original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the


Cornell University Library



dictionary of Englisii etymology^

3 1924 031 471 711













[All Sights


It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of


to recognise their division into four or five



each comprising
in their stock

number of subordinate

which have





of words and in their grammatical structure,
conviction that the peoples by

as irresistibly to

impress us with the


they are spoken, are the progeny, with


or less mixture of foreign elements, of a


ancestry. If
it is

we compare

German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and
that there

impossible in either

case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate racej

was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a





between Danish and Swedish



the closest kind, that between



Dutch and German a more distant one, and we recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,

between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.

A like
from a

gradation of resemblance


found in the other


The Welsh,

Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent

parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater diiFerence between Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
Gaelic and


to leave

to both,

and so


identity traceable in the roots of the language, as

no hesitation

in classing



branches of a


Celtic stock.


so in the Slavonic class, Polish

and Czech or Bohemian,

Russian and Servian,

are sister languages, while the difierence
as to

between Russian and Polish

so great

argue a


longer separation of the national


In the case of the

Romance languages we know

historically tliat the countries


French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly colonised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
Italian, Proven5al,


accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,

the language of the Imperial Government, and


account for their divergences,
the body of the

not so

much from

the comparative length of their separate duration, as from

mixture with the speech of the subject nations
people in the different provinces.

who formed

Umbrian and Oscan, of which must be reckoned Greek and Albanian, as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collective name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the


Latin and the other Italic languages,

slight remains

have coime down to


fundamental part of the words,
scendants of a


well as the grammatical

structure of the

language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de-



Throughout the whole of
particular cases,

vast circle the

names of the numerals unmis

takeably graduate into each other; however startling the dissimilarity

may be


where the name of a number in one language is compared with the cori-espoiiding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simjplest blood relations, s.s father,
mother, brother,
sister, are

equally universal.


of the pronouns, the prepo-

and particles of abstract
familiar objects

as well as

words designating the
of the


and actions of ordinary

are part



Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already attained a considerable degree of clvihsation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants.



primeval tribe



supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their


settlements, grtew


into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum-

ing more and more distinctly their


peculiar features, until they gradually

developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races beyond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study. For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable condition of all

mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as

high an

intrinsic interest as that

which Geology

finds in the structure of the

Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relationships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or
in the


mixture of speech brought about by the


peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every


to elucidate the course

of war or of by which the
to a

words of a language have come
native ear.

to signify the

meaning which they suggest

first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the which contains the fiindamental significance, from the grammatical elements used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or



diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the


It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise portion of the word.

the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and
as signifying the state or condition of


understand the word

an enemy, which


the immediate

parent of the English word.

Now we know that enemy comes

to us

through the

French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may
a friend.

be regularly resolved into

the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,

In amicus, again,


distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a



the nominative case

-ic- as

an element equivalent to the German

-ig or English -y

in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating poissession or connecfinally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented form in the verb amo, I love. Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that It would merely be the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am





in the simplest

could be connected with the thought of love.

Thus sooner or -later the Etymol-

brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific account of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper significance


the founders of Language.


speech of


in his





children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.


expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from


the language of each of us
course of those in



child learns to speak

from the

whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he from would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers. Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be-


his ancestors, or

queathed to him by

we must

at last arrive at a

generation which

was not taught


language by their parents.


question then


did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable

an art ? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturaUy endowed with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent

through countless ages, during which the race of


spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro-

duced between which,

as at present,

no cognisable

relation can be traced



is it



the principles recognised as having contributed elein every

ments more or



language, to indicate a sufficient

cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of
yet acquired the

men who had



of that great instrument of thought, though, in

every natural capacity the same as ourselves


the question


to this definite stage, the

same step



gained in the science of Ismguage which was
cognised that the


in geology,




phenomena of the


powers, such as are


to be active at the present

must be explained by the action of day in working changes on

the structure of the earth.


investigator of speech
as yet

must accept

as his start-

ing-ground the existence of man

without knowledge of language, but en-

dowed with


powers and

ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the

command of his bodily frame, such as we same way that the geologist takes his
seas subjected, as at the prefi-osts,

stand on the fact of a globe

composed of lands and

sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests,

earthquakes, and sub-



A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural
has been raised by the

origin of language

modern German school of


whose theory
of mutism.



deny the

of man having ever existed

in a state



man by

speech,' says





but in order to discover

speech he must already be man.'





epigram, adopts the opinion



Philosophers,' he says (Lectures


the Science of Language, p. 347), 'who imagine that the first man, though left to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in-

vented words for every
could not by his

which is the distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute creaThe supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion tion.' between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered capable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a bird of flying by the possession of wings j but inasmuch as man does not learn to speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it. becomes
the faculty of speech,
a legitimate object of inquiry

new conception that own power have acquired

arose in his mind, forget that



the skilled use of the. tongue was orio-inally




surprising that

any one should have stuck

at the


paradox, in the

face of the patent fact that



are born in a state of mutism, and gradually

acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those


are cut off by congenital deafness from


opportunity of hearing the speech

of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by



may be

taught not only to express their thoughts

by manual


but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage

of not hearing their
Since then
in intelligence
it is

matter of fact that individuals are found by no means
only attain the use of speech in mature
it is




and others


never attain


at all,

plain that there can be

no metaphysical objection

to the

supposition that the family of

man was

in existence at a period


the use of

language was wholly unknown.
to support himself,

How man in

so imperfect a state could


and maintain

ground against the wild

a question

which need not concern

The high

reputation of Professor


Miiller as a linguist,

and the great

which he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the
popularity of his Lectures

on Language, have given

the doctrine

languages of different famihes

but 'phonetic types produced
in his



neither inteijections nor by a power inherent in human primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces


be reduced, are


the present day, the instinct being lost
fulfilled, as


the purpose for which
as in


was required was
scent, they

the senses

become weaker when,

the case of

become useless.' By such an dowed with the faculty of giving articulate

instinct the primitive


was en-

expression to the rational conceptions




was *


impelled to accompany every conception of

mind by an

exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
v?^hich called

with the thought
body, struck by a

forth, in a

manner analogous

to that in

hammer, answers with

a different ring according as

it is

which a com-

posed of metal, stone, or wood.f

which gave rise to the would enable those who heard such sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that clusters of roots, more or less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ' the creative faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the


the same time

must be supposed

that the instinct

expression of thought by articulate sound,

* It

was an



instinct of the


as in-esistible as

any other


p. 370.

+ The

faculty peculiar to


in his primitive state

by which every impression from without

vocal expression from within must be accepted as a

p. 370,





brain a phonetic expression,'


in the establishment

of lan-

guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well

they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or



other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct


retained in

permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the

branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different


to the present day.

practically such an instinct


Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable introduction to his Grunziige der Griech. Etym., p. 91.



the languages of the Indo-European family, he says


from the Ganges


the Atlantic the same cotnbination sta designates the

phenomenon of


while the conception of flowing
or slightly modified forms.



widely associated with the utterance plu

This cannot be accidental.

can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl)

The same conception many thousand

of the people there was an inward bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency The Philosophy of Speech to express that conception by precisely those sounds.
niust lay


the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physioloit

gischen geltung der laute), and

can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,

than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified

by them produce on the soul of the speaker.



thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance

the conception, says



as little able to cast itself loose

from the word

man can

divest himself

of his personal aspect.'

a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to

principles of

which we have no

distinct experience.



were true that there


in the constitution


a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and

plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it^must be







should have led to the universal use of those roots for the

expression of the

-European stock.

same ideas in other languages as well as those of the IndoBut in my own case I have no consciousness of any such condo not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
it is



an unlearned English ear

as closely
it is

connected with the ideas of

stabbing, of stamping,

and of

starting, as

with that of standing.

We know
to say that

that our children

do not speak

instinctively at the present day,


speech came in that


to primitive



simply to avow our inability to

give a rational account of



rational theory of language should

indicate a process supported at every step

by which
a state of
to the

a being, in every other respect like ourselves,

by the evidence of actual experience, might have been led fi-om
are the elements of a rational

mutism to the use of Speech. Nor
far to seek, if

and do



are content to look for small beginnings,

not regard the invention of language as the

work of some mute genius of the

himself a system of vocal signs.


ancient -vVorM, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

If in the present state of the wdrld,' says Charma,


wonder how man ever began these

houses, palaces,


some philosopher were to vessels which we see



we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. who first tied ihe branches of shrubs to niake himself a shelter was

not an architect, and he
creator of navigation.'




on the


of a tree was not the

A like

allowance must be


for the rudeness of the

steps in the process

when we

are required to explain the origin of the


plicated languages of civilised

If language was the

work of human


accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and


the true

we may be sure that it was mode of procedure

rent disproportion

we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appabetween the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of the mechanism by which it was reared, which was foUnd so great a stumblingfinally pointed out,

block in geology

when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail. The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circumstances under which he- will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual

we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech. man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have Expressed



by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making seihblance of eathis needs

present day,




there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under'

stand gestures of such a nature.

Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus,



we had neither tongue should we not imitate it
hands to heaven

nor voice and wished to

attention to something,




could with gestures

to describe anything either lofty or light,


should indicate

Thus if we wanted it by raising the

we wished

to describe a horse or other animal,





near an approach




to an imitation in our


in the case of

tendency to make use of significant gestures was cleai-ly shown Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf aflforded a singuopportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after



Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany

this artificial

mode of communitlating her thoughts with
which were taught her by Nature.

the imitative or symbolical gestures


Laura once spoke to


of her




little child,'

says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to


vol. 2),

'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers


the face, indicating the copious flow of yes and no with the ordinary

She would


accompany her

nod and shake of the head which are the natural



in her case

expression of acceptance and aversion,* and learned from observation of others.



certainly not

Man would spontaneously make use of gestures was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are commonly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
suppose then that primitive


to signify whatever

was accordingly necessary


to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God had given her much

and would occasionally

retire to

enjoy the gift in her

own way

in private.



a vocal animal,

and when an occasion arose on which the signnecessities


instinct was called forth by the be led to imitate sound by the voice

of the case, he would

as readily

shape and action by bodily gestures.




a prominent feature of the matter

of communication, that some sound formed which it was important to make known, the which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
in the infancy
rise to

admitted of being so represented, would give
tation of the

the use of the voice in imi-

sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.

by a bull would find it convenient to make known the by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head, and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
object of his alarm

A person

raw Englishman


making known



in France.



I cried for


If I wanted bread

My jaws

I set


And asked for new-laid eggs By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

truth in

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom

the author wrote.

A jest

must be addressed

to the

most superficial


of apprehension, and



aflFord better

evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train

of abstruse reasoning.

It is

only comprehensible origin

on that account that so apt an illustration of the of language has been found in the old story of the

dish he

at a

Chinese banquet,


being curious as to the composition of a
servant with an interrogative


eating, turned


to his native

Quack, quack


servant answered.


intimating as clearly as if he


tumetli thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet


and frommard to thinge

—Ancren Riwle,


rnah) in the South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat. persons of different tongues at the present day. The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound oo-ooh ! or. and in such a tions that are easily recognised sheep. which are naturally produced by the opening lips. mind of the of the animal. and. would be very in aid of his endeavours to similar to those which are heard in our nurseries the lowing cock. or the crowing of the peculiar character of the imitation less The given at first by the tone of voice and more or abrupt mode of utterance. the present day. and the child is first taught to know the dog as a bowwow. name of the cow. for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others by the exercise of the voice. the closer we shall approach to the . spoke in English that every one it xiii was dog and not duck that his master was eating. by whom the be understood. The communication that passed between them was sible to essentially languagej comprehen- therefore who was acquainted with the animals in question. In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully. some cases the same syllables by which the nurse out addition as the in our nurseries of a dog is represented bow-wow. when neither name for the object to be designated. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to milking. when we is represent to our children of the cow. muK) and mae (rfie. and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the sonantal articulation. mooh! or J)ooh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nurseries by a broken baa-aa-ah ! in Scotland liae ! or mae ! By degrees the imitative colouring is dropped. might be employed to lead it his thoughts to the animal itself instead cry which It so utters. of the animal name The bark by the syllables in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing. The imitations of sound primitive signify his needs by bodily at Man. with an initial m or I.NURSERY IMITATIONS. and where we are seeking. in language of the present day. or Mollein. and in imitates the cry are used withitself. but nothing she herself knows the animals. The syllables moo (mu. might be used as the name of the happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb. by which thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb. children's ! It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children. On the same principle among Swabian children the name of Molle. is given to a cow or calf. in other words. and mully or mully cow is the . to the syllables which are significant to the child. come Moolls. come Moolls (Mrs Baker). the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- son to whom the communication is addressed. the baaing of the sheep. thus being associated with the animals in question in the child. without the aid of distinct con- manner we have no difficulty in making imitaby any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. Molli. language which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by made by gestures. but sign it is makes no to difference in the essential nature of the contrivance. who of this kind could take place at the party was as yet in possession of a commencement of language. or. and with Swabian children muh and mdh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat (Schmid).

had nim. as in the forms of speech adapted to the da^vning intellect of our own children.' In ordinary speech mump. analogous to Magyar mammogni. repulsive to eat.' xiy ACTUAL FORMATION OF A WORD. And is not the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how fi-equent a phenomenon it is which he describes. p. says: 'All mutes discover words for themselves for different things. &c. A near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for food or eating. to work over with the mouth. nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. as well as the mind of the utterer. First. by the natural humming sound. Finally an n was placed before it. . gives ? an instructive account of the birth of a word under ' his own eyes. Gr. partly from sounds which the child caught. ' showed in early infancy a pecu- liar tendency to form to words. Heinicke. and nim came to signify everything edible. On one occasion he said^e nim. then. which language must have sprang up in the infancy of conditions under Man. to eat. had not the ripening mind adopted the vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. schipp. 72). nim being much easier to pronounce than im when the mouth has been clpsed. and some were very clear and distinct. his nurse adopting the word with him. which all of us are apt to produce when approving or pleased with things of a comnion character. and which we might express thus. in children's language. interjection woh! used by wagoners when from symphenomenal emission of sounds. when hungry. There is no doubt that a verb to nim for to eat would have developed itself. Among over fifty whom I have partially instracted or been acquainted with. I had watched the growth of this word. as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made the sound more familiar and clearer. he called to to drink. fiafifi&v (Hesych. and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them Dr Lieber. Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in the nursery the word niw. so that the boy would add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. who had previously invented many writeable words to eat. and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning. he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal. in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited. . Gradually. there was not one who had not uttered at least a few spoken names which he had discovered for himself. it changed to the more articulate wn and im. We have. became more perfect. He would now say good.. for bad. family. here the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound. to For instance. A member of my own new sfop. for things.). for everything fit to eat. But soon the growing mind began to generalise.' he says. nim. we move have the verb the lips with the mouth closed. an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb cited by Tylor (Early Hist. mumm. as the organs as woh for to from the they wish to stop their horses partly of speech. Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with so much reason. hm. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute. nineteen years old.

aptantes adfectibus vocem. i. tidbits nama . memmexen. and thence to be tasteful. ut tinnitus aeris. And as picking forbidden food would afford sant to the the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing. to smack in eat. namnam. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere. ' id est. jamsa (yamsa). to taste . the tiny words or cries its little of an infant when eating anything which pleases verb has the palate. savory. to chew laboriously. 1 86).). yamming. it is probable that we have here the origin of the slang word nim. and the crab — p. j xv mump food (Webster) to mumliley to chew with toothless gums Swedish mummsa. Et sunt plurima qui sermonem primi fecerunt. to eat mampfen. thought the old word ' nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam.' And Diomedes.' White man eat [or steal] the crab. to be pleamind . clangorqae tubarum. In the Negro Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat . j ing .' says Quintilian. To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. sweet (Koelle). Wolof nahenahe. The 298) : principle admitted in a grudging way by Max if Miiller ' There are in many languages words. palatable. voracious. delicacies. or more particularly the audibility of the rnasticating process (Whitby GL). jammla. agreeing with Ein. to take or steal (indicated in the name of Corporal Nym). food (Tylor. buckra man's language the white man. The Chinese child uses nam for eat. taken up hastily on the sly. Vei (W. words have been recognised from the and as it was the only prinr'plc on which the one.ONOMATOPCEIA. to eat with a full mouth With a different development of the initial sound we have greedily (Haldorsen). (in chil- dren's language). and some of them . . dial. Africa) nimnim. while the remaining stock of as having come by inheritance fi-om the first 'Oyo/mTOTrotla quidem. mumpfeln. to fill the mouth. as well as the Sw. nobis vix permittitur. mumpfen. A negro proOr. chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder) Bavarian memmeln. it possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every language was vaguely regarded establishers of speech.' — Lersch. Primitive Culture. snatched (Whitby Gl. of the fiery stake (tff/f e) in the eye of Polyphemus. nvrnma. to eat. aves tinnire. Gothic niman. to mump. to Sw. mumble. Zooloo nam- smack the lips after eating or tasting. the Scotch poet. Galla djam djeda. nyam nyam. Quintilian instances the words used by Homer is for the twanging of the bow (Xi'ySs j3tos). as to . crab nam buckra man. to eat in a greedy swinish manner (Molbech) . djamdjamgoda (to say djam. we can call them so. Africa) nimi.' says the author of Modern Slang. consisting of mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature. p. Soosoo (W. greedy . to take. eating. i8o. fictio no- ab iis maximas habita virtutes. 130-1. to move the lips in continued chewing. lita. in the eats word : Buckra man nam : crab.minis. Nimm'd up. iii. oves lalare. Sprach-philosophie der Alten. to mumble^ leading to the Yorkshire yam. and the fizzing (and Series. mujnpa. or word-making. on. stolen. make djamdjam). jumla. nam. ' 'OvofiaToiroda est ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem. South Jutland hiamsk. Graecis inter ita posita ' was called Onomatopoeia. Nam mugitus et sibilus et dictio configurata murmur inde venerunt. ' Motherwell. Swedish dialect gamsa. at hiamske i sig. The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to earliest period.

yelping. snarling. have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and verbs. Yet we ing. speaking of words formed on the ' bowwow principle. 'I doubt. quacking of ducks or fi-ogs. 'That sounds can be rendered in language by sounds. or. and applied to every kind of animal which utters a notable sound. und growling. twittering of swallows. hen and cluck- duck and quacking. might be used as the designation of it. intended in the instance to represent the cry. a lamb. whether it deserves the name of language. it once it is admitted an instinctive tendency to imitation in seems self-evident would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. do not speak of a bowwow. purring or mewing of cats. mind without drawing with Thus the imitative utterance. it But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought the thoughts of the animal first itself. While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins tiuu to Ramsay. dove and cooing. 89) with less hesitation. that there is When Man. might be used. the greater part of the instances specified by Miiller answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in is a plain onomatopoeia in one language or another j that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other language if not in Enghsh. not of a moo of Lect. bumping of bitterns. chirping of sparrows or crickets. and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. bellowing of bulls. the animal or of anvthing associated with If I take refuge in an African . neighing or whinnying of horses. baaing or maeing of lambs. and that this plan of designation is widely spread over shall We every region of the world. Indeed. listen in vain for between goose and cackling.' would be any similarity ' If the principle of onomatopoeia is applicable anywhere it in the formation of the names of animals. grunting or squealing of hogs. hog and gruntingj cat and mewing. who would deny he ' ? We could a solution not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera causa in the origination of language. sparrow and chirping. when circumstances required. Yet in general revolts against so simple of the problem. cackling or gaggling of geese. but of a dog. hooting of owls. And it is only on this principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by wiiich the that he of different animals are expressed. before the in other words. yelping. anything connected with it.xvi OBJECTION OF MAX MULLER. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular animal would be taken from imitation of the sound.' And elsevs^here (p. howling. p. We .' — We speak of a cow. croaking of frogs or ravens. or thoughts of our hearer. cawing cries nise" or quawking of rooks. cooing or crooing of doves. we still for the most part recogthe imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens.' he says. lowing of oxen. ^6^. barking. between dog and harking. bleating of sheep. for the purpose of bringing the animal. snarling of dogs. not of a baa. gobbling of a turkey-cock. chattering of pies or monkeys.

and means a shouter. a a crier (p. 349. having a general predicative power. I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion Here the imitation of the name of a lion. village xvii and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a is neighbourlurking in ing thicket. layitavya .' common sense.. kdka. kuho. fi-om apakd- i. caw kuhii-rava (rava. he is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. Georgian quaki. at least the is quoted by Miiller (Lect. which are used as the designation of an egg in the nursery language of France. or quawk. Bav. But as soon as Another Sanscrit name for formed on the same plan with Yet the word is cited by Mul- we analyse the It is word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or cock. gackem. Longthe Algonquin name of the raven.). a bird that is be driven away. The gestures with which terror is in the thicket. and that imitation of the ' Aupamanyava however maintains sound does never take place. kauwe. a daw. is It is among birds that the imitative is name all seen with the clearest evidence. British fellow in his imitative nature of such Hiawatha ^ves kahkahgee as names as these have been recognised from the and a Sanscrit writer of i. so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- present the sound in different languages. 4th ed. He to is therefore derives kdka.). harden- ing into a more conventional cook-coo. Arabic kdk. We represent the cry of birds of the crow kind by the syllable of the name in the most distant dialects. 'Kdka. and the bird called kuhii — kuMka. and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued The voice of the bird is consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. Manchu The kaha. obviously the crow is kdrava (whose voice kuhurava (whose voice ler as says. In the same way the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock ! cock ! gack ! gack ! (preserved in It. and the sound of that direction. Kdrava. In Lat. KOKKvi. in g. and gaggele or gagkelein. Hungary. a crow (Pictet). ist ed. lion. kae. and We are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo. 380. is In Sanscrit the cry written is kuhii. kuckuch {cook-cook) or guckguck. when Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. and koko (in children's speech) the egg which nature of the mitted. sound). it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us). roar will be practically used as the I point will signify that an object of my voice will specify that object as a The signification is carried on fi-om the cow to the milk which it produces. Aoo-Aoo. and Bavaria respectively. whose sound (Pictet.IMITATIVE NAMES. koioratz represents the clucking of a hen. and very But already Philosophy was beginning the author continues : to get the better of common among. most universally adwhich we hail as the harbinger of spring. In Basque. We imitate the sound with a modulated. birds. Sometimes the hoarse i . a crow. it announces (Salaberry). e. in is Gr. to cluck) gives rise to the forms coco. Origines Indo-Europeennes). an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists.' kd). Picard cau. Sauscr. as which is unmistakeably the source Du. derived fi-om a root ru or kru. 4th century before Christ is earliest times. crow. according to Durga). this is an imitation of the sound (Mku kdka. Columbia kahkah. ghak. crow. Malay gdgak. Barabra koka. coccolare. is kuM) for the cuckoo. caller.

Hindi. tortbla. kurre. produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds. German luhu. Da. Esthonian kikkas. Lettish kiekuts. kirren. kraukti. Magy. French dishuit. giving turtur (and thence It. girre. gugu. a crow. kuku. ' ku-ku- in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the first. Swedish kowipa. to croak. kraeye. Algonquin kos kos-koo-o. tbrtola. lUyrian kukurekati. kraeyen. Yoruba koklo. in which we recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound. to croak. either in the same or in related dialects. tur. The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in g. the name of an animal will gen- . are all direct imitations of tlie repeated cry. Du. names the imitative character of which Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare. and accord- has given rise to a cannot be mistaken. the imitative nature of which has been universally recognised from nian tourre. xi. in the North of England. and when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is. as well as of Sanscr. to howl or Lat. a crow . The corresponding verbal forms in to caw or croak. to hoot. 219. coccovaec. to crow. tuquheit. while crouk. a crow lish Lith. coucouva. k. Dutch kievit. have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the cock. t. Heb. So we have Polish krukac. reduplicate form. 6. plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the names by which the bird is known in different European dialects.. kukko. synonymous forms of similar structure). 'The ku-va-i is cry of the owl. another. and sometimes both together. and e. leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of Fin. by the verbs gurren or girren. hibou.. name. this to sound of the cry of kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllablei and we .xviii IMITATIVE NAMES. and e.' Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language is lary of almost any savage nation (p. Du. krahe. in which sometimes the sometimes the second part. Pers. Zulu kuku. In Peru turtuli one kind of dove . Arabic tdtwit. uhu. tbrtora. Scotch peeweip. Malay kukuk. teewhoop. tor. kukhuta. Mod. yell. The consonants p. p. German kielitz. Sp.' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift. Fr. It. great variety of oKokv^uv. to cry loudly. gufo. are represented. Albacuculi a dove. wood-pigeon. as In French we have hulotte fi-om huller. The crowing of cot in Fr. "Welsh hwan from hwa. To a Latin ear it must have sounded tur. Ibo akoka. In South America a crowlike bird is a cock in is called caracara. Walachian coucouveike. krauklys. German and Eng- krahen. use the verb is croak to designate their cry. name of its is the bird. or Gr. lilits. the name for a crow. cock.Gr. ghughu. libufs. with a great variety in the par- The ticular consonants used in the construction of the word : English peewit. koeren. but the different cries word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent of somewhat similar sound. The hooting of ingly it the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation. lulo. coqueri- Languedoc. korren. 24) observes that if the vocabuexamined. kruk. cacaracd represented by the syllables kikeriki in g. it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has' felt at been no distant period. turtle) as the Lat. to crow.

which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the syllables ta-na-nd. skryle. to hum.vf3. and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds. humming. swirplys with 6. grillen. Albanian tsentsir. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the Galla bombi. and he kong-ko-rong. The Welsh chwyrnu. growling. 'And I eer'd un a bumming 3. to chirp J may be compared with . oE. No one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong formed in the same manner. give a faint sound. there are infinite varieties. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano. Lat. common. We may compare the Parmesan tananai. from schrick. in allusion to its music.' —Tennyson.' — i. schwirren. We may cite Gr. bambhara. shrill.y Like a buzsard-dock o'er my eead. and probably indicates that g. to be compared with Sanscr. Speaking of a cricket he says. schirke. resound. Danish dron. to chirp . grylhis. din. schrickel. (Jieuschrecke) . to creak Bret. i. kong-kong. zirken. name of the gnat may be explained from Norse gnetta. Gaelic dranndan. and not from E. Fin. to sound. The Arabic sarsor. North of England. Australian bumberoo. g. Northern Farmer.or bumble-bee. Lithuanian tranas. Sc. words imitative of humming . a beetle druna. bee. a sharp sound as of a 6. chirk. of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the tune is playing.' a cockchafer Basque burrumba. sirkka. the humble. whirr). to rustle. g. of which commonly be traced to representations of the E. skril with n. ajo. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. dhran. flight its sting considered as a horn. Arabic tantanat. glass cracking (Schmeller). German hummel. erally xix be found to be an onomatopoeia. frogs j expressly mentioned by the author taking their names from their cry. or a gnat fly. thunder. grille. the drone or non-working bee . droning is . ta-na-nd. representing a short sharp sound. ' Sometimes one of these httle bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud. e. Basque quirquirra carry their imitative character The noises designation of insects on their face. a small as hawk is . bamba. 'The natives call it tanand. to grumble. Naturalist on the tocano. of England it is to the b 2 . hollow noise. cricket is from crick. which they make in their flight very . little intermission. may Thus sharp chirp of the insect. succeeding each other — with noise. loud rumour. The name of the cricket indeed. g. pip-pi-ta. a bee. hornet are buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and of the animal. The drone peal. Danish gnaddre. resounding of musical instruments. a drone. Coming the ox is names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of represented by the syllables boo and moo. a hornet. 337. knetta. gives rise to chwymores. with or Fr. the cites from Threlkeld's Australian Grammar all emu . schrecke. skirl. to shrill sound sharp. ' Sanscr. sound. booming. PofijivXwg. n muttering noise as to of distant (Salaberri). buzzing.' Amazons. German drohne. buzzing. In the N. a fly (Tylor) . ' — Pictet .IMITATIVE NAMES. and yelping cry. German dronen. Sanscr. Corean sirsor. as . horniss and from the buzzing The. from the humming. Lith. — Catafogo.

The formation of the verb by a subsidiary h ov g gives Gr. lulauti (to hoo-loo). The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language more compendious way by the addition of an I. a heifer. in same way. it seems to me far more certain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. a Geiger. bucula. and a word by the addition of elements signifying make or Thus from mamook. or with on. bu. bull. or moo. ox. representing the mew of a cat. — ^Tylor. verb is evidently identical with our shout. Lat. Manx booa. to make a loud deep sound. to weep. make poo. bolt. 'Habld el buey e dijd bu/' The ox spoke and said ioo/ From this mode of representing the sound are formed Lith. mugler. OFr. a name preserved in our bugle-horn. bukati. mugire. buculus. mae. bullus and e. shoot . On the same principle. to low. Fr. biibnas. bae. btibleti. it is truly surprising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be the origin of forms like Gr. has bilbilgoda. to . to beat hard. to or bark. The Galla lilbil. a cow. be-l-er. bubenti. Cult. plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin. and in Hottentot baa was the . or bau-l-i. the animal. grumble as distant thunder . w. 167. and from to ring. w. make to it laugh. from the imitative moo instead of boo. Lat. Galla boa. bos. loge. as the Illyr. in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868]. Piedmontese fi bau. bovis.XX called booing. to low . The Piedm. bae. to bump as a bittern Illyr. bugler. bubati. to make. a bullock. bauli. the to traders' jargon of to Columbia has mamook-poo. or formed Lat. or a z to the imitative syllable. to ba-L-are. (iove. and djeda. baa or bleat j wow ing the bark of a dog. From the same lioao). bwla. to make a noise. fivKaofiai. bo. ~ In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed. families of words (iovg and cow may be traced to a and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of find that the ox is widely called Boo among different mah. The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa. bullock. to from bau. bugle. boo. maukati. Yet him to the conclusion that the common origin in the root guav. With these analogies. Fr. and thence Lat. But when I men from Connemara to Cochin China. to low or bellow. are (with a subsidiary k). baula. as that of the cow by boo. in a imitation of a ringing sound. and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows moolls. mamoo-heeheek. Da. that the imitative syllable are Lith. Thus from miau. to boohoo. to the uses goda. k or g. to shout. say. a bull. From baa. and those which will presently be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries. miau-l-er. representmake bow. agreeing exactly with Lith. Illyr. the Fr. a drum . Zulu lulula. Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor). It. cattle. His analysis leads cow. to shout. to sound. Norse bu. to bow- own bawl. bue. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen. muJiati. to make. Gael. verbal form given to the say. a buffalo. whence baula. Hottentot bou (Dapper). Lat. amuse. to mew. forms a. and (as we apply the terra bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr. NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. is inadmissible. i88) shows same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. p. to bellow like a bull.

(iriKov of forms like Sw. corresponding to ohg. a wolf. ^. It. a sheep or ewe. but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoch. from hundama. The g. Gr. does not produce a e. hundi). showing the origin of Scotch Mailie. . a sheep or a goat. . rumbling. as lou of an ox. lekavica. to bleat . Gr.NAMES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. meketati. Hence Breton hoc ha. hoc'h (giving to c'h the guttural sound of this imitation. to grunt. a pig Fin. grogner. Moreover. growl. menAda (ndda. It is probable also that e. — . in v. to rumble. the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea. to howl. hadg- Magy. a grunt. cry). Kurren und murren. a dog. hund. G. The name no similarity of the hog is another instance where Miiller implicitly denies all is resemblance with the characteristic noises of the ani mal. and grumphie. sound. With gen. a sow. a sow. sheep or goat. And it is true there between hog and grunt. to grunt. hwch. name. meil. and thence groin. may be identical with Esthon. we have Sanscr. lecco. cite as by grunt. undoubtedly imitative. appropriately compounded of a groan and a grunt. a (Hesych. ' In driving. meckern. this obstinate race. Illyr. or in any ! way ! persuading. meigeal. knurfisk. Africa laa. the snout of a pig. nire. If Curtius had been aware of the Sc. name of the animal itself. hunt (gen. he would hardly. a sheep. kurre. oe. . it and e. with the root ypaipm. and hoc'h. mutter. firjXov radical with a subsidiary gives Gael. Gr. Gael. goats. hunon. /xj/caScj. naskia. of our southern coast MUller's line of is protected. ^ the imitative syllable produces Swiss laggen. a. smack and naski. groin. grumble. a goat firixal^ta. a goat. grunt. Vorarlberg maggila (corresponding to Fr. signifying a snarling. houch. meugler. to themselves. / The same Gr. from knurre. ill-brej tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. to bleat. the designations of a dog the term cur. a sheep (Lowe). to bleat. grumpf. Manx meilee. grumbhng. grunny. /xijeao/iat. sus-sus. name of a sheep. 6. and thus explains the origin /3^k»). grugno. grumble. and Circassian maylley.). a goat. a pig. Da. and of (maelon). Idgge (Rietz). is applied to the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. a subsidiary ^ or xxi In the Vei of W. curmurring. ill-natured jangling curre-fish (as Sc. lek-eg-ni. leknuti. a hog. kurren. leg-et-ni. and with the subsidiary k or g. purr). Fr. Welsh and Breton). Fr. and snorke. Illyr.' Moor's Suffolk words. by which the shingle gives rise to It. may with to snarl. karra. in Wolof bae. guttural tone. as the proper name of a tame sheep. In evidence of the aptness of we may the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs. hound. mekegni. From the imitative mae. for the voice of the ox). Magy. And obviously it is equally damaging to argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani- mal or only of his snout. grunlike a pig in eating. In like manner we find Lappish snorkeset. applied to the rooting of the animal with its snout. lambs. remembering that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by we have no other imperative than hooe hooe in a deep nasal.have connected Hasychius' ypo/j^ae. Among dog. to growl. Illyr. mecati. although the imitation embodied in Lat. leaving little doubt as to the imitative origin of the e.

hobby. to the left. houpy in Craven. a jackal (Benfey) The animal nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the management of the itself. the cry to stop or back a horse. humma. In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee. p.. such as cuckoo. as in Yorkshire highly right. cockade. (Craven Gloss. p. xxii MULLER ANSWERED. but round that poultry-yard there find that ' a dead wall. Thus we are led to the Fr. The author has been run away witla by his own metaphorical language. and the nursery name for a is horse geegee. and it is behind that wall that language really begins. hiine. Mrava (whose cry is to yelp. to whine. a mare. hobin. a little am- bling horse. animal. as used in nursery The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is whence houfe. and the horse with children called hotte-pdrd (Danneil). which serve the pRrpose as well as the cries of the a lively since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in manner with the thought of the creature to be named. from the cry animal. In the face of so ercising many examples it is in vain for Miiller to speak of onomato' pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few it insignificant names. whether The ground of himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold.root. They are 'sterile ' and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which they imitate. coquelicot. ^6<. The same cry in Devonshire takes the huff From the cry thus foriaof haap / haap back/ Provincial Da. coquette. Aoj6j6e c!i^ / back language the ! name of the used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian is (Outzen). M). g. . while hiipp-peerdken in Holstein child's a hobby horse or wooden horse. it is An onomatopoeia can only be have no root because itself a livino.' 2nd Series.' ticular bird. e. Sc. huttIn Switzerland the nursery name halt. as well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it some anterior stock. which are clearly formed by an imitation of sound. when he found peculiarity. of the character in question. Esthonian hoibo. But words of this kind are. In Germany hott is is the cry to make a horse turn to the right ho. turn a horse to the is In Finland. . as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. like artificial flowers. If onomatopoeias can . hobben. but ex- no appreciable influence in the formation of real language.). So Sanscr.). and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of the species is formed. The onoand soon matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as deals with cackling hens is quacking ducks. hoppe. 91. to go backwards. the name of the animal from some other equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation it was taken from the cry of the animal or the metaphor lies in tlie nature of the animal. to is jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot. without a — we root. There are of course some names.. and the only derivations to which are might give rise words expressive of a metaphorical said to likeness with the bird. it tlie sound of a parcould never be applied for expressing any general quality in which it As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but other animals might share. is If a certain character is strongly was an offshoot from marked in an animal. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased.' — ist Series. a horse. hottihuh.

that we regard the words as intrinsic intentionally imitative. ance or habits of the animal. diver. wiehern. a more obvious means of designation would frequently be found it is in something connected with the appearthis principle. Sw. Bohem. wrenska. Lettish sweegt. hresh. or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. Yet we cannot doubt that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- nying. Fr. but as may have sprung from a we are ignorant of any to horse. and a research enables us to explain the numerable other cases on a similar plan. signified It. hukkup. it is commonly more from the consciousness of a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner. cough. wrena. ginniken. nounced with a guttural).IMITATIONS OFTEN UNLIKE EACH OTHER. rinchar. creeper. groan. xxiii ginal object. by words ingly unlike even in closely related tongues relinchar. There is nothing name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the animal. and indeed from the conit name corresponding viction that it is the only possible way of doing in so. Sanscr. runniken. but whether there kind between them and other words. be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the oriwhat is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language? And how with can the indication of such derivatives is as the foregoing. Indian It is not unlikely that the on. giggle. sol. form corresponding hresh. nitrire. whitename in in- throat. Sp. against an imitative origin even in cases Nor is will there be any presumption where the meaning of the name remains fully conventionalised all conscious- wholly unknown. for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would that principle. titter. hresh. would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a posEven in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular sibility. to neigh. . laugh (originally prohickup (Sanscr. horse. hennir. hross. from discerning them any is resemblance strik- The neighing of a horse . Pl. and is it will depend upon accident whether in the e. swift. fehtati. turtur and its derivatives had been lost. redpole. g. wagtail. goatsucker. Du. and if there all knowledge of the Lat. With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- ticulate noises of our own.D. hikkd. no degree be impugned by bringing forwards which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imitaany number of names tion. little speak for themselves. be reconciled the assertion that there ' a sharp line of demarcation ? between the region of onomatopoeia and the tion is real ' commencement of language in The important ques- not what is number of words can be any difference traced to an imitative source. moan. and a self-evident fact that with which we are familiar are named on many of the animals The redbreast. The imitative principle will in necessarily As soon as a little be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. woodpecker. e. animals or certain kinds of sound. command of language was attained. When once the is name ness of resemblance with sound easily lost. extrinsic evidence of such a connection preserved. lapwing. would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the word. than to the sounds represented. as sigh. frenschen. to Sanscr. Irieschen.

' 'Haw. for in such sound of blows. Few words are to represent the sound of a tion are Lettish lunga. familiarly used gun and other loud toneless noises. The words used segde dat ' a manner German are especially numerous. haw. for the report of a musket (Colenso) .' ! ! ! ! — dong. to beat. And even at the present day it is extremely common to it is give life to a narration only office to bring before the action described. Wtb. ping came the bullets about their ears. lumm. and the smoke rolled over the Hoo. fitsche-falsche. wheeze. knack. to throw violently down. beat. hang. whose mind of the hearer certain sounds which and bring it accompany the ' home to the imagination with the nearest approach to actual experience. White Lies. ting-ting. &c. are familiar in ' to every one. for the the beating of the or the light step of a thwick-thwack. — Sanders.xxiv IMITATIONS OF SOUND. for the creaking of a wheel. a kind of drum. mer. for the sound of a blow. pit-a-pat. shriek. snort. to hammer . for the sound of milking. Mei gbengben. aritischane. Da. Zulu bongo. It is certain that a sound of imitate it where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing any kind to the thoughts of another. for a small one.' 'Plump! da fiel he in das wasser. banke. strippstrapp-stroll. atchian. . to knock. thunder (Tylor) . clap ! A smack Puff. went the cannon.' 'And at till the guns were too hot to be worked. for the for the sound of . bang. to ham. bang ' ! trenches. and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. a-kishoo or a-atcha I of which the first is nearly identical with the Sanscr.' it both sides went. &c. I : He it kreeg enen an de cried klapp he caught it on the ear. To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 'plamp. ding. bangas. debhes-lungotais (deifies. DingBang. It is represented in e. hoo. for the sound of a fall. When may be panied by once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it used to signify anything that produces such a sound. snore. heaven). to sneeze. knarr. To bang is then to do anything that makes a noise of the above description.^ represents the sound of a sharp blow. tisio (tisho). hoo ping ping. dong Read. an attempt would be made to by the voice. snukkup). the God of thunder . oren : Klapp. banga. beat of a clock child . Australian bungbung ween. klatsch. acquaintance gave to his the mode name of of Atchoo. a more expressive than the e. Of a like forma- drum . for blows with a rod. the dashing of the sea . in a nail Let. tlirob. or the w. pump. 1865. —Brem. plitsch-platsch. on the chops is represented also by pratx. haitshu. for that of breaking. Vei gbangba. atchini. From the other sister representing the sound a child of my . by the introductionof intentionally imitative words. on account of her sneezing several striking onomatopoeias cited and among American tribes it gives rise to by Tylor . The sound of a by the forms sneeze ! is peculiarly open to imitation. or tliat is accomit. root kshu. a large bell. haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley. the imitative nature of which will be generally admitted. scream. to drive on. heart tick-tack.' So imac.

to cry like imrli^u). pippione. has been un- employed to designate fixity. pipilo. pipelni. De Brosses. not- . is The syllable representing a sharp sound then used to designate a pipe. the voice of chickens (Cot. rire seems the more expressive of the 'What In language.sc. to a is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and ii simper would there have been less onomatopceia ? Is rire like Frenchman. pule. Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances. ducing the sound. the dental consciously (machinalement) letter. a chicken or gosling. is of expression. as k. Magyar pip. calls S. cry. G. to cry pi. the judgment must be educated by a wide survey of the phenomena. pi. a fife or musical pipe. young bird. and their relations. pu. Lat. or the uneducated different consonants are man. had been used laugh ? two. to cheep like a bird or a young It. a fowler's bird call is lost. or a piailler. part of the What consciousness has the child. pipio. pipegni. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric iii Man can find no adaptation to sound the words. Lat. chickens (Tylor). to squeak. of a word will appear supposed to represent. laugh. pipe.) a chick. used as a call to . but where without such a clue we take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a word. a (young) pigeon. —Lyndsay. and so forth. and whimper. He Yet asks. a or cheep. In cases such as these. who finds a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an in. pipe. being the most fixed element of the organ of voice. Florio. e. piauler. we must beware of fanciful and fluid in speculations like those of initial st. Gr. bleat. it is easy to follow out the secondary applications. and assumes a wholly imaginary principle the nasal articulation. is pfeife. pigione. to designate cavity and hollow. far pipi. of the mouth by which the as to formed ? But even the question particular sounds will be imitative intention the adaptation of certain articulations to represent differently judged very by different ears. as the simplest implement for proFr. where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on. Fr. Here he abandons the vera causa of the imitation of sound. — . piccione. the letter proceed- ing from the hollow of the throat.' instead. doubtless. to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk pip as a chicken. cry of young birds . To one the while another will be wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is self-evident. to peep It. pigolare. which he added to intensify the expression. It seems to him that the teeth t. a whelp.FANCIFUL PRINCIPLES OF SIGNIFICANCE. mobility excavation and hollow ^. At last all reference to sound and the term generalised in the sense of any hollow trunk or cylinder. child. Mantuan pipiare. The pi. pigiolare. xxv sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables We sail gar chekinnis In Austria pi/ pi/ is cheip and gaisliiigis pew. piou. scream. . peep. pipare. young child . pipio. peep. as in other subjects of study. and few who are so prepared will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited from Wilson. piou.

{to It. to growl. as the click of a latch or a trigger. girren. in German. To craunch implies the exertion of greater when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a The change through the three vowels. some small vowel or consonantal sound. to creak knirren. Pefuxela. to gargle . be cate to go on laughing loud . garren. by quoting from the 'Tournament of Tottenham. to pant bejii- zela. to pant violently (Colenso). to cluck. gurren.' We te he ! quoth Tyb. to clack. kirkirdnd. of something fine and thin. i.) Mod. of a loud strong sound. to hawhaw or laugh loud. p and is k in order to strengthen the force of a word. a sharp short one. Hindoo tomtom. sound). as representing the sound made when something breaks. sound of dry breaking.. a prolonged sharp sound. gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated . ioriogliare (to make borbor). It. it is If laugh were written as pronounced. when it force than biscuit. where the variation. Hindustani karak is rendered. knurren. lachen. Clack expresses such a sound as that of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other j click. to crackle like in boiling . The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka. or springing back. the clucking of a j hen . The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks. thunder oil . either in the significant syllable repeated with or without as in Lat. like the noise of a glass breaking . rumble (Fl. vaake gorgor) . knaks. brought home to us in But perhaps the expressive power of a word the most striking manner when the same significa- . yapyapii^to (to make gargar). knuks. to fizz like fat in frying. a drum W. crack.. to jar. to grate the teeth . In the same \^'ay we have pression in knarren. to bubble. what is is called a reduplicate form of the word. Indian chack-chack. the side of g. turtur. pi . karkarana. coo. to ring pipio. along with Du. grumble. to grumble). to be compared with Sc. . to thunder. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti. and lugh. murren. tonare. rumble. Pacific aka-aka. to rattle. The imitation begins felt in the guttural ack of g. to gorgogHare rattle. cricli. Zulu raraza. lachachen. &c.Gr. tintino. to grumble. to gurgle. is very common. to cry pi. along with tinnio. a rattle made of hard seeds in a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley). rumble. a short sharp sound. bubble. or kaka-faka. xxvi ably in • EVIDENCES OF IMITATION. is In other cases the imitative intention witnessed by a variation of the vowel corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. laqfF. there would be nothing in the word to itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. susurrus (for sur-sur-us) tintinno. Thus Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants . . or with Manchu kiakseme {seme. cluck. Poppopvi^to. crash. to gnash the teeth kurkurSnO. murmur (by . kniks. u. and is clearly indicated in the redupliform of the Du. preserved by Kilian. chack. a closed or obscure sound. Manchu kaka-kiki. make wood a clinking noise. kniks. a. to laugh. loud laughter. kuruk. like a glass or the chain in a watch knuks. signifies a Thus crack loud hard noise . creak. borrelen. tontonare. Sometimes the exis modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel.

word. or the bubbling up of to a spring. clank. . the tingling Ming-Hang. as Fr. hala-hald-faMa (falda. tup. kiling-kalang. csam-csogni. a boy's whistle. spring of water in the a bell. clash of arms. 1871. to pelt as for the Mantchu patapata. a nightingale. of keys or tinkling of bells. Manchu kaka. corresponding in e. correspond to e. 192). are applied to the is excrements of children. to knock. agrees with g. sound). to giggle. clango. chinking of coin. shout. tumult. or to Du. the sound of a stringed instrument.SIMILAR FORMS IN REMOTE TONGUES. compared with Gr. Manchu Chinese tsiang-tsiang. The sound of champ- ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla djamdjamgoda E. and Gr. for chut-chiit-er. Magyar csamm-ogni. Turk. to whisper. to ring or jingle. to croak Manchu <juar-guar. koXiw. especially one who beats. borrelen. e. kl'mg-kling. has its analogues in pitapat and Sanscr. to the purling of a brook. to beat. cry. corresponding to which we have Galla tubsing as a bird. sound of fruits pattering down from patatras for the clash of falling things. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boihng water. is Manchu tang-tang. halaidlac'h. and her heart went thump. or of bells ringing. at an accelerated note. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet striking the object by the syllable toop. to strike. clink. for the sound of privy whispering. and e. The Chinook jargon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum. Newman). the clink of glasses kalar-kilir. call. tion is xxvii rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages. croaking of frogs. klirren. 368). djeda (to say tub). hullabaloo (to The Turcoman The rain. witli our expression of hawking or of a hacking cough. noise. for the clinking Lat. and Gr. is based on the same imitation as the e. and the imitative nature of tivgle. caca and Finnish adkkd. to be compared with g. The whispering of the wind I. rain (Tylor.and e. drops of i. KaKog. for the Manchu hak for the sound of . fumtu. Prim. rvir (in tvittio.' Member for Paris. indicating the origin of Gr. is represented Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling.* the heart. Manchu is tchout- chou-tchatcha. box on the ear imitation of the . a smith. bent her head. Sanscr. bulbiil. . bad. tumwata. expresses the sound of water beginning to boil in e. which represent a ringing sound in Galla lilbil-goda (to make UlUV). The syllables lil-bil. coughing or clearing the throat. quarren. a nightingale. for a tTviror). same kind of sound by a nasal intonation gives the name of the Indian tomtom. tubh. jangle. chut. wail. muro and e. ding-dong. nurseries as an exclamation of disgust or reprobation. Fr. jingle. in The noise of pieces of metal striking together. and bilhila. rifiirayov. answering to the The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a name of the Arabian well Zemzem. sound. E. identical with g. uproar. and the same may be said of Zulu kala. Maori pata. Calt. Tiie Galla gigiteka. the gingling of glasses. a workman. Scotch sough or sooch. champ. are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil. make djamdjam). chuchoter. a drum . for the ringing of illustrate bells. to say chut. disturbance (F. brings us to Fr. simmer. may be compared with Australian pitapitata. awater* ' The Mme P. while cacd / used in e. sound of a Utde bell (Ludwig) j . as of Tamil muromurmur. Hindustani bhadbhad trees. Galla tuma. bubble up. repre- sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Miiller. thump.

according to the strictest phonetic rules. gurgle. mutter. splutter. at a door tarapatan. Fr. ring. actual sound or Mr blow box on the ear or a pair of bellows. wind as to a stroke with a solid body. the derivation of words from • direct imitation. twang. may we call them onomatopoeic and interhave definite forms between ourselves and chaos. to dance. thump. who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that would undo all the work it is that has been done and others during the chronic anarchy. while e. to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is universally recognised by the dictionaries. paddle. hum. and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been maintained on such fanciful grounds ments. or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent eleit is easy in every language to words an all to the imitative character of but universal agreement. to is blow. bubble. squeal. gargle. clap. thwack. the Germans puff. make out numerous lists of which there will in nine cases out of ten be Such are bump. We which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk use bang. boom. din. clatter. or v^hether jectional. ' Der puff. squall. and Fr. without the intervention of orthodox roots. smash. parapatapan. jingle. So in Fr. tymmesll. clink. pop. a applied as well to the force of the bang. clank. chink. flap. hiss. patter. tumbian (to beat the ground). plump. swash. splash. whizz. crack. lash. in e. disturbance. by rubadub. rattle. but he has perhaps overlooked the constant tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the The It. douse. The use of g. crunch. for (Sanders). blubber. puff. 'pat. tomber. smack. clash. sputter. we build our science like an arch of a bridge. and soufflet. rumble. is revolting to the feelings of Professor Miiller. squeak. or less preserved in the innumerable impressions taken from them.' — Nohden. buffetto signifies as well a collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. It. whine. flop. report of a gun. Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these. and Grimm. it is fallj AS. tingle. clack. rap. tum-ultus. tap. fizz. as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. But although and also found in Lat. blow. crash. we have buffet or cuff. snap. tinkle. answering to g. it matters little whether those roots are called phonetic types. whack. brumberum. The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. that rests on the firm piles fixed As long as we . chatter.. dabble. sumption a the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong prein favour of an imitative origin. as to No / throw ridicule on the general theory. slash. souse. thump. thump. murmur. and the French pouf. bang. to fall. dash. whirr. it must not be supposed that the most is striking dissimilarity any argument vi^hatever to the contrary. etymology back into a state of once admitted that all words must be traced back to — and throw more definite roots. xxviii ADMITTED IMITATIONS. the sound of a blow or shock souffler. Humboldt. w. Nevertheless. guggle. rataplan or rantanplan. craunch. for the Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the bang of the gun. The beating of drum is represented in e. } doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery ground. We represent the sound of knocking by rat-tat-tat-tat. clang.' last fifty years 'If by Bopp. creak.

every little pain. attention of the simply to the mother or the master. but if we must not complain on the beach. by the nature of the cry. the principle of which in his account of enounced by Lieber Laura Bridgman. intentionally produce He them when they desire to convey the idea of despair. Grimm or Bopp. cries more than that of the hardworking woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to attend to every themselves. —2nd every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built Series. Grimm and Bopp had it established an immovable barrier between us and might save some trouble of thought. he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the to its master to get the door for it. stractions. and thus they become signs of despair. ugh . Crying. but the name of no master of the Art will now guarantee the sohdity of the ground on which we build . that he has only to raise his voice in order up and soothed or fed. and uttering plaintive sounds. the interj. or of any if wood. the kind of action that is desired of them. in the case of the animal or of the infant. formerly cited. cat which comes whining The purcall pose of the cry. Henceforth rational beings may produce them. wringing the hands. If. because they are spontaneous. It is not until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother. as The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may is be taken clearly ' the earliest type of interjectional expression.'. and found in the building of be burnt up. and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisation . an imitation of a sigh . He now cries no longer on the simple impulsion of instinct. or any unsatisfied want. it is well that We come now known of to the personal interjections. hay. but with inteUigence of the consolation which follows. man it has to stand the brunt of water and of fire. exclamations intended to make affections of the mind. is Thus ah!. of horror. the inteij. the roots of language are mere abcries and there is nothing to separate language from and interjections.' If chaos. in the rushing waters. without a thought of symbolising to them. are the sponta- neous symphenomena of despair. and practically it is found that the child of the unoccupied mother. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to aU his wants and feelings of discomfort. or stubble is meaner name. and cries for the purpose of first making her suppose that he is in pain. of an utterance at the moment of shuddering. then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea. p. grief. little who has time to want of her nurseling. as a call for But when the infant petulantly opened is cries as a call for his mother. xxix on the contrary. by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. At the first beginning of life. are made known by an instinctive cry. 94. ally He in whom they appear does not intention- however who beholds them. his cry brings his to get taken mother to his side. in the But the infant speedily finds that infant. that he has taken the step in rational speech.' . and wilfuUy enforces the utterance the consolation he desires. we must The work of every take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. knows them.INTERJECTIONS OF FEELING.

' The dominion of speech is founded on the downWithout the artful intervention of language mankind would fall of interjections. and the interjection ha ha as there ! ! between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze. There is as much difference between a real word such as to laugh. shrieking. j According to the roots are imitations of sounds according to the second. p. be more powerful. ' Two theories have been started for shortness' sake problem [of the ultimate nature of roots]. together with gestures^ the movements of the muscles. passes And the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily to the conventional stage. 32. or when fi-om some circumstance the shortness of time will not permit sions of Purley. of all the mouth. more to the point. sneezing. If I wish to make a person of an . p. have almost as good a parts of speech as interjections have. they are involuntary interjections. it cannot be denied that with interjections too some is kind of language might have been formed . and every other in- The title to be called Voluntary interjections are only employed where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to voluntary convulsion with oral sound. 344. ' There are no doubt in every into language interjections. and from whence they draw their The treats nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by MUUer. groaning. their natural state and make tliem forget the use of speech.' 'As in the case of onomatopoeia. He says. assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the insignifi- stinctive action which they represent. or which is of me as suffering pain.XXX PRINCIPLE or INTERJECTIONS. Yet we must not hum! ugh pooh are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which usually accompany these exclamations. the lowing of a cow. the barking of a dog the purring of a cat. may become traditional. so it is from the imitative in with the interjec- tions used to express varieties of human passion. and some of them the composition of words. One short interjec- tion may fact.. Language begins where interjections end. more eloquent than a long speech. to communicate orally any of their neighing of a horse. but not a language like that which we In find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. and the eye. and enter But these interjections are only the outskirts of real language. which the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. I imitate the lowing of same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain. coughing. as who them spontaneous utterances. And again. ! tut ! ! — — have had nothing but interjections with which feelings.' p.' — ist Series. the animal to think and in the unknown language think of a cow. should be remem- . which are frequently so toned down cance. to solve the I shall call first. The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that which has been so largely illustrated in the naming of animals. and accordingly misses their importance in illustrating the origin of language.' Diver- 'When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the it claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech. he cites from Home Tooke. ^6g And to the same effect 371. would be quite sufficient for purposes which language forget that answers with the majority of mankind. them to exercise it. I imitate the cry as the natural expression of suffering. interjections.

have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatical part of our language. yet not a language like that actually spoken among men. which would be quite sufficient for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men. kahkahah. and somewhat veiled when I cry hm ! to signify that I language because my in Arab. hahottaa. It is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me. cachinno. Kayxa^u). The essence of rational speech the intention of the speaker to impress something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer. some kind of language might have been formed. when I arp humming and hawing. that to say that the cries of beasts have almost 'as xxxi a title to the good of language tion is as interjections. in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha. and more or less limited . loud laughter. explained The same imitation may be clearly discerned as signifying the laughing water. then speech begins. as is actually the case in some of the North American dialects. by which we interjectionally represent the sound of laughter. interjections. It is purely accident that the syllables haha. for example. it is not meaning is expressed by a single syllable. Tooke in truth. in Magy. We could not deny which those authors pointed out as in constant opera- there re-arranging. is to act as many Lyell began to explain the the reality of the agencies. because comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this principle. he says. speaking. demolishing here. Koxafw. Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of animals and other natural sounds. and others from interjections.PRINCIPLE OF INTERJECTIONS. bered. nor can he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be distinguished from others. and yet rise to to protest that could not have given such languages as our own. by continued operation through unlimited periods of would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of tlie phenomena in miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history . hahota. is practically to recognise that some additional name &nc- performed by is. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way of the doctrine. it them. I am not hearer. and it under patient if the illustrations came to be seen by every one that could have produced the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers effects attributed to time. tion at the present of us may remember to have done when Scrope and modern doctrines of Geology. the and the difference thus hazily recognised by fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and lies in rational speech. but we laughed at the suppo- actually moulded were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was into its present form. And it is precisely this vchich distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. over areas sition that these day on the frame-work of the earth. Lat. but when I imitate a groan by the inteijection ah 1 for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my So. Gr. in Fin. and thus. to hawhaw or laugh loud and unrestrainedly. But he does not explain in what fondamental character a language so formed would differ from our own. but the less am at a loss what to say. To admit the mechanism it as adequate for the production of language. hohottaa.

their The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from own experience how Gesture-signs originate. and if we had been taught to say stand where we now say go. But here nature soon conies to his help. of the nature of this great movement. but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. words receiving the meanings they now bear.xxxii LANGUAGE OF GESTURE. a deaf-mute himself. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer. of the world. a Picture-language. which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor. The following account is given by Kruse. the critical question should be. which no lower animal known is to have made or shown the least sign of making. whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of the entire stock. and admirably described in his ' Early History of Mankind. for we have quite lost sight of the coimection between the word and idea. imitat- said by a deaf-and-dumb man. Here at once its essential difiference from speech becomes evident. it would be No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these practically all the same to us. when once a rational origin of words has been established on the principle of imitation. have understand them studying as claim to consideration. whether there is any cognisable difference between them and the rest of language classes. with the exception of words which are evidently imitative. ideas by a rude outline-gesture.' he says. if taken as a whole. ' insignificaat as they are in practice in this great comparison with speech and phonetic writing. Though. "When and a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs. signs we cannot at present we can at least see how and so get some idea is he does come by and pictures. but so far as we are concerned there might as well have been none. It as has ing their most striking features. that we can really thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything. and author of several works of no small abiUty : 'Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be brought to pass. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea and sign not only always exists. and not. . There can be no better key to the condition of mihd in which the use of speech would first have begun. makes them stand and walk upon the table. we want no teaching to tell us what The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-andthis means nor why it is done. and a wellknown teacher of deaf-mutes. What strikes him . dumb is the language of signs.' ' The Gesture-language and Picturewriting. and by them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the lowest dialect of language. and go where we now say stand. than the language of gesture in use among the deaf-and-dumb. what is tlie numerical proportion of the two whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. like peewit and cuckoo. And so in the case of language. tell by what still steps man came to express to express himself himself by words.' 'The Gesture-language been well in great part a system of representing objects and is. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds without the aid of speaking men.

that. xxxiii him between one thing and another. signs are taught for yet. or the verb to be. are essentially foreign to the nature of the Gesture-language. thought is already broken. the right elbow is dandled upon the sign. and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. and forms further and further. for child. such as than the educated man. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips finger out from the mouth is name. the verb to come have the same first beckon- ing with the finger towards oneself. and it is flesh or meat. his action. and with his thought. as though one should define it to up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger. that signifies great .' In the Institutions. ' from the circumstances of the into a question. the whole secret. and that means goose j put the first sign and these to- gether. I push my fore-finger against the pit my stomach for /. the sorecalling them to his memory. called Gesture-language. the lan- guage cultivates itself. and are never used by the children The Gesture-language has no grammar. to name.GESTURE most. by a numThe deaf-and-dumb child's way of ber of unsuccessful attempts to say. can do better and more easily abstract terms. To speak is to move the lips as in speaking. or what makes a distinction to distinctive signs SIGNS. walker. The same sign stands and the act itself. it means little. among themselves. and Is the master come ? The interrogative pronouns who ? what ? are made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner in fact. and gestures. and to move the lips thus while pointing with the forepoint out ly speaking. most striking outline of an object. The of sign for left hand. for single objects. To touch the ear and tongue with the forefinger is to hear. man is taking off the hat The adverb hither and . it seems. like a V. walked. And is. and fully serves to j . whilst he silently he has found whilst he describes forms for himself in the or imitates them in thought with hands. what more. thou. letter To hold the two fingers apart. and we have roast goose. but if I depress it instead. push it towards the person addressed for thou. which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind. that air. and raise it towards the level of my shoulder. many when or but these. and to taste. of objects are at once signs by which he knows these and knows them again j elaborates the signs their they become tokens of things. point with my thumb over my right shoulder for he. particular sense in properly so called. To seize the is the principal movement of an action. he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas. such objects. for walk. and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for fingers. and this is what the is rudest savage can do untaught. he. for the agent. the which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered case. he. A look of inquiry converts an assertion make the difference between The master is come. walkest. becomes roast meat. and And thus he makes himself a language.' Mr Tylor ' proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the : Deaf-and-Dumb Institution at Berlin — To express the pronouns I. or To pull and flap with the arms. When I hold my right hand flat with the palm down at the level of my waist. as it now opens out. nay.

In the expression of a hunt-ball or Jish-dinner the prior element used to qualify the meaning of the following noun. when I say.xxxiv asking. the ture of white term pink is and red. struction as to In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a conmake it either verb or noun. He ran bang up meaning of the verb ran. . this Nor is comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of children. as in die it is a noun. in expressing such relations as those indicated above. according to the circumstances of the case. or orange to a certain might equally have been used in both these applied indifferently to a particular flower and fruit mix- and its peculiar colour. and object it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that was an agent. or something of the kind. gramthe hunt or catching marians would zjish. or a passive scene of existence. The office of all words at the jections at the present day. The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the ear instead of the eye. or action. which may occasionally be imitation of the sound -of heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or offood. putting it into his pocket. When a verb. hearer to the thought of Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the some scene of existence or sensible image associated with is the sound which the utterance intended to represent. as when Bang ! went the gun. the garden. as But when it is meant door. When I say. it is The syllable bang represents it is a loud dull sound. a number of alternatives are suggested. I say. may have a distinct The three signs to express the gar- and the action of grasping the But the mere knife. and so is an adverb. of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable. You beaten . An champing with the jaws might with equal propriety signify either something to eat or the act of eating. and when uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound. a colour red. or sometimes interjection or adverb also. like that of the Interto bring to mind a certain object of thought.' dener's knife. who was it ? ' Where of a more general nature. whether by additions or otherwise. in other instances sentence. depend entirely upon the use. and thus performs the part of an adjective. substantive or adjective. Do not bang the it is a verb. I speak of going to hunt or to Jish. —What is expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition sign of holding in the Gesture-language. When tlie expresses the subject or the object of action. or a quality. qualifies the against the wall. it is is call the word When I speak of joining a substantive. Did you have soup ? did you have porridge ? and so forth. bang But these grammatical distinctions or in other languages. VOCAL SIGNS ANTERIOR TO GRAMMAR. and on this principle we have above explained the origin of words like mum or nim. in fact. to indicate the action of a certain person. 'The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask. He gave door a bang. The deaf-mute word lip touches his lip to signify either the or the senses. and it might be used lip itself to signify a substantive object. it called an interjection. or an act. What did you have for dinner yesterthe inquiry day ? but. might be the knife. Who is has beaten you ? would be. The same word . putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose. would be simply beginning of speech. and the as.

with a stick. It is universally supposed that the case-endings of nouns in Greek. that admits itself in of audible representation. and may be used language. greatness. wherefore. inquiry. the subsidiary element being slurred over in pronunciation. but often self-evident. whose descent from the personal pronouns in many as all cases clear enough. and gradually worn' down until original all form and signification has been wholly lost. by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in question. but every syllable presents an independent image to the mind. It is otherwise with the is personal inflections of the verbs. as in the case of our own comclue to its pounds. middle. Thus tafu signifies a great man.NATURE OF INTERJECTIONS. as in the case of spitting as a sign The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are perhaps those which represent a cry of pain. or expressing the direction of motion to or from the thing. inside. a sigh of oppression and . The sense of in a place is expressed in Chinese by adding such words empire. word meaning use as coalescence of some such elements as the above. as cung. wherewith. . grie^ horror.^ — Miiller I. signifying an attribute of this person or of that. lowing of the cow or the cow It is only when a word. &c. will give rise to the We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither class of nouns. commencement of speech. pain. or with elements expressing relations of time. a groan. In the same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the subject or the object of action. wonder. or an adjective in an inflectional The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great. the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of interjection will be completely accounted for in spit- The an etymological (as point of view. leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any preceding or following words. verb nor noun has yet been developed. moo would serve to designate the xxxv itself. Why the affection should display such a is manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological of dislike. the man is great. a noun. it) when it is traced to a recognised to symphenomenon Lieber calls of the affection. whereof. which is an old y ting (use stick). 255. Interjections are of the same simple at the first significance as the words in Chinese. coalesces with the personal pronouns. wherehy. or Their mean- words must have been complete in itself. in the sense of great. as if successive scenes is of visible representation were brought before his eyes. or nei. the relations of which are ouly marked by the construction of will begin to the sentence. The term chiefly applied to exclamations intended to express a variety of mental or bodily affections. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or a groan ting. some outward display of the affection. contempt. as kuo cung. that the verb emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. whereto. in the is indicated by the syllable y. ing is not implying a relation to any other conception. is The purpose of the interjection simply to present a certain object to the imagination of the hearer. Latin. or some relation between it and another object. that is. so that the same word may signify under different circumstances what would be expressed by a verb. Jii ta. and to be great. and Sanscrit have arisen from the The instrumental relation ..

to cause pain. cacak) is to with the tongue) the chirping of birds by the syllable champing of the jaws by djamdjam . miau-n-is. Thus from springs otjucifw. och. and cacak djeda (to say crack. oimare. headache. to yell formed e. n. It. oh. representing Illyr. Illyrian vaj. waiidt. pain. first person. ai. to rriourn. I oi[iot. oh. ocAJ.. to cry n. as to give rise to the oifioi formation of verbs like a simple root. or r. &.-l-are. Such are g. are ol-ire. ochain. ochan. is to replace the elements signifying woe to lament A more artificial way of expresssay or make by the sound of an klagen. in Gr. Fr. DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS AND NOUNS. on. g. It Is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition of elements signifying ^02/ or make to an imitative syllable. die wehen. la. pain. to ache. . Illyr. vaj. to make bow-wow. wAwa. to weep. gwae. Thus in the language of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaA zahnweh. lament from oimi. . vce. axofiai. xxxvi grief. however. on and to in signify the cause of the groaning in a-xoe. pain. w. as. to . dchzen. jao. ui. to Thus the Latin more artificially cry miau ! Albanian oi/iiifoj. to cry at. to bewail oneself. oval. (to cry ach ! ach !) dx£<Jj "-X^^hh '° grieve. wai. hei. a groan or lamentation vir. It. misfortune. to make). as. gwae. guaj-ire. to chirp. ahi. mostly a ! %. the smack or make and is a noise as swine in eating. In this way from the root guai. on. and to bark . probably a deeper groan. oi. to gargle. Gr. vei-n-a (to cry vei to yell. ohimi ! oim'el Illyr. lau-l-e. Gr. . guai. vei-a. j. The form corresponding to Lat. at the close of the radical syllable. representing a cry of pain. Hei mihi vaj me t / Ah me ! Aye me ! waiman I Sp. ach. way in which the The utterance of the interjection alone himself. e. al. to weep. ochan. grief. The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah ah assumes the shape of a substantive or a verb in w. grief] affliction. Lat. to wail. o'i. weh. ohg. ing action I. suffering. the exclamation would till! refer Fee victis / with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. And so comand the pronoun in some of these woe cases. grief. Gr. djamdjam goda (goda. guaj- or cry out pitifully. to wail or cry alas . Let. tirr-djeda. to sound yapyap. Bret. to do woe. mew. aiai^to. to cry ah me ! yapyapi^a). he adds the pro- noun of the o'i^oi. Lat. woe. to ache. miau-l-is. We get interjection a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. A weh similar formation is ! frequent in Sanscrit. . but would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker when joined with the mention of another person. to hurt Let. woe. w. is Ay di me I Gr. form. A widespread It. e. wd. ah. wai-l. ach. g. w^wa. misery. jaoh. to lament. wehen (Schmeller). miau-l-er. has more kopfweh. to groan. och. to injure. plete is the coalescence of the interjection me. Gael. seen in Gr. when the ! ! speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as tlie sufferer. the pangs of childbirth. achen. . weinen. Fee Woe unto thee Woe unto them Accordingly. ache. och. found in g. It. 6. ohi. wai. gwe-l-a. howl. lament. ! ! Goth. weh schreien. generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain. cece. toothache (where c stands for a click tirr or trrr.'). vce. It passes ctica- X'fw Gr. ah.ez. wehthun. 6. It. Jar lau-lau. has to cry laa the Piedmontese. ace. is w. e. guajo. to lament. ach.


; '








waimanas, lamentation, waimandt, to


showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same



we examine
intended to

the purport of the utterance ohimi ! ah

me ! we

shall see that

the hearer


that the speaker


in pain or grief,

and thus has

essentially the

same meaning -with the Or. ayoyiai I bemoan myself, I cry ach I am in pain. And no one doubts that the fiai of ax"/'"' '^ the pronoun of the first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like ctx or ach, representhig a cry of pain.


interjection in Italian coalesces also

with the pronoun of the second and

third person

ohitu, !

alas for thee, ohisS


alas for


(Florio), suffering to thee,
in these last the identity

to him, corresponding to Gr. dxeaai, ax^rai, although

of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun
in the case of the


not so clearly marked as

person of the verb.

UGH The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resertible each other. They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a convulsive shudder, under

which the


cowers together with


arms pressed

against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of


will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with
it is




in the first place, the interjection



German uh! Then
form of




French ouf !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
imitative character the representative syllable appears under the

with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder.


or hug, as the root of verbs


adjectives indicating shuddering

and horror.

Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver.
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence



ug or houge was used



drum and

trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout



kind frighted mother ugs

Is niusick to the sodger's lugs.


Sc. Diet.



passage of



inghame, having cut off her


by Jamieson nose and

it is


the Abbess of Cold-

lips for

the purpose of striking the

Danish ravishers with horror,



her systers to do the same

To make their foes to houge so with the sight. And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full Cut off anon, which was an hougly



Jamieson observes, the passage

clearly points out the origin of the


ugly as signifying


what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh
the odious ugly fellow.

derivation to

— Countess of St Albans.


observed that


may be


familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the

extreme of ugliness. The radical
ation in Scotch ugsome,

compounded with

a different termin-


causes horror.
silence of the nycht




In every place

my sprete made

sore aghast.



the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of j uggr, fright, Then as apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous.


things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with

awe and

terror, to

make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to The connection of the cry with a certain signify excessive size, a fearful size. bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast,

shudder of cold or horror, and
the like.



which forms a prominent feature in the in a voluntary way in a close embrace or

GR. fia^ai







manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the


opening of the mouth,


familiar to every one.

I saw a smith stand with his




whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,

With open mouth swallowing a

news.— K. John.


physical cause of the

phenomenon appears

to be, that the least exertion

in breathing interferes

which we are listening when we are intently engaged
listening for every

with the power of catching any very slight sounds for and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
in the observation

of an object of apprehension or

sound that


proceed from




ively opens in order to

calm down the fimction of breathing, and to give the

play to the sense of hearing.


the exertion of the voice at the



opening the


produces the syllable ha, which



the root of words in

the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)

gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general.
lable ha, ha, gives the interjection of


repetition of the syl!

wonder in Greek and Latin, jSa/3at babae! papae The exclamation ba ! is used in the North of France in a similar manner, according to Hecart (Diet. Rouchi),-and the same author explains hahaie as one



with open mouth, a gaping hoohy.

"Walloon hawi, to gaze with open
Fr. ehahir, ahauhir, to cause

mouth (Grandgagnage)


Old English ahaw,

to cry ha ! to set agape, to astonish.

In himself was

all his state

More solemn than

the tedious

pomp which



princes, wlien

rich retinue long

Of horses


Dazzles the crowd, and

and grooms besmeared with gold, sets them all agape. Milton.

In the remote Zulu


find hahaxa,

to astonish.


significant syllable



strengthened by a final d in several of the




the d being in an-

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.'

—Quart. Rev. No.
ladiero, an

148), as in


ladare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay ; stare a lada, to observe, to watch, to wait ; sladigliare, Proven9al badalhar, to yawn ; hadar, to open the

mouth, gola hadada, with open mouth ; pouerto

open door


Fr. lader,

open (Vocab. de Berri), badault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) Catalan badia, Portuguese hahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay
d, gives

Breton badalein, to yawn


bada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston-

In, France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final


Fr. baer, baier, beer,


be intent upon, to hanker

after, to

gape Abaier

bouche beante, a gueule bee, with open



bailler, to

gape or yawn.

explained by Lacombe,


^couter avec etonnement, bouche beante, inhiare lorise to e.



adoption of Fr. abaier gave

abeyance, expectation, sus-

pense, and

OE. able, to remain, abide, endure.


sight of her they




In great amaze, ne wist which


to chuse.

But Jove

all fearless


to abie.

—F. Queen.
to that of expecta-

The same
tion or


from the sense of earnest observation
until a certain end,

mere endurance

seen in Latin attendere, to observe,

to direct the



and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait ; and again in Italian
e. wait,

guatare, to look, to watch, compared with



radically identical

and was

itself originally

used in the sense of look.

Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad






wejiie aftir

our four shippis


us doith dryve.


the vowel of the root



down from

a to


in the series baer, baier,

abaier, aby, or in Gr. (x""^)

xaoKw, compared with Lat. Mo, to gape,


learn to recognise a similar series in

badare, Gofhic beidan, to look out for, to

expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.





A representation
longed sh or

of a whispering or rusthng sound by the utterance of a proor of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for

demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen. Hence the interjections of silence, hush 1 hist I whist I pist ! (Hal.), Sc. whish
the purpose of






psch 1 pst I husch





tys !


tyst I Lat. st I It. zitto,


cito I ciuto I Fr.

chut I Turk,


I Ossetic ss 1 sos 1 silence!


sial listen! tush!



(Tylor, Prim. Cult.





seems in

cases to arise

from a representation of a low
acts as a

whispering sound, but the principle on which

demand of silence may

be explained in two ways.
or a rustle be heard

In the




may be
it is


an exhortan

ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or


urgently, not to let even a whisper

but more generally perhaps

be understood




Thus we have

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which


it is

necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly


Sc. whish, whush, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.


Lat her yelp on, be you as calm's a mouse. Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.


It. %itto is

used exactly


the same



non fare


not to



sound ;



not a breath to be heard

stare zitto, to be


Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still

also a

hsht ; also to buzz or whisper very low.

low whispering ;

pissipissare, to psh, to

To pister or

whister are provincially

used in the sense of whisper.— Hal.

The w.

hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing

hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to e. hist ! silence listen In the same way answering to g. tusch ! Da. tys I hush the g. has tuschen, tuscheln, to whisper j zischen, zischeln, ziischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
! !


husch! represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through


' Husch / sau^&a v/'n husch / Amch. rusch und durchbusch.' ' Husch t air. was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that


heard in the bushes, or


an intimation to

listen to

the sound

to hiss, signifies also, to cry



The it. command



to give



that the syllable

like the

was used in the sense of

Hence must be

explained Lat.

Goth, silan (formed on the plan of Lat. la-

to cry haa), to

be hushed or


In Gr.

o-tyaw, to

silent, criya^w, to


to silence, the root has the

form of

e. sigh,

representing the sound of a deep-drawn

breath, or the whispering of the wind.

In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,

swouch, souf, OE. swough, Magy. sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or

of heavy breathing, lead

to Sc. souch, silent,


To keep


calm souch



keep souch, to keep silent. Jam. Hence as. suwian, swugan, swigan, 6. schweiThe syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes gen, to be silent.
varied by the introduction of an

after the initial

w, f, or



firom forms pass to as.

whisper (g. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist! hist I


wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G.Jiispern,flustem, to whisper,
ON. hlusta, to
listen, as. hlyst, gehlyst,
initial /

the sense of hearing.






away, leaving the

alone remaining, as in g. lispeln, to whisper,
E. list I

also to lisp


luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.)


ymous with

hist ! hark,

and thence the verb

to listen.


notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice

very generally conveyed

by modifications of the syllable.ma, representing the sound made with the closing
rmi, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani; ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, heller-skelter. Thus we have Gr. fivZuv ^irirc ypv^tii', to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a syllable J Lat. muttio or mutio, as e. mutter, to say Triut, to utter low indistinct


sounds; non muttire, non. dicere muttum, to keep silence.
Fr. ne sonner

Equivalent phrases are

mot ;


non fare ne motto ne

totto (Altieri)

Sp. no decir

mus ne

chus, ni rnistar ni chislar

Du. noch mikhen noch kikken;

g. nicht miicken, nicht

mix noch kix sagen; Swiss nichtmutz
a repetition of the imitative syllable thun.


mu mu,

as in

The form mum may perhaps be from Vei mumu, dumb. It is used by

the author of Pierce


in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking

of the avarice of the monks, he says that you




get a


of their

mete the mist on Malvern hills mouths ere money be them shewed.

Hence, by


of the negative,

mum !




Mom !

ne parlez plus

In the same

the Fr. uses mot,

ne sonnex mot / not a syllable

With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. toz2, to bind, maintained by Miiller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root.
Fr. uses both mom / and mot ! as an injunction of mum. or mute when not a muTn or a mut comes from Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same his mouth. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound, principle in the most distant tongues. is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kitten in the expression noch mikken

As the

silence, so a person stands

jmimu, Mpongwe imamu, whence mummers, actors in durabshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips; Tahitian omumo, to murmur mamu, to be silent Fiji nomonomo, Chilian nom/t, to be silent Quiche mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. Prim. Cult. I. noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb.

The Vei


are essentially identical with our







ideas of silence

and secresy or concealment are

so closely connected, that


we readily pass

to fivarrjpwv, the secret rites of

mystery, something hidden from the comprehension.

the representative

no decir mus




Greek worship, whence In the same way from have Lat. musso, to mutter,



and thence

Fr. musser, to hide es gens

musse, a private hoard.






qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur

in populis.'


Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied




in secret,

and mucker,

to lay


a (secret) store.

gard (muttering),

sullen, displeased.

Exmoor mug-

Halliwell. Gr. jxvyfioe, a muttering.









hum /

represent the sound


in clearing

the throat in order to

the attention of the hearer to the speaker.

In Latin


frequently the force of the interj. en ! (which

may be merely



of representing the same utterance)
does something to
(pointing) there
haec est


the speaker points to something, or

which he wishes to call Davus for you. Oves


Hem! Davum



scabrae sunt,





smooth, see here


as this


When addressed

to a person



going away

has the effect of stopping


or calling



explained by Weiland an eKclamation to


a person stand


Thus Du. hem hem 1 hoor

Tylor notices an analogous exclamation Tnma / 'hallo, a stand in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to stop," doing, thfc naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is Ham I ham ! Don't interj. ham ! is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children.

haWol hark



touch that, leave that alone.

Hum 1 Hummel



of prohibition.— Brem.


Hence hamm


keep one


check, to restrain.
shall stay







shall attend to

my hamm !


I chuse,

as I direct (Danneil).

The conversion of

the interj. into a verb gives

Du. hemmen,


to call

back by crying hem

(Weiland), and g. hemmen, to restrain, keep

back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with thcE. Aem, to confine. 'They hem* is the doubling down which confines the threads hem me in on every side.'




garment and hinders them from ravelling
as it



point of greatest interest about the interj.





offers a possible,




a far


in the cases

from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-, We have seen that the primary purpose ijiov, ifioi, ifii.

of the

interj. is to call


utters the exclamation, and

the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of

in Latin

Ifem the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself.

often used



Ah wretched me







scio jam quid

vis dicere.




know what you would


In the line

Me, Me, adsum qui


convertite tela,

we might

read the passage without

alteration of the


Hem Hem
speaker himself,

adsum qui


use of articulations consisting- mainly of the sound of


or n to signify the

so widely spread in every family of man, that this



designation must be based on

some very obvious

principle of significance.

In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the

and second person by Dr
ne, nge,

Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, ^^ shows that in upwards of seventy

Negro languages the pronoun of the
ngi, ni, in,




ma, me, mi, man, na,


m and



personal prefixes.




formed on the same

plan in almost


families of language. In the Finnic family

we have

Ostiac ma,

Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in laba-m, my father. Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia 7tga, Kol ing, aing, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of

N. and



ni, ne, vo, na,

miye, in, ane, aid, &c.

The Bushmen
however so

of the Cape,



cites the derivation of G.



to stop, check, restrain,'

from the



signifying stop


an obvious extravagance.

it is


close a connection

meaning between the


and the verb, that

not easy to understand the grounds

of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from

whoSe pronoun of the




written mm. by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of

ment of

the voice within the person of the speaker,

which appears to be the confineby the closure of the lips or
certain that

teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It
is felt

something of this

when we sound
lips, in

the voice through the nose iu an inarticulate


with closed

order to intimate that

we are

keeping our thoughts to ourselves,

to give them forth in speech. The sound which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the inter]. hm ! and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might

and are not prepared, or do not choose,

naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the

development of the personal pronouns
of the pronoun me.


in other



might serve


the basis



the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any


a new suggestion. The Grammarian Nigidius


quoted by A. Gellius,


x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the


{ego, mihi, nos),

we hem

in, as it

were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),

and hence he conceives that the word


naturally adapted to the







the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun-

deringly extended

to ego, in the pronunciation of

which there




in of the voice.

of the nasals m, n, ng only that

this character

can properly be aflSrmed, and these,
as the basis


have seen, seem to be indifferently
Plato in the

of me and


correlatives all over the globe.

Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the

meaning of the preposition

iv, in,



the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.


application of an inteij. signifying see here I to the sense of me,


strictly parallel to

the use of





properly signifying here and there, in

the sense of us and you.


in his essay

Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v. on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
in the language of

personal pronouns.


Tonga, mei

signifies hither,


towards the speaker ; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken
these particles are used in construction (like







or us and you.

'Bea behe mei he tunga fafine'^wlien spoke hither the several women, when several women spoke to me or us. So tdla, to tell ; tdla mei, to
hither, to tell



or us


tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you.

Here we seem
it is


have the veiy forms of the Lat. pronouns
that the

me and

fu, for




has totally different words, au and coy.

In Armenian there


this or here,

but takes the meaning of / and my. In American slang a


hair-s, this father, I a father,
as this child.





of himself

Another consequence of the closing of the mouth
sound of

in the utterance of the


or n


explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec-

refusal, negation.




of rejection




of the

mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered


and the inherent

; ;



propriety of the symbolism



Brosses observes that the articulations

n and


both of which he considers

as nasal sounds, are naturally

adapted to


nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples

the words infinity and

It. sfor-


overlooks the


however, that

this It.


merely the remnant of

a Lat. dis,

and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
is is

the nasals

simply absurd.

Of the two

channels, he says (ch. xiv.



by which

the voice

emitted, the nose

the least used, and

changes the sound of the

vowel, which adapts
the privative idea.

for the interjection of doubt,

and for the expression of


expression of negation

by means of
it is


in Goth, nl, Lat. ne, in (in composition), Gr.

Masai (E. Africa) emme,






n, n, representing a

sound of which

impossible to convey a

correct idea


visible signs.-

— Schou.


the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation)

GuatOTwcM; Miranha rzaw j ; Quichua Quiche ma, man, mana ; Galla hn,
'nt, all


Botocudo yna (making ; Tupi aan, aani; 777a7;i2« {sNhence manamni, to deny); km ; Coptic an, emmen, en, mmn

signifying not.

The most
tite for

universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life


the appe-



it is

accordingly from this source that are taken the types used

in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike.


savage expresses his adif relishing

miration and pleasure by smacking his


or rubbing his belly, as

food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful.


Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes

on the Upper Nile,
display of beads




astonishment and delight of these people


and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing of their bellies.' Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. They very much admired



our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog.
their admiration


a peculiar

smacking or clacking with


They expressed mouth and lips.'
lips or

— Australia,



syllable smack,

by which


represent the sound

made by

in kissing or tasting,

used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c.,

the sense of

Du. smaeck,

smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to

In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant

at the

beginning of words, the

loss of the initial 5 gives Esthonian maggo, makko, maggus, makke. Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the



maisto, taste

maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies.




lost also in Fris.

macke, to







varied without impairing the imitative effect in


mlaskati, to



mlaskanina, delicacies
in eating,



in Fin. naskia, g. knatschen, to

smack in smack \^'ith



showing the origin of Lettish nnschkeht,

g. naschen, to be

nice in eating, to love delicacies

ndscherei, dainties.




have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack

equally appropriate to represent the sound

made by

the tongue and palate in the

enjoyment of

tasty food,

and in French, claquer de la langue
in tasting.


for the

same purpose.
to apply

We spsak
lips, a kiss.

of a click with the tongue, though

we do

not happen

to the

The Welsh

has gwefusglec (gwefus,


smack with the
sound of an


source then

we may

Gr. yXvKvg,

sweet, analogous to Du. smaecklic, Fin. mak'ia, from the imitative smack.
initial cl


or gl


confounded with that of


or dl, as

people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly

was used where

we now

Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. The same combination is found in Boh. tlaskati, to smack in eating, tleskati, to
clap hands

and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a
the sound of a

pcip or click

with the



smack represented by the form

tlick or dlick I

would explain

Lat. delicits, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling


gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops

dainty, nice,

agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicice, dlicatus. And as we have supposed Gr. yXwKuc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (diucis), and ultimately dulcis,

sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvKve has been recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial

or dl


distasteful to Latin ears,


would be

slurred over in different

ways, and diucis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicice, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella

umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus.



true that an intrusive


such cases

as the



commonly (though

not universally) short,

but the long

e in these

words may have


their being erroneously re-

compounds with the

preposition de.


attitude of dislike

and rejection

unsavoury morsel,

as clearly as

is typified by signs of spitting out an the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs

of the relishing of food.

which the harmonious

Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans-


I sfittefor disspite to

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, see thame spylte By sic ane wicht. 5. 44.

God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.' Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish j!/)o« signifies spittle, and also derision, contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression among the savages of Australia; 'The men commenced talking to them, but




occasionally interrupted their speeches



and uttering a noise


pooh !

pooh! apparently expressive of

their disgust.'

p. 189.

probable that



fact, identical

Australian interjection was, in

with our

own pooh 1 and




tended to represent the sound of spitting, for
travels uses the native tooht

which purpose Burton in

his African



exclaims the


with disgust upon the ground.'

—Lake Regions of

Africa, a. 346.

The sound of spitting


represented indifferently with an

p, as in Maori
as in Sanscr.

to spit out


Lat. spuere, to spit

respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis-

despuere, to express disgust or disdain

or with an initial


t'hiit'M, the

sound of spitting


Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook


took, Chilian

tuvcutun (to


tliu, tooJi,

tuv), to spitj


tufl, spittle;

Galla twu / re-

presenting the sound of spitting

tufa, to spit

tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,

with which may bs joined English

tuff, to spit


a cat.

In Greek

the imitation

rendered more vivid by the union of both the








feelings of

one dwelling on


merits and angry at the shortset

comings of another are marked by
while the breath

frowning brow, a

jaw, and inflated cheeks,



deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the

and passive lips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, fuming with
Sharp breaths of anger puffed

anger, swelling with pride.


fairy nostrils out.


The sound

qf hard breathing or blowing

represented by the syllables puff,
to huff,

whence a huff



of ill-temper ;

to swell with indignation or

pride, to bluster, to storm.

— Johnson.



explained in Thomas'

Italian Dictionary 'the despising blast

of the mouth which

Brescian lofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.



call shirping.'


as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, leffa, a jest, a trick;

heffare, to trick or



heffarsi, to



luffone, a jester, a buffoon.

"When the puff of anger
was formerly used

or disdain


uttered with exaggerated feeling



duces an explosive sound with the


represented by the syllable Hurt,


an interjection of defiance.
Florio speaks of

Bbirt I master constable,' a
in scorn or deas if spit-

fig for the constable.


Hurt with one's mouth

To Hurt a thing out

to bring


out with a sudden explosion

ting something out of the



Uirt of greeting in Scotch

a burst of

A contemptuous whiff or blurt
tt, trt.

otherwise represented by the sounds ft, pt,

Thus w. wfft I


explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
wfftio, to cry

Wfft, a scorn or slight, a fie


— Lewis.

shame or

Sanscr. phut, phut, imitative

fie, to push away with dissound of blowing ; expression

of disregard, indignation, anger.— Benfey.
pettacchiare, to blurt with the



petto, a blurt, petteggiare,


or lips (Fl.), Fr. pktarade, a noise
interjections on. putt!




contempt (Sadler), explain the

made with Da. pytt ! Sw.

pyt I pshaw



Norman pet! pour

imposer un silence absolu.



of anger

e. pet, a fit


the latter form of the mterjection
to take pet, to take huff,

of ill-humour or

to take oiFence

pettish, passionate, ill-hupet, a darling,

moured. To pet a child

to indulge

in ill-humour,

and thence o
lip, as it is

an indulged child or animal.
thrusting out his lips


as a child gives vent to his

ill-humour by

and making a snout, or making a

called in nursery

language, a hanging

called a pet lip in the

N. of England.

To pout,



vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyriau pufitise, Mzgyavpittyesxtni (pitty, a blurt

with the mouth), Geuevese faire la potte, signify to show
out the


by thrusting hp;

Hence Genevese

potlu, pouting, sulky;

projecting lips;

pottes, Prov. potz, lips;

Magy. Languedoc

piltyasx, having
pot, pout, a

a kiss


poutouno, a darling.


as in the case
ill-will to


hvffa, heffa,




from the expression of

the notion of a dis-

agreeable turn in Da. puds,
posse, a trick.

Sw. puts


be compared with Devon. poutcK\, g.


E. tut I (an

exclamation used for checking or rebuking

—Webster) seems
rise to

to represent

an explosion from the tongue instead of the

and gives


provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal.),

and probably tut-mouthed, having a


underjaw; on.






tud, a spout,

compared to

the projecting lips of a sulky child.



forcible representation of the explosive
r, as



given by the introlips

duction of an
order to

in on. prutta


hesta, to

sound with the

to a horse in

make him go on
well as

Sw. pnista, to

to sneeze

Magy. prussz,

ptriissz, as

iiissz, triissz,

The resemblance of
to be

a .sneeze to a blurt

of contempt

witnessed by the expression of a thing not


not to

Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. interjections of scorn. Prut! Ptrot ! Tprot I e. Tut I Fr. Trut! and g. Trotz ! The Manuel des Pecch^s, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
be scorned.


— that




his fader spirital,. for thy cursyng, prest.


seyth Prut



E. prutten, to hold

formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the

West of E. (with
pout, to

form of purt,


be sulky or

g. protzen, Dvl. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
as before, passing

proud, arrogant.


from the figure of a contemptu-

ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment


have on. pretta, to play a
I putt I

prettr, a




from the form pet

was derived Swiss


potte, a lip, so

from prut

may be

explained ohg. prort, a


figuratively a

margin or border.
tr, as


imitation of the explosive sound with an initial


ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or
triiscio di

pop with one's



Magy. trussxenmouth (Fl.)

lahbra, Fr. true, a blurting or

popping with the

or tongue to en-



of such a description in driving

courage a horse

on. trutta, to


a noise


est instigantis vel agentis

equos aut armenta.

— Gudmund.



(an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy
pass to


which we

Sw. dialect

truta, to

pout with the


a snout

to be out of


trut, a snout,

muzzle, spout.


same source


6. trutz, trolz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance.

Trutz nit ! do not sulk.

— Kladderadatsch. Trotz Ueten, bid defiance be proud or pout or — Griebe. Du.


trotzen, to defy, to

be forward

obstinate, to

sulk, to



haughty, insolent, perverse,

peevish, sulky.

<rofien,7o»-ien, to irritate, insult;



to deride, to


a jest of.

Sc. dort, pet, sullen



to take the dorts, to

be in a pet


dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.

A special application
blurt with the

of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure



send an inferior packing from one's presence.

Thus from

true, representing a




be explained


truccare, to send, to trudge or


away nimbly

trucca via ! be off with you.
in Gaejic takes the

Venetian troxare, to send
truis !

The exclamation

form of


oiF, said to

a dog,

or a person in contempt (Macalpine).

In oe. truss I was used in the same


— was nowher welcome,

for his



yhonted, and yhote, trusse.



Piers PI. Vis.



hete truss


an exact equivalent of g. trotz


In Modern E. the expres-

sion survives in the shape of trudge.

This tale once told none other speech prevailed,

But pack and trudge


all leysare



long.— Gascoigne.





a strong analogy

and hearing.

When we

between the senses of taste and smell, as between are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff

up the

through the

nostrils, as


eagerly swallow food that



to the palate




out a disagreeable morsel, so



an offens-

odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected

through the

with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 'they interjections of disgust. 'PifF! PhewIPhit!' excraims a popular writer, have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our



when we are compelled to hold our noses.' Punch, Sept. a, 1863. The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u'hew,fu, The interj. whew/ represents a forcible expiration through the protruded


a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
Sc. quliew,

dislike' (Webster).

passing rapidly through the

NB.whew, expresses the sound made by a body To wTiew, Maori whio, to whistle wldu, a stroke with a whip kowMuwhm, to blow, to winnow. The derivatives from the form pu orfu are extremely numerous, on. pua, g.

pusen, pfausen,pusten, Gr. (pvaau, Vith. pusu, puttu, pusti, Gael, puth (pronounced



puhati, Fin. puhhata, piihkia,

Hawaii puhi, Maori

ptihipiiJii, pupi'iJii,

CLmchnaptiJiuni (Tylor), Zulupupuza, Malay puput.topviff or blow.
put, phut, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with



may be compared with Maori pu^a, to pant, and puka-puka, the lungs. Again, we have lAa^.Juni,*fuvm, Galla lufa, afufa, Qxiichkpula (Tylor), Sc. faff. It. luffare,
E. puff, to

puphma, the

like the foregoing

From forms
at a


pass to the interjections expressing disgust

bad smell.

Sanders in his excellent g. dictionary explains





representing the sound

made by blowing through

the barely opened



thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty.

Ha puh I

wie stank der

phui I

Venetian puh ! fi ! I phew I Russ.ya/ tfal It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and

The sense of phu I fa ! fi !

disgust at a

bad smell



manner by Lat. (Patriarchi), Fr. pouak ! fi !

Bret._/bei/_/ec'A /

faugh ! fah



accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.


we have

Sanscr. pu,




puti, putrid, stinking matter,

pity, to stink, to putrefy

Gr. vvQw, to rot

Lat. puteo, putor, putidus,

pus ; Fr. puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid; Quiche pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puoA, nasty (Tylor). At the same time from a form corresponding to Bret.^oei.' and t,. faugh/ the Lat. \iasfceteo and fietidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the iovtnfa! are Old Norse
puter, putresco,

fuinn, rotten

faki, stench or anything stinking fa,ll, stinking, rotten ; fyla, ; In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus


ist :



time he stinketh. Modern Norse ^5*/, disgusting, of bad

taste or smell,

troublesome, vexatious, angry,


va fal aat


he was

enraged with us.




is foul,


smelling, then anything
dirty, turbid (of

opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look,
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair,


in the transactions


ON. Fulyrdi, foul words


falmenni, a scoundrel.


the adjective again

are derived the verb to Jile or

d^le, to make foul


and Jllth, that which makes


disagreeable impressions of smell produce a

much more vivid repugnance
around, they afford the most

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to

convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure.
expression of these feelings
• This representation of the
in his


probably the


would occur

in teaching cleanliness to the infant.

sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the

origin of the taoifu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be.

own language



place by




The negro who is without the verb to be Your hat no lib that place you put him


live ?

Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would where is it ? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.



interjection fy
it is



expresses in the


instance the speaker's sense of a bad

smell, but

used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That



and then generally, You haVe done something displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridgeman, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ox Ji when disnot touch that

do not do that


pleased at being touched




used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the


assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.

In 6. perhaps pfu ! moral sense ; fui I oxfi I with respect to smell. P/ai dich an ! pfu die menschen an! shame on them. But the line cannot be very distinctly drawn, and in Piatt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an ! as in




/ express disgust, ^e / reprobation.

or pfui I are chiefly


in a

Grisons fudi I shame on you.

Yx.f, I


expresses reprobation, but

it is

used with respect to smell. Fi

t qu'il sent

mauvais. Faire f, d'une chose, to



one's nose at


to despise

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu, dich I fie on you, and shame on you,



easily believe that

pu !


an expression of reprehension,



source of Lat. pudet,

shames me,







pudeo, I


under pu !

I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is

derived in the same

way from

the other form

of the




being thus

analogous to

g. pfuien, anpfuien,

^.fyne, to cry

on, to express displeasure

fynte hund, a scolded dog.

which prompt from Russ./k/ is formed yi/to (properly to cry fa!), to abhor, to loathe; from ^ ffi I fie ! ffiaidd, loathsome ^^etrftZio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless from the same form of the inteij. is to be explained the Goth, fijan, os.fjd, as.

expression then passes on to signify the feelthe utterance of the inteij. ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus


fian, to hate,

and thence Goth. ^j/'aHc?, g. feind, an enemy, and oN.^andi, proenemy, then, as e. fiend, the great enemy of the human race. From the same source are E.foe {oN.fidi i) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
perly an

type of the feelings of hatred,

is is

witnessed by the expression of
peculiarly hateful to us.


stinking in the

said of anything that

Professor Miiller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to-

gether the Sanscrit roots piiy, to decay, the source of puteo, and M.foul, and piy, to hate, corresponding to fijan and fiend (II. But he does no't explain g^). where he supposes the conftision to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist-

ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection of disgust; the one comprising g. puh ! Fr. pouah ! e. faugh!



especially to smells; the other answering to g.

ing aversion in a

more general way.

pfui! Fr.// E.fie! and expressFrom the first of these we derive puteo and


foul; from the second, yS/a/i i^nA fiend.

and pi/
to leave


If we suppose the analogous forms pu ! have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it

would give a

rational account Of the roots pliy and piy, which MUUer is content untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.



^ A small class of words
(in the sense


found in

languages analogous


and many of

identical with, the e. forms,



daddy, lahy, babe, pap

of breast,


well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas jnost

needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch-



in the Trans,

of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for i8ja, a translation of which

given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol.


appears that words of

the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or db, ap,


at, an.


find m,a, me, mi,

mu, mam, mama, meme,
in the sense

moma, mother, and


frequently nearly


same forms

of father j

pa, ba, pap, bap, bab, papa, baba, paba, fqfe, fabe, father

ba, baba,

bama, fa,
tati, titi,

bo, bill,

mother; ta,da,

tat, tata, tad,

dad, dada, dade,

mother nna, nan, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father; na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubaba, dbban, father amba, abai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother ; at, oat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father ; hada, etta, ate, mother ; anneh, ina, una, father ; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
de, tai,

dm, deda,


unina, ananak, mother.


to a great

La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or papa and mama, number of American languages differing widely from each



we regard

and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently


which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and






The speech

of the mother



to the meaningless cooings

perhaps unconsciously give something of an and mutterings of the infant, as the song

of the mother-bird influences that of her young. forms

At any

rate these infantile

utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
like e. babble, mqffle,fqffle,famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,

to talk

unmeaningly ; oe. mamelen,

babelen, to babble, mutter





Gr. pa^aia, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (whence jSa^w, to speak)


mumble, mutter, &c.

Accordingly the joyful or eager

utterances of the child

would sound

to her as

when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast, if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
intelligent use

if it called for

the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself

and teach her child the

of them.



mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla,


mamma, the infantile name of the breast,
d 2

and the same

the case with Fin.

mamma, Du. mamme, mother, nurse,
syllables as
as la,




to give suck.


one of the imitative

ma had

thus been

taken up to designate the mother, a different one,
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat.
the breast, a class of

pa, or

would be ap-

propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.

mamma, mamilla,

papilla, e. pap, for

names strongly resembling each other are found all over the world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking. Thus we have Sanscr. cJiush, to suck ; chuchi, the breast ; chuchuka, the nipple-j Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan, tschitscki, tsifsi, the breast, milk ; Maiichu tchetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung, tyoen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowrarega susu, Malay soosoo, Gudang tyutyu, Chippeway totosJi, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek. It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, g. zitze,

(nursery) diddy, titty, teat,

Malay dada, Hebrew dad, g. dialects jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. ^i).

didi, titti, the breast or



Goth, dadd-

The name of

the laly himself also


gives their designation to so


representing the utterance of the infant.
these infantile words.
infant, as she jogs

formed on the same imitative principle animals, viz. from the syllables la, la, The same principle applies to others of
syllables na, na, la, la.


nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the

to sleep

upon her knee, by the




of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna ; far la ninna

nanna, to

a child


ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language

nanna, bed, sleep.


In the



nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern

coast lala, has the sense of sleep.

In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott).



gives a designation to the infant himself in

ninna, a

little girl;

Milanese nan,

nanin, a caressing term for an infant.
nino, a child.


mi nan,


darling baby.

In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation
as in

transferred to a person

of childish stature,
it is


vivlov, a


child, a simpleton,

and in


transferred to a person of childish understanding.


the imi-

tative /a, la, are g. lallen, to

other cases, the sense
babble, talk.


extended to speaking

speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in in general in Gr. XaXito, to chatter,
are Lat. lallo,



same source


e. /a//, primarily to sing

a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe.

In Servian the nurses' song sounds /yu,


lyulyiiti, to

rock ; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which
perhaps be found in infantile
life, is

a rational explanation


name of which shows that it which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, pointing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the

the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to

making of the

will of a

dumb man

quoted by Tylor.


testator points to himself,

then to the

then touches

Mei ia giate au = hither this to me — give me Shall I thither this to thee = shall I give you this. as. Phil. a word of many applications in g. as it Dieser da (as Lat. implying the direction of its good will towards them. In the expression Da. 'nay. a specified were by pointing him out. with reference to something pretty which the child desires to have. When it says ta-ta I on being carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards those whom it is quitting. the nursery da-da. of which Dd / nehmen Sie ' ! ' Dd I Ihr piusent. indeed. ToSe (or in Attic E. Sanders (Germ.* seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta ! witli the act of shall find it. says da-da-da.' then points to his wife. and by a variety of expressions besides. and says ta! (and at the same time points to it with his finger. the verb give is verbs signifying hither or thither. Bav. thata (ta-ta). child indicates or asks for an object of desire. his trowsers' pocket. properly (give) be compared with by which a g. when 1859. we may translate this by there (it is).) describes dada as as it might by blowing a kiss to them.' all is is — their consent. but the truth is. seems almost invariably replaced by the adto have been lost altogether. But. I add) . The Fr. and may be rendered. give me that cheese.' this. ' sees an object. we do not need the experience of is the deaf-and-dumb to ing attention to it. this here. A doubling this of the utterance gives Gr.' person. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze. We may carry the matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of pointing. that is it. more emphatically roSj)j that. the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the ' It preserved in mature language in g. child. is-te). to here . or carry me thither. When we pointing. I trust verb few of my readers will refuse me is by far the most adequate. Dr Lottner observes. saying : there the ad- Trans. da. Please. the sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. well as Goth. Diet. Good-bye j mostly supplement- ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to which it has reference. da. for instance. show that pointing to an object the natural way of call- Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari- ous purposes. that every ' ' ' one of these interpretations the infantile is wrong. when he wants something. or wants to name something. is as The primitive import of the utterance completely lost sight of in Lat. word da repreIn the language of Tonga. that. ' Ta I cheese (pointing towards it). according to Menage. Sie. that gratifies me. der da-ige.' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted. Thank you. or give me it. the fundamental signification to signify the presence of an object. because less rich it replaces the teeming fulness of word by if a a clearer but expression of our more abstract lan- guage. in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant * Lottner's explanation not satisfactory. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for what it desired. • The child. Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted. nehmen as with which something to is handed over to another.THE DEMONSTRATIVE PARTICLE. that Yet choice betvi^een the different translations must be made. . or that it is. as to express. case. is we I believe. and so on. nurseries. ' liii the usual sign by which he referred to his money. give.

in order to cause to ' approach that which has awakened its I add. then instinctively interest. The da is dodem. of which any one may. which serves to put us in the transference of a word from one significa- meaning by mention of something which But in several of the instances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with sound. and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr. speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic palpable thing. pay. strike. and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing the idea of thinking. then we have a pronoun demonstrative. Dada in German nurseries has the sense of smacks or blows. by The connection between thought a representation of the sound of the footfall. takes it — as When the soul. sprawls with arms and legs in the when he mere enjoyment of life.' says Muller. meanings. which thus exertion.^ its ' utters : a cry. ' ' That sounds can be rendered by and that each language possesses a large stock of words imitating the sounds given out by certain things. would deny who would deny ? And who some words originally expressive of sound only might be transBut how are ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? how are the ideas of going. to move step by step. a sense which lends itself in the piost obvious manner to imitative expression. tattle. tasting. used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadem. to be expressed ? that — ' — 89. — Cot. p. sinking. standing. things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing and Series. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage is : by analogy. or of simply stretching syllable out the handj as in giving or pointing. to chatter. and in Yoruha The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re- ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in in language the imitative origin of language. sense is Das kind hat dada bekommen. make dadada). . to tion to another. become symbolical of muscular whether in the more energetic form of beating. have been the type from which the name was originally In the case of the word go itself. the conveyance of a mind of the thing to be signified. Thus Gr. dadee. sounds. moving. to beat. to walk. beat. and one in particular must. to say to oneself. and shapes it into an . becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from own up a sign for the indefinite outward articulate which is the object of sound. or dalliance. in every mode of expressing the idea. speech. its desire. thinking. reality. childish toying. or metaphor. for which Johnson gives seventy taken. (ppil^to is to say (jipal^ofiai. The same seen in Galla dadada-goda (to da. the original is that which he places first. Grammar: — 'Every object its is to the child a living it When it cannot reach anyv^here with hand.' • liv ANALOGY. The utter- ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the parent like the syllables da-da-da. stutter. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by reThe ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food.' says Lottner interior. to knock. idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual existence.

to glisten Dan. clang. scheteren. splendour. It is The word bright had a similar In as. Many tering striking examples of the same transference of signification . search . The 6. to tinkle. to shriek with laughter . to crackle gnistre. judicious. 1654. unlella. to sound clear In Galla. a brilliant light kilid. snot. is used in Bavaria in the sense of smell. . kiimottaa. beorhtian. sound. on. ghsten. Iv In some of the languages of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in tlie belly. scTiateren. a rustling sound Gr. which is applied to impres- may sions of smell as well as to those is of the palate. make a loud noise. is Here will be seen the expression of the idea of wisdom traced by no is distant course to an undoubted onomatopceia.TRANSFER FROM SOUND TO SIGHT. signified a clear sound. also wise. and thence e. sense of brightness. then which is a modification of the to twinkle. spraka. splendour. Lith. snutrs. to shine. which in ohg. as. wilistd. while sapere itself. So firom Lat. from the . outcry. probably spring from another representation of the sound of smacking) comes sapor. same imitative root with Sw. to have Sapiens. (parallel bilbila. ringing noise as of a bell Sanscr. to resound. to glitter. discreet. In the case of sparkle. sprageti. to glitter. to flash. to quiver. extended to the exercise of the understanding. suspect Bav. a ringing . to smack or taste. to . bright. to ring as a glass willata. pracht. taste. esclat). Maori mea and ki both signify to speak as well as to think. rattle. bilbilgoda (to make . bilbil). magnificence. —song so far schille and so iriAte That and ner me hit iherde. knittre. man of nice taste. In the same way the Goth. tumult. gnittre. in popular language. . to sniff out. beam. tinkling. a with kimmaltaa. firom the Gael. think. knistre. brilliancy. the equivalent of g. to glitter e. to sparkle. Fr. to snilF. properly a clap or explosion. air. Du. noise. smell. sapere (which signifies the nose. to shine. to glitter. to 5 ghtter. wise. the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signified by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear. and thus terms ex- pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to analogous phenomena of the visible world. we have and the and beorht. properly to' dis- tinguish by taste. Bavarian bracht. In the old poem of the Owl Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird. pStiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle. and schmecker. and figuratively. snotor. iclat (in Old Fr. Heo Du. savour. unites in like manner the senses of sight between the senses of smell and and hearing. kimistd. The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres- sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred to the other. schiteren. snuff the sniiten. may be it explained . is used in the origin. wilahtaa. to crackle. to ring. may be quoted gUt. to be wise. while \6yoe signifies both speech and thought. smell. as kilind. chime). snudra. then to sparkle. for example. Finnish. to sniff. The same sort of analogy as that which felt taste. wamara. fiapfiaipw. in the domain of movement. &c. a dis- cernment. — 1. tintelen. schmecken. and. Again. prudent.

so that if the things are soft or rough to the touch. discusses the tone of a picture. He accordingly used it for that purpose in piiv and poij. as soft by the ear. extremely loose. pleasure soft to the ear . smooth. with these the similitude of touch comes into play. It speaks of harmoni- So in modern slang. 1.Ivi VIEWS OF THE ANCIENTS. &c. the clank (stridorem) of chains. affect the ear in * Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile fuit. pvfi^Civ. we hear of screaming colours. as when we speak of the tinkling (tinUntil you brass. Much of the same has been often quoted. seemed to him who settled names an appropriate instrument for the imitation of movement. rough to the ear. accordance with the way in which by touch. . inside. si diceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius verbi originera interpretaris. which The Stoics. The things themselves affect our feel- ings in accordance with the sound of the words. which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps. sharp. within. mel. infinite task if *And because in this way you might it would be an you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you to suggest the limitation : explained the origin of the former one. the neighing of horses. And observing that n kept the voice within. eo ut res vol. The speculations ous or discordant colouring. the clang (clangorem) of trumpets. or . itself letters are felt as sofl. Kpovtiv. from the mobility of the tongue in pronouncing it. rough both ways. rough. tremour. is felt Lana. 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account say that it cannot be given. in truth. power of the letter-sounds. oily. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing I. rend. shatter. break. wool. he framed the words ivSov. ipuKuv. rough. 6\tadaveii'. strike.' he says. to slide. KoWiiSije. and vepres. flow and flux. the cross. v. kvTOQ. — Principia donee perveniatur Dialecticse c. coram rursus a te originem quaerendam esse. in of his works. was easy come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the sound of the word and the thing signified. for you perceive that these words sound like the things which are signified by them. Acre. It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and the things signified are felt name. crux. he used it in forming the imitative words XtTof. Tpa)(yg. But because there are nitum) of things which do not sound. The BpavEiv. then in rpd/xoe. Kep^arl'ieiv. not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language had their origin). ' kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine. of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were as where Socrates is made to explain letter r. gluey. \nrap6e. so the As honey is is sweet to the in taste. he says. the expressive may be seen in the Cratylus. briars. The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. is rough like the thing which it Voluptas. Thus sounds soft to the ear is and who does not feel also that the signifies ? word word asperitas. roughness. of dressing loud. soft. the bleating of sheep. cum sono verbi aliqua similitudine conclnnat. fitting the letters to the sense. whirl. they are fitted with names the that by the nature of the lene.

as when. while in I the sound without re- action on the vocal organs. shog. stag (in stagger. dag. The feeling of abruptness in sound consisting of the letters b. to the abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. We the regard the sound of r as rough compared with is of I. p. or checks as they are called by Muller. t. we are conscious sylas of an abrupt termination of the vocal lables constructed and we employ movement a wide range of on that principle to signify a abruptly checked. in of a rugged surface or a jigged outline. degree of roughness sound. k. we are conscious of rise miM- when we raise the it is tone of the voice by an actual of the vocal ap- paratus in the throat. to jogj sac-cade. making us sensible of an effort which answers a the resistance issues in the apprehension of a rough surface. by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound. rug. to reel abruptly from side to side). the pecuharity of which in pronunciation ' that 'for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether in (Lect.ANALOGY OF SOUND AND MOVEMENT. A greater felt. sag-oter. that the utterance would not afford the meaning of the speaker. the cross called crux because the the roughness of the pain crura. the thing which to take : Ivii it signified that from thence the invention of names proceeded hold of the resemblance of things between themselves . smallest guidance towards the The are connection seems to conscious in lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we the utterance of a rough sound. 138). a rough and sudden . jih. g. but applied by analogy to a vibratory movement is that is wholly unaccompanied by sound. d. stab. dig. is given by a syllable ending with one of the mutes. Still it is plain that there must be some analogy between sound and movement. jog. not which is suffered rough sound of the word agrees with on the crossj while the legsare called hardness they are like body. shag. 'and consequently form. or in when the vibratory whir passes into a In a still higher degree of roughness the qualities movement becomes a succession of jogs. jig. tug.' It is on account of the roughness of pain. Fr. but because in length and wood in comparison with the other members of tlie obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. because tongue driven into vibration to in the utterance felt of r. to signify varieties of movement. Hence pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check effort. that makes us consider the nstes as high thus analogies between sound and bodily -movement which enable us. like the hand passing over is smooth surface. when the inequalities of the surface are separately rattle. corresponding to the ineor. jag. joli. for exis ample. or in the apprehension of a rough that surface. The word it is twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of a short sharp sound. and in the utterance of a high or or low. p. There are precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus low note. and the limits of the signification would be so vague. ii. cular effort Again. the case of the voice. If any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or it rigid or painful would apply to such an infinite variety of objects. together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- face and outline. in virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions.

like English tick. chiquet.. also to stir. Hence Lat. Accordingly the g. so to Italian toccare. much as is traversed at a stroke on bell tocch di strada. as Italian tocco. a . chicoter. Sukkeln. It. an infant . for the sound of knocking at a door. tecche-tocche.Iviii FROM MOVEMENT TO SUBSTANCE. to say a word . a crum. used in Bremen to represent a jog a in riding or gomg. mica. to incite by light touches. e. chic. mot. a good piece of road . in cases like the foregoing. lead to Spanish tocar. then. zack. to ring a bell. sharp sudden applied to traced movement zacke. tock. a quid of tobacco. chique. to tickle. to winkj micati is Lat. to make the The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase noch micken noch kicken. to beat or play on a musical instrument. foot. movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction. properly a small lump'of . to pulses being knock. marked by the change of vowel from i to a. not to utter a syllable. the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door. schockeln. to On the same principle j we have g. mik. Illyrian migati. The syllable suk is jerk. a small bodily object. &c. a piece or bit of anything. an old worthless horse or carriage. representing a slight least is witnessed by the use of the same sound or motion. to move rapidly to and fro. Brescian toch. and also (with the meaning softened down) certain space. g. Bolognese tocc. To tick a thing off. a little bit. schuckeln. tech-tech. to have it ticked or marked on the score . then. Welsh cicio. zigzag. being used (generally with a negative) to exThe closeness of the connection between such a meaning and the least appreciable movement word still to express alike the absence of in the first instance a muck. a stroke with a French toucher. The train of . to take a thing on tick. is made to signify movement. with the Then a of any least portion of bodily substance. motion. as tot. The production of sound. micare. that we never can be sure. a jog. and analogous movements. toch-toch. and It. Ene olde suksuk. however. to touch. or check. The Mipen or pencil. rough horse. is lanese toch.'lDat geit jummer suk I suk! of rattletrap. to strike It. mie. Fr. to mutter. passing to the signification of motion. a playiug-marble. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick. kuk. to utter a slight kick. or the ticking of a watch j Bolognese tec-tac. or the figure out by such a movement the opposition in the direction of successive im. and e. a jag or sharp projection zickzack. which were formerly mentioned press the least appreciable sound. that the word does not originally spring from direct imitation. The analogy then carried a step further. to mark it with a touch of the pen . tack. sound barely audible. sound Fr. a cracker. to stir. transference of the expression The same from phenomena of sound to those of bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk. Then. cica. Mucken. Parmesan tic-toe for the beat of the heart or the pulse. figuratively. is so frequent a consequence of movement. to glitter. it produces Dutch micken. (mitsati). tick-tack for the beat of a clock . Fr. kik. Dutch kicken. used interjectionally to represent a . representing sharp short sounds of different kinds. Thus we have B. movement. thought runs through the same course in to sprawl like in the sense little bit . S-panish miga. Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. and the sense of a slight movement is made a stepping-stone to the signification of a material atom.

not an atom . a lad citta. to seesaw (Halliwell) Lat. as in e. To jot. to excite by slight touches or movenjents. where the vowels follow in regular scale (i. to tickle (pro- vincially tittle). totle. we pass to the Yorkshire phrase. at where the order is inverted. tit. . little. (Halliwell) Da. mote. a certain conception. a bit. But the same is language has re Javan. tit. taut. seesaw. to touch. a tot . sound in swinging to the right or to the direction. tozzo. is shown in murmur. . and he. either in the vowel or the i consonant of the significant syllable. are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of Pott (Doppelung p. a whisper. to touch lightly with a pen. you. and toddle like a child titter. little j to that of a small bodily object. and mite. n. In a similar the relations of place. mossche. to laugh in a the Italian phrase above quoted E. or in the Italian phrase nonfare ne motto lotto. there (further of!) ao. to tremble. that iku. motta.MODIFICATION BY CHANGE OF VOWEL. lump of earth. gnu. in such expressions is belongs to a principle which extensively applied in the development of language. here. or the converse. tot. a girl. a. and out there. not to utter a syllable. jot. corresponding to the personal pronouns. u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. the least visible insect. mot. to dot. eo. to jot down or note with a fro. titter. . e. mutter j dust. it is when an expression having already been found for wished to signify something of the same fundamental character. gno. where a wise finger to signify a foolish man way being symbolis by touching the little of the nose with the forefinger. to make a slight mark. clay . but simply in order to symbolise the change of noticed by ised A tip similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is Mr Tylor in the language of gesture. syllable mot. for the beating of a clock. ticktack. This kind. tiny. . passing from the sense of a slight movement totty. The ex- pression passes slight on to the idea . subdued manner. . to whisper (Pr. neither moit nor an atom. i. to jog. The vowel changes from to tick-tack. tot. ri that. 0. . Du. zitio. Then. 199). a bit. small of kind. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound by the ne doit.n. to e. Fr. gni. zitella. . small titlark. The use of a syllable like to represent a short indistinct sound in o. anything small flax. So. of movement in totter. there. often entirely arbitrary. a morsel girl . Pm. that. but difFeriug in degree or in some subordinate end is coma in monly initial attained by a change. fragments It. Cult. this . mutter. Halliwell. The change of the vowel from o as zigzag. I. a sparrow). titilh. we have e. a small kind of lark. . or the like its It. not because the pendulum makes a different left. or o toi. the vowel sound. fait. mut. The following table from Tylor (Prim. further off. a little titty. tot. tittle. a small bird. bunch or flock of wool. there '(at a short distance). chico. and dot. The passage from the sense of a movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat. tot. motte. a light quick blow. light — to note a thing hastily on paper .) . the same organ touched with the man. to movement of the pen . this. ika. and a small lump of something. 48) cites from the African Tumale. e. a small quantity. tottle.- a jot or little It. a e. titmouse (Du. iki. for the three personal pronouns. a small lump or pat. Malagasy to. a small horse. citto. anything . here (close hand). lix Sp. a morsel. move slightly to .

to a like principle Ibu (Afr. ni. is Of a Mangu similar nature the distinction of sex by a change of vowel. Zulu ajoa. Lat. that. biii. as the act of pointing was ta. ni. there. which form the element of the interrogative in Sanscr. mas cheche. Magyar ez. . by a number of unsuccessful attempts to say he. tiiio. It Carib lala.* But when he wishes to carry the dithe smaller of two servants of that name. /mya. ulri.. here 5 Yoruba na. there. here j ka. man erne. child. Sahaptin (America) kina. respectively. by looking or pointing about an inquiring manner. uta. here . small (Pott. thou ni. here this . mother. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Aft-. ukko. Mm. this <t. owe their The interrogative pronouns in* who ? or what f are expressed in gesture in fact (says Tylor). It seems to (fen. Abchasian aSn. and a for the female. there. mother. Dhimas isho. there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to it is the modification of meaning which to denote. qu. this . no constant rule is observed. . thou .. you. that (intermediate) j wana. Then. that. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i A young relation of mine adopted Baby-Thomas was his designation for the use of baby as a diminutival prefix. from whence may be explained the various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic On are the other hand. ofj. that. he. is Here. there. he. here feraa. ^. Fernandian az. ne. father k . thou. to. The vowels a and o sound of the voice. while we compress the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the made pronounced with open throat and full in expressing diminution of action or of size. this . that. that. (tt). this ole. j Canarese ivanu. and origin. . .e^. this fi. an old .) pronunciation of i or e. there.) nna. 6. that in the distance. is father. there. and at last it becomes a beebee-beebee thing.araM. /wo. Chilian tva. there. Japan ko. w. he narrows the sound of the word to bee-bee. that. child. Tamul i. an old woman chacha. probably initial of distinction that the k. . usho. that. nne. I . as Mr Tylor remarks. minution further. for the male. . Carib ne. ndi. Ossetic am. it represented in speech by the particle seems that the interrogative signification was given hy the arbitrary change from family. . ita. here j abe. me probable that • Vei also little. but sometimes i and sometimes a used to denote the nearer object. father. Tarahumara ibe. /e«. loo). this . mother. this . Guarani nde. that. ta to ka. Ix INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE. bi. Gr. little. as in Italian Fin. young one.. Botocudo ati. here . femina ama.. akha. that. km. olo. ojOo. . Mutsun ne.

The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed Gan chyp and kythe thare vemale lippis red. to teet. a little yellow beard. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny. In some African languages repetition is habitually used to qualify the * ' meaning of the verb. just beginning to appear.) . of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse. to sup up by and with j lips barely open. a similar object of a smaller size and pointed shape. keeh. a child. And perhaps the E. titta. for instance. by a fiirther advance in abstrac- indicated by the repeated I of action in general. weeny* surviv- A further development of the significant sound gives ing in regular speech in g. Da. trSpigner. tion. — Douglas Virgil. Top. wean. is to express simple continuance of action.: EXPRESSION OF VOWEL SOUNDS. the pip or pippin. trappa. nab. The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the proteet. to peep. &c. Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on of representing the continued sound is the ear.' have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been puny in childhood. for a continuance of low and pit-a-pat. fretful. pepin. has tittafrem. trappen. signify an extremity of a broad round shape tip. in old e. murmur. i Sw. Thus we have Wolof sopa. little. of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp- from whence Du. stairs. don-don. and in the Pacific dialects. for a succession of light blows low-wow. trippen. the simplest mode by the g. The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to and the first streaks of light to push through the opening. or even. nipple. trap. 401. or chink. this sense Ixi of the thinness of the sound of ' i or ee is simply embodied in the diminutival wee. the nursery few j Sc. as j money. din-din. where an extended imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition as it is of a certain phenomenon. analogous to winy-piny. trippelen. nil. of smaller things. at pippe frem is to spring forth. while the special nature of the action intended syllable. . A little weeny thing. dance (Kil. to make its way through the bursting envelope. It will be observed that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel • a little tee - -ny thing. lift 8. they form a con- siderable proportion of the vocabulary. looking through between obstacles. the idea is called. nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep. to feet. speaking in a pipy tone of voice. The Sw. as ding-dong. little To sup up.' making the voice as small as possible. sound of bells . a step. barking of a dog. The sound trapp .' — Merrv Wives. the principle of reduplication. is to take up liquids by large spoonfiils to sip. whence Fr. to leap. repetition It. The change to the short compressed step : in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick Du. From cases like the foregoing. to beat the as chains 5 ground with the clinJi. for the . to begin to appear . to peep through. Clank represents the sound of something large. for the indistinct sounds j lim-lam. A little wee face with little. knob. principle is In barbarous languages the formation of words on this very common. wenig. the germ from whence the plant is to spring. Fr. nify a thing to sig- making its way through a narrow opening. to tread.

ding-ding. The same principle of 196. clamito. Thus in the Pacific loa.Ixii REPETITION. could readily be conceived. is language. Thus in E. Cult. It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only.' expression is — ^Tylor. child . hardness. such as the syllable expressed in a more called. the agent in panting . rapidity and strength. to skip. to cover e. ratsi-ratsi. very great. are echoed by the rudimentary et. kamha-gamla. acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word. 99). to say pooh It is ! to. And generally. the comparative degrees of greatness. or el. child .. mawhiti. to rock. a grasshopper. or a little tee--ny thing. 97). as it is given by the addition of an intrinsically et. the effect on when a confiased succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. to vi^alk about for flax. instead of being actually repeated. serves to show and in this way. little child (p. random . cliqu-et-is. mpolu is uttered. if very young. ayunayunan. er. tach-et-er. from Maori muka. puka- puka. artificial way by where the effect of repetition is unmeaning element. Again. the lungs. . or rdtchi. or very very great. but many devices of expression are extended et or it are beyond their original aim. loloa. racket. Mandingo ding. properly speaking. amusement. and the words express a continued sound of rack. calling. FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. Malay ayun. kenda. to talk at to walk. rack click. on which the voice can dwell representing less sensible vibration. a clattering noise. to pant. . and the sense of continuance the frequentative form of the verb. rack. a spot. to treat with contempt. without reference to the particular nature of the repeated phenomenon. to call frequently from Fr. mawhitiwhiti. in familiar use with ourselves. kendagenda. to to call. i. obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may be applied to continuance or extension in space. be used as far an echo to hard sounds. uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified. puka. &c. to or rub. repetition or continsignify long. for with for a The elements usually employed in I the same purpose are composed of an obscure vowel with the consonants length of time with a more or the ear or r. ' In the Gaboon marks the strength with which such a word as whether it is in his great. sopasopa. wipe muka-muka bunch of flax). or imitative syllables. tache. That the principle is not wholly lifeless fn English is witnessed by the verb pooh-pooh. Susa di. (to use a to speak. Madagascar ratsi or ratchi. So from clamo. while the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of in the pattering of rain or hail. to love constantly Mpongwe kamha. to love. clash of weapons. a cradle. the and clique. and Fr. and thus by analogy employed in Lat. click. expressing the the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which is it is composed. keep spots. very long (Pott. or in Fr. In like manner to clatter to do anything accompanied by a sue- . bad . as when we speak The use of reduplicate forms condernned by the is taste of more cultivated languages. very bad. smallness. didi. lololoa. Thus fall of a rapid succession of drops on a hard surface. as Mr Wilson re- Mpongwe grammar. the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop. although not recognised in written of an e-n^--rOTOMS appetite. may be conveyed with more accuracy than Prim. to express repetition or continuance in a general way.

Jickfacken. to rock or wag. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple I. jogging. or what analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition of the significant cradle or rocker syllable. it. or the interjections ah ! ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on. mew and baa . to make gug. wankeln. The same element is found to be in the construction of adjectives. has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in to is Thus to cry mewl and pule. draggle. wavering. syllable clat . is In e. dab. is strument of action used in rubbing) a runner. by the side of wanken. compared with g. bub. as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan. which. crack. to make a succession of shoves. wancol. an end which inflections of person might equally be attained by the addition of verbal It and I is tense. The contrivance with any particular noise. the word Jlap It then passes on to signify the as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. to continue dragging. The is application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in(as in as. the lungs (the puffers of the body). joggle. to move to and fro. In cases like these. to wail woe . to hand. Ihre remarks under gncella. and in as. kneel. others. miauler andpiauler. shuffle. rynel. to crackle. either distinct figurative mode as to of expression. as to handle. where the frequejitative element is is added to a word already existing in the language. dabble. in Fr. where all direct connection with sound is lost. he who rubs. In like manner crack imitates the sound made . or fi bau. miauler and beler correspond to E.FREQUENTATIVE ELEMENTS. to bark like a dog. the knie-en to E. to make a succession of grabs . fickle. the part that moves on a hinge up and down. seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal added G. as mAS. guggle. or by association. we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a conscious intention of directly imitating sound. in some applications. or in e. to rock. are to cry mew and pew .Jicol. itself. to em- ploy the hand in dealing with an object. in used for dealing with an object by the hand. from puka. such asjlap. to make bau-bau. wankel. although the connection between the two may be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. to make a succes- sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables is rat. cession of noises that Ixiii might be represented by the . or omitted. without the intervention of the frequentative element. and is thence applied to the moveable leaf of a table. way which is has to be understood from the circum- Thus to knee-l to rest on the bent knee . be so close movement to and fro of a flat surface. By a fiirther extension the frequentative element object in a is made to signify the simple employment of an stances of the case. wagas ging. the effect of the addition simply to give a verbal signification to the compound. or Maori puka-puka. smack. rubber. to puff. When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language. a succession of cracks to rattle. Thus originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface. waggle. to something quite by a from the sound originally represented. bubble. then extended to signify continued action unconnected as grapple. to hand-le. g. a from ayun. Piedmontese bau-l-S. The Fr.

It would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words their signification has faded huge and vast. will continue to be felt in daily speech. and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. it is obviously a mere chance how long. as well as in are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe. or how generally. deceit. that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source. made it an appropriate type of the in character name so many instances is used to designate. between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative source. There is. and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of. the breach. or to a narrow separation between adjoining edges. a bird with which we have several other instances are pointed out in it the type of helpless simplicity. which is the origin of the word. that as we are apt at first to regard the double signification an accidental coincidence. but what is the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of the metaphors which give them their meaning ? Most of us probably would be inclined to connect the first of the two with guile. by a hard body breaking. which. at was more familiarly known. regard the when the unlettered man is word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. or in mode of use. moreover. When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense. or in forms that have become obsolete in our own. on a moment's reflection. Dupe comes to us from the French. But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought of the sound made by a body breaking. such as might have arisen from a breach between them. known in Italian.Ixiv ORIGIN OF METAPHOR EASILY OBSCURED. Breton. Polish. Somecan only a person times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language. no sort of difference either in outward appearance. The words are used in precisely the are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow openIt is probable that smack is often used in the ing which is our real meaning. is But when we find that the names by which the hoopoe French (all radically distinct). and comparatively few easily deceived. and it is only the where the verb is written houge. the connection with the sound it vf'as originally intended to represent. sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the enjoyment of food. We should hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been aware of the obsolete verb ug. to cry ugh at. leaves so little acquaintance at the present day. to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- . in which language it signifies also a hoopoe. to the separation between the broken parts. although it is not difficult. When which a young bird is taken as no doubt that this is the way in which the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. or in aptness to combine with other elements. Thus tlie imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use ! or feel horror accidental preservation of occasional passages and the loss of intermediate forms. until all suspicion of the original principle of away in the minds of all but the few who have made the subject their special study. we are sure that there a time when its it must be something in the habits of the bird. A gull or a dupe same sense.

or are afford satisfaction arising origin. that thing to put us in in the capacity of one mind of another. and when he was informed that huge had been explained on this principle. ah I is or ach I and ugh mainly depends upon the but when the vocable no longer used directly to represent the cry of pain or of shuddering. That the words of imitative restricted in signification to origin are neither inconsiderable in class number. can only be found in the limited powers of metaphor. it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of its reach. and the consciousness of imitation is wholly lost. founded in manifest blunder. It will be necessary then to show that there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have as to been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation. no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. is. it immediately becomes liable to much the larger portion of the dictionary. And as the difficulty certainly it does not in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound. but this than should be expected corruption from various causes. Hitl^erto. language is . and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found in abundance. . it would be difficult to avoid the inference that Nor can we doubt that a a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. Ixv rived from the imitation of sound. The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on the face of them. No would doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on constitute this principle is no more by any reasonable believer in the theory. and the word is used in a secondary sense. to specify the kind of thought for which its it is inadequate to find ex- pression. the inference in favour of the general possibility of that escape mode of expression. or are too far-fetched to while the positive evidence of the vahdity of the principle. the sound of the aspirate a hard guttural. life. As long as the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the original form. I The imitative force of the interjections aspiration. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imitation. wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now appears to be wholly arbitrary. it is from is cases where impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative slurred over. however. if it account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by the ear. and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. nor any limited of ideas.INSUFFICIENT OBJECTIONS. is the examples given in the foregoing pages. as in ache (ake) is changed to that of and vgly. And why should it be assumed that any words affords an adequate whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes. In savage when the communities are small and ideas few. and the grounds of lie shortcomings. as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language. We cannot shown by open a dictionary withsufficiently out meeting with them.

unintelligible to other hordes. the speech of the ancestors be- comes Italian unintelligible to tlieir descendants. compared with the duration of man. added to the small population and habits of isolation of hordes and tribes. When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often Single hordes belonging to the river thus many and years without comnlunication with the rest of their tribe. and these words are very often I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian live crews. ! Suppose that any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation we allow the influences which have produced such changes operate through that vast lapse of time required to in the later as the If above to such languages to be as English. inhabiting the banks of the same tribe same become. circle perpetrates a new slang term. amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the wit of the retained. evique. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful traveller who had unusual opportunities of observation. guages in South America. the local corruption of language becomes perpetuated. I think it very probable. Naturalist on the Amazons. where the habitual use of writing has and so strong a fix the forms of language. hearing. French. between would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies ? or without written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God si' t' be with o'er (God b' w' ye). as happens with the Collinas on the Jurua. in the course of many years' isolation. out. in we mould out of a common stock shall wonder rather at the large than the small are still number of cases. and the presumption is converted into moral by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original porThe zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used . 330. or topsyturvy into topside the other in way (top you way) ? form. are the causes of the wonderfiil diversity of lanBates. therefore. all immediate descendants of the Latin Who. words are continually changing in proj nunciation and in application fi'om one generation to another in no very long period. peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption 'There are certain of language and segregation of dialects. which traces of tlie original imitation made The letters The letters are as of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language. When seem to have pleasure in inventing It is Indians are conversing among themselves they new modes of pronunciation and in distort- ing words. Welsh. and vescovo. without knowledge of the intermediate diumus and giomo. In such cases it is only the art of writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. episcopus.' — But even tendency to in civilised life. If English. and lation were barbarous unwritten languages no one Would dream of any rebishop.Ixvi liable to rapid CORRUPTION OF LANGUAGE. that the disposition to invent new words and new modes of pronunciation. of material things. change. words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of Now the significance of tlie names by which the letters are known in Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pictorial imitations certainty traiture. and 'Russian. i. signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight.

COMPARISON WITH LETTERS. ao8). tical with the Phoenician N M M from Gesenius symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity. it would be incautious which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude forms in any language. that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a third or a fifth. are forms of of the early Phoenician and Greek. A key must unlock more doors than this. occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of «. to be taken (Prim. as the master key The objection does not exactly meet the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. but thinks that the ' evidence adduced does not justify jectional the setting up of what is called the Inter- and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original itself within limits. we shall difter have the n of the early Greek in- which does not materially from the capital N of the present day. or whatever the proportion may be. The lower symbol is used for combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m. which are idenr Figures 5. is MN. it will leave figures 3 and 4. ancient Greek M . The combination of the symbols I and 2. 6. a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational theory of language. ive origin afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object form of was meant Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat- of the oral signs. Greek N from Gesenius e 2 . as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen twentieths which remain. as a lioi> 13) by his head and fore-legs. the actual it which would to represent. although it said to be never used independently for that letter. Cijlt. as the Ixvii symbol of Aqyarius among the with the force of the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian to the {lieroglyphigs letter n* If we cut the symbol down three last strokes of the zigzag scriptions. 7. of the radical elements of our speech ? Nevertheless. 10 and 11 from Inscriptions in the British Museum. But no one from the mere form of the tion letter could have suspected an inten- of representing water. as shown in the subjoined illustration. . We do not assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged language. 8. Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia. Valid as this theory proves to accept a hypothesis ' The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol repiresenting water (in Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the letter M. and thus in this 1 h^LLUj i Ly3 2AAAA/\ j V\^ 9 N 10 V\ iil/| l-^ia J^ n Now if the two is represented (fig. 9. and . Nor is there one of the letters. i.

or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense. or. in the shape either of direct inspiration. had its origin in imitation of sound. will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the of his progress by some supernatural go-cart. ready instructed in the arts necessary for . and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of the new machinery. However of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been universally recognised. which either by direct resemblance of sound. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. If new 'modes of phonetic expression. un- might be associated with the notiqu to be conveyed.' should be discovered. many languages to express com- parative nearness or distance of position) has Our doctrine is not exclusive. we shall be only in the position of the fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former ages began to be discovered. We have only the Man was created choice of two alternatives. of an instinct unknown to us at the present day. and the only safe beneficent Creator. compatible either with the goodness of the God or with His views of the dignity of human race. differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of as abstraction of the idea. Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age of innocent enjoyment. to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every kind of thought. If man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of it his ordinary first steps intelligence. are felt by unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a But this is a dangerous line of thought.Ixviii INDUCTION OF RATIONAL ORIGIN SUFFICIENT. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of bodily gesture. what comes to the same thing. but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable its him to communicate with plished." the use of a change of vowel in as. his fellows. or had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence. or by analogies felt in the effort of utterance. and the more rational views of what the course of life must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech. We must either suppose that in a civilised state. it can is be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were exposed to a similar struggle. known to us as yet. And God hard or degrading the life no respecter of persons or of races. an excusable repugnance to think of as is Man as having ever been in so brutish a condition of life implied in the want of speech. for instance. leading him to utterances. and then withdrawn when purpose was accom- Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the is rational origin of Language. and it has been established in a wide range of examples. rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be inlife. would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose.

and supposes that one of the races of was gradually all raised in the scale of intelligence. as elephants. until the progeny. by the laws of variation affecting procreative kinds of being. and sooner or later. when the earth was peoof human existence and the mere to a period . that he started from the lowest grade. live in har- mony without parent reason the aid of this great convenience of social life. in arts and knowledge of generation after generation. or else. and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition which we witness among savage tribes . and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest weaWhether the owners of these earliest relics of the human pons of chipped flint. we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. or of their own reflected thoughts . by the accumulated acquisitions and by the advantage life. life in We have witnessed a notable advance conveniences of our own time. and as many intelligent and highly social kinds of animals.COMPLETION OF MAN. in the course of generations. notwithstanding the apparent stagnation of particular races. the conduct of Ixix life. that it must have begun to be acquired by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man . is constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for tives. that Of these alternain accord- which embodies the notion of continued progress all most ance with our experience of the general course of events. or beavers. and the barbarism sionally caused in the and misery occa- by violence and warfare. or to indignation and hate by malignant of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their fellows. and rose towards a higher state of being. race were speaking men or not. attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become capable ot appreciating each other's motives . there is no ap- why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in- definite period before they acquired the use of speech. or not. Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered in caves. of being moved to admiration and love by the exhibition of loving courage. by animal without a trace name of Man. absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. of using imitative conduct . whether before that epoch the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the Geologists pled only however universally look back races. who shall say ? It is certain only that Language is not the innate inheritance of our race . for instance. signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of anodier mind ? . and when we look back as far as history will reach. Why then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges over the interval to the appearance of the purely animal period Man.

Catalan. Provincial dialect.Saehsiches Worterbueh. 1766. Cotgrave. Baile/sEngl. Cot. Due.. Infimse Latini- D. B. English. Sup. Diefenbaeh. Bohemian or Czech. Dief. Vergleiehendes Worterbueh der Sprache. or Dan. Biglotton seu Diet. Diet.TABLE OF CONTRACTIONS. Elfric's Fl. Diefeiibach. Cimbr. 1737. Bavarian. Gr. Gothischen 1851. Brem. Romano - Cas- traise. Couzinid. Finnish. Da. Castr. Bas-Breton or Celtic of Brittany. Fr. 1850. Bigl. Carp. at the end of Somner's Diet.Nieder.V. Fin. AS. Wtb. Esth. Diet. Dutch. Dueange. Teutonico-Lat. Danish. Dn. E. dial. Grammar Boh. Anglo-Saxon. Douglas' Virgil. Carpentier. Supplement to Dueange. Bremisch.-Eng. 1857. de la langue Cat. Dueange. Cimbrisch. Esthonian. Diet. Supplement to Bret. ^Ifr. Glossarium Mediae et tatis. . dialect of the Sette Commune. 1768. 1654. Bav. Dief.



hand treetle /r»& I 34 21* 1 £3&& curccio r. 7 159 178 186 192 195 2 I I yi[iaioa r. CM S a"^ xy XX xxvii xlvii I I for Oehrlauderr. buque 118 brodiquin r. yjnaifia r. sadelen sverdit I 26 28 30 33 37 2 I I 2* 6 6* 1 alicui r. Oehrlander mamoo-heeheek r. 146 147 Mmista kumista komista comelid kumisia komista comelia r. 3 14 21 i5^//2 r. r. woman r. tf'i'ii'<2 29 16 i^oy« ^i>> . sveritet Asknace r.5 ERRATA.nokkutama willekem.>. Lines with * affixed are counted from the bottom. cti. word allagerr. haverie crtOT r. cruccio deyrie.? 12 I 39 I 43 55 2 I I I I I 59 72 4* 24 10* 22* 45 baltresac r. ^i?^i2! r. brodequin 134 141 katowai r. katowai perairrantr. Askance woud r. plowied budowaer." 100 III 3* 13* 10* 8* 10* I* 2 5 kilistaa r. i5^/i'« 35 sadalen alieni .. kilistaa bugiie r. r. (/ijtf r. iiia13 mookheehee 2* note r. 7 28 2 13* head ' ^. baltresca nokkutomax. deyrie- •woman 203 • ^iji^a r. Blob plowied r. r. puHti r. willekom Blab r. alUger ahaverie r. rate 2 7 25 puiiti r.percurrunt kimista^x. budowad 21 for ^i?/- n 85 22* 23 14 & read ^i?.


and that from the noun 'andon (also adopted in English. Hence on-bceftan. An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the materially altered. He — Thus we see that the elliptical expres- survives at the present day. in the same sense. 244. a/tan. a. alike. Passing tongues. iway from. Jvery man shewid baft. Thus ip N3S. said. Lat. among. ir. whatever he be. compounds. command. 843. the er. from. vs. rule. K . Dent posture. is commonly :he remnant of the AS. to subdue. . And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht All that he has emhandownyt is Unto his Lord. to get looked for takes up from a recum- Wallace. out of.' to which the accident of language has attached the notion of one enslaved to vice. to awake. from a is to wake to abide. his connyng tofore the ship Beryn. until the event jlace . might in itself with equal propriety have been used to signify devotion to good. abs. —Bruce. bandon in French. orders. The word seems very early to have acjuired the nautical use in which alone t i. AS. off. a washing off to abstain. came bando in Italian In the obsolete adown it represents the from AS. on-lic. to hold . ifter. on. baftan. ar. behind. Abaft. as. o/j of or . but now )bsolete). A. is to Fra worthi Bruce had resavit his crown. his. literally. plesyt him. As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to .DICTIONARY ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. sion of 'an abandoned character. have entire dominion over. and secondarily in that of command. as. erwachen. us. and — Chaucer. ur. AS. I thoucht have maid Ingland at his dandown^ So What wttrely it suld beyn at his will. this word beand Spanish. er.t G. in a manner other than it should be ablution. dominion. Abs-. power : Than Wallace thing. OHG. first edition has been ABANDON as a prefix to nouns. remaining with us in the restricted application to Banns of Marriage. implying a completion of J. to sauff the king or spill. on-bsec . abaft. "rom a height. away from. announcement. state of sleep . particular 1 . to arise. Thou spelds of mychty iction. as that which is placed at the absolute command of one party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original possessor. onis aback. A- Hence to embandon or abandon is to bring under the absolute command or entire control of any one. Parson's Tale. Immediately from Fr. that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and abandon himself with all his might well for to do. ab. downwards. In Lat. into the Romance ftrseg . of-dune. on. be-ceftan. Abandon. to all the lan- guages of the Teutonic stock in the ense of proclamation. an edict or proclamation. away. Again.he Goth. dominion. it was an easy step from the sense of conferring the command of a thing upon some. To abuse is to use iway. Ab-. ibandonner. in. The word Ban is common orders.

and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost exclusively in the sense of Dedicio renunciation or desertion. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir and the party who thus pounces upon the inheritance is called an abator.which is to manifest itself by an involunwhether tary opening of the mouth. Bate.esbawi. Originally. abandonly. to put to con. baba. 2 ABASH In the original ABBOT Moult m'esbahis de la merveille.— — .down. See Abide. terminedly. and it that that it — . Cotgr. Abbess. to that of renouncing all claim to authority over the subject matter. to diminish the force of any. Many English verbs of a similar deriv. thing abbatere le vela. esbahir. at his own the lips. burny. vol. to astonish. as sounded in the In himself was all bis state greater number of the inflections. may be explained. R. . shame. most naturally uttered in the opening of at his own will and pleasure. et prirent terre. where custom (Grandg. and sets them all agape. by Wall. It. castle.More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits hissons. down. into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd. polish. father. abbatere dal prezzo. R. lish to abaisse orabaish. It was thereon a goodly sight For such another as I gesse Aforne ne was. Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say. law term abatement. On the other in use as well as hand. Bah ! the interjection of wonder 'Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir. uncontroUedly. — — — has rendered one or other of the two pull modes was of spelling obsolete. of wonder. person. In or. bawi. A.On princes. The word was occasionally written abba in Latin. Baba ! Mod. Custom. More correctly written abbat. . to beat furnish. abaundunem-ent. abate. betrash. to take possession of an estate. overthrow. Hence Lat.— R. c. confound. cast to the ation were formerly written indifferently ground. abbatis. de. to strike sail . Castrais. to strike Froiss. son bandon. weaken. to hit. to happen. to look at with open mouth which the inflections differed from each Grandg. merely the terminations ons. to excite admiration. To Abate. to make lower. with or without a final sh. bandon. Cousinid but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza. It was a title of respect formerly given to monks in general. ne more vermeille.polir. esbahissant. his mouth. Milton. Abbey. 364s. to strike with Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise. esba. depress. — Neccham. ais. and that from Syrian abba. an abbey. without particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come .y^J fusion from any strong emotion. 'Bruce' and 'Wallace' like the OFr. which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish. His owne shadow had him betrashed For well he wened the forme to see Of a ohilde of full grete beauti. to light upon. Abbot. grand volonU tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape. I was abawid for merveille. to gape.) . astony. esbahissais. Speaking of Narcissus Chaucer writes : stooping to In the water anon was sene His nose. In the original Et il maintenant s'ibahit Car son umbre si le irahit Car il cuida voir la figure D'ung enfant bel a demesure. in the active form. Thus obey written obeisse or obeyshe j betray. iv. Beat. 1520. to overthrow. d. abbas. The origin of esbahir itself is to be bandonly. must have been during the time had this extended signification it gave rise to the Lat. to meet with abbatersi in una terra. Fr. or society of abbots or monks. See . or admiration. from Lat. adverbial expressions at abandon. to ruin. — — . and grooms besmeared with gold. faire tomber.' the surrender of a ' K. of the Fr. 1 1 8. drink. to abaw or astonish. burny was formerly burnish . A word scho could not speik scho was so abaid. abay or abaw : as well as abaisse or abaish I saw the rose when I was nigh. Hence the OE. abbatere. astonish. beer. abbattre. Hart in Jamieson. impulse. ant. of fear. from ravir. an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba. R. so common in the found in the OFr. to The .' with feelings the natural tendency of To Abash. when their rich retinue long der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led. Wall. and the verb was written in Eng. impetuously.Prov. abbatia. has exercised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw. other. to bate something of the price abbatersi. baer.fournir. effect of shame. which is the act of one who intrudes into the possessioil of lands void by the death of the former possessor. And he thereof was all abashed. his eyen shene. as ravish.

to deanimer. with the frequentative gueiile b^e. songer. also to OFr. to gape . compared with (Bosworth). says. . bie. to ance. From abahier. with badia. 366. incite . desirer (Roquef. to desire earnestly. to look. badigliare. Cat. Norm. bide of the d endure. is precisely analogous to that in under Abash that the involuntary open. usbeisnei. or do we AS. intent observation. pense. the sense of baiting springs that of alluring. Abie. ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare. while the monks under his control ing. Q. to stay. In process of time we meet with protestations from ABIDE 3 baWer. crier compared with astonishment was represented by the It. covet. house. It is hardly possible to doubt the idenit. b^er. which is certainly related to It. Both senses of the word may be explained from Norm. open the mouth. . we sceolon ON. K. it contains a thousand monks and a thousand cells. a bay or opening in the coast. Pol. is idenwait. to expect gabeidan. from Halo. to tarry. take notice. m Abeyance. Fabl. to mind. forms with the d effaced are OFr. to be intent upon. delay. inciter. Abele. F. droit en other cases the notion of passive waiting is expressed by the figure of looking or watching. to remain or endure. Gloss. beijen. to wait. to In great amaze. inhiare loquenti (Lacombe).— Roquef. Goth. warten.Fr. bouche bdante. deceiving. ne wist what way to chuse. to attend on . to attend to. delay. badare. attendre See Bait. waiting. In We . have seen abide. tarrying . a right in suspense . to abide . beijden. expectfamily. bida. expectation or susWithout the tenninal d we have baer. and E. Boethius. to deceive. and alluring to his own destruction. Guernsey beth. wait. (Vocab. or absorption watching. bder.to wait. to stay. . — signifies to suspend action. lingering.— Chaucer. 1 • . to hook. bait the H From The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool. ne chastised them. beguile. Corresponding to keep in suspense. tity of E. exciter. and Prov. abeyance. Here we have a good illustration of the connection between the figure of opening the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention. in Fr. —Raynouard. badare. beijen. John. syllable ba. — II. othres abidan' The effacement expect. Lui ne peut-il mie guiler. — Both forms of the verb are then figurgance of assuming the title of Father.' is in AS. . To Abet. * St Jerome and others against the arro- geule baie. abeter. The white poplar. badar. — ABELE Epiphanius. With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. Norm. delay. Quant voit le serpent. and in E. in Dan. gridare. aspirer. deceit. . signifies the direction of tend. trick abetar. watch. Corant sens lui. beguiling on the other. inciting. expectation. aspire to. de Berri) Prov. sufferultimately confined to the head of the ation. attendre avec en^pressement. ' ' . suffer b. take care. to wait. Ni engigner ni abiter. de Champ. bie compared with Dan. bida. suspense. to At sight of her they suddaine all arose gape. abaier. Prov. from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked diplects are formed two series of verbs. Ducange. to It. on the one hand. beter. literally white tree. to be intent upon. bada. bouche b^ante. bocca badata. atively applied to signify afifections involuntary opening of the or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by community of monks and a private mouth. OFr. Thus we have It. chaand either from feelings of such a nature. us. Gloss. beidan. which the mind to an object. white. speaking of the Holy places. beidan. ceive. gola badada. Du. to endure The passage which in our translation is usbeisns. abet. baer. listen. endurArt thou he that should come. ^couter avec dtonnement. to open the mouth. to suffer death in Du. abiiance. abetter. tenere a bada.— ^richer. forbearance. verbeijen Sw. or in Fr. abbadare. listening. qui iaaille.) abayer. I saw a smith stand with his hammer —thus a bait for fish . E. Cat. to expect. baier compared with It. baier. ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby. the name of Abbot or Father was in an object. endurance. badare. tical with It. baier. bhr. abet. The verb atwaiting. as gola badadoi bocca badata above mentioned. abSiance. bidan. to wait. desire. to open bader. — . bana. guardare. shrewes be more blissful that ahkn the torments one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice a terminal d to the radical syllable. the verb of abeyance. expectation. ex" ^' ') "i^V dfiaSts xiKiovQ icai xl^'c KsXAia. bialodrze-w. to yawn. were called Brothers. look for another. regarder. to desire. tempting. abayer. See Abide. abie. wait To Abide. with open mouth . abidan. Thus G..was formerly used in the sense of look. abie.

aboleo. without special reference to the notion of retribution. from Lat. &c. at It will be remarked on looking a Doctor's Tale. habilis is closely preserved. apparent from the use of the word enAbolish. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. ' Algate this selie maide is slaine alas Alas to dere abought she her beaute. It. and Cr. must suffer for it. enable a person to do a thing or to is to render him fit or unfit it. Sithe Richesse hath me failed here. If it badare. and bond Aftans That if officiis Deus. was often used in the same sense. —Bacon in R. Cassar. Q. Disparage not the faith t"hou dost not know. abilh. R. beidan. powerful. within the walls of a ship. properly abuy. him with che. to have . as habiller du chanvre. N. F. Chaucer. is the verb abie. power. abide. bidan. In this to erase or annul.am a doughti man His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. swore by St Amyas that he should abigg strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. doing Divers persons in the House of Commons The Fr. abolir. Dr. God. Thus the derivation of badare above explained is brought home to e.ynes. and spelt indifferently in the older authors abegge. bord. as habiliments which the word is used in the following of war . de la volatile. and the most general of all qualifications for occupation of any kind passages. P. AS. from AS. She shall abie that trespass dere. the Fr. to pay the purchasemoney. hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. abicgan. Prol. ! ! Cotgr. and the confusion sometimes extends to the use of abide in the sense of abuying or paying the penalty. the Sir Tristrem. a board. durance in both applications. abilej Prov. fit. abigg. abycgan. God — dear. habiller is to qualify for any And efte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The folke of Troie. habillement has become appropriated to that special signification. strong. on board . Boucher. use. the side of a ship. bide. For some day boughiin they of Troie it dere Betwixtin were attainted. fitness meaning is confined to the case of by possession of sufficient active For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay It derely shall abie. the Pardoner In the original. suffer the Jul. 2. The neuter form way both abide and its degraded form abolesco.— 4 ABIE Thus ABOLISH abie for abuy and abie from abide are in certain cases confounded together. being disabled in the highest degree. Fr. — P. hath suflferid in grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death. Merch. and therefore not legal nor^ habilitate to serve in Parliament. abie to Goth. Thou At slough my brother the mete full right Morgap series of quotations that in the earher instances the sense of the Lat. and the simple buy. to pay the penalty. while in later examples As I . habile. to draw fowls. have-like. convenient. he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisihe must abye for it. The thingis fellin as they done of werre it To buy To for disable him. seems to have been used as a sort of proverbial expression for suffering loss. P. Milton. ON. Tr. forbid for mother's children should abye. in for any special purpose. Innan bords. R. Fundamentally distinct from abie in the sense above explained. purpose. . The connection between the ideas of remaining or continuance in time and continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard. to . — Able. How dearly I abide that boast so vain. L. at kasta fyri bord. within the ship. and death for handsel pay. to It will be seen from the foregoing examples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use whence habilior paying the purohase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify passes into that of simply suffering. able. Lat. al- be found so some will dear abide it. Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God. at hand). God tokeneth and assigneth the times. abidge. O If tion. i. or bie. abeye. — e. to dress hemp. though sometimes confounded with it. consequences of anything . adapted . For on board. willing to schewe his wrathe.^and to make his power knowne. to perish. atling hem to her proper offices. Spenser. expert. 2nd Tale. Mids. habilis (from habeo. The —Boucher. Fr. when compared with Aboard. Abie. Wickliff in Richardson. Signat tempora propriis he gan to threte. as E. to grow out of abie come to signify suffer. sufficient. fit for anything he undertakes or is put unto. to wear away. to redeem. Boeth- — And when he And With fond he was yhurt. fault being simply clothing. abie.

Abrdger itself. by the to bring up. — ' — — preceding verb. to shortof fire is exemplified in Lat. See -und-. sec seftre — Chaucer. above. greu. agredge. as withotityn and without. the identity of which with ting. No doubt if we had not so complete a About. The Provencal has breu for shoot from the same root. nurse Lat. Quod abominor.aboon. OE. bring out of similar change in passing from Lat.. to grow up. agreujar. signifying viare is preserved in the double form of educate. to AS. abbrechen. the vital spark.— Abbreviate. as the duty of nourdisposition. for ligeth butan.writers in the sense of starting out of rence.off would suggest a very plausible derivation from G. and to do something to avert abbreviate. and in-d-oles. See To Bray. to aggravate. heavy. or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons. AS. — . ABROACH Ethiopia Land Beligeth titan. Sometimes the two parts of the word kurz abbrechen. Above. Melibaeus. giving birth to. af-oleii.foda signifies to beget. af-oolden. to fatten. awaking. to nourish.1. or cut short. abredan. whence the Fr. and also. ufan. analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete. Du. is not from G. to recognize a had the double form allegge and alleviate. to beget or give birth to children. butan. ala is made to signify to rear. alan. nourish. Abray. Abundant. all at once befrom the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale age. be-ufan. which passed into English under Abominate. and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden used both in the sense of lighting a fire. ala. alere capillos. Then. Goth. In Barbour's ting or giving birth to. are divided by the subject to which it ' And when this olde man wende to enrelates. abutan. To abray or abraid. showing change of the v and i into u and j respectthat the Latin alere. becomes leu in Prov. abominor (from ab and omen. motion. around on the out. gravity. the OSw. while the verb alleThe root el. to progress. Sc. adolere. break out. disastrous portent in some passing oc. which may God avert. to feed. leading immediately to Fr. abbreviare. the form a&^^. Severe the threatened evil. to grow together. progeny. life. s —Casdmon. ABOMINABLE adolesco. from Fr. literally. Finnish stock. the hair grow. is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar. AS. alUger. brood. to rear. snatch In English we speak of away. to cut short. abowen. titan. oil. to produce. onbutan. Prov. below. en. common in Chaucer and Abominable.plausible quotation from Chaucer given nected with the procreation of offspring. abrcBgdan. on high. Lat. Fr. side. Tale. al is growth. shows that the force of the radical syllable ol. Gael alaich. bufan.abrSgerj and other cases may be pointed tain. boven. to bring up. aggrdThings with feelings of detestation and abhor. outward. and alere flammain. The radical idea is to feed the flame. a portent). breugetdt for brevitas abbreujar. nurse. Of these synonymous adolescere. D. that greatly agredge their sin. The application of the root to the notion To Abridge. to and of giving birth to a litter of young. kindling. currence. notwithstanding the ishing and supporting is inseparably con. Virg. be-utan. to burn up {adolescu7tt ignibus terms the former. abbrechen. is common in our older ignition being one of constant occur. of any kind . to turn. coalesco. pedigree from brevis. abbreviare not being at once ap(for sub-ol-es). gravis. to rear. way Sw. but from Lat. Thence to regard greugetat. and bidden him abregge. The primitive idea seems that of beget. to snatch. explains soboles Lat. ol.precisely corresponding to abridge and In like manner from Lat. vital PI. hard. parent.' Ymb hancred utan. OSw. to light a fire the Abraid. to main. to break off. his contemporaries. without. about cockcrow. the man dwindles away. the idea of breaking about . so that here also we to deprecate the omen. AS.ger. to feed.' Parson's rence. In the same brevis . levis to the Romance languages. Kiittner. Thonne Abroach. full ofte his words for to Fr. So in Lat. breaking out in language. d. abrdger. abbreviate was subsequently formthat which is born in a man. seems aras.the older form. from . abufan. olet become worthless through gam De manji af. as AS. To Abound. natural ed direct from the latter language. to start. OE. while the sense of beget. . is a ively. For on broach. to let sleep. abracan. to awake. draw out.) . or young forth. . alan.. and also to abridge. it compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.ymbutan. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow.



thrust, butt,

In the same

To set a tun abroach brocher, to pierce. is to pierce it, and so to place it in condition to draw off the contents.
Right as


the G. stossen, to

push with the horns, &c.,


who set a tonne ahroche perced the hard roche. Richardson. Gower

also applied to the abutting of lands. Ihre lander stossen an ei?iander, their


Wall, abroki, mettre in perce. Grandg. to abut. See Broach. Abyss. Gr. ajivaaoc, unfathomable, Abroad. On broad, spread over the depth. surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra- from a and j3v(j<Tbc or /3u86c, Academy. Gr. aKaSruwa, a garden rily applied in the expression of going abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato

lands abut on each other. So in Swedish strike, to thrust, to butt as a goat stota tilsainmans, to meet together,
stota, to




But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on irede. That men within might know the sede. R. R.


—Access. —Accessory.


Abscess. a course of
their veins

Lat. abscessus,



humours running out of

accedere, accessU7n, to go or come to, to arrive at, approach. To support, to be of the party or side of any one, to assent to, to approve of. Hence accessory, an aider

and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede. empty spaces between the muscles. Fr. acces from accessus, a fit or sudden Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- attack of a disorder, became in OE. axesse, draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pi. axes, still preserved in the provincial To Abscond. To withdraw for the axes, the ague. Halliwell.
purpose of concealment Lat. abscondo, to A charm hide away condo, to put by. Tlie which can helin thee of thine axesse. To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro. and Cress. 2, 1315. suck up. See Sherbet. Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of To Abstain, Abstemious. Lat. abthe voice, difference in tone, from accino, siineo, to hold back from an object of deaccentum, to sing to an instrument, to acsire, whence abstemious, having a habit cord. See Chant. of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny, Accomplice. Fr. complice, Lat. comabstaining from wine. So Fr. etamer, to plex, bound up with, united with one in tin, from ^iain. Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
; ;

Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. comcommon sense. Lat. absurdus. The plere, to fill up, fulfil, complete. figure of deafness is frequently used to Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Formexpress the failure of something to serve ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, disthe purpose expected from things of its cordare, from concors, discors, and conkind. Thus on. daufr, deaf ; daufr litr, a dull colour ; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not chorda, the string of a musical instrument. kernel Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lanDiez. The Swiss Romance has cortern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; surdus locus, dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen, a place ill adapted for hearing; surda to consent heartily with what falls to vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what another Wall, keure, voir de bon grd is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to qu'un ^vfinement arrive a quelqu'un,


the understanding.

Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum.

qu'une chose ait lieu ; meskeure, missgonnen. Grandg.

Fr. bottt, end aboutir, to meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself is from OFr. boter, hotter, boutir, to strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike with the head, as a goat or ram. It is clear that the full force of the metaphor is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of France and England as

To Abut.

Lat. casta, a rib, a side Fr. coste, a rib, cosU, now cdti, a side coste-d-coste, side by side. Hence accoster, to join side to side, approach, and thence to greet.

To Accost.

two mighty monarchies.

Whose high upreared and abutting ffonts The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
Abuttals or boundaries are translated capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare.

Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer, formerly accoustrer, to equip with the habiliments of some special office or occupation, an act of which in Catholic countries the frequent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church service would afford a striking and familiar example. Now the person who had charge of the

; ;


vestments in a Catholic church, was the
in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec(barbarously rendered custrix, when the office was filled by woman), in OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. kiister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.

Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.



Goth, akran, notwithstanding Grimm's quotation of Cajus,

sacrarii pertinet cura vel custotempli vela vestesque sacrts, ac vasa sacrorum. St Isidore in Ducange.

Ad custodem


accoutrer office of sacristan to a priest, to invest him with the habiliments of his office afterwards to invest with the proper habiliments of any other occupation.





would thus be to perform the

Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrue, a growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, to be in the condition of a growth, to be added to something as what naturally grows out of it. Ace. Fr. as. It. asso, the face marked with the number one on cards or dice, from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single Diez. one.

himself inclined to explain as the produce of the akr, or corn-field, but a more satisfactory derivation may probably be found in OHG. wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, on. okr, interest, usury, from the same root with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to increase erde-wucher, the increase of the field, fruits of the earth. Notker. The ON. okran, fceneratio, is formally identical with Goth, akran. Acoustic. Gr. aKovsTiKog, connected with hearing agovu), to hear. To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint, informed of a thing, having- it known, from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez; but this seems one of the cases in which it must be doubtful whether the Romance







Producing an image from iridescent colours. Gr. a, privaxp'^M") colour.

word comes from a Lat. original, or from a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. has kund (from ketmen, to know), known, manifest ; kund machen, to make known,

bodily pain, from Ach ! the natural expression of pain. So from G. ach ! alas the term is applied to woe, grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe

and Ache.





same sense with the Prov. coindar, the d of which seems better to agree with the G. word than with the Lat. cognitus; G. kundig, having knowledge of a thing. To Acquit. From Lat. quiehts, at
in precisely the


cries of grief.


Achen, to utter Gr. axog, pain, grief,

was formed Fr. quitte, whence acquitier, to set at rest with respect to some

formed on the same principle.

Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, and thence the end of everything; de chief en chief, from end to end ; venir d chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a head, to accomplish, achieve.

To Achieve.

Act. Active. Actor. See Agent. Acute. The syllable ac is the foundation of many words connected with the idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr., See Acute. like an unripe fruit. Acme. Gr. aKfir\, a point the highest as uKr], Lat. acies, a point or edge, anig, Lat. -iSoQ, a pointed instrument, a sting degree of any quality. See Acute. Acolyte. Gr. aKoKov^oq, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown by the dim. acuiezts, a prickle or sting a/coXoiiSlw, to follow, attend. Acorn, as. cecern, ceceren, accernj acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharpWords ON. akarn; Dan. agern; Du. akerj G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. The from the same source signifying sharpecker, eichelj Goth, akran, fruit. under last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen
: ;

Acid. Acrid. Acerhity. Lat. aceo, to be sharp or sour ; acor, sourness acidus, sour, tart ; acetum, vinegar, sour wine. From the same root acer, acris, sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, sharpness ; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour

claim or accusation. See Quit, Quite. Acre. Gr. dypoj; Lat. ager; Goth. akrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, a field of cultivated land ; thence a measure of land, so much as may be ploughed in a day. Acrostic. poem in which the first letters of the verses compose one or more words, from Gr. uKpov, tip, on'xuE, a verse.


of oak-corn, Acid. Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In derivation hardly compatible with the other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning v/itli or with the more general signification of c,f, g, I, n, p, V, the d of ad is assimilated

accommodation to the notion





W. neidrj Goth, nadrsj ON. nadraj

to the following consonant, as in affero for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c.


adagium, a proverb.

To Adaw.

Two words

of distinct

or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael, nathair, proswoune.'— Palsgrave in nounced naer. It seems mere accident which of the two forms is preserved. The forms with an initial n are comA man that waketh of his slepe monly referred to a root signifying to He may not sodenly wel talcen kepe pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitly Til that he be adawed veraily. Chaucer. OHG. nddal, Bret, nadoz, E. needle, and are connected with w. naddu, and with So Da. dial, morgne sig, to rouse oneG. sckneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON. self from sleep, from morgen, morning.

meaning and origin are here confounded 1st, from AS. dagian, dcsgian, to become day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, noght.—p. 43. or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of Instead of neddre Wicklifif uses eddre, a swoon. I adawe or adawne as the day what we now call doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ewte for newt, or the modern apron for OE. naI adawe draweth towards his rising.' one out of a swounde,' to dawe from pron. In the same way Bret, aer, a ser'

natra, nadraj G, 7tattcrj AS. ncedre, nedder; OE. neddre. Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ireland, says, Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se For nedres ne other wormes ne mow ther be






that is fallen in a Halliwell.

2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or subdue, from Goth, thahan, MHG. dagen, gedagen, to be silent, still ON. thagga, to silence, lull, hush.

As the bright sun what time his fiery train Towards the western brim begins to draw, Gins to abate the brightness of his beame And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe.
F. Q. V. ch. So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Little him answered the oak again. But yielded with shame and grief adawed. That of a weed he was overcrawed.

notra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence nbtru-gras, a nettle, may be a more probable origin. There is little doubt that the ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is from OHG. eiten, to burn. To Addle. To earn, to thrive.

With goodmen's hogs






ninepence every day.

— Hal.


Where ivy embraceth

the tree very sore Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more. Tusser in Hal.

Shep. Cal.

Hessian dachen, tAgen, to allay, to still ' Der schmerz dacht pain, a storm, &c. sich nach und nach.' Dachen, to quell
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by Gedaeg, cowed, subcutting the leaves. ' missive. Der ist ganz gedaeg geworden he is quite cowed, adawed. Compare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, become calm. To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or unite with, the signification of dare in composition being in general to dispose of an object. Thus reddere, to put back subdere, to put under cmidere, to put by. Adder. poisonous snake, as. cettr,




attern; PI. D. adder; Bav. atter, ader, adern. ON. eitr-ornt, literally poison snake, from eitr, AS. atter, venom (see Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation

would be perfectly




not that a name differing only by an initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cerfacility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing still more widely current, with which howa business, to put off to another day. ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to to be wholly unconnected. Gael, nathairj meet, and thence to bring to agreement.

course, to grow, inthe sickness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cultivate the soil, the sciences, the memory. To earn is to get by cultivation or labour. ON. odli, edit, adal, nature, origin; AS. ethel, native place, country. Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with matter in it. Hal. Rotten, as an addle egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives the draining of a dunghill. Sw. dial. ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeptus, to obtain. Alchymists who have obtained the grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which gave thein the power of transmuting metals to gold, were called adepti, of whom there were said to be twelve always in being.--Bailey. Hence an adept, a proficient in any art. Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; adTo

ON. oSlask, to cedere, to run

get, also, naturaliter pro-

Henni odladist sottin :

sont dessevr&s Qu' unc puis ne furent adjosUes Les osz. Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
icel jor

Advantage, something
forwards, gain, profit.




was often written alamir in the early Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address of letters of credence given by K. James II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh from Capmany, ran, Al muy honorado e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Abenna^ar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y Amiramu9lemin,' and in the same passage the King calls himself Almirante and

our Lord upon happen, and thence averiture, a happening, chance, accident, a sense preserved in E. per adventure, perhaps. The >vord was specially applied to events as an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amir, narration, and so passed into the Teua lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving Western languages from the early Byzan- rise to G. abenteuer, ON. <2fintyr, Sw. tine forms diiripag, a/itipaioQ, the last of afwentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of readily pass into Mid.Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of (with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,' is the title of initial a/ of Sp. ahnirante, O Cat', ahnian old E. romance. rall is probably the Arab, article, and the To Advise.—
; ;

severed, which were never afterwards united. See Joust. Adjutant. One of the officers who assists the commander in keeping the accounts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, frequentative from adjuvare, to assist It. aiutante, an assistant aiutante de campo,

The bones were

Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire, come up to, to arrive, to happen ad; ;

ventus, arrival


advent, the coming of earth. OFr. advenir,


Advice. The 1.3.t.visum, gave rise to It. visa, OFr. vis. Visum mihi fuit, it seemed to me, would be rendered in Olt. fu viso a me, OFr. ce m'est vis. Diez. In the Roman de la Rose, advis is used in the same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to me vous fust advis, it seemed to you.


Captain-general Church.



Holy Roman with

advis. It. avviso, OE. avise, view, sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, full consideration.


In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in the first crusade) occisus est Cassiani magni regis Antiochiae fihus et duodecim Admiraldi regis Babilonia5, q^ios cum suis exercitibus miserat ad ferenda auxilia regi Antiochise et quos Admiraldos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum prsesunt. Ducange.

erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse, he seide, gef ther is any mon so wys That beste red can thereof rede, MerHn that R. G. 144. is.'

avised or advised of a thing thus be, to have notice of it, to be informed of it.

To be



that aslayne

and adreynt twelve princes were

Of werre and

of bataile he was full avise.


That me clupeth amyrayls.

— R. G. 402.

R. Brunne.

Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, prosperous, Cotgr. saison adroite, convenient season. Diet. Rom. From droit, right, as opposed to left, as is shown by the synonymous adextre, adestre, from dexter, explained by Cotgr. in the same terms. also use dexterous and adroit as equivalent terms. See Direct. Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to




from adolesce, to See Abolish. Adultery. Lat. adulter, a paramour, originally probably only a young man, from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a
Lat. adultus,


grow, grow up.

advice in the mercantile serise, notice, news. To advise, in the most usual acceptation of the term at the present day, is to communicate our views to another, to give him our opinion for the purpose of guiding his conduct, and advice is the opinion so given. In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare, was used in the sense of viewing, perceiving, taking note. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant Qui moult fut bel k adviser. R. R. 25. Avise is frequently found in the same sense in our eHer authors.




looked back and her avizing well as he said that by her outward grace

That fairest Florimel was present there in place. paramour or fornicator. F.Q. Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370. Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on To Advance. Advantage. Yr.avanor summon one to a place, especially for cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant. It. avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,



call for help, to


to call to one's aid, to

to assistant, but not originally the

Lat. affabilis, Affable.—Affability. easy of access or avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak. cause. To Affeer. From Lat. ^r«W2, a maraid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal



Fr. feur,

market-price, fixed rate,

who pleaded

the cause of another,

who whence


afferer, or affeurer, to value at certain rate, to set a price upon. From

the verb advocare (corrupted to advoare), in the sense explained under Advocate, was formed ad•vocatio {advoatio), OFr. advoeson, the patronage or right of presentation to an Due. ecclesiastical benefice. As the clergy were prohibited from appearing before the lay tribunals, and even from taking oaths, which were always required from the parties in a suit, it would seem that ecclesiastical persons must always have required the service of an advocate in the conduct of their legal business, and we find from the authorities cited by Ducange, that positive enactment was repeatedly made by councils and princes, that bishops, abbots, and churches should have good advocates or defenders for the purpose of looking after



the latter of these forms the OE. expression to affere an amerciament, to fix the amount of a fine left uncertain by the court by which it was imposed, the

being the persons deputed to determine the amount according to the 'Et quod circumstances of the case. amerciamenta prasdictorum tenentium afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum parium suorum.' Chart. A.D. 1316, in





formed M. Lat.

their temporal interests, defending their

pledge one's Hence affidavit, a certificate of faith. some one having pledged his faith a written oath subscribed by the party, from the form of the document, 'Affidavit A. B., &c.' The loss of the d, so common in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to pawn his faith and credit on. Cotgr. In
affidare, to

property from rapine and imposition, and representing them in courts of law. In the decline of the empire, when defence from violence was more necessary than legal skill, these advocates were naturally selected among the rich and powerful, who alone could give efficient protection, and Charlemagne himself is the advocatus of the Roman Church. ' Quem postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardorum.' Vita Car. Mag. The protection of the Church naturally drew with it certain rights and emoluments on the part of the protector, including the right of presentation to the benefice itself; and the advocatio, or office of advocate, instead of being an elective trust, became a heritable property. Advocatus became in OFr. advoui, whence in the old Law language of England, advowee, the person entitled to the presentation of a benefice. As it was part of the duty of the guardian or protector to act as patronus, or to plead the cause of the Church in suits at law, \\\^ advowee ^zs, also czSS&A patron of the living, the name which has finally prevailed at the present day.

manner, from Lat. confidere, Fr. confier; from It. disjidare, Fr. defter, to defy.

To Affile, OE. Fr. affiler, It. affilare, to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.

an edge, haX.ft/um, a thread. Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on, related to. Finis, end, bound. To Afford. Formed froih the adv. forth, as to utter from out, signifying to l/orde put forth, bring forwards, offer. as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and j'offers a vendre. 1 C3.nforde it no better cheape. What do you forde it him for ? Pour combien le lui offrez vous a venPalsgr. dre ? And thereof was Piers proud,
' '

And And And


hem to werke, yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe, mesurable hyre. P. P. 4193.

For thei hadden possessions wher of thei myghten miche more avorthi into almes than thei that hadden litil. Pe-

cock. Repressor 377, in Marsh.

For thon moni mon


walde him



AS. adesa, ascia.

AS. Vocab.

in Nat. Ant.



science of taste. Gr.

perception by sense, ahOijTiKbe, endued with sense or perception.

jeven half other thridde lot thenne he ise^e that he ne mahte na mare -^eforthian : when he sees that he cannot afllbrd, cannot produce more. Morris, O.E. Homilies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon thet thu maht iforthien : do thy alms of that thou can afford. Ibid. p. 37. Afiftay. Afraid. Fray. Yt.effraycr, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; effroi, terror, astonishment, amazement fray;

— —





eur, fright, terror, scaring, hofror.— gean-cyme, an encounter; to-geanes, toCotgr. wards, against. OSw. geij, igen, opThe radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom, startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through;. Bret, gin, opposite; ann tu OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; ginto make an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit ouch-gin, directly opposite, showing the oncques effroi jusqu'a ce que tons les origin of the G. reduphcative gegen, siens eussent gagn^ la muraille, puis against. ' s'dcrie horriblement.' Rabelais. SailAgate. Lat. achates. According to lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily ou bruit.' Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found. Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has fray or affray in the sense of a noisy disturbance, a hurlyburly. etat, edatj- OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage, In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer Age. calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and H^ly esteit de grant eded. Kings 2. 22. hail, which drenched the partisans of the Ki durerat a trestut ton edage. Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez. And when the stomi was clene away passed, Ae, life, age. white under


in the

that stode

the tree

They felt nothing of all the great affray, That they in grene without had in ybe.

The radical meaning is well preserved in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rousing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which could not be explained on Diez' theory of
a derivation from 'Lai. frigidas. Me met thus in my bed all naked And looked forthe, for I was waked
small foules a grete hepe, That had afraide me out of my sleepe, Through noise and swetenese of her song. Chaucer, Dreame. I was out of my swowne affraide Whereof I sigh my wittes straide And gan to clepe them home again.


The form edage seems constructed by the addition of the regular termination age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radical syllable of eded, or it may be a subsequent corruption of eage, eaige (from ae-tas by the addition of tlie termination age to the true radical ctj, by the inorganic insertion of a ^, a modification rendered in this case the more easy by the resemblance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
* Agee. Awry, askew. Yrorajee / an exclamation to horses to make them move on one side, fee, to turn or move to one side; crooked; awry. Hal. To jee, to


in Rich.

move, to stir. ' He wad \\a.jee.' To move to one side. In this sense it is used with
respect to horses or cattle in draught.

* To Ag:g. To provoke, dispute. Hal. Apparently from nag in the sense of gnaw, by the loss of the initial n. Nagging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but After. Goth. Afar, after, behind; constant pain; naggy, knaggy, touchy, aftcCr, aftaro, behind; aftana, from beHal. Knagging, irritable, ill-tempered. hind aftuma, aftumist, last, hindmost.

ultimate derivation is the imitative root, frag, representing a crash, whence Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of things breaking, disturbance, affray. Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, Gloss. Kero in Diez. horror). To AflBront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons,frontis, the forehead), to meet face See Front. to face, to encounter, insult.



Agent. Agile. Agitate. Act. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -igo), to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to do ; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing; actus,--iis, an act, deed, doing.


AS. aft, (Eftan, cefter, afterwards, again. ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptan dags, the latter part of the day, evening aftar, According to aftast, hinder, hindmost. Grimm, the final tar is the comparative termination, and the root is simply af the equivalent of Gr. imo, of, from. Compare after with Goth, afarj AS. ofer-non, with after-noon. Again. AS. ongean, ongen, agen, opposite, towards, against, again ; gean, opposite, against ; gean-bceran, to oppose

finding fault peevishly and irritably. Mrs B. Sw. dial, nagga, to gnaw, bite,

agga, to



gnaw, to grumble, wrangle. •AgHast. Formerly spelt agazed, in consequence of an erroneous impression that the fundamental meaning of the word was set a-gazing on an object of astonishON. nagga,

ment and

the devil was in arms, army stood agazed on him H.

The French exclaimed
All the whole


Probably the word

may be







In the same way in Sc. one is gysa, gasa sig, to shudder at ; gase,gust, said to be fidging fain, nervously eager, horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle. Agony. Gr. 'Ayiiv, as ayopa, an asthese forms we pass to Sc. gousty, goustrous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an aswith feelings of indefinite horror waste, sembly met to see games; thence the desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion a struggle, toil, hardship. ' Ayoivia, a confrightful. test, gymnastic exercise, agony; ayiaviCald, mirk, and gousUe is the night, Loud roars the blast ayont the hight. —Jamieson. ZoiAai, to contend with, whence antagonist, He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against. To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleascloven, and that the black man's voice was hough ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado, and ^OKj^zs.—Glanville in Jam. The word now becomes confounded Prov. grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grd, will, pleasure, favour and thence It. agradire, with ghostly, the association with which to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, has probably led to the insertion of the h Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give in ghastly itself as well as aghast. Agistment. From Lat. jacere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. ag?ad-


guwysje, Dan. gyse, Sw.





had ghir,







able, agreeable.

See Grant.

lodging, place to lie down in giste liune hivre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, to give lodging to, to take in cattle to feed and the law term agistment, the profit of cattle pasturing on the land. Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the lace or string by which different parts of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Hence any small object hangtogether. ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, &c. Junius. Fr. aiguillette, diminutive of aiguille, a needle, properly the point fastened on the end of a lace for drawing it through the eyelet holes ; then, like E. point, applied to the lace itself. 'Agnail, Angnail. swelled gland. It. ghiandole, agnels, glandules, wartles or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the groin or armpits. Fl. Fr. agassin, a corne or agnele in the foot. Cot. false etymology seem%to have caused the name to be applied also to a sore between the finger and nail. The real origin is It. anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, also a botch or blain in that place ; Fr. angonailles, botches or sores. Cot. Ago. Agone. Here the initial a stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment of the past participle ago, agone, forygo, ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Jong gone by.

coming in periodical or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, fiivre aigue, acute fever. It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when suffering from protracted cold, take fever and ague in sharp attacks. Hooker, Himalayan


A fever


Se non febre aguda Vos destrenha costats.


non qu'une


aigue vous presse

les cotds.


The confinement to periodical fever is a modern restriction, from the tendency of language constantly to become more
specific in its application.


On He

For Richard lay so sore seke. knees prayden the Ciystene hostturnyd out of his agu, R. Coer de Lion, 3045.

Through hys grace and hys vertue



Lat. adjuvare,

adjutum; adju-

to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, aidar, Fr. aider, to help. Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp. It. aju-


tante di campo, an officer appointed to assist the general in military service. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve, to trouble, perhaps from the notion of pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, carduus Lye, whence ails, the beard of corn (Essex), as. egle, troublesome, Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglus,



swiche cas

wimmen have

swiche somve


that hir husbonds

ben from hem ago
Knight's Tale.

Excited with expectation, jigging with excitement, ready to start in
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally on the jog, or on the start, {rom gog, synonymous with jog or shogj gog-mire, a



— Hal.


He is


agog to


shameful A!im. Lat. astiinare, to consider, to reckon, to fix at a certain point or rate Prov. estimar, to reckon ; adestimar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcuate, to prepare ; son colp azesmat,' he has calculated or aimed his blow well Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, to reckon—' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis mille esma.' He reckons the knights of
difficult, agls,






his host at 3000 Rom. de Rou ; esmer, to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, to aim or level at. Cotgr. Air. Lat. aer, Gr. a.r\p, doubtless contracted from Lat. cether, the heavens, Gr. Gael. atS'np, the sky, or sometimes air. aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the air, sky, w. awyr. Aisle. The side divisions of a church, like wings on either side of the higher nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat.



— —


Ai las! Helas ! Ah wretched




M'aviatz gran gaug donat Ai lassa! can pane m'a durat.


You have how Uttle


given me great joy, ah wretched has lasted.

Las I tant en ai puis soupir^, Et doit estre tasse clam^e Quant ele aime sans estre am^e.

—R. R.

science of converting base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. lipxiM'" 5 axilla, ala. Suidas. Arab, al-ktmtd, without xr]\uia. By a like analogy, Ics ailes du nez, the native root in that language. Diez. nostrils Us ailes d'une/orit, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al kohl, the impala forest. Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which Ait. small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, anyeyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder, Ajar. 0« cAar, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined To alcoholise, to spirit, spirits of wine. Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit. B. Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room D. V. 46, 15. railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a Swiss ackar, Du. aeti karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, ajar. Arab, cobba, a closet side-board, &c. Ende vonden de dore akerre staende. (Lane) alcobba, a cabinet or small chamWallewein, 9368. Cabrera thinks Sp. ber. Engelberg. See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the Akimbo. Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicuThe host set his hond in kenebowe lum. ^If Gl. ON. kofi, Da. kove, a hut, Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skome me ? a small compartment. Beryn, 1105. Alder, as. air; E. dial, aller, owler; It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erlej Du. els; Sw. al; Pol. from schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked olsza, olszyna; Lat. alnus. winding in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman, as. eald, old; ealdor, an to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. do asghembo,aschembo,aschencio,3.s\o^e, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred, askance. Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion ; ealdor-biscop, an archbishop graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate. Alacrity. Lat. alacer, ^-cris, eager, Ale. AS. eale, eala, ealu, aloth; ON. brisk It. allegro, sprightly, merry. ol; Lith. alus, from an equivalent of Alarum. It. all' anne, to Gael, dl, Alarm. to drink as Bohem. piwo, beer, arms the call to defence on being sur- from piti, to drink. prised by an enemy. Alembic— Lembic. still. It. lamThis said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambique, Arab, aland shouting as he could, crying al'arme, help, anbiq it does not appear, however, that ; help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, come away to defence. Holland's PUny in the word admits of radical explanation in the latter language. Diez. Richardson. ^ Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of to raise up ; erta, the steep ascent of a martial music, a surprise Fr. allarmer, hill; erto, straight, erect; star erto, to to give an alarum unto; to rouse or stand up; star a I'erta, allerta, to be Cotgr. ; and genaffright by an alarum upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an eminence. Hence alert, on one's The alarum, or larum of a clock is a loud guard, brisk, lively, nimble. ringing suddenly let off for the purpose In this place the prince finding his rutters of rousing one out of sleep. G. Idrm, up[routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the adroar, alarm. vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets Alas. From Lat. lassus, Prov. las, to the Duke of Parma. Sir Roger Williams, a= Hence the exclama- 1618, in Rich. wearied, wretched.

















som a


Algates. From the ne. gates, ways ON. gata, a path, Sw. gata, way, street. All ways, at all events, in one way or
Algates by sleight or by violence Fro' year to year I win all my dispence.
Friar's Tale.

The aurox horn was


used in the N. of England in the sense of however, nevertheSwagaies, in such a less. - Brocket.


itself is


From Arab, eljahr, putting

together. The complete designation was el jabr wa el mogdbala, the putting together of parts and equation. From a corruption of these words algebraic calculation is called the game of Algebra and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 13th century cited by Demorgan in N. Q. Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid iUo

So ce-lius, allas if it were all gold. bright; a-tid, modern Sw. all-tid, all AS. ale, each, is probably ce-Uc, time. ever-like, implying the application of a predicate to all the members of a series. In every, formerly evereche, everilk, for cefre-celc, there is a repetition of the element But every and signifying continuance. all express fundamentally the same idea. Every one indicates all the individuals of a series every man and all men are the same thing. To Allay, formerly written allegge, as

to say was formerly to segge. distinct words are confounded in the modern allay, the first of which should properly



Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, divinantur numeri plerique per unum Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Ludum dicentes Algebrce almucgrabaUBque. De Vetuia.


be written with a single /, from AS. alecgan, to lay down, to put down, suppress, tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the Sax. Chron. says,
Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleggenne, the on his brother timan wseran

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equality.

translated in R. of Gloucester, He behet God and that folc an beheste that was

— Catafogo.


alegge all luther lawes that yholde were before better

belonging to another, due to another source ; thence,



make than were suththe he was The joyous time now nigheth fast
shall alegge this bitter blast,


To Alight.





signify to


ligten to


slake the winter sorrowe.


from the ground. At lette een af sadalen ; Du. jemand uit den zadel ligten, to lift one from the saddle. To alight indicates
the completion of the action thus described to be brought by lifting down to the ground to lift oneself down from the saddle, from out of the air. Aliment. Alimony. Lat. alimen;

light or raise into the air. noget fra jorden, to lift something

At lette

Shepherd's Calendar.

In the same way the Swed. has wddret Idgger sigj wdrken Idgger sig, the wind is laid the pain abates. So in Virgil, venti posu^re, the winds were laid. If by your art, my dearest father, you have

Put the wild waters in

this roar,

alay them.




to allay thirst, grief, &c.

Certainly the significations of ever all are closely related, the one implying continuance in time, the other


tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, from alo, 1 nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate, Alkali. Arab. al-grali,the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly Diez. In modern chemistry general- to the sense of cday from alecgan, that it ised to express all those salts that neutra- is impossible sometimes to say to which lise acids. of the two origins the word should be reAll. Goth, alls; ON. allrs AS. eall. ferred. Notwithstanding the double /, I have Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu; whence leviar, leujar, to derivative from the root d, ce, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, alleujar, OFr. alUger,

The other form, confounded with alegge from alecgan in the modern allay, is the old allegge, from Fi". aMger, It. alleg-






or the parts of a multifarious object. The sense of the original <x, however, is not always confined to continuance in time, as is distinctly pointed out by Hire. ' Urar-hornet war swa fagurt

to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the same way that from brevis, abbreviare, are formed Prov. brcu, abreujar, Fr. abbriger, OE. abrcgge, to abridge. Que m'dones joi e m'leujes ma dolor. Quelle me donn&t joie et niallege&t ma douleur.^ Rayn. Per Dieu ahujatz m'aquest fays For God's salie lighten me this burden.




would have brought my hfe ag^in, For certes evenly t dare well saine The sight only and the savour



AUggid much of my In the original,




voir sans plus, et I'oudeur

Si maligeoienf




in Italian,
et dir messi accio che s'alleggino nostri martiri.

Fate limosina

that our torments layed.

may be

assuaged, or al-

century under the forms alodis, alodtis, alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. a,leu, aleu franc, fratic-aloud, franc-aloi, francThe general sense is that of an aleuf. estate held in absolute possession. Mete prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago Andegavensi.'— Charta an. 839, in Due. ' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum mearum.' Paternse haereditati, quam nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo' '

To Alledge. Yx.Allegiier^ to alledge, to produce reasons, evidence, or authority for the proof of Cotg. Lat. legare, to intrust or assign unto allegare, to depute or commission one, to send a message, to solicit by message. ' Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.' Rabonius asks of me and sends friends (to support his petition). Hence it came to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses

It is often opposed Hasc autem fuerunt ea quse de allodiis sive pra2diis in feudum commutavit Adela.' It is taken for an

cant, sese contulit.'
to a fief

in support of an argument. From the language of lawyers probably the word came into general use in England and

' estate free of duties. Habemus vinese agripenum unum allodialiter immunem, hoc est ab omni census et vicarias redhibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 2 den. census cum ante semper alodium fuisset.' A.D. 1708. It can hardly be wholly distinct from ON. odal, which is used in much the same sense, allodium, prasdium hereditarium

Thei woU a leggen also and by the godspell preoven it, NoUte judicare quenquam. P. P.

Here we find alledge, from Lat. allegare, spelt and pronounced in the same manner as allegge (the modern allay), from AS. alecgan, and there is so little difference in meaning between laying down and bringing forward reasons, that the Latin and Saxon derivatives were some-


times confounded. eke this noble duke aleyde Full many another skill, and seide She had well deserved wrecke. Gower in Rich. Here aleyde is plainly to be understood in the sense of the Lat. allegare. Allegory. Gr. dXAijyopia, a figure of speech involving a sense different from the apparent one ; aWof, other, and ayop«inu, to speak. Alley. Fr. alUe, a walk, path, passage,

prasdium hereditarium <?'&/ad heredium avitum, scilicet recti linea a primo occupante; ddalsmatr, dominus allodialis, strict^ primus occupans. H aldorsen. Dan. Sw. odel, a patrimonial estate. The landed proprietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers, according to Sir Waher Scott. The ON. 6dal is also used in the sense of abandoned goods, at leggia fyrer odal, to abandon a thing, to leave it to be taken by the first occupier. If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular

borinti, natus

transposition of syllables.

Ihre would

account for allodium from the compound alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic

—an ancient inheritance, from

Eetas, antiquitas,


alldr, ddal, inheritance, as ancient friend, alder-hafd,

a possession of long standing. in V. Od.

See Ihre

words seem here from Lat. laudare, to from the Sp. lagarto, a praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of certa. From the Lat. laus, laudis, was formed these under the name of alagartoes. La- Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. garto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence lauzar, alauzar, OFr. loer, louer, American alligator. Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recomAllodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice. without a feudal superior. Blackstone. Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro conand little light has been thrown upon it jugem,' I recommend. ' Et vos illuc by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus dislaudamus^ we disThe word appears as early as the ninth suade you. Ducange. 'Et leur de-


aller, to go.


The American

crocodile, lizard ; Lat. la-

To Allow. confounded






week was 750 cargos
of clean ore, aver-

looient k faire, et li loeretit tous que il descendist.' 'Et il li dirent que je li avois lod bon conseil.' JoinIn the same way in ville in Raynouard.

manda que



And And

is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, whether ye allow my whole devise, it good for me, for them, for you, if ye lilce it and allow it well Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.


age ley from nine to ten marks per monton, with an increased proportion of gold.' Times, Jan. 2, 1857. From signifying the proportion of base metal in the coin, the term alloy was applied to the base metal itself. Alluvial. Lat. alluo {ad and lavo, to

Especially laus was applied to the approbation given by a feudal lord to the alienation of a fee depending upon him, and to the fine he received for permission Hoc donum laudavit AAa-xa to alienate. Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat' Due. From signifying consent to a grant, the word came to be applied to the grant Comes concessit iis et laudavit itself. terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem Facta est hsec laus sive et servitium.' concessio in claustro S. Marii.' Due. Here we come very near the application of allowance to express an assignment of a certain amount of money or goods to a particular person or for a

wash), to wash against ; alluvies, mud brought down by the overflowing of a river ; alluvius (of land), produced by the mud of such overflowing. To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to

alligare, to tie to, to unite.


The word seems originhave been applied to a plan of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Sed hae tabulse vocantur Almanack vel TaUignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
ally to



coelorum certificati &, principio mundi usque in finem ut homo posset inspicere omnia quae in ccelo. sunt omni die, sicut nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa Sanctorum.' Roger Bacon, Opus Ter-

was a continual allowance given by the king, a daily rate for every day all his life.' 2 Kings. In this sense, however, to allow is

special purpose. ' And his allowance

tium, p. 36. In the Arab, of Syria al manakh is climate or temperature. Almond. Gr. a)tvyiaXr\, Lat. amygdala, Wallach. migddle, mandule j Sp. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.

mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen-

from the

Lat. locare, to place, allocare, to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; It. allogare, to place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to putout to

lou, amello.

Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu'elles n'appartiennent i son vassal, ains 4 ceux qui ont

allott/es\es distes bestes.'

— Coutume de Norman-

die in Raynouard.

To allow in rekeninge alloco. Alallocacio. Pr. Pm. Wall. lowance alouwer, depenser. Grandg. Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare


allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and E. allow, the confusion seems to have been carried back into the contemporary Latin, where allocare is used in the sense of approve or admit ; essonium allocabile, an admissible excuse. Alloy. The proportion of base metal mixed with gold or silver in coinage. From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which the composition of the money is governed, It. lega, Fr. loi, aloi. Unusquisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad legem undecim denariorum.' Due. In the mining language of Spain the term is applied to the proportion of silver found in the ore. The extraction for the

Gr. properly compassionateness, then relief given to the poor. This, being an ecclesiastical expression, passed direct into the Teutonic languages under the form of G. alinosen, AS. celmesse, celmes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awm.ous, alms J and into the Romance under the form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosiie, anmone. Hence the Fr. azimoiiier, E. almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty it is to dispense alms, and almonry, aumry, the place where the alms are given, from the last of which again it seems that the old form awjnbrere, an almoner, must have been derived. Pr. Pm. When aumry is used with reference to the distribution of alms, doubtless two distinct words are confounded, almonry and ammary or ambry, from Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a cupboard. This latter word in English was specially applied to a cupboard for keeping cold and broken victuals.—


— Almonry. — Aumry.

Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumiy. Ambry, a pantry.— Hal. Then as an aumry or receptacle for broken victuals


would occupy an important place in the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have led to the use of auniry or ambry, as if it were a contraction of almonry, from which, as far as sound is concerned, it might very well have arisen. And vice
versi, almonry was sometimes used in the sense of armarium, almarium, a



were made to the gods. Lat. altare, which Ihre would explain from ON. eldr, fire, and ar, or am, a hearth or perhaps
AS. em, cem, a place ; as Lat. lucerua, laterna, a lantern, from luc-em, leohtern, the place of a light.


it is

To make something





than what

almeriola, a cupboard or safe to set up broken victuals to be distributed as alms to the poor. B. See Ambry. Aloft. On loft, up in the air. G.

Lat. alterare, from alter, the other. So G. dndem, to change, from ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds an origin of like nature in Esthon. //i//,










another, change.

whence inuduma, muudma,


on high. AS. andlang, G. entlang, entlangs, langs. It. lungo, Fr. le long de, through the length of. AS. and langne doeg, throughout the length of the day. The term is also used figuratively to
loft, aloft,

N. aa Along.

express dependance, accordance. 1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge Some said it was long on the fire maldng, Some said it was long on the blowing. Canon Yeoman's Tale. This mode of expression is very gen-

Al'ways. AS. eallne wceg, ealle wcega, the whole way, altogether, throughout. The Servians use piit, way, for the number of times a thing happens jeddH put, once dva put, twice, &c. Dan. eengang, one going, once tre-gange, three times. So from Du. reyse, a journey, een, twee, dry, reyseti, semel, ter, bis.
; ; ;



Trop fesoient miex



Am-, Amb-. Gr. dfii^i, about, around, properly on both sides a/u^w, ambo, both. Amalgam. pasty mixture of mercury and other metal, from Gr. fiiXayfia, an emollient, probably a poultice, and


toute gent

lonj: cc



Fab. et Contes, i, i6o. They did better courtesy to each according to what they were, according to their condition.


selonc, selon, according to, the element of which is the particle si,

se, ce, so,

here, this.

In the same way Pol. wedlug, according to, from w, -we, indicating relation of

Diez. that from /iaXdaam, to soften. Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of the scribe or secretary signing the documents he wrote (as we' see in St Paul's ,' from the hand manu Epistles) ' of so and so. Hence a manu servus was a slave employed as secretary. To Anaate. To confound, stupefy,



and dlugo,



the walls the Pagans old and

^ MX. the AS. form was gelang. is ure lyf gelang^ our life is along of ' Hii sohton thee, is dependent on thee. that gelang wcere.' They inon quired along of whom that happened Walach. langa, juxta, secundum, Lye. penes, pone, propter. Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical language is to turn the vessel up into the


Stood hushed and

young amafed and amazed.
Fairfax in Boucher.


OFr. amater, mater, mattir, mortify, make fade, from inat,

to abate,







wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward of one, and as a vessel to the windward has it in her choice either to sail away or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, aloof la.3iS come to signify out of danger, in safety from, out of reach of. Nor do we find him forward to be sounded But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, When we would bring him on to some confession Of his true state. Hamlet. Alpine. Of the nature of things found in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the Gael. highest mountains in Europe. Alp, a. height, an eminence, a mountain.

Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. But when I came out of swooning And had my wit and my feeling, I was all mate and wende full wele Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.



In the original


—Je fus moult vain. by Diez from the expression
Lat. atno, to

check-mate, at chess.

Amative, Amity. From
love, are a?nor, Fr.

amour, love amatus, loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a friend and from each of these numerous secondary derivatives amorous, amative,
; ;

amateur, amiable, amicable.
tia, Fr.

Lat. amici-

amitie, E. amity,


To Amay.

It. smagare, to discourage, Sp. desmayar, to discourage,




on which






to faint





The Ar. anbar seems to bar, alambre. signified in the first instance ambergris or grey amber, an odoriferous exhave
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the waves, like the yellow amber, on the Hence the name was transferred shore. to the latter substance. Ambient. ^Ambition. Lat. ambio, to go round, to environ ; also to go about hunting for favour or collecting votes, whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager desire for posts of honour, &c. Amble. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar. It. ambiare, from Lat. ambulo, to walk, go a, foot's pace.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar,
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, Cotgr. Esmay, careful, to take thought. thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay,

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam-

dismay, or simply may.
Beryn was




at counsell, his heart was full woo, (attendants) soiy, distrakt, and



amayide. Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. ought that Beiyn coud ethir spake or pray myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to may. Ibid. 1685.

The Romance forms


according to

Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to have power, to be strong, with the neCompare Dan. afgative particle dis.

magt, a swoon.

Ambassador. Goth. Andbahts, a


OHG. andbahti, service, ministry a. minister or ministry j ampahtan, to minister; G. ampt, employment,

Am.bry, Aum.bry, Aumber. A sideboard or cupboard-top on which plate was displayed Skinner in whose time



word was becoming


Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armaria, Mid. almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaxia, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cupambactia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books, particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of Purpuram another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. thesaurum to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarid toUens of e?nbassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almariuiii cum ejus pertinentiis, vide' Due. Bibliosent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesicB.' of another state ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, bocwho carries such a message. Castrais, hord.'— Gloss. ^Ifr. e'mbessa, to employ. The word was very variously written Quicunque asinum alienum extra do- in English. 'Almoriolum an almery,' mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiquiunum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied sua' in his own business. Lex Bur- to a cupboard used for keeping broken gund. in Due. Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms Avould mainly confuerit occupatus.' Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a faleditioh, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc- lacious reference to the word alms, and cupatuS.' thus to become confounded with almonry, Ambfisciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed. ' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to mihi jussum fuerat.' Hincmar. in Due. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, The word ambacius is said by Festus armarium, repositorium ai-morum.' to be Gallic ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr. lingui Gallic^ servus appellatur Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. base, and Csesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket It. imboscarsi, says, circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov, cmboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go into habent.' Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, word from bah, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush. persons standing at one's back, as henchAmenable. Easy to be led or ruled, man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto, or side, mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. The notion of manual labour is preAmercement. Amerciament. served in Du. ambagt, a handicraft am- pecuniary penalty imposed upon offendbagts-mann, an artis_an. ON. ambatt, a ers at the mercy of the court it differs female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment ceroriginally to oppress with work), to tain, and determined by some statute.— trouble, to grieve ambascia, anguish, B. In Law 'Lxs.Wn, poni in miscricordiA distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of Amber, Ambergris, mho. amber. the court lire mis i\ merci, or etre amer' ' '
















cU, to be amerced, and misericordia was used for any arbitrary exaction. Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis et eonim successoribus quod sint quieti de omnibus misericordiis in perpetuum. Charter Edw. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et I. in Due. de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus debemus habere ii solidos. Duo. When a party was thus placed at the mercy of the court, it was the business of affeerors appointed for that purpose to See fix the amount of the amercement.

for atid. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon, An bylevede hym there al nygt, and




hys ost


thogte anon


strong batayle do. R. G. 319.


and for if or an. Me reweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
For and
1 should rekene every vice that she hath, ywis I were to nice. Squire's Prologue.



were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any should buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a half.

And I








remember), a banishing from remembrance of former misdeeds. Amount. From mont, hill, and val, valley, the French formed amont and aval, upwards and downwards respectively, whence monter, to moimt, to rise up, and avaler, to send down^o swallow.

We find aji
for if


and if

or simply



pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest


boy bid him make haste. But and if tha^ wicked
heart, &c.

say in his

Nay, an thou





thy foe.

Ben Jonson


In the same sense the OS wed. cen, Hence amount is the sum total to which a number of charges rise up when added while om, cEn corresponds exactly to our together. an if, om, formerly of, being the exact Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. if. The Sw. cEn is Amputate. Lat. amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet. to prune puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.

cut off useless branches, to prune ; putiis, pure, clean, bright. Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or

It is


difficult to
lies at

guess at the

anything worn about the person as a
preservative or

charm against



Arab, hamala, to carry.

To Amuse.


give one something

to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to entertain, give cheerful occupation. Formerly also used as the simple muse, to contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on.

the root of the obscure significations expressed by the particles and conjunctions, the most time-worn relics of language ; but in the present instance it seems that both sense and form might well be taken from the E. even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,

image which

poetical contraction of even into a root might give ON. enn, OS wed. Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases my mind with great change of our affairs. Fleetwood in Richardson. closely corresponding to the Swed. cen, An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. of which is simply to indicate individ- cen-mi, translated by Ihre, etiamnum, It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break uality. numeral one, AS. an, and the difference between the event in question and now ; in pronunciation has arisen from a cendock, quamvis, even though, or ale'en shows how such rise to such forms as


upon the word as an article than when as a So in Breton, the indefinite numeral. definite article has become eun, while the numeral is unan. Dan. een, one, en, a, an. An. And. There is no radical distinction between an and and, which are accidental modifications of spelling ultimately appropriated to special applications of the particle. In our older writers it was not unfrequent to make use of ait in the sense in which we now employ and, and vice versi and in the sense of an or if.
lighter accent being laid

when used

cen, yet, still, continuously ; though 'he is still there,' he continues there. So in Danish, om dette end skulde ske, even if that should happen end ikke, ne quidem, not even then end nu, even now. When one proposition is made conditional on another, the two are practically put upon the same level, and thus the conditionality may fairly be expressed by even contracted into ce?i or an. Analysing in this point of view the sentence above quoted. Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe, it must be interpreted. Nay, understand



2 *





thou dalliest here, I am thy foe. It depends upon you whether the first is to prove a fact or no, but the second proposition has the same value which you choose to give to the former. It will subsequently be shown probable that the conjunction if is another relic of the same word. On the other hand, placing two things side by side, or on a level with each other, may be used to express that they are to be taken together,
to be treated in the same manner, to form a single whole and thus it is that the same word, which implies condition;


wend-ijser, brand-ijser, crateuleturn Kil., rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs Lander, Gall, in which the spit turns. landier, Lat. verutentum; item haec anCatholicon Arm. in Due. Andena dena.' seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre for andiron, as brondyr for broiidiron, gredyre ior gridiron. 'Afidena, aundyre.' Trepos, brandyr.' Craticula, gredyre.' National Antiq. 178. In modern English the term has been transferred to the moveable fire-irons. To Aneal, Anele. To give the last unction. I aneele a sick man, J'enhidlle.




when circumstances show the uncertainty of the first clause, may become a copulative when the circumstances of

— Palsgr.

Fr. huille, oil.

Anecdote. Gr. avinhoToq, not published, from ticSiduiJii, to give out, to put
In face of, respectongean, opposite foran ongean,foran g'cn (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341), over against, opposite, in front, Sc.foi-eanent. The word ane7it, however, does not seem to come directly from the AS. ongean. It shows at least a northern influence from the ON. giegnt, Sw. gent, opposite, gent ofwer, over against. Hence on gent, anent, and with the s, so commonly added to prepositions (comp. ante,

the sentence indicate such a signification. Ana- Gr. ava, up, on, back. Anatomy. Gr. a.vari\iivu>, to cut up.

Anent.— Anenst.


See Atom. Ancestor.

Fr. ancestre, ancetre, from antecessor, one that goes before.

See Cede.

Anchor. Lat. aiichora, Gr. aym^a. There can be no doubt that it is from the root signifying hook, which gives rise to the Gr. dyKvXos, curved, crooked dyKuv, an elbow, recess, corner oyici), oyiavoQ, a hook Lat. angulus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. antes, AS. togeanes, &c.j, hook, crooked. anentis. Anentis men, it is impossible, Unco alliget anckora morsu, Virg. but not anentis God.' Wicliff. Hence Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxi>s- Anenst, as alongst from along, whilst from while, against from again. n^m, one who has retired from the world from avaxapiui, to retire. AngeL Lat. a?igelus, from Gr.'AyyeXof, Anchovy. Fr. anchois. It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent dyykX\u>, to send Gr. d^vi), Lat. apua, aphya iapyd) ; tidings. whence might arise. It. iapj-ugd) acciuga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense





Pied. Diez.


anciova, Genoes. anciua.

of trouble, torment, grievance.

Ancient. Lat. ante, Prov. antes, It. anzi, before, whence anziano, Fr. ancien, ancient, belonging to former times.
AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Proa parallel formation with Gr. ayicvXri, a loop, the bend of the arm; and from the same root, ayKoiw, the elbow, or bending of the arm It. anca, the haunch, or bending of the hip OHG. ancha, Bav. anke (genick), the bending of the neck.

He that ay has le%'yt fre May not know well the propyrt^,
The angyr na

the wrechyt dome cowplyt to foule thyrldome.






Shame From whom fele angirs In the original,


have had.

— R.


Par qui je fus puis moult gr^v^.




See An.

Andiron. Originally the iron bars which supported the two ends of the logs on a wood fire. as. brand-isen, brandiron, could never have been corrupted

The Mid. Lat. has andena, andeda, andena. Fr. landicr, grand chenet de cuisine. Diet. Wallon. The Flemish wend-ijser probably exinto andiron.


hibits the

true origin,

from wenden, to

sense of oppression, or injury, the expression was transferred to the feelings of resentment naturally aroused in the mind of the person aggrieved. In the same way, the word harm signifies injury, damage, in English, and resentment, anger, vexation, in Swedish. The idea of injury is very often expressed by the image of pressure, as in the word oppress, or the Fr. grever, to bear heavy on one. Now the root ang is very widely spread in the sense of

From the

; ;


compression, tightness.




eng, comLat. angere,

to strain, strangle, vex, torment;

angusnarrow; angina, oppression of the

breast angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation Gr. ayx", to compress, strain, strangle, whence ayx' (s-S 'it.pressd), near; a-^xtaiai, to be grieved ; dyx""")) what causes pain or grief. Both physical and metaphorical senses are well developed in the ON. angr, narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, sorrow angra, to torment, to trouble krabba-angar, crabs' pincers.

Sp. enojo, ofi'ence, injury, anger; enojar, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble, weariness, vexation, disquiet recarsi a noja, to be tired of something; nojare, venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. Diez cites OYe.net. plu te sont a inodio as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a noja. Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,' says Vanzoni,'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium


aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, aver en odi, to hate la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful to me me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez, To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio Du. arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly reline, from AS. angel, a fish-hook. anghel-snoer, anghel-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d, envi or d. envis, fishing-rod angheUn, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hiii from ' And from enuy was formed has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. From the same source must be exand by a further confusion it was subplained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, sequently applied to the rod. A fisher next his trembling angle bears. Pope. with regret or displeasure noode iet doen, gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, Angmsh.. Lat. angustia, a strait, whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, officere, nocere, Noode, nooyelick, See molestum esse. Kil. postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coactus, ingraAnger. tus, vel asgrd, molest^ jet noode doen, Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an faire quelque chose enuy ; noode jet aged woman. ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter Lat. animus, horen, Animal. Animate. Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573. audire.' principle, mind, properly
odi, hate, disgust
; ;




the spirit, living the breath, as the ruling function of
in man, analogous to
to breathe.





from spiro, wind; aw, aij/Ji,


pain), without sense capable of dispelling pain.

Gr. avwSvvoc (a priv. and of pain,

to blow.



glass in order to melt and fix the vitreous colours with which it is painted.

To Anneal.




irregular, devi-



a picture shone in glass annealed. Dryden in Worcester.

ating from an even surface. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, continuo, sine intermissione Lye; at one time, in a moment ; ever and anon, con-


aneel a potte of erthe or suche like with a coloure, Je plomme. Palsgr. Also to temper glass or metals in a gradually decreasing heat, \t.focare, to fire or set on fire, also to Meal metals. Fl.

in opposition,

AS. andswarian, from and,



AS. iz/an, oncelan, to set on


and swerian, Goth, svaran, ON. svara, to answer, to engage for. It is remarkable that the Latin expression for answer is formed in exactly the same way from a verb sponswear.

burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, II, is rendered anelid tyil in the earlier Wickliffite version, and bakun tijl in the later.

dere, signifying to


for, to


* To Annoy. annoiare, OFr. It. anoier, anueir, anider, Fr. ennuyer, to annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, Cot. The irke, importune overmuch. origin of the word has been well explained by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odio, It. esserin odio,to be hateful or repugnant to one. Esse alieni in odio ; apud aliquem

simpler idea of speaking in return is directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, G. ant-wort, AS. aiidwyrd, current side by side with the synonymous andswar. Ant. The well-known insect, contracted from emmet ; like aunt, a parent's sister, from Lat. amita.


Ante- Lat. Ant- Antiis in

ante, before. Gr. avn, against.


in odio esse.— Cic.

Hence was formed

face of one or before one is in one point of view opposite or against one. Anthem. divine song sung by two opposite choirs or choruses. B. Lat.


anfilts Pl. which by anvild. such as those adopted by persons representing the characters called ancient antics in masques. trouble. from eigan.legacy of given against. ambeld.th centuries the recognised models of antic. At the nether end were two broad arches upon ambossj OHG. Ful- Apanage. in Shakespear. bread. all of gold. executed by such stone-masons as were to be had. three antike pillers. surimitation of the ancient models. plenteously with red. to support. from ante. At the revival of art in the 14th and Cot. 23 ANTICK To dance APHORISM is explained by Bailey to dance after an odd and ridiculous manner. to bring forth. and ig. amboltj Du. the branches tion of the term antique to work of sculptured ornamentation. Formerly written anvilt or wine called Bacchus birling the wine. Pezron fiUist. panar. ab.—Aperture. Percutere. such as savages. transferred to the grotesque characters.D. fauns. separate. from an and — - . a provision for a — — — liquias Wottonianse in R. apanage. Surely the architect intended it no further than for an ordinary anticke. from. set aside. anticus. As the browcalled antiques. as posticus. Hence the applica. Lat. incus. should be received. But is it not That roome with pure gold Wrought with playde it all was overlaid wild aniickes which their follies In the riche metal as they living were. Lat. as the Italians. panis. part. to display pario. eigs.— . Aperient. from in and cudere. Thus from gabe. To go antiquely. or antique single chamber. finally applied to a whether grotesca. younger child. To ape. swaged. on.. to strike G. Antidote. a preventative . strangle.made out. apatiar. Antler. and an antick came to signify a grotesque figure such as we see on the effect bossen. The Fr: form antienne stcfn. Any. one having wealth. and graven full of gargills and serpentes and above the arches were made sundry — antikes and devices. a puppet or an anti^hona. before. The term was next latterly applied to the tailless species. Gr. ReApe. something ler in R. Prov. antefn. Fr. But as it is easier to produce a certain by monstrous and caricature representations than by aiming at the beautiful in art. which were favourite subjects of imitation in masques and revels. AS. Apart. Anvil. a definite . a block to hammer on. Originally a monkey in general Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook Lincoln College. were chiefly of the former class. verberas. and devils. Apartment. inAgain from the same author cudis. antifena.is to be given. the anticks — behind. from the imitative habits of monkeys. aside. a small quantity. i. whence anthem. to go in strange disguises. cenig. Hall's Chron. work. andouillers. Fr. to strike. At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily was builded a fountain of embowed work en. and claret wine. shows a similar corruption to that of Estienne. d. aperio. AS. what Roman civilisation. In like manner. to open. from an. or in a ridiculous dress. from Stephanus. a suite of rooms set aside for a Now for the inside here grows another doubt. as we call it. —Spencer. the old God of grayled with afjiicke workes. to have. to imitate gestures. AS. Fr. something imitation were chiefly the remains of ancient sculpture. as from as. to sound in answer. So Lat. In modern language antic is applied to extravagant gestures. but the expresent day. E. . Gr. choke. — — — . rich. apertum. : . the conduits in the earth ran to the people aenbeld. to strain. Aphorism. separate purpose. Antick. avri^ava. spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. possible that the name of the ape may be from imitating or taking off the actions of another ? Goth. one. anapoz. white. stem. some one. were andouiller the second. as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been derived from a7ite. a gift. Mannequin. burnished. Apartment. from ango. Lat. of. a termination equivalent to Goth. vex. a few. one at the least. anxius. like a jack-pudding. Otfried. Gr. See Cover. any is that which partakes of the nature of one. before. Ilvtwotov. from avTiipoiuia). wealth. Jorioc. G. the sculptures by which our medieval buildings were adorned. anxi. left as the . Antique. press. to nourish. af. d<popi(xnbs. post. while individual of a stag's horns but properly andouiller figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler. gabeigs. Anxious. Lat. villan Gloss. whence Prov. from.

plight. to approach. Approach. To praise. —Diez. Epistle. e. appaiser. En peach. 23 . Wholly unconnected with/a/^. Friar's Tale. Sp. Lith. to rate. Cotgr. The PI. Fr. to seize. . Parson's Tale. An old appalled wight. — Appurtenance. OFr. off. pragigua or prixcoda. whether through age or sudden teiTor. approcher. to approve. allow. point was used by the Romans a kind of peach. Nouv. agreeing with "LtA. mine. taking. Fr. Lat. despatch on some service. Ir. Palsgr. —^Apparent. habilUr.parecchio. appartenir. away. to announce. to call on one for a special This false thefe this sompnour. word was specially applied to clothing. Gr. ciously than nede is. horror.t. — prehendere. order. apprehendere. Hence appoind. Fr. apprendre. Cent Nouv.propius). that in some places of his kingdom was sore appalled. Fr. annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venunpoind. case. Gr. apal. to learn. opportunity. one the MLat. whence the e. apin R. Eke if he apparaille his mete more deli. to deem good. equal. diminutive pariculus. H. pronounce good. probare. Apprehend. For their acquaintance was not come of new . dress. prope (comp. to come near. lAfiaam. quoth the frere. i. Fabian in R. I sette a pryce of a thynge what it is worthe je aptise. rise to \t. In the same way from ETriirrEXXw.his giving evidence against his principal. Apple. Walach.parejo. (cited by Diez from a late author). to deter- to strike. apropchar. Apostle. apropid. prohts. pertain or belong to. trim. ap. aparelhar. praise. diroTrXriaatii. appris. or E. From Gr. prover. Mod. prize. peler. Apotliecary. to fit. one is in. to deaden. one for his defence. esteem. array. ar. a store or keeping-place 3wa}'. kind of action. corresp. that it outfit. to take away or lose the vital powers. To cause to pall (see Pall). irpaiKOKiaov. . — Ap- — — paroirj * Apricot. known. preparation. ^wss. poind. apal. in good season prendre son d. apprentis. approcdare. to Lat. an epistle or letter. of. was aparelid with good — Wiclif Temple Approbation. w. Fr. to commend. their ripening earlier than the ordinary Cotgr. and appoinder (to find fitting. Formerly apricock. and also as appraise. approver. is only to exalt the price or value of a thing. Fr. a thing for one's purpose. a'^opi'Jw. appareo.— . proper time came. They were considered To Appoint. properly to join like to like. APO sentence opoQ. 'LaX. or the like. cepl. To Appraise. a price. Yr. to learn. a crime. Fr. d-n-o. in piteous case habiller Maturescunt asstate prmcocia intra triginta en ce poind. Hence an Approver in law is one who as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime. manner. piteux poind. . to mark to define a bound. Prov. From Lat. agree. to — . fit- — ness. The Fr. appareiller. apparecchiare.—Apprentice. to catch hold of. Appease. good. Cotgr. to lose one's senses. to — — . set a price on. from aTroorlXXu. poind. near. I prise ware. laven is used both as E. Pliny. Appareil. pretium. APRICOT off. to send to. were formed appropiare ejar. when the . decree. and in the sense of condition. like. apar. Apo- good time. 11. but receives pardon in consideration of To Appeal. landmark. gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade. To Appear. S^. peace. to dress in this fashion. Apoplexy. ON. jabloko. to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond. in fact. to understand. obolys. A — . aptly. from. consent unto. 'L-zX. to take his fittest opportunity for quand it /At d. to call.prix. — Apprise. Hence It. xv. to strike down. N. to suit. And whanne sum men Lat. Gr. They werin his approvirs privily. and metaphorically to take the meaning. — dirondtfiu. Cotgr. to store or put Appal. From Lat. the good. oVooroXof. ai. apprise. Yr. avail. It. to be open to view. he revived and quickened again the faith of Christ. make a composition between parties. diroBrjKr}. to which it is often referred. 5w. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew. to accord. to send off. Prov. AS. And among other of his famous deeds. pronounce fitting). in commendation. one sent out. — Approve. D. find Then like Fr. like. : — — speak 'Lz. seiden of the stones. to disable oftat.probare. to make a thing Apparel. after his mind . to set a price on. habiliments. purpose. is a man who has lost his vigour through age. par. Gr. from paix. in Chaucer. to finish a controversy. Fr. iwKjToKri.were supposed to take their name from rangement the order.pareil. appellare. to assign or grant over unto. a learner. to call for judgment. become dizzy . in data. value apprdder.

or and this It tions by the casting of lots fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. . Hall. subsequently applied to the bower or rustic — — — . divining rod. Arbour. and sortilegus ation. doubtless is the origin of E. . Naperon is explained by Hdcart. to plough. Lat. however. SanI foUowid till it me brought To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought. aa.' —About. nected. Naprun. aqua. man. arbiter in re censendS. aestimo. ear. intensitive of nape. The loss or addition of n very common. OE. 331. aha. Roquefort. words derived from arpa. of of divination arpa-mies. shortdr. as a witness specially called in It growyth in a gardyn. sestimatio arbitraria. arbitrium. to decide by lot. — napkin is Naperon. OHG.) E. aro. herbere. as an eye-witness. Freshly turnid Arable. fastened close. — . {mies ^=ia3. pracoqua was not an adapt. newt and thus the etymological reference to and ewte. ap. Prol. a lot. however. nompire herbs being no longer apparent. naperon. by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a barbarous people would naturally be refor napron.. a cloth. sorcerer. ' service de le damass^ de et Sildsie naperon to 24 is serviettes. derived. a purpose precisely analogous to that for Un beau which an apron is used. A. arwaus. arpa. Marsh. 2. or eft. auguror. Now we find in Fin. as ihe diminutive. rofe and all. arbiter and its derivatives are used in explanation of the Fin. The word is still used in its ancient There is a common tendency in an un. water Which that benchid was. to divine ar- Italy than that the Persians should have adopted the Latin name of a native fruit. symbol. ahva. a lot. a small cloth put upon the tablecloth during dinner. opinio. Maan initial . Beryn. Pm. . J. a river.gardens with their summer-houses each cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence. ughe. P. Herte highte the herter A rational explanation may. upon which the cunning man of the present day is most frequently consulted Apron. the spelland umpire. P. 24 APRON ARBOUR Thus in Latin or other. quod he. As is a pretty parlour. answers queswas introduced from Armenia. properly the arwella. notion of being sheltered by trees or Apt. or any instrument Still called napfern [pronounced nappron in Cleveland. be That it inne groweth. hariolus arpelen. and taken away before dessert. and a protection of the clothes. From OE. most conspicuous situation in the garden .meaning at Shrewsbury. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere. la nappe.sors. Flower and Leaf. grande nappe. from whence that of And shapin was this herbir. But there is no recogAmyddes mannes body. con. delon. Pr. account for either of these significations. and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the is common in other European languages. 31. short. Alban. and with turfis new Goth. It is certain that the apricot oracle. C. is far more likely that the name should have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. Aquatic. conjicio. ferred to one who was supposed to have —And therewith to wepe truth. arbiter. to preserve it from stains. for the purpose of determining the quesThat God made hymselve. wata. suitable. a pleasure-ground.shrubs {arbor). found in Fin. garden. scr. arbitror arwaaja. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property. or barm-cloth. She made.] in the N. This path Aqueous. an umpire or judge is supposed to be Chaucer. and the one who gives oracles. a soothsayer. and with her nafron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would ywash outlash. Lat. originally signifying a place for the cultivation of herbs. tion under trial. aptus. and frequently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the consonant has been lost or added. where the differinformed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasureresolution of doubtful questions of suffi. proper. whether some shape the sense of an the Lat. is taken in is a soothsayer. arwelo. a lot. nawl and awl. conjectura conjec^ra. sortium ductor. Gr. Albanian. From OFr. and thence fit. in the midst of an words these cases the Lat. She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she naturally be called in as arbiter ax doomsChaucer. . The hegge also that yedin in compas Arbiter. The primary And closid in all the grene hcrberc^ sense of Lat. It may be doubted. Thus we have natiger and auger. It will be observed in how large a proportion of .o. nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke. Now one of the points — — — . Arbitrate. Lat.

worker. Gr. whence the body of the nobles collectively. to burn . From apxeiov was formed Lat. Gr. mischievous.— Army. shoulder Boh. shoulder. . are formed the participial nouns. weapon. and Kpurka. a repository for meaning that we can trace is that of ON. Lat. ers-betriiger. apxtlov. ardor. Sp. make clear or prove. a threshing-floor. troublesome. un petit rusd. as in opx^YT*^"?? chief priest. arga. it is posculine inflection en of the PI. Du. sible that the word arm in the sense of Een argen drag. vescovo. arm. and over the we fall the more readily into this appligate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of ' Shoemakers' Arbour. and must be identified with Dan.' Lex. apxtipfve. Fr. arm.aioj. wanton. which is derived from it. the a brute. government. Arduous. . Lat. armata. from nixa. aridus. branch. aj-f. it signifies roguish. to the narrow yard between the underground part of a house and the ground in — — — front. This particle takes the form of arcz in It. There can be no doubt that E. a court yard. earm. which has been referred to W. though formerly also used in the sense of a naval expedition. ' — Argue. burning heat. archivum (as Argive from 'Apytiot). Ardent. sly. arson. Arch in composition. Uo^a^. bad. taxed with cowardice. Lat. ^Argument.' the Gr. to be on fire. morally bad. the same word as the designation of the bodily limb. difficult to reach. a branch. The term would thus appear to be connected with dpx<iv. a burning or setting on fire. argr. an arch-deceiver . armee. as the arch of a bridge. ardre. malicious. high. wretched OE. ardeo. contemptible. erz in G.' Paul Warnefrid. AS. earh. branches so interlaced each other that it could resist the strongest violence of eye-sight. area. especially shoulder-joint. ars. the most arrant trash. Fr. Gr. forearm .. arcA in e. particle is identical with arch This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence enter into a fine close arbor : it was of trees whose in evil. sluggish. arrig. and not with apx. un malin enfant. . — degree when appHed to a bad quality. an extent of flat surface. Arcliives. a noble. et vulgari verbo. apxh.. ramo (pi. i. TiKToiv. Perhaps erz-wticherer. apxtrkicTiiiv (apxV! ^'^d a builder. Cot. arch-bishop. bad of its kind. ON. W. arguo. — Architect. a. it is also applied to pre-eminence in evil . rame. of which the two former are confined by custom to a naval expedition. sly. an arrant rogue. A construct. ruling by the nobles. Du. first. exercise lordship). while the Fr. . timid. a bare plot of ground. man. to dry. exaggerated in earliest — records or public documents. ancient. earg. ein arger knabe. apx^iv. erz-bischof. argvitugr. adjective. G. arduus. the best. faint-hearted. are applied only to an armed body of land forces. — Wtb. an arch boy. As the arm itself tion of which is probably from the mas. signifies chief or principal. mischievous. bad. fabricate). part of a circle anything of a bowed form. weapon may be simply an application of annus. ramend). Arm. Dan. archangel. erg. Alisaunder. to be in comp. in Due. The . a rule (princiruler. ill-tempered. patus). arma. * ArchjAiTaxit. Sax. 2. Applied in modern E. arm'ee. arwe. Fr. to demonstrate. Gr. fainthearted. Arid. And thou as arwe coward. Aristocracy. een erg kind. Arson.In E.4 rir/. and its equivalents in the other branches of Teutonic are used with great latitude of meaning. and hence in modern languages the term archives is applied to the records themselves. Con- Now thou seist he is the beste knygt. and our army. curved line. Lat. lofty. Then from the contempt felt for anything like timidity in those rough and warlike times the word acquired the sense of worthless. G. to arm. Langobard. It. the terminaGael. vocaveris. . det arrigste snavs. kpxi- beginning. from areo. Area. of though sometimes applied to nected with ramus. to rule. by Russ. apiaTOKpartia {apiaroc. stuff. gwyrek. is essentially the same word. the court of a magistrate. armada. Lat. From the verb armare. as in E.is the natural weapon of offence. receptacle where the public acts were kept. arsum. ' Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse inertem et inutilem dixeris. raineno. curved. Si quis alium argam per furorem clamaverit. a chief builder. an arrant usurer. Ardour. D. bravest. apxri. Lat. and in that sense among the Lombards it was the most offensive term of abuse that could be employed. ardIn G. Lat. to Arch. Lat. a bow. 3340. arg. gwyro to bend.ARCH open field outside ARMS 25 the town. arcus. arrant Arms. Arcadia in R. Brem.


; ;



prepare, fit out. not extant in Italian, but is preserved to us in the ON. reida, the fundamental meaning of which seems At to be to push forwards, to lay out. reida sverdet, to wield a sword; at r. fram mat, to bring forth food at r.feit, to pay down money ; at r. til rumit, to prepare the bed at r. hey a hestinom, to carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to prepare, to set in order, to arrange reda ett skepp, to equip a vessel reda til midThe same dagen, to prepare dinner. word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, to red up, to put in order, to dress to am. red the road, to clear the way The meaning of the 'Lzt.paro,parattis,
set in

At Leyes was he and at Satalie Whanne they *ere wonne, and in the grete In many a noble armie had he be.


The simple verb

Prol. Knight's Tale.

Aromatic. Gr. apiaixariKbg, from


sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. Arquebuss. It. archibuso affords an example of a foreign word altered in order It to square with a supposed etymology. is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as the only implement of analogous effect before the invention of fire-arms, and But Diez has well buso, pierced, hollow. observed how incongruous an expression a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, and the true derivation is the Du. haeckbuyse, haeck-busse, properly a gun fired from a rest, from haeck, the hook or forked rest on which it is supported, and







From a fire-arm. busse, G. buchse, haecke-busse it became harquebuss,_ and in It. archibuso or arcobugia, as if from In Scotch it was called a arco, a bow. hagbut ofcroche; Fr. arquebus d croc.

orraca, rak. 'arac at-tamr, sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 'arac or 'aragui was first applied to the spirit distilled from the juice of the datetree, and extended by the Arabs to distilled spirit in general, being applied by us to the rice spirit brought from the East Indies. Dozy To Arraign. In the Latin of the Middle Ages, rationes was the term for the pleadings in a suit rationes exercere, or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mittere or ponere ad rationes, or arrationare (whence in OFr. arraisonner, aresner, aregnier, arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to account, to require him to plead, to place him under accusation. Thos sal ilk man at his endyng Be putted til an hard rekenyng, And be aresoncd, als right es Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les.







to have been developed on an analogous plan. The fundamental meaning of the simple paro seems to be to Thus separo lay out, to push forwards. comparo is to lay things by themselves to place them side by side ; preparo, to lay them out beforehand; and the It. parare, to ward off. To Arrest. Lat. restare, to remain behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize



his person.

To Arrive.

Mid. Lat. adripare, to

to shore, from ripa, bank, shore then generalised,- It. arrivare, Sp. arDiez. ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.

Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe something to oneself; arrogans, claiming


more than one's due. Arrow, on. or, gen. orvar, an arrow
or-vamar, missiles, probably from their whirring through the air; orvarnar Hugo hvinandi yfir haufut theim,' the

arrows flew whizzing over their heads.
Sverris. p. aiS. On the same prinfreccia, an arrow, may be compared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the Sw. whizzing sound of an arrow. Cot. hurra, to whirl, hurl. Arsenal. It. arzana, darseua, taj'zana, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and




Pricke of Conscience, 2460.

In like manner was formed derationare,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraigii, to justify, to refute.

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. An erraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch.

To Array.



beforehand, to get

arredare, to prepare ready.

Arredare una casa, to furnish a house uno vascello,to equip a ship. Arredo,
household furniture, rigging of a ship,


in the plural arredi, apparel, raiment,

outfit, dock. Sp. atarazana, atarazanal, a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk. From Arab, ddr cin&'a, ddr-ag-cind'a, ddr-ag-gaii'a or ddr-gatia, a place of construction or work. It is applied by Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at Tunis a ddr-cind'a for the construction of everything necessary for the equip'

as clothing necessary.

the equipment universally

ment and armament


array er,



of vessels.' Pedro de Alcala translates atarazana by the



Arab, ddr a cind'a. Dozy.

thence the modern Fr.



a work-

Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum conservatur navigium, Aisena vulgariter appelSanutus in Due. latur.

legates homines qui ad visitandum omnes artiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.- Stat. A. D. 1360, in Due.

shop: Quod






Artilleinent, artillerie, is given by The exercise of skill or invention Roquefort in the sense of implement, some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instruor intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by method of well doing a thing skill, con- Rymer in the more general sense


See Ardent.


in the production of



trivance, cunning. Art and part, when a person is both the contriver of a crime and takes part in the execution, but commonly in the negative, neither art nor part. From the Lat. nee artifex nee particeps, neither contriver nor partaker. Artery. Gr. dpTtjpia, an air-receptacle (supposed from a'ljp, and Ttipkm, to keep, preserve), the windpipe, and thence any

Decern et octo discos argenti, unum calicem argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
missa, &c., et petentes.


alias artillarias sibi


A Statute



was understood by
Item ordinatum

artillery in that

shows what day

est quod sit unus artillator faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, sagittas, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro

gamizionibus eastrorum.

pulsating blood-channel. Artichoke. Venet. articioco; Sp. alcaehofaj Arab, al-charscliufaj It. earDiez. ciofa. Article. Lat. artieuhis, diminutive of artiis, a joint, a separate element or member of anything, an instant of time, a single member of a sentence, formerly applied to any part of speech, as turn, est, quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately confined to the particles the and an, the effect of which is to designate one particular individual of the species mentioned, or to show that the assertion applies to some one individual, and not to the kind at large. Artillery. find in Middle Latin the term ars, and the derivative artificium, applied in general to the implement with which anything is done, and specially to the implements of war, on the same principle that the Gr. fitixav^, the equivalent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the


of Samuel, speaking arrows, it is said, And Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, and said. Go carry them to the city.' As. The comparison of the G. dialects shows that aj is a contraction from ailso; AS. eallswa; G. also, als, as (Schiilze, Schmeller), OFris. alsa, alse, als, asa, ase, as (Richthofen). ' als auch wir vergeben unsern schuldigern,' as we also forgive our debtors. Schmeller. Also, sic, omnino, taliter, ita. Kilian. Fris. alsa grate bote alsa,' G. ' eben so grosse busse als,' as great a fine as ; Fris. alsoe graet als,' alsoe graet ende alsoe lytich als,' as great and as small as ; alsoe ofte als,' as often as. In OE. we often find als for also.
So, in the



bow and






Schyr Edward that had sic valour Was dede and Jhone Stewart alsua. And Jhone the Sowllis ah with tha And othyr als of thar company. Bruce,



word machina, a machine, and on which the word engine is derived from the Lat. ingenitim, a contrivance. Thus a statute
of the year 1352 enacts
ausa venari in nemoribus consulum sub pcena perdendi artes, sen instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prasnulla persona

Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta His cot armour but Gib Harper, That men held ah withoutyn per Oif his estate, had on that day All hale Schir Edwardis array. Bruce,







whom men

held as without equal of

as he is.— Schmeller. In Cum expressions like as great as, where two Due. artificialib-us. as correspond to each other, the Germans From ars seems to have been formed the render the first by so, the second by alsy Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written exercising a handicraft, or performing als, the second as, skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer manufacturing or supplying with muniTo Weris water cummyn als ner In testimony of the more tions of war. As on othyr halff their fayis wer. general sense we find artiliaria, and Bnice, xiv. 102.
magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis



his station. So in German,

ein soldier, als er


—such a one


R. Brunne.

synonymous aj/are/maybe traced through Sc. asklent, askew, to "SN ysglentio, OFr.

Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan Als bare was his towere aj Job the powere man.

esclincher, to slip or slide.


But this is probably only because the second as, having less emphasis upon it than the first, bore more contraction, just as we have seen in the correspondmg
rendered by
is Frisian expressions that the first as In alsoe, the second by als. other cases the Frisian expression is just Fris. alsa longi the converse of the G. Fris. G. so lange als, as long as sa asafirsa—G. so weit als, as far as Fris.

Necaunt (esclenchant), obliquando. cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of the / on the one hand, askaunt; and of the k on the other, Sw. slinta, to slide, and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost
/ is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.





alsafir sa, in so far as.

schtdn, N. skjons (pron. shons), oblique, wry, i skjons, awry, seem to belong to a totally different root connected with E. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.

Ascetic. Gr. ao-KijnEos {dmsoi, to practo the tise, exercise as an art), devoted practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.



ON. skeifr, Dan. skjav, G.
schieb, schiebicht, oblique,




the idea of exercising rigorous


The tree. as. czsc, ON. askr. Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, Esthon. ask, refuse, dung.

Gr. cKamq, ON. d skd, askew. Lat. sccevus, properly oblique, then left, on the left hand ; aKuiov arofia, a wry mouth.

Sc. aislair.





From G. schieben, to shove, as shown by Du. schuin, obhque, compared with G. versE. shun, shunt, to push aside.
chieben, to put


temple— fud un

out of


place, to set

de aiselers qui bien furent polls '— tribus ordinibus lapidum Livre des Rois. ' A inason politorum. cannocht hew ain evin aislair without Fr. Jam. directioun of his rewill.' 'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in

murs de

treiz estruiz


Cot. building.' Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from aisselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath

arm or between a branch and the stem of a tree, applied to the angle between a rafter and the wall on which it rests, or between two members of a

Asperity. Lat. asper, rough. To Aspire. ^Aspirate. Lat. aspiro, to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, The Lat. aspiro is also used to breathe. for the strong breathing employed in pronouncing the letter h, thence called the aspirate, a term etymologically unconnected with the spiritus asper of the Latin grammarians. Ass. Lat. asinus, G. esel, Pol. osiol. To Assail. Assault. Lat. satire, to

compound beam

in centering. in


carpentry, is the bracket which supports a beam, or the quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. exartuin, essartum, the wall (pifece de bois qu'on assemble assartimi, sartum. dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur quando forests, nepour for- mora, vel dumeta quaelibet succiduntur, quibus cintrer des quartiers (Gattel) mer les quartiers dans une charpente Ji succisis ct radicitus cvulsis terra subvertitur et lambris qui sert k former les cintres, ou excolitur. Lib. Scacch. in Due. Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco diqui soutient par les bouts les entrans ou tirans. Trevoux). From thus serving to mptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur unite the segments of a compound beam exsars. Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. the name seems to have been transferred From ex-saritum, gnibbed up. Diez. to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, on. askia, use among the natives of the Eaet. Hence G. heischen. Arab. Haschischin,' a name given to the * Asknace, Askaunt. OYr.a scancke, members of a sect in Syria who wound de travers, en lorgnant. Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their grain aschianciare, to go awry scan- Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his walk by. Fl. Both askant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of or

Fr. saillir, to sally, to leap, to spring leap ; assaillir, to assail, to set upon, whence assault, assailing or setting upon. Assart. cleared place in a wood.



— —







; ;

of Assassin was given to one commissioned to perform a murder assassination, a murder performed by one lying in wait for that special purpose.— Diez. De Sacy, Mem.

to fix


these behests, the


a certain amount upon each indi-

vidual. Provisum est generaliter quod prasdicta quadragesima hoc modo assideat-ur et coUigatur.—


I'Institut, 1818.

To Assay.
to prove

Lat. exigere, to examine,

by examination annulis ferreis ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo
utuntur,' iron rings proved of a certain Ccesar. Hence, exagium, a

Math. Paris, a. d. 1232. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum Due. tunc ad 40 sol. Assets, in legal language, are funds for the satisfaction of certain demands.


Commonly derived from Fr. assez, but it was commonly written asseth.
if it









not for asseth.



'Efayioj/, pensitatio


p. 94.

perpendo.— Gl.
De ponderibus

left to

Pilat willing to


aseeth to the people




fraus penitus

hem Barabbas.—Wiclif, Mark 15. And though on heapes that lie him by,

a nobis agantur exagia (proof specimens) Novell. Th&quae sine fraude debent custodiri. odosii in Due. Habetis aginam (a balance), exagiuin facite,


vultis ponderate.



gio, a proof, trial,

Therefore I swore to the hows of Heli that the wickedness of his assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, thing hows shall not he doon aseeth before with whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.' Wiclif. In essay. Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. To Assemble. The origin of Lat. the Vulgate, expietur. Assyth, sithe, to make compensation, to satisfy. I have simul, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.' Lye in radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael, sioth, sith, peace, sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla, adsithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; verbially used in the sense of at once, toW. hedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; gether, which seems to explain the forma'

From exagium was formed

sagsample, taste of anyIt.

— K.), — Pr. Pm. Now then, and go forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy servauntis —Wicliffe satisfac servis tuis
Makeaceeihe (fnakyn seethe

Yet never s.hall make his richesse Asseth unto his greediness. R. R.








simul, insimul, were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemble, together assembler, to draw together, ^assembler, to meet or flock together whence E. assemble. In the Germanic branch of language we have Goth, sama, the same ; samana (corresponding to Fin. samalla), Sw. samman, G. zusamm.en, AS. te somne, to the same place, together
tion of Lat. simul.


Bohem. Bohem. sytiti,

syt, syty, to satisfy.




The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. scztt, satti, reconciliatio, scEttr, reconciliatus, contentus, consentiens ; sectia, saturare ; G. satt, fuU, satisfied, are doubtless all

fundamentally related.

Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting down, seated, constantly present, unremitting.


samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dan. samle, G. versammeln, to collect, to assemThe OE. assemble was often used ble.
in the special sense of joining in battle.

By Carhame assemhlyd Thare was hard fychting as


harde say.


Assize. Assizes. From assidere was formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, set, seated, settled assise, a set rate, a tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for the sale of bread also a set day, whence cour d' assize, a court to be held on a set



day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur Assisia in quo omnes illi qui clamorero facient recipient jus suum.— Charta Philip August. A.D.

in old Italian we find sembiaglia in the same sense. ' La varatta era fornita. Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non In the poteo essere a la sembiaglia.' Latin translation, ' conflictui interesse


iigo, in Due.

nequibat.'— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Muratori.

To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit down, was used in Middle Lat. in an active sense for to set, to impose a tax
assidere talliamj in Fr. asseoir la taille,


Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a settled cut or make. To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absolvere,to loose from; OFr. absolver, absoiller, assoiler. Roquefort. 'To whom spak Sampson, shal purpose to yow a







Gr. Ar/ioc, smoke, vaGr. drofiog (from a privative that does not admit of cutting or separation. Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile, and thence to suffer the pains of whatever sacrifice is necessary to bring about

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyle, &c. And they mighten not bi thre days soylen the proposicioun.' Wyclif, Judges



Tifiva, to cut), indivisible,

xiv. 12,


To Assuage. From Lat. stiavis, sweet,
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, soft, tranquil, OFr. soef,souef, sweet, soft, gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuavar, qssuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. Hence, OFr. assoua^er, to soften, to allay, answering to assuaviar, as allager to alleviare, abreger to abbreviare, agrdger to aggraviare, soulager to solleviare.

a reconciliation.
If gentilmen or other of that contrei


wroth, she wolde bringen Jiem at on.

Mais moult m' assouagea





wordes hadde she. Chaucer in R. One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advocate, intercessor, or an aione-maker) between God and man. Tyndall in R.

So wise and

by Chaucer,







Lord and


Now softening with the ointment. Asthma. Gr. airfl/ia, panting, difficult

Des. A most unhappy one T' attone them for the love


would do much

bear to Cassio.

To Astonish.

— Astound. — Stony.


idea of reconciliation was expressed in the same way in Fr.
II ot

Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; also to sionnie, benumme or dull the Cotgr. The form astonish senses of. shows that estonnir must also have been in use. According to Diez, from Lat. attonare, attonituni (strengthened to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, So in E. thunder-struck is to stupefy. used for a high degree of astonishment. But probably the root ton in attonitus is used rather as the representative of a loud overpowering sound in general, than specially of thunder. Thus we have din, a loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to dun, to make an importunate noise dunt, a blow or stroke ; to dunt, to confuse by noise, to stupefy. Halliwell. AS. stunian, to strike, to stun, to make stupid with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. erstaunen, to be in the condition of one


amis et anemis sont-il tot d. un mis.


et Contes. i. i8i.

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
all hir herte to treasour of this world shall slepe in the sleping of deth. Chaucer in R.


Put together and onyd, continuus
together but not onyd, contiguus.

— Pr.


Precisely the converse of this expression is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two sich entzweyen, to quarrel, fall into variKiittn. ance. Atrocious. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbarous, cruel. To Attach.. Attack. These words, though now distinct, are both derived from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang. Venet. tacare; Piedm. tachd, to fasten. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker,

Lat. astus, subtilty, craft. Lat. asylum, from Gr. acuKov (a priv., and av\da>, to plunder, injure), a place inviolable, safe by the force of consecration. At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. Athletic. Gr. aBKoq, a contest for a prize ; (iflXijnJf, a proficient in muscular exercises. Atlas. Gr. 'AtKuq, the name of one who was fabled to support on his shoulders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; thence, applied to a book of maps of the countries of the globe which had commonly a picture of Atlas supporting the



to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and attaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the

same sense s'attacher d, to coape, scuffle, grapple, fight with.— Cotgr. It. attacare un chiodo, to fasten a nail la guer; ;

ra, to

la battaglia; fuoco, to set attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; di parole, to quarrel. To attach one, in legal language, is to lay hold of one, to apprehend him under a charge of criminality.

commence war


engage in battle




globe for a frontispiece.

Attainder. Attaint. Fr. attaindre (OFr. attainder Roquef.), to reach or attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or


convict, also to accuse or charge with. Cotgr. The institution of a judicial accusation is compared to the pursuit of an enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, Fr. poursuite en jugement, and the



ture ; It. attitudine, promptness, disposition to act, and also simply posture,


Mid. Lat. attornatus, one

agency of the

plaintiff is expressed


put in the turn or place of another, one appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
Li atorni est

the \ah prosequi, to pursue. In following out the metaphor the conduct of the suit to a successful issue in the conviction of the accused is expressed by the verb attingere, Fr. attaindre, which signifies the apprehension of the object of a chase. Quern fugientem dictus Raimundus atinxit.
Fr. attainte d'une cause, the gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix the charge of a crime upon one, to prove a crime. Carp. Atains du fet, convicted of the fact, caught by it, having it brought home to one. Roquef. Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a woman's head. Damoiselle d'atour, the waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire a tirewoman. her mistress Cotgr., Attour^, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, Attourner, to attire, deck, adorned. Attotirneur, one that waits in the dress. chamber to dress his master or his mis-

qui pardevant justice est

atorni pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture. Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Due.



applied to a rich red-

brown colour of

Hence the

but originally it probably designated what we now call


The original sense of attiring was that of preparing or getting ready for a certain purpose, from the notion of turning towards it, by a similar train of thought to that by which the sense of dress, clothing, is derived from directing to a certain end, preparing for it, clothing being the most universally necessary of all preparations. He attired him to battle with fole that he had. R. Bninne in R.. What does the king of France ? atires him good


The change from atour to singular, but we find them used
parent indifference.
her atire so bright and shene might perceve well and sene She was not of Religioun,

attire is

with ap-

flaxen hair. The meaning of the word is simply whitish. It. albumo, the white or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish colour of women's hair called an abtimcolour.' Fl. '[Cometa] splendoris alburni radium producens.' Due. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons, alb is used in the sense of yellowish brown like the colour of a brown sheep. Biihler. Auction. Augment. Lat. augeo, auctum, Gr. aSSw, Goth, aukan, AS. eacan, to increase, to eke. Audacious. Lat. audax,-acis; audeo, I dare. Audience. Audit. In the law language of the middle ages audire- was specially applied to the solemn hearing of a court of justice, whence audientia was frequently used as synonymous with judgment, court of justice, &c., and even in the sense of suit at law. The Judge was termed aztditor, and the term was in particular applied to persons commissioned to inquire into any special matter. The term was then applied to the notaries or officers appointed to authenticate all legal acts, to hear the desires of the parties, and to take them down in writing also to the parties witnessing a deed. 'Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi-








viderunt et audierunt

At the present day the term


Nor n' il I make mencioun Nor of robe, nor of tresour, Of broche, neither of her rich
Riche atyr^ noble vesture,
Bele robe ou riche pelure.


— R. R.



to the investigation of accounts, the examination and allowance of which is termed the audit, the parties examining, the auditors. Auf. Auff, a fool or silly fellow.— B.




See Oaf

convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. I tyer an egg je accoustre I tyer

Auger. An implement for drilling by turning round a centre which is

with garments: je habiUe and je accoustre.


Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, from Lat. agere, actum, act, action, pos-

steadied against the pit of the stomach. Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher, nevegher. In cases like these, which are very numerous in language, it is impossible


facie to say

whether an n has


;• ;


in the

the time when the increase of the earth is gathered in. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See Auction. To Avail. I. To be of service. Fr. force of

been added

one case or lost in the other. In the present case the form with an initial n is undoubtedly the original. AS. naf-irnr, naf-ior. Taradros [a gimlet],

auctum, increase;

Gloss. Cassel. The 7iapu gerA. the former element of the word is explained from the Finnish napa, a navel, and hence, the middle of anything, centre In comof a circle, axis of a wheel. position it signifies revolution, as from meren, the sea, meren-napa, a whirlpool from rauta, iron, napa-rauta, the iron stem on which the upper millstone rests and turns maan-napa, the axis of the With kaira, a borer, the equivaearth. lent of AS. gar, it forms napa-kaira, exactly corresponding to the common E. name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer acting by the revolution of the tool round a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel,

valoir, to be worth; Lat. valere, to be well in health, to be able, to be worth. To 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. a val, downwards ; a mont et d. val, towards the hill and towards the vale, upwards

and downwards. Hence avaler, properly to let down, to lower, now used in the
sense of swallowing.







down from higher ground

Mid. Lat. avalantia, a descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.

in the Alps. slope, declivity,

centre, axle.

The other element of the word corresponding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is identical with the E. gore, in the sense of being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an angular point of land. Aught or Ought. Something; as naught or nought, nothing, as. A-wiht, OHG. eo-wiht; modern G. ichtj from &, G. aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth, waihts, a

Avarice. avarus, covetous Lat. aveo, to desire, to rejoice. Avast. nautical expression for hold, stop, stay. Avast talking.' cease talking Old Cant, a waste, away ; bing a waste, go you hence. Rogue's Diet, in modern slang. Probably waste has here the sense of empty ; go into empty space, avoid thee. In wast, in vain. W. and the Werewolf.




left thair

awin schip standand tuaist. Squyer Meldram, 1. 773.

See Whit.

Lat. amita. OFr. ante. Icilz oncles avoit la sole ante espousde. Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. similar contraction takes place in emmet, ant. Auspice. Auspicious. Lat. auspex for avispex (as auceps, a bird-catcher, for aviceps), a diviner by the observation of (Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his divinations from the same source, the element gur is probably the equivalent of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. gaure, to observe, to stare. Austere. Lat. austerus, from Gr. av<rTripbg, harsh, severe, rough. Authentic. Gr. av9kvT7iQ, one who acts or owns in his own right (der. from

Augur. Aunt.

—Augury, —

See Auspice.


Avaunt. Begone Fr. avajit, before en avant ! forwards Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an access, passage, or entry unto a place. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of trees by which the approach to a house of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.

venire, to


Lat. verus, true Fr. avdrer, to maintain as true. Aver. beast of the plough. The Fr. avoir (from habere, to have), as well as Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat. became avera, or averia.

To Aver.


and 'UaBat, mittere), aiiBevrtKbg, venimus cum Averos nostras. Chart. Hisp. backed by sufficient authority. A. D, 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus Author. Lat. auctor {augco, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrse melioret cum sue proprio to incr^se), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit. Hoveden, maker; attctoritas, the right of the in Due. maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied

Taxati pactione quod salvis corporibus suis et averts et equis et armis cum pace- recederent. Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,



I stir




moving, self-acting

to cattle in general, as the principal possession in early times.

aiiToq, self,




myself, am stirred. Lat. autumniis. written auctumnus, as

Someif from

Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo bayle \ un home mes berbits a campester, ou





of the word is incidental exthen have averia carrucce, beasts- penses incurred by ship or cargo during of the plough ; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom menues avaries, expenses incurred on of cart-horses. Average. I.^w^ra^^ is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties, duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or Sciendum est quod unumquod- leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and tenants. que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c. Gattel. S'avaHokday et gulam Augusti.— Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become damDue. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is accommodation. From Dan. hof, court, authorized to take pledges from every are formed hovgaard,\.\it manor to which shipper for the value of lo nolit h les a tenant belongs hovarbeide or hoveri, avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh gives other instances in Spanish and duty work to which the tenant was bound hovdag, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges. Lo receptor de les haueries de les compaid in lieu of this duty work is called hoveri penge, corresponding to the aver- positions que fa la! Regia Cort, y lo re' /^««yofouroldrecords. Aver-penny,'hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la est quietuni esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,' &c.— Drets de CataaVeragio Domini Regis.' Rastal in Due. lunya,A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals of the year 141 3, quoted by Muratori, it 2. In the second place average is used in the sense of a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the seall the parties in a sea-adventure accord- honours and benefices of the city, ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerurh, et illud quod a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis Solutionibus, quae Averim To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.' Worcester. all.' among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid, sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a governlanguage to signify a meaji value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, Arab, "awar, a defect or flaw, which is avarie, It., Sp. avaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical tei'm corresponding to Fr. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, averie, G. haferey, haverey, averey, the avarie, defaut,' and adds an example of its use first question will be whether we are to look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to marchandise qui a des Now ac- defauts.' The primary meaning of the Baltic or the Mediterranean. cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is underocctir in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for acTeutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges. To Avoid. Properly to vxzk&void or the loss by throwing goods overboard. On the other hand, it is of very old stand- empi.y,to make of none effect. To avoid ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises escape from the consequences of it. To de la Baisse Court. 'Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte adroit some fact alleged by the adversary, fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then_ to make it of none effect by averies:' and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the are thrown overboard shall only be case. reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies ? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can derivation from ON. haf, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance ? Barnes inR. haven, must then be given up.

Jnes boeufs k arer la terre et Littleton.




The general meaning damage by accident or











Here the word may be interpreted

^until he shall be acknowledged as our 1315. Recognoscendo SEu profitendo ab iUis burgess. ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu ah ifsis 'eadem advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus Concil. Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advouer. personis laicis tanquam Lugdun. A. D. 1274. superioribus ea quse ab Ecclesia tenant advou' k aniesse tenere. A. D. 1315, in Due.

Can you devise to make void either way his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, showing clearly the transition to the

modern meaning.


in the following


passage from Milton Not diffident of thee do


Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid The attempt itself intended by our foe. To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, vider la maison, Piedm. voidd na cd., to clear out from a house, to make it empty, to quit, to keep away from a place. Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid the realm within 40 days of proclamation made.

Finally, with some grammatical confusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or avouch, came to be used in the sense of

—Rastal, in R.

performing the part of the vouchee or person called on to defend the right impugned. Et predict! Vice-comites advocant (maintain) prsedictum attachionamentum justum, eo quod, &c. Lib. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing already done, to maintain or justify, to

It is singular that we should thus witness the development within the E. language of a word agreeing so closely in sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, Fr. dviter ; but in cases of this kind it will, I believe, often be found that the Latin word only exhibits a previous example of the same line of development from one original root. I cannot but believe that the radical meaning of Lat. vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave an empty space between oneself and the object. Fr. viiide, vide, empty, waste, vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or troubled with. Cotgr. To shoot wide of the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark

affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. Bailey.

-T could

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight.


my will avouch it. — Macbeth. Avowtery, Avowterer. The very common change of d into v converted

Lat. adulterium into It. avolterio, avolHence avolteratore, avoltero.


avoutrador, OE.




A d was

sometimes inserted

OFr. avoultre, advoultre, avotre, OE. advoutry, adultery. Award. The primitive sense of ward is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. regarder, to look. Hence Rouchi esOHG. wit, empty witi, vacuitas. Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award), Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea- to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pots, pronounce them good and marketable goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector. Hecart. An award is accordingly in the first measurement. To Avow. Avouoli. Under the place the taking a matter into considerafeudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the conright. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment. called advocare, Fr. voucher A garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb to look to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of conthe calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination, the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When WiUiam Rufus involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert, implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avoiier, King of France to submit the matter to to avow, came to signify the admission his award.. He says (in Peter Langtoft, by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):




Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo alio advocabat. Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui nos et successores nostros Comites FlandriEe qui pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo-


Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued The londes that we have nomen to whom they shall be leued, And at your jugement I will stand and do With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
tuo. Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons.'therpers. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.


nee alium dominum secularem poterunt advocare. Charta A. D. 1250. Donee advocatus fuerit ut burgensis noster.— Stat. Louis le Hutin.






—where looking
fied in

used exactly in the sense of the modern award.

These senses of look are well exemplia passage from R. G. p. 567. To chese six wise men hii lokede there
Three bishops and
there were

counte by cyfers of agrym : je enchiffre. I shall reken it syxe tymes by aulgorisme, or you can cast it ones by counters. Palsgr.

barons the wisest that

And Tho

bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate took, Sir Heniy of Almaine right and law to look

tho king someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai, Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto,
Erles and Barons



and Knightes also, were at Northampton to hear and at

Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdresmt, the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the translation of whose work was the means of introducing the decimal notation into Europe in the 12th century. Awhape. To dismay properly, to take away the breath with astonishment, to stand in breathless astonishment. Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape. Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape. Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.


stonde the loking of these twelve of the state of the londe.

to the twelve.

award or determination of these

W, cjiwaff, a gust ; Lith. kmapas, breath ; Goth, afhvapjan, on. kejia, to choke, to suffocate ; Goth, afhvaptian, ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. quaf, choking, oppressive.

There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the ban of Keningworth, that was



That there ne should of high men desherited be wards. none They with awkward judgment put the That had iholde age the King but the Erl of
Leicetre one that all the othere had agen all hor lond. Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King in his hand It hulde to an term that there iloked was, Five year some and some four, ever up his trespas.

Awk. Awkward. Perverted, perverse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To ring the bells awk is to ring them backchief point of godliness in outward things, as in the choice of meats, and neglect those things that be of the soul. Udal in R.



That which we in Greek call dpLcrrspov, that to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in

Latin sinistrum.


Pliny in R.

Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes. Lib. Albus. I. 119. Si iut .agardi qs Willame, &c.

The word seems formed from ON.
Lat. ai, E. of,

Conseillez mei,

Qu' en

serreit al

si esgardez regne honorable. Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135.

signifying deviation, error, the final k being an adjectival termination. Thus, ON. af-gata, iter devium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, a side way ; ofugr, inversus, sinister ;

Awe. Fear, dread, reverence then transferred to the cause of fear, assuming the signification of anger, discipline, chastisement. But her fiers servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly aw And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame So rudely handled by her foe he saw, With gaping jaws fiill gredy at him came.
AS. ege, oga, egisa, Goth, agis, fear, dread, ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten,



with eyes on the

ON. agi, discipline,

tegir, terrible
; ;

be an object of wonder or fear iner (Bgir, I am amazed, I am terrified ogn, terror Sw. dial, aga, fear agasam) frightful, awsome Dan. ave, chastisecEgia, to
; ; ;

side ; bfug-nefni, a name given from antiphrasis ; ofug-ord, verbum obliquum, impertinens, offensum ; ofga, to change, degenerate. Sw. a/wig, inside out, averse, disinclined, awkward, unskilful ; afwighand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, crooked, preposterous, perverse. G. ab in composition indicates the contrary or negation ; abgrund, abyss, bottomless pit ; abgott, false god ; abhold, unkind ; ablernen, to unlearn ; aberglaube, false belief; aber-papst, aberkonig, false pope, false king. In aben,

ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe of one ; at holde i strseng ave, to keep a strict hand over. Gr. ay?;, wonder, ayaoftai, aydiofiai, to wonder at, to be angry.

Schmeller. In Flemish we inside out. of see the passage towards the « or awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo



Decimal arithmetic. Then satte summe
siphre doth in awgrym, That notith a place

absonus ; aue gaen, aue hanghen, &c. ; auer gheloove, perverted belief, superstiauer-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw. tion afwig-hand), manu aversS,, praeposteri

aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto, praeposterus, sinister ; auwiis, auer-wiis,

different G.

And no

thing availith.

p. 414.


Poems, Cam. Soc.



forms are very numerOHG. abuh, a(5a^,aversus,perversus,
3 *





primitive image seems to consist ttbechig, awech, awecki {atUs thilt er in the notion of continuance, duration, awechi, he does everything awkly), qffig, expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Aivs, us-aivjan, to outtime, age, the world affik, aft, aftik, and again csbsch, dpisch, epsch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; dii aiva in aivin, for ever ; ni in Lat. CEVmn^ cz-tas aiva, niaiv, never. obliquus Netherlandish, aves, aefs, OHG. aafsch, aefsch, aafschelyk, aversus, pre- Gr. aid, ati, always ; 6.ii>v, an age. lo,ioj G.je, ever, always; AS. dva, aj posterus, contrarius. Kil.
; ;



ON. air J

G. ahle,

OHG. alansa,

OS wed.

CB, all,


alasna, Du.

else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina.

scale or husk of anything, the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaiff, straw, mote ; Dan. avmj Gr. axva,



Esthon. aggan,



Awning. Awning (sea term), a sail tarpawUn hung over any part of a ship.

Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the PI. D. havenung, from haven, a place where one is sheltered from wind and rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building or bush. But it should be observed that havenung is not used in the sense of awning, and it is rnore probable that it is identical with Pr". auveitt. Mid. Lat. awvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a shop-window, &c. Cot.

the notion of continuance, endurance, to that of asseveration, may be exemplified by the use of the G. je, ja; je und je, for ever and ever vonje her, from all tinie ; wer hat es je gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das istje wahr, that is certainly true ; es ist je nicht recht, it is certainly not right ; es kann ja einen irren, every one may

The passage from

be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by no means do it. In the same way the Italian gia; non gia, certainly not. From this use of the word to imply the unbroken and universal application of a proposition, it became adopted to stand
itself as an affirmative answer, equivalent to, certainly, even so, just so. In hke manner the Lat. etia7n had the force of certainly, yes indeed, yes. In Frisian, as in English, are two forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the original root aiv, and ea, corresponding to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we have the remains of an affix, se or si, which in AS. was also added to the negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese,


Axe. AS. acase, eax, Goth, aquizi, MHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, ON. oxi,

Gr. a%ivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. Axiom. Gr. diiwijia, a proposition,, maxim, from d^iow, to consider worthy, to postulate. Axle. Lat. axis, Gr. a^Mi-, the centre on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. ayw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. Aye is used in two senses yes. 1. Ever, always, as in the expression Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo^ Sp. for ever and aye Port. azul. and From Pers. lazur, whence 2. As an affirmative particle, synonlapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients, ymous with_j'^a and yes. Diez.


To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, bebelen, confundere verba, blaterare, garrire; Gr. ^a/Safew.— Kil. From the syllables ba, ba, representing the movement
of the lips, with the element el or / representing continuation or action. Fris. bdbeln or bobble is when children make a noise with their lips by sounding the voice and jerking down the underlip with the finger.— Outzen. The Tower of Babel was the tower of babblement, of confused speech. On the same principle a verb of the

And sat softly adown And seid my byleve And so I bablede on my bedes, They broughte me aslepe






Mamelen See Baboon.

full long.

— P.


same meaning with
the syllable ma.


was formed on

Babe. The simplest articulations, and those which are readiest caught by the infant mouth, are the syllables formed by the vowel a with the primary consonants of the labial and dental classes, especially the former ma, ba,pa, na, da, ta. Out of these, therefore, is very generally formed the limited vocabulary required at the earliest period of infant life, com-;



prising the names for father, mother, infant, breast, food. Thus in the nurserylanguage of the Norman English papa, mamma, baba, are the father, mother, and infant respectively, the two latter of which pass into mammy and babby, baby, babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms the It. bam,bino. In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, dad, answering to the Goth, atta, as papa to Hebrew abba. Lat. is applied to the breast, the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. papilla, agrees with the name for father. Papa was in Latin the word with which infants demanded food, whence E. pap. Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, naturally uttered in the opening of the lips, are used to signify as well the motion of the lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips themselves, especially large or movable Thus we have lips, the lips of a beast. G. dial, babbeln, babbern, bappern (Sanders), biiberlen (Schmidt), to babble, talk much or imperfectly ; E. baberlipped, having large lips G. dial, bappe, Fris. bdbbe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, mouth, snout, lips Fr. baboyer, babiner, to move pr pjay with the lips, babine, the lip of a beast ; babion, baboin. It. babr buino, a baboon, an animal with large ugly lips when compared with those of a



plete when he rode at the head of his retainers assembled under his banner, which was expressed by the term ' lever bannifere.' So long as he was unable to take this step, either from insufficient age


or poverty, he would be considered only as an apprentice in chivalry, and was called a knight bachelor, just as the outer barrister was only an apprentice at the The law, whatever his age might be. baccalarii of the south of France and north They of Spain seem quite unconnected. were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, called baccalaria, were reckoned as rustici,

and were bound

to certain duty


There is no for their lord. in the passages cited of their

appearance having had


any military character whatever. One would suspect that the word might be of Basque origin. Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. paka.ld,. The part of the body opposite to the face, turned away from the face. The rqot seems preserved in Bohem. paditi, to twist; Vol. paczyd se, to wz.r^^ (of wood), wspak, wrong, to bend out of shape


inside outwards ; pakosd, malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per-




Russ. opako, naopako, wrong


man. Bachelor.

in composition, equivalerjt to Lat. So re, again ; paki-buitie, regeneration. in E. to give a thing back is to give it

Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction W. bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given, young girl, baches, a little darling, bacli- and with us too the word is frequently igyn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted, From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend \% a perverted friend, injury under the cover of bacelle, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of the right path, to fall into error ; Oisf. Esthon. bak-ractudur, ill-counselled bacelerie, youth ; bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study pahha-pool, the back side, wrong side paha, of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form- pahha, bad, ill-disposed Fin. Lap. ation bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, young bad OHG. abah, abuh, apah, apnh, averr man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister abahoh, aversari, Goth, ibuks, backwards. bachelor of arts abominari tp arms or sciences. Back, 2. second meaning of Bacji is a young man admitted to the degree of apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for The word is widely a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.


make love, to serve commence a study

apprentice ; baceller, to as apprentice, to








was used of the young student, Bret, bac, a boat Pr. bac, a flat wide young unmarried man. ferry boat Du. back, a trough, bowl, Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flatsignifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre Dan; bakke, a t^ay. Of this the It. bacino is the diminutive, whence Vos e mi'n fesetzper totz lauzar,





Vos cam senher e mi com bacalar and I made ourselves praised among all, you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. The functions of a knight we)-e coni^you

E. basin,

bason j



a bacinet,

or bason-shaped helmet. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, from back, in the sense pf a wide open





Rouchi, bac A carbon. vessel The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail.


(also bakke-bord),



From Dan. bakke and gammen, a

qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum palUis suis assuebant et affigebant in signuin Franci audientes talia votivae illius expeditionis. eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Graces suere

Crucem assnmere dicebantur



doubtless be explained the scapula. game of Back-gammon, which is conThe sign of the cross, then, was in spicuously a tray-game, a game played the first instance, assumentum,' a patch, tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boetsen, interpolare, on a word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang. botche, bodge. Kil. G. batz, It is exceedingly likely to dictionaries. batze, botzen, a dab or lump of something have come down to us from our Northern soft, a coarse patch Sanders ; Bav. their patscken, to strike with something flat, as ancestors, who devoted much of long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. To make or leave a blot at Backgam- G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. Sanders. mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stickBut the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used blot.

game, may

naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose oneself ; Sw. gora blott, at Backgammon, to make an exposed point, to make a blot. Bacon. OFr. bacon; bacquier, a styfed hog
baecke, backe, a pig baecken-vleesch, baeck-vleesch, pork, baThe term seems properly to have con. been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh cured for keeping, ' porcus saginatus, ustulatus ef salitus, at petaso aut perna.' Due. in v. Baco. The word may accordingly be derived from Bret, paska, to feed, w. pasg, feeding or fattening, •pasg-dwrcli, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. The s is lost in Fr. pacage, pasture or

by Shakespeare

in the sense of dabbled.

Their hands and faces were


badged with



Sc. form baugie, however, does not well agree with the foregoing derivation.

His schinyng scheild with his baugie luke he. D. V. 50. 13.


feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pagagium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals,
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. On the other hand, there is a suspicious resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a

Badger. This wcfrd is used in two senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought up corn in the market for the purpose of selling it in other places ; and secondly, as the name of the quadruped so called. we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer


(marchand de grain qui approvisionne marches k dos de mulets H^cart), the diminutive of which (according to the


analogy of bledier, blaier, belonging to corn, blairie, terre de blairie, com country) would be blaireau, the actual designation of the quadruped badger in the


G. base,



malus, pravus,

same language, which would thus

perversus, malignus.


Pers. bud, bad. believe, with Goth.

bauths, tasteless, insipid.

Badge. distinctive mark of office or service worn conspicuously on the dress, often the coat of arms of the principal under whom the person wearing the badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, spinther, monile quod in humeris tabellarii et


caduceatores ferunt.

— Kil.

or bagge of armys—banidium. Pr. Pm. Perhaps the earliest introduction of a badge would be the red cross sewed on their shoulders by the crusaders as a token of their calling.
But on


signify corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless to some of the habits of that animal, with which the spread of cultivation has made us little familiar. But further, there can be little doubt that E. badger, whether in the sense of a corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is directly descended from the Fr. bladier, the corrupt pronunciation of which, in analogy with soldier, solger, sodger,



For whose sweet sake wore. F, Q.

his breast a bloody cross he wore, dear resemblance of his absent Lord, that glorious badge he

be bladger J and though the omission of the / in such a case is a somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many instances may be given of synonyms differing only in the preservation (or insertion as the case may be) or omission of an /after an initial ^ or/. Thus Du.
baffeji and blaffen, to bark pflveien and plaveieu, to pave; pattijn z.nApl(!ttijn, a



skait or patten ; but^e and blutse, a bmise, boil ; E. botch, or blotch; baber-lipped, and blabber-lipped, having large ungainly lips ; fagged, tired, iromflagged, Fr. be tie



and blette, beets Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures. pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blad o'wttt Again, in the F. Q. Rouchi, basser, Fr. blasser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and foully shent. To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reft his shield, and it r'enverst render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst, OE. baffiil, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour sperst. in the former sense, is one of a series of Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach similar forms, baffle, faffle, haffle, maffle, Jamble, signifying in the first instance ifh guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, bauch tradesman, a imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman Without estate doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh or decisive effect. may c\Xs., faffle, and blate. Ramsay in Jam. to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter maffle, without goodness is good for nothing. to stammer, to mumble the term seems To bauchle, bachle, bashle, is then, to to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to impediments. Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry a bauchle, an old shoe, thick and inarticulately, to handle clumwhatever is treated with contempt or sily. Forby. Swiss baffeln, maffeln, to derision. chatter, talk idly ; Rouchi baflier, to One who is set up as the butt of a slobber, stammer, talk idly. company or a laughing-stock is said to pass from the notion of imperfect be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify. action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid with a gale from the N.W. ' i. e. strug- Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king gling ineffectually with it. Times, Feb. As a tyrand tumd bak and tuk his gait. ' To what purpose can it be to 27, i860. If this passage be compared with the juggle and baffle for a time ' to trifle. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the Barrow. affront put by Wallace on the king's seal Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies in token of his having broken his word, to cause another to act in an ineffectual manner, to foil his efforts. To baffle, to was an example of the practice which stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent Hall tells us was used in Scotland under any one from doing a thing. Hal. So the name of baffulling, the guttural ch as being represented in English by an to habble, to stammer, to speak conThe G. has bafel, in many other cases. fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce bofel, pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, to a state of perplexity. To be hobbled, to Kilttn. ; spoiled goods, refuse, trash be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any verbafeln, to make a bafel of, to bauchle.

openly perjured, and then they malce of him an image painted reversed with the heels upward, with his name, wondering, crying and blowing out of [on ?] him with horns in the most despiteful manner they can. In token that he is












undertaking. Jam. Sup. 2. OE. bafful, Fr. bafouer, to hoodwink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle basely in terms, give reproachful words Cot. The Fr. verb may be actuunto. ally borrowed from the E. bafful, which seems to have been applied to a definite mode of disgracing a man, indicated by HaE as in use among the Scots.

— Sanders.
; ;

Bag. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister, Goth, bdlgs, a skin, a leather bellows case G. balg, the skin of an animal stripped off whole Brescian baga, entire skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; the belly. See Belly, Bulge.

And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to say to his master, that if he for his part kept not his appointment, then he was content that the Scots should bafful him, which is a great reproach among the Scots, and is used when a

by Diez from knot, rope by which the load is fastened on a beast of burden. From baga was formed OFr. baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose,


— —



half was called a bailiff", bajulius or balr livus, from the regent of the empire (as we find in the case of Henry of Flanders : Principes, barones et milites exercitus me imperii Ballivum elegerunt ') to the humble bailiff in husbandry who has the care of a farm, or the officer who executes the writs of a sheriff. Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense The bails were the adof post or bar. vanced posts set up outside the solid deFr. bailie, barrier, fences of a town. advanced gate of a city, palisade, barriIt is probabjy the Roquefort. cade. same wprd as pajing or pale. Fr. balises, finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to mark the passage. Balle, barrifere Hdcart. Bale, poste, retrachement ; revenir d ses bales, to return to one's post, at the game of puss in the comer, or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket, properly the wickets themselves, but now the cross sticks at the top.

lis firent trousser et baguer on, to bind. leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaulx et mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.' ' Apr^s ce qu'ils eurent bague leurs bagues.' Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. 'Pour veoir amener le Bdarnois prisonnier en triomphe, lid et bagti^.' Satire Menippde in Jaubert. From baguer was formed bagage, the carriage of an army, as it was called, the collective goods carried with an army, or the beasts which carry them. The resemblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is merely accidental, and as baggage is manifestly taken from the French it cannot be explained as signifying the collection of bags belonging to an army. Bail. Bailiff. The Lat. bajulus, a bearer, was applied in later times to a nurse, viz. as can-ying the child about. Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bdlia. Next it was applied to the tutor or governor of the children, probably in the first instance to the foster-father.



vel nutritores quia consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominonim. ^Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange.
Alii bajuli,



Commonly explained' as the district belonging to a bailiff, Fr. bailli. But the When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G. Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichbild, Pl.D. wikbild, wikbolt, wicbecame a man of great consequence, and bilethe, the district over which the munithe fiiyoe /SaiowXos was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended, or the municipal law itself. officers of state at Constantinople. The word The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compoundefi in opposite husband became the Bajulus. uxoris, order. The element wick is generally and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth, veihs, AS. wic, Lat. any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bild Pl.D. tvikmann, a person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.- Brem. giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb._ Bait. being supposed to have the custody of The senses may all be exhim whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting, on. formed It. bailo, balivo {bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw. bet, bete, AS. bat (Ettmiiller), a bail, bailli, E. bail, bailiff. The bail are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. beita, AS, of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a produce him when required. mouthful. ON. bita, to bite, is specially applied to Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis. Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi I'a repue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.

an executive


limits withii) which has jurisdiction,

due son baron comma bail Flandr. Et mjtto ilium (filium) terram et meum lionorem et raeos viros quEe Deus inihi dedit in bajulia de Deo et de suis Sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayoliam Dei et de SanctS, IVIaria, &c. Testament. Regis Arragon. A. D. logg, in Due.


— Chron.

et le

omnem raeam


lare, in the

hand over, is from bajusense of making one a bail paitre, to feed, to bait. or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitzen, to hunt giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound intrusted to execute not on his own be- to bite the prey. on. beita einn hundum,
Fr. bailler, to

ON. beita, Sw. In English the word is not confined to the food of cattle. Bait-poke, a bag to cany provisions in bait, fopd, pasture.— Hal. Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed the horses, in accordance with Fr, rebet, bete,

pasture, herbage

beta, to drive to pasture.



to cause one to be worried by dogs, to set his dogs on one. To bait a bear or a bull is to set the dogs on to bite it.



made round and smooth like a The root, however, is too widely

The ON.

oxen to a must probably be explained from as. bcete, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as the type of harness in general. Ongan tha his esolas batan : he then began to sa4dle his asses. Caedm. p. 173. 25. Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. Formerly 6ay£s. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. ' Les bayes seront composdes de bonne laine, non de flocon, laneton . ou autres mauvaises ordures.' Reglement de la draperie in Hdcart. According to this author it took its name from its yellow colour, given by graines d' Avignon ; from baie, berry. To Bake. To dress or cook by dry heat ; to cook in an oven, Bohem. pek, heat ; feku, p^cy, to bake, roast, &c. pekar, a baker Pol. piec, a stove ; piei, to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekarz, a baker. ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade sier vid elld, the King warmed himself at the fire. Heimskr. E. dial, to beak, beke, to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker-

to harness sledge, or horses to a carriage,



spread for such an explanation. Finn. Esthon.^a/>aj, naked, bare, bald Lap. puoljas, bare of trees Dan. baldet, un;


Besides signifying void of hair, bald is used in the sense of having a white mark on the face, as in the case of the common sign of the bald-faced stag, to be compared with Fr. cheval belle/ace, a horse marked with white on its face. Baldfaced, white-faced,



Hal, The bald-coot conspicuous by an excrescence of white

skin above



real identity of the

word bald






the two senses is witnessed by a wide range of analogy, Pol. Bohem. lysy, bald, marked with a white streak Pol. lysina, Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a white njark on the face. Du. blesse, a blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead, bles, bald. Kil. Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. /3aXiof, {pdKiSf, bald-faced, having a white streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or mark Bret, bal, a white mark on an animal's face, or the animal itself, whence the common name Ball for a cart-horse in England. The connection seems to lie in the shining look of the bald skin.


en, P1,D. bdckern, to warm oneself. G. bdhen, to heat ; semmeln bdhen, to toast bread ; kranke glieder bdhen, to foment a limb. Holz bdhen, to beath wood, to heat wood for the purpose of making it set in a certain form. Gr. ;3w, calefacere. See Bath. The Lat. baja, warm baths. root is common to the Finnish class of languages. Lap, pak, paka, heat ; paket, to melt with heat pakestet, to be hot, to

His head was hallid and shone as any


Lith. ballas, white balti, to become white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin, pallaa, to burn palo, burning. ON.
; ;


bask; paketet, to heat, make hot. Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar baldof a balance bilanx, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare ; scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. Prov, balans, balanza, Fr. balance. The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N. the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind be from a false reference to the OFr, in a somewhat higher key. E. dial, to to baler, baloier, Venet. balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant and down, to see-saw. Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- voice. Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish bialdre, to tattle. The jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense bulk or stall of a shop palco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continupalcora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da, 6\2l.dask,

a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile. Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk to balder, to use coarse language. Halliwell. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,






palcare, to plank, stage, The radical idea seems to be what is supported on balks or beams. Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, whence Richardson explains it as if it








dov-dask, chatter




deave one. Bav. datsch, noise of a blow with the open hand ddtschen, to clap, smack, tattle Gael, ballart, noisy boasting, clamour ; ballartaich, balardaich, a

G. Rouchi ban. uveirs bolk. Baulke of land. ballan. bielke. a ball balla. balken. from bacquet. to rock. Fr. ne leaving any balke. a globe. Ball. tum. may exhibit the original development of the signification. sick. pilula. to dance. to dance. boll. Boll. blister. to pack Da. balloon.). a pail. It. chapurrar. a washing-tub. a clump . Ne so well can no man afile His tonge. balle. Q. Hence. The same termination in lilie manner expresses continuance of noise in plabartaich. bacgtteter. on. ballar). bbllr bulla J. Goth. baalie. floor. ballone. palcare. Perhaps on. pallo. to wave. goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. N. to ache.' speak gibberish champurrar. bol. on. F. Grief. the breadth from side to side . or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. to ail. to paddle in water . a together in the form of a ball. bdlkr. balge.Lat. Sw. a pestilence. . whether of wood or stone. bolawy. hue et illuc inclinare. Fr. Hence Dan. as we say. to be balker. Sw. Pol. bol. lealo. to roll. boleii. a ballot). a wooden partition . From the same root to empty out water with a bowl or pail. a bubble. to on Holmedon's plain. pallo. Gael. taich. ill. dial. ball. To Bale out water. package of goods. grieve . ballare. E. Fin. similar connection is seen in Sp. a water-skin dim. beaten road. probably Lat. the object of his expectation.of men . ball. to plough for a boundary between lands. a continued noise of waves gently beating . a great ball. a scene acted in dancmg. 3. balka bunge. being the earliest vessel for holding testicle . pallikka. ballo. Ugutio in Due. which seem equally related to the foregoing and to the series indicated under in the same sense. malefacGower in R. AS. Venet. balare. a ball. globule. palloilla. bal. baler. a partition. OHG. Da. other while. to signify washy drink. a skin. For so well no man halt Ihe plough That it ne balketh. balka. are applied to a From the same analogy. maan pallikka. Fr. bjdlki. Bohem. with the perhaps from balg. 2. G. Du. balk. Ballata. a dance. balkr. pallukka. pain. baalien. The primary sense seems as in G. balva-vesei. In like manner Fr. to bale out. bolker. wickedness ness . dial. ballare. Du. separaison. bollr. or figuratively in any other proceedconnected medley of languages. . plague. sorrow. pain The mad steel about doth fiercely fly bole/!. a beam. It. bal-daed. Sp. bola. a balk of foul weather. torment. vacillare. to grieve . to be ill. w. a division of the old laws.— Ballet. Sw. OSw. It. ball. unintelligible talk claparIn the sense of a separation G. on the shore. balka hopar. e. to shake or jog. also a song sung in dancing (perhaps in the interval of dancing). wickedtorment ON.ing. a cross beam dividing the stalls in a cow-house. balderdash is used of land which is either casually overA slipped and not turned up in plowing. Bale. which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. Sw. destruction. dial. trouble. ballotta. a. on. to cause another to miss pustule. heap up. ban. balk. ing.— 42 BALE to BALL heap . a ball. dial. . ' is a piece or confused talking. cka. balla (with the augm. ball. to move. to speak an un. to plank. sickness. . stage or scaffold. * Balk. to mix Hence to balk is to pass over in ploughone liquid with another. misery Du. (Hesych. balk. shouting. Ball. balja. maleficium. a clapping or flapping of wings. Sw. a But making way for death at large to walke. hooting. . i. weak liquor. roof. to by beams. to omit a a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. I. Sw. bala. a ball. a boil.or industriously left untouched by the puzar. afbalka. to stir. Bret. ache. Da. Sw. the beam of a ship. that som time in jape Him may some light word overscape. . and the dim. to partition off . to avoid it. balken. says Ray. Ballot. a dance. — A — — . OFr.—Ballad. to see-saw. balk. . In modern speech to balk is used in a factitive sense. Russ. ballare. It. a beam. To baulke the Sir H. to Not sparing wight. at giore en balk. a ball. Dan. bold. mass. We have then separate dial. Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) ne rosiau Qui au vent se tourne et baloie. Balloon. bal. a ballad. ballet. a ball or pack. pila. a pill. Gr. A balk. and evil in general. calamity. ON. balle. Sw. vcdra bdlkr. a clod of earth water.Fr. balle. Bowl. balveins. Wotton. Mid. from the more general notion of moving up and down. bal. a separate portion. as in a barn or cow-house. palla. It. See Gall. the ballet of the theatres. gen. baloier. balle. bolyatchka. Twenty thousand men Balked in their blood loud noise. bolyaf. TtaKKa a pail or tub . bealwes.

by met. barandado. balsamum. enchanter. To Bamboozle. baranda. barauste. Ballast. bambocciolo. To deceive. a useless load. for want of other freight. ^Arbuthnot in R. for a load or goods (Roquef. ^a\Ba\iov. ballustre) is a corruption. Lat. a young babe. it is forced to take in stones or sand. A — — . command. ranked on the outside of cloisters. lestage. lastagium signified not only ballast. lastre. an Old dotard or imbambolare. as he says. Sp. company is to provide the excellent ore of the southern counties as a return cargo for the colliers of the North. To Ban. and therefore that backloading is not an appropriate designation for the heavy material which is employed to steady sea- Mr Marsh Sp. Sept. the backload. curse. small railing. It is BAN as well as to ballast it. tester is to load a ship given rise to bamboozle. age. But Fr. baUa. R. balconies. the act of walking. Bret. bambolo. explains ballast. 1854. while it would be an easy transition from baglast through ballast to barlast. baltresac. from bara or vara. baume.). in the first place. The whole amount carried by the canal lines in 1854 was less than 25. and Mid. But because baglast is not found in the written documents. i860. Dan. a small balustrade. bam. as two of the entrances are still called the Great and Little Belt. a nettle. a duty on goods last. It.. ballisters (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard to a staircase. if it fails to obtain a return cargo. &c. When a ship discharges. bag-las. lest. Mr Marsh whether the a load. that homeward-bound ships do not in general sail without cargo or in ballast. bertesca. Bret. bamein. 1. but loadage. galleries. bamboccio. In OSw. Balsam. forbid.000 tons. The Baltic sea. the ballast is put in the hinder part of the ship. railing around altars. it by no means follows that it was not always locally current. or movement of one who walks. Cotgr. baU. To proclaim. of balusters. more serious objection is . Venet. a false tale or jeer. deceiver. The authorities are not agreed as to the grounds on which the name is given. It. astonished.BALLAST probably an old Celtic word. Report Pennsylv. Bamour. But the hold is never called the sold in the markets. The primitive meaning of the word seems to have been to summons to the In the commencement of the army. to walk. fonts. dial. sorcerer. comparatively worthless load one brings back from a place with an empty waggon. the flower of the pomegranate. There are a set of fellows they -call banterers and bamboozlers that play such tricks. . from Lat. last. and hence the name has been extended to the addition of heavy materials placed at the bottom of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. terraces. to enchant. The Sp. bumbazed. is in Sweden and Norway. called Bait. endormir par des contes. bag-lest. By this means the colliers wiU ensure an additional profit by carrying a ballast for which they will receive Some freightMining Journal. Gr.Lat. &c. back of the ship. To make fun of a person. — — oltriga. Baltic. seems the original form of the word. a fragrant gum. to preserve equilibrium. series But how appropriate the designation would really be. more frequently than outward-bound. the calyx of which has a double curvature similar to that in which balusters are commonly made. Said to be from balaustia. Lest. blandishments to enveagle and And it is certain that barlast Fl. make fun of a person. lastra. urtica. ballustres. also with flatteries and .that the going vessels. Teutonic was used definite weight of The first syllable of this word has given a great deal of trouble. To Bam. paid for the right of carriage. to blear or babish gull dim one's sight. Balm. Balluster. because. Fr. ever used in the same sense it might have — make a could never have passed into baglast by mere corruption. This is the backload. objects to the foregoing derivation. a battlement . If bambocciolare were child of one. puzzled. of which balaustre (and thence the Fr. denounce. a rod. balustrade barandilla. ballast. It is explained back by Adelung. 43 — Cot. mare Balticun. analogous to what is seen in It.' And Kil. . Fr. little round and short pillars. may be judged by the following illustration The object of the from practical life. even calls in question last syllable is the Du. and this was or chiefly carried as lack-loading. Du. ' — A word as it in earlier still Danish is always barlast. Sc. But such rows of small pillars were doubtless in use before that particular form was given to them. deceive. or ballast of a ship. inutile onus. like Fr. inutilis sarcina. A more likely origin is to be found in Dan.

sostener Torriano. bann. faction. band. Sp. margin. Bandus. OE. tener da alcuno. Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regis sive in hoste (to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem hannitus fuerit. he bannede his ferde. bound. Fr.—John Villani in Due. passing on from proclamation to command. summoning to serve So in Swiss. There is some doubt how Fr. 15. The term was then applied to summoning on any other public occasion. he assembled his host. banda. to ban. Bandear. Sp. to reprove. in Fr. curse. R. Assises de Jerusalem. But if this were was applied to the public denunciation the true ijerivation it would be a singular by ecclesiastical authority . bande. to . region. D. — To partito d'alcuno. Great loos hath Largesse and great prise. bundun. Sw. a coast. E. Never maiden of high birth had such power or freedom of loving as I have. theodscipe ut abannan. in hostem convocare. border. To Bandy. a company. those who side together (bande. to bring corn to be fahne. to take one to task. Capitul. 813. to form parties. G. bannum or bandum. Spebifid. bandon was used in the same sense. bannire in exercitum.. askyt of the Kyng Til have the vaward of his batayl. That he and Ijis suld have always Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. It. banns pany of footmen serve. to excommunicate {lysa. fahne. Car. Goth. For both the wise folk and unwise Were wholly to her bandon brought. side. tunc (in the gth century) nuncupabatur legio a bando. then the signification w. 26. — excommunication bann-lysa. eiiseigne. side. It. the standard or banner which forms the rallying point of a company of soldiers. real course of development I believe be as seen in Sp. It has plausibly been deduced from Mid. to bandy being explained in the other part of the dictionary. flag.the colours under which a band or com-i tant in Sp. bandon somewhat party. 19. Ripuar. bindan. The to . parti. 1. ensign The raising of the King's (see Banner). bande. authority.Lat. A. bande. to ctide. See Abandon. Se il — Romance languages. bandi. Band. R- He Translated by Chaucer. etc. acquired the sense of proclamation. banda the colour or material. populum. is That with which anything AS. cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding or swathing hence a stripe or streak of different In It. a number of persons associated for some common purpose. In the next place Band is applied to a troop of soldiers. Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle. the ensign or banner. Thus the word is also used in both senses. and in E. to side or to bandy (Florio). In a special sense the term company itself. to follow a faction. power. .^ bandy. says Muratori. and cannot be explained simply as a body of persons bound together for a certain end. bando. Diss. term is applied to the strip of anything lying on the edge or shore. biddal. to unite with a band. feudal times all male inhabitants were in general required to give personal attendance when the king planted his banner in the field. ba?idare. From the verb to banda. In Fr. Mag. Goth. to publish) banna. and It. Si quis cum armis hannitus fuerit et non venerit. —R. and sent round a notice that his subjects were summoned to join him against the enemy. were brought under her power or Now was this calling out of the public force called bannire in hostem. from at the Lord's courts. and thence to any proclamation. Les saiges avait et les fols d. Unnumbered as the sands Of Barca or Gyrene's torrid soil. at his own discretion. bannire exercitum. banner marked the place of assembly. however to have been developed in the — — — avenist que le Roy chevauchat a osi iani centre las ennemis de la Croix.e. — il Oncques Pucelle de paraige N'eut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai. Fr. Cot. Wyntoun. The expression seems to arise from baim in the sense of standard. 2. i. &c. we constantly find the expression.is further developed. v. Fece bandire hoste generale per tutto '1 regno. It seems this signification has arisen. ex. bandera ground at his mill. In like manner we find bannire adplacita. Leg. Exercitum in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundise hannire praecepit Fredegarius. also the band or of marriage. and the primitive meaning of bannh-e was to call the people to the bann or standard. banir I'oustj In Layamon AS.— 44 BAND Car j'ai de men p&re congi^ De faire ami et d'etre aim&. — R. permission. banda. . band. It. change to the feminine gender in banda. admolendinum. Commun^ment son bandon. whether by way of injunction or for- command. Baud. 'A son bandon. hoc est vexillo. &c. ligue Taboada).

the slope of a hill. bannire. among rotta. bana. and the simple bannir was used in the same sense. It is in this sense nounce. follow a party. The back is a natural type of an elevation or raised obTllus Lat. destruction . bana. to work in wood. band-dog. It. shoal. dorsum was applied to ject. from banc. Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. banish. bow. each of which tries to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks in opposite directions. the same verb the It. so much associated with the notion of a band of robbers. and OFr. bandire. to bend a. a blow. tumult bangas. Bank applied to the place of The business of a dealer in money.HG. &c. banca his creditors. The zodiac is the line Which in an eyebright : the shooting stars. bankruptcy. Dan. retorting in language like players sending the ball from side to side at bandy or tennis. pastoralis. When a man fails Lat. AS. Banditti. Hard crabtree and old iron rang. Lingua. It. stir. ON. a sand-bank. she wot it well certain By certain tokens that I can here tell. for leagues within the state are ever pernicious to monarchy. ON.z. to drive the ball from side Hence the expression to side at tennis. de sable. when he wishes to represent letting off a gun. bander. Milton in R. a wound OHG. banco. language of W.: . Bank. Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. Fl. outlam came to signify a robber. bandear. in R. and bakki. a bank. &c. s'associer. ruptus. beat. Bang. as of an explosion or a blow. banc G.^ knock. panca. put under the ban of the law. Your stool. . death-wound. A Shipman's Tale. bent as a bow. a long raised seat. rap hatike et som The Susu. that the word is used by Romeo. banditti acquired the like signification. to join in league with others against Cotgn. See Band. Benchi. AS. a counter. —^Vocab. come to us from from — The latter form has evening seem to fall. the Prince expressly hath Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. From a desk . Roquefort. a de Vaud. whence the mod. Banditti Levied to side with wfirring winds. clouds. See Banish. Hudibras. Bandy legs are crooked legs. Forbannitus is used in the Leg. for shame. Bankrupt. death-blow . 2. From Mid. banca fallita. Brewer. The ing. The child cries bang! fire. The ridge of a hill is AS. bang. . participle bandito signifies one denounced or proclaimed. — . Diez. death-sickness. to meet his engagements his business is broken up and his goods distributed . — Kil. Goth. to proclaim. beating. Fr. beat down their weapons Gentlemen. bana-sdr. to cabal. se reunir. eminence. bank of Dan. Bantze. It. of bandying words. at canis peciiarius. Du. bane. seat . the back. — Fr. Mercutio. back of a knife. Banner. But natheless wife at I bank. bank of a river. compound for-bannir (pannire foras). a bench. that we are inclined to understand it as signifying persons From — banded together. Bane. — — whence E. a bankrupt merchant. to beat. home — Bandog. hammering. Tibalt. many a bang. Banister. took unto our dame the same gold again Upon your bench. — Paulus drive in a nail. and poise Their lighter wings. in the sense of place of business. . to publicly order one out of the realm. Diaconus in Due. The name of bandy is given in English to a game in which the players are divided into two sides. bench. Bacon in R. a sand-bank dorsum jugi. To Bandy. Mid. to knock. With many a stiff thwack. bance. in the sense of a pirate. the former Fr. 45 — — Bandit. The word is in E. canis vinculis assuetus. murderer. . Draw. large dog kept for a guatd. banja. bakke. banke. bank of river. forbear this outrage. to hammer in a nail. was formed the OFr. broken. a rising bank. bench. bander. se joindre. a bench. de- party. The word Ban or Band was used by the Lombards in the sense of banner. standard. to make a stir banke. bank. to knock. in the same way that E. has bang-bang. g. to — or counter the signification was extended to a merchant's counting-house or place of business. benk. Fr. a table. ON. Benvoglio. hricg. and hence. prince had forbidden faction fightSp. counter. Sw. To bang the door is to shut it with a loud noise. Ripuar. to foment factions. and therefore tied up. Bandy. distinguishes bekkr. A syllable used to represent a loud dull sound. b'ang. Kings had need beware Aow they side themselveSt and make themselves as of a faction or BANNER To Banish. bandi. eminence. desk. disturbance banga. E. bana-sott. N. banqueroute. a bench. bander tin arc. See Balluster. bank. Lat. a i. banka. Fr. to slay. band-hond. . bana. Africa. banc. roupt.

bar. barba. It. Duo. senh. sign. the word came to signify rude. to beckon . hindering the weapon from being drawn bandva.. E. as no correspondfirst be taken for that purpose. then branches.46 BANNERET . Fr. Td [3avSa fjula KoKoilXiva irapd 'Pai/iai'ous iriyi/a Kul ffjj- TavTa Ka\u. OHG. and he would seem to derive Goth. a young bird still in the In the same place is quoted from the Scohast on Gregory Nazianzen So on. Lat. Hence Fr. of wind. heri-pau. To mock or jeer one. manu anto make signs nuere. barrack. It. 2. ban- Baptise. barra. ^oTrriKio. Thus Ovid. or of this bantering. a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of cloth. BARBAROUS reiflingr. senhal. dim. Lat. a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice. chan. —Life eorum quilibet of Pliilip Au- Barbaras hie ego sum quia non intelligor uUi.— Swift in R. an intimation made by bending the head or hand. According to Diez the It. The term barb was also applied to It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse. bandva. such as the Roman Eagle. uncivilised. This polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the voices is represented by a repetition of bulUes in White Friars. barreau. Barb. Barbe. of ensign would be a flag or streamer. ing term appears in other languages. barrer. to wrap. and the work is done. also signified a direct opposition to the natural order of the signification. men. Fr. a the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. the bar at which a criminal enseigne. milites bannarii. The origin of the word is an imitation of the confused sound of voices quet. to having that signification. jSa'pjSapoc. period vexillarii. Celtic bar. merki. . jSdirTO).the analogous syllable viur. E. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow derived from banda.Romans attained a higher pitch of civilisation than the rest of the ancient world. — We A . would rupted from Fr. senheira. wrapped. Leduchat. meaning seems in the first instance a Bar. either in the Gr. as they call it. benda. Hence ner. Fr. from reifa. a.cruel. speaking of battle. to bend. a which the barrister addresses the court. i.aTa Kul nest. Fr. and it was accord. 3. from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move- gauderet insignibus. Bret. ingly very generally known by a name branches. privileged to raise Barbarous. brushwood. —Cot.. barre. is to virtue of the number of their retinue. out of a wound. knight Bardd. banniire. indeed. an animal a year old. banda. summit. a bantling. Barb. It may be thing. Bap. Barno means assumed that the earliest kind bare. Gr. top. rod of any rigid substance. &c. banner. hence a repast. It. a bench or table . barde. sbarra. of a sign in general. a sign. barriire. Barbar. a tree). Sw. Banneret. Fr. child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same clothes. In a similar manner are formed yearling. inur. bannereti. it is but in the same way in which the broken sound of waves. sparre. to dip. banne. a barrier or stoppage. branch. speaking a foreign Then as the Greeks and They were called in the Latin of the language. nestling. to wash. a ban. To Banter. Flesche barbeUe. or designate one whose language we do not from having distinguished themselves in understand. The original object of a standard is to serve as a mark or sign for the troop to rally round. ON. inferior to a baron. in Gr. probably corSymbol. OFr. banchetto. by a repetition of the syllable bar. sparro. ON. a beam or long pole of wood. rarii. token. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. Lat. a war-beacon or war-signal. of banco. barbed or trapped as a great horse. barbe. banneret. bandiera. says. arineXov. which is surely in barbed arrow.hinder. The spar. banda hendi. to bar or stop the way as with a bar. The barb of an arrow is the sign . then fell among the foot. Gr. a bearded or Cot. branches of a tree {gwezen. &c. Gael. iandvo. Banquet. senhal. 6 A'TTLKi'^lav (TUviilj[j. and even of calling it banter. — — A Qui vexilli tantas erant nobilitatis ut gust.8ap6^o)voe. A It. and from ensign or banner Prov. and at last retired to the pedants but if speak of the murmur of the waves. remarked. The original import of their own banner in the field. The origin is in all probability Goth. E. When wit hath any mixture of raillery. that the noise of voices Bantling. be so despicable a a crowd of people talking. signuin. and with an initial s. barrou-gwez. OHG. himself in Pontus. barbarus. G. banneret was a higher class of knights. from the same source. Fr.

loophole in a wall to shoot out at. haggle. barguigner. formerly used in the sense of tattle. It. in the sense of fight. also to wallow like a seething pot. The syllable bur seems in the same way to be taken as the representative of sound conveying no meaning.— BARBEL merit of water. Cotgr. /3£pjSepi^w. the flap of a hat. Mod. Bardeau. in Fr. borbollar. the edge of a shield hval-barct. unqualified. grumble (Lowndes. skialldar-bard. lb. — — Hence. Cotgr. albarda looks like an Arabic derivation. border of a garden bed. Arab. and in Flanders to vociferate. barefooted Sanscr. fortia —Strabo. their basses and hards of their horses green satin embroidered with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold curiously wrought. to plash or dabble. Lex. Lith. skirt. barbeau. and the word was used in OE. — — — men. baar. small pack-saddle. ' any rude gibble-gabble or barbarous speech. Pr. a shouting of facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus modulis cantitarunt. barS. barbeter. to rumble. also to bind or tie across. the name of the poets of the ancient Celts. barbacane. used 2. coping of straw or brushwood for the protection of a mud wall. bardd. Diez. bdsiis. dial. guaszare. Sp. and if the word be from a Gothic source we should refer it to ON. A shrub bearing acid Diet. waschen. Fl. are each used in the sense both of washing or splashing and The E. baares geld. and Sc. i. In like manner the syllable bar or bor is used in the formation of words intended to represent the sound made by the movement of water or the indistinct noise of talking. Port. Exposed to view. and foolishly. borboglio. skirmish. to stammer. is lb. barbes or trappings for horses of service or of show. uncovered. to barbe or trap horses. as well as the modern twaddle. bdla-khaneh. such as houses are covered Bardelle. as well as thwcEtta. a shingle or small board. the layers of whalebone that hang from the roof of a whale's mouth. tree. barda. tattle. Fr. bardes. to stammer. stutter. Fr. to talk much BARGAIN the great gods. one who dresses — Barbaryn-frute.' Cot. broad slice of bacon with which fowls are covered when they are roasted . gibberish. brabble in the making of a bargain. and flanks. barbulla. Russ. barbar. boil. barbarkama. barda. barbier. Etym. a tumultuous assembly. to make an outcry . Hall in R. Sp. barbaris. — BdpSot fiki/ UfjLurjTal Kai TrotTjxai. horse armour covering the front. /3opj3opwJu. Sp. berries. a long saddle for an ass or mule. But Sp. Etym. to It. also to the ornamental trappings of horses on occasions of state. name Fr. to grunt. to bubble or boil.) . g. a rumbling.— — Pm. — Cot. berj G. axilla. Fr.) to wrangle. Barber. upper chamber. borbulhar. to wash. And mony tymys ische thai wald And bargane at the barraiss hald. border. to boil or bubble up . ready money. barbelin. a jetty or outnook in a building. Cot. barbel. . Hindost. bdsas. Bret. coping. Lucan. speak confusedly. — . made only of coarse canvas stuffed with flocks. Barbel. the quilted with. Bard. bar. to prattle. muttering. on. back. barbugliare. The radical idea is the confused sound of wrangling. or canvas saddle wherewith colts are backed. The verb borrelen signifies in Du. jargon. or more properly (says fer. seem frequentative forms Et Bardi quidem lyrae vironim illustrium of Sw. bhasad. Bare. a pack-saddle. at the A river fish having a beard comers of the mouth. Hence it is not unlikely that the inay have been transferred by returned crusaders to the barbacan or scouthouse over a castle gate from whence arrivals might be inspected and the entrance defended. . skola. The general notion seems that of a covering or protection. to gurgle. bare baskojis. brim. quarrel . Fr. barboter. — . to bubble or spring up. Barbican. a bardelle. albarda'ah. mutter. baragouin. Festus in Diet. The Pers. It. Applied in E. guazzolare. Hatt-bard. is the name given to an open chamber over the entrance to a caravanserai. the beard. w. An outwork for the defence of a gate. borbotar. uproar. When immediately on the other part came in the fore eight knights ready armed. the nakedness of a woman. borborinha. powdered all over. Gr. to chafbargain. Mod. albardilla. and hymns Bardus Gallicd cantafor appellatur qui virorum foreium laudes canit. OFr. saddle-cloth. in poetic language Bard for poet. Barberry. which was of talking. ala. albarda.— Fl. barz. A7 to the and warlike. Port. Bargain. Barde. open. scouthouse. twcEtta. barbeum. Thus the on. to mumble or mutter words. Gr. Barder. twattle. murmur . whose office it was to sing the praises of Rich. G. bds.

skutr. We second syllable Of analogous to that of garlick. bargain. a. to scold. Sw. beorcan. baron)^ Fr. Bret. barley. baratta. Prov. barnacles. Du. baralha.. borkr. Lo bar non es creat per la femna mas la femna per lo bar6. 48 BARGE And wound thair fayis oft BARON and sla. Dan. prominent part of a thing. . chaffer.. Isidore in Rayn. representing the confused sound of people speaking a language not understood by the hearer. The origin may be throat. ON. barlys {bara. Kil. then the bows pectus navis. a beak. quant a perdu sa barja. * Barnacles. barafustar. dregs of oil. Barbour in Jam. Rayn. baaring. Tarn baronem quam feminam. Baron. a lantern. border. Antiq. a receptacle for barley or corn. skuta. wine. kani. in Nat. Bemiques. altercation. barn. giving rise to It. Hence it has acquired the character of a root signifying confusion. On the other hand. corn-shed. the or prow of a ship. barlich. to cheat. OFr. baerm. — Zeuss. charlock. barii. So ON. barley. to chop. Sp. Barca est quse cuncta navis commercia ad Naus en mar littus portat. contest. baarn. Acervus. bosom . barms. berm hoys. dispute barattare. barone. prasepe . See Barm. Port. barahunda. Spectacles. or froTii distance or simultaneous utterance. Of these meanings the second is probably the original. bern. bosom. have seen under Barbarous that the syllable bar was Tised in the construction of words expressing the confused noise of voices sounding indistinct either from the language not being understood. disorder. ber (ace. berm. contest. The outer rind of a tree any hard crust growing over anything. hladi. dispute . E. Sp. OFr. baaren. Provj bar (ace. Uzen. and 1. beornt. barmr. to all the barca. to shufSe. Nor is the root confined to the Romance tongues. conical shell fixed to the rocks within the wash of the tide. barn. name being given to spectacles. —Bark. barnis. trouble. Barn. OSw. spectacles. mhg. W. astringent. Gael. herbs. Du. So also ON. baratta. strife. bard). barajar. From Fr. baarm. entangle. and ern. varen. bread-corn. also to exchange. barn. quarrel Port. dispute. and the word. husband. barretor. confusion. and is probably a true bartig. baralhar. bamagh. the rack or manger. Leg. to skin over barkandi. bernac. ON. a place. strife. houbartij fsnile. fray. Ibid. Bailey. plants). Sigurdr let taka — — tua sliip-bata er barker ero kalladir. Bark. bcern. squabble. piippii) barkr came to be applied to the entire ship. a barn. Port. Dan. The Goth. dispute. Cornub. lap. bread. which were made to hold ori the nose by a spring. the slimy substance brewing of beer. Romance barsie. at barka. and may therefore be an Eastern word. a boat. AS. also a boat . as. a load. 2. brenig. one who stirs up strife. hlaSa. Camus. berem. we pass to the vert) barguigner. louzou. Originally man. barlys. Lith. and llysiaw. dispute . Swab. limpets. quarrel. Leg. AS. . The name of barnacles is given by Joinville to a species of torture by compression practised by the Saracens. edge. Barge. berm. ON. a lap. commonly explained from bere. beer. baron. but the woman for the man. tion of the sound. the which is equivalent of the lys in w. then honoured man. — — — In the Salic Law it signifies free born in the capitularies of Charles the Bald . bcerme. meta foeni. hemlock. to strive. adj. baniffa. — battle. strife. the G. as in the case of Lat. barizeins indicates a noun baris. the A — Ihre. — de Berri. It.^Voc^. barki. as. as baces-ern. bere.) lihtes-ern. baragouin. a stack. baimeach. ThS man was not created for the woman. barsj a boat belonging to a larger ship. barley. aheap. 2. is simply the Bret. as well as Scandinavian tongues. v. Named from the cap-like shape of the shell. Alam. As Goth. (Ihre. so much as a man can bear ox carry at once. put to confusion. am.Barum vel feminam. was barlic. limpet. barafunda. Gl. from comparison to a farrier'S barnacles. berma. struggle. bern. from an imita- Barley. limpets . also irons put on the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. . Vocab. hay-loft.' bardagi. tumult. a heap . w. Garlick. and hence probably (by a metaphor. bark . Manx bayrn. dial. a baking place or oven. These words seerti mere varieties of pronunciation of a term common Teutonic Prov. a cap . The older form in e. Ripuar. barge. . — Barnacle. But probably ^^rifr» is merely a misspell- ing. in the Brim. It. Sp. ON. to rout. to wrangle. the fore or after end of a boat . To Bark. barja. a shell of the same conical shape with barnacles. a heap. i. See formed Yeast.

—John de Garalquiceles BARTER elevaban a Levante. cise formation of the word. beorh. by early examples. noisy La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention. a. an obstruction. a bar. baracca. facture. bahre. baragan. The advocate who pleads at the Bar of a court of Justice. barre. 2. bara. barague. baronetti. a horse. tomb. perhaps through Prov. brushwood. Formed from Fr. 49- y de otros cosas que de Berberia se the other hand. then traffick4 Barrow. It. Barrister. ^Vocab. berewe. berwen. barril. fallow. Sp. nobles. In our own law it was used for married parchanus. a hiU. G. bearg . Goth. See Bar. Bohem. man. It should be observed that. This word introduced into Fr. bara. or simply bahre. whence Barrow. A mound either of stones The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and a hut made of the branches of trees. the baronets were established as a formal order in the state. change of goods seems. S. and not from Fr. bredhan. Spelman found bannereti in the MS. as if it signified an impromptu barrier composed of barrels filled with earth. barrique. a man. hut. brebut as the same class of tenants were haigne. uncultivated. fortification. It is hard to separate barricade from Fr. dispute. iver. and in several instances. 1. Bern.— Gibbon. baronuU. barrila. the two names. that baronettus is not a mere corruption of banneretus. wrangling with which the bargain is conpassage cited by Marsh from the ducted. pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. baronculi. Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miserWorhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him able hut or barrack. AS. G. the braw. Barricade. Barratry. over him. E. On chet — We — — their resemblance. The feudal tenants next Fr.root signifying confused noise. from beran. Joshua vii. shed. beorg. to * Barragan. A. — Kil. An ing. semen non accipiens landiEL. bark&n. sepulchre. a barrow. from a tree to which a man is hanged. habeant. It is shown under Bargain how Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a that barragans were of Moorish manu. Bret. vel pretiosos burellos. soldiers' barracks are mentioned. barri.' Op.aut barracanos Ratisboni fiunt. ' Ut nuUus scarlatas 1445 in SchmeUer. and Arabic barkan or barankan tumult. a castrated hog . todtenbahre. MHG. — — 15th Cent. a wooden vessel made of Baronet. which would barragdn. sterilis. OFr. as. as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in Westbarrachad. 26. a bier or implement for carrying a dead body.parchanttuech. ibid. heap. barrique. gravis et authenticus vir. but was used in the sense of a lesser Baron. a kind of coarse camlet. fear. squabble. barBombicinus. See Barter. (Schmeller). barrack. a. litter. w. baraignej Picard. branches. ^Barrator. baroncelli. a barrel. Nominale of the from braeckland. breinej Du. booth. bier. Fr. barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of rampart. also termed bannerets. Barrack. They made with stones a steep mound and thatched with straw. Antiq. to shelter. barraca. gwr. Bamnculus a baronet. BARONET barones are the nobles or vassals of the Baro. Sp. a word is always used in the plural number. strife. barile. black woollen words in all the Romance languages. Gael. in Nat. seem to be radically the same with Lat. From this root were formed is the name of a coarse. Barren. staves. vair. a hut or booth. — A . Baron andfemme. became bidre. Bargus or moreland. where baronetti is written in the printed copies. bera. but whether this be the below the degree of a baron were called bars or true derivation may be doubtful.. It.' that Barrier. as cavalcade. The Sp. Gael. a bier. rolls of Parliament. borov'. braeck. calico. man and wife. barchent. Fr. It. beorgan. Barrel. were sometimes confounded.have been named from the haggling and gant. OE. Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum juxta mare. alongside of barrow. vir. garment still used in Morocco. AS. D. bouracan. barrier. Sp. boar. whenever Barrow-hog. It was not until the time of James I. StiU he shows conclusively. Russ.. implement for carryAS. from cavallo. in the first instance. like bargain. Barter or trafficking by exlodgings were a collection of huts. especially those killed in battle. qui have not much light on the pre. mound. signifying. cover. composed of dry branches ofer. to carry. word is explained by Minshew 'a souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing made of the sail of a ship or suchlike stuff.

mavult dicere Roma suam. humilis. flat. to Diez. tierer.D. ' He was begetin o bast. bark. ^Is de bast. baste. basso. thick.' Gl. Bastard. It. a court-yard. MHG. Du. Probably from reports of the cobra capel. to cheat. besst-u-b£nd&t. low. over-reaching. to bind. him. plaiting of splinters basged. the stitches of a quilt or mattrass. curtus. ation of basso j ah aiigmentan instrument of a very bassone. a bass rope. basg. The like property hath the iasilisk. low note. scale in music. a halter. as the diadem of the basilisk. mean . With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus. G. mock not the body of your is sometimes guarded with fragments^ . MHG. and Bret. Icegge eeii i baand og bast. netting. It. fornication. beortun. of the same sense. barter. as It. barter. the — — to kill those that look upon it. by imbezzling their goods Bailey.— BASTE — so BARTIZAN Bason. See Bath. dwelling. HaU in HaUiwell. bareter. discourse Nay. Barton. besst. Sicamb. chasa ogli a bastard. basso.). from /3aR. descended of an honorable lineage. fhe outhouses and yards. Pl. To heat oneself in the sun or before a fire. beguile. he. to long — a British word by Martial. Apparently of Celtic origin. also the demesne lands of a manor. signifying Ther ther no night iaret nother strif. mock not. 516. HaUiweU. Du. . Bass. to truck. bast. peel. Sylvester's Dubartas. found in Turkish . OFr. Bot ye salle take a stalworthe basts binde my handes behind me faste. but born in baste. to bind. If he but hiss no other serpent dare This man was son to John of Gaunt. bds. fornication. oe. come near. imbastire. ' Bosworth. leviter consuere. low part of the Hickes in Rich. To Baste. AS. — Bassoon. a bastard. . Dan. ibid. basta. It is mentioned as . — Holland's Pliny Late sibi = son). To Bask. a ftiesh. bestcn. n' is n' is bacino. Barbara de pictis veni patch. cheating. lust. To stitch. bran. to bargain. Fr. fits de bas. A white spot or star it carieth on the head and settith it out like a coronet or diadem. Vulgus et in vacuSl regnat BasiUscus aren^. or wic. Newman. court-yard. the manorhousfe itself. Isidore. the thin skin Dan. to baste. fraud committed by the master of a ship with respect to the goods committed to deceit. a ipgli So Turk. which sets up its hood when angry. bass-matting. barley. partieren. It. and tun. It. Dan. bast-reb. Sed me jani bascauda Brftannis. the inner bark of the lime-tre6 beaten out and made into a material for mats and other coarse fabrics. cog. piiiguis. to cheat. bas. — They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. There is not one that. embastir. at basta og binda. truck. Basilisk. foist in bargaining. the a wide open vessel. Basket. imbastire. crassus. i. pdrdt. according from Gael. bast. to bind hand and foot. husk bast van koren. exchange. Fr. fraud. F. basta. bast. /«r<fSp. to stitch . baraand especially teria. back. beretun. to put one in fetters and it is remarkable that the same expression is . Sp. aiKcig. Bast. exchange. Sp. BassuS.looketh upon his eyes. which covers the grain Ger. a tying. w. ' Ele Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore a basses hanches et basses jambes. See Brattice. unrighteous gain. Sw. OFr. baste. lattice-work. Gr. HoUinshed. But according And Dan. The original meaning. . baste. — in Rich. baratar. Lap. bastear. submovet omne Lucan. It. but he dreth presently. stitch. to sew with long stitches for the purpose of keeping the pieces of a garment in shape while it is permanently sewn. Sp. It. to Blackstone barratry consists in the offence of stirring up quarrels and suits between parties. Fr. a king. pressed down. baxoj w. a basket masg. preparatory stitching. from bere. inclosure.' Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ibore. baratear. bdtir. God it wot. Malay anak-baudrek (child of adultery). Bassus. a deceiver. PaaiKhms. Arthur and Merlini. — hanging. more noble in blood than notable in learning. then cheating. baos. Kil. rope for — . or running away with the ship. corn-farm. to deceive. Al is dai. Fris. Halliwell. ohg. Lend me your hands. the diminutive of the word corresponding to E. commonly A joined with the word binda. hoops of a cask. binding. bestan. shallow. A fabulous serpent. Sw. said Base. Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats the owners or insurers. low. chasa. to baste piece of cloth. baraet (from Fr. would be. bassin. lift me above Parnassus. Bass. Bartizan. berewic. ing for profit. also to Cotgr. on a. bast-maatte. basgod. Swed. MS.' Papias.

a bird which. a stick. The meat fat to sense of pouring dripping over at roast or rubbing the meat with prevent its burning is derived from the notion of beating in the same way that the verb to stroke springs from the act of striking. cudgelling. but this is hardly satisfactory.-^ Chaucer. as a preparation for the final sewing of a garment. also to In English the term is confined to the Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a compose. disposer. Sw. blakka. vespertilio. to give him a sound bastingi 3. to rub. also to cudgel. bastear. Sp. stryk. To beat or bang soundly. frotter. to beat. — — Fl. packsaddle. Mid. bastonFr. comp. p. For out of toune me list to gone^ With a threde hasting my slevis. to teach one before. contriving. niammal. blatta. blakra. To donjon. to cation termed a bastion or cuUion-head. to build. raise. staff. Pr. a packsaddle. which was originThat hyt was a fende of helle. Sw.— . to devise or begin. and from this particular kind of stitching the signification would contrive. to lay the Sp. set up. bast. dial. has bastine.Lat. ag a creattire peculiarly connected with devilry and witchcraft. devise. Sp. 2. night-bat. to cudgel. It seems to me that the sense of stitching. basto. BAT neither. ON. bastimento. victuals. It. bastir. may naturally have arisen from the notion of preparing. Bastinado. Supp. beysta. vespertilio. a things prepared for future use.baste or knock soundly. from Fr. as if that were the substance originally vised in stitching. ment. blakta. Pm. seeks its insect prey on the wing in the evening. frame. which in the E. to whip.. R. boste. blatta. . to pack a saddle i. to drub. baston. the bat . I. put it together. A silver nedil forth I drowe Thus we have parer (Taboada) . to thrash . baston. pre. business (Altieri). and ditches bastion. badger.'CaB. a blockhouse. the night-jar or goat-sticker. blaka. : — •BASTINADO and the gviards are but slightly basted on Milch Ado aBoiit Nothing. guerra bastir. Fr. pad for the head But & that yche breyde to carrya weight on Fr. Florio. a favourite punishment of the Turks hand what he shall say or do. bakie-bird . agait bastiYy to lay an ambush. Sc. a pad or packsaddle. ari instruineht for beating. Derived by Diez from iasi. dial. bastione. the original has corneille. to flap. the winged . back. club. Fr.— Bailey. basta. iastir. It is true was probably changed The name seems to be taken from on. 2. 164). All from bastir. It. bak. basting or preparatory stitching of a gar. Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak . R. . whence ledrblaka. Cot. Cot. and blak It is probably from the sense of stitch. like the owl and the bat. the fortifi'baste a garment would be to set it up. Antiq. Fr. also the ricado. a blow cloth for dinner. provisions. bastille. It. bastir. translation to a bat. and Cot. term there is usually an erroneous feeling of its being a meta- with wool. quelqu'un son roulet. a bastion. to stroke. ally nothing but a quilted cushion on Manuel des Pecchds. SI — phor from the notion of basting meat. 'iJipistreUo. basa.fortress or castle furnished with towers. This word probably preserves the form from whence is derived the Fr. to quilt or stitch wool into it. bastonada. settiilg up. the quilted saddle with which colts are backed. vledermus. to build. Thus Baretti And gan this nedill threde anone. Sw. the clapper of a bell. bastonnir. explains Sp. e. aftonbakke. bastilde. Fr. — Bakke. a pad. in the Romance languages. and Arabs. stitching of a quilt or mattrass. beating. to spread bread and butter. move to and fro in the air with a light rapid motion . natt-blakka. Prov. worth (Nat.stitching in general. Sw. flyinge best. stryka. bastida. Rayn. as weU as besteau. Perhaps baska. Chaufe-soriz is — Sit^e und beste mir den ermel wider in. a with a stick. blacta. E. — — — . in the use of the E. batta lucifuga. Dieiif. a. ^iS/(whence That she furthe her synne seyde. bastia. iinbastire. compared with blakka. or implement for 4 * A . bladier. passage Imbasto. For the origin of baston see Baste. Dan. to beat. For the loss of the / in back. a barSp.stick. military term of a bat-horse). to belabour. to Due. 2. to rub gently. blows.probably signifies a bat in the following ing that must be explained the It. nade. which to rest the load. To baste one's hide . That yche blak y dar wel telle. is explained by Cot. the E. to set on foot a war Bastion. bdion. bastine. contrive. a sconce. 11864. glossed a balke (for blake ?) in BibelesMinnesinger in Schmid. set up. * Bat. bat. liiake. Seem to have passed on to embrace nattbaka. Dan. which seems to be the general sense of the verb bastire. erect.

and milk beaten up together. From OFr. and as a verb. Fr. bake. to beath wood Battledoor. a staff. to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense. Pr. beat. the reflective form of the foregoing verbs.shuttlecock is struck backwards and forbably may be explained the name of wards. to become convalescent. wet linen in washing. bet. batterie. bdda. — To . to beat. Plkkis. Sw. Mgy. dial. See Better. in the sun. I. Hal. hot. solen baddar. Batten. Bret. to fire or in the sun. The lighter sound in pat adapts the latter syllable of the to represent a gentle blow. Faine in the sonde to tathe her merrily To ilk lord and his bataille Lieth Pertelotte. from on. Ayenst the sunne. Flem. and about an inch thick. makebate. In some parts of England it is striking. gebdck. Battery. Fr. to thrive. made of — A made by one Batcii. lessen. more. battle was used beath wood. batte sig.' Palsgr. adapted for defence. PLD. better. to foment with hot applica. gabatnan. to get better. to heat. squadron. In OE. to cudgel. to warm oneself at the fire. and with staffslyng. Bat.— To Bask. baz. batna. baquetazo. made of bats. Bailey. dispute. and would thus seem to be the verb from which battery had been formed in the internal development of the English — — . a battalion. Fr. a blow with a light instrument. a stick. abattre. Batyldoure or It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle. quell. to foment. gebdcke. on. to beat. From battery was probably formed to batter under the consciousness of the root bat in the sense of blow. Barbour in Jam. battaglia. debat. Fr. as E. The origin of the word is an imitation of the sound of a blow by the syllable bat. strife. the root of e. badask. In Suffolk batlins are loppings bask warm Da. also a sun badfish. battre las ailes. Battery. 52 BATCH basa sig i BATTLEMENT solen. to which flat board with a handle for beating the that place owed its celebrity. batador. bat. Pm. representing the noise of trees made up a stick . Du. Hence pro. batten fence is a fence made by nailing rods of such a nature across uprights. to become fat. heat. bat-en. to for fighting. term in falconry . a blow. a beating. I bathe in water viz. at which sheltered tile defenders while they To Batter.Hence in the augmentative form It. Gael. by projections or in any licoure. a washing beetle. altercation. Strife. badda. bada. pak. for biia sik. to betake oneself. The bat with which a brot bdhen. howis. certain bend. Sp. Goth. a from ON. allay . battre. in steam in order to make it take a Scaffaldis. dial. also. to foment. betten. bludgeon. To thrive. in the case of a wall. In carpenter's language a scantling of wooden stuff from two to four inches broad. tradire. to warm. . The primary meaning of the word seems to be to w'arm. as signifying warm baths. ON. Pm. batacazo. to toast bread. It. busk. a stirrer-up of strife. to heat . badda. to bathe oneself. on the fire. e. bdhen. bataille. Battlement. G. sich bakern. — p Perhaps the above may be radically identical with ON. bdt. a battle. Batyn. From bat in the sense of rod . . baka. as wood-en. as E. the heat of the It. fashes basking in the sun squadron. a band of armed men arranged basa. Jurgor. Sw. dial. Battalion. solbase. flour. of bread is so much baked zX one time. a great seems related to baden as Fr. to flutter with the wings. beat down. remit. vel seminare discordias vel discordare. is a simple adoption of Fr. Fr. Baka sik vid elld. or break down. to refresh oneself in language. Eggs. batir. to beat se battre. It. to warm oneself. battions. baeddu. Holz bdhen. or make debate. to fell. G. Bate. to dial. fortress or castle. then to warm by the application of hot water. oneself at the A into faggots. To Bate. G. I baske. battere. bastille. Chaucer. Sp. signifying to give repeated blows. to beat. basa. . A batch as wood. a main battle. is in falling. quhar he suld assaill. bdda vidjor. Jeddris and covering. Florio. baden. dial. or a dry stick. 2. — — — ' — . E. To Batten. Fr. an arrangement for giving blows. buask made like a fortress. battre. battere. abate. The imitative nature of the root bat is apparent in Sp. w. to feed. from battre. whence to batter would be a regular frequentative.Bathe. to beak. a Baiffi. Pr. was formed bastilU. perhaps first used adjectivally. tagUone. Batter. Slav. and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt.— . beat. Sussex woman speaks of putting a clung bat. cudgel. to fight. Battle. A Bath. — Cot. trahtr to It. to be profited. whence the sun burns . water whether warm or cold. to bathe. the ordinary word for a stick at the present day.

sorry. an — — — A — g — — — . Hal. Si vey ung Enolos d'un hault vergier grant et I^ mur bastilU. to vociferate. bau. OFr.generally a white spot or mark in any Prov. Originally an implement consisting of lumps of lead hanging from the end of a short stick. a white mark Bawdy. bal. Fr. baudrat. Batylment of a wall. R. c. toys. to cry. dente. because made of cloth of white. fooleries or fond To Bawl. an object. bow (as in our nursery Diez. zano. ground. expressive of disgust. to talk Lacombe. balderich. Cot. equivalent to Faugh being a representation of the exspiration naturally resorted to as a defence against a bad smell. P.. spotted.guage). dirt. faisceau. icke or disdainful interjection used in the Irish language called Boagh ! which !' Holis as much in English as Twish To this linshed. or sheaf of Bridel. fields. From ! an interjection of disgust. also more Bawdekin.— P. E. to bark. baban. ON. sword-belt. Pr. is used for a sented by bau. to 53 manure the To baw. dial. baubare. rotten. — interjection used when anything filthy is shown or said. Prov. dirty. ball. is Bagdad stuff. represented by the syllable miau. pouac ! faugh upon (Altieri). dacchino. a belt. horse. to trifle away ment. baue. and to-tore also. It is all bawdy. to low or bellow as corn. Beaus^ent. filth. a tassel or hanging bunch . Swiss Rom. Bauble in the sense of a plaything or trifle seems a different word. bauU. guigaw. OFr. balGael. the famous standard The original meaning of the word of the Templars.— — ! BAUBLE Mur basshot through the indentures. Gael. for the purpose of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like. a wall with such notches and indentures or battlements. Pm. the face. on the face of animals. a spot. Jam. b \% bouala. Bawson. Cotgr. An analogous noisily. Baldrick. Pr. In like manner Grisons filthy. pegma. dung. bausan. propugnaculum. Formed from baw. excrement. whence pouacre. Piedm. babsmall toy to play withal. leads to bua (in children's lanthe time as children do . — Pm. in OE. and authorities in note. to play with dolls representation of a loud shout. disgusting. ballach. speckled. It. whimwham. s. having a white streak down Bagdad. nastiness. baffe. Bavin. as Fr. BAWSON Swiss. lewd . A name of the badger. It. bablyn or waveryn. baw. whence the E. Fl. s. Ye baw for bokes quod oon — Was broken out of Helle. to make the noise Baudrick. Lat. Ball-seirc. bouaila.' ' Pegma. cluster. — for they beth as * bokes ' tell us — Above Goddes worlces. balbob. oibo ! fie ! ! fie — bah ! pooh nonsense ' — Pm. to void the bowels. babiole. or toys. a gavel. a horse that hath a white leg or foot. an embattled wall. the Swiss baben. a horse marked with a procession. tille. baugant. javelle. or Cot. —R. because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned. a lump or cluster babhaid. from derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. bow-wow. Descript. was simply a field gold. baula. a zan. brush faggot. bauch. a beautyWhat doth cleer perle in a hawdy boote. and as a verb to move quickly up and down or backwards and forwards. Bagdad. form with an initial seen in Fr. scarf. E. librillo. It. Ye law ! quoth a brewere I woU noght be ruled By Jhesu for all your janglynge With Spiritus Justicise. trifle. the white of his leg or foot. or the animal so marked. collar. tab. a dog). Sc. to play the babby. to the same origin. Fr. Ball. also the canopy carried part of his body. a horse with white legs. vacillo. and Sp. bal. to me-wl. 8. baf must all be referred There is a choler! — ! a. Fr. 2. buah ! buh ! exclamation of astonishbolare. over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. P. exactly corresponds Fr. Baw — .' The origin of the word is tab or bob. Irel. from Baldacca. a lump. W. spot. babbole. ish baubles. trifles. Zalli. baculus cum massa plumbi in summitate penPr. a plot of Chaucer. from Fr. Filthy. bad. ! Bauble. baudrdj OHG. name of a cartHis overest slop it is not worth a mite Gael. Cot. P. ' BabuUe or bable ^librilla. bobbin or cluster of thread. also a bavin or bundle of dry an ox. a tassel. divided between black and white.— The sound of a dog barking is repreBaudrick in OE. child. E. then ornamented burlesquely and used by a Fool as his emblem of office.. — — ' Lydgate. bobine.' ' Librilla a bable dicitur instrumentum librandi or a dogge malyote. obstrepere. i. Cloth of gold. fagot. to bark . The It. instead oi s. The word may perhaps be sticks. fe bau. E. miauler. From Bret. mew. pie- . filth.

idea of an opening also gives rise to the application of the term Bay (in Architecture) to a space left in a wall for a door. corrupted into Bow-window. Sp. baiare. Gr. which however. dehiscere . It has been shown under Abie. Fr. and zndly. It. Q. 25.— Stalder. See Bald.c. baye. the laurel-bay. ist. barn of two bays. siege of Bayonne in 1665. &. 1859. BauSfi)/. Bay. Lat. a cluster of bacon. a dagger. Lat. Swab. when. Prov. A stag is said to stand at bay. to keep one waiting. ' Tal parve Anteo a me. to 'holes in a parapet to receive the mouth of a cannon. bahia. bay.' Bailey. baca. —F. to keep at a bay. white. husk. grapes or nuts. badia to Sp. the world Gr. It. From Cat. Gael. badarc. or berries. baie. With So well he wopecj her and so well he wrought her faire entreaty and swpte blandishment That at the length unto a hay he brpught her So as she to his speeches was content To lend on ear and softly to relent. Arts. and keeps them in check for a while. the term at bay has been supposed to be derived frorn tlie Fr. living thing . Such Antaeus seemed to me. like a pie. The word bay. baja. I will not keep you waiting with a long story. . bde. baionette. F. bilyejiti. Feb. Holland's Pliny in R. to be Bohem. . baher. living Ir. . From the former verb is the It. the cod of peas. Fr. to open as a blossom. from badar. Cot. as they do not obstiruct the light or air. che stava a bada di vederlo chinare. laurel of the ancients. garland of bays is commonly represented with berries between the leaves. in order to keep the enemy in check. is one of two divisions or unbroken spaces for stowing corn. Piedm. the step is the same as from It. window-sill. Fr. Gael. baer. BE Probably conRuss. by the term rendre les abpis. Sp. as may be seen from the foregoing examples. Drayton in R. stood watching him stoop. AS. Mod. It./^ bau. house . bacca. bahia. stare. the cod or husk of beans or the like. or recess in an apartment in modern times. bai. trahir. from an imitation of the sound. BAY marked with bjly. baya. bay. —Diez. royal laurel is a very tall and big tree bates or berries (baccas) which it bears are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. badarse. See Bawl. bajo. I Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella parte e comminciarono vi I'assalto ppr tenepe i netnicj a bada* who The same i. yellow . put to his last shifts. — Ne was there man so strong but he down bore Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought l/nio /lis bay and captived her thought. one on each side of the thresh- fundamental e.. life. bialo. and afford pleasant bays in which io study in quiet. a mark. to stand watching one. bate. expresr sion tenere a bada. overture.—Journal Soc. to open. baca. desiring. Non ti terro con verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. Fr. a'uno. |8i'os. to split. Said to have been invented at Bayonne. waiting . hddhe-dhonn. large window in a handsome . Catalan hadia. beo. one with and one without the addition of a final d to the root. is perhaps not directly from Lat. tradire to Fr. he turns and faces his pursuers. See At Bay. bayen-stein. Earth — By Nature made to till. at his last gasp. alive.' — — 54 bald. aux dehniers abois. To Bay. — Schmid. that by the yearly birth The large-tayed barn doth fill. baccello. buidhe. * To Be. 1. to mark. Bay. then of doing whatever is marked by involuntarily opening the mouth. as if to signify a window of curved outline. to betray. to gape. Fr. It. dividere. Abide. OSp. — A At Bay. which itself seems to be from a Celtic root. gate. A hollow in the 'line of coast. bdcr. Q. would give but a partial explanation of the expression. when the architectural meaning of the word was not generally understood. representing the sound made in opening the mouth. or opening in the wall or other paft pf a house. a berry. Serv. so called from its bearing bays. bayo. that from ba. having the primary signification of opening the mouth. bagaid. watching intently. beothach. baier. —Bay-windo'W. window . Vielp. badius. As this crisis in the chase is expressed in Fr. Sp. baga. ing-floor. Bay-tree. beonj Gael. or to have been first used at the Cot. In great public hbraries cases may be erected — abutting into the apartment from the piers of the windows. bioth. or at bay. especially beans. arose two forms of the verb. S. It. Bayonet. weary of running. and the To bark as a dog. to on anything. w. &c. Swiss beie.. batibari. . open the mouth. bijel. a hole. bilyega. berry. The laurvfs nobilis or true Bay. to amuse stare a bada. life. Fr. buidhe- The ruadh. as gazing. berries. The — Fr. a beast. &c. abbabayer. bay-window then is a window containing in itself a bay. A — he brought her to stand listening to him. to iiitent nected PoL white. or window ' (in Fortification).

As doth a dove sitting upon a bem. Bret. Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed Where many skilful leeches him abide To i. Probably an equivalent of the modern waiter. salve his hurts. It. A Esthon. G. was introduced from England sea. backe. bakke. vol. and also and originally used for the purpose of to bear children. A two-year old nephew of mine p. Beak. — : Beam. ffci. to nod . which is. baum. beacnian. g. bee. prodigy bauhnjan. Beacon. Thp helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed as. boom. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched. Lat.. an attendant. a sign. Bean. In Norfolk bank is commonly used instead of beach. AS. To Bear. becco. —F. a tree. and therefore was not likely Thence applied to the pebbles of which. We haled our bark over a bar of beach. 54. bauhan. Netherlands or North Germany. as. badmr. Farrar. as. stock. rising ground. a curtsey. perhaps from the image of a bird pecking. a single bean. coming to conspicuous object used as a signal of us. to beckon. Slavon. ON. beugler. fromthe danger. It is BEAR SI court. Fr. . signifying a point. bydel. a tree. Gael. bM.to have a French origin. bean. scended to us frort} a Celtic qrigin. He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis man sal bek and discover his lied quhen he met connected through ^ne Dane.fuis5e. a hill. post. not applied to the yelping of dogs. bagms. It. OSax. — bedeau. or breathing. Beck. fero. bdkna. the addition of a final en being the usual mark of individuality. Thus the final en. atUndre. tale of prayers or doxologies. He says. Miss Gurney in Philolog. The nutu significare. and Lat. beck. beacen. bob. bakkje. ffaen. to wait. beans. Than peine 1 me to stretchen forth my neck. or any action done with a pointed thing. Sw. Du. according to of Sanscr. and thus may explain the ferred to Fr. into France. origin of the root^z^ in \jaX. The origin seems preserved in E. good begeles following their is widely used in the most distant lan^ stil hke Commonly reguages to express the notion of blowing prey. bedm. bokan. as well as f& or fav. Be. Where it live ? where is it ^ e. And East and West upon the peple I tefke. Chapters on Lang. bairan. -phxr. Bear. support. or beic. that one's bedes or beads was to say one'^ her young. l^ax. and 4 verb with that meaning is wholly wanting in the rudest languages. Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in pebble stones. Gr. Beach. to wait-. A form that has probably dethe shore often consists. Beckon. to nod the head. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying It is singular. ON. a single bean. beic. Your hat no lib that place you put him in.ad. to bellow. ohg. fora-bauhan. It forms a. It will be observed that the word attendant has also a like origin in Fr. . — Bellenden in Jam. Gael. a prayer. like most nautical terms. Trans. the forms corresponding to the two sigprayers. figuv y ball of some ornamental material. Q wait upon him. to carry. Hackluyt in R.' Hall's Chron. the part overflowed by the tide. into a snjall river. bead. fayen^ nou or faeiinou. «va\ioQ. Gael. or the plant which bears them j faen or faven. beic. The wild beast. baun. N. bidan. Beadle. a presage.fer-re j Gr. small kind of hound Now the breath is universally taken as ' The Frenchmen the type of life. bidello. Catalan becar. faba is Kvavoq. BEACH not until a somewliat advanced stage in the process of abstraction that the idea of simple being is attained. and the syllable pu ox fu tracking by scent. be. G. — — — pueritia Becco fuerat id valet gallinacei rostrum. AS. would say. branch of a very numerous class of words clustered round a root pik. bohnej ON. Fr. fd or faVf beans. through the notion of a tree bearing fruit. a beak.' adheres to the root. bohne. faba. * Beagle. pig.from AS. to produce young. officer in attendance on the digni-' taries of a university or church. vii. bek. bearti. — to bow or nod . Bret. E. A — ' — ' Perhaps a modification of Dan. to peck as a bird tiokkufoma pead. Boom. Goth. bar. the messenger of a nifications should be sp distinct iif Latin. See To Bid. pierced for hanging on a string.' Suetonius in Diez. signifying individuality. Moreover the name. Pardoner's Tale. W. W.fui. nokkima. however. on. The term boom qf a vessel is the beam or pole by beacon is confined in E. bank. Goth. Oberdeutsch bobri (Schwenck) with G. . The immediate shore of the Menage. gebed. The negro who speaks imperfect English uses instead the more concrete notion of living. or however. a nod OHG.

to come to or upon. fit. opportune. to be incumbent upon him.AS. bebrus. fiber. to carry. nod or sign. gabaurths. border. bcek. decorous. E. BEARD BEDIZEN zxApario. tidy. Beck. suitable. is But feed his flock in fields where /a/Zi him best. to happen. that v/e often use indifferently become or Probably fromOE. to wade through the water like a beaver. a. to fall mode of being. Lat. beatanj It. W. imitative of the case happen as we would have them. befall. Thus OY. It. It. and on. to attain to the lot of any one. 'all-vel til Hofdingia expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. Boeth.fit. g. becuman. R. and also in that of birth. den. The OFr. decent. befit. badi. to bear children. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. and we shall find that these and similar notions are commonly expressed by derivatives from verbs signifying to happen. of that that belongeth to right knowSo in ON. happening as it ought. G. bava. agreeable. but now a river only. a lip. duty. G. judgment. biber. suitable. See Bat. place to lie down. I do thee pray. ziemen. dushmak. boroda. agreeable. Russ. to shore. Bedizen. to live. nothing to thy name make. See becymth anfeald yvel. biivre. to sleep on. as pat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy that of a more gentle one. handsome. ON. because made of the fur of the beaver. and when down occupied the place of a child's 2. pleasing. bestiaj Gael. a bank. bearing. Secondarily applied to a hat. ON. bedr. G. In like manner condition. fallinn. E. which. Lith. covered the face.— Kiittner.' every way suited to a prince. byw. baviire. receive. bach. gefallen. bart. Beckon. to please. bett. Lat. baurthei. brada. From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition have Goth. or a feeling to be gratified. bobr. ON. birth. it is probable that here also the to become. See Bank. Chaucer. beauts. gebank. riviera. to fall in with our bavard. OSw. tidig. when up. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves.: fall was constantly used in the sense of falling or happening rightly. slobber. Prov. Diez. Beauty. This meaning is to be explained from Beard. and to acquire. Fr. proper . bel. byrcti. from baver. brook. In darkness of unknowynge they gonge Without light of understandynge Of that ^shsX/alleth to ryghte knowynge. connected with ripa. limpian. Beaver. Fr. To load with ornament. to the brook itself. pens unmixed evU. Thset thu msege becuman to tham gesselthan Bed. babrad. bekkr. Prick of Conscience. Fr. bib or slobbering cloth. the beard. . to happen. barf. Bo. if sound of a sharp blow.getiman.S6 fero. to appertain. to happen. e. bave i. The moveable part of a helmet. Now the Beast. or special purpose. as the babble of the child. As rivus. venient. — A — A — . or river. formerly a happen. to happen. Slav. Do no To It fallith favour. See Beacon. now confined To Become. perhaps a living thing. bello. whence baveux. Cal. E. 2. Goth. Beat. to arrive at. signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. rying. brook . name applied originally to the bank then proper .to clothe to slobber. dress with unbecoming richness . living. iida. behkr. to G. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense. to fall. That thou mayest attain Goth.fair semblant where thou mayest blame. from beau. AS. godum with ON. an notion of being convenient. The fitting or suitable. Sp.we call the arrangement becoming. bobrowai. ting. bekommen. 1. battere. beo. bellus. dize or dtzen. Beck. In a second sense to become is to be ing children. rests on the supposition of a purpose living w. convenient. a brook. G. Bosworth. gelimplic. ON. On the same principle. as. comely. to happen. becuman. o. as fall itself was sometimes used in E. produce. The quadruped. to get. baba. — . from the same in the sense of bear2. R. Dan. i. bequem. Fr. pretty. bring forth. chin. to assume a certain form or Turk. obtain. to hem. to be fulfilled. G. e. to be a part of his to. Lat. limplice. a bank.' ' He became very angry. limpan. fitly . With shepherd sits not following flying fame. bur. to those goods which endure for ever. i. our taste. burdr is used in the sense of a car. timan. fitanimal.of being very angry. get J ' He got very angry. If the accidents or circumstances of the battrej from a root bat. con. while from Shep. barba. Lat. AS. blast. taste. talkative. the ece thurhwuniath. to dabble . He becom on sceathan. and Fr. bavec. bave. bard. seemly. proper. edge. to the good hapHalbard. Thcem. Perhaps from Pol. Fr. riviire. the latter are derived It.' are equivalent expressions.

For that was law of lend. Cot. Beetle. cousin. It. kiissen-biere. turn. ^. AS. Rom. which is thick and femme crespie de couleurs. as if it were derived from a simple verb to dizen. The earth was in the Middle Ages supposed bedou (in vulgar Arab. Let. blow or thrust. buk. and in Northampton called cherryall to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. Pett. also the bite or sting of a bees. beest. D. cushion-cover . from blood. bet. . an ox. But possibly bedizen 2. door. cugino. bossen. beutel. bytl. to knock. G. drink. a cup or implement for AS. GaeL bior. . beetle also signified the impiti. a drink potus. which latter would thus be brought into use by false etymology. a wooden hammer for appears in Gr. and lebermer in G. briesch-milch. * Beestings. Bed-ridden. on. Confined to bed.ON. Bethlehem. Originally. as. Bernese. Fr. The honey-producing insect. bitel. bovis. It. bletumj Gr. a wandering Prov.D. from Lat.substance as to render navigation imtiriso. Grimm. Fr. pettiriso. woman that is newly delivered. kivih. bedskiissen-bUren. The first milk after a dizen. a pad or cushion). buche. imperative pi. a horse-fly . a Properly a cover that biiren.' So Gr. desert. clog for a dog b'oteln. to fall. Fr. . comb. This was called mer b^Ue in Fr. turn (a garment). a stinging bieUe. bitela. Beef. I dysyn a dystaffe.possible. Bee. and in driving piles. pital of St Mary. Fin. It. stakes. Cot. an Beetle. batAfter mete in sale. to parget or rough-cast .'— GL ^Ifr.(paddi. bably named from the destructive quali| T. E. to colour with lime-wash. Arab. by the analogy of bedaivb. beach-each.D. extant in Bohem. calleBedlam. sang vermeilh betatz. byst. to poordma. bukva. whose face is clotty. ir'm. to turn. to drink. bedawi. G. Esthon. cow has calved. The same metaphor is seen in Fr. a paviour's beetle batail. waarin. But besides signifying the instrument An horn hue ber an hond. PI. from risan. prigione. 'ausi com ele (la mer) fust beji. from leberen. or pillow-beer plaister or bedawb with ornament padja-poor. to become Beech. a washing beetle Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. to change . boytle. a pillow-case exactly the image represented by be. cozen. a malsense of drink. drink. in Nat. madhouse. 1. a bed-tick.ing of the word is curdled.BEDLAM a distaff with flax.' the last word corresponds to cofly . The general name of in- To is — A — — — — A A 1 sects having a homy wing-cover. sela que environna la terra._t from the root pi. a clapper. may be shpped on and off. bos. may be from K. the knocker of a Bothe -wyn and ale. I put the flax upon it to spin. Lat. KXlvoTTiT^e. ' MordiThe Lat. a wasp. Horn. 1 to drink. qui de lecto surgere non potest . BEETLE Hue drone of the been To knyght and skyere. 57 — Palsgr. I A pillow-beer. beta. also bienst. The passage from a soft ^ to i' is of frequent occurrence. biiren. thick. the biter. G. ProBeer.. briest. to beat bossel. &c. to twist poorma. de Fierabras in Diez. to coagulate. Gr. red curdled Arab . cited by Diez. Fr. the ox. badigeonner. beer. speach.^ drink. curded or beesty. garden-herb. Fr. beach. to rough- cast. vaar. . mars betada. to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a bedrida. an inhabitant of the desert. as the milk of a that purpose in London. paralyticus. Beet.). prisons Venet. . case. bove. of beatmg. The beer al for te shenche bate. which also 2. the meat of spinach. from the hos. by-flugaj G. boeuf. /SXirov. piwo. a pillow case. a wasp. cogionare. taglio. bibere is a re. Hue fulde the horn of wyne And dronk to that pelryne. AS. crespir. to flatten In OE. 'La Gl. in Schmeller. poculum. pude-vaar. a pillow-case. fagus.— B. Fr. bedde-redirj ohg. a mallet. Bedouia. . used for boull. tree. ris. biest-milch. buka. Dan. betel. The meanpainting. fall. In a passage of an Old Fr. P1. a cover.jgg ^£ those with which we are most ox. beer seems to have had the sods with a beater. bette or blettej Lat. trees in a forest . AS. wedges. whence familiar. water. Gael. thick. to and ale. bbtel.— JI14. biene. Lat. beost. g. a agulatum in the original Latin. though the metaphor does not appear a striking one to our ears. E. comprehending both wine let for beating flax. close together as teeth in a venomous creature. as in It. Slav. duplicated form of the root. Bav. the loppered sea. erroneously modified in form. from jtst-. a bee. Ant. 1. 1156. to curdle or lopper. translation beOj. doubtless. Pl. i.cz//aj. knock. beyki.

Du. Deutsch. the fundamental notion of attaining to. can.bag full of the G. He did alight. In Luc vi. pose-pilte. anfangen. ip AS. to take. can. on further examination. P. and subsequently Down duschit the beist. P. and sone lap on syde force Entellus can apply exhibits the original form of the word. P. in Lat. in D. beitel. sel. su with gold. V. y/yvo/iat. ysgrepan. beriolare. a scrip. but in the same language from poc. iri all the lanr guages of the Indo-Germanic stock. to With hire belies & here bagges get children. Mod. is com. begger. begging. ykvog. to begin. P. Political Songs. a wedge for cleaving wood. a little bag). air a . a beggar. gan provyde To eschew The Flem. be observed that gel is used as an auxiliary in a manner \'ery similar to the OE.n. covered with gold D. &c. 25. cans. That maketh beggers go with bordons and — similar that yivirai.3. Florio.' about undern he got down. onginnan. a bag. P. iv. chisel. Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac and burgeises forto beren purses. vir mendi. of Gr. which he had begonne — and as men be woned he had smeten therein. Bidderes and beggeres Fseste about yede to to — — — And thus gate 1 begge the meaning may have passed through a stage to Without bagge other hotel But my wombe one. as alighting is a momentary operation. a beggar . woe-begone. Creed. V. on the bag. be^nnan. lapidicinus. 58 BEG BEGONE G. word. to cleve. in E. it is both to acquire and to beget. signifying to conceive. Beghardus. touched with emotion — . Barbour. affected. literally. To Beg. duginnan. P. P.D. It must be borne in mind that the bag was a universal characteristic of the beggar. whence the E. not began to alight. Lith. viii. Lollards. Schm. To Begin. image is cleft out of the trunk. ytyvwfT'Kw. P. steinbosil. yivofiai. 'ex quo. oppressed with woe. a bag or poke. to begaan.' to be able to talk abouten undern gan this earl alight. above quoted to get beaten ON. baigeir. It will . although it ' the future.quently used in OE. ken. In the original So had he daer twee heitels ingheslagen. It. hags. Caxton'a Reynard the Fox. 142. beis- plement driven by blows. Unte gaunon jah gretan duginnid. deid on the land can ly the verb to beg. at a time when all his alms were given in kind. bertola. to bear young. 'Dz. & go a begging. ' ' . &c. chap. krapszas. appears improbable at first. Du. V. From w. P. origin. one after that other. on the tramp. kind. genus. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy of Begard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy. but probably erroneously. — Stillingfleet. bag {baigean. Into the are D. tale. a stone-cutter's chisel. seizing. Ancren Riwle. or Of a pure poor man. also called Bigots. such as poor begging friars use to beg withal . in suche wyse that the oke was wide open. to reduce him to beggary. yivtrri. by the help of wedges and beetles an N. to be acquire. a bag . Mundart. ken. is formed pocair. beginning. Vocab. Gr.' A. Of brede full ycrammed. aginnan. from whete G. a scrip krapszais aplink eiii. Skinner's derivation from bag. gen. to get children . 1867. a — wedge. yiyvo/uat. 168. fangen and Lat. incipere. Bruce. Si'Xa/coc. — yivsaiQ. OHG. giving in Gr. So from Gael.pose. Du.' for ye shall lament and weep. AS. In a similar manner gafz or can was freThe G. Fr. two betels —a grete oke. taking up. ornamented phoc. Nov. beitel. and a beggar is hardly ever introduced in our older writers without mention being made of his bag. to know. to be able. When Q. to arise. To produce children is to acquire. which may perhaps be an adoption of the E. to be born.— . 2. Goth. gigno. beissel. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all hisswiftlie. yivwajcw.Spreuland and iiycterand in the dede thrawes. after the analogy of And yet these bilderes wol beggen a. ' Begone. a beggar-boy. gan. The tother seand the dint cum. ysgrepanu. the latter is used as an auxiliary of — . P. capere. Reccheth never the ryche Thauh such lorelles sterven. a chisel. and Lat. To begin may be explained either from Bagges and begging he bad his folk leven. a wallet. 'Aboutin undern monly. Cold-begone. The verb to gin or begin appears to be one of that innumerable series derived from a root gan.' Clerk of Oxford's to the notion of biting. beutel. Mettre quelq'un a la besace. at geta talad. 1430. to go a begging. referred gan this Erie alight. a scrip euXaiciJoi. — — Ac beggers with bagges The fundamental meaning seems attain to. bigitan in Ulphilas is always to find . 40. ' . to shift up and down for scraps and victuals. — carries conviction — & 13th 14th centuries. to beg.

ward.heave a stone is used in vulgar language lations of pressed by means of the different mem. and the E. to gehouden. ifl fact. to bers of the body. or purpose. servare. Sw. bound. to regard. hovast. and (as Fr. injunccommand. us-hafjan. to name. ufhaban. habere. to keep. healdan. a follower. hafwa. exhibits the original meaning of the Fr. to have. The seyn. G. take heed of. han- — js Kil. behat. Tuus servus servet Venerine faciat an Cupidini. AS. to hold. to keen or hold. Kiittn. to keep. when the verb will hoof. to be be named. beholden to him. heeten. command Beholden in the sense of indebted is Du. BEHAVE begaen zijti met eenighe saecke. to tend. gehat. to look. vow. to hold it a cruel act is to regard it as such. to take away. —Hest. advantage. The supposition then that the notion of preserving. G. to command. guardare. behold. have the sense of calling or naming. to call. tion. Sw. betragen. to follow. portarsi. promise. furtherance. hantyri. hove. commonly expressed. to the equivalent of Du. Ye shall dwell here at your will But your bearing be full HI. adjust. hces. rather than the vaguer sense of the auxiliary to have. while it seems an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense of behold as to keep or hold (sc. hafwa. behaviour. to cast or throw. the two verbs seem radically the same. In accordance with these analogies we should be inclined to give to the verb have in behave the sense of the Sw. on. ge' hatan. the within which one can strike an object or at- — — . exhort. to R. what is so required. to command. or the hence advantage. seeing to. to carry. hafwa ram. as in the case of E. heita. AS. what he wishes another to do .— . to heave. to fit. The Lat. to halten. hevja. OE. obliged. But. To be expedient. use. — FL — f Mid hym he had a stronge axe So strong and so gret that an other hit scholde hebte unethe. habban. it is probable that we have in the Finnish hanta the origin of our behind. an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct. premi curi alicujus rei. to indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of. hcef tig bort. AS.the figure of throwing at a mark. take yourself off. object of the speaker may be simply to behofian. to be obliged to do a thing. to be suitable or becoming . behoof. is on the top of or opposite to. G. to be fit. Sw. K. promise or a command. 17. is also found in the sense of looking. holding is originally derived from that of looking. R. Aan iemand bid one welcome. G. gehouden.' Richardson.for throwing it.' Let your slave look whether she sacrifices to Venus or to Cupid.to vow. AS. hofwa. The expression seems to be taken from Eehiad. to carry. to feed. to be named. gehaben. se porter) to fare well or ill. to turn one out . To look steadily upon. Robert in Warton. behatan. And so from hania. and their senses intermingle. Wohl general meaning seems to be to speak 3Mie\viera. To Behold. to raise. zijn. to look upon it as true . Command. according as the * To Behove. BEHOVE 59 are formed hannassa. to bring forwards. zu etwas gehalten haitan. right. observe. to hit the mark. to call. beperson addressed. to lead. to be well pleased out. Paladino. The compound seems here to preserve what was the original sense of the simple verb to hold. garder. behete. keeping. To Behave. the equivalent of E. The It. It. the eyes ' hiniself stoutly. and as the roots of many of our words are preserved in the Finnish languages. promise . name of the head is used to express what hbva. laborare. keeping. invoke. to lift. to vow. taking notice or care of (Gloss. to vow. to carry corn into the barn . gehalten seyn. hevja. the distance of anything. hcefwa in seed. behefe. at the tail of. vow. to lift. To hold a doctrine for true is to regard it as true. solicitum esse. fixed upon any object). hatan. N. hafjan. behces. AS. to be obliged to one. heeten willekem. The notion of behaviour generally expressed by means of verbs signifying to bear. Goth. of the ear to express what is on the side to meet. for behave portarsi da a man to behave or carry to . to behave. behind. gecall. to promise. from tragen. nittaa. to meet. is supported by many analogies. to carry. G. heave. to be subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any gpeaker undertakes to do himself. — Behest. hafwa bort.). Plautus. or necessary. tail. The verb to look itself is frequently found in the sense of looking after. Thus in Finnish the heave. At the back of The re. To place are most naturally ex. by the compound observare. the name adapt. G. to hold.

Du. berfroi. to express approval..Lat.D. were civil terms of address. . lov. a tower. it behoved another kind of man the to do such things. cela est audessus de votre portde. and bergan. bylja. bolken. locus securitatis Schilter. garnish. to deem an object in accordance with a In this sense certain standard of fitness. . behove. galaubjan. permission. To Belch. to extol the worth of anything. De kabel aan de beeting beleggen. giving leave or permission. Q. . beleggen. distance to which a piece will carry. All in a woodman's jacket he was clad Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace. filu-galaubs. built upon a tower for soldiers to stand centinel in also a blockhouse Fl. employs the same metaphor in the term porUe. to promise.Lat. laubjan. esteemed . is used in the sense of approving. bertefredum. to the approbation or satisfaction of the sworn inspectors mit erven lave. bervrit. fitness. To Belay. It is not obvious how to harmonise the senses of believing. praising. bulken. The principles which all mankind allcrw for . or a sconce. legsel. bounds. that is above your capacity where it will be observed that the Fr. bell. Bell. satisfaction. leaf geleafa. — . range. It. tie itnfimv nKixioQ. to the chamber in the upper part of the tower in which the bells are hung. which has been shown to be derived from laudare. true. in nautical language. beffroi. to give leave. permitting or giving leave. loven. The word be- Belfry. loven. Pl. esteeming good and valid. stand. to give leave. under the forms belfredum.D. from mhG. to esteem it as in accordance with the intention of the Beldam. moderation. to befit. and E. orloven. a tower for defence . of which the latter is specially applied to The same imitathe sound of bells. a watch tower. to cry out bell. leave . ON. Goth. tain a certain end. and sometimes in a sense closely analogous to that of believe. Det hofdes en annait til at utratta sUkt. are other modifications of the same imitative root. Sw.alyfan. to bolk.D. a vessel made for dishonour. See Gain. bettifredo. G. -The fundamental notion seems to be to approve. resonare. a. Doubtless an imitation of the sound. reputation. Fr. Det er ofwer er hofwa. The sense of praising may be easily deduced from the same radical notion. for purposes of low estimation . praise. In the middle voice hofwas. to lay be- around. which are expressed in the different Teutonic dialects by essentially the same word or slight modifications of it. to der swaren lave. boare. — Diicange. to belay. to sanction an arrangement. overspread. to sound loudly . then. to resound. fringe. on. beau sire and bel dame. turris. Fair sir and Fair lady. ornament. AS. to put a high price or value on. appearing in Mid. promiser. to praise. beldam became appropriated to signify an old woman. pro3. In England a false etymology has confined the name of belfry. to permit. a little shed. to be required for a certain purpose. Fr. or high estimation. — came singularly corrupted in foreign languages. we have Goth. to bellow. bellan. measure. Du. to estimate them at a To believe. certain rate. consent. Northamptonshire.. — mankind. promising. OHG. an implement for making a loud noise. b'ola. to promise or engage. bealcettanj OE. glauben. bialla. ungalaub kas. belja. galaubs. the consent given by a lord to the alienation of a tenant's fief was expressed by the term laws. is (Sternberg). and. to praise. and Du. beset. In Mid. loben. to throw up wind from the stomach with a sudden noise. properly belonging to the church tower. and E. if a promise. if a narration. precious. portion. to hit hafi. From AS. those that men of right reason all admit are the principles allowed hy Locke. battefredum. peal. allow.D. or house. gelyfan. erlauben. Du. to give leave Dan. to believe. is an easy progress. to lay the cable round the bits. to a loud noise. —F. aim. bealcan. with the consent of the heirs. to believe. to praise. P1. met. are innate . frid. border. to protect. Du. AS. to fix a price upon one's wares. to to make A Templorum campana boant. to make it fast. To Believe. verloben. then. lyfan. Another application of the same word is in Pl. bercvrit. to believe. to boke. probably because a respectful form of address would be more frequent towards an elderly than a young person. mark ON. hesfa.. is to esteem an assertion as good for as much as it lays claim to . to esteem it true or in accordance with the fact it professes to describe . bellow. on. ON. belief . laven. ley/a. beffroit. to roar. Hence to simple approbation. Then. Pl. and finally an ugly and decrepit old woman. laven. lofa. honoured. 6o BELAY BELL loven. To praise is essentially Xo prise. reach. OFr.

Lat. benaigon. Fr. Gum benjamin. binssen. Bent. vulgarly the belly. beneison. to do good to one . The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord. Dozy. Lat. expressing the notion of property by a similar metaphor to the Lat. to reach. bcelg. zmn Kdnigreiche gelangen. to attain to. Gael. bienfait. benejicium. bolg. balg. Ptg. to concern. to say. Benediction. Gael. rise against external force . from cwcsthan. are stripped off whole blase-balg. hence with ashes. — To direct the disposition of property after one's death. Fr. G. on. to use words of good omen. from Arab. G. G. to bless. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates confor womb or belly by the Romans. blister balgan-snamha. I marre a thyng. kind. becwathan. See I . to hold to one. — root consisting of concentric skins. given to estates conferred upon clerical persons for life. gelangen. To be?id sails is to stretch them on the Bellows. as concerning that. bag. ' ' fragment of Lucilius has : others. OUG. ^To Beray. bellows. wallet. J'emboue. Benign. Benefice. . or a It is times the to signify services. benjoin. BELLOWS tion is found in Galla." — — . because bcelg. To Bend. is a kindred form.' — Hie fimus. est matris in lucem editus. Lat. . as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficiuni habere to a bellows or blowing-bag. the swimming bladder balgan-uisge. to hallow. dirt. applied to an estate granted by the king or other lord to one for life. The iter villa quam ex munificenti4 nostr4 application of the term to the belly. to come to the crown belangen. wallet Benefit. balteus . See Nether. skin. Benedico. bilbil-goda. Bench. In E. from benedictio. attingere. belliJ Lat. a good deed. a blessing. I araye. one who does good. . Lat.polch. benignus (opposed to malignus). loubdn djawt. a border. a kindness. benefacere. Benefactor. pino3. benjoim. to stretch it on a frame. ON. To Bequeath. from which is also bulbus. — Ducange. Villa quam Lupus quondam per benea water-bubble (stiU preserved by the Gaelic diminutive balgari). To belong is thus to reach up to. rushes.' The term had been previously planation. pod. fyle To dirty.' ' Similthe most obvious type" of inflation. Quoth. The ing-skin. to become one's property . ball. pertinere. Bav. — ray. to attain belangen. to.— Belly. pervenire. and with an the bolls or husks of flax AS. to belong. bimpsen. Lat. belly. a benefit. pertinere.' Quam fidesack-like case of the intestines. a bellows . hem. to make bilbil. as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and . Tuch an einen Rahmen spannen. attinere. Kil. bimaissen.pinuz. balg. See Bind. Benzoin. bendan. Lat. se bander. bilbila. I soyle it or araye it. to concern. an inflated Lat. From OFr. a spring. To Benum. leather sack. benedicere. Fr. Bret. welt of a shoe. the ipsi Caddono concessimus. border. skin. Was das belanget. a leather bag. to touch. is The word balg. or fyle with myre. poX^ri. The same name was Ita ut quisque nostrum e tulgS. bene/actum. w. . belly. a water-bubble builge. a bellows. To Belong'. bolch. Beneath. as. I say). a round or bubble-shaped root. See Bank. bags or bellows.' Palsgr. belgr. a speaking well of one. well. the word. bolg. G. — See Numb. bendaj as. to exert force. by itself. needs no ex. Javanese perfume. belch. bellows. from another modification of the word for bubble. Belt. Tut- BERAY 6l — schek. for the performance of ecclesiastical probable that Gr. benehusk. benedictio {bene^ and dico. has assumed a plural form. and in modern name of benefice is appropriated a piece of church preferment. Eenison. ' . bless. the womb. pouch. . blast-bcelg. belt. to ring. gwaldas. yards of the vessel to bend cloth. Benignant. taken absolutely. to bend a bow . volva. ' I beraye. the skin of those animals that factor. bandoir. used in several Celtic and Teutonic languages to signify any inflated skin or case.videtur. The flower-stalks of grass remaining uneaten in a pasture. vulva. or sometimes louban. or simply djawt. bellows.Fr. . which affords jicium nostrum tenere visus fuit. disposed to oblige. generous. Commentary on Neccham in Nat. Sw. cod or husk of pulse. bander un arc. a blow. By the Arabs it is called bakhour djAwi. to touch one. was in Mid. . incense of Java. like trowsers and other names of things consisting of a pair of principal members. means seeds of plants. attinere. binsen. langen. ON. OFr.. ray. bell. benir. a accusative. Du. fens et hie liraus. to arrive at. welt of a shoe gwald.

buttare. as conversely a besom is called broom. arwe. protect . When men of mekeness him baet. — Biglotton. as. roju. — bota. houseless. earh. the side bhakshya. but it is specially applied mister. The proper meaning of the bale. besIn sen. boutefeu. — amendment. to kindle the fire. berwe. To Bet. position. Du. besein. rods. barth under hedge is a succour to beast. To Gl. bota was also used in the sense of parrying or pushing aside a thrust aimed at one.• 62 Antiq. is to perform a serviceable office to him. a fire. Kil. scopse spartis. Rob. — . to light the fire . From abet. and also to entreat. berwham. It is the restore fyr betan. To help. as.iooA. to strip. to fall with roisto. to be hard bestead in a position which it is hard to endure. bouter. Beere. in the two last of which the verbal element must certainly be It. lewth. put. OE. jnore. and on which the wager is laid. place. repair. . Ihre. but in practice. to word is shelter. barfham. To Bestow. Besom. a horse collar. To stand in stead oi another is to perform the offices due from him . stede. vi. as. hva mannan. G. because used for making besoms. R. fearful. Beet. in the sense ctf beria. from being made of broomThe proper meaning of the word twigs. person to lie in. from AS. to fire a funeral pile of . fall with sound. dung . then ordered he a shelter for cattle. an incendiary. or to bestead one. to make it. BEREAVE Wall. To seek something from a person. to defend. a beacon-fire fyrbotare. think more probable. stealth from steal. dial. advantage. basjaj Du. E.— Hal. to To Bereave. Fr. beorgan. Sw. Best. seems twigs or rods. it seems hard to separate as. the origin of which is to be found in ON. bdt. — Chaucer. from It. what protects the neck of the horse from the hames. boeten. * To Bete. fyrbotare. boteith Goth. to seek. properly to mend the for a ship to ride or moor in. lay out. Devon. G. beseech. het vuur The serise of Boeten. amendment. To bete his Jam.fish the other hand. of ffeed a fire. bet. put forth. buttafuoco. ^akka. solicit. eld up- On is to be placed A — . Bouter fell would thus be to set fire to. to put on the saddle. bdt. peto. in the latter sense is only a special application of the same verbs in the general sense of repairing or making bfetter. dirt . basya. reparation. Beit. burrow. to make better. make better . reafian. bacca. roju.—^fake. Berry. to stand one in good stead.t. ship for a make amend.— VixHsm. So Lat. to set fire Devonshire the name bissam or bassam is given to the heath plant. R. The question then arises whether both derivations may not bfe reconciled by supposing that ON. ^•n. to exercise on a definite object. small eatable fruit. betan. botesward. earg. 3. to thrust. boeten. E. Grose. as bouter selle. dirt. to remedy his misfortune to belt a beet. Zeitschr.ot-i. to be-place. supporting on the one side Lat. supply. berry. besen. mud. * Berth. better. barth may be for barf. Goth. besmas.bhaksh. bur-we. what does it better a man. besnij Pl. making better. from grow. Du. the guardian . Sw. vol. roe. So roto rattle down.irova. I from lew. The origin is AS. bestow. AS. Tusser. ropahtaa.D. a berry. bota. to thrust. Tha het he micel fyr betan. barthless. to give a place to. p. sweepings. Du. Hfence backing. mending the fire or supplying it with fuel might so easily pass into that of making or lighting it. Bestead. Du. as in growth. bat. To Beseech. p. encouraging. noise. boeten. compared with bargham. or the space kept clear betan. See Better. to entreat. BETE dirty'. The dry. as Du. to on the other Goth. reparation. to to deprive of. See Reave.X. preferably. to mend. dust rojahtaa. broom twigs. same word with the provincial barth. besje^ Sanscr. as. sets fire to. baete. rubbish. a place . bereafian. may be derived from the notion of pushing forwards. one who shelter. Fr. might have been . advantage. The final th in barth may be either the termination significative of an abstract noun. to amend. Formerly beseekHis heart is hard that will not melie beseke. sheltered from the wind. AS. ariierf to 113. to supply a want. an incendiary. Fin. On the other hand. baete. to the place boarded off in a. was so new and good as it did very grftatly bestead us in the whole course of our voyage. stow. improve. betan. to cast. bal oppbota. brem-bessen. Esthon. So too Yorkshire arf. Hence stead is applied to signify the influences arising from relative position. what does it boot. . Warm great fire to be lighted: OSw. or. AS. that we can hardly doubt that the use of as. and Du. profit. a form which the verb takes in Yorkshire.

in the middle of twain. From It. is used for the — R. makes it manifest that thou art a Galilean. against. then to deliver up what ought to be kept. moveable and compass branches. dir. Cot. Goth. spritigs from schicken. betera. trakir. I approve of beveau. taemen. it may not advance For to have dealing with such base poraille. In the water anon was seen His nose. thy speech bewrayeth thee. deem suitable. Buveau. batizo. Det sig sjelft. Ober D. vrohjan. G. He tdmet I do not allow myself that. is the way in which it generally catches our r'ojer from trahir we formerly had trash and betrash. R. AS. /alia. Probably the unusual addition of the particle be to a verb imported from the Fr. Fr. bouter davantaige. bibere. trahison. proficere. Percy Soc. Thus the radical meaning of better would be more in advance.' Dialogue on Witches. a drinking . gesiemen. amiddes. Bav. what does It is forward him. treachery. — See To Bete. to fall Some call it a bevel. wreia. and thence twegen. i. betweoh. sik een good glas wien : he allows himBevel. To Betray. beuvrage. from Fr. whence beveraggio Fr. Fr. better. Better. fallinn. ON. to Teem. some attention. maintenant s'ebahit naught honest. tradire. gives sign of existence which attracts notice. fitting. ruogia. Tinia eigi at lata eit. roja. polish. are commonly to one's lot. Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem. to give something over and above in an exchange) is translated by Palsgrave. betray. are there Regt R. from invadere. to deliver tip. and to bete or repair Would be to push up to its former place something that had fallen back. gatiman. Sw. To vouchsafe. make manifest. abash j from polir. a square-like instrument having to beseeni. obdissais. to fall. taemen. tima. — of the authorities. betest. i. pair of compasses. e. an instrument opening like a a thing. And he thereof was all abashed His owne shadow had him tetrashed. by a final sh. From the former of these are AS. She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene. OE. Goth. as envahir. Du. tradere. not to have the heart to give up a thing. — that schickiich. In like manner from twain is fothied between. Car son umbre si le trahit. tweoh. as tlock. On the same principle ON. awry. -to appoint. deign. Ik tame mi dat nig. fate. Friar's Prol. Mich self a good glass of wine. Best. to happen. progress. become. x. Fl. bat. beva. to Hence It. was caused by the accidental resemblance of the word to Du. has — In a like sense tanie>i. it bewrays itself. bet. wrogia. The as. dispose (whence schicksal. Dii. better. evidence of life. bevere. betriigen. Lat. betwuh. by two. or with again. from. bevde. best. to stir. Fris. E. and the same idea is involved in the word profit. gezimet eines dinges. amidst. 88. to cheat. &c. in the middle of two. of pheasants. To Beteem. better. E. two. sloped off. Dit tungomal rendered in E. suitable. R. Slant. or one The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight.D. betst. thou hast confessed and bewrayed all. Bevy. a bevy. to deceive. The word advantage literally signifies furtherance. Sahissais. E. thence applied to a company of ladies especially. r'ojer dig. Golding's Ovid in R.— . betweox. lot). larks. be fitting or suitable. R. find it good: Goth. regen. to bring an offence to the notice Beverage. In like manner folissais. traditor. verbs in ir with a double ss. G. as one would have it fall. Fr. to drink . to make forwards. as trahissons. find in one's heart. order. for measuring angles. suitable. Now the stirring of an object. Thus from dbahir. roebucks. traitre. bedriegen. advance. to accuse. BETEfiM translated. which may be compared as to form with amid. Hence last G. from Lat. e. *Ah. BEWRAY In the original Et 11 63 what does it it advance a man. afford. to discover. zimet. The inflections of Fr. Between. Fr.D. of quails. betwuxt. a brood. Chaucer. Her acquaintance is periUous First soft and after noious. It. bet. It. to deliver up in breach of trust. ON. Pl. A — drink. trahissais. batista. To Bewray. tima. beverage. a different form of twa. the being pushed to the frbnt. G. zemen. ziemen. AS. twain. e. trahir. to happen. springs from ON. in the same way Lat. betweohs. G. — Betwixt. obeish. a traitor. more. riigen. said he. is treason. betaemen. The He of Man that me clepeth By twene us and Irlonde. . his mouth. Pl. baet. I could teem it to rend thee in pieces. his eyen sheen. To boot in coursing (i. kein leben mehrin no signs . as from obdir. which are from a tradire and totally different' root.

besanca. sbiscio. per\'erted belief. then an edge pared or an Egyptian plant. bebble. to be a paring. —Bickering'. bestemps.' bibble. le fait sauter aux yeux babbi. Dan. bias-wise. bis. expelling or preserving against. Bible.' He's aye bebbling and were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. to slaver . in two ways for duis. whey count . biberen. Gr. Sard. it becomes (Jz-. or in and out. to Jam. Bezoar. to cut in two. Hzzle f Deldkar in R. shows the P1. s'foot I wonder how the inside of a taveme looks now. bibo. The origin is probably the representation of the sound of a blow with a pointed instrument by the syllable /zV/&. lips. sbiasciai. by throwing of stones. . biaiser.s bellum for duellum. rogge. sbrissare. he is Wtb. evident. winding or crawling in and out. It. Diet. wrogen. bescompte. Bezel. or kwijl-slab. kwijllap. a bezle. bark of which paper was first made. A stony concretion in the stomach of ruminants to which great medical virtues were formerly attached. a stone-hewer . sbiesso. foul weather. Fris. To Bib. bickel-sieenken. to it evident to sense. — Bi-. bavon. is explained to clatter. To Bezzle. to stir. oven ud av ham ' he tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler a basil (Halliwell). Bib. though such a change of form would be very unusual. reveal. wraggeln. bickai. tailU en biseau. dial. twice. Fr. Biseau. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. the papyrus. An inferior blue. petit-lait. The train of thought is then. to tipple. which good bibbeler. biascia. pddzahr. Jamieson. kwijl-bab. bickeler. makes ble. barlume (for bis-lume) weak light. stir in ' Hirogen (in Altmark rojeri). make manifest his — He notion of sliding or slipping. aslope sbisciare. oblique. one who drinks in excess. metaphor).as in Biped. the word became bddizahr. notice. poison. sbriscio. ice . liwell. Les Hseaux (the paringes) i I'amoyne soyt doni. the particle bes being often used in composition to signify perversion. to glide or slip as upon. to a fight with stones.— 64 of life BEZEL in BICKER the same sense. Cat. a cloth to prevent a child drivelling over Saver. biberon. The true origin is probably from the you ? Die liebe regef sich bei ihin. sbias. Fr. sloped. sliding. used in precisely stone . the basil Sc. to stir up . sbiagio. a sloping edge. Du. Probably. to hew resemblance to sbiescio. sbiescio. specially in a bottle. a bibber. beslei. slanting . babbi. edge of a plate of looking-glass. to stir. to make tongue Du. to creep or crawl sideling. An excellent Basil. sbrisciare. . to slaver or drivel. Misc. to shake. Lat. biax. . convicts thee of being drink.' Han er saa beskjenket at of the glass. to sip. a fragment bieco. as an eel or a snake. bisel. Bisect. To skirmish. two- footed. and zahr. formed from an imitation of the sound made in greedy eating and drinking.two. sbieco. slippery. stock still. Pl. a slabbering-bib. sik beregen. bickel. a Galilean. 172. babbefore the eyes. The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound. Sp. bihais. (according to the Fr. In comp.D. Bice. discover. kwijlen. Piedm. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of Dan. Cat. Pers. dial. Piedm. to well up with Cot. 78). bisdare. To drink hard.to drink much. —Dozy. :' tongue bewrayeth thee thy makes thy Galilean birth to stir as — — ' — ' ' : — . baverole. Fr. ber-laita (for bes-laita). . Oh when shall I bizzle. to move. bring under ' Thy accuse. misFr. Schiitze. To bicker in NE. in him. Hal- — do something aslant. Uprogen. crooked. Yes. love first begins to life signs of him. or by any rapid motion. biais. Prov. Mantuan. in Fr. I Wallon. To Bibble. beregen. bes-azur. See Wriggle. It is especially applied in Sc. The It. to dispute.or from obliquus. to purl. wrangle. sbrisso. aslope. pible. Hal. biascio. asure-bice (Early E. inferiority. whence the frequentative picker or bicker would represent a succession of such blows. Fr. rogt un bogt sik nig. Lat. presence. rannetho handelende nah wroginge Shrer conscientien : herein to deal according ' Brem. It. Bias.{ioin dua. /3i/3Xof a book originally. of the sliced off. bickelen. like guzzle. snout. .D. to tipple. or the noise occasioned by successive strokes. bending. Ant. him. b&zahr. to give signs of life. ground slanting from the general surface drinking. bibaculus. Fr. whence Du. and also signifies the constant motion of weapons and the rapid succession of strokes in a battle or broil. To Bicker. OE. biberer. its clothes. In Arab. bezling or skueing. Tayllet le payn ke est parfe. baviere. to the stirring of their conscience. roggle. Fr. to stir. Ci^. Sardin. — crooked. bible. E. Bibelsworth in Nat. from pdd-. it were the mouth.a. has a singular stone-picker.

byggia. The . bulge. repair. to bend. qucero. These admitted into the ranks of their followers. bugan. offerre. belly. Bigamy. bua. ' Bug as a Lord. Bigot. to offer one the wish of a good day. AS. although it might well be understood in the sense of the other form of the verb. twice. boa. P. forwards. (y^ To — The arrows struck upon them like blows is merely to make known the fact that-we look for or desire the object of our prayers. Kil. to inflate E. buga. The 'La. The beginning of the 13th century saw the sudden rise and maturity of the mendicant orders of St Francis and St Dominic. W. — — — Halliwell. To bid one to a dinner is properly the same verb. 1. byggan. called the tertiary order. I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an arowe as you. inhabit Du. to offer it to public notice. The original Swollen. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to pray. to arrange. swelling. But when her circling nearer down doth pull Then gins she swell and waxen iug-viith horn. just as the two ideas are expressed in E. iiQ. bidel. a swelling. 2. from belgia. ewes. Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. bilge or bulge. biegen. It must be observed that the word bidja. bieten. pray. to marry. To Bid ' Big . ten. biddan. to build G. as tears from the eyes. bulge. bag. bced. For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have need He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede. Bickelen. G.' Bidders and beggars are used as sy- nonymous in P. to cultivate. the belly of a ship. becoming in Lat. G. bis and in comp. and Gael. to forbid . bit- bidja. ON. in a reflective bringing in the sense of offering. To bid the banns. related to big or bug. and yajiBui. to build. to swell. beidast. by seek and beseech. to presimpler pare. build. to look for. bedun. has leta. — prepare." buque with E. or. bo. to offer. gebeden j G. to pray one to dinner. bulky. an attendant or was used for the cast of an arrow. of More ' in Richardson. bouwen. bat . bicker in the sense of throwing stones. abidan. bigan. anleta. bend of a shore or of a rope. to look for. explaining the Sc. a flexure. of distinct form in the other Teutonic languages. bugne (answering to ON. BID of stone. To Big.t. The ON. and probably a contracted form in is seen AS. who. bidill. bath. to abide or wait on. ON. swoln. to bend. beadle. Wallace in Jam. to summon one before a court of justice einen vor sick bieten lassen. einen vor Gericht bieten. verbieten. bidan. a chip. swaggering. inhabit. G. bidjan. to forbid . besides the professedmonks and nuns. bog. from bidan. ON. to bicker. bend. to E. gebodenj G. OSw. AS. praebere. bauen to cultivate. R. and consequently ordering or reGoth.Leta). for be- pray from a stone-cutter's pick.. the meaning of bid. from the way in which a chip flies from the pick. be bug. From Gr. as G. an entire skin. A bjudan in anabjudan. is to bring forwards the announcement of a marriage. as. form. The loss of the / gives Dan. seems essentially the same pick (equivalent to the modem pitch) word with AS. In this sense the word is the correlative of Goth. or third order of penitence. to ask. The original form of the root is probably seen in the ON. to pro- command. from seek. to ask. to solicit. Compare also Sp. to build. to dwell. bygga. A pose to one to come to dinner. ON. bolginn. rising up. Hence Sc. BIGOT beidan. bidan. Big. spelling seems to used in the N. feVaisused in each sense (Ihrev. and the Sw. to start out. . Analogous expressions are G. consisting both of men and women.peto. bieden. porrigere. a suitor. bug. to bulge. pressing on one's notice. to bid one good day. — To Bid. may plausibly be derived from Goth. AS. beodan. Jam. which is stiU. The ON. For far lever he hadde wende And Udde ys mete yf he shulde in a strange lond. Two verbs are here confounded. signifying in the first instance to seek or look for. Palsgrave in Halliwell. bi-. faurbjudan. without necessarily quitting their secular avocations. . quiring something to be done. bulk. or bad. bugt. Big-swol- . bolga. bolgna). belly. to curve.' Pope in R. to have one called before him. bead. cultivate. ein paar verlobte aufbieten. praestare. proud. athird class. are also used in the sense of asking for. Einem einen guten tag bieten. to belly. Du. OSw. bound themselves to a strict life and works of charity. With respect to logical pedigree. balg. to inhabit. Bight or Bought. to move quickly. bow.' Addison. England for swollen.uddered len heart. in the sense of ask for.

face VIII.' They were however by no means confined to Italy. Bighiotti). From bigio. nos vitam eorum qui extra religion em approbatam validarn mendicantes discurrunt. such as is used for the dress of the inferior orders. perch^ i Terziari di S.' Brevilo' Beghardus in — quium Due. continentiam vitse privato voto profitentes. Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus plurimi maximfe in ItaliS. habitum religionis sed levem susceperunt.' Us petits frires bis or bisets.' says an Venet.' translated by Muratori. as well as bizocco. grey. In the same way Fr. 'sia quasi bigioco e bigiotto. Hence the OE. fora piu convenevole che portassi vestimenta honeste da bizuoco che queste' pompose. 560. Francisci communiter appellabant. corruption would easily creep in. the nobles to Rienzi. begutta. sed maxim^ in muliebri. ac labores manuum detestantes. biso. which must not be confounded with begardo. and also unlearned common men. et Alemannii et Provincise provincii. Secta qusedam pestifera illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellantur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine S. both men and women. a term of reproach applied to find Bonithe same class of people.' Chart. E che I'abito bigio ovver beghino era gomune degli nomini di penitenza. From the foregoing extracts it will readily be understood how easily the name. bighellone.— Ducange. Bighini. to adopt a similar course of life. A. alii de paupere viti. D. they became highly obnoxious to the hierarchy. but as they subjected themselves to no regular orders or vows of obedience. aliqui Begardi. all apparently derived from Ital. with reference to A. the other form Per te Tribune. grey.a.' It must be remarked that bizocco also signifies rude. 'Eisdem temporibus quidam in Alemannia pracipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque sexu.nA as soon as the radical meaning of the word was obscured. &c. Francesco si veston di So in France they were called bigio. and Q.D. 1243. and the coarse cloth made from the undyed wool. 'Item cum quidam sint laici in 1 3 10. speaking of them as ' NonnuUi viri pestiferi qui vulgariter Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vita. A. S. nee adhuc uUo claustro contenti.D. author quoted in N. A. cum tabardis et tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio incedentes. Bizocco. They adopted the grey habit of the Franciscans. vocati Fraticelli. bureau is the colour of a brown sheep. civitate et provincial Trevirensi qui sub hardos se pretextu cujusdam religionis fictse Begappellant. Beguttis videlicet ordinis Chart. 15 18.D. Biguttce apud yulgares nuncupate.' ' Nonnulte mulieres sive sorores. rustical.' where beghino evidently implies a description of dress of a similar nature to Bithat designated liy the term bigio. a blockhead. in the quotations of Ducange and his continuators. They wore a similar dress. Capellamque censibus et hujusmodi redditibus pro septem perseu clusam sonis religiosis. borel. Bizoccki. natural grey or sheep's russet. bigotta. signifying bagmen or beggars. ix. From bigio would naturally be formed bigiotto. vol. alii Apostolici. and underwent much obloquy and persecution. says. and went about reading the Scriptures and practising Christian life.— BIGOT bigardo. apparently from the dress of rustics being composed of bizocco. probably from biso. Flor. seque fingunt coram simplicibus personis expositores sacrarum scripturarum.' — et Beg7iina et Begutta sunt viri et mulieres tertii ordinis. and the coarse cloth made from its undyed wool. coarse woollen cloth.' Alvarus Pelagius in Due.' says one of of bigio. honesti plebeii amictus. They are described more at large in the Acts of the Council of Treves. bighiotto. Beguttce. 66 same outburst of religious feeling seems to have led other persons. Bizzocari (in Italian Begkini. qui ortum in Alemannia habuerunt.' ' — — ' Bemardus Guidonis ' in vita J oh. Augustini dotarint. the dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep. a dunce. zocco also is mentioned in the fragment of the history of Rome of the 14th century in a way which shows that it must have signified coarse. G. ubi tales Begardi et Beguini vocantur. bigio. aut Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis nominibus nuncupantur. and were popularly confounded with the third order of those friars under the names of Beguini. and hence the variations bigutta. 1499. ' ' ' ' ' We sub nuUius tamen regula coarctati. by which these secular aspirants to superior holiness of life were desig- — — • . xx. beghart. dark-coloured cloth. nolentes jugum subire veras obedientias nee servare regulam aliquam ab Ecclesia approbatam sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi. clownish. homespun cloth.' Matthew Paris. conventicula inter se aliquibus temporibus faciunt. absque votorum religionis emissione. and this was probably also the meaning of bighino or beguino.. In a similar manner from bigello. beghino. was formed bigello.

fluctus maris. however. as a bill of indictment. bizocco. p. boja. See Bull. billard also signified at billyards. of boja. an axe. Johansen. that of swell. 3. a sword. a beak. bill. syngraphum In Danish the are reversed. The fruit of the vaccinium myrtillus. an ingot. — Cot. Lat.' mariners. buoy [i. 5 * . buail. bicken is used both of a bird pecking and of hewing stone with a pick bicken or billen den molensteen. a short and thick truncheon or cudgel. The belly or swelling side of a ' Had much ado to prevent one from ship. and not having his mind open to — Speight A A any argument in opposition. Perhaps the name may be a corruption of bull-berry. blamand. the bill of a bird. 2. the beak of a bird. bila. a negro. a stick or log of wood cut for fuel. to strike. Fr. Roquef. Billet. b'olja. bill in parliament. the swelling G. loi. Sw. Mundart. bill of exchange. an axe . to be angry (i. Langued. a hypocrite. An instrument for hewing. from Mid. obsolete. Lat. Bigin. of E. — bigardia. and in Lat. horn of an animal. person of religion leading a loose life. billet is the diminutive of this. seems to be rather the unda. w. fetters. Kil. procella Kil. a billet of wood billeites d'un espieu. boia. So in Gr. Aurelles. bwyell. In English the meaning has received a further development. a stonemason's pick billen den molen-steen. axe. Prov. 'tumidi fluctus. false pretender to reUgious feeling. Du. I. beil. The proper meaning bylgia. G. bull-berries. BILBERRY nated. dziobad. as the fruit of the myrtillus is called blaa-bcer. Deutsch. while that of vaccinium uliginosum is called in the N. AS. Gael. Fr. top. . an adze . bigardo. ^Billiard. irons or set in a kind of stocks. Among when ment Festus billet from bulla. Du. Bojce. Fr. topor. Bill. a hatchet. a bigot or hypocrite. See Bulk. OFr. bla-berry. A lorum tam in — Diez. and the bilberry itself was called by the Saxons hart-berry. clog to a fetter. BILLOW 67 plough-share Du. blue . beghart. in accordance with the general custom of naming eatable berries after some animal. the trunk of a tree. Bohem. Billette. gleischner (Frisch). Bille. crowberry. hence the cudgel in the play at trap . Kil. a young stock of a tree to graft on Cotgrave a stick to rest on Roquefort. but in from an affected pronunciation of balk. and a billard. to job. belghen. from the dark colour. an axe. at sea Billet. tepati. bullet. blaa. To Bilk. e. the note which appoints a soldier his quarters. bulghe. bigot. a devotee. Dan. Dan. — — ' . Thus we find in It. Tartuffe. used in legal proceedings. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten. an ingot of gold or silver. deceit. belgan. symbolum. where we see billow not used in the sense of an individual wave. Du. to pick a millstone. The origin of the term is probably from bole. Bill. Bilge. names bill-berries. dziob. bigotto.— — — . biilge. bile. abelthe fetter itself. like change takes place in the other sense of — — .. a bigot has come to signify a person unreasonably attached to particular opinions. su- — ' perstitious hypocrite. an axe. or the stick wherewith we touch the baU OFr. NFris. Sp. inscriptum. 2. as craneberry. AS. and as persons professing extraordinary zeal for religious views are apt to attribute an overweening importance to their particular tenets'. a seal. a of the sea. is properly a sealed instrument.' in Richardson. bigot. in the same sense. genus vincu- Bilboes. The bill of a bird may very likely be radically identical with the foregoing. Sw. . e. bisoch. bolghe. might be taken to express a hypocrite. bil. . clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell.The mariner amid the swelling seas thing sunk]. bui. a man who rests on a stick in walking. a stick to tighten the cord of a package. Bilberry. bulla. a short note. from OSw. AS. Sw. billot. weapon . and dziobas. on. a name given to a. oJ^/ua edXatrtrije. Billow. billard or billart. now A Bilboa blade. bulgja. boeye. Gascoigne in R. a shackle. In the same way are related Pol. whortle-berries. Piedmontese bigot. to strike. billet. to swell with rage). buie. the cross bars near the head of a boarspear to hinder it from running too far into the animal. a floating log to mark the place of some. A slang term for a sword. a false pretender to honesty or holiness. dissimulation . Bilbo. This leaves the first syllable unaccounted for. the billowe was so great (Hackremuneration a slang term most likely luyt). to peck. the o changing to an i to express diminution. a punishthe offender is laid in Du. in the sense of a writing. gan. plog-bill. a seal.' bilio. bille. that of the uliginosum bblle-bar. To defraud one of expected sinking. The Du. ferrese quam ligneae. Ludwig.

bunch. terial. band. Something of the same confusion is seen in G. and especially to a small poor horse. beitan. G. fowl. Lat. Fr. to build. Bird. the young of an animal. 'tumens sequor. to bulge. biscotto. viz. properly a young pigeon. To Bite. to bind at . evesgue. H. This word is I believe derived from the notion of a bunch or lump. an overseer. a knob. poultry. ON. which in course of time was specially applied to the gallinaceous tribe as the most important kind of bird for domestic use. wine./«idere. bigne. an eagle's young G. Birch. poule. in Swabia. to wreathe. AS. binda nat. nodus. Bitch. . brut. . Goth. hith. bund. . a bump or knob. bita. to knot nets for fish. bunga. &c. G. a hind or female stag. sc. isfiw. — — . which is expressed in E. When compared with Fr. bindan. or petze. a bitch. bjork. Bittacle or Binnacle. and it was perhaps this appropriation of the word which led to the adoption of the name of the young animal as the general designation of the race. Goth. a corn. Du. a bitch. brid. evigue. life. We — A Birth. Gr.' and the like. Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the shoots of hops. beran. bord. . bunki.. to fasten it together. Bine. beitsl. The wood-bine designates the honeysuckle in England. to twine. — properly near-sighted. The proper designation of the feathered creation is in E. to hang. find the use of the word in this original sense as late as Shakespeare. The grete bing was upbeilded wele Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry. bij sienigh. is rendered in ON. a female dog hindinn. v. i. a female stag.68 BIN Bio-. Like ants when they do spoile the Ung of corn. vescovo. berkas (z=:Fr. hiindiiin. Lap. a weight. or baked. a pig petz. the last of these forms being identical with the word which we are treating as the root of bind. truss. Being fed by us you used us so As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird Useth the sparrow. part of the bridle which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. a habit- Binnacle. G. Habitacle. bikkia. Dan. as side boards or walls were to confine the heap to a smaller space. earnes brid. The term ON. lusciosus et myops. bitacora. a truss. AS. bundt. Bisen. beize. G. piiiti. doubtless a stone. overlooker. to be derived from Ibfiaq. Fr. The proper meaning is a heap. See Breed. Lith. See To Bear.. Sw. bij sien. beisseii. AS. Lat. to swell. beorth. twice cooked. V. bundun. EpisETTiTOOTToe. Fr. while bind-wood. qui nisi propius Blind. . to bring Biscuit. Bisson. See Belly. Bindweed.. I would derive the verb to knit. j). similar transfer of meaning has taken place in the case of pigeon. bircej Sw. where the compass stands. copus. The original meaning of pondus would thus be simply a lump of some heavy ma- Bishop. pinnu. a heap. Thus I suppose the Gr. i. AS. bitill. Here we see the root in the precise form of the Lith. the young of birds . ON. a gallinaceous bird. bhurja. — Kil. pin-ti. to bind together. Lat. by the verb knit or net. Lat. bundle. videt. The bitol. as when we speak of one's limbs The idea being firmly knit together. Then added division in a granary. Lith. from \t3\. a little dog. ge- from AS. bunt. Sanscr. binge. evegue. is in Scotland applied to ivy. To — — —D. Fr. the word was transferred to a receptacle so constructed for storing Sw. biscuit. than vice versi. bindan. E. pittjo. from pondus. AS. bundt. by binda. Bizened. pippione. it affords a remarkable proof how utterly unlike the immediate descendants of the same word in different languages may become. to net. piccione. IV. burt. the primary notion of binding being thus to make a bunch of a thing. bin-wood. a house. biclie. — Surrey in R. to cook). Fr. bine or bind is applied to the twining stem of climbing plants. Sw. a bitch applied also to other animals. a heap. In like manner from knot. also a stone weight. pundas. a bunch. propius videre bij sicndc. to form a knotted structure. from Lat. a bear. forth. pullus. betsel. bis-coctus {bis and coquo. Bailey. admota non Bit. A frame of timber in the steerage of a ship. pinnii. a weight of 48 pounds. BITTACLE /Siof. e. . It. Bin. a brood or hatch of young. habitacle. It seems more in accordance with the development of the understanding that the form with the thinner vowel and abstract signification should be derived from that with the broader vowel and concrete signification. or bin. — See Bittacle. Bind. episcopus. are commonplaces. bundle. AS. bund. to bear. and of Fr. Bing. It. biccej ON. from Gr. Sp. Bisom. to plait. or ben-wood. expressed by Sw.

the palebleff. Sp. In like manner E. a large lip. Percy Soc. to talk much. yellow . The original meaning of black seems to have been exactly the reverse of the present sense. blabbre. Hist. Alex. and Flemish dictionary habitacle is explained a little lodge (logement) near the mizenmast for the ' pilot and steersman.' G. ON. bitter. Mantuan babbi. To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake. small guard-house. blac-hleor ides. black. Blabber-lip. things —Palsgr.). It is in fact radically identical with Fr. The bitas. Cotgr. to let out whai should have been concealed. obscurus. Fr. pale yellow. bitts of Bitts. blakki. and thus the idea of discolouration merges in that of dim.' by Gudmund. Sp. bleich. It. a continued soft sound. BITTER dwelling or abiding place. blubber-lipped. a childe dothe gasouille. to the sharpness of a weapon. dark. to babble. or water beating gently on the beach . blob. blob. AS. AS. to wax pale or bleaked. as colours fade away the aspect of the object becomes indistinct and obscure. out the tongue. in contempt. a flapping. a beam in a house or ship. to watch. Sp. The lying out of an army in the open field without shelter. plabartaich. blake. bitr.— Blabber-lip. ' — bitrasta sverd' — the signify ' a soft noise. The introduction or omission of an / after the labial in these imitative forms makes little difference. blunt we say it will not bite. buft". Bav. . bitones. G. shine. term. ON. to bivouac. blanc. —Neumann. babbling. as of water gently beating the shore. I blaber. blobach. 156. Fr. the moon with her pale — —Blabber. white lead. The Gz. on. Bivouac. pale.plab is used to . a tati. pins of the capstern. Ai-mstrong. Je N. a fluttering noise. gulblakk.' It would thus acle. Why presumest And laam's asse. blabbern. ' plabraich. to chatter then to talk indiscreetly. pale brown . whitish. A a rail. Hald. blakk. Fr. as A fildefare ful eerly tok hir flihte. Sw. to chops. whitish.. pale. NE. town guard to keep order at night bivouac. beuni. Then as white is contrasted with any special colour the word came to signify pale. are two strong posts standing up on the deck. blob. first. is apprehension of danger. blank. as is seen in sputter and splutter. baitrs. maculS. Bittern.. gabble. Black. Se bleek. fallow . apparently from its biting the tongue. white. Pl. So Fr. Sp. garrulous. yellowish. then the mere case in which the compass Bitter. Gael. discoloured . 't huisje. viz. All founded on a representation of the sound made by collision of the lips in rapid talking. bites. to make in bleak or swart a thing by displaying it . a babbler. fallow fawn-coloured. mona mid Dan. In a similar manner Gael. synonymous with baber-lip. quoted by Ihre. a* mast . v. Cot. brunblakk. — Hollyband. light-coloured. blab. Fieldfare. Again. Fr. pale yellow . to babble. bird of the heron tribe. Hal. bitor. even humour seemed and beuin. iroxafealo. unintelligible talk plabair. on the one side.€i. corrupted in Fr. cut. beitr. "uivac. blackr is translated 'glacus seu subalbus. blabaran. confusedly. blebberis. ' as blake as a paigle (cowslip). biti. an additional watch. mouth. faded.D. an edge is sharpest sword. butorj OE. 332.. Peper ser bitter och bitar fast. as in that of pale and white on the other. plappem. a shelter for the steersman. x. In Legrand's Fr. — cheeked maid. to speak Dan. thoughtlessly . baboyer. To Blab the anchor. bihovac. leohte . thou so proudly to profecie these wost no more what thou Uaterest than Ba- — Halhwell. Deutsch. blabhdach. pale. faded. blepLith. 'fuscus. But we formerly had the word direct from German in a sense nearer the original. . white. to To blabber blabber with the lips. from whence we have adopted the. his blacan light. stutterer. 't kompas huis. G. bittore. biacca. — Collins in Hal. ON. /ealo-/or. Mund. babbe. ON. as of wings . shining. Wit hung her mourn. bleak is used to signify pale or light-coloured as well as livid or darkcoloured. bittour. Nagt huis. Bleak. as of a body falling into water. mouth. dusky. ' Biovac. whiteness (candor sine It. Lydgate. parallel with Fris — — — When bite. bleikr. chatter babbler . from wachen. quick. to loll it out. Gael. beiwache. Du. Pepper is bitter and bites hard. blesmer. bleg. .' by Haldorsen. Goth. ^chops. BLACK 69 — seem to have signified. a large coarse lip . indistinctly. Applied in Hin ON. from which it differs only in the absence of the nasal. a stammerer. ^aj'/^r. Mag. night guard. a night guard performed by the whole army when there Bailey. is placed. To or he can speake. round which the cable is made fast. Bohem.

Perhaps from blegen. with divers other lewd and loose fellows. bladre. to vocifer- — Cot. a boil. blahen. Hist. 7. from candere. Du. The judges of that time thought it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to qualify the words of treason. vagrants. the Devil himself will entertain and I feat that me but for one of his blackguard. blister. to blanch. Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi respondebo quod cum tecum loquar non credo te me inde hlasj^ketnaturuTn. that within the space of 24 hours they depart. Que quand je parle avec vous je ne crois pas que vous ra'en blaraiez. Besides the examples of this connection given above. candidus. Wott. as scullions. Fr. whitish. Reliqu. bladra. Sw. most complete example of leafy structure. Du. plate. Fr. See Blubber. e. do follow the Court to do strictly the great dishonour of the same charge all those so called the Blackguard as aforesaid. But perhaps a more Gr. in R. tattle. blatter. with all other loose idle masterless men. linkboys. blaeren. the ON. plat. Dan. a white or unwritten ticket. a bubble. also tanned by the sun. speak impiously. variable than the signification of words designating colour. to omit. as. Dan. as blader. as Lat. smother..— Kil. bladder . blinken. Du. polished. pluddre. whitish. a blank ticket. blanqne. to blow. to —Blaspheme. pallido. to make or become white blanc.—Blatter. plat. Sw. 86. blanchir. pass over. leafy. skola and thwatta. pXaatpiiiiHv. to shine. BLACKGUARD BLARE blade of a sword. chatter. — . Lat. whereby every man might express his malice and blanch his danger. name originally given Blackguard. leaf of a. coat. — rura. The word is well explained in a proclamation of the Board of Green Cloth in 1683. mus-blackt. imbrunire. blegne. dial. blister. — Sw. —We Bladder. Du. The old Dutch form of the word is blader. sheet of paper. but it may be supplied The original root of the word is seen in the G. as. blame. and others engaged in dirty work.. madder. D. to puddle or mix up turf and water to jabber pludder. a buible. which we . white. p. The term is generally applied to anything thin and flat. Dan. borrelen. From being made of white wooUen for cloth. and E. dripping-pans. blegen. The radical bubble. Eadmer. To Blare. is identical with Flanders borlen. probably ate. Novo- Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and masterless boys and rogues. blat- slave that within this twenty years rode with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage spits and (i. mud. blanc.TaaVi%^-&\xxi. blaere. bladder. a. blather. vagabonds. chatter. and Q. the leaf of a tree. moere. boys. . leaves. with the Duke's baggage) mongst A And we have in foam a terig. a ticket that does not obtain the prize. a bladder or pustule. Play in Nares. &c. blether. 5/^a/^ of colour. Blank "verse. Torriano. blatter. A have above endeavoured to indicate as the original signification of Bladder. rogues and wanderers. Jan. to glow. piatto. bladder. leaf. I am degraded from a cook. foolish talk. Sc. blein. biastner. Fr. commonly called the Black-guard. on. Blancli. and thence to babble. to To bellow. bladeren. to Hence Ital. concerning your travels I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. PI. cited in N. a pustule . slush. G. image is the formation of foam or bubbles by the dashing of water. to bleak in the sun. all signify to wash as well as to tattle. Hence applied to an occasion on which the result hoped for has not happened. mire. verse void of the rhyme to which the ear is accustomed. a leaf. bladder. blasphemare. his meat burnt. blather. defame. and wandering men and women. The primitive sense of splashing in water is lost in ON. roar. which Schwenk and Adelung give as an old Swabian form of the G. blanchet. Bacon in R. to glitter. a blanket a bed. blad. blanchet. The present forms then should be classed with blether. mud. irXariQ. or of an oar G. Blade. gabble.— ^o thehotsun. . blister. a bubble. Du. shining. blister. biasimare. and the sense is carried on from a bubble to any bubbleshaped thing. Gr. to dabble in water. reproach. bladdra. also white woollen cloth . pimple. blactra. 1854. Blain. from the constant connection between words expressing excessive talk. Blame. blena. Blank. — — — to jabber. — When the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed to its limit it becomes absolute darkness There is nothing more or blackness. It. Cot. pladdern.—Blatant. to disappoint. in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers-on about a court or great household. white. It is commonly connected with _/?«/. board. broad. livido . or as E. . Blanket. contracted from bladeren. to purl. or blafich. and the agitation of liquids. and G. Now. on. —^Webster. also jabber. blad. revile. to shine. branches . and he shall be sure to have O. waschen. definite origin may be found in the notion of foam. to bubble. smore. Fr. To blank. G. black. Bav. or a mass of bubbles. blatt. the origin of . tree. Sir. blank. who have intruded themselves into his Majesty's court and stables. flap of a Du. G.

g. among other . A gust of wind. a whisperer. besides blesse. was partly derived A from the image of blowing a trumpet. fire. blaodh. ON. ON. Du.the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are ever envy list to blatter against him. magniloquus. has also blencke. blaesen.' shields covered ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. loud . somewhat different train of thought. blcEsan. But now. embraser. a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS. blateroon. to de. to blow. ing of arms. commendation blason funebre. is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his with AS. a loud noise. indeed. First from the E. As Kilian. laudes (Kil. I. . Troilus and Cressida. To Blaze. Fr. a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings . bles. Du. Gudmund. also praeblczse. Lye. Du. Gael. an empty and two theories are proposed.sound a trumpet. to publish the praises. brasa. — BLAST which has been explained under Bladder. Blast. ther it was erst not knowe. A strong flame. baladron. The other derivation. blysa. blazen. to cut off prematurely. and to make him word blaze. She roade at peace through his heraldry. sith I have blasened be used to signify the armorial bearings of an individual. the noisy. biter. brasa. ventosus. bldsse. the term was transferred to the the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves. a voice Jr. how. braise. a shield. blesse. Sc. his BLAZE 71 vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness. blcese. . AS. A blaze is so intimately Then. blus. coloured prints. — ' — stroy. senses. also blazon or the blazSpenser. an conium.' to fastum . blase. the matter incendiary . With inversion of the liquid. redness . blasonner. to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion. blason. blaze. blcest. 'op een trompet blaazen. blase. to extol. as to was to typify and represent the honours render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer. Du. is the imme. Du. or to the sound which it produces.would then be applied to the armorial bearings painted in bright colours on the diate cause of the roaring sound. used. a funeral oration . blaser vid. bliEsan. a blast. G. friend Cornelius. as a verb. Prov. blaeteren. on whose behalf the herald appeared. oron-blasare. blezo. is from AS. like the in English. Du. live coal . stultd loqui.whence the Fr. Sw. Dan. To blow AS. Fr. a The term the conflagration is accompanied and torch. it is obvious shield on which they were painted. and which. quus. blason. to blow . magnilo. Or the word shining like a blaze or flame. — ^Jam. Kil. as' the purport of armorial bearings connected with a blast of wind. to set on fire. a shining spot. a torch. See Blare. blasoen. blorach. splendour. declaratio. a torch . — — Hence the derivative synonymous cognisance blason. probably with armorial device the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus. to bellow. Blanches illuminies. might And sain. boasting. noisy blor. — — ' : bless. clamorous. blasa. gloriosus. each of boaster. much plausibility. abroad. is used in the sense of manifestatio. . blaodhrach. to trumpet forth. trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald.). backPerhaps the expression of blazing. Blaze. AS. light-coli. If armour. blcEsan. and. to blow.— . that through thy medling is iilcrwe Your bothe love. Sw. a flame. bawling. blatero. blass. blaterare. blis. of an animal. in the same way as we 2. might spring from the same origin by a . which Diez treats that the designation would be equally appropriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful. bleis. Cot. to spread news. ill-speaMng their proper colours . as when we speak of trumpeting one's virblaeten. parallel form sounds the radical syllable with a t instead of d. Golden Book in R. beast. to blaze Sp. The AS. shield or surcoat. Dan. a flame. To blast. or blazening. blose. a lamp blasere. blesse. a MS. OE. blossi. proflare tues. kept up. — Elazen. visui patet. e. also only pains and excellent endurance. proclaim the virtues of. by stripping off a portion of the bark. abroad. The origin of this exSp. i. to proclaim.' painted or figured . 2. properly a shield blez6s cubertz de macula emicans. it is manifest. pale. G. To portray armorial bearings Hence Spenser's blatant in beast. thraso. as fruit or vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential blast of air. a shout. to publish. Cot. as the device by which he was known or made manifest when completely cased in armour. in that of praise. blast. a coat of arms. whence Blazonry. baladrar. blys. Fr. oured. a flame . Blatant. which would ordinarily consist in the first place of the titles and honours of the party Sw. blcesett.

Hence blarr-oge or bleer-oge. Saw you nat how he ilemysshed at it whan you asked him whose dagger that was. To totally different from the foregoing. .— ' — — — 72 BLEACH To Bleach. . Manuel de Pecch&. Bejaune. color plumbeus bldma. To salir. See Black. flack. 115. as of dust or mist . p. to make him feel blank. to disgrace one's name. a mist before the At other times it is synonymous with Prasstigise. blesmir. blemissemeiit.' to deceive one. Bleb. As AS. 1 blenschyn blemysshe. — According to Diez the proper meaning of blemir is to bruise or make livid with blows. a spot. a red watery eye.'he cried till the tears ran down. one that's easily blankt and hath He that doeth wickedly. ^Xiixaoftai. to concealing something that had originally discomfit. See thus thinkande I stonde still Without blcnchivge of mine eie. confound him. And now are these but mansbond (i. not only pale but livid or dark of hue.P. see God truely for he is seen with most purely For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I scowred eyes of faith. a spot. In a secondary sense bleak is used for cold. See Blood. bleakness. to spot . Right as me thought that I seie Of Paradeis the moste joie. the formal equivalent of English wink. Bleed. to start away from. The Promptorium has itself wan signifies the sense of rapid vibration connected with the notion of blinking. B. bloken. while the agent ac- From . Bleak. ' He blarrede or roar. to wink at it. And By a similar metaphor Pol. Sw. a been distinct. a spot. Blear. . blench came to be used for a trick. souiller. G. tumanid. ' . The term blear. blur before their eyes. . boggle at something. geplerr. and blench is sometimes used in the sense of seems identical with blur. is Blench. to wink the eye. or to low as oxen. blakna. yet he doeth not for all that Cot. shrink from a Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles plerr dazzling light. blot. from the effect of cold in making the complexion pale and bleikja. to spot. or blemish. a spot. pimple . to blare been weeping. Blancher. that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one He blessede them with his buUes and blered hure scheaduwe. from on. Bailey. a blot or smear blanking one. So in I^oketh that ye ne beon nout iliche the horse P. A stain in a man's reputation. sinen langen tranen. stain flack pa ens a crying eye. to soil. light-coloured. to stain one's honour or reputation. although he professe nought to say when he should speak. start vor den augen. to bleat as sheep. Sir J. ' — — ' : — — . blac includes the notion of pale and dark. guenchir. like one that has long P1. drop of water. livid. Mac. So in Sw. Schmel. a movement executed for the purpose of engaging attention. — — R. Palsgr. goda nainn. and thence to a bruise. though ye shuld have someUdal in Richardson. An imitative word intended to represent the sound made by sheep or goats. N. to become livid. a boil. novice. Fr. sugillatio. From the OFr. pier vor den augen eyes. spla7nU sie. to whiten by exposure to sun and air . tacher. Gower in R. which are blurred with the have shewed you. a fault. avoid looking it in the face. wheal. wanness. blesmissure.' God in his wordes. it is probable that bleme was applied to the dark colour of lifeless flesh. blcecan. To Bleat. a stain. gif thou blenche from ony of tho. to bleach. c. pale Du. See Black. Gr. a blemish in one's 2. slaves) For these ne raskaile of refous shalle ye blenk. on. is used in a sense exactly synonymous with blench. blema. bleikr. dead-coloured Cotgr. spSt. 242. I chaunge colour. pale . BLENCH obfusco. plama. Blemisli. the livid colour of a bruise. exposed. . Pol.v. (faith or creaunce) Be war. A Blab. Richardson. blink. wan. 419. to cry or weep. ^Blencher. ' — — eye.' the devil makes a vain back. to humbug. — Roquef And The or blesme bleak. a disgrace. More in In this sense it agrees with 'Qa. blot. darkness of vices.filerren. livor. blarren. to cast a mist before the eyes. splamii!. whitish. Ancren Riwle. from the than schal I go. Blear-eyed j having sore i. In the French version Et bien saches tu guenchir 4 creanche ]e gueitchirai a toi en tel maniere. a blotch plerr. or blemysshen — blaken. in the expression reputation. a blot on one's name or reputation plami/!. and is modern sense of the word bleme pale. what blenched him therwith. — blink the question is to shrink from it.D. paleness. to blear one's eye. tutnan is a cloud. blister. AS. inflamed eyes. bldmi.

blatida. OHG. G. tire. From the action of the hand making Sw. lightning. bluiter. . happy . false windows. as in the case of blaze. to act like a — .wink . Pol. ^Jam. To blunder water. to rejoice. glad. shine. sertion of the nasal. Serv. to stir or puddle. mixing in general. riches blajennii blicksem. G. a. to merry. an entry which leads to nothing . good. to bless . to consecrate . blessed.' To — blunge clay. blac. wink of sleep . Nares. blinzeln. to het dat Koorn is verblekket. to churn. blanssen. representing the sound made by the agitation of liquids.blinkard . A . bleg. — Goth. Blight. blitz. De Sonne ' verblekken. plotzen.blinze. as in Du. doors. a wink. Perhaps the notion originally was that it was blasted with lightning. joy. but by no means therefore a pre. sweet. gladness. blink-eyed. happy . and joys of Paradise bliden. to flash.not sting thiiren. bludder. blide. G. the G.blinken. plied to anything which does not fulfil its apparent purpose. Du. to prevent one looking Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window. glance. blazeny. joy . to mix. to dazzle . lighten. vious one in the order of formation. Bliss. Blink. sung. blotzen. will be remarked in the observations on blind is something employed to blind the origin of the word Blink. joy. Deprived of sight. weaklaveny. as the result of a sudden similar development has taken place in glitter. a. blendian. blent. is BLINK desirous of Their burning blades about their 73 heads do tless.corn. to shine. III. Sc. to shine. blicken. to pro. blessed.nasal. readily passes into a /. to lighten. pearance of the blighted . burn up. Needle. (=bene dicere). a gleam. blinde fenster. thou knave. HalliwelL Of this latter the E. to dabble in water. blick. Owl and Nightingale. blaziti. make these hands 3. BLEND complishes a purpose he concealing. blag. blind. a glance. —Brera. Or it may be from the discoloured faded apAS. blithe. Blind. as taschen. pockets. blindr. Thence apblinds. the sign of the cross while blessing one. OHG. To Blend. Sc. to plunge. plonsen. blissian. well blagaya. blinzler. AS. goods.blunda. to fall into water with a sudden noise. Sw. the verb to bless is some. blet.Q. Du. a blessing. — A A — . blogi.eyed. to make a noise with the mouth in taking any liquid. Wtb. Dan. to dilute too much . fortunately. — when he — Bailey. To Bless. . to glitter . as a vatn i vin. blahos. blidu. . giving (Fr. latter case the consciousness of the imiwink. csecubrandish. to blithsian. to dash cream up and down with a plunger . or nettle which does form. to make happy.passes on to designate the complete times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. money. blund. glitter. blithe blis. to shut the eyes. to bless. j). seems the simple netel. . bliss look . to shut the eyes G. be glad flash. 375. . glitter. pale. is I shall Gurt. blitzen. to glance. blincken. blahoslaviti to twinkle. blende. blicken. is to it up with water to a fluid consistency. a glance Swiss blenden. The term then self or others. Tany. tless —Gamm. as a blind entry. ' Pl. Du. happy . Du. to — make it thick and muddy. blago. glitter. livid. blink. window-blind. well blahy blick and blink. blican. although in the in the next article. to bluiter. blicksem. trix. ON. Swab. . blindselen. glimpse.. lightning sweet blago. AS. gives blinzen. whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated matter is wet or dry. to shine. lovely Bohem. . blind- ON. — . blend. A hurt done to corn or trees that makes them look as if they were blasted. to twinkle. blich-fiur. to bluiter up with water. Gif hundes umeth to him-ward (the fox) He gength wel swithe awaiward And hoketh pathes swithe narewe And haveth mid hira his blenches yarewe. Kiittner. AS. Swiss (obsolete). AS. The inblissful. moment. liquid filth to bluther. Blazena Bea. . For the same reason a man said to is of words may be cited. to rejoice. to be blind. riches . wink. . a wink With the bletsian. to dash wine with water. Russ. lightning. a flash. mix from blekken. . Du. flash of light . to glitter ful . cascultare. to glitter. . a look. graceful. tative source of the word is wholly lost. joyful. dazzle .D. a blick-ooghen. to make a rumbling noise. A numerous class bless the world with his heels hanged. . G.' or Dat Koorn verblekket. blinzdugig. the Slavonic languages. Paradises blidnissu. Biglotton. a dead nettle. blanda one or prevent one from seeing. I hold thee a grote thee. with or without the nasal. in potters' language. a nounce happy. happily. F. The sound of k before an s. also to wink.

as distinguished from things fabricated out of it. inde humiditate tumidus. blobber. it was naturally supposed that the signification of the first element of the word had reference to When the process by which it was cured.plisg. blindsehn. and bouclette. Diez suggests that the word may be a nasalised form of on. B. is a much more frequent phenomenon than is commonly thought. blcesma. strawclod. subhu- from the sound of a small mass of something soft thrown against the grovmd. N. speaking rapidly any . which differ only in the insertion or omission of an / after the initial b. a See Blot. a bubble formed or a drop dashed off in the colSo from sputter is lective agitation. blindman's-buff. Du. A solid blouquette blisters. Block. in Nares. bloc. I believe. . pausten. The primary meaning would thus be a small mass of anything. gentle OHG. blaustem. Mod. to swell. A under this name was imported into England.—Bloated. blister blasan. is formed squad. To Bloat. to steep. an unformed mass. blouca and Fr. It may be formed Blithe. as in E. bloc. blaud. the unhewn bole of a tree.. — — — — — From blabber. must be classed with forms like Gr. to close it with a solid mass. Gael. senting the dashing of water. it is must be observed. blijde. blotfisk. a bubble. the radical syllable is taken to signify a separate element of the complex image. in gusts. blesme. a ram. from blcsr. a small lump of anything thick. a blister. to dash liquid. — . Though both his eyes should—drop out like Z. Gael. kostia. repre- pusula. in bulk. also to set See Bless. flaxen also (in hawks or stags) bright tawny or deer-coloured. having an unsound swollen look. to cure by smoke. a little blisg. lagga i blot. soaked. . cooking. giving a sound of the foregoing nature. a bubble. The stem or trunk of a tree. like clot. Ibid. merciful ON. Sw. Thus we have blab and babble. blubber. like manner the coloured. to blow. Goth. Blister. blinzel-maus. bluster. blad. To blink the question is to shut one's eyes to it. viscid. Nor ought it to startle us to find the simple form of the word derived from a. formed spot. See Blot. — Sw. Du. and inarticulately. a lumpish head plubach. B. shells. is also used in the sense of swelling . blister. round. while Lat. Blond. and pisg. a small globe or bubble of any liquid. soft. plub. Svt. Cotgr. blod. soak in water cured fish. blot. soft. to blow. To a smoking or drying by the fire. busten. to blow. a bubble. or the mark which it makes. Hence E. To Blissom. must be referred to AS. Words aiming at the direct representation of natural sounds are apt to appear in the first Instance in the frequentative form. a . soft. pods. and F. or the like. W. whence blast. G. in the sense of a soft tint. to soak. a block or log en bloc. Lat. . in imitative an exceedingly movable element. —Bailey. buclde. Jonson. blot. sound as of a stone falling suddenly in water. blond. puff. Bav. Fr. and hence mean I blote to blote has been supposed to to smoke. joyful. bausen. Sc. a detached portion of the agitated liquid. ON. swell. signifying in the first instance to soak. noise of liquor in a half-filled cask. bloated. boucler.—Bloater.— Bailey. Of sheep. Kil. blab. bleiths. ON. frequentative. weak. Blob. and blink itself is sometimes used to express absence of vision. a blot or spot. husks. ^Jam. taken altogether. expressed by cognate roots. blobbes or droppes of water. mild.pusta. in the lump or mass of wood. to make oneself wilfully blind to it. For this. horse's blinkers are the leather plates put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. Boyd in Jam. as blinzeln. fiustula. to bubble. as a blab of ink. Fr. which to fish is set to preparatory Ihre. separate portion. You stink like so many Moat-herrings newly taken out of the chimney. to blissom. Langued. And so from squatter. mild. any lump or mass of things. fish blind person. bubble and blubber. a blister . Sw. to desire the male. and easily changes its place. to breathe hard. sloppy dirt. Blob. blot. blautr. In Fin. ^vaaa. Egillson. buckle. blidr. or is inserted or omitted. Dan. as if soaked in water. pimple. orbicular.— Hal. a drop of water. a dirty blister. Hence. or blinde-kiih. light yellow. — 74 BLISSOM BLOND midus. — Blob. blide. have more smoke in my mouth than would a hundred herrings. Bleb. and an instance has lately been given in the case of blend. G. pustula. a blain. biota. to to puff and be noisy. to block up the way. bluyster. The origin of blind would thus be the figure of blinking under a strong light. blote. . soft unwieldy lump plub-cheann. The roots /. mass. Both the English and the Latin word are from the notion of blowing. pusula. or bleb. kostua. Dan. stone. blithe. The blow E.

a flower. —Barbour. fall to overflowing. a torch blusse. to strike . OFr. Blotcli. blotch answers to Swiss A which represents the sound of something broad falling into the water* or on the ground. en blau ach. a sound of such the Swabian dialect in the sense of bleed. It is BLOW 75 fall with a plashing noise . G. to blush . Parallel forms with an initial gl and / are ON. to squander. S-wiss pladern. blauwel. ON. The G. Erploten. a The form platschefz. bloeme. E. spots in the sun. Sc. and bliihen is used in syllable klatsch ! Platti. bloed. kuh-plader. to blaze.platter. The sun was brycht and schynand And armouris that bumyst were Swa blomyt with the sunnys beme That all clere. in scattered cately-coloured down on fruits. dial. ON. Du. spot pletter i solen. leme. a nature. light. biado (of which the evidence plattern. a flower. bliise. — — If no man can like to be smutted and Matched in his face. . pale tint. livid . a beater. straw. Bloom. — Cot. Sw. a Halm a. bloutre. a pelting shower). blois. couleur livide.D. to be red with blot. . to squat or lie close. blowen. or the sound of it . the bright to blot paper morsels. gammon. It should be of filth blak-blatte. a small portion of anything wet (Roquefort). Harmar in R. Stalder. a drop of ink koremarked that the Du. Blad. . fall down . blodelsa and blawelsa. yellow. Wflz<^«. to slap. in v. Du. pale. blaeuw. bloi. blosen. Du. blust. platz-regen. . See Blow. . plet. bliithe. ^lys. lustre. — HaL See Back- Blot at Backgammon. to exists in biadetto. platz-voll. splashing full. blooth. fair in en blat vand. a blow. blose. to be red. (of cattle) to dung. blotte. dirty spot on the cheek. Blossom. blosa. blus. bloi. blawels. bletister. blady. Plots. to dirty. mud. . Schilter. . wan.blauschlagen. PI. to blaze . to slap. yellowish It's G. Hatch. blaeuwen. blat. to beat one black bladding on o' weet. Dan. blosem. pale biavo. blotter. a black eye Du. Russ. a Schmid. to strike with such these objects exhibit. a blaze. Prov. pladern. Schwenck. — gush. to glow. — Stalder . blond en blaauw slaan. . blou. Blood. blostma. glister . of a blow with something lios. blomstr. blase. blut. — — . sbiadare. Fris. Both blut and bliithe are written bluat by Otfried. plants which prepares the seed. plattata. G. tions of sound similar representaare formed G. E. platt-voll. Florio). Pl. AS. skam. to bloom or Then as a drop of liquid or of something soft spreads itself out on falling to the ground. a. a drop of water or colour. to strike with something soft or flat. the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with as well as in that of flaxen. great leaf of cabbage. j^ blottir. gloss. blond is used in blatt. blue . Sw. splendour . blondheid. Dan. glasi. a spot or blot. whence plader. to blot the land was in a leme. a gush of milk . glossi. Wendish blodo. Sw. dial. Fr. — Blotch-paper. soft or flat. to fall (of liquids) in abundance. blue. Lat. blue. kobladde. bldmi. Du. a lump. white blatte. let us learn more to detest the spots and blots of the soul. glus. colour of the cheeks. cow-dung. a deli.^ Kil. lidmr. brilliancy. platschern. blatte. of water dashing in a vessel or splashing over. from the bright colour which 7'vci. to From . Ein platsch milch. plottra. as the skin or hair. probably connected with Pol.— . AS. E. to scribble. bloto. redness. bluish. Jios. bloi. blosma. glose. gfyssa. bleistern. to dabble in water . lump of anything soft to blad. proto shine with bright colours . 2. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. D. a water ploutsche. ])erly Du. BLOOD supposition which is apparently supported by the use of the word blode in Austria for a weak. bit by bit. E. flower. Blot. Fris. livid marks. ' — . ON. blysa. a flower. See Blow. shine . bloemen. platsch-voll. clod. to splash. It. plot of land is a spot or small rage. blue. to spot or blot. to a sound as the Germans represent by the glow. Blow. to patter. to flame. blaeuwe ooghe. to shine . bliihen. to dash down Du. coloured (Diaz. blistaf. ^Bleed. a cow-dung. to grow pale). Schmid. from G. blue. bloetnsel.' the rain is driving and blue . E. bldts. to glisten . to sparkle. blond. the bright colour of the cheeks . lump flower. Dan. a blot or spot. parallel form with ON. bfys. to dash down. on. a Usaae.platschJ patsch! platz ! klatsch! represent the sound of dashing liquid. bloedsd.properly to scatter liquid . bleustern. pladdern. Ir. Sc. Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian ploutschen. plotterwis. Apparently from the livid mark produced by a blow on the body. blotting-paper. to dabble in water. blad. E. gleam.

y\r)yi»v. OFr. Prov. to gush. Tumbled. to blow. quod bloot et blawe dicimus. flower OHG.xo'»'. /idXavoc. — To blubber. gliihen. to spot. Blue. a Blossom. to bruise Roquef. blady. is confined to the — . bludder. bliihen. |8A)'. blass. bliihen. P1. blow. Parallel forms with an initial gl are ON. Wtb. gloeyen. Blowzy. red-faced bloted wench. and thence. bluther. dirty. ^Jam. — To Blubber. And. bluh. bruk. glede. 2. sound like water. bliuwan. bloom. blezir. vi^ound. Blubbered cheeks are On the other hand. plustrig. bruised Prov. Danneil. boil. Deutsch. thus identify the Celtic glas with G. 92. the red fluid of the body . cheeks bedabbled with tears. blue . to shine with bright From colours. To Blow. The radical sense is shown in Gael. coup. to flap like loose clothes.' there is here neither bruise nor Wiarda. . -ii. Notwithstanding the We . piusen. to sputter or speak in an explosive manner. These are — Bludder. when the feathers of a bird are staring from anger or bad health blustig. blebber. Lat. Sik upplustem. one who speaks indistinctly and rapidly.D.' Hamburgh Archives. grow pale. — Bluther. G. to Plodern. pale OFr. ler. ' The water blubbers up' (Mrs Baker). especially with respect to the hair. To Blow. Du. . . v. Kil. bloeden. . to fade. a flower. B. a bruise. fied vowel. blois. bloemen. bluod. blubber comes to sig' Blober upon water.' — Palsgr. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome. as bubbles are formed by the a parallel form with blasen. — . glansj Ir. green. pale . ever provincially used in the original can hardly be separated from Goth. is very frequent. blodyn. Pludern. blahen. (of birds) having the feathers staring or disordered. disordered. In agitation of water. to blow. bledniai. The interchange of an initial gl. in E. 1. to exhibit bright colours. to fade. bloi. blava. . whence the expression is extended to noises made by the mouth in crying. and the forms mentioned under Swab. foam. Sik piusen is said of fowls when they plume themselves with their beak. blubbern. wound and sanguinis bla-we dictum teserit. blau. br. withered. consisting of a net- work or frothy with It oil. gUd. to flourish. G. A. into flower. sense. a. tache. like manner Lat. AS. a continued noise of agitated water. to puff up. wan. blazi. plubartaich. to with Bohem. blau. or one whose head is dressed like a slattern. E. may cite for example G. glowing coal . wan. and closely allied with Du. ' BLUE or guggling. Bav. 76 BLOW Si quis alium ad effusionem vel livorem vulgo bruise. G. puff. heath. the same root which gives the designation of the blood. —SchmelIt.nify bubble. to make a noise with the mouth in taking liquid to disfigure the face with weeping. to make blue. to glow. Raynouard. The aUied forms. little apparent resemblance. blawan. The usual interchange of a final z and d connects these with Pol. to fade. pale. G. a herb Gr. glow. to breathe G. a fat. blut. It is howbliuwen. grug. to beat with a mallet. marking some application from that bladder.Jlasa. blaw j biavo. blue. glaodh and blaodh. — . plubraich. fem. glas. disordered in head-dress. blazir. It. d in Sc. Chaucer. Pl. broken sound made by the internal flow of tears in crying. to blurt out. The primary sense is to shine. gloeden. Du. a blow. florere. boasting. to inflate.D. glas. to glow. to make bubbles in drinking. E. Gael. a gurgling . To come In modern speech the noun is chiefly used for the coating of fat by which the whale is enveloped. OHG. in ' Nis hir nauder blaw ni Brem. Mund. bliithe. to gabble. or gr. Gr.D. where the word may be compared bliggman. a paddling in wate r. blust.— . blao. blodelsa. to beat. structure of vessels filled does not impair the representative final b in the radical syllable of blubber is exchanged power of the word when the for to be red. toused. I have little doubt in identifying the foregoing with w. blduen. 51.' ' Ad livorem et sanguinem. pale. blodern.to blossom. Jla-re. Blowze. bl. (of men) having a swollen bloated face or disordered hair. to hard. a blast. Deutsch. plodern. bldt. corre. to guggle. Her sweet bloderit face. Langued. to bubble up. grey. Chaucer.. fqded. sound like water gushing out of a narrow open- — — — — ing . in rapid or indistinct utterance. . blubbern.D. flower w. Pl. plubair. gliihen. bloes. closely difference in of blabber. a shout glagaireachd and blagaireachd. chatter. blosen. bloeyen. meurtrissure Roquefort. We . w. to show flower. to breathe bouteiUis. MHG. to'disorder. plusig. sponds with Sw. Bret. blubonciti. to blow. — — Mundart. pludern. 1292. jabber. fiubbem. OHG. by the modiradical image is the sound made by the dashing of water.

pale) is provincially used in the. mix It. one who performs thing falling flat upon the ground. — Pr. herauspoltem or sloping shore. Kil. blac. blave is moreover. 't — —Hal. a shore abruptly rising. bluish. Bohem. fawn-coloured. je perturbe. The original meaning of blunder seems to be to dabble in water. And blunders on and staggers every pace. — . falb. jaune. to dabble Biglotton E. blond is also applied to the livid colour of a bruise. blahir. to become pale or livid. pludder. Pl. sloppy drink. to become pale. devenir vert blavoie. See Blunt. a boisterous violent man. bloi. biava. — — — . . tutte le semente ancora in erba. to and not introduced by degrees or cere. I blonder. E. like Du. to blunge clay. Du. The change from a medial d to v \% still more familiar. Dan. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. blue. yellow. Roquefort. glundr. the original meaning of which bluff countenance blaf van voorhooft. Then with the nasal. Kil. buller-bak. a blunderbuss. and Du.— . is. glundra. to blurt or blunder out Kiittner. a plain unornamented Blunderbuss. discoloured {plowiee.D. as well as biado. G. To blunder is then. asquus et Well knows the sot he has a certain home. Romance bluiter. a fore. bulmanner. buller-bas. from the brilliant green of the young E. Kiittner. speech. a plain coin herausplatzeu. G. fallow. in plur. Roquefort. dial. rustic. bullern. contrasted with the dle. blue. Dryden in R. in the same way as from It'. G. Supp. to confound. like the Celtic glas. all representing the — . Lat. idle talk pludHence we may explain the origin of the dre. It then signifies something done at once. bleu et blanc. to mix it up with water. mistake.in mud or water. Blaffart. ploffen. blaf. Biada. A bluff manner. The word is probably derived in the ler-jaan. to make water thick and muddy brown tint of the uncultivated country. blavus. non rotunda. Hence a Slcelton in R. find accordingly It. to fall suddenly on the ground. or an abrupt manner. earth and water mixed together. The BLUNDERBUSS 77 — rnonious preparations . Bluff. sbiavare. a flounder. to become pale or wan. a blustering felfirst instance from the sound of somelow . yellowish red.make a noise. Sw. pale straw-coloured. to bring it out hastily with a head not sloping but rising straight up. corn. Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. bUich. from the Lat. poltern. pale. the evidence of which is seen in biadetto. Pm. has donder-bus. originally growing up turf and water. It is remarkable however that the E. Halma. verdure.• BLUFF biado. to fade). to puddle. Blunt. in water dobbelen. to plump into the water. to agitation of liquids. plomp. blaf aensight facies plana et ampla. Analogous forms are Du. blunder. trahir. Dief. biavo.//aay. Bodge. abrupt. and metaphorically. G. without image or superscription. Du. as well as sbiadafe. applied to green as well as blue. herbe. flav-us. bawling. blake (identical with AS. and biavo (Diez). Blavoyer.. blunt. Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place. verdoyer. a Like drunlten sots about the street we roam': to grow yellow. to blunder water. pale yellow. corn. plo-wy. — ' — — — — tint of the reaped corn (still designated by the term biadd) may perhaps explain the singular vacillation in the meaning of the It. Altieri. Bladum. disturb. . to lose colour. to dabble in the mud. as well as the yellowish colour of the hair. blunderhead. liebefactor.' trouble. confusion. used for the work of an unskilful performer. polterer. something. In like manner from an imitation of the same sound by the sylfable plomp. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary. The word is here synonymous with amplus. and then generally idle talk. From G. Pol. The Du. planus. Palsgr. an ill-done job. having a bluff forehead. to work To blunder out a fronto. flodderen (Weiland). for the same rea- son as the synonymous dabble. blond. OFr. — What blunderer is yonder that playeth diddil. blunder. See Blurt. biada. Blunderer or blunt worker. blutter. tradire to Fr. Ditton in R. from an imitation of the sound. puddle. and sbiadare. his business with much noise. superficie plani. segetes virentes. The Du. We Blunder. Flor. He iindeth false measures out of his fond fiddil. blue. sense of yeUow. plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. and bustle . polter-hans. to stir or pudcorn in the spring. - reddish yellow. It is a nasal form of such words as blother. which is rendered by Florio. Hal. blandum. blanssen. Hence we pass to Prov.

without Maolaich. blat. to plump into the water. and these qualities are expressed by both modifications of the root. so different from that in which it is ordinarily used. plains The large bech. Fathers are not bluntly as our masters Or wronged friends are. is used in most of the senses for which we have above been attempting to account. blue. a blot. More in Richardson. Then cometh indevotion. V. it is taken as the type of everything inactive. blait. respecting the origin of which we cannot doubt. fooUsh. poor Sc. Thus we are brought to what is now the most ordinary meaning of the word ' ' — — . bluntschen. blunt Arrived in this isle though tare and to fall dovim. pointless. to plump down. without preparation. to make foliage.plompen. Pol. Sw. G. inactive Swiss bluntschi. silly. like a thing thrown down with a noise. F. unpolished. naked. raw. biosso. — — pidus. bare. as in E. and it is the converse of this metaphor when we speak of a knife which will not cut as a blunt knife. naked. dull. such as that represented by the syllables bluntsch. rude. blutten. down. as the senses of paleness and blue colour very generally run into each other. V. from the loud report a fire-arm. inaKil. Before attempting to explain the formation of the word. plump. and. clumsy. insensible. a pelting have then the exshower of rain. plump. ineffectual reason. bleak. absence of preparation. viz. that the sense of bare. bare or blunt. but of something soft thrown on the ground. plump. without horns. good plump person. to handle a thing bluntly. it will be observed. It. is The word dull. Plump. naked. seems to be derived. blotta sanningen. hebes. stu- — The term blunt is then applied to things done suddenly. awkwardly. Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Pceni. Stalder. duU.—D. blatte. Dan. is used to represent the sound which is imitated in English and other languages by the syllable /&/«/. It will be seen that the G. Woddis. Then as a wet lump lies where it — — Stude blunt of beistis and of treis bare. obtusus. a thick and will person. or blab out a thing Kiittner . a portion To inquire for slaves. Peradventure it were good rather to keep in silence thyself than blunt forth rudely. to make a noise of such a Stalder. as Sw. Now the Swiss bluntsch.— — — . homo stolidus. edgeless. biotto. Du. blott. represent the sound not only of a thing falling into the water. is thrown. and hath swiche languor in his soul. A modification of the same root. —D. stupid fellow. blunsch. heavy. Blaitie-bum. identical with E. bloss. Sir T. a bluntie. Dan. plotsen. Sc. Ford in R. and an unintelligent. similar sound is represented by the Kiittner whence syllables plotz. Molof something wet. heavy. of a knife which not cut. We Phenicianis nane sa blait breistis has. in Richardson. used in both senses. blunt. pale. appears with the same meaning in Swiss blutt. the sound of a round heavy body falling into the water. To speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth. bare. blout. viz. without the nasal. Plump mit etwas umgehen. figuratively. bus. and the like. Sc. Blunt. plumbeus. a simpleton. platz-regen. BLUNT A blunt manner is an unpolished. plutz T)\i. plump. naked. — blunt. blunder. It is from this notion of suddenness. — Kil. G. pressions. It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont is — . or heraus plumpen. to bring it suddenly out. forestis. Chaucer. . rudely.pludse. fling down . . The blait body. bald. Bluntet. to blunt a thing out. nature. dull.to fall into the water. unceremonious manner. obtusus. blunt. plump J to plump out with it. V. Won by degrees. 78 BLUNKET a blunderbuss. void. blockish. the A natural connection of qualities — which with the above mentioned is shown by We the use of the Latin obtusus in the foregoing passages. Halma. united in Gael. rough. unwrought. The syllables blot. and in the same sense. clownish. Swab. heavy. awkward. blait. plonsen. Plontp. as cow-dung. azure. with naked bewis llout Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout. that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche. Kiittner. dial. Q. it will be well to point out a sense. plotz. the naked bodyThe two senses are also Jamieson. through which a man is so blont. To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy. Kiittner. blunt. nis. ang. maol. blunt. —D. Bare and blunt. A light blue colour. sheepish. wan. with or without the nasal. mit etwas heraus-platzen. Probably radically hlekit. massive. that it not easy to discover the connection. the absence of sharpness. platzen. to throw a thing violently A blade reason is used by Piers Plowman for a pointless. to blurt. An active intelligent lad is said to be sharp. unfledged Sw. exactly corresponding to the G. thick.

to render indisbhir. 156. the sound of a blow poffen. bot-voet. 9396. baiag. common. E. — — — * Boast. to talk quick and indistinctly . — A beggeris bagge Than an yren bounde cofre ? P. baban. As the as. blasen and See Burr. bateau. 'Ba. representing in the first instance an indistinct sound. to say bluntly. blaustem. to blow. blirt of greeting. Boost is used for the boast. brett. bleuster. Du. a short thick body. a tassel. borrar. ground. Hal. will fly up. edge. geplerr. pludern. it is probable that iJoarhas no radical identity with G. little knob hanging by a piece of thread. Du. or bog also thread. a bladder . hot. an end or stump. or backwards and forwards. pustern.the syllable bot. . To splirt. blusse i ansigtet. then applied to indistinct vision . table. Wright's ed. bladdra. Pull the bobbin. Boa. proverb spoken when we hear an empty Kelly. bot. to guggle. to bark. Du. Fr. The elision of the d is very to chatter. — ' Dief. . to blubber. — — . Wtb. to jabber. eafor. Gael. a Jam. to spurt out. to smear. bobine. to make mouths. margin. lacerta. ' — And whether be lighter And lasse boost mSdth. a grows to a great bigness. imitated by has also In like . . to sound like water boiling. a club foot . short pieces of any filthy mud. The to radical meaning D. to dirty. To blow in puffs. a baU of thread the mud. margin. cluster. AS. violent G. Tumus thare duke reulis the middil oist. a mist before the eyes plerren. — From mouth. Fl. botte. but it may arise from the notion of dabbling in the wet. to puff. primarily signify loud noise. flat. as in Du. AS. whence bordvidr. blast. bit. rude. is formed Du. to puff. pfludern. bdtr. Sc. a mistiness. ON. splurt and spirt. blot. 1. blot. Bav. To move quickly up and down. to blur.' — Red Riding-hood. boot. to breke. boccheggiare. a tassel. Lat. to blore. P. to give a crack. e. an edge. a torch blusse. pausten. to puff. pluddre. See Blossom. dial. ever-swin. . stupid. Slur. To bring out suddenly with an explosive sound of the mouth. planks raised up outside the roofs. puffen.pusten.plodem. puddle.D. skin. boa. bora. border. bluter. properly noisy. — a blaze. or blurt with one's mouth. Swiss blodern. the red colour of the cheeks Dan. Bluster. my dear. — To Bob. gabble Sw. E. blaste?i. blurra. i. It. V. large. outward edge. blarra. and the latch . BOB 79 — To Blur. &c. fringe. crack made by bursting open. The word is probably a parallel form Med endilongum bsenum var umbuiz k hiisum with Sp. to disfigure with E. pof. and wrapped round a little piece of wood. literally edge-wood. bdta. With glaive in hand maid awful fere and ioist. table. to make a noise with the mouth. to brag grande loqui. to snuff. boistous. De Boat. board. a. bhis. be a crack or loud sound. bludder. to make a noise in boiling. It. a blot. BLUR Boar. Du. To Blurt. Du. blodern. Halma. like the parapets (viggyrdil. ader. AS. stellio. Fl. a board or plank. blosken. edge. acre. Pl. a dangling object. aper. blaere. and Du. violent. margin. bliise. Board. on. to bounce. chicchere. lindwurm. an ear of corn. bausen. Explained by Jam. Blush. bobbin. coarse. Bot zeggen. rude. dial. 29. to chatter. a smear. war-girdle) raised on board a ship in a naval engagement. whence bob. boord. blubber. blotch and botch. For the parallelism of blur and burr comp.v. G. to endeavour to terrify. cheeks glow. Boa. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward. bord. and swimmeth very well. Du. w. a burst of tears. Du. c. and when applied to vaunting language. reistrupp^o?*(^-z^z/2"rautanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdiat vseri. manner from the sound of a lump thrown on the. mire. To tinct. See Boisterous. to blush. dull. bord. or blurt ^ih one's uppi. discoloured spot on the 'Ba. and boisterous.— . Related to blutter. 274. Heard you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. of the word seems . sudden. blaffen and baffen. Kil. G. along the town preparations were made up on the houses. bord. bakke bleustern. Comp. Dan. It. bludder. blose.—Bobbin. to dabble. planks or boards. swagger. to roar. it implies that it is empty sound. Schmeller. blader. plump. to glow . beacon fire. A large snake. cocodrUlus. blow vioAn augmentative from lently. the Brem. both used in the sense of boasting.y. bluther. OE. a border. beer. bur. Wallace. batello. this root are formed Sc. gabble. Sc. a blow . strong. to be out of temper. bdd. burra. From the last must be explained a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. voce intonare. blunt. Gael. to blaze. and E. to rumble. to crying. Fr. to threaten. to blurt out. Supp. G. bustuous. a flurt with one's fingers. To brag and to crack. . eber. Hal.plerr. to dangle. a blotch. a small lump. bar. berd. Sverris Saga. as splurt to splutter. blur.

Shakespear has badged with blood. speak of the barrel of a horse. a spur. butt. bodat. Supp. bodies. whence Fr.' Bogglie. bog. body of a shirt bol. or a pair of bodies. and E. as distinguished from the sentient prinby which manner from ciple it is animated. an awl. bodig. belly. — as well as the body of an animal. Bog. to be uncertain what to do. to fail. unsteady.. potacha. ' The grun a' bogglt fin we geed on it. The Sp. to make. unsteady nature of a soft substance. bogadaich. gagei. bodies bolstred out with —Gascoigne in bumbast and with R. Lap. corset. agitate. And waves. boftich. to dabble or paddle. We . .! . W. bothog. the body of a shift gaguejar. gago. To make bad work. and the word is well explained by Bailey. French bouter. Hast scho' wide' patscht f Have you failed again ? Etwas auspatschen. bodak. gagoula. In like manner E. anything protuberant. strike with the horns. ON. stuttering. moving backwards and forwards. BOGGLE trunk and G. Crist. We — — — The radical image is probably a series seems the same word with the G. '£. It introduced from Ireland. To Bode. The primary sense of body is then the thick round part of the living frame. Russ. Schmel. Thus from gog or gagwte have Bret. to scruple. the boss of a buckler. where bogs form Gael. exhibit another modification of the root. — 2. to fail. shake. a cask. quagmire). See Bid. anything soft. as in stammering or staggering. pall. bogach. Gael. a ghost . to waver. Cot. Bret. 43. bottig. Ptg. is a lump. bogle. then from the yielding. rounded. bayonet. * To Boggle. bayonet .hollow. AS. move. bodi. a round body both. stitch. to push with the horns. her strength with over-matching spend but out alas have seen a swan . patsche. bogan. so large a feature in the country. a prickle. corpses pot. point. See Baber-lipped. badyti. to roll. See To Botch. potig. . Bodice. AS. to bodge. bole. gogach. bagges. Wall. by the syllable patsch.gmh:t. fickle . or stem of a tree. mud. waving. bod. and cannot endure the sight of the bugbear. bodene. The signification of the root bot. an announcement. barriga. baboyer. Thy i. gog. With With this we charged again We bodged again.\\i\c\iset. Lith. Gael. biodeachan. — Grandg. a . To portend good or bad. the thick part of anything. wavering. . meaning the round part of his body. as signifying anything spherical or round. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. bodetz. represented by the abruptly sounding syllables gag. ^Jam. 3. from fitting close to the body. a quagsoft. bod. the stem of a tree . . So BOB To Bob. thrust with something pointed. boll. Gael. to blabber with the lips faire la babou. Commonly explained as if from Sc. unsteady. to be unsteady tich. Now unskilful action is conmire. busti. woman's stays. Ptg. to stammer. expression hogglin an bogglin. — H. Bohem. rump/ sigmiy a hoUow case So bourdfuUy takyng Goddis byddynge or wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the Sermon against Jewis that hobbiden. nodding. To mock. body and G. to prick. a sting .rabodi.a (i\ia.' A — Sherwood's Diet. stantly represented by the idea of dabbling j einen patsch thun. barrique.' But the radical Glanville in Todd. of broken efforts or brokeii movements. Ir. Reliq Antiq. bog. to start start and back as from a bugbear. to make a mow at. toss. bodhag. cask bottich. a bog or morass. to deliver a message. Banff. bottich are derivatives. or bag. bo tich. corpset. In this sense from the syllables ba ba representing the movement of the lips. ' boggle at every unusual appearance. To Bodge. to smack. In like The sound body is of a blow with a wet or flat represented in G. to bob. bolr. The word has probably been — A ' woman's boFr. as distinguished from the limbs or lesser divisions then the whole material frame. . to butt. Body. formerly bodies. idea in boggling is hesitation or wavering. Miracle-plays. quakmg. stumpy. as I bootless labour swim against the tide. calf of the leg. needle. to thrust. bodian. corset from corps. a dagger. is identical with Fr. . a messenger . Bodkin. bob. a command. biodag. . . . swelling. the body. whence paUchen. to stir. gag. dies. a prick. potahha. nave of a wheel. e. message boda. It is applied to bodily vacillation in the Sc. gebod. to commit a blunder. Gl. arise E. gog in gog-mire. bog (equivalent to E. moist mire. shaking . precept. VI. to stick. bogadh. bodi. bodilo. the belly. bot. goggle. as a horn. potacha. bodnu. a cask. the two being spelt without material difference in the authorities guoted by Schmeller. of which the E. a puddle. daubed or dabbled with blood. round. to blurt a thing out. a body. palleg. the trunk of the animal body. stutter gogmire.

a swelling in ice. bolr. Du. Du. or the like. trunk of a tree . bald. — BOIL BOLT 81 and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. the bolt shot by a crossbow but it is also G. Swab. tomentum. stameln vel bochken. — 6 . bulla. Fr. to puff. G.Du. Love. huge. cows the people from speaking. Westerwald bollern. to boil. the. Du. E. treated under Bowl. bol.' Mrs Baker. furfures. G. Kit. buile. bok. OHG. gluma. poppy (Bailey). bSlstr. roydeur. 1430 in Deutsch. bol. Chaucer. bullire. to stagger. chatter. confident. Fr. Bret. from Du. Da. Wall. * Boisterous.. to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished as a horse. Boil. properly represent belly. . hakogni. globular bod)'. quick. bog. ballr. to hesitate from doubt. swelling. excellent. to stumble. bollen (Kil. the most obvious materials for stuffing a cushion. A. polc'h. Mund. Bole. then violent. ^Vocab. Lap. ON. buller. a cushion. Fr. to give a hoUow sound. also a blister. bolzBold. in the sense of handsome . brave. This iv. caput scapulse. a head . Properly noisy. a boil or swelling Du. dint in a metal vessel. Sp. strong. see Boast. boly. the gurgling sound of water rush. Kil. V. a bakazikni. Test. i. (of Mons) b^guer. pillow. to the belly as the or dislike. glass phial. Bustuous. puile. bout is explained by Kil. to waver or hesitate.D. Goth. pall. bolzen. E. notes. boutpijl. courageous. capiing into a cavity. chaff of corn siliqua. to tattle. the husk of nuts.). stud. repagulum. boil . swelling. bolt. rough. Me doth awate. Sc. The essential meaning of the word would thus appear to be a knob or projection. Magy. folliculus grani. noise. as. animal as distinguished from the limbs. up of bubbles. tar. boss.rounded part of the body. — — which the cushion is stuffed. a bubble. The round stem of a tree. bola. boll. as those of nuts. G. and then applied to other husks. . bul. He could From the notion of a thick round mass not get on with his speech. haughty. sagitta lat neuir demyt be capitata. pusten. ON.— D. bolster. bula. proud. coarse. boystousnesse. a quaking mire.— — . scruple. tartalear. Daring. to be prominent. as E. pustule. is probably a modification of boll. bolstar. OG. flax-boU. whence bulla. Cot. bold. beautiful to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in — het schouderblad. 374. fiausten. baud. In winter whan the weather was out of measure boistous and the wyld wind Boreas maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise. Chaucer seems Dan. pilum catapultarium bout van The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant — . he will speak out. balldr. used. free. biiilen. to swell.w. — ' — tagliare. bolt upright. bold. bhster. bul. tartle. gerade signifies straight to the mark. strong. boggle. bouil. Boystous. To Bolter. bag or bog are derived Piedm. Du. may be identified with It. belc'hj. Sw. 304).palleg. w. hero. and manace for to de. — bolster (aufgeblasen — Schmidt). Boll. to stammer. The term applies in — — impressed . round the first instance to the materials with . is a blunt-headed arrow for a crossbow. The round heads or seed-vesthe sound of water boiling. stramenta. tulum. bal. warlike. * Bolster. bald. ON. insolent baude. as baltha. from the branches. which are not used for a similar purpose. pessuHe then exhorts the king lus. a bump. Pm. prince. See Bulk. a broad-headed peg to fasten one All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he object to another. tartajear. bagaji. bulla. impetuosity. Pr. bulr. For bost or boist in the sense of crack. sels of flax. beule. bolleken. puilen. bochken (titubare. hollow. cheerful. he made poor the term is applied to the body of an boggling work. merry. b^gayer. to stammer. Gael. wag. thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mispusteren. bolc'h. ^Boistous. ON. Lat. It. blow. by which it is moved to and fro. a bubble. pimple ON. the lir. shake. courageous. and throat-boll is the convexity of the throat. stutSw. puffed Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist up. bout. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. styffe or rude . Stalder. but that Bolt. If the primary meaning of the word is stuffing. perpendicular. in speaking. a bubble. 45. ohg. bol. G. . See Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl. bolster. strong. balder. The bob. capitellum. a fastening for a door. obex. we must suppose that it was first used with respect to the chaff of corn. the bolt of a door being provided with a laiob A . In the same way Sc. intrepid. bolle. bold. the body of a man or of ter. bald. as. lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion. the body . To Boil. . to be at a loss a shirt. bolla. Lat. bog. bola. bealder.

Bulte-pook or bulstar. to knock. to start out. ler. Fr.D.protuberance. bullern.D. . a bolter Prov. to spring forth E. tar. beliitea. a sod (Schiitze). For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given collecting in lumps compare Du. to E. a bunch. sestuare. — — — . Pl. OFr. cruddle. . to significance of the term was overlooked. Prov. by which ^ivavccA^x poltern. we have Du. Pl.agitation of the meal in the bolter. bulk or quantity . rugged. by the representation of a racketing sound. Dauphiny a sudden movement..Lat. OFr. From a different representation of a to collect in lumps. barutela. bortelen. poltern. rugged. Wtb. ex•wagen. representing a loud broken noise ^bultrig. die treppe pressed. on the one hand.). hulch. bolt head is a retort. pultare. we der Brocket). From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das the mill-clack or Northampton bolter. to the implement which kept up such an properly to rattle or clatter {kloterspaen importunate racket. Schiitze. bolzauget) Sp.fe/2?. boss. ' Holler poller / bulter. Sanders. / is transposed in Fr. Passing from the sense of movement burattare. we see that the one consists of a words. racket gepolter. to shake. taraabout.by forms like G. Hence Palsgr. The ment and the operation. we pass to Du. buletare. in S'W plotter. And as the agitation of cream in .thump or blow. to bolt meal barutel. OFr. beluter. tumultuari. a rattle. poll. G. Taratantaribultrig^ the way is rugged and jolting. Sw. one after the other.noise {brattle of thunner. from G. poltern. buretter{CQ\. ' — — ! ! : — . pull. ein fiirchterlicher getose ' hotter und potter dass die wagenrader bluteau. bolzen. bluter. je bulte. representing a rat. to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked Then from the analogy between manner. to coagulate. budeln daz mele . as a rabbit from its baritel. to start with palpitate. clump. gebolder. as above explained. uneven.D. have Lat. a clod. 2. croler. was applied to a bolter De weg is hultrig un or mill-clack.— . zen. to agitate. ! radical sense of a knob or thick is exemplified in E. Pr. taratarrum. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the impleBanquo signifies clotted with blood. rattling noise may be derived a series of When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the / in bolt and the related surface. then to knock. with E.On the same principle. . or the like. buideln. bulstrig. In the next place. a small portion. curdle.i5a//^«. Champagne burtcau. Ging_ es to bolt buletellum. kloteren. a clod cloth. bolt. and when the radical crepitaculum Kil. grasbulten. pattern.D. Du. abolter. protuberance. clattering other of a series of projections or emi. Mid. On this account Mid. bulio. crash. buUire. taratantarum. or ill. Lang. holier poller. Hence. . the name of bolter mixed flour and water. bulk. I boulte meale in a boulter. a . burclct.. It. or a racer from the course. 82 BOLT The or clump Pl. the syllable bolt or poll would be regarded Kil.). to sift meal by shaking it to and fro Fr. the sense of right on end. to do anything accompanied by a rattling noise buller. Pm. bolzaugen.) E. tuft. a clump of turf. zare. btilt.nature of the operation. to become lumpy. barutare. a bolter or implement for bolting. cro. The ulti. to make a knocking. to come rattling downstairs. as snow balling on a horse's foot. swelling. tling or crashing noise.clack. properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare Dief. to form lumps. Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. buletel. to bolter. a millpoltzet augen. achzten it went helter-skelter so that Bomhoff.through a cloth of loose texture. and the Thus from So. projecting eyes pul. polt-foot or Sir bolt-foot. bolting to that of form. bultred. loud and fast. So also we pass from Lat. jolting. knob. . tantara. Brem. to bolt flour burato. Lat. hulter de bulter. Dan. . mole-hill. . MHG. projections. bolt-foot. hump. hammer. P1. as Fr. agitari (Kil. baruta. hump-backed (to be compared A ' . a crashing or racketing noise. uneven. Supp. Du. and to crash. a rattling carriage.as the essential element signifying the talum. fied bot. staff which sounds tar. ' Daar ligt idt up enen bulten : ' it lies all of a heap. as of a trumpet. Bav. small heap. also to curdle. bultig. to talk pulzen. crod. hammer. vessel with narrow opening. crotlar. a clap of thunnences. lumpy. : ' — — . a rattling noise and a jolting motion. brattle. series of jolts or abrupt impulses. . blotttre. to clack. to bolt or bolter is mate origin of the word may be best illustrated. a club-foot. a round glass ending — bultig. hole. to bolt meal barutel. barutela. indeed the operation of bolting was comhammering. the wheels groaned. bulla. Here the radical image is the violent O.u.

PoUitriduare. bonfras. to thunder. while nothing would be more natural than the application of a term signifying violent agitation to each of those operations. the leg.Su?. e. A large fire lit in the open air on occasion of public rejoicing. also thick-shanked. the silk-worm. Bibelesworth in Nat. i.D. booming over the water. and that from Fr. beil'n. and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. a ligature. ODu. . . Du. achsel bein. builen. bureau. and called in Mid. a string. are applied to BONFIRE Bom. properly Our the name passed into the languages of Northern Europe. agreement. It. cotton stuff. thick from shaking. butteln. whence bomme. Du. brust-bein. bond. bommen. any kind of gun or piece of ordnance. tree. a beacon. to boult meal. When ture.). bombdra. term is appropriated in G. bunden. cotton. and this is especially the function of the leg bone. the contracted form of Du. Kil. tiffany. Named from the beacon-fires formerly in use to raise an alarm over a wide extent of country.^Altieri. Per bolenger (bultingge) est cev^re La flur. bambagioj whence It. Gascoi^e in R. bwmbwr. an iron shell to be exploded with Fr. bein. bombast. . As cotton was used for padding clothes. to cast to and fro. bonds. Mid. . In E. E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour. stump. sije. the murmuring of the sea. a stock. Fr. bongam. It must be observed that Diez' derivation of Fr. from boom. a bone in general. to resound. band pi. silk. Fr. any riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous noise . . Du. a hollow sound. a boulter of meal. OE. bombasine. as Banbury. a drum bombammen. Need you any ink and bonibase. beuteln. baum-bast.Lat. Schm. baun. Banstead. tie. Near 6 * . It. and Mod. crook-shanked bondew. sericum arboreum. bomba. Now the office of a bone is to act as a support to the human frame. bombice. bon. bombase. bone of the . buidelen. bonog. gossipium. Fl. From builen. is supported by the analogy of G. thick. HoUybandin R. G. as in . burato. a bottle for shaking up salad sauce . buidelen. &c. a bond is an instrument by which a person biizds himself under a penalty to perform some act. bindan. to shake (as to shake the head. bopin. to ring bells. bulter from It. a material quite unfit for bolting meal. It. sive de arbore vulgo bombasium. The material called by this name. lana lignea. — Bombard. It. gunpowder. — bombast came guage. Bonfire. basin. breast-bone. derivation. tie. Dan. and in fact we find the and Du. When cotton was introduced it was confounded with silk. a thundering noise bomre. But it is extremely unlikely that a designation having no reference to the resemblance between the operations of bolting and churning should have been transferred from the former operation to the latter. from teu. bwmbwry mar. produced the Pl. an implement of binding. a baker. iuttern. however. stuff. — having a stem or stalk. and Bond. e le furfre (of bren) demor^. banitola (Fl. Bone.) . G. to shake down fruit from a tree. been. borel. of which it expresses so marked a characteristic. to signify inflated lan- To stuffe Lette none outlandish tailor take disport thy doublet full of such bumbast. G. 83 Gr. Dan. rimbombare. raw silk. biire. bombarda. E. to which the leg. to bolt meal. . accounts only for the sense of bolting meal and we must suppose that the name was extended by analogy to the act of churning and the idea of agitation in general. sijde. boulenger.— BOMB a chum is closely analogous to that of the meal in a bolter. and Du. sye. butteln. bambagino. Moreover. Antiq. bolting-cloth. has repeatedly varied. a stem or base. silk-worm. In legal language. — AS. 155. to shake. bande. a —Bombasine. the radical sense of which is shown in Bav. therefore fairly identify bone with the W. the shank the shoulder-bone. bommer. q. thick-legged. Greek iSa/iliaiciov. Bomb. bras. to beat a drum. the tendency to give meaning to the elements of a word introduced from abroad. ^o/j. d. It. bombasin. Butterglas. or trunk word in W. assuming the of leg : special signification W. band. to thump W. bauniwolle. band. coarse. bombicina. must be explained Fr. barate. we speak of a gun to resound. beuteln. which has given rise to so many false etymologies. a churn for butter. the Fr. Castrais barato. It. Par la bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. buttel trueb (of liquids). ties. to bind G. and also the leg. signifies the coarse cloth in which peasants were dressed. again. bambacium. We may From an imitation of the noise of the explosion. undyed cloth of the wool of brown sheep. a word of which we have traces in several English names. bombe. bureau. . which requires stuff of a thin open tex.bast. as if made from the bast or inner bark of a tree and Kilian explains it boom-basyn.

a hollow skin. boa. calceus rusticus e crudo corio. or Vanns. bauen. Schm. a scribe G. alphabet that letter is named from the birch instead of the beech. bds. The character of folly is i860. Du.— 84 BONNET is still BOOT called the the last of these a field To Boom. G. 232. gaping about with vacant stare Mrs Baker. Binau Brychyniog. a. wall hangings. and fig. Hufwud-bonad. from Du. the alphabet. hill called and near Banbury is a lofty Crouch Hill. Thin ben Luke i. prayer. bosih. Sp. hu?idbusa. Mrs Baker explains bun. Gl. b^er. bote was similar to the Irish brogue and Indian mocassin. whence ban-ffagl. also called Brecknock Beacons. botte. to strew with straw. The latter is the original AS. 13. which is mostly derived from the Low German and Scandinavian dialects. tall. are formed Fr. wondering signifies not only straw. Perhaps bonad does not appear to have been used from ow. a tree. to prepare. Boor. Jr. AS. as a lying-place for cattle. booby. without ad- . Hick the halieneyemaii hitte hus hod afterThere were chapmen ychose the chafTare to preise That he that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the clolce. . Gael. the possessor of the farm. the stubble of beans. of wonder On the same principle Sp. build. foolish.. the first consonant of the alphabet. . Perhaps. bonaid. stabulum. — e. ON. bd. — From the sense of inhabiting we have neighbour. the name of the letter b. Palsgr. chaff. Wall. one who stands staring with open mouth babaie. and Gael. although in the OG. simpleton. a silly fellow. boo. Boon. See Bown. To give a thing to boot is to give it into the bargain. b'ukvdry. house. — . gaping hoyden — Cot. bobo ! interj. * Boose. Bonnet. buch-stab. boubi^. The word seems of Scandinavian origin. a lying-place for dogs or swine. dog-kennel. to yawn. gehyred. ty Gael. Boot of bale. to set in order. to aid. ON. to dress. or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. is Du. — Bailey. The i. — From the participle present. buandi. in Phil. . To Boot. baier. Hal. Fr. by arbitours sholde bote the P. ass. But bosg. p. to ask. clown. letter. to litter bosu. remnants of hay or straw. a simpleton. like To sound loud and dull Beacon field. The origin of the word is probably the W. till. should contribute something to make the bargain equal. nachbar. pero. petition. inhabit. boubair. and Ban in w. Fr. writing bokos. bua. a good turn or re- meaning. bauer. a vessel for holding liquids. bas. bonad. botte. head-dress wai^g. bonnet. crouch) probably served to mark the place of the former beacon. till. bAkva. lofty. Diefenbach suggests that the origin is buki. from gape. to gape. Bonnefyre. bowwen. boutig. to give it to improve the conditions already proposed or agreed on. And Clement the cobeler cast offhus cloke to the nywe fayre nempned it to selle . boutig. high. which one gaping and staring about. master of the house. enveloping the foot and laced on the instep. ganian. but stall. dolt. bobo. \ais-band. dress. bid). Build. bonad. from beida (E. the scriptures bokareis. Pr. dial. Kil. . bua. signifying beech. the mouth. a lofty blaze. It would appear that in Kilian's time the Du.^ —P. beiSne. by itself for head-dress. boia. badaud. bos. Prov.—Bootless. bdn. litter. boer. prayer. remedy of evil. as the Brecknockshire Banns. inhabit. Thus from the syllable ba. babau. and thence Rouchi baia. . OSlav. In nautical language. a letter . quest. Fr. Pm. bote. It is commonly explained as identical with It. feu de behourdis. Kil. Bootless. biikui. A peasant. E.n. where a cross (or a gun. pig-sty. a bonfire. often cut for burning and lighting fires. Ox. OW. betere thing werse. succour Bailey. literally cow-house. bose. a letter Russ. one who dwells nigh. Du. AS. Fr. set in order. ON. help. pole. Book. desire. however. a stall. dress. Boom. w. at everything. fool. . the word may signify merely a fire of buns. bommen. — To boot. Mrs Baker. swinbusa. dial. netis stall. See Butt. A stall for cattle. bota. G. Booby. It. Boot. — — — representing the opening of the mouth. Many lofty hills are called Beacons in E. ON. See Bomb. blockhead. boandi. . N. a boom is a beam or pole used in keeping the sails in position. relief from sorrow. a bag of skin or leather. generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. ben. bolt. Basa. . bossen. comes bondi. been. . gawney. Du. to cultivate. Hal. gaby. boten-shoen. in w. From bo. or a large beam stretched across the mouth of a harbour for defence. botta. E. Busk. . bene. from badare. bosig. boom. Trans. busu. build.Boos. a head-dress. to gape. tigh. a dry stalk. a. babin. b&ber. G. short boots. petition. Bun. A favour. Goth. countryman. Swab. to cultivate. babb^o. and from AS. beam. reparation. tapestry. — — . the cultivator.

. the tool with which he bites into his copper plate. and meta- Fr. 1. a tusk. sahan Slavonic languages the word signifying puru. drillen. use of the word would be better explained on the supposition that it was originally bur. — ON. Du. bite. bothag. the gnawings as it were of the saw or borer. pointed. See Burgeon. forare. purra. making good again . bata. G. puras. to restore. bauda. better. a shelter of branches. borino. in Ihre. a shop. piercer. wave. N. remedy. bdra. sharp. a cupboard. leaves little doubt as to the primitive image from whence the expression is taken. BoracMo. repair. Esthon. The Fin. a hut. bordi. furni. Palsgr. The ON. to swell. sculpo 05\xiik. Burke in R. fimbria. a borer . ON. make . struere ignem. Fl. boards. pu purro (saha =: saw . from deila and skipta. boete. kvit-bara. Sp. p. aid. flow of the tide in a single large wave up certain estuaries. rof. Kil. bord. baara. Fin. schare of a man of a prise in warre time. to repair. a sharp chisel for would thus be the division of the spoil. See Bower. bohren. as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. on. to divide. batr. burin.. swell bara. cutting stone with Halfva bytning af alt that Hist. to importune. to surge. and it is doubtless in the sense of ON. ora. urboro. byte points to the verb byta. sawroot. lappolone. bower. &c.—Burin. boeye. a shop budowati. nor E. or the gradual working a hole in anything. Esthon. to bite. Fr. the . the primary signification of which graver's small pounce. The analogy between the operation of a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- A half share of all that spoil. Magy. exchange or divide. but used in the sense of laying or lighting it. dens mordens vel caninus. to build. OHG. reparation. as afford a satisfactory explanation. and parrets. a. from borra. barn. in Lap. It. to bore. bit that the term centre-bit is applied to an instrument for boring. a wave. an ing or biting leads to the application of board. and hence to fine. Booth. ON. to expiate boeten den dorst. bud.par. from bord. a leather bag or bottle for wine. OSw. to anything Neither G.por. terebro. phorical sense meaning in the To bore may have same way in the metaits acquired — — could not tell how to rid myself better of the troublesome i5k?-.— Return from Parnassus I inR. 266. See To We speak in E. Gael. uzboro. a responding forms . and E. terebra sculptoria purastoa. Bete. a chisel. hut. Compare Manx birrag. baete. dust. a border. bolino. both. a great bur. to patch. amendment boeten. hem or gard of a garment. This word is widely spread in the sense of a slight erection. the booty taken in war is called grip-deildi and hlut-skipti. a borer. a bladder. Gael. edge. a sharp-pointed tooth. bdt. Bohem. puru. Another derivation from Fin. to stick unto as a bur. chewed food for infants. bit is used to signify the point action of or edge of a knife bitr. borracha. borracha. chisel. an importunate fellow that will stick as close as a bur to one . scalpo. It is admitted that Fr. In the Fin. a bothy. an engraver's chisel. purra. are derived from G. comminuted by either kind of action. than by getting him into the discourse of Hunting. a granary . Fr. butin. welt. margin. are parret. a booth or shed. budka. . boeten het vier. . admovere titiones. Pol. limbus. lappalare. to . to to . cup- awl. betan fyr. cellar. butin is explained by Flor. . to build buda. of an edge that will not bite. To Bore. a hut or tent. The as G. limbus. fire. to pierce. to hut. Booty. . to profit Goth. to bete the properly to mend the fire. AS. botjan. and thence to eat build. TumbUng from the Gallic coast the victorious tenth wave shall ride like the bore over all the rest. scsdes-bod. bardure. biorag. to The Sw. Alexand. mat-bod. bora. which are probably from the same root. 3. to mend. to quench one's thirst . differs only in termination. budowai. amendment. . A phorically a drunkard. • — To Bore. is purin. or anything pointed. Gael. a borer. BOOTH vantage. not contributing to further the BORE 85: end we have in view.. . Du. And so in ON. Border. cottage. to bite. furd. bauen. pi. ON. puras. extremitas Bore. a word. . abode. bottino. gnawing affording the most obvious analogy from whence to name the operation of a cutting instrument. Lat. Mag. also to harass with work or perpetual requests'. yfirbdt. a shed. . Fin. tent. purro. beute. to profit. cure Sw. Fin. recovery bata. It. wine-skin. to build seems a derivative rather than a pu =: wood). to foam. to be of advantage aftragabotjan. boede.. bothan. to boot. The cor. But probably the E. puru.

bossen. coarse cloth made of the Du. plant. cormpted. It. empty. The origin of boss may accordingly be dress of the lower orders. See found in Bav.' the chief of the ' borh. a knob. — ' wind burya. ^Walde- Waldemar knew — mar Krone pitch. Goth. borg. I. loan. The other. ' — — . can only be given by a body of a certain Solen bergas. 106. — A — A Occleve in Halliwell. botse. a. a little blow. an eminence. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from withon security. borei. AS.bucklers. whether from the fact preserve G. cnap. empty. A word lately introduced from frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East. Boreal. the popuThen from the peculiar resonance of a lace. The primi.vr\. ance have commonly also the sense of bairgan. a boss. Du. AS. that the protuberance is considered as a Borrel. secure. of bail throughout the country. as if from the verb to hold. bos. poor. bump is used in lump or piece.mass. Borough. was origin of the term is the OFr. rude. Bosh. a herb. and also a But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay Som of hem ben as borel folkis ben. Turk. and borough in the sense of a town. . the hollow between the Borsholder. a bouncing baby . botch. and thus could not shake off the old burr. which now signifies a knob. byrig. a blow. bail biirgen. the must have arisen burgensis. to conceal. &c. Bos a surety. borh. The origin seems to be the Goth. huschen. to give a hollow bizo. knocking. whence the burg. boss. Borowholder. /3oraMK6f. bom. less. useCanterbury. So Du. AS. boss sound. bttssel. poor. a city . hollow.' Vegetius in Diez. ON. bundle. to save Sw. or head-borough. Botany. bussi. surety. Swiss Rom. primarily signifying coarse sound . to give bail or answer for an. a citizen. to protect. bump. undyed wool of brown sheep. a pushing or striking out. tuft. Lang. butse.. viipyoc. cnoc. burh. It. bierge. Gif thu feoh io borh bois is used in the sense of hollow. knob. tive idea seems to bring under cover. striking. boss. formerly used in the sense of knocking. cnag signifies both a clergy. Jam. as it still is in parts of Savoy and Switzerland. Russ. bosse. that which biirge. Altieri. knur. rustic. E. (Bridel). f graauw. to strike . borgo. G. bizocco (from make a hollow sound. as we speak of a thumping potato. destitute. into borsholder. head. the North Wind. . but he had not yet learned the art of being blandly insolent. boussi. And that unsittynge is to here degre. nonsense. botch. botsen. Hal. is probably radically Boss. bussa coarse. or because a blow berga. signifying bury in the names of Enghsh towns. Fr. a citizen. burel. tempest. Bunch. borg. a wen. to save. D. bourgeois. Gas' cUum parvum quem bur. beorgan. borgese. both within towns and Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. storm. boss of the side. ^ma. Hence borhes ealdor. the Sc. grey). ' the old diplomatist's importunity and weariness by report. projection. hollow bucklers. in contradistinction to the more polished knock. both senses of a blow and a protuberance. cob. or perhaps also To Borrow. bosseu. Lat. bourg. northern. while Gael. Du. gum vocant. to knock or strike. pegou. a bunch or hump. Fr. Ic wille that selc man sy under horge ge binI will that nan burgum ge butan burgum. V. Jam. a boor. to protect. clownish. gesylle. to strike so as to Bureau. Sc. A word spread over all the Teutonic and Romance languages. that a blow is apt to produce a swelling withhold Dan. from AS. Gr. to pick or cull plants. i. borough or chief constable. Bailey. The Frequently applied to laymen Gael. agreeing in a singular manner with Gr. to save. . a giving rise to It. In like manner It. Newbury. basse. a surety.any round sweUing. Cot. without. — — — A — . in instead of without. when that system was forgotten. plain rude fellow. Borrow. borealis. is used in the sense of bussare. to take in. bergen.ribs and the side. agrees with E.' every man be under bail. Hence knot. in the body struck.' or system of bail. busse. boss or knob of a buckler . vain. pego. to contain. borel. burgess. (1867). to keep. Words signifying a lump or protuberE. the N. ij |8oraviKi) The — A . unpolished. borough-holder. the sun sets. ^o^^flj.86 BOREAL BOTANY each man was answerable for his neighbour. bosh. a tower. empty. baurgs. by which of or belonging to plants. ' pledge. bos. one who sticks to you like a bore. knock and a knob . to become is emitted by a hollow body. pitch.' if thou give money on loan. blow on a hollow object. connected. butsen. By the Saxon laws there was a general system ^oTowi^w. bunch. brown cloth. from their grey clothing. boschen. or perhaps it may be See Bury. Fr. the ordinary a swelling. . beorgan.

theweaverin Midsummer Night's Dream. blain. mess. potra. ixorapudder. botte. . It. dial. beggtaj Goth. to put on a patch. The origin of the word is somewhat puzzling. to podge. H^cart. to smack. a bottle. a humpback. Bailey. the science or knowledge of plants. to make a make a noise. ledge It. ambo. bund. Diez.of a ball of thread. stock. — Jidwi. . Bouteille. Fyre to botme. a lump of somebatschen. to botch or patch. bots. botus. A bottom is also used in the sense of any work. a bunch. abbi. Si quis burgbotam sive projection. And so we speak of an eruption. Jtidu. abyss. It. however. &c. See Boss. and ajSvamg. botse. — Dief. abbu. to we have OHG. Hal. to stir and mix together. Botcli. bossu. abbution. seem developthe sense of clumsy working seems con. bot. Gael. stroke. baiothsj Sanscr. Fl. boccia. patch. what pushes outwards. the bud of a flower . Podge. a bundle of straw or hay. to knock. tumour. to stir and mix together . batschen. A horses. ubhau. in the sense of mend the fire. buddl. biissen. a wisp. to give a sounding blow. The Gr. hurly-burly. Mudu. a slop. 212. scuohbuzere. any plain round viol glass bozzo. OSax. empty or hollow. another modifinected with Mantuan poccia. the first rough draught 2. to dash about . BOTCH understood). Parmesan poccia. — duj Lett. w. a bubble. stock. is also a bubble. ON.ments of the same root. ^kvBoQ. pimple. botch. both. to simmer. . ' G. bile. A bottom depth. to from the root bot. a pock. bethia. . a waterfall. the lowest part. putra. Leg. Bochu. Du. from the dashing of water. pocciar. Decorde. butsen. a cobbler. an abyss or bottoniless pit. * To Bother. See Butt. a cask. to work without order or know. bun. On the one hand do anything with noise and bustle Dan. Stalder. oba. It. a pit.D. botte. bottle is provincially used in the same sense. mend. Lith. buazen. Here the radical image seems a bubble. — . . to rage. a bottle of hay. the notion of unskilful work is commonly expressed by the figure of dabbling in the wet. botm. AS. schuhbosser. whisper. whence the name ol pool to podge. j3i/9os. especially in Gael. and E. gipuozan. — Fl. botel foenn. Canut. Lat. to make better. . On the other hand. — .— Hal. gen. of boils break(rs^vri BOTTOM 87 brigbotam. to strike . buideal. ba. It seems that 3otc/i is a mere dialectic variation of ioss. See To Bodge. N. — — belly-worm. a tinker schuhbiisser. we two. butwo. a root. to bcBta. bundle. bulderen. Again. Butu. Gael. any round ball or bowl to play withal. Lith. is boteau. shoes. a plash or slough or pitful of standing waters. Dan. botola. bunch. to froth as beer .— . a pit. Fr. i. disturbance. Prov. a maggot. a bump or swelling. Both applications are supply of wood to repair the house. boiteag. a boil or swelling Halma. bodem. of botta. E. maggots in barley. cation of which may be preserved in puddle . — Bottom. podge. bluster. Bret. as Fr. puddle. botel. signify a in OE. — — . fundus. bdsser. blow. bide. Pl. Wedu. a patch patschen. a plague-boil Kil. turmoil. to mend (kettles. &c. thing soft batsch. by met. bouteille. Hal. buts. bosser. On — Du. a depth. a botcher of shoes. a bottle. abbi-diwij Slavon. pozzanghera. disturbance to . noise. From the dim. they two. burgi vel pontis refectionem. ON. bozza. corresponding to . I. poltern. bSn. G. bAdtr. botsen. noise. a knock. boitean. btitse. ing out. an imperfect and bunbutt end. Both. AS.— Swift in R. bozza. a vessel for holding liquids. Boa two. knock. a bott . the other hand.) . to fall : with a sound batsch. iosse becomes in the Northern dialects ioc^e. for a bud. The word bottom or bothum was also used Bote. bulder. any kind of plain round vial or cupping glass Fl. Ancren Riwle. as a push or windgaU. bottigUa.foundation.' to the fiery Csedm. A — oba-dwaj Lat. stem or base. • Bott. dabble). bdt. to dip in liquid (to Gael. AS. G. To Botch. Bouds. pother. Du. See Bound. round lump. With the din of which tube my head you so bother That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from t' other. blister. was called a push. boil. To confuse with noise. a slop. stump. boute. bativa. gling piece of work. mess. repara- — — See To Bete. or plague sore . contusion . bottom. we have Swiss batscken. Danneil. botn. to mend. and thus to botch in a cobbler Du. Judwi.^Dec. boden . buddeln. . a cess. Kil. fire-bote. kessel-biisser. Fr. e. pozzo. botte. boss. dim. nets. Fl. a cesspool pass. — — A 2. you two. butse. a. ON. House-bote. mutter. Bottle. boiteal. bubble is often taken as the type of anything round and hollow.

boujtce. Halma. boundina. pimple Richards bothog. Sw. Wtb. whence buj7isen. a turn or time. turn. I assure you. dial. is a common exagBut as klappersten for the smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the rattle they make when thrown together. Fr. 136. bunsen. the hollow of a bay. signifies a sliort thick mass. the larger kind of pebbles. march. root (see Bottom). bone. jungen. Brem. See Bunch. To Bound. bend. as that of E. bodina. bugan. Raynouard. tnndo. — — leap. iv. Bough. boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E.tTudo: he buncheth me and beateth me he — thrusting. E. Bunche. p. The sound of a blow is imitated in Pl. Mid. 3.>a bout. gulf. Du. Bowlder. Bonny. like bobbin. dial.' round and round in similar circles. The Bight of Benin. Pr. a boss. bunda. boss of a buckler. the rounded shape of the stones would sug- Even of = . The origin seems an imitation of the sounding blow of an elastic body. a large pebble. from bugan. The branch of a tree.' B. BOUND gest the notion of the continual knocking to which they must have been subjected. volta. to resound. to knock at the door. from volgere. 2. — strike. carpet. debodinare.' 'Alodus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per bodinas fixas et loca designata. to spring.'— Charter of K. to strike against a thing so as to give a dull sound. Coxcomb. and F. bun.— Cot. bondir. Nor a centinel whistle. ni frestelar. a button. bamsen. frequently used in the same sense with bound. bottom. An to de dor ankloppen dat idt bunset. baby. He fult ' with a slight difference of spelling. strapping. ' probably buller or bolder may represent the deeper sound made by the larger stones when rolling in a stream. Bound. . and to hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders that were being hurried on and dashed against each other by the torrent. or Bow-pot. to knock. the bay of Benin. to set bounds. signifying in nautical coil of rope. . See To Bolt. bay. jump. till The dat et bunsede. by Bujns or Buns. in contrast to klappersten. a? the vulgar to bow or bend and as the coils come whapper. butina. The W. So It." and the Turkey 'Why would you strowings. bouton. for anything large of Een bunsken appel. buUersten. Fr. bouncwhen coiled in a circle. Ni gacha cor bondir. Ducange. from AS. a boundary stone (men stone). to bow. And in the spreading of a bough-pot. a round body both. — — Bight. an occasion. winding. bumper. Bough-pot. bonndn. as a bout of fair or foul weather. Fr. Boulderstone. a bouncing apple. nor horn sound. to The original meaning is probably is A bight is merely another pronunciation of the same word. to set out by metes and bounds. language a * Boulder. Bout. Q. limit. to to then — do anything in a violent starthng way. bons. botwm. — No i ausiratz parlar. . its kind. The entire value of such bounds depends upon their Lat. bend. he fell so that it sounded. to make a loud noise. Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant. For the connection between the sense of a lump or projection and that of striking or . an de dor bunsen. Bought. a blow. and Prov. suorum recognoverunt agrorum. and the equivalent bonir in Catalan. bullra. You will not hear talking nor a word murmur. bonna. venture so fondly on the There's mighty matter in them. being used in the sense of resound- simply to which ing. a bound.— F. a blister. bounbounejha. contusi. to thundering big one hum. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. a large stone rounded by the action of water. a stock. thumping. of thread. see Boss. as a nosegay. to turn. It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring under one of the bridges that remained.. a bud. boriie. knock it sounds again. Probably from the Celtic root bon.— — — - 88 BOUGH . has hot. to fix limits. Webster. Alpine Re- — gions.D. Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore And thundered strokes thereon so hideously That all the pece he shaked from the flore And filled all the house with fear and great uproar.xperience such sounds as the foregoing. — Take care my house be handsome. ing. geration. to thunder. to hum. boh. Bodinare. bonzen. and boughs and ' rushes And flowers for the windows. Primarily to strike. a jar to set boughs in for ornament. A Langued. round. pothel. the smaller ones.— Boundary. Pm. AS. Bret. is applied to the turns of things that succeed one another at certain intervals. To Boult. Dan. From Sw. in the absence of actual e. To Bounce. ni motz brugir. mere. mcn-bomi. the verb bondir in OFr. to spring. bog. nave of a wheel bothel. bugt. came home with his face all to-bounced. bolder. And the new stools set out.

puff out. a from Du. Du. Immediately from Fr. schenkelbug. whether by sound or gesticulation. — — — A pare. Bourdon. gurgling. to indulge in his cups . buzz. g. Gael. prepared for. borne. taunt. from spring. drink deep. schulter-bug. A water. bovne. fresh* water. Goth. The foregoing derivation seems. bonus. burt. Sw. to bam is to make a false tale or jeer to hum. Perhaps the radical meaning of the word may be. bending. bourdon. . a well. set out. the Bourdon. to take breath. burlare. or of an Gael. the big end of a club. buyse. game. on. bwa. bending of a joint knie-bug. Du. a corToward the garden. bug. patesten. verb bua. and in the same We shule preye the hayward honi Drink him dearly of full good . Du. Borden. repartee. flagon. of the ON. to swell. pusta. cheat. Bret. biegen. to our bous. identical with E. ruption of bonne. addressed to. A —Cot. epaule du vaisseau. bontS. . Burden. bend Sw. must be referred to the same root. also the humming or ON. Gael. buzzing of bees. sense durd. ^<7r«i?. bend. potio. grumble Sw.bass of a stringed instrument. a bow. burdan. a pot. burdan. Burgeon. head Fr. beogan. a humming noise Macleod. Eown. staff. bourde in the same sense. ridicule buirte. whence buysen. Now we shall see in the next article that the meaning of the root bourd is to hum. a jibe. purra. their time -With "wailful tunes. When used alone it . cudgel. fun of one . to tope. ing. crutch. bog. bdgi. to to some artifice employed for diverting his attention. sport. a brook. that ON. Thus we speak of humming one for deceiving him. He of adventure happed hire to mete Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff. to banter or laugh at. firm. drone of a bagpipe. a for New York. Sp. bending. It is remarkable that we find vary. bue. Spenser in R. bourd. a go to. a prop. Dan. . bourdon. way ba7n. Gael. bage. the burden of a song. Chaucer in R. bausen. bunaiteach. pausen. good. springbiirn. a humming noise. sotich. ready to pike or spear .which see. beygja. G. and not in the sense of curvature in general. a cup kroesen. spring. which ported by the use of durdan in the same was also referred to the same Celtic root. to mutter. Dan. Du. to bulge. burn. nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. mockery. Fr. to drink deep. bogha.the imitative character of which is supmerly shown in the case of bottom. . i. analogous to Fr. bound. bugna. tinton. commonly signifies the shoulder-joint. to pre2. an arch. shoulder of a quadruped bovblad. sausen. brausen. and that probably from a Celtic root. a mill-post. Bourd. lance. Bounty. It is the participle past buinn. a. to tope W. a drone of a bagpipe. . it is probable that the It. the fixed. to — Hal. pre. . souf. — — . brunna. bourdon d'un moulin k vent. Sc. different modification gives ON. to take deep draughts. And there in mourning spend Sw. in Fr. jest. drunken. bordon. buys. to draw a deep breath. a. joke. warbling. a sing-song. hence musical accompaniment. bov. deceit. more probable than the one formerly given from Du. to bow or incline the . according to the wellknown interchange of d and /. pared. bogr. the ting of a bell. when we speak of. bugna. w. Comp. Lat. It is bov. address. to bow. to tipple. burreti. saufen. language of folly or ridicule. to take one in. G. So Sc. Cot. buizen. like quaff. kroes. repetition of sounds with or without sense at the end of stated divisions of a song. Bourdon. buga. to trick. to draw a deep breath. Prov. bugan. to drink deep. on the whole. Gael. AS. Dan. BOUND BOW 89 fixedness. are applied to the bow of a ship. steady. Bound. bugne. ready. pot. . belly out. limit. buigen. Dan. bommen. G. a ship bound pilgrim's staff. brummen. bog. has also buirleadh. Corresponding verbal forms are Goth.. Cot. bogna. Sw. a — — . explaining Sw. It. spelling the word iox bound. biugan. bordo. shoulder-blade. As the Gael. bagna. Bow. Fr. btiga. As she was toun to go the way forth right Bourn. Swiss bausen. purlBav. trick. bow to shoot with.See The fool of notion of deceiving or making a one is often expressed by reference * To Bouse. a drone or dor-bee. Sw. is. hous^ Man in the Moon. G. as was for. The meaning of bound. Fr. bordone. bonitas. a jibe Shaw bururus. burd. Gael. curvature. while wolves do howl and barke And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. to hum as a bee. to hum. the shoulder of the vessel. bogen. — probably through this latter signification.

globe or spherical body. Pol. the box-tree. . puffy. boxtree. convexity. bowels. &c. bowl . bwr. shrub whose wood is peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and similar objects. a boil. PLD. bouzellou. boil. to raise the back boll OHG. buga. Sp. tumour . boel. boor.ige\y illustrated under Bulk. a black pudding. to guggle. OE. bulne. guestchamber . polla. in walking appears in a . bowel Box. belly. signifying in the first instance a buck or he-goat. similar shape. blister. ask. buxus. bosso. See MHO. as well as the name of a. Dan. — need of resorting to an immediate derivation from the Latin. a sleeping-room . bol. gut. a thing of liquid. bugyni. bulge. containing the implements for keeping the coach in order.D. the head. in both senses. . painter's easel. . A Bulk. the box-tree and articles made of it G. as in E. . bolgna. a. W. or. koziel. bow. w. boxtree pusska. the bogna. to swell. hollow. a bundle. cumena-bur. is applied to a coach-box. bhugna. crown of a hat. hollow place Fr. tumour. G. much plausibility from the figure of a pul. convex. a the other by the loss of the / into ON. bock. to puff up pullakka. an inclosure. trestle. the box-tree It. the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. bulka. bulla. W. to bulge. swell. Thus we have Esthon. hollow wooden case. AS. bent or rounded object must be attained bowl.\s. a round glass or bolg. iri'iaQ. Bret. bent. then by the loss of the /. ku^o. intrenchment. ^o«/«. Fr. compared with Fr. bubble. bending. budel. or in e. Sw. . . hill. Bowl. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. passing on stud. swoUei) Lat. at the e. lump . Fr. folliculus . The word may probably be identical with Fris. . a bubble Fin. a wardrobe . . a box Lat. a bud. an outhouse AS. utibur. globular body. bulk compared with Sw. bubble. a parlour. ON. fata-bur. round bead. spherical Dan. bulcken. . a ball. bossola. busskai. . Sw. Sw. to buckle G. a polla. The / a bow. boucle. Hence. From the other form are G.flask It. a bubble. bwra. Buckle. bolla. give in to. the bowel of an animal stuffed with blood and It. a sack. to bow buck. . ON. bollen. bolne. boss. biicken. . buk. buello. The box of a coach is commonly explained as if it had foiTnerly been an actual box. make obeisance. Cable. horsedung of flax sich aiifbuckeln (Schm.a. a drop of pullistaa. and on swollen. bugy. a knot. Dan. bugyani. bur.). . mousedung like a cat hirnibucken. botulus. different position in ODu. a box. See Crab. round glass phial. the boll or round seed-vessel of flax Bav. zich onder jemand under to him. then applied in general to a trestle or support upon which an) thing rests. boudin. bolla. and to a coachbox in particular. The same line of derivation seems re- hirnbolla. wisp of straw . knob From the former modification we have bolla. Lat. dial. witli an in- version of the s we arrive k. a swelling or rising up. bugyola. bolle. bucka. stream forth bugyogni. Du. . signified by forms like Gael. inclinare se (Kil. a croft by a house. mausbollelein. with inversion of the round. a chamber swefnbur. a box. Bower. to stoop biickling. box. a hen-coop . the head. a box. a iDubble. sausage. bugna. buigen. a bowl. fyn. ON. a pot. water pulli. . box in both senses.). It is more probably from the G. bola. buis. ne. anything globular. Bohem. kuppelo. 90 It BOWELS BOX would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink.. bogla. Fr. bouellou. ttuJic. . biisse.. . G. the barrel of a gun. boss. to bend. to bubble up. a buck. pocket. * Bowels. beutel. bug. . ^o/a. a stud. of a wooden ball to play with and — . kupula. while the plural ^o^/y is used in the sense of asawingblock. heafod bolla. buckel. bulb of an onion bolleyield. belly. without the and grits.) to incline oneself . acsian. similar series of designations from the image of a bubble may be seen in Fin. bol. pusspan. representing the sound of bubbling or guggling . a ball. In like manner the Pol. the crop of a bird. bur. biichse. Du. a hump on the back rossbollen. bhuj. peated in Magy. . to stoop. a bubble. a box. budello. bukke. to yield to one. head of a cabbage. the skull or brainpan . Bav. Sanscr. crooked. bog. See Boil. pullo. a little box . Boll. bouge. a protuberance. A . kupu. as in AS. belly of a cask. bocka. Gr. a bubble bolli. busse. . honse-bur. hiidel. bulla in aqua. buckelig gehen. Hal. The sense of a globular form is proantecedent to the more abstract conception of the act of bending. bow. beuz. (in pass . a wine-can . bog. . prominence. to puff up. buchsbaum. OFr. biiske.cup Du. purse. E. . a ball . to make crooked . spring as water bugya. a separate apartment . globular. . to bend down. Bret. . AS. Du. ken. kupukka.

' — A — — — .' Monword brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult strelet in Rayn. matter. Pl. The different meanings of the brageux. break. to burst. s. a girl. bracil. OFr. unmarried man . dog in general. by the same inversion of J and k. might easily be applied to water spoilt for drinking by other means. Brackish. one which draws up the think that the application to water consprings of life . Brach. bray. From the sense of water unfit for drinkfrom bras. variation of babble. Gael. mud. — . to give a sounding blow defect. a braceOFr. which sigof straining. boussole. to smack the hand batschen. loud smack. bracket. mortise for holding things together Mirror for Mag. &c. bracer. breuque. a pair of braces. braca. spaniel. brek. baske. a bog or pass Fr. a sounding blow. . To Brabble. Prov. turf made sulphur (where the meaning would well protect the arm of an archer from the agree with the sense of the Gael. fault.nated by dirt. mud. salo sive aqua marinS. . Lat. Hdcart. bube. . I sal slyng. wristband. wnzC/J. bresta. Fr. brago. Heligoneed. whence a as by a mixture of sea water. Swiss Rom. ON. filth . brae. — . One girl. BRACKET From You may find time in eternity. rakke. bauksch represents the sound of a blow . the bands taminated with salt is derived from the which hold up the trowsers. confining. Kil. . Fr. and F. A brace probis. brechen. bue. need. fuse. and then Pl. rack. a box. to Swiss batschen. — — . Kil. Lett. briche. ing from a mixture of salt. dog Sw. Prov. to box the ears. bracke. brasselet. little unpalatable by a mixture of salt. jabber.D. breach. braecke. or defect. In like manner the It. — . boy bouba. con. defect. brace on and Du. . a grown youth Cimbr. is a rope holding G. V. rakka. But upon the whole I am inclined to bracing air. It. priated to the original sense. brague. BOX To Box. . Fr.with a noise. to fall.puddle. fault . a bubbling dura del mun. bracha. wrack. an ornamental offensive by a mixture of band round the wrist . It is B. Thus brack. dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus up a weight or resisting a strain. Bracket. to give a blow with the fists. strike. . merces subis also a pair of things united together in mersae. Kil. bracon. as noticed under Box. Sp. 91 the Dan. Brak-goed. taneous talking. beagle. babble. On the same principle from the buksteht. a crack.. pupus. which has many representatives in the other Europe.— D. the first instancebya physical tie. . a Floods drown no fields before theyfind a brack. acidus. youth. The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake ON. by an overflow of sea water. from a root brak.. MHG. A — — . boiste. Du. damaged board a ship. armour for the arm. To fight with the fists. corruptse. refuse. boy. La ville ou y avait Brace. Fr. to stutter. G. pus. whelp as. Du. AS. to stammer. brechen ihm. moral or physical. OE. pube. braic. want. Swab. salsus. the word passed on to signify salt water in general. . Deceit and violence in heavenly justice Ere stain ot brack in her sweet reputation. Water rendered boubo. A bracket is properly a scenting dog. bouibo. to is derived brestr. ON. flap. brakke Bracelet. See Brake. To brace is to draw together. brassard." Brackets in printing are claws holding together an in a wall. OFr.. brae. A to halt between two derivations. Boy. — . Sp. race. It. Ptg. flaw. a guard to torf. brostia. want. braquet. brageuses. brek. flaw. to want. dirty. el brae e la orhas bulicame and brulicame. breptati. isolated part of the text. disturb. then from break. to break (sometimes also used in the sense of failing. putrefaction representing the confused sound of simulbrach shuileach. brec. Swiss bub. Pm. brae. thwack. merely in our mode of considering them. odorinsecus. brabbelen. buah. a of the numerous cases in which we have doU. his eyes are failing him). lalear-eyed Prov. an languages. Brack. the filth and ordure of the motion Fr. braque. to crack. to slap. brack. let. defect Du. as die Augen plainly an imitative word. bitch Du. a comworld Rayn. foul. Prov. suppuration. a boy pupa. to give a gebrechen. Brack. baukscheht. Rouchi Then as an adj. brakke grund. land batsken. posh. bruxula. or bracer Cot. bindnifies in the first instance water contamiing together. murmur. See Broker. breach. ratch. a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. the arm. defect. Cot. bou^ba. It. land spoilt Kil. quarrel Bohem. Prov. clay. want. bragos. brae. G. dog that hunts by scent. mud. cramp-iron holding things together . brack. Sp. bask. braco. and the diminutive brackish was approa setter. to be wanting. in R. ghebreck. — . bracco. parallel with OK. in R. s. compressing. and string of his bow. Bracelet.D. braco. root).. rakki. Pr.

be found. brag or jet it braguard. breghen. to falconers the brayle in a short-winged. It will be found in the foregoing examples that brake is used almost exactly 3. brachittm. affront. a mortar a baker's kneading trough an finely dressed. the arm. beautiful. braies. The plant y^r«. to rattle. Fris. braegenj Du. to brail up a sail. to shout. — Chaucer. valiant The head are sumptuous. i. BRAKE or — Hire mouth was sweet as traket or the meth. —Spenser in R. smart. . expressi Sweet wort ing any kind of action by which some- .breeches. to boast of his own worth. blusterer. strength. bravo. to boast or brag. to unbrace or let down the breeches. See Brace. bravado j Fr. compressing. braga. brake is. cry. bravacherie. also tion of this was brayeul. also derived Fr. &c. Sc. Dan. . .^Vocab.aburst. brazo. braga. Cot. To Braid. Bret. flaunting. to fasten the load of a waggon with ropes.%. bravache. the feathers ON. a roisterer. brag. to swagger. 1 bit for horses a wooden frame in which the feet of vicious horses are confined in shoeing an old instrument of — A A . empty pride. .hy which this idea is con\eyed. excellent. . ^Brave. to flaunt. Thus we are brought to the OE. in the sense of Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud How iragly it begins to bud. dhbrailler. brake in the sense of constraining. braka. braka. brails. 2. fine. It is certain that the word for arm is. proud. Brain. the thongs of leather by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's wing were tied up . is identical with Gael. brabhdadh. The meanings included under — Bragget. power. Wallachian bratsou. braszketi. subduing. From sprouted corn. Brag was then used brisk. or by gaudy dress and show. From brayel. riches. bushy . fine. Langued. spot. Dan. to tie it up like the wing of a hawk. braver. Cot. stout. — Equivalent forms are Gael. Bray. . to strut. — A — . bragaireachd. to cord a bale of tie up. h-avare and Fr. called by our braggard.. brav. to thrust oneself on people's notice by noise. Hence E. that will carry no coals.. Walloon bress. Primarily to crack. a carriage for breaking in horses . fine. Sp.i5nz^. and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. Turk bazu are used in both senses. as the type of exertion and strength. AS. se donner trop de licence. to make ostenSwiss tation of his equipage. Fr. de Vaud. Faire le brave. braga. gorgeous. brailler (though it does not appear in the dictionaries). about the hawk's fundament. brao. braguer. bully . In like manner to crack is used for boasting. courageous. w. From royal court I lately came (said he) Where all the braverie that eye may see Is to harrow. finery. and it is very likely that the root brak. sense of courageous comes immediately from the notion of bragging and Gael. slight modificajoining the two legs. bragd. the first all reducible to the notion of constraining. braske. gallant (in apparel) also proud. A — Hal. Rom. binding anything together. — From W. — . to make a noise. a noisy talkboasting. To Brail. braw. handsome. See Bray. goods. 92 Cot. subigere. to stand upon terms. confining. Fr. flaunt in fine clothes . . swagger.Shepherd's Cal. Hecart. brave. and that from e. gay. From Fr. used in the sense of force. torture . in numerous dialects. in order to prevent its catching the wind. expensive. breagh. would be to brace. brave. . make a noise . bragging. vain glory. gayly dressed. breach.^ Sp. swaggerer. to Rouchi brMer. Thus Bret. stately. To Brag. and the derivation entangled with influences from different sources. breghe. the bridge or part of the breeches ing. the opposite of which. well-dressed. an instrument for checking the motion of a wheel . brave. is Cot. brayete. Bret. se pavaner. idle talk. splendid. noisy ostentation.—— . Lith. to sprout malt. ative fellow. breyne. was formed brayele. instrument for dressing flax or hemp a . an iron for holding Zalli. an inclosure for cattle . bragio. braicli. hectoring. braske. or from braie itself. bra!. crack. brag. Lat. bullying. drawers. fine. gallant. The meanings of brake are very numerous. a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. Chaucer. But thereof set the miller not a tare He cracked host and swore it nas nat so. BRAG Piedm. It. boast. crash ON. showy bravery. also insolenter se gerere . Brake. brae. braggard also valiant. gay. brave. brabhdair. Brail. Haldorsen Gael. boasting marcher d'une maniire fifere.explosion. vanter une chose. Cot. brave. in the sense of the Lat. vaunting. boasting. to crack. se parer de beaux habits. bragging of his own valour. crash. Brake. be noisy .

breuil. bregille. a spinning-wheel. braca. as well as in the case of the e. brambles. marsh or swamp. brambles. have thus Du. Corrfeze bredgea. braeken. It. frangere linum. as in Du. there is considerThe able difficulty in the derivation. a fen. brolium. flachs brechen. briser. broor bushy place Hal. —Ovid. Sp. Lat.' It. gilum. —Bracken. a Inquirers have thus been led in two directions. Brake. In the sense of a thicket. braecken het vlasch. a marsh. brak is a frame in which strip. is braukti. 3. Prov. brake. broeck. a brace on board a ship. brook. a harrow. thicket. multitudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum And this probably was et collapsorum. break flax PLD. murtaa. or A A ' . bruch. a thicket. iSpsx".. which originally designated a broken mass of wood. and when once thrown down. In ON. properly braking or subduing them. thing is brought under control. a stream. brog.D. the original meaning of G. and brought into a serviceable As there is so much of actual condition. word. pasture. to stiffen against Taboada). gebroge. copse-wood. bregar. riguus. to break or fracture. broyer. bregar brake. The latter supposition has a remarkable confirmation in the Finnish languages. difficulties (se raidir centre to knead . brog or brake. brega. might come to signify a swamp. to pound. Dan. Fr. gebiisch. Fr. game. Swiss Rom. brogille. subigere. to rub (as in washing linen Beronie). brcekke. braken. equivalent word in the other Teutonic dialects is frequently made to signify a Du. fratto. to harrow (Lat. reduced to a condition in which it is serviceable to our 93 subjected wants. to break. segetes subigere ara- the notion of breaking down the clods again comes to perplex our derivation. quarry from Fin. is formed murd. break of such a kind. to knead or mix up in a mortar. sylva ubi arbores sunt vento diffractae et transversim coUapsae. glebas subigere. to rub. to The ON. tris). 2. casser le \va. subigere is used for any kind of dressing. brook. the lever by which the string was drawn up. passing it through a brake or frame consisting of boards loosely locking into each other. Voc.D. bredza. Thus the term brake was applied to the handle of a cross-bow. in usus braca. BRAKE to external force. brushwood. ^raca. is most likely to take place in low wet ground where their roots have less hold. gebroge. The Fr. gebrUche. In other cases the idea of straining or exerting force is more distinctly preserved. this sense must be explained the expression of breaking ^horses. to break. by means of which the fibre is stripped from the stalk or core. Dan. to subdue. while in other dialects the words are kept Pl. to bend a bow. P&. broken fratta. broillet. grassy place in a heath Overyssel Almanach NE. with the bushes and tangled growth of such places. brake. braquer un canon. as in Sp. to bray in a mortar. in northern climates. brake is explained in Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as a bottom overgrown with thick tangled brushwood. brego. they stop the flow of water and cause the Thus the growth of peat and moss. broyer is also used for the dress- — cluster of bushes. nemus. — Sive rudem primes lanam glomerabat digitis Seu subigebat opiis. to exert force in different ways. bushes. or overthrow of trees by the wind. for the purpose of incorporating them with the grease employed as a dressing. murran. to bend or direct a cannon. murrokko. braka. gebroge. where from Esthon. to row. Dan. dial. low wet land bruch. In the case of the ne. or the instrument by which the action is exerted. de Vaud. brog above mentioned. e. to brush. Biglotton. It is remarkable that the term for braking flax in Lith. gebrUche. cetur. the member by which the force of the machine is exerted.— . Fr. to head must be bit. it is not surprising that the word has here. broilium. or a wood in a marshy place . any thicket of brakes. broil. cover G. while others have considered the fundamental signification to be broken ground. to distinct. Gael. tnurdma. and Lat. briers. . conSo in G. a horse's a horse's twitch. t° moisten. el arco. brage. the notion of wetness leading some to connect the word with E. ing of flax or hemp. signifying to sweep.bracan. Gr. as in the case of horse-breaking. The same name is given to the handle of a ship's pump. It may be sus- . To the same bend a bow. a swampy Mid. In like manner Lat. bush. We — . — — . bush. watered. marsh. OFr. referred brake. Pl. breaking in the operation. farinam in mortario subigere. G. brage. — Fl. skins are worked backwards and forwards through a small opening. been confounded with the verb break. Brake. brook. sylva aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer. and G. It. for — Due. to fracture.

breanan. —Ducange. pfriem in the sense of an awl. Port. Bret. that is to say. in the same sense. heath. w. ground full of briers. a small deri\'ation . Broom. briars. The naof strain. braam. or other plants of a like nature. the thorn apple or stramonium. The same form becomes in It. is a secondary application of the word in the sense last described. brous. the refuse Bran or droppings of the saw. young buisson fort epais. to -brugen. bushes. bruskoad. Bramble. branchia. iii. brughera. Dan. from Servian pnit. as places overgrown with brakes or fern. gebroge. brog. . all sorts of fastening together of stonework or timber with braces of lead Florio. It. Thus we have w. It will be found that shrubs. and the word bramble Itself ^vas applied in a much wider sense than it is at present to any thorny . constrain. as AS." The bmno a • on . bran. hallier. AS. brand. from brand. a bud. heath. are looked on in the first instance as a collection of twigs or shoots. bromboli. brarn. nasty. branco. piece of anything. brin d. . what is cast out as worthless. in the sense oi fern. heath. a roA. &c. breun. Fr. a heath. heath (Bret. . The relation of brake to bracken may originally have been that of the Bret. apiece orbitbrandone. thorns and Gen. brin. a bud. 1 8. brancas. thick brakes of high-grown ferns (Flor. restrain. . Branch. . And swete as is the bramble flower bregne. manner when waved about like a flaming torch. a bridle or bit . A the word bramble is from Swiss brom.D. sword is called a ^ra«rf because . piecemeal brindelles. virgultum. brejo. a single plant of heath. bud-biter or bud-bird— Halliwell) Grisons brumbcl. cabbage sprouts Fl. brake. bruk. a large piece of anything a torch or firebrand. A mark made by burning. Bret. . &c. The Cid's sword on the same principle was named iizS. So Swiss gaggi. . and in Chaucer it is used of the rose. brom. broem. sprouts. heath. brein. broom. G. the leafless plant of which besoms are made.D. and thence a shoot. Brand. — branca. brok. clutch. excrement. It. broussaille.). bren. bracken or fern . also a marshy low ground or fen . Bret. brwnt. a burning fragment of wood. G. a briery plot. the fang or claw of a beast brancaglie. sweet broom. We have seen under Brace and Brake many instances of the use of the root brak in the sense — — brummelj Du. a rod or twig. wood composed of twigs. Pl. to The witches' branks was an iron bit for torture . Fr. But we find It. bramble Du. cack. to burn. as. the branch of a tree. compress. Serv. ordure . a vine twig Bav. or ling. a shrub from Bret. the bull-finch. brouskoad. broom. or with It. broccoli. bren. ear-wax mud. — lis ressemblent le buretel Selonc I'Eoriture Divine Qui giete la blanche farine Fors de lui et retient le bren. brandiiialil. brenna. The fundamental signification seems preserved in Fr. Bav. E. chaff. titio. brang. bruk. w. Brank. sedge burkni. brandmurk. from Lat. G. Bret. Russ. Rouchi bren d'orMe. bruch. to gripe. Thus in Lat. brano. burning brennen. brin (as It brano). a shoot or twig. brenda. brambles. pfriemen. G. In like hrst. broust. Sir Topaz. it glitters — — . bro7n. See Brush. bronbo. a plant bearing a fruit covered with spiky thorns. from brug. — . dirt . is the draff or excrement of the com. pected that brake. 2. branche. a halter. . brug). That beareth the red hepe. to bridle. i. bretnel. brass. Diez. brenn hesken. snotty . to or iron. Gael. Gael. brugek.94 BRAMBLE BRAND growth. braeme. Then by comparison with claws or arms. to brank. bruk. a bud It. Fr. brank.G. Pl. bit by bit. It is certain that we find closely-resembling forms applied to several kinds of plants the natural growth of waste places and such as are designated by the term brake. to burn would leave nothing to be desired if the foregoing meanings stood alone. Grisons bruch. and waste growths. the twigs of a besom from brenneti. berneux. also pfriemkraut. gebriiche. brem. heath ON. bran. sawdust. Thornas and bremelas. Bran. a firebrand. Fr. a shrub . a shoot. brenn. It may be however that the relationship runs in the opposite direction. The pointed shape of a young shoot led to the use of tlie G. broembel-CBppel. brosst. young twig {brom-beisser. Piedm. breme j Sw. brandello. Brancare. and E. a thick bush. from gaggi.. all manner of gripings and clinchings among masons and carpenters. salisation of this root gives a form brank Hence the Sc. thicket of brambles Cot. pfropf. brushwood. prufye. brank. . brug. may be so called in analogy with Bret. a dunghill. stink . brandr. As ON. that it may be so named as the natural growth of brakes and bushy places. from virga. and are commonly designated from the word signifying a twig. bruch.

ish. to braze or lute. a fragment. or in stick. du Roi et laine. crackle. brausen. 59.^Brandle. to blaze. bra?ier. make a — . to rustle. WaUon. bragia. comes from thence. set on fire. a To Brandish. branler. Jam. eldibrandr. V. put. G. to French brawl or brangle. bracea. bransella. — . not. the colour of a thing shake by the force it is cast with. the colour than hitherto known. and in the sense of a sword-blade might be explained from its likeness to a found. which that sense brangle may be a direct imitawith an initial s becomes spruan. make an outcry. BRANDISH ERASE 95 Thus was this usurper's faction trangled. brastlian. hot Fr. E. braise or hot coals. n. — .. to make a noise like straw or From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning. bruciare. live coals. The sense of a quarrel may be derived from the idea of confusion. brandigh. Thus the bound up again. to solder iron. And brane-^wod brynt in bailis. brennen. to Bailey. To brase AS. AS. — A — : ' — — — —M This word has two senses. Gris. and afterward divided want of worth in Baliol their head. It. brus^. aqua ardens. bruzi. braser. — ting to confusion. bruire. plained by Florio. ist. forms brasil. Fl. perplex. to confuse. brush. and scold. bum. arsh century the word is very common in the — — — . incendium. It. to bicker 2nd. before the discovery of America in the brandir. The tre brangillis. gebrannter wein. to brangle. Diez. branntweinj been superseded by the name of a wood i. shake. to burn. bragale\ wood. The inflammable it an eminent triumph _of the devil that Du. to crackle .pan of coals. Ija.well. to glisten or flash. brasil. brazil. all. Guill. E. to make sense of a bright red dye. to burn. Bret. brand. Sw. brane-wood. glowing embers . It is more likely derived from the roaring sound of flame. Chron. a roaring fire. Kil. to make shine with shaking. to sound of the Fr. brandiller. as a nasalised form of the Piedm. was in use Fr. branler. Sw. hoisting to the fall. brouir. the spelling to kindle. ai-jou molt garance et waide — Et bresil et alun et grains Dont jou gaaing mes dras Michel. Fr. conbillet. bryne. a pan of hot coals. noise. ' qual agora se chama of waving a brand or sword. bruan. d'Angl. Diez seems to put the cart before the horse in deriving the word from ON. to make display . brascct. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que origin for so widely-spread too confined an della vem which at present is called a word. to burn. bransle. Fr. though it is not always easy to draw an undoubted line between them. from used in dyeing cloths. was Commonly explained from the notion found there. to shake The word brisil. also as a being an attempt to represent the nasal noun. apparently very distinct from each other. brandende wijn. briiler. braise. The name Brandy. brasa. Quhyn thay had beirit lyk baitit bullis. to murmur. With top trimbling. brangle or brawl in E. De Goes. brandiller. firewood. given to the country. brasa. prasseln. To brand. It. as Fr. totter. brin. brazeiro. to totter. a round dance. N.tion of the noise of persons quarrelling. Hume in brand in ON. branla. and the name of to shine or glister with a gentle shaking Brazil was given because a dyewood. became ashes Pied. is bntan. also supplying a more convenient source of Cot. Formerly brandy-wine. Port. The corresponding form in Gael. so. Manx bransey. Braser. splinter. bresil. and branchis shaiand D. to brustle. crackle. G. firebrand. weinbrenner. morsel. from to vociferate. to shog. bracia. brasca. brustle. in Marsh. Fr. Milan. to dash. — . braise. billet. stake. embraser. flagrans. brasca. De Barros considers vinum ardens. fire-wood. to roar. Chron. So. Bailey. with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. to distil . as again by well as the blade of a sword. to brandle or The It. urens. to and fro in the hand. to quarrel. Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which bransler. faire fracas. Fr. brandolare is exbrandish. to brandle. In the same way the set on fire . a stick. Lye. distilled wine. to shake. Brangle. — In this application the word seems direct from the Fr. In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th distiller. Brasil. Brase. might signify merely a piece of wood or To embrangle. a brusler. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. spirit distilled from wine. to hurl with great force. Halliarose that of throwing into disorder. and bruir. but from the forea meat is to pass it over hot coals going brano. of Santa Cruz having been originally brand-wijn. braza. to shake. as Jamieson explains it. e. then brandr. Du. Fr. the name of that holy wood should have Kil.

bratach. The muscular part of the body. breyon. It. a cloak. Betrax of a —^Jam. buttock Sc. ' A vraale. bralle. a contempt- banner. bretesche. at brasa. brettys. solder. a lump. is The word — uous name for a woman. Med endilongum bsenom var umbuiz a husum uppi. a lath. cob. slakker-bortchen. bretays). reistr upp bord-viflr a utanverdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat Vffiri. bribe de viande. brass. ni autres choses sur Due. a clout.' Hal. Duse testudines quas Gallic^ trutesches appellant. or glowing coals over which the soldering is done . equivalent to the Du. brces. Brave. tasce. brat. ^Altieri. I. a contemptuous name for a young child. frequentative of braire. noise. &c. lat'te.— Remade. ON. calf of the leg. 1156. bartisan. Brat.— Braid. So also See Brag. See Brand' raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray. luncheon.— Diez. Brattice. Sc. KiL Prov. berd. or coUop of flesh violently pulled away from the whole.' BRASS BRAY et AS. flesh of a leg of pork. wooden defence of the foregoing description round the deck of a ship. Fr. trulen or pilen (in the feminine form). bas morceau de viande brawhng. was called by the Norsemen vig-gyrdill.D. braion.D. brat. the term bretesche was applied to projecting turrets or the like beyond the face of the wall. OHG. coassatio. Fris. bruir. whether contracted from brabble. saillies.— Fl. It. to scold . bretesque. Westphal. strepitus 2. bartising. baltresca. calf of the leg. to shake. Dan. or on the top of a wall. as scrawl from scrabble. as criailler of crier. A. 368. rag. in the first instance of boards. braoilich. bradlete. pan- — Rayn. Fr. Bailey. to solder. It . to carbonado. contignatio. and in a latinised shape it is applied to any boarded structure of defence. fraiche. squall. Sp.^ — Sverris Saga. pil. The verb is probably derived from the brase. a — A from the confused noise. — . breyon d'chaur. Lorraine bravon. slibro {neita. a patch of cloth. Jam. bronzare.D. AS. 'E tut son corps arder rampire on board a 275. bradon. Pisana in Mur. le repasser un peu sur la braise. A bretise or bretage is linguarum. A dispute or squabble. ' the small overhanging turrets which project from the this is Now metal. Then as parapets and battlements naturally took the shape of projections on the top of a building. muscular parts of the body. bratidone. ferruminare. esbraotier. a fortification. Kil. brett. a slabbering-bib. Pm. a loud noise. G. bran. braser Fargent.96 Roquefort.' Along the town things were prepared up on the houses. a plank or board. to braze. brat is commonly used for a pinafore in many parts of England. cloth. a rag. a Lap. the calf of the leg. That the town colours be put upon the ber- — A — tisene of the steeple. deblaterare. as lattice. bmhon for brado7i. Paris. brattice is a fence of boards in a mine or round dangerous machinery. borderinge. Many gambes. la rue au prejudice de ses voisins. bronzacchiare. braon. The same correspondence is seen between It. brat. from Fr. the buttocks. Gael. . a portal of defence in the rampire of a town. a parapet. Brass. Mundart. child's A also used in the sense of a fence of stone or wood. W. then a parapet. Brawl. braede. a wooden tower. a — angles or the parapet on the top of a tower. from being used in the brazing or soldering of iron. branle. as rashers upon quick burning coals. ship. Hist. — Deutsch. breteque. — — vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et terteschiis. brdto (ace. Circumeunt cibertesca.walle — Pr. Sup. braeye. much and high and make a disturbance bawl. a battle-girdle. and bronzo. a rag . boutures. braiio. to tear piecemeal. Certainly a little girl. OFr. 1224. OFr. especially that used in the working of iron . See Brandish. frame of laths. boarding being sbranare. discord. Du. a. The term brawl is also applied to the noise of broken water. a rag . bred. Fr. to Gael. A land of dance. Cot. apron. slibro. bras. bratdn). P1. a mantle. breyon de kinds of . brailler. roar. from Sc. brandillo. burning coals. Wall. — — precisely the ordinary sense of the E. Swiss bradle. A. See Bray. braodhlach. Cot. bronze. Bartizan. to cry. a lump of flesh. as a brawling brook.propugnaculum. Florio. or whether it be from Fr. ipre- a kind of rampart or fence of war made upon towers a block-house. Cologne broden. a lump of flesh. any piece. neita girl). Brawn. to talk at bralle op. slut. Un possesseur d'un heritage ne pent faire — ireiesques. to copper. —^Bronze.brettysing. bratid calf of the leg. 2. It may accordingly be explained as a corruption oi bratticing. from branler. testudo or temporary roof to cover an attack. —-Jam. brazen. Brangle. trul. Math. bransle. For the application to a^child compare Bret.

brame. And if that he out of his slepe abrcide or the permanent effects of it. V. Lat. . Du. or what have I seide ? Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it vaylith not to Quoth Beryn Marry who Since Frenchmen are so braid. kind. riAprjyvvfu. QuhiU all in iflame the bleis of fyre ufbradis. to rush. 2. rangere. fractus j Gr. to t. AS. to roar or bellow. brugier. weave The ON. 145. a mill.' you have the manners To braid of one's of the miller's dog. fragor. bragd — ON. to work up in a mortar. Chaucer. Prov. crash. braire. braid. Cat. explaining a very obscure application of the E. in Jam. twinkling of The Swiss has bratschen. father. Fin. and make a hideous noise. Fr. braidir. to resemble. as the voice of the ass. Then is simply. A broad-shaped fresh-water tion. to bray in a mortar. or cry out loudly . bru. bragd is also applied nets. braa. See Brake. ^p&xia. to sound very loud and very harshly. imitate or resemble one. to cry out. which has given much trouble to commentators. Wal. rattle. roar. The Lat. ON. will. . the sound — of arms. crash. Bread. to pretend. yell. k. bratsche. augnabragd. to resemble. The origin is doubtless a representation A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out. brikan. e. to bray like an ass.ear rog. rustle. at braga eftir euium.g. abraid. iU-favouredly — in Jam. bregda. G. That ye me hondith so Or what have I offendit. at a braid. is often connected with swiftness of moBream.used both to represent the noise of a The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture. Ppvxia. vapna-brak. R. — koa. Bread. to break Fr. BREAM On 97 syde he bradis for to eschew the dint. The ON. gestus. Goth. to The cup was uncoverid. V. To rub or grind down Sp. bray. Beryn. to tear Bret. paxog. Gr. bregar. &c. to cry Port. Bailey. to have the lineaments of one's ON. brand. and hence also to the lineaments of 'his countenance. bregar. regi. to braid the hair. broyer. as things done on a sudden or with violence are accompanied by noise. i. crackle . Prov. a breach Cot. ON. to break. a brake for hemp or flax. a crash. disturbance. 7 . make a disturbance. is . breche. On the same principle may be explained a passage of Shakespeare. &c. fish. cyprinus latus. to knead. applied to loud harsh noises of many kinds. twist. . R. a rag f . breuan. starts crackling up. brot. Syne stilckis dry to kyndill there about laid is. — ' — Heard ye the din of battle iray ? With a terminal d we have Prov. the sword was out break. to braid. brice.fracas. To Break. at once. crash are used to signify both the noise His bow he hadden taken right made in breaking and the fracture itself. verb to break. to braid. the clash of ai-ms Dan.y. to crash. brage. Cot. with or without a final d.^ Fr. roar. &c. — — — explained motus loud noise. appearance Hal. Then.. plait. instantane. on. to smack or the eye. relation is seen between Lat. ing. soft . bradar. the miller's dog. F. V. father. In like manner the word crack is But when as I did out of slepe abray. Chaucer.ch. E. BRAY loud harsh noise are represented by the syllable bra. Breach. broad. paste or dough. bruzir. to snatch. Dunbar braessem. braa. to rumble. To pretend is to assume the appearance Ye braid of and manners of another. to crash. we find the verb to bray or braid used to express any kind of sudden or violent action. crepo and E. to bellow.' To Bray. to bawl. W. D. Fr. as the notion of turning crack. a wink. &c. to scold. since such are the manners of Frenchmen. ybrayid. bruire. braidar. to roar as the sea. to N. The meaning — Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding. breach. to break. brak. to start. and frangere. quilibet celerior j at bragdi. to resemble him. to rub Fr. turn. or wound. From the or brack in a wall. brechen. and to signify the fracture itself. OE. And with a traid I tumyt me about. a . resound . as OE. Bret.of the noise made by a hard thing breaklace IX. G. mos. a rent. a brack. ser. I'll live and die a maid. ' breide (there is no use crying out) With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. yell. The same He might don us both a villany. to the gestures by which an individual is characterised. And at a braid he gun it bende. — . bragr. upbraid. and fracasously. braea. to roar. Swiss bratschig. noise . D. brak. to braid acquires the sense of bend. to break. D. to cry out. baiyl. rogi. Q. to the seijauntes.

bris de charbon. breinse. noise. it smacks As In like manner it is not improbable that Fr. brodel. E. Fr. Dan. de bridse geveii. a word formed from the sound of a loud smack. sprouted corn. brezza. Gael. grillare. of straining. brumtnen. brciz. rubbish. binding. from ligare. a box. Bruise. braucn. to shiver for cold. Bret. to bind. Swiss AS. bremse. brok. AS. brcekur j It. of E. malt. as.). —Briss. Breeze. to strike — the offal of hay and straw in feeding cattle Sp. braciarc. w. bre- I'os qui bresole. braguier. to be misty and cold. bragues. Prov. G. brison. braie. twittering sound the term is The caller \vine in cave is sought Mens broihinghxasXi to cule. brisd. briste. so AS. brut. Piedm. einem de britze geven. and is then used in the sense of trembhave thus It. Fr. Hence the Lat. also to chill and shiver with cold. their stings draw . The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. body brostia. dial. scent. or the blow itself. brustia. a crum Du. to crackle. grillen. bark Fr. Fr. PI. simmering. bra. Swiss brdtsch. broden. AS. Brize. brasser. bruc. then to broil. to burst. the breech or buttocks. one on a bench and strike him flat with a board. break.vare. as. brcEth. Swiss Rom. the bust.) sound with which the gadfly heralds his attack. Sw. Breast. breath. briosa. to feize or feaze. brodem. an odour. BREAST The BREW origin is the imitation of a rustling noise. to smack. bretilles. brire. polenta. broil. an instrument of laths for smacking on the breech . The Breech (Prov. which signifies in the first instance a continuous broken sound. braca. to scourge on the buttocks (Cot. The ashes and cinders sold by the London dustmen for brickmaking are known by the name In other parts of England the of breeze. braux. Du. instead of being derived from 'La. term briss or h'ist is in use for dust. Du. G^nev. brasiare. britze. siibligar. bruzir. . braich. zare. and other rubbish dibris. Piedm. but more probably the E. bracecs . crush. — . Dev. fail. Hume in Jam. chilly. to fry Then from a Gl. chillness or shivering. bandage or truss for a rupture. bruise. to resound. representing the sound of a blow. to breech. and E. simmer. clout for a child. A fierce loud buzzing breeze. brisciare. braga. Perhaps the original meaning may be a chest. griller. a horse's twitch. Breath. a crum. brijsen. to buzz. trembling. The origin of the word is shown by the Mid. properly to crackle. Rom. Du. to whip. morsel. — And blood. grill. to crush to break. applied to shivering. b}-as.t. bruzun. breeze. &c. corresponding to G. The Teutonic verbs. Gael. de Vaud. from the buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in the N. briosat'. subligaculum. /esses. briig. breson. trusts. We bragezj on. malt. met de bridse slaan. forms analogous to E. bratscher. Lat. — . murmur—Vocab. the sound of a blow with the flat hand. braca. Bracha. windy withal. orts. braies. E. to brew. as by the Sc. broza. drive the cattle gadding through the wood. point to G. brache. brimsa. Biglotton. brisoler. Prov. one on the breech so that (klatschet). from AS. Bret. brinisa. breme. Originally probably the word signified steam. Briss and buttons.D. the original breeches being (as it must be supposed) a bandage wrapped round the hips. — Brist. To Brew. a cold and windy mist or frost . and brought beneath between the legs. singing bone. . to break. brise. as the G. burst. a smack. brist. switch. brew. brdtschen. bryi^ga. a cramp-iron for holding things together. to hum. ./ssus. brezzare. brimme. a girdle. fitzen. in Schilter. — See Broth. to brew. remains of leaves. to fry . cloven. G. a twitch for a horse. as in the case of twitter. to simmer. to rattle (as hail). . a to lay fly-flap. to roast. to murmur. bris. brijselen. Gl. breost. — Halma. briosa. the soler. brosame. brezling. brasiuiii. Fris. Goth. are in like manner ' . drawers. broiiwen. rubbish. braia J OFr.98 borst. murmur. little bits of wood Berri briser. So ON. bridsen. G. braid) may be explained as the part covered by the breeches. are related to Prov. See Brick. peitschen. Gl. G. an into shiver. Compare OE. the dry spines of furze broken off. — — strument for smacking. bris. sheep's droppings bruss. a gadfly.britschen. brusc.'— Gl. from brace. OFr. Russ. Du. braga. briiz. brossi!. . Isidore and Tatian. G. Breeze. vapour. brissle. coaldust. fastening . term designates the part on which a boy is breeched or flogged. It. Breeze. . as commonly explained. Breeches. i5r(Z^. Dtyden. forms. xyligogio castigare. braies. a cool wind. with It. Lat. of trees. to bray. QNtsterviald) pritschen. may be from the wurh fesser. bresilles. brugga.

a lump of bread. a married man guma. Brick. to boil. brigantine. but to a paved road. from Bridegroom. served (Patois de Bray). brigade. At Hamburg a paviour is called steen-brygger. Trovarfor bride-ale. . a fragment. a rogue. a briole. BREWIS from a forni similar to Wall. a little king's writs. Pro(merch=:maid). ap. a bride. buskins. to boil. to prepare. Pol. fervere. Brewis. Ihre. bretonica. troop. bruyere. bruk. especially to a letter or command. a crum. piece of burnt clay. priod. brere. — — — — — — . bride. to pave brukkti. Bridge. briwo. Bridal. bitill. berwi. Bribe. son. guma. stone-bridge bnikkoti. fit. owned also propriate. A bribe is A — — arval. consort with. in the sense of OSw.' he made two leagues of road through the forest of Tiwede. broosekens. Brief. a man. one's ovin. . It. to tlie brico. Han last broa twa rastin af Tiwede.Fr. bridge. Hdcart. bryd-gutna. In the patois of briccia. bidsel. sponsa. Priodi. brasser. bricge j G. bruk. bricou. a beggar. priod-ferch. would correspond in like manner to the Fr. Bridal. See Broth. It — is Kil. to beg one's bread. ' — . feast of espousals. bo. jetty. arf-ol. collect bits of food. pier. to circulate. a lump of bread briber. graf-ol. betony brulicame. berwedd. fragment. being one of the numersummary or any short writing. of burial. bulicame. sugga. breve or brevis. two-masted vessel. any jot or crum. bribe de pain. or brizo. pavement Lith. from the last 99 of which. It. a fragment. but probably Bricoteau. buckler J ON. In some parts of France brique to the summary of instructions given to a barrister for the defence of his client. peculiar. — . brique de pain. to press. Gael. pavement. malt. appropriate. a heath brughera. a boiling. as. thick appropriated. privus. brukkas. So It. . Dan.pritil . brA. Flor. betonica. Fr. from Bret. . Sp. bridelj OHG. If the foregoing were not so clear. brakes of high-grown ferns. Hence OE. as so. . a crum. feast. Goth. heath. fragDictante legationis suae brevem. brau. Gl. brughiera. a rogue . ibrukkti. the newly. So in The Prov. In the G. ter-in-law. brar. a brig or priodor. AS. bribour. to boil. company.groom. gf2o. boiling up brocoliere. Brique. pavement brolegge. groom (mab=:son). bro. fastningar-ol. the equivalent of to the dial. brug. Cot. Fl. married. Rouchi brife. A — A — . remarkable that the Gr. W. brittil. Thom. and berweddu. AS.gfiugga.privatus. Diez. ment of anything broken. a Bride. hlafes brice. a heath. . AS. Lat. a sow. brilt. birbone. then the marriage itself. and that from It. from the Normans. braut. with transposition of the r. Due. Brigade. brigata. has briguer. to Isrew. birbante. brygga. briiths. brocaly. The radical meaning is simply a From Lat. the part which the horse bites or holds in his mouth. Du. brood. Fr. Mid. Neumann. httle bit. Diefenbach com.. brice.rough with brambles and bushes. a bit. daughheath. ON. AS. AS. to meet together. to rub. the Fr. to stamp. Lang. from bit. a married man or woman Lat. Fr. it is applied to the letter to OE. The original sense thus seems to be to ram. twopares Lat. w. of succession Mes se a sei-vir als valens homes e a 7 * . E.bergantino. a cheat. to appropriate. malt. — . brieden. grug. bryd-eale. of the Archbishop or similar official fracture. The Sw. a wedding priod-fab. bruskr and buskr. bruith.It. corresponding or letter. to break to pieces bricalio. E. a bush. ' . broken. BRIGADE dead. AS. to pave. E. beaten way Dan. lipdZu}. Walach. Grisons bruch. to press in. . funeral. a quoit of stone. Gael. imprint. now only used in the metaphorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of some one. bably contracted from brigantine. bara briw. a proprietor. a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still prreof something. the marriage si in brigata. broken victuals. a satisfactory origin might have been found in w. division of an army. briw. . bro. G^n^v. bruarium. bro is applied not only to a bridge. to break. Bridle. brief it has been appropriated to the sense of an epistle bit bricounejha. a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose . Applied ous words derived from break. broken bread. fraoch. Perhaps this may be one of the cases in which the derivation of the word has been obscured by the insertion of an r. OHG. to brew. In E. brutg. which however is undoubtedly from brace. briicke. E. conjux. The origin of the word is the w. jipaaaiii. . Brier. frayer. bride. bread. and ODu. OSw. barren land priodas. crew. Ducange. nurus G. a gift for the purpose of obtaining an undue compliance. is still used in this sense. a bride Brig. brahi. whence berw. masted vessel. bygga. a lump of bread.

— Briganbriga. — brigante. The origin of both armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag. dine. — A A . show the origin of Lat. Bav. and to associate with them.' The sense of strife or combat express. . and led it away. and the E.glampa. kilistua.' The passage from the sense of a light. Gr. glamm. — Due. similar change has taken place in the meaning of the It. to exert one's force in the attempt to do something. tion. braid. schiteren. Due. in the first instance. outcry. and ner me hit iherde. \oice. transparent. 312. tuilahtaa. willata. squamma . Goth. to resound. splcnornd de brigandine. In the same way to strive is. himself to serve men of merit. were also called brigancii Briganciis et balestra- Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi In like manner the Q. . rover either by sea or land. — Beowulf. In Fin. to bend a bow It.' BRIGHT general notion of exertion of force. a spark. duobus millibus brigantum et ' 2315- Leod waes asungen Gleomannes gyd. glir. bragen. the bench-notes resounded. and. Mid. also called briganders. Gall. a vessel employed for the purpose of scheteren. and. bray. Bright. but classed by Thomas of Walsingham with the Brigands as a species of horse-soldier. Schmeller. brigan.pracht. It. is easily understood. clear sound. and we find accordingly that the words expressing attributes of light are commonly derived from those of sound. to rob. praht. It.' torum.— . The Ir. may play the pirate or thief at sea. a brigantine. that of Fr. to piracy.shine. Xa/iTTii). tinnitum clarum movco. the gleeman's song. on his — own account. Lat. clear. Swab. glitter. brcEhtin. OHG. a noise. Florio. bright bearhtm. Wilista. to cry. ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass . Brigand. briegen. moment. necessary business. a sound. It. clangour. —Capgrave. It. brigandare.' in Due. combat. brigare. dine. bracht. The primary meaning of Sp. bryhtm.clare ^tinniens. So G. brak. frequently mentioned by Froissart and his contemporaLatin glossary quoted by Duries. with respect either to sound or colour. to make a loud noise. See Brake. corresponding to the per for giving chase or fighting Bailey . clear. would be a set of people engaged in a common occupa- brignar ab He set . — A Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demonstratus Brigantinorum moresemivestitus gestans sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum partium qui Malandrini dicuntur. The E. to ring. splendens . hell. to From The phenomena from whence all representative words are immediately taken must of course belong to the class which addresses itself to the ear. tinnitus. at a later period. Heo — song That AS. labour. strife. briga. a pirate. — Brigantine. lay was sung. brawl. brigant. twinkling. Adelung. Gamen The sport asft sestah ducentis equitibus. splendour. tumult. Owl and beorhtian. 1654. to glamr. From ON. jurgia. brebrigare. malandrini. to cry 'Schmid OE. c'est une mani^re de gens d'armes courant et apert Cum 4 millibus peditum armak pi^. to glitter.dorem clarum reflecto. to contend with another. seems to be to exert force gar el area. to shine. speech. manifest ON. to sound. wilella. — Probably then to strive.Lat. the grew high. beorht. Beorktode bene sweg. — — . kii:'a. it was in the sense of skirmishers that the name oi brigand ^zs given to certain light-armed foot-soldiers. Flor. rixa. clare lucens. In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the hrlgauntis of the Frensch took the kytigis carriage It. a glittering. and hence be explained glampi. sound. glbram. brigare. riis ' — Chron. They or brigantini. shriek with laughter. — brigante. A strepere. bright itself was formerly applied to sounds. then. 1351. Du. representing a sudden noise. XafXTTpoQ. A. Brigata. to shine.D. clear. brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. far so schille and so brihie Nightingale. glamra. cange has 'Veles. to strive for. loo BRIGAND lor. from hall. briga. secondarily. to rove. bregar. splendour. in the sense of a robber. to shift for with care. tinkle. Brilliant. biartr. to reservavit. clang. there are many armour. and secondly. inde squammatus. a small light pinnace pro. etincelle. and diligence. Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other. clarus. schateren.prahlen signifies in the first instance to speak with a loud voice. pugna. in later times a robber or highway-man. bairhts. noise. Ducange has ' Brigandinou. brdgen. AS. from examples of the same transfer of sigbeing worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the Brigands.

we have brimthe Swiss Rom. The E. brandr and Fr. originally the lap folding over the breast. brezil. ter. the lap or bosom. (poet. is used for the surface of the sea (Hawkins' Voyage).— Brinded. ling noise and a sparkling light. reecho. greDiet. pMiller. fierce. barm. bremas. to sound deep or hollow. The identity of ON. to roar as brissle was derived from the crackling a lion. to parch. bar. sparkle. greedily to covet Cot. brullo. It. A . brummen. Brem. grdzil. gresiller. brillare. of the eye. brmdottr. Rugere. rut. kiimottaa. to twinkle. brama. or violent action. with an initial br instead of gr. barmr. brummen : de soge brummet. as in Langued. brand-krossottr. to crackle. duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- — We We bremel. as of meat in broiling . breme. Sc. : ' — bone). bremmen. griller). burning stone. Hence with an initial s. lap of a garment . have then in Fr. crackle . ON. excited. briller. surface of the ocean. and corresponding to these. the heat of animals. Kil. — Rim. beam. Dan. os qui bresole. frequently interchange. rugire. Supp. identical with passion. fringe . as is the case also with Pl. a rod. small gravel. and the correspondence of the pair with griUer. to burn. briller (related to each other as OFr. Here it cannot be doubted fremo. AS. ardere desiderio. seems to have been attained on a principle exactly similar. to sound clear (equiva- lent to the 'E. sprainged. brastlian. to glitter distance . the edge. an apron. ON. brame. Brim. furious. a border. grisler. post. that the original meaning of the Sc. Tresiller. The expression is now confined to the sow. properly to tremble with impa- The Sp. It. the sow is brimming. to creak. que epoinponne ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer.D. is used of raging. Dief. to quaver with the voice. In GeInstead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus. s. to utter cries. brdnnsten. brant.preni. bramar. Fr. brumft. — g. Langtoft. to storm. to . 1.) brimi. In like manner in Galla the sound of a bell is imitated by the word bilbil. as in ing or earnest desire bramare. Brimstone. clangor tinniens. to glitter . griller d'impatience. ring. AS. vigorHal. from bringe. cross-barred in colour.' Elyot in Way. breme. margin. to wish or covet. sonitum edere bremen. coloured in stripes. from brandr. kimmaltaa. for the burning the brinfire's stinken smoke. Lith. brim Magy. bray as an ass bramire. Sw. the eye-brow. shine. spraing. breziller. Wtb. uses bresoler (il bresole fir. brimmen. the verbs Flor. bryn is used in the sense both of border or edge and surface. to shimmer. to shine. to crackle. border. The highest condition of ungratified G^n^v. border. burning. must pre' mise that an initial br and gr. fringe (Lat. broiled. kommata. the singing of Sodom — — . ous. earnestly . 1 1 64. bryn.its vent in cries and roaring. — — So Fr. a long. bremmen. dial. kimina.' d'etre marie . to roar. fire. to shine. border. komottaa. breziller.). lip of a vessel. from the analogous effect proLes fait de rut si fort bramer Que le bois d'autour en resonne. kajata. Streaked. brennistein. 154. Du. Sc. fimbria) . a borDu. striped or streaked. Said of swine when in heat. the meaning is transL' amour. 754. griller. to make a crackling noise. perent. finds the Fr. the heat of animals. gresiller. .ioTiviS acutus. to sparkle. briller. der. hence the bosom. verb briller itself seems to have the sense of shaking or trembling in the expression briller apris. whether of desire or anger. also to reflect. ON. brinfire. as well as bl and gl. Tancred went his way and Richard wex full brim. to broil. rugire (cervorum. Closely connected is OE.— BRIM . bramar. brindled cow is in Normandy called vache brangde. The meaning of the Fr. bramire. rym^. In Fr. to resound. a stick. brunft. komista. edge Pol. Fl. vattubryn. a streak. and 1. broil . chime). In the same way Sw. to roar. Swiss Rom. which seems identical with rim. brommen. brame. to long for a thing. to brymme as a boore doth whan he geteth pigges. on. glit. brow of a hill. to make bilbil). s. Rayn. to fret . It. crackle. — . To Brim. . strongly confirming the contraction of briller from breziller. brissle. brisoler. bresoler (Gloss. appear at a BRINDLED lol flash. . to creak. parched. bry7ie. grullo. Prov. Tutschek. — — — . Brindled. Subo. to shine. glisten. to shake. E. FJ. voux. leonum). bramer. G. lap. brim. barm-cloth or barmskin. tience. kimista. noise made by meat in broiling. Thus Lat. the ryme of the water ogne-bryn. grisser. whence bilbil-goda (literally. to glitter.

). a skewer. sharp. To broach a cask is to pierce it for the purpose of drawing off the liquor. 'V^. Gr. The name seems to be taken from the roaring of the waves ON. flame. Boh. as unripe fruits. can only come from comparison of the rioise of the breakers to the roar of water. Fris. a stitch brocher. to spur. Liquamen vel garum. Salte sand is called brimsand. Walach. bringe. ribrezzoso. i:02 BRINE is BROCADE It. britar. Brittle. because it makes us shivery and goose-skinned. /3pE^m. — bryme. harsh vin brusque. to burn. a bud. a fragment. brimhliod. to shoot. brusco. to stab Gael. Pectusculum. See To Brim. brote. eager. See Brand. broc. ' . to broil. spur. Fr. brandello. rash. startling. as. brissko). and forms on. bryne. Commonly explained as from Fr. Russ. Prov. from AS. to shiver for cold as in a fit of an ague. brim (poet. to broach a business. and. Lat. craw of a bird. originally merely to crackle or-^iinmer. Da. bringue. A similar relation may be observed between Sp. a rod or twig. to set it a going. Gl. are used in the sense of brittle.g. from brande. fiscbryne. roar of the sea saltr. It. brisk in taste. brusk. a rebours. p. It is probable that there is a fundamental connectionwith the \erb to break. brocco. . breaking out into growth. to set up one's birse. of astonishment. coli. to shiver for Sold or for fear. cK) the . Brym. i. Bret. bros. crabbed. as. to begin upon it. . brijn (Kil. broccata.Lat.rcendij'i. brust. borst. rebursiis. — — . briser. Sc. brot. The Pl.'— Vita'abbatum S. suddenly angry. ' breast. Berri. enough — — primaeva astate habebat capillos crispos modum The dicam rebursos ad qui semper tendunt sursum. or the full • . briocho. humorous. birse.' Nat. Ptg. bricho (with the diminutives. a morsel. In the N. to spit. brytan. a cold and windy mist or frost. a slip or sprig of an herb . shoot. sour. brcit. thick — A elastic hair. b. the brisket or . It. Prov. a bit . fantas'* tical. to scorch. It. Fr. Sp. a projecting tooth It. Cot. a button broche. lively. It. man's throat. to break. the twigs of a besom. G. to stitch. to stick. ruffling. saulmeure. setting the hair on end compare It. quick. breidr. brindelles de balai. brim. emotions which produce it.. brezza. to goad. brich. a shoot or sprig. brocar. against the grain . which in the case of wood 01 similar material naturally takes the form of a prick. grim. breaking of the waves brim sior. bryde. Du. Crispin! et rigidos et ut ita pini ramorum Broacli. to crack. birstle. to turn up the point of anything. spricka. stecco rotto in modo che punga Altieri). 222. britchet. broca. a crum. to roar. expression. Hal. brioshko. bresk. Port. brime. a stump or dry branch of a tree so that it prick a bud. to be compared with the cold bleak day It. brissle. broche. to thrust. to astonish or affright with sudden fear ribrezzoso. a spit. a deluge. strong itself. the notion of a sharp point being obtained either from the image of a broken stick {brocco. NE. Fr. or finally from the pointed form of a bud or shoot. 'In sua to stand up of Corn. birs. is called a birssy day. . brisciare. Palsgr. rebrousser. — A . a brad or tack. Fr. Bohem.procio. to spur. of E. a clasp. Du. brissle might properly be used in the sense of startling. to bud. wine of a sharp. Hence ribrezzare. brin. breast-piece of Adam's apple bone of birds in a meat Norm. a stormy brimsea . byrst. birsle. Bret. Mid.). Alfr. sprouts. rude. a peg sbrocco. Breeze been connected with the Sc. Bristle. Sw. to break. e. bruched (Fr. bros. See Spread. borzos (struppig). fragile. Abroacli. briota.. to put one in a rage . Dan. brog. bronchus. borzen. setting the hair on end. sticking up . as. like the Broad. brocciare. Sc. chest. ON. . sprocco. . brockle. smart taste. to break. the In Dorset sea sea brymflod. Fr. Swiss to stand out . the surf. trembling. is to erect the hair. aculeus. form bris. as a noun. hot-tempered. has under It. Then as the effect of shivering. Brisket. apt to break. brocco. brocher. bruckle. Brooch. briota. brodden. an ornamented pin to hold the parts of dress together. sprout. the surf. fierce. bristly . flames. brusque. stitch. Formerly written brotil. Russ. brichet. — . angry. brocchus. Compare also E. prick with Sw. brimme. a belly. Brocade. reburrus. brittle. and hence. brim. — in Due. Zeuss. or — . braidsj ON. a morsel . or from that of a splinter or small fragment.D. brddj Goth. britar. broccare. Brisk. very salt brimi. whence may be explained the Sc. bringe traced through the brano. brezzare. a bud. brittle. broca. is the equivalent derivative from the Gael. a brooch. Prov. Fr. to birstle. borstel. a soi t of cloth wrought with gold and silver. brickie. metaphorically. birssy. and Sc. an awl. breast. bruskett. . Antiq. from break. Brine. Brickie.

or glowing coals broged. speckled. here. with Sc. as will often be in other instances where the derivation seems to halt between two roots. a confused streaked face of the animal. sting.. to crackle. tufted ornaments. Surrey in R. two distinct images seem to have coalesced in a common signification. to crackle. piebald . forming to jumble. or snag. Compare G. silkes-borda. carbonado. is also applied to a knot or bunch in silk or But Murathough from the same Disturbance. the shoot of corn. brizen. broc. The ON.. to scorch. to streaked or speckled in the face. a badger. brocart. or stuff embossed with make a hurly-burly. Hal. parch. has grisser. Cot. a flock or Gael. to embroider. bmsciare. broil. Brocket. brusler. of pointing out their latent defects. brastlian. hart of two years old. broccuto. brasiller. tori shows that. Ihre has guU-bord. find fault is accordingly recognised To in . a border ornamented with gold. a b?-ustolare. hurly-burlies.— B. spots. a flake of snow sion. to parch or broil. A badger. to crackle. It. brouda. brooked. thread. to crackle. to spur. a prick.tumultuous. broighlich. Contracted from Fr. whence broccare. to prick. — The proper sense is that of Fr. prasseln. brasolare. broder. kled breac. a border. a freckle. bawling. precisely analogous to the Sc. badger . brustle. Cot. a freckle. spotted. Here to ornament with needle-work. to burn. Gael. streaked. a brim. With an gr instead may happen brissle and E. because a border of needle-work was the earUest mode of ornamenting a garment. b?-od. trouble. knobby . or salted fish on coals. a point. brucach. scorch. atoms . brocach. bordar. capable from long practice of forming a critical judgment of the goods in question. and also to sew on a border or fringe to a garment. — Fl. Fr. ornamented with a raised pile. It. fundamental origin. speckled. border. Gael. and bord or bred. initial . brasuole. and AS. parched.sound. onbryrdan. — — . rinj'. briz. bustling. embroidery. Sc. ToBroider. gold and silver. . R. or It. . Ptg. a peg. Grisons brascla. broglio. stump. grislement. margin. from the white. to boss. Fr. — . broiled. brod. a brouhaha. trouble. noise. parti-coloured. brydda is both to sharpen or furnish with a point. B. In all these — words the imitative character of the designation from the crackling sound of flame and burning grease is felt in a lively manner. rustle. To roast upon hot coals. a To Broil. sparks E. confulittle tuft of silk or wool. broc. a mole. Broker. brucilare. brocco. AS. to crackle as a shell in the fire. brullare. For the same reason the badger is also called Bawson. brouFr. that these are themselves modifications of a common original. border ornamented with silk. tumult broighleach. W. a quarrel. shuffle. motes. brasbrasciuolare. brindled. an edge. A fried or boiled steaks). brouiland ler (from whence it immediately comes). Thus brod. borprick. — Gower in It. q. houx. briefh. broukit. Bret. storms. broud. bruler. blusters. frocadura. brasiller. birsle. noisy. Fr. But that thou wilt And trie in winter ships prepare the seas in hroih of whirhng windes. frecSee Brawl. bordo. broice. to instigate. perhaps we should rather say formed like Fl. gresiller. Sc. It of br the Fr. a fallingThe sense has been out. So from Pol. The custom of employing a broker in the purchase of goods arises from the advantage of having a skilled intermediary. confound. broccato was used to signify stuff . braird. to stud broccoso. dar seems derived from borde. somewhat modified in later times by a confusion with brawl. creak. agree in being the extremity of a thing. Icnotty. because the animal at that age has a single sharp broche or snag to The fallow-deer of the same his antler. brych. point to an origin in Bret. ciare. or roast on the braise. v. broil. parti-coloured. age was termed a pricket. Sp. Compare also AS. E. to burn. The Bret. The Italian has found to be the case the double form brullo. grullo. and rejecting whatever falls below the degree of excellence called for by the circumstances of the case. BROCK in the sense of BROKER Broil. brerd. bramowanie. make a noise like straw or small wood in burning. brodio. the line of development has been something different. — When he is falle in such a dreme He routeth with a slepie noyse And broustletk as a monkes froyse (pancake) When it is throwe into the panne. a crackling noise as of meat in broiling griller. freckled. to knots or loops. From direct imitation of Brock. breard. to embroider. and w. a brecJi. froco. Dan. embroidering. Florio. to broil. prod. to darn. — brissle. to On the other hand the Sp. brychau. brusuolare (the last to be argued from brasciuole. 103 embroidered. bram. bj'oil. brusuole.

pan metal. warm. refuse wares. The name broker seems to have come to us from the shores of the Baltic. with which much of our early commerce was carried on. to sort brakovanie. The use sunburn. refuse goods. brod. braken. fish-spawn broden. in the sense of rejection. cracker. to roast on the embers. bronce. whence the modern courtier. fault censure. wrack-good. brasa. a fault. faulty. — Fl.— Lib. a makeln. tussis. bronze. stain. bring eggs and spawn into active life. bruoton is used by Notker also unsih diu uuolla bruotct unde uuider froste skirmet. glowing coals. Du. wrak. refuse Fr. Prov. appointed to classify goods according to their quality. In the sense of blot or stain there is a singular confusion with brack. term was correcfo^ir. goods damaged by sea-water. an . sunburnt. ON. nounce unsound. slaae vrag paa. Bret. is probably not originally derived from comparison with the colour of the metal bronze. hot. brack-gut. analogous to Bohem. To blame mens ware. brass does to Sp. in which sense the OHG. or brascla. reject. spittle . brackefi.D. to sort goods . broen. Abbronzare. Bronzare. an outcast or rejected sheep. to emit sparks. On • tliis principle the G. brands. This word shows the same relation to It. spittle. Vous jurrez que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez marchaundisez queux vous ferez correcSacramentum Abrocariorum in tage. has exactly the force of G. cherish. progeny of birds. inspection. In Petersburgh the price of tallow is quoted with or without brack. to pick and choose. to blame. Sp. and fishes . corrector.D. — a spark. It may be compared with It. Commonly referred to the notion of warming. couratier.D. In the . brid. See Wreak. refuse brakovat. e. abbronzanchiare. brumo. broiid. • . G. to hatch. to spit . Alb. . brunds. brasa. . Grisons brinzla. brak. on. raquer. Bronze. fermenting. find fault with. Pl. hrak. Fr. Jam. wraken. racaille. Brood. rejected. any re- as the specific duty of a we advance another broker Among burgeises Dwellyng at have I be London. ODu. brack. tan. ordure. bric-a-brac. bridde. refuse. refuse. Fl. find fault — — — fuse matter. And gart Backbiting be a brocour. to throw blame upon. For the same reason the Kiittner. try out. to criticise. . Russ. of the word bronzed in the sense of tanned. brokers' goods. as. Now in most of the Teutonic (especially the Pl. but from the primary sense of the It. hot.) and Slavonic dialects is found the root brak or wrak in the sense of rejection. bracker. — . In those countries the term braker. from makel. vile. and as an adj. — point out the faults. embers. burning. brod. If to vomit . Kil. to copper. damaged. keep warm. the young of any animal . and to reject the damaged and unsound. dirty. Per manus et old worthless horse. phlegm.— Breed. 396. designation is indkler. trumpery. It. vrage. want. lack. sbrinzlar. selection. to nourish. sort. mud. from break. Teutonic class : Du. braeck goed. Lat. to — garble. racher. to sit on eggs. brokoti. 38. brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem barganei. brokas. brechen. to braze.' as wool \\'arms us and protects us against frost. OFr. we shall probably find the original image in the act of spitting. . . mediationem quorundam J. See Broth. merchandises de rebut G. cast Lith. the spawn of fishes. 104 Piers BRONZE Plowman : BROOD step in the inquiry and seek the origin of the term brack. embers. vile. raca. — broeden. [and thence] to foUqw the business of a broker. hraki. rejection Pol. brack in the expression brumos de boutigo. to .— — . bronzo. to be wanting. embers to brund. damaged. briiten. refuse brakowad. or wracker is used to signify public inspectors. insects. See Brackish. S. Adelung. dial. an operation performed over hot coals. brut. to brew. Tooke's Catherine. brwd. criticise (makeln). bronze. brieden. i. bronze. Sc. make out. to hatch. to braze or solder iron with a lute of brass. brack-gut (Sanders). a broker. a chicken. filth. . is the origin of the designation both of bronze and brass. Du. w. brakyne. To correct an exercise is to Lib. to garble. Alb. Pl. screatio Junfus . The Langued. It would appear then that the use of the metal in soldering. brak.D. to sparkle. brydio. to pick. Dan. bredan. wreak. to pro- to reject . which E. to reject. G. as the liveliest expression of disgust and contempt for the rejected object. the term brack signifying the official inspection of sworn brackers or sorters. buy and sell by commission. to be hot. a brood . to hatch G. : ' . et A. a cough Hal. find fault with. a breach or flaw. giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect. matter of blame weak place. to scorch. inspect. Pl. G. correctarius. try . whnake. blur. Pro v. brae. abject. with. brot.

bruscosd quam de arabili. brue . brucan. the bubbling or springing up of water. w. steam from heated bodies. pour boiling water over. eye-brow. G. b7-un. wood . brosses. eye-brow. boiled . Du. Ne Ne en Chartrain ne en Dive bordel. heath. protecting the eye. Limousin broudi. a river. sap. Fr. riviera. infusion the barley bree. bordel. Gael. brdtaj Gael. bryii. brass. chen. It is Brother. OFr. waves. sense the Sc. grow into a bush. brun. hut. The AS.) . bruno. bor. was originally used in the innocent sense of . . brow. 'Lzt. shore . and Sc. t— Cot. to make sprouts brous-gwezen. 105 Brook. bruich. Prov. plants composed of twigs.brink. brozia. Bret. cia. Gr. bryn. bros. hovel. heat. brew . broud. bntdien. broit. simmer from the murmuring AS. bruc. bruach. a shrub broust. G. shrub with leafless pointed edging. bregh. Brow. Kil. ale . who is steaming with sweat. brosst. broth is sometimes used . BROOK brook w. shoots. to boil bruithe. So- rengus vero expergefactus de bordello Due. brwd. braces. . sordes seu strigmata young branch. Pol. Prov. . broth the ocean Sw. brad. It. a . to Pl. . a bud brous-koad. to use. verge. dialects is very different. to shoot. braussa. bank. face.. strength Ir. brst. fabric consists. from Goth. It. to boil.spross. . bruich. heath. border. Here we find throughout the Romance. broza. heat explaining the Prov. Celtic. to border. pottage made by pouring boiling water on brousses. branches. sprot. brothas. sprout. cabbage soup . Serv. Pl. braun. a bud. a sprout. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock. buds. Sp. a source Gael. . — . juniper. a spring. edge. to boil. of plants broust. awl-plant. Sp. bree. brawdj Slavon. brewis. — ' . perhaps burnt coloilr. Gael. deiou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts. broem bark. from ripa. brus. rage. a little house or cottage of timber. in which brinnan. brudi. presentation of the simmering of boiling wood . Gael.— Overyssel Almanack. as small-pox. brau. iVlanx broogh. brouser. shore. a hut or cottage It. brost. and Slavonic families. sodden. brotar. properly boiling water briihen. . noise. borde. circuindedit cum familia. A — . mettle. Russ. a derived from the boards. bruceti. brodo. G. breh. Sanscr. Fr. broeye. to scald. brlgh. brodem. broden. &c. broieii. breg. of which the variety of forms. AS. broca. Cot. a hill. brotar. Brothel. brio.braubiti. Gael. to roar. brink.D. broth brothaire. briar. Fr.D. bruitheati. To digest. thicket. brstiti. brous. laissent Domunculum. It. to bubble up with noise. grow brossa. Catalan brossa. The ridge surrounding and To Brook. . brabruach. to use. Dan. Bav. Wtb. to bear patiently. spirit. eye-brow. bud. broi." Serv. Sc. Ppim. bruithim. Lat. BROWSE The diminutive cottage. a bruth. thairj w. eye-lid. eye-lash . bhratrj Zend. briihe. bratrj Lat. on. the colour of things burnt. shrubs. bruith. brov. a hill. bordeau. The softening down of the consonant bud. shoot. bruddeln. useful G. brusmalt. brushbroccoli. Fr. Ger. breg. dumetum. to murmur. broo. as Fr. Due. Manx broie. juice of meat. brouskaol. brennen. . surface of Broth. brost. broth. pottage. a caldron. pfriemkraut. signifying low wet land (Brem. bank. Gris. (which is barely pronounced in Gael. as rhododendrons. eat. sprocco. warmth ch'an. AS. briu. signifying twigs. kail brose. &c. G. braew. Bohem. fugiens in vivariam exire voluit. Fr. brow of a hill. enjoy Goth. . brpuster. But the Walach. broth. to burn. to browse. brd. seethe. surDu. breg. bank. . ceales briw. — . G. bank. eye-brow. See Bramble. house of ill fame. thick bush brousta. vigour. Browse. — exiit et heath. brogues. cabbage water. a sprig. brouic. Bohem. bryn. a person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs. a little . . bruth. brouter. bros. and It. and also border. broth Brown. low The AS. Bret. eye-lid. The meaning of the word brook in the low G. to browse. OHG. eminence . brouches. maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel. juice of briars. a grassy place in a I3pvx(>>. The origin is a re. break out brewet. brukjan. frucius. forms appear related to the Ir. . borda. w. brauwe. has briw. a shore.brons. bushes. margin. browys. broc. . OHG. Bohem. Du. brushbrothas) gives the OE. &c. to use bruks. Commonly Teutonic. brocco. to boil. . (for brodem). a confused noise of winds. or shoot. Mid. Roquef. frater. . brosses. to spring . riviere. may be connected with Russ.' Due. meal. Tam de terrS. vigour. pith. A term widely spread through possible that brook in the E. &c. brouet. or broken up . brmi. hot. sprouts . Russ. broccola. sproc. infusion. edge. on. spuma. strength. or bushes and scrubby growths. augen-braune. sprout. rerum decoctarum. to sprout. frui. fur Broom.

bruiser. bruito. * Brunt. a bud. heath. crum bit . ling or heath for brushes. or sodenly comyn' dust.o6 BRUISE BRUSH brozar. appearin Goth. Gael. Pm. brous. brise. shoot brouskoad. . It. broust. also the word brush had formerly the sense of dust or flue. sordes. . Cot.). Castr. Broach. . broustia. Pr. brico or brizo. quisquilise. Pr. into a multitude of points. escousse. bross. and It. ca7-bo>i. brosst. brustid. scopa signifies in the first instance twigs. Wicliff. See next article. brusca. break. a brush. brist. NE. broza. bruc. All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt dede. shivers. Piedm. are both derived from modifications of the multiform root sigmfying break. Gael. brossa. brusca. Prov.). Fr. borste. brusco. brosst. as It. It. In E. a bush of hair. flax-comb brossettes. bruscolo. Sp. brushwood. an enmy. fragments. dust. coal See Breeze. chips. —Fabyan. brousso. — Fr. abroncar. G. a mote. brosse. bricalio. Sir by your speche now right well I here That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most desire. E. brik. which we find expressed by similar modifications in the termination of the root. Beryn. Brunt of a daunger. splinters. bris. bruzir. briketo. field. It is singulai" that the word may be derived with equal propriety from the dust or rubbish it is used to remove. brustia. Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Gael. crush. p. There can be little doubt that they are all derived from the notion of breaking out. Sw. . AS. OE. Palsgr. and also Brush. a little brizal. Bruit. borste. biirste. also a head-brush. brosse. On the other hand. bruire. detergere . ON. a brush. a briser. brusg. to break. borst. tremely. Port. Pm. the derivation is equally satisfactory from the twigs or bristles of which the brush is composed. brunt. desbrisar. modification of the same root which gives the E.— — i. a blow. a tuft of heath . brist. Prov. Bav. to break. this your heritage there you liked : A That ye might give and ever among. brous. dust. a bud or sprout Bret. fasx . Fr. borste. brista) or breaking out . B?-usske. bruscolo. shock. a noise. Pr. Text Soc. briiis (in the pi. 134. —Chaucer. of twigs. brikan. wood composed OE. — a bush. effort. brossa. a brush . bruit. The fore rydars put themselves in presewith their longe lances to win the first brunie of the — . K. burs. a brush . but on whom it schall to brisen him. briser. and sighid therewithal. du bris de fragments brizal de charbon de terre. a bristle. to make a rumbling. dust. to strike the foot against an obstacle. bud. Fr. she kept picking the dust or bits of flue from her clothes to hide her embarrassment. brustia. insilio. to butt. Fr. rubbish. impetus styrtyn' or brunton'. Fr. That in all haste he wouli. to cleanse. fescue . And that best is. a brush . Gael. E. bris. irruo. to clear away the brush or dust and rubbish. borste. Lang. a crum. burt. biirste. — those signifying a sprig. Lang. Brush. G. brisar. to break to bits .). and actually come in collision. a rumbling.— Palsgr. brizeto. brMt. It. Alexander. . The Bav. orts. . — OE. E. OFr. The same relation holds good between G. twig. An implement made of bristles or elastic twigs for whisking away small extraneous matters from a surface. a flax comb. Bruise. or the mg separate twigs or bristles may be considered as splinters. a — — (Agea) said. broza. a brush. bruise exOFr. brit. A. a brush . brust. wool-card. Sw. it schall be al Sw. brottcher. To brush then would be to dust. remnants of hay or fodder. rubbish. bruscia. And he that schal falle on this stone schall falle. bush. bruis (sing. or shoot. to crush. bushy ground. a horse-brush. brusco. brusc (Diet. while the word besom itself properly signifies twigs. a shrub composed of small twigs . insultus. to brush. The brunt of an engagement is the shock of battle when the two armies a:^en — While cajoling her husband. borste. the interchange of the final consonants being clearly shown in the derivatives. Bret. twig. bris. the brush away she pikid From her clothes here and there. wool-card. brysan. britar. brisd. brossar. mg Cat. Prov. Allit. seems named from burst(on. Cot. Poems. a brush Swiss bruske. broken. to break or burst. . quasi twigs. Brunt. tuft of grass or hay. Diez. to make brusshes on. The Lat. Hall in R. Fl. bruskr.! join battayle even with the bront or brest of the vangarde. a bristle. wool-card. bris. and in the second place a besoiB. dust. rubbish. brus. bruyere. rods. Piedm. and . Prov. and Piedm. Pr. to stumble. Perhaps the explanation of the double origin is to be found in the fact that the words signifying mote. or from the materials of which it is itself composed. bross. small heath whereof head-brushes are made. brist j Port. 174. 201. brist. britar. brugir. blow burcar.

-wtt miekki. The natives of Florida.' Palsgr. mangent toutes leurs viandes appear ever to have been used in the rosties surles charbons et boucan^esjc'est sense of straining or filtering. and as in and b so often infor cocoa. a to the male deer. Fr. tuft. bouc. buchen. to strain. In G. drying of produce. tap . it is beuchen. blister. w. This bubette. — — ' A : ' ' . to stick. Fin. knock. who resorted to the islands beichen. They are divided by partitions of terchange (comp. boc. byge. . because bucare does not in Marsh). bucquer. also applied Una. Dan. caned' Hence those who established them. to soften . soft. a push.to allow a free current of air. maban and baban. hump. Diet. to butt or jurr Dan. News. Bohem. buquer. — . The cipally on the Spaniards. a fescue. bog-aske. a bubble. . called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of the term barbecue j a barbecued hog. I. Formerly. at a door. to Gael. from bek / bek ! representand the sound of a blow.steep or soak. Fr. bubiti. when soap was tion is commonly taken. to buck. the linen at buck. The cording to Olivier Oexmelin. bubauti. buck-ashes. . from weich. mollire. Magy. . was called in Fr. little BUCK 107 piece of wood or straw. bube. bubBuck. moczyd. to soften. soft . rap. bukke. pukkata.wet Lat. bucaIndies. not so plentiful a commodity. Cot. a. bub. to or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. buquer. bubseti. says Laudon. and Fr. boc. different form. bwch. bublati. to soften. is 1. Magy. blast or strike with the forehead. bifbel. Fr. Esthon. Our next illustration represents the Bocan. a knock word. bokni. open lath-work. 1586. . boucaner. very generally designated by the same puk. to beat from the tendency of the animal to butt bubleti.— . bucata. A . or mok.derivation has been much discussed. of wind. thunder gently .boukaat. to murmur. the upper for coifee. Burble in the water to soak in a solution of wood ashes. smokipg meat were called buccaniers. boil animals. Sc. 17th century.buchen.D. The term bocan is still ap. from which the ing the bleating of a goat. tion of the sound made by the bubbling liquid. March 28. soft.byka. Sp. designation of a knob. does not hold. hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen bump. bduclien. The male goat. boh. the ashes of beechderived from the language of the Caribs. the first wheal. To buck then building used for drying and preparing cocoa and coffee. to soak foul linen before washing. to bump as a bittern. becco is a radically to represent the j>o/ of a bubble bursting. tender. colada. to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any a kind of grate. and the bunch. bubbola. bucking. ac. as a buck rabbit. to filter.biiken j Svi. to a place used for the mouillir. Etym. and uninhabited places in the West Dan. The ideas of wet and selves in the islands for the purpose of soft commonly coalesce. to butt. either because a bubble is taken as or blow Fr. . moist. It. top. was called bucking the linen. supposed to feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca. pup. Sp. in which the flesh dish. to to butt bubble and a lump or swelling are kick . to knock the type of anything round and swelling.lessiver. . lye. and as a verb. Pol. ashes used for that purpose were called To Bubble. to which in their language they call bou. bub. But see Bristle. watery bud. It. or projecTo Buck. mote. to butt. to soak. The place of such a 2. buborek. erweichen. to soak. to bubble. chiefly employed in making potash It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have they took prisoners. faire la lessive. to bellow as a bull Probably named bubeuti. in the same way that the term is in was cooked and smoked at the same time. and the ashes are strained through a pierced this mode of dressing. because Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself). molle. tender. The word was very generally Buccanier. a. Bret. buck-ashes. 1857. and exercised their cruelties prin. buerj It. hog dressed whole). from colar. and then to other wild tumour Lith. hump. bouk. soft. a hole. bugada. Pref A. Illust. plied in the W. Bubble.' In HackThe true derivation is seen in Gael. The building is regularly constructed would originally be to set the linen to with two floors. who wrote a more plausible are history of adventurers in the Indies. a ashes. luyt's translation dressed in the smooke bog. See Dupe. The name. a bubble. bugd. de la Floride. BUBBLE bruschetta. But the analogy nih-e (Hist. Bohem. — . It. mieknad. . soft It. pokka7na. as G. mokry. a dire quasi cuictes a la fumfe. Bret. lye. Pol. a steep for flax. Gael. w.tare. which is also used in a great portion of the ends and sides of the main building. the lower soak in lye. wood. a bubble . to wet Pol. From an imita. set of pirates in the spread.

stumpy man. put forth as a tree in the spring (Cot. nave of a bo te gjera da:' you have no need. a short thick man. Wtb. bump. Bret. in the beginning of to pierce holes. to bud or bocla. from bo.). turgere buczendig. become bochen. buie for is commonly mentioned as a precious buquSe. OFr. Fr. w. bedde. butzen K. like a bean. Bus. bog and G. a bud.— . above mentioned.pode. botzen. rump of fowls .' Schm.) as to soak. soft. imbuere. bunch . bod. bulais daqui. butz. words is converted into b. bouljein. — . need. a bump. G. noise . seen in Hesse botz. ' . bode. It termination is lost. to line with fur. bouprobably identical with inok. bouk is a pail and with the dim. explaining Fr. put.Lat. with a central boss. a bubble three thyngis. boucaran. bocla.poot. See Bulk.anything short of its kind. Budge. OHG. It. fur. from bugr. Dan. It. call. a tuft. boucle. to 'soak. stir. . to graft or bud trees. or male of to boil . boss. and of the Lat. bolgetta. water message. macero. skins pushit'. Pied. bouger. set of a plant in bulk. no wheel bogeilio. the guttural if the stuff was made of goat's hair. Gael. Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana bianbecomes boch. Fr.' And this sacrament bus have dial. Cot. pulga. bub. buachazlle. pwtio. the radical image seems to be a set plants. push forwards. bulla. boglyn. Dan.stuff. Hardly identical with Fr. mere transposition of the elements found 'Dz. a budget. a servant. w. bouton. butzen. motus creber. stud. ON. knock. . to poke. Behoves. — — .' Boccaccio. child. Swab. A water-plant with leaves and gille. bouter. * Bud. wallet. butzen (Du. is to shrivel up.may probably be explained by N. boiling. is doubtless fallacious. sboge. ' . rabodS. Sp. Bucolic. call bo. a buckle or protuberance. It is explained by Miiller (MHG. bullion. bul. the word w ' — . crack. a leather strap probably takes its name clump. bucherare. pulga. a ring. a boy. bloca. Pol. bucket Fl. — . Sw. Bav. boulj. weich. agreeing with Gael. butze. . boach. of bouge. thrust. boccula. excrescence. A buckle or fastening for botch. bolgia. Fr. male or botzen. bulb. goat's hoof. with let. Buckler. The dressed fur of lambs.goa. where the G. bucherame. great pouch. convexity. stroke. a boss. a small shallow and open tub. also a leather tuft . the root of the Slavonic words gran. jSouKoXiKog. budge. a cowherd. a leathern sack. . and the reference to It. bloca. a shield. bulga. Mid. pwt o Fr. and weichen.t-le!L{ * Bud. Port. weich. the end or rise or bear out in the middle. The word is a ddyn. call. ' . a . So throw itself into prominences andhoUows.) . material no doubt early supplied by the bugle. potz. The Fr.' Hal. to word. .. bud butzen. trunk of wood covered with leather. from Gr. . swelling. dinted. ornamental stud. Mid. butt . loud Cot. Du./a. a wallet. a pustule bout. from the convex shape or from the boss short and thick of stature. to budge. bollire. bouge. Russ. Buck-bean. — — . Fr.pastoral nations of Slavonic race. with which it was ornamented. a budget. knob dwfr yn boglynu. bougette. bouclier. case of leather . swelling. whom it is still much in use. gjeit-klauv. To thrusting part of a long body. no business to do that. knob . Fr. boss of a shield. a pail or flowers. Fr. bloquier. K. a curl. boucle. inboachen. bug. a little coffer or turgidus. of a surface. Du ha inkje a bubbling bogel. clump. brobrocchiere. Dusqu'en la bock I'a fendu. botzen. butzen. don't a baby). mani. to move. II I'a feru desor I'escu. a navel. Lat. ble. bod. a boss. bugnir. bukke-blad. to thrust. Bret. blow. to un bout d'homme. a stump buckle up. probably from the notion of bubbling. to butt. bunch. Du. * Bucket. to pen cattle. . bo. a shoot. were To Budge. a dumpy gin. io8 BUCK-BEAN is BUDGET Buckram. In the dialect of the Setti Cem. clasp of a book. protuberance. boaLat. Prov. dint . buckel. of bac. boucler. . belonging to the calling of the chen. It. to stir. Nao vos Partonopeus de Blois in Rayn. arguing (as Marsh suggests) an original connection between herdsman jSavicoXog. and as in the case of the latter Hesse potten. cattle. W. The entire train of thought is bucket. Prov. NE. movement specially applied to the boss of a shield. Bav. It. scion. boqueranmis. bougette. So on. boucle. bulka. * Buckle. having a boss. . a fold ceilio.. weichen.r//'. The knob or projection formN. lump. Hence quel. ein. bogla. to boss or swell out G. bdden. In Lat. prick in a target.chissima. hump. to boil. to bucket is probably an equivalent of It. dim. ed by the swelling germ of leaves or baquet (dim.. Fr. to swell. pote. ' I bus goe tyU bubble taken as the type of a rounded prominence. bucolicus. . a buclder or shield budge.n. This expression boglire. as in Fr. built. don't stir from hence. Prov. Budget. a trough).

Fr. It. — thence it has been transferred in E. Fr. een duffen toon. also a G. Buff. rebuff. a bugbear. thus be translated to tap. buivol. soufflet. dull sound. scarecrow . a deadened tone eene dtiffe couletir. bolgetta. —Boggart. such as that conjured up by children in the dark. bubach. a side-board.' David Cop! ! — Staffordshire artisan giving an account of one who had been slighted said. — Bogle. things in Jam. also the skin or heck of a buffe. senses. Lith. cuff . breath. smells . to give air to a cask in order to let the beer run. often blown upon. — Z. as wine that hath taken wind. a puff. — — — Buffet. From buff! of terror. 265. leathern bucket. to rePl. or hath been Cot. buffeteur. ' They rether puffed at him. bugbear.D. Alternately covering the face in this manner to form an object of sportive terror. human. Sc.BUFF leather serving to carry things behind a man on horseback. and let in the air necessary for drawing out liquor. W. buffle-headed. . made by a person. btifetarius. the place whence the wine was drawn. then peeping out again to see how she bore it. The cry made to excite terror is then used. have primary been to take out the vent peg of a cask. mingled with water. — La Crusca. bufogni. Romola. Mid. made to —Bugbear. by metaphor. sense of buffeter seems to Fr. the mouth is probably in- — dicative of contempt. blurt or puff with one's mouth. wine may The verb in taverns. Thus buffet would a tapster. The use of the exclamation children. Buffeter. Che scaccia 1' Ombre. of colours. &c. boman. a budget. G. to give a as of a blow. Fl. to puff. to give benti. duff^ dull. deadened. It. bau ! children. ' Far bau / bau / far paura a' bambini coprendosi la volta. The name of the beast seems taken from lus. to beat. Lat. Pl. The children were playing in an oppocomer. while in Sp. tabernarius. buffa. Buffoon. Lillo covering his head with his skirt. bw. Limousin bobal. buffle. baubau. dial. bukow Ikow. it has passed on to signify simply a desk or writing-table. as Diez remarks. Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's Venetian diet. sounds. buffalo. to the sideboard on which the drinkables are placed at meals. Sc. Cot. buffet. a clap. to excite terror in Macleod. Cot. E. Swiss baui. to the office in a department where other kind of business is carried on. a buffle or a bugle.' perfield. The term was then applied to the skin of the buffalo dressed soft. yar^aa. popo. constitutes the game of Bo-peep. A blow. L'apparer del giomo —Rabelais. a jester. botffon.— Buflae. bobaow. dausinti. Lith. and roaring at Ninna to frighten her. as emblematically making light of an object. buffare. buffare. and in Fr. to blow . a goblin). Fr. Magy. Teet-bo. Bufetarium./ bau! to cry boh! and il brutto barabao is interpreted il . bubiti. Hence the E. Lat. stupid. bo ! an interj. dausa. buff sound is a toneless sound Magy. bw! It. buffet. Esthon. a cuff or buffet. the duty paid for a vessel of wine by —the peep of day which and hobgoblins. pulse . or wild ox. Fr. to frighten . le reste emplissant d'eau. bolgia. buffen. The meaning of Bug is simply an object Buff. boo. bufHe.—Buffet. buff leather. colour. mumming. a blast or a blurt with the mouth made at one in scorn . to jest or sport. buffets.D. 'And who Whoo minds Dick? Dick 's nobody He blew a slight contemptuous breath as if he blew himself away. a hobgoblin. to marre often tasting it . the buffe. site The two — — iii. bauwi. bwg. from It. to signify an indefinite object of terror. as from Lith. buffer. bouffer.D. to bellow . caupo. a dull BUG From 109 — A . It. either alone or with various terminations. bouffer. to blow souffleU. Buffalo. and then peeping over the covering to relieve the infant from his terror. Pl. It.' La Crusca. — retailing buffeter buffetier. signify the tap of a public-house or tavern. boxed on the ear and the word blow itself is used in both . bugs. a hollow sound. bubus. and then to the yellowish colour of leather so dressed. w. buffetto. to a representation of his voice. God's boast seemed feare children. A — Bug. buffet. from souffler. buMagy. a block-headed noddy. him but Boyd iugges. a In . bumann. tastes. Fr. to strike face to represent the unknown. il Bau e le Befane ! scatters spectres. for this purpose is very widely spread. Gael. word other cases. to blow. From bulga. bufogni. a skin. from the cry Bo ! Boo / Boh ! an imitation of the sound of -a blow. puff. the for a stroke is connected with a verb signifying to blow Fr. Buff. bugle. Si vos chartiers— amenant pour la provision de vos maisons certain nombre de tonneaux de vin les avaient buffeUs et beus 4 demi. wauwau. bubaRuss. A puff with — Fl. air. to puff. confused. often covering his E.

also a bug-bear. scarecrow . It. rest on the notion of frightening with a foggile. as Buffalo. also a baco-baco. 3.Fr. — — terror. provincially an insect. tion of the word signifying an object of 2. protuberant. Magy. with more or less modification represents bau. bugler. (Spurrell). Sw. hobgobIn bug-bear or bear-bug. roo. to roar Aasen. bogk. Mundart. bwgwl. Serv. poggl. oxen. as an object of dread. and signifies also terror as name of an insect. buggabod). Bugle. bug. a boogg. bugle. terrifying ward. Swiss ing. a rabme. superbire. or disguise (from being originally adopted with the intention of striking a worm. ghost. iv. bug-bear. to take fright. a bugbear for children. boa-peep. and in Lat. and thence an owl from its nightly hoot. bw ! is used as an interjection of a bug-bear. banian boube. beugler. Bdronie. properly a buffalo where we find imaginary bulls and bears horn. modern English is appropriated to the OFr. I. big. Bug as a lord. a misshapen person. blustering. fear. biignt. . Magy. Hal. to frighten scarecrow. pugaf. Chaucer. bucula. earwig bau da grascha. a buffalo. threatening. beetle the continuance of the terrific sound. With a different termination we have Rugby school bug was the regular term for conceited. a. Schmidt. Deut. boeuf sauvage.Lat. — — . Bible. a bug-bear. tion of the beetle tribe. bogk.. to bellow. the buggaboo w. swollen.loud noise. Janus sits by the fire with double berd And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine. affright. Fl. Grisons bau. buculus. The word has a totally different to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried about at May games. Russ. a secondary sense to insects considered as an object of disgust and horror. worm. forSc. bwg and E. bug dung-beetle. bogle. thus connected with bug. Bogge. threatening. bold. is also used as the generic So in Althreatening. bogil bo (e. Hence bugle-horn. Big. bok. A similar applica. and is Deutsch. bauginti. In Norse applied is found in Ulyrian bukati. bbgni. bukashka. hert. a In this sense of the word it seems to spectre. according to Coles. also a bug-bear. — — ' . larva (a bug-bear. high-sounding words. language any kind of insect. Swelling. The humour of melancholye These are the beasts which ye shall eat of Causith many a man in slepe to cry. baco. and also cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis Bug'. pujalo. troll. — boogg. tumble-bug. or on classed with bugs as objects of nightly which notes are played in hunting. Idiotijoined with the name of the beast taken con Bernense. bugbear boa-peep or vain bug-bear Limousin bobaou. to take bug. fette. used in the same sense. given in Chaucer. 493. paws the ground . to bellow like an angry bull baiglis. any disgusting animal. bug-bear. boo. a goblin. dial. disgust. Same as buffle. bukati. Lith. is very common. BUGLE Tentennino. but in quef America is used as the general appellaProbably. vermin. a silk-worm. buba. a bug-bear. 2. high. It.. gad. an object of terror. a beetle. Manx boa. bobal. b'dgni. the Devil. i. bugar. The name of bug is — . insect. Parolone. xiv. w. Sp. Ronoisome inhabitants of our beds. bwcai signifies portant biigolos qui sic nominantur. Cheval de trombugti. . . mask ' . shepe and gootes.3uhtii&:. bogil. Lap. long. the word is lin) bbgge. coco. The repetition of the radical syllable bubus. terrify as it is provincially expressed in England. saucy. one whom no big nor bugs words can To take buggart or boggart is terrify-' Cot. to creeping things. well as the terrific object. to bellow. * 2. from the cry of They speak of a the animal Serv. fierce. Or eUis that blake buggys wol him take.— . il brutto Demonio. ' Et dictas domino nunc biika. an insect. bug-bear. to origin in the expression bugs words. buffle. For fere oi beris or of ^(?/«V blalce. insect. E. Mid. and in child's Magy. Illyr. of pipes sewn on. is the dim. An ornament of female dress condread. and a boggarty ing. 1551. and bugle. : no BUG . sisting of fragments of very fine glass Russ. of bugabo was given. a proud overbearing man pujat'. See The name terror). The final guttural of W. bau (Pureiglia. Lesachthal. bwgar. W. proud. to bellow like an angry bull when he — — .' In my time at horse is one apt to start. . to take fright. booggen. great or bug words. pugalo. roarHal. quos what produces dread or disgust. Stalder bog. monster. Lett. rose-bug. Bug. Fl. Swiss booggen. Grose. — . then a horn for drinking. the black a maggot. The w. especially to beetles or winged insects. bugbear.

bellows builgean. mass. Passing to the Scandinavian and Teutonic dialects we have Goth. Othello.— . ' . . the or projecting framework for the display of goods before a shop. bulle. pimple. knob. and put it home. blister Manx bolg. bolgna. bubble. Pm. bol. Gr. the contents of the hold. belly.pulks. ^ — . bug. to gather. body of an animal. villa. bolle. liver leapt within my bulk! Turberville. nave or body of the church van 't schip. Bourser. pod ON. at riufa bulkann. belly. bolnyn. . From the image of a bubble taken as the type of anything round. boss of shield. a globe. in bulk. blister. bullka. as it was merly written in English to bylle. dial. trunk. to throw out a convexity.' BULK moribus civi- — De byli. Gr. belly. . to bubble up Pol.d. Bolke or hepe. OSw. Kil. See Bulk. — — . jnake bulch. boss of a buckler. See bollekeii next article. bulbe. a projection before a window also the bulk or stall of a shop. buhe. or bear out as a full purse. In this latter sense the word is identical with It. lump. See how this tode bolneth. were a habitation. skin flayed whole. bouge. the belly or convex part of a ship to bulge. bugue. belly van de kerche. van loock. Melancholy. a straw corn-vessel. the bilge or hold of a ship bolgey. a prominence. outleaning in the middle of a wall (Cot. The radical sense is shown in Russ. Palco. the head of an onion. be protuberant. blow. bale. boa. (3oX|8oc. it again. tumeo. whence bylja. a bubble Gael. . It. the womb. BUILD supra dictos bugolos. as well as is very variable. ON. ball. bolgan. crowd. bladder. lump. He found a country fellow dead drunk. With these must probably be classed ON. bulka. compare Da. boss. Hence e. pocket. . has bulbuk. of E. — — . w. The addition of a dim. bilge. ' . Pr. a. gebolgen. unevenness Sw. bulg. . blister. bulge or convex part of a cask. In the representation of natural sounds. a leather sack or budget Fr. bol. balcone. inhabit. — . bulk is a partition of boards. body. bed of a river.'— Cot. Here stand behind this bulk. bulbe. bolgetta. chest. bulne. belgja. to bubble up. a heap. bulgen. to undo the cargo. Boss^. skin bag. a bubble. . a leathern sack or portmanteau. the potato G. to break bulk. sedes. bubble. formed a farm. bunch or projection. boulge. wallet. to belly out. bulwis. globule bolg-lhuingey. A — ' — Bulk. to swell. pulkas. bulge or bilge. bauen. turgeo bolnyd. ' . swollen. thorax buick. knot in thread. the belly. as water beginning to boil bolg. . to blow. bolg. Dan. bua. ON. Lat. Dan. to puff up bolginn. bulkaf.' Fl. bolso. To Build. bauch. ne. bag. or of what is shaped like a bubble. swell.' Cot. bol. cultivate. Pr. PoXj3a. Lat. snorting on a bulk. bulk. bwlg. the capacity or burden of a ship. balgs. to build. beuck. boss. Hal. also the bunt or hollow of a sail. cumulus. bukr. bouk. .' Festus. knobby. Mandeville. belly Cat. trunk of the body. . swell. tumidus. principal portion. a water-bubble). OSw. skin of an animal. Sp. or. to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail. mass. G. to swell. trunk. the position of liquids in the word In English. knob. Lith. bubbling up. bubble. belly Sw. The Walach. buk. hold or bilge of a ship. Mister. Muratori. Jno. . anything prominent. I. — Bulb. the carcase. bubble {palgan tiisge. whence we pass to the notion of anything swelling or strouting out. . bolle. From till. byli.). . bulgen. husk. stuffed bag. Lett. 1388. a tuberous or bulbous root . — — . projection. on. balg. bole. Bav. to raise a habitation.' Palsgr. or feminine termination gives Bav. acervus. bolgia. m um Placentiae. bulk or capacity of anything. Bulk. herd^ swarm pulkd. bulki. a. in vessel. G. A stall come : Wear ' thy good rapier bare. and N. a protuberance. bo. and bulbukd. a lump or mass. head . bulbus. buc. to bol. belly. Bulch. vulva. hull of a ship. a stage or scaffold. Bulge. The comparison of the Celtic dialects leads strongly to the conviction that the radical image is the boiling or bubbling up of water. bulcke. for- That city took Josue and destroyed it and Sir cursed it and alle hem that tyllei. the body Du. . Lith. hollow. a bunch. biilken. puff. . habitaculum. balg. belgr. — . . MHG. belly. domicilium. For the latter sense ' — My . straight will he 2. of an inflated skin. leather sack. . in Sc. balco. womb. a dint in a metal . pouch builgeadh. consisting of a heap of sacks bound down and covered with skins. Bulgas Galli sacculos scorteos vocant. swell. body of a ship . Ptg. a strouting or standing out in a flat piece of work. a round bulky body bwlgan. we have blob or bleb and blubber in the same sense. G. swollen OE. to spring. bulked or bumped out. Pm. or cargo of a ship.' Anat. a bulb Du. the hold of a ship bolg (as verb).

leraures nocturni nigri. buller in addressing children noise person made who to terrify the . — Elyot translates bulla a bullion set on the cover of a book or other thynge. Thence the term was applied mental heads of the hollow orna. Lith. Du. thick. — A tition in a ship. bullebak. penbwl. A papal rescript. a tadpole. to stamp /SowXXtur^pioj/. a wasp. from Lat. which may probably be the origin of the name. Doubtless from bouillon in the sense of a puff or bunch. A lace tree. bullos. signifying roaring. to bubble. a hornet. bulla. Bullion is applied to a particular kind of gold and silver lace. Bullrush The element bull is a large kind of rush. G. a seal. boillon. as a mill-dam or the like. is called a ball. to tical with Sw. This word is used in several senses. any great-headed or studded nail. poli-cheannan. The to the original to signify something terrible ' : Gae du lion. And The word bullerbak. a noisy violent fellow. bal. — — — they have so fraid us with bull-beggers. a bull. bulderen. a little fish nearly all head. a bullion of copper set on bridles or poitrels for an ornament. a bul-begger. baula. coarse. bulle. pimple. bwbach.D. stud. N. a bull Swiss bullen. bollon. where the precious metals were reduced proper alloy and converted into See Bug. w. bietebau. in N. as the ornanails. Bullions and ornaments of plate engraven. bwlas. bulke. bulloi. BulUiead. ba. — 112 BULL As an BULLION instance of the arbitrary way in which words acquire their precise meaning. as geting. It. Cot. &c. brass-headed nail . a tadpole . elves. a cow. large of its kind. many to protuberant objects. billoti in Fr.'— ' Palsgr. a beam or rafter. a bulox polos. /SouWivu. assito. a bowl. of boule. G. bullus. a seal. is probably not taken from the quadruped of that name. pollach. bole or trunk of a tree. ON. The male W. bauli. boulct. boss. stamped money. sloes. however.lle de fusil. in the sense of base metal. See Bowl. billon. Du. The primary signification of bulla is a bubble. it may be observed that a bullet in E. silver mixed with a large alloy of cop' ' — per. The bullfrog. is of a class with Pl.' do not go by the dangerous water. Du. — — Bull. round glass phial. boarded partition bulk-head is a boarded parin a barn. bollos de relieve. dim. W. — Fl. also of the tadpole or young frog. a blockhead. ment of gold hung round the neck of the young nobility of Rome in subsequent times applied to the seal hanging by a band to a legal instrument. G. pwl. polten. where the former element signifies the roaring btcllerbrook. the matrix or die . Scot's Deso. child by the represents the hobgoblin. Here the notion of swelling or embossment is derived from the bubbling of boiling water. and vellon in Sp. 2. and such other bugs that we are afraid of our own shadows. from the puffy texture of this kind of lace. meaning of the word bulwas the mint or office nig bi dat buller-water. Bullet. The wild plum. Pm. 3. i. bubble. Bullace. stupid . . is said to make a loud bellowing noise.. bolos Fr.' Baret's Alveary in Hal. Dan. as in E. on the contrary. a scare-bug. bolla. lumpheaded . bolli. Du. bulk. poltern. Bullhead is the name of the miller's thumb. beams or boards. a box or boarded inclosure at a The original sense seems to be theatre. The connection between the ideas of loud noise and terror is well illustrated by the use of Pl. from the Lat. from the noise. to boil. Bullbeggar. bollar. dial. bouillon. witches. Gold or silver uncoined. bullocks. Bret. scarecrow. blister. Bully.. from Fr. Sp. bugbear. bellocier. a framework of balks. any embossed work. stud. poll-cheannach. to bellow. Fr. bolli. w. tition of deals instead of a wall. and thence terror. The final element tergeist. large.. is applied to the ball of a gun or musket. b2iggaboo. the seal affixed to the document. in the forms above cited seems a corrupt repetition of the syllable bug.. See Billet. eth and frighteth. bwla. bullern. I. lumpish. Gael. bouillon. Pl. while the projectile of a cannon In Fr. urchens. to seal. hhint. it is boulet de canon. from the use of the equivalent terms. G.Gr. of the ox kind. whence bullire. bulk of a thing. a hobgoblin. It. Considerable difficulty has been felt in accounting for the word in this sense. a hobgoblin. bulla. of Witchcr. explained by Chambaud as being made of a very fine sheet of gold or silver twisted. Fr. 2. embossed work. buldergheesto make a loud noise Kil. Terriculamentum. bellow. spirits. Eullrusli. whence Mod.Fris. to emboss . Bullfrog.D. as It. boss or stud. biitzibau. from baula. also a parFl. but is more probably iden- palchetto.' Bullyon in a woman's girdle clow. a stud. blunt.D. balgeting. stamp. BuUiou. a sight that frayHigins in Pr.

' for the purpose of exchange. biihne. buller-jaan (bully. droning.' are metaphorically appUed to things that require remaking. vallum. is called bumping or bells.' Stat. To bum. III. The decried coin. Thus ' ble. insomuch as to earn for Philippe le Bel the title of le faux Bulwark. scaffold.' agger. It. Du.' ' mettre au billon. primarily the ramparts of a town. to drum Lat. bommele. IV. AS. Hal. to . a hectoring. and similar restrictions were enforced in France. To bum. honunele. buller-bas. legaggio di metallo. or a humblebee. defence originally made of the boles or trunks of trees. boene.. &c. Kiittner. To Bum. bombilare. to dun. a noisy blustering fellow. In these and other statutes all trafficking in coin was forbidden. billettes d'or et tut autre maner d'or et toutz moneys d'or et d'argent a nostre bullione ou a nous es- changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs money de ' notre coigne convenablement k la value. bottom. and porter au billon. c. 2. Etym. to behave tyrannically or imperiously. a boisterous. bustle. 4 Hen. 1305. G. where the tampering with the coin was carried to a much greater extent than in England. noise. buene. The Sw. 'lega. BULLY with which coins were stamped. Du. ^Bully-rook. Hence among the French the carrying to the billon their decried money became a familiar operation of daily life. Du.brought to be melted ' broad street surrounding what was formerly the body. perturbare saevis dictis. blaterare. botm. Bailey. ^i^/«. clamour. from the last of which is doubtless our bully-rock or bully-rook. or generally a mixture of copper Ne quis aurum. to ring the bumble or make a humming noise bombilus.' and hence billon and the equivalent Spanish ' vellon were very early used to signify the base mixture of which such coin was made. bomtnen. minari verbulderen. debacchari. The 27 Ed. blunder-buss. BUM-BAILIFF 113 — Diet. Bum. the soil. intonare. que la tierce partie de tout la monoie d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera faite es mayles et ferlynges' shall be — Pl.. — Bump. block-werck. bottn. For bottom. bastion. ground. a floor. Kil. 9 E. violent overbearing person. on the other hand. A. vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'argent sauve faux monoie et I'esterling counterfait.' Again. 2. D. To bully is to bluster. Miege in Hal. c. ON. to make a droning Du. then in general a rampart. 14. The cry of the bittern. a bumble-. John). a stage. From the notion of a humming. a blunderhead. c.D. the name of bullion has been given to the alloy or composition of the current coin permitted by the Bullion or mint. that all persons ' puissent sauvement porter k les eschanges ou bullion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate. bodem. poltem. or dunning noise the term bum is apphed to dunning a person for a debt. but now is the central part of the town. is bullion — A — buller. — bombam?nen. buller-bas. or work of defence. Fris. Fr. bolderen. buller-bak. and now at Paris to a A — monnoyeur. In England the fortunes of the word have been different. G. Fris. a blusterer — — — coined into halfpence and farthings. ierd-boeyme. blunder-buss. vel billionein extra regnum nostrum deferre prassumat.' reals of standard currency. resonare. argentum and silver. From metal of standard fineness the signification has naturally passed in modern times to all gold and silver designed for the purpose of coinage. violent. baluarte. sound. — Bumto .D. beat a — Hal. Bully-rock. 2. The Stat. 10.' and traces of the same application are preserved in the Spanish reckoning in ' reals vellon. clumsy fellow who does things with noise and violence. polterer. agrees with e. hum. and the Mint being regarded chiefly as the authority which determined the standard of the coin. un faux brave. by corruption boulevart. ierd-beame. bulderen. furious man. 1687). St. In this sense the word appears in our early statutes. up was termed monnaie de billon. Kil. Bum-bailiff. G. a.d. to make a noise . — — plate d'argent. buller-brook. provides. In the English version these words are erroneously translated 'that all people may safely bring to the exchanges bullion or silver in plate. Philip le Bel in Due. propugnaculum. then applied to the walks and roads on the inside of . Bully. to terrify by noise and clamour. 'que toutz marchauntz puissent savement porter translated in Torriano's dictionary (a. Hence bom and ban.the ramparts.' which has led to the assertion that 'bullion' in the old statutes is used in the modern application of uncoined gold or silver. boulevard. Sw. which he is supposed to make by fixing his bill in a reed or in the mud. provides. from boden. IIL st. bol-werck. except at the bullion or exchanges of the king . boisterous fellow. Hence — . — Boom.

. a knock. Manx bonkan. a bag or sack. a boss Lith. Fr. bunki.^Cot. . bung. Lang. should probably be a short tail. Bumpkin. w. or dry weed {btcn7ie of dry weed. awkward clown. a tail (Macleod). Thus e. a person employed to dun one for a debt. bottom. Pm. To bam. Then. seems to unite Gael. w. . tundo. to beat. Hal. a swelling from a blow. But his special office is to dun or bum for debts. a rabbit. to bang. hay stubble . bongie. any round knob or bunch. the tail of a hare. . a. stump. bunan. Mrs Baker. E. clumsy. Hal. applied to young persons. stock. bun with ON. root. . pwmpl. Pl. bumtel. nor would it concern the public if he did. Kyx or bunne. forms. The buns are the dried stalks of various kinds of plants left after the foliage has withered away. —Bunny. stubble of beans. bull. a large . Bun. are dim. Fr. A clumsy. bunke. BUNCH bum-bailiff. a button. botn. a round mass . bun. . bottom bun feoir. a wallet. gibbus. noise. Bumboat. Dan. a bud. Pl. a pumpion or gourd. Gael. Probably from bump. Ir. bun eich. knob rising after a knock little round fo^«^. A Du. also for taking a pilot to a ship. Suffolk bonnka. to bang ON. a knob . a knotty stick) Sw. trunk. Dunchyn or bunchyn. Bump. E. a Sp. from knock) It. S. &c.! . Bunch. a knob. a swelling. . stump. to ' . stem or base. a into Dan. to beat. . bump. Du. Holland and Flanders. bulse.— Pr. a hemp-stalk. the word representing the sound of the blow is applied to the lump raised by the blow. Bunk. Thou bunchest me so that I cannot sit by thee.D. a bunch. bottom. 1. Bang sen. to knock . 114 BUMBOAT Bun.pummel. bignet. bolsa. Related on the one side to Pl. or to the mass by which it is given. loaves or lumps made of fine meal. bums! an interjection imitating the sound of a blow. He buncheth me and beateth me. Fl. . a bowl P1. bunka. a pocket Sw. ! — knocking. while bulch was traced through Gris. bans.. knochen. the large prominent bones of an animal (as G. bonuach. . bunnion.— Bunnion. H. bu<rnone. as we have seen E. Hal. dial. lungeous. bundle. and this is the point of view from which he would be regarded by the class who have most occasion to speak of him. so the form btmk. root. to swell out E. blain. bum-boot. pwmpio. and signifies consequently a mass. knob or heap. truss E. stalk. Bony. cluster. bunga. Roding.D. bmike. bunkc. Li cake. bungersome. as in other cases. to . pwmp. bunch— Hal. — — Bun.S. Dan. especially girls. large. a boil (punkos bot. bugnone. bune or boon. Bunch. a boil or ' An idt pen dat — ' . Bums it's hit. a heap OSw.D. . Pm. oder anklopbunset^ to knock at the door till it sounds again. stubble Manx bun.-^Fl. Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the person who gives security to the sheriff. Hence E. awkward. To bunch was formerly and still is provincially used in the sense of striking. — — — — ' — knock. any round knob or bunch. signifying one who does things in a thumping. il me pousse. See Boss. a heap. banke. abrupt manbuns-wise. bunga. bulto. a dried hemp-stalk.D. — round fruit. binge. It. E. a bump. a lump on the foot bunny. bulscha. gibber. Pm. round mass of anything. dial. a purse . boat in which provisions are brought for sale alongside a ship. to thump. — — de dor bunsen. OSw. Again. bunny. Bumsen. a. Daal bu7iseti. calamus. stock. to . banga. Gael. Forby. pumpa. pompette.). strapping. Bunfeaman (stump-tail). See Bounce. the Pr. pumpurras. Hal. to strike so as to give a dull sound. Pr. a boil or blain. a dry No . See Bunch. . a heap. bunken. bon. mto Sp.' he fell with a bang.. . Radically identical with Dan. bannock. clown. or grete knobbe. boi7ieog. from bunsen. bund. whose short tail in running is very conspicuous. and related with ON. — Marine Diet. one ever saw the word in that shape.' Palsgr. Bung^. strike E. ner. tion of bound-bailiff is a mere guess. a knob. bugno. a heap Wall. poumpi.' Bun. a bunch Magy. Probably for bun-boot. The word is probably to be explained from Gael.P. the bailiff employed to The ordinary explanaarrest for debt. a heap or cluster. Sc. protuberance. bumsen. bunt. poumpido. Moor. a very wide boat used by fishers in S. knuckles. callus. explaining E. Sc. bonge. butt end. hdk passing and E. bamgetroffen. foundation w. a boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for keeping fish alive. a rabbit. On the other hand bunch is connected with a series of words founded on forms similar to the ON. He fult dat et bunsede. lenten loaves. bugnet. bugno. a hump. bunsen. passes Sw. Bunewand. pumple or pimple on the skin Cot. inconsiderately. the useless core of flax or hemp from which the fibre is separated. bonnock. . pompon. an old stump of a horse. buns. bmidt. — — Bun. — stalk . throw down with a bang. to bang down. lump.

to hum. bondon. to push with the head del. guggle as water. to stop. The Fr. To do anything awk- wardly.' Festus in Diez. bui. racket . Bunting. bolting-cloth. — — . and now more Bailey. whence bunting. properly a Burgundian helmet. the noise of drums. to gingle. a bungler. bommen. on. bury. Cot. or used as a receptacle for papers. Sp. to knock. bung may be a bunch of something thrust I GO. are from bouscfie. Sp. Du. knock. banghagr. rumble as the bowels. tinkle. bourion. Johansen. — BUNDLE BURGEON IIS bunt of a sail. OFr. to strum on an instrument. Bret. Sw. Bundle. to work ineffectually. to Somerset is to sift. bounta. boil or bubble up. Prov. to hum. sprig. noise. a water bubble made by rain. bundt. contignatio.D. To burgeon. the float of an bundle. bangla. to bear. would be the earliest float for an anchor. boucher. bungande. Sp.— . tapp (whence tceppa. Burly. — — To Bungle. or putting forth of a vine. bourjon. halm-tapp. — — The radical import is probably the variously written in oe. . reddish brown. court of audience was covered with such a cloth. buove. working in wood (especially with an axe). to gingle.Fris. E. knocking. to resound. buret. the bung of a barrel Lim. G. See Borel. to knock. burion. bundel. bundle. tap. Hal. AS. Sp. most usual form would be a heavy clog Ihre. coassatio et Du. N. something bound together (Mrs Baker). dicimus rufum. Bunny. buret. bondir. The belly or hollow of a sail. and E. to botch. bourgeon. — — In English the designation has passed from a writing-table to a cabinet containing a v/riting-table. Burble. byrthen. bimge. tinker . Cat. It. to in to stop the hole. to hum. See Bourdon. a boye. a drum . bondel-loos. or tuft. bunsen. stilmpern. generally known as the material of which bud. transferred to the wooden log which bonir. clumsy performance. to float. B. See Bun. bummle. a wisp of hay or straw. bonde. Fr. buie. bon. bondelj bundell. to stnmi on an instrument. A Dan. byndel. to cobble. bondeau. and Du. however. from beran. bunta. Pl. dial. boya. AS. Burden. p. dark grey bura. the heavy clog of a footIt is possible. impulse by which the meal is driven which is purposely formed into a kind of backwards and forwards. shove . stocks or such OSw. then to the coarse woollen cloth made of the fleeces of such sheep without dyeing. . the loose open grow big about or gross. Lat. a botch. Russ. Compare G. bongun. Fr. Bung. Burganet. Banff. ghebundte. Muratori. the stopper of a cask). So in Pol. Fl. biirde. klempern. Sw. Sw. The stopper for the hole in a boia. knocking. anchor or of a net boyar. Prov. do a thing bunglingly. to bungle. ho-tapp. to pype. is originally a wisp or bunch . Bunt. The Italian buio. Bung of a tonne or Lith. See Barbarous. bond. the middle part of a sail formed into a kind of bag to receive the wind. in is Fr. to stop. punishments for prisoners. To Bunt. bou^e. bongani. bangla. to bud forth. the young cloth used for sifting flour. dial. bang. driving in the bung. to work at carpentry bangan. stiimpeln. Rietz. Fr. to push. — Bureau. From the hollow sound made in the neck or feet. gyves. So Du. 202. OG. burboloti. boj. bonde. bouchon. boei. a bung. Kil. to push ghebondte. unskilful working. specially applied to the colour of a brown sheep. Burden. brown burjat^o become brown Burrhum antiqui quod nunc or russet. banga. or bonde fastened by a chain to the limb. A load. bourguignote. fascis. a clog or heavy fetters for barrel. From the superfluous banging and hammering made by an unskilful worker. with the head. Biu'geon. colligatio. and bomme. russet. . hence the name would seem to have been boundica. borgonota. OFr. ' — work . to shove. shackles.punt. bang. la Borgonota. dark. bindini. a bunch Burbulas. bag to catch the wind. racket. A bubble. it is used where any business to signify an office transacted. a rainThen as the table in a cloak of felt. * Buoy. bouche. Fr. Palsgr. clogs. of a song. bove. The Magy. — btiruii. and van t' vat. also a piinple in the face. a cork. whence in bure. The word is flags are made. the term bureau was applied to the table or the court itself. To bunt in Burgundian fashion. the middle part of it. borboUar. G. especially in wood. an anchor buoy. to strum or play unskilfully on an instrument . modem bummle. to sing or play in a blundering manner — buriel. — . a sort of helmet. bote. and the Sw. to bolt meal. . on. B. that the primitive meaning of shackle . loosed from bonds. . to kick. klimpem. To bunt. as it still is in Modena and Bologna. fetters. a bunch. was formerly pronounced buro.

an edge. bouril. Supp. purra. borrelen. It is probable indeed that Fr. is termed burling. Then as sharpening a plucked off Bourril de neou. singe or scorch with fire. strideo ut spuma vel aqua ex terra exDu. to roar. with Dan. bururus. to have acquired the sense of polishing. Bav. brun. swell up or strout out. as Diefenbach bud. condemnentur morti. OE. Sw. Bestiary. Fr. a purling hiwe brennen. to effervesce. Burglar. as of suggests. from Lat. protuberance. to Gael. must be explained on the same principle from G. embraser. to burgen or wax big. broil. bourou. OFr. burren. lerre. to sharpen. to bouronna. Burn. tahko. boure. to fiy.j'own.or bubbling up. language of folly or ridicule. pressa puret. and OG. ends of thread.— Pr. grancelli. Hence Bridel. In the manu. swelling borr-shuil. the J in OFr. borracka. mockery. brandung. to swell. fire. — — .latus rei angulatas talikoincn. in Schm. ridicule. It. burgi latro. brase. Lang. the er is a dresser of cloth. blow. Prov. Pm. a margin. Pren7ien. brook. warbling. brunir.. leo Fin. a jest.). robber. brusler being a faulty spelling. Limousin bourdo. to roar.' a jibe. to swell with pride. to bud . brAler. Sw. explaining the E. a blaze. to hum. j. occupying much space. Antiq. Burler. Burlesque. Sp. with little iron nippers called burling irons. bourd. 56. crackle wood in burning Hal.Ps. to rub. hauben terchange of d and I is clearly seen in the schleiffen. brinnen or Also ein roar. a bud. A legal term from the Lat. See Berough. — . OE. a lie. repartee . to set on fire. de Vaud. the word seems Pm. the flocks. Swiss Rom. Pr. like the wind in trees. brimmen. bears. brunnen. sea. Bret. brunnr. bremmen. it of the knots. bruse. and the Burnish. brustle. bunch. tumentum. surge or dashing of the sea . to murmur. Bav. Burgh. to make a So from Fin. an &c. i5«r4 biiirte. Burryn. laer. to burn. Schm. . Officium Coronatoris in the final 71 in buni may be merely a subDue. bruzir. a bubble to spring as water. become big and proud. Burgess. to bourda. tahkoa. burgeois. fires up. ends of thread. purrata. to ridicule. brinii. burgen. G.). ' rugiens.. ample of polishing metal. BURNISH i5«r/. bourglairs. to polish. Todd. Bouffer. brima. a knob. spring-water bumach. a bubble. borr. The Gael. jest of. See Burgeon. See under Bore. has also borr. Fl. to sharpen on a whetstone. dial. Probably a modifica. is an Thus G. to puff. a prominent eye borracka. burgensis. borujon. G. As we have seen the Ecclesianlm vel muronim vel portarum civitatis noise of water bubbling up represented regis vel burgoiTim intrantes malitios6 et felonic^ by the syllable bar. to surge.. the roaring surge of the — — — . to puff up borr^ . imitation of the sound of bubbling water. born. 122. sonitu buUio ut aqua ad proram riavis. It. burn. to give an edge to. flocks. ii6 BURGESS Gael. OFr.ireui£r:e. brausen. — — . a wine skin.' Cot. burlare. A burl.). explaining Sp. facturing of cloths the process of clearing buzz gurgling. Gael. schleiffen. as in cousteau. to roar. a jest. from bryii. — — . angular . watery. borni. bud or sprout forth. like. purling. flock of weapon would be the most familiar exsnow. From the notion of a bubble we pass to the Gael. In the same way ON. Elpes arn in Inderiche On bodi borlic berges ilike. ^Notk. boura. buirleadh. to roar (as lions. roguing beggars. and Dan. From the same root E. and the Burin. a spring a robber. Dief. burle of cloth.— . brinna. water. from the roaring sound of flame. Walach. which disfigure cloth and have to be edge or point. briis^. brynsten. a gurgling ^. bururus. to polish. joking. to swell oneself out as birds borras. Castrais bourril. Cot. a well. to roar. to tell lies. — Han to bruser op. Swiss Rom. Lang. From Fr. Nat.bryna. . pur (see Burgeon). brasa. to burn. he rustle. thence. taunt. to To Bum. cum hen wie ein brinnenden lew. burly. tion of the root which gave the OE. which has given much trouble to etymologists. as the / in purl. So also Sw. ON. E. The primary origin of the word. &c. A — — . Burly. sbornoi. .. big. brim or edge of anything. . Omnes burgatores domorum vel fractores Vocab. barrel. through the Burgundian form IAre (Vocab. a whetstone. ^ttsa. Fr. b'Tilllen or briilen (Dief Supp. The in. Burgher. compared with G.sharpen. like straw or small . Fr. word would thus signify water springing To Burl. a bladder. de Vaud. to grind on a whetstone. N. lorra. knob. Fl. to ridicule. brustolare. toast. See Burr. — . brunna. is connected with brim. Compare also Piedm. It. boiirre. Goth. to roar 5.. brennen was formerly so many others signifying swelling. sicut sound. Probably. used in the sense of to Herumgepreserved in Gael. abourioner. sidiary element. a fountain. to polish helmets.

brest. ' BURR AS. a harness or collar maker) . bergen. peluca to Fr. brittle. shuffling. bourlet. It. Swiss burren. barza. ON. ptcrren. impetus. as for the protection of a child's head. Shelter. as it is still pronounced in N. borre. bristen. a horse-collar (whence botirrelier. See Burgeon. the thickened rim at Hence must be the mouth of a cannon. shelter Provincially applied to Hearing shelter from the wind formed from the sound. Jam. The root forms brik. Compare also OE. and met. root borr. briser. brickie. Du. bris. an exchange. a place of defence. brist. keep. G. -burse. S w.' Harris in Todd. — Translated by Kemble.' The same word with burgh. a barn or cupboard. bruii seems to have been used in the sense of an edge. 5150. Du. Burrow. brisdeach. &c. fragment ridge or excrescence made by a tool in turning or cutting metal. In a met. of a body hurled through the air. Sw. leather. Beowulf. whirr. Cot. brisd. a sepulchre chreoburgium — . casting bullets.Lat. Tha3t sio ecg gewdc. and thence flocks 'of wool. brokil and brotil. E. bersten. a pad. byrgels. The noise of partridges row is the hole which the animal digs for is called birring. perruque. foretell great storms at 3. to hide . skin. Bursar. break . bris. berstan. ' ' — — burren. bourrelet. borrow. dial.— . The whirring sound made by borre is also a fircone. a purse. chips or anything else Fl. Fr. . brun were understood as a synonym of kardborre. any rapid whirling biarga. whirr and burr. mentioned under Burgeon. moss. iii. bolsa to It. byrgan. Brun on bane. from Fr. blurra. swell. cwning-gaer. Gael. bourre. a port.of the hedge a very burrow place for mal. byrsa. any kind of quilting or stuffing. Sw. cover. When the hop begins to blossom it is would both malce better sense and said to be in burr. force. birgan. some people in pronouncing the letter r. beorgan. brown. Burser. See Bulge. I. AS. G. whatever is used to make a texture swell or strout out. ON. to save. as in Northumberland. tlie burrow side the old hall clock strike 12 with a dis. and. brista. This word seems safety. bourse. ultimately resting on the Gael. to break. also ' any such trash as chaff. . to burst. upon the bone but it And burred moons night. bolgia. 225. beurs. a. shelter. a morsel. to hide. bourse. brico. save. to buzz. burial place. to to buzz like a beetle chatter. Port. bristeach. i5(7&a. bourrer. a stuffed wreath used for different purposes.' edge grew weak. the fortress of a coney or rabbit. coo. borra.' Matrimonial Vanity borough. brist. idiom if 4. stuffing. to stuff. that birds make their nests with. britar. borsa. as the swelling above the grafted part of the stem of a tree. pipaa. byrigels. borsa. preserve. and spelling. to P'air. brizeto. g. brittle. as from Sp. the hooked ecgcapitulum of the arctium lappa. briso. burr-pump is one used in a ship into which a staff seven or eight feet long is put having a burr or knob of wood at the end. tomb. preserve. borre. borra. but it is more probably a development of It. from whence we pass through Sp. shales. brast. bres- — tan. a rabbit burrow. Fr. briketo. makes the disbursements of the college. Fris. AS. its own protection. an annular swelling. sense a burr round the moon is the padding of hazy light by which it seems to be encircled when it shines through a light mist. to bury . of England. be more in accordance with AS. the — — castle or fortress. or for supporting a pail of water carried upon the head. With a slightly different ghen. appears under the Lang. Mid. Sexy. Burse. caer is a — — — ' ' : . dial. birr signifies the whizzing sound thence bergh. prsnuti. karborre. fortify. Borsa is derived by Diez from Gr. Burr is related to buzz as protect. . Burr. the rough annular excrescence at the root of a deer's horn. bur. byrgen. burre. signifying protrude. 2. brjota. whence Kil. from AS. shearing of cloth. birigean. Hal. Hence Fr. A rabbit burmotion. OHG. Dan. brokenharpstringed-like cattle. Fr. talk fast and indistinctly. bur. In OE. To Burst. also all such stuff as hay. a wallet or scrip. explained E. It. hair. Burse. ' BURY A 117 — 'The Lord of the Geats struck the terribly coloured with the legacy of Incg so that the . husks. The Geata dryhten Gryre-fahne sloh Incge lafe. brit. birr. borsia. ber•whirr to whizz.. a purse. to mutter Sw. To Bury. straw. burgisli. Burr or Bur is used in several senses. the superfluous metal left in the neck of the mould in small fragments. OHG. the officer who bears the purse. Burial. verbergen. byrstan. a sepulchre. &c. buscha. when they spring So in W. purr. -Grisons bulscha. burra. — Clare.

bausen. -idis. or — Busk. a hump. are commonly derived from To JErthure comen. Sc. thicket of thorns . Du. Jamieson thinks it probable that it may be traced to the on. The bone in a woman's stays. bush. grapes. Mid. borcegui. Layamon. Sw. the land. to sepulchre. aheap of stones. knot. at buast. whence bouchon. to bend one's steps. bundle. to bury. mount. OFr. buxula. beorgan. Harold G. a box. brodequin tout noir. a bush. Thus Froister . barst. tow. by Cobarruvias to have been a fashion of bausch. from the ON. a tuft guini. roquies. bosch (a diminutive ?). brodiquin. busken. ' . buxida. to dress. ieorh. ' . il fut couch6 l^jkema). whente beorg. Brunne.— ' ii8 {chreo. It. Du. in OE. bosc. bousse. a troop. buskr. a clot of phlegm sart. They busked and malced them boun. brake. a little box Dan.boisteau. The radical idea is seen in Goth. and not directly (as Du. a tuft. preserve. with the And busked westwards for to robbe eft. a grove bosch van haer. berghen. . busk. sur une litifere.gur bidst austur um EySascog. van wijnbesien. or the like. a corpse). lump. in the For Skirnis . projection. and he cites wisp bauschen. a monument over the erection BUSKIN Gloss. bunch. to direct one's course towards. a bunch of twigs. ' —P. Fris. a rampart. and thence Mid. then a tuft Sp. . foregoing modes of spelling the indicate a double origin. AS. the deponent form of which is represented by the E. a box. to bow. for at buasc. a bundle. cluster. . : — . boxta. buysschen. See Bust. in the following passage :— Many of the Danes privily were left boistia.' The buskin is said Bret. Fr. borseof trees. That a swineherd slouh under a busk of been written The R. Sibriht that I of told. signifying to entomb. 'Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him ofer ' they raised a steep mound of stones over him. bussare. bulge. See Box. make ready. and it is singular that having come so near the mark he fails to observe that busk is a simple adoption of the deponent form of the ON. bosta. and we actually find bushel.Lat. rad. biichse. So from Fr. as synonymous with to inake one boun. a bunch. fiast. which would later have truast. as boun is simply buinn. Bush. It has been shown Forth heo gunnen bugen. bo7ich (Fr.' The word is explained by — — . Prov. bossen. clusprobably Morocco leather. whence at bua sik. . a been written buasc. burial mound. —Busk. diminutives. After The jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi. boisseau. bundle * Buskin. box wood to bush. the idea of knocking. to prepare. condere. is thus accounted for. busse.-^Bushel. ' . qualster-boscken. a bush.' meaning of bua is simply to bend. bramble. a gun biichse. AS. at bua sig. a tuft of hair. dedans un char couvert de 'S^one. Ptg. Malberg. basse. bouche. to enclose in a case or box. wisp. . hjul-bosse. Thence byrigean.' sheath. barsc in Heimskringla. bussellus. to Forth hii gonne bouwe knock. that the lend had lorn thorn.' a box. boissa. to keep. thicket {buski. to thrust in a bouche or tuft of hemp. protect . to dress. bossida. Le roy Richard mort. OFr. apparently a secondary verb. To prepare. a -tavern bush. Bush. boiste. R. iriCtf -ifoe.Lat.fiasc. dead. and from the Fr. Bouchet. to swell. to stop. to forest of Eyda. Sir Tristram. buxta. bousIn the other copy ser. truasc. The word frequency with which to busk is used. bustellus. To Busk. basse.) to hide in the ground. to turn. 2. bos. bousche. Du. to betake ' Haralldur kona box. the past participle of the same verb bua. bustula. bairgan. In to Bi-uttaine under Boss that words signifying clump. 'at bua sik. G. boistel. borghen. In to Brutaine. ch). a bunch of seems to have been a kind of leather. a tuft. pyxis as that the earl busks with all haste out of Compare the meaning of busk well as buxis. And her ful sone tuft. abdere. Gr. boucher. a wisp. tuft. 410.P. from an old romance Borzeguies Marbunch out. Brunne. The primary sense of hair . a box for measuring corn. occultare K. bua. Boweth by a brook proceed by a brook. It. bussel. the Moors and of Morocco. verb. contracted from the very expression quoted The primitive by him. induere vestes . . defence. ' . we have Fr. To bow was used in a similar manner for to forth bend one's steps. The btish of a wheel is the metal lining of the nave or hollow box in which the axle works. bulk. BUSH hreaw. hunch Du. It is certain that buast must once have Fr. the bush of a the king busks eastwards through the Epter thetta byr sik wheel . besom). bush. oneself. gave Lat.

brusc. a bulk or trunk without a head. beso. and finally (in the case of busk) the whalebone or steel support with which the front of a woman's bodice is originally tree. its slowness of flight. to bustle. buc. Port. . or Cherqui. thick end. butz. Nained from Proximse iis zia. A great sluggish fowl. from jnund. ship Sp. besongne. a kiss of reverence. I bustle. a large cljest or particular applibox.' ON. On the other hand. to make use of. business. Sp. the point of a lance. mohedairova. the trunk. bustla. Du. A wisp. mouth. lips. bussa. tarda. vessel employed in the herring fishery. and by transposition morchequi. To hurry or make a great B. prefix niu or mo has been erroneously added. To Bustle. Hence probably au-tarda. ottarda. 1372. 10. Bulch. forest. busch. abotarda. bacio. bist. a mouth. . the long. Sw. body. Fl. Fr. and then with avis again prefixed. then trunk of respect to busk we have on. log . otarda. bus and Pol. a bust. Fr. pussa. speak of lawyers ' pursuant busoignes en — . utarda. a Mid. Swiss butschen. he wears sandals of cherqui! It is true that from hence to borzegui is a long step. worn to make the body straight .pjik. Busk. bust. busch. brut. also a busk. Bav. — — — — It is like the smouldering. a fishing vessel. and also a sounding blow. says. to occupy. speaking of the costume of the King of Gana. Bust. also a It. body of a woman's dress It. See Boss. buc. a precious kind of leather made" from sheepskins in the North of Africa. ON. avuDiez. — clattering about. — hardly be distinct from Fr. basiuin. Pol. a great billet Cot. BUSS Dozy from Arab. kupata. A A busquer (Sigart). borcegui. kiss. Fr. btcc. besoigAe. putschen. Bustard. busc. as in ON. or chest in which the vitals are contained. geidha. also a flagon. Buss. ^A. mosequin. a bush. employment bisgan. occupation. a kiss. Sp. Hal. tuft. a bunch of flowers . the breast. bisgung. from which it is metaphorically applied in ordinary usage to action accompanied w ith 'a great stir. plated body or other quilted thing. baiser. forms morseqiiill. beezig. and supposes that the common Arab. I go strepo) . in Diaz Gris. Edrtst. box. 119 bi{tr. as in moharra from harbe. cation of the many-formed word signifying bulk. or avutarda. buz. — — difications of the same word. chest. a busk. bus. a blow. a. stem.> Also written buskle. corresponding to brut as brusc to bruc. would explain the G. stir. The ultimate origin may be found in the parallel forms bttk. biseg. body of a man. bysgje. Sp. a tree. lump. busto. an affair. With respect to bust. inserts an r after the initial b J bruc. a ship of some size. abutarda. of a doublet. buc. Box. trunk of a tree. bu. smack. arbor ramis trunGloss. trunk. but Dozy cites the OldPtg.). biist. morsequi. With Here we see the word applied to the bubbling up of a boiling liquid. or sharp-pointed and hard-quilted body Wall. lip. a vessel with a wide huU and blunt prow.bezig. Prov. 22. Comp. The two derivations would be reconciled if Gael. ON. bisegung. ' bistardej It. Lang. trunk of Cot.' Plin. Rouchi.fire of Mount Chimwhich boiling long time with great buskling in the bowels of the earth doth at length burst forth with violent rage. buquer. hipista. the body without arms busque. a blow. knock. Fris. 2. mons. Lat. lip. but. buzia were themselves taken from the smacking sound of the lips. Gael. busta. to Swab. crack . work. The Prov. a backstock. signifying trunk of a the body. busy. Namur — Champagne Fr. a boat or small vessel . of the human body (Grandg. statue of the upper part of Fr. putta.D. small. a projection. Prov. to kiss (from the sound Stalder) butschen. sera. bulk. Bust. I. ' BUSY 2. love gestures. I. a kiss. body without arms and legs. Xerqui. to rustle (parum kdyn kupajaii crepans ito. Prov. Cat. outard. made stiff. Cot. So in Fin. AS. From the figure of striking against we pass to the notion of a projection. stump. stump. buyse. windbutsch. bysgian. fe^a. kiss. bukr. a stroke of wind. especially of a woman's dress. a sleeveless truss or doublet. bnist. — Thus we should have mocherqui. brostia as well as bostia. occupied bezigen. The form brust. a log. to knock . ViM. bussen. 7o\. The proceedings of Parliament. bus. as in avestruz (^avis struthio). So Wes- terwald munds. mouth. a kiss. to make a splash in the water. 2l box. buta. austarda.d. body of garment. A large bird of the gallinaceous order. Fr.Lat. Walach. sunt quas Hispania aves . bruskras well as buskr. body . Lindenbr. bucha. betarda.— . These seem to be mo- tardas appellat. trunk. inde discurro et operosus sum. snout. body. Business. representing a blow. Busitiess :c3iVi . bust. cata — . bisg. Busy. an ostrich. B. mogangas from gonj. — . 1555. outarde. busche. busq. knock.

the principal apartment. Coutume d'Alost in Diet. the body of an animal. gives at least two pounds sterling. Buttery. bola. botilla. Tooke's dis.' As an instance of what pose a person in whom we have little trust has been promising to pay a debt. calf of the ' say. earthen which the debtor has adverted. viz. Wall. is well explained by Tooke. we find ben. Account barrels or wine skins in a ship. sup- meat and drink. moreover. wooden receptthing to be done. tinction between but. AS.in which his brethren are included.jamin. of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. the jug and in E. Sp. beccaro. a goat. properly a butan wite. that which would be translated by Fr. hollow case. young mais. be out. the trunk or body of an animal. hull of a ship. belly. beyond the Piedm. (children) boc. without buiten-man.' — — ' . viz. Here the but implies the existence of an.The Sp. I20 la Court BUT du Roi. bouteillier. an outlaw from bouche. bochier. the officer The rent of a room and a kitchen. without law. Fr. If that where now we should compiler. Fr. beccaria. bag made of the entire skin of an animal. also a hollow vessel . Whatever is in addition to Butler. bous. The immediate origin of the term is but one thing to be done. The E. ways.' Thus Chaucer says. original sense of without. Fr. in addition. a butcher . add. Butt. from the language of the place is styled a tut and a butt. then applied to the outer and word is probably from buttery. belly. inner rooms of a house consisting of two the officer in charge of the buttery or apartments. a goat (and not besides . being wholly unten. the full expres.' ' write. which the word corresponds to the Fr. Sp. OFr. Where at an earthen jar . A A . But It. ^re speak of the barrel of time of payment. skin-bag. bitten dai. butan. a wooden cask.probably butt in the sense of trunk or sion being. a budget. without the house kept in bottles. without punishment .' Here the but indicates that Bencase the compound be-out. besides women and publicas li boquiers el sane dels bocs no children. equivalent of AS. The elliptical expression oi butiox only a wine skin. the belly. — we acle for liquors. boteria. barriga. Du. bodifie. "PLT) . slaughter-house. then hoUow trunk. It. is doubtless other point not included among those to connected with barril. Sp. bountifully. butan ce. ox. bocin. similar train of thought is seen in ON. Lang. bag. nor slaughter the goats in the The cases in which Tooke would ex.streets. calf. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk or body. a cask. rumpf. Lang. bol. belly. ' que en carieras •wifum and cildum. boquier. my is called the adversative use of but. . buta. the Perhaps besogne — . by the mode in which he is treated. but one thing. ' There is leathern bottle. and bot. ni avdisson los bocS en las of doors . But In Sc. trunk. botte. a stranger the blood of the goats into the public buiten-sorgh. the servant in charge of the original object. is put in a class by himself. binnan. a butcher. bounds of. bhcciero.' BUTT may 'All brethren are entertained be from a G. similar development of meaning is seen in the case of E. bolgia. and it is essentially the same word with Lat. the precise correlative of but. bouz. the name must have arisen before the within. . plassas ' that the butchers shall not cast buiten. boucher. of the wine and drink. body of a shirt w. As a conjunction but is in every portion. Ben-house. as Pantler. But when will you pay it ? the belly. bitlga. from boc. except. without care. to-boot. mais. rotundity of the body. boccino. and the real origin of the and within . are. without. outside that moreover. the body of a tree or of a man. beta. a bottle. from as. those in beccaio. So in Italian from becco. a butchery. ' Besides all that. and with It. a small winebag. G. — . a leathern bag. ' there is nothing to be done round stem of a tree. large barrel. the bottles. bute. principal part of the drinkables would be without but and ben. able. bolr. biitait slaughterer of goats . bisgung. bole of a tree. Prov.' or ' there is not but one body of a man. Butcher. a baiTel . but Benjamin has a five-fold But. — A I ?i'am but a leude compilatour. collection of casks. plain the conjunction as signifying boot. when a horse to signify the round part of the wiU you pay ? body. as if from bousomething else is beyond the bounds of teille. the store of ten. Butler. ont jhi^ton. a barrel. or what in in charge of the pantry. the mouth)._ bitten j biiten door.' there is really a negation to be supplied. and may all be reduced to the beef or veal flesh . the present day we should say. ye vouchsafe that in this place That I may have not but my meat and drinke. botija. ' 1 am that I may have but a but . bout. besides that .

Fr. botto. signify a cask or tub. -ez. of E. bocgsuin. Buttery. fowl. ment being supposed to resemble butter. : . a. butt. the thigh of a goose. butter un. butt. * Buxom. as distinguished from gelassene schmalz. nursling. &c. a buttress Cot. Du. a blow. from bugan. what is kept in a blow. a wall butor butt on. w. courtaud. bouter. — A . Mur-buttant. from stossen. botten. buttern. Buttock. The butt or butt end of a thing is the Hamele-bout.thum and not button. a bun. to strike. W. nourrisson. and the true derivation boar. Sp. pwtiaw. aim whence to make a support to a wall. thrust forwards. by boE. stump. to push earth . Fr. gigot. or person Schmeller . bothog. Butter-glass. bottig. give way. caput scapula bout van f been. — . a mound of turf in a field to sup. on. or or shore post. bud. to thrust . to bow. a scope. The large muscles of the thing is to come upon it suddenly. bot blijven staan. an ox. so as to make a sounding blow. potacha. AS. as in G. a bolt. geboogsaem. Hal. See Butler. — A . lams-bout. So called from the excrestomach of cattle. a bot. then the thigh or leg of an to push . G. to thrust. stump of a tree Fr. s'arrgter tout ^ coup. fle>(ible. Buttrice. A — — — . From Du. to butt. Kil. a flying buttress. a mound. To strike with the head bags. to throw . as if from Povg. the prick in the middle of a target. To Butt. butter. are the strips at the edges of the field. to abut on. Fris. a corner horses' hoofs. short thick thing pimple. . pwt. bott. Fr. Gael. boteria. a large belly.against another which needs support . always translates support a wall beginning to bulge . any short thick thing. to be con. . butyrum. pied. a port a target for the purpose of shooting nave . a buttrice. Du. botta. buttock of beef is called butr. clunis. Perhaps corrupted Lat. nourrissons. from notirrir. bout. R. W.arbre. a boss. BUXOM 121 grease produced by churning. able that Chaucer. Kil. bodi'. tout seat or breech. bouton. Hal. Halma. suddenly . to thrust Fr. &c. From the noise of drinkables in a house. Fr. buttare. from bouter. buttals. the edge forwards.putan. butte. to femur. to heap up earth or ihrust. bout. Buttress. hillock . boutis. botte. So the buttery is the collection of like a goat or a ram. from the large knobbed head of botto. Bav.. An erection built up as a Fr. to touch at the end. is formed the augmentative buttatich. the rosebud. used by resting the head against the farrier's chest and pushing of ground. Du. bodi. butteln. at.. to abut a stone roof. to so close to the Fr. a little push . grease that sets by merely standing. The word body itself seems identical with G. It is remarkround the roots of a tree butterle c^leris. the Butter-fly. striking end. bouton. a. Lang. botwm.rejected thing. e. of the present day. bouter. a blow. who in general comes to earth up celery butter un mur. Bout van het schouderIt. butte. botta. rabodd. Schmell. a heap of merly called pushes. Gris. obeto shake backwards and forwards. a ribbed glass for dient. bocsam. Kil. boiUer. butz. farriert tool for paring headlands upon which the furrows abut but-lands. Cot. to raise a mound of earth around tiguous to. in the R. waste ground. humble. a tub. poke. The Bavarian potig. to cast. It. So in English pimples were fora clod. boil. butt of a person. dripping. a button. to boult flour. a cask. butter. but this is probably from Fr. to blad. — — — — .' thick from shaking. a short thick wall built to rest to thrust . Du. Schmell. as rejeton. boter-vogel. Fr. trapu. Fr. the store of while bottich. the rooting of a wild a mere adaptation. bata. Button. thrust. from rejeter. boutoir. Buttel-triib. a thrust the thigh-bone. boding. leg of lamb. put. submit shaking up salad sauce. both. a button. povrvpov. — . the trunk. a button. a boss. a leg of mutton. buhsom. oir spike with a k coup . boter-schijte. Bav. to make him a mark for arc-boutant. i. Butter. Du. Gr. Btetter-schmalz. tress. Grandg. the tool working forwards like the seems preserved in the provincial German snout of a swine. buter. a dle . are used in the sense wine in ships kept in bota's or leather of body. to thrust. clumsy . the thick end. an arch built outside to support the side thrust of the jests of the company. a but in the W. any small projection. but. Hence the butts in a ploughed field the roots of a tree. Boutant. a hill. an etwas anstossen. large head. to thrust. bot.— BUTT leg . coxa. From Grisons biitt. a barrel. To come full butt against a butts. having a rotundity . a stump or club foot. bot. butt. end . strike. . boter-vliege. Boutje.to push. bottich. Fr. thick. obedient. a stroke di animal.

busardj Prov. but the senses old people of meere kindness gave me iowd may generally be reduced to the notion sixpences and groats. good-humoured one. to abie ' rhyme with rigg. Too used a Foxes Martyrs. as in Da. 116. bylove. Cabal. To Buy. favourably to a petition. a meke thynge with — alle. CABAL Goth. Goth. who makes abigg. 200. farm. Pli- ableness or bowsomeness. buteoj Fr. Pecock Repressor. stall. harty prayers and God speedes. Byre. village. called Cabala or Tradition. The sense of buxom. buzac. See Abie. 'Sellers and biggers:—\Nic\m. to wit. to whisper. favourable. from or bending was understood as symbolical the buzzing sound of its flight. . bi. Originally the law of a particular town. buzzicare. leges urbanse ON. A by. depends upon a esteem in falconry. The final r moreover is only the sign of the nominative. The two pronunciawere both current in the time of Chaucer. ON. Also when she had bowed a piece of silver to a saint for the health of word to leave any expectation of an etyher child. to jan. Sw. bygge. AS. Subsequently applied to the separate laws of any association. big. and a bowed or crooked to be thus understood in the expression coin or other object was presented in blind buzzard. frabttg- To Buzz. The Jews believed that Moses received in Sinai not only the law. A A We — — — days' wonder. and in which mysterious and magical powers were supposed to reside. Then applied to speaking low. byar-rettr. humbly stooping or bowing down in sign of obedience. to stand at his side . Etynj. groat in token of his good heart towards him. By-law. to pass by. Lat.. Du. like To make a humming noise Buhsomenesse or boughsomeness.— Diet. and would have been lost in E. a borough. A_ buxom dame or lass is then a gracious. It. from whom it was addressed. from by. bei. OE. A ful benygne buirde. gracious. before his departure for Newbury with a homed By. — 122 BUY P. bauhta. bar. Many good mological explanation. also say. abozzago. a by-path is a side path . train of thought which has become obso. Sw. Buzzard.P. 21. to swear with him by . bohte. son. 519. indistinctly. Ketnpe's nine To stand by is to stand aside — direct imitation. . to sell. To bow down the ear is to listen bozzagro. —gracious of speech. used in comkind of hawk of little mendation of women.. 3. AS. cow-house. as heedless as a cock-chafer. lete. p. a town. bozzago. as blind as order to typify the good will of the sender. does not appear ever to have been used in the sense of a stall. buzarg. Hence bowing The name is also given to a beetle. town having separate jurisdiction. Verstegan in R. G. and boxome of speche xviii. P. buso. Dan. & Q. to buzz. ii. blessing me with their of side. tions by one. to purchase for money. but also certain unwritten principles of interpretation. and when the derivation of the word was forgotten it drew with it the sense of good health and spirits so naturally connected with good humour. bees. \s\xy. . byar-log. to adjure one by any inducement is to adjure him with that in view. The ON. the blind way in which they fly against He sent to him his servant secretly the night one. as Fr. Mercy hight that mayde. byr. bij. which were handed down from father to Hence the name of caballing was applied to any secret machinations for . Mourdi coinme ten hanor to conciliate that of the person to neton. to pass at the side of To swear by God is to swear in the sight of God. bi. bycgan. For holy churcli hoteth all manere puple Under obedience to be and buxum to the lawe. bylag. to stand Bowable or bowsome (buxom) thus came to signify well inclined to. It. jus municipii. bugjan.— P. When it indicates the agent it is because the agent is considered as standing by his work. -redi to Thow which barist the Lord make the patroun—rfor to be to us inclineable or bowable or heere us. confusedly. a buzzard or puttock. iii. and it is of good will. Sanscrit abhi (Dief).in N. a beetle. lb.

cabacho. as it must have stood in French. cabre. disgust cac. It. it would seem fundain children's language. cabarino. Hoc rustici capannam Isidore in Diez. Brushwood — — B. come the Fr. cacai / fi c'est du thing dirty. to hurl down. a car- We convasare.' Due. hack/ phi! respuendi parcaca. cabane. cabuyskoole. caqueter. origin is the OFr. cab. Fr. Finn. properly windfalls. in which sense are explained The the OFr. Etym. The name of the engine. Fr.ticula. manticuKil. or as an interjection of disMod. as an expression of Gr. wood broken and thrown down Larron cabasseur de pecune. Very generally used. — . Lat. seems a further corruption of calabre (and not vice versft. Neckam — by the wind. The double a in the OFr. — — Gadge 1 is prostercus . agge. Fr. Katr-iT-aKt. has kabbel.. cable . Mid. a tunic. filth. ceach / exclamation of guages. a rope or cable. agge machen (in nurses' language). It. caboche. secretly plotting together for their CACKLE 123 own ends. headed. chaable. Fr. Due. cates the loss of the d extant in the Mid. Kil. the Prov. cabaii. originally an Gael. bad. to put or pack up in a frail. heady. forms indi. Fr. vincially used in E. cab lis. cabus. deponat a store closet. and Finnish lanLat. from manganum. cadabalum. agga. cabas. head. capo. Mid. hut. a rope. the Slavonian.Lat. — the ON. Antiq. case. accablcr. kabas. precisely in the sense of the lari E. rum descarkagium sexaginta doliosuis instramenys.. see an example of the opposite change in Champagne calabre for cadavre. dung. cdble.). cabasser. covering. Common to Lat. name of the projectile engine. a head (whence cabochard. Imitative of the cry of hens. hoard together. brassica — capitata. laitue cabusse. magathe same radical syllable in Bohem. capanna. a jacket Fr. as the part by which the rope is commonly handled. hovel. w. Cabinet. or cadable. cabuccio. Tugurium. caable. as Diez supposes). (ca/coe. cadabulum.Lat. chadabula. . Cabbage. chaable. a headed cole or cabbage . Cot. cadabola. — Kil. &c. sordes the sense of a projectile engine the designation was early transferred to . whence Fr. to hurl in Nat. OFr. : — from violence without blood. parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad tegimen sui. and Ptg. overwhelm (Diet. dirty. capuccio. gust to hinder a child firom touching anyCable. whence Lang. for the origin of which see Carabine. dirty. scilicet caablis et windasio tantuni. Sp. lactuca capitata. for discharging mentally to signify shelter. cabulus. especially shepherd's frock. OFr. cabo. and a cabal is a conclave of persons. kabaSsen. Lith. a booth or hut. The Sp. form kactal. traboccare. Mid. overwhelm. aeggi. Celtic. . cacare . prostratio ad terram. kabane. and as we find stones Mid. To Cabbage. a cloak of felt or Cack. string. a shed. to keep or Du.Lat. signifying properly a rope's end. signifies down. gabardme. E. giiare. aakkat'a. It is remarkable that the Esthon. gaban.the strong rope by which the strain of From immundum. and the Arab. OSp. kakla. Item habeat vocant. . a frail. Cablisb. aak! tandi like Fr. archimacherus capanam (parvam cameram) in coquini ubi species aromaticas. 'habl. Gaggle. . mdhaigner. vile. OFr. as Turk. a covering. is probably unconnected. serious injury — In like manner It. geese. but it would seem to explain To Cackle. and Or.Gr. to strain in such a manner . CABBAGE effecting a purpose . a rope. from trabocco. band.. . Didot. — Tarbe. cabo. Sp. It. From It. It. chabla. dirt and the Fr. Cabin. maim. an engine for casting a mantle as well as a hut. cadabula. cacare. gatsch. cables. to chatter. havyar to caviare. ! — . Lang. ckaable. or rush basket. engine of war for hurling large stones caca. manganare. wilful). kabat. Cappa in OSp. caca! vox puerilis detesaakka. Du. calabre.. cadabulum. round or great headed. cabre. Du. Due. gaggele. would correspond to cable. Cot. E. surripere. — Sed mox ingentia saxa Emittit cabulus. &c. cabbage. Coticesserint Swiss aa. Choux cabus. kakaloH. The origin is the exclamation ' had the same signification une grande ach / ach ! made while straining at stooL perifere que I'on claime chaable. akista. an engine for casting stones. Castr. Sw. To steal or pocket. caable (in legal language). a rope. su/Furari. disgusting such an engine was exerted. . a cabbage . disgust. —Diet. — . Examples of the fuller form of cadable in the sense of cable are not given in the dictionaries. stercus. the bowels. — Ibid. to crush. Du. caable. Capstan. Ptg. nasty. caables. main. gaggi. headed or cabbage lettuce.

Fr. boy. Fr. kolo. especially of something soft. kolo. kat. Fr. Du. calba. the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up. Dan. calx. chaudron. Calcialate. the pi. a waggon . cadenza. B. koeck. principal and interest. babbhng. KaKKat. to . Cake. cykevie. wanton. The primary mean- hence to cageoler is nearly the same step as from It. The young G. kauwe. * Cade. calamus. misfortune. from the ink-bag which it contains. Cajol. capitetum. caliche. incolumis. the fleshy part of the leg pulpa ligni. a falling. Gael. Lat. little chief. calesa. reed-pen. naXaiidpi. Lat. kolo. one unduly indulged by. gabble. Cadge*. cake. The Calf. a calash . an inkstand . It seems to be used in the sense of a certain mode of falling from one note to another. of oxen and similar animals. kalb. rattaat (wheels). a car. The Lat. Tea-caddy. Lat. A hooded carriage. . a tea-chest. Du. pen Mod. frisky. It. To Calender. capCalenture. lindrus. kaad. from calendcE. — in a kiln. from Gr. to sleek hence a den. kakulla. frolicsome kaad mund. reference to the word cage hinted at by Cot. Sw. ' . Lat. Calamity. Lat. prate. and troublesomely attached to.Gr. cuttle-fish. cadere. kuchen. hence musical rhythm. ben- kalf. Serv. kdtr. on. or smooth Hnen cloth. a common cart. cattivo (from Lat. Russ. . ON. As Du. eaXaa- ing of the word seems simply a lump. cageoler. taking it Sp.— Calliper. form) calderone. . hot. calibre. kaka. collop. A cuttle-fish. a caFr. Originally from a Slavonic source. cauldron. disease of sailors from tivus). a circle. a proportionable time or even measure in any action or sound. Mrs B. Perhaps from w. calidus. cavea. It. CADAVEROUS aivi/v KoKafiapi. master. —Atkinson. jabber. or prattle. signifies a waggon. Cot. whence calash. Turk. or colpa na coise. Caldron. calibre. Fr. a lump or large piece. Calc-. wretched. caldaria. 124 prattle . from the Chinese catty. Lat. * Calibre. Cadaverous. It. It. Roman reckoning. pith. a cylinder. dial. Caddy. lime whence calcareous. marrow. a hollow place. pi. cadence.uv. a low note. the first day of the month in bum — — — A janghng. chattering. Cage. directly representing the chattering cries of birds. Calamary. a cake or loaf. cadet. Arab. an ugly waggon kolaska. calentura. cage. ever and anon. gabberen is identical with E. Sp. caioler. of which. Due. En kaka br'od. gaggle. kalfvan hout. Sw. when they are said to poor. whence Lat. Fr. kukje. to gabble. Lat. Fr. . N. coll. the lump and the increase. to cage. a calesh. cage. captive. gaggia. chaudiere. roller. Dan. a flippant tongue kaad dreng. dead body. gabbia. lord. the calf of the leg. It is another form of the E. a small stone. kaeckelenj Gr. to treat like lime. limestone. a counter used in casting accounts. a reed. kolasa. Cauldron. Gascon capdet. Cot. It. hot . a mischievous dial. a roller. the younger son of a family said to be from . to compute. Turk. desire of land. calidus. Fr. Cadence. a vessel for heating water. Cadet. Cot. a fever. — — — Dan. kolesnitza. just falling. its mother. of the nature of lime to calcine. From lerie. G. a hood stiffened with whalebone for protecting a head-dress. Lat. a dence. Flo. Caitiff. Calp is riadh. calendrer. to throw themselves into the sea. . Fr. the bore of a cannon. Sp. colibro. kalfi. a wheel . a wheel . kolyasochka. joyous . Du. The designation seems taken from the troublesome boldness and want of respect for man of the petted animal. Calandre. kolesb. kail.warmth . gabbia. a wheel . from calculus. to heat. safe. In the same way Fin. calamitas. a loaf of bread. ratas. calpa. It is more likely a word formed like cackle. is probably delusive. a wretch. a corpse. the pith or soft part of wood. calendarium. &c. KxiKivh^o^. Calocli. to — Fr. for green fields. loss. kolyaska. a wheel. Sp. Calendar. calcis. caldarius. Sw. calculo. unruly . one that is brought up by hand a petted child. The calf of the leg is the coUop of flesh be-" longing to that member. prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage). (in the augm. An open travelling chariot. gavia. Pol. analogue is pulpaj pulpa cruris. Calf of the Leg. kdfich.— Cot. kage. cha'cmie cadence. calessa. Lat. cabdillo. chetif. calentar. so gabble corresponds with Fr. Calash. kola. Du. G. to cackle . without loss. CALIBRE a sea inkstand. bad . Lat. loss. It.— . To Cajole. cadaver. pet lamb. coop. A . A — fall. to prate much to little purpose. calf of leg. kalem. See Kiddier. javioler. Lat.

diameter of a ball. calme. koluvre. According to Jal (Gl. tapulta. Gael. Fr. the latter of chamber. Ibid. 'A callet of boundless tongue. Fr.— . can be distinct from ODu. a tent or piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound. khalif. Sup. — — — — — . whence couleuv. hollaing. Lang. Lat. bombarda Cauma incendium. to say. which is as much as to say. Caliph. Due. colubrina. hallottaa. depreciatory term for a woman. To call. Sp. done with heat Alt. Call. Dum ex nimio caumate of cannon. u to an I in such a colubrum. sclopus. vulgo Coluvrine. Gr. push violently. . to burn. seems to donrebusse vel be heat.' Slange. Kil. of the bore of a firearm met. to cram. and heat. qAlab. ' pert. alta voce ploro. trull. coluber also. the Fr. to proclaim. to be of a good or bad quality. tittle-tattle. callum. and therefore it lent its name to several palmento for pamnento from pavim. Thus the word came to be used mainly with a reference to the .en~ kinds of firearms. kallo. kael. and E. a successor.from Ka'tm. prattle. them &c. Ser de buen 6 mal calibre. calma. calc. form. of what weight ? a guess which should be supported by some evidence of the use of libra in the sense of weight. The reference to heat is preserved in. cauma. but many examples may be was considered as a fire-spitting animal. scalmato. Hard. — — called a caliver another thing than a harquebuse. harden by pressure. which does not give a very satisfactory explanation either of the form or meaning of the word. kil-u-kal. from Calicut in the E. couleuvre. Fr. AS. coulevrine. to call. They snap and callit like a couple of cur dogs. overscalmaccio. kahcwe. a round of abuse. quA librd. to rail or scold . to hear. calibre. heat. calcaich. calclover.' But it is hard Du. the heat of Now these Du. and dragon. given. The primitive colubrina bombarda. Mid. to tread. calibre.' Winter's Tale. heat. compasses contrived to measure the diameter of the bore. Fin. and sometimes a handgun. 1 56 (quoted by Marsh). kalla. the hard surface of the ground. faint. coluber. nautique). Fr. calleting. Antiq. to call. kal. Ptg. donderbuchs Sp. Probably from the sound of one hallooing. the Fr. saving that it is of greater circuite or bullet than the other is where. The old etymologers supported their 1 6th A ' — — A A theories it by very bold assertions. a good calling.(jaa= ice). into the seams of vessels to make Lat. thus accounts for the origin of the word ' It is supposed is . — — — — — . the scalp or skull. quiet. To Calk. To century was Squalibre. * Caliver. form in the kalib. calcare. try. Indies. . The word was also written cawme in OE. overheated. which has its memory preserved in Du. sestus. culverin. or languishing drought is . NE.piicede Lat. Probably an unmeasured use of the tongue is the leading idea. to calk. ululo Turk. serpens. bald. Turk. fistula. calk. It. to affirm. Lat. chatter kallen. brawny.position is much less common than the geschut. KaXka. cahna. calare.. Kil. a crust of ice over the roads harquebuse. saucy. Among these were the turn. quality. — Fl. longior. harquebus or handgun. to callet. So It. Calm. caluw. Heb. a soldier who the It. an adder. Mahn derives it from Lat. cotton cloth. Sp. abto suppose that E.Lat.' Whitby Gl. drive. colubraria canna. sence of wind. the day. i. Fin. a feathers. * Callet. CALM to press or stuff. Unfledged. lassus ad quandam declinaret umbram. The adder or poisonous serpent converse. scold. chatter. forms are undoubtedly from Lat. Sir John Smith in Grose. Du. dragoon. Mil. calvus. but is only a jda-kallo. whehce it was first brought. calma. Diez. a last. 125 Prov. dragonder. calgua. CALICO Calliper-compasses. To drive tow or oakham. Bi. ram. The successors of Mahomet in the command of the empire. calo. calat of leude demeaning. whereas in troth it is not. piece of bigger circuite. calor. by many that the weapon Callous. moso. a. skin hardened by labour. B. Kavfia.meaning of the word. water-tight. callus. hot. faint. caliver. cauque. a suloriginally carried that kind of arm. or mould. licht stuk The change from a. not covered with fore the Frenchman doth call it z. dial. people's remarks. kol. Derived by some from Arab. in which dangerous to place implicit faith. E. The origin is Gr. to abuse . oldire from audire. ' rine. Dief. calca. gossiping.' Chaucer. calicot. having a thick skin. kal. as the caulking in the cracks of a ship. Callow. femme frivole et babillarde. Ca. however. moist. caillette. on. serpentina. kind heat of the sun. a drab. Diet. glotton. chalmer for chawmer from drake (Bailey). voice. sound. or caliever. to prattle. word of mouth . of a column. Calico. klover. Sc.

India Islands. camisade. Pers. lame. to jut. unwater chamelot . champ. an eating. sore. Lat. catnpamainly felt in the absence of wind. also an eatmg sore. or Caribs. would plenier. Cambray. a basket. a. sugar.—Candidate. camiscieia. E. cancello._ kamm. Caloyer. From fluting or furrow in a column . had no r in de bric— Cot. is Cambering. callour. A — the Cannibals. Gr. brought from Fr. Sugar in a state of crystalliskand. hooked. cambren. camisa. sugar in pieces or lumps khand. and great enemies to the inhabitants of Trinidad. Fr. co7nbar. lattice. Lat. Sp. higher in the middle than Fr. crooked. Camel. E. Camlet. Sp. frank and sincandidatus. toile some of whom. Or the word Lat. or hollow of a flower. across — Bellenden in Jam. KafitjUe. a goblet bud. campagna. to the force of the wind. canis. It. a.Gr. canalis. B. camiscia. to take rest in the heat of the stuff made day. — — — A — — escume de saumon. a crooked stick with notches in it on which butchers hang their meat. Calver of cane. different sections of the like the Chinese. to bend. a caught. the type of a hollow pipe. Fr. chamold man. chommer. Cambrel. See Canker. salmon. Calyx. properly good country. a spot in which they take Camelot a ondes. Palsgr.conduit-pipe. to glow. Lat. Fr. Turk. Canibal. Calumny. cancer. field . the salmondis faillis thair loup. Candy. when its substance appears inter. Fr. canistrum. the shirt being worn over the a shu-t. crooked.—Cambrel. Arab. the calix. Campaign. whence the noun signifying an applicant. callar. Lat. camahutus. . calj'x. Mod. crooked. campus. to warp. monk. a large drinking . time every year that an army continues Calvered Salmon. Cann. Cambrav—Cam. Lat. Kakoycpos. cup. water chamlet . crook. ko/utuXoc. w. canna. Gr. lead us to suppose that in expressing 'ab. died in 1526.who their language. cambr^. It. Mid. bis. The Caribes I learned to be men-eaters or cannibals. Cot. Camisade. 126 CALOYER CANN A oppressive effects of heat. a camp the oppressiveness of the sun being or temporary residence in the open field. E.' ' Quhen a lattice. Canker. calls them Cannibals or Caribees. campaign. Sp. is Candle. se cameloter. crooked-stick. icaSoytipoe. candela. campo. mg Canister. candidus. or Galithe original inhabitants of the W. aspirant. to bow. a night attack upon the enemies' camp. Lat. Cancer. Properly calver in the field during a war. . clothed in white.— Chandelier. whence the Fr. arch.Lat.—Jam. It. on. — Lat. a shady guished by a wavy or watered surface. chaitcre. catmneo. to break. spread- clothes to distinguish the attacking party. good. Sanson khanda. arched. samon. slander. aged. kanna. Canal Channel. Fr. to besence of wind the notion of shelter may come waved like chamlet. Camp. paign. camelot refuge from the heat of the day. It. Fr.— Hackluyt in R. B.to grow rugged or full of wrinkles. cam^e. the name being differently From pronounced by nation. to abstain of camel's or goat's hair. ckaouma. a dog. Ptg. Fr. a piece.. campagna. lie level. From campus was formed Lat. cambrer. fresh. champagne. Bret.— B. because those aspiring to any principal office of State presented themselves in a white toga while soUciting the votes of the citizens. nia. — Cancel.' Forme of Cury in Way. It. a crab. cainahelus. to bend. the spersed with white flakes like curd. camelus. a field Greek monk. It. having an aquiline nose. cAouma. Cambric. An eater of human flesh. A ship's deck said to lie cambering when it does not but plain-dealing. ation. arched. KafivTu. camelot. cup. from xaXbg. Fr. campo. at the ends. have been transferred from the sun's rays Champaign. camp. Canine. campren. cere : Lat. camber-nosed. white. Peter Martyr. Candid. spot for cattle. The Grisons cauina. It was distinfrom work. the heat. camaien. 'Take calwar samon and seeth it in lewe water. to make like a cross out by scoring across and cancelli. whence Fr. from candere. the space of false imputation. Cameo. the fish dressed as soon as it is Lat. fair. the bed of a stream. and gave rise or rather perhaps a surprise of the to the Lang. a' Sc. a may have acquired that signification from plain. and yspiuv. — B. thay fall callour in the said caldrounis and are than maist delitious to the mouth. to avoid enemy in their shirts. camafeo. In a different application It. cambre. calutmiia. Lat. campagne. or sort of fine linen cloth Cambrai in Flanders. open and level ground. chandelle.

border Dan. from a Canter. to sing. kq. W. a side. . corner. a cloak kapali. . or hold. capello Italis. Mod. cover . a Fr. although it has been supposed to be the equivalent of the E. Palsgr. a hundred. measure for cloth. ON. it would have been found in the continental languages. It. It. canonicus. astrology. Canton. The — . Kil. cappe. a pipe. Hence Lat. a gelding. Sp. Canon. or cantell of bread. from Yet it is remarkable the native term. capevole. the tried list of saints. From Gr. hirnschlapple. A slow gallop. schlappen. Sp. a ship canot. a ruler. a reed. cainnt. and the sex- &c. canapa. hemp. N. a torch. region. cane. It therefore cannot be derived from the sing-song or whining tone in which they demand alms. See Capt-. chape. Mod. Again we have Lat. Words beginning with// or c/are frequently ac- — — companied by synonymous forms in which the / is omitted. Cope. canon was used by the ecclesiastical writers for The a tried or authorised list or roll. canapaccia. border. Cantle. cappa. pipe. a division of a country. capa. and subsequently to the pecuhar terms used by any other profession or * Cap. to put upon sacred writers. From Lat. canvas. a boat. capax. has kahn. and hence a gobbet. It. Alamannis. Cant. It. to con- rummer. name. also a can or such-like measure joint of a hollow stalk for vfine. capace. as a cantle of bread. a scull- — here. The word seems to be taken from Gael. kantr. as CAPARISON 127 Perhaps from W. canonici. and tref. would be one of the earliest vessels for holding liquids. kynnel. cannu. caparazon. Probably only the augmentative of canto. It. when they do not wish to be understood by bystanders. hood. To his judicial And trowl the tile. a cap. cantone. See Chape. a door . . Canteen.. coarse hemp. chanteau. cover kapi. speech. &c. &c. a cantle of bread. hamlet. Cape.^on. Capable. coarse hempen cloth Fr. Lat. canto. language. hemp. from Dan. a small boat. A piece of anything. Capacious. a mosa a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting a substance through canvas. kwvwxIi. cane. margo panis diffracta. a cloak. Jonson. Esthon. much — — corner-piece or piece broken off the corner. he discourseth of dissection. applied in the first instance to the special language of rogues and beggars. coat. cantle then is a corner of a thing. the quartile. B. What does he else but cant f or if he run When cap. Picard. a cover Turk. Gael.n. Kavt\. a reed. a hunch of bread. that the G. formerly called a Canterbury gallop. a drinking glass. canevas. the canons or regular clergy of a cathedral. from cant. To canvas — . cannabis. The meserseum and the mesentericum. It. canton. as. shut. canon. Gugel. OFr. from canna. a straight rod. thence anything projecting or cornered kuun-kanta. was formed Kavtiiv. haitt. Fr. a rule or standard of excellence. cantref. kandt-broodts. edge. Fr. kyndel. able to receive. Germanis kdppen. and met. chantel. Capari. Swab. Fin. Wtb. the heel. tain. gnat. is found languages of very different stocks. quarter . side. quito curtain.CANNEL vessel. Diez. territorial hundred. as a reed would afford the readiest measure of length.— Cot.Gr. canoa. Of vena cava and of vena porta. from . Cot. rumme. also a measure. say. quarter. KaTTiram. cheese. like a torch or candle. canteau. cane. If the word had been from cantherius. An Indian boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree. The Doctor itself Flappe of a gowne. properly a large Prov. trine. covered. contain. Du. to shut. It. and the verb sift itself is used in like manner for examining a matter thoroughly to the very grounds. Cant is properly the language spoken by thieves and beggars among themselves. schlapp. kapamak. a wine-cellar or vault. KCLvva. and probably the origin of the present words ma)»be found in the notion of a piece of something flat clapped on another surface like the flap of a gar- ment turned back upon community. To Canonise. carcase . Cannoii. Sp. cantina. Fr. cantred. call.Gr. ca?ion of scriptures is the tried roll of To canonise. kaput. cannevaccia. root cap. a tube. Goldast — in in Schmid. a — A — Cannel Coal. the part easiest broken off. the heel. Kavutiriiav bed curtain. a cane. leiwan kanta. regular. clqse. Coal burning with bright flame. Does he not catii f who here can understand him? B. Prov. But it may be different source. cane. A . lump. kanta. Schwab. part. kand. cannone. cannevo. which is not the case. cope. Canvas. a corner. Canopy. signifying cover. can. cappe. to contain. a horn of the moon . Canoe. being a yard or thereabouts . . cape.

grisser. frisser {frissement d'un trait. Sp. capriole. So from Sw. capriola. Fr. To chitter is both to chirp and to shiver. to from capitulum.standing on end. — — A a hair. as in Sophocles' t^pi?' fpwTi. a little head. cut off. Caper. and with an initial gr instead of br. It. frort^Lat. bristling. The same imitation of Capon. greziller. gives rise to Sc. brisoler j Elles grissoient d'ardeur de le voir. chattering of the teeth. or represented by the syllable e. the head. cappriccio. kid.) d'etre The It. a goat.). caj)o. brissle. shivering.— 128 CAPE a rustling. shrub. are in like manner used metaphorically in the sense of eager desire. gives rise to brezza. To twitter is used in the first instance of the chirping of birds. Lat. cut. the whizzing of an arrow Cot. to broil. the hair to stand on end. a caterpillar. gricciare. Hal. curl. to chill and chatter with one's teeth. A headland. Fr. greziller. the head. A .'— Trev. frissoner. So we speak of thrillitig with emotion or desire. horripilation. Fr. a separate division of a matter. a capriol. capparis. then to be in a state of vibration. or goat's leap (done by a horse). the principal part of the debt. with joy' Vikram. herissonnement. fansuddenly angry. II bresole (Gl. ticchio. a yearning through sudden fear. a caper in dancing. to fry. ^piKos. To earne within is translated by Sherwood by frissonner . to desire earnestly. Cot. — — signifying originally to crackle or rustle. 'A tumult of delight invaded his soul. or Lat. CAPRICE twittering. The effect of eager expectation in producing such a bodily affection may frequently be observed in a dog waiting for a morsel of what his master is eating. Caprice. brisciare. to shudder. and his body bristled We to castrate. ziki. and then of nervous tremulousness of the bodily frame. The true derivation lies in a different direction. where Burton adds in a note. The words by which we represent a sound of such a nature are then applied to signify trembling or shivering action. to broil. ^ptirffw originally signified to rustle. of a coach. curly. a ch illness. p. arricciarsi. caprice It. Griller d'im' patience. alcaparra. heath. to crackle. hair. toy. upon terms Sp. a young kid met. algabr. It. of a tremtdoiis sound. a hedge-hog. Acad. airoKOTrrw.impressions on the ear. compared with Bret. belonging to From caput. And similarly to yearn. to . a chevret. Lat. capillus. It. knis-hujwud . . ericius. It. castrated. brezilia. as Fr. then find the symptoms of shivering. frisson- ner .) grezille marid. cover of a saddle. Lang. rissoler. roughening of the skin. frizzle. humorous.' — (Supp. grisser. Hair-like. rihrczzoso. to shiver for cold. riccio. as in Lat. brisoler. w. horror. wriggle. explained by Diez from capra. Capillary. — to yearne. caper j caprio. Thus we speak of sound vibrating in the ears . bruco. birsle. It is probable that Gr. capitalis. knis. to twitter as birds. according to the Hindoos. hedge-hog. s'hdrisser. It. and this symptomatic shuddering seems the primary meaning of earn or yearn. a buck. Torriano. brisciare. Capital. principal. for which he cites the Comask nucia. The connection between sound and the movement of the sonorous medium is so apparent. Arab. also the capriole. grillcr.Gr. Fr. Fl. is either wholly lost. a kid. ribrezzo. the initial mute of forms like Gr. the hair to stand on end. employed to express a passionate longing for a thing. to astonish and affright and make one's hair stand on In Lat. caprice. a leap that cunning riders teach their horses. Capers. shivering. to tingle {I'os qui bresole. to ruffle the surface of water. bristling. gricciare. or other things. eruca compared with It. and 7tucc. end. erica. G^' Many words — ' ndv. that the terms expressing modifications of the one are frequently transferred to the other subject. a . crackling sound Cape. the singing'bone). sault. gives a bristly elevation to the down of the body.' Cot. as Fr. Unexpected pleasure. chief. brug. for one in which there is a quick succession of varying . then to shiver or shudder. they longed extremely to see it. Mod. because the same condition of the nerves which produces shivering also causes the hair to stand on end. abridge amKoTroq. as the means of earning profit. as distinguished from the interest accruing upon Then funds or store of wealth viewed it. Hence capitalis the sum lent. Genevese bresoler. arricciarsi. or. aggricciare. It. cApre. brisciare. grug. It. castrated cock. and also a skittish or humorous tastical. Lat. <I>pi'?oe. I have shivered with love. h^risser. Lat. 75. to shiver. capar. See Chief. capro. capitulare. to crackle.— Fl. prickly husk of chestnut. It. to parch. To treat Capitulate. curling. as Fr. and OHG. capriol or caper in dancing. hi. of a fowl. To caper or cut capers is to make leaps like a kid or goat. a head.

latterly. tnoschetta. a creaking waggon. Capriole. It. deception. OSp. to receive receptio. a windlass. &c. Cart. a machine for rais- ing heavy weights. whence capture. Fr. receptus.or -cib-. capuccio. It. a hood (dim. &c. as the dragoons (Du. crepo. concebir. Fr. recevoir. as in accipio. kerren. Fr. a kind of torture. 129 — receive. where the -cept was final or was only followed by an e mute. a humorous conceit making one's hair to stand on end. G. It. chirrion. originally signifying a catapult or machine for casting stones. Fr. and that the calabrins or carabins were named from carrying a weapon of that designation. oisr. dim. or purpose to do a thing for which one has no apparent reason. cabra. Nordfoss. carabin. capitano. carbine or curbeenej anarquebuzier armed with a murrian and breastplate and serving on horseback. It. from head. concevoir. Lat. Lat. . and of captus to an e. karista. box. and was subsequently applied to a machine for raising heavy weights or exerting a heavy pull. capitis. also to carry on a car . concipere. The a of capio changes to an z in composition. &c. dragonder) from carrying the gun called a dragon. Crab. recipere. also a windlass for raising heavy weights (explaining the origin of E. was originally a missile . a — — did not suffer the same corruption in French. was transferred on the invention of gunpowder to a firelock. Capstern. to take. recibir. a coffer. karrende waegen. Du.. a sawing-block or trestles. charrier. — — Capstan. In the S. Fin. Carbine. verbs gives rise to the element . seize.s. Sp. di cappa. fancy. Carabin. Derivatives are Fr. Fr. cams. Neumann. Etym. acceptus. was converted into -ceb. one odd. recepte. trestle. where it forms a very large class of compounds. of France the transposition of the r converts capra into crabo. the -cevofthe Fr. a cart. Capsule. capstern or capstan) now becomes apparent. cabestrantej Fr. calabrin. where it is more convenient to make the axis horizontal. — As the soldiers would naturally be named from their peculiar armament. capra. to take baclc. or the (capo-riccio). as in OFr. to carry . a tumbrel or strong dung-cart which creaks very loudly. Capuchin. and in French into -cev-j as in Sp. — crab or instrument to wind up weights. a she-goat. -cept. de- price. Thus the musket. -cept. to take to. In all probability from the creaking of the wheels. Passing on into E. desire. Fl. intercept.). to please. captivate. a head man. commander. while it still keeps its ground in the writing oi receipt although wholly unpronounced.). deceit. concept. an engine for throwing stones. precept. It. char. It is a standing crab. charret. of capsa. Capt-. of the Sp. a hooded friar. and tropically. caput. sels. Fr. crab s. a sudden will. calabrino. capsula. capp%tccio. charger. Sp. capio. a cloke) capuccino. in opposition to the ordinary modification of the machine. the p was commonly not pronounced in French. perceive. -ceive. to accept. Carry. cabestan. a. a reception. a capuchin. krul. accept. Kiittner. exact arriccia-capo capriccio The synonymous counterpart (Fl. karren. Du. i The meaning Car. contain. shivering fit (Altieri). also a kind of rack. chevre. a sudden fear apprehended. — —Diet. name of the goat was given in many languages (probably for the reason explained under Carabine) to an engine for throwing stones. to creak. recipio. Caseneuve in Diet. It was natural that the names of the old siege machines for casting stones should be transferred to the more efficient kinds of ordnance brought into use on the discovery of gunpowder. fantastic.. case. Cot. to creak. to load . and has accordingly been lost in E. But in passing into Spanish the radical syllable -cip. at least. it is inferred by Diez with great probability that the term calabre. a skid or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal .— CAPRIOLE (bristly-head). Lat. also tresFl. CARABINE hard a ca-ceive in ceive. See Caper. a taking back. carro. The It. strideo. cabrestante (whence e. man armed — Les carahins sont des arquebusiers k cheval qtii vont devant les compagnies des gens de guerre comnie pour reconnaitre les ennemis et lesescarmoucher. Captain. a The participial form of the root in com- pound verbs. conceive. Carabine. a. however. caThe hrestante. a fantastical humour. It. In cases. was a kind of horse soldier. captive. Castr. hold. cabreia. karra. except. caprice. It. captus. Cot. a horse- — — — with a carbine or arquebus. conceit. conception. bock. and has thus descended unaltered to English. Lat. caricare. Fr. decepte. which has received by far the greater part of its Latin derivatives through the French.of these compound verbs. chirriar. carretta. a windlass set upright for the purpose of enabling a large number of men to work at it. to this is It.

bend. bock and Fr. cabra. kirat. Pers. cdrlag. cardo. ancient springald. skeleton. a kind of ship. Lat. Carat. case. An implement for dressing wool. among mint-men and goldsmiths making the 24th of an ounce. karszti. AS. The radical meaning . skeleton. The term calabre as the name of a projectile engine is probably a corruption of cabre from cabra. wool card. karra. It. confining. krciti. a ship. caraffa. a quiver. Arab. also a small weight. to comb wool . the carcase of a fowl. carbunculus (dim. in the same way that the Sp. Sp. half turn which a horseman makes to the right or left also a winding staircase. Ptg. to from whence it seems have descended and cranes of our mercantile times. Thus Ksempfer (Amaan. Fr. — — primary meaning) a malignant ulcer. to card wool. seed of carob. car. a goat. Kapaiixoyia (caraboyia).z. Gr. to strip off the heads by drawing the flax through a comb. eit. The reason why the name of the goat is used to designate a machine for casting stones is probably that the term was first . ON. Comp. Carbuncle. the husk or cod of beans. a bottle with big belly and narrow neck . the suppuration of which seems to be re- capsa. . silique. A large glass bottle cased in wicker for holding vitriol. and so could not have given its name to the carboy. Card. the trunk or chest of the body . Gael. &c. The word camis is explained oy Diez from Cot.— — — . for a gun. . kard boyd. . a battering-ram). Mod. constraining . It. copperas. . 379) describes vessels for containing wine made at Shiraz. See Carpenter. a ripple for flax. . restraint .Gr. a he-goat. The Trjg xeXwwac. The fundamental idea is the notion of scraping or scratching. I. Sp. the core of fruit . Parmesan cassiron. to comb. the name might naturally Mod. alia sunt majora. Lat. a thistle. the case of the flesh. — seems to be something holding together. boch. KtpaTwv. to hiss (as gee^e). carduus. quilato.' From the same source are SicU. There is no doubt that the name comes from the East. a machine for casting large darts.. a solid body which could never have been packed in bottles. Bohem. a quiver . to ripple flax. W. carcaij. word is only an adoption of the Turk. teasel for dressing woollen cloth.. chevre by the name of the goat. black dye. Cot. carbh.charcoal . Gr. From the battering-ram. decanter. It. properly a siege machine. to turn. carcanada. designated in the case of G. It. avSpaS. a small weight. Venet. an engine for hurling stones. Carrob. a quiver. is the chine. espi7igarda. Exot. Fr. It. Neuto the harmless crabs — mann. eitar. carere. I30 CARACOL CARD garded as internal burning. a crane. a pelt or dead bird to take down a hawk withal . Carboy. an ulcer. to card wool.Gr. Lith. vitriol. a card or comb . Gael.. carquasse. cabre and calabre are both used in the sense of a cable. Carcax. skeleton toise. garafa. the earliest instrument of Marsh points out that the Gr. carate. a coffer. and the expression arises from an imitation of the noise. quse vocant karabd. the shell of a torcarcasso. ' Vasa vitrea. cramp. matter. caraffe. cabrita. a wool card. caracal. card. a collar or chain for the neck. a gem resembling a live coal. wine- bottle. cerran. Cot. carquan. curry-comb. a corracle or skiff of osier covered with skin.applied to a battering-ram (G. a firelock. carabe. carabba. Sp. Sp. be transferred to the more complicated carcase tov avdpu*irivov atiifiaro^. «capa'|8i. a machine named by the most obvious analogy after the goat and ram. Carbonaceous. the . an instrument for exerting a heavy strain. carta. coming to four grains. military engines made for hurling stones. Fr. carquois. &c. or framework. Fr. But Mr discharged from some kind of spring maPtg. a skeleton. a winding staircase. Gael. cabreia. to curry horses karsztuwas. Caravel. carbo. carch. of the same Caravan. Cat. winding. kerwan. Gael. carmiiiarc. a dead carcase. of carbo). Caraool. OHG. whose mode of attack rush violently with their heads is to against their opponent. carcame. Sp. turn of a horse. to draw in. Carcase. carcanet. carcasa. ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata. karri. a thistle. to creak. caravela.. casso. &c. contract. the dead body of any creature. is the word used in modern Lat. a quiver . and catapulta. and is applied exclusively to copperas or green vitriol. a prison. winding carach. burning coal. p. fire . the carob bean. mural attack. poison eiz. a twist.. shell. tcapKaai. Derived in the first edition from Mod. and particularly the carob or carob bean-cod also a poise among physicians. a snail. a lock of wool . also (as Gr. a case or chest . cassa. calambre has been formed from the same source with the synonymous E. turning.

crowl. intrasset caro. compared with Fin. to scrape . and thin. It. or street. neither carfoukes none But peple shold se ther come many one. an overloaded representation of anything. as quadrivium from Carnaval. in N. love. act of moaning. a hinge. 2. tremble. Fr. caru. tuorfurcm (Burguy). caMid. x'»P'"^s)) paper. ON. cargar. the part of a town where four streets kratzen. to load.Lat. The period of festivities indulged in in Catholic countries. Cark. a card. a highway. carezza. Fr. cearian. Carl. ignarus. OFr. charnel. Carnal. or whole bulk of a ship dare la carena alle nam. from the keel to the water . charie. stridere. four. crosier. carnavale. carena. or grumbling —Due. to whirr (schnurren).. Fr. rixosus. Sept. to lie on its side. To refit a ship by bringing her down on one side and supporting her while she is repaired on the other. karrig. grolU. the time during which to Rom. Cot. Cot. careless take care of. Trin. solicitous. is This however Shrove tide. It. whence carricare. hoed. carriire. record. kribina. Mur. karl. charta (Gr. Fr. combing them out like the knots in wool. to fry or broil. OHG. to growl. regar. astutus. AS. Champ. caresse. kargr. sorrow. carch. Carled peas. but the theory is that they dilute and relax the gross humours from whence the wind arises. giierlir. Fin. sensual. carrefourg. a man. Fr. Sp. to love. Cath. G. paper Lieu n'y avoit ni carrefourg written on or the writing itself. . as peas. cearig. to fry. Carminative. Properly a car-road. Card. asper. cardinis. Care. Cartel. cura intenta. to load. Properly. immediately before the long fast of Lent. male person. ceorl. to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. No ' place there had. A I'entree de Luxembourg Lat. carcare. — — . from carus. Carnage. surrata. kumra. carnis. what is felt as grievous. cargo. E. The object of carminatives is to expel wind. camovale. from carrus. affection.— Charter. Bois crolant d'un ladre. Chart. that Fl. &c. 8. that on wliich the matter hinges. Gael. zanken . Ptg. Probably the origin of the word is the . A place where four roads Mid. . Venet. From. Fin. Coll. msstus. It. rauc4 voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo. 273. care. Peas steeped and fried. quarreG. also a career on horseback. videntibus omnibus fecit magnas carinas et ostendit magnam amicitiam et familiaritatem dictis hsereticis. carena. parched or carled. murahtaa.Lat. 1S66. the several meanings of the words above Rom. charg. murren. scharren. wool cards. A quirito ut infans. to rumble. Groler. kummer. caritia. karantez. Charnel. Carlings. Fr. caricatura. A mod-carag. Cot. caricare. is to say. . It. graller. . sorrow. inde murmuro vel ffigre fero. Farewell flesh. ress. W. to scratch. Lat. quaver a lazar's clack. the load of a ship. Roquef. & Q. murista. Bret. car. clown or churl. carFrom carrus. Sp. carcus. and G. and compare Bret. soUicitus OSax. it is lawful Et quum Punzilupus domum ubi es- sent hasretici. and sum. kurista. croller. an endearment. at murmuring. karista. crawl. Fl. principal. chartre. six Thei enbusshed hem agein a carfowgh of —Merlin. G. . winding. Lat. — Carfax. . w. strideo. p. to distress growl. be anxious. — — — : Cardinal. to load. beans. CARNAVAL 131 quatuor viae. care on. see Garble. ON. Dan. Caricature. Bret. bottom. moeThe Lat. from caricare. — — Diez. voce strepo stridente. — — — Caress. — To Careen. carminare. carener. stingy. AS. to card wool. A medical term from line —Boerio. to shake. carnalis. carnal. carina. W. the keel of a vessel. For the root of carminare. to comb flax or hemp. Cargo. mutter. kara. charger. to parch. road. morosus sum. AS. fleshy . carnasciale. carian. appertaining to the flesh. karout. de Parthenay. karry. meet at a head. dear. sgritudo animi. carriera. weyes. from Lat. in St Jerome. as carminare. cura may be ror.' Slceat. Fr. and murhet.— CARD karr-kambar. also by medicines to make gross humours fine Career. in Carp. cardo. W. charnage. . cdrle. It. like connection may be seen between Fin. It. Fr. the flesh of animals . one of those ac- 9 * . grief. fundamental. piger. the old theory of humours. a turn. whence Dont Ten n'eust veu venir les gens. It. quadrifurcum from quameet. Translated in MS. kroU-erbser. charag. to care unkarja. to clean the bottom of the ship. essere in carena. karg. . to take Goth. tenax. Carenare.. the keel. gakaran. place for exercise on horseback. a deed. niggardly . to eat flesh. to comb wool. the hull of a ship. charneux. morosus. from the crackling sound to murmur— Roquef.

was formed Mid. Here's to you still my captains friend. differing To Carp. carpia. or loose as a couch without further preparation. Teut. i. Shrove Tuesday. Discov. to reel. Lat. linteamen. Chanson de carole. W. carpetrix. linteum carptum quod vulneribus inditur. The ' ' a chariot. . gonna. carpenter only in the latter sense.' Reg. . was then prevalent at banquets for the revellers to pledge each other in rotation. Pm. corolla from corona gives the exact sense required. to pull asunder. Carpet. chirp. chariot carbad. worker in timber Fr. A. e. Analogous R. Palsgr. Olr. Nomin. pluck at. . carnelascid). Carnelevale. carpenta. sense. in Due. Robert of Brunne calls the circuit of Druidical stones a carol. and F. The true derivation is : seen in Mid. In Dominica d'autant. To pledge them thou refuse. ON. all aus). I drink all out. The term was with equal propriety applied to flocks of wool. or a carouse fully drunk up. Ein we find the signification transferred from . Biheld within. Dief. Rabelais uses boire carrous et alluz. Carpyn or talkyn.Why give's some wine then. Gower in Way. Carole. Carpitam habeat in lecto. properly doubtless a quilted petticoat. as E.' Ordo Eccles. Gael. Ant. permitted in anticipation of the long fast. The word seems of Celtic origin. zimmerspan.Lat. All out B. CarTo quaff carouse do use. ' ' — . chatter skra/a. in Carp. 2. i. So gone they forthe. Mediol. skraf. to chatter coroli.' The name then appears under certain by the use of all out in the same the corrupted forms of Carnelevariiim. carpetam (a quilt?). Carpenter. The derivation is made completely it is spoken of as delectatio nostri corporis. I quaught. — . yede tham about. gar aus / all out is correct. Alluz (G. a plank. biheld without. The custom. ballare. — — ' ' — — — I — — . 94). description of the Carnival of the beginning of the 13th century. QuiWill hate thee if at any time libet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit. of Guiana. ! Carouse. carbh. Mid. koroll. Lat. Fr. a song accompanying a dance then. carpat (Stokes). carpo. carpentum. cxciv. chatter.' says Motley (United Neth. cited by Marsh.'— Stat. a wheelwright. to pluck. peta. to gather. a carder. Lat. krapanj. In a MS. whence the form carnasciale. litter. 2. as the Lat. Mid. Templariorum — ' — Due. ' commodations so frequently modifying the form of words. carduz. charpentier.' When the goblet was emptied it pi-obably would be turned upside down with the exclamation gar aus! This was what was called drinking caroicse. Other names of the sea. Sup. And made many a faire tourning Upon the grene grasse springing. pluck. a wheelwright. course. cariielevamen or carnis levamen. balade from It. Bohem. This Bretons renged about the felde to E. to find fault with.— Neum. quoted by Carpentier. carpenticre. carpere. zimmer. On this. The tippling sots. 1 1 30. lint. krapati. 132 CAROL CARPET narr schiittet sein herz gar aus ' a fool empties his heart completely out. about as much from its parent carnelascia confabulor. to rustle. a patchwork table-cover in with a lining of coarse cloth La Crusca. Carnevale. the solace of the flesh or of the bodily appetite. ship. Bret. querole. to dance. Pr. or the cloak of the Carmelites made of like materials a woman's petticoat. on that. and Carnem laxare (It. all in caput Quadragesimas quae dicitur out. applied to the song itself Diez suggests choruhts from chorus as the origin.gonnella. culcitra. From Lat. to dance. Cot. garrulo. a dance. carpita. Fr. 216. garrire. Sp.— Patriarchi. tattle. a drinking cup. Pref. is erroneous. carpende fast Carol. It seems then to have signified any quilted fabric. this will fit us all son were Car7iicapiuin. Many tyme — who then emptied his goblet as a challenge to his next comrade. charpie. vel coopertorio carebit. used for stuffing mattresses. On the other hand bumper to one's health.Lat.: . fabulor. act of drinking a full Eq. qui sacco. in Nat.— R. Beggars Bush. cardos. Properly a round dance. The karole of the stones behelde. as carnaval from carnelevamen. and there is no doubt that the old explanation from G. a car carpentarius.D.Lat. tymmer. as Fr. each draining a great cup and exacting the same feat from his neighbour. at midnight which derivation from kroes. 760. Some of our csL^gtahies garoused oi his wine till they were reasonably pliant And are themselves at their meetings and feasts the greatest garousers and drunkards in existence. But we have no occasion to invent a diminutive.]e bois Carnelevale. disTho mightist thou karollis sene And folke daunce and merle ben.— Drant in R. bier. maker of waggons It.' Raleigh. to talk.

carota. subject for a picture. break to pieces. Fl. cia.' Fl. coffer. to shear. kerven. bitten.' Bailey. casa. charrette. It. OE. of carro. without reference to the annoyance of the enemy. Fr. casa-maita. like all the names of tendon. the notion of covering or sheltering being common to a house and a garment. not reaching to the height of the ditch. house. Hence a challenge openly hung up. charogne. augmentatives of carro. See Gristle. It. a form into which a noun falls in the process of declension . It was formerly used in the sense of a counter in a shop or place of business. ceorfan. To quash an indictment. — — nul the proceeding. — FI. CartOTicli. Hence casket. is the head under which money actually paid in is entered. to — — also casse. Casuist. — casaloopholed gallery excavated in a bastion. and matar. Sp. carroc- carrozza . to an- — Kil. and sei-veth to annoy the enemy when he entereth the ditch to ' Casemate. carrosse. In the latter sense the word is a corruption of the OE. carriaggio. mord-grube. a canonry or slaughterhouse. slaughter-house. CARRIAGE the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking which contained them. carretto. — Cartridge. for the security of the defenders. Cot. kasseren. the money chest. The Sp. Case. Fr. Cascade. Flor. cartoccio. case. to fire on the enemy. Lat. Rouchi carter. and that apparently from capio. luggage. to slay. Fr. Carrion. from Lat. Sp. a paper case. augm. caisse. To Carve. Cash. capsa (Diez). abrogate. Fr. tion from Sp. Carriage. cascar. It. cascata. Originally a — — A — Cartilage. casitiste. mord-keller. cassus. As defence from shells became more important. It. kerpu.' — Hdcart. Fr. gristle. Lat. See Case. quasser. also a conveyance with springs for conveying passengers. ' Casa-matta. Case-mate. To Carry. discharge. Casket. mata. helmet. packing ' cloth. cascare. casso. cartilage. Cassock. Cartel. Du. Lat. kerben. an augmentative from Lat. a long coat. a car. from It. A word introduced from the language of book-keeping. casaque. caisse. carogna. made void. casco signifies a skull. to bear or carry. the charge of — — Fr. fortuitous. afterwards any written challenge. It. from casa. cashiered. discharge It. To duash. and the OE. Rouchi caroche. to break. It. without risk of Hence the designaloss to themselves. pasteboard. ' of mason's work in the flank of a bastion next the curtain. Lith. gristle. a merchant's cash or counter. Cartoon. Casual. Gael. cask or wooden vessel for holding liquids. Case. to crack. casser. all manner of carts or carriage by carts. cascade. Fr. quash. kirpti. Ready money. Lat. The radical sense of the word seems to be to come down with a squash. cartella. cancel. carretta. to dash. shell or carcase of a house. long man's gown with a close body. charrier. Casque. It seems generally to signify case or hollow receptacle. a fall. The carrying of anything. caroche. casualis. from It. properly to convey in a car. hull of a ship. to convey in a cart. It. a piece of pasteboard with some inscription on it. of carta. Cart. crush. an act of falling. cartouche. turn out of service. casuelj Fr. Probably. a chest. ignominiously exposed. Fr. Du. Fr. to cut or carve . Fr. Fl. to fall. Cask. Fr. Cot. bag and baggage of a camp. paper cap for criminals The paper case containing a gun. coarse loose fabric of CASSOCK 133 wool and hemp. cassere. corresponding to the G. cassette. AS.— Fl. annul. caisse. a coffer or small case for jewels. cassa. — — . To Cashier. G. cassa. to hold. caroach. also the carriage. caxa. — Cartoose. kertselig I cranch with the teeth. caro. the term was subsequently applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress. cancelled. a hut. Fr. Walach. paper.to annul. coffin of paper for groceries. dim. Rouchi carpHe. carroccio. Eune tapisserie dicarpite. to notch. fall It. Carrot. Fr. a chance or accident. des rideaux A'carp^ie. void cassare. from the sound it makes when Alban. It. a loopscale the wall. case-maiej Sp. blotted out. cartone. something that actually occurs. It. See Card. a car. crown of a hat. carreaggio. casus.. AS. casacca. cut with scissors. a of water. hollow.' Cot. which is a place built low under the walls of a bulwark. Preparatory drawing of a It. krat. casag. from whence the garrison could do execution upon an enemy who had obtained possession of the ditch. empty. hung up in some place and to be removed. Rouchi carone. as we . vault hole in a fortified wall. card. one who reasons on cases put. where Fr.

stilts. Fr. dash. a whip on the other into latch. accastiare. kakka. dashing it to pieces. from the first of Castrate. It. V. punch. to clack. to make clean or chaste. second chase. casipola. Pol. a cat . was introduced. a Cataract. while kiss / Pol. to dash. ON. perhaps from which we have E. on. kotas. Yz.Lat. a thump. have before seen under Cape and Cabin. KaTappaKTrjQ. passmg on the one hand into catch and Russ. ktitis / is used to drive them drive forth bestis. KarapaKrr]g. chat. ecrevisse. to bring to an crack given by the joints. sue. Cast. heat . to break. making a louder snapping castaiiet- ear. chasuble. being Fin. Thus we have Caste. Cot. first made ordinary Fr. to crackle. to hurl See Awgrim. force j Rouchi equerviche. dashing it out of the window. puss / for calling them. tion of the sound made by a cat spitting. Fr. puras E. . crush . or Rouchi cat. to look at. an enumerlist. which has been retained in E.out cacciare . . and tomba. KaraXoyog. the snapping of the fingers in a Spanish dance castaneta. Catastrophe. name. to torture. B. koshka. to drive Cat o' nine tails. 134 CAST Catacomb. The origin is the imitation of the sound the handle of a scourge . CATCH Grottoes or subterraneous places for the burial of the dead. or bruise together. from water Karappaaaiii. The fundamental the sound of a violent collision. mino. speak of dashing a thing down. castellum. It. The E. and described by them the hard s of ordinary Fr. Lat. execu. under chi caleur. cat-o'-nine. kic' kicil are used chasser. kissa. probably from an imita. which. katze. The words catch and chase are different versions of the same word. represented by the syllable quash. drive away. race. bot-kotis. Catalogue. chaleur. Fr. Pic.to drive out. Cass ! a word to drive away a cat. of castrum (castra). To It. ' Catchyn away abigo. cash. &c. a little house or hut. by the loss of with several pitched cords. kat. Roukind. The Diet.. Sp.' ' Catchyn or The Fin. dash with a like imitative origin is used with a hke variety of signification. Chase. Gr. Castanets. Others explain it from Kara. a hard c commonly corresponds to the soft c/t of ciety in India. from which much of the French in our language — castanuela. In the dialect of Picardy.— Fl.. To cast accounts was properly to reckon by counters which were bodily transferred from one place to another. It. a cat koshki. ating. kotas. Fr. to drive away. down. Cat. a vault. This would tend to support Diez's explanation from Sp. Mid. _G. squash. 120. kottr. however. — We a cavity. castro. Fr. . casser. Fr. In hke manner Rouchi cacher. quasi minor casa eo quod totum hominem tegat. Gr. the stalk of plants. klakka. fall. catar. is not satisfactory. fer toTa. castanetazo. KaTaarpifm. artificial The divisions of soknown to us by casta. dim. Castle. catch. to turn overturn. So also from It. Hal. to fall as over a precipice. cat. 'Vaaaw. . Hence castaneta. Pm. Lang. to lash. Fr. or comba. Sp. a sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts — apaaaio. cacciarc. to end. Snappers which dancers tie about their fingers. the exeof a smart blow by the syllable clatch ! cutioner kotawoti. Maid thorgh the Lundreisfro London is hatched.the / or c respectively. ichasses. of sarabands does Gr. in the fire. Gael. castana. away. follow after. Fr. coming to us through different dialects of French. squash.Rouchi Scaches. burst cascare. to close. signifying breed. and a final ch in Picard to the Portuguese. to scourge. handle of an axe.'— Pr. Rouchi the supposition that it was the native forche. kasi. to is Essentially the Sp. down. chasser. a tomb (as the word is also spelt catatomba and catatumba). to Fl. same word with break. casupola. the ground . castello. cojz^/a. Brunne. kasta. to hunt. cascar. casulla. cast. Isidore — in Diez. a fortified place. a garment for performing the mass in. to cast or beat to tioner . the earlier sense of catch. tails. casule. To Catch. like that of It. R. kaJoivad. . Moreover the name was' apparently confined to certain old quarries used as burial-places near Rome. and from the castus. and KviilSog. Fr. cacciuolo. cassa / cry for the same purpose. the castanets for or implement . to strike a resounding object as a board by the term — — — . rack. as a shew is not the primary point of view in which the tombs of the martyrs were likely to have been considered in early times. to crack. shaft of a 1 push. chasser. cacciare fuora. arpi^m. a chesnut . OFr. image accasciare. V Lith. says that the name is given in Italy to the tombs of the martyrs which people go to visit by way of devotion. torture. Etym. n. lance. Lat.

latch of. * Cates. the distance to which the ball is struck. wild-beast. quincailler. And on the same principle on which we have above explained the actual use of the . a whip. Grandg. klinke.V. — with a whip. which all . 'Horxa. Diez. chacepol. Swiss Lombard G. in the same way that we speak of teach the elements of any science. cat is not apparent. chink. worm. to the crack. from shutting with a click. with and without an / after the c. to click and to chak is to shut with a sharp sound (Jam. Properly a system of oral In the sense of seizing an object the instruction. blow. woodlice. or any kind of relishing food tuals. Du. apprehend a person. head. resono ictu lash. snatching it with a any one. properly the lash or knotted piece of whipcord added for the purpose of giving sharpness Hicart. Cot. predicament. de Bray. a little dog). — Catcli-poll. chatter. a pill.yopl(. the representation of a like sound by the syllable latch gives its designation to the latch of a door. chase. to snatch (said of dogs). For the equivalence of similar forms with and without an / after s. chassoire. cross-bow that carries but a From poll. the elements of a science. Gr. Chate peleuse. Claucht. In the XV'e. icarrix'Ki^. to chatter with the teeth cake. E. called in Fr. door when it is shut. an accusing. G. caker. ArbaUte de courte chasse. the act of stunning by loud sound sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. Kartiyopta (/cari. — . . P. Du. cache. chak expresses 'the sharp sound made by any iron substance when entering its socket. ictus resonans. children's name for cat . to A bailiff. compare G.) . On Catechism. Fr. the larva of the cockteufelskatz. a clap. . a smack. — explained.V. claquer. weevils. such a sound or the stroke which produces it. a. from Gr. millecaterpillars. a whip or Kuttner. Tutschek. obtaining possession — — And if ye latche Lucre hym not ascapie. ' ' word catch. lash of a whip corresponding to the G. the OE. Gael. Guernsey chafer. — tinman. klatsch. chenille {canicula. kletse. klatscherei. called dog or Galla catchamza. above c gives rise The word is rendered by Sherwood by frigaleries. of catte pelaeure seems to be given to D. ketsoore. clap with the hand. * Caterpillar. to take. in order). GaUa catchiza. an opportunity to show peleuse is a corruption. insect. i. gingle. Cates. gattola. whip.. Kariicatching one a box on the ear. but specially an V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it order of ideas. Rouchi clincailleux. . companaige. with similar meanings to those belonging to words of the form ciatch. e. Sp. Ptg. Thus we have the (including meat) eaten with bread. resound. klatschen. an officer of taxes. catc?u. E. bichano (pussy).s. . c or ^. Fr. chatter . Du. a caterpillar Milanese can. a carter's Pat. to harangue. E.P. Wal. to clap hands. is said that he got a claucht of it. kletsen. catch-flesh. a. seize. chachara. the the same principle he was Fr. and answer. e.j. dainties. pUlouire (RoWhy a grub should be catte. OFr. to catch strength. ecachoire. and suddenly a catch or seizure of any. On the other to hand the loss of the initial bicho. — Kiittner. chasse. dainty vic- a form lash. Cot. Caterer. sound. to snap. Sc. caucht. has both or of charming by sound. and specially the stroke of a ball at tennis. catch. Fr. speak thing in a sudden and forcible way.' ^Jam. a cornIn the s. flap klatsche. 'Bxn. kaetse. Gael. In probability the suggestion of Skinner that it is curtailed from Micates. silkworm. Metivier. — — — Wenyng to caucht ane stound his strenth i. 135 — Aasen. one employed — Elementary instruction by question little way. Metivier explains the word from the habit of all these inhis sects of rolling themselves up like a pill quefort). catch. fragor kletsoore. a whip. devouring mite or weevil. snatched. happe-chair.' CATCH Fr. verberare kUts. to chat. gliong. cagnon (a dog). pedes. klatsche and Norm. — B. instruction in forms. glcu. As the Turnus at this time waxis bauld and blythe weevil is not hairy probably the element in the principles of religion . clatter. a — gatta. In Guernsey the name And claucht anone the courser by the rene. klatsch I th wick-thwack a word to imitate the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition wall . snatching. clap. to sound in the ears of one's hand upon it. smack. to kythe D. let was commonly used in the sense of seizing. to term caich is to be explained as clapping sound.from Bard and ayopsw. as of the latch of a As ! — . . laid hold of eagerly CategfOry. s. to teach by oral instruction. Kil. formerly called cliket. latch. ' Fr. bicho. Kil. KaTtix'so. to crack GATES cache. a whip Rouchi cachoire. Guernsey pilleure.

willow. kopista. Jaubert. Lat. Caballus. Ka^afriKOQ. chauderon. a mare. to ac- — Fr. from KaSaipio. OE. Cattle. koparet. kobuiV. challe was ther of a temple. whence it is provincially used in the sense of a spider's web. and the nicer kind of food being commonly purchased abroad the word became confounded with cates. For whether that he paide or toke by taille Algate he waited so in his achate. hazel. kopano.. caul is also a small net to confine the hair. catnever sells — — Cauliflower. and the caterer or cater the person who provided them. It. a receptacle for small things. puss. w. kocianki. It. Sx. G. 2.p. CAVE Caul. Fr. also to pave . Fr. chatideau. dumpf tonen. catkin Pol. the stones of a street. whence cathedralis. kin. kobyla. accattare. a horse . arboris cavus pulsu resonans koparo. kaussijde. Cathartic. Cave. via strata. Boethius. Dryden in R rete. Du. from delf^gato. quire. • — — See Chattel. calotte. caldo. KiwariKog. 4. primitive is meaning a shale or off. to shale or peel. achatciirs mighten take ensemple For to ben wise in bying of vitaille. Mid. from caveo (p.' B. puss. Fin. Fr. Cavalier. Thus Bav. And in a golden caiil the curls are bound. ' Gr. a pulpit. shod or protected from the treading of the horses by a coating of wood or stone. cabbage. from chaud. hollow. cheval. That he was ay before in his estate. cale. chevalier. ce^l. a The peel. Bessie of Bednall. chaudroii. KaPaWrii. Cause. the ofBcer whose business The it was to make purchases for a household was called acatour or achatour. calqada. Caution. acaptar.^ acheter (Lat. . &c. cautus). Lat. Cavity. Lat. the cabbage whose eatable part consists of the abnormally developed flower-buds. caballus. lamb. and hence a skull-cap. to purge. . Fr. Lat. kautsije. — . deyntie meates. Her head with ringlets of her hair is crowned. what . . also the membrane covering the face of some infants at their birth. flock. cavus. catkin Magy. yet in some parts of England they do call an horse a caMe. — com en achate or buying Chaucer. Chaud. to beware. . catkin mitz. Caustic. . Richly she feeds. A warm comforting drink. but the acates that are sent him. Cavern. Fr. a branding from koiio. mutz. Gr. green husk of a calon. Pr. hot. Mid. katteken. Palsgr. a road calceata. — — cavallo. to buy.Lat. cauHs. a pavement. chair. catkins . a stalk. fur. cale. minon. Delycates. little cap is . accapitare Rouchi acater. capull.—— — 136 correct.. It. cavaliere. is given to the downy or feathery flowers of the . despencier. B. The word — . Fr. the caul of the liver. Russ. It. cautis. and at the rich man's cost By sea. On the other hand. Fr. Causeway. All kind of daintyes and delicates sweete Was brought forthebanquett. kitten kotki. any Fl. Gael. specially the seat of office of a master or professor in science. shaled or picked Fr. macska. to burn. mudet. Kavrijp. Manciple's Tale. — eatery was the storeroom where provisions were kept. Kavrfipiov. cabbage). cabbage-stalk. by land. flue. hot. Pol. calidus. . Fr. in was used substantively in the same is The omentum or fatty network which the bowels are wrapped. to shoe . apt to burn iron. the. a paved road. cal^ar. otherwise written kell. reticella. a kettle for heating water. make clean. Coerapcyon is to sale together point buying]. The origin of the word seems a representation of the sound made by knocking against a hollow body. The proper meaning of the word seems to be a net. puss. catons. kocie.Y\\Xea. acater. caple. Cavalcade. and spareth for no perell. fur in general. rete A — Prov. Jonson in R. having the property of cleansing. Gr. achepter. Du. chaussJe. CATHARTIC sense. A gentil manciple Of which walnut de noix. little cat. applied to i church containing a bishop's seat. calceata. a horseman. is used in the sense of cat-skin. Rete. KaHSpa. causa. to sound like a blow . Cavalry. caudex .' Elyot in Way. walnut with the husk on challer. katte. It is probably not so much from the resemblance to a cat's tail as from a cat being taken as the type of what is furry or downy that the name of catkin. choufleur {choii. net or caul-work. It. Hence achates or acates signified purchases.^Hal. — Cauterise. Kil. calceta. klopfend knallen. a seat. a kind of skull-cap. ' One that made a good meal in his sleep. kassije. Lat. Cathedral. Port.Lat. of delicates the most Her cater seeks. Gr. a horse . Palsgr. to shoe. is Prologue. Lat. chaudiire. . Cauldron. Wyatt in R. chausser. Fr. Catkin. cat maczoka. Caudle. kdtzchen. Provider. adcaptare. Diez). Fr. a horse.

In the N. a hut.' Cot. sill in window-sill. plank. kommata. thilja. to sound deep or hollow as an empty vessel. . In this wise the King shall ride opyn heded undre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn with four staves gilt. a boarded floor. and then to gape. to canopy siled. a log. Boyd in Jam.'— Z. bridle. 7. cavillor. recede. a beam. 32. a log. .' del. And as tapestry and wainscoting served the same purpose of hiding the bareness of the walls and shutting out the draught. cabegon. and the main object of the wainscoting being to shut out draughts. Hence concede. dille. quibble. cease. an aquiline nose. — — — toyour soverane. a moun- The French kyng caused the lorde of Countay to stande secretly behynde a ' Caveson. in Jam. pp. caveqon. Fr. As the canopy or covering of a bed or tent would not only be stretched overhead. &c. lambrisser une chambre seeling. cielo. . but hang around at the sides. dayntily diglit. dil. a head. deal. Lat. In the Walser dialect of the Grisons. . empty. -cease. cabega. -cess. a beetle or crustaceous insect koppa nokka.' Hall. to argue capto tiously. unless we separate the sense of canopy or hangings from that of wainscoting. to distinguish it from the wainscot or seeling of the walls. but the Kyng was not under for that sam day. a severe bridle. Lat. wuoren komo. curved. door-sill J Sc. excess. Cavil. lambris. sus-lambris. a log. E. ciel de lit. VIII. sybire. departure from this life. and Gol. also a seeling of boards. and in it was a cyll of state of cloth of gold. and that from Sp. and all conscious reference to the notion of the heaven or sky being now completely lost. ' The olde syling that was once faste joyned together with — — ' . the ground is cut away from Aufrecht's derivation from AS. cesso. Lat. p. hollow. sky. ceiling. &c. . yield. hung. plank. Cam. the box or sounding-board of the harp piipun koppa. it is probable that the word was confounded with sealing in the sense of closing. Fr. Cease. Fr. It. 43. thiling. Aufrecht identifies with the foregoing. . to plank or floor with planks.' Ordinances and Reg.' — Gawan . H. the inner roof of a room of state. . of E . del into English without ' translation gave cele. hivtmel. kind of bridle put upon the nose of a horse in order to break and manage him. little house.). were met. canopied. selar. a planking or boarding tkilian. served in halle Under a siller of sillc. to plank ON. a fir-plank. ceiling. semely on syll. Sp. Cot. — . 'All the tente within was syled wyth clothe of gold and blew velvet' Hall. thel. to panel or wainscot MHG. And it is certainly possible that syling in the sense of planking or ceiling raa. is applied to a canopy. komista. death.' Rutland papers. cellar. Gawaine & Sir Gol. a board. column E. cyling (W. . thili. To seele a room. decessus. koppeli. Ceiling. See -cede. post. a canopy. Lat..). to cut. in Hal. give place. From the noun was formed the verb to cele or sile. In the same way G. board . with their substantives concession. augm. the roof of a coach. rafter. Hal. . of cavezza. cedo. the deck of a ship at thilja. 'A celler to hange in the chamber. sounding as an empty vessel koppa. B.j have come from this source. giving a hollow sound Palsgr: Cellar for a bedde. thil. and zaum. to seele or close with boards plancher. Wore. and it was even applied to the planking of the floor. wall. hollow ice . The name was extended to the seat of ' dignity with its canopy over. The importation of Fr. as if from happen. in — silyng or a hangyng in his chamber. wainscot thiljar (in pi. menuiserie. . beam. Plancher. The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. The sense of roofing. seele. hollow.. in Jam. step away. to go forth. syle. thelu. sill. 'The chammer was hanged of red and of blew. The line of descent from Fr. dScis. Thus silyng is found in the sense of tapestry. CAVESON kopera or kowera. komo. jaa. crooked kopio. And seik — Cessation. IV. the bowl of a pipe koppamato. or of a bed. ciel is so unbroken. Sir 137 pit . CEILING The kynge to souper is set. heaven. A — A false accommodation produced G. Cede. a canopy. &c. a cavern in a mountain {wuora. obardili is the boarded ceiling of a room. heaven. So from Fin. —Decease. flooring E. coffer. it was natural that the same name should be given both to the roof and the side hangings. thil. syl. departure. tester of a bed. — . The It. it was an easy step to the sense of wainscoting. Soc. 5. as. applied to a canopy. a halter. . kapp-zaum. which is still known by the name of ceiling in Craven. -cede. cavezzone. exceed. -ceed. anything hollowed or vaulted kanteleen koppa. . a plank. cessum. nailes will begin to cling. p. . &c.' Marriage of James IV. Sherwood. succeed. Fr. that. proceed. the testern of a bed. — komo tain). selure.

-i^oivre. Prov. a vessel in which incense was is soever persons or objects centurio. incense. to take. to prick. to burn incendo. ' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and threde. Cell. Cess. the place where the de. Fr. cella. -oept. swift. Census Censor. concerner. as entering largely into the derivative certo. siller les yeux. cilibat. Century. Lat. Assize. celeber certus. Fr. It. receipt. the hollow the Lat. solemn (of per. deceit. a hundred centuria. a storehouse Chafe. — . See Celibacy. heaven. to think. and — — — possessions. K^'ivut. — . family. renown be embodied with. festive. Censor. decebre) . to attend on object with. Gr. Sherwood. and met. to separate. 1. and thence to conceal. judge Lat. single or unwedded life. -cepire.— Chafing-dish. Fl. Ta^oe. Centre. assess. Censure. — . To Incense. In Celebrate. zens according to their property. oil. abundance. conceipt. to ensile the haukes that ben taken. blind. {cori)cipere. of or pertaining to Ceres the goddess of corn and the harvest. cencer. anger two distinct words are probably Lat. -cipio. as in some places burnt. to rub for the purpose a hut. observe. of heating. or any bird's. &c. Fr. criticism. to heat. centum. -cebre ifoncebre. ciller. Ceremony. to -sum. Certain. is totally distinct from the foregoing.of the r. guish. thence belonging to or connected with corn. confounded ist from It. to blindfold. Assess. point. to distinguish. To seel or close the eyes.ing a room where there is not fire. empty. cigliare. Cot. volito vivus per belong unto (Cot. and put it through the over eyelydde. Centurion. a shaft horse. goad.' Book of St Albans. appertain. calefare. Chafe. -ceit. candeo. Coehim.. decide. for building. to concern. — . Cereal. in comp. a numerous con. the talk of men. Fr. from censeo. Cij(fe5j. properly signifies the sewing up the eyelid of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. census. Lat. in comp. is the opposite of disora virum. and then she is ensiled as she ought to be. /ctj/rsw. age. Lat.Chafing-dish or pan of hot coals for warmudojiai. Censer. tax. -ceive. with transposition hence (of a day). with the eyes. capio. -cern. to twinkle darkness. we have a modified form of (of a place). pick out. Accelerate. The term cilium. -civer {conciver— Roquef. riscaldarsi. — A . eschattffer. to be regarded as one celebro. rough from the quarry. concetto. make angry. camentum. irot\oe. -CEIVE a shaft. become heated with anger. see. to set on fire. stones to the production of heat. or expression of Ennius. in accordance with the Fr. to visit in numbers. his office. judge. KsvTpov. — . Celebrity. what to set in a chafe. KoijuijT-jjpiov (from koi. to take. celer. a monument erected for one buried elsewhere. hollow. rubble. Gr. deceipt. and make them faste und the becke that she se not. Incensum. Lat. mortar. to contend. then to rub without reference Cement. sile. in Marsh.cern. &c.— Cellar.' Celebritas.unmarried. Celerity. census. to seal a pigeon's eye. to sepap rate. chauffer. Lat. provisions generally also to heat by rubbing. OFr. In the sense of chafing^x^ -cend. censura. The of the participle -ceptus is seen in OE. judge. the officer appointed to take such returns . Sc. cerealis. to glow. Lat. the captain over a hundred foot-soldiers. estimate.). an eyelash. S. quarters for slaves. to course of people. a solemnity.j 138 thill. crevi. capturn. Gr. cillier. K€voTa(j>iov {kivoq. to warm. called sill a thill horse and a sill horse. -cevoir. a valuation of every man's estate. encens. It. -cense. a prick. a hundred of what- — . -cepere.). keep in It. to seele or sew up the eyelids . See Cede. the rating of Roman citivault of heaven Gr. -cess. a tomb. and thence censer. Lat. much frequented. (and thence also) to hoodwink. materials It. dchauffer. chaufferette. also grave opinion. Lat. but was gradually lost in conceit. to bury). cceremonia. Fr. Fr. cot. For sess from assess. contend.. Lat. parted sleep. sure. Lat. to celebrate. ciglio. sacred show. a solemnity. Cot. to rate. -ciper. calefacere. but spelt with a c from the influence of Celestial. Lat. syll. thronged the participle cretus. cretum. value. . is in CHAFE burnt in sacrifices. a Cemetery. -ceptjun. to incense. from Saa-rw. — . ceremonia. To chafe is for wine. Take the nedyll and threde. to sleep). eyelid. Lat. oil. Gr. sting. and so of that other. . to chafe. caber. the point round which a circle is drawn. concernor. tax. sift. distinIt. cenio. — — Cenotapli. Fr. a religious observance. Lat. a form which also gives rise to sons) renowned. ' . being taken from Fr. a registration of one's self. Fr.

to gnaw. also to prattle. have a mind to parley. de calompnia o de vertat per la una part Lenere corteys (courteous lender). Chalice. a rustling noise. and as this was the beginning of man. hiss. talkative. kever. to move the jaws. chaene. To buy and sell. a chough. breathe hard. E. ple^. jackThe sacramentum de calumniA was an daw chaweter. chaine. Cot. Fr. vel susurro. Fl. Gr. false accusation. puffed or ruffled with ly. Fr. rustling corn. cadena. avena vilior.. care. from the shark-skin. From the To Chaff. Bav. dispute. of. Kaiiapa. to tattle. cathedra. taubes korn oder hafer. from of the G. — — — . calumnia. vis. vento agitata (to rustle) whence kahina. . Chayire. fern-chafer. to gnaw. crooked. keuchen. charge with. consisting chiefly of husks limestone. sborfare. a pulpit. ing a hard case to their wings. 11. Fr. kedja. de Brai. Lat. tronfio. Camera. lime. on. much blowing. chaise. Chain. ^Altieri. to oath on the part of the person bringing cry . to sit. refuse. any insect of the beetle kind. As the loss of a ^ in breathe. Lat. In like manto huff. a chain. &c. to ner It. to dispute. dongio. calx. chicane. puff. chafing. idle words. Ayenbite. tattle cheep. metaphorically to chafe and fret with rage and anger fret Fl. chagrin. p. chaire. without chap/are makiinde. Fr. Fr. fume. chatter. Kuttn. swelling with anger. Du. and signifies to consume with anger. Halma. Pat. shaIt. Chagrin. kauchen. in a monstrous fume. kdfelen. kuhata. chayire. The jaw chafty. to buzz. In vulgar language. snuff. chawe. to But to chafe has often a precise sense than this. Lat. to Latin calumniare. snort. muzzle. baras of ants. — . kuhuja. khah. Hal. chaffare. ceafer. as a type of the gnawing of care or grief. bargain. kuhina. rustle Challenge.nium. a prattling woaction. sagrindse. a goba rustling . to calumpnjamen. make title unto also to accuse kuhu-ohrat {ohrat. quisquilise offence. ceaf. — — — — — — . signal by drum or P. to fight is to call on him to decide the chaff. . gewolb. kaff. call in question for an ley). Due. to a seat. ckapfare. Gr. Wall. difficulty . limare. or puff with snorting. a pulpit Cot. as a carriage is a moveable seat. cup. De Ir4.— — . from Swiss kafeln. Prov. dungeon j from sommade by different kinds of animals utter. In this application it is the correlative Chaise. cadieira. to action arose. as. place See Cheek. great chafe. Can hom ven al plaiz et OE. clamare. cadena gives chain. KoBiSpa. care. yap. chaulx. to call. preise. kahu. green sagrin. Fin. trumpet given by an enemy when they Chaft. P. to fret inwardtronfo. to bark. calix. calumniari in the sense of bringing an * To Chaffer. refuse barley . chafeter. kaff. tattle. ON. Came. — — — . From Port. camera. breathe KaOa^oiiat.' ' Sagrament properly the subject of a chap or bargain. 35. chambre. kiamta. jaw. Pr. now a chair. cadera. cauvette. songe. Lat. cathedra. kahista. Probably from According to Diez. fa sagramen de calompnia. There were chapmen ychose the chaffare to Chamade. to institute anforensic action. hght Chalk. chalanger. Pers. Perhaps Pm. and moving of his blode waxeth so troubled that peau de chagrin. far lima-lima. (ca'e'ra) to chair. cam. Cheffern. chaps Chamber. The conversion of the r into s gives ChafE AS. leviter crepo Then. kahuja. Chair. — — ' — — — A . Fr. Lat. B. to claim. a jackdaw. catena. the suit it is probably from thence that impertinence. as a rasp for polishing wood was taken Parson's tale. kiqfta. a vault or arched roof. sagri. to an action of the justice of his ground of Fr.' Rayn. Lat. to caw chawer. calonjar. So from dominio. to babble.sure carriage. Fr. a representation of the inarticulate sounds domnio. grief. the sense of gramen sub pedibus euntis vel arundo a carriage. to chatter or talk lightly. with a:n arched roof. calonja. Cot. calice. rally one. kdfer. often puffing. matter by combat.. G. movendo parum strideo ut the word has acquired in E. to puff and blow. which from being used it is out of all manere judgement of reson. . lime . Cock-chafer j of the same nature reduces cathedra G. havOFr. grief. haggle. G. kiaftr. kuhista. rustling motion challenge. . keffen. in a cana. to pant. contestation. thick and short. that leneth e per I'autra. CHAFER CHAMBER 139 For certes the herte of manne by cschaujiTi^ or rough substance called shagreen. Fr. Prov. Du. hordeum vel let. From to go to law. Prov. chamar. ing rapidly repeated cries. Fr. Bouffard. Lat. Piedm. much more Genoese sagrind. to file. a double operation * Chafer. OFr. Fr. Hence to challenge one vel paleae quae motas leviter susurrant. Adelung. .

champ. a field of battle. rare. chanfrar. chanfrein. Chancel. ON. champ. Lat. a bundle. chance. kimppu (Lap. kabMe. . . Fr. combat. The happening of things Chance. or less ignorant. Magy.be observed that accident is the same word direct from the Lat. dial. kablys. Lat. E. cazer. ' — of striking the ground with the foot is sometimes represented in the same naanner. champ parti. difficulty . camerlengo. slope of a bevelled angle. . hng. kampen. to talk. to move the jaws kiamt. The E. — ^Tusser. Chancellor. calida et sans aguet. pinch. chance. Commonly derived from campus. to slope. The G. as swine. to smack the lips in eating. M. to chew. kabe. chdance. G. kinipen. who stood ad cancellos. to tread The sound heavily. zs jeopardy. kippo. contention kappi. camp. Gall. CHANCEL It. To them naturally fell the office of keep- . Sup. The word is preserved in E. campus partitus . kabintis. boys speak of capping verses. kampeln. nels. kimpUma. to wrestle. luctare. And no doubt the word might have early been introduced from Latin into the Teutonic and Scandinavian languages. — Ch-amberlain. contend or argue G. —Chamfrain. it was replaced by chance in accordance with the meaning It must be observed however that the Scandinavian kapp appears a more ancient form than the nasalised camp. element chaud lost its meaning to ordinary English ears. giving rise to the as. — KiL . surpassing. a warrior. kampeln. therewithal. dispute Hal.Lat. champ. to excel. attaccarsi I'un con Torriano se harper Fun a I'autre. Sp. kanip. The cancellaj-ii seem to have been the of the — — . Carpentier. keiiipe. broil. to stick to. kiammi. governed by laws of which we are more OFr. Hence (with the nasal) w. game campio. kibti. chanfreindre. is explained by serrarsi. zampettare. kapp. To Chamfer. to cample. an accidental conflict in hot ' MeUde qui etait meue chaleublood. champion Du. to fasten oneself on to another . Fr. to flute as a column. wood. from Fr. to wrestle. to strive at games . head armour. tsamtsogni. Ptg. kempen. When the to quarrel. a hook . camp. Pm.' melleia. Meleare. kriimmen gebogen. dial. . to . — Hal. compound. kimpustella. campus. to quarrel (comp. act of falling.' ' Pr. calidameya. ciambellano. chain. E. Lat. or player at football. prize-fighter. Properly to chew so as to make the snapping of the jaws be heard. a feat. origin may perhaps be found in the notion of fastening on one in the act of wrest- — . djamdjam-goda (to make djam-djam). Sp. contending in the citation of verses to cap one at leaping is to beat one at a contest in leaping. jocus partitus. cempa. which seems another form of the root. certare. reusement — fight in single combat. ON. dial. a court of justice. chamble. cample). to fall). from chaud. — masterly Sp. cancelli. ciamberlano. sukibti. jeu parti. hamper. cahir. Champ. schmatzen s. and thence the laying hold of each other by wrestlers Esthon.' SherI'altro ' ' . Chancery. an athlete. Champarty. Chamfron. move the jaws. as in It. It will. camp. Fr. to bevel. Partnership.edley. kabinti. cameratus. athlete. to to chew champ. excellent. See Camp. dial. i. Fr. from cheoir. Champaign. gekrUmmt. To cope or contend with. received the petitions of the suitors. Chance-n3. dricka i kapp. to Hal. Lat. chajnbellan . and mesUe. So in e. Du. The part of the church in which the altar is placed is called chancel. chamfrain. to fall. campar. to groove bevel off a right angle. tsammogni. kempa. a horse-race. a game at football. Champion. and acted as inofficers of . termediaries between them and the judge. to paw the ground E. to hollow out. top of a borehole. . divided game. to drink for a wager kapp-ridande. campear. chanfrein. to fasten oneself to another . kimbu. to happen {ad and cadere. escazenza. fighting place. to slope out the . accident. to debate. dial. bickering. a scufSe. ON. to make a noise with the teeth in chewing. Prov. to — — champ. accidere. .140 CHAMBERLAIN . fight. to be eminent. champ. bundle. the chafldn. kampa. to fasten on. fray. hot. differs only in the transposition of the letter m.—Tutschek.—Charfron E. to hold . hero Sw. to hang. Prov. Campar. caer. s. at the railings. kappd). mesleiare. . pedilusor. Fr. Fr. gewolbt. the front piece of a horse's To Chamm. from being railed off or separated from the rest of the church by lattice-work. Fin. kiinp. . To hollow out in chanPtg. e. contest. a hollow chanfreiner. a jaw kianisa. Dief. cadere. chaude mesUe. Get campers a ball To camf . ing. Lith. fight.

The fundamental meaning is something clapt on. A fellow. as chancery . to paw like a horse . chandelier. a chapel endowed for a priest to sing mass for the soul of the founders. cantare. the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump Sp. CHAPEL 141 From chancellor^zxt Fr. Russ. skipta. to — cut. as corn-chandChandry. a small plate of flat metal. clapet. from chandler. A plate of metal at the point of a scabbard. Sc. In Lincoln cheek is used in the same way for person or fellow. surfaces striking together. Hence It. . camjar. to plate. prune. to spht a chip. Chape. jaw. kiceft. chiappa. not a soul. jaw. I. —Ordericus Vitalis. or the cracking of one. kiceft as well as kjakje. to peck. changer. to strike. and also to chap or crack. the distinctive feature of the chancellors of modern time. schimbu. and o are used for the flatter sound made by the collision of — — . wood. which was preserved in the Palace of the kings of the Franks. — : Lat. Chandler. chap. the thinner vowel i being used to represent the high note of a crack. and the modern canal. In like manner Walach. To Change. the chaps . kjaakaa. Chap. . cangiare. ubi reliqua sacramenta percurrant. as to chap hands. Compare chark. Rex sanctas sibi de capella sua reMquias defeni it Hence is prascepit. cobio. kvar kjceften. Chap. Again as a hard body in breaking gives a sharp sound from chancellor. chancellerie. to creak. Chip. See Chant. lips of an animal. chaps. as those on a trunk. Commonly derived from capella. — — —Marculfus in Due. ^Jam. Fr. or the like chapar. cambiare. 140. E. a chap is a crack or fissure. klepan. exchange schimbatoriu. to hack. Bret. as It. to peck. shift.^. the mouth. chapelete de una bomba. It is also used in the sense of the E. cheek. See Chop. but extended to bodies which give no sound in breaking. That wide were sentin their spicery. gab. the loose flesh of the cheeks. properly in a hard body. to truck. Fr. The word appears in Enghsh under a triple form channel. kapoti. chapeta. Fr. the place where candles ler. every man Jack inkfe ein kjceft. and anything that may be taken hold of Fl. any hollow for conveying water. waterconduit. Du. chancery. to plate. cambiar. leather. chop. . —Chantry. to cut. exchange. to strike with a sharp edge. the cape or little cloke of St Martin. to deal. debeant conjurare. are kept. Walach. as if the essential meaning of the word had been simply dealer. Channel. the representation of the sound made by two same manner. Sp. 2. to cut up into small pieces. the clappers of the scupper holes. from canna. hack . Cambiare seems the nasalised form of E. chop. to put on fresh clothes. Hal. cambium. Chop. a jaw. extended to other trades. and the term is also applied to the small piece separated from the block. . — . a money-changer. esclapo. is vulgarly used in the sense of individual. exchange. Probably from chap. a dealer in candles then. also a clap. to change. a small metal plate Port. Chap. like the knocking of hard things together. schimbd. a patch of lead clapt unto n ship that is shot a piece of lead to cover the touch-hole of a gun. supposed the name of capella was given to the apartment of the Palace in which the rehcs of the saints were kept. The use of crack in the sense of fissure is to be explained in the . to sing. Chapel. The thinner vowel in chip expresses the sharper sound made by the separation of a vei-y small fragment of a hard body. and thence extended to similar repositories where priests were commonly appointed to celebrate divine services. — Chaucei''s champmen for chapmen. to cut off . kappen. Their chaifare was so thrifty and so new. ON. chapeletas de imbornales. to swap. In Surrey whilome dwelt a company Of champmen rich and therto sad and true. Cheek. ceaflas. W. Man of Law's Tale. chapear. Prov. esclapa. ceaplas. a pipe. And N. Lith. These are forms having a common origin in the attempt to represent the sound made by the knocking of two hard bodies. throat of an animal. Sp. Fr. Da. to coat. chap. chanter. a strip of metal plate. as skin chapped hands. flat . Molbech. canalis. chapa. may be compared with ON. from clap. kennel. is used in the same sense .— CHANDLER ing the seal of the court. Lang. hard bodies. . chapilla. to chap at a door. Tunc in Palatio nostro super Capellam domini Martini. kaupa. Hence the white tip of a fox's tail. Hence chantry. Chaps or chops. and used as the most binding relic on which an oath could be taken. Hal. to break . the gutter that runs along a street. AS. Aasen. Lat. muzzle. kemma. to apply one flat thing to another. while the broader vowels a. Da. a reed. to strike.

cedeleac. And other wijes that were wont wode for to fecche i. Du. cam. dim. a The OFr. Lith. Chaplet. go. chirriar. a kind of riddle by way of social amusement. used in the sense of magic Fl. carus. wreath for the head. Sup. to cu'y as a Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly child. Cot. tegere. char. eapitulo. schreien. Justin. to prattle. colliers that charred coal. cha. es ist mi cheer. carricare. to converse. Mid. siarad (pronounced — sharad).whirr. beloved. a riddle. talking. the nature of a thing. charge an enemy is to lay on. Boh. capitolo.' Boccaccio in Diez. and at line 2520 it runs Charm. as being wood An imitative word representing the in- — . Fr. caricare. Hence applied to a circular string of praying beads. 370. condo il volgar francese. forming the capella or chapel of the saint to whom the altar was dedicated. from Charade. as Pol. — way articulate chattering or chirping of birds. czirbti. kurkelis. which was incantation. a merchant. a mark of a mountebank. twitter. a From — ' Venefici qui magicis sucarminibus homines occidunt. prattling quacksalver. Chare. charger. to croak as a frog . to love. enough. car.czirksti. Sp. It. a cricket karkti (schnarren. chare is a turn of work A chare-woman. But we have no occasion so hypothetical a derivation. from capa. Lat. return. Sp. babbling. dear. ject). gadka. Character. —— . called in Sp. kurkti. czurksti. cher um cher. canne. The crash. charer. charlar. to chirp. cluck kirklys. ciarlatore. carregar.Lat. a riddle. krachzen). The G. Lay on. (eucharistie. dear(in both senses). keeren. also It is extraordinary that so plausible an explanation should have failed to produce conviction. An enchantment. chatter. tattler. &c. The canopy or covering of an altar where mass was celebrated was called capella. Lang. And it can hardly be doubted Dief. From Norm. as a beetle. to charcoal. a dispute . from cape or cope. to tattle. gaggle . capella. To Char. from gadai. Fr. a turn cerran. Chapter. one who is engaged for an A signifying a hat or covering for the head. occasional turn. chat. for the same reason rosario. Charlock. chirk. to creak. twist. a verse. seems to be derived charade. caritas. It. to talk . chirlar. charade. xapaicTijp (xapaffosi. to turn Gael. hiss Lith.. Prov. decken. from capitulum. in To ness Charity. as. Gr. babdistinction. to prattle. . OE. that the name of the canopy was extended to the recess in a church in which an altar was placed. — — — turned to coal. capital. . AS. Deutsch. Lat. clack. to load . to of the governing body. the turtle pitre. Macduff. cearcian. properly to place — . w. turn. Fr. wherein it is in about three hours or less without pots or vessels brought Boyle in R. Chirk. Lat. Fr. ' Als sich Lucifer in eine schlange kehrt :' as Lucifer turns himself into a snake. Chapman. To char His profession did put him upon finding a of charring sea coal. a hood. Swiss. Chark. charlatan. creak. ghirlanda seor garland. * Charcoal. be- e. In that work the verb is written caire. 142 CHAPLET to resort to CHARM Choliers that cayreden col come there biside. in turns. capellare. It. hadka. Mundart. to dove . pohadka. Ptg. w. a charm. wood to coal. carmen. but the following quotation from William and the Werewolf will probably be found conclusive. jabber. charcoal burners. burning without consuming the substance.charme. came to be used in the sense of a wreath ' Cappello. — the cole-turn'd is now only used in the special application of turning to coal. And damned be he who first cries Hold. Bret. from carrus. that turned decken . surris seu Lat. of chapel. chapelet. kirkti. and in It. . rightly explained by Tooke from AS. bler. carmo. Then Nestor broiled them on wood Chapman . ceap-man. See Charlatan. to turn. charitas. chara. — a car. Charcoal was ciarlare. cluck. It. grave or make incised marks on an ob. a rhyme. chapitre. AS. eyre. a garland of roses. 2. Fr. karout. Charlatan. cerran. Sp. Charade. cabildo. to . A weed among com AS.). to sing or chirp as birds. corona. called kedlock. turn about. gnash. a head or division of a book. chatter. Yx. chapel. czurliwoti. and occurs frequently in the sense of turn one's steps. gehymels similar manner in the sense of changing the canopy over the sacred elements eine kleine Kirche. — spell. creak. affection. equivalent kehren is used in a ein himeltz. . to chirp as sparrows. Hence carminare. Charge. a mark made on a thing. it is my turn. to chirp. See Cheap. Inst. .

or suckers on rough borders. charmer. or on the other hand it may be applied simply to designate the fragIn the ments of the broken object. Kil. — The rois knoppis tetand forth thare hede Gan chyp and kythe their vernal lippis red. Chart. from pure. to clap.). clean. chasse (another form of caissej see Case). Fr. ch&tier. karigh. as from nomen It. Chamel. —Chastise. nome and . a churchyard or charnel-house. is to represent the chamier. a plate of metal. shivers. ch). clatter. Malay. incassare. snap. to cut and faggoted. B. geug. fragments. pure.. Fr. used to represent a sharp note. clear. To chitter or chipper. jackdaw . to make a noise. gazzogliare. Cot. schioppare. clap. to crack. gaddc. carnisj bones kept. chip. the noise of birds. fragments or leavings of food. splinters. germinate . knacken. flesh. cyrm. I cherme as byrdes do when they make a noise Fr. gazeuiller. See Card. chisf. eclats. Fl. also to germinate or spring forth. a chatter-box. D. csacsogany. whence the notion of cleanliness as the consequence of washing. clack. Lat castigare. or a bird out of the egg. See Catch. Pol. charm. caro. chit.a. kna. ferire. It t. the young shoots . Chaste.— Chatter. csaterdzni. chits. %aafi. or pop. xi'i-'^vui. chip. a young man . clean. the first sprouts of anyoffal thing. Cot. nommer. To Chase. Parallel with E. a branch and a young female. In like manner Russ. Russ. tenax. to which it bears the same relation as chape. cassa s. prattle. —Charter.). to burst open. to talk. . An imitative word. — The . a word. to chatter or prattle . whence a charm of goldfinches. make a noise as birds do. castus. to enchase it . Chary. limpid. Hal. to chirp. Lat. chick. talk. as turnip-chaits. speak . enchasser. From carinen was formed It. are used with great indifference at the end of syllables imitative of natural sounds. to chat or chatter as a piot or a jay. latter sense chat may be compared with the Fr. — Hal. Diez. It. kata. la chasse d'une rose. To talk. letters p. prate. It. a place where dead bodies are laid or their Lat. cs E. — = Chats. CHARNEL-HOUSE enchant incarminatrix. and the peeping or shooting forth of the imprisoned life within . or the cry of a bird or the like. a crack or a flaw . The egg is chipped. gazzolare. an enchantress. —Bailey. the bird is iiown. from the sound of a body bursting or cracking. the cry of the bat. chatter. kata-kata. then the cracking of the hard case or shell in which something is contained. — We ornamental work the to signify E. gazzettare. to cry as a chicken . a yawning. Fr. csacsogni.ppen. a shrine for a relic. kastaa. pure. chat. Chat. OE. parcus.— Chit. Magy. to set a jewel. pure. accordingly find the syllables chat or chit. — — . chasing has come embossed jeweller's work 2. shout OE. clean. to gape. — Palsgrave. To chip is then to crack. chary. from purus. csatora (Magy. It. be wide open. magpie. G. as purgare Fr. noise. crackle. Pm. — Yorkshire chat. To chit. Fr. —Jam. — sharp sound of a crack. gadu-gadu. — Fr. castus. Chat-wood. to separate in morsels. Gr. talk much . V. Du. See Cistern. gallan or ogan. to baptize. from xoAn. in Jam. So in Gael. also that thing or part of a thing wherein another is enchased la chasse d'un rasoir. Chit in the sense of a child is metaphorically taken from the figure of a shoot. carmen is presented in AS. and as the setting was commonly of — or emboss must be observed that the k. to crack. karg. To Chase. chykkyn (Pr. a branch. converse. warble. root of the Lat. careful. s. also to hatch. as we speak of olive branches. g. CHATS fit 143 to name. i. czysty. chaste. to cheep or peep as a young bird then chick (Hal. chaste. also a youth. Pol. as in the E. kippen. to care). The origin seems preserved in the Fin. gazzerare. as that made by the crack of a hard substance. discourse. a gap. a flock of those birds. carme and Fr. chair. knatiern. a hum or low murmuring ijoise. whistle. chit in the latter sense Du. the handle of a razor . scraps of for fuel. Chasm.house. chick. To work plate as silversmiths do. Kil. to chirp. noise. It. warble. to break open and burst forth as a blossom out of the bud. niggardly. chip. Fl. the calix of a rose. chikat'. or a sprig of nobility for a young aristocrat. tittle-tattle. to chirp as a bird to cheep. racket . occasionally Forby. sordidus. as. to wet. The primary import of the syllable a great number together. And thus probably has arisen the sense of germination belonging to chat or chit. chit-chat. blackthorn-chats. or equivalent forms. . cearig (from cearian. To Chasten. a twig Suffolk chaits. little sticks cudere.

. with Dief. Fin. caupo. a dealer. a willing look and unwilling heart. exAS. thers. kakaista. chire. to cluck like a hen. favour. 144 the It.' kezen. to buy. chop. cara. Soc. countenance. us. a cheater ^as equivalent to canter. hold down the head belle chire et cceur arriere. teeth . goods. — We ' .of the throat in coughing. to negotiate. It. Cheat in the old canting language of beggars and rogues was a thing of any kind. Du. s. to — . to deal ON. in the sense of ascertaining its correctness. See Cheek. entertainment. to coff—Yisi.-^. to cough and hence either buying or selling.. to laugh. . to chop and change. from the frequency probably with which the word occurred. Rustici curtillum debet esse clausum ssstate simul et hieme. choule. a piece of moveable property. kaupon. ceaflas. which is used in the to stutter. Hal. . jaws. kik.ing. OFr. visage. cattle. cheeks. chavylbone or chawlbone. Cot. frown. kak. catalliim. Pr. price. kaufen. a metaphor taken from the game of chess. aspect of a man. Ek dry and hard. lower. a frequent change of the initial k into ch. The modern sense of low in King's Court of Exchequer. is an expression derived from the practice of the Cheap. ceafl. which is the word in ceap. Sc. buy tural sounds made by impeded exertions Du. Faire bonne chire. entertain kindly. lead to OE. Semper renovabantur cartee et usura quae excrevit vertebatur in catallum' Cronica Jocelini. et juxta catalla sua. sale. society. sense of bargaining. e. kaupiti. G. while it Bret. syllables ^ag-. a dealer in horses. Lat. sum in a loan. KaviiXog. and this may perhaps be the reason why was apphed Chawl. the Lat. farm for farm.— Chaps. sob E. keck. where the action of a player is brought to a sudden stop by receiving check to his king. to make inarticulate sounds in . cachinnari. bon marche. kaupa. is should be observed that there the same double meaning in as. the face. kichen. goods. It — Brompton in Due. Thus grunting-chete was a pig crashing-chetes. — — —Chowl. &c. a repulse. canting or crossbiting trick truffatore. to swap goods . CHEEK zitella. cozener. gagkezen. make good chear unto faire mauvaise chere. snout. cattle. truffa. the tongue. NE. from Lat. gig. Ingulphus. chaptel.— . Chattels. any cheating.. in Fr. upon a checked cloth. laughing. Thus we are brought to the notion of changing expressed by the cough.— Chole. to buy. Slav. are represented piti. a cheater.' to exchange to gasp. Cum decimis ac bonorum aliorum sive catallorum. Ihre shows satisfactorily that the momay cite Fin. It. to nauseate (to retch). changing. cattle. Check. equivalent capiale to beasts of the farm with never acquired that meaning as. the Confessor. chiere. kakkaset. Fr. to coup s. cita. . whence captale. a canting knave. The strap of the bridle under the jaw is called the choulband. a young boy or girl. Fr.. kikottaa. horse-couper. Si disclausum sit et introeat alicujus vicini sui captale per Juxta facultates suas — Laws of Edward omnium terrarum — suum apertum. to stutter gigken.— Cattle. a rogue or person who used the canting language. See Chess. to act as a rogue.—Choke. citello. Bohem. chapman. the principal ' colloquial E. cera. mandibula. Gr. in widely separated languages by the Lat. retching. Hence to cheat. kek. stuttering. to . Modern Slang. to clear the throat . The gutGoth. tradesman. kauf. Pm. chatel. koopen. force of the word. Cheat. Then as a kind reception is naturally joined with liberal entertainment. in the same way as we speak at the present day of a man of large capital for a man of large possessions. dern sense of buying is not the original 1jd. yazV^ bonne or mauvaise chire acquired the signification of good living or the reverse. a tavern-keeper. to fetch the breath with difficulty. and hence the E. gagkern. as dis- tinguished from the interest due upon it. Chew. — To check an account. jaw. agreeing upon. . and was specially applied to cattle as the principal wealth of the country in an early stage of — See Chop. chear in the sense of victuals. 'li^'opa jord i jord. chuckle. to vomit. catallum came to be used in the sense of goods in general. with the exception of land. kok. Cheek. Chear. ceahhetan.kakot. look. Cam. the countenance Fr. gigvilldi ^aupa skipinu via yckur brasdur. dchec. Then. Bav. Fl. to make inarticulate sounds in 1 will exchange ships with you two broretching. giggling. equiva. prattlingchete. capitale.counts were taken by means of covmters lent to Fr. and. Sp. where acprice is an ellipse for good cheap. welcome heartily. stuttering. ceap. from AS. hawkmann. Pro v. chatal. OFr. giving or taking in exchange. ku. CHATTELS has ciio. the laws of Ina translated captale in the foregoing passage .

to prevent the attack of cavalry. the palate Chequer. suffo. kirsche. Chekenyd or querkenyd. to accomThis they call hdrsk. as meat and butter. kapen. Analo. chests in OE. veluti piscium. ceaflas. to boken. to kasa.koppen.peep in the same sense. Sc. caws. Fris. by laying up in a covered heap. chiffe. As the board to gasp i. . kasiiUPr. chevron. a rafter . /Ji2^/(W. food. Vriesse ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was to cheep like a chicken or squeak like a given in Dutch to long beams stuck mouse. cheek. for cheese itself. used Again the root representing the sounds especially of seals' flesh. gullet. It would Cheese. skratt. cerise j G. ceg. .their struggle for independence.cirieggia. . gill of fish AS. chAtaigne. cisty G.D. chaps. old bread. The word peasants to supply the want of cavalry in may perhaps be explained from a Fin. to choke. chasi. jaw. kok. kastr. cheken. dersen . w. Fr. whence kasa-leipa. The representation of two cated to their Scandinavian neighbours. kjceve. acquiring a flavour of old cheese. Achievement. gap.pose of acidifying them kasadr. cese. to hold dear. G. chops. Fr. which is not made by impeded guttural action passes otherwise considered eatable. a heap. takes place in the formation of cheese. G. kos subliquithe throat from suppressed laughter or this manner. to kep. treat with affection. &c. clear the throat. proa heap till it becomes rancid or half de. to swallow. E. Chevisance. throat. chesten. F*-. condition of being taken. X'C&s.' to w. as. E. ition from a guttural to a labial termin. throat. Sc. It. seem to have been a device of the Frisian hase. Hence chesten-nut. kdkel. jouffle. The name of creak as shoes. Cher. the mouth or so marked are called chequered. kaecke. czypti. the throat bably at one time the game was called AS. Lith. cyse. to love. ichec. kopen.EP CHEVRON 145 on. rafters in heraldry. jaw . Sp. ost. Du. AS. AS. things Da. cufd.D. shows that the Icelanders recognise the ON. prevail with. Chemistry. cerasus. to heap up such things for the purchoke. from the cry of check 1 (Pers. Sw. castaneusj Fr. The Lapps prepare much of their compass. CHE. though it is remarkable that they use a The frequentative keckle. Pm. frame by which the exertion is made. cista. rattle in the throat. king). chevir.G. subjected to this process with that which the throat . the mouth. Fin. to geahl. quoka. dear. cherir. Tutschek. In these latter forms we see the transIt. squeak as a mouse. by laying it in come to an agreement with. scacco. cheek. — — . which in the throat by reason of difficulty of seems also derived from a Finnish source. kdke. kces. bread kept for a gain or profit in trade. kikna of dorum coacervatio. breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl. See Chess. Pl. rupted into chess. cough. Lith. gapen. cheeks. Sp. to year. From them the plish. then end. Fr. See Case. jowl. incaseatus. Prothroat of an animal . accomplishment cayed. ceac.). Sw. the The use of the word kcesir. veteris casei sapore Ancatus. equal squares of opposite colours. when the breath is stopped being in this game is divided into a number of ready to vomit B. round with spikes and placed in the road cheiper. to gasp. An imitative word. schach. Fr. Lat. — — . the loose the game of checks. Lat. achever. mollium congeries. . Haldoron to signify the parts of the bodily sen. . who treat their fish and coarser flesh in cabrion. hasten. gabe. quok. cabrio. Lat. the neck. — — . Da. Lat. jaws Sw. rennet. jaw. — 10 . OHG. which in the case of cough has Chesnut. kjcebe. the final guttural is retained in writing. when the king is put in the Schmeller E. caru. w. whence czypulas. a chicken. gaghel. e. To make a shrill noise Chest. xaque. Cherish. cams. made rancid koka. caseus. Fr. kastanie. Cherry. Jam. Du. To Cheep. carnium. geagl. Thus "we are brought din. kesten. The imitative origin is witnessed by Galla chestnut. It is sometimes written the jaw Wall. like a young chicken. gous forms are G. kasa. subsequently corflesh about the jaws .perly head. chastaken place in pronunciation although tagne. to gape gab. kistej Lat.. to belch. the hke. acquisition. Chef. schach. ca' — . w. the throat. subacidus. cheek. (Kil. ation. cabiron. N. ceaplas. Prov. kikna. a cricket. to bring to an end. cireggia. kjakje. nish source. Chevaux de frise. ceocian. Chess. practice seems to have been communiChevron. chops. make an end. giffle. The Sw. E. E. identity of the process going on in viands chouks. Hence kikna is identical with OE. mouth kek. jaws.Xo belch. See Alchemy. cegio. AS.. Kil. ON. geafl. to choke with laughter. to make a noise different word.

Fin. CHJME the radical form is unusual. from the notion of speaking loud and shrill. the young of animals in general. wedges of wood Walto support the breech of a cannon W.— . knarren. machouere. — Du. — It. the jole. Gattel. horn wood. Chaw. chin. to scold. branchy. tiukkata. also the horizon. pipio. czypulas. to use the jaws. the chirping of a sparrow Magy. Palsgr. CHEW . Imitative of a loud clear sound. then as G. a quid of tobacco. or as E. the rim or edge of a vase. are taken from the representation of the sounds made by guttural exertions. chiler. knit the brow cib-led. and not vice versd. kime. chimb. s. as. kauen. mountain top . captiously taking every possible advantage without regard to substantial justice . Fl. from little to little. cabarach. rafter . kind. tiukka. Russ. And hence. strideo. to Du. Payer chiguet A chiguet. pipe. chic. chieftain. De finger killet mi for kalte. cabar. a hen. the projecting ends of the staves above the head of a cask. the throat. acute. W. G. Now the notion of shivering or trembling is most naturally expressed by a vibrating. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. chillness or shivering. AS. to titter is Du. kauchen. ultimate origin of the Mite. chavel. to chime. capu. chicoter. kouwe. into a continuous shriU sound. tintelen van koude. : — a lump. by driblets. kilderkin. from the first of which is Lith. to smart.D. kimista^ . crepo.— Gattel. chicken. — — Mother Hubbard. Pr. a jaw. It is shown under Cheek that the names of the gullet. a small cask OFr. kidata. captain. but it is explained by Bailey to quake or shiver with cold. gills of a fish. to go. jaw. chol. alter. capo. killen. De chic en chic. kindeken. a young bird. to cheep or peep as a young bird chij (Fr.D. in Walach. tremble with cold. kippa. pip. Chill.peep. It is remarkable that the anomalous plural children agrees with the Du. horns of the house. Bret. rafter. kop. beam. chiquei. . Du. See Chimmer. are formed Du. and from the third E. chef. The usual sense of twitter is to warble like a bird. to contest. Fl. kaau•wen. mouth. Du. Fin. . caprioru. caput. Chikkyn as hennys byrdys. tyuk. the head.. cidan. gosling. E.. pululo. Walach. kinderen. chawbone. ]). capete. deer's horn. a chicken. tremble. chavel. or the broken noise of birds.^ to resound as a bell. Brezza. Magy.' my finger tingles with cold. tiukkua. knirschen. E. cap. similar interchange of n and / is seen in E.. cebr. The curtailed form agrees in a singular way with G. Sp. chillrar. to chirp or twitter as birds Hal. has probably the same origin. chikat'. when the vibrations become very rapid. choule. greloter is to shiver for cold. Child. 146 brial. while didder is to shiver or citteren. pole. to chew. kopf Du. or qf people talking rapidly. chew or chaw. term is ssaru fu. kieken. Chief. For the see word Doit. kuwe. Now gan some courage unto him to take. antler.). to gasp for breath (Hal. ' .— Cot. Pm. a little bit. doubtless originally a chicken Lap. Tintillo. cib. rafter . stake. w. to chirp or peep like a chicken. head. or chick. The shrill cry of the young bird is represented by the syllable cheip. keichen. Pl. tiuk. to twitter. a chicken. to the brim. Pr.^ Hal. G. Chitter. Lat. — . — Fin. the least imaginable jot. A To Chew. Chilly weather is what causes one to — * Chicane. a head. lead through the synonymous E. klagend tonen. Chick. jaw. twitter. to raise the rim. Pm. as pointing out the origin of the E. to pettifog. Halm. cheek. chillar. the Ptg. — shiver to feel chilly is to feel shivery. pi. sonorous. a cup. The meaning is properly to shiver or cause to shiver. chicaner. hiss as meat on the gridiron. a cup cibaw. k'imm s. Chigue. cild. quivering sound which passes. jaws . kitista. pipio. Chime. killen. Prov. It. Swiss kiden. zitterti. Gael. kimia. To Chide. kimme. a finch. chaps. to crackle. From the tingling sound of a little bell (Fr. To a modification of the same word applied to the broken sounds of repressed laughter. the same principle I regard On birds. queror. chill. aner. a chicken. To chatter represents the rapid shaking of the teeth with cold. to contest about trifles. grelot). Fr. Fr. Fin. from the second Lat. cica cica. Chimb. a cup. kaw. cabar beinne. ach. while the Magy. 'Among these the G. Da. . It is remarkable that the rafters are also called corni la casa. caferu. E. kibr. Fr. Probably from Fr. It reappears however in the derivatives capitano. of expanded rim hyd-y-gib. cabriones. The ape that earst did nought but chill and a beam. kauwe. The loss of the syllable it in Du. the cry of young . creak. then cold. signifying properly shivering. To chitter. Kil..-ill. The Pl.

Chit.schricken. chin . a szemrcU. which differ from each other only as Chirk. to squeak in It. Diez de. sparkle. Sp. as the chink of money. Chymerynge. to creak. Fr. i.to chirp. Chat. dial. to sound deep or the Gr. Valentian charrarj Norman charer. genawi. clipping of coin. name Then. part lion. Sw. a thorn. See Bright. hiss chirlar. Du. We have the radical in the first instance a sharp sound. kumina. keich husten. the whooping cough. Cot. to sizel. up and down. in Hal.to divide or Du. vincially used in the sense of a crack. esquina. The change from the sound ter \s. Gascoigne in Todd. — . E. In the same sense. from Lat. Du. chink. Primarily a shrill sound. See Chark. Chisel. sound on beginning to boil. G. tinnire. tsengeni. a needle skina applied to a bone signified the shin. Bav. chirp. fyr. ' to chirm J chirming tongues of birds. — . caperd. the chine. Pr. ykvvQ. komia. to murmur. Ptg. gena. tsongeni. cincel. and chim-mer. Sp. so also we find chink applied to the fissure arising from the fracture of a hard body. and it is most unlikely that it would also frill to a shirt. verynge or dyderinge. have been used to designate the spine. Fr. a chine (of But chitre as a bird jargowne. ComTo Chirpr A parallel form with chirk. are In like manner E. companied. — — — — — . hollow. twitter caminus. also a chisel or graving sharp chinking sound by which it is ac. lose one's breath with laughter and make chischas. as birds the mouth. a thorn. . schetteringe. from the geon's lancet. stridere. — .Lat. schrick. the mouth (jaws) . the chin . It. cheminde. in the same crack. cheek. We make of a French niff an English chitterling. in- — by the syllable clink or chink. Chine. gives rise in like manner to the tion of the mode in which the ideas of substantive klincke. to chirp. sound. klincken. To Chimmer. then to any narrow crack or AS. sonus the backbone Lat.Huloet in Hal. simmer. chits. the jaw. a surkik hosta. A . It. yivtiov. killed by Bellerophon. — • CHIMERA acutd tinnio . — .. rustle. the cheek (jaw) . Gloss. The desig. to prattle czirpti. G. all these imitative terms being minata. and light. See Chats.' Phaer's Virg. . schiena. but or cry as a parrot. eschine. Sp. representing connected together. 147 kimina.iron. x'V<"<"'j ^ goat. eschiner. from 10 * ' Chia. to chirre. tremulous motion. Fr. to simmer. a chink or fissure.czirbti. tschirpen. the cheek. .sharp. kink hoest. to creak. caminata. way that the word ' The same sound differently is represented in E. Caminatum. and bodily movement in shimm. quavering of the voice. to clink or sound This word affords a good illustra. CHITTERLING sonus acutus. Chitter. to open chirriar. The small entrails of a hog.er. skina. pare also Walach. Chink-cough. epine. is applied to the separation of the broken parts. cisello. flaw Hal. applied to tremulous motion. j^lf. backBut she withal no worde may soune. It. to gape. komista. kieck hoest. AS. To chink with laughter. cleft. the spine or backbone from its pointed From signifying a twittering sound chitprocesses. and from a similar sound to boil gently. chhint. Lith. hus. caminsects. as a bell kommata. a hall Mid. to chink with laugh2. Fr. then of a fabulous monster part goat. fissure. chatter .. as a large bell . resonance . to prattle . a chap. kinne. eschin^e (de pore). Magy. to tremble. plodere. Chytof J^ to sk is singular. as the/ is preserved tering. zirpen. ter. Chip. quivering or shakyng for colde. et garrire . spina. hiss Pm. schina. disCot. also vibrans. clangor tinniens kummata. . a Kuttn. or chyFrigutus. Kil. zirken. bx-eak the back of schena. spina. sounding deep. Chintz. bone . Chin-coug^h. an liable to great variation in the final conapartment with a tire-place. Sp. do. crepare. to crack as glass or earthennation passes on to phenomena of sight ware . to chirp . originally representing the sound made by the fracture of a hard body. To Chitter. It. . to tattle. schetteren. to make a tremulous represented by the syllable schrick. gen. to hop or skip nimbly rives from OHG. and the Du. E. is proapplication to a tremulous sound in Pol. Bret. czirszkti. KinneGr. twinkling light. pork) . Chink. It. shiver and the chyver of Pr. Lat. the jaw. cinne. Prov.). Gower in Hal. Pm. squittire. to sound. kumista. Huloet. backe. Chimney. Chitterling. to chink. esquena. a crowing sound in recovering breath. sonants. Chimera. clashing of weapons. Hindost. Chyrme or chur. a fire-place. cisaille. chick. to chine. See Chap. Fr. representing the shrill noise of birds or vibrate. ciarlare. genou (pi. cinan. To chirp or twitter. ciseau (for cisel).

chock full. signify to kiss. a goose's giblets. G. to ing is doubtless to taste. and Vf. •- Russ. chaup. also the mesentery or membrane which covers the bowels. disposition. . heaped measure. chives. a wine taster. chimp. and It. Gagga kausjan thans Mark ix. chattering. ent quarter. a malady the symptoms of which are connected with the bile. select. friller. wein didder for cold. To Chop. to experience.' who shall not taste death. . coup.D. Chuck-full. to taste. Siflast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann keipti vid Holmstarra basdi londom oc konom oc lausa fe olio. pluck. chawdron. a ruff or frill. all seem slate . taste. shiver. %o\ifa. Cavalry. a calf's pluck or chaldron . . then to try. to wrinkle. cepa. Fr. cut up into — See Chats. to hack. the quire or part of the appropriated to the singers. are used in the same sense. Thus we speak of choppi>ig and changing to chop horses with one. kbhren. by the vibrations of sound or motion. x^poc. to ^cleave . ON. to chap at a door . caperd. krussyi. Swab. 2. as green as leeks. full to overflowing. Luc.gust. ruffs. to taste. taste. The manners and senti. arkiusan. to try. crammed Choir. kiezen. xiv. or the little knobs which grow on the tops of those threads chivets. See try. seallion or unset leek. kaup. to stop geschoppt voll. schiefer. ^S. Chivalry. kieser. chippe.' At last he dwelt .. g'schochet voll. Gr. called cMtters in the N. in analogy with the use of smack in the sense of kiss as well as taste. propagated. ' Thaiize ni kauschirp or twitter. okusyti. —Chorus. Yr. chatter. kiusan. chap hands. to tempt. kiesen. to taste. i. a twittering. gusten. from chevalier. in the same language. gdnse gekrose. whence choleric. kusid.' Verie coinme Cot. In the same way the synonym frill is related to Fr. choix. developments of the same radical image. rare. Walach. lead us on to Lat. a knight. G. . the inwards of an animal. Enn Sigridur sem ' . Choleric. chorus. scheve. kor6n. to Compare also Pol. Swiss kust. the wind chops round when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- — A — .ffrill. cive. OHG. from kraus. haslets. an exchange being the transfer of something with the -return of an equivalent on the other side. Equivalents in the SlaFr. kustigen. of an angry — — — ' ' — . — Cholera. kruszki. of a wrinkled surface being represented jand dauthaus. fresure. to break off in small shive. from %u\i). to chap. to try. Jam. of the foregoing terms represents the smack of the lips in kissing or tasting. a rag. kiusan. as with a blow. koren. To Choke.V)^x. Boh. The primary meana frill or wrinkled structure is chitter. the small parts of the roots of plants. . Choice is probably direct from Fr. an onion. civette. a small slice or slip of anything . G. to try . kausjan. stone which splits off in shives or shivers. and in this sense the * small pieces. gustare. anger. to exchange horses. chiffe. ' at church Holm because he and Holmstarra had chopped both lands and wives and all their moveables. choppe. In the same dialect schoppen is to stuff. I. to strike hands . Lat. The I go to prove them. wkusit' prikushat. cape. From the notion of turning round the word chop passes to the sense of exchanging. keuren. and in kosten. to palpitate . to shiver. Fr. a fragment. then to shiver. As kushnuti. skifa. the eatable part of which consists of the young fine leaves. 19. chibble. word is more likely to be from Lat. a calf's chaldern of E. to taste . the ridges prove. cke. a blow. coro. Fr. Chives are also a kind of small onion. to choose. causir. Hence to chop is to do anything suddenly. whence Lat. bile.. ments of the knightly class. try. — See Cheek.vonic languages are Pol. The Sc. by which they are Fr. full. chceur. keypa. * To Choose. a heap. shoot . Body and Soul. The origin of the word in the sense of choisir. wrath. . Gr.— B jag E. &c. approve. or original meaning is preserved in G. Prov. of E. Choice. Serv. experience valerie. try. prove. kalbs gekrose. kushevati.freze. &c. a company of singers or dancers. to taste. chife. Gr. greyhound chops up a hare when it catches it unawares to chop up in prison. Chives. to choose to shiver lamb's pluck or gather. CHOP kros. a scale or fragment P1. it is probable that the root kus. fine threads of flowers. The . also calPs.ceosan. the shives or broken fragments of stalk that fall off in dressing flax or hemp . Schmid. and N. a chive.yEuffM. kushati. Goth. gekrose. . specially with an application to theatrical performances. to try. schevel-steen. a young . Warwickshire coff. schoch. ^euw. to prove. — Chock-full. to clap up Hal. 148 their CHIVALRY wrinkled appearance. — — — . a ruff. to turn. Chap. curly . to taste. ON. pieces . The syllable chap or chop represents the sound of a sudden blow Sc.

' ' What's that? Dap. to knock. Fr. forms are Chrism. chack. Sp. E. to speak thieves' slang.' But Sigrid whom he before had to wife hanged herself tn the temple. xpi'^lia. and we actually find champman for chapman. kobe. — penny by We are in a fair way to think you. ceo.\^s. E. I bring you the Cloughs.—Chuokstone.' They are forebuyers of quheit. E. Chrysalis. as in Fr. CHUCK 149 Thus chop E. kolbe (club). xftovoq. — . clogs. What do you think of me. To coup. To Chop logick. Come. —Shakespeare. In Sc. gobio capitatus. thumb Fl. E. The Turk was here As one should say. chiaus nasalisation of chap or chop in the sense of exchanging would give rise to the It. Anachronism.xl—Shirbe ridiculous. of which such strings are made.• — . P. merchant. the crisome wherewith a child is anointed. slipper . shop where clogs and pattens are sold. chapineria. Sw. -chron-. dealing. chroniques. gull. short piece kubbug. yiSA. a lump or piece chump. klopper. chapma?i. sent before him a Chiaus. an offence against the fitness of times. by the Robert Shirley. peace. to turn over. kaw. Du. dial. i. Fr. kaulhaupt (club-head. or more properly the cloth or christening cap that was put on the head of the child as soon as it had been anointed. kauwe. Doe you vail think I am a Turk? let's Face. Picard. ON. in i6io. a thick piece. soul-couper. chevin. thick-set. Nominale in Nat. in Chaucer. coup the is ey and Persia merchants in a way that obtained much notoriety at the time. prattle . caqueter. quappe. syllables chat. chapin. And will I tell then? by this hand of flesh Would it might never write good court-hand more — : original sense of turning is combined with that of trafficking. xop5>}. pray thee — pre- — Horse-couper. gull. kubb. because in clogs or wooden shoes one goes clumping along. happen (to chop) in thieves' language signified to speak. To Chouse. who was about to come to England with a mission from the Grand Seignor and the King of Persia. Chord. copers ^"od turners V[ier&~ of in merchandise. In the Alchemist. Borgoens happen. Kil.). chrisme. Alchemist. kaej Lith. whence — E. which was written 27. Jam. monedula. cauc. Wall. whence e. capitone. Madam. who took in the Turk- clack.— Chevin. capita.X. chop. Gr. chub. the teeth to chatter . as in the examples mentioned under Chape.' Jam. From the sound of a blow represented by the syllable chap. connected with G. Hence to chiaus became a slang word Gifford's Ben Jonson. Fr. one who buys and sells horses or cows. whence apparently the Sup. claquer. where it will be observed that the initial kloi kloppen corresponds to ch of chopino. we find the following passage Dap. high clog. cob. See Chaff. cow-couper. kowe. . — Dief. kubbr. doubtless from some connection with xp^^og.— Landnamabok. for to defraud. Gr.povucd. 4. that will thank chiaus — you richly. a trafficker in souls. &c. G. and he is no No cheating Clim o' Shght. dial. gold. a stump. caphatenus. koppe. the string of a musical instrument originally. cheap. Marin.sohola. to chatter. caker. applied to an owl in that language. a The What dhy ^. a bullhead. whence the Fr. — — — . Chronicle. e. journals of events in reference to the times in which they happened. Cot. XpvaaXic. civetta. as Du. CHOP hann dtti ddur hengdi sig i hofino thviat hun villdi eigi manna-kaupin. In 1609 Sir This latter is * Chubby. Gr. plump. choucas.). clat. overset. Chough. cauvette j Fr. to overturn. Gr. time ra . To turn a penny is a common expression for making a You One deal now with a noble gentleman. consecrated oil to be used in baptism . A fish with a thick snout and head. Chuck. chevane. chouquette. klompe. chrysalis (Plin. cavena. Chub. kaufen.(. the same word with the It. Fr. Fr. e. capito. chuet. OE. A sharp sound like the knocking of two hard substances together is imitated cak. to strike in the hand. The origin of all these words is an imitation of the cry of the bird. to cant.. Confounded with the bullhead. . Ant. cresmeau. Chopino. cangiare. cheviniau. bearand aits. capitanus. kowej Sax. from kloppen. See Change. A jackdaw. AS. chatter . noble Doctor. traffic. because she would not endure this husband chopping. chronicles. or miller's kaycke . cambiare. chouette. — Quabbe. p. to clack.. Du. 49. fat. That Face. Peace. ley in Giiford. equivalent to the E. I am a chiaus f — The whirling stream will make our boat to coup. a messenger or envoy. From the Turkish Chiaus. If I discover. chevane. — Chrisom. a small fish with a large head. Lat. the intestine of an animal.

ceffore.' And cold. ON. e. dust. Ka-^aiva. to move with a ratthng noise like pebbles rolled on the beach . cheek. a miser. countryman. casum (in comp. to jaw chack or snap. * Cinder. . cendre. — — A — ' ' — . as a board. chofe (Grandgagnage). a cutting an old chuff. chack-stone. in the face. Gr. a Some 's teeth for cold did chack chatter. whence ON. ON. the snout of an animal.with sinter for smiths' scales or cinder. Gr. fat-cheeked. 24. to make a aiKipa. to separate the Somergrains of barley from the chaff. cinis. cinctus. Aasen. tinguishes iicKXijaia and Kvpiaxov. kaerle. it is carrying scruples to In Germany . from Lat. to fall upon decide. to determine incision. whence church. ciuffo. x^^i?. we have to chack. ON. gffe. to sparkle. to gird. Cob. Diss. kjami. See Ceiling. To chuck in the fall from. KvptaKolg. male person. G. corresponding term should have made its way among to G. a man. geaflas. — of the two words. lamak. have given rise. Sw. -cis-. Fris.^. karl. residue of burnt coals. IJO CHUCKLE CINDER N.— . Chuff. &c. hot iron is beaten on the anvil. in Sc. This imitation of the noise of pebbles knocking together has very generally given rise to the designation of a pebble or small stone. Hence -cid-.black scales to which they turn when cridle Tag Xtyojiivag ayairag ttouIv. and thence an ugly face far ceffo. ceaplas. a douse on the tores. Probably from It. scoria. . Lat. . jaws. See Cheek. giffle. sicera. to him a sudden blow. domhnach. kerl. chuffy. because we do not know how the Greek name came to be employed instead of the Latin equivalent tity dominicum. chakil. cyrice is confessedly the sparkle. ladre from Lazare. cut off. then the on oh StX iv roXt. sindra. chaps. to separate the kernel of the milk. klakka. — .analogy is applied to the unconsumed quently found in the sense of a church. sive piratiam facere sciant. &c. accido. . the kernel. In Sc. that signifying in the first place the brilliant Kvpiasov was used in the sense of church. calculus. sinter. e. pith. kirna. flower. so as to make the happen . to churn. cczsum (in of a sudden jerk. G. and the slag or dross of iron of Zonaras in commenting on the passage which they are composed. from Lat. but I but according to Weiland sintel (as it is think. as in E. kakka. to turn from blossom to fruit. incido. ccedo. C^z^j^ churHsh. and the name of the wheatear or stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that description). a man. -cisuiri). log of wood. Du. calx. joufflu. Church. i. Da. AS. kern. swollen or puffed up Cot. surly. to cut decide. Jennings. cidre. to fall. cinctura {cingo. a cutting round.is used as a synonym an extravagant length to doubt the iden. Lat. as Epkema explains it. sintel. thence a belt. . tindra. ashes. OFr. Lat. chife. and from says that the name of KvpiaKov is fre. tie about). ceorl. See arisen from the erroneous supposition the thick end of anything. Chunk. Cieling. to To Chuckle. Ir. marrow. cado. to throw out sparks. kernjen. has been impugned which it has really no connection. Sicerawry face ceffata. comp. chops.V//a'6'?. or.' Quoted by Max iVIiiller in Times of the word is seen in on. to cause the milk to grain. dial. a pebble . Du. a resounding object. As AS. ChurL husbandman. sindel is although only this canon directly dis. It is certain. to make a noise like two stones knocking togetlier. Du. that the word is an adoption of Fr. whence deciduous (of trees). joffu. but by way of explan. Lat. AS. because it is not understood how a Greek should be written sinder. as Fr. a girding on. a rustic . Churn.for the residue of stone coal. chack or stane-chacker. to strike clatter. as water running over rocks or stones. -eris. ceaflas. or choice part of a thing . -cido. that the n is not there now pronounced) is used as E. -cise. sindr. The Turkish has chaghchuckie-stane. See Cheek. to form grains of butter. Cleland in Jam. cinders used disjunctively. chofu. sparks which are driven off when whiteThe canon of the sixth Council prescribes. Cider. Fr. to make a rippling noise.D.. To chuck one under the chin is to give -cid-). i.' he adds. kiorne. Gothic nations. a parallel very form to which the Greek would form with iyndra. . to fall at or on. with It the Lord's house. sense of throwing may be from the notion whose leaves fall from them. sindel. a man. Wall. a pebble. The spelling of chider has Chump. The derivation from Kvpiasov. Wall.rendered by Kil. Sc. ceffo. blow on the I io6 in Mur. in circumcision. The origin ation. an old man. a fellow. a husband. a lump. -cide-. spuma metalli. however. pp. qui cervisiam vel pomarium Charta A. KaxXij?. rj iv tolq ^kkXtj. to Newsp. cheeks Cincture. Fr.— Chu%. set kerti.

a city. to summon or call on. klopati.— . claquer. — (Dozy) ing blow. a ball. globus. prattle. klacke-busse. klabb. a block. * Cistern. Lat. Then transferred to the other nvimeral sifr. clamp. creak les dents. or quill to draw waier through Fl. clot ON. mass . Clamp. to cluck. &c. tinnitus . klimp. cito. radical identity of the Fr. ern. cry. scion or sucker. cista. . a kind of pipe. a'upiav. noise — — a cistern. slam. Du. Fr. . clack. . . The notion of a lump. a young and tender plant. the young shoot is conceived as sucking up the juices of the — fire. wasserkasten (water chest). as caverna from cavus. Lat. twig. lash . a circle. klumbr. ciste. klubb. Fr. also a waterspout (sucking up the water of the sea). log.to suck. a lemon tree. as. Chaste. dim. to go. a ball. Lap. as in Sp. about. to clap at a theatre. Arab. for Cion. Gr. a citizen . is traced by Gr. and clash. klater-busse. accordingly find the roots dab. a city. to toll . ball kloben. empty Golius. a lump Lat. to make to go. W. . The idea of a lump or thick mass of anything is compared with . circ2tlus. City. hringr. Gael. chupon. to call by name. klepati. Clam. a whirlwind. chupon. lucerna. a cistern. a mass. the clapper or clack of a mill hopper. to chatter. claquet de moulin. crack. Bohem. a whip. sajira. whence cistiti. klambr. Mack. lump of wood or with the nasal. ruin. Du. chest. to be empty. sound- — hands figures. G. To Clack. to gnash the teeth. klak. formerly used by beggars to extort attention from the by-passers . to call. sound of blow. To clam a peal of bells is to strike them all at once. bunch . claquer crash. -cite. to knock. Lat. clambar. Dan. E. a tube or hollow reed (from the root sup. klappe. cifra. of citta. a shoot. lump. It. sindri. to cry out. biw. Gr. a place See place hiddern. See -cid-. sphere gleba. are imitative of the noise made The by two hard things knocking together. belonging to cities or social life . from chupar. a for water. Sw. klateren. cit^. a boss . either for fort built close to a the purpose of defence or A of control. clapping of klacke. It. klekotati. Cot. with an initial s instead of c. clack-box. Alt. a circle. In Fr. compared with It. rattle . clat. civitas. a hiding-place. rattle. klap. scion. -cis-. forms — — — parent plant. —Civil. a. and E. outcry. circum. KpUog differs only in the absence of the nasal from ON. So a light. —Circuit. cry out . a rattle . glam. sound. latter In the language kring is used in composition as Lat. Du. a clod Russ. around. a knob. cieo. G. domern. sip. Gael. kluV. lump. kringr. a lump Du. Lat. circle. a block. chatter . may cite w. to cleanse. . Hence Incite. To Claim. ring. to bawl. cion. gutter. klqb. Cite. . On the other hand a more characteristic explanation might be found in Bohem. and hence to the principle of connection between the elements of which the mass is composed. cittd. naturally leads to that of a number of things sticking together. excite. often expressed by a syllable representing the noise made by the fall of a heavy body. castus). crack. It. Fr. clangor avium . ON. glamm. cisterna. klemte. lump. chijfre. dob.' sione. Circum-. klamp. Hence they give rise to verbs expressing action accompanied by such kinds of Fr. cion. klump. clack-dish. clamer. citujn. clasp. klammer. to chatter. a loud uksa slamketi. KpiKoe. Sw. to mention. Comp. ter. klappen. klompe. We . noise. Citron. See Circle. a split. a Lat. * Ciplier. Citadel. Lat. kringla. to appeal. a judgment cern. We . a sucker or young twig shooting from the stock. striking CLAM a flint 151 ON. claquer. Dan. circum. Tlie proper sense is a sucker. ON. babble . clog. E. . city. From the imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable clam. civis. smack. a ring. clamras. parallel root is slam. Recite. clatCot. as in slash A clean (the equivalent of the Lat. clamare. the door was slammed J slamem. lump. to strike. or split with noise. trunk. the place of . Lat. lump . Hal. Fr. Lat. and. crack. Circle. clump. to call. Scion. a rattle Fr. a kind of rattle. uproar. and Sp. in the frequentative form. CION See Tinder. a reservoir Probably from Lat. cisterna. a pop-gun. the tongue. .. clack. claim. vociferation. Excite. clapper. fall. to chatter . stimulate. to set in motion by means of the voice. ON. The Gr. KipKog. citrus. See Crankle. cittade. 'mass. prattle. Originally the name of the figure marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. area. sprig. cittadella. . clap. From Arab. cluster. suck). glambar. Sp. a Pol. Clump. around. clobyn. sifr. to clack. civilis. clamp. a clod. a cleansing place. klacken. a circle. to clatter. clap. circa. . or clap-dish. The syllables clap. bunch.

sound. knocking. compress. . uproar. where- A — unto they retire themselves. a stick. kleppe. holdfast. The E. bond. a whip. yf. rattle. G. dapier. run to lumps Clandestine. klepel. a claw. tight.. nature . damras. compression. dang. to mount up by catching hold with tlie hands or claws. accent. clandestine. to gingle. a trap. from the w. Du. dial. beat. clear sound. to knock. originally a heap of large stones. Mampe. daver. To Clamber. narrow. a craCmp. Swiss kldbem. a loud tingle. viscous.' klibba. G. cramp-iron. tinkle. Clapper. dial. to cling. pinching. These are imitations of a loud. klang. to dame. klepanie. clammy brace. kleppen. to do anything with a clap. klamme. glambar. a sound made by a still . These words To are closely connected with damp. massy. chief. to climb. a claw . kleppe. cling. ring as metal. is used in the sense of secretly. dam. sound . klynge sig op. G. a place underground where rabbits breed. hold v^'ith a hook or buckle. c). . clamp designates anything used for the purpose of holding things together . — with hunger. a hawk. dem. to clap. klampen. Bav. klatten. klem-vogel. hands or claws to grasp. Salainen. offspring. dam. sticky Hal. stick. Thus we have exhibited in the Lat. clap. celo produces Fin. To clap in E. Russ. to cleave or stick. to clap on. to daub pinch. and hence moist. klemmen. klank. strain . klobber-saen. resonance klingen. clasp. G. substances of a stickydam. sound. apprehend . a sound made by a lighter clink. dee. dapi^. of money Gael. clamber. to climb. clink. AS. Sw. Clank. but perhaps not directly from it. to climb. clann. klammer. Bohem. club . &c. a rattle . cramp. conceal. to seize. to. dientes. children. or klamp-vogel.p correspond- ' without order. kleben. strait. klavre. brawl. coagulated cream. The Fr. salaan. buckle klamp. solid. tenacious. crowd . E. grasp. from birdlime. to climb. dam. gripe. Du. tremble . to beat. for tame conies. or (as our clapper) a court walled about and full of nests of boards and stones. G. grimper. — . Clink. klibber. klubber. G. klappen. adopted Lat. whence sala. is used in the sense of doing anything suddenly. Halma. klynge. klippe. Fr. dap up. dam immediate modifications — . hook. clang. a heap of stones. is a nasalised form of gripper. descendants . diver. a heap of stones or other things piled up . To sticky. rumour. klepati. G. to claw oneself up. to fasten smaller thing the dank of irons. bandage. clibby. beating. cleave. — Lat. Clamp. with cramp-irons. tattle. gum. to chatter (as the teeth with cold) . Clap. to climb . klappen. the in many languages. dapier. sound object . Dan. klettern. tingle. Clang. the cavities of which afforded rabbits a secure breeding place. chatter. clangor. prison. dandestinus. dank. klamre. Hence the Fr. From small tribe subject to a single Gael. dambar. to stick conceal. also to clog up. a bird of prey. Dan. to hide. to pinch. dink Du. E. to starve. Dan. dia. pressed close or hard together. to clutch or cling oneself up. privately. B. ancestor. . Lang. tone. a burr. An imitation of the sound made by the collision of hard or flat things. to climb. clav\f. to knock. Pourta las p^iros as clapas. descendants of a common plant {xh^'Vf. Du. and that from celo. cluster. Clamour. viscosity . damor. clapas. kloben. Gael. of which the locative case. to hook things together. The root which gives rise to klibb. cream Manx doan. clajnmy. Clan. the staple of a door Scottish clansmen towards their chief. — — . klamm. Swiss kletten. The proper meaning of the foregoing dap is simply a lump. as the clapping of hands.152 CLAMBER and their CLAPPER ing regularly to Gael. E. to stick or glue. . A i. — Cot. ney. contraction. then applied to any artificial breeding place for rabbits. as the word is common to the Celtic and Gothic races. gliong. Du. klebern. seize. dienklebber.er. scendants. chatter. to clamp. kluppel. in a hidSen place. — Climb. See Clam. klammern. and hence to pinch . klopfen. take hold of. Lat. chilThe same word is probably applied to express the ideas of cohesion. to glue. to patronus. anything hidden.1. sound of the trumpet . da7nber is properly to clutch oneself up. . klette. salafa. clapper of conies. klemmen. a sound. klam7n. children. to hold to pinch. to glue. . a noose . a vice or instrument for holding pied a position with respect to their kleben. The equivalent of Lat. clap. OE. klimmeii. to hold fast with the . as the Lat. klam. In like manner Du. E. dren. B. a stone See Claim. klemmen. Dan. to Hal. of the children. closely analogous to that of the fast. klappre. hold. to Sw^. who occuG.' to take coals to Newcastle.

Du. klatschen. But clasp or elapse. we pass to the E. klamme. bawling. kleuen. To clew. as Mod. clarinado. Clavicle. Owl and that by which cleave to. Lat. to fasten. to fasten together . E. chiaro clear. to cleave. Fr. Prov. a lump. a water made of aquavitse. Du. sphaera. globus. klampvoghel. Nightingale. Du. a bunch. globus. syrtium junctura. chasguear. Dan. Clew. Serv . clap solid lump is connected with those of cohesion. vinum helvolum. assembly. Eau clairette. seizes) . clair. klos. and through v into a. dap.oi. and the same modification of meaning is expressed by the Du. clump. The collar-bone. a clasp. nawith stanis. klijven. kleeven. Lat. it is called clamming. chatter. So Pol. is used in Sc. clamp. From the imitation of the The root appears in Lat. glcis. crying. Class. chiarino. teren. in the sense both of a ball and also of a claw. compression. Thus from clamp. Du. a key origmally a crooked nail. mass. clopa. is preserved in Lang. biichse.w or u on the other. ictus resonans. the cracking of a whip. claret win e. chiarello. noise. sound of the foregoing description. ansa. to draw it up into a bunch. klatscha pop-gun. From claudo. Imitative of the sound of weapons striking together. an on the one hand. 269. to clap . Sp. which signifies a ball in E. is probably by direct imitation from the sound of a metal fastening. clew. an imitation of the sound made by striking with the hand against a partition.It. a clod. ivy. clew or fasten upon a thing. clausula. to knock. forms are the Du. locket of a door. — Teh habbe bile stif And gode clivers sharp and stronge and longe. From clairet. Lang. biichse. The form clew. klauw. In E. stop of an organ. &c. — Clarion. klaequivalent to clack or clap. climp.Gr. nail.to cra. and clavis. a kind of small. kiosk bicza. from its use in fastening things together. klucz. applied in their harness. Clash. fragor .Z. Fr. Du. subrubidum. Cot. a buckle. or as G. The b readily passes into gleba. Wyutoun in Jam. from scknallen. clairon of a trumpet— It. to clash as arms. Originally clasis.). vin claret. clatter. Russ. Clatter. clairon. hook. clavis. the collar-bone. mass. kluczka. globus we have glomus in the restricted sense of a ball of thread. blab. to ring in such a manner for the dead. Thus from Lat. kletse. clarin. klampe. he of white and red grapes mingled together. Clause. a key KKtitid. klouwe. pellet . a distribution of things into groups. klauwe. as we speak of the snap of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts with a snapping sound. somewhat clear. . thence a definite head of an edict or law. klatschen. a. Commonly made. thwack . m We way in have explained under Clamp the which the notion of a mass or — thwick-thwack. buckle. — tells us. pet. . the sound of bells rung in a voUey to give notice of the passage of a corpse . clausum. ghespe. To clew up a sail is to fasten it up. Mask ! plask ! thwick. same class with w. Eya-klasi. under three modifications dava. in the sense of a mass or lump. — Clarinet. Lat. With mys he wes swa wmbesete is A diver or claw we He mycht na way get sawft^. klc^i. a complete sentence. &c. a bird with powerful talons. In the same way must be explained the use of the Du. clas. klaterbusse. Clasp. classis. puUs. fracas. Klatsch- a pop-gun . but not the full red of ordinary red wine.ck a whip. hawk.\x\xvn. waU. flap. If such a blow sound finer or clearer it is called klitschj klitsch-klatsch ! pitsch-patsch ! having bells cluy. a little hook . The origin of both these words seems to be a form of the — Sp. G. —Kil. Than thai wald clew upon his banis. contraction. Analogous Jam. In the same way is formed the OE. to patter. to end. whence kleuer. e. to do anything with a . i. a. Fr. sauna de classes. Identical with ON. clavus. a claw. insularum nexus . klatsche. from clinging to the tree which supports it. of which CLAW 153 — sound of a knock by the syllable clat. chiizjj-o. also a knell for the dead. row aii/iaTos. Related to clip as grasp to grip or gripe. Lat. klot. a ball. klouwe (Kil. straight-mouthed. rion. Gr. a nail. Du. a claFr. from the resemblance to a key. with a reddish tint. diver. a lash. cloi. klase. KXeiSi. a club or massy stick. claw (what fastens together. as it is written by Chaucer. skeria-klasi. a heap. and shrill-sounding trumpet. an ending. klaeret. It. vin clairet. Nawith stavis. rubellum.— CLARET clamp. a lump . Pol. schnalle. Claw.. to rattle . klaskad. fibula. Claret. the primary origin clapa. Kil. Rayn. a key. — Kiittner. Sw. to snap. uproar. cluster. to animals Sp. cinnamon. gaspe. as G. a sphere . K\a. It. to shut. in the sense of a claw. and old red rose-water.

klinken. a mass. To call. famous. Omklinken. Clear. AS. the To Cleave. clout. to shine. that was Torriano. from nitere. ON. danche. the thin plate of iron worn as a shoe by The deals of the yard-arms are racers. in two ways. gaklankjan. sticky . lump. Die zaak is zS. rift. klinke.— Claggy. . glindse. also pieces of piece wood to fasten anything to. Clinch. conserere antklankjan. i. This is probably one of the clean. glan. klyft. a cleft. chaps in the skin. to fasten. from the clinking of the latch. . Probably a modification of the word doitt. loop 'Andromeda was aan rots geklonken. a latch. opposite senses. klinke. G. E. to fasten E. a fissure or division See Cleave. rive. Da. neat. clash. glance . pretty. pure. give a shrill sound Jr. a noise. klov. clear. kleverig. klirren. explained from the klinken. to sound or make a noise . and. diquetcr. Du. deot. or bundle {eiii kloben flachs. polished. .' was nailed to a rock. clean. klag. clibby. a key. a in that of sphtting. viz. B. a cleft. as Fr. voice. klinka. dut. vissticky . The word is . Sw. cliquet. kla:g. CLEPE of a number of separate objects in one. to clinch GB. a noose. — : A rivet. celebrated . identical in sound and nearly so in mean- ing with the E. dag. glitnir. klouen. glitta. G. to dag ox dog. viz. Dan. kldnkelein. kloben. sticky earth. to adhere or cling Or the notion of fastening may be atto. tongs. split. kluft. to stick or adhere . Kil. dags. The double signification of the word clack or rattle. . The word may be — . to clinch a nail. klor. vice. to unloose (the strap of one's shoe) . smooth. Fr. or from being divided into two parts. klank. probably so named from a similar piece of iron at the extremity of an axletree. a blow dat was en be\A'ys van klink. to fasten cracked dish Compare also Fr. 2. Thus from G. door-latch. to Brilliant. dedgy. geklonken. W. kleg. as explained under G. clean. daggy. to clench. found in other cases. splendid pohshed. either by the coherence To Clepe. clean. to 2. a — — . Da. sleek. cloven wood. mud. dench. an object is simply cleft. uses klcebe in the sense of adhering. as ON. See Clam. klieuen. bright. A — A Clement. nitidus. doff. to clink or sound. kloue. a clincher. neat. Lat. river. words applicable sight. merciful. kloben. to tear or cleave asunder. to chink. G. shine. pure. of iron worn on shoes by country people. . dinquet kleeven. klouen. the fork of the body. a cleft or fissure. and Dan. glan. The proper meaning of the word is shining. clean. to glitter. provinciaUy termed dout. dams. klinken. glbram. To Clench. shine whence it is an easy step to forms ending in a simple nasal. Cleat. loam. Sc. Du. gingle. glint. From clap. Clean. klink. doggy. glent. and E. gleit. ON. to separate into parts. Sc. E. Lat. as Lat. — fundamentally connected with forms like the ON. bears nearly the same relation to both senses. G. klutsch. In the tained indirectly through the figure of a former sense we have G. or of a tree. Da. a fissure. klijveii. kleben. to cleave. The dout of iron nailed on the end of an axletree. rivet. glandse. a lump. Wilbraham. clear. a claw or talon. gentle. (Cot. The Dan. from diquer. kluftholz. klafwa. a lump. calm. Halma. to be composed. klinke. to the phenomena of that are primarily derived from those of hearing. and Celtic glan. cleave. kleevig. glan. See Clog. date is AS. as the Du. 154 CLAY dutch. pure . to rivet or fasten together the parts of a Du. the latch of a door. is fast and sure. Axletree clouts. glor-mhor. Du. The designation may either be derived from the instrument being used in pinching. From dob. kluit. Clemency.— Clag. speech . bend in a stream. glbr. Du. kleg. a one end. a billet of wood cleft at The same opposition of meanings is . together .). clink. Bav. radiant. Sw. The introduction of the nasal gives rise to forms like Sc. klove The Dan. Du. Mar. piece of wood fastened on the yard-arm of a ship. to shine . sticky. Gael. the two parts of Du. it cleave together. klincke. hook. polish . to stick to. Sw. bogs cous. that was a striking proof. klceg. And the latch of a door seems to arise from the two opposite affords a very natural type of the act of ways in which we may conceive a cluster fastening. G. seem formed dial. glorious. a flash. klieben. Du. clear. a plate. holding together.Q. kloben. to keep the ropes from slipping off the yard . a mass. dial. clemens. Cleft. This word is used in two business is finished off. Clay. klinken. glatt. pellet. or by the division of a single lump or block into a number of separate parts. ON. a bunch of When flax). kluyte. to fasten. E. . as signifying something done by the stroke of a hammer. klirre. clay . the original .— .

on. precipice. klev. Fr. dichet. klaffen. dicher. —Vocab. Bav. ginally from dob (extant in W. a wicket or little door easily moving to and fro Fr. a thing so deverly that bystanders do Du. dever. derigo. a trigger. a baU of yarn. crepare. ized . Clew. a tumbril. G. narrow hollow between precipitous banks . dexterous. We movement catch. Clever. Lat. a mill-clack . a lazar's clicket or clapper. stein- kluppen.) Brai. the knocker of a door. declivity. from clifian. in the sense of active. Clerk. to cleave. to tattle. ready of speech. G. call. a clew. skard. to cry. gleg. e. Da. seize (Hal. to tattle. a latch .). dial. klok klep- crepitare. temperature. click it. cart that tilts over. The sound of an initial dl and gl or are easily confounded. cautes. precipices. cleft of a hill. klinket. a precipice. and (with the nasal) — clincher. cleft. is NE. click. syn. chatter. diofian. to catch. as Sc. climate. babble. what so men clappe or crie. above the pole. rapidus from rapio. deik. a lump. a whence perhaps the adjective clever in region or tract of country considered the sense of snatching. klif. See Clamber. exactly Gr. . dek. dob. cliquet. a figure mentioned. Climax. Du. which in Mid. from the way in which Matthias was elected by lot to the apostleship. cliof. corresponding to the Sc. to seize. In I Peter v. rugged ascent. quick of perception. chatter. has kl'dver. chat.. corresponding to Fr. globus. or Sc. See Clench. expeditious. hamraklif. to sound an alarm to clap. has also deik. See AS. But the Dan. that is a clever feUow. diquette. the clergy. Clam. claw or talon to dek or deik. Det er en Mover kerl. a latch. to bend. klika. a cleft in a rock . click. klever. a latch. — have the notion of a short quick in E. region not observe it. frap- per rudement une personne. Rouchi cliche. crackle. Gr. a claw or clutch. Now the OE.— Clue. and hence climate. d See Clan. &c. from Gael glac. derecia. . Du. to teU tales. klinke. an inclination. de ripa. would have been derida. cleke. clima. in precisely the same sense as the E. highest is attained. CLINCH De . rock. cave . to talk as a parrot. a hold. a lot. to rattle. with hamarskard. dutch). lively. Cliff. kliv. . or an object character- Clerical. Click represents a thinner sound than clack. clyf. the clergy clericus. rupes . -Toe (from KXivm. catching. Lat. speak. clap. clever. — — A . in rhetoric. icXi/ja?. Sc. to stir. score7i clif. Jam. Click. The origin is the Gr. which is used in Scotch and N. Dunbar in Jam. name. Happen. a cleft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock. quick in motion. The Sc. Du. clif. klippe. klikklakken. to prate. call.Lat. to move. cessive member of a discourse until the Scho held them at ane hint. kleppe. KkrifoQ. to clack. pulsare. clypian. AS. nimble. one of the clergy. klouwe. dial. as a click with the tongue. Climate. ball of thread oriTo CUnch. diver. Claw. the dick of a latch or a trigger. Clergy. agile. kloof. CLERK sound of a blow. one admitted to the tonsure. crease in force or interest in each sucHis legs he might not longer bruik. said to be deuch of his fingers kind of breach down the side of a hill One is (Verstegan). pen. a clicket or clapper. neither as having lordship in the. Norm. a clerk . rock. glomus. and hence deik. cliff. prattle. littus. Somner. kleppen. clep. on. OE. deudi. cligner. derjon. to wink. deuch. as from derido.— Clicket. cleft in a rock. scar. Chaucer. Ne every appel that is faire at iye Ne is not gode. clerus. crack. cleopian.r\h' i>Q KaraKvpitvvTsg TUiv KXijpuiv. Klover i munden. dook (identical with E. klippe. cleugh. whence Fr. deuck. had a form. dink. /cXi'fia. IS5 Du. dial. Cot. it must be observed. Boh. sonare. as Lat. duik. Lat. the elders are exhorted to feed the flock of God.' ii. a hook. clif- stanas. ' — — by a movement of such a nature. a ball of twine. implying an advance or inThe bissart (buzzard) bissy but rebuik Scho was so cleverus of her cluik. to catch. ravine. a smart blow (Mrs Baker) . 3. klinge. a hump. dough. light-fingered. dergi. It is then applied to such a short quick movement as produces a click or a snap. to confess . klikker. a sphere. Hence Lat. chatter. rima qusedam vel fissura ad who lifts montis clivum vel declivum. abrupta rupes . clack. cliquer. Commonly derived from deliver. in the with respect to its inclination towards same way as the Sc. snatch. clever. a cliff. clatter. verge). 3. duke. deik. Client. Climb. to snatch. kliket. klaiv. derigon. click. . slope . Sp. The word is probably derived from the notion of seizing. a child's or clack . say.dergie! Wiclif in R. a ladder. sink. 'not as being lords over God's heritage. Sw.

whence the hour of the day was designated as three. Sussex peasant AS. OHG.. hlinian. acclivis.D. hill . to make a loud noise. to cluster. chcng. * Clod. from the clapping or snapping sound made by the collision of the blades. klinka. sloping downwards . To cut with shears. rima. a lump G. To Clip. -atum. The E. Ang. dag. as we now say three or four o'clock. hluk. to bend downwards . noise. Du. To Cling. to snip. brett-glocke. So we have clatter and chatter in the same sense Gael. klungelin. from klepati. * The collision of two sharp edges gaim. to wither. . to form one mass with. four of the bell. Sw.. a woman's mantle . Gr. klungeln. gang. kolkina (with transposition of the vowel. a separate portion. to strike. G. clips. klunge. Lat. because things in cracking utter a sharp sound. kluben. klik. also to form a compact mass. to clap or clack. a board on which one beats for the purpose of calling the family to meals. compress . — a mantle. clique. kliks. G. to cling to a thing. fetter. N orman clincailler. klaka. klippa. a snare. to snap tongs. club). klepalo. E. Ir. to beat. by bits. but sometimes merely of pinching or compression. Walach. clink was formerly used like chink in the sense of a crack. G. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. . bow. verklungeln. a faction. klingen. to clink auf. a tinman. as thick or curdled liquids. Fr. Hal. a bell. incline. klocke. a clog or fetter for a beast . dial. ON. clog. Clink. a fused matter which clogs a furnace. Een kliks bolter. knot klynge. G. Da. See Clang. klynge. met. to resound. klipa. to clunge. to shrink up. klupen. klincke. Sw. G. . To stick to. to knock.' for a dry stick. sloping upwards procUvis.. clato make a noise. at first probably on a wooden board. disposed to a thing. -CLINE make pinch. Pl. kol- The word . Kil. G. ten. clivus. . to AS. speaks of a ' clung bat. &c. a cluster. which is still used for the purpose of calling to service in the Greek church. pinch. Clock. cloche. clutch. Du. . a lump of butter. as to snip in the same sense from snap. I. to crowd or squeeze chingy. Du. a clock. glungelin. kukla. globulus' (Gl. Gael. to crowd together klynge sig ved. Thus chink is also used for a shrill sound. difficulty. to sound sharp. in Schmeller) klunk. schnippen. Sw. klippur. like cling. related to clock. Swiss klungele. Bi klik uti klak. a clip or split piece of wood for pinching the testicles of a sheep or a dog's tail. where this species of mechanism seems to have inherited the name of the bell which previously performed the same office. It is probable then that clocks were introduced into England from the Low Countries. clingan. In the present case the origin must be sought in a form like mhg. slant. shears. and 'E. claw. In imitative words the same idea is frequently expressed by a syllable with an initial cl. is often expressed by forms representing the sounds .D. a fillip or rap with the fingers knippen. tuft. dial. to snap kneipen. Bohem. glocke. klicke. Esthon. knippen. sticky. to lean. to slope or bend . klippe. . and so' to contract. to open and shut with a snap klippchen. Cliofue. to shrink up. parva ruptura. to beat on the board. Cloak. pallium. kluppe. dial. clino. klippen. See Cowl. the participial form is the nearer to the original root. clinker. nip. kolki-laud. Swiss klokken. a lump. clock is a variation of clack. to ring. gUong. . or bagging clothes. klak. to snap or fillip schnippen. recline. 156 -cline. The notion of a loose moveable substance. difficulty . g. knippchen. the board used for the foregoing purpose in the Servian churches. toga muliebris. klippa. Thus to nip is either to separate a small portion or merely to pinch. -cliv-. 2. to pinch. pinch. straits. klinken. S w.' From Pl.. kleppe. cochl. being derived from a representation of the sound made by a blow. Serv. The noise of a blow that gives a sound of a high note. declivis. ON. especially of something soft or clammy. to wither. to lean backwards. hlinen. — clot. Du. hooded . kXiVu. kolbe to E. clinke. to pinch klupe. sloping forwards.und zuk-lippen. a rising ground. Sw. to clip. . w. klo^gen. CLOD In a similar way Swiss kluben. kima. outcry. a beU. ' Das volk hat sich in splitparty. E. ' . klocke. cloak. to . lump of halfup the bars of gluga a hood.— Clot. klok. Before the use of clocks it was the custom to make known the hour by striking on a bell. Fr.ginglej Fr. Lat. whence E.'— Shaks.— KSS. have often observed that in verbs A We where the present has a thin vowel. dial. ON. ring clag. iissura. klunker. Bohem. Flem. a bell. toga. quincailler. Sw. and a similar syllable without the /. as G. knippe. a ball of thread . incline. kldpp. klocka. Decline. hluccti. leads to the notion not always of complete separation. 'Till famine cling thee. clangere. also to wink . a hood. .

geschlotter (as E. shaky. • lump. Sc. to rattle. or Sc. chiudere. congeler. but subsequently a lump or unformed mass in general. Lat. blot. loose mud. inclose. klos. klotz. whence klack. a monastery. with Fr. to shut. der like whey or blode whan it is colde. shut up. schlotter. Bav. slobbe. dangle. claudo. Yule-clog. hanging loose and full. to rattle or shake to and fro. . to bedaub. loblolly. pattens G. rattle. clotted locks Dan. pulsare crebro ictu (Kil. to shut up. ' — Again we have Swiss klotten. like G. daustrum. Idppern. klot. slob. A — — A Thus from Bav.D. close. daggerey. a block. to dash like heavy rain. slab. be found rattle. -clus-. to shut in. kleck or lack. kleck. . I clodde.— Clothe. paddle or dabble in the wet. clos. -clusum. . motzen. truncus. klateren. dag. -close. clog or overshoe. to wabble.dial. lobberen. AS. loose trowsers. is connected with pludder. A . to dabble. figer. in accordance with It. be&c. CLOG dashing of such Thus from Swab. 3. a portion of something soft and adhesive. a clog. a blot.. to spill liquids. Pl. klag. Pr. gelatinous. neither spot nor hang loose. pludre. Klak also. -cludo. mud klcEg. . Swiss schlott. a Christmas log. zocco. or E. fat. lumps of butter. a trowelful of mortar. IV.rge lump. tJokok. clogs for the feet klakk. enOE. a clod Swab. bespotted with mire E. loppern above mentioned may be explained Fr. loppered (of milk). kladde. . schlott. a field inclosed clos. a skittle-ground klos- sen. log. meat from Du.' end. separate part. the radical sylla. a bal!. zoccoli. klakk. Mat. MHG. shut up. kloteispaen. laggyn. E. schlattern. . Closhe. in accordance with Pl. clausum. a blot. Lat. klokotat. lobberen. an imputation. aspersion. clorre. from claudo. klos-bane. lunch. to flap as loose clothes. a babbler. without. lob. dial. wabbling from Du. lump of butter. Clog. to a. sticky dag stick or adhere clegger. slabberen. slops slodderen. chiuso. in forms like Du. to close against one. kloster. Fr. The origin of clod and clot is to . . lag. It. from Fr. a clod. kl'dnken. . curdled. Or the name may be taken from the resemblance of a wooden clog to the lumps ot earth which clog the feet of one walking in soft ground. I doda clod. I go into heapes or peces as the yerthe doth. dunch). lump of something soft . Gr. klack kleck ! represents the sound made by the fall of something soft or liquid (Sanders). then liquid or loose substance. mire. slobberen. kloteren. to paddle in the wet.'^ Palsgr. Cloister. G. Pr. a lump from Du. Fr. lopin. to bodies. and Du.). . To hinder by the adhesion Sc. spatter. and Gael. motte. to rattle. Du. closed. To Clog. indicates the use of clag to represent the dashing of water. fors. . to shut. lopperig. kloden. Then with the loss of the initial c (as in lump. to dabble. . clog would thus in the first insuch a body is applied to a portion or Pm.. g. and thus seem endowed . paludosus. clausum. claque. E. a log. compared with clump. m&se noch stain. klod. slop. . slobber. loose. tramp in wet or mire. He was a man without a dag. lump of mud on the clothes . and thence to clot or curdle as milk. . a log.D. da- . from Du. or loppern. spot of dirt. finish .1a. boil. G. mud. His heart was franlc without a flaw. I clodde. schlottern. klotzschuh. laggery. slops). lobbig. to flounder in the wet. ! . we pass to Schlatter. In the same way Dan. terminate. in the first instance of a stance be a lump of something soft. we pass to E. of something clammy or heavy. je amoncele. we pass to Idp- CLOTH 157 made in the agitation or perig. watery. analogous plan to clod or club. klunkern. bowl . doitre. paddle. . Dan. clog in the sense of a wooden sole may be considered as a block of wood. dirt. clos. Fr. to slop or spill liquids. a spot. schlettern.cumbered ble of the word signifying agitation of laggyd or bedrabelyd. in comp. clatk. Du. clogs. foreclose. and E. dab. thick sour milk. beklakken. kloten. Hence inclose. to bubble. is a blot on one's character. The word is probably formed on an Cloth. claggy. tuditare. the figure from which Manx the idea of tattling is commonly expressed. of a body of any kind. wide bagging clothes. or drablyn with separate existence. Fr. from the dashing off of a separate portion of a liquid or sloppy material. clammy loam. Russ. plod. to claggock. TZoxapov. to sup up liquid food. clotted milk klotte. clot. loppe. forbidden by 17 Ed. Pm. bloutre. a clog or wooden shoe Mod. unctuous. to lobberig. klottern. bemired. The game called ninepins. Then as the parts of a loose substance in a state of agitation are thrown in different directions. splash. . thick spoon . to cling locks. miry laggerit. to play at bowls. Close. a dirty wench claggy. klakken. Klottermelck. dirt. cloth. klac.

esdaboter (Roquef. clump of a clout on the head. spice) G. naegel. the terms expresssplit. clotted milk or cream. tuft. Du. Dan. kUid. and clay. dump.ft. w. puddle. Imitative of the note of a society. mass. clammy earth. little nails. rustic. cludaim.D.). zolla. dabosser.). sheltered up warm. klump. a breach. Then applied to a lump of mate. the air. a. clou de girofle. make warm. warm clothes {dillad. clod is used in both senses . w. In the same way E. .bar. block. it can hardly be doubted that clown is identical with lown. motte.158 . a log. Du. klumpfot. clavo di especias. klumba. G. knob. klqb. warm.). a curdled sky. dabaire. a sky Cot. signifying in the first instance a separate portion thrown off in the dashing It.). The priClout. G. clumhar. Clump. from Du. clyd. klubben und klicken aufgeloset. from W. Club. clog. . Clumpered in balls of clouds. and -the word Clove. probably from daboter. of ordnance is said to be cloyed. a ball. davus. a log. a cover or coverture . klobbersaen. mary sense is a blow. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plug). klebek. Kiittner. a bunch. shel- kloen. a bunch. kluyfketi loocksj Pl. hebes (Kil. nagelein. lump. clobyn. knob. . to cloy. cluster. the thick and scattered clouds in ' — . boucher. cludadh. kloete. clunch. a clod or clot. lumps of curd. milk run to lumps. strike. dial. klotz. . cob. cobble. lump. a lump. klotsen. kruyd-naegel to be of analogous formation with clod. Du. A social club was originally a group of people meeting at set times for . botsen. vurige dote^ a fiery cloud. zolla dell' . kloven. clcEfers A plant with trifid leaves. klubb. kluppe. lump of earth aria. clods. to a lump. clydion. Cloud. daggy. lie clyd. and clout d eudaich. unpolished. cluth mhor. indispalte knoblauch. Gael. . of sloppy materials. nelke (dim. to strike. clot. and tapp. clump. — — — . lump. Clowfull of small curdled clouds. clothes). kl'dnne. with lout. a ball of twine . The same consonantal change is seen in — A dag. matte. as when we speak a club or knobbed stick. to cleave. sticky.D.' Sanders. dut.D. dys. AS. . piece Cot. clothe. Correctly explained by Somner as clodded vapours. botch. E. also homo obtusus. caillebottes. are often connected. eene ODu. a bobbin. nourish . ser. dillad bumkin. choke or stop up. warm place . The sense of stopping up is frequently expressed by the word for a lump or So also from Fr. a garthas. a patch. clue. tered . a bousche. of thumping clumsy action. een klaven kruflook. log. a sticky. klove. vapours drawn into clods or separate masses. dial. klcBdi. a thick mass. clot . a . but confounded with cailler. to cherish. cloud Delfortrie. dote. N. eine to slop. klieven. It. loggish. CLUCK rustic. a nail) Fr. stock. to cleave or the splashing of water. mire. clunch. to stop. lunch). Fr. klubba. to splash. ON. wisp. mud (Pat. dial. a blabber. A division of a root of garlick. aglio. a clove of garlick. sheltered . Du. dirt. to lump mend clumsily. cobio. klubbe. bunch. warm. coarse. duthaich. from OFr. ball of thread Russ. To Cloy. de Champ. a nail. a clot or keeps one warm. Clown. and closely do conspire. (kruyd =. ' — — To club one's contributions is to throw them into a common mass. Das volk hat sich in splitten. clothes ment. This loutish clown so ill-favored a vizor. a boss.clod. Met. Du. Mabousfrom Lat. AS. E. Sw. Rouchi dapoter. blockish. klever. a ball. Move. a clubfoot klabb. rial clapped on or hastily applied to mend Pol. E.Fris. The significations of a clod or lump. More in R. klaven. chiodo d' ive of tattling being mostly taken from — FI. So Fr. klunds. Cld. klotzig. cluth- As the initial c is easily lost from many (comof these words beginning with pare clog. to tramp in the kluyve. a clown. as Fr. From dog. klonte. formed lump or thick mass. to curdle. klubb. in the same sense. Coventry Mysteries in Hal. To Cluck. and of a rustic unpolished person. kldverj P1. Ir. a fissure. — . Pl. klu77ip. clot. kluV. dash (Cot. —Sidney is such that you never saw in R. Du. G. Gael. a ball. del mattond. clod. 2. a knot of people. ON. to cover Bret. The radical sense seems to be an unE. a lump. of a lump of earth and that figure. CLOUD an awkward clod . Sw. to strike . dob. from cates the application of the root dab to Du. a bunch. chiodo di girofano. of nagel. a clod. Sp. are also used in the sense of a stopper. A kind of spice resembling Du. group of people Sw. diboter. to beFr. whence the name of Spenser's shepherd Colin Clout. Properly that which covers and Du. from kloven. when something has got into the touch-hole. Vapours which now themselves consort In several parts. I. G. Clover.

to clump or tramp with heavy shoes. cleik. cluster.D. Du. a clod or The noclot.' Comfort ye dumsid. dial. a lump. enervatus. an instrument for nasal form e. E. pladdern.e. as clumper. gelidus. cluntClyster. 130. duke. Du. to wash. —To Clumsyd. beklummen.D. Graff in Klamjan. a pinching time. klemmen. klontet. glousser. -clusum. klonte. wagen. having the Pl. .pare P1. Teulazy. crooked inwards . Boh. to grip. a bunch. tion of a detached mass may arise either from the dashing off of a portion of the wet material. MHG. ball as snow. klummklummshandt. also a cluster. producing a clopin-clopanr&px&seati the heavy tread of noise such as that represented by the one hobbling along eloper.mene tied. dumpse. 'wen uns diu wangen sin gerumpfen. to klotz. Sp. Coach. Ang. clutch. dek. a litter. differing only in the absence of the duik. &c. inclusive. When a frequentative form is thus used to signify multifarious agitation or broken movement the radical syllable naturally expresses a single element of the complex action. — ' — — tonista. and klotteren. Sc. to shut. Cheshire. Men bethe combered and clommed with cold. clopiner. to curdle.' Benecke. verkommelen. . dumps. with a quick. ' Uorte (for clogs. * Clump.D. eviratus. of Du. or aclommyde. algidus. But clunchy. a lump or compact mass. a lump. klette. klods. klos. G. klemma. to squeeze. from klupen. rial. klimpern. Isaiah. a coach. limp. a claw. klamen. claw. splash. unhandy. conclusion. thick and clumsy.P. clumsy. a nasalised form of club. clook. to gingle. klonte. Pl. Lat. klomje. . dial. a clod clunter. pinched.forklomme (Outzen). Fr. with E.Ancr. 159 E. bunch. -CLUDE hen Du. a block. benumbed with cold.E. ' Thou clontsest for cold. awkward. a couch. clabosser.' Wycliff. fingers (familiar). plad or plod. a clog for an to) huden hire vrom his kene dokes. idle.' Vegecius in Way. coucher became in unhandy.D. Fris. and make ye strong feeble knees. eviratus. kichlemmit. In the same way Du. klikaty. Beklummen van kelde. hand to cleuk. from ON. klont. klamp. — sen. G. klobber in klobbersaen. — Cot. clausum. to collect in lumps. strum on an instrument. See -elude. unfashioned.D. Cluster. dial. not so much by direct imitation of the actual noise. Champ. Vapours dumfered in balls of clouds. to tramp.'— animal. claws. — Hence include. unhandy. and the idea of multifarious agitation may be expressed. a clot klissen. G. clump. eene beklum. -close. a ball. or from the shaking into protuberances of the liquid surface . may recline. klumpern. koetsen. to tramp or tread heavily. koetsDa. a noise. to to snatch. clointer. to paddle or dabble. OE. Sw. * Clumsy. Pm. a clod or lump. ill-made . klunsen. smart motion. clutch. ' Clumper. Hence snatching. whence koetse. klunt. dumpers. Fr. Hence a frequent connection between words signifying a blow and the dashing of liquids. klompen. a clove Sw. are the nasalised forms of klotte. -cludo. paste. klumpig. — . seize. Variation of clatter. doquear. klikonosy. heavily. through the senses of lumpish. dek. —More. er. to tramp. carriage in which you klodset. A group. ON. klomen. xXvariip. as metaphorically by the figure of a broken sound. klampa. to wash. From the notion of sticking together. ' . hooknosed. klcise. dussomed (Wilbrabam). to pinch. tight — — . Sw. to curdle. ment. . and koetse. -olus-. klisse. obstructum. Analogous forms with a tongs. Compare Swiss klupe. coccolare. to curdle. to lie. Cath. conclude. klummerhdndt. the word is more probably connected with OE. kol. klister. Lincolns. riicke und arm und bein geklumpfen. It. n. -clus-. MHG. The Fr. esclaboter. wooden sole. Coal. as from seken. to benumb with cold. havi. Hence cleik. to final nt instead of mp axe Pl. ball of snow on horse's foot . viscous material. wooden shoes. Hesse. klump. -elude. See reclusion. clip or pinch. in v. klocken. dystere. hands stiff with cold. Gr. lump of soft mate. a ball . of garlick. close. Du. acomelydfor could Pr. and klonteren. to syllable click.. hondis. might be reached from clump. Clump. properly to do anything Fr. in comp. Du. claudo. Ray. G. from laver. Lat. Du. lay hold of. to rinse. Muster. kluntfrom KKvKdi. ether comelia P. clotted cream. finish. COAL dumpish.— — . awkward. as Fr. unwieldy Hal. or from Sw. beklommen. Clutter. to tread The signification would seem to be cramped or contracted with cold. lavesen. to stick together . calling her chickens. verklomen. Clutch. kohle. cliboter. Riwle. koetblockish. Fr. cleche. OHG. glocire. Com. Hindust. a clod or lump. E. cleuk. exclude. Pl. The sense of awkward. log. koetsie. dial.

dicta ab eo quod ibi colebant . bijamie. an old idiot. cucco (in for the same reason as the spider. side . long standing. OE. kolna. A plausible origin. to beCoax.). to stutter. cob is a dumpy horse. T' waerkopet. e. Flem. used in — . the bee was known sense 'a wanton fondling that has never by the name of kopp in OSw. Outzen. however. . quilet.' And colo. k'dlla. from being laid A Spaniards came to America they trans- . as shown in dob and cob. according to the ordinary run of events. The OE. boil. pustule. and jval. CooMneal. tuft. cochinilla. woman is said to be very ordinary. to cobble shoes. a knock. kuppa. E. To cobble. dim. Coat. flame. ' ' stones or perhaps have originally signified to kindle a fire for a burnt-offering. Fr. 3. or cobble. to cob. throw a blow. i6o COALESCE on in lumps. an egg. large stones . to worship. to peck as a hen cobyn. to kindle or cause to burn . cob. grown together. of cochina. then to work unskilfully . Cob for walls is clay mixed with straw. v. says Varro. broddelen. large coals. or E. verklomen. The wood-louse is still called sow in parts of England . cluster. w. Fr. Cobbles in the N. a large round nut cobstones. Coalesce. and E. pock. koppen-gespin. and the spider as collectors. frock. Du. The primary sense is doubtless koelA. to be hot.. and fig. itself is Nescock . glow jvalaya. hakkelen. from bearing a bag. cobcoals. to bungle Sc. numb. a woodlouse. that is. cokes was a simpleton.. a firesteel Lat.— Cobble. as in arr. to stammer. ordinary as in the expression of course. a pock mark. nursery lang. only of honey instead an imbecile vecchio cucco. probably from the Fr. glowing embers. koppe. . the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo Cobyllstone or chery-stone. — Pr. a great falsehood. gull. inflammation. acomelyd or aclommyd. a darling. ailina or colina. niais. universally taken as the symbol of a dwelling-place. any kind of coat. verkommelen. — Cleveland Gl. cobble. ignem. a similar According to Ihre. cokes or fool of him. also a coast. may be A found in Sw. in Essex Jow*2c^. to wheedle or gull vermin). a sow. to . klabbare. cock or nescock. a coat or frock. H^cart. properly to daub. haggle. to burn. It. a nest. are often connected. top cobio. poisonThe original meaning of the word is bag or poison-pock. e. or upper .' Nares. Fr. kop-ar. pryf-coppyn. and a change very similar to that from clobber to cobler may be seen garment. to kindle jvAla. Du. kylla. . niais. a rib. a peUicle (dialect of Aix Grandg. kop is preserved in the provincial kakasch bubble. koljarn. Formerly written course. glow. to glow . one Pr. — Cobbler. dial. In the E. may senses of stammering or imperfect speech. a spider (/r)^=grub. is one of thump. ON. a cobweb. Fin. COCHINEAL Cobber. to stutter. coste. Trevoux. and imperfect or unskilful action. quele. Pm.). Lat. a bunch. of E.inflated with air or liquid. a tuft. Coast. probably left his home. are round stones or round coals of small size. burning. to bungle . the designation may have been transferred to the unskilful mending of shoes. blaze. to form an union with another coalitus. dial. Colina' the place where a fire is made. to hobble .a spider. ridi. dial. atter-kop. to strike. in Du.—Atkinson. of poison.. cotte. Cocasse. tempered clay for building. — — . klabba.. The /in these imitative forms is very moveable. coalesce. s. give the full meaning of the word. * To Cobble. from a root signifying Traces of such a deto glow or burn. to speak or act confusedly. cule cocosse. It.the water boils.). spinne-ivebbe. caleo. bredouiller. unfledged bird. plaisant. The form attercop seems to him into doing s