to spring forth. in old e. for the . wean. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. the nursery few j Sc. for instance. Clank represents the sound of something large. or even. stairs. is to express simple continuance of action. trippelen. little To sup up. as ding-dong. has tittafrem. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. murmur. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. From cases like the foregoing.' — Merrv Wives. to sup up by and with j lips barely open.) . . weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. to peep through. the simplest mode by the g. analogous to winy-piny. trSpigner. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. as j money. a child. just beginning to appear. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. or chink. to tread. for a succession of light blows low-wow. The Sw. trap. of smaller things. pepin. din-din.' making the voice as small as possible. and in the Pacific dialects. knob. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. 401. titta. nab. Da. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. The sound trapp . the idea is called. A little weeny thing. whence Fr. little. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. a little yellow beard. trappen. don-don.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. the pip or pippin. the germ from whence the plant is to spring.

such as the syllable expressed in a more called. keep spots. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. . and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. or very very great. 97). to say pooh It is ! to. the and clique.' expression is — ^Tylor. a cradle. lololoa. So from clamo.. didi. random . the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. the agent in panting . puka. Mandingo ding. 99). smallness. or el. to love. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. instead of being actually repeated. to pant. Cult. Malay ayun. racket. ratsi-ratsi. the lungs. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. cliqu-et-is. or a little tee--ny thing. kenda. Thus in E.Ixii REPETITION. or rdtchi. or imitative syllables. rapidity and strength. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . to talk at to walk. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. loloa. properly speaking. and the words express a continued sound of rack. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. to call frequently from Fr. i. ding-ding. rack click. repetition or continsignify long. to to call. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. . amusement. ayunayunan. little child (p. kamha-gamla. very great. tach-et-er. rack. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only. clash of weapons. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. mpolu is uttered. to treat with contempt. (to use a to speak. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. to cover e. and Fr. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. to rock. or in Fr. could readily be conceived. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. And generally. as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. to or rub. very bad. kendagenda. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. The same principle of 196. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. the comparative degrees of greatness. to skip. serves to show and in this way. child . but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. hardness. &c. bad . mawhitiwhiti. mawhiti. a spot. puka- puka. calling. in familiar use with ourselves. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. Again. sopasopa. to express repetition or continuance in a general way. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). clamito. a grasshopper. if very young. to vi^alk about for flax. child . Susa di. from Maori muka. a clattering noise. is language. er. are echoed by the rudimentary et. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. click. very long (Pott. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. tache. Thus in the Pacific loa.

wancol. wankeln. to crackle. waggle. guggle. it. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. to rock. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. dabble. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. the knie-en to E. and in as. he who rubs. such asjlap. mew and baa . to wail woe . The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. In cases like these. without the intervention of the frequentative element. bubble. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. to make a succession of shoves. the lungs (the puffers of the body). jogging. to bark like a dog. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. rynel. in some applications. to continue dragging. miauler and beler correspond to E. or Maori puka-puka. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . a from ayun. Ihre remarks under gncella. g. to rock or wag. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. from puka. which. wagas ging. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. to hand. rubber. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. or in e. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. The Fr. shuffle. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. Jickfacken.Jicol. a succession of cracks to rattle. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. wavering. others. itself. joggle. bub. as mAS. where all direct connection with sound is lost. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . as to handle. in Fr. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. or by association. or omitted. wankel. kneel. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. or fi bau. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. are to cry mew and pew . Piedmontese bau-l-S. be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. miauler andpiauler. by the side of wanken. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. compared with g. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. syllable clat . an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. smack. fickle. to move to and fro. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. to make a succession of grabs . to make gug. to make bau-bau. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. crack. to hand-le. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. The contrivance with any particular noise. is In e. dab. draggle. to puff.

or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. will continue to be felt in daily speech. Breton. the breach. to the separation between the broken parts. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. A gull or a dupe same sense. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. which is the origin of the word. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. or how generally. moreover. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. on a moment's reflection. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. to cry ugh at. although it is not difficult. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. which. Dupe comes to us from the French. There is. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. at was more familiarly known. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. and comparatively few easily deceived. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. deceit. It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. or in mode of use. by a hard body breaking. known in Italian. it is obviously a mere chance how long. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. Polish. or in aptness to combine with other elements.

The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. and the word is used in a secondary sense. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. however. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. or are afford satisfaction arising origin. founded in manifest blunder. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. . That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. language is . and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. is. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. nor any limited of ideas. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. Hitl^erto. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. life. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound.

Welsh. in the course of many years' isolation. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . 330. i. episcopus. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. circle perpetrates a new slang term. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. Naturalist on the Amazons. French. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye).Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. unintelligible to other hordes. and vescovo. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. of material things. as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. I think it very probable. hearing. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. change. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. If English. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. guages in South America. compared with the duration of man. and 'Russian. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight. evique. out.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. therefore. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop.

which are idenr Figures 5. and . ao8). as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. to be taken (Prim. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. 7. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs.COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. i. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . the actual it which would to represent. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. 8. A key must unlock more doors than this. it will leave figures 3 and 4. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. Cijlt. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. . is MN. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. Nor is there one of the letters. We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. The combination of the symbols I and 2. as shown in the subjoined illustration. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. 9. or whatever the proportion may be. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. 6. as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. ancient Greek M .

we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery." the use of a change of vowel in as. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. or. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. leading him to utterances. which either by direct resemblance of sound. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. and the only safe beneficent Creator. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. for instance.' should be discovered. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. his fellows. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. in the shape either of direct inspiration. known to us as yet. had its origin in imitation of sound. what comes to the same thing. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose.

or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . or of their own reflected thoughts . as elephants. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . or beavers. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. the conduct of Ixix life. or else. and sooner or later. and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. that he started from the lowest grade. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. until the progeny. in the course of generations. for instance. there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . by animal without a trace name of Man. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . of using imitative conduct .COMPLETION OF MAN. and when we look back as far as history will reach. whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. and rose towards a higher state of being. and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man. is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. or not. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. race were speaking men or not. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes .

AS. . Bavarian. Finnish. Gothischen 1851. Cotgrave.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. E. 1850. Da. Fin. Bremisch. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Supplement to Dueange. Carpentier. Cimbr. dialect of the Sette Commune. dial. Romano - Cas- traise. Douglas' Virgil. Danish. Carp. Anglo-Saxon. 1654. at the end of Somner's Diet. Dueange. 1768. Provincial dialect. Due. Dutch. Elfric's Fl. Diet. Cimbrisch. Diet. or Dan. Cot. Diet. 1766. de la langue Cat. Dief. Catalan. B. Esth. Dn. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. Gr. Bav. Biglotton seu Diet. 1857. Glossarium Mediae et tatis.. Diefeiibach. Infimse Latini- D.V. Castr. Sup. Supplement to Bret. ^Ifr. Dief. English.Saehsiches Worterbueh. Teutonico-Lat. Grammar Boh. Wtb. 1737. Baile/sEngl. Brem.Nieder. Couzinid. Fr. Bohemian or Czech.-Eng. Esthonian. Dueange. Bigl. Diefenbaeh.



r. katowai perairrantr. willekom Blab r. cti. r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r..>. woman r. word allagerr. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. puHti r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. haverie crtOT r. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. yjnaifia r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. buque 118 brodiquin r.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r. sveritet Asknace r. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r.nokkutama willekem. Blob plowied r. kilistaa bugiie r.percurrunt kimista^x. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni .5 ERRATA. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . Askance woud r. ^i?^i2! r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. baltresca nokkutomax. (/ijtf r. cruccio deyrie. plowied budowaer. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. alUger ahaverie r.


Ab-. off. said. orders. on-bsec . to awake. Lat. be-ceftan. downwards. but now )bsolete). sion of 'an abandoned character. compounds.DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. to hold . as. to sauff the king or spill. vs. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. Abs-. And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. a. o/j of or . Dent posture. Thou spelds of mychty iction. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. a/tan. from a is to wake to abide. until the event jlace . Abaft. Passing tongues. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. baftan. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. announcement. ifter. this word beand Spanish. away. dominion. AS. Thus ip N3S. literally. rule. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. a washing off to abstain. Parson's Tale. —Bruce. and secondarily in that of command. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. To abuse is to use iway. and — Chaucer. on. 244. OHG. . from. on-lic. alike. of-dune. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. A. In Lat. away from. AS.t G. behind. abaft. implying a completion of J. particular 1 . in a manner other than it should be ablution. on. the er. Abandon. abs. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. ar. er. out of. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. Jvery man shewid baft. ir.he Goth. Hence on-bceftan. have entire dominion over. ibandonner. as. his. us. iway from. "rom a height. K . whatever he be. in. power : Than Wallace thing. onis aback. to subdue. dominion. and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. Immediately from Fr. into the Romance ftrseg .' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. plesyt him. erwachen. state of sleep . as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. an edict or proclamation. in the same sense. among. ur. command. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. bandon in French. to arise. ab. 843. Again. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to . might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. The word Ban is common orders.

. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. Bate. terminedly. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. or society of abbots or monks. abbas. esba. A. See . to take possession of an estate. And he thereof was all abashed. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. an abbey. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. vol. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. abbatere dal prezzo. On the other in use as well as hand. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. and sets them all agape. to The . his mouth. confound. abate. may be explained. R. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come . Abbess. R. his eyen shene. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. burny. other. of wonder. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. — Neccham. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. to gape. beer. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. Abbot. bawi. abbatis. adverbial expressions at abandon. to astonish. abandonly. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator. drink. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. to excite admiration.— — . to strike sail . and that from Syrian abba. at his own the lips. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg.fournir. or admiration. ne more vermeille. weaken. et prirent terre. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. father. depress. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. Wall. of fear. to diminish the force of any. faire tomber. to ruin. polish. and it that that it — . to make lower.' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. impetuously. effect of shame. More correctly written abbat. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh.down. d. in the active form. to beat furnish. Fr. Castrais. from Lat. to strike Froiss.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. overthrow. ant. ais.polir. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. by Wall. astony. and grooms besmeared with gold. abaundunem-ent. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. To Abate. Milton. 1520. Baba ! Mod. Abbey. de. In or.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. Originally. law term abatement. son bandon.Prov. . person.) . Custom. baba. and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. merely the terminations ons. 1 1 8. R. bandon.— R. of the Fr. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. impulse. Hence Lat. and the verb was written in Eng. Hence the OE. to happen. so common in the found in the OFr. to put to con. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille. to light upon. esbahissant.On princes. as ravish. castle. Hart in Jamieson. c. lish to abaisse orabaish. shame. iv. baer. with or without a final sh. esbahissais. to overthrow. abbattre. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin.esbawi. Beat.y^J fusion from any strong emotion. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. abbatere. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. uncontroUedly. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. to hit. — — . from ravir. It.' the surrender of a ' K. where custom (Grandg. burny was formerly burnish . astonish. Cotgr. thing abbatere le vela. I was abawid for merveille. down. betrash. to abaw or astonish. See Abide. A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. esbahir. to bate something of the price abbatersi. 364s. abbatia.

ceive. m Abeyance. Pol. abbadare. to stay. with badia. to look. bidan. compared with (Bosworth). as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. attendre avec en^pressement. F. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. abet. usbeisnei. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. . See Abide. Prov. to be intent upon. expectfamily. bida. bouche b^ante. John. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. Gloss. baer. and alluring to his own destruction. trick abetar. inciting. baier compared with It. to open bader. signifies the direction of tend.was formerly used in the sense of look. look for another. bida. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. Cat. tenere a bada. attendre See Bait. to tarry. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. pense. to expect. regarder. Abele. 1 • . Q. wait. The verb atwaiting. beijden. bouche bdante. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. forms with the d effaced are OFr. bana. expectation. Corresponding to keep in suspense. to It. literally white tree. The white poplar. baier. bder. qui iaaille. gola badada. ' ' . — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father. badare. abet. Ni engigner ni abiter. badare. abayer. suspense. waiting. Guernsey beth. to gape . de Berri) Prov. we sceolon ON. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. . to wait. in Dan. . or do we AS. —Raynouard. to wait. a bay or opening in the coast. to desire.— ^richer. suffer b. to In great amaze. Quant voit le serpent. to remain or endure. Boethius. inciter. on the one hand. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. abaier. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. verbeijen Sw. From abahier. take care. K. take notice. guardare. expectation. to abide . to hook. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. desire. Abie. have seen abide. gridare. warten. — ABELE Epiphanius. speaking of the Holy places. ne wist what way to chuse. intent observation. us. Ducange. beguiling on the other. to open the mouth. Norm. bialodrze-w. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. forbearance. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. bie. endurArt thou he that should come. white. and in E. — signifies to suspend action. beijen. incite . or absorption watching. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. delay. in Fr. lingering. covet. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. ne chastised them. were called Brothers. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . bocca badata. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. deceit. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. to stay. Fabl. watch. to deanimer. Gloss. to ance.Fr.— Roquef. badigliare. listening.' is in AS. — II. wait To Abide. to suffer death in Du. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention.— Chaucer. to expect gabeidan. beijen. the verb of abeyance. which is certainly related to It. b^er. to wait. (Vocab. abie. which the mind to an object. Cat. bhr. Thus G.) abayer. to attend to. OFr. and E. to attend on . to yawn. says. songer. delay. beter. to mind. abiiance. tarrying . to deceive. a right in suspense . abetter. deceiving. baier. and Prov. while the monks under his control ing. exciter. tical with It. to be intent upon. . beidan. bie compared with Dan. house. abidan. beguile. listen. . delay. Du. Goth. or in Fr. beidan. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. endurance. syllable ba. To Abet. ^couter avec dtonnement. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. — . In We . 366. Corant sens lui. tempting. badar. aspire to. to desire earnestly. abSiance. bada. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. Norm. aspirer. open the mouth. bide of the d endure. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. with open mouth . from Halo. abeyance. Thus we have It. abie.. is idenwait. also to OFr. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. othres abidan' The effacement expect. E. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe). de Champ. abeter. tity of E.to wait. badare. desirer (Roquef.

and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. as habiller du chanvre. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. strong. abie. and the simple buy. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. L. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. al- be found so some will dear abide it. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. habilis is closely preserved. abycgan. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. to pay the purchasemoney. Q. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. abidge. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. 2. have-like. ! ! Cotgr. de la volatile. power. and Cr. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e. Merch. Lat. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. properly abuy. —Bacon in R. abolir. from AS. purpose. must suffer for it. i. Spenser. ON. abilej Prov. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. habile. on board .^and to make his power knowne. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. him with che. the Pardoner In the original. the Fr. AS. Boucher. Fr. is the verb abie. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. or bie. able. R. forbid for mother's children should abye. The —Boucher. fault being simply clothing. aboleo. a board. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. &c. to dress hemp. Abie.ynes. — Able. in for any special purpose. without special reference to the notion of retribution. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. as E. abicgan. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. F. — e. Fr. the side of a ship. from Lat. at kasta fyri bord. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. . suffer the Jul. sufficient. Wickliff in Richardson. 2nd Tale. Tr. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. God. to . adapted . to redeem. within the ship. bide. to perish. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. Innan bords. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. when compared with Aboard. N. Dr. fit. abie to Goth. abigg. to pay the penalty. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. to draw fowls. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. abeye. The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. She shall abie that trespass dere. within the walls of a ship. Milton. bidan. If it badare. atling hem to her proper offices. abilh. and death for handsel pay. God — dear. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. to wear away. God tokeneth and assigneth the times. It. Prol. durance in both applications. Chaucer. use. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. though sometimes confounded with it. at hand). R. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco. For on board. was often used in the same sense. consequences of anything . he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. convenient. beidan. P. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. O If tion. to have . bord. powerful. P. Mids. Cassar. In this to erase or annul. habilis (from habeo. — P. expert.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. willing to schewe his wrathe. the Sir Tristrem. abide. being disabled in the highest degree. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. while in later examples As I .

to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. Prov. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). See To Bray.— Abbreviate. OSw. to AS. bufan. of any kind . to rear..off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. ufan. to rear. to main. breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. and to do something to avert abbreviate.aboon. while the verb alleThe root el. Severe the threatened evil. leading immediately to Fr. around on the out. a portent). Thonne Abroach. or young forth. onbutan. alan. Finnish stock. nurse. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. full ofte his words for to Fr. to cut short. Then. so that here also we to deprecate the omen.foda signifies to beget. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. is a ively. for ligeth butan. Tale. abrdger. abufan. as the duty of nourdisposition. to awake. to break off. to let sleep. boven. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. be-ufan. ala. abbrechen. al is growth. abredan. Lat. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. be-utan. motion. Sc. alan. The primitive idea seems that of beget.) . gravis. greu. To abray or abraid. to fatten. to produce. Melibaeus. progeny. common in Chaucer and Abominable. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. agredge. agreujar. kindling. D. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to.' Parson's rence. OE. to snatch.the older form. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. titan. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow. to nourish. to turn. as AS. AS. explains soboles Lat. and in-d-oles.ymbutan. whence the Fr.writers in the sense of starting out of rence. becomes leu in Prov. life. Of these synonymous adolescere. ABOMINABLE adolesco. In the same brevis . AS. abracan. abrcBgdan.ger. to start. to light a fire the Abraid. to bring up. is not from G.' Ymb hancred utan. OE. to progress. brood. and also. currence. abbrechen. Abray. from Fr. which may God avert. to grow up. Du. or cut short. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. below. parent. way Sw. sec seftre — Chaucer. gravity. ol. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. about cockcrow. vital PI.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. as withotityn and without. breaking out in language. and alere flammain. abbreviare. ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. the identity of which with ting. awaking. coalesco. above. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. disastrous portent in some passing oc. levis to the Romance languages. but from Lat. draw out. side. Abrdger itself. that greatly agredge their sin. to feed. d. to feed. on high. heavy. break out. Fr. by the to bring up.. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. en. adolere. See -und-.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. — . The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. abominor (from ab and omen. Quod abominor. snatch In English we speak of away. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. alere capillos. pedigree from brevis. The radical idea is to feed the flame. the hair grow. the man dwindles away. af-oolden.1. to beget or give birth to children. Goth. natural ed direct from the latter language. hard. Above. Thence to regard greugetat. . So in Lat. to aggravate. Kiittner. while the sense of beget. and bidden him abregge. which passed into English under Abominate. abowen. ala is made to signify to rear. to grow together. alUger. — ' — — preceding verb. af-oleii. the vital spark. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. the OSw. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. butan. his contemporaries. the form a&^^. s —Casdmon. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. and also to abridge.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. oil. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. literally. seems aras. without. from . nourish. Abundant. nurse Lat. Gael alaich. AS. For on broach. Virg. abutan. the idea of breaking about . notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. To Abound. outward. giving birth to. .



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


Lat. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. to go in strange disguises. aperio. separate purpose. a few. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. to bring forth. Aphorism. to strike G. Percutere. whence anthem. anticus. to nourish. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. villan Gloss. Gr. To ape. Antique. work. anfilts Pl. Fr. to strain. burnished. To go antiquely. ReApe. As the browcalled antiques. the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. Otfried. AS. antifena. Gr. before. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. So Lat. such as savages. what Roman civilisation. Aperient. Apart. andouillers. Lat. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. as we call it. in Shakespear. from ango. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. strangle. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. as from as. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. three antike pillers. press. from in and cudere. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. were andouiller the second. Any. to display pario. cenig. — — — . plenteously with red. to open. gabeigs. antefn. Lat. Hence the applica. Thus from gabe. Pezron fiUist. like a jack-pudding. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. a definite .—Aperture. Fr. separate. AS.D.is to be given. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. Apartment.. apatiar. Mannequin. to support. Antick. something ler in R. —Spencer. finally applied to a whether grotesca. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. before. stem. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. vex. Ful- Apanage. from an. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. left as the . as the Italians. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. panar.th centuries the recognised models of antic. Fr. a preventative . white. as posticus. from. some one. should be received. wealth. from. a puppet or an anti^hona. Jorioc. Lat.— . to sound in answer. See Cover. E. swaged. were chiefly of the former class. anapoz. Gr. bread. on. which by anvild. : . Antidote. i. from avTiipoiuia). Hall's Chron. trouble. amboltj Du. fauns. aside. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. a gift. In like manner. apertum. to have. Apartment. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. Anxious. Anvil. from Stephanus. a small quantity. ambeld. of. ab. . one at the least.made out. and devils. panis. set aside.legacy of given against. Antler. to strike. one having wealth. eigs. but the expresent day. a block to hammer on. surimitation of the ancient models. and ig. transferred to the grotesque characters. from the imitative habits of monkeys. incus. the anticks — behind. Ilvtwotov. af. all of gold. from ante. AS. d<popi(xnbs. whence Prov. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. one. d. or in a ridiculous dress. inAgain from the same author cudis. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. anxius. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. part. or antique single chamber. from eigan. younger child. from an and — - . while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. avri^ava. verberas. Prov. and claret wine. G. rich. anxi. a termination equivalent to Goth. choke. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. apanage. post. to imitate gestures.

Prov. peler. dress. : — — speak 'Lz. to approve.pareil. off.parecchio. proper time came. good. To praise. Fabian in R. —^Apparent. to send to. to deem good. apropchar. Prov. — dirondtfiu. jabloko. Pliny. obolys. like. to which it is often referred. from. to suit. from aTroorlXXu. set a price on. aparelhar. pronounce good. known. Apple. poind.his giving evidence against his principal.prix. to send off. N. a'^opi'Jw. From Lat. appareo. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. become dizzy . apin R. Friar's Tale. near. Walach. — prehendere. It. prohts. A — . Appease. apprendre. esteem. to set a price on. to approach. prope (comp. —Diez. in fact. diroBrjKr}. Fr. prize. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. case. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw. to mark to define a bound. They werin his approvirs privily. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. fit- — ness. apprise. ar. to deaden. . to store or put Appal. from paix. Hence appoind. to learn. or E. w. Cotgr. pertain or belong to. Yr. rise to \t. Apo- good time. (cited by Diez from a late author). APO sentence opoQ. Appareil. find Then like Fr.parejo. to strike down. corresp. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. apar. consent unto. purpose. diroTrXriaatii. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. oVooroXof. and metaphorically to take the meaning. despatch on some service. to call for judgment. away. a price. in Chaucer. one is in. apal. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. landmark.t. the good.— . to call. to be open to view. whence the e. 'L-zX. to accord. Gr. apprentis. to dress in this fashion. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. appareiller. OFr. ciously than nede is. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. to take away or lose the vital powers. habiliments. Cotgr. array. pretium. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. And among other of his famous deeds. avail. Fr. agree. an epistle or letter. plight. Epistle. mine. seiden of the stones. to rate. of. ^wss. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. Parson's Tale. taking. to lose one's senses. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. From Gr. 23 . En peach. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. ai. praise. value apprdder. when the . pronounce fitting). Formerly apricock. allow. 'LaX. Apoplexy. opportunity. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. apparecchiare. — Approve. pragigua or prixcoda. in good season prendre son d. They were considered To Appoint. to learn.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order. ON. properly to join like to like.probare. probare. lAfiaam. to finish a controversy. to deter- to strike. apal. agreeing with "LtA. — Appurtenance. appaiser. to seize. in commendation. to understand. Nouv. . APRICOT off. equal. to commend. approcdare. For their acquaintance was not come of new . horror. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. after his mind . a thing for one's purpose. Lat. S^. to — . apprehendere. — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. Fr. Fr. habilUr. Gr. that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. to fit. — Apprise. trim. quoth the frere. aptly. irpaiKOKiaov. order. kind of action. Lith. Mod. i. to catch hold of. Fr. apropid. appris. poind. Yr. that it outfit. to come near. peace. one sent out. prover. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. The PI. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. Fr. iwKjToKri. Palsgr. . To cause to pall (see Pall). approver. Fr. diminutive pariculus. to — — .—Apprentice. AS. xv. par. one for his defence. to announce. 11. and also as appraise.propius). appellare. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. cepl. Gr. d-n-o. Ir. decree. H. Fr. in data. appartenir. one the MLat. Apprehend. a crime. An old appalled wight. Cotgr. a learner. manner. Apostle. approcher. To Appear. and appoinder (to find fitting. to Lat. and in the sense of condition. laven is used both as E. e. Cent Nouv. D. Apotliecary. to disable oftat. word was specially applied to clothing. Approach. 5w. or the like. to assign or grant over unto. whether through age or sudden teiTor. To Appraise. Wholly unconnected with/a/^. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. Sp. And whanne sum men Lat. The Fr. I prise ware. preparation. Gr. like. to make a thing Apparel. Hence It. From Lat. make a composition between parties. were formed appropiare ejar. piteux poind. ap.

scr. con. fastened close. auguror. as an eye-witness. As is a pretty parlour.] in the N. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. the spelland umpire. account for either of these significations. P. quod he. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. words derived from arpa. symbol. Lat. . Thus we have natiger and auger. intensitive of nape. a pleasure-ground. and the one who gives oracles. aestimo. P. It is certain that the apricot oracle.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. . sortium ductor. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. Lat. water Which that benchid was. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. sorcerer. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . a lot. found in Fin.shrubs {arbor). arbiter. derived. {mies ^=ia3. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. and with turfis new Goth. to decide by lot. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. arbitror arwaaja. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. tion under trial. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. ear. Now we find in Fin. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. OE. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other.' —About. doubtless is the origin of E.. naperon. . whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. Naperon is explained by Hdcart. This path Aqueous. It may be doubted. suitable. arbiter in re censendS. 31. and taken away before dessert. wata. nected. arpa. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. ap. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. la nappe. grande nappe. arbitrium. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. a lot. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. garden. Lat. conjectura conjec^ra. Prol.meaning at Shrewsbury. most conspicuous situation in the garden . From OFr. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. Hall. properly the arwella. Naprun. opinio. delon. as ihe diminutive. From OE.) E. a river. a lot. herbere.sors. shortdr. Arbitrate. nawl and awl. Beryn. arwelo. Gr. Albanian. to plough. aro. Marsh. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. conjicio. short. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. Freshly turnid Arable. — napkin is Naperon. aptus. and a protection of the clothes. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. C. proper. Alban. a soothsayer. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. to preserve it from stains. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. divining rod. hariolus arpelen. Arbour. however. J. Maan initial . notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. aa. and sortilegus ation. ahva. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. Aquatic. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. Pr. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. Roquefort. aha. 2. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. rofe and all. or barm-cloth. Flower and Leaf. a cloth. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. aqua. be That it inne groweth. OHG. however. arwaus.o. Pm. man. Now one of the points — — — . sestimatio arbitraria. and thence fit. is taken in is a soothsayer. 331. or eft. pracoqua was not an adapt. ughe. — . A. . It will be observed in how large a proportion of . of of divination arpa-mies. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. The loss or addition of n very common. She made.

ers-betriiger. Cot. as in E. a. ON. to dry. lofty. Ardent. Arid. arcus. mischievous. archangel. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. Lat. and must be identified with Dan. and our army. 3340. arrant Arms. vocaveris. apxri. bad. ' — Argue. Ardour. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. sly. ardIn G. gwyro to bend. wanton. apxtipfve. ramo (pi. wretched OE. weapon. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. arg. arrig. high. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. the a brute. D. an arch-deceiver .ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. un malin enfant. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. morally bad. Arcadia in R. . Gr.' Paul Warnefrid. ramend). — Wtb. receptacle where the public acts were kept. branch. From the verb armare. Lat. sly. difficult to reach. troublesome. an extent of flat surface. first. whence the body of the nobles collectively. to Arch. gwyrek. The . And thou as arwe coward. aridus.. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. Perhaps erz-wticherer. Gr. signifies chief or principal. Alisaunder. bravest. sluggish. to arm. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. a chief builder. arm. Area. Langobard. shoulder Boh. det arrigste snavs. argvitugr. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. apx^iv. a bow. burning heat. especially shoulder-joint. Arcliives. arduus.4 rir/. AS. to demonstrate. a noble. Uo^a^. government. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. armata. It. TiKToiv. timid.In E. Arduous. arm'ee. the best. a court yard. Sax. erz in G. fabricate). . . ^Argument. ancient. Lat. man. ill-tempered. erz-bischof. a burning or setting on fire. arwe.is the natural weapon of offence. * ArchjAiTaxit. arga. 2. raineno. kpxi- beginning. earg. taxed with cowardice. Dan. curved. Arch in composition.— Army. weapon may be simply an application of annus. malicious. Brem. from areo. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot).aioj. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. a threshing-floor. armada. mischievous. by Russ. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. Fr. to be on fire. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. armee. G. ars. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. From apxeiov was formed Lat. Aristocracy. vescovo. Arm. which has been referred to W. forearm . rame. and Kpurka. make clear or prove. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. arcA in e. the most arrant trash. to burn . which is derived from it. argr. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. Gr. — Architect. faint-hearted. een erg kind. curved line. ruling by the nobles. Applied in modern E. ardor. Arson. adjective. a branch. stuff. the court of a magistrate. arma. . worker. arsum. part of a circle anything of a bowed form.. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. Du. patus). the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. the terminaGael. Du. — degree when appHed to a bad quality. an arch boy. aj-f. an arrant rogue. arson. earm.' the Gr. is essentially the same word. Lat. bad of its kind. contemptible. Sp. G. Lat. ein arger knabe. bad. a bare plot of ground. Fr. it signifies roguish. Lat.' Lex. Lat. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. A construct. as the arch of a bridge. to rule. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. apxh. area. There can be no doubt that E. fainthearted. Fr. erg. arm. Lat. apxtlov. i. from nixa. exercise lordship). while the Fr. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. un petit rusd. and not with apx. ardre. ardeo. a rule (princiruler. shoulder. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . in Due. Gr. earh. to be in comp. . an arrant usurer. W. et vulgari verbo. arguo. arch-bishop. are formed the participial nouns.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

Bale. shouting. to dance. to plough for a boundary between lands. maan pallikka. Perhaps on. ball. on. G. heap up. floor. a globe. a clump . bbllr bulla J. Da. 2. ne leaving any balke. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. ' is a piece or confused talking.' speak gibberish champurrar. Sw. Sw. In like manner Fr. gen. OSw. The primary sense seems as in G. a beam. Hence Dan. plague. * Balk. chapurrar. vcdra bdlkr. ball. F. as we say. weak liquor. OFr. . Sw. 3. Ball. taich. to rock. whether of wood or stone. E. says Ray. bacgtteter. a water-skin dim. beaten road. ache. to signify washy drink. blister. a ballad. or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. bjdlki. Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. Gr. a clapping or flapping of wings. . Bohem. malefacGower in R. bdlkr. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . ban. I. AS. bal. a ball or pack. balk. and the dim. pallukka. the breadth from side to side . to on Holmedon's plain. a pestilence. a scene acted in dancmg. a washing-tub. pallikka. ballone. a ball balla. the ballet of the theatres. grieve . balle. hue et illuc inclinare. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another.of men . lealo. It. balva-vesei. boll. separaison. ballare. stage or scaffold. balloon. to speak an un. pallo. the object of his expectation. pilula.). bal. Balloon. a dance. to ache. uveirs bolk. bold. to be ill. palcare. To Bale out water. balja. to pack Da. balka bunge. to be balker. ballet. bal-daed. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. a bubble.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. a beam. Rouchi ban. Da. a boil. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. a wooden partition . ballotta. balkr. from the more general notion of moving up and down. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!.ing. balka. afbalka. a. pila. ballo. Ballot. to roll. balken. i. tum. a separate portion. balk. sorrow. ballare. Ugutio in Due. — A — — . and evil in general. to shake or jog. to grieve . torment. bollr. to partition off . maleficium. Hence. a ball. destruction. on. bol. probably Lat.— Ballet. ball. ballare. to move. Sp. It.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . ON. balge. bola. baloier. . In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. bolawy. ing. Gael. N. dial. sickness. Ball. Venet. to Not sparing wight. globule. Sw. sick. dial. a ball. dial. We have then separate dial. bal. a ball. It. a together in the form of a ball. as in a barn or cow-house. bealwes. Pol. from bacquet. Bowl. bielke. to by beams. bala. Fr. Goth. It. to see-saw. e. may exhibit the original development of the signification. on. other while. balk. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). Mid. roof. bolyatchka. to ail. From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. at giore en balk. balveins. Fr. balka hopar. are applied to a From the same analogy. balle. to cause another to miss pustule. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. palla. Du. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. on the shore. baalien. mass. a clod of earth water. Ballata. the beam of a ship. balla (with the augm. Fin. a partition. Sw. Sw. to avoid it. to dance. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. wickedtorment ON. Q. . similar connection is seen in Sp. to stir. to plank. misery Du. bolyaf. Dan. a ballot). palloilla. a great ball. a balk of foul weather. to wave. dial. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. a ball. OHG. trouble. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. G. to bale out. Boll. See Gall. . balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing.—Ballad. ill. hooting. TtaKKa a pail or tub . Sw. a skin. balle. ballan. ballar). a pill. bol. Russ. package of goods. . baalie. cka. a pail. . with the perhaps from balg. Sw. (Hesych.Fr. A balk. Wotton. balk. to paddle in water . Grief. wickedness ness . w. balle. a continued noise of waves gently beating . balare. Fr. pallo. Bret. vacillare. It. pain. Baulke of land. ball. bolker. balken. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. calamity. a dance. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. To baulke the Sir H. a But making way for death at large to walke. Du. boleii.Lat. a division of the old laws. baler. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise.

if it fails to obtain a return cargo. baltresac. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. i860.that the going vessels. called Bait. a nettle.000 tons. lastra. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. If bambocciolare were child of one. barandado.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. Ballast. ballustres. baume. Sp. bambolo. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. Balluster. baU. inutile onus.Lat. Bret. bumbazed. sorcerer. A — — . Baltic. and Mid. The Baltic sea. The Sp. balconies. a rod. Sept. deceiver. &c. It. more serious objection is . lastre. a duty on goods last. . to preserve equilibrium. Du. the act of walking. by met. paid for the right of carriage. curse. fonts. explains ballast. Bamour. ^a\Ba\iov. because. baUa. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. it is forced to take in stones or sand. seems the original form of the word. Venet. of balusters. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. balustrade barandilla. enchanter. Report Pennsylv. a young babe. Gr. astonished. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. an Old dotard or imbambolare. But Fr. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. from bara or vara. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. for a load or goods (Roquef. ballustre) is a corruption. bag-lest. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. barauste. or movement of one who walks. inutilis sarcina. Lest. as he says. mare Balticun. forbid. in the first place. puzzled. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. Mr Marsh whether the a load. Fr. Cotgr. When a ship discharges. more frequently than outward-bound. a small balustrade. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. It is explained back by Adelung. ranked on the outside of cloisters. denounce. to enchant. Balsam. 43 — Cot. bamboccio. make fun of a person. &c. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. — — oltriga. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. lestage. 1854. ^Arbuthnot in R. railing around altars. Said to be from balaustia. the backload. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. to walk. dial. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. deceive. for want of other freight. To proclaim. a useless load. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance.' And Kil. is in Sweden and Norway. In OSw. small railing. a false tale or jeer. age. Fr. To Bamboozle. urtica. Bret. back of the ship. It.. terraces. analogous to what is seen in It. lest. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. This is the backload. Dan. baranda. command. a battlement . little round and short pillars. . like Fr. bam. Balm. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. or ballast of a ship. but loadage. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. a fragrant gum. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. To Bam. Lat. the flower of the pomegranate. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. also with flatteries and . from Lat. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. bertesca. bamein. bambocciolo. balsamum. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. lastagium signified not only ballast. objects to the foregoing derivation. galleries. To deceive. endormir par des contes.). Sc. last. bag-las. ballast. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. 1. R. To Ban. To make fun of a person.

&c. Goth. side. bandi. to bring corn to be fahne. banda the colour or material. then the signification w. he bannede his ferde. 813. Bandus. margin. permission. Commun^ment son bandon. R- He Translated by Chaucer. side. also the band or of marriage. in Fr. OE.e. &c. and It. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. Wyntoun. theodscipe ut abannan. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. banner marked the place of assembly. change to the feminine gender in banda. biddal. It. power. A. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. . Les saiges avait et les fols d. and thence to any proclamation. E. whether by way of injunction or for- command. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. admolendinum. passing on from proclamation to command. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. Car. at his own discretion. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. bande. to publish) banna. to . i. 'A son bandon.^ bandy. It seems this signification has arisen. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. we constantly find the expression. Band. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. fahne. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. ex. Diss. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . to excommunicate {lysa. Sp. to follow a faction. those who side together (bande. a coast. In a special sense the term company itself. summoning to serve So in Swiss. ligue Taboada). says Muratori. bandon was used in the same sense. to take one to task. to form parties. banns pany of footmen serve. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. hoc est vexillo. There is some doubt how Fr. to side or to bandy (Florio). In like manner we find bannire adplacita. to unite with a band.. bannire in exercitum. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. flag. Sw.—John Villani in Due. Sp. See Abandon. to ctide. From the verb to banda. G. region. bandera ground at his mill. It. 15. acquired the sense of proclamation. Leg. Assises de Jerusalem. Fr. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix. — R. tener da alcuno. border. 1. ba?idare. bandon somewhat party. banda. the ensign or banner. populum. a company. Spebifid. — excommunication bann-lysa. —R. band. 19. from at the Lord's courts. R. faction. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. bundun. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. Capitul. D. bindan. 2. sostener Torriano. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. To Bandy. band. bannum or bandum. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. parti. Bandear. eiiseigne. It. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. Goth. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. curse. In Fr. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. — To partito d'alcuno.is further developed. he assembled his host. bande. bande. bann. bound. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. bannire exercitum. Se il — Romance languages.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. authority. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. Ripuar. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. v. etc. Cot. in hostem convocare. Mag. 26. banda. .Lat. bando. to reprove. is That with which anything AS. The to . Fr. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. Thus the word is also used in both senses. to ban. and in E. Baud.

outlam came to signify a robber. murderer. to work in wood. a de Vaud. and therefore tied up. AS. bander. death-wound.z. &c. ON. a bench. language of W. Bank. participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. to join in league with others against Cotgn. The word is in E. broken. to hammer in a nail. E. —^Vocab. pastoralis. home — Bandog. a wound OHG. With many a stiff thwack. Africa. AS. that the word is used by Romeo. 2. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. g. beat. banke. It. . a counter. Fr. banish. benk. Banner. Your stool. bankruptcy. Benchi. — . the former Fr. . bank. Bane. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. Tibalt. Brewer. dorsum was applied to ject. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. Lat. a bench. band-dog. bank of river. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. band-hond. rap hatike et som The Susu. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. to slay. See Balluster. banja. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. from banc. banditti acquired the like signification. panca. . many a bang. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. Roquefort. to beat. se joindre. and hence. Banditti. bench. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money. — Kil. b'ang. bana-sott. has bang-bang. It. a sand-bank. 45 — — Bandit. Draw. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. bakke. bandi. the same verb the It. Bantze. Banister. shoal. It. Sw. canis vinculis assuetus. bana. a i. bench. in the sense of a pirate. Bandy legs are crooked legs. Du. and poise Their lighter wings. Hudibras. a long raised seat. hammering. . banco. bank of a river. in the sense of place of business. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. bana. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. se reunir. Diez. Bacon in R. desk. as of an explosion or a blow. banka. ON. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. death-blow . Bankrupt. hricg. tumult bangas. Mid. bander tin arc. a bench. to knock. destruction . Fr. for shame. N. Bandy. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. bank. banca fallita. roupt. The child cries bang! fire. to proclaim. bank of Dan.^ knock. But natheless wife at I bank. a sand-bank dorsum jugi.: . banc. Lingua. counter. to knock. bander. to foment factions. a table. forbear this outrage. Bang. to cabal. bandear. among rotta. to bend a. seat . bana. banca his creditors. a bankrupt merchant. ruptus. a bank. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. follow a party. bannire. eminence. to make a stir banke. From a desk . the slope of a hill. From Mid. a rising bank. banqueroute. was formed the OFr. A Shipman's Tale. bane. of bandying words. See Banish. put under the ban of the law. — — whence E. death-sickness. It is in this sense nounce. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. Fl. To Bandy. — Fr. distinguishes bekkr. Ripuar. Goth. bent as a bow. de sable. the back. a blow. bandire. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. bance. and bakki. in the same way that E. bana-sdr. whence the mod. Benvoglio. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. s'associer. large dog kept for a guatd. The ing. banc G. at canis peciiarius. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . compound for-bannir (pannire foras). Milton in R. — Paulus drive in a nail. bow. to publicly order one out of the realm. beating. standard. Dan. Fr. See Band. in R. disturbance banga. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. back of a knife. Mercutio. . de- party. &c. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. eminence. When a man fails Lat. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. clouds. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. The ridge of a hill is AS. ON. bang. stir. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds.HG. and OFr. Diaconus in Due.

sparre. E. banda. token. knight Bardd. ban- Baptise. inur. Fr. a barrier or stoppage. barba. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. and with an initial s. Barb.hinder. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. The origin is in all probability Goth. jSdirTO). himself in Pontus. a bearded or Cot. bannereti. of banco.the analogous syllable viur. i. —Cot. probably corSymbol. barre. According to Diez the It. then fell among the foot. barbe. To mock or jeer one. bar. that the noise of voices Bantling. Celtic bar. top. an animal a year old. barrou-gwez.— Swift in R. milites bannarii. period vexillarii. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. bandva. to beckon . The spar. in Gr. to dip. G. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. and from ensign or banner Prov. and he would seem to derive Goth. It. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. barbarus. ON. barrack. 2. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. rarii. hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva. a war-beacon or war-signal. a bench or table . benda. E. the word came to signify rude. a sign. inferior to a baron. It. Sw. banner. branch. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. Fr. such as the Roman Eagle. ing term appears in other languages.8ap6^o)voe. The barb of an arrow is the sign . rod of any rigid substance. would rupted from Fr. &c. bandiera.. from reifa. jSa'pjSapoc.. barbed or trapped as a great horse. Flesche barbeUe. which is surely in barbed arrow. Fr. senheira. senhal. OHG. Lat. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. and even of calling it banter. Lat. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. sbarra. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda. speaking of battle. a. either in the Gr. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. of a sign in general. banchetto. barrer. ingly very generally known by a name branches. or of this bantering. The original import of their own banner in the field. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. arineXov. from the same source. a bantling. of wind. and the work is done. senhal. sparro. and it was accord. senh. Bret. banneret was a higher class of knights. banneret. ON. uncivilised. — We A . Fr. BARBAROUS reiflingr. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. banniire. to wrap. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. indeed. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. by a repetition of the syllable bar. dim. Bap. Gr. Barb. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. branches of a tree {gwezen. heri-pau. banne. To Banter. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. Gr. In a similar manner are formed yearling. Barbar. wrapped.46 BANNERET . a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. privileged to raise Barbarous. Hence Fr. Fr. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. to bend. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. Banquet. brushwood. banda hendi. merki.aTa Kul nest. sign. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. Barbe.cruel. It. barra. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. E. chan. iandvo. a beam or long pole of wood. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust. . Gael. barreau. as they call it. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. a tree). to wash. Lat. &c. 3. ^oTrriKio. a ban. signuin. Leduchat. Duo. a which the barrister addresses the court. out of a wound. men. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. says. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. summit. to having that signification. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. nestling. A It. barriire. barde. manu anto make signs nuere. It may be thing. Banneret. Fr. then branches. Hence ner. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. remarked. OFr. OHG. Thus Ovid. hence a repast.

— . OFr. Bret. axilla. Etym. baares geld. guaszare. Port. to chafbargain. bardd. upper chamber. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. to boil or bubble up . Applied in E.— Fl. bdsiis. baar. in Fr. mutter. in the sense of fight. A shrub bearing acid Diet. barbaris. and in Flanders to vociferate. twcEtta. name Fr. uproar. the quilted with. to bubble or spring up. used 2. Cot. barz. Barde. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. An outwork for the defence of a gate. also to bind or tie across. lb. a rumbling. Hatt-bard. quarrel . The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. barbugliare. saddle-cloth. haggle. guazzolare. border. ready money. barda. to It. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. borboglio. Barbel. formerly used in the sense of tattle. to stammer.) . the edge of a shield hval-barct. barbacane. Barberry. Hindost. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. a tumultuous assembly. Gr. bar. Sp. Russ. Thus the on. dial. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. Exposed to view. Sp. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . skola. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. tree. /3£pjSepi^w. bardes. a jetty or outnook in a building. bdsas. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. to mumble or mutter words. and Sc. made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. borborinha. twattle. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. Bard. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. the nakedness of a woman. jargon. and the word was used in OE. unqualified. Hall in R. — — — men. a shingle or small board. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. . berj G. Arab. small pack-saddle. albarda'ah. Lucan. Fl. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. barguigner. the beard. to rumble. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. such as houses are covered Bardelle. tattle. bdla-khaneh. scouthouse. Fr. horse armour covering the front. But Sp. — . — — Hence. albarda. /3opj3opwJu. Lex. a pack-saddle. a long saddle for an ass or mule. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. barda. Cotgr. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. to prattle. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. barbulla. Mod. Cotgr.— BARBEL merit of water. loophole in a wall to shoot out at. to bubble or boil. barefooted Sanscr. to gurgle. bhasad. A7 to the and warlike. to plash or dabble. powdered all over. to wash. to stammer. a bardelle. Pr. on. also to wallow like a seething pot. barbel.) to wrangle.' Cot. which was of talking. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute. Bargain. Festus in Diet. w. fortia —Strabo. back. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. skirmish. Port. as well as thwcEtta. albardilla. barS. Fr. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. bare baskojis. barbeau. Sp. — Cot. berries. in poetic language Bard for poet. The Pers. and flanks. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. barbeter. skirt. Bardeau. borbollar. and foolishly. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. barbar. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. waschen. borbulhar. skialldar-bard. speak confusedly. is lb. open. barbarkama. Barder. Bare. murmur . uncovered. brabble in the making of a bargain. Mod. barbier. or more properly (says fer. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. borbotar. Lith. grumble (Lowndes. barboter. to make an outcry . Diez. to grunt. as well as the modern twaddle. stutter. gibberish. the flap of a hat. boil. i. Gr. barbeum. coping. barbelin. bds. g. brim.— — Pm. It. muttering. G. border of a garden bed. baragouin. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. Fr. ala. . Etym. It. to barbe or trap horses. Fr. Barbican. Barber.

barja. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. and 1. . bark . . dispute. bosom . a baking place or oven. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. barafustar. baron. Alam.Barum vel feminam. a heap . barahunda. entangle. strife. dispute . was barlic. bamagh. a lantern. aheap. also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. spectacles.. barajar. barlich. — Barnacle. astringent. and is probably a true bartig. See formed Yeast. bern. barizeins indicates a noun baris. dial. tion of the sound. v. barn. Camus. herbs. we pass to the vert) barguigner. as baces-ern. barlys {bara. berm. 2. to wrangle. Originally man. Manx bayrn. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. a beak. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. also a boat . adj. but the woman for the man. a cap . and hence probably (by a metaphor. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. struggle. disorder. Gael. beorcan. Spectacles. Acervus. to strive. barlys. ber (ace. Du. altercation. commonly explained from bere. berem. quarrel. Du. bere. Lith. barnis. — Zeuss. bcern. Ibid. —Bark. edge. berm hoys. From Fr. Kil. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. Leg. to skin over barkandi. mhg. Bark. a place. and llysiaw. houbartij fsnile. barone. as well as Scandinavian tongues. plants). limpet. W. Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. bosom.^Voc^. and may therefore be an Eastern word. limpets . barley. prominent part of a thing. Swab. OSw. ON. OFr. bargain. barafunda. barge. baimeach. barretor. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. the G.. So ON. lap. Antiq. a stack. then honoured man. a barn. dispute barattare. Dan. squabble. is simply the Bret. baron)^ Fr. hladi. then the bows pectus navis. Romance barsie. Barbour in Jam. a receptacle for barley or corn. Gl. border. barms. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. barn. dregs of oil. barley. Port. Dan. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. kani. baratta. hemlock. Isidore in Rayn. Ripuar. brenig. . am. name being given to spectacles. The origin may be throat. to shufSe. quarrel Port. Garlick. * Barnacles. As Goth. Bret. Sp. meta foeni. . ON. Baron. corn-shed. It. hay-loft. and the word. the slimy substance brewing of beer. bernac. It. bread-corn. to rout. as. hlaSa. husband. a heap. baratta. baniffa. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. OFr. the or prow of a ship. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. ThS man was not created for the woman. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. borkr. On the other hand. baragouin. Sp. barki. baralhar. the A — Ihre. charlock. E. barley. i. — de Berri. Prov. contest. giving rise to It. So also ON. strife. Bemiques. to all the barca. To Bark. Leg. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . dispute . bcerme. trouble. bard). barnacles. The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens.) lihtes-ern. dispute. to scold. AS. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Cornub. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. skutr. See Barm. at barka. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. The older form in e. baerm. baarm. contest. beornt. louzou. wine. Uzen. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. barmr. a. baaring. ON. (Ihre. chaffer. ON. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. as in the case of Lat. Sp. Barge. strife. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. Port. baaren. Bailey. Rayn.' bardagi. to chop. also to exchange. the fore or after end of a boat . representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. bread. one who stirs up strife. fray. in Nat. skuta. Vocab. to cheat. as. from an imita- Barley. — battle. prasepe . berma. limpets. Provj bar (ace. barii. barn. bern. quant a perdu sa barja. in the Brim. a lap. w. baralha. confusion. Barn. tumult. AS. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. a load. berm. Sw. baarn. 2. and ern. a boat. varen. beer. The Goth. the rack or manger. put to confusion.

calico. barre. as cavalcade. vair. Bamnculus a baronet. D. as. the braw. a castrated hog . a. G. Goth. braeck. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. Antiq. facture. man. the two names. Fr. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. staves. Barrister. dispute. bara. barrack. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. Bohem. barril. barBombicinus. ^Vocab. Sp. in the first instance. barrique. It should be observed that.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. whence Barrow. perhaps through Prov. a horse. beorh. a hut or booth. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. ibid. See Bar. in Nat. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. — Kil. Barrack. Formed from Fr. by early examples. Russ. Sp. bouracan. Gael. became bidre. nobles. garment still used in Morocco. to * Barragan. gwr. especially those killed in battle. ^Barrator. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. 2. AS. bahre. breinej Du. It.. fallow. Barratry. brushwood. signifying. MHG. vel pretiosos burellos. baronculi. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. composed of dry branches ofer. tomb. semen non accipiens landiEL. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. An ing. Joshua vii. heap. — — 15th Cent. Bargus or moreland. a barrow. E.root signifying confused noise. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. rolls of Parliament. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. then traffick4 Barrow. 26. Gael. A. It.have been named from the haggling and gant.parchanttuech. change of goods seems. On chet — We — — their resemblance. 1. sepulchre. Fr. a bar. a. fortification. or simply bahre. Nominale of the from braeckland. bera.— Gibbon. baronetti. habeant. OE. It was not until the time of James I. a man. mound. branches.' that Barrier. and not from Fr. S. It. implement for carryAS. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. See Barter. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. OFr. Barricade. alongside of barrow.—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. litter. beorg. borov'. baronuU. which would barragdn. beorgan. hut. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. iver. booth. (Schmeller). to shelter. w. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. a kind of coarse camlet. fear. qui have not much light on the pre. baragan. boar. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful. a hiU. — A . barague. Barrel. baracca. The Sp. baraignej Picard. uncultivated. bier. Sp. berewe. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. G. barraca. vir. StiU he shows conclusively. todtenbahre. a barrel. barrique. Bret. The feudal tenants next Fr. cise formation of the word. were sometimes confounded. from a tree to which a man is hanged. squabble. This word introduced into Fr.' Op. Barren. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. bara. shed. from cavallo. whenever Barrow-hog. Baron andfemme. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body. like bargain. baroncelli. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. from beran. also termed bannerets. and in several instances. man and wife. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. bearg . seem to be radically the same with Lat. an obstruction. berwen.. bredhan. barrila. sterilis. barrier. cover. Bern. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. AS. strife. barchent. gravis et authenticus vir. barri. over him. to carry. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. barile. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. bark&n. a word is always used in the plural number. a bier.

F. him. baos. BassuS. Fr. to Diez. foist in bargaining. peel. bassin. It. . but born in baste. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . Gr. court-yard. . the manorhousfe itself. basgod. a deceiver. beguile. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. over-reaching. humilis. Sylvester's Dubartas. as It. bran. baste. Basket. beretun. a halter. ' Bosworth. Fr. — Bassoon. the — — to kill those that look upon it. piiiguis. and Bret. as the diadem of the basilisk. mock not. low. baratar. w. Bartizan. oe. Pl. ing for profit. lift me above Parnassus. . a court-yard. a king. ^Is de bast. It. 516. barter. fornication. bast. MHG. ' He was begetin o bast. AS. HaU in HaUiwell. and tun. Dan. to bargain. fhe outhouses and yards. fraud. to bind hand and foot. a basket masg. stitch. Apparently of Celtic origin. Sicamb. bestan. Fr. come near. besst-u-b£nd&t. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. lattice-work. inclosure. netting. according from Gael. found in Turkish .' Gl. bast-maatte. ibid. It. bark. tierer. Du. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. To Baste. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. i. Arthur and Merlini. preparatory stitching. Basilisk. The like property hath the iasilisk. a ftiesh. Bast. n' is n' is bacino. fornication. Bass. Sp. Newman. corn-farm. low note. which covers the grain Ger. PaaiKhms. ohg. submovet omne Lucan. a tying. Lend me your hands. hoops of a cask. bass-matting. rope for — . Bass. — in Rich. Probably from reports of the cobra capel.D. G. OFr. to bind. basso. unrighteous gain. bestcn. cheating. the thin skin Dan. To stitch.looketh upon his eyes. MS. It. baratear. basso. Al is dai. leviter consuere. commonly A joined with the word binda. to stitch . a bass rope. of the same sense. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. which sets up its hood when angry. at basta og binda. HoUinshed. bas.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason.' Papias. Kil. pdrdt. imbastire. lust. imbastire. baxoj w. basta. beortun. dwelling. Isidore. baste. or wic.). It. But according And Dan. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. chasa. from bere. — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). flat. to bind. husk bast van koren. low part of the Hickes in Rich. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. basg. barter. curtus. barley. bast-reb. OFr. exchange. mean . Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). mavult dicere Roma suam. low. bast. crassus. See Brattice. Du. There is not one that. truck. scale in music. aiKcig. also to Cotgr. from /3aR. bdtir. binding. With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. Sw. HaUiweU. A fabulous serpent. basta. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. — hanging. See Bath. bareter. berewic. bds. bast. more noble in blood than notable in learning. thick. also the demesne lands of a manor. to baste piece of cloth. bastear. to truck. exchange. embastir. said Base. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. to baste. descended of an honorable lineage. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. It is mentioned as . chasa ogli a bastard. the a wide open vessel. Barton. /«r<fSp. by imbezzling their goods Bailey. Sw. on a. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. a bastard. baraand especially teria. back. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. God it wot. would be. To Bask. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. Dan. Swed. The original meaning. Sp. baste. he. fits de bas. besst. shallow. to deceive. partieren. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. Sp. baraet (from Fr. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. then cheating. Halliwell. to long — a British word by Martial. cog. or running away with the ship. plaiting of splinters basged. a ipgli So Turk. to cheat. Bassus. Fris. but he dreth presently. Barbara de pictis veni patch.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. MHG. Lap. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . It. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. to cheat. pressed down. discourse Nay. Bastard.

Sw.fortress or castle furnished with towers. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. a sconce. blakra. Fr. blacta. For the loss of the / in back. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. a stick. to quilt or stitch wool into it. a. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. Sp. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. to Due. I. and ditches bastion. Pr. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. bat. bastonFr. to cudgel. baston. beating. Mid. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. Dan. to drub. provisions. flyinge best. comp. basto. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. stryka. 2. put it together. . staff. also the ricado. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. a packsaddle. a things prepared for future use. translation to a bat. a blockhouse. liiake. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. bastonnir. bdion.. ment. All from bastir. military term of a bat-horse). Dan. like the owl and the bat. to whip. bak. To donjon. Florio. niammal. 2. Sc. . badger. Perhaps baska. a pad. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. to give him a sound bastingi 3. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . bastilde. vespertilio. back. passage Imbasto. Pm. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. to set on foot a war Bastion. Sp. or implement for 4 * A . R. basa. packsaddle. frotter. bastione.Lat. batta lucifuga. the winged . to stroke. in the use of the E. bastia. iastir. Derived by Diez from iasi. guerra bastir. compared with blakka. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. devise. Antiq. 'iJipistreUo. to devise or begin. To beat or bang soundly. to lay the Sp. raise. to rub. the clapper of a bell. * Bat. and Cot. set up. blatta. Fr. That yche blak y dar wel telle. which to rest the load. dial. iinbastire. bastine. Sw. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. — — Fl. a bastion. 164). boste. bast. baston. Cot. bastear. nade. It. e. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. For the origin of baston see Baste. contriving. vespertilio. the bat . the night-jar or goat-sticker.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. as weU as besteau.'CaB. — Bakke. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. but this is hardly satisfactory. Rayn. to teach one before. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing.baste or knock soundly. dial. R. to rub gently. and Arabs. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. to build. frame. ON. BAT neither. has bastine. natt-blakka. to beat. blatta. to pack a saddle i. Sw. blakta. 11864. Sw. agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. Prov. erect. stryk. Dieiif. is explained by Cot. a pad or packsaddle. to spread bread and butter. the E. bastimento. basta. Fr. a with a stick. bakie-bird . victuals. business (Altieri). bastonada. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. quelqu'un son roulet. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed.— . bladier. a blow cloth for dinner. Bastinado. bastir. aftonbakke.— Bailey. in the Romance languages. — — — . pre. which in the E. night-bat. It. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. to flap. worth (Nat. beysta. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . set up. blakka. Cot.stick. from Fr. club. the original has corneille. blaka. cudgelling. to beat. contrive. 2. whence ledrblaka. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. also to cudgel. to thrash . bastida. disposer. bastir.-^ Chaucer. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing.stitching in general. a bird which. p. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. a barSp. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . explains Sp. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. Fr. blows. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. to belabour. ari instruineht for beating. vledermus. bastille. It. settiilg up. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. E. to build. To baste one's hide . Supp.

solbase. Eggs. to heat . battaglia. to refresh oneself in language. lessen. to become convalescent. squadron. Hence pro. baka. Sp. signifying to give repeated blows. abate. badda. bdt. To thrive. an arrangement for giving blows. tagUone.Hence in the augmentative form It. Batyn. better. It. — Cot. bet. to flutter with the wings. Hal. a battle. bataille. Fr. to warm oneself at the fire. and as a verb. solen baddar. baz. beat. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. batterie. 2. and with staffslyng.— . Fr. Plkkis. Pr. Battery. also a sun badfish. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter. trahtr to It. . The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. Battle. E.Bathe. dial. Fr. betten. to become fat. — — — ' — . bdhen. a from ON. Jurgor. basa. In some parts of England it is striking. Fr. the root of e. by projections or in any licoure. to beath wood Battledoor. battre las ailes. Chaucer. Holz bdhen. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. was formed bastilU. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. The bat with which a brot bdhen. made of bats. battions. busk. a battalion. gebdcke. flour. battre. gebdck. e. as wood-en. Goth. batador. to beat. a blow with a light instrument. bat-en. whence the sun burns . badask. quell. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt. howis. abattre. Fr. The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. dial. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. bdda vidjor. fortress or castle. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. Barbour in Jam. Battery. beat. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. Pm. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. quhar he suld assaill. To Batten. Sw. Ayenst the sunne. to for fighting. Sw. . Batten. Battalion.' Palsgr. to toast bread. bat. a beating. battere. a great seems related to baden as Fr. to heat. to foment with hot applica. in the sun. A batch as wood. adapted for defence. PLD. to foment. batacazo. Batter. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . a blow. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. cudgel. Gael. Baka sik vid elld. It. makebate. to beat. allay . battle was used beath wood. badda. ON. to get better. dial. I. bake. also. In OE. a Baiffi. Pr. to betake oneself. or make debate. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. to warm oneself. a staff. baquetazo. a main battle. to fell. or break down. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs. to beak. debat. to dial. to fight. bada. to cudgel. to thrive. in the case of a wall. heat. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. From bat in the sense of rod . buask made like a fortress. G. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. battere.— To Bask. G. water whether warm or cold. a stick. See Better. Fr. a band of armed men arranged basa. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. I bathe in water viz. is a simple adoption of Fr. wet linen in washing. Slav. . Bailey. altercation. a stirrer-up of strife. from battre. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. beat down. the heat of the It. From OFr. baden. batte sig. to bathe oneself. A Bath. to beat se battre. Bret. is in falling. more. Sp. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. Bat. to foment. perhaps first used adjectivally. Du. or a dry stick. for biia sik. to fire or in the sun. of bread is so much baked zX one time. to bathe. Pm. pak. to feed. and milk beaten up together. as signifying warm baths. to be profited. batir. and about an inch thick. to warm. Florio. bludgeon. Bate. on. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . dial.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. remit. term in falconry . w. G. Mgy. Battlement. dispute. fashes basking in the sun squadron. then to warm by the application of hot water. a washing beetle. tradire. I baske. oneself at the A into faggots. on the fire. hot. batna. battre. — To . baeddu. Jeddris and covering. gabatnan. made of — A made by one Batcii. To Bate. Flem. bdda. to beat. as E. bastille. certain bend. strife. as E. sich bakern. from on. Strife.

Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. or toys. —R. also more Bawdekin.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. s. Hal. miauler. Lat. Beaus^ent. child. to vociferate. to bark . ground. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. E. mew. on the face of animals. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. a tassel or hanging bunch . babiole. in OE. spot. Pr. ish baubles. BAWSON Swiss. Fr. W. i. From ! an interjection of disgust. a lump. exactly corresponds Fr. Filthy. brush faggot. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. form with an initial seen in Fr. R. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. pegma. An analogous noisily. dial. to talk Lacombe. spotted. baudrat. also the canopy carried part of his body. a zan. — — ' Lydgate. Gael. represented by the syllable miau. to low or bellow as corn. from Fr. is used for a sented by bau. pie- . bablyn or waveryn. toys. bobine. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office. P. dirty. Batylment of a wall. as Fr. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. the face. an object. fagot. fooleries or fond To Bawl. baffe. bausan. baugant. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. an embattled wall.' ' Pegma. bal. Fr.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. cluster. bow (as in our nursery Diez. fields. to bark. a belt. guigaw. an — — — A — g — — — . Pr. bau.. or sheaf of Bridel. E. The It. from Baldacca. ballach. baw. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars. a horse marked with a procession. Descript. ! Bauble. balbob. to void the bowels. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. bad. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. dirt. P. to make the noise Baudrick. scarf. Irel. dung. Baw — . ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. baue. dente. Bagdad. ON. and to-tore also.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri).. fe bau. a spot. dacchino. because made of cloth of white. Bavin. expressive of disgust. Cot. Pm. Bawson. Piedm. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . to 53 manure the To baw. Ball-seirc.' The origin of the word is tab or bob. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. 2. having a white streak down Bagdad. filth. It is all bawdy. babbole. a white mark Bawdy. a dog). bauU. faisceau. Cloth of gold. P. whimwham. baudrdj OHG. disgusting. tab. rotten. Zalli. ball. to me-wl. a horse with white legs. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. babsmall toy to play withal. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. bauch. excrement. and authorities in note. to trifle away ment. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. tille. The word may perhaps be sticks. whence the E. vacillo. baban. 8. E. Prov. c. lewd . a tassel. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. Jam. was simply a field gold. javelle. a gavel. to play the babby. collar. E. bouaila. to the same origin.guage). to cry. OFr. filth. Fl. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. trifles. It. It. OFr. the Swiss baben. is Bagdad stuff.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. horse. Ball. zano. From Bret. baubare. or the animal so marked. bobbin or cluster of thread. sword-belt. Swiss Rom. balGael. — Pm. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards.— P. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. Cotgr. s. sorry. Baldrick. speckled. the white of his leg or foot. Fr. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. trifle. a plot of Chaucer. obstrepere. nastiness. It. bal. or Cot. instead oi s. a lump or cluster babhaid. In like manner Grisons filthy. divided between black and white. balderich. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. b \% bouala. baula. and Sp. propugnaculum. Formed from baw. A name of the badger. Sc. Cot. bow-wow. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. whence pouacre. librillo.

&. baca. to split. It has been shown under Abie. or to have been first used at the Cot. to keep one waiting. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. The — Fr. expresr sion tenere a bada. Serv. |8i'os. to iiitent nected PoL white. Holland's Pliny in R. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. Fr. house . * To Be. bajo. Catalan hadia. baionette. BE Probably conRuss. Gael. Swab. &c. Cot. to betray. abbabayer. . Vielp.—Journal Soc. See Bald. Fr. Drayton in R. —F. a mark. bialo. to on anything. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. beothach. large window in a handsome . bde. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. BAY marked with bjly. to amuse stare a bada. 25. weary of running. Bayonet. bay. like a pie. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. arose two forms of the verb. Bay. husk. Fr. and keeps them in check for a while. Gr. a'uno. bayo. and zndly. Bay-tree. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. to keep at a bay. Arts. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. batibari. baccello. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. badia to Sp. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. badarc./^ bau. See Bawl. alive. Piedm. Swiss beie. a dagger. Such Antaeus seemed to me. or window ' (in Fortification). baie. baher. Earth — By Nature made to till. A hollow in the 'line of coast. life. bilyejiti. From the former verb is the It. Prov. Abide. which however. berry. corrupted into Bow-window. It. hddhe-dhonn. at his last gasp. bioth. baya. 1859. the laurel-bay. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. to be Bohem. Q. bate. bahia. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. stare. that from ba. especially beans. so called from its bearing bays. as gazing. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. berries. bijel. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. life. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. baier. bagaid. to gape. a cluster of bacon. bay. grapes or nuts. dividere. baca. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. It. It. to open. 1. Fr. Sp. overture. waiting . Sp. bai. he turns and faces his pursuers. aux dehniers abois. It. Fr. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. or at bay. Mod. white. From Cat. S. from an imitation of the sound. bdcr. the cod of peas.. baga. ing-floor. Sp. beo. to stand watching one. F. put to his last shifts. . A stag is said to stand at bay. badius. window-sill. siege of Bayonne in 1665. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. Feb. Q. or berries. idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. w. a beast. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. laurel of the ancients. buidhe. tradire to Fr. as if to signify a window of curved outline. Gael. Bay. living Ir. yellow . is perhaps not directly from Lat. bahia. Lat. — Schmid. stood watching him stoop. —Diez. gate. beonj Gael. baer. — A At Bay. desiring. bilyega. a berry. to mark. OSp. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. barn of two bays. ist. . is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. the cod or husk of beans or the like. trahir. open the mouth.' — — 54 bald. baiare. living thing . watching intently. Lat. by the term rendre les abpis. dehiscere . As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. It. baja. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. baye. See At Bay. from badar. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. AS. in order to keep the enemy in check. Fr. badarse. &c.. a hole. —Bay-windo'W. bayen-stein. the world Gr. window . The word bay. and the To bark as a dog. or recess in an apartment in modern times. buidhe- The ruadh. when.' Bailey. To Bay. bacca. having the primary signification of opening the mouth.c. . the step is the same as from It.— Stalder. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. to open as a blossom. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. BauSfi)/.

. bdkna. prodigy bauhnjan. beic. W. pig.to have a French origin. a prayer. bedm. not applied to the yelping of dogs. into a snjall river. bM. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. -phxr.from AS. rising ground. to nod . AS. bee. Moreover the name. as. Trans. was introduced from England sea. beacen. beans. Hackluyt in R. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. and Lat. be. gebed. G. signifying a point. to wait-. bohne. fero. bar. . It is BEAR SI court. a curtsey. Boom. The nutu significare. bohnej ON. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. . to produce young. Gael. Bret. To Bear. support. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. ohg. on. pierced for hanging on a string. signifying individuality. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. W. — Bellenden in Jam.' adheres to the root. 54. a hill. Your hat no lib that place you put him in. l^ax. or however. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. . tale of prayers or doxologies. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. nokkima. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. Slavon. faba.' Suetonius in Diez. Beak. which is. * Beagle. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. the part overflowed by the tide. stock. to carry. badmr. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. Thus the final en. Beck. Beadle. Bear. Lat. Goth. As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. according to of Sanscr. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. post. bairan. Q wait upon him. vii. He says. vol. or breathing. Beach. —F. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. bean. or beic.fui. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. becco. N. a single bean. beugler. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Fr. backe. fromthe danger. AS. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. bead. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. A Esthon.' Hall's Chron. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. The wild beast. atUndre. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. bydel. Fr. ffci. Gael. beacnian. to nod the head. Sw. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. beic. salve his hurts. bidello. Bret. as. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living.fuis5e. a sign. bank. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. ON. G. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. Bean. It. a nod OHG. The origin seems preserved in E. OSax. Du. «va\ioQ. however. — to bow or nod . an attendant. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. Catalan becar. — : Beam. a presage. would say. It. ON. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. a single bean. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane. bauhan. Beckon. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. beck. to wait. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. See To Bid. The immediate shore of the Menage. Be. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. Farrar. fd or faVf beans.fer-re j Gr. bearti. as well as f& or fav. g.ad. a tree. fora-bauhan. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. baum. Gael. Chapters on Lang. bidan. to bellow. into France. a beak. bakke. bokan. boom. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. A two-year old nephew of mine p. Gr. faba is Kvavoq. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. — bedeau. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. baun. Miss Gurney in Philolog. ffaen. to beckon. E. bagms. It forms a. Beacon. bob. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. Goth. like most nautical terms. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. bek. bakkje. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. Netherlands or North Germany. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. or any action done with a pointed thing. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. Pardoner's Tale. a tree. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children.

On the same principle. to those goods which endure for ever. handsome. our taste. In like manner condition. Russ. agreeable. formerly a happen. brook . gefallen. it is probable that here also the to become. Lat. Beck. bekommen. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. ON. Boeth. bava. G. tidig. to please. To load with ornament. See Beacon. badi. slobber. to arrive at. to shore. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. gabaurths. Thcem. bave. riviire. obtain. to wade through the water like a beaver. E. ON. Lat. if sound of a sharp blow. bearing. Fr. . o. and on. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. See becymth anfeald yvel. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. judgment. blast. bequem. W. — . bello. border. or river. bard. bcek. produce. ziemen.of being very angry. to hem. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. pens unmixed evU. It. the latter are derived It.' every way suited to a prince. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. Perhaps from Pol. 1. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. barf. proper . befall. from beau. decorous. to happen. With shepherd sits not following flying fame. Bosworth. brook. tidy. as. See Bank.we call the arrangement becoming. Beauty. convenient. byrcti. bedr. chin. i. to the brook itself. to assume a certain form or Turk. Beat. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. The fitting or suitable. beo. bebrus. byw. limplice. to happen.S6 fero. burdr is used in the sense of a car. G. from the same in the sense of bear2. ON. limpian. G. Slav.getiman. talkative. comely. but now a river only. bave i. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. to carry. boroda. bellus. baba. living. agreeable. pretty. bel. biivre. Fr. That thou mayest attain Goth. R.' are equivalent expressions. an notion of being convenient. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. fitly . bib or slobbering cloth. Do no To It fallith favour. to happen. Secondarily applied to a hat. R. bur. E. to the good hapHalbard. as the babble of the child. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. fit. to be incumbent upon him. Goth. to appertain. AS. decent. suitable. to sleep on. becuman. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. receive. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. Chaucer. It. baurthei. opportune. Diez. gebank. bobrowai. and Fr. a brook. Bedizen. whence baveux. The moveable part of a helmet. G. bring forth. limpan. Bo. G. taste. rying. to be a part of his to. beatanj It. to bear children. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. while from Shep. bach. Fr. to dabble . Dan. g. Prick of Conscience. brada.AS. from baver. bekkr. behkr. dushmak. to happen.— Kiittner. ting. connected with ripa. baviire.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. Cal. 2. place to lie down. a lip. godum with ON. to fall mode of being. E. bestiaj Gael. i. Thus OY. perhaps a living thing. dize or dtzen.to clothe to slobber. iida. to fall in with our bavard. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. babrad. nod or sign. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. to fall. to G. Beckon. See Bat. bett. — A — A — . Sp. con. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. now confined To Become. to happen. dress with unbecoming richness . pleasing. to be fulfilled. riviera. a bank. becuman. happening as it ought. to get. Now the Beast. proper.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. Fr. seemly. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. e. when up. because made of the fur of the beaver. barba. the ece thurhwuniath. duty. bobr. bart. the beard. to come to or upon. Lith. e. battere. The quadruped. or special purpose. befit. covered the face. birth. biber. AS. fiber. to attain to the lot of any one. The OFr. Fr. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. suitable. to live. beauts. He becom on sceathan. den. OSw. timan. get J ' He got very angry. fallinn. Prov. gelimplic. Lat. venient.' ' He became very angry. Beck. Beaver. ON. or a feeling to be gratified. and also in that of birth. name applied originally to the bank then proper . a. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. a bank. fitanimal. I do thee pray. Lat. As rivus. nothing to thy name make. which. bavec. and to acquire. edge.fit.

biiren. curded or beesty. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. an ox.possible. sela que environna la terra. Dan. ProBeer. Bethlehem. bove. PI. bitel. bibere is a re. to flatten In OE. to become Beech. The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. 'La Gl. The meanpainting. AS. bedskiissen-bUren. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. to change . to coagulate. Beet. Pl. piwo. /SXirov. boeuf. ris. a pillow-case. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. Bee. cushion-cover . erroneously modified in form. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. I put the flax upon it to spin. waarin. G. de Fierabras in Diez. Beef. biest-milch. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Fr. I dysyn a dystaffe. whose face is clotty. crespir. bossen. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. clog for a dog b'oteln. . bytl. bably named from the destructive quali| T. to twist poorma. a wasp. g. Fr. P1. Esthon. also bienst. a cup or implement for AS. a wandering Prov. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. translation beOj. buk. as in It. cogionare. to rough- cast. and in driving piles. from risan. fall. bet. Slav. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. beost. It. ir'm. . For that was law of lend. taglio. speach. &c.' the last word corresponds to cofly . duplicated form of the root. D. byst. kiissen-biere. G. to poordma. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. . 57 — Palsgr. prigione. to parget or rough-cast . prisons Venet. Lat. betel. bitela. briest. bovis. red curdled Arab ._t from the root pi. door. the meat of spinach. to turn. In a passage of an Old Fr.cz//aj. by the analogy of bedaivb.— JI14. Fr. Pett. .substance as to render navigation imtiriso. tree.' So Gr. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. It. ' MordiThe Lat. extant in Bohem. turn. whence familiar. Cot. to knock. used for boull.'— GL ^Ifr. from blood. AS. drink. turn (a garment). * Beestings. may be from K. Fr. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. to drink. qui de lecto surgere non potest . Lat. 1156. wedges. a pillow case. Fin. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. beutel. beach-each. desert. kivih. Let. may be shpped on and off. an Beetle. sang vermeilh betatz. mars betada. bette or blettej Lat.ON. 1 to drink. beach. drink. Gael. by-flugaj G. also the bite or sting of a bees. fagus. a clapper. The beer al for te shenche bate. I A pillow-beer. the ox. 1. vaar. bedawi. a wasp. cow has calved. and lebermer in G. Fr. calleBedlam. boytle. . as the milk of a that purpose in London. in Schmeller. garden-herb. The honey-producing insect. buka. blow or thrust. knock.BEDLAM a distaff with flax. comb. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. paralyticus. biene. G. It. a pad or cushion). E. a bed-tick. an inhabitant of the desert.(paddi. bukva. 1. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. bletumj Gr. E. beyki. The first milk after a dizen. a mallet. Beetle. Arab. from jtst-. ^. thick. badigeonner. from Lat. to curdle or lopper. a paviour's beetle batail. trees in a forest . pital of St Mary. which also 2. Gr. batAfter mete in sale. Bernese. a malsense of drink. the biter. Horn. cozen. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. Bedouia.D. pettiriso. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. a cover. Bav.D. to colour with lime-wash. case. a agulatum in the original Latin. on. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. pude-vaar. GaeL bior. madhouse. a Properly a cover that biiren. poculum.^ drink. doubtless. a bee. from the hos. BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. stakes. KXlvoTTiT^e. Bed-ridden. as. But possibly bedizen 2. to fall.). in Nat. Confined to bed. AS. bbtel. Rom. a drink potus. i. to beat bossel. of beatmg. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. Originally. to and ale.. beest.ing of the word is curdled. a stinging bieUe. water. buche. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. imperative pi. beta. bedde-redirj ohg. thick. Ant. from leberen. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. Grimm. cited by Diez.— B. cugino. a horse-fly . the loppered sea. beetle also signified the impiti. Fr. beer. cousin. Cot. briesch-milch. . bos. woman that is newly delivered.

Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. 'Dz. sel. lapidicinus. steinbosil. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. a beggar. to know. incipere. V. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. but in the same language from poc. can. viii. To Beg. to begaan. P. be^nnan. a — wedge. krapszas.' A. two betels —a grete oke. ysgrepan. woe-begone. &c. The tother seand the dint cum. ken. 2. yivwajcw. It will . beis- plement driven by blows. gan. P. whence the E. one after that other. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. P. OHG. to take. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. touched with emotion — . it is both to acquire and to beget. P. ' . air a . beitel. 142. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. yivtrri. &c. ornamented phoc. to cleve. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. From w. to begin. begging. Florio. AS. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai. baigeir. & go a begging. He did alight. y/yvo/iat. of Gr. Deutsch. or Of a pure poor man. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . genus. giving in Gr. above quoted to get beaten ON. image is cleft out of the trunk. in Lat. Si'Xa/coc. To Begin. at geta talad. to beg. It.D. to get children . seizing. P. a wallet. 40. ip AS. 1430. although it ' the future. covered with gold D. a bag or poke.3. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. hags. a scrip. V. a bag . Nov. a beggar-boy. bertola. 1867. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. Mundart. a little bag). can. begger. ykvog. to bear young. Du. appears improbable at first. to reduce him to beggary. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. Creed. not began to alight. beissel. a chisel. to be able. on further examination. Beghardus. beutel. 168. P. When Q. is com. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. 'ex quo. but probably erroneously. Cold-begone. Lollards. Fr. pose-pilte. signifying to conceive. iv. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. In Luc vi. onginnan. — yivsaiQ. beriolare. chisel. To produce children is to acquire. ' Begone. duginnan. in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. aginnan. to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. Mod. chap. ' ' . 25.bag full of the G. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. to go a begging.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. a beggar .' for ye shall lament and weep. 'Aboutin undern monly. P. yiyvo/uat. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. Gr. Du. referred gan this Erie alight. Skinner's derivation from bag. anfangen. kind. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . ken. gen. V. su with gold. capere. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. ytyvwfT'Kw. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. Barbour. the fundamental notion of attaining to. Vocab. gigno. in E. on the tramp. Of brede full ycrammed. P. and subsequently Down duschit the beist.n. to be born. bag {baigean. Lith. a wedge for cleaving wood. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE. Ancren Riwle. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. fangen and Lat. and Lat. origin. Goth. vir mendi. affected. Du. oppressed with woe. in D.' about undern he got down. beginning. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. a bag. P. Political Songs. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. is formed pocair. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. also called Bigots. tale. Bruce. on the bag. So from Gael. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. from whete G. Schm.— .quently used in OE. 58 BEG BEGONE G. a scrip euXaiciJoi. yivofiai. to arise.pose. taking up. beitel. P. literally. to be acquire. ysgrepanu. as alighting is a momentary operation. Into the are D. Mettre quelq'un a la besace.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. cans. a stone-cutter's chisel. — Stillingfleet. word.

to be obliged to do a thing. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. commonly expressed. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. se porter) to fare well or ill. solicitum esse. gehaben. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. as in the case of E. on. hafwa ram.— . advantage. to call. injunccommand. laborare. But. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. behind. us-hafjan. habere. guardare. to hit the mark. invoke. to gehouden. Paladino. At the back of The re. the two verbs seem radically the same. keeping. healdan. to keep. is on the top of or opposite to. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . AS. behat. ifl fact. vow. G. keeping. to turn one out .' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid.to vow. To Behave. tail. gehalten seyn. AS. hantyri. take heed of. hatan. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. the equivalent of E. taking notice or care of (Gloss. —Hest. N. heita. fixed upon any object). Command. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. servare. to take away. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. the name adapt. Sw. It.for throwing it. G. hafjan. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. Plautus. name of the head is used to express what hbva. hofwa. or necessary. AS. To look steadily upon. to lift. zu etwas gehalten haitan. use. behefe. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. G. betragen. right. to name. is also found in the sense of looking. The seyn. gehouden. to command. And so from hania. obliged. to be named. at the tail of. to be obliged to one. to look upon it as true . to halten. G. gehat. adjust. and their senses intermingle. to call. to heave. Thus in Finnish the heave. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to carry. to be be named. behatan.the figure of throwing at a mark. premi curi alicujus rei. Sw. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to the equivalent of Du. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. bound. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to carry corn into the barn . K. behete. according as the * To Behove. to command. promise or a command. hevja. to promise. R. behold. observe. Aan iemand bid one welcome. hces.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. ge' hatan. to cast or throw. and (as Fr. heave. or purpose. zijn. what he wishes another to do . to vow. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. or the hence advantage. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. take yourself off.' Richardson. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. The It. from tragen. to be fit. heeten. to carry. behoof. to keep. Kiittn. portarsi. to regard. hafwa. and the E. beholden to him. habban. to behave. the distance of anything. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. beperson addressed. have the sense of calling or naming. hafwa bort. holding is originally derived from that of looking. The Lat. garder. exhort. AS. 17. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. vow.). to have. when the verb will hoof. To Behold. hcef tig bort. seeing to. hovast. by the compound observare. is supported by many analogies. promise. to look. han- — js Kil. to be suitable or becoming . to vow. behaviour. furtherance. to tend. AS. to R. to hold. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. OE. to bers of the body. hafwa. to feed. ufhaban. hevja. hove. to carry. to bring forwards. to follow. to raise. to lift. to keen or hold. to lead. behces. what is so required. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. a follower. to meet. to hold. to fit. hcefwa in seed. gecall. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. Robert in Warton. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. ward. heeten willekem. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. Sw. tion. — Behest. to be well pleased out. G. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. promise . To place are most naturally ex. Goth. To be expedient. nittaa. G.

to be required for a certain purpose. to believe. bellow. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. The word be- Belfry. if a narration. portion. and. with the consent of the heirs. promiser. P1. ornament. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. to give leave Dan. laubjan. pro3. bell. to fix a price upon one's wares. to believe. bealcettanj OE. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. to roar. esteemed . esteeming good and valid. Du. beffroi. garnish. border. —F. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. to hit hafi. To Belch. cela est audessus de votre portde. . to belay. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. is used in the sense of approving. or a sconce. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. bealcan. Du. and E.Lat.D. to extol the worth of anything. beau sire and bel dame. In the middle voice hofwas. OHG. to promise. then. battefredum. under the forms belfredum. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . bulken. bylja. lofa. for purposes of low estimation . bialla. See Gain. mark ON. galaubs. AS. to believe. ON. resonare. Northamptonshire. to protect. to resound. legsel. reputation. It. Another application of the same word is in Pl. honoured. . to praise. b'ola. to bellow. are other modifications of the same imitative root. or high estimation. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. turris. ungalaub kas.Lat. and bergan. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. a tower. beset. measure. aim. certain rate. Du. to sanction an arrangement. and E. to der swaren lave. — Diicange. to make it fast. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. belief . berfroi. to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . and Du. From AS. overspread. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. . giving leave or permission. to a loud noise. to promise or engage. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. to give leave. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. bercvrit. allow. bolken. on. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. leave . Pl. to estimate them at a To believe. laven. galaubjan. — . it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. To praise is essentially Xo prise. ley/a. permission. gelyfan. — mankind. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. Pl. in nautical language. lyfan. Fair sir and Fair lady. an implement for making a loud noise. range. to lay the cable round the bits. Det er ofwer er hofwa. praise. lov. Hence to simple approbation.D. loben. AS. to give leave.D. bettifredo. to put a high price or value on. a. distance to which a piece will carry. precious. beleggen. Bell. to to make A Templorum campana boant. filu-galaubs. beffroit. a tower for defence . verloben. G. to cry out bell. loven. Du. or house. fitness. permitting or giving leave. hesfa. erlauben. met. boare. satisfaction. To Belay. In Mid. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. glauben. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. from mhG. bervrit. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. Then. fringe. to praise. to bolk. we have Goth. bertefredum.. on. are innate . Fr. a little shed. orloven. to befit. to praise. bellan. stand. were civil terms of address. appearing in Mid. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. peal. true. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. belja. to sound loudly . locus securitatis Schilter. Sw.D. OFr. Goth. is an easy progress. frid. a vessel made for dishonour. leaf geleafa. ON. to lay be- around. behove. loven. to permit. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to boke. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . is (Sternberg). promising. then. properly belonging to the church tower.. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. if a promise. 6o BELAY BELL loven. To Believe.alyfan. bounds. moderation. a watch tower. Q. consent.. laven. Fr. praising. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. to express approval. tain a certain end. reach.

kind. fyle To dirty. from another modification of the word for bubble. a bellows. bcelg. Was das belanget. belgr. bellows. Benediction. to touch one. are stripped off whole blase-balg. a leather bag. to stretch it on a frame. vulva.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. fens et hie liraus. loubdn djawt. balg. benignus (opposed to malignus). gwaldas. to bend a bow .' Palsgr. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. to. bolg. to ring. from Arab. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. Lat. Benedico. one who does good. or sometimes louban. Beneath. balg. G. . Lat. by itself. is a kindred form. a benefit. — Ducange. Bent. from cwcsthan. to hallow. Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. benejicium. To belong is thus to reach up to. a accusative.videtur. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. blast-bcelg. . a spring. Benign. Gael. border.' The term had been previously planation. G. I soyle it or araye it. gelangen. belly. a speaking well of one. to come to the crown belangen. volva. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . needs no ex. pod. bellows. or fyle with myre. langen. to say. welt of a shoe gwald. In E. bienfait. bless. . — See Numb. Eenison. or a It is times the to signify services. Lat. ball. bander un arc. the womb. Bench. The ing-skin. benaigon. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. . To Belong'. est matris in lucem editus. ray. Gum benjamin. benjoin. hence with ashes. . disposed to oblige. because bcelg. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. beneison. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. becwathan. Fr. rise against external force . Benignant. cod or husk of pulse. attinere. ^To Beray. Kil. poX^ri. pervenire. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. Du. See Nether. Benefactor. an inflated Lat. binssen. or simply djawt. Benefice. belt. From OFr. to attain belangen. w. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. as concerning that. welt of a shoe.' — Hie fimus. bilbil-goda.polch. incense of Java. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. ON. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. to make bilbil. benedicere. to do good to one . as.pinuz. Bav. Lat. a blow. Lat. Javanese perfume. is The word balg. rushes. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). binsen. wallet Benefit. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. generous. See I . See Bind. bellows. OUG. a blessing. I marre a thyng. belch. hem. pouch. to arrive at. has assumed a plural form. to bless. To Bend. bendaj as.Fr.. a border. was in Mid. bimaissen. to concern. bolch. vulgarly the belly.— Belly. benjoim. from which is also bulbus. a bellows . Bret. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. pino3. belly. a water-bubble builge. bolg. Benzoin. dirt. — ray. a kindness. bag. bags or bellows. attingere. benehusk. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case. Sw. attinere. taken absolutely. To Benum. which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. ' . a good deed. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. Dozy. Fr. the word. See Bank. to belong. on. bell. balteus . J'emboue. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. — root consisting of concentric skins. Lat. ON. G. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. skin. benir. bilbila." — — . to concern. G. to hold to one. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. benefacere. I araye. Gael. wallet. Belt. belliJ Lat. Ptg. to attain to. To Bequeath. OFr. blister balgan-snamha. means seeds of plants. to use words of good omen. to touch. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. to exert force. pertinere. from benedictio. to reach. benedictio {bene^ and dico. to become one's property . . ' I beraye. skin. The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. bandoir. Fr. . leather sack. a round or bubble-shaped root. the skin of those animals that factor. I say). well. bimpsen. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. Quoth. pertinere. se bander. bendan. bene/actum.

as conversely a besom is called broom. Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. roe. to exercise on a definite object. Grose. what does it better a man. burrow. bacca. BEREAVE Wall. So roto rattle down. bat. to entreat. in the sense ctf beria. Fin. betan. To Beseech. R. vol.ot-i. The dry. as. Besom. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. then ordered he a shelter for cattle. To Bet. besje^ Sanscr. small eatable fruit. one who shelter. besein. See Reave. person to lie in. Devon. Zeitschr. berwe. a place . boteith Goth. besnij Pl. G. ship for a make amend. Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. buttare. an incendiary. * Berth. bdt. compared with bargham. — amendment. Esthon. to make it.D. BETE dirty'. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. boutefeu. to fire a funeral pile of . lay out. noise. AS. to kindle the fire. stealth from steal. earg. baete. ropahtaa. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet.irova. but in practice. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. is to perform a serviceable office to him. solicit. or to bestead one. to to deprive of. Du. to thrust. To help. to put on the saddle. Tha het he micel fyr betan. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. dung . . To Gl. fearful. Fr. dust rojahtaa.fish the other hand. Beere. Du. advantage. G. vi. So Lat. Sw. Du. bereafian. a horse collar. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. sets fire to.— VixHsm. as bouter selle. broom twigs. Fr. bouter. reparation. peto. The origin is AS. R. fyrbotare. supply. beorgan. So too Yorkshire arf. berry. houseless.X. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. boeten. E. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him .t. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. mud. boeten. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one. as in growth. of ffeed a fire. ^akka. On the other hand. or the space kept clear betan. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. 3. besIn sen. het vuur The serise of Boeten. put forth. besen. bet. position. to seek. to supply a want. stede. to be-place. ariierf to 113. an incendiary.— Hal. — . To bete his Jam. to defend. stow. rubbish.• 62 Antiq. ^•n. Sw. reafian.iooA. AS. bestow. amendment. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. From abet. jnore. to make better. betan. See Better. baete. Du. p. bal oppbota. as Du. making better. — Biglotton. and on which the wager is laid. the guardian . basya. eld up- On is to be placed A — . from It. rods. improve. barthless. When men of mekeness him baet.bhaksh. The proper meaning of the bale. to mend. because used for making besoms. Kil. to light the fire . bota. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire. lewth. fall with sound. supporting on the one side Lat. earh. Ihre. roju. bdt. scopse spartis. besmas. to give a place to. to strip. Hfence backing. buttafuoco. to thrust. might have been . . to on the other Goth. Tusser. think more probable. repair. sheltered from the wind. what does it boot. boeten. to word is shelter. protect . roju. dirt. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. from AS. it seems hard to separate as. preferably. place. put. to stand one in good stead. dial. arwe. a fire. dirt . Best. same word with the provincial barth. OE. as.—^fake. seems twigs or rods. advantage. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. bur-we. from grow. botesward. a berry. barth may be for barf. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. sweepings. profit. encouraging. Beet. and Du. and also to entreat. the origin of which is to be found in ON. Berry. — Chaucer. berwham. to the place boarded off in a. E. Rob. as. but it is specially applied mister. barfham. brem-bessen. as. hva mannan. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. Beit. beseech. I from lew. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. or. to fall with roisto. better. To Bestow. AS. Goth. p. make better . the side bhakshya. basjaj Du. to amend. to To Bereave. to cast. reparation. It is the restore fyr betan. To seek something from a person. * To Bete. — bota. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. Bestead.

taemen. trahison. find it good: Goth. roja. of pheasants. Cot. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. R. to deceive. betwuxt. A — drink. springs from ON. treachery. Fl. Fr. Percy Soc. betray. from Fr. a traitor. suitable. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. In like manner folissais. bevere. zemen. more. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. BETEfiM translated. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. whence beveraggio Fr. is treason. Sahissais. tweoh. to Teem. R. as one would have it fall. to deliver up in breach of trust. e. trahir.' Dialogue on Witches. has — In a like sense tanie>i. as tlock. in the same way Lat. bedriegen. ON. betweox. Du. Pl. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. trahissais. sloped off. proficere. traitre. On the same principle ON. to discover. batista. fitting. tradere. tradire. better. Goth. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. gesiemen. thy speech bewrayeth thee. Det sig sjelft. zimet. a bevy. Better. amiddes. bibere. by a final sh. to deliver tip. to make forwards. beverage. To boot in coursing (i. some attention. To vouchsafe. to fall. betriigen. Bav. Chaucer. evidence of life. lot). betweohs. the being pushed to the frbnt. Tinia eigi at lata eit. to drink . it bewrays itself. Fr. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. be fitting or suitable. or with again. traditor. — that schickiich. a brood. wrogia. larks. *Ah. AS. vrohjan. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. from. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance. deign. Mich self a good glass of wine. to cheat. better. 88. to happen. said he. make manifest. to fall Some call it a bevel. a different form of twa. awry. betst. against. twain. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. — of the authorities. i. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. fate. &c. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. I approve of beveau. Slant. Fr. baet. regen. Hence last G. — Betwixt. Sw. pair of compasses. x. obeish. Friar's Prol. taemen. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. The as. batizo. ruogia. Dii. polish. betwuh. Thus from dbahir. From the former of these are AS. Bevy. advance. his eyen sheen. G. from invadere. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave.D. /alia. Lat. bet. afford. from Lat. and thence twegen. fallinn. i. as from obdir. not to have the heart to give up a thing. become. Now the stirring of an object. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. It. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. progress. AS. Pl. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. Golding's Ovid in R. It. r'ojer dig. Fris. order. kein leben mehrin no signs . ziemen. beva. are there Regt R. -to appoint. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. gezimet eines dinges. G. E. betweoh. are commonly to one's lot. OE. bat. an instrument opening like a a thing. betera. suitable. e. Ik tame mi dat nig. — See To Bete. which may be compared as to form with amid. to happen. To Betray. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight. to Hence It. find in one's heart. E. From It. R. Car son umbre si le trahit. wreia. abash j from polir. Fr. as envahir. bevde. In the water anon was seen His nose. bet. Ober D. for measuring angles. obdissais. as trahissons. roebucks. a drinking . tima. verbs in ir with a double ss. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. Between. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. his mouth. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. best. two. what does It is forward him. deem suitable.— . riigen. bouter davantaige. moveable and compass branches. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. dispose (whence schicksal. spritigs from schicken. beuvrage. Best. Buveau. in the middle of twain. is used for the — R. better. To Beteem. betaemen. trakir. The inflections of Fr. betest. dir. tima. E. to accuse. Goth. G. to stir. amidst. ON.D. . G. by two. e. of quails. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. in the middle of two. gatiman. which are from a tradire and totally different' root. To Bewray. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Dit tungomal rendered in E.

he is Wtb. or by any rapid motion. Bezoar. sbieco. biax. a bezle. sbias. baviere. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. Fr. pddzahr. specially in a bottle. poison. bisdare. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). its clothes. to stir. kwijlen. sloped. in Fr. a bibber. to give signs of life. or in and out. slanting . is explained to clatter. which good bibbeler. shows the P1. asure-bice (Early E. bihais. Bice. Pers. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. reveal. bebble. though such a change of form would be very unusual. biberer. biascio. a sloping edge. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. bible. in him. to Jam. bickel-sieenken. wraggeln. bavon. to stir. Schiitze. Lat. Sard. has a singular stone-picker. besanca. expelling or preserving against. The train of thought is then. Prov. bezling or skueing. Bias. — Bi-. per\'erted belief. Bib. bibaculus. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. convicts thee of being drink. a fragment bieco. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. sbrisciare. Pl. sbriscio. biascia. E. to move. to glide or slip as upon. Piedm. bark of which paper was first made. misFr. Misc. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. to stir up . Fr. To Bib.or from obliquus. bring under ' Thy accuse. make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. . inferiority. Hal. . To skirmish. bias-wise. used in precisely stone . In Arab. a Galilean. 78). Hzzle f Deldkar in R. winding or crawling in and out. evident. — crooked. sbrissare. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. the word became bddizahr. it becomes (Jz-. Fr. sbiscio. by throwing of stones. 172. Probably.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. Bible. biberen. baverole. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. a stone-hewer . /3i/3Xof a book originally. to the stirring of their conscience. rogt un bogt sik nig. In comp. ber-laita (for bes-laita). to hew resemblance to sbiescio. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan.a.D. . Fr. To Bibble. from pdd-. bes-azur. to sip. sbiescio. Fr. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. It. bickelen.to drink much. babbefore the eyes. —Dozy. To Bicker. An inferior blue. petit-lait. kwijllap. An excellent Basil. Sp. like guzzle. Du. bickel. Bezel. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. sbrisso. sik beregen. Sardin. aslope. to it evident to sense. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. roggle.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. sbiagio. to make tongue Du. Bisect. Dan. to shake. to purl. metaphor). Fris. Gr. the basil Sc. b&zahr. biberon. to creep or crawl sideling. Piedm. babbi. edge of a plate of looking-glass. beslei. tailU en biseau. Hal- — do something aslant. notice. bending. sbiasciai. Ci^. Oh when shall I bizzle. sliding. two- footed. Lat. to dispute. liwell. bickai. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. aslope sbisciare. presence. it were the mouth. bibo. foul weather. sbiesso. snout. OE. bisel. to stir. See Wriggle. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. I Wallon. whey count . Biseau. whence Du. him. to be a paring.as in Biped. discover. rogge. dial. in two ways for duis. to a fight with stones. wrogen. to tipple. to tipple. to cut in two. makes ble. a slabbering-bib. dial. The It. To Bezzle. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . one who drinks in excess. bescompte. Diet. or kwijl-slab. as an eel or a snake. It.two.{ioin dua. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. . To bicker in NE. of the sliced off. (according to the Fr. bis. crooked. biaiser. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. and zahr. bickeler. . Cat. beregen. to slaver . slippery. twice. to well up with Cot. wrangle. Jamieson.D. Yes. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Cat. love first begins to life signs of him. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking. Fr. Mantuan. to slaver or drivel. bestemps. ice . and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. lips. oblique.s bellum for duellum. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. pible. It is especially applied in Sc. To drink hard. —Bickering'. the papyrus. stock still.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. biais. Bibelsworth in Nat. kwijl-bab.' bibble. Ant. Uprogen.

from bidan. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. as G.uddered len heart. The ON. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. buga. to offer. bolginn. to forbid . to have one called before him. The 'La. and yajiBui. ON. bidjan. byggan. Du. to marry.' Pope in R. biegen. belly. bidill. G. a flexure.peto. Bigamy. — prepare. to abide or wait on. biddan. bieden. With respect to logical pedigree. the meaning of bid. ON. to inhabit. explaining the Sc. praestare. bead.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. gebeden j G. Hence Sc. bugne (answering to ON. The loss of the / gives Dan. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. iiQ. The original Swollen. BID of stone. to dwell. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. ON. to swell. bug. form. ten. bit- bidja. bulge. to bicker. a swelling. to solicit. to forbid . (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. related to big or bug. as. to bend. Kil.Leta). called the tertiary order. Bight or Bought. G. bidel. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. or bad. Two verbs are here confounded. are also used in the sense of asking for. bis and in comp. of More ' in Richardson. OSw. to bend. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. to offer it to public notice. bend. bedun. bugan. faurbjudan. bilge or bulge. offerre. to look for. 1. twice. bend of a shore or of a rope. proud. or. . Palsgrave in Halliwell. to arrange. repair. from seek. bag. has leta. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. an entire skin. to build. A bjudan in anabjudan. Big-swol- . It must be observed that the word bidja. P. pray. — — — Halliwell. R. to start out. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. To Big. to build. besides the professedmonks and nuns. by seek and beseech. Analogous expressions are G. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. bog. which is stiU. in the sense of ask for. swaggering. einen vor Gericht bieten. bigan. to pro- command. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. beodan. who. bauen to cultivate. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. cultivate. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. athird class. The . be bug. ewes. consisting both of men and women. quiring something to be done. verbieten. bygga. rising up. pressing on one's notice. BIGOT beidan. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. From Gr. to build G. bidan. G. bat . may plausibly be derived from Goth. anleta. praebere. to belly. ON. swoln. to E. Einem einen guten tag bieten. inhabit. bieten. ' Bug as a Lord. and the Sw. bo. to offer one the wish of a good day. to move quickly. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. porrigere.' Addison. Big. W. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick. to ask. a chip. Jam. AS. balg. from belgia. bouwen. Bickelen. To bid the banns. to pray one to dinner. to curve. belly. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. or third order of penitence. build. forwards. bidan. bulk. to bid one good day. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. to bulge. byggia. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. A pose to one to come to dinner. swelling. to cultivate. . The ON. bugt. bulky. bow. to inflate E. England for swollen. boa. bced. qucero. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. bolga. OSw. bolgna). to look for. bath. becoming in Lat. AS. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. To Bid ' Big . — To Bid. a suitor. spelling seems to used in the N. Wallace in Jam. AS. 2. the belly of a ship. Bigot. bicker in the sense of throwing stones. bua.t." buque with E. abidan. as tears from the eyes. and consequently ordering or reGoth. beadle. to ask. gebodenj G. to presimpler pare. bi-. Compare also Sp. bulge.. inhabit Du. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. and Gael. beidast.

bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people. both men and women. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. 1499. From bigio. D.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. 560.— BIGOT bigardo. Beguttce. Francisci communiter appellabant. alii de paupere viti. Bizocco. Bighiotti). Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. to adopt a similar course of life.— Ducange. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. bigotta. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu. A.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt.a. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. aliqui Begardi. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. In the same way Fr. bigio. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. as well as bizocco. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. vol. was formed bigello. alii Apostolici. Augustini dotarint. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. Bizoccki. xx.D. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti. sed maxim^ in muliebri. and hence the variations bigutta. G. ac labores manuum detestantes. biso. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. S. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino. grey. clownish. 15 18. beghart. &c. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. a blockhead.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza.D. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse.' translated by Muratori. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. a dunce.' says one of of bigio.' Chart. which must not be confounded with begardo. rustical. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii.' says an Venet. perch^ i Terziari di S. They wore a similar dress. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. vocati Fraticelli. corruption would easily creep in. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. ix. says. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. coarse woollen cloth. with reference to A. the other form Per te Tribune. A. dark-coloured cloth. Hence the OE.D. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. honesti plebeii amictus. beghino.' Us petits frires bis or bisets. face VIII. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. borel. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.' Matthew Paris.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. 1243.. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt. the nobles to Rienzi. probably from biso.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. signifying bagmen or beggars. and also unlearned common men. natural grey or sheep's russet. In a similar manner from bigello. bighiotto. all apparently derived from Ital. A. begutta. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . Bighini. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. Flor. homespun cloth. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. and Q. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. bighellone. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. author quoted in N. absque votorum religionis emissione. grey. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt.

bisoch. Du.' in Richardson. AS. Bilbo. an axe. horn of an animal. Bille. The origin of the term is probably from bole. bizocco. Bilberry. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. and dziobas. bulgja. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. bila. Bill. billet. Bill. . I. A lorum tam in — Diez. To defraud one of expected sinking. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. the trunk of a tree. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. clog to a fetter. an axe. a short note. bill of exchange. the beak of a bird. Johansen. To Bilk. the o changing to an i to express diminution. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. that of swell. and in Lat. crowberry. billard also signified at billyards. like change takes place in the other sense of — — . obsolete. Dan. abelthe fetter itself.. to job. In English the meaning has received a further development. a hypocrite. a name given to a. false pretender to reUgious feeling. An instrument for hewing. of E. Piedmontese bigot. Langued. to strike. a sword. See Bull. beil. e. In the same way are related Pol. a man who rests on a stick in walking. Du. bui. Prov. used in legal proceedings. a of the sea. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. now A Bilboa blade. as craneberry. Gael. however. in the same sense. Tartuffe. Gascoigne in R. irons or set in a kind of stocks. from OSw. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. to peck. symbolum. dziobad. a seal. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. bolghe. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. boeye. bullet. names bill-berries. See Bulk. Lat. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. Sw. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. 5 * . a devotee. an ingot of gold or silver. billet is the diminutive of this. .' mariners. Sw. Billet. tepati. dziob. The proper meaning bylgia. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). AS. G. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. seems to be rather the unda. OFr. A slang term for a sword. buie. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. biilge. to pick a millstone. bulla. fetters. bull-berries. a shackle. inscriptum. as a bill of indictment. a negro. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. axe.' bilio. boia. dissimulation . Du. buoy [i. fluctus maris. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. Fr. an adze . an ingot. b'olja. Aurelles. e. loi. procella Kil. to strike. clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. to swell with rage). as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. Mundart. topor. might be taken to express a hypocrite.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. bigardo. boja. gleischner (Frisch). ferrese quam ligneae. — bigardia. at sea Billet. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. bigot. gan. The Du. top. Bohem. 2. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Deutsch. a seal. Billow. Fr. beghart. 2. bulghe. whortle-berries. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. billot. from Mid. bla-berry. belghen. weapon . in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. blamand. bile. on. Fr. Ludwig. Sp. buail. 'tumidi fluctus. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. a hatchet. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. genus vincu- Bilboes. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. is properly a sealed instrument. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. the swelling G. deceit. to be angry (i. plog-bill. from the dark colour. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. Bojce. blue . p. bwyell. an axe. a beak. — Cot. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. Billette. blaa. 3. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Roquef. Sw. bill. Thus we find in It. — — ' . an axe .— — — . So in Gr. the bill of a bird. bigotto. belgan. w. bille. bill in parliament. in the sense of a writing. Bilge. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Bigin. and a billard. billard or billart. AS. a bigot or hypocrite. BILBERRY nated. person of religion leading a loose life. ^Billiard. a floating log to mark the place of some. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. of boja. Kil. . bigot. Lat. Kil. bil. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. Dan. NFris.

AS. See To Bear. from Lat. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. The proper meaning is a heap. bunki. beisseii. Habitacle. — See Bittacle. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. Fr. Dan. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a hind or female stag. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. a corn. to form a knotted structure. is in Scotland applied to ivy. biscuit. a bitch applied also to other animals. Goth. Then added division in a granary. a bump or knob. pullus. burt. bunga. a weight of 48 pounds. E. a truss. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. — Kil. Fr. from Gr. pinnu. forth. pin-ti. Lap. . an overseer. Fr. Sw. habitacle. Bittacle or Binnacle. . bikkia. bundt. piccione. propius videre bij sicndc. Bailey. G. fowl. wine. nodus. isfiw. Bine. or ben-wood. i. G. Bind. bunt. biscotto. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. a heap. bunch. expressed by Sw. a bunch. vescovo. evesgue. episcopus. We — A Birth. by binda. betsel. pinnii. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. earnes brid. and of Fr. than vice versi. to knot nets for fish. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. bhurja. where the compass stands.. pippione. are commonplaces. to bear. an eagle's young G. It. videt. evigue. a knob. binge. to twine. poultry. to bind together./«idere. — properly near-sighted. G. When compared with Fr. To Bite. a bear.. a bitch. to swell. similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. Fr. evegue. 'tumens sequor. poule. Bizened. Birch. hith. bita. a weight. by the verb knit or net. bjork. — — . pundas. to wreathe. to be derived from Ibfiaq. the young of an animal. AS. EpisETTiTOOTToe. ON. to fasten it together. Lith. berkas (z=:Fr. biclie. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. bij sien. Lat. bigne. copus. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. See Belly. . Thus I suppose the Gr. V. bord. Bird. a heap. beorth. to build. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. from pondus. Bing. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. biccej ON. AS. Lat. to net. Bisen. i. a house. . See Breed. e. to bring Biscuit. bitill. in Swabia. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. brid. a pig petz. Sanscr. doubtless a stone. sc. — Surrey in R. from \t3\. hiindiiin. ge- from AS. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. Bisson. Gr. AS. Fr. &c. bindan. lusciosus et myops. to bulge. a little dog. Lat. which is expressed in E. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. or petze. I would derive the verb to knit. a habit- Binnacle. AS. It. terial. properly a young pigeon. a female dog hindinn. IV. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. life. AS. to hang. or baked. Du. beran. H. Bindweed. The term ON. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. bund. truss. Bitch. piiiti. qui nisi propius Blind. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. the young of birds . and especially to a small poor horse. a brood or hatch of young. twice cooked. bundt. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. beitan. beitsl. Bin. Sw. bitacora. Lith.68 BIN Bio-. band. overlooker. to bind at . bin-wood. bundle. viz. admota non Bit. pittjo. Lat. Goth. bundun. to cook). brut. . or bin. binda nat. The bitol.. bund. also a stone weight. bindan. beize.' and the like. a female stag. In like manner from knot. Bisom. . To — — —D. Sp. to plait. ON. j). The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. bundle. a bitch. bircej Sw. G. is rendered in ON. bij sienigh. a gallinaceous bird. BITTACLE /Siof. while bind-wood. v.

blob. blabhdach. blabbre. Je N. Du. faded.' G. . bleg. Applied in Hin ON. Bivouac. To or he can speake. in contempt. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim. iroxafealo. apparently from its biting the tongue. butorj OE. as in that of pale and white on the other. Fr. 't huisje. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. The Gz. as of water gently beating the shore. pale yellow . parallel with Fris — — — When bite. blakk. thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. a* mast . Mantuan babbi. bitones. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. G. a fluttering noise. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. mouth. night guard... to let out whai should have been concealed. Sp. a flapping. Cotgr. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. v. pale. bird of the heron tribe.' It would thus acle. blunt we say it will not bite. Bittern. blesmer. to babble. confusedly. blebberis. Fr. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. is apprehension of danger. beiwache. The bitas. things —Palsgr. baboyer. pale yellow. AS. blabbern. is placed. a continued soft sound. A a rail. biti. buft". Alex. to talk much. bitor. plappem. on.. x. thoughtlessly . 332. blanc. light-coloured. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). synonymous with baber-lip. brunblakk. bitter. round which the cable is made fast. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . Bleak. blob. bites. /ealo-/or.— Blabber-lip. Percy Soc. dark. AS. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. biacca. a childe dothe gasouille. Wit hung her mourn. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. from whence we have adopted the. pale. Sp. bittour. chatter babbler . Sp. Mund. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. To Blab the anchor. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. ON. discoloured . as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. viz. bitts of Bitts. as of a body falling into water. his blacan light. whitish. Fr. — cheeked maid. Why presumest And laam's asse. Pl. Sp. bleikr. mouth. even humour seemed and beuin. Se bleek. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. Goth. In a similar manner Gael. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. to babble. corrupted in Fr. — Hollyband. Nagt huis.' by Gudmund. ' plabraich. ^chops. In like manner E. Fr. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman. gulblakk. ' Biovac. babbe. blab. the palebleff. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. term. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. Fieldfare. shine. . to wax pale or bleaked. shining. fallow fawn-coloured. white lead. Hist. quoted by Ihre. to watch. bleich. quick. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. yellow . baitrs. pale. a shelter for the steersman. ^aj'/^r. blabaran. a stammerer. 156. Gael. from wachen. to the sharpness of a weapon. white. In Legrand's Fr. pins of the capstern. out the tongue. blobach. to speak Dan. unintelligible talk plabair. Again. NE. white. beuni. Lydgate. Deutsch. gabble. to To blabber blabber with the lips. blank. bitr. on the one side. It is in fact radically identical with Fr. Ai-mstrong. faded. 'fuscus. an additional watch. a babbler. whiteness (candor sine It. blakki. dusky. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. blepLith. Black. blake. 't kompas huis. Mag. a beam in a house or ship. indistinctly. a large coarse lip .). yellowish. ON. Bohem. Hald. beitr. mona mid Dan. a large lip. bittore. leohte . Cot. blubber-lipped. G. as of wings . The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. to chops. I blaber.€i. stutterer. "uivac. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. obscurus. to bivouac. plabartaich. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. Bav.D. as is seen in sputter and splutter.' by Haldorsen. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. or water beating gently on the beach . maculS. first. So Fr. an edge is sharpest sword. small guard-house. bihovac. Gael. Hal. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. blob. fallow . ON. black. a tati. garrulous. Blabber-lip. to loll it out. blac-hleor ides. whitish. cut.plab is used to . — Collins in Hal. Sw. pale brown . It. —Neumann. . ON. babbling.

Bacon in R. commonly called the Black-guard. blein. pimple. Besides the examples of this connection given above. irXariQ. plate. blactra. foolish talk. bladeren. or blafich. and Q. blether. polished. — . probably ate. to disappoint. also white woollen cloth . Fr. his meat burnt. and the agitation of liquids. to make or become white blanc. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. smother. pass over. slush. to blow. Bav. plat. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. from candere. vagabonds. name originally given Blackguard. biasimare. blaeren. revile. To blank.. blister. Now. blister. to omit. bladder. to Hence Ital. Du. livido . who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables.. white. blad. moere. linkboys. tattle. blegne. as. a buible. smore. Du. also jabber. Blancli. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Sw. —We Bladder. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. or a mass of bubbles. pXaatpiiiiHv. G. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. in R. chatter. leaves. variable than the signification of words designating colour. I am degraded from a cook. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder.— Kil. bladder. &c. as scullions. e. to purl. contracted from bladeren. blasphemare. a boil. 86. to bubble. — Sw. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. and he shall be sure to have O. boys. blather. a leaf. Blank. whitish. blatter. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Fr. . PI. tree. Sw. . roar. blame. blahen. a bubble. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. candidus. and thence to babble. as blader. to glow. reproach. branches . is identical with Flanders borlen. leaf of a. 1854. Jan. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. bladdra. chatter. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. pluddre. blister. Du. a bubble. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. 5/^a/^ of colour. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. Sc. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. Fr. mud. to blanch. a bladder or pustule. vagrants. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. blanc. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. Blanket. defame. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. blegen. to To bellow. dripping-pans. which we . Blade. piatto. Du. plat. Dan. white. blatt.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. pallido. rogues and wanderers. sheet of paper. mus-blackt. blather. Gr. biastner. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. Dan. bladder. to glitter. blanqne. and others engaged in dirty work. blister. as Lat. the ON. the origin of . as. blena. D. —^Webster. a blank ticket. a. blatter. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. blanchet. black. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. also tanned by the sun. on. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. madder. with all other loose idle masterless men. Cot. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. Du. Reliqu. . The old Dutch form of the word is blader. cited in N. to shine. bladra. and wandering men and women. To Blare. Hist. Sir. Perhaps from blegen. and G. coat. the leaf of a tree. imbrunire. Torriano. mud. on. bladre. to shine.—Blatter. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. blaere. to dabble in water. blank. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. a blanket a bed. G. blanchet. Dan. It. The radical bubble. dial. borrelen. The present forms then should be classed with blether. a pustule . shining. broad. flap of a Du. Wott. But perhaps a more Gr. Fr. blad. waschen. or of an oar G. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. leaf. Blank "verse. to —Blaspheme. skola and thwatta. speak impiously. blinken. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. Blain. Eadmer. a white or unwritten ticket. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. Blame. or as E. whitish. 7. board. to bleak in the sun. most complete example of leafy structure.— ^o thehotsun. gabble. G. Play in Nares. p. — rura. pladdern. blanchir. and E. leafy. — — — to jabber. bladder . to vocifer- — Cot. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam.—Blatant. See Blubber. Lat. mire.

visui patet. whence Blazonry. a whisperer. of an animal. As Kilian. G. bawling. — ^Jam. is the imme. See Blare. To blast. which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. blateroon. by stripping off a portion of the bark. i. abroad. blesse. blcesett. to blaze Sp. First from the E.sound a trumpet. a loud noise. ing of arms. a MS. ON. is used in the sense of manifestatio. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. The other derivation. in that of praise. might And sain.— . among other . Cot. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. an empty and two theories are proposed. Blanches illuminies. Blast. to bellow. Sw. a shout. splendour. blass. But now. and which. a flame. senses. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. blasa. 'op een trompet blaazen. blis. kept up. used. each of boaster. blatero. Du. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. — ' — stroy.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. commendation blason funebre. a funeral oration . Prov. a lamp blasere. brasa. a shining spot. Du. To blow AS. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald. blase. also only pains and excellent endurance. besides blesse. to cut off prematurely. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. Kil. blason. blast. baladrar. She roade at peace through his heraldry. Golden Book in R. loud . embraser. a torch. friend Cornelius. blaesen. to spread news.' to fastum . a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. . ill-speaMng their proper colours . much plausibility. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. and to make him word blaze. blaodh. To Blaze. blossi. blasoen. Du. fire. Sw. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. blaze. . is from AS. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . Gudmund. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. A gust of wind. — — ' : bless. shield or surcoat. a torch . G. to extol. to publish the praises. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. blcEsan. and. Blatant.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. blesse.whence the Fr. blus. g. how. magniloquus. AS. a blast. Blaze. an conium. to publish. the matter incendiary . proclaim the virtues of. blcese. to blow. Fr. declaratio. blasonner. blezo. Fr. in the same way as we 2. backPerhaps the expression of blazing. stultd loqui. blason. a flame . The origin of this exSp. AS. a flame. or to the sound which it produces. bleis. a coat of arms. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. blaeteren. noisy blor. to set on fire. magnilo. bles. blaodhrach. 2. OE. bldsse. beast. bliEsan. gloriosus.). blcEsan. that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. If armour. Sc. boasting. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. to trumpet forth. Dan.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. or blazening. live coal . blysa. blaterare. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. it is manifest. a voice Jr. quus. light-coli. Lye. abroad. — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. Troilus and Cressida. also praeblczse. e. Dan. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. blcest. ON. Cot. I. With inversion of the liquid. baladron. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. laudes (Kil.' painted or figured . oured. brasa. thraso. to blow . braise. biter. on whose behalf the herald appeared. somewhat different train of thought. redness . indeed. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. like the in English. clamorous. ventosus. a shield. proflare tues. . blys. Du. as a verb. Du. oron-blasare. ther it was erst not knowe. A blaze is so intimately Then. blorach. blazen. Du. as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. Fr. Gael. coloured prints. blaser vid. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. to de. pale. to blow. also blazon or the blazSpenser. — Elazen. blase. might spring from the same origin by a . blose. has also blencke. A strong flame. the noisy. to proclaim. The AS.

sinen langen tranen. ' — — eye. to concealing something that had originally discomfit.— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. to cry or weep. To totally different from the foregoing. See Blood. on. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . a fault.' the devil makes a vain back. Pol. pier vor den augen eyes. to become livid. Blear-eyed j having sore i. Sw. which are blurred with the have shewed you. blink. G. Ancren Riwle. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. . And now are these but mansbond (i. AS. blemissemeiit. or blemish. tacher. to make him feel blank. 419. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats.' to deceive one. start vor den augen. souiller. (faith or creaunce) Be war. blcecan. ' . or blemysshen — blaken. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. To Bleat. . bleikr. The term blear. to wink at it. N. a stain. Bleb. a spot. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale.v. blur before their eyes. to humbug. light-coloured. Mac. Blancher. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. bldmi. To salir. a spot. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. p. to spot . See Black. tumanid.D. flack. bloken.P. or to low as oxen. livid. sugillatio. From the OFr.filerren. 242. what blenched him therwith. A Blab. Gower in R. — — R. to blear one's eye. a spot. confound him. BLENCH obfusco. Palsgr. wheal. As AS. drop of water. plama. So in Sw. blister. blot. c. whitish. ' He blarrede or roar. Manuel de Pecch&. to blare been weeping. a boil. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. to stain one's honour or reputation. to wink the eye. Bleed. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows.' God in his wordes. avoid looking it in the face. guenchir. darkness of vices. blench came to be used for a trick. Blemisli. Bleak. as of dust or mist . is Blench. to soil. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. pale . The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. a blotch plerr. Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. while the agent ac- From . and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. blarren. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. . from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. splamii!. pale Du. color plumbeus bldma. Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. a disgrace. . not only pale but livid or dark of hue. ^Blencher. bleakness. the formal equivalent of English wink. ^Xiixaoftai. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. to bleat as sheep. the livid colour of a bruise. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. blot. wan. a red watery eye. Fr. Bailey. from on. . novice. Schmel. to spot. a been distinct. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. Richardson. from the than schal I go. to start away from. a spot. a blemish in one's 2. boggle at something. geplerr. a blot or smear blanking one. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. A stain in a man's reputation. 115. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. like one that has long P1. Gr. dead-coloured Cotgr. to cast a mist before the eyes. ' — — ' : — — . slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. spla7nU sie. spSt. blesmir. Blear. exposed. B. Sir J. and thence to a bruise. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. to disgrace one's name. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. I chaunge colour. And By a similar metaphor Pol. — blink the question is to shrink from it. pimple . goda nainn. livor. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. blakna.'he cried till the tears ran down. tutnan is a cloud. See Black. to bleach. inflamed eyes. Bejaune. wanness. paleness. blesmissure. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. in the expression reputation. blac includes the notion of pale and dark. blema.

as in the case of blaze. cascultare. blessed. Biglotton. goods. plotzen. . j). G. pale. Blink.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. liquid filth to bluther. a wink With the bletsian. window-blind. — when he — Bailey. AS. sweet. Du. lightning. to make happy. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. lightning sweet blago. happy . blendian. blicksem. riches . to blithsian. to twinkle. joy . a. joyful. blitz. to be blind.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. (=bene dicere). blund. blind- ON. weaklaveny. . III. blazeny.nasal. G. although in the in the next article. I hold thee a grote thee. To Bless. blinzeln. blincken. to plunge.Q. Blazena Bea. to shine. a. as taschen. but by no means therefore a pre. glad. a gleam. with or without the nasal. money. a glance. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. seems the simple netel. to act like a — . . happy . AS. to dilute too much . blind. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. as a blind entry. to lighten. to fall into water with a sudden noise. doors. sung. blick. sertion of the nasal. Bliss. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . Du. to rejoice. to bluiter. trix. Du. Blind. an entry which leads to nothing . blet. mix from blekken. to make a rumbling noise. 375. Paradises blidnissu. blanssen. blidu. blinzler. a flash. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. thou knave. or nettle which does form. to bless . well blagaya. Kiittner. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. blag. To blunder water. well blahy blick and blink. . —Brera. happily. bluiter. Owl and Nightingale. blent. plonsen. as in Du. a blick-ooghen. Russ. Tany. blende. to bluiter up with water. Deprived of sight. blessed. Du. bleg. and joys of Paradise bliden. ^Jam. glimpse. wink. to shine. false windows. ON. is I shall Gurt. a blessing. blotzen. pearance of the blighted . blink-eyed. blithe. to bless. graceful. joy. gives blinzen. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning.blinken. the Slavonic languages. . From the action of the hand making Sw. a wink. blicken. riches blajennii blicksem. blink. AS. blicken. make these hands 3.blinze. blich-fiur. AS. Wtb. Sc. lovely Bohem. blago. to shut the eyes G. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. Swiss (obsolete). F. to flash. to merry. — A A — . To Blend. a nounce happy. G. OHG. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. wink of sleep . blinde fenster. Sw. blogi. to shut the eyes. — . lighten. to dabble in water. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. to — make it thick and muddy. shine. Nares. to pro. blahos. the verb to bless is some. to mix. For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. glance. blican. burn up. De Sonne ' verblekken. pockets. ' Pl. Blight. gladness. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. blac. tative source of the word is wholly lost. to glitter . blaziti. glitter. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. blissian. blindr. blindselen. Thence apblinds. Sc. glitter. Dan. to dazzle . fortunately. dazzle .D. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless. the sign of the cross while blessing one. bliss look . Swab. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. The term then self or others. mixing in general. to glance. a look.eyed. glitter. to shine. blend. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. also to wink. to consecrate . blithe blis. . Du.not sting thiiren. a dead nettle. good. .corn. vious one in the order of formation. blahoslaviti to twinkle. . in potters' language. tless —Gamm. blide.blunda. moment. . to stir or puddle. OHG. be glad flash. the G. a glance Swiss blenden. A . G. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. Needle.' To — blunge clay. The sound of k before an s. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid.blinkard . A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. readily passes into a /. to churn. bludder. blatida. The inblissful. joy. tire. Serv. . giving (Fr. csecubrandish. happy . to glitter ful . livid. — Goth. flash of light . lightning. to glitter. blinzdugig. Pol. to dash wine with water. to rejoice.. . as a vatn i vin. blitzen. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids. .wink .

a dirty blister. buckle. sloppy dirt. signifying in the first instance to soak. Fr. senting the dashing of water. it is must be observed. and F. while Lat. also to set See Bless. as in E. — — — — — From blabber. to blow. blidr. . joyful. in the lump or mass of wood. To Bloat. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. blithe. as a blab of ink. merciful ON. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water.— Hal. Egillson. a small lump of anything thick. blotfisk. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. a ram. a blister. a bubble. soft. in bulk. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. whence blast. lagga i blot. which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. —Bailey. ^Jam. having an unsound swollen look. Dan. blautr. soft. shells. a blister . bloc. A solid blouquette blisters. In Fin. plub. must be referred to AS. Sw. Blob. Hence.—Bloater. bluster. blesme. Thus we have blab and babble. to close it with a solid mass. a See Blot. A under this name was imported into England. soak in water cured fish. blot. as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. blouca and Fr. ON. Boyd in Jam. fish blind person. blobbes or droppes of water. is formed squad. bleiths.. a bubble. Sc. mild. in Nares. . Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. as if soaked in water. pustula. in imitative an exceedingly movable element. Blob. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. to blow. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. blaustem. Mod. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured. a blot or spot. — Sw. the unhewn bole of a tree. ON. a blain. gentle OHG. For this. G. like manner the coloured. Du. bloc. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. to dash liquid. taken altogether. blab. light yellow. speaking rapidly any . Kil. or blinde-kiih. Dan. repre- pusula. and pisg. weak. any lump or mass of things. Fr.pusta. blubber. swell. pimple. blond. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. G. an unformed mass. Blister. to bubble. blote. To a smoking or drying by the fire. to cure by smoke. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. blister. blindsehn. separate portion. The blow E. to block up the way. pusula. — Blob. blindman's-buff. a . blot. mass. kostua. buclde. orbicular. blad. husks. stone. as blinzeln. is also used in the sense of swelling . bluyster.— Bailey. fiustula. The roots /. formed spot. pausten. blide. bubble and blubber. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. inde humiditate tumidus. a block or log en bloc. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. Goth. . Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. or the like. Bleb. to blissom. Lat. puff. Cotgr. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. It may be formed Blithe. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. biota. blot. a drop of water. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. Jonson. B. expressed by cognate roots. blister blasan. bausen. and inarticulately. Of sheep. Blond. Sw. Svt. viscid. Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. to swell. round. blaud. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. W. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. boucler. See Blot. Ibid. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. busten. soft. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. to steep. Du. soaked. blcesma. To Blissom. to soak. frequentative. N. Langued. cooking. soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. in gusts. a little blisg. Block. and easily changes its place. or bleb. Gael. B. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke.plisg. Gael. to to puff and be noisy. kostia. Hence E. from blcsr. a lumpish head plubach. a bubble. blod. like clot. blijde. to desire the male. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. ^vaaa. Bav. The stem or trunk of a tree. to breathe hard. and bouclette. — . . and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. or the mark which it makes. or is inserted or omitted. pods. I believe. in the sense of a soft tint. blinzel-maus. And so from squatter. blobber. must be classed with forms like Gr.—Bloated. mild. to blow. bloated. strawclod.

flower. splendour . a drop of water or colour. a pelting shower). blotting-paper. a black eye Du. pladdern. See Blow. E. blistaf. glus. Fr. to dabble in water . platz-voll. probably connected with Pol. to blot the land was in a leme. to slap. lustre. dirty spot on the cheek. livid . plattata. bluish. kuh-plader. a Usaae. blodelsa and blawelsa. in v. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. yellow. blomstr. pale biavo. (of cattle) to dung. to glisten . livid marks.^ Kil. E. The bright-coloured part to portion of land.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. to dash down. whence plader. to dirty. blat. S-wiss pladern. Russ.blauschlagen. to blaze. . E. biado (of which the evidence plattern. bit by bit. to patter. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. to spot or blot. Lat. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. brilliancy. plot of land is a spot or small rage. plants which prepares the seed. plet. a cow-dung. cow-dung. a flower. a. — Blotch-paper. Blood. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. platsch-voll. from the bright colour which 7'vci. Pl. Blad.' the rain is driving and blue . D. blaeuwen. Sc. blue. glasi. ^lys. OFr. blady. Du. Fris. blawels. — Cot. blosma.D. couleur livide. AS. fall to overflowing. ON. skam. blue. gloss. a blaze.— . bloi. bloed. a blot or spot. bletister. to sparkle. plottra. blond is used in blatt. Bloom. spots in the sun. platschern. the bright to blot paper morsels. blou. to glow. blond en blaauw slaan. blondheid. blosem. Schmid. Florio). lump flower. blue . Blot. . blauwel. ^Bleed. straw. blaeuwe ooghe. the bright colour of the cheeks . Stalder. Sw. 2. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. wan. G. to strike . Blossom. blase. a deli. The G. gfyssa. It should be of filth blak-blatte. blooth. to be red. coloured (Diaz. Dan. mud. E. a flower.properly to scatter liquid . or the sound of it . Du. to be red with blot. —Barbour. fall down . a Halm a. bliithe. Du. Prov. ' — . a gush of milk . Hatch. bldts. dial. Ein platsch milch. lidmr. . fair in en blat vand. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. platz-regen. Fris. blose. blois. to splash. Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. a blow. bliihen. blatte. to From . to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. Sw. bloto. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. bldmi. great leaf of cabbage. blut. G. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. ON. — Stalder . bleistern. AS. sbiadare. See Blow. a torch blusse. a nature. . — — . blus. a spot or blot. glose. light. Plots. bloemen. splashing full. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. blue. blosa. to exists in biadetto. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. Ir. en blau ach. . on. to dash down Du. blad. as the skin or hair. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). yellowish It's G. bfys. blue. . pladern. a The form platschefz. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . blond. to blush . a water ploutsche. bloutre. ])erly Du. E. to grow pale). ON. kobladde. Dan. gammon. bloeme. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. glossi. Blow. . from G. Erploten. a beater. to squander. proto shine with bright colours . gleam. of a blow with something lios. platt-voll. bleustern. Schilter. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. to strike with something soft or flat. to blaze . to squat or lie close. Harmar in R. Du. shine . PI. Sw. redness. a lump. . plotterwis. Wflz<^«. Blotcli. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. Jios. It. bloedsd. spot pletter i solen. blust. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. j^ blottir. to dabble in water. pale tint. bloi. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. a flower. clod. E. bliise. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. bloetnsel. blosen. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. to scribble. a Schmid. Wendish blodo. blysa. blowen. Sc. blostma. glister . parallel form with ON. pale. to slap. blaeuw. soft or flat. Schwenck. white blatte. dial. Dan.platter. to shine . a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. lump of anything soft to blad. colour of the cheeks. bloi. — gush. blotte. blotter. to flame. to strike with such these objects exhibit. leme.

the red fluid of the body . to shine with bright From colours. bloeden. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly. a fat.xo'»'. Pl. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). sponds with Sw. to bruise Roquef.. 51. 2. —SchmelIt. — Bluther. especially with respect to the hair. gloeden. boil. /idXavoc. blodern. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. It. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. green. toused. to glow. glowing coal . vi^ound. v. flower w. Kil. To Blow. In agitation of water. and thence. blosen. pale. blue . blodelsa.D. Sik upplustem. sense. piusen. to flourish. fem. to fade. bliuwan. plubartaich. a bruise. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. Wtb. blass. to blow. puff. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. blust. blut. to puff up. heath. E. in E. coup. P1. glas. flower OHG. plodern. to glow. — . in rapid or indistinct utterance. meurtrissure Roquefort. bruk. to breathe G. Pludern. bloemen.D. bludder. G. where the word may be compared bliggman. . Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. to blow. grey. . blao. to blurt out. plusig. Lat. E. to fade. glaodh and blaodh. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. w. G. OHG. a continued noise of agitated water. .D. bl. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. may cite for example G. blava. Tumbled.— . to with Bohem. AS. bloes. blawan. plubair. bledniai. The primary sense is to shine. florere. pale . gliihen. or gr. A. pludern. To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. The interchange of an initial gl. Bret. bluod. blady. blaw j biavo. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. is very frequent. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. blau.' Hamburgh Archives. wan. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. Jla-re. to gabble. glas. 1292. to guggle. disordered in head-dress. into flower. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. blubonciti. to spot. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. Her sweet bloderit face. Blowzy. to fade. blazi. to breathe bouteiUis. bluther. — To Blubber. blodyn. a herb Gr. to blow. Chaucer. to make blue. wan. to hard.' — Palsgr. and closely allied with Du. grug. blois. cheeks bedabbled with tears. a paddling in wate r. Bav. OFr. to make bubbles in drinking. to'disorder. fiubbem. a blow. bruised Prov. a Blossom. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . foam. Prov. bluh. corre. ler. to bubble up. a blast. . To Blow. 1. ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. blebber. to beat. -ii. |8A)'. Danneil. Blowze. to flap like loose clothes. little apparent resemblance. blahen. closely difference in of blabber. blduen. boasting. a. bliihen. Notwithstanding the We . We . Deutsch. It is howbliuwen. glansj Ir. ^Jam. y\r)yi»v. Deutsch. Pl. gUd. sound like water. tache. plustrig. bloeyen. to gush. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. fqded. The aUied forms. red-faced bloted wench. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. blue. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. The radical sense is shown in Gael. Gr. br. blubbern. chatter. These are — Bludder. 92. Gael. G. blezir. grow pale.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. pale. — .nify bubble. blazir. to inflate. is confined to the — . MHG. dirty. like manner Lat. to show flower. withered. and the forms mentioned under Swab. gliihen. gloeyen. blow. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. OHG. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. bliithe. blubbern. bliihen. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. — — Mundart. . Blue. B. Raynouard. to exhibit bright colours. jabber. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. to beat with a mallet. plubraich. bloi. glow. And.D. Du. Chaucer. Mund. Du. fied vowel. — To blubber. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. bloom. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water. marking some application from that bladder. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. a flower. disordered.Jlasa. ' BLUE or guggling. . glede. bldt. pale OFr. a gurgling . G.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem.to blossom. to Plodern. blau. d in Sc. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. Langued.

Du. blunderhead. to blunge clay. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . Dief. blue. Altieri. Roquefort. Analogous forms are Du. from an imitation of the sound. to blunder water. buller-bak. bullern. blanssen. Palsgr. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. a plain coin herausplatzeu. to confound. pludder. something. having a bluff forehead. and then generally idle talk. falb. verdoyer. To blunder is then. find accordingly It. and biavo (Diez). corn. all representing the — . polterer. Pm. Bladum. blac. corn. bawling. A bluff manner. Romance bluiter. biavo. Pl. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. in plur. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. to work To blunder out a fronto. — . the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. puddle. The Du. flav-us. bluish. herbe. Kil. Sw. has donder-bus. to become pale. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. yellow. is.• BLUFF biado. — Pr. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. which is rendered by Florio. Dan. The Du. Bohem. blake (identical with AS. pale. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. rustic. blond. blave is moreover. See Blunt. or an abrupt manner. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. - reddish yellow. a flounder. Bluff.— . blahir. trahir. G. plo-wy. flodderen (Weiland). 't — —Hal. It then signifies something done at once. polter-hans. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. From G. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. as well as biado. yellowish red. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. a fore. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. — — — . to puddle. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. Supp. his business with much noise. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. Then with the nasal. for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. mix It. E. originally growing up turf and water.D. bulmanner. disturb. tutte le semente ancora in erba. to fade). pale straw-coloured. Lat. G. pale yellow. Blaffart. biada. a shore abruptly rising. verdure. in water dobbelen. to agitation of liquids. tradire to Fr.. Halma. Bodge. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Du. biava. to lose colour. Kiittner. to become pale or livid. blunder. blandum. an ill-done job. blunder. speech. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. liebefactor. used for the work of an unskilful performer. Hence we pass to Prov. jaune. to dabble Biglotton E. like the Celtic glas. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. Blavoyer. bloi. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. blue. and metaphorically. to mix it up with water.//aay. Hal. blavus. confusion. I blonder. Hence a Slcelton in R. a blunderbuss. in the same way as from It'. blunt. bleu et blanc. bUich.make a noise. to become pale or wan. blutter. Flor. without image or superscription. Pol. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. planus. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. See Blurt. discoloured {plowiee. and bustle . from the brilliant green of the young E. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. . Biada. contrasted with the dle. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. glundr. ploffen. herauspoltem or sloping shore. like Du. Roquefort. a boisterous violent man. to fall suddenly on the ground. We Blunder. superficie plani. blaf. Kil. je perturbe. dial. poltern. abrupt. pale) is provincially used in the. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. Blunt. The word is here synonymous with amplus. applied to green as well as blue. devenir vert blavoie. sbiavare. fallow. and Du. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . blue. And blunders on and staggers every pace. G. OFr. as well as sbiadafe.in mud or water. It is remarkable however that the E. mistake. fawn-coloured. sense of yeUow. . Dryden in R.' trouble. Ditton in R. buller-bas. sloppy drink. glundra. G. and sbiadare. non rotunda. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. plomp. from the Lat. to dabble in the mud. to plump into the water. Blunderer or blunt worker. segetes virentes. earth and water mixed together.

blutten. heavy. plains The large bech. a blot. fling down . A light blue colour. void. heavy. . Kiittner. biotto. unwrought. a simpleton. edgeless. or blab out a thing Kiittner . The syllables blot. Sc. naked. without the nasal. bare. that it not easy to discover the connection. stupid fellow. dial. wan. nature. —D. plump. ineffectual reason. Swab. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. Q. as Sw. massive. obtusus. obtusus. dull. bloss. with or without the nasal. from the loud report a fire-arm. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. in Richardson. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. blunt. — blunt. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. Plump mit etwas umgehen. Pol. blout. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. inactive Swiss bluntschi. plumbeus. the absence of sharpness. raw. poor Sc. bleak. plutz T)\i. dull. V. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. blotta sanningen. azure. and the like. plotsen. Won by degrees. Sir T. Halma. The blait body. that the sense of bare. and an unintelligent. unpolished. as cow-dung. G. to plump into the water. down. of a knife which not cut. rough. plotz. but of something soft thrown on the ground. like a thing thrown down with a noise. plump. naked. absence of preparation. without Maolaich. blunt. awkwardly. thick. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. or heraus plumpen. without horns. . forestis. naked. fooUsh. sheepish. F. clumsy. to blurt. More in Richardson. blunt. blott. to make a noise of such a Stalder. plump. rudely. blait. identical with E. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . maol. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. Plump. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. Chaucer. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. without preparation. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp.— — — . a thick and will person. heavy. Kiittner. is The word dull. united in Gael. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. blunder. Probably radically hlekit. plonsen. Sw. and hath swiche languor in his soul. duU. V. to make foliage. awkward. Blunt. insensible. ang. Blaitie-bum. blue. inaKil. blait. platzen. bare or blunt. pressions. bus. unceremonious manner. Woddis. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. biosso. pale. Molof something wet. blockish. It is from this notion of suddenness. through which a man is so blont. as in E. and. Sc. figuratively. good plump person. to bring it suddenly out. Now the Swiss bluntsch. V. platz-regen. used in both senses. naked. pointless. blat.to fall into the water. to plump down. clownish. and in the same sense. Stalder. viz. unfledged Sw. —D. bare. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. silly. Plontp. Dan. it will be observed. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. viz. Then cometh indevotion. homo stolidus. exactly corresponding to the G. — — pidus. a bluntie. It.plompen. to blunt a thing out. to handle a thing bluntly. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other.—D. Bluntet. Du. It will be seen that the G. plump. Dan. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. is thrown. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. Ford in R.pludse. hebes. G. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. Bare and blunt. nis. blunt. blatte. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. bluntschen. A modification of the same root. bald. a portion To inquire for slaves. rude. — Kil. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. it will be well to point out a sense. plump J to plump out with it. seems to be derived. blunsch. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — .

156. bausen. table. bluter. Lat. Slur. bot. batello. Du. bora. violent G. Du. Du. dull. edge. baiag. a small lump. bateau. puffen. botte. skin. Pull the bobbin. acre. to brag grande loqui. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. ever-swin. e. a mist before the eyes plerren. To brag and to crack. c.—Bobbin. bit. an edge. bur. Sverris Saga. to puff. bustuous. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. blosken. blaste?i. Swiss blodern. splurt and spirt. a blotch. whence bob. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. table. G. and Du. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. Hal. AS. To Blurt. a border. a torch blusse. bord. crack made by bursting open. See Boisterous. Du. blusse i ansigtet. P. to dabble. common. sudden.v. See Blossom. The to radical meaning D. to glow . Bot zeggen. BLUR Boar. ON. to be out of temper. burra. bdtr. the Brem. Explained by Jam. Du. To splirt. pausten. to rumble. a blow . to snuff. w. E. a smear. blurra. To tinct. blur. border. ader. to bounce. and boisterous. board. this root are formed Sc. Dan. planks or boards. pludern. . margin. to puff. as splurt to splutter. a dangling object. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. whence bordvidr. baban. geplerr. to blubber. a club foot . swagger. Sc. or bog also thread. margin. to make a noise with the mouth. to breke. puddle. to disfigure with E. bdta. Du. imitated by has also In like . V. a grows to a great bigness. Wright's ed. a bladder . to spurt out. — ' Dief. bakke bleustern. 274. beer. chicchere. cluster. 1. to sound like water boiling. &c. Sc. bludder. — a blaze. Du. De Boat.pusten. hot. blaere. a blot. Pl. bludder. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. A large snake. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. to make a noise in boiling. cheeks glow. boot. boistous. blot. As the as. to blush. Halma. AS. Comp. 'Ba. blasen and See Burr. E. — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. OE. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. as in Du. Fr. voce intonare. to dirty. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. flat.D. a flurt with one's fingers. to dangle. aper.y. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. to threaten. bobine. Fr. fringe. To blow in puffs. like the parapets (viggyrdil. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. Schmeller. It. rude. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp. . Supp. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. to endeavour to terrify. brett. or backwards and forwards. edge. bluther. blaffen and baffen. Gael. It. — — — * Boast. to chatter. an end or stump. bord. my dear. stupid. or blurt with one's mouth. . dial. — From mouth. AS. and when applied to vaunting language. blirt of greeting. bord.the syllable bot. to blurt out. a Jam. eber. a short thick body. Boost is used for the boast. Kil. The elision of the d is very to chatter. is formed Du. a burst of tears.plerr. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. bliise. Gael. the sound of a blow poffen. to blaze. Hal. blunt. blubber.— . the red colour of the cheeks Dan. to guggle. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. to give a crack. pfludern. boord. ground. outward edge. Bluster. It. literally edge-wood. bdd. to render indisbhir. to talk quick and indistinctly . bobbin. To move quickly up and down. plump. — To Bob. cocodrUlus. boa. gabble Sw. a tassel. primarily signify loud noise. margin. to blow. to roar. then applied to indistinct vision . an ear of corn. coarse. G. pluddre. to blur. to make mouths. — — . blodern. to bark. rude. a mistiness. G. blaustem. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. and E. Fl. both used in the sense of boasting. Boa. Related to blutter. blader. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. to crying. 9396. gabble. and the latch . short pieces of any filthy mud. will fly up. pustern. berd. blose. be a crack or loud sound. bladdra. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. it implies that it is empty sound.' — Red Riding-hood. stellio. planks raised up outside the roofs. blot. to smear. Wtb. borrar. Bav. on. a tassel.plodem. to jabber. eafor. to puff. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. a baU of thread the mud. Boa. to say bluntly. strong. bhis. lacerta. . violent. to blore. blarra. bleuster. of the word seems . boccheggiare. a. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. mire. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. blast. 29. Fl. blotch and botch. properly noisy. Board. large. bar. pof. bot-voet. and swimmeth very well. beacon fire. lindwurm. . BOB 79 — To Blur. Blush. a board or plank. dial. i. Wallace.

Cot. bodian. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . Gael. stutter gogmire. And waves. to bob. Bohem. moist mire. . so large a feature in the country. woman's stays. round. See Bid. to roll. point. — H. potacha. the body of a shift gaguejar. the stem of a tree . an announcement. — as well as the body of an animal. bodilo. strike with the horns. to push with the horns. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. Supp. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. corpset. or bag. baboyer. — 2. a spur. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. gog. mud. bottig. Gl. anything soft. To Bode. Gael. To portend good or bad. body of a shirt bol. to deliver a message. the boss of a buckler. In like manner E. * To Boggle. e. See Baber-lipped. to thrust. bod. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R.gmh:t.hollow. Bret. bob. a body. the body. biodeachan. bogle. gogach. potig. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. bodig. biodag. With With this we charged again We bodged again.\\i\c\iset. Bog. belly. pall. to blurt a thing out. meaning the round part of his body. a cask. corpses pot. stumpy. '£. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. precept. bodi. nave of a wheel. whence paUchen. quagmire). message boda. . unsteady nature of a soft substance. Ir. bayonet. a round body both. to scruple. potacha. bogach. moving backwards and forwards. gog in gog-mire. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. where bogs form Gael. unsteady. and E. bodies. gebod. to stammer. nodding. busti.' Bogglie. Miracle-plays. Ptg. gag. bogadaich. rounded. bodak. The Sp. to smack. AS. to waver. cask bottich. bodetz. . bayonet . Thy i. as in stammering or staggering. 3. Russ. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. boftich. Body. To Bodge. a ghost . a prick. calf of the leg. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. the belly. It introduced from Ireland. W. bo tich. So BOB To Bob. Gael. to be uncertain what to do. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. gagoula. dies. bogadh. gagei.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. a messenger . bog. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. barriga. to fail. patsche. To make bad work.rabodi. exhibit another modification of the root. The signification of the root bot. shaking . by the syllable patsch. 43. the trunk of the animal body. a prickle. Schmel. Commonly explained as if from Sc. to start start and back as from a bugbear. . ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. expression hogglin an bogglin. gago.. a cask. swelling. move. bodat. and the word is well explained by Bailey. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. palleg. Crist. or a pair of bodies. . Shakespear has badged with blood. ^Jam. ON. Ptg. waving. to fail. bagges. AS. a quagsoft. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. bog. — Grandg. to be unsteady tich.a (i\ia. a dagger. an awl. Wall. goggle. bog (equivalent to E. bot. wavering. Now unskilful action is conmire. a command. bolr. bole. as signifying anything spherical or round. to stick. To mock. corset from corps. to stir. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. speak of the barrel of a horse. bod. See To Botch. anything protuberant. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. bothog. Lap. bogan.! . rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. unsteady. agitate. . a sting . to butt. arise E. or stem of a tree. bodhag. the thick part of anything. of which the E. . from fitting close to the body. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. toss. butt. to make a mow at. badyti. thrust with something pointed. shake. to prick. VI. We . to bodge. is identical with Fr. barrique. Bodkin. stuttering. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. French bouter. Banff. bodnu. a bog or morass. bottich are derivatives. BOGGLE trunk and G. quakmg. Bodice. whence Fr. as a horn. bodene. daubed or dabbled with blood. fickle . Reliq Antiq. body and G. stitch. a puddle. potahha. to make. corset.' A — Sherwood's Diet. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. Lith. . boll. . bodi. to dabble or paddle. a . to commit a blunder. then from the yielding. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. needle. formerly bodies. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. is a lump.

boutpijl. as baltha. bolc'h. Swab.rounded part of the body. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. merry. bolzBold. pustule. Boil. insolent baude. Bustuous. The bob. Fr. a bump. the body . boggle. tartajear. pimple ON. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. a cushion. bold. Fr. Westerwald bollern. see Boast. Sp. Stalder. from the branches. gluma. to give a hoUow sound. bul. flax-boU.— D. bolr. pillow. bok. The round stem of a tree. tomentum. a quaking mire. hakogni. chaff of corn siliqua. in the sense of handsome . to tattle. round the first instance to the materials with . bald. properly represent belly. poppy (Bailey). huge. prince. bout. bulla. a bubble. up of bubbles.— — . The term applies in — — impressed . It. folliculus grani. Wall. — ' — tagliare. globular bod)'. See Bulk. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). V. repagulum. scruple. bouil. G. ON. bolzen. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. warlike. used. Properly noisy. This iv. bul. swelling. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . bhster. 1430 in Deutsch. strong. stramenta. capiing into a cavity. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. beule. Chaucer seems Dan. G. as E. stud. Lat. but that Bolt. bold. to swell. G. w. he will speak out. In the same way Sc. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. bealder. Me doth awate. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. to stammer. excellent. pusten. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. Kit. caput scapulse. bSlstr. and manace for to de. to the belly as the or dislike. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. Goth. Sc. bol. courageous. the husk of nuts. glass phial. blow. swelling. ON. Du. Bret. noise. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. bula. See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. furfures. . bolleken. confident. rough. ON. * Boisterous. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. pall. Pm. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. and then applied to other husks. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. 304). in speaking. bullire. buller. bag or bog are derived Piedm. Bole. roydeur. puilen. bog. to be at a loss a shirt. polc'h. Love. perpendicular. bochken (titubare.w. to hesitate from doubt. bol. Da. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. Du. is probably a modification of boll. styffe or rude . i. . proud. tar. puile. bulr. Chaucer. also a blister. balder. shake. gerade signifies straight to the mark. a head . Du. by which it is moved to and fro. haughty. Fr. boll. a boil or swelling Du. boystousnesse. — 6 . tulum. bola. Daring. ohg. A. ^Boistous. E. . Lat. whence bulla. bolstar. bolster.. tartle. notes. a swelling in ice.' Mrs Baker. capitellum. may be identified with It. 45.D. a bubble. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. courageous. strong. cows the people from speaking. treated under Bowl. balldr. the lir. biiilen. bulla. * Bolster. b^gayer. the gurgling sound of water rush. free. intrepid. Gael. bolt upright. a bakazikni. bout is explained by Kil. as. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. tartalear. bal. bolle. bolster. a fastening for a door. chatter. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . bog. ballr. buile. Boystous. ON. hero. the. — — which the cushion is stuffed. boly. bol. a bubble. OHG. boil . quick. then violent. E. bald. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. animal as distinguished from the limbs.Du. (of Mons) b^guer. cheerful. wag. bolla. Boll. To Boil. OG. dint in a metal vessel. as those of nuts. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. ^Vocab. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. bollen (Kil. sels of flax. from Du. obex. 374. Magy. impetuosity.palleg. or the like. strong. bola. the body of a man or of ter. to boil. to waver or hesitate. is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. Sw. Mund. bald. stutSw. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. fiausten. to be prominent. Pr. hollow. coarse. bold. stameln vel bochken. Cot.). to stumble. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. baud. trunk of a tree . to stagger. To Bolter. to stammer. Test. belc'hj. which are not used for a similar purpose. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. Kil. boss. Du. G. bolt. . as. brave. Lap. to puff. bagaji.

D. a millpoltzet augen. : ' — — . mole-hill.D. crotlar.Lat. Brem. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot.). a small portion. Fr. one after the other. Dauphiny a sudden movement.nature of the operation. a bolter Prov. . tumultuari. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. in S'W plotter. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. vessel with narrow opening. lumpy. a crashing or racketing noise. to agitate. Sw. as Fr. the name of bolter mixed flour and water. to bolter. representing a rat. ex•wagen. a rattle. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil. a clod cloth. to become lumpy. budeln daz mele . uneven. or ill. burclct. to bolt flour burato. In the next place. baruta.through a cloth of loose texture. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. or the like. buletare. pattern. Pr. to spring forth E. ' Holler poller / bulter. hulch. . Schiitze.thump or blow. bolt-foot. Pl. From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. agitari (Kil. rugged. croler. bolt head is a retort. tling or crashing noise. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. Sanders. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. and the Thus from So. on the one hand. to bolt meal barutel. to knock. abolter. barutare. bultig. from G.D. uneven. a clod. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. . . a club-foot. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff. holier poller. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du.) E. Pm. MHG. barutela. bulstrig. we have Du. as of a trumpet. projecting eyes pul. hammer. to coagulate. to come rattling downstairs. a rattling noise and a jolting motion. a bolter or implement for bolting. to start out. as snow balling on a horse's foot.noise {brattle of thunner. clump. then to knock. bulk. Bulte-pook or bulstar. hole. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. projections. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. taratantarum. a bunch. to clack.). beliitea. sestuare. Hence Palsgr. bulla. Supp. a clap of thunnences. poltern.D. Pl. swelling. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. ler. buletel.protuberance. poll. pultare. a round glass ending — bultig. crash. .by forms like G. Lat. Prov. to start with palpitate. gebolder. I boulte meale in a boulter. to make a knocking. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. bultred. Mid. by the representation of a racketing sound. The ment and the operation.u. a . buUire. boss. OFr. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket.agitation of the meal in the bolter. a clump of turf.clack. loud and fast. small heap. to E. Du. bortelen. we pass to Du. blotttre.On the same principle. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. . hump. with E. / is transposed in Fr. beluter. knob. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. bolt. Hence. hammer. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. Du. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. btilt. The ulti. jolting. Here the radical image is the violent O. fied bot. buideln.i5a//^«. a sod (Schiitze). to significance of the term was overlooked. or a racer from the course. Wtb. P1. bulk or quantity . And as the agitation of cream in . to talk pulzen. je bulte. and to crash. So also we pass from Lat. OFr. bolting to that of form. bolzauget) Sp. to form lumps. die treppe pressed. kloteren.— . protuberance. pull. poltern. Lang. bolzen. as a rabbit from its baritel. ' — — ! ! : — . brattle. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . . It. bluter. On this account Mid. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. we see that the one consists of a words. barutela. to shake. the wheels groaned. also to curdle. grasbulten.as the essential element signifying the talum. tantara. bolzaugen. curdle. to bolt meal barutel. taratarrum. staff which sounds tar. buretter{CQ\. tar. have Lat. zen. taraabout. . zare. as above explained.fe/2?. 2. we der Brocket). a rattling carriage.. Dan. tuft. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. the sense of right on end. cro. bulio.. Bav. cruddle. Champagne burtcau. crod. — — — . bullern. G. rugged. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. racket gepolter. hulter de bulter. OFr.

D. bolting-cloth. borel. Dan. band pi. bras. e. bommer. bombdra. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. as Banbury.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. G. Bibelesworth in Nat. bonfras. the murmuring of the sea. sye. Antiq. iuttern. tie. baum-bast. bunden. burato. Near 6 * . and Bond. ties. a bone in general. cotton. and Du. bond. — Bombard. &c. . which has given rise to so many false etymologies. to bind G. bombice. or trunk word in W. From builen. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. to resound. In E. thick-legged. buidelen. .) . to ring bells. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. lana lignea. Fr. and Mod. bombast. a beacon. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . Castrais barato. Need you any ink and bonibase. a stock. gossipium. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. gunpowder. buttel trueb (of liquids). a boulter of meal. a —Bombasine.^Altieri. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. bone of the . butteln. the shank the shoulder-bone. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country. bureau. bombase. to cast to and fro. builen. bomba. bombicina. 155. a drum bombammen. we speak of a gun to resound. coarse. bwmbwry mar. bommen. bombarda. a string. It. to thump W. band. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. biire. bon. . It. cotton stuff. rimbombare. It. bindan. assuming the of leg : special signification W. produced the Pl. barate. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. thick. Kil. beuteln. brust-bein. breast-bone. bombe. . term is appropriated in G. Du.bast. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. bambacium. As cotton was used for padding clothes. bopin. to shake down fruit from a tree. and also the leg.). the silk-worm. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. bein. G. bombasine. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. When ture. ODu. to bolt meal. the Fr. and in fact we find the and Du. a thundering noise bomre. Butterglas. Dan. is supported by the analogy of G. Du. Mid. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. q. a churn for butter. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. to shake (as to shake the head. It. bwmbwr. bande. a ligature. bambagioj whence It. bonds. sijde. — bombast came guage. whence bomme. tiffany. from teu. HoUybandin R. silk-worm. thick from shaking. buidelen. Du. beil'n. E. has repeatedly varied. .Lat. bongam. also thick-shanked. been. however. from boom. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. It. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. bulter from It. stuff. beuteln. boulenger. an implement of binding. Gascoi^e in R. derivation. Moreover. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn. tree. Fl. It. a hollow sound. to thunder. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. ^o/j. i. must be explained Fr. — having a stem or stalk. bureau. booming over the water. as in . to boult meal. Bomb. crook-shanked bondew. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. again. Bone. achsel bein. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. therefore fairly identify bone with the W.Su?. sericum arboreum. OE. a stem or base. banitola (Fl. silk. and called in Mid. which requires stuff of a thin open tex. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. bombasin. sije. to beat a drum. to which the leg. PoUitriduare. and that from Fr. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. raw silk. basin. . Bonfire. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. the contracted form of Du. agreement. The material called by this name. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bauniwolle. . tie. G. butteln. — AS. Banstead. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. band. to shake. Schm. bambagino. a baker. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. stump. In legal language. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. baun. bonog. Fr. d. 83 Gr. the leg.

. To Boot. The origin of the word is probably the W.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. . — — . ON. letter. See Bown. boubi^. from beida (E. — Bailey. to ask. beam. Build. tapestry. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . bowwen. a tree. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. remnants of hay or straw. p. foolish. G. bos. AS. Boon. N. a lying-place for dogs or swine. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. and fig. dolt.^ —P. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. wall hangings.n. Pr. Mrs Baker explains bun. 232. and Ban in w. Sp. till. Schm. Binau Brychyniog. dial. hu?idbusa. Fr. to litter bosu. from gape. to strew with straw. a silly fellow. boa. as the Brecknockshire Banns. a bag of skin or leather. pole. to cultivate. short boots. which one gaping and staring about. Busk. is Du. The character of folly is i860. the first consonant of the alphabet. ganian. bosih. botte. ty Gael. boom. quest. b^er. 13. nachbar. a good turn or re- meaning. a. Perhaps. Goth. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. bonnet. Du. Boot of bale. often cut for burning and lighting fires. stabulum. house. however. the word may signify merely a fire of buns. Hal. wondering signifies not only straw. to dress. to aid. boubair. Bun. Ox. the mouth. to gape. boo. high. bonad. . the possessor of the farm. Bootless. bobo ! interj. bonaid. help. A peasant. A favour. From bo. by arbitours sholde bote the P. OSlav. Wall. swinbusa. to set in order. OW. Prov. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. without ad- . Kil. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. Basa. boandi.. Bonnet. the alphabet. chaff. Du. Swab. feu de behourdis. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. till. clown. build.Boos. at everything. beiSne. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. inhabit. petition. Pm. boia. Book. dog-kennel. Gael. one who dwells nigh. also called Brecknock Beacons. to gape. baier. the scriptures bokareis. buandi. bds. to prepare. Boom. Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. — e. simpleton. The latter is the original AS.—Bootless. botta. It is commonly explained as identical with It. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. bua. from Du. pero. See Butt. babin. comes bondi. pig-sty. bene. bua. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. signifying beech. Thin ben Luke i. but stall. master of the house. G. . betere thing werse. babb^o. busu. litter. fool. boutig. tigh. blockhead. a bonfire. head-dress wai^g. a simpleton. Gl. See Bomb. booby. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. Bonnefyre. a scribe G. babau. boer. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. to yawn. a. where a cross (or a gun. and from AS. The i. prayer. bid). buch-stab. . or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. the stubble of beans. petition. of wonder On the same principle Sp. A stall for cattle. reparation. ass. dial. bas. relief from sorrow. G. bota. E. It. b&ber. bommen. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. AS. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. — From the participle present. w. lofty. — . are formed Fr. ON. Booby. build. gaby. — To boot. by itself for head-dress. and thence Rouchi baia. bAkva. b'ukvdry. literally cow-house. bd. although in the OG. bauer. bobo. or Vanns. bonad. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du. Palsgr. Du. inhabit. Fr. the cultivator. Boot. succour Bailey. Trans. ON. bauen. . a stall. netis stall. the name of the letter b. . a letter Russ. biikui. as a lying-place for cattle. bolt. botte. gehyred. * Boose. tall. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. a letter . boutig. Hal. whence ban-ffagl. a head-dress. gawney. bose. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. . Jr. bote. a lofty blaze. badaud. Fr. countryman. prayer. set in order. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. ben. bdn. E. Boor. to cultivate. Thus from the syllable ba. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. In nautical language. . Kil. Mrs Baker. Fr. \ais-band. desire. been. a hollow skin. gaping hoyden — Cot. dress. from badare. a dry stalk. a vessel for holding liquids. remedy of evil. and Gael. boten-shoen. in Phil. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. bosig. dress. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. writing bokos. in w. But bosg. Hufwud-bonad. . bossen. ON.

to profit Goth. hem or gard of a garment. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . to bete the properly to mend the fire. a word. . Fl. The ON. ON. Gael. a cupboard.por. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-. rof. bottino. or anything pointed. to hut. Gael. BoracMo. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. bothag. It is admitted that Fr. . furni. beute. ora. &c. welt. puru. sawroot. boards. boeye. forare. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). bardure. bord. bohren.. a borer. to bite. make . bothan.. puru. Esthon. boeten het vier. . cellar. G. purra. Alexand. chisel. making good again . Fr. bite. differs only in termination. Fin. repair. to foam. Border. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. Booth. 3. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. Compare Manx birrag. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. bower. — ON. a great bur. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. are parret. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. bud. reparation. 1. to bore. to repair. to importune. from bord. which are probably from the same root. scalpo. a borer. boete. Gael. on. betan fyr. to mend. . a sharp-pointed tooth. BOOTH vantage. of an edge that will not bite. . better. and hence to fine. to build. fire. butin. A phorically a drunkard. piercer. pi. a hut or tent. limbus. and E. Mag. a shop. baara. But probably the E. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. abode. Du. bata. bdra. Fin. a responding forms . Fin. . to be of advantage aftragabotjan. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. drillen. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. butin is explained by Flor. purro. mat-bod.. fimbria. Another derivation from Fin. borracha. wine-skin.par. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. a chisel. are derived from G. wave. to boot. to pierce. amendment boeten. to to . comminuted by either kind of action. a. as afford a satisfactory explanation. a bothy. N. See Burgeon. puras. bauen. to anything Neither G. a granary . Palsgr. a leather bag or bottle for wine. to build buda. to expiate boeten den dorst. to The Sw. budka. cup- awl. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. limbus. 266. nor E. in Ihre. Sp. a wave. burin. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. a bladder. OHG. purra. Lat. sculpo 05\xiik. In the Fin. to restore. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. p. to profit. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. dust. And so in ON. margin. to divide. Magy. to surge. dens mordens vel caninus. The Fin. Bete. remedy. and meta- Fr. a shed. kvit-bara. puras. . uzboro. Booty. bordi. admovere titiones. lappolone. terebro.— Return from Parnassus I inR. Pol. scsdes-bod. . The cor. . hut. a shelter of branches. byte points to the verb byta. swell bara. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view. bauda. cottage. to patch. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. both. OSw. terebra sculptoria purastoa. is purin. a booth or shed. ON. chewed food for infants. or the gradual working a hole in anything. See Bower. and parrets. bdt. AS. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. in Lap. to swell. extremitas Bore. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. Fr. The as G. • — To Bore. See To We speak in E. Du. To Bore. barn. edge. ON. a tusk. borracha. furd. borino. bolino. boede. amendment. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. to quench one's thirst . a hut. budowai. struere ignem. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. Esthon. a shop budowati. Kil. Burke in R. from deila and skipta. pointed. It. Bohem. It. the . sharp. biorag. exchange or divide. cure Sw. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. recovery bata. aid. bora. tent. to stick unto as a bur. to bite. pu purro (saha =: saw . a borer . from borra. batr. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. yfirbdt. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. a border. baete. lappalare. and thence to eat build. to . urboro. an engraver's chisel. botjan.—Burin.

beorgan. bosseu. Du. It. boss sound.' or system of bail. unpolished. the sun sets. bussi. Bailey. butse. burh. tuft.. borgo. undyed wool of brown sheep. It. The origin seems to be the Goth. to take in. brown cloth. the hollow between the Borsholder. is probably radically Boss. blow on a hollow object. borealis. bos. — — — A — . poor. to give a hollow bizo. or head-borough. Bos a surety. botch. cnap. a tower. can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. or perhaps also To Borrow. (Bridel). grey). bussa coarse. a pushing or striking out. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. boss. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. botsen. whether from the fact preserve G. viipyoc. hollow. boss. botse. AS. to strike so as to Bureau. i. vain. to knock or strike. burgess. borgese. Bosh. of bail throughout the country. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. bierge. agrees with E. when that system was forgotten. boschen. knob. G.' the chief of the ' borh. pego. is used in the sense of bussare. from AS. AS. V. See found in Bav. coarse cloth made of the Du. storm. The other. byrig. basse. an eminence. bunch. empty. boss or knob of a buckler . . into borsholder. and borough in the sense of a town. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell.mass. the N. clownish. nonsense. from their grey clothing. borg. ' — — . AS. one who sticks to you like a bore. (1867). and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. 106. botch. cnag signifies both a clergy. bom. poor. bosse. in the body struck. to save. plain rude fellow.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. a boor. to become is emitted by a hollow body. Borowholder. less. gesylle. a bunch or hump. bttssel. Hence borhes ealdor. to contain. bos. bail biirgen. whence the burg. &c. And that unsittynge is to here degre. to give bail or answer for an. Newbury. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. So Du. bundle. cnoc. to protect. busse. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. or because a blow berga. gum vocant. rustic. f graauw. Turk. burel. Jam. was origin of the term is the OFr. Fr. Lang. empty. to strike . . pegou. boussi. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . projection. that which biirge. rude. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. or perhaps it may be See Bury. ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. borei.' Vegetius in Diez. a citizen. bergen. Jam. borel. to conceal. without. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. the ordinary a swelling. ^ma. connected.bucklers. huschen. E. the Sc. Gr. and thus could not shake off the old burr. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. as if from the verb to hold. which now signifies a knob. as we speak of a thumping potato. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. bourgeois. Fr. I. ' pledge. plant. the must have arisen burgensis. Fr. boss of the side. to protect. bossen. the North Wind. empty. Botany. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. Lat. Du. a wen. pitch. The primi. to save Sw. Boreal. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. bump is used in lump or piece. Sc. borh. ^o^^flj. in instead of without. Russ. formerly used in the sense of knocking. baurgs. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. a blow. striking. bourg.vr\. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. a little blow. Altieri. In like manner It. Cot. while Gael. cob. destitute. Swiss Rom. — ' wind burya. loan. a citizen.' every man be under bail. bosh. ON. knur. cormpted. butsen. borough-holder. to pick or cull plants. useCanterbury. Bunch. by which of or belonging to plants. to keep. borough or chief constable. to save. . but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. . a boss. beorgan. a herb. a surety. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. knocking. Hence knot. northern. Borrow. tempest. a knob. surety. a giving rise to It. knock and a knob . both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. a city . Hal. Goth. D. /3oraMK6f. primarily signifying coarse sound .any round sweUing. hollow bucklers. secure. a. bump. borg. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel.ribs and the side. tive idea seems to bring under cover. Borough.' if thou give money on loan. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. a bouncing baby . head.

both. mend. E. boute. bunch. Bailey. See Boss. abbution. to fall : with a sound batsch. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. any plain round viol glass bozzo. — Bottom. AS. btitse. bund. ba. Fr. botel foenn. It. &c. biissen. 212. to rage. butwo. putra. is also a bubble. potra. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. Stalder. Bret. ing out. — — A 2. a slop. botola. Fr. botte. a tinker schuhbiisser. A horses. It. — — belly-worm. Fl. Botcli. is boteau. Canut. BOTCH understood). any round ball or bowl to play withal. G. — . House-bote. maggots in barley. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. botsen. and E. a bump or swelling. * To Bother. however. a cobbler. buddeln. empty or hollow. the other hand. to simmer. a bundle of straw or hay. bdt. buazen. a slop. Bochu. fire-bote. especially in Gael. ubhau. to mend (kettles. repara- — — See To Bete. To confuse with noise. a bubble. they two. AS. oba. dim. puddle. See Butt. OSax. Fyre to botme. a wisp. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. Prov. a humpback. gen. stump. an abyss or bottoniless pit. bozza. bosser. AS. bouteille. botte. to work without order or know. Gael. noise. whisper. . in the sense of mend the fire. patch. to dash about . theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. pozzanghera. Dan. H^cart. The Gr. blain. boccia. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. to give a sounding blow. thing soft batsch. a cask. abbi. disturbance. bundle. stem or base. . bodem. dabble). baiothsj Sanscr. a vessel for holding liquids. a pit. signify a in OE. Danneil. or plague sore . ixorapudder. bulderen. botel. a bottle of hay. by met. G. a bunch. ^kvBoQ. scuohbuzere. podge. On — Du. to stir and mix together. pother. — . Bouteille. . Du. to knock. Kil. Judwi. as a push or windgaU. bide. what pushes outwards.^Dec. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. to mend.) . pozzo. turmoil. Both. — Dief. — duj Lett. • Bott. bethia. e. — — . ledge It. kessel-biisser. to bcBta. Decorde. bun. Here the radical image seems a bubble. Parmesan poccia. ambo. to make better. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. Lat. bile. nets. to put on a patch. bluster. buddl. a. a waterfall. batschen. blister. dial. — Jidwi. i. we have Swiss batscken. Gael. Pl. a bottle. a cesspool pass. From the dim. Again.' to the fiery Csedm. corresponding to . noise. from the dashing of water. to from the root bot. See Bound. a boil or swelling Halma. to froth as beer . bativa. botus. ON. bSn. bAdtr. stock. butse. to dip in liquid (to Gael. a maggot. the first rough draught 2. On the other hand. a cess. a root. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. Podge. poltern. I. you two. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. Hal. butsen.of a ball of thread. abyss. A bottom depth.— Swift in R. gipuozan. a pit. Lith. stock. boss. See To Bodge. a bott . Leg. Wedu. It.— Hal. Bouds. blow. mess. to we have OHG. the science or knowledge of plants. . ' G. boil. and ajSvamg. botm. boiteag. a knock. buts. shoes. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. the lowest part. contusion . to strike . bottom. pocciar. Lith. disturbance to .D. as Fr. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. &c. . burgi vel pontis refectionem. to make a make a noise. ON. buideal. a plague-boil Kil. a patch patschen. whence the name ol pool to podge. Mudu. mess. abbu. to botch or patch. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . Butu. beggtaj Goth. And so we speak of an eruption. a botcher of shoes. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. tumour. pimple. stroke. Boa two. botch. to podge. Hal. botse. Du. round lump. a depth. for a bud. To Botch. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. fundus. botn. boitean. a pock. was called a push. mutter.foundation. bottigUa. — Fl. ON. Diez. boiteal. hurly-burly. bozza. N.— . any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Fl. to smack. j3i/9os. bot. Bottle. of botta. to stir and mix together . bulder. gling piece of work. Jtidu. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow. a bottle. schuhbosser. a lump of somebatschen. . A — oba-dwaj Lat. the bud of a flower . we two. w. knock. . bossu. botte. bots. Ancren Riwle. an imperfect and bunbutt end. abbi-diwij Slavon. bdsser. boden .ments of the same root.

Sw. 136. to hum. See Bunch. signifies a sliort thick mass. Du. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. Wtb. a large pebble. nor horn sound. AS. whence buj7isen. a boundary stone (men stone). The branch of a tree. and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. the bay of Benin. as a nosegay.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. ni motz brugir. Bought. has hot. from volgere. Raynouard. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. Halma. knock it sounds again. to make a loud noise. frequently used in the same sense with bound. Nor a centinel whistle. from bugan. a bud. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. Q. to set bounds. by Bujns or Buns. and F. To Bound. Fr. a bouncing apple. Bodinare. signifying in nautical coil of rope. round. The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. strapping. So It. bounbounejha. Coxcomb. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained. to spring. From Sw. to knock. Bunche. the verb bondir in OFr.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or .D. bun. Ducange. bend. ni frestelar. bumper. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. bend. a stock. an de dor bunsen. or Bow-pot. like bobbin. to turn. the hollow of a bay. he fell so that it sounded. root (see Bottom). To Boult. in contrast to klappersten. 3.' round and round in similar circles. dial. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. To Bounce.— Boundary. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. botwm. a turn or time. mcn-bomi. to resound. bottom. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. . E. bunda. boh. boundina. carpet. Pr. baby. a large stone rounded by the action of water. contusi. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. Brem. Probably from the Celtic root bon. to thundering big one hum. See To Bolt. And the new stools set out.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. bonndn. Bret. dial. a bound. limit. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. butina. Alpine Re- — gions. Pm. Bound. bugt. turn. bonzen. the larger kind of pebbles. a round body both. gulf. Dan. Webster. bunsen. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. Bough-pot. bog. bouton. Bowlder. . The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. — — Bight. till The dat et bunsede. Fr. to fix limits. and Prov. geration. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . Bonny. — Take care my house be handsome. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. . language a * Boulder. in the absence of actual e. The Bight of Benin. the smaller ones. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. The W. of thread. Boulderstone. ing. — strike. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. nave of a wheel bothel. bullra. boriie. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. — — leap. p.>a bout. Primarily to strike. buUersten. volta. Ni gacha cor bondir. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. to bow. 2. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar. bamsen. an occasion. Fr. see Boss. — No i ausiratz parlar. iv. its kind. to knock at the door.'— Charter of K. bolder. jungen. Bout.— — — - 88 BOUGH . a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper.— F.— Cot. A Langued. bay." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. jump. a button.. as that of E. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. winding. debodinare. pimple Richards bothog.' B. tnndo. Bough. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. boss of a buckler. a boss. march. came home with his face all to-bounced. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. bodina. to set out by metes and bounds. a blow. bugan. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. from AS. thumping. Mid. to thunder. bonna. pothel. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. mere. bons. bondir. I assure you. boujtce. to spring. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. bone. a blister.

to — Hal. a humming noise Macleod. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. jest. bov. different modification gives ON. beygja. bdgi. to indulge in his cups . according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. buizen. hous^ Man in the Moon. language of folly or ridicule. a go to. address. bue. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. bugna. bending. Fr. pot. So Sc. cudgel. G. bogen. Burden. a bow. burd. to banter or laugh at. cheat. Du. i. bage. fun of one . Goth. Burgeon. to tope W. bow to shoot with. prepared for. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. pre. Sc. Sw. borne. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. . w. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. Prov. ready. steady. Dan. a brook. biegen. game. schulter-bug. buzzing of bees. a pot. must be referred to the same root. bending of a joint knie-bug. sense durd. Sw. warbling. Borden. Gael. to take breath. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. bending. to swell. It. and not in the sense of curvature in general. verb bua. sotich. Comp. A water. to hum as a bee. hence musical accompaniment. explaining Sw. ready to pike or spear . shoulder-blade. Gael. drunken. patesten. Gael. repartee. It is the participle past buinn. good. burdan. a sing-song. to trick. to take deep draughts. buyse. Sp. Bourdon. Bow. purra. purlBav. buga. like quaff. curvature. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. a — — . — — — A pare. AS. bourdon. Immediately from Fr. Bret. bontS. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. Fr. to take one in. taunt. a well. bommen. to drink deep. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . sport. to mutter. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. bugan. Cot. when we speak of. as was for. bwa. a jibe Shaw bururus. g. that ON. to pre2. their time -With "wailful tunes. way ba7n.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. also the humming or ON. puff out. lance. whence buysen. to bow or incline the . a mill-post. biugan. As the Gael. to bulge. bagna. burlare. G. burn. . to our bous. bugne.bass of a stringed instrument. it is probable that the It. bordon. Dan. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. ^<7r«i?. bug. analogous to Fr. a corToward the garden. to hum. limit. burt. belly out. ruption of bonne. Swiss bausen. bogna. bog. — probably through this latter signification. Lat. bausen. Bounty. firm. brummen. spelling the word iox bound. the big end of a club. And there in mourning spend Sw. addressed to. or of an Gael. saufen. souf. an arch. . The meaning of bound. a. Du. brausen. Du. to draw a deep breath. btiga. a prop. on the whole. brunna. a for New York.. drone of a bagpipe. crutch. to bow. Eown. . has also buirleadh. a drone of a bagpipe. — — . identical with E. trick. G. bunaiteach. to draw a deep breath. to drink deep. It is bov. pared. are applied to the bow of a ship. buzz. The foregoing derivation seems. A —Cot. a cup kroesen. pausen. buigen. schenkelbug. bordone. bogha. the shoulder of the vessel. epaule du vaisseau. whether by sound or gesticulation. head Fr. . a drone or dor-bee. in Fr. to tipple. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth. staff. bound. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. set out. Chaucer in R. to tope. bourde in the same sense. a humming noise. bonus. bog. It is remarkable that we find vary. beogan.which see. Spenser in R. the Bourdon. drink deep. bend Sw. Sw. spring. Bourd. is.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. flagon. potio. Gael. bogr. kroes. G. and that probably from a Celtic root. pusta. . bonitas. bourd. the fixed. Dan. Bourdon. sausen. a. a jibe. . on. a from Du. Dan. Du. bovne. bourdon. deceit. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. buys. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. ing. bugna. fresh* water. ridicule buirte. Gael. grumble Sw. mockery. springbiirn. Fr. of the ON. bend. bordo. burreti. burdan. the burden of a song. joke. gurgling. When used alone it . from spring. Bound. the ting of a bell. Cot. tinton.

kupula. bulka. a polla. beutel. crown of a hat. give in to. boxtree pusska. budel. to bend. bow. the crop of a bird. bolgna. boel. knob From the former modification we have bolla. Lat. It is more probably from the G. . zich onder jemand under to him. bolne. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order. a bubble bolli. buis. bollen. bolla.. See MHO. bog. . shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. a box. a box.D. buello. bock. the head. a iDubble. ON. bossola. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. convexity.) to incline oneself . bouzellou. utibur. Hence. . an inclosure. convex. to guggle. to stoop. biichse. bulne. Cable. biisse. See Crab. boudin. hiidel. . a pot. Sp. at the e. a sleeping-room . Bret. dial. folliculus . bog. (in pass . Thus we have Esthon. a bud. beuz. globular body.flask It. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. bur. round glass phial. . . AS. Sanscr. bugyola. Pol. Fr.). a bundle. bowel Box. hollow place Fr. . OE. tumour . . bubble. . The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. bug. the bogna. . bending. kuppelo. . bhuj. Fr. prominence. ken. a protuberance. pocket. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. &c. fyn. to swell. ttuJic. bocka. a wardrobe . water pulli. a knot. Bower. boss. a swelling or rising up. globe or spherical body. a box. a chamber swefnbur. kupukka. trestle. busse. bwra. in walking appears in a . to bulge. a stud. . stream forth bugyogni. tumour. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. bowels. . . bugyani. W. ne. the box-tree It. cumena-bur. . bow. bulge. round bead. . intrenchment. a bubble. kupu. gut. hollow. Sw. . koziel. Dan. heafod bolla. bugyni. a bubble Fin. belly. bucka. bhugna. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl. a box Lat. and to a coachbox in particular. box in both senses. a box. as in AS. polla. head of a cabbage. biiske. the skull or brainpan . while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. spring as water bugya. buckel. puffy. fata-bur. similar shape. to puff up. bolle. bouge. bulla. . to stoop biickling. blister. of a wooden ball to play with and — . with inversion of the round. In like manner the Pol. guestchamber . a separate apartment . The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. to puff up pullakka. bouellou. a hen-coop . to make crooked . AS. ask. G. . a ball. bola. bubble. G. A Bulk. From the other form are G. painter's easel. bulcken. Hal. bosso. swell. anything globular. boil. a thing of liquid. Sw. bugna. OFr. sausage. bukke. . A . Fr. bwr. . or. the box-tree. The word may probably be identical with Fris. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. peated in Magy. a croft by a house. Bret. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a bowl. crooked. a boil. Bohem. buk. biicken. bur. or in e. Buckle. bent. pullo. a. Du. a wine-can . box. bulla in aqua. and on swollen. Bowl. bowl . ku^o.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. bol. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. lump . mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. a buck. Du.cup Du. mausbollelein. ^o/a. passing on stud. belly of a cask. a hump on the back rossbollen. busskai. W. a ball . the box-tree and articles made of it G. boxtree. to yield to one. Boll. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm. a parlour. a drop of pullistaa.). . a little box . . a black pudding. boss. pusspan.. swoUei) Lat. buxus. bogla. is applied to a coach-box. buga. to bow buck. purse. buckelig gehen. budello. ON. a sack. botulus. acsian. bulb of an onion bolleyield. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. wisp of straw . globular. boucle. as well as the name of a. as in E. bolla. in both senses. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. to bubble up. then by the loss of the /. bugy. belly. Sw. See Boil. bol. Bav. signified by forms like Gael. Dan. Gr. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. E. bulk compared with Sw. buigen. ON. compared with Fr. to raise the back boll OHG. ^o«/«.\s. Du.a. the barrel of a gun. to buckle G. the head. a bubble. honse-bur. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. a round glass or bolg. make obeisance. a ball. * Bowels. to bend down. boor. without the and grits. hill. w. hollow wooden case. buchsbaum. an outhouse AS. The / a bow. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. PLD. inclinare se (Kil. . spherical Dan. iri'iaQ. different position in ODu. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling .

. Bracelet. fuse. bracer. disturb. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. defect. brasselet. murmur. flap. or defect. to want. a comworld Rayn. It. bresta. It is B. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. a crack. braco. A brace probis. bracha. boy bouba.. brae. Gael. braca. unmarried man . Du. pube. flaw. Brak-goed. brec. . to crack. which sigof straining. and string of his bow. I sal slyng. pus. in R. brago. brace on and Du. merely in our mode of considering them. ' — A — — — . On the same principle from the buksteht. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. by the same inversion of J and k. Prov. the arm.. braecke. . braquet. &c. ratch.' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. Heligoneed. a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. V. bracke. or bracer Cot. braque. See Brake. bray. beagle. — . by an overflow of sea water. Brackish. boussole. suppuration. Lat. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. A — — . The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. the first instancebya physical tie. Du. brae. to stammer..D. a pair of braces. defect. want. — . isolated part of the text. to give a sounding blow defect. bou^ba. OFr. bue. Boy. briche. a grown youth Cimbr. variation of babble. to give a blow with the fists.— D. . The different meanings of the brageux. ghebreck. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. buah.. a girl. salo sive aqua marinS. spaniel. salsus. OFr. Ptg. want. lalear-eyed Prov. Brack. in R. to give a gebrechen. It. defect Du. Kil. Prov. bracon. Water rendered boubo. rakka. and F. babble. a sounding blow. cramp-iron holding things together . boy. then from break. brae. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. Fr. To Brabble. con. brack. Sp. taneous talking. a boy pupa. fault . One girl. Kil. baukscheht. Sp. 91 the Dan. brakke grund. Pl. quarrel Bohem. AS. bitch Du. filth . Brack. loud smack. s. refuse. brek.nated by dirt. need. Thus brack. flaw. a bog or pass Fr. braco. wristband. a bubbling dura del mun. race." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. break. from a root brak. . mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. want. bragos. dog Sw. brae. breach. To brace is to draw together. It. moral or physical. confining. . BOX To Box. Fr. Swiss bub.D. brechen. . parallel with OK. G. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. — . corruptse. dirty. rakke. — . youth. Pr. the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. breach. pupus. odorinsecus. fault. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. Sp. brostia. In like manner the It. damaged board a ship. strike. wnzC/J. mud. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . Lett. Kil. mud. land spoilt Kil. ON. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. to be wanting. Pm. whelp as. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . brague. Bracket. dog that hunts by scent. Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. an languages. ing from a mixture of salt. MHG. merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. mud. brek. root). wrack. Prov. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. his eyes are failing him). breptati. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. breuque. foul. . bracil. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. brassard. Cot. a guard to torf. Swiss Rom. bruxula. to is derived brestr. land batsken. to fall. bask. brack. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. OE. To fight with the fists. to burst. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. — . matter. let. priated to the original sense. La ville ou y avait Brace. rakki. compressing. Hdcart. bracket. Fr. braic. to box the ears. . G. clay. Brach. ON. s. posh. a box. baske. A bracket is properly a scenting dog.with a noise. thwack. and then Pl. as noticed under Box. A to halt between two derivations. Swab. Rouchi Then as an adj. to Swiss batschen. brakke Bracelet. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. rack. to stutter. See Broker. acidus. dog in general. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. bube. boiste. brechen ihm. which has many representatives in the other Europe. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. brabbelen. bracco. brageuses. Prov. — — . jabber. to slap. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . Fr. is a rope holding G. a braceOFr.puddle. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. armour for the arm. to smack the hand batschen. bouibo.

the feathers ON. . the bridge or part of the breeches ing. bragging of his own valour. ^Brave. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. about the hawk's fundament. to boast or brag. confining. vaunting. dhbrailler. handsome. i. to sprout malt. brabhdair. flaunt in fine clothes . also derived Fr. flaunting. . compressing. braguer. — From W. From brayel. goods. splendid. well-dressed. torture . slight modificajoining the two legs. . an inclosure for cattle . the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . bravacherie. brao. Bray. gallant. strength. 2. the arm. idle talk. blusterer. or from braie itself. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. — Chaucer. to make a noise. w. a roisterer. braw. braga. Rom. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere. brave. From Fr.i5nz^. Fr. riches. braske. Brake. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. gorgeous. Lat. Bret. brae. excellent. an iron for holding Zalli. bragd. expensive. h-avare and Fr. To Brag. Hecart. Fr. was formed brayele. gay. AS. bullying.. brake in the sense of constraining. braver. gallant (in apparel) also proud. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. bully .Shepherd's Cal. It. fine. make a noise . swagger. noisy ostentation. brav. — A — . In like manner to crack is used for boasting. The plant y^r«. boasting. subduing. Lith. Walloon bress.. boast. gayly dressed. to stand upon terms. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. se parer de beaux habits. brave. BRAG Piedm. brails. . hectoring. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . Dan. brazo. vanter une chose. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. showy bravery. breghen. bravo. empty pride. &c. power. bragging. Thus Bret. Brag was then used brisk. crash.^Vocab.^ Sp. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. fine. brayete. breagh. smart. a carriage for breaking in horses . . brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). brabhdadh. called by our braggard. valiant The head are sumptuous. Thus we are brought to the OE. in order to prevent its catching the wind. Hence E.breeches. to cord a bale of tie up. braicli. brave. fine. fine. Dan. or by gaudy dress and show. Brake.—— . Sc. braegenj Du. 92 Cot. Turk bazu are used in both senses. Primarily to crack. a noisy talkboasting. also insolenter se gerere . ative fellow. braga. to rattle.%. braka. proud. to brail up a sail. brag or jet it braguard. See Brace. to Rouchi brMer.explosion. is identical with Gael. brake is. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. as the type of exertion and strength. Cot. bravado j Fr. swaggerer. brag. used in the sense of force. binding anything together. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . also tion of this was brayeul. A — Hal. The meanings included under — Bragget. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. stout. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. de Vaud. to strut. stately. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes. bragaireachd. the opposite of which. in the sense of the Lat. crash ON. braga. bra!. breyne. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. braggard also valiant. Faire le brave. vain glory. brag. bravache. See Bray. brachittm. and that from e. to flaunt. The meanings of brake are very numerous. . that will carry no coals. To Brail. . —Spenser in R. would be to brace. to shout. Haldorsen Gael. . to swagger. crack.aburst. It is certain that the word for arm is. — . subigere. To Braid. drawers. bragio. braszketi. Wallachian bratsou. braies. brave. beautiful. affront. Bret. is Cot. Brain. in numerous dialects. breach. and it is very likely that the root brak. se pavaner. Fris. brave. Cot. braka. cry. Brail. bushy .hy which this idea is con\eyed. Cot. braske. From sprouted corn. to crack. to boast of his own worth. courageous. be noisy . Langued. se donner trop de licence. finery. be found. — Equivalent forms are Gael. Sp. breghe. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. to unbrace or let down the breeches. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . gay. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. spot. Chaucer. expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- .

bracan. to head must be bit. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. briser. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. dial. conSo in G. a marsh. a harrow. to rub.— . is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. Gael. Gr. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. to subdue. In like manner Lat. as in Du. and Lat. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. It. murran. In the case of the ne. iSpsx". or A A ' . — — . Voc. It may be sus- . as in the case of horse-breaking. is braukti. to exert force in different ways. bush. and when once thrown down. to distinct. brego. BRAKE to external force. the original meaning of G. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. and G. marsh. to brush. in northern climates. as in Sp. ing of flax or hemp. pasture. to bray in a mortar. casser le \va. In the sense of a thicket. broken fratta. subigere. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. bushes. broil. The Fr. brega. to stiffen against Taboada). broyer. Brake. gebrUche. to row. it is not surprising that the word has here. de Vaud. broor bushy place Hal. bregille. braken. the lever by which the string was drawn up. to The ON. Corrfeze bredgea. . brook. a spinning-wheel. fratto. to break. Fr.' It. braca. to harrow (Lat. nemus.. brake. brage. broilium. marsh or swamp. a thicket. G. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. Biglotton. have thus Du. thicket. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. flachs brechen. Dan. Dan. a horse's a horse's twitch. bush. gebroge. e. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. breuil. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. brook. —Ovid. brog or brake. tnurdma. for — Due. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). break of such a kind. It. Sp. broeck. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. frangere linum. low wet land bruch. OFr. brog above mentioned. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. to bend a bow. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. braeken. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . Brake. gebroge. tris). signifying to sweep. brambles. farinam in mortario subigere. To the same bend a bow. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. thing is brought under control. watered. brogille. brake. referred brake. quarry from Fin. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. word. glebas subigere. braquer un canon. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted. Fr. cetur. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. Pl. In ON. game. gebroge. — Fl. cover G. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. properly braking or subduing them. broillet. ^raca. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. in usus braca. murrokko. brog. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. to knead or mix up in a mortar. bregar. a brace on board a ship. t° moisten. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. copse-wood. briers. gilum. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum.D. brushwood. is formed murd. Lat. riguus. brolium. brak is a frame in which strip. any thicket of brakes. brambles. bredza. braka. —Bracken. break flax PLD. brcekke. Swiss Rom. braecken het vlasch. where from Esthon. brage. murtaa. been confounded with the verb break. a fen. might come to signify a swamp. We — . 2. to pound. a stream. P&.D. el arco. gebrUche. breaking in the operation. bruch. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. bregar brake. brook. gebiisch. to fracture. Prov. a swampy Mid. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. Fr. to bend or direct a cannon. as well as in the case of the e. or overthrow of trees by the wind. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. to break or fracture. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. 3. or a wood in a marshy place . Dan. to break. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood.

and waste growths. dirt . brem. bushes. bran. brous. That beareth the red hepe. It will be found that shrubs. a shoot or twig. snotty . Branch. braam. brok. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. brancas. broccoli. a vine twig Bav. In like hrst. Bran. . sword is called a ^ra«rf because . a bud. brwnt. in the sense oi fern. from gaggi. brandello. . The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. G. Thus in Lat. a small deri\'ation . broom. as. . a bud It. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. brenn hesken. a bridle or bit . brugek. hallier. pfropf. titio. Russ. —Ducange. it glitters — — . Fr. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. It. . piecemeal brindelles. So Swiss gaggi. G. burning brennen. Bret. The same form becomes in It. heath (Bret. w. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. brank. brake. &c. Brancare. from brand. Dan. a briery plot. gebroge. Bramble. brass. brein. is the draff or excrement of the com. pfriemen. to burn. the branch of a tree. may be so called in analogy with Bret. brejo. bruk. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. a bud. Brank. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. from brug. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. broussaille. virgultum. Brand.D. brug). thicket of brambles Cot.. young buisson fort epais. to gripe. breanan. i. brano. brandiiialil. bramble Du. a dunghill. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. bran. heath. nasty. broem. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. w. a single plant of heath. . a roA. stink . &c. sawdust. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. apiece orbitbrandone. to bridle. braeme. brin d. as AS. bretnel. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny .D.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. Broom. constrain. bromboli. and thence a shoot. branco. Fr. a halter. ground full of briers. pfriem in the sense of an awl. . Diez. . heath. the bull-finch. And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. AS. It. from Servian pnit. thorns and Gen. brom. G. Bret. heath. brandr. sedge burkni." The bmno a • on . brarn. broembel-CBppel. bro7n. bruskoad. brug. or with It. Fr. heath. to or iron. and E. A the word bramble is from Swiss brom. As ON. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. to -brugen. broom. what is cast out as worthless. E. heath ON. Gael. brog. bruk.G. a firebrand. 2. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. The naof strain. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . bren. Sir Topaz. A mark made by burning. compress. Bret. bit by bit. restrain. young twig {brom-beisser. bronbo. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. also pfriemkraut. 1 8. a burning fragment of wood. brin. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. brosst. . a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. the thorn apple or stramonium. brank. excrement. Grisons bruch. Thornas and bremelas. . brenna. brushwood. ordure . But we find It. bracken or fern . brenn. See Brush. a rod or twig. that is to say. breme j Sw. brouskoad. bruk. Piedm. The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. breun. brenda. pected that brake. iii. brughera. broust. clutch. to brank. Bret. wood composed of twigs. from virga. all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. bren. Thus we have w. Port. berneux. brang. in the same sense. sprouts. — branca. bruch.). brandmurk. or other plants of a like nature. piece of anything. from Lat. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. chaff. cabbage sprouts Fl. brand. a shoot. a thick bush. Bav. Fr. a shrub . bruch. gebriiche. Serv. Gael. Rouchi bren d'orMe. — . ear-wax mud. or ling. G. Pl. a heath. sweet broom. Pl. the leafless plant of which besoms are made. also a marshy low ground or fen . briars. brin (as It brano). branchia. Then by comparison with claws or arms. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. branche. a shrub from Bret. cack. prufye. brambles.

to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. brennen. from used in dyeing cloths. AS. put. to brustle. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. Fl. so. to braze or lute. Sw. brandigh. comes from thence. 59. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. Brangle. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. distilled wine. gebrannter wein. G. to murmur. brazeiro. to Bailey. to make sense of a bright red dye. to make display . but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. Fr. brasa. Kil. urens. firebrand. Bret. Brase. brascct. Hume in brand in ON. bruzi. glowing embers . as Jamieson explains it. ish.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. De Goes. set on fire. a To Brandish. brangle or brawl in E. to burn. given to the country. in Marsh.. It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. briiler. to and fro in the hand. weinbrenner. to sound of the Fr. Ija. branla. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. firewood. bruciare. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. Gris. splinter. E. and scold. to totter. With top trimbling. It. Fr. conbillet.pan of coals. Formerly brandy-wine. G. WaUon. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . du Roi et laine. to crackle . to shog. forms brasil. e. To brand. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. brush. to shake. brasca. branler. braser. brandiller. brastlian. spirit distilled from wine. brasa. to make shine with shaking. brus^. bresil. It. N. stake. totter. bragale\ wood. to glisten or flash. then brandr. the name of that holy wood should have Kil. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. ist. So. bransella. a stick. hoisting to the fall. to burn. d'Angl. Sw. not. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. brausen. the colour than hitherto known. Fr. brasil. Lye. Jam. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. all. to shake. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. to brangle. eldibrandr. to rustle. — . — ting to confusion. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. brazil. In the same way the set on fire . to French brawl or brangle. brandiller. and branchis shaiand D. as Fr. the spelling to kindle. a brusler. — . to roar. V. E. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. flagrans.^Brandle. bracea. perplex. brane-wood. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. Fr. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. crackle. a roaring fire. a round dance. Bailey. incendium. branler. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. faire fracas. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. brouir. was in use Fr. brasca. noise. Braser. a fragment. to blaze. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. live coals. crackle. Thus the bound up again. bra?ier. Port. Milan. a pan of hot coals. brandolare is exbrandish. to quarrel.well. brin. bruan. from to vociferate. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. became ashes Pied. before the discovery of America in the brandir. shake. Brasil. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. aqua ardens. make a — . braise or hot coals. braise. to confuse. Chron. plained by Florio. fire-wood. hot Fr. to hurl with great force. to burn. bruire. The name Brandy. Manx bransey. brand. brandende wijn. braise. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. bryne. to distil . bum. to shake The word brisil. and bruir. bransle. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. To brase AS. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. The tre brangillis. morsel. — . embraser. is bntan. billet. De Barros considers vinum ardens. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. It. to bicker 2nd. to brandle or The It. brustle. bragia. prasseln. as again by well as the blade of a sword. braza. apparently very distinct from each other. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. Diez. to dash. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. make an outcry. to solder iron. or in stick. to brandle. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. The corresponding form in Gael. Fr. Chron. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. Guill. n. Du. bracia.

a contempt- banner. a mantle. Brave. OFr. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. bradlete. braodhlach. braede. 1156. rag. Many gambes. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. bronzacchiare. braion. OHG. fraiche. Bartizan. baltresca.brettysing. G. as rashers upon quick burning coals.^ — Sverris Saga. bratdn). Math. bratach. a lump of flesh. as scrawl from scrabble. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. The verb is probably derived from the brase. breyon d'chaur. So also See Brag. &c. a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. W. from Fr. Brat. bmhon for brado7i. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. contignatio. bretesche. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. brazen.— Diez. a lath. saillies. from branler. bretesque. to carbonado. Cot. bronzare. Circumeunt cibertesca. ^Altieri. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. AS. boutures. Bailey. bratid calf of the leg. braiio. It. buttock Sc. ' A vraale. brandillo. brass. Dan. lat'te. braeye. Fr. brat. and bronzo. to talk at bralle op. 368. braon. a slabbering-bib. braser Fargent. Fr.D. slut. brett. slakker-bortchen. slibro {neita. Lorraine bravon. burning coals. breyon de kinds of . For the application to a^child compare Bret. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. a plank or board. braoilich. Brattice. trul. flesh of a leg of pork. a rag . the calf of the leg.— Braid. is The word — uous name for a woman. a loud noise. Sc. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. from Sc. to cry. bartisan. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). bransle.— Remade. Du. the buttocks. Sup. The same correspondence is seen between It. Fris.D. or on the top of a wall. brces. A. le repasser un peu sur la braise. See Bray.walle — Pr. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. deblaterare. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. Fr. bretays). reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. I. bred. Kil. Hist. bran.96 Roquefort. a Lap. — Deutsch.' Hal. brailler. Cologne broden. solder. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower.— Fl. Cot. Brawn. 1224. equivalent to the Du. A. —-Jam. frame of laths. A dispute or squabble. ON. neita girl). calf of the leg. cloth. apron. Certainly a little girl. 2. to copper. discord. tasce. frequentative of braire. as criailler of crier. a contemptuous name for a young child. bradon. Betrax of a —^Jam. muscular parts of the body. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . ferruminare. slibro. — . The muscular part of the body. Brangle. P1. breyon.D. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. esbraotier. A land of dance. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. a. or whether it be from Fr. Pisana in Mur.' BRASS BRAY et AS. pan- — Rayn. . calf of the leg. bartising. Mundart. at brasa. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. any piece. pil. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. a rag . or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole. bras. squall. branle. a lump of flesh. a rag. a battle-girdle. as a brawling brook. See Brandish. Gael.propugnaculum. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. as lattice. brdto (ace. Sp. Brawl. bruir. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. noise. bronze. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a cloak. a clout. Wall. a — A from the confused noise. a wooden tower. brat. brettys. to solder. luncheon. Florio. a lump. a parapet. whether contracted from brabble. It . Pm. to tear piecemeal. brat. to shake. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. Swiss bradle. Paris. cob. —^Bronze. bas morceau de viande brawhng.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. a patch of cloth. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. It. bratidone. in the first instance of boards. breteque. KiL Prov. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. to braze. especially that used in the working of iron . strepitus 2. ni autres choses sur Due. bribe de viande. Brass. coassatio. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. OFr. then a parapet. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. Westphal. berd. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. to Gael. a fortification. Jam. boarding being sbranare. to scold . borderinge. roar. ship. bralle.

And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. Q. F. rangere. Chaucer. abraid. upbraid. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. The Lat.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. paxog. — — — explained motus loud noise. ^p&xia. mos. imitate or resemble one. to bray in a mortar. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. D. rogi. crash. 145. a rent. to break Fr. &c. To Break. ing. the sound — of arms. roar. bragr. the sword was out break. bregda. Cat. to t. noise . On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. . Prov. D. to cry out. bray. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. Beryn. The ON. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. R. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. i. to roar as the sea. augnabragd. to braid. gestus. 2. bradar. baiyl. bruire. as the notion of turning crack. braa. to N. vapna-brak. Ppvxia. to resemble. or wound. brame. and frangere. to cry out. — . bru. Cot. as the voice of the ass. to the seijauntes. Swiss bratschig. to resemble him. to resemble. on. to crash. Bread. rattle. appearance Hal. To rub or grind down Sp. e. a wink. to rumble. to rub Fr. to bellow. to sound very loud and very harshly.^ Fr.g. yell. See Brake. plait. brot. to have the lineaments of one's ON. V. brikan. to break. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. 7 . a . a mill. D. AS. Bret. relation is seen between Lat. father. breche. brice. broyer. and to signify the fracture itself. Lat. or cry out loudly . which has given much trouble to commentators. braire. Fin. R. From the or brack in a wall. bragd is also applied nets. brage. And with a traid I tumyt me about. Du. roar. Breach. brechen. in Jam.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. to cry Port. resound . to start. fish. to rush. to braid.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. verb to break. crash. bregar. braid. — koa. to scold. the clash of ai-ms Dan.ch.' To Bray. &c. Bread. yell. to smack or the eye. to roar. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. &c. turn. instantane. is . to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. a brake for hemp or flax. Goth. to crash. brugier. at a braid. to roar or bellow. fragor. bruzir. Prov. to pretend. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. I'll live and die a maid. G. . braidir. cyprinus latus. a crash. kind. Gr. Bailey. to snatch. ybrayid. ser. crepo and E.. will. And at a braid he gun it bende. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. braidar. to break. E. disturbance. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. make a disturbance. brak. starts crackling up. breach. riAprjyvvfu. to bawl.fracas. the miller's dog. The same He might don us both a villany. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to braid the hair. iU-favouredly — in Jam. W. to tear Bret. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. Fr. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. &c. Fr. father. a brack. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. bregar. bratsche. bragd — ON. Then. and make a hideous noise. brak.ear rog. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. as OE. to bray like an ass. Chaucer.y. brand. is often connected with swiftness of moBream. weave The ON. to work up in a mortar. Wal. a breach Cot. OE. a rag f . Dunbar braessem. paste or dough. to break. braa. explaining a very obscure application of the E. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. fractus j Gr. V. twist. with or without a final d. . to The cup was uncoverid. soft . ON. to knead. ON. G. crackle . at once. k. braea. V. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. Then is simply. and fracasously. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. broad. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. at braga eftir euium. regi. rustle. breuan. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself.

Goth. PI. bris. to crackle. . to bray. trusts. an into shiver. the dry spines of furze broken off. braguier. brdtschen. &c. brisoler. or the blow itself. brosame. bruc. braies. Brize. peitschen. brodem. — Brist. briste. bruzun. to be misty and cold. switch. brasiare. E. brusc. windy withal. bryi^ga. as commonly explained. Rom. w. The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Breast. Piedm. griller. breeze. Dan. applied to shivering. to simmer. a crum. Gael. as the G. einem de britze geven. Lat. bragues. little bits of wood Berri briser. a box. Fr. G. subligaculum. Dev. sheep's droppings bruss. braux. —Briss. Originally probably the word signified steam. also to chill and shiver with cold. trembling. Bruise. QNtsterviald) pritschen. — And blood. as in the case of twitter. to fry Then from a Gl. bremse. a smack. Swiss brdtsch. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. E. . Briss and buttons. clout for a child. from brace. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. Fr. brugga. brodel. to burst. fastening . b}-as. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. to break. Dtyden.'— Gl. breost. so AS. We bragezj on. and other rubbish dibris. to buzz. bre- I'os qui bresole. of trees. See Brick. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound.t. malt. murmur—Vocab. brezzare. AS. broza. drawers. braucn. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. sprouted corn. de bridse geveii. bratscher. broiiwen. coaldust. brise.98 borst. to bind. Gael. Du. braich. G^nev. grillare. forms analogous to E. to brew. braga. Breath. remains of leaves. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. braciarc. from ligare. Breeze.D. to whip. braga. simmering. brcEth. forms. are related to Prov. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. from AS. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. cloven. of E. brezling.vare. instead of being derived from 'La. brire. bresilles. to feize or feaze. a cool wind. Gl. Compare OE. OFr. to resound. G. in Schilter. So ON. as. break. noise. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. brasser. Prov. Swiss Rom. bark Fr. Prov. Breeze. then to broil. broil. brossi!. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. brok. vapour. braie. braia J OFr. It. a gadfly. malt. brezza. brimsa. brijselen. xyligogio castigare. with It. point to G. breinse. brisd. brache. Bracha. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. Piedm. as. briosat'. polenta. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. to rattle (as hail). brist. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. briosa. Bret. The Teutonic verbs. Du. brustia. Biglotton. braca. to hum. morsel. to crush to break. Swiss AS. to brew. Breeze. may be from the wurh fesser. Isidore and Tatian. . fail. siibligar. breson. i5r(Z^. burst. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . — . bra. and brought beneath between the legs. a horse's twitch. bris de charbon. briosa. the breech or buttocks. Fris. /esses. breath. crush. met de bridse slaan. brew. Bret. to breech. a girdle. — Halma. bandage or truss for a rupture. one on the breech so that (klatschet). bridsen. to roast. G. murmur. To Brew. rubbish. their stings draw . bracecs . . brison. brimme.). properly to crackle. grill. brciz. to murmur. corresponding to G. — See Broth. representing the sound of a blow. a twitch for a horse. a crum Du. Fr. a cold and windy mist or frost . Sw. Du. of straining. to smack./ssus. brcekur j It. . dial. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. brijsen. term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. . G. The Breech (Prov. bruise. grillen. brissle. brisciare. bris. chilly. breme. singing bone. scent. brumtnen. G. — — strument for smacking. Russ. Breeches. broden. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust.britschen. britze. braies. body brostia. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. briiz. Lat. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. brut. bretilles. brinisa. braca. de Vaud. to fry . and E. a to lay fly-flap. Du. binding. Gl. rubbish. the bust. but more probably the E. briig. an odour. as by the Sc. are in like manner ' . Hume in Jam. chillness or shivering. to shiver for cold. a cramp-iron for holding things together. — . fitzen. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. simmer. bruzir. zare. the soler. brasiuiii. Hence the Lat. AS. orts.

arf-ol. a proprietor. Ducange. remarkable that the Gr. a fragment. a rogue. thick appropriated. ter-in-law. Bridge. betony brulicame. bulicame. bruarium. E. brieden. Neumann. a bush. bricge j G. Walach.It. birbante. lipdZu}. Priodi. The Sw. Due. Trovarfor bride-ale. Brief. Bridal. ment of anything broken. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. Lat. a crum. sponsa. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. Bribe. AS. bridge. to Isrew. E. BRIGADE dead. Fr. to rub. Sp. httle bit. jipaaaiii. Grisons bruch. Pro(merch=:maid). a sow. bride. briicke.groom. a heath. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. privus. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede. one's ovin. Bridle. jetty. with transposition of the r. priod. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. In the G. Lang. broosekens. brigantine. Cot. it is applied to the letter to OE. . to break. fervere. AS. as. troop. graf-ol. to brew. son. In the patois of briccia. to boil. nurus G. to press in. Brier. Brewis. from Bret. brasser. ON. bretonica. briwo. to break to pieces bricalio. A bribe is A — — arval. OSw. in the sense of OSw. — . bruith. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . and that from It. to boil. . the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. broken victuals. It. funeral. . from the Normans. ap. Bridal. twopares Lat. bitill. bribour. brA. to boil. brutg. fit. a man. — . bruk. Du. broken bread. bygga. brygga. imprint.gfiugga. fastningar-ol. to press. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . two-masted vessel. brukkas. Ihre. a bride. bruk. a lump of bread. ' — . pier. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. brau. the marriage si in brigata. betonica. fraoch. sugga. broken. frayer. a wedding priod-fab. to pave brukkti. So It. is still used in this sense. pavement brolegge. Brick. brigade. a lump of bread. W. a little king's writs. Rouchi brife. If the foregoing were not so clear. a fragment. brahi. company. See Broth. Pol. Applied ous words derived from break. It — is Kil. Flor. a heath brughera. AS. a Bride. Brique. from the last 99 of which. fragment. — — — — — — . brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. malt. a bride Brig. It. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. ' . malt. bride. bably contracted from brigantine. braut. Mid. from Bridegroom. bro. brigata. masted vessel. Thom. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. grug. brice. to stamp. bro. Fr. brique de pain. hlafes brice. a crum. and ODu. bara briw. Gl. Diez. ibrukkti. . as so. to prepare. but probably Bricoteau. heath. especially to a letter or command. a beggar. whence berw.Fr. G^n^v. feast. a boiling. brar. buskins. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. OHG. bruyere.privatus. brere. gf2o. a cheat. to circulate. from bit. bridelj OHG. a married man or woman Lat. married. birbone. to tlie brico. AS. . bro is applied not only to a bridge. the equivalent of to the dial. The origin of the word is the w. appropriate. Hence OE. berwedd. conjux. pavement Lith. boiling up brocoliere.pritil . to appropriate. berwi. Fl. a married man guma. Diefenbach com.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. any jot or crum. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. brittil. the Fr. a bit. bo.bergantino. the newly. AS. stone-bridge bnikkoti. brilt. E. bread. In E. buckler J ON. E. feast of espousals. Gael. brocaly. bruskr and buskr. to pave. bryd-gutna. guma. to beg one's bread. peculiar. crew. brug. . a briole. bidsel. So in The Prov. then the marriage itself. groom (mab=:son). a rogue . piece of burnt clay. owned also propriate. briiths. . or brizo. corresponding or letter. of burial. Goth. briw. brood. a brig or priodor. a lump of bread briber. Dan. Hdcart. . A — A — . division of an army. collect bits of food. but to a paved road. bricou. to meet together.. Gael. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. daughheath. a quoit of stone. bryd-eale. . now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one.rough with brambles and bushes. Fr. bribe de pain. has briguer. which however is undoubtedly from brace. barren land priodas. and berweddu. brakes of high-grown ferns. pavement. brughiera. breve or brevis. consort with. served (Patois de Bray). w. priod-ferch. Brigade. AS. beaten way Dan. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something.

In the same way to strive is. — Beowulf. Brilliant. schateren. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey .D. loo BRIGAND lor. is easily understood. bracht. speech. It. to reservavit. inde squammatus. brak. briga. and to associate with them. Gall. representing a sudden noise. lay was sung. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. splendour. It. XafXTTpoQ. the grew high. moment. glamra. at a later period. tinnitus. — A A . OHG. . brebrigare. and. Flor. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers.pracht. clear. tuilahtaa. The Ir. in later times a robber or highway-man. and the E. tinnitum clarum movco. Swab. to ring. hell.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. Florio.dorem clarum reflecto. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . to glamr. Heo — song That AS. A strepere. to cry 'Schmid OE. to resound. 1654. squamma . frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. Bav. seems to be to exert force gar el area.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. willata. brcEhtin. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. to contend with another. Brigand. pugna.' The passage from the sense of a light. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag.Lat. Du. brigant. brigan. a sound. bray. splendour. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. himself to serve men of merit. show the origin of Lat. twinkling. clare lucens. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. cange has 'Veles. biartr. —Capgrave. and hence be explained glampi. a spark. to rove. In Fin. to shift for with care. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. — brigante. and diligence. See Brake. to rob. etincelle. and led it away. — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. Mid. the bench-notes resounded. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. secondarily.shine. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands. Owl and beorhtian. transparent. a small light pinnace pro. glitter. braid. AS. dine. They or brigantini. a brigantine. Schmeller. Gr. glamm. with respect either to sound or colour. to sound. also called briganders. kii:'a.' torum. from hall. malandrini. there are many armour. wilella. clang. riis ' — Chron. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. to shine. glbram. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . jurgia. Brigata. It. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. brawl. and. bragen. — — . on his — own account. that of Fr. splendens . manifest ON. to glitter. briga.clare ^tinniens.glampa. noise. rover either by sea or land. a noise. Goth. tumult. and secondly. praht. then. bright bearhtm. to piracy. tion. strife.' in Due. — Briganbriga. sound. to bend a bow It. 312. rixa. bryhtm. Wilista. The primary meaning of Sp. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. a glittering. shriek with laughter.— . schiteren. clarus. Beorktode bene sweg. clear sound. a pirate. in the first instance. combat. The E. — Brigantine. dine. . necessary business. bairhts. the gleeman's song. glir. brigare. and ner me hit iherde. to shine. brdgen. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. — Probably then to strive. tinkle. beorht. to make a loud noise. Xa/iTTii). outcry. 1351. Adelung. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. Lat.' The sense of strife or combat express. clangour. splcnornd de brigandine. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. It. brigare. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. — brigante. A. in the sense of a robber. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. Bright. kilistua. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. may play the pirate or thief at sea. brigandare. to cry. to strive for. — Due. From ON. clear. briegen. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. \oice. So G. Due. clear. bregar. labour.

gresiller. ter. to . The meaning of the Fr. noise made by meat in broiling.preni. rym^. Dief. vigorHal. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. excited. . komottaa. greDiet.— BRIM . to parch. In Fr. a streak. briller. chime). to roar. AS. an apron. Brimstone. broiled. barmr. dial. bramer. border. to crackle. Tutschek. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. to creak. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. burning stone. griller d'impatience. : ' — bone). A . frequently interchange. finds the Fr. brastlian. the heat of animals. have then in Fr. to resound. and 1. It. brdnnsten. . rugire (cervorum. lap. rugire. crackle . brommen. brissle. Rugere. also to reflect. Supp. Wtb. Kil. that the original meaning of the Sc. brand-krossottr. to roar. the sow is brimming.). strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. Sc. originally the lap folding over the breast. border. to glitter distance . bramar. breziller. striped or streaked. to glitter. Sw. It. tience. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. clangor tinniens. a rod. G. to sparkle. brezil. brinfire. crackle. a border. lip of a vessel. breziller. brumft. as in Langued. broil . duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. Hence with an initial s. Sc. sonitum edere bremen. bar. leonum). brimmen. Du. reecho. kimmaltaa. grisler. 754. to shimmer.D. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer.' d'etre marie . parched. FJ. ring. to shine. AS. ON. komista. earnestly . perent. . as in ing or earnest desire bramare. brame. Swiss Rom. sparkle. The expression is now confined to the sow. a borDu. 154. grdzil. on. briller. the eye-brow. hence the bosom. rut. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. — Rim. s. Rayn. Brem. greedily to covet Cot. to make bilbil). and corresponding to these. bryn. brillare. ous. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. barm-cloth or barmskin. bramire. griller). 1. fringe . — . uses bresoler (il bresole fir. briller (related to each other as OFr. whether of desire or anger. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. bremmen. breme. bremmen. Subo. brennistein. the meaning is transL' amour. brow of a hill. margin. to wish or covet. the lap or bosom. from brandr.ioTiviS acutus. brunft. bry7ie. to shake. os qui bresole. a long. Tresiller. Said of swine when in heat. to quaver with the voice.— Brinded. the verbs Flor. brisoler. to creak. to long for a thing. brullo. kajata. surface of the ocean. kimina. glit. Fr. Brindled. to twinkle. as of meat in broiling . border. furious. brant. — — — . brummen : de soge brummet. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. pMiller. burning. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. Prov. kiimottaa. shine. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. griller. E. to storm. coloured in stripes. fimbria) . of the eye. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. cross-barred in colour. from bringe. vattubryn. Closely connected is OE. as is the case also with Pl. with an initial br instead of gr.its vent in cries and roaring. or violent action. glisten. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer. Thus Lat. is used of raging. Streaked. grullo.) brimi. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. fringe (Lat. It. Lith. The identity of ON. bray as an ass bramire. der. 1 1 64. brummen. In the same way Sw. bresoler (Gloss. which seems identical with rim.' Elyot in Way. to sound deep or hollow. a stick. brandr and Fr. — — So Fr. as well as bl and gl. to shine. small gravel. we have brimthe Swiss Rom. brmdottr. to crackle. Langtoft. kommata. the heat of animals. the singing of Sodom — — . to glitter . brim Magy. to utter cries. spraing. fire. The E. gresiller. kimista. — g. the edge. breme. s. identical with passion. to make a crackling noise. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. ardere desiderio. brama. barm. ON. fierce. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage). post. to burn. grisser. brim. Fl. to broil. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. beam. to fret . ON. To Brim. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. voux. to shine. brame. ling noise and a sparkling light. lap of a garment . Brim. whence bilbil-goda (literally. (poet. bremas. bramar. Dan. sprainged. edge Pol.

a crum. to goad. ribrezzoso. . form bris. briota. a brooch. as. to turn up the point of anything. — in Due. Sp. the surf. apt to break. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. brocciare. Boh. to shiver for Sold or for fear. e. to crack. has under It. ' . whence may be explained the Sc. craw of a bird. a clasp. Commonly explained as from Fr. is called a birssy day. See Brand. a cold and windy mist or frost. Port. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. brijn (Kil. are used in the sense of brittle. a fragment. a stormy brimsea . . fantas'* tical. wine of a sharp. Fr. or the full • . Fr. rebrousser. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. an awl. Hal. — — . Zeuss. byrst. Salte sand is called brimsand. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). to roar. thick — A elastic hair. and forms on. brote. bronchus. Cot. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. 222. Fr. and. bringe traced through the brano.D. Bohem. borzos (struppig). birs. a bud. chest. Antiq. briocho. strong itself. trembling. The Pl. flames. brim. sprout. birse.). quick. bresk. coli. brindelles de balai. breaking out into growth. bros. brezza. Fr. bruckle. brisciare. brissle. to begin upon it. brittle. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. brog. saulmeure. to bud. Brine. to scorch. brocco. spricka. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. brim (poet. Russ.' Nat. brimme. b. to break. of astonishment. — bryme. brandello. Pectusculum. and Sc. Fr. expression. breidr. ON. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. Liquamen vel garum. ruffling. Fris. borstel.. Walach. to stitch. cK) the . like the Broad. reburrus. It. of E. Bristle. to spit. suddenly angry. brodden. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. Brisket.). as unripe fruits. Brocade. birssy. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. 'V^. eager. Russ. . is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. See To Brim. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. Bret. bricho (with the diminutives. as. brocchus. to set it a going. rebursiis. a morsel. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. brichet. brust.rcendij'i. spur. to broil. a brad or tack. or from that of a splinter or small fragment. sharp. a rod or twig. brissko). briota. a skewer. the surf. bruched (Fr. brddj Goth. crabbed. to spur. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. brickie. — A . brocher. borzen. broccare. to stick. flame. to burn. — . angry. lively. is to erect the hair. against the grain . Mid. Berri. from brande. a spit. setting the hair on end compare It. broche. a deluge. G. /3pE^m. Brym. . breast. from break. sprocco. to put one in a rage . britchet. a slip or sprig of an herb . Fr. the twigs of a besom. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. See Spread. hot-tempered. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. Brickie. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. to break. It. Then as the effect of shivering. brocco. birstle. ' breast. brusk. brocar. and hence. the brisket or . startling. brcit. bringue. to birstle. brin. Compare also E. a button broche. Alfr. brot. brimhliod. fiscbryne. bruskett. Sc. from AS. fragile. broca. brockle. a bud. brim. broc. prick with Sw. which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. brezzare. very salt brimi. a shoot or sprig. humorous. to thrust. Abroacli. emotions which produce it. braidsj ON. Lat. a morsel . harsh vin brusque. . borst.procio. smart taste. grim. p. a peg sbrocco. bristly . A similar relation may be observed between Sp. Prov. Da. brisk in taste. Swiss to stand out . i. to set up one's birse. It. brytan. Palsgr. birsle. sour. In the N. Sc. broccata. a rebours. brime. brusco. broca. brusque. brioshko. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. to spur. brittle. a bit . originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Prov.. Prov.g. It. brich. britar. Breeze been connected with the Sc. Dan. to broach a business. Gl. rash. Sw. aculeus. Formerly written brotil. a belly. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. as a noun. a projecting tooth It. as. fierce. . an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. Hence ribrezzare. sticking up . Du. or — . roar of the sea saltr. Ptg. Gr. stitch. NE. britar. Bret. Brisk. bryde. to break. rude. Brittle. to shoot. man's throat. sprouts. setting the hair on end. shoot. bros.'— Vita'abbatum S. Brooch. a stitch brocher. breaking of the waves brim sior. to stab Gael. Du.Lat. metaphorically. bringe. bryne. briser.

tumult broighleach. and AS. broc. stump. broighlich. here. Dan. brychau. brasbrasciuolare. and bord or bred. whence broccare. to On the other hand the Sp. parch. to instigate. piebald . Florio. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. speckled. broiled. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. a flake of snow sion. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. tori shows that. Cot. A badger. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. brouFr. noise. to crackle as a shell in the fire. storms. precisely analogous to the Sc. brizen. and w. tufted ornaments. briz. prasseln. frocadura. briefh. rustle. q. motes. the line of development has been something different. brasiller. from the white. — brissle. b?-od. — Fl. Gael. margin. Cot. a fallingThe sense has been out. border. brooked. Ptg. brasolare. Sc. a peg. or snag. borprick. brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). Broker. broukit. brindled. parti-coloured. a brouhaha. a prick. fundamental origin. brullare. or salted fish on coals. sparks E. brouda. Sc. age was termed a pricket. v.— B. or roast on the braise. brucach. houx. to crackle. Gael. Grisons brascla. brasiller. to scorch. brerd. knobby . Surrey in R. . broil. to burn. brod. The ON. a flock or Gael. braird. bruler. Brocket. To roast upon hot coals. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. embroidering.sound. Here to ornament with needle-work. initial . a point. brodio. Contracted from Fr. brustle. parti-coloured. to darn. to stud broccoso. a freckle. a brim. scorch. ciare. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. It. to spur. Fr. a freckle. brucilare. carbonado. broglio. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. forming to jumble. bordo. gresiller. birsle. bmsciare. with Sc. a mole. confound. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. freckled. broud. gold and silver. an edge. — — . hart of two years old. embroidery. B. AS. a quarrel. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. 103 embroidered. Bret. has grisser. Sp. Compare G. rinj'. It of br the Fr. border ornamented with silk. Hal. Icnotty. a b?-ustolare. trouble. to prick. brusler. kled breac. to streaked or speckled in the face. Fr. to broil. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. bj'oil. broil. speckled. broccato was used to signify stuff . or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. broder. bramowanie. onbryrdan.. . bram. to boss. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. W. From direct imitation of Brock. noisy. broice. shuffle. broc. to crackle. — Gower in It. brasuole. badger . ornamented with a raised pile. spotted. trouble. froco. Compare also AS. brocart. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. hurly-burlies. or It. grislement. brocco. point to an origin in Bret. spots. It. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. to parch or broil. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. So from Pol. Fr. to burn. grullo. parched. broccuto. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. a To Broil. a border ornamented with gold. a confused streaked face of the animal. bustling. a brecJi. of pointing out their latent defects. to crackle. brusuole. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. silkes-borda. prod. thread. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. agree in being the extremity of a thing. creak. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. sting. A fried or boiled steaks). to embroider. to knots or loops. brocach. atoms . and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case.tumultuous. brastlian. a border. The Bret. bordar. to crackle. frecSee Brawl. Thus brod. blusters. R. — The proper sense is that of Fr. the shoot of corn. — . ToBroider. brych. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. to embroider. streaked. bawling. Ihre has guU-bord. breard. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. E. find fault is accordingly recognised To in .. dar seems derived from borde. a badger. or glowing coals broged.

ODu. as. goods damaged by sea-water. an . trumpery. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. See Brackish. try .D. w. inspection. 38. Du. rejected. broiid. — . dirty. bredan. wrack-good. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. lack. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. hrak. The use sunburn. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. couratier. to sort goods . phlegm. . Sc. brumo. to hatch. . has exactly the force of G. refuse. brieden. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. Teutonic class : Du. the spawn of fishes. Per manus et old worthless horse. Fr. Pl. an outcast or rejected sheep. inspect. See Broth. brack-gut (Sanders). rejection Pol. screatio Junfus . glowing coals. from break. broen. sunburnt. to roast on the embers. brwd. The Langued. spittle. a cough Hal. : ' . And gart Backbiting be a brocour. faulty. make out. filth. the young of any animal .D. Adelung. raca. cherish. brack-gut. Bronze. mediationem quorundam J. Russ. find fault with. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. dial. — Fl. slaae vrag paa.— Lib. whnake. Jam. brak. to blame. on. ordure. cast Lith. reject. Fl. and as an adj. to emit sparks. designation is indkler. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. to copper. but from the primary sense of the It.D. to . to spit . Dan. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. mud. a makeln. blur. warm. racaille. It may be compared with It. brokoti. See Wreak. abbronzanchiare. 396. progeny of birds. G. brechen. burning. and to reject the damaged and unsound. in which sense the OHG. refuse Fr. analogous to Bohem. to scorch. bring eggs and spawn into active life. Abbronzare. and fishes . Bret. refuse brakowad. briiten. bronce. In those countries the term braker. bronze. refuse brakovat. tan. to garble. — a spark. sort. corrector. from makel. correctarius. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. want. Sp. G. Du. If to vomit . to be wanting. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. brut. wraken. embers to brund. term was correcfo^ir. which E. a broker. find fault with. hraki. — point out the faults. nounce unsound. vrage. e. merchandises de rebut G. Grisons brinzla. Pro v. embers. Alb. selection. to sort brakovanie. brot. bronzo. raquer. Tooke's Catherine. Pl. to criticise. Alb. a fault. abject. This word shows the same relation to It. to pro- to reject . S. brands. try out. refuse goods. brunds. braken. brasa. brokas. Kil. . OFr. Lat. criticise (makeln). — broeden. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. to sit on eggs. brydio. stain. Pl. refuse. cracker. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. with. damaged. . Commonly referred to the notion of warming. G. In the . It. hot. buy and sell by commission. bronze. fault censure. a breach or flaw. hot. brack. bracker. wreak. to sparkle. To blame mens ware. insects. brod. . brakyne. to brew. fermenting.D. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. keep warm. • . to reject. bric-a-brac. an operation performed over hot coals. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. brackefi.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. brae. to throw blame upon. refuse wares. embers. to — garble. vile. to pick and choose. To correct an exercise is to Lib. brid. brokers' goods. . brasa. wrak. bridde. Brood.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. to be hot. or brascla.— Breed. et A. whence the modern courtier. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. a brood . Prov. to nourish. to hatch G. i. damaged. Bronzare. in the sense of rejection. spittle . vile. fish-spawn broden. brass does to Sp. to hatch. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. bronze. matter of blame weak place. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. brod. ON. sbrinzlar. to braze. For the same reason the Kiittner. find fault — — — fuse matter. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. a chicken. braeck goed. pan metal. racher. tussis. On • tliis principle the G.— — . to pick. brak.

brosst. brad. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. grow into a bush. Gr. Gael. to use bruks. Sanscr. &c. G. Prov. . brow. bruitheati. bryn. from Goth. brukjan. strength Ir. Pl. . Bohem. to browse. from ripa. bhratrj Zend. breg. heath. brun. as rhododendrons.braubiti. brosses. brotar. broc. Brow. infusion. eye-lash . bruc. It. bud. The origin is a re. eye-lid. bruno. broth Brown. eye-brow.. chen. low The AS. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . brink. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. broo. riviera. shrub with leafless pointed edging. Cot. w. breg. juniper. . Fr. G. bushes. to sprout. rage. It is Brother. a spring. mettle. . or broken up . brouskaol. a hut or cottage It. broth. signifying twigs. brushbroccoli. brawdj Slavon. Bav. . plants composed of twigs. augen-braune. brwd. border. To digest. edge. thick bush brousta. Prov. pottage. Due. infusion the barley bree. bruithim. buds. may be connected with Russ. Russ. to browse. sprouts . broza.brons. kail brose. . A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E.brink. Sp. .spross. bank. on. Fr. laissent Domunculum. boiled . steam from heated bodies. broem bark. AS. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. borde. Fr. brucan. brodem. a sprout. hot. Dan. cabbage water. brlgh. . brass. broud. Sp. to bear patiently. branches. brio. brd. — exiit et heath. Manx broie. on. broieii. brouic. surDu. brus. strength. Gael. brue . broth is sometimes used . a river. Limousin broudi. sap. thairj w. bordel. broden. fabric consists. circuindedit cum familia. to scald. to spring . &c. brouet. or bushes and scrubby growths. briar. Ger. Tam de terrS. Brothel. breg. braew. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. brogues.D. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. brozia. &c. enjoy Goth. hovel. G. vigour. bruith. properly boiling water briihen. pour boiling water over. Ppim. to shoot. bntdien. Fr. face. the bubbling or springing up of water. edge. ceales briw. Bohem. heat explaining the Prov. a shore. grow brossa. bruddeln. t— Cot. brodo. sodden. or shoot. braun. eye-brow. briihe. a bud brous-koad. to boil. seethe. to roar. See Bramble. broth the ocean Sw. bros. shore . — . b7-un. . surface of Broth. It. braussa. in which brinnan. riviere. bruth. waves. Sc.' Due. — ' . of plants broust. thicket. OHG. bratrj Lat. fur Broom. (for brodem). broit. cia. and It. to burn. a derived from the boards. Commonly Teutonic. to boil. of which the variety of forms. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. bruach. brushbrothas) gives the OE. G. to border. G. to use. sprocco. AS. brpuster. and Slavonic families. &c. a shrub broust. iVlanx broogh. who is steaming with sweat. and Sc. bank. to murmur. eye-brow. spuma. brost. frucius. house of ill fame. brouches. to use. breh. a bruth. vigour. Du. heath. has briw.D. bank. Kil. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. verge. Gris. The softening down of the consonant bud. Fr. Gael. Wtb. . a confused noise of winds. 105 Brook. But the Walach. brouser. Russ. borda. bruceti. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. BROOK brook w. useful G. bros. to bubble up with noise. braces. to boil. to boil bruithe. a hill. juice of meat. shoots. margin. sense the Sc. juice of briars. brothas. a . as Fr. Gael. sordes seu strigmata young branch. rerum decoctarum. shoot. — . broccola. awl-plant. It. signifying low wet land (Brem. cabbage soup . a bud. brosses. sprout. broth brothaire. dumetum. a little . the colour of things burnt. brew . broca. forms appear related to the Ir. frater. bor. eye-lid. bruich. . brov. ale . brusmalt. brstiti. broi. Pol. dialects is very different. meal. brous. brudi. brow of a hill. bordeau. simmer from the murmuring AS. Roquef. bryii. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. Bret. Bret. pith. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. to Pl. Du. frui. brotar. brost. . bruich. perhaps burnt coloilr. Browse. brdtaj Gael. . bank. warmth ch'an. a source Gael. brabruach. brennen. sprot. and also border. Lat.) . BROWSE The diminutive cottage. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. brau. a sprig. bregh. Bohem. A — . browys. shore. spirit. brewis. a hill. shrubs. sprout. pfriemkraut. broeye. w. brocco. brouter. Mid. was originally used in the innocent sense of . brauwe. bree. sproc. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. bryn. The AS. heat. eat. 'Lzt. . OHG.— Overyssel Almanack. noise. Celtic. OFr. a caldron." Serv. Catalan brossa. eminence . eye-brow. protecting the eye. briu. bruscosd quam de arabili. hut. broth. a little house or cottage of timber. Here we find throughout the Romance. Serv. break out brewet. brst. . brmi. as small-pox. wood . .

brugir. brous. bruito. remnants of hay or fodder. brosse. rubbish. a brush. desbrisar. bruyere. as It. Fr. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. G. On the other hand. bud. and actually come in collision. a bud. — OE. Alexander. brushwood. rods. brisd. brMt. brico or brizo. briketo. brisar. bruit. Sp. Pm. blow burcar. bruiser. rubbish. NE. And that best is. bruzir. bruscia. . Fr. brist. to break. Lang. a shrub composed of small twigs . bris. a brush. insilio. and . a briser. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. orts. G. brosse. to break or burst. brise. Gael. appearin Goth. Pm. a brush . An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. Gael. bruscolo. borste. .o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. field. heath. a crum. Piedm. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. bris. brusc (Diet. wool-card. brist. coal See Breeze. flax-comb brossettes. borste. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. sordes. fragments. Pr. Poems. escousse. shock. brust. AS. brustia. britar. Beryn.). dust.). B?-usske. brista) or breaking out . Pr. ling or heath for brushes. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . and in the second place a besoiB. — Fr. brustid.— Palsgr. shoot brouskoad. broust. broza. briiis (in the pi. OFr. to break to bits . p. brusco. Bret. to crush. Brunt. ca7-bo>i. — those signifying a sprig. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. borste. Bruit. brustia. Sw. 174. Pr. Pr. bruire. Text Soc. A. shivers. but on whom it schall to brisen him. bruise exOFr. a brush . Diez. fasx . Fr. to strike the foot against an obstacle. Broach. . It. a bud or sprout Bret. broken. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. brikan. bross. 134. . brusca. and It. Hall in R. The Lat. to make a rumbling. . broustia. Fr. Fl. dust. and Piedm. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. To brush then would be to dust. brusca. brus.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. It. Piedm. mg Cat. biirste. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. * Brunt. That in all haste he wouli. —Fabyan. a brush . a brush . to stumble. modification of the same root which gives the E. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. brosst. brist j Port. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. seems named from burst(on. a noise. quisquilise. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. E. The Bav. bricalio. wool-card. to make brusshes on. a tuft of heath . break. In E. bushy ground. Wicliff. brusco. a blow. Prov. bruskr. brousso. Cot. into a multitude of points. briser. Castr. burs. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. a bristle. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. bross. brik. burt. 201. biirste. E. twig. brit. —Chaucer. Brush. See next article. Gael. . bris. brossa. brist. also a head-brush. wool-card. insultus. dust. a brush. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. irruo. a little brizal. effort. — a bush. wood composed OE. Prov. tuft of grass or hay. and also Brush. brusg. of twigs. brottcher. Gael.— — i. brossa. Palsgr. quasi twigs. Fr. or sodenly comyn' dust. brizeto. Prov. a horse-brush. bush. abroncar. a rumbling. bris. a flax comb. dust. Bav. Bruise. borste. bruis (sing. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. a bristle. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. Cot. an enmy. a bush of hair. brosst. . chips. to butt. brunt.). borste. twig. brous. K. ON. splinters. and sighid therewithal. OE. Brunt of a daunger. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. broza. E. bruscolo. to cleanse. rubbish. bruc. brossar. The same relation holds good between G. detergere . she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. Lang. a mote. Sw. a — — (Agea) said. borst. It. to break. Allit. Prov. a brush Swiss bruske. crum bit . this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. or shoot. to brush. britar. fescue . it schall be al Sw. crush. tremely. brysan. Port.

to wet Pol. very generally designated by the same puk. soft. Pref A. was called bucking the linen. buborek. 17th century. Pol. bubseti. a knock word. and Fr.tare. Formerly. Fr. a bubble. Cot. bubbola. Sc. to butt. Magy. bouk. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. a push. pup. rap. de la Floride. soft. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. blast or strike with the forehead. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . mieknad. of wind.lessiver. and then to other wild tumour Lith. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. . from which the ing the bleating of a goat. — .biiken j Svi. From an imita. colada. 1857.steep or soak. . watery bud. It. Bret. See Dupe. Pol. lye. to knock the type of anything round and swelling. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. to which in their language they call bou. to filter. bog-aske.derivation has been much discussed. Bret. bubBuck. boc. to soften . It. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow. to stick. . bub. buchen. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti. The natives of Florida. The place of such a 2. tuft. tender. to soften. buck-ashes. faire la lessive. Etym. tap . The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. the first wheal. Bohem.boukaat. as a buck rabbit. byge. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. to murmur. tender. from colar. bouc. bubiti. bokni. to soak. to a place used for the mouillir. the linen at buck. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. This bubette. . says Laudon. buquer. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. moist. blister.buchen.' Palsgr. bub.D. at a door. thunder gently . either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. pukkata. . bugd. wood. was called in Fr. a bubble . boucaner. top. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. or mok. as G. buerj It. . buquer. not so plentiful a commodity. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). the lower soak in lye. a. I. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. . Fr. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. also applied Una. to soak. to strain. Diet. buck-ashes. who resorted to the islands beichen. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. and exercised their cruelties prin. hump. mote. to butt. a fescue. bifbel. and as a verb. to bubble. Sp. It. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. Sp. or projecTo Buck. it is beuchen. the upper for coifee. drying of produce. The term bocan is still ap. BUBBLE bruschetta. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. to bump as a bittern. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. The male goat. Illust.wet Lat. The cipally on the Spaniards. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. plied in the W. to soften. Fin. The name. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe.— . bucking. hog dressed whole). caned' Hence those who established them. to soak foul linen before washing. Esthon. boil animals. In G. bucata. Gael. maban and baban. But see Bristle. boc. bube. . — — ' A : ' ' . when soap was tion is commonly taken. a ashes.byka. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. hump. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. bugada. Bohem. set of pirates in the spread. a hole. bubauti. bublati. w. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. A . They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. knock. bduclien. a steep for flax. erweichen. News. ac.-wtt miekki. different form. because bucare does not in Marsh). to Gael. — . soft. soft It. a to the male deer. is 1. w. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. The word was very generally Buccanier. lye. in which the flesh dish. 1586. Dan. a. moczyd. called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. bucaIndies. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. mokry. Fr. open lath-work. does not hold. to butt or jurr Dan. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. a bubble. designation of a knob. mollire. molle. bucquer. March 28. pokka7na. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. Magy. soft . bukke. from weich. to buck. bwch. and the bunch. boh.to allow a free current of air. Bubble. But the analogy nih-e (Hist.

rump of fowls . with which it was ornamented. Fr. to bud or bocla. Sw. stir. ble. probably from the notion of bubbling. bouprobably identical with inok. bucket Fl. w. no business to do that.Lat. to graft or bud trees. butzen. and weichen. from bo. call. Buck-bean. Russ. a bubble three thyngis. Dan. ein. explaining Fr. . buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. bug. bunch .pode. agreeing with Gael. II I'a feru desor I'escu. Budget. a fold ceilio. — . buckel. a buclder or shield budge. is to shrivel up. case of leather . bouton. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. swelling. Fr. bog and G. Port. Prov. stroke. bugnir. . G. The word is a ddyn. where the G. The dressed fur of lambs.) . Buckler. as in Fr. like a bean. bollire. bulla. Gael. no wheel bogeilio. the word w ' — . to 'soak. a navel. Bucolic. So on. bouk is a pail and with the dim. It. The Fr. boucle. to word. set of a plant in bulk. boiling. motus creber. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. Du. bogla. Prov. a cowherd. and of the Lat. A buckle or fastening for botch. a bud. call. boucler. a boy. scion. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. a dumpy gin. knob dwfr yn boglynu. loud Cot. hump. OFr. bucherame. bul. knock. with let. NE. a stump buckle up. Fr. knob . macero. Bav. Budge. a budget. inboachen. a short thick man. weichen. — . * Bud. a tuft. bullion. child. bouljein. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim. Cot. a shield. of a surface. boaLat. Swab. See Bulk. clasp of a book. bolgetta. fur. K. dim. push forwards. above mentioned. a ring. belonging to the calling of the chen. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. boqueranmis. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. a wallet. a little coffer or turgidus. bouger. bouge. of bouge. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. So throw itself into prominences andhoUows. boss. potz. built. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. or male of to boil . ' . butzen (Du. a . boglyn. Bret.). also a leather tuft . butzen. to stir. with a central boss. to line with fur. butzen K. bod.' Boccaccio. having a boss. ' . Fr. put. to budge. Fr. . boucle. The knob or projection formN. Hence quel. pulga. bod. botzen. a trough). It termination is lost. dint . Mid. Prov. bloquier. boach.goa. bloca. wallet.stumpy man. Sp. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. to poke. bulb. butt . w. bouclier. dinted.— . in the beginning of to pierce holes. to boss or swell out G. a budget.' And this sacrament bus have dial. become bochen.r//'. Fr. whom it is still much in use. thrust. protuberance. bulga. It. butz. It. Lat. Du. turgere buczendig. a curl. pwtio. imbuere./a. bloca. need. a boss. butze. Pol. * Buckle. the radical image seems to be a set plants. Fr. . water message. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. . bdden. seen in Hesse botz. a leathern sack. bedde. to thrust. to un bout d'homme.n. W. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. bougette. bolgia. to swell. a shoot. botzen. a servant. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. Mid. lump. This expression boglire. The entire train of thought is bucket. jSouKoXiKog. don't a baby). rabodS. crack.chissima. to pen cattle. bocla. — — . budge. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. bulka. a pustule bout. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. excrescence. to butt. ' . swelling. . pwt o Fr. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. brobrocchiere. clump. boccula. Bav. the root of the Slavonic words gran. It. Wtb. cattle. a small shallow and open tub.) as to soak. Dan. bump. — — . bukke-blad.t-le!L{ * Bud. bud butzen. words is converted into b. from Gr.poot.. buachazlle. mani. Bus. a boss. ornamental stud. prick in a target. Pied. bub. . the end or rise or bear out in the middle. soft. boucaran. goat's hoof. convexity.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. trunk of wood covered with leather. is doubtless fallacious.' Schm. OHG.' Hal. bo. In Lat. bougette. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. . weich. . stud. A water-plant with leaves and gille. were To Budge. skins pushit'. bulais daqui. bode. great pouch. bucolicus. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. pulga. bunch. bouter.. of bac. Behoves. a bump.anything short of its kind. noise . bucherare. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. sboge. male or botzen. pote. from bugr. Hardly identical with Fr. Bret. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu.may probably be explained by N. a pail or flowers.. gjeit-klauv. to move. To thrusting part of a long body. . boss of a shield. don't stir from hence. material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. weich. to boil. * Bucket. and the reference to It. blow.stuff. a buckle or protuberance. boulj. boucle. ON. call bo.

as Diez remarks. deadened. caupo. while in Sp. The children were playing in an oppocomer. buffet. bubiti.—Buffet. tastes. Lat. bufogni. bubaRuss. ' They rether puffed at him. Buffalo. Buff. smells . from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. 265. W. puff. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. from It. boo. bugle. Magy. scarecrow . bugs. buffare. also a G. bufHe. by metaphor. mingled with water. wauwau. le reste emplissant d'eau. —Boggart. Pl. from souffler. bubus. bumann. Gael. senses. to bellow . It. him but Boyd iugges. Sc. bubach. to blow . boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . A — Bug. The cry made to excite terror is then used. made to —Bugbear. often covering his E. a buffle or a bugle. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. buffa. to excite terror in Macleod. buffen. From buff! of terror. buffet. E. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. site The two — — iii. Lith. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . — Z. . and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. and in Fr. dial. buffetto. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. colour. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. human. blurt or puff with one's mouth. breath. Teet-bo. — La Crusca. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. bobaow. bau ! children.— Buflae. a skin. to marre often tasting it .BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. bouffer. dull sound. — retailing buffeter buffetier. sounds. rebuff. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. things in Jam. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Buffeter. Fr. to give benti. G. Lillo covering his head with his skirt.' perfield. It. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. a goblin). bufogni. bo ! an interj. for this purpose is very widely spread. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. From bulga. baubau. dausa. a side-board. a puff. cuff . thus be translated to tap. Fl. to signify an indefinite object of terror. dausinti. to blow souffleU. also the skin or heck of a buffe. Buff. Romola.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. or wild ox. Esthon. bouffer. a hobgoblin. tabernarius. bwg. Mid. buMagy. bolgetta. the buffe. It. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. boman. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. bw. duff^ dull. a dull BUG From 109 — A . Bufetarium. buivol. Lat. buffalo. the place whence the wine was drawn. a clap. Swiss baui. as wine that hath taken wind. of colours. wine may The verb in taverns. buffle-headed. Sc. to give a as of a blow. bauwi. btifetarius. buff leather. Buffoon. buffet. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. to a representation of his voice. to strike face to represent the unknown. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. often blown upon. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. — thence it has been transferred in E. botffon. to jest or sport. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. Limousin bobal. bw! It. Fr. word other cases. made by a person. buffle. Lith. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. Cot. soufflet. — — — Buffet. yar^aa. confused. Cot. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. leathern bucket. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. mumming. a jester. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. a In .' La Crusca. to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. to puff. A puff with — Fl.D. to beat. buffare. &c. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. or hath been Cot. Fr. stupid. The use of the exclamation children. w. Fr. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. to puff.D. A blow. Thus buffet would a tapster. bugbear. Fr. buffeteur.D. It. bolgia. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. Hence the E. a hollow sound. — Bogle./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . popo. a bugbear. either alone or with various terminations. Pl. as from Lith. a block-headed noddy. pulse . a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. buffer. een duffen toon. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. as emblematically making light of an object. buffets. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. to frighten . God's boast seemed feare children. a budget. air. bukow Ikow. to rePl. to blow. a cuff or buffet.

of pipes sewn on.loud noise. Fl. roo. Stalder bog. fette. 493. Bugle. earwig bau da grascha. boa-peep. roarHal. bug dung-beetle. pujalo.' In my time at horse is one apt to start. scarecrow . the black a maggot. It. (Spurrell). threatening. booggen. — — terror. of bugabo was given. and signifies also terror as name of an insect.— . Serv. Mundart. to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. a proud overbearing man pujat'. shepe and gootes. bug-bear. buffle. bug. oxen. Bug as a lord. and in child's Magy. bogk. 1551. Bug. bugle. fierce. terrifying ward. also a bug-bear. E. the word is lin) bbgge. Grisons bau. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. bwgwl. . boo. bukati. to roar Aasen. — — . used in the same sense. forSc. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. Lith. given in Chaucer. to take fright. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. Magy. Illyr. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. protuberant. vermin. i. bogle. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. is very common. coco. a beetle. bucula. bold.. xiv.Lat. a bug-bear. disgust. with more or less modification represents bau. W. bok. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. Fl. also a bug-bear. insect. Sw. tumble-bug. rose-bug. long. threatening. Swelling. any disgusting animal. buculus. Swiss booggen. saucy. a. It. then a horn for drinking. bogk. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. Manx boa. BUGLE Tentennino. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. Bogge. ghost. . iv. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take.. to bellow. superbire. bugbear. Swiss ing. Deut. the buggaboo w. pugalo. dial. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. especially to beetles or winged insects. . gad. also a baco-baco. tion of the beetle tribe. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. Lesachthal. Same as buffle. biignt. Bdronie. thus connected with bug. language any kind of insect. * 2. baco. an object of terror. Magy. — — ' . proud. and is Deutsch. buggabod). a silk-worm. Parolone. big. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. bugler. — . poggl. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. The w. a bugbear for children. a boogg. 2. insect. as Buffalo. swollen. to frighten scarecrow. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. hert. Bible. Mid. The final guttural of W. See The name terror). fear. . tion of the word signifying an object of 2.Fr. Chaucer. is the dim. provincially an insect. : no BUG . bau (Pureiglia. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Cheval de trombugti. Lett. larva (a bug-bear. mask ' . one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. paws the ground . bug-bear. great or bug words. quos what produces dread or disgust. An ornament of female dress condread. bugar. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — . and a boggarty ing. Grose. to origin in the expression bugs words. Hal. an insect. Sp. troll. blustering. I. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. high-sounding words. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. and in Lat. Russ. bauginti. pugaf. affright. Lap. bwg and E. bogil bo (e. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. worm. and bugle. to bellow. Hence bugle-horn. monster. Schmidt. to take bug. — boogg. according to Coles. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. boeuf sauvage. a goblin. as an object of dread. bwgar. The name of bug is — . well as the terrific object. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. bogil. sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. banian boube. to creeping things. high. bug-bear. bukashka. a bug-bear. A similar applica. Big. bobal. the Devil. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou.3uhtii&:. b'dgni. 3. il brutto Demonio. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. a misshapen person. buba. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. a rabme. beugler. to take fright. w. bbgni. a buffalo.

for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei.' Festus. Sp. turgeo bolnyd. bubble. swollen. whence bylja. . as well as is very variable. to spring. on. mass. bolle. in vessel. beuck. Mister. pouch builgeadh. Dan. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. snorting on a bulk. bauch. G. formed a farm. bulge or bilge. inhabit. In the representation of natural sounds. Bulge. bulg. Pr. projection. From till. bua. bulbe. bulbus. MHG. — — . the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bol. to break bulk. trunk. balg. blister. acervus. of E. belly. trunk. bulk or capacity of anything. boa. body. G. balg. 1388. . swollen OE. the womb. knob. bubbling up. . — — . bulgen. Othello. . . See Bulk. Lith. compare Da. — .' Cot. in bulk. Lat. (3oX|8oc. belly Cat. balgs. bulge or convex part of a cask.pulks.). bouge. straight will he 2. bladder. pod ON. ' . bulki. lump.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. puff. at riufa bulkann. bag. — — . Ptg. a stage or scaffold. and N. be protuberant. — . as it was merly written in English to bylle. tumeo. sedes. . The radical sense is shown in Russ. bale. Bourser. belly. the potato G. head . herd^ swarm pulkd. A — ' — Bulk. the capacity or burden of a ship. bukr. bol. or bear out as a full purse. in Sc. a tuberous or bulbous root . the position of liquids in the word In English. knobby. principal portion. a lump or mass. ON. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. bol. bolgetta. bolgan. to bol. . Pm. With these must probably be classed ON. hull of a ship. Palco. boss of a buckler. womb. to gather. bubble. or cargo of a ship. leather sack. lump. bauen. Hence e. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. it again. a prominence. bunch or projection. Gr. a water-bubble). a bubble. anything prominent. Boss^. body of a ship . jnake bulch. . vulva. dial. . knob.'— Cot. bolg. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. the body Du. Bulk. gebolgen. buk. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. bulked or bumped out. villa. He found a country fellow dead drunk. to bubble up Pol. has bulbuk. a dint in a metal . . belly. a bulb Du. hollow. and bulbukd. byli. Bolke or hepe. were a habitation. Bulch. buc. . bellows builgean. skin flayed whole. crowd. Mandeville. bolso. a round bulky body bwlgan. bwlg. balco. biilken. bugue. blister Manx bolg. habitaculum. wallet. The Walach. bulk is a partition of boards. and put it home. hold or bilge of a ship.' Fl. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. a bunch. Pm. bilge. a heap. the carcase. chest. To Build. swell. Gr. boss of shield. to raise a habitation. Melancholy. a. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. thorax buick. . the head of an onion. Jno. belly. . blow. OSw. the belly. bo. a bubble Gael. bug. to build. to belly out. belly van de kerche. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville.' Anat. to swell. Muratori. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb). as water beginning to boil bolg. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. a leathern sack or portmanteau. bullka. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. tumidus. balcone. ' . mass. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. belly. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. boss. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. of an inflated skin. belgja. pimple. or feminine termination gives Bav. pulkas. a straw corn-vessel. bulka. For the latter sense ' — My . ^ — . or of what is shaped like a bubble. swell. Pr. bubble {palgan tiisge. bed of a river. ne. skin of an animal. unevenness Sw. Lith. belgr. bolgia. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. bulgen. globule bolg-lhuingey. a. . a leather sack or budget Fr. van loock. bulbe. domicilium. OSw. I. bubble. Here stand behind this bulk.' Palsgr. a globe. PoXj3a. boss. Lett. See how this tode bolneth. bulk.— . belly Sw. Kil. nave or body of the church van 't schip. to bubble up. to blow. bulcke. bolle. It. skin bag. to undo the cargo. a protuberance. or.d. G. Bav. husk. Lat. to puff up bolginn. the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bole. . See bollekeii next article. bolgna. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. to swell. stuffed bag. pocket. bulne. bolnyn. ON. ball. Hal. — Bulb. swell. to throw out a convexity. bulle. bouk. cultivate. bulkaf. m um Placentiae. knot in thread. cumulus. Dan. boulge. blister. . trunk of the body. buhe. From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. The addition of a dim. bulwis. the contents of the hold. ' . w. . body of an animal.

bulla. dim. The bullfrog. is of a class with Pl. N. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. also a parFl.D. scarecrow. G. &c. blunt. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. a hobgoblin. Fr. bwla. boss. whence bullire. /SouWivu. a little fish nearly all head. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. Lith. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. bulk of a thing. bollon. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. Bullet. a seal. bole or trunk of a tree. boillon. . where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. W. large of its kind. Du. Pl. ON. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. bulke. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Terriculamentum. a bull. poltern. on the contrary. and vellon in Sp. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. lumpish. See Bowl. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. bolli. Eullrusli. bullern. 3. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. of boule. pimple.lle de fusil. Bullfrog.. to bellow. the matrix or die . a bulox polos. Du. bullebak. Dan. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. a hornet. from the use of the equivalent terms. Bully. beams or boards. signifying roaring. And The word bullerbak.. sloes. thick. It. from Lat. a blockhead. to tical with Sw. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. BulUiead. Fr. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. bouillon. a bull Swiss bullen. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug. bwbach. Gold or silver uncoined. bauli. Pm. from the noise. G. bal. leraures nocturni nigri. as a mill-dam or the like. a cow. Bullbeggar. it may be observed that a bullet in E. This word is used in several senses. The final element tergeist. pollach. a tadpole. bolli. poll-cheannach. and thence terror. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. the seal affixed to the document. i. penbwl. stamped money. a sight that frayHigins in Pr. elves. a bul-begger. Scot's Deso. any embossed work. See Billet.D. large. w. 2. A lace tree. a tadpole . a seal. round glass phial. a scare-bug. eth and frighteth. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. as It. Du. BuUiou. spirits. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. ba. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. bellocier. whence Mod. biitzibau. bulle. balgeting. A papal rescript. bullocks. which may probably be the origin of the name. Du. but is more probably iden- palchetto. many to protuberant objects.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. bubble. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. from the Lat. stud. bulla. Sp. bolos Fr. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. as the ornanails. pwl. witches. bullos. to seal. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. bulk. assito. a framework of balks.D. bouillon. in N. also of the tadpole or young frog. Gael.. bulderen. boss or stud. a wasp. bwlas. poli-cheannan. a stud. stamp. baula. boulct.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. brass-headed nail . a noisy violent fellow. It.' do not go by the dangerous water. Bullace. — Fl. lumpheaded . Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. to emboss . tition of deals instead of a wall.Gr. I. — — Bull. The male W. a beam or rafter. as geting. is said to make a loud bellowing noise. is called a ball. polten. coarse. G. blister. in the sense of base metal. w. bellow.'— ' Palsgr. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. bollar. from Fr. urchens. 2. billoti in Fr. billon.Fris. stupid . b2iggaboo. a bowl. however. of Witchcr. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl.. dial. bolla. bugbear. stud. G. bulloi. from baula. a hobgoblin. bollos de relieve. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. hhint. of the ox kind. to bubble. as in E. Bret. bietebau. — A tition in a ship. The wild plum. it is boulet de canon. to boil. bullus. Cot. any great-headed or studded nail. embossed work.

a stage. Bully.D. 14. — — plate d'argent. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. The 27 Ed. biihne. a floor. clamour. Etym. ierd-boeyme. the soil. propugnaculum. Kil.' Stat. — bombam?nen. Du. 'lega. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. minari verbulderen. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. G. buller-brook. G. blaterare. is called bumping or bells. The decried coin. To bully is to bluster.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. bottom. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. polterer. c. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. to drum Lat. Bailey. 2. D. buller-bak.' ' mettre au billon. A. The Stat. AS. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt.' reals of standard currency. to make a droning Du. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait. but now is the central part of the town. Thus ' ble. bolderen. bommele. Du. sound. a blunderhead. bulderen. a bumble-. provides. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. debacchari. ON. It. 4 Hen. buller-jaan (bully. un faux brave. c. a noisy blustering fellow. Fris. Fris. IV. 1305. ierd-beame.' Again. III. Kil. Kiittner. buene. Philip le Bel in Due.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. from boden. Bum-bailiff. Hal. to . ^i^/«. by corruption boulevart. Bum. violent overbearing person. 1687).d. 9 E. BULLY with which coins were stamped. 2. Fr. bustle. honunele. poltem.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. on the other hand. perturbare saevis dictis. St. is bullion — A — buller. violent. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. — Bump. IIL st. 10. Du.' agger. primarily the ramparts of a town.. buller-bas.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. Sw.the ramparts. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . or a humblebee. beat a — Hal. ^Bully-rook. a. hum. boulevard. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. buller-bas. G. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat. bomtnen. intonare.. Hence bom and ban. scaffold. agrees with e. &c. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. bol-werck. — Boom. The Sw. blunder-buss. a boisterous. bombilare.D. For bottom. to terrify by noise and clamour. blunder-buss. boisterous fellow. bodem. ground. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. and porter au billon. boene. — Bumto . Hence — . argentum and silver. to make a noise . From the notion of a humming. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. bottn. botm. To bum. block-werck. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. To bum. to dun. c. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. droning.' for the purpose of exchange. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . To Bum. bastion. up was termed monnaie de billon. or work of defence. Miege in Hal.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. vallum. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus. legaggio di metallo. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. provides. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. furious man. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl. then in general a rampart. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. a hectoring. resonare. John). 2. baluarte. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. The cry of the bittern. noise. Bully-rock.

E. S. Sc. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Pr. It. botn. passes Sw. Pm. Bung^. — round fruit. bugnet. to bang down. from knock) It. E. . stubble Manx bun. Holland and Flanders. a knock. Bang sen. to bang ON. a heap. a boil or blain. —Bunny. . On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. as we have seen E. — — Bun. bunan. bugno. See Bunch. Hal. bonuach. clown. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. cluster. trunk. bun. bannock. a heap Wall. bottom. boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. Probably from bump. bulscha. Pl. awkward clown. bans. . A clumsy. round mass of anything. bunke. .' Bun. a heap OSw. a lump on the foot bunny. any round knob or bunch. a purse . bune or boon. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. are dim. especially girls. bunkc. Manx bonkan. protuberance. bu<rnone. forms. Hal. Probably for bun-boot. tundo. Bunch. bun eich. bonge. binge. a rabbit. to strike so as to give a dull sound. 1. . bum-boot. . Pm. dial. bugno. Bony. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G.' Palsgr. bull. .' he fell with a bang. dial. bunka.-^Fl. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. Hence E. to swell out E. To bam. the tail of a hare. bunken. seems to unite Gael. truss E. He buncheth me and beateth me.. applied to young persons. Bumsen. pompon. root. stump. bunsen. bongie. stem or base. the Pr. and related with ON. to . Bunfeaman (stump-tail). a hump. Du.! . But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. should probably be a short tail. Radically identical with Dan. Dan. a hemp-stalk. a bag or sack. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff.. a large . . bunga. to beat. Pl. a knob. bottom. a tail (Macleod). bugnone. bun with ON.pummel. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. banga. Dan. root. while bulch was traced through Gris. Hal. See Boss. stump. gibbus. strapping. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. any round knob or bunch. a swelling. buns. lungeous. clumsy. A Du. stock. Fr. a bump. a bowl P1. a bunch. a dried hemp-stalk. Bums it's hit. pwmpio. pumpurras. The word is probably to be explained from Gael. il me pousse. — — Bun. bmidt. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. bump. bignet. a boil (punkos bot. ! — knocking. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Hal. mto Sp. signifying one who does things in a thumping. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. Moor. Bun. hdk passing and E. and signifies consequently a mass. an old stump of a horse.D. banke. a boss Lith. a knob . Bumboat. a dry No . a Sp. — Marine Diet. E. Lang. Thus e.D. knochen. pumpa. gibber. pompette. or to the mass by which it is given. as in other cases. callus. one ever saw the word in that shape. butt end. a pumpion or gourd. calamus. Bunch. boi7ieog. a. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a knob. bunki. bon. stock.D. poumpi. to ' . bunny. Dunchyn or bunchyn. strike E. hay stubble . a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. — stalk . large. He fult dat et bunsede. Pm. . Bunk. Bumpkin. noise. &c. a knotty stick) Sw. bumsen. stubble of beans. lenten loaves. OSw. a rabbit. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. throw down with a bang. bulse. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee. bolsa. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. Related on the one side to Pl. bamgetroffen. poumpido. to knock . Fl. Li cake. a bunch Magy. Bunewand.). H. — — — — ' — knock. foundation w. to beat. knob or heap. bungersome. bundle. . a. nor would it concern the public if he did. a into Dan. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. Suffolk bonnka. w. Then. bunch— Hal. a bud. .— Bunnion. bulto. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. explaining E. Again. knuckles. Forby.— Pr.^Cot. to thump. Fr. See Bounce. Ir. blain. or grete knobbe. abrupt manbuns-wise. bund. — — de dor bunsen. a round mass . pwmpl. Roding. a button. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. ner.S. bung. a swelling from a blow. . 114 BUMBOAT Bun. lump. bmike.P. bunnion. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . bunt. a pocket Sw. pwmp. . to . awkward. Kyx or bunne. Gael. a heap. . Sc. bottom bun feoir. Gael. bunga. Bump. a wallet. Daal bu7iseti. w. bumtel. so the form btmk. to bang. Mrs Baker.D. a person employed to dun one for a debt. from bunsen. inconsiderately. a heap or cluster. stalk. bonnock.

bunsen. to hum. gyves. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. So Du. generally known as the material of which bud. E. Bunny. a drum . with the head. in is Fr. Fl. to knock. The Magy. So in Pol. Palsgr. racket. OFr. Kil. or used as a receptacle for papers. to cobble. borboUar. to botch. G. sprig. 202. to hum. a cork. to knock. bangla. on. loosed from bonds. OFr. B. bondon. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. noise. clumsy performance. bondelj bundell. the middle part of it. especially in wood. bourion. ghebundte. and now more Bailey. dark grey bura. bonde. Hal. the loose open grow big about or gross. bundel. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. Pl. the bung of a barrel Lim. punishments for prisoners. bote. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. to gingle. — — . biirde. To do anything awk- wardly. See Bourdon. Sp. driving in the bung. tinker . to work ineffectually. bundle. klempern. Compare G. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. Sp. on. . dial. an anchor buoy. To bunt. The belly or hollow of a sail. buret. reddish brown. buove. bang. bonde. buret. boj. to push with the head del. AS. a boye. ho-tapp. is originally a wisp or bunch . Sw. Cat. B. the young cloth used for sifting flour. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. To Bunt. Muratori. from beran. and Du. bommen. See Barbarous. properly a Burgundian helmet. — . bove. shove . banga. bon. to push ghebondte. Sw. Fr.' Festus in Diez. tinkle. dicimus rufum. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. See Bun. are from bouscfie. banghagr. It. — — To Bungle. p. Burly. byrthen. a bungler. and E. stocks or such OSw.— . bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. a bunch Burbulas. a wisp of hay or straw. fetters. bundt. bang. klimpem. Biu'geon. bou^e. dark. G. Johansen. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. Du. . racket . a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. OG. would be the earliest float for an anchor. Lat. boei. a bung. the stopper of a cask). A Dan. to float. Burden. knocking. to strum on an instrument. to in to stop the hole. Burganet. dial. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. knocking. la Borgonota. Russ. to push. bangla. to stnmi on an instrument. burion. Prov. bourguignote. boucher. a sort of helmet. to Somerset is to sift. tapp (whence tceppa. fascis. bond. to stop. do a thing bunglingly. bolting-cloth. * Buoy. was formerly pronounced buro. The Italian buio. . bummle. to kick. contignatio. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. To burgeon. to hum. colligatio. tap. Sp. bounta. Rietz. halm-tapp. a botch. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. The Fr. bondeau. unskilful working. clogs. Fr. and the Sw. stilmpern. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. AS. something bound together (Mrs Baker). to gingle.D. of a song. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. bungande. stiimpeln. bondir. . that the primitive meaning of shackle . and van t' vat. the float of an bundle. A load. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . borgonota. The word is flags are made. bindini. Burden. bourgeon. Fr. to bungle. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. or putting forth of a vine. bongun. A bubble. a bunch. N. Prov. boil or bubble up. Banff. Bung of a tonne or Lith. Cot. bimge. whence bunting. to shove. rumble as the bowels. bondel-loos. bongani. to bud forth. and bomme. a water bubble made by rain. guggle as water. Bunting. To bunt in Burgundian fashion.punt. to stop. to bolt meal. — btiruii. anchor or of a net boyar. boya. bunta. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. Bung. to resound. bouche. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. to bear. — Bureau. bag to catch the wind. See Borel. Bundle. bury. knock. hence the name would seem to have been boundica. russet. byndel. shackles. Burble. to pype. or tuft. Fr. Sp. burboloti. bouchon. . bourjon. coassatio et Du. working in wood (especially with an axe). impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. modem bummle. Bunt. ' — work . the noise of drums. The stopper for the hole in a boia. Sw. also a piinple in the face. Bret. however. buie. whence in bure.Fris. bui. to work at carpentry bangan.

56. to polish. spring-water bumach. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. pur (see Burgeon). Burryn. Fl. It. j. ^ttsa. born. a fountain. to polish helmets. a wine skin. an edge. brunir. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. robber. Fl. language of folly or ridicule. to sharpen. . a jest. a prominent eye borracka. imitation of the sound of bubbling water. borni. to bud . BURNISH i5«r/. purling. as Diefenbach bud. briis^. OE. abourioner. as in cousteau. lorra. swell up or strout out. is an Thus G. to roar 5. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. brustolare. brima. to roar. &c. N. which has given much trouble to etymologists. from bryii. broil. a well. Bav. Cot. Bouffer. like straw or small . to swell oneself out as birds borras. Fr. watery. repartee .. singe or scorch with fire. — . Fr. — Han to bruser op. Pren7ien. A burl. burgeois. to bouronna. ii6 BURGESS Gael. protuberance. to burgen or wax big. Swiss Rom. toast. ^Notk.. to roar. A — — . Bav. In the manu. to grind on a whetstone. borr.latus rei angulatas talikoincn.or bubbling up.. thence. Castrais bourril. . bruzir. The primary origin of the word. G. water. OE. roguing beggars. burn. Nat. with Dan. to sharpen on a whetstone. like. See under Bore. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. and the Burin. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. Schm. bears. leo Fin. Burn. bunch. burle of cloth. Burly. sbornoi.— . to fiy. burren. Probably a modifica. in Schm. See Burr. and OG. burgi latro. a bladder. — — . As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. mockery. brimmen. borracka. lerre. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. purrata. explaining the E. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. ridicule. to bourda. tahko. brinnen or Also ein roar. fire. brun. a bubble to spring as water. to murmur.— Pr. become big and proud. to ridicule. jest of. Bestiary. a lie. explaining Sp. to puff up borr^ . laer. Gael. to hum. to To Bum. Hence Bridel. as the / in purl. burlare. to tell lies. Compare also Piedm. to puff. — — . to ridicule. the er is a dresser of cloth. a spring a robber. it of the knots. In the same way ON. brunna. Burlesque. the J in OFr. bruse. a blaze. Todd. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. to roar. schleiffen. borrelen. de Vaud. knob. purra.sharpen. the roaring surge of the — — — . brunnr. See Berough. sicut sound. he rustle. boiirre. angular . the flocks. to make a So from Fin. brustle. surge or dashing of the sea .j'own. to burn. Lang. It. brausen. big. Swiss Rom. Probably. Bret. from the roaring sound of flame. Sw. a whetstone. Burgher. From Fr.bryna. to have acquired the sense of polishing. bourd. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. as of suggests. dial. occupying much space. swelling borr-shuil. brandung. bud or sprout forth. ON. Burgess. bururus. is connected with brim. Burgh. Walach. sidiary element. See Burgeon. to effervesce.). A legal term from the Lat. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. crackle wood in burning Hal. brase. brim or edge of anything.). Limousin bourdo. borujon. Supp. brusler being a faulty spelling.. taunt. Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. — . bouril. a bud. It is probable indeed that Fr. Burler. ends of thread. Sw. Fr. brinii. So also Sw. and the Burnish. to rub. like the wind in trees. Prov. de Vaud.). Pr. brinna. flocks. OFr. It. tumentum. the word seems Pm. warbling. bourou. ends of thread. From the same root E. and Dan. . embraser. a margin. The in. joking.ireui£r:e. boura. ample of polishing metal. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. brasa. fires up. to roar (as lions. Goth. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. Dief. brunnen. to swell with pride. G. to surge. E. is termed burling. Antiq. to roar. grancelli. OFr. from Lat. to swell. to Gael. bururus. blow. burly. . bremmen.. a gurgling ^. brook. barrel.' Cot. brynsten. tion of the root which gave the OE. Lang. an &c. a bubble. burgen. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. a knob. to burn. Burglar. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. a jest. to give an edge to. Sp. a purling hiwe brennen. 122. to set on fire. sea. The Gael. burgensis.' a jibe. with little iron nippers called burling irons. compared with G. ' rugiens. has also borr. Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. Pm. to polish. tahkoa. — — . i5«r4 biiirte. must be explained on the same principle from G. pressa puret. buirleadh.Ps. brAler. bourglairs. condemnentur morti. boure.

' The same word with burgh. moss. to stuff. borsa. dial. keep. britar. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. This word seems safety. briser. The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. from whence we pass through Sp. and met. whirr. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. shuffling. brittle. bourrer. cwning-gaer. a purse. Jam. blurra. ON. Dan. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. bourlet. and spelling. brisdeach. Du. peluca to Fr. brest. beorgan.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. borsa. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. E. hair. casting bullets. any rapid whirling biarga. 225. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. dial. swell. beurs. borsia. a sepulchre. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. a port. an annular swelling. skin. bergen. ptcrren. &c. prsnuti. Brun on bane. I. preserve. makes the disbursements of the college. 2. bris. also all such stuff as hay. shales. a barn or cupboard.' Harris in Todd. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. as it is still pronounced in N. borrow. foretell great storms at 3. brico. borre. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes. To Bury. Shelter. bourse. bourre. Burr. It. Beowulf. buscha. AS. some people in pronouncing the letter r. shearing of cloth. Swiss burren. brist. the — — castle or fortress. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. to mutter Sw. brickie. 5150. byrsa. to hide. bristeach. root borr. as from Sp. whirr and burr. berstan. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Bursar. chips or anything else Fl. coo. bersten. of a body hurled through the air. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. purr. Burr is related to buzz as protect. brista. Fr. preserve. burgisli. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . — Translated by Kemble. brit.' edge grew weak. a harness or collar maker) . the officer who bears the purse. byrgan. OHG. as for the protection of a child's head. mentioned under Burgeon. briketo. to bury . Tha3t sio ecg gewdc.Lat. straw. bur. its own protection. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. that birds make their nests with. idiom if 4. ber•whirr to whizz. bres- — tan. brizeto. karborre. brown. to buzz. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. Burser. when they spring So in W. to save. brist. explained E. birr. shelter. from Fr. Sw. byrgels. tomb. brisd. — Clare. to burst. whence Kil. a. barza. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. A rabbit burmotion. &c. Port. force. husks. The root forms brik. Hal. impetus. bolsa to It. It. signifying protrude. bourrelet. bristen. to break. a wallet or scrip. verbergen. ON. Burial. brittle. Sw. caer is a — — — ' ' : . . -Grisons bulscha. a rabbit burrow. brast. In OE. fortify. to hide . AS. i5(7&a. g. G. a morsel. and thence flocks 'of wool. of England. an exchange. ultimately resting on the Gael. burial place. a purse. Gael. Burse. save. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . bur. any kind of quilting or stuffing. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. birgan. Hence Fr. Fr. also ' any such trash as chaff. Mid. . byrstan. brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. Cot. Burrow. Fris. as in Northumberland. to P'air. iii. leather. burre. Burse. bris. OHG. To Burst..' Matrimonial Vanity borough. pipaa. birigean. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. S w. ' BURR AS. bolgia. byrigels. be more in accordance with AS. but it is more probably a development of It. briso. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. Sexy. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. -burse. borra. appears under the Lang. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. bourse. and. . burra. a place of defence. brjota. borra. byrgen. Du. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. See Bulge. cover. Compare also OE. G. brokil and brotil. a pad. ' ' — — burren. In a met. With a slightly different ghen. See Burgeon. break . stuffing. from AS. perruque. borre. Fr. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. talk fast and indistinctly.— .

So from Fr. wisp. . the deponent form of which is represented by the E. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. bussellus. bosc. oneself. . mount. —Busk. in the For Skirnis . and from the Fr. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. bosch (a diminutive ?). Layamon. -idis. ' . dead. OFr. busse. induere vestes . and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. a hump. bousche. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. for at buasc. bush. a little box Dan. Brunne. signifying to entomb. buxida. a tuft. The primary sense of hair . bundle * Buskin. Thus Froister . fiast. . Du. boucher. 410.P. Mid. AS. See Box. G. the past participle of the same verb bua. we have Fr. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. See Bust. a wisp. berghen. bua.' The buskin is said Bret. defence. OFr. diminutives. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. bustula. to sepulchre. ' . Brunne. to keep. roquies. besom). preserve. buxula. a grove bosch van haer. to swell. . a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. is thus accounted for. il fut couch6 l^jkema). ch). whente beorg. from the ON.) to hide in the ground. borghen. Ptg. at bua sig. to dress.fiasc. to bend one's steps. borcegui. a box. ' . which would later have truast. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. bulge. rad. BUSH hreaw. condere. to bow. biichse. AS. 'at bua sik. brake. busken. boisseau. a -tavern bush. Le roy Richard mort. Sibriht that I of told. bosta. bunch. And her ful sone tuft. bousIn the other copy ser. boissa. verb. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. ' —P.Lat. a tuft. buskr. Malberg. and we actually find bushel. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. The radical idea is seen in Goth. Du. to enclose in a case or box. van wijnbesien. bausen.Lat. It. Sw. to turn. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. the land. sur une litifere. The word frequency with which to busk is used. box wood to bush. Fris. make ready.-^Bushel. a corpse). hunch Du. a bush. foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. or the like. a bunch. hjul-bosse. basse. to stop.' sheath. Harold G. barst.' a box. basse. and he cites wisp bauschen. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bundle. bossida. aheap of stones. bussare. then a tuft Sp. whence bouchon. bush. to bury. a been written buasc. the idea of knocking. at buast. a box for measuring corn. a gun biichse.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. barsc in Heimskringla. Bush. bulk. and thence Mid. bramble. knot. a bundle. boxta. cluster. Prov. bos. Gr. bairgan. whence at bua sik. borseof trees. ' . a bunch of twigs. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. bustellus. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. To prepare. bossen. gave Lat. brodiquin. buxta. truasc. boistel. thicket of thorns . beorgan. a box. that the lend had lorn thorn. Thence byrigean. Fr. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia.gur bidst austur um EySascog.— ' ii8 {chreo. tuft. to direct one's course towards. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. a tuft of hair. as synonymous with to inake one boun. Sc. bussel. to prepare. tow. a bush. grapes. To Busk. bo7ich (Fr. lump. protect . from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. thicket {buski. It. Sir Tristram. abdere. to dress. In to Brutaine. a clot of phlegm sart. boiste. Du. to forest of Eyda. and not directly (as Du. apparently a secondary verb. as boun is simply buinn. or — Busk. occultare K. : — . in OE. They busked and malced them boun. .boisteau.' The word is explained by — — . . busk. a tuft guini. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. the Moors and of Morocco. 2. R. qualster-boscken. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. a rampart. burial mound. bouche. bousse. clusprobably Morocco leather. a troop. brodequin tout noir. ieorh. projection. Bush. buysschen. iriCtf -ifoe. Bouchet. The bone in a woman's stays.

cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. bulk. windbutsch. Lindenbr. and by transposition morchequi. smack. mohedairova. bussen.pjik. 1372. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. a bush. Walach. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. a large cljest or particular applibox. worn to make the body straight . betarda. basiuin. sera.' ON. pussa. busch. To hurry or make a great B. busto. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. buta. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. also a flagon. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. — hardly be distinct from Fr. a mouth. body of a woman's dress It. With respect to bust. Fr. 22. AS. mouth. bruskras well as buskr. a tree. The proceedings of Parliament. a kiss of reverence. the point of a lance. A A busquer (Sigart). 7o\. mogangas from gonj. bus and Pol. snout. btcc. a blow. and also a sounding blow. Bustard.Lat. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow. or avutarda. lump. lips. 1555.> Also written buskle. signifying trunk of a the body. Fl. a boat or small vessel . says. 2l box. bus. an affair. buc. — . Edrtst. bnist. a Mid. besongne. stump. kupata. outard. borcegui. Prov. Sp. kiss. B. Busk. 2. body of a man. small. ship Sp. stem. I. putschen. bussa. from jnund. a bunch of flowers . also a It. ON. mouth. crack . — Thus we should have mocherqui. buc. of a doublet. Fr. body. Buss. ViM. Port. a bulk or trunk without a head. Nained from Proximse iis zia. a sleeveless truss or doublet. body of garment. A great sluggish fowl. Lang. Busy. stir. lip. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. stump.' Plin. the body without arms busque. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. trunk of Cot. Business. ' BUSY 2. beezig. made stiff. body without arms and legs. or Cherqui. hipista. ottarda. abutarda. See Boss. brostia as well as bostia. and then with avis again prefixed.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. trunk. mosequin. Hal. . bysgje. Fris. otarda. bist. an ostrich. I. kiss. a fishing vessel. Bav. especially of a woman's dress. Sw. to make use of. a kiss. busq. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . vessel employed in the herring fishery. bysgian. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. Gael. a bust. Namur — Champagne Fr. I bustle. sunt quas Hispania aves . bu. thick end. morsequi. cata — . Cot. busc. bukr. 119 bi{tr. Rouchi. busy. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. bacio. Busitiess :c3iVi . — — — — It is like the smouldering. outarde. chest. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. busch. Fr. business. ON. its slowness of flight. Bust. avuDiez. body.D.). busta. bust. representing a blow. ' bistardej It. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). Prov. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. a kiss. Fr. inde discurro et operosus sum. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. occupied bezigen. love gestures. fe^a. employment bisgan. Pol. BUSS Dozy from Arab. to occupy.— . to knock . the breast. biist. bucha. Box. butz. bisgung. — clattering about. a busk. body . trunk. So in Fin. buquer. Bust. and supposes that the common Arab. to make a splash in the water. The Prov. as in ON. work. On the other hand. These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. brusc. lip. A wisp. buyse. log . the trunk. plated body or other quilted thing. austarda. as in moharra from harbe. in Diaz Gris. mons. also a busk. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. forest. a blow. tuft. Xerqui. statue of the upper part of Fr. bust. knock. I go strepo) . baiser. Cat. busche. Prov. Swiss butschen. utarda. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. The form brust. Sp. a log. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. forms morseqiiill. 10. box. geidha. of the human body (Grandg. would explain the G. occupation. To Bustle.bezig. but Dozy cites the OldPtg. . Sp. beso. tarda. the long. — — difications of the same word. putta. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Bulch.d. a. a projection. brut. a great billet Cot. knock. So Wes- terwald munds. Comp. to bustle. bisegung. a kiss. a ship of some size. besoigAe. abotarda. trunk of a tree. ^A. Hence probably au-tarda. Lat. a stroke of wind. buc. or chest in which the vitals are contained. to Swab. bustla. but. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. buz. arbor ramis trunGloss. Du. a backstock. biseg. bus. bisg.

bounds of. Fr. bute. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. ways. Lang. If that where now we should compiler. G. collection of casks. (children) boc. beccaro. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. the principal apartment. . those in beccaio. ont jhi^ton. bag made of the entire skin of an animal._ bitten j biiten door. tinction between but. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. — we acle for liquors. and the real origin of the and within . calf of the ' say. the belly. a budget. Fr.streets. and with It. botte. But It. we find ben. but Benjamin has a five-fold But. the servant in charge of the original object. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. Where at an earthen jar . beta. bodifie. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. moreover.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. which the word corresponds to the Fr. ' There is leathern bottle. my is called the adversative use of but. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. the store of ten. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. a butcher . the full expres. Sp. But In Sc. skin-bag. and bot. It. then hoUow trunk. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. Sp. beyond the Piedm. without. add. As a conjunction but is in every portion. Sp. Coutume d'Alost in Diet.' Thus Chaucer says.' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. a leathern bag.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. also a hollow vessel . the jug and in E. the body of an animal. butan ce. the bottles. Whatever is in addition to Butler. are. slaughter-house. original sense of without.The Sp. Ben-house. of the wine and drink. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. biitait slaughterer of goats . by the mode in which he is treated. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. Butler. Buttery. a goat. a baiTel . is put in a class by himself. that which would be translated by Fr. boucher. belly. binnan. rumpf. viz. butan. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. sup- meat and drink. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. The E. . to-boot. bol. bitlga. Fr. So in Italian from becco. bout. without the house kept in bottles. without buiten-man. without punishment . besides that . bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. bountifully. Here the but implies the existence of an. bole of a tree. but one thing. in addition. AS. bola. But when will you pay it ? the belly. boccino. young mais. a butchery. without care. bouteillier. botija. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. Butt. is well explained by Tooke. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. trunk. bag.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. or what in in charge of the pantry. the body of a tree or of a man. bhcciero. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. from as. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . beccaria. from boc. without law. body of a shirt w. ox. bisgung. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. bitten dai. outside that moreover. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. OFr. be out. bous. — . gives at least two pounds sterling.' there is really a negation to be supplied. the name must have arisen before the within. hull of a ship. properly a butan wite. barriga. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. Tooke's dis. the Perhaps besogne — . the precise correlative of but. Butcher. similar train of thought is seen in ON. A A .probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. ' Besides all that. equivalent of AS. boteria. viz. a wooden cask. a bottle. bouz. buta.' — — ' . mais. the mouth). bochier. boquier. bolgia. except.jamin. calf. earthen which the debtor has adverted. a butcher. hollow case. large barrel.' ' write. the present day we should say. wooden receptthing to be done. Lang. able. Wall. as Pantler. a barrel. a goat (and not besides . rotundity of the body. a cask. bocin. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. "PLT) . Du. being wholly unten. belly.in which his brethren are included. belly. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. the trunk or body of an animal. botilla. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. a small winebag. Prov. an outlaw from bouche. bolr.

a stroke di animal. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. or person Schmeller . to heap up earth or ihrust. a. to bow. Du. bott. buttern. Buttrice. tout seat or breech. botta. buhsom. — A . nourrisson. from the large knobbed head of botto. a scope. from rejeter. buttock of beef is called butr. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. A — — — . botten. bud. Gr. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. both. to butt. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Hal. having a rotundity . to thrust Fr. aim whence to make a support to a wall. From Du. Perhaps corrupted Lat. to throw . bot. Halma. any small projection. geboogsaem. -ez. an ox. clumsy . a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Bav. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout. botte. Buttel-triib. Fr. butter un. : . to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. to so close to the Fr.putan. to thrust . a leg of mutton. humble. a buttress Cot. are the strips at the edges of the field. from bugan. to abut a stone roof. butyrum. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. submit shaking up salad sauce. . boter-schijte. boutoir. a but in the W. It. Fr. bocsam. fle>(ible. Schmell. from bouter. Gris. Btetter-schmalz. to thrust. botwm. to touch at the end.— BUTT leg . Buttery. R.rejected thing. butter. bouton.. Boutant. to be con. trapu. bottich. bothog. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. gigot. then the thigh or leg of an to push . potacha. a boss. See Butler. botto. Boutje. as rejeton. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. Sp. to push earth . G. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. Fris. boter-vliege. Butter. dripping.to push. i. a boss. the edge forwards. w. striking end. butt of a person. Fr. a mound of turf in a field to sup. butte. or or shore post. AS. a blow. obeto shake backwards and forwards. buter. put. From the noise of drinkables in a house. Fr. bouton. short thick thing pimple. grease that sets by merely standing.arbre. able that Chaucer. a button. the trunk. a cask. povrvpov. To come full butt against a butts. are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. Cot. from notirrir. butt. to abut on. the Butter-fly. Mur-buttant. a bolt. Gael. stump of a tree Fr. give way. but. W. coxa. the prick in the middle of a target. strike. pwtiaw. — A . boutis. boteria. by boE. a barrel. nourrissons. a ribbed glass for dient. as if from Povg. on. pied. bottig. bodi. &c. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. Bav. To strike with the head bags. butte. the thick end. a heap of merly called pushes. Fr. poke. of the present day. boter-vogel. — — — — . buttals. fowl. a stump or club foot.against another which needs support . to boult flour. what is kept in a blow. bata. always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . Buttock. tress. large head. leg of lamb. Du. obedient. of E. a little push . So in English pimples were fora clod. bot blijven staan. a buttrice. W. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. boding. at. to make him a mark for arc-boutant.thum and not button. in the R. butt. caput scapula bout van f been. a dle . the rosebud. Kil. . used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. an etwas anstossen. end . a corner horses' hoofs. bot. nursling. to cast. to strike. Buttress. To Butt. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. Lang. signify a cask or tub. clunis. Kil. rabodd. waste ground. Du. hillock . a flying buttress. Kil. e. a bun. as in G. * Buxom. and the true derivation boar. From Grisons biitt. a button. a thrust the thigh-bone. the thigh of a goose. lams-bout. Du. from stossen. Du. is formed the augmentative buttatich. butt. a button. the store of while bottich. Grandg. to femur. Button. Bout van het schouderIt. oir spike with a k coup . thick. bouter. a large belly. bouter. The word body itself seems identical with G. ment being supposed to resemble butter. Fr. courtaud. thrust. bout. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. boil. a. to blad. any short thick thing. so as to make a sounding blow. thrust forwards. butteln. &c. a mound.' thick from shaking. a bot. but this is probably from Fr. — . buttare. a hill. suddenly . stump. a tub. boiUer. butz. to thrust. bocgsuin. botta. Fr. pwt. Schmell. bout. . butter. a wall butor butt on. a blow. Hal. The Bavarian potig. to thrust. bodi'. Butter-glass. An erection built up as a Fr. — ..

cow-house.. buzarg. son. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. to stand at his side . as Fr. 116. It. leges urbanse ON. OE. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. AS.busardj Prov. Buzzard. and it is of good will. \s\xy. Pecock Repressor. ii. indistinctly. p. Sw. buzzicare.P. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. & Q. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. frabttg- To Buzz. Then applied to speaking low. Etynj.— Diet. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. byar-log. harty prayers and God speedes. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. bylove. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. The ON. who makes abigg. a borough. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. to jan. Du. stall. . lb. to sell. to swear with him by . to whisper. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. bohte. Sw. groat in token of his good heart towards him. Mercy hight that mayde. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. to wit. also say. P. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. 3. favourably to a petition. village. lete. Sanscrit abhi (Dief). bozzago. to purchase for money. train of thought which has become obso. AS. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. favourable. Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. jus municipii. Dan. bi. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. . To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. It. 200. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. depends upon a esteem in falconry. to buzz. blessing me with their of side. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women. The sense of buxom. buzac. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. Originally the law of a particular town. as heedless as a cock-chafer. —gracious of speech. By-law. A A We — — — days' wonder.— P. a buzzard or puttock. CABAL Goth. iii. . bugjan.in N. called Cabala or Tradition. Lat. Many good mological explanation. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child.. confusedly. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. bylag. 21. byr. buteoj Fr. bar. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. a meke thynge with — alle. bees. Verstegan in R. G. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. bij. good-humoured one. a beetle. as in Da. a town. from whom it was addressed. to pass by. buso. bygge. town having separate jurisdiction. and boxome of speche xviii. tions by one. A by. bi. from by. abozzago. farm. big. ON. Goth. See Abie. A ful benygne buirde. Cabal. gracious. Byre. and would have been lost in E. byar-rettr. bauhta. bycgan. bei. To Buy. — 122 BUY P. a by-path is a side path . 519. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m.

agga. Brushwood — — B. agge machen (in nurses' language). a cloak of felt or Cack. headed or cabbage lettuce.). see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. dirty. whence Fr. Didot. . a frail. in which sense are explained The the OFr. Cappa in OSp. . overwhelm. giiare. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. cabasser. caable. from trabocco.ticula. cabo. To steal or pocket. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. a headed cole or cabbage . dirt and the Fr. . laitue cabusse. kabat. a rope or cable.. Fr. dirty. Du. would correspond to cable. a booth or hut. : — from violence without blood. Du. signifies down. Gaggle. — . Cot. &c. . cacare . Mid. bad. deponat a store closet. Due. is probably unconnected. gaggi. prostratio ad terram. Katr-iT-aKt. manganare. The double a in the OFr. kabane. as Turk. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. cabbage. a car- We convasare. serious injury — In like manner It. su/Furari. OFr. capuccio. headed. Item habeat vocant. OFr. caables. the Prov. w. Cabbage. cable . string.Gr. caqueter. E. a covering. OFr. manticuKil. Finn. E. The Sp. — Ibid. Fr. cabo. to put or pack up in a frail. chaable. from manganum. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. hoard together. cabacho. Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries.Lat. gabardme. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . surripere. a cabbage . a tunic. agge. Fr. round or great headed. heady. for the origin of which see Carabine. It. and the Arab. Due. as it must have stood in French. disgusting such an engine was exerted. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. traboccare. wilful). 'habl. cables. cadabulum. akista. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. geese. filth. kakaloH. havyar to caviare. cabaii. hut. CABBAGE effecting a purpose .Lat. originally an Gael. and Ptg. case. From It. the Slavonian. Sp. ceach / exclamation of guages. kabas. cabarino. origin is the OFr. properly windfalls. cab. kabaSsen. . Neckam — by the wind. a shed. Fr. aak! tandi like Fr. chaable. brassica — capitata. a rope. cabre. chadabula. It. a rope. capanna.. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. mdhaigner. Choux cabus. head. kakla. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. gaban. precisely in the sense of the lari E. . — the ON. and as we find stones Mid. as Diez supposes). secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. — Tarbe. and Or. accablcr. Cabin. form kactal. Sw. Ptg. or rush basket. cabre. to chatter. Cabinet.' Due. cadabulum. signifying properly a rope's end. band. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. nasty. Common to Lat. caboche. cabuccio. Castr. Cot. Tugurium. OSp. cadabula. cab lis. and Finnish lanLat. Capstan. especially shepherd's frock. cabus. — . Lang. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. an engine for casting stones. vile. Lat. maim. Imitative of the cry of hens. Lith. come the Fr. To Cabbage. disgust cac. it would seem fundain children's language. a rope. Sp.. Kil. name of the projectile engine. cabane. Coticesserint Swiss aa. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. Very generally used. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. calabre. gatsch. chabla. ckaable. cdble. to strain in such a manner . lactuca capitata. aakkat'a. as an expression of Gr. cadabola. aeggi. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. Cablisb. vincially used in E. Du. covering. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. — Kil. whence Lang. The name of the engine. —Diet. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. to hurl down. cabas. Etym. forms indi. has kabbel. or cadable. main.Lat. overwhelm (Diet. disgust. to crush. caable. or as an interjection of disMod. It. dung. the bowels. cabuyskoole. to keep or Du. stercus. to hurl in Nat. cabulus. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. &c.. gaggele. caable (in legal language). It is remarkable that the Esthon. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. Mid. Fr. Mid. capo. It.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. cadabalum. cacare. a head (whence cabochard. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. Celtic. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. a jacket Fr. Antiq. ! — . rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys. (ca/coe. hovel.

Gascon capdet. Turk. kat. a vessel for heating water. a calash . wretched. cageoler. It is another form of the E. Cot. Flo. cuttle-fish. calamus. Lat. is probably delusive. kukje. an ugly waggon kolaska. kdtr. just falling. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. a calesh. to gabble. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. Fr. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. gaggle. Fr. calba. marrow. * Calibre. Gael. babbhng. a waggon . kauwe. Serv. Dan. Calamity. bad . when they are said to poor. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. calcis. Calp is riadh. kolyasochka. to . the calf of the leg. It. to prate much to little purpose. so gabble corresponds with Fr. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. calidus. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. Cage. Caddy. calibre. especially of something soft. or prattle. signifies a waggon. to heat. frolicsome kaad mund. pet lamb. It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. Fr. kalem. cake. safe. loss. kolo. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. a low note. prate. cadaver. Caitiff. Cot. the pi. the younger son of a family said to be from . a loaf of bread. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. collop. kalfvan hout. calentar. Lat. Lat. It. cattivo (from Lat. Cajol. cauldron. chattering. Originally from a Slavonic source. Roman reckoning. Lat. ratas. Calendar. To Calender. of which. kolesb. Lat. colibro. whence calash. a circle. a dence. chaudron. It. without loss. cage.Gr. desire of land. Du. caliche. Perhaps from w. the pith or soft part of wood. hence musical rhythm. form) calderone. a wheel . coll. a mischievous dial. ever and anon. one that is brought up by hand a petted child. kolasa. . master. Sp. * Cade. a corpse. from the ink-bag which it contains. a wretch. a fever. gabbia. It. Calf of the Leg. KxiKivh^o^. Calc-. gabble. cha'cmie cadence. capitetum. Pol. kolo. Calocli. the lump and the increase. to cackle . dial. calendrer. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. capCalenture. reed-pen. a lump or large piece. calentura. It. The Calf. KaKKat. ben- kalf. of the nature of lime to calcine. Fr. from Gr. Lat. cadence. Calandre. Sw. cabdillo. from the Chinese catty.— Cot. In the same way Fin. cykevie. from calendcE. an inkstand . calessa. kolyaska. a wheel . little chief. for green fields. a car. Du. Due. incolumis. to sleek hence a den. cage. gabbia. G. its mother. The Lat. roller. Calcialate. Turk. A — fall. and troublesomely attached to. kolesnitza. Fr. Lat. G. Cake. kalfi. hot . calpa. Arab. kage. calf of leg. . the bore of a cannon. calendarium.warmth . a reed. misfortune. of oxen and similar animals. javioler. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. The young G. Lat. from calculus. cadere. As Du. Calash. lord. one unduly indulged by. Sp. on. a caFr. Caldron. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. Du. gaggia. Mrs B. jabber. Sp. to — Fr. Cadaverous. A cuttle-fish. to throw themselves into the sea. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. &c. kola. whence Lat. coop. Cot. lindrus. limestone. gavia. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. Russ. See Kiddier. to compute. gabberen is identical with E. kaad. chetif. Lat. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. boy. From lerie. To Cajole. wanton. caldarius. Fr. or colpa na coise. Cauldron. a small stone. cavea. Calamary. kakulla. calidus. naXaiidpi. Cadence. ON. a wheel. or smooth Hnen cloth. calamitas. calibre. kalb. kaka. . principal and interest. lime whence calcareous.— . A hooded carriage. Lat. a roller. N. cadet. An open travelling chariot. caioler. kaeckelenj Gr. kuchen. unruly . dead body. —Atkinson. a hollow place. a falling. kdfich. disease of sailors from tivus). calx. Dan. a cylinder. Cadet. ' . cadenza. pi. En kaka br'od. koeck. — — — Dan. joyous . Sw. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. . to cage. calculo. calesa. — in a kiln. B. 124 prattle . a counter used in casting accounts. a tea-chest. pen Mod. Sw. Du. a common cart. taking it Sp. caldaria. It. A . Cadge*. Fr. hot. kail. a wheel . loss.— Calliper. (in the augm.uv. Lat. a cake or loaf. Fr. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). chaudiere. captive. pith. Tea-caddy. frisky. kolo. rattaat (wheels). to treat like lime. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. .

KaXka. femme frivole et babillarde. on. to call. To Calk. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. a soldier who the It. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. and dragon. to proclaim. trull. — Fl. caillette. Ibid.position is much less common than the geschut. to call. a round of abuse.from Ka'tm. Among these were the turn. the Fr.piicede Lat. quA librd. 125 Prov. water-tight. which has its memory preserved in Du. Ca. abto suppose that E. bald. a last. voice. calibre. . Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. which is as much as to say. So It. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. or mould. coluber also. into the seams of vessels to make Lat. — — — — — . Antiq. to burn. calvus. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . calcaich. culverin. harden by pressure. callum. colubraria canna. an adder. Calm. To century was Squalibre. Kavfia. to cram. cahna. 'A callet of boundless tongue. kahcwe. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. Lat. u to an I in such a colubrum. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. a. them &c. donderbuchs Sp. Sir John Smith in Grose. diameter of a ball. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. and sometimes a handgun. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. licht stuk The change from a. Mid. colubrina. E. calma. the latter of chamber. word of mouth . calc. Derived by some from Arab. quality.' Slange. CALM to press or stuff. Sup. push violently. from Calicut in the E. but is only a jda-kallo. to abuse .' Chaucer. to say. calk. tapulta. to prattle. and E. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word.' But it is hard Du. chatter. Heb. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. Lang. a successor. . sestus. of a column. tittle-tattle. Fr. Dief. given. the hard surface of the ground. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). calibre. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. bombarda Cauma incendium. qAlab. the Fr. Turk. chatter kallen. Indies. Calico. dragoon. caliver. It. glotton. seems to donrebusse vel be heat. To call. Fr. The reference to heat is preserved in. To drive tow or oakham.Lat. hallottaa. sound. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. done with heat Alt. coulevrine. kallo. couleuvre. Mahn derives it from Lat. Callow. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the . dial.meaning of the word. sclopus. form in the kalib. whehce it was first brought. Diet. people's remarks. Hard. faint. callus.. the heat of Now these Du. The origin is Gr. Call. to affirm. drive.(jaa= ice). kol. the day. fistula. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. NE. serpens. calgua. calat of leude demeaning. Caliph. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. alta voce ploro. Bi. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. kael. ' rine. calicot. khalif. scold. nautique). to calk. moist. harquebus or handgun. form. or caliever. a drab. ram. Sp. Kil. overscalmaccio. Kil. however. ululo Turk.— . Du. oldire from audire. Diez. Fin. coluber. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. skin hardened by labour.en~ kinds of firearms. ' pert. calleting. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. vulgo Coluvrine. Sp. * Callet. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. of the bore of a firearm met. Ptg. a good calling. whereas in troth it is not. overheated.' Whitby Gl. or languishing drought is . Unfledged. and heat. try. a feathers. The word was also written cawme in OE. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. calo. moso. klover. faint. prattle. Fin. kind heat of the sun. quiet. AS. depreciatory term for a woman. Mil. The primitive colubrina bombarda. to callet. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. brawny. Gr. Fr. kal. Sc. cauque. to be of a good or bad quality. cauma. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. calcare. can be distinct from ODu. kalla. calme. calma. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. longior. whence couleuv. serpentina. kil-u-kal. Fr. Lat. B. saucy. kal. calare. calca. CALICO Calliper-compasses. Due. gossiping. calor. — — — — — . calclover. scalmato. i. heat. Gael. dragonder. heat. piece of bigger circuite.' Winter's Tale. sence of wind. hollaing. to hear. caluw. koluvre. by many that the weapon Callous. * Caliver. having a thick skin. cotton cloth. to rail or scold . chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). the scalp or skull. to tread. According to Jal (Gl. hot.

—Jam. a. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. camber-nosed. E. Pers. chandelle. camafeo. cancello.—Cambrel. water chamlet . Lat. camisa. — Lat. good. lattice. chamold man. Cot. crook. Lat.' ' Quhen a lattice. camiscia. arch. champ. candidus. Fr. lie level.conduit-pipe. Kakoycpos. a basket. whence the noun signifying an applicant. See Canker. samon. Calver of cane. It. se cameloter. Candy. Gr. a crab. Cambray. campus. to bow. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. sugar.— B. sore. Lat. a goblet bud. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. A — the Cannibals. crooked. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. different sections of the like the Chinese. chommer. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. monk. cambren. clothed in white. is Cambering. the heat. It. a' Sc. ation. aspirant. catmneo. calj'x. Arab. It. Fr.' Forme of Cury in Way. higher in the middle than Fr. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. It. when its substance appears inter. a piece. a.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. toile some of whom. calutmiia. Gr. the spersed with white flakes like curd. ckaouma. Sp. icaSoytipoe. lame. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. Fr. — Cancel. Canal Channel. Cambric. Or the word Lat. cup. — B. a caught. at the ends. to glow. Mid. camisade. It was distinfrom work. kanna. is Candle. to bend. Fr. and yspiuv. B. properly good country. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. cambr^. camelot. cam^e. arched. a dog. Calyx. camiscieia. chaitcre. spot for cattle. field . . because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. From campus was formed Lat. Palsgr. campagne. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day.who their language. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. India Islands. cancer. mg Canister. campo. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. on. having an aquiline nose. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Campaign. Canine. The Grisons cauina. KafivTu. Canibal. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. open and level ground. crooked. to the force of the wind. Lat. time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. Bret. Lat. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. Mod. campagna. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat.Gr. paign. co7nbar. canalis. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. In a different application It. aged. Sanson khanda._ kamm. Caloyer. campren. fair. also an eatmg sore. a large drinking . camaien. the bed of a stream. whence the Fr. Cancer. Cambrav—Cam. Turk. B. Cann. cambrer. . whence Fr. hooked. Cameo. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. to warp. It. Candid. It. crooked-stick. campaign. slander. cere : Lat. arched. An eater of human flesh. Fr. Sp. campagna. or hollow of a flower. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. died in 1526. E. to break. Ptg. Lat. cainahelus. callar. nia. a night attack upon the enemies' camp.Lat.— Hackluyt in R. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. Fr. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. w. Fr. white. candela. campo. frank and sincandidatus. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. to avoid enemy in their shirts. KafitjUe. to jut. callour. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. Calumny. camahutus. salmon. canna. Camp. a may have acquired that signification from plain. to bend. an eating. Cambrel.. from candere. — — — A — — escume de saumon. had no r in de bric— Cot. bis. the salmondis faillis thair loup. the space of false imputation. champagne. the type of a hollow pipe. E. Camlet. camp. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. cup. Properly calver in the field during a war. across — Bellenden in Jam. Canker. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat.—Candidate. brought from Fr. canis. the calix. cAouma. cambre. canistrum. Fr. Lat. fresh. from xaXbg. Camel. ko/utuXoc. a field Greek monk. Camisade. Sp. would plenier. crooked. or Caribs. From fluting or furrow in a column . Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. Peter Martyr.— Chandelier. unwater chamelot . sugar in pieces or lumps khand. camelus.

kanta. A slow gallop. canonicus.Gr. hamlet. The meserseum and the mesentericum. the quartile. Jonson. cappe. cannevo. cane. a wine-cellar or vault. cantle then is a corner of a thing. chanteau. kantr. Germanis kdppen. The — . OFr. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. canevas. clqse. a cloak kapali. being a yard or thereabouts . . border Dan. Hence Lat. name. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. a horn of the moon . Capacious. Canteen. Canton. Cope. to sing. and hence a gobbet. Cot. region. tain. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. B. to con- rummer. the heel. kyndel. cantref. a gelding. cantina. Mod. shut. that the G. It.. a hunch of bread. lump. hemp. call. measure for cloth. The word seems to be taken from Gael. . Diez. to contain. Esthon. cannu. pipe. properly a large Prov. cane. a cloak. a drinking glass. cannabis. covered. Sp. Schwab. hirnschlapple. Fin. From Gr. It. a pipe. canton. a corner. also a measure. a reed. Probably only the augmentative of canto. hood. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. border. cane. Canopy. part. Prov. and the sex- &c. Picard. Mod. kaput. a tube. It. a side. and tref. coarse hemp. Canon. Fr. able to receive. is found languages of very different stocks. a cantle of bread. KaTTiram. can. Gael. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. a cover Turk. trine. capax. Coal burning with bright flame. Palsgr. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. canoa. a — A — Cannel Coal. language. a Fr. a torch.— Cot. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Goldast — in in Schmid. schlappen. kandt-broodts. Cant. a small boat. schlapp. haitt. capevole. &c. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. &c. quarter . An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. Canvas. coarse hempen cloth Fr. from a Canter.^on. from . chape. cantred. Lat. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. contain. quito curtain. Fr. he discourseth of dissection. was formed Kavtiiv. cheese. as. Wtb. To his judicial And trowl the tile. Capable. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. But it may be different source. Sp. It. cainnt. From Lat. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. a division of a country. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. a cane. kynnel. speech. Fr. from cant. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. a rule or standard of excellence. the part easiest broken off. Cantle. a hundred. margo panis diffracta. the heel. kwvwxIi. cover . W. See Chape. canapaccia. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. Alamannis. coat. If the word had been from cantherius. corner. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Canoe. as a cantle of bread. regular. it would have been found in the continental languages. from canna. cope. cannevaccia. cannone. a reed. It.Gr. Cannoii. a cap. Swab. rumme. canon. Cape. from Dan. hemp. To canvas — . edge. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. a ship canot. leiwan kanta. which is not the case. It.CANNEL vessel. side. canapa. root cap. to shut. A . ON. a door . kq. capello Italis. capace. . Of vena cava and of vena porta. canto. canteau. Sp. Gugel. Again we have Lat.n. To Canonise. capa. cantone. territorial hundred. kapamak. Kavt\. chantel. a ruler. the tried list of saints. canonici. a scull- — here. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. cape. Du. a straight rod. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. cover kapi. quarter. or cantell of bread. N. canvas. and met. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length. to put upon sacred writers. gnat. It. carcase . has kahn. cane. a boat. . Kil. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. like a torch or candle. cappa. Capari. or hold. astrology. cappe. A piece of anything. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. See Capt-. signifying cover. caparazon. KCLvva. kand. say. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta.

capriol or caper in dancing. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. airoKOTrrw. the head. cappriccio. to shiver for cold. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. ticchio. capitulare. capro. Acad.). The true derivation lies in a different direction. horripilation. Caprice. horror. a capriol. caprice. a little head. is either wholly lost. curly. aggricciare. for which he cites the Comask nucia. It. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. Cot.Gr. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. the hair to stand on end. bristling. sault. to broil. Fr. It. or other things. eruca compared with It.'— Trev. to shiver. gives rise to Sc. Fl. grillcr. Caper. capillus. brissle.— Fl. Lat. s'hdrisser. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. cover of a saddle. riccio. curling. then to be in a state of vibration. Arab. then find the symptoms of shivering. to parch. Fr. also the capriole. — to yearne. or goat's leap (done by a horse). curl.standing on end. fansuddenly angry. as Fr. rihrczzoso. Capers. humorous. hedge-hog. ^piKos. Hal. belonging to From caput. Capital. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. to fry. a buck. See Chief. then to shiver or shudder. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . Capillary. to broil. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body. castrated cock. Lat. end. the head. or represented by the syllable e. a head. hair. frizzle. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . to desire earnestly. and his body bristled We to castrate. frisser {frissement d'un trait. bruco. Hence capitalis the sum lent. frort^Lat. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . arricciarsi. to . p. capitalis. rissoler. Lang. shivering. It. G^' Many words — ' ndv. — — A a hair. Lat. frisson- ner . as in Lat. Fr. 75. caj)o. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. Mod. toy. A . and OHG. A headland. a goat. Unexpected pleasure. a caterpillar. as Fr. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. the principal part of the debt. Genevese bresoler. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds.) d'etre The It. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. brisciare. The same imitation of Capon. of a tremtdoiis sound. It. brisciare. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. shivering. a separate division of a matter. a ch illness. as Fr. the singing'bone). as the means of earning profit. gives rise to brezza. To treat Capitulate. prickly husk of chestnut. And similarly to yearn. chattering of the teeth. a hedge-hog. of a coach.— 128 CAPE a rustling. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. the hair to stand on end. upon terms Sp. It. I have shivered with love. cut off. castrated. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. h^risser. grug. of a fowl. grisser. alcaparra. crackling sound Cape. cut. explained by Diez from capra. erica. caprice It. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. and 7tucc. the initial mute of forms like Gr. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. shrub. brisoler. bristling. to ruffle the surface of water. It. with joy' Vikram. a young kid met. Sp. It is probable that Gr. according to the Hindoos. caper j caprio. abridge amKoTroq. It. CAPRICE twittering. a caper in dancing. ziki. a yearning through sudden fear. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. a kid. cApre. roughening of the skin. and with an initial gr instead of br. a chevret. herissonnement.) grezille marid. . gricciare. chief. greziller. Hair-like. compared with Bret. wriggle. to shudder. II bresole (Gl. arricciarsi. gricciare. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. Griller d'im' patience. birsle. principal. brug. capriola. to crackle. knis-hujwud . because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. ribrezzo. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. brisciare. frissoner. greziller. hi. Lat.impressions on the ear.' Cot. ericius. So from Sw. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. brezilia. or. capriole. Fr. Torriano. <I>pi'?oe. where Burton adds in a note. to from capitulum. algabr. capparis. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. grisser. a . knis.' — (Supp. or Lat. capar. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. they longed extremely to see it. kid. heath. to twitter as birds. w. to crackle. It.

— — Capstan. conceive. a cart. capitis.of these compound verbs. concevoir. karista. . chirrion. Fin. contain. a head man. concipere. a fantastical humour. tnoschetta. to load . carabin. recepte. however. In the S. It. also tresFl. bock. fantastic. Carry. perceive. caricare. a windlass. See Caper. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. Capriole. a sudden fear apprehended. Carabine. Castr. to creak. intercept. cabreia. to carry . a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. to please. box. at least. It. and has thus descended unaltered to English. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. to this is It. concebir.or -cib-. It. Fl. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. karren. of capsa. Captain. deception. &c. It. captivate. except. crab s. cabestan. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. concept. Fr. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. Cart. a she-goat. karrende waegen. a. caput. cabra. the -cevofthe Fr. Fr. charrier. recipere. Neumann. capp%tccio. a coffer. of the Sp. recevoir. karra. latterly. captus. capra. caThe hrestante. Lat. Crab. a kind of torture. as in OFr. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. precept. capitano. from head. a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. and of captus to an e. -ceive. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. a hood (dim. kerren. -cept. Fr. Cot. krul. Passing on into E. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. case. desire. &c. to take baclc. cabestrantej Fr. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal . charger. It. Sp. deceit. a hooded friar.— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). It.). sels. an engine for throwing stones. conceit. to receive receptio. a cloke) capuccino. Thus the musket. Capt-. seize. Sp. carro.s. capuccio. a sudden will. decepte. hold. It. recibir. Carabin. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. to creak. to take to. dim. chirriar. Fr. Fr. It is a standing crab. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced. Du. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. &c. Kiittner. accept. 129 — receive. as in accipio.). Fr. fancy. — —Diet. chevre. a taking back.. Capuchin. commander. cams. — crab or instrument to wind up weights.. Cot. to accept. to take. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. was converted into -ceb. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. a. also to carry on a car . strideo. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. conception. Derivatives are Fr. where it forms a very large class of compounds. Capsule. Etym. Du. shivering fit (Altieri). acceptus. capsula. charret. oisr. Caseneuve in Diet. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. verbs gives rise to the element . G. crepo. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. calabrin. di cappa. and tropically. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. a creaking waggon. whence capture. char. as the dragoons (Du. -cept. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. was a kind of horse soldier. receptus. captive. recipio. capio. OSp. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. Lat. caprice. Lat. Fr. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. a reception. de- price. Nordfoss. also a kind of rack. Lat. a sawing-block or trestles. or the (capo-riccio). a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. was originally a missile . trestle. one odd. calabrino. Carbine. Capstern. a capuchin. carretta. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. i The meaning Car. The It. and has accordingly been lost in E. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. cabrestante (whence e. In cases.

a collar or chain for the neck. cerran. carbh. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. See Carpenter. and catapulta. carabba. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. carcanada. winding carach. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia). to turn. turning. also a small weight. wool card. caraffe. Carboy. Gael. seed of carob. to comb wool . a wool card. . &c. Arab. to curry horses karsztuwas. chevre by the name of the goat. a small weight.. Carbuncle. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin. Lith. . kard boyd. Card.Gr. The radical meaning . silique. ' Vasa vitrea. The Trjg xeXwwac. Carrob. Comp. a he-goat. espi7igarda. carere. cramp. also (as Gr. &c. to draw in. boch. Lat. krciti. restraint . The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. the carob bean. for a gun. fire . turn of a horse. word is only an adoption of the Turk. &c. caracal. confining. the shell of a torcarcasso. carabe. a firelock. a lock of wool . the . skeleton toise. a winding staircase.charcoal . matter. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. curry-comb. a gem resembling a live coal. Cot. Sp. caravela. a coffer. coming to four grains. Carcax.applied to a battering-ram (G. It. to card wool. carcame. Cot. a skeleton. cabreia. cdrlag. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. decanter. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. carcasa. carta. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. Gael. wine- bottle. properly a siege machine. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. the husk or cod of beans.. carquan. contract. designated in the case of G. Fr. Sp. It. car. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. to hiss (as gee^e). shell. vitriol. karri. It. to card wool. a kind of ship. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. OHG. eit. a card or comb . casso. the dead body of any creature. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. garafa. poison eiz. an ulcer. «capa'|8i.. karra. karszti. p. copperas. a goat. is the word used in modern Lat. a dead carcase. Carbonaceous. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot. an engine for hurling stones. eitar. carcanet. military engines made for hurling stones. black dye. From the battering-ram. a twist. Sp. carmiiiarc. Fr. quilato. KtpaTwv. mural attack. kerwan. skeleton. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck .— — — . case. cardo. the trunk or chest of the body .. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. teasel for dressing woollen cloth. alia sunt majora. Caravel. carcaij. It. Sp. — seems to be something holding together. An implement for dressing wool. Venet. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. avSpaS. Fr. Gr. in the same way that the Sp. Carat. to creak. the case of the flesh. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. the name might naturally Mod. the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. Gael. carch. ON. a ripple for flax. Exot. W. carate. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. to ripple flax.Gr. skeleton. quse vocant karabd. a quiver. Bohem. burning coal. Derived in the first edition from Mod. Lat. . Gael. a crane. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. cassa. carduus. a case or chest .z. a prison. carquasse. Mod. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. It. carbunculus (dim. Fr. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. carbo. Sp. winding. a ship.. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . of carbo). . a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . the carcase of a fowl.' From the same source are SicU. card. the core of fruit . Gr. is the chine. a machine for casting large darts. caraffa. Ptg. bend. bock and Fr. carquois. 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. . of the same Caravan. Cat. ancient springald. a quiver. a quiver . cabra. kirat. Parmesan cassiron. a thistle. Pers. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. AS. a thistle. Caraool. a snail. a quiver . a battering-ram). There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. tcapKaai. I. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. to comb. Carcase. or framework. constraining . cabrita.

karrig. . appertaining to the flesh. and G. male person. A quirito ut infans. winding. karista. rixosus. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. to parch. that on wliich the matter hinges. A mod-carag. affection. Venet. to load. in N. the several meanings of the words above Rom. cearian. Fr. weyes. the old theory of humours. karl. 273. to comb wool. caritia. ceorl. meet at a head. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. to scratch. cargo. love. It. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. carcus. E. Mur. — — — : Cardinal. charnel. care. Cartel. Trin. an overloaded representation of anything. stingy. croller. karg. carriera. road. sorrow. 1S66. or grumbling —Due. tuorfurcm (Burguy). place for exercise on horseback. a deed. Sp. Dan. to clean the bottom of the ship.. Sp. — — Diez. to load. Fr. Properly a car-road. G. in Carp. is This however Shrove tide. ress..Lat. that Fl. ON. regar. Bret. morosus sum. AS. From. cura intenta. dear. cargar. car. grief. astutus. compared with Fin. karantez. be anxious. caMid. asper. Carenare. Charnel. see Garble. karry.— Charter. Care. & Q. giierlir. carch. bottom. ON. Caricature. careless take care of. Roquef. to rumble. carina. to card wool. It. Cath. clown or churl. zanken . from caricare. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. care on. from carus. Fin. Fr. from the keel to the water . Cot. carnalis. solicitous. graller. quadrifurcum from quameet. essere in carena. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. cearig. Carlings. carrefourg. Cot. A medical term from line —Boerio. Bois crolant d'un ladre. quaver a lazar's clack. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. gakaran. stridere. Carnage. Lat. kurista. act of moaning. hoed. — — — Caress. to distress growl. to shake. w. Coll. to scrape . Fr. caricatura. chartre. parched or carled. charg. a card. whence carricare. carminare. It. carian. tenax. cardo. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. cdrle. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. in St Jerome. from carrus. caricare. like connection may be seen between Fin. Carminative. OFr. to growl. . as peas. It. combing them out like the knots in wool. Fr. Gael. carena. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. — To Careen. sensual. caresse. Fr. wool cards. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. Carled peas. G. Champ. the time during which to Rom. Properly. to love. to fry. and murhet. charneux. Cargo. from Lat. is to say.Lat. kargr. W. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. Ptg. Farewell flesh. to eat flesh. crowl. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. record. — — . one of those ac- 9 * . Probably the origin of the word is the . and sum. scharren. de Parthenay. Lat. piger. camovale. karout. a man. a highway. the flesh of animals . the keel. grolU. Carnal. 2. W. x'»P'"^s)) paper. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. intrasset caro. morosus. AS. murahtaa. charger. four. an endearment. AS. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. . and compare Bret. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. fundamental. to comb flax or hemp. carFrom carrus. It. the load of a ship. tremble. crawl. W. Fin. to care unkarja. kara. crosier. No ' place there had. quarreG. to take Goth. fleshy . 8. Card. Sept. charag. the hull of a ship. Translated in MS. charnage. moeThe Lat. Chart. the keel of a vessel. . as carminare. and thin. carena. sgritudo animi. Groler. Bret. carriire. . cardinis. . caru. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. immediately before the long fast of Lent. at murmuring. to whirr (schnurren). rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. carnis. ignarus. &c. surrata. msstus. beans. carener. Fr. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. voce strepo stridente. A place where four roads Mid. carnal. as quadrivium from Carnaval. charie. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef. It. For the root of carminare. kumra. strideo. Peas steeped and fried. to fry or broil. a hinge. carezza. p. murista. to load. a turn. principal. soUicitus OSax. niggardly . Carl.' Slceat. kribina. OHG. charta (Gr. or street. to lie on its side. — Carfax. . Fl. Cark. carcare. Fr. It. sorrow. mutter. also a career on horseback. .— CARD karr-kambar. kummer. murren. kroU-erbser. what is felt as grievous. cura may be ror. carnavale. Cot. carnasciale.

A. chariot carbad. or a carouse fully drunk up.Why give's some wine then. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. or loose as a couch without further preparation. qui sacco. tattle. balade from It. carpat (Stokes). permitted in anticipation of the long fast. carpende fast Carol. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. to talk. cardos. to pull asunder. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. garrire. lint. pluck. linteamen. Properly a round dance. yede tham about.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. Ant. Fr. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. Gower in Way. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. to gather. Biheld within. fabulor. as E. Chanson de carole. ' ' — . this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. From Lat. zimmer. biheld without. carpo. description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. to dance. a wheelwright. Sup. a wheelwright. Bohem.' Ordo Eccles. Lat.' says Motley (United Neth. a song accompanying a dance then. In a MS. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. The word seems of Celtic origin. all aus). ship. charpentier. I quaught. carpenter only in the latter sense. as carnaval from carnelevamen. whence the form carnasciale. a plank. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. carduz. Bret. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis.: . chatter skra/a. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. to reel. carbh. gar aus / all out is correct. on that. skraf. worker in timber Fr. to chatter coroli. . Beggars Bush. garrulo. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. a carder. On this. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. to pluck. — . carpenticre. vel coopertorio carebit. i. Palsgr. On the other hand bumper to one's health.Lat. Sp. Mid. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. peta. act of drinking a full Eq. All out B. carpetam (a quilt?). course.— Patriarchi. e. krapati. Olr. Mid. differing To Carp. The custom. ! Carouse. gonna. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. at midnight which derivation from kroes. chirp. Lat.' Reg. to find fault with. ON. 94). Templariorum — ' — Due. to dance. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Lat. was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. used for stuffing mattresses. charpie. I drink all out. Cot. Dief.'— Stat. cited by Marsh. pluck at.]e bois Carnelevale.— R. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben. in Due. Alluz (G. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. and Carnem laxare (It. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. Pm. W. carpita. 2. Discov. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. Carpenter.— Drant in R. Carpyn or talkyn. . culcitra. So gone they forthe. The ' ' a chariot. To pledge them thou refuse. Gael. a car carpentarius. The tippling sots. Pref. of Guiana. i. . Teut. CarTo quaff carouse do use. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. ballare. cxciv. Carpet. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. Shrove Tuesday. litter. sense.D. as the Lat. Analogous R. koroll. carpetrix. tymmer. Other names of the sea. as Fr. in Carp.Lat. is erroneous. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. carpentum. querole. Here's to you still my captains friend. The karole of the stones behelde. carnelascid). quoted by Carpentier. 2. Carnelevale. Mediol. 216. Pr. in Nat. and F. Nomin.Lat. zimmerspan.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. was formed Mid. Carole. Ein we find the signification transferred from .' Raleigh. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin. carpere. chatter. carpenta. a dance. a drinking cup. Fr. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G.— Neum. — — ' ' — — — I — — . carpia. bier. 760. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. krapanj.gonnella. maker of waggons It. 1 1 30. Carpitam habeat in lecto. Carnevale. In Dominica d'autant. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive. to rustle.

Cart. caroach. capsa (Diez). Fl. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. To duash. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. of carro. a loopscale the wall. It. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. Fr. afterwards any written challenge. carreaggio.' Fl. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. cut with scissors. Ready money. Case-mate. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. to bear or carry. pasteboard. vault hole in a fortified wall. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. casco signifies a skull. Fr. cartouche. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. for the security of the defenders. paper. gristle. Rouchi carter. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. a fall. Lat. — Cartridge. Lat. Carrion. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. and matar. Probably. an act of falling. cassa. Cascade. See Card. cia. kirpti. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. an augmentative from Lat. quasser. one who reasons on cases put. to convey in a cart. Casque. to dash. See Case. carretto. AS. helmet. It. cartoccio. casser. Lith. It. CartOTicli. carroc- carrozza . without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Fr. mata. Du. Fr. Fr. Fr. to shear. Gael. to slay. corresponding to the G. break to pieces. caro. The carrying of anything. casag. tion from Sp. cassere. cassus. — FI. It. to crack. Rouchi carpHe. subject for a picture. carogna. caroche. casa-maita. augm. — — nul the proceeding. properly to convey in a car. cartone. cashiered. Fr. Hence a challenge openly hung up. It. caisse. To Carve. crush. shell or carcase of a house. ceorfan. kerven. casualis. caisse. luggage. des rideaux A'carp^ie. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. case-maiej Sp. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. fall It. To quash an indictment. It. kerpu. to — — also casse. bag and baggage of a camp. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. cascata. made void. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. a paper case. Sp. Fr. krat. Case. Walach. bitten. a car. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. and that apparently from capio. cassa. abrogate. Cassock. Fr. charrier. Fr. from Lat. a coffer or small case for jewels. carroccio. cancel.' — Hdcart. to notch. long man's gown with a close body. mord-grube. Cartel. Carriage. G. where Fr. case. coffer. dim. caxa. from casa. something that actually occurs. crown of a hat. from It. As defence from shells became more important. — Cartoose. To Carry. Lat. turn out of service. blotted out. It. casus. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. Cask. the charge of — — Fr. caisse. hollow. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. Cartoon. Fr. Cot.to annul. Sp. casso. Cot. Hence casket. Rouchi carone. Preparatory drawing of a It. charogne. gristle. carretta. Case. Fr. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. mord-keller. Rouchi caroche. AS. and the OE. to cut or carve . also the carriage. casa. the money chest. See Gristle. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. a chest. It. house. hull of a ship. cascade. To Cashier. Lat. as we . quash. augmentatives of carro. OE. to fall. It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. Du. cascare. carrosse. not reaching to the height of the ditch. Casuist. kerben. The Sp. a car. — — . to hold. It. a chance or accident. of carta. void cassare. card. Cash.— Fl.. Casual. from the sound it makes when Alban. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. cascar. like all the names of tendon. Flor.' Bailey. from It. casitiste. carota. a merchant's cash or counter. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. cancelled.' Cot. cassette. Carrot. casacca. charrette. empty. cartella. ignominiously exposed. annul. cartilage. to break. Fl. discharge. casuelj Fr. discharge It. a long coat. to an- — Kil. coffin of paper for groceries. carriaggio. kasseren. a of water. a hut. hung up in some place and to be removed. fortuitous. Casket. to fire on the enemy. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. ' Casa-matta. packing ' cloth. slaughter-house. casaque. a canonry or slaughterhouse.

accastiare. KaTaarpifm. the ground . Fr. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. to end. mino. being Fin. Lat. a garment for performing the mass in. while kiss / Pol. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. to cast or beat to tioner . away. heat . Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. probably from an imita. to turn overturn. CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. cascar. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. cash. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. follow after. bot-kotis. to drive Cat o' nine tails. or bruise together. casulla. puras E. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. to Fl. to clack. Cot. . The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . of sarabands does Gr. castanetazo. like that of It. . KarapaKrr]g. to scourge. klakka. The Diet. squash. ecrevisse. . artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. same word with break. Yz. cat-o'-nine. down. which. Mid. Fr. burst cascare. from the first of Castrate. dashing it to pieces. 120. tails. n. and tomba. to break. Cat. Fr. Cast. perhaps from which we have E. 'Vaaaw. catch. Fr. ating. kottr. to torture. speak of dashing a thing down. to drive away. to hurl See Awgrim. Pm. crush . It. a thump. Gr. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. The E. catar. kasi. handle of an axe. castellum. to lash. rack. fall. Fr. Etym. Castle. a whip on the other into latch. puss / for calling them.. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. cassa / cry for the same purpose. or comba.. cat. by the loss of with several pitched cords. So also from It. cacciare fuora. Sp. from water Karappaaaiii. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. to hunt. a chesnut . sue. kaJoivad. to is Essentially the Sp. is not satisfactory.the / or c respectively. ichasses. In the dialect of Picardy. Isidore — in Diez. kic' kicil are used chasser. race. arpi^m. to look at. in the fire. Fr. under chi caleur. KaraXoyog. It. represented by the syllable quash. the stalk of plants. a little house or hut. To Catch. cacciarc. chaleur. down. to close. Roukind. a cat . chasser. a fortified place. Chase. coming to us through different dialects of French. second chase. casser. . fer toTa. B. on. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. drive away. dim. Pol. Sp. cojz^/a. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. to bring to an crack given by the joints. In hke manner Rouchi cacher.'— Pr. V Lith. Hal. kakka. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. 134 CAST Catacomb. V. to make clean or chaste. the earlier sense of catch. chasser. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela.to drive out. To It. to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . stilts. casule. chat. kasta.Lat. a cat koshki. force j Rouchi equerviche. ON. execu. Castanets. castana. to crackle. Fr. however.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. a Cataract. kotas. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. castello. was introduced. name. to dash. Lang. Lat. image accasciare. to fall as over a precipice. of castrum (castra). R. — We a cavity. shaft of a 1 push.— Fl. Catalogue. Brunne. ' Catchyn away abigo. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). first made ordinary Fr. castro. Pic.Rouchi Scaches. lance. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. kotas. to crack. katze. dashing it out of the window. and from the castus. torture.out cacciare . &c. OFr. an enumerlist. a vault. kat. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. Gr. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. Thus we have Caste. or Rouchi cat. squash. Others explain it from Kara. cast. casipola. dash. the castanets for or implement . kissa. signifying breed. chasuble. Gael. Fr. It. cacciuolo. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. _G. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. . koshka. punch. and KviilSog. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched. which has been retained in E. Fr. KaTappaKTrjQ. casupola. Catastrophe. Hence castaneta.

the elements of a science. Claucht. to crack GATES cache. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. companaige. a smack. . klatschen. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. latch of. an accusing. Cot. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. i. called dog or Galla catchamza.yopl(. sound. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. Cot. to snatch (said of dogs). gattola. is said that he got a claucht of it. chatter .j. Kartiyopta (/cari. dainty vic- a form lash. Kil. millecaterpillars. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). a caterpillar Milanese can. GaUa catchiza. gingle. the OE. kletse. KaTtix'so. children's name for cat . Gael. seize. de Bray. . to clap hands. Tutschek. .' CATCH Fr.s. Sp. Cates. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. clap. chenille {canicula.. Diez. wild-beast. klatscherei. caker. E. a whip or Kuttner. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. fragor kletsoore. a whip. a pill. blow. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. the distance to which the ball is struck. insect. worm. from Gr. ecachoire. dainties. clap with the hand. Du. the the same principle he was Fr. 'Bxn. G. Gael. quincailler. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket.V. pedes. icarrix'Ki^. OFr. gliong.) . devouring mite or weevil. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way. ' Fr. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. called in Fr. chase. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. ictus resonans. a.P. cache. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . formerly called cliket. chatter. a — gatta. Ptg. bicho. to A bailiff.' ^Jam. and answer. 'Horxa. Fr. E. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Grandg. Du. Wal. verberare kUts. apprehend a person. Swiss Lombard G. * Caterpillar. ' ' word catch. latch. — explained. laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. glcu. E. woodlice. c or ^. happe-chair. which all . catch. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. resound. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. a carter's Pat. chasse. a. snatching. a cornIn the s. kletsen. snatched. silkworm. * Cates. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. to harangue. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s.V. weevils. to kythe D. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. Fr. to snap. chachara. resono ictu lash. Caterer. catch. cagnon (a dog). P. — . smack. to take. catch-flesh. In the XV'e. caucht. clatter. to teach by oral instruction. catc?u. to catch strength. On Catechism. Metivier. Guernsey pilleure. instruction in forms. Kil. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. — tinman. . — B. klinke. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . an officer of taxes. with and without an / after the c. cat is not apparent. has both or of charming by sound. flap klatsche. head. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. s. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. kaetse. e. Sc. . klatsche and Norm. ArbaUte de courte chasse. chassoire. to the crack. Chate peleuse. whip. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. Fr. as of the latch of a As ! — . in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. — Kiittner. Gr. predicament.from Bard and ayopsw. compare G. — with a whip. Du. bichano (pussy). properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. to chat. klatsch. a whip. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. Rouchi clincailleux. snatching it with a any one. a little dog). claquer. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. chacepol. from shutting with a click. — Catcli-poll. to chatter with the teeth cake. ketsoore. Guernsey chafer. chink. a clap. 135 — Aasen. a whip Rouchi cachoire. door when it is shut. in order). e.

also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. adcaptare. choufleur {choii. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. cavaliere. and spareth for no perell. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. to buy. calceata. the. Palsgr. Lat. Cavalcade. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. what . 2.Lat. a The peel. OE. Cavalier. reticella. The word — . Fr. catkin mitz. A warm comforting drink. hazel. Bessie of Bednall. and at the rich man's cost By sea. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. a horseman. chausser. fur. Catkin. Fr. kopano. It. arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. . to sound like a blow . puss. KaHSpa. Kil. Boethius. ' Gr. flue. ce^l. Du. cheval.' Elyot in Way. catkin Pol. a kind of skull-cap. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. chair. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix.—— — 136 correct. Palsgr. Manciple's Tale. from chaud. — — cavallo. otherwise written kell. Russ. Mid. capull. causa. flock. accapitare Rouchi acater. rete A — Prov. to shale or peel. Fr. . cabbage). to beware. Chaud. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. cauHs. kobuiV. kopista. via strata. little cat. catkins . make clean. Sx. but the acates that are sent him. cal^ar. the caul of the liver. katte.' B. achepter. a kettle for heating water. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. Gr. is Prologue. kassije. On the other hand. Wyatt in R.. Kavrfipiov.. It. koparet. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. Cause. Cavern. Cathartic. chevalier. Fr.willow. a mare. Caustic. calotte. puss. cautus). . Cauldron. calceta. by land. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. and hence a skull-cap. Cathedral. shaled or picked Fr. catons. kdtzchen. hollow. mutz. Dryden in R rete. Caballus. B. chaussJe. Cavity. Kavrijp. w. challe was ther of a temple.^Hal. a horse. Fr. cale. kocie. caudex . CATHARTIC sense. walnut with the husk on challer. Caution. It. macska. Hence achates or acates signified purchases. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. calqada. is used in the sense of cat-skin. little cap is . Pol. a stalk.Lat. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. minon. Ka^afriKOQ. fur in general. Cavalry. whence cathedralis. kitten kotki. caple. Causeway. kin. accattare. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. calidus. puss. kautsije. Jaubert. the stones of a street. cabbage. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. cale.Y\\Xea. Cattle. chatideau. also to pave . 4. . Mid. Fr. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. to burn. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. cabbage-stalk. kobyla. to purge. cavus. . — com en achate or buying Chaucer.^ acheter (Lat. cat maczoka. a seat. G. It. Fr. That he was ay before in his estate. a horse . chaudroii. acaptar. Thus Bav. apt to burn iron. despencier. primitive is meaning a shale or off. from delf^gato. a road calceata. from KaSaipio. mudet. Du. catkin Magy.p. Fr. Fr. a horse . Port. a pulpit. green husk of a calon. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. Lat. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. — . Lat. . It. — Cauterise. katteken. &c. Provider. kocianki. hot. any Fl. kaussijde. Fin. CAVE Caul. a pavement. . Lat. chauderon. from caveo (p. caldo. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. caballus. a receptacle for small things. to ac- — Fr. • — — See Chattel. Rete. cautis. Gr. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. Jonson in R. Gr. Lat. Caudle. hot. to shoe . Gael. lamb. klopfend knallen. a paved road. to shoe. dumpf tonen. a branding from koiio. net or caul-work. Delycates. Lat. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. deyntie meates. Diez). Cave. KaPaWrii. having the property of cleansing. Fr. quire. Richly she feeds. Pr. chaudiire. KiwariKog. acater.

semely on syll. Fr. thel. also a seeling of boards.'— Z. kommata.' Hall. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. — . sky. the testern of a bed. to plank or floor with planks.. 5. cavezzone. quibble. Hal. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. canopied. cellar. . death. p.' — Gawan . hollow ice . a log. a hut. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. the roof of a coach. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. Fr. step away. Lat. menuiserie. hung. post.). The line of descent from Fr. CAVESON kopera or kowera. flooring E. or of a bed. . the inner roof of a room of state. coffer. The It. departure from this life. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. . a cavern in a mountain {wuora. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew.' Cot. -cede. . Plancher. &c. little house. Fr. with their substantives concession. but hang around at the sides. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. 32. -cease. komista. of E . and zaum. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. cabega.' Rutland papers. Lat. komo. — komo tain). 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. . sill. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. Sir 137 pit . In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. Cam. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. sybire. thiling. A — A false accommodation produced G. to canopy siled. jaa. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. kapp-zaum. heaven. door-sill J Sc. a canopy. to argue capto tiously. in Hal. cavillor. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka. plank. So from Fin. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. VIII.j have come from this source. ciel is so unbroken. thil. Gawaine & Sir Gol. Cede. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. lambris. to cut.' Ordinances and Reg. a fir-plank. wainscot thiljar (in pi. H. dScis. . ciel de lit. in Jam. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. a halter. deal. bridle. succeed. a board. Wore. an aquiline nose.). The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. . See -cede. koppeli. a canopy. B. and Gol. cease. &c. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. del into English without ' translation gave cele. proceed. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. cielo. The sense of roofing. to go forth. lambrisser une chambre seeling. a boarded floor. dille.. In the N.' del. selar. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. Cot. To seele a room. and that from Sp. E. Soc. In the same way G. Fr. thil. nailes will begin to cling. cyling (W. selure. cesso. Cavil. board . and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. pp. CEILING The kynge to souper is set. a planking or boarding tkilian. empty. wuoren komo. applied to a canopy. seele. rafter. the deck of a ship at thilja. exceed. as. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. a log. to seele or close with boards plancher. . yield. syl. sill in window-sill. It.' Marriage of James IV. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. a plank. plank. as if from happen. a beam. Sherwood. . cabegon. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. a severe bridle. Cease. curved. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. IV. is applied to a canopy. — . of cavezza. were met. dayntily diglit. thili. Boyd in Jam. the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. give place. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. syle. Hence concede. that. . -cess. The importation of Fr. 43. thelu. thilja. augm. dil. and then to gape. Lat. hollow. -ceed. . to panel or wainscot MHG. wall. Sp. . to plank ON. in Jam. crooked kopio. decessus. column E. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. cedo. ceiling. Ceiling. a log. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. And seik — Cessation. . hivtmel. recede. beam. Lat. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. 7. — — — toyour soverane. ceiling. cessum. hollow. departure. sus-lambris. excess. heaven. caveqon. &c. —Decease. a head. p. tester of a bed. &c.

to ensile the haukes that ben taken. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. sift. K^'ivut. — . It. irot\oe. but was gradually lost in conceit. Ceremony. as entering largely into the derivative certo. as in some places burnt. heaven. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. to contend. make angry. a storehouse Chafe. siller les yeux. from censeo. Lat. a Cemetery. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. hollow. and thence to conceal. — . volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. . eyelid. candeo. an eyelash. confounded ist from It. tax. then to rub without reference Cement. zens according to their property. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. to glow. to seal a pigeon's eye. renown be embodied with. single or unwedded life. stones to the production of heat. to heat.cern. judge Lat. deceit. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. the hollow the Lat. Sc. also grave opinion. -cepere. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. to celebrate. Lat. Fr. Lat. sure. Cell. Take the nedyll and threde. and — — — possessions. observe. and met. Cereal. (and thence also) to hoodwink. a solemnity. To chafe is for wine. is the opposite of disora virum.). centum. blind. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. much frequented. goad. cella. Cess. decide. to course of people. -cern. Census Censor. abundance. — . — . a numerous con. Gr. Century. to prick.unmarried. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. swift. -CEIVE a shaft. -cevoir.— Chafing-dish. -ceive. empty. Coehim. the place where the de. cilibat. to burn incendo. conceipt. in comp. In Celebrate. and thence censer. Lat. -cense. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. to separate. thronged the participle cretus. cencer. encens. Fr.). cceremonia. Fr. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. family. ' . value. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi.' Book of St Albans. Ta^oe. being taken from Fr. Assize. census. dchauffer. Fr. Lat. and so of that other. solemn (of per. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. judge. to sepap rate. to bury). to rub for the purpose a hut. — . concerner. parted sleep. — A . Fr. age. camentum. to distinguish. the talk of men. -cebre ifoncebre. S. . receipt.. Fr.j 138 thill.— Cellar. Lat. Centurion. for building.. To seel or close the eyes. to blindfold.of the r. &c. to take. Prov. guish. ciller. of heating. what to set in a chafe. rubble.ing a room where there is not fire. a shaft horse. -cipio. Centre. incense. contend. in accordance with the Fr. to attend on object with. Lat. chaufferette. eschattffer. caber. concetto. chauffer. mortar. Lat. cretum. censura. -ceit. &c. Lat. festive. ciglio. we have a modified form of (of a place). capturn. to concern. to rate. cot. decebre) . a tomb. Lat. a valuation of every man's estate. cenio. and put it through the over eyelydde. crevi. capio. criticism. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. materials It. KsvTpov. to sleep). Celerity. sacred show. To Incense. See Celibacy. -oept. ceremonia. point. concernor. a prick. assess. in Marsh. to seele or sew up the eyelids . For sess from assess. Cij(fe5j. judge. distinIt. Cot. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. pick out. a registration of one's self. Accelerate. -ceptjun. 1. Assess. the officer appointed to take such returns . -ciper. Fr. Gr. to set on fire. thence belonging to or connected with corn. syll. his office. census. become heated with anger. estimate. Celebrity. — . calefacere. to -sum. sting. is totally distinct from the foregoing. The term cilium. to take. with transposition hence (of a day). quarters for slaves. calefare. Fl.' Celebritas. Censer. in comp. a solemnity. — — Cenotapli. Censure. -i^oivre. deceipt. see. -cess. Cot. tax. {cori)cipere. sile. to chafe. /ctj/rsw. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. the point round which a circle is drawn. Lat. to twinkle darkness. to warm. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. a hundred centuria. a hundred of what- — . cerealis. oil. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. celer. from Saa-rw. to visit in numbers. It. -cepire. Fr. Lat. appertain. celeber certus. Lat. riscaldarsi. OFr. to be regarded as one celebro. Sherwood. with the eyes. Gr. Incensum. -civer {conciver— Roquef. cigliare. See Cede. Gr. a religious observance. to incense. oil. Censor. Certain. keep in It. to think. cillier. or expression of Ennius. rough from the quarry. Chafe. or any bird's.

calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer.sure carriage. Fin. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr. taubes korn oder hafer. rally one. . to tattle. Pers. snuff. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. Chagrin. keuchen. — — — . in a monstrous fume. difficulty . There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. khah. Lat. tattle cheep. kahuja. ceaf. Du. OFr. fume. kuhina. G. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. a jackdaw. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. matter by combat. on. Fr. So from dominio. Ayenbite. From the To Chaff. chaire. Lat. ckapfare. haggle. much blowing. chayire. Gr. kaff. songe. ing a hard case to their wings. kahu. from of the G. keffen. dongio. kahista. E. Fr. — — — — — — . Came. great chafe. Wall. clamare. Bav. . hiss. a vault or arched roof. B. chaffare. talkative. any insect of the beetle kind. grief. to claim. To buy and sell. calx. care. to buzz. P. to ner It. de Brai. place See Cheek. Lat. kdfer. to bark. sagri. a goba rustling . to move the jaws. kuhuja. cathedra. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. chicane. — . cadena gives chain. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. as. to call. Perhaps Pm. kever. — — — . The jaw chafty. as a carriage is a moveable seat. limare. ceafer. thick and short. ON. idle words. Fr. kuhista. much more Genoese sagrind. havOFr. signal by drum or P.nium. catena. From Port. 11. tronfio. Lat. gewolb. cadieira. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. from the shark-skin. kuhata. KoBiSpa. shaIt. From to go to law. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. or puff with snorting.. quisquilise offence. Prov. to gnaw. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . camera. to caw chawer. refuse. often puffing. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. Lat. care. hordeum vel let. chaps Chamber. calice. chafeter. preise. Cheffern. . have a mind to parley. Cot. without chap/are makiinde. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. to pant. chaine. to file. chambre.. rustling corn. Piedm. cathedra. calix. In like manto huff. to calumpnjamen. Gr. refuse barley . breathe KaOa^oiiat. a prattling woaction.— — . &c. chaise. to sit. cam. kauchen. charge with. cadera. green sagrin. kiqfta. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. jaw. from Swiss kafeln. puff. false accusation. chagrin. ple^. — — ' — — — A . grief. Pat. Bouffard. . Hal. to dispute. and as this was the beginning of man. Fl. hght Chalk. Adelung. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. sagrindse. Chain. Chalice. baras of ants. rustling motion challenge. calonja. tattle. call in question for an ley). Fr. Due. calumnia. 35. a pulpit Cot. and signifies to consume with anger. Chayire. fa sagramen de calompnia. Du. Fr. that leneth e per I'autra. a double operation * Chafer. G. now a chair. fern-chafer. kaff. a rustling noise. Kaiiapa. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. Pr. kiaftr. kdfelen. to gnaw. Prov. rustle Challenge. also to prattle. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. leviter crepo Then. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. kedja. to fret inwardtronfo. dispute. a pulpit. vis. to action arose. Prov. to Latin calumniare. puffed or ruffled with ly. Fr. contestation. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). p. Halma. crooked. swelling with anger. lime . sborfare. muzzle. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. chalanger. cauvette. Fr. calonjar. Lat. to babble. Camera. vel susurro. breathe hard. to puff and blow. Fr. to chatter or talk lightly. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. to institute anforensic action. ing rapidly repeated cries. to a seat.' Rayn. lime. far lima-lima. Lat. yap. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. Probably from According to Diez. Kuttn. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. in a cana. chafing. kiamta. with a:n arched roof. Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. snort. chamar. Cot. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. ^Altieri. In vulgar language. chawe. Fr. Fr. . chatter. Chair. De Ir4. a chain. cup. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. avena vilior. (ca'e'ra) to chair. a chough. chaene. bargain. cadena. chaulx. of.

kiammi. divided game. Hence (with the nasal) w. a feat. hamper. hot. ON. ON. giving rise to the as. Chancellor. chamble. To Chamfer. chanfreindre. or player at football. excellent. chdance. To cope or contend with. to cample. kimbu. keiiipe. It will. Lat. kappd). Ptg. Fr. Lith. from cheoir. a warrior. reusement — fight in single combat. certare. camp. to hollow out. kampeln. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. cancelli. champ parti. a court of justice. jocus partitus. tsamtsogni. Gall. . to fasten oneself on to another . kibti. zampettare. ing. kempa. escazenza. Champarty. from chaud. kimpUma. chajnbellan . cample). kippo. a game at football. to paw the ground E. cameratus. campus partitus . cempa. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. accidere. — ^Tusser. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. camp. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. kablys. to quarrel (comp. contention kappi. To them naturally fell the office of keep- .' melleia. kimpustella.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. . ciambellano. bickering. dispute Hal. differs only in the transposition of the letter m. dial. prize-fighter. combat. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. gewolbt. The E. mesleiare. sukibti. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . . kampa. to happen {ad and cadere. to wrestle. to stick to. to fall). Magy. termediaries between them and the judge. a field of battle. a hook .edley. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. and acted as inofficers of . to to chew champ. to chew. hero Sw. and mesUe. Commonly derived from campus. kabinti. tsammogni. djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). an athlete. is explained by serrarsi. kabe. Carpentier. ciamberlano. chance. kampen. calidameya. When the to quarrel. a scufSe. kapp. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. Fr. campus. to talk. to slope. Campar. kabMe. . to excel. —Chamfrain. — KiL . game campio. Get campers a ball To camf . chanfrein. to wrestle. to tread The sound heavily. a jaw kianisa. move the jaws. to debate. Champion. e. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. cahir. to slope out the . CHANCEL It. kabintis. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre.' SherI'altro ' ' . s. who stood ad cancellos. boys speak of capping verses. as in It. Lat. campar. head armour. E. to fall. jeu parti. Lat. therewithal. . compound. .—Charfron E. to — — champ. ON. See Camp. Chancel. Chance-n3. dial. Fin. to groove bevel off a right angle. kampeln. Champ. The word is preserved in E. Du. Fr. as swine. Fr. champ. camerlengo. top of a borehole. Champaign. chanfrein. a hollow chanfreiner. Chancery. bundle. rare. champ. champion Du. to smack the lips in eating. cazer. chanfrar. Prov. To hollow out in chanPtg. nels. to hang. chaude mesUe. Sup. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. The G. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. kinipen. fighting place. to hold . E. Fr. to bevel. pinch. Chamfron. cadere. to strive at games . kiinp. difficulty . Meleare. Partnership. kriimmen gebogen.' ' Pr. accident. Sp. caer.140 CHAMBERLAIN . the chafldn. at the railings. Lat. Sp. act of falling. calida et sans aguet. broil.Lat. dial. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. to flute as a column. zs jeopardy. which seems another form of the root. fray. or less ignorant. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. athlete. hng. i. kanip. wood. — masterly Sp.—Tutschek. dial. gekrUmmt. chance. contend or argue G. slope of a bevelled angle. camp. campear. surpassing. a bundle. to move the jaws kiamt. Fr. dial. chamfrain. received the petitions of the suitors. So in e. contest. dricka i kapp. pedilusor. Prov. a horse-race. G. to . from Fr. to fasten oneself to another . to Hal. luctare. kimppu (Lap. fight. — Hal. — Ch-amberlain. Dief. schmatzen s. The happening of things Chance. champ. chain. champ. M. fight. . to fasten on. kempen. to be eminent. . The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . Pm.

wood. to truck. Aasen. and also to chap or crack. the mouth. Du. It is also used in the sense of the E. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Hal. In like manner Walach. or the cracking of one. properly in a hard body. chapa. may be compared with ON. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. schimbu. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. . cantare. chap. Da. chapelete de una bomba. as It. extended to other trades. Bret. Channel. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. ^Jam. to break . debeant conjurare. to strike. Fr. And N. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . I. That wide were sentin their spicery.— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. leather. kiceft as well as kjakje. like the knocking of hard things together. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. . W. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. Lat. to deal. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. Lith. to hack. . —Ordericus Vitalis. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. chop. — — —Marculfus in Due. ceaflas. prune. Chape. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. a dealer in candles then. kaupa. Chip. canalis. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. Chop. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. to swap. waterconduit. Chap. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. a strip of metal plate. — . Molbech. the place where candles ler. to peck. kappen. exchange. Sp. not a soul. cangiare. camjar. to coat. hack . kjaakaa. as skin chapped hands. hard bodies. . Chaps or chops. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. schimbd. as those on a trunk. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. to strike. also a clap. any hollow for conveying water. to cut up into small pieces. —Chantry. Hal. muzzle. ON. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. to spht a chip. jaw. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. as chancery . to paw like a horse . Fr. Fr. to peck. esclapa. to plate. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. a money-changer. 2. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. surfaces striking together. throat of an animal. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. kemma. Probably from chap. are kept. to put on fresh clothes. chancery. Lang. chapear. while the broader vowels a. E. kennel. chapeletas de imbornales. to change. Hence chantry. chop. cheek. Fr. chancellerie. a jaw. cambiar. Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. clapet. cambium. exchange schimbatoriu. to sing. to strike with a sharp edge. from canna. and the modern canal. Da. the chaps . a chap is a crack or fissure. Russ. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. chapeta. the gutter that runs along a street. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. See Chant. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. klepan. See Chop. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. Chandler. Chap. as corn-chandChandry. lips of an animal. to creak. to — cut. a small plate of flat metal. esclapo. chandelier. flat . to cut off . to apply one flat thing to another. the loose flesh of the cheeks. Commonly derived from capella. gab. chapilla. skipta. kvar kjceften. cambiare. to cut. Hence It. A fellow. jaw. or the like chapar. chaps. is used in the same sense . Chapel. 140. Man of Law's Tale.^. to plate. Sp. as to chap hands. chiappa. from clap. chanter. kiceft. Walach. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. a pipe. chap. Chap. To Change. cobio. from chandler. Compare chark. The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. . to chap at a door. ceaplas. changer. — : Lat. exchange. Sc. AS. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. shift. a reed. Prov. Cheek. kapoti. the clappers of the scupper holes. a small metal plate Port. the cape or little cloke of St Martin.

to love. talking. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. beloved. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. To Char. Character. wood to coal. to turn. Fr. cabildo. — spell. and in It. Mid. return. cluck kirklys. ceap-man. Lang. as. a merchant. cluck. to of the governing body. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. decken.' Boccaccio in Diez. to sing or chirp as birds. dim. ciarlatore. It. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. Justin. clack. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. to prattle. a dispute . . one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. enough. from capa. Charcoal was ciarlare. Fr. 2. —— . to chirp. dear. in To ness Charity. cearcian. from Charade. Chapman. charlar. ghirlanda seor garland. w. hadka. Lith. &c. charge an enemy is to lay on. that turned decken . chapel. corona. Chaplet. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. Sp. a charm. from capitulum. Charlock. charitas. Ptg. turn. . capella. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. Lay on. surris seu Lat. condo il volgar francese. a riddle. jabber. cha. Lat. kurkelis. Boh. to chirp as sparrows. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. properly to place — . prattling quacksalver. Lat. rightly explained by Tooke from AS. called in Sp. to talk . to turn Gael. carmo. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. chat. burning without consuming the substance. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. chapitre. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. kirkti. cedeleac. capitolo. AS. gadka. chapelet. . Inst. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i.. a head or division of a book. Fr. The crash. pohadka. babdistinction. And damned be he who first cries Hold. creak. a mark made on a thing. eyre. to chirp. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. canne. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. charade. a cricket karkti (schnarren. OE. — a car. used in the sense of magic Fl. cam. charlatan. cerran. to .Lat. kurkti. of chapel. Fr. 370. capellare. babbling. w. seems to be derived charade. Fr. twitter. . as a beetle.charme. Chare. as Pol. AS.czirksti. colliers that charred coal. charger. A weed among com AS. In that work the verb is written caire. from carrus. wreath for the head. to tattle. krachzen). * Charcoal. to dove . eapitulo. caricare. the turtle pitre. chirk. keeren. turn about. it is my turn. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. Chark. Cot. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. Hence carminare. in turns. go. See Cheap. — — — turned to coal. bler. Macduff. Charge. a mark of a mountebank. creak. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. An enchantment. grave or make incised marks on an ob. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . charcoal burners. Swiss. to converse. Sp. tattler. which was incantation. to load . also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. twist. gaggle . karout. siarad (pronounced — sharad). dear(in both senses). to creak. to charcoal. a hood. It. gnash. to prattle. a riddle. from cape or cope. czirbti. chatter. to croak as a frog .whirr. Charade. Chapter. car. Bret. czurksti. occasional turn. from gadai. carricare. czurliwoti. It. Du. char. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. tegere. (eucharistie. charer. chirriar. Sup. carmen. Gr. a The OFr. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. carregar. Mundart. called kedlock. chatter. . Deutsch. Chirk. chirlar. Charlatan. chara. Prov. carus. caritas. affection. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . a turn cerran.). a garland of roses. cher um cher. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Sp. es ist mi cheer. capital. See Charlatan. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. the nature of a thing. Yx. From Norm. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. for the same reason rosario. be- e. a rhyme. Lat. hiss Lith. a verse. It. ject). The G. schreien.

Fr. kastaa. The origin seems preserved in the Fin. — The . a branch and a young female. scraps of for fuel. It. fragments or leavings of food. knatiern. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . Chasm. pure. schioppare. root of the Lat. G. a crack or a flaw . . or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. CHATS fit 143 to name. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. ch). as we speak of olive branches. D. — We ornamental work the to signify E. knacken. from xoAn. g. charmer. to talk. a yawning. to cut and faggoted. a young man . Chamel. Malay. racket . chikat'. to wet. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. Fl. talk. To chit. caro. as from nomen It. flesh. sordidus. B. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. Chary. a chatter-box. clear. to cry as a chicken . whistle.— Chatter. . little sticks cudere. To work plate as silversmiths do. parcus. Pol. — = Chats. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. incassare. Cot. Pol. the young shoots . as. xi'i-'^vui. to chirp. clean. csacsogni. kata.a. chick. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. the cry of the bat. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. chaste. s. enchasser. also to hatch. to crack. It. clack. an enchantress. chisf. shivers. the noise of birds. —Charter. pure. chits. noise. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. or the cry of a bird or the like. clean. gaddc. nome and . In like manner Russ. To chip is then to crack. magpie. a word. i. or equivalent forms. to crack. —Jam. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. ch&tier. chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. Lat castigare. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. cearig (from cearian. to clap. carmen is presented in AS. eclats. So in Gael. crackle. prattle. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. An imitative word. The egg is chipped. Kil. clatter. to burst open. a churchyard or charnel-house. — — . snap. It. prate. carnisj bones kept. to care). The primary import of the syllable a great number together. Pm. to chatter or prattle . To chitter or chipper. geug.ppen. also to germinate or spring forth. Fr. be wide open. splinters. castus. to baptize. a plate of metal. careful. Chart. Fr. the bird is iiown. — sharp sound of a crack. shout OE. niggardly. whence a charm of goldfinches. Kil. carme and Fr. in Jam. is to represent the chamier. chary. kna. tittle-tattle. gallan or ogan. from purus. a shrine for a relic. blackthorn-chats. Lat. Hal. converse. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). warble. csatora (Magy.. to chirp as a bird to cheep. gazeuiller. jackdaw . — Palsgrave. chat. or pop. Fr. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. cassa s. chykkyn (Pr. to chirp. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. to make a noise. %aafi. a branch. kippen. to separate in morsels. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. charm. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. czysty. chick. used to represent a sharp note. It. la chasse d'une rose. chair. as turnip-chaits. chit in the latter sense Du. —Chastise. chip. chit-chat. to enchase it . a flock of those birds. —Bailey. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. Magy. the handle of a razor . to which it bears the same relation as chape. karg. pure. To talk. ferire.— Chit. Russ. Chat-wood. germinate . talk much . a twig Suffolk chaits. tenax. gazzerare. as purgare Fr. Parallel with E.). Du.house. csaterdzni. cs E. Cot. warble. csacsogany. clean. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. to gape. or a bird out of the egg. discourse. cyrm. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. speak . From carinen was formed It. chaste. See Catch. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. To Chasten. castus. limpid. noise. the calix of a rose. See Card.). — Fr. It t. karigh. occasionally Forby. chatter. clap. See Cistern. gazzolare. or suckers on rough borders. also a youth. gazzettare. V. letters p. chip. chit. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. — Yorkshire chat. To Chase. gadu-gadu. OE. gazzogliare. from pure. Fl. Chaste. as in the E. chip. make a noise as birds do. — Hal. Gr. to set a jewel. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. kata-kata. To Chase. fragments. Diez. a gap. nommer. Chat.

The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching.. ceafl. Faire bonne chire. jaws. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. Chear. &c. kak. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. kek. prattlingchete. kaupiti. us. kikottaa. cara. upon a checked cloth. and. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage . Hal. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. the Confessor. . . kakaista. Check. teeth . chear in the sense of victuals. snout. to clear the throat . sale. Pm. thers.— . kik. The gutGoth. Sc. kaupon. farm for farm. kauf. s. whence captale. changing. the countenance Fr. entertain kindly. chatel. mandibula. to laugh. 144 the It. . Ingulphus. to vomit.— Cattle. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. kakkaset. the tongue. citello. are represented piti. . kichen. Then. See Cheek. OFr. Soc. which is used in the to stutter. a piece of moveable property. to act as a rogue. Chew. visage. catalliim. giggling. sense of bargaining. koopen. to swap goods . a tavern-keeper. It.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. cattle. cita. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. chire. sob E. which is the word in ceap. . dchec.of the throat in coughing. Bav. a cheater. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. syllables ^ag-. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. exAS. force of the word. agreeing upon. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini.. Cam. chatal. bon marche. to chop and change. Ek dry and hard. from Lat. a canting knave. from AS. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. to deal ON. Slav. stuttering. chaptel. a dealer. hawkmann. G. Lat. to make inarticulate sounds in . a dealer in horses. choule. and hence the E. See Chess. tradesman. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere.ing. price. Fin. ceap. gagkern. to negotiate. Fr. chuckle. to buy. capitale. chavylbone or chawlbone. caupo. in Fr. giving or taking in exchange. a repulse. welcome heartily. It — Brompton in Due. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. Fr. favour.— Chole. frown. kaufen. et juxta catalla sua. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. lead to OE. — We ' . Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. ceaflas. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. to — .. retching. to stutter gigken. Cot. chiere. horse-couper. a young boy or girl. while it Bret. It. with Dief. a rogue or person who used the canting language. Chattels. KaviiXog. e.kakot. Bohem. kok. Hence to cheat. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. laughing. — — —Chowl. to fetch the breath with difficulty. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. a willing look and unwilling heart. chapman. cera.-^. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. equiva. ku. with the exception of land. to . yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. Cheek. Gr. to nauseate (to retch). gagkezen. jaw. the face. look. lower. to coff—Yisi. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. in widely separated languages by the Lat. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. cozener. OFr. society. cheeks.— Chaps. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. CHATTELS has ciio. keck. CHEEK zitella. chop. sum in a loan. the principal ' colloquial E. to coup s. countenance. Cheat. ceahhetan. goods. goods.—Choke. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. Du. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough. cattle. cachinnari. cattle. any cheating.' kezen. Modern Slang. aspect of a man. kaupa. Sp.' to exchange to gasp. to cough and hence either buying or selling. Pr. Pro v. stuttering. truffa. NE. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. gig. to buy. the Lat. — To check an account. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. to cluck like a hen. 'li^'opa jord i jord. Fl. entertainment.

The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. AS. rennet. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. kastr. To Cheep. mouth kek. jaws Sw. a cricket. make an end. suffo.D. a rafter . Du. Analo. geagl. kces. . F*-. then end. /Ji2^/(W. subacidus. X'C&s. skratt. kjakje. subjected to this process with that which the throat . ichec. See Alchemy. by laying up in a covered heap. &c. rupted into chess. caru. ceaplas. cabiron. clear the throat. old bread. to year. Hence chesten-nut. incaseatus. cheek.' to w.. See Case. caseus. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. by laying it in come to an agreement with. nish source. the hke. the loose the game of checks. Fr. In these latter forms we see the transIt. to kasa. treat with affection. kaecke. cabrio. kjcebe. schach. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. See Chess. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. kesten. to belch. jouffle. mollium congeries. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. to accomThis they call hdrsk. as. Lith. kasa. prevail with. chops. Fr.cirieggia. chops. jaw. carnium. Lith. To make a shrill noise Chest. — 10 . Prov. Cherry. It. cisty G. ceg. ost. AS. the palate Chequer. chasi. N. xaque. gous forms are G. a heap. to boken. Sc. Du. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. dear. w.. cheek. food. chesten. rattle in the throat. practice seems to have been communiChevron. E. cheek. quok. Da. Kil. Cher. cireggia. Lat. for cheese itself. . cyse.peep in the same sense. czypti. accomplishment cayed. to choke with laughter. to swallow. quoka. caws. Thus "we are brought din. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. Fr. From them the plish. chiffe. the throat. OHG. to heap up such things for the purchoke. jowl. kikna of dorum coacervatio. Fris. schach. cegio. gabe. — — . Chemistry. takes place in the formation of cheese. E. things Da. As the board to gasp i. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. chests in OE. Chef. Prothroat of an animal . Lat. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. Fin. (Kil. e. scacco. kirsche. to prevent the attack of cavalry. Chess. Sp. gap.perly head. giffle. to choke. kjceve. which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. ceac. cams. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. Sp. kapen. castaneusj Fr. ation. to geahl.Xo belch. kasiiUPr. Hence kikna is identical with OE. Chevaux de frise. Cherish. kistej Lat. to gasp. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. jaw . the mouth or so marked are called chequered.EP CHEVRON 145 on. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. Lat. Jam.). throat. subsequently corflesh about the jaws . G.koppen. hasten. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. equal squares of opposite colours. kdke. — — . kopen. gaghel. to gape gab. Tutschek. Chekenyd or querkenyd. cherir. kikna. CHE. like a young chicken. cista. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. cheeks.G. . chevron. cese. a chicken. ca' — . veluti piscium. w. as meat and butter. Pl. chevir. kastanie. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. jaw. gullet. Lat. to love. kdkel. kok. chaps. Fr. whence czypulas. the The use of the word kcesir. chAtaigne. Chevisance. w. dersen . E. acquisition.D. whence kasa-leipa. squeak as a mouse. the final guttural is retained in writing. king). cheken. ON. cough. condition of being taken. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. E. cufd. rafters in heraldry. G. . frame by which the exertion is made. The Sw. An imitative word. ceaflas. — — . gill of fish AS.pose of acidifying them kasadr. Sc. to hold dear. to make a noise different word. the mouth. The name of creak as shoes. to kep. made rancid koka. Sw. the neck. Fr. Achievement. Pm. cerise j G.their struggle for independence. ceocian. cerasus. Sw. AS. achever. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. jaws. It would Cheese. to bring to an end. geafl. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. throat. . The Lapps prepare much of their compass. gapen.

146 brial. cica cica. Fr. Chitter. knarren. kauwe. to go. Chime. E. cabar. from little to little. to the brim. Gattel. pipio. rafter. tiuk. caferu. as pointing out the origin of the E. Brezza. aner. to pettifog. tiukkata. Prov. ]). Chimb. Chigue.' my finger tingles with cold. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. are formed Du. chillar. kieken. to chime. crepo. Pm. chicken. rafter . but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. cild. and from the third E. machouere. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. the least imaginable jot. Swiss kiden.D. Walach. to smart. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W. while didder is to shiver or citteren. kitista. gills of a fish. Da. chol. E. Du. kimme. term is ssaru fu. chic. kindeken. Chill. A To Chew. to raise the rim. Pr. czypulas. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. a hen.— . chin. kilderkin. kimia. . knirschen. Now gan some courage unto him to take. chikat'. AS. zitterti.D. to scold. pole. And hence. Chaw. horns of the house. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. pipio. to titter is Du. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. kind. . the throat. a little bit. chef. tiukka. — — Mother Hubbard. kauen. gosling. twitter. kimista^ . mouth. a cup. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. or as E. Magy. choule. tremble with cold. Sp. The loss of the syllable it in Du. tintelen van koude. or chick. beam. — . cheek. strideo. kop. It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. creak. Fin. Fr.peep. kinderen. kaw. G. chillness or shivering. the jole. to twitter. into a continuous shriU sound. also the horizon. kauchen. acute. chavel. a small cask OFr. De finger killet mi for kalte. kopf Du. 'Among these the G. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. signifying properly shivering. — Du. ultimate origin of the Mite. cib. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. cabriones. : — a lump. kibr. capu. cidan. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. a finch. pipe. k'imm s. Fin. Fr. keichen. Tintillo. capo. killen.). to use the jaws. cabar beinne. lead through the synonymous E. To chitter. to crackle. s.. klagend tonen. Kil. rafter . the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. chieftain. as. capete. in Walach. Chick.. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. chimb.— Gattel. chew or chaw. killen. kidata. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. chavel. chicaner. caprioru. quivering sound which passes. the rim or edge of a vase. kuwe. mountain top . by driblets. caput. Payer chiguet A chiguet. a quid of tobacco. chillrar. Russ. — It. De chic en chic. head.^ to resound as a bell. from the first of which is Lith. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. To Chide. Pl. Child. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. w. kaau•wen. CHEW . Fin. a cup. — Fin. to gasp for breath (Hal. chicoter. a chicken. chaps. Pm. or qf people talking rapidly. alter. kouwe. queror. chiquei. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. cabarach. to contest about trifles. tiukkua. the head. when the vibrations become very rapid. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E. to Du. then cold. greloter is to shiver for cold. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr. ' . G. branchy. pululo. has probably the same origin. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. Probably from Fr. jaw. horn wood. a cup cibaw. a young bird. Gael. Du. E. Lat. and not vice versd. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. a jaw. the same principle I regard On birds. . or the broken noise of birds. while the Magy. the young of animals in general.— Cot. the cry of young . jaw. chill. kime.^ Hal. CHJME the radical form is unusual. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. from the second Lat. cebr. to chew. The Pl. grelot). chawbone. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. Bret. cap. pi. then as G. See Chimmer. knit the brow cib-led. Fl. Fl. Palsgr. For the see word Doit. deer's horn. sonorous. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . W.. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. a chicken. to chirp or peep like a chicken. a chicken. tremble. Imitative of a loud clear sound. kippa. to contest. a head. It. the Ptg. antler. stake. ach. Chief. hiss as meat on the gridiron. Halm. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. captain. pip.-ill. tyuk. jaws .. Pr. chiler.

ykvvQ. but or cry as a parrot. gen. — . cincel. to chirp. Chine. Cot. KinneGr. kink hoest. to sound deep or the Gr. . fyr. clangor tinniens kummata. rustle. cheminde. Chimney. Bret. chick. See Chats. tsongeni. disCot.schricken. . kumista. The change from the sound ter \s. schetteren. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body.to chirp. Chintz. caperd. ciseau (for cisel). eschiner. j^lf. Chymerynge. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . eschin^e (de pore). chin . to chirp . It. esquena. the jaw. simmer. to sizel. and chim-mer. To chink with laughter. Chat. It. schetteringe. verynge or dyderinge. schiena. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . to chink. as the chink of money.er. schrick.czirbti. To chirp or twitter. et garrire .. . sparkle. gena. tschirpen. to simmer. genawi. quavering of the voice. the jaw. a szemrcU. from the geon's lancet. fissure. Hindost. as birds the mouth. twitter caminus. a chap. tremulous motion. G. zirken. komista. Chit. Chink. AS. to creak. to chirre. from Lat. See Bright.sharp. Chimera. Fr. the cheek (jaw) . czirszkti. Fr. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. Bav. 147 kimina. cisaille. The small entrails of a hog. keich husten. Caminatum. in the same crack. as the/ is preserved tering. crepare. applied to tremulous motion. shiver and the chyver of Pr. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. then to any narrow crack or AS. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. kinne. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. to open chirriar.. Fr. which differ from each other only as Chirk. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. ciarlare. Chink-cough. and bodily movement in shimm. from 10 * ' Chia. It. a Kuttn. cheek. genou (pi. do. Sp. Sp. and the Du. hus. E. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. spina. sounding deep. quivering or shakyng for colde. kumina. cisello. to creak. skina. as a large bell . Pr. Chin-coug^h. resonance . Ptg. pare also Walach. twinkling light. a chink or fissure. backBut she withal no worde may soune. and from a similar sound to boil gently. to chink with laugh2. sound on beginning to boil. i. Prov. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. In the same sense. squittire. to prattle czirpti. a thorn. a thorn. Gascoigne in Todd. have been used to designate the spine. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. clashing of weapons. — . cinne. hiss Pm.iron. originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. also vibrans. killed by Bellerophon. komia. name Then. clipping of coin. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. Du. See Chap. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. representing connected together. It. the whooping cough. chhint. sonus the backbone Lat.Huloet in Hal. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. A . bx-eak the back of schena. Fr. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. companied. cleft. eschine. chirp. schina. is applied to the separation of the broken parts.Lat. klincken. the chin . plodere. to tremble. to sound. chits. the cheek. to prattle . Magy. or chyFrigutus. kieck hoest. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. cinan.). Chitter. G. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. Du. pork) . in Hal. the mouth (jaws) .' Phaer's Virg. Gower in Hal. Lat. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. chink. a surkik hosta. See Chark. bone . — . E. Sp. Sw. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. caminata. Fr.to divide or Du. Huloet. . stridere. Chitterling. and light. To Chitter. flaw Hal. esquina. Chip. as a bell kommata. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. sound. then of a fabulous monster part goat. a crowing sound in recovering breath. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. tinnire. part lion. are In like manner E. to tattle. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. hiss chirlar. Diez de. Gloss. Lith. a hall Mid. yivtiov. tsengeni. to chine. Primarily a shrill sound. Pm. chatter . up and down. to murmur. Kil. The desig. To Chimmer. backe. Chyrme or chur. — — — — — . It. ter. Chisel. dial. . the chine. to squeak in It. sonants. epine. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Sp. vincially used in the sense of a crack. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. all these imitative terms being minata. spina. zirpen. caminsects. — . to gape. hollow. a fire-place.

The origin of the word in the sense of choisir.. a small slice or slip of anything . gusten. Chap. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. cut up into — See Chats. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. G. coup. cke. heaped measure. kor6n. to taste. &c. to try. experience valerie. cive. from %u\i). haslets. chawdron. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. to taste. lead us on to Lat. . the small parts of the roots of plants. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. gustare. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. full. krussyi. chiffe. Yr. are used in the same sense.gust. to ing is doubtless to taste. whence choleric. also calPs. Luc. Gr. a twittering. to taste. and Vf. to palpitate . shiver. Body and Soul. then to try. wrath. ^S. to strike hands . %o\ifa. gekrose. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. schiefer. chattering. G. Prov. to clap up Hal. and in kosten. ments of the knightly class. arkiusan. Fr. chatter. chorus. select. The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc. keypa. and in this sense the * small pieces. kushevati. a goose's giblets. propagated. friller. kusid. choix. a ruff. — Chock-full. to Compare also Pol. or original meaning is preserved in G. kruszki. shoot . taste. a heap. x^poc. try. pieces . kausjan. Serv. a chive. gdnse gekrose. prove.ceosan. to stop geschoppt voll. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . I. an onion. chimp. cepa. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. Jam. Gr. disposition. The . . signify to kiss. seallion or unset leek. Lat. of E. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. 19. chives. caperd. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. The Sc. curly . the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. to try. kushati. kaup. fresure. Chivalry. to break off in small shive. kiesen. to chap at a door . to tempt. chibble. kiusan. Chuck-full. by which they are Fr. Boh. . from kraus. a company of singers or dancers. •- Russ. and N. Walach. kieser. taste. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. to wrinkle. Choleric. try. a scale or fragment P1. okusyti. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. to turn. a fragment. i.' who shall not taste death. a ruff or frill.D.. Fr. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. rare. kalbs gekrose. As kushnuti. g'schochet voll. to exchange horses. The manners and senti. a blow. to try . To Choke.' Verie coinme Cot. specially with an application to theatrical performances. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves.' At last he dwelt . in the same language. all seem slate . . to ^cleave . to choose. choppe. anger. to hack. cape. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — . xiv. and It. Swab. Swiss kust. to try. wein didder for cold. Enn Sigridur sem ' . kiusan. to prove.vonic languages are Pol. whence Lat. it is probable that the root kus. Chives. — — — . causir. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. kustigen. kbhren. bile. to experience. ruffs. chock full. * To Choose. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. — Cholera. kiezen. skifa. civette. a wine taster. Choice is probably direct from Fr. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. crammed Choir. the ridges prove. Cavalry. as with a blow. — See Cheek. to taste. chife. a calf's chaldern of E. keuren. . chceur. called cMtters in the N. ON. Goth. of an angry — — — ' ' — . by the vibrations of sound or motion. G. developments of the same radical image. from chevalier. to taste. pluck. coro. the inwards of an animal. a rag. The I go to prove them. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. fine threads of flowers. koren. chaup. See try. Schmid. chap hands. CHOP kros. full to overflowing.— B jag E. ON.freze. Chives are also a kind of small onion. Choice. to taste . Fr. &c. approve. Warwickshire coff. to chap. . schevel-steen.V)^x. —Chorus. Equivalents in the SlaFr. Gr. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. chippe. scheve. ^euw. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. a calf's pluck or chaldron . .ffrill. ent quarter. To Chop. word is more likely to be from Lat. to shiver. a knight. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. a young . 2. OHG. as green as leeks.yEuffM. schoch. wkusit' prikushat. then to shiver.

See Change. cheap. cambiare. short piece kubbug. and we actually find champman for chapman. whence e. cresmeau. Chuck. —Shakespeare. gold. AS. dial. -chron-. Fr. Gr. monedula. dial. the same word with the It. by the Robert Shirley. thick-set. Gr.). chapma?i. chack. to speak thieves' slang. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. To Chop logick. a The What dhy ^. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . a lump or piece chump. Fr. as in Fr. Confounded with the bullhead. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. gull. Lat. to cant. to turn over.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. chop. What do you think of me. chub.sohola. dealing. kaej Lith. clat. high clog. klopper.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. Chough. capitone. or miller's kaycke . To Chouse. time ra . A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. cavena. choucas. A jackdaw. a messenger or envoy. E.—Chuokstone. Wall. e. to chatter. we find the following passage Dap. If I discover. ceo. that will thank chiaus — you richly. in i6io. OE. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. E. plump. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. Gr. caqueter. Fr. In Sc. xftovoq. the intestine of an animal. kubb. Chrysalis. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og.). chapineria. gull. to knock. for to defraud. traffic. — Quabbe. Ant. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. as Du. peace. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. chronicles. capitanus. chouette. as in the examples mentioned under Chape.. koppe. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. — . to overturn. kobe. soul-couper. Du. I bring you the Cloughs. . Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. kolbe (club). yiSA. — — — . Chopino. the teeth to chatter . coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. merchant. Come. forms are Chrism. kauwe. E. prattle . a bullhead. p. cauvette j Fr. xop5>}. the string of a musical instrument originally. because she would not endure this husband chopping. from kloppen. sent before him a Chiaus. cow-couper. thumb Fl. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak.— Landnamabok. In the Alchemist. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap.' Jam. claquer. Cot.• — . Nominale in Nat.X. kowe. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. a stump. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. . syllables chat. — Dief. capito. chuet. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It.povucd. kaulhaupt (club-head. an offence against the fitness of times. Fr. A fish with a thick snout and head. To coup. a trafficker in souls. ' ' What's that? Dap. That Face. P. To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. bearand aits. chrisme. whence the Fr. Marin. in Chaucer. Borgoens happen. chevane. one who buys and sells horses or cows. Du. slipper . See Chaff. Peace. cheviniau. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. caphatenus. gobio capitatus. a small fish with a large head. of which such strings are made. chouquette. Jam. Sp. &c.— Chevin. kaufen. quappe. capita. Anachronism. Gr. Madam. whence — E. applied to an owl in that language. noble Doctor. XpvaaXic. — Chrisom. 49. Sw. shop where clogs and pattens are sold. whence apparently the Sup.. cauc. civetta. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. ON. E. chrysalis (Plin. ley in Giiford. Picard. i. kaw. kubbr. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. Chord. Kil. cangiare. chevin.' They are forebuyers of quheit. The Turk was here As one should say. chroniques.\^s. connected with G. to clack. which was written 27. Alchemist. 4. From the Turkish Chiaus. klompe. to strike in the hand. chatter . cob. chapin. xpi'^lia.(. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. Chronicle. Fr. equivalent to the E. overset. kowej Sax. caker. Chub. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. fat. who took in the Turk- clack. chevane. clogs. G. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. a thick piece. e.

hot iron is beaten on the anvil.D. spuma metalli. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). 24. — of the two words. sindel. Cob. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. Probably from It. cendre. countryman. . KaxXij?. Ir. calculus. Lat. blow on the I io6 in Mur. Cleland in Jam. * Cinder. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . Lat. from Lat. sinter. -cisuiri). with It the Lord's house. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think.' And cold. lamak. Chuff. Fr. . ON.' he adds. chops. ceffore. to him a sudden blow. jaws. G. to form grains of butter. male person. a resounding object. has been impugned which it has really no connection. Cieling. AS. kirna. to separate the kernel of the milk. See Cheek. a pebble . -cido. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. to fall upon decide. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. to cut decide. kakka. cinis. to gird. — . -eris. ciuffo. from Lat. a husband. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. a man. however. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. pith. ceaplas. set kerti.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. a douse on the tores. a lump. tindra. ChurL husbandman. to fall. See Cheek. a miser. kernjen. Gothic nations. . a cutting round. AS. sicera. ceorl. chofe (Grandgagnage). a fellow. dust. C^z^j^ churHsh. to determine incision.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. a rustic . G. Gr. to jaw chack or snap. &c. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. Lat. sive piratiam facere sciant. in the face. cinctus. whence ON. or. To chuck in the fall from. chuffy. dial. to sparkle. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. Du. then the on oh StX iv roXt. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N. we have to chack. Wall. the snout of an animal. or choice part of a thing . -cise. See Ceiling. sindr. to turn from blossom to fruit. as in E. Wall. kern. cinctura {cingo. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. As AS. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. casum (in comp. residue of burnt coals. thence a belt. to cause the milk to grain. Sicerawry face ceffata. Fris. have given rise. cheek. Lat.— . kiorne. Sw. cado. cut off. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. Church. ON. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. ON.V//a'6'?. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. in Sc. so as to make the happen . -cide-. a pebble. OFr. sindra. to make a aiKipa. but by way of explan.. as a board.^. ashes. to make a rippling noise. Du. to To Chuckle. Diss. i. gffe. . surly. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. joufflu. joffu. in circumcision. comp. as Epkema explains it. i. — — A — ' ' — . fat-cheeked. Du. incido. cheeks Cincture. Chunk. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. marrow. . cidre. an old man. domhnach. Jennings. as water running over rocks or stones. giffle. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. The origin ation. flower. The derivation from Kvpiasov.rendered by Kil. cinders used disjunctively. Hence -cid-. sintel. chack or stane-chacker.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. Aasen. a cutting an old chuff. kjami. whence deciduous (of trees). to strike clatter. x^^i?. Ka-^aiva. ccedo. -cis-. scoria. chakil. The spelling of chider has Chump. Gr. calx.— Chu%. whence church. a man. klakka. kaerle. e. to churn. as Fr. chack-stone. a girding on. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra.analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. Fr. chofu. &c. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. geaflas. swollen or puffed up Cot. and thence an ugly face far ceffo.for the residue of stone coal. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. KvptaKolg. Da. . e. log of wood. In Sc. kerl. Churn. ceffo. pp. a man. that the word is an adoption of Fr. to throw out sparks. ladre from Lazare. ceaflas.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. Cider. Sc. accido. karl. tie about). the kernel. to fall at or on. It is certain. chaps. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). to Newsp. chife.

Clam. compared with It. is traced by Gr. clot ON. and clash. a city. The Gr. to chatter. a judgment cern. kringr. a rattle . a lump Du. cito. civis. clamp. to knock. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. clobyn. to chatter. Lat. biw. -cite. klubb. * Cistern. clamare. with an initial s instead of c. dim. a citizen . Lat. To Clack. cifra. Fr. In Fr. Sp. clat. See Crankle. ON. klak. prattle. crack. for Cion. babble . a shoot. clapper. sound. civilis. Chaste. ern. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. whence cistiti. lump. noise — — a cistern. sip. cry out . Arab. City. sifr. The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with .' sione. Mack. bunch. to mention. . lucerna. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. . accordingly find the roots dab. excite. . cista. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. to go. kluV. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. ruin. clap. E. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. So a light. prattle. a circle. cry. clamras. clack-dish. . Excite. claim. It. See Circle. vociferation. creak les dents. clamer. Scion. a Pol. We . a circle. suck). klump. See -cid-. Lat. sound of blow. as in Sp. . to be empty. fall. clatCot. W. a pop-gun. —Circuit. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. stimulate. ball kloben. klappe. lump. clump. cit^. Gael. The syllables clap. circum. klammer. slam. Lat. Fr. Circle. claquer crash. a lemon tree. To Claim. a hiding-place. lump. -cis-. Comp. Circum-. Cite. a rattle Fr. a block. glamm. circ2tlus. . to gnash the teeth. From Arab. Citadel. klacken. to bawl. klap. sphere gleba. ON. KpiKoe. E. Du. a ring. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. radical identity of the Fr. a. a young and tender plant. a cistern. mass . lump. a kind of pipe. . a lump Lat. lump of wood or with the nasal. Du. dob. gutter. —Civil. — (Dozy) ing blow. as. rattle. It. citrus. to cluck. klacke-busse. Dan. clack. cisterna. a kind of rattle. a block. empty Golius.to suck. belonging to cities or social life . klater-busse. a for water. may cite w. a loud uksa slamketi. cluster. to call. We . civitas. claquer. cittadella. crack. citujn. ring. crack. Lap. CION See Tinder. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. cisterna. hringr. to cry out. log. lash . Recite. ter. and E. Alt. sindri. KipKog. castus). a reservoir Probably from Lat. around. Sw. klopati. Lat. * Ciplier. circum. a clod. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. clambar. of citta. Gr. clog. chupon. Hence Incite. about. to clatter. Citron. a'upiav. cion. globus. cittd. On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. Dan. a whirlwind. chupon. to summon or call on. Sw. Hal. Bohem. klepati. claquet de moulin. klemte. to call by name. 'mass. Lat. a Lat. the place of . circle. chatter . Lat. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. a city. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. Clamp. tinnitus . to clack. chijfre. cieo. klekotati. ON. either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. noise. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. clack. a ball. clap. to cleanse. from chupar. bunch . and. klumbr. to strike.— . klompe. rattle . sajira. circa. klimp. and Sp. G.. to toll . are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. lump . klappen. clack-box. to appeal. a place See place hiddern. Du. . latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. wasserkasten (water chest). Clump. klamp. a whip. clangor avium . or quill to draw waier through Fl. area. a boss . . a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. domern. glambar. a circle. the tongue. The notion of a lump. scion or sucker. outcry. trunk. sprig. Gael. It. smack. Fr. klqb. around. to make to go. Cot. cion. clapping of klacke. a knob. a mass. scion. a split. glam. a ball. a cleansing place. kringla. to call. Gr. parallel root is slam. as caverna from cavus. in the frequentative form. to set in motion by means of the voice. city. klateren. ciste. claquer. Fr. clasp. uproar. the door was slammed J slamem. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). klambr. to chatter . or clap-dish. to clap at a theatre. twig. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. a clod Russ. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . . forms — — — parent plant. G. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. or split with noise. sound- — hands figures. . clamp. &c. cittade. chest. klabb.

klamme. stick. gliong. where- A — unto they retire themselves. E. dia. G. bandage. klopfen. to pinch. kleben.' to take coals to Newcastle. Swiss kletten. cleave. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to dame. Mampe. Clamour. dientes. substances of a stickydam. c). kleppe. a sound made by a still . a stick. — Cot. The E. klam7n. dapi^. also to clog up. a whip. gripe. cramp. klibber. to knock. B. clear sound.' klibba. kleppe. Bohem. to clap on. &c. dink Du. a trap. The root which gives rise to klibb. Dan. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. a craCmp. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. AS. klepel. clangor. Du. dial. and hence to pinch . clann. children. The Fr. Gael. to climb. Russ. of which the locative case. brawl. tinkle. klappen. tattle. a bird of prey. klank. Fr. klebern. Clap. . ring as metal. coagulated cream. klammer. klette. dienklebber. clandestine. tight. Lat. klampen. celo produces Fin. to stick conceal. whence sala. ancestor. to cleave or stick. to Sw^. a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. run to lumps Clandestine. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. klam. See Clam. from birdlime. G. dam immediate modifications — . as the Lat. clajnmy. To clap in E. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. crowd . nature . viscosity . G. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. dandestinus.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. salaan. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. — Climb. originally a heap of large stones. klappre. a hawk. dapier. sound of the trumpet . klammern. beating. klimmeii. buckle klamp. sound object . to hide. or klamp-vogel. is used in the sense of secretly. klynge. Du. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. to clutch or cling oneself up. to cling. to gingle. klettern. holdfast. sound. cling. prison. OE. clammy brace. to climb. to patronus. but perhaps not directly from it. rattle. conceal. G. as the clapping of hands. tingle. . clasp. in a hidSen place. narrow. kloben. klepati. Halma. dem. clamber. dial. — with hunger. to do anything with a clap. to daub pinch. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. E. to seize. klemmen. accent. diver. knocking. a sound made by a lighter clink. pressed close or hard together. to. Salainen. chatter. hook. a claw. — — . from the w. to climb. clink. da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. Hence the Fr. klepanie. closely analogous to that of the fast. Clapper. clang. clapper of conies. to claw oneself up. a place underground where rabbits breed. rumour. Sw. viscous. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. These words To are closely connected with damp. cluster. Lang. Du. dap up. klatten. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. klemmen. privately. to clap. klubber. beat. To Clamber. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . a rattle . In like manner Du. with cramp-irons. to starve. G. to climb. Swiss kldbem. club . a loud tingle. a sound. Clamp. bond. to hold to pinch. Dan. kleppen. sticky Hal. the in many languages. kluppel. salafa. to hold fast with the . strait. clap. yf. daver. descendants . E. to beat. dam. klemmen. to Hal. adopted Lat. Dan. Clan. sound. tremble . These are imitations of a loud. hold. a heap of stones or other things piled up . — . a claw .p correspond- ' without order. hands or claws to grasp. compress. klamm. take hold of. offspring. chatter. gum. A i. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. massy. for tame conies. dam. tenacious. . apprehend . resonance klingen. and that from celo. Clink. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. G. to glue. to glue. dambar. cramp-iron. klippe. glambar. to stick or glue. clapas. of money Gael. chief. damor. scendants. tone. ney. and hence moist. dank. dam. Dan. damras. to hook things together. strain . klappen. The equivalent of Lat. B. clap. . Clang. clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . to knock. Clank. to climb . Bav. compression. sound . uproar. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. to climb. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. a heap of stones. children. anything hidden. dapier. a noose . pinching.1. dee. klavre. grimper. a burr. dren. Du. To sticky. G. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. klang. klamre. clibby. grasp.er. solid. clav\f. klem-vogel. klynge sig op. cream Manx doan. contraction. klobber-saen.. E. seize. to clamp. who occuG. — Lat. . . dang. a stone See Claim. is a nasalised form of gripper. of the children.

— Clarion. It. Du. diver. which signifies a ball in E. assembly. Du. Identical with ON. vinum helvolum. klatsche. It. kluczka. glcis. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. and through v into a. under three modifications dava. klucz. the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . Commonly made. from clinging to the tree which supports it. Fr. Owl and that by which cleave to. hawk. it is called clamming. mass. Du. gaspe. a distribution of things into groups. globus. subrubidum. a kind of small. Thus from Lat. kletse. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. The b readily passes into gleba. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. Clash. we pass to the E. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. Claret.to cra. Class. klouwe. the primary origin clapa. globus. mass. clairon of a trumpet— It. Nawith stavis. clopa. climp. cluster. Fr. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. crying. classis. stop of an organ. he of white and red grapes mingled together. nail. same class with w. clair. to shut.Z. klaequivalent to clack or clap. m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. claw (what fastens together. a bird with powerful talons. is used in Sc. clausula. klatschen. flap. —Kil. clew. a lump . to ring in such a manner for the dead. clatter. clavus. to patter. a key. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. a claw. to animals Sp. Lat. applied in their harness. to end. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition. Kil. Dan. or as G. a claFr. a clasp. klauwe. chiarello. from the resemblance to a key. clump. Nightingale. chatter. Claw. to clash as arms. &c. Clatter.). klos. kiosk bicza. dap. Lat. to knock. &c.w or u on the other. kleuen. Thus from clamp. noise. klampvoghel. a water made of aquavitse. Lat. Clavicle. insularum nexus . as it is written by Chaucer.ck a whip. To clew. Fr. Du. Wyutoun in Jam. . skeria-klasi. Gr. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. nawith stanis. ghespe. a buckle. ivy. pellet . KXeiSi. with a reddish tint. a sphere . klaskad. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. In E. puUs. From claudo. Prov. Originally clasis. ictus resonans. The form clew. syrtium junctura. e. Klatsch- a pop-gun . also a knell for the dead. chiarino. but not the full red of ordinary red wine. cinnamon. vin clairet. klase. the collar-bone. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. a clod. to fasten. seizes) . Russ. Serv . blab. waU. the cracking of a whip. Sp. somewhat clear. clew or fasten upon a thing. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. a lash. Clew. a key KKtitid. fibula. klatscha pop-gun. chiizjj-o. The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. a. clausum. klamme.— CLARET clamp.. bawling. chasguear. Lat.\x\xvn. Pol. thence a definite head of an edict or law. sauna de classes. rion. — Kiittner. to snap. 269. klatschen. G. fragor . a complete sentence. uproar. whence kleuer. From clairet. Sw. sphaera. E. a ball. clarinado. contraction. is preserved in Lang. chiaro clear. an ending. locket of a door. ansa. Eau clairette. buckle. from scknallen. straight-mouthed. Analogous Jam. i. Clasp.It. a heap. a little hook . hook. as G. to clap . klot. rubellum. So Pol. a key origmally a crooked nail. kleeven. Rayn. forms are the Du. sound of the foregoing description. to do anything with a . clairon. Du. in the sense of a claw. vin claret. klijven. a club or massy stick. to draw it up into a bunch. compression. . clarin. schnalle. thwack . The collar-bone.Gr. klauw. in the sense of a mass or lump. and old red rose-water. pet. Lang. Du. klouwe (Kil. klampe. fracas. and clavis. clamp. a nail. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. In the same way is formed the OE. — Clarinet. claret win e. from its use in fastening things together. row aii/iaTos. a bunch. to fasten together . K\a. klaeret. a. biichse. clas. clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. Eya-klasi. klaterbusse. an on the one hand. Mask ! plask ! thwick. Cot. to rattle . to cleave.oi. as Mod. and shrill-sounding trumpet. teren. Clause. a lump. clavis. biichse. But clasp or elapse. cloi. klc^i. — tells us.

klieuen. dedgy. kluftholz. Clemency. glent. glbr. the latch of a door. klor. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. The Dan. glint. glbram. to separate into parts. E. to clinch a nail. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. neat. give a shrill sound Jr. as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. Lat. 154 CLAY dutch. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. voice. glitnir. Mar. sleek. speech . a lump. cleave. pure. klinke. to chink. that was Torriano. as explained under G. a — — . G. vice. splendid pohshed. it cleave together. neat. as the Du. danche. . clear. to stick to. Sw. a fissure. Die zaak is zS. famous. Thus from G. klouen. sticky . klirren. clibby. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. or from being divided into two parts. AS. opposite senses. a lump. klag. kleverig. a noise. as Lat.— Clag. Du. Sc. holding together. Du. . polish . rivet. Probably a modification of the word doitt. viz. cloven wood. bright. gingle. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. to stick or adhere . E. See Clog. Sw. from diquer. and Dan. the To Cleave. Axletree clouts. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. to tear or cleave asunder. kloben. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. Sw. door-latch. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. a fissure or division See Cleave. doff. dench. seem formed dial. glan. ON. mud. date is AS. doggy. explained from the klinken. . The proper meaning of the word is shining. from the clinking of the latch. vissticky . to glitter. kla:g. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. glitta. words applicable sight. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. a clincher. clash. rift. either by the coherence To Clepe. klinka. klirre. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . G. as ON. deot. klinken. clemens. smooth. Fr.' was nailed to a rock. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. Da. (Cot. rive. a mass. klinke. the original .). pretty. a cleft. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. kleben. klov. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. glor-mhor. 2. and Celtic glan. dag. and. to fasten. provinciaUy termed dout. i. klank. a one end. pure . Bav. klinken. kleevig. Cleft. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. dinquet kleeven. klieben. a cleft. pure. river. and E. ON. kldnkelein. gentle. clean. together . to cleave. a flash. radiant. to Brilliant. gleit. klceg. glance . . kloben. glindse. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. Du. found in other cases. E. chaps in the skin. geklonken. glan. klincke. clear. in two ways. To call. B. . . kloue. Da. Clinch. or of a tree. to shine. The word may be — . Clay. to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. ON. split. to clink or sound. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. an object is simply cleft. To Clench. The word is . that was a striking proof. hook. to sound or make a noise . of iron worn on shoes by country people. Omklinken. glorious. G. calm. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . A — A Clement. dams. a bunch of When flax). clean. clay .Q. Clear. Sc. nitidus. Du. From dob. dut. the two parts of Du. shine. clink. kluft. lump. to dag ox dog. Clean. cliquet. sticky. Gael. G. a latch. klouen. — : A rivet. a in that of sphtting. kleg. to clinch GB. Cleat. diquetcr. a noose. as Fr. dags. celebrated . a plate. daggy. From clap. bend in a stream. loam. Du.— Claggy. kleg. gaklankjan. identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. tongs. clout. pellet. to 2. klijveii. Wilbraham. This word is used in two business is finished off. This is probably one of the clean. glatt. G. a cleft or fissure. clean. clear. klove The Dan. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . to fasten. glandse. a claw or talon. to clench. is fast and sure. conserere antklankjan. Halma. See Clam.— . dial. merciful. to fasten E. Dan. polished. W. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. Lat. klyft. bogs cous. clean. a mass. klinken. klafwa. the fork of the body. kloben. to be composed. klink. from nitere. kluyte. a key. klinke. sticky earth. kluit. to shine . viz. Du. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. glan. klutsch. Kil. Da.

clif. clyf. to snatch. Rouchi cliche. that is a clever feUow. verge).— Clicket. precipices. click. 3. dergi. cleft in a rock. In I Peter v. Lat. dever. Norm. to clack. chatter. click it. a cleft in a rock . neither as having lordship in the. dexterous. Claw. -Toe (from KXivm. to catch. klikker. diquette. cliff. Click represents a thinner sound than clack.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. rupes . klev. Now the OE. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. exactly Gr. Climax. — — A . a clew. a sphere. duke. clap. klinge. Fr. a ladder. klever. to move. CLERK sound of a blow. a tumbril. Du. deik. chatter. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . pulsare. as Lat. cliquer. to prate. d See Clan. frap- per rudement une personne. klinke. ized . OE. in precisely the same sense as the E. Clew. abrupta rupes . dial. a latch. Hence Lat. pen. with hamarskard. G. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. has kl'dver. dicher. Det er en Mover kerl. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. a mill-clack . kleppe. expeditious. catching. the knocker of a door. an inclination. one admitted to the tonsure. scar. Cliff. Click. declivity. nimble. cliof. clep. But the Dan. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. what so men clappe or crie. a lump. Commonly derived from deliver. —Vocab. klaiv.' ii. G. clever. dial. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. to tattle. &c. a latch . would have been derida. /cXi'fia. in rhetoric.— Clue. Da. klikklakken. CLINCH De . a clicket or clapper. Lat. IS5 Du. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). clif- stanas. cleft. kliv. from Gael glac. Dunbar in Jam. dek. skard. a figure mentioned. clatter. derjon. a lazar's clicket or clapper. crepare. which in Mid. a trigger. stein- kluppen. highest is attained. prattle. klouwe. . a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. which is used in Scotch and N. in the sense of active. call. Sp. Climate. cautes. claw or talon to dek or deik. . cleke. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. quick in motion. clima. cleft of a hill. the clergy clericus. on. deudi. klippe. call.). a cliff. klippe. a baU of yarn. agile. region not observe it. sink. to seize. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. clypian. Du. duik. it must be observed. rapidus from rapio. one of the clergy. sonare. corresponding to the Sc. dichet. Cot. and (with the nasal) — clincher. ravine. and hence deik. to tattle. climate. Jam. a claw or clutch.dergie! Wiclif in R. derigon. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. gleg. cleopian. click. deik. Somner. Du. klaffen. globus. cliquet. a hook. derecia. dutch). or Sc. e. . click. corresponding to Fr. on. a hump. is NE. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. dial. Client. dink. hamraklif. dook (identical with E. as a click with the tongue. Clerk. Boh. glomus. babble. to catch. The origin is the Gr. Lat. rock. or an object character- Clerical. slope . cligner. cleugh. kliket. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . to talk as a parrot. as Sc. Chaucer. chat. clever. kloof. Clever. Sw. de ripa. ginally from dob (extant in W. snatch. 3. light-fingered. a latch. to sound an alarm to clap. Clam. speak. deuch. a ball of twine. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God. temperature. from clifian. klif. ready of speech. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. whence Fr. clerus. the clergy. klika. Clergy. derigo. diver. rugged ascent. score7i clif. a lot. and hence climate. AS. has also deik. a hold. to cleave. lively. say. cart that tilts over. a child's or clack . See AS. icXi/ja?. name. See Clamber. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. klinket.. had a form. Bav. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. dob. littus. to wink. . diofian. Climb. the dick of a latch or a trigger. clack. to confess . to rattle. The Sc. as from derido. above the pole.Lat. crack. to teU tales. — have the notion of a short quick in E. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik.) Brai. Happen. klok klep- crepitare. to cry. syn. dough. deuck. KkrifoQ. Gr. See Clench. cave . chatter. a clerk . a precipice. Klover i munden. kleppen. quick of perception. rock. crackle. seize (Hal. Sc. to bend. We movement catch. precipice. to stir.

kukla. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. glungelin. 'Till famine cling thee. klaka. G. clinker. klocke. klungelin. klinka. difficulty. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. recline. to beat. kluben. to crowd together klynge sig ved. hooded . kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. To Cling. glocke. Een kliks bolter. -CLINE make pinch. to slope or bend . toga. Cliofue. to cluster. whence E. G. Du. Sw. ON. to crowd or squeeze chingy. to AS. to clunge. Lat. whence the hour of the day was designated as three.. to wither. Bi klik uti klak. See Clang. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. and so' to contract. ' . toga muliebris. club).D. klepalo. klupen. hluccti. to strike.' for a dry stick. klincke. knot klynge. . verklungeln. G. a clog or fetter for a beast . . a bell. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. sloping upwards procUvis. dag. klungeln. G. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. a lump G. Flem. G. to pinch klupe. also to wink . knippchen. bow. kleppe. as G. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. dial.. klok.— KSS. at first probably on a wooden board. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. brett-glocke. . where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. The notion of a loose moveable substance. declivis. pallium. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades.— Clot. kliks. g. like cling. claw. four of the bell. klicke. a beU. . 156 -cline. kima. lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood. sloping downwards . Pl. to clap or clack. dial. . knippe. and a similar syllable without the /. fetter. as we now say three or four o'clock. Sw. a rising ground.' From Pl. Gr. iissura. ten.. to knock. Walach. . Swiss klokken. a faction. a hood. gUong. klippen.und zuk-lippen. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. Ang. clino. See Cowl. to snap tongs. N orman clincailler. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds . . as thick or curdled liquids. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. by bits. a ball of thread . sticky. hlinen. to shrink up. Lat. To Clip. . klo^gen. incline. rima. Hal. hill . to snip. klunker. to pinch. -cliv-. a bell. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. and 'E. &c. to cling to a thing. To stick to. clique. Du. Clock. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. S w. Du. klak. especially of something soft or clammy. dial. gang. klingen. hluk. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. to beat on the board.'— Shaks. a snare. Sw. w. kXiVu. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. a lump. knippen. to wither. klik. Serv. hlinian. straits. difficulty . to . klunge. pinch. schnippen.. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. cloak. E. klinken. a woman's mantle . cochl. speaks of a ' clung bat. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. clato make a noise. clingan. Gael. Clink. clutch. Sw. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. to shrink up. slant. to snap or fillip schnippen. to bend downwards . kolki-laud. klippe. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. or bagging clothes. related to clock. also to form a compact mass. clangere. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. Cloak. Bohem. Bohem. to clip. klocke. to resound. in Schmeller) klunk. a clock. incline. to sound sharp. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. met. compress . ON. Sw. pinch. to make a loud noise. tuft.D. kluppe. Du. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. globulus' (Gl. clock is a variation of clack. * Clod. klippa. I. kolbe to E. The E. Da. Decline. quincailler. klippa. parva ruptura. — clot. To cut with shears. as to snip in the same sense from snap. -atum. G. — a mantle. Fr. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. kol- The word . Sussex peasant AS. to snap kneipen.ginglej Fr. clips. a tinman. disposed to a thing. outcry. to lean. to lean backwards. shears. a cluster. sloping forwards. Swiss klungele. . noise. dial. klipa. clog. OHG. to form one mass with. klippur. ON. Esthon. a lump of butter. to clink auf. to ring. E. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. cloche. Fr. Kil. a separate portion. clinke. 2. from klepati. klynge. acclivis. Ir. ring clag. nip. chcng. klocka. kldpp. clivus.

lag. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. • lump. paddle or dabble in the wet. kladde.. or drablyn with separate existence. meat from Du. Pr. to claggock. with Fr. clot. forbidden by 17 Ed. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. aspersion. separate part. clorre. log. a clod. and E. a blot. Klottermelck.. Pm. klakken. schlettern. unctuous. Yule-clog. a log. clog or overshoe. . klag. congeler. The game called ninepins. kloden. in accordance with It. dial. loppe. shut up. analogous plan to clod or club. . daustrum. neither spot nor hang loose. dirt. and thus seem endowed . and Gael. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. clausum. Fr. klod. klotzschuh. to close against one. a monastery. splash. and Du. wide bagging clothes. to shut. to dabble. clotted locks Dan. -cludo. klunkern. Pr. motte. chiuso. watery. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft.dial. Idppern. clogs.' end. to cling locks. a trowelful of mortar. in forms like Du. kloteren. Clog. lobbig. ! . bemired. je amoncele. to shut up. claque. loppered (of milk). shaky. To hinder by the adhesion Sc. shut up. IV. I clodde. lunch. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. to slop or spill liquids. doitre. kloteispaen. . a clog. boil.— Clothe. to rattle. bloutre. kl'dnken. clos. lob. a clod Swab. klos-bane. slops slodderen. . to dash like heavy rain. lumps of butter. clatk. -clus-. lopperig. I doda clod. loblolly. thick spoon . a babbler. . is connected with pludder. foreclose. 3. Cloister. mud klcEg. kleck. and thence to clot or curdle as milk. dirt. like G. m&se noch stain. . of a body of any kind. loose mud. E. TZoxapov. a field inclosed clos. rattle. Du. kloster. a block. to dabble. slobbe. Hence inclose. dab. from claudo. to flounder in the wet. klateren. Russ. be found rattle. we pass to E. miry laggerit. . hanging loose and full. A — — A Thus from Bav. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. Dan. . a lump from Du. we pass to Schlatter. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. to play at bowls. It. bespotted with mire E. closed. His heart was franlc without a flaw. bowl . truncus. Bav. to bedaub. geschlotter (as E. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. to sup up liquid food. slops).rge lump. Mat. fors. in comp. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. slobberen. loose.'^ Palsgr. wabbling from Du. then liquid or loose substance. from Fr. fat. compared with clump. a Christmas log. klakk. Du. clogs for the feet klakk. to spill liquids. clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm. is a blot on one's character. . dangle. clammy loam. whence klack. lopin. a dirty wench claggy.1a. mire. g. Sc. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. In the same way Dan. cloth. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). to shut. lobberen. slob. to wabble. klottern. from Du. gelatinous. terminate. kleck or lack. to flap as loose clothes. slabberen. blot. schlotter. curdled. to lobberig. lump of mud on the clothes . zoccoli. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. Gr. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. inclose. klotz. . laggyn. paddle. clos. Fr. beklakken. . to paddle in the wet. G.D. a log. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. a blot. G. paludosus. a portion of something soft and adhesive. -clusum. MHG. to rattle. or loppern. I clodde. He was a man without a dag. or E. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. be&c. spot of dirt. slobber. thick sour milk. to bubble. tJokok. Close. or Sc. dunch). AS. The origin of clod and clot is to . schlattern. a bal!. . klac. lump of something soft . to shut in. zocco. close. figer. slop. kloten. daggerey. schlott. klot. tuditare. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. Pl. mud. . claggy. klokotat. . in accordance with Pl. a spot. slab. laggery. Fr. . Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. of something clammy or heavy. loose trowsers. lobberen. da- . clotted milk klotte. Swiss schlott. Klak also. Lat. claudo. Fr. to bodies. klos. a skittle-ground klos- sen. the radical sylla. E. Lat. motzen. pattens G.). to rattle or shake to and fro. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. plod. To Clog. -close. spatter. an imputation. clausum. Closhe. to a. without. enOE. finish . pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. tramp in wet or mire. lump of butter.D. dag. pludre. schlottern. A .cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. chiudere.

a log. nelke (dim. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. clot. clot. The significations of a clod or lump. lie clyd. klubba. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. diboter. . eene ODu. . Club. cobio. klunds. — — — . Move. dote.D. — . I. caillebottes. piece Cot. to a lump. Gael. klever. shel- kloen. a ball.bar. 2. ball of thread Russ. to strike. a fissure. klumpfot. and -the word Clove. G. a patch. botch. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. More in R. klebek. a knot of people. lunch). it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. In the same way E. loggish. are often connected. Du. knob. sheltered up warm. klotsen. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. clod. de Champ. kl'dnne. lumps of curd. unpolished.). kldverj P1. G. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. clammy earth. a ball of twine . klieven. cluth mhor. Properly that which covers and Du. clue. but confounded with cailler. strike.). a breach. and of a rustic unpolished person. G. tuft. a sticky. klubbe. a lump.D. kluppe. clunch. a ball. a ball.158 . Coventry Mysteries in Hal. in the same sense. eine to slop. . . Dan. Mabousfrom Lat. clothes ment. a bousche. cludadh. kluV. klubb. to cover Bret. klonte.' Sanders. N. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. dial. a nail. Clover. a curdled sky. kloete. indispalte knoblauch. klump. esdaboter (Roquef. clydion. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. clothe. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. . A kind of spice resembling Du. a clod. dirt. blockish. Ir. dabosser. mire. clyd. spice) G. boucher. warm clothes {dillad. . klotz. Kiittner. dash (Cot. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. a garthas. kloven. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. The radical sense seems to be an unE. The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. Cld. and closely do conspire. Sp. dial. a sky Cot. hebes (Kil. daggy. cludaim. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. clunch.D. clump. of sloppy materials. zolla dell' . a lump. a bunch. E. stock. to splash. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. make warm. a boss. klove. formed lump or thick mass. clavo di especias.). dut. del mattond. Pl. a nail) Fr. group of people Sw. from Du. block. dob. clot . botsen. lump. Clown. CLUCK rustic. milk run to lumps. tered . Met. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. to cleave or the splashing of water. Clumpered in balls of clouds. Das volk hat sich in splitten. from W. Imitative of the note of a society. clothes). a clot or keeps one warm. Sw. mary sense is a blow. warm. Du. G. dabaire. when something has got into the touch-hole. of thumping clumsy action. klqb.clod. a clubfoot klabb. w. bunch. naegel. to curdle.Fris. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. Du. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It. E. and tapp. of nagel. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . sticky. cloud Delfortrie. warm place . Du. are also used in the sense of a stopper. to strike . Cloud. E. probably from daboter. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. kUid. (kruyd =. the air. The priClout. clump of a clout on the head. a log. Du. ON. klobbersaen. coarse. CLOUD an awkward clod . and clay. A division of a root of garlick. ON. lump of earth aria. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). of a lump of earth and that figure.ft. nourish . as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. To Cloy. matte. dial. sheltered . clobyn. the terms expresssplit. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . motte. a bunch. a clod or clot. clotted milk or cream. chiodo di girofano. Clump. The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. cob. from kloven. a blabber. clods. knob. dump. rustic. a clove of garlick. From dog. een klaven kruflook. to tramp in the kluyve. clod is used in both senses . ser. a thick mass. a clown. Then applied to a lump of mate. Rouchi dapoter. puddle. to cherish. to cleave. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. from OFr. duthaich. clog. clou de girofle. also homo obtusus. Fr. klcBdi. dys. little nails. So Fr. to lump mend clumsily. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. mass. cluster. clumhar. a bunch. nagelein. klotzig. warm. wisp. klaven. a bobbin. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. AS. to beFr. Gael. lump. davus. zolla. Sw. Du. to stop. with lout. log. and clout d eudaich. w. cobble. To Cluck. dillad bumkin. klu77ip. It. choke or stop up. aglio.). a cover or coverture . lump. klubb. a . AS. as Fr. mud (Pat. a. to cloy. klumba.

exclude. to collect in lumps. crooked inwards . in v. ' Thou clontsest for cold. strum on an instrument. -clus-. acomelydfor could Pr.' Wycliff. — ' — — tonista. an instrument for nasal form e. a coach. clook. Hesse. cleik. ball as snow. klump. klimpern.' Comfort ye dumsid. ment. to pinch. plad or plod. dek. doquear. klumpern. coccolare. from laver. to tramp or tread heavily. may recline. . klikonosy. klonte. heavily. splash. Du. pladdern. klunsen. conclude. The sense of awkward. claw. Pl. claws. Cath. cliboter. . But clunchy. G. * Clump. klikaty. klomje. Pm. -elude. to squeeze. close. klampa. to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. from ON. a clot klissen. glocire. to to snatch. hand to cleuk. Sw. clutch. It.D. See reclusion. or from Sw. awkward. klcise. inclusive. Du. G. clump. to tramp.D. G. &c. klompen. ball of snow on horse's foot . carriage in which you klodset. benumbed with cold. fingers (familiar). and koetse. Coach. Riwle. A group. klos. and klonteren. also a cluster. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. klamp. ' Clumper. Lat. a ball . E. Du. koetsDa. — sen. unhandy. a clod clunter. kichlemmit. and klotteren. cleuk. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. of garlick. clutch. klister. beklommen. a clod or lump. hondis. klomen. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. dial. Com. a lump. havi. the word is more probably connected with OE.pare P1. Muster. Du. kluntfrom KKvKdi. beklummen. a nasalised form of club. thick and clumsy. a litter.D. wooden shoes.E. clotted cream. * Clumsy. limp.P. unhandy. bunch. to lie. seize. n. klemmen.. with E. coucher became in unhandy. claudo. Champ. Graff in Klamjan. gelidus. —More. clumsy. to gingle. obstructum. smart motion. Lincolns. — Hence include. tight — — . as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. cleche. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. klont. eviratus. COAL dumpish. . to klotz. eene beklum. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. dumpse. -CLUDE hen Du. Sc. -close. ill-made . Pl. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. Ang. enervatus. E. differing only in the absence of the duik. kol. ' . dial. From the notion of sticking together. MHG. — Cot. koetsen. MHG. Gr. Hence cleik. Isaiah. a clod or The noclot.'— animal. —To Clumsyd. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. OHG.Ancr. Boh. a noise. to benumb with cold. lavesen. klemma.forklomme (Outzen). idle. ether comelia P. to paddle or dabble.D. whence koetse. klette. a ball. klocken. klummklummshandt. . cluntClyster. properly to do anything Fr. klamen. to shut. ' Uorte (for clogs. Beklummen van kelde. having the Pl. Compare Swiss klupe. klisse. are the nasalised forms of klotte. kohle. Cheshire. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper. Clutch. a couch. verkommelen. ON. hands stiff with cold. clip or pinch. a lump. dial.e. a pinching time.D. unfashioned. Cluster. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds.mene tied. viscous material.' Vegecius in Way. Hence snatching. G. unwieldy Hal. 159 E. of Du. dial. to curdle. klunt. Ray. with a quick. Variation of clatter. to tramp. clabosser. -olus-. awkward. glousser. Fr. hooknosed. to wash. finish. cluster. might be reached from clump. and make ye strong feeble knees. er. Du. See -elude. a lump or compact mass. to grip. pinched. rial. Sw. in comp. klummerhdndt. Fr. a bunch. a clod or lump. to wash. Teulazy. — . to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. algidus. through the senses of lumpish. lump of soft mate. esclaboter. paste. dussomed (Wilbrabam). as from seken. -cludo. Fr. -clusum. to syllable click. Hindust.— — . wooden sole. clausum. wagen. klobber in klobbersaen. a clove Sw. klods. as clumper. klontet. klonte. conclusion. In the same way Du. clopiner. Fris. to curdle. verklomen. from klupen. xXvariip. or aclommyde. eviratus. duke.' Benecke. OE. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. Coal. Analogous forms with a tongs. a block. The Fr. log. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . clointer. as Fr. to rinse. dumps. lay hold of. to curdle. Clump. Lat. dek. a claw. to stick together . dystere. koetblockish. klumpig. calling her chickens. dumpers. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. 130. Sp. koetsie. Clutter.

grown together. in Essex Jow*2c^. pryf-coppyn. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. koppe. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. cobcoals. to form an union with another coalitus. the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes.' — Thus from (Hal. Trevoux. to hobble . a kitchen. flame. rivation are found in Sw. throw a blow. to . atter-kop. koljarn. to cob. ordinary as in the expression of course. acomelyd or aclommyd. Dan. to be hot. viz. pustule. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. dial. a sow. petrilla. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. a nest. however. gull. 3. . a cobweb. used in — . cob. E.. w. kolna. The OE. unfledged bird. dial. cobble. a similar According to Ihre.. imbecille. Du. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. a rib. to kindle or cause to burn . T' waerkopet. glow. Colina' the place where a fire is made. Outzen. pockbecility and liability to imposition. side . to grow together. Du. of E. to speak or act confusedly. to wheedle or gull vermin). properly to daub. s. Cocasse.' Nares. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. are round stones or round coals of small size. Sanscr. coalesce. or cobble. cochinilla. klabba. — ' all giaith that gains to hoiiill schone. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. to glow . hakkelen. The Fris. a spider. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. niais. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . a darling. Coast. cofasse. a large round nut cobstones. In the E. as shown in dob and cob. a bungler. dim. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. — Cobbler. cock or nescock. Formerly written course. and fig. of cochina. — — — E. — Pr. also a coast. any kind of coat. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. Fin. The contrast between the bee • Cob. to pdt with We may cite Fr. CooMneal. cob is a dumpy horse. to stammer. itself is Nescock . the one of thump.). walk clumsily. cotta. ignem. A spider's web. while the sense of dwelling may be a figure from lighting up the domestic hearth. Fr. to stutter. to burn.a spider. a woodlouse. to strike. large coals. caleo. from bearing a bag. dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . and imperfect or unskilful action. Sp. to bungle Sc. Fr. woman is said to be very ordinary. as in arr. bredouiller. says Varro. are often connected. blaze. and thence a lump cobnut. Coarse. It. Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. Lat.. Lat. ailina or colina. one Pr. COCHINEAL Cobber. pock. probably from the Fr. burning. and hobble. a tuft. glow jvalaya. then to work unskilfully . klabbsmed. Coalition. gull. cob. spinne-ivebbe. a knock. When the . kylla. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . to kindle jvAla.the water boils. tempered clay for building. . See Cot. frock. and E. top cobio.). verklomen. — Cleveland Gl. to knock. a firesteel Lat. pustule. cotte. and jval. give the full meaning of the word. a bunch. Coalesce. quilet. verkommelen. Pm. things. a crea. k'dlla. a thumper. to peck as a hen cobyn. from some fancied resemblance. The form attercop seems to him into doing something. . sweets and the other of poisons. to bungle . inflammation. H^cart. OE.inflated with air or liquid. of E. dial. cokes or fool of him. .—Atkinson. haggle. Coat. kopper ture commonly taken as the type of im. a spider (/r)^=grub. boil. koppen-gespin. niais. e. and the spider as collectors. Cobbles in the N. a great falsehood. Fr. to worship. in Du. klabbare. s. small pox (pocks) . dial. ridi. coste. It.